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Full text of "The farmer's veterinarian : a practical treatise on the diseases of farm stock : containing brief and popular advice on the nature, cause and treatment of disease, the common ailments and the care and management of stock when sick"




JOHNA.SEAVERNS 



FARM LIFE SERIES 



THE FARMER'S VETERINARIAN 

By Charles William Burkett 

HANDY FARM DEVICES AND HOW 
TO MAKE THEM 

By ROLPE COBLEIGH 

MAKING HORTICULTURE PAY 

By M. G. Kains 

FARM CROPS 

By Charles William Burkett 

PROFITABLE STOCK RAISING 

By Clarence A. Shamel 

PROFITABLE POULTRY PRODUC- 
TION By M. G. Kains 



Other Volumes in Preparation 



TEe Farmer's 
Veterinarian 

A Practical Treatise on the Diseases of 

r am otOCK I Containing Brief and Popular Advice on 
the Nature, Cause and Treatment of Disease, the Common 
Ailments and the Care and Management of Stock when Sick 

By 

CHARLES WILLIAM BURKETT 

Editor of American Agriculturist 



ILLUSTRATED 



NEW YORK 

ORANGE JUDD COMPANY 

19 14 



Copyright, 1909 

Orange Judd Company 

New York 



Printed in U. S. A. 




PREFACE 

LARGE class of people, by force of 
circumstances, are compelled to treat 
their own animals when sick or dis- 
abled. Qualified veterinarians are 
not always available; and all the 
ills and accidents incident to farm 
animals do not require professional attendance. 
Furthermore, the skilled stockman should be 
familiar with common diseases and the treatment 
of them. He should remember, too, that the main- 
tenance of health and vigor in our farm stock is 
the direct result of well-directed management. Too 
frequently this is neither understood nor admitted, 
and an unreasonable lack of attention, when 
animals are ill or indisposed, works out dire mis- 
chief in the presence of physical disorder and in- 
fectious diseases. A fair acquaintance with the 
common ailments is helpful to the owner and to 
his stock. This leads to health, to prevention of 
disease, and to skill in attendance when disease is 
at hand. 

The volume herewith presented abounds in help- 
ful suggestions and valuable information for the 
most successful treatment of ills and accidents and 
disease troubles. It is an everyday handbook 
of disease and its treatment, and contains the best 
ideas gathered from the various authorities and 
the experience of a score of practical veterinarians 
in all phases of veterinary practice. 

C. W. BURKETT. 
New York, June, 1909. 



Table of Contents 



Introduction 


Page 


Facing Disease on the Farm . . •. ., 


1 


Chapter I. 




How the Animal Body is Formed . . • 


Q 


Chapter II. 




Some Physiology You Ought to Know 


21 


Chapter III. 




The Teeth as an Indication of Age 


34 


Chafi'er IV. 




Examining Animals for Soundness and Health . 


39 


Chapter V. 




Wounds and Their Treatment . . . . 


54 


Chapter VI. 




Making a Post-Mortem Examination . 


62 


Chapter VII 




Common Medicines and Their Actions 


69 


Chapter VIII. 




Meaning of Disease 


82 


Chapter IX. 




Diagnosis and Treatment of Disease . 


92 


Chapter X 




Diseases of Farm Animals . . . . , 


101 



vii 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 







Page 


I. 


Health .... Frontispiece 


2. 


Common Sheep Scab 


3 


3- 


Hog House and Feeding Floor . 


5 


4. 


Poulticing the Throat . ., , 


8 


5- 


How a Cell Divides . 


10 


6. 


Bones of Skeleton of a Horse . 


16 


7. 


One of the Parasites of the Hog . 


18 


8. 


Circulation and Digestion . 


22 


9- 


Diseased Kidney 


25 


10. 


Stomach of Ruminant 


27 


II. 


Circulation of Blood in Body 


30 


12. 


Lumpy Jaw (jaw bone) 


. 36 


13- 


Bad Attitude Due to Conformation 


41 


14. 


Ewe Neck 


46 


15. 


Anatomy of the Foot 


49 


16. 


Fractures . . . , 


54 


17- 


Bandaging a Leg . . . , 


57 


18. 


Rickets in Pigs ..... 


63 


19- 


Round AVorms in Hog Intestines 


66 


20. 


Tetanus Bacilli ..... 


71 


21. 


Ready for the Drench 


81 


22. 


Bacteria As Seen Under the Microscop 


e 85 


23- 


Result of Bone Spavin 


90 


24- 


Feeling the Pulse .... 


94 


25- 


How Heat Affects Growth 


96 


26. 


Diseases of the Horse 
ix 


102 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



2y. Lumpy Jaw (external view) 

2%. Where to Tap in Bloating 

29. Bog Spavin 

30. Horse Bots in Stomach 

31. Colic Pains 
2^2. Retention of the Urine 
ZZ' Curb 

34. Fistulous Withers 

35. Foot Rot in Sheep . 
Z^. Founder 
Z7' Bad Case of Glanders 

38. Ventral Hernia 

39. An Attack of Cholera 

40. The Result of Hog Cholera 

41. Kidney Worms in the Hog 

42. Liver Fluke 

43. Lockjaw .... 

44. Lymphangitis 

45. Natural Presentation of the Foal 

46. Abnormal Presentation of the Foal 

47. Quittor 

48. A Cattle Bath Tub . 

49. Side Bones 

50. Splint 

51. Twisted Stomach Worms 

52. Tuberculosis Germs . 



INTRODUCTION 
Pacing Disease on the Farm 

To call a veterinarian or not — that is the ques- 
tion. Whether your horse or cow is sick enoug-h 
for professional attendance, or just under the 
weather a little, is a problem you will always be 
called upon to face. And you must meet it. It 
has always faced the man who raises stock, and it 
IS a problem that always will. Like human beings, 
farm stock have their ailments and troubles ; and, 
in most cases, a little care and nursing are all that 
will be required. With these troubles all of us are 
acquainted ; especially those who have spent much 
time with the flocks and the herds on the farm. 
Through experience we know that often with every 
reasonable care, some animals, frequently the 
healthiest-looking ones, in the field, or stable, give 
trouble at the most unsuspected times. So the 
U/lult is not always with the owner. 

There is no reason, however, why an effort should 
not be made, just as soon as any trouble is noticed, 
to assist the sick animal to recover, and help 
nature in every way possible to restore the invalid 
to its usual normal condition. The average observ- 
ing farmer, as a rule, knows Just about what the 
trouble is ; he usually knows if treatment is beyond 
him, and if not, what simple medical aid will be 
effective in bringing about a recovery with greater 
dispatch than nature unaided will effect. 

Now, of course, this means that the farmer 
should be acquainted with his animals; in health 
and disease their actions should be familiar to him. 



If he be a master of his business he naturally 
knows a great deal about his farm stock. No man 
who grows corn or wheat ever raises either crop 
extremely successfully unless he has an intimate 
knowledge of the soil, the seed, the details of fer- 
tilization and culture. He has learned how good 
soils look, how bad soils look; he knows if soils 
are healthy, whether they are capable of producing 
big crops or little crops. 

So with his stock. He must know, and he does 
know, something as to their state of health or ill 
health. With steady observation his knowledge 
will increase; and with experience he ought to be 
able to diagnose the common ailments, and not 
only prescribe for their treatment, but actually treat 
many of them himself. Unfortunately, many farm- 
ers pass health along too lightly and the common 
disorders too seriously. This is wrong. The man 
who deals with farm animals should be well 
acquainted with them, just as the engineer is ac- 
quainted with his engine. If an engine goes wrong 
the engineer endeavors to ascertain the trouble. If 
it IS beyond his experience and knowledge he turns 
the problem over to an expert. It should be so 
with the stock raiser. So familiar should the owner 
be with his animals in case of trouble he ought 
to know of some helpful remedy or to know that 
the trouble is more serious than ordinary, in which 
case the veterinarian should be called. 

All of this means that the art of observing the 
simple functions should be acquired at the earliest 
possible moment — where to find the pulse of horse 
or cow, how many heart beats in a minute, how 
many respirations a minute, the color of the healthy 
nostril, the use of the thermometer and where to 
place it to get the information, the character of the 



INTRODUCTION 



eye, the nature of the coat, the passage of dung and 
water, how the animal swallows, the attitude when 
standing, the habit of lying down and getting up — • 
all of these should be as familiar to the true stock- 
man as the simplest details of tillage or of planting 
or of harvesting. 

Moreover, the stockman should be a judge of 
external characters, whether natural or temporary. 




COMMON SHEEP SCAB 

Here is an advanced case and shows how serious the 
trouble may become. A very small itch mite is the cause. The 
mites live and multiply under the scurf and scab of the skin. 

He should have a knowledge of animal conforma- 
tion. If to know a good plow is desirable, then to 
know a good pastern or foot is desirable. If the 
art of selecting wheat is a worthy acquisition, then 
the art of comparing hocks of different horses is a 
worthy accomplishment also. If experience tells 
the grower that his corn or potatoes or cotton is 
strong, vigorous and healthy or just the reverse, 



4 THE FARMER S VETERINARIAN 

observation and experience ought also to tell him 
v^hen his stock are in good health or when they 
lack thrift or are sick and need treatment 

LEARN TO RECOGNIZE ANIMAL DISEASES 

Few farmers there are, indeed, who are not 
acquainted with crop diseases. Smut is readily- 
recognized when present in the wheat or corn or 
oat field ; so colic, too, should be recognized when 
your horse is affected by it. The peach and the 
apple have their common ailments ; so have the 
cow and pig. In either case the facts ought to be 
familiar. So familiar that as soon as diagnosed 
and recognized prompt measures for treatment 
should be followed that the cure may be effected 
before any particular headway is at all made. 
Handled in this way, many cases that are now 
passed on to the veterinarian would never develop 
into serious disturbances at all. 

PREVENTION BETTER THAN CURE 

The old saying, " Prevention is better than cure," 
is both wisdom and a splendid platform on which 
to build any branch of live stock work. Every dis- 
ease is the result of some disturbance, somewhere. 
It may be improper food ; the stockman must know. 
Moldy fodder causes nervous troubles in the horse. 
Cottonseed meal, if fed continuously to pigs, leads 
to their death. Hence, food has much to do with 
health and disease. Ventilation of the stable plays 
its part. Bad air leads to weakness, favors tuber- 
culosis, and, if not remedied, brings about loss and 
death. Fresh air in abundance is better than med- 
icine; and the careful stockman will see that it be 
not denied. 



INTRODUCTION 5 

Good sanitation, including cleanly quarters, 
wholesome water and dry stables, has its reward in 
more healthy animals. When not provided, the 
animals are frequently ill, or are in bad health more 
or less. As these factors — proper food, good ven- 
tilation, and effective sanitation — are introduced in 
stable accommodations, diseases will be lessened 
and stock profits will increase. 




HOG HOUSE AND FEEDING FLOOR 

This convenient hog house is inexpensive, and the feed- 
ing floor at the side insures cleanliness and thorough sani- 
tary conditions. A sanitary hog house should be one of the 
chief improvements of the farm. 

DISINFECT FREQUENTLY; IT NEVER 

HURTS AND IT MAY DO A WORLD 

OF GOOD 



As disease is better understood it becomes more 
closely identified with germs and bacteria. Hence, 
to lessen disease we must destroy, so far as pos- 
sible, the disease-producing germs. For this 
purpose nothing is better than sunlight and disin- 
fectants. Sunlight is itself death to all germs; 
therefore, all stables, and the living quarters for farm 
animals, should be light and airy, and free from 
damp corners and lodgment places for dust, ver- 
min, and bacteria. Even when animals are in good 



b THE FARMER S VETERINARIAN 

health, disinfection is a splendid means for ward- 
ing off disease. For sometimes with the greatest 
care germs are admitted in some manner or form. 
By constantly disinfecting, the likelihood of any 
encroachment by germs is greatly lessened. 

Fortunately we have disinfectants that are easily 
applied and easily obtained at small cost. One of 
these disinfecting materials is lime, just ordinary 
slaked lime, the lime that every farmer knows. 
While it does not possess the disinfecting power 
of many other agents, it is, nevertheless, very de- 
sirable for sprinkling about stables and for white- 
washing floors, walls, and partitions. When so 
used the cracks and holes are filled and the germs 
destroyed. Ordinary farm stables should be white- 
washed once or twice each year, and the crumbled 
lime sprinkled on the litter or open ground. It is 
not desirable to use lime with bedding and manure, 
for the reason that it liberates the nitrogen con- 
tained therein. Hence the bedding and manure 
should be removed to the fields as frequently as 
possible, where it can be more helpful to the land. 
Thus scattered, the sunlight and purifying effects 
of the soil will soon destroy the disease bacteria, 
if any are present in the manure. 

Another splendid disinfectant is corrosive sub- 
limate, mercuric chloride, as it is often called. Use 
one ounce in eight gallons of water. This makes 
one-tenth of one per cent solution. In preparing 
this disinfectant, allow the material to stand for 
several hours, so as to permit the chemical to be- 
come entirely dissolved. This solution should be 
carefully guarded and protected, since it is a poison 
and, if drunk by animals, is liable to cause death. 
If infected quarters are to be disinfected^ see that 



INTRODUCTION 7 

the loose dirt and litter is first removed before 
applying the sublimate. 

Carbolic acid is another satisfactory disinfectant. 
Usually a five per cent solution is recommended. 
It can be easily applied to mangers, stalls, and feed 
boxes. Enough should be applied so that the wood 
or iron is made wet and the cracks and holes more 
or less filled. Chloride of lime is a cheap and an 
easily prepared disinfectant. Use ten ounces of 
chloride of lime to two gallons of water. This 
makes a four per cent solution, and should be ap- 
plied in the same way as the corrosive sublimate. 

Formalin has come into prominence very recently 
as a desirable disinfectant. A five per cent solu- 
tion fills the bill. Floors and cracks should be 
made thoroughly wet with it. By using one or 
more of these agents the living quarters of farm 
animals can be kept wholesome, sweet, and free 
from germ diseases. In fact, the use of disinfect- 
ants is one of the best aids of the farmer in warding 
off disease and in lessening its effects when once 
present. 

PUT SICK ANIMALS OFF BY THEMSELVES 

Many diseases are introduced into a herd or flock 
by thoughtlessness on the part of the owner. I 
have known distemper to be introduced into stables 
and among horses, Texas fever and tuberculosis 
into herds of cattle, and hog cholera among hogs, 
because diseased animals, when purchased, were 
not separated ofiF by themselves, for a short time at 
least. If this were done, farmers would lessen the 
chance of an introduction of disease into their 
healthy herds. Consequently quarantine quarters 
should be provided; especially is this true if new 



8 



THE FARMER S VETERINARIAN 



animals are frequently purchased and brought 
to the farm where many animals are raised 
and handled. These quarantine quarters need not 
be expensive, and they ought to be removed far 
enough from the farm stock so that there may be 
no easy means of infection. When newly pur- 
chased animals are placed in the quarantine quar- 
ters they should be kept there long enough to 
determine if anything strange or unusual is taking 
place. 




POULTICING THE THROAT 
The picture shows how to apply a poultice to the throat. 



CHAPTER I 
How the Animal Body is Formed 

The cell is the unit of growth. It is so with all 
forms of life — plant or animal, insect or bacterium. 
In the beginning the start is with a single cell, an 
^SSy if you please. After fertilization has taken 
place, this single cell enlarges or grows. Many- 
changes now occur, all rather rapidly, until the cell 
walls become too small, when it breaks apart and 
forms two cells just like the first used to be. This 
is known as cell division. As growth Increases, the 
number of cells increases also — until in the end 
there are millions. 

Nature of the Cell.— The cell is very small. In 
most cases it cannot be seen with the naked eye. 
The microscope is necessary for a study of the 
parts, the nature and the character of the cell. 

In the first place the cell is a kind of inclosed 
sac, in which are found the elements of growth 
and life. Surrounding the cell is a thin wall known 
as the cell membrane. In plants this cell wall is 
composed of cellulose, a woody substance, which 
is thin and tender in green and growing plants, but 
hard and woody when the plant is mature. 

Within the limits of the cell is the protoplasm, 
the chief constituent of the cell ; locked up in this 
protoplasm is life, the vital processes that have to 
do with growth, development, individual existence. 

Embedded within the protoplasm is another part 
known as the nucleus and recognized under the 
microscope by its density. Around the nucleus is 

9 



10 



THE farmer's veterinarian 



centered the development of new cells or reproduc- 
tion — for the changes that convert the mother-cell 
into offspring-cells are first noted in this place. 

So much for plant cells. Is this principle dif- 
ferent in animals? For a long time it was thought 




HOW A CELL divides 

The simple steps in cell division are pictured here. Start- 
ing with a single cell, growth and enlargement take place, 
ending finally in ceil division or the production of two 
individual cells. 



that plants and animals were different. But upon 
investigation it was discovered that animals were 
comprised of cells just as plants. And not only 
was this discovered to be true, but also that animal 
cells corresponded in all respects to plant cells. 
Hence in animals are to be found cells possessing 
the cell walls formed of a rather thick membrane, 
the granular protoplasm or yoke, and the nucleus 
established in the yoke. 



HOW THE ANIMAL BODY IS FORMED II 

The ovum, known as the female tgg, is composed 
of the parts just described. If it is not fertilized 
when ripe it passes away and dies. If fertilized in 
a natural way, it enlarges in size and subsequently 
divides into two cells; and these, passing through 
similar changes, finally give rise to the various 
groups of cells from which the body is developed. 

The Animal Body a Group Collection. — The body 
is, therefore, a mass of cells ; not all alike, of course, 
but grouped together for the purpose of doing cer- 
tain special kinds of work. In this way we have 
various groups, with each group a community per- 
forming its own function. The brain forms one 
community; and these cells are concerned with 
mind acts. The muscle cells are busy in exerting 
force and action. Another group looks after the 
secretions and digestive functions, while another 
group is concerned solely with the function of 
generation and reproduction. And so it is through- 
out the body. 

Both individual cells and group cells are con- 
cerned with disease. One cell may be diseased or 
destroyed, but the surrounding ones may go on just 
the same. It is when the group is disturbed that 
the greatest trouble results. 

A Word About the Cells. — The cell always pos- 
sesses its three parts — membrane, protoplasm, and 
nucleus. But there is no rule as to the size or 
shape. Cells may be round or oblong, any shape. 
Substances pass in and out of the cell walls; and 
they are in motion, many of them, especially those 
that line the intestines and the air passages, and 
the white corpuscles of the blood. More than this, 
some cells, Dr. Jekyl-like, change their appearance 
and shape, send out finger-like bodies to catch 



12 



enemies or food, and even travel all around in the 
body, often leaving it altogether. 

BODY TISSUES 

The animal body contains five forms of tissues: 
Epithelial, in which the cells are very compact, 
forming either thin or thick plates ; the connective 
tissue, by which many organs are supported or 
embedded ; muscle tissue, either smooth or striated, 
and in which the cells are in fibers that contract 
and shorten ; nerve-tissue, that has to do with nerve 
and ganglion cells by which mental impulses are 
sent; and blood and lymph tissue or fluid tissues. 

The first group is intimately connected with the 
secretory organs, or those organs which secrete 
certain substances essential for the proper work of 
the body. Thus we have salivary glands, mucous 
glands, sweat glands, and the liver and pancreas. 
Connective tissue includes fibrous tissue, fatty tis- 
sue, cartilage and bone. The fibrous connective 
tissue is illustrated when the skin is easily picked 
up in folds. Fatty tissue occurs where large 
amounts of fat are deposited in the cells. Cartilage 
is found where a large amount of firm support is 
required. With muscle we are all familiar; it is 
the real lean meat of the body. 

Blood and Lymph. — The blood is a fluid in 
which many cells are to be found. The fluid is 
known as serum or blood-plasma and the cells as 
corpuscles, and are both red and white. The red 
cells give the characteristic color. When observed 
under a microscope, they appear as small, round 
disks. They are of great importance to the body 
work. Because of the coloring matter in them the 
oxygen of the air is attracted when it comes in 



HOW THE ANIMAL BODY IS FORMED 1 3 

contact with the blood in the lungs. Oxygen is in 
reality absorbed, and on the blood leaving the lungs 
it is distributed to all parts of the body. The oxy- 
gen supply of the body is, therefore, in the keeping 
of the red corpuscles. 

White corpuscles have a different work ; they 
guard the body by picking up poison, bacteria, and 
other undesirable elements and cast these out 
through the natural openings of the body. Com- 
pared with the red cells, they exist in far less num- 
bers and may wander about through all parts of 
the body. 

Lymph is a fluid in which a few cells, lymph 
corpuscles, are suspended. These cells are very 
much like the colorless corpuscles of the blood, 
only no red blood cells are present. But the lymph 
attends to its own business; it bathes the tissues 
and endeavors to keep them in a healthy condition. 

Skin and Hair. — Without a covering the delicate 
muscles would be unprotected. The skin serves in 
this capacity. It does still more; out of it is 
exuded poisonous substances, perspiration, and, at 
the same time, the skin is a sort of respiratory 
organ, through which much of the carbonic acid 
formed in the body escapes. 

The skin possesses two general layers, the cutis 
and sub-cutis; in the first is contained also 
epidermis. Developed in the skin are the outer 
coverings like hair, wool, feathers, horns, claws, 
and hoofs. 

THE FRAMEWORK OF THE BODY 

The framework of the body undergoes a gradual 
development from birth to maturity. It represents 
the bony structure of the body ; and on it all other 



14 

parts depend for support and protection. The 
brief summary of its parts and work that follows 
here has been adapted from Wilcox and Smith. 

The Skeleton. — This consists of a backbone, 
skull, shoulder girdle, pelvic girdle, and two pairs 
of appendages. The backbone may be conven- 
iently divided into regions, each comprising a cer- 
tain number of vertebrae. The cervical vertebrae 
include those from the skull from the first rib. In 
all mammals except the sloth and sea cow the num- 
ber of cervical vertebrae is seven, being long or 
short, according as the neck of the animal is rela- 
tively long or short. The first and second cervical 
vertebrae, known as the atlas and axis, are especially 
modified so as to allow free turning movements of 
the head. 

The next region includes the dorsal or thoracic 
vertebrae, which are characterized by having ribs 
movably articulated with them. The number is 13 
in the cat, dog, ox, sheep, and goat; 14 in the 
hog; 18 or 19 in the horse and ass, and six or seven 
in domestic poultry. In mammals they are so 
joined together as to permit motion in several direc- 
tions, but in poultry the dorsal vertebrae are more 
rigidly articulated, those next to the sacrum often 
being grown together with the sacrum. The 
spines are high and much flattened in all ungulates, 
long and slender in dogs and cats. They slope back- 
ward, forming strong points of attachment for the 
back muscles. Several ribs, varying in number in 
different animals, meet and become articulated with 
the breast bone or sternum. The sternum consists 
of seven to nine articulated segments in our domes- 
tic mammals, while in fowls the sternum is one 
thin high bone furnished with a keel of varying 
depth. The lumbar vertebrae lie between the dorsal 



HOW THE ANIMAL BODY IS FORMED 1$ 

vertebrae and the sacrum. The number is five in the 
horse, six in the hog, ox and goat, and seven in the 
sheep. The sacrum is made up of a certain num- 
ber of vertebrae, which are rigidly united and 
serve as an articulation for the pelvic arch. The 
number of sacral vertebrae is five in the ox and 
horse, four in sheep and hogs, and 12 to 17 in birds. 
The caudal or tail vertebrae naturally vary in num- 
ber according to the length of the tail (7 to 10 in 
sheep, 21 in the ox, 23 in hogs, 17 in the horse, 22 
in the cat, 16 to 23 in the dog). 

In ungulates the anterior ribs are scarcely curved, 
the chest being very narrow in front. The number 
of pairs of ribs is the same as the number of dorsal 
vertebrae with which they articulate. 

The Skull. — This part of the skeleton is really 
composed of a number of modified vertebrae, just 
how many is not determined. The difference in the 
shape of the skulls of dffferenl animals is deter- 
mined by the relative size of the various bones of 
the skull. In hogs, for example, the head has been 
much shortened as a result of breeding, thus giving 
the skull of the improved breeds a very different 
appearance from that of the razorback. 

The shoulder girdle consists of a shoulder blade, 
collar bone and coracoid on either side. The fore 
leg (or wing, in case of birds) articulates with the 
socket formed by the junction of these three bones. 
In all the ungulates the shoulder blade is high and 
narrow, the coracoid is never much developed, and 
the collar bone is absent. In fowls all three bones 
of the shoulder girdle are well developed, the collar 
bone being represented by the " wish bone." 

The Pelvic Girdle. — This consists of three bones 
on either side, viz., ilium, ischium, and pubis. The 
first two are directly articulated to the spinal 



16 



THE FARMER'S VETERINARIAN" 







5 ® 

" 3 C 3 






3-S m S a 



||l ssji I y lii||| o^ yilj ill il 11^ 

Pi M ri 1-1 iH 1-1 M If i-( r-1 « 5S I?) «5 Ot C< 



HOW THE ANIMAL BODY IS FORMED I7 

column, while the pubic bones of either side unite 
below to complete the arch. The three bones of 
each side of the pelvis are present in all our 
domestic animals, including the fowls. 

Legbones of Farm Animals. — There is one 
formula for the bones of the fore and hind legs of 
farm animals. The first segment is a single bone, 
the humerus of the fore leg, femur of the hind leg. 
In the next segment there are two bones, radius 
and ulna in the fore leg, tibia and fibula in the hind 
leg. In the dog, cat, and Belgian hare the radius 
and ulna are both well developed and distinct. In 
ungulates the humerus is short and stout, while 
the ulna is complete in the pig, rudimentary and 
behind the radius in ruminants and firmly united 
with the radius in the horse. Similarly with the 
hind leg the fibula is a complete bone in the pig, 
while in the horse there is merely a rudiment of it, 
attached to the tibia. 

Feet. — The mammalian skeleton has undergone 
the greatest modification in the bones of the feet. 
In the horse there are only six of the original ten 
wrist or carpal bones, and, since there is but one 
of the original five toes, the horse has also but one 
metacarpal or cannon bone. Splint-like rudiments 
of two other metacarpal bones are to be found at 
the upper end of the cannon bone, or at the " knee " 
joint. Below the cannon bone, and forming the 
shaft of the foot, we have the small cannon bone, 
coronary bone, and cofiin bone — the last being 
within the hoof with the navicular bone behind it. 
The stifle joint of the horse corresponds to the knee 
of man. The " knee " of the horse's fore leg cor- 
responds to the hock of the hind leg, both being at 
the upper end of the cannon bone. The fetlock 
joint is between the large and small cannon bones, 



i8 



THE FARMER S VETERINARIAN 



the pastern joint between the small cannon or large 
pastern bones, and the coffin joint between the 
coronary and coffin bones. The horse walks upon 
what corresponds to the nail of the middle finger 
and middle toe of man. 

In pigs four digits touch the ground, the first 
being absent and the third and fourth larger and in 
front of the second and fifth. In ruminants the 
third and fourth digits reach the ground, while the 
second and fifth do not. In dogs the first digit 
appears on the side of the leg, not in contact with 
the ground. 




ONE OF THE PARASITES OF THE HOG 

The thorn-headed worm attached to the anterior part 
of the small intestine often causes death. Not more than 
five or six are usually found in a single animal. 

In fowls the wing, which corresponds to the fore 
leg of mammals, shows a well-developed humerus, 
radius and ulna, while only one carpal and one 
metacarpal bone remain, along which the wing 
feathers are attached. In the leg the femur and 
tibia are strong bones, but the fibula is a mere 
splint. The tarsal bones are absent, while the 
shank consists of a metatarsal bone (really three 
bones fused together), to which the four toes are 
articulated. 



HOW THE ANIMAL BODY IS FORMED IQ 

The Muscular System of Farm Animals. — The 

muscular system is too elaborate, the number of 
muscles too great, and their modifications for dif- 
ferent purposes too complex for consideration in 
detail in the present volume. All muscles are 
either striped or unstriped (as examined under the 
microscope), according as they are under the im- 
mediate control of the will or not. The heart 
muscle forms an exception, for it is striped though 
involuntary. The essential characteristic of muscle 
fibers is contractility, which they possess in high 
degree. The typical striped muscles are concerned 
in locomotion, being attached at either end to a 
bone and extending across some movable joint. 
The most important unstriped muscles are found in 
the walls of the intestines and blood vessels. 

The Nervous System. — In so far as our present 
purposes are concerned, the nervous system may 
be disposed of in a few words. The central nerv- 
ous system consists of a brain and spinal cord. 
The microscopic elements of this tissue are pecu- 
liarly modified cells, consisting of a central body, 
from which fibers run in two or more directions. 
The cell bodies constitute the gray matter, and the 
fibers the white matter of the brain and spinal cord. 
The gray substance is inside the spinal cord and on 
the surface of the brain, constituting the cortex. 
The most important parts of the brain are the 
cerebrum, optic lobes, cerebellum, and medulla. 
There are twelve pairs of cranial nerves originat- 
ing in the brain and controlling the special senses, 
movements of the face, respiration, and pulse rate. 
From each segment of the spinal cord a pair of 
spinal nerves arises, each of which possess both 
sensory and motor roots. The sympathetic nervous 
system consists of a trunk on either side, running 



20 THE farmer's VETERINARIAN 

from the base of the skull to the pelvis, furnished 
with ganglionic enlargements and connected with 
the spinal nerves by small fibers. 

The Respiratory Organs. — These include the 
nose, larynx, trachea or windpipe, and lungs. The 
trachea forks into bronchi and bronchioles of 
smaller and smaller size, ending in the alveoli 
or blind sacs of the lungs. In fowls there are 
numerous extensions of the respiratory system 
known as air sacs, and located in the body 
cavity and also in the hollow bones. The air sacs 
communicate with the lungs, but not with one an- 
other. 

The Urinary Organs. — These consist of kidneys 
connecting by means of ureters with a bladder from 
which the urethra conducts the urine to the out- 
side. In the male the urethra passes through the 
penis and in the female it ends just above the 
opening of the vagina. The kidneys are usually 
inclosed in a capsule of fat. The right kidney of 
the horse is heart-shaped, the left bean-shaped. 
Each kidney of the ox shows 15 to 20 lobes, and is 
oval in form. The kidneys of sheep, goats, and 
swine are bean-shaped and without lobes. 

The Reproductive Apparatus. — This consists of 
ovaries, oviducts, uterus or womb, and vagina in 
the female; the testes, spermatic cords, seminal 
vesicle and penis, together with various connecting 
glands, especially prostate gland and Cowper's 
gland, in the male. In fowls there is no urinary 
bladder, but the ureters open into the cloaca or 
posterior part of the rectum. The vagina and 
uterus are also wanting in fowls, the oviducts open- 
ing directly into the rectum. The male copulating 
organ is absent except in ducks, geese, swan, and 
the ostrich. 



CHAPTER II 

Some Physiology You Oaght to Know 

A close relation exists between the soil, planf, 
and the animal. One really cannot exist without 
the other to fulfill its destiny. A soil without plant 
or animal growth is barren, devoid of life. The 
soil comes first; the elements contained in it and 
the air are the basis of plant and animal life. The 
body of the animal is made up of the identical 
elements found in the plant, yet the growth of the 
plant is necessary to furnish food for animal life. 
The plant takes from the soil and from the air the 
simple chemical elements, and with these builds up 
the plant tissue which, in its turn, is the food of 
the animal. 

The animal cannot feed directly from the soil and 
air; it requires the plant first to take the elements 
and to build them into tissue. From this tissue 
animals get their food for maintenance and growth. 
Then the animal dies; with its decay and decom- 
position comes change of animal tissue, back to 
soil and air again ; back to single simple elements, 
that new plants may be grown, that new plant tis- 
sue may be made for another generation of animal 
life. 

Thus the plant grows out of the soil and air, 
and the decay of the animal plant life furnishes 
food for the plant that the plant may furnish food 
for the animal. Thus we see the cycle of life ; from 
the soil and air come the soil constituents. 

Meaning of Plant Building. — Before the single 
simple elements were taken into the plant, they 

21 



22 



THE FARMER S VETERINARIAN 




»Q«eb.0C0»OiHi-«e5-*u5«C 



SS;?SS^S3§£^i^S$S!;^^^S$S^8s3^SSS 



SOME PHYSIOLOGY YOU OUGHT TO KNOW 23 

were of little value. The animal could not use 
them for food, they could not be burned to furnish 
heat, and they stored up no energy to carry on any 
of the world's work. What a change the plant 
makes of them ! So used, they become the source 
of the animal food, and, as food, they contain five 
principal groups with which the animal is nour- 
ished. These five groups are the air, water, the 
protein compounds, the nitrogen free compounds, 
such as starch, crude fiber, sugar and gums, and 
the fat or ether extract, as it is called. 

DIGESTION OF THE FOOD 

Before these difTerent constituents of the plant 
can be used as food for animals, they must be pre- 
pared for absorption into the system, of the animal. 
This preparation takes place in the mouth, oesoph- 
agus tube, the stomach, and the intestines, aided 
by the various secretions incident to digestion and 
absorption. Any withholding of any essential con- 
stituent has its result in inefficiency or illness of 
the animal. 

Withhold ash materials, for instance, from the 
food, or supply an insufficient quantity, and the 
fact will be evidenced by poor teeth, deficient bone 
construction and poor health in general. Let the 
feeding ration be short in protein, and the result 
will be shown in the flesh and blood. Let the car- 
bohydrates and fat be w^ithheld or supplied insuf- 
ficiently, and energy will be denied and a thrifty 
condition will not be possible. 

The supply of these different constituents in the 
proper proportion gives rise to the balanced ration ; 
and is concerned in a treatise of this kind only in so 
far as it has to do with disease or health. For, 



24 THE farmer's VETERINARIAN 

remember this fact: live stocK are cioseiy associ- 
ated with right feeding. If foods be improperly- 
prepared, or improperly supplied, or the rations 
poorly balanced, with too much of one constituent 
and too little of another, the effect will be manifest 
in an impoverished condition of the system. That 
means either disease, or disease invited. 

Not only must these facts be considered, but 
other matters given recognition also. The greater 
part of the trouble of the stockman in the way of 
animal diseases is due to some disturbance of the 
digestive system, or to the water supply, or to ven- 
tilation, or to the use to which the animal is put from 
day to day. Attention to the details of digestion 
has its reward in thrifty, healthy stock; a lack of 
this attention brings trouble and either a temporary 
ailment or a permanent disease. 

Process of Mastication. — Food is taken in the 
mouth, where it is masticated by means of the teeth, 
lips, cheeks, and the tongue. While the process of 
mastication is taking place there is being poured 
into the mouth large quantities of saliva, which 
softens the food and starts the process of diges- 
tion. The active principle of saliva is a soluble fer- 
ment, called ptyalin, that converts the starch of 
food into sugar. The amount of saliva that is 
poured into the food is very great, being often as 
much as one-tenth of the weight of the animal. This 
ferment is active after the teeth have been formed, 
which explains why it is not advisable to feed 
much starchy food to children before their teeth 
have begun development 

The food, after being ground and mixed with the 
saliva fluid, goes to the stomach. With the horse 
and hog the stomach is a single sac not capable 
of holding very large quantities of food; with the 



SOME PHYSIOLOGY YOU OUGHT TO KNOW 25 

COW and sheep, on the other hand, ve find a large 
storehouse for holding food — a storehouse that is 
divided into four compartments, the rumen or 
paunch, reticulum, omasum, and the abomasum. 
The first three communicate with the gullet by 
a common opening. The cud is contained in the 
first and second stomachs, and, after it has been 
masticated a second time, it passes to the third and 
fourth, and to the bowels, where the process of 
digestion is continued. 

Gastric Juice. — From this it will be noticed that 




DISEASED KIDNEY 

The kidney of the hog is pictured here. As a rule it is 
sually impossible to diagnose liidney troubles in hogs and 
similar lower animals. 

chewing the cud is an act in the process of diges- 
tion; it refers only to rechewing the food so as to 
get it finer and better ground for digestion. While 
in the stomach the saliva continues the digestion 
of the starchy matter and is assisted by the gastric 
fluid that pours in from the lining of the stomach, 
which converts the protein or albuminoids into 
peptones. The fatty matter is not acted upon at 
this point. There are three constituents of gastric 
juice, which affect the changes in the food. These 
are pepsin, rennet, and acid. With rennet you are 
acquainted. It is used in the kitchen, in the mak- 
ing of cheese, and is obtained from the stomach of 



26 THE farmer's VETERINARIAN 

calves or other young animals. Pepsin, also ob- 
tained directly from the stomach, is now a con- 
spicuous preparation in medicine. The food, after 
leaving the stomach, goes into the bowels and is 
acted upon by secretions of the liver and pancreas 
or sweetbreads. It should be noted in passing that 
no secretion enters the first three divisions of the 
ruminant's stomach. It is only in the fourth or 
true stomach that the gastric juice is found. 

The Stomach Chum. — While food is in the 
stomach it is subjected to a constant turning move- 
ment that causes it to travel from the entrance to 
the exit or intestines. When it passes into the small 
intestines it is subjected to the action of bile 
and pancreatic juices, which have principally 
to do with the breaking up of the fat compounds. 
Both resemble, to a certain extent, saliva in their 
ability to change starch into sugar. 

The secretion of the bile comes from the liver 
and the pancreatic juice from the pancreas or 
sweetbreads, and both are poured into the intestines 
near the same point, so that they act together. The 
ferments they contain act in the followmg ways: 
They change starch into sugar, fat into fatty com- 
pounds, they curdle milk, and convert protein com- 
pounds into soluble peptones. 

The process of digestion is finally ended in the 
intestines, where absorption into the system takes 
place. There is no opening at all from the bowels 
into the body, but the digestive nutriment is picked 
up by the blood when handed into the body from 
the intestines by means of countless little cells 
called villi, that line the walls of the intestines. 
These villi cells have little hair-like projections ex- 
tending into the intestines, which constantly move ; 
these protrusions, as they move about catdb on to 



SOME PHYSIOLOGY YOU OUGHT TO KNOW 



27 



the digested nutriment, draw it Into the cells them- 
selves, where It Is handed on to the blood, when it 
is later on distributed to all parts of the body. You 
can realize that an immense number of these ab- 
sorption cells are present when the length of the 
Intestine is considered. In the ox the intestine is 
nearly 200 feet long. After the nutriment is drawn 




STOMACH OF RUMINANT 

The four main divisions of the ruminant's stomach are 
pictured here. The first three divisions are the store-houses 
for food until it is fully prepared for the fourth stomach or 
abomasum. 



from the food the undigested portions are voided 
periodically as feces or dung. 

Absorption of the Nutriment. — Digestion, there- 
fore, is a dissolving process ; food is admitted to 
the system by means of cells. You remember that 



28 THE farmer's VETERINARIAN 

all plant food first passes into a soluble state be- 
fore it can enter the roots and be conveyed to the 
parts of the plants that require additional food for 
growth. In the case of plants the entrance is by 
means of the root hairs. In the case of the animal, 
entrance in the body is by means of the villi cells 
that line the intestines. From this we see that 
digestion is both an intricate and delicate process. 
Any loss of appetite, any disturbance of the diges- 
tion work, and any irregularity of the bowels bear 
decided results, one way or the other, to the rest 
of the system ; and any disturbance of the body at 
other points, although having no direct relation to 
the digestion system, sooner or later affects the 
digestion and in so doing causes additional trouble. 
Directly affecting digestion may be improper 
food, either liquid or solid; and over-exercise or 
not enough of it may prove troublesome, for exer- 
cise is clearly related to digestion. When the 
digestion process is disturbed, air or gas may ac- 
cumulate in the stomach or bowels and give rise t© 
colic or hoven. A watery action of the intestines, 
due to inflammation or irritation, may lead to 
dysentery and enteritis ; or some obstruction like a 
hair-ball or a clover fuzzy ball, or the knotting of 
the intestines, may occur, temporarily or perma- 
nently impairing digestion so seriously often as to 
cause death itself. 

CIRCULATION 

As water in the plant is the carrier of plant food 
throughout the plant, so is blood the carrier and 
distributor of food in the animal. When food is 
absorbed, it either passes into the lymphatic sys- 
tem or into the capillaries of the blood system. 



SOME PHYSIOLOGY YOU OUGHT TO KNOW 29 

If in the former, it is carried to the thoracic duct, 
which extends along the spinal column and enters 
one of the main blood vessels. If collected by the 
capillary system, it is carried to the portable vein, 
thence to the liver and finally to the heart, where 
it meets with the blue blood collected from all parts 
of the bod} 

At this point, the blood contams both the nutri- 
ment and the waste matter of the body. Before it 
can be sent through the body again the waste ma- 
terial must be thrown out of the system by means 
of the lungs. This is accomplished by the heart 
forcing to the lungs the impure blood with its im- 
purities collected from all parts of the body and 
also the nutriment collected from the digestive 
tract. 

The chief organs, therefore, of the circulatory 
system are the blood and lymphatic vessels contain- 
ing respectively blood and lymph. The only dif- 
ference between these two materials is in the fact 
that lymph is blood without the red-blood corpuscles. 
The body, after all, really depends upon this lymph 
for nourishment, since it wanders to all parts of 
the body, surrounds all the cells in all of the tissues 
and in this way carries to the cells the very kinds of 
food that they need. 

Lymph Passes Through Cell Walls. — The blood 
vessels have no openings into the body at all. In 
this respect the blood system is like the digestive 
system ; it is separate and distinct in itself. The 
blood, however, does creep through the walls of the 
blood vessels. In so doing the blood corpuscles 
are left behind and lymph is the result. 

The center of the blood system is the heart. It 
is the engine of the body. Going out from it is the 
great aorta, which subdivides into arteries and 




r'O O I tu 



SOME PHYSIOLOGY YOU OUGHT TO KNOW 3 1 

farther away further subdivides until there is a 
great network of little arteries; these in turn be- 
come very tiny and take the name of capillaries. 
Thus the red blood, by means of arteries and capil- 
laries, is carried to all parts of the body. This 
plan of distribution would not be complete unless 
some way were provided for the return of the blood 
to the heart and lungs for purification. And just 
such an arrangement has been provided. Another 
kind of network collects this scattered blood at the 
extremities into separate vessels, which gradually 
increase in size and finally empty their possessions 
into the heart. These are the veins of the body, 
and have to do with the impure blood of the body. 

How the Heart Does Its Work. — The power back 
of blood distribution is the heart. It is an auto- 
matic pump, as it were, that sends blood to the 
lungs and through the arteries to all parts of the 
body. The heart is divided into four divisions : 
the left and right ventricles and the right and left 
auricles. The right auricle receives the blood from 
the upper half of the body through a large vein 
and the lower half of the body through another 
large vein, and the blood from both lungs empties 
into the left auricle through two left and two right 
pulmonary veins. The large arteries of the heart 
which carry the blood from the heart to the dif- 
ferent organs arise from the ventricle. 

The blood always flows in the same direction. It 
goes into the auricle from the veins, and from this 
into the ventricle. It then passes into the arteries, 
then to the veins and then to the capillaries. 

The action of the heart is very much like a force 
pump; the dark blood flows into the right auricle, 
which contracts; when this is done, the blood is 



32 THE FARMER S VETERINARIAN 

forced into the right ventricle ; this in turn con- 
tracts and forces the blood into the lungs, where 
oxygen is taken on and carbonic acid gas and other 
impurities are thrown off. From the lungs the 
blood, now red and pure, passes into the left auricle 
and thence into the left ventricle, from which it is 
forced into the aorta to be distributed to all parts 
of the body. 

We now see the close connection existing be- 
tween the digestive system and the circulatory 
system. The digested food in the intestines is 
gathered in by villi cells. The question can now 
be asked. What do these cells do with this nutri- 
ment or digested food? They pour it into the 
absorbent vessels or lymphs, as they are called; 
these in turn empty the assimilated stores of food 
into larger and still larger vessels, which continues 
until the whole of the nutritive fluid is collected 
into one great duct or tube, which pours its con- 
tents into the large veins at the base of the neck, 
from whence it is carried into the circulatory sys- 
tem, the very basis of which is the blood. 

RESPIRATION 

The dark and impure blood, after returning to 
the heart, is sent to the lungs. It is, when collected 
from the body, just before being sent to the lungs 
dark, dull and loaded with worn-out matter. It 
must now be sent to the lungs, w^here it may be 
spread over the delicate thin walls of millions of 
vesicles, to be exposed to the air, which is inhaled 
by the acts of breathing. The blood gives off the 
broken-down material and carbonic acid gas very 
readily. It is both unpleasant and disagreeable, 
and the blood cells find it very unattractive. 



SOME PHYSIOLOGY YOU OUGHT TO KNOW 33 

The cells of the blood, however, have a great at- 
traction for oxygen, consequently the cells absorb 
oxygen with greediness, so that when the blood 
returns to the heart it is fresh and bright and 
ready to take its journey back over the body again. 
This is done just about every three minutes. This 
endless round continues until stopped forever by 
death. 

The relation existing between the animal and 
plant functions is brought to light in another way. 
AVhen the plant was building tissue it released 
oxygen and exhaled it into the air. At the same 
time, by means of leaves, it gathered in the car- 
bonic acid to use in plant building. Of course this 
was got from the air. The animal in performing 
its functions and in building its tissue inhales oxy- 
gen from and exhales carbonic acid gas into the air. 
Thus it is that animals take up what is unnecessary 
to the plant and the plant uses what is waste and 
poison to the animal. 



CHAPTER III 

The Teeth As An Indication of Age 

When a colt is born the first and second tem- 
porary molars, three on each jaw, are to be seen. 
These are large when compared with the size of 
those that later replace them. In from five to ten 
days after birth the two central incisors or nippers 
make their appearance. In three or four weeks the 
third temporary molars appear, followed within a 
couple of months by an additional incisor on each 
side of the first two, both above and below. The 
corner incisors appear between the ninth and 
twelfth months after birth. This makes the full 
set of teeth — twenty-four in number. 

There is now no change in number, although there 
is considerable change taking place all the time ; the 
incisor teeth, in rubbing against each other, are 
more or less worn, giving rise to the expression 
" losing the mark." 

The two molars present at birth remain until 
the animal is about three years old, at which time 
they fall out of their sockets by the protrusion of 
the second set, or permanent molars. 

This change from temporary to permanent teeth 
takes place usually without difficulty and without 
trouble. The permanent teeth push their way up 
from below crowding those in view. While this 
pushing and crowding is going on the temporary 
teeth are losing ground, for the reason their roots 
are being absorbed, and a time comes when the cap 
only is left attached to the gums. This cap drops 



THE TEETH AS AN INDICATION OF AGE 35 

out and the new or permanent tooth soon is estab- 
lished in its place. 

LOSING OF TEMPORARY TEETH 

According to the observation of Mayo, the tem- 
porary incisors are replaced by permanent teeth 
as follows : " The two central incisors are shed at 
about two and a half years, and the permanent ones 
are up ' in wear ' at three years. The lateral in- 
cisors are shed at three and a half and the per- 
manent ones are up and in wear at four years. The 
corner incisors are shed at four and a half and the 
permanent ones are up and in wear at five. 

" The molars are erupted and replaced as fol- 
lows: The fourth molar on each jaw (which is 
always a permanent molar) is erupted at ten to 
twelve months; the fifth permanent molar at two 
to two and a half years, and the sixth usually at four 
and a half to five. The first and second molars, 
which are temporary, are shed and replaced by per- 
manent ones at two to three years of age. The 
third temporary molar is replaced by a permanent 
one at three and a half years. In males, the canine 
or bridle teeth are erupted at about four and a half 
years of age. At about five years of age a horse is 
said to have a full mouth of permanent teeth." 

THE MARK IN THE TOOTH 

Horsemen make use of the " mark in the tooth " 
for determining the age between five and eleven. 
In examining teeth you observe that two bands of 
enamel are to be seen; one exterior, that surrounds 
the tooth, the other interior, which is termed the 
casing enamel. It is this latter, or *' date cavity," 
that is used to tell the age. 



2,6 THE farmer's veterinarian 

The mark in the tooth is occasioned by the food 
blackening the hollow pit. This is formed on the 
surface by the bending in of the enamel, which 
passes over the surface of the teeth, and, by the 
gradual wearing down of the enamel from friction, 
and the consequent disappearance of it, the age can 
be determined for a period of several years. 

When a horse has attained his sixth year the 
mark on the central or middle incisors or nippers 




LUMPY JAW 

The disease is caused by the ray fungus. The result is local 
tumors in the bones and other tissues. 

of the lower jaw will be completely worn off, leav- 
ing, however, a little difference of color in the cen- 
ter of the teeth. The cement which fills the hole 
produced by the dipping in of the enamel will be 
somewhat browner than that of the other portions 
of the tooth, and will exhibit evident proofs of the 
edge being surrounded by enamel. 

At seven years the marks in the four middle in- 
cisors are worn out and are speedily disappearing 
in the corner ones. These disappear entirely at the 



THE TEETH AS AN INDICATION OF AGE 37 

age of eight; thus all marks are obliterated at this 
age on the lower jaw ; the surface of the teeth are 
level and the form of the teeth changes to a more 
oval form. 

The marks on the upper jaw are still present, 
since there has been less friction and wear on them. 
At nine the marks disappear from the central upper 
incisors, at ten from the adjoining two, and at 
eleven from the corner teeth. 

To tell the age of the horse beyond this period 
is difficult and uncertain, except by those very 
much experienced in performing the undertaking. 
The shape of the teeth, the color and the conditk)n 
all enter into the determination but there is no 
fast and fixed rules after the marks have disap- 
peared. 

TEETH OF CATTLE 

Cattle have no incisor teeth on the upper jaw. 
They have eight incisors on the lower jaw. Ac- 
cording to Mayo, the temporary incisors are as 
follows : " The central incisors or nippers are up 
at birth, the internal lateral at one week old, the 
external lateral at two weeks, and the corner in- 
cisors at three weeks old. They are replaced by 
permanent incisors approximately as follows, 
though they vary much more than in the colt: The 
central incisors are replaced at 12 to 18 months; 
the internal laterals at about two and a half years; 
the external laterals at three to three and a half 
years ; and the corner incisors at about three and 
a half years. In the horned cattle, a ring makes 
its appearance at three years of age, and a new ring 
is added annually thereafter." 



38 THE farmer's veterinarian 

TEETH OF SHEEP 

Sheep, like cattle, have no incisor teeth on the 
upper jaw. Like cattle, they have eight incisors 
on the lower jaw when the mouth has reached full 
age. The change of the teeth occurs as follows: 
At birth the lamb has two incisors, followed by two 
more very soon. At the end of two weeks two 
more are out, making six incisors in all. At three 
weeks of age two more have appeared, completing 
the appearance of the temporary or milk teeth. 

The permanent begin to replace the temporary 
teeth between one and one and a half years. The 
two central milk teeth are first replaced by two 
longer and stronger teeth. The lamb is now known 
as a yearling. 

At two years the two teeth adjoining the central 
incisors are replaced by permanent ones; at three 
the two adjoining these are replaced, making now 
six permanent incisors. 

Between four and four and a half the last two 
permanent incisors appear and the sheep then has 
a full mouth. 



CHAPTER IV 

Examining Animals for Soundness and Health 

In purchasing farm stock, it is a good plan to deal 
with reputable people only. Leave the horse trader 
alone. He knows too many tricks, and if you are a 
stranger to him you can be pretty certain that he 
will try one on you — just for fun. 

Fortunately farmers sell to strangers more fre- 
quently than they buy of them, and when they 
seek new stock they deal largely with breeders, 
who, like themselves, are farmers and not given 
to the tricks of low and disreputable methods; 
nevertheless, every purchaser of stock should be 
familiar with animal form and able to recognize 
defects and -faults when he sees them. This is as 
much his business as to breed, raise or feed the 
stock on his farm. 

LOOKING THE ANIMAL OVER 

Know what form you want; draft and speed 
represent different types, so do dairy and beef. 
With all classes of farm stock there are a few 
points that are desirable in all stock. One of these 
is width between the eyes. No animal of any 
breed or class possessed of a narrow forehead is 
at all perfect. A wide forehead is one of the abso- 
lute beauties. 

These are desirable characters of all farm 
animals; they represent culture and refinement 
and good breeding. The purchaser or breeder, 
therefore, should not only know conformation, but 
he should know quality. 



40 THE FARMER S VETERINARIAN 

SPECIAL TYPE IN HORSES 

Our breeds of horses may be divided into three 
general classes. Those used for speed, those for 
draft and those v^ith a mixture of the tv^o — a gen- 
eral purpose sort of horse. The speed or trotting 
horse has its distinct type; it has been evolving 
and developing through a long series of years. 

Briefly, its conformation may be described as 
follow^s : A v^ride forehead, fairly long head, a long 
neck that is thin and agile, a narrow chest as you 
look at it from the front, but very deep as you look 
from the side, long sloping shoulders, rather long 
back, a long horizontal croup, small barrel, fairly 
long forearm, long cannon bones and feet that are 
well shaped and perfect in every respect. Looking 
at the animal from the side it should be as high over 
the hips or higher than over the withers. 

The draft horse, on the other hand, has a dif- 
ferent conformation. There is not that elongation 
of his parts, although there is a symmetry of parts 
and of proportion. There should be the width 
between the eyes ; the clean, neat face ; a graceful 
neck, which should be shorter and more heavily 
muscled than that of the speed horse. The chest 
should be wide, both from the front and side, the 
back short but heavily muscled, the croup strong 
and not so horizontal as with the speed type, the 
quarters heavily muscled and the cannon bone 
short. 

The feet should be as perfect as those of the 
speed horse. In both types the knee should be 
thick, deep, and broad and the hocks wide. The 
narrow hock is not so well able to stand heavy 
strain, consequently ?urb diseases readily follow 



EXAMINING FOR SOUNDNESS AND HEAtTH ^T 

where the conformation shows narrow hocks. An- 
other difference between the two types is found in 
the muscles. The speed type throughout has long, 
thin, narrow muscles — muscles that stretch a long 
way and contract quickly. 

With the draft horse it is different: the muscles 
are shorter, but they are heavy ; they are less quick 
in their action, but they are more powerful. In 



BAD ATTITUDES DUE TO CONFORMATION 

In the first, the toes are turned out. The middle picture 
shows in-kneed attitude and the third shows in-turned toes. 
Whether standing or traveling, the appearance is unpleasant 
and mitigates against the value of the animals. 

both types good proportions are always desirable. 
The width between the eyes should be as much or 
more than one-third the length of the head. The 
distance from the point over the shoulders to the 
ground should be about equal to the distance from 
the point over the hips to the ground ; and in turn 
this distance, whatever it is, should be about equal 



42 THE farmer's VETERINARIAN 

to the length of the horse from the point of the 
shoulder to the point of the buttock. 

Looking at the horse in front if a line be dropped 
from the point of the shoulder it should halve the 
fore leg, the knee, the cannon, and the hoof. And 
the width of the third hoof, if placed between the 
two front feet, should give the attitude that is 
desirable. 

Looking at the horse from the rear, the same 
attitude is to be observed. Of course, many horses 
do not possess these qualities and proportions ; and 
because they do not is the very reason that their 
beauty, efficiency, and value are less. 

EXAMINING ANIMALS IN THE STABLE 

In going into the stable look the animals over 
quietly. Observe how they stand, breathe, eat, and 
act generally. Are they nervous? Does one swing 
his head from side to side? Does he kick, paw, 
put back his ears, or does he have any of the other 
common stable vices that are unpleasant and un- 
desirable? As you look about and pass back and 
forth, you will get the evidence of these stable 
vices, if such are to be found. 

Look particularly for cribbing, wind sucking, 
kicking and crowding. Pawing is just as bad. If 
you want animals with good stable manners pass 
by those possessing these ugly faults. The next 
step is to examine the animals individually; those 
that " look good " to you. No doubt you will find 
some that do not interest you for one reason or 
another. These need no further attention, unless 
you have overlooked some fact, in which case your 
attention will likely be called to it. 



EXAMINING FOR SOUNDNESS AND HEALTH 43 

In making the individual examination, go up to 
the animal in the stall, place your hand on the hip, 
and gently press it. If no stringhalt afflicts the 
horse, he will move over, allowing you to pass into 
the stall. The same applies to the cow. If well 
trained, she will make room for you by moving 
over at the same time, if you do this on the proper 
side, and she will put back her hind foot, as if she 
were about to be milked. 

This casual observation would not be possible 
if force were used or the animal excited by loud 
commands or by a whip or strap. The halter 
teaches its lesson also. A heavy rope or leather 
suggests that the animal has a pulling back vice, 
a habit you want to avoid. Light halters for horses 
and cattle are to be preferred to chains, heavy 
leather, or ropes. 

REAL TEST IS OUT OF DOORS 

Now that you have seen all of the animals for 
sale, ask the owner to lead them out of doors for 
a more careful examination. In this you will 
inspect the animal very carefully in order to be 
certain of the conformation, defects, and blemishes, 
and to acquaint yourself specifically as to health 
and disposition. 

Cast your eyes over the animal, front, side, and 
rear. Pass around the animal, keeping some dis- 
tance away. By so doing you can judge of type 
and conformation, of proportions and attitudes ; for 
each of these is important. A beefy-looking cow, with 
a thick neck, square body and small udder will not 
suit you for milk. Neither will a cow with a long, 
thin neck, open, angular body, thin thighs, and 



44 THE farmer's veterinarian 

heavy, deep paunch meet your needs if you are 
seeking breeding stock for beef production. 

If you are examining a horse, keep in mind the 
purpose for which you are selecting. Remember 
the long, thin neck, very oblique shoulder, long 
cannon, long back, and long thin muscles are not 
adequate for draft. On the other hand, if you v^ant 
a horse for road purposes, avoid the heavy muscles, 
the short neck, the heavy croup, and the heavy 
thighs. These mean draft — an animal for heavy 
work. 

SPECIAL TYPE IN CATTLE 

The milk cow should have a very soft, mellow 
skin, and fine, silky hair. The head should be narrow 
and long, with great width between the eyes. This 
last-mentioned characteristic is an indication of 
great nervous force, an important quality for the 
heavy milker. The neck of the good dairy cow is 
long and thin, the shoulders thin and lithe and 
narrow at the top. The back is open, thin, and 
tapering toward the tail. The hips are wide apart 
and covered with little meat. 

The good cow is also thin in the regions of the 
thigh and flank, but very deep through the stomach 
girth, made so by long open ribs. The udder is 
large, attached well forward on the abdomen, and 
high behind. It should be full, but not fleshy. 
The lacteal or milk veins ought also to be large and 
extend considerably toward the front legs. 

The beef cow is altogether different: she is 
square in shape, full and broad over the back and 
loins, and possesses depth and quality, especially 
in these regions. The hips are even with flesh, the 
legs full and thick, the under line parallel with 



EXAMINING FOR SOUNDNESS AND HEALTH 45 

the straight back. The neck is full and short, the 
eyes bright, the face short, the bones of fine tex- 
ture, the skin soft and pliable, and the flesh mellow, 
elastic, and rich in quality. 

In other words, a beef cow is square and blocky, 
while the dairy cow is wedge-shaped and angular. 
The one stores nutriment in her body; the other 
gives it off. The one is a miser, and stores all that 
she gets into her system ; the other is a philanthro- 
pist and gives away all that comes into her pos- 
session. 

It v/ill be seen, therefore, that the two types are 
radically different. This difference is due to breed- 
ing, not to feeding, nor to management. If you 
are seeking good milk cows, you must look for 
form and conformation. If you are looking for 
beef cows, you must also look for form and con- 
formation, but of a different kind. With this 
knowledge to back you up and to guide you, you 
are now ready to make an examination of animals 
that will meet your purpose. 

GOING OVER THE ANIMAL IN DETAIL 

After making these general observations you are 
now ready to examine the animal. Begin with the 
head. How is the eye? Dull, weak, without 
animation? If so, be on your guard. The good 
eye shows brightness, intelligence, and it must be 
free from specks. By placing the hand over the 
eye for a few moments you will be able to detect 
its sensitiveness to light. Do you find any dis- 
charge of any kind from the eye? If so, some in- 
flammation is present. Try to ascertain the cause. 

The Nostril As An Index. — A large, open nostril 
is desirable. Look for that character first. Now 



46 



THE FARMER S VETERINARIAN 



observe the color of the lining. To be just right, it 
should be healthy-looking, of a bright rose-pink 
color, and it should be moist. A healthy nostril is 
one free from sores, ulcers, pimples, and any un- 
pleasant odor. Be careful here; an unscrupulous 
dealer can very easily remove discharges and odors 
by sponging and washing, and you may be deceived. 
Looking In the Mouth. — Alw^ays look in the 
mouth; you have the tongue, teeth, javv^s, and 




EWE NECK 

The neck is one of the beauty points of the horse. In 
purchasing animals look carefully to conformation and quality. 
Let these also be guiding principles in breeding. 



glands to see. Naturally, you, like every other 
person, consider the teeth first; you want to be 
certain of the age. This feature is discussed else- 
where in this book, and all in addition that needs 
to be said is in reference to the shape of the teeth. 



EXAMINING FOR SOUNDNESS AND HEALTH 47 

whether or not they are diseased or worn away 
by age or by constant cribbing of the manger. Of 
course these facts you will think of as you examine 
the mouth. 

Give the tongue a second of your time. If it is 
scarred and shows rough treatment a harsh bit is 
likely the cause, due to its need in driving and 
handling. 

Then give a thought to the glands while here. 
Enlarged glands may indicate some scrofulous or 
glanderous condition of the system. 

Neck and Throat. — A beautiful neck and throat 
is an absolute beauty in the horse or cow. The 
skin should be thin, mellow, and soft, and the hair 
not over thick nor coarse. Look for poll-evil at 
the top of the neck and head. See if swellings, 
lumps or hard places are to be found at the sides 
of the neck, or underneath joining the throat. I 
have found such very frequent with dairy cattle; 
and cases are not unusual with horses. 

Frequently scars are to be found on the sides or 
bottom of the neck. These may be due to 
scratches caused by nails, barb-wire or some sim- 
ilar accident, and again they may have been caused 
by sores, tumors, or other bad quality of the blood. 

Body and Back. — Passing the side, look over the 
withers for galls or fistulas, the shoulders for 
tumors, collar pufifs, and swellings. Observe at 
the same time if there is any wasting of the muscles 
on the outside along the shoulder. 

Now the back. Is it right as to shape? Do you 
find any evidence of sores or tumors? Look for 
these along the sides and belly. Now stoop a bit 
and look under; do you find anything different 
from what is natural? In males look for tumor or 
disease of the penis ; do the same with the scrotum, 



48 THE farmer's veterinarian 

and, in case of geldings scrutinize carefully to see 
if they be ridgelings. 

While making this examination, if the animal is 
nervous and fretful, you can help matters along if 
an assistant holds up a fore leg. Take the same 
precaution when examining the hind quarters and 
legs. By doing so, you will avoid being kicked and 
can run over the parts more quickly and satisfac- 
torily. 

Before leaving the body observe if the hips are 
equally developed, and the animal evenly balanced 
in this region. Both horses and cattle are liable to 
hip injury, one of the hips being frequently knocked 
down. Make sure that both are sound and natural. 

Fore Legs and Front Feet. — Now step to the 
front again for a careful examination of the front 
legs and feet. Starting with the elbow, examine 
for capped elbow; now the knee. It should be 
wide, long, and deep, and at the same time free 
from any bony enlargements. The knees must 
stand strong, too. Is the leg straight? Do you 
observe any tendency of the knee to lean forward 
out of line, showing or indicating a " knee sprung " 
condition? Just below the knee, do you find any 
cuts or bunches or scars due to interference of the 
other foot in travel? Look here also for splints; 
follow along with the fingers to see if splints are 
present — on the inside of the leg. 

Be particular about the cannon. The front should 
be smooth — you want no bunches or scars. Just 
above the fetlock feel for wind puffs; and note if 
about the fetlock and pastern joints there are any 
indications of either ringbones, bunches, or puffs. 
Now look for side bones; if present, you will find 
them just at the top of the hoof. They may be on 
either side. Sidebones are objectionable, and are 



EXAMINING FOR SOUNDNESS AND HEALTH 



49 



the lateral cartilages changed into a bony struc- 
ture. 

Give the foot considerable attention. The old 
law of the ancients, " no feet, no horse," is cer- 
tainly true in our day. You can overlook many 

other imperfections and 
troubles in the horse, but 
if the feet are bad you do 
not have much of a horse. 
A good foot is well 
shaped, with a healthy- 
looking hoof and no in- 
dication of disease either 
now or ever before. 

See that the shape is 
agreeable. A concave wall 
is not to be desired, and 
the heels are not to be con- 
tracted. The wall should 
be perfect — no sand cracks, 
quarter crack, or softening 
of the wall at the toe of 
the foot. 

Examine for Corns. — 
These are both trouble- 
some and cause much 
ANATOMY OF THE FOOT lameuess. A healthy frog. 
The delicate nature of Uninjured by the knife or 

the foot is readily recog- ^t^„ hlprk<;mith or Other 

nized when the various ^'^^ DiaCKSmitn ur ULiici 

parts are considered in their caUSC IS VCrV much tO be 
relation to each other. -^ 

preferred. 
Hind Legs and Feet. — In examining these 
regions give the hocks of the horse special atten- 
tion. No defect is more serious than bone spavin. 
You can, as a rule, detect this by standing in front 
of the horse just a little to the side. If there is 




50 THE farmer's VETERINARIAN 

any question about the matter, step around to the 
other side and view the opposite leg. This com- 
parison will let you out of the difficulty, as it is 
very unusual that this defect should be upon both 
legs at the same point and developed to the same 
degree. 

A spavin is undesirable for the reason that it 
often produces serious lameness, which frequently 
is permanent. As it is a bone enlargement, it is 
something that cannot be remedied. If you are 
seeking good horses, better reject such as have 
any spavin defect. 

In this same region between the hock and the fet- 
lock curbs troubles are located. They appear at 
the lower part of the hock, directly behind. You 
can readily detect any enlargement if you will step 
back five or six feet. The curb, while it may not 
produce lameness, is altogether undesirable. It 
looks bad ; it shows a weakness in the hock region 
and often is caused by overwork, consequently the 
animal with curb disease is one that has not meas- 
ured up to the work demanded of him. 

Just above and to the rear of the hock the 
thorough-pin disease appears, and just in front of 
and slightly toward the inner side of the hock bog 
spavin is sometimes to be found. Lameness may 
come from either of these diseases. Small tumors, 
pufifs and other defects frequently show themselves 
on the hind legs and the best way is to reject 
animals having them. While some of these may 
be caused by accident, the most of them are the 
result of bad conformation, due to heredity, unim- 
proved blood and bad ancestors. 

EXAMINING FOR LAMENESS 

Lameness comes from many causes ; maybe from 



EXAMINING FOR SOUNDNESS AND HEALTH 5 1 

soreness, from disease or from wounds. And 
lameness is hard to detect. Frequently it seems 
to be in the shoulder, when in fact it is a puncture 
in the foot. Again it may seem to be in the fet- 
lock, but the trouble is in the shoulder or fore leg. 
You must examine for lameness both in the stable 
and out of the stable. If you find the horse stand- 
ing squarely upon three feet and resting the fourth 
foot, you should be suspicious. If you move the 
horse about and he assumes the same attitude again 
and still again, you can be certain that he is as- 
suming that position because he wants to rest 
some part of that member. 

In testing out the horse for lameness, let no ex- 
citement prevail. Under such excitement the horse 
forgets his lameness or soreness for the time being, 
and you do not note the trouble. A quiet, slow 
walk or trot on as hard a road as possible is a 
desirable sort of examination to give. 

TESTING THE WIND 

The free breathing of a horse may be interfered 
with, and for two reasons. Roaring or whistling, 
as it is called, is a serious disease of the throat, and, 
at the same time, an incurable disease. The second 
disease is known as heaves or bellows, and is also 
a most serious disease, because it is also incurable. 
By the use of drugs relief may be given tempora- 
rily, but no permanent cure follows. Unscrupulous 
dealers will resort to dosing for the time being, or 
until a sale is made. 

You should guard against this trouble, however, 
for it is one of the most serious that a horse can 
have. Upon this subject, Butler has the following 
to say : " To test the wind and look for two seri- 
ous conditions and others which may be present, 



52 THE farmer's VETERINARIAN 

the animal should be made to run at the top of his 
speed for some considerable distance — a couple 
hundred yards or more. Practically this run or 
gallop should be up hill, which will make the test 
all the better. After giving the horse this gallop, 
stop him suddenly, step closely up to him and listen 
to any unusual noise, indicating obstruction 
of the air passages, and also observe the movements 
of the flanks for any evidence of the big double 
jerky expulsion of the air from the lungs character- 
istic of heavers." 

TESTING OF THE PACES 

No examination is complete that does not make 
a test of the paces. You want to know how fast 
the horse can walk, how he trots or paces or how 
he takes some other gait. Some horses make these 
movements very gracefully; others very unman- 
nerly. A well-acting horse is one that moves 
smoothly, regularly, who picks up his feet actively 
and who places them firmly in their position re- 
gardless of the ground or gait. Some horses have 
a rolling movement of the legs. Avoid these. 
Others step on the toe or heel. These, too, should 
be avoided. They suggest some defect or bad con- 
formation. 

The testing of the paces brings all parts of the 
body into play and assists in catching other blem- 
ishes or defects that you may have overlooked in 
your previous examination. It gives you another 
opportunity to examine the wind, to observe the 
respiration, the heart beatings, the condition of the 
nostril after work; it shows you also how the 
animal takes his pace and how he stands. All of 
this will be of value as indicating the soundness 
and health of the individual under observation. 



EXAMINING FOR SOUNDNESS AND HEALTH 53 

CONSIDERING FOR A SPECIAL PURPOSE 

Now, as a last factor of your examination, con- 
sider the uses to which the animal is put. If you 
are looking for breeding animals be sure to know 
that the udder is not injured. Of what use is a cow 
with a bad udder? How often do we find a quar- 
ter of the udder destroyed or a teat cut or so badly 
mangled as to be of little use! Some udders are 
dead, heavy, fleshy; some are diseased, lumpy; and 
even though the animal is otherwise good you must 
reject her. 

If the udder is good, superior in many respects, 
and shows great milk production, you can often 
afford to overlook other defects, especially if the 
result of accident. 

In the case of horses, a disease or blemish due to 
accident may be overlooked, if the work to which 
the animal will be subjected does not interfere, 
let us say, for breeding purposes. The horse has 
good conformation, good quality, is healthy and 
very superior, but unfortunately a leg was broken, 
wjhall she be rejected as a breeder? No heavy 
work will be required of her — she is wanted for 
colt raising. Take her; of course you will pay 
less for her. This accident interferes in no way 
with her value for breeding purposes. Many cases 
of accidental injuries are similar to this example 
among cattle and horses. 

A good rule is to reject those having defects or 
blemishes that interfere with functional activity or 
the work to which you wish to put them. Then, as 
breeders, reject all with constitutional defects, as 
bad feet, narrow hocks, coarse disease-appearing 
bones, and bad conformation and scrubby character. 



CHAPTER V 



Wounds and Their Treatment 



The stockman has all sorts of wounds with which 
to deal. He may guard his animals with the care 

and caution of a mother 
and still find constant 
bother and worry to 
face in the daily man- 
agement of his stock. 
Today it may be a 
wound caused by a nail 
puncture in the foot ; to- 
morrow a cut occasioned 
by a fence; and then al- 
most immediately an- 
other, the result of a kick 
or a hook ; with patience 
nearly exhausted, now 
follow bruises of many 
sorts and unexplainable 
lacerations. 

These troubles occur 
on the best managed 
farms. There is but one 
thing to do: meet each 
case as it occurs and lend 
such assistance as you 
can that nature may re- 
pair the wrecked tissue 
at the earliest possible 
moment. 

54 




FRACTURES 

When a bone is broken into 
two or more parts it is said 
to be fractured. These may 
be straight across, up and 
down, or oblique. Ordinary 
fractures are easily treated 
by splints, but sometimes 
fractures are so serious as 
to destroy the value of the 
aaimaJ. 



WOUNDS AND THEIR TREATMENT 55 

THE KINDS OF WOUNDS 

Wounds fall into four classes : the clean-cut kind 
made by something sharp; the torn or lacerated, 
where ragged edges are left; the bruised, the re- 
sult of continued pressure or kicks or a knock; and 
the punctured, like the entrance of a nail or splinter 
or gunshot. 

The latter class is the most difficult in treating, 
for the reason of the greater penetration that may 
likely occur. In the case of gunshot, the wound 
may be on the surface, or it may extend entirely 
through the region attacked, or even penetrate 
some vital organ like the heart or the lungs or 
bowels, and either immediately or within a few 
days be the cause of death. Fortunately such 
wounds are rare. The stockman may never have 
to deal with them at all. There are punctured 
wounds that are common, however; some, indeed, 
frequently lead to death. A nail wound is the 
most serious, perhaps. It is likely that more cases 
of tetanus or lockjaw are due to nail punctures than 
to all others combined. 

After this class comes the lacerated kind. These 
heal slowly; the tissue being torn and bruised is 
repaired only through the sloughing off of the in- 
jured and now superfluous parts. As a result, even 
with the most attentive surgical help, the injured 
part develops its exposed sore, ending finally com- 
pletely healed, but permanently marked. Bruises 
may be equally bad, long delayed in healing and 
very painful. Do you remember the stone bruises 
of boyhood days? How long it required to de- 
velop! And the pain! I shall feel mine for ages 
to come. 



56 

The clean-cut wounds, if not too serious, are the 
least difficult in treating. 

FIRST STEP IN TREATING 

The flow of blood is usually associated with 
ordinary wounds ; other than with some bruised and 
punctured wounds this is always true. Frequently a 
nail puncture gives off no blood or it is not noticed. 
However, the blood is present, for, from the very 
nature of the trouble, blood rushes to the seat, this 
being nature's way of repair. Your first step, 
therefore, is to check the excessive blood flow. 

If left to itself the blood might do it. Blood has 
the trick of coagulating or clotting; and this in 
time will check the flow. But you can assist in 
forming the clot very simply by applying some 
finely ground material that the blood may be held 
on the spot. Absorbent cotton is the best material 
to use. In case this is not available, use something 
of like nature — something that is clean, not stored 
up with germs. Tea is good, as is flour also. Cold 
water acts favorably, and for the slight, ordinary 
surface wounds water is usually sufficient. A few 
drops of some antiseptic in the water, if avail- 
able, is always advisable, for the freshest water 
carries its full quota of germs, some of which 
may cause trouble. A tiny bit of alum powder 
will be found both effective and not painful. 

Cleansing the Wound. — After the flow of blood 
has been stopped, cleansing the wound is next in 
order. All dirt should be carefully removed, the 
injured flesh cleansed, the torn tissues brought to- 
gether and stitched, if need be, and antiseptics ap- 
plied. The water used in bathing the wounded 
flesh should contain an antiseptic, that the germs 



WOUNDS AND THEIR TREATMENT 



57 



present may be destroyed and no live ones admitted 
by water in cleansing the wound. Any good com- 
mercial antiseptic will do ; or the old common ones, 
like corrosive sublimate, one part in a thousand 
parts of water, or carbolic acid, a teaspoonful in a 
quart of water. Some powdered antiseptic like 

iodoform is very desir- 
able for dusting into the 
wound. 

Making the Bandage. 
— Unless the wound is 
of little consequence it 
should be covered 
and bandaged that no 
foreign elements be ad- 
mitted and that some 
pressure may be given 
to keep the broken parts 
together. To secure this 
effect absorbent cotton, 
slightly moistened with 
the antiseptic, should be 
laid on the wound, and 
firmly fastened by strips 
of clean cotton cloth. 

By winding this ban- 
dage around and about 
the wound, dressed in 
this careful way, the 
wound will be protected, germs will be kept out and 
nature, thus reinforced, will be enabled to make a 
rapid recovery. Unless the bandage is disturbed in 
some way there is no need of changing it under 
twenty-four or thirty-six hours. If, for any reason, 
the bandage is displaced, dress as before, and ban- 
dage again. 




PANDAGING A LEG 

The method of applying 
the bandage is shown here. 
The bandage may be wrapped 
directly over the hair or 
over cotton saturated with 
an antiseptic and placed over 
the wound. 



58 THE farmer's veterinarian 

Special Treatment — When a cut wound is de^p 
or large, stitching is sometimes required, that the 
broken parts may be brought together for more 
rapid healing. Nothing is better for this than a 
coarse needle and heavy thread. Before stitching, 
however, the wound should be bathed as previously 
described. The needle and thread should be soaked 
in the antiseptic, that no germs may be introduced 
by means of them. 

Now you are ready to make the stitches. Place 
the needle about an eighth to a quarter of an inch 
from the edge of the wound across to the opposite 
side. Bring the two ends together and tie, leaving 
the lips of the wound as close together as possible. 
If more than a single stitch is necessary, proceed 
in the same way, placing the second stitch about 
three-quarters of an inch from the first one; con- 
tinue as with the first stitch if more are necessary. 

In case a needle and thread are not available, pins 
may be used in the emergency. Insert the pin 
through the two edges and bring the lips together, 
making them fast by a thread or cord carried from 
one end to the other several times, alternating to 
the right and left as presented by the figure eight. 
Sometimes the wound enlarges and becomes fever- 
ish. If such becomes very severe, remove the fas- 
tenings and bathe the wound very gently, using Z 
mild antiseptic wash of tepid water in which car* 
bolic acid has been placed. 

Avoid any breaking of the healing tissue and do 
not have the washing solution too strong, else it 
may injure the delicate tissue growth. A teaspoon- 
ful of carbolic acid to a quart of water is strong 
enough. With lacerated wounds the treatment is 
very similar. If the wound goes bad and becomes 
spongy add a tablespoonful of acetate of lead and 




HEALTH AND DISEASE 

In the upper picture the pigs are treating themselves. 
Below are shown hogs which died during shipment tc 
market. 




MAKING POST MORTEM EXAMINATIONS 

The upper right hand picture shows the intestines of a 
healthy sheep. On the left nodule disease is discovered. The 
bottom picture illustrates how a carcass may be opened for 
the examination. 



WOUNDS AND THEIR TREATMENT 59 

a tablespoonful of sulphate of zinc to the antiseptic 
solution and apply twice daily. 

Nail Punctures. — These very frequently cause 
trouble. You have no way of observing the w^ound 
and your only way of judging is from the way the 
animal walks or acts, and if the hoof is unduly 
hot. Locating lameness in the stifle joint is a com- 
mon but inexcusable error, as the action resulting 
from lameness in the two parts is entirely different. 
The so-called gravel which is said to enter the sole 
of the foot and then to work out at the heel is 
usually the working out of the pus or the matter 
resulting from a nail puncture or a bruise. 

If an animal becomes suddenly and severely lame 
and there be no evidence of any injury to any other 
part of the leg, such as sw^elling, heat and pain 
upon pressure, it is always well to look for punc- 
ture in the foot. If the animal stands with the 
lame foot extended and when walking places the 
lame foot well forward and brings the well foot up 
to it, the evidence of puncture is still stronger. 

To examine the foot properly the shoe should be 
removed. It is not sufficient to merely scrape the 
bottom of the foot clean, for if the nail has pulled 
out and the horn sprung back in position, all trace 
of its entrance may have been obliterated. To ex- 
amine the foot properly, tap the hoof with a ham- 
mer or knife and the exact spot may be definitely 
located. If the injury is of a few days' standing, 
additional heat in the hoof and, perhaps, slight 
swelling of the coronet may also be present. 

In treating such wounds, pare away only such 
parts of the hoof as necessity requires and intro- 
duce a bit of cotton cloth rolled as a string by 
means of a probe of some kind. Both probe and 
cotton must be treated with the antiseptic solution. 



6ty THE farmer's veterinarian 

This solution should be a little ^^ronger than for 
flesh wounds. Make the solution by using a tea- 
spoonful of carbolic acid tu only a pint of water. 
After the cotton has been inserted a few times and 
withdrawn, each time a fresh cord being used 
and fully saturated, leave the last one in for a few 
hours and then repeat the treatment. This should 
be done three or four times each day. 

The main point in the treatment of nail punc- 
ture of the foot is to provide free exit to all matter 
that may collect and keep the parts as clean as pos- 
sible. If this be done, the matter will not be com- 
pelled to work out at the heels, and no separation 
or loss of hoof will occur. Often a very severe 
wound is made and the treatment acts slowly. 

In case proud flesh accumulates, it should be 
burned away by a hot iron. After this operation 
has been performed, the cavity should be filled with 
balsam of fir and cotton placed over it, a piece of 
heavy leather fitted to the foot and held fast by the 
replaced shoe. This will usually end the difficulty. 
A veterinarian should be called in case the wound 
is severe or goes bad as the treatment progresses. 

Treating Bruises. — In treating bruises a different 
procedure is necessary. The broken tissue is con- 
cealed — beneath the skin and usually under the sur- 
face muscles. Bathing with water and acetate of 
lead — a quart of water and two tablespoonfuls of 
the acetate — will tend to lessen the inflammation. In 
time you may have to open the swelling for the pus 
to get out. After doing so, inject some wash for 
cleansing, using one quart of water and a table- 
spoonful of chloride of zinc. 

If the swelling remains, apply twice each month 
a salve made by using one teaspoonful of biniodide 



WOUNDS AND THEIR TREATMENT €t 

of mercury and three tablespoonfuls of lard. Wash 
occasionally, using the chloride of zinc solution. 

Leg Wounds. — Cleanse the wound with a wash 
composed of one tablespoonful of acetate of lead, 
one tablespoonful of sulphate of zinc, four table- 
spoonfuls of tincture of arnica and one quart of 
water. Use this wash frequently, every hour or so, 
during the first day. After that three or four ap- 
plications will be sufficient. The sore should be 
kept lower than the skin during the healing proc- 
ess. If it tends to crowd up, apply a tiny bit — as 
much as you can place on a one-cent piece — of 
bichloride of mercury. This will assist in getting 
an even heal and the skin will grow over, leaving 
no blemish or swelling. 

Maggots in Wounds. — If the wound has been 
treated as suggested above there is no possibility of 
any trouble from maggots. These come from a 
lack of cleanliness and neglect. Of course, an 
animal often gets a wound and the owner is not 
aware of the mishap. Wounds, more or less in- 
frequently treated, those made as the result of cas- 
tration, occasionally get infected with maggots. 

When, for any cause, maggots are present, they 
must be got rid of at once. A good plan is to use 
chloroform, either by spraying or by throwing it in 
the wound in small drops from a sponge. 

The danger from maggots can usually be 
avoided if a mixture composed of one tablespoonful 
of turpentine, three tablespoonfuls of tar and two 
tablespoonfuls of lard or fish oil be smeared all 
around the border of the wound. 



CHAPTER VI 

Making a Post Mortem Examination 

Even on the best-managed stock farms some 
animals do get sick and die. Good care and good 
nursing may be given, but the sick animal fre- 
quently does not recover — death often follows very 
quickly, before you have an opportunity to observe 
the development of the disease or to secure the 
services of a veterinarian. Then, again, after a 
lingering sickness an animal dies, the disease being 
known or unknown as the case may be. 

In any event, a post-mortem examination is 
usually desirable, if for no other reason than that it 
serves to familiarize you with the organs of the 
body. With a little experience you can become 
quite proficient in examining a dead animal, and 
you can soon learn the difference between healthy 
and unhealthy organs, between diseased and 
normal tissues and the relation of the internal parts 
to the whole body. A post-mortem examination 
thus enables you to know the cause of the disease — 
where it is located or whether death is the result 
of accident or of some fatal disturbance of the 
system. 

This examination should be made as soon after 
death as possible ; the longer the delay the greater 
the changes due to decomposition of the body and 
its decay back to the original elements from which it 
has come. Soon after death the stiffening process 
takes place. This is known as rigor mortis. It 
may occur within an hour after death and again it 
may not be complete until twenty-five or thirty 



MAKING A POST MORTEM EXAMINATION 



63 



hours have passed. Soon after the death stiffening 
has occurred the tissues soften and decomposition 
rapidly follows. 

FIRST THINGS TO DO 

In making a post-mortem examination, in case 
the animal has not been moved, the position of the 




RICKETS IN PIGS 

Rickets in pigs is due, as in man and other animals, to an 
improper development of the bone, the result of insufficient 
mineral matter in the food. The bones are weak and bend 
or break. It frequently appears after the pigs are weaned. 
An abundant supply of wood ashes, charcoal, lime and salt is 
always good for hogs. 

body is to be observed. Look all about you. Is 
there any evidence of a struggle? Does either the 
body or the ground appear as if spasms have taken 
place? It may be a case of poisoning. If such be 
true, the outward appearance may be further sub- 
stantiated by the internal condition. If inflamma- 
tion and irritation of the stomach and bowels are 
observed, this evidence helps to confirm the first 
observation. - . . 



64 THE FARMER*S VETERINARIAN 

The appearance of the struggle, however, is not 
enough to establish a case of poisoning; for strug- 
gling is a death characteristic of many diseases. Of 
course, in making this preliminary examination you 
will note if death could have been the result of some 
other reason. Has some obstruction had anything 
to do with the trouble? Maybe the animal has 
been caught in some way and not being able to 
move about has starved to death, or maybe some 
over-exertion has had something to do with the 
trouble. 

Many animals choke, and, not being abk to 
relieve themselves, die. Thousands of farm 
animals, especially in the West and Southwest, die 
annually from cold, and not a few from heat. All 
these things enter into the case and must be con- 
sidered in reaching a reasonable conclusion. 

Observe the Discharges. — The next thing to do 
is to observe the discharges from nose, mouth and 
other natural openings of the body. External scars 
and wounds often bear a close relation to the dis- 
ease and these should be considered in examining 
the carcass. How do the eyes look? Is there a 
discharge from the ears? Is the swelling of the 
abdomen and the bloating more pronounced or dif- 
ferent than should be the case in ordinary death? 
Practice will indicate the lesson that each of these 
teach. 

Accidents and Injury. — Farm animals are often 
killed by stray shots from the guns of hunters and 
trespassers. A casual observation will indicate if 
death has been due to this. Again, animals may 
die from distemper or be eaten up with fice or 
troubled with itch or mange — you will note thes« 
facts as ^ou go along with youp work. 



making; a post mortem examination 65 

In the South, where Texas fever is so prevalent, 
you should look for ticks, as these bring death to 
thousands of animals each year. Look for the wee 
tiny ones — they cause the trouble. When cattle 
are fairly covered with the large ticks death does 
not ordinarily follow, since the animal has prac- 
tically become immune to the poison caused by the 
tick. These large ticks, however, are filled with 
blood and nutriment, both obtained from the animal, 
and hence they may rob the animal of blood and 
nutriment that it ought to have itself. 

After Removing the Skin. — The skin is now to be 
removed, so that the color of the tissues and the 
nature of the blood may be noted. If the blood be 
thin or black, with a disagreeable odor, you can 
expect some germ trouble like blood poisoning or 
an infectious and contagious disease. If the white 
tissues are yellow you may be reasonably certain 
that the liver has not done its work as it would 
have done had it been in a thoroughly healthy 
condition. 

In removing the skin and making other observa- 
Hons be cautious that you do not prick your fingers 
with the knife, since you may convey in this way 
disease to yourself. If by accident a cut or prick 
is made, cauterize the wound at once, so as to 
destroy any germs transmitted in this way to you. 

EXAMINING THE INTERNAL ORGANS 

The next step is to examine the internal organs. 
To do this, place the animal on its side, remove the 
upper front leg and the ribs over the chest region. 
The ribs should be removed as near as possible to 
the backbone so as to give an unobstructed open- 
ing over the important organs. This large opening 



66 THE farmer's veterinarian 

now allows you free access for examination, and 
an unimpaired view all about the vital organs, if 
these are entirely exposed. 

While making this opening, observe the watery 
fluid as it escapes. If a large quantity is present, 
dropsy or a rupture of the bladder is indicated. If 
the trouble is due to the latter, an odor in the urine 
will be quickly noted. When the fluid is red in 
color, it Indicates the presence of blood or some 




ROUND WORMS IN HOG INTESTINE 

An infestation with intestinal worms, as shown here, leads 
to unthriftiness and a loss of flesh. These worms may be 
expelled by giving turpentine in doses of one teaspoonful in 
milk for three days in succession. 

inflammation of the abdomen or the bowels. A 
large amount of watery fluid in the chest cavity is 
an indication of some lung trouble ; this is further 
indicated by the tiny attachments running between 
the lungs and the chest wall. 

Stomach and Intestines. — If the stomach and in- 
testines be abnormally red, congestion is indicated, 
and if they be quite dark, even purple in color, you 
may be sure that some kind of inflammation has 



MAKING A POST MORTEM EXAMINATION 6/ 

been the trouble. You will note also if the stomach 
is hard and compacted; and, if so, indigestion may 
have been the trouble. The intestines will also 
show if they be hard and compacted or in any 
otherwise bad condition. Pass the hands along to 
see if the intestines are knotted in any place or if 
nails are present in the stomach. It is not likely 
that the nails have been the direct cause of death, 
but this fact helps to indicate the condition of the 
digestion trap. 

Often hair balls or parasites will be found ; either 
may clog up the channel and may be the immediate 
cause of death. I have on more than one occasion 
found that the fuzz of crimson clover, accumulating 
in the intestines of horses, rolls up into a hard, 
compacted ball, and not being able to pass out, be- 
comes an obstruction in the passageway and 
ultimately causes death. 

Kidneys and Bladder. — The urine tells its tale 
also; a very disagreeable odor indicates some dis- 
turbance; and a brownish or dark-red color may 
indicate a local disease or a constitutional break- 
down. Texas fever in cattle produces a very dark 
or reddish urine, Azoturia in horses, a similar color. 
Gallstones or gravel are often found in the bladder, 
and these frequently cause serious disturbance, if 
not death. 

Lungs. — Look the lungs over carefully. See if 
the natural color is present and if the soft, spongy 
constituency responds to the same kind of touch 
as does the thoroughly healthy lung. In health 
the lungs are a very light pink color. If inflamma- 
tion has been present this will be indicated by the 
dark color and the hard density. 

When the lung is cut apart with the knife further 
observation should be made, A marble appear- 



€8 THE farmer's veterinarian 

ance indicates inflammation and hard lumps or 
tubercles indicate tuberculosis. These tubercles, 
wken cut open, show pus and a cheeselike material, 
yellow in color — a true indication of the disease. 

Other Observations. — You should feel the heart 
to know if it is natural or not, or to see if any of 
the valves are broken, or if some inflammation has 
been back of the trouble. The sides of the open 
cavity should be observed before leaving. Is it 
spotted, speckled? Are pink spots seen about the 
ribs? This is an indication of hog cholera, and in 
itself may lead to a correct interpretation of the 
disease. 



CHAPTER VII 
Common Medicines and Their Actions 

The common medicines used in treating farm 
animals are named in the following list, together 
with origin, action, use, and dose. 

ACONITE 

Tincture of aconite is derived from the root of a 
plant. When used, the heart beats more slowly 
and the blood pressure is decreased, making the 
medicine desirable in cases of inflammation. 

Dose: For horses and cattle, from lo to 30 
drops, and sh^ep and hogs 5 to 10 drops. 

ALOES 

This is usually bought in a powder form. It 16 
brown in color and bitter in taste. Considerable 
time transpires before action in the bowels takes 
place. Allow at least 24 hours. It is a physic and 
blood purifier. 

Dose : For horses, 4 to 5 tablespoonfuls ; cattle, 
4 to 8 tablespoonfuls; sheep, i to 2 tablespoonfuls; 
and pigs, i to 2 tablespoonfuls. 

ALUM 

This mineral salt is used in washes for sore 
mouth and throat, and cleansing wounds. It may 
be dusted into wounds in powder form, and is both 
drying and healing. 

Dose : Use a tablespoonful to a pint of water. 



7© THE farmer's veterinarian 

ANISEED 

This preparation is made from dried berries and 
ground. It stimulates digestion, sweetens the 
stomach, and serves as a tonic and appetite maker. 

Dose: For horses and cattle, a tablespoonful, 
and for sheep and pigs, a teaspoonful. 

ARNICA 

For wounds, sprains, and bruises, tincture of 
arnica is both cooling and restful. It is made from 
the dried flowers of a plant, and is for external use. 
Apply three or four times daily. 

ARSENIC 

This medicine comes from the mineral kingdom 
and is very powerful. In using better get it in 
some standard medicinal form such as Fowler's 
Solution. It is used as a tonic when the stomach 
is bad and the system run down. 

Dose: Fowler's Solution; for horses and cattle, 
2 tablespoonfuls ; sheep, i teaspoonful; pigs, one- 
half teaspoonful. In giving to stock mix with 4 
tablespoonfuls of whiskey, and either use as a 
drench or add to mash or gruel. 

BELLADONNA 

This is a tincture made from a plant. When 
used it soothes, softens, and relaxes the parts to 
which applied. It checks inflammation and re- 
lieves pain, but must be carefully used. 

Dose: For horses and cattle, i teaspoonful; 
sheep, 10 drops; pigs, 5 drops. 



COMMON MEDICINES AND THEIR ACTIONS yi 

BUTTER OF ANTIMONY 

This preparation, taken from a mineral, is not 
used internally. It is a powerful caustic. Its prin- 
cipal use is for curing thrush in horses' feet. 




TETANUS BACILLI 

How the germs look under the microscope. The poison pro- 
duced by them is one of the most violent known in disease. 

BROMIDE OF POTASSIUM 

This comes as a white crystal or powder, and is 
used to quiet the nerves when some trouble like 
lockjaw has set in. 

Dose: For horses and cattle, i teaspoonful; 
sheep and hogs, one-half teaspoonful. 

BINIODIDE OF MERCURY 

This bright red powder is used chiefly for blister- 
ing purposes. It is excellent when a spavin or 



72 

splint or ringbone is just beginning. In preparing, 
use one part of the mercury to nine parts of vase- 
line or lard. Remember, it is a poison, and must 
be carefully handled, as is true of some other prep- 
arations of mercury. 

CAMPHOR 

The camphor of commerce is in the form of a gum 
obtained from a tree by boiling and evaporation. 
It is used in mixtures for coughs, sore throat, and 
heaves. It is good also for colic and diarrhoea and 
assists in lessening pain. It should be given in 
water. 

Dose: For horses, 2 to 4 teaspoonfuls ; cattle, 
4 to 5 teaspoonfuls ; pigs and sheep, 2 teaspoonfuls. 

CANTHARIDES OR SPANISH FLY 

This is in the form of powder, and is an irritant. 
For use it should be thoroughly mixed with lard or 
vaseline. One teaspoonful of the cantharides to 4 
tablespoonfuls of lard or vaseline. When so pre- 
pared it is excellent as a blister. It can be applied 
for sweat thickenings or lumps on any part of the 
body that is not on the bone. It should not be 
used on curbs or tumors and is not used internally. 

CARBOLIC ACID 

This is got from coal tar and petroleum. When 
full strength and pure it is in the form of crystals, 
but is generally bought as a liquid. It is a disinfectant 
and an antiseptic, and while used internally for 
some purposes, is largely used internally in washes 
and solutions. Its principal use is in bathing 



COMMON MEDICINES AND THEIR ACTIONS 73 

wounds and sores. Care should be taken not to 
have a wash contain too much of the acid, as it 
will burn the wound and stop the healing action. 
It is a corroding poison taken internally. It should 
be just strong enough to kill bacteria; say, i part 
to i,ooo parts of water. A very good healing salve 
is made when 5 drops of pure carbolic acid is used 
to 4 tablespoonfuls of vaseline. 

CORROSIVE SUBLIMATE 

This is used externally as an antiseptic and dis- 
infectant. Dissolve I part to 100 parts of water. 
It is a preparation of mercury, is poisonous, but 
excellent for bathing wounds and open sores. 



CASTOR OIL 

This oil is pressed from castor beans. It is a 
mild physic similar to raw linseed oil. It is not 
used much for live stock. 

Dose ! For horses and cattle, i pint ; for sheep, 
one-quarter pint, and for pigs, 4 tablespoonfuls. 

CALOMEL 

This is a heavy white powder and a mineral. Its 
principal action is as a physic, and it has a cleansing 
effect on the liver. Hence it is used for all kinds 
oi liver troubles. When dusted in old sores, it is 
splendid for healing and drying up. 

Dose: For horses, one-half to i teaspoonful; 
cattle, I to 2 teaspoonfuls ; sheep and pigs, one- 
eighth teaspoonful. 

CROTON OIL 

This oil is made from seeds, and is one of the 
most powerful physics known. It should never be 



74 

used until milder physics do not respond. Use it 
as a last resort. 

Dose: For horses, 15 to 20 drops; cattle, 30 to 
40 drops ; sheep, 5 to 10 drops ; and pigs, 2 to 3 drops. 
In giving, it is best to use in connection with raw- 
linseed oil ; of the linseed oil use i pint for horses 
and cattle and one-quarter pint for sheep and pigs. 

CAUSTIC POTASH 

This chemical is most easily used when pur- 
chased in pencil-like sticks. It is never given in- 
ternally, but is used to burn warts and growths by 
wetting the stick and rubbing it over them. It is 
also used for burning poisonous wounds to kill the 
poison. It is commonly employed for dishorning 
calves. When a week or ten days old, and the 
button of the horn is just appearing, rub the potash 
over the horn. This usually insures destruction of 
the horn substance. Wet the stick of potash. See 
that drippings do not run down the animal's head. 
In order to protect the fingers, when using, wrap 
paper around the stick. 

CREOLIN 

This is the product of coal tar and comes in the 
form of a thick, dark fluid, and, like tar, is harmless. 
It is frequently used as the basis of salves for 
wounds, scratches, and like troubles. It is a very 
effective remedy for killing lice, ticks, or fleas, and 
is used as a remedy when sheep are afflicted with 
mange and scab. 

Dose : Use from 2 to 4 tablespoonfuls to a pint 
of water and shake well before using. Make up a 
small quantity at a time, as creolin thus made loses 



COMMON MEDICINES AND THEIR ACTIONS 75 

its value after exposure. For disinfecting purposes, 
I part of creolin to lOO parts of water is satisfac- 
tory. 

GENTIAN 

This is the root of a plant, dried and ground. It 
is used principally as a tonic, and is very bitter; 
commonly found in condition powders and is given 
to animals that are weak and run down. If used 
alone, give twice a day in the food and place on the 
tongue with a spoon. 

Dose: For horses and cattle, i tablespoonful ; 
for sheep, a teaspoonful ; pigs, one-half teaspoonful. 

GINGER 

This is a dried root ground fine, secured from a 
plant, and acts as a stimulant, relieving gases that 
accumulate in the stomach. It is an excellent in- 
gredient to use in colic and indigestion prepara- 
tions. If given alone, doses may be repeated every 
two or three hours. 

Dose: For horses and cattle, I tablespoonful; 
sheep, I small teaspoonful ; pigs, one-half teaspoon- 
ful. 

HYPOSULPHITE OF SODA 

This salt is frequently used in combination with 
gentian, equal parts of both, and in other recipes 
for condition powder. It cleans the blood and 
builds up the system after weakening diseases. A 
common preparation is made by using one-half of 
powdered gentian and one-half of hyposulphite of 
soda. Mix all together and give two or three times 
a day to the animal needing it. 



76 THE farmer's veterinarian 

Dose: For horses and cattle, i tablespoonf ul ; 
sheep, I teaspoonful; pigs, one-half teaspoonful. 

IODINE 

This dark brown tincture is not often trsed in- 
ternally, but is used as a sweat blister and for blis- 
tering thickened glands. In using, take a feather, 
painting the iodine on the lump until it blisters; 
when the blister appears, grease the part ; after two 
or three days have passed, wash the lump with 
warm water and soap and blister again. 

IODIDE OF POTASSIUM 

This white powder is obtained from the mineral 
kingdom. When given internally it acts as an ab- 
sorbent. It is commonly used in cases of dropsy 
of the belly. In administering, use equal parts of 
ground gentian root and give twice a day. 

Dose: For horses and cattle a teaspoonful; for 
sheep and pigs, one-half teaspoonful. 

LINSEED OIL 

This oil is obtained from flaxseed, and is excel- 
lent when a mild physic is desired. The easiest 
and most effective way of giving to animals is in 
the form of a drench. About i pint should be used 
for horses and cattle. Raw linseed oil is usually 
preferred to the boiled. 

LAUDANUM 

This is made from opium and is used both in- 
ternally and externally. It is commonly used 



COMMON MEDICINES AND THEIR ACTIONS 'J'J 

where there is pain, hence it is excellent for reliev- 
ing pain and spasms and assists also in checking 
inflammation. 

Dose : For horses and cattle, 4 to 6 teaspoonfuls ; 
sheep and pigs, 2 to 4 teaspoonfuls. 

NUX VOMICA 

This powder comes from ground seeds, and is 
used as a nerve stimulant. It is very efficacious for 
strengthening weak, debilitated animals. A com- 
mon way is to mix equal parts of gentian and pow- 
dered nux vomica thoroughly together. This may 
be given as a drench, or in the feed or placed at 
the back of the tongue with a spoon. 

Dose : For horses and cattle, i teaspoonful three 
times a day ; for sheep and pigs, one-half teaspoon- 
ful. 

NITRATE OF SILVER 

This comes in the form of white penciled sticks. 
It is excellent for burning off warts, proud flesh in 
cuts and growths on any part of the body. Just 
wet the stick and rub it on the parts. Of course, 
be careful that your fingers are protected from the 
chemical. It is a poison taken internally. 

NITRATE OF POTASH 

This is frequently called saltpeter, and comes as 
a white crystal or powder. It is used for kidney, 
lung and blood troubles. It has a very acute action 
on the kidneys, causing them to secrete an extra 
amount of urine. 

Dose: For horses and cattle, i teaspoonfui; 
sheep and pigs, one-half teaspoonful. 



7^ THE farmer's veterinarian 

SULPHATE OF COPPER 

This is commonly known as blue vitriol or blue- 
stone. It is excellent when given internally for 
checking discharges, especially those of a chronic 
catarrhal nature. It may also be used as a wash 
for wounds, when a weak solution is made, and ma}'' 
be dusted on the wound every day or two in case 
proud flesh forms. 

SULPHATE OF IRON 

Green vitriol, or copperas, as it is commonly 
known, is a splendid mineral tonic, and is com- 
monly used in combination with gentian, equal 
parts of the two. Use when the system is badly 
run down. It is also excellent as a worm powder. 

Dose : For horses and cattle, i teaspoonful three 
times a day; sheep and pigs, one-half teaspoonful. 

SUGAR OF LEAD 

This is frequently called acetate of lead. It is 
seldom used internally, but quite generally exter- 
nally for healing washes, particularly for the eye. 

SWEET SPIRITS OF NITER 

This sweet-tasting and smelling preparation is 
obtained from alcohol, and is in the form of a clear 
liquid. It acts upon the kidneys and skin and is 
commonly given in the drinking water of animals. 
It is used in combination with other medicines for 
colic and indigestion. It thus acts upon the bowels 
and stomach and relieves pain and dissipates the 
gases. In giving to animals mix in a pint of luke- 
warm water and give as a drench. 



COMMON MEDICINES AND THEIR ACTIONS 79 

Dose : For horses and cattle, 2 to 4 tablespoon- 
fuls; for sheep and pigs, i to 2 teaspoonfuls. 

SPIRITS OF TURPENTINE 

This is the ordinary turpentine known by all. It 
is excellent in cases of acute indigestion and colic, 
and is destructive to bots and the long round 
worms in horses. When used externally it is as a 
liniment. When used internally a small quantity 
is given with raw linseed oil. 

Dose: For horses and cattle, 4 tablespoonfuls; 
for sheep and pigs, i tablespoonful. 

SALTS 

The two common salts used for live stock are 
Epsom and Glauber. Epsom salts are most fre- 
quently used, the chief action being as a physic. 
Aloes take the places of salts for horses, as it is 
believed these are much better than the mineral 
salts. In giving salts to cattle, the drench is most 
satisfactory. 

Dose: Use i quart of warm water in which 
place I tablespoonful of ginger and i tablespoonful 
of common soda. To this add i pint to ly^ pints of 
salts and dissolve by shaking or stirring. For 
sheep and pigs, one-quarter of this amount is suf- 
ficient. 

SULPHUR 

This yellow powder is well known and is a great 
medicine when given internally. It acts on the 
blood and purifies it. It is excellent also for kill- 
ing parasites or germs in the skin, hence it is good 
for all diseases. When used internally it is best 
to combine with gentian root. Give once a day lor 
a short period. 



So THE farmer's VETERINARIAN 

Dose: For horses and cattle, i tablespoonful ; 
sheep and pigs, i teaspoonful. 

SOME COMMON PRESCRIPTIONS 

Colic Mixture. — Laudanum, i6 tablespoonfuls ; 
aromatic spirits of ammonia, 12 tablespoonfuls; 
sulphuric ether, 2 tablespoonfuls; tincture of aco- 
nite, 10 drops ; ginger, 16 tablespoonfuls. Dissolve 
in a pint of water. From 10 to 20 tablespoonfuls 
of this can be given in one-half pint of water. If 
relief is not secured, repeat in a half hour, follow 
with a third dose, then with another, giving the 
doses one-half to one hour apart. 

Fly Blister. — Powdered cantharides, 2 teaspoon- 
fuls; gum camphor powdered, 2 tablespoonfuls; 
lard, 8 tablespoonfuls. After thoroughly mixing, 
rub in 5 to 10 minutes, depending on the severity 
of the blister desired. 

Red Blister. — Gum camphor powdered, 2 table- 
spoonfuls; biniodide of mercury, 2 teaspoonfuls ; 
lard, 8 tablespoonfuls. This should be rubbed in 
from 5 to 10 minutes. 

Cough Mixture. — Belladonna, 2 tablespoonfuls; 
pulverized opium, 2 tablespoonfuls; gum camphor, 
pulverized, 2 teaspoonfuls; chloride of ammonia, 2 
tablespoonfuls ; sulphur, 4 tablespoonfuls. An easy 
way to give this is to mix with molasses and flour 
until a paste is secured 

Soothing Ointment — Laudanum, 8 tablespoon- 
fuls; aconite, 4 tablespoonfuls. This is excellent 
for sprains, and relieves the pain and soreness when 
applied to a part where there is much inflammation. 

Hoof Ointment. — Raw linseed oil, one-quarter 
pound; crude petroleum oil, one-quarter pound; 
neat's-foot oil, one-quarter pound; pine tar, one- 
quarter pound. Mix well and apply every night 



COMMON MEDICINES AND THEIR ACTIONS 



8i 



with a brush all over and under the hoof. A little 
in the hair above will do no harm. Clean out the 
hoof before applying. 

Physic Drench for Horses. — Aloes, 8 teaspoon- 
fuls ; common soda, i teaspoonful ; ginger, i tea- 
spoonful. Dissolve these in a pint of lukewarm 




READY FOR THE DRENCH 
A simple device for giving drenches to horses. 



water and give as a drench. The horse should be 
allowed rest the day following its use. 

Physic Drench for Cattle. — Epsom salts, i pound ; 
ginger, i tables-poonful ; common soda, i tablespoon- 
ful. Dissolve in a quart of lukewarm water and 
give as a drench. It is a splendid general physic 
for cows, and can be given at any time when they 
are thought not to be thriving as they should. 



CHAPTER VIII 

The Meaning of Disease 

Any departure from a normal condition is dis- 
ease. The body, composed of different organs and 
parts, is in a healthy state when each of these 
performs its natural functions. Thus the normal 
mind is concerned with normal mental acts; any 
disturbances of the brain or spinal cords is imme- 
diately manifested in the action of the animal", 
likewise frequently a disturbance elsewhere may- 
later have its effect on the mental system. 

Disease may result from some external cause 
like from a wound, from food causing poison or 
derangement of the digestive system, from water 
introducing impurities, from parasites that disturb 
normal functions, disorganize tissue or produce 
toxines, or from other abnormal conditions — all of 
which interfere with the normal functions of one 
or more organs, regions, or parts. 

In most cases the disturbances are readily recog- 
nized. Swellings, bruises and wounds are located 
at a glance. When blood passes from nose, ears 
or intestines, a key to the trouble is at hand. 
Coughs have their story. And vomiting, diarrhoea, 
convulsions, spasms, abnormal breathing or tem- 
perature each indicates at what points an abnormal 
condition is evident. 

Disease, Both General and Local. — Some diseases 
lead to disturbance throughout the entire body. 
For instance, pus may accumulate at some point 
from which it finds its way into the blood, in the 
end reaching to other parts of the body that in time 
also become affected. 



THE MEANING OF DISEASE 83 

Those diseases, with which fever is associated, are 
general in nature. The nerve centers are influenced, 
the body heat is increased and a weakened condi- 
tion prevails. Back of this are the disease poisons 
— chemical poisons or germ poisons. 

When the temperature of the body, as a result 
of fever, rises too high certain life principles are 
changed and death immediately follows. A tem- 
perature of 106° or 107° is very high, and, there- 
fore, very dangerous. In treating disease the tem- 
perature is watched, that the course of the fever 
may be followed. Treating a fever, then, is helpful 
and a natural part of the treatment of the disease 
itself. The basis of the curative process rests upon 
the principle of proper circulation and the excre- 
tion of the impure substances. 

CAUSES OF DISEASE 

In the first place most diseases arise from mis- 
management. The very principles at the bottom 
of good health receive no consideration and little 
thought. On some farms it is seldom that a case 
of disease is heard of; on others, stock are under 
treatment at all times. Where order prevails, 
where cleanliness is appreciated, where disease- 
producing conditions are never allowed to accum- 
ulate or even gain an introduction, health is the 
rule and disease the exception. When the latter 
appears, it is due to some outside influence that 
gave it admission. 

The greatest mischief in handling farm stock 
comes from improper food, filthy or impure drink- 
ing water, bad ventilation of stables, overwork, or 
lack of exercise and poor sanitary conditions. 

Disease, therefore, is largely due to causes within 
control of the owner of the farm stock. True, one 



§4 THE farmer's veterinarian 

source of trouble is due to mechanical causes: 
horses get nail punctures, legs and necks and head 
are cut in fences, blows bring bruises. But whose 
fault? Certainly not the animal. Old boards with 
nails ought not to be left in all sorts of places, 
fences should be protected, and stable fixtures, 
gates and harnesses should be in such order that 
only in rare cases will injury result. 

Disease from Chemical Causes. — Poisonous ma- 
terials and poisonous plants cause death to thou- 
sands of animals annually. Of great importance to 
the stock interests is the rapid destruction of these 
harmful products. Fortunately in the older sec- 
tions these are about eliminated now, and we are 
also understanding more about the molds that lead 
to bad results when moldy forage is given as feed 
to farm animals. In time disease will be consider- 
ably lessened when only clean, wholesome food 
finds its way into the mangers and feed racks — 
then disease will depart and more rapid gains will 
come. 

Heredity Plays a Part. — Despite caution and 
care, health is often disturbed because of hereditary 
influences. Thanks to science, we know now that 
many of the old bugbears of the past, and once so 
entrenched, have become dislodged, and their true 
import set right before the owner. Tuberculosis, 
for instance, once so dreaded in both man and 
beast, is now known not to be handed down from 
parent to progeny; it is a germ disease, pure and 
simple, and gets its start just as many other ail- 
ments — through breath, or drink, or feed. There 
are hereditary troubles, however, that continue 
down through many generations. The narrow hock 
of the horse invites curb diseases; the narrow 
chest is a good breeding ground for tuberculosis 



THE MEANING OF DISEASE 8$ 

germs ; straight pasterns are bad for the feet ; poor 
conformation is not consistent with efficiency or 
easy functional activity. 

These examples clearly show that form and type 
and physical characteristics have roles to play in 
animal economy and in health to which the wise 
stockman will give heed. 

Germs and Parasites. — In addition to the above 
causes of disease, another class is before us ready 

y s 




K 



BACTERIA AS SEEN UNDER THE MICROSCOPE 

a, Spirillum, h, Micrococcus, c, Micrococcus, d, Strep- 
tococcus, e, f, g, h, Rod-shaped baoteria. i and /, Divisions. 



to inflict its injury at all times. Indeed, it is 
a class of the greatest importance. I refer now 
to parasites, bacteria, and germs, which cause more 
loss to live stock than all others combined. Think 
of hog cholera, a germ disease ; of tuberculosis, a 
germ disease ; of stomach worms, parasites ; of stag- 
gers, a mold disease ; of abortion, a germ disease ; 
and hundreds of like nature, all due to parasites 
and germs, disease agents that disturb and destroy 



86 THE farmer's veterinarian 

the delicate organs or exposed regions, as the case 
may be, regardless of age, value, or breed. 

Of course, remedies and treatment are being 
worked out to meet these individual diseases as 
they occur. Nevertheless, the best treatment is 
prevention. It is far better to prevent than to 
cure; and that is the line of action especially for 
this class. Indeed, it is far easier to understand 
the simple laws of prevention than the complicated 
curative processes. Especially is this triie since 
germs are known and isolated, and their rapid de- 
struction with air, sunlight, and disinfectants 
understood and available. 

ORIGIN OF DISEASE 

Enough has now been said to indicate that dis- 
ease originates as a reaction between the cause of 
it and the body. Withhold food, and starvation — 
the disease — follows. Withhold fresh air and oxy- 
gen, and the tissue breaks down ; disease results as 
a reaction from the normal use of air and the de- 
mands of the body for oxygen. Allow bacteria 
admission to the body and settlement in the 
tissues or organs most agreeable to each particular 
one, and these will grow, multiply, and, unless 
overcome by the natural resistance of the body, 
will conquer and destroy, causing sooner or later 
death and decay. 

Immunity Sought by Inoculation. — Many dis- 
eases that now yield to no curative treatment are 
being met by inoculation. By this method the body 
is reinforced by serum Injections, that disease germs 
and infections may be warded ofiF, or in case of at- 
tack, be so fortified against the disease germs as to 
destroy them or render them inactive. 



THE MEANING OF DISEASE 8^ 

Some Animals More Resistant to Disease. — An 

infectious and contagious disease may affect a herd 
or flock, destroying few or many. Som.e may never 
be affected and yet be subjected to exposure and 
contagion; such are immune and resist this par- 
ticular disease. Others may suffer a mild attack, 
but throw it oft' with no disastrous consequence; 
such are strong and their organs ably fortified 
against any injurious inroad by the disease. On 
the other hand the majority in a flock or herd is not 
so able to throw off the disease for the reason of 
being predisposed by nature to such attacks ; their 
very susceptibility invites attack, and if the infec- 
tion is intensely virulent the affected body will 
most likel}^ yield and death follow. 

THE COURSE OF DISEASE 

Each disease possesses its own peculiar char- 
acteristics, which are more or less conspicuous in 
each individual case. Then, too, some diseases de- 
velop quickly and end quickly. Others run a course 
of several weeks; and still others several months 
or even years. The first class is acute, the second 
chronic. In both kinds nature is at work endeav- 
oring always to effect a cure ; and, unless other 
complications arise, the result of improper food, bad 
sanitary quarters, bad air, or conditions not con- 
ducive to health, recovery will, in most cases, result. 
The great drawback to rapid recovery comes from 
the outside influences that counteract the curative 
processes of the body itself. Good nursing, good 
air, proper food, are back of rapid recovery. 

Most diseases have been carefully studied, and 
their course of development has been mapped out. 
Our veterinarians know, in a general way, how fever 



88 

acts in live stock. If an animal is inoculated with 
Texas fever germs, the veterinarian knows the 
course of the disease beforehand. In a general way, 
he knows when the fever will begin, how long it 
will last, when it will be at its highest point, and 
when it will disappear. He knows all of this, even 
before he makes the inoculation. Yet no disease 
invariably runs the same course in different in- 
dividuals. In fact, the virulence of bacteria have 
much to do with the course; mild cases occur 
usually when the germ is weak, and severe cases 
when the germs are very virulent. This explains 
why some attacks of measles or Texas fever or hog 
cholera are more fatal than other attacks in other 
places, or at other seasons of the year. 

Typical Courses the Rule. — It is in rare cases 
only that a regular course is not followed by most 
diseases. Take an infectious disease. The period 
of incubation comes first; this follows up the in- 
fection. During this period, no change in the 
animal is observed. He seems well, acts well, and 
does his work well. Nevertheless, all the time, 
during this period of infection, the germs are de- 
veloping, multiplying, gaining headway, and so 
entrenching themselves that illness and disorder 
will soon follow. The period of infection varies 
in different animals and in different diseases. It 
may take two or three weeks for development, or 
as few as two or three days. 

Following the period of infection comes the 
period of eruption. At this stage the typical char- 
acteristics are observed. At the next step the dis- 
ease reaches its height with the animal under its 
complete dominion. But only temporarily. If 
properly nursed and treated, with most diseases, 
the animal will pass through the period and recover. 



THE MEANING OF DISEASE 89 

The final stage is the period of improvement. 
The battle that has been waged between the body 
and the disease is now about ended. The disease 
germs have been routed and the body has been 
victorious. All that now remains is the clearing 
away of the debris. In this case it is scattered 
throughout the body system. The damage that has 
been done is to be repaired and left, if possible, as 
near to the original condition, as the nature of the 
disease will allow. The period of improvement will 
vary in different diseases and in different animals. 
Recovery may occur in a few days, in some cases, 
and in others weeks and months will be required. 
A change of feed or pasture or work is usually 
necessary if the most rapid recovery would be had. 
In some cases, nothing other than absolute rest will 
suffice. 

THE TERMINATION OF DISEASES 

After the disease has run its course, the body 
usually returns to its former normal condition. 
There seems to be a limit to what the disease can 
do. A healthy body may be attacked, but, in the 
end, disease retires, having used itself up. There 
are diseases, however, that leave their marks in 
many ways. And these become permanent marks. 
With many of these all of us are acquainted. 
Smallpox is one. The pits over the face record the 
fierce battle that was fought. The same is true 
of wasted tissues, with scars that conspicuously 
mark the track along which blood poison has trav- 
eled. The shrunken hoof of the foundered horse 
tells the adverse termination of that disease. 

While recovery may be more or less complete, 
the effect is to seriously injure the worth and value 
of the individual. There is a long list of this kind. 



90 



THE FARMER S VETERINARIAN 



Other diseases act differently in another way. 
They progress slowly, are not noticeable at first, 
but in the end are incurable. Take glanders as a 





RESULT OF BONE SPAVIN 

Pictured here is a natural hock free from disease and a 
diseased hock, the result of bone spavin. The bone is seriously 
affected and the easy action prevented. 



typical case. It quietly and silently develops, often 
taking months or years in reaching the stage of 
eruption or before it becomes apparent. During 
all this time, and even after the disease is recog- 



THE MEANING OF DISEASE pt 

nizable, the animal goes on about his duties with 
no apparent trouble. The disease, however, is 
progressing all the time ; in the end it conquers its 
victim, the final stages are reached, and the animal 
dies. 

The stock raiser is concerned with different dis^ 
eases in so far as they mean slow or rapid recovery, 
and particularly if they be contagious or not. His 
entire herd will be impaired if glanders is intro- 
duced into it. One tuberculosis cow will convey 
the disease to all susceptible individuals in the herd 
to which she belongs, especially if stabled in a tight 
barn during the winter seasons when little or no 
ventilation is intentionally provided. 



CHAPTER IX 

Diagnosis and Treatment of Disease 

Some diseases are not difficult to diagnose. Those 
resulting from wounds or knocks are easily located, 
and their treatment readily outlined. Others, how- 
ever, are not so easy. Something is observed as 
wrong, the animal acts strangely, does not take to 
its food, is fretful, stands or walks unnatural — what 
is the matter? The stockman must ascertain the 
trouble, and the quicker the better. 

A review of the past few days is desirable. Where 
has the animal been? What kind of food has it 
had? With what strange fellows has it associated? 
Has it been put to excessive w^ork or exposed to 
unusual weather or conditions? What infectious 
diseases are prevalent in the community? These 
and other questions will occur; in some instances 
the answer will be at hand. 

MAKE A PHYSICAL EXAMINATION 

The stockman should at least know the funda- 
mental principles of health and of any departure 
from them that indicate disease. Hence a super- 
ficial examination of the animal, as a whole, is in 
line of diagnosing the disease. Note the general 
condition of the body. The thermometer will ad- 
vise you rightly. Is there pain? If possible 
determine this point and locate the seat of it. Is 
the circulation natural? An examination of the 
pulse will tell you if the blood is racing rapidly or 
gliding slowly, and whether regular or rough. Is 

92 



DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF DISEASE 93 

the respiration as it should be? Count the num- 
ber a minute that you may know if the number 
is more or less, or is as it should be. On listening 
to the lungs, heart, and blood vessels, certain 
sounds are heard which change with disease — 
normal and heart murmurs. Whether or not an 
organ contains air can be determined by percus- 
sion, since solid organs, the lungs, for instance, in 
pneumonia, give a different sound from those con- 
taining air as they are normally. Air-containing 
organs — lungs and intestines — may thus be dis- 
tinguished from the solid ones adjoining them. In 
this way their varying size in health and disease 
may be determined. 

Your examination should go further and include 
the natural discharges — the dung, the urine, the 
nose moisture and the " look of the eye." In cases 
of fever the urine is scanty and deeply colored. In 
Texas fever, for instance, the urine is dark red. 
In azoturia in horses, it varies from a light color 
to a deep brown or black. The nature of the dung 
should be observed, if watery or dry, soft or hard, 
scanty or profuse. 

Taking the Pulse.— Stand at the left side of the 
horse and run the finger along the lower jaw until 
you come to the point where the artery crosses the 
jaw on its lower edge. This will be found about two 
inches forward from its angle. Right here is the large 
muscle and at the front edge the pulsations may be 
caught. To get the pulse of the cow, stand at the 
left side, reach over the neck and take it from the 
right jaw. 

In the horse the normal pulse beats are from 
35 to 40 per minute and may go to 100 in disease. 
In the cow the pulsations run from 45 to 50 in 
health. The pulse relates its story very accurately 



94 ^HE farmer's veterinarian 

and, with practice, can be constantly used in diag- 
nosing the nature of the ailment. For instance, a 
soft pulse, one that is easily compressed by the 
finger, indicates bronchitis. A hard pulse, one not 
easily depressed by the finger, indicates acute in- 
flammation. A hard pulse may be quick and bound- 
ing and forceful. An irregular pulse, one that beats 
fast for a time, then slowly, indicates a weakened 




feeling the pulse 

The heart beat, as it is called, may be felt by placing the 
finger over any of the superficial arteries. The submaxillary 
artery as it passes under the edge of the lower jaw close to 
the bone is a convenient vessel for the purpose. 

heart condition. A slow, full pulse, one that comes 
up gradually to the finger touch, indicates some 
brain trouble. 

Taking the Temperature. — While the heat of the 
body may be surmised by touch and feeling this is 
not a reliable guide as to the temperature. A self- 
registering thermometer, inserted into the rectum, 
is the only reliable means for getting this desirable 
information. In a state of health the temperature 
of the horse ranges from ioo° to 102.5°. 



DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF DISEASE 95 

Wh'en the temperature rises, inflammation is in- 
dicated. A fall in temperature below norm.al 
denotes loss of strength, vitality, and death. If the 
temperature rises three or four degrees above 
normal, the case is serious, and a rise of five or six 
is very dangerous. Animals seldom survive when 
the rise reaches above 107° or 108°. 

A good clinical thermometer should be in the 
possession of every stockman. It costs but little, 
and its aid in recognizing and treating disease is 
helpful, if not absolutely indispensable. 

Taking the Respiration. — In breathing two 
movements are observed — taking in and sending 
out the air. In health the respiration is usually 
constant, ranging from 10 to 14 in the horses, and 
from 15 to 20 in cattle. Breathing is faster in 
young animals; and exercise increases the number 
of respirations per minute. 

Any disease of the respiratory organs will cause 
the breathing to be short and rapid and labored. 
If the number of respirations seem more than 
normal, some disturbance is indicated. If the pulse 
is faster at the same time, illness is at once in- 
dicated, and the trouble should be sought at once. 

THE TREATMENT OF DISEASE 

The first effort in treating disease is to remove 
the cause. This is sometimes done very easily. 
Mange and lice are quickly destroyed by washes 
and disinfectants. 

Bright, fresh, wholesome food and pure water 
easily replace bad food and water to the permanent 
good of the stock. Cattle ticks quickly disappear 
when the grease brush is applied. And so in every 
direction you take to fight the disease: find the 



96 

cause and then remove it, and half the battle is 
fought. 

If disease-producing germs cannot be killed at 
the moment, it is still possible to diminish their 
number or to modify their virulence. Thus to open 
an abscess is to remove the pus-producing bacteria, 
and hence to hasten recovery. To wash a woimd 
or open sore with antiseptics is the simplest way 
to remove, diminish, and destroy the evil ol the 
sore. 

Helping the Body Fight. — When disease sets in 
^^^ a battle begins. One 

•:.':S^^'^v/^%?r combatant is the disease 

^^^^^h itself, the other the body. 
Your work is to render 
assistance to the body. 
C' W^^M^iM-^^iv b In many cases your help 

will not be needed. In 

HOW HEAT AFFECTS Others you can render 

GROWTH incalculable aid. Here is 

At the end of 24 hours in ^here medical aid begins 

a but seven bacteria have and ends : to care for and 

developed, the temperature 

being 50 degrees. In h 700 nursc and make the body 

have developed in the same . ,i ^ •, i 

time, but in a temperature Strong that it may be VlC- 

of 70 degrees. torious, quickly, if pos- 

sible, but without fail, in the end. Medicines are help- 
ful if they diminish the work of the diseased organ, 
giving in this way time for the body cells to bring 
about a cure. Therefore rest and quietness are 
advisable, that no organ may be called upon for any 
effort but normal function and repair. A disease of 
the heart calls for absolute rest, of the intestines 
for little or no irritating or bulky or hard food, of 
the lungs for no exposure. At times it is advisable 
to check the activity of an organ. In which case a 




DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF DISEASE 97 

drug may be given, like opium, to quiet the intes- 
tines, or like aconite, to diminish the rate of the 
blood flow. 

In the same way external assistance may be ren- 
dered; as, for example, sweating — to throw off 
poison in the tissue juices; and blanketing — to 
maintain an even temperature and to protect from 
chill and draught. 

ADMINISTRATION OF MEDICINES 

Medicines are conveyed into the body as 
drenches, balls, enemas, and injections under the 
skin or into the veins. There is nothing mysterious 
about any of them. 

Giving Medicines in a Ball. — The practice of giv- 
ing medicines in a ball is a very old one, and has 
much to recommend it. ]\Iany nauseous agents 
as aloes, opium, arsenic, asafetida, are thus con- 
veyed to the stomach without causing annoyance 
and disgust to the patient. The balls are wrapped 
in paper, dough, or gelatin capsules, and may 
weigh an ounce or two. In giving a ball the fol- 
lowing plan is usually followed: Hold the ball 
between the thumb and first two fingers. Now 
seize the tongue at about its middle and gently 
draw it out to the side of the mouth, in such a way 
that the right hand may be inserted into the mouth 
and the ball placed far back on the tongue, when 
the hand is withdrawn, the tongue replaced and the 
halter or strap wrapped around the jaws until the 
ball is swallowed. 

Giving Medicines in a Drench. — The drench is 
usually employed for liquid medicines. It is best 
to dilute the medicines with water, milk, or oil that 
they may more readily reach the stomach and 



98 THE farmer's veterinarian 

at the same time exercise no injury to the struc- 
tures through which they pass. 

In giving a drench exercise as much patience as 
possible. To horses it should be given slowly. If 
there is any disposition to cough, lower the head, 
and then proceed as before. 

Poultices. — These are made of a variety of things, 
bread, bran, and linseed meal being the most com- 
mon. Any substance that will hold water and re- 
tain heat will serve the purpose. 

Mustard Plasters. — These are made with mus- 
tard and water, cold water being the most desir- 
able. Mix to a thin paste. If the part to which 
the plaster is to be applied is covered with thick, 
long hair, a very thin plaster will more quickly 
soak into the skin. This kind of plaster is most 
commonly applied to the throat, the windpipe, the 
sides of the chest, the abdomen and over the region 
of the liver. To get the best effect for the last 
named, apply on the right side at a point four or 
five inches behind the back ribs. 

Blistering. — The first step in blistering is the 
clipping of the hair over the diseased part, and the 
removal of dirt and scurf attached to the skin. The 
blister is to be worked into the skin, and usually 
ten minutes of rubbing will be necessary to produce 
the desired results. 

In the course of twenty-four hours blisters will 
form, and some swelling in the region is likely to 
be manifest. On the third day bathe the part with 
warm water and soap. After drying, apply vase- 
line, lard, or sweet oil. The blister should be re- 
peated if the results of the first blister do not bring 
about a cure. 

Firing. — The hot iron is a very useful agent in 
treating many cases of chronic lameness and bone 



DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF DISEASE 99 

diseases. In performing such an operation have 
the iron at a full red and white heat and touch the 
part gently with just sufficient pressure to make a 
distinct impression. But one leg should be fired at 
a time. 

It is desirable to shave the hair closely to the 
skin before applying the iron. The day following 
the firing spread over the wound any common 
wound oil like neat's-foot oil or vaseline. Daily 
applications are called for until the swelling sub- 
sides. Unless a period of rest is given after the 
operation, the best results will not be had. Many 
bone diseases return, or are never cured, because 
complete recovery never occurred in the first place. 
Work and exertion only aggravate the cases, often 
leaving them in a worse condition than before the 
firing. 

CARING FOR SICK ANIMALS 

In the first place keep them clean. If necessary 
wash them daily, especially the parts liable to get 
filthy and dirty. In fever cases a gentle spong- 
ing, every few hours during the day, is desirable. 
Vinegar added to tepid w^ater is very good. 

Animals in feverish or chilly condition can be 
assisted by blankets and bandages. These are very 
Helpful in warding off congestion of the internal 
organs and in maintaining an even temperature of 
the body. Any warm rug or blanket that is clean 
and light will serve. 

In bandaging the legs, endeavor to get an equal 
pressure at all points. A long roll is, therefore, 
best, and several layers should be wrapped around 
the member. It is a good plan to remove the 
bandage, replacing with another at least once a 



100 THE farmer's VETERINARIAN 

day, and two a day are better. When a bandage 
is removed, the skin should be washed and rubbed 
with the hand and fingers, and the covering re- 
placed as promptly as possible. 

Food and Drink. — During sickness only easily 
digestible food should be provided. Offer some- 
thing different from the ordinary, and let it be 
prepared in an appetizing form. Nothing is better 
than gruels and mashes. These are soft, nourish- 
ing, appetizing, and easily digested. When active 
nutrition is demanded, milk and eggs can be added 
to the ordinary gruels or mashes. 

Water should be available at all times. Small 
amounts at frequent intervals are better than large 
amounts at intervals far apart. In a few instances 
only is it best to withhold the water. In treating 
dysentery, diarrhoea and diabetes water is usually 
withheld, but in most diseases a free use is allow- 
able and desirable. 



CHAPTER X 

Diseases of Farm Animals 

ABORTION.— The expulsion of the fetus at a 
period too young to live exterior of its mother is 
known as abortion. This ailment may afflict cows, 
mares, sows, and ewes, but is most common among 
cows. 

Abortion may be divided into two classes, 
namely, accidental and contagious. If we had 
nothing but the accidental form of abortion to con- 
tend with we would hear very little about this dis- 
ease, owing to the fact that it is perfectly natural 
for animals to carry their young full time, regard- 
less of how much they may be punished or abused 
while in this condition if their system be free from 
the germs of contagious abortion. On the other 
hand, contagious abortion is a very destructive dis- 
ease, causing heavy losses to the stockmen of the 
United States as well as to other countries. Con- 
tagious abortion is divided into two classes, namely, 
acute and chronic. Cows afflicted with the acute 
form of abortion may lose from one to three calves. 
Cows, after passing from the acute to the chronic 
form of abortion, may carry their calves full time, 
but are as badly affected with the germs of con- 
tagious abortion as they were in the acute form, 
when they were losing their calves. 

Perhaps the greatest damage brought about with 
cattle afflicted with the chronic form of abortion is 
the shortage of milk. Animals afflicted with acci- 
dental abortion show very few marked symptoms 
before they abort. Animals afflicted with contagious 



102 



THE FARMER'S VETERINARIAN 




DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS IO3 

abortion have a number of marked symptoms, 
namely, little red patches of infection on the lining 
of the vulva, and there may also be present a 
catarrhal discharge. The sheath of the herd bull 
in the acute form of the disease has a catarrhal dis- 
charge, while the symptoms of calves is a swelling 
of the glands of the throat from ear to ear. These 
last named symptoms do not appear in accidental 
abortion. 

Owing to the fact that the germs of contagious 
abortion are found in the mothers' blood, in the 
genital organs of the cow and the bull, and in the 
stables wherein they are housed, it has been posi- 
tively decided that the only reliable and efTectua. 
treatment for contagious abortion is the hypodermic 
treatment, which destroys the germ in the mother's 
blood. The genital organs of the cow and buf 
should be washed out with the antiseptic solution 
made of i pint of corrosive sublimate to 1,000 parti 
of water, and the germs contained in the stables 
wherein afflicted animals are housed should be de- 
stroyed by disinfectants. In this way the disease 
is met at every turn, and it is impossible for the 
disease of contagious abortion to exist when thus 
handled. 

ABSCESS. — A collection of pus in a new-formed 
cavity in the body. It has a well-defined wall sur- 
rounding it. An abscess is the result of entrance 
of micro-organisms into the body. They may have 
entered through wounds or into the hair follicles, 
or abscesses may result from infectious diseases, 
as strangles or distemper in the horse. At the seat 
of the abscess formation swelling occurs, the part 
feels warmer than the surrounding tissue, is pain- 
ful to touch, and hard. These conditions are due 
to the inflammation of the part. Later it becom^$ 



104 THE FARMER S VETERINARIAN 

soft, less sensitive, and fluctuates, wrhich shows that 
it is coming to a head, or that the pus is collecting. 
If the skin is white it will show a yellow color in the 
center, which is usually raised above the surface, 
and the hair falls out. This soon breaks and dis- 
charges pus. 

It is advisable to hasten the ripening of the 
abscess by hot applications in form of poultices, 
or a large pack of cotton saturated with hot bi- 
chloride of mercury i part to i,ooo parts of water, 
or use some one of the coal tar dips i part to 50 
parts of water. The application of a light blister 
will often hasten ripening. When the pus has col- 
lected or the abscess has come to a head, it should 
be opened at the lowest part in order to give free 
drainage to the pus contained within. 

Great care should be used in opening abscesses — 
not to cut blood vessels which might be in tTie 
vicinity. In case the abscess breaks of its own 
accord, it is often necessary to enlarge the opening, 
in order to give free drainage for the pus. If the 
abscess is large or deep-seated it should be washed 
out each day with bichloride of mercury i part to 
water 1,000 parts, or with a 2 per cent solution of 
some one of the coal tar dips. After it is opened do 
not apply bandages, as they prevent the free escape 
of pus. Do not allow the opening to close until it 
heals from the bottom ; or, in other words, as long 
as it secretes pus, for there is danger of its breaking 
out again. If the opening is too high up, or not 
large enough, it may result in a running sore or 
fistula. 

ACTINOMYCOSIS.— Called lumpy jaw, because 
of the frequency of the swelling located on the jaw. 
It is due to the entrance of a specific organism, ^ 



^ ^ DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS I05 

fungus, into the tissues. This causes an inflamma- 
tion, with an increase in the amount of tissue, as 
shown by the enlargement and in which an abscess 
is formed. Adult cattle are the only animals com- 
monly affected with this disease, but occasionally 
nearly all classes of domestic animals may be af- 
fected. A number of cases have also been reported 
in man, but the disease in cattJe, being localized to 




LUMPY JAW 
An exterior view showing location of lumpy Jaw. 

a smaH region of body, usually the head, there is 
little danger of transmission from animal to man 
in eating beef. 

The symptoms are recognized by the character- 
istic tumor, usually observed on the jaw, either of 
the bone or of the soft tissues in that vicinity. It 
may, however, affect the tongue, or, in fact, nearly 
any of the organs of the body. Its development is 
more or less of a slow, constant growth, beginning 
with a very small nodule, but, when allowed to run 



I06 THE farmer's VETERINARIAN 

its course, may reach the size of a cocoanut, or 
larger. On reaching some size, it usually ruptures 
and from it discharges a thick, yellowish pus. It is 
to be distinguished very largely by its commonly 
affecting cattle, its location, its slow growth and its 
firm, hard consistency, and finally a discharge of pus 
from it. 

Treatment consists, if of small size in the soft 
tissues, of complete excision by the knife. But, if 
of larger size, or when the bone or large blood ves- 
sels are involved, recourse should be had to the 
internal administration of iodide of potash from one 
to two teaspoonfuls in a drench of a quart of water, 
or, in some instances, it may be given in the drink- 
ing water once daily. This should be continued for 
a week or ten days, when the treatment should be 
discontinued for a like time, and, if necessary, re- 
peated several times. 

AFTERBIRTH, RETENTION OF.— This is a 
condition resulting from the failure of the mother to 
pass the membranes after the birth of her young. It 
happens most frequently in cases of abortion, or 
when birth occurs before time. There is usually more 
or less of a mass of the membranes hanging from 
the opening, which occasionally reaches to below the 
hock, or even to the ground. When fresh it looks 
somewhat like the intestines, but if exposed to the 
air for some time it is grayish in color, especially 
when it begins to decompose. The odor is very 
offensive, and the discharge soils all the hind parts 
of the animal. In these cases the health of the 
animal suffers, and fever frequently results, with a 
loss of appetite and flow of milk. The fever and 
inflammation of the parts may go so far as to cause 
the death of the animal. 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 10^ 

The afterbirth should never be allowed to remain 
over three days in the cow, nor over twenty-four 
hours in the mare. In the mare, sow, or bitch 
gently pulling on the membranes, at the same time 
twisting them easily, will often bring them out 
without injury to the animal. With the cow it is 
different. Here the membranes are " buttoned " 
on in tufts, and the pulling, and especially the 
twisting, usually makes matters worse and injures 
the uterus. 

After removing the membranes there always re- 
mains in the uterus a quantity of fluid, which should 
be washed out with water a little cooler than the 
blood of the animal, adding about a teaspoonful of 
carbolic acid or other good antiseptic to each gallon 
of water and mixing well. The hands and arms of the 
operator should be absolutely clean, and during the 
operation should be kept covered with carbolized 
oil or carbolized soap and water. In mares, es- 
pecially, care should be taken not to injure the 
parts, as inflammation sets in very much quicker 
than in the cow. Several gallons of the above 
solution should be injected as soon as the condition 
is noticed, and a warm bran mash fed to the animal 
occasionally will help her general health. 

ANEMIA. — A deficiency of red blood corpuscles. 
The animal is scanty of flesh, hide bound and in a 
general run-down and debilitated condition. The 
disease is sometimes called hollow horn. Treat- 
ment consists of better food and care. The feed 
should be of a nature such as will enrich the blood 
and build up the system. Food of a succulent nature, 
like roots, green grass, or ensilage, will help out. 
A tonic, made as follows, will be helpful : Two 
teaspoonfuls of sulphate of iron, i teaspoonful of 
powdered nux vomica, and 4 tablespoonfuls of 



I08 THE farmer's VETERINARIAN 

ground gentian root. Add this to the food each day 
for a week or ten days. 

ANTHRAX, OR CHARBON.— An acute, infec- 
tious disease of plant-eating animals, which, under 
favorable conditions, attacks flesh-eating animals as 
well. It is caused by a microbe which enters the cir- 
culating blood and by multiplication therein causes 
its rapid destruction, and the death of the animal. 
The disease is as old as human history. It exists in all 
countries and in all latitudes. It was formerlv very 
destructive to human life, as well as to animals. 
There is no disease which attacks more different 
kinds of animals than anthrax, nor one which is 
more deadly. Also, there is no disease which is 
harder to deal with from the sanitary point of view ; 
nor harder to stamp out. The reasons for this 
will be shown later on. 

Soil is the prime factor in preserving and prop- 
agating the microbe, when it is naturally wet, 
impermeable, and rich in decomposing animal and 
vegetable matter. The microbe of anthrax may 
enter the body by several channels. It may be 
taken in with the food or drink. It may be 
breathed into the lungs. It may enter through 
abraded surfaces on the skin. It may be inoculated 
into the body by biting insects. 

There are several forms of the disease and these 
are determined by the modes of entrance of the 
virus. One form, which occurs especially in sheep 
and cattle, at the commencement of an outbreak, 
and which is characterized by the suddenness of its 
onset and its high degree of fatality, is known as 
the apoplectic, or fulminant form. Without show- 
ing any previous symptoms, an animal will sud- 
denly be seized with loss of appetite, trembling, 
uneasiness, irregularity of movements, difficult 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS IO9 

breathing, blueness of the nostrils, bellowing, con- 
vulsions and hemorrhages from the natural open- 
ings. Death may occur in a few minutes or in four 
or five hours. 

Another type is known as anthrax fever, or internal 
anthrax. Here we have distinct symptoms, the most 
important being high fever of from three to four 
degrees, excitability and restlessness. Blood may 
ooze in drops from the nose, eyes, or ears, and from 
inside of the forearm or thigh, in sheep. There 
will be trembling, prostration, numbness of the 
loins, thirst, grindinof of the teeth, colicky pains, 
bloating, bloody discharges, palpitation of the 
heart, difficult breathing, blueness of the visible 
mucous membranes, jerking of the muscles of 
the back and neck, and rolling of the eyes. The 
animal will die in comatose state, or in convulsions, 
and death will occur in sheep in about a day. 
Cattle will live from two to five days, and horses 
from one to six days. 

A third form is external anthrax, which mani- 
fests itself in swelling of the tongue, throat, rec- 
tum, and skin in cattle; and of the tongue, 
throat, neck, shoulders, withers, flank, or thigh in 
horses. These swellings have a firm, doughy feel- 
ing, are not painful generally, and show a marked 
tendency to gangrene. They never suppurate. If 
cut (this should never be done), they discharge a 
pale, straw-colored liquid. In this may be found 
the microbe. 

The rapidity with which putrefaction occurs in 
an anthrax carcass is very marked. Another char- 
acteristic is, the blood loses its property of clotting, 
is dark and tarry, and does not become light in 
color by contact with air, like normal blood. In 
fulminant cases, however, these characters are not 



no THE FARMERS VETERINARIAN 

SO well marked. Other signs of the disease, if a 
farmer should be so unfortunate as to open an 
anthrax carcass and thereby spread the infection 
on his farm, will be great enlargement of the 
spleen, or milt, and also of the liver. Bloody- 
patches in the tongue, throat, lungs, stomach, and 
intestines, caul, skin, and muscles, or in fact in 
almost any part of the body, will be plainly visible. 

The Management of the Sick Animal and dis- 
posal of the carcass are the most important pro- 
cedures in an outbreak of anthrax, from a sanitary 
standpoint. Medicinal treatment is of little value. 
A vaccine has been discovered that is very effective 
in preventing the disease. This has been used very 
successfully in both this and European countries. 
If a case of anthrax is suspected, call your veteri- 
narian at once. The disease will not pass through 
the air from a sick animal to a healthy one, but the 
discharges which invariably occur during the 
progress of the disease all contain the microbe, and 
everything soiled by them is infectious material 
and capable of spreading the disease. 

When an animal is infected, remove at once to 
the burial lot and tie it near the place it is to be 
buried, to save handling and scattering the infec- 
tion. When it dies, dig the grave. Then saturate 
the animal with kerosene or coal oil and set it afire. 
By means of ropes tied around the fetlocks turn 
the animal, saturate the other side and fire that, 
and also the soles of the feet. When every hair 
has been burned off, dissolve a one-pound carton 
of chlorinated lime (freshly opened) in sufficient 
water to make a fluid that will just pour from the 
cup. Fill the nostrils with this, also the mouth 
and eyes, which should be pried open with a stick 
dipped in solution. Saturate some cotton or rags 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS III 

with the lime, and plug up the nostrils or mouth. 
Treat the rectum likewise. Turn the animal into 
its grave, sprinkle the ground on which it has stood 
and laid with a strong solution of chlorinated lime, 
and shovel the top layers of this soil into the grave. 
Follow this with the grave soil, banking it up, as in 
human graves. In cases where the animal is found 
dead, the same method is to be pursued, except that 
the animal is hauled to the grave on a sled (never 
dragged over the ground). In these cases, also, the 
place where it died must be disinfected by the same 
means, after hauling out all loose material and 
burning the same, as near as possible to the place 
where the animal died. It would also be necessary 
to disinfect the sled and all tools which came in 
contact with the carcass. 

APOPLEXY.— A ruptured blood vessel in the 
brain ; usually causes unconsciousness, at least for a 
time. The control of certain muscles is lost and a 
general dullness prevails over the animal. In case the 
apoplectic attack runs a favorable course, the muscles 
come more or less under control again and the 
patient in time may recover. It is in rare cases 
only, however, that animals recover to an extent 
to be worth much after being affected with 
apoplexy. Fortunately the disease in animals is 
rare 

AZOTURIA, OR MONDAY MORNING 
DISEASE. — This is a very peculiar affection 
of the horse, in which the animal shows a 
special form of lameness upon exercise, after 
having remained idle for a day or two. The 
cause is not definitely known, and yet the 
circumstances under which the disease develops 
are rather constant, such, for instance, as an animal 



112 THE FARMERS VETERINARIAN 

in vigorous condition, fed liberally upon nitroge- 
nous feed, remaining idle over Sunday, a holiday or 
at other times. Upon being taken out the follow- 
ing morning the animal usually shows an excess 
of energy, but before going far begins to go lame 
in one or both hind limbs until, if urged further, 
becomes completely paralyzed behind, going down 
and unable to rise. He also shows considerable 
pain, as though he might be suffering from some 
form of colic, with a profuse sweating. On reaching 
this point the animal usually ceases to void the 
urine, which, when drawn, appears a very dark 
brown or coffee color. The pulse and breathing are 
somewhat accelerated, and frequently there is con- 
siderable nervous excitement. The muscles of the 
loin and thigh are tense and rigid. 

The treatment should begin as soon as the lame- 
ness shows itself. After a few hours of rest, the 
distress will be over. The more exercise given the 
animal after the lameness begins, the more severe 
the trouble, and the more energetic means of treat- 
ment required. In a case showing signs of nervous 
excitement, it should receive 2 tablespoonfuls of 
bromide of potasium ev-ery three or four hours until 
becoming quiet. Sweating should be induced by 
blanketing the animal well, preferably using 
blankets wrung out of hot water and covered with a 
dry one. Allow all the water the animal will drink 
and give it 4 tablespoonfuls sweet spirits of niter 
three times a day if bladder is not paralyzed. If 
unable to void the urine, the bladder must be 
emptied three times daily. A laxative or purgative 
should be given early in the disease. If the animal 
remains somewhat stiff, give a teaspoonful in the 
feed twice a day of the following: Powdered nux 
vomica, 4 teaspoonfuls ; powdered sulphate of iron, 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS II3' 

6 teaspoonfuls ; powdered gentian root, 6 teaspoon- 

fuls. 

BARRENNESS.— Failure to breed is usually due 
to an acid secretion of the genital organs, to the 
germs of contagious abortion, retention of the after- 
birth, or to an abnormal condition of the sexual 
organs of either the male or female. The acid secre- 
tion of the genital organs prevents conception by 
destroying the semen of the male ; the germs of con- 
tagious abortion set up a catarrhal inflammation and 
discharge, which also prevents conception ; retention 
of the afterbirth, whether it be removed by force 
or permitted to slough away, usually leaves the 
womb in a diseased and catarrhal condition, effect- 
ing a discharge; impotency may be due to excess- 
ive use of the male, or to advancing age in both 
male and female. 

Any unnatural discharge irritates and scalds the 
mouth of the womb so that when the discharge 
ceases the mouth of the womb heals, and it is im- 
possible to make a cow or mare breed without 
mechanical interference. This kind of treatment is 
conducive to fertility by increasing the blood sup- 
ply to the part. Mechanical contrivances are now 
on the market for the purpose of dilating the mouth 
of the womb. These increase the probability of 
pregnancy. If the womb be opened just before 
service, many troublesome cases can be corrected. 
This is done by inserting the oiled hand and arm 
into the vagina, finding the opening into the womb, 
and gradually dilating it by inserting one or more 
fingers until the passage is open and free. 

BIG HEAD. — Just why bones become soft and 
frequently are absorbed in normal animals is not 
known, unless it is due to an absence of some 
essential bone constituent in the food or water. 



114 THE FARMER^S VETERINARIAN 

The disease shows that the bone is absorbed and 
its structure softened. As a consequence, the bone 
enlarges, becomes spongy and light. 

The disease usually starts as a swelling in the 
head, hence the name. Often the lower jaws are 
enlarged, and, as the disease progresses, the legs 
become affected. At the same time the animal 
loses weight. The treatment consists of nourishing 
foods, rich in the mineral constituents. Better con- 
sult a veterinarian when the disease is first noticed. 

BIG JAW OF CATTLE.— See Actinomycosis. 

BIG KNEE.— Often cattle show large bunches 
over the knees. These may be soft or hard. In cattle 
these big knees are caused by hard floors, in lying 
down and getting up. Big knee in horses is a little 
different, being more in the nature of spavin or ring- 
bone, and in this case occurring at the knee joints. 
In cattle the bunch may be localized in the flesh 
and skin. With horses, it is an attack on the bony 
structure. When first noticed a blister may be 
used. 

BIG LEG.— See Lymphangitis. 

BITTER MILK.— Frequently germs get into the 
udder, and, as a result, bitter milk or blue milk or 
bad milk results. Sometimes the bad taste of milk 
is due to the odor in the stable or to the food that 
the cows get while pasturing. Turnips give a bad 
taste to the milk, as does garlic or wild onions. 
If the bitter taste or the blue milk is due to disease 
germs, then the remedy lies in the destruction of 
these germs. Just after milking, and each quarter 
thoroughly emptied, inject a warm solution of boric 
acid. 

BLACKHEAD. — A germ disease affecting turkeys 
and chickens. It is characterized by a dark purple 
appearance in the comb and wattles. Fowls attacked 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS II5 

by the disease show dullness and laziness; at the 
same time indigestion disturbances and diarrhoea is 
observed. The best treatment is to kill the fowls 
affected just as soon as they become affected. This 
will prevent the disease from spreading. It is ad- 
visable to burn the bodies of the dead so as to pre- 
vent the spreading of the germs. Thorough 
disinfection is necessary. 

BLACKLEG. — An infectious disease produced by 
the blackleg bacillus, a parasite which lives and 
propagates in the soil of infected districts and in the 
bodies of diseased animals. Certain kinds of soil 
are very favorable to the existence of the parasite, 
and such, when once infected, easily remain so 
permanently and thus constitute the source of the 
disease. Years ago blackleg was regarded as a form 
of anthrax. This has been proved erroneous, how- 
ever, for blackleg and anthrax are two distinct and 
independent diseases, each being caused by a 
specific germ. One diseased animal does not trans- 
mit the disease directly to a healthy one. When 
caused, it is the result of self-inoculation, that is, by 
the germ entering a wound in the skin or mucous 
membrane of the body, produced on the legs while 
the animals are roaming over the fields, or at the 
mouth while grazing; these are the places by which 
the blackleg germs get into the system. 

An animal dying of blackleg is fairly alive with 
germs, which remain in virulent condition for a long 
time. It behooves the farmer, therefore, to com- 
pletely destroy this kind of dead; not by burying, 
for then the germs remain in the soil. The best 
way is to burn the animal right on the spot where 
it died. If the animal is moved to another place, 
the infection is spread, thereby, and not only the 
death place, but the grass over which the animal 



Ii6 THE farmer's veterinarian 

has been moved, should be thoroughly disinfected 
that no germs may survive. The disease is char- 
acterized in the appearance of large swellings on 
various parts of the body, usually on one of the 
upper portions of the legs, and never below the 
hock or knee joints. Swellings vary in size, and 
are always formed by the presence of gas that has 
collected in the tissue just beneath the skin. This 
gas is a product of the germ. You will notice a 
peculiar crackling sound when you pass your hand 
over these swellings. When punctured with a knife 
these swellings emit a bloody fluid possessing a dis- 
agreeable and sickening odor. 

Associated with the disease are loss of appetite, 
high fever and lameness. Death follows just a 
few days from the time of attack. So far no medic- 
inal treatment for cure has been discovered. Stock 
should not be admitted to infected regions. The 
only safe practice in regions where blackleg is 
prevalent is in the use of protective inoculation 
or vaccination. Such vaccination renders the 
animals immune, and even if attacked, there is 
almost no appearance of the disease at all. 

Using Blackleg Vaccine. — The blackleg vaccine 
now so well known is made from diseased flesh 
taken from a calf that has died from blackleg. This 
flesh, after being dried and powdered, is then prop- 
erly prepared and injected into the animal. There 
are two kinds — a weak and a strong vaccine and 
single and double vaccine. The single vaccine re- 
quires but one inoculation. The latter is believed 
to be superior and gives better protection. The 
vaccine is usually available from the state b^peri- 
ment stations, or can be obtained through your 
veterinarian. About the only skill required in 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS II7 

doing the work is in having the instruments thor- 
oughly cleaned and disinfected. A hypodermic 
syringe is used and the injection made on the under- 
side of the tail, a few inches from the tip, or just 
beneath the skin of the neck or shoulder. The 
point of the syringe should not puncture the muscle 
at all; simply pick up the skin and draw it away 
from the muscle and admit the fluid in the loose 
space between the two. 

When vaccinated, the treatment is supposed to 
last about a year. If calves are vaccinated the 
operation should be repeated at about the age of 
yearling. Two periods of vaccination are sug- 
gested: when turned to pasture in the spring or 
when turned to dry food in the fall. Full direc- 
tions as to the use of vaccines always accompany 
the preparations and further detail is unnecessary 
here. 

Preventive medicines cannot be relied upon, 
although a common one is used throughout the 
A\^est, made as follows: 4 ounces of sulphur, i 
ounce of saltpeter, 2 pounds of sulphate of iron, 
and I pound of air-slaked lime. After being thor- 
oughly pulverized and mixed, this is added to one- 
third of a gallon of common salt and used in the 
place of salt. 

BLADDER, STONE IN.— See Concretions or 
Calculi in Urinary Organs. 

BLIND STAGGERS.— See Staggers. 

BLOATING IN CATTLE.— This disease, some- 
times called hoven, is characterized by the disten- 
tion of the paunch or rumen, and is due to the ac- 
cumulation of gas. It most frequently occurs when 
cattle or sheep are pastured on clover or alfalfa, 
especially if it is moist just after a rain, or when 
dew is on the ground, and when not accustomed to 



ii8 



THE farmer's veterinarian 



fresh green food. I have known of many cases 
where cattle have bloated from eating alfalfa hay 
during the winter season. 

There is no mistaking th.e disease. The animal 
shows pain, goes off to itself, and breathes with 
difficulty. Colic is often associated with bloating. 
The most characteristic symptom, however, is the 
excessive swelling due to the gas. The bloating 




WHERE TO TAP IN BLOATING 

Insert the trocar and canula, or if these are not avail- 
able a knife may be used. Make the puncture downward and 
forward and plunge the instrument into the rumen. 



is noticed even over the back of the animal, the gas 
continues to form, and, unless relief is secured, the 
animal will choke and die as the result. Or some 
suppression of the vital processes will occur, even 
rupturing, with the same fatal ending. 

Bloating may take one or two forms ; a mild case 
in which recovery gradually follows, and a very 
severe form> where the only salvation is in tapping 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS IIQ 

to release the gas. If it is an ordinary case of 
bloating, not very severe, ordinary remedies will 
give relief. Turpentine in doses of 8 or lo table- 
spoonfuls is good. Some use 4 tablespoonfuls of 
hyposulphide of soda dissolved in water, with ex- 
cellent results. Some veterinarians give doses con- 
sisting of 4 tablespoonfuls of aromatic spirits of 
ammonia in water as a drench. Ginger is fre- 
quently given, as much as 4 tablespoonfuls diluted 
in warm water as a drench. To keep the animal 
moving about is excellent. 

In severe cases it is advisable to tap with the 
trocar and canula. Indeed, tapping is the last resort 
if you would save the animal. These are inserted 
on the left side of the skin and pushed into the 
rumen or paunch, the incision being made about 
half way between the point of the hip and the last 
rib. In introducing the trocar push in and down. 

After the insertion is made, the trocar is with- 
drawn and the canula is left in to furnish an open- 
ing through which the gas can escape. In case the 
canula gets clogged with partially digested feed, 
insert the trocar so as to push away the material 
and withdraw it again. If the trocar and canula 
are not available, then use a pocket knife. Of 
course, be careful that the incision is not made too 
large. 

Just a few simple precautions are suggested here 
as a prevention of this trouble. There is always 
danger from bloating when cattle or sheep are 
turned into green pastures, especially when not 
accustomed to such feed and especially when wet. 
It is advisable, therefore, to keep stock from the 
pasture until later in the day when the dew has 
disappeared. Stock should have their regular 
morning feed just as usual before being turned on 



120 THE farmer's VETERINARIAN 

the pasture. They will have less greedy appetites, 
will not like to gorge themselves, and hence the 
trouble will not be brought on. 

BLOOD POISONING.— When blood poisoning 
results from the entrance of bacteria into the cir- 
culation, it is termed septic infection. This means 
that the disease may be communicated to a healthy 
animal by inoculation. Thus, an operator in making 
a post portem examination may bring on blood 
poisoning because of an accidental prick of the skin. 
An animal may step on a nail or get a splinter in a 
muscle or under the skin, and become self-in- 
oculated, in time becoming affected with septic 
infection. Consequently bacteria are the direct 
inducing factors. The chemical poisons produced 
as a result of the work of these bacteria, as those of 
putrefaction, may induce what is known as septi- 
caemia. On the other hand where pus is produced, 
as in the abscesses which follow upon neglected 
wounds in joints, a form of blood poisoning is pro- 
duced known as pyaemia. In either case blood 
poisoning may result, become very serious and 
may cause the death of the victim. 

At first chills may be noticed, then a rise of tem- 
perature, quick respiration, rapid but weak pulse, 
and much prostration. All the time the appetite 
is disappearing, until it becomes lost. The mucous 
membranes of the eyes and nose take on a yellow- 
ish, red tint often showing spots or blotches of 
blood and the tongue becomes coated and clammy. 

Quick treatment is necessary in every case of 
blood poisoning. As soon as noticed, the source 
should be treated with disinfectants, thereby ar- 
resting the supply of morbid matter. A strict em- 
ployment of antiseptics, so as to destroy the bac- 
teria, is the first essential. We look upon the 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 121 

prick from a rusty nail, or wound from a wire fence, 
or a dirty stable splinter, as matters of frequent 
occurrence, yet a great deal of danger lurks among 
these. They should be avoided as much as pos- 
sible and in all cases immediately treated. As soon 
as the poison is admitted to the blood or tissue, the 
disease germs multiply and soon are present in 
great numbers. Had the wound been cleansed with 
an antiseptic like carbolic acid in the beginning, it 
would have been a simple matter and the poison 
would have been neutralized, and the ingress of 
the invaders made unattractive, if not altogether 
impossible. 

In all cases of blood poisoning, look to a syste- 
matic and constant application of suitable lotions to 
the injured parts, to careful nursing, and to nour- 
ishing food. If the appetite has completely de- 
parted, it is often advisable to force food like eggs 
and milk into the stomach, so that the strength of 
the patient may never be dissipated or weakened. 
With this treatment should go pure fresh air, clean- 
liness and much sunshine. It usually is advisable 
to call a veterinarian as early as possible. 

BLOODY MILK. — Sometimes, just after calv- 
ing, bloody milk is observed. The cause is generally 
due to a rupture of the small blood vessels in the 
vicinity of the cells that secrete the milk. It may 
be due to a tiny accident of some kind or it may 
be the result of disease, localized in the udder. 
Bathing the udder with hot water will prove help- 
ful and, until the milk is normal, frequent milkings 
are desirable. If the condition prevails for any 
length of time and the cow is not a very good one, 
it is just as well to fatten her and send her to the 
butcher. 

BLOODY URINE. — A condition of the urine 



122 



THE FARMER S VETERINARIAN 



peculiar to certain diseases like Texas fever in cat- 
tle and azoturia in horses. In the latter disease the 
urine is quite turbid and dark in color, sometimes 
almost black. 

BOG SPAVIN.-— A round, smooth tumor at the 
front and on the inside of the hock. It is the result 

of sprains, bruises, or 
other injuries. When 
these injuries occur, too 
much joint oil is 
secreted, causing a bulg- 
ing of the ligament. 
Lameness seldom ac- 
companies a bog spavin. 
If lameness be present 
other structures are cer- 
tain to be affected, and 
some pain and heat will 
be noticed, together 
with a stiffness of the 
joint. 

Treatment consists of 
applications of cold 
water to the affected 
parts and a lotion made 
of 2 tablespoonfuls of 
acetate of lead in 2 
quart of water. A blister 
made of i teaspoonful biniodide of mercury 
and 4 tablespoonfuls of lard rubbed in a little with 
the fingers and repeated in ten days or two weeks 
and continued for some months will correct the 
trouble. Wash the part having received the blister 
twenty-four hours after application. It is also ad- 
visable to tie the horse's head while the blister is 
on, so that he cannot bite the part. 




BOG SPAVIN 

The bulging outward of the 
soft tissues of tiie liock joint 
Is due to the secretion of joint 
oil or lubricating liquid in ab- 
normal amounts. 



DISEASES OV FARM ANIMALS 1 23 

BONE SPAVIN.— See Spavin. 

BOX FLIES OR BREEZE FLIES.— The larvs 
or grub of all common bot flies are thick, fleshy 
grubs and pass their life in some portion of the 
body. When they are fully developed they leave 
the body by some route and bore into the ground, 
where they go through another stage of their de- 
velopment known as the pupa stage. When this 
stage is completed they crawl out of the ground as 
a fly ready to deposit eggs. 

Horse Bot Fly. — Everyone is familiar with the 
common nit fly and the yellow nit that is attached 
to the hair on almost all parts of the horse, but 
especially on the chest and legs. The young larvae 
or even the egg may be transferred from these 
regions of the body into the mouth by the horse 
biting these parts. The grub passes into the 
stomach where it attaches itself to the mucous lin- 
ing and continues its development. The bot is not 
so dangerous as it is popularly supposed to be. 
They may, when attached in large numbers to the 
right side of the stomach, interfere with digestion 
and be responsible for some of the digestive dis- 
orders and colics. They are uniformly present in 
the stomach of all horses that are kept in the open 
where flies can get at them. A carefully groomed 
animal may be free from them. The eggs may 
be destroyed by rubbing the body with a rag wet 
with kerosene. One of the most common remedies 
for bots, and at the same time the most useless, is 
a mixture of molasses and milk. Bots are hard to 
dislodge from the stomach until they have com- 
pleted their development there and pass out of their 
own accord. Half-ounce doses of turpentine three 
hours apart until three doses are given, followed by 



124 



THE farmer's veterinarian 



an ounce of powdered aloes as a physic, is a good 
remedy and easily administered. Mix the turpen- 
tine with half a pint of milk or gruel and give on 
an empty stomach. Carbon bisulphide is a good 
remedy. Take two drachms or one-fourth of an 
ounce of this and shake with a pint of cold water 




HORSE BOTS IN STOMACH 

The bot fly lays its eggs on the hair of the horse. These, 
taken Into the stomach, hatch out and give rise to horse bots 
or young maggots that attach themselves to the walls of the 
stomach. After becoming grown they loosen themselves and 
pass out with the feces. 



and drench. Repeat this every two hours until an 
ounce of bisulphide is given, then give a physic of 
aloes. These remedies should be given on an 
empty stomach. 

Bot-Fly of Cattle or Warbles. — It is now be- 
lieved that eggs are deposited near the feet and 
that the grub is taken into the mouth and becomes 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 12$ 

partially developed in the digestive tract. It then 
burrows through the tissue until it reaches the 
region of the back. The only treatment that will 
amount to much is to destroy the grub as it is 
developing under the skin. If farmers and stock- 
men will systematically do this they can soon les- 
sen the damage done. The heel fly annoys cattle, 
and the grub, when it escapes from the back, 
leaves a hole in the best part of the hide, causing 
loss in this way. After the grubs are in the back 
no treatment helps the animal very much ; but the 
grub can be killed, thus preventing their develop- 
ing into flies that would annoy other cattle. The 
grubs may be squeezed out and destroyed. Mer- 
curial ointment may be rubbed through the hole 
and kill the grub, or chloroform, or creoline, may 
be injected into the grub with a hypodermic 
syringe. It does not require very much time to 
look after the number of cattle usually found on 
a farm. 

The Bot-Fly of Sheep is a very troublesome pest 
at times, and always causes trouble and annoyance 
to the flock when present, and occasionally causes 
considerable financial loss. The fly attacks sheep 
during the warm months, July and August gen- 
erally being the worst. The presence of fly in the 
flock is easily told by the behavior of the sheep. 
The fly looks much like a house fly, only it is longer 
and it always attempts to lay its eggs just inside of 
the opening of the nose. As soon as the fly begins 
to get near the nostril the sheep will begin to run, 
will hold their noses close to the ground, and fre- 
quently huddle together as closely as possible for 
protection. AVhen the fly does succeed in deposit- 
ing the larvae it begins immediately to work its 
way up the cavity of the nose and finally gets 



t26 THE farmer's veterinarian 

into the small cavities in the head, where develop- 
ment goes on. It is during this period of develop- 
ment in the head that most of the damage is done. 
As the grubs grow larger a discharge from the 
nostril is noticed, which may soon become very- 
thick and sticky, gumming up the nostrils and 
making breathing difficult. The sheep will often 
carry their heads low, but will frequently raise 
their heads and point their noses straight up. 

The treatment may be either preventive or sur- 
gical. The first is within the reach of everyone 
owning sheep. Where only a few sheep are owned 
each individual should be caught and a mixture of 
tar and lard, or oil of tar and lard, applied to the 
nostril with a brush. This can be done in a short 
time and should be repeated every ten days or two 
weeks during the warm months. Narrow salt 
troughs may be made and the edges smeared with 
tar so that the sheep will get tar on their noses 
when they take salt. Turpentine may be applied 
high up in the nostril by means of a feather. Begin 
the preventive treatment early in the spring or 
whenever you know by the action of the sheep that 
the fly is bothering them, and you will have better 
success than to wait until the sheep are affected 
and undertake to cure them. 

BOTS.— See Bot Flies. 

BROKEN WIND.— See Heaves. 

BRONCHITIS.— A common disease of domestic 
animals attacking the bronchial tubes. It may be 
chronic, but is usually acute, and may aflfect one 
side or both. The most frequent causes of bron- 
chial catarrh are colds. A sudden cooling of a 
heated body by drenching, by the breathing of cold 
damp air, may all bring on the disorder. Dust, 
smoke or gas, when inhaled, often produces the 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS t2f^ 

same trouble. Acute bronchitis usually sets in 
with a sudden rise of the temperature of the body, 
and the animal seems to have a chill. This may be 
quite violent at times. The cough is noticed very 
much as with people, being short, dry, and husky. 
Later on, as the disease progresses, a frothy mucus 
follows the cough. Associated with the disease is 
a loss of appetite, constipation, and pains in the 
chest and rattling in the chest and throat. A 
favorite position of the horse is standing and of 
other stock that of lying down. Good care is es- 
sential in the treatment. That means, with good 
treatment, dust, smoke, and bad air are to be 
severely avoided. Plenty of good ventilation, but 
no draft ; and warm, well-lighted quarters are very 
desirable. The animal should be blanketed to be 
kept warm in the early stages and a compress placed 
over the chest, with blankets over the compress. 
Frequent changing of this compress Is desirable, 
say a change every hour or two. When the animal 
IS suffering from a chill, stimulants are excellent. 
A tablespoonful of whiskey In a pint of water and 
given as a drench every half hour or hour will be 
helpful. 

After the chill period Is passed, small doses of 
tincture of aconite, say lo to 15 drops, In a little 
water as a drench will assist In discharging the 
mucus. When the animal has become at ease, a 
mustard plaster applied to the lungs will help you 
somewhat. From now on the treatment should 
be good nursing and good food. Boiled flaxseed 
and gruel will be very helpful. A very helpful 
preparation may be made of the following: Nitrate 
of potash or saltpeter, tartar emetic, ground gen- 
tian root, equal parts. A half pound or pound in 



128 THE farmer's VETERINARIAN 

all should be mixed thoroughly, and then a tea- 
spoonful given three times each day. When all dan- 
ger is passed, continue the careful handling and 
allow two or three weeks' complete rest. 

BUNCHES. — Bunches are most generally en- 
largements of the bone. They are most serious in 
the region of a joint. They are caused, as a rule, 
by some injury, bruise, or wound. When first 
noticed they should be treated with a blister to 
insure a hasty absorption of the enlarged parts. 

BURNS. — Occasionally animals are burned or 
scalded so badly as to subject them to considerable 
pain. This may be relieved by the use of a strong 
solution of common baking soda. Following the 
use of this, apply an ointment made of one part of 
carbolic acid to 50 parts of vaseline. If vaseline 
is not available, then use in its place linseed oil. 

CAKED BAG.-— See Mammitis. 

CAKED UDDER.— A diseased condition of the 
udder, with the secretion of milk altered, the udder 
hot, dry, and caked, and the glands inflamed. The 
trouble may be due to external injury, to germs 
entering the teats or to the milk being kept for too 
long a time in the udder. As soon as noticed the 
udder should be bathed in hot water and massaged 
for several minutes. After being dried with a cloth 
rub on a salve made of 2 tablespoonfuls of gum 
camphor dissolved in 12 tablespoonfuls of lard. At 
the same time give 4 tablespoonfuls of saltpeter 
morning and night for two or three days. See 
also Mammitis. 

CALF CHOLERA.— When a new-born calf comes 
into the world weak, puny, and listless, and dies in 
a few hours after scouring, bawling, and blatting 
and has sunken eyes and bloated belly soon after 
death, the disease by stockmen is called " calf 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 12^ 

cholera." Many calves so affected are really " liv- 
ing abortions." They have just enough life at birth to 
exist a few hours and show the symptoms de- 
scribed, and such calves are usually the offspring 
of cows that, during pregnancy, have been incom- 
pletely nourished upon timothy or swale hay, or 
coarse fodder, without an adequate supply of other 
foods to balance the ration ; or similar calves may 
come from fat, flabby, corn-stuffed, beef-bred cows. 

The trouble may be prevented by proper feeding 
of the pregnant cow, but there is no cure. A ma- 
jority of such cases, however, are due to germ 
infection. Cows affected with contagious abortion 
may produce affected calves; the afterbirth and 
navel cord are invaded by the germs in such cases 
and the calf is improperly nourished in the womb. 
In other instances, calf cholera is due to filth germs 
entering the calf's system by way of the raw navel 
cord stump at birth, or the mouth when the calf 
nurses from a manure-contaminated udder. 

Prevent infective cases by providing a clean, 
fresh-bedded, disinfected, whitewashed, sunlighted, 
ventilated pen for the new-born calf, and immedi- 
ately wet its navel with a 1-500 solution of cor- 
rosive sublimate and repeat the application twice 
daily until the cord dries up, drops off and no raw 
spot remains. Also wash the hind parts of the cow 
and her udder with a two per cent solution of coal 
tar disinfectant before the calf is allowed to suck 
for the first time and repeat the washing twice 
daily for at least a week. Isolate affected calves. 
Bury or burn the dead. 

CALF SCOURS.— See White Scours. 

CANCER.— Malignant growths, the cause or 
causes of which are not known ; nor can it be said 
the disease is infectious. While a very serious 



130 THE FARMER S VETERINARIAN 

disease among human beings, it is, fortunately, how- 
ever, more rare among farm animals. The only 
treatment worth while is in surgical removal of 
the growths. If this be done when the tumors are 
first noticed and when they are small, their fur- 
ther appearance may not result. It is a good plan, 
if the growths persist in presenting themselves, to 
eliminate the affected animal from the herd. Wifh 
cattle, it is possible to prepare them for market 
long before any cancer growths may reappear, and 
in this way the full market value may be secured 
with no danger when consumed. 

CAPPED ELBOW.— Frequently horses, in lying 
down, press the foot or the shoe against the elbow. 
This, in time, causes inflammation and ends in a 
tumor or shoe boil. The diseased condition is dif- 
ficult to repair, as there is little flesh or muscle at 
the joint of the elbow where the trouble starts. 
Treatment consists of opening the boil and allow- 
ing the fluid to escape. In case the swelling is 
hot and painful, an application of lead acetate will 
prove comforting and helpful. In preparing the 
lotion, use 2 tablespoonfuls of acetate of lead to a 
quart of water. There is no objection to injecting 
a little of this into the opening. An injection of a 
little tincture of iodine once a day into the opening 
is desirable also. In treating cases of this kind, 
it is a good practice to wrap about the horse's foot 
a pad of straw or hay for cushioning the foot. This 
prevents the wound from being further bruised, 
otherwise the cure may be greatly delaved, if not 
indefinitely postponed. 

CAPPED HOCK.—An inflammation resulting in 
a separation of the cap from the point of the bone 
of the hock. Cases of this kind are the results of 




A VICTIM OF TUBERCULOSIS 



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CASTRATION 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS I3I 

kicks or bruises. In the early stage, use 2 table- 
spoonfuls of lead acetate in a quart of water and 
bathe the injured part. When there is no longer 
any temperature, apply a blister composed of i 
teaspoonful of biniodide of mercury and 6 table- 
spoonfuls of lard. Apply this every week or ten 
days for several months. 

CAPPED KNEE.— An enlarged condition of the 
knee most commonly found in cattle. It Is caused 
by cattle getting up and down on hard floors. It 
is usually seen in stables where stanchions are 
used. A baggy tumor forms at the front and just 
below the knee. In some instances this tumor be- 
comes very large and the cow walks about or 
moves with great difficulty. Where hard floors are 
covered with bedding, no trouble of this kind re- 
sults. Applications of hot water are excellent. 
Liniment is also very good. Where the tumor has 
long existed and is stubborn an opening should be 
made at the bottom so that the fluid may be dis- 
charged. A little tincture of iodine injected into 
the opening once a day is good and at the same 
time an application of iodine rubbed over the out- 
side will assist in reducing the trouble. Use one 
part of iodine to eight parts of lard and continue this 
treatment for a month or two. 

CASTRATION.— The removal of the testicles 
from male animals. Castration is practiced upon 
all the domestic animals. Only those male animals 
possessing desirable characteristics are retained en- 
tire. The operations are generally performed when 
the male animals become troublesome. In horses 
the time is usually at one to three years old; in cattle 
one to three months old ; sheep at one to four 
months and pigs two to four months old. Dogs, 



132 THE FARMER S VETERINARIAN 

as a rule, become worthless if castrated. Cats grow 
to an enormous size when castrated. 

Suggestions About the Operation. — In the castra- 
tion of all the domestic animals some general sug- 
gestions will be beneficial, (i) Secure the animal 
so he cannot injure himself or the attendants. (2) 
Do the castration during the early spring. (3) 
Give the animal exercise after castration. (4) Boil 
the instruments before operating, using warm 
water and any good hand soap. (5) Disinfect the 
skin over the scrotum before operating with cor- 
rosive sublimate i-iooo. (6) Wash the hands of 
the operator with soap and water, then disinfect 
with corrosive sublimate. (7) Great care should 
be exercised that no corrosive sublimate be left 
that stock may drink, as it is a deadly poison. 

When the instruments have been boiled (sharp 
castrating knife and emasculator), cast (throw) 
the animal as carefully as possible. Secure the 
hind legs so they will not hinder the operator. The 
operator having his hands clean and the scrotum 
washed and both his hands disinfected, and also 
the region to be operated upon, the animal is ready 
for the operation. The lower testicle is grasped 
with the left hand and with the right hand an in- 
cision is made over the testicle, down to the tes- 
ticle. The testicle is pulled upon until the cord is 
seen. Then the emasculator is used to crush the 
cord. This emasculator should be placed on the 
cord as high up as possible. Some like their horses 
castrated proud. This consists in leaving part of 
the testicle. This last method is not safe, as it 
allows the testicle to become infected and form 
what is commonly known as water seeds. A 
tumor grows on the cord and may become the size 
of a man's head. 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 1 33 

After the testicle is removed, then enlarge the 
first incision (cut) that was made through the skin 
so as to give plenty drainage. This incision should 
be about eight inches long for horses. By having 
a large incision the upper part can heal first, and 
there will be good drainage until the scrotum en- 
tirely heals. If possible turn the castrated horse out 
to pasture after the operation, and it will exercise 
sufficiently to keep the parts from swelling. Do not 
keep the animal in a dirty stable after it is cas- 
trated, as there is so much danger from infection 
in the dirty horse stable. If the horse is broken it 
can be put to light work a week after the castration. 

Bulls do not need to be thrown to be castrated. 
The incision is made over each testicle, and the 
operation carried out in the same way as with the 
horse. Bulls are not so susceptible to infection as 
the horse. 

CATARRH. — Commonly known as a cold, catarrh 
is recognized as an inflamed state of the upper por- 
tions of the air passages, with more or less dis- 
charge from the mucous membranes. The eyes 
often sympathize with this deranged condition, with 
a watery state as the result. The causes of catarrh 
or colds in animals are very much the same as 
those causing the same disturbance in human 
beings ; as with people, so with animals, the malady 
should be remedied as quickly as possible. Bad air 
is one of the most frequently observed causes ; con- 
sequently pure cold air with proper blankets to 
keep the body warm is considered the best treat- 
ment for simple catarrh when unaccompanied with 
other troubles. 

One of the common symptoms is dullness and 
loss of appetite. The hair stands out and looks 



134 THE FARMER S VETERINARIAN 

rough, a slight cough may be noticed and some- 
times a rattling is heard in the head. For cattle 
a mild dose of physic, consisting of one-half pound 
Epsom salts and 4 tablespoonfuls of sweet spirits 
of niter mixed in a pint of lukewarm water and 
given as a drench, is about all that is necessary. 
If the cold hangs on, mix together one-half pound 
of nitrate of potash or saltpeter and one-half pound 
of gentian root and give a teaspoonful of this three 
times a day until the animal is better. Of course 
good food should go along with this treatment. The 
horse should be fed soft food like bran mashes and 
be kept quiet in a well-ventilated stable. If the 
cold hangs on with him, mix one-half pound of 
saltpeter or nitrate of potash, one-half pound of 
sulphur, and one-half pound of ground gentian root 
and give a teaspoonful morning, noon and night. 

CATTLE SCAB.— See Scab in Cattle. 

CEREBRO-SPINAL MENINGITIS.— A disease 
fatal in violent attacks and not well understood as 
to cause. It is believed to be non-contagious, al- 
though frequently extensive outbreaks occur, sug- 
gesting that it may be contagious. The symptoms 
are not well defined, due, perhaps, to the fact that 
other diseases are included under the general name. 
Horses of all ages of both sexes are affected, and 
temperament and physical condition have nothing 
to do with susceptibility to the disease. Likewise 
mules are affected and the mortality among them 
is equally as great as among horses. The most 
acceptable belief as to cause centers around a 
bacterial organism that works in the membranes 
of the brain. However, some writers attribute the 
disease to ergot, smuts and molds supposed to be 
taken with the food. Moldy corn and moldy hay 
are believed to be associated with the disease. The 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS I35 

symptoms are staggering gait, partial or total in- 
ability to swallow, various muscular contractions 
and delirium. 

Treatment is seldom effected, especially in 
violent cases. Mild forms frequently respond to 
cathartics, blisters on the neck, spine and throat. 
These give some relief. Small doses of aconite are 
also believed to be helpful. Some writers place 
choking, distemper, grass staggers, and blind stag- 
gers along with this brain disorder. 

CHARBON.— See Anthrax. 

CHEST FOUNDER.— See Navicular Disease. 

CHICKEN CHOLERA.— Chicken or fowl cholera 
is a germ disease, and contagious. It attacks poultry 
of all kinds. Diarrhoea is a prominent symptom of 
the disease. Bad food or improper food may ag- 
gravate the trouble, but the germ introduced into 
the system either in food or drink, is at the bottom 
of it. At first the droppings will take on a whitish 
color. Diarrhcea will then result. The discharges 
will then become thin and watery, to be at times 
frothy and greenish in appearance. Fowls thus 
attacked soon lose their appetites and become stupid 
and take on a sickly appearance. The head drops 
toward the body, the eyelids fall, and the fowls 
stand around as if doped. Some recover, but, un- 
less checked, the flock will be materially injured. 

Of course dead fowls must be burned at once and 
lime and other disinfectants used to keep the dis- 
ease from spreading. The well birds must be kept 
apart from the infected quarters. Care must be 
exercised that infection be not carried either by 
visitors or attendants from the sick to the healthy 
quarters. A common remedy consists of i part of 
sulphate of iron to 50 parts of water for drinking 
purposes. Another common remedy is to mix a 



136 THE farmer's veterinarian 

tablespoonful of sulphate of iron, 2 tablespoonfuls 
of dried blood, and 2 tablespoonfuls of tincture of 
opium with a pint of water. This is given in the 
food in doses of i or 2 tablespoonfuls of this mix- 
ture three or four times a day to each sick bird. 

CHOKING. — Horses frequently choke from too 
rapid eating of oats, and cattle are very commonly 
troubled on attempting to swallow apples, turnips, 
or small pieces of ear corn. In either of these cases 
much distress is occasioned and serious danger. 
In treating the horse, the best treatment is to give 
it a little oil, after which rub the hand up and down 
the gullet to scatter the accumulated oats. Some- 
times it is necessary to make an incision in the 
gullet through which the material is removed. 
Better have a veterinarian do this. When food 
lodges in the gullet of cattle, suffocation soon fol- 
lows if it is serious and in the upper part of the 
gullet. When such objects have lodged near the 
stomach end there is less immediate danger. Of 
course the first treatment is to try to force the ob- 
ject down by using the hand, if at all possible. If 
this cannot be done a probang should be used. The 
probang should be very limber, so as to bend easily, 
and it should be used with great caution. Cattle 
often are killed by the accidental puncture of the 
gullet as the probang is pressed down toward the 
mouth of the stomach. Consequently no unyield- 
ing article like a broom handle or even a buggy 
whip should be used. If a regular probang is not 
available, a rope a little less than one inch in 
diameter can be inserted and gently worked down 
the gullet. Before using the rope, grease it well 
and make a knob at the end to be inserted. This 
knob can be made of cotton strings or muslin cloth. 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 1 37 

COFFIN JOINT LAMENESS.— See Navicular 
Disease. 

COLDS.— See Catarrh. 

COLIC. — Colic is an inflammation of the bowels 
characterized by a spasmodic contraction of the in- 
testinal walls. It is a very common disease in 
horses, and occasionally cattle and lambs are af- 
fected with it. Both the small and large intestines 
may be afflicted or only one of them. There are 
many causes, but feed and water are the controlling 
factors. An animal just stopped from hard work 
and given a large quantity of cold water, especially 
after eating, may be quickly troubled. And the 
animal hot from work, on drinking very cold water, 
often gets colic. Then, too, a change of food, or a 
change from dry feed to green food or eating some 
root crop when the animal is not used to it, may 
bring on the disease. 

Then, again, some horses and cattle are more 
given to colic than others. Some individuals are 
never troubled, and others are almost constantly 
under its influence. If much inflammation sets in, 
a very serious case is on your hands. Two kinds 
of colic are known — the spasmodic, a contraction, 
commonly known as cramps of the bowels; and 
wind or flatulent colic or bloating. Some author- 
ities add a third, and call it worm colic. 

Spasmodic Colic. — This kind of colic is first 
noticed when the horse begins to paw with his fore- 
feet, cringes, bends his head around as if looking at 
his side, lays on the ground and rolls as if in pain; 
then he stands quietly for a while and repeats these 
performances again. During the time between the 
spasms the animal is more at ease and frequently 
eats a little. When the spasms come on again the 
shifting about and the roiling are repeated. If the 



138 THE farmer's veterinarian 

cramps are severe the animal breaks out with 
sweat. The pulse is accelerated when the spasms 
are on, ranging from 60 to 65 beats a minute. If 
inflammation has set in, the pulse instead of rising 
and falling remains more constant and is high all 
the time. 

When the spasms are on, pressing the bowels 
seems to relieve the pain and please the animal, 



COLIC PAINS 

A common attitude with colic. When seized with pains 
the horse paws, scrapes the ground with his front feet, stamps 
and strikes the beUy with the hind ones, lays back his ears 
and looks around to his flank. 

but if inflammation is present the pressure seems 
to increase the pain. The best treatment is to 
relieve the pain with an opiate, and next to obtain 
a free action of the bowels by a purge. Many 
prescriptions have been suggested, among which 
is the following: 4 tablespoonfuls of sweet spirits 
of niter, 4 tablespoonfuls of laudanum, i table- 
spoonful of ginger and i tablespoonful of comrrion 
soda. These are added to a pint of warm water 
and given as a drench. 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS I39 

Flatulent Colic— This form of colic, though 
not so acute, is much more constant than the pre- 
ceding form. The body is swollen in the region 
of the bowels, the gas extending quite generally 
through the region. There is also a tendency to 
inflammation. The pulse will be noticed as more 
rapid, and at the same time more feeble, the breath- 
ing will be more pronounced, and the animal less 
steady on its feet. In treating the patient it is 
advisable to unload the rectum with greased hand 
and arm, and the admission of w^arm water with 
soap in it, is also likely to be beneficial. A little 
turpentine mixed with the soap and w^ater is good. 
The intestine is to be cleaned out as far as the arm 
will reach, but a violent purge is unwise, as that 
only intensifies the inflammation. Naturally the 
first thing is to mildly open the bowels. For this 
give 15 or 20 tablespoonfuls of linseed oil and 5 
or 10 tablespoonfuls of spirit of turpentine. If the 
case continues, it is advisable to call a veterinarian, 
and it may be necessary to use the trocar and 
canula. If the instrument is sterilized, no great 
risk attaches to the operation, while immediate 
relief is secured as the gas passes out through the 
tube, and the distention is visibly reduced. An 
excellent mixture for this kind of colic consists of 
6 tablespoonfuls of chloral hydrate, 6 tablespoon- 
fuls of laudanum, 3 tablespoonfuls of sulphuric 
ether, 2 tablespoonfuls of turpentine, and 10 table- 
spoonfuls of ginger. Of this give 2 or 3 table- 
spoonfuls in a half pint of warm water and repeat 
every half hour for 3 or 4 doses and then place the 
doses an hour apart until all danger has passed. 

When there is a good deal of gas w^ith consider- 
able swelling an excellent drench is made of 2 
tablespoonfuls of powdered aloes, 4 tablespoonfuls 



140 THE FARMER S VETERINARIAN 

of Spirits of ammonia and 4 tablespoonfuls of sul- 
phuric ether. This should be mixed with a pint of 
water and given promptly. In case of considerable 
pain use this: 4 to 6 tablespoonfuls of hydrate of 
chloral and eight tablespoonfuls of sugar mixed in 
a pint of water and give as a drench. 

CONCRETIONS OR CALCULI OF URIN- 
ARY ORGANS.— The collection of solid mineral 
matter in the urine may become lodged in 
the kidney, the ureter (duct leading from 
the kidney), the bladder or urethra (the duct 
leading from the bladder). All animals are 
more or less subject to these conditions, and yet 
are not so affected as they are sometimes thought 
to be. Many a case of so-called kidney colic is in 
reality an affection of the digestive system. The 
cause for these mineral accumulations perhaps varies 
under different conditions, yet the most common 
circumstance under which they occur is during the 
time when animals are fed exclusively or largely 
upon dry feed such as exists in the winter time 
where silage is not fed. Wheat bran has been at- 
tributed as one of the most sourceful means of 
bringing on this trouble. When it is fed with suc- 
culent feeds and an abundance of water allowed 
these disorders do not occur. 

The symptoms do not differ a great deal from 
some forms of colic, due to stomach or intestinal 
disturbances, especially in the frequent attempts 
to empty the bladder. The animal usually shows 
more or less pain from the restless condition, looks 
around at the flank, dribbles his urine frequently, 
which is occasionally blood stained. There may be 
a complete obstruction of the passages, in which 
case no urine is voided. 

Treatment varies with the location of the trouble, 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 



141 



in which little can be accomplished when the gravel 
or stone is located in front of the bladder. If 
within the bladder, not obstructing its outlet, it is 
not likely to make its presence known. Agents 
should be given, however, to overcome the pain 
and to relieve the frequently existing spasm at 
point of obstruction, as far as possible, which may 




RETENTION OF THE URINE 

By means of a catheter the greater portion of the urine can be 
drawn off. The operation is shown in the picture. 



allow passage of stone. Give 4 tablespoonfuls of 
laudanum or chloral to a dose and repeat in two or 
three hours if any pain or trouble is still indicated. 
In inducing the animal to drink liberal quantities of 
water the condition may be somewhat relieved by 
making the urine more watery in character and 
possibly dissolving a portion, allowing the 
remainder to pass along its course. When the 



142 

obstruction occurs within the urethra the removal 
should be made by incising through the tissues on 
to or near the obstruction, removing by forceps and 
suturing up the wound. A skilled operator is re- 
quired for this, hence the veterinarian should be 
called. 

CONSTIPATION.— An infrequent movement of 
the bowels with the dung hard and dry. The animal 
is said to be bound up or costive. Bad food, im- 
proper feeding, lack of exercise, all contribute to the 
trouble. Treatment is in the line of laxative and 
succulent food, such as wheat bran, green grass, 
silage and linseed oil meal. If the case is one re- 
quiring immediate action give any of the usual 
purgatives, but do not continue their use as a 
regular thing. If green grass is not possible, nor 
silage available, give one or two teaspoonfuls of the 
following mixture in the food three times a day: 
Equal parts of ground gentian root, powdered nux 
vomica, powdered ginger and sulphur. 

CORNS. — Small swellings or tumors on the sen- 
sitive heel in the triangular space between the bars 
and the wall of the heel. These are found in the 
fore feet only, and almost always on the inside heel. 
They are caused most frequently by bad shoeing 
or from wearing the shoe for too long a time. These 
growths do not always cause lameness, although, 
as a rule, they do. They are, however, always sen- 
sitive to pressure and usually appear as tumors of 
a hard, corny character. Neglected corns are 
liable to fester and must then be laid bare by the 
knife and be poulticed. Neglect of this treatment 
results in the matter or pus finding its way up 
through the coronet. Thus quittor may result. 

Give the foot a careful dressing by paring the 
heel, and bathe the corn with a weak carbolic acid 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS I43 

solution. After doing this, place a fold of muslin 
over the corn and then over all a bran and linseed 
poultice. A complete rest from work, hard roads 
and shoes should now be given the animal until 
the corn has entirely disappeared. When the feet 
are again shod, leather should be used as a protec- 
tion. Many corn salves are recommended, but 
unless the corn be removed and the pressure taken 
from the wound, there can be no cure, even though 
the tumor is pared away. 

CORNSTALK DISEASE.— AVhen cattle are al- 
lowed to run in stalk fields it frequently happens 
that a large per cent die from various causes. All 
these troubles are classed under the one term — 
cornstalk disease. In some western fields where 
there is a second growth of cane stalk late in the 
fall an early frost will at times develop in the stalk 
a deadly poison (hydrocyanic acid), which kills the 
animal in a very few minutes after eating it. This 
poison has not been found in the cornstalk. 

In the last year or two some of our state experi- 
ment stations have been investigating several molds 
which seem to affect not only cattle but horses as 
well. These molds grow quite abundantly upon 
cornstalks, alfalfa, and other forage crops. The 
death of a great number of animals has been traced 
directly to the feeding of such affected fodder, hay, 
or corn. These molds, however, must have a cer- 
tain amount of moisture for their growth, and it 
has been shown that when the feeds have been 
properly harvested and sheltered no trouble has 
resulted. Only in materials exposed to the wea- 
ther, allowing the development of these lower 
forms of plant life, has serious trouble been found. 

In the treatment of these troubles nothing reli- 
able can be given, as the disease usually comes on 



144 THE farmer's veterinarian 

without any warning and the animal dies suddenly. 
Much of the trouble can be avoided by allowing 
the animals only a limited amount of the feed or 
in the stalk field a few hours only each day. It is 
necessary that plenty of pure water should be given 
frequently and enough of other roughage to keep 
the animals from gorging themselves on the fodder. 

COW POX. — An infectious disease passed from 
one cow to another. It affects herds in all parts 
of the world and is similar to smallpox in the 
human being, only it is not so fatal. When first 
affected the cow is feverish, slacks somewhat in 
the milk flow, and presents little red pimple-like 
spots around the teats. In a day or two these be- 
come enlarged and become blisters, containing 
within a watery fluid, which, if not broken, dry up 
themselves and form scabs, leaving the teat in time 
perfectly natural. Ordinarily, special treatment is 
not given. There is no objection, however, to pro- 
viding a simple tonic composed of one-quarter 
pound saltpeter, one-quarter pound sulphur, and 
one-quarter pound ground gentian root. Give a 
teaspobnful of this night and morning in a mash. 
The teats should be bathed, just before milking, 
with any common disinfecting solution. If the 
sores are slow in healing, sweet oil, to which is 
added a little carbolic acid, will soon correct the 
trouble. 

CRACKED HOOFS.— See Sand Cracks. 

CRIBBING. — A habit of biting the manger or 
other objects, often sucking in the air at the same 
time. This bad habit is frequently called wind 
sucking. It is the result of a habit formed when 
young. There is really no cure when the habit is 
once formed, but different measures may be em- 
ployed to lessen the fault. A broad strap firmly 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 



145 



placed around the neck brings the desired effect 
with some individuals. 

CRIB SUCKERS.— This bad habit usually be- 
gins in colt days. It may arise from a sore tooth. 
The colt, to relieve the feeling, bites the manger, 
and in so doing acquires the habit. When hanging 
on to the manger, air is sucked in and this fre- 
quently brings on colic. The best treatment is to 
break up the habit. Examine the mouth first to see 

if anything is wrong with 

the teeth. 




standing 
The 



CURB 

While common to all vari- 
eties of the horse, curbs are 
most frequently seen in the 
lighter breeds and especially 
in roadsters 
laorses. 



Muzzle while 
in the stable, 
old cribbers never 
give up the habit. 

CRAMP COLIC— See 
Colic. 

CURB. — A sprain or in- 
jury to the ligament situ- 
ated on the back part of 
the hock joint. Anything 
that puts too much stress 
on this part, such as 
holding back heavy loads 
going down hill, or back- 
ing up too heavy loads, or 
the hind legs slipping 
too far under the horse's 
body, may cause curb 
disease. It is also caused 
by kicks or by the whif- 
iietree striking against the 
back of the hock joint. 

There will be swelling 
and heat in the part and 
lameness. In some cases 

and trotting ^^^^^ ^ju ^^ swelling. 



146 THE farmer's veterinarian 

but no lameness. If the swelling is hot and tender 
to the touch, mix half an ounce acetate of lead and 
two ounces tincture of arnica with one quart of 
water. Shake up and apply a little to the swollen 
part three times a day and continue until the heat 
and swelling disappear. If there should be any 
swelling after the heat and lameness have disap- 
peared, mix I teaspoonful of biniodide of mercury 
with 4 tablespoonfuls of lard. Rub on a little with 
the fingers, let it remain on for 24 hours, then wash 
ofiF with warm water and soap and repeat the blister 
in three weeks if needed. In cases where there is 
swelling, but no heat or lameness, the lotion would 
be of no use, but the above blister should be used 
as directed. In old or long standing cases of curb, 
if the animal is not lame, it is best to let it alone, 
as medicines would be of no service. 

DIABETES; PROFUSE STALING.— In man 
there are two forms of this trouble seen rather 
frequently, but among domestic animals only the 
insipid form is common. It is often simply a sign of 
some other disease, but not infrequently occurs 
under similar circumstances; such as certain forms 
of indigestion, the result of eating musty or dam- 
aged feed. The most characteristic symptom, of 
course, is the frequent urination of liberal quanti- 
ties of urine. Associated with this is usually an 
unabating thirst. The animal loses flesh rapidly, 
the flanks are tucked up, the coat is dull, languid 
and staring, and great weakness is shown. If not 
relieved, the animal may die from exhaustion. In 
the second form of diabetes, the distinguishing fea- 
ture is the presence of sugar in the urine. 

If in a working animal it should be laid off 
from work. Search should be made for the 
cause of trouble. If any of the food ap- 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS I47 

pears suspicious it should be substituted with 
wholesome food. To relieve the ardent thirst 
and assist recovery, a teaspoonful of the crystals 
of iodine should be given in a ball of linseed or 
other pasty material. It may be desirable to repeat 
this in three or four days. Also give in the drink- 
ing water 4 tablespoonfuls of bicarbonate of soda 
three times daily. 

DIARRHOEA.— See Dysentery. 

DIFFICULT PARTURITION.— See Obstet- 
rics. 

DIPPING LIVE STOCK.— There are only two 
satisfactory methods of treating animals with a dip. 
The first is hand treating, where the number of 
animals are few and easy to handle. In hand treat- 
ing the animal the dip is applied with scrubbing 
brushes, sponges, etc., and all parts of the body 
liable to infection should then be thoroughly and 
vigorously rubbed. If hand treating is properly 
performed it is an excellent method. The second 
method consists of immersing the diseased animals 
in the dipping solution. There are two forms of 
vats in use for this purpose. The cage vat is 
designed for comparatively few cattle. As its name 
implies, it consists of a cage in which the animal 
is placed and then lowered into a vat containing 
the dip. Where a large number of animals are to 
be dipped, the swimming vat is very popular. The 
animals are forced to pass through the vat, which 
contains sufficient dip to completely immerse them 
when they plunge into the solution. 

The coal-tar dips are made from some of the 
products of the distillation of coal tar. When 
mixed with water they form a milky emulsion, 
having a strong odor of coal tar. The coal-tar 



148 THE farmer's veterinarian 

preparations, in addition to being used as parasit- 
icides, have become very popular disinfectants in 
hospitals. These preparations are used with good 
success on all open wounds, where a disinfectant is 
required. In poll evil and fistulous withers they 
are extremely valuable, owing to the fact that in 
addition to their power as a germicide they have 
been perfectly safe to place in the hands of persons 
not accustomed to handling drugs, because of their 
non-poisonous nature. They have been found quite 
efficient when used in three per cent solution. 

DISHORNING.— Some cattle breeds are horn- 
less. Most, however, are not. Removing the horns 
is done quickly and is more humane than to permit 
them to remain, by which death frequently follows 
to stock and even to people. The dishorning ma- 
chine is intended for animals whose horns are 
not removed when young. The simplest method 
of dishorning is to use a stick of caustic potash. 
Apply it to the small horn button when a calf is a 
few days old. Moistening this and rubbing the 
potash over the skin will permanently destroy the 
horn tissue and no horns will result. 

DISTEMPER.— See Strangles. 

DROPSY. — A condition in which the fluid por- 
tion of the blood escapes from the blood vessels and 
collects in the body cavities or under the skin. Any 
sluggish condition of the blood occasioned by dis- 
ease or faulty nutrition may induce this collecton 
in various parts of the body. Dropsy is, therefore, 
not a disease, but a symptom of some other dis- 
ease. This being the case, treatment depends upon 
the original disease, upon the nature of which de- 
pends in turn the possibility of permanent or tem- 
porary cure. 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS I49 

A mild attack of dropsy is indicated when the 
legs of a horse swell up, due to lack of exercise 
and poor circulation as occasioned by standing in 
the stable. The first thing, of course, is to start 
better blood circulation. Hand rubbing is good; 
bathing with hot water acts similarly. Any med- 
icine that stimulates the action of the kidneys will 
prove helpful. Saltpeter is excellent for this. Use 
once a day for three or four days in succession, and 
give 4 tablespoonfuls at a dose. In connection with 
this treatment supply the animal with succulent or 
laxative food, that the bowels may be kept free and 
open. Any of the tonic condition powders will 
help. 

DYSTOKIA.— See Obstetrics. 

ECZEMA. — An inflammatory, non-contagious dis- 
ease of the skin in which eruptions may occur in 
the form of vesicles, pustules, crusts, scales, or 
simple redness. Its principal victims are animals 
fed rich food, the penalty being associated with 
some gastric or intestinal disturbance. Treatment 
is both external and internal. The former should 
be in the nature of washes for cleanliness and heal- 
ing. Tar soap is recommended. A wash made 
of 4 tablespoonfuls of carbonate of potassium dis- 
solved in a quart of water is also excellent. After 
a good rub with this, wash off with warm water. 

If itching causes any distress, prepare a wash 
consisting of 2 tablespoonfuls of acetate of lead, 8 
tablespoonfuls of tincture of opium and a quart of 
water. Where scales have formed and the skin is 
thick and scurvy, rub in a little with the fingers 
some biniodide of mercury and vaseline. Use 2 
teaspoonfuls of the mercury and 8 tablespoonfuls 
of the vaseline. One application will do the work. 
If the case is bad, several parts being afifected, treat 



150 

only one part at a time with the mercury salve. Be 
certain to have the animal tied so that he cannot 
get his mouth to the treated region. 

For internal treatment let the physic come first. 
For horses, mix 4 tablespoonfuls of aloes, 4 table- 
spoonfuls of ginger and 4 tablespoonfuls of soda 
carbonate dissolved in a pint of boiling v^^ater. 
Let cool to proper temperature and give as a drench. 
For cattle, give a pound of Epsom salts and 4 table- 
spoonfuls of ginger in water as a drench. Follow- 
ing the physic should come a good blood tonic. To 
prepare this, mix 16 tablespoonfuls each of nitrate 
of potassium and sulphate of iron. Give in doses 
of 13^ tablespoonfuls daily in a bran mash until all 
is used. 

DYSENTERY.— An inflammation of the lining 
membrane of the large intestine near the rectum, 
accompanied with straining, discharge of blood, and 
fever. Poisonous and irritating food causes it, stag- 
nant and foul water favors its development, but any 
exposure to cold or excessive heat or overwork 
may bring it on. In cattle the acute form is at- 
tended with shivering, arching of the back and 
tenderness about the loins. The animal grunts, 
yawns, grinds its teeth, and, at short intervals, dis- 
charges from its bowels a thin, ill-smelling dung 
mixed with blood and pus. The thirst is excessive, 
the animal is dull and stupid, and loses flesh rapidly. 
After the disease has gone on a few days, the hide 
becomes rough and unhealthy, the teeth loose, the 
dung bloody and fetid, the eyes sink in the head and 
dropsical swellings appear about the lower jaws 
and legs, and usually the creature dies exhausted. 
For acute dysentery, when seen early, give horses 
a drench consisting of 15 tablespoonfuls of castor 
oil, 8 tablespoonfuls of laudanum, and i pint of 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS I5I 

linseed oil. The rectum and lower bowel should 
be washed out with large injections of simple warm 
water. For chronic forms lo grains of calomel, a 
teaspoonful of opium, and 4 tablespoons each of 
gentian and chalk are advised. These are to be 
mixed and given either as a ball or as a drench once 
a day. Six tablespoonfuls of laudanum in a pint 
of boiled starch every two hours until the straining 
ceases, is also very good. When cattle are afifected, 
remove from grass or other succulent food, put on 
a dry diet and give a pint of linseed oil every day 
until recovery. If the action of the bowels does 
not cease promptly, give 2 tablespoonfuls of pow- 
dered alum and 2 tablespoonfuls of powdered ginger 
in a quart of milk once or twice a day until the dis- 
charge moderates. An excellent medicine is 10 
tablespoonfuls of castor oil and 4 tablespoonfuls 
of laudanum mixed with linseed gruel and given 
as a drench. 

ENTERITIS.— See Inflammation of the Bowels. 

EPILEPSY.— See Fits. 

EPIZOOTIC— See Influenza. 

ERGOTISM. — A parasitic fungus that grows on 
different species of grass and produces in one stage 
of its development black or purple enlarged spurs 
causes ergotism. The disastrous effect of ergot 
seems to appear in the late fall and winter, when 
hay or straw infected with ergot are continuously 
fed. The animals will be troubled with irritation 
of the bowels and a sloughing off of the extrem- 
ities. Frequently the animals lose parts of their 
tails or ears or hoofs. In others, gangrenous sores 
appear. In the early stages of the poisoning 
the symptoms are not clearly marked. The 
best treatment is secured by an entire change 
of food, so as to remove the cause, and then 



152 THE FARMER S VETERINARIAN 

to follow with good laxative food. Of course, 
medicinal treatment will not be satisfactory if an 
important part of the animal like the hoof were to 
be destroyed. So much expense would be con- 
nected with keeping the animal until a new hoof 
had been formed that it is better at the beginning 
to destroy the animal unless very valuable. Where 
sores only manifest themselves such treatment as 
given an ordinary wound will be efficacious, pro- 
vided food absolutely free of ergot is supplied. 

ERYSIPELAS.— An inflammation of the skin 
and tissues beneath. Owing to a blood poison, it is 
characterized by a swelling and hardness of the 
affected parts which has a tendency to spread and 
form abscesses. In horses and cattle, erysipelas 
is nearly always the result of wounds and generally 
of those in the legs of animals weakened by hard 
work and poor food, or else in young animals whose 
blood is vitiated by the poison of glanders or some 
other animal contamination. The disturbance is 
noticed on the third or fourth day after the injury 
in the immediate neighborhood of the wound. The 
skin is swollen, smooth, hot, tender, and painful. 
The swelling gradually extends around it, some- 
times deep into the muscles. The surface is hard 
and tense, but often when the finger is firmly pressed 
upon it and withdrawn a depression is left. In severe 
cases chills occur, the pulse is weak and quick, the 
breathing hurried, the bowels constipated and the 
urine scanty and highly colored. There is con- 
siderable thirst, but no appetite. A brisk purge is 
the first step in treating. Follow the purge with 
tincture of chloride of iron, 4 teaspoonfuls in a pint 
of water. Give this every three or four hours. At 
the same time give internally 4 tablespoonfuls of 
hyposulphite of soda in a pint of water three times a 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS I53 

day. Externally bathe the wound with the follow- 
ing mixture : Tincture of chloride of iron, 4 table- 
spoonfuls, and alcohol one pint. Another good 
ointment is sugar of lead 4 tablespoonfuls in a 
pint of water. This should be applied with a wet 
cloth to the diseased parts. 

FARCY.— See Glanders. 

FEVER. — Any rise in temperature above the 
normal. It is, as a rule, a symptom of the body's 
reaction to some form of infection. It is, there- 
fore, not a disease in itself, but an indication of 
some disorder occasioned by infection or poison. 
To treat fever is not so necessary as to remove the 
cause that brought about the disturbance in the first 
place. It follows from this that fever is not a 
cause, but a result. Germs come first, and fever 
is only a sign that tells of their presence. Another 
thing brought to light in reference to fever is this : 
Germs are less active, their vital energy is weakened 
and their power lessened when the heat in the body 
is increased. Consequently they are less active in 
their destructive tendencies as the temperature rises. 
Fever is, therefore, a provision of self-defense, and 
the body's plan of bringing its forces together to 
battle against the germ foes that have invaded it. 

Just what degree of temperature is to be con- 
sidered is difficult to establish. I\Iany things enter 
into the problem, like exercise, age, food, and mode 
of living. In general, however, any special rise 
above the normal, whatever that may be, is the 
signal of danger and infection. A rise of a degree 
or two indicates a mild disturbance, hence a mild 
fever; an elevation of two or three degrees in- 
dicates a slight fever; of four or five, of consider- 
able fever; and if six or seven, of high fever. When 
the elevation reaches 108 degrees, the limit of life 



154 THE FARMER S VETERINARIAN 

has just about been reached. In some diseases there 
is a regular alternative between morning and even- 
ing temperatures. In others, the course is con- 
tinuous, w^ith slight variations, while in others the 
course is intermittent. In this last named it varies 
at different portions of the day, but reaches a 
normal at a certain time each day. 

The pulse-rate usually bears a certain relation 
to the height of the disease. Consequently the 
pulse should be taken in connection with the fever 
height indicated by the thermometer. A fast pulse 
and a high fever in general is more serious than a 
high fever with a pulse only slightly above the 
normal number of beats. There are exceptions to this 
however, as, for instance, in cerebro-spinal menin- 
gitis. In the early stages of fever, the develop- 
ment cannot at the moment always be decided. In 
many cases little treatment, if any, will be neces- 
sary. The caution should be observed, neverthe- 
less, of ascertaining the cause of the disturbance, if 
possible. In any case, simple cathartics can be 
given, good air provided, nourishing feed supplied, 
and time allowed for careful observation of the 
system and of the actions and movements of the 
animal. 

FISTULAE. — A chronic discharge from some 
tubelike channel, with no tendency to heal. Fistulas 
are most common in horses. They may be located on 
the withers (fistulous withers), on the side of the 
face (tooth fistulae), on the breast bone (sternal 
fistulae), or on the lower jaw (salivary fistulse). 
Fistulous withers are caused from some external in- 
jury (the animal rolling on a rock, ill-fitting collars, 
the saddle pressing on the withers, or from being 
struck by a club). Tooth fistulae are caused by a 
decayed tooth. The pus in trying to get out of the 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS I55 

body takes the easiest course and eats through the 
bones of the face and escapes, causing a chronic 
discharge. A sternal or breast fistula is caused by 
some sharp object being run into the breast and 
striking the breast bone, injuring it and causing 
decay and pus formation. A salivary fistula is 
caused by an injury to the tube which carries the 
saliva from the gland to the mouth. 

Symptoms of Fistulous Withers. — At first a large 
swelling appears on one or both sides of the withers. 
In about a week this enlargement becomes soft, and 
the fluid contained in it can be distinctly felt. If 
left to itself the swelling gets larger and softer, and 
in a month or so breaks and discharges the con- 
tents. The fluid that comes from the swelling is 
first thin and streaked with blood ; later it contains 
yellow-appearing masses. The last material is the 
pus. The sack that formed at the time the fistula 
was caused is a hard, firm membrane. This keeps 
the wound from healing. For this reason the dis- 
charge becomes chronic. The wound may heal and 
there will be no pus discharged for a month, then 
the old opening will be broken and the pus will flow 
out again until the sack is emptied. This healing 
of the wound and then breaking again may be kept 
up for years, unless the disease is properly treated. 
As a general rule, the affected animal runs down 
in flesh. 

Treatment for fistulous withers consists of open- 
ing the swelling and inserting muslin strips that 
have been dipped into terchloride of antimony. In- 
sert one and remove, inserting another and leave 
in the opening for three or four hours. Repeal 
this operation every four or five days for a month. 
In addition rub on the outside of the swelling once 
every two weeks a mixture made of 2 teaspoonfuls 



IS6 



THE FARMER S VETERINARIAN 



of cantharides and 4 tablespoonfuls of lard. The 
tooth fistula usually calls for the removal of the 
tooth and thorough disinfection of the opening from 
the face through to the mouth. With a sternal fistula 




FISTULOUS WITHERS 

Sometimes only the skin and tissue immediately under it 
become affected. In such cases little trouble need be antici- 
pated; but if the cause is not removed, the deeper structures, 
muscles and bones, may become diseased. 



the diseased bone may need to be scraped and then 
antiseptic v^ashes used daily. The salivary fistula 
is more difficult to treat. Better have the veteri- 
narian to examine, and an operation may be neces- 
sary. 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS I57 

FITS. — Some horses are subject to fits, and with 
them it is incurable. These should not be driven, 
because, when the attack comes on, injury may 
result to the animal itself and to the occupants in 
the carriage. The cause of the difficulty may be 
overfeeding, bad circulation or indigestion. When 
an attack occurs the best treatment is to throw 
cold water over the head. If this attack is repeated 
you had better consult a veterinarian. 

FLATULENT COLIC— See Colic. 

FLEAS. — Fleas are always a nuisance and always 
disagreeable. They live in dry, filthy quarters and 
associate with dogs, hogs, and chickens. To keep 
fleas away or to destroy them when at hand, clean 
the quarters occupied by the animals, destroy the 
bedding and add lime and disinfectants. Dogs may 
be washed in a creolin solution of, say, 2 table- 
spoonfuls of creolin to each pint of water. To dis- 
infect chicken, hog, and horse pens use in a hand 
spray any of the so-called sheep dips or other 
preparations manufactured for lice, itch, mange, or 
insect troubles. 

FLIES. — These pests are a nuisance on every 
farm. While they do not directly cause death they 
greatly worry and irritate farm stock, especially in 
summer, and in this way greatly aflfect the results 
whether along dairy or beef lines. It would be 
impossible to estimate the misery these pests inflict 
on the stock of the country during a single year. 
Aside from the pain that flies inflict on domestic 
animals, they are carriers of disease, both to the 
human family and the beast family. A great many 
common infectious diseases are spread by flies, in- 
cluding such serious diseases as typhoid fever and 
tuberculosis. The only treatment is in way of pre- 
vention. As the breeding places are in filth and 



158 THE farmer's veterinarian 

manure, it follows that if these be destroyed or 
removed, and not permitted to accumulate, the 
floods of flies will disappear. The fly remedies 
now on the market are excellent. When sprayed 
about the stable premises and on the animals the 
flies stay away until the application evaporates. 
Darkened stables are not attractive to flies, and 
by this means the nuisance and annoyance is min- 
imized. 

FLUKES, LIVER.— See Liver Flukes. 

FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE.— This malady 
generally affects ruminants, but, although found 
most often in cattle, sheep, and goats, it may be 
transmitted to swine, and, in some instances, to 
horses, dogs, cats, birds, or human beings. In most 
cases where proper disinfection is made the animal 
recovers in about 15 days. The most dangerous 
thing about foot and mouth disease is the fact that 
it spreads so rapidly. The virus which transmits 
the disease may be carried by railroad cars, bedding, 
feeds, dairy products, dogs, cats, birds, or persons. 
A dog running through a pasture may be the means 
of infecting a whole herd. 

The cause of the disease has not been satisfac- 
torily determined, but it is definitely known that the 
virus which reproduces the disease comes from the 
ulcers and natural secretions and excretions of 
the body, such as milk, saliva, perspiration, feces, 
urine, and exhalation. The contagion is not harm- 
ful when dried. Infected animals lose the power of 
transmitting the disease when the ulcers of the 
mouth, feet, and udder have healed. 

In from three to five days after infection the 
animal has a moderate fever. The appetite is lost 
and the mouth is kept closed. There is a dribbling 
of saliva, and in two or three days yellowish-white 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 1 59 

Spots the size of a hemp seed appear on the gums, 
the lower surface of the tongue, lining of the mouth 
and on the Hps. These eventually attain the size 
of a silver dollar. They run together, burst and 
form painful, foul-smelling ulcers. At this stage 
the saliva is more profuse and ropy and the animal 
makes characteristic smacking noises with the 
mouth. 

Infected animals lose flesh rapidly, in some cases 
as much as lOO pounds in eight or ten days. The 
milk is thick, yellowish-white, has a bad taste, and 
is with difficulty made into cheese or butter. The 
reduction in milk yield during the sickness and for 
some time after recovery is 50 to 75 per cent. 

Usually, a .ihort time after an appearance of the 
disease in the mouth parts, there is a redness, heat 
and swelling of the skin at its junction with the 
hoof and especially between the toes and upon 
the soles of the foot. Similar ulcers to those on the 
mouth appear on the feet and soon burst. The 
animal becomes lame and moves stiffly and lies 
down a great deal. These ulcers ordinarily heal 
up in one or tw^o weeks. 

In some cases the animal dies suddenly, in others 
lingers a few hours with difficult breathing and dis- 
charge of blood from the nose, and finally dies of 
paralysis of the heart and lungs. In still other 
cases emaciation and reduction of milk flow is the 
only bad result. Sometimes ulcers form at the root 
of the horn and cause the horn to drop off. 

Owing to the nature of the disease, its contagion 
and danger, treatment should be in line of preven- 
tion and in destruction of infected animals. While 
the disease yields to treatment, our best sugges- 
tions when the disease is suspected is in notification 
to the state officers and in securing the services of 



l6o THE fARMER*S VETERINARIAN 

a veterinarian w^ho v^ill be able to advise v^hat is 
best to do. 

FOOT PUNCTURE.— See Wounds and Their 
Treatment. 

FOOT ROT IN SHEEP.— A chronic inflamma- 
tion of the foot, marked by ulceration, softening of 
the hoof, lameness, and the discharge of a sticky 
material w^hich has a very fetid odor. It is a con- 
tagious disease, and is produced by a germ that 
lives in the soil and gains entrance to the feet 
through wounds and surfaces chafed by barbed 

grasses and stones, or by 
gritty clay, v^hich becomes 
lodged between the toes and 
hardens there. 

The first symptom is a 
slight lameness. If the af- 
fected foot be examined, 
that part just above the 
horny part of the cleft of 
the foot, either in front or 
FOOT ROT behind, will be found in- 

cia1ed"4?fh sheeT "rTs ^^med, feverish, and moist. 

sometimes so serious that ErosionS Or ulccrs SOOn 
the entire hoof rots away. ,, , 

appear, generally on the 
heel. These penetrate the foot and burrow 
beneath the horny parts, causing fistulous tracts 
from which exudes a foul-smelling pus possessing 
an odor sufficiently characteristic to indicate the 
disease in a flock, even without a close examination. 
In time, the foot becomes greatly overgrown and 
deformed, the hoofs increasing in length and curl- 
ing upward. In bad cases, the suffering is so great 
the animal lies down most of the time, but when 
only the front feet are diseased, it will crawl 
around on its knees. 




DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS l6l 

That the disease is contagious is shown by the 
fact that it generally starts in one foot and spreads 
to the others, and, at the same time, the feet of 
other sheep in the same flock become diseased in 
the same way, the outbreak covering a period of 
several months. In cases that recover sponta- 
neously the foot is deformed and the joint is stif- 
fened. It is only in virulent outbreaks where all 
the feet are diseased, or where some complication, 
such as maggots, is present, that deaths occur. 

Having as its cause a microbe, it is proper to 
take measures of prevention as well as cure. In 
purchasing sheep, it is highly advisable to keep 
them isolated for a week, as a test. All overgrown 
hoofs should be trimmed. Sores or wounds, from 
any cause, should be carefully disinfected daily. 
Low, boggy lands should not be used as pasture 
for sheep, and dirty, unsanitary pens should be 
made sanitary, as these all predispose to an out- 
break of the disease. 

As treatment, first isolate all afifected animals. 
Mild cases are best treated by making the sheep 
stand for several minutes daily in a trough con- 
taining a disinfectant, or, better still, by arranging 
the trough of suitable length with fenced-up sides 
and a widened entrance, so the sheep can be easily 
started into the inclosure and made to wade through 
the disinfectant. 

In bad cases and where the hoof is underrun with 
pus, the horn and all overgrowths must be cut 
away so as to expose the diseased parts to the 
action of the disinfectant. The foot should then be 
dried, dusted with finely powdered burnt alum, 
and bandaged to keep out the dirt. This antiseptic 
treatment of the feet must be kept up daily as long 
as the disease exists. Any of the following may 



l62 THE farmer's VETERINARIAN 

be used: l pound chloride of lime to 12 quarts of 
water; i pound of pure carbolic acid to 4 gallons 
of water; a solution of creolin; a coal-tar disin- 
fectant of the same strength ; or any good sheep 
dip containing these substances in the proper 
amounts. 

FOUNDER. — An inflammation of the sensitive 
or soft structures between the hoof and bones of the 
foot. The popular belief that founder is to any 
extent in the legs and chest is probably an error. 
The disease is in the feet, and those symptoms 
v/hich make it appear as a stiffness in the legs and 
shoulder are but the natural results of soreness in 
the feet. The same statement might be made re- 
garding those cases which are popularly described 
as " stove up in the shoulder." Instead of the 
soreness being in the shoulder in these cases, it is 
generally in the feet, or at least below the knee. 

It is somewhat difficult to explain how those 
influences or causes which are known to produce 
founder bring about that condition, but observa- 
tion shows clearly that an irritation of the diges- 
tive tract, or in fact, any extensive irritation of any 
mucous surface, may produce an inflammation of 
the sensitive laminae of the feet; that is, founder. 
Therefore founder may be produced by a change 
of feed or excessive feeding, a change of work or 
excessive work which results in exhaustion, large 
quantities of feed or water when warm or fatigued, 
sudden changes of temperature such as cooling too 
fast when sweating, and a long drive on hard roads, 
especially without shoes. Excessive purging or 
diarrhoea may also produce it. Founder also occa- 
sionally results from irritation of foaling, but this 
is not common. 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 



163 



There is no essential difference in the nature of 
the disease determined by the particular agent or 
condition which causes it. " Water founder," and 
that produced by over-feeding, concussion, or ex- 
treme fatigue are, in so far as the character of the 
disease is concerned, one and the same thing. 

Founder May Occur in the fore or hind feet or 
in both ; but generally the fore feet are those af- 
fected. A stiffness and disinclination to move are 
perhaps the first symptoms noticed. The position 
in which the animal stands is characteristic. The 

fore feet will be placed 

well forward, so that the 

weight will be borne by 

the heels, while the hind 

feet are brought well up 

under the body in order 

to take as much weight 

off the front feet as 

possible. This position 

g-ives a rather un- 

appearance to 

and the hind 

frequently 

steady a posi- 




FOUNDER 



In bad cases of founder 
,the foot shrinks from the 
wasting of the sensitive sub- 
stances. A typical foundered 
foot is pictured here. 



steady 

animal, 

feet are 
shifted in order to maintain as 
tion as possible. From this fact founder is 
frequently mistaken by inexperienced persons for a 
disease of the kidneys. The body temperature is 
usually considered increased ; that is, there is fever 
— as it is generally expressed — due to inflamma- 
tion in the feet. As is usual in the first stages of 
inflammation, the pulse beat is increased in fre- 
quency and force. An increase of heat in the feet, 
with a njanifestation of pain when the hoofs are 
tapped with a hammer, are, when taken with all 
the foregoing facts, sufficient evidence of founder. 



164 THE farmer's veterinarian 

When founder occurs in one foot, however, as It 
sometimes does, the diagnosis may be more dif- 
ficult for the inexperienced. When it occurs only 
in the hind feet the position which the animal takes 
will not be different from that taken with founder 
in only both fore feet but from different causes. 
The hind feet are brought well forward under the 
body, but for the purpose of throwing such little 
weight as is borne on them on the heels. 

The Feet Should Be Kept Moist.— Remove the 
shoes and apply moisture to the feet. The latter 
may be done by standing the animal in water five 
or six inches deep each day, several hours at a 
time, or by the application of a poultice of wheat 
bran or some such material, or by wrapping the 
feet with cloths and keeping them thoroughly 
saturated with water. The animal should always 
be encouraged to lie down and take the weight off 
his feet, which is beneficial. When this occurs, a 
poultice of some sort must be used to apply mois- 
ture to the feet. It may be applied by the use of 
a sack large enough to envelop the foot and hold 
sufficient of the poultice to retain the moisture for 
some time. This application of moisture to the 
feet should be continued until the severity of the 
inflammation and the lameness have subsided. 

Unless the founder be due to excessive purga- 
tion, a quart of raw linseed oil should be given as 
a purgative. During the first 48 hours from 30 
to 40 drops of tincture of aconite may be given 
every three or four hours. Four tablespoonfuls of 
nitrate of potash (saltpeter) should also be given 
three times a day in the feed or on the tongue. If 
the lameness continues after the acute symptoms 
have subsided, a rest of several weeks on a soft 
pasture and the application of a blister around the 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 1 65 

top of the hoof are recommended. The following 
mixture has been useful as a blister: Red iodide 
of mercury, i part; lard, 4 parts; cerate of can- 
tharides, 4 parts. Apply around the top of the 
hoof, except at the heels, and rub for 10 to 15 
minutes. The animal should be tied so that it can- 
not get its mouth to the blistered part for several 
hours after the medicine has been applied. 

CHRONIC FOUNDER.— In a majority of cases 
the above treatment will be followed by a good 
recovery, but an animal once foundered is probably 
more likely to suffer from a subsequent attack. If 
the lameness does not entirely disappear in a week 
or ten days, it is seldom that a complete recovery 
takes place. In such cases the animal is likely to 
remain unfit for road work and to continue to show 
more or less soreness. These are the cases that 
are later said to have " chest founder," or " stove 
up in the shoulder," owing to the fact that the 
muscles of the chest w^aste away from lack of free 
'use. 

In some cases still more serious results follow 
an acute attack of founder. The inflammation may 
be so severe that there is separation between the 
hoof and structures, the formation of pus, and a 
descent of the central organs of the foot, which 
causes a bulging of the sole. In such cases, even 
though recovery takes place to such an extent that 
it is advisable to allow the animal to live^ it is not 
fit for work, and can only be used for breeding 
purposes. 

FOWL CHOLERA.— See Chicken Cholera. 

GAPES. — A symptom caused by worms in the 
windpipe ; oftenest seen in young chicks and tur- 
keys. Birds droop, cough, and lower their wings. 



i66 

A feather moistened, but not dripping, with kero- 
sene or oil of turpentine is the commonest remedy. 
Cleanliness of food, water and quarters is the great 
preventive. Poultry men who keep their chicks 
on ground not used for chick raising the previous 
year, and who insist on strictest cleanliness, report 
highly satisfactory results in avoiding gapes. 

GARGET. — A swelling, accompanied by inflam- 
mation of the udder. It may be caused by kicks or 
blows, by germs getting into the udder, or as a 
result of holding the milk too long. Do not use 
the milk when the udder is affected. For garget 
rub with hot camphorated oil twice a day. Give as 
medicine 8 tablespoonfuls of hyposulphite of soda 
each day, either in the feed or in a drench. Keep 
up the treatment for two weeks. 

GASTRITIS. — A rather uncommon disease in 
domestic animals and the result of a disturbance in 
the stomach, with inflammation following, caused 
by irritating substances, usually of a poisonous 
nature. A common symptom is nausea and pain like 
colic. Indeed, the ordinary outward signs of colic are 
observed. At first the pulse is strong, which weak- 
ens, and runs rapidly, from 80 to 100 beats a minute. 
As the disease progresses the pulse becomes ir- 
regular and the animal dull and listless. Treatment 
consists of simple agents. If the disturbance is 
due to some potassium compound, give oil; if to 
ammonia, give vinegar; if from turpentine, give 
oil and opium, the opium in teaspoonful doses every 
couple hours. After recovery, let only easily 
digested food be provided. 

GID IN SHEEP.—A disease of the brain due to 
a worm in the brain substance. This worm, known 
as the bladder worm, is a form of the tape-worm 
of the dog at an early stage of its existence. The 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS l€fj 

eggs of this worm, on being swallowed, are hatched 
in the stomach, from which they enter into the 
circulation, finally lodging in the brain and spinal 
cord. Those that lodge elsewhere, as in the heart 
and lungs, grow for a time and then disappear. 
The most conspicuous symptom is the staggering, 
stupefied condition of the afifected animal. 

In walking, if a single side is affected, a circle is 
described. The feet are raised as if the animal did 
not see well. In many cases blindness results. 
The growth of the worm is somewhat rapid. In 
about three weeks after the appearance of the 
disease a softened condition of the skull results, 
which may be found by pressing the fingers over 
It. From this it will be observed that there is prac- 
tically no treatment for animals affected. Occa- 
sionally the skin is accidentally broken over the 
point where the worm is encysted, out of which it 
emerges and the sheep recovers. 

Treatment, therefore, is along the line of this 
natural recovery. Find the soft spot by pressing 
the fingers over the skull, then introduce the trocar 
and canula. Withdraw the trocar, apply a syringe 
to the canula, and withdraw the contents of 
the cyst within. Of course, inflammation of the 
brain may set in and the sheep die from this, or 
another worm may be present and grow, thus caus- 
ing continued disease. Inasmuch as the bladder 
worm of sheep is a stage of the tape-worm of the 
dog, it follows that destroying all affected sheep, 
so as to prevent the dogs from becoming reinfested 
from it, is the only really safe and satisfactory 
method of warding off the trouble. 

GLANDERS. — A contagious disease peculiar to 
the horse, ass, and mule, and may be communicated 
to human beings, and also sometimes to carnivorous 



l68 THE farmer's veterinarian 

animals in menageries, by means of infected horse 
flesh, and also by means of inoculation to field mice, 
guinea pigs, dogs, cats, goats, rabbits, and sheep. 
Pigs are not readily susceptible and cattle appear 
to be immune. Like all diseases of a contagious or 
infectious character, glanders is due to a specific 
organism, known as the bacillus malleus. 

The external manifestations of glanders differ 
and consequently the disease is spoken of as glan- 
ders or farcy, depending upon the symptoms pre- 
sented. The disease is known as glanders when the 
horse suffering from it has a discharge from the 
nose, ulcers on the septum nasi (the partition divid- 
ing the nasal cavities) and enlarged submaxillary 
glands, and is known as farcy when the affected 
animal has farcy " buds " or ulcers on the skin, and 
corded lymphatic vessels running from one " bud " 
to another. In farcy, the corded lymphatics, " buds " 
and ulcers on the skin are very apt to be on the 
inside of one hind leg or the other, but may appear 
on the inside of a fore leg, or on the neck or body. 

Farcy was, in olden times, thought to be a different 
disease from glanders, and was believed by many 
to be curable, while glanders has always been gen- 
erally believed to be incurable, but it is now known 
that farcy is simply one manifestation of glanders. 
It has been found that a horse with glanders may 
give another farcy, and vice versa. Guinea pigs 
inoculated with the discharge from a glandered 
horse's nose will develop glanders, and pure cul- 
tures of the glanders bacillus can be obtained from 
them, and in a similar way if guinea pigs are in- 
oculated with the discharge from a sore on a horse 
with farcy glanders may be produced in these little 
experimental animals, and upon post mortem ex- 
5^mination pure cultures of the glanders bacillus can 



— DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 169 ' 

be obtained from the lesions of the disease pro- 
duced in them. Glanders and farcy may again be 
divided into two forms, acute and chronic glanders, 
and acute and chronic farcy. 

In the acute form the disease develops rapidly, 
the lesions form more speedily and with greater 
rapidity than in the chronic form and the animal 
loses strength and condition and dies within the 
course of a few weeks, sometimes in the course of 
a week or two. It is not unusual to meet with an 
animal showing symptoms of both glanders and 
farcy, especially in the acute form. 

In the chronic form the symptoms are not so well 
marked, and a horse may go for months keeping in 
fairly good condition and able to do its work, the 
disease developing very slowly, and at times show- 
ing a tendency to recover; yet such an animal is a 
source of danger to other horses, and also to the 
man taking care of him or driving him. A horse 
with chronic glanders, or farcy, may give the dis- 
ease to another in an acute form, especially if the 
other one is more susceptible for some reason, such 
as a less strong constitution or being run down by 
hard work. 

Post mortem examination of horses with glan- 
ders, or farcy, nearly always reveals the presence 
of glanders nodules or tubercles in the lungs, and, 
in many instances, there is no doubt but what a 
horse may have the tubercles of glanders in his 
lungs for some time before showing outward symp- 
toms of the disease, and in many cases the primary 
lesions of the infection occur in the lungs. A horse 
with lung glanders may be a source of danger to 
other horses and cause disease in them and yet go 
unsuspected for some time. A case is said to have 
occurred in Boston a number of years ago where a 



170 



THE FARMER S VETERINARIAN 



hack horse lost eight successive mates with gland- 
ers; he w^as finally killed and his lungs were found 
to be full of glanders nodules, and yet he never 
showed any external symptoms of glanders. Such 




BAD CASE OF GLANDERS 

The farcy form is shown here. The animal has not long 
to live. Except for experimental purposes, every horse having 
Colanders should be killed as soon as the disease is discovered. 

cases could be cited in large numbers if soace per- 
mitted, but one example w^ill answer. 

A horse with lung glanders may have a little dry, 
spasmodic cough, may look somewhat unthrifty, 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS I7I 

and if the temperature were taken it might be 
slightly above normal, say, loi degrees to loi^, 
the normal temperature being 100 degrees. Yet 
such an animal might do its work, last for a long 
time and not be suspected as a source of danger 
until several cases had occurred in the stable, for 
which it was difficult to account. 

While a well-marked case of glanders or of farcy 
is not difficult of diagnosis, there are many obscure 
cases which escape detection for some time. If a 
horse has a well-marked discharge from one or both 
nostrils, with characteristic chancres visible upon 
the mucous membrane of the septum nasi, and hard 
enlarged submaxillary glands in the intermaxillary 
space, it is not a difficult matter to diagnose such 
a case, and any horseman ought to recognize it. 
The same is true of a well-marked case of farcy. 
When the lymphatic vessels on the inside of a leg, 
especially a hind leg, are swelled and corded, with 
a chain of farcy buds along their course, some of 
which have gathered and broken, leaving a dis- 
charging open ulcer in the skin, it is quite evident 
that the animal is suffering from farcy. 

A peculiarity of glanders seems to be a tendency 
for the symptoms to appear on the left side; in 
many cases of glanders the discharge and ulcera- 
tion is in the left nostril, and the left submaxillary 
gland is enlarged ; and in a large number of the cases 
of farcy met with it is the left hind leg that shows 
the lesions of the disease. In obscure cases of 
glanders or farcy the diagnosis is not always so 
easy, even for experts, and then other methods for 
determining the trouble have to be resorted to. 
These are the guinea pig test and the mallein test. 
The guinea pig test consists of inoculating one or 
two of these little animals with the discharge from 



VJ2 THE farmer's VETERINARIAN 

a suspected hofse's nose, or from a farcy sore. If 
they should develop glanders it v^ould be proof 
positive that the suspected horse had this disease; 
if they do not develop glanders it is not always pos- 
itive proof that the suspected horse is free from 
the disease. Sometimes more than one test is 
necessary, or another method of diagnosis may have 
to be resorted to. This is the mallein test. 

Mallein is a product made from cultures of the 
glanders bacillus analagous to tuberculin as made 
from cultures of the tubercle bacillus, and is used 
for testing horses for glanders much as tuberculin 
is used for testing cattle for tuberculosis. A horse 
infected v^ith glanders ^n\\\ react to a mallein test 
in much the same way as a cow infected with tuber- 
culosis will react to the tuberculin test. It is not 
customary in some states to kill a horse that reacts 
to mallein unless it shows some clinical evidence of 
disease. All horses that show clinical evidence of 
glanders or farcy in some states are killed by the 
state authority, and the law requires persons know- 
ing or suspecting cases of this kind to report in 
writing to the chief of the cattle bureau of the 
state board of agriculture or to the inspector of 
animals in the city or town where the disease is 
believed to exist, except in some cities where the 
city board of health has full charge of glanders and 
farcy. Anyone selling, removing, transporting, or 
concealing a horse knowing or having reasonable 
cause to believe it has glanders or farcy is in most 
states liable to a heavy penalty. 

In stables where glanders exists, in some cases, 
all the horses are tested and divided; the reactors 
are separated from the non-reactors, and those that 
react are tested once a month until they cease to 
react, or show physical indications of glanders and 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 173 

are killed. Used in this way mallein seems to have 
a curative effect on incipient cases, and has been 
very successfully used in freeing infected stables 
from the disease. When a horse is killed because 
it has glanders or farcy the stall should be thor- 
oughly disinfected where it has been kept, as well 
as the harness, blankets, currycomb and other 
utensils, and anything that cannot be easily disin- 
fected ought to be destroyed. Public watering 
troughs where the horse has been watered should be 
emptied and cleaned out, and the blacksmith ought 
to disinfect his shop where the horse was shod. 

There are various diseases that may be taken for 
glanders or farcy, and there have also been numer- 
ous instances where glanders has been taken for 
something else ; for instance, chronic nasal catarrh. 
What many old-time veterinarians used to call 
chronic nasal catarrh or nasal gleet, were, in many 
instances, if not in nearly all, cases of chronic 
glanders, and when one of these cases of nasal 
gleet was rounded up in a locality, glanders disap- 
peared in that neighborhood 

A horse with a chronic discharge from the nose 
as the result of a decayed tooth may sometimes be 
mistaken for a case of glanders, and also a horse 
with distemper or strangles ; but the latter generally 
recovers soon, and in strangles the gland under the 
jaw softens and breaks and discharges while in 
glanders the gland remains firm and hard and gen- 
erally not sensitive to manipulation. 

There is a disease that has been troublesome in 
Pennsylvania and parts of Ohio the last two years 
called suppurative lymphangitis or epizootic lym- 
phangitis, which may be mistaken for farcy, but 
animals suffering from it do not react to mallein, 
and guinea pigs inoculated with the discharges do 



174 THE FARMER^S VETERINARIAN 

not develop glanders. There is not much glanders 
in the Eastern states, except in the cities, and the 
disease is not of a great deal of interest to farmers, 
except to avoid purchasing animals with it at some 
of the unreliable sales stables. Where a case oc- 
curs on a farm, except on some market gardener's 
farm near a city, it is found, as a rule, that the horse 
was purchased at some unscrupulous dealer's stable 
in the city, and, in some instances, other horses on 
the farm are infected, and the farmer not only loses 
his new acquisition, but has two or three other 
horses killed besides that have become infected. 

Farmers buying new horses at city sales stables 
ought to endeavor to deal with only reputable con- 
cerns, and to avoid cheats. It is well to remember 
that a person cannot get something for nothing, 
and it is not likely that anyone can buy a horse for 
$50 to $75 because it is afraid of elevated railroad 
trains that would otherwise be worth $300 to $500, 
or because a widow lady wants a good home for her 
late husband's old pet. Anyone buying horses 
from a fake coal company, or a humbug ice com- 
pany, or an unknown express company that is just 
going out of business, is liable to invite a serious 
disease to his farm. 

GRAVEL OR DIRT IN FOOT— A collec- 
tion of pus, or other fluid containing gravel or 
dirt. It occurs most frequently in the foot, 
and is associated with the horse and mule 
almost exclusively. The cause may be from a 
bruise, but more frequently it is due to a punc- 
tured wound of the foot by nail, wire, or other 
pointed object. Nearly always there will be dirt 
carried into the wound with the offending object or 
shortly after its removal. This dirt, infected with 
germs, sets up an inflammation of the sensitive 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS I75 

structures causing more or less lameness. In many 
instances the nail hole becomes closed up and the 
collected matter may have to seek an outlet above 
the hoof. To determine the trouble a very careful 
examination of the hoof should be made, looking 
for any opening leading into the foot, often detected 
by discoloration of the part, or at an over-sensitive 
point in the foot. 

Treatment should consist in making or enlarg- 
ing the opening at a dependent part of the hoof, if 
possible, so that all secretion formed in the wound 
can find a ready escape to the outside. Without 
free opening there is danger of tetanus (lockjaw) 
developing. The wound should be thoroughly 
cleansed, and washed with some mild disinfectant, 
after which a small quantity of oil of turpentine 
should be injected, and the wound packed with 
calomel or iodoform and covered with a pledget 
of cotton. If the wound is very deep or extensive 
it may be beneficial, after thoroughly cleansing the 
foot, to apply a hot bran or flaxseed poultice. Use 
poultice for several days and change daily. 

GREASE HEEL.— A form of eczema that at- 
tacks the skin of the heel and fetlock. Sometimes 
the disease becomes so severe as to crack open, from 
which blood oozes out. A crust forms and later 
on becomes painful and disagreeable. To remove 
the scurvy part that is noticed first, apply a poul- 
tice, made of wheat bran or linseed meal. Change 
the poultices two or three times during the day. 
After removal each time wash with warm water, in 
which has been put some carbolic acid or creolin,and 
then apply the poultice again. After the poulticing 
is ended apply a salve made of 4 tablespoonfuls of 
oxide of zinc and 8 tablespoonfuls of vaseline. If 
indigestion seems to be associated in any way, give 



176 THE FARMER^S VETERINARIAN 

the horse a dose of physic, aloes being best for the 
purpose. 

GRUB IN THE HEAD.— This condition is the 
presence of the larva (worm stage) of the sheep bot 
fly, located in the frontal sinuses (cavities) of the 
head. The trouble is confined to sheep and occa- 
sionally goats. The so-called " grub " of the horse 
is found in its stomach, while the " grub " of cattle 
is found along its back just underneath the skin. 
The adult fly, which lays the living " sheep grub," 
is of a yellowish-gray color, slightly larger than a 
house fly. During the warmer part of the summer 
days the fly goes about depositing its young in the 
nose of the sheep. The young then work their way 
upward into cavities of the head between the eyes, 
but not into the brain cavity. Here they attach 
themselves to the lining, remaining when un- 
molested for some ten months, then lose their hold 
and are sneezed out to the ground. Burrowing 
into the ground they enter the pupa or dormant 
stage, when, after a month or six weeks, they 
emerge as adult ilies to replenish their kind. 

When few grubs are in the head little trouble may 
be observed, but if more numerous may cause free 
discharge of dirty white or yellowish, thick fluid, loss 
of appetite, frequent coughing and sneezing, tossing 
of head and weakened gait, and the animal may be- 
come too weak to rise, and finally dies. With a special 
instrument (trephine) bore a hole into the cavity 
containing grubs and remove them with forceps. 
When they are present every year the sheep should 
be protected by keeping the nose smeared with 
tar during summer months. This can be done by 
causing sheep to lick salt from holes in a trough 
after placing tar about the holes. 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 1 77 

HAIR BALLS. — True hair balls are seldom 
found in other animals than cattle, resulting either 
from licking themselves or others; but different 
kinds of indigestible balls or concretions are fre- 
quently found in cattle and other animals, particu- 
larly the horse, in the stomach or intestines. Dust 
balls are occasionally formed when animals are fed 
upon mill cleanings. In sections where crimson 
clover is fed, and frequently in over-ripe condition 
in large quantities, balls are formed of parts of the 
indigestible heads. Again, calcareous or mineral 
matter may accumulate about an indigestible sub- 
stance as a nucleus. These are not well-defined, 
in many instances, and the balls are often present 
without making it known. So long as they do not 
irritate the bowel too much, or do not occlude the 
opening from one portion of the bowel to another, 
they are likely to escape notice. In case they do 
obstruct the bow^el they become serious obstacles, 
the greater number of these cases terminating in 
death. The symptoms then become those of colic 
from obstruction. In many cases no relief can be 
given, but attempts should be made to cause the 
obstruction to pass by giving mild purgatives and 
copious enemas. 

HEAVES.— The term "heaves" is used to de- 
scribe that disease of the horse which otherwise is 
known as " broken wind," or technically as " emphy- 
sema of the lungs." This ailment, which is incurable 
when thoroughly established and to which a ten- 
dency is inherited by the offspring of an affected 
sire or dam, is characterized by the following symp- 
toms : Double, bellows-like action of the abdom- 
inal muscles in breathing; short, suppressed cough, 
usually accompanied by passage of gas from the 
rectum ; gluttonous appetite ; harsh, staring coat 



178 THE FARMER'S VETERINARIAN 

of hair; pot belly; weakness; lack of endurance, 
sweating, panting, or staggering during work; 
dilated nostrils; frequent passage of gas and soft, 
foul-smelling feces when starting from stable. 

The disease begins with indigestion, affecting in 
time the pneumo-gastric nerve of the stomach and 
then the branch nerves running to the lungs. At 
first the air tubules and vesicles of the lungs be- 
come dilated (aneurism) ; later they may break 
down into large air spaces and the surrounding 
lung tissues become involved (interlobular em- 
physema). Air then is easily inhaled, but is ex- 
haled with difficulty and the effort causes cough 
and expulsion of gas (flatus). 

The distress may be relieved by treatment, but 
perfect recovery is impossible when the lungs have 
become badly affected. Treat by substituting wet 
oat straw for hay in winter and grass for hay in 
summer. Allow double the usual rest period after 
a meal. Work when stomach is not distended with 
food. Do not feed hay at noon. Use lime water 
to wet all food. Once or twice a week give raw 
linseed oil in a bran mash to open bowels. Give 
half an ounce of Fowler's solution of arsenic night 
and morning. Do not breed from affected horses. 

HEAT EXHAUSTION AND SUNSTROKE.— 
The horse that is stricken with heat exhaustion or 
which falls from heat, apoplexy or " sunstroke," is 
sick or out of sorts at the time of attack ; otherwise 
he would withstand heat and work. The middle 
horse of a three-horse team suffers most and is apt 
to succumb to the ill-effects of the combined radia- 
tion of heat from his mates and direct rays f the 
sun. Attacks are most apt to happen on the third or 
fourth day of a spell of intensely hot weather char- 
acterized by mugginess, electrical storms and mois- 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS I79 

ture-saturated air. At such times the horse that 
has indigestion, a heavy, unhealthy coat of hair, a 
skin or kidney trouble or any affection of the brain 
or heart is the one that must be most carefully 
watched and worked. 

With the hope of preventing attacks feed light 
rations, no corn, no mashes, no ground feed other 
than bran ; avoid green grass, unless the horses are 
on it all of the time ; do not feed hay at noon ; allow 
cool, pure drinking water often when horses are at 
work; keep stables clean, darkened, screened, and 
ventilated; shade the polls of the horses' heads 
during work time and in such a way that air passes 
freely under the shading device. 

In sunstroke the horse falls and soon succumbs. 
In heat exhaustion he lags, stops sweating, pants, 
staggers, skin is dry, nostrils dilated, membranes 
of eyes and nostrils red. High fever is present. 
Treat by keeping cold, wet packs to the poll of 
head or letting a stream of cold water run over it. 
Shower body with cold water from a sprinkling 
can. Stand horse in shady place under a tree 
where air passes. Give stimulants freely in water 
as a drench every hour at first, then less often as 
symptoms abate. A suitable stimulant is whiskey 
in half pint doses, or a mixture of one part of 
aromatic spirits of ammonia and two parts each of 
alcohol and sweet spirits of niter. Dose is two 
ounces in half pint water. Do not bleed horse or 
give aconite. Give half ounce doses of saltpeter in 
water twice daily as horse recovers. Call the 
veterinarian in sunstroke cases. 

HERNIA. — A protrusion of any portion of the 
bowels or their coverings through a break in the 
walls of the abdomen. A rupture, for that is the 
popular term, is most common in horses. Often 



i8o 



THE FARMER S VETERINARIAN 



at birth they are seen near the navel. These dis- 
appear in a few months without any treatment 
being required. In mature horses the usual causes 
are blows, kicks or some violent effort that tears 
the muscular structure. 

The characteristic symptom is the bulging out of 
the gut, tumorlike; and this often can be slipped 




VENTRAL HERNIA 

It may occur in any part of the abdomen and varies In size 

with the extent of the rupture. 



back where it belongs. If the rent be not closed, 
even if the gut is returned, the least bit of strain 
is liable to force it out again. Some kinds of 
hernia cause immense pain and the animal shows it. 
In treating, work the gut back to its place. This 
done, place a pad — a flat piece of wood or leather 
will do — over the wound and fasten in such a way 
as to keep it in place. This should be worn for a 
month until recovery is complete. Such treatment 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS l8l 

will not serve in all cases of hernia. An operation 
may be necessary, which should be made only by a 
skillful veterinarian. 

HIDE-BOUND.— This is not a disease at all, but 
an indication of poor health, more particularly of 
poor nutrition ; usually the result of indigestion, im- 
proper food, worms or want of proper exercise. 
The skin is hard, rough, papery, and cannot be 
picked up from the body with ease. When the 
attempt is made, it suggests that the body is too 
large for the skin. Of course treatment is in the 
nature of better food, that proper nourishment may 
be secured. A good physic will be proper to start 
with and then follow with a tonic, easily assimilable 
food of a nature that will properly nourish the 
body. 

HIGH BLOWING— A sound produced in the 
act of breathing while the air is being expelled from 
the lungs during forced respiration. It is a fluttering 
sort of a sound. When horses are trotting or pac- 
ing the sound is essentially a nasal one, and is not 
to be regarded as a state of unsoundness. It is 
rather a measure of excitability, and associated with 
horses of much spirit and good breeding. 

HIP JOINT LAMENESS.— A disease of the hip, 
caused usually by some injury as from a fall or 
kick. A slight swelling is observed just over the 
hip, and lameness when the animal walks or trots. 
In severe cases, the horse will hop and catch the 
lame leg. The best treatment is absolute rest. 
Frequent applications of hot water are good. After 
each application bathe with a solution made of 4 
ounces of water, 2 ounces of tincture of opium, 2 
ounces of tincture of arnica and an ounce of bella- 
donna. If the lameness continues, use a blister 



1 82 THE farmer's VETERINARIAN 

made of 2 teaspoonfuls of cantharides and 4 table- 
spoonfuls of lard. Allow the blister to remain for 
an entire day, then wash off with soap and water 
and apply lard or vaseline. Repeat in a couple of 
weeks if necessary. If the lameness disappears, 
give the horse rest for several weeks. 

HIPPED.— A fracture at the point of the hip. The 
most common cause is striking the point of the hip 
against a door post or pole. Sometimes a kick is 
responsible. While recovery follows, as a rule, 
from the very nature of the fracture, there is no 
treatment that will remedy the broken point. After 
the soreness has passed no inconvenience results; 
only a blemish is observed. 

HOG CHOLERA.— The term, hog cholera has 
become quite ambiguous, partly on account of new 
discoveries concerning the cause of the disease and 
partly on account of what have been supposed to 
be two different but curiously related diseases 
being generally included under this general term. 
Until within a year or two we have supposed that 
there were two infectious diseases of hogs recog- 
nized under the general terms of hog cholera and 
swine plague. It now seems probable that we will 
be able to do away with the term swine plague 
entirely. 

The disease considered here answers lo tne fol- 
lowing requirements: (a) Infectious by associa- 
tion or other natural exposure; (b) the animal 
before death and the carcass after death show cer- 
tain accepted symptoms which are clearly recog- 
nized as pertaining to cholera; (c) the blood is 
virulent and capable of reproducing the disease on 
inoculation into susceptible hogs; (d) attack and 
recovery confer immunity. It is to be understood 
that we might easily have diseases among swine 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 



183 



where characteristic " a " or even " i^ might be 
present and yet the disease be not true hog cholera. 
Until within recent years American authorities, 
bacteriologists and veterinarians alike, have very 
generally accepted a certain germ, the bacillus of 
Salmon and Smith, as the specific cause of hog 
cholera and another somewhat similar germ as the 
cause of what was supposed to be a distinct but 




AN ATTACK OF CHOLERA 

One of the familiar attitudes assumed when the kog is 
affected with cholera. When this far along, not many cases 
of recovery are observed. 



curiously related disease — swine plague. But 
within a few years workers in the Federal bureau 
of animal industry have apparently demonstrated 
that hog cholera is caused by a living germ so small 
that it passes easily through germ filters which re- 
move all known forms of the bacillus of Salmon 
and Smith. 

It may be interesting to note further that this 
new germ is so small as to be invisible to the 
highest available powers of the best microscope. 
That it is a living organism and not a chemical 



i84 

poison may be very easily demonstrated. The 
curious relations to this disease of the old bacilli 
of hog cholera and of swine plague are not well 
understood, but it seems quite possible that they 
may play some part in the later development of 
the disease after the disease processes have been 
started by the invisible germ. While our old 
theories and supposed information concerning the 
cause of hog cholera have been very much dis- 
turbed by newer work, it is important to remember 
that hog cholera is now just as much as before to 
be recognized as a distinctly infectious disease. It 
is important to remember also that this infection 
is absolutely necessary, or there can be no cholera 
no matter how susceptible animals may be. 
There can be no cholera without this primary and 
specific cause any more than there can be plants 
in our wheat fields without the previous presence 
of mustard seed. Conditions of soil and climate 
may favor a rank growth of mustard. Conditions 
of feed and keep may favor the development and 
spread of hog cholera. They may decrease resist- 
ance and increase susceptibility, but cannot origi- 
nally cause the disease. It is a rather common ex- 
perience that hogs kept closely housed and fed, 
especially with such foods as corn, offer less resist- 
ance than do other hogs. In our vaccine work we 
frequently find hogs of this type which die readily 
under inoculation with blood of low grade virulence. 
Hogs of hardier type may become slightly sick or 
not sick at all with inoculation from the same in- 
fectious material. Pampered show herds appear 
especially susceptible to both natural infection and 
artificial inoculation. 

The farmer, and for that matter the public in 
general, should bear in mind that the cause of hog 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 185 

cholera is a living organism capable of enormously 
rapid self-multiplication — actual, though very minute 
particles of matter. This, fully understood, makes it 
apparent that infection may be carried in any way 
that other fine particles of matter may be carried. 
It thus becomes very apparent that the infection 
may be carried by sick hogs or upon the legs and 
bodies of hogs not sick ; it may be carried in wagon 
boxes, in hog racks, in stock cars, or upon shoes 
and clothing of people. It is very evident that the 
infection may be carried down stream, especially 
in small creeks, and give rise to other outbreaks. 

So far as the sick hog is concerned, we are quite 
sure that the blood and the manure are thoroughly 
infectious and there can be no question concerning 
the infectiousness of fresh carcasses of dead hogs. 
Perhaps we should say first of all that we rarely 
get all of the accepted symptoms of hog cholera 
plainly shown in one case. It is important to bear 
in mind that cases vary in virulence from those of 
very chronic type where hogs live for weeks and 
finally die or recover, to very acute cases where 
they die overnight. 

The hog coming down with cholera is usually 
sluggish at first, lying around in the shade and re- 
fusing feed. The hair may become rough. The 
eyes early show symptoms of inflammation, with a 
sticky discharge. There is usually a suppressed 
cough. The gait may become irregular and uncer- 
tain, especially with the hind legs. After these 
preliminary symptoms have been shown for a time, 
the skin becomes red, changing to purple, especially 
noticeable in white-haired hogs. The hog is then 
usually within a very few days of death. 

As already explained, not all cases are typical. 
Sometimes hogs die in an outbreak of cholera from 



i86 



THE farmer's veterinarian 



undoubted hog cholera, and yet the ante mortem 
or post mortem symptoms show very Httle upon 
w^hich to base a diagnosis. But we may easily 
demonstrate that these were cases of cholera by 

injecting their 
blood into sus- 
ceptible hogs 
and by thus 
producing typ- 
ical cholera. 

At the autopsy 
of an ordinary 
case of cholera 
the first and 
perhaps the 
most striking 
thing seen is the 
purpling of the 
skin. On open- 
the carcass small 
blood spots may 
be found under 
the skin and in 
the fat cut 
through. The 
glands along the 
intestines are 
intensely in- 
The 
m e m- 
brane of the 
stomach is frequently thickened and roughened 
and in chronic cases there may be ulcers. 
On opening the intestines we see areas here and 
there of intense inflammation in the acute cases or 
numerous ulcers in cases of more chronic type. In 




the result of hog cholera 

A post mortem of a hog dying from flamed, 
cholera wiU show ulcers like those pic- 
tured here. Look for them in the large mUCOUS 
intestine. 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 1 8/ 

very acute cases we find areas Intensely inflamed, 
even bloody in places. The slow chronic cases 
develop characteristic hog cholera ulcers. These 
may appear at almost any point on the lining mem- 
brane, but more particularly in the blind pouch and 
around the point where the small intestine connects 
with the large intestine. On stripping off a very 
thin transparent membrane covering the kidneys, 
a typical case of hog cholera will usually show 
minute red spots on the surface somewhat resemb- 
ling the covering of a turkey Qgg, which gives the 
common name of turkey egg kidney of hog cholera. 

Preventing the Disease. — Clearly there are cer- 
tain things which the owner of healthy hogs in a 
hog cholera district should do and a good many 
things which he should not do. The same is equally 
true for the man who has sick hogs in a neighbor- 
hood where there are uninfected herds. The owner 
of healthy hogs and his family should keep away 
from public stock yards, from all pens and yards 
on other farms whether sickness among hogs pre- 
vails or not. It may easily occur that a neighbor's 
hogs may appear well but have recently received 
the infection and be already capable of scattering 
the disease. AVe do not know at what period in 
the development of this disease infected hogs be- 
come capable of disseminating hog cholera. 

During a hog cholera season the owner of healthy 
hogs should institute something in the way of pri- 
vate quarantine and pleasantly, perhaps, but firmly, 
ask visitors, especially stock buyers and threshing 
machine crews, to keep at a reasonable distance 
from the pens and yards. It is safer for one man 
to have exclusive care of healthy hogs during the 
hog cholera season, and this man should be very 
careful where he goes with reference to possible 



i88 THE farmer's veterinarian 

infection. Special fencing or other provisions 
should be made wherever practical to keep dogs out 
of the pens and yards, for, under certain conditions, 
dogs become verv active agents in spreading the 
disease. 

The owner of a healthy herd should be very care- 
ful about buying m hogs for feeding or breeding 
purposes, and, in the Western states especially, all 
public stock yards and stock cars must be regarded 
as possible sources of spread. Hogs coming into 
the herd for breedmg purposes, if by rail, should be 
shipped in other than stock cars, and should not be 
unloaded so as to go through stock yards. All new 
hogs coming on to a farm where the disease has not 
appeared, should be kept carefully apart from the 
herd for from two to three weeks after arrival. 
The disease may thus have time to develop, if the 
animals have been infected before shipment or en 
route. It is decidedly worth while to be careful 
about clean feeding, for it seems probable that this 
is a common method by which infection enters the 
body. This being the case, troughs and feeding 
floors should be frequently disinfected with steam, 
boiling water, or a very dilute corrosive sublimate 
solution (i:i,ooo dissolved in water), with the 
troughs subsequently rinsed out with plain water. 
Or the troughs and feeding floors may be disin- 
fected with any of the coal tar disinfectants if they 
are used in sufficient strength. These are not 
poisonous in any probable quantity which hogs 
would get. 

A Disastrous Experience. — The farmer should be 
especially careful about buying hogs out of stock 
yards. Some years ago a certain Minnesota 
farmer purchased a lot of feeders from Sioux City 
and took them home to his farm. In about two 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 1 89 

weeks his hogs commenced dying. A little later 
hogs previously on the farm began dying. In a 
little while he was losing hogs at the rate of 25 a 
day, losing a total of about 200. This loss of 200 
hogs was scarcely a drop in the bucket — too small 
for consideration in comparison with the loss which 
this outbreak cost the state, for, with some others 
coming into the state from Iowa and Nebraska, 
this outbreak cost the state, as carefully estimated, 
about $1,250,000 during that one year. As soon 
as the Minnesota farmer here referred to realized 
that he had cholera and was liable to lose a large 
portion of his herd, he shipped out a lot of fat hogs 
ready for market. These were yarded for a time in 
the public stock yards of his town, and one of them 
died while waiting for shipment. This hog was 
left for a day or so in the yard. Later a carload 
of feeding hogs was shipped in from a point in 
South Dakota, where they had never had hog 
cholera. These South Dakota hogs were unloaded 
into the yards where the fat hog had died some 
time before, and were sold out from there by 
auction. 

It was a very interesting study to follow the 
resulting outbreaks ; but a very serious matter for 
the owner and for that entire portion of the state. 
Practically every farmer who bought hogs at this 
sale, and very many of those who walked around 
the yards looking at the hogs, but without buying, 
had hog cholera on their farms in a very uniform 
period after the sale. Surely the moral of this tale 
is so self-evident as to need no further suggestion. 

Cleaning Up. — Troughs and feeding floors, at 
least, and, if practicable, the hog house also, should 
be kept clean and frequently disinfected during an 
outbreak. When the outbreak appears to be over, 



190 THE farmer's VETERINARlAK 

the owner must decide as to just what he will do in 
the way of disinfection and cleaning up, or whether 
he will stay out of the hog business for a year and 
allow the infection to die out. This is, of course, 
without regard for the possibility of putting in 
vaccinated and immune hogs. Feeding troughs and 
feeding floors and the hog house in general, may be 
disinfected if of reasonably good construction, by a 
thorough cleaning and then by one of the methods 
suggested under prevention. If the sick hogs have 
been kept in an old straw shed or in an old hog 
house that is about ready to fall down anyway, by 
all means the best method of disinfection is by 
burning. Without disinfection or burning the 
owner cannot be safe in putting in susceptible hogs 
within much less than a year after the last hog died 
or recovered. The slow old chronic cases that go 
dragging around at the end of an outbreak should 
usually be killed and safely buried, for it is rarely 
profitable to put such hogs in shape for market. 
It might possibly be worth while to hold such a 
one over and nurse them along, in case of valuable 
brood sows, for hogs having recovered from cholera 
are usually immune for life. 

Brood sows which have had the disease and re- 
covered usually give something more than natural 
immunity to their offspring. But the degree of 
immunity so conferred is so variable in degree and 
uncertain otherwise that it cannot be depended 
upon as a routine method of establishing immune 
herds. Yards may be practically disinfected by 
plowing or by burning off a good layer of straw. 

Hog Cholera Vaccination. — Generally stated, this 
vaccine consists of two parts: (a) Blood serum 
from the body of a specially immunized hog; and 
(b) virulent blood serum from the body of a hog 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS I9I 

about to die from cholera. The general theory 
upon which this double vaccine is used is that of 
giving the animal an infectious disease and at the 
same time a treatment which enables the animal to 
resist the infection. When the hog is through with 
it he is in exactly the same condition as though he 
had gone through a natural exposure and recovered. 

General Method. — We start this work with cer- 
tain hogs that are immune usually because they 
have passed through an outbreak. It has been 
shown that when such immune hogs are treated 
with large injections of virulent blood under the 
skin or into a vein, that they do not usually become 
sick, but their own blood develops a peculiar prop- 
erty that gives protection to other hogs that are 
naturally susceptible. 

When the blood or rather blood serum from this 
specially treated immune hog is injected into the 
bodies of healthy susceptible hogs, the latter be- 
comes likewise immune, but the immunity so gained 
lasts only a short time, possibly four to six weeks, 
and is then gradually lost. If we give a small in- 
jection of virulent blood at the same time, or soon 
after the immunizing serum is given, then the 
treated hog becomes immune for a long period, per- 
haps for life. 

The Serum Hog. — The specially immunized hog 
which produces this immunizing serum is known as 
a hyperimmune, and to save words will be hereafter 
mentioned as such. The simply immune hog may 
be prepared for producing serum in either one of 
three ways, (i) By three rapidly increasing doses 
of virulent blood serum injected under the skin at 
intervals of seven to ten days; (2) by one enor- 
mously large injection of virulent serum under the 



192 THE FARMER S VETERINARIAN 

skin; (3) by injecting virulent blood in smaller 
doses directly into the blood circulation. 

In this v^ork an ordinary immune hog weighing 
100 pounds is given a quart of very virulent blood, 
a teaspoon of which similarly injected would kill 
a hog that was not immune. In other words the 
immune, and especially the hyperimmune hog, have 
developed certain properties in their blood antago- 
nistic to hog cholera virus. 

Vaccination. — We have two possible methods of 
vaccinating or immunizing susceptible hogs (a) 
Serum only. This is by the injection under the 
skin of serum from the body of a hyperimmune hog 
and gives immediate but temporary immunity last- 
ing, as already stated, several weeks. If this animal, 
during the period of immunity, is exposed to 
natural infection, he becomes protected for a very 
long period, perhaps for life, (b) Simultaneous. 
The second method of vaccination consists of in- 
jecting immunizing blood serum into one thigh and 
a small amount of disease-producing serum at the 
same time, or soon after, into the other thigh, thus 
giving the animal the cholera and a cure for it at 
the same time. If the immunizing serum is potent 
and the virulent serum is really virulent, then the 
animal so treated becomes permanently immune. 

The serum-only method is usually preferred in 
actual outbreaks and for hogs not yet sick, because 
this gives immediate protection, and the hogs, being 
naturally exposed, usually develop a permanent im- 
munity. The simultaneous method of vaccination 
is preferred where we are very confident of the 
serum's potency against the virulent blood, and for 
hogs that have not yet been infected. It may yet 
be found wise to use this method even in out- 
breaks. 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS I93 

Vaccination Does Not Spread Cholera^ — Every in- 
telligent stockman who reads this will probably ask 
if there is not danger of scattering cholera by this 
simultaneous vaccination into districts where it 
has not yet appeared. A considerable amount of 
direct evidence on this point is better than any 
amount of theorizing and personal opinions. This 
evidence all agrees that unless the vaccinated hogs 
become distinctly sick as a result of the vaccina- 
tion (which can occur, and does very often), that 
there is practically no danger of disseminating the 
disease. This is especially true since all hogs on 
the farm are supposed to have been treated and are 
immune, and, therefore, incapable of developing 
cholera and so spreading the disease. It does occur, 
even with good serum, perhaps, that an occasional 
hog may become a little sick, and very rarely even 
die, as a result of vaccination. But with good serum 
given in standard dose and virulent blood also given 
in proper dose, the risk of this is so small that it 
may be safely disregarded and especially when all 
hogs on the farm or that may be exposed with such 
sick hogs have been treated. 

HOLLOW HORN.— A common term to denote a 
diseased condition of the blood. The horn is not 
hollow and never is. The old quack method of 
boring a hole in the horn with a gimlet and squirt- 
ing turpentine into the orifice is both cruel and 
ridiculous. While in fact the temperature of the 
horn is low, it is because of the general poverty 
of the blood of the animal. There is no merit in 
this kind of treatment. The most common symp- 
toms are general debility, scanty flesh, scurvy coat 
and coarse hair. The appetite is also irregular and 
at times greedy. Treatment is in line of better 
food and general improvement of the system. If 



194 THE farmer's veterinarian 

lice are found on the body, they must be destroyed 
by disinfectants and washes. A tonic, consisting 
of 2 teaspoonfuls of sulphate of iron, i teaspoonful 
of powdered nux vomica and 4 tablespoonfuls of 
ground gentian root given each day in the food 
or as a drench, will be very helpful in toning up the 
system and in enriching the blood. The most 
important factor of the treatment, however, is in 
nutritious, wholesome food. 

HOOF CRACKS.— See Sand Cracks. 

HORN FLY.— A small insect about half as large 
as the common house flies, and very much like them 
in appearance. Horn flies swarm about the head 
and settle near the base of the horn, where they 
bite and cause much irritation. They also attack 
cattle on the back and sides and flank. The fly 
mixtures that are commonly advertised, and ap- 
plied by means of a hand-spray, are excellent for 
keeping the pests away. A good home mixture to 
apply at the base of the horns is made of pine tar, 
kerosene, and fish oil. Use this in equal parts, and 
apply with a brush. 

HOVEN.— See Bloating In Cattle. 

HYDROCEPHALUS.— See Water in the Brain. 

HYDROPHOBIA, also called rabies and mad 
dog, is an infectious disease caused by some invis- 
ible organism. The disease is transmitted from one 
animal to another by the bite of an animal which is 
sufifering with the disease or by direct inoculation. 
It is more common in the dog than any other 
animal, from the fact that dogs run at large and 
have a tendency to bite other dogs with which 
they come in contact while they are suffering with 
the disease. 

The dog shows two forms, furious and dumb. In 
the furious form the animal at first seeks dark 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 1 95 

places, but is usually restless and will move from 
one place to another. This condition lasts for a 
day or two, after which time he becomes more rest- 
less and may go 30 miles in a day. He will drink 
water, eat sticks, stones, and bite other dogs, 
horses, and cattle, less often man. This condition 
will last from one to four days, and then the dog 
becomes partly paralyzed, so that he can no longer 
swallow, or his legs may be afifected, so that he will 
lie in one place, and usually dies after a few days 
longer. In the dumb form, the animal seeks dark 
places, is rather restless, the throat and lower jaw 
become paralyzed, he is unable to swallow or to 
close his mouth and, therefore, cannot bife. Some- 
times they will change from one form of symptoms 
to the other. 

In the horse the symptoms vary somewhat from 
those in the dog. The horse is restless, usually 
violent and will kick and bite, oftentimes showing 
sexual excitement. He may break his teeth on the 
manger and oftentimes bites his own flesh at the 
place where he has been bitten by the dog. The 
symptoms usually develop in from eight to twenty- 
eight days after the animal is bitten, but may not 
develop for six months. The disease runs its course 
in from two to ten days, with a fatal termination. 

There is no treatment for the disease after the 
symptoms have developed. In case man is bitten 
he should take the " Pasteur " treatment, which is 
a preventive, and it should be taken in a very 
short time after being bitten. After the symptoms 
begin to show it is too late to take treatment. 

HYDROTHORAX.— See Water in the Chest. 

IMPACTION OF RUMEN.— A continued 
distention of the rumen caused by large quan- 
tities of undigested material lodging in the 



196 THE farmer's veterinarian 

rumen. Inflammation often results, with dis- 
tress and pain manifest. If relief is not at- 
tained the walls of the rumen become para- 
lyzed. Associated with the disturbances the animal 
is dull, the left side swollen, the breathing and pulse 
increase and the back aches. When lying down, 
the left side is always up. In treating, cold water 
dashed over the back and loins is recommended. A 
strong physic of Epsom salts and ginger will aid 
in stimulating the secretions and may bring relief. 
If gas accumulates so as to threaten the life of the 
animal, the trocar and canula should be used. If 
these are not available, use the knife, as described 
for hoven or bloat. In some cases the impaction 
becomes so pronounced as to resist ordinary treat- 
ment, when extreme measures will be necessary if 
the animal is to be saved. Better call your veteri- 
narian and open the rumen in order to remove the 
contents with the hand. The operation is as fol- 
lows: At the point midway between the point of 
the hip and the last rib, and down about four inches 
from the backbone, an opening is made large 
enough to admit the hand. After the opening is 
made the edges are stitched to prevent any material 
from getting between the skin and the rumen wall. 
Now remove the greater part of the accumulated 
material; this done, the rumen, the muscles and 
the skin are each in turn stitched, the wound 
dressed and the animal given stimulating medicines. 
A splendid tonic consists of 4 tablespoonfuls each 
of ginger, tincture of gentian and tincture of iron. 
Give this tonic daily and until the animal has fully 
recovered. 

INDIGESTION.— Failure to digest food with 
abdominal pains and indisposition resulting. Bad 
food and improper management are back of the 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS I97 

trouble in most instances. Mild cases require no 
treatment. A light, laxative diet is desirable for stub- 
born cases. If possible turn the animals on fresh 
grass. Jamaica ginger is generally prescribed for 
indigestion. Give 8 tablespoonfuls in . a pint of 
warm water three times a day as a drench. Follow 
this with condition powders, or some good diges- 
tive tonic. After recovery see that the diet is varied 
and that laxative and succulent foods are supplied. 

INFECTIOUS PNEUMONIA.— As the name in- 
dicates, this is an mfectious trouble frequently ex- 
tending over considerable areas and occurs among 
both horses and cattle. It is very similar in its action 
to ordinary pneumonia or inflammation of the 
lungs. However, it does not seem to be so acute 
in its action. The same treatment is applied to 
cases of this kind as to ordinary pneumonia. When 
its presence becomes known, it is wise to remove 
all heathy animals to some other quarters. This 
lessens the danger of infection to healthy animals. 
After the disease has run its course, remove all 
litter and manure from the stables, thoroughly air 
out, admit as much sunlight as possible, and disin- 
fect all walls and floors. A coat of whitewash on 
the ceiling and walls is desirable. The floors 
should be literally wet with disinfectant fluid, which 
should be admitted to all cracks and open spaces. 

INFECTIOUS ANEMIA IN HORSES.— See 
Swamp Fever. 

INFLAMMATION OF THE BOWELS.— 
Sometimes this disease is called enteritis. It fre- 
quently follows severe cases of colic. It is the result 
of inflammation caused by indigestible material 
lodging in the stomach and intestines of animals. It 
may, however, result from other things that irritate 
the bowels. When first noticed, a general depression 



198 THE farmer's veterinarian 

prevails, with, signs of pain in the bowels; breath- 
ing is quickened and frequently a chill shows itself. 
The horse acts very much as if he had a case of 
colic. As the disease progresses the pain increases 
and the pulse rises. In a few hours the pain be- 
comes very severe and the animal is in great agony 
all over; he breathes heavy, the legs and ears are 
cold and clammy and the pulse very high. In 
severe cases the pulse reaches to 100 and 105 beats 
a minute. The horse now is very ill indeed. He 
shows great weakness. It is very unlikely that he 
will survive more than a day or two. The disease 
usually runs from ten to fifteen hours, and unless 
there is a change for the better, death results. 

When far advanced there is little likelihood of 
successful treatment. Success lies only in early 
work, taking the disease in time. A satisfactory 
drench is made of 4 tablespoonfuls of tincture of 
laudanum, 10 to 15 drops of tincture of aconite, i 
tablespoonful of common soda, and i tablespoonful 
of ginger. These are mixed in a pint of warm water 
and given as a drench. Repeat this every hour 
until the animal gets relief. A mustard plaster 
gives relief when applied to the belly. A physic 
is not considered advisable, as it increases the in- 
flammation — just what is not wanted at all. 

The most rational treatment consists in allaying 
the pain. Opium in teaspoonful doses every hour 
until the pain is relieved is helpful. Some veteri- 
nary practitioners use 10 grains of morphia and 4 
tablespoonfuls of chloral hydrate in syrup and 
water for each dose. This dose is repeated every 
two or three hours until the symptoms abate. 

The diet should be carefully watched in diseases 
of this kind. Bran mashes made with linseed tea 
or slippery elm bark are suitable. Boiled food is 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS I99 

better than uncooked food. Good water frequently 
and in small quantities is desirable. Skimmed milk 
is excellent and may be fed for a week or two at a 
time. This food often effects a cure without any 
other aid. 

INFLAMMATION OF THE LUNGS.— This is 
a common disease in farm stock. The disease occurs 
most frequently in late fall or winter or early spring, 
and is due to exposure while the animal is still warm 
and hot; bad ventilation influences it. Author- 
ities now generally believe it to be a germ disease 
and infectious. One of the first things noticed is 
the shivering of the animal and then a fevered con- 
dition; the animal seems to be hot, then cold; a 
peculiar breathing is noticed; the pulse quickens, 
ranges from 60 to 70 beats a minute ; the eyelids 
on the inside take a scarlet hue. The animal does 
not eat, stands up much of the time with the head 
down and the ears lopped over; a grating sound is 
noticed when the ear is placed to the chest. Fre- 
quently distress is experienced in the bowels; con- 
stipation follows and the temperature rises gradu- 
ally until it reaches 105 degrees, which is reached 
about the sixth or seventh day. If recovery does 
not follow the appetite will disappear, the mouth 
become cold, the breath heavy and disagreeable 
and the pulse feeble, frequently not noticeable at 
all. 

After the case assumes a more favorable aspect, 
an effort should be made to keep the animal com- 
fortable and in as good condition as possible. It is 
therefore advisable to keep it well blanketed, the 
legs bandaged and rubbed. The patient should be 
kept also in a warm stall where good air is avail- 
able. Good food that is nourishing and easily- 
digested should be provided. Sweet milk is good. 



200 THE farmer's VETERINARIAN 

and raw eggs mixed in the gruel are excellent also. 
A compress over the lungs does much good. The 
compress should be made out of heavy cloth, fre- 
quently rinsed in cold water and then placed over 
the lungs where they are covered with heavy, dry 
cloths. On recovery, rub the sides of the chest 
so as to thoroughly dry the surface. A mustard 
plaster, after the compress has been removed, is 
quite generally used. A stimulating medicine may 
be given during the early stages. Use a drench, 
consisting of 8 tablespoonfuls of whiskey to 4 table- 
spoonfuls of sweet spirits of niter. If the animal 
is in very great distress, give a drench every two 
or three hours consisting of 8 to 10 drops of Flem- 
ing's tincture of aconite, 2 tablespoonfuls of lau- 
danum mixed with a pint of cold water. 

After the animal is on the road to recovery, stop 
the use of these medicines and give a tonic consist- 
ing of nitrate of potash or saltpeter and ground 
gentian root, half and half. Give a teaspoonful 
three times a day. While the animal is sick, a little 
boiled flaxseed mixed with a soft food will keep the 
bowels regular. It is not wise to give purgatives, 
hence it is wise to give an injection consisting of 
warm soapy water, so as to empty the bowels. From 
two to four weeks of rest and care should be 
allowed for complete recovery. 

INFLUENZA. — A specific disease of the horse 
affecting the mucous membrane of the air passages. 
When the mucous membrane of the eyelids is af- 
fected, pink eye results. Sometimes the mucous 
membrane of the intestines is affected, in which 
case colic or inflammation of the bowels results. 
The common cause is exposure to cold. If no work 
be required, plenty of fresh air be supplied, no drafts 
admitted and careful nursing otherwise, the disease 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 20I 

will run its course in from two to three weeks an3 
no medicines will be necessary. In cases where 
considerable cough prevails, the custom of putting 
a piece of camphor about the size of an egg in a 
pail of boiling water and holding the horse's head 
over it from a quarter to a half hour at a time is to 
be commended. The bowels should be kept free 
and open. Any of the ordinary purgatives will do. 
If weakness occurs, give 4 tablespoonfuls each of 
tincture of ginger, ground gentian root and sweet 
spirits of niter in a half pint of water three times a 
day. Two tablespoonfuls of nitrate of potassium 
given once or twice each day in the drinking water 
is also desirable. As the trouble abates, the med- 
icines suggested before may be dropped and in 
their place a teaspoonful of sulphate of iron and a 
tablespoonful of ground gentian root may be given 
daily in a bran mash or oatmeal gruel. 

Intestinal Worms in Horses. — Intestinal worms 
may be classed as large and small. The large 
worms inhabit the small intestines, and the small 
ones the large intestines, the larger class of worms 
being more readilyreached by worm destroyers than 
are the smaller ones, as the small intestines begin 
at the stomach and as remedies leave the stomach, 
the worm soon receives the dose prepared for it, 
while if one dose has to pass through about 60 feet 
of intestines before reaching the smaller worms in 
the larger intestines, much of the worm remedy is 
lost by mingling with the food, and diluted by 
mixing with the digestive fluids. Thus what is a 
remedy for the large species of worms will have 
little effect upon the smaller ones. 

As a farmer's dose for the larger species of 
worms, none, perhaps, is better than the following: 
Oil of turpentine, 2 ounces; extract or oil of male 



202 THE FARMER'S VETERINARIAN 

fern, one half ounce, mixed with 4 ounces of castor 
oil and 8 ounces of pure raw linseed oil, with half a 
pint of new milk, and given after the horse has 
fasted for about 14 hours. Repeat the dose in a 
week; then follow with two worm powders, com- 
mon smoking tobacco, eight ounces; powdered 
worm seed, 6 ounces; powdered sulphate of iron, 
4 ounces ; mix with one-half pound each of salt and 
granulated sugar. Every morning before the horse 
is fed any other food, place a heaping tablespoon- 
ful of the powder in four quarts of wet wheat bran 
and allow the horse to eat it ; continue for ten days 
and the horse will be practically rid of worms of the 
larger species. Colts should receive smaller doses 
in proportion to age. 

The small worms need the worm powder to be 
given in the wheat bran every morning for fully 
two weeks. Then follow with an ounce dose of 
barbadoes aloes and a tablespoonful of ginger 
given by mixing with about 12 ounces of warm 
water and a gill of common molasses; wait a week 
and repeat the powder treatment and follow with 
the aloes. In a case of the very small or rectal 
worms (pin worms) always use rectal injections, a 
good enema being made by steeping for two hours 
one pound of quassia chips in a gallon of soft 
water ; strain and add two ounces of common har3 
soap; use the whole at once, using at about blood 
temperature after the soap has dissolved. Repeat 
in three days and continue as long as worms are 
being brought away by the enemas. 

INTESTINAL WORMS IN SHEEP.— See 
Stomach and Intestinal AVorms in Sheep. 

ITCH.— See Scab in Cattl 

JAUNDICE. — Until of recent date the disease in 
the human so common at certain seasons of the 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 203 

year was unknown among animals, or, at least, 
if present had never been discovered by the veteri- 
nary profession. But be that as it may, we are now 
finding it in plenty among horses of all ages, from 
colts up to aged horses; very prevalent among 
sheep, and quite frequent among cattle. The early 
writers on veterinary science usually attributed the 
cause to gall stones. But that theory can hardly be 
tenable in this country, where we find it essentially 
more prevalent on low, marshy soils or on the hill 
lands that have been long unplowed, where animals 
are pastured, or hays are cut. The general symp- 
toms of it are a general dullness, hanging of the 
head as though it ached, or pressing the head, if the 
animal be a bovine or sheep, against the barn or 
stall. The tongue will be found dry or covered 
with a thick, sticky slime. The membranes of the 
eyeball of a yellowish cast. In horses the tongue 
will usually have a black coating. The appetite 
in all animals is capricious. They will eat well one 
day and scarcely touch food the next. As a rule, 
they will manifest great thirst, yet will drink but 
little. There are exceptions to this, however. The 
voidings are not uniform. Sometime the urine is 
quite high colored; at other times not. But, as a 
rule, it is scanty. The feces are sometimes quite 
hard and covered with a shiny slime. At other 
times there will be extreme looseness of the evacu- 
ations. These last symptoms are to be well con- 
sidered in using a treatment when the voidings are 
hard and slimy. In case it is a horse that is ailing, 
a physic of aloes should be given, one ounce being 
the dose for a thousand pounds of horse, and two 
teaspoonfuls of podophylin. Give this dissolved in 
water and pour down as a drench, and follow with a 
bitter tonic for from two to four weeks, or until the 



204 THE farmer's VETERINARIAN 

voidings are normal and all scurf is removed from 
the tongue. As a tonic for this none is better than 
a mixture of powdered gentian root, six ounces, 
powdered golden seal 2 ounces, powdered sulphate 
of iron 4 ounces, well mixed in I pound of common 
salt. Give in the feed a tablespoonful in ground 
oats three times a day, until improvement takes 
place. Then drop to twice a day and later once a 
day. In case of the bowels being very loose always 
give a pint dose of a mixture of castor oil 4 ounces, 
pure raw linseed oil 12 ounces. Then follow with 
the tonic powder named. The symptoms in cattle 
are quite similar to those of the horse, except the 
bovine's eyes usually discharge some, yet not pro- 
fusely, and there are frequently puffy swellings be- 
neath their lower jaws. In case their bowels are 
abnormally loose, give the oil as for the horse. If 
constipated give from one to two pounds of 
Epsom salts at one dose as the physic, with the 
podophylin added as for the horse, and follow with 
the same tonic powder. In the case of sheep, which 
are by nature constipated animals, nothing equals 
a ten-grain dose of calomel, followed the next day 
with a four or six-ounce dose of Epsom salts (sul- 
phate of magnesia), and as sheep are reluctant to 
eat any tonics in their feed, we are compelled to 
pour their medicine down them. Mix together 4 
ounces each of the tincture of gentian, golden seal, 
ginger and iron, and give a tablespoonful twice a 
day in a half pint of water. But always give the 
calomel, as it will clean out the liver of a sheep as 
no other known agent will. The symptoms are 
much the same as in cattle. Begin treatment early 
or success will not follow. 

KIDNEY WORMS.— The hog is mostly affected 
w^ith these worms, although they have been found 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 205 

in the dog- also. Death does not, as a rule, follow 
the infestation unless in an aggravated form. 
Obviously there is no remedy. 

KNEE SPRUNG.— A condition m which the 
knees bend forward as the result of contraction of 
tendons located along the back of the leg. In 
aggravated cases the tendons should be cut. If 




KIDNEY WORMS IN THE HOG 

While worms are occasionally found in the kidneys, they do 
not frequently cause disease or death. 

this is to be done only a skilled surgeon should be 
allowed to perform the operation. 

LAMINITIS.— See Founder. 

LICE. — Farm animals, especially those housed in 
stables more or less infested with insects and 
vermin, are commonly troubled with lice. Animals 
in good health resist the insects, but those already 
in a non-thrifty condition do not fare so well. Lice 
cause a good deal of annoyance to farm stock, inas- 
much as they bite the skin, suck out blood, and 
thus cause considerable irritation. Lice can be seen 



206 THE farmer's VETERINARIAN 

with the naked eye. Infestation, as a rule, takes 
place in filthy quarters, and the best means of dis- 
infecting such places is by the use of a spray of 
kerosene. One of the best means of applying this 
to hogs consists in rubbing posts, which are con- 
stantly smeared with kerosene. In this way the 
hogs are induced to treat themselves. Infected 
hogs may also be treated by pouring the kerosene 
directly over the infested parts, like the neck, 
shoulder and back. Dipping tanks made of cement 
or wood are frequently located in the run-yards, in 
which is placed some disinfectant fluid. Hogs use 
these small tanks as wallows, and in this way they 
disinfect themselves. 

For horses and cattle a good remedy is made as 
follows : Boil for an hour 8 tablespoonfuls of 
arsenic, 8 tablespoonfuls of soda ash and i6 table- 
spoonfuls of soft soap in two gallons of water. 
After being prepared by boiling, add enough 
water to make two gallons. When cool, wet the 
animal all over with a little of it, using a brush 
or currycomb to get it into the skin. Another 
good remedy is made of boiling stavesacre 
seeds, i part to 20 parts of water, for an hour 
and let it simmer for another hour ; then add 
water to make it up to the original bulk. This 
applied to the affected parts brings quick relief. It 
is advisable to repeat the application in a week or 
ten days, so as to catch any new lice from any eggs 
that were not caught by the first application. A 
very common treatment is secured by mixing a pint 
of linseed oil, 8 tablespoonfuls of oil of tar, and 8 
tablespoonfuls of sulphur. This is then rubbed on 
the affected parts once a day for two days and 
allowed to remain for a few days, after which it is 
waslied off with soap and r^vater. In serious cases. 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 



207 



the application should be repeated within a week 
or so. 

LIVER FLUKES.— These are parasites usually 
found in the liver or its ducts. At times they are 
present in great numbers, giving rise to a serious 
disease called liver rot. When the fertilized eggs are 
discharged in the excrement of diseased animals and 
fall in fresh water they hatch out and are taken into 
the body by sheep and cattle, either 
in the food or drink. In a short time 
thereafter they have entrenched 
themselves in the liver of cattle or 
sheep. 

A few liver flukes in an animal 
causes little trouble, as the injury is 
largely mechanical anyway. No 
peculiar symptoms are conspicuous 
when only a few flukes are present. 
The greatest damage is done when 
hundreds of flukes develop in a sin- 
gle individual. In these cases the 
flow of the bile is checked. As a re- 
sult the health becomes impaired and 
the usual penalties of malnutrition follow. Swell- 
ing of the jaws and diarrhoea are often noticed in 
connection with the disease. 

When the host is badly infected with the flukes 
and in a badly run-down condition the trouble is al- 
ways serious, and medicinal treatment is of little 
real value. Tonics and good food may be given to 
help along — but death usually follows. Salt is 
helpful as the flukes are sensitive to it. If an 
animal that has succumbed to the disease be ex- 
amined, the liver will be observed to be fairly rotten 
as a result of the inroads of the parasites. 




LIVER FLUKE 



208 

Treatment is in line of prevention only. Clean, 
pure fresh water, free of the eggs or the parasites, 
is necessary if the trouble is to be eradicated. The 
old ponds, ordinarily filled with stagnant water, 
should be drained. They harbor many bad para- 
sites, and their harm is far beyond their value. 
When water for sheep and cattle is taken from pure 
streams or wells the trouble from liver flukes and 
other parasites is reduced to a minimurr 

LOCKJAW. — This disease, very frequently called 
tetanus, is an infectious disease in which the body 
muscles are spasmodically contracted or stiffened. 
The muscles that move the jaw are frequently af- 
fected and the animal is unable to open the mouth. 
Because of this condition the disease is commonly 
known as lockjaw. 

The spread of the disease does not occur through 
healthy animals coming in contact with animals 
having tetanus, but by inoculation. The germ of 
tetanus is present in the soil, manure and dust. 
It enters the body by way of wounds, especially 
punctured and bruised wounds. The injury may 
result from stepping on a nail, and the germs are 
planted in the deeper structures of the foot. Such 
a wound usually has poor drainage, the horn of the 
hoof closing the mouth or opening. Here the germs 
grow and produce a poisonous toxin that is said 
to be the most powerful produced by any bacteria. 
This toxin acts on the nerve centers of the brain 
and spinal cord, causing extensive spasmodic con- 
traction of the body muscles. 

Tetanus sometimes occurs in the absence of any 
noticeable wound. It may be in such cases that 
the seat of the infection is a slight abrasion of the 
skin, or the lining membranes of the respiratory 
and digestive tracts. The tetanus bacillus is a 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 



209 



slender, spore-producing bacterium. The spore is 
located at one end of the rod in the form of a round 
head, that gives the organism a pin shape, hence 
the name of pin bacillus. It is very resistant to 
outside conditions and the action of the chemical 




LOCKJAW 

Note the rigid, tense position of the muscles. 



disinfectants. It is because of its ability to resist 
the action of disinfectants and the fact that it 
develops best when protected or covered by the 
tissues and wound secretions, that this disease so 
often follows ordinary wound treatment. 

From a few days to several weeks may lapse 
from the time of infection with the germs until the 
development of the stiffness and spasms. Some- 
times the wound by which the organism has en- 
tered the tissues has healed before the symptoms of 
tetanus are manifested. In case the symptoms de- 
velop a few days after the inoculation the disease 



210 THE FARMER S VETERINARIAN 

is severe or acute in form, and less violent or sub- 
acute if the symptoms are manifested alter the 
second week. The above statement does not hold 
true in all cases, but it may be considered true in 
a general way. 

Of the domestic animals the horse is the most 
commonly affected. The symptoms shown by this 
animal are very characteristic. Any person that 
has had the opportunity to see and examine a horse 
suffering from tetanus should have no trouble in 
recognizing the disease in other animals. 

The Characteristic Symptom is the spasmodic 
contraction of the muscles. This may vary in the 
different individuals, depending on the susceptibil- 
ity of the animal and the quantity of poisonous 
toxin present in the system. There is at first a 
slight stiffness of the muscles of the back, neck, 
head, and limbs, and the animal is more nervous 
than common. A noise in the stable or a slap with 
the hand may increase the stiffness and contractions 
temporarily. The contracted condition of the 
muscles of the eye, are, perhaps, the most notice- 
able early in the disease. These muscles pull the 
eyeball backwards, the fatty cushion is pressed on 
and the third eyelid protrudes, covering at times 
from one-third to two-thirds of the front part of 
the eye. In the severe form of the disease the 
muscles feel hard, especially those of the back and 
neck, and the animal moves with difficulty. In 
addition to the muscular symptoms, the respiration 
and pulse beats are quickened and the body tem- 
perature higher than normal. The evidence of suf- 
fering from the contracted condition of the muscles 
is very marked, and, unless supported in some way, 
the animal may fall to the floor. If the symptoms 
develop a few days after infection, the animal 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 211 

usually dies. The acute form is very fatal, but in 
the mild or subacute form the chance for making a 
recovery is good. 

Tetanus Is a Preventable Disease. It may be 
largely prevented by the careful disinfection of 
wounds, and the use of anti-tetanic serum. In most 
localities the proper treatment of the wound is a 
sufficient preventive measure, but in localities and 
stables where the disease is common the anti-tetanic 
serum should be used. Ordinary cleansing of a 
wound, as practiced by most stockmen, is not suf- 
ficient to destroy the bacillus of tetanus. The 
wound must be carefully cleaned, disinfected and 
prepared for healing. This should be kept in mind 
when treating a wound, and instead of using an 
agent that we know little about, we should secure 
reliable information regarding the different commer- 
cial disinfectants and methods of caring for wounds. 
That class known as tar disinfectants is most com- 
monly used. The better grade belonging to this 
class should be used. 

If anti-tetanic serum is used, it should be injected 
as soon after the injury has occurred as possible. 
The injection is made hypodermically, usually be- 
neath the skin on the side of the neck. Large doses 
of anti-tetanic serum given after the symptoms have 
developed may assist recovery. However, in the 
severe form of the disease this treatment is uncer- 
tain. 

When the animal comes down with the disease, 
it should be made as comfortable as possible. The 
quarters should be roomy, quiet, clean, and well 
ventilated. It is advisable to support the horse with 
a sling unless the animal is worried or made nerv- 
ous by it. This prevents his becoming tired and 
falling down. We should give the animal the best 



212 

of care in the way of regulating the diet, etc., but 
should avoid annoying it by our attention. Medici- 
nal treatment is of little benefit and should be 
given a secondary place. In fact, dosing the animal 
v^ith medicine, especially if large doses are given, 
may do more harm than good in the treatment of 
this disease. 

LOCO DISEASE.—The v^ord loco is a Spanish 
word, and means crazy. Loco disease is a disease 
of the brain and nervous system, especially of horses 
and cattle, but may also affect other animals. It 
results from eating any one of a number of poison- 
ous plants called loco which grow upon the dry, 
sandy prairies of some parts of the Western United 
States. 

In winter and early spring, when there is little 
or no grass, some animals acquire an appetite for 
this plant, and soon refuse all other kinds of food. 
When addicted to the weed an animal loses flesh 
rapidly, the eyesight becomes affected — often it has 
no knowledge of distance — and frequently when 
made to step over a board or rail will jump over it 
as though it were several feet high. Later, in the 
course of the disease, the brain becomes more 
affected and the animal acts more or less crazy, at 
times quite violent, at others depressed and dull. 

Should the animal live through the first attack 
it may linger for months or even years, but it 
usually dies as a result of the attack. Frequently 
some peculiar " foolish " habit follows the animals 
through life. Some have a nervous fit when excited 
or warmed up, others will not lead and some you 
cannot drive at all. There is no cure for the 
trouble. All that can be done is to prevent the 
habit from being formed or by removing the animal 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 213 

from temptation and furnishing wholesome, nutri- 
tious foo ' 

LUMPY JAW. — See Actinomycosis. 

LUNGS, CONGESTION OF.— A filling of the 
lungs with blood. This is very common with 
horses in winter and is most frequently due to a 
chill. Animals that have been put to heavy work, 
or are in a weakened condition, are frequently sus- 
ceptible if left standing in a draft while still warm. 
Sluggishness is noticed, first followed by trembling 
at the flank, heavy breathing; the pulse will be 
noted as quick, but weak; a gurgling sound will 
be noted if the ear is placed against the chest. The 
best treatment is such as gives quick relief. If at 
work, place the horse at rest at once in the stable 
and cover with blanket. Have plenty of fresh air 
admitted, but do not allow a draft to blow over the 
patient. Assist circulation as much as possible by 
rubbing of the legs and apply cold pad to the chest. 
A mustard plaster applied over the chest is very 
good. A good drench consists of alcohol in 2 
ounce doses, well diluted in water; at the same 
time another drench consisting of 4 tablespoonfuls 
of sweet spirits of niter and 2 tablespoonfuls of 
laudanum, mixed with a pint of water, is also very 
good. If the conditions indicate that the lungs 
are full of blood, add 10 drops of Fleming's tincture 
of aconite to the drench. The drenches may be 
given two or three hours apart until relief comes, 
at which time quiet is advised, although a little 
gentle walking for exercise Is advisable. 

From this time on treat the animal as a patient, 
giving easily digested foods. A tonic consisting of 
ground gentian root and nitrate of potash, half and 
half, is excellent. Give a teaspoonful of this in the 
feed three times a day. 



214 THE farmer's VETERINARIAN 

LUNG FEVER.— See Inflammation of the 
Lungs. 
LUNG WORMS IN LAMBS AND CALVES.— 

It has been proven in years gone by that the com- 
mon spirits of turpentine, w^hen mixed with salt in 
proportions of a gill of turpentine to four quarts of 
common fine salt and placed in a covered box so 
constructed that sheep and calves can get their 
head in and eat the salt (yet the salt be protected 
from the v^eather), will practically prevent an in- 
fection. Some have advised the mixing of a half 
pint of sublimed sulphur with the salt and turpen- 
tine. There can be no objection to the sulphur 
when added in the proportions named. This 
remedy is not a cure but a preventive. In fact 
there is no cure, as these worms are in the bron- 
chial tubes and lungs, where no worm destroyer can 
reach them directly. But when the lamb or calf 
daily partakes of even a few drops of turpentine, 
the whole system becomes, to an extent, infected 
with the turpentine, and as the young worms come 
into existence, their home in the lungs becomes a 
very unhealthy home for them and they fail to 
mature. In some cases mature w^orms have been 
removed by injecting a mixture of turpentine, 
chloroform and olive oil into the windpipe, using 
about a teaspoonful of this mixture. Its effect is to 
stupefy the worms that it touches, and they may 
be coughed out by the suffering lamb or calf. The 
fumes of burning sulphur has also been advised 
by some veterinarians. But both remedies are as 
liable to kill as cure, and are by no means always 
successful. The farmer's business should be to 
prevent, not cure, diseases of this class; therefore 
prepare the salt box. 

LYMPHANGITIS.— An inflammation of the 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 



215 



lymphatics, usually of the hind legs. Hence 
the name " big legs." It is the result of 
too rich ieeding, and too little work in many 




LYMPHANGITIS 

This kind of inflammation is usually seen in the hind 
legs. It is most frequent in heavy draft horses, or in coarse 
plethoric individuals. It occurs most frequently after a short 
period of idleness. 



2l6 THE farmer's VETERINARIAN 

cases on the one hand, or of overwork and 
insufficient food on the other. Lymphangitis often 
follows other diseases Hke distemper, influenza, or 
pneumonia, in which cases the system is weakened 
and the lymphatics in abnormal condition. It shows 
itself after a short period of idleness and rest. It 
usually begins with a chill and a rise of tempera- 
ture, which may be as much as 105 degrees, de- 
pending on the intensity of the attack. One or 
both hind legs may show swelling and be so stiff 
and sore after standing during the night as to be 
moved only with difficulty when the horse is taken 
out of the stable in the morning. The horse in 
moving seems able to bear little or no weight on 
the affected leg. At the same time, the pulse is 
full and throbby, respiration is fast, the bowels are 
constipated and the appetite is lost. 

In some cases the legs swell to an enormous size. 
If the inflammation is not relieved in a few days, 
the glands get badly diseased and blood poison may 
result. The disease, however, if taken in time, is 
easily treated. If it is caused by overfeeding, change 
this ; give more exercise. When the disease is first 
noticed, give the horse 4 tablespoonfuls of aloes, 4 
tablespoonfuls of carbonate of soda and 4 table- 
spoonfuls of ginger. These should be dissolved in 
a half pint of boiling water, then mixed with a half 
pint of cold water, and then given as a drench. If 
the pulse is fast, it may be made easier and slower 
by giving 20 to 30 drops of tincture of aconite, 
every couple of hours. A couple of tablespoonfuls 
of nitrate of potash in the drinking water three 
times a day will increase the urine. This is desir- 
able to do in this disease. The leg should be 
bathed for at least a half an hour and then dried 
and a wash consisting of 2 tablespoonfuls of acetate 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 217 

of lead, 8 tablespoonfuls of tincture of opium, and 
a quart of water should be applied to the legs. This 
should be rubbed in well with the hand every hour. 
In from 20 to 30 hours, a great change for the bet- 
ter will be noticed the inflammation will have been 
reduced; the pain will have disappeared and the 
bowels will be loose and active. 

From now on give general exercise at frequent 
periods, during the day. In cases caused by over- 
work or too little food or those following debilitat- 
ing diseases, like influenza or distemper, the treat- 
ment should be more stimulating; therefore, nutri- 
tive foods and tonics are best. Good hay and oats 
and other feed of a laxative nature should be fur- 
nished. 

A preparation, consisting of 4 tablespoonfuls, 
each, of tincture chloride of iron, tincture of gen- 
tian, and ginger in a pint of water three times a day 
will be found both stimulating and nourishing. If 
the disease has progressed so far that the legs 
break and show that matter is formed, wash them 
with warm water and follow with acetate of lead, 
sulphate of iron and carbolic acid. Use 2 table- 
spoonfuls of each in a quart of water and apply 
twice each day. If the swelling hangs on use 
Fowler's solution of arsenic, 4 tablespoonfuls to a 
dose in a bran mash once a day. Continue this for 
four or five weeks. A salve made of 2 teaspoon- 
fuls of iodide and 8 tablespoonfuls of vaseline should 
also be rubbed on the leg twice a week. 

MAD DOG.— See Hydrophobia. 

MAGGOTS.— The grubs of the ordinary flesh- 
flies so common about stables and houses. The 
adult fly deposits the minute larvae in fresh meat, 
in wounds, and frequently in dirty wool. These 
become the maggots so well known about the farm. 



2l8 THE farmer's VETERINARIAN 

The distress caused by these when present in a 
wound is considerable, and they endanger life. 

The best treatment is in line of cleanliness. Keep 
old wounds clean by means of antiseptic washes 
and tag the sheep that no filth and dirt may ac- 
cumulate. If for any reason maggots are found, 
open the infected part and remove, if possible, both 
the maggots and sloughed tissue. Old sores or 
wounds, if they will not lend themxselves to com- 
plete removal of the maggots, should be treated 
with a solution of carbolic acid and water. On 
some, turpentine can be used. Chloroform may be 
sprayed on, or injected into the wound with almost 
instant results. After the maggots are destroyed 
follow up the treatment with a good disinfectant 
until the wound has healed. 

MALLENDERS.— An eruption of the skin above 
the feet in horses. The disease at first is very much 
like eczema. In time the watery fluid dries up and 
the sore parts become covered with hard crusts 
and scabs. The sore spots should be washed with 
some good disinfectant and repeated frequently 
enough to destroy the infection. A moderate purge 
is advisable. See that only wholesome food is pro- 
vided. 

MAMMITIS. — Inflammation of the mammary 
gland or udder. The disease is frequently called 
caked bag and garget. In the last named, the milk 
secretion is altered and appears as a thick or a 
stringy fluid. Heavy milkers are most commonly 
affected. The udder becomes swollen, hot and 
somewhat tender just before calving. The swelling 
may extend forward along the belly. It often gets 
so severe as to require treatment. It is in this 
sense physiological. In a few days after calving, 
as a rule, the swelling disappears and the normal 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 219 

condition is regained more quickly if the calf is 
allowed to suck the cow. In the first stages bloody 
milk is secreted and often pus is formed in one 
quarter or more of the udder. The udder should 
be carefully milked, cleaned, and, if the milTc ducts 
are closed, it may be necessary to use a milk tube. 
This should be used cautiously so as not to injure 
the tissue of the udder and should be perfectly 
clean before inserting, otherwise serious inflam- 
mation may result. In bathing, use hot water for 
15 to 20 minutes at a time, after which rub dry and 
apply an ointment made by dissolving 3 tablespoon- 
fuls of gum camphor and 4 tablespoonfuls of fluid 
extract of belladonna to a pint of clean, fresh lard. 
This ointment should be applied three times a day. 

A more serious form of the disease is known as 
contagious mammitis, and is due to invasion of the 
gland by bacteria. In cases of this kind the in- 
flammation is more extensive and the disorder calls 
for more careful treatment. Since the milk con- 
tains bad bacteria, it is necessary to destroy them 
so as to prevent spreading of the disease. The 
milker should have clean hands and should wash 
them in a disinfecting solution before milking an- 
other cow. The milk tube may be necessary in 
withdrawing the milk. After the milk has been 
removed from the udder, inject a solution of per- 
oxide of hydrogen or dioxygen or a solution of 
carbolic acid, I part to 50 parts of boiled water. 
After the solution has acted for a few minutes, it 
should be milked out. The external treatment for 
contagious mammitis should be similar to that of 
ordinary mammitis. 

MANGE.— See Scab in Cattle. 

MILK FEVER. — It is a remarkable fact that this 
disease occurs most commonly in cows which 



220 THE FARMER S VETERINARIAN 

calved easily. This is explained by the fact that in 
such cases the os uteri remains relaxed for a greater 
length of time than it does in cases of difficult par- 
turition. Milk fever generally occurs in cows 
v^hich are heavy milkers, and great eaters. Keep- 
ing the animals in permanent stables, and feeding 
large quantities of rich food while they are giving 
no milk are predisposing causes. 

The disease makes its appearance usually in from 
24 to 48 hours after parturition. It seldom occurs 
after the third day, and some authors state that it 
has never been recognized before the starting of the 
milk secretion. The most salient symptoms to the 
average layman would, perhaps, be the anxious ex- 
pression of the animal, bellowing and mounting into 
the manger. Later they become very weak, stag- 
ger and fall, and are unable to rise. The members 
are usually extended in a rigid position. A rattling 
or whistling noise is heard in case the larynx is 
paralyzed. The feet, ears and horns feel cold to the 
touch. When a case is going to recover we see 
improvement as early as the second or third day. 
Recovery is usually complete at the end of from 
two to five days. 

Milk fever is one of the cases where the old 
maxim, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound 
of cure, is doubly applicable. If proper precautions 
were taken a large number of cases could be pre- 
vented. Give the pregnant animals daily exercise, 
and decrease their allowance of food 

Treatment Very Simple. — Make the cow comfort- 
able. Now give her a small dose of Epsom salts 
from one-half to one pound, depending on her size. 
This should be given as a drench. Animals af- 
flicted with this ailment swallow with difficulty. Use 
care that the drench does not get into the lungs. 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 221 

Perhaps the most satisfactory medical treatment is 
to use what is known as the Schmidt treatment. 
This is nothing more than injecting into the udder 
a solution made by dissolving in one quart of clean 
boiled water 3 teaspoonfuls of iodide of potash, 
after stripping all milk from the udder. A very 
satisfactory way is to get a rubber tube, attach it 
to a common milking tube which is placed into the 
teats in turn and pour the solution into the tube 
by means of a funnel. By massaging the udder 
the solution can be worked into each quarter in a 
short time without difficulty. 

In case iodide of potash is not available, inject 
air into the udder after drawing out the milk. I 
have known of many cases where air has been forced 
into the udder by means of a bicycle pump, and the 
animal recovered in a very short time. If the dis- 
ease does not respond to the treatment with readi- 
ness, repeat in a few hours, say, anywhere from 
five to ten hours after. Cold water or ice on the 
head is advisable. The use of stimulants is also 
recommended. Whiskey can be given in doses of 
10 to 15 tablespoonfuls and Jamaica ginger 6 to 8 
tablespoonfuls. i\Iilk the cow frequently and mas- 
sage the udder, bathing in hot water. 

After the cow is on the way to recovery, with- 
hold milk-stimulating foods for a few days and give 
some tonic like gentian and nux vomica, half and 
half, 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls two or three times a day. 

MONDAY MORNING SICKNESS.— -See Azo- 
turia. 

NASAL GLEET.— When a cold or simple 
catarrh is neglected it may run into a chronic con- 
dition giving rise to nasal gleet. A thin, bluish dis- 
charge comes from the nose ; and the membranes 
of the nostrils, instead of being moist and pink in 



22.2 THE FARMER S VETERINARIAN 

color, take on a leaden hue. The coat at the same 
time shows unthriftiness. In such cases the face 
and head may swell because the accumulated ma- 
terials fail to pass out. When these bunches are 
tapped with the fingers, a dull sound is heard. 
Treatment consists of isolating the animals and giv- 
ing them good care, nutritious food and well-ven- 
tilated quarters. A bucket, filled with boiling 
water, in which a half cup of turpentine is placed, 
and held under the nose to steam the nostrils and 
face, is excellent. Any sort of blanketing that will 
hold the steam about the head is very good to 
have at hand at the time. For internal treatment 
give a teaspoonful of sulphate of copper three times 
daily in a small bran mash ; following this drop the 
copper sulphate and give 2 tablespoonfuls of 
Fowler's solution of arnica twice a day in the mash. 
Should the bulges on the face become large, it will 
be necessary to open them. Often a part of the 
bone requires sawing out to get effective results. 
In these severe cases it is best to have your veteri- 
narian make the operation. 

NAVICULAR DISEASE.— A disease of the 
navicular bone and the structures surrounding it. 
It is called " coffin joint lameness." This bone is 
situated at the back and inferior part of the coffin 
joint, and acts as a pulley over which the flexor 
tendon of the foot passes. Horses with upright 
pasterns are most liable to it, as more weight is 
thrown on this joint. Those shod with calkins on 
their shoes, which prevent the frog from coming 
in contact with the ground, therefore causing a 
shock to this joint, are also very liable to it. Some 
horses have hereditary tendency to this disease. 
Nails penetrating too deep through the sole, or 
anything that will cause inflammation of this joint, 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 223 

is likely to produce navicular disease. The most 
prolific cause is bad shoeing. By degrees the in- 
flammation in a chronic form extends to other 
parts, causing a shrinking of the soft parts, result- 
ing in contraction of the foot. 

The lameness may appear suddenly and perhaps 
immediately after the horse has been shod, and is 
then usually thought to be the fault of nailing on 
the shoe. It is likely in this case that the smith 
has pared the sole and frog too thin, and that the 
part has suffered from a bruise by the horse step- 
ping on something hard. After a rest it may dis- 
appear, to return after the next drive. Sometimes 
the disease is of very slow progress in one or both 
fore feet. The first thing that is noticed is that the 
animal points its toe, and if both are affected, first 
one, then the other. The animal may not be lame, 
but it does not step out so well as it used to, and 
by degrees the part gets more tender, until the 
animal begins to go lame, and the lameness gradu- 
ally gets worse. There is a form of this lameness 
where the animal shows stift'ness and lameness 
when first taken out of the stable, but, after being 
driven for a short distance, it passes off, and after 
it stands for awhile it will start off lame again. If 
this disease lasts for some time the muscles of the 
chest and shoulders seem stiff and may shrink. This 
has been called "chest founder" by horsemen. 
This is brought about by the soreness of the feet. 
The horse is afraid to step out, giving it the ap- 
pearance of being stiff; the muscles of the chest 
and shoulders will shrink from want of proper 
action, caused by the feet being sore. If there is 
heat and tenderness in the hollow of the heel or a 
redness of the sole, and an absence of any other 
disease of the foot or leg, we may consider with 



224 THE FARMER S VETERINARIAN 

almost a certainty that it is a case of navicular or 
coffin joint lameness. The result is contraction of 
the foot. 

Take ofif the shoes, so that the frog will rest on 
the ground, then poultice the feet with bran, made 
up with cold water if it is a recent case, but if it is 
of some months' standing hot water is better than 
cold; put the poultices into bags made a little 
larger than the foot ; put about two inches deep of 
the bran mash into the bag, then put the foot in 
and fill in all around as high as the fetlock, and tie 
the bag above the fetlock and around the ankle to 
keep it well on the foot. Wet this several times a 
day and change it once daily. Continue this for 
two weeks, and see that it is properly done ; if not, 
it will be of no service. Then blister the coronet 
with cantharides 2 teaspoonfuls and lard 4 table- 
spoonfuls. Repeat in three weeks, and give the 
animal a long rest. 

NITS.— See Bot Flies. 

NODULAR DISEASE IN SHEEP.— Nodules 
resembling those of tuberculosis found in the in- 
testines of sheep, are due to the presence of para- 
sitic worms. Profuse diarrhoea and a pronounced 
anemic condition prevail. A post mortem exami- 
nation of the intestines discloses the presence of 
numerous nodules in the intestinal walls. If the 
worm is present, no treatment is possible, for the 
reason that any medicine that would affect the 
worm would also affect the tissues and lead to 
their destruction. Prevention, therefore, is the 
only means of overcoming the disease. Sheep must 
be kept off infested pastures, and infested pastures 
must be plowed and given over to cultivated crops. 
Give lambs only clean pastures to graze over. This 
means crop rotation in connection with sheep hus- 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 



225 



bandry. No feed that has been tramped over by 
infected sheep should ever be supplied to lambs 
or sheep not infested with the disease. 

OBSTETRICS.— Difficult parturition is common 
in some females. And frequently others, less 
bothered as a rule with any difficulty at this period, 
deliver their offspring only after great labor and 
much difficulty. When such cases occur close 
vigilance not only frequently hastens delivery, but 
often saves the life of either the mother or off- 
spring or both. 




NATURAL PRESENTATION OF THE FOAL 

In either of these cases delivery follows in the usual order 
without delay or injury to the mother. 

In many instances the trouble is seated in the 
womb; the neck of the womb remains closed, 
and even though long-continued and vigorous ef- 
forts are made, the offspring does not arrive. In 
cases of this kind assistance can be rendered which 
quickly removes the difficulty. First oil the hand 
and forearm and work the fingers into the passage, 
gently pressing it open. If the womb does not 
yield to this treatment saturate a sponge or cloth 
with extract of belladonna and rub it around the 
neck, leaving it thus for a little while. On remov- 
ing the sponge the passage will open. 



226 THE farmer's VETERINARIAN 

Manner of Delivery. — The natural position of the 
fetus at birth calls for the fore feet forward with 
the head resting on the knees. The fore feet, there- 
fore, in a normal delivery, are first presented and 
then the head. If the fetus is not unduly large, 
the mother will likely force the delivery without 
assistance. In case the struggle is extended gentle 
assistance will be in order. This can be rendered 
by a gentle pull on the legs and head. If this does 
not bring the offspring, you can consider that some- 
thing is wrong. However, do not be hasty, just 
give time. Mares usually deliver in a few minutes 
and cows often require an hour or so after labor 
begins. If you conclude that something is wrong 
oil the hand and arm. Shove the fetus back and 
ascertain, if possible, the trouble. If this examina- 
tion shows dropsy of the abdomen — water in the 
belly — puncture the abdomen with a knife in order 
that the fetus may be delivered. If the trouble is 
with the head — water in the brain — puncture the 
head that the water may run out, and then remove 
the arm and hand. When the struggle pains come 
on again, give a gentle pull and delivery will follow. 

Frequently the position is changed. Sometimes 
but one fore foot appears with the head, making it 
impossible to deliver the ofiFspring. When a case 
like this occurs, shove the fetus back and bring 
the unpresented leg forward where it belongs, and 
then likely no further trouble will result. If the 
legs are in proper place but the head turned back- 
ward, it will be necessary to push the fetus back 
into the womb and bring the head forward in posi- 
tion. In case the head resists your efforts, adjust 
a noose over the head, and while you work with 
your hand inside, have an assistant gently pull on 
the rope, in order to draw the head into the proper 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 



22y 



position. After the head and fore feet are put in 
natural position, delivery will follow without fur- 
ther difficulty. 

When all four feet appear together it is neces- 
sary to push the fore feet back into the womb just 
as far as it is possible to force them. This done. 
pull now on the hind feet and bring the fetus out, 
hind feet first. It is always a mistake to attempt 
delivery with the head first when delivery has pro- 
ceeded as suggested in cases of this nature. 




ABNORMAL PRESENTATION OF THE FOAL 

Delivery is not possible in either of the cases here illus- 
trated. Where such occur assistance must be rendered. See 
article on obstetrics for treatment. 



Where delivery is attempted with the hind legs 
foremost, it is regarded as safe, provided the feet 
come out as they should. If any difficulty is en- 
countered, shove the fetus back, straighten the 
legs, and then with the renewal of the labor strug- 
gles assist the mother by a gentle pull on the hind 
legs. 

Another common presentation is where you feel 
nothing but the tail, rump and hips. Adjust the 
fetus for proper delivery by shoving the hind end 
upwards and towards the front of the womb, then 
slip the hand down and get hold of the foot of 



the hind leg and lift upwards and backwards until 
the legs are brought out into the passage. Now 
repeat the work for the other leg and the job is 
done. 

It is always a good plan, after difficult partu- 
rition, especially when any abnormal discharge ap- 
pears, to wash out the womb with warm water in 
which a little carbolic acid or creolin is placed. 
Use this daily for a few days. 

PALISADE WORM.— The worms are found in 
the horse in two periods of existence. The mature 
worms are usually found attached to the mucous 
membrane of the intestinal wall of the large in- 
testine, with the head sunk deep for the purpose of 
sucking blood, which gives them the brown or red 
color. The immature are found sometimes in the 
same organs, in a small capsule covering, in small 
pellets of manure, in cavities or cysts, varying in 
size from a pin-head to that of a hazel nut, in the 
walls of the intestines, and also in the arteries and 
other structures of the body. 

When present in the kidneys or in the arteries 
leading to the kidneys, or in the surrounding tis- 
sues, a horse is especially sensitive to pressure over 
the loins. They have been known to cause paraly- 
sis. When found in the brain, an animal, when 
working, suddenly begins to stagger, the eyes be- 
come fixed, and the horse shows many of the symp- 
toms of " blind staggers." When the large arteries 
of the abdomen are affected, and this is their favor- 
able location in the circulatory system, the animal 
is frequently subject to colic, which often results 
in death. This is also the case when found in 
great numbers in the intestines. 

From a thorough investigation of a great many 
cases^ both before and after death, the conclusions 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 229 

are drawn that the parasite evolves a poisonous 
substance (toxin), which, in many instances, 
stupefies the brain or parts of the nervous system 
of the horse, and in that way causes coma, paraly- 
^s and death of the animal. 

Prevention is the best treatment. Hay and fod- 
der from swampy land are to be looked upon as 
suspicious. Pastures which are subject to over- 
flow should be avoided. ]\Iedicinal treatment con- 
sists of a prolonged, careful use of some of the 
essential oils or other vermifuges. The ordinary 
spirits of turpentine has proved a fairly good com- 
mon remedy. An ordinary animal will stand 8 
tablespoonfuls of turpentine given in a pint to a 
quart of raw linseed oil, thoroughly mixed. If the 
animal is badly affected, the above dose may be 
given night and morning for two or three days, 
then omit for a week or two and repeat. The 
remedy should be discontinued as soon as the 
animal shows signs of irritation of the kidneys. 

PARALYSIS. — A loss of power over some of the 
muscles due to a disordered state of the brain or 
nerves. This may result from disease or injury or 
some irritation. In horses and cattle the hind- 
quarters are not infrequently affected in this way, 
the result of indigestion from constipation or from 
attacks of colic. The animal shows weakness in 
one hind limb, moving it with difficulty when the 
opposite limb may then become affected. If the 
attack is very severe, the animal falls on its 
haunches and may not be able to rise. Tempera- 
ture, pulse and respiration, all are rather normal. 
Treatment should be directed to remove the cause 
of the disease. When there is colic or constipa- 
tion, give purges. A half teaspoonful of extract of 
nux vomica, given in a pint of milk twice a day, is 



230 THE FARMER S VETERINARIAN 

very good. Pouring cold water from a height and 
then immediately hot water sometimes greatly 
strengthens the muscles and has its use in treat- 
ing. Rubbing the parts with mustard stimulates 
them, and in some cases good results. Paralysis 
resulting from injury usually disappears as the part 
returns to its normal state. 

PARASITES.— These are living plants or 
animals that live temporarily or continually in the 
bodies of other plants or animals and draw their 
nourishment from their host. It is doubtful if 
there is a single farm animal that does not harbor 
parasites at nearly all times during its life. There 
may be many of these in the same individual at the 
same time. Parasites may be harmful or not, as 
the case may be. Parasites may be divided into 
two classes — plant parasites and animal parasites. 
The bacteria and molds are the most important 
among the former, whereas in the latter certain 
minute protozoa, certain forms of insects and cer- 
tain worms are the most commonly met. Such 
diseases as staggers, tuberculosis, and typhoid 
fever are the result of bacterial diseases, while 
Texas fever is an example of the protozoa class; 
and then the insects and worms are types with 
which we are all acquainted. When a disease is 
caused by either, discussion will be found under 
the name of that disease. 

PARTURIENT APOPLEXY.— See Milk Fever. 

PARTURITION, DIFFICULT.— See Obstet- 
rics. 

PERITONITIS.— An inflammation of the mem- 
brane which lines the abdominal cavity and which 
also invests the abdominal organs. It may be 
caused from some exposure to cold after some 
weakening disease. Some injury to the abdomen 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 23I 

or belly may cause it, or it may start from some 
inflammation that has attacked the stomach, liver, 
intestines, or the spleen. When attacked, a slight 
pain is felt and the animal lies down, stretches 
himself, sweats freely, and moans. Then he rises, 
walks about somewhat, and all the time breathes 
heavy and shows much weakness. The pulse runs 
up between 75 and 100 beats a minute. In time the 
legs and ears get cold. A good treatment is a pint of 
raw linseed oil, 4 tablespoonfuls of laudanum, and 
10 drops of aconite. Mix these and give as a 
drench. A mustard plaster for the abdomen and 
something hot for the back are desirable. In two 
hours, if the pain continues, give 4 tablespoonfuls 
of laudanum and 10 drops aconite in a pint of luke- 
warm water. Use as a drench. 

PINK EYE. — A contagious epidemic disease of 
the horse affecting the animal all over and par- 
ticularly the membranes of the air passages. There 
is general debility, considerable cough, and a general 
discharge from the nostrils. The transparent cover- 
ing of the eyeball becomes inflamed. At times the 
disease is very fatal, many horses succumbing to it. 
It is most common in the spring. 

One of the symptoms is the general weakness of 
the animal. He hangs his head, and trembles; has 
little appetite and appears cold. The eyes show 
a watery discharge and later a stare coat. The pulse 
at first is weak, but quick, and later rising to 80 or 
90 beats a minute. At this stage the temperature 
is high, around 103 to 105 degrees. The breathing 
is accelerated to about 50 times a minute. The 
bowels do not act, or act very poorly, and the urine 
is very scanty. In treating, first isolate the animal 
and disinfect the stables to prevent spreading. Any 
of the common disinfectants will do. 



22,2 THE FARMER S VETERINARIAN 

Good nursing is necessary. Keep the horse 
warm with blankets. Give him soft, nourishing 
food. The eyes should be bathed three or four 
times a day with hot water. A little boric acid, 
say, a teaspoonful to a half pint of water, is good 
to use as a wash for the eyes and nostrils. To 
keep the kidneys active and to reduce the fever, give 
a tablespoonful of nitrate of potash dissolved in 
water two or three times a day. If the 
horse is very weak, one-half glass of whiskey in a 
pint of gruel three times a day is stimulating and 
helpful. It is better not to give any physic of any 
kind. After recovery, the horse should be given 
little or no work. A long rest of several weeks is 
necessary. 

PLACENTA.— The covering of the fetus, com- 
monly called the afterbirth. As a rule, this comes 
away with the birth of the offspring. Occasionally 
in the cow it remains attached to the walls of the 
uterus, and if not removed will cause trouble, if 
not sickness and death. Soon after the birth of the 
calf, if the afterbirth remains, decomposition sets in 
and as a result the system is more or less poisoned. 
The first symptoms observed are the offensive odor, 
the reddish discharge and the decrease in the milk 
flow. 

If the afterbirth does not come away of itself, 
assistance is necessary. Do this during the first 
or second day, or the third day at the latest. To 
remove the afterbirth, tie up the cow and fasten 
her in a way that she cannot jump around. Now 
introduce the hand and arm, after careful washing 
and disinfecting and oiling, into the uterus and 
gradually and gently break the buttons or attach- 
ments from the walls of the uterus with the fingers. 
With patience these will come away and the whole 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 233 

membrane be removed. An occasional injection is 
advisable. Use some good disinfectant in the 
water, flush out thoroughly. 

PLEURISY. — This disease occurs in the chest 
cavity and is found inside the ribs and over the 
lungs. It is caused very much in the same way as 
inflammation of the lungs, like exposure to cold, 
standing in a draft, and cooling when warm. Some 
injury to the ribs may also cause the trouble. 

In the early stages the animal is noticed to 
shiver, the pulse is quick and strong, and there is 
great pain. The breath is heavy, and this is noticed 
as far back as the flanks. While the animal may 
(lie down, its disposition is to stand up most of the 
time. There is an inclination to cough, but this is 
suppressed, because of the pain occasioned by it; 
therefore the cough really ends in a groan rather 
than in a normal cough. The extremities of the 
body become cold. 

The best treatment endeavors to prevent the 
disease from developing. Do just as you would in 
a case of inflammation of the lungs. Mustard 
plasters for the chest on each side are good. Keep 
the body well covered, including the legs and neck; 
have good ventilation in the stable, but keep the 
patient out of any draft. 

As soon as the disease is noticed, mix the follow- 
ing in a pint of cold water, and give as a drench: 
Ten drops of aconite, a half teaspoonful of bella- 
donna and two tablespoonfuls of laudanum. These 
should be given every two hours until the pain sub- 
sides. If the animal seems to be weak, and needs 
a stimulant, give 4 tablespoonfuls of spirits of niter 
and a half glass of whiskey. This may be given in 
a pint of cold water mixed with the gruel and given 
as a drench three or four times a day. 



234 THE FARMER^S VETERINARIAN 

At the same time use the following medicine to 
improve the kidney action: One-fourth pound of 
saltpeter or nitrate of potash and one-fourth of a 
pound of gentian root. These are to be mixed well 
together and a teaspoonful given three or four 
times daily. Soft foods are desirable. A small 
amount of water should be given frequently. Small 
quantities at a time are preferable to large quantities 
at infrequent intervals. 

PLEURO-PNEUMONIA.— This is a very con- 
tagious disease of cattle introduced in this country 
from Europe. At one time it was a very serious 
menace to the cattle industry. Thanks to the very 
aggressive work of the United States Department 
of Agriculture, the disease has, so far as is known, 
been eradicated from this country. No cases of the 
disease have been reported during the past dozen 
years. 

PNEUMONIA.— See Inflammation of the Lungs. 

POLL EVIL. — A swelling or soreness at the top 
of the head. Usually it is caused by an injury, like 
bumping the head in a doorway, or from a bruise 
made by the halter or bridle. It is first noticed by 
a swelling or soreness, which frequently causes 
trouble by forming an abscess; sometimes this 
works down and even affects the bone. Treatment 
is very simple if handled in time. Remove the 
cause and then bathe with warm water and vinegar 
twice a day and apply a liniment of some kind. If 
the abscess is formed, it should be opened with a 
knife at the lowest point to remove the matter. 
From now on for a few days bathe the opening with 
warm water in which has been added some carbolic 
acid or creolin. If the case causes much trouble, you 
had better consult a veterinarian, as bad cases frc- 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 



235 



quently leave the neck stiff so that the animals are 
not able to eat off the ground. 

QUARTER CRACK.— See Sand Crack. 
QUITTOR. — A name given to a fistulous open- 
ing upon the heels and quarters of the coronary 
band, and is caused by treads, pricks in shoeing, 
bruises, and suppurating corns. Any injury which 
will cause suppuration within the foot will usually 

cause matter to form at 
the coronet, and may re- 
sult in quittor. The dis- 
ease is indicated by a 
swelling upon the coronet 
where the hair and hoof 
meet, great lameness, and 
a discharge of thin or 
thick curdy pus. There 
may be one or a number 
of small openings leading 
down into the sensitive 
part of the foot. The 
surrounding the 
quittor swell and become 
hard and take on an un- 
healthy action and are 
difficult to cure, and may be permanently diseased. 
Clean the foot and put it into a bran poultice for 
several days, then remove any horn that may be 
pressing on the sore part. If it is at the heel re- 
move the crust with a knife ; if it is in front of the 
hoof rasp it thin. Then probe the opening at the 
top to find the depth and direction. Put a grain 
of bichloride of mercury into tissue paper and roll 
it into a cone and press it down to the bottom of 
the opening. Treat all the openings in the same 
way. Put the foot into a bag to protect it from 




QUITTOR 

Fistulous wounds on any parts 
part of the coronet are usu- 
aUy the result of a tread or 
bruise. If neglected serious 
trouble may result. 



injury and let it alone for three days, tnen clean 
out the openings and put in some more of the bi- 
chloride of mercury, and so on for two weeks, or 
until the parts become healthy and the hard swell- 
ing has decreased; then make up a bath of chloride 
of zinc one ounce, cool water one gallon; put the 
foot into this twice a day for twenty minutes at a 
time. As soon as the openings are healed blister 
the coronet with the following: Mix 2 teaspoonfuls 
of cantharides with 4 tablespoonfuls of lard ; repeat 
in two weeks if necessary. When it is time to put 
on the shoe and work the horse, a bar shoe will be 
best. If the animal has much fever in the early 
stages of the disease give a dose of aloes, and follow 
this by giving 2 tablespoonfuls of nitrate of potas- 
sium twice a day in bran mash. Later in the dis- 
ease give a teaspoonful of sulohate of iron once a 
day in bran mash as a tonic. 

RABIES.— -See Hydrophobia. 

RHEUMATISM.—A disease which affects the 
muscles or joints, wandering from one part of the 
body to another. It affects nearly all animals, in- 
cluding the horse, ox, dog, hog, and sheep. Rheu- 
matism of the muscles is usually due to catching 
cold, while rheumatism of the joints is often due 
to some micro-organism. 

Stiffness, which usually comes on suddenly, is a 
characteristic symptom. The animal may be able 
to move only with great difficulty. The joints may 
crack when moved, the affected muscles are hard 
and painful to touch, the soreness may shift from 
one part to another; and the animal sometimes 
makes a quick recovery, only to be followed by 
another attack in a short time or perhaps never 
again. These symptoms may be associated with 
a rise in body temperature and increased pulse. 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 237 

The disease may last for a long time or only for a 
few days. In chronic cases the muscles decrease in 
size in the parts affected. In the dog it is very 
painful when caused to move and he will howl, 
or even howl when he thinks he is going to be 
moved. In sheep it seldom occurs except in young 
lambs. Pigs are often affected in the legs or back, 
sometimes becoming paralyzed in the hind legs. 

Rheumatism of the Joints usually shows very 
rapid swelling, increased heat, and is very painful. 
The animal is often so lame that it will not put any 
weight on the foot of the affected limb. 

For horses and cows, treatment consists of local 
applications of alcohol 50 parts and oil of mustard 
I part, rubbing it in well; or spirits of camphor. 
Give at the same time internally i teaspoonful of 
potassium iodide twice daily and not to exceed 12 
doses; or salicylate of soda 4 tablespoonfuls daily. 
Keep the animal warm and in a well-ventilated 
stable. Pigs or dogs, according to size, should be 
given from 4 to 16 grains of salol, also using the 
above local applications. 

RINGBONE. — A growth of bone on the pastern 
bone, just above the hoof. It causes lameness when 
it interferes with the joint or the passage of any of 
the tendons. Some horses are predisposed to bony 
diseases from the least injury, while others are not, 
and in selecting mares for breeding purposes the 
former should be rejected. This disease results 
from strains, bruises, or injuries to the cartilage of 
the joints. When the membrane of the bone or 
cartilage becomes inflamed there may be great 
lameness for several months before any enlarge- 
ment takes place, and it is somewhat difficult to 
detect. The absence of other diseases of the foot, 
with some heat in the pasterns, and soreness on 



238 THE farmer's veterinarian 

pressure or moving the joints indicates this dis- 
ease. In other cases the enlargement may make 
its appearance for some time before the horse be- 
comes lame, and in some cases it may never cause 
any lameness, but should always be looked upon 
with suspicion, as in the majority of cases it sooner 
or later causes lameness. Ringbone is more dif- 
ficult to cure on the fore feet than on the hmd 
ones, as the pasterns are more upright on the former 
than on the latter, and, besides, the horse's fore 
legs have to bear two-thirds the weight of the body. 

The horse should have rest, and the shoes should 
be removed and the foot pared level. If there is 
heat in the part, keep it wet with the following 
lotion by means of a bandage saturated with it: 
Acetate of lead half an ounce and water one quart. 
Continue this for a few days, then apply a blister 
composed of cantharides 2 teaspoonfuls, biniodide 
of mercury i teaspoonful and lard 8 tablespoonfuls. 
Rub on a third of this with the fingers. It is not 
necessary to cut off the hair if the blister is well 
rubbed in. Let it remain on for 24 hours, then 
wash off and rub on a little lard. Repeat every 
second week until three blisters have been applied. 
Keep the horse's head tied while the blister is on 
so that he cannot get his mouth to the part. The 
horse should have a few months' rest after this 
treatment. If it does not cure the animal it is best 
to have him fired by a qualified veterinarian. 

RINGWORM. — This is common in the domestic 
animals, especially in calves and young cattle, and 
is contagious. It depends upon the presence of a 
vegetable parasite, which develops and grows 
rapidly when it finds a suitable place for develop- 
ment. Ringworm may afi^ect any part of the body, 
but its favorite seat is around the eyes, the face, 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 239 

ears, and neck of cattle, and sometimes the back 
and hindquarters. 

A gray crust appears on the skin, and the hair 
drops out. This keeps spreading in the form of a 
ring until around the eyes, the side of the face, ears, 
or neck may be covered with it. It appears in the 
same way on the back, hips, and inside of the hind 
legs. It does not seem to affect the health of the 
animal, as it is found in the well-kept as well as 
those poorly kept. 

First remove the crusts by washing with warm 
water in which one ounce of carbonate of potas- 
sium has been put to every quart of water. A 
brush should be used in washing the parts. Then 
use the following: Iodine 2 teaspoonfuls and vase- 
line 4 tablespoonfuls. Rub a little of this on with 
a gloved hand. Repeat in three days. Or mix 
carbolic acid i ounce with 2 ounces of alcohol and 
apply a little of this to the parts with a feather once 
or twice ; this last is very eflfective. 

ROARING. — A disease, due to the wasting of the 
larynx; is characterized by loud, unnatural sounds 
after any violent exertion. The disease sometimes 
follows distemper and influenza or a local injury to 
the throat. Once established the disease is incur- 
able. In its early stages repeated light blisters may 
help. A common blister can be made of a half tea- 
spoonful of cantharides, a half teaspoonful of 
biniodide of mercury and 4 tablespoonfuls of vase- 
line or lard. 

ROUP. — A disease of the mucous membrane in 
fowls. It is of the nature of an inflammation, with 
a discharge from the eyes and nostrils usually ac- 
companying. Damp and unsanitary quarters favor 
the development and spread of roup. It is clearly 
a germ disease, and, therefore, contagious. It is 



240 THE farmer's veterinarian 

Spread by means of infected quarters and fowls. 
All discharges must be destroyed by disinfection, 
and the diseased fowls quarantined off by them- 
selves. The dead should be burned. Keep the 
quarters light and airy; admit an abundance of 
sunshine and fresh air. Feed wholesome, nutri- 
tious food, that the poultry stock may ward off the 
disease. The best treatment is that which pre- 
vents spreading to healthy fowls. If an outbreak 
occurs, disinfect thoroughly, liberally, and continu- 
ously. Antiseptics administered about the head 
will usually break up the disease. Creolin is good — 
say, I part to 100 parts of water. Kerosene is also 
recommended 

In a sense, roup is the result of neglected colds. 
The birds sneeze, and manifest their uneasiness as 
animals do with common colds. A teaspoon- 
ful of pure carbolic acid to each gallon of drinking 
water is an excellent preventive and can be pro- 
vided at small cost. 

SAND CRACK.— A crack found in any part of 
the wall of the foot. The crack is due to over- 
exertion. When the hoof is dry and hard and brit- 
tle, the crack usually begins at the top and extends 
downward. Frequently the sensitive tissue creeps 
into the crack, causing pain, and from which blood 
frequently issues. When a crack is first seen, the 
feet should be poulticed with linseed meal for a few 
days. This will remove the inflammation and 
soften the hoof. The next step will be to pare out 
a piece of the hoof at the top, separating it com- 
pletely from the coronary band a half inch or so 
on each side of the crack down to the quick. Fill 
this hole with tar. A bar shoe attached so as not 
to rest on the wall where the crack is located is 
yery helpful. 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 24I 

SCAB IN CATTLE.— Scab or itch, sometimes 
called mange of cattle, is caused by a minute mite 
that lives upon the surface of the skin, burrowing 
into it. Other animals are not attacked by this 
parasite, although a similar one does afflict sheep. 
So long as cattle are doing well on grass, no dis- 
turbance is noticed. As soon, however, as they 




A CATTLE BATH TUB 

The tank here shown is used for dipping the cattle for 
treatment of mange. The dipping tank is now generally used 
throughout the W^est. 

are placed on dry food and cold weather sets in, 
the disease appears, and, if the cattle do poorly, 
develops into a very aggravating form. Old 
cattle are less troubled, the attacks being more 
frequently on calves and yearlings and two-year- 
olds out of condition. In the early stages the itch- 
ing of the skin in the region of the neck or shoul- 
ders is first noticed. This is indicated by the 



242 THE farmer's VETERINARIAN 

animals digging at the skin with teeth and horns 
and the constant rubbing against posts or barbed 
wire or anything that may give relief at the time. 
The disease gradually spreads along the back, sides 
and outside of legs. In the early stages the coat 
looks rough, the skin has a scurvy appearance. In 
time, the hair comes off or is rubbed ofif, presenting 
bald patches of thick, glazed and wrinkled skin. After 
the hair comes ofif the parasites leave these regions, 
seeking other quarters and then the hair grows in 
again. There is a dejected and debilitated condi- 
tion in animals thus afiflicted and they fail rapidly in 
flesh. Their appetites are poor and most of their 
time is expended in scratching themselves. 

Scab spreads rapidly through a bunch of cattle, 
especially if they are not thrifty, and disseminates it- 
self through a herd in four to six weeks. The thrifty, 
vigorous animals resist the infection for some time, 
but they gradually succumb. The disease is spread 
by direct contact and by contact with infected quar- 
ters. While the mites will live a week or ten days 
in protected places, they are almost immediately 
destroyed by direct sunlight. As soon as the disease 
is discovered in a bunch of cattle, the infected 
animal should be isolated and the infected quarters 
and rubbing posts disinfected with a 5 per cent 
solution of carbolic acid. Infected animals should 
be well fed and cared for, and be salted with a mix- 
ture of I pound of flowers of sulphur mixed with 
10 pounds of common salt. External treatment is 
necessary to afifect a cure. If a large number of 
cattle are affected, a dipping wash through which 
the animals must swim in the dip is the best means 
for destroying the mites. 

The most efificient remedies, considering cost, are 
the coal tar products advertised as dip solutions. 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 243 

A homemade dip that is both cheap and effective 
for treating a small number of animals may be 
made of 3 pounds of flowers of sulphur, 2^ pounds 
of unslaked lime, 15 gallons of water. In making 
this unslaked lime into a thick paste, sift in the 
sulphur and stir well. Put this mixture in a kettle 
with, say, five gallons of water and boil for at least 
half an hour — a longer time is better. When the 
chocolate-looking mass settles, the clear liquid is 
drawn off and water enough is added to make 15 
gallons. The dip will be more effective if used 
when warm, just a bit hotter than the normal heat 
of the body. After the animals are dipped, they 
should remain in the solution about two minutes. 
This will be time enough to thoroughly saturate 
the scabs and destroy them. A couple of ablu- 
tions are required for complete eradication. 
When no treatment is resorted to, the dip should 
be applied with a scrubbing brush, cloth or sponges 
and all scabs and crusts should be thoroughly 
saturated. Warm sunny days are preferable for 
this kind of work. 

SEPTIC NAVEL INFECTION— A diseased 
condition at the attachment of the navel cord soon 
after birth. It is a good plan just after birth to 
apply some septic powder to the navel at the break- 
ing point. If trouble arises, apply a solution of 
carbolic acid, I part to 20 parts of water, after 
using some hydrogen peroxide. A little iodoform 
and alum, mixed half and half, make a good dust- 
ing powder to use also. 

SHEEP BOTS.— See Bot Flies. 

SIDE BONES.— On either side of the coffin bone 
there is a cartilage which may in certain cases be- 
come hardened by deposits of mineral matters, 
•srhich may thus lead to lameness. Side bones are 



244 

situated on one or both sides of the leg and bulge 
above the upper portion of the hoof. They may 
be the result of inflamed conditions, bruises or 
troubles like corns or hoof cracks. Slipping on 
the stony pavement is a frequent cause, as well as 
the great weight of the bodies in heavy horses. If 

the wagon tongue 
falls on the foot at 
this point, the car- 
tilage may be in- 
jured and induce the 
disease. The swell- 
ing is first noticed 
just above the hoof 
or near the heel. 
Lameness soon fol- 
lows. 

The treatment 
usually recommend- 
ed for side bones 
consists in the free 
use of cold foot 

SIDE BONES , ^i ij 4.^^ 

baths or cold water 

When the cartilages on either , « p « 

Side of the foot of a horse just at bandages lor a week 

the top of the hoof and close to the rp' f>^-^.^.a 

heel turn to bone, side bones are Or more. i inciure 

^^ ^^^"^^- of iodine applied to 

the swollen parts is very good. A blister ap- 
plied after the water applications have been 
made for a week or so, is used by many veteri- 
narians. The blister is made of 2 teaspoonfuls of 
cantharides mixed with 4 tablespoonfuls of lard. It 
is rubbed in well with the fingers and allowed to 
remain for 24 hours, when it is washed off and 
applied a second time the following week. These 
applications are continued until the lameness dis- 
appears. If this does not bring permanent relief, 




DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 245 

then firing of the injured parts and several months' 
rest will be necessary 

SLOBBERING.— Some kinds of food cause an 
unnatural flow of saliva. Fresh crimson clover hay 
is one of these. Of course the continual flow of 
saliva is undesirable and unpleasant. It is un- 
natural and should be checked as soon as possible. 
This can be accomplished by changing the feed and 
then washing the mouth out with alum water. If 
a change is not observed soon, give a good physic. 
For horses use 8 teaspoonfuls of bitter aloes, a tea- 
spoonful of common soda and a teaspoonful of 
ginger. Mix these in a pint of water and give as a 
drench. For cattle, dissolve a pound of Epsom 
salts, a tablespoonful of common soda and a table- 
spoonful of ginger in a quart of lukewarm water 
and give as a drench. 

SPASMODIC COLIC— See Colic. 

SPAVIN. — This disease, known in common 
language as bone spavin, is an enlargement of the 
hock joint similar to a ringbone about the coronary 
joint. It may affect the hock joint in such a way 
as to cement the small joints together, not caus- 
ing lameness, and apparently no blemish, but the 
free movement of the limb is impaired. Any con- 
dition which favors sprains, such as fast driving 
over hard or uneven roads, unequal paring of the 
hoof, thus causing the weight to be unequally dis- 
tributed in the joints, and severe labor in early life, 
or blows, bruises, or any injuries to tendons, liga- 
ments, or joints may cause spavin. In addition 
to these causes may be mentioned sprains caused 
by jumping, galloping, or trotting animals faster 
than they are accustomed to; also straining Hy 
starting a heavy load, slipping on an icy surface or 
sliding on a bad pavement. 



246 

If the patient is examined before any bony growth 
has developed, inflammation will be detected on 
the inside of the hock joint at the junction of the 
cannon bone and the joint. While in the stable 
the horse prefers to rest the diseased leg by setting 
the heel on the toe of the opposite foot with the 
hock joint flexed. In traveling the patient is very 
lame when first taken out of the barn, but after 
traveling for a short distance goes sound. The 
diseased leg is not lifted clear from the ground, but 
nicks the toe in the middle of the stride, which is 
very noticeable on a pavement. A strained horse 
becomes very lame after being allowed to stand for 
even a very short time, then moved again. 

Preventive treatment consists in keeping horses* 
feet trimmed properly, not overworking colts while 
young, careful driving on hard or uneven roads, 
and avoiding all injuries that are liable to strain 
tendons, ligaments or joints of the limbs. Even 
after a spavin has developed it may be cured by 
proper treatment of the feet, and applying a fly 
blister. The fly blister is prepared by mixing 
thoroughly 4 tablespoonfuls of pulverized canthar- 
ides, 4 tablespoonfuls of biniodide of mercury and 
8 ounces of lard. The hair is clipped over the 
spavin and the blister applied with considerable 
rubbing. The horse^s head should be tied so as to 
avoid his biting the part blistered. A second ap- 
plication of the blister is to be used about a month 
after the first. If blistering fails to cure the spavin, 
point-firing may be resorted to. It is necessary to 
" fire " rather deeply to secure good results, care 
being taken not to fire into a joint. After firing, a 
fly blister should be rubbed into the holes where 
the hot iron has been used. 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 247 

SPAYING. — The removal of the ovaries to pre- 
vent breeding. Cast the animal on her right side. 
Give an anesthetic to prevent pain. When the 
animal is unconscious, free the limbs sufficiently to 
remove any pressure from the abdomen. Now 
pinch up a fold of the skin in the left side, midway 
between the prominent bone of the haunch or 
pelvis, and the last rib, about 4 inches below the 
backbone. Make an incision in the skin 5 or 6 
inches long; now do likewise with the abdominal 
muscles until the lining membrane of the abdominal 
cavity is exposed. This membrane is then punc- 
tured and an incision made as long as that in the 
skin and muscles. Now kneel down in close contact 
with the cow's back and insert the arm, passing the 
hand within the brim or cavity of the pelvis. By 
so doing both ovaries can be secured and detached. 
This ended, the operation of uniting the abdominal 
muscles follows by means of stitches and sutures. 

Great care is necessary in having the instruments 
boiled and w^ashed in antiseptics, and in having the 
fingers, hands, and arms severely clean and well 
saturated with a strong antiseptic solution. The 
operation should be made out in the open where 
neither dirt nor dust are to be found. Extreme 
care about germs will remove much of the risk 
associated with the operation. 

In spaying a sow, she is laid on an inclined board 
with the hindquarters up. The operator stands at 
the back of the sow. The hair is first clipped from 
the skin where the incision is to be made, high up 
in the flank and midway between the haunch and 
the last rib. The incision needs to be just large 
enough to admit the two fingers. Ovaries are 
located, pulled through the opening in the flank, 
and removed by tearing off with the fingers. The 



248 THE farmer's veterinarian 

flank incision is then closed by the necessary num- 
ber of stitches. 

This operation is sometimes performed in mares. 
But being rather uncommon the process is less 
understood. In this case it is best to call your veteri- 
narian or someone in the community well skilled 
in the operation. In all cases of spaying let severe 
cleanliness be the rule and practice, from the very 
beginning to the very end 

SPLINTS. — Splints occur more commonly in the 
heavier breeds of horses than in those that are light 
in the bone below the knee. It 
is rare that splints occur any- 
where except on the inside of 
the front cannon bone, although 
they are sometimes seen on the 
outside of both the front and 
hind legs. Any enlargement of the 
bone occurring on the inside of the 
leg between the knee and fetlock 
comes under the name of splint. 
The usual cause is concussion, that 
is, the impact of the foot on the 
hard road. It may be the result of 
other causes, such as a blow, a 
twisting strain or faulty conforma- 
tion. Some animals are more liable 
to splints than others. It is, after 
all, to a certain extent, dependent 
upon heredity. At first the splint is 
hard to detect. If you notice a 
young horse going lame while doing 
road work, it is well to examine for 
splints. While working there seems 
to be no lameness at all, and when 
FLINT standing there seems to be no pain, 




DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 249 

but when put to a trot the horse shows lameness 
and may raise and lower his head. 

If taken in time, a spHnt can be cured. The first 
thing to do with an animal suffering from a splint 
is to give the animal rest and place in such quar- 
ters where there is a soft floor, preferably the 
ground, and when so quartered one very frequently 
effects a complete cure. The application of cold 
water bandages acts well. If treatment of this sort 
fails, apply a blister of red iodide of mercury, i 
tablespoonful to 2 tablespoonfuls of lard. This 
blister should be applied with rubbing every day 
from two to four days, or until the area is well 
blistered. Then wait until the little scabs fall off, 
and if the animal is still lame, repeat the application 
of this blister. To apply the blister, clip off the 
hair over the enlargement and wash with vinegar 
to remove grease, then rub in blister with ends of 
fingers. Keep the animals tied short for two to 
four days in order to prevent rubbing or biting the 
leg. Four days after the last application of blister, 
wash carefully with warm water and soap and over 
it apply every day or so a little lard, to prevent dry- 
ing and also to loosen the scabs. 

SPRAINS. — Injuries to the ligaments of joints, 
tendons, or muscles. They are caused by violence, 
as twisting, or from over-exertion ; also sprains are 
often the result of overwork. If an animal is 
worked until tired or exhausted he is unable to use 
the proper muscle force, and more strain has to be 
borne by the ligaments, resulting in sprains, which 
often occur in young horses or even in old horses, 
when put to work after long periods of rest. 
Swelling, heat, soreness, and partial or complete 
loss of the use of the part, which is shown by the 
degree of lameness, characterize the disorder. 



25© THE FARMER S VETERINARIAN 

Sprains are most common in the legs, at the fet- 
lock joint, in the tendons just back and above the 
fetlocks, but may occur in any part. 

The first and most important thing in the treatment 
of sprains is rest, as sprains are a long time in mak- 
ing a complete recovery. In the early stages, that 
is, before swelling has taken place, applications of 
cold water should be used, applications of hot 
water, or hot packs of water, i,ooo parts, and bi- 
chloride of mercury i part, are very good. This 
will relieve the pain and reduce the swelling. Ap- 
plications of liniments are also very good. Should 
there be great heat and soreness in the part, it is 
well to use cold applications. Never blister in the 
early stages A blister may be used after the swell- 
ing has gone down, and the part has become cold, 
from two to four weeks after the injury occurred. 
This should be followed by rest for some time after 
all lameness has disappeared. 

STAGGERS. — Staggers in horses is an affection 
of the brain showing itself usually in one of two 
forms — sleepy or stomach staggers and blind or 
mad staggers. In the first form the stomach is at 
fault. Sudden change of feed, moldy or dirty food 
heavy work or fast driving right after a heavy meal 
or severe exposure is liable to cause indigestion in 
the stomach and this is reflected to the brain, caus- 
ing the animal to act dull or sleepy, sometimes 
showing symptoms of serious colic, with gas form- 
ing from the fermentation of the food, frequently 
resulting in death. 

Blind or mad staggers is an inflammation of the 
brain and may affect any of the lower animals. 
In the beginning of this form the symptoms closely 
resemble those in the stomach form, but as the in- 
flammation progresses the animal becomes blind 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 



251 



and violent and may roll, paw, kick, wander around 
in a circle, usually going only one way, either to the 
left or right, or it may walk or run in a straight line 
as near as possible for hours at a time — paying no 
attention to injuries received in its travels. In 
either case the animal may be drenched once daily . 
with a quart of raw linseed oil or a pound of Glau- / 
ber salts, dissolved in water, which sometimes gives/ 
relief. -^ 

Staggers in Sheep is mostly caused by the young 
stage of a tapeworm which infests sheep dogs. The 
dog eats the infected brain of the sheep and the 
sheep eats the Qgg of the tapeworm after it has 
passed through the dog. After the egg hatches in 
the stomach of the sheep the young worm passes 
through the bowels and other organs or tissues or 
circulates through the blood and reaches the brain, 
where it develops and causes an inflammation, re- 
sulting in disease. It is most common in young 
animals, rarely occurring in sheep after their second 
year. 

Prevention is about the only practical way of 
handling this trouble. The grounds should be 
thoroughly drained, allowing the animals only pure, 
fresh water to drink. It may be necessary to change 
pastures for a year or two. The brains of all sheep 
killed and the heads of all dying with the disease 
should be burned. 

STOMACH AND INTESTINAL WORMS IN 
SHEEP. — If a box of salt is kept covered in some 
place frequented by the sheep, to which they are 
allowed to help themselves, and if said salt is satu- 
rated with spirits of turpentine in proportions of a 
gill to every four quarts of salt, it will wonderfully 
help to keep the worms from multiplying. It is 
well, also, to have another box of larger size, where 



252 



THE FARMER S VETERINARIAN 



sheep can help themselves at will, filled with 
tobacco stems. These stems should be cut up in 
inch lengths and from time to time a quantity of 
wheat bran should be put on top of the stems. 
When this is done the sheep soon instinctively 
learn to use tobacco, and no young intestinal worm 
or stomach worm, except the tapeworm, can stand 




TWISTED STOMACH WORMS 

A common attitude observed when sheep are afflicted 
with twisted stomach worms. The animal loses in flesh, and 
unless relief is found in time, dies. Tlie parasite is shown 
in the illustration. 

the diet. This will not kill mature worms. It will 
only prevent the worm family multiplying to the 
extent of Injuring the health of sheep. 

But no sheep owner should feel wholly satisfied 
by preventive treatment of stomach worms. Twice 
a year the whole flock should be drenched with 
some agent which will destroy the mature worms. 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 253 

There are two very inexpensive drenches which 
will quite effectually do this. The one is gasoline, 
the other coal tar creosote. The objection to gaso- 
line is that it needs to be so extremely carefully 
used or sheep will be killed by it. The dose is i 
tablespoonful (never more at one dose) to a mature 
sheep; mix with not less than 4 tablespoonfuls of 
raw linseed oil (never boiled oil) ; then add a half 
pint of sweet milk. In giving, set the sheep up on 
its haunches and shake the liquids well together 
until the last minute it is administered, or the gaso- 
line will separate and, if it enters the stomach in 
the unmixed form, it will seriously injure and may 
kill the sheep. 

There is no direct vermifuge that will as effectu- 
ally kill all species of worms in a sheep's stomach 
and intestines as will gasoline; yet the coal tar 
creosote or the more refined class of sheep dips, if 
given after a full 12-hour fast, before the flock is 
turned to pasture in the spring, and again about 
November, will destroy a large number of the 
mature worms. All lambs born in April or May 
should be drenched about August or September 
following, to be certain of ridding them of worms 
that may later cause their death. The dose of any 
of the sheep dips is a dessertspoonful mixed in a 
full pint of water. 

STONE IN BLADDER.— See Concretions or 
Calculi of Urinary Organs. 

STRANGLES.— This trouble, commonly called 
colt distemper, affects horses, and rarely mules and 
donkeys. It is such an infectious disease that 
nearly all horses contract the disease when colts 
and usually remain immune to future exposures. 
The cause is a very small organism or germ which 
enters the system when a healthy colt comes in 



^54 

contact with a diseased one or when fed and 
watered in infected vessels. The seat of trouble 
is largely restricted to the respiratory organs, oc- 
casionally causing difficulty in breathing, owing to 
swelling in region of throat or to accumulations in 
air passages. 

The symptoms start out with more or less slug- 
gishness. The animal eats little, and does not 
care to take much exercise. A little watery 
discharge frequently appears from the eyes, and 
about the same time a watery discharge from 
the nostrils, which soon becomes thicker and 
more yellow in color. Usually the glands between 
the lower jawbones become enlarged and undergo 
suppuration with a rupture of them and free dis- 
charge of pus. The temperature of the animal may 
be slightly or very greatly increased from 103° to 
105°. The pulsations may also be considerably 
quickened. When complications do not occur this 
disease usually runs its course in two weeks, leav- 
ing the animal little the worse for having passed 
through the affliction. 

The milder forms of this disease will need little 
or no treatment other than careful feeding and nurs- 
ing. A laxative diet, with something green, if pos- 
sible, should be given. The colt should be placed 
in clean, airy, and comfortable quarters, but not 
in a draft. To hasten the suppuration of the 
glands a poultice of hot bran or flaxseed may be 
applied to that region, and as soon as softening can 
be detected within, puncture the gland containing 
abscess with a clean knife blade and allow the 
escape of the collection of pus. During the course 
of the disease the animal should not be worked and 
care should be taken that it be not exposed to con- 
ditions likely to produce a cold. 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 255 

STRINGHALT IN HORSES.— Stringhalt is 
an involuntary contraction of the muscles that 
bring the hind leg or legs forward. The cause of 
stringhalt is a deranged condition of the nerves 
supplying the muscles, causing the leg or legs to 
be brought up with a jerk. In slight cases of 
stringhalt it is necessary sometimes to turn the 
animal round from right to left, and from left to 
right, in order to make him show signs of string- 
halt, the symptoms of the disease being exhibited as 
he turns one way only. This disease sometimes 
comes on suddenly, but generally develops slowly. 
It is an unsoundness, and depreciates the animal's 
value and makes him unfit for hard work or fast 
driving. There is no sure cure for stringhalt; the 
animal can sometimes be relieved by giving him 
one ounce bromide of potassium at a dose twice a 
day in bran mash, and continuing it for one week, 
then skipping a week and giving again. It can 
sometimes be relieved by cutting the tendon or 
tendons of the afifected muscles, but the operation 
should be performed by a qualified veterinarian. 

SUNSTROKE.— -See Heat Exhaustion and Sun- 
stroke. 

SWAMP FEVER.— This aisease, by some called 
infectious anemia of horses, is produced by an in- 
visible organism, which is transmissible to horses, 
mules, and asses. About the first symptoms noticed 
are a general weakness of the animal ; it tires very 
easily and is not able to do any work. The loss of 
flesh is apparent in spite of the voracious appetite 
which the animal has at times. The appetite 
usually remains good until death, but the feed 
seems to do the animal no good. The temperature 
is very irregular. Some days it runs quite high, 
at times to 107°; again it is below normal. An 



256 THE farmer's veterinarian 

animal may have several attacks of the trouble, 
but each succeeding attack seems to be more severe. 
The blood becomes thin, and the circulation im- 
paired, and frequently there appears a swelling 
under the chest or abdomen, or an enlargement of 
one or more legs. It is quite easy to recognize the 
trouble, especially in the advanced stages. The 
slow progress at the beginning, remittent fever, 
progressive emaciation and anemia, unimpaired or 
ravenous appetite, staggering gait, and excessive 
urination are usually all present to a greater or less 
degree. Recovery takes place only when treatment 
is begun early and when the disease is not too acute. 

In treating, absolute rest until fully recovered 
is one of the primary requisites, and purgatives are 
to be avoided. For the fever, the United States 
Department of Agriculture recommends an anti- 
pyretic of quinine 40 grains, acetanilide 2 drams, and 
powdered nux vomica 30 grains, four times daily. 
Cold water sponge baths and frequent copious 
rectal injections of cold water also aid in reducing 
the fever. After the fever subsides the following 
is recommended: Arsenious acid, 2 grams; pow- 
dered nux vomica, 28 grams; powdered cinchona 
bark, 85 grams; powdered gentian root, no grams. 
These should be well mixed and one-half teaspoon- 
ful given at each feed of the affected animal. 

As in the case of all other infectious diseases, the 
healthy should be separated from the sick horses, 
and thorough disinfection of the infected stable, 
stalls, litter, and stable utensils should be used by 
mixing six ounces of any one of these chemicals 
with one gallon of water. One of the approved coal- 
tar sheep dips might also be used to advantage in a 
five per cent solution, and should be applied liberally 
to all parts of the stable, and sufficient lime may be 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 257 

added to the solution to make the disinfectant area 
conspicuous. 

From the fact that the disease is more prevalent 
during wet seasons, it is always best to guard 
against allowing the animals to graze upon swampy- 
land or to drink from ponds of stagnant water. 
The spread of the disease has been traced along 
creeks from one farm to another, which would 
suggest avoiding these places also. The draining 
of the low, swampy lands is especially recom- 
mended. 

SWEENY. — Wasting of the muscles covering 
the shoulder blade of the horse is commonly called 
" sweeny," and the cause may be any strain, 
sprain, jerk, or bruise of the parts due to a bad 
fitting collar, or to awkward steps of a colt plowing 
for the first time, and especially when worked in 
the furrow. The great nerves of the shoulder are 
affected, and in consequence nutrition is impaired 
and the muscles waste away. A similar condition 
may affect the muscles of the hip, or of the space 
between the stifle and hip. 

Lameness seldom is a prominent feature in 
shoulder sweeny. Ordinarily the wasting comes 
on some time after the causative injury; then the 
skin alone appears to cover the bone (scapula) and 
the animal may have little power for work. In this 
connection it should be remembered that wasting 
of the shoulder muscles also may be due to any 
chronic lameness or soreness of the foot, or leg, 
between foot and shoulder. Wasting (atrophy) 
of muscles occurs when the muscles for any reason 
are not fully exercised. It, therefore, is important 
to make sure whether the cause is in the foot or 
in the shoulder before commencing treatment. 



258 

Treatment consists in stimulating flow of blood 
to the poorly nourished parts, and if this can be 
done the muscles gradually grow in again and re- 
gain their normal development and power. An old- 
fashioned plan is to make incisions in the skin and 
then blow up the parts with air to separate the skin 
from the bone. This should not be done. Setons 
(rowels) of tape may be inserted under the skin, 
but they leave scars. Better treatment consists in 
rubbing the parts twice daily with a stimulating 
liniment, or blistering at intervals of three weeks 
with cerate of cantharides, after removing the hair. 
A suitable liniment may be made by mixing 
together four ounces of druggist's soap liniment, 
one ounce each of aqua ammonia and water to make 
one pint. 

SWINE PLAGUE.— See Hog Cholera. 

TAPE WORMS.— The flat worms of domestic 
animals. They are most serious and common in 
sheep. Treatment is only partially satisfactory. To 
get any reasonable result food must be withheld for 
several hours before the medicine is given. Use 
the following: i teaspoonful of ethereal extract of 
male fern in four ounces of castor oil. It is desir- 
able to keep the sheep inclosed, so that the ground 
can be disinfected after the worms are expelled, 
otherwise infection Avill occur right over again. 

TETANUS.— See Lockjaw. 

TEXAS OR TICK FEVER.— The earliest ac- 
counts that we have of this disease date back to 
1814. It was found that cattle driven from a cer- 
tain district in South Carolina to other parts of the 
state would infect others with the disease, while 
they themselves seemed to be in perfect health. 
The disease is known by various names in the dif- 
ferent sections of the country. It is often called 




TEXAS FEVER 

The annual loss to the South, because of the cattle tick. 
extend.3 into many millions of dollars. Investigations show 
that a complete extermination can be effected at a cost of ?6 
per farm. 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 259 

red water, Spanish fever, Australian tick fever, and 
murain. 

This is a specific fever, and is characterized by 
the peculiarity among animal diseases that animals 
which scatter the infection are apparently in good 
health, while those which sicken and die from it do 
not, as a rule, infect others. 

When the cattle are brought into the infected 
districts they usually contract the disease during 
the first of the summer, and if they are adult cattle, 
particularly milch cows or fat cattle, nearly all die; 
calves are more likely to survive. The disease is 
one from which immunity is acquired, and, there- 
fore, calves which recover from the disease are not 
again attacked, as a rule, even after they become 
adult. 

When the disease is prevalent or scattered be- 
yond the infected district the roads, barns and pas- 
tures are dangerous until freezing weather, when 
the disease disappears and cattle can be kept in 
the grounds or driven over the roads without catch- 
ing the disease. The midwinter months is the only 
time that cattle can be safely driven from an in- 
fected area to a non-infected area without spread- 
ing the disease. 

The Cause. — Texas fever is caused by an organ- 
ism which lives within the red-blood corpuscles and 
breaks them up. It is not a bacteria, but a pro- 
tozoa, and belongs to the lowest forms of the animal 
kingdom. How it gets into the blood corpuscles is 
not known. The fatality is due not so much to the 
loss of blood corpuscles as to the difficulty which 
the organs have in getting rid of the waste products 
arising from this wholesale destruction. 

The Course of the Disease. — After a period of 
exposure, which may vary from 13 to 90 days, the 



260 THE farmer's VETERINARIAN 

disease first shows itself in dullness, loss of appe- 
tite and a tendency to leave the herd and lie down 
alone. A few days before these symptoms appear 
the temperature rises from 103° to 107°. There is 
little change in temperature until death or recov- 
ery. 

Pathological Changes Observable After Death. — 
The presence of small ticks on the udder or 
escutcheon is a very important sign in herds north 
of the Texas fever line. The watery condition of 
the blood. The spleen or milt very much en- 
larged, and filled with a blackish pulp. Enlarge- 
ment of the liver, and its color changed to a 
mahogany color. The distended gall-bladder, 
caused by an excessive amount of bile in it. 

The Cattle Tick (Boophilus bovis) is the carrier 
of this disease. Its life history is quite simple. It 
is unable to come to maturity and reproduce its 
kind unless it becomes attached to the skin of cattle, 
whence it may obtain its food. The eggs laid on 
the ground by the female tick after falling off the 
cattle begin to develop at once. The time required 
for hatching varies considerably, according to the 
temperature. In the heat of summer about 13 days, 
and in the fall, under the same conditions, from 
four to six weeks. On pastures these little crea- 
tures soon find their way on to cattle. They 
attach themselves, by preference, to the tender skin 
on the escutcheon, the inside of the thighs, and on 
the base of the udder. When very numerous they 
may be found on various parts of the body. They 
remain clinging to the cattle until mature, and then 
fall oflF and lay their eggs and hatch more new 
ticks. 

How Prevention Is Possible. — The spread of 
Texas fever can be prevented by two ways — sani- 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 26I 

tary arrangements and by vaccination. Where the 
cattle are infected with the tick, the ticks can be 
killed by smearing the animals with a solution 
capable of killing the ticks without harming the 
cattle. In large herds a large vat of crude petrol- 
eum is used to immerse the cattle in. In small 
herds smear the cattle with a mixture of equal parts 
of cottonseed oil and crude petroleum. 

How to rid the pastures of the tick without kill- 
ing the vegetation on them has for a long time been 
the problem. Divide the pasture in two parts by a 
double parallel line of fence with a lo-foot space 
between, to prevent ticks from crawling across. 
One of these pastures is then kept free of cattle for 
two winters and one summer. After the second 
winter it will be free of ticks and ready for tickless 
cattle, when the other pasture is abandoned for the 
same time. 

Vaccination is for the purpose of immunizing 
cattle that are brought from a non-infected district 
to an infected district. Calves about six to eight 
months old should be used, as they are more im- 
mune than adult cattle. The immunity is caused 
by introducing the germ into the blood in a weak- 
ened form. This may be done in two ways — by 
placing virulent young ticks on the calves or by 
artificial vaccination. AVhen this is practiced, it 
should be done in two or three inoculations, as it 
gives better results. The intervals should be about 
three weeks. The amount of virulent blood should 
be small the first time and increased in the follow- 
ing treatments. 

The inoculation always results in a more or less 
serious attack of the fever upon the animal treated. 
Some may die, but the proportion of deaths result- 
ing among animals taken directly into the infected 



262 THE farmer's VETERINARIAN 

district is large to the proportion of deaths result- 
ing from vaccination. Medical treatment for this 
disease has proven unsatisfactory in the acute form, 
although in some chronic cases some good results 
may have been obtained by medical treatment. 

THICK LEG.— See Lymphangitis. 

THOROUGHPIN.— An enlargement situated 
on the sides and upper part of the hock joint of the 
horse, arising from a derangement of the sheath of 
the back tendon. The fluid with which it is filled 
can be pressed from one side to the other, hence 
the term thoroughpin. It seldom causes lameness. 
For treatment mix a teaspoonful of biniodide of 
mercury with 4 tablespoonfuls of lard. Rub on a 
little with the fingers, let it remain on for 24 hours, 
then wash off and rub on a little lard or vaseline. 
Repeat the blister every third week until the en- 
largement disappears. The horse should have rest 
while under treatment. 

THRUSH. — A diseased condition of the secret- 
ing surface of the fatty frog in the foot. In severe 
cases the horny part often detaches from the sen- 
sitive tissue within. Bad shoeing is a common 
cause of the trouble, or anything else that prevents 
the frog from coming in contact with the ground. 
Lameness is sometimes associated with the disease. 
Treatment consists of careful cleaning, followed 
with linseed meal poultices if lame. After the foot 
is made dry, insert calomel into the little cavities. 
The calomel can be kept in and the dirt kept out 
hy using paper or cloth plugs. Follow this treat- 
ment until normal condition is attained. 

THUMPS. — This disease is limited in its action 
to pigs. Its cause is not definitely known. It is recog- 
nized by a peculiar contraction of the diaphragm 
in young pigs. While the pig may eat fairly well 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 263 

the disturbance is associated with digestion. Such 
patients hke to lie around and take very little exer- 
cise. The disease is more common where one kind 
of food like corn is fed. The old common method 
was to cut off the ear. The common practice now 
is to give a purgative so as to relieve the stomach 
and bowels of accumulated material. The food 
should be changed and from I to 2 tablespoonfuls of 
Epsom salts should be given. The jerking move- 
ment of the muscles may be relieved or stopped 
by using laudanum, say, four drops to I or 2 tea- 
spoonfuls of aromatic spirits of ammonia in a half 
pint of water. 

TICK FEVER.— See Texas Fever. 

TRICHINOSIS.— A disease caused by the tri- 
china, a minute worm that aflfects people, hogs and 
rats. People become afifected with the disease from 
raw or partly cooked pork. These worms are 
killed by thorough cooking or by the process of hot 
pickling and curing meat products. 

Hogs become affected through eating offal and 
rats about the slaughterhouses. Hogs that are 
fed on green grass and other wholesome food, free 
from these minute worms, are less likely to have 
trichinae embedded in their flesh and muscles. Hogs 
do not seem to be bothered with the trichinae, 
but people suffer very severely, as both soreness in 
the muscles and fever result. 

A few days after eating the trichinae, the worms 
multiply very rapidly in the digestive tract, from 
which they migrate to other parts of the body and 
work their way through the tissues. There is no 
remedy in way of treatment when affected. Pre- 
vention is the one cure. Inasmuch as five to ten 
per cent of hogs are affected, it is advisable that all 



264 



THE farmer's veterinarian 



pork or ham be eaten only after most thorough 
cooking. 

TUBERCULOSIS.-— Tuberculosis is a disease 
resulting from the growth of tubercle bacteria in 
the tissues of the animal. The bacteria, or germs, 
of tuberculosis, usually gain entrance to the organs 
of the body by being taken in with the food. Some- 
times they penetrate through the membranes in the 

throat and get into the 
glands of the head. Some- 
times they are taken into 
the digestive tract, where 
they pass through the 
walls of the intestines 
into the lymph channels 
and are carried through 
the large lymph vessel 
into the blood circulation. 
In some cases it would 
TUBERCULOSIS GERMS ggem that the bacteria get 

These germs may be in- into the lung^S On particles 
haled in the lung-3 with the ^ .1,1 

air, admitted to the stomach OI dust that are mhaled. 
and intestines with food and 
drink, or established in the 
flesh by inoculation through i._.j,^ 
broken skin or mucous mem- DOay, 

^^'^^®- multiply in the tissues to 

which they have been carried and produce the 
changes in them which we find on the examination 
of an animal suffering with tuberculosis. Tuber- 
culosis, therefore, is simply the outcome of the 
growth of the tubercle bacteria in the organs. 

Where Tubercles Are to Be Found. — Tubercu- 
lous areas may be found in almost any part of the 
infected animal, but the organs that are usually af- 
fected are the lymphatic glands, either in the throat, 
the bronchial glands or those about the intestines 
and on the liver ; the lungs ; the liver ; the kidneys ; 




After getting into the 
tubercle bacteria 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 265 

intestines; udder and generative organs. The 
membrane covering the lungs (pleura), the heart 
(pericardium), and intestines (peritoneum), are 
frequently affected. It often happens that a large 
mass, or masses, of tuberculous tissue grow over 
one or more of these membranes. The most pecu- 
liar thing about bovine tuberculosis is the fact that 
frequently an animal will appear to be perfectly 
well, but when slaughtered will be found to have 
a large number of tuberculous areas or masses on 
the membranes or in its organs. The reason for 
this is that the diseased area is not at a vital point. 

The organ or membrane affected depends upon 
the one to which the germ is carried. Usually 
animals are infected in but one organ in the be- 
ginning, and from this diseased area the germs 
spread through the blood vessels or lymph chan- 
nels to other organs. When the diseased area is 
restricted to one organ or part, it is called " local- 
ized " tuberculosis, because it appears at the point 
where the seed or germ was first planted. When 
the germs spread through the circulation from 
this first or primary diseased area to other organs 
and set up new tuberculous growths, the con- 
dition is called " generalized " tuberculosis. When 
cattle are slaughtered for food, if they are found 
to be afflicted with localized tuberculosis, the flesh 
is considered to be fit for food, but if the disease 
is generalized the carcass is condemned. 

The Symptoms of Tuberculosis vary according to 
the location of the disease. If it is in the glands of 
the throat it is suggested by their enlargement. If 
it is in a gland about the lungs, which, because of 
its enlargement, presses on the oesophagus (gullet), 
there might be bloating. If the disease is in the 
lung tissue there would be, after it is sufficiently 



266 THE farmer's VETERINARIAN 

advanced, coughing and perhaps difficult breathing. 
If the disease is in the Hver, it cannot be readily 
distinguished until it is far advanced. If the dis- 
ease is in the udder it manifests itself usually by 
the organ becoming firm or hard, and when the 
tissues are sufficiently broken down the milk from 
that quarter will be changed in appearance; some- 
times it is thick, containing pus, sometimes thin 
and watery. It is very difficult to diagnose tuber- 
culosis from the symptoms, as many other causes 
may give rise to similar manifestations. 

As tuberculosis is caused by a specific germ, the 
disease is spread by the germs escaping from the 
diseased animals and getting into the bodies of 
healthy ones. The tubercle bacteria escape from 
the infected animal with some one or more of the 
natural discharges of the body. For example, if 
the cow has a bad tuberculous area in the lung, the 
bacteria may be discharged into one of the air tubes 
and coughed up into the mouth. Some of them 
will escape with the saliva and infect mangers or 
pastures. Some of them may be swallowed and 
escape from the body with the feces. If the dis- 
ease is in the udder the germs will escape with the 
milk. There are some observations which indicate 
that sometimes the bacteria will escape with the 
milk where the udder is not affected. After the 
bacteria leave the diseased animal and are left in 
the manger, or in the pasture, or on the surface of 
water in the drinking trough, they can be readily 
taken up by healthy cattle that eat or drink after 
them. If they escape with the milk, calves and 
pigs that are fed with it readily become infected. 
After the germs get into the body of the healthy 
animal they will multiply and produce the disease, 
just as the seed of a noxious weed will, if blown 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 267J 

into a new field, germinate and produce the weed 
there. Tuberculosis spreads from animal to animal 
on the same principle that weeds spread from one 
field to another. 

In order to prevent the spread of tuberculosis it 
is simply necessary to prevent healthy animals from 
coming in contact with the diseased ones or eating 
or drinking after them. 

As tuberculosis cannot be readily detected by a 
physical examination until the disease is far ad- 
vanced in the organs affected, it is necessary, in 
order to determine which animals have the disease, 
to apply some test or to find the germs of the dis- 
ease in their excretions. The simplest test that has 
thus far been discovered is the action of tuber- 
culin. When tuberculin is injected under the skin 
of the animals affected with active tuberculosis the 
animals respond by a rise of temperature, which 
follows a somewhat definite curve. By means of 
this test it is possible to pick out the infected in- 
dividuals so that they can be separated from the 
healthy ones. The test should be repeated in from 
six months to a year in order to detect any new 
cases which might have developed from latent or 
arrested ones. We cannot always get all of the 
infected animals with the first test any more than 
we can always remove every weed from the garden 
by one hoeing. 

The Bang Method for the Control of tuberculosis 
consists in separating the animals that are infected 
from the well ones and keeping them for breeding 
purposes. The calves are removed from their dams 
as soon as born and fed with the milk of healthy 
cows, or the pasteurized milk of the infected ones. 
It has been found that but a small percentage of 
calves that are raised under proper precautions from 



268 THE farmer's VETERINARIAN 

such animals have tuberculosis. By this means a 
sound herd of cattle may be developed from tuber- 
culous animals. This method was introduced by 
Prof. Bang of Copenhagen, and it has been found 
to be very effective in Denmark and other countries 
in Europe. It has been applied with much success 
in a large number of individual herds in the United 
States. Its success depends entirely upon the care 
which is taken in keeping tubercle bacteria away 
from the calves. 

In purchasing cattle for dairy or breeding pur- 
poses it is important that they should be taken 
from herds that are free from tuberculosis. The 
sound herd is the unit to be dealt with. Animals 
from such herds are far more reliable than non- 
reactors from tuberculous herds. 

TUMORS. — Abnormal growths of tissues. There 
are many kinds of tumors. They are named from 
the kind of tissue of which they are composed, 
as fibrous and fatty. Just why tumors should de- 
velop is not known. Treatment is in the direction 
of direct removal; this means they are to be cut 
out with a knife. Another method is to tie a strong 
cord around the stem of the tumor, thus shutting 
off the blood supply. As soon as this is effected, 
there will be a sloughing away, with a sore remain- 
ing, which is to be treated as in an ordinary wound. 
Some tumors are burnt off with caustics. Arsenic 
or corrosive sublimate are commonly used, either 
singularly or combined. Better consult a veteri- 
narian about the removal of tumors on valuable 
animals. 

TUMORS IN PIGS AFTER CASTRATION.— 
Bunches form on the cords of pigs after castration 
as a result of infection from dirty instruments or 
hands during the operation; or from leaving the 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 269 

cord too long, thus increasing the liability of its 
becoming infected. These tumors continue to 
grow, and in the worst cases attain the size of a 
man's head. Cut down on a tumor the same as 
in a simple case of castration. Separate the skin 
from the tumor and then swallow up the cord with 
the hands. Cut the cord off as high up as possible. 
The wound may be healed by the use of any of the 
common disinfectants. A teaspoonful of carbolic 
acid in a quart of water may be used once daily 
until the pigs are healed. Pigs should be kept in 
a clean pen after the operation. 

WARBLES. — These are lumps in the skin of 
cattle, caused by grubs or warbles. A simple treat- 
ment is to cut the skin and squeeze out the grubs 
where the lumps are noticed. If all the grubs are 
killed in this way, there will be no mature flies to 
cause trouble later on. See article on Bot Flies. 

WARTS. — The cause of these little tumors of the 
skin is not definitely known. They occur on all 
domestic animals, appearing most frequently on 
horses and cattle. Pure acetic acid, dropped on 
the wart until it is saturated and softened, de- 
stroys in the early stages. Warts about which a 
small cord may be tied are most easily treated in 
that way. After they have sloughed off, apply a 
little terchloride of antimony with a feather or cot- 
ton. When the scab forms, remove it and apply 
the chemical again. With a couple of applications 
the spot will be lower than the surrounding skin. 
Now use an ointment, made of 4 tablespoonfuls of 
oxide of zinc and 8 tablespoonfuls of lard. Apply 
this daily until the sore spot is healed. Sometimes 
a form of warts suddenly appears on colts and 
calves and scatter themselves about the lips, nose 



270 

and face. They are common and appear and dis- 
appear suddenly. No treatment is necessary. 

WATER IN THE BRAIN.— Dropsy in the 
brain. A condition characterized by an accumula- 
tion of fluid in the brain. The disease is either 
congenital or arises during the first years of life. 
When it occurs the best thing is to kill the young 
individual at once. 

WATER IN THE CHEST.— Often after a case 
of pleurisy a reaction comes and a very large quan- 
tity of water settles in the chest cavity, anywhere 
from two to four pailfuls. When the disease comes 
on the animal has difficulty in breathing; takes in 
the breath quickly. There is a constant biting at 
the flanks; the pulse increases to a hundred beats 
a minute. If you place your ear over the chest 
you will likely hear no sound at all. Best treat- 
ment is wholesome food, boiled flaxseed, and blis- 
ters for both sides of the chest. Use strong mustard 
plasters. A good medicine to use is one-fourth of 
a pound of saltpeter or nitrate of potash, one 
fourth of a pound of ground gentian and one-fourth 
of a pound of sulphate of iron. These should be 
mixed and then i teaspoonful given every four 
hours. You had better consult a veterinarian. Other 
complications set in so readily that help may be 
secured in other ways. Some veterinarians punc- 
ture the chest so as to draw off the surplus water 
that has accumulated. 

WHITE SCOURS OF CALVES.— Calves of 
several days or weeks old suffer from indigestion, 
which is indicated by thriftlessness, and then scour- 
ing. The discharges are white, sour, curdled and fre- 
quent at first and then become watery, greenish and 
offensive, passing in stream often. Calves live some 



DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 2^1 

days and fast lose flesh, showing all the symptoms 
of ill health. 

One of the commonest causes is feeding dirty, 
souring or decomposing factory skim milk in large 
quantities at long intervals; even sweet skim milk 
so fed may produce the trouble. To prevent scours 
give calves a perfectly clean, airy, sunny pen and 
yard attached. Separate any calf that scours. 
Avoid dirty, dark, damp, poorly ventilated pens in 
which scouring calves have been. Give all food 
from clean, scalded, sun-dried vessels. Feed small 
quantities of food often; and in milk mix lime water 
freely two or three times a week as a preventive; 
and daily when scouring has been experienced. 
Also see that the udders of cows nursing calves 
do not become contaminated with manure or other 
filth. 

Wash udders with a two per cent solution of coal 
tar disinfectant before any calf is allowed to suck 
for the first time, and then repeat to keep the udders 
clean. Also disinfect the navel of each calf at birth 
with a 1-500 solution of corrosive sublimate and 
repeat the application twice a day until the navel 
is perfectly healed over. At the first sign of scours 
give castor oil shaken up in milk. Two to 6 table- 
spoonfuls is the dose according to the size and age of 
the calf. Follow two or three times daily with a i to 
2-teaspoonful dose of a mixture of one part of salol 
and two parts of subnitrate of bismuth in milk or 
water. For calves scouring on skim milk mix in 
each pint of milk i teaspoonful of a mixture of half 
an ounce of formaldehyde in 15^ ounces of dis- 
tilled water, to be kept in an amber-colored bottle. 

WIND COLIC— See Colic. 

WIND PUFFS. — An accumulation of synovia m 
the cavities between the tendons of the legs, espe- 



2^2 THE farmer's VETERINARIAN 

dally between the back tendons and the bone just 
above the fetlock joint. The bulging out is on 
each side of the tendon. Horses subjected to 
severe exertions, like hard work on the roads, are 
most frequently affected. The puffs or galls sel- 
dom cause lameness or interfere with the usual 
work. Unless treated the puffs will become thicker 
and harder and sometimes solidified. When this 
happens lameness occurs. In the early stages, 
pads and bandages, if applied so as to cause pres- 
sure, will tend to remove the galls. If this treat- 
ment is not sufficient, then use a teaspoonful of 
biniodide of mercury, and 4 tablespoonfuls of lard. 
When mixed, these should be rubbed on with the 
fingers. After 24 hours remove with water and 
soap and repeat every other week until the puffs 
disappear. 

WIND SUCKING.— See Cribbing. 

WORMS. — See Intestinal Worms in Horses and 
Sheep; and Stomach Worms. 

WORMS IN HOGS.— Hogs with worms in the 
intestines run down in condition, become very thin 
and lank, back is arched, eyes dull, refuse feed, 
walk stiffly, and appear lifeless. The worms may 
be very numerous, in bad cases completely filling 
the intestines. The pigs die if not treated. To 
secure the best results, affected hogs should re- 
ceive individual treatment. Twenty-four hours be- 
fore administering treatment very little feed should 
be given them. Then give the following medicine 
as a drench to each 100-pound hog; larger or smaller 
hogs should receive a dose in proportion : 4 table- 
spoonfuls of oil of turpentine, one-half teaspoonful 
of liquor ferri dialysatus and 6 ounces of raw lin- 
seed oil. If necessary, repeat the dose in four 
days. 



Index 



Page 

Abortion 101 

Abscesses 103 

Aconite 69 

Actinomycosis 104 

Afterbirth 106 

Aloes 69 

Alum 69 

Animal Body a Collection of CeUs 1 1 
Ajiimal Body, How Formed. ... 9 

Animals, Caring for Sick 99 

Animal Diseases, Learn to Rec- 
ognize 4 

Animals, Examining in the 

Stables 42 

Animals, Out of Doors Test 44 

Anthrax 108 

Antimony 71 

Apoplexy Ill 

Anemia 107 

Aniseed 70 

Arnica 70 

Arsenic 70 

AzOtUTVEk Ill 

Back 47 

Bandage, How to Make It 57 

Barrenness 113 

Belladonna 70 

Big Head 113 

Big Jaw of Cattle 114 

Big Knee 114 

Big Leg 114 

Bile 26 

Biniodide of Mercury 71 

Bitter MUk 114 

Blackhead 114 

Blackleg 115 

Blackleg Vaccine 116 

Bladder 67 

Bladder, Stone in 117 

Blind Staggers 117 

Blistering 98 

Bloating in Cattle 117 

Blood 12 

Blood Poisoning 120 

Bloody Milk 121 

Bloody Urine 121 

Body 47 

Body Tissues 12 

Bog Spavin 122 

Bone Spavin 123 

Bot Flies 123 

Bots 126 

Breeze Flies 123 

Broken Wind 126 

Bromide of Potassiiim 71 

Bronchitis 126 

Bruises, Treating 60 

Bunches 128 

273 



Page 

Bums 128 

Caked Bag 128 

Caked Udder 128 

Calctdi of Urinary Organs 140 

Calf Cholera 128 

Calf Scotu-s 129 

Camphor 72 

Cancer 129 

Cantharides 72 

Capped Elbow 130 

Capped Hock 130 

Capped Knee 131 

Carbolic Acid 72 

Castration 131 

Catarrh 133 

Cattle Scab 134 

Cattle, Special Type in 44 

Caustic Potash 74 

Cell Division 10 

Cell, Nature of 9 

Cells, What They Are 11 

Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis 134 

Charbon 135 

Chest Founder 135 

Chicken Cholera 135 

Choking 136 

Chronic Founder 165 

Circulation of Blood 28 

Coffin Joint Lameness 137 

Colds 137 

Colic 137 

Colic Mixttire 80 

Concretions 140 

Constipation 142 

Corns 142 

Corns, Examine for 49 

Cornstalk Disease 143 

Corrosive Sublimate 73 

Cough Mixture 80 

Cow Pox 144 

Cracked Hoofs 144 

Cramp Colic 145 

Creolm 74 

Cribbing 144 

Crib Suckers 145 

Croton Oil 73 

Curb 145 

Diabetes 146 

Diarrhoea 147 

Difficult Partiirition 147 

Digestion of Food 23 

Dipping Live Stock 147 

Disease, Diagnosis and Treat- 
ment 92 

Disease on the Farm 1 

Disease, Physical Examination in 92 

Disease due to Heredity 84 

Disease from Chemical Caixses. . . 84 



274 



INDEX 



Pape 

Disease, Origin of 86 

Disease, The Causes of 83 

Disease, The Meaning of . 82 

Disease, The Course of 87 

Disease, The Termination of . . . . 89 

Disease, The Treatment of 95 

Diseases of Farm Animals 101 

Dishorning 148 

Disinfect Frequently 5 

Disinfectants 6 

Distemper 148 

Dropsy 148 

Dysentery 150 

Dystokia 149 

Eczema 149 

Enteritis 151 

Epilepsy 151 

Epizootic 151 

Ergotism 151 

Erysipelas 152 

Examining Animals 39 

Farcy 153 

Feet 17 

Fever 153 

Firing 98 

Fistulae 154 

Fits 157 

Flatiilent Colic 157 

Fleas 157 

Flies 157 

Flukes, Liver 158 

Fly Blister 80 

Foot and Mouth Disease 158 

Foot Puncture 160 

Foot Rot in Sheep 160 

Fore Legs 48 

Founder 162 

Fowl Cholera 165 

Framework of the Body 13 

Front Feet 48 

Gapes 165 

Garget 166 

Gastric Juice 25 

Gastritis 166 

Gentian 75 

Germs 85 

Gid in Sheep 166 

Ginger 75 

Glanders 167 

Gravel or Dirt in Foot 174 

Grease Heel 175 

Grub in the Head 176 

Hair 13 

Hair Balls 177 

Heart, How it Works 31 

Heat Exhaustion 178 

Heaves 177 

Hernia 179 

Hide-Bound 181 

High Blowing 181 

Hind Feet 49 

Hind Legs 49 

Hip Joint Lameness 181 

Hipped 182 

Hog Cholera 182 

Hollow Horn 193 



Page 

Hoof Cracks 194 

Hoof Ointment 80 

Horn Fly 194 

Horses, Special Type in 40 

Hoven 194 

Hydrocephalus 194 

Hydrophobia 194 

Hydrothorax 195 

Hyposulphite of Soda 75 

Impaction of Rumen 195 

Indigestion 196 

Infectious Anemia in Horses. ... 1'17 

Infectious Pneumonia 197 

Inflammation of the Bowels 197 

Inflammation of the Lungs 199 

Influenza 200 

Inociilation 86 

Internal Organs 65 

Intestinal Worms in Horses 201 

Intestinal Worms in Sheep 251 

Intestines 66 

Iodide of Potassium 76 

Iodine 76 

Itch 202 

Jaundice 202 

Kidneys 67 

Kidney Worms 204 

Knee Sprung 205 

Lameness, Examine for 50 

Laminitis 205 

Laudantim 76 

Leg Bones 17 

Leg Wounds 61 

Lice 205 

Linseed Oil 76 

Liver Flukes 207 

Lockjaw 208 

Loco Disease 212 

Lumpy Jaw 213 

Lung Fever 214 

Lungs 67 

Lungs, Congestion of 213 

Lung Worms in Calves 214 

Lung Worms in Lambs 214 

Lymph 12 

Lymphangitis 214 

Lymph Through Cells 29 

Mad Dog 217 

Maggots 217 

Maggots in Wounds 61 

Mange 219 

Mastication 24 

Medicines 69 

Medicines, Administration of . . . . 97 

Medicines, Giving in a Ball 9 7 

Medicines, Giving in a Drench. . . 97 

Mallenders 218 

Mammitis 218 

Milk Fever 219 

Monday Morning Sickness 221 

Mouth, Examining the 46 

Muscular System 19 

Mustard Plasters 98 

Nasal Gleet 221 

Navicular Disease 222 

Neck 47 



INDEX 



275 



Page 

Nervous System 19 

Nitrate of Potash 7 7 

Nitrate of Soda 77 

Nits 224 

Nodular Disease in Sheep 224 

Nostril 45 

Nutriment, How Absorbed 27 

Ntix Vomica 77 

Obstetrics 225 

Paces, Testing of 52 

Palisade Worm 228 

Paralysis 229 

Parasites 230 

Parturient Apoplexy 230 

Parturition, Difficult 230 

Pelvic Girdle 15 

Peritonitis 230 

Physic Drench for Cattle 81 

Physic Drench for Horses 81 

Physiology You Ought to Kjiow 21 

Pink Eye 231 

Placenta 232 

Plant Building 21 

Pleurisy 233 

Pleuro-Pneumonia 234 

Pneiimonia 234 

Poll Evil 234 

Post-Mortem Examination 62 

Post-Mortem, First Things to Do 63 

Post-Mortem, Removing the Skin 65 

Post-Mortem, The Discharges. . . 64 

Potdtices 98 

Prescriptions 80 

Prevention Better than Ctire. ... 4 

Profuse Staling 146 

Protoplasm 9 

Pulse, Taking the 93 

Nail Punctures 59 

Qtiarantine Quarters 8 

Quarter Crack 235 

Quittor 235 

Rabies 236 

Reproductive Apparatus 20 

Respiration 32 

Respiration, Taking the 95 

Respiratory Organs 20 

Rheumatism 236 

Ringbone 237 

Ringworm 238 

Roaring 239 

Roup 239 

Salts 79 

Sand Crack 240 

Scab in Cattle 241 

Septic Navel Infection 243 

Sheep Bots 243 

Sick Animals 7 

Side Bones 243 

Skeleton 14 

Skin 13 

Skull 15 

Slobbering 245 

Soothing Ointment 80 



Page 
Soundness, Examining Animals 

for 39 

Spasmodic Colic 245 

Spavin 245 

Spaying 247 

Spirits of Niter 78 

Splints 248 

Sprains 249 

Staggers 250 

Stomach 66 

Stomach Chum 26 

Stomach of Horse 24 

Stomach of Ruminants 25 

Stomach Worms in Sheep 251 

Stone in Bladder 253 

Strangles 253 

Stringhalt in Horses 255 

Sugar of Lead 78 

Sulphate of Copper 78 

Sulphate of Iron 78 

Sulphur 79 

Sunstroke 255 

Swamp Fever 255 

Sweeny 257 

Swine Plague 258 

Tape Worms 258 

Teeth, As an Indication of Age. . 34 
Teeth, Loosening of Temporary. . 35 

Teeth of Cattle 37 

Teeth of Sheep 38 

Temperatiu-e, Taking the 94 

Tetanus 258 

Texas Fever 258 

Thick Leg 262 

Thoroughpin 262 

Throat 47 

Thrush 262 

Thumps 262 

Tick Fever 263 

Tissues, Bodv 12 

Tooth, The Mark in 35 

Trichinosis 263 

Tuberculosis 264 

Ttunors 268 

Timiors in Pigs After Castration . 268 

Turpentine 79 

Urinarv Organs 20 

Warbles 269 

Warts 269 

Water in the Brain 270 

Water in the Chest 270 

White Scours of Calves 270 

Wind Puffs 271 

Wind Sucking 272 

Wind, Testing the 51 

Worms 272 

Worms in Hogs 272 

Wound, Cleansing the 56 

Wounds 54 

Wotmds, First Step in Treating. . 56 

Wounds, Kinds of 55 

Wounds, Special Treatment of . . 58 



ilUiilU