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Satbatt Colligt Itbtaii
LIBRARY OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
3 2044 102 785 862
Work Bench and Farm Woodworking Tool
Louis M. Roehl
iperviaor of Farm Shop Work, New York Stale College
of Agriculture at Cornell Univeniiy,
Itbsca. N. y.
The Bruce Publishing Company
V, G ■/
BURtAU OF VOCAaCNAL 6U1DAIICE
The Bruce Publishing Company
This book is designed primarily for use as a text or reference book
in connection with farm shop courses in agricultural schools or in the
agricultural departments of rural high schools. The problems that this
work presents are many and their seriousness is accentuated by the fact
that commonly the farm shop instruction is offered by the teacher of
agriculture. This arrangement has an advantage in the fact, that it
makes possible a more intimate relationship between the shop work and
the various phases of the agricultural work, but it presents serious teach-
ing difficulties and makes necessary such assistance for the teacher as is
to be found in this book.
This book and Agricultural Woodworking by the same author are
in marked contrast with the early efforts that were made to organize
courses in farm shop work. For the most part they consisted mainly
of a bodily transposition of manual training and drawing courses from
city schools to the schools of the rural community. Commonly there was
little or no relationship between the drawing and construction work.
Usually the drawing consisted of a segment of a drafting course and the
wood work centered around "exercises," necktie holders, and Morris
chairs. The authors of these attempts lost sight of the fact that the
farmer is neither a draftsman nor a cabinet maker. His skill in the use
of the hammer, saw, plane, and pencil should be developed in connection
with problems of rough carpentry. He must be a "jack of all trades"
in repair and simple construction work.
The error of this procedure has been realized by many who are now
endeavoring to select construction problems adapted to farm conditions.
As a result there has been a decided improvement in the character of the
work done in the farm shop course but the movement has not gone far
enough. The content of the high school course in farm crops is deter-
mined in a large measure by the crops raised in the immediate vicinity
of the school. In a similar manner there should be a recognition of the
influence of local farming conditions in the determination of the content
of the farm shop course. The woodworking problems that are presented
to the truck farmer are quite different from those that are presented to
the dairyman, poultryman, or general farmer. The instruction offered
in the farm shop course should reflect this difference to a much greater
extent than is usually the case.
Since the farm shop course is quite commonly taught by the teacher
of agriculture, it is especially desirable that he should have a large num-
ber of carefully prepared shop problems from which selections may be
made so that the work will be adapted to local conditions. In the prep-
aration of this book the author has borne this fact in mind. It is not
offered as a course adapted to any community but rather as a book, which
with the preceding volume, will form the basis of many courses for
schools situated in widely divergent farming conditions. It is expected
that the teacher will supplement the problems he selects by repair work
brought in by the pupils from their home farms.
The author's extensive farm experience, technical training, several
years of experience as a teacher of shop work to farm boys and more
recently his efforts in instructing prospective teachers of vocational agri-
culture in farm shop work have made an excellent background for such
an undertaking as is represented by this volume. As a result he has
prepared a book that contains practical problems, carefully analyzed
and skillfully presented. Wise use of this volume is certain to result in
a marked advance in the character of work done in farm shop courses
in agricultural departments and schools.
GEORGE A. WORKS.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Adjustable Wagon Jack 40-41
Apple Box Press 106-107
Bag Holder 65
Berry Stand for Six Boxes 116-117
Bird Houses 63-64
Carpentry Apron 30-31
Contents of a Course in Farm
Dog House 56-67
Double Deck Berry Stand for
Twelve Boxes 116-117
Farm Carpentry Tools 9
Farm Shop Equipment for
Wood Working Tools 11-12
Blacksmiths' Tools 12-13
Pipe Fitting Tools 13
Tinning Tools 13
Harness Repair Tools and
Farm Shopwork Bench 16-19
Farm Tool Box 48-49
Folding Bench 34-35
Fruit Can Rack 52
Fruit Step Ladder 110-112
Handy Ladder 71
Harness Hook 105
Hay Rack 80-83
Jointing, Setting and Filing a
Cross Cut Saw 129
Kitchen Table 54-55
List of Builders' Hardware ... . 133
Lumber Measurement Table . . . 134
Lumber Rack 28-29
Milking Stool 58-61
Milk Test Bottle Holder 79
Miter Box 36-37
Nail and Staple Box 32-33
Nails and Screws 135
Orchard Ladder 108-109
Orchard Ladder 113-115
Packing Table for Barrel of
Packing Table for Box Apples. 118-119
Plane Table and Leveling Rod . 127
Playground Swing 66-67
Poultry Carrying Crate 78
Poultry Catching Hook 79
Poultry Feed Box 74
Poultry Feed Box 76-77
Poultry Feed Hopper for 25
Poultry Feed Hopper for 10
Poultry Feeding Trough 72-73
Poultry Show Crate 78
Poultry Sticking Knife 79
Rafter Framing 128
Root Study Case. ..." 125
Rural School Work Bench 20-24
Saw Filing Clamp 46-47
Saw Horse 44-45
Saws and Saw Fitting 130-131
Seed Com Rack 38-39
Seed Com Testing Box 38-39
Self Feeder for Hogs 90-91
Sheep and Hog Shipping Crate 96-97
Sheep Feeding Rack 93
Soil Sieve 125
Stitching Horse 98-104
Stock Rack for Wagon Box. . . 88-89
Support Racks for Soil Tubes. 124
Table of Bit Sizes for Wood
Take-Down Horse 42-43
Tool Cabinet for Wood Shop ... 25
Top, Wagon Box 86-87
Vise and Bench Stop 22-24
Vise Handle 122-123
Wagon Box 84-85
Wall Sheep Feeding Rack 94
Waste Basket 36-37
Water Trough 126
Wire Tightener 71
Wood Basket 53
Wood Box 50-51
Wood Working Tool Rack 26-27
A COURSE IN FARM WOODWORK
It should fulfill the following conditions :
a. Each project must be useful on the farm when completed.
b. The course must give practice in all of the carpentry tool operations.
Carpentry Tool Operations
Cross grain sawing
a. With grain
b. Cross grain
a. Saw filing
Squaring a line at right
T<aying out chamfer
Laying out and cutting bevel.
Round surface edging
FARM CARPENTRY TOOLS
The following ia a complete list of farm carpentry tools. "With these
tools at hand it is possible to do the ordinary construction and repair
work which require wood working tools on the farm.
As a means to aid in preventing the loss of tools and to conserve time
ofttimes wasted in looking for tools which have been mislaid it is advis-
able to have a definite place for the tools in the farm shop, granary,
implement shed or other convenient place and also to have a definite place
on the wall for each tool. This place for each tool may be indicated
by a silhouette of the tool being painted on the wall where the tool is
to hang. The picture of the tool on the wall serves as a reminder that
the tool is out.
It is far better to have the tools hang on the wall over the work
bench where they may be placed and removed instantly than to have
them thrown into a tool box where time is consumed and patience taxed
digging around for what is desired.
Woodworking tools to work efficiently must be free from rust. This
may be accomplished by having handy a dry rag or handful of waste and
wiping the tools as they are brought in and then covering them with a.
coat of oil. The oiling may be accomplished quickly by wiping the saws
and other tools with a rag or handful of waste soaked in oil. A thin coat
of any oil will prevent rust.
Fig. 1 illustrates the wall of the farm shop over the work bench.
V Woodwork Too] Rack with Too
FARM CARPENTRY TOOLS
1—26" Cross Cut Saw
1—26" Rip Saw
1 — Jack plane — 14" with 2" cutter
1 — Carpenter's draw knife
1 — 8" try square
1 — Saw set
1— Set of Auger Bits, 4/16" to 16/16"
1 — Expansion bit
1 — Ratchet Brace
2 — Screwdrivers, 1 large, 1 small
1 — Countersink
1 — Steel rafter framing square
1 — ^Pair pliers
1—10" flat file
1 — Auger bit file
1—8" Triangular file
1 — 6" slim tapered triangular file
1—12" Half-round wood file
1 — 8" Oblong carborundum oil stone
1 — 16-oz. Straight claw hammer
1 — 24" Carpenter's level
1— Putty knife
1 — ^Nail set
4— Socket firmer chisels, %", %", 1
1 — ^2-lb. 2-oz. Bench hatchet
1 — 2-ft., four-fold boxwood rule
1 — Cross cut saw tool
1 — ^Pinch bar
1 — Spoke shave
1 — Screwdriver bit
1 — Pair 8" winged dividers
FARM WOODWORK 11
FARM SHOP EQUIPMENT FOR SCHOOLS
1 — 1 J4 inch brad awl ,
1 — Set bits yi inch, 5/16 inch, }i inch, ^V i^^ch, ^ inch, y% inch ^ inch
% inch, 1 inch • •
1 — Countersink, Rose
2 — Screwdriver bits, % inch tip and 5/16 inch tip
2 — ^Bit braces, 8 inch sweep
12 — Chisels, socket, firmer, 2-l^ inch, 1-% inch, 4-1/2 inch, 1-% inch, 3-%
inch, 1-1 inch
4 — ^Dividers, 8 inch, loose leg, wing
1 — Set twist drills, y%, }i by 32nds, square shank
1 — ^File, mill cut, 6 inch ;
1 — ^File, mill cut, 10 inch
6 — Files, slim taper, triangular, 6 inch.
2 — ^Piles, slim taper, 5 inch
1 — File, auger bit
1 — ^File card (cleaner)
6 — Gauges, marking, plain
1 — Glass cutter, turret head
1 — Grindstone, 2"x24", ball-bearing, mounted with foot pedal
1* — Carpenter's hammers, equal number bell face, adze eye, curved claw;
and plain face, straight claw
1 —Drawing knife, 8 inch
1 — Level and plumb, wood, 26 inch
1 — ^Level stand and sights
1 — ^Mallet (or more if home made)
3 — Nail sets (assorted)
1 — 12 inch half round wood file
4 — Wood screws (adjustable) two 8 inch, two 12 inch
2 — 4 ft. steel bar carpenter's clamps
1 — Oilstone, coarse and fine face carborundum
1 —Oilstone, round edge slip
1* — Plane, jack, 14 inch iron, 2 inch cutter
3 — ^Pliers (assorted)
1 — Punch, center
1 —Putty knife
2 — Saws, cross cut, 22 inch, 10 point
3 — Saws, cross cut, 24 inch, 10 point
1 — Saw, cross cut, 26 inch, 8 point
2 — Saws, rip, 26 inch 5 point
1 — Saw, compass, 16 inch
2 — Saws, coping, metal handle
12 FARM WOODWORK
1 — Saw, hack, 10 inch, with one doz. blades
1 — Saw set
1 — Saw vise (home made)
3 — Screwdrivers, 4 inch, 8 inch and 10 inch
3 — Sliding T bevels, two 6 inch, one 8 inch
2 — Squares, steel 18 inch x 24 inch, pdlished, (rafter framing)
1* — Squares, try, 8-inch blades, wood handle
1 — Square, mitre (blade fixed at angle of 45^)
Tape in case— 100 ft
1-inch iron bench screw for home made bench vise. (1 for each vise
1 — ^Blacksmith's vise, 3^-inch jaw
1* — ^Bench stops (home made)
1 — 10-inch monkey wrench
1* — Two-foot rules, four fold
1* — ^Bench hook (home made)
^EQuipment needed in sets of one for each boy.
Additional Desirable Equipment
1 — 1%-inch scratch awl
1 — Expansion bit % inch, 3 inch
1 — ^Bit brace, 12-inch sweep (ratchet with jaws holding square shank
1 — Chalk line with reel to fit scratch awl
1 — Carpenter'* chalk
1 — Pile, bastard cut, 8 inch
1 — File, bastard cut, 12 inch
1 — ^Pile, round, 10 inch
1 — Gauge, mortise
1 — Gauge, ^ inch, inside firmer
1 — ^Hand axe
1 — Cross cut saw tool
1 — Cross cut set gauge
1 — Cross cut saw set
2 — Planes, block, 6 inch adjustable
1 — Plane, smooth, 9-inch iron, 2-inch cutter
1 — Plane, fore, 18-inch iron, 2-inch cutter
1 —Plumb bob
1 — Spoke shave, two cutters, 1 straight, 1 curved
1 — Floor brush
1 — ^Anvil, 80 or 100 lbs., steel with hardened face
1 — Hardie to fit anvil ,
6 — Cold chisels (assorted sizes % inch to % inch)
1 — Set of drills, Ys inch to ^/^ inch by 16ths, with square shank to fit bit
FARM WOODWORK 13
1 — ^Breast drill with chuck to take square shank fitting bit stock
1 — ^Porge, portable, with hood and tub
1 — Hammer, blacksmith's 2 lb
1 — Hammer, ball pein, 24 oz
1 — Hammer, riveting 10 oz
1 — ^Punch, center
1 — Tongs, 18-inch length, straight lip, i^-inch opening
1 — Tongs, bolt % inch, ^-inch opening
1 — Tongs, 18-inch length, fluted jaw, for 14 iiich, 5/6-inch iron
1 — ^Emery or carborundum high-geared grinder with 1 coarse and 1
medium grit wheel
1 — ^Steel square 8 inch x 12 inch
1 — Set, stock, dies and taps ^ inch, 26 threads, y^ inch, 20, 5/16 inch,
18, 7/16 inch, y^ inch, 14 for threading bolts and nuts
1 — ^Drill, % inch, ^/^ inch shank
1 — ^Drill press, self feed, with chuck to take square shank twist drills. . .
Pipe Fitting (Desirable)
1 — Cutter, 3 wheel, cutting ^ inch, 2 inch
1 — Stock and dies, Armstrong type, cutting 14 inch, y^ inch, % inch,
1 inch, ly^ inch, IV^ inch, and 2 inch threading pipe
1 — ^Pipe vise, capacity V^ inch, 2 inch
1 —Wrench, 18-inch Stillson pattern, iron handle
1 — ^Wrench, 12-inch Stillson pattern, iron handle
1 — Soldering scraper
1 — Blow torch
2 — Coppers, 2 lb
1 — Snips, 31/^-inch cut
1 — Bar solder, half and half
Muriatic acid and zinc
1 — Sal ammoniac
1 — Claw tool
1 — ^Pricking wheel
12 — Sewing awls, assorted
6 — Awl hafts
1 — Knife, harness maker's straight
1 — Punch, revolving 4 tube
1/4 — ^Ib. Black shoemaker's wax
2 — ^Paper needles assorted sizes
6 — ^Balls harness thread No. 10 white
1 — ^Box 50 assorted split rivets
14 FARM WOODWORK
1 — Round knife, 5 inch
1 — Rex riveting machine
1 — Common edge tool
1 — ^Finishing wheel No. 40
1 — Single edge creaser
1 — ^Rivet set
Harness Repair Parts
6 — 1 inch sham roller buckles
6 — 1 inch wire bent heel harness buckles
6 — Repair clips for end of hames
6 — Wrought iron % inch hame clips
2 — Doz. % inch hame staples with washers
6 — Bottom hame repair loops
4 —Common line rings and studs
4 — Pairs, hold back plates and rings
1 — ^Ib 11/4 inch soft iron hame rivets
1 — Pair over top wood hames 20 inch
1 — Black, % pound cake harness soap
4 — Boxes tubular harness rivets (assorted)
2 — Doz. Conway loops assorted
1 — Box screw cockeyes 1% inch
1/2 — Doz. Wrot Concord Clips
1 — Box assorted repair dees
V^ — Doz. 1 inch buckle shield No. 1
1 — Doz. repair roller buckles
1 — Doz. assorted snaps
Yo — Doz. team trace splicers
1 — qt. Miller's edge ink
1 — Doz. hame buckles and loops
1 — Doz. 1 inch halter squares
1 — ^Doz. assorted rings %, % inch, 1 inch (black)
2 — Doz. assorted %, Yg, 1 inch leather slide loops
1 — Side harness leather for general work
1 — Package ^^ inch swede tacks ,
14 — lb. Soft iron rivets assorted % inch to % inch.
FARM SHOP PROBLEMS
FARM SHOP WORK BENCH
BUI of Material
Lumber for bench:
Top (Maple or other hard
Top (soft wood)
Lumber for vise:
Jaw (oak, maple or other
Horizontal braces (oak,
maple or other hardwood)
Diagonal braces (oak, maple
or other hardwood)
Hardware for bench:
7 carriage bolts %"x6%'' with washers, for holding sills to legs.
1 carriage bolt %"x6" with washer, for holding sill to leg.
4 carriage bolts %"x7" with washers, for holding top to sills.
40 flat head bright wood screws, 1%" No. 8 or 9 for fastening top board,
aprons, braces, and drawer guides.
20 6d common nails for fastening long braces to legs.
1 doz. 4d. common nails for assembling drawer guides.
^ lb. 6d. finishing nails for assembling drawer.
Hardware for vise:
1 iron bench screw %" or I'' with handle.
4 flat head bright wood screws 1%" No. 12 for fastening bench screw to
8 flat head bright wood screws 2" No. 12 for fastening braces to jaw.
8 flat head bright wood screws %" No. 8 for fastening braces at joints.
Dry lumber should be used for all parts of the bench and vise. Soft
lumber may be used for all parts excepting the vise and top plank. Oak,
maple, hard pine or other hard lumber should be used for these members.
All lumber should be surfaced on two sides to the thicknesses called for
in the drawing.
1. Cut the legs to length 2' 7", and lay out the mortises at one end
of each leg to receive the ends of the sills as shown in the detail drawing
1%" X 5%" removing the stock with the cross cut and rip saws.
A 6%'' bolt at the top of the back •leg at vise end would prevent
the vise from closing. This is overcome by cutting %" out of the edge
of the leg at the top an^ using the 6" bolt.
2. Lay out the gains on the outside edges of the legs, %" deep, 4"
wide and 6" from the bottom ends to receive the cross braces.
3. Cut the sills to length, 18%" and fasten them to the legs with
two %" X 61/^" carriage bolts at each joint. LTse the square to assure right
18 FARM WOODWORK
angles between the legs and sills.
4. Fasten the cross braces to the legs using two 1%" No. 8 or 9
flat head screws at each joint.
5. Cut the long braces to dimensions and fasten them in place,
using five 6d common nails at each joint. Make sure that the legs stand
at right angle to the long braces.
6. Cut the middle cross brace to length 1314" and fasten to the two
long braces with two 1%" No. 8 or 9 flat head screws at each end.
7. Cut an opening in the upper edge of the front apron 18" long and
6" deep, 24" from the front end of the board for the drawer.
8. Fasten the aprons to the legs, using three 1%" No. 8 or 9 flat
head screws at each leg except the vise leg on which the middle screw is
omitted because of the bench screw.
9. Lay out the mortises on the front apron for the horizontal braces
of the vise so that the top of the mortises are 7" from the top of the bench
or 514" from the top of the apron, and so that the inside of the mortises
fall flush with the sides of the legs. The mortises should be made slightly
larger than the braces to provide a free working of the braces through
10. Locate and bore a hole for the bench screw with a bit 1/16"
larger than the bench screw thru the apron and legs on a center line
of the leg 7^" from the top of the bench, or 5%" from the top of the
11. Place the bench screw through the hole and fasten the screw
washer in place on the inside of the leg with two 1%" No. 12 flat head
12. The braces for the vise are assembled at the half lap joint and
placed thru the apron from the inside and fastened to the jaw of the vise
with two No. 12 flat head wood screws at each brace.
13. Assemble the drawer guides as shown in the detail drawing,
using six 4d common nails for each guide, and fasten in position, using
two 1%" No. 8 or 9 flat head screws at each end of each piece.
14. The methods of constructing a drawer depends somewhat upon
the tools and machines at hand. If a grooving plane, buzz saw or dado
saw are at hand, the method suggested in the detail drawings is to be
It will be noted that grooves are cut in the side pieces near the lower
edge and also near the rear end to receive the bottom and end pieces. A
groove is also cut in the drawer front at the inside near the bottom to
receive the front end of the bottom. The drawer front should be con-
structed at both ends as shown in the detail drawings. If the above
tools are not at hand this may be done with saw, chisel and mallet.
Simple box construction where only butt joints are used makes a very
substantial drawer if securely nailed. Six penny finishing nails may
15. For a drawer pull in this place an opening 1" "vvide by 4" lonsf
is preferable to a drawer pull which is fastened to the outside of the
drawer, as it is out of the way.
16. Lay the top plank in place, clamp tightly, and draw lines across
over the center of the cross sills.
17. On each line just drawn locate two points; one 1^" from the
back edge and one 314" from the front edge.
18. Bore holes %" deep on points just located with %" bit.
19. Continue holes thru planks and into sills with %" bit.
20. Remove planks and continue holes thru sill.
21. Place planks in position and fasten with %" x 7" carriage bolts,
using one washer for each bolt.
22. Plug the holes in the top of the plank.
23. Fasten the top board by using three 1%" No. 8 or 9 flat head
screws thru the board into each sill.
na. !. Another View of the Farm Shop Work Bench and Farrr
DETAILS OP DOUBLE
FARM WOODWORK 21
A SIX STUDENT WORKBENCH FOR THE
RURAL HIGH SCHOOL
A demand for a woodworking bench, at which a number of boys can
work, caused the bench illustrated in Figs. 3 and 4 and described here to
be designed and built. The bench haa been made and used suecesBfulfy
in a number of rural high schools where space and funds will not allow
the purchase and use of the familiar individual type of bench. j
Bench Stop— Bill of Material
Pieces EHmensiona Use Material .
1 $i"xl"x8" Leftside Softwood
1 %"x414'x8" Wedge Softwood
1 %°x4"x8' Right side Softwood
6 flat head, bright wood screws IK" No. 8 or 9.
Vise— BiU of Material
Pieces Dimensions Use Material
1 l%"xThi'x2i' Jaw Oak,maple
or hard pine
2 }i"x2"xl7' Horizontal brace Oak or maple
2 iJ"x2'x2'7^" Diagonal brace Oakormaple
1 iron bench screw %", V or 1%".
4 flat head, bright wood screws l%°, No. 12, for fastenii^ vise to jaw.
8 fiat head, bright wood screws 2", No. 12, for fastening braces to jaw.
8 flat head, bright wood screws % , No. 8, for fasteningbraces at joint.
Workbench— Bill of Material
Pieces Dimensions Use Material
4 I%"xl0"xl6"xl0" Top Hard wood
8 l?i"x5%'2' 7" Legs Soft wood
4 I^"x59i"x3'2%' Sill.. Softwood
2 Ii"x4"x3'2?i" End cross braces at bottom Softwood
2 ii'xl'xi' 10%° Cross braces at bottom Softwood
2 ll"x4"x4' lift' Middle horiiontal braces at bottom Soft wood
2 il"x4"x5' 1%" Horizontal braces at bottom Softwood
2 irxll"xl6' 0" Aprons
32 carriage bolts %''x7'' with washers for bolting top to sills.
16 carriage bolts %"x6V4" with washers for bolting sills to legs.
4^ dozen flat head, bright wood screws I'A", No. 8 or 9, for fastening
braces and aprons to legs.
16 8d flnishing nails for toenailing the two middle cross braces to the legs.
fig. S. Kuntl School Work Bench (Tod Removed to Show Frai
FARM WOODWORK 23
All lumber for the bench should be thoroly dry. The top can best
be made of hard pine planks which should be planed on both sides and
jointed. If they are gotten out at a mill it ia well to have them dressed
to exactly ten inches in width and matched at the mill so that they will
draw up to tight joints and make a top of exactly forty inches.
Pieces narrower than ten inches cannot be used for the top of a
double bench where this kind of vise is used as the upper ends of the
horizontal braces interfere with each other. It may be noted in the
illustration that the points have been sawed off so as to prevent inter-
ference when opposite vises are closed at the same time.
FiB, B. Rural School Work Bench with ax Vises.
1. Cut the eight legs to exactly the same length, 2' 7" and lay out
the mortises 1%" x 5%" on one edge at one end of each piece and cut
the mortises with the cross-cut saw and rip saw. (Do not split out the
wood for the mortises.)
2. Cut the four sills to exactly the same length, 3' 2%", and fasten
to the legs with two %" x QW carriage bolts at each joint. It is well
to measure the exact width of the four planks and the thickness of the
two aprons and regulate the length of the sills accordingly. Any devia-
tion from the widths called for in the drawing must be corrected here.
3. Measure and cut the two lower end cross braces to the same
length as the sills, 3' 2%", and fasten with two ly^" No. 8 or 9 flat head
wood screws at each end of each piece.
4. Measure and cut the horizontal braces to the lengths called for
in the above bill of material and fasten to the legs with three 1^/i"
No. 8 or 9 flat head wood screws at each end of each piece. The two
middle lower cross braces should be cut to their length, 4' 11^", and
placed in position at the same time as the lower horizontal braces as
they butt against the legs between the horizontal braces. They should
be fastened by toenailing with two 8d finishing nails from each side.
24 PABM WOODWORK
5. Fasten the aprons in the positions with three 1^" No. 8 or 9
flat head wood screws. Avoid placing a screw in the center where it
will interfere with the bench screw.
6. Lay out the mortises in the apron for the horizontal braces of
the vise so that the top of the mortises are 7" from the top of the bench
or 5*4" from the top of the apron and so that the inside of the mortises
falls flush with the sides of the legs. The mortises should be made slight-
ly larger than the braces so that the braces will work thru them freely.
7. Locate and bore a hole for the bench screws with a bit 1/16"
larger than the bench screw thru the aprons and legs on a center line
of the leg, 71/^" from the top of the bench, or 5%" from the 1;op of the
8. Place the bench screw thru the hole and fasten the screw washer
in place on the inside of the leg with two 1%" No. 12 flat hsad wood
9. The braces for the vise are assembled at the half-lap joint and
placed thru the apron from the inside and fastened to the jaw of the
vise with two 2" No. 12 flat head wood screws at each brace.
10. Lay the top planks in place, clamp tightly, and draw lines
across over the center of the cross sills.
11. Locate points on lines just dra\vn, li^" from each edge of each
plank, excepting the outside edge of the outside planks which are S^A".
12. Bore holes %" deep on points just located with %" bit.
13. Continue holes thru plaTiks and into sills with %" liit.
14. Remove planks and continue holes thru sills.
15. Place planks in position and fasten with bolts, usinjf one washer
for each bolt.
16. Plug the holes in the top of the bench.
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It is reGommended that the tool racks which are dimensioned on p.
26 be made of oak, maple or other hardwood. These racks are in use in
the author's shop and not only hold the tools but hold them in such a
way that they may be removed quickly and without loss of motion. It
may be noted that the saw rack. Pig. 7, holds the saws in such a way
that the workman may take a saw from the rack and use it without
change of position of the hand.
As indicated by the silhouette of the draw shave on p. 26, it is very
desirable to paint a silhouette of all tools where they are to hang. It
encourages having a place for each tool and keeping it in that place
when not in use.
f Hark for Woodwt
■= = •-" = = 'o I g
FARM WOODWORK 29
In school shops and on the farms it is highly desirable that a place
be provided for the storage of lumber and that this place be such as
may be gotten at easily and so arranged that any piece of lumber may
be taken from the stock on hand without moving large quantities.
The particular arrangement of a shop makes a situation peculiar to
that shop, due to space, light, windows, stairs, doors, benches, etc. and
each farm presents a problem of its own. One farm may have space
for lumber in the attic of the farm shop, while on another it may be
required to store it in the implement shed, granary or elsewhere.
The drawing is one of a simple, yet serviceable, rack which may
be placed in any of the above places. It is seldom that a large quantity
of one kind of lumber need be kept on hand, but a variety is desirable.
This rack, as may be noted, is provided with ten shelves to make this
In some instances on farms, the 4" x 4" posts may be extended up
and fastened to a joist, rafter or collar beam above and thus dispense
writh the long horizontal members.
It is difficult and often impossible to make a desirable finished article
in farm wood work either in the school shop or home farm shop out of
warped, weatherbeaten, knotty lumber or dry goods boxes. If it is de-
sired in the school shop or home farm shops to make farm devices or
appliances which will promote the mechanical end of farming it seems
advisable to first obtain a quantity of such lumber, as a first-class car-
penter would need to construct the desired articles and store it in a dry
place on a lumber rack.
FARM WOODWORK 31
Denim or ticking is the material most commonly used. An apron of
this size requires about 11/4 yards. No. 40 thread may be used, and the
sewing machine should be set so as to make ten or twelve stitches to
Cut the apron to the measurements called for in the drawing. The
measurements given in the drawing are for the finished apron and there-
fore %" must be allowed on all edges to make a 1/4" hem.
When dividing the apron at the bottom do not take a piece out,
simply cut the slash the given length.
Turn and baste a 1/4" hem around the apron. Ais the hem is basted,
slip the unfinished end of a strap under the hem at the correct place
so that, when the hem is stitched, the strap is also stitched into place.
Reinforce the comer of the slash at the bottom by facing it in a slight
curve with a bias piece of material or by facing it with a shaped piece.
Stitch the hem in place.
Bring the straps up at right angles to the edge of the apron and
fasten them to the outer edge.
Press the apron.
Cut and hem the pockets. Crease a l^" turn around the unfinished
edges. Press them and sew them in place.
FARM WOODWORK 33
NAIL AND STAPLE BOX
1 piece of any soft wood I''x9%''xl4%''.
1 piece of any soft wood %"xl0"x26'
1 piece hard wood y8"x%"xll%".
2 flat head bright wood screws 1%" No. 10.
32 5d finishing nails.
2 1" No. 16 brads.
Pieces Dimensions Use
2 %"x9"x7" Ends
2 %"x4-15/32"xl0%'' Sides
1 %"x5^xl0%" Bottom
1 %"x3H"xlO%" Partition
2 %"x31i"x3-25/32" Cross Partitions
1 . %" round xll" Handle 1
1. Reduce all pieces to finished dimensions.
2. Lay out an end piece by drawing a line across each edge 4"
from the bottom end and two lines across the bottom end 1^" from
edge. Connect lines across edges with lines across ends. Draw a center
line lengthwise of stock on each side. At a point on center line on one
side, %" from the top, bore a %" hole i/4" deep to receive handle. At a
point on the centerline on the opposite side of the stock %"• from end,
swing an arc with a %" radius.
Draw lines on both sides of the stock from the lines across the edges
tangent to the arc.
Remove stock to lines with the saw and smooth with the plane.
Smooth the rounding end of the stock with the chisel.
3. With the T bevel set at 12" on the beam and 41/2" on the blade of
the steel square lay out the bevels at the bottom edges of the sides, and
both edges of the bottom and remove stock to line with plane.
4. With the T bevel set as above, lay off the slant for the cross
partitions and remove the stock with the saw.
5. Take the %" square piece of hardwood and at each end lay out
an octagon as shown in the detail drawing, mark off the octagonal
lines on the sides of the stock and remove the stock to lines with the
plane. Continue rounding the stock by planing the corners.
6. Assemble the box by placing the handle in position and securing
it with one 1%'' No. 10 flat head wood screw at each end and then fasten-
ing the sides to the ends by using three 5d finishing nails at each end
of each piece spaced as shown in the drawing.
7. Place the box on the bench and lay the bottom in place, securing
it with two 5d, finishing nails at each end.
8. On the centerlines which are at the ends of the end pieces, drive
two 5d nails to hold the partition in place. Fasten the partition to the
bottom by driving four nails into the partition from the bottom of the box.
9. The cross j^artitions are fastened by use of three nails thru the
side of the box and one from the bottom. A 1" brad is used to toenail
it to the long partition.
10, Finish by applying two coats of paint, allowing the first coat
several days to dry before the second coat is applied.
Pieces Dimensions Use
4 \'x2M~x4' 0" Platform
2 ?i'x214'xl4" Ends
4 %"x2%''x209i" Legs
2 ?i"x214"xl2';4' Braces for legs
1 %l''x214''x9%' Center brace
Hardware: 28 flat head wood screws 2V4" No, 10.
4 machine bolts %"x3" with two washers for each bolt.
Cypress lumber is desirable as it is not affected as much as most
other soft woods by the constant drying and wetting which the bench
is subjected to.
Fig. 8B. Bench Partly Folded.
In farm woodwork it is in most instances unnecessary to plane the
side of a board merely to remove the planer marks when the board is
already of the required thickness. It is also unnecessary to plane the
ends of a board if a good cut has been made with the saw. Much end
planing indicates poor sawing, and it is suggested that one who cannot
make an end cut on a board so that the end will be square with the side
and edge, had better take a piece of scrap lumber and practice sawing
until he can produce the desired result with the saw and not be required
to fix it up with the plane. The result of each saw cut should be care-
fully analyzed and the error traced to its cause and overcome by direc-
tion thru the muscles of hand and arm.
To do this requires skill, care and time. The miter box is a means
of accomplishing the same result in leas time, without skill or care. For
the sake of time and convenience it is recommended that it be used only
after one has acquired the skill ta saw an end square at every attempt.
If he does not acquire the skill but depends on the mitre box entirely,
he will need to take the box with him wherever skill is required. It is
easier to carry the skill.
A waste basket with solid sides is to be preferred to one made of
slats, as it is more likely to fulfill the purpose of the basket which is to
hold waste. The bottom should project enough to reduce to a minimum
the possibility of the basket tipping over. Stock %" thick, if it is avail-
able, is heavy enough for the sides. Cypress, basswood or other soft
wood free from knots, being lighter than the hardwood, is to be pre-
ferred. Both sides of the stock should be planed smooth and lightly
sanded, drawing the sandpaper lengthwise of the grain of the wood only.
The basket may be finished by applying two coats of shellac. Allow
the first coat at least 24 hours to dry before the second coat is applied.
1 ' —
. 1 1 .»l
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—^ ? 1
SEED CORN TESTING BOX
Any softwood lumber may be used, though cypress is preferable as
it is affected least by change of moisture content. Matched flooring is
desirable for the bottom as it will hold the moisture better than un-
matched lumber, but any lumber will do if the edges are jointed smooth.
8 1%" No. 9 flat head bright wood screws for comers.
24 1%" No. 8 flat head bright wood screws for floor.
3 doz. 8d. flnishing nails for assembling box.
Pieces Dimensions Use
4 il"x9"x3' 0" Floor
2 ir'x3"x3'l%" Sills
2 ir'x4"x3' 1%" Sides
2 ir'x4"x3' %" Ends
It is not necessary that boards exactly 9" wide be used for the floor.
Any width of boards at hand will do just as well.
A cheaper method of fastening the floor to the sills is that of using
6d. common nails instead of the screws. These nails will need to be
clinched as they are 2" long, which is %" longer than the thickness of
the sill and floor.
SEED CORN RACK
Pieces Dimensions Use
2 ir'x4"x3' 5%" Uprights
1 ^r'x4"x3' %" Top
1 ^r'x4"x3'0" Bottom
2 il"x4"xl6" Feet
Hardware: 50 yds. No. 18 annealed wire (3 coils of stove pipe wire).
8 1%" No. 9 flat head bright wood screws.
10 1%" No. 8 flat head bright wood screws.
68 3d flne shingle nails.
It should be noted that the top is set into the upright at top 3/16".
This makes a shoulder for the top to rest on instead of being supported
entirely by screws.
In fastening the wire, begin by fastening the wire securely to the
nail at the lower comer and then draw the wire as indicated by the
arrow points. Use the pliers and draw the wire tight. In placing the
wire the opposite way it should be woven above and below the first
wires, this will hold all wires more rigid.
Use of Rack and Testing Box
The rows are numbered at the top and lettered at the left so that
any ear of com in the rack may be specified as lA, IB, 2C, 3D, 8F, 12A etc.
Mark a cloth checkerboard fashion into 3" squares and number and
letter the squares as on the rack.
Place about 2" of sawdust in the testing box, moisten it and cover
it with the checkered cloth. Place six seeds from space lA on the rack
FARM WOODWORK 41
in square lA in the box. Place six seeds from each ear in the correspond-
ing square on the cloth in the box.
Cover the seeds with another cloth and spread 1" of damp sawdust
over the top. This top covering is easier to handle if made into a saw-
dust pad 1" thick.
Poor ears may be located by this method and discarded.
ADJUSTABLE WAGON JACK
Lumber: Oat, maple or other hardwood.
Pieces Dimensions Use
3 %°x6"xl4" Base
2 %"x4'x26" Posts
1 %''x4"x3'.6' Lever
2 Vs'xWxlD" Guides for lever bolt
2 carriage bolts %"x5" with washers to bolt posts to base.
1 machine bolt %'x314" with two washers, fulcram for lever,
1 machine bolt M"xi^~ with two washers for holding rod to posts.
1 piece of iron Ir6"x%"x8' to place on top of lever at axle end,
1 piece of iron rod %'x3' 4',
4 flat head wood screws %" No, 7 to fasten iron at top of lever.
6 flat head wood screws 1^" No. 9 to fasten guides for lever bolt to posts.
» fulcrum for the levej;. In that
FARM WOODWORK 43
TAKE-DOWN HORSE FOR TABLES, CRATES, ETC.
Pieces Dimensions Use
4 iVxi'xZ' xlM." Legs
1 i8"x4"x3' 0" Top
2 H"x6"x8%" Aprons
20 flat head screws IW No. 8.
This take-down horse is planned to be used where supports are
needed only temporarily, e. g., tables for picnics, church suppers, bazaars,
fairs, etc. Its advantage over a solidly assembled horse is that it may
be taken apart and stored in small space when not in use.
For laying off the slant at the ends of the legs the T bevel is set at
12" on the blade and 3%" on the .tongue of the steel square.
It may be noted in the detail drawings that notches are cut on both
sides of the top member at points 5" from the ends so as to leave the
top i/a" thick at those points. After the legs are fastened together wilh
the aprons, a slot is cut V2" wide and 4" deep at top of legs. This per-
mits the top to slip into the slot and holds the horse rigid.
11. Take Down Hon
24 flat head bright wood screws 1%" No. 10.
20 flat head bright wood screws 1%' No. 9.
1. Reduce all pieces to dimensioiiB as called for in the stock bill.
2. For laying out the bevel at ends of the legs, set the T bevel at
6" on the blade and 1-1/16" on the tongue of the steel square and draw
lines across the sides of the legs.
3. To lay out the slant at the ends of the legs set the T bevel at
6" on the blade and 1-9/16" on the tongue of the steel square and draw
lines across the edges of the legs.
4. To make the aprons fit tight against the legs, bevel the outside
edges of the legs with the T bevel set at 9° on the blade and ^4" on the
tongue of the steel square.
5. Fasten the sides to the braces with three 1%" No. 10 flat head
screws at each end of each piece.
6. Fasten the legs to the sides with five IV2" No. 9 flat head screws
in each leg.
7. Fasten the aprons by using three IV2" No. 9 flat head screws
at each end of each piece.
FARM WOODWORK 47
SAW FILING CLAMP
2 I%"x3%"x4'0" Posts
3 ii"x3%"x22" Braces
2 ir'x4"x2' 8" Clamps
1 l%"xl%''xl%" Hardwood block for tapping clamps
in slot to hold saw.
18 6d common nails to fasten braces.
2 carriage bolts %"x4" to strengthen posts at top.
24" of a heavy cord to attach hardwood block.
2 poultry netting staples to fasten cord to block and top brace.
The height of the posts, which is four feet, is a convenient size for
a person of average size. It may be varied to suit the individual.
The clamps as called for in the drawing and stock bill are 32" long.
This is a size suitable for the average handsaws. Longer clamps and
deeper cuts at top of posts will be found more satisfactory for big cross-
The hardwood block is a convenience for tapping the clamps in the
notches Avhen the saw is in place between the clamps. It is placed over
the saw and clamps directly over the posts and tapped firmly with a
hammer. By its use the saw is not hit with or the clamps marred by
/ A^ *-'^ '4, 1 1 "a9
rt — I
FARM TOOL BOX
Bill of Material
Use hardwood for handle and any soft wood for rest of box.
Pieces Dimensions Use
2 ?i"xl0"xl2' Ends
1 hi"x6%"\20W Bottom of box
2 ^4''x3%"x20%'' Sides of box
1 hi "x2 % "x20 ^ " Bottom of nail tray
2 '^"x2'^"x20W" Sides of nail tray
3 V4"xl%"x4%" Partitions in nail tray
1 %' round x21" long Handle
Hardware: 2 flat head bright wood screws 2" No. 10 for handle.
2 doz. 6d. finishing nails.
4 doz. 4d. finishing nails.
For fastening handle see direction on "Berry Stand,"
For construction of handle see "Vise Handle."
The purpose of this tool box is to furnish a means of carrying a
quantity of tools, nails, screws, staples, etc, to any point about the farm
where work is to be done. For example, a repair and construction job
may require the following; cross-cut saw, pinch bar, hand ax, claw ham-
mer, staple puller, wire stretcher, nails and staples. These tools may all
be placed in the box and carried conveniently as well as kept together.
FARM WOODWORK 51
Lumber Stock Bill
Lumber: (6" matched flooring).
Pieces Dimensions Use
2 ig"x2"xl8%'' Sills
4 ir'x5%"x2' 10%" Floor
6 irx5%"x3' 0" Front
7 ir'x5%"x3' 0" Back
13 ir'x5%''xl8%'' Ends
2 il"x2''x2' 2%" Front posts
2 il"x2''x2' 11%" Back posts
4 ii"x5%''x3'2" Door
2 ii "x2"xl7 % " Door straps
2 ir'x2"x20" Cleats for ends at top
1 i2''x4"x3' 2" Top
Hardware: 16 6d common nails for nailing floor to sills.
1 % lb. 8d finishing nails for assembling box.
28 flat head bright wood screws 1^" No. 8 for fastening straps to
door and cleats to ends.
2 light T hinges.
In assembUng the box the floor boards are nailed to the sills with
6d common nails and the nails are clinched.
The bottom end boards are fastened to the floor with three 8d finish-
ing nails into the end of each floor board. The end boards are fastened
to the posts with three 8d finishing nails at each end of each board.
The cleats at the top are fastened to the top end boards with three
1^" No. 8 flat head bright screws placed from the inside.
The front and back boards are secured by placing two 8d finishing
nails at each end of each board into the ends of the end pieces and two
into the post. Those in the post are clinched on the inside.
The top board is fastened in place with 8d finishing nails.
In assembling the door the boards should be drawn tightly together
-with clamps. The straps are then placed in position and fastened by
placing two 1^/^" No. 8 flat head wood screws into each board at each
strap, placing the screws from the inside of the door.
Bevel the top edge of the door and fasten the door in place.
Set the nails with a nail set; putty the holes, and paint the box a
color suitable for the room where it is to be placed.
Pieces Dimensions Use
4 i''x2ix5-o" Posts
6 i/^^x 10" Cleats
6 i"xio"x3-io/ Shelves
fib. 6d common nails
Fruii Con Rack
w — - r»
1 1 Iff
o S 2
c S o
9 1 X
X X "o
>< X ^
X X P
cvj cvi —
FARM WOODWORK 55
The frames of kitchen tables are usually made of hard wood, maple,
birch or oak. Maple or birch make a very desirable top though bass-
wood is used for this purpose extensively and is very satisfactory.
The legs of kitchen tables are frequently 2^" or 21/^" square at top
and tapered at bottom. The drawing calls for legs which are 1%" x 21/^"
at top and tapered on the two edges only so as to be 1%" square at the
bottom. This has been done to make it possible to saw the legs out of
an ordinary 2" plank.
The sides and ends are fastened to the legs with mortise and tenon
joints, Fig. A. The joints should be glued with hot glue. The corners
are further stiffened with braces as shown in the detail drawing, Fig. A.
These braces should be fastened to the side and end pieces with at least
three flat head wood screws at each end of each brace.
A piece 16" long is cut out of the front side piece for a drawer
front. This piece is then shaped at the ends as shown in Fig. B.
The drawer sides are y^' x 4" x 16" and are provided with two
I/2" X 1" X 16" cleats fastened to the outside as sho^vn in Fig. C. Quarter
inch stock is used for the drawer bottom. If means are at hand for
plowing a groove on the insides of the side pieces ^4" wide and 1/4"
from the bottom edge of the side pieces it is desirable to do so. Other-
wise the bottom is merely nailed in place.
Two pieces of stock y^" x 4" are extended between sides at right
and left of the drawer respectively. They are fastened to the sides of
the table by use of blocks and screws as shown in Fig. D. A cleat
14" X 1" X 16" is fastened to the inside of the two guides. This cleat
fits between the two cleats which are on the outside of the drawer and
holds the drawer in place.
The drawer need not be provided with a draw pull as it is as
easily opened by clasping it at the bottom.
The top may be constructed of three or more boards.
These boards are carefully jointed, held even with dowel pins and
The top is held to the table by use of blocks as indicated in Fig. E.
At least ten such blocks should be used — two at each end and three at
When the table is assembled the legs, sides and ends should be
scraped clean with a cabinet scraper and then sanded. The top should
also be cleaned with sandpaper.
The top of the table is left white. The rest of the table may be
finished with two coats of shellac, or one coat of shellac and a coat of
FARM WOODWORK 57
Pieces Dimensions Use
2 %"x4"x2'6'' Sills
6 %"xbhi''x2' e" Floor
4 2"x4''xl8'' Corner posts
4 2"x4''x24" Rafters
9 %"x5%"x2'7%'' Sides
10 %"x5%"x2'6" Ends
4 %''x5^"xl0" Ends at front
2 y8"x3"x23" Door posts
10 y8"x5^"x3'6" • Roof boards
2 pieces of prepared roofing 3' 8" long or % bundle of shingles.
If shingles are used two pieces of wood y8"x4"x3' 6" are required for a
saddle board and also ^^ lb. of shingle nails.
1 lb. 6d common nails.
A quantity of outside paint.
Before starting the construction of the framework of the dog house
it is suggested that the subject of rafter framing be studied. Obtain a
piece of 2" x 4" or 2" x 6" x 10, 12, 14 or 16 ft. long. Select a building
with any span of roof and decide on a pitch of roof. Lay out the rafter
as shown in the plate on rafter framing. Do not cut the rafter unless
you are actually going to use the piece in a building. In like manner
lay off the rafter on the same piece for other pitches and spans.
When thoroly familiar with the use of the steel square for laying out
rafters,' lay out the rafter for the dog house as indicated on the drawing
of the dog house.
Matched lumber is preferable for the construction of a dog house.
It may be noted that not all matched lumber is of the same width. If the
lumber w^hich is being used is other than %" thick and 51/4" face, as
called for in the stock bill, it is suggested that a new stock bill be made
If shingles are used, a double layer is used for the first row at the
eaves. They may project over the roof boards one inch at the bottom
and also at the ends. They are laid 4" or 414" to the weather and should
break joints at least 1". The points projecting over the peak are sawed
oflf and the peak finished with a saddle board.
If roofing paper is used it should be bent over the ends and edges
of the roof and nailed with roofing nails spaced not more than 2" apart.
Finish the house by applying at least two coats of paint.
FARM WOODWORK 59
Lumber: Any soft wood.
Pieces Dimensions Use
2 ^^xT^^xlO" Sides
% "x7''xl9 % " Platform
%"xll^"x7'' Cleat at top
%"xl%"x7" Cleat underneath at front.
Hardware: 2 doz. 1%" No. 9 flat head bright wood screws.
In getting out the sides get out a piece %" x 7^^" x 20"; draw a
centerline lengthwise of the stock and at a point on the centerline equi-
distant from ends swing a circle with the compass set at 2V2' radius.
Draw a line across the stock thru the center of the circle. Cut the board
in two on line just drawn. Saw arcs with turning saw, keyhole saw or
In getting out the front piece be sure and cut it so that the grain
of the wood runs vertically in the finished Mool, i. e., 7" across the grain
and 41/^" lengthwise of the grain.
The ends of the platform are beveled. The T bevel is 9et at 19^"
on the blade and 1" on the tongue of the steel square.
In assembling, three screws are placed thru the seat into the top of
each side piece ; three screws secure the sides to the platform and three
are used to fasten the front to the front end of the platform. Five screws
are used to fasten the top cleat at the front end — three into the front
and two into the platform. Four screws are used to fasten the I14"
cleat to the front on the inside.
L J» I- J
A MILKING STOOL
1 piece of any soft wood, preferably white pine, %"xI0"x5' 1".
12 flat head bright wood sci-ews 1%" No. 10.
8 flat head bright wood screws 1V4" No. 8.
; cut and rip saws, chisel, 5/32' drill, brace.
%"x91i"x2014" Main brace
S"x914"xl0" Back end
%"x3ft"xl0" Front cross brace
^'xlCxlO" Pail platform
2 %"xl«"x9^4" Braces
1. Reduce all pieces to finished dimensions.
2. Draw a line across the front end of the main brace 3" from the
bottom edge ; locate a point on each side i" from the lower edge and
10" from the line across the end and connect the points just located
with the line across the end.
3. Draw a line across the upper edge 9V4" from the back end and
connect the line with the points on the side of the board. Remove the
stock to line mth the rip and crosscut saws.
4. Lay out a cross half-lap joint in the upper edge of the front part
of the main brace and the loiver edge of the front cross brace as wide
as the thickness of the stock and one-half the width of the stock as shown
in the detail drawing and remove the stock with the cross-cut saw and
chisel as shown in the detail drawing.
5. Set the T bevel at the angle which is made by the'top and slant
edge of the main brace, and lay out the ends of the braces. Remove the
stock to line with the saw.
6. Bore holes for the screws with the a\" drill at positions shoivn in
the drawings, countersink the holes and fasten all members in position.
FARM WOODWORK 63
Robin Nesting Shed
1 piece of any soft wood %''x6''xl2".
1 piece of any soft wood %''x5%''x2' 6".
2 flat head bright wood screws 1%'' No. 7.
2 doz. brads 1%" No. 18.
1 round head blued wood screw, IW No. 10, for fastening to a tree or
Small quantity of outside paint.
Pieces Dimensions Use
1 ^''T^xlO" Back
2 %''x6%''xl0%" Roof
1 %''x7"xl0" Floor
2 %''x2"x4" Brackets
2 ^'x^'xT* Sides
1 %"x%''x6'' Front
1 %"x2''x7" Roof brace
1 piece of any soft wood %''x5''x2' 6*.
1 piece of any soft wood %''xl"xl6".
2 %" brads for fastening perch.
3 doz. l^'" No. 18 brads.
Twig for perch (optional).
Smsdl quantity paint.
Pieces Dimensions Use
1 %"x5"x7" Roof
1 %''x4%x7" Roof
1 ^''xS^^xr Side
1 %"x3"x4" Side
2 %"x3"x3'' Ends
1 %"xl"xl4" Post
The opening for a wren should be the size of a twenty-five cent
piece. If made larger, the house is apt to be used by English sparrows.
A perch is not necessary, its value is only in adding to the ornamental
appearance of the house. The house may be fastened to a tree or to the
house or other buildings, preferably not too high from the ground.
15%" flower pot.
1 piece of any kind of wood %"x6"x7%".
1 piece heavy wire 18" long.
4 pieces light wire 4" long.
4 poultry netting staples.
A small quantity of paint.
A house which wrens like especially well may be made by fastening
a flower pot to a board and placing it in a secluded place.
The pot need not be exactly the same size as called for in this draw-
ing. The hole in the bottom of the pot must be made the size of a twenty-
five cent piece which is 15/16 of an inch. This may be done with a
14" t;hisel and a mallet or hammer. The pot is fastened to the board
by placing and clinching a heavy wire as shown in the side view of the
drawing and drawing the pot tight against the beard with the four
pieces of light wire. Holes may be made thru the board with a 6d nail
for wire to pass thru. The wire is drawn tightly so as to bring the
pot snugly against the board and fastened with poultry netting staples
as shown in the illustration.
FLICKER OR WOODPECKER HOUSE
1 piece of any soft wood ?4"x6"x2' 10".
I piece of any soft wood Mi"xTii'xG' 6'.
4 doz. W No. 18 brads.
A small quantity paint.
1 %"x6"x2'3H" Back
2 '^"x6?4"x23>4" Sides
1 ^-xTxldhi" Front
1 \k"x9"xl2" Roof
This house may be made for the flicker, red-headed, golden-fronted,
hairy or downy woodpeckers, chickadees, nuthatches or titmice. The
diameter of entrance for the various birds shall be as follows :
Ficker — 214"; Red-headed woodpecker — 2" Golden fronted wood-
pecker — 2"; Hairy woodpecker — l^/^"; Downy woodpecker — 1^"; Chick-
adee — IVs"; Nuthatch — IVs"; Titmouse — 1".
A color of paint should be used which closely resembles the color of
the bark of a tree, so as to make the house as inconspicuous £
F' A RM WOODWORK
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FARM WOODWORK 67
BiU of Material
52 16d common nails (refer to table on nails).
2 carriage bolts %''x4%'' with washers.
2 rings and eye bolts as shown in drawing.
1 piece of %' rope 24 ft. long.
1. Reduce all pieces to finished dimensions called for in bill of
2. Lay out and cut a tenon at each end of the beam to the dimensions
called for in the detail drawing.
3. Lay out an open mortise in the upper end of each post to receive
the tenons at the ends of the beam as indicated in the detail drawing.
4. Fasten the posts to the sills by driving four 16d common nails
thru the base at the center from bottom and up into the lower end of
each post; also toenail the posts to the bases by using one 16d common
nail on each side of each post.
5. Miter both ends of the lower braces and fasten the posts and
bases by using two 16d common nails at each end of each brace.
6. Bore two i/^" holes thru the beam from the upper edge 18"
from ends and 3' apart.
7. Place the beam on the posts ; bore %" holes through the mortise
and tenon joint, and fasten with one %'' x 4^^" carriage bolt at each joint.
8. Miter the ends of the upper braces and fasten to posts and beam
by using two 16d common nails at each end of each piece.
9. Draw a centerline lengthwise of the swing board and bore ys"
holes IV^" from each end.
10. Fasten the eye bolts in place.
11. Tie one end of the rope to one ring; draw the rope down thru
one hole in the board and up thru the other; then draw it up thru the
second ring so as to bring the rope at a suitable distance from the ground,
and tie it to the ring.
12. Bore 1" holes thru the base members so that the swing may be
staked firmly to the ground by use of the iron pins as suggested in the
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POULTRY FEEDING TROUGH
Ends of box
l^ lb. 8d finishing nails.
56 poultry netting staples.
12 feet heavy wire.
The leiiRth of legs may be varied to suit the breed of hens.
Braces for the legs near the bottom have purposely been omitted
Ko that the spaee under the stand may be used for scratching and a!so
to facilitate the use of tools under and around the stand.
Strips of wood may be nailed to the outside of the end members
of the stand to prevent the trough from sliding lengthwise and off the
It may be noted that the trough is no' nailed lo the platform but
only set into the notches in the end pieces of the frame. This permits
the removal of the trough for cleaning and filling.
FiB. 16. Poultry Feeding Trough.
J /_tV * '
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FARM WOODWORK 75
POULTRY FEED HOPPER (FOR 25 BIRDS)
Bill of Material
Ends of reel
Slats for reel.
Hardware: 4 doz. 8d finishing nails for assembling box.
2 doz. 4d finishing nails for fastening slats of reel.
1 doz. 1%" No. 9 fiat head wood screws for fastening landing board to
sills and sills to box.
2 8d common nails for reel pivots.
1 piece 1" mesh wire, or % mesh hardware cloth, 6"x2' 10" to lay on feed.
1. Reduce all pieces to length, width and thickness.
2. To lay out the slant on the end pieces, draw a line across the
top end 13/16" from the back edge and a line aieross the front edge 6"
from the bottom end; connect lines on edge and end with lines on the
sides of the stock and remove stock to line with saw and plane.
3. Using a l^" bit and a cross-cut saw, bore a hole and cut notches
in the end pieces for the reel nails as shovni in the drawing, 4" from
back edge and 9i/^" from the bottom end.
4. Assemble the box and hanger by using the 8d finishing nails.
5. Fasten the sills to the bottom with \y^' No. 9 flat head screws.
6. Fasten the landing board to the sills at front by using two IV2"
No. 9 flat head wood screws for each sill.
7. Fasten the slats to the end pieces of the reel, using three 4d
finishing nails at each end of each slat.
8. Bore a hole with the y% bit thru each end piece at its center and
drive an 8d common nail thru from the inside for the reel to turn on
the ends of the box.
9. Cut notches for nails in the lower edge of the hanger. This
may be done by boring a hole of the same diameter as the nails or spikes
which are to be used for the box to hang on and sawing tangent to the
holes from the bottom edge of the board.
The purpose of the reel is to keep the fowl from the top of the
box or feed. The purpose of the V mesh wire is to prevent the fowl
from wasting feed. By use of it they can get all that is in the box but
cannot flip it out as is the habit of fowl.
By the suggested arrangement the reel may be lifted off when filling
or cleaning the box. The box is suspended on the wall by hanging it
over two nails or spikes.
It is understood that the box may be increased to any length to suit
the size of floek.
POULTRY FEED HOPPER (FOR 50 BIRDS)
Bill of Material
Pieces Dimensions Use
4 l%"xl%"x23(!," Posts
2 4rx3"x22%'' Cross braces
2 iB"x2'^"x4' 0" Landing boards
4 irx2"xn'' Braces
2 irx7"x4' 0" Sides of box
2 }rx7"xl2%" Ends of box
2 ]rx6A°x3'10%" Bottom of box
2 irx2"xl3i4" End posts
2 ]rx8"x8" Ends of wheel
8 trx2"x3' n?i" Slats for wheel
4 t.l"x(3"x2',i" Furring to hold box in place
Hardware: % lb. 8d finishing naila.
1 piece of 1" mesh wire screen or ^At" mesh hardware cloth, 12"x3'
10" to lay on feed.
The purpose of the wheel is to keep the fowl from the top of the
box. It has the additional advantage over a fixed top in that it is
removable for filling and ('leaning the box.
The box is rcmovabie and is held in place by the two end posts pro-
jecting down over the end cross braces on the outside. It is prevented
from moving sidewise by the small pieces of furring which are nailed
on the top edge of Ihe end cross braces between the landing board and
There are numerous ways of preventing the waste of feed. Heavy
wires may be nailed across the top of the box spaced 3" or 4" on center
or a piece of quarter round may be nailed to the inside of the side boards
of the box at the top edge.
The screen has the advantage of being removable, thus making it
easier to fill and clean.
Poultry Corrijinq Crate
(1) — -111
O ^ CO
PoultfL/ 5how Crate
Measuring Standard for Horaes
Hl^i I iTi I iTi I I h I iTi I if I I IT
1 ^'^'xe^xS' 2"
Lower stringers at front
Floor sill at rear
Rear standard cross bars .
Front standard cross bar
Front standard cross bar
Front standard cross bar top
2 pieces of iron %"xl%"x33%" trusses (old wagon tire).
2 carriage bolts %"xl3'' front.
2 carriage bolts %"xl3^^" rear.
4 carriage bolts '%"xll" cross ties.
4 carriage bolts %"xll^/^" cross ties and truss.
4 carriage bolts %"x5" truss.
24 carriage bolts hi"xbW boards to arms.
14 carriage bolts ^"x4*/^" standards.
2 %"x3' 3" rods for standards at bottom.
72 6d common nails for floor.
In making the iron truss for the wheel, clearance space measure-
ments should be made of the combined thickness of the floor sill and
cross tie and width of stringers. Any deviation from the dimensions
given on the drawing must be made in dimensions of the truss. If an old
wagon tire is available it will serve as well as new iron.
Quarter inch bolts are placed thru the upright members of the
standards at the lower ends to prevent their splitting.
Flat head wood screws may be used to fasten the floor boards to the
floor sills instead of the 6d common nails.
BUI of Material
Cross bar at front posts
Cross bar at front standard
Cross bar at front standard
Cross bar at front standard
16 carriage bolts %''x5'' to fasten inside boards on aims.
12 carriage bolts %''x4%'' to fasten outside boards on arms, posts to
stringers and standards to posts.
4 carriage bolts %''x6'' to fasten cross bar to front standard.
6 8d common nails to fasten cross bars into front standard.
4 U bolts as shown in the detail drawing.
16 40d spikes to fasten sills to stringers.
| » »
B^"^ ■ ^K
1' basswood are desirable woods.
I"x3"x3' 2" hardwood
Front cross sill
Foot hop I'd
32 wagon box rivets 14"x3^,S" for fl
12 wagon box rivets i4"x2" for rea
16 wagon box rivets 5»"xH4" for rub irons, braces and foot boards,
2 wagon box rivets ^"xZ'A" for rear end braces.
8 wagon box rivets ^"x2^4" braces for front end gate and front side
6 braces as shown in detail drawing
2 rub irons shown in detail drawing
4 rectangular washers &•• •^havin in detail drawing
8 wagon box strap irons a'- shoun in detail diawing
2 front end gate biacei as shown in detail Uiawing
2 wagon box roda
4 doz. flat head wood screws for fastening axle support to box and axle
guides to axle support.
ai ft. of beveled or half oval wagon box strap iron with screws.
To hold the box in place cleats are fastened beneath the 10" board so that one will
be in front of and the other back of the axle. The distance between cleats is SM",
S%" or 4" as cleteimined by the width of the axle.
TOP WAGON BOX
. Stock Bill
24 wagon box rivets '«"x2".
8 wagon box rivets 14'x29i''.
4 rectangular washers as for wagron box.
2 wagon box rods with winged nuts,
31 feet of half i ' ■ ■ ■
Cleats at ends outside and
Cleats at ends inside
L- beveled wagon box strap i
WnKon Bm n
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STOCK RACK FOR WAGON BOX
Uprights for sides
Uprights for end gates
Cleats at ends of sides
32 carriage bolts ■fi"x3" for fastening uprights to sides,
48 carriage bolts iV"x2^'' for fastening end uprights and cleats at ends of
4 rectangular washers as for wagon box.
2 wagon box rods with winged nuts.
k Rack and Wagon
FARM WOODWORK 91
SELF FEEDER FOR HOGS
Many farmers claim distinct advantages in the self feeder for hogs.
Among others the following points are raised : (a) Less labor is required
than by the hand-feeding system, (b) A smaller amount of feed is. used
in making pork, (c) It allows the pigs to eat as often as they choose
and gives them free choice regarding the proportions and amounts of
the different feeds, consequently they are never hungry or gorged with
The size of a self feeder can only be determined by the needs of the
2 pieces 2''xl0''xl2' 0" matched flooring.
1 piece 2''x4"xl2' 0" skids.
2 pieces 2''x4''xl0' 0" rafters and studs.
1 piece 2"x4*xl2' 0" for triangular strips in comers of troughs.
15 pieces I"x6''xl2' 0'^ matched flooring (actual measurements ii"x5^"x
5 pieces l^xG^'xll' 0" matched flooring for roof.
2 pieces I"x6"xl2' 0" unmatched lumber, ridge board, sides and ends.
2 pieces I"xl0"xl2' 0" unmatched lumber for slides, triangular blocks,
guides for slides, cleats for door.
Lumber for desired cross partitions.
68 square feet of roofing paper.
6 heavy strap hinges.
1 lb. lOd. common nails.
2% lb. 6d. common nails.
4 2%" bolts with thumb nuts.
If it is so desired the skids may be cut from a piece of 2" x 4" x 14' 0"
and allowed to project out at the ends of the feeder. By boring holes
thru the skids near the ends means are provided for hitching a team of
horses and dragging the feeder to any desired location.
Matched lumber which is designated 1" x 6" varies in width of
face. Some manufacturers make it 5i/4" face, others 5^/^". The size,
5l^" appears most frequently the dimension used and is the measure-
ment used in the drawing.
Cross partitions have purposely been omitted from the drawing as
the variety and amounts of the various feeds rest with the farmer. A
method of constructing a cross partition is shown in the detail drawing.
The roofing should be placed over the hinges. A separate piece
should be placed over each door and the piece at top should lap down
onto the door from 1^" to 2*
The size of opening may be varied for different feeds from ^" to
3" by use of the adjustable slides.
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SHEEP FEEDING RACK
Bill of Material
l%"x3%" tapered to a
point X 10"
6d. common nails.
. 8d common nails.
Ends of trough
Ends below trough
Sides of tr( ugh
Furring to nail top boards
Sheep respond more readily to good feed and car(^ than any other
livestock, and it is necessary that the flock be fed consistently and regu-
larly to insure a wool clip of good weight and quality.
Good feeding is difficult without the use of a feeding rack for both
hay and grains.
The hopper design of rack for feeding hay has the advantage over
others by keeping the heads of the sheep out of the hay and thus pre-
venting chaff, seeds, etc., from getting into the wool. The trough has
the additional advantage of catching the leaves of alfalfa, clover or
other hay so they may be consumed. Without a trough underneath the
hay the leaves would drop onto the bedding and hence would be lost.
The length of rack may be made longer or shorter to suit the needs
of any size of flock. If made eight feet or less in length, the tv^o middle
posts and their cross ties may be omitted.
In assembling the 8d nails are used at places where nails are driven
into the 1%" pieces. The 6d nails are used at all other points. The
lower ends of the slats are beveled as shown in the detail drawing and
nailed to the top edge of the trough partition.
Those teachers of agricultural woodworking who are using the home
project method may find the wall sheep feeding rack a suitr.ble home
project. It is understood that the length of rack and some of Ihe details
are in that case determined by the number of sheep, the place where
the rack has to be placed, kind of wall to be fastened to, the thickness
of wall, etc. The drawing can only serve to give general cimensions
which, if followed, will make a serviceable rack.
It is felt that when a boy in the agricultural high scho(»l has ob-
tained a general notion of how to go at the building of a rack of the
i CO // fV]</) /\ ,'.> * ^ • ^
o . ; : .
•^ • •i-•-••r:•
FARM WOODWORK 95
kinds shown and thru his school farm shop work has acquired the knowl-
edge of tool manipulation to make it and thru his study of animal
husbandry in the classroom has acquired a desire to build it, the agricul-
tural high school has done much toward adding one valuable young
farmer to the community's general worth.
SHEEP AND HOG SHIPPING CRATE
Bill of Material
%" round x4"
1 pound of 6d common nails.
Front end at bottom
Ehids and top at ends
Sides at bottom
Gate support at bottom
Pin to lock gate
Bill of Materials
Lumber: Oak, maple, beech, birch or other hardwood.
Pieces Dimensions Use
1 I%"xl0y,"x26" Seat
4 114"xl^i''x24^4" Legs
1 VA"xl'A"x2h%" Brace (left side)
1 *"x%'k23^" Brace (right side)
2 %"x%"xl3%' Braces (end)
1 %"xll4"x22' Lever
1 lH"x5"x20%i" Post
1 Ili"x5"xl6?4" Clamp
1 l"xl%"x5" Key
6 flat head bright wood screws 2'^" No. 12 for fastening legs to seat and
brace to legs at left side.
6 flat head bright wood screws 1\" No. 9 for fastening braces at ends
and right side.
7 round head blued wood screws 1" No. 9 to fasten lock on leg and catch
2 machine bolts ■h"x.3'A" to fasten clamp to post.
2 fast joint steel butts H4"xl",i",
1 coil spring l"x3".
1 lecher strap l''x44''.
3 lining nails to fasten end of strap to clamp.
1 piece of heavy wire 2ti' long to
hold strap in place on lever.
1 piece of metal ^"xl^"x5" for
1 piece of metal ii"xll4'x2'A" for
1 piece of metal ^4"xl"x5'/4" for
the U iron.
2 machine bolts %"x2'' to hold the
U iron to brace and lever in L'
1. Reduce all pieces to finished di- '
2. Draw a centerline lengthwise of
the seat piece and also lines across Ihe
stock 51/4" from each end, and at the
intersection of lines swing arcs with a
3. With the compass set at !)%",
swing an are at each side langent to
the arcs at each end.
4. Remove stock to line with a turn-
ing saw, keyhole saw, or by making
saw kerfs to the line and removing the
stock with the draw shave. The edge
may be smoothed with a wood file.
5. The stock on the upper side of
the seat where the worker's legs rest
on tile seat may be further removed
with the draw shave and smoothed
with the wood file. Fj„ 03, front Vlev.- of StUching Horse.
FARM WOODWORK 101
6. To lay out the mortise for the post on the seat locate a point on
the line across the front end of the seat 1/4" from the centerline as shown
in the detail drawing. Set the T bevel at Y^ pitch using the figures 12
and 3 or 4 and 1 on the steel square and draw lines for the sides of the
mortise. The end lines of the mortise are at right angles to the sides.
The mortise extends thru the seat at the above angle and the T bevel
may be used as a guide in boring out the stock.
7. Remove the stock for the mortise with bit, chisel and mallet.
It may be noted in the detail drawing that the mortise is 1%" x 3V^".
8. Set the T bevel at 22l^" and 4^^" on the steel square and lay out
the cuts at both ends of the legs and left side brace. A shoulder is cut at
the upper end of the legs 1" from the end so that the end will go into
the %" holes which are bored in the lower side of the seat.
9. At a point 6" from the lower end of the left legs and on the
inside lay out gains l^" deep and li/4" wide across the stock to receive
the ends of the left side brace. The stock may be removed with the saw
and chisel, making the saw kerfs close together. Use the T bevel as
set for the ends of the legs. This will place the top and bottom edge of
the brace parallel to the floor when the horse is assembled.
10. Assemble the brace and left legs by the use of one 2V^" No. 12
flat head bright wood screw at each joint. The holes for all flat head
screws should be countersunk so as to place the screws sligl tly below
the surface of the wood. In pLicing screws it is well to use two wood
twist drills ; one the diameter of the wire of the screw to bore a hole as
deep as the screw up to the thre id on the screw and another 3*5'' smaller
to bore the hole slightly deeper.
11. Locate points on the inside of all four legs on a centerline
and 8" from the bottom end of the legs and bore %" holes %" deep for
the ends of the end braces. The holes are bored at the same angle as
is used for the ends of the legs. The ends of the braces are roui'ded
so as to draw snugly into the %" holes.
12. Locate points on the two right legs 3^'' from the bottom ends
and bore %" holes for the right side brace.
13. Fasten the braces to the legs by using one 1%" No. 9 flat head
bright wood screw at each joint.
14. Lay the seat on the bench with the bottom side up. D^^aw a
centerline lengthwise of the stock and lines across the stock 51/4" from
each end. Locate two points on each line across the stock 4" frcm the
centerline. At these points bore %" holes 1" deep, using the T bevel
set as for the ends of the legs for a guide.
15. With a twist drill of the size of 21/2" No. 12 screws continue
the holes thru the seat from the same side. Countersink the hole « from
the upper side of the seat.
16. Place the legs in position and with a twist drill ^" smaller
than the above bore a hole into the top end of each leg for the screws.
102 FARM WOODWORK
17. Fasten the seat to the legs using one 2iA" No. 12 flat head
screw at e-ii-h joint.
18. I!y use of the T bevel as set for the mortise thru the seat lay
out the lower end of the clamp and post and remove the stock with
saws as shown in the detail drawing of clamp.
19. Lay out the mortise for the key thru the post at the dimensions
shown in the detail drawing tf the olanip. Remove the stock ■with bit.
chisel and mallet.
20. To lay out the clearance space on the clamp and post, draw
seven lines across the inside and both edges of each as shown in the
detail drawing; the first %" from the end and the others 2" apart.
Locate points on the lines across the edges as shoivn in the detail drawing
and lay out the curves free hand. The stock may be removed by making
saw kerfs close together acrcss the stock and removing the wood with
the chisel and draw shave. The surface may be smoothed with a wood
21. Draw lines across the upper ends of the post and clamp y^' from
the inside edge and a line across the outside of each 2%" from the end.
FARM WOODWORK 103
Lay out a curve free hand for rounding the corners and remove the stock
Avith the draw shave. The surface may be smoothed with the wood file.
22. Draw a line across the outside of the clamp, 10" from the
lower end, and on this line make an opening for the strap thru both
clamp and post, using the %" bit as shown in the detail drawing.
23. Bolt the clamp and post together with two 5/16" x 3V^" machine
bolts placed as indicatf^d in the detail drawing.
24. Place the two steel butts as shown in the detail drawing 4"
from the lower end of the clamp.
25. Remove the hinges and saw the clamps in two below the center
of the hinges; then replace the hinges. If it were sawed first and then
the hinges placed in position the clamp would drop down the thickness
of the saw kerf and not match at the top with the post.
26. Shape the key as shown in the detail drawing of the key.
27. On a line drawn parallel to the side of the mortise and 2%"
from the side of the seat and 6" from the front end of the seat, make a
slot through the seat 5/16" wide and 1%" long for the strap to pass thru.
28. The coil spring is placed directly below the strap between the
clamp and post. It may be held in place by bending about %" of one
end of a wire at a right angle to the length of the spring and forcinj?
this bent end into a hole in the post.
29. Cut a piece of galvanized iron or other heavy sheet metal 1"
X 11/4" and bend to a right angle as shown in the detail drawing; place
it in the strap opening in the post and fasten with two small flat head
30. With the hack saw cut a piece of metal for the lock l^" x l^^"
X 5". The notches are i/^" deep and shaped as indicated in the detail
drawing. They are cut with the hack saw and the corners are rounded
with an iron file. Centerpunch for holes for the screws as shown and
drill 3/16" holes, using the drill press or breast drill. Fasten the clamp
to the right front leg with four 1" No. 9 round head blued .screws so
that the lower end is 5^2^ from the bottom of the leg.
31. By use of the hack saw cut a piece of metal for the catch
1/4" X 11/^" X 2^", heat to a cherry red heat and forge to the form
sho\ra in the detail drawing. If a forge is not available it may be filed
or ground to the f oi m and bent slightly with hammer and vise. Center-
punch for three holes and drill 3^" holes. Fasten to the top edge of the
lever with three 1" No. 9 round head blued screws.
32. Cut a piece of metal with the hack saw l^" x IV2" x 5^/^". Cen-
terpunch for the holes and bore three 1/4" holes as indicated. Heat the
metal to a cherry red heat and bent to a U form to the dimensions shown
in the detail drawing.
33. Bore a l^" hole thru the left horizontal brace at a point 2"
from the front end and fasten the U iron in place with a ^,4" x 2"
104 FARM WOODWORK
34. Bore a ^'' hole thru the left end of the lever and fasten into
the U iron with a l^" x 2" machine bolt.
35. Pile both ends of the 2^^" heavy steel wire to a point; bend
y^' of each end at a right angle. Drill holes and fasten to the lower edge
of the lever so as to hold the strap at 7" from the lower end of the lever.
36. Fasten the buckle to the end of the strap ; strip a leather loop
on the strap ; draw the strap around the lever thru the bent wire guide
and again thru the leather loop and thru the buckle. Draw it up thru
the slots in the seat, post and clamp and fasten to the outside of the
clamp with three lining nails.
37. With the belt punch make holes in the strap 1" apart and
draw the strap up so that the lever works the clamp and locks it.
38. Wood deteriorates in value and strength as it constantly in-
creases and decreases in moisture content. This may be largely pre-
vented by covering with a coat of paint or shellac. It is suggested that
the stitching horse be finished with two coats of shellac.
5ill pi Material
1 piece i|x3|";( »e' softwood
2 pieces ^j|'x4|x 14' hardwood
• piece ^x 2^% 3^ hardwood
io-i|'No.i2 flaf head screws
2- 4' log 6crew5 for fasten-
ing to post or wolf
APPLE BOX PRESS
Bill of Material
End leg braces at bottom
Leg brace, bottom at back
Leg braces at front
Upper cross braces
Cross pieces at top
Box rests at top
3 ft. T^g" round iron for draw rod, eyebolt, staple and hook.
6 ft. 4 in. rectangular iron %"xl^" for draw bars, clamps, locks and plate.
3 A" nuts and washers for draw rod and eye bolt.
2 carriage bolts %"x6" to fasten lower end of draw bar to ends of upper
2 machine bolts ^"x2W to fasten hook to foot lever.
4 machine bolts ^''xl^" to fasten lock to front cross bars and staple to
back leg brace.
4 iron rivets with counter sunk head to assemble draw bars and clamps.
3 %" No. 7 round head blued wood screws to fasten plate to top of foot
lever at lock.
2 doz. flat head wood screws 2" No. 10 to fasten legs to sill and upper
26 flat head wood screws 1%" No. 9 for fastening all leg braces.
1% doz. 1%" No. 16 brads to fasten pieces of the nail tray.
8 8d common nails to fasten cross pieces at top.
4 6d common nails to fasten box rests.
2 coil bed springs or heavy coil push springs.
After the box has been packed it is placed on the box press. The
box rests set the box up %" from the sill and as the pressure is applied
on the clamps the bulge in the box is distributed evenly between top and
bottom of the box. If 20" boxes are used pieces narrower than 2" may
be used for the rests.
The draw bar should be provided with several holes at the bottom
end so as to provide for different sizes of boxes.
Oblong openings are cut thru the sill for the draw bar. These
openings must be long enough to permit the clamps to fall away from
the box when the pressure is removed.
The sill is purposely made long so as to provide a shelf where boards
and cleats for the top may be conveniently placed.
-H<K- h 3--0--
%'x4" tapered to 2"x9' 4"
•Jfe^xS" tapered to 2''x8' 10"
FARM WOODWORK 109
Oak, ash, maple or other hardwood is recommended.
Point of ladder
Top member of back
3 carriage bolts %''x3" to bolt point between main standard and to pivot
top of back standard.
1 carriage bolt ^^xS^" to fasten chain to main standards.
1 large screw hook.
40 flat head wood screws 2^" No. 12 for fastening steps and top member
of back standard.
6 flat head wood screws 1^" No. 9 for fastening upper ends of bottom
braces to main standards.
4' 6" of a substantial chain.
1. Reduce all pieces to the required dimensions.
2. Lay out and cut gains y^' deep and 2" wide for the steps in the
upper edges of the main standards.
3. Shape the upper edge of all steps except the bottom one as
shown in the detail drawing. This is a means of preventing the feet
from slipping from the ends of the steps.
4. Place the point between the main standards at the upper end
and fasten in place with two l^'' x 3" carriage bolts.
5. Fasten all steps in place using two 2V^" No. 12 flat head screws
at each joint. The two main standards are left 1" apart at the bottom
so that the back standard will drop between them freely.
6. Place the bottom braces in position and mark off the places for
the gains for the first and second steps. Cut the gains for the steps and
fasten the braces to the main standards with three I14" No. 9 screws at
the top and two 2^^" No. 12 screws for the bottom step.
7. Place the top member of the back standard on the top edge of
the back standard and fasten by using five 2V2" No. 12 flat head wood
8. Fold the back standard in between the main standards and bore
f* 14" hole at top for pivot. It will be noted that the hole for the bolt
does not go thru the center. Fasten back standard in place.
9. With the back standard folded in bore a hole for the 1/4" bolt
which is to hold the chain at a point half way between the fourth and
fifth steps and %" from the front edge of the standards. Fasten one
end of the chain in place.
10. Fasten the large screw hook into the bottom edge of the back
standard so that when the ladder is folded the hook will come between
the fourth step and the chain bolt.
11. Finish the ladder by applying at least two coats of paint.
FRUIT STEP LADDER
J "X4"3t2' 11"
1 iron rod %"xl5!4" with two nuts.
2 metal braces K'xl'xlO" bent as shown in drawing.
1 stove bolt 14"xH4' to fasten metal braces.
1 piece of light chain 20" long.
2 carriage bolts U'xl^" with washers larger than link of chain.
20 flat head wood screws 2" No. 10 for fastening steps and top.
6 flat head wood screws 1^^" No. 8 for fastening braces to standards.
The bevel across the sides of stoek
at ends of standards and in standards
for steps is marked off with the T bevel,
set at 6" on the blade and 3" on the
tongue of the steel square.
The bevel at ends of standards and
steps across the edge of stock is marked
off ivith the T bevel set at 6" on the
blade and 15/16" on the tongue of the
The steps are gained into the stand-
Four 2" No. 10 wood screws are
placed thru the top at each end, two
into the braee and two into the stand-
Fill. 2i. Fruit step Ladder. ard.
The braces are held lo the standards with three 1^/2 No. 8 wood
The rods may be threaded and held with a nut at each end.
A 1/4" X 11/2" carriage bolt is used to fasten the chain to the bottom
of the middle step. The chain may pass around the brace and be fastened
with staples or by placing a 14" bolt thru a link and thru the brace.
FARM WOODWORK 113
Many ladders of diversified de-
sign, are uaed for orchard purposes,
For orchard purposes the common
step-ladder has the disadvantage of
four supports and narrow spread of
standards which make it unstable
on uneven ground. The painters' lad-
der needs to be supported at the up-
per end by leaning against the limbs
of the tree which is often harmful to
the tree and usually rather unstable.
The three-legged ladder with wide
spread of standards has the advant-
age of stability on uneven ground
as well as on the flat surface. It is
also light and tall enough for most
FIe. 2«. Orchard Lwldcr.
Bill of Material
Pieces Dimensions Use Material
2 Ii"x4*x4'2" Standards White pine,
2 Ii!"x4''x2'8" Bottom standards cypress, bass-
1 !H"x8%"xl6" Top wood, or
1 \i"x4%'x2A'A' Bottom step other soft
4 iVx' %"xlO%" Steps wood.
2 i|"x3"x8' Upper rod brace
2 ]Vx2Vi"x8^" Cleats
1 M'xS" tapered to 2"x5' 2" Brace
1 iron rod %"xl4M!" with two nuts and two washers.
38 flat head bright wood screws 1%" No. 9 or 10.
18 flat head brig-ht wood screws IW No. 8 or 9, for cleats and upper rod
2 pieces flat iron ii"xl"x8' for braces.
1 machine or stove bolt ^"xl%'.
2 flat head stove bolts 1^".
1 piece substantial chain H4", 20" long, or 1 piece canvas strap Ihi",
1. Reduce all pieces to finished dimensions.
2. Set the T bevel at 1" on the blade and 3i^" on the tongue of the
steel square and lay out both ends of all standards, and remove the stock
to line with the cross-cut saw,
3. With the T bevel set at the same angle as for the standards, lay
out a dado -3/16" deep for each end of each step on the inside of each
114 F A R M W O O D \V O R K
main standard at the measurements shown on the drawing and remove
the stock with a %" or %" chisel.
4. 1 1 sing the T bevel as set for the above lay out the ends of the
cleats and remove the stock to line with the saw.
5. Lay off the upper end of the upper rod braces with the T bevel
set as for the standards and remove stock to line with the saw.
5. Cut a slant to the lower ends of the upper rod braces as shown
on the drawing so that they may be fastened to the standards with
screws. Remove stock with saw and smooth with plane.
7. Round the upper end of the brace. To do this, draw a center
line lengthwise of the stock on both sides and on this center line swing
an arc with a 1^/^" radius l^^" from the end. Remove stock with saw
and smooth with chisel.
8. Set the T bevel at 2" on the blade and 41/8" on the tongue of the
steel square and lay out the lower end of the brace. Remove the stock
to line with the saw.
9. The cheek cut on the inside of the bottom standards at top is
laid out by use of the steel square. Lay the square on an edge of the
stock, using the figures 12" and 4i/^". Place the figures 12" on the outside
edge at the end and the figure 41/2" on the same edge down on the stock
and draw the line. Lay out on both edges. Remove the stock with the
10. Bend the irons for the braces as shown in the drawing. They
may be bent cold if securely held in a metal yise.
11. Centerpunch for the holes and bore %" holes at upper ends and
1/4" holes at the lower ends of the braces, using the drill press or breast
12. Bore a %" hole thru the upper end of the brace at center to
receive the rod.
13. The first parts to be assembled are the steps and main standards.
Use two 1%" No. 9 or 10 flat head wood screws at each joint. Bore holes
for the screws, using a twist drill, thru the standards and countersink
the holes. Clamp the parts firmly in place and force the screws into the
ends of the steps.
14. Fasten the bottom step to the lower ends of the front standards
by use of two 1%" No. 9 or 10 wood screws.
15. Fasten the bottom standards to the ends of the bottom step
by using two 1%" No. 9 or 10 wood screv/s for each joint and three
similar screws to secure the upper ends of the bottom standards to the
sides of the upper standard.
16. The top is fastened by using eight screws, four at each end, two
thru the top and into the top end of the standards and two into the
upper rod brace.
17. Fasten the cleats to the upper rod brace and standards by use
of eight 11/^" No. 8 or 9 wood screws as shown in the drawing.
FARM WOODWORK 115
18. Bore a %" hole thru the cleat and upper rod brace at each
*jide at point shown in the drawing and assemble brace, iron braces and
rod. It may be noted that the rod is threaded at both ends. This is
easier to make than to forge a head en a rod and is quite as satisfactory.
19. Bore a 14" hole thru the brace and fasten the iron braces to
brace with 14" x 1%'' bolt.
20. Stand the ladder in upright position with the top level, measure
length of chain required for position indicated in the drawing and fasten
to step and back standard with stove bolts.
21. Finish the ladder l*y applying two coats of exterior paint, allow-
ing: the first coat several days to become thoroly dry.
Double Deck Berry 5tand
(for twelve boxes)
Ptm n fiTtfi n^ffi r^ff
(for six boxes)
fe -' ▼' ^
n r« ■• ii r» •« •»'
FIe. :7. Double Deck Berry Stand.
EMDUBLE DECK BERRY STAND (For Twelve Boxes)
BUI of Material
Pieces Dimensions Use
2 %"xl2'xl5" Ends
4 %''x214'xl9W- Sides
8 %"x214'*xl8" Bottom
1 % " round 18 % " long Handle
An old broom handle makes an excellent handle.
Hardware: 2 flat head bright wood screws 2" No. 10 for fastening handle.
6 d^z. 6d finishing nails.
Slats 14" instead of \%" may be used for sides and bottom.
BERRY STAND (For Six Boxes)
Bill of Material
Pieces Dimensions Use
2 %"xl2"x8" Ends
2 %"x2W'xl9^4" Sides
4 %"x2!4"xl8" Bottom
1 %" round xl8^" long Handle
Hardware: 2 flat head bright wood screws 2" No. 10 for fastening handle.
3 doz. 6d finishing nnils.
Slats ^' instead of %" may be used sides and bottom.
To fasten the handle,
bore %" holes y^" deep
on a centerline on the
inside of the end pieces
at a point 1" from the
top ; bore a hole for the
screw from the same
side of the stock using
a twist drill as large
as the screw ; counter-
sink for the head of the
screw on the outside of
the stock and fasten
Fin. 28. Berry Stand. handle ill plaCC.
FARM WOODWORK 119
APPLE PACKING TABLE FOR BOX APPLES
Lumber: Any soft wood.
Rests for box
2 pieces of
canvas or ticking 3'
6d. common nails.
This apple packing table is one which has been found quite satis-
factory where box packing of apples is done. It is designed for two
packers; one at each side, with a box before him which rests in a tilting
position on the two boards provided for that purpose.
Shelves are placed underneath at one end of the table where sup-
plies of lining paper, layer paper and wrapping paper may be kept.
More and wider shelves may be provided if desired.
The inside comers of the legs at the top are sawed off to prevent
their bruising the apples.
The first layer of canvas is tacked securely all round the top edge
of the table. The upper piece is tacked at one end only. This enables
the packer to shake off quickly any dirt which may accumulate on the
The sizes of boxes are usually used :
a. Standard, IOI/2'' x lli/^" x 18" inside measurement.
b. Special, 10" x 11" x 20" inside measurement.
The detail drawing shows a hod for holding the \yrapping paper.
The angle irons at the open end hook over the edge of the box and hold
it in place.
The hod may be made of I/2" or %" material so as to make it light
and facilitate its placing on and removal from the box.
This makes it convenient for the packer to pick up a sheet of wrap-
ping paper with one hand while the other hand picks up an apple.
FARM WOODWORK 121
PACKING TABLE FOR BARREL APPLES
Bill of Material
: Any soft wood.
Legs at front
Legs at back
. finishing nails.
The size of the standard apple barrel has been regulated by Con-
gress. The specifications are as follows:
Length of stave 28^4 inches.
Diameter of head 17 Vs inches.
Distance between heads 26 inches.
Circumference of the bulge 64 inches outside measure.
All barrels not coming up to this standard shall be so marked.
The table shown in the drawing admits a standard btrrel to be
placed under it at the front end.
A piece of canvas, denim or ticking is fastened betweei the slats
and cleat at the front end. A barrel is placed in position and the apron
is placed over the top of the barrel.
The table is 6" higher at the rear end, causing the apples to roll to-
ward the barrel. The chute boards guide them toward the opening
where they can easily be inspected as they roll onto the apron. When a
quantity of apples is on the apron it may be slowly lowered into the bar-
rel without bruising the fruit.
In constructing the table it is suggested that the legs be cut at top
as shown in the detail drawing so as to provide a resting surface for
The finishing nails are used in fastening the corners and cleats and
slats. One lOd nail is used for each slat.
The 6d common nails are used to fasten the legs, bracks and chute
A VISE HANDLE
1 piece of oak, maple, ash or other hardwood %''x%''xl2".
1 piece of oak, maple, ash or other hardwood l%"xl^/^"x4".
2 flat head bris^ht wood screws %" No. 7.
Directions for the Knobs
1. Reduce a piece of stock to the dimensions called for in Fig. 1.
2. Lay out an octagon at an end of the stock as shown in Fig. 6.
3. Draw lines on the sides of the stock as indicated in Fig. 2.
4. Remove the corners as shown in Fig. 3 using the plane; when
the four corners are removed thus making an octagonal stick, plane off
the new edges until the stick is round as shown in Fig. 4. The plane
should be- set fine for the last cuts.
Directions for Handle
1. Reduce a piece of hardwood to the dimensions called for in Fig. 7.
2. Lay out octagons at both ends as indicated in Fig. 8.
3. Draw lines on sides of stock as shown in Fig. 9.
4. Bore a %" hole %" deep in each end of the piece of stock as
indicated in Fig. 9.
5. Plane the corners so as to make the stock octagonal in shape
Fig. 10 and continue planing the corners until the stock is round, Fig. 11.
6. Saw the block in two in the center as shown in Fig. 11 and
round the ends as indicated in Fig. 12.
7. • Place one knob on the stick and fasten with a %" No. 7 flat head
screw. Fig. 5.
8. Place the handle on the vise and fasten the other knob in place.
Since vises vary in diameter of handle required it is suggested that
measurement be taken before starting the handle and the diameter of
stick regulated accordingly.
It U also suggested that this method be used wherever it is required
to make a round stick of any size.
« £ <„
m « S
■o -o 5 u
(13 - a
If, -ih »! -J
— .^,x.*< .x
Table ix ia"Xi24"
5" Metal target
Plane Table and Leveling Rod
b ^ b to '« M-
FARM WOODWORK 129
There are many cross cut saws of varying designs in use in the lum-
bering industry, but for general farm use selection may be made from
the four illustrated in the drawing. Figures A, B, and C are of saws
suited for general use. Fig. D shows a shape of tooth better suited for
The tools required for cross-cut-saw fitting are as follows :
1 cross-cut-saw tool which consists of a jointer, a raker-tooth
gauge and a tooth set gauge.
1 saw set.
Several flat files.
The essential features of a well fitted saw are :
1. All teeth must be of the same length and all points come to the
same plane so that each tooth will do the same work as each other tooth.
2. All rakers must be not less than 1-100 nor more than 1-32 of an
inch shorter than the cutting teeth and must be filed to sharp chisel-
3. All teeth must be filed to a sharp point.
4. All teeth must be uniformly set so that the saw draws freely
thru the wood. ,
JOINTING, SETTING AND FILING A CROSS CUT SAW
There are four operations in bringing a cross cut saw to a good cut-
ting condition: (1) jointing; (2) filing down the rakers; (3) setting the
cutting teeth; (4) filing the rakers and cutting teeth.
A saw is jointed by holding the file in the saw tool as shown in
Fig. 29 and, holding the file on the teeth and the saw tool tightly against
the side of the saw, drawing the file lengthwise over the saw until all
teeth and rakers have been touched.
To file down the rakers the saw tool is placed on the teeth so that a
pair of rakers projects up thru the slot in the tool. Fig. 30. All that part
of the rakers which projects up thru the slot is filed off so that the points
of the rakers will be below the points of the cutting teeth. The distance
which the rakers are below the points of the cutting teeth may be varied
according to the kind of wood which the saw is to be used for. The rak-
ers should be not less than 1-100 of an inch nor more than 1-32 of an
inch shorter than the teeth. Soft woods may have a greater distance
than hard woods. If the saw has a tendency to jump when in use the
rakers are too long and need to be filed down and sharpened.
About 1/4" of the point of each tooth is set. This consists of placing
the saw set on a tooth and pressing the tooth out so as to make the saw
kerf wider than the blade of the saw. Begin at one end and set every
other tooth to one side, then reverse the saw and set the other teeth in
the opposite direction. The amount of set to give a saw is determined by
the use that the saw is to have. Green and wet lumber require more set
than dry lumber. The set of the saw is regulated by the set screw at the
bottom of the saw set.
FARM WOODWORK 131
The rakers are filed to a chisel point. Effort should be made to
keep all of the rakers the same shape and size and the filing regulated
with this in mind. Since the purpose of the rakers is not to cut but to
draw the cut particles of wood lengthwise of the saw kerf and out, they
should be kept true and Straight and may be filed from one side of the
saw. The file is held straight across the saw. Great care must be taken
not t(i bring either the rakers or the cutting teeth below the surface to
which they have been jointed as that will render them out of cutting or
rakin j; service.
To file the teeth, the saw is placed low in the clamp so as to hold it
firmlj and minimize the vibration. All the teeth projecting away from
the filer are filed from one side. Both edges of the tooth are filed the
same because the saw is to cut both ways. The file is held at an angle
as shown by the points of the cutting teeth in Fig. C, and by forward
strokes of the file the tooth is brought to a point. When all the teeth
projecting to one side have been filed the saw is reversed and the teeth
projecting in the opposite direction are filed in the same way.
If a saw has been used extensively and filed so that the teeth are
short it should be gummed. This consists of grinding a slot down into
the blade between the teeth with a thin emery grinder.
AVTien not in use, the blade of the saw should be covered with a coat
of oil to prevent rusting. If a saw has become rusty it should not be
cleaned with coarse emery doth or coarse sand paper or other substance
or preparation that ^vill scratch the surface of the metal. No. or 00
sand paper or 00 emery cloth or kerosene oil may be used.
FITTING HAND SAWS
The tools required for fitting hand saws are:
1 flat file.
Several slim taper triangular files — size determined by the fine-
ness of saw.
1 saw set.
The first point to observe in fitting a saw is to make sure that the
points of all teeth are in the same plane, so that no tooth projects out
farther than any other. This is accomplished by running the side of a flat
file lengtliwisc over the teeth and is called jointing the saw. The file is
132 FARM WOODWORK
run over the teeth enough times to file all teeth down to the same plane
as that of the point of the lowest tooth. The file is held so that the side
of the file stands at right angles to the side of the saw. The file is held
in both hands with the thumbs and balls of the thumbs resting on the file
and the index fingers closed and under the file. The saw fits up between
the index fingers. By holding the saw in this way it is under the control
of the operator.
The second point in fitting a hand saw is setting the saw. This
should be done before filing it. All teeth must have an equal amount of
set to make all do the same amount of work. The set should not go be-
low half the length of the tooth. Soft and wet woods require more set
than dry or hard woods. Setting a saw consists of bending the teeth
outward, every alternate tooth to the same side. In cross cut saws the
teeth are bent away from the bevel side of the teeth.
The third operation in fitting a hand saw is that of filing the teeth.
Care should be taken when filing to keep the teeth of a uniform size and
shape. This is accomplished by bringing the pressure of the file to bear
on the large tooth and not on the small ones. In sharpening a cross cut
saw the point of the file should point toward the handle of the saw and
be held at an angle of about 45 degrees. The filer works against the front
or cutting edge of the teeth. Every alternate tooth is filed the whole
length of the saw, then the saw is reversed in the clamp and the alter-
nate teeth are filed. Only forward strokes of the file are used.
The angle or pitch at which the teeth of a cross cut saw are filed
depends on the use which is to be made of the saw. Fig. F in the draw-
ing shows the angle best adapted for general work. Hardwoods require
less pitch than softwoods.
The bevel of the teeth of a saw is determined by the use to be made
of the saw. Hardwoods require less bevel than softwoods. The bevel is
regulated by the position or angle at which the file is held across the saw.
For a general purpose crosscut saw the file is held at an angle of about
45 degrees. This will result in a bevel as shown in Fig. FJn the drawing.
Buck saws may be filed w^ith the file at 80 degrees to the side of the
blade. The angles of the teeth which are 56 and 62 degrees are illus-
trated in Fig. E in the drawing. These angles vary in different makes
As illustrated in Fig. G in the drawing the angles of the teeth of rip
saws are 90 and 60 degrees. In filing, the file is held straight across the
saw which makes a series of chisels of the saw points. The thrust of the
saw in ripping should be at an angle of about 45 degrees.
Saws are designated by the length of blade and the number of teeth
to the inch. Eip saws are to be had in 3, SYo, 4, 45^, 5 and 5^^ points
to the inch. For hardwoods, medium hardwoods, and for fine work the
5 or 51/^ point rip saw is to be preferred.
It may be noted that the saws shown in Figs. F and G in the drawing
are 5 point saws.
Cross cut saws are to be had in 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 points to
the inch. For general use a 7 or 8 point is to be preferred. For fine
work a 10, 11 or' 12 point gives better service.
LIST OF BUILDERS' HARDWARE EVERY BOY
rim door latch
screen door catches
bam door latch
screen door latch
Hasps and staples
Safety gate hooks
Bam door pulls
Bam door bolt
Bam door catch
Bam door track
Bam door rollers
Bam door stay rollers
Steel hay carrier track
Rafter bracket for hanging hay car
Hay carrier track hanging tool
Swivel rope hitch
Wood frame pulley
Cast frame plain pulley
Cast frame knot-passing pulley
Windows, common sizes of glass and
number of panes to window.
Cellar window set, i. e., one pair butts;
one hook and eye
Wrought barrel bolts
Round head blue wood screws
Flat head bright wood screws
Wagon box rivets
Oval head rivets
Spiral door spring with screen door
set hook and eye
loose pin butts
riveted pin butts
heavy T hinges
light T hinges
heavy strap hinges
light strap hinges
hook and eye* hinges
LUMBER MEASUREMENT TABLE
2 X 10
2 X 12
2 X 14
2 X 16
3 X 10
3 X 12
3 X 14
3 X 16
6 X 10
8 X 10
8 X 12
10 X 10
10 X 12
12 X 12
12 X 14
14 X 14
The rules for finding the number of board feet in a piece of lumber
is as follows: Multiply the thickness in inches by the width in inches
by the length in feet and divide by twelve.
Example : How many board feet in a piece of lumber 2 in. thick,
6 in. wide and 12 ft. long?
2 X 6 X >2f ,^, .
^ ^ = 12 ft. Ans.
All the numbers in the above table are derived in this way.
The table is a rapid way of figuring up bills of lumber and should
be used as soon as the above rule is understood.
NAILS AND SCREWS
Wire nails is an ordinary name applied to common nails, casing nails,
and brads, or finishing nails. They are made from steel wire. Common
nails have flat heads and are used where the heads are to be left flush
with the surface of the wood. Casing and finishing nails are used when
it is desirable to have them as inconspicuous as possible, as for inside
finish. They are sunk, or **set,** into the wood and the holes are later
filled with putty.
The size of a nail is specified by the term penny (d), prefixed by a
number ; as, 6d, lOd. This term had its origin in England, where it for-
merly represented the price per pound in terms of pence.
Number of Nails to the Pound
Number per pound
Size Length Common Finishing Casing
2d lin. 860 1,558 1,140
3d com. l%in. 594 884 675
4d 1 Mi in. 339 767 567
5d l%in. 230 491 396
6d 2 in. 205 359 260
7d * 2% in. 135 317 239
8d 2% in. 96 214 160
9d 2% in. 92 195 148
lOd 3 in. 63 134 108
12d 3^ in. 52 120 99
16d S^i in. 38 91 69
20d 4 in. 30 61 50
30d 4^^ in. 23 45
40d 5 in. 17 35
50d b^A in. 13
60d 6 in. 10
Quantity of Nails per M Feet of Lumber
Sheathing, per M, 8d com ; 20 lbs.
lOd com 25 lbs.
Flooring, per M, 8d com 30 lbs.
lOd com 35 lbs.
Studding, per M, lOd com 14 lbs.
20d com 10 lbs.
Furring, per M, lOd com 10 lbs.
Finish Flooring, per M, %" 8d fin 20 lbs.
P'inishing, %" per M, 8d fin 30 lbs.
Finishing, 1%" per M, lOd fin. 40 lbs.
Beveled siding, per M, 6d com 18 lbs.
Lath, per M, 3d com 6% lbs.
Shingles, per M, 4d com. 4 lbs.
Sizes of Nails for Given Purposes
Balusters 4d finishing
Baseboard 8d finishing
Braces 16d common
Bridging 8d common
Ceiling 6d casing
Drip cap 8d casing
Door frame 8d common
Drawers 6 and 4d casing
Doors 6d common
Fascia 8d casing
Framing lOd, 16d and 20d common
Frieze lOd casing
Finish floor 8d casing
Handrail 4d and 6d casing
Inside Casing 6d and 8d finishing
Inside mouldings 6d finishing
Lath 3d fine
Lap siding 6d casing and common
Newel post 8d casing
Outside moulding 8d and 6d casing
Outside casing 8d and lOd casing
Plancher 8d casing
Roof boards 8d common
Rafters lOd and 16d spikes
Ridge board 8d common
Rough flooring 8d common
Risers 8d common
Saddle board 8d and lOd common
Shingles 3d coarse galvanized
Sheathing 8d common
Stair stringers 16d common
Treads 8d casing
Wainscoting 6d common
Window frame '. 8d common
Water table 8d common
Other fastenings which are most extensively used in carpentry work
are dowels and flat and round-head screws. In timber framing, the joints
are usually fastened with dowels made of hardwood, preferably maple.
Flat-head bright screws are most commonly used. Hinges are usually
fastened with screws of this kind, as the head of the screw sets flush with
the surface. Round-head blued screws are used where it is not necessary
to have the heads flush with the surface, and when the screws become a
part of the decorative scheme.
TABLE OF BIT SIZES FOR WOOD SCREWS