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ORE than two years have passed since the printing of these Tables 
was begun. The completion of the Volume has been delayed by 
various causes, which it is not necessary to lay before the reader. The 
Appendix, which is described in the Introduction, will be proceeded in 
with as little delay as may be. The author cannot presume to fix the time 
at which it will be completed ; but, if health and leisure are permitted to 
him, he hopes that at no very distant period it may be published. 

The author is anxious to acknowledge his great obligations to the 
Delegates of the Oxford University Press for their kindness. They have 
liberally assented to the proposal for publishing this Volume. In its pro- 
gress through the Press they have aflfbrded him every facility ; and have 
permitted him to suspend or to resume the printing according to his 

It had occurred to the author to insert a list of the editions quoted in 

this work. But the design has for the present been laid aside. A complete 

a 2 


description would add to the bulk of a Volume already large enough ; and 
the greater part of the references are to well known editions which the 
reader will probably discover for himself. Of some works however the 
author was compelled to use such editions as he could procure, when those 
which he would have preferred were not within his reach. If on account 
of these it should seem desirable to give a catalogue, this can be done 
hereafter in the future volume.' 

Before the reader consults the Tables, he is requested to refer to the 
Additions and Corrections at the end of the Volume. 

Welivyn, Herts, Sept. 11, 1845. 

" It will be convenient, for instance, to the perantii — ex Musaeo Nic. Blancardi Lugd. Bat. 

reader to know that these works 1648 12° pp. 728. 

y f J n -i The Commentaries of Hieronymus are quoted 

VicLs EpiZe "^ ^"""""^ ^PP- ^2 ^«"- *''*"« Francofurti 1684. His 

Festi breviarium ^^''^^ ^'■'*°' ^^'' Allowing : R>mce apud P. Ma- 

Pmli Diac. Xl-XVIIIpost Eutropimn '^f !"^ 'f ^ ^ ^""- '-"• ^"^ Athanasius two 

T J J ■ ; editions have been used : Athanasius juxta ed. 

Jomanaes ae regnorvm sucoessionious •' 

Paristnam anno 1 626 2 Voll. folio Ooloniae 1 686. 

are all quoted from the following little volume : Athanasius ad ed. Montfaucm. 4 Voll. folio Pa- 

Historim BomancB epitomm—Flori—Paterculi— tavii 1777. The pages of the former are quoted ; 

Victoris—Festi—Messalw Gorvini—Eutropii— the text has been often corrected by the edition 

Paulli Diaconi — Cassiodori — Jomandis — Exsu- of Montfaucon. 


Introduction vii 

Tables 2 

Index to the Tables 844 

Additions and Corrections 854 

Digitized by tine Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 


A FORMER work exhibited the civil and literary Chronology of Greece from the 
earliest accounts to the death of Augustus. Tlie present, proceeding from the first 
year of Tiberius to the death of Justin II, is conducted on the same plan, and may be 
considered as a continuation of the same subject. In the former work, partly from the 
character of events and partly from the nature of the materials, a distribution was made 
into three periods; in the present, as no such division will be necessary, the entire 
space of 564 years is given in one unbroken series, and the Tables will offer a connected 
view of the Roman Emj)ire in its Greatness its Decline and Fall. 

Let it not be thought that in these Tables the page is too much occupied with trivial 
matters and minute particulars. Little incidents, uninteresting in themselves, will often 
guide us to the knowledge of important affairs ; and the inscription of a medal or the 
casual notice of an imperial journey may fix and verify events which concern the fate of 
empires and the happiness of millions. He who describes contemporary or recent affairs 
(as Thucydides or Tacitus) will have no need to search for such proofs as these. The 
historian is himself the witness, or has conversed with those who were the witnesses. 
But we, who collect the fragments of Antiquity after the lapse of so many ages, are 
constrained to use such evidence as we can find ; and, where all evidence is wanting, it 
will become us to declare our ignorance, rather than to imitate those who treat a con- 
jecture of what was possible as if it were a record of what really happened. On account 
of the many little circumstances which it was necessary to bring together, the appella- 
tion of Fasti has been adopted in this as in the former work, instead of the loftier title 
Annales. For Annales treat of the more public and memorable events", but Fasti com- 
prehend minor transactions and the acts of individuals. 

The consuls occupy the first column. They are verified by references to the authors 
by whom they are mentioned. The chief authorities for the consuls are the following ; 
which are described in this place because some of them are designated in the Tables by 
abbreviations which it will be proper and convenient here to explain. 

a Tacit. Ann. XIII. 31. 


Acta Concil. Some testimonies to the consuls are supplied by the Acts of Councils, 
which are quoted in this work from the following edition : Sacrosancta concilia 
ad regiam editionem exacta—curante Nicolao Coleti. fol. Venet. 1728 — 1732 &c. 
25 Voll. 

A. Fa^ti GrcBci ah A.D. 138 ad A.D. 362 ew codice Samliano. Given in Chron. 
Pasch. torn. II p. 174 ed. Bonn. These Fasti Greeci begin in this manner: 

'AKf^dvSpov AvyoicTTOv ififioKifioi plBfs. 

'Avrdvios Eva-f^rjs koI Kapfxfpivos [A. D. 138] ... v^a p^f' n ^' 

'AvrdpLos hevTepos koI Upea-tvTLOs uf /3' p^rf /x y 

' Avrdvws TpCros Koi AvpCWios Kai(rap v^y p^d' fxa' 8 

StXoyaj KOt Sei^pos v^b' po' fxa a 

The 1/ears from Alea^ander are the years of Philippus, which commence Nov. 12 
B.C. 324 ; of which the 46lst began Nov. 12 A.D. 137 and was current in Jan. 1 
A. D. 138 of those consuls. The years from Augustus are dated from the entrance 
into Alexandria Aug. 29 B. C. 30 ; which were computed at Alexandria from 
Jan. 1 B. C. 29. See F. H. Ill p. 230. The I67th year commenced Aug. 29 

A. D. 137 or Jan. 1 A. D. 138. The numbers in the fourth column shew the 
Bissextile years : thus A. D. 140 coss. Antonio III et Aurelio was bissextile. The 
TerpaertiplSei are the Olympic years ; and these are at their right dates : the bis- 
sextile years are at the 4th Olympic year, and the first year of each Olympiad 
falls within the right consulship. 

B. Fasti Grtsci alii ex apographo Vossiano. ab A. D.222 ad A.D. 630. Chron. 
Pasch. torn. II p. 181. The Fasti Vossiani give from A. D. 284 the era of Dio- 
cletian and the era of Philip. The era of Philip (which commenced Nov. 12 

B. C. 324) is always twelve years higher than the era of the Seleucidte. The 
numbers in Fasti Vossiani are right to Dioclet. o/ Philippi x'Ty' Indict, j p. 184. 
Then wrong till pi^ — ^ku — la. where the editor improperly observes male ; 
since the synchronisms become right at this point. They continue right to ptJ.' — 
\//-/x^' — ^' p. 185 : then the indiction is wrong again, being one year too high to 
po^' — -^oQ' — i. then the author writes o-X/S' — wKQ' — Indict, id instead of Indict. Q' 
and marks the indictions two years too high to the end. In the passage which 
is misplaced, A. D. 458 — 517, the indictions are also two years too high, begin- 
ning poy — •v/'tt' — Indict, j/3' instead of Indict, i . 

C. Fragmentvm Fastmmm ah A. D. 205 ad 354 ex Bucherio [p. 247]. Chron. Pasch. 
torn. II p. 190. This is precisely the same as the Fasti apud Noris. Some various 
readings of the names are marked in the Tables. Where there is no variation, 
C is not quoted. 


Cassiod. From A. D. 15 to A. D. 519. 

Chron.Pasch. From A.D.15 to A.D.628. The consuls in Chron.Pasch. and Cassiodorus 
are not fully described but only occasionally quoted in the Tables, because a full 
account of these is reserved for the second chapter of the Appendix where the 
entire lists of both will be exhibited, and Cassiodorus compared with the consuls 
in Prosper and Victorius. 

Cod. Justin. Quoted in the Tables for the periods before A. D. 312 and after 438; 
but only occasionally quoted for the years embraced by the Theodosian Code. 

Cod. Theod. From A. D. 312 to A. D. 438. Some consulships from this monument 
are given in the Tables; others in the Appendix. 

Dio Cass. A. D. 15 — 222. In Die's genuine lists of Consuls prefixed to the books 
of his history the father of the consul is named. Where this addition is absent, 
the list has been supplied by Leunclavius from Panvinius. See Tillemont tom. 3 
p. 217 Norisius 0pp. tom. 2 p. 858. 938, and a remarkable example at tom. 2 
p. 964. 965. 

Idat. DesQTiptio considum ex quo primum (yrdinati sunt, Fastorum Idatianorutn 
lemmate hadenus edita. In Chron. Pasch. tom. II p. 147 ed. Bonn, to A. D. 468. 
Collata Fastm-um Idatianmum parte apud Scalig. Euseb. p. 29 edita. In the Fasti 
Idatiani the era Hispanica is added. As this era began Jan. 1 B. C. 38, it may 
always be reduced to the years of Christ by deducting 38 ; as ei'a Hispan. 322 — 
38 = A. D. 284. Both commenced Jan. 1 Carino II et Numeriano II consulibus. 

Incert. Incerti Chronicon apud Onuphrium Panvinium in Appcndice ad Fastorum 
libros V, fol. Venetiis 1558. Incerti serif toris brevissimum chronicon a Joanne 
Cmpiniano inventum — Incertus Fastorum consularium auctor, quern J. Cuspinianus 
sua in Cassiodorum commetitario integrum inclusit. Panvin. p. 53. From A.D. 
455 to A. D. 526. The whole of this short Chronicle is inserted in the second 
column of the Tables. 

Marcellin. Maivellitii Chronicon A.D. 379 — 518 — 534 apud Scaligerum. Marcel- 
linus marks the Indictions ; and, as these are the measures of his other dates, he 
properly places them at the consulship in which they terminate. 

M. Marii Aventicensis episcopi Chronicon. apud Galland Bibl. Vett. Patrum tom. 
XII fol. Venetiis 1778 p. 313—315. From A. D. 456 to A. D. 580, 125 years ; 
which the author expands into 126 by the insertion of P. C. Basilii XX V and by 
bringing down the second year of Tiberius II to A. D. 581. 

Nor. Fasti consulares apud Norisium p. 3 — 37 ad annum U. C. Varr. 1107 A.D. 354. 

O. Laterculus fastorum consularium ab Ausonii et Olybrii consulatu ad XVII post 
consulatum Basilii. From A.D. 379 to A. D. 558. Chron. Pasch. torn. II p. 205. 



Pa. Paschalis centum annoruni ex Bucherin [p. 252]. Chron. Pasch. torn. II p. 202. 
Containing the consuls of A. D. 312 — 411, thirteen consulships being wanting. 

Pont. Catalogus pontificum Romanorum in quo fasti aliquot consiilares recensentur ej,' 
Bucherio [p. 269]. Chron. Pasch. torn. II p. 198. From A. D. 29 to A. D. 352. 
The liber pontificalis ascribed to Damasus but more probably composed by Ana- 
stasius, as Vossius remarks de Hist. Latin. 1. II c. 8, (quoted in the Tables from 
Acta Concil. torn. I. II) sometimes agrees with the Catalogue in the consulships. 
Sometimes one may be corrected by the other. 

Pr. Es temporibus Gallieni quis quantum temporis prcefecturam urhis administr merit 
A. D. 254 — 354 ea? Bucherio [p. 236]. Chron. Pasch. torn. II p. 194. 

Prosp. Prosper Aquitanus. Supplementum Chronici Eusebiani. Sc. A. D. 379 — 445 
apud Scaligerum. Ejusdem Chronicon integrum 4to Bassani 1782 0pp. p. 371 — 
406. Chronicon integrum, cum annotatione consulum a morte Christi. His entire 
Chronicle contains the consuls of 427 years A. D. 29 — 455 both inclusive. As 
Prosper and Cassiodorus in the lists of consuls have for the most part the same 
interpolations, the same errors, the same omissions, the same transpositions, (of 
which examples may be seen in the Tables at A. D. 231. 276. 307. 345,) we may 
conclude that Cassiodorus transcribed from Prosper. Sometimes however the 
error of the one may be corrected by the other ; as the consuls of the years 245 
and 255 are given in Cassiodorus but are wanting in Prosper ; while the consuls 
of A. D. 130, whom Cassiodorus omits, are retained by Prosper. The last 225 
years of the list of Prosper A. D. 231 — 455, where he is more correct, are given 
in the Tables. The preceding consuls A. D. 29 — 230, where the corruptions are 
more frequent, will be compared in the Appendix with the list of Cassiodorus. 

S. Laterculus alter consulum post chronicon Senatoris. Chron. Pasch. tom. II p. 209. 
Ad XVII post consulatum Basilii. From A. D. 520 to 558. 

V. Victor episcopus Tiinunensis ecclesiai Africce. Supplementum Chronici Prosperi. 
A. D. 444—565. 

Victor. Victorii Canon Paschalis. The consulships inserted by Victorius are thus 
described by Bucherius p. ll. /ra manuscripto codice unde hcec ea^scripsimns Canon 
octo solum constabat versibus. Primus erat consulum, vitiose ut plurimum, maaime 
ad A.D. 160, digestorum. Nam etsi adhuc ad annum 227 error perseveret, nonnisi 
unius tamen est anni quo Victorii consules veros antevertunt. hide ad A.D. 275 bene 
habent. Ab 276 ad 346 uno rursus anno prcecurrunt, quod eo anno 276 Tacitus et 
yEmilianus donsules omittantur. Ab 346 usque ad 457, qt(0 Constantinus et Rufm 
consules sunt, ultimi a Victoria notati rursum bene habmt. The truth is that Vic- 


toinus in his whole period interpolates a year. For he reckons 430 years from the 
consuls duo Gemini A. D. 29, the first year of his period, to the consuls Coiistan- 
tius et Rufm A. D. 457, who are at liis 430th year. But the true number is 
457 — 28 = 429 years. And this year is not interpolated in the beginning of his 
period, where the consulships are the most corrupt, but in the latter part, where 
they are more correct. For his 134th year is at Jiusticus and A(juilinu.s A. D. 162 ; 
and these are actually the 134th consuls inclusive from the Gemini. In the fol- 
lowing years he omits indeed Tacitus and /Emilianus A. D. 276, but these are 
compensated by Annianus and Maximtis, who are interpolated between Aleo'an- 
der II and Marcellus A. D. 226 and Albinus and Maximus A. D. 227. Leontitis 
and Sallustius A. D. 344 are at his 316th year; and 344 — 28 = 316; so that 
down to these consuls is no interpolated year. But between Leontius et Sallvjstiua 
A. D. 344 and Rufinus et Eusehius A. D. 347 he interpolates a year, and expands 
the two years into three. He both interpolates and transposes, in this manner. 


Leontius et Salluslim Leontio et SaUustio 

Amantius et Albinus Constantio I Vet Constante III 

Constantim IV et Constans III Constantio et Albino 

Rufinvs et Eusebim Amantio et AlUno 

Mufino et Eusdio 

The corruptions in the list of Victorius very much coincide with those of Prosper 
and are derived from the same origin. From Rufinus and Eusebius the consulships 
in Victorius are exact, as Bucherius remarks; and are referred to in the first 
column of the Tables. 

It will not be necessary to describe in this place Panvinius and Gruter. They are 
quoted largely in the Tables ; and the references are given on every occasion. 

For the second column, which is destined for the Civil and Military transactions, 
valuable testimonies have been derived from the Roman coins contained in the accurate'' 
work of Eckhel. Only those medals are quoted which Eckhel admits to be of undoubted 
authority. As only a brief account of these, sufficient for chronological use, could be 
inserted, the descriptions of the forms impressed upon the medals, except in some few- 
instances, are necessarily omitted. The inscriptions are given as they stand in Eckhel, 
but in small letters instead of capitals ; and the two parts of the coin are connected by 

^ Accurate, notwithstanding some typographical errors which in the description of a coin are very per- 
plexing ; as in torn. VI p. 3/3 cos. Ill for cos. VI. p. 380 Imp. IIII for Imp. Villi, with some others cf 
the same kind. 



a sign. The following coin of Trajan'^ will be an example. The full description is this : 
Pars antica vel pars adversa IMP. TRAIANO AVG. GER. DAC. P.M.TR.P. Caput 
laureatum. Pars aversa AET. AVG. COS. V.P.P.S.P.Q.R. OPTIMO PRINCIPI. 
mulier stans d. caput Soils s. Lunae. But it will be represented in the Tables in this 
manner: Imp. Trajano Aug. Ger. Dae. p.m. tr.p.+at. Aug. cos. V p.p. S. P. Q. R. Op- 
timo principi. It will be farther observed that many coins are sometimes classed under 
one number, when the description on the obverse of all is the same; as in these examples 
at A. D. 68. 4. N" 2 Galba i7nperator + bon. event, or Gallia. Hispania. or libertas resti- 
tuta. ^'> 4s Imp. Galba -^^ diva Augusta. o\- Hispania. Under N° 2 the inscriptions of 
three medals are given, and under N" 4 the inscriptions of two. 

Where the assistance of the medals begins to fail us, the Theodosian Code supplies 
materials. It will be easily understood that the Theodosian Code is quoted in this work 
not with a view to jurisprudence, but for historical and chronological purposes. It 
records the day and the month and the consuls, with the place from whence the 
emperor issued his edict, and the name and office of the person to whom it was ad- 
dressed ; and affords most valuable assistance. In the feeble reigns of Arcadius and 
Honorius and their successors we learn from the Code the real masters of the State, 
the men who filled the Great Offices of Government. But unfortunately from many 
causes, from the similarity of names, sometimes from the identity (when the same per- 
sons were consuls in different years), and from the easy alteration of numbers, the Code 
has undergone corruptions ; as Tillemont Eckhel and others who have used this monu- 
ment have found. It is used therefore with caution. Only those inscriptions of laws 
are inserted, which appear without suspicion ; those which are of doubtful authority are 
either reserved for the Appendix or omitted altogether. We cannot always rely upon 
the subscriptions in the Theodosian Code when they are not supported by other testi- 
mony. When they corroborate the evidence of historians, their uses are important ; 
thus coming in aid as independent witnesses, they establish the certainty of the fact. 
The Code and the History confirm each other. 

The Theodosian Code begins with Constantine and ends at the year 438. The Code 
of Justinian extends over a larger space. It ascends to the reign of Hadrian and pro- 
ceeds through the intermediate emperors'* to Constantine inclusive ; then embracing the 
whole period of the Theodosian Code it descends beyond that Code ninety-six years to 
A. D. 534. In the early period but few notices of laws appear. One in the reign of 

c Eckhel torn. VI p. 423. 

d Omitting only the short reigns of Didius Macrinus Pupienus the elder Gordians Balbinus Tacitus Flo- 


Hadrian without a date^ ; nine laws in the space between Hadrian and Severm^. From 
Severus A. D. 193 the laws preserved are numerous. Tlie dates are not always added : 
most of the laws of Diocletian are without the year. But yet in this interval from 
Severus to Cofistantine the subscriptions of laws supply some valuable information. 
Within the period of the Theodosian Code the diligence of Godefroy has collected 
from the Code of Justinian about 320 laws that are not found in the former Code*. 
For the rest, the Code of Justinian is less full than its predecessor : some laws are 
omitted, others are abridged. In the last period of 96 years it contains useful evidence. 
In addition to the two Codes the Novellce supply testimonies which are inserted at the 
proper years. 

The empire of Rome properly so called ends at A. D. 476. But the Tables are con- 
tinued to A. D. 578, 102 years later than that date, because in those 102 years many 
interesting and important facts are offered to our notice in the civil and military affairs, 
and in the literary history both sacred and profane. The literature does not afford 
materials sufficiently ample or important to require that it should be set forth in suc- 
cessive years beyond the limits here assigned. But, between forty and fifty years after 
the period at which this volume terminates, a remarkable scene is opened to our view. 
The appearance of Mahomet forms a new era in the history of the Eastern Empire 
and the Eastern World ; and the annals of the Greek empire would be left imperfect 
if they stopped short of that memorable epoch. It is intended to carry the survey of 
events to the rise of the Mahometan Power in two chapters of the Appendix containing 
an account of the Roman emperors and the Persian kings. The latter will exhibit the 
house of Sasan to its extinction by the Saracen conquest ; the former will illustrate 
and explain the second column, supplying many things that are necessarily omitted or 
too briefly examined in the Tables, and will be extended to the death of Heraclius, in 
whose reign Syria and Egypt were lost to the Saracens. 

It is the object of this work to collect the original testimonies, to make each author 
speak for himself and deliver his own evidence in his own language. In executing this 
task I have been constrained to occupy in some parts of the subject a considerable 
space. When the epitomators and chronographers are our chief authorities, a large 
space is sometimes required. None of these writers is so exact as to be wholly free 
from error ; and yet few passages are so deficient as not to contain some valuable relic, 

« Cod. Justin. VI. 23, I Imp. Hadrianits A. Catonio Vera. 
' The years are marked in the Tables. 

8 Some of these however have been now discovered in the first five books of the Theodosian Code, which 
have been given from Cod. Taurin. iind Cod. Ambros. by Wenck. 8vo. Lips. 1825. 


some particle of truth. It was necessary then, wliere the passages were not too long, 
to give the whole of what each author has said, that they may be compared and ex- 
amined, and that it may be seen at a glance wherein they confirm one another and 
wherein they differ. Some of these transcribe from their predecessors ; as Cassiodorus 
from Hieronymus and from Prosper, Paulus Diaconus from the epitome of Victor, from 
Orosius, from Prosper, Isidorus from Idatius. But even here it was sometimes requisite 
to insert both passages, because he who transcribes from a preceding author may be a 
better evidence of the original reading than any extant manuscript. It will be farther 
observed that in the decline of the empire the succession of events is rapid, the revolu- 
tions are various and complicated, and a mere recital of the facts necessarily requires a 
long narrative. From these causes the Tables have extended to eight hundred and 
forty-three pages. The Appendix will require another Volume. And yet for the in- 
terval between the death oi Augustus and the death oi Justin II the bulk of this work 
will not be thought unreasonable, when it is remembered that Baronius has described 
590 years in seven folios and five thousand three hundred pages, and that Tillemont 
has employed six ample quartos upon his History of the Roman Emperors to the death 
of Anastasius. 

The third and fourth columns are allotted to the Literary Chronology. For the first 
129 years the Greek authors are in the third column and the Latin in the fourth. But 
from this period a new arrangement is required. The Christian writers increase in 
number, and the Sacred and Ecclesiastical Literature occupies so large a space as to 
demand a department for itself. From that period then the secular writers both Greek 
and Roman are in one column and the ecclesiastical in the other. 

The distribution of ecclesiastical authors into centuries is rejected in this work. That 
arrangement, although adopted by the Centuriators, and after them by Mosheim and 
others, is recommended by no advantage. The beginning and the end of each century, 
computed from the vulgar era, are not especially marked as epochs at which gTeat 
changes occurred either for good or evil. Such a distribution is insufiicient and in- 
complete ; for it may not fix an author's time within 50 years ; and why should we be 
satisfied with an imperfect account when a more exact description may be had ? It is 
sometimes inaccurate ; for an author may belong to two centuries. Hieronymus wrote 
and taught for 30 years of the fourth century ; but he also composed many valuable 
works during 20 years of the fifth. It is sometimes delusive, and conceals the value of 
testimony. Thus Quadratus is called a writer of the second century. But this conveys 
an inadequate idea of the evidence of Quadratus, who was a disciple of the Apostles, 
and who wrote only 60 years after the deaths of St. Peter and St. Paul and little more 


than twenty after the death of St. John^. The method adopted by Hier(mymm himself, 
by Eusebius Gennadius and others, of marking an author's time by naming the reigning 
emperor, is far more judicious. In the present work then no mention is made of cen- 
turies, but each author is placed as nearly as may be at the year in which he flourished. 

The General Councils are important parts of the public history, and will be found in 
the Tables at the proper years. But it did not come within the scope and object of this 
Chronology, nor was it possible within the intended limjts, to introduce all the synods 
of which memorials remain. If any esi>ecial reason offered for describing some parti- 
cular councils, if they supplied a date which verified other transactions, if they illus- 
trated the lives or influenced the fortunes of eminent men recorded here, these have 
been inserted. The rest must be sought in other works. 

As the third column contains not only the profane authors but secular works in 
general, the works of some are placed there who might have a claim to be inserted in 
the fourth column. Thus Jornandes, though a bishop, has left two histOTical works, 
which are therefore recorded in the third column. Sidonius Apollinaris is numbered 
by Gennadius among ecclesiastical writers, and will accordingly be described in the list 
of ecclesiastical authors in this work. But, as his panegyrical poems are wholly of a 
secular character, they are introduced among the secular writers in the Tables. C. Mn- 
rius Victoritius is in the catalogue of ecclesiastical writers in Hieronymus, and will be 
found among them in the present work. But he appears in the Tables as a rhetorician, 
and is therefore named in the third column. Some writers of a mixed character have 
an equal claim to be admitted into either department ; as the Chronica of Eusebius 
Prosper Idatius Victor Tununensis and some others. In arranging these I have exer- 
cised my discretion, and have done in each case what appeared upon the whole to be 
the most convenient. 

Sometimes, in order to bring into a smaller compass what was necessary to be told, 
facts or testimonies have been placed in the third or fourth columns which belonged to 
the second. But this has never been done except when the expediency of doing it was 
manifest ; and in no case will it create to the reader any difficulty'. Medals inscriptions 
and imperial edicts are sometimes recorded in the third or fourth colunms for the same 
reason ; coins and inscriptions before A. D. 144 in the fourth column, and in the third 
after that date. The quotations from the Codes of Theodosims and Justinian have a 
just title for insertion in the literary department whenever it is convenient to place 

•> For Quadratus see the Tables A. D. 1 25. 2. 

' The chief cases are at A.D. 2!l, 31, 44, where the reason is obvious; namely, to avoid extending the 
Tables to an unnecessary leugth in those years. 


them there ; those which treat of secular matters in the third column, and those which 
belonsf to ecclesiastical affairs in the fourth. 

The large space which the column of Events has occupied has also left large spaces 
for the literary departments, and these have received some particulars which must 
otherwise have found a place in the Appendix. But as it is the office of this volume 
to record facts, to collect arrange and compare evidence, and as the compass allotted to 
the Tables will not allow of dissertations, the reader will generally find nothing more 
than the historical facts here, while the observations which arise upon those facts must 
be given hereafter. Two chapters of the Appendix will form a supplement to the 
literary department of this volume ; one will exhibit the Greek writers, in the other it 
is proposed to describe the ecclesiastical authors both Greek and Roman in one un- 
broken series. 

The bishops of the five great Churches, Rome Alexandria Jerusalem Antioch and 
Constantinople, are frequently mentioned in the Tables. All could not be inserted; 
for sometimes the want of space and the pressure of other subjects excjuded them, 
sometimes the uncertainty of the testimonies required a long examination. The rest 
are therefore reserved for the Appendix, which will contain the series of those who 
lived within the time embraced by this work. 


A,D. 15—578. 







1 Consuls 

U. C. Varr. 768. D,-mug 
Gu'sar G. Norhanm Flac- 
c»sDio57. 14 Tacit. Ann. 
1. 51 Sueton. Vitell. c. 3 
Cassiod. Fasti Verriani in 

Drmo Ccesare et Flacco 
Nor. Bruto et Flacco Idat. 
For the errors of Chron. 
Pasch. see F H. Ill p. 
VIII. IX. for the Hst of 
consuls in Cassiodorus see 
Appendix c. 2. 

769. T. Statilius Sisenna 
Taurus L. Scrihonius Libo 
Dio 57. 15 Tacit. Ann. 
II. 1 Cassiod. Nor. Idat. 

01.199 U.C. Varr. 770. 
G. Gacilius Bu/us L Pom- 
ponim Flacctis Dio 57-17 
Tacit. Ann. II. 41 Cas- 
siod. Flacco et Bufq Nor. 
Grasso et Bufo Idat. 
YkpiicrtTov KaCVov(j)ovG\\ron . 
Pasch.see F.H.I II. p.IX. 

2 Events 

The death of Augustus Aug. 19 A. D. 14 (F.H. III. p. 276) was in the 
fifth month before these tables commence j which begin Kal. Jan. A. D. 15 
and contain the last 7"' lO* of the first year of Tibkrius. His succession and 
first transactions in A. D. 14 are described in Tacit. Ann. 1. 6 — 54 Dio 57. 
1 — 13. According to Dio 57. 2 he was 56 years old at his succession: If naX 
TiivrriKovTa hi) iyiyovei.. But he did not enter his 56th year till Nov. 19 
A.D. 14. Conf. a. 37 Reimar. ad Dion. 1. c. 

The Pannonian and German revolts (in the autumn of A.D. 14) are de- 
scribed by Tacitus Ann. I. 16. Pannonicas legiones seditio incessit. c. 31. iis- 
dem ferme diehus iisdem causis Germaniccp legiones turbatic quanta plures 
tanto violentius. And by Dio 57. 4. idopvfiricTav iiev yap koX 01 tv rfi Tlavvovia 
(TTpaTL&Tai eiT€ibr] rdxiTTa tjjs roC Avyovarov fji,iTa\\ayijs riadoi>TO. c. 5. 01 hi iv 
TTj Tipp.avia KoL tioWoI ha tov ■noktp.ov rjdpoL(Tfj.ivoi, Ka\ tov Tipp.aviKov koX Kat- 
crapa koI. itoXv tov Ti^epCov KpuTTui op&VTes ovra, ovbev (p.iTpia^ov. And by 
Suetonius Tiber, c. 25. duplex seditio militum in Illyrico et in Germania exorta 
est. The Pannonian revolt was suppressed by Drusus, the German by Ger- 
manicus : Tacit. Ann. I. 52. 

Germanicus in the spring of A. D. 15 (initio verts Tacit. I. 54) carries on 
war against Arminius : Tacit. Ann. I. 52. 

Tiberius pontifex ma.virm(s : Fasti Verriani in Martio : VI [Id. Mart.] feriw 
ex S. C . q . . . Ti. Cnsar pontifex max. fac. est Drnso et Norbano . . . Lapis 
apud Gruterum : VI Idus Martias qua die Tiberius Ccvsar iwntifex maximiis 
felicissime est creatus. See Fast. Verrian. p. 28. A coin of this year is given by 
Eckhel tom. VI p. I87. Ti. Ceesar divi Aug./. Augustus + Imp. VII tr. pot. 
X VII. His tribunician years were dated from June 27 (F. H. Ill p. 266), 
and his 14th tribunician year was current Jan 1 A.D. 13 (Ibid. p. 274) ; 
wherefore his 16th was current Kal. Jan. and his 17th commenced June 27 
A.D. 15. This coin was therefore issued between June 27 A.D. 15 and 
June 26 A.D. 16, when Tiberius was already pontifex tnaximus, although 
this title does not appear upon the coin. On another coin p. 188 the title is 
marked: Ti. GcBsar divi Aug. f. August, imp. VII +pontif. maxim, tribun. 
potest. XVII. S.G. 

Birth of Vitellius : Sueton. Vitell. c. 3. Nattis est VIII Kal. Oct. vet, nt 
quidam, VIII Idus Sept. Druso Casare Norbano Flacco coss. 

Tiberii 3 from XIV Kal. Sept. trib. pot. 18 from V Kal. Jul. 

Germanicusm Germany tertiumj'am annum [A.D. 14 — 16] Tacit. Ann. II. 5. 
The campaign is described II. 5 — 26. He is recalled by Tiberius: Ibid. 26. 

Death of Scribonius Libo (Dio 57. 15) Id. Sept. Tacit. II. 27 — 32. followed 
by decrees de mathematicis magisque Italia pellendis , Tacit, Ann. 11.32 Dio 
57. 15 Cassiod. his coss. 

A pretended Agrippa : Tacit. Ann. II. 39 Dio 57. 16 Sueton. Tib. c. 25. 
Agrippa had been put to death by Tiberius in A. D. 14 : primum facuvus novi 
principatus Tacit. Ann. I. 6 Dio 57. 3 Sueton. Tib. c. 22. 

Rise of Sejanus : conf. a. 3 1 . 

Tiberii 4 fi-om XIV Kal. Sept. trib. pot. 19 from V Kal. Jul. 

Triumph of Germanicus : Tacit. Ann. II. 41. C. Ccecilio L. Pomponio con- 
sulibus Germanicus CcBsar a. d. VII Kal. Jan. triumphavit de Cheruscis Chat- 
tisque et Angrivariis, quceque alice nationes usque ad Albim colunt. Germani- 
cm is sent into the East: lb. II. 43. Nee multo post Drusus in Illyricum 
missus est c. 44. 

A coin of Germanicus apud Eckhel. tom. VI p. 209. Germanicus Ca;sar+ 
signis recept. deeictis Germ. S. G. 

R O M A N T 

3 Greek Authohs 

4) Latin Authohs 

(Apollonius of Tyana was a youth between 16 and 
20 at the time of the death of Archelatis : Philostrat. 
V. A. I. 7- ytyovoTa avrov trrj ib' 5y«t is Topo-ovs 6 
TTOTTjp Trap EvOvhr^fiov rbv (k ftoir^itrjs" <5 6' EvOvhrjfWi 
pr)T<i)p re ayaQos rjV Koi fvalbfve tovtov. — iTpof\0<i)V 8f is 
(Tos iKTov Koi b^KaTov S)pft.r\(Tiv €171 Tov ToC YlvOayopov 
^iov. Mier this Archetaus is mentioned: I. 12. air«'- 
KTiwav TOV i^piarriv iKflvov as $vv ''Ap)(f\6.<ji r<p KawTTo- 

B 2 



1 Consuls 

2 Events 

Earthquake in Asia: Tacit. An. 11. 47. Eodem anno duodecim celehres 
Asia urbes collapsee tioctumo motu terrce. Seneca N. Q. VI. 1. Asia duode- 
cim, urbes simul perdidit. Plin. H. N. II. 8-1. Maximus terrce memoria morta- 
lium exstitit motus Tiberii Casaris principatu, XII urbibus Asice una node 
prostratis. Placed at the right date by Euseb. Chron. Ed. M. anno 20li2 
[commencing Oct. A. D. 1 6] Tiberii 3° ferrcp motu X.III urbes corruerunt 
Ephesus Magnesia Sardes Mosthene ^gte Hieroccesarea Philadelphia Tmolus 
Temnus Myrrhine Apollonia Dia [1. Apollonidia] Hyrcania. Only twelve 
towns are in Eusebius. Syncellus p. 3 1 9 B adds Cyme. Tacitus 1. c. names 
all these towns except Ephesus. Strabo XII p. 579 XIII p. fi21 who men- 
tions this earthquake — oi re&xJTi yf.vo\i,ivoi a-fLo-fiOL — names Magnesia rj virb 
2t7roA.(o and Sardis. 

War in Africa against Tac/arinas : Tacit. Ann. II. 52. Eodem anno cceptum 
in Africa bellum, duce hostium Tacfarinate. 

Euseb. Chron. lib. I. p. 159 Armen. Crameri Anecd. Paris, p. 1 5 1 . Olymp. 1 99 : 
&,T!ih60r] T&v anrav 6 bpofjioi irdKai. KoaKvOfi^' Koi iviKa Ti^fpCov KaCcrapoi Tedpnnroif. 


771. Tib. Gasar Augus- 
'us III Germanicus Gce- 
sar II Index Dionis lib. 
57 Tacit. Ann. II. 53 

Tiberiano Cwsare II et 
Druso Germanico II Idvit. 
Tib. Ccesar et Germanicus 
Casar Cassiod. 

Tiberii 5 from XIV Kal. Sept. trib. pot. 20 from V Kal. Jul. 

Germanicus in January is in Greece : Tacit. Ann. II. 53. Sequmis annus 
Tiberium tertio Germanicum iterum cotisules habuit ; sed cum honorem Ger- 
manicus iniit apud urbem Achaice Nicopolim, quo venerat per Ulyricam oram, 
viso fratre Druso in Delmatia agente. 

Coins apud Eckhel. tom. VI p. 189. Ti. dim f. Augustus -k ir. pot. XX. 
p. 190. Ti. Ccesar divi Aug. f. Augustus Imp. VII+po7itif. maxim, tribun. 
potest. XX. 


772. M. Junius Silanus 
L. Norbanus Balbus Dio 
57.18 Tacit. Ann. II. 59 
Cassiod. Nor. Idat. 

Norbanus is named A. 
Nctf/j/Saros "tXaxKoj rj BdK- 
^os in Indice Dionis lib. 

Tiberii 6 from XIV Kal Sept. trib. pot. 21 from V Kal. Jul. 

Germanicus visits Egypt: Tacit. Ann. II. 59. M. Silano L. Norbano consu- 
libus Germanicus ^gyptum proficiscitur cognoscendce antiqidtatis ; sed cura 
promncice prcetendebatur. His return to Syria and his death are described 
Tacit. Ann. II. 69 — 73. He died VII Id. Oct. Vetus Calendarium ad cal- 
cem Fast. Verrian. p. 114. VII Id. Infer. Germanic, hence in the voyage of 
Agrippina Tacitus II. 79 mentions hiberna : and III. 1 navigatione hiberni 
maris, and the mourning at Rome is in December : Sueton. Calig. c. (>. dura- 
vit etiam per festos Decembris mensis dies. He died in his 34th year : Sueton. 
Ibid. c. 1. Comul iterum creatus ac priusquam honorem iniret [conf. a. 18] ad 
componendum Orientis statum expulsus, cum Arme?ii(C regem devicisset Cappa- 
dociam in provincice formam redegisset [conf Tacit. Ann. II. 5()], annum 
(Btatis agens quartum et trigesimum [haud multum triginta annos cgressum 
Tacit. Ann. II. 73] diutitio morbo Antiochiw obiit [sepulchrum Antiochia-, ubi 
crematus, tribunal Epidaphncp, quo in loco vitam finierat Tacit, c. 83] non sine 
veneni suspicione. On his death see Dio 57. 18 Sueton. Tib. c. 52 Calig. 
c. 2. 3. 

Drusus in Germany : Tacit. Ann. II. 62 — fi4. Dum ea eestas Germanico plures 
per provincias transigitur [A. D. 19], haud leve deciis Drusus qucasivit illiciens 
Germanos ad discordias, utque fracto jam 3Iaroboduo usque in exitium insistere- 
tur. — et Maroboduus quidem Ravennw habitus — Sed non excessit Italia per duo- 
deviginti annos. — Simul nuntiato regem Artaxian Armeniis a Germanico datum, 
decrevere patres ut Germanicus atque Drusus ovantes urbem mtroirent. Although 
Artaxias was appointed in A.D. 18 [Tacit. Ann. II. 56], yet as these acts of 
Drusus are related after the progress of Germanicus to Egypt, which was in A.D. 
1 9, the campaign of Drusus belongs to that year. The surrender of Maroboduus 
and the decree of the ovation may be referred to the close of summer A.D. 19. 

R O M A N I 

3 Grekk Authors 

4 Latin Authors 

SoK^as ^acrtAei vfdrfpa M 'PoifiaCovi Tipdrrovra. And 
then tlio 20th year of Apolloniug : I. 13. iittl 8f t(0- 
vfS>Ta TOP TiaTtpa 'jKovcnv, ihpay.iv is to, Tvava — rifv bi 
omiav Kapi-npav ovcrav bU\a\e Ttpos tov &b(\<l)6i> inoKa- 
error re koi (piKoTroTrjv ovra. koX rif fiiu Tplrov koX «i/co- 
(TTov ?iv hoi — 6 8' av ilKocriv iycyovd. Arckelaus was 
called to Rome in A.D. 15, and died in A.D. IJ: 
F. H. Ill p. 438.) 


Strabo still writes, now in advanced age : see F. H. 
Ill A.D. 11, '^. He mentioned in libb. XII. XIII 
the eai-thqiiako which happened in .\. 1). 17 : conf. a. 
17. -'. 

( Valerius Maximus accompanied /Sw. PomfMitw to 
Asia: Val. Max. II. fi, S. Asiam cum Sex. Pompeio 
petens. Pompeius was consul A.D. 14 (F. H. III. 
14, 1), the friend of Ovid (F. H. III. 14, 4) : In A.D. 

20 he was at Rome: Tacit. Ann. III. 1 1 and in A.D. 

21 attacked Lepidus in the senate: Ibid. III. 32.) 
Death of Ovid&t 60 and of Livij at 76 : conf. F. H. 

Ill A.D. 14,4. 

L. Seneca marks his youth at this period : Epist. 
108, 22. In Tiberii Cwsaris principatum juventa tern- 
pus inciderat : alienigena turn sacra movebantur (see 
col. 2) ; sed inter argumenta superstitionis ponebatur quo- 
rundam animalium abstinentia. Patre itaqm meo ro- 
gante, ad pristinam consuetudinem redii. Nee difficid- 
ter mihi tU inciperem melius ccenare persuasit. He 
refers to the same subject Ep. 78. ad suminam maciem 
deductus scepe impetum cepi abrumpendce vita: patrit 
me indulgentissimi senectus retinuit. Seneca remembered 
the death oi Augustus: conf. a. 63. And Atinius Pol- 
lio: De tranquillit. c. 1.5. Qualein Pdlionem Annium, 
oratorem magnum, meminimus. But PoUio died accord- 
ing to Hieronymus a»?w 2020= A.D. ^ or 14 years 
before this period. Seiieca therefore must have been 
born as early as B. C. 7> where we have placed him 
F. H. Ill p. 257. This would suppose him 11 years 
of age at the death of Pollio and 25 in the present 
year. Ruhkopf is not quite consistent with himself 
upon the age of Seneca,- whom he makes in Vol. I 
p. 200, 201 in his 30th year in U. C. 785 and therefore 
born in U. C. 755. But at Vol. Ill p. 320 Seneca is 
20 — annum agebat circiter vicesimum — in U. C. 772: 
which places his birth in U. C. 752 or 753. But these 
dates, B. C. 1 or A. D. 2, are not compatible with the 
recollection of Pollio. 

M. Seneca the father is now about 80 years of age : 



1 Consuls 


The Jews banished from Italy: Tacit. Ann. II. 85. Eodem anno [sc. Silor 
no et Norhano coss!\ aetmn de sacris ^gi/ptiis Judaicisque pellendis ; factumqm 
patrum consultum ut quatuor millia lihertini generis ea superstitione infecta — in 
instdam Sardiniam vehsrentur coercendis illic latrociniis — ceteri, cederent Italia, 
nisi certain ante diem profanos ritus exuissent. 



773. M. Valerius Messala 
M. Aurelius Gotta Index 
Dionislib. .57 Tacit. Ann. 
III. 2 Cassiod. Nor. Mes- 
sala et Grato Idat. 

01. 200 U. C. Varr. 774 

Tib. Ccesar Augustus IV 
Julius Drusus Ccesar II 
Dio 57. 20 Tacit. Ann. 
III. 31 Nor. Tih. Gmsar 
et Drusus Gasar Cassiod. 
Tiberiano Cwsare III et 
Druso Germanico III 

Tiberii 7 from XIV Kal. Sept. trib. pot. 22 from V Kal. Jul. 

Agrippina reaches Rome in the beginning of the year: Tacit. Ann. III. 
1 . 2. Drusus after the Megalesia (ludorum Megalesium spectacwlum suherat Tacit. 
Ann. III. 6) returns to Illyricum: Tacit. III. 7- Turn exuto justitio reditum 
ad munia, et Drusus Illyricos ad exercitus profectus est, erectis omnium animis 
spepetendcE e Pisone ultionis. Trial of Piso : Tacit. III. 11, 12. His death: 
III. l.S Dio 57- 18. During the trial Drusus rediens Illyrico, quanquam patres 
censuissent ob receptum Maroboduum et res prior e cestate gestas [A. D. 19] ut 
ovans iniref, prolato honore urbem intravit Tacit. III. 11. The ovation was 
decreed in the life time of Germanicus : conf. a. 19. 

Coins in Eckhel torn. VI p. 190. 1 Ti. dim f. Augustus + tr. pot. XXII. 
2 Ti. Gasar divi Augustif. Augustus + pont. maxim, cos. Ill Imp. VII tr. pot. 
XXII. From this last coin Eckhel collects that Tiberius was still Imp. VII on 
the VKal. Jul. A. D. 20. But from an inscription apud Gruter. which Eckhel 
quotes p. 192 trib. potest. XXII cos. Ill Imp. VIII he also collects that Imp. 
VIII was assumed before Kal. Jan. A. D. 21 when Tiberius became cos. IV. 

Eodem anno [A. D. 20] Tacfarinaa belhm in Africa renovat Tacit. Ann. 
III. 20. 

Tiberii 8 from XIV Kal. Sept. trib. pot. 23 from V Kal. Jul. 

Tacit. Ann. III. 31. Tiberii quartus Drusi secundum consulatm, patris etfilii 

collegio insignis. Ejus anni principio Tiberius, quasi firmandat valetudini, in 

Gampaniam concessit, longam et continuam absentiam paulatim meditans. 

Junius BIksus is sent into Africa against Tacfarinas: Tacit. Ann. III. 

32 — 35. Commotions in Gaul : Tacit. III. 40. Eodem anno Galliarum civi- 

tates ob magnitudinem aris alieni rebellionem cmptavere, cujus exstimulator acer- 
rimus inter Treviros Julius Florws apud uEduos Julius Sacrovir. Suppressed : 
lb. c. 41 — 47. 

C. Lutorius Priscm is condemned: Dio 57. 20. aXXcos re fieya (ttl wot^cret 
(j)povS>i> Kul €7717(1(^101' fTTi TcS TfpnaviK^ eTn<f)avri uvyypA^a^, — airCav ^(T\fv as koI 
em. ru Apov(T(o TToCrjua irapa ttjv vocrov avTov avvTfOfiKds' Kal fKpidr\ hia tovto (v 
rfi j3ov\fi Kol KaTebiKaaOr] (cat wniOaviv. 6 ovv Ti^ipios — b6yp.a Tt TrapaboOfjvai 
(KfXfvcTf ixjjT cLTtodinjo-KfLv fVTos Sf'/ca rjp,ipS)v Tov KaTa\jir](f>i,(rd(UTa vtt avrSiv. Re- 
lated at large by Tacitus Ann. III. 49 — 51. Condemned _/?Me anni Ibid. The 
term of 10 days was enlarged by Theodosius into 30 days : conf. Lips, ad 
Tacit. 1. c. 

A coin apud Eckhel. tom. VI p. 190. parte aversa Pont, maxim, cos. IIII 
VIII tr. pot. XXIII. 


775. Dec. Haterius A- 
grippa C. Sulpicius Galba 
Index Dionis lib. 57 Ta- 
cit. Ann. III. 52 Cas- 
siod. Idat. Agrippa et 
Gallo Nor. 

Tiberii 9 from XIV Kal. Sept. trib. pot. 24 from VKal. Jul. 

Tacit. Ann. III. 52. Inturbidus externis rebus annus domi suspecta severitate 
adversum luxum, qui immensum proruperat ad cuncta quis pecunia prodigitur. 

The tribunician power is granted to Drusus : Tacit. Ann. III. 56'. Tiberius 
— mittit literas ad senatum quis potestatem tribuniciam Druso petebat. id summi 
fastigii vocabulum Augustus repperit, tie regis aut dictaioris nomen assumeret, ac 
tamen appellatione aliqua cetera imperia pramineret. M. deinde Agrippam 

R O M A N I 

3 Greek Authors 

4 Latin Authors 

see F.H.I II p. 2.'>7. He is supposed by Lipmus 
Electoniin 1. 1 to have lived ad Claua'ti cireiter prhicipa- 
iurn, and by Riihkopf Senec. toni. Ill p. 21 itsaiic ad 
Califfulrr iempora. Hut the one account would make him 
near 1 00 and the other more than 1 00 years of age at 
his death. He more probably died within thn reign 
of Tiberim. 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

socium ejus potestatis [conf. F. H. Ill p. 242] ; quo defuncto Tiherium Neronem 

delegit [Ibid. p. 254] tie successor in incerto ford. quo tunc exemplo Tiberius 

Drusum summce rei admovet esse illi conjugem et tres liheros, eamque atatem 

qua ipse quondam a divo Av^usto ad capessendum hoc munus vocatus sit. neque 
nunc propere, sed per octo annos capto experimento — triumphalem et bis consulem 
noti laboris participem sumi. Tiberius in B. C. fi was in his 36th year ; which 
would place the birth of Drusus at about B. C. 14. The eight years are com- 
puted from the death 0^ Augustus. Tacitus Ann. III. "JG marks this year as 
the 64th from the battle of Philippi — from B. C. 4 1 to A. D. 22. 

The African war continues : Tacit. Ann. III. 74. 

Coins apud Eckhel. tom. VI p. 192 — 194. 1 Ti. Cccsar divi Aug. f. August. 
imp. Vlll+pontif. maxim, tribun. potest. XXIIII. 2 Ti. Ccesar divi Aug. f. 
August, p. m. tr. pot. XXIIII + civitatibus Asife restitutis. conf. a. 17- 3 Ti. 
Ceesar divi Aug. f. August, p. m. tr. pot. XXI II I +divus Augustus pater, conf. 
Tacit. Ann. III. 64. Fasti Verriani in Aprih p. 108 (quoted by Eckhel 
p. 194) : VIII Kal. Mai. Sig. divo Augusto patri ad theatrum 3/ar[celli] Julia 
Augusta et Ti. Augustus dedicarunt. 5 Ti. Ca-sar divi Aug. f. August, p. m. tr. 
pot. XXIIII -ir S. P. Q. R. JulicB Augusta;. 


776. C. A.sinius Pollio C. 
Antisihts Veterlndax Dio- 
nis lib. .57 Tacit. Ann. 
IV. 1 Frontin. Aquse- 
duct. c. 102 Plin. H.N. 
33. 2 Cassiod. Nor. Idat. 

Tiberii 10 from XIV Kal. Sept. trib.pot. 2.5 from V Kal. Jul 

Influence of Sejanus : Tacit. Ann. IV. 1. C. Asinio C. Antistio comuUbus 
nonus Tiberio annus erat [scil. ad XIV Kal. Sept.] — cum repente turbare for- 
tuna coepit, scevire ipse aut savientibus vires prwbere. Initium et causa penes 
^lium Sejanum colwrtibus preetoriis prcvfedum, cujus de potentia supra menuh 
ravi. He had mentioned Sejanus III. 29 in A.D. 20, III. 35 in A.D. 21, 
and III. GG. 72 in A.D. 22. The rise of Sejanus is noticed by Dio 57. 19 
before the fourth consulship of TiimMS. His rise commenced inA. D. 16: 
conf. a. 3 1 . 

DeaX\ioi Drusus: Tacit. Ann. IV. 7—12 Dio 57- 22. Tacitus IV. 6 remarks 
Tiberio rnutati in deterius principatus initium iUe annus attulit. 

A coin: Eckhel tom. VI p. 194. Ti. divif. Augustus + tr. pot. XXV. 


777. Ser. Cornelius Ce- 
thegm L. ViseUius Varro 
Index Dionis lib. 5/ Ta- 
cit. Ann. IV^ 17 Frontin. 
Aqua?d. c. 102 Cassiod. 
Cethego et Varro Nor. Ge- 
tJiego et Varo Idat. 

Tiberii 1 1 from XIV Kal. Sept. trib.pot. 26 from V Kal. Jul. 

End of the African war: Tacit. Ann. IV. 23. Ptolemy king of Mauritania 
(who reigned in the time of Strabo : F. H. Ill p. 203) is mentioned by Taci- 
tus IV. 23. Raptabat Africam Tacfarinas auctus Maurorum auxiliis, qui 
Ptolemao Jubce filio juventa incurioso libertos regios et servilia imperia bello 
mutaverant. Ptolemy in this year assisted the Romans: Tacit. Ibid. His 
father Juha had now been dead according to Josephus about 20 years : see 
F. H. I. p. 428. Norisius Cen. Pisan. p. 238 questions that account, as incon- 
sistent with Strabo VJ. p. 288 Nvritten after the death of Augustus: "Nunc 
Mauritaniam Juba obtinet.'" But the words are, vvv\ 8' fis ^lov^av TTfpuarqKfv, 
which are less precise. In the other passage of Strabo, XVII. p. 828, quoted 
by Norisius, tlie meaning will depend upon the latitude of the word vfbxrri, 
Josephus could scarcely have been mistaken in a fact so recent, which he had 
opportunities of knowing well. 

A coin apud Eckhel. tom. VI p. 194. Ti. divi /. Augustus + tr. pot, 


01. 201 U. C. Varr. 778. 
M. Asinius Agrippa Cossvs 
Cornelius Lentulu's Index 
Dionis lib. 57 Tacit. Ann. 
IV. 34 Cassiod. Nor. A- 

Tiberii 1 2 from XIV Kal. Sept. trib.pot. 27 from F Kal. Jul. 

Tacit. Ann. IV. 34. Cremutius Cordus postulatur — quod editis annalibus lau- 

datoque M. Bruto C. Cassium Romanorum ultimum dixisset. Egressus senatu 

vitam abstinentia Jinivit. libros per cediles cremandos censuere patres ; sed manse- 
runt occultati et editi. Dio 57. 24. Kpefiounos 6e 6^ Ko'p6oj avToxfip (avToi) 

R O M A N I 


3 Greek Authors 

4 Latin Authobs 


Cassim Severus is an exile in Seriphos : Tacit. Ann. 
IV. 21. tielatum et de Cassio Severo exsule, qui sordida- 
originis, maleficce viieB, sed orandi validns, per imtnodi- 
cas inimicitias vt Judicio juraii Senatus Cretam amove- 
retur effecerat; atque illic eadem actitando recentia w- 
teraqvs odia advertit, hcnisqtte emUus interdicto i^i et 
aqua saxo Seripho comenuit. He had been banished 
to Crete about A. D. 8 : conf. a. 33. 

The birth of C. Plinim Secundut of Verona may be 
placed in the beginning of this year ; since his 56th 
year was still current in August A. D. 79 : conf. a. 

Death of Cremutius Cordm: see col. 2. 

Votienus Montanus banished : Tacit. Ann. IV. 42. 
HaUta per illos dies de Votieno Montana, Celebris inpenii 
viro, coffnitio cunctantem Tiberium perpdit vt viiandos 

crederet patrum coetm Et Votienus quidem majestatis 

poenis affectus est. His death in his exile is placed by 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

grippa II et Lentulo Gal- 
va Idat. 

yfV€<T0ai, OTi 7(3 'SrfiavS TrpocriKpova-fv, r}vayK&(T6r}. ovrai yap ovblv lyKXrjiw. t-naL- 
Tiov Xa^iiv r]hvv7]6T) (koi yap iv Trvkais 'jbrj yrjpws ^v Kal itufiKitTTaTa «/3e/3t<oKei) 
wore (-nl rfj laropLa rjv waXat Trore avvendeCKei — Kpidfjvai, on rov n ^6.(T(nov koX 
TOP BpovTov (TrfivetTe k. t. \. Conf. Sueton. Tiber, c. 61 L. Senec. ad Marciam (a 
treatise addressed to the daughter of Cremutius). This historian is quoted M. 
Senec. Suasor. c. 7 p. 44. 


779. Cn. Lmtulus Gcetu- 
licm C. Cahisim Sabinus. 
Tacit. Ann. IV. 46 Cas- 
siod. Nor. Getulio et Sa- 
hino Idat. 

Tiberii 13 from XIV Kal Sept. trib. pot. 28 from V Kal. Jul. 

Success of Sabinus in Thrace : Tacit. Ann. IV. 46. Decreta triumphi insignia 
PoppcEo Sabino contusis Thracmn gentibus. His campaign was continued till the 
approach of winter : c. 5 1 . 

Tiberius withdraws into Campania: Tacit. Ann. IV. 57. Tandem Casar in 
Gampaniam specie dedicandi templa — sed certus procul urbe degere. He was 
absent eleven years : c. 58. undecim per annos. 

Death o^ Haterius : Tacit. Ann. IV. 61. Fine anni excessere insignes viri Asi- 
nius Agrippa — et Q. Haterius familia senatoria eloquentice quoad vixit celebrates: 
monimenta ingenii ejus haud perinde retinentur. 

Coins apud Eckhel. tom.VI p. 195. 1 Ti. divif. Augustus + tr. pot. XXVIII. 
2 Ti. Coisar divi Aug. f. Augustus imp. Vlll.+pont. max. tr. pot. XXIIX. 
S. C, 


780. M. Licinius Crassus 
L. Galpurnhis Piso Tacit. 
Ann. IV. 62 Nor. Crasso 
et Fisone Idat. L. Piso et 
M. Crassus Cassiod. 

Tiberii 14 from XIV Kal. Sept. trib. pot. 29 from V Kal. Jul. 

Fall of an amphitheatre at Fidense, in which 50,000 persons perished : Tacit. 
Ann. IV. 62. 6.3. or 20,000 : Supra XX fwminum millia Sueton. Tiber, c. 40. 

Tacit. Ann. IV. 67. CcRsar dedicatis per Gampaniam templis — Capreas se in 
insulam abdidit. 


781. Ap. Junius Silanus 
P. Silius Nerva Tacit. 
Ann. IV. 68 Plin. H. N. 
VIII. 40 Cassiod. Nor. 
Idat. Epiphan. p. 446 A. 

Tiberii 15 from XIV Kal. Sept. trib. pot. 30 from V Kal. Jul. 

Death of Julia the granddaughter of Augustus, after twenty years of exile : 
Tacit. Ann. IV. 71. 

War with the Frisii: Tacit. Ann. IV. 72. Frisii transrJienanus populus pacem 
exuere ; nostra magis avaritia quam obsequii impatientes. 

Agrippina daughter of Germanicus is married to Domitius : Tacit. Ann. IV. 
75. For Agrippina and Domitius conf. Sueton, Ner. c. 5. 6 Dion. 58. 20. 
Nero was the issue of this marriage in A. D. ?>^ : conf. a. 

[The Baptism according to Epiphanius Hseres. p. 446., who reckoned the 
Nativity in the 42nd year of Augustus Goss. Augusto XIII et Silano B. C. 2 : 
conf. F. H. III. p. 260. and 30 years to the consulship of Silanus and JVerva 
inclusive — TpiaKovrair-qs xpo^os p. 446 A . The Nativity he fixes at VIII Id. 
Jan. B. C. 2, the at VI Id. Nov. A. D. 28 : p. 446 D. 447 A. yevvr]- 
divTos yap avrov itepl tov 'lavovdpiov ixfiva, TovreaTt -npo d/cra eih&v ^lavovapimv, 
rJTii fo-Ti Kara 'Pojpiaiovs irffXTrrr) [1. e/cnj : conf. Epiphan. p. 449 D. F. H. III. 
p. 355] TOV 'lavovapCov ixrjvos, kut Aiyv-nrCovs Tv/Bl kvbeKaTtj—TtaprjXOe ras Ttpoei- 
prjuevas imareias tlKoaifwia irX-qpfis, els 6e rriv TpMKOcrTrjv viiaTfCav, (prjiu be -nepX 
TOV bexaTov p.rjva, ^A.^e irpos tov 'liodvvqv Kal efianTia-Qr] ev ru '\opbAvri Trordixw tov 
TpiaKO(TTov frovs Trjs fva-dpKov yevvrjo-eus, TOVTecni /cara klyvTtTiovs ' AQvp bcabeKdrri 
TTpb ^ eib&v 'NoepLfSpiav — m eirifj-apTvpei p.ov tu Xoyco ro ayiov Kara AovKav evay- 
yeKiov [III. 23j &be wcos keyov " ^v be 'IiycroCs dp)(pp,evos ixrel er&v rptaKorra."] 


01. 202 U. C. Varr. 782. 
L. Bulellius Geminus C. 
Fufius Geminus Tacit. A nn. 

Tiberii 16 from XIV Kal. Sept. trib. pot. 31 from V Kal. Jul. 
Death of Lima : Tacit. Ann. V. 1. Bubellio et Fufio consulibus, quorum idri- 
que Geminus cognomentmn erat, Jidia Augusta mortem obiit cetate extrema — pri- 

R O M A N I 


3 Gheek Authors 

4 Latin Authors 

Hieronymus anno 2048 A. D. 2| Votiemu Mmtanui 
Narbmemig orator in Balearibut tnoritur, iUue a TU»- 
rio rekgatus, Votienus is quoted by M. Seneca Con- 
trov. p. 305. 308. 337. ^64. 290. 294. 314. 317- 321. 
321—326. 330. 331. 340. 344. Seneca remembered 
his first essay : p. 335. Memini ilium pro Galla Numi- 
sia apud centumviros tirocinium pcnere. And remarks 
ibid, that his fault was too much exuberance. 


Ilaterius (see col. 2) is mentioned by Hieronymus 
anno 2040 A. D. I^: Q. Haterim promptus et popularit 
orator usque ad 90""' prope annum in summo hmore con- 
senescit. By Tacitus Ann. III. 57 in A. D. 22 : Q. Ha- 
terius — deridiculofuit, semx foedimmce adulatimis. He 
is quoted by M. Seneca Suasor. p. 20. 35. 51. controv. 
p. 126. 236. 241. 285. 340. 341. .S93. His style is 
described prsef. exc. controv. 1. IV. p. 443. Idem 
p. 342. Haterio, qui et promimt oratorem et preettitit. 
Hieron. Ep. 61 p. 732. Q. Haterim — de quo Canar Au- 
c/ustus, Quintus, inquit, noster svfflaminandut ett [conf. 
M. Senec. Controv. p. 444]. His oratory is charac- 
terised by L. Seneca Epist. 40, 10. 


[Clemens Alexandrinus Strom. I. p. 340 records 
some early opinions concerning the time of the Bap- 
tism and Crucifixion : iv t<5 (vayyf\[io r&i Karo AovKav 

[TertuUian adv. Jud. c. 8 (transcribed by Hieron. 
ad Daniel, c. 9 p. 503) concurs with the authors quoted 
in col. 2. 3 : Tioerii quinto decimo anno passus est Chri- 

C 2 




1 Consuls 

V. 1 Cassiod. Gemino et 
Gemino Nor. Bu/o et Bu- 
bellione Idat. Fufio Ge- 
mino et Rehellio Gemino 
Sulpic. Sev. II. 40. Ru- 
fino Gemino et Rubellio 
Gemino Prosp. Rubellio 
Gemino et Rufio Gemino 
Tertullian. adv. Jud. c. 8 
torn. II. p. 300. duobus 
Geminis Pont. Lactant. 
IV. 10 Idem de Mort. 
persecut. c. 2 Augustiii. 
C. D. 18. .54 Victorius 
Can. Pasch. p. 9 : see In- 
trod. For Epiphanius 
and Chron. Pasch. see 
F. H. Ill p. IX. 

Marmor apud Gruter. 
p. 535. 2 duohis Geminis 


Marmor apud Noris. 
opp. torn. II p. 859 

C. Fufio Gemino L. Ru 
Gemino cos. 

2 Events 

mum ei matrimoniwm et liberi fuere cum Tiberio Nerone, qui bello Perusino pro- 
fugus [B. C. 41] pace inter Sex. Pompeium ac triumviros pacta in urbem rediit. 
Exin Ceesar cupidine formcB aufert marito [B. C. 38] incertum an invitam. Dio 
58. 2. f) Aiovia fxfTTjAAafei', 1^ (cat oyhoriKovra Ittj f^cracra. As Tiberius is now in 
his 70th year, Livia would be 16 at the birth of her son. 

[The Passion is placed at this date by many authors: Lactantius IV. 10. 
p. 337. (Tiberii) anno 15", id est, duobus Geminis consulibus, ante diem X Kor 
lendarum Aprilium. Idem de Mort. Persecut. c. 2. Extremis temporihus Tib. 
Ccesaris — Dominus noster Jesus Christus a Jiidatis cruciatus est post diem X Kal. 
April, duobus Geminis coss. Augustinus C. D. 18. 54. Mortuus est ergo Christus 
duobus Geminis consulibus VIII Kalendas Apriles. Sulpicius S. H. II. 40. Gru- 
cijixus est Fujio Gemino et Rebellio Gemino coss. Idatius : Rufo et Rubellione. 
His coss. passus est Christus die X Kalendas Aprilis et resurrexit VIII Kalendas 
easdem. Victorius Canon. Pasch. p. 8. 9. Passum dominum nostrum Jesum 
Christum peractis 5228 annis ab ortu mundi eadem Chronicorum relatione [so. 
Eusebianorum] monstratur. Qmd gestum inchoante 29'' anno non potest dubitari 
&c. — VII Kal. April, crucifixus est et sepultus : tertia die, hoc est, V Kal. April, 
dominica surrexit a mortuis. Idem p. 9. Ex tempore dominicce passionis diebus 
Kalendarum Januanarum et nominibus consulum, a duobus Geminis, Rufo scilicet 
et Rubellio &c. Idem p. 15. Crucifixio Christi coss. duobus Geminis, Ruffino et 
Rubellio. Fast, apud Noris. Gemino et Gemino. Hoc consule Christus passus est. 
Catalogus Pont. Rom. apud Chron. Pasch. tom. II p. 198. Imperante Tiberio 
CcEsare passus est Dominus noster Jesus Christus, duobus Geminis coss. VIII 
Kal. April. For Clemens Irenseus and Tertullian see coll. 3. 4. This date 
was assumed by some because they confounded the date of the Baptism with 
the date of the Passion ; by others, because they supposed both to have hap- 
pened in one year; by others, because they transcribed from their predecessors 
without examination. Others however more consistently made this year the 
era of the Baptism only; as Basilides: see col. 3. Prosper: conf. a. 31. Hie- 
ronymus in Chronico. Chrm. Pasch.: conf. a. 32. Epiphanius: conf. a. 28. 
Syncellus ; who dated the Nativity Dec. 25 in the 43rd year of Augustus: 
Kara to jity' eroy p. 315 D. the Baptism in the 15th of Tiberius: ev hei le 
p. 319 C. reckoned three years to the Ministry : ibibaifv em rpla Irij p. 325 C. 
and supposed the Crucifixion set. 33 to be in the 19th of Tiberius : p. 320 D. 
Tov crmrqpos r]fx.S>v riKiKias ky — Kara to 16' Iros Tijiepiov. on the 23rd of March : 
p. 321 A. (TTavpovTai 6 ava)iapTr]Tos Tjj kC' tov 'PapLiVioO firjvos — MapTwv Ky 
Tacfxls avicrraTai. ttj TpiTrj i]p.ipq, <t>aii(vo)d kQ' 'jtoi MapTiov Kf', irpol Ka\( 
^ AiTpikXiav [1. 77/30 7j' KaA. 'ATrpiA.]. 

Although the present year was not the epoch of the Crucifixion because it 
was the 15th of Tiberius, yet it might be still the true epoch of that event for 
other reasons. We cannot name the year of the Nativity, or of the Baptism, 
or of the Passion, with absolute precision ; but we can fix the limits of the 
uncertainty and mark the probable dates. The Nativity was not more than 
about 18 months before the death oi Herod, nor less than five or six. The 
death of Herod was either in the spring of B. C. 4 or the spring of B. C. 3. 
The earliest possible date then for the Nativity is the autumn of B. C. 6" 
U. C. 748, 18 months before the death of Herod in B. C. 4 ; the latest will be 
the autumn of U. C. 750 B. C. 4, about six months before his death assumed 
to be in spring B. C. 3. The thirtieth year therefore — uo-ei hQ>v TpioKovTa &.p- 
x6p.ivos Luc. III. 23. TOV TpiaKoa-Tov ivMVTov, as explained by Athanasius tom. 
I p. 586 A — was current either from the close of U. C. 777 A. D. 24 or from 
the close of U.C. 779 A.D. 26; and the first Passover after the Baptism 
could not be sooner than A. D. 25, nor later than A. D. 27. An earlier date 
than the first would make the age less than 29 years at the Baptism ; a later 


R O M A N I 


n Gkekk Authobs 

4 Latin Authori 


yiypairrai ovruts [II. )]• " <T«t hi iT€i>TfKMhfKi.Tif iitl 
Tififplov KaiVapos fytvtTo piina Kvplov (ttI 'IwdrfJjr" — 
KOt TtdXtv iv T(5 avT(Z [III. !]• " riv bi 'Irjcrovs ^/))((//xfi'os 
^irl TO is irHv X'.' koI on iviavrov novov ibfi 
avTov K-qpv^ai [xpovos ia-riv iviav<nos Strom. V p. 564 C] 
Koi TOVTo yiypa-nrai. oi/rtos [Esaias LXI. 1]" " iviavritv 
beKTuv Kvpiov KrjpCfai a/nicrrnKi /if." tovto koX 6 irpoi^r)- 
Ti)s flT[(v Koi TO (vayyiXLov [sc. Luc. IV. IS)]. invrtKai- 
6e(c<lT({) ovv hd Tijiepiov koI TTfVTfKaibfKdTif Avyovmov 
ovrm TiXripovvTai ra TpidKovra Ittj ?<oy ov inadtv. &(f) ov 
&i litaOiv luy TJjs KaTa(TTpo<pi]s ' lepovaoKrjp. ylvovrai irq 
p.^ /x^res y. This account of Clemens places the Bap- 
tism and the Passion in the same year of Tiberius; an 
error not palliated by the explanation of Pagi adv. 
Baronium torn. I. p. 19. Clemens Ibid, preserves other 
dates : den hi ol irfpifpyorepov ry ytviati. rov Scottj/sos 
r]p.Stv ov p6vov TO has aWa Koi tijv r)p.(pav •nporrTi.OivTfr 
fjv (f>a(nv (Tovi kt]' Avyovarov [conf. F. H. Ill p. 258] 
iv iripmrri Ylaxoiv Koi fhibL [May 20]. oi bi iirS Ba<n- 
Kfibov Koi Tov ^aiTTlaparos avTov Tr]V rip.(par kopTd(ov(n, 
TtpobiawKTfpeuovTfs avqyvda-eai. (^acrt be firat to irewf- 
KaibeKarov has Tt/Sepiou KaCa-apos ttjv irevTeKaLbfKiTTjv 
tov TvjSl prjvos [Jan. 10]. tlv(s be avTi]V ivbtKorrfv tov 
aiiTov p)}v6s [Jan. (>]. to re irdOo^ avTov dKpil3o\oyovp.€vot 
(pfpovcriv oi pfv rLV€s rw e(cicai8eKar<o Irei Tt/3epioi> Kai- 
(Tapoi, i>apev!i)d Kf' [March 21]' oi 6e <i>app.ovdl /ce'" ^- 
Xot bi <i'appov6l iff [Ap. 20, Ap. 11] TiiTtovOivai tov 
'S.utrrjpa Xiyovai. vaX p.i]v Tires avTuiv <f>a(rl <t>appov0l y(- 
yfvfi(Tdai. Kb' f/ Kf [Ap. 15). 20]. These dates, on the 
supposition that the Ministry was only of one year, 
are more rational in assisrnin" the Passion to the 1 (Jth 
of Tiberius. Origen Adv. Cels. IV. 22 also reckons 
42 years to the fall of Jerusalem : Tfua-ap&KovTa yap 
(TT] Kol bvo, oljuat, &(f)' ov ((TTavpiixrav tov 'Irjirovv ytyo- 
vivM €Tt\ Tijv 'lepoa-oKvp-tjov Kadaipf(nv. And Hieronymus 
Hedybiae torn. 3 p. 285. Judcuis usque ad 42""' annum 
datum est temjnis prnnii entice ; post quos — epressi sunt 
Vespasianus et Titus &c. The true interval from the 
Passover of the 15th of Tiberius A.D. 29 to the fall 
of Jerusalem in Gorpiaius A. U. 70 was 4lt/. G"'. Ori- 
gen therefore and Hieronymus reckon 42 years in 
round numbers ; which express the interval from the 
Eusebian year 2044 Tiherii 1 5" to the year 2086" Ves- 
pasiani 2" where Hieronymus Chron. after Eusebius 
places the fall of the city. They both therefore here 
follow the accounts which placed the Passion in A. D. 
29. In Clemens p. 340 we may correct the numbers, 
and read err; p.a' prjvfs y ■ 

An opposite error to the preceding is found in Ire- 
naeus II. ,39. Qmmodo uno anno tantummodo Dominus 
prmdicavit ? triiginta quidem annorum existens cum ve- 
niret ad baptismum, deinde magistri astatem perfectam 
habens, venit Hierusalem, ita ut ab omnibus juste audi- 
retur magister. — Omnem a tatem sanctijicans, — senior in 

ftui, awMt haberu auan XXX cwn patergtur.—Pamo 
per/eeta est iub Tioerio Ctetare cost. RvheUio Oemmo et 
Rufio Gemino, meiue Martio, temporibus Paseha>, die 
VI JI Caleadarum Aprilium. Idem Apologet. c. 5. Ti- 
herii tempore nomm Christianum in aeeulum inirotvit. 
Conf. c. 7 p. 21 c. 21 p. 53. Idem c. 40 p. 9H. Ante Ti- 
berimn, id est ante Christ i adventum. Ad nationes 1.7- 
Principe Augusto nw)ien hoc ortum est, Tiherio dtscipUna 
ejus iiduxit. in Marcion. I. 15 p. 26. At nunc qvaU est 
ut Dominm XII Tiherii Ca-saris revelatus sit, suhstantia 
vero ad X V jam Seven imperatoris [conf. a. 207] nuUa 
omniiw comperta sit, &c. Ibid. c. 19 p. 3.3. Anno XV 
Tiberii Christus Jesus de ccelo tnannre dignatut est, Spi- 
ritus salutaris. Pagi adv. Baronium torn. I p. 1 8 thinkx 
that Tertullian " cum Christum j)er tres annos evan- 
" gelium pncdicasse cerneret, in libro contra Marcio- 
" nem I scripsisse Christum anno Tiberii XII clorifi- 
" catum sen baptizatum fuisso." But, 1 This explana- 
tion will still suppose Tertullian to have misunderstood 
the text of St. Luke, and mistaken the .age at the 
Baptism for the ago at the Crucifixion. 2 TYvc fifteenth 
of Tiberius is the period of the Baptism in I. 19 (for 
so we must necessarily understand r/e cwlo utanare &c.), 
and of the Passion in adv. Jud. c. 8. ^Ve may there- 
fore correct Marcion. I. 15 by the other two passages, 
and for XII read XV. And we must conclude that 
Tertullian with many other early Christians (see col. 3) 
allowed only one year to the Ministry.] 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

date than the second would suppose it 31 ; both inconsistent with the text of 
St. Luke. 

But the Ministry was either a little more than two years or a little more 
than three ; and the Passion was either at the third Passover after the Bap- 
tism or at the fourth. If we assume the third, then A.D. 25 for the first 
Passover might give A. D. 27 ; the fourth from A. D. 27 would give A. D. 30. 
It will follow that the earliest possible date for the Passion is A. D. 27, the 
latest is A. D. 30. It will be shewn in the Appendix to be most probable that 
the Nativity was in B. C. 5; that the Ministry extended to a fourth Passover; 
and that the Passion and Ascension were in A. D. 29. The reasons will there 
be given for rejecting the date of Hales, A. D. 3J, and of Usher, Blair, Du 
Fresnoy, and Mr. Gunninghame, who all assign the Passion to A. D. 33.] 


783. M. Vinicim L. Cas- 
sius Longinus Cassiod.Nor. 
Idat.Chron. Pasch. Prosp. 

Marmor apud Gruter. 
p. 1087- 1 Noris. opp. 
torn. II p. 861. 

L. Cassius Longinus M. 
Vinicim cos. 

Suf. C. Cassius Longinus 
L. Namus Surdinus. 

Tiberii 17 from XIV Kal. Sept. trib. pot. 32 from V Kal. Jul. 

[The Passion in this year, according to Africanus Xpovoypa<^iS>v lib. V apud 
Euseb. Dem. Ev. VII p. 389. 390 Syncell. p. 323. conf. Routh torn. II. p. 
187 — 190. tU Tov eirl Xpia-rov [Xpiorou Syncel .] xpovov — irtl tovtov top \p6vov 
[male roi/roiv tS>v xpovcav Syncell. ed. Dindorf.] hi rjv oXv/xTridSos o-/3' Itos hfv- 
Tipov Tifieplov be KaCarapos riyefiovCas eros (KKaibfKarov. Syncell. p. 323 D. /xe'xpts 
Hktov Koi bfKiiTov Ti^epiov KaCffapos, o-nep ^v okvixmAboi (tj3' hos bevrepov. Eu- 
seb. p. 390 B. TO TilSfpiov Kaiaapos eKKaib^KaTov tTos [passim sexto decimo anno. 
male igitur quintodecimo Hieronymus ad Dan. c. 9]. The Passover of the 
16th of Tiberius is in the spring of A. D. 30, a ittle before the close of 
01. 202. J.] 


784. Tiberius Cwsar Au- 
gustus V L. ^lius Sejanus 
Sueton. Tib. c. 65 num- 
mus apud Eckhel. see 
col. 2. Tiberio Cwsare V 
sola Nor. Tiberiano Cce- 
sare IV solo Idat. Tib. 
CcEsar Vcos. Cassiod. Tt- 
/3epiov KaCaapos to e /xoVow 
Chron. Pasch. p. 216 G. 
de Sejano Dio 58. 4. 

Tiberii 18 from XIV Kal. Sept. trib. pot. 33 from V Kal. Jul. 

Tiberius consul with Sejanus : Dio 58. 4. Sueton. Tib. c. 26. N'ec ainplim 
(Tiberius) quam omnino tres consulatus [after his accession to the Empire], 
unumpaucis diebus [A. D. 18], alteram tribus mensibus [A. D. 21], tertium absens 
[A. D. 31] usque in Idus Maias gessit. Dio 57. 20 marks the five consulships 
of Tiberius: ovk ecnlv octtis tSiv viiaTiv(TavTa)V irore p.fT avTov ov /Siaicoy aitiOavtv, 
aWa TovTo pifv Ovapos 6 KvivTi\ios [cos. B.C. 13], tovto be Uelcrav 6 Tvaios 
[B. G. 7]) Te FepixaviKos avroi [cos. A. D. 18], /Siaiws /cat ku/cws aiTaiX.ovTO. roi- 
ovTa Tivl, i)s eoiKe, bta (3iov baCptovi (TvyK.eKkrjp<i>To. a.p.ekeL /cat 6 ApoCo-os Tore [cos. 
A. D. 21] /cat 6 ^rjiavoi p-eTo. TavTa [A. D. 31] avvap^avies ol biecj^Odprjaav. He 
describes 58. 20 the arbitrary appointment of consuls by Tiberius. 

Fall of Sejanus: Dio 58. 9—13 Sneton. Tib. c. 65. His death is fixed by 
Tacitus Ann. VI. 25 to XV Kal. Nov. A. D.3] : conf. a. 33 eight years after 
the death of Drusus : Tacit. IV. 8. six before the death of Tiberius : Idem 
IV. 57. He had been in favour 16 years: Idem VI. 8. consequently from 
A.D. 16. 

A coin apud Eckhel. tom. VI p. 196. " Epigraphe et caput Tiberii'' + wjmw. 
Augusta Biibilis Ti. Cwsare V L. ^lio Sejano cos. 

[The Passion according to Prosper Chron. p. 379. Quidam putant Dominum 
nostrum Jesum Christum 15" anno regni Tih. Casaris, id est, duobus Geminis 
coss. crucifixum [conf. a. 29] ; quo anno secundum indubitabilem Luccp evangelistce 
auctoritatem baptizatum eum esse mani/estum est et evangelium regni ccelorum 
prwdicare cospisse. Secundum vero Joannis evangeliutn festivitati Pascha Juda- 

R O M A N I 


3 Grkkk Authobs 

4 Latin Authobs 

genioribm. — Jilt autem diamt uno anno emn prwdicasse 
et XIIo mense possum contra semetipsos obliti sunt 8so. — 
Quia autem 30 annorum atas prima indoHs est juvenis 
et extmditur usque ad 40'"" annum, omnis quilibet con- 
fitehitur ; a 10" autem et 5()« anno declinat jam in 
mtatem seniorem ; quam habem dominus noster docebat, 
sicut evangcMum et omnes seniores testantur qui in Asia 
apud Joannem discipulum Dmnini conveneriint, id ipsvm 
tradidisse eis Joannem. Augustine de Doctrina Chri- 
stiana II. 28 (quoted by the editor of Irenaeus) alludes 
to this opinion : Ignorantia consulatus quo natvs est Do- 
minus et quo passus est nonnullos cotgit errare ut putarent 
46 annorum aiate passum esse Domimtm, quia per tot 
annos adificatum esse templum dictum est a Judais [so. 
Joann. 1 1 . 20] . et annorum quidemfere 30 baptizatum esse 
retinemm aucforitate Eoangelica. Irenseus probably had 
in view Joann. VIII. 57. which he applied erroneously 
or too literally to the age of Christ.] 


Asinim Gallus imprisoned : Dio 58. 3. t^ 8t hi) TiXXif 
6 Tt/3«'pios — i-niOfro k. r. A. Trpo's re rdv dtl intdruv irr]- 
peao, Ifo) r^s tov Tijitpiov dpx'js [sc in A. D. 31]. r<}r« 
yap vpbs ruv (rrparrfy&v i^vKd^Ori. Hieronymus : Anno 
2030 [A. I). 1J-] G, Asinius Gallus orator Asinii PoOio- 
nis filius, cujus etiam Virgilius meminit [sc. Ed. IV : 
conf. Asconium apud Servium ad Eel. IV. 1 1] dirit a 
Tiberio supplicies enecatur. A date 1 5 years before his 
arrest, and 18 before his death. Asinius GaUiis as an 
orator is mentioned by Quintil. Inst. X. 1, 22 M. Se- 
neca pitef. con. IV p. 442. 

[Epiphanius Haer. p. 444 — 450 places the Baptism 
at Nov. 8 A. D. 28 (conf. a. 28. 2), allows three Pass- 
overs after the Baptism, and fixes the Crucifixion at 
March 20 A. D. 31 : p. 446 B. fvpCa-KfTat. yap iv toj Ay' 
fTfi T?js aiiTov (V(TapKi!><T(.a>s itdtj^cav 6 p.ovoy€vris — juer" 
(Kuvr)v yap n/v inraTeCav [sc. Silani et Nerves : conf. a. 
28. 2] (v Tfcj K' hfi avrov cn]fj.aivop.ivr}v &K\r} xmarda 
yiyovf, kfyoix^vq t&v bvo rep.r]V(iv flra &K\r] virareCa 
'Poij<tiov Kal 'Povl3fX\Cm'os [conf. F. H. Ill p. IX]. /col 
oi/TCtfs p.fTa(oviTrii rfjs inraTfiai rrjs juera tijv v-nardav 
'Pot//3«\At&)i'os, tJtis vffTepov ijKOfv, OiiivviKiov KaXovfj.€vr] 
Kal Aoyyivov Kao-crfoi;, itdayit, 6 SuTijp kv rfj Trpb ly ko- 
\avb&v 'ATTpiWimv. — i>s ov fwvov bvo yjiovav TTfpCoboi 
7ra(rj(a)v fi; toIs evayyfXlois ifxtpeperat, dWa xal rpL&v. 
He describes the two years of the Ministry p. 447 and 
then proceeds p. 448 A. ixtTo. ravra m i:Xr^p<a04inos tov 
buTOVi yjiovov p.€Ta to ^ditTLcrixa Kal ti)V avrov yivfo-LV, 
OTTO No€/Li/3piov urivbs Kal duo ^lavovapiov firjvbs [conf. a. 
28. 2] Koi T&v iTTtKUva, Xomov ev t<o \y' Irei ti^s aiirov 
iva-dpKOv oiKovopiLas, pera to imfpjSrivai avrov rdi bvo 
vitarfias &y ((f)i)p(v — Xonrbv iv rrj rpCrr) vrrarda iv ra 
rpCru) fj.rivl avrfj^ — iv MaprCm p.i]vl reXeiol rb rov TtdOovs 
ixvim/jpiov 6 aTtaOijs Adyos iraOtoi' iv (rapKi. bC rjpMi. p. 449 

Valerius Maximus wrote IX. 11,4 extern, soon after 
the death of Sejanus. 




A.D. 1 Consuls 

2 Events 


785. Cn. Domitius Ahe- 
nobarhm Furius Camillus 
Scribonianus Dio 58. 17 
Tacit. Ann. VI. 1. 

Gamillo A rruntio Domiiio 
yEnobarbo Sueton. 0th. 
c. 2. Aruntio et Enoharbo 
Nor. Idat. 

transposed in Chron. 
Pasch. p. 217 C— 229 C. 

32 Aruntio et jEnobarbo 

33 Galba et Sulla 

34 Vitellio et Persico 
being in Chron. Pasch. 

32 YlepuiKov koX Bere\. 

33 ^ApovvTiov Kol AefO/3. 

34 T6.\j3a koL ^vKkov 
and this seems to have 
been the order in Idatius : 
conf. p. 159 ed. Bonn. 

Lapis apud Gruter. p. 
1 13.2 Noris. 0pp. torn. II. 
p. 864. 

Genio municipi anno 
post Interamnam condi- 
tam DCGIIII ad Cn. Do- 
mitium Ahenobarbum .... 


orwni ter Dominum interfuisse cogtwscimus : ut appareat tertium fuisse illud 
Pascha quod verm agnus suo sanguine consecravit. Proinde consules quidem a 
manifestatione Domini, id est, a Bujino Gemino et Rubellio Gemino consulibus 
inchoamws ; sed tertios ab iis consules Dominica Passionis adscribimus. Placed 
also at this date by the author of the Martyrdom of St. Paul : conf. a. 396. 4. 
and by Epiphanius : see col. 3.] 

Tiberii 19 from XIV Kal. Sept. trib.pot. 34 from V Kal. Jul. 

Birth of Otho : Sueton. 0th. c. 2. Otho imperator IIII Kalend. Mail natiis 
est Gamillo Arruntio Domitio yEnobarbo coss. 

[The Passion is placed in March of the 18th year of Tiberius by the Paschal 
Chronicle, where the times are disposed in this manner. The Nativity is placed 
at Dec. 25 : p. 202 D. The Baptism at 30». 13''. is in Jan. 6 of the 1 5th year 
of Tiberius ; which when rectified will give Jan. 6 A. D. 29 for the Baptism 
and Dec. 25 B. C. 3 for the Nativity : p. 208 D. 209 B. C. Ivh. a Tijif piov le'. 
iv eret ireirfKaiSeKiira) ttJs rjyfixovCas TijBipCov Kaia-apos — (v roi irapovri ,60A.f erei 
yeveafwi Koap.ov, nrjvl AvbvvaCa s"' — 'lijcroCs 6 Xpioros 6 tov &eov vibs pifTa to 
Tf\6rjvai fv BrjOkfefj, ttjj 'lovbaCas cTvpmKrjpaxras (tSiv apidp.ov TpiaKovTa -napiytviTO 
aitb r^s ra\tA.atas em tov 'lopbdvqv 'jrpbs tov 'loaAvvrjv koI f(3aiTTi(r9r] vii avTov' ev 
rfj TpicTKaLbeKdTD ovv fjp.ipa tov \a erovi f^aTTTlcrOr] — Ttj e/crjj tov Aibwaiov firjros' 
— iv TO) -napovTi ^((jtX.?' Iret ej3aiTTC(Tdr]. Conf. p. 215 B. The Ministry was of 3 
years: p. 215 B. ixera to fianTicrpxi (vhitTpi^iv 6 Kxipwi th ray tci.Tetj erepa y (ttj 
a-vvavaa-Tpf((>6pifvos rots nadr^Tois aiiTov. The first Passover after the Baptism is 
marked p. 212D; the second Passover is in the 16th of Tiberius: p. 215 C. 
ivb. /3'. ir'. iv Ti2 TTapovTL f(f>Xr]' eret yereo-eus k6(Tixov dp)(riv fiX-qcpoTi. aTio Ka tov 
MapT(ov fxijDos bevTepov vofxiKov (TtfTiXfae irdcrxa. The third in the 1 7th year : 
p. 216 C. ivb. y . it • TtaKiv TpWov vop.{,KOV Tt6t.<J\a — koto, to Tiapov ^e(f)\6' eros dp$d- 
jxivov dizo Ka TOV MapTCov fx-qvos. The fourth is the last Passover : p. 217 C. D. 
ivb. b' LTj'. Tpfls iviavTOvs koI o/ fip,epas fxero to jSa.TiTia-fj.a tols iavTOV ytia^jJTats to. 

(TcitTripia p.adr\p.aTa irapabovs eiri to vddos naprfu tu id' iTU rrjs Ti^epiov fiovap- 

\Ca9, dpxf)" €tA)j(|)o'rt Ttj Ka tov MapTiov pL-qvos ttjs kvi.(TTap,ivr)s b' ivbiKTiiovos. — 
TOVTO be TO b' Trdaxa taTiv, iv m iri-novQev. p. 221 B. C. KaTO. to Ttapbv e<f>p.' (tos 
r^s TOV Kocrpiov yeviaecas Kal w tj\s Ti^epCov Kaiaapos piovapx^s, apx^i' «iAr;<^os 
aTTO Ka' TOV MapTLOv pu]voi, ivb. b', — 6 Kvpios r)p.S>v viripitLVf aravpov — ttj Ky tov 
MapTLOv ixrjvos- — Tpi&v ovv Trdo'xa ixfTO, to ^aTTTLcrOfivai TtXcaOivTav, Kal iv Tip 
TeTdpTio iTfL T^s ToC Ttda-)(a iopTrjs virip f)p.S)V a'Tavpa>diVTos tov KvpCov, bflKwrai, 
(Ta(f>S>s OTi TpCa oXoKKrjpa fTr] to croiTripiov ibiba^ev K'qpvyp.a Kal rjp,epas Of , Tivas 
p.ev avTutv TTpb tov irdo^a tov TrpaiTov koto, to le' Iros TijBepiov — Tivas be vpo tov 
KaTa Tb Trapbv eTOS ecpp.' yeyovoTos o'oiTrjpLcibovs ■iTd(T)(a. The 7<J days are the 
interval from Jan. 6 A. D. 32, the anniversary of the Baptism, to March 23, 
the date here assigned for the Passion ; and it appears that this author anti- 
cipated the beginnings of the years of Tiberius, and reckoned them from 
March 21, to adapt them to his years of the world. Thus the 15th of Tiberius, 
which really ended Aug. 18, is computed to terminate with A. M. 5536 at 
March 20. A. M. 5540 and Tiber. 19 both commence at March 21, and the 
Crucifixion is placed at the third day of this 19th year and of A.M. 5540. 
The Paschal Chronicle by an interpolated consulship, which occurs between 
Vinicius et Longinus the 16th consuls of Tiberius, and Volusianus et Annianus 

R O M A N I 


3 Gbeek Adtuors 

4 Latin Authoss 

C. D. nera t6 X' hos Ktjpv^as irXrjpforaTov iviavrbv bfiaov 
[Esai. LXI. 2] KoX fii) arrtAeyo'/xeror, koi (Tepov avrtXt- 
yofxivov — KaX p.tTa top aXKov iviavTov ii-ntp^w aito r^s 
Tutv yevtdKCbiv avTov ?;fi^pos, Tovreariv 'Eiri^avioiv, jjTij 
Tvyxdvfi iKTT) 'lavovapCov pi-qvos Kara 6e Alyvnrlovi Tv0l 
ii'hfK&rr], iirl o\as ob' rjpLfpas — ems Tf]? "npo btKarpiSiv 
KaXavhStv 'ATTpiKkCcai', koI kutcl klyvmiovi ^ap.iV(i>0 rt- 
ripTH Koi fiKabi. (TtKfae A/3' «tjj irK-qptaTaTa Koi ob' 
r]piipas am) 'ETTi.((>avi(t)v [sc. Jan. G U. C. 75- — March 20 
U.C. 7*^4]. /cat i-vaoras kut AiyvnTiovi (pap,ei>b)0 Iktti 
KoX (iKAbi, iJTis riv icrripLfpCa xal Ttpo la KoKavbmv 'AirpiK- 


L. Junius GaUio is in disgrace with Tiberius : Tacit. 
Ann. VF. 3. Tiberius Junium Gallionem vioUnUr inere- 
jmit, velut coram rogitans quid iUi cum militibut, quot 
neque dicfa imperatoris neque pramia nisi ab imperatore 
accipere par esset &c. Hoc pretium GaUio meditata 
adulationis tulit, statim curia deinde Italia exactus ; et 
quia incusabatur /acik toleraturus exsilium ddeeta Lttbo^ 
insula nohili et amceiia, retrahitur in urbem autoditurqut 
domibus magistratmim. GaUio was the friend of M. Se- 
neca: prtef. Con. VII p. 222. Hoc nemo prastitit Gal- 
lione nostro decentius. Jam adolescentulm cum declama- 
ret apte et convenienter et decenter, hoc genere utebatur. 
Con. 1. IX p. 164. Qms belle Gallio nosier Antipiontit 
libros vocabat. Often quoted, as in Con. IV. 2 p. 448. 
Hunc colorem Gallio non probabat. See Con. 1. 1 p. 78. 
84. 98. 117. 124. 125. 131. 140 G alius (Gallio) posuit. 
1. II p. 170. 177, 181. 183. 184. 199. 208. prjef. Ill 
p. 422. Verum est quod de Cassio Severo dicit GaUio 
noster. Con. 1. II p. 201. Gallio nosier putat. Suos. 
p. 28. 29. Plena Deo. Solet autem Gallio noster hoc 
aptissintf ponere. Memini una nos ab auditione Nicetis 
[conf. F. H. Ill p. 227] ad Messalam venisse &c. Gal- 
lio ait, Plena Deo — hoc autem dicebat Gallio iVomnt no 
valde placuisse — eise autem in tragcedia ejus [sc. Medea] : 
" Feror hue illuc ut plena Deo^ That Gallio was the 
friend of Ovid appears from Ovid, ex Ponto T V. 1 1 ad- 
dressed to GaUio on the loss of his wife ; and perhaps 
written in A. D. 16 : see F. H. Ill p. 275. 

Gallio adopted Novatus the eldest son of Seneca after 
A. D. 41 : conf a. 41. After this adoption ho iapater 
Gallio: Quintil. Inst. III. 1, 21. IX. 2, 91. and the 
son of Seneca ia Gallio filiut. 





1 Consuls 

01. 203 U. C. Varr. 786. 
Sere. Salpicius Galba L. 
Cornelius Sulla Felix Dio 
58.20 Tacit. Ann. VI. 15 
Cassiod. Nor. Galba Li- 
bolo et St/lla Idat. De Gal- 
ba Sueton. Galb. c. 6. 

Mannor apud Gruter. 
p. 1087. 1 Noris. 0pp. 
torn. II p. 868. 

Ser. Sulpitius Galba L. 
Sulla Felix cos. 


787. L. Vitelliws Paulus 
Fabius Persicus Dio 58. 
24 Nor. Frontin. Aqused. 

2 Events 

the consuls of the 9th year of Constantine, has thrown back the years of Tibe- 
rim each one year too high. From this interpolation it comes to pass that in 
the reckoning of this Chronicle Jan. 6 of the 15 th of Tiberius is placed in the 
1st Indiction or Jan. 6 A.D. 28, the second Passover and the 16th year in 
Ind. 2 or A. D. 29, the third Passover in Ind. 3 or A. D. 30 ; and that March 
21, the first day of the year 5540 and of the ]9th of Tiberius, is placed in 
Indict. 4 or A.D. 31. See Appendix c.2 and A. D. 562. 4. Hieronymus 
apud Chron. Euseb. places the Baptism anno 2044 [A.D. 25] Tiberii IS" and 
the Crucifixion anno 2047 [A. D. 3^] Tiberii I80. Cassiodorus also places the 
Passion at the 18th consuls of Tiberius or A. D. 32 : His coss. Dominus noster 
Jesus Christus passus est VIII Kal. Apriles. Hieronymus Catal. c. 5 marks 
the same year : Post Passionem Domini 25" anno, id est 2" Neronis — 14o Neronis 
anno — anno post Passionem Domini 37". As he placed the years oi Nero each 
one year too low, anno 2072 [from Oct. A. D. 56] Neronis 2" — anno 2084 [from 
Oct. A. D. 68] Neronis 14», the 25th year before A. D. 56 and the 37th before 
A. D. 68 will also fix the Crucifixion at A. D. 32.] 

Tiberii 20 from XIV Kal. Sept. trib. pot. 35 from V Kal. Jul. 

Agrippina (who had been banished to Pandataria : Sueton. Tib. c. 53) and 
her son Drusus are put to death : Tacit. Ann. VI. 23 — 25. lisdem coss. [Ser. 
Galba L. Sulla 0. 15] Asinii Galli mors vulgafur, qu£m egestate cibi peremptum 
hand dubium,. — Drusus deinde exstinguitur &c. [conf. Sueton. Tib. c. 54] — 
Nondum is dolor exoleverat cum de Agrippina auditum, quam inter fecto Sejano 
spe sustentatam provixisse reor, et postquam nihil de scBvitia remittebatur, voluntate 
exstinciam. — Eodem die de/unctam- quo biennio ante Sejanus posnas luisset, memo- 
riceque id prodendum addidit Gcesar. decretum ut XV Kal. Novembres utriusque 
necis die per omnes annos donum Jovi sacraretur. Conf. Dionem 58. 22. 

[Eusebius places the Passion at this year. Ho adapts the week of years in 
Dan. IX. 27 to Christ by supposing the Ministry to be 3 years and a half, or 
half a week of years ; and by assuming that Christ remained with the Apostles 
after his Resurrection another half week, or 3 years and a half: Dem. Ev. 
VIII p. 400 B. C toTopeirat 8e o ttSs ttJs 6i8acrKa\tas koI Trapabo^oTTouas 6^o{) tov 
aiarfipos 7^fxu)V ■)^p6vos rpiuiv rjixiav yeyovijs fT&v, oijfp earlv e/36o/xa5os rjfj.iav. — dr) 
hv ovv fl3bofj,as irav fxCa 6 ttSs \p6voi rj)s /^lera r&v anoaTokaiv avTov (rvvbiarpi^fjs, 
o Te TTpo TOV Tiadovs KM 6 fieTa Ti]v (K vfKp&v avdcTTaaiv avrov. irpo ixev yap tov 
Trddovs iirl rpia Kal ijfjLKrv hr] Tots irdcnv kavTov ■naptxuiv /xad-qTais re kol toIs jut) 
TOiovTois avayiypanTai. — jxiTa 6e Tr]v Ik veKpZv dvacTTaa-w tov laov, as ekos, t&v 
fTav yjpovov rois kavTov fxadi^rais koI cnToaroKois crvvrjv. Hence the Ministry is 
called by Eusebius H. E. I. 10 oiS' oAos TfTpatTrjs xpo""^- ^^'^ the Passion is 
dated anno 2048: Euseb. Chron. Anno 2044 Tiberii Xb" Joannes — locis desertis 
circa Jordanem amnem prtedicabat palannque faciebat cunctis uncttim Dei inter eos 
adesse. Quin ipse Jesus — doctrines sues initium faciebat. Anno 2048 [com- 
mencing Oct. A.D. 32] Tiberii 19" Dominus noster secundum prophetias de eo 
prolatas decimo nono regnantis Tiberii anno venit ad passionem [iirl to irdOoi vpo- 
jjet (Tovs id' TTJi Ti^epiov jia<nkeias apud Syncoll. p. 324 D] — Jam vero vivificum 
nostrum eo anno fuisse excruciatum grandi argumento est testimonium quod e Jo- 
annis evangelio petitur, in quo post 15»»n Tiberii annum Christo prcedicanti trien- 
nium attribuitur [/xera to U (tos Tiji^piov TpieTjj ■)(j)6vov ttjs bibaaKaKia<i aiiTov 
biayev(<Tdai jxapTvpel apud Syncell. p. 325 A]. For the testimony of St. John 
see Appendix, Gospel Chronology.] 

Tiberii 21 from XIV Kal. Sept. trib. pot. 36 from V Kal. Jul. 
Dio 58. 24. elKoaTov fTovs Trjs dp\ris iTnardvTos aiiTos ixfv, KaiToi itepL Te to 
''AK^avbv KOL TCfpl to TovaKovKov biaTpijiaiv, ovk eafj\.dev is Trjv ttoKiv, oi 6' viraTOi 

R O M A N I 


8 Gbebk Authobs 

4 Latin Authobs 


Death of Camus Seoerus: Hieron. Chron. Anno 204S 
[A. D. 3f] Gassim Severus orator egregiru — XXV<> ex- 
tin sui anno in summa inopia moritur. conf. a. 24. On 
his style see Auctor dc Orat. c. 19 Quintilian X. 1, 1 !(> 
and especially M. Seneca praef. exc. Gont. Ill p. 421 
&c. to whom he was known. Casiiut Severus was an 
admirer of Publius Syrus : M. Senec. p. 251. and of 
the orator LaUenus : Idem p. 35 1 . Quoted Sueton. 
Aug. c. 56 Vitell. c. 2 M. Senec. p. 40. 194. 305. 374. 
384. 392. 445. 505. His works were proscribed, but 
permitted again by Caligula to be read : Sueton. Calig. 
c. 16. Tiii Labieni [conf. M. Senec. p. 349—351. 381] 
Cordi Cremutii [conf a. 25] Cassii Severi scrivta senatm 
consultis obolita requiri et esse in manibus lectitarique 
Caligula permisii. 

Death of Asinius Gallus : Tacit. Ann. VI. 23. see 
col. 2. Dio 58. 23. (19th Tiber.) iv b' ovv roU t6t( ivo- 
davovcri koI r<iX\os iy4v(To. agreeing in the date of 
Tacitus. Three years after his exile: Tacit. VI. 23. 
Scilicet medio triennio defuerai, tempus subeundi judicium 
consulari seni tot consularium parenti. 

Birth of Persius : Sueton. in vita : A. Persiut Flao- 
cus natus est pridie Nonas Decembres FcAio Persico L. 
Vitellio coss. — Natw in Etruria Vdaterris, eques Bo- 





1 Consuls 

2 Events 

C.102 Tacit. Ann. VI. 28 
Sueton. Vit. Persii Cas- 
siod. Conf. Lapidem a- 
pud Gruter. p. 1 17 Noris. 
0pp. torn. II p. 868. 

For Idat. and Chron. 
Pasch. conf. a. 32. 

de Vitellio conf. a. 47. 

AovKios re Oii'Te'Wioj Kal <I>({^ioy ITepa-tKoy ttjv bfKfrrjpCha avof^a^ov. The 20th 
year was already current at the accession of these consuls Kal. Jan. A. D. 34. 
The first period of ten years is noticed 57. 24 : SieXfloVroi' t&v Se'xa hav k. t. X. 
It had been completed XV Kal. Sept. A. D. 24. 

Coins apud Eckhel. torn. VI p. 197. 1 Ti. Ccesar divi Aug. f. August, p. m. 
tr.pot. XXXF/+"sine epigraphe. Templum" &c. 2 Ti. Ccesar divi Aiig.f. 
August, p. m. tr. pot. XXXF/+" sine epigraphe. Quadrigae triumphales 
" nullo insistente." 


788. C. Cesfius Gallus 
M. Servilius Nonianus Dio 
58.25 Tacit. Ann. VI. 31 
Plin. H. N. X. 43 Idat. 
Chron. Pasch. Cassiod. 
Camerino et Noniano Nor. 

Tiberii 22 from XIV Kal. Sept. trib. pot. 37 from V Kal. Jul. 

Coins apud Eckhel. tom. VI p. 197- 1 Ti. Ccesar divi Aug.f. August, p. m. 
tr.pot. XXXVII +" sine epigraphe. Templum." 2 Ti. Ccesar divi Aug. f. 
August, p. m. tr.pot. XXXVII +" sine epigraphe. Quadrigae." 


789. Sex. Papinius Alle- 
nius Q. Plautius Dio 58. 
26 Tacit. Ann. VI. 40 
Plin. H. N. X. 2. 

Gallieno et Plautiano 
Cassiod. Allieno et Plau- 
tio Nor. 

Emiliano et Plautio I- 
dat. AiXiavov KoX HXav- 
Tov Chron. Pasch. See 
col. 2. 

Tiberii 23 from XIV Kal. Sept. trib. pot. 38 from V Kal. Jul. 

Coins apud Eckhel. tom. VI p. 197. 198. 1 Ti. Ccesar divi Aug.f. August, 
p. m. tr. pot. XXXIIX+ "■ sine epigraphe. Templum." 2 the same + " sine 
" epigraphe. Quadrigae ." 3 Ti. Ccesar divi Aug. f. Augustus + tr. pot. 

Lapis apud Gruter. p. 447. 9 Noris. 0pp. tom. II p. 874 : Sex. Papinio Q.f. 
Allenio. marking the name of the consul Papinius. 


01. 204 U. C. Varr. 790. 
Cn. Acerronius Proculm 
C. Pontius Nigrinus Dio 
58. 27 Sueton. Tib. c. 73 
Cassiod.Idat. Nor.Chron. 

Supremi Tlberio consules 
Tacit. Ann. VI. 45. 

C. Ccesar suffectus Kal. 
Jul. conf. a. 39, 2 Tacit. 
Agric. c. 44. 

Lapis Romae apud Pan- 
vinium p. 312 Gruterum 
p. 18. 8. Jovi conservatori 
sacrum C. Julius C. f. 
Qair. Arrianus V. S. don. 
ded. XVI Kal. Mart. On. 
Acerronio et Pontio Ni- 
grino cos. 

Death of Tiberius March 16: Tacit. Ann. VI. 50. XVII Kal. Apriles in- 
terclusa anima creditus est mortalitatem explevisse &c. — Sic Tiberius finivit 780 
cetatis anno. Sueton. Tib. c. 73. Obiit in villa Lucullana 78" cetatis anno 23" 
imperii XVII Kal. Aprilis, Cn. Acerronio Proculo C. Pontio Nigro coss. Dio 
58. 28 places his death at the 26th of March : nerffKKa^i rfj (ktij koL dKocrTrj 
Tov MapTiov fjfiepq, (jSCo) Se of' It?j kuI lifjuas rea-crapai kol 7]p,fpas (vvew a((> &v 
trr] fiev k^' iJ-TJvai be eTTTa Kal T]p,4pas lirra ffwvipxrjo-e. The numbers correspond. 
77?. 4">. 9^. from XVI Kal. Dec. B. C. 42 are completed March 25, and 
22y. 7'". ^<i. from XIV Kal. Sept. A. D. 14 are completed March 26 A. D. 37. 
Called 23 years in round numbers by Philo Leg. ad Caium c. 21. 37 Auct. 
Dial, de Orat. c. 17- Inscriptio Romae ad Calcem Suetonii: Ossa Tib. Ceesaris 
divi Atig.f. Augusti pontijicis maximi trib. potest. XXXIIX imp. VIII cos. V. 
Caligula succeeds in his 25th year : ^ye be. -nep-TtTov Koi elKocrrbv Itos r]p,ep5>v 
Te(T(rapmv /cat p.-qvS>v Ttevre einbe<»v Dio 59. 6. 

Tiberius son of Drusus slain : Sueton. Cal. c. 23. Fratrem Tiberium inopi- 
nantem repente immisso tribuno militum {Caius) interemit. Dio 59. 8. nera bk 
ToijTo voarja-as avrbs p,iv (0 rdios) ovk aireOave tov be brj TijSepiov — avexpri<r"''''o' 
lyxAr/fio avru eTrayayoiV ws Kal TeXevrrja-ai avrbv koI ev^ap.ev(o koI TTpocrboKiqa^avu. 
See the narrative in Philo leg. ad Caium c. 4. 5. This sickness (noticed also 
in Sueton. Calig. c. 14) was in the 8th month of the reign of Caligula: Philo 
leg. ad Caium c. 2. 3. t<5 be 6yb6<o (^ijrl) Karaa-KriiTTei fiapela vocros tu Faio) — 
ap')(r] yap ^v p.eToiT<apov. The death of Tiberius was therefore about November. 

Birth oi Nero: Sueton. Ner. c. 6. Natus est Antii post novem menses quam 
Tiberius excessit, XVIII Kal. Januar. Nero through his mother was the fifth 
from Antony the triumvir. Plutarch Anton, c. 87 gives the descent : Antonius 
:—Antonia — Germanicvs — Agrippina — Nero. 

R M A N I 


3 Grkek Authors 

4 Latin Authors 

manut. Placed at the same date by Hieronymus : 
Anno 2050 [A. D. 3f] Peniiu Flaccut scUyricus poeta 
Volaterrit natcitur. 

Euseb. Chron. Anno 2050 [commencing Oct. A. D. 34] 
PMlo Alexandrinm, vir dodissimus, cognoscebatur. 0- 
mitted by Hieronymus. 

Death of Thrasyllm: see F. H. Ill p. 277- On Thror 
syUvs conf. Julian. Themistio p. 265 C. D. 







1 Consuls 

2 Events 

Coins of the first tribunician year of Caligula apud Eckhel. torn. VI p. 219. 
1 C. CcBsar Aug. Germ. p. m. tr. pot. + divus Aug. pater patriw. 2 C. Ceesar 
Aug. Germanicus p. m. tr. pot. pietas + divo Aug. S. C. 3 in honour of his 
father: p. 210. Germanicus Cces.p. C. Cces Aug. Germ. + C. Ceesar Aug. Germ. 
p. m. tr.pot. 4 of his mother: p. 212. Agrippina mat. C. Gees. Aug. 'Germ.+ 
C. Ceesar Aug. Germ. p. m. tr.pot. 5 of his sisters: p. 219. C. Ceesar Aug. 
Germanicus pon. m. tr. pot. ■\- Agrippina DrusiUa Julia S. C. 6 C. Ceesar Aug. 
pont. max. tr. pot. + Agrippina Julia. 7 p- 220. C. Ceesar Aug. Germanicus -k- 
imperator pmit. max. Aug. tr.pot. 8 p. 221. C. Ceesar Aug. Germanicus pon. m. 
tr. pot. + adlocut. coh. "9 p. 222. C. Ceesar Aug. Germ. p. m. tr. pot. + *S^. P. Q. 
R. oh c. s. 10 after Kal. Jul. see col. 1. C. Ceesar Aug. Germ. p. m. tr. pot. 
cos. + " sine epigraphe." 


791. M. Aquilius JuUa- 
nus P. Nonius Asprenas 
Dio 59. 9 Frontin. A- 
qused. c. 13 Cassiod. Nor. 

^lovKiavoS KoX ' A(nifpt>a- 
Tov Chron. Pasch. 

Caligulee 2 from XVII Kal. April, trih. pot. 2. 

Cotys Polemo and other kings are appointed by Caligula: Dio 59. 12. loaitua 
[j.\v TTiv T&v '\Tvpaia>v t5>v 'Apdj^av Korvi be r-qv re 'App.tvlav tt)v (rpLiKpoTtpav koI 
HfTo. TovTo Koi rfis 'ApafiCas riva, t(2 re 'Pui^jjtoA/cjj to. tov Kotvos kuI noKepnavi 
T(2 TOV rioXe/xtuiJos i/lei rrjf irarpaav apx'?". '^T)^i(rapi.ivqs hr] r^s /3ovX^s, i\apl<TaTO. 
For the father oi Polemo see F. H. Ill p. 428 m. 

Coins of the first tribunician year bearing the title pater patriee : Eckhel. 
torn. VI p. 223. 1 C. Ceesar Aug. Germ. p. m. tr. pot. + 8. P. Q. R.p.p. oh c. s. 
2 C. Ceesar Aug. Germanicus pon. m. tr. pot.+S. P. Q. It. p.p. oh cives servatos. 
Referred on that account by Eckhel to the close of this year : Conf. Eckhel. 
p. 222 Dionem 59. 12 apud Eckhel. 1. c. The first tribunician year ended 
March 15 A.D. 38. 3 A coin of the second year: Eckhel. p. 223. C. Ceesar 
Aug. Germanicus + p. m. tr. pot. iter. On the absence of p.p. from this coin 
see Eckhel. 1. c. 


792. C. Ceesar Augustus 
Germanicus II L. Apro- 
nius Ccesianus Index Dio- 
nis lib. 59 (ubi KeAiaro? 
rj Kfcmavos). Dio 59. 13 
Nor. Idat. Auctor vitse 

KkavbCov KaiVapos Koi 
Kfpcrtavov Chron. Pasch. 
PuhUcola et. Nerva Cas- 

CaliguleB 3 from XVII Kal. April, trih. pot. 3. 

Caligula consul: Sueton. Cal. c. 17- Consulatus quatuor gessit ; primum ex 
Kal. Juliiper duos menses [sc. swffectus A. D. 37: Dio 59. 7. Uo re ^tjo-i koI ri\i.i- 
pdis hubfKa avrriv (tx^v] ; secundum ex Kal. Januarii [A. D. 39j per triginta 
dies [Dio 59. 13. rpiaKovra 6e br] r]p.epas rjp^f, KaCroi Aovk^o) 'ATrpcor^o) rw ervvdp- 
\ovTi tf firivas eirirpe'i/fas] ; tertium [A. D. 40] usque in Idus Januarias [Dio 59. 
24. ScoSefcdrj; ripiipa rqv apxrfv cntfiTiav riyyeKdri] ; quartum [A. D . 41] usque in 
VII Idus easdem. Ex omnihus duos novissimos conjumxit. In his first consulship 
his colleague was Claudius: Sueton. Cal. c. 15. then in his 46th year: Dio 
59. 6. ovTO's yap — rore irpSiTov, Kaiirep ^f Kal TfcrcrapaKovra in] /Se^wo/cwy, Kal iira- 
reiicrei' 5/xo »cai fj3ov\evcrev. 

Herod Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee (Joseph. Ant. XVII. 8, 1 XVIII. 7, 1 
Luc. III. 1), is deposed and banished by Caligula, and his dominions are given 
to Agrippa: Joseph. Ant. XVIII. 7, 2. The 43rd year of his reign is marked 
upon two coins apud Eckhel. tom. Ill p. 486. 487 = 1 'Updbris TfTpdpxns L /x/ + 
Tauf KaCera. Tep/x. 2e/3. 2 'Hp<o6r;s TeTpdpxns L fiy' + Tata) Kal(Tap. FfpnaviKif. 
But if the 43rd year was current in A. D. 39, the first year commenced in 
B. C. 4, and the death of his father Herod the Great is carried back to the 
spring of B. C. 4, verifying the accounts of Josephus and Dio which are given 
in F.H. Ill p. 256. 

Coins of the third tribunician year: 1 Eckhel. tom. VI. p. 221. C. Ceesar 
Aug. Germanicus pon. m. tr. p. Ill p. p. + adlocut. coh. 2 p. 224. C. Ceesar 
dim Aug. pron. Aug. S. C. + cos. des. Ill pon. m. tr. p. III. p.p. r. CC. The 
letters r. CC — remissa ducentesima — are explained by Eckhel from Dio and 


R O M A N T 


3 Greek Authors 

4 Latis Authors 


Birth of Josephns : Vita c. 1 . yivfrai Trais MarOla 
Morulas 6 KvpTos iTnK\T}6fh — tovtov yivfTUL 'Icoot/tt-os — 
KoX ^ImmjTTov MarOw liaa-iKfvovTos 'Apxf^aov to b^Karov 
[A. 1). «: conf. F. H. Ill p. 256], MardCa hi iyto t(? 
irpwTO) TTJs Tatov Kattrapos ijyffioviai. ^/lcoi be vaibei dcri 
Tpfls, 'Tpicaros fxtv 6 TTpfajSvTaros trei TfrdpTif rj}s CW- 
(o-natTiavov Kaiaapoi iiyep.ovias [A. D. /}], «/38o';no) be 
'lovffTos [A. D. 7i], ivariD 8e 'Aypiinras [A. JD. 7|]. /ose- 
phu^ was 56 in the 13th of Domitian : conf. a. 93. which 
coincides with his birth in A. D. 38 at the close of the 
first year of Caligula. 

Apim of Alexandria flourished in the reign of Cali- 
gula : Sencc. Epist. 88. Apion grammaticus, qui sub C. 
Cwsare tota circumlatus est Gracia et in nomen Homeri 
ah omnibus civitatibm adopiatus, aiebat &c. He was at 
Rome with Philo in this year: F. H. I p. 434. 435. 
For his works see F. H. Ill p. 555. 

Demetrius the cynic, the friend of Seneca and of 
Thra»ea [conf. a. 66] and of ApoUormts Tyaneus [conf. 
a. 71]> is already eminent in the reign of Caligula: 
Senec. de benef. VII. 11. Qimm C. Cctsar illi ducenta 
donaret ridens rejecit &c. This testimony had escaped 
Brucker H. Phil. torn. II p. 506 when he supposed 
that there was no ancient testimony to this fact : Jam 
sub Caligula virisse Demetrium tradit Gaudentius, sed 
more mo sine teste et sine verisimilitudine. 

Domitius Afer is in danger from Caligula : Die 59. 

19. ev Tovroii rots roTf (cpideurt koI 6 'A^poi 6 Aofiinoi 
Koi Kivbwio TrapaSo'^o) Koi ariarqpCa Oavnacruartpq e\firj<raTo. 
rJxdfTO p-iv yap oircG (cat oAXoiy 6 ri'ioi 5ti iirl tov T«/3<- 
piov yvvaiKos tivos ttj ' AypiTTTrivr) Trj prfrpX avrov TSpocrif- 
Kov<T7]i KaTTjyopi'iKd K. T. \. t6t€ bi fiTfibi] (Ikovo Tiva av- 
rov ari'iaas i-iypap-p^a avrfi (ztypaijff br]\(av on «(," iyw 
Iros- bevrepoif imareva. Domitius escapes by submis- 
sion : l)io Ibid. For Domitius Afer conf. a. 45. 59. 
L. Seneca is also in danger: I)io 59. 19. 6 6< 6f; StiVicas 
6 ' Avvios AoiJittos, 6 Trdrray piv rovi Kaff iavrov 'Viapxiiovs 
TToAAoiis bi Koi 6XKovi iTo(\>ia vitfpdpai, bit(f)$apii ■nap'' 6\i- 
yov pt'ir i.biKrjcras ri ixijTf 6o'^oy, on blxriv Tiva iv r(ji mivf- 
bpita 77apoWos ainov KaAbis (Xtk. tovtov pkv ovv cniodavfw 
KfK(V(Tas i.(t>i}Ke — TSKrrfvaas Sn (t>96ri t( (xoito xaKut koI 
ovK is panpav T(\fVTi](TOi. His reputation at this time 
is marked by Suetonius Calig. c. 53. Senecam turn max- 
ime placentem. He may be now about 45 yeara of age : 
conf. a. 19. 



A.D. 1 Consuls 

2 Events 


793. C. Casar Atigustus 
Germanicus III solus In- 
dex Dionis lib. 59 Dio 
59. 24 Sueton. Cal. c. 17 
Nor. Idat. 

KXavbCov Kala-apoi to /3' 
fwvov Chron. Pasch. 

CaliguUe 4 from XVII Kal. April, trib. pot. 4. 

CaUgula is at Lyons Kal. Jan. Sueton. Cal. c. 17- Tertium consulatum Lug- 
duni iniit solus. His expedition to the ocean : Dio 59. 21 Sueton. Cal. c. 43 — 
46. He returned and had an ovation on his birthday : Sueton. Cal. c. 49. 
Ovans urhem natali suo ingressus est, intraque quartum m£mem periit. He there- 
fore returned Aug. 31. 

Agrippa is at Eome after the return of Caligula, and intercedes for the 
Jews : Philo leg. ad Caium c. 35—42 Joseph. Ant. XVIII. 8, 7. The letters 
of Petronius (Philo c. 34 Joseph. XVIII. 8, 8) arrive a short time before the 
death of Caligula ; for the mandate of Caligula (which was 3 months in its 
passage) reached Petronius 27 days after the death of Caligula was known at 
Antioch: Joseph. Bell. II. 10, 5. Faios avriypa^ev cnreiX&v HfTpavCa ddvarov 
— ak\a Tois fxtv ypap-ixaTocfjopovs crvvi^r] yfip.a<Tdrivai. rpets jii^i'as h tji dakda-crr), 
Tov be Fatov OdvaTov aXXot KarayyiXXovTes evirXoovV e(f)6ri yovv ras irepi tovtov 
Aa/Seir UfTpa>vios f-nioToXas iTTTa koI fhocnv rjij.4pas rj ras KaO'' eavToi). The 
transactions ot Petronius in Judsea, described by Joseph. Ant. XVIII. 8, 3 — 6 
Bell. II. 10, 3—5 Philo leg. c. 32. 33, are fixed by these incidents to A. D. 40. 

Ptolemy king of Mauritania slain: Dio 59. 25 Sueton. Cal. c. 26. 35. He 
had reigned 35 years : conf a,. 24. 

Coins apud Eckhel. tom. VI. p. 212. 1 Agrippina mat. C. Gas. Atig. Germ. 
-f C. CcBsar Aug. pon. m. tr. pot. Ill cos. III. 2 p. 225. C. Cwsar Aug. pon. 
m. tr. pot. Ill COS. III. + 8. P. Q. B. p.p. oh c. s. 3 C. Cwsar divi Aug. prm. 
Aug. S. C.4- COS. tert.pon. m. tr.p. Ill pp. r. G C. Within Jan. 1 — March 15. 
4 p. 225. C. CcEsar divi Aug. pron. A%ig.-\-r. C G cos. tert. pon. m. tr.p. IIII 
p.p. After March 15. 5 p. 219. C. Cwsar Aug. Germanicus p. m. tr.pot. IIII. 
pietas -j- divo Aug. S. C. Between March 16 AD. 40 and Jan. 24 A. D. 41. 


01. 205 U. C. Varr. 794. 
C. CcEsar Aug. Germ. IV 
Cn. Sentius Satuminus 
Index Dionis lib. 59 Nor. 
Ccpsare IV et Antonim 

K\au8iov KaCa-apos to y 
KOI ^ kvTdtvivQn) Chron. 

tS>v vmaTistv livriov 2a- 
TovpVLVOv Koi UoiXTimvCov 
IfKovvbov Joseph. Bell. 11. 
11,1. Serrids re koi 2e- 
Kovvbos ot vTTUTOL Anccd. 
Paris. Cramer, p. 23. Sc. 
Secundus suffectus in locum 
Caii VII Id. Jan. 

Caligula slain Jan. 24 : Sueton. Calig. c. 58. Nono Kal. Feb. — Vixit annis 29 
imperavit triennio et decem mensibus diebusque ocio. The numbers are consistent; 
for from XVII Kal. April. A. D. 37 to IX Kal. Feb. A. D. 41 are Si/. 10™. 8^. 
Eutropius VII. 12. Inter/ectus injMlatio est anno atatis sua 29" imperii tertio, 
mense decimo dieque octavo. Suetonius is confirmed by Clemens Al. Strom. I 
p. 339 C. rdios Koio-ap hr] rpla /xTJras i' fjp.lpas oktw. Dio 59. 30 gives him ten 
days less : ereo-t rpto-t koX ixrjcrlv evpia fifiepms re oktw kol elKotn. But Dio places 
his accession ten days later than the other authorities : conf. a. 37. His death 
is related by Suetonius Cal. c. 56 — 58 Dio 59. 29 Josephus Ant. XIX. 1. 2. 
who calls his reign Bell. II. 11,1 errj rpCa koI ixfjvas oktcL. Idem Ant. XIX. 2, 5. 
TfTaprov IviavTov rjyepiOveviTas Xenroira Tea-a-dpaiv p.i]v&v. Prope quadriennium 
Auct. Dial, de Orat. c. I/, rpia^iv ereai koX ixTjalv ff iip-epas re p.' koi k' [forte rf 
(cat K ex Dione] Cramer. Anecdot. Paris, tom. II p. 23. It?/ rpi'a ml /xTJvas ff 
Ibid. p. 279. 

Coins of Caligula apud Eckhel. tom. VI p. 226. 1 C. Cwsar. Aug. pon. m. tr.pot. 
IIII cos. IIII. 2 C. Cwsar divi Aug. pron, Aug. S. C.-\-cos. quat. pon. m. tr. 
p. IIII p.p. r.CC. 3 p. 223. C. Caesar Aug. Germ. p. m. tr.pot. IIII cos. 
IIII+ 8. P. Q. R. p. p. ob c. s. 4 C. Casar Aug. Germanicus pon. m. tr. pot, 
IIII +8. P. Q. B. p.p. ob cives sermtos. All stnick within Jan. 1 — 24. 

Claudius at his election is in his 50th year : ^ye 8e irevTrjKoo-Toi' has Dio 60. 2. 
quinquagesimo anno imperium cepit Sueton. Claud, c. 10. TTevTrjKovTovTrjs es to 
dpxfiv TiaprjXdev Philostrat. V. Ap. V. 27- His birthday was Aug. 1 : rfj tov 
kvyovcTTov vovp.r}via. kv 17 (yeyivvr)To Dio 60. 5. Confirmed by Suetonius, who 
places his birth at Kal. Aug. B.C. 10: see F. H. Ill p. 250. Claudius pro- 
motes Agrippa and other kings : Dio 60. 8. tw re 'Arrio'xw Tr]v Kopp.ayr)vr\v due'- 
buiKiv [see F. H. Ill p. 344 h] — koL tov M.idpibdT-qv tov "I^rjpa, ov 6 Fdios p.iTa- 
TTfpxlfdpevos eSeSe'xei, oiKoSe irpos avaXri'^w ttjs dpxrji d.Tii'nfp.'^iV oAAo) re' Tivi 

R O M A N I 



3 GitEKK Authors 

4 Latin Authors 

Philo ambassador to Calipitfa: Joseph. Ant. XVI 11. 
8, 1 apud Euseb. H. E. II. 5. <7T(i(rea>s (d 'AKf(avbpfCq 
■/(vofJiivrji 'lovba[(av re ot (voikovo-i koX 'EW-qviav, rp«tj 
a<t>' iKarfpas ttjs orda-fais wpeo-^Sei/rai alpfOfvra Trapfjirav 
its Tov Td'Cov Kol rjv yap t&v ' AKf^avbpfav Trpta^eoiv «Iy 
'Avltav, fly ttoWcl di tovs ''lovbalovs (^\a(T^rjiXT](T(v — 
■nokka hi (cal xakcna 'AttCwvos flp-qKoros, ixf)' S>v apdfjvai 
j;\7rife tov Fd'Cov, koI ft/cos r^v, 4>Ck<i)v 6 Trpoforus tSiv 
'lovbaCa>v Tjjy Ttpifffiuas, avr)p to. itdirra fvbo^os, 'Akf^Av- 
bpov re tov ' Aka^dp^ov dbfk(}>os iiv, koI </)tAo<ro(^iay ovk 
direipos, olo's re fjv ew' aTTokoyCa xmpfiv t&v (carrjyopTjfxe- 
rwf. There were five ambassadors : Philo leg. ad 
Caium c. 46'. (v rifxiv bi Tsivre TtpeajifvTaU. The mter- 
viovv is described o. 45. Petronim sends to Caligula 
in the summer: c. 33. Philo and the ambassadors had 
proceeded from Alexandria in the winter : c. 2!). on 
other affairs, and were already at Rome. The winter 
of A. D. ^f . Phih was now an old man : c. 1. ^/xets ol 
yspovTfi — TO. fikv a-dtfxaTa xpovov /x^xet TTokiol. which will 
place his birth at least at B. C. 15 or B. C. 20. Suid. 
p. 3810 A. ^[k(av 'lovbmos, Texdeh iv "Aktiavbpda, y4- 
vous Uptav, <f)iXo(To<(>'q(Tas fie to, 'Ekkiqvcav. On his em- 
bassy conf. Suid. p. 3811 A. 

For notices of Apion conf. F. H. Ill p. 555. 
I p. 434. 

Lucan is brought to Rome: Auctor Vita; : M. An- 
nans Lucanm 2)atrem habuit M. Annaiim Melam ex 
provincia Bectica — Cordubemem equitem Romanvm, it- 
lustrem inter mo», noiwn ltom<t et propter Senecam fra- 
trem, clanim per omnes virttUes virum, et propter ttudiutn 
titte quietioris — Natus est III Non. N^ov. C. Ccesare 
Augusta Gennanico II L. Casiano cose. fNov. 3 A.D. 3'J] 
— Octavum mensem agens Romam transtattu est. 

Seneca de ira lihri tres. After the death of Caligula: 
conf. II. 33. III. 19. 20. 22. And soon after: III. 
18. Modo C. Ccernr &c. And yet before the exile of 
Seneca, to which there is no reference in this piece. 
Which fixes the date to A. D. 41. Addressed by 
Seneca to his brother: I. 1. Exegisti a me, NovaU,ui 
scriberem — who is still called Novatut. His adoption 
therefore by Gallio was after this date. Novatus was 
the eldest son of M. Seneca, who in his prefaces always 
places Novatus first. Conf. prsef. Con. 1. I. III. IV. 
VII. X. Seneca Novato Senecw Meke Jiliis. He was 
himself an eminent orator: conf. a. 65. 

Exile of Seneca : Fixed to the close of this year by 
Dio 60. 8. OvakfpCa Mf(T<ra\(vj] ttiv ^lovkCav — i^<ipi(Tfv, 
iyKkrinaTa avrfj akka re kcu fWi\(Cas ■napa(TKevia-a<Ta, i<l>' 
fj KoL 6 Seve'tcaV o 'Aj^fios i<pvy(. Then followed the ac- 
count of Galba's success in Germany : see col. 2. He 
was banished to Corsica: ad Helviam c. 8 Schol. Ju- 
venal. V. 109 Auctor Octavia 382. 




1 Consuls 

9, Events 

Mi^ptSarTj TO yivos ait iKeCvov tov Tt&vv ^x"^'- '"O" BoVwopor iyaplcraTO, Koi ™ 
Y\oXi[i.<i>vi [conf. a. 38] \u>pav Tiva avT avTov ttjs KlKikCus avTfbatKe. t<3 yap 
'Ayphva T(3 na\at(rrtV(u, (rvfiTTpa^avTi 01 ttjv i^yepavLav {irvxe yap eu ttj 'Pco^tj 
wr) TrfV Tf apxh" 'Tpoa-fi!r]V^r](T€ Koi TLpMS imaTiKas (V(ip.c tm t€ abfK(p^ avTov 
'Hpaby [conf. Joseph. Ant. XX. 1, 3] ro re a-Tpar-qyiKov a^La>p.a koL bvva(TTeCav 
uva (batK€. Agrippa received at this time Judea and Samaria : Joseph. Ant. 
XIX. 5, 1. KAai/8ios — vpocrOriKrjv avT<a iroieirat -Kaa-av ttjv vtto 'Updbov fSamXev- 
dflaav, &s rjv TidTTvos avTov, 'lovbaCav Koi ^ajxApeiav. Conf. Bell. 11. 11, 5. 

Success of Galba and Gabinius in Germany : Dio 60. 8. TovT<f tm Irei re 
FaX/Saj 6 SouXtti'kios X^ttohs eKpar-qcre koL HovtiXios Taovtvioi Mavpov<Tlovs [conf. 
Fabric, ad locum] viKi^a-as k. r. \. 

Birth of Titus: Sueton. Tit. c. 1. Natus est III Kal. Jan. insigni anno Cai- 
ana nece. Natales Csesarura apud Bucherium p. 276. Dim Titi III Kalendas 
Januarii. Repeated p. 288. 


795. Ti. Claudius Ccesar 
Aug. II C. Ccscina Lar- 
gusD'wGO. 10. T.Claudio 
II et Longo Nor. Claudio 
II et Larbo Idat. KAav- 
8^ov Kaitropos to 8' [conf. 
a. 39 — 41] Koi Aapyov 
Chron. Pasch. 

Secundus et Venustus 

Lmigus Ceecina cmisul 
cum Claudio Ascon. ad 
Cic. pro Scauro p. lOLS. 

Claudii 2 from VIII Kal. Feb. since his reign began the day after the 
death of (7a J2<s .• postero die Sueton. Claud, c. 10. Suetonius c. 11 mentions 
biduum, or two days current, of liberty ; and Josephus Ant. XIX. 4, 4 day- 
break or TTiv TTpatTriv apxiju ^/xe'pas. Claudius therefore was acknowledged 
Jan. 25 A.D. 41. The preceding night had been passed by the senate in 
deliberation, and by Claudius in the pi'setorian camp : conf. Joseph. Ant. 
XIX. 4. 5 Sueton. Claud, c. 10, 

Paulinus and Geta conquer the Moors : Dio 60. 9. t(3 8e ex"/^^"*? (*''*0 <•' — 
MaCpot ■noXep.ria-avTe'i icaT€(rTpa(pr]arav. 2ot;7jr(oj'ios fiev yap IlavXivos eK tu>v ((rrpa- 
TrjyqKOTav tov ttjv xcapav avTbiv p.expi- Toij 'ArAorros avTiKUTibpafjie. Tvalos bi 'OaC- 
bLos TeVas ex t&v o/xoicov jxeT (K€lvov (TTpaT€v<Tai ewi tov 2<il\.al3ov top a-Tparqyov 
a(f>(ov eiidvi &py.r](Te, KaH evUrja-fV avTOV kol Stto^ koI bevTfpov k. t. \. 

Deaths of Pcetus and Arria: Dio 60. 16. Conf. PHn. Ep. III. 16 Martial. 
Ep. I. 14 apud Lips, ad Tacit. Ann. XVI. 34 et Fabric, ad Dionem 1. c. 

Coins of tliis year apud Eckhel. torn. VI p. 239 with this inscription : Ti. 
Claudius Ccesar Aug. + cos. Upon. m. tr. p. imp. p. p. S. C. 


796. Ti. Claudius Ccesar 
Aug. Ill L. Vitellim 11 
Dio 60. 17. 21. 

Claudio III et Vitellio 
Idat. T Claudio et Vi- 
tellio Nor. 

Kkavhiov Kaicrapos to e 
[conf. a. 42] Koi BiTfKkiov 
Chron. Pasch. 

Claudii 3 from VIII Kal. Feb. trib. pot. 3. 

Expedition into Britain: Dio 60. 19. A5\os ITXai/rioy, fiovkevTTji koyip.otTaTOi, 
es Tr\v BpeTTavviav earpdreva-e. In which Vespasian served : Ibid. c. 20. 6 ITAau- 
Ttos — fmbceTTfpLxfre tov t€ Ov((nTa(navov tov <t>Kipiov tov Kal rrjv iXiTa TavTa avTO- 
KpdTOpa dpxhv Aa/SoVra, Kal tov dbe\((>ov avTov 'S,afilvov viroaTpayriyovvTd oi. 
Sueton. Vesp. c.4. Claudio principe Narcissi gratia legatus legionis in Germa- 
niam missus est ; inde in Britanniam translatus tricies cum haste conflixit, duas 
validissimus gentes swperque XX oppida et insulam Vectem Britannia proximam 
in deditionem redegit, partim Auli Plautii consularis legati partim Claudii ipsius 
ductu. Conf. Tacit. Agric. c. 13. Claudius himself passed over in his third 
consulship: Dio 60. 21. IIAavrios — tov K\au8tor p.eTeTrep.'neTo — iXOova-qi be 
TTJs dyyeXiai 6 KKavbios to, ixev oikoi tw OiireXXio) T<a avvdpxovn Td re dWa Koi 
Tovi uTpaTKOTas ivexflpi-ae (xat yap e^ t(rov avTov kavrw k^dp.r]vov okov vnaTncrai 
eTTOitjtrer), avTos Se e^ea-TpaTtva-aTo k. t. k. — kolk tovtov avx^ow tovs pifv 6p.okoyCa 
Tovs be Kal jiiq n pocrayopif vos avTOKpdTcap TroWoKts (■navopdadr) Ttapa to, TraTpia' 
oi ydp fOTiv ev ovbevL Ttkiov i) dira^ e(c tov avrov Ttokip-ov Tr)V iitiKk-qcnv TavTrjv 

Coins apud Eckhel. tom. VI p. 240. 1 Ti. Claud. Ccesar Aug. p. m. tr. p. 
Ill+paci Augustcs. 2 Ti. Claud. Ccesar Aug. p. m. tr. p. Ill Imp. F4- paci 
AugustcB. Issued within Jan. 25 A. D. 43 — Jan. 24 A. D. 44. 


797. L. Quinctius Grispi- 

. Cl-audii 4 from VIII Kal. Feb. trib. pot. 4. 

R O M A N I 


S Gbeek Authors 

4 Latin Authors 



Asconim Fedianut flourished : Ascon. ad Cic. pro 
Scauro p. 1013. Posiidet earn nunc Lonffut Ccecina qui 
consul fuit cwin Claudia [see col. 1]. Quoted by Quin- 
tilian I. 7, 24. " Sibe" et " qu(m"—T. Liviuim HMtrn «a 
Pediano comperi. Idem V. 10, 9. Orationum CieennU 
velut thetna ipse exponens Pedianus. From the tenn 
comperi Quintilian seems to have heard Ascmiua him- 
self; who might therefore be of the same age as Do- 
mitius Afer : conf. a. 4;). But Asconius had conversed 
with Virgil: Serv. ad Eclog. III. 105. Asconius Pedi- 
anus dicit se dicentem Virgilium audisse — and Virgil 
died 61 years before the consulship of Ccecina. But 
Asconius lived to 85 : conf a. 76- and might have 
reached the time of Quintilian cir. A. D. 50. 

Martial born March 1 : for he celebrated his 57th 
birthday (that is, entered his 57th year) on the Ist of 
March A. D, 99 : conf. a. 99. 

Malala X p. 320 = 248. (Ttl rijs fia<rik(Cas KXavUov 

E 2 




1 Consuls 


mos II M. Stafilim Taurus 
Crispinm el Taurus Cas- 

Crispo II et Tauro Nor. 
Idat. Die (see col. 2.) 

KpLcr-nov koI Toi^poifChron. 

Lapis apud Gruter. p. 
1041. 10 Noris. 0pp. torn. 
Up. 881. IIINon.Ja- 

L. Quinctio Crispino II 
M. StatiUo Tauro cos. 

Return of Claudius : Dio 60. 23. /iiera be ravra Tatov re KpCa-nov to bevrepov 
Koi TCtov ^TariXCov VTraTivovratv, r^Kdi re e? tt}v 'Pca/^iT/y 6 K\a\ihios ef nfivai 
aTTobrifj,ri(ras (d(^' &p fKKaibfKa (lovas (v rfj BpfTravia fjixipas eTroujo-e) xai to, 
viKTjT-qpia eTTfp,\jff. Sueton. Claud, c. 17- Expedittonem, unam omnino su^cepit 
eamque modicam. — Britanniam potissimum elegit, neqm tentatam ulli post Divum 
Julium et tunc tumultuantem ob non redditos tramfugas &c. — Sine ullo prmlio 
aut sanguine intra paucissimos dies parte insulce in deditionem recepta, sexto quam 
profectus erat mense Romam rediit triuniphavitque maximo apparatu. 

Death ot Agrippa: Joseph. Ant. XIX. 8, 2. rpCrov bi eros avra jSacnXfvovTi 
TTJi oX-rji ^lovbaCai TreTrX^ptoro. — KaT€(TTpe\l/fv a.Trd yevfcrfots ay(ov TreimjKOoroi' Iroy 
Koi TerapTov, rrjs /8ao-t\etas 8e IjibofjLov. rirrapa's )j.\v ovv ewt Tcclov Kaicrapoi fjSa- 
crCKevfffv epiavTovs, Trjs 'tiXtTTTroK p-^v TfTpapxlas els TpierCav ap^as tm Tfrdpria 8e 
Koi TTiv 'Hpmbov TTpo(TfLkr](f>ibs rpels be eiriXa^iav em rfjs KXavbiov Kaicrapos aino- 
Kparopias. Conf. Euseb. H. E. II. 10. He was appointed to Philip's tetrarchy 
soon after the death of Tiberius in A. D. 37 : Joseph. Ant. XVIII. 6", 10. 
r<iios — biekOovcrSiv ov noKKSiv fjpep&v — jSacnkea KaOia-T-qaiv avTov rfjs <t>ikiTn:ov 
TerpapXMS, b(i}pr)crdpi,evos avrQ koX ttiv Avcravlov TeTpap\tav. Dio 59. 8. Taios — 6 
^AvTi6\(f T(3 'Aim6)(ov Tr)v Kop.payrivr]v — bovs, /cat ' Aypiniiav rov tov 'Hpaibov ey- 
yovov Avcraj re {into yap tov Tt/3eptot; ebebeTo) Kal rr) tov t:6.ttitov a.p)(rj Trpoard^as. 
Philo in Flaccum c. 5. rdVos Kalaap "'AypiTma t(3 'Hpabov j3a(nXea>s viava bibttxri 
j3aa-(.XeCav Trjs Trainiiaas Kri^ea>i Tpirriv pmpav, fjv <I>iA.t7r7ros TeTp6.p)(rjs — eKapTiovTO. 
He received Trachonitis in A. D. 39 (conf. a.), and Judaea from Claudius in 
the spring of 41 (conf. a.), four years after his first appointment. Agrippa 
himself in A. D. 40 apud Philonem leg. ad Caium c. 41 enumerates the gifts of 
Caligula : exapia-oo pioi jiaaCKelav, -nakai pev pias x<^P°-^ [the tetrarchy of Philip 
in A. D. 37], avdis be Kal erepai p,eC^oi!os, ri]v TpaxnaviTiv \eyopevrjv Kal ttjv Faki- 
Kaiav cnivA^as [the tetrarchy of Antipas in A. D. 39]. His third year from this 
last appointment being completed in the spring, his death may be placed in 
the summer of A. D. 44. For the circumstances compare Acts XII. 21 — 23 
with Josephus Ant. XIX. 8, 2. 

Olympic games at Antioch : see col. 3. 

Coins in Eckhel tom. VI p. 240. 1 Ti. Claud. Ccesar Aug. p. m. tr. p. II II 
+ imper. recept. 2 the same+paa Augustce. 


01. 206 U. 0. Varr. 798. 
M. Vinicius II T. Stati- 
lius Taurus Corvinus Dio 
fiO. 25. Vinicio et Corvino 
Phlegon Mir. c. 6 Nor. 
Idat. Chron. Pasch. 

Vinicius et Cornelius 

Claudii 5 from VIII Kal. Feb. trib. pot. 5. 

The younger Agrippa intercedes with Claudius in favour of the Jews : Jo- 
seph. Ant. XX. 1, 1. 2. 6 ve<oTepoi 'Aypmiras 6 tov TereXevTriKOTos wais [conf. a. 
44] — eTvy\ave be tov irapa KAav8ui) KaCaapi — napaKakei tov KaC<rapa (Tvy\<i>pr]<Tai 
Tois 'lovSai'ois Snrep rj^iovv Tiepl t^s Upas otoA.tjs, koL <t(i8&) itepl Tovrav aTrooreiAat. 
KaXecras be K\av6tos roiiy 7rp€cr/3et9 e(pr] rafiTa (Tvyxwpelv, Kal eKeKevev avTovi 
''Ayptmiq )(dpiv elbevai,' — ctti re rais (moKpiaecn Toiavrrjv eTTtoroATJi' ebuKe' 
" KXavbios KaTcrap Fepp-aviKos bripapxi^Kfji e^ovcrias to ■nep/uTov, vnaTos aTroSe- 
" beiyp.evos to Teraprov, avT0Kp6.Ta>p to beKaTov, Ttarrjp iiaTpibos, lepoaoXvpiT&v 
" apxovcn /3ov\fj brip(f ^lovbaCaiv ttAvti iOvei xalpeiv k. t. \. — eyp6.<j)r] itpo Tea-a&pmv 
" KoXavbmv '\ov\iov em VTtaTU)V 'Povfjjov Kal Ylopurnov ^iXovavov." sc. IV Kal. 
Jul. A. D. 45, when these were coss. suffecti. Lapis ad calcem Sueton. N°. 2. 
Ti. Claudius Drusif. CcEsar Augustus Germanicus ponti/ex maximus tribunicicB 
potest. V imp. X p.p. cos. des. Illl arcus ductus aqua virginis disturhatos per 
C. Casarem a fundamentis novos fecit ac restituit. Ibid. N°. 3 Gruter. p. 238. 
Claudio Cces. A ug. German, pont. max. trib. pot. V Imp. X p. p. cos. des. IIII. 
Optatus Reburri &c. These inscriptions are also within the 5th year ending 
Jan. 25 A. D. 46". And from Josephus it appears that on June 28 A. D. 45 
Claudius was already Imp. X. conf. Eckhel. tom. VI p. 248. 

Antipater archon : Phlegon. Mir. c. f>. apxovTO's ^AOrjvricnv 'AvTiiruTpov, inra- 

R O M A N I 


a GiiKEK Authors 

4 Latik Authors 

01 'Avnoxfiy KT^ropa koI woAtrai<f>opav f-nf ijuj/av 8«rf- 
fifvoi u>(TT( TTapacr-)^€Oi]vai avToh — iiyopaa-dfjvai, to. 'OKv/jr 
irio AiT<!> Tbiv Y\i.(Taiu>v Tijs EAAd8o9 )(<ipas aitb tSiv iTi]crCa>v 
•npoaobaiv t&v iaOfvrmv xprifidrav Ttapa Swm^fov Tivbi 
(TvyKKriTiKov, (TvpLTToKCrov avT&v. Koi TTap(<T)^ev aiTois &yo- 
piaai TO. OKvixTTia 6 avrbs KKavhioi ^acriXeiis Irony XP1' 
y.aTi^ovTO<i Kara Toiiy ' Avt writ's 2i/povy '7/3'. — to ht r^y 
irpouobov flddr) <ty to ^TTiTfAeio-flat Toiy avrols inijitTroAirats 
Kara TTiVTaerrj xpovou -nokxiTpo-nov diav iia i)p.4pai K' fj.r]vl 
'Tirep^epeTaio) to! koI 'O/cTco^pio) a-KrjviKmv dvp.fKi,K(av kcH 
TpayiKS>v KOI ad\rjTiov ayUva koL liiinK&v /cat juoro/udxcov. 
K, T. \. — Toiy A' rifx^pas avb TTJy vfoixrjvCas tov 'Ti7<p/3ep«- 
raCov y.rjv6s. Tho 92nd year of Antioch began in 
autumn A. D. 43 because the first began in au- 
tumn IJ. C. 49 : F. H. Ill p. 3(>5. Hi/perheretceus is 
the last month of the year : Ibid. p. 36(>. 867- And 
these games are therefore fixed to the autumn or to 
Hyperheretcmhs of A.D. 44. The games were afterwards 
intermitted: Malal. X p. 321. and then resumed : conf. 
a. 212. 2. Norisius, who contends that Hyperheretmus 
was the first month at Antioch, observes Ep. Syromac. 
p. 229 " Uti Grseci mense anni primo Hecatombteone 
" ludos Olympicos edebant, ita Antiocheni eisdem lu- 
" dis celebrandis mensem Hyperberetffium destinarunt, 
" quod ille annum apud ipsos inchoabat." But the 
people of Elis, from whom Antioch derived the games, 
did not use the Attic calendar. They fixed the games 
not with reference to Hecatomhceooi but to the summer 
solstice ; and sometimes held them in the month .,4^90^ 
hnim, sometimes in Parihenim : Schol. Pindar. 01. III. 
35. which the Scholiast ibid, compares with the Egyp- 
tian Mesori and Thoth. The Antiochians, then, fixed 
their games in Hyperheretwus for some other reason. 

(Apollonius in the East. He arrived at Ctesiphon 
soon after the accession of Vardanes : 6 M7J8oy apri ey 
TO apxuv iJKiav Philostrat. V. A. I. 21 p. 26. two years 
and two months after: I. 28. iroarbv 8e brj tovto Iroy 
TTJ avaKTrjdfl<rri ipxfi ; rpCrov, ^(f>Ti, cmToy-iOa hvo j/8r; ttov 
p.fivfs. Apollonius remained twenty months in Persia : 
I. 22. I. 40. His visit to Persia is said in round num- 
bers to be 500 years after tho battle of Marathon B.C. 
490: I. 23. His arrival at the Indus 350 years after 
the defeat of Form B.C. 32() : 11.12. Apollonius staid 
4 months in India: III. 50. Then followed 10 days' 
journey from the Philosopher's Mount to the sea: Ibid, 
then a voyage along the coast to the mouth of the 
Euphrates: HI. 52 — 58. and up the stream to Babylon 
to Vardanes again; then to Nineveh: III. 58. (l)a<Tli; is 
Baj3vKava 8i' avrov avairKivaaL -napa tov OvapbdvrjV kcu 
TvxovTfi avTov oLov fyiyi'axTKOV iitl Tr}v Nivoj/ (kOdv avOn. 
Tlience he proceeded by Cyprus to Ionia : Ibid. Damis 
(an Assyrian : VII. 14) was the companion of his east- 
ern travels : I. 19. from whose account Fhilostraiu^ 

Domitius Afer flourished: Hieron. Anno Eu*eb. 2060 
[A. D. 4^] Domitius Afer Nemausentia danu orator ka- 
betur, qui postea Nerone regnante ex redwukmiia eiii m 
cceua moritur [conf. a. 59]. He is mentioned in the 
reign of Claudius cir. A. D. 50 by Dio (>0. 33. and was 
appointed curator aquaruin in A. D. 49 : conf. a. 59. 
His oration ^ro Cloantilla (Quintilian. IX. 2,20. 3,66. 
4, 31) was delivere<i in the reign of Claudius: Quintil. 
VIII. 5, 16. Another oration contra lihertwn Claudii 
is noticed Quintil. VI. 3, 81. 

Hieron. Anno 2060 Clodius Quirinalit rhetor Arela- 
tensii Romas insignitsime docet. 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

TfvovTutv kv 'Pdi^ii MapKOv Bii'tKiov KOt TiVoi) 'SraTiXiov Twupov. 


799. Valerius Asiaticus II 
M. Junius Silanus Dio 60. 
27 Nor. Asiatico et Si- 
lam Idat. Asiaticm et 
Cornelius Cassiod. 

'A<Tiart/coi3 koli SiXdron 
Chron. Pasch. 

Then a lacuna till A.D. 

Claudii 6 from VIII Kal. Feb. trib. pot. 6. 

Excesses of Messalina: Dio 60. 28. conf. Victor, de Caes. p. 311. 

The consul Asiaticus — Valerium Asiaticum bis consulem — is mentioned by 
Tacitus Ann. XI. 1. and by Seneca N. Q. II. 26. nostra memoria Valerio Asi- 
atico consule iterum. 

Coins of this year: Eckhel. torn. VI p. 240. 241. 1 Ti. Claud. Cwsar Aug. 
p. m. tr. p. VI imp. XI + de Britann. 2 the same +p. m. augur, cos. III. 
3 the saxne + imper. recept. 4 the B&vdQ + constantiw Augusti. 


800. Ti. Claudius CcBsar 
Aug. IV L. Vitellius III 
Nor. Idat. Censorin. c. 17 
Dio 60. 29. 6KTaKO(no<TTov 
rfi 'Viifiri erovs ovtos Ibid. 
De Vitellio Sueton. Vi- 
tell. c. 2. Lucius ex con- 
sulatu [sc. A.D. 34] Sy- 
riw prcepositus — mox cum 
Claudia principe duos in- 
super ordinaries consulatus 
[A. D. 43. 47] censuram- 
que qessit [A. D. 48]. conf. 
Tacit. Hist. III. 66. 

Claudii 7 from VIII Kal. Feb. trib. pot. ?. 

Ludi sceculares: Censorin. c. 17- Sextos ludos fecit Ti. Claudius Ccesar se IV 
d L. Vitellio III coss. anno BCCC. Tacit. Ann. XI. 11. lisdem consulibus ludi 
sceculares BOOo post Romam cmditam 64<> quam Augustus ediderat spectati sunt. 
Phn. H. N. VII. 48. Stephanionem — utrisque seecutaribus ludis saltasse, et Divi 
Augusti et quos Claudius Ccesar consulatu suo quarto fecit, quando LXIII anni 
interfuere. Sueton. Claud, c. 21. Fecit et sceculares, quasi anticipatos ab Augusto 
— cum quidam hisirionum producti olim tunc quoque producerentur. Aurelius 
Victor de Caes. p. 312. Hujus anno sexto, cvm XIV regnarit, 800"* urUs mire 
celebratus. Conf. Sueton. Vitell. c. 2. 

Vespasian in Britain : Dio 60. 30. Corbulo in Gaul and Germany : Tacit. 
Ann. XI. 18—20 Dio 60. 30. 

Asiaticus condemned: Tacit. Ann. XI. 1 — 4 Dio 60. 2?. 29. 

A coin of the 7th tribunician year : Eckhel. tom. VI p. 240. Ti. Claud. 
Ccesar Aug. p. m. tr. p. VII Imp. Xllll.+paci Augustce. An inscription ad 
calcem Sueton. N°.4 Grater, p. 113. Pro salute Ti. Claudi Ccesaris Aug. Ger- 
manicipont. max. trib. pot. VII cos. IIII imp. XV p.p. censoris. He was al- 
ready censor before Jan. 24 A. D. 48, when this tribunician year ended. 


801. A. Vitellius L. Vip- 
sanius Tacit. Ann. XI. 23 
Vitellio et Poblicola Nor. 
Vitellio IV et Publicola 
Idat. Vitellius II e4 Pob- 
licola Cassiod. 

De Vitelliis fratribus 
Sueton. Vitell. c. 3. quos 

Claudii 8 from VIII Kal. Feb. trib. pot. 8. 

Lustrum conditum. See the testimonies collected in F. H. Ill p. 457- 
Add an inscription Romse apud Gruter. p. 301. Temporibus Claudii Tlberii 
facta hominum armigerorum, ostensione in Boma septies decies centena millia 
LXXXXVIIM. X. On these numbers see Appendix, Claudius. 

Death of MessaUna: Tacit, Ann. XI. 26 Dio 60, 31 Sueton. Claud, c. 26. 
36. 39 Joseph. Ant. XX. 8, I. In the autumn: adulto autumno Tacit. Ann. 
XI. 31. Through the influence of Narcissus : Tacit. Ann. XI. 29—38. conf. 

R O M A N I 


3 Greek Authors 

4 Latin Authoss 

composed his history: I. .1. conf. V. 5. 9. 2(>. VI. 3.4. 
12. 21. 2i). .12. Damis still attended him in Italy in 
A. D. 9.3 : VII. 14. and brought his narrative to the 
accession of Nerva A. D. 96" : VIII. 28. conf. a. 97- 
The account of ApoUonim himself apud Philostrat. 
VIII. 7 p. 844 implies that his Indian travels wore in 
the reign of Claudius, but the precise time is not there 
determined. In his letter to Scopelianus apud Phi- 
lostrat. I. 24 he calls himself vioi a>v in when ho vi- 
sited the Eretrians in Persia. 

The acts of Vardanes, his accession reign and death, 
are described by Tacitus Ann. XI. 8 — 10 at A. D. 47. 
Tacitus marks that he still lived in A. D. 47 ; but the 
duration of his reign and the year of his death are not 
fixed by Tacitus.) 



(The birth of Phih Byhlim may be placed at this 
date, if he was 78 in 01. 125 : Suidas p. 3809. B. <bi\a>v 
Bi/3\ios, ypannanK6s. ovtos yiyovfv inl t5>v xpovav t&v 
iyyvs Nf'pojz'os, koX itapiTUvev ets fxaKpov vitarov yovv 
^flBfjpov Tov ^Epfvviov f^prifiaTliTavTa avTos ilval (firja-iv 
orav TJyev oyboov koL ((SbopiriKoaTov eras, dXvfnridbi be k 
Kol biaKoa-totTTTJ . As Pkilo lived in the reign of Hadrian 
(conf. a. 1 24), it is not likely that he was 78 in 01. 220, 
13 years before Hadrians accession. On which ac- 
count I thought it probable that Suidas wrote 'OXv/x- 
viabL 8' Koi K Koi 8taKO(no<TT7j, marking 01. 224|-, when 
a Severm was consul. But it appears from an inscrip- 
tion that the consul of 01. 224^ was Catilius Severus : 
conf. a. 120. 1. I am now therefore of opinion that 
the numbers were 6\vnTnAbi. bi e' Kai b' koX biaKocrioa-Tfi, 
and that Herennius Severus was a consul suffectus 
within 01. 22.5. We may assume that the 78th year 
of Fhilo was cuiTent in Ol. 225 ij- and that Herennius 
was a consul suffectus in A. D. 124.) 

Hieron. Anno Euseb. 2064 [A. D. 4f] M. AiUonius 
Liberalis Latinus rhetor pravissimas inimicitiat aan 
FaUentone exercet. PaloBtnon Vicetinus iimrfnis pram- 
maticns Romee habetur. Sueton. Clar. Gramm. o. 23. 
Benhmim Palxmou Vicentinm, mtdieris cema, prima 
(ut/erunf) textrinum, deinde herUem/lium dum conUta- 
tur in scImIos literas didicit. Pogtea manwiiissua doeuit 
Romm ; ac principem locum inter grammaticoi tentut, 






1 Consuls 

(pater) editos consules vi- 
dit, et quidem eodem umbos 
toioque anno, cum majori 
minor in sex menses suc- 

01. 207 U, C. Varr. 802. 
C. Pompeius Lonffinus Gal- 
lus Q. Verannius Tacit. 
Ann. XII. 5 Solin. 1,29. 
Q. Veranio et Pompeio 
Longo Frontin. Aquaed. 
c. 102. 

Veranio et GaUo Nor. 
Veriano et Gallo Idat. 

Verannius et Gallus Cas- 

urhis conditee anno 801" 
— consulatu eorum Olym- 
pias 207" o^is publicis 
annotata est Solin. 1, 29. 

For Phlegon see col. 2. 

803. C. Antistim Vetus 
M. Suillius Nervilianus 
Tacit. Ann. XII. 25 Nor. 
Vetere et Nerviniano I- 
dat. Vetus et Servilianus 

2 Events 

Dion. 60. 31. The freedmen of Claudius are named by Suetonius c. 28. Liler- 
torum prmcipue suspexit Posidem spadonem — Nee minus Felicem, quern cohortibus 
et alls provinciceque Judcea prceposuit [conf. a. 52]; et Harpocram — ac super hos 
Polybium a studiis, qui sape inter duos consules ambulabat. Sed ante omnes 
Narcissum ah epistolis, et Pallantem a rationibus. Conf. Victor. Epit. p. 361 
who also names Felix Posideus Polybius Narcissus Pallas. Zonar. p. 563. D. 
Tjo-av 6e rpety ot ^aKuTra to KpAros bif tXr]<l)6Tts, o re KdWioros, Ss (ttl tols /3t^Aoty 
T&v a^iuxrtmv ereVoKTO, /cat 6 NeipKurtroy, &s rav tTria-ToXSiv eTreoraTst, bio koI 
eyXupihiov irapi^avwro, koX 6 Yl6XKas, u r] tUv xprjfiATmv bioUrjais (TTfTriaTfVTO. 
Polybius was slain by Messalina : Dio 60. 3 1 . Callistus Pallas Narcissus are 
described by Tacitus XI. 29. The honours of Pallas are recited in an inscrip- 
tion apud PHn. Ep. VIII. 6. 

The younger Agrippa succeeds his uncle Herod in the 8th year of Claudius: 
Joseph. Ant. XX. 5, 2. Towards the close of the 8th year and of A. D. 48 : 
conf. a. 53. 

Claudii 9 from VIII Kal. Feb. trib. pot. 9. 

Marriage of Claudius and Agrippina: Dio 60. 31 Sueton. Claud, c. 26 Jo- 
seph. Ant. XX. 8, 1. C. Pompeio Q. Verannio consulibus Tacit. Ann. XII. 5. 
Death of Lollia iisdem consultbus Tacit. Ann. XII. 22. 

Coins of the 9th tribunician year : Eckhel. torn. VI p. 242. Ti. Claud. Ccesar 
Aug. p. m. tr. p. Villi Imp. XVI. or XVII. or XVIII. -H de Britann. or Con- 
stantio! Augusti, or Pad Augusta, or S. P. Q. R. p.p. ob c. s. Lapis ad calcem 
Suetonii N° 5 Gruter. p. 196. Ti. Claudius Drusi f. Caisar Aug. Germmiicus 
pont. max. trib. pot. Villi imp. XVI cos. IIII censor p.p. auctis popuU Bo- 
mani finibus pomerium ampliajit terminajitque. 

Dinophilus archon : Phlegon Mir. c. 22. &pxovTos 'Afliji/j/tri Aeiwc^iXov, vna- 
TevovTtav ev 'PdfJ-Ti KotvTOv OiipaTlov [lege cum Meursio OitpavvCov] kol Tvalov 
TlonTrrftov TdXkov. 

Claudii 10 from VIII Kal. Feb. trib. pot. 10. 

Adoption oi Domitius: Dio 60. 33 Joseph. Ant. XX. 8, 1, Tacit. Ann. 
XII. 25. C. Antistio M. Suillio cmsulibus adoptio in Domitium auctoritate Pal- 
lantis festinatur. Tacitus lb. calls him two years older than Britannicus : 
biennio majorem. But as he elsewhere makes Nero 17 at the end of A. D. 54, 
and Britannicus 14 in the beginning of 55 (conf. ann.), we may with Freinshe- 

R O M A N I 


3 Greek Authors 

4 Latin Authors 

qucmqmm in/atnu omnibui mtii$, palamque et Tiherio et 
mox Ohmdio pradicantibm, &c. Montiuncd by Juvenal 
VI. 451. volviUjiw Palmtwnis artem. VII, 215 — 219. 
doctwme Palcemonii &c. The maater of Quintilian: 
Schol. ad Juvenal. VI. 45 \. fframmatici, nuufigtri Quia- 
tiliani m-atmit. 

Damitius A/er is curator aquarum, and holds the 
office till his death in A. D. 59 : conf. a. Quintilian 
in his youth heard A/er in his old age: Quintil. V. J, J. 
Sufficiehant lilri duo a Domitio Afro in hanc rem [sc. 
rfe testibug] compositi, quern adoletcemtnhu $mem eolui: ut 
rum lecta mihi tantum ea fed pleraque ex ipto tint eog- 
nita. X. 1, 1 18. Eorum quos viderim Dotnitius Afer et 
Julius A/ricanus hmge prcBstantissimi. Arte iUe et toto 
genere dicendi prcpferendus, et quern in numero vetemm 
locare non timeas. X. 1, 86. tltor verbis mm ex Afro 
Domitio juvenis except 8e.c. Conf. X. 1,24. XII. 10, 11. 
Sentences of Dotnitius are often quoted by Quintilian. 
Conf. V. 10, 79. VI. 3, 32. 54. 68. 84. 92. XI. 3, 126. 
VIII. 5, 3. IX. 3, 79- 4,31. 

Seneca recalled from exile: Tacit. Ann. XII. 8. A- 
grippina veniam exsiliipro Annao Seneca timul prtetu- 
ram impetrat, latum in publicum rata oh claritudinem 
studiorum ejus, utque Domitii pueritia tali mapiitro ado- 
lesceret, et consiliis ejusdem ad spem dominattonit vtert- 
tur, quia Seneca fidus in Agrippinam memoria betuficii 
el in/ensus Claudio dolore injurice credebatur. Schol. 
Juvenal. V. 109 makes his exile only 3 yean: pott tri- 
ennium revocatus est. But his recal is in the 8th year : 
conf. a. 4 1 . Nero was placed under the care of Seneca 
6 years before his accession to the empire : conf. a. C2. 
which carries back the rocal and appointment of Se- 
neca to the beginning of 49, six years current before 
Oct. A. D. 54. Suetonius Ner. c. 7 places this appoints 
ment after the adoption in A. D. 50: UtuUdmo aiatit 
anno (Domtius) a Claudio adoptatus est Annteoque S&- 
necee — traditus. 





1 Consuls 

9, Events 

mius read iriennio. Suetonius Claud, c. 27. Britannicum mgesimo imperii die 
inque secundo consulafu natum sihi parvulum etiam turn et miUtibus pro condone 
manihus suis gestans et plehi per spectacula gremio aut ante se retinens, assidue 
commendahat. But this account is also inconsistent. "We may correct it by 
transposing : Britannicum mgesimo imperii die natum sibi [sc. Id. Feb. A. D. 41] 
inque secundo consulatu parvulum etiam tum [sc. post Kal. Jan. A. D. 42] et 
m,ilitibus &c. It seems that Nero was born Dec. 15 A. D. 37 [conf. a.], and 
Britannicus Feb. 13 A. D. 41, being triennio minor. Dio, having noticed 60. 10 
the second consulship of Claudius, notices c. 12 the birth of Britannicus : yev- 
vrjdfVTOs avT^ vlov 6s r6r( jikv K\oi/5to9 Tt/3e'ptoy Fepjuai'tKos xKmpov 6e koX Bp(T- 
TaviKos iiKavoixacrdr], k. t. \. but this notice does not determine the birth to 
that year ; for Dio had there returned to the transactions of the former year : 
rw TTporepo) trei Ibid. 

Ostorius in Britain (who had defeated the Iceni: Tacit. Ann. XII. 31) in- 
vades the Silures, who are led by Caractacus: XII. 33. Garactacus is cap- 
tured : vinctus ac victorihus traditus est nono post anno quam bellum in Britannia 
coeptum Ann. XII. 36. The first campaign in Britain was in A. D. 43 [conf. a.]; 
this was therefore the eighth ; and Tacitus supposes war to have commenced 
in A. D. 42, one year before the expedition of Claudius. 

Coins of the 10th tribunician year: Eckhel torn. VI p. 242. I Ti. Claud. 
Casar Aug. p. m. tr. p. X imp. p. p. + Paci Augustee. 2 Ti. Claud. Ca-sar 
Aug. p. m. tr. p. X p.p. imp. XF/ZJ+the same, or 8. P. Q. R. p. p. oh c.s. 
3 p. 257. Agrippina Augusta Cvsaris Aug.+ Ti. Claud. Casar Aug. p.m. tr. p. 
X imp. XI IX. Conf. Tacit. Ann. XII. 26. {his coss.) Augetur et Agrippina 
cognomento Augustee. 

Lapis ad calcem Sueton. N°. 6 Gruter. p. 113. Pro salute Ti. Claudi Cas. 
Germanici pont. max. trib. potest. X imp. XI IX cos. I II I design. V &c. 


804. Ti. Claudius Ceesar 
Aug. V Ser. Cornelius 
Orjitus Tacit. Ann. XII. 
41 Nor. Claudio et Or- 
Jito Idat. Cassiod. Mar- 
mor apud Gruter. p. 300. 

Claudio CcBsare Aug. 

German. V. . . r. Cornelio 
Orfito cos. p. R. c. aim. 

The last consulship of 
Claudius: Sueton. Claud, 
c. 14. Consulatus super 
pristinum [A. D. 3/] qua- 
tuor gessit ,• ex quilus duos 
primos junctim [42, 43], 
sequentes per intervallum, 
quarto quemqm anno [47, 
."il],- semesirem nomssimmn 
bimestres cceteros; tertium 
autem novo circa principem 
exemplo in locum demortui 

Claudii 11 from VIII Kal. Feb, trib. pot. 11. 

Vespasian is consul suffectus: Sueton. Vesp. c. 4. Consulatum, quern gessit per 
duos novissimos anni menses. Idem Domit. c. 1. Bomitianus natus est IX Kal. 
Novemb. [conf. Dion. 67- 4 Sueton. Domit. c. 13] patre consule designato, initu- 
roque meme insequenti honorem. AsDomitian died in his 45th year (conf. a. 96), 
his birth and the consulship of Vespasian are placed in A. D. 5 1 . 

Nero receives the toga virilis: Tacit. Ann. XII. 41. Ti. Claudio V Ser. 
Cornelio Orfito consulihus virilis toqa Neroni viaturata. He is the pupil of Se- 
neca: Dio 60. 32 Tacit. Ann. XII. 8. conf. a. 49. 4. 

Burrus pnetorian prefect : Tacit. Ann. XII. 42. Transfertur regimen colior- 
tium ad Burrum Afranium, egregix militaris famx, gnarum tamm cujus sponte 
[sc. Agrippi7ia'] prce/iceretur. 

A famine in this year: Tacit. Ann. XII. 43. Frugum egestas et orta ex eo 
fames. Conf. Sueton. Claud, c. 18. Scaliger ad Sueton. I.e. appears impro- 
perly to place this famine in A. D. 46. 

Coins of the 1 Itli tribunician year: Eckhel. torn. VI p. 243. Ti. Claud. Ccesar 
Aug. p. m. tr.p. XI imp. p.p. cos. V+paci Augustee, or S. P. Q. R.p.p. ob c. s. 
Lapis apud Eckhel. p. 249 Gruter p. 188. Ti. Claudius Drusi f. Casar Augustus 
Germanicus pont. max. trib. pot. XI imp. XXIIII cos. V p. p. restituit C. Mi- 
nicio Fundano et C. Vettenio Severo cos. [sc. suffeciis.] 


805. Cornelius Sulla Fau- 
stus L. Salmus Otho Titi- 

Claudii 12 from VIII Kal. Feb. trib. p)ot. 12. 

Influence ot Pallas : Tacit. Ann. XII. 53. His brother Felix is procurator 

R O M A N I 


3 Greek Authoks 

4 Latin Authobs 


F 2 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

anus Tacit. Ann. XII. 52 
Frontin. Aquaed. c. 13 
Siflla et Catone Idat. 

of Judea : o. 54. Prater ejus cognomento Felix— jampridem Judcua impositus et 
cuncta mahfacta sibi impune ratus tanta potentia suhnixo — amulo ad deterrima 
Ventidio Gumano, cui pars provincial hahehatur, ita divisis ut huic GalilcEorum 
natio Felici Samaritce parerent, discordes olim et turn, contemptu regentium minus 
coercitis odiis, igitur raptare inter se &c. — arsissetqus hello provincia ni Quadratus 
Syrice rector subvenisset — damnatmque flagitiorum quce duo deliquerant Gumanus, 
et quies provincioi reddita. Josephus Ant. XX. 6, 3. 7, 1 also places the re- 
moval of Cumanus in this year, the 12th of Glaudius ; and according to Jose- 
phus Bell.II. 7, 8i^e& now first comes into Judea as the successor of CamawMS. 
But Tacitus is confirmed by the testimony of St. Paul in the Acts XXIV. 10, 
as Ernesti ad Tacit. XII. 54 has remarked. The government of Felix is no- 
ticed by Suetonius Claud, c 28. Victor Epit. p. 361. Felicem legionibus JudmcB 
prcefecit. Eusebius H. E. II. 19 merely repeats Josephus. Felix is still in 
office in the reign of Nero : Joseph. Bell. II. 13, 2. 

Naval combat on' the lake Fucinus: Tacit. Ann. XII. 56 Dio 60. 33 Sueton. 
Claud, c. 21. conf. a. 32. Ms coss. Tacit. XII. 52. 

Frontin. Aqused. c. 13. G. Gasar altera sui imperii anno M. Aquillio Juliana 
P. Nonio Asprenate coss. — duos ductus inchoavit. quod opus Glaudius magnijicen- 
tissime consummavit dedicavitque Sulla et Titiano coss. Kal. Augustis. Inscriptio 
apud Gruter. p. 176 Burgess Topography of Rome Vol. II p. 376. Ti. Glaudius 
Drusi f. Ga'sar Augustus Germanicus pontif. maxim, tribunicia potentate XII 
COS. V imperator XXVII pater patriee aquas Claudiam ex fontibus qui vocaban- 
tur cceruleus et Gurtius a milliario XXXV [XXXXV Grut.] item Anienem 
novum a milliario LXII sua impensa in urbem perducendas curavit. Conf. 
Eckhel. torn. VI p. 249 Frontin. Aqused. c. 104. 105 Sueton. Claud, c. 20 
Plin. H. N. XXXVI. 15. 



01. 208 U. 0. Varr. 806. 
D. Junius Silanus Tor- 
quatus -Q. Haterius Anto- 
ninus Tacit. Ann. XII. 58 
Nor. Idat. Phlegon Mir. 
c. 7. 

Claudii 13 from VIII Kal. Feb. trib. pot. 13. 

Nero marries Ocfavia : Tacit. Ann. XII. 58. Dec. Junio Q. ffaterio coss. 
XVI annos natus Nero Octaviam Ccesaris filAam in matrimonium accepit. He 
completed his 16th year Dec. 15 A. D. 53 : conf a. 37- 

The younger Agrippa is appointed to Philip''s tetrarchy and to Trachonitis 
and Abilene when the 1 2th year of Glaudius was completed : ScoSe'icaror tTos 
■ijbr] iTei;\i]pa>K<is Joseph. Ant. XX. 7, 1. About February A. D. 53. Gois im- 
munitas tributa: Tacit. Ann. XII. 61. Byzantiis — tributa in quinquennium re- 
missa: XII. 62. 

An inscription of the 13th tribunician year is quoted by Eckhel torn. VI 
p.250. Imp. XX VII tr. p. XIIL 

Dionysodorus archon: Phlegon Mir. c. 7- apxavros 'Ad^irpa-i Aioma-obdpov 
VTiaTivovTijiv iv 'P<ip.ri AtKiJiov 'lovviov ^iKavoi) TopKovdrov kol KoivTov 'Aanpiov 
[leg. cum Meursio 'Areplov] 'Avtwvlvov. 

807. M. Asinius Marcel- 
lus APAcilius Aviola Ta- 
cit. Ann. XII. 64 Nor. 
Idat. Seneca de morte 
Claudiic.l Sueton. Claud, 
c. 45. 

Marcellinus et Aviola 

Death o{ Lepida: Tacit. Ann. XII. 64. and of Glaudius: c. 67. 68. tertium 
ante Idus Octobris c. 69. Dio 60. 34. jU€T7jA\a£e rfj TpCrri kol de/cdrrj tov 'Oktw- 
iSpCov, Cqa-as iy ^tt) avTapxrjO'ai Se Ittj ly Koi p.j\vas okt(o /cat ijixepas elKOcriv. 
Josephus Ant. XX. 8, 1. hr) Ly jxifvas okto) 77p6s r]p.epai.s elKoai. Seneca de 
morte Claudii c. 1. ^. i>. Ill Idus Octobris Asinio Mar cello Acilio Aviola coss. 
Sueton. Claud, c. 45. Excessit III Idus Octobris Asinio Marcello Acilio Aviola 
coss. LXIIII (etatis imperii XII I I anno. Male Anecd. Paris. Cramer, torn. 
II p. 279 irr) ly p.rjvas €. Eutropius VII. 13 in round numbers : Vixit annos 
64 imperavit XIV. And Victor de Cses. p. 312. XIV regnavit. Victor Epit. 
p. 362. Vixit annos 64. The 8th month of the 14th year was completed ac- 
cording to Dio Sept. 23 A. D. 54, and the 20 days on Oct. 13. But Oct. 13 
properly belonged to the reign of Nero: Tacit. Ann. XII. 69. Medio diei III 

R M A N I 


3 Greek Authoes 

4 Latin Authors 


Gallio and Seneca are mentioned at this date by 
Dio 60. 35. ^kypnrnlva km 6 Ntpuf irtrdtrv irpo<r(voi- 
ovvTO tv iireKTovfurav Ij re ovpavov a)rqyayov — 50(v itfp 
AovKioi ''lovvioi FaXkCav 6 Toi5 ScvcKa ah(\(f>os irrtw- 
TUTov Tt aTtd^Biy^aro. <TvviOT)K( ixiv yap Kal 6 Sev^icoj 
(Tvyypap-po- " iiroKoXoKvrTaxnr'" avrh ivopAaai. Gallio 
is mentioned by Seneca Epist. 104. Illud mihi in ore 
erat domini met GalUonis. and in his latest work Nat. 
Qusest. IV praef. p. 743. Solebam tihi dicere Chdlvmem 
frairem nieum &c. For his adoption by Gallio conf. 
a. 32. 41 ; for his death conf. a. 66. The treatise o( 
Seneca de Vita beata, written in his old age (conf. c.l7). 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

ante Idus Octohris Nero egreditur &c. and the actual reign of Claudius Jan. 25 
A. D. 41 Oct. 12 A. D. 54 was Viv. 8™. 18^. From his birth Aug. 1 B. C. 10 
to his death are 63^. 2". IS''. 

Nero succeeds in his I7th year: Vix XVII annos egressus Tacit. Ann. 
XIII. 6. if' err/ ?iyev or rtp^ev Dio 61 . 3. XVII natus annos Sueton. Ner. c. 8. 
Narcissus put to death: Tacit. Ann. XIII. 1. The influence of Seneca and 
Burrus is marked by Tacitus Ann. XIII. 2 and by Dio 6"1. 3. 

Domitim Corbulo is appointed to Armenia: Tacit. Ann. XIII. 8. ^ne a/nni 
c. 6. 


808. Nero Claudius C(S- 
sar Auq. L. Antistiiis Ve- 
?MS Tacit. Ann. XIII. 11 
Nor. Idat. Cassiod. 

Neronis 2 from /// Id. Oct. trib. pot. 2. 

Pallas removed : Tacit. Ann. XIII. 14. Nero — deimnet Pallantem cura re- 
rum quis a Claudio impositus velut arbitrum regni agebat. 

Britannicus nearly completes his 14th year: Tacit. Ann. XIII. 15. Pro- 
pinquo die quo XIV""' wtatis annum Britannicus explebat — soon after the Sa- 
turnalia: festis Satumo diebus Tacit. Ibid, or Dec. 16 A. D. 54. His 14th year 
might have been completed Feb. 13 A. D. 55 : conf. a. 50. His death a little 
before his birthday is described Tacit. Ann. XIII. 15 — 18 Dio 61. 7 Sueton. 
Ner. c. 33. 

A coin apud Eckhel. tom. VI p. 262. Nero Claud, dim f. Cubs. Au^. Germ. 
imp. tr.p. cos. + Agripp. Aug. divi Claud. Neronis C<es. mater, ex S. C. Issued 
within Jan. 1 A. D. 55, when the first consulship commenced, and Oct. 12 
when the first tribunician year ended. 

Paullinus Pompeius is now in command in Germany : conf. a. 58. 


809. Q. Volusius Satumi- 
nm P. Comelivs Scipio 
Tacit. Ann. XIII. 25 
Phlegon Mir. c. 27 Lapis 
apud Gniter. p. 9 Nor. 
Idat. Pont. Liber Ponti- 
ficalis Damasi torn. I p. 7 1 . 
cm. Cassiod. 

Neronis 3 from /// Id. Oct. trib. pot. 3. 

Lapis Neapoli ad calcem Sueton. N°. 2. Gruter. p. 9. Q. Volusio Saturn. P. 
Cornelio Scip. cos. Augustales qui Neroni Claudia Cwsari August, et Agrippinee 
Augusta J. 0. m. et genio Coloniee ludos fecer. XIII. XII K. Mart. C. Tan- 
tillus &c. sc. Feb. 21. 22 A. D. 56. 

Conon archon : Phlegon Mir. c. 27. apxovros 'A0T^vr)cn Kovotvos, vvarfvovratv 
kv 'P<iiJ.ri KoivTov Ovkova-Cov laTopvivov koX YloTtkiov KopvrjXiov 2kivl(iivos. 


01. 209 U. C. Varr. 810. 

Nero Claudius CasarAug. 
II L. Galpurnius Piso 
Tacit. Ann. XIII. 31 Nor. 
Idat. Cassiod. 

Neronis 4 from /// Id. Oct. trib. pot. 4. 

Tacit. Ann. XIII. 32. Pomponia Grcecina insignis femitia, Plautio — ni^ta ac 
superstitionis externcB rea, mariti judicio permissa ; isque prisco instituto propin- 
quis coram — cognovit et insontem nuntiavit. Idem XIII. 33. Idetn annus plures 
reos habuit ; quorum P. Celerem accusante Asia, quia absohere nequibat Cessar, 
traxit, senecta donee mortem obiret. 

Coins apud Eckhel. tom. VI p. 263. 1 Nero Ccesar Auq. imp.+pontif. max. 
tr. p. Ill COS. II ex S. C. Issued within Jan. 1— Oct. 12 A. D. 57. 2 Nero 
Gmar Aug. Imp.-Vpontif. max. tr. p. IIIIp.p. Within Oct. 13 A. D. 57 — 
Oct. 12 A.D. 58. 

R M A N I 



3 Gkkkk Authohs 

4 Latin Authors 

is addressed ail Gallionem /ratrem. 

Heraclides the disciple of Didymus taught at Rome 

in tlio reigns of Claudius and Nero: Suid. p. 1()87.C. 

UpaKXfCbris riovTiKos, otto 'HpaKXfCas tt/j Uoirrov, ypafx- 

/xariKoy ocrns AMfXio ti5 irdivv Kara Tyjv ' AKf^avbpdbtv 

i(pOVT1)<TiV. olrOS (Ttilhl] I^KOVCTiV 'ATTfpOS TOV 'Apl(TT(ip\OV 

IJ.a6r]Tov ivboKCfjiOvvTos Kara Ujv 'Pcojurjr iroXAa re t6i> Ai- 
bvixov bia(TvpovTos, (ypaiffe k. t. X. — ei's 'Pm/urji' be Kofxia-as 
Kai TOV 'A-nepos KaTa<l)aveli KaTifxewf a-)(oXap\<av [sic ed. 
Oxon. Olim o-)(oAdf&)i^] ev avrfj iin KXavbCov xai Nepco- 
voi. For his Xeaxai described by Siiidas I. c. see F. H. 
1 1 1 p. 47 1 . Add Suid. p. 229;}. C Athon. XI V p. G49. c. 
Laortius V. 98. 'HpoicAfiSat hb'. -npStTos airos ovtos [sc. 
Heraclides Ponticus the disciple of Plato] . bfvrfpos tto- 
Xhrji avTov, injppCxas koI (pXvaplai (TwreTaypievos. 

If Bidynms was born B.C. 63 (conf F. H. Ill p. 
205), and Heraclides lived 'to the reign oi Nero, there 
was a space of about 1 20 years j'rom the birth of the 
master to the death of the disciple. 

As Aristarchm flourished at B.C. 1.56 (F. H. Ill 
p. 93), Afer could not have been tauglvt hy Aristarchus 
himself, but was 'Aptorapxf'os, one of the school of 
Anstarchus, though three or four generations below 

SenectJB de dementia libri duo ad Neronem CatMrem . 
Written when N'ero bad completed his 1 8th year : 
I. 9. Divus Augustus — quum hoc cetatis esset quod tu 
nunc es, duodevicesimum egremu annum. The J8ih 
year oi Nero's age was completed Dec. 14 A. D. 55 : 
conf a. 37. and this treatise may be referred to the 
beginning of 56. 

Hieron. Anno Euseb. 2072 [A. D. 54] Probut Bery. 
titnf eruditissimus. prammatuvrum Romee agnoscitur. 
Sueton. de Gramm. c. 24. M. Valerius Prohu Berytius 
diu ceniuriatum petiit, donee teedio ad studia M eontulit. 
Legerat in provincia quosdam veteres lihellos apudpram- 
madstam, durante adhue ibi atttiquorum memoria nee- 
dum omnino aholita, ticut Bomce. &c. conf. Martial. 




1 Consuls 


811. Nero Claudius Cie- 
sar Aug. Ill M. Valerius 
34 Nor. Oassiod. 
Nerms III et Messala 
Corvino Idat. 

2 Events 

Neronis 5 from /// Id. Oct. trih. pot. 5. 

Successful campaign of Gorbulo in Armenia: Tacit. Ann. XIII. 34 — 41. 

Sabina Poppma: Tacit. Ann. XIII. 45. Nee minus insignia eo anno impw- 
dicitia magnorum reipubUcce malorum initium fecit. Erat in dvitate Sabina 
Poppma &c. Oth) is sent into Lusitania : Ibid. Otho ad postremum, ne in urbe 
(Btnulatus ageret, provincicB Lusitanies prafidtur ; ubi usque ad civilia arma 
non ex priore infamia sed integre sancteque egit. He remained ten years : Sue- 
ton. Oth. c. 3. Provinciam administravit qucestorius per decern annos, moderor 
done atque abstinentia singulari. Till the close of A. D. 68 : conf. a. 

Tacitus XIII. 53 reckons 63 years from Drusus: Paullinm — inchoatum 
ante LXIII annos a Druso aggerem coercendo BJieno absohit. Drusus crossed 
the Ehine and died in Germany in B. C. 9 (see F. H. Ill p. 250) ; from 
whence 63 years will place the work of Paullinm at A. D. 55. Tacitus there- 
fore here relates the transaction of a former year. 

A coin apud Eckhel. tom. VI p. 263. Nero Geesar Aug. imp. +pontif. max. 
tr. p. Vp.p. ex S. C. Within Oct. 13 A. D. 58— Oct. 12 A. D. 59. Another 
Ibid, alluding to the Armenian victory: Nero Claud, divi Claud./. . . . + Ar- 
menia. Referred by Eckhel to A. D. 58. An inscription of the 5th tribunician 
year apud Eckhel. tom. VI p. 282 Gruter. p. 189. Nero Claudius Ceesar Aug. 
Germanic, pont. max. trib. pot. V imp. Ill p.p. 


812. C. Vipstanm Apro- 
nianus L. Fonteius Capito 
Tacit. Ann. XIV. 1 Plin. 
H. N. II. 70 Idat. 

Capitone et Aproniano 

de C. Vipstano Apronia- 
no conf. Noris. 0pp. tom. 
II p. 888. 

de Fonteio Juvenal. XIII. 

Neronis 6 from /// Id. Oct. trib. pot. 6. 

Death of Agrippina : Tacit. Ann. XIV. 3—11 Dio 61. 12—14 Sueton. 
Ner. c. 34. At the time of the Quinquatrus : Tacit. XIV. 4. Quinquatruum 
festos dies. Sueton. c. 34. Jucundissimis Uteris Baias evocavit ad solemnia Quin- 
quatrium [JCIV — X Kal. April.] simul celebranda. 

An eclipse Ap. 30: Plin. H. N. II. 70. Solis defectum Vipsanio et Fonteio coss., 
qui fuere ante paucos annos, factum prid. Kal. Maias Campania hara diet inter 
septimam et octavam sensit; Corbulo dux in Armenia inter horam diei decimam 
et wndecimMm prodidit visum. 

A coin of the 6th tribunician year : Eckhel. tom. VI p. 264. Nero Caisar 
Aug. imp..\-pontif. max. tr. p. VI p.p. ex S. C. Within Oct. 13 A.D. 59 — 
Oct. 12 A. D. 60. 

R O M A N I 


3 Grkek Authors 

4 Latin* Authokh 


Pamphila flourished in tho reign of Nero: Suid. 
p. 2821 C. \la^(\)i\ri,^V.-!:i.havpia, a-o<t>r), dvydr-qp ^o>Ttji)i- 
iov, ov KtyfTai (Ivai koI to. (rwriyfiaTa, m Atoiwioy iv 
7(3 X' T7j$ MovcriKTJs IvTopias' ws 8e trtpoi y(ypd(f)a<n, 
SdiKparCba tov avbpbi avrfji. 'IcrTopiKa VTrofivrjuaTa iv 
^i^Kioii Ky . finTOfjLijv t&v KrrjaCov iv /3i/3Aiotj y'. ^tti- 
TOfias l(TTopiu>v T€ Koi iT^putv /St/SAtcor Ttap.Tt\(i(TTaS. Ttepl 
ap.<pLa^r]Tr'i<Tf(i)v, Tifpl a.<l>pobi<T(u>v, koX &W(i)V ttoW&v. 
Conf. Eudociain p. .SfJO. Photius Cod. 175- &v(yvw(T$i]- 
aav UapLCpCXrjs cnipp.iKr(av i(TTOpiK<av vvoixvrnxdTiav Aoyoi 
J)'. avTt} avbpl p.€v cnjv(x>K{i, i)s koL aM) t&v iynoixvr)p.aTu>v 
■npooip.ia(op.ivr) (TnarjixaCvfTai' w Koi ty Ittj fic iraihbs 
(TvpL^iovaa TJhr] Ti]i VTroixvijixaTiKfji ravrrji crvyypa(j)TJi Af'yei 
aTTdpla(TOM, uvyyp<i\j/aL 8e 5 re Trapa tov avbpos fjidOoi, to, 
ly Itt] avvtxSi^ avTw a-vvovaa kol ^jj8' rjixtpav pitjb wpav 
&t:o\eLT!op,fvr]i koI h Trap' dWov Tivbs aKOvaai avvifir) tS>v 
■nap avTov d(l>iKvovp,iv<itv — koi brj nal oca /St/QA^ur avTr] 
dv(\s^aTO. ravTa be irdvTa, ocra Ao'yot) koI ixirqp.-qs avrfj 
d^ia eSoKft, «ts vvop-vriixaTa crvfxfxiyri Kal ov Tipbs 7as Ibias 
VT:o6€(TeLS biaKfKpipievov ^Kaarov bieXuv. — xp'qcrip.ov bi Tb 
^ifiKlov (is Ttokvp.aOLav. (vpoi yap av tis (cat t&v laropi- 
K&v oiiK 6\[ya dvdyKaia, Kal 6rj Koi dTTO<pd(yndT(i>v xal 
pjjTOpiKr/s biaTpi^ijs ivia KaX (pikocr6(f>ov Ofwplas Koi irotr;- 
Tujjj Ib^as, Kal ft Ti ToiovTov ip/niaoi. AlyvTnia bi to 
yivos ?/ Ylap.(\)iKr}, fiKp.a<Tf b\ Kaff o{)y \p6vovi N^paiv 6 
'P(i>IJLa[(av -qKixaCiv avTOKpdTmp. Sopater had transcribed 
from the tenth book of Pamphila: Phot. Cod. 161. 
p. 337. o b\ bevTfpos [so. T&v SojTrdrpov fK\oy&v] Ik t« 
T&v ^oiTriptba Ilafx^^Ar;? i-niTop.&v vp&Tov Ao'yov Kal ko- 
df^iji p-txpi TOV beKdTov. But it does not follow that 
Photius himself had seen the 10th book ; and the for- 
mer passage is not inconsistent with this account. 
Gellius XV. 23 quotes PamphilcB lib. XI de Bellanico 
&c. and XV. 17 Pamphilee nono et vicesimo, de Alci- 
hiade. Pamphila is quoted Laert. 1. 24. 68. 76. 90. 98. 

II. 24 iv T& (fibofj-ia T&v vTTonvrjpidTav de Socrate. 

III. 23 iv t£ TtefjuTTiD Kal eticoo-Tto de Megalopolitii et 
Plaione. V. 36 iv t^ rptaicooTu bevTtpif de Theophrasio. 

Hioron. Anno Euseb. 2073 [A. D. 5^] Staliut Surcii- 
liis [l/rsuluK Seal, ex Suetonio] Tolosetuit in GaUiia 
celehemme rlietoricam docet. 

Seneca Ep. 91. Liberali* nogter nunc trittit ett, nun- 
iiato incendio quo Luqdunensis colvnia exxuta est. — Huic 
coloniep ab oriffine ma centesimus annus est. A Planco 
deducta \ccss. Hirtio et Pansa : Die 4.5. I7 — 46.50]. 
Tho lOOtli year strictly taken would fall upon A.D..57. 
Seneca wrote the Epistles in old ago : Ep. 12 : Henee- 
tutis mea. Ep. 26 : in amtpeetu «t$e tne teiuelutis &c 
Ep. 45 : hanc senilem expedttionem. Ep. 108 : tali vtor 
etiam senex. After tho work ds Bene/iciis, which he 
quotes Ep. 81. and after the books de TranquiUUate 
and de Constantia, addressed to tierenus, who is now 
dead : Ep. 63. 

Seneca is still in favour with Nero in tbi* year: 
conf. Tacit. Ann. XIII. 42. 

Death o( Domitius Afer: Tacit. Ann. XIV. 19. 8*- 
qwuntur virorum illustrium mortet DomitH Afri tt M. 
Servilii, qui sumtnis honoribus et multa ^oqumiia vifftuh 
rant, ille orando causas, Sertilins diu/oro mox tradendii 
rebus Bomanis Celebris. Frontinus Aqused. c. 102 places 
the successor of Domitius as curator aquarum at A. D. 
60: Gallo successit Q. Veranio et Pompeio Loupe coss. 
[A. D. 49] Cn. Domitius Afer : Afro, Nenmt Claudia 
Casare IV et Cosso Cossijilio coss. L. Piso. The powers 
of Domitius declined in old age: Quintil. XII. 11, 3. 
Vidi ego lonpe omnium quos miki cognotcere contigit lum- 
mum oratorem Domitium Afrum — quotidis aliqmd ex ea 
qvatn meruerat auctoritate perdefd«n. His style is 
marked by QuintUian VI. 3, 2/. XII. 10, U- VI. 3, 42. 
and by Pliny Ep. II. 14, 9 quoting Quintilian : Ita 





1 Consuls 

2 Events 


813. Nero Claudius Ccesar 
Aug. IV Comelivs Cossus 
LmtulusTacit.Aim. XIV. 
20 Frontin. Aqu8ed.c.l02 
Nor. Idat. Cassiod. 

Marmor apud Gruter. 
p. 118. See col. 2. 

de Nerone Sueton. Ner. 
c. 14. Consulatm quatuor 
c/essit: primum [A. D. 55] 
himestrem, secundum [A.D. 
57] et novissimum semes- 
tres, tertium [A. D. 58] 
quadrimestrem. medios ditr 
OS continuavit, reliquos in- 
ter annua spatia variavit. 

Neronis 7 from /// Id. Oct. trib. pot. J. 

Quinqumnalia: Tacit. Ann. XIV. 20. 21. Nerone quartum Corn. Gosso coss. 
quinquennale ludicrum Romce instifutum est — ducentis jam annis a L. Mummii 
triumpho. sc. in B. C. 145 : called in round numbers 200 years. Sueton. Ner. 
c. 12. Instituit et quinquennale certamen primus omnium Romat, more Grrwco tri- 
plex., tnusicum gymnicum equestre, quod appellavit Neronia. Marked in a coin 
apud Eckhel torn. VI p. 2fi4. Nero Cats. Aug. imp. + cer. quinq. Mom. co. S. G. 
Other coins apud Eckhel. Ibid. 2 Nero Ccesar Aug. imp. -Vpontif. max. tr. p. 
VI cos. I III p.p. ex S. C. Within Jan. 1 — Oct. 12. 3 Nero Ccesar Aug. imp. 
+pontif. max. tr. p. VII cos. IIII p.p. ex S. C. Within Oct. 13 A. I). 60 — 
Oct. 12 A.D. 61. 

Successful campaign of Corbulo: Tacit. Ann. XIV. 23 — 26. He succeeds 
Quadratus in Syria : c. 26. Corbulo in Syriam abscessit morte Ummidli legati va- 
cuam ac sibi permissam. 

Inscriptio fratrum Arvalium apud Gruter. p. 118. Nerone Glaudio dim 
Claudi f. Germanici Ccesaris n. Ti. Ctesaris Aug. pron. dim Aug. abnep. C(p- 
sare Aug. Germanico pont. max. trib. pot. VII imp. Ill cos. IV. Cosso Lentulo 
Gossi flio cos. Kal. Januar. Sulpicius Camerinus magister coUegi fratrum Arva- 
lium immolavit in CapitoUo cos. Neronis Claudi Ccesaris Aug. Germanici Joei 
h. marem Junoni vaccam MinervcB vaccam genio ipsius taurum. in collegio ad- 
fuerunt Sulpicius Camerinus magister L. Piso L.f. T. Sextius Africanus &c.— 
Isdem COS. Ill Nonas Jamcar. Sulpicius Camerinus magister collegi fratrum 
Arvalium nomine vota nuncupavit pro salute Neronis Claudi dim Claudi f Ger- 
manici Ccesaris n. Ti. Ccesaris Aug. pron. diet Aug. abn. Ccesaris Aug. Germa- 
nici pont. max. trib. pot. VII imp. VII cos. IIII et Octavice conjugis, victimis 
immolatis in CapitoUo quce superioris anni magistri voverant, persolvit et in 
proximum annum nuncupavit, prceeimte M. Aponio Saturnino, Jovi mares duo 
&c. — In collegio adf. Sulpicius Camerinus magister A. Vitellius L. Piso L. f. 
&e. — Isdem cos. Ill idus Januar. adstantibus Sulpicio Camerino magistro L. 

Salmo Othone Titiano C. Vipstano Aproniano Eckhel p. 282 

has remarked the error of imp. Ill and imp. VII within the same month. 
But there is also a difficulty in trib. pot. VII twice occurring in this inscription. 
For in January of these consuls trib. pot. VI was still current, as in the coin 
N°. 2 given above from Eckhel. 


01. 210 U. C. Varr. 814. 
CcBsonius Pectus P. Petro- 
nius Turpilianus Tacit. 
Ann. XIV. 29. 

Turpilino et Pceto Nor. 
Lacio et Turpiniano Idat. 
Pius et Turpilianus Cas- 

For Phlegon see col. 2. 

Neronis 8 from /// Id. Oct. trib. pot. 8. 

Tacit. Ann. XIV. 29. Ccesonio Pceto Petronio Turpiliano coss. gravis clades 
in Britannia accepta. Conf. Dion. 62. 1 Sueton. Ner. c. 39. Boudicea : Tacit. 
XIV. 31 Dio 62. 2—/. Victory of Suetonius Paidinus : Tacit. Ann. XIV. 
31 — 37 Dio 62. 8 — 12. After this success Suetonius — tradere exercitum Pe- 
tronio Turpiliano, qui jam consulatu abler at, jubetur Tacit. XIV. 39. 

Galba commands in Spain, since he was elected emperor in A. D. 68, «tos 
oyhoov iKiivo TT\v apxrjv fx^" Plutarch. Galb. c. 4. Sueton. Galb. c. 9. Per octo 
annos varie et inceqwabiliter provinciam rexit. Ho was favoured by Seneca : 
Plutarch. Galb. c. 20. '^^viKav fix*" ivvow KaKtivov rov Nepuva ■nficravTo^ koX 
TiapaiVfrravTOi f^eTieii(f>9r] Av(nTavS>v aTparrj-yos em Tov D.Ktav6v. 

A coin of this tribunician year: Eckhel. torn. VI p. 265. Nero Ccesar Aug. 
imp. ->rpontif. max. tr. p. VIII cos. IIII p. p. ex S. C. 

Thrasyllus archon : Phlegon Mir. c. 20. &pxovroi 'A^^vijcri &pa<ru\Kov virarev- 

R O M A N I 


S Gkeeil Authoks 


4 Latin Authoks 

emie ex Quintiliano proMpiore meo audu$» numini. 
Narrabat ilk " Adsedabar Domitium Afinm apud em- 
" tumvirot agetUem graviter et lente : hoc ilU aetionis 
" pmtu eratf &o. 

Apollonius at Olympia : Philostr. V. A. IV. 21. ov- 
T(ov b( KoX ''0\viiTiCa>v. 7 years before Nero attempted 
to cut the Isthmus : lb. yfvojj.h'ov Kara tov iad^ov 

K. T. \. TTJS (TfllKpOV V(TTfpOV TTfpl TOV iadfJLOV TOfjLTJS fjV fliTO. 

(Tij fTTTo, Ne'pcor bifvorjOi]. That attempt was made in 
01. lill. 8: conf. a. (i?. which fixes this visit to 
Olymp. 210 July A. D. 61. Apolhnhis in the pre- 
ceding autumn arrived at Athens: V. A. IV. \j. is 
TOV rietpatS icTTrXfvirai -ntpl p,vcrTr)piu>v &pav — (cat yap to 
fifToiKapov K. T. X. Therefore the CTreater Mysteries ; 
for Anthesterion, the season of the Lesser, was not in 
November, as Olearius p. 1.55 imagines, but in the 
spring. And the 8th day of the Greater Mysteries 
the Epidauria — ^v fi^v 6^ 'EinbavpCatv fi r)p.ipa — is 

The birth of G. Pliniut CtedUui Seeundus of Comi 
may be referred to the close of A. D. 61, since his 
18th year was still current in August A. D. 79: conf. a. 
Tacitus was a little older : Plin. Ep. VII. 20. atate 
propemodum eequales. — Equidem adolescetUuliu, quum 
Jam tu fatna gloriaque floreres, (e seqm — amaipi$eebam. 
Tacitus was prsetor in A. D. 88 : conf. a. and coiue- 
quently at least in his 30th year at that date. The 
account of Pliny will make him a few years older, pro- 
bably 34 or 35 years of age, in A. D. 88. 

G 2 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

ovToov ev 'P^fxr) YloTrkCov TlerpcavCov rov ^Ttakiavov [lege cum Meursio TovpinKia- 
vov'] Kol Kf<T€vvlov IleVoi;. 


815. P. Marim Celsus L. 
Asinius Gallus Tacit . Ann . 
XIV. 48 Nor. Idat. 
Macrinus et Gallus Cas- 
siod. Bubrio Mario Asinio 
Gallo Sueton. vit. Persii. 

Neronis 9 from /// Id. Oct. trih. pot. 9. 

Death of Burrus: Tacit. Ann. XIV. .51. Gravesceniibus in dies publicis malis 
subsidia niinuebantur, concessitque vita Burrus, incertum valetudine an veneno. 
conf. Dion. 62. 13 Sueton. Ner. c. 35. Two successors are appointed : Tacit. 
XIV. 5 1 . Gcp.sar duos prmtoriis cohortibus imposuerat, Fenimn Ru/um — et Sofo- 
nium Tiqellinum. Tiie influence of Tigellinus is marked by Tacitus XIV. 57 
Dio 62. 13 and in A. D. 64 by Tacit. XV. 37. 72. 

Nero marries Poppfea: Tacit. Ann. XIV. 60. Exturbat Octaviam, sterilem 
dictitans; exin Poppeace conjungitur. Death of Octavia: Tacit. XIV. 64. Pu- 
ella vicesimo estatis anno — mori jubetur. Conf. Dion. 62. 13. On the 9th of 
June : Sueton. Ner. c. 57. conf. a. 68. Her first year therefore was still cur- 
rent June 9 A. D. 43. 

Death oi Pallas: Tacit. XIV. 65 Dio 62. 14. 

A coin of this tribunician year : Eckhel. tom. VI p. 265. Nero Ceesar Aug. 
imp. +pontif. max. tr. p. Villi cos. IIII p.p. ex S. C. 


816. G. Memmius Regulus 
L. Verqinim Rufus Tacit. 
VI. 1 Nor. 

Rufo et Regula Idat. 
Verginim Rufus Memmius 
Regulus Frontin. Aqused. 
c. 102. om. Cassiod. 

Lapis apud Noris. 0pp. 
torn. II p. 891 Gruter. 
p. 8. VotumsolveruntL. M. 

L. VerginioRmfo C. Mem- 
mio Regulo cos. 

Neronis 10 from /// Id. Oct. trib. pot. 10. 

Tacit. Ann. XV. 23. Memmio Regulo et Verginio Rufo consulibus natam sibi 
ex Poppcea filiam Nero ultra tnortale gaudium accepit, appellamtque Augustam, 
dato et Poppcece eodem cognomento. — qum fluxa fuere, quartum intra mensem de- 
functa infante. 

Thrasea Pcetus in A. D. 62 is noticed by Tacitus Ann. XV. 20, in 59 by 
Dio 61. 15, and in 63 by Tacitus XV. 23. 

Coins : Eckhel. tom. VI p. 266. Nero Ceesar Aug. imp. +pontif. max. tr. p. X 
cos. IIII p. p. ex S. C. Within Oct. 13 A. D. 63 — Oct. 12 A. D. 64. The 
daughter of Nero is commemorated in a coin apud Eckhel. p. 287- Diva 
Claud. Ner. f + diva Poppcea Aug. Issued after the death of Poppaa, and 
therefore not before A. D. 65. Alexandrian coins commemorating Poppcea as 
Augusta: Eckhel. tom. IV p. 55 tom. VI p. 286. IToTrTraia 2e/3aoTj; or rioTrTraiaj' 
Nepoij/os I,fl3acrTov, L. 6' or l or la' or t/S' + Nepc*. K\av. Kaia. Se^. Tep. av. 
The 10th year ot Nero in Alexandrian computation was reckoned from Aug. 
29 A. D. 63 ; the 1 Itb, from Aug. 29 A. D. 64 ; the 12th, from Aug. 29 A. D. 
65. whence it follows that the coins bearing L. 6' were issued before Aug. 29 
A. D. 63. 


817. C. Lecanius JSassus 
M.Licinius Crassus Frugi 
Tacit. Ann. XV. 33. 
Orasso Frugi et Lecanio 

Neronis 11 from /// Id. Oct. trib. pot. 11. 

Tacit. Ann. XV. 33. C. Lecanio M. Licinio coss. acriore in dies cupidine adi- 
gebatur Nero promiscuas scenas frequentandi. — non tamen Bomts incipere ausus 
Neapolim quasi Grcecam urbem delegit. Nero in the theatre is described by 

R O M A N I 


3 Grkkk Authors 

4 Latin Adthobb 

named IV. 18. Apollonlm after the Olympic games 
is at Sparta till the end of winter : IV, ;J4. biarpCyf/as 
fi" iv rH IiTidpri] (rbv) /xera rijv '0\viJ.i:lai> xpovov. ms irt- 
kfvra 6 \(iiJMV, im Ma\tav T]\d€v &p\oij.(vov i}/)o$. In 
the spring A. D. 62 he proceeds to Crete : Ibid. ovctHv 
iv MaX^o vr)<ov Trkfiovcav at is Kpi)rqv a<priirfu> l/ucXXoi', 
ivijir) vavv. 

Demetrius cynicm is at this time at Corinth : Phi- 
lostr. V. A. IV. •!'•>. iv Kopiv6<a 6« (pLKocrocft&v irvyxavf 
Tore Arjfj.i')Tpios, avi}p furfiArjt/jajs &Trav to iv KVViKij Kpd- 
Toi' ov i>afi(iiplvoi varepov iv ttoXAois t&v iavrov K6yii>v 
oiiK &yfvv&s iTttp.vr\<TOr). Conf. IV. 42. 



Death oiPersiiu: Sueton. in vita: Deceuit VIII 
Kal. Decemh. liuhrio Mario Atinio Gallo cot*. At the 
right date in Ilieron. Anno Euseb. 2078 [A. D. 6»j] 
Persius moritur anno atatit ma: XA'IA'. The 2!>th 
Eusobian year: conf. a. 34. But the 28th year of/V- 
sitia was not completed. 

Seneca after the death of Burrus is in danger: Tacit. 
Ann. XIV. 52. Mors Burri infreqit Seneca jjotenflam. 
&c. Seneca apud Tacit. XIV. 53 marks the 8th year 
of Nero's empire : Quartus decimus anmu est, Ccptar, ex 
quo spei tua'. adnwtus sum [conf. a. 49], octavus nt impe- 
rium. obtines. Which will place that conversation before 
Oct. 12, when the 8th year ended. 

Seneca completes Naturalium Quastionum libros VII 
after this year: VI. 1. Pompeios—desedlsse—auJlrimiu 
NmiisFebr.fuit motus hie, Beflulo et Verpinio consulibue. 
Tacitus Ann. XV. 22 refers the earthquake to the pre- 
ceding year. Seneca in this work mentions a comet 
which appeared in A. D. 60 : N. Qu. VII. 21. Sex ttieH- 
sibus hie cometes quern nos Nermiis prineipatu Uetuaimo 
vidimus spectandum se prcebuit in dirersum iUi Clnmlt- 
ano [conf. Sueton. Claud, c. 46] circumacttu. Tacit. 
Ann. XIV. 20. 22. Nerom IV Corn. Cotto con.—sidtu 
cometes effulsit. Seneca remembered a similar appear- 
ance 41) years before the present date : N. Qu. I. 1 . 
Vidimus circa did /lupusti excessum simile prodigium: 
vidimus quum </<* Sejatio actum est [A. D. HI : nee Ger- 
manici mors [A. I). 1!>] sine denuntiatione tali/uit. VII. 
17. Nee est quod putemus euiidem visum esse sui Claudio 
quern sub Augusta vidimus, nee Aunc qui sub Neron« Cee- 
sare apparuit, et comets detraxit in/amiam, illi similem 
fuisse qui post necem divi Julii—emersit [conf. Sueton. 
Cies. c. 88]. 

Jotephus conies to Rome : Vit. c. .S. par (Iko(ttov hk 
Koi iKTOv ivLavTov €is 'Paj/xrjr poi avvi-mcrfv avaliiivai. 
His 26th year was completed in the beginning of 
A. D. 64 : conf. a. 38. At Rome he is introduced to 

Seneca is in danger from Nero: Tacit. Ann. XV. 45. 
Ferebatiir Seneca, quo invidiam sacrilegii a semet acer- 
teret, longinqui ruris secessum orarisse et postquam non 
concedebatur, Jicta veUetudine, quasi teger nems, enbieu- 




1 Consuls 



Basso Frontin. Aquted. 
c. 102. 

Grasso et Basso Nor. 
Grasso et Basso Idat. 
Crassm et Bassiis Cassiod. 

Dio 61. 20 Sueton. Ner. c. 21. 

Death of Silanus : Tacit. Ann. XV. 35 Dio 61. 6. 

Fires at Rome, Nero being at Antiuni : Tacit. XV. 38 — 41. on the 19th of 
July : c. 4 1 . Fuere qui adnotarent XI V Kalendas Sextiles principium incencHi 
hujus ortura, quo et Senones captam urhem injlammaverint. conf. Dion. 62. 16. 17. 
Sueton. Ner. c. 38. Per sex dies septemque nodes ea clade sesvitum est. Only 
four regions remained entire : Tacit. Ann. XV. 40. Sexto demum die apud imas 
Esquilias Jinis incendio factum . — In re^iones XIV Roma dividitur, quarum qua- 
tiior integrcB manehant, tres solo ienus dejedcB, septem reliquis pauca tedorum ves- 
tigia supererant. A persecution of the Christians followed : Tacit. XV. 44. 
Nero subdidit reos et queesitissimis paenis affecit quos per JJacfitia invisos vulpus 
Ghristianos appellabat. auctor nominis ejus Christus Tiberio imperitante per pro- 
curatorem Pontitmi Pilatum supplicio affedus erat. Conf. Sueton. Ner. c. 16. 
Afflidi suppliciis Christiani, genus hominum superstitionis novce ac maleficm. On 
Nero's persecution see Tertullian. Apologet. c. 5. 21 ad Nationes I. 7- and 
conf. a. 65. 3. 

01. 211 U. 0. Varr. 818. 
A. Licinius Nerva Silia- 
nus M. Vestinus Atticus 
Tacit. Ann. XV. 48 Phle- 
gon Mir. c. 23 Nor. 

Attico Vestino et Nerva 
Si/Uano Auctor vitse Lu- 
cani Helca et Vestino Idat. 

Syhanus et Paullinus 

Silius Nerva et Atticus 
Vestinus apud Tacit. 1. c. 

Lapis apud Noris. 0pp. 
torn. II p. 893 Gruter. p. 
80. Siliano et Attico cos. 

de Vestino consuls Tacit. 
Ann. XV. 68. 69 Sueton. 
Ner. c. 35. 

Neronis 12 from /// Id. Oct. trib. pot. 12. 

Piso''s conspiracy: Tacit. Ann. XV. 48 — 73. Sueton. Ner. c. 36. (conjuratio) 
Pisoniana Romce — conflata atque deteda est. Tacit, c. 53. Statuere Circensium 
ludonmi die qui Cereri cehbratur exsequi destinata. Idem c. 74. (decernitur) ut 
Circensium Cerealium ludicrum pluribus equorum cursibus celebraretur, mensisque 
Aprilis Neronis cognomentum acciperet. In Fast. Verrian. and Vet. Calendar, 
sub Aprili the Cer. ludi in Circo are fixed to XIII Kal. Mai. conf. Ovid. 
Fast. IV. 679. The detection of this conspiracy is noticed by Plutarch Gar- 
rul. p. 505. C. 

Quinquennalia : Tacit. Ann. XVI. 2. Quinquennale ludicrum secundo lustra 
celebrabatur. For the first conf. a. 60. Death of Poppcea : Tacit. XVI. 6. 
Postfinem ludicri Poppcea mortem obiit. Conf. Dion. 62. 27. 28. 

Death of the younger Silanus : Tacit. XVI. 7 — 9. 

A pestilence in this year is marked by Tacitus Ann. XVI. 13. Tot facinoribus 
fosdum annum etiam dii tempestatibus et morbis insignivere &c. Sueton. Ner. 
c. 39. Pestilentia unius autumni, qua triginta funerum millia in nationem Libi- 
tince venerunt. Suetonius is repeated by Orosius VII. 7- Primus Bomce Ghri- 
stianos suppliciis d mortibus affecit [conf. a. 64]. — beatissimos Christi Apostolos 
Petrum cruce Paulum gladio occidit [see col. 3]. Mox acervatim miseram civi- 
tatem obories undique oppressere clades ; nam subsequente autumno tanta urbi pes- 
tilentia incubuit ut triginta millia funerum &c. venirent. 

Pausan. X. 36, 4. d a\r)8fvei. to fTriypaufxa, oAn/xTiiaSt rfi irpmrri fjura Sexo kol 
StaKocrias (pawoiTO av tov kotivov 6 Bevobaixos d\r)<p(as' aurij be iv rot? 'HAeiwi' 
ypaixiMaa-i -napdrai p.6vr} iracr&v rj 'OXv/xTrtds. Others were accounted avoKvuiri&bfs, 
this was omitted. The reason appears in Africanus apud Euseb. p. 160 Ed. 
Armen. The original text is preserved in Anecdot. Paris. Cramer Vol. II 
p. 151. cTid. ovK fiydr], NepMi'os ava^aWofiivov ets ti]v kavTov eTTLbr]p.iav jnera 8^ 
err] bvo ax^eicij? avrrjs a-Tabiov fj.ev Tpv(f)b)V 4>tXa8eX(|)€i/s ffUa, Nfponv bf KrfpvKotv 
ay&va f<jT€^avov TpayoiSoiis KiOapcabovs Spjua iKaKiKOV Kol to TeKfiov koL bfK6,TT(i>Xov. 
Euseb. Chron. 01. 211 anno 2080 Olympias heec non est acta propterea quod 
Nero distulit illuc se conferre. Conf. a. 67. 

De^noslratus arehon : Phlegon Mir. c. 23. &pxovTOi 'A0rivr](n Ar]no(TTpdTov, 
vTiaTevovTbiv Iv 'Pu/xjj kvkov AovKivvlov [1. hiKivviov] 'Nepova SiAariaroC xal 
MdpKov OvfarCvov 'ArnKoC. 



819. G. Luccius Telesinus 

Neronis 13 from /// Id. Oct. trib. pot. 13. 

R O M A N I 


3 Greek Authors 

4 Latin Aittiioes 

Poppaia : Ibid. 

lum mm effrenu$. tradieUtre quidam venenum « — para- 
turn jutm Neronit, vitatum(/u« a Seneca darn nuiplici 
victu et af/regdbus pomls ac — -proJlueiUe aqua cltavt /o- 

St. Peter and St. Paul perish in Nero's persecution : 
Tcrtullian. Scorpiac. c. 15 p. 38/. Orientem Jidem Rmnre 
primus Nero cruentamt. Tunc Petrm ah altero cingitur 
[Joh. XXI. 18] cum cruci adstringittir. Tunc Paulus 
cimtatis Momancc conseqidtur nativitatem &c. Euseb. 
H. E. II. 25. OaCXoy (•n avriji 'Pto/xjjs Tj/r Kf<j>a\r}v aiio- 
TixTjOfivat., Koi HtTpos i}cravT(t>s avaaKoKoTTiaOfivai Kar avrbv 
iarropovvTai. — is 86 Kara tov avTov afxtpai Kaipbv iixapTv- 
prjcrav KopivBiuiv fTtiaKoiTos Aiovvaios fyypa<t>b)s 'Pa)/xai'ois 
6ixi\&v (SSe TTojs TrapiaT-qffiv, k.t.\. Conf. III. 1. Idem 
Chron. Anno 20S;i [commencing Oct. A.D. d'j] Neronis 
13». Nero ad ccetera scelera persecutionem Ghrktianorum 
primus adjunxit. sub quo Petrus et Paulus apostoli mar- 
ti/rium Roma: cormmimaverunt. In Hieron. anno 208'! 
Neronis 14". Idem Catal. c. 5. Paulus ergo A'lVo Ne- 
ronis anno eodem die quo Petrus Romce pro Christo capite 
truncatus septdtusque est in via Ostiensi anno post pas- 
sionem Domini XXXVIIo. Conf. a. 32. 2. Tlie au- 
thor of Martyrium Pauli places it /// Kal. Jul. 330 
years before A. D. 39G, or in A. D. fi6. conf. a. 3!)f). 4, 
Idatius by some blunder places the event at A.D. 58; 
His com. I'etrus et Paulus passi sunt die III Kal. Julias. 
em TO) hu)h(KaT<f h(i Nf'pcoi'os Epiphan. Haer. 27. (>, 
p. 107 C. Sulp.' Sev. H. S. II. 41. 42. In Christianos 
sec'ciri cwptum. Post etiam palam edictis propositis 
Christianum esse non licebat. Turn Paulus et Petrus 
capitis damnati. — Dum hwc Roma geruntur, Judwi re- 
hellare cwperunt. Eusebiua and Hieronymus have 
placed the persecution too low. It followed the fires 
at Rome, which occurred in July A. D. 64 (conf. a. 
M . 2) ; and the deaths of St. Peter and St. Paid may 
be placed within the 1 1th oi Nero A. D. 65. Confirmed 
by Orosius, who places their deaths before the pesti- 
lence ; which is fixed to the autumn of 65 by Tacitus 
and Suetonius. See col. 2. 

Death of Seneca: Tacit. Ann. XV. 60. Semtittir e<t- 

des Annul Seneccp, leetissima princlpi &c. Demjribod 

jlbid. 60 — 64. conf. Sueton. Ner. c. 35 Dion. 62. 25. 

I And of Lucan: Tacit. XV. 70. Exin M. Annifi Lucani 

I ccedem imperat &c. Auctor vitje : Siui spcmte coaetHi 

vita excedere venas sibi pntscidit ; periltque prid. Kal. 

\3iaias Attico Ve-stino et Nerca Syllano cots. XXVII 

(Hatis annum agtiis. Coinciding with tlie date of Pito't 

conspiracy: see col. 2. Hioron. Anno Etueh. 2080 

[A. 1). 6'J-] M. Annmus Lucan us Corduben»i* poi'ta in 

Pisoniana conjuratione deprehensus brachiitm ad lecan- 

das venas medico prtthuit. Anno 2081 [A.D. 6f] L. 

Annatis Seneca Cordubensis prteceptor Neronis et pcrtniiis 

Lucani poetce — periit. At tlm wrong year: for we 

know from Tacitus that the death of Seneca preceded I 

the death oi Lucan. and conse<juently fell within the 

year 2080 or April A. D. 65. In the age of Lucan 

read XXVI retafis annum. He was born Nov. ."i 

A. D. 31) (conf. a. 40), he died Apr. 30 A. D. 65, in 

his 26th year. 

Mela the father of Lucan was slain in A. D. 66 : 
Tacit. Ann. XVI. 14—17. The death of Gallio is 
placed in this year by Hieron. Anno 2080 [A. D. (li] : 
Gallio /rater Senecw egregins declamator propria *e 
manu inter/eat. Dio 62.25 refers to both: teat ol 
ab(k(l)ol vfTTfpov iisaTnaXovTo [so. after the death of iSfe. 
necd\. Tacitus Ann. XV'. 73 speaks of Gallio : In ae- 
natu — Junium Gaflionfin Seneca- fratris morte pavidnm 
et pro sua incohtmitate supplicem. His death might 
have happened in the year as.'signed by Hieronymus. 
IVut by an error Mela — L. Anncpus Mela Senec<e •-/ 
Gallionis f rater — is mentioned by Hieronymus as still 
living in the year 2084 A. D. fij-. 

Euseb. Chron. Anno 208 1 [commencing Oct. A.D. 65] 

Martial comes t<» Rome ; since he had been 34 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

C. Suetonius Paulinus Dio 
63. 1 Frontin. Aqiifed. c. 
102 Nor. Idat. 

C. Suetonio Lucio Telesino 
Tacit. Ann. XVI. 14. 

Marmor Arimini apud 
Noris. 0pp. torn. II p. 896 
Gruter. p. 1102. 

C. Luccio Telesino C. Sue- 
tonio Paulino cos. 

de Telesino Philostratus 
V. A. IV. 40 VII. 11 
VIII. 7 p. 349. 

Death of Ostorius Scapula: Tacit. Ann. XVI. 14. 15. — of Thrasea Peetus: 
Ibid. 21—3.5 Dio 62. 26.— of Soranus: Tacit. XVI. 23. 33. when Tiridates 
was approaching: c. 23. tempm damnationi delecfum quo Tiridates acdpiendo 
Armenia regno adventabat &c. 

Tiridates at Eome : Dio 63. 1—6 Sueton. Ner. c. 13 Plin. H. N. 33. 3. 
After his departure Nero proceeds to Greece : Nero in Greece is described by 
Dio 63. 8 — 19 Suetonius Ner. c. 19 — 22. Helius his freedman remains in 
Italy: Dio 62. 18. 19 Sueton. c. 23. 

The Jewish war begins: Joseph. Bell. II. 14,4. Trpoa-eXdju/Sare tjji; dpx^" o 
iro'Xe/Lcos SaSeicdrM ^ikv «ret ttjs Ne'peoi'os riyefiovlas fTTTaKaihiKara be rfjs ' kypivita 
^acnKeCai, ' hpTfy-nriov fj.r]v6s [May A. D. 66]. Josephus II. 17, 7 mentions 
the 15th of Loiis, and II. 17» 8 the 6th of Gorpicous [July and August]. 
Gestius Gallus advances from Antioch into Judea at the time of the (TK^vo-myyia 
II. 19, 1. which began 15th Hyperheretceus or Tisri. He is defeated on the 
8th o{ Dius in the 12th year oi Nero: II. 19, 9. ravra ixkv ovv ii!pA\dv ^^"v 
firjvos oyboT] b(abeK6.T(o irei Trji 'Ntpavos riyejiovCas. In the computation of Jose- 
phus (see F. H. Ill p. 353. 354) J)ius represents the Lunar Hebrew month 
Marchesvan ; and it appears from Josephus that the 8th of Dius or Marchesvan 
in this year fell before the 13th of October, since it fell within the 12th year 
oi Nero. The 17th oi Agrij>pa ended at the close of A.D. 65 : conf. a. 48. 
wherefore we may perhaps read dxr&jKaiSeKdTO). Nero is now in Greece : Jo- 
seph. Bell. II. 20, 1. KeoTios — avfirefjAJ/ev eis 'Axatav Ttpos N^pwra. On the 
beginning of the Jewish war committed to Vespasian by Nero then in Greece 
see Sueton. Vesp. c. 4. 

A coin of the 13th tribunician year: Eckhel. tom. VI p. 266. Imp. Nero 
Claud. C<esar Aug. Germ. im. tr.p. XIII p.p. + Roma. S. C. An inscription: 
Eckhel. p. 282 Muratori tom. I p. 227. Iinp. Neroni Claudio divi Claudi f. 
Germ. Ccesaris n. Ti. Ceesaris Aug. pron. dim Aug. abn. CcBsari Aug. Germ. p. 
m. tr. p. XIII imp. XI cos. IIII L. Licinius — ex voto suscepto pro salute imp. 
Neronis quod Balearibus voverat &c. 


820. Fonieius Capito Ju- 
niusBu/us'HoT. Idat. Pont. 

Neronis 14 from III Id. Oct. trih. pot. l4. 

Death of Corhulo: Dio 63. 17. De Corhuhne Ammianus XXIX. 5,4. 

R O M A N I 


3 GaEEK Authors 

4 Latin Authoks 

Mmonius ct Plutarchus philosophi cognoscebantur. Placed 
by Chron. I'asch. p. l'K) D at the year of Cajyito and 
Rvfus A. D. ti7. By Hieronymus Anno 2084 [A.D. fi|^]. 
Flufarch in his youth hears Animonim at Delphi during 
Nero's visit to Greece : de d p. 385 B. h. ir&kai ttot^ 
(ca^' or Kaipov €7re6riju€i Ne'poji' riKOVcrafifP ' Anfjuaviov km 
Tivatv &k\o>v bif^wvTav. Plutarch's brother Lamprias 
also took part in that discourse : p. 385 D. They are 
called by A mmonius toIs vtois p. 391 E. Plutarch else- 
where speaks of Nero as in his time: Vit. Anton, c. 88. 
Nipav ip^ai i^' fiixdv. Flaminin. c. 12. N^pwy Ka$' 
i]ixas. Hence Photius cod. 245 p. 1212. on n\ovTapxos, 
is avTus — (jt-qa-lv, eirl Ne'pcoi'os ijp. If Plutarch at this 
time was 20 years of age, his birth would be placed at 

Demetrius the cynic is present at the death of Thror 
sea: Tacit. Ann. XVI. 34. Ad Thraseam in hortis agenr 
tern quwstor consults missus vesj>erascente jam die. Illus- 
irium virorum feminarumque eoetus frequentes egerat, 
maxime inientus Demetrio Cynicce instituiionis doctori ; 
cum quo — de natura animce et dissociatione spiritus cor- 
porisque inquirebat &c. Thrasea in his last moments 
obversis in Demetrium * Ibid. c. 35. The scholiast on 
Juvenal V. 36, although placing the death of Thrasea 
at a wrong date, also names Demetrius. He was the 
friend of Seneca, by whom he is often quoted : de pro- 
vid. c. 3, 3. Inter multa magnijica Demetrii nostri et hcEC 
vox est, a quo recens sum : sonat adhuc et vibrat in au- 
ribus meis &c. c. 5, 4. Hanc quoque animosam Demetrii 
fortissimi virl vocem audisse me memini &c. Conf. de 
benef. VII. 1. 2. 8. 9—11. Epist. 20. 62. 67. 91. N 
Qu. IV praef. His poverty is mentioned Vit. beat, 
c. 18. Demetrius was in danger from Nero: Epictet, 
diss. I. 25, 22. Ar]p.riTpLos eiire to> Neptovi " 'AnftXf'iS 
" fiol Odvarov, croi 6' ?; <^v(ny." 

Apollonius of Tyana is at Rome : Philostrat. V. A. 
IV. 35. Nf^oav ov ^vviyJtpn (^iKoaot^tiv. — IS> tow &K- 
Aovs' dAXo Movcriavwi 6 Ba/SuXcovios — IhiQi] i-nl (TO(j)Cq. — 
(V ToiavTTj KaTaa-Taaei </)iAo(TO(^(ay oiiaTjs, (Tvxf [sc. Apol- 
lonius'] TTpoaibiv TTJ 'Putfjir}. According to Philoetratus 
he arrived in A. 1). 66: V. A. IV. 40. Sjuo rf) r)p.ipq [the 
day after his arrival] TeXeo-iros 6 enpos t&v v-nATmv 
[see col. 1] KoKiaas tov ' AttoXKcovlov k.t.K. An eclipse 
18 mentioned IV. 43. eKXei\j/is r]\Cov. Musonim is still 
m prison : IV. 46. krvyyavi trepl tov \p6vov tovtov koX 
MoD(T<di'ios KaTiiKr)p.\j.(vos ev rots SetrjuajTr/piois tov Nfpo)- 
voi. But Musonius had been banished in A. D. 65 : 
Tacit. Ann. XV. 71 Dio 62. 27- And no eclipse hap- 
pened in A. D. G(i : conf. Olear. p. 183. Wherefore we 
may place the coming of Apollonius to Rome in A. D. 
64. He was sent from Rome in A. D. G6 : conf. a. 67. 

summers at Rome, and 34 winters absent from his 
native town Bilbilis, at the close of A. D. 99 : conf. a. 
Perhaps in the spring of A. D. 66, set. 23 : conf. s. 43. 

Josephus is captured in Jotapata: Bell. III. 8 Vit. 
c. 74. He marks the progress of Vespasian: Bell. III. 





1 Consuls 

2 Events 

Gapitonem el Bufum liber 
pontificalis Damasi torn. I 
p. 71. 

Nero in Greece celebrates the Olympic games: Sueton. Ner. c. 23. Certa- 
niina deinceps ohiit omnia. Nam et quee diversissimorum temporum sunt cogi in 
unum annum. — -jussit : Oli/mpice quoque frmter consuetudinem musicum agona 
commisit. Conf. Dion. 63. 14. Philostrat. V. A. V. 7 p. 192. (Nepcoi^a) 'OXvixttiu 
ov vtKrjfffLV, &Te ix-qbe iv &pa ayovai. ■narpCov nfv yap rots 'OKvfxiiiois tov Ttipvaiv 
iviavTov [so. A. D. ()5] ovtos, exeAencre Tovi ''HkeCovs Nipcav avafiakiadai avra (is 
rriv kavTov eTriSij/.iiai' — rpayifhCav 6' oTrayyeiAat Koi Ki6ap<ahiav, oTs pjre Oiarpov 
eoTi fx-qTe a-K-qPT) TTpos TO, Toiavra, ardbiov be avTO(j>ves koX Tiavra, conf. IV. 24. 
Nero came into Greece in A.D. 66", but appointed the Olympia for 01. 211. 3 
A. D. d"], two years after the true period : post hiennium African, apud Euseb. 
p. 16"0. Conf. a. 65 Reimar. ad Dion. p. 1033. irepvcn therefore refers to the 
time of his coming into Greece 01. 211. 2. Nero gives liberty to the Greeks 
(Plutarch, de S. N. V. p. 568 A. Philostrat. V. A. V. 41 p. 224) at the Isthmia : 
Sueton. Ner. c. 24. Decedens deinde promnciam universam lihertate donavit, 
simulqm judices civitate Romana et pecunia grandi. quce henefic'ia e medio stadia 
Isthmiormn die sua ipse voce pronuntiavit. Plutarch. Flaminin. c. 12. Titos fv 
Kopivdto Tore, ical Nfpav uvOls kuO rjixai (V Kop[v9(o ■uapaiiX'qaCcas ^laOixCav ayo- 
fiivutv rovs "EAA.Tji'ay ikevdipovs koL avTov6p.ovs acpfJKev 6 (xkv 8ta KrjpvKOi — Ne- 
p(i)i> 8' avTos (ttI TTJs aycpas aitb jir}p.aTos. Conf. Pausan. VII. 17, 2. Perhaps 
not at the true season of the Isthmia ; since Nero confounded the periods of 
the games in Greece. Eusebius Chron. places the Olympic victory of Nero 
in 01. 211. 2 anno 2081 (which is contrary to Africanus) and the Isthmian 
Pythian and Actian victories in 01. 211.3 anno 2082. Nero at Delphi is de- 
scribed by Themistius Or. 19 p. 226 C. Josephus attests that in the beginning 
ol Gorpiatus ov Elul, about August A. D. 67, iVero was still in Greece: see 
col. 3. Towards the close of the year he is recalled to Rome by Helius : Phi- 
lostrat. V. A. IV. 24. cryflv be Xeyerai Nepav ri^v to^tji' (tov laOnov) — veiorepa 
TTepl ry apxy betaavra. Dio 63. 19. fiXdev avrbs [sc. Helius] els rrjv 'EAAdSa 
ej3b6p.ri ijp^epa Koi e^e^6^r]crev avrbv, elnuiu p.eyaXrjv Tiva e-nLfiovXi]v ev rrj 'Vcop-r] 
trapacTKevd^^ecrOai /car' avTov' uxvTe ■napevBvs els tijv 'IraXlav diioTiXevaai. Koi eye- 
veTo fxev ns eXTsis tnrb xeifJMVos avTov ^Oaprjcrea-daL' p.arriv be TJoAAot i^crQriaav 
eacidrj yap. 

Vespasian conducts the Jewish war, which Nero committed to him at the 
close of A.D. 66 : Joseph. Bell. III. 1, 2. See col. 3. 


821. Galerius TracJialus 

C. Silius Italicus 

Nor. Pont. Gruter. liber 
pontificalis Damasi torn. I 
p. 75. 

Silio et Galerio Trachalo 
Frontin. Aqused. c. 102 
Idat. Chron. Pasch. p. 
245 D. 

Marmor apud Grut. p. 
300. ... alerio Thraclmlo 
Li. catio Silio Itdl. cos. 
p. R. c. an. DCGGXXI. 

Italicus et Turpilianus 

Revolt of Vindex, who proclaims Galba: Dio 63. 22. 23. Nero heard the 
news at Naples on the 19th of March: Sueton. Ner. c. 40. Neapoli de motu 
Galliarum cognovit die ipso quo matrem occiderat [sc. Quinquatrihus : conf. a. 59]. 
Reimar ad Dion. p. 1042 supposes that Nero was then at Naples in his way 
from Greece. But Nero had already been at Rome: Dio c. 20. His first 
coming to Rome was triumphant : Dio Ibid. His second coming thither, after 
the news received at Naples, is described with different circumstances by Dio 
c. 26. Pagi in Baronium torn. I p. 60 has propei'ly distinguished the two visits 
to Rome, from Suetonius. After some interval the revolt of Galba is known : 
Sueton. Ner. c. 40. 42. Per octo continuos dies non rescribere cuiquam &c. Post- 
quam deinde etiam Galbam et Hispanias descivisse cognovit, collapsus — diu sine 
voce Jaciiit. Conf. Dion. 63. 26. 27 Plutarch. Galb. c. 4. 5. It appears from 
Dio that Galba accepted the empire (legatiim se senatus ac popxdi Romani pro- 
fessiis est Sueton. Galb. c. 10) April 3 : conf. a. 69. 

Death of Nero M/ '22<i before Kal. Jul. A. D. 69 : conf. a. 79. which fixes 

R M A N I 


3 Greek Authobs 

1, 3. 6 bi iiTO rjjy 'Axatas, ivOa (rvin^v ry "Sipuvt, rbp 
ixiv vlop TiTov ((TTfi\ev iir' 'AAefar8peiay, to re TxiyLinov 
Koi TO b^Karov iKfWfv avaoTTjaoirra rdyixa. itepiaas ii 
avToi Tov 'EKKycriTovTov Tif^os (k ^vpCav d^iKvccrat. 
Idem 4, 2. 6 bi TtVos wepaicoOely airo r^y 'Axatai tij r^i; 
'AXefarSpeiai' diKVTfpov ?*; Kara \(ifi&vos &pav [the winter 
of A . D. (>y] p.(v i(f> fjv ia-Takro bvvaniv 
K. T. \. Ve«j>asian enters Galileo with his army in the 
month Artemisius (Joseph. III. 6", 2 — 7>'^) and taltes 
Jotapata after 17 days' siege on tho Ist o{ Paiiemus: 

7, .3G. (dKb) TpiaKaibiKUTi^ n/s Ne'puroy rjytfiovlas ira 
UavifjLov vov)xr)via. Fanemus or Thamtiz of A. D. (>7. 
Joppa and Tiberias then surrender: III. 9. and Tari- 
chaja on tho 8th of Gorjnaius: III. 10, 10. (cat Ovdnra- 
(Tiavos — T&v vitav iiiiXf^ai tovs l<T)(vpor(i.Tovi f^aKKT^t- 
\Covs ^iKp-yp^fv els tov ^{crOtiov Nfpavi — idXaarav b^ Top- 
TtiaCov jxrivoi oyborj. 

Aj)ollonirts in tho AVcst: Philostrat. V. A. IV. 47. 
f$e\avvovTos be es ti]v 'EkXdba tov N^pwroy [Nov. A. D. 
fifi] Koi TTpoKrjpv^avTos brjuoaCq fxi]blva ffj.(piKo(TO(p('iv ttj 
P<ip.rj, TptTseTai 6 'AifoAAcoi'tos eTri eatrepLa r^y y^y. He 
is in Spain when tho Isthmus is cutting: V. A. V. 7. 

8. Tefiverai be, &s (}>a<ri, vvv V. 7 p. 191. and at the 
revolt of Vindex : V. A. V. 10. enl Kepuva ev 'Axaf^ 
^bovra to. eOvr] to. k(niipia XeyerM /ctr^o-at BeV6tf . 

Musonius in Greece: Philostrat. V. A. V. 19. helvos 
[sc. A>;)^TjTptoy 6 KwtKoy] Ka\ Mouo-cowo) l(j)acrK(v evrerv- 
XriKevai irepX tov iadfiov bebejieva re koI KeKevaafiivif 
p. KeKeXev(Tp.4v<f] 6pvTTei.v. 

Ammonius the preceptor of Plutarch — ^A\x\id>vio% 6 
el AlyvTTTOv n\ovT6.p)(ov tov OeioTaTov yeyovots bibacTKa- 
A.oy Eunap. V. S. p. 5 — whom he heard at this time in 
Greece : conf. a. 66. is mentioned again by Plutarch 
p. 70. E. 6 iifiiTepos KadrjyrjTtjs' Ap-ixdvios. Conf. Syinpos. 
III. 1. IX. 1 Vit. Themistocl. c. 32. Eunapius p. 6'. 
6 YlKovTapxos tov re eavTov fiiov dvayp6.(^ei roiy /3i/3\^ois 
ivbiecnrapij.ivoi's /cal tov tov bi,ba(TK6Xov. km on ye 'A/i/iw- 
j'loy 'Adrjvrja-iv ereAeyro. 

4 Latin Authobi 



Apollonim in Sicily hears of the death of Vindex, 
tho flight o^ Nero, the rise of Galha Otho and VifelUus: 
Philostrat. V. A. V. 11. KarCaxova-iv ivl I,iKe\Cav. — 
7:apaTr\ev(Tai;rey be eTil Me(Tarivriv re Kal ■nopOp.ov — okoC- 
rrai ^acriv m Neptov pi.ev TTepmefjtevyoi TeOvriKOi bi Bevbi^ 
S.11T0LVT0 be Tr)y apxrjs ol piev ef airijy rijy 'V(op.rjs ol bi 
oTTodev n/'xot tuiv edvStv k. t. \. who all three perished 
kvl het. V. 13. Apollonius returned from Sicily to 
Greece in the autumn: V. 18. e-nl ttjv 'EA\<J6a iKop.C- 
(eTO TTepl dpKTovpov eTTiToAdy. Sept. It A. D. 68. He 
finds Demetring in Greece : V. A. V. If). pLvrjOels 6' 'A5j/- 
vr](Tw — everv^e Koi Ar}p.T]TpLa T(3 (jyiXoaoffxa' fxeTO. yap to 
Ne'pui'oy ^aXavelov kol a ew' avT<S eiire [at Rome in (>6 : 
conf. V. A. IV. 42], bLTiTUTo ^AOrivrjcnv 6 Arip,rJTpios ovra 
yevvaCbis ois p.-qbe tov xpovov ov Ne'pior irepl tovs dywi'ay 

Quintilian accompanies Galba to Rome : Hieron. 
Anno Euseh. 2084 [A. D. 6f] 3/. Fahixts Qntntiliantu 
Bomam a Galha perduciiur. Placed in the right year : 
see col. 2. But Quintilian had already been at Rome 
in his early youth, and had heard Domititu Afer: 
conf. a. 59. The twenty years of his teaching appear 
to have commenced in A. D. 69 at his return to Ilomo 
with Galha : conf. a. 89. 

Stliui Italicns consul : see col. 1 . 

Coins of Galha : Eckhel torn. VI p. 291 — 299. 

1 Galba imperat. + Concordia promncianim, 
lb. Galha %mp. + Hispania. 

2 Galha imperator + oon. event, or Gallia. Hitpania. or 

lihertas restituta- 

H 2 




1 Consuls 


de Trachalo Tacit. Hist. 
I. 90 II. 60. 
de/Sf«7ioPlin.Ep. 111.7- 

Ut novissimus a Nerone 
foetus est consul, ita postre- 
mm ex ojnnibus quos Nero 
consules fecerat decessit. 
Illud etiam notabile ; ulti- 
mus ex Neronianis consu- 
larihiis ohiit quo consule 
Nero periit. Martial. VII. 
63. Postqimm bis senis in- 
gentem fasciius annum 
Rexerat adserto qui sacer 
orhe fuit, Emeritos Musis 
et Phosbo tradidit annos. 

his death to June A. D. 68. Idatius and Chron. Pasch. rightly place his 
death in the year of these consuls. Dio 63. 29. e/3ta) 8e err; TpiaKovra koL ixrjvas 
fvvea' a<f) &v rjp^ev ^rrj 8eKorpia /cat fxi/vos oktoo. Theophil. ad Autol. III. 2^. 
Ne'po)!' irrj ly fj.rjvai f' ?;/^e'poy kt)'. Joseph. Bell. IV. 9, 2. Tpia-KaibtKa (iacnkciicras 
erq Koi ^fjLf pas [1. fxrjfas] 6kt<o. Sueton. Ner. c. 40. Talem principem paullo mi- 
nus XIIIl annos perpessus terrarum orbis. c. 57- obiit XXXII« cetatis anno, 
die quo quondam Octaviam interemerat. The exact duration of his life from 
Dec. 15 A. D. 37 (conf. a.) to June 9 A.D. 68, this being a bissextile year, 
was 30? 5™ 26'', and of his reign from Oct.l3 A. D. 54 (conf. a.) was 13? 7'" 28'' 
as expressed by Zonaras torn. I p. 571.C. err; Sexa rpia koX ptfivas oktw, bvolv 
rjp,ipaLv biovras. Conf. Reimar. ad Dion. 63. 29. The two reigns of Claudius 
and Nero are reckoned each 14 years by Auct. dial, de orat. c.17. bis quatemos 
denos Glaudii et Neronis annos. In Anecd. Paris. Cramer tom. II p. 25 the 
reign of Nero is err; ih' hveiv p.T]vS)v anoMovTa. Ibid. p. 280. «ttj ly' iii^vas i/. 
Euseb. H. E. III. 5. Seica Tipos rpia-lv (Teaiv. 

Vespasian proceeds with the Jewish war. On the 4th of Di/strus or Adar 
(about Feb. A. D. 68) he enters Gadara: Joseph. Bell. IV. 7> 3. and Jericho 
on the 3rd oi DcBsius or Sivan (about May A. D. 68) : Idem 8, 1. During the 
intermediate operations he hears of the revolt of Vlndex : Idem 8, 1. er roiJra) 
TO TTipl TTjv TaXaTiav dyyeAAerai KLifrip.a koX Ovtvbi^ S/xa 7019 bvrarols tiov cttcx'*- 
piav acpecTTm Nepcovoj. After the 3rd of Dcesius Vespasian pursues his pre- 
parations, till news arrived of the death of Nero : Idem 9, 2. Oveo-Trao-iaru fie 
eiy KoKrapeiar (TncrTpexjravTi koL napacrKfva^ojxivio /xera ■na(Tr)s t^s 8t;i'a/xeus ew' av- 

tS>v Totv \ipo(TokviiMV (^(Kavvfiv dyye'XXerat Ne'ptoi' avr/pij/xevoy. Ovea-iraaiavoi 

Toiwv TO p-iv -nprnTov di'e/SdWero ti]v tUv '\epo(Tokvp.tav (jTpaT^Lav, KapahoKutv TTpbs 
tIvu pi\\ru TO KpaTfiv fifTo. Ne'pwi/o. 

Coins of Galba : see col. 4. 


01. 212 U. C. Varr. 822 
Serv. Sulpicius Galba Cce- 
sar Aug. II T. Vinius 
Riifinus Tacit. Hist. I. 1. 
II Plutarch. Galb. c. 21. 

Galba II et Tito Rufino 

raX/3d Ka\ TLtov 'PovfpC- 
vov Chron. Pasch. Galva 
II et Vinio Nor. 

Tacit. Hist. I. 77. Otho 
consul cum Titiano fratre 
in Kal. Mart, ipse ; proxi- 
mos menses Verginiodesti- 
tiat — jungitur Verginio 
Pompeius Vopiscus — -ceteri 
consulatus ex destinatione 

The German legions revolt ipso Kal. Jan. die Tacit. Hist. I. 55. Kal. Janu- 
arii Sueton. Galb. c. 16. vovpirjvCa tov TtputTov pLrjvoi Plutarch. Galb. c. 22. conf. 
Dion. 64. 4. Vitellius proclaimed Jan. 2 : Tacit. Hist. I. 56. 57- Adoption 
of Pisa: Dio 64. 5 Plutarch. Galb. c. 23 Sueton. Galb. c. 17- on IV Id. Jan. 
Tacit. Hist. I. 14 — 18. Galba is slain Jan. 15: Tacit. Hist. I. 27. Trpb fiexa- 
oKTo) Ka\avbS>v i>el3povapLiov Plutarch. Galb. c. 24. on the 6th day after the 
adoption : sextus dies Tacit. Hist. I. 29. intra sextum adoptionis diem Sueton. 
Galb. c. 17. ^KTYi avr\pi6r](Tav Plutarch. Galb. c. 24. Four days intervening be- 
tween the adoption and the murder: quatriduo Tacit. Hist. 1. 19. Piso qua- 
iriduo Ccesar lb. c. 48. rjfxfp&v Tearaapav — ocrai p.eTa^v Trjs eio-Trotr/creQ)? iyivovTO 
Ktti T7)s (Tcpayfjs Plutarch. Galb. c. 24. Galba is said to be in his 73rd year by 
Plutarch Galb. c. 8 Tacit. Hist. I. 49 Eutrop.VII.16 Victor. Epit. p. 363. Dio 
64. 6. f(r)(Te be FdA/Sas errj bvo km, (j3bop.riKoi'Ta, a(j) S>v r\p^e p,r\va<i ivvea kol fjpifpai 
fie/carpets. His reign is 7"* 7'^ p.rjvas eirrd Kal icras j/fxe'pas Joseph. Bell. IV. 9, 2. 
pifjvas eTTTo rjiifpas r' Clem. Al. Strom. I p. 339 C. mensibus VII diebus VI Ter- 
tullian. adv. Jud. c. 8. Theoph. ad Autol. III. 27. eT-q p! p.fivas f' fip.4pai j'. 
ubi dele err; /3'. In round numbers in Tacitus Hist. I. 37. septem a Neronis 

R O M A N I 


3 Gkkek Authors 

a^piCfv [A. D. 67] i^fkedv 'EXAaSos. 

4 Latin Authobb 

3 Galba imp. Gees. Attg. tr. p. 

1 Imp. Galba+diva Augusta, or Hitpania. 

5 Imp. Her. Galba Aug. + Hitpania. 

a Imp. Ser. Galba Aug. tr, p. 

7 Imp. Ser. Galba Cees. Aug. tr.p. 

8 Imp. Ser. Galba G<e«ar Aug. + diva Augusta. 

9 Imp. Ser. Oalba Oauar Atig. p. m. 

10 Imp. Ser. Galba Gee. Aug. tr.p. 

1 1 Imp. Ser: Galba Gam. Aug. p. m. tr. p. 

12 Imp, Ser. Galba Gees. Aug. pon. m. tr. p. 

13 Imp. Ser. Sulp. Galba Cwt. Aug. tr. p. 
It Imp. Ser. Sulp, Galba G<b$. Aug. tr. pot. 
15 Ser. Galba imp. + Gallia. 

\<i Ser. Galba imperator. 

17 Ser. Galba imp. Aug. + tren Gallia. 

18 Ser. Galba imp. Augustus. 

19 Ser. Galba C<e»ar Aug. 

20 Ser. Galba imp. Cats. Aug. 

2 1 Ser. Galba imp. Cest. Aug. tr. p. + r. XL Roma. 

22 Ser. Galba imp. Cwsar Aug. tr, p. 

23 Ser. Galba imp. Gcesar Aug. p. m. t. p. 

24 Ser. Galba imp. Gcesar Aug. p. m. tr.p. 

25 Ser. Galba imp. Gasar Aug. po. ma. tr. p. 

26 Ser. Sulp. Galba imp. Gasar Au(j. p. m. tr.p.-\^ Hi*' 

pania Clunia Std. S. G. conf. Eckh. torn. 1 p. ij. 

27 Ser. Sulp. Galba imp. Gasar Aug. tr.p. 

28 Ser. Sutpi, Galba imp. Gaaar Aug. p. m, tr, p,+ 

paxs Augusti. S. C. or Senatus pietati Augmti. S.C. 

29 Ser. Sulpici. Galbre imp. Aug. + S. P. Q. R. 

30 Eckhel. torn. Ill p. 282. Imp. Cos. Aug. Ser. Gal- 

ba + litl lAovKMVov "" hvTU))(iiav tr, ftp. conf. F. H. 
Ill p. 366. 
Eckhel torn. V'l p. 296. (antica varia vel incerta) + 
quadra^ensuma remissa. S. G. or quadrageiis. re- 
missce. S. C. or XJCJCJT remissa S. C. or r. XL. 
libertas Auq. S. G. 


Apollonius having wintered in Greece proceeds in 
spring A. D. 69 to Egypt : Philostrat. V. A. V. 20— 
24. \(iixdcras 8' ' AirokXdvios ev tols 'EXAt/i-ikois Upoli 
TTaaiv (tx^ero ttjs ^t:' AiyvTrrov obov Tifpl iap k. t. X. He 
is in Egypt with Dio Prusccus and Euphrates when 
Vespasian assumes the empire: Philostrat. V. A. V. 27- 
Ovicrnacnavov he tt)v avroKparopa apxrjv TrepivoovvTos ttepl 
TO. op.opa rff AlyvTiTto f6vr] koL irpoxajpoCfToy ^77i tijv Al- 
yxnrrov, Aiwves p.iv Koi KiKppaTai — xaCpfiv Tiap(K(\tijovTo. 
— 'A77oXXcorioy 8^ TrapaTiKrjaiwi fitv Ev<j)pdrr) koi AudVi 
TTfpl TovTiav l^aipf, K.T.X.. Ibid. V.31. 6 'AiroXXwrtos — 
Ai(ova fifv KOI EiK^pdrriV eTrl dvpais evpfv — eio-xXrjfleij 
8e irpoaTos, " Si /3a<nXei/," eiTrer, " Eic^paTjjj koI Auov wd- 
" Xat (Toi yvtopi.p.01 ovres irpbi dvpais (i(Tli>, ovk dippoimbfs 
" T(av (T&v (cdXft 8r/ K&Kfivovs es Koivbv \6yov, cro<p<j> yiip 
" TO) &vbpf." Conf. c. 32 — 37. Dio was therefore al- 
ready eminent. That Nero reigned in his time is at- 

A coin of Galba apiid Eckhel torn. VI p. 29H mark- 
ing his second consulship: (antica incerta) -[- Tiber Lf. 
p. m. tr.p. COS. II. Issued accordingly within Jan. I — 
14 A.D. 69. 

Coins of OtAo : Eckhel torn. VI p. 301. 305. 

1 Imp. Otho Gcesar Aug. tr. p. 

2 Imp. M. Otlw Gcesar Aug. tr. p. 

On the reverse pax orbis terrarum or pout. max. or 
Rrnna or Seeuriias P. R. or victoria Othonis. 

3 Idem tom. VI p. 307 tom. Ill p. 282. Imp. M. OtAo 

C(C. Aug.->rlTi\ MovKiacoi; 'Awioxewi' It. f^ip. The 
11 7th voar of Antioch ended in autumn A. D. 69 : 
F. H. ill p.366. 

Coins of Vitellius: Eckh. tom. VI p. 309—316. 
1 A. Vitellius imp. Germanicus. 




1 Consuls 

Neronis aut Galha man- 
sere, Calio ac Flavio Sa- 
binis in Julias, Arrio An- 
tonino et Mario Celso in 
Septembres ; quorum ho- 
nori tie Vitellius quidem 
victor inter cessit. Idem 

II. 60. Mario Celso con- 
sulatus servatur. Idem 1 1 . 
71. Vitellius ut Valenti et 
GtEcincB vacuos honoris men- 
ses aperiret, coartati alio- 
rum consulatus. Ccecina 
(who was consul at the 
battle of Cremona: Tacit. 

III. 31) is deposed to- 
wards the close of Octo- 
ber: Tacit. III. 37. Ifec 
defuit qui unum consulatus 
diem {is enim in locum 
CcEcincB supererat) magno 
cum irrisu trihuentis ac- 
cipieiitisque ehlandiretur. 
Prid. Kal. Nov. Eosius 
Regulus iniit ejuravitque. 
Atticus and Simplex were 
consuls in December : Dio 
6"5. 17. de Attico Tacitus 
Hist. III. 73. 75. deSim- 
plice II. 60. III. 68. 

Lapis apud Noris. 0pp. 
tom. II p. 904 Gruter. 
p. 189. Ser. Galba II T. 
Vinio cos. 

2 E\ 

fine menses sunt. Eutropius VII. 16. occisus est imperii mense septimo. 
siodorus: mensibxis septem. Victor Caes. p. 315. Census est mense imperii et die 
septimo. Victor Epit. p. 363. menses septem diesque tot idem. From the day of 
Nerd's death inclusive are 7" 7'' and exclusive 7™ 6"' to the day of the death of 
Galba. The numbers of Dio, if exact, will carry back his acceptance of the 
empire to Ap. 3, 67 days before the death of Nero. The birth of Galba is 
placed by Suetonius at Dec. 24 B.C. 3: conf. F. H. Ill p. 256. or 70i' 24^ 
before his death. If the account that he reached his 73rd year, according to 
the oracle apud Sueton. Ner. c. 40, is correct, his birth must be placed in 
B. C. 5. conf. Tzschuck. ad Eutropium p. 488. 

Otho is acknowledged by the senate : Tacit. Hist. I. 47. Decernitur Othoni 
tribunicia potestas et nomen Aupusti et omnes principmn honores. Dio 64. 8.^ 
^ovXt] Ttavra to, Ttpos rrjv apxrjv (pipovra e^rjcpCcraTO. He is still at Rome prid. 
Idus Mart. Tacit. Hist. I. 90. and sets forth soon after: conf. Tacit. Ibid. 
Battle near Bedriacum: Tacit. Hist. II. 43 — 45 Sueton. 0th. c. 9 Plutarch. 
0th. c. 8 — 14 Dio 64. 10. verno tempore anni Tacit. II. 39. Death of Otho at 
Brixellum: Tacit. II. 46—49 Plutarch. 0th. c. 15—18 Sueton. 0th. c. 9 — 11 
Dio 64. 1 1 — 15. septimo et tricesimo eetatis anno Tacit, c. 50. Sueton. 0th. c. 11 
et Eutrop. VII. 17. XXXVIII cetatis anno et XCV imperii die. Theophil. ad 
Autol. III. 27. 'Odtov ixijvas y fnxepas f'. Cassiod. mensibus III diebus V. 
Plutarch. 0th. c. 18. erri p.€V eTrra kol rpidKovra fiiuxras ap$as 8e rpels fiTjras. 
Dio 64. 15. fj/o-ayrt jxfv Af' erri la' fjp,epS)v beovra ap^avri 8e ijnepas (vevriKOvra. 
Syncellus p. 341 C. Kparei ixfjvas rpfty. Joseph. Bell. IV. 9, 9. yivop.fvr)s avu- 
^o\% Kara BrjbpiaKov Trjs TaXarias Ttpos re Ovd\(VTa koX KaiKwav rovs OvireXXtov 
orpaT-qyovs, rfj Trpdrri p.iv r}p,ipq TTepifjv 'Odav rjj biVTfpq 6e rov OvireXXlov arpa- 
TKOTiKov Kal TioXXov (l)6vov yevo)xivov hif^pr^aaTo jikv 'OOiav kavTov ev Bpe^fXXto 
rqv rJTTav TTv66p,€VOs, j;fie'/3as bvo Kal rpus /xfivas Kpar/jaas tS>v irpayixaroiV. His 
death was known at Rome Ap. 19 : Tacit. Hist. II. 55. Cereales ludi ex more 
spectabantur, ut cessisse vita Ofhonem et a Flavio Sabino prcefeclo urbis quod erat 
in urbe militum sacramento Vitellii adactum certi auctores in theatrum attulerunt. 
On the 95th day from the death of Galba. He died therefore on the 92nd 
day ; and this is confirmed by Die's account of his age. He wanted eleven 
days of completing his 37th year. But he was born Ap. 28 : conf. a. 32. He 
died therefore Ap. 16. as Norisius Ep. Syromac. p. 54 — 60 determines. Vic- 
tor. Epit. p. 363 erroneously gives him menses quatuor. Victor Cses. p. 315. 
diebus fere quinque et octoginta, Anecd. Paris. Cramer tom. II p. 26. oySoM Koi 
X! TTJs fjXiKMi erei r^s ye p.riv /SacrtXei'as rjp.(pq e Kal Cf . Ibid. p. 281. ixijvas rpels 
rjixepa^ r{ , male. 

Vitellius is in Gaul at the death of Otho : victoricB sues nescius Tacit. Hist. 
II. 57. Sueton. Vitell. c. 10. de Bebriacensi victoria et Othonis exitu cum adhuc 
in Gallia esset audiit. He visits the field 40 days after the battle : intra qua- 
dragesimum pugnce diem Tacit. Hist. II. 70. towards the end of May; and 
enters Rome before July 18 : Tacit. Hist. II. 91. maximum pontificatiim adep- 
tus Vitellius de caremoniis piiblicis XV Kal. Augustas edixit, in/austo die Cre- 
merensi Alliensique cladibus. Sueton. Vitell. c. 11. Alliensi die pont. maximum 
cepit. Destruction of Cremona: Tacit. Hist. III. 32 — 34 Dio 65. 15. Octavo 
imperii mense desciverunt a Vitellio exercitus &c. Sueton. Vitell. c. 15. Vitellius 
withdraws from the palace Dec. 18: Tacit. Hist. III. 67- The Saturnalia — 
festos Saturni dies — had occurred just before: Tacit. III. 78 (sc. Dec. 17). 
He is slain after a reign of 8"" 5<^: Joseph. Bell. IV. 11, 4. Dio 65. 22 et 
Zonaras tom. I p. 576. C. ^r\<TavTa p.\v ItiI riaaapa hrj koI TTfvrriKOVTa koI i]p.€pas 
ivvia (cat dybo-r^Kovra ap^avra hi (viavrbv i)ixepav b€Ka diroMovTa. Anecd. Paris. 
Cramer tom. II p. 27. ((3bop.ov km. v Iroy aywi'. Ibid. p. 281. ejSaaCXfvaev eros 
iv. As Vitellius was born Sept. 24 (conf. a. 15), the 54y 89*^ would terminate 

R O M A N I 


3 Grkkk Adthohs 

4 Latin Authors 

tested by Dio himself Or. IX p. 503. N^pava -ndvTfi 
iiTiardneda ((j) ijfxSiv. Or. ,S1 p. tiiJS. iyytcrra i<j>' i]\iMV, 
a)s iTTiiTTatTdf, tUv avTOKpaTuputv ns — of Nero in Greece. 
Tliat ho Iiad visited Egypt is attested Or. 1 1 p. 322. 
iyui us iT!v66p.r\v irapa tQv iv AiyvTtTif Upiuv ivoi. 
These three are again named together by Philostratus 

V. Sopli. I. 7- Aiui' — yev6p.€vos Kara \p6vovs ofis 'AiroA- 
Atofio's re 6 Tuai'ei/s koL F,v<f>paTr]i 6 Tvpios ((l>i\o(T6<f>ow 
ap.<j>oTepoii ij,ev fTtiTrjbeCais f'x*» ^afrot ha<f)(pop.(vois irpos 
d\A7/Aoiis. Eimap. Vit. Soph, prooem. EvippArrjs 6 (^ 
AlyvTrTov Koi Ai(av 6 (k Bidwias, hv iirtKoKovv XpvcroaTo- 
jxov, 'AttoAAojvios re 6 fK TvAvov. 

The quarrel of Euphrates with Apollonius commenced 
in Egypt in A. D. /O : conf. V. A. V. 38. 39. He was 
jealous oi Apollonius in Ethiopia in A. D. 71: V. A. 

VI. 7- 13. 28. He incites Doinitian against him in 
A. D. !)3 : V. A. VII. 9. 3«. conf. VIII. 3. His con- 
duct is described by Apollonius himself apud Philo- 
strat. VIII. 7 P- 330. 332. 344. who complains of the 
calumnies oi Euphrates Ibid. p. 351. conf. V. A. I. 13. 
II. 2(>. Euphrates however is mentioned with praise 
by Epictetus Diss. III. 15 p. 420. rivt^ aKovcravTis twos 
oxiTut Xiyovroi is Ev^pdrt/s Kiyu, (KaiToi ris ovTia bvvarai 
eiTretr ws eKeiros ;) dfKovcn kuI avrol ^i.koao<^iiv. Conf. 
Enchirid. c. 29, 4. Idem IV. 8 p. (>32. icaA&is Euf^parr/s 
ikfyiv oTi " tTTl woAii kiiei,putp.r]v kavddvfiv (t)iXoT0(P(o}>.^' 
He was admired by Timocrates, a contemporaiy of the 
sophist Polemo : Philostrat. V. S. I. 25 p. 536. and is 
highly extolled by Pliny Ep. I. 10. 

Apollonius remains in Egypt : V. A. V. 38. 

Musonius Rufus is at Home at the close of this 
year: Tacit. Hist. III. 80. 81. Vocato senatu ddiguntur 
lefjati ad exercitus. — varia legaforum sorsfuit. Qui Pe- 
tilio Cereali occurrerant extremum discrimen adiere — 
(Vquioribus animis accepti sunt qui ad Antonium vene- 
rant. — Miscuerat se leffatis 3Iusomus Rufus equestris or- 
dinis, studium philosophioi et placita Stoicorum cemulor 
tus ; corptabatque permixtus manipulis bona pads ac 
belli discrimina disserens armatos monere. Id plerisque 
ludihrio, pluribus tcedio ; nee deerant qui propellerent 
proculcarentque, ni admonitu modestissimi cuj usque, et 
aliis minitantibus, omisisset intempesticam sapieutiam. — 
VitelUo rescripimn Sabini ccede et incendio Capitolii 
[conf. III. 78. 79] dirempta belli commercia. He is 
present after the death of Vitellius: IV. 10. turn in- 
vectus est Musonius Rufus in Publium Celerem. and in 
A.D. 70: IV. 40. Quo die senatum ingressus est Domi- 
tianus — repeti cognitionem inter Musonium Rufum et 
Publium Celerem placuit, dainnatusque Publius et So- 
ratii manibus satisfactum. — justum indicium explesse 
Musonius videbatur. diversa favia Demetrio cynicam 
sectam professo, quod manifestum reum ambitiosius quam 
honestius defendisset. Musonius is mentioned by Gellius 
N. A. XVI. 1. Adolescentidi cum etiam turn in scholis 

2 A. Vitellius imp. German, 

3 A. Vitellius Germanieits imp. 

4 A. Vitellius German, imp. tr.p. + L. Vitellius cos. Ill 

censor, or liberi. imp. German, or XVmr sacr. fac. 

5 A. Vitellius Germ. imp. ». m. tr. p. 

6 A. Vitellius Aug. imp. German. 

7 A. Vitellius Germ. imp. Aug. p. m. tr. p. 

8 A. Vitellius Germa. imp. Aug. p. m. tr. p. 

9 A. Vitellius Germ. imp. Aug. tr. p. + L. Vitellius 

COS. Ill censor or liberi. imp. Germ. Aug. or pmU. 
maxim,, or XVvir sacr. fac. 

10 A. Vitellius Germanicus imp. Aug. p.m. tr.p. + Itmos 

et virtus S. C. or i. Vitel. censor II. S. C. or pax 
Germ. Roma S. C. 

11 A. Vitellius German, imp. Aug. p. m. tr. p. 

12 A. Vitellius German, imp. pont. 

Vitellius was in possession of Rome, but Vespasian 
coined money at .\ntioch: Tacit. Hist. II. 82. and to 
this year we may with Eckhel tom. VI p. 320. 322 re- 
fer the following: Imp. Gasar Vespasianus Aug. + Ti- 
tus et Domitian. Gusares prin. juvent. Issued within 
July 1— Dec. 31 A. D. 69. 

Silius at Rome : Plin. Ep. III. 7- Laserat famam 
suam sub Nerone: credebatur sponte accusasse. sed in 
Vitellii amicitia sapienter se et comiter gesserat. ex pro- 
consulatu Asice qloriam reportaverat. maculam veteris 
industries laudabili otio abluerat. Tacit. Hist. III. 65. 
Flavins Sabinus et Vitellius — sape domi congressi, post- 
remo in cede Apollinis, wt fama fuit, pepigere. Verba 
vocesque duos testes habebant, Claudium Rufum et Silium 
Italicum. In A. D. 69. 

The son of Silius was a consul suffectm in tho reign 
oi Domitian : Plin. Ibid. Minorem e liberis duobus ami- 
sit, sed majorem melioremque forentem atque etiam consu- 
larem reliquit. Martial. VIII. 66. 

Augusta pia thura victimasque 

Pro nostra date Silio, Camcente. 

Bis senas jubet en redire fasces 

Nata consule, nobilique virga 

Vatis Castaliam domum aonare. 

Rerum prima salus et una, Ctesar, 

Gaudenti superest adhuc quod optet, 

Felix purpura tertiusque consul. 

Silius frequentes 

Mavult sic numerare cansuiatus. 

Probably in A. D. 94, when lib. VIII was written i 
(conf. a. 93) ; and when the second son was still living, • 
whom Martial hopes to see the third consul of his fa- 1 
mily. His death is lamented by Martial IX. 87 [cir. I 
A.D. 95]. .... I 

Silius himself after his proconsulship in Asia retired 1 
to Campania and to Naples: Plin. Ep. III. "J. Notis-\ 
sime, ita suadentibus annis, ab urbe secessit seque in Cam- ! 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

in Deo. 21. His reign began Jan. 2 ; and 10 days being deducted would place 
his death at Dec. 22. Josephus reckons S"" 2'' to Ot/io and S"* 5*' to Vitellius 
= 11'" T^ from the death of Galha. And these, computed from Jan. 15, will 
terminate in Dec. 2 1 . 

Vespasian was proclaimed Kal. Jul. Tacit. Hist. II. 79- 81. Initium ferendi 
ad Vespasianum imperii Alexandria coeptum, festinante Tiherio Alexandra, qui 
Kal. Juliis Sacramento ejus le<jiones adept, isque primus principatus dies in 
postenim celebratus ; quamvis Judaictis exercitus V Non. Julias apud ipsum ju- 
rasset, eo ardore ut ne Titus quidem filius exspectaretur. — Ante Idus Julias Syria, 
omnis in eodem sacramento fuit. Sueton. Vesp. c. 6. Tih. Alexander prmfectus 
-3^gypti primus in verba Vespasiani legiones adegit Calend. Jtilii, qui principatus 
dies in posierum observatus est. Judaicus deinde exercitus V Idus Julii apud 
ipsum juravit. Conf. Joseph. Bell. IV. 10 Dion. 65. 8. It was determined 
Titum instare Judmce Vespasianum obtinere claustra uEgypti; sufficere videbantur 
adversus Vitellium pars copiarum et dux Mucianus et Vespasiani nomen ac nihil 
arduum fatis Tacit. Hist. II. 82. at Rome after the death of Vitellius senatus 
cuncta principibus solita Vespasiano decernit Idem IV. 3. Vespasian at his 
elevation is 60 years of age : Tacit. Hist. II. 74. sexaginta cetatis annos. Phi- 
lostrat. V. A. V. 29. ^aa-iKeias airroiMfvos irepl eras efr/xotrroi' tov ^lov. Con- 
sistently with his birth Nov. 17 A. D. 9. conf. F. H. Ill p. 270. 

The Jewish war during this year was suspended : Tacit. Hist. V. 10. Missu 
Neronis Vespasianus intra duas cestates [A. D. 67. 68] cuncta camporum omnes- 
que prater Hierosoh/mam urbes victore exercitu tenebat. Proximus annus [A. D. 
69], dvili bello intentus, quantum ad Judceos per otium transiit. Jerusalem this 
year is left to the factions of John and the Zealots, and of Simon and his ban- 
ditti: Joseph. Bell. IV. 3—7- 

Coins of Galba Otho Vitellius ; see col. 4. 


823. Gcpsar Vespasianus 
Aug. II Titus Ccesar Dio 
66. 1 Tacit. Hist. IV. 38 
Nor. Vespasiano II solo 

Ovfo-naa-Lavov avTOKpAro- 
pos novov Chron. Pasch. 

Vespasianus II et Titus 
II Cassiod. 

Vespasiani 2 from Kal. Jul. trib. pot. 2 (from Dec. 21). 

Tacit. Hist. IV. 38. 39. Vespasianus iterum ac Titus consulatum absentes ini- 
erunt. — Kal. Januariis in senatu, quern Julius Frontinus prator urbanus voca- 
verat, legatis exercitibusque ac regibus laudes grotesque decrette &c. c. 51. 52. 
Vespasiamis in Italiam resque urbis intentus — validissimam exercitus partem 
Tito tradit ad reliqua Judaici belli perpetranda. He waited for a favourable 
season : Alexandria: statos oestivis fiatibus dies et certa maris opperiebatur Tacit. 
IV. 81. And proceeded to Italy while Titus besieged Jerusalem: Joseph. 
Bell. VII. 2, 1. Kaff bv KMpbv TCtos KaTaap toIs 'Ifpoo-oAv/xots -nokwpKZv ■iTpo<rq- 
hpfvev, (V TovTa reus tf>opTLbos Ovfo-itaffiavoi eiri/Sas airb rrji AXf^avbpeCas (h 
'Po'Soi' bU^aivev ivreiidev be -nkiatv iirl TpvqpSiv koX nacras tos tv t<5 iiapaTiXia 
Tsokds (T!f\6utv — diro t^s 'Iwrfas eis Tr}v 'EAAdSo wepaioCrai, KaKfWfv airo Kep- 

R O M A N I 


3 Gkekk Authors 

4 Latin Authohh 

es»emm, ivOvixruxdnov hoc (ireecum quod apposui dictum 
esse a Mmotm philosopho audiebamus &c. Idem V. 1. 
Musonium philosophum solitum dicere accepimus &c. 
Quoted again XVIII. 2, 1. He taught Epictetm : 
Diss. Epiotet. III. 6, 10. 6 'Pov(j)os — eXeyt k. t. K. 
III. I'i, \ i.'Pov<f)ui ns iKeye FdKfia (r(payiin-oi K.r.k. 
[sc. in A. D. «;)] III. 23, 29. dcade Af'yetv 6 'Poi;<|)os 
K.T.A. I. 7. 32. iirfi Toi ToCr' avro /cat fyo) 'Vovcpio (Zttov 
(•nvny-QiVTl ixoi — /xt; yap, ^<t>'r}V, to KaTtiTdKwv (viirpncra ; 
I. 9, 29. ovr6) Koi 'Pov^os -nupA^iav fj.e elddti \.4yfLV k.t.\. 
Ruftis and Thrasea are mentioned Diss. I. 1, 27. Mu- 
sonius in A. D. 6'.'{ exhorted Plautus to endure death 
with constancy apud Tacit. Ann. XIV. M). He was 
banished by Nero in A. D. fi.'j : conf. a. G7. His exile 
is noticed by Lucian morte Peregrin, c. 18 torn. VIII 
p. 285 Themistius Or. VI p. 8()=72 D. and by JuHan 
apud Suid. p. 2532 B, where the error of Reinesius 
(p. 25.32 E.F) is justly censured by Heyler ad Juliani 
Epistolas p. 530. Reinesius seems to have imagined 
that Julian was writing to Musonius instead of writing 
of him. M usonhis \s thvis described bySuidas: Mov- 
(Tuwos Ka-jrfrcdi'oy Tvpp^voi [Musonius Tusci generis Ta- 
cit. Ann. XIV. 59 Tfros (rvi'r\v Mouo-coi'io) tQ Tvppr]v^ 
Themist. Or. XIII p. 212= 173. C], -noXim Bovkamov, 
biaXfKTLKos <f)i\6<T0(l)0s KoX oTuVVcoy, yeyoro)? eitl N^p<avos, 
yvdpiiMs 8' ^ AttoWuvCov rov Tuare'ws [thus far Eudocia 
p. 300] Koi aWbiV ttoW&v, TTpos ov koL iitUTToKai (ji^povTai, 
'AiToKktavlov, KaK€Lvov Trpbs ^AiTo\\(avwv [conf. Philostr. 
V^. A. IV. 46]. 8ta yovv rqv ■nappt](Tiav (cal to iKeyKTiKov 
Koi TO VTtfpfidWov rrjs iKeuOtpCas avrov vtto Nepoiros 
dvaipfiTai. (pfpovrai, avrov Aoyot 8tcl<^opoi, <f)iko<TO(f)ias 
ixdp.evoi, KoX iinaToXaC. Olearius ad Philostrat. V. A. 
p. I'JG adapts dpaiptlTai to the true account by an 
interpretation. More probably however an error of 
Suidas. The exile of the Tuscan is noticed by Apol- 
lonius apud Philostr. VII. 1(>. (NVpcur) Mova-caviov tov 
Tvpprjvov TioWa rfj apxij fvavTuadivTa ttj vrj(Ti^ ^vvi<r)((v 
f\ ovojxa Fvapa. Musonius was favoured by Vespasian : 
conf. a. 74- For other testimonies, and for the opinions 
of those who, after Scaliger, imagine two Musonii both 
banished by Nero, see Appendix, Musonius Rufus. 

pania tmuit ; ac ne adventu quidem novi prineipiji [sc. 
Trajani A. 1). 99] inde commotu$ ett. Mama Caiaris 
lam, sub quo hoc Uberum fuit. &c. He had already 
composed a part at least of the Punica when Martial 
wrote IV. H. Alluded to again Martial. VII. 63 
[A. D. 93]. Silius is again mentioned by Martial XI. 
48. 49 [A. D. 100]. Ho died after a long retirement 
in his 76th year: Plin. Ep. III. 7- Moito nuntiatus e$t 
Silius /talicus in NeapoUtano suo inedia vitam Jiniitte. 
Causa nwrtis valetudo. — Annum quttUum et tepttiaffesi' 
mum excessit. 

Apollonius visits Ethiopia: Philostrat. V. A. VI. 25. 
the Cataracts : VI. 26. He addresses Titus in A. D. 
70 : VI. 29. infl hi Titos fipi]Kii. to. ^oKvfxa, koI vfKpiov 
7r\«a Tjv TrdvTa. to, op.opd re iOvt) (<JT((f>dvovv avTov, 6 be 
ovK r/^iov (avTov tovtov' p.i] yap avrbs TavTa tlpyiadai, 
Ofio bi 6pyT}v (p-qvavTi fTnbtba>Kfvai ras eavTov x.eipas' 
^irj/r«i 6 ^ ATToWdvios TavTa. — ^iTarrei 6^ Ttpbs avrov 
(■KKTToKrjv, rjs bidKOvov ■n-oieirat rov Aifxiv. 

Coins of Vespasian Titus and Domitian : Eckhel 
tom. VI p. 321. 322. 351. .368. 

1 Imp. C(Bsar Vespasianus Aug. + Ccesar Aug. f. cos. 

Ccesar Aug./. pr. or cos. iter. tr. pot. or cos. dmg. 
Ill tr. pot. 

2 Imp. Gees. Vesp. Aug. p. m. + cos. iter. tr. pot. 

3 Imp. Ctesar Vesp. Aug. cos. II tr. p. p.p. 

4 Imp. Cees. Aug. Vesp. cos. II tr. pot. + Tit. et Domit. 


5 Imp. Ccesar Vespasianus Aug. p. m. tri. p. cos. II. 

6 Imp. Cces. V^espasian. Aug. p. m. tr. p. p. p. cos. II. 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

Kvpas fit aKpav 'lamyCav, oQev rjbr] Kara yfju eTroteiro rrjv vopfCav. According to 
Tacitus Hist. IV. 5,S he arrived at Rome after the new Capitol was begun : 
Curam restituendi Gapitolii in L. Vestinum cmfert : — XI Kal. Julias serena 
luce spatium omne evinctum vittis &c. According to Suetonius Vesp. c. 8 Dio 
6G. 10 he was present on that occasion. 

The Jewish war concluded : conf. Sueton. Tito c. 5. Tacit. Hist. V. 1. Ejiis- 
dem anni principio Ccesar Titm perdomandce Judceee delectus a patre et privatis 
utriusque rebus militia clarus majore turn vifamaque agebat &c. Titm marching 
by land from Alexandria: Joseph. Bell. IV. 11,5. arrives a little before the 
Passover: Ibid. V. 3, 1. 13, 7. The temple is burnt on the 10th oi Loils: 
VI. 4, 5. the last wall taken on the 8th oi Gorpiams: VI. 8, 5. Ibid. VI. 10, 1. 
Iret bevTfpio rrjs OvicnraaLavov ijyffxovCa?, Topinaiov fx-qvos dybori. See F. H. Ill 
p. 362. The siege lasted nearly 5 months ; the war had continued 4>/ 4™. 
Sulpicius H. Sacr. II. 44, 12. Templtim dirutum abhinc annos CCGXXXI. sc. 
A. D. 70- 400 both inclusive. Conf. Uion. 66. 4 — 7 Orosium VII. 9 Euse- 
bium H. E. III. 7. Titus left the three towers and the western wall standing ; 
every other part of Jerusalem being destroyed: Joseph. Bell. VII. 1. He 
removed to Csesarea, and arrived at Berytus between Oct. 24 and Nov. 1 7 : 
Joseph. VII. 3, 1. biarpijioDV avroOi [at Csesarea] Tr\v Tabi\(t>ov yeviOkiov i]ij.ipav 
[Oct. 24 : conf. a. 51] emcfyav&s fdpTaCe — -M*™ tovto Kaio-ap (k Br}pvTov iJKtv — 
/cat hravda xpoviatTtpav e-jron^a-aTO rrjv eriSjjjuiai', irKfCovi XP'^I^^^"^ '"^ kafuipoTrfri 
Ttfpl TTiv Tov TiaTpos r}p,ipav y(Vid\wv [Nov. 17 : conf. F. H. Ill p. 270]. 

Movements of Civilis in Batavia and Gaul in A. D. 69 before the battle of 
Cremona: Tacit. Hist. IV. 13—31. Continued after the death of Vitellius: 
Ibid. IV. 37. Civilis and his confederates Classicus and Tutor are at last de- 
feated by Gerialis : IV. 68—79. 

Coins : see col. 4. 


824. Gcfsar Vespasianus 
Arig. Ill M. Gocceius 
Nerva Frontin. Aqused. 
c. 102 Nor. Idat. Oassiod. 

Ov((ntamavov Avyovarov 
TO Kca Nepova Chron. 

Manner apud Gruter. 
p. 300 Eckhel. tom. VI 
p. 352. Dec. XXVIII 
adlectus ad numerum ex 
S. G. Titus G(usar Aug. f. 
imperator Imp. Ccesar e 
Vespasiano Aug. Ill M. 
Gocceio Nerva cos. p. R. c. 

On Plin. H. N. II. 13 
— imperatoribus Vespasia- 
nis, patre III filio iterum 
coss. — see Tillemont. tom. 
II p. 17-'- 

Vespasiani 3 from Kal. Jul. trib. pot. 3. (from Dec. 21.) 

Titus having passed the winter at Berytus (conf. a. 70) proceeds to Antioch 
(where he represses the persecution of the Jews: Joseph. Bell. VII. 5,2) and 
thence to the Euphrates: Joseph. Bell. VII. 5, 1. 2. TiVos 6^ Kalaap xpoDov 
jxev Tiva biiTpi\l/ev (v Btj/jwtu — fKfWfv 8' ava^ev^as k. t. X. — oiihi yap iirtixdVfv 
ev 'Arrioxei'a Tiros dA.A' fidvi inl to (tvyp.a to KaTo, tov Ev<{>pdTr]V <tvv(T(iv€ tijv 
TTOpfUv. (vda br] km. Ttapa tov YldpOav /3a(nA.eMS BoKoyecrov irpos avTov rJKov (TTi- 
(pavoii xpyo'ovv (ttI ttj KaTo. tS>v '\ovbaiutv vCkt} Kop.i(ovTes. From thence he pro- 
ceeded to Alexandria: Joseph. VII. 5, 3. and then to Rome: Ibid, tov ttX.ov 
avT<a KaTo. vovv dwcrOiVTOs, oixotas piv 17 'PdfJir] ■ntpl ttjv vTrobo)(7]v eixf nal ras 
vTr avTr}(T(i,s axnrep enl tov TraTpos' Xajx-npoTarov 8' i]v TiVw xat avros o ■naTi]p VTiav- 
T&v KoX bix.6p.ivos. Sueton. Tito c. 5. Festinans in Italiam cum E/iegium, deind^ 
Puteolos oneraria navi appuUsset, Romam inde contendit expeditissimus &c. The 
triumph of Toms and Vespasian is described at large by Josephus Bell. VIL 
5, 3 — 6. Noticed by Eutropius VII. 20 by Suetonius Vesp. c. 12. Tito c. 6. 
Triwnphavit cum patre. c. 5. Neque Titm ex eo destitit participem atque etiam 
tutorem imperii agere. The temple of Janus was now shut: Oros. VII. !). 
Vespasianus et Titm imperatores nrngnijicum agentes de Judais triumphum urbem 
ingressi sunt. — Qui Janum geminum ohseratis cohiberi claustris sexto demum ipsi 
post urbem conditam censuerunt. It had been closed for the fifth time by Av^ 
gustus: F. H. Ill p. 28. 228. 234. But was opened again, and remained open 
till the time of Vespasian : Tacitus apud Orosium VII. 3. Sene Av^gmto Janus 
patefactus — u,sque ad Vespasiani duravit imperium. 

Inscriptions of this year: ad calcem Sueton. N". 2 apud Grut. p. 103. Spo- 
leti. Victories Aug. sacrum pro reditu imp. Gees. [T] Flavi Vespasiani Aug. 
pont. maxim, trib. pot. cos. II p. p. statuam ex eei^e or do Spol. conloc. Ibid. N". 3. 

R M A N I 


3 Greek Authous 

4 Latin Authoks 

7 Imp. Casar Vegpatiamu Auff. p. m. t. p. p. p. cot. 

II de». Ill + eetemitat P. R. S. C. 

8 (antica incerta) + /«ip. Vp.p. cob. II detig. III. 

9 (antica incorta)+ T. Cat. Aug./. cot. D. Cat. Aug. 

Titus is now consul (see col. 1 ), Domitian is prtetor : 
Tacit. Hist. IV. Si). Kai. Jan. Jitliui Frontinut orator 
urbanm. — ino'x ejurante FrmUino C<Btar Domttianw 
pra:turam cepit. ejus nomm tpittolis edictisque prupone- 
batur, vis penes Mticianvm erat. Sueton. Domit. c. I . 
Honorem prcaturce urbanee cum consulari potestate tus- 
c«pit iitulo tenus. 

Apollonius in Cilicia meets Titus at Argos: Philo- 
strat. V. A. VI. 30. livappr\Oih fie (6 Tiros) avTOKpirup 
iv rfi 'Pcojur; — dw^et fitr urofioiprjcrutv tt/s ap\fii tu TtaTpL. 
Tov be ' ATtoXXdviov ivOvp-rjOfls &)S ttoAXoi) alios avrif 
loTOi KOI' iTpos I3pa\v ^yytvopLffos, tSeiTo avrov fir Ap 
yovs riKfiv [sc. Cilicise : conf. Olear. p. 269]. and at 
Tarsus: VI. 84. He is in Ionia at the time of the 
edicts oi Domitian tvvovyovs re p.r) Troieir vop.oOirq(Tavros 
apLTtfKovs T( JUT/ (pvTfvdv fTi. VI. 12. The fonuer edict 
is referred to A. D. 8.S : conf. a. 83. 2. the latter is 
placed at A. D. 93 : conf. a. 93. 2. 

Demetrius ci/nicus, now at Rome (conf. a. (59), is 
recommended by Apollonius to Titus: Philostrat. V. A. 
VI. 31. eyi) b( (Toi KOI AijfiT/Tptor Ivarrfcrut tov (p.avTo{i 
kralpov, hi fwe'orat (toi ottoVo ^ovXei k. t. K. — ycypwirrai 
irpos avTov (TnaTokiy ijiiKocrocpfl bf im ttjs PaJ/ur/s. 

Coins of Vespasian Titm and Domitian : Eckhel 
tom. VI p. 323—330. 3.51. 352. 368. 

1 Imp. Gees. Vespasian. Aug. p. m. tr.p.p.p. cot. III+ 

Gees. Aug. f. des. imp. Aug. f. cos. des. iter. S. C. 
or Boma resurges. S. C. or S. C. or (Si. P. Q. R. ad- 
sertori Ubertatis publico:. 

2 Imp. Gees. Vespasian. Aug. cos. ITI+tutela Augiuti. 

S. G. or Victoria navatis. S. G. 

3 Imp. GiBsar Ve.ipas. Aug. cos. Ill fr. p.p. p. + Aug. 

or liberi imp. Aug. Vespas. 

4 Imp. Gasar Vespasianus Aug. tr. p.+ triump. Aug. 

5 Imp. Casar Vespasianus Aug. 

6 Imp. Gas. Vespas. Aug. p. m. tr. p. p. p. cos. III. 

7 Imp. Casar Vespasian. Aug. cos. III. 

8 Imp. Gee. Vespasian. Aug. p. m. tr.p.p.p. cos. III. 

9 Imp. CcBsar Vespasianus Aug. p. m. t.p.p.p. cos. III. 

10 Imp. Gcesar Vespasianus Aug. p.m. tr.p.p.p. cos. III. 

1 1 Imp. G<es. Vespasianus Aug. cos. III. 

12 Imp. GO'S. Vesp. Aug. p. m. + Nep. red. or tri. pot. 

II cos. Ill p. p. 

13 Imp. GcBsar VespoMan. Aug. imp. tr. pot. p.p. cos. 

Ill+signis receptis. S. C. 

14 Imperator T. Gcesar Augustif.-\-pac% Augustce. 

1 5 (antica incerta) + T. imp. Gasar cos. des. II. Ctesar 

Domit. COS. des. II. S. G. 

I 2 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 


Gruter. p. IJG- Imp. Caisar Vespasianus August, pontif. max. trih. pot. II 
imp. VI COS. Ill desiff. IIII p. p. aquas Gurtiam et Ceerwleam perductas a 
divo Claudio [conf. a. 52] et postea intermissas dilapsasque per annos novem 
sua inipensa urbi restituit. Ad calcem Sueton. N". 4. Cumis. Imp. Gcesari 
Vespasiano Aug. pont. max. tr. pot. Ill imp. IIX p.p. cos. Ill des. IIII S. 
Puteol. quod vias urbis negligentia superior... tempor. corruptas impensa sua re- 

Coins : see col. 4. 

825. Ceesar Vespasianus 
Aug. IV Titus Ccesar II 
Nor. Idat. 

Vespasianus IV et Titus 
III Cassiod. 

OvtffTtacriavov Avyovarov 
TO y Koi TiTov Chron. 

Marmor apud Gruter. 
p. 244. 

T. CcEsari Vespasiano 
pontif. tr. pot. II imp. Ill 
COS. II Imp. Ccesari Ves- 
pasiano Aug. pont. tnax. 
tr. pot. IIII imp. Villi 
COS. IIII p. p. Gcesari 
Aug./. Domitiano cos. de- 
sig. II principi juventutis. 

Before Jan. 1 A. D. 73. 

Vespasiani 4 from Kal. Jul. trih. pot. 4. (from Dec. 21.) 
Commagene is reduced to a province: Joseph. Bell. VII. 7, 1. rjhi) 6' Itos 
Tfraprov OiKa-iracnavov biiTtovros ttjv r^yinoviav avvifirj tov jSacrLXia rrjs Ko^/na- 
yTji'jjs 'Avrioxov /ueyaXats crvfMfyopah — Trepiirecrfu'. He is deposed, and resides 
with his sons at Rome : see F. H. Ill p. 344. h. From hence Commagene 
dates its era : Chron. Pasch. p. 248 B. ivb. ly. y. {m. Ov{(Tiracri.avov Avyovarov 
TO /3 Kal Nepoua. Koixixayrjvol (cat 2a;LiotraTets evTfvdev rows favr&v apidjwvcn \p6- 
vov^. Suetonius Vesp. c. 8 marks the reduction of Commagene : Achaiam 
[conf. Philostrat. V. Ap.V. 41 et Olearium ad locum p. 225 Pausan. VII. 17,2] 
Lyciam RJmdum Byzantium Samum lihertate adempta, item Thraciam Giliciam 
et Gommagenem ditionis regies usque ad id tempus, in provinciarum formam re- 
degit. Repeated by Eutropius VII. 19 Orosius VII. 9 and Hieronymus in 
Chron. Anno 2089 [A. D. 7t] Vespasiani S" Achaia, Lycia, Ehodus, Byzantium, 
Samus, Trachea Gilicia, Commagene — in provinciam redactce. This notice 
(which is not in Eusebius) has been inserted, with respect to Commagene, a 
year too low. The Paschal Chronicle is inconsistent with itself; Indict. 13 
ended Aug. 31 A. D. 70. See Appendix. But a coin of Samosata apud 
Eckhel. tom. Ill p. 252 proves that the 90th year of Commagene was still 
current after the accession of Aurelius : er. CJ . Aurelii. Therefore in March 
A.D. 161. Consequently the first year was still current in March A.D. 72, 
and Commagene was free in the 383rd year of the Seleucidce and 4th of Ves- 
pasian, which agrees with Josephus ; and that year 383, commencing Oct. 
A. D. 71 in the 3rd of Vespasian (which agrees with Chron. Pasch.), was 
reckoned the first of the era, as Eckhel p. 253 determines. 

Coins of Vespasian bearing the fourth consulship (within Jan. 1 A. D. 72 
and Dec. 31 A.D. 73), and the fourth tribunician year (see col. 1), and the 
title of Censor (conf. a. 74 Sueton. Vespas. c. 8), are given in col. 4. 


01. 213 U. C. Varr. 826. 
Domitianus Casar II 31. 
Valerius Messalinus Nor. 

Valerio Messalino cos. 
Frontin. Aqused. c. 102. 
Vespasianus V et Titus 
IV Cassiod. 

Vespasiani 5 from Kal. Jul. trib.pot. 5. (from Dec. 21.) 

Cippus Romse apud Gruterum p. 197 et ad calcem Sueton. N°. 6. Ex aucto- 
ritate imp. Gcbs. Vespasiani Aug. p. m. trih. pot. IIII imp. X p. p. cos. IIII 
des. Veens. C. Calpetanus Rantius Quirinalis Valerius Gestus curatorr. riparum 
et alvei Tiheris terminaver. r. r. prox. cipp. p. GLXXIIII. Before Dec. 21, 
when the fifth tribunician year probably began. 

R O M A N I 


3 Greek Authors 

4 Latin Authors 

Domiflan was consul mffectu* in this year : Martnor 
apud (jiruter. p. 578 Eclthel torn. VI p. 36!>. Imu. Cee- 
tar Ve»pa»ianvia Aw). pont. max. tr. pot. II imp. VI p.p. 
COS. Ill desiff. 1 1 11 veteranis qui militcmenmt in clatte 
Ravennate &c. — Non. April. Ccesare Aitg.f. Domitiano 
Cn. Pedio Catto cm. 

Pliny writes H. N. lib. XIV at this date, 90 yean 
after the death of Vir(;il: F. H. Ill p. 241. 

Coins of Vespasian and Titus: Eckbcl torn. VI p. 
331. 353. 

1 Imp. Goes. Vesp. Aug. p. m. eos. Illl+aupiir fri. 

pot. or Vesta. 

2 Imp. Gees. Vespa. Aug. p. in. cos. IIII. 

3 Imp. Gws. Vespasian. Aug. cos. IIII. 

4 Imp. Gees. Vesp. Aug. p. m. t. p. cos. IIII. cent. 

5 Imp. Gws. Vesp. Aug. p. m. t.p.p.p. cos. IIII cens. 

6 Imp. Gees. Vesp. Aug. p. m. cos. IIIIcen.+ Vesta. 

7 Imp. Gws. Vespas. Aug. p. m. tr. p. p. p. cos. IIII. 

8 Imp. Gwsar Vespasian. Aug. cos. IIII. 

9 Imp. Gws. Vespasian. Aug. p. m. tr. p. cos. IIII. 

10 Imp. Gws. Vesp. Aug. p. m. cos. IIII ce. 

1 1 Imp. Gwsar Vespas, Aug. cos. IIII p. p. + liberi 

imp. Aug. Vespas. 

12 T. Gws. Vespasian, imp. p. tr. p. cos. II. 

13 T. Gwsar Vespasian, imp. pan. tr. pot. eos. 11+ Gw- 

sar Domitian. cos. des. I I. or congiar. primum p. R. 
dat. S. G. or Judwa capta. S. G. 

14 T. Gws. imp. pon. tr. p. cos. II cens. + victoria nata- 

lis. S. G. 

15 T. Gws. Vesp. imp. pon. tr. pot. cos. II cens. 
\6 T. Gwsar Vespasian, imp. pon. tr. pot. cos. II. 

IT T. Gws. Vespas. imp. p. tr. p. cos. II. + victoria tia- 
vaUs. S. G. 

18 Imp. Gws. Vespas. Aug. p. m. tr.p. IIII p.p. cos. 

IIII. See col. 1. 

19 T. Gwsar Vespasian, imp. Ill pon. tr.p. II cot. II. 

See col. 1. 

20 T. Gwsar Vespasian, imp. IIII pon. tr. p. II cos. II. 

Titus, though associated with his father, has not 
the titles of Imperator, Augustus, pont. max. or pater 

Coins of Domitian : Eckhel torn. VI p. 3/0. 

1 Cws. Aug./. Domit. cos. II. 

2 CcEsar Aug. f. Domitian. cos. II. + S. G. or victoria 

navalis. S. C. 

3 Gwsar Augtisti f. + Domit ianus cos. II. 

4 Gws. Aug. f.-V Domit. cos. II. 

5 (antica incerta) + Cong. II cos. II. S. C. 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 


827. CcBsar Vespasianm 
Aug. V Titus Gmsar III 
Censorin. c. 18 Frontin. 
Aqused. c. 102 Nor. Idat. 
Vespasianus Viet Titus V 

Vespasiani 6 from Kal. Jul. trih.pot. 6. (Dec. 21.) 

The era of Flaviopolis in Oilicia appears to commence in the 385th year of 
the Seleiicidce, which began Oct. A. D. 7^. A coin apud Eckhel torn. Ill p. 56 
has (i>kaoviovno\ei.TS>v hovs hup. Diadumeniani. This emperor reigned between 
April A. D. 217 and June A. D. 218, in parts of the years 528, 529. The coin 
then was issued in one of these years. If in A. S. 528, then 528 — 143 = A. S. 
385. If in 529, then 529 — ^143 will give the year 386 commencing Oct. A. D. 
74 for the first year of the era. Hieronymus in Chron. (conf. a. 72) has placed 
the freedom of Cilicia and many other provinces annoEuseb. 2089 = A. S. 385. 
He placed all those states together because he found them together in Eutro- 
pius or Suetonius. But all were not to be referred to one year ; and what was 
not true of Commagene might be true of Cilicia ; which is confirmed by the 
era of Flaviopolis marked on this coin. The first year of Flaviopolis could not 
have commenced, as some suppose, in autumn A. D. 75 A. S. 387, because the 
144th year would then have commenced in autumn A. D. 218, after the death 
of Diadumenianus. 

Lustrum conditum: Censorin. c. 18 Plin. H. N. III. 5 VII. 49. See F. H. 
Ill p. 456. 458. 

Coins of this year : see col. 4. 


828. Ceesar Vespasianm 
Aug. VI Titus Geesar IV 
Dio 66. 15 Nor. Idat. 

Vespasianus VII et Titus 
VI Cassiod. 

Congius aereus apud Griit. 
p. 223. Imp. Ccesare Ves- 
pas. VI COS. T. Gees. Aug. 

f. nil. 

Vespasiani 7 from Kal Jul. trib. pot. "] . (Dec. 21.) 

The temple of Peace completed: Dio 66. 15. i-ni tov Ovfcnraa-iavov (ktov koi 
fTTi TOV TiTov TiTapiov ap\6vTu>v TO Tr\s Etp^r?;? Tfuevos KaOiepdOr], B re Kokoaaos 
b)voixaap,fVOS (v rri iepa 68<3 Ibpvdr). (jiaal 6e avTov to ts v\jros (KaTov irob&v, Kal to 
elSoy ot ixev to tov Ne'pmi'oy oi be to tot) TCtov e)(eiv. Eusebius places the Co- 
lossus at the right date: Anno 2091 [commencing Oct. A. D. 75] Vespasiani 
7". Golossus cujus altitudo GX XVIII cuhitorum erectus est. Conf. Plin. H. N. 
XXXIV. 7 quoted by Scalig. ad Euseb. 1. c. The temple of Peace is men- 
tioned by Sueton. Vesp. c. 9. Fecit et nova opera, templum Pads for o proximum : 
—by Pliny XII. 19 XXXIV. 8 XXXVI. 5 p. 635. It was begun soon after 
the triumph in A. D. 71 : Joseph. Bell. VII. 5, 7- M«''" ''o^'* dpiAiM^ovs — Ov- 
ecriraa-Lavbs iyvu> Tip,evos Etp^fjjs Karaa-Kivdcrai k. t. A.. 

An inscription in Muratori apud Eckhel. torn. VI p. 343 has imp. XIII 
trib. pot. VI COS. VI. An inscription ad calcem Suetonii N''.8 has Imp. XIII I: 
Imp. Geesar Vespasianus Aug. pontif. max. trihmic. potestat. VI imp. XIIII 
p.p. COS. VI desig, VII censor locum vinece publicce occiipatum aprivatisper col- 
legium pmitijicum restituit. 

Coins of Vespasian and Titus : see col. 4. 


829. Ceesar Vespasianus 
Aug. VII Titus Geesar V 
Spartian. Hadr. c. 1 Idat. 
Chron. Pasch. 

Vespasiano VII et Domi- 
tiano V Nor. 

Commodus et Rufus Cas- 

Vespasiani VII et Domi- 
tiani V liber pontificalis 

Vespasiani 8 from Kal. Jul. trib. pot. 8. (Dec. 21.) 

Birth o{ Hadrian: Spartian. Hadr. c. 1. Natus est Homes IX Kal. Feb. 
Vespasiano septies et Tito quinquies coss. Natales Csesarum apud Bucherium 
p. 276. Dim Hadriani IX Kalmidas Februarii. conf. p. 281. 

Columna apud Gruter. p. 154 Eckhel torn. VI p. 343. Imp. Gees. Vespasianus 
Aug. pont. max. trib. pot. VII imp. XVII p. p. censor cos. VII design. VIII. 

Coins of Vespasian and Titus: Eckhel torn. VI p. 334. 355. \ Imp. Gees. 

Vesp. Aug. p. m. t. p. cos. VII. 2 (antica incerta) +pont. max. tr. p. cos. VII 

p.p. 3 T. GcEsar imp. Vespasian. + cos. V. OiDomitian: p. 371. 1 Gmsar 

Aug./. Bomitianus -i- cos. V. 2 Casar Aug.f. Dmnitian. cos. V. so. consul suf' 

R M A N I 


S Greek Authoh8 

{Vespasian expels the philosophers: Dio (ifi. 13. u; 

8' ovv KoX aWoi TToXAoi Ik tS>v ittw'lk&v Ka\ovfj.^va>v Koyaiv 
■npoaxOivTCi, jxfff' S>v Koi Arjixi'irpios 6 kvwkos [conf. a. (Jl. 
(>(>], (Tv\va Koi ovK irrmihfia toIs irapovai. brjuocrCq Tif rrji 
(piKo<To<f>ias ■npoay^-qixari, KaTa\pt!>p.evoi hifkiyovro, — iitd,- 
(T(v o MouKtariy tov Ovitmacnavov itdvTas roiii rotouTovy 
(K Trjs 7roA.6&)s iK^aXf'iv. — /cat TidiVTas avrUa tovs <I)i\o(t6- 
(fmvs 6 Ovf(rTTa<navoi, T:\r)i> tov Mov(t<i)viov [conf. a. (59], 
iK r^y 'Pmjutjs «f€/3aAf tov bi 8j) Arjp,rfrpwv /cat tov 'OarC- 
Xiov Koi (s wjirovy KaT€K\(i(rf. xat o fifv 'OortXios', et koI 
Ta ixaKiara jitj/ ivavaaTO nfpl tjjs <f)vyrji a/covcray, — aXAa 
Kol TToAAw TrAet'd) Kara ttjs ixovapxias KaTfbpafifv, o^coy 
Ttapaxpijixa fxeTtcTTii)' tm 6e Ar)p.riTpiia p.rfi'' Ay VTreUovTi 
(Kf\.(V(T(v 6 Ovf<rjTa(nav6i KfxfiifvaL on " 2ii ^fi^ TrdiTu 
" iioi«ty tva <re aTroxre^i'a), eyo) 8€ /n/va iAa/croviTO oi 
" (^ovti/ft).'" Conf. Sueton. Vosp. c. 13. This expulsion 
of the philosophers was after the triumph A. D. 71 — 
HfTot. TovTo Zonar. p. 577- C. — and before the year 75, 
which is described by Dio G6. 1.5.) 

4 Latin Authobu 

Coins of Vespasian and Titiu : Eckhel torn. VI p. 
.3.S.S. 'Mir>. 
1 Imp. Ccesar Vesp. Auff. cog. V cens. 
'2 Imp. Cwsar Vetpeu. An/i. cot. V tr. p. p. p. 
a Imp. Cwg. Veepasian. Aug. p. m. tr.p.p.p. oa. V 

4 Imp. Cwt. Vesp. Aug. p. m. t. p. cot. V cens. 

5 Imp. Ows. Vespasian. A ug. +pon. max. tr. pot. p. p. 

COS. V cent. 

6 T. Cwsar imp. cos. III. 

7 T. Ccesar imp. Vc»p. + eetemiias. or pontif. tr. p. 


8 T. Casnar imp, pont. + tr. pot. cos. Ill censor. 

9 T. Ccesar imp. pant. tr. p. cos. Ill cem. 

Of D(rmitian : p. 370. 
Cws. Aug./. Domit. cos. Ill+princepsjuwntut. 

Domitian is a consul suffectm, as in the following 
years 75, 7'>i 77 '■ conf. a. "id. 2. Sueton. Domit. c. 2. 
In sex consulatibus non nisi unum [so. A. D. 7^] ordina- 
rium gessif. 

The dialogue de oratoribus is written in the 6th of 
Vespasian: c. 17- adjice — ipstim GaUxe et Othonis et 
Vitellii longum et unum annum, ac sextam jam /elicit 
hujus principatus stationem, qua Vespasianus remp. /o- 
vet ; centum et viginti anni at interitu Ciceronis in hwic 
diem colliguntur. He speaks in round numbers. He 
had enumerated 111 years ; and these seven will give 
118. The true period from the death of Cicero in 
December B. C. 43 to December A. D. 7 1 in the Gth 
year of Vespasian is 1 1 6 years. 

Coins : Eckhel tom. VI p. 333. 355. 

1 Ccesar Vespasianus Aug. + imp. XIII. 

2 Imp. CcBS. Vesp. Aug. p. m. t.p. cos. VI. 

3 Imp. Ccps. Vespasian. Aug. p. m. tr. p. p. p. cos. VI. 

4 Imp. Ccesar Vesp. Aug. cos. VI. 

5 Imp. Cwsar Vespasianus Aug. + imp. XI III. 

6 T. Ccesar imp. Vespasian. + cos. I III or ponti/. tr. p. 

cos. nil. 

7 T. Ccesar imp. cos. IIII. 

[Hieron. Chron. Anno 209 1 [A. D. 7i] Q- Asamius Pe- 
dianus scriptor historicus clarus hahetur ; qui LXXIII 
eetatis suee anno captus hminibus XII postea anuis in 
tummo omnium honore consenescit. Phioed at a wrong 
date because Asconius had conversed with Virgil, who 
died 95 years before the present year. But Asconius 
probably lived to the age assigned, 85 years: conf. a. 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

Damasi torn. I p. 74. 
Vespasiano VIII et Dvmi- 
tiano V Pont. 

fectus. conf. a. 74. 4. Hence the error of Fasti apud Nor. See col. 1. 


01. 214 U. C. Varr. 830. 
CcBsar Vespasianus Aug. 
VIII Titus Ccusar VI. 

Vespasiano VIII et Tito V 

Vespasiano VIII et Do- 
mitiano III Idat. 

Vespasianus VIII et Ti- 
tus VII Cassiod. 

Vespasiani 9 from Kal. Jul. trib. pot. 9. (from Dec. 21.) 
An earthquake in Cyprus and a pe.«tilence at Rome : Hieron. Antio 2093 
[A. D. 71] Vespasiani 9". Tres civitates Cypri terree motu ceciderwnt. Lues ingens 
BomcB facta ; ut per multos dies in Ephemeridem X millia ferme mortnormn 
Jwminum referrentur. Syncellus p. 342 B from Eusebius: A.ot/ic6s /cara tt]v 'Vu)fj.r)v 
fJ-iyas, d)s Kaff rifi^pav virfp \xvpiovs OvrjffKUV (th TroAXas ijfxfpas- ev Kvirpu Tpels 
iroKdi o-eio-/ix(3 KaTeTTTadrjaav. Orosius VII. 9 agrees in the date : Hotio anno 
tres civitates Cypri terree motu corruerunt et Bomce magna pestilentia fuit. Eu- 
sebius Armen. places the pestilence (male fames : conf. Malum ad locum) in 
this year, but the earthquake anno 209 1 . The pestilence is noticed under this 
year by Chron. Pasch. p. 248 D. Suetonius Tito c. 8 and Victor Epit. p. 367 
refer this pestilence to the reign of Tittis. 

Inscriptions : 1 Gruter. p. 243 Eckh. tom. VI p. 343 Imp. Gcesari Vespasi- 
ano Aug. pontifici maxhno tribunic. potest. VIII imp. XVII p. p. cos. VIII 
des. IX censori conservatori cedium sacrarum sodales Titii. 2 ad calcem Sueton. 
N°. 9. Imp. Ca'sari Vespasiano Aug. pont. max. trib. pot. VIII imp. XIIX 
COS. VIII p.p. L. Porcius Sabellus II vir pequnia sua D. D. D. 3 Gruter. 
p. 189 Eckh. p. 343. Imp. Ccesar Augustus Vespasianus pont. max. trib. pot. 
VIII imp. XVIII cos. VIII censor facimndum curavit. 


831. L. Ceionius Coimno- 
dus D. Novius Priscus 
Nor. Idat. 

Inscriptio fratrura Ar- 
valium apud Noris. 0pp. 
torn. II p. 908. L. Ceio- 
nio Gommodo D. Novio 
Frisco III Non. Jan. 

Vespasiani 10 from Kal. Jul. trib. pot. 10. (from Dec. 21.) 
Agricola in Britain: Tacitus Agric. c. 13 — 17 enumerates the successive 
commanders between the victory of Claudius A. D. 43 and the present year : 
Consularium primus Aulus Plautius prapositus. Then followed Ostorius Sca- 
pula, Didius GaUus,Veranius, Suetonius Paulinus (biennio prosperas res habuit), 
Petronius Turpilianus, Trebellius Maximum, Vettius Bolanus {manentibus adhuc 
cimlibus bellis), Petilius Cerialis, Julius Frontinus ; whom Agricola succeeded : 
c.\B. Hunc Britannia statwm has belhrum vices tnedia jam cestate [A.D. 78] 
transgressus Agricola invenit. 
Coins of this year : see col. 4. 


832. CcBsar Vespasianus 
Aug. IX Titus Ccesar 

de Vespasiano Sueton. 
Vesp. c. 8. consulatus odo 
veteri [sc. A. D. 51] adn 

Vespasiano IX et Tito VI 
Nor. Idat. 

Tfrow TO r' KCX AoiliTMVOV 

TO Chron. Pasch. 

Sabinus slain: Dio 66. 16. 6 Sa/Siros (Ketvos 6 TaXaTr^s — i^avipdidr] Ti Kal is 
Tr]v'Poop,r]v avqyQT]. He had been nine years concealed: Tacit. Hist. IV. 61 . 
per novem annos. Dio 66". 3. (Kpv<j)dri — evvea hr) juera tt/s yvvaiKos- Therefore 
from A. D. 70, the second consulship of Vespasian ; where the revolt of Sabi- 
nus is placed by Tacitus Hist. IV. 38. 67. The adventures of Sabinus, the 
fidelity of his wife, and the cruelty of Vespasian, are told by Plutarch Mor. 
p. 770. 771. 

Death of Vespasian June 23 : Sueton. Vesp. c. 24. Consulate suo nono — ex- 
tinctus est IX Kal. Julii, annum agens atatis LXIX superque mensem ac diem 
septimum. Dio 66. 17- eC'?'^f 8e «'t'? i^' tat p.i]vas rj', fnoviipxr^a-f 8e erij SeVa fipie- 
p&v ff biovra. kclk tovtov (TvuftaCvei iviavrov re koI kjS' i)p.(pas a-no toC davuTov 
Tov Nepcoros p-exf- ''^^ '""^ Ovecnraa-Lavov apx^js buXOdv. eypa\ira be tovto tov i^rj 

R O M A N I 


3 Gbeek Authoks 

4 Latin Authobs 

Plinii Higtoria Naturcdu. Dedicated TUo texiet eoih 
mili. See F. H. Ill p. 241, where for levm read five, 
and for 832 = 79 read 830=77- This work waa pub- 
lished after Kcd. Jan. A. D. 77 and before Kal. Jan. 
A. D. 79. 

Hieron. Anno Euseh. 2092 [A.D. 7°] Gabinianut ce- 
leherrimi nominis rhetor in Gallia docuit. De Gabi- 
niano auctor do orat. c. 26. Suetonius do Clar. Rhet. 
had treated of Gabinianus : conf. Statiura ad Sucton. 
p. 845. 

Coins apud Eckhel. torn. VI p. 336. 356. 373 be- 
longing to the years A. D. 77. 78. 

1 Imp. GcBS. Vespasian. Aug. con. VIII p.p. 

2 Imp. Can. Vespasian. Aug. p. m. tr.p.p.p. cos. VIII. 

3 Imp. Cwsar Vespasian, cos. VIII. 

4 Imp. Cwsar Vespasianus Aug. + cos. VIII. 

5 Imp. Cms. Fesp. Aug. p. m. tr. p. cos. VIII. 

6 T. CoBsar imp. Vespasianus + cos. VI. 

7 T. Cwsar Vespasianus + imp. XIII. 

8 T. Cws. imp. Aug.f. tr. p. cos. VI censor. 

9 T. Cwsar imp. pontif. cos. VI censo. 

10 Cwsar Aug. f. Domitianus cos. VI -i- prineeps juven- 
tutis. (by a typographical error cos. Ill apud 
Eckhel p. 373.) Domitian was aw. VI tuffectru in 
77 : conf. a. 74. 

Death of the elder Pliny in the eruption of Vesuvius 
Aug. 24 : Plin. Epist. VI. 16. Erat Miseni classemqw 
imperio preesens regebat. IX Kal. Septembres hora fere 
septima mater mea indicat ei apparere nubem inutitaia 
et magnitudine et specie &c. The younger Pliny was 
now 18 : Ep. VI. 20. Agebam enim duo<Mmces%m«m an- 
num. Born therefore A. D. 62. The elder Pliny was 
56 : Plin. Ep. III. 5. decessisse anno sexto et quinqvM- 
gesimo. which will place his birth at A. D. 24. These 
two letters describing the eruption ; his uncle's death 
in Ep. VI. 16; the adventures of himself and his mo- 
ther in Ep. VI. 20 ; are addressed some years after 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

Tivas aTtaTri$fjvui., Tr]V (^apCOfirja-iv tov \p6vov "npos rovs tt)v riyfixovCav fxovrai woi- 
ovfj-fvovs. fKelvot fiiv yap [sc. OtfiO Vitellim Vespasianus] ov bLfbi^avro aWrjAovs, 
aK\a C&vTos re xat (tl apxpvTos krepov (Kaaros avT&v ^TrCareva-ev avTOKparuip (Ivai. 
K. T. X. Theophil. ad Autolyc. III. 27- Oveariracnavoi err) 6' p.r)vas la rjixtpas k^. 
Eutrop. VII. 20. annum cetatis agens LXIX""^ imperii /X"™ et diem septimum. 
Victor Epit. p. 364. annos decern. Cassiod. Begnavit annis IX mensibm'XI 
diebm XXII. Euseb. H. E. III. 13. bUa he<nv. Anecd. Paris. Cramer, torn. 
II p. 281. Ittj Sexa rjixepas OKTd. Suetonius is exact in his age, Theophilus Dio 
and Cassiodorua nearly exact in his reign. From his birth Nov. 17 A. D. !) 
(F. H. Ill p. 270) to his death June 23 A. D. 79 are G9y 7»» 6''. From his 
accession July 1 A. D. 69 are 10 years wanting 7 days. 

Second campaign ofAgricola in Britain: Tacit. Agric. c. 20. Ubi cestas ad- 
venit &c. whence Titus is im,perator XV: Dio 66. 20. dw ovtZv 6 ntv TtVos 
avTOKpdiTMp TO le eneKKridt]. Which happened in this year ; for he is still upon 
a coin imp. XIIII after the death of Vespasian (see col. 4), and yet in an in- 
scription given below he is imp. XV in his seventh consulship. 

Eruption of Vesuvius. Rightly placed by Dio 66. 21 — 23 in the first year 
of Titus, (car aiiTo to (pdivoToopov c. 2 1 . In reality Aug. 24 : see col. 4. Placed 
by Eusebius Anno 2095 [commencing Oct. A. D. 79] Tiii l«. This event is 
noticed by Sueton. Tito c. 8 Martial. IV. 43 Oros. VII. 9 Plutarch de S. N. 
V. p. 566 E TTfpl TOV ij.r} xpav p. 398 E. For Pliny see col. 4. 

Inscriptions : 1 Gruter. p. 243. Imp. Cas. Vespasiano Aug. pont. max. tr. 
pot. X imp. XX p. p. COS. IX et imp. Vespasiano Caeari Aug.f. pont. tr. pot. 
VIII imp. XIIII COS. VII. 2 Gruter. p. 177- ad calcem Sueton. N". 3. Imp. 
Titus CcBsar divi f. Vespasianus Aug. pontif. max. tribuniciee potestat. IX imp. 
XV cens. cos. VII desig. VIII rieom aquw Marcice wtustate dilapsum re/ecit 
et aquam quce in usu esse desierat reduxit. 3 Marmor Laodicese apud Eckhel. 
tom. VI p. 435 ex Muratorio : TiVu Kato-apt 2ej3a(TTi^ OvearTraaiavio vTTa,T(a to ^ 
avTOKpATopos Ovfo^TTaa-iavov vi<2 km. tu brjixM NetKoorparos AvkCov tov NeiKooTpdrou 

TovTov kiOov e/c tS)v ibi(ov avi6r]Kiv KaOiepdiaavTos tov TpdCavov tov avOviraTov. 

The first of these was inscribed within Jan. I — June 23. the second attests 
that Titus was imp. XV before the end of the year ; the third marks the pro- 
consulship of Trajan in Asia in A. D. 7^- 

Coins : see col. 4. 


833. Titus Ctesar Vespa- 
sianus Aug. VIII Domi- 
tianus Ccesar VII 

Tito VIIetDomitiano VII 
Nor. Tito VII et Domiti- 
aw> IV Idat. 

Tfrou KhyovtTTov to C koL 
AofifTiavov TO y Chron. 

Titi 2 from IX Kal. Jul. tril.pot. 10. (from Kal. Jul.) 

Fire at Rome : Dio 66. 24. mp — r<5 ef^s Itu [the year after the eruption of 
Vesuvius] ■nokka ttAw tj}s 'PaJ/iijs, tov TLtov irpos to i:adir]p.a to ev Trj KapLiravla — 
fKbripL-qa-avros, (TTev€ip.aTO. Koi yap to "ZfpaiaZov koI to 'Icrdov tA re Seirrd Kal to 
Uoa-fLbiavfLov, to re jiakaviZov to tov ' kypbfnov Kal to X\av6(U)v to re Aeipi^iTio- 
pwv, KoX TO tov BaX(3ov BtaTpov Kal Tr)v tov YIop,T:r]tov crKr]vr]v Kal to. 'OKraovia 
olKrfjp.aTa Kat fierd tSiv fiij3kLa>ir, tov tc vfiov tov Atos tov KaTrirwXtVou ^erd t&v 
(Tvvv&biv avTov KaTeKavcTfv. Sueton. Tito c. 8. Incendium Roynce per triduum 
totidemque nodes. Conf. Victor. Epit. p. 367 Orosium VII. 9. 

Games of Titus for 100 days: e^" sKaTov Tjfxipai Dio 66. 25. Sueton. Tito c. 7. 
AmpMtheatro dedicato [conf. Eutrop. VII. 21 Victor. Caes. p. 318 Cassiodorum 
in Chronico] thermisqm juxta celeriter extructis, munus edidit apparatissimum &c. 

Third campaign of Agricola in Britain : Tacit. Agric. c. 22. Tertius expedi- 
tionum annus novas gentes aperuit. 

Inscriptions: 1 Gruter. p. 1082. Imp. Titus Ceesar divi Vespas.f. Aug. pont. 
max. trib.pot. IX cos. VIII imp. X V p. p. 2 Eckhel. tom. VI p. 363 Gruter. 
p. 189. 9. T. Ceesar divi f. Vespasianus Aug. 2)ontif. max. trib. pot. X imp. XV 
cos. VIII. The first belongs to the first half, the second to the latter half of 
A. D. 80. 

R O M A N I 


3 Gkkek Adthobs 

4 Latin Authoes 

the event to the historian Tacitut: Ep. VI. 16. Petis 
ut tibi avuiiculi met exitutn tcribam, quo veriut tradere 
posteris pussU. VI. 20. Ais te, addudvm Uteru quaa 
exigenti tibi de morte avwnculi nm $eripn, cmpere cogno- 
scere qms ego Migeni reHclvs — eatUB pertulervn. 

Coins : Eckhel. torn. VI p. 337. 356. 374. 

1 Imp. Cwmr Vespaaianus Aug.+co$. Villi tr. p. X. 

2 Ccemr imp. Veymsianiu+tr. p. VIII cos. VII. 

3 T. CcBS. Vespasian, imp. pon. tr. p. cos. VII + Cobs. 

Dormitian. cos. des. II. S. C. so. consul design, ordi- 
narius II: conf. Eckhel. p. 374. These three were 
issued within Jan. 1 — June 23. 

4 Imp. Titus Cces. Vespasian. Aug. p. m. + cos. VII. or 

tr. p. Villi imp. XIII I cos.' VII male tr. p. VIII 
apud Eckhel. p. 3.56. Ilightly given by Eckhel 
himself at p. 363. 

5 Imp. T. Cces. divi Vesp. f. Aug. p. m. t. p. p. p. cos. 


6 Imp. Titus Cms. Vesp. Aug. p. m. tr. p.p. p. cos. VII. 

7 Imp. T. Cces. Vesp. Aug. p. m. tr. p. cos. VII. 

8 (antica incerta) + tr. p. Villi imp. XV cm. VII p.p. 

apud Eckhel. torn. VIII p. 410. All these withm 
June 23— Dec. 31. 

Plutarch composed Trept tov ixt] xfiav Iju/ierpa ttiv 
rivOiav soon after the eruption of Vesuvius : p. 398 E. 
ravTi TO. TTp6(T(f)aTa koi vta TraBrj Trepl re Kvixriv Kal At- 

Pit til/ in his 19th year began to plead : Ep. V. 8, 8. 
Undevicesimo abatis anno dicere in foro ccepi. 

Coins apud Eckhel. torn. VI p. 357- 375. 

1 Imp. Titus Cces. Vespasian. Aug. p. m.-\-tr. p. IX 

imp. XV COS. VIII p. p. Before July I . 

2 Imp. T. Cces. Vej^. Aug. p. m. tr. p. p. p. cos. VIII. 

On the reverse tlie Anipliitheatre : see col. 2. 

3 Imp. T. Cws. dim Vesp./. Auq.p.m. tr p. p. p. cos. 

VIII S. C. + Divo Aug. Vesp. S. P. Q. R. apud 
Eckhel. p. 339. 

4 Cwsar divi f. Domitianus cos. Vll+princeps jucen- 


5 Cws. divi Aug. Vesp./. Domitianus cos. VII. On the 

reverse the Amphitheatre, with S. C. 

K 2 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 


01. 215 U. 0. Varr. 834. 
L. Flavins Siha Nonius 
Bassm Asinim Pollio Ver- 
rucosus Dio 66. 26 Nor. 

Galea et Pollione Idat. 

de his coss. conf. Grute- 
rum ad p. 1 040. 1 Inscript. 

Death of Titus Sept. 13: Sueton. Tito c. 11. Excessit in eadem qua pater 
villa Idiius Septemhris post Mennium ac menses duos diesque XX quam succes- 
serat patri, altera et quadragesimo cetatis anno. Dio G6. 26. ra fT:iyiyvoij.4v(a Irei 
[the year after the games] firC re rov (pXajiCov kuI em tov UmKCmvos r5>v {nraTutv 

fj,fTriKKa$ev. — ^p^e bk bvo erri kol ixrjvas 8uo fjixipas re (ikocti. c. 1 8. bvo re 

yap erq /nera tovto kol jx^jvas bvo ^/xe'pay re fiKO(nv fCl<^fP, em \d' (Tfai koI juijirt 
TTevTf Koi fjnipais Kf'. Theophil. ad Autolyc. III. 27. TtVos Ittj /3 fifiepa^ k^'. 
supply p.Tivas /3'. Cassiod. Begnavit annis Ilmensibus II. Euseb. H. E. III. 
13. bvo heai Koi ix-qal rols taois. Anecd. Paris. Cramer, tom. II p. 27- /3' eri] 
■npbs ixr](Tlv r{ . Ibid. p. 281. eri/ bvo ixrjvas y. Eutrop. VII. 22. post hiennium 
menses octo dies XX, cetatis aamo altera et XL^. Victor Caes. p. 3 1 8. biennio et 
menses fere navem, anno <evi Xlfl. Victor Epit. p. 368. vixit annos XLI. 
From June 23, when his 3rd year began, to Sept. 13 are 2™ 21''. The account 
of his age is not exact. If he was born Dec. 30 A. D. 41 (conf. a.), he lived 
only ■AQy S™ 14''. Conf. Reimar. ad Dion. (i6. 18. The death of Titus is rightly 
referred in Chron. Pasch. p. 249 A to the year of these consuls, although these 
consuls are placed a year too high. 

Fourth campaign of Agricola : Tacit. Agric. c. 23. Quarta wstas obtirwndh 
qu<B percurrerat insumpta. 

Gruter. p. 176. conf. Eckhel. tom. VI p. 363 tom. VIII p. 410. Imp. T. Cce- 
sar dim f. Vespasianus Augustus pontifex maximus trihunic. potestate X impera- 
tor X VII pater patrics censor cos. VIII aquas Curtiam et cceruleam [at conf. ad 
calcem Sueton. N°.4 Burgess Topography of Rome Vol. II p. 377] perductas 
a diva Glaudio [conf. a. 52] et postea a diva Vespasiano patre sua urbi restitutas 
[conf. a. 71]. cum a capite aquarum a sola vetustate dilapsre essent, nova forma 
reducendas sua impensa curavit. Brought within A.D. 81 by the title Imp. 
XVII. Before July 1, when the 11th tribunician year commenced. 

Coins : see col. 4. 


835. DomitiamusAug. VIII 
T. Flavins Sabinus Nor. 

Domitiano V et Sahino 

Lapis apud Gruter.p.68. 
[Domitiano] Aug. VIII T. 
Flavio Sahino cos. 

eraso nomine Domitiani: 
conf. a. 83. 

Domitiani 2 from Id. Sept. trib. pot. 2. 

The Capitol restored : Sueton. Dom. c. 5. Domitianus plurima et amplissima 
opera incendio absumpta restituit ; in queis et Capitolium, quod rursus [A. D. 80] 
arserat. The splendour and cost of the structure are mentioned by Plutarch 
Poplicola c. 15. S.p.a yap tu TekfVTrjaaL Ovecrvacriavov eviirpriaOr] to KaTrtTwAtoi'. 
6 6« TfTapTos ovTos vm Aop.fTi.avov /cat avvfrekeadr] koI Kadifpddrj. k.t.K. Eutrop. 
VII. 23. Bomx quoque multa opera fecit, in his Capitolium Sec. Victor Cses. 
p. 318. multa opera inclioata per patrem vel fratris studio, atque in primis Capi- 
tolium, absalvit. conf. Victor. Epit. p. 368. Fixed to this year by a coin apud 
Eckhel. See col. 4. 

Fifth campaign of Agricola : Tacit. Agric. c. 24. Quinto expeditionum anno 


836. Domitianus Aug. IX 
Q. Petilius Bu/us II Phle- 
gon Mir. c. 24. 

Domitiano IX et Bu/o 
Nor. Pont, liber Pontifi- 
calis Damasi torn. I p. 73. 

Domitiano VI et Bu/o 

Lapis apud Noris. 0pp. 

Domitiani 3 from Id. Sept. trib. pot. 3. 

Expedition of Domitian against the Catti : Sueton. Dom. c. 6. Expeditiones 
partim sponte suscepit partim necessarlo. Sponte in Cattos, necessario unam. in 
Sarmatas, legione cum legato simul ccesa. In Dacox duos. — De Cattis Dacisq^ue 
post varia prcelia duplicem triumphum egit ; de Sarmatis lauream modo Capito- 
lino Javi retalit. Conf. Eutropium Vl'l. 23 Victorem Cses. p. 318 Victorem 
Epit p 368. Oros. VII. 10. Bellum adversum Germanos et Dacos per legatos 
gessit pari reip. pemicie. Dio 67. 4 notices the war with the Catti: e/corpa- 
Tfvcras (Is ttjv Yipp.aviav koi /xjjS' ewpaKus nov TtoXijxiov iTiavrJKe. 

R O M A N I 


3 Greek Authors 

4 Latin Authors 

Coins of Tittu and Dom'Uian : Eckhol. torn, VI p. 
357. 375. 376. 

1 Imp. T. C<B$. divi Vetp.f. Au^.p.m. tr.p.p.p. eos. 

2 Cess, divi Ve*p.f. Domitian. cos. VII. 

3 G(cs. divi Aug. Vesp.f. Domitian. cos. VII. 
These within Jan. 1 A. D. 80— Sept. 13 A. D. 81. 

4 Imp. Cces. Domitianus Aug. pont. or Imp. Gtetar Do- 

mitianus Aug. + tr.p. cos. VII or cos. VII dei. VIII 
p.p. or tr.p. COS. VII des. VIII, 

5 Imp. Domitian. Cms. divi Vesp. f. Aug. p. m. tr. p. 

p.p. COS. VII. 

6 Imp. D. Cees. divi Vesp.f. Aug. p. m. tr.p. p.p. eos. 
These within Sept. 13— Dec. 31 A. D. 81. 

Coins of this year : Eckhel. torn. VI p. 377. 

1 Imp. CcBsar Domitian. Aug. p. m. cos. VIII+ Capit. 

restit. See col. 2. 

2 Imp. Gees, divi Vesp. f. Domitian. Aug. p. m. + tr. p. 

cos. VIII des. Villi p.p. S. a 

3 Imp. Cces. Domitianus Aug. p. m. + tr. pot. imp. II 

COS. VIII des. IX p.p. 

Tabula senea apud Gruter. p. 1081. Imp. Ccesar divi 
Vespasiani f. Domitvanns Augustus pontifex max. trU>. 
potest, imp. II cos. VIII designat. Villi p. p. salutem 
dicit III I viris et decurionibus Faleriensiwm ex Pietmo. 
Quid constituerim de subsicicis cognita cauga inter vot 
et Firmanos ut notum hahcretis huic episiulcB subici jusri 
&C.—D. XI Kal. Aug. in Albano. 

Coins of this year : Eckhel. torn. VI p. 878. 

1 Imp. Cces. Domitianus Aug. p. m. + tr. pot. cos. Villi 


2 Imp. Cces. Domitianus Aug. p. m. + tr. p. II eos. IX 
des. X. 

3(antica incorta) + tr. p. Ill imp. V cos. Villi p. p . 
The second was issued within Jan. 1— Sept. 12; 
the third within Sept. 13 — Dec. 31. 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

torn. II p. 914. avTOKpd- 
Topi Kai(Tapi Se- 

^a<TT(f TO & KoiWu riem- 

Xfo) 'P0W(|)<1) TO /3' VHOJOIS. 

" Decreto sonatus erasum 
" nomen post necem Do- 
"mitiani." Noris. Conf. 
Sueton. Dom. c. 23. Sena- 
tus — eradendos ubique ti- 
tulos decemeret. Euseb. 
H. E. III. 20. KaOaipeOri- 
vai. TUS Aop.€Tiavov Ti/xas — 
i] 'PoDnaCav (TvyKXrjTos ^ov- 
kfi \lnj(f>C^eTaL. 

Sixth campaign oi Agricola: Tacit. Agric. c. 25. ccstate qua sextum officii 
annum inchoabat amplems civitates trans Bodotriam sitas — -portus clause explo- 
ramt. Victory over the Caledonians : c. 25 — 27. 

Euseb. Chron. Anno 20':)Q [from Oct. A. D. 82] Bomitiani 2o VestcB ires sacree 
virgines in stupro deprehensa punivmtur. [conf. Philostrat. V. A. VII. 6. Aojue- 
Tiavoi — rpets tQiv '^cmAhmv aitiKTavf]. Domitianus eunuchos fieri mtuit. Conf. 
Sueton. Dom. c. 7- In Hieronymus anno 2099 Domitiani 3». 

No archon at Athens : Phlegon Mir. c. 24. {nrarfvovTcav ev 'Pujurj Aofj-fTiavov 
Kaicrapos to evaTov /cat TliTiXiov 'Pov(})OV to bevTepov, ev 'Adrjvais avapxias oio-rjs. 

Coins : see col. 4. 


837. Domitianus Aug. X 
Oppius Sabinus 

Nor. Pont. liber Pontifi 
calis Damasi torn. I p. 5 1 3 

Domitiano VJI et Sabino 
JI Idat. 

de Oppio Sabino conf. 
Noris. 0pp. torn. II p. 915 
Tzschuck. ad Eutropium 
p. 525. 

Domitiani 4 from Id. Sept. trib. pot. 4. 

Domitian after the war with the Catti is called Germanicus : see col. 4. He 
receives ten consulships and the censorship for life : Dio 67- 4. viraTos p.€v In; 
8e(ca e<^ef^9, ri^jjnjs 6e bia ^iov Ttp&Tos b-q km jmvos xat IbuaT&v koI avTOKpaTopatv 
k)(ii.poTovqQr\. Sueton. Dom. c. 13. Consulatus XVII cepit, — ex quibus septem 
medios [A.D. 82 — 88] continuavit, omnes autem pcene titulo tenus gessit; nee 
quenquam ultra Kal. Maii, plures ad Idus usque Januarias. Plin. Panegyr. 
c. 58, 1. Continuis consulatibus fecerat longwm quendam et sine discrimine annum. 

Seventh campaign of Agricola : Tacit. Agric. c. 28. Initio cpstatis &c. Gal- 
gacus defeated : c. 29 — 38. exacta jam (estate c. 38. Domitian received the 
news after his own triumph : Tacit. Agric. c. 39. Inerat conscientia derisui fu- 
isse nuper fahum e Germania triumphum ; which fixes the defeat of Galgacus 
and the seventh campaign to this year. Agricola apud Tacit, c. 33 calls it the 
8th year : octavus annus est. But as Tacitus describes only 7 campaigns, the 
number VIII"^ is probably an error for VII<^, as some have suspected. Dio 
66. 20 describes all the campaigns oi Agricola together to their conclusion. 

Euseb. Chron. Anno 2099 [from Oct. A . D. 83] Domitiani 30 Domitianus 
nobiles multos relegavit et optimates ocddit. Placed by Hieron. Anno 2100 
Domit. 40. 

Coins : see col. 4. 


01. 216 U. C. Varr. 838. 
Domitianus Aug. XI T. 
Aurelius Fulvus. 

Domitiano XI et Furvo 
Nor. Domitiano VIII et 
Fulvio Idat. 

de T. AurelioFulvo conf. 
a. 89. 

Domitiani 5 from Id. Sept. trib. pot. 5. 

Coins of this year: Eckhel. torn. VI p. 380. 1 Imp. Cas. Domit. Aug. Germ, 
cos. XI cens. pot. p. p. + 8. C. 2 Imp. Cces. Domitian. Aug. Germ. cos. XI + 
S. G. 3 Imp. Cces. Domit. Aug. Germ. cos. XI cens. per. p. p. On censor per- 
petuus conf. Eckhel. tom.VI p. 396. 4 Imp. Domit. Aug. Germ. cos. XI. Be- 
fore Sept. 13 the following: 5 Imp. Gibs. Domit. Aug. Germ. p.m. tr.p. IIII+ 
imp. Vll COS. XI p.p. or imp. VIII cos. XI p.p. or imp. Villi [male editur 
////] COS. XI censoria potestat. p.p. Within Sept. 13 — Dec. 3 1 the following : 
6 Imp. Go's. Domit. Aug. Germ. p. m. tr. p. F-f imj). Villi cos. XI cens. pot. 
p.p. or imp. XI cos. XI cens. p. p.p. 


839. Domitianus Aug. XII 
Ser. Cornelius Dolabella 
Capitolin. Antonino c. 1 
Censorin. c. 1 8 Nor. 

Domitiano IX 'et Dola- 
bella Idat. 

Domitiani 6 from Id. Sept. trib. pot. 6. 

Capitoline games: Censorin. c. 18. Agon Romce (Jovi) Capitolino quinto quo- 
que anno redeunte celebratur — quorum agonum primus a Domitiano institutus fuit 
duodecimo ejus el Ser. Cornelii DolahellcB consulatu. Sueton. Dom. c. 4. Insti- 
tuit et quinquennale certamen Capitolino Joci triplex., musicum, equestre, gi/mni- 
cicm., et aliquanto plurium quam nunc est coronarum. Certabant etiam et prosa 
oratione Greece Latineque. Rightly placed at the year of these consuls in 

R O M A N I 



4 Latin Authobs 



Coins of this year, with the title* Garmemieui and 
censar : Eckhel. torn. VI p. 378. 

1 Imp. CfBs. Damitian. Aug. Germaniciu+p. m. tr. p. 

Ill Imp. V COS. X p.p. 

2 Imp. Gees. Domitianus Atig. Germanic. +p. m. ir.p. 

Ill imp. Vcos.Xp.p. 

3 Imp. Cccs. Domitian. Aug. Germ. cos. X. 

4 Imp. Cces. Domit. Aug. Germ. cot. X. + Jovi Cotuer- 

vatori. S. C. 

5 (antica incorta) + Germanicus cot. X. 

6 (antica incerta) + imp. VII cos. X cent. pot. p.p. 
The first two were issued within Jan. 1 — Sept. 12. 

Coins of this year : Eckhel. torn. VI p. 381. 

1 Imp. Cces. Domit. Aug. Germ. p. m. tr.p. V-\-Imp. 

XI COS. XII cent. p. p.p. or Imp.^ XII cos. XII 
cens. p. p. p. or Imp. XIII cos. XII cent. p. p. p. 
Within Jan. 1— Sept. 12. 

2 Imp. Cces. Domit. Aug. Germ. p. m. ir.p. VI + Imp. 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

Chron. Pasch. p. 249 0. 

Dacian war: Euseb. Chron. Anno 2101 [from Oct. A. D. 85] Domitiani S" 
Nasamones et Daci bello adversus Romanos superati sunt. (In Hieronymus anno 
2102 Domit. 6o.) Acknowledged by Syncellus p. 343 D. On this war conf. 
Sueton. Dom. c.6 Eutrop. VII.23 Oros. VII. 10 Joraand. Get. c. 13 Juvenal. 
IV. 1 1 1 et Schol. ad locum. 

Birth of Antoninus Pitts: Capitolin. c. 1. Ipse Antoninus Pius natus est XIII 
Kal. Oclobres sub Domitiano XII et Cornelio Dolabella coss. Natales Csesarum 
apud Bucherium p. 276 : Pii Antonini XIII Kalenda-s Octobris. Repeated 
p. 285. 

Coins : see col. 4. 


840. Domitiamus Aug. 
XIII et Satuminus Nor. 

Domitiam X et Saiur- 
nino Idat. 

Domitiani 7 from Id. Sept. trib. pot. 7- 

Coins : Eckhel. torn. VI p. 382. 1 Within the present year: Imp. Cm. 
Domit. Aug. Germ. cos. XIII cens. per. p. p. 2 Before Sept. 13 : Imp. C<bs. 
Domit. Aug. Germ. p. m. tr.p. Vl+Imp. XIIIIcos. XIII cens. p. p. p. 3 after 
Sept. 13 : Imp. Gcbs. Domit. Aug. Germ. p. m. tr. p. VII+ Imp. XII I I cos. XIII 
cens. p. p. p. 


841. Domitianm Aug. 
XIV L. Minucius Rufus 
Censorin. c. 17 Nor. 

DomitioMO XI et Rufo 

Domitiani 8 from Id. Sept. trib. pot. 8. 

Ludi scEculares: Censorin. c. ij.Septimos ludos fecit Domitianus se XIV et 
L. Minucio Rufo coss. anno DCCCXLI. Sueton. Dom. c. 4. Fecit et ludos 
sceculares, cmnputata ratione temporum ab anno, non quo Claudius proxime 
[A. D. 47], sed quo olim Augustus ediderat [B. C. 17]. 

Coins marking the games : Eckhel. tom. VI p. 384. 1 Before Sept. 13 : Imp. 
Gees. Domit. Aug. Ger. p. m. tr.p. VII -^ cos. XIII I lud. scec. fee. Within 
Sept. 13 — Dec. 31 the following: 2 Domitianus Augustus Germanicus + cos. 
XI II I lud. scec. fee. 3 Imp. Cces. Domit. Aug. Germ. p. m. tr.p. VIII + cos. 
XIIII lud. scec. fee. 4 Imp. Gees. Domit. Aug. Germ. p. m. tr. p. Fill cens. 
per. p. p. + cos. XIIII lud. sac. fee. S.G. 5. 6. 7- 8 : four coins apud Eckhel. 
p. 386. 387 bearing the inscription of N°. 4. 9 the same, with suf. p. d. 10 
the same, with apop.frug. ac. conf. Eckhel. p. 387- 

Other coins : Eckhel. tom. VI p. 382. 1 1 Imp. Gtss. Domit. Aug. Germ, 
p. m. tr. p. FII. or hnp. Gees. Domit. Aug. German, p. m. tr.p. VI I-^ Imp. 
XIIII COS. XIIII cens. p. p. p. or Imp. XV cos. XIIII cens. p. p. p. These 
within Jan. 1— Sept. 12. Within Jan. 1 A. D. 88— Dec. 31 A. D. 89 the fol- 
lowing: 12 Imp. Gees. Domit. Aug. Germ. cos. XIIII cens. per. p.p. 13 Imp. 
Gees. Domit. Aug. Germanic, cos. XI III + cens. p.p. p. 14 Domitianus Augus- 
tus + Germanicus cos. XIIII. 15 (antica inceTtaj + Imp. XVI cos. XllII 
cens. p. p. p. 


01. 217 U. C. Varr. 842. 

T. Aurelius Fuhus II et 

Fulvo et Atratino Nor, 
Fulvio et Atratino Idat. 
^ovk^Cov TO /3' Kol 'Arpa- 

nvov Chron. Pasch. 

de Fuho Capitolin. Au- 
tonin. c. 1. T. Antonino 
Pio — avm T. AureUus 
Fulvim qui per honores 
diveraos ad secundum con- 

Domitiani 9 from Id. Sept. trib. pot. 9. 

Coins : Eckhel. tom.VI p. 383. 388. 1 Of the 8th tribunician year, Sept. 13 
A.D. 88— Sept. 12 A. D. 89 : Imp. Gees. Domit. Aug. Germ. p. m. tr.p. Fill 
+ imp. XVII COS. XIIII cens. p. p. p. or Imp. XV III cos. XIIII cens. p. p. p. 
or Imp. XIX cos. XIIII cens. p. p. p. or Imp. XX cos. XIIII cens. p. p. p. 
2 Of the 9th tribunician year within Sept. 13— Dec. 31 A.D. 89 : Imp. Gees. 
Domit. Aug. Germ. p. m. tr.p. VIII I + Imp. XXI cos. XIIII cms. p. p.p. 

R O M A N I 


3 Greek Authors 

4 Latin Authors 

XII II cog. XII cent. p. p. p. Within Sept. 13— 
Dea 31. 
3 Imp. C<B». Domit. Aug. Germ. eos. XII cm$. per. 
p. p. Within Jan. 1 — Dec. 3 1 . 


Sudonius is a young man twenty years after the 
death oi Nero: Sueton. Ner. o. 57- Poxt viginti annos 
adolescmte me. Domit. c. 1 2. Inter/uisse me adoleieen- 
tulum memini — of a transaction in the reign of Domi- 
tian. The father of Smtonius was a miHtary tribune 
in the army of Oiho in A. D. 69 : Sueton. Othono c. 10. 
Inter/uit kuic hello pater mem Suetonius Lenis XIII" 
legionis tribunus angusti clavius. 

Tacitus praetor: Tacit. Ann. XI. 11. Domitiantu 
edidit ludos sceculares; Usque inteatim affui sacerdotio 
guindecimvirali praditu^ ac tunc prtetor. Hence in 
Hist. 1. 1. Dignitatem nostram a Vespasiano inchoatam 
a Tito audam a Bomitiano longius provedam non abnu- 

Quintilian teaches at Rome: Hieron. Anno Euseb. 
2104 [A.D. 8^] Domitiani 8". Quintilianus ex Hispania 
Galagurritanus [conf. Auson. Prof. Burdig. I. 7] primus 
Bomce publicam scholam et salariwm e Jisco accepii ei 
claruit. Cassiod. at the 8th year of Dmnitian : His 
coss. Quintilianus ex Hispania primus &c. He taught 
20 years : Procem. 1. I. Post impetratam stwiiis meis 
quietem qua per viginti annos erudiendis jwoembtu tw- 
penderam. But his 20 years did not commence but 
terminate at this date. He was preceptor to the ne- 
phews of Domitian : Procem. 1. IV. Cum mihi Domiti- 
anus Aug. sororis suec nq)otum dekgaverat curam. and 
was exercising that ofl&ce when he composed d« Insti. 





1 Consuls 

sulatum el prcefecturam 
Urhis pervenit. So. cos. 
A. D. 85. 89. 

2 Events 


843. Domitianm Aug. XV 
M. Cocceius Nerva II 

Domitiano XV et Nerca 

Domitiano XII et Nerva 
II Idat. 

Domitiani 10 from Id. Sept. trih. pot. 10. 

Coins apud Eckhel. torn. VI p. 388. 1 Within Jan. 1— Sept. 12 A. D. 90 : 
Imp. CcBS. Domit. Aug. Germ. p. m. tr.p. VIIII-\-Imp. XXI cos. XV cens. 
p. p. p. Within Jan. 1 A.D. 90 — Dec. 31 A.D. 91 : 2 Imp. C(bs. Domit. Aug. 
Germ. cos. XV cens. per. p.p. 3 Domitianus Augustus -\- Germanicus cos. XV. 
4 Imp. Domit. Aug. Germ. cos. XV. 5 Within Sept. 13 A.D. 90— Sept. 12 
A.D. 91 : Imp. Cces. Domit. Aug. Germ. p. m. tr.p. X. + Imp. XXI cos. XV 
cens. p. p. p. 

The title of imperator is not repeated through the years 90, 91. Domitian 
was imp. XXI in the ninth tribunician year ; he was still imp. XXI in the 
eleventh : conf. a. 92. 


844. M. Ulpius Trajanus 
M^Acilius Glabrio Dio 67- 

Glabrione et Trajanu 

Grahrione et Gralano 

Domitiani 11 from Id. Sept. trib. pot. 11. 

Triumph of Domitian: Euseb. Anno 2106 [from Oct. A.D. 90] Domitiani 
10" Domitianus de Dads et de Germmiis triumphavit. In Hieron. Anno 210" 
Domit. llo. Eusebius has placed together the German triumph, which was in 
A. D. 84, and the Dacian, which was in 91. Suetonius notices the Dacian 
war (which began in 86 : conf. a.) and both the triumphs : conf. a. 83. After 
the triumph the names of the months were changed : Sueton. Dom. c. 13. Post 
duos triumphos — Septembrem mensem et Octobrem ex appellationibus suis Germa- 
nicum Domitianumque transnominavit, quod altero suscepisset imperium aliero 

R O M A N I 


d Greek Authohs 

4 Latin Authors 

(utione Oratoria libros; which wore accordingly written 
in the roign of Domitian: conf. procem. 1. IV. X. 1,91. 
and yet were written after the 20 years of teaching 
wore expired : procem. 1. 1. 

Tacitus leaves Rome four years before the death of 
Apricola: Agric. c. 45. Nobis tarn longce abtentia con- 
dicione ante quadriennium amittm en. Agricola died 
at Rome in August A. D. 93. 

Domitian expels the philosophers : Eusob, Chron. 
Anno 2105 [commencing Oct. A. D. 8!)] Domitianm 
nrnthematicos et philosophos Moma expulit. In Hiorony- 
mus Anno 2104. Noticed by Gollius XV. 11. Domi- 
tiano imperante senatusconsulto philosophi ej'ecti atque 
urbe et Italia interdicti sunt. Qua iempestate Epictetus 
quoque phihsophu^ propter id senatusconmltum Nicopolim 
Moma decesiit. [Simplic. in. Enchii-id. p. 247- 6 'Eir^ 
KTTjTos T^s dkOfXfjiavov TvpavvCbos Karayvow cnro ttjs Pd- 
jLiTjs i^fcrTT] Trpos tijv NikottoXii'.] Conf. Philostrat. V. A. 
VII. 4 VII. 1 1 Sueton. Domit. c. 10. Die 67- 13. oX- 
Koi re — (Tvxvol bidKovro, koX oi Xomol iravrfs iir}X.ddr]crav 
avOii iK riji 'Pdjiris. That is, a second time, after the 
expulsion by Vespasian ; as rightly explained by Eei- 
mar ad loo. Eusebius refers two edicts to Domitian : 
conf. a. 94. Tacitus Agric. c. 2 agrees with Suetonius 
and Dio in the cause : Legimus cum Aruleno Rustico 
Pcetus Thrasea, fferennio Senecioni Priscus Hehidius 
laudati essent capitale fuisse &c. — expulsis insuper sapi- 
entiee professoribus atque omni bona arte in exsilium acta. 

Dio Prugcem withdraws into exile : Philostrat. V. 
Soph. I. 7 p- 488. T^v es to. TiTiKo. iOvrj irdpobov tov av- 
6pos (j)vyT]v fjikv ovK dfidj ^ro/iidfetr, ^wel ix-q TrpoaeToxdr] 
avr(f (f)vyf'iv ovbk aiiobrjp.Cav, (■na.hri rov <pav(pov ^feorr; 
— 8^et tS)v Kara tijv 'FwpiaCmv rvpavviba v<j) air riKavvfro 
<l>L\u<TO(f)Ca Trao-a. Dio himself however Or. 13 p. 418 
speaks of his exile : ore (f>€vyeLV avve^r] /x€ <^iA^os ivfKev 
— avbpbs oil TTOvqpov, tQiv h\ roVe evhaiy.6v<i>v Tf koX ap- 
\6vT(i)v (yyvrara ovtos, 6ia ravra bk koI aTroOavovTos, 
K. T. A. and adds that the Delphian oracle commanded 
him avTo TovTo -npamiv — emy hv tul rh v(naTov aitiXdrfs 
TTJs y^s p. 422. Hence Photius Cod. 209 p. 529 : iari, 
p.iv njv TTarpiba tlpova-aevs (pvyas 8' iytyovei Tavrrji, rv- 
pavvCboi (KKkCvav bovkelav, kqX TtoXkriv iTnjkOf Ttkavd- 
ixfvos yrjv. 

PUny is prsetor in the year in which the philoso- 
phers are expelled: Ep. III. II. Equidem qwtm euent 
philosophi ab urbe mbmotifui apud Artemidorum in tub- 
urbano, et, quo noiabilius hoc periculosiusque estet, fui 
preetor. Pecuniam etiam qua time illi ampUore optu 
erat — gratuitam dedi. Atque heec feci qmm, tepUm 
amids meis aut occisis aut relegatis, (occtm SetueioM 
Eurico Helvidio, relegatis Maurico Gratilla Arria Fan- 
nia,) tot circa me jactis fulminibus quasi ambiuttu, mihi 
quoque impendere idem exitium — avgurarer. See col. 3. 
De Fannia Ep. VII. 19, 5. Qwum Seneeio rent ettet quod 
de vita Helvidii libros composuisset, rogattmque m a 
Fannia in de/ensione dixisset, quterente minacner Metio 
Caro an rogasset, respondit " Rogavi" &c. He was prse- 
tor the year before the legal age: Ep. VII. 16. Ego 
Tironem in prwtura sum consecutus, quum mihi Ceetar 
annum remisisset. And the legal age was fixed by 
Augustus at the 30th year: Dio 52. 20. aTpa-niydToxTav 
TpMKovTovTai, yevo/jifvoi. Pliny therefore was praetor in 
his 29th year. But he entered his 29th year at the 
close of A. D. 89 : conf a. 61. which determines his 
praetorship to A. D. 90 and confirms the date of Euse- 
bius for the expulsion of the philosophers. 

Coins apud Eckhel. torn. VI p. 389. 

1 Imp. Cces. Domit. Aug. Germ. p.m. tr. p. Xl+Imp. 

XXI COS. XV cens. p. p. p. Issued within Sept. 13 
—Dec. 31 A.D. 91. 

2 (antica incerta) + Vota publico, cos. XV. Within 

Jan. 1 A.D 90— Dec. 31 A.D. 91. 





1 Consuls 

2 Events 


natus esset. Conf. Victor. Cses. p. 318 Plutarch. Nuraa c. 19. Eusebius Chron. 
anno 2102 Dwnitiani 6" [2103 Dmnit. 7" Hieron.] places this at the wrong 
date, before the Dacian triumph. Chron. Pasch. p. 249 C also erroneously 
refers it to the consuls of A. D. 86. 

Euseb. Anno 2106 [2107 Hieron.] Maxima virginum Vestalium Cornelia stvr 
pri convicta lege juhente viva defossa est. In Chron. Pasch. p. 249 D. coss. Fulvio 
et Atratino A. D. 89. Sueton. Dom. c. 8. Incesta Vestalium virginum — coercuit, 
priora capitali supplicio, posteriora more veteri. Nam cum Ocellatis sororihus, 
item VaronillcB libermn m^mrtis permisisset arbitrium [conf. a. 83], mox Comeliam 
virginem maxitnam absolutam olim, dehinc longo intervallo repetitam atque convic- 
tam, de/odi imperavit. The iniquity of Domitian and the fate of the unhappy 
Cornelia are described by Pliny Ep. IV. 11. 

Revolt ofAntonius: Dio 67. 11. 'Aj'tcowo? be ris h Tepfxavia &px'»v Kara tov- 
Tov Tov xpovov [about the time of the Dacian war] t<5 Aoj^vnav^ i-navfarr)' hv 
AovKLos Ma^iixos KorriymvUaTo. Dio adds c. 12 TpdiavQ r<j) OvXitCif (cat 'A/ctX^u 
Tkafipiaivi. v-naTfva-aaL roVe. which marks the year. The revolt is noticed by 
Sueton. Dom. c. 6. Bellwm civile motum a L. Antonio superioris Germanim pree- 
side con/ecit absens felicitate mira &c. Victor Epit. p. 368. Accensus Antonius, 
curans Germaniam superiorem, imperium corripuit. Quo per Norbanum Appium 
acie strato [conf. Martial. IX. 85], Domitianus longe tetrior — grassabatur. Plu- 
tarch. --Emil. c. 25. TO Kaff r)p.a.s yev6fj,fvov — ore yap 'Avrdvwi airfo-TT] Aop,fTia- 
vov, Koi TxoXij TToKefws airb Ttppiavias ii-pofreSo/coro, r^y ']p(ap.r]i TapaTTop,(.vr)$ acftvu 
Koi airo/xdrctfs 6 S^/xoy ef avrov (jn^jJi-qv avib<i>Ke vUrjs k. t. A.. 


845. Domitianus Aug. 
XVI Q. Volusius Satur- 
ninus Nor. 

Domitiano XIII et 8a- 
tumino Idat. 

Lapis apud Gruter. p. 

300 Imj). C(cs 

Aug. Ger. XVI cos. Q. 
Volusius Saturninmp. R.c. 
name of Domitian being 
erased : conf. a. 82. 83 
Noris.Opp. toni.II p.916'. 

Domitiani 12 from Id. Sept. trib.pot. 12. 

Coins bearing the 16th consulship: Eckhel. torn. VI p. 390. 1 Imp. Ccbs. 
Domit. Aug. Germ. p.m. tr.p. Xl+Imp. XXI cos. XFI cens. p.p.p. Within 
Jan. 1 — Sept. 12 A. D. 92. 2 (antica incerta) + /mp. XXI cos. XVI cens. 
p.p.p. Also probably before Sept. 13. 3 Imp. Cces. Domit. Aug. Germ. p.m. 
tr.p. Xll+Imp. XXII COS. XVI cms. p.p.p. Within Sept. 13 A. D. 92— 
Sept. 12 A. D. 93. 4 Imp. Gees. Domit. Aug. Germ. cos. XVI cens. per. p.p. 
5 Domitianus Augustus + Germaniciis cos. XVI. These two within Jan. 1 A. D. 
92— Dec. 31 A. t). 94. 

Inscriptio apud Gruter. p. 575. 1. Imp. Ca'sar divi Vespasianif. Domitianus 
Augustus Gennanicus pontifex maximus tribunic. potestat. XI imperator XXI 
ceiisor perpetuus consul XVI p.p. iis qui militant in classe Flavia Moesica quce 
est sub Sex. Octavio Frontone he. — Within Jan. 1 — Sept. 12 A.D.92. 


01. 218 U. C. Varr. 846. 

Sex. Pompeius Collega 
Corn. Priscus Tacit. A- 
gric. c. 44. 

Pompeiano et Prisciano 

Collega et Priscino Nor. 

Domitiani 13 from Id. Sept. trib.pot. 13. 

Euseb. Chron. Anno 2108 [from Oct. A. D. 92] Domitiani 12" Ceesar edixit 
ne in urbibus viiis sereretur. Hieronymus has the same date. The edict is 
noticed by Philostratus V. A. VI. 42 V. Soph. I. 21, 6 p. 520 Sueton. Dom. 
c. 7. Referred by Chron. Pasch. p. 250 A to the consuls of A. D. 90. Perhaps 
in the beginning of that Eusebian year 2108, at the close of A. D. 92, i{ Apol- 
lonius of Ti/ana heard of it in Ionia : Philostrat. V. A. VI. 42. for in the begin- 
ning of A. D. 93 he was in Italy : see col. 3. 

Sarmatian war. Domitian set forth in May A. D. 93, was 8 months absent, 
and returned to Rome in Jan. A. D. 94 : see col. 4. 

Death of Agricola: Tacit. Agric. c. 44. Natus est Agricola Caio Ceesare pri- 
mum consuls Idibus Juniis [A. D. 37] ; excessit sexto et quinquagesimo anna X 
Kalendas Septembris Collega Priscoque consulibus. Agricola could not be born 
in June Caio primum consule, because the first consulship of Caius began Julyl: 
coiif. a. 39. Caio III consule, or June A. D. 40 (the reading of some copies), 
is inconsistent with the age of Agricola. We may therefore read Idibus Juliis. 

R M A N I 


3 Greek Authors 

4 Latin AuTHoas 


Josephus set. 56 finishes the Antiquities: Ant. XX. 
11. -navfTfTai h( ivravOa. jj-oi to. tijj apxai.o\oyias, ntff fjv 
Koi TOP TtoXefiov rip^Afj.T]v ypdcfxLV — lo-us 6e ow &v iiri- 
<f)dovov ylvono Trepi km, yivovs Tovfwv Koi wept tSiv Kara 
Tov ^Cov Ttpi^eav /3/)axea bu^eKOflv, Icos lx&) C&VTas fj 
Toiis (Kiy^ovras fj Tovi fjiapTvpijcrovTas. im. tovtois be Ka- 
TaTTav(T<i> Tr]v apxaioKoyiap ^i/3Xots fxkv (LKom irfpittArjfx- 
Hivrjv tf 8« p.vpia.(n (TTi^utv. kuv bi ro Oeiov invrpliixi, 
Kara i{epibpoij.i]v vt:oixvi']<t(i> vdXiv tov re TToXe'fiov koX t&v 
avujSfliriKortav ijiuv /^e'xpt rfji vvv fVfarmcTrjs ^(xe'pas, rjns 
iarn TpicrKaibtKaTov fiiv hovs rfji Aofitnavov Kalaapos 
apxiji ffxal b( a-nb yereVems TifVTr]KO<TTOv Kol eKTOv. As 
he was born within the Ist year of Caligula, which 
ended March 15 A. D. 38, and his 56th year was still 
current in the l.Sth of Domitian, which began Sept. 13 
A. D. 93, we may place his birth at the beginning of 

Martial in the first 9 books and in the book de ^Pte- 
iaculis alludes to transactions from the reign of Two* 
to the return of Domitian from the Sarmatian expedi- 
tion in Jan. A. D. ;)4. Spect. 4. -24 may refer to either 
Titw or Domitian. He mentions I. 102 CtetarUmt. 
III. 95 CcEsar uterque. From Gasar vierque he had 
received the^ trium liherorum III. 95 IX. 98. He 
refers to the edicts of Domitian VI. 7. the edict tk eu- 
nuchis [A. D. 83] II. 60, \. VI. 2. IX. 7. 9. DomUioH 
censor [A. D. 84] I. 5, 7- VI. 4. 91. Germaniau V. 
2, 7. V. 3. V. 19, 17. the Dacian war [A.D. 86—90] 
— ex Dacis laurea — II. > (so that II. 2 was written at 
least after A. D. 86) V. 3. the triumph (h Dacis [A. D. 
91] VI. 10. (Hence Domitian is called Dacicus prooem. 
lib. VIII.) the death of Fiiscus VI. 76. (who was slain 
before the second Dacian expedition : Sueton. Dom. 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

But if Affricola was born in the first consulship of Cairn, he was 56 complete 
and had entered his 57th year at the time of his death ; and we may perhaps 
correct the numbers, VII et quinquagesimo anno. 

Inscriptions: 1 ad calcem Sueton. N°. 2 Gruter. p. 189. Imp. Ccesar dim 
Vespasiani f. Domitianus Augustus Germanicus pontifex maximm tribunic. pot- 
estat. XII imp. XXII cos. X VI censor perpetuus p. p. ad III Idus Julias, 
M. Lollio Paulino Valeria Asiatico Satumino Quadrato cos. [sc. suffectis^ July 
of the 12th tribunician year is July A. D. 93. 2 Gruter. p. 574. Imp. Ccesar 
divi Vespasiani f. &c. — tribunic. potestat. XII imp. XXII cos. X VI censor 
])erpetuus p. p. peditibus et equitibus qui militant in cohorte III Alpinorum et in 
VIII Voluntariorum civium Romanorum &c. Within Sept. 13 A. D. 92 — Sept. 

12 A. D. 93. 3 Gruter. p. 245 ad calcem Sueton. N". 3. Imp. Ca;sari dim 
Vespasiani . . Domitiano Au . . Germ. pont. ma . . trib. potest. XIII imp. XXII 
cos. XVI censori perpet. p. . reg. vici Vestoriani et Galpurniani. Within Sept. 

13 A. D. 93— Sept. 12 A. D. 94. 

A coin apud Eckhel. tom.VI p. 390. Imp. Cces. Domit. Aug. Germ. p. m. tr. p. 
XIII+ Imp. XXII cos. X VI cens. p. p. p. Issued within Sept. 13 A. D. 93— 
Sept. 12 A. D. 94. 


847. Asprenas et Latera- 
nus Nor. Idat. 

Domitiani 14 from Id. Sept. trib. pot. 14. 

Euseb. Chron. Anno 2109 Domitiani IS" Domitianus ccedibus et exiliis nobi- 
Hum S(smt. [In Hieron. Anno 2110 Domit. 14".] Agreeing with Tacitus Agric. 
c. 44, who relates that after the death of Agricola Domitianus non jam per 
intervalla ac spiramenta temporum sed continue et velut uno iciu rempublicam 


848. Domitianus Aug. 
X VII T. Flavins Clemens 

Domitiani 15 from Id. Sept. trib. pot. 15. 

Conspiracy of Celsus; death of Clemens the consul: Dio 67. 13. 14. 'lov^fv- 

R M A N I 


3 Greek Authors 

4 Lati\ Authors 

38 and the completion of the Antiquities at the close 
of y.S. After this period Josephus wrote the Life as a 
sequel to the Antiquities. Euseb. Chron. Anno 2 1 OH 
ffrom Oct. A. D. ;>2] Domitiani 12", Flavins Josephus 
tieic fiiiem facit &c. Hieronymus : Anno '2\(y^) Domi- 
tiani 13" Fl<iviua Josephus JCJl'"" lihrum Antiquitatum 
hujus temporis scribit. The date of Hieronymus is the 
most exact. 

Apollonius of Tyana in the beginning of this year 
comes to Italy: Philostrat. V. A. VII. 10. He pro- 
ceeds from Asia to Corinth ; thence by Sicily to Pu- 
teoli ; where he meets Demetrim : acpCKtro « AiKatdp- 
X^fiav ■nfixTTToioi. Aij^xr/rp^o) 6^ ivrvx^tov, hs iboKti Oapaa- 
A.€wre/)oy t&v (piKoaocfxav, tTrel fiT) TtoKv ano Trjs 'P<tf/ii;s 
6iT/raro, ^vvUi ixip aiiTov (IfurqKOTOS TcjJ npAvvia k. t. \. 
Thence to Rome: VII. H>. He is favoured by ^li- 
anus the preefect: VII. 17^-20. brought before Do- 
mitian: VII. 31. admitted alone: 32.35. Is again 
hehvQ Domitian : VIII. 3 — ."j. Is dismissed, or dis- 
appeared: VIII. 5. [this related by Damis, who was 
not present: conf. VII. 42.] His written defence: 
V^III. 7 p. 327 — "^54. 38 years after the accession of 
Nero: p. 344.= A. D. 9-^. Domitian suffers Apollonius 
to escape: VIII. 8. He joins Demetrius and Damis 
at Puteoli : VIII. 10 — 13. These transactions are in 
the beginning of the year ; for Domitian left Rome in 
May (see col. 2), and Apollonius was in Greece in July. 
He proceeded through Sicily to Olympia at the Olym- 
pic games : VIII. 14— 18= July A. D. 93 01. 218. 
After 40 days at Olympia he went to Lobadea: VIII. 

Scopelianns — SKOTreXiai-os 6 KKa(ofj.ivws a-o(t>L<TT^s 
Philostrat. V. A. I. 23. 24 — is ambassador to Domi- 
tian pro serendis vitibus: Philostrat. V. S. I. 21 p. 520. 
fj irpfcr^iCa ov^ virip ^ixvnvaCmv p.6vov, axnrfp ai iiKtiovs, 
oAA VTTip TrJ9 'A(rto9 oixov Trdcrijs fi;pf<Tl3(v6ri — fSo'xei raJ 
/Sao-tAei fi)i (IvaL rrj 'Airta dfxTre'Aons k. t. K. [see col. 2]. 
alpovvTai Toivvv liKOTreXiavov -navm. His mission was 
successful: Ibid. We may place this embassy in the 
beginning of A. D. 93, since Domitian quitted Rome in 
May. Scopelianus was the pupil of Nicetes : V. S. I. 21 
p. 516. 518. and the preceptor of Herodes Atticus ; 
Ibid. p. 521. II. 1 p. 564. He taught at Smyrna : I. 
21 p. 518. 

0. 6.) the months Germanicus and Domitianus [A. I). 9 1 ] 
IX. 2. the revolt of Antonius [A. D. 91] IV. 1 1. The 
Sarmatian war is noticed VII. 1. VII. 2. VII. 5. Do- 
mitiaris return is expected VII. 6: Sattnatices launu 
nuncius ipse veni v. 10. He is still absent VII. 7. His 
return is expected in December VII. 8. Ho returns in 
January VHI. 2. VIII. H, VIII. 4. The Sarmatian 
victory is celebrated VIII. 11.21. 65. 78. in which ho 
declined a triumph VIII. 15, 6. Conf. Sueton. I)om. 
c. 6. de Sarmatis lauream modo Capitolino Jovi retulit. 
The two triumphs {de Cattis et de Dads) and the Sar- 
matian laurel are recorded amongst the a«ts of Domi- 
tian IX. 102. Domitian was 8 months absent in this 
expedition: IX. 32. Luna qiuiter linos non tota pere- 
gerat orbes. Which is ill understood by Lloyd apud 
Pagium adv. Baron, torn. I p. 78 and by Pagi himself 
p. 80 of the Dacian war in A. D. 89. As Domitian re- 
turned in January, he set forth in May preceding. He 
was still imp. XXI within Jan. 1 — Sept. 1 2 A. D. 92 : 
conf. a. 92. 2. He is imp. XXII before Sept. 13 A. D. 
93 : Ibid. And this title was conferred in the Sarma- 
tian expedition which was begun in May. But this 
will agree with May A. D. 93 rather than with May 
92; and we may with Norisius Opp. tom. II p. 1039 
fix this war to A. D. 93 rather than to A. D. 92 with 
Tillemont tom. II p. 484 and Pagi p. 85. Domitian is 
imp. XXII between May and September A. D. 93. 
We have seen that IV. 1 1 was composed in A. I). 91 
and that lib. VII was written during the Sarmatian 
war and comes down to December A. D. 93. Lib. VIII 
opens with Jan. A. D. 94. Lib. IX still describes that 
period. Jan. 94, but might possibly be written in A. D. 
95. Conf. a. 99. 

[Euseb. Chron. Anno 2109 [from Oct. A. D. 93] Do- 
mitiani 13" Domitianus denuo inathematicos et philoso- 
phos Roma expulit. In Hieronymus anno 2111 Domit. 
15<» A. D. 9^. This second edict is ascribed by mistake 
to Domitian : conf. a. 90.] 

A Coin apud Eckhel. tom. VI p. 390. Imp. Ceet. Do- 
mit. Aug. Germ. p. m. tr. p. Xllll+Imp. XXII eoi. 
XVI cens. p. p. p. Fixed by the tribunician year and 
the consulship to Sept. 13 — Dec. 31 A. D. 94. 

Apollonius after two years in Greece goes to Ionia : 
Philostr. V. A. VIII. 24. bvoiv ivbiaTpC\(/as how ewXei 

Statu Silt. IV. I. XVII conmlatus imp. Aug. Ger- 
manici. He marks this as the fourth book : protem. 




1 Consuls 

Nor. Pont. liber pontifica- 
lis Damasi torn. I p. 513. 
Drnnitiano XIV et Cle- 
mente Idat. 

AofxtTiavov AvyovoTov to 
lb' Kai KkrJiJ.fVTOs to /3 
Chron. Pasch. 

Ausonius ad Gratian. p. 

289. Scis septem ac decern 
Domitiani consulatm quos 
ilk invidia alteros prove- 
hendi continuando come- 

This is not quite accu- 
rate. For DomitiarCs con- 
sulships conf. a. 84. 2. 

For Clemens see col. 2. 

2 Events 

Ttos Ttj KeXcroy, (TVV0\i6(Ta^ ava TipaTOvs fxerd tlvwv (ti a^Tip, — 6avfia<TT<as eaddr] 
K. r. X. — ev TovTio tQ xP"'^*? V ohos fj am SiroeWTjs «s YlovnoXovs &yov(ra XCOok 
ecTTopicrdr). kolv tu aircp erei oXAovs t€ iroXXoiis koL toi/ ^KA^iov KXTj/xeira vna- 
TevovTa, Kaiirep av€\j/iov ovra, Koi yvvoLKa /cat avrfir crvyyevjj iavrov <t>Xa/3fai' Ao- 
jMiTiWav expvTa, xaTeV^afei' 6 Aop,iTiav6s. lTsr]vi)(Or] Se aixcpoiv €yKXr)p.a d^eoTT/TOs, 
v(^' 7JS xai aXXoi es to rSr 'loi/Sawoi' 7;0jj ^^oxeXXorres ttoXXoi KaTeSt/cctcr^rjo-ai'' KOt 
01 ixiv a-nidavov o\ h\ t&v yovv ova-i&v kcnipridr\(Tav fj Se AonaCWa virfpiapCa-Or] 
Hovov fis IlavbaTipfiav. Conf. Philostrat. V. A. VIII. 25. Sueton. Dom. c. 15. 
Flamum Clementem patruelem suum contemtissimce inertiee — tantuni non ipso 
ejus consulatu interemit. That is, in the present year, after he had abdicated 
the consulship. This persecution of the Christians, to which Dio refers, is 
related by Eusebius H. E. III. 18. els too-ovtov 8e apa Kara tovs brjkovixivovs 
[sc. Vespasianis imperantibus] ^ ttjs ^fxer^pas iricrrews bibaiTKaXia SieXafiTrei;, cbs 
KM TOVS a-nodfv tov Kaff' rjnas koyov OT/yypacjbeis fj-rj anoKvria-ai tois axnGiv loTopicus 
Tov T€ bi<i>yp.ov Koi, TO. (V ttVTcp p.apTvpia irapabovvai,, Oiye kol tov Kaipov fir' dxpt/Ses 
{■ntoTjix-qvavTo, fv erei irevTeKaibeKaTco Aop-eTiavov /xerd -nXeCaTcav kriprnv (cat "liXa- 
^Lav AoixfTlKKav toropTjcrarres, ef abe\(fnjs yeyomnav <l>Xa/3tov KX^fieiroy, fvbs 
T&v TTjyiKdSe €7rl 'Pdixrjs v-naTotv, Trjs els Xpttrror fiaprvpias iveKev els vrjcrov Ylov- 
Tiav Kara Tifrnpiav bebocrdaL. Conf. Euseb. Chron. anno 2110 Domitiani 14". 
[anno 2112 JDomit. 16<> Hieron.] Repeated by Syncellus p. 344 A and by 
Chron. Pasch. p. 250C under the consulship of Clemens. The Armenian ver- 
sion is inaccurate in the sense, and Hieronymus in the date. Syncellus has 
preserved the original text of Eusebius: ttoXXoI be Xpioriavmv ep-apvuprjcrav 
/cord Ao/icrtardr, ws 6 BpeVnoy toropei [Brettius Arm. Brutius Hieron.], ev ols 
/cat $Xoiita AojieTiWa, i^abe\(f)ri Kkruxevros 'PX.avlov vvanKov, us XpicrTiavrj els 
vrj(Tov HovTlav (pvyabeveTai, airros re KX^/Ltjjs intip XpiaTov avaipeaat. Chron. 
Pasch. ioTopei 6 BpovTnos ttoXXovs XpioTtoroiij /card rd tb' eroy AojjieTiavov fiefiap- 
TvprjKivai. The dates of Eusebius, the 14th year in the Chronicle and the 15th 
in the History, are consistent with Dio and Suetonius, and will place these 
events partly in the 14th and partly in the 15th years, within A. D. 95. The 
exile of Flavia Domitilla is noticed by Hieronymus epitaph. Paulae p. 253. 

Coins : Eckhel. tom.VI p. 391. 1 Within Jan. 1— Sept. 12 A, D. 95 : Imp. 
Gees. Domit. Aug. Germ. p. m. tr.p. Xllll+Imp. XXII cos. XVII cens. 
p. p. p. 2 Within Sept. 13 A. D. 95 —Sept. 12 A. D. 96 : Imp. Cces. Domit. 
Aug. Germ. p. m. tr.p. XV+Imp. XXII cos. XVII cens. p-p.p- 3 Domi- 
tianus Augustus + Germanicus cos. XVII. 4 Imp. Cces. Domit. Aug. Germ. 
COS. XVII cens. per. p.p. These two were issued within Jan. 1 A. D. 95 — 
Sept. 18 A. D. 96. 


849. C. Manlius Valens 
C. Antistius Vetus Dio 67. 
14 Idat. Chron. Pasch. 

Domitian slain : Philostrat. V. A. VIII. 25. Sueton. Dom. c. 17- Occisus est 
XI III Kal. Octohris anno eetatis XLV imperii XV. Conf. Anecd. Paris. 
Cramer, tom. II p. 28. 29 Eutrop. VII. 23. Dio 67. 14. ItiL r« Valov OvikevTos 

R O M A N I 


3 Greek Authors 

4 Latin Authors 

is 'laviav [July A. D. 95]. He is ilamed at this date 
by Eusobius Chron. Anno 2110 [commencing Oct. 
A. D. 94] Domitiani \4<> Apollonim Tyanem et Evr 
phrates philosophi copnoscebantur. In Hieron. anno 
2111. Mentioned by Syncellus p. 345 0. For AV 
phrates conf. a. 69. 

St. John in the isle of Patmos: Euseb. H. E. III. 
18. iv TovTiD KaTi\fi Ao'yos tov i.Ti6<TTo\ov i/io Koi fvay- 
yf\i(Tri}v 'Imavvr^v, eu t^ /3ta) ivbiaTpipoma, T^y fli rdv 
Ofiov koyov iveKev jxapTvpias YlAryiOV oIk(iv KarabiKaadi]- 
vai, Tr)v vrj<Tov. ypi.(p(av yi toi 6 Elprfvaios irepl rrji yjni^ov 
TTJi Kara tov avrlfi^punov TTpocrrjyopCas <\>(po)xivrii iv t^ 
'ladvvov \eyofj,fVT[) aT!0KaXv\j/(i, avrais tn/AAa/Sais (v Ttip.- 
iiT<j> Tiav TTpos Ttts alp(a-(is TavTa ittpl lia&vvov <f>r](TiV 
" El be ^8ei<pavb6v iv t(3 vvv (caipoi KijpvTTeo'dai. tov- 
" vop.a avTov, bi iKtlvov hv ippiOr) rod kol rrfv aTioK6.\vyfnv 
" (bipaKOTos. oiibi yap irpo ttoXAoC xpovov iutpaOr] dAAa 
" (Tyfbov inX rfjs fjixfrepas ytveas, Ttpbs tw re'Afi rrji Ao- 
" ixfTiavov apxn^" Quoted again by Eusebius H. E. 
V. 8. Euseb. Chron^ Anno 21 10 Domitiani \4« Secun- 
dus post Neronem Domitianus Christianos insectatus est. 
[bevrepos tov Kaff i)p.G>v avfKbfi buayfiov Idem H. E. III. 
17], sub eoque Johannes apostolus in Patmum insulam 
relegatm est, iUque traditur Apocalypsim vidisse, uti 
narrat Irenams. Repeated by Syncellus p. 344 A. oxh 
Tos fifTO, 'Nepava bevrtpos coy 6 Syios Elp-qvaios <j>r}<Ti,. 

And by Chron. Pasch. p. 250 0. 6 dTro'o-ToAos 'ItoAvvrji 

is brjXo'i Elp-qvalos. Hieron. Catalog, c. 9. Quarto- 

decimo anno secwndam post Neronem persecutionem mo- 
vente Domitiano, in Fatmon insulam relepatus Joanna 
scripsit Apocalypsim. Conf. Suidam p. 1042 B. The 
testimonies to the book of Revelation are thus given 
by Andreas of Csesarea procem. in comm. in Apocalyps. 
(ex versione Peltani) p. 4. De lilri hujus fide et aucto- 
ritate proiixe hoc loco disserere supervacaneum arhitra- 
mur: constat namque — Gregorium theologum Cyrillum 
Alexandrinum, multoque hisce vetustiores Papiam Ire- 
ncBum Methodium etHippolytum dimnum, fideque dignum 
esse non uno loco tradere ; e quorum monumentis occasione 
accepta nos ad hoc consilium venimus : sicuti multas quo- 
que sententias ex eorundem scriptis mutuavimm hisqm 
nostris commentariis inseruimus. Repeated by Arethas 
of Csesarea prooem. in Comm. in Apoc. p. 878 ed. Ve- 
ron. = p. I'JG ed. Cramer. Titpl bi tov d€oirv(V(rrov TTJt 
/3t)3Aoi/ 6 iv dyt'oi? BacriAetoj koi Tpriyopws 6 dtios tov 
\6yov, KoX KvpiWoi km. nairtas xat Eiprjvaioi Kal MeOo- 
btoi Koi 'IttttoKvtos, oi iKKKr]<na<TTiKol irarepcs, i\4yyvoi, 
iti(TT<i<Ta(T6aL. Add Justin Martyr dial, cum Tryph. 
p. 179 C apud Euseb. H. E. IV. "18 3Ielito apud Eu- 
seb. IV. 26. 

p. 1 77- The first book (primus libellus p. 5) was written 
after the Daoian war: I. 4, 91. — qua: maxima nuper 
Gloria, depositam Dads jjereu/ntibus urbem Pandere. 
The third (tertius hie Sikarum nostrarum liber p. 1 26) 
after the return from the Samiatian war Jan. A. D. 
94: III. 3, 171. QucE modo Marcomanos post horrida 
bella vagosque Sauromatas Laiio non est diqnata trium- 
pho [conf. a. 93 Eutrop. VII. 23]. The 'Thebais had 
been composed before the first book of the Silvee: 
prooem. p. 4. adhuc pro Thebaide mea {mummit me rdi- 
querit) timeo. The close of the Thebau is mentioned 
Silv. III. 2, 143. IV. 4, 89. IV. 7 ad Maximum Ju- 
nium (conf. procem. p. 177- epistola nuam ad ilium de 
editione TheSaidos me<B publicavi). The poem is noticed 
again Silv. III. 5, 36. V. 3, 234. The Achilleis Silv. 
v. 2, 163. Both the poems — Thebasque novumqwe yE- 
aciden — Silv. V. 5, 37. 

The Thebais had employed twelve years: Theb. XII. 
811.0 mihi bis senos multum vigilata per annot Thebai 
— and was not completed till after the Dacian war: 
Theb. I. 20. — bis adactum legibus Istrum, Et amjurato 
d^ectos vertice Dacos. The Achilleis was composed after 
the Thebais: Achill. I, 10— 13. 

Apollonius of Tyana is at Ephesus at the time of 
Domitia7i's death : Philostrat. V. A. VIII. 26. Thirty 

Plinii actio in Puhlicivm Certum de Helvidii ultume 
Ep. IX. 13. Occiso Domitiano statui meeum — este map- 

days afterwards he hears from Nerva : VIII. 27. Tpid- nam pulchramque maieriam imectandi noemUes &c. Ao 





1 Consuls 

2 Events 

Valeriana et Vetere Nor. 

Valmtis et Veri Pont. 

Vetere et Valente Eutrop. 
VIII. 1. 

Valentis et Veteris liber 
pontificalis Damasi torn. I 
p. 534. 

(Ss fVfvr]KO<TT<^ h(i vvaTfvcras fTeXfVTrjaf) Koi em FaioD 'Avria-Tiov vTrdroiv a-ndt- 
kiTO. c. 18. efrjae ykv It?j Te.(Taapa Koi TOJcrapaKovra \j.r)vas Sfxa Koi fnxtpas i^ Koi 
UKoaiv (ixovdpxrjiTe be irr) vevTeKaibiKa koi i]p.ipas irivTi. Theophilus ad Autol. 
III. 27. eTTj te' ju^vay e' r)fj.fpas r'. Euseb. H. E. III. 20. TTfVTfKMbfKa frea-iv. 
Victor Caes. p. 318. qiiinto et quadragesimo anno vitee, dominationis circiter 
quintodecimo. Victor Epit. p. 368. imperavit annos XV. p. 369. post annum 
XLV^'". Philostrat. V. A. VIII. 2.5. ytyovm Trtpl to, -nevre koL TerrapaKovTa 
fTt]. Anecd. Paris. Cramer, torn. II p. 282. er?j a' p.f\vas la. p. 28. KaraKTu- 
verai e km x! yf-yoviits enj [the same error is in Hieron. Chron. anno 2112 and 
in Cassiodorus : XXXV (statis anno], ap^a's 6e te'. Cussiod. Annis XV mm- 
sihm V. Domitian was born Oct. 24 : conf. a. 51. and accordingly lived (as 
Dio states it) 44y 10"' 26''. The 15th year of his reign was completed Sept. 12. 
His death is rightly placed in the year of these consuls by Chron. Pasch. and 
Idatius: Valente et Vetere: His conss. excesdt Doniitianm in palatio Roma. 

Coins oi Nerva before Jan. 1 A. D. 97 : Eckhel. torn. VI p. 403. 1 Imp. 
Nerva Gees. Aug. p. m. tr.p. cos. II p. p. + concordia exercituiim. 2 Imp.Nerva 
Gees. Aug. p. m. tr. p. cos. II design. Ill p. p. + congiar. pr. S. G. 3 Imp. 
Nerva Gcen. Aug. pont. max. tr. p. + cos. II desig. Ill p.p. 4 Imp. Nerva Gees. 
Aug. p. m. tr.p. cos. II p. p. + fisci Judaici calumnia suhlata. 8. G. Conf. 
Dion. 68. 1 . ovt a(7{^fCas ovt ^lovbdiKOV jSCov KaTairiaa-Oai rivas avve\(opr](Tf. 


01. 219 U. C. Varr. 850 

Nerva Gcesar Aug. Ill 
L. Verginius Mufus III 
Idat. Frontin. de Aquaed. 
c. 102. 

Nerva II et Rufo III 

Nepoi/a AvyovcTTOv koi Ti- 
Tov 'Fovcpov TO y Chron. 

Dio 68. 2. roi; 8e 'Pov(j)ov 


XdKis avTOKpdropa 6vop,a- 
crBima, ovk &KV7]afV vira- 
Tevaas (6 'Nepovas) crvvdp- 
Xovra TTpoffkafiew. For 
Verginius Bufus see col. 2. 

de Nerva Martial. XI. 4. 
Et qui purpureis Jam ter- 
tia nomina fastis Jane re- 
fers Nervw. 

N&rvce 2 from XIV Kal. Oct. trih.pot. 2. 

Sedition of the soldiers : Dio 68. 3 V^ictor Epit. p. 37O Plin. Panegyr. c. 5, 
7. 8c. 6, 1. Adoption of Trajan, then in command in Germany: Dio 68. 3. 
three months before the death of Nerva : Victor Epit. p. 370. Trajanum — 
adoptavit, cum quo tribus vixit mensibus. He is associated in the tribunician 
power : Plin. Panegyr. c. 8, 6. Simul filius, simul Gcesar, mox imperator et cen- 
sors trihunici(B potestatis, et omnia pariter et statimf actus es. c. 9, 3. Jatn Geesar 
jam imperator jam Gerrnanicus, absens et ignarus. Hence the tribunician years 
of Trajan are reckoned from the autumn of A. D. 97. Trajan is called by Dio 
68. 6 forty-two years old at his accession in Jan. A. D. 98 : bivrepov Kal rtuaa- 
paKOTTov eros &y<av i)p^ev. His birthday was in the same month in which 
Domitian was slain : Plin. Panegyr. c. 92, 4 . mensem qui principem ahstidit pes- 
simum, dedit optimum [sc. Nervam], meliorem optima genuit. And after Sept. 17: 
PHn. Ep. X. 28. on the very day of Domitian's death, or Sept. 18 : Natales 
Csesarum apud Bouherium p. 276 (quoted by Reimar ad Dion. 68. 4) : Divi 
Trajani XIV Kalendas Octobris. Repeated Ibid. p. 285. The account then 
of Dio would make him 41 Sept. 18 A. D. 97 and GOV lO™ 23'' at his death in 
August A. D. 117. Dio therefore differs from other authorities in the age 
of Trajan. 

Death of Verginius Rufus: Plin. Ep. II. 1. Perfunctus est tertio consulatu, ut 
summum fastigium privaii kominis impleret, quum principis noluisset [see col.l]. 
Gcesares quibus suspecttis — fuerat evasit ; reliquit incolumem optimum atque ami- 
cissimum [sc. Nervara], — Annum 83«"« excessit in altissima tranquillitate, pari 
veneratione. — Laudatus est a consule Gornelio Tacito ; nam hie supremus felicitati 
ejus cumulus accessit, laudator eloqzcentissimus. For Verginius in A. D. 68 conf. 
Plutarch. Galba c. 6 Tacit. Hist. I. 7 — 9. He is mentioned again by Pliny 
Ep.V. 3 VI. 10 IX. 19. 

Coins : see col. 4. 

R O M A N I 


3 Greek Adthohs 

4 Latin Authors 

Kotna 8' 7]fj.(pais fifTo. ravra, i^nioTflKainos avr^ tov N(p- 

owo K. T. A. 

Bio Pruseeus at the death of Domitian is still in dis- 
tant countries: Phiiostrat. V. Soph. I. 7 p. 488. 6a- 
/xtfttfi' 8e « a-Tparoneba iv olcnrfp fidOfi rpvxfa-Oai, xal 
Tovs (iTpaTimTai opHov h vedrtpa opfiUvTas iwl Ao/xeriarw 
&n((T(f>ayfifV(a, ovk icpfCa-aro ara^Cav ihb>v iKpayuaav oAAa 
yviJ,vbs a,vaTtr]bri(Tas — (Til piv tijv KwrriyopCav tov rvp&vvov 
iroXiis i'nveuat tous b\ (TTpaTLuras ebiba^fv ap.iivov (ppo- 
Vfiv TO. boKOvvra 'Pa)fxofots irpdrrovTas. 

primis quidem dieiuB redditm libertatis pro »e quisqus 
immicos mot—potttUaveraTii. — Effo, quum jam saiis ille 
primus impetus defervisset, et languxdior in dies ira ad 
justitiam redisset, quanquam turn maasime tristis amissa 
nuper luore, mitto ad Anteiam (nupta hee Hehidio fvr 
erat), ropo id veniat &c. The reeult was, rekUumem 
qmdem Owsar de Gerto ad senatwn tun remisit, obtinui 
tamen quod intenderam. Nam collega Certi eonmUatum, 
succesmrem Certus accepit. — Pottea actionem meam ut- 
cunque pottd recottegi; addidi multa. — Editis libris, Cer- 
tus intra paucissimos dies morbo decessit. For the death 
of Helvidius conf. a. 90. Pliny Ep. VII. 30, 4 men- 
tions these Ubellos de ultione Helvidii. 

Nicetes of Smyrna — NiKTjTrjr tov I,p.vpvaiov Phiiostrat. 
p. 511— is sent into Gaul: Philostr. V. S. I. 19. 17 8e 
vnip 'AAireiy t« koX 'Pjjvor tov avbpos iy^vtro 
p,iv iK /SatrtAefoi) irpoarAypaTos. — avi]p TjTraTos, to 5vopa 
Povcjms, — (TnTpaTTfls to. KeArua arpaTOTrfba, dpyfjs av(- 
p.vri<T0r) — Koi yp6.<f)ei TTpbs avTOKp&TOpa Ntpovav woAAa ^Tri 

TOV NlKTjTrfV KoX (7)(«'tAiO" KOI 6 aVTOKpaTOyp " aiiTos" (Itt(v 

" aKpoaoT] omo\oyovpivoV mv abiKovvTa fijprjs, (Tridts 
" bU-qv^ K. T. A. — bih piv brj toCto «7rt 'Prjvov re koI K<A- 
Tovi T/AOe. irapfkOfov b' i-nl Trjv airoXoyiav ovrw n kotI- 
Tt\r]^i TOV 'Pov(})ov as — cnroTT^p'^at ovk &Tp(i>Tov povov 
oAAa Ttfpi^XiTrrov ev rols CrjXoiTo'is ^pvpvauav. 

^lianm tacticm flourished : Procem. ad Hadrianum 
Aug. iTil T^ dea TtaTpC (tov Nepova (rvp^a\ii>v irapa 
^povrlvia tS>v (TTiaripoiv vnauK&v iv ^oppCais ijp^pai ti- 
vas SieVpix/fa k.t.\. 

Apollonius of Tyana dies about the same time as 
Nerva: Phiiostrat. V.A. VIII. 27. furuW lams kavrov 
re a)S ptT ov Ttokv piTacmricropivov avOpiaTtiav, Nepova re 
<i>s XP^^°^ ^payyv ^p^ovros' es tviavTov yap Kal pfjvas 
Ttrrapas to. ttjs /3a(nAei'os ovrw wpoiJ/3i), (ro)(f>povf<rT<iT<a 
bolavTi. Suidas p. 493 A. ' AiioXXdvios Tvavtvs — ijk- 
pa^f p(v fTrl KXavbiov koI Tatov koI Nepavos [1. M Taiov 
Kal KAoii8foii Kol N.], Kal p^XP'' Ne'p^a" «(^' ov koI ptrqX- 
Ka^iv. There were various reports of his age : V. A. 
VIII. 29. TTfpl yap Tpovov Kad hv iTfkevTa (fl ye ire- 
AevTo) uAeions piv AJyot, Aipibi bi ovbds efpr/rai. — ovb'' 
vittp T]\iKCas Tavbpbs eTpi^roi ov8er t^ Aapibi' dAAa rois 
piv SyboTiKOvra tois bi inrip to, ivtv^Kovra roiy bi Kal 
■np6<T(o twv eKaTov iXdfiv. And of the place of his 
death : VIII. 30. He is called iKaTovrovrrfi by Phi- 
lostratus V. A. I. 14. And, as he was 20 years old 
soon after the death of ArcMaus (conf. a. 17), he 

Frontinus is appointed curator aquarum: Frontin. 
de Aqused. c. 102. Vespasiano V Tito III coss. [A. D. 74] 
Aciliws Aviola (curator aquarum) : post quern impera- 
tore Nerva III et Verginio Bu/o III coss. ad nos ewa 

translata est. 

Tortus a consul suffectus : see col. 2. 

Coins of this year apud Eckhel. torn. VI p. 406. 
Before Sept. 18: 1 Imp. Nerva Cces. Aug. p. m. tr. p. 
cos. Ill p. p. +plebei urbance frumenio cmsiituio. S. C. 
or tutela Italice. or vehiculatione Italia remissa. S. C. 

After Sept. 18 : 2 Imp. Nerva C<bs. Aug. p. m. ir.p. 
II cos. Ill p.p. 3 Imp. Nerva Gees. Aug. p. m. ir.p. 
II. 4 Imp. Nerva Gas. Aug. Germ. p. m. tr. p. II. + 
Imp. II cos. Ill des. I II I p. p. The victory marked 
in N°. 4 is attested by Pfiny Panegyr. who relates 
c. 8, 3 that at the time of the adoption of Trajan 
allata erat ex Pannonia laurea. c.l6, 1. adoptionis ttue 
die dicata CapitoUno Jovi laumt. 

M 2 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 


851. Nerva Ccesar Aug. 
IV Nerva Trajanus Ca- 
sar II Idat. 

Nerva III et Trajano II 


Tpdiavov AvyaicTTOV )j.6- 
vov Chron. Pasch. 

de Trajano Tacitus Germ, 
c. 37 Plinius Panegyr. 
c. 59. 

Coins oi Nerva within Jan. 1 — 25 A. D. 98 apud Eckhel. torn. VI p. 409. 
1 Imp. Nerva Gees. Aug. p. m. tr. p. II cos. IIII p. p. 2 Imp. Nerva G(es. 
Aug. p. m. tr. p. 11+ Imp. II cos. IIII p. p. 

Death of Nerva Jan. 25 : Chron. Pasch. p. 251 B. vocTTjcras ereXevTr^cre w/jo ij 
KoKavb&v <i>el3povap[(i>v, &p^as Iras a. Dio ()8. 4. fxerriKXa^ev &p^as erei, ivl Koi 
ixrjcrl T((T(Tapcn koI fjixepan kvvia' Ttpoe^i^TjKfi, ^f lr?j Koi nfjvai Se'/ca (cat fjp,epas 
b(Ka. Theoph. ad Autolyc. III. 27- NepojJas iviavrop /xjjras 6' rjixipas i. Clem. 
Alex. Strom. I p. 339 C. ^ros a fxfjvai 8' rjixepas 1! . Cassiod. Regnat annum 
unum menses IV. — Periit in hortis Sallustianis anno cetatis LXXII. Eutrop. 
VIII. 1. Mortuus est ItomcB post annum et quatuor menses imperii sui ac dies 
octo, cetatis septuagesimo et altera anno. Victor Epit. p. 3fi9. 370. Imperavit 
menses tredecim dies decern. — vitam Jinivit anno cetatis sexagesims tertio. — eoque 
die quo interiit solis defectio facta est. Anecd. Paris. Cramer, torn. II p. 283. 
f^aa-CKfva-fv hos iv p.fjvas 8'. Reimar ad Dion. 68. 3 places his death two days 
later, or at Jan. 27, for two reasons : 1 because the 19* 6™ 15<^ assigned by 
Dio to Trajan terminate at Aug. 11 A.D. 117 and therefore begin Jan. 27 
A. D. 98. 2 because the \y 4™ 9'' given to Nerva by Dio also terminate at 
Jan. 27. If, however, those 15 days of Trajan terminate in Aug. 11, they 
commence at July 28 ; and his reign would begin at Jan. 28. Again, as Nerva 
began to reign Sept. 18, his 16' months are completed at Jan. 17 ; and nine 
days will end at Jan. 26. If therefore the number of days is accurate in Dio 
for both reigns, the death of Trajan will be placed at Aug. 9 A.D. 117- conf. 
a. 117. 

Trajan at his accession is at Cologne: Eutrop. VIII. 2. Imperator apud 
Agrippinam in Galliis factus est. Oros. VII. 12. Apud Agrippinam Gallia 
urbem insignia sumsit imperii. Victor Epit. p. 371. Imperium apud Agrippi- 
nam nohilem GallicB coloniam suscepit. Pliny Panegyr. c. 59, 3 attests his ab- 
sence from Rome: Gessisti alteram consulatum, scio. ilium exercitibus, ilium pro- 
vinciis, ilium etiam ceteris gentibus poteris imputare, &c. 

Coins of Trajan: Eckhel. torn. VI p. 412. 1 Imp. Gees. Nerva Trajan. Atig. 
Germ. +pont. m,ax. tr. pot. cos. II. 2 Imp. Gtes. Nerva Trajan. Aug. Germ, 
p. m. + tr. pot. COS. II S. G. Within Jan. 25— Dec. 3 1 A. D. 98. 


852. G. Sosius Senecio II 
A. Gornelius Palma 

Palma et Senecione Nor. 
Idat. Chron. Pasch. 

Trajani 2 from VIII Kal. Feb. trii. pot. 3 from October : conf. a. 97- 

The Paschal Chronicle, placing, as we have seen, the accession of Trajan at 
VIII Kal. Feb., leaves only \y 4"' 8'' to the reign of Nerva. Dio, assigning to 
Nerva ly 4™ 9'', will give VII Kal. Feb. for the accession of Trajan. Norisius 
Ep. Syromaced. p. 280 dates, like Reimar, the reign of Trajan from VI Kal. 
Feb. " Trajanus mortuo Nervse die 27 Januarii A. U. 851 successit." But it 
has been shewn at A. D. 98 that even according to Dio this date is one day 
too low. 

Trajan returns to Rome : Plin. Panegyr. c. 20, 1 — 3. His entry is described 
c. 20. Idem c. 25. Datum congiarium populo. conf. c. 26. 

Coins of this year: Eckhel. tom. VI p. 413. 1 Imp. Gees. Nerva Trajan. 
Aug. Germ.+p. m. tr.p. cos. II. p.p. 2 Imp. C<es. Nerva Trajan. Aug. Germ, 
p.m. + tr.pot. cos. II p.p. S. G. 3 Imp. Gees. Nerva Trajan. Aug. Germ. p.m. 

R M A N I 


3 Greek Authors 

4 Latin Authors 

would have been at least 97 ^.t the death of Nerva. 
The date of Chron. Pasch. p. 254 0, Hadriani 7» 
[A. D. 1 23] 'ATToWaJftos o Tvavtvi Koraarpit^ti rhv filov, 
IS justly rejected by Oloarius ad Philostrat. p. 369. 

Jmtm of Tiberias flourished : Eusob. Chron. Amw 
2113 [from Oct. A. D. 97] Justus Tiberiemis Jvdaicus 
scriptor agnoscebatur. In Hieron. also at 2113. Phot. 
C!od. 33. avfyvma-Ot] 'Iouotov Ti/3eptea)s xpoviKov, ov f) 
iTtiypa<j)ij 'Iov(ttov Ti^tpUms 'lovbaMV fiaaiXtiav rav iv 
Tois ar(ij.p.a(Tiv [Laert. II. 41. '\ov(ttos 6 Ti^fptfiis iv t(S 
oTtjU^art]. ojroy otto iroAeus rrjs iv rakil\.a(q Tifiepidbos 
appxao. &p\(Tai ti ttjs icrropCai anb Mwiio-e'toy KaraA^yei 
8e l(oy TtKfVTrji ' Aypiinra tov i^hopjov yxv t&v atto ttjs 
olKiai Hpwbov varaTov 6e iv tois lovbaCatv ^a(Ti\(v(Tiv. 
Steph. Byz. Tt/Sepias. — (k rauTjjs ijv 'lovaros 6 tov 'lov- 
bdUov TToKfuov tov (cara Ov(a~na(TLavov iaropi^cras. Men- 
tioned by Josephus Vit. c. 9. a-Tacreis Tpeis rja-av Kara 
Ti}v TtoKiv [sc. Tijiepidba]. — 'loCfrros 6 rTioroii irais 6 rrjs 

TplTTJi p,(pCb0S TipSlTOS VTTfKpCvfTO pfV (vboLd(flV TTpbi TOV 

itoKepov [A. D. 66], veaiTtpatv 8' i'nedvp.ei •itpayp,6.T<ov. 
And more largely c. 6.5 ; where he shews that Justus 
published his history of the war after the deaths of 
Vespasian and Agrippa, and was then still living. 

Plutarch flourished : Suid. p. 3014. nXourapxoy Xat- 
pctfvevs TTJs Boitarfas \p]v kpr\v ixaTpiba I'luttirch. de cu- 
rios, p. 515 C], yeyovwi «m t&v Tpdiavov tov KatVapos 
Xpovmv Koi (TL TTp6(T0fv. p.iTabovs bi aiiTf Tpdiavbi ttjs 
T&v VTrarcof a^Cas 7ipo(r«Tafe pr^btva t&v /cara tijv 'IKXv- 
pCba apxovToiv -nape^ ttj? amov yvwfxr]^ ti hiairpaTTeadai. 
As Plutarch was old enough in A. D. 66 to receive in- 
structions in an abstruse philosophy (conf. a. 66), he 
was probably born A. D. 46 ; which would suppose 
him 52 at the accession of Trajan. That he was the 
preceptor of Trajan is attested by the epistle apud 
Sarisbur. Policraticon V. I (given in Fabricius B. G. 
torn. V p. 192). For although that epistle is spurious, 
yet it is founded on that fact. Trajan, according to 
Dio was born Sept. 18 A.D. 56 (conf. a. 97- 2), and 
would be ten years younger than his master Plutarch. 

Pliny Ep. X. 1 congratulates Trajan on his ac- 

Plini/ and Tertullut are appointed pree/ecti ararii 
Saturni : Panegyr. c. 9 1 . Nondum biennium, compleramus 
in officio lahoriosissimo et inaximo, quum tu nobis — c<m- 
sulatum obtalisti. They are already conmUes cletignati in 
Jan. A. D. 100: conf. a. when their second year of 
office had already commenced ; which places their ap- 
pointment in A. U. 98. He refers to this office Ep. X. 
20. Ut primum me, domine, indulgentla vestra promomt 
ad prafecturam mrarii Saturni, 8ic. Panegyr. c. 92. 
Illud quam insigne, quod nobis prafedis arario consula- 
tum ante quam successorem dedisti. Ep. V. 15. Idem 
enim mihi (Tertullus) — collega quasi voto petitua in pree- 
fectura rerarii/uit; fait et in comulatu. 

Plini/ mentions in this year Licinius Nepos the prae- 
tor and Afranim Dexter the consul : Ep. IV. 29. Li- 
cinius Nepos prcetor, acer et fortis vir. Ep. V. 2 1 . Nepot 
pra-tor^proposuerat breve ediclum. — Rectissime fecit tni- 
turm magistratum &c. Written therefore in the be- 
ginning of this pnetorship. Ep. V. A. Vicenfinorum 
legafi interrogati a Nepote prwtore— Nepos postulacit vt 
Nominatus indiiceretur. Ep. V. 14. Promiti scripturum 
me tibi qmm habuisset eeentum postulatio Nepotis circa 
Tuscilium Nominatum. — absolutus est sententia designati 
consulis Afranii Dextri. In Ep. VIII. 14, 1 — 12 men- 
tion is made o^Afranius as consul : In senatu proxime 
— referebatur de libertis Afranii Dextri consulis — per- 
empti. But Afranius was consul Kal. Oct. A. D. 98 : 
see col. 1 . which fixes tiiese transactions and these 
letters to this year ; the former letters before, the last 
(Ep. VIII. 14) after Kal. Oct. whence it appears that 
the letters of Pliny are not collected in the order of 
time ; conformably with his own declaration Ep. I. 1 : 
non sercato temporis ordine. 

Dio Prusmus is favoured by Trajan : Philostrat. V. 
Soph. I. 1 . Tpai'aros avTOKpdraip ava9(iJ,fvoi avTov inl 
TTJs 'Vdprjs h TTjv xpvariv apa^av — lAeye k. r. X. Photius 
Cod. 209 p. 529. I'lKpaa-f KaTa Toiis xpSvovs tov ^atnAtwj 
TpataroC, icai TrAeioroi' bi.(Tpi\j/€ xpovov nap avr<3 Koi r^y 
OTi paXicTTa TipSji KoX 8efno<T«a)s iTv\(v, iy teal cruyKaQi- 
^(crQai avTov T&i (SacnXfita oxqpaTi.. irals p.iv jjf ovTOi 
HacriKpiTovs (ro(^ioT?;y 8e Koi (/)tXofro</)oy to ii:iTribevp,a. 
Suid. p. 1027 A. ACo)v 6 Ilao-tKpdTovy ripovo-aevy, (to- 
</)i(rTT)y Kal (}>i\6(T0(l)0i' hv Xpva-daroixov iKd\e(Tav — 8te- 
Tpi-ij/f TO TT^dcTTov TTapo. Tpaiuro) KaiVapt, iy koI trvyKa- 
6e(€a-$ai iv t<o /SarriAiKu oxjipaTi. He was already emi- 
nent and in favour with Vespasian 30 years before : 

Martial celebrates Trajan in lib. X ; which is a se- 
cond edition : X. 2. Festinata prior decimi mihi cura 
libelli Elapsum manibus nunc revocavit opus. Trajan's 
arrival at Rome (see col. 2) is expected m X. 6. X. /• 
He is addressed after his arrival in X. 34. and cele- 
brated in X. 72. Martial wrote lib. VII in A. D. 93, 
lib. VIII in A. D. 94 (conf. a. 93), and probably lib. 
IX in 95. And after three years this second edition 
of lib. X is issued in A. D. 99. He addresses X. 19 to 
Pliny then at Rome ; quoted by Pliny himself Epist. 
III. 21. X. 51 is written in spring; X. 62 in summer. 
The spring and summer of 99. X. 24 on the Calends 
of March, his 57th birthday : Natales miAi Mortice 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

tr.p. + crnig. pr. cos, II p.p. S. C. or cos. II des. Ill p.p. S. C. The title pater 
patrice marked on these coins was not assumed till this year : conf. Plin. Pa- 
negyr. c. 21 Eckhel. torn. VI p. 458. 


853. Nerva TrajanusAug. 
Ill M. Cornelius Fronto 

Trajano III et Frontino 
Nor. Trajano III et Pon- 
tino Idat. 

Trajanus IV et Fronto 

Tpdiavov AvyoijaTov to 
/3' Koi riovTiavov Chron. 

Fasti apud Gesner. ad 
Plin. Panegyr. c. 60. Imp. 
Ulpius Trajanus III M. 
Cornelius Fronto III. 

Suff. ex Kal. Mart. Sex- 
tm Pomp<mim Collega III. 

ex Kal. Sept. C. Plinius 
Secundus Sp. Cornelius 
Tertullus. From Plin. 
Panegyr. see col. 4. 

Inscriptio Romae apud 
Norisium torn. 2 p. 995. 
Trajanus trih. pot. IIII 
cos. Ill desig. ... 

IIII K. Jan. L. Boscio 

Trajani 3 from VIII Kal. Feb. trih. pot. 4 from October : conf. a. 97- 
Trajan s third consulship and his two colleagues are marked by Pliny Pa- 
negyr. c. 61. — ter consule assidente tertio consulem designatum rogari sententiam 
cernerem. — Quid quod duos pariter tertio consulatu collegas tui samctitate deco- 
rasti ? ut sit nemini duhium hanc tibi pracipuam causam fuisse extendendi con- 
sulatus tui, ut duorum consulatvs amplecteretur [sc. Frontonis et Collegce] et col- 
legam te non uni daret. Ibid. c. 60. Becepit tertium comulatum ut daret. — Non 
sustinerent ter consules esse nisi cum ter consule. conf. c. 64, 4. 

An inscription apud Gruter. p. 246. 5. Pietatis imp, Casaris divi Nerva f. 
Nerva. Trajani Aug. Germanici p. m. tr.pot. Ill cos. Ill p.p. ex S. C. Placed 
by the tribuuician year and the consulship within Jan. 1 and about the middle 
of October A.D. 100. 

Coins of this year : Eckhel. torn. VI p. 413. 414. 

1 Imp. CcES. Nerva Trajan. Aug. Germ. + p. m. tr.p. cos. Ill p. p. 

2 Imp. Cas. Nerva Trajan. Aug. Germ, p, m. + tr.pot, cos. Ill p.p. S. C. 

3 Imp. Cces. Nerva Trajan. Aug. Germ. p. m. tr.p.+cos. Hides. IIII p.p. S. C. 

R O M A N I 


3 Greek Authors 

4 Latin Authors 

conf. a. 69. 

Dionis Or. 48 woXiuKoy iv iKKXrjarCq, an address to 
the citizens of Prusa, was composed when Varenua was 
proconsul of Bithynia : p. JHG. -npuTOP fxiv, Z &vbp(9, rif 
KpaTLcma Ovapiv(o Sfi x'^/"" VfiSy fibfvai k. t. \. and be- 
fore the Dacian war was finished : p. 238. ds txOp&v 
Kf<t>a\as ra roiavra TpfiroiTo' rovTeariv (Is tovs Karapd- 
Tovs rirar — who were con(|uered A. D. 102. Varemis 
was proconsul in the beginning of the reign of Trajan, 
although the year is not certain. 

CafmdiE [conf. IX. 58. X. 92. XII. r,i)]—Qmnqua^e. 
sima liba septimamque Vedris addimus hanc focu acer- 
ram. At the close of this book lie had been 34 years 
at Rome: X. 1U3. Quatuor accesiit tricesima menibut 
a'stas — Mosnia dum colimus dwniiuB pulcherrima Ronue. 
X. 104. brutnas Trtt^inta mild quattuorqus — and now 
meditates a fcturn to his own country: X. 20. 3/. G\. 
7H. 92. 9(>. Ho sends this book X. 104 to his native 
town BilbiUs (conf. I. fi2). 

Martial sometimes scarcely produced one book in a 
year: X. 70. QmW mihi nix unus Mo liber exeat anno. 
Ho marks in IX. 8.5 that he was composing epigrams 
at the time of the revolt oi Antonius A. I). 91 ; and 
promises A'brJaw«/« the productions of 6 years: Omn« 
iibi nostrum quod bis trieteride juncta Ante dabat lector 
nunc dabit auctor opus. Perhaps libb. Ill — IJT com- 
posed within A. D. 90 — 9.5. The two books of distichs, 
the X^enia and the Apophoreta, were also comi)osed in 
the reign oi Domitian. Sec for the JCenia XI 11. 4. 74. 
for the Apophoreta XIV. 1 nostrum Jovem. 179 uHfrida 
(referring to the Sarmatian war A.D. 93: VII. 1). 
2 1 3 parma : ubi conf. Schrevcl. ad locum. 

Silius Italims 3 1 years after his consulship is living 
in retirement at Naples : conf. a. 69. 

The evangelist St. John survives till the reign of 
Trajan: Euseb. Anno 2115 [from Oct. A. D. 99] Tra- 
jani 2" Johannem apostolum tradit Irm<BUS ad Trajani 
usque tempora mtam produxisse. Post eum auditores ejus 
cognoscebantur Papias Hierapolifanus et Polycarpws. 
conf. Synccllum p. 347 C. Irenseus apud Euseb. H. E. 
III. 23. kv bfVTipio [sc. II. 39] T&v -npos ras alpicrus' 
" KoX Tx6.VT(s ot Tipicr^vTfpoi fiapTvpovcriv 01 Kara Tf)v 
" kcriav ''\u)Avvri toJ tov KvpCov fiadrjTfj cn;^i/3«/3AT;KOT€y 
" TrapabfbaKivaL tov 'ltadvvr)V. Trapip-uve yap aurois M'XP' 
" t5>v Tpdiavov xpovav."" Idem iv rpCrio' " aWa Koi rj 
" fv E(f>f(T(f fKKKrjcria VTrb llavKov /xfv TfdeiJ.(!\.U)>], 
" lioavvov fie ■napap.dvavTos avTols p.tXP'- ''^^^ Tpdiavov 
" \p6v(av, p.dpTvs dKrjdri'i eori rrjs raiv diToa-ToKbyv Trapa- 
" Soo-eojy." Eusebius 1. c. proceeds to quote Clem. Alex. 
Quis dives &c. c. 12. i-jreihii yap, tov Tvpdvvov [Domifiani] 
TeKfynja-avTos, utto tijs riaTjLtov ttJ9 mjaov ixfTriXdev eTTi 
r^i- 'E(f>faov K. T. A. Chron. Pasch. p. 25 1 I), vtt. Tpdia- 
vov TO y KOX rierov [A.D. 101] Trajani A". ''\a>dvvr)v tov 
aii6(TToXov (cat (vayyi\i.aTr]v p-ixpi. t&v Tpdiavov \p6vu)v 
Tiapofxiivai T<i) /3i'<i) EtpTjraios Icnopd. KX^fxr;? 6^ 6 'AAff- 
avhpivs Kal ovtos to. airra (Tvp.(^r)(n, k. t. K. Derived from 
Eusebius. Chron. Pasch. Ibid. Trajani 7" vn- "^vpiavov 
TO li' Koi MapKikkov. biripKeaev 6 dfoKoyos pifTa n/f dvd- 
Ar)\/fir TOV KvpCov xal Qeov ij/iav (tt) ofi' . The 7th of 
Trajan is the 72nd year from the Ascension according 
to this autlior's reckoning. Conf. a. 32, 2. Hieron. 
adv. Jovinian. I p. 513. Manifestissime docent ecclesi- 
asticce hisioria: quod usque ad Trajani vixerit imperium. 

Plinii et Taciti actiones in Marium Priseum : Plin. 
Ep. II. 11. Accipe quod per hos dies actum est — Marius 
Priscus, accusantibus Afris quibus proconsul praftiU, 
omissa de/ensione jiidices petiit. Ego et Complins Taciiut 
adessc provincialibus jmsi &c. — Princeps prtesidebat, 
erat enim consul ; ad hoc Januarius mensit cum cetera 
turn prcccipue senatorum frequentia celeberrimus ; pr<e- 
terea causae amplitudo auctaque dilatione exspectatio et 
fama — omnes undique exciverat. — Dixi horis peetw quin- 
que — Respondit mihi pro Martiatio Claudius Marcminvs. 
Missus deinde senatus et revocatus in postenim. — Pottero 
die dixit pro Mario Salvius Liberalis — respondit Corne- 
lius Tacittts eloquentissime et, quod eximium orationi ejus 
inest, (Tfiiv&s. — In tertium diem probationet exieruni. — 
Cormdus Tertullus cos. designatus — censuit, septingenta 
millia qua; acceperat Marius eerario inferenda, Mario 
urbe Italiaque interdicendum ; Martiano hoc amplius, 
Africa. Consul designatus Julius Ferox is also named 
s. 5. This action therefore happened in Jan. of the 
third consulship of Trajan. 

Plinii Panegyricus. Pronounced by PUny in his 
consulship : c. 1, 2. 6. 2, 1. 4, 1. 94, 1. 95, 6. His col- 
league is Tertullus : c. 90, 3. collega meo Cornuio Ter- 
tullo. They were consuls in the same year with Tra- 
jan : c. 92, 2. 3. Eundem in annum consulatum nostrum 
contulisti. ergo non alia nos pagina quam qua te consu- 
lem accipiet, et nostra quoque nomina addentur fastis. &c. 
And in the month September: c. 92, 4. Thijan is now 
COS. des. IV: c. 7^. 1- Senatus ut susciperes quartum 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

JEliano Ti. Claudio Sa- 
cerdote cos. Sc. suffectis 
ex Kal. Novemh. 

Julius Ferox is a consul 
suffectus of this year : see 
col. 4. But is placed with 
out authority at Kal. Nov. 
by Gesner ad Plin. Pan 
egyr. c. 60. 


01. 220 U. C. Varr. 854 
Nerva Trajanus Aug. IV 
Sex. Articuleius Peetus 

Nor. Idat. Spartian. 
Hadr. c. 3. 

Tpa'Cavov Avyova-rov to y 
Kal TliTov Chron. Pasch. 

Lapis apud Casaub. ad 
Spartian. p. 7- 

AT. Ulpio Trajano Aug. 
Ill I Sex. Arficuleio Fceto 

Trajani 4 from VIII Kal. Feb. trib. pot. 5 from October. 

First Dacian war : Dio 68. 6. hiarpi^as 6e iv rfj 'Pcajotjj -j^povov Tiva [after his 
arrival at the close of 99] icn-paTivafv em Aukovs. After September A.D. 100, 
the date of the Panegyric of Flini/ (conf. a. 100. 4). This war is noticed by 
Eutropius VIII. 2. Dadam Decebalo victo subegit. Oros. VII. 12. Trans Da- 
nubium multas gentes subegit. Victor Cses. p. 319. Frimus aut solus etiam vires 
Romanas trans Istrum propagavit, &c. 

Hadrian quaestor : Spartian. Had. c. 3. Qucesturam gessit Trajano quater et 
Articuleio coss. — Fost qucesturam acta senatus curavit, atque ad bellum l)acicum 
Trq/anum /amiliarius prosecutus est. 

An inscription in Spain: Gruter. p. 246. 7- Imperatori Ceesari divi Nervce 
filio Nerva Trajano Aug. Germ. pont. max. trib. pot. IIII con. IIII munici- 
pium Inlipetise D-D. Inscribed within Jan. 1 — Oct. A.D. 101. A Roman 
inscription apud Gruter. p. 198. 4 repeated in another Roman inscription Ibid. 
N". 3. Ex auct&ritate imp. Ca saris divi Nervce. fil. Nervm Trajani Aug. Germ., 
pontificis maximi tribunic. potestat. V cos. IV p. p. Ti. Julius Ferox curator 
alvei et riparum Tiberis et cloacarum urbis terminavit ripam r. r. proximo cippo. 
p. CCCLXXXVI. S. "Within October A. D. 101 and October A. D. 102. 


855. G. Sosius Senecio III 
L. Licinius Sura II 

Servillo II et Sura II 

Severiano et Sirio Idat. 

^vpiavov Kcu SupfouChron. 

Trajani 5 from VIII Kal. Feb. trib. pot. 6 from October. 

Dacian war continued. 

An inscription apud Gruter. p. 177- 2, 190. 3 Noris. Epoch. Syromac. p. 282 
et 0pp. torn. II p. 924 Eckhel. torn. VI p. 416. Imp. Casar divi Nerva f. 
Nerva Trajanus Germanicus pont. max. trib. pot. VI imp. II cos. IIII p. p. in- 

choatam a divo Nerva patre suo As Trajan is also imp. Ill and IIII 

within the sixth tribunician year (conf. a. 103), this inscription may be re- 
ferred to its beginning, in the autumn of A. D. 102. Another inscription: 
Gruter. p. 1084. 7- Imp. Nervce Trajan. Aug. Germ. p. max. trib. potest, cos. 
IIII p.p. nomine pmrorwm puellarumque Ulpianorum ex S. C. F. After Jan. 1 
A. D. 101 and probably before Jan. 1 A. D. 103. 


856. Suburanus II et 

Trajano Vet Maximo it 

Trajani 6 from VIII Kal. Feb. trib. pot. 7 from October: conf. a. 97. 

Victories in Dacia, and peace granted to Decebalus : Dio 68. 9. Tama cruvQi-- 
fxevos Koi (TTpaTOTTebov kv Ztppn^tyedova-rj KaraXiTrlav T-qv t« oXKtiv x<!>pav <f>povpais 
8taXa/3&)i' h 'IraXiav aveKOfxiaOr). Triumph of Trajan: Dio 68. 10. Tpaiafos t6. 

R M A N I 


3 Greek Authors 

4 Latin Authors 

id est, post passionem Domini 6"8o anno dormierit ; quod 
et nos in libro de Ilkstribus Viris breviter perstrinximm. 
Soil. Catalog, c. 9. Sub Nerva principe redit Ephesvm 
iUque usque ad Trajanum principem perseverans — con- 
fectus senio GH" post passionem Domini anno mortuug 
juxta eandem ■urbem sepuUus est. The 68th year from 
the Passion according to Hieronymus (conf. a. 32. 2) 
willbo A.D.I 00. 

For Papias see Appendix c. ult. 

consulatum et rogavit et juisit. Delivered in tho senate 
in tho presence of Trajan in the beginning of Septem- 
ber: c. 1. 1. conf. 3, 2. 4, 3. That the Dacian war 
had not yet commenced is evident from the Hilence of 
Pliny, as Eckhel Vol. VI p. 414 has observed. PHny 
Panogyr. c. 1 7 makes no mention of the Dacians. 

Martial is still at Rome, where probably lib. XI 
was published before he withdrew to Spain ; contain- 
ing some pieces which had been written in preceding 
years ; as XI. 1 before the death of Partkenius, who 
was slain A. D. 97 : Victor Epit. p. 370. and XI. 4 
composed in Jan. A. D. 97 : conf. a. 97. 1. Martial 
retires to Bilbilis to his wife MarceUa (whom he de- 
scribes XII. 21) and lives on her estate after 35 years 
absence: XII. 31. mtmera sunt domitus post s^ima 
lustra reverso. He had been absent 34 winters in 
A. D. 99 : conf. a. and the 35 years will bring his re- 
turn to Bilbilis to the close of A. D. 100. 

Ts(eus is contemporary with Ardys and with Nicetes: 
Philostrat. V. S. I. 20. 'lo-aios 6 <T0(f>i<TTr)s 6 '' AcrwupLos — 
'Apbvoi yovv p-qropos fpofiivov avrbv k. t. X. — vtavicrKov 
bf 'IcortKoS OavpiA^ovTos irpos aiirbv t<j) Nik^tt; neyaXo(p<o- 
rws (111 Tov "Sip^ov (lpr)p.ivov — KorayeXdo-ay itkarv 6 
'Iffoios " avorjre" eiTre, k. t. A. He taught Dionysius 
Milesius: Philostrat. Ibid, r^ MiXjj(r^(p Aiowtrio), aKpoarfi 
ovTi. Lollianus: V. S. I. 23 p. 527. ^fr)(iUaCe p.ev ovv 
(6 AoWiavoi) Kara tov ''la-aiov, ov 6^ rjKpoiffaTO. And 
Marcus: V. S. I. 24. ovbe tov Bv^clvtiov (ro<j)i(nyiv -napa^ 
KfC\j/a> MdpKov — bibacTKoXos 8c avroO 'lo-oios iytveTo. 
Isceus is celebrated by Pliny Epist. II. 3. Juvenal. 
Sat. III. 74. Isao torrentior. Schol. ad loc. Iscbus 
Ronicc orator omnibus eloquentior. De hoc PUnius Se- 
cundus ait [sc. Ep. II. 3] : Magna Isesum fama prce- 
cesserat ; major inve^itus est. He is mentioned by Sui- 
das p. 1819 A from Philostratus. 

Coins apud Eckhel. tom. VI p. 414. 

1 Imp, Cws. Nerva Trajan. Aug. Germ.+p.m. tr. p. 

cos. nil p.p. 

2 Imp. Cces. Nerva Trajan. Artg. Germ. p. m.+tr.pot. 

cos. nil p.p. 8. C. 

Cos. nil is the description of three years A. D. 101 
— 103. But as these coins were issued before the Da- 
cian victories, we may with Eckhel place them within 
Jan. 1 A. D. 101— Dec. 31 A. D. 102. 

Epictetus taught at Nicopolis in the time of the Da- 
cian war: Diss. II. 22, 22. vvv 'Vu>p.aioi. irpbs Fhas. 
After the peace: Ibid. III. 13, 9 — 11. dprivriv ij.€yd\r]v 
6 Kdiarap rnjiiv boKfl irap^xdv k. t. A. III. 22, 55. w Kai- 

PUny arrives at his province of Bithynia in Septem- 
ber : Ep. X. 26. Trajano. Quia confido, domine, ad 
curam tuam pertinere, nuntio t^ me Ej^tetum cum om- 
nibus meis virip MaAeof navigatte. A. 28. Febriculis 





1 Consuls 

2 Events 

Trajano V et Maximo 

Tpdiavov Avyovarov to b' 
Koi Ma^iixov Chron. Pasch. 

For the consuls of this 
year see col. 2. 

re viKrjTrjpia ffyayf Koi AaxtKos ii:<i>vo)j.&<Tdr\. Eusebius places the triumph nearly 
at the right date: Anno 2118 [from Oct. A.D. 102] Trajani S" Trajanus de 
Dads et Scythis triumphavit. The years of Trajan are placed in Eusebius each 
one year too low. 

Coins: Noris. 0pp. tom. II p. 924—926 Epoch. Syrom. p. 281—283 Eck- 
hel. tom. VI p. 415. 

1 Imp. CiPs. Nerva Trajan. Aug. Germ. p. m. tr. p. VI + Imp. II I I cos. I I II 

des. V p. p. S. C. This inscription issued after Jan. 1 and before the 
middle of October A. D. 103 marks the Dacian victories. 

2 Imp. C(Bs. Nerva Trajan. Aitg. Germ. Dacicus p. m. + tr.p. VII imp. I II I cos. 

nil des. V p. p. Three types bear this inscription. 

3 Imp. Gees. Nerva Trajan. Aug. Germ. + Dacicus cos. Ill I p.p. Two types 

have this inscription. 

. The coins N°. 2 were issued after Oct. A. D. 103, when the 7th tribunician 
year commenced, and yet before the fifth consulship. The coins again N". 3, 
with the title Dacicus, which was not assumed til the 7th tribunician year, 
were also issued before the 5th consulship. These coins accordingly determine 
that Trajan was not cos. Ftill Kal. Jan. A. D. 104, and refute the order of 
the consuls in Idat. Nor. Chron. Pasch. and other authors. Conf. Noris. tom. 
II p. 926 Epoch, p. 283. 284 Eckhel. tom. VI p. 415. 416. 


857. Nerva TrajanusAug. 
V L. Appius Maximus II 

Svhurano II et Marcello 

Surano II et Marcello 


'Lvpiavov TO /3' Kot Map- 
Ki\kov Chron. Pasch. 

Conf. a. 103. 2. 


Trajani 7 from VIII Kal. Feb. trib. pot. 8 from October. 

Second Dacian war: Dio 68. 10. 11. avdis ■noKep.i.ov (A(K(^aKov) rj /3ovA^ 
f\j/r](pL(TaTO, Koi 6 Tpa'Cavhi bi iavrov koX avdis, aKK' ov bi,'' hepaiv orpaTryyGtv, top 
TTpbs ^Kflvov TToKeixov inofqa-aTo. Called again raJ Sevrepo) iroXtpxa 68. 32. Hor- 
drian served in this war : Spartian. Hadr. c. 3. Secunda expeditione Dacica 
Trajanus eum primes legioni Minervia; prceposuit secvmque duodt ; quando qui- 
dem mvita egregia ejus facta claruerunt. 

Coins : 

1 Apud Noris. Epoch. Syrom. p. 283 Eckhel. tom. VI p. 417- Imp. Gas. 

Nerva Trajan. Aug. Germ. Dacicus p. m. + tr. p. VII imp. IIII cos. V 
p. p. S. G. 

2 Eckhel. tom. VI p. 417. -^»»i»- Cats. Nerva Trajan. Aug. Germ. Dacicus 

p. m. + congiar. secund. cos. V. For congiarium primum conf. a. 99. 

3 Eckhel. p. 418. Imp. Gees. Nerva Trajan. Aug. Germ. + Dacicus cos. V p.p. 

4 Eckhel. Ibid. Imp. Nerva Trajanus Aug. Ger. Dacicus+p. m. tr.p. cos. V 


The first was issued within Jan. 1 and October A. D. 104. The second coin 
is determined to this year by congiarium secundum. And, although cos. V be- 
longs to all the years A. D. 104 — 1 1 1, yet the other two coins are referred by 
Eckhel to this year because in the coins of the following years the title optima 
priticipi was added. 

R M A N I 


3 Ghekk Authors 

4 Latin Authohs 

<rap, iv rfi <rrj (lpr\vr\ oXa iti-T-jfot. Perhaps the first 
peace, in A.D. 103. He names Trajan: IV. 5, 17. 
Hva lx<t rov x'ip(ii^i^p<'' tovto to TfTpdvaapov ; Tpdiavov. 
He is now at Nicopolis [conf. a. !)()] : II. (>, 20. oIk& iv 
NiKOTToAei. Conf. I. 2.5, 18. 1.19,28. 11.21,14. III. 
22, 52. IV. 1, 14. His discourse is given III. 4 with 
Tov (TTiTpoTtov T^s 'Hitdpov in which Nicopolis stood. 
Epictetm mentions his old age: I. 10, 13. ///xeis oi y4- 
poVTd. I. Ifi, 20. yipmv \a>k6s. 

Arrian heard the teaching of Epictetm and com- 
mitted his discourses to writing : Epistola L. Gellio : 
0(Ta iJKOvov aiiTov Kiyovros ravra aira iitdpdOriv ai/Tois 
dvonaaiv i>9 olov re T)v ypa\j/Api,evos VTtoij.vr)p.aTa (is varre- 
pov ifJiavTif bia^vKd^ai ttjs fAcetrou bt.avo(ai Koi iroppr)<riay. 
Photius Cod. 58 recounts other works : &veyv<i<Tdri 
'Appiavov napdiKO. iv fii.^Klois tf'. ovros 8e (n/iTtJirei Tiiv- 
rav dp.(ivov Koi TO. Kara ' A\4lai>hpov tov MaKebova [conf. 
Cod. 91], In 6e kol aAArjy irpaypiaTfCav to. TraTpia r^y 
BidvvCas, ef fjs km. avTos f<pv, i-niypa^as to ^i^Kiov Bi^v- 
VMKa, [conf. Phot. Cod. 9.S]" crvyypcKpiTai hi Kal to. xara 
'AXarois, jjv en(ypa\jrfv ^AKavitajV. — ovtos 6 'Appioros 
<j>LK6cTO(f)os nkv i]v ti]v iiTi,(TTrifir]v, (U T&v 6fitAj;rft)i' 'Etti- 
KTTjrou, Kara 6e Toiis xpovovs 'Abpiavov koL Avraivivov tov 
UCov /cat MdpKOV tov ^ AvtuvCvov fyvapi^ero' — bih be to 
Tjjs TraiSeiay i-nicrqfiov aAXas re TroAiTi/cas dp)(as kTiiaTcuOr] 
Kal (Is TO Tutv vvaTmv dvijSr) TcAoy. (ypaxj/i b( fii^kla kw, 
lT(pa, T&v p.(v biaTpLJiHv Eiri/cTt/i on tov bibaaKaKov oaa 
XffiKv fii^\Ca oKTd K.T.\. Idem Cod. 92. (rvv(ypd<^r] bi 
ovTo) Kal TO. p.(Ta ' A\(iavbpov (v Ao'yots b(Ka. Conf. a. 
135. 148. 

vexatm Pergami mhrtiti. — Hcec tifn, domine, in ipso in- 
gressu, meo scripsi. XV Calend. Octobret provindam tn- 
travi. Commemorated in an inscription at Milan apud 
Gruter. p. 454. 3. Ibid. 1028.5. Ilepeated by Schsefer 
in ed. PHn. p. LXXXVII from Gruter. C. Plinius 
C. f. G. n. Cadlim Secundm eos. augur legal, pro prat, 
provinc. Ponti consulari potettate in earn provinciam ab 
imp. CfBsare Nerva Trajano Aug. Germanico mitnu 
curat, alvei Tiberis et ripar. prtef. arari Satumiprtrf. 
(Brari milit. leg. leg. VI Gallic, \trib. milit. leg. Ill Gal- 
lic<B p. 1028] Xvir stlit. judicandis... Given with some 
variations and some additions in Gruter p. 1028. 

In this inscription Trajan is not yet Daeictu, a title 
conferred in the autumn of this year (sec col. 2) after 
Pliny's appointment to his government. 

Pliny is in his province in January of this year : 
Ep. X. 44. Solemnia vota pro incolumitate tua [sc. pott 
Kalendas Januarias die tertio: conf Gesner. ad locum] 
et susdpimus, domine, pariter et solcimus. Ep. X. 60. 
Diem, domine, qtw servasti imperium dum sugcipis [sc. 
VIII Kal. Feb. conf. a. 98. 2] celebravimue. And in 
September: Ep. X. 89. Opto, domine, et hune neOalem 
[sc. XIV Kal. Oct. conf. a. 97. 2] etplurlmos alios quam 
/elicissimos agas. After this date, and before the end 
of the year, he writes concerning the Christiana : Ep. 
X. 97. 98. The answer of Trajan X. 98 : Conquirendi 
non sunt ; si deferantur et arguantur, punimuli sunt. — 
Sine auctore vera propositi libelli nulio erimine loatm 
habere debent. Accurately reported by Tertullian Apol. 
c. 2. Plinius Secundus cum provinciam regeret, damnatis 
quibusdam Chrittianis, quiibusdam gradu pultis, ipsa ta- 
men multitudine perturbahu quid de cetera emret eonsu- 
luit tunc Trajanum imperatorem. — Tunc fhuasuu re- 
scripsit hoc genus inquirendos quidem non esse Matos tero 
puniri oportere. Repeated from Tertullian by Eusebius 
H. E. III. 33. Idem Chron. Anno 2123 [from Oct. 
A. D. 107] Trajani 10» [item anno 2123 Hieron.] Pli- 
nius Seciaidus procinciee cuidam prtsfectus quum multos 

N 2 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 


01. 221 U. C. Varr. 858 
Ti. Julius Candidus II 
A. Julim Quadratm II 
Spartian. Hadr. c. 3. 

Candida II et Quadrato 
Nor. Idat. 

Kavhihov Koi Kovahparov 
Chron. Pasch. 

Lapis apud Panvinium 
p. 331 Casaubonum ad 
Spartian. p. 7 Ti. Julio 
Candida II A. Julio Qua- 
drato II COS. 

Trajani 8 from VIII Kal. Feb. trih. pot. 9 from October. 

Bridge over the Danube: Dio 68. 13. 14. Tpa'iovos 8e yecpvpav \i6lvr\v lifi tov 
'l<rrpov KaTecTKfvciaaTo k.t.\. Tpdiavoi 8e 8ta raurijs ttjs ye(f>vpas Tov'laTpov Trep- 
auadeis — avv XP°'"? '^o' juo'Xis eKpaTrja-e t&v AaKav. 

Hadrian trih. plehis : Spartian. Hadr. c. 3. Trihunus plebis f actus est Candido 
et Quadrato iterum coss. 

Marmor Romse apud Gruter. p. 217. !• Conf. Eckhel. tom. VI p. 462. Imp. 
Ceesari divi Nerves Jllio Nerves Trajano Aug. Germanico Dacico pont. max. trih. 
pot. Villi imp. IIII COS. V. 


859. L. Ceionius Commo- 
dus Veras et Cerealis Nor. 

KojU(xo6oi; Kai Kepararoi; 
Chron. Pasch. 

Trajani 9 from VIII Kal. Feh. trih. pot. 10 from October. 

Death ot Decehalm: Dio 68. 14. Ae(cf'/3a\os 8e, is kw, to ^aaCknov avrov koX 
fj x<!>pa KaTilXr\isTO avimaaa, — biexprio^aTO eavTov — koi ovtus fj AaK[a '¥(i>ixal(av 
xnrriKooi eyevfTo. Conquest of Arabia Petraea : Idem Ibid. Kara 6e tov aiiTov 
TovTov xpovov Koi Ild\ Trjs Svptas ap\(i>v ttjv ' Apa^iav Tr\v irpos x^ Derpa ex*'" 
pmcraTo koL 'Pto/xaiwi' virqKoov e7roi^(raTo. Chron. Pasch. p. 253 B, marking the 
eras of Petra and Bosra, confirms the date of Dio : {m. KavbCbov koi KvabpArov. 
— nerpaiot Kal Boa-Tprjvol fVTevOev tovs kavr&v xpofovs apidp-ovai. We may place 
the conquest by Palma within the 417th year of the Seleucidce ; and the Fe- 
treei and Bostreni would make that year, commencing within the consulships 
of Candidus and QvMdratus, Oct. A. D. 105, the first year of their era. 

Second triumph oi Trajan: Plin. Ep. VIII. 4. Ados his triumphos, quorum 
alter [A. D. 103] ex invicta gente primus, alter novissimus fuit. The whole war 
with Dacia had lasted five years : Julian. Cses. p. 327 D. iT^pax^^ M"' ''o ^pyof 
TovTo (V fviavroh t(T(os ttov TreVre. Sc. A. D. 101 — 106 ; from the middle of the 
one year to the middle of the other. Cassiodorus records the second triumph : 
Candidus et Quadratvs : His coss. Trajanus de Dacis et Scythis triumphavit. 
Placed one year too early ; and inconsistent with Dio, who marks (xvv XP"^"? 
pLoXis, and with Julian, who ascribes five years to the wars in Dacia. 

An inscription at Alcantara in Spain apud Gruter. p. 162. 2. Imp. Ceesari 
divi Nerval f. NervcE Trajano Aug. Germ. Dacico pontif. mux. trih. potest. Villi 
imp. V cos. Vp.p. Conf. Eckhel. tom. VI p. 462. 

Coins of this year : see col. 4. 

R O M A N I 


d GiiEEK Authors 

4 Latin Authors 

Christianog [plurimos Ghristianorum Hieron. itXrfir] 
XpKTTiavtov ex Eusebio Syncellufl p. 347 A] morii ad- 
dixissel &c. — Heec TertuUianus refert. Where Euse- 
bius and Hieronymus have assigned a wrong date, 
two years at least after Plini/ had quitted his pro- 
vince, and have exaggerated the numbers of the suf- 

Martial now at Bilbilis: XII. IK. after throfj years' 
silence : triennii desidue procem. lib. XII Prisco — 
sends his 12th book to Rome; XII. 3. He mentions 
XII. 5 the two preceding books : Longior undecimi 
nobis dedmiqm Uhelli Arctatus labor «rf. Published in 
A. D. 99. 100 : conf. a. after which the interval of 
three years will place lib. XII at A. D. 104. He en- 
tered his 62nd year Kal. Mart. A. D. 104 : conf. a. 99. 

PUny a second time celebrates January in his pro- 
vince : Ep. X. 101. Vota, domine, priorum annonim 
nwncupata [so. post Kal. Jan. die teriio: conf. a. 101] 
alacres Icetiqm persohimus, nomque rurtus,curanU com- 
militonum et provindaUum pietate, sutcepimus. Ep. X. 
103. Diem in quern tutela generis humani felicissima tue- 
cessione translata est [VIII Kal. Feb. conf. a. 104] de- 
bita rdigione cekbravimm. Conf. Ep. X. 102. 104. 

Plutarch writes his treatise irtpl rov irpiarov \jruxpov, 
addressed to Favorinus, while Trajan is wintering on 
the Danube : p. 9 t9 E. m l<TTopov(Tiv oi vvv ixfra tov 
KoiVapoy fill TOV 'larpov biaxfindo-avTfs. The winter 
of A. D. lOi. 

Coins commemorating the events of this time are in 
Eckheltom. VI p. 418. 

1 Imp. Trajano Aiip. Ger. Doc. p. m. tr. p. + Dae. cap. 

cos. Vp.p. S. P. Q. R. Optimo princ. 

2 Imp. Trajano Aug. Ger. Doc. p. m. tr. p. + Danumut. 

COS. V p. p. S. P. Q. R. optimo prino. 

3 Imp. Trajano Aug. Ger. Dae. p. m. tr. p. cot. Vp.p. 

-f- S. P. Q. R. optimo principi. S. C. 

4 Imp. Trajano Aug. Ger. Dae. p. m. tr.p. eot. V p.p. 

+ Arab. adq. S. P. Q. R. optimo principi. 

5 Imp. Gees. Nervce Trajano Aug. Ger. Dae. p. m. tr.p. 

COS. V p.p. + Arab, adquis. S. P. Q. R. optimo prin- 
cipi. S. C. The title optimus, which now first ap- 
pears upon coins, had already been conferred be- 
fore Sept. A.D. 100: conf Plin. Pancgjr. c. 1,2. 
2, 7. 88,4. 38, 1. These coins are rcferrt-d by 
Eckhel to A. D. 105. They may be rather placed 
at A.D. 106. 




1 Consuls 



860. G. Sosius Senecio IV 
L. Licinim Sura III 

Sura et Senecione Nor. 
Syra III et Senecwne II 

'S.vpiavov TO y koI 2ere- 
K^wvos TO ^ Chron. Pasch. 

Inscriptio apud Panvi- 
nium p. 332 L, Licinio 
Sur. Ill C. Sosio IIII 


Trajani 10 from VIII Kal. Feb. trib. pot. 11 from October. 

Trajan after his Dacian triumph is engaged in various public works and 
beneficial acts : Dio 68. 15. KaTo, roiiy aiiTov's yjiovovs to, re €\jj to. Ylovrwa mbo- 
■noir\(Te KiQm, koX ray 66oi/s 7rapot/co6ofi^<ros koX ye(^vpais fnyaKoTTpeTrfardTaii ef«- 
TToCrjae. These are recorded upon coins apud Eckhel. torn. VI p. 423 — 427 
which were struck before Kal. Jan. A. D. 1 12. 1 Imp. Trajano Aug. Ger. 
Dae p. m. tr. p. + ai. Aug. cos. Vp. p. S. P. Q. R. optima principi. or alim. 
Ital. cos. Vp. p. S. P. Q. R. optimo princ. [conf. Spartian. Hadr. c. 7 pueris ac 
puellis quibus Trajanus alimenta detulerat] or rest. Ital. S. P. Q. R, optimo princ. 
2 Imp. Cees. Nervrr Trajano Aug. Ger. Dae. p. m. tr. p. cos. V p. p. + aqua 
Trajana. S. P. Q. R. optimo principi. or cmgiarium tertium. S. C. or portum 
Trajani. S. C. or S.P. Q.R. optimo principi. 8. G. 3 Imp. Trajano Aug. Ger. 
Dae. p. m. tr. p. cos. Vp.p. + S. P. Q. R. optimo principi. S. G. 


861. Ap. Annius Trebo- 
nius Gallus M. Atilius 
Metilius Bradua 

Nor. Idat. Chron. Pasch. 
Pont. HberpontificalisDa- 
niasi torn. I p. 534. 

Lapis apud Panvinium 
p. 332 Grutenim p. 1082. 
15. Ap. Annio Gallo M. 
Atilio Bradua COS. Gruter. 
p. 23. 9. Aj)pio Annio M. 
Ati COS. 

Trajani 11 from VIII Kal. Feb. trib. pot. 12 from October. 

Inscriptio Eomse apud Grater, p. 190. 4. M. Calpumius M. f. Piso Frugi 
pr. ex S. G. faciundum curavit idemque probavit. Imp. Gcesar dim Nervmf. Nerva 
Trajanus Augustus Germanicus Dacicus pontif. maxim, trib. potest. XII imp. VI 
COS. V p.p. operibus ampliatis restituit. 

Inscriptions marking the consuls: Panvin. p. 332 Gruter. p. 23.7. Jovi Stygio 
Sacrum P. Arvanius P.f. Ouf. Niger D. D. XII Kal. Juli. Appio Annio Tre- 
bonio Gallo M. Atilio Metilio Bradua cos. Panvin. p. 332 Gruter. p. 65. 7- '8'*^ 
vano Sancto G. G. Juli. Eutychio et EwtycManus fil. D. D. dedicaveruntque XI 
K. Maias Appio Annio Trebonio Gallo M. Atilio Metilio Bradua, cos. 


01. 222 U. C. Varr. 862. 
A. Cornelius Palma II et 

Palma II et Tullo Nor. 

YldK\M KaiTovXKovQhxon. 

PalmcB et Tulli Pont. 

Trajani 12 from VIII Kal. Feb. trib. pot. 13 from October. 

The road from Beneventum to Brundusium is completed by Trajan in his 
13th tribunician year : Lapis apud Eckhel. tom. VI p. 421 Gruteram p. 151. 2. 
Imp. CcBsar divi Nervazf. Nerva Trajanus Aug. Germ. Dacic. pont. max. tr. pot. 
XIII imp. VI COS. V p.p. viam a Benevento Brundusium pecunia sua fecit. 

An inscription in Spain: Gruter. p. 247. 2. Imp. Ccesari divi Nervcef. Nerva 
Trajano Aug. Ger. Dacico pont. max. trib. pot. XIII imp. VI cos. VI [lege cos. F] 
p. p. optimo maximoque principi Nescanienses D. D. The 13th tribunician year 
A. D. lii requires cos. Vm this inscription. 

R O M A N I 


3 Greek Authoks 

4 Latin Authors 

[Eusob. H. E. III. 36. 6 ttapa irXtiorots ela-tn vvv 
biajSoriTos 'lyrdnoj, tj^s kut 'Airn.6x(iav nirpov biabo\iji 
bfvrepoi Trfv fiTi.aKoiTrjv K(K\r]pa)fji.^vos. \6yos 8' l^*' '""''■ 
Tov irrb ^vplas inl -n^v 'PaiixaCaiv ttoKiv avaTTffj.ct>Oft>ra 
dtfpCmv yfvicrdai fiopav r^s (is Xpiaroi/ p.apTvpiai iVfKiV 
KOI 6j) ti\v hC 'AcTias avaKOfubi^v ^er' ^TrtfieXeo-xarr/y (f>pov- 

pStV (^vkaKTjS TTOlOVp.€VOS TO? KaTO, TtoklV ols ^WfS^jLttt TTap- 

oiKias Tois bia Koymv ofii\CaK rt Koi TTpoTpoirali imppav- 
viis ii> TSpiaTois p.a\L(TTa TTpo^vKaTreirdai ray aip^trets &pTi. 
t6t( TTpuTOv avafpvfCa-as Koi eTri,TTo\a(ov<ras iraprjvfL, vpoi- 
Tpcni Tf airpl^ l;^e(r^ai rrjs rav awooroAwv irapaSoVfoiy, 

K. T. A. biab()^(TaL bi p,eT avTov rfju 'Airtoxf lay ^tti- 

arKOTTr]u "Up(as. Hieron. Catal. c. Ifi. Ignatius — pasms 
est anno decimo Trajani. Euscb. Chron. Anno 'IVl'l 
[from Oct. A. D. 106] Trajani Qo Trajano persequente 
Christianos [Hieron. anno 2123 Trajani IQo], Simon 
CleophcB Hierosolj/mitance ecclesice episcopus martyrium 
mhiit [conf. Hegesippum apud Euseb. H. E. III. 32], 
quem successor excepit Justus. Item Antiochenorum epi- 
scopus [Ignatius quoqwe Ant. ep. Hieron.] martyrium 
fecit [Romam perductus bestiis traditur Hieron.] : post 
quem tertius episcopus Antiochiee fuit Hero. Syncell. 
p. 347 B. 'lyrartos — ItsX Tpa'iavov tu inttp Xpiarov Kure- 
(TT((l)6r] ixaprvpCto. Chron. Pasch. p. 252 B. Coss. Can- 
dido et Quadrato, Trajani 8« lijxatv 6 tov KXewTrS k.t. A. 
oiioCiDs bi Koi 'lyvdrioi — ^i; 'P<o/ij/ ip-apTvprjcrfv. A pro- 
chronisra of 8 or 9 years in the martyrdom of Igna- 
conf. a. 115.] 

Pliny writes Ep. VI. lo in Italy in this year; ten 
years after the death of Verginius Rufus: j)ost decimum 
mortis annum VI. 10, 3 (who died A. D. !)/ : conf. a. 
97.2) ; which refutes the date of Eusobius amw 2123 
for the letter of Pliny concerning the Christians: conf. 
a. 101. 

Hieron. Chron. Anno 2 1 25 = A. D. 1^, PUnitts 8e- 
cundus Novocomensis orator d Mitoricua inti^is habe- 
tur ; cujus plurima in^enii monumenta extant. Conf. 
Scaliger. ad locum p. 207. Pliny is now 48 years of 
age : conf. a. 62. 79- 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 


863. Priscinus et Orfit'm 

Orfito et Prisciam Idat. 

''Op^irov KoX YlpwKiavov 
Chron. Pasch. 

Trajani 13 from VIII Kal. Feb. trih.pot. 14 from October. 

Trajan in his 14th tribunician year completes the road through the Pontine 
marshes mentioned by Dio (conf. a. 107): Lapis apud Gruterum p. 1019. 8 
Eckhel. torn. VI p. 421. Imp. Ccesar divi Neraa. filiws Nerva Trajanus Aug. 
Germanicus Dacicus pont. max. trih. pot. XIIII imp. VI cos. Vp.p 

silice sua pecunia stravit. Marked in a coin apud Eckhel. p. 421. Imp. Gees. 
NervcB Trajano Aug. Ger. Doc. p. m. tr. p. cos. Vp. p. + via Trajana. S.P.Q.R. 
Optimo principi. S. C. 

An inscription of the 14th tribunician year: Panvin. p. 333 Gruter. p. 190. 5. 
ex auctoritate Imp. Gasaris divi NervcB fili NerviB Trajani Aug. Germ. Dadci 
pont. max. trih.pot. XIV cos. Vp.p. 


864. C Calpurnius Piso 
M. Vettius Bolanus Nor. 

Pisone et JuUano Idat. 
Chron. Pasch. 

Lapis apud Gruter. p. 
128. 5. C. Calpumio Pi- 
sone M. Vettio Bolano cos. 
Ibid. p. 163.7. anno Cal- 
pum. Pisoni. Vettii Bo- 
lani cos. 

Trajani 14 from VIII Kal. Feb. trib.pot. 15 from October. 

Coins of this year : Eckhel. tom. VI p. 423. Imp. Trajano Aug. Ger. Doc. 
p. m. tr. p. COS. V des. F7+ mt. Aug. S. P. Q. R, optima principi. or piet. S. P. 
Q.B. optima principi. or Vesta. S. P. Q.R. optima principi. ov Dacica. S.P.Q.R. 
Optimo principi. The usual title p. p. though omitted by Eckhel, is probably 
added on these coins. 

An inscription marking the consuls : Panvin. p. 332. Silvano Sancto L. Val- 
lius Solon porticum ex voto fecit dicavit K. ApriUb. Pisone et Bolano cos. 


865. Nerva TrajanmAug. 
VI T. Sextius A/ricanus 

Phlegon Mir. c. 25 Nor. 

Tpdiavov AvyovtTTov to 
e Koi ' A<f>pi.Kavov Chron. 

De his coss. conf. Nori- 
sium 0pp. torn. II p. 93 1 . 

Trajani 15 from VIII Kal. Feb. trib.pot. 16 from October. 

Hadrian archon : Phlegon. Mir. c. 25. i.pxovTos 'A^tjotjo-ii; ''ktpi.avov, tov av- 
TOKpAropos yevop.ivov, virarfvovTav iv 'PqJjxtj Tpdiavov to €ktov koi Tfrov SefTiou 
'A4>piKavov. Spartian. Hadr. c. 19. Athenis archon/uit. 

[An inscription apud Panvinium p. 333 Gruterum p. 247- 3. bearing the 
15th tribunician year: Imp. Gees. Ner. Trajano Aug. Germ. Dae. Parth. pon. 
max. tr.p. XV cos. VI p. p. de Rom. imperio de patema et avita Hisp. patria 
et de omni homin. gen. m^itiss. populares provinc. Arevatum optima princ. As 
Trajan is not yet Parthicus, the title Partli. marks this inscription for a later 
year ; and the date should be trib.pot. XIX cos. VI. conf. a. 1 15. 4. 1 16. 4.] 

Coins : see col. 4- 

R O M A N I 


3 Greek Authors 

4 Latin Authors 

Plutarch wrote the life of Sulla near 200 years after 
the defeat of A r chela us in IJ.C. 8G by Sulla: Sull. c. 21. 
irxibbv €Ta>v OiaKoo-foij; otto lij? na^is haycyovoTiav. This 
was written before the 10th book, or Pericles and Fa- 
bias: Pericl. c. 2. tovto to jSi^KCov btKarov avvrtTdxaixev. 
whore the life of Lysanckr is quoted : Pericl. c. 22. iv 
Tols Ttfpl Av(Tdvbpov b(br]\(iKapL(v. Lysander and Sulla 
are also quoted in Pyrrhus and Marius: Mar. c. 10. h 
Tois TTipl 'S.vkka yiypatiTai. and in Nicias and Crassus : 
Nic. c. 28. Tavra /xer fv rcjj Ava-dvbpov /3t<i) birjKpC^iiiTai. 
The 5th book contained Demosthenes and Cicero: De- 
niosth. c. .3. T(j) /3t/3\i(i) tootu), rmv Ttapa\Kr\\<i>v Svri -nifi^ 
iTTu, irepl ArjixoaOfvovs koX Kuc^poiros. which is quoted 
in Phocion and Cato: Cat. Min. c. 22. is ev tow ittpX 
KiKepi)ivo9 yeypaiTTai. Phoc. c. 29. 6 Arjuoa-devovi koI 
'Titepdbov Odvaros, TTfpl Zv iv aAAots [so. Demosth. 
c. 28] TTpoyeypazraL. And in Theseus and Romulus : 
Thes. c. 27. fv ru) ArjixoffOfvovs fii<a yeypairrat. When 
Plutarch wrote that 5 th book, he resided at Chaeronea : 
Demosth. c. 2. ^juety bi puKpav oIkovvt€s ttoKiv, koI, tva 
fjiJI ixiKpoTfpa yivTiTai, <j>i\ox<i>povi>Tei. 

The parallel lives, or at least Theseus and Bmmdus 
the 5th book and the 12th, are addressed to Sossius 
Senecio : conf. Thes. c. 1 Demosth. c. 1 Dion. c. 1 . to 
whom ho addresses ttms av nj ala-doao iavTov tt. iir. a. 
p. 75 A. and a-v^TToa-iaK&v fii^Kia &. p. 612 C. Sossius 
was four times consul : conf. a. 99. 102. 107. He was 
younger than Plutarch, and the companion of Plu^ 
tarcKs sons: Symp. VIII. 10 p. 734. rois /x^f ovv <rois 
haCpois e^ois bi viols. 


Coins : Eckhel. tom. "VI p. 428. Imp. Trajatw Aug. 
(or Imp. Gees. Neroee Trajano Aug.) Ger. Doc. p. m. 
tr.p. cos. VIp.p. + alim. Ital. S. P. Q. R. Optimo prin- 
cipi. or aqua Trajana. S. P. Q. R. optimo principi. or 
Arab. adq. S. P. Q. R. &c. or piet. S. P. Q. R. &c. or 
Vesta. S. P. Q. R. &c. or via Trajana. S. P. Q. R. Sic. 
Issuedin A. D. 1 12 or 113. 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 


01. 223 U. 0. Varr. 866. 
L. Puhlilius Celsus II C. 
Clodim Crispinus 

Celso et Crispino Nor. 

Celso II et Prisciano II 


Chron. Pasch. 

Marmor Romse apud 
Panvinium p. 333 Gnite- 
rum p. 214. L. Publilio 
Celso II C. Glodio Cris- 
pino COS. 

Trajani 16 from VIII Kal. Feb. trih.pot. 17 from October. 

The Column oi Trajan: Dio 68. 16. ia-rriuev kv rfj ayopa koI Kiova jxiyi.<TTov, 
&lj,a fxiv is Ta<f)fiv favT(2 5/ia 8e es fTribd^LV tov Kara ttjv ayopav ipyov k. r. k. For 
the Forum of Trajan conf. Pausan. V. 12, 4 Cell. XIII. 24, 1. For the Forum 
and Column Eutrop. VIII. 5 Victor Epit. p. 371 Cassiodor. p. 624 Reimar. ad 
Dionem 68. 16. The column was erected in the 17th tribunician year: In- 
scriptio apud Gruterum p. 247. 4 Norisium Epoch, p. 287 Eckhel. tom. VI 
p. 430. Senatus populusque Romanus Imp. Gcesari divi Nervt^f. Nervcc Trajano 
Aug. Germ. Dacico pontif. maximo trib. pot. XVII imp. VI cos. VI p. p. ad 

declarandum quantce. altitudinis mom et hem tant ibus sit egestus. Perhaps 

at the close of A.D. 113. Coins apud Eckhel. tom. VI p. 429 bearing this 
column are inscribed Imp. Trajano Aug. Ger. Dae. p. m. tr.p. cos. VI p. p.+ 
S. P. Q. B. Optimo principi, and Imp. Gees. Nervaz Trajano Aug. Ger. Dae. 
p.m. tr.p. COS. VI p.p. + S. P. Q. R. optima principi. and might also belong to 
the 17th tribunician year. 

Two Cretan inscriptions apud Gruter. p. 1084. 10. 1 1 may be referred to 
A.D. 113: 1 (before October) ahroKpaTopi, Kalaapi 6eov Ne'p/3a vim Nepoua 
TpdCavu (TffiaariS Fep^xai'tKu AaxiKO) dpx'fpei fifyCarui briixap)(^LKrjs e^ovaCai to if 
i/wdro) rfis olKovp.ivr]s KTlaTri Avttioiv f] uoXtj 8ta TrpatTOKoapiov M. YloiMTrrjlov KA.n;- 
fievtSa. 2 (after October) avroKpdTopL — TpdCavia a-efSaaTM apxifpu p.iyl,aTio 8?j- 
\iap\iKris e^ov(TLas to tC ^TraTU to F [1. to f'] Trarpt TrarpCbos rcS Tiji olKOvp.fvr]s 
ktCotti AvTTiav {] TTo'A.ts 8ta ■npatTOKoa-p.ov M. YloiJ.T:r]tov KKeLjXfVLba. 


867. Q. Ninnius Hasta 
P. Manilius Vopiscus 

Vopisco et Hasta Nor. 

Malsa et Volcisco Idat. 

Ma\(Tov Kal BouXkiVkov 
Chron. Pasch. 

Manner Romse apud 
Panvinium p. 333. Gru- 
terum p. 214. Q. Ninnio 
Hasta P. Manilio Vopisco 


Aliud marmor Romse 
apud Panvinium p. 333 
Gruterum p. 215. Q. Nin- 
nio &c. 

Trajani 17 from VIII Kal. Feb. trib. pot. 18 from October. 

Eckhel tom. VI p. 449 after Noris. Epoch, p. 287 shews that the title 
optimus Augustus is assumed in the 1 8th tribunician year from inscriptions : 
1 apud Gruter. p. 247. 5. — Trajano optima Aug. Germanico Dacico pont. wmo. 
trib. potest. XVIII imp. VII cos. VI. [male apud Gruter. tr.p. XVIIII cos. 
Vir\. 2 apud Panvinium p. 333 Gruterum p. 190. 7- Imp. Gwsar divi Nervcp. 
f. Nerva Trajanv^ optimus Aug. Germ. Dacicus pontifex maximus trib. pot. 
XVIII imp. VIII cos. VI p.p. facienda curavit. And from a coin of Alex- 
andria : aiiT. Ipdiav. apt. a-fji. Fepp.. AaxiK. L. irf. and a coin of Laodicea, also 
given by Noris. p. 279. avroKp. Nep. TpdCavos apiar. Kal <T(ji. Fep. Aok. -l-'Ioii- 
XUa>v t5>v koD. AaoSi/ce'cdi'. /3^p. But the 1 62nd year of Laodicea was conume- 
rary with the 1 8th tribunician year ; for the era of Laodicea was one year 
later than the era of Antioch : Noris. Epoch, p. 27 1 . And its first year began 
in autumn B. C 48 A. S. 265 ; therefore the 162nd in autumn A. D. 114 
A. S. 426. 

Trajan's expedition to the East: Dio 68. 17. p^^Ta b\ raCra [after the com- 
pletion of the Forum and the Column A. D. 113] karpaTiva-iv iii 'App.ivl.ovi 
Kol n&pOovs. In his old age : Julian. Cses. p. 328 A. irpos Hapdvaiovs irplv p,ev 
abiKfio'OaL Trap avT&v o^k (^6p.r)v bfXv xprjaOai. Tots ottXois' abiKOvai, be fTre^fiKdov, 
ovbiv VTTo TTJs rjXiKCas KcaXvOeCs' Kakoi. bibovTiav p.0L tG>v vopcav to p.r] (TTpaTeveaOai. 
His departure from Rome is commemorated in a coin apud Eckhel. tom. VI 
p.' 430. Imp. Cees. Ner. Trajano optimo Aug. Ger. Dac.-^profectio Augusti. 
This coin demonstrates first that the Parthian war did not commence till the 
1 8th tribunician year, because (as Eckhel has shewn p. 449) optimus in this 
position did not yet appear in the 1 7th ; and secondly that this title optimus 
was thus assumed in the beginning of the 18th year, autumn A.D. 114; be- 
cause Trajan in the following winter was at Antioch: conf. a. 115. Trajan 
in the autumn proceeds through Athens and Seleucia to Antioch: Dio 68. 17. 
1 8. (TTpaTfva-avTos 8' avTov firl FTap^ous Kal ej 'Adi]vas acfiiKopfvov, Trpe(T/3eta avTi2 



S Gbkek Authohs 

4 Latin Authors 

Plutarch wrote the life oi Antony before the Par- 
thian victories of Trajan : Anton, c. 34 (on the tri- 
umph of Veriiidiua B. C. 38). ovtos Into UapOSiv &xpi, 
btvpo TfOpiafxjifVKf novoi. Ho had already written the 
12th book, or Dion and Brutus: Dion. c. 2. bcabtKarif 
T&v T:apaX\r\kb>v ovri /3io). which is quoted Anton, c. 70. 
AovKtAio), T!tp\ ov hi krfpcav ycypai^afifv (Ls iv <I>iXi7r7rots 
K. T. A. so. Brut. c. 50. The 12th book is also quoted 
in Timokon and Paulus : Timol. c. 13. ravra iv roh 
zfpl Al(i)vos aKpiftm ytypanTai. And in Agesilaus and 
Pmnpey : Pomp. c. 1 G. Bpovros — its iv roty -ntpl (k(Cvov 
yiypaTTTUL. But of some of the Lives there seem to 
have been two editions; for the 12th book, or Brutus, 
is quoted in Cwsar : Cses. c. 62. ^i^ tois iiipl Bpovrov — 
hihr\\iaKa\t.iv. C. 68. iv tovs mpl Bpoi/ron yiypairrai. 
And yet Ccesar is quoted in Brutus : Brut. c. 5). ws iv 
Tols Ttfpl KaCa-apos d(cpi/3d)s yeypa-nrai. Thus again The- 
seus and Romulus are quoted Camill. c. 33. 'PufxiJAos — 
ois iv Tois TTfpl fKfivov yiypaTTTai. and Camillus in Numa : 
Num. c. 9. iv r<j) KafiCk\ov ^i<o yiypanTai.. C. 12. iv roiy 
wepi Kap-ikkov aKpi^ovTai. And yet Nutna is quoted in 
Theseus and Bomidus: Thea. c. 1. ivii tov irepl Avmvp- 
yov TOV voptoOtTov Koi Nofxa tov /SacriXe'ws Xoyov iKbovTfi 
K. T. A.. 


ApoUodorus the architect flourished : he built the 
bridge of Trajan in A. D. 105 : Procop. aedif. IV. 6 
p. 81 A. 'ATro\Ao'6a)pos 6 Aap-aa-Ktivos 6 (cat iiavTos yt- 
yovw ap\t,T(KT<i)v ToiJ ipyov. and the Forum : Dio 69. 4. 
'Abpiavbs — ' AtToWobiapov tov apxvrfKTova, tov ttjv &yopav 
Koi TO lobeiov TO re yvp-vacriov to. tov Tpdiavov TroiTj^ara 
iv TTJ 'P(ip.ri KaTa<TKfvd(TavTa, to p.(v irp&Tov icpvydbevtrev, 
iiTdTa be Kol dTtiKTfwe, Hadrian however had himself 
employed Apollodorm: Spartian. Hadr. c. 19. AUud 
tale simulachrum Apollodoro architecto auctore facere 
Luna molitus est. and to Hadrian ApoUodorus inscribed 
his TToKwpKrjTiKa, of which excerpta are still extant apud 
Math. Vet. p. 13 — 48. dviyvav (tov, bea-noTa, rrji' irepl 
t5>v pLr]\avr]pdrav im(TToKi]v, koL p-UKapwi iyev6p.r)V oti \»,i 
KowuiVTiffai TavTrjs crov ti]S (j>povTLbos a^iov (Kpivas. iroirj- 
aras ovv v-nobdypxiTd Tiva upbs i!o\iopKlav fvxprtara «T7«/i- 
\lfa biaypaxjrai. That this was addressed to Hadrian is 
attested by the younger Heron apud testimonia p. X. 
£w qucB ah Apollodoro ad Hadrianum imperatorem oh- 
sidionales machines constructce fueru/nt. Tzetzes Chil. 
II. 82 — 91 notices the death of ApoUodorus (from Dio) 
and his construction of the bridge over the Danube. 

Coins apud EckheL torn. VI p. 432. 433, which from 
their inscriptions were struck before the 18th tribuni- 
cian year commenced : 

1 Imp. Trajanus Aug. Ger. Dae. p. m. tr. p. cos. VI 

p. p. + forum Trajani. or basilica Ulpia. 

2 Imp. Gees. Nerva Trajano Aug. Ger. Dae. p. m. tr. p. 

cos. VI p. p. + basilica Ulpia. S. P. Q. It. optimo 
principi. S. C. 

3 Imp. Trajanus Aug. Ger. Doc. p. m. tr. p. cos. VI 

p. p. + divi Nerva et Trajanus pat. or dimts pater 

4 p. 436. Imp. Cas. Nerva Trajano Aug. Ger. Dae. 

p.m. ir.p. cos. VIp.p. + S.P.Q.R. optimo principi. 

5 A coin of Tyre apud Noris. Epoch, p. 286. avroKp. 

Kaicr. Nfp. Tpa'iavbi at^. Ttpfx. AaK. + dtjftopx- ^f • 
iC vTtar. r'. 

Coins apud Eckhel. torn. VI p. 430. 436. belonging 
to the 18th tribuaician year, from their inscription 
optimo Aug. See col. 2. 

1 Imp. Trajano optimo Aug. Ger. Dae. p. m. tr.p.+ 

cos. VI p. p. S. P. Q. R. or mrtiUi et/elieUatt. 

2 Imp. Gees. Ner. Trajano optimo Aug. Ger. Dae. p. m. 

tr. p. COS. VI p. p. + Senaitts popultuque Bomanus. 

3 A coin apud Noris. Epoch, p. 288. Tyriorum : av- 

TOKp. KoiT. N«p. Tpdiavbs ipurr. <r«^. Vfpn. Aok. + 
fijj/xapx- <f. iV vnaT. $■'. 





1 Consuls 

2 Events 

fvravOa wapa tov 'Oapoov evirvxe, rrjs dprjvrjs biofxfvr] km b&pa <j)epov<Ta — fcot 8s 
ovT€ TO, bS>pa I\aj8fi' otir' aWo tl aireKpCvaTO — TrA^y on f] (piXCa epyois koL ov Xd- 
yois KplvfTM. Kot hia tovt (ireLbav « s rrju 'EvpCav (XOrj navra to. ■npo<n)KOVTa Tiovr)- 
(Tfi. (cat ovTb) biavoias mv f-jii re ttjs 'A(rias koL {ttI AvkCus tSiv t( fy^ofxtvwv (Ov&u^ 
es ^e\tvK(MV (KOixCaOrj. yevop.iViii be avT(5 iv ^ AvTW)(€ia Avyapos 6 ^Oaporjvbs av- 
Toy ixev ovK ((pdij b&pa be br) koI \6yovs (piKiovs ^Tse(i\jfev k. r. K. 
Coins : see col. 4. 


nm Pedo 

868. L. 
salla M. 

Messala et Pedone Nor. 
Messala et Podone Idat. 
Chron. Pasch. 

Marmor Romse apud 
Gruter. p. "JAA.D.D. de- 
dicat. V K. Fehr. L. Vip- 
stanio Messalla M. Vergi- 
liano Pedone cos. 

Tabula Romje apudGrut. 
p. 300. D. Junius Carus 
coopt Vipstano Mes- 
salla M. Pedone Vergili- 
an. COS. P. B. C. ann. 

RomaB apud Gruter. p. 
1070. \.D. V K.Feb. L. 
Vipstano Messalla M. Ver- 
giliano Pedone cos. 

Romse apud Gruter. p. 
lOfiG. .5. dedicat. V K. 
Feb. D. S. D. D. L. Vip- 
stano Messalla M. Vergi- 
liano Pedone cos. 

De his coss. conf. No- 
risium 0pp. torn. II p. 

Trajani 18 from VIII Kal. Feb. trih. pot. 19 from October. 

Earthquake at Antioch, in which the consul Pedo perished : Dio ()8. 24. 2,5. 
biaTpClSovTos be avrov ev 'AvTLO^eCa cret(T;ios ^f aiVtoy yiverav km ■noWoX p.ev eKap,ov 
TTo'Aets /xdAiora be 17 'AiTto'xeia ebv(TTvxr](Tev are yap tov Tpdiavov exel y(ei,p.a^ovTo%, 
Ka\ ■no\XS>v p.ev (TTpaTuaTatv ■nokXSiv be ibLar&v KarA re biKai km Kara TTpeirjifias 
ep/nopiav re xai 6ea>pCav TravraxoOev <TvpLTie(l>oiTr]K6TU>v, ovrt edvos ovbev ovre 8^/xoy 
ovbels al3kaj3r]s eyevero, k. t. \. — (rv\vol fxev yap <TKeK&v (tv\voI be &p.(,>v errrepr]- 
Orjaav — aXkoi aXp.a fip.ovv Siv ets koX 6 Ylebutv 6 viraTos eyeveTo' nal evdw re yap 
cmeOave. Which fixes this event to the beginning of A. D. 115. conf. Noris. 
de Epoch, p. 213. 214. Eusebius places it one year too high: Anno 2129 
[from Oct. A.D. 113] — Antiochice terrte mofus fuit, urbisque tertia paulo minus 
pars corruit. Evagrius four years: H. E. II. 12. 6 Kara Tpa'Cavov — evarov 
kolL ireirrqKoo'Tov Koi eKaTomov ayovcriqs Trjs 7rd\e(i)S ^tos Tfjs aurofojuias yeyovev 
[from Oct. A. D. 110]. Malalas XI p. 359 places it in December of the l()4th 
year = Dec. A. D. 115 : eTtader 'AvTL6\eia tj ixeyakri 7/ Ttpbs Adcjiv-qv to TpiTov av- 
Tjjy ttABos p.'qvl aTreXAaico r<3 Kal beKeiJ.j3pC(^ ly i]p.epa a', peTa a\eKTpv6va, erovs 
Xpr]paTi(ovTos pib' Kara tovs avToiis 'AvTwxels. which is almost a year too low ; 
since the true time was Jan. or Feb. of the 1 6"3rd year of Antioch. 

Trajan after the earthquake marches in the spring : Dio 68. 2(1. Tpdiavov be 
es Trjv tS)v ■no\ep.i<i>v vtto to lap VTTriyOr\. Armenia conquered: Dio 68. 19 — 21. 
ev 'E\eyfia rris ^ App.evias tov Ylapdap.6L(npiv ■npocrebi^aTO. Kadr\(TTO be enl jirjpaTO^ 
ev ru Ta(j)pevfjiaTL — avp.fior](ra.vTu>v be eiti tovti:^ t&v arpaTKar&v koi aiiroKpaTopa 
TOV Tpdiavov i>s eTrl vUr] tlvI eTTLKa\earavT(av — -cppovpai be ev emKalpon KaTaXiTrmv 
6 TpdCavos ykOev ej 'Ebeairav, KavravOa ■np&Tov Avyapov eibe. 

Sedition of the Jews in Cyrene and Egypt: Euseb. H. E. IV. 2. »/or) roi; 
avTOKpdTopos els eviavTov OKTCOKaibeKaTov eKavvovTos, avdis lovbaioiv /cii'r/cris eira- 
vaararra irdpiroKv iT\T]dos avT&v bietpdeipev. ev re yap ''AXe^avbpeia Kal rff Aoittt} 
AlyvTTT(o Kal TTpoueTi KaTCL KvprjvrjV — wpprjVTO "pos tovs ovvolkovs ' EAAr/vas irra- 
(JiaJ^eiv, av^(TavTes: re eh p-eya Txpi ardfriv roj eniovri eviavTi^ [A.D. 1 16] Tt6Kep.ov 
ov apuKpbv (Tvvi}\jfav. Idem Chron. Anno 2131 [from Oct. A. D. 1 15] Trajani 
IS" Judeei qui in Libya degebant seditione — decertare cceperunt &c. Anno 2132 
Trajani 19" Salamine in urbe Cypri insula; Judcei facto hnpetu Grcecos — occi- 
derunt. Dio 68. 32. Kal h< rowu [during the Parthian war] 01 KaTo. ^vprjvqv 
'lovSatoi — TOVS re 'PwpLalovs Kal tovs "EWrjras e(^6eipov — tofrre tos iraaas bvo /cat 
etKO(Tt pvpidbas d/noXedQai. ev re AtyvTrru ttoAAo ebpaaav ofioia koi ev tj} Ki;'7r/)(t) — 
Kal d-ncaXovTo koi eKe'i p-vpidbes Teaaapes (cat eiKom. Orosius VII. 12 places the 
sedition after the earthquake at Antioch : Terree motus Antiochiam porne totam 
submit civitatem. Incredibili deinde motu Judcei — exarserunt. 

To this date, namely the campaign of A. D. 115, are to be referred the two 
inscriptions within the 18th tribunician year given in A. D. 1 14, bearing hup. 
VII Imp. VIII. And an inscription apud Gruter. p. 1019.9. Itnp. Cwsar 
dim Nercte f. Nerva Trajan, optimus Aug. Germ. Dacicus pontifex maxim, 
trib.pot. XVIII imp. Villi cos. VI [male Gruter. cos. F] p.p. facienda cu- 
ravit. Trajan is imp. Villi in the campaign of A. D. 1 15, and this inscrip- 
tion must be referred to the close of his 18th tribunician year. 

Coins: see col. 1. 

R O M A N I 


3 Greek Authous 

4 Latik Autuohs 

Martyrdom of Ignatius. He was brouglit before 
Trajan at Antioch: Acta Marty rii p. 512 c. 2. Tpaio- 
vov- — ivArdi (irei t^s avrov /Soo-tAeias ittapBiVTOs tul t^ 
vLktj tJ; Kara "^KvOSiv kou AaKQv — Koi buayjxov VTrofXiVfiv 
&T!(i\i)aavTos, vdvTas tovs (V(T(^w (wvras rj Ovtiv r\ r«- 
XiVTav KaTr)v6.yKa((V. roVf tolvvv o yevvaioi tov Xpiarov 
(rTpaTKoTrji fKOvaCcas j/yero irpos Tpaiavov biiyovra i/iv 


b( fvl ^ApfxfvCav Koi ndnOovi. And at the time of the 
earthquake at Antioch: Malalas XI p. 3fil. 6 8^ avros 
0aai\(vs Tpdiavbs ^v rfj avrfj TroXet StTJyfy ore j; d(Ofj,riv(a 
iyfvtTo. (p.apTvpr\(Ti he ^th ovtov Tore 6 &yios 'lyrdnoj. 
15ut Trajan was not at Antioch till the end of his 1 7th 
year; and the earthquake happened in Jan. or Feb. 
A. D. 115. See col. 2. On these accounts the date of 
Eusebius, the 9th of Trajan, is justly rejected by Pagi 
ad Baron, torn. I p. 108 and by Lloyd apud Pagium 
1. c. But they refer the martyrdom to A. D. 116', be- 
ing misled by Malalas, who places the earth(juake al- 
most a year too low. see col. 2. Ifinatius appeared 
before Trajan about February of A. D. II 5, was sent 
through Smyrna Troas Macedonia to Home : conf. 
Eusob. H. E. III. 36 acta Martyrii p. 520— 530. He 
was conducted by slow journeys : Chrysostoni. in 
Ignatium torn. II p. 598 B. dT70 yap tt/s rip-iripas tto- 
A«ft»9 (h T-i]v 'I'uip.rjv avTov (Kd\f(r(v, — Kal t<^ p.7]KfL rjjs 
ubov Kal T(5 TiXriOei tS>v i]p.ipS>v to (\>p6vrjp.a KaTaj3d\K(iv 
avTov TTpoaboKwv. His epistle to the Romans is written 
from Smyrna AvyowTov eUdbi rpiVj; : c. 10 p. 370. The 
day of the martyrdom was Dec. 20 : eye'rero TavTa — 
A(K(iJLl3pC<D uKabt. Martyr, c. 7 P- 534. which, when the 
date of Malalas for the earthquake is rectified, will be 
Dec. 20 A.D. 115. It is attested in Act. Martyr, that 
Ignatius was a disciple of St. John: c. I p. 5 10. 'lyrdnos 
ToC dzocTToKov ^\(a)dvvov p.adrfTr\s. c. 3 p. 520. fcnrfvbf 

TOV &yLOV [loKvKapltOV tov ^/MpVaiaV tuLcTKOTlOV TOV (Tvva- 

KpoaTi]v dedo-aadai [ovtco STJra fv 1,p.vpvr] yfv6p.evoi, ivOa 
o UoKvKap-KO'i ijv Euscb. H. E. III. 3()]' lyfyovucrav yap 
TToAai ixaOriToi tov dirocrToKov 'Iwdvvov. Chrysostoni in 
Ignat. p. 593 D observes ovveyiVfTo rots aTrooroAois 
yvrja-Lias, and calls Ignatius tov <jvvTpa<pivTa fKuvois koI 
TtavTa\ov miyytvofievov (col pijTwv kui aisoppijToyv avToi'S 
KOLVb>vrj(TavTa. He adds p. 599 C 'lyvdnoz' t6v ovbt 
(mpaKOTa tov Xpiorov. 

Coins of this year apud Eckhel. tom. VI p. 437. 

1 Imp. Trajano (rptiiuo Aug. Ger. Doc. p. m. tr. p. + 

Imperator VII. 

2 Imp. G(PS. Ner. Trajano optima Au<f. Ger. Doc. p. m. 

tr.p. COS. VI p. p. + Imj)erator VIII. 

3 Imp. Trajano optima A ug. Ger. Doc. p. m tr. p. + 

Rex Parthus. Referring to the interview witii 
Parthamasirii in this campaign : see col. 2. 

In these coins Trajan is not yet Parthku* ; and in 
the beginning of his 19tli tribunician year not yet 
Parthicus : Eckhel. p. 4fiO. " Est in museo Gaeaareo 
" numus Trajani Laodiceaj signatus anno yip ex quo 
" abest cognomen Part/iici. Idem eonfirmant numi 
" Alexandrini iuscripti L. iff [commencing Aug. 29 
"A.D 115 in Alexandrian computation], quonim alii 
" Parthici titulum adhuc omittunt alii atldunt." The 
H;3rd year of Laodicea A. S. 12/ (conf. a. 114. 2) 
'•onunenced Oct. A. D. 1 15, being conumerary with the 
1 9th tribunician year of Trajan. 





116 869. L. .Sliiu 


PUegoD Mir. e. 9. 

EUamo «t Veten Nor. 
Idat. ChroD. Paadi. 

VeHamo et Vetere PocL 

Coof. Jfori*. 0pp. torn. 
II p. 936. 

jEUanmm et Veterem li- 
ber pontifieaGs Daoiaa 
tom. I p. 543. 

2 Etevts 

Trajani 19 from VIII Kal. Feb. tril. pot. 20 from Oetober : conf. a. 9/. 

Tn;^ enien CtedplMB and peoetnUw to die Oena: INo 68. 28. ct r^r 
Knyn^wrra dnpltfc, tafakmfiAtr re a£rifr aJrwipilrMp ImtM^i^irAi coi Tils' JvicA];- 
ffw raw llapBuxn i^^auivaro. eifn)4^$ri hi air^ vapa Ttjt /SodX^ ri t( 2AAa luu 
«>uqn|f>M ov^a ^tfcAi)ffci iuofraaai. (Xmp H lipr Kn^vi^wrra iv^iiofatP it ripi 
qmitpki^ ttaktmnm tmrnmknm. e. 29. 30. Ipt^ XP^ iv ^ ItI riv 'QMfOPOP 
catresAa tai ittWew mUis b^emfuCfro, vitrra ra coXiMufra erapax^ »u av(<mj — 
fUtBtiP 8c raSrra 6 TpeSafot ip vXoitf—rov re Aowriov «u ror Ma(tfu>v fvl rms 
ii^€9T^Kirmt hrqeilrf ad otrot (UP iewiBapfP jii^ d tW fi4x9* Aa^")" ^ ^^^ ^< 
■mXXk oD^rfWc soi r^ N/iin^ur oj^eXa/Sc n$r rc'EScvvw ^«mXMipnr»c s«2 ^- 
4604K col kpixpifrer Ukim Vk tuHif I,fXei*fta [se. a<< Tiyrim] spot re 'E^mAw 
KAapop KoI vpot 'loakiim'AX4Mpem i gorr par iym p ul ituM^. Tpaitvoi &e »^?7- 
Ofit lai tmol llipOoi n maxftintn pmnXia mbnit tbtar taSimi ^fiiXifve, koI is 
KriKt^Mrra tXBi^ — n«yga|iar i^y rotir TlafSou fiatnXia i mAa {€P, to Ittain^ta 
ojry iwf9^ perh. hk rarra it 1^ *Apafilm Ij^Bt. 

An inamption : GmtO'. p. 248. 2. HeDerenae in TfliHtwrei : /a^. Catari 
divi Sentef. Nerv<B Trajano optimo Auff. Get. Partiieo Daeieo ponhf. 
triimi.ptUtt. XVII II imp. XI co$. VI p. p. DD. M. F. V. P. P. D. ' 
the titfe Poriiww, SDd before the eod of Oetober A. D. 1 16. 

Maarimm arAoa st Atlwns : Me eoL 3. 

Coot : aee coL 4. 


«. 224 U. C. 

Vair. 870. 


u ^nd Gmterum 

p. 1008. 7. y. O. M. Q. 

Vmrmmm PkSUeiAu V. 
8. L. M. pmmt VI Id. 
Fdr. A pr tm am$ el Nigtv 

For aa inaet^itaon apod 
GraL p. 578. 1 Paovin. 
p. 336 «lMfa Ina Nit 
«t Aprmtm» e 
A.D. 130.4. 


Trofomi 20 from VIII Kal. Febr. 

The aedition of the Jews [oonfl a. 1 15] ia aoppnand: Dio 68. 32. 'iMAalcm 
lup iXXn re KoL Aeinot vteo TpmawoB Mq»^tat Kmt»T p{ if mn . Eoaeb. H. E. 
IV. 2.iiik abroKparmp immrreiem tul rait i» Mawron^if^ I— >afwif jn#^ea0ax 
rotf aibri&i Aemtrif Ktrtj/nf xporirtfa bau0apai lip ivapxCm atnii. it cat to/m- 
Tafafiafot -K^fiToXw viafivt rim mM6t ^opeio,' t^ ^ atrofMiian lovBo^r VT^I""' 
|»id TOT «ira«yMraywt4bd^^ Conf. Eiueb.Cfaroii.aMi(> 2131. Dio 68. 32. 
loSrvf 4 K^yrot Am^vwi Ma^vof f<er ^, mi airbt r&p Maipmv ifixttp c r. X. — nu 
reXof it toooStov r^ re bApayaBiat ipa. luu r^ T{r%rft ip r^&e r^ voXtptf [the 
Parthiaawar] vpoexipf** im is rvtv ivTpmnfytiKirmi ivyptt^^poi nu vvarevcrai 
r^ re naXai«TMi|f J^ifu. Aa Lmtuu ma c a g iige d aganrrt die Parthiaos in 
A. D. 1 16 (eonf. a.), bM aneww "g"^^"^ the Jews most be plaeed in the begin- 
nu^of 117. 

I Dealkof TVrglMa afiersragnof 19r6- 15< Dio 68. 33. cr ScXu>«>erra r^ 
tiXiKfat IX0&1> i(m(^pip iml if n f f , fimfafxfivat Inf htaurpia koL fajpot t( rifupat 
re tanftaubtua. Cfaron. Paaefa. p. 253 C. ixiBaiiep ip ZeXtf>oSrr( ■B6Kti -nfi Se- 
Xadms U> irmw ^. Eatiop. VIIL 5. CUmI atatU mmo LXIII memae mmw H 
die jmmU [ 97], imperii mm» XIX mtrnteVI die XV. Repeated bj 
Caawidonia. dern. AL Strom. I p. 339 C. TpaUuin frtf i0 lajnu C \l f) 
igUpait «'. TbeopfaifaM III. 27 gi^ea him 16 days: #n; Uf idpita $ h'/ipm v . 
Aneed. Paris. Cnwer. torn. II p. 283. In; df pxpnt s'. Eoaeb. H. E. IV. 3. 
^etf-o' eZuMTi fo^ ^ t^otwi. If we begin the 15 days, with Dio, at JalT'26, 
they terauoate at Aa^. 9 ; if with dmn. Paaeh. we lednm diem from Jmj 25, 
they CDd at Aag. 8. The death of Tmjam u two dava in the one ease and 
thme d^qrs in we other before the aaaoaaption of t^ empire by Hadritm : 
Spartiaa. Hadr. e. 4. QumU Idmm AujmaH die leaatm »fria (Hadriaiim) 
jl^mw AA9«i0W «»^ [a fiedtioaa adoption annced by PMm 
69. 1 Etrtrop. VIIL 6 Gibbon V<J. I p. 130], oaaa<fe << nata^aa a<2^prM»Ru ee. 
Idruri jumit. Tertio Idtaim eanmdem, qmamao et uatalem imperii imaHtait eele- 
lnMim K ,aKmKt at 2W»wn ana lf i riW i eit. itUhMn waa at Aniioeh: Dio 69. 2. 
^ Se 2re ajrtfyop€66i\ cAroKparup 'Aipfopot h> rp ftfirpovokti Z»piat 'ApTu>x*t^ 

R M A N I 


3 (iRKF.K Authors 

4 Latin Adtrobs 

PhUgon of Trallss remembered one who lived at this 
period : Mir. c. 9. ii AaohUtuxv n/j 2t»puiy ywr\ — ftfrw- 
voficKrOij Ain/rds, dw;p ytro/itros, &p\ovTos 'A^/i'jytn Ma- 
Kpivov, vTsaT(v6iT(av iv PuftJ? AovKiov Aofiia ital AlXiai<ov 
Ovirtpoi. T0V7VV xal avrus idfooiifwiv. For the time of 
Phl^yott conf. a. 138. 

Coins with the title PartJkitm: (see od. 2.) 

1 Apud Noris. Epoch, p. 2S0. avroKp. N(p. T/muovos 
2pur. KauT. atfi. Ftp. Aeuc. Flap^. + 'IouAuMV rM> hu 
Aoodu^Mr. yfp. The 163rd year wm current till 
Oct. A. D. 116, and Trofon might receive this 
name in the sunmier of 116; which was already 
knowni in Lusitania before October : see col. 2. 

•J Apud Eckhel. tom. VI p. 43S. Imt. C<n. JVir. Tra- 
jano Optimo Jug. G«r. Dae. Parlkieo p. m. tr. p. cm. 

P. R. rtdacta: S. C. or Atr Partki* dmim. & C. 
or rf^na atUgnata. 

3 Imp. CiBi. Nmr. Trajan, optim. Amp. Grrm. Aw-.-f 

ParlAicop. m. tr.p. cot. VI p.p. S. P. Q. B. 

4 Imp. Cces. X«r. Trajan, optim. Amp. Gtr. Dae. Par- 

tAico-i-PartAia capta. p. m. tr.p. cot. VI p. p. S. P. or rfotM adsianata. or vota nuctpta. p. m, 
tr.p. 00$. VI p.p. S'.P. Q. R. 

5 Issued after October A. D. 116: Imp. fiw. AVr. 

Trajano optimo Ahc Gtrm. + Dae. ParlAieop.m. 
tr.p. XA' cw. VI p.p. S. C. 

Coins of Hadrian issued before Jan. 1 A. D. 118: 

Eckhel. tom. VI p. 475. 

1 Imp. Ctf. di. Trajan, f. di. Nmr. mep. 7)na. Hadriatto 

Avp.-i-adoptio. tribunie. potmlm$. 
•2 Imp. Cces. din Trajan. Aho. f. Trajan. Hadrian. 

cmt. Aitff. Ger.+Dac. Parthcop. m. tr.p. mt.p.p. 

3 law. Ctes. Trajan. Hadriano Ang. diri Tra, Parlk. 

j\ + divi Ker. ncp.p. m. tr.p. eot.^^rl. rfd. 

4 liMv. Ctes. TVajitn. Htdriano Aup. diri TVa. + 

Parth. /. did Xer. nep. p. m. tr.p. cot. concvrd. 

5 Imp. Ctes. IVajan. Hadriano opt. Aug. Gtr. Dac.+ 

PartAie. diri Tmjan. Ang.f. p. m, tr.p. e«t. p.p. 

6 Imp. Cmar Trajan. Hadrianus Anp. + p. m. tr.p. 

cot. dft. II. pax. 

7 Imp. Ctnar Trajanus Hadrianui Anp.-i-pont. mar. 

tr. pot. eot. S. C. or cos. «/«w. //. concordia. 

8 Imp. Ctrs. diri TWtjoH. Parlk. f. did AV. imj*. 7Vi»- 

jano Hadr'Mno Aw.+f>ont. mojc. tr.pot. co$. S. C. 
or COS. dts. II. conimrdut. 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

[conf. Dion. 6"8. 33]. The distance, more than 300 English miles, would re- 
quire 3 days for the news to pass fi'om Selinus to Antioch. Reimar ad Dion. 
68. ;i3 supposes the ISW C" IS'' to extend from the accession of Trajan to the 
accession of Hadrian : " Successit Nervoi Jan. 27 ; ergo mortuus Aug. 1 1 ; vel 
" potius aliquot diebus ante. Nam usque ad nuntium Hadriano allatum vitam 
" regnumque Trajani Dio extendit." But this is not in Dio ; and he has 
placed the beginning of this period one day and the end two days later than 
the numbers of Dio will admit. Malalas XI p. 350. 362 places the death of 
Trajan in the right year : i^aaikivcnv irrj id' /cat fj.TJvas t^ — (TtKivra !cv eviav- 
tG>v fr'. ixtra 8e rqv fiaxriXuav Tpdiavov ijiaaCkevcnv 'HXtos 'Abpiavos fiil ttjs 
viraTtias ' Airpatviavov /col NCypov. On the place of the death of Trajan conf. 
Reimar. ad Dion. 68. 33. 

HadriarCs first measures: Spartian. Hadr. c. 5. Mauri lacessebant, Sar mates 
helium inferebant, Britanni teneri sub Rontana ditione non poterant, jEgyptui 
sediiionibus urgebatur, Lycia denique ac Palcestina rebelles animos efferebant. 
Quare omnia trans Euphratem ac Tigrim reliquit. Eutrop. VIII. 6. Trajani 
glories invidens statim provincias ires reliquit — ac finem imperii esse voluit Eu- 
phratem. Dacia is retained : Eutrop. Ibid. 


871. Hadrianus Augustm 
II et SaUnator 


Hadriano et Salinaiore 
Idat. Chron. Pasch. 

Hadrianus secundo cos. 
favore Plotinte /actus Spar- 
tian. Hadr. c. 4. 

His first consulship is 
marked Ibid. c. 3. LegO" 
tus prwtorim in Panno- 
niam inferiorem missus 
Sarmatas compressit, dis- 
ciplinam militarem ienuit, 
procuratores latius eva- 
gantes coercuit. oh hoc con- 
sul est fad,us. so. cos. suf- 

Hadriani 2 from /// Id. Aug. trib.pot, 2 also from /// Id. Aug. conf. a. 
119. 4. 

Hadrian comes to Rome: Spartian. Hadr. c. 5. 6. Per Ulyricum BomMm 
venit. Trajano divines honores — postulavit. — Imaginem Trajani curru triumphali 
vexit — patris patries nomen sibi delatum statim et iterum postea distulit [conf. a. 
128] — aurum coronarium Italics remisit in provinciis minuit. — Audito dein tu- 
multu Sannatarum et Roxolanorum, presmissis exercitibus Mcesiam petiit. — cum 
rege Roxolanorum — pacem composuit. Nigrini insidias, qvas ille sacrijica/nti 
Hadriano, conscio sibi Liisio et multis aliis, paraverat, — evasit. Quare Pahna 
Terracince Celsus Baiis Nigrinus Faventice Lusius [conf. a. 116 Ammian. 
XXIX. 5, 4] in itinere — occisi sunt. Unde statim Hadrianus ad refellendam 
tristissimam de se opinionem, quod occidi passus esset uno tempore quatuor consu- 
lares, Romam venit, Dacia Turboni credita, — et congiarium duplex prasens po- 
pulo dedit. — ad colligendam auteni gratiam nihil preetermittens infinitam pecuniam 
quae fisco debehatur — remisit, syngraphis in foro divi Trajani — incensis. The 
deaths of the four senators in the beginning of the reign are recorded by Dio 
69. 2. hid Tivas (f>6vovs apicrrmv avhp&v ois (v apxfj re rqs f]yffi.ovCai nal Trpbs t^ 
TfAei/rJj Tov /3fon ireTroirjTo bif jSkridr) — /cot ot pxv iv tJ apxfj (^ovruOhres Y\aX\xai re 
/cat Ke'Xo-os Ntyptvo's re /cat Aovo-tos r](Tav. These facts are fixed to the second 
consulship of Hadrian by coins apud Eckhel. torn. VI p. 476. 

1 Imp. Cfcsar Trqjanus Hadrianus Aug.+ adventus Aug. pont. max. tr. pot. 

COS. II. s. a 

2 Imp. Cas. Hadrian, divi Ner. Trajan, opt. Jil.-\-Av^. Ger. Dae. Par. p. m. 

tr. p. COS. itero. S. P. Q. R. 

3 Imp. Cess. Trajan. Hadriano opt. Aug. G. D. Part. + divo Trajano patri. 

4 Imp. Ccesar Trajanus Hadrianus Au^. + liberalitas Aug. pont. max. tr. pot. 

COS. II. S. G. 

5 Imp. Ccesar Trajan. Hadrianus Aug. +p. m. tr.p. cos. II. (or cot. des. III.) 

cpt. Aug. 

6 Imp. Caesar Trajanus Hadrianus Aug. + liberalitas Aug. pont. max. tr. pot. 

II COS. II. S. C. Issued within Aug. 1 1— Dec. 3 1 . 

7 Imp. Ccesar Trajanus Hadrianus Aug. p. m. tr. p. cos. 11+ reliqua Vetera 

HS novies mill, abolita. S. C. Marmor Romae apud Eckhel. p. 478 ex 

R O M A N I 


3 Greek Authoes 

4 Latin Authors 


Epictetus and Favorinus were favoured by Hadrian : 
Spartian. Hadr. c. 16. In summa familiaritate Epide- 
turn et Heliodorum philosophos et — ^rammaticos, rhetores, 
musicos, peometras, pictores, astrohgos habuit ; prcB ceste- 
m {ut muUi asserunt) eminente Favorino. Epictetus was 
already grown up in the reign of Nero, 50 years before 
the accession of Hadrian: Suid. p. 1369 0. 'E^^kttjtos 
'lepowo'Aecos t^s ^pvyCas </)tAo'cro<^os SovXos bi 'Ewa^po- 
blrov Ttiv a(i>\xaT0<pvk6.Kav tov fiaaiXius Nfpmvos [de 
Epapkrodito Epictetus diss. I. 1, 20 1. 19, 19. 20 I. 26, 
1 1]. ■itr)pti)Oa.^ he to o-KtXoi virb p€Vfj.aTos [x<uXos e/c veas 
f]XLKCai Simplic. ad Enchirid. p. 165. x'^^^"'^^^ 'Ettkcttj- 
Tov Ibid. p. 162. 6 SoCAos koi x<')A6s koi weVr/s 'E'n'^KTTjTos 
Ibid. p. 206] iv Nt/coTTo'Aei rijj v4as "'HveCpov coicrja-e. He 
dwelt at Nicopolis during the reign of Trajan : conf. 
a. 103. He was dead before the time of Gellius: N. A. 
II. 18. De Epicteio — recentior est memoria. And of Lu- 
cian: irpbs aTraiSfvroi' torn. VIII p. 15. Kaff' fipM^ iye- 
verrf Tty (col en iarlv, ot^at, hs tov ^ETiiKrqTov kv\rov 
TOV ^Toi'iKov — iTipiaTo K. T. \. And of 31. Antoninus: irfpl 
kavTov I. 7. 'PovotIkov — to ei'Tvx«ii' toIs 'ETTiKTrj- 
T(lois viiop,vrip.a(nv. VII. 19. irocrovi TJirj 6 alav H-pniuin- 


Whence Fabricius B. G. torn. V p. 68 Brucker H. Phil, 
torn. II p. 5/2 Kuster ad Suid. and others with rea- 
son reject the account of Themistius Or. 5 p. 63 D 
and of Suidas 1. c. who suppose Epictetus to have 
reached the reign o{ Marcus. And we may place the 
death of Epictetus at a very advanced age in the reign 
of Hadrian. 

Hadrian was afterwards jealous of Favorinus : Dio 
69. 3. 'Abpiavbi — i\i.i(Tfi tovs (v tlvl vTifpalpovrar kolk 
TovTov KoX TOV ^a^utplvov TOV FoXaTTji' TOV Tf Aiovvaiov 
TOV MtXTjo-ior TOVS <To<f>iaTas KaTaXvftv iTiexfipft k. t. \. 
Conf. Spartian. Hadr. c. 15. Philostratus V. S. I. 8. 

Scaurus flourished in the reign of Hadrian : Gell. 
N. A. XI. 15. Terentius Scaurus dim Hadriani tempo- 
ribus grammaticus vel nobilissimus. From 25 to 30 
years after this date his son, also named Scaurus, was 
the preceptor of i. Verus: conf. a. 143. 

Juvenal flourished. He composed Sat. XIII sixty 
years after the consulship of FonteiusA. D. 59 : XIII. 
17. Stupet hac, qui jam post terga reli^uit Sexaginta 
annos, Fonteio consule naius ? 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

Grutero p. 10 Panvinio p. 335. Imp. Gees, dim Trajani Parthicif. d. Nervce 
nep. Trajano Hadriano Aug. pont. tnaco. trib. pot. II cos. II quod unus omnium 
principum el solus remittendo sestertium navies millies centena millia n. dehi- 
tum fisci non prasentes modo sed et posteros suos prcestiiit hac liberalitate se- 
euros. Within Aug. 11 — Dec. 31. Dio 69. 8. i\6<i>v es r^r "Pco/iTjv a.(f>rJK€ 
ra o^eiXJ^era t& re ^acnXiKQ /cat t(S br]^ocriui tw t&v 'Pa^j-aiiov, f K/cat8€Koer^ 
6pC(Tai xpovov a<^' ov re Koi p-expis ov rqp-qdriaetrdaL ravr efiekXev. Hieron. 
Anno 2134 Hadriani 2" Hadrianus reliqua tributorum urbis relaxavit, chartis 
publice incensis. Plurimos etiam ipsis tributis liberos prcestiiit. Eusebius 
at the same year : Senatus Hadrianum dei hco habuit. Syncellus p. 319 A. 
'Ahpiavos xpeS>v 6(j>ei\a.i — cmtKo^j/e, Kavaa<s row xdpras. 6 avros 'Pw/xafots 
(j)6povs TToWovs exapio-aro, odev rj crvyKkrjros Oeov avrbv (\j/r](f>i(TaTo. At the 
true date in Eusebius and Hieron. 
Columna ex Appiae vise ruinis apud Gruter. p. 154. 6. Imp. Cwsari divi Tra- 
jani Parthici f. divi NervcE nepoti Trajano Hadriano Aug. pontif. maxim, trib. 
pot. II cos. II viatores qui ipsi et cos. et pr. ceterisque m/igistratib. apparerent et 
H. V. Within Aug. 11 — Dec. 31 A. D. 118. On the upper part is an in- 
scription of Vespasian: conf. a. "JG. In the centre, one otNerva: Imp. Nerva 
GcBs. Aug. pont. max. trib. pot. cos. Ill pater pat rice refecit. Inscribed A. D. 97. 


872. Hadrianus Augustus 
III et Rusticus Nor. 

Hadriano IV et Eustico 

AlXiov ''Abpiavov ro jS' kol 
'Povcmdov Chron. Pasch. 

Hadriani 3 from /// Id. Aug. 

The third consulship oi Hadrian: Spartian. Hadr. c. 8. Teriio conswles, quum 
ipse terfuisset., plurimos fecit; infinitos a.utem seciindi consulatus honore cumulavit. 
ipsum autem tertium consulatum et quatuor m^nsibus tantum egit et in eo smpe jus 

Hadrian after the remission of the public debts celebrates his birthday : 
Dio 69. 8. eXOiiiv es rr]v 'PoJ/xrjv a>prjKe ra 6<pei\6iJ.eva k. r. X. [within Aug. 11 — 
Dec. 31 A. D. 118 : conf. a. 118] ev re tois eavrov yeveOXiois irpo'iKa r<3 Sjjfio) rriv 
Oeav arreveip-ev k. r. X. [Jan. 24 A. D. 1 19]. 

Turbo is appointed praetorian prsefect in the place ot Atiianus, and Claras in 
the place of Similis : Spartian. Hadr. c. 9. Quum Titiani [1. Attiani] pra/ecti 
sui et quondam tutoris potentiam ferre non posset., nisus est eum obtrtincare ; sed 
revocatus est, quia jam quatuor consularium occisorum [conf. a. 118] — premebatur 
invidia. cui quum successorem dare non posset quia non petebat, id egit ut peteret; 
atque ubi primum petiit in Turbonem transtulit potestatem. quum quidetn etiam 
Simili alteri prcefedo Septicium Clarum successorem dedit. According to Dio 
69. 19 Similis rr]v rSiv bopvcjjopmv apx'V a.K(av lXa/3e /cat Xa^oji' e^Cararo. which 
may be reconciled with Spartianus. Spartian. 1. c. proceeds : Summotis his a 
prcsfectura quibus debebat imperium, Campaniam petit ejusque omnia oppida 
benejiciis et largitionibus sublevamt. Probably in this year; after the four 
months of his consulship were expired. 

Inscriptions : see col. 4. 


873. L. Catilius Severus 
T. Aurelius Fulvus Nor. 
Severo II et Fulgo Idat. 

"Sie^ripov Koi ^ovkKorv 
Chron. Pasch. 

Marmor Romse apud 
Panvinium p. 335 Grate- 

Hadriani 4 from /// Id. Aug. 

The progress of Hadrian through the provinces is related by Dio 69. 9 after 
the death o^ Euphrates A. D. 119: 'Abpiavos be oXXtj^ dir' aXX?;? biairopevonevos 
eTTapx^av K.r.X. — by Spartianus c. 10 — 12 after his third consulship and his 
visit to Campania : Post hcec profectus in Gallias omnes causariis liberalitatibus 
sublevavit. Inde in Germaniam transiit. — conversis regio more militibus Britan- 
niam petiit, in qua multa correxit, murumqtie per LXXX millia passuum pri- 
mus duxit qui barbaros Romanosque divideret. — compositis in Britannia rebus 

R O M A N I 


3 Ghkek Authors 

4 Latin Authohs 

(cat <Pa^(>>p'iVOV tov <pi\6(T0(f>0D r/ fvyKaiTTia iv aoK^Krrais 
tKTjpvnfv. TjV y.(v yap t&v ((nrfpimv FaKaTuv ovtos, 'Apt- 
karov iroXews — bia<f>opai bi airrif irpos ^Ahpiavbv ^a<n\4a 
yevop-imis ovbiv firaOfv. Favorinm was the pupil of 
Dio: Philostr. Ibid. p. -lyo. ivxnsviov p.oi, uj /3a<nAtt5, 
yiyoviv — i-niarw ydp fwi Auoi' o bibd<TKa\os ivovdiTti fif 
K.T.k. p. 191. ACa>voi ixkv ovv aKOvaat. Xeyerot. He 
taught IIero(ks Atticm : p. 490. ewtrTjSetOTOTos p.iv ovv 
'HpwSfl ru (TO(j)i(rnj iyivtro hi.ha<TKa\6v re fiyovp.€V(f koI 
•naripa. Conf. II. 1 p. 564. And Alexander: V. S. 
II. 5 p. .576'. UhAa-Kakoi. tu 'AXefdvSpu iyivovro <l>a/3«i)- 
plvos Ti KuX Awvva-ioi. 

Valerius Pollio flourished : Suid. p. 30(53 B. Ua)\l<av 
AXe^avhpfvs 6 OiiaX^pios XPW'*'''''"'''^. </>tX.o'(ro<^oy, yeyovtos 
im ' Abpiavov' ov noty AwStupoy 6 ^iXoVo^os 6 ypd\j/as 
i^i]yrj(TLV T<oi> (-qTovfjiivav Tsapa rots t' pr)Top(nv [conf. a. 
137]. iypo-^f <Tvvay(j)yr]V ^ Attikuiv Xi^taiv Kara iTTotxftov 
[na)AtQ)i;os ki^iKov Kara aToi)^f'iov is in Phot. cod. 149], 
Kol aXka Tiva (j)ik6<To<j}a. To this Pollio may be ascribed 
dT:op.vr\y.ovivy.aTa Movo-oirfov (pikoadtpov mentioned by 
Suidfis p. 30()3 A. unless they are rather to be given 
to Claudius Pollio apud Pliniuni Ep. VII. 31, 5. 


Death ot Euphrates : Dio 69. 8. iv ixev T<f ha, iKtivw 
[the year in which Hadrian celebrated his birthday : 
see col. 2] Ev(j)pdTTii 6 ^tXo'cro</)Os amidavev idfkovTr]<!, ewi- 
Tpl\\ravTos avT(f koX tov ^Abpiavov Kcaveiov bia to yrjpas Koi 
Tifv voaov Ttiew. Eusebius places this fact one year too 
low: Anno 2136 [from Oct. A. D. 120] Hadriani 4o 
Euphrates stoicus philosophm a^noscebatur. But Hie- 
ronymus: Anno 2137 Hadriani 5« Euphrates stoicus 
philosophus moritur. Euphrates was already known in 
A. D. 69 : conf. a. 

Dionysius Milesius, the disciple oilsams (conf. a. 101), 
was favoured by Hadrian: Philostr. V. S. I. 22 p. 524. 
' Abpiavoi <TaTpd.Tii]v avTov caii(^r\viv ovk a(pav&v (Ov&v 
Kare'Xefe 6e roiy bTjpxxrCq linr€vov(n koI rots ev Tm MoiKreto) 
(TtTovufVotj. But Hadrian was afterwards jealous of 
his fame: Dio 69.3. conf. a. 118. Bionysius was an 
old man when Polemo was vtavias: Philostr. V. S. I. 22 
p. 524. 525. For Pole7no conf. a. 133. 135. 

Inscriptions apud Eckhel. torn. VIII p. 414 mark- 
ing the second tribunician year : " Marmora duo apud 
" Muratorium in quorum uno Hadrianus dicitur trib. 
''pot. II COS. II [within Aug. 1 1— Dec. 31 A. D. 1 18] 
" in altero trib. pot. II cos. Ill [within Jan. 1 — Aug. 10 
" A. D. 119]." The second tribunician year therefore 
is still current in A. D. 1 19. Confirmed by tab. apud 
Gruter. which makes the 12th tribunician year still 
cuiTent Feb. 18 A.D. 129 : conf. a. 129. 2. 139. 4. 

An inscription apud Gruter. p. 248. 8 ex Panvinio 
p. 335 : Imp. Cccs. divi Trajani Parthicif. divi Nerv<s 
nep. Trajano Hadriano Aug. pont. mux. trib. pot. Ill 
cos. Ill imp. II p.p. Rhodanici indulgentissimo principi. 
is of doubtful authority, from the letters p. p. Conf. 
Eckhel. tom. VI p. 516. 517- This titlep./>. is absent 
from another marble Gramenti in Lucanis ad Sauram 
flumen apud Gruter. p. 248. 9. Imp. Cccsari divi Tra- 
jani Parth. [supple/.] dim Nervce nep. Trajan. Hadri- 
ano Aug. pont. max. tr. pot. Ill cos. Ill L. Aquilius 
Manius Ilmr. Q. ob hon. augur. [1. August.jD.D. 
Within Aug. 1 1 A. D. 1 19— Aug. 10 A. D. 120. 

Euseb. Chron. Anno 2135 [from Oct. A. D. 119] 
Hadriani 3o Plutarchus Chmronimsis et Sextus et Apa- 
thohulus et (Enomaus philosophi cogyioscehantur. At the 
same year in Hieronymus. Syncellus p. 349 B. nXoiJ- 
Topxos Xatpcoveuy <^tAoo-o<|)os iTSLTpoittvtiv 'EAXctSos v-ao 
TOV avTOKpcLTopas KaTeardOt} y-qpaios. Seforos <^tXo'(ro0os 
Kol ' AyaOolBovkos /cat OiVo/xaos (yva>p[(ovTo. Plutarch is 
now in advanced age, but Sextus in early youth. If 


p a 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

rum p. 599. 9. D. M. Di- 

adumeno Aug. liberto prm- 
posit. ordinato ultro a divo 
Tito VIII COS. [A. D. 80] 
excessif Illlldm Septemh. 
L. Catilio Severo T. Au- 
relio Fuho cos. 

Capitolin. Antonin. c. 2 

de Antonino Pio : Fuit 
consul cum Gatilio Severo. 

Rightly referred to this 
year by Casaubon ad lo- 
cum p. 48. 

transgressm in Galliam Alexandrina seditione turhatus. — post Ikbc Hispanias pe- 
tit et. Tarracone hiemamt. — post hoc per Asiam et insulas ad Achaiam navigavit, 
et Eleusinia sacra exemplo Herculis Philippique smcepit. — post in Siciliam navi- 
gavit, in qua JEtnam montem conscendit. — Inde Romam venit atque ex ea in 
Africam transiit. — Nee quisquam fere principum tantum terrarum tarn celeriter 
peragravit. Denique quum post Africam Bomam redisset, statim ad orientem 
profectus per Athenas iter fecit atque opera quw apud Athenienses coeperat dedi- 
cavit, ut Jovis Oli/mpii fedem, et aram sibi. These journeys occupied many 
years. He visited Gaul in A. D. 120, Arabia and Egypt in A. D. 130: conf. a. 
His coins mark the countries which he visited but not the years : conf. a. 133. 


01. 225 U. C. Varr. 874. 
M. Annius Verus II et 
Augur Nor. Idat. Capi- 
tolin. Marco c. 1. 

"SievTjpov TO KOI Avyv- 
pLvov Chron. Pasch. 

Hadriani 5 from /// Id. Aug. 

Birth of M. Aurelius : Capitolin. Marco c. 1 . Natus est RomcB VI Kal. Maias 
in monte Gwlio in hortis [hence mons Ccelius meus Marcus apud Frontonem Ep. 
Marco I. 1 p. 68], avo suo [sc. Annio Vero] iterwm et Augure coss. Natales Cae- 
arum apud Bucherium p. 276. Marci Antonini VI Kal. Maii. 

Inscriptions of the 5th tribunician year: Grater, p. 198. 1. Collegium Augu- 
rum auctor[e] Imp. Ccesare divi Trajani Parthicif. divi Nerva nepote Trajano 
Hadriano Aug. pontif. max. t rib. pot. V cos. Ill procos. terminos pomerii restitu- 
endos curavit. Idem p. 156. 1. Imp. Gwsar divi Trajani Parthicif. divi Nervce 
repos Trajanus Hadrianus Aug. pontif. max. trib. pot. V cos. Ill restituit. Idem 
p. 197. 5. Ex auctoritate imp. Gmsaris divi Trajani Parthici f &c. Hadriani 
Aug. pontif. max. trib. potest. V imp. IIII [leg. imp. II. conf. a. 136. 137] cos. 
Ill Messius Eusticus curator alvei Tiberis et cloacarum urUs E. E. restituit &c. 
Within Aug. 11 A.D. 121— Aug. 10 A.D. 122. 


875. Acilius Aviola Co- 
relUus Pansa Nor. Idat. 
Chron. Pasch. 
Tabula in campo Martio 
apud Grruterum p. 337 
Panvinium p. 335. ...leius 
Diodes agitator /actio- 
Ills russatce ... one His- 
panus Lusitanus annorum 
XJCXXII mens. VII d. 
XXIII ... mum agitavit 
infactione alb. Acilio Avi- 
ola et CorelUo Pansa cos. 

Hadriani 6 from /// Id. Aug. 

Hadrian visits Athens, according to Eusebius : Anno 2137 [from Oct. A. D. 
121] Hadriani h« Hadrianus rogantibus Atlieniensibus leges e Dracone Solone ali- 
isque decerptas scripsit. Quum Cephisus amnis Eleusinem inundasset, Hadrianus 
pontem illi imposuit. Idem Athenis hiemavit. Placed by Hieronymus partly 
anno 2138, partly anno 2139. Probably the visit described by Spartianus 
(conf. a. 120), which preceded the voyage to Sicily. He might pass at Tar- 
raco the winter of A.D. 12^ (Spartian. 1. c), and at Athens the winter of 
A.D. 12*. 

Cippus Suessse in Campania apud Gruterum p. 151.3 Pa]rthici fl. divi 

Nervce nep. Trajani Hadriani Aug. pontif. max. trib. pot. VI cos. Ill viam Sues- 
sanis municipibus sua pec. fecit. 

Coins : see col. 4. 


876. Q. Arrius Pcetinus 
G. Ventidius Apronianus 
Nor. Aproniano et Pavr 
pino Idat. 

' Xirpatviavov to /3' Koi 
TlaixTTLvov Chron. Pasch. 

Antiquse figulinse signum 

Hadriani 7 from /// Id. Aug. 

In monte Pulciano in columna publica apud Gruterum p. 156. 2. Imp. GcBsar 
divi Trajani Parthici fil. divi Nerva; nep. Trajanus Hadrianus Aug. pont. max. 
trib. pot. VII cos. Ill viam Cassiam vetustate collabsam a Glusinor. Jtnibus Fh- 
rentiam perduxit millia passuum XXGI. Within Aug. 11 A.D. 123 — Aug. 10 
A. D. 124. 

R M A N I 


8 Greek Authors 

4 Latin Authoks 

Plutarch was 20 when Nero visited Greece (conf. a. 
66), he would bo now 74. His grandfather Lamprias 
conversed with P/dlotas, who was a young man in 
B. (J. 40 : Plutarch. Anton, c. 28. diiyyeiro yovv rffxCiv 
r(jj iraTnru AafiirpCa <I>i\ctfras o ' Aix(f>i(ra(v$ larpoi fivai 
n\v iv 'Ake^avbpda t6t€ fiavdavuv nji' T(\vr]v k. t. \. 
He is mentioned (AaixirpCai 6 ^/^eVepoy Trairwos) Sympos. 
I. 5. and is a speaker in the dialogue in Sympos. 
V p. 684 A. Aa/nirptay 6 ■ndinros riy.5)v l(f>rj. p. 678 E. eii 
\i.i(Tov ffir] ^6(y^ap.€vos 6 ■na.Triroi rificav Aap-Tipiai. His 
great grandfather Nicarchus remembered the battle of 
Actium in B. C. .SO : Plutarch. Anton, c. 69. 6 yovv 
■npoTiaimos r]p,5)V 'NUapxps StTjyeiTo k. r. \. Sexius, the 
grandson of Plutarch : Capitolin. Marco c. 3 Eutrop. 
VIII. 12. was still living towards the end of the reign 
of Marcus, 57 years after this date: conf. a. 177' 



{Artemidorm Capita and Dioscorides are named by 
Galen torn. XV p. 21. 'Apre/xtScopoy 6 eTTi.K\r)dds KairC- 

TUtV tK.ho<TLV iTTOlTjCTaTO tS)V 'iTTTTOKpaTOVS jSijiXCuiV (vboKt^ 

fiTjcraiTav ov fxovov ■napa. 'ASptarco 7(5 avTOKparopi. aWa 
Koi vvv iKav&s inro TToWav <n:ovha(op.ivr]v, Sarirep koL ?; 
Tov (Tvyyfvovs avriZ AioaKovpCbov. Idem tom. XIX p. 
63. 7ro\Aa yovv ^c(3KLa AiocTKOvpibrjs ypd\j/as, ovx 6 ivi- 
nkijOfh <t>aiias, 6 'Hpo<fiCk(wi [Suid. p. 1022. AiocntovpC- 
br}s Ava(apl3iVi, larpbs, 6 tmKKr]0(is <l>aKas — (tvv7)V h\ 
KXfOTTaTpa ettI 'Arrfflrton], a\X' 6 vecorepoy, 6 Kara Toiiy 
■naripas i}p.S>v. Dioscorides and his kinsman Capita 
might flourish at this period, about eight years before 
the birth of Galen.) 

Two coins of this year are given in Eckhel tom. VI 
p. 486. 501. 

1 Imp. C(ES. Hadrianus Atig. cos. III. + an. DCCCL 

XXIIII nat. urh. p. dr. con. 

2 Imp. GcBsar Trajanus Hadrianus Awj. p. m. tr. p. 

COS. Ill + an. DCCCLXXIIII not. urh. p. dr. 
con. S. C. 

As the year 1000 was celebrated by Philip in U. C. 
Varr. 1001 [conf. a. 248], it is likely that the year 874 
was celebrated by Hadrian in U. C. Varr. 8/5 ; and 
that these coins refer to April 21 A. D. 122. 




1 Consuls 

apud Panvin. p. 335 Gru- 
ter.p.1082.16. Q.Arr.Pce- 
tin. C. Ventid. Apron, cos. 
Ibid. Grut. p. 1079. 10. 
Q. Oppiiis f. — Feetino et 
Aproniano cos. 

2 Events 


877. M'Acilim Glabrio 
C.BeUic'ms Torquatus 'Nor. 
Idat. Chron. Pasch. 

Tabula in carapo Martio 
apud Grut. p. 337 Panvi- 
nium p. 335. de Diocle : 
conf. a. 122. primujwi vi- 
dt in factiom eadem M'' 
Acilio Glabrione 0, Bel- 
licio Torquato cos. primum 
agitavit infactioneprasina 
Torquato Asprenate II et 
Annio Libone cos. [A.D. 
1 28]. primum vicit [in fac- 
tion]e russata Lcenate Pon- 
tiano et Annio Rufino cos. 
[A. D. 1 3 1] summa quadri- 
ga agitamtannisXXIIII. 

Hadriani 8 from /// Id. Aug. 

[Inscriptions bearing the 8th tribunician year : Jaennii Hispan. apud Gru- 
terura p. 248. 10. Imp. Gees, dim Trajani Part. f. dim Nerves nep. Trajan. 
Hadriano Aug. pont. max. tr.p. VIII cos. Ill p. p. Basis marmorea Tibure 
apud Grut. p. 249. 5. Imp. Ccesari dim Trajani Parthici Jil. dim Nervce nep. 
Trajano Haariano Aug. pont. max. trih. pot. VIII imp. II cos. Ill p. p. optima 
maximoque principi magistri Augustales L. Cornelius Maximus &c. The addi- 
tion p./?. in these two inscriptions, in the 8th tribunician year, is erroneous: 
conf. a. 1 19. 4. 128. 2. Perhaps the date in both may be corrected to trih. pot. 
XIII or A. D. 129.] 


01. 226 U. C. Varr. 878. 
P. Cornelius Scipio Asia- 
ticus II T. Vettius Aqui- 
linus Nor. Asiatico et A- 
quilino Idat. Chron. Pasch. 

Romaj in antiqua figu- 
lina apud Panvinium p. 
336 Gruterump.1082.17. 
P. Com. Asiatic. II T. 
Veitio Aquil. cos. 

Hadriani 9 from /// Id. Aug. 

Hadrian according to Eusebius is at Athens: Anno 2140 [from Oct. A.D. 
124] Hadriani 8>"> Hadrianus rebus Eleusiniomm. imbuitur urbique Athenarum 
multa largitur. In Hieronymus anno 2141. On this occasion he is addressed 
by Quadratus and Arisfides: Anno 2140 Quadratus Apostolorum discipulus et 
Aristides dogmatis nostri philosophus Atheniensis supplices libellos Hadriano ob- 
tulerunt imperatori. Jam idem et a Sereno illustri prwside [Sereno Granio legato 
Ores. VII. 13] literas acceperat de Christianis contra fas non occidendis ob vulgi 
rumorem sine inquisitione criminumque objectione. Scripsit ergo ad Minutium 
Fundanum AsicB proconsulem, ut sine criminis expostulatione nemo damnaretur. 
cujus edicti exemplar adhuc circumfertur. In Hieronymus anno 2142. Named 
by Syncellus p. 348 C. D and Orosius VII. 13. Hieronymus ad Magnum torn. 
II p. 1082 = tom. II p. 218 F. Quadratus Apostolorum discipulus — nonne Adri- 
ano principi Eleusince sacra invisenti librumpro nostra religione tradidit? &c. — 
Aristides ph,iloso2)hus, vir eloquentissimus, eidem principi apologeticum pro Chri- 
stianis obtidit. Conf. Hieron. Catalog, c. 19- 20. Eusebius H. E. IV. 3 pre- 
serves a fragment of Quadratus : tov be arcaTrjpoi fifi&v to. tpya au Tiapi]V a\r]6rj 
yap riv. ol depairevdevrts, oi avaarivres f/c veKp&v, ot ovk &(j}0r)(Tav p.6vov dfpaufv- 
o/xei-oi Kal avi<TTap.(voi. aXKa koi ad irapovTes, ovbe finbrjixovvTos fiovov tov o-mnjpoy 
aXXa Kw, aTTaXkayfVTos, ^crav €m xpovov iKavov, wore koI ds tovs r)fjL€Tepovs xpo- 


According to Eusebius himself, Hadrian is again at Athens anno 2145 or 
Oct. A. D. 129. conf. a. 

R O M A N I 


3 Greek Authors 

4 Latin Authors 

^ I 

Philo Bihlius is in his 78th year in the consulship of 
Hermnim Severtis, and perhaps in A. D. 124; conf. a. 
47. Scaliger (JAu/xtt. avayp. p. 342 places the 78th year 
of Philo and the consulship of Severus at 01. 229. 1 
A. D. 137. But, as no Severus was consul in that year, 
Tillemont torn. II p. 277 supposes Scaliger to mean 
01. 230. 1 A. D. 141 . These dates, 01. 229 or 01. 230, 
are less consistent with the text of Suidas or with the 
time of Philo and of his disciple Hermippus than 01. 
225. Philo is consul himself according to Suidas p. 
3809 and Eudocia p. 424. Followed by Tillemont 
1. c. and by Harles ad Fabric. B. G. tom. IV p. 753. 
But Kuster ad Suid. justly doubts this, and accounts 
it the mistake of a transcriber attributing the consul- 
ship of Severus to Philo himself. Suidas p. 3809 names 
the works of Philo : yeypairrai. avriu Trept /cTTjo-eojy koX 
(K\oyi]s l3ij3kC(i)v /3i/3A.ia i/3 . TT(pl i;6\f(ov, Kai ots fKaa-Trj 
avT&v ivbo^ov^ TJvfyKe, /3t/3X^a \' [conf. Suid. v. ^(prjvos]. 
TTtpl TjJ9 /SocrtAeias 'Abpiavov, e(f) ov Koi Tjr 6 <i>L\(i)v. 
Perhaps in this last worli he mentioned his 78th year. 
For his version of Sanchoniatho apud Euseb. P. E. I. 9 
see Appendix. 


Pausanias the author of the wepw/yrjo-iy remembered 
this Olympiad: V. 21,6. (<l> rjixHv — (ktt] «7ri rats eiKoaL 
(cai biaKoaCais oXvimidtn. He flourished in the reign of 
Hadrian: I. 5, 5. kut ine ijbri /JacrtXeajs ''Abpiavov. His 
work was the labour of many years. He mentions 11. 
27, 7 oTtoira ''AvTiiivu-os avrjp rfji ^vyKX'qTov /Soi/XtJs etf> 
7JH&V (TioLrj<T£v. It is a probable conclusion that this 
sentence describing Antoninus was written in the reign 
oi' Hadrian. But a part of his work was composed 
almost 40 years after the death oi Hadrian: conf. a. 
176- Lib. I was WTitten before the Odeum was begun 
by Herodes Atticus ; lib. VII after he had finished it : 
VII. 20, 3. avijp ""AO-qvam (i:oC-q(Tev 'Hpa>br]i is p.irqiJ.r]v 
aTrodavov(rq9 yvvaiKOS. epMC bi iv ttj 'ArOibi, ivyypa(f>fj 
TovTO TTapfC0rj TO (obdov otl irporepov en (IfCpyaaro /xot 
7a (s ''Adi^vaCovs rj tnrfjp/cTo 'ilpdbrjs rov oiKobofxrjfjMTOs. 

The sophist described by Philostratus V. S. II. 13 
Suidas p. 2899 C is supposed to be the author of the 
ii(pn'iyr](ns by Vossius de Hist. Grjec. Jonsius Script. 
Phil. I. 2 p. 16 by Fabricius B. G. tom. V p. 307 by 
Olearius ad Philostr. Kuster and Reinesius ad Suidam, 
and by others. But this is very justly doubted by 
Siebelis praef. ad Pausan. tom. I, and is also doubted 
by Tillemont tom. II ^. 41G. The sophist and the 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 


879. M. Anniiis Verus 
III L. Varius AmUbulus 
Nor. Pont. 

Vero III et AmUgulo 
Idat. 'Sfj3ripov TO y Koi. 
' AiJL^iyovKov Chron. Pasch. 
Vero et Bibulo Capitolin. 
Pertin. c. 15. Verum et 
Annicwlimn liber pontifica- 
lis Damasi torn. I p. 555. 

Lapis apud Norisium 
0pp. torn. II p. 940. fecit 
dedica. V. K. Oct. Vero III 
et Amhihulo cos. 

Two inscriptions Ibid, 
have the names L. Vari 
Ambiholi and L. Varius 

Hadriani 10 from /// Id. Aug. 

Pertinax bom Kal. Aug. his coss. Capitolin. Pertin. c. 15. See A.D. 193. 
Idem c. I. JVatus est Pertinaw in Apennino in villa Martis. Dio 73. 3. riv 8e 6 
TJeprCva^ Aiyvs f$ 'AkjSrjs rio/xTnjfas, irarpbi ovk evytvovs. Natales Caesarum 
apud Bucherium p. 276. Divi Pertinacis Kalendis AuguMi. 

Death of Similis: Dio 69. 19. ixokis re &(f>fBfh iv aypiS i](rv\oi k-rrra Ir-q to. 
Xoiira Tov fiiov StTjyaye k. t. k. He had been removed from the praefecture 
A. D. 1 19 : conf. a. 

Tabula marmorea Eomse apud Gruterum p. 249. 1 . Imp. Ceesari divi Trajani 
Parth. filio divi Nerval nepot. Trajano Hadriano Aug. pont. max, trib. pot. X 
cos. HID. D. 


880. Titianus et Galli- 
canus Nor. Idat. Pont. 
Chron. Pasch. 

Hadriani 1 1 from /// Id. Aug. 

These coins apud Eckhel. torn. VI p. 500. 504. 505. 507 were issued after 
A. D. 1 1 8, and before A. D. 128, since the title p. p. is wanting : conf. a. 128. 

1 Imp. Gasar Trajanus Hadrianus Aug. p. m. tr. p. cos. Ill + hcupletaiori 

orbis terrarum. S. G. or providentia Deorum. S. C. 

2 Hadrianus Augustus •\-liberalitas Aug. IIII. cos. III. S. C. This between 

A.D. 122 and 128. 

R M A N I 


3 Gup;kk Authors 

4 Latin Authors 

author of the extant work are alike in nothing but in 
nanio. Tlie sophist was a Cappadocian, a favoured 
disciple oi Herodes Atticus, and passed his old age at 
Rome : Philostratus : Kaiadptia ?} KaTnraboKmv, op«t 
'Apyai<a ■apouoi.Kos, Wavcaviov tov <to<J)i<ttov oIkos. 6 bi 
Uavaavias (TtaibtvOr] ixiv vtto 'llpdbov, Koi. rmv tov icXf- 
\/ai6piot) \j.iT(x,ovT(a>v tls lyiViTo [conf. II. 10 p. 585] — 
■noWaX yap ai tov Ylavvaviov /xeXeVai koto n/v Pta/irjr, ov 
St; KaTafiiovi 6.itidavi yr]p6.(T Kmv ijbt]. Suidas : TlavcravCai 
Kaiarapfis cro<f>i(rn)i crvyxpovos 'Apiirrubov ov \xiiJ.vr\Ta{. 
is (jiavKov pi'iTopoi <t>iK6(TTpaTos k. t. A. The author of 
the extant work was born in the country from whence 
Pelops came: V. 13,4. OeAoTros koX TavTakov r^s nap 
fjniv fvoLKi](TfU)s oTjfjLua K. T. A. Ho often names Herodes 
but never calls him his preceptor. He had visited 
Rome, but did not write at Rome: VIII. 17>3. ika- 
<(>ovs (V 'Patp-r] kevKUs dbov — oi:6d(v bi — ia-(Kop.i(T6r\(Tav 
ovK (Tti^kdev fpfcrdai p.oi. Nor is the irepi^yijo-iy named 
among the works of the sophist. These arguments are 
urged by Siebelis. We may add that the sophist was 
rather later in time. The author of the wfpiTjyTjo-iy 
flourished cir. A. D. 125 — \'i<i. He was rather the 
mntem'porary of Herodes. The Cappadocian was the 
disciple ; was contemporary with Aristides, and taught 
.^lian and Aspasim who flourished A. D. 222. 23 1 : 
conf. a. 183. 222. 231. 


Diont/sius oi Halicamassm flourished in the reign of 
Hadrian: Suid. p. 1015 D. Aiowinos 'AAuapvao-erevy, 
yeyoro)? iTtX 'Abpiavov Ka^o-apos, (TO(j)i<TTi)i, Kal p-ovciKos 
KkrjOfh bia to TrkflaTov affKrjdrjvaL ra ttjs ^ovo-iktjs. (ypa\j/€ 
be pvdp,iKS>v VTTopLvrip.(kT(i>v /3i/3A^a Kb'. fioi/criKT^y torop^as 
j3t/3Aia kg-', iv bi tovtois avkr^T&v Kal Ki6ap(ob&v Kal -Kotr]- 
T&v TravToCatv pi( p.ov<nKy\s TratSe^os ?/ biaTpL^Qv 
fiijBkCa K/3'. TLva /xovtrwws eipijrai iv ttj V\kdT(avoi TroAt- 
Te[a, jBi^kia t . He preceded Herodian the grammarian: 
conf. a. 173. 

Gephalion flourished : Suid. p. 2082 0. KetfiakCav ^ 
Kfcfidkav, Tepyldios, prJTbip xal IcrropiKhs, yeyovus Inl 
''Abpiavov. (<})vyf be ttjv irarpCba 61' aTre-xdeiav bwaarmv, 
Kal efiiaxTfv iv liKekla. For his works see F. H. I p. 
265 l.m. 

Hermippus of Berytm flourished : Suid. p. 1445 0. 
Ep/iiTiros Bijpvrtos 07:0 (cm/xt/s p.etToyalov, p.adrirr\i ^lka>- 
vos TOV Bv^kCov v(}) ov (aKeidOr) 'Epevvia 2e;3»jp<p M 
Abpiavov ToC /SatriA^ajs, ^Kbovkos atv yivoi, Ao'yios <r<^o- 
bpa, Kol iypa\\te TTokXi. Quoted by Clem. Al. Strom. I 
p. 306. 6 BripvTios "EpfxiTnros XfCpava tov K^VTavpov cro- 
<f)ov KoXfi K. T. A. Steph. Byz. 'Pd^evva : 'Eppi. 6 Bripik, 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 


3 Hadrianus Augustus + Sicilia. S. G. Hadrian visited Sicily after his visit 
to Athens: conf. a. 120. 

Tabula Marmorea apud Gruterum p. 1016. 2. Imp. GcBsar divi Trajani Par- 
thicif. d. NencB nep. Trajanus Hadrianus Aug. pont. max. trih. pot. XI cos. Ill 
munificentia sua templum Dece Cuprm restituit. 

881. L. Nonius Asprenas 
Torquatus II M. Annitis 

Asprenate et Lihone Nor. 

Torquato et Lihone Idat. 
Chron. Pasch. 

Tabula apud Gruterum 
p. 337 Panviniura p. 336 : 
conf. a. 124. 

Hadriani 12 from /// Id. Aug. 

Hadrian assumes the title of pater patricB. Fixed to this year by Eckhel 
tom. VI p. 515 — 517 because ^.^. is absent from all genuine inscriptions down 
to trih. pot. X7 inclusive, and first appears upon inscriptions bearing trih. pot. 
XII ; because the Alexandrian coins of Hadrian bearing the years i/3' and ly 
have worrjp warpiSoy, but the coins of preceding and following years are without 
that title ; and because all the genuine coins bearing cos. II, and many with 
cos. Ill, those especially which are known to precede A. D. 128 (conf. a. 122), 
are without p.p. Hence Eckhel infers that although the title p. p. was con- 
ferred by the senate in A.D. 1 17> according to Orosius VII. 13 and Spartianus 
Hadr. c. 6, while Hadrian was yet at Antioch, yet he deferred assuming it — 
distulit Spartian. c. 6 — till the 12th tribunician year. Eusebius marks the 
assumption of the title: Anno 2141 [from Oct. A. D. 125] Hadriani 9" Impe- 
rator pater patricB appellatus est, ejusque uxor Augusta. In Hieron. anno 2142 
Hadriani 10». In Chron. Pasch. p. 254 D Hadriani 10" coss. Vero III et Amr 
hihulo : 'Abpiavos 6 avroKparutp Trarijp TtarpCbos avriyopiv6r), koI ?; yvvf] avTov 2e- 
(iacTTf). Inserted also in Syncellus p. 349 B. Eusebius, from whom the others 
derived this notice, confinns the fact that the title was assumed long after the 
accession of Hadrian. In the years assigned there is error. Eusebius is 3 
years, Hieronymus and the Paschal Chronicle 2 years, too early. In Cassio- 
dorus, although the consuls of Hadrian^ reign are all in the wrong places 
(see Appendix), yet this title pater patrim is rightly recorded under the 12th 
consuls of Hadrian. 


01. 227 U. C. Varr. 882. 
P. Juventius Cekus II Q. 
Julius Balbus 

Marcelh et Celso Idat. 
Chron. Pasch. Marcello 
II et Marcello II Nor. 

Tabellse tres aenese apud 
Gruterum p. 573. — ad 
XII K. Mart. P. Juven- 
tio Celso II Q. Julio Balho 
COS. p. 574 et Panvin. p. 
336. ad XII K. Mart. 
P. Juvmitio Celso II Q. 
Julio Balho cos. ad VII 
K. Jan. Marcello et Gallo 
[CiViO Gruter.] cos. 

Hadriani 13 from III Id. Aug. 

Hadrian passes the winter at Athens: Euseb. Anno 2145 [from Oct. A. D. 
129] Hadriani IS" Hadrianus Athenis Memem exegit, res Eleusiniorum inspexit, 
quorum gratia multas cedes eedijicaoit agonem edidit et hihliotliecam instruxit. In 
Hieron. two years later: Anno 2147 Hadriani 15" Hadrianus Athenis Memem 
exigens &c. Anno 2148 Hadriani 16^ Hadrianus cum insignes plurimas cedes 
Athenis fecisset &c. Syncellus p. 349 D after ^ao-tAe'tay t/3' 'Abpiavov hrj adds 
this paragraph. Eusebius is consistent with Dio and with the dates of Ha- 
drian^s visits to Gaza and Egypt: conf. a. 130. From Eusebius and Dio com- 
bined we may conclude that Hadrian was at Athens in October A.D. 129; 
that he passed the winter there, and proceeded in the spring of 130 to Syria 
Judaea Arabia and Egypt. He reached Egypt in the autumn of 130 : conf. a. 

Tabella aenea apud Gruterum p. 573. Imp. Gas. divi Trajani Parthici f. 
divi NervtB nepos Trajanus Hadrianus Aug. pont. max. trih. potest. XII cos. Ill 
p.p. iis qui militaverunt in classe pratoria Misenensi qua est suh Julio Frontone 
sex et viginti stipendiis emeritis dimissis honesta missione, quorum nomina suh- 
scripta sunt, ipsis, liheris posterisque eorum civitatem dedit et conuhium cutn uxo- 
rihus quas turn hahuissent cum est civitas lis data, aut si qui cxlihes essent, cum 
iis quas postea duxissent [thus far is repeated on the reverse], dumtaxat singuli 
singulas, ad XII Kal. Mart. P. Juventio Celso II Q. Julio Balho cos.— Be- 

R M A N I 


3 Grekk Authors 

4 Latik Authors 

'Povfvvav avTr]v KaKtl. Tertiillian. do Anima c. 46 
p. 311. Ccetera cum suis et oripinibus et ritibus et relor 
tionibus cum omni deincfip* hhtoria somniorum Hermip- 
pus Bcn/tensis quinione voluminum satiatmime exhihehU. 
See F. H. Ill p.51!)i N". 12. 

Nicanor is contemporary with ffermippus : Suid. 
p. 2593. NiKdvmp 6 'Epixftov 'AXefarSpevj, ypafifxaTticoy, 
yfyovcbs iirl 'Abptavov tov KaCcrapos, Sre koi "Epixnntos 6 



Aristides was bom when the planet Jupiter was in 
the sign Leo: Aristid. torn. I p. 519. 520. \4ovTa fj-iv 
flvai TTjviKavra f-nl iiiffov tov ovpavov tov 6e tov Aios 
aa-Ttpa vtto r<j) \(ovti. But this happened (every 12th 
year) in A. D. 105. 11 7. 129: Halley apud Masson. 
Vit. Aristid. torn. Ill p. XXIII. And Masson p. XXV 
shews from Aristides himself that A. D. 1 1 7 was too 
early. His birth is therefore fixed to A. D. 129. Born 
at Adriani : Philostr. V. S. II. 9 p. 581. 'ApiarTeCbriv 
TOV elre EvbaCfwvos fhe eiibaCfjiOva 'Abpiavol fiev ijveyKav 
— Adijvai be TjCTKYjcrav KaTa Tr)v tov 'Hpdbov aKfxrjv, (cat 
TO iv Trj ' Auiq X\ipyap.ov KaTa tt\v ' ApiaroKkiovs ykmrrav. 
Suidas p. 5G2 D. ' Apia-TtCbris 'Abpiavfvs a-o<f)iaTqi — Oo- 
XfHOivos TOV ^jxvpvaCov prfropoi f/a0jjrj;s, vXos Evbaifxovoi 
<I>lKo<t6((>ov re (cat leptcoy yevoi^evov tov iv ttj TtaTpibi av- 
Tov Upov TOV Aios. — jj(cpo(iii7aro 8^ 'Hp<obov kuto, tus 
'AOrjvas koI iv Ylfpydfxio 'ApicrroKkiovs. Aristides was 
also taught by Alexander of Cotieeum : Aristid. Or. 23 
p. 451. 'Akf^dvbpiD t5> bibacTK&Kt^. Or. 12 p. 134. Tpac^els 
vn iK((v<o (cat TraibtvOds (col ocra>v 7] Tvxn iTapi(TX( i^fTa 

Ulpianus libra XV ad edictvm apud Digest. V. 3, 20. 
Optimum est ipsius senatus conaulti interpretationem fa- 
cere, verbis ejus relatis : " Pridie Idm Martias QuitUus 
" Julius Balbus et Publius Juventius Celsus Titus Au- 
'■'■Jidius et Arrius Severianus eontules verba fecerunt de 
" his quce imperator Caesar Trajani Partkici filius divi 
" NervtB nepos Hadrianus Augustus imperator maxi- 
" musque priticeps proposuit quinto nonas Martias quee 
" proximce fuerunt, lihello complexus quid fieri placeret. 
•' De qua re iia censuerunt" &c. This act of the se- 
nate, quoted by Panvinius p. 336, marks the consuls 
of A. D. 129 (see col. 1), and the consules mffecti T. Au- 
fidius and Arrius Severianus. 

Q 2 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

scriptum et recognitum ex tabula <enea quce fixa est MomcB in muro post teraplum 
divi Aug. ad Minercam. Hence it appears that the 12th tribunician year was 
still current Feb. 18 A. D. 129. 

Gruter. p. 249. 2. Theani civitate Apulise : Imp. Gasari divi Trajani Par- 
thici f. dim Nervan nepoti Trajano Hadriano Aug. pont. max. trih. pot. XIII 
COS. Ill p.p. optima maximoque principi Theanenses D. D. 


883. q. Fahius CatuUi- 
nm M. Flavius Aper Nor. 
GatuUino et Libone Idat. 

KarovKKlvov koX Ai^tavos 
TO 13' Chron. Pasch. 

Inscriptiones apucl Gru- 
terum et Panvinium Q. 
FaUo Catullino M. Fla- 
vio Apro cos. see col. 4. 

Hadriani 14 from /// Id. Aug. 

The second era of Gaza marked upon coins apud Noris. Epoch, p. 497 Eck- 
hel. torn. Ill p. 453 commences in this year: Vi^a y. em /39p. — 8'. «Tri y'lp. — 
f. fTTi 89p. — e . eirl e9p. The first era of Gaza is fixed to A. S. 2,52 commenc- 
ing Oct. B. C. 61 by a coin oi Plautilla apud Noris. Epoch, p. 486 Eckh. torn. 
Ill p. 453. ^ovkoviav YlkavTiXkav Se/S. + r<ifa. h^tr. Plautilla was man-ied to 
Garacalla A. D. 202 A. S. 5 14. But if A. S. 5 15 was the 264th year, the first 
would coincide with A. S. 252 commencing Oct. B. G. 61 . Confirmed by Chron. 
Pasch. p. 185 C when rectified : 0^. 179. 4 Auktis 22" coss. Marcello II et Phi- 
lippo. ivrevOev TaCaioi Toiis iavT&v \p6vov9 api6fxov(TLv. The consuls are 5 
years above their true position (F. H. Ill p. VI) ; the 22nd year of Aulete^ 
commenced at the close of B. C. 60 (F. H. Ill p. 400). But A". S. 252 began 
in 01. 179.4 agreeing with the coin of Plautilla. The 192nd year of Gaza 
then was conumerary with A. S. 443, the 190th with 441 commencing Oct. 
A. D. 129. But if the 5th year of the second era coincided with 19^, the first 
year coincided with 19^ and commenced in the beginning of A. D. 130, to 
which date the visit of Hadrian, is fixed, being marked by this new era of Gaza. 
Confirmed by his visit to Egypt, which is determined to the 15tli year ot Ha- 
drian and to the month Athyr by an inscription apud Eckhel. torn. VI p. 490 
Dorvill. ad Chariton, p. 524 Eeisk. 

XkKvov avbrj<ravros iy<i> HottKios BaXiSivof 

(jxovas Tas 6(ias Me'^vovos rj ^afifvacj). 
^\6ov o^ov 8* epara BaaiKrjtdi rfjde Saliva, 

apas de 7rpo}Tas oKios €aj(f Spopov. 
KOipavto *Ahpiava) TTtpiTTa deKaroy iviavTci' 

apara 8' tcKev "Advp ciKOCTi Kai iritTvpa. 

flK0(TT<f •nipmrio apt-an p.r]vos Noe/x/3pios. 

The 15th of Hadrian began in Alexandrian computation Aug. 29 A.D. 130: 
conf. Eckhel. p. 490. The 84th day (24th of ^%r) coincided with Oct. 13 of 
the moveable year and with Nov. 20 of the fixed ; and the journey of Hadrian 
to Egypt is determined to autumn A. D. 130. To this date is to be referred 
the narrative of Dio 69. 11. dc^tKOjUfros be es ti]v 'EKXdba eTrd-nrfva-e to, fwaTripia' 
hia 8^ TTJi 'Iot)8a^ay (xero ravra es Puyxmrov Trapiaiv fvqyiarf ru Uop.Trr]t(o — iv bi rrj 
Alyvirrif Koi ttjv Avtivoov u>vojw.(Tp.ivr]v av(^Kob6p.r]cr€ ttoKiv k. t. A. and of Spar- 
tianus c. 14. Peragrata Arabia Pelusium venit et Pompeii tumulum magnificen- 
tius exstruxit. Antiiwum suum dura per Nilum navigat perdidit. His visit to 
Mount Casius (Spartian. Ibid.), to Gaza and Arabia, was in the beginning of 
A. D. 130, and he arrived in Egypt in the autumn. Eusebius : Anw) 2143 
[from Oct. A. D. 127] Hadriani 1 1» Antinous quidam aulicus puer obiit in 
.j^gypto &c. Hieron. anno 2145 Hadriani 13". Chron. Pasch. p. 254 C. f. vtt. 
'AySio'Aa Kol Tlava-a [A.D. 122] ""Abpiavos ds ttjv AV/viitov ■napeyivero koI mftt 
T7)v ^Avtivoov tt/j 0r)/3ai8os Ttpo y KuKavbrnv 'Nofp.j3piov. These dates are 3 years, 
one year, and 8 years, too high ; but the Chronicle may have preserved the 
true month, III Kal. Nov., which would place the death of Antinous at October 
A.D. 130. On Antinous conf. Ammian. XXII. 16, 2. 

R O M A N I 


3 Greek Authors 

4 Latin Authors 

ravra KOivrnvrja-as -nAvTiav 8ta <n:ovhf\i, Tpo(f>ia bM(rKa\ov 
-iraripa iralpov, Travr (Ixpv Ka\€iv. Conf. a. 161. 

Pancrates flourished : Athen. XV p. 6/7 d. YlayKpa- 

Trji TIJ T&V iwi.\b)pC<OV ITOITJTI/S, Sj' Koi TJpLfTi lyiXOjUf 2/, 'A- 

bpiav^ T(j) avToKpdTopt emSrifirja-avn rf] ' AX.(^avbpei(} [see 
col. 2] n(Ta TioK\rjs repareias (Tribfi^f tov pobl(ovTa \<a- 
Tov, (pa(rK<i>v avTov htlv KoXiiv 'Avtwohov. 

Appian Civ. II. 86 refers to this period: xp6v<o bi 
TOV Td(f>ov T6vbe [sc. Pompeii Magnt] — ^OjTjjo-e koI tvpiv 
ii: fixov PutixaCutv /Sao-iAevy ''Abpiavoi fTnbr]p.&v. see col. 2. 
Appian again mentions Hadrian : iii ip.ov 'Abpiavos 
Syr. c. 50. He had also lived in the roign of Trajan : 
Civ. II. i)0. ^tt' ^jLioiJ KOTO 'Pa)^a^Q)i' avTOKpdropa Tpa'Ca- 
vov. Ho names them both Ibor. c. 38. (ji 'l^rjpCa) ira- 
rpCs ^OTi Tpdiapov re koL 'Abpiavov t&v varepov 'Pw/xatoii' 
ap^ivTuv Tr)v avTOKparopa apx/iv. Phot. cod. .57 p. .'52. 
ovTos 6 Ainnavbi to piv yevos r/v ' AXt^avbpfvs iv 'P<op.r] 
bf TO ■npS)Ta SiKOis (rvvr)y6pu, IweiTa 8^ koX fiacriKimv iiri- 
TpoTiivfiv Tj^Lmdr] — i]Kp.aae be (v tois xpoVois Tpdiavov xal 
'Abpiavov. He wrote history in A. D. 147 : conf. a. 

Birth of Galen. His 37th year was completed in 
A. D 167 : conf. a. whence we may place his birth in 
A. D. 130 towards the autmmi, within the 14th year 
of Hadrian, conf a. 1.58. Suidas p. 793 A. TaXrjvbs 6 
biacrr)p.6TaT0%- larpbi, Tlfpyap-qvbs [er nepydfiw Trap' ep,o[ 
Galon, torn. XII p. 272], ytyovais i-nl MapKOV Kal Kojuo- 
bov KOI YlepTLvaKos t&v KuLcrdpcav (v 'Pdnu [A. D. 161 — 
lys], vlbs NiKCdi/os yttap-lrpov koX ap\i.riKTovos [conf. Ga- 
len, torn. VI p. 755], TTOAAO (TVVTiTaK<i}i IwrpiKO. Te KOl 

(j)LK6(ro<f)a, Iti bi ypapp.aTt.Ka ical pryropiKd. — ifi((a (rq . 

Inscriptions : Bomte apud Gruter. p. 578. 1 Panvi- 
nium p. 336. M. Ulpio Aug. lib. Ph<edvmo dim Trajani 
Aug. a potione item a laguna et tricliniarch. lictori prox- 
imo et a comment, heneficior. vixit ann. XXVIII, ab- 
scessit Selinunte prid. idus Augm. Nigra et Aproniano 
COS. [A. D. 1 171 reliquim trajecta ejus III Nonas Febr. 
ex permissu coUegii pontificum, piaculo facto, Catullino et 
Apro coss. dulcissimte memorice ejus Valens Aug. lib. 
Pheedimianus a veste bm. mer. fecit. 

Romso apud Gruter. p. 108. 6 Panvinium p. 337. 
C. Marcius C.f. Serg. Salvianus Norba genio centuries 
coh. X pr. 7 Mart Bassi in qua militavit an. XI IX 
voto suscepto missus /tonesta missione prid. Non. Januar, 
Q. Fahio Catullino M. Flavio Apro cos. anitno libens 
aram sua pecunia posuit. 

Arionse Hispan. apud Gruter. p. 249. 3. Imp. C<es. 
divi Trajani Parth.f. dim Ner. nep. Trajano Hadriano 
Aug. pont. max. trib. pot. XIIII cos. Ill p. p. munic. 
Aloengense Urgavonen. D. D. 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 


884. Ser. Octavius Lesnas 
Pontianus M. Antonius 
Rufinvs Nor. Pontiano et 
Rufo Idat. Chron. Pasch. 

Ronise apucl Gruterum 
p. 179- 6 Panviniura p. 
337. 'SVr. Octavio Lenate 
Pontiano M. Antonio Bu- 
fino cos. 

Tabula in campo Martio 
apud Grut. p. 337 Panvin. 
p. 337. Lcenate Pontiano 
et Antonio [Annio Grut.] 
Bufino cos. Conf. a. 124. 

Hadriani 15 from III Id. Aug. 

Hadrian in Syria: Dio 69. 12. es 8« ra 'lepoo-oAvjua -noKiv avrov avri rrjs ko- 
Ta(TKa<pfi(Tr\i olKicravTos, rjv koX AiXiav KairLTakivap oirojxaa-e, koX es Toy rov vaov 
Tov d(ov roTiov vaov ru Att trepov avTiyfipavTos, iroAf/.ios ovt( puKpos ovTf oAtyo- 
\p6vios (KivrjOr]. 'lovSaioi yap huvov tl •nowvp.ivoi to aX\o(f>v\ovs tlvcls es ttjv 
Ttokiv a-(p&v olKiaOrivai — irapojToy fjLiv fv Tf rfj AiywiTTO) Koi avOii iv rfj 'S.vpia tov 
'Abpiavov r^(TV)(a^ov — kitii 8e iroppca eyeveTO (f>avepais aTTtcrrriaav. Hadrian arrived 
in Egypt in autumn A. D. 130, and was therefore in Syria in spring or sum- 
mer A. D. 131. After that date the Jewish war began. 

The foundation of ^lia Capitolina, which was thus the cause of the war, is 
erroneously placed by Chron. Pasch. p. 254 A in A.D. 119 : Hadriani S" coss. 
Hadriano et Bustico. eirt Tovrav T<av inrdTcav 'IovbaCa>v oTaa-iaa-avTrnv rjKdev 'A6pt- 
avos eh 'lfpo(r6Kvfj,a Kal fKajie Toiis 'lovbaCovs aixfJ-aKcoTovs — xal KadfXav tov vaov 
tQv 'lovbaibiv TOV iv 'lepo(ToKvfj.OLs — kitlQ-qKi to kavTov ovop.a t^ TtoXu, hlKiav ai- 
TTjv dvopi,A(ras. But there was no temple at this time at Jerusalem, and Ha- 
drian passed A. D. 1 19 in Italy : conf. a. Eusebius places the foundation after 
the close of the war in 135 : conf. a. which Tillemont torn. II p. 289 properly 
explains to mean that the new city ^Elia was destroyed by Barchochebas and 
restored by Hadrian after the war. 

885. Augurinm et Sergi- 
anus Nor. Idat. Chron. 

Hadriani 16 from /// Id. Aug. 

Jewish war: Euseb. Anno 2148 [from Oct. A.D. 132] Hadriani 16" Judai 
ad seditionem conversi in Paltestinam excursiones fecerunt quvm esset regionis 
ejus preeses Ticinius Bufus [Tinnius Bufus Hieron. Syncell.] cui militares sup- 
petias misit imperator. Hieron. anno 2148. Transcribed by Syncellus p. 350 A. 
Euseb. H. E. IV. 6. koi 6jy to, r^s ^\ovhaia>v aTrocrrdo-ews avOn eh fieya Kal ttoXv 
irpoekdovcrqsy 'Pov(j)Oi eTiApxav Trjs 'lovhalas, orpaTiaiTiKrjs aiiTa cniju/xa)(tas wo 
/3ocrtXe'o)s T!ep.^6el(Tr)s, rais anovolai's avT&v a(f>eLbm \p(iiJ,evos €Trefrjet. — iarparqyei 
be 'lovbaioiv TrjviKavTa Bapx^ix^fias ovopxi. Spartianus c. 14 shortly mentions 
this war: Moverunt ea tempestate [referring to A. D. 130] et Judai helium, quod 
vetabantur mutilare genitalia. To this war Eutropius VIII. 7 may refer : Semel 
tantum ( Hadrianus) per prcpsidem dimicavit. The narrative of Dio (conf. a. 1 3 1 ) 
will place the beginning of this war in A.D. 131 ; one year higher than the 
date of Eusebius. 

Lapis apud Gruterum p. 177- 3. Imp. Cais. divi Trajani Parth. f. divi Nervce 
nep. Trajan. Hadrian. Aug. pont. max. trih. pot. XVI cos. Ill p. p. aqua in- 
dncta colon. Dame. Sarmiz. per On. Papirivm ^lianvm leg. ejus, 


01. 228 U. C 
Hiberus et 

le^epiov Kal 
Chron. Pasch. 

Varr. 886. 



Romse apud Panvinium 
p. 337 Gruterum p. 108.7- 
Gallicano et Vetere cos. VII 
Id. Jan. coh. I pr. 7 Sa- 
iri, Genio 7 missi honesta 
missione VII Hibero cos. 
II. L. Censorius &c. — Sei'- 

Hadriani 1 7 from /// Id. Aug. 

The Jewish war continues : conf. a. 134. 

Fifty-three coins of Hadrian marking the provinces which he visited are 
given in Eckhel torn. VI p. 486 — 501. 
1 Hadrianm Aug. cos. IIIp.p. + Bestitutori Achaice. 
The same obverse is on all the following coins : 

2 ^gyptos. 

3 Africa. 

4 adventui Aug. Africa. 

5 Restitutori Africa. 

6 Alexandria. 

7 adventui Aug. Alexandria. 

8 adventui Aug. Arabiee. 

9 Restitutori Arabus. S. C. 

10 Asia. 

1 1 adventui Aug. Asia. S. C. 

12 Restitutori Asia. S. C. 

13 adventui Aug. Bithynia.S.C 

14 restitutori Bithynia. S. C. 

15 Britannia. S. C. 

16 adventui Aug. Britannia. S.C. 

17 exerc. Britannicus. S. C. 

18 Cappadocia. S. C. 

19 exercitusCappadoeicus.S.C. 

20 adventui Aug. Cilicia. S. C. 

21 Dacia. S. C. 

22 exerc. Dacicus. S. C. 

11 O M A N I 


S Greek Authors 

4 Latin Authors 

Adrian tho sophist set. 18 hoard Herodes Atticus : 
Philostr. v. S. II. 10. 'Ahpiavov h'i rbv <PoCviKa Tvpoi 
ixkv I'lveyKfv 'AOiivai 8< I'laKtja-av. is yap Twr iixavroS 
bibaa-KaKiav iJKovov [conf. a. 239], a<f)(K(TO juh' ^y airoy 
Kara 'lip<abr)i' — (<poirq(Tf fxiv yap T(3 "H/moSj; (5)cTa)<affieKa 
fo-ots yfyovcoy Irij. Suidas p. 100 C. 'Abpiavos <ro^joT7/y, 
liadriTiji 'Hpubov, UK^xao-ay 8^ ^7ri MapKou '' Ainmvivov, &v- 
Ti(TxoKa(TTr)s 'ApuTTfChov Tov pi]Topos (V 'A^^vaiy yev6- 
fXfj'oy. ((ro(f)[aT(V(Te di Koi Kara ti]v 'Pco/xr;r, (cat diTtypa- 
(^eiy Tur (ma-ToKaiv virb Kop.6bov iyiv€To [coiif. a. 1 !>2]. 
As the latest date for Adrian's birth was A. D. 113 
(conf. a. 192), ho would be 18 in 131, when Herodes 
was not more than 31 years of age: conf. a. 17(>- 


Lolliarms flourished in the reign of Hadrian : Suid. 
p. 2335 C. AoXXiavoy 'E^eVioy tro^tor^S, p.a6r}Tr]s 'laaiov 
TOV ^ Acrcrupiov [conf. a. 101], yiyovw em ' Abpiavov tov 
Kalcrapor ^ypa\{rf woXXa. Philostr. V. S. 1. 23. AoXAt- 
avbi bl 6 ^E(f)((TWi ■npoxxTTi) p.\v tov 'A6rivT](n Qpovov irpQ- 
Toy [sc. TOV (ro<l)LaTLKOv\, iipov(TTr\ b\ tov ^AOrivaiutv Sjjfxov, 
OTpaT7;y7;o-ay avroiy ti]v ItiX t&v ottKiov tj 6e ap)(r] avTT] — - 
injvl Tpo^v eiTifieXtirai km (titov dyopoy. He taught 
Theodotus: conf. a. 1«8. and Philaper: V. S. II. 8. 
<fct\aypoy 6 Ki'Xif AoWiavov fi(v aKpoarrjs iyiviTO. We 
may place Lollianus at about the 1 6'th year of Ha- 
drian, as an intermediate point between his master 
Isceus and his disciple Theodotus. Iseeus flourished in 
A. D. 101; Theodotus, who died at something more 
than 50 years of age, was still living in A.D. 16"8 : 
conf. a. 

The Perpettial Edict : Hieron. Chron. Anno 204? 
[A.D. 13-i^] Hadriani 15" Salvius Jidianus perpetuum 
composuit edictum. Julianus was the ancestor of Di- 
dius Julianus who was emperor in A. D. 193 : Eutrop. 
VIII. 17. nepos Sahii Juliani qui sub divo Hadriano 
perpetuum composuit edictum. Spartianus Julian, c. 1. 
Didio Juliano — proavusfuit Salvius Julianus bis cortml, 
prcp/ectus urbi, et Juris consultus. Casaubon ad Spar- 
tian. p. 110 corrects Eutropius by Spartianus and 
makes Julianus the great grandfather of the emperor. 
But Reimar ad Dion. p. 1233 and Corsini de prsef. 
Urbi p. 70 after Muratori with better reason correct 
Spartianus by Eutropius ; for tho emperor was bom 
about A.D. 133: conf. a. 193. nearly at the date of 
the Peipetual Edict ; and was more probably the 
grandson of the author of tho edict than the groat 
grandson. Victor Caes. p. 325 confounds the two Ju- 
liani, and ascribes the edict to tho emperor. On the 
import of the edict see tho authorities quoted by Mil- 
man in his edition of Gibbon Vol. VIII p. 20. 

Euseb. Chron. Anno 2148 Hadriani \G« Favorinm 
et Polemo rhetor agnoscehantur. At the same year in 
Hioronymus. Named by Syncellus p. 350 B. This 
date for Folemo is confirmed by Philostratus : conf. 
a. 135. 

Polemo was the disciple of Timocrates Scopelianm 
and Dio: Philostr. V. S. II. 25 p. 530. Uokip.u>v be 6 
(ro0io-T7jy 0V&', wy ol TroAXot boKOVfn, ^nvpvalos ov0\ toy 
Tivfs, iic 'l>pvyS)V' dAA' i)vtyK€v avrbv r] AaobiKfia i) iv 
KapCq, TroTa/x(j> -npoaoiKOs AvK(a [But he is a Phrygian 
according to Philostratus himself p. 539 : ewetS?) Tore 
t] AaobiKfia tj) <\>pvy[a crvi'eTdTTeTo]. — ;/ /xer 8i/ tov OoA^- 
fiMvoy o^Kia TToXkol vrraroi koI Itc (pa(TTal bl aiiTov ttoX- 

Preceptors of Marcus Aurelius : Capitolin. Marco 
0. 2. 3. Fuit a prima infantia gravis, at ubi egressm 
est annos qui nutricum focentur aumlio, magnis prwcep- 
toribus tradiius ad philosophieB scita pervenit. Usus est 
magistris ad prima elementa Euphorione literatore et 
Gemino conicedo, musico Androne eodenupie geometra 
quibus omnibus ut disclplinarum auctoribus pluritnum 
detulit. Usus preeterea grammaticis Graco Alexandro 
[conf. a. Ifil. 3] quotidianis Latinis Trosio Apro et Pol- 
Hone et Euiychio Proculo — oratoribus usus est Gnecis 
Amnio Macro Caninio Celere [conf. Marcum it. iavT. 
VIII. 25 Philostr. V. S. I. 22 p. 524] et Herode Attico 
[conf. a. 143. 3], Latino Frontone Gomelio [conf. a. 143] ; 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

mam HI cos. [A. D. 1 34] 
T. Annius Crispinus &c. 

23 adventui Aug. Gallia. S.C. 34 adventui Aug. Judaa. S. C. 43 exerc. Moesiacus. S. C. 

24 Restitutori Gallice. 35 exercitus Judaicus. S. C. 44 Restitutori Nicomedice. 

25 Germania. 36 adventui Aug. Macedonia. 45 Nilus. S. C. 

26 exercitus Germanicus. S.C. S. C. 46 exerc. Noricus. S. C. 

27 Hispania. 37 Restitutori Macedoniee. S.C. 47 adventui Aug. Phrygice. S.C. 

28 exercitus Hispanicus. S. C. 38 Mauretania. S. C. 48 Restitutori Phrygiee. S. C. 

29 Restitutori Hispanue. 39 adventui Aug. Mauretaniee. 49 exercitus Raticus. S. C. 

30 Italia. S. C. 50 adventui Aug. Sicilia. S. C. 

31 adventui Aug. Italia. 40 exercitus Mauretanicus. S.C. 51 Restitutori Siciliee. S. C. 

32 Restitutori Italim. 41 RestitutoriMauretaniee.S.C. 52 exercitus Syriacus. S. C. 

33 Judaa. S. C. 42 adventui Aug. Moisia. S. C. 53 adventui Aug. Thracia. S.C. 

Although Hadrian began his progress through the provinces in A. D. 120 
(conf. a.), yet all these coins were issued after A. D. 128 ; since they bear p.p. 
Some, as Arabia Alexandria u^Egyptos Judcea, not before A. D. 130, some later 
than the present year. 

Other coins in Eckhel torn. VI p. 501 — 509 were also struck after A. D. 
128 : as 1 Imp. Casar Hadrianus Augu. cos. Ill p. p. + decursio. 2 Hadrianus 
Aug. cos. Ill p.p. + disciplina Aug. or liberalitas Aug. VI. or liberalitas Aug. 
VII. or tellus stabil. 

Marmor Romse apud Gruter. p. 249. 7- I'mp. Casari divi Trajani Parthicif. 
divi Nervas nepoti Trajano Hadriam Aug. pontif. maxim, trib. potest. XVII 
COS. Ill p. p. Cohnia Ostia conservata et aucta omni indulgent ia et liberalitate 


887. C. Julius Servilim 
Ursus Servianm III C. 
Vibius Juventius Varus. 

Serviam et Varo Nor. 
Severo III et Varo Idat. 

'S.ifiripov Koi Ovdpov 
Chron. Pasch. 

Beneventi apud Gruter. 
p. 431. 9. 0. Luccitis C.f. 

Stel. Sahinus missus ab 

imp. Hadriam Aug. Ser- 
viano III Vibio Varo cos. 

In vetusto latere apud 
Noris. 0pp. torn. II p. 
943. Serviano III et Varo 


Spartian. Hadr. c. 8. Ser- 
viano sororis viro — tertium 
consulatum. — concessit Ha- 

Gruter. p. 108. Serviano 
III COS. conf. a. 133. 

Tabula apud Panvin. p. 
337. XIII I Kal. Mart. 
Ser. Serviano III et 0. 

Hadriani 18 from III Id. Aug. 

Euseb. Chron. Anm 2150 [from Oct. A. D. 134] Hadriani 18" Cochebas Ju- 
daiccB de/ectionis auctor multos Christianas vario suppliciorum genere excruciavit 
propterea qmd secum mllent ad bellum adversus Romanos procedere. Hieron. 
anno 2149. Syncellus p. 350 A. Xox«/3as — Xpttrnai'ovs Tioidkats hip.mpr\(TaTo ixj] 
jSovXoixfvovs Kara 'Paixaiwv avpLfiaxfiv. Justin Martyr. Apol. I. 31 cir. A. D. 151 
notices this war as a recent event : iv tu vijv yeyevTjfxeVo) 'lovbdiK^ TroXe'/xo) Bap- 
\o\fPas 6 T7JS 'lovbaicov aTToaracreois apyr\yirr}s Xpumavovs fiovovi ets Tinaplas 
bdvas — fKf\fV€v a-nayicrOai. And again in the Dialogue with Tryplio c. 1. <^v- 
yuiV Tov vvv yev6p.ivav ■nokep.ov. c. 9. toC Kara Ti\v 'loi/Sat'ai' yevofxivov ■noXfuov. 
To this period of the war we may refer the mission of Severus: Dio 69. 13. 

TOVS KpaTlOTOVS tS>V (TTpaTTjy&V 6 'AbpLavos €tt' aVTOVS fTtfir^iV, 3>V Trp&TOS loiiXios 

^el3ripo<i vmjpxev ceno Bperraviai, rjs rip^fv, ewi tovs 'lovbaCovs araKeCs' os &imKpvs 
IJ.€V ovbafxodfv €roAfi7)(r€ Toiy ivavrioi's (TvpL^akfiv — \ap.j3ivmp 6' d)s exdorovs TrXjj^ti 
tUv crTpaTimT&v (cat tUv {nTapx<>"-; koL Tpo(t)rjs aTrdpyuv koX KaraKKelav -qhwridri 
jSpabvTfpou p.iv aKivhworepov hi KararpZ^ai Kal eKTpvx&crai, km (KK6\jfai avTov?. 

Coins of Alexandria commemorating Antinoiis bear the 18th and follow- 
ing years of Hadrian: Eckhel. torn. VI p. 537. 'Avrivoov ijpaos+L. irj' or 
L . id'. 'AvTivoov rjp(aos+L. k. or L. ko!. The 18th year commenced Aug. 29 
A.D. 133, the 21st Aug. 29 A.D. 136. These coins therefore confirm the 
date obtained from other testimonies, A.D. 130, for the death oi Antimiis. 

A coin bearing L. TpiaKaihiKArov, and therefore preceding Aug. 29 A.D. 129, 
is rejected by Eckhel Ibid, as not genuine. 

Lapis Braccarse apud Gruterum p. 156. 3. Imp. Cms. Trajan. Hadrian. Aug. 
pout. max. trib. pot. XVIII cos. Ill p.p. a Braccara Aug. m.p. XXIII. 

R O M A N I 


3 GuKKK Authors 

4 Latin AnxHOKs 

kal Tiokfis 8ta(/)€poWa)s 8« 7) 2nvpva. p. 536. biatfiopas 
T^ TiixoKparei npos tov ^KoireXtoi'or yivoy.ivr\>! — 6 FloA^- 
ftMV, a\j.<\>oiv anpocafjifvos, tS)v tov TiixoKparovs o-Too-tairdiv 
iyiviTo. p. 5;J9. (prjfflv 6 TloX^fiav fjKpoaadai, Kal ACmvoi. 
Suid. p. 3021. rioAe'/iicuy Aao8u€i/s — bibda-KuKos 'ApitrreC- 
bov TOV prfTopos. Tjv hi evC Tt Tpdiavov KaX fxtr avTov. 
Ha9r]Ti}s bi fy4v(To TifioKpaTovi tov i$ 'HpaKKeCai ttjs iv 
r(p rioVra) <j)i,\ocr6<f)ov Koi ^KOireKiavov tov aro^iarov. (T(- 
XfVTTjcrf be tf Kal v hiavToiv. Philostrat. V. S. I. 25 
p. 543. 'ETfktvTa irtpl to. tf koi v in). When the 
sophist Dioni/sius Miksim was old, Polemo was a 
young man : conf. a. 239. He was ambassador for the 
first time from Smyrna in the old ago of Scopelianus : 
Philostr. V. S. I. 21 p. 521. I. 25 p. 53fi. He was 
older than Herodes Atticus : conf. a. 135. but as he 
was still living in A. D. 143 (conf. a.) and died at 56, 
ho could not have been born earlier than A. D. 87. 
Favorimis and Polemo were rivals : Philostr. V. S. 1.8 
p. 490. 1.25 p. 53G. 

Marms — top ^v^clvtiov a-oc(>i(TTr]v MdpKov Philostr. 
V. S. I. 24 — was contemporary with Polemo : Ibid. 
T!ap7]\d(v es Tr)v tov IloA.e/xaji'os biaTpifSrjV dvonaaTos ybrj 
&v. In the reign of Hadrian : Ibid, riydadri avTov Kal 
'kbpiavos avTOKpaTiap T!pi<Tfi(vovTa inrfp Bv(avTC(itv. 
The disciple of Isceus : conf. a. 101. 

sed multum ex his Frontoni detuUt.—Duodeeimum an- 
nwni ingressug habitiim philosophi assumpsit. — Usm est 
et Apollonio Chalcedonio Stoico philosopho [conf. a. 148] 
— audivit et Sextvm Cheermiensem Plutarchi nepotem 
[conf. a. 177. 3 Dion. 71. 1 Eutrop. VIII. 12 Themist. 
Or. 1 1 p. 145 .Marcum it. iavr. I. 9] Juniwm Rusticum 
[conf. Dion. 71. 35 Marcum ir. iavr. I. 7. 17] «' Cinnam 
Catullum stoicos. Perijjatetica; vero studiosos audivit 
Claiidium Severum et prcpcipue Juniwm Rusticum, qiiem 
et reveritus est et sectatus, qui domi militieeque poltebat, 
stoicce disciplincB peritissimum, cum quo omnia communi- 
cavit publica privataque consilia. Marcus received in- 
structions from some of these at this time in his 12th 
year : from others at a later period. They are here 
brought under one view that the whole testimony of 
Capitolinus might be given at once. Marcus himself 
ir. kavT. I. 12 adds another preceptor: itapa 'Ake(dv- 
bpov TOV TlkaTQivtKov TO p,i] TtokkdKis jurjfif \<t>pls dvdyKtjs 
kiyfiv K. T. k. 

Euseb. Chron. Anno 2149 [from Oct. A. D. 133] 
Hadriani 1 7" Basilides h<eresiarcha sub hoc ipsum tenv- 
pus innotuit. In Hioron. anno 2149 Basilides haresi- 
arcJia in Alexandria commoratur. a quo Gnostici. Idem 
Catal. c. 21. Moratus est Basilides, a quo Gnostici, in 
Alexandria temporibus Hadriani, qua tempestate et Co- 
chebas [see col. 2] — Ckristianos variis suppliciis enecavit. 
This agrees with other accounts of his time. He had 
conversed with a disciple of St. Peter: Clem. Al. Strom. 
VII p. 7()4. TTfpl Tovs 'Abpiavov tov /Sao-iXeus x/'"'''"'^* "' 
Tovs alp(<TfLS (Trivoria-avTts ytyovacri, Kal p.^xP'- 7^ "1* ^^''- 

TlavLvOV TOV TTpia^VTlpOV bliTUVaV 7/XlKlOS' KaOaTiip 6 Ba- 

(Tikiibrjs, Kav TkavKiav eTrtypac^Tjrai hibda-Kakov, ws av- 
\ov(nv avTol, tov IT^rpov epp,rivea. Ho came between 
Menander and Valentinus : Tertullian. pnescr. hser. 
c. 46". hareticus est primus omnium Simon Mapus — j)ost 
hunc Menander discipulus ipsius — secuttis est post kcec et 
Saturninus [Idem de anima c. 23. Saturnius Menandri 
Simoniani discipulus] — Postea Basilides ha reticus erupit. 
Euseb. H. E. IV. 7. d-no tov Mevdvbpov, hv bidboxov tov 
S^jucdvo? 'jbr) TTpoTfpov [III. 2()] T:apab(b(OKap.fv — bvdv 
aip4(rea>v bia<})6p(i)i> apx>jyovs — 'SaTopvlvdu re 'AvTiox^a 
TO y(vos Kal BacnKeibriv ^ Akf^avbpia, S>v KaTo. ^v- 
piav 6 bi KaT' AlyvTiTov (Tvvecm](TavTo diop.i.(TS>v alpea-fiov 
bibaa-Kakfla. Epiphan. liter. 31 p. 164 A. OvaktvTivoi 
p,ev ovv TO) Xp6v(o biabfXfTaL tovs vpo avTov TtpoTfTayp-i- 
vovs, Bacriktibrfv re Kal ^aTopvu'ov 'Ej^Cavd re Kai K-q- 
pivBov Kot ^i]pw6ov Kal tovs dp.(j) avrovs. ovtoi yap TravTts 





1 Consuls 

2 Events 

Juventio Vero cos. ubi leg. 
Varo. Salmasius ad Spar 
tianum p. 19. " Verum 0- 
nuphrius perperam ; nam 
is C. Vbius p. Vibius] Jvr 
Varus dictus est." 

Secundus consulatus Ser- 
viani exstat apud Grute- 
rum p. 175. 10 190. 6 
Urso Serviano II L. Fabio 
Justo COS. conf. Panvin. 
p. 333. 


888. Pontianus et AtiU- 

Pontia/no et 
Rnfo Idat. 

Luperco et Attico Nor. 

IIojTioi'oi) TO j3 (cat ''Xkv- 
\Cvov Chron. Pasch. 

Vetusti lateris inscriptio 
apud Norisium 0pp. torn. 
II p. 944. Pontiano et A- 
tiliano cos. 

De his coss. conf. Noris- 
ium Ibid. 

Hadriani 19 from III Id. Aug. 

Jewish war ended : Euseb. Chron. Anno 2151 [from Oct. A. D. 135] Hadri' 
ani 19" Judaicum helium denique dehellatum est ita ut e Judmis post clades tot 
vix quisquam sospes evaserit. Ex hoc tempore accessu quoque ad Hierosolyma 
interdictum est eis, primum Dei voluntate deinde Romanorum jussioniltis. Hieron. 
Anno 2150. Transcribed by Syncellus p. 350 A. Euseb. H. E. IV. fi. oKjita- 
cravTOi hi tov ■nokifi.ov Irons oKrw/caiSexctTov ttjj fj-yeixovias ''Abpiavov Kara BiOOrjpa 
iroKiv, rjTis rjv 6)(ypii>TdTr}, r&v lepocrokviMov oil a<f>6bpa Ttoppu) huaTSxra, ttjs re 
e^atOev TToKiopKCas ^poviov yivop,f.vr)s, Xvp^ re kol tl^u t&v viu>T(poTtoi5>v els i(T\a- 
Tov 6X(6pov trtpifXaOivTav — to irav idvos f^ (Kelvov koI ttjs irfpl to. 'lepoaoXvpu 
yrjs TtajxTjav tTufiaivuv etpyiTai vofwv boyp-aTi Koi Starafeo-tv 'Abpiavov, b>s &v fj.rjb'' 
f$ avoTTTov Ofoipo'iev to -naTp^ov fbacpos fyKfXfvcraixivov Api(rT(av 6 UfWalos 
iaropfi. ovTa> br] Trjs iioKfcoi eis (pr)p.lav tov 'lovbaiwv eOvovs — eXOovarrji — f) nfTe- 
Tretro orvcrTaa-a PcojuaifO) ttoXis ttjv (Timmniav ap.ii'^acra eh ttjv tov KparovvTOi Al- 
\[ov ^Abpiavov Tifxriv Alkia TtpocrayopeveTai [conf. a. 131]. Conf. Oros. VII. 13. 
Dio 69. 14. 6\Cyoi, b' ovv KoiJ.Lbrj TiepieyevovTo. /cot (jypovpta fj,ev avT&v v to. ye aft- 
oAoywrara KGip-ai be Qwe' ovop-aoTOTaTai KaTe(npa<^r\<Tav avbpes be vr\ ixvpiabei 
((T(l)dyri(rav ev re rats KaTabpofiais koX rats [MxaLs {t&v re yap Ai/.i(3 /cat ro'o-co jcai 
TTvpl (^dapevTiav to ttAtjSos ave^epevvrjrov ^v)' &are iraaav oKiyov beiv tt}v '\ovbaiav 
eprjixa>6rjvai — TroXAot jxevToi ev rw TtoXefKo tovtih /cat t&v 'P<i>ixaC(i>v aTidKovTO. bib 
(cat 6 Abpiavoi ypa.(f>a>v irpos ttjv PovXrjv ovk e\p-q(TaT0 rw Trpooiixiw ti2 crvvrjOei 
K. t. k. — TOV be ^e^rjpov es BiOvviav lnep.\j/ev. Bethera surrendered in August: 
Hieron. ad Zachari. c. 8 p. 210B. In hoc merne — capta urhs Bethel, ad quam 
multa milHa confugerant Judmorum, aratum templum in ignominiam gentis op- 
pressce. a T. Annio Rufo. On a comparison of Wiese several dates we may de- 
termine the surrender of Bethera or Bethel to August A. D. 135 and the end 
of the war to the autumn in the beginning of the 19th year oi Hadrian. The 
war lasted 3 years and a half: Hieron. in Daniel, c. 9 p. 504 C. Tres anni et 
sex menses sub Hadriano supputantur, quando Hierusalem omnino subversa est et 
Judceorum gens catervatim ccfsa. This computation agrees with Dio, and will 
carry back the beginning of the war to the spring of A. D. 132 : conf. a. 131. 
132. Of this war Pausanias speaks I. 5, 5. 'Abpiavoi — es p.ev iroKep-ov oibeva 
eKovcrios KaTefir), 'E^paiovs be tovs inrep ^vpav e^eipdvaro a.TT0(TTavTas. 

R O M A N I 


3 Gbeek Authors 

4 Latin Authosb 

iv hi Kaip<f T<I) fii<f KaK&s i^vrjcrav. For Valentinus 
conf. a. 140. 

Mosheim de rebus p. 336 rejects the accounts that 
Saturninus was the disciple oi Menander : "Si Menan- 
" dri discipulus esset Saturninus, secta ejus ad primum 
" sseculuiu esset referenda." But Simon Magm was 
contemporary with St. Peter A. D. 35 — G5 ; Saturninus 
taught in the time of Basilides cir. A. D. 110 — 134. 
Menander might come between them, as Glaucias came 
between St. Peter and Basilides. If Basilides con- 
versed with St. Matt/lias the apostle (Mosheim p. 357 
Olem. Al, Strom. VII p. 7fi5), there is still less diffi- 
culty in supposing that his contemporary Satuminm 
conversed with Mmander. The remark of Mosheim 
Ibid, that the tenets of Saturninus differed from those 
of Menander, is no objection to the accounts. Satur- 
ninus formed a system of his own ; but ho formed it 
of materials which Menander had supplied. Mosheim 
admits p. 194 that " eadem fere do Deo de materia de 
" mundi origine de animis et corporibus docere." 

Polemo is at Athens at the last visit of Hadrian : 
Philostrat. V. S. I. 25 p. 533. to 8e 'Adrivrjciv 'O\vfj.inov 
hi i^riKOvra kol TTfinaKoa'icov (t&v airoTfXfaOiv KaOifpdxias 
6 avTOKparmp [sec col. 2], wy xpovov p-iya ^yiaviapa, iKi- 
\tv(re Kol Tov YloXepMva f<l>vpvfjcrai rfj Ovcria k. t. \. He 
was honoured by Trajan and Hadrian : Ibid. p. 532. 
Tpdiavoi piv airo/cpcirajp arfX-q TtopfiKcrOai hia y^s Koi 
OoXAtttis (ibaiKfv) 'Abpiavbs bi koX roiy &Tt avrov ira(rt' 
(care'Aefe bi avrov kol 7<5 tov Movaruov kwX<i> is Tr)v Al- 
yvTtTiav cTiT7}<nv [conf. a. 130. 2], k. t. X. Polemo was 
heard by Verus in A. D. 143 : conf. a. Herodes Atticus 
when now in reputation, and governor of the cities of 
Asia, came to Smyrna and heard Polemo : Philostr. 
V, S. p. 537- TToVe, (Imv, S irdrfp, aKpoaaopfOa itov ; 
K.T.X. Herodes Ibid. p. 538 describes the declamation 
of 3 days delivered at this visit. 

Arrian is governor of Cappadocia: Dio 69. 15. 6 pikv 
ovv Tuiv '\ovhai(i)v TToKfpoi ovTa>i (TeXfvrq<Tev [in A. D. 
135]" ?T(pos 6e ff ^AK^av&v — eKivrjOr} inrb ^apacrpdrov 
K. T. \. — (TtfLTa, tS>v 'AXj3av&v to. pev bdpon vtto tov 
OvoXoyaCcrov TTfurOfVTav to 8e koi 'PXa^Lov 'Appiavov tov 
TTJs KairiTaboKiai ipxavTa (fiop-qdevTtav, iitavcraTo. Arrian 
is thus described by Suidas p. 557 A. 'Appiaros Niico- 

pi]biVS, tl)lX6(T0<f>0S 'ETTlKTriTflOS, 6 ilTI.KXr]6(ls V(OS SfVO- 

<f>a>v. i)P be fv 'V<i)prj (tA ^Abpiavov k(u MapKOU icai ' AvTut- 
vivov T&v j3acnXemv, kuI a^Loipdriav pfTaXafiiov /cat ^le'xpty 
aiiTov TOV vTTaTfv<raL, Kadd (f)ri<nv 'EAi/cwrios, bia rrfv Tjjy 
TtaibeCas bf^ioT-qTa. For the testimony of Photius 
conf. a. 103. For Themistius, conf. a. 148. 

Agrippa Castor flourished: Hieron. Catal. c. 21. A- 
grippa cognmnento Castor, vir valde dodus, adversnm 
XXI V Basilidis hceretici volumina qucB in Evangelium 
confecerat fortissime disseruit, prodens ejus universa 

R 2 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 


Hadrian according to Dio 69. 15. 16" is at Athens towards the close of the 
Jewish war; 6 fj.(v ovv r&v 'lovbaCcav iroKeixos «? tovto freXevrTjo-er — 'Abpiavbs bi 
TO Tf 'OXv\j.-niov TO Iv Tais ^XQrjvai's, (v <S koL avTos tbpvraL, (^(TioCrjae [conf. Pau- 
san. I. 18, 6 Spartian. Hadr. c. 13] — ra re Alovvo-m tj)v ixeyCa-Tt^v Trap avToh 
apxrjv ap^as [sc. in A.D. 112: conf. a.] — Aa/xupcoj «7rereA€<T« — Tiqv re K€<|)aX>j- 
vlav oKrjv rots 'AOrjvalois kj^apLcraTO. — es be ti]V 'P(i[ir)v eKOiav, k. t. \. Hadrian 
probably presided at the Dion^ia of March A. D. 135, and now dedicated the 
temple of Jupiter Olympius which he had begun before. See Spartianus quoted 
at A.D. 120. The initiation oi Hadrian is placed at this time by Tillemont 
torn. II p. 250 Eckhel torn. VI p. 482. But without reason. Dio 1. c. does 
not name it, and Eusebius attests that the initiation was at a former visit, 
A. D. 122 or 125 ; which is even implied by Spartianus c. 13. The first and 
second visits to Athens are recorded by Eusebius: conf. a. 122. 125. a third 
by Eusebius and Dio: conf. a. 129. and the fourth, in A. D. 135, is attested 
by Dio. 

Hadrian adopts Verus : Spartian. Vero c. 3. Adoptatus -^lius Verm ah 
Hadriano eo tempore quo jam parum vigebat et de successore necessario cogitahat, 
statimque praior /actus et Pannoniis dux ac rector impositus: mox consul creatus 
\Kal. Jan. A. D. 136] ; et, quia erat deputatus imperio, iterum consul designatus 
est [in Kal. Jan. A. D. 137]. Verus therefore was adopted in 135, but received 
the name of Ccesar in 136 : conf. a. 


889. L. Ceionius Commo- 
dus Venis Sex. Vetulenus 
Civica Pompeianus 

Nor. Idat. 

Kofifj-obov Kol TlovTiavov 
TO y Chron. Pasch. 

Romse apud Gruterum 
p. 9?). 5 Panvinium p. 338. 
Genio Somn. L. Domitius 
L. L. Argyrm Lanarius 
Domitia L. L. Myrtale S. 
P. D. D. dedic. K. Jan. 
L. Ceionio Commodo et Sex. 
Vetukno Pompeiam cos. 

Romaj apud Gruterum 

p. 8/4. 5. data XIII 

Kal. Julias in hortis Sta- 
tilimMaxinKc Ceionio Com- 
modo et Civica Pompeiano 


Marmor apud Panvini- 
um p. 338 Gruterum p. 
249. see col. 2. 

Hadriani 20 from /// Id. Aug. 

L. Verus receives the title of Cersar and the tribunician power: Dio 69. 17- 
ap^dpLevos 8e vorrelv ( AbpLavos) — aireyvda-Or] fiiv jiitLana-OaL, koX bia tovto Ko'/i- 
p.obov tJ.\v AovKiov, KaiToi alp.a ffXovvTa, KaCaapa 'Pa)/;xaiots aiiibei^e' ^(pov'iavbv 
bi Kal ^ovoTKOv Tov iyyovov avTov o)S koI ayavaKrqaavTus eni tovtco (<j)6vev(r{ 
[conf. c. 2], TOV \xiv (Vivr)KovTovTr)v ovTa TOV bk OKTcaKaibeKfTTjv. Verus is not yet 
Ccesar on the Calends of January : see col. 1. His first tribunician year was 
still current Aug. 11 A. D. 137, in the 21st tribunician year oi Hadrian: conf. 
marmor apud Eckhel. torn. VI p. 524 Gruter. p. 252. 2. It began therefore 
after Aug. 11 A.D. 136. But an Alexandrian coin of Verus apud Eckhel. 
p. 525 bears the date L. y. iiprivq. This third year (in Alexandrian reckoning) 
must have commenced Aug. 29 A. D. 137, because Verus died Jan. 1 A. D. 138 : 
conf. a. Consequently his first year began before Aug. 29 A.D. 136. The tri- 
bunician power was therefore conferred upon Verus between Aug. 1 1 and Aug. 
29 A. D. 136. 

The death of Sermamis is mentioned by Spartian. Hadr. c. 15. Servianum 
sororis mrum nonagesimum jam annum agentem, ne sihi superviveret, mori coegit. 
Idem c 23. Servianum — mori coegit. where he places this event before the 
adoption of Verus. But Dio is better authority. Servianus therefore died after 
the adoption in A. D. 136. 

Roniffi in Capitolio basis marmorea apud Panvinium p. 338 Gruterum p. 
2-19. 250. Imp. Ccesari divi Trajani Parthici fil. dim Nervcc nepoti Trajano 
Hadriano Aug. pontif. maximo trihunic. potest. XX imp. II cos. Ill p. p. ma- 
gistri vicorum urhis regionum XIIII L. Ceionio Comnwdo Sex. Vetuleno Civica 
Pompeiano cos. Whence it appears that the 20th tribunician year commenced 
in A. D. 136. That it was still current in the beginning of 137 appears from 
the tablet quoted at A. D. 129. 

Romae apud Gruterum p. 128. 4. Imp. Gtssar divi Trajani Parthici f. he— pon- 
tif. max. trib.pot. XX imp. II cos. Ill p.p. auguratorium dilaps. a solope it. 

Dua5 columnae prope Caparram apud Gruterum p. 156. 4. 5. 1 Imp. Cas. Tra- 
janus Hadrianus Aug. p. m. tr.pot. XX refecit Aquis Flavis M. P. II. 2 Imp. 
Cats. Trajanus Hadrianus Aug. p. m. tr. pot. XX refecit Aquis Flavis M.P. V. 

R O M A N I 


3 Greek Authors 

4 Latin Authorb 

mystena &c. Euseb. H. E. IV. 7- fh r/fias KariiXOfv iv 
Tols TOTf [sc. Hadriani tempore] yvrnpiyxaraxov crvyypa- 
<l>4(iii 'AypiWTra Kdoro/joy iKavdraTos Kara BaaLKtlbov 
iKcyXOs K. T. \. 


Hernias the author of the Pastor flourished : Ano- 
nymus apud Mosheim. do rebus Christianorum p. 164 
ex Muratorii antiquitatibus medii sevi toin. Ill p. 853. 
Pastorem vero miperrhhe temporibus nostris in urbe 
Roma Herma conscripsit, sedente cathedra urhis RmncB 
ecclesicE Pio episcopo [A. D. 136—150] fratre pJiis. Et 
idea legi eum quidem oportet se puhlicare vero in ecclesia 
popvlo neque inter prophetas completum numero neqxie in- 
ter apostolos in Jlnem temporvm potest. Catalogus pon- 
tificuin Romanorum apud Bucherium p. 270 Chronicon 
Paschale ed. Bonn. torn. II p. 199. Pivs: — Suh hujm 
episcopatu frater ejus Hermes lihrum scripsit in quo ma/n- 
datur contineturque quod ei prmcepit anpelus, cum venit 
ad eum in habitu Pastoris. Confirming the account of 
the Pseudo-TertuUian quoted by Mosheim p. 163 Sam. 
Basnage Annales torn. II p. 112 Lardner torn. Ill 
p. 293. 

Jamque loco nono cathedram suscepit Hyginus : 
Post hunc deinde Piits, Hernias cui germine frater ; 
Angelicus Pastor, quia tradita verba locutus. 

Euseb. H. E. III. 25. ev rots voOols 6 \(y6iifvos noifirjv. 
Conf. III. 3 Tertullian. de pudicitia c. 10 de oratione 
c. 12. Hieron. Catal. c. 10. — Ubri qui appellatur Pastor 
et apud quasdam Grcecas ecclesias etiam publice legitur. 
Revera utilis liber, midtique de eo scriptorum veterum 
usurpavere testinionia ,- sed apud Latinos pcene ignoius 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 


01. 2^9 U. C. Varr. 890. 
L. jEUus Verm Ceesar II 
P. Ccelius BalUnus Vibuir 
lius Fim 

Ccpsare II et Bdlhino 
Nor. Idat. 

CcEsare et Balbino Pont. 

AlX.iavov Kata-apos koI 
BaA/3irov Chron. Pasch. 

For coins and inscrip- 
tions see col, 2. 

Hadriani 21 from /// Id. Aug. 

Coins of Verus marking his second consulship: Eckhel. tom. VI p. 525. L. 
^lius Ceesar + Pannonia tr.pot. cos. II S. C. L. jElius CcBsar tr.p. cos. 11+ 
Concordia. Inscriptions : Panvin. p. 338 in antiqua basi : Posita VI Id. Juli. 
L. ^lio Ceesare II P. Ccelio Balbino cos. Gruter. p. 1009. 6 Eckhel. tom. VI 
p. 526. Romse : ... ta Kal. Jul. L. ^lio Ccvsare II P. Ccelio Balbino cos. Gru- 
ter. p. 23. 12. Lex dedicationis arse Jovi — Salonse in Dalmatia: L.^lio CcBsare 
II P. Coslio P. /. Balbino Vibullio Pio coss. VII Idus Octobres. Verus during 
a part of this year is in Pannonia : conf. a. 138. 

Taurini in Hungaria apud Gruter. p. 252. 2 Eckhel. tom. VI p. 524. Imp. 
C<Bs. Trajano Hadriano Aug. p. p. trib. pot. XXI cos. Ill imp. II L. ^lius 
Cces.jil. trib. potest, cos. II procos. XVvir sacris faciund. Referred to in the 
preceding year A. D. 136. 


891. Camerinm et Niper 

Idat. Chron. Pasch. 

Nic/ro et Camerino Nor. 

'Az'roJz^toy Eiire/STJs koX 
KaiKpivoi A. 

Death of Verus Jan. 1. Spartian. Vero c. 4. Qumn de provincia jEUus re- 
disset atque orationom pulcherrimam, qucp hodieque legitur, sice per se sive per 
scriniorum aut dicendi magistros parasset, qua Kal. Januariis Hadriano patri 
gratias ageret — Kal. ipsis Januariis periit. Antoninus is adopted Feb. 25 : 
Capitolin. Anton, c. 4. Adoptionis lex hujusmodi data est, ut quemadmodum An- 
toninus ab Hadriano adoptabatur ita sibi ille adoptaret M. Antoninum fratris 
uxoris suce Jilium et L. Verum /Elii Veri qui ab Hadriano adoptatus fuerat fi- 

lium. Adoptatus est V Kal. Martias die, in senatu gratias agens quod de se 

ita sensisset Hadrianus, factitsque est patri et in imperio proconsulari et in tribu- 
nicia potestate collega. On the death of Verus and adoption oi Antoninus conf. 
Pion. 69. 20. 21. 

Death oi Hadrian: Spartian. Hadr. c. 25. 26. Apud ipsas Baias periit die 
sexto Iduum JuUarum. — vixit annis LXXII [lege cum Reimaro ZX//] men- 
sibus Vdiebus XVII. imperavit annis XXI [lege XX] mensibus XI. Eutrop. 
VIII. 7. Obiit in Campania major sexagenario, imperii anno XXI mense X 
[lege XI] die XXIX. Victor Epit. p. 373. Imperavit annis viginti duobus — 
vixit annos sexaginta duos. Orosius VII. 13 in round numbers uno et viginti 
annis imperavit. Dio 69. 23. efj'^f 8e ^tv ^^0 jxey Kal (^rjKovra ixrjvas 8e irevrt 
KoX fin^pai evveaKalbfKa- Koi e\xovap)(ri(Tiv trr} eiKOirt Kal fiijyos ei'Sexa. Theo- 
philus ad Autolyc. III. 27 et Clemens Al. p. 339 D. ''Abpiavos (tt) k ixrjvas i 
ri)j.ipas Kr( . Euseb. H. E. IV. 10. p.f.Ta, Tip&Tov koI ei/cooroi' eras. The accounts 
of Theophilus and Dio are nearly accurate. Hadrian was born Jan. 24 A. D. 
76. He began to reign Aug. 1 1 A. D. 117: conf. annos. He lived therefore 
62i'5'n 16''. He reigned 20^ 10'" 29'^. In those accounts which extend his 
reign to 22 years or upwards there is either a corruption in the text or an 
error in the writer. The Canon of Ptolemy reckons N. E. 885 commencing 
July 20 A. D. 137 as the first year of Antoninus. Whence it follows that he 
began to reign before July 20 A. D. 138. 

Coins : see col. 4. 


892. T. Antoninus Pirn 
Augustus II Bruttim 
PrcBsens Censorin. c. 21 
Nor. Idat. A. 

' AvTwvlvov kvyOlKTTOV Koi 

YIpaKTiinov Chron. Pasch. 

Antonini 2 from VI Id. Jul. 

Coins apud Eckhel. tom. VII p. 3— 12. 
1 Antoninus Aug. Pius p. p. + Africa. S. G. 

The same obverse is on the 8 following : 
3 Asia. COS. II. S. C. 5 Parthia. coss. II. S. C. 8 liberalitas. p. m. tr. p. cos. 

3 Cappadocia. cos. II. S. C. 6 Phcenice. cos. II. S. C. II. S. C. 

4 Dacia. cos. II. S. C. ^ Syria, cos. II. S. C. 9 tr. p. cos. II. S. C. 

10 " antica 'mceTtaT + Africa, cos. II. S. C. or Alexandria, cos. II. S. C. or 
Hispania. cos. II. S. C. or Maiiretania. cos. II. S. C. 

R O M A N I 


3 Greek Authohs 

4 Latin Authors 

Valerius Diodorus: Suid. p. IOO7 D. AMtapos 6 Ov- 
aXipwi ii:iKkr]6th, (()i\6(ro<f)Os, naOr^Trji TtjKfKK^ov^, 'A- 
Xe^avbpfvi, vioi FIwAtuvoy tov <f)i\o<T64>ov tov yp(i\jfavTos 
Trif 'AmKrjv Xefiv, ycyovus (irl tov Kaiaapoi 'Abpiavov. 
Aiobdpov f^^yjjo-iy t&v irapa tow i' pr'iTopm kiitmv men- 
tioned by Suidas v. Uatktxav 'AAef. (conf. a. 118) is in 
Photius cod. 150, who did not know his time. As the 
father of Diodorus also flourislied in the reign of Ha- 
drian (conf. a. lis), wo may place the father at the 
beginning and the son at the end of this reign. 


Phlepon flourished : Suid. p. 3820. ^kiyuv TpoKKia- 
vhs, aiTiKfvdepoi tov Se/SaoroC Kaifo-opoy 01 te ^Abpiavov 
<^amv [recte : Phot. cod. 97- 4>Ae'yoi'Tos TpaWiavov, 
avekfvdfpov tov avroKpuTopos 'Abpiavov. Spartianus 
Hadrian, c.lfi. Phlepontis libri Hadriani esse dicuniur]- 
lo-ToptKoy. (ypa\lrev dA.u^7rtdoas fv fSi^KCoK ir'. Icrt fie 
p.^Xf"' '"'1* '^''^ 6Kvp,TrLaboi ra npaxOivTa iravraxov [01. 229 
A. D. 137]. TO hi avTo. (V jSt^Aiots rj'. (K(ppa(nv Si/ceXiay. 
TTepl pLaKpo^ibiv. koi davpLaaiav. Trepi rav irapa ' PuifiaLOLs 
iopT&v /3i/3Aia y'. irepl tSiv (v 'P^p-r] Tovutv (cat Stv firiKf- 
K\r)VTai. 6vopaT(i)V. f-:nTop,ijv 6Kvp.TnoviK&v (v /Si^Atot? ^ . 
Photius cod. 97. ^0\vjj.T:iovLK&v koX xpoviKwv <rvvaywyi]. 
— apxfTai be ttjs ovvaywyiji otto r^s TTpdTrjs oKvpinabos 
[B.C. 77^>] — KdreKTi bi, as avTos (^rfcri, p.^xP'- '"'^^ 'Abpia- 
vov xpoviiiv. ipol be aveyvaxrOrj pexpi ttjs po(' oKvp.-rti&bo's. 
01. 177. 4 B. 0. ()9 completed the 5th book: Phot. Ibid. 
fxe'x/x rauTTjs y.01 rf/s oAn/XTridSo? kv Adyots ixiVTe ij avA- 
yviaais yeyovev. Photius more probably quotes from 
the Ej)itonio in eight books, and not from the larger 
work in sixteen ; for Phlegon in his 13th book de- 
scribed 01. 203 : Euseb. Chron. anno 2048 Origen. 
adv. Celsum II p. 69. But it is not likely that he 
employed 8 books Uh. 6 — 13 on 2C Olympiads, and 5 
on 177- Photius then quoted the epitome; of which 
the first 5 books might contain I77 Olympiads, and 
the last 3 the remaining 52. 

Coins of Antoninus in A. D. 138 : Eckhel. torn. VII 

p. 2. 3. 

1 Before the death of Hadrian : Imp. T. ^liut Cce- 

sar Antoninus + Hadrianug Aug. cos. Ill p.p. 

2 After the death of Hadrian : Imp. T. JEl. Cces. 

Antoninus Aug. +pont. max. tr. pot. cos. 

3 Imp. Gees. JSlius Antoninus Aug.-{-p. m. tr.pot. cos. 

des. II. S. a 

4 Imp. T. JEl. Gees. Hadri. Antoninm -i- Aug. Pius 

p. m. tr. p. cos. des. II. 

5 Imp. T. .^El. Gees. Hadri. Antoninus Aug. Pius + 

p, m. tr.pot. COS. des. II. S. G. 

An inscription Romse apud Grutenim p. 253. 5 Pan- 
vinium p. 339. Imp. Gasari divi Hadriani Aug. Jilio 
dim Trajani Parthici nep. divi Nercce pronepoti Tito 
JElio Hadriano Antonino Aug. Pio trib.pot. cos. des. II 
scribcB armamentari posueruni. 

Ptolemy makes an obsei*Vation in this year at Alex- 
andria: pty. (TvvT. III. 2 p. ()2. TO) rpiVo) Irei ' AvTaivivov, 
5 icrri v^y'^" cmb rf/s ' AKe^dvbpov TfKevTTJs, ijufls (rqpr^aa- 
fJLfv — TT)V p.fT0Tr<i>pa'i]V ia-qpepiav yfyfvrjptvrjv Ttj d tov 
'AQvp. This gives the 69th day of N. E. 887' (424 + 
463), or Sept. 26 A. D. 139; since N. E. 887 com- 
menced July 20 A.D. 139. The 3rd of Antoninus is 
in Alexandrian computation; his 3rd year began at 
Alexandria Aug. 29. 

Ptolemy is thus described by Suidas p. 3155 D. FIto- 

Gruter. p. 253. 4 Panvin. p. 339. Imp. Geesar. poi^- 
tif. max. divi Hadriani fil. divi Trajani Parthici nepoti 
dim Nervce. pronep. T. ./Elio Hadriano Antonino Aug. 
Piopontif. max. trib.pot. cos. II p.p. D. D. 

Lanuvii apud Gruteruni p. 253. 6 Nervte pronep. 

.... Hadriano ... onino Aug. Pio ... maxumo triom 

tat. II cos. II p. p tus populusque [Lanu]p/ntM veteres. 

In via Latiua apud Panvinium p. 339 Gruterum 
p. 253. 7- I>np- GiES. divi Hadriani Jilio &c. — T. .^lio 
Hadriano Antonino Aug. Pio poniijici maximo tr.pot. 




1 Consuls 

11 Imp. T. JEl. Cats. Hadr. Antoninus + Aug. Pius p. m. tr.p. cos. II. 

12 The same, with the addition^./*. 

13 Antoninus Aug. Pius p. p. tr.p. cos. II. + — 

14 Antoninus Aug. Piu^ p. p. tr. p. II. -\ 

Some of these bear the title p. p. in the second consulship. Eusebius : 
Anno 2154 [from Oct. A. D. 138] Antonini X" Antoninus pater patriee appel- 
latus est. Capitolin. Anton, c. 6. Patris patriee nomen delatum a senatu, quod 
prima distulerat, cum ingenti gratiarum actione suscepit. Eusebius and Capito- 
linus may be reconciled with the coins, if we suppose the title assumed a little 
before July 10 A. D. 139, towards the close of the first year. 

The title imp. II is marked in inscriptions (see col. 4) bearing cos. des. III. 
Antoninus was therefore imp. II at the close of A. D. 139 ; and as he received 
this title from a victory in Britain (conf. a. 140), that victory was gained in 
this year: described by Capitolinus Anton, c. 5. Britannos per Lollium Urbi- 
cum legatum vicit, alio muro cespititio submotis barbaris ducto. Pausan. VIII. 
43, 3. aTTtrifjifTO koI t&v iv BpcrravCq BpiyavToiv r-qv TioWriv. k. t. A.. 

An inscription : Gruter. p. 1012.5. Caere. Imp. Cees. T. ^lio Hadriano Anto- 
nino Aug. Pio cos. II p.p. templum Herculispro immum. perpet . a solo exstrui ex 
are conlato sfatuam poni curaver. decur. municip. Ccer. 

For other inscriptions see col. 4. 

2 Events 


893. T. Antoninus Pius 
Augustus III M. Aurelius 
Cwsar Idat. 

Antonino III et Aureli- 
ano Ccesare Nor. A. 

^ I^VTutvivov Avyovarov to 
p! Kot M.apKov Avp-qXiavov 
B'qpov vlov aiiTov Chron 

Marmor Gabiis apud 
Eckhel. tom. VI p. 399 
Imp. Cces. T. .^lio Ha- 
driano Antonino Aug. Pio 
III M. j^lio Aurelio 


Tabula marmorea apud 
Panvinium p. 339 Grute 
rum p. 12fi. Imp. Ccesare 
T. Mlio Hadriano Anto- 
nino Aug. Pio p.p. Ill 
M. JElio Aurelio Ccesare 
COS. ordo corporator, quipe- 
cuniam ad ampliand. tem- 
plum contuler. 

De Marco consuU Capi- 
toHn. Anton, c. 6 M. Au 
rel. c. 6. 

Antonini 3 from VI Id. Jul. 

The coins of A.D. 140 — 144 all bear cos. III. Within this period therefore 
were the following apud Eckhel. tom. VII p. 12 Sec. 

Antoninus Aug. Pius p.p. tr.p. cos. III+S. P. Q. It. ampliatori civium. or 
liberalitas Aug. II. or liberalitas Aug. III. or rex Armeniis datus. S. C. or rex 
Quadis datus. S. C. or ancilia. imperator II. S. G. 

These, which refer to the successes in Britain, probably belong to A.D. 140: 
Antoninus Aug. Pius p.p. tr.p. cos. Ill + Britannia. S. C. imperator II. 
+ imperator II. Britan. 

Antoninus was imp. II at the close of A. D. 139 : conf. a. And as this title 
was bestowed for the victory in Britain, as may be gathered from these coins, 
the success of Urbicus may be placed at the end of A. D. 139, and the coins 
with COS. Ill commemorating that victory were issued in the beginning of 
A. D. 140. 

Marmor Mediolani apud Panvinium p. 339 Gruterum p. 177- 4. Imp. Ccesar 
T. ^lius Hadrianus Antoninus Aug. Pius cos. Ill trib.pot. Ill [male Gruterus 
trib.pot. II] p. p. [imp. II p.p. Panvinius] aquceducfum in novis At/ietiis ccepium 
a divo Hadriano patre suo consummavit dedicamtque. 

Marmor apud Panvinium p. 339. Imp. Cccsari dim Hadriani filio &c. — 
T. jElio Hadriano Antonino Aug. Pio pontifici maximo trib. potest. Ill cos. Ill 
p.p. benefico ac servatori Hadriance oa: Mopsuestice civ.LycicB sacrce liber oi invio- 
latw suis legibus viventis P. R. amicitia et societate conjunctce, quod divina ipse in 
jure dicendo cletnentia sit usus necnon Vetera eidem civitati jura firma rataque esse 
'voluerit, S. P. Q. D. D. 

Another inscription in col. 4. 

R O M A N I 


3 Greek Authors 

4 Latin Authors 

kflioioi 6 KKavbws xpTifiarCa-ai, 'A\((avbpevi, <f>tX6(ro(poi, 
ytyovojs iitl tS>v xpdvmv MipKOV tov ^aa-iXiws. Julian. 
Or. 4 p. 15fj B. (toiis Kai^ovas) i$evpoi> nev XaA8atoi koI 
AlyvTSTwi, "l-mrapxos hi [conf. F. H. Ill p. 532] koI 

// imp. II COS. II des. Ill p. p. eur. viar. 

Romae apud Panvinium p. 338 Gruterum p. 252. 7. 
Imp. Cws. dioi Trajani Parthici filio dim Nervte ne- 
poti Trajano Hadriano Aug. jHmt. max. trib. pot. XXI 
irnp. II COS. Ill p. p. et dieee Sabines Imp. Gcesar T. 
^lius Hadrianus Antoninus Aug. PiuspoTit. max. trih. 
pot. II cos. des'. Ill p. p. imp. II parentitms suis. From 
trih. pot. XXI (the reading of Panvinius, and of Ma- 
zochms apud Grut.) it appears that the 2l8t tribuni- 
cian year of Hadrian was still current at his death 
July 10 A. D. 138. Therefore his first was still cur- 
rent July 10 A. D. 118, confirming the proposition of 
Eckhel that the tribunician years of Hadrian com- 
menced in Aug. 1 1 : conf. a. 1 19. 4. 129. 2. 

Marmor Puteolis apud Grutenim p. 163. 9. Imp. 
Gees, dim Hadrianifil. &c. — T. Mlius Hadrianus An- 
toninus Aug. Pius pont. max. trib. pot. II cos. II desig. 
Ill p.p. opus pilarvm m maris coUapsum a divo patre 
suopromissum restitvAt. 

Eiiseb. Chron. Anno 2155 [from Oct. A. D. 139] 
Hygino adhuc episcopo Bom. Valentinus hceresiarches et 
Cerdo sectce Marcioniiarum antistes \magister Marcionis 
Hieron.] Romavi, venerunt. In Hieron. Anno 2156. 
Valentinus conversed with a disciple of St. Paul and 
preceded Marcion: Clem. Al. Strom. VII p. 764. ixrav- 
T<i)y be Koi OvoKfVTivov 06o8d6i d/CTjitoeVoi ^ipovcn' yv<i>- 
pijxoi 6' ovTos iyc/ovfi llavKov. MapKCatv yap Kara Tr]v 
avTTjv avToh f]\iK[av yevofifvos o>s Trpfcr^vTrji vecarepoa 
[lege cum Pearsono et Vossio wpeo-^vrais pfdrtpos] 
(TvveyevfTo. The times of Valentinus Cerdon and 
Marcion are fixed by Irenteus apud Euseb. H. E. IV. 

II. OvakiVTivos p-iv yap ^Kdev (h 'Pcipriv im, 'Tyivov, 
ijKixacrf be e-nl UCov Kal Ttapep.eivev Iwy 'Arujjroi; [cir. 
A. D. 140 — 155]. Kepbmv bi 6 irpo MapKlatvos koI aiirbs 
ii:l 'Tylvov, oy i)v ivaroi i-nC(TKOzos, eis rr^v iKK\r](r(av 
ek0<i>v KOI eioij,o\oyovp.evoi ovrus bLerekecrev. Idem iv 
iTp(oT<o t5>v alpecreo>v apud Euseb. Ibid. K^pbiov b4 tls 
airb T&v -nepl tov ^Cuava ras &<t>opnas \a/3&)i' Koi firiSjj- 
p.r\cras iv Tr\ 'V(i>p.Ti e-nl 'Tylvov — eblba^e tov vit6 tov v6- 
p.ov Kal TTpo<f)r]TS>v KtKr)pvyp.evov Qeov jutj elvai naTepa tov 
Kvpiov i)p.m> 'Irjcroi! Xpiorov — SioSefcijuei'os b\ aiiTov Mop- 
Kiiav 6 tlovTiKos j/vf Jj<r« to bibavKakeiov. For Marcion 
conf. a. 150. 

Ptolemy observes the vernal equinox : y.ey. ovvto.^. 

III. 2 p. 62. TjpLeis — T(3 v^y'v trei oltjo Trji '.\ke^dvbpov 
TfkfVTTJi iapivr]v l(n]pepLav evpL(TKOp.ev yeyevr]fxevj)V rfj fp 
TOV nox^r. The 247th day of N. E. 887 [424 + 46.S] 
fell upon March 22 A. D. 140. Within the 3rd year 
of Antoninus in the computation of Alexandria : conf. 
a. 139. 

An inscription of the third tribunician year apud 
Panvinium p. 340. Pisis : Imp. Goes, divi Hadrianifil. 
dim Trajani Parthici nep. divi Nervce pronepoti T. 
^lio Hadriano Antonino Aug. Pio pont. max. trib. pot. 
Ill COS. Ill p.p. indmlgentiss. prineipi. 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 


01. 230 U, C. Varr. 894. 
M. Peducceus Syloga Pris- 
cinus T. Hoenius Severus 

Siloga et Severo Nor. A. 

Severo et Silvano Idat. 

Se/S^pov TO 6' (cat "StiKavov 
Chron. Pasch. 

Lapis Ronise apud Pan- 
vin. p. 340 Gruterum p. 
182. 4. M. Peduceeo Syloga 
Priscino T. Hcenio Severo 


Antonini 4 from VI Id. Jul. 

Death of Faustina ; in the 3rd year of Antoninus according to Capitolin. 
c. 6. Tertio anno imperii sui Faustinam uxorem perdidit, qucs a senatu consecrata 
est, delatis circensibus atque temph 8ec. Hence the coins extant apud Eckhel. 
tom. VII p. 39. 

1 Diva Faustina + <Ed. div. Faustina . or dedicatio eedis. 

2 Diva Augusta Faustina + mat ri Deum salutari. 

3 Div. Aug. Faustina +puell<e Faustiniance. conf. Capitolin. Anton, c. 8. pu- 

ellas — Faustinianas constituit. 

Two coins of Alexandria apud Eckhel. tom. IV p. 73 mark that Faustina 
was alive in the 5th year in Alexandrian computation and died before the 
close of it : 1 •JauoretVa ^fjBacrTi]. L. e'. 2 <t>avo-Teiva Bed. L. e. The 5th 
year at Alexandria began Aug. 29 A. D. 141. From the first coin it appears 
that Faustina was still living Aug. 29. Perhaps a few months later than the 
date of Capitolinus for her death. Her age is given apud Gruter. p. 261.3. 
Romse : Memories dives Faustince Aug. pieeque clarissimce relicfa matre infeli- 
cissima. Vix. ann. XXXVI mens. Ill diet. XI. 

Inscriptions of the fourth tribunician year : 1 Romse apud Gruterum p. 
1022. 8. Imp. Gas. divi Hadrianifil. divi Trajani Parth. nep. dtvi Nervce pro- 
nep. T. ^lio Hadriam Antonino Aug. Pio pont. max. trib. pot. IIII cos. Ill 
p. p. ob ampla benejicia ab optima maximoq. principe in se conlata colonia .^lia 
Hadria vo 

2 Gruter. p. 156. G p CcBsar M Antoninus Pius Aug. 

trib. pot. IIII procos. . . . vias et pontes rest, ab Aug. M. P. XXXI. 

3 Panvin. p. 340. Imp. Gaisar divi Hadriani filius &c. — Antoninus Augustus 
Pius pont. maximus tribunic.pot. IIII cos. Ill p. p. opus pontis vetustate conlabs. 


895. Z. Cuspius Rufinus 
L. Siatius Quadratus Nor. 
Idat. A. Chron. Pasch. 

Lapis apud Panvin. p. 
340 Gruter. p. 1082. 18. 
dedicatuni K. Octobr. L. 
Cuspio Rufino L. Sfatio 
Quadrato cos. 

Antonini 5 from VI Id. Jul. 

Inscriptio apud Panvinium p. 340 Casaubonum p. 43 ad Spartiani Hadria- 
num : Imp. Ccesari divi Hadriani fil. divi Trajani Parthici nepoti divi Nervce 
pronep. T. JElio Hadriano Antonino Aug. Pio pontif. max. trio. pot. V imp. II 
COS. Ill p. p. constitutori sacri certaminis selastici socii lictores populares denun- 
tiatores Puteolani. 


896. C. BelUcius Torqua- 
tus Ti. Claudius Atticus 
Herodes Nor. A. Chron. 

Torquato et Hedore Idat. 

Inscriptio apud Grute- 
rum p. 301. Torquato et 
Attico COS. 

Inscriptio Romse apud 
Panvinium p. 341 Grute- 
rum p. 943. 1. 172. 10. 
Furius Verecundus Furia 
Pietas M. Furius Teles- 
phorus tectum qui periit 

Antonini 6 from VI Id. Jid. 

M. Aurelius completes his 22nd year Ap. 25 A.D. 143, since he was born 
April 26 A.D. 121 : conf. a. Which marks the year of Fronto's consulship : 
Frontonis Ep. ad Marcum I. 1. Ccesari Aurelio domino meo consul iuus Fronto. 
p. 36. Jam enim non ita tecum ago ut te duos et viginti annas natum cogitem. He 
was a consul suffectus for two months : Auson. Gratiarum Actio p. 290. Fron- 
tonis — quem Augusti magistrum [sc. M.Aurelii] sic consulatus ornavit ut pree/ec- 
tura non cingeret. Sed consulatus ilk cujusmodi ? ordinario suffectus, bimestri 
spatio interpositas — qucc.rendum ut reliquerit tantiis orator quibm consulibus ges- 
serit consulatum. He was consul till Kal. Sept. Fronton. Ep. ad Marcum II. 2. 
Ccesari suo consul. Rom^e heereo compedibus aureis vindus : nee aliter Kal. Sept. 
expecto quam &c. Ibid. II. 3. Domino meo. — Eodem momento quo consulatum 
ejuravero vehiculum conscendam et ad vos pereolabo. His consulship therefore 
began Kal. Jul. A. D. 143. Within this period are written the letters of 
Marcus apud Frontonem Ep. ad Marcum 11. I. M. Aurelius Ctesar consuli suo 


R O M A N I 



4 Latin Authobs 

[Euseb. Chron. Anno 2156 [from Oct. A. D. 140] An- 
tonini 3" Jitstinus philoscmhutpro nostra dogmate libellum 
tupplicem Antonino obtulit. Hieron. Anno 2157- Tran- 
scribed bySyncellus p. 350D. Orosius VII. 14. Justi- 
nm philosopkm librumpro Chr. rel. compogitwm Antonino 
tradidit benignumque mm erga Christianos fecit. Hieron. 
Magno p. 1083. Aristidem imitatm postea Jtistinus et 
ipse phiiosophtis Antonino Pio et filiis ejus senatuique li- 
orum contra gentiles tradidit. Idem Catalog, c. 23. Jva- 
tinus philosophus — pro rel. Christi plurimwn laboravit 
["louoTii'os 6 NeoTToXfrTjs, avrip ovrt r(j) )(j)6v<f 'n6pp(t> 5)V 
T&v aiToaToKcav ovTf rfj apfrfj Methodius apud Phot. 
Cod. 234 p. 5)21] ; in tantum ut Antonino quoque Pio et 
filiis ejm et senatui librum contra gentes scriptum daret — 
et aliiim librum successoribus e/usdem Antonini M. Anto- 
nino Vero et L. Aurelio Gommodo. The longer Apolo^r 
begins thus in Justin, c. 1 and in Eusebius H. E. IV. 
12. avTOKpdTopiTiTui AlXlcf ''Abpiav<^ 'AiTtdriixo EvafjSei 
o-e/3ao-raj Kaicrapt, Oijj/)t(ro-t)uo) him (f)iKocr6(f>(o, Koi AovKUf 
(^lAoiTo't^a) KaCaapoi (pva-ei vlu koX Eva-fjBovs ela-nonjT^, 
epaarfj -naibfias, lepa re avyKX-qTia kol brip.(o iravTi 'P(o- 
HaCtav, VTTip tS>v (k Travrbs yivovs avOpdircav &bUa>s [iicrov- 
p.iv(av Koi (■ni)p(a^>v ^Xovcrnvo^ TlpiaKov tov BaK\(tov 
rStv aiTo <I>Aaoi;ia$ fs'as iroXfas Trjs ^vpias naXataTlvqi, 
eh avT&iv oiv, Ti]v iTpo(T(f)(iin](nv Koi iimv^iv ■ 
But Eusebius has dated this apology some years too 
high : conf. a. 151.] 


Herodes Atticus consul: see col. 1. Suidas p. 1699. 
HpoJSTjs 'louAioj xpriixaTLaas, vlb? ^Attikov tov UXovTdpxov 
[6 p-fv yap iraiTTiOi avrov " Itttt ap)^oi Philostrat. V. S. p. 
54/]) yfvo^ AJoKi'Srjs 'Ad-qvalos, ruv brjp.ov MapaOdvioi, 
(ro(^toT7)j — Tjp^e T^s 'Acr^aj d aiiToii irarrjp koI rots bKrvtra- 
Toii ovyKaTfXfxOr] ["HpwSjjs vnaTos ef v-ndToiv Philostr. 
V. S. I. 25 p. 536. irtXfi p.kv in. ■nariputv is tovs bLainrd- 
Tovs II. 1 p. 546]. i}v §6 eiTi T6 Tpdiavov koi 'Abpiavov 
Koi MdpKov 'AvTcavlvov — inrb fpajjiopLVio Kai UoXepavi. 
Philostr. V. S. II. 1 p. 564. ms p.fv bi] Uo\(pL<ava (cat 
^ajSwplvov (cat 'S.KOTTfKiavov iv bihaa-KaXois avrov Tjye, (cat 
MS ^(Kovvbu) T(3 'A^jjvatco [conf. Philostr. V. S. I. 26 
Suid. p. 3275 Phrynich. Epit. p. 2/1] l<t>o(Ttj(r(v eipri- 
ixivov y.0L 'fbrj. tovs 6e (cpirticovs tS)v Koyiav, @(ayivfi re 
Tcp KrtStci) /cat Moviartii) rcS iv TpaWt'cor avviyivfTO, (cat 

Frmito consul suffedus : see col. 2. 

Frontonis oratio habita in senatu: Fronton. Ep. ad 
Marcum 1 . 6. Quod patris tui laudes a me in senatu, de- 
signato et inito consulatu, dictas Isgisti libenter minime 
miror. Namqu^ tu Parthos etiam et Hiberos sua linaua 
patrem tuum laudantes pro summis oratoribus auaia$. 
Nee meam orationem sed patris tui virtutem miratus es ; 
nee laudatoris verba sed laudati facta laudasti. De tuis 
etiam laudibus, quas in senatu eadem ilia die proiuli, ita 
sentias velim &c. Conf. p. 400. \6yov avvrfyayov Twa 
Ttfpl TOV pifydXov fiaaikiwi. Epist. ad Antoninum 2. 
M. Frontoni Antoninus Ctesar. Fronto was not only 
the preceptor of jT/arCTW (conf. a. 133. 143.2. 164.3) 
but also of Vents: Capitolin.Vero c. 2. Aiidivit {Verus) 
Scaurum grammaticum Latinum Scaurifilium qui gratn- 

S 2 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

itaque bene merentih. pa- 
tronis novum tectum sua 
impensa restit. C. Bellido 
Torquato Ti. Claudio At- 
tico Herode cos. 

De Herode Gellius I. 2. 
IX. 2. XIX. 12. 

He declined or delayed 
a second consulship on 
account of the death of 
his y/'ik Begilla: Philostr. 
V.S. II. 1 p. 556. hivTt- 
pav Kkr\p<i)criv rr]s viraTOV 
apxTji eiT avTtj ava^6,\- 

et magistro [conf. a. 164. 3 Hieron. Catalog, c. 24] salutem. II. 4. consuli et 
magistro meo optimo. II. 7- am,pUssima consuli magistro suo M. Cccsar salutem. 
II. 9. amplissima consuli &c. and the letters oi Fronto p. 400. 410. pr)Tpl Koi- 
(Tapos [conf. ep. ad Marcum I. 1 p. 40. epistulam matri tuce scripsi — Greece], in 
which he mentions his two months: p. 412. fj apxn — eyu 8e tovtov TJbr^ p.i^va 
hevrepov elpyop,aL tov irpos bp6p,ov. 

Inscriptio Almedinse Hispan. apud Gruterum p. 254. 6. Imp. Ccesari divi 
Hadriani f. divi Trajani Parthici nepoti divi Nerva; pronepoti Tito ^lio Had. 
Antonino Aug. Pio pontif. max. trib.pot. VI imp. II cos. p. p. d. d. 


897. Avitrn et Maximus 

Nor. Idat. 

'A/3toAa Koi Ma^ip-ov 
Chron. Pasch. 

Md^ip.O's Kol 'Aoviros A. 

Inscriptio apud Grute- 
rum p. 301 Avito et Max- 
imo cos. 

Antonini 7 from VI Id. Jul. 
Coins: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 17. 

1 Antoninus Aug. Pius p. p. + cos. Ill des. I III. 

2 Antoninus Aug. Piu^ p.p. tr. p. cos. 111 + des. IIII. S. C. 

Inscriptions: 1 Romse apud Panvinium p. 341 Gruterum p. 255. 1. Imp. 
Ccesari divi Trajani Hadriani fil. divi Trajani Parthici nep. divi Nervce pronep. 
T. ^lio Hadriano Antonino Aug. Pio pont. max. trib. potest. VII imp. II cos. 
Ill p. p. corpus pistorum. 

2 Aquiflaviae apud Panvinium p. 341 Gruterum p. 256. 1. Imp. Ccesari T. 
^lio Hadrians Antonino Aug. Pio pontifici maximo tribuniciee potestatis VII 
imp. II COS. Ill des. IIII p.p. decreto decwrionum populique S. consensu. 

3 Sutrii in Tuscia apud Gi-uterum p. 254. 7- Imp. Ccesar divi Hadriani fil. 
&c. — Antonino Aug. Pio pont. max. trib.pot. VII imp. II cos. Ill des. IIII 
p.p. decurion. populusque Sutri P. P. P, 



3 Skculau Authous 

4 Ecclesiastical Authoks 

Tavpif ru) TvpC(o (Ttl rats IWaruvos 6dfoty. He heard 
Alexander declaim at Athens : V. S. II. 5 p. 571. 
saw Philager at Athens : V. S. II. 8. Arigtides 
was educated tliero Kara ttjv rov 'Hpcabov imp-riv V.S. 
II. 9. Herodes was the preceptor of M. Aureliug : 
Dio 71- 35. and of Veru.i : Capitolin. Vero c. 2. He 
taught the sophist Pamanias : V.S. II. 13. /Vo- 
fewy; V.S. II. 15. Chrestm: ll.n. Eu/us : U. \7 
Ommarchus: II. 18. Perhaps Heraclidea : II. 26". In 
his yoiitii he had declaimed before the emperor in 
Pannonia : V.S. II. 1 p. 5G5. ol Trpo(f>epovTei avT<u vf(f 
ovTi (V IXawvia to \6yov twos iKnecnlv (ttX tov avTOKpa- 
Topoi. Probably Hadrian in the beginning of his reign. 
Herodes governed the cities of Asia in the reign of 
Hadrian: V. S. p. 548. when Antoninus (conf. Capi- 
tolin. Antonin. c. 3) was proconsul of Asia : V. S. p. 

Polemo the sophist (conf. a. 133. 135) is mentioned 
in this year by Fronto : ¥ronio p. 37. Polemone rlietore, 
(fieni mihi tu in epistula tua proxime exhibuisti Tallia- 
num. &c. p. 100. Veriis Frontoni. Polemona ante hoc 
tridmim declatnantem audimmus he. where Verus marks 
the fame of Polemo: tania: gloriee viro p. 102. 

maticus Hadriani fuit ; GrcBCoa Telephum [conf. a. 1 50. 3] 
Hephccstionem [conf. a. IKO] Harpocrationem ; rhetoret 
Apollonium, Celerem Ganinium [conf. a. 133], Herodem 
Atticum [see col. 3] ; Latinum Comelium Fronlonem ; 
philosophos Apolhnivm et Sextum [conf. a. 1 33] / hot 
omnes anmcit unice. Confirmed by the letters of Fronto 
and Vems: Conf. Ep. ad Vennn I. 2. I. 3. I. 8. ad 
Verum II. 4. written after the Parthian war A.D. 166: 
Virtutes ttum bellicas et militaria facinora tua aique 
consulia me nunc laudare tu forsitan putes, ut est. Qui- 
hm ego rebus — ketandis virilem cum ceteris portionem 
voluptatis capio ; ex elonmntia auiem tua quam scriptis 
ad senatum litteris declarasti ego jam hie triumpho. — 
Magistrmn me tuum fuisse aut sciunt omnes homines aut 
opinantur, aut vobis credunt. — Bellicte igitur tuw laudit 
et adorice multos habes administros — eloquentia vero, aw- 
sim dicere, meo ductu, Gcesar, meoque auspicio nata est. 
Fronto was born at Cirta: Fronton, ep. ad aniicos II. 
6". triumviris et decurionibus. Conf. p. 171. alii qiutque 
plurimi sunt in senatu Cirtemes. Hence he calls him- 
self Ai^vs Epist. p. 4 10. His reputation in the reign 
of Hadrian is marked by Dio 69. 18. Kopi^Xios ^p6v- 
Tutv 6 TO, TTp&Ta tS)v TOTt 'PmpiaCuiv iv biKOis <f)ep6ix(vos. 
Idem 71.35. TrajLtTroXXo fxev yap Kot vtto Ttaibdai (6 Av- 
pjJXtos) (o(}>(Xri0ri ii) Te tois pryropuols iv re toIs iK <f)t\o- 
a-o<t)Las Koyois a(TKr)QeU. rmv filv yap tov re ^p6vT<i)va tov 
Kopv/jXtov Kol TOV 'Hpdbriv tov K\avbiov 6i8ao-(ca\ovs 
elx_e, tSiv hi tov re 'VovariKOV tov 'lovviov xal ''AvoXXd- 
vwv tov NtK0/i^8ea Toiiy Zrjvuvelovs \6yov<: nfKfT&vras. 

Aristocles taught at Pergamus : Suid. p. 567 A. 'A- 
ptoToicATJs Ufpyafirji-bs, (ro(^tOT7/$, yeyovats ^ttC t( Tpaiavov 
Koi ''Abpiai'ov. Philostrat. V. S II. 3. ovofxaa-Tos iv 
(TorpKTTals Kal Aptoro/tX^y 6 fK tov Tlfpyaixov virio ov 
br]\<a(T<o oTiocra ru>v TrpicrfivT(p(ov tjkovov [conf. a. 239]. 
iTcKei ixiv yap ii vitojovs 6 avrjp ovtos, tov b( iK TraCb(ov 

is T)^r)V \p6vOV ToilS OTTO TOV TlfpiTldTOV (f>l\o(TO(f>ri(TaS \6- 

yovs [conf. Synes. Dion. p. 12 ed. Rcisk.] is tovs (to- 
(f>i(TTas jxiTfppvTj, Oap.iC'iiv iv Tfj 'Poi/iijj TU 'Vlp(obr) 8iaTt- 
5€p.ei»o) <T)(^(b[ovs \6yovs — evboKLixovvTi be aiiT^ Kara to 
Tlepyanov Ka^riprrjixevia irav to 'FAXr^viKOV i^ekavvtav 6 
Hpdbrjs is rie'pyafxor eTTeiJ.\ffe tovs eavrov ojxiKriTas Ttav- 
ros. Aristocles taught Athenodorus: Philostr. V.S. IT. 
li. ApicTTOKkiovs p-iv yap yKowe Tials in, Xp^irrov be 
I'lbrj fii;;i€is Euodianus : II. 16. Rufus: II. 17- Hera- 
clides: II. 26. Aristides : Suid. p. 563 A Philostr. II. 
9 p. 581. conf. a. 129. He lived beyond the middle 
age : Philostr. p. 568. ereXeura bi 6 'ApioroKXrjs p-ecrai.- 
TsoXws, apTi TTpo(T^aiv(i>v TO) yripa.(rKeLv. From the pre- 
ceding testimonies wo may collect that Aristocles was 
in reputation at this date, when Herodes was a little 
more than 10 and Aristides 15 years of age- 

Galm xt. 11 hoars the disciples of Cuius and Aspa- 
sius: Galen, tom. V p. -1 1. vT:oirKr]p<i(Tas be recrTapeaKai- 

Euseb. Chron. Anno 2159 [from Oct. A. D. 143] 
Antcmini 6" Valentinm ab hoc tempore usque ad Anice- 
tum permanebat. At the same date in Hieron. Syn- 
cellus p. 35 1 A comprehends this and the former no- 
tice {anno 2155 A. 1). 140) in one paragraph. 

Mosheim de rebus Christian, p. 372 supposes a dif- 
ficulty from the distance of the time in the account 
(^conf. a. 1 10) that Valentinus conversed with a dis- 
ciple of St. Paid. But the disciple of St. Paul might 
survive his master 40 years to A. D. 105 ; and if Va- 
lentinus in A. D. 105 was 25 years of age, he would be 
70 in AD. 150 the 1st year of Anicetws. In which 
there is no difficulty. And as Valentinm aspire<l to be 
a bishop : speraverat episcopatum TertuUian. adv. Va- 
lentin, c. 4. and after his failure seceded from the 
church : TertuUian. I bid. he probably was somewhat 
advanced in years when he published his heresy. 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 


01. 231 U. C. Varr. 898. 
T. Antminm Pius Aitgiis- 
tm IV M. Aurelius CcBsar 
II Idat. 

Antmiino III et Aure- 
liano Gcesare II Nor. 
Chron. Pasch. 

'AiTttfrtos Ktti AvpiWios 
Kaia-ap to /3' A. 

Capitolin. Aurelio c. 6. 
Fills Mar cum — secundum 
etiam amsulem designavit, 
quum ipse quartum pariter 

Antonini 8 from VI Id. Jul. 

Coins: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 17. 

1 Antoninus Aug. Pius p. p. + lib. IIII tr. pot. cos. I I II. 

2 Antoninus Aug. Pius p. p. tr.p. + liheralitas Aug. IIII cos. IIII. S. C. 

3 Antoninus Aug. Pius p. p. tr.p. cos. IIII [male Eckhel. cos. Ill] + lib. IIII. 

Referred to this year by Eckhel from Capitolin. Vero c. 3. Qua die togam 
virilem Verus accepit, Antoninus Pius ea occasione qua patris templum dedicabat 
popuh liberalis fuit. Verus was born Dec. 15 : Natales Csesarum apud Bu- 
cherium p. 27t>. Divi Veri XVIII Kalendm Januarii. Repeated p. 288. 
Capitolin. Vero c. 1. Natus est Lucius Romce. in prcetura patris sui XVIII 
Kal. Jan. die quo et Nero [conf a. 37]. He was 7 years old at his adoption : 
Idem c. 2. Post septimiim annum in familiam Aureliam traductus. He was 
adopted by Antoninus Feb. 25 A. D. 138 : conf. a. and was therefore 7 years 
old Dec. 15 A. D. 137 and in his 15th year in 145 ; whence Eckhel tom. VII 
p. 17 and Tillemont tom. II p. 318 place the assumption of the toga virilis in 
this year. 

Nemausi apud Gruterum p. 190. 11. Imp. CcBsar divi Hadriani f. T. .^lius 
Hadrian. Antoninus Aug. Pius pont. wmx. trib. pot. VIII imp. II cos. IIII p.p. 
restituit II. 


899. Sex. Erucius Clarus 
II Cn. Claudius Severus 
Spartian. Sev. c. 1 Cod. 
Just. VI. 26, 1. 

Claro et Severo Nor. Idat. 
Pont, liber pontificalisDa- 
masi torn. I p. 573. 2e/3^ 
pov TO e' Koi Ovrjpivov Chron. 
Pasch. K\apos kuI YiKav- 
hios A. 

An inscription: see col. 2. 

Antonini 9 from VI Id. Jul. 

Birth of Severus : Spartian. Severo c. 1 . Natus est Erucio Claro bis et Severo 
coss. VI [1. cum Casaubono ///] Idus Apriles. conf. a. 211. Natales Csesarum 
apud Bucherium p. 276. Divi Severi III Idus Aprilis. Agreeing with Dio. 

Romse apud Panvinium p. 341 Gruterum p. 314. 2. fj Upa tq^ls tS>v Tlaia- 
vidT&v tS>v iv 'Pa>iJ.ri Aios 'HAiod neydkov SapdTridos xal QiOiv ^efSaar&v hiip.y)(jav 
"Efi^-qv '!Tpo(f>riTriv TTartpa TrJ9 •npoyiypapijxf.vqs Tafetos irporo/x?; i) avare- 
delaa [ rf] avaTeOeCar]] ev tm oiku t£)V natavi,aT&v rfj irpb a 
viav&v Maioji', ^ kcTTiv Kara 'AXe^aj'Speis ria\o)V la, em Kovpdropoi MerdKCov d/x- 
■nXLUTov TipecT^vTfpov, 2e^r(i) 'Epovfc^w KAttpu ^' Vvetf K\.avbi<o ^(l3ripM Kcai. See 
F. H. II p. 328 = 396. where read " A. D. 146." 


900. Largus et Messalinus 
Nor. Idat. Chron. Pasch. 
A. Cod. Just. II. 38,1. 

Antonini 10 from VI Id. Jul. 

M. Aurelius receives the tribunician power : Capitolin. Aurel. c. 6. Fausti- 
nam duxit uxorem, et suscepta Jilia tribunicia potestate donatus est atque imperio 
extra urbem procotisulari, addito jure quintce relationis. His 34th tribunician 
year was current at his death in March A.D. 180: conf. a. his first had 
therefore commenced before March I7 A.D. 147. 

Coins of Aurelius : Eckhel. tom. VII p. 47. 

1 Aurelius Ceesar Aug. Pii /.-{-tr. pot. cos. II. 

2 Aurelius Ceesar Aug. Pii f. tr. p. cos. II. on the reverse a Hercules. 

R O M A N I 


3 Secular Authors 


bfKdrov tros 'jkovov (/)iXoo-o'(^a)r ■noKiriav, M irXfiarov jjiv 
(TTmUov <l>iXo7raTopo? liaOr^rov, ^pa^yv Se riva koX rWara- 
viKov fxaOriTov Fatov, 6ia to ^^ (rxoKA((t,v airrov, €h tioKi- 
rifcay d(r)(oKlas (KKOfjievov VTto t&v TroAir&if . — iv TovTtf 8c 
ris Koi aWos rjXdf ttoXittjs rjixfTtpos ef dTrofijj^tos fiaKpai, 
'Aa-nairCov Tov v(pn:aTj)Tt.Kov tmOr]T7)i, Koi nera tovtov 
im tS>v ' Mr)v&v ctWos 'Eirixovpeioy. Do Aspasio et Caio 
Porphyrius Vit. Plotin. c. 14. Galen was 37 in A. D. 
167 : conf. a. and therefore 14 in 144. 

Euseb. Chron. Anno 2160 [from Oct. A. D. 144] 
Mesomedes Cretemis citharoedicarum le/jum peritissimm 
agnoscebalur. In Ilieron. at the same year. Tran- 
scribed by Syncellus p. 351 A. Suid. p. 2463 X. Meo-o- 
p.r]hr\i Kpjjs, KvpiKOi, yeyovm (vl tUv 'Ahpiavov yjiovmv, 
&T!(\(vd(pos avTov, 1] iv Toii jjidKiara (filKos. ypi.(^(i ovv 
ih 'AvTLVoov i-naivov — Koi aXAa bidcjiopa p,(K-q. Men- 
tioned also Dion. 77- l-'^- o 'AvtuvIvos [sc. Caracalla] 
T<{) MeCTO|U7(8et t&J tovs KidapwhiKovs vop-ovs myypa^avTi 
KivoTacpLov (xaxTf. Capitolin. Antonin. c. 7- (Pius) Me- 
somedi li/rico salarium imminuit. Conf. Jacobs. Anthol. 
torn. Ill p. 6. 

Galmi ffit. 1,5 learns logic: Galen, torn. XIX p. 59. 
VTio TTarpl TTaibevdtVTfs, 6j — rjv(Ka TTfVTeKaibeKarov froi 
i)yop.iv i-nl Tr]i) hia\€KTi.Kr\v deotpCav riyfv. While yet a 
boy he wrote on logic : Ibid. p. 43. en Tratj uiv fivUa 
TtpS)Tov rarrtp p.€ to, tj;/' \oyLKi]v Btaplav XpvtTlTnrov (cat 
T&v fvlolwv (TTbiiK&v bihd^avTi TTapiboiKev, inoirirdnrjv iv 
awTcp tSiv Xpv(TiT!TTOv avKKoytcrriKSiv jSi^Kiatv vi!oiJ,n]fjbaTa. 


Hieron. Anno 2161 [A.D. 14f] Antonini S" Taurus 
Berytius Platonicm sectee philosophus clams hibetur. 
Omitted in the Armenian copy ; but transcribed from 
Eusebiiis by Syncellus p. 35 1 A. Suidas p. 3504 B. 
TaCpos Br/pyTtos, (f>iK6cro(t)os n\aT(>>viKos, yeyovcos M 
'AvTcovlvov TOV Evcr(j3ovs. iypayjrf nfpl rrjs tUv boyixdraiv 
biaipopas nxdrufos Kol 'ApurroTe\ovs. wept (rafMTuv kcu 

A law of Antoninus apud Cod. Justin. VI. 26, 1. 
Imp. T. ^lius Antoninus A. Secundo. — Dat. « Claro 
II et Severo conss. 

Galen aet. 1 7 begins medicine : Galen, torn. XIX 
p. 59. elr' ef ovupaTdiv ivapy&v TTpoTpaireh (6 Trorijp) 
firTaKai,bfKaTov Iros ayovra Kal rtjv larpiKriv iTToiijafv e/i^ 
diTKelv &ixa tij (}>i\o(To<l)Cq- torn. X p. 609. evOvs eK juiei- 
paKiov (/)i\o(ro(/)ias ipaaOivra iif fKUvrjv T]^ap.fv irpSiTov 
[conf. a. 141]' eW vaTtpov tov irarpos 6vf(pa<nv (vapyiui 
vpOTpaitivToi em ttjv rrjv laTpiKiji d(TKr)cnv d(^(KOfxeda (cal 
hi oKov TOV l3iov Tas imcrrrifiai fKaTipas Ipyois /xaXAor ^ 
Ao'yois ((TTiovbda-apifv. He mentions his preceptors : 
torn. XIX p. 57. 6 rjixhtpoi 8i8o(r/ca\os Sdn/poy TovT(f 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

An inscription : Panvin. p. 341 Gruter. p. 260. 6. Faustinw Aug. Imp. Cms. 
T. ^li Hadriani Antonini Aug. Pii p. p. tr.p. X imp. II cos. IIII fili<B M. 

Aureli Ccesaris uxori. 

Antoninus celebrates U. C. 900 : Victor Caes. p. 322. Celebrato magnifice urbis 
nongentesifno. Perhaps to this occasion may be referred the act of Antoninus 
recorded in Chron. Pasch. p. 256 C. Adpyov Koi MeaaaXlvov. 'AvTa>v. i. tovtois 
Tois ■imi.Toi's a(}>f(ns eyivero t5>v xpeo(f>€L\eT&v irapa ''AvravCvov Evce^oi/y koi ot 
TafXLaKol xdpTM bmpeav tKavBr](Tav. 

A law of Antoninus: Cod. Justin. II. 38, 1. Imp. Antoninus Pius A.Prunico. 
— Dai. VI Non. Aug. Largo et Messalino conss. 


901. Torquatus et Julia- 
nus Nor. Idat. A. 

TopKovarov to ^ koX 'Iod- 
XiaroC Chron. Pasch. 

Antonini 1 1 from VI Id, Jul, 

Antoninus celebrates the decennalia. Attested by coins apud Eckhel. tom. 
VII p. 18. 

1 Antoninus Aug. Pius p, p, tr. p, Xl+primi decermcdes. or vot. cos. IIII. 

S. C. or lib. V COS. IIII, 

2 Antoninus Aug, Pius p,p, tr.p. cos, Illl+liberaUtas Aug. V, S. G. 

3 +vota smcepta X cos. IIII. 

Other coins of this year : 

4 Antoninus Aug. Pius p. p. tr.p. XI -^ cos. IIII. 

5 Apud Eckhel. tom. VII p. 34. Antoninus Aug. Pius tr.p. XI cos. IIII. On 

the reverse a Hercules combating the Centaurs. 

6 A coin of Aurelius: Eckhel. tom. VII p. 47. Aurelius Ccesar Aug. Pii f. + 

tr.p. II COS. II. 

The coins of Antoninus are now marked with his tribunician years; probably 
because the tribunician years of Aurelius are now reckoned. 

Inscriptio Formiis apud Panvinium p. 342. Imp. Ccesari dim Hadriani filio 
divi Trajani Parthici nep. divi Nervce pronep. T. u^lio Hadriano Antonino Aug. 
Piopont. max, trib, pot. XI cos. IIII p.p. Formiani publice. 

R O M A N I 


3 SscuLAS Authors 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

yap vpdtTia iJvyy(v6p.(voi, fitra ravT riKOV(rafifv TlikoTTOi. 
torn. II p. 217- SiaTpt/Scof Kara ^fivpvav ivfKa Il^AoTros, 
is bevTfpos not bibd(TKa\os iyiviTo fxtTo. 'S.arvpov rhv Ko- 
tvTov fi.aOr\Tr]v — v<TTipov 6« iv KoplvOif jiiv Nonjuto-tarov 
Xapti', OS KoX avTOi tj/Soforaroy ^v tS>v Koirrov fxaOiriTStv, 
iv 'Wt^avbpda h\ KaC riaiv &K\ois lOveai y(v6nivos, iv 
oTs iTrvv6av6ijLr]v Kofi'Toi; liaOrjTriv (vho^ov ^ovpucnavov 
biaTpij3(iv, (It iTTavf\ditiv (Is rrjv Ttarpiha koX fidvas iv 
avTr) yjiovov ov t:o\vv avfjKOov (Is 'PdpLrjv. tom.V p. 1 19. 
«Ts T&v iv n(pydix<o StSao-xdXcoi' iif/.&v SrparJi'iKos rov- 
vop,a, pLa6r]Ti]s "La^ivov tov 'iTmoKparfiov. torn. XII p. 
.356. Al(TXpCci)V 6 ^/onrfipuos — TroAfr?;? re (cat bihdcTKaXos 

Appian wrote history after the death of Hadrian : 
Appian. Civ. I. 38. 8 /tat 'Abpiavbs &pa p.ip.ovy.(vos vare- 
pov xpo'vu TToAA^ Ttiv avTOKparopa dpyjjv 'Pafiaiois rjyov- 
p.(vos dv(Kaivi.(TC Kol p.(T avTov ■(■nl\x(iv(V is ^paxv. He 
mentions this period prsef. c. 7- eert koL Toio-fie rois 
avTOKparopcnv [from th.e time of Ccesar\ iyyvrarbt bia- 
Kocriwv irSiv dWwv. C. f). rSiv ivaKoalaiv irStv, Sera im 
'P(i))[*aioiy is TOV Ttapovra xpovov. These characters of 
time agree. Gasar became master of the state in 
U. C. 706 : F. H. Ill p. 98. from whence to U. C. 900 
are " nearly 200 years." 


Euseb. Chron. Anno 216.3 [from Oct. A. D. 147] 
Arrianus phihsophus Nicomediensis et Maxtmus Tyrius 
et Apollonius Stoicus Carthariiniensis [Gkalcidicm Hie- 
ron. XaKKiibovios Syncellus] et Basilides Scythopolitanm 
philosophi cognoscebantur, qui etiam Verissimi Casaris 
praceptores fuerunt. At A. D. 2162 in Hieron. No- 
ticed by Syncellus p. 351 B. Capitolin. Anton, c. 10. 
Qmnn ApoUonium quern Chalcide acciverat — vocasset, wt 
ei Marcum Antoninvm traderet &c. Idem Marco c. 3. 
Tantum studivm in Marco phihsopUtB fuit ut adscitus 
jam in imperatoriam dignitatem tamen ad domum Apol- 
lonii discendi causa veniret. Arrian 45 years before 
this date was the disciple of Epictetus: conf. a. 103. 
He is mentioned with Jtusticus by Themistius Or. 17 
p. 215. T<iv (KaLp&v) 'Abpiavov tGiv McJ/i/cod t&v 'Auto)- 
vivov, o1 TOV ''Apdavbv Kal tov 'Pov(ttlkov [conf. a. 133. 4. 
143. t] i^ava(TTri(ravT(s ex t&v jiL^KCcav fiepioros iiroi- 
ovvTo Koi crvv(pyovs Trjs t&v koiv&v iiriTpOTTdas. Or. 34 
C. 8. TOV 'Apdavbv xai Tbv 'Povcttikov t&v ^t/SAiwr i^ava- 
<nri<ravT(s ovk daaav axpt tov fxiKavos Kal tov KaKdfxov 
(f>i\oa-o(f>(iv K. T. X. Toiyapovv — im tovtols &Tia<ri ttji' iird- 
Wjwv T&v vTtdTctiv apxhv iKapTTovvTO. Ibid. c. 20. irpbs 
bi TOV 'Apdavbv Kal tov 'Povotikov Oapa&v hv Staymri- 
<faip.r)v rf/s \dpoTovCas (V(k(v dpei^s. If .i4ma« reached 
the reign oi' 3Iarcws, as Themistius Photius and Suidas 
affirm, he attained an advanced age ; for he heard 
Epictetus at Nicopolis (cir. A. D. 103) 58 years before 
Marcus began to reign. 

(Birth of Herrmgenes of Tarsm: conf. a. 163.) 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 


01. 232 U. C. Varr. 902. 

Ser. Scipio Orfitm Q. No- 
nius Priscus 

Nor. Idat. Chron. Pasch. 
A. liber pontificalis Da- 
masi torn. I p. 567- 

Inscriptions : see col. 2. 

903. Gallicanm et Vetus 
Nor. A. Pont. liber pon- 
tificalis Damasi torn. I p. 
583 Cod. Justin. 11.13,1. 

Glahrione et Vetere Idat. 
Chron. Pasch, 

Antonini 12 from VI Id. Jul. 

Inscriptions : 1 Romse apud Panvin. p. 342 Gruter. p. 32. 9. JEternitati 
sacr. Soli et Lunce P. Novellim. P. f. Pal. Vents D. D. XVIII Kal. Jul. Ser. 
Scipione Orfito et Q. Nonio Prisco cos. 2 Ronise apud Panvin. p. 342 Gruter. 
p. 48. 1. Sanctissimo Herculi invido corpor. custodiarior . L. Gurtius Abascantus 
cum Curtio Gaudente fil. imm. a. I I II crateram argyrocorinthiam cum hasi sua 
et hypohasi marmorea sua pecunia donum dederunt. Dedicat. Villi K. Jun. Ser. 
Scipione Orfito Q. Nonio Prisco cos. 3 Romse apud Panvinium p. 342 Grute- 
rum p. 311. 4. Tarpeice Valeriana vir. Vest, maximce dignissimcB et sanctissimw 
purissimee venerahilem disciplinam in deos quoque pervigil. administrationem S. L. 

comprobavit senattis et populus L. Egrilius Strator pietatem presstantiamque 

cavssa D. D. collocata V Kal. Jun. Scipione Orfito Q. Nonio Prisco cos. 

Coins : see col. 3. 

Antonini 13 from VI Id. Jul. 
Coins : Eckhel. torn. VII p. 20. 

1 Antoninus Aug. Pius p. p. tr.p. XIII. ■¥ cos. IIII. 

2 Imp. Gees. T. JEl. Hadr. Antoninus Aug. Pius p. p. +piefas. tr. pot. XIII 


Marmor Urbini apud Gniterum p. 1022. 6. T. ^li Hadriani Antonini Aug. 
Piipont. max. trib. pot. XIII imp. II cos. IIII p.p. filio pueri et puellcB ali- 

A law oi Antoninus: Cod. Justin. II. 13, 1. Divus Antoninus Pius A, Severe. 
— pp. IV Id. Octebr. Gailicano et Vetere corns. 


904. Sex. Quintilius Con- 
dianus Sex. Quintilius 
Maximus Chron. Pasch. 

Maximo et Gondiano Nor. 
Gordiano et Maximo Idat. 

Lapis apud Reimarum 
ad Dion. p. 1207. Sex. 
Quintilio Gondiano Sex. 
Quintilio Maxima) cos. 

Tabula marmorea apud 
Panvin. p. 342 Gruter. p. 
126. Quintiliis cos. 

Antonini 14 from VI Id. Jul. 

Coins of this year : Eckhel. torn. VII p. 20. 

1 Antoninus Aug. Pius p. p. tr.p. XIIII+cos. IIII. or Icetitia. cos. IIII. 

2 Imp. Gees. T. ^l. Hadr. Antoninus Aug. Piusp.p.+pietas. tr.pot. XIIII 


Basis eruta Romse apud Gruterum p. 259. 6. M. Aurelio Cwsari imp. Ccesaris 
T. ^li Hadriani Antonini Aug. Pii pont. max. trib. pot. XIIII hnp. II cos. 
IIII p.p. fil. [div]i Hadriani nep. dim [Trajajw* Parthici pronep. [divi 'K\ervcB 

abnepoti \ivi\b.pot. V cos. II onenses ...ex Africa. The fifth tribunician 

year oi Aurelius commenced Jan. 1 A. D. 151 : conf. a. 147. 

R O M A N I 


3 Secular Authors 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

Coins : Eckhel. torn. VII p. 19. 

1 Antonimis Aug. Pius p. p. tr. p. XII + cos. IIII. 

or munificent ia Aug. cos. IIII. 8. C. or temporum 
felicitas. cos. IIII. 

2 Antoninus Aug. Pius p. p. tr. p. XII cos. IIII. -f 


3 + m.VI cos. IIII. 


Telephus the grammarian was the preceptor of Ve- 
rus: Conf. a. 143. 4. Suidas p. 3545. T^Aec^os Utpya- 
ixrjvos, ypanixaTiKOi. jElian. H- A. X. 42. T^Xf<^os 6 
KpiTiKos [sic Valesius apud Schneider, ad loc. et Harle- 
sium ad Fabric. B. G. torn. I p. 525] 6 h tov Mva-Cov 
Ylfpydfwv. But Galen wept vyLtLv&i> lib. V tom. VI p. 
333 records that Telephus attained nearly 100 years : T^ 
kf<j)os 6 ypanpLUTiKos eirt Trkdovas efuero \p6vovs' Avnoxpv 
\^Avtl6\os 6 iarpbi yeyovios fT&v TrXftco t&v dyborjKovTa 
p. 332] (Tx_tbov harov hi] ^loi/s. Telephus therefore 
was at the least forty years of age in A. D. 130, when 
Verus was born ; and flourished through the reigns of 
Trajan, Hadrian, Anto-nimis, and Aurelius. For his 
works enumerated by Suidas see Appendix, Telephus. 

Marcion the heretic taught in the reign of Antoni- 
nus : Tertullian. prsescr. hacr. c. 30. Marcion Pontictu 
nauclerus [nauclero illi Marcion. III. 6. Pontici illius 
de came Christi c. 6] stoica- studiosus— Valentinus Pla- 
tonicce sectator. Constat itlos — Antonini fere principatu 
[Marcion Antoninianus Marcion. V. 19] in catholicam 
pene doctrinam credidisse—sub episcopatu Eleritheri be- 
nedicti [A. D. 171]- donee oh inquietam eorum semper 
curiositatem — semel et iterum ejecti. — Postmodum Mar- 
cion pcenitentiam confesxu» — morte prceventtis est. He 
was still living when Clemens Alexandrimts wrote the 
Siromata: conf. a. 194. and had already published his 
opinions in the time ofAnicetas A. D. 150 — Ifi2 : Ire- 
nseus apud Euseb. H. E. IV. 14. rioAu/tapiios M 'Avi- 
lojTov €Tri6j)juricras rfj 'Pdiirj [oonf. apud Euseb. V. 24. tov 
\MKapU)v XloXvKapirov imbrjfirja-avros rjj 'Pu/xp iirl 'Avt- 
Kjjrov] TToWovs &Tro tG>v •npoeiprjueiKav atpeTiKmv [sc Ova- 
KfVTivov Koi MapKCittvos] iTrt<rTpe\^€v fh rrfv iKKKrjffCav 
TOV 0(vo — Kttt avTos bi 6 noKvKapTios MapKiotvi irore (Is 
o^iv uTTu (\d6vTi K. T. \. Tho visit of Polycarp to 
Rome in the time oi Anioetus is mentioned by Euseb. 
Chron. anno 21(>8 [from Oct. A. D. 152] H. E. V. 24 
Hieron. Catal. c. 17, and (from the Greek version of 
Hieronymus) by Suidas p. 3034 B. C. 

Justini Martyris Apol. I. After Marcion had pub- 
lished his opinions : c. 26. MapxtcDi-a 8«' riva YIovtikov, 
&y Ka\ vvv in eo-n hiha(TKu>v roiis iTfiOofievovi. c. 58. kcu 
MapK(a>va bi tov Atto noVrou, <5)s ■iTpo4(f>r)fifv. irpo«/3aA- 
XofTO — bs apvda-dai fjtfv tov ■J7oi?jitji' tUv ovpavliav koX 
yqivbiv aTtdvTwv 6i6v Kal TOV itpoKripv)(6iVTa bia t5)V vpo- 
<f)-r\rm> XpiffTov viov aiiTov kcu iwv bibdaKu, aWov 8e' Tiro 
KaTayy(\ ■napa tov bripuovpyov tov iravTiav d€ov, xat 
c|Li()i.'u)$ iTfpov viov. And 150 years after the Nativity : 
c. 4(>. irpo irmv pv yfyfvvriadai tov Xpiarov ktyfiv fma? 
M Kvprivlov, bebibax^vai. bi h (f>aiJi(v SiSafat ovroi' v(tt(- 
pov xpdvois i-nl IIovtCov YliXaTov. Justin probably placed 
tlie Nativity 30 years current — TpiaKovTa Ittj t) TrKeiova 
fi (kda-irova Dial, cum Tryph. c. 88 — before the 15th of 
Tiberius ; and the 1 50 years would end in strict com- 

T 2 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

Brothers, slain by Cotn- 
modm : Dio 72. 5 Lam- 
prid. Conimodo c. 4. 

De his Ammianus 
XXVIII. 4, 21 Philostr. 
V.S. II. 1 p. 559. 


905. Junius Glahrio et 
Homullus Nor. 

Glahrione II et HwmilUo 
Idat. Chron. Pasch. For 
the reason conf. a. 150. 

TaXopiatv (coi "Ofz/xovXos 

Inscriptions : see col. 2. 

Antonini 15 from VI Id. Jul. 
Coins: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 22. 

1 Antoninus Aug. Pius p. p. tr.p. XV+cos. I III. 

2 Imp. Cm. T. Ml. Hadr. Antoninus Aug. Pius p.p. -\-tr. pot. XVcos.IIII. 

The consuls of this year are named in the following inscriptions. 

1 Apud Gruterum p. 1077- Tabula marmorea infixa parieti sedis sacrse 
Ostiensis : M'Acilio Glahrione M. Valeria Homulo cos. ordo corporatorum le- 
nuncularior. tabulariorum auxiliares Ostiens. patroni. M. Sedatus G. f. Severi- 
anics &c. 

2 In agro Capuano apud Grut. p. 478. 10. M. Valeria Hamullo cos.pairan. 
col. D. D. 

3 Apud Panvinium p. 342. Ghhrion. et Hamolla cos. art. CI. Zel. he. IlC. 

4 Ibid. Glahrione et Omallo cos. ex rat. L. Zel. n. CXXGIII. 

5 Ibid, et apud Noris. torn. II p. 952. Dedic. K. Juntas Sex. Glahrione et 
G. Omollo Veriano cos. 

6 AUifani apud Gruterum p. 344.4 Panvinium p. 352. Acilite AP f. Mani- 
liolce C. f. M' Acili Glahrion. sen. cos. pronepti M' Acili Glahrionis cos. II 
[A. D. 186] nepti M' Acili Faustini cos. [A. D. 210]/. ordo Decurion. 

7 Apud Norisiura 0pp. torn. II p. 952. Dedic. Kal. Fehr. Junio Glahrione 
et Homollo cos. 

Norisius 1. c. remarks that two pairs of consuls appear in these inscriptions; 
the one M'Acilius Glahrio M. Valerius Homullus, the other Sex. Glahrio C. 
Omollus Verianus, or Junius Glahrio and Hoinollus ; that in one of these pairs 
we have the consuls of the year ; that the other pair will be consulea suffecti ; 
that as Junius Glahrio is consul Feb. 1, he is a consul of the year. Whence 
it is inferred that M'Acilius and M. Valerius Homullus were consules suffecti of 
this or some adjacent year. The consules ordinarii of A. D. 152 were probably 
named Sex. Junius Glahrio C. Homullus Verianus. 

R O M A N I 


3 Secular Authors 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

putation in A. D. 149. But he might speak in round 
numbers. Marcion however followed Cerdon : coiif. a. 
140. taugiit in the reign of Antonimts: conf. a. 1.50. 
and reached the time oi CUmens Alexandrinm : conf. 
a. 194. And this Apology which speaks of Marcion 
could not have been written before the time of .^bi- 
cetm. Eusebius then has placed it at a wrong date : 
conf. a. 141. That Jwlin nourished in this period is 
marked by Eusebius himself H. E. IV. 11. yJiKurra hk 
rJKiiaCfv iirl Toivtf [so. sub Aniceto et EleiUhero A.D. 
150 — 173] 'lovoTivos kv (^iXotToipov cr)(jjfxaTi Ttpfff^iviav 
Tov duov koyov — Sy ical ypd^as Kara MapKC(jvos <ruy- p.vJipLov(vti, is <ca5' bv ovvtraTTf Katpov yv<api(o- 
fiivov T(f PC(D T&vbp6r <pr](rl bi ovruy " MapKCiava h( riva" 
K. T.\. 6 be avTos ovTos 'lovoTivos Kal irpos "EAAj/vas Ua- 
vtorara Troi^o-as (cat htpovi Koyovi vitip rrji rjpLfTepas itl- 
(JTfwy aiTokoyiav ixpvras /Sao-tAei \vTmviiy T<p br\ iiHr- 
K\r)OevTi Ev<Te^fl Kal rfj 'PtopaUov crvyKKi jT(f jiovKfi upocr- 
(jxavfi. Kol yap inl ttjs 'Pmp.r]i ras biarpifiai iTsoifiTo. 
The dialogue with Trypho was written afterwards: 
Dial. c. 120. (yypdcfxas Kaurapi ■apoaopt.XSiv tl-nov itKa- 
vcurdai avToiis ■mi.dop.ivovs — Tf ^ip.u>vi. Referring to 
Apol. I. '2G. 

Hegesippiis flourished: Euseb. H. E. IV. 11. Kara 
Tr\v 'P(ji>ixaCo>v TioKiv — fli'oi/ /ieraAXdforroy, 'Av^/op-os t&v 
iKficre irpotcrraTai. Kaff hv 'HyTjo-tiriros ioropei ^avroi' iisin 
briprjdai Tfl 'Pufxr; irapapelvaC re avToOi pfxpi r^s iiTKTKO- 
Trijs 'EKevOfpov [A. D. 1.50—171]. Hieron. Catal. c. -'2. 
Hefiesippm, vicinm Apostolicorum temporum [ewi r^s 
TTpuTTjs T&v aTsoarokatv ytvoptvoi SiaSoxijy Euseb. H. E. 
II. 23. opxaws T€ dm\p itat dirooroXncos Steph. apud 
Photium cod. 232 quoted by Fabric, ad locum] — asserit 
se venisse sub Aniceto Romam — et peneverasse usque ad 
Eleiitherum ejusdem urhis episcopum qui Aniceti quon- 
dam diacmim fuerat. Euseb. H. E. IV. 22. 6 pkv ovv 
'Hy7i<n:r7roy iv itivTf Toty (h 7;piay iXQovcrw}pxi<Ti. 
j-^y ibCas yv(!)pn]s irXjjpfo-rart/v p,vi}p,riv KaTokiXoi-ntv, iv 
oly br\kol wy TtXtlcnois iina-KOVOK <rvp.pil(fi(p, d.Tiobr}ptiav 
(TTti\dp.fvos /x«'xP' ' Pt^M*?*. 'f"' "^s oTi r»)i/ aiirifv ■aapa iidv- 
T<ov irapfiAr;(jbe biba(rKa\Cav [conf. Hieron. 1. c] IV. 8. 
Ka6' ov iyva>pi(fTO (n)pLalvei \p6vov — ovrw iruy ypdifuav 
" Oly Kfvordcpia Kal vaov<i iTToirjirav <Ly n^xpi vvv mv «<rri 
" Koi 'AfTiVooy bovXoi 'AbptavoH Kaio-apoy ov koi dyiav 
" iyfrai 'Avrwodoi, 6 Kal i<^' r)pMV yei'o/nfroy. km yap 
" Kal TioKiv (KTUTfv (Trdivpov 'AvTivoov KOI iipo(f)riTai." 
Conf. Hieron. 1. c. The death of AHtinwis happened 
in Oct. A. D. 130: conf. a. 130. 2. The close of the 
reign of Hadrian might therefore fall within the time 
of Hegesippus, as Eusebius supposes. But the History 
was completed in the time of Eleutherws: conf. a. 173.' 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

153 01. 233 U. C. Varr. 906. 
C. Bruttius Prcesem A. 
Junius Rufinus 

Nor. Idat. A. Pont. 
Chron. Paseh. liber pon- 
tificalia Damasi torn. I p. 

Romae apud Gruter. p. 
300. 1. . . . Plotius Galium 
Gekianus coopt. . . Bruttio 
Prcesente A. Junio Bu- 
fino COS. P. B. G. ann. 
DGGCCVI. Oonf. a. 180 
Norisium torn. II p. 954 

Antonini 16 from VI Id. Jul. 

Coins of this year: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 22. Antoninus Aug. Pius p.p. tr.p. 
^VI+cos. IIII. or indulgentia Aug. cos. IIII. S. G. 

Verus is quaestor; conf. a. 154. 

Inscriptions: 1 Gruter. p. 259. 7- In ruinis Ulpise Trajanse : Imp. Gees. M. 
p. r.] JElio Antonino Pio Aug. pont. max. trih. pot. XVI p. p. cujus nutu et 
auspiciis provincia Dacia gubernatur M. Scaurianus pr. pr. numini ejus. 2 
p. 259. 8. In vico proximo Ulpiam Trajanam : Em voto XXX magno et invicto 
imp. G(ss. T. j^lio Hadriano Antonino Pio Aug. pont. max. trih. pot. XVI c 
III [leg, //// cum Gudio] p.p. pro salute et felici [pont. max. et] Annas. 
Faustina Aug. conjugi G. Clod. VI prcef. m. Dacorum Jassior. luxnc statuam 
inauraria nvminibus majest. q. eorvm. 


907. L. Aurelius Gommo- 
dus T. Sextius Lateranus 
Nor. Idat. A. Chron. 

Romse in Vaticano apud 
Gruterum p. 1021. 9. Aov. 
Avpr]\Cov Koiifwbov kol Ti- 
rol/ Sefrfoi) Aarepavov. 
Conf. Noris. torn. II p. 

See col. 2 for Capito- 

Antonini 17 from VI Id. Jul. 

A coin otAurelius : Eckhel. torn. VII p. 4/ torn. VIII p. 447. Aurelius Gcesar 
Aug. Piif. + tr.pot. Vlltr.pot. VIII. S.G. Eckhel tom.VIII p. 447 argues that a 
new mode of reckoning had been introduced ; that there were two beginnings, 
and that Aurelius might receive the tribunician power Feb. 25 A.D. 147 but 
that the years were computed from Jan. 1. This coin therefore was issued in 
the beginning of A. D. 154 U. C. 907 (male Eckhel U. C. 908), when the 7th 
year was still current, computed from its true beginning Feb. 25 A.D. 153, 
but the 8th had commenced, computed from its nominal beginning Jan. 1 
A.D. 154. 

De L. JElio consule Capitolinus Anton, c. 10. Idem Vero c. 3. Post qucestu- 
ram statim consul est factum cum Sextilio [1. Sextio] Laterano. 


908. G. Julius Severus M. 
Rufinus Sabinianus Idat. 
Severo et Sahino Nor. Se- 
jS-qpov TO g-' Koi ^alSiviavov 
Chron. Pasch. Sahiniano 
et Severo Cod. Just. II. 1, 
1 . StJ/Soros K<XL ^fvrjpos A. 
Inscriptions: see col. 2. 

Antonini 18 from VI Id. Jul. 

Inscriptions : 1 Neapoli apud Panvinium p. 343 Gruterum p. 394. 3. G. Gmlio 
C. f. Pal. Vero quast. aliment. G. Julio Severo M. Bufino Sahiniana cos. Ill 
Nonas Decemhres. 2 apud Panvinium p. 343 Gruter. p. 607- 1- Jubentius 
Gelsus pro magistro suhscripsi III Nonas Nommb. Antio Pollione et Opimiano 
cos. ordinar. Severo et Sabiniano cos. 

A law oi Antoninus: Cod. Justin. II. 1, I . Imp. Antoninus Pius A. ^milio, 
— pp. IV Kal. Octob. Sabiniano et Severo oonss. 


909. M. Ceionius Silvanus 
G. Serius Awgurinus Nor. 
Idat. A. Chron. Pasch. 

Tabula marmorea apud 
Grut. p. 126 Panvin. p. 
342. Silva/no et Au^wrino 

See col. 2. 

Antonini 19 from VI Id. Jul. 

Rornae in monte Coelio apud Gruterum p. 128. 5. G. Galpurnio Pisone M. 
Vettio Bolano cos. [A.D. Ill] Q. Bammio Martiale pr. T. Flavio Priamo tr., 
T. ScBnio Glemente 7 cpdicida facta cum genio Agresio Facundo B. trih. quam 
M. Ceionio Silvano G. Serio Auguriiio cos. G. Tattio Maximo pr. T. Flavio An- 
terotiano S. pr. Q. Plotieno Sahino tr. coh. V vig. Ti. Cla^idius Ti. f. Fab. Me»- 
sallinus Heracl. coh s. s. vetustate corruptam adampliavit &c. 


01. 234 U. C. Varr. 910. 
Barbaras et Begulus Nor. 
A. Chron. Pasch. Bar- 
bato et Begulo Idat. 

Antonini 20 from VI Id. Jul. 

Coins of this year: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 23. 34. 

1 Antoninus Aug. Pius p.p. imp. IL + tr. pot. XX cos. IIII. 

2 The same inscription ; on the reverse Jupiter combating the giants. 

Lapis Romae apud Norisium tom. II p. 958. Dedicatus X K. Aug. Bar- 
haro et Regulo cos. De Barbara cansule conf. Noris. 1. c. 

R O M A N I 


3 Secular Authors 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

Eusob. Chron. Anno 2168 [from Oct. A. D. 152] 
Cregcens philosophm ci/nicus agnoscehatur. Is dedit ope- 
ram ut Justinus nostri dopnatis philosophm martyrium 
tvMret &c. In Hieron. Anm 2166. Transcribed by 
Syncellus p. 35 1 B. Hioron. Catal. c. 23. Hie cum in 
urbe Roma haberet biarpi^as, et Crescentem cynicum qui 
multa adversum Ghristianos hhsjihemahat redargiieret — 
ad extremum studio ejus et insidiis accvsatus—pro Ghristo 
sanguinem fudit. Grescens is mentioned by Justin him- 
self A pel. II. 3. (cAyo) TrpocrSoKQ) imo nros rStv itvofijacr- 
fiivrnv fTn,^ovKiv9f\vai koI (v\<d inirayrjpai, jj Khv viro 

KptcTKeVTOS TOV <f)L\o\lf6(j>OV Kol (fnKoKOfJ-TTOV K. T. X. C. 1 1 . 

irpe/y t« Kpia-Kfvra koI toiis 6fioia>s avrcjJ aippatvovras. 
Conf. Tatian. ad Grsecos p. 7 1 • Kp^o-xjjs 6 ivvfOTTcucras 
rjj iJ.(ya.\r) iroAet k. t. X. Conf. Ibid. p. 81. 82. 


Coins of Antoninus : Eckhel. tom. VII p. 23. 
Antoninus Aug. Pius p.p. tr.p. XVII ■{■ cos. IIII. or 
liberalitas VII cos. IIII. 

Bardesanes born July 1 1 : Chronicon Edessenum 
apud Assemanni Bibl. Orient, tom. I p. 389 (quoted 
by Beausobre Hist, de Manich. tom. II p. 128 Mo- 
sheim de rebus Christ, p. 396). Anno quadringentesimo 
sexagesimo quinto die undecima Julii natus est Barde- 
sames. The years of Edessa were the years of the 
Seleucidce: see F. H. Ill p. 370b. The 465th year 
accordingly began in Oct. A. D. 153, and July follow- 
ing is July of A. D. 154. Bardesanes is mentioned in 
his 19th year by Hieronymus: conf. a. 173. 

Coins apud Eckhel. tom. VII p. 23. 29, 

1 Antoninus Aug. Pius p.p. tr.p. XVIII + cos. IIII. 

2 A coin with the same inscription, bearing on the 

reverse a Hercules. 

Coins of this year : Eckhel. tom. VII p. 23. 

1 Antoninus Aug. Pius p.p. tr.p. XIX.+cos. IIII. 

2 Antoninus Aug. Pirn p.p. imp. Il+tr.pot. XIX 

cos. IIIL 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 


911. Tertullus et Sacerdos 
Nor. Chron. Pasch. 

Tullo et Sacerdote Idat. 

Te'pTtWoy Koi KXrjfuvos A. 

Antonini 21 from VI Id. Jul. 

Coins of this year : Eckhel. torn. VII p. 23. 

1 Antoninus Aug. Pius p. p. tr. p. XXI. + cos. IIII. or fortuna opsequens. 


2 Antoninus Aug. Pius p. p. imp. II. + Uh. VIII tr. pot. XXI cos. IIII, or 

tr.pot. XXI COS. IIII. 


912. Plautius Quintilhis 
M. Statius Prisms 

Nor. Idat. A. Chron. 

Inscriptions in col. ?. 

Antonini 22 from VI Id. Jul. 

Coins: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 25. 34. 

1 Antoninus Aug. Pius p.p. tr. p. XXII.-k-ced. dim Aug. rest. cos. IIII. or 

templum dim Aug. rest. cos. IIII. 

2 Antoninus Aug. Pius p. p. tr. p. XXII. On the reverse Vulcan and 


3 Other coins (p. 25) mark the second period often years concluded and the 

third commenced: Antoninus Aug. Pius p.p. tr.p. XXII. + vota sol. de- 
cenn. II cos. IIII. or vota suscepta dec. Ill cos. IIII. 

Inscriptions: 1 apud Panvinium p. 343 Gruterum p. 68. 3. Auximi in Pi- 
ceno : u^sculapio et Hygice sacrum G. Oppius C. f. Leonas VI mr et aug. hono- 
ratus in tribu cl. patrum et lilerum clientium adcensus patronis sanctissimis com- 
municipibus suis D. D. quorum dedicatione singulis decurionihus X. Ill Augusta- 
libus X. II et colonis cenam dedit L. D. D. D. Dedicat. Idib. Januar. Plautio 
Quintilio et Statio Prisco cos. 

2 In villa Diod. Transilvan. apud Gruterum p. 40. 13. Bianee Aug. pro sa- 
lute imp. Gees. Titi ^l. Hadriani Antonini Aug. Pii p. p. M. Statius Priscus 
leg. Aug. pr.p. V. S. L. M. Priscus in this inscription is Priscus who was 
consul in A.D. 159 : conf. Noris. torn. II p. 960. 

R O M A N I 


3 Secular Authors 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

(Vanis o{ Perpa is contemporary with PMlaper: Ar- 
teniidor. Onir. IV. 1. <t>iX(iypios [recto Roiff <l>C\aypoi] 
6 prjraip Ovapov top prjropa voirovvra iOfda-aro, xol ^7rt 
TToKv TTapa itpoaiptaiv ti]v iavrov ia-Cyrjcrf. Philostr. V. S. 
II. 7- Ovapoi 6 iK T^s rifpyrji — Ovap(f irarijp /xiv KaA- 
Ai/c\jjj iytviTo, &i'rip iv Toiy bwaTatTAron Ttiv llfpyaCaiv 

bibd(TKa\09 6i Kobparliav 6 ihraTos. (TtkevTa fiiv oXkoi 

oviro) yrjpda-Kmv, koi M TTaial- rb bi Air' aiirov ytvos d- 
boKinoi Trivres iv rfj U^pyj). Varus is placed in Pliilo- 
stratus V. S. II before Philager, in this order: Alex- 
ander [fl. A.I). 1()() — 17"] •■ Varus Pergcmis : Hermo- 
genes: Philager: Aristides [b. A. D. 12!>]. And Phi- 
lager probably flourished at this period: conf. a. 1.59. 
Suidas p. 2734 D seems to confound Varus of Perga 
with another Varus: Oi/apoy AaoSufvs, (TO(f>iaTrii, avy- 
\povos YloKifitovos, Koi &k\a>p. IJut Varus of Laodicea 
apud Philostr. V. S. II. 28 is placed below Hippodro- 
mus, who flourished A. D. 195: conf. a. Varus of 
Perga was contemporary with Polemo, who was 
eminent in A. D. 133 — 143 : conf. a.) 

Galen set. 28 returns to Pergamus : Galen, torn. 
XIII p. 599. hi vios oif f]i>Ua T!pS>Tov «k t^s 'AXefar- 
bpdas iiravi]K6ov th r^i' iraTpCba ytyoirais iros oyboov iirl 
Toii flKoa-i. — bo^av be to! Kara t^v iiokiv r)\xS>v dpyj.fpfi 
Tr]V Qtpantlav iyxuprjual p.01 fjLOVif t&v p.ovop.6.)(utv KavToi 
vi(f Tr]v T)kiKiav oini. tov yap ivdrov Koi (Ikootov Itovs 
fip\6p,r]v. — 6 fifTo, rhv iYKfipicravrd px>i Ton Tr\v Otpaittiav 
beurepos Apxi^fpevi op-oldis koi avrbs iit((rrevcr( ttjv iTnp,4- 
\fiav T&v pLOVOfiaxatv fjLfTo. p.rivas ivra, ix4<tovs' 6 fifv yap 
TTpaTOS irepl ti^v i^divonvtpiirqv l(n]p.fpiav [A. D. 158], 6 b\ 
bfVTfpoi a.Kp,dCovTOi ToiJ rjpos [A. U. 159] jjpxiepewaTo. 
From this account it appears that Galenas birthday 
was towards the autumn. 

(Philager the sophist was the disciple of Lollianvs : 
conf. a. 132. At Athens he was at enmity with H^ 
rodes Atticus: Philostr. V. S. II. 8. TtKdcrrois iiti.p.i(ai 
iOvfcri (cat boKuiv dpurra p.iTa\(i.p!it<TBai tos inrod^a-fn ov 
lxtTf\fiplcTaTO 'A0rivr)(nv h t^j/ avroiS <r)(oKriv, AAA' «is 
diTfxdetav 'lipdbri KaT^a-n^a-fv tavrov. Afterwards pro 
fessor at Rome: p. 580. xp6v<p fiiv ovv vartpov kittfid- 
TfXKTi TOV KaTO, Ti]V 'Pdjirfv dpovov 'Adrjiniai bi aiTr)Vf\6Tj 
Tijs kavTov 8o'f»)s 61' &s (XprjKa alrlas. Philager did not 
live to an advanced period : p. 581. aTsodavdv bi airrov 
oi fxiv (V TTj Oakdrrri ol bi ie 'IraA^a, Trepi itprnTOP yrjpai. 
The preceptor of PAowrf; ; Phil. V. S. 11.22. ^oivi^ 6 
0€TTaAos JJi" T&v <l>i\dypw TTff^oinjftJrwi'. Philager is 
placed in the list of Philostratus before Aristides; and 
therefore probably flourished at this date, when Ari- 
stides is 30 years of age : conf. a. 129. and If erodes 
about 59: conf. a. 17fi-) 

Gakn set. 29 at Pergamus: Galen, torn. XIII p. 600. 
iroXiv 8' fvl TovTm aadevTav airdvTiav [conf. a. 158], 6 
Tpfroj KOI 6 TiTapTOi Kol TrtfjLTTroi [ip\ifpfvs) icravTws 





913. Appius Annim Bra- 
dua T. Vibius Barm 

Bradim et Varo Nor. 

Bradua et Vero Idat. 
Chron. Pasch. 

BpaXotias Kal 'Oapvos A. 

Komse in area palatii 
Capitolini apud Gruter. 
p. 180. 1 Panvinium p. 
343. Appio Amnio Bradua 
T. Vibio Baro cos. magi- 
stri fontis LoUiani, M. Ul- 
pius Felix &c. 

1 Consuls 

2 Events 

Antonini 23 from VI Id. Jul. 

Coins of Antoninus : Eckhel. torn. VII p. 26. 

Antoninus Aug. Pius p.p. tr.p. XXIII.+pietati Aug. cos. II II. or mta sus- 
cepta dec. Ill cos. IIII. 

Coins of AureUus: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 48. 

Ccesar Aug. Pii f. + tr. pot. XIIII cos. II desig. III. or tr.pot. 

R M A N I 


3 Secular Authors 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

(Vfxfipi'Cdv fioi, Ti}v OfpaireCav t&v fiovo^j-iyatv. The se- 
cond in spring A. 1). 159 : conf. a. 158. Tho third in 
spring A. D. 160; the fourth in spring Ifil ; tho fifth 
in spring 162. Which is consistent with the journey 
of Galen to Rome in A. D. 162 : conf. a. 

Sickness oi Aristides. The first of tho 13 years de- 
scribed by Aristides in the Ifpol Ao'yot p. 415 — 552 
commenced towards tho close of tho year, about No- 
vember; at the time of his journey to Rome: p. 481. 
(^r\KOov (Is 'P(iiJLr]v xeifJL&vos fifaovvros, Kaixvmv otKoOev. 
He proceeded through Thraco and Macedonia: p. 466. 
bia ©po/cTjs Koi MaKfhovCas In Ka^wmv i^iXB&v olKoOiv. 
across tho Hellespont and thoHebrus: p. 481. when 
messengers were passing from the army : ot ra.'s ayyt- 
\Cas KofxlCovTa TUP (TTparKor&Jr. He reached Rome on 
tho 100th day: p. 482. ixoKis viJ^fpi} ^kotoctt^ vartpov ^ 
iKivri6r)v oIkoO^v i'v 'Vip-ri This first year of 
the sickness commenced in i\ov. A. D. 160, because 
tho tenth commenced in Nov. A. D. 169 : conf. a. 
That tho journey to Rome was included in the Ist 
year of sickness is shewn by Aristides himself p. 502 ; 
for that journey — i] ds "'IraXiav Sutr^fprj? «fo8os — is in 
the tenth year before tho 10th year of sickness : ravra 
p.'iv 6?) Ttpotytyovn irpoTfpov erei bfKaTm. therefore 
within the 1st year: which refutes those who place 
it in the year preceding. Aristides then began his 
journey to Rome at the close of A. D. 160, and 
reached it the end of March or beginning of April 
A, D. 161. 

Alexander the sophist flourished ; for he was an 
ambassador in the reign of Pius, and therefore before 
March 7 A. D. 161 : Philostr. V. S. II. 5. 'AXfidvbpm, 
hv n-qXoTrXaTwva oi ttoAAoI ^irojro'fiafoi', ■narpls ixkv i]v 
'2f\fVKfia, wo'Ais oi/K a<f>ain]s iv KiAiKi'o, TTaTrjp hi oiidw- 
IJMS, Koi Toi/i &.yopa[ovs Ao'yous iKafuTaroy, p.r\r^p TTfpiTrri 
TO eiSos, (c. r. A. [conf. Suid. p. 182 A] — is bl &vbpas 
iJKiov iitpiafieve p.iv virip ttjs SeAeuxfias irapa tov vputTov 
AvTODvlvov. — TO p.(v hr] ■nkdtrrov tov filov Trj 'AvTio\eCa 
ivitrnovbaCf koI rfj 'Vdfir] Koi tow Tapcrols, Koi vr) ACa 
AlyvitT(f Trdarj- &.(piKfTo yap koX is to. t&v Tvuv&v tjOt]. 
p. 576. bibda-KaXoi tu 'AAefarSpu lytvomo ^afitaplvos T( 
K.0.1 Aiovvcnos' dAAa Aiowcriov p.iv r]piip.adi}s airijA^e, /xe- 
ranfUfjiOfh vtto tov Ttarpos vocrovirros — 'Pa^upCvov b( 
yvqa-KOTaTa fjKpoda-aTo. Conf. a. I7O. 

HephfPstion the grammarian — 'li<f)ai(rTCmv 'AKf^av- 
bpfvs, ypafipLaTtKos Suid. p. 1 7 1 2 B — was the preceptor 
of L. Vems : conf. a. 14.S. 4. He was contemporary 
with Athenceiis : Athcn. XV p. 673 d. e. rauTo irpSiros 
avTos iv TTJ KoAfj ''A\f^avbp(Cq fvpov — Xafiotv bi itap ip.od 
6 trdcn kXottijv ovdbi^oiv 'H(pcu(rria>v ^ft6io7roijj(TOTo rijv 
Xvffu: who lived in the times of Marcus and Commo- 
dus: conf. a. 181. 

U 2 




1 Consuls 

01. 235 U. C. Varr. 914. 
M. Aurelius Ccesar III 
L. Aurelius Commodiis II 
A. Lamprid. Comniodo 
c. 1. 

Duohus Augustis Nor. 
Pont. Antonino V et Au- 
relio Gees, dvohus Augustis 

For Cod. Just, see col. 2. 

Romae apud Gruterum 
p. 300. 1. M. JElio Aure- 
lio Vero Ccesar e III L. 
JElio Aurelio Commodo II 
COS. coopt. T. Petronius Se- 
verus No . i . anus P. It. C. 

Romse apud Panvinium 
p. 344 Gruterum p. 63. 3. 
P. Cornelius Paustus Sil- 
•canum cum base D. D. 
dedicavit Idihus Aprilih. 
Imp. CcBs. M. Aurelio 
Antonino III Imp. Vero 
Augusto COS. II. Conf. 
Eckhel. torn. IV p. 72. 

Chron. Pasch. p. 257 D 
has one interpolated year: 
Ind. 13 coss. M. Aurelio 

Vero et L. Commodo Au- 
gusto. Ind. 14 coss. M. 

Aurel. Vero et L. Commodo 
Aug. II. Ind. 15 coss. 
Rustico et Aquilino. 

Prosper Victorinus and 
Cassiodorus have two in- 
terpolated years : Anto- 
nino III [al. F] et Aurelio 
III [A. D. 161]. P. C. 
Antonini III [al. F] et 
Aurelii III. Duolms Au- 
gustis. Rustico et Aquilo 
■[A. D. 162]. 

For the reason see col. 3. 

2 Events 

Coins apud Eckhel. torn. VII p. 27 marking the 24th tribunician year: 

I Antoninus Aug. Pius p. p. tr.p. XXIIII+cong. Aug. Villi cos. Ill I. or 
liheralitas Aug. Villi cos. IIII. 2 Antoninus Aug. Pius p-p. + tr. pot. XX II I I 
COS. IIII. S. C. " variis typis."' An inscription also of the 24th year : In 
Hadriani mole Romae apud Panvinium p. 344 Gruterum p. 25'J. 4. Imp. Ccesari 
T. uElio Hadriano Antonino Aug. Pio pontif. maxim, trib. pot. XXIIII imp. 

II COS. IIII p.p. From the coins Eckhel tom. VII p. 26 tom. VIII p. 414 
conjectures that the tribunician years oi Pius were reckoned not from Feb. 25, 
the day on which he first received the power (conf. a. 138), but from Jan. 1. 

A coin oiy/urelius before the death of Pius: Eckhel. tom. VII p. 48. Aure- 
lius CoEsar Aug. Pii f. + tr. pot. XV cos. III. His 15th tribunician year is 
already current before the death of Pius ; and Eckhel tom. VIII p. 415 con- 
cludes that the tribunician years of Aurelius were also computed from Jan. 1. 
Eckhel confirms this by another argument: conf. a. 154. 

Death of Antoninus : Theoph. ad Autol. 111.27- "" AvTwrlvos (rq k/3' i^rivas (' 
rifxfpas r'. Clem. Al. Strom. I p. 339 D. Ittj k/3' fjifjvas rpels jVepay C- Euseb. 
H. E. IV. 14. (UoaTuv Koi bevrepov Itos biavvcravTa. His years and age are 
variously reported : Eutrop. VIII. 8. Oblit apud Lorium — vit(e anno LXXIII 
imperii XXIII. Victor Cses. p. 322. Anno vitce post 75""" mortuo. Victor 
Epit. p. .S73. Imperavit annos XXIII — Cum esset annorum 72'»'"'» post tres 
atque viginii annos imperii consumptus est. Dio (or Xiphilinus) 70. 4. 7]p£e he 
UKocri Kol ricra-apa tTrj. His reign is marked as 23 years by Capitolin. Marco 
c. 7- Per viginti et tres annos in domo patris {Marcus) versatus. Vero c. 2. Fuit 
( Verus) privatus in domo imperatorta viginti et tribus annis. He has 23 years 
N. E. 885—907 in the Canon of Ptolemy. But as N. E. 907 ending July 13 
A. D. 160 was his last year, he died before July 14 A. D. 161. And this is 
consistent with the actual date of his death, which was March 7 A.D. 161 ; 
since according to Dio the 19th year of his successor was completed March 6 
A. D. 180: conf. a. If the 23rd year of Antoninus began July 10 A.D. 160, 
the eighth month began Feb. 10 A. D. 161, and he reigned 22^ 7"* -6''- whence 
in Theophilus we may read fjnipas k/. Clemens is corrupted both in the 
months and in the days. Antoninus was born Sept. 19 A.D. 86 (conf. a.), and 
was therefore 74^ 5'" 16'' at his death March 7 A. D. 161. 

Coins after the death of Antoninus : Eckhel. tom. VII p. 28. 1 Divus An- 
toninus +consecratio. 2 Divus Antoninus + dim Pio. bearing on the reverse 
the column of Antoninus. That column, still extant at Rome, is inscribed 
Divo Antonino Aug. Pio Antoninus Augustus et Verus Augustus Jilii. Conf. 
Eckhel. tom. VII p. 28. 

Coins of Aurelius after the death of Pius : Eckh. tom. VII p. 48. 1 Imp. 
Cces. M. Aurel. Antoninus Aug. + concordia August, tr.p. XV cos. III. 2 Imp. 
Cces. M. Aurel. Antonin. Aug. p. m. + lib. Augustorum tr.p. XV cos. III. S. C. 

Coins of Verm of this year after he was associated in the empire by Marcus : 
Eckh. tom. VII p. 88. Imp. Cass. L. Aurel. Verus + cos. II. or concordicB Au- 
gustor. tr.p. cos. II. or lib. Augustor. tr.p. cos. II. 

Birth of Commodus : Laniprid. Commodo c. 1 . Natus est apiid Lanwcium cum 
fratre Antonino gemino, pridie Kal. Septemb. patre patruoque coss. 

A law of Marcus and Verus : Cod. Just. II. 13, 2. Dim fratres Sextilio'. — 
accepta VIII Kal. Aug. ipsis III et II A A. conss. Confirming that Verus was 
associated in the empire before July 25. 

R M A N I 


3 Secular Authors 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

A risddes at Rome : conf. a. 160. Ho remained till 
aitcr the Ludi Apollinares : Up. koy. p. 511. ipxh fifv 
ovv ny iyiviTO iv 'PdiJifi i( 'ATroAAcufos. — TtpoirayytKXfi 
pLol Tis fopTi)v ' AiT6K\(ttvos (ivai, 'AwoAAuwa [July 13]. 
and returned to Smyrna in the winter : p. 48:^. iboKd 
brj XP'/^ot Kop,i(i(T0ai olKodf, el irms etr] bLapKfaai. He is 
at Patras at the equinox : trn auri/i' l(rr)ntpLav p. 483. 
In 14 days ho is at Miletus: Ibid, and then at Smyr- 
na: Kara fjUKpov irpocriovTfs ovtco yi.yv6y.i0a iv rfj ^p.vpi>ri. 
— Koi xeifiiov ijtr] 7)u. Conf. p. 51 1. 

Alexander o{ Coticcfum the preceptor of Aristideg is 
at Home at the visit o( Aristides in A. D. Ifil : Aristid. 
Or. 12. 'AAtfovS/Kj) ^irtrd(^ios. rj) j3ov\fj (cat rm b^p,<f t<^ 
KoTva^av. p. 148. ttJs (fiiXias rjv f(pl\ow (kuvov Trpe- 
Tioirras tovs Kapuovs iKop.i(6p.r)y — ore ivocrovv iv 'Pu>p.r\ — 
ovhtv on ov yi.yv6p.ivoi tQv its aunripiav l/xoiyf koIX tov 
ye eii tijv oLKiCav (TuOrivai pera roiis fleoiis avToi ahid- 
TttTos KaTiaT-q. AleMnder was the preceptor of 3/. Au- 
relius : Capitolin. Marco c. 2. urns gramnuUids — Gra-co 
Alexandra. Marcus Trepl iaw. I. 10. irapa. 'AXi^dvbpov 
TOV ypappariKov k. t. A. Conf. Aristid. 1. c. p. 138. 6ia 
irorTos Tou 'E\\r]viKov itpunvcTai [Al. Coti/aien»is\ dot 
iselpav kavTov ■napacrxmv pvplav, oCrus koX ih lia(TiK4<ai 
av\ds re koi dxoas (K^Uero. p. 139. yiv6pevoi Toiwv iir' 
i^ov<r(as Kol bvvdpiois roo-ovTrjy (uore /cat Tpo(f>^a>s X^P""? 
ovx} 8i8a(T)c(iAov p6vov t&v Tiaibaiv ex^"'; ''• ''• ^- P- I'l*- 
yvoiT] 6' av ns — kv p.6vov avrov to inpl ttjv (rvvovo'Cav 
TTiv Trpos Toxii /SacrtAeay, icat irapadih T^f 'AptoTOTf'Aouy 
TTpbs 'i>iKiin;ov koi ' AKi^avbpov yivoplvr\v k. t. A. For 
Alexander conf. Steph. Byz. KoTidnov Etymol. M. 6e'- 
Sotica. ■nepippr]hi]s. 

Ptolemj/ according to Suidas survived till the reign 
oi Marcus : conf. a. 139. Hence in the Astronomical 
Canon he might assign the 23 years to the reign of 

Pausanias X. 34, 2 mentions this Olympiad: to Ko- 
<TT0Ji(!tK()>v re tQ)v \t](tti.k&v to kut epi tijv "EAAdSa eVt- 
bpapov [conf Capitolin. Marco c. 22] a(f>UtTo /cat tirl rijr 
'EActTftav (vda hi] avr/p M;'r;<Tt^ovAos Ao'xor re TTtpl avTov 
&vbp&v ^vvian)cre, kol — tTnarev iv t^ paxj]. oiros 6 Mvr]- 
o-i/3ovAos bpopov vUas xat AAAay avtC\eTo, Kal ^OXvp-niabi 
a\i cnabCov koL tov ^iiv ttj d(mlbi StavAou. Africanus 
apud Euseb. p. 162. 01. 235 Mnasibalus Elatensis sta- 

Inscriptions after the death of Pius : Marmor Pu- 
teolis apud Eckhel. tom. IV p. 72 torn. VII p. 89. X 
Kal. April. Imp. Crrsare M. Attrelio Antonino Aug. 
Ill et Imp. Cesgare L. Aurelio Vero Aug. II cos. For 
another dated Id. April, see col. 1. From the first 
it appears that Antoninus was already dead before 
March 23. 

The interpolated consuls mentioned in col. 1 may 
have happened because the consuls of this year were 
first Cmsar et Veriis only, and then August i. 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 


915. Q. Junius Bustictts 
et Aquilinus 

Nor. Cod. Just. V. 25, 3 
liber pontificalis Damasi 
torn. I p. 589. 

Uujino et ^quilino Idat. 

"PoilCTT^KtOS TO 13' KOI ' A- 

Koviuvos A. 

Placed by Chron. Pasch. 
at the right Indiction, on 
account of the interpola- 
tion preceding : conf. a. 

Oassiodorus by a double 
interpolation preceding 
brings down these consuls 
one year too low : conf. 
a. 161. 

De Eustico Themistius 
Or. 34 c. 8 Capitohn. 
Marco c. 3. 

Aurelii 2 from Non. Mart, tr.pot. 16 from Kal. Jan. Veri 2 from March; 
tr. p. 2 from Kal. Jan. 

Verm had been immediately associated by Aurelius in the empire : conf. a. 
161. Capitolin. Vero c. 3. Defuncto Pio Marcus in eum omnia contuUt, princi- 
patu etiam imperatorice pofestatis indulto ; sihique consortem fecit quum illi soli 
senafus detulisset imperium. Idem Marco c. 7- Marcus post excesswm dim Pii a 
senatu coactus regimen publicum capere fratrem sibi participem in imperio desig- 
navit ; quern. L. Aurelium Verum Commadum appellavit, Casaremqwe atque Au- 
gustum dixit. — Tuncque primmn Romanwm imperium duos Augustas habere coepit. 
Conf. Spartian. Hadr. c. 24 Eutropium VIII. 9 Ammianum XXVII. 6, 16. 
Victor Caes. p. 323. Gonfestim fratrem L. Verum in sodetatem potenties accepit. 

Parthian war: Capitolin. Marco c. 8. Fuit eo tempore Parthicum bellum, quod 
Vologesus paratum sub Pio Marci et Veri, tempore indixit, fugato Atidio Corne- 
liano qui Syriam tunc administrabat. Imminebat etiam Britannicum bellum, et 
Gatti in Germ<tniam ac BluBtiam irruperant. Et adversus Britannos quidem 
Galpumius Agricola missus est ; contra Gattos Aufidius Victorinus. Ad Parthi- 
cum vero bellum senatu consentiente Verus frater ejus missus est ; ipse Bomce re- 
mxinsit. Idem Vero c. 6. Profectum eum ad Parthicum helium Marcus Capuam 
prosecutus est. — Quum interfecto legato, ccesis legionibus, Syris defectionem cogi- 
tantibus, Oriens vastaretur, ille in .Apulia venabatur. — Antiochiam posteaquam 
venit, ipse quidem se luxuries dedit, duces autem confecerunt Parthicum bellum. 
Eusebius: Anno 2177 [from Oct. A. D. 161] Lucio Cwsari Athenis sacrificanti 
&c. Idem Anno 2178. Vologesus Parthorum rex Eomanam ditionem invasit. 
At the same years in Hieronymus. Eusebius has inverted the order of these 
events. After the Parthian invasion Verus was at Athens in his way to 

Coins of .Aurelius : Eckhel. torn. VII p. 49. 1 Imp. M. Aurel. Antoninus 
Aug. + concord. Augustor. tr. pot. XVI cos. III. 2 Imp. Gees. M. Aurel. Anto- 
ninus Aug. p. m. + tr. pot. XVI cos. III. 3 M. Antoninus Aug. + saluti Augustor. 
tr.p. XVI COS. III. The 16th tribunician year was current before March 17 
A.D. 162: conf. a. 147. 161. 

Coins of Verus: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 89. 1 Imp. Gees. L. Aurel. Verus ■\- 
concordice Augustor. tr. p. II cos. II. 2 L. Aurel. Verus Aug. + tr. pot. II cos. II. 
3 Imp. CcES. L. Aurel. Verus Aug. tr.p. II cos. II-{-prov. deor. 

An inscription: Gruter. p. 156. "J. apud Batavos: Imp. Gees. 31. Aurel. An- 
tonino Aug. pont. max. tr. pot. XVI co. XIII [1. cum Gudio cos. III'\ et imp. Cces. 
L. Aurel'Vero Aug. tr.pot. II cos. II A. M. A. E. G. M. P. XII. 


916. Lcelianus et Pastor 

Lolliano et Pastore Nor. 

KoyXiavos kol ndfrriap A. 

klkiavov KOii IlaoTajpos 
Chron. Pasch. 

Gruter. p. 126. L. uEli- 
ano [1. Lceliano] et Pas- 
tore COS. 

In the other consulships 
in that monument apud 
Grut. p. 126 the jweeno- 

Aurelii 3 from Non. Mart, tr.pot. 17 from Kal. Jan. Veri 3 from March; 
trih. pot. 3 from Kal. Jan. 

Parthian war: Capitolin. Marco c. 8. Verus quidem posteaquam in Syriam 

venit in deliciis apud Antiochiam et Daphnen vixit, quum per legatos bellum 

Parthicum gerens imperator appellatus esset. — Gestee swnt res in Armenia prospere 
per Statium Priscum Artaxatis captis ; delatumque Armeniacum nomen utrique 
principum. quod Marcus per verecundiam primo recusavit, postea tamen recepit. 
Idem Vero c. 7- Duces confecerunt Parthicum helium Statius Priscus et Avidius 
Cassius et Martius Verus per quadriennium, ita ut Babi/lonem et Mediam per- 
venirent et Armeniam vindicarent ; partumque est ipsi nomen Amwniaci. Parthici 
Medici, quod etiam Marco Romee agenti delatum est. 

Coins of this year : Eckhel. tom. VII p. 50. M. Aurel. Antoninus Aug. p. m. 
+ tr.p. XVII imp. II COS. IIL 8. G. 

R O M A N I 



4 Ecci.KsiASTKAL Authors 

Jrlstides in the second year of liis sickness is at 
Porganius : Or. 24 p. 483. itapekOovTOi hiavrov ical firj- 
vStv inX ■njv (V nepy<i/x<[) KaOihpav ijK6oij.fv. in the spring 
of A. D. 1G2. In the first year of his sickness ho had 
suspended his studies : p. 505. hiavrov naXurra t6v 
irp&Tov 7TJJ iadfVfCas i^fKiirov Trjv irepl Toi/y Xoyotiy bia- 
Tpi^r']v. The vernal equinox mentioned p. 484 — 7]v l<Trj- 
fifpCa 7/ iifTo. xfiix&va — appears to be the vernal equinox 
of the second year; March 25 A. D. 162. 

Galen mentions his first visit to Rome : Galen, torn. 
XIV p. 605. Kara rrjv TXporlpav iinbr]p.Cav iv 'PwfiJJ fioi, 
yfvoixfvijv. p. 641. tijv irpdTrjv iTtibrnxCav. torn. II p. 
215. &paTop.iKas ^yxeip^o'fty eypa\jfa ixiv koI ■npoaOiv, 
fivUa TO TTp&TOV iiiniKdov evayxps eis 'Pd/xriv, &p\fiv r\py- 
liivov Tov KoX vvv ripXv apxpvTos 'AvTtovCvov. tom. II 
p. 218. aini\6ov eis 'Pw/ztji', iv fi koX tu Bot;9<j) ■nap.iToKXai 
iTToi.r](Tdfjir]v avarouhi, Tropo'iroy aircp atl p,(v Evbrifwv re 
TOV •nepnraTTjTiKQv koX 'AAefdvSpov tov Aaiiaa-Krivov, tov 
vvv 'Adr]in](nv dfiou^^rov tovs TrfpnraTrjriKOvs Xdyovy 6i- 
bdcTKdv br]p.oa[a. When he cured Eudemm, who was 
63 years old : tom. XIV p. 614. He mentions p. 64? 
the war with Vologesus (see col. 2) : awoy tToifios Tiv, 
<S(77rep 5 re ^(firjpos [Se^^poy waroy niv &>v, (crnovbaKm 
bi Kal Ttepl ttjv 'Apioror^Xoi/y (j)L\o(roif>Cav p. 613], t6 p.i]- 
vvffai Tb, (car ifxi t(3 re koto tijv tUv 'Paipialaiv iroX-iv ovtl 
MtJpxo) AiptjXici) 'AvT<t>vlv<f avTOKpojopi. AevKioy yap due 
bripLii. r^y iroXeuy iv(Ka tov YlapdiKov Tiokipjov yevqOivToi 
vTTo Bo\oyia-ov. He had already p. 613 marked the 
absence ot Lucius: A(vkCov Kara Trjv MfvoTTOTaixCav ovo- 
\ia^oiiivr\v ovtos viiApxov. He mentions p. 648 his re- 
turn to his own country: 5<^ra) r^j 'Patp-aCiav TrJXewy 
i^ijKdov K. T. k. and the beginning of a German war 
p. 649. fiera \p6vov 8' ov -noKiiv eirareAijXvflo'roy tov 
AcvkCov, ntoKifiov 8' kTtpov tov wpoy Fep/iafovy TroAe/x?;- 
OivToi oOToiy dpx^ icafleioT^Kei. Severus was a consul 
suffectm in A. D. 162. 

A law of Marcus and of Verus: Cod. Justin. V. 25, 3. 
lidem [sc. dim/raires] A A. Titiana.—pp.XIII Kal. 
Mart. Jtomai BtisHco et Aquilino conss. 

Henmgenes set. 15 is hoard by Marcus: Dio 71.1. 
MdpKoy 6« — Ae'yerai kcH avTOKpdrmp cor ixr] albdcrdai. ixr}bi 
6kv(iv is bibacTKdXov (poiTav, aWa ical S^fro) trpoa-Uvai 
T<j) iK BomtHv <^iAoa'd(^(i] Kal is i-Kpoaariv t&v prjTopiKtiv 
Epnoy^vovs \6yav pL-q oKi^irat Ttapaytvia-Oai.. Philostr. 
V. S. II. 7 p. 577- 'Epfxoy^i^y, hv Tapo-ol Tl\v(yKav, tkv- 
TeKa{bfKa Itjj yeyofcoy ((j>' oiirw ju^yo irpoifirj rijs t&v (to- 
<l)i.(TT&v bo^rjs Qjy Kal MdpKu /SaffiXei Ttapacr^dv Hp<oTa 
dxpodtrewy. ij3<ibi(Te yovv inl rr\v aKpoaaiv avrov 6 Mdp- 
Koy. — ^y 8^ Sj'Spay t^koiv i.^^pi6r) TrfV i^iv inr ovbfpxas 
(}>av(pas' v6<rov. Suid. p. 1446 A. yevofifvos irepi to el;- 
KOfl-i icoi T4<T<Tapa Ittj iflcrrr] t&v (f>pfv&v. — wX^r irepl tov 
Hj J/ (c \p6vov yevSfxevos ypdcjxi rovro r^ ^ifikla k. t. X. 
Schol. Hermogen. apud Olear. ad Philostr. p. 577. 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

mm is omitted : as Quin- 
tiliis COS. [A.D. 151] Sil- 
vano et Augurino [A. D. 
156] Claro et Cethego 
[A. D. 170]. Maximo et 
Orfito[K.D.\'i2\ Where- 
fore we may read in this 
place Laliano et Pastore. 

Coins of Verm : Ibid. p. 90. 

1 Imp. CcBS. L. Aurel. Verm Aug. tr.p. Ill cos. II +/elic. Aug. 

2 Imp. Gees. L. Aurel. Verus Aug.+pro/ectio Aug. tr.p. Ill cos. II. S. C. 

3 L. Verus Aug. Artneniacus + Armen. tr.p. Ill imp. II cos. II. 

The titles Armeniacus and Imp. II mark that the successes in Armenia 
were obtained in this year. 

Inscriptions: 1 apud Gruterum p. 259. 9 Panvinium p. 345. Auximi in 
Piceno: Imp. Ccesari M. Aurelio Antonino Aug. pontifici max. trih. pot. XVII 
cos. Ill divi Antonini Pii jil. dim Hadriani nepot. divi Trajani Parthici pr<m. 
dim Nervcn abn. Auximates puhlice. 2 apud Grut. p. 258. 2 Panvin. p. 345. 
Auximi : Imp. Ccesari L. Aurelio Vero Aug. trih. pot. Ill cos. II divi Antonini 
Pii fit. &c. — Aummates puhlice. 


917. M. Nonius Macri- 
nus et Celsus 

Nor. Idat. A. Chron. 

Gruter. p. 441. 10. 31. 
Nonio M. f. Macrirw cos. 
&c. conf. Noris. 0pp. 
torn. II p. 963. 

Aurelii 4 from Non. Mart. trih. pot. 1 8 from Kal. Jan. Veri 4 from March ; 
trib.pot. 4 from Kal. Jan. 

The Parthian war continues. 

Marriage of Verm and Lucilla: Capitolin. Vero c. 7. Ephesum rediit ut Lu- 
cillam uxorem missam a patre Marco susciperet ; et idcirco maxime ne Marcus in 
Syriam veniret. Dio "JX.X. yan/ipov avrov i-nl rfj Ovyarpl AovklWo. 6 Mtipicos 
TToiTjo-ay eh rbv irpos TlapOovs e7re^\/^e -noXtiiov. Capitolin. Marco c. 9. Medio 
belli tempore— jiliam suam nupturam commissam sororis su<e curm—Brundtmum 
usque deduxit et ad eum misit &c. 

Coins of Aurelim : Eckhel. torn. VII p. 50. 

1 M. Antoninus Aug. Armeniacus + Armen. p. m. tr.p. XVIII imp. II cos. III. 

2 M. Aurel. Antoninus Aug. Armeniacus p. m. + vict. Aug. tr.p. XVIII imp. 

II cos. in. s. c. 

R O M A N I 


3 Secular Authors 

'Epjioyew/y Tapa-fvi, vlos KakXCmtov. — tovtov viov oinoi 
rjj bMTpijBjj (Trfcpolra troWdKis 6 avroKpdrap MipKos &Kpo- 
offofxeros. — iC n^v ovv Itt) ytyovtai to itaphv /SiySAiov [sc. 
TTipl <iTa(Ti<i>v\ iypa\\r(v. iU rpia hi Kal tlKOcri ■npoe\d(i>v 
\p6vov TO TifpX IhiStv i^lhtiiKf ovvTayfia' iv Hi t^ (iKoari^ 
KaX ■nip.TTTif i^tX&QtTo. That Hermogenes was seen by 
Marcus in the beginning of his reign is probable from 
the position of Hennogeiies in the list of Phiiostratus 
V. S. II. who has this order: Alexander: Varus: 
Jlemiopenes : Pkilacfer : AriMides : Adrianm. Hut 
Alexander flourished A. D. 160 — 1/0: conf. a. Phi- 
laper was the disciple of Lollianus: conf. a. 132. Ari- 
stides was bom in A. D. 1 29 : conf. a. Adrian not 
later than A. D. 1 13 : conf. a. 192. We may therefore 
place Henmgenes at A. D. 163 — 171, and his birth at 
A. D. 118, rather than at a later period. 

Polyamis addresses his work TitpX arpaTriyriixdTaiv 
to Marcus and Vei-tts during the Parthian war: Pro- 
cem. 1. I. T7)v pikv Kara TlepcrSiv koI VlapdvaCaiv vU-qu — 
Tiapa T&v 0fS)V Ifere koI Trapa liji vfieTtpas dper^s xal 
vapa TTJy 'Paip-alav &vbp(ias. — fyo) 6^, Ma/ceSuj' a.i>r]p 
[Suid. p. 3032 C. TloXvaivoi Maxthiiiv, p^ro)/)], f)(<ov ird- 
Tpiov TO KpaTiiv Ylfpa&v iTo\(iJiovvTa>v bvvacrOaL, ovk dirv/i- 
/3oAos vfjiLV iv T(jj napovTi. xatpcj) yevfcrdai ^ovKoixai. 
Praef. lib. V. wvi yt firiv fioAiora oTroVe — ro ^pya tov 
iroKinov 8ioTa(r(7«Tc. Prsef. lib. VI. r;8jj iroWotis ttoX^- 
piovs KaT(lpya(rOt iroWuv ^ap^dpav, PovXtva-dpifvoi koX&s 
(XfTa TOV TTaTpos' }ilavpov(T((i}V dXdvTwi', BptTavSiv oKutko- 
iiivav, TtT&v TTcnTutKOTuv [conf. Pausan. VIII. 43, 3 
Capitolin. Antonino c. 5]' aye fij) (card Ylfpa-dv Kal Tlap- 
Ovaimv ffio'rrfs avTol fierd tS>v d(S>v bei^uTf rrjv vpLtrepav 
T^xvrjv. Polt/eenus himself was a jurist : Praef. lib. II, 
TavTa trxoAf/f ovk &ya>v dkXa Kal bUas (<f) vpi&v Xtyuv. 
pncf. 1. VIII. vpoaipfcra ^iov koX Koyov biKaviKOV x/"^" 
p.evoi OVK dp.(\& avyypdcfxiv ocra yivoir hv oi><})(Ki.pia vyXv 
Tf avToiy Kal ttj 'V<ay.a!.<av dpx^. And now in old age 
prajf. lib. I. ^iitl be fiot. -nporiKovcrav rrjv fjXiKlav opare. 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

Hieron. Chron. Anno 2179 [A. D. 16}] Fronto watvr 
insignis hahetur, qui Marcuni Antoninum Verum Latinis 
Uteris erudivit. Repeated by Cassiodorus coss. Macrino 
et Ceho. Eutropius VIII. 12. Latinos aufem litteras 
Marcum Fronto orator nohilissimus docuit. Conf. a. 133. 
Mentioned by Marcus himself -ntpl iavT. I. 11. irapa 
•tporrwi'os, rd iTna-Tijcrai k. t. A, Fronto was consul in 
A. D. 143 : conf. a. and was also the preceptor of Ve- 
rus : conf. a. 143. 4. At this time he is corresponding 
with Marcus and Verm : conf. a. 1 66. 

Nicostratus flourished : Suid. p. 2598 C. Nwcoorparos 
MatteSii', prfr(op. iTd\6tj bk iv roi? KpiOti<ri.v (Ttibfxrrdpois 
6«KO prfTopat, (Tvyxpovos ^ Apiardbov Kal ACtavoi toC Xpv- 
(TOOTOjxou' f}V yap iirl MdpKov ' Ammvlvov tov fiarrtkfa>s- 
(ypayjff AeKafivdCav, EUovas, HoKvtivOCav, QaXarrovp- 
yoiis, Kal aWa •nkdara' koI iyKapiia fli Tf tov MdpKOV 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

Coins of Verm: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 91. 

1 L. Verm Aug. Armeniacus + Armen. tr. p. IIII imp. II cos. II. or rex 

Armm. dat. tr.p. IIII imp. II cos. II. 

2 L. Aurel. Verm Aug. Armeniacus + rex Armeniis dolus, imp. II tr.p. IIII 

COS. II. 8. C. or rex Armen. dat. tr. p. IIII imp. II cos. II. 

3 L. Verm Aug. Armeniacus + Here. pac. tr. f. IIII imp. II cos. II. or tr. p^ 

IIII imp. II cos. II. 

165 ,01. 236U. C. Varr. 918. 
M. Gavim Orfitm L. Ar- 
rim Fudem 

Nor. Idat. A. Chron. 

Patavii apud Gruterum 
p. 1032. 6. ad XII K. 
Mart. M. Gavio Orfito L. 
Arrio Pudente cos. 

Lapis apud Panvinium 
p. 345 Gruterum p. 751.3. 
D. M. et Somno a-temali 
securitati memorice Q. Per- 
pet. jElice Flames Meli- 
tance q. v. an. XXXI m. 
Ill d. X T. Fl. Hymnm 
conjugi sanctissimee dulcis- 
simceq. cum qua vix. an. 
Marcellm et Titianm et 
Flavia T.f. Ampelle ina- 
ter pientiss. sarcophago si- 
gil. cum opere et basihus 
fecer. et consecraverunt 
Idihus Augmtis Pudente 
et Orfito COS. 

Aurelii 5 from Non. Mart, trih.pot. 19 from Kal. Jan, Veri 5 from March; 

pot. 5 from Kal. Jan. 
Farther successes against the Parthians; marked by the titles imp. Ill 
and Parthicus maximm in the coins of this year apud Eckhel. tom. VII p. 51. 

1 Antoninm Auq. Arm^niacm+p. m. tr.p. XIX imp. II cos. III. or p. m. 

tr.p. XIX 'imp. Ill cos. III. S. C. 

2 Antoninm Aug. Armeniacm p. m. + liberal. Aug. tr. p. XIX imp. II cos. 

III. 8. C. 

3 M. Aurel. Antoninm Auq. Armeniacus p. m.+tr. pot. XIX imp. II cos. III. 

8. C. or tr. pot. XIX imp. Ill cos. III. 8. C. 

Coins of Verm: Eckhel. tom. VII p. 92. 

1 L. Aurel. Verm Aug. Armeniacm + tr. p. V imp. II cos. II. or liberal. Aug. 

tr. p. V imp. II cos. II. 8. C. 

2 L. Verm Aug. Arm. Parih. max. + tr. p. V imp. Ill cos. II. Capitolin. 

Marco c. 9. Profligato autem bello uterque Parthicus appellatus est. 8ed hoc 
quoque Marcm delatmn nomen repudiavit ; quod postea recepit. 

Verm during this war passed four winters in Asia (A. D. 16f- — 16^): Ca- 
pitolin. Vero c. 7- Egit per quadriennium Verm hiemem Laodicees, eestatem apud 
Daphnen, reliquam partem Antiochice. — ad Euphratem tamen impulsu comitum 
suorum secundo profectm est. This war is briefly described by Xiphilinus or 
Dio 71.2. d yap OvoXoyaicros 'noX(\j.ov rjp^e km arpaTOTTtbov re oXov 'Potna'iKov to 
VTib liffirjpMvta Terayfxivov (v rfj 'EXeyeia, X'OP^? '""'' '"'i^ Apixevias, (■wi<t-)(u>v trav- 
Todev avTols ^yffio'crt /carerofetJtre koI hUt^dupt [A. D. Ifi2], Koi rr\s ^vpias Taij 
TioXeai, T7oXiis iniju /cat (po/Sfpos k. t. X. — Kao-crios' 8« imovTa re tov Ovokoyaiaov 
yfvvaCais xmijxewe, Koi t(\os eyKaTa\ei(f>6ivra vvo t&v eTvp.\xd\(j>v — fTreStco^e, fJ.fXP'- 
re ^eKevKflai Koi Knja-itji&VTOs ijkaae, koX Trjv re 2e\evKfiav hU<^dupiv ({ntpriTai 
KoH TO. TOV OvoKoyaCaov jBarrikiLa ra fv rfj KTrjfncj^wvTL KaTe<TKa\p^fv. Eutropius 
VIII. 10. Verm Antoninm ad id bellum profectm est, qui AntiochicB et circa 
Armeniam agem multa per duces et ingentia patravit ; Seleuciam Assyria urbem 
nobilissimam cum quadraginta millibm Iwminum cepit. Orosius VII. 15. Vologe- 
sm rex Parthorum gravi eruptione Armeniam Gappadociam Lyciamque vastabat. 
8ed Antoninm [sc. L. Verm] per strenuissimos duces magnis rebm gestis Seleu- 
ciam — cum CCCG millibm hominum cepit. Festus in breviario p. 412. Seleu- 

R O M A N I 


3 Secular Authors 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

Koi &\\ovs. He is mentioned with Dio by Philostratus 
V. S. II. 31, and with Lesbonax of Mytilene — Ata-ffd- 
vaKTOs ^(\e'rai prjTopLKoi (pfpomai Oavixdmai kcu ii/ajxiWoi 
NtKooTpoTov KOI <t>iAooTparov — by Schol. Lucian. tom.V 
p. 1 C 1 . Named with others by Syncellus p. 353 B. rrjs 
OeCas (rapK(i<T€<iii Itt] pfe'. rtTapTi^ MapKot/ Avpr]\[ov — 
iTd, ra\r)v6s larpos iptoroy i/Kjxafe r<j) yivfi rifpyafj.r]v6s. 
'louXiaroy voiwdirrj's iv 'PdfJ-ll koX ^pdlTuv 6 prJTotp. 
'Api(TT(Lbr]i ^pLVpvalos (ro</)t(Tr?Jy. Ntfcoorparos AoyoTrowJy. 
'OTTirioroj Ki\(^ 'n'oi?jr^y a\ifVTiK<ov [conf. a. l?!]- ^^(roi 
abe\(f)Lhov9 IWovrapx^ov tov Xaipiavduis (^i\ocro<^ov [conf. 
a. Il'O]. 'ArrtKos YlKaruviKos <^iAo'<ro(^os [conf. a. 177]- 

Galeri, set. 34 came the second time to Rome : Ga- 
len, torn. XIX p. 1'2 — 14. TO bfvrepov rjxov (U 'Pdpjjv — 
viTo tS)v avTOKpaTdpav pLtTanXrjOds. Ibid. p. 15. Koi yhp 
br] Koi veos &>v In rovr iTrpofo, rirapTov hos iyutv (cat 
TpMKOffTov. Ho remained throe years : Ibid. Ireiri rpi- 
(t\i) &SXois iv 'P«Mn Siarp^i/fos. 

Hieron. Chron. Anm 2181 [A. D. 16f] Aurdii 5" 
Apud Pism Peregrinus philosophm rogo — semet ipsum 
mperinjedt. Omitted in Euseb. Armen. but verified 
by Syncellus p. 352 B. Xlfpeypii'os 6 (^iXouot^os iv iravt]- 
yvpd Tivp\lfas iavrbv iviirprja-f pufiovpifvos KaKavov. 
Ammian. XXIX. 1, 39. Peregrinum ilium imitatus 
Protea cognomiiw philosophum clarum, qui, cum mundo 
digredi staiuisset, Olympiee quinquennati certamine sub 
GrcecieB conspectu totius adscenso rogo quern, ipse con- 
struxit Jiamtnis absumptus est. Rightly placed by Hie- 
ronymus in an Olympic year ; and the death of Pere- 
grinm may bo referred to 01. 236 July A. D. H)5. 

Lucian, who records the death of Peregrinus, was 
present: De morte Poregrini c. 35 tom. VIII p. 297- 
Koi hi\ TO fiiv 'OAu/tiTta rikoi il^f' >^oik\i.<rra 'OXv/iTr^coi' 
yivofiiva S)V (yu> (Tbov, rerpaKis ?/8)j opmv. On Peregrinus 
— Tor Kvva Upiaria — conf. Philostr. V. S. II. 1 p. 563 
GeUium XII. 11 Lucianum tom.V p. 242. He had 
been heard by Gellius: Cell. N. A. VIII. 3. Avdienti- 
hus nobis Peregrinus pkilosophus. 

{Hermogenes (aet. 17) lept ordo-ewj^: conf. a. 163.) 

The sixth year of the sickness of Aristides began 
Nov. A.D. 165 because the tenth began Nov. A. D. 169 : 
conf. a. Aristides p. 446 — 458 gives a diary of the 
months Posideon and Lenceon and subjoins p. 460 to 
ixkv ovv Toiv aXovcn&v Tt Tiy hv At'yot ; >/6r; yap xal Ttivrt 
iTutv (rvvi)(S>i iyivovTo /xoi (tot upocriTi p.r)v!av. He had 
quitted the Tliermm near the ^septus at the beginning 
of his malady on proceeding to Rome at the close of 
A. D. 160 : conf. p. 481. and returned to the T/iermes 
at the beginning of the second year in the close of 161: 
p. 466. but was prevented from using them by a vision 
of the god ..iEsculapius, who directed other remedies : 
p. 467. The 5 years and some months then were to 
be computed from the beginning of his illness in the 

X 2 




1 Consuls 

dam — cum COCO millibus hominum cepit. Hieron. Chron. Anno 2180 [A.D. 
16^] Seleucia Assyrice. urhs cum GCG millibus hominum a Romanis capta. 
(Omitted in Euseb. Armen.) The total population of Seleucia might be 
400,000. This sack of Seleucia per duces Vert Ccesaris is mentioned by Am- 
mianus XXIII. 6, 2\ (conf. XXIV. 5, 3) ; the Parthian war by Victor Cses. 
p. 323. 

Inscriptions: 1 apud Panvinium p. 346 Gruter. p. 260. 2. Prope Veronam : 
Imp. Casari Aug. Antonini Pii fil. dim Hadriani nep. dim Trajani Parthici 
pronep. dioi Nervx ahnep. M. Aurelio Antonino Aug. Armsniaco pont. max. trib. 
pot. XVIIII imp. II cos. Ill Benacenses. 2 Gruter. p. 2.59. 10. Torcelli in 
ecclesia cathedrali, literis aliquot fugientibus: Imp. Ccesa. M. Aurelio Antonino 
Aug. pont. max. trib. pot. XVIII . . . .s. Ill dim An . . . ini Pii f. divi . . . riani 
n. divi Trajani Parthici pronep. divi NervcB a. nepoti D. D. If trib. pot. 
XVIII is the reading, this inscription will belong to the preceding year. 
But we may probably supply the lacuna in this manner : trib. pot. XVIII 
[I co]s. ///. 

2 Events 


919. Servilius Pudens L. 
Fufidius Pollio 

Idat. Lamprid. Commo- 
do c. 11. 

Pudente et Pulione Nor. 

YlovbtVTOi TO /3' Koc riovA.- 
\(a>vos Chron. Pasch. 

Hovbevos Koi IIoXA.icoi' A. 

Gruter. p. 1009. 12. see 
col. 2. 

Aurelii 6 from Non. Mart. trib. pot. 20 from Kal. Jan. Vert 6 from March ; 
trib. pot. 6 from Kal. Jan. 

Commodus nominatus inter Ccesares IV Iduum Octobrium, quas Herculeas 
postea nomiiiavit, Pudente et Pollione Coss. Lamprid. Commodo c. 11. conf. 
c. ?. 

Triumph oi Marciis and Verus : Capitolin. Vero c. 7- 8. Romam ad trium- 
phum ( Verus) invifus, quod Si/riam quasi regnum suiim relinqueret, rediit et pa- 
riter cum fratre triumphavit, susceptis a senatu nominibus quce in exercitw acce- 
perat. — Habwit hanc reverentiam Marci Verus ut nomina quae sibi delata fuerant 
cum fratre communicaret die triumphi quern parlter celebrarunt. Eutrop. VIII. 
10. Verm — Partkieum triumphum revexit ; cum fratre eodemque socero trium- 
phavit. Oros. VII. 15. Cum fratre de victoria Parthica triumphavit. Conf. 
Capitolin. Marco c. 12. The date is given in Eusebius : ^m»o 2182 [from 
Oct. A.D. 166] Lucius C<ssar Parthos vicit egitque triumphum cum fratre. In 
Hieron. Anno 2181. It is fixed to A.D. 166 by coins: Eckhel. tom. VII 
p. 51. 

1 M. Aurel. Antoninus Aug. Armeniacus p. m. + cong. Aug. Ill tr.pot. XX 

imp. Ill cos. III. S. 0. 

2 M. Antoninus Aug. ^nneniacus p. m.+pax Aug. tr. p. XX cos. III. or 

vict. Aug. tr.p. XX cos. III. 

3 M. Aurel. Antoninus Aug. Arm. Parth. wmx. + tr.p. XX imp. IIII cos. III. 

or vict. Aug. tr.pot. XX imp. IIII cos. III. 

4 31. Antoninus Aug. Parth. max. Medic. + tr. pot. XX imp. IIII cos. III. 

S. G. both emperors in a triumphal chariot. 

Coins of Verus : Eckhel. tom. VII p. 92. 

1 L. Verus Aug. Arm. Parth. max. + lib. Aug. Ill tr.p. VI cos. II. or fr. p. 

VI imp. Ill cos. II. or tr. p. VI imp. IIII cos. II. 

2 L. Verus Aug. Arm. Parth. onax. Medic. + tr.p. VI imp. IIII cos. II. S. G. 

exhibiting the two emperors in a triumphal chariot. 
Inscriptions: 1 apud Gruterum p. 260. 3. Eezurae prope civitatem Alcaraz. 
Hispan. Imp. G<es. dim Antonini jil. dim Hadriani nepoti divi Trajani Parth. 

R M A N I 


3 Seculab Authors 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

close of A. D. 100, and this period terminates in Le- 
neron of the fitli year; which doterniines those two 
winter mouths of whicli the diary is given to the win- 
ter of A. U. 16^. At this time, January A. D. Hifi, 
Quadrat us is proconsul: ^.AaX.Tavra KoXva-Ttpov -npoi 
KohpoTov 7'iyffxova (boKow is ovap h-qyf'ifdai. conf. p. 
521. o.(piKop,ivov KoSporov tov pi'iropoi iirl ttjit rf;s AarCas 
apx}]v. who therefore entered on his year in A. D. 165. 
In Itenceon the emperor is in Syria : p. 453. e-nevofjicfxiv 
d)s- TOP iv Tjj '^vpia ToTf avTOKpiropa. And Veru^ passed 
this winter there : see col. 2. Mention is made of the 
elder Antoninus and the king of Parthia : p. 454. ibo- 
Kovv ^AiTtai'lvov TOV avTOKp&TOpa tov TrpfcrjSvTfpov [sc. 
3larcum] koi t6v tuv Tiokip.iu>v fiacriXea (nrovbas koX </)t- 
\iav irfTroifj<Tdai Trpos AXA.^\ous" Ttpotriovrtav b\ t&v irepl 
BoAo'yeo-or (pci>vi)v elvai ovk 6\Lyr\v — koL itvai tov 'Avroi- 
vivov [sc. Marcuni] ^TrieucS? iv &Kixfj. Agreeing with 
this period, when the peace was either negotiating or 
just concluded. 

Luciatii ir&lj bfi laropCav (Tvyyp&^nv was written after 
the Parthian war was ended: Lucian. torn. IV p. 164. 
aTiavTtav ifit] Kiyiipap-ivav. He mentions p. 161 the 
defeat in Armenia in A. D. 162: to iv ^ApfievCa. Tpavixa. 

lamblkhiis of Bahylon, flourished : Plaot. Cod. 94. 
iiVtyv<i>u6i\ ^\a\>.^\L\ov bpajxaTiKov k. t. K. — Kiyfi be icai 
iavTov BajSvXiiviov flvai 6 (Tvyypa<t>fvs — koi dKy.dCuv <7rt 
"SiOaipiOv TOV ' A\aip.ivibov tov ' AptraKibov, os /SaTtXfvs 7)V 
iK Ttaripvtv ^aaiKimv, yiyovf be o/xa>s koi r^y avyKX-qTov 
fiovKiji rjjs iv 'Pco^r/ koX VTiaros bi, fira kw, jiaa-iKtvs tto.- 
\iv Tjjs pL(yd\-qs 'ApjXfVLa^ [conf. Suid. Mapnos p. 24 10 D. 
OTi Mapnos Bfjpoi tov QovKvbibt^v iiatip.-n(.i. KaTayayeiv 
'^.vaip.ov ets ^Apixeviav k. t. A.], im tovtov yovv aKfiAcrai 
<f>rjiTLV (avTov. Pu^aio)!' bi biaKaix^dvti l3amX.evfi.v 'Avtoh- 
vlvov. Ka\ ore ^ AvTuvivoi, (^>jo-ir, Oinjpov tov aiiToKpaTopa 
Kol db(\(p6v Koi Ki]b«rn)v iireiJiifff BoKoyaiaif T<j) VlapOv- 
aito ■noKffiT[)cTovTa [conf. a. 162. 2], ojj airo's t€ vpoti-noi 
KoX TOV TsoiKepiov on yewjo-erot Koi oirot rfKevTijiToi. 

Fronto also proposed to describe the Parthian war : 
Fragni. ad Marcum de bello Parthico p. 319. Written 
after the disaster in Parthia A. D. 162 and before the 
victory: p. 327- Nee si quid malrc pupnce accident de- 
/atiscendum ; sed victoriam bred spera. Verus was 
to supply materials for the work of Fronto : Ep. ad 
Veruni I. 7 p. 97- Ubi primum commentarium miseris 
adgrediar ex summis voluntatis opibus. II. 2. Verus 
Frontoni : Epo vero — meas quoque litteras quibus quid- 
quid qerendum esset demonstrafur mittani tibi. — Equidem 
quo magis te quasi in rem pro'seatem inducerem mandani 
Cassio Avidio Martioqm Vero [conf. a. 162.2] commen- 
tarios quosdam mihi facerent, qiws tibi mittain, &c. — 
Unam rem volo non quidein demonstrare discipulus ina- 
gisfro sed existimandam dare. Circa causas et initia 
belli diu cominoraberisy et etiam ea quee nobis absentibus 

Martyrdom of Folycarp : Euseb. ./4n»« 2181 [com-; 
mencing Oct. A. D. 165] Aurelii 5" coneitata adversut 
ecclesiam persecutione passus est Poly carpus. Hieron. 
Anm 2183 A. D. 16^. Euseb. H. E. IV. 15. iv tovti^ 
[sc, regnante Marco] 6 rToAv/capiroj — ixaprvplia TeKfiovrai 
— ovTos (TajS^drov neydKov. Acta mart}Tii p. 590. iiap- 
Tvpei b( 6 fjLaKdpios noKvKapTioi /xrjroy zavducov b€VT(p<^ 
i(TTap,^voVf irpo iTiTa KoXavbHv \\ai(t>v, cra^jBdrtf ix(ya\<a, 

a>pt} oyboTfi, dv9vitaTfvovTos Srparfov KoSpdrov. Ida- 

tius: Ant&nino V et Aurelio [A. D. 161]: His const, 
orta persecutione passi Poly carpus et Pionius. [de Pionio 
conf. Scaliger. ad Euseb. p. 221.] Chron. Pasch. p. 
257 D. tvb. a. MdpKOV b'. int. AlKiavov km fldoTcapoy. 
<T0V9 pAy' TTjs f is ovpavovs dvaXtp^tut^ tov KvpCov — iroAAot 
ilxapTvprja-av, iv oU FloXi/icapiroy 'Sp.vpvrjs ima-KOTTOi (cot 
ToS diTooTo^ov ^loidvvov fiaOriTTis Koi tnr ai/Tov (coroorafltts 
iTrlcTKOTios [conf Hieron. Catal. c. 7]» <n)\Kr)<l>d(h iTti 
dvdvTrdTov TarCov Kodpdrov — t^ irpo (' Ka\avbiiv 'Airpt- 
\((av T<f fxeydXb) (rajS^dTto S>pa r/ — iKdr) (Qv, a}v iriiv Ttf' . 
These characters, Indict. 1 and coss. ^liano et Pastore, 
mark A. D. 163, when only the 132nd year had com- 
menced from A.I). 32, the date of Chron. Pasch. for 
the Ascension : conf a. 32. 2. Hut the 133rd year wae 
produced by an interpolated year in the Chronicle, of 
which an account is given at A. D. 161. 1. The mar- 
tyrdom of Polycarp is also placed in the reign of ^far- 
cus by Hieron. Catal. c. 17- Rrgnante Marco Anionino 
et L. A urelio Commodo ; by Syncellus p. 352 B (who 
places it after the Parthian war) ; by Suidas p. 3034 B. 
Quadrat us the proconsul is fixed by Aristides to A. D. 
16^: conf. a. 165. 3. and this confirms the date of 
Eusebius, who assigns the death of Polycarp to Easter 
A. D. 166. An attempt to calculate the day of the 
month or of the week on which the Paschal full moon 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

'pron. dim Nervee abnepoti M.Aurelio Antonino Aug. Armeniaco p.m. tr.p. XX 
imp. II COS. Ill colonia Libisosanorum. 

2 apud Gruterum p. 1009, 12. Romse : Junoni Lucineppro salute domus Au- 
gustorum imp. Gees. M. Aureli Antonini Aug. Armeniaci Parihici maximi Medici 
et FaustintB Aug. ejus et imp. Gees. L. Aureli Veri ^ug. Armeniaci Parthici 
maximi Medici et Lucilla: Augmtae ejus liberorumque eorum Fortunatus decuria- 
lium gerwlorum dispensator aram cum base consecr. permissu hac L. Rufi curat, 
tedium consecravit X K. Sept. ...vilio Pudente L. Fufidio Pollione cos. 


920. L. Aurelius Verus 
Aug. Ill et Quadratus 

Nor. Idat. A. 

MdpKov Avpr)\iov Ovrjpov 
TO y (cat KovaSpiiroii Chron. 

Aurel. 7 from No/n. Mart. tr.p. 21 from K. Jan. Veri 7 from March; tr.p. 
7 from K. Jan. 

A pestilence: see col. 3 Eutrop. VIII. 12 Oros. VII. 15. Capitolin. Vero 

c. 8. Fuit ( Verus) ejus fati ut in eas provincias per quas rediit Romam usque 
luem secum deferre videretur. Et nata fertur pestilentia in Babylonia &c. Conf. 
Ammian. XXIII. 6, 24. Euseb. Chron. Anno 2184 [from Oct. A. D. 168] 
Marci 8" pestis sesviit Romamque usque manavit. When the Marcomannic war 
was impending: Capitolin. Marco c. 13. Dum Parthicum bellum geritur, natum 
est Marconiannicum ; quod diu eorum qui aderant arte suspensum est, utjinitojam 
Orientali bello Marcomannicum agi posset. Et quum famis tempore populo in- 
sinuasset de bello fraf re post quinquennium reverso in senatu egit, ambos necessaries 
dicens bello Germanico imperatores. Tantus autem terror belli Marcomannici fuit 
ut undique sacerdotes Antoninus acciverit &c. — retardatusque a bellica profec- 
tione sit — tanta autem pestilentia fuit ut vehiculis cadavera sint exportata. — et 
multa quidem millia pestilentia consumpsit multosque ex proceribus. — Profecti 
itaque sunt paludati ambo imperatores, Victovalis et Marcomannis cuncta turban- 
tibus — Nee parum prof uit ista profectio, quum Aquileiam usque venissent. Ca- 
pitolin. Vero c. 9. Ad bellum Germanicum — simul profecti sunt atque Aquileiam 
venerunt. The coins of this year indicate the time : Eckhel. tom. VII p. 52. 

1 M. Antoninus Aug. Arm. Parth. max. + cong. Aug. II II tr.p. XXI imp. 

nil COS. III. S G. or tr.p. XXI imp. I HI cos. III. or vota. tr. p. XXI 
imp. 1 1 II COS. III. S. C. With this last Eckhel properly compares Capi- 
tolin. Marco c. 13. 

2 Coins of Verus: Eckhel. tom. VII p. 93. L. Verm Aug. Arm. Parth. max. 

+ cong. Aug. Illltr.p. VII imp. IIII cos. III. or tr.p. VII imp. I III 
COS. III. From these coins Eckhel tom. VIII p. 416 collects that the tri- 
bunician years of Verus commenced at Kal. Jan. 

R O M A N I 


3 Seculae Authors 

4 Ecclesiastical Authorh 

male gesta sunt. Tarde ad nostra venies. Fragm. 7 ad 
Marcum p. 359. Ubi primum /rater tuus eommentarium 
miserit, rem copiose scribere adgrediemur, si tamen hoc 
quod gustui mittimus nan displicebit. He had written 
to Avidius Cassius after the victory : Ep. ad aniicos 
I. 7- Junius Maximum tribunus, qui laureatas Itomam 
adtulit litteras, &c. 

occurred is a vain encjuiry, and will contribute nothing 
towards determining the year of Polycarp's death, be- 
cause the authorities upon which the day of the month 
is reported are too uncertain to be trusted. See Ap- 
pendix, Poll/carp. He had seen not only St. John but 
other Apostles : Irenseus apud Euseb. 11. E. IV. \\. 
noAuKapTTos ov \i6vov into dwooToAwr ita0r]fTfvO(\i Koi 
(nvava<TTpa^(\i iroAXois toIj tov Xpurrbv iiapaK6aw, 
iLKXa (cat into iLTtocn6k<av KaTaxrraStXi (Is t^v 'A(rwir iv 
TTJ iv Ip.vpvTi iKK\rjcrlq iviaKOTios. Acta martyrii p. M-2 
et apud Eusebium IV. 15. Sifido-itaAov aTrooroAuos kox 
■npo(\>rfTiK6s. Polycarp himself apud Euseb. IV. 15 acta 
martyrii p. 564 Chron. Pasch. p. 25H mentions S6 
years : irr Inj SovAevo) t!^ XpicTTif. which Chron. Pasch. 
interprets of his age. But as this would make him 
under 30 at the death of St. John, and as he had con- 
versed with other Apostles, some have computed the 
86 years with more probability not from his birth but 
from his baptism. 

Galen mentions the pestilence tom. XIX p. 15. hftri 
Tpiarlf oAAois iv 'P<u/xj) harpC^as [conf. a. 164], Ap^afiivov 
TOV fifyaKov Xotp.ov irapaxprJiJLa Trjs TroAeus tff/Ador ^Trei- 
yofx€ros th TTjr iraTpCba. At the age of 37 : p. 16. tTiav- 
fjkdov fxiv ovv (K 'Pu^rjy fls ttjv iraTpiba ■neTi\r\pu>p,ivutv 
p.01 T&v (K yfvcnji iriiv iiTTa. koX rpiaKovra. He refers 
to the plague again a few years after : tom. IV p. 788. 
iv rfj Ao(/u(tf§e( voam Tfj vi}v y€vop,(VT] iTf(nv ov woAAoty, 
fjv Kol ripLfls iOfacrdpLfOa. 

Proclas the preceptor of Philostratus in his youth 
heard Adrian: Philostr. V. S. 11.21 p. 602. avaypdcpto 
hi Kol np6K\ov TOV 'NavKpaTlrqv, dbw (v tov ivbpa — 
ITpoKAos Toivvv ^v p.ev t&v ovk CKfyavav Kor AtyviiTov, 
OTao-iafovtrar bi Ibliiv ti}v Noi/xpanv — ttjv '' AOr)vr\cnv f/crv- 
\iav rjOTTdaraTo, koI {ni(KTr\(v(ras eKfi iCi]. But he had 
before been at Athens in his youth: Ibid. 'A^tjotjo-i 
vios oiv, St* 6^ Koi 'A6piar(3 i(j)olTa. called Ibid, tov iv 
pLfipaKif xpovov. As the j)0th year of Proclus is re- 
corded by Philostratus (conf. a. 239), his birth was 
probably not later than A. D. 149; and he might hear 
Adrian at this period. He followed Adrian: p. 604 
rjpfiijvevf KUTa <()v<tiv, ' Abpidvdoi. bi ^irav ot imj3okai t&v 

{Amyntianus dedicated his work de Laudihus Alex- 
andri to Marcus: Phot. Cod. 131. dvfyvdcd-q ^ApvvTi- 
avov €ts AXt^avbpov. Trpotrcfxavd bi tov Xoyov to) ovto- 
KpdTopi 'Pci>p,a[<i)V MdpKta), koI iirayyiWfTai p.iv d^Cus 
(liiuv t5)V 'AXf^dvbpov -npa^tatv ibfix^rj bi ■npo'iav is 
ivayyflKai y,iv ia-riv Irflep/xos (col ToAfiTjTjjs TrXripSxrai bi 
TTjv iirayyfXlav ^vxpbs kuI SeiAo's" iroAii yap KaTobeiorf- 
pov T&v fiMirpoaOfv (IprjKOTtav Ae'yti iTfpl avrov k. t. A. 
Ho also wrote a life of Olympias, and parallels be 
tween Philip and Aupustus and between Dionysius and 
Domitian: Phot. Ibid.) 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 


921. Apronianus etPaulm 
Nor. Idat. Chron. Pasch. 

^ k-Kpoviavos ro /3' /cai 
riaCXos TO /3' A. 

Aurelii 8 from Non. Mart. trih. pot. 22 from Kal. Jan. Veri 8 from March; 
trib. pot. 8 from Kal. Jan. 

Capitolin. Marco c. 14. Plerique reges et cum populis suis se retraxeruni et 
iumultm auctores interemerunt ; Quadi autem amisso rege sua non prius se conjir- 
mMuros ewm qui erat creatus dicehant quam id nostris placuisset imperatorihus. — 
Marcus autem, fingere harharos existitnans et fugam et cetera — ob hoc ne tanti 
apparatus mole premsrentur, instandum esse dicehat. Denique transcensis Alpibus 
longius processerunt composueruntque omnia quae ad munimen Italics atque Illy- 
rici pertinehant. The coins denote that the emperors in this year received the 
title of imp. V. 

1 Apud Eckhel. torn. VII p. 57- M. Antoninus Aug. Arm. Parth. max.-{-tr. 

pot. XXII imp. nil COS. III. ovtr.p. XXII imp. IIIIcos. Ill S. P. Q.B. 
vie. Parthicce. 

2 Ibid. p. 93. L. Verm Aug. Arm. Parth. max. + tr.pot. VIII imp. IIII cos. 

III. Armenia, or tr.p. VIII imp. IIII cos. III. with a triumphal chariot. 

3 Apud Eckhel. tom. VII p. 57- M. Antoninus Aug. Arm. Parth. max.+fort. 

red. tr.pot. XXII imp. V cos. III. 

4 Ibid. p. 93. L.Verus Awj. Arm. Parth. max. + ir.pot. VIII imp. V cos. III. 

From these inscriptions it appears that the emperors were still imp. IIII 
after Jan. 1 A. D. 168, and that they were imp. F'before the close of the year; 
which marks an advantage obtained over the barbarians within A.D. 168. 
Eusebius: Anno 2184 [from Oct. A. D. 168] helium Bomanorum exarsit adver- 
sus Germanos et Dacos et Sarmatas et Quados. This date places the beginning 
of the war one year too low. 

An inscription Romse apud Gruterum p. 258. 3. Imp. Cces. L. Aurelio Vero 
Aug. Armeniac. Med. Parthic. pontif. max. [lege ex p. 253. 2 pontifici\ tribunic. 
potest. VIII imp. V cos. Ill p. p. On the title pontifex maximus, here ascribed 
improperly to Verus, see Eckhel tom, VII p. 96. 

R M A N I 


3 Secular Authors 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

559. 5)pf«J' avT<^ TTJs irpos rovi Kvvn\lov9 bia(l)opai [de 
Quiiitiliis conf. a. 151. 1 Uion. 71. 33], i>s ixiv ol troXKol 
<}>a(Tl, YlvdiKT] TTainiYvpii k. t. X. — f) bf a\r]6«TTfpa alrCa 
tjbe TO) avbpe tovtq), OTrore dp-tlxa rrji EAAdSoy ^px^trrfv, 
KaX^(TavT(s is rrfv iKK^-qa-iav 'AOrjvaioi, ifxavas &(pfJKav tv- 
pavvov\i.iv(i>v, Ttpoi Tov 'llpdb'qv aT!o(Tr)p.aivovT(s, koX bfo- 
fiivoi, eTtl TtatTLV is TO. I3a<n\(ii>s Sra ■napaTrep.ffiOijvat. ra 
elprjufva. rS>v bi KwrtXicov Tradovrtov tl iipbs rbir brjixov 
KOI ^vv opfjLTJ ^vantp^^amtav & ^Kowav, iitiliovXfveaBai, 
•nap avT&v 6 "Hp<o6j)s i<f>a(rKev is avaOoKovvraiv iir avrov 
Tovs ' Adr)vaCovs' fxer' iKfCvovs yap T^r ddX.aTTav ^r)p,6- 
(TTparoi &,ve(j)V(rt]irav Koi Tlpa^ayopai teat MafxepTivoi koI 
irfpoL vKeCovs is to uvtI^oov to! Hpdbr) voKafvovrts. 
ypa^dp.(vos b\ avrovs 'Wputbrjs uts iTHcrvvicrravTas avr<j) 
rov bijpLOV ^yfv iitl t^v ijyfpjoviav. ol bf vTTf^rjKdov aipa- 
V(is irpbs Tov avTOKparopa MapKOV, dappovtrres 17) t( (J)V(T€l 
Tov I3acn\i(t)s Sr/ftonitwrepo ovcrri ical roi Kai.p(f- 09 yap 
vrrtiiTTtva-e Aovkiov Kowavov avrif Tjjy ap\rjs y(v6p.ivov 
[who was therefore still living at the time of this cause] 
• — 6 p,iv 8fj avTOKpartap (KdOryro is to. OatoVto iOvr), opp.r]- 
rqplta t<3 Sip/x^io xpa>p.evos' aariXvov 6e 01 p.(v o/lk^I ArjpLO- 
(TTpaTov TT(pl TO. I3a(rlk(ia, k. t. A.. Marcus having heard 
the parties acquits Herodes : p. 561. who returned to 
Attica: p. 562. //era to iv tj} riaiov^o StjjToro p.iv 6 
'Hpubrjs iv rfj 'AmKrj -napa Toiis (^iAtotohj iavrQ briixovs 
MapadS>va xal Kr)((>i<rlav, iir)p-Tr}fiivr\s oiTov ttjs "navra- 


Deniostratus was distinguished in this cause: Ibid, 
p. 56.H. 6 bf Koyos hv 6t^X0« irpos tov 'Hp<ibr]v 6 Ar}n6- 
orpaTos iv Oav\xa(jiois boKfl. He was assisted by Theo- 
dotus: Philostr. V. S. II. 2. ovtos irpovoDj p.(v tov ^Adij- 
vaCtiiv bi')pLov Kara ^povovs oCis upoa-fiepovov 'Hpdbr) 'Adr)- 
vdioL — Tols yovv dixcj)! tov Ar)p.6(TTpaTov ovro) ^vviKiKpaTO 
is (eoi ^vvdpacrOai a-(f>icTi T&v k6yu>v ois fifvovovv irpbs 
TOV 'Hpubrjv. He was the disciple ofLoUianm: Ibid. 
AoXAiovoi) fifv dKpooTijs, 'i\pu>bov bi ovk dvriKOOs. i^La> 
Itkv VTifp rh TTevTriKOVTa (err;). 

The emperors Marcits and Verug were at Sirmium 
in the winter A. D. 161 during the Marcomannic war: 
conf. a. 16/. '2. 168. 2. Herodes at this time calls him- 
self ye'pojv p. 561. Bassepus (conf. Dion. Jl- 5) is prae- 
torian pntfect : 6 TTfTTKTTfvuivos TO ^i(/)os p. 56 1. The 
pestilence (conf a. 167- 2. 3) is noticed p. 561. As 
Vents was still living, this cause is improperly referred 
by Tillemont torn. II p. 367 to A. D. I71. 

Aristides receives the ore'Xeia from Pollio in the year 
before the government of Severus : torn. I p. 529. 530. 
TO TTpocrdfv TovTav iviavTi^ (T)((bbv ytvopifvov in\ rioXAt- 
wros &PXOVTOS T^s 'AfTias. — dvayvovs b^ o lloWliov k(- 
KevfL K. T. A. — (cat t^s re biaKOvCas dt^eWr/i' icot tt/s aTt- 
\(las (Tvxov. In the 9th year of his sickness ; for the 
10th was in the year of Severm A. D. 1 ? ■} : conf. a. 169. 
which determines the year of Pollio in Asia to A.D. 16if. 

AthmagoreB mpl XpumaviUv. I3ofore the death of 
Verus A. D. 169, to whom he dedicates: avroKpaTopaiv 
M<ipK<j> Avpr)\C(f ' AvTdivivm kw, AovkU^ AvpijKuf Ko/i^dy. 
And after the death of Peregiinus A. D. 165, which ho 
mentions p, IO7. 6 8i tov 'AAef drfipov {dvlpias) koX 6 
TOV ITpwTt'ws' TovTov V OVK oyi'OfiTt pCyjfavTa iatrrbv <Js 
r^ Tivp Ttf pi TT^v 'OKv/x-nlav [conf. a. 165. 3]. For the 
name Proteus conf Lucian. de morto Peregrini c. 1 . o 
KUKobaCpMV Tlfpfyplvos, f;, is avris l\aip(v dvoyA^uv 
loDToi', YlpatTtis- 





1 Consuls 

01. 237 U. C. Varr. 922. 
Q. Sosius Priscus P. Cos- 
Utis Apollinaris 

Nor. Idat. A. Chron. 
Pasch. Cod. Justin. VI. 

Romae apud Gruterum 
p. 300. 1. C. Licinius Li- 
cinianus cooptatus Q. So- 
sio Prisco P. Ccelio Apol- 
linare cos. P. R. G. a. 

Romae apud Panvinium 
p. 346 Gruterum p. 330.2. 
1089. 6. L. Acilio L. f. 
Ponvpt. Eutycha; nohili ar- 
chimimo commun. mimor. 
adlecto diurno parasito 
Apoll. trapico comico pri- 
mo sui temporis et omnibus 
corporib. ad .\ccenam honor, 
decurioni BomlUs quern 
primum omnium adlect. 
patre appellarunt adlecti 
sctenicorum ex cere collato 
ob munera et pietatem ip- 
sius crga se &c. — Dedic. 
Ill Idus A ufj. Sosio Prisco 
et Ccelio Apollinari cos. 
curatore Q. Sosio Augiis- 

2 Events 

A urelii 9 from Non. Mart. trib. pot. 23 from Kal. Jan. 

Death of Verus : Capitolin. Marco c. 14. Transcensis Alpibus hngius proces- 
serunt — Placuit autem urgente Lucio ut preemissis ad senatum Uteris Lucius Ro- 
mam rediret. Via quoque, posteaquam iter ingressi sunt, sedens cum fratre in 
vehiculo Lucius apoplexi arreptus periit. Idem Vero c. 9. Gomposito bello in 
Pannonia urgente Lucio Aquileiam rediret, — in urbem destinatus est; sed non 
longe ab Altino subito in vehiculo morbo quern apoplexin vacant correptus Lucius — 
quum triduo mutus vixisset, apud Altinum perit. Eutrop. VIII. 10. Obiit in 
Venetia cum a Concordia civitate Altinum proficisceretur et cum fratre in vehiculo 
sederet, subito sanguine ictus, casu morbi quern Graci aTroirKri^iv vacant. Orosius 
VII. 15 and Victor Epit. p. 375 agree with Eutropius. Victor Cses. p. 323. 
Lucium satis constat Altini Venetice urbe consumptum. Verus died in the middle 
of winter (see col. 3), in his 9th tribunician year and in the 23rd tribunician 
year of Marcun, 

Coins of Verm apud Eckhel. tom. VII p. 94. 95. 

1 L. Verus Aug. Arm. Parth. max. tr. p. Villi -\- cos. III. 

2 L. Verus Aug. Arm. Parth. max. + tr.p. Villi imp. V cos. III. 

3 After his deatii : Divus Verm + consecratio. 

Coins oi Marcus apud Eckhel. tom. VII p. 57- 

1 Before the death of Verus: M. Antoninus Aug. Arm. Parth. max. + Fort. 

red. tr. p. XXIII imp. V cos. III. or tr.pot. XXIII imp. V cos. III. 

2 After the death of Verus ; when Marcu.9 laid aside the titles of Armeniacus 

and Parthicus maximus : Conf. Capitolin. Marco c. 12 Eckhel. tom. VII 
p. 57. 95. M. Aurel. Antoninus tr.p. XXIII + divus Verus. 

3 M. Antoninus Aug. tr. p. XXIII + liberal. j4ug. V cos. III. or pro/ectio 

Aug. cos. III. S. C. This last, as Eckhel determines, marks the progress 
of Aurelius from Rome after the funeral of Verus (who was buried there : 
see Galen quoted in col. 3. Illatum corpus Hadriani sepulchro Capitolin. 
Vero c. 11) still within his 23rd tribunician year. 

4 Eckhel. p. 58. M. Antoninus Aug. tr.p. XXIII +restitutori Italiee imp. V 

COS. III. S. G. or felicitas Aug. cos. III. or saluti Aug. cos. III. These 
also within the same year and after the death of Verus. As Eckhel has 
shewn that the tribunician years o^ Marcus (conf. a. 161) and of Verus 
(conf a. 167) vvere computed from Jan. 1, these coins fix the death of 

Verus to the middle of January A.D. 169, when he had reigned 8? 10™ 
and had lived 39;* 1"'. conf. a. 145 Eckhel. tom. VIII p. 415. According 
to Capitolinus Vero c. 11 vixit annis XLII imperavit annis XI. Eutrop. 
VIII. 10 Victor Epit. p. 375. undecimo imperii anno. Cassiod. Anno regni 
XI" inter Goncordiam et Altinum apoplexia extinctus est, sedens cum fratre 
in vehiculo. These accounts (by which Scaliger is misled ad Euseb. p. 221) 
are refuted by the coins. Eusebius: Anno 2186 Aurelii 10'' Lucius obiit 
postquam annis novem regnaverat. Eusebius is wrong in the date although 
right in the years of his reign. Capitolinus is consistent with himself. If 

Verus had reigned 1 1 years, ho would have lived 42. 

The words of Galen quoted in col. 3 — to 8ia ixlffov x"f'i3j;oy eivai to. isparTo- 
y.(va — are not to be understood merely of Galen himself, but of the whole 
transactions ; and they confirm the opinion of Eckhel, who places the death 
of Verus in January. 

A law of Marcus : Cod. Justin. VI. 27, 1. Imp. Antoninus A. Aujidio et aliis. 
— Accepta VII Kal. Mart. Prisco et Apollinare conss. Confirming Eckhel, and 
establishing that Verus was already dead before Feb. 23 A.D. 169. For if he 

R M A N I 


3 Secular Authoks 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

Galen was at Aquiloia when Venis died : Galen, 
torn. XIX p. 17- 18. itapa. YMkoiti tQ StSairxaA^ biarpl- 
^av Kara '^y.vpvav — KaOihpwas i^iauThv iv rfj TtaTpihi, 
lieTo. Ti]v (K 'PiipLtjii iirdvobov [conf. a. U>7] elxSfirjv t5>v 
(Tvvr]Ou>V a<l>[K(To 8' (idtmi i^ ^AKv\Cas ra vapa tUv aino- 
Kparopmv ypdp.iJLaTa Ka\ovvT(i>v p.C TrporiprjvTo yap ainol 
\fipLd<TavTes eirl rovi repnavovs i^tXawdV fTT0pfii6r}v ixfv 
ovv ef dviyK-qs, (KttCCoiv 6e rfv^taOai TrapaiTjjcrfas, 'ikovop 
yap elvM top irtpov aiirStv tov Ttpfcr^vrepov (vytxifjiovd t« 

(cat fiiTpiov rjixepov re koI irp^ov. iTnfidvroi ovv fwv 

T^s 'AicvAiaj KaTi<TKr\y^iv 6 Xoi/xoy [conf. a. HiJ] <!)S oima 
TTpoTtpov ojcrTf Toi/y fxiv avTOKpdropas avrlKa <l>fvyfiv fls 
Pdp-rjv S(iO orpaTworats 6\Cyois, ^fxas' 8< tovs iroAAoiis 
f/o'Ais iv XP"'*"? ■f oXX<2 8ia(T(i)0t'Ji'oi, TrXe^ortoj' a7ro\Xi.';i«Va)i' 
ov fiovov 8ia Toi> Aoifxoi; &K\a Koi to bia p.i(TOV )(tip.Sivos 
(tvai TO. TTpaTTopLfva. /ieToordi'Tos 8' «f dvOpamuiv tov 
AovkCov Kara rijv obbv, di 'Pw^tjj/ aiiTov ico/jitrray to cr&na 
TTiv dTioOiuxTiv 'AvTtavlvos iiToiria-aTO. The winter of 
A. D. K!" : see col. 2. Galen afterwards returns to 
Rome: torn. XIV p. fi4J). 650. i^aipixriKdTfs ovv j;8r; n/$ 

TToAfO)? is (TTl TOV TtoKfp.OV UptKOTfS T€ TOV XeifxSfOS [thc 

winter of Ifi^] ev 'A/n/Ajjfa hiaTpl^ai, itapfaKtvaKorts Tf 
Kol (TvyKpoTovvTei TO (TTpdrevp-a ■nefj.'novmv m f(x^ K€\fv- 
ovTfs i]Kei,v Q)S avTovs' dAAo tov Atvic^ov Kara ptea-ov tov 
X(ip.a)VOs pifTaa-TdvTos eiy dfovi 6 db(\^bs avToii KO^icras 

et'j 'Pcijiii)!' TO (Tu^a TTJi fvl Tovi Ffp/jiavoiis 68oiiropifas 

flXfTO, KeKfvav (TTfaOai K&pLi' xpricTTOv 8' ovra (cat (^lAdv- 
dpmTTov aiiTov (bvvi]6riv — Tiflaai, KaTaKiitflv ev Ty 'P&ljujj 
jnf Koi yap 8ta Tax^wi' iTtavri^eiv. TtdvTL 8' ovi' t6) t^s 
iirobrjixCa^ avTov XP^^V l^fp-vrnxivoi ttjj avvridovi kukotj- 
OeCai Tiiv Kara Tr}v iroKiv iaTp^v re koI (/iiAo(ro'<)l>(oi' (yviov 
&vax(>>pfiv ai/TTJi SAAore els &X\o x'^P^ov iv coTrep hv 6 
vloy avToC Kofipiobos virb TlfiBoKdio Tpf(f>6p,(vos, (vroKas 
^XOVTI Trap' avTov tov avroKpriropoy 'AvTcavlvov KoXflv 
irpbs T7]v (TTipLtKfiav tm iraibbs, fl vocrqafU irorf. He 
mentions the same fact tom. XIX p. 19. avTos ptev «£- 
^A^f, KaraAiTTbii^ 8^ tov vlbv K6p.p.obov iraiblov In oi'Ta 
Kopubi} vfov iv(Tei\aTo rots Tpii^ovtnv avTo — d ttot( voot/- 
(7€te KaAftf €i7t Ti]v depaiTflav fjue. Pitholaus is named 
again Galon, tom. XfV p.GGO — 66S. 

Tenth year of the sickness of Aristides. He received 
in the beginning of the tenth year letters from the 
emperors confirming the drt'Aeta or immunity from 
office (conf. a. 215): tom. I p. 523. 524. 6 Se^jjpos 6 
TTJs ''hcrias r/ye/xwi' fjpifv — «f 'IraA^as a(l>iKvovvTai eirt- 
<rTo\al /[tot irapa tS>v l3a(nK4a)V, tov re avroxf dropos axnov 
Koi TOV irat8os [so. a Marco et Commodo] — tijv drtXaav 
i-nia<Ppayi(6p.ivai. tijv (ttI rots Ao'yots. After this p. 527 
yiyvop-fOa (v rfj Sjuvpinj Awwtrlois [in Anthesterion : 
conf. a. 176- 2] (cat ■jraprjj' 6 ^(^fjpos «ts tijv iopTrjv. 
These imperial letters were sent after the death of 
Verus ; for, had he been living, his name would have 
been joined in this act of authority. And when Mar- 
cus was at Rome ; but he quitted Rome again after 

y 2 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

had lived till the end of A. D. 169, as Tillemont and some others suppose, this 
law would have been inscribed Divi fratres AA. as in Cod. Justin. II. 13. 2. 
V. 25. 2. 3. 

Eomae apud Panvin. p. 347 Gruter. p. 253. 2. Imp. Ccesari L. Aurelio Vera 
Aug. Armeniac. Med. Parth. pontific. tribunic. pot. Villi imp. V cos. Ill p.p. 


923. M. Cornelius Gethe- 
gus C. Erucius Glarm 

Idat. Chron. Pasch. liber 
pontificalia Damasi torn. I 
p. 589. 

Claro et Gethego Nor. A. 
Cod. Just. III. 31, 1. 

Tabula marmorea apud 
Gruter. p. 126. QQ. T. 
Ftsemus Priscianm Glaro 
et Gethego cos. 

Inscriptio apud Noris. 
torn. II p. 966. /. 0. M. 
M. Varenus PolyUm pro se 
et sms [sic] V. S. L. M. 
M. Cornelio Gethego G. 
Erucio Glaro cos. 

Aurelii 10 from Non. Mart. trih. pot. 24 from Kal. Jan. 

The Marcomannic war is continued by Aurelim : Capitolin. Marco c. 17- 

Coins: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 58. M. Antoninus Aug. tr. p. XXIIII+vict. 
Aug. cos. III. or fort. red. cos. III. or pro/ectio Aug. cos. III. or saluti Aug. 
cos. III. 

A law 0^ Marcus: Cod. Justin. III. 31, 1. Imp. M. Aurelius Antoninus A. 
Augurino proconsuli Africca. Senatus consultum auctore divo Hadriano avo meo 
factum, quo cautum est &c. — pp. VI Kal. Februar. Glaro et Gethego corns. 

Spoleti apud Gruterum p. 260. 5. Imp. Gees. M. Aurelio Antonino P. F. Aug. 
pont. max. trih. pot. XXIIII p. p. devota numini majest. q. ejus coh. Ill .... 
g. II Italic, cum bus. . ..oiet 


924. Severm et Herennia- 
nus Nor. Idat. A. Chron. 

Veri et Erenniani Pont. 

Aurelii 1 1 from Non. Mart. trih. pot. 25 from Kal. Jan. 

The mta decennaUa are fixed to this year by coins apud Eckhel. torn. VII 
p. 59. 

1 M. Antoninus Aug. tr. p. XX V+ Imp. VI cos. Ill vie. Ger. 

2 Imp. M. Antoninus Atig. tr. p. XX V. +primi decennales. cos. III. or vota 

sol. decenn. cos. III. or vota suscep. decenn. II. cos. Ill 


R O M A N I 


3 Secular Authors 

4 Ecclesiastical Adthobs 

tho obsequies of Verus boforo the close of this year. 
These incidents fix the letters to tho summer or au- 
tumn of A.D. 16J) and the year ofHeverug to A.D. 1^. 
But the tenth year of the sickness of Aristides com- 
menced when Semrus was governor : p. 502. 505 . «T<i 
6«Kar<() ■ffept^KoiTi tt/s iaOevdai — \(ifib>v 8' rjv 6\.(yov 
fUTo. Tpoiras — rjv bi rjyfuiav tijs 'Ao-^as t6t( &vr)p koX ^idAa 
T&v yvcapCfKav ^el3i)pos, rmv diro rjjs &.v<i>6tv ^pvyCas- 
Therefore in Nov. A. D. 169 ; and the Dionyda p. 527 
were in the spring of A. D. 1 70. 

Alexander the sophist (conf. a. 160) is Greek secre- 
tary to Marais: Philostr. V. S. II. 5 p. 571. ^/QdStff 
likv yap is to YlaioviKO. idirt] KaraKK-qOels vno MdpKOV rov 

/3o(riX^(l)S CKfl (TTpaTfVOVTOS KoI bfbblKOTOS aVT(u to fTll- 

(TTiWeiv 'EXAj/iTir. He passed through Attica when 
Herodes was there : d^tKo/xevos 8^ ^s to? 'Ad^fos (obov 
b\ (iT/Koy TovTO oil niTpwv T<j> iK TTJs itfas i\avvovTi) iv- 
Tavda, l</)i), yow Kafiiff (i)fi(v. koi — (nrjyyei.Xe toIs 'AOrj- 
VW.OK avTO(rj(tbiovi Koyovi kpSxrw aiirov rijj aKpoda-fcas. 
i.KOv(av bi Toi' 'HpcoSiji' biaamufvov iv Mapo^cSi'i [conf. 
a. 168] KOI T7JI' vioTt^Ta (T:aKokov8ov(Tav avr^ iraa-av, 
ypdcpfi irpus avrov iiTi(TTo\r)v (iv &pa Qipovs p. 572). 
p. 576. T(\(VTr\<Tai. Tov 'AKe^avbpov oi piv iv KeAroiy 
(paa-iv ^Tt iTTKTriWovTa, ol 6' iv 'iToXCq TT€T!avp.ivov tov 
iiTicrTiW(t,v. KOI oi p.iv k^T]K0i>T0VTrjv oc Of Kol (Jktm [sc. 
68]. Marcus is in Pannonia in this mul the following 
years : touovtov ivTavOol \p6vov «f<o ttJs MroAias Dio 
71. 24. sc. A. U. 170—173. 174. 175. Wo may pro- 
bably refer the appointment of Alexander to the first 
of these campaigns A. D. 170. 

Euseb. Chron. An7io 2186 [from Oct. A. D. 170] Op- 
pianus Cilix poiifa qui HalieiUicum carmen scripsit ag- 
noscehatur. In Hieronymus anno 2188. Transcribed 
by Syncellus p. 352 C. Suidas p. 2698 A. 'Owirtaws 
Ki\t£ Into KmpvKOv Tsokfoti, ypappaTiKos koI iiroTrows, ye- 
yovm iirl Mapicov 'Avrcavlvov ^airiKitas. 'AKievTiKo, iv 
^i^Xlois t. — AthensDus I p. 13 b. tov oKCyw Ttpo ijix&v 
yfv6pevov 'OTnriavov tov KCktKa. These testimonies to 
the time of Oppian are consistent. Eusebius has been 
charged with error by those who confound Oppian of 
Cilicia who preceded Atheiicew with a later Oppian 
who dedicated to CaracaUa. The 'AXtewiKa are ad- 
dressed to Antoninus: 1.3. yair\s xrnaTov KpaTos 'Avtu- 
vlvt. The allusion II. 683 ap^^m Ofairiaios re irarrjp koI 
<^o^t/xos opTTr]^ may be to Marcus and Coinmodus after 
tho death of Verus A. D. 169. 

Twelfth year of the sickness of Aristides : Or. 28 
p. 551. SuSfKorci) d(^"' oC upStTov (Kafiov. 

{Hemwgenis (set. 23) irepl lU&v. Conf. a. 163.) 

Theophilm bishop o{ Antioch flourished : Euseb. Anno 
2186 Mard lO" AntiochmeB ecckaiee sextut tpisamu 
Theophilus, cujus complura volumina adkue in manvmt 
hahentur. Hieron. Anno 2184 Veri 8<>. Euseb. H. E. 
IV. 20. Ttivucavra [cir. 8» Vert] xal ittl ttjs 'AifTu>xi<»v 
iKKkrja-las ©eo'c^iAos fxTOs aitb rHv ivo<rr6Kiav iyvapC((TO, 
TerdpTov p.kv t&v iKfio'f p.(Th 'Hpwi'a (caToordrroy Kopvrj- 
Xlov, p(Ta bi aMv iidpiTTio ^a0p(^ t^i' iTTUTKoinjv 'Epuros 
biab($ap(vov. Hieron. Catal. c. 25. Thw oMlta textug 
Antiochensis eccUsia; episcopus sub imp. M. Antonino 
Vera librum contra Marcionem composuit [Euseb. IV. 24. 
ovK &yevv&i ovtu kot^ MapKuavos itenovqpivov \6yov\ 
qui usque hodie exsiat. Feruntur ejus et ad Autolycum 
trio, volumina [Euseb. rpi'a to Trpos Avro'Xuicoi' (rrot\fuibt) 
(TvyypdpipaTa] et contra hceresin Hermogenit liber unus 
[Euseb. Trpos Tf\v aXptmv'Eppioyivovi tt}v imypaii>riv ix""- 
iv <L ix TTJy iTroKaKvxjrfas 'lotdvvov Kixpryrai papTvpCaii]. 
Conf. a. 181. Hieron. Algasiae torn. Ill p. 318 men- 
tions another work: Theophilus Antiochen^ ecclesite Sep- 
timus post Petrum apostomm epiteoput [the seventh in- 

dicta compingens ingmii mi mmt vttmimutUa reliquit. 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 


925. Maximus et Orfitus 

Lamprid. Commodo c. 1 1 . 

Orfito et Maximo Nor. 
Idat. A. 

''Op(piTov TO /3' KOI Ma^C- 
fiov Chron. Pasch. 

Tabula marmorea apud 
Gruter. p. 126. QQ. M. 
Magim Marsm Maximo 
et Orfito COS. 

Other inscriptions in 
col. 2. 

AureUi 12 from Non. Mart. trib. pot. 26 from Kal. Jan. 

The title Germanicus is assumed : Coins apud Eckhel. tom. VII p. 59. 
M. Antoninus Aug. tr. p. XX VI+ Germanico Aug. imp. VI cos. III. S. C. or 
vict. Germ. imp. VI cos. III. or virtus Aug. imp. VI cos. III. S. C. Dio 7 1- 3- 
Kparriaas avT&v FfpnaviKos d>voiJ.6.(T6r}. 

This title is also conferred upon Commodus : Lamprid. Commodo c. 1 1 . Ap- 
pellatus Germanicus Idihrn Herculeis [sc. Id. Octobr.] Maximo et Orphito coss. 
The date of Lampridius is confirmed by a coin apud Eckhel. tom. VII p. 59. 
M. Antoninus Aug. tr. p. XX VI + Commodus Gees. Germ. Antonini Aug. 
Germ. fil. 

Inscriptions marking the consuls : 

1 Tibure apud Gruterum p. 419. 5 Panvinium p. 347- Q. Hortensio Q.f. col. 
Faustina advocato jisci prcef. fabr. patrono municipi collegium fabrum Tiburfium 
ob merita L. D. S. C. — curantibus G. Alliano Tiburtino M. Helmo Exspedato 
dedic. Ill Id. Mai. Maximo et Orfito cos. 

2 Spoleti: Grut. Inventa Romse: Gud. Apud Gruterum p. 1014. 1. For- 
tunes reduci . . . Mufus col. disp. summar. templum omni cultu exomat. de suo po- 

suit idemque decret. ordin. templum a solo sumptu suo maxima conlato [al cum 

a solo are conlato] perjiciendwm curavit cujus dedicatione singulis in collegia . . 
XX N. ded. Dedicatum XII Kal. Aug. Orfito et Maximo cos. Si qui clipeum 
ponere volet, dabit arcee ....UN. 


01. 238 U. C. Varr. 926. 
M. Aurelius Sewrus II 
T. Claudius Pompeiaiius 

Nor. Idat. Chron. Pasch. 

2evTjpos TO KOLi nojuirt- 
avoi TO A. 

Epitaphium via Appia 
apud Gruterum p. 1025.6. 

G. Anicio Faltonia clar. 

Aurelii 13 from Non. Mart. trib. pot. 27 from Kal. Jan. 

Coins of the 27th tribunician year: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 60. M. Antoninus 
Aug. tr. p. XXVII + Germania subacta. imp. VI cos. III. S. C. or Germanico 
Aug. imp. VI cos. III. S. C. or relig. Aug. imp. VI cos. III. S. C. or vict. 
Germ. imp. VI cos. III. S. C. 

R O M A N I 


3 Secui,ab Authors 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

Thirteenth year of the sickness ofAristules. For he 
was sick thirteen years: Or. 2i p. i'JO. e\(ii, i<pr], 8^/co 
(TT) Ttap ((xov Kal Tj)ia -nafja. Tor ilapdwiSos. — ra Tpia koX 
biKa Ibid. 'And the tenth year began in Novoiuber 
A. D. H;y : conf. a. 

Euscb. Chron. Anno 2187 [from Oct. A. D. 17 1] 
Marci 1 1" Apollinaris Asiattctu Hierapolitana dicece- 
geos episcopus cognoscebatur. At the same date in 
Hioron. who inserts anno 218(> Antonino imperatori 
Mdito Asiajiut, Sardiensit episcopus, Apolopeticum pro 
Christianis tradidit. Melito is omitted in Euseb. Ar- 
men. but both are in Syncellus p. ;i52 C. Euseb. H. E. 

IV. 26. (conf. IV. 13.) i-nl Tuvbt koI MfKiruv r^y iv 
XdpbfcTi ■napoixla^ iniiTKoitos ' AnoKKivaptSs t« r^y iv '!<- 
panoXfi, haTTpfiriii fjicnaCoV ol kcu ry brjKuOfvri Kara Toi/i 
yfiovovs 'PapiaiaiV /SairtAti [sc. Afarco] Koyovi imip t^v 
Triore&is Ibims IxaTtpos aTtoKoyiai T!poort<p<itfr](Tav. Hie- 
ron. Catal. c. 24. Melito — librum imperatori M. Anto- 
nino Vero qui Frontonis oratoris discipulm fuit pro 
Christiana dofimaie dedit. The last of the works of 
Melito : Euseb. IV. 26. iirl irStri koI t6 -npos ' Xcravivov 
/3t/3Affiioj<. For his other works (among them ntpl rrfi 
&TtOKaKv\j/fmi 'ladvvov Euseb. IV. 26) see Appendix. 
On Apollinaris Euseb. H. E. IV. 27. tov 6« AzoKiva- 
pCov TToWQv Ttapa iroKKois trot^opifvwv, ra (h ^/las <A- 
dovra iarl ribf \6yos 6 Trpos tc)v -npouprnuvov ^aaiXia 
[Marcuni\, koH itpo^ "EAAijros crvyypamw.Ta itivrf, koX 
it€p\ akijOflat, TTp&rov kcu bfvrepov, koX Trpbs 'lovbaCovi a 
Kal /3 • Koi h liera ravra (rvi<{ypa\}/f Kara riji >l>pvyuv al- 
p4(rems [conf. Euseb. V. 16 Serapionem apud t^useb 

V. 19] nfT oi TToKvv (cairoroftT/flfWT;? \p6vov [conf. a. 
1 73]' rare ye ni]V uxriifp iK<pvfiv apyppitirrfi, «ri tov Mov- 
Tavov cifio rats avrov >/r€ii6oirpo(/»|ri<rij' ap\ai Trjs vap€K- 
Tporriji TToioviifvov. Photius cod. 14. avfyvdffdr) 'AiroXi- 
vapiov irpos "EXXTjray koI irtpi €V(re/3f toy Kal ntpl aXrjOdas. 
(crri. b\ 'lepaTto\(Tr)s 6 <rvyypa<p(w, riji li> 'Aalq '\tpa-n6- 
Aeti)? yfyoviiti l-icrKoisor f}iOrirn b( i-nl hMpKov ' \vTmvivov 
Bijpov /3a<TiA.^(i)y ' i'mp.aian' — At'y«rat be avrov Kal irtpa 
(rvyyp6.ixp.aTa a(iop.vrip.6v(VTa elvai, oly ovTta r/^fty h-trv- 
XOfxtv. Hioron. Cat.ii. c. 26. Apollinaris— sub imp. M. 
Antonino Vero floruit, cut et insipu volumeH pro fidt 
Christianoru/m dedit. Idem Magno p. 1083. Quid loquar 
de Melitone tiardmsi episcopo f Quid de Apollinario 
Hierapolitance eccletia- sacerdote f Diontftioque Corinthi- 
orum episcopo et Tatiano et BardesoM [oonf. a. 1 73] et 
Irenno Pothini martyris stiecettore [conf. a. 177]> '/«« 
luereseon sinffuhrum venena ex quibus philosophorum fm- 
tibus etnanarint multit ooluminibus explicarunt. 

Pausanias wrote lib. F217 years after the rebuild- 
ing of Corintli : V. 1 , 1 . KopivOion &.<^ ov •n]v yi\v -napa 
/3afnA«'<a$ ()(ov<nv [sc. from Cusar B. C. 44] fiKoa-iv irrj 
Kal SiaKoVia Tpiav btovra ^v <s ^ni. But 217 years from 
B.C. 41 will give A. D. 173. Pausanias mentions the 
splendid works oi Herodes Atticus in various parts of 
Greece, in Attica: 1.15), 7- in the t<Mnple of A'V/rftf.fte 
at the Isthmus : II. 1, 7- to 6e hbov i(f> r)p.Siv iividr\K(v 
'Hp(*6ijs 'A^T/raioy. at Olympia : VI. 21,2. at Delphi : 
X.32, 1. For the Odeum conf. a. 12.5. These works 

Euseb. Chron. Awio 2188 [from Oct. A. D. I72] 
Marci 12" Phrypum falsa prophetia innoiuit. Marked 
by Syncellus p. 3.53 A. Hieronymus has more particu- 
lars: Anno 2187 IMoni/sim episcopus CoriiUhiorum da- 
rns habetur, et Pini/tiis Cretensi.i [conf. Euscb. H. E. 
IV. 23] wr eloqueuiissiimti. Pseudoprophetia owe Cata- 
plirifgas nominatur accepit exordium auctore Montano et 
Priscilla MaximiUa/jue insani^ tatibus. The rise of 
the sect of Montanus is placed by Epiphanius torn. I 
p. 402 C in the reign of Pius : ovroi yap ytyovaa-i Tttpi 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

viro. Vix. ann. XXXVI 
m. VIII d. VIII. G. A- 
nido G. f. Faltonio Fron- 
toni. Vix. ann. XVIII 
men.VIhor. VIII. M. A- 
nicius M. f. Quir. Prohus 
II K. Octoh. M. Aurelio 
Severo II et T. Glaudio 
Pompeiano cos. 


927. Gallus et Flaccm 

Nor. Idat. A. Chron. 

Romse apud Panvinium 
p. 347 Gruterum p. 108. 5. 
M. Autius M. f. Stel. 
Agricoh, Taurinis missus 
honesta missione Flacco et 
Gallo COS. aram genio cen- 
turies J. D. J. D. J. 

Aurelii 14 from Non. Mart. trih. pot. 28 from Kal, Jan. 

Marcus visits Rome. Attested by a coin apud Eckhel. tom. VII p. 61. 
M. Antoninus Aug. tr. p. XXVIII + adcentus Aug. imp. VI cos. III. Other 
coins are inscribed M. Antoninus Aug. tr. p. XXVIII + Germania suhacta. 
imp. VI COS. III. or Marti victori. imp. VI cos. III. or relig. Aug. imp. VI 

After the return of 3Iarcus to the army, a miraculous rain in the battle with 
the Quadi is related by Die, Capitolinus, Claudian, Themistius, among secular 
writers, and by Tertullian. Eusebius, Orosius, Gregory of Nyssa, Xiphilinus, 
among the Christian. See Appendix. After the victory Marcus is imp. VII : 
Dio 71. 10. Tiapa. t&v aTpariioriiv to €J3bofj.ov avTOKpdraip irpocrriyopevOi]. Kaiirep be 
ovK flaidois TTpiv T-i]v PovKrjv ij/^cpiaaadaL toiovtov ti. TipocrUadai, 6jxm<i (hi^aTo t€ 
avTo a>s Koi Trapa dfov XaixlSdvcav, koI rij yipovaLa iTii(TTiik(v. 7; p.iVToi ^avtrriva 
IJ.rjTr]p tS)v (TTpaToi7eb<av eiT€K\rj0r]. Fixed to this year by coins apud Eckhel. 
tom. VII p. 62. M. Antoninus Aug. tr. p. XXVIII + imp. VII cos. III. 
" typis variis numi copiosi in omni metallo et forma." Eckhel. Ibid. Eusebius 
errs in the date : Anno 2188 [from Oct. A. D. I72] ; Hieronymus more nearly 
gives the true time: Anno 2189 A. D. 17f. Chron. Pasch. p. 260 D. im. 2e- 
/3r;poii Koi 'Epfvviavov [A. D. 171]- a prochronism of three years. 

R O M A N I 


3 Secular Authors 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

wore executed at this period, while Pausantas was 
employed upon his -ntpiriy^crii. conf. a. 125. 

Herodian the grammarian is placed by Syncellus 
p. 353 A in the reign of Marcus : Kara 4>pvyas (nvtcnr} 
yfrfvboirpotfirjTla. 'Wpmbiavbi ypafifxarei/y Apicrros ?/K/nofe. 
Confirmed by Suidas p. 1 700 B. 'Hp<oiMvbs \\X((ai>- 
bpfvi ypaixixariKos vlos AiroWaivCov tov ypay.p.aTiKov tov 
iT:iK\r)BivTO% AvctkoKov ytyovt Kara tov KaCrrapa 'Aitu- 
rii'oj' roj' (cai MdpKov, i)S vfdrtpov ilvai. xal Aiovvcrlov 
TOV tIji" fjLoviTiKrjv larroplav <Tvyypa\\favTOS [conf. a. 126] 
Kol <l>iAa)j'os TOV Bv^KCov [conf. a. 124]. 

{Hermofienes ast. 25 suffers a loss of faculties: conf. 
a. Ifi.S. Piiilostr. V. S. II. 7. ereXewa p.(v ovv h ^aOti 
yr)pa, (h m TU)V TToW&v vofuiofifvos' KaTf(f)povrj9ri yap 
anoKLTTovaris avTov tt/s rexvrjs. Idem Ibid. 'Avnoxpi 6 

(TO^iaTl^i aTlO(TK(i)-!!TU>V TtOTf tS OVTOV [CLVTlTe^VOS MV OVT<3 

Schol. apud Olearium p. 577] ovtos, i<l>r), 'Ep/xoye'wjy, 6 
fv Traial fiiv ytpcov (v 8< yfpovai trais. Conf. Suid. 
p. MJ6 A. Antiochus might have uttered this remark 
twenty years after this date, when Hennogenes was 45. 
cir. A.D. 193.) 

ri ivvfaKaiiixaTov (tos 'AvtoivCvov tov EwrtlSovi fKTa 
^AbpMPov [A. D. 158]. But the authority of Euscbius 
is to be preferred, who was earlier in time and better 
informed than Epiphanius. 

Hieron. Anno 2188 Tatianus h<sreticus agnoscitur, a 
qm Encratitee. liardeganes [conf. Euseb. H. E. IV. 30] 
alterim hareseos princepii no/us efficitur. Ircnffius Hscr. 
I. 30 apud Euseb. H. E. IV. 29. iwi larovpvivov *tai 
MapKicdfos ol KdKovtxtvoi 'EyKparfiy ayap.iav ixripv^av, 
6.6eTovvT(i 7-^1; apxalav ■nKi(Tiv tov dtov koI fjpi\j.a Karrj- 
yopovvTfs TOV ippfv KoX dijKv (k yivtcriv avOpmitd^v -nt- 
TTOirjKOTOi — TuTiavov TWOS irpctfTcas Tavrqv ilatviyKavTO^ 
Tr)v ^KaacfiripLCav. 8y 'lovmivov dicpoarTJs ytyovus i<f>' oaov 
pkv (TVifijv (K([v(a ovd(i> i^((f)r]Vf tolovtov, fi€Ta it r^v 
^KfCvov p.apTvpiav dirooray t^s (KKkrfaiai — Ibwv \apaKTTipa 
ht^afTKoKdov (ruv«m]<TaTo. Dionysius of Corinth flou- 
rished in the time of Soter : Euseb. H. E. IV. 2,S. and 
was the author of eight epistles: Idem. lb. Hieron. 
Catal. c. 27. Of Pinytns Hieron. Catal. c. 28. Pini/iws 
Creteims Cnomm urbis episcopm scriptit ad Dionysium 
Corinthiorum ejmcopum valde eleganiem epistolam. Conf. 
Euseb. H. E. IV. 23. 

Hegesijtpus brought his history to the time of El^u- 
thenis: Euseb. H. E. IV. 8. iv Trtim tnyypdixpMaw ov- 
tos Tr]V a.T:\avfi irapiboaiv tov &tto<ttoKikov Krjpvyiiaros 
arrXovoT&rri cnvT&ia ypa(f>rjs VTtofii'rinaTi(T64itvos. Ibid. 
IV. 11. 'AvUrjTOi — Kad' bv 'Hy^(riinro$ Urropd icarrov 
fmhrinTJaai Trj 'Vdixrj. Tlegesippiis apud Euseb. H. E. 
IV. 22. yfv6fi€vos ev 'Ptip.Ti biaboxijv tiroiTjcra/iJji' fit'xP'S 
'Aviki^tov, ov bidKOVOi ijv ^EKfvdepos. xal irapa. 'Aruc^ov 
hiabixfTai Swn/p, ixeff" bv 'EXevdepos. Ho mentions the 
sects of Simon, Menand^r, Marcion, Carpocrates, Va- 
Imtinus, Basilides, Saturninus. For the time of Mar- 
cion conf. a. 150. 153. 

Galen in the absence of the emperor A. D. I70 — 174 
composes many works : Galen, tom. XIV p. (iSO. itapa 
TSpoahoKiav avTov xpovCcravTOS iv T(5 rep/xafiKO) iroKfpuf, 
TtavTi TovTCj) T&> \p6via iroWay T!payp.aT(Lai fypa\fra (piXo- 
(T6<f>ovs re KOL larptKoy, &s imoaTpii^avros tov fiaaLKiais 
fls Tip 'PufMjr alTi)<Ta<n roiy </)iXoty ^SoiKa. Among these 
the treatise irepl xpei'ay fiopltav: tom. XIX p. 19. xpovi- 
aavTos y« Kara tijv a-nobrjpiCav Trapa iracrav ^XiriSa tov 
AvTuivlvov, crvpiTTas (Kfli'os 6 \p6vos aiioKoyaiTdrqv ttjv 
WK-qcrlv p.01 Tiapioyfv' iy ti\v Trepl yjttlai ixoplav Trpayna- 
Tfiav iv (TTTa Koi b(Ka ■nkrjpSxrai /3t/3Afoiy. tom, II p. 21 7. 
iypai^fTo p.01 ■upayp.arda p.(ya\r) nepl xpiias pLopuav, ^v 
(TvvTfKeaai iv iC /SiySAfoiy lire/x\/^o koi avrifv hi (Sivti. rw 

Apollinarig of Ilierapolis, who flourished at this time 
(conf. a. 172), mentioned the battle with the Quadi 
and the miraculous rain : Euseb. H. E. V. 5. row 6^ yt 
ijfjieTtpots — TO irpaxBev iiapabiboTai. Tovrmr 8' ir drj koX 
'Avo\ivdpios K.T. X. See col. 2 and Appendix M. Au- 





1 Consuls 

928. Pisolet Julianus 

Nor. Idat. Cassiod. Lam- 
prid. Commodo c. 12. 

Yl6<Ta)V Kal 'loj/A.tai'os A. 

'Op<f>[T0V TO y KOI 'P0V<l)0V 

Chron. Pasch. 

2 Evb:nts 

The title of Famtina is confirmed by Capitolinus Marco c. 26 and by coins 
apud Eckhel. torn. VII p. 79- Faustina Augusta + matri castrorum. S. C. p. 81. 
Divce Famtince Pice + matri castrorum. 

Aurelii 15 from Non. Mart. trih. pot. 29 from Kal. Jan. 

Commodus sacerdos : Lamprid. Commodo c. 2. XIIII eetafis anno in colle- 
gium sacerdotum asdtus est. c. 12. Assumptus est in omnia collegia sacerdotalia 
sacerdos XIII Kal. Invictas [sc. XIII Kal. Feh^ Pisone et Juliano coss. He 
proceeds to Germany May 19 and receives the toga virilis July 7 : Idem c. 12. 
Profectus in Germaniam XIIII Kal. jElias, ut postea nominavit [sc. XIIII 
Kal. Junias], iisdem coss. c. 2. Cooptatus inter tres solos principes juventutis 
quum togam sumpsit ; adhuc in prcetexta pueriU congiarium dedit atque ipse in 
basilica Trajani prcesedit. Indutus autem toga est Nonarum Juliarum die quo in 
terris Romulus non apparuit, et eo tempore quo Cassius a Marco descivit. Capi- 
tolin. Marco c. 22. Filio Commodo accersito ad limitem togam mrilem dedit ; 
quare congiarium populo dioisit et eum ante tempus consulem designavit. 

Revolt of Cassius: Capitolin. Marco c. 24. Voluit (Marcus) Marconmnniam 
provinciam, voluit etiam Sarmatiam facere ; et fecisset nisi Avidius Cassius re- 
bellasset sub eodem, in Oriente. — Relicto ergo Sarmatico Marcomannicoque bello, 
contra Cassium profectus est. Conf. Dion. 71-17 Victor. Epit. p. .S75 Vulcat. 
Cassio c. 7 Capitolin. Marco c. 21. Dio 71.22. tov 6e Kaa-aLov Kara ti]v 'S.vpiap 
Vf<i>T(p[aavroi, (r<p6bpa fKirXayus 6 Mdpicos rbv Ko/x/xoSof tov vibv 6K ttjs 'PdfxrjS 
<!)S (cat es f(pi]l3ovs ijbrj TfKelv bvvipevov p.(T€iTfp,\j/aTo. This account of Dio com- 
pared with Lampridius fixes the revolt of Cassius to May A. D. 175. Cassius 
is slain after 3 months and G days: Dio 71- 27- o ixeu ovto) p.fiva.s re rpeis Kal 
rjpipas ff Tr]v a.p\i]V ofeipwfay iCT(f)dyr], Kal 6 vlbs avTov iripfaQi uiv (tpov(.v6r]. His 
death may be placed in August. The moderation of Marcus, agens adhuc in 
Illyrico, is told by Ammianus XXI. 16, 11. 

Marcus after the revolt of Cassius passes through Italy on his way to the 
East. See the letters of Faustina and Marcus apud Vulcat. Cassio c. 9 — 11, 
where he is said to be at Alba Formise and Capua about the time of the death 
of Cassius, and appoints Pompeianus consul : c. 11. Pompeianum nostrum in 
annum sequentem consulem dixi [sc. consulem suffectum in A. D. 176: conf. Noris. 
0pp. tom. II p. 968]. c. 12. Ad senatum autem qualem orationem miserit irir 
terest scire. Ex orations M. Antonini: '■'• Hahetis igitur, P. C, pro gratulatione 
" Victoria: generum mewm consulem ; Pompeianum dico. — Nunc quod ad de/ec- 
" tionem Cassianam pertinet &.c.—Jiliis Avidii Cassii et genero et uxori veniam 
" dabitis." Dio 71. 28. o 6e Mopicos fTTiuyv to. tOvr] to. tm KacrcTLa (TWi^avacTTavra 
■ndw (f>iXavOpu>i:a)s ttclctiv f)(j>ri(raTo. Conf. Capitolin. Marco c. 25. 

Death of Faustina: Capitolin. Marco c. 26. Fuit Alexandrice, clementer cum 
lis agens. Postea tamsn Antiochiam vidit. — Faustinam uxorem suam in radi- 
cibus montis Tauri in vico Halalai exanimatam suUto morbo amisit. Petiit a 
senatu ut honores Faustince eedemque decernerent. Dio 71-29. KaTo. he tov uvtov 
Xpovov p,fTri\\a^fv rj <t>av(Triva, ehe vtto ttjs TTobdypas fjv (ixev eire dAX&jy. For 
the honours to Faustiiha see c. 30. 31 and coins apud Eckhel. tom. VII p. 81. 


929. T. Vitrasius Pollio 
II M. Flavius Aper II 

PolUone et Apro Nor. 
Tdat. Lamprid. Commodo 
c. 2 Chron. Pasch. 

WoXmv Koi'Avep to /3' A. 

Aurelii 16 from Non. Mart, trib.pot. 30 from Kal. Jan. 

Marcus is at Smyrna in the spring: Aristid. Or. 22. iTpo(T(}>cavriTi,Kbi 2/xvp- 
vaiKOi. addressed to Commodus after the earthquake : p. 439. 440. ejiovKoprjv 

av, u> 6avp.a(jif, jxakiara p.\v ti]v ttoKiv oiav KaTfXnrei ToiavTr]V (fyavrjvai. tol- 

avTa TjKovaras, kol Tpujpris tis fjv beLKvvptvr] p.ev AiowaLOLs. Marcus therefore 
and Commodus were at Smyrna at the Dionysia. But the Dionysia were in 
the spring at Smyrna: Aristid. Or. 15 p. 3/3. r\pos S>p<x irpioTri ALovva-ioi,^ Tpirjprjs 

R M A N I 


3 Secular Authors 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

Herodes Atticm is addressed by Marcus soon after 
the death oi Fmistina: Philostr. V. S. II. 1 p. 5«2. 
iniuTtike iipos Tov ^\\pu>hr}v — 6iaA«;(5ely 8^ vinp t&v tov 
Tro\fij,ov x^'M'^Sici)!' [the winter of A. D. 17^: see col. 2] 
iv dls 7}i> TOTf, icai Tijv yvvaiKa d\o(f)vpdfjLevoi &pn avr<j> 
Tfdvimirav, dirdv t( ti koI irtpl Tj/y rov (rdfjuiTos iardf- 
veCai, ((jxlrji ypiifxi k. t. K. — " d hi Ti XeAvTPjKfi (T( rj 
" \v7i(i>, aTiatn}<Tov Trap' ^juoC 86cay ev tu itpa rrjs iv 
" &(TT(i, AOrfvai (V fivoTjjpiots. ijv^diJ.'qv yap oTTOre 6 ito- 
" Ae/xos ^niAiora i(t)\(yfiaive koi p,vr]dfivac (Irj bi koI crov 
" nva-TayotyovvToi.'" Conf a. l?^- ^• 

Alexander of Damascus the peripatetic flourished : 
Galen, torn. II p. 218. Trapovros [so. A. D. 162: conf. a.] 
'AXe^ivbpov tov Aap.a(TKr]Vov tov iwi> 'AOrivqaiv a^iovfifvov 
Toiii irfpiTTaTr^TiKovi Ao'youy bibacTKfiv brjuocrCa — KaOdvep 
(cal Tovbf TOV vvv indpxov r^y 'V<i> Tro'Xews — ^(pytov 
nav\ov virdTov. This was written in the reign of Mar- 
cus: f. 215. after the work ittpl xpeiay p.opLmv: p. 217. 
and after the death of Boethus : p. 2 1 7. Therefore 
between A.D.I 74 (conf. a.) and A.D. 180; which 
fixes Alexander and Serffhis Paulm within that period. 
The pnefecture of Sergiiis is recorded in marm. Romae 
apud Gruter. p. 1090. 14. Sergi Pauli quondam prccf. 

The congiarium of Commodus and the further suc- 
cesses in Germany (see col. 2) are marked in coins of 
this year apud Eckhel. tom. VII p. 62. 

1 M. Antminns Aug. tr. p. XXIX + annona Aug. 

imp. VII COS. III. S. G. 

2 M. Antoninm Aug. Germ. tr.p. XXIX ■\- liberal. 

Aug. VI imp. VII cos. III. or liberalitas Aug. VII 
imp. VII cos. Ill S. G. 

3 M. Antoninus Aug. Germ. Sarm.+ tr. p. XXIX 

imp. VIII COS. III. or fort, reduc. tr.p. XXIX 
imp. VIII COS. III. or securit. pub. tr. p. XXIX 
imp. VIII COS. III. 

4 M. Antoninus Aug. Germ. Sarmaticus + tr.p. XXIX 

imp. VIII COS. III. S. C. 

5 A coin of Commodus: tom. VII p. 104. Commodus 

Gas. Aug. fil. Germ.-\-M. Antoninus Aug. Germ, 
tr. p. XXIX. 

Pausanias VIII. 43, 4. 6 'AiTwi'ivoy ovtos 6 bevrtpos 
Kol Toi/s re Tfpp.avov'i y.a'nipLOtTdTOvs koX Tr\(L<TTovs tQv iv 
rjj Eipdnj] ^apjidpiav koI tBvoi to Savpo/xarcSf itokinov 
KoL dSiKias ap^avTas TipLmpovp-fvos ^iTf^TJAfle. This 8th 
book was therefore written after Marcus had con- 
quered the Sannatce in A.D. 175. Perhaps 50 years 
after this date the work of Pausanias is quoted by 

z 2 




1 Consuls 

Pollione iterum et Apro 
Lamprid. Commodo c. 12. 

Lapis apud Gruter. p. 
30. 4. Sacr. M. M. Auf. 
Priina tauropoli fee. host, 
suis sacerdotib. Zmynthio 
Proculiani et P. Acio A- 
grippcB Pollione II et Apro 
II coss. XV Kal. Nove. 
Ibid. p. 31 . 3. Aurelia op- 
pidana tauropolium fecit 
hostiis suis sacerd. Zmin- 
theo Proculiani Accio A- 
grippe Apro II coss. XV 
K. Nov. Pollione pet. 
Conf. Gruter. ad locum. 

Puteolis apud Panvinium 
p. 351 Gruterum p. 192. 
10. Dedicata VI Idas 
Aug. T. Vitrasio Pollione 
II M. Flavio Apro II 


Tabula honestae missio- 
nis apud Norisium 0pp. 
torn. II p. 972. 

Apro II et Pollione II 


Commodo et Quintillo cos. 
[A.D. 177] Orfto etJuli- 
ano cos. [A. D. 178] Com- 
modo II cos. [A.D. 179] 

2 Events 

Upa t£ AtowJo-o) (jyipfTai kj/kXo) 8t' ayopas. In Anthesterion : Philostr. V. S. I. 
25 p. 531. T!iiJ,TTfTaC Tis iirjvL ' Avdfcrrrjpi&vi fxf rapa-Ca rptTjpijs es ayopdv. From 
which testimonies Masson Vit. Aristid. p. 144 rightly determines that Marcus 
visited Smyrna in the spring of A. D. 176. 

Marcus at Athens : Capitolin. Marco c. 27. Orientalibus rebus ordinatis, 
Athenis fuit, et inter alia Cereris templum adiit. — revertens ad Italiam navigio 
tempestatem gramssimam passus est. Per Brundusium veniens in Italiam togam 
et ipse sumpsit et milites togatos esse jussit. — Rontham ut venit, triwmphavit. Dio 
71. 31. ikOwv (s ras 'AOrivas kol fivrjOeh ibrnxe pi,fi> tois 'Aflijraioty rip-as e8a)Ke be 
Kol T;a(nv hvOpdmon 8t8oo-)ciiAoi/s iv rals 'Ad-qvais, fTU wdirjjs \6yo)v wat8etaj ixlctOov 
erria-iov (f>fpovTai. He triumphed Dec. 23 : Lamprid. Commodo c. 2. Profectus 
est (Comtnodus) — cum patre in Syriam et .^gyptum et cum eo Romam rediit. 
Post h(Ec, venia legis annarice irnpetrata, consul est f actus et cum patre imperat&r 
est appellatm V Kal. Decemb. die, Pollione et Apro coss. et triumpliavit cv,m patre. 
Idem c. 12. Appellatus imperator V Kal. Exuperatorias [sc. V. Kal. Dec] Pol- 
lione iterum et Apro coss. triumphavit X Kal. Amazonias [sc. X Kal. Januar.] 
iisdem coss. Eutropius VIII. 13. Romce rursus cum Commodo — triumphavit. 
Conf. CapitoHn. Marco c. 17. Euseb. Anno 2194 [commencing Oct. A. D. 178] 
Marci IS" Antoninus cum filiis suis [cruv IbCa iraiU Syncellus p. 353 D] de 
hostibus triumphum egit. A metachronism of two years. According to Dio 
71. 32 Marcus had been eight years absent : ikO^v 6e ey ttjv 'Paprfv kol -npos tov 
bfjixov bia\ey6p.fvos, firfibr] fifTa^v ktyovTOi avTov to, re &K\a (cat on tioWois erecriv 
cmobfbrinrjKws Tjv, avf^urjarav " OKTca'' k.t.\. — 6t€/;x€i8t'a(re, Kal e(f>r] Kal aiiTos " OKrd.^'' 
The eight years are included within A. D. 167 — ^7^, a period of more than 
nins. But from these are to be deducted the visits to Rome after the death 
of Verus in A. D. 169, and at the vota decennalia in A. D. 17I, and again 
in 174. 

Coins apud Eckhel. tom. VII p. 63. 

1 M. Antoninus Aug. Germ. Sarm. tr.p. XXX + 

2 M. Antoninus Aug. Germ. Sarmaticus + tr. p. XXX imp. VIII cos. III. 

3 M. Antoninus Aug. Germ. Sarm. + de Germ. tr.p. XXX imp. VIII cos. Ill 

p.p. marking his triumph, or Fort. dud. tr.p. XXX imp. VIII cos. III. 

The triumph is also commemorated in two coins of Commodus: Eckhel. tom. 
VII p. 105. 1 Commodo Cces. Aug. ftl. Germ. Sarm. + de Germ. 2 Commodus 
CcBS. Aug. f.-\-de Germanis. and in an inscription Romao ad Septem Lucernas 
apud Gruterum p. 260. 4. Conf. Eckhel. tom. VII p. 75 Casaubonum ad Ca- 

pitolinum p. 70. Imp. Ccbs. dim Antonini f Veri Parth. Max dioi 

Hadriani nep. divi Trajani Parth. pron. did NervcB abn. M. Aur. Antonino Aug. 
Germ. Sarm. pont. max. trib.pot. XXX\s\<i recte Eckhel. Male apud Grute- 
rum XX] imp. VIII COS. Ill p.p. quod omnes omnium ante se maximor. impp. 
glorias supergressus bellicosiss. gentib. deletis atque subactis S. P. Q. B. 

Another inscription of the 30th year apud Lactoratenses : Gruter. p. 29. 13. 
Imp. CcEs. divi Antonini f. divi VB I I [emenda,t Gr uterus LUC I I: lege VERI] 
Parth. maximi fratri M. Aurel. Antonino Aug. Germanic. Sarmat. p. m. t. p. 
XXX imp. VIII cos. Ill p.p. Lactorat. 

r _ 

R O M A N I 


3 Secular Authors 

4 Ecclesiastical Authoks 

^lian V. H. XII. 61. -ntpX Boppa hviyuov rifi^s. — 0ov- 
ptoi (vfpylTi)v avTov iTsiypa<^rai>. Y\av(TavLai hi <pr\aw 3r» 
nal MeyaAoTToAirai. sc. VIII. 3G, 4. 

Herodes Atticus sooms to bo still living in this year : 
conf. a. 175. He died at the ago of JG: Philostrat. 
V. S. II. 1 p. 5G5. 566. ireKevTa fiiv our d/x^i ra of', 
— aTTodavSvTOi 6^ avrov ii> ry Mapadrnvi koI (Tn<TKri\{favTos 
rois aiTeKfvdipoii (Kei 6airr(iv, ' AOrivaioi, — iBa\^av iv T<p 
Ylavad-qvaiKif. Suid. p. I7OO B. 6i«8^f aro 6^ airrov tijv 
ayoKiiv 'Abpiavbs 6 o-oc/jior^y. — TtAevro 8^ ifxcjA to. Of 
lr»;. Philostratus V. S. II. 10 p. 586 mentions Adrian: 
\6yov T(j) 'Hpuhj aiTodavovTi, iirecpd^Y^aTo eirrffioi' rov &v- 
bpbs, ft)s fii baKpva ^(c/cAtj^/voi roiiy 'AdrivaCovs iv rij tov 
\6yov aKpoda-ei. These particulars concerning Herodes 
prove that his birth could not have happened earlier 
than A. D. 100. 

Adrian (set. 63) is professor at Athens : Philostr. 
V. S. II. 10 p. 586! 588. ewl tov Opovov iraprtkef tov 
'AOrivr]<nv. — Kara bi Toi/9 x/"*"'"^* "Cs 6 avTOKpoamp Mapjcos 
'Afljjraft vTt\p juvorrjpictff ((ttoAtj [see col. 2], iKpaTU p.iv 
ijbr] TOV T&v (to(\>i(ttS>v Opovov. After this at Rome : 
Ibid. p. 589. KaTatT)(ijiv h\ koX tov &v(3^ Opovov [sc. the 
professor's chair at Rome] ovtu rrjv 'Pu/xi/i' Trpbs aiiTov 
inicTTpii^iv (is (cai tois a^vvfTois yAurrjjy 'EAAdSos tptaTa 
Tsapaa^fiv aKpodcncos. 

AriMides is introduced by the Quint ilii to Marcus: 
Philostr. V. S. II. 9 p. 582. iirfbr'nxd jj.'^v 6 avTOKpuTup 
f)br} TTJ S/xvpin; TpiTrjv ijiifpav rof 8jj 'AptoretSrji' ovt!(o 
yiyvdoTKiav 'jptTo tovs KvitiXCovs [conf. a. 168] ixr) iv t<3 
T&v a.(nTa(ofi(v<i>v 6ju(A(p Tiapiu>pap.ivoi avr^ 6 avrjp eijj 
K. T. A. — Kol &(f>[KOVTO TT)? vcTTepaCas TOV ''ApiareCbijv Stp^a 
hopv^opovvTfs. And the emperor heard his declama- 
tion. This happened before the earthquake at Smyr- 
na: Ibid, in the beginning of A. D. 176 when Marcus 
was proceeding to Athens. See col. 2. 

Pollux addresses each of the ten books of the 'Oi»o- 
HamiKov Kopifio'Sfj) KaCaapi. The work was therefore 
published before A.U. 177 when Commodus was Au- 
gustus: conf. a. 177- -• Pollux prajf. lib. I notices the 
occupations of the emperor ]\fareus ; indvov rj cr<i>TripCa 
Ti}s otKovju^rrjs aaxoKd. He was professor at Athens in 
the reign of Commodus: conf. a. 183. 

Phrynichus flourished: Phot. Cod. 158. ivfyvtacrdri- 
(Tav ^f'pwixov ^Apa^iov (To^iCTTiKr\i ■napavKtvr]'! Ao'yot Af', 
eoTi 6« TO ^i^Xiov \(lf(iv T( avvaytayr) Koi \6ymv Konfia- 
nKbif K. T. A. iroAAa bl avTS>v iari koX iv tj) 'EAAaSfou 
tSiv Atfeur ivpiiv oT/AAoyfj [conf. cod. 115]. — j/»c^a(re b\ 
6 av7]p iv Tois xpovoii MapKov fiaaiXimi '9(j>p.ali>>v koX tov 
Tsaxboi avTov Ko/i/io'8oi/, Trpos hv koi r^r oirapx')" ''■<''' f^v- 
rdynaTOi Troieirat iTriypa(f>a>v " KofxfxoSu KaC(Tapi ^pvvi)(0i 
XaCpfiv" [therefore before A. D. 177]- ^AAo Ko/xfxoStd to 
(ii^KLov TipofTf^iavGtv — Kiyn Af ' airu) fxe'xpi tov t6t( Koxpov 
(TuvTeTaxOat. Ao'yous, oil's koX avaOiaOtu At'yei tm ^aeriAei. 
^irayye'AAfrai Koi &K\ovs TocrovTovi <f>i.\oT:oin](r((Tdai, Tjji 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 


01. 239 U. C. Varr. 930. 
L. Aurelius Commodus 
Augustus et QuintiUvs 

Comrmdo et Quintillo 
Nor. Idat. A. Chron. 

de Commodo cos. Lam- 
prid. Commodo c. 2. 

Tabula apud Norisimn 
conf. a. 176. 

Aurelii 17 from Non. Mart, tril.pot. 31 from Kal. Jan. 

Commodus receives the tribunician power at the close of A. D. 176 or the 
beginning of 177 : Capitolin. Marco c. 27- Exinde [after his triumph Dec. 23] 
Lamnmm profectus est. Commodum deinde sihi coUegam in trihuniciam potesta- 
temjunont, congiarimn populo dedit et spectacula mirijfica. c. 16. Infilium Com- 
modum — cito nomem. Ccesaris [A. D. 166], et mox sacerdotium [A. D. 175], sta- 
timque nomen imperatoris ac triumphi participationem [A. D. 176] et consulatum 
[A.D. 177]. Euseb. Anno 2192 [from Oct. A. D. 176] Marci 16" Antoninus 
Commodum JiUum suum imperii socium fecit. Male Hieron. anno 2193. 

The triumph in the preceding December, the tribunician power of Coin- 
modus, his marriage with Crispina the daughter oi Bruttius Prassens (Dio 71. 
33 Capitolin. Marco c. 27), are marked in coins of this year : Eckhel. torn. 
Nil p. 64. 

1 M. Antoninus Aug. Germ. Sarm. + de Germ. tr.p. XXXI imp. VIII cos. 

Ill p. p. or de Sarm. tr. p. XXXI imp. VIII cos. Ill p. p. or tr. p. 
XXXIimp.VIIIcos.IIIp.p. ovtr.p. XXXI imp. Villi cos. Ill p.p. 

2 M. Antoninus Aug. Germ. Sartn. tr. p. XXXI+felicitati Aug. imp. VIII 

cos. III. S. C. or imp. VIII cos. Ill p.p. with Marcus and Commodus in 
a triumphal chariot, or liberalitas Aug. VII imp. VIII cos. Ill p.p. S.C. 
or imp. Villi cos. Ill p.p. S.C. or propugnatori. imp. Villi cos. III. S.C. 
" Jupiter fulmen — intorquet." 

3 Coins of Commodus: Ibid. p. 105. Commodo Cees. Aug.fil. Germ. Sarm. cos. 

+/elicitati C(BS. S. C. or principi juventutis. S. G. 

4 Imp. CcBs. L. Aurel. Commodus Germ. Sarm. +tr. pot. cos. or Crispina Aug. 

5 Imp. CcEs. Aurel. Commodus Germ. Sarm. -\- tr.p. II cos. S. C. or de Germ. 

tr.p. II COS. S. C. or de Sarm. tr.p. II cos. S. C. or liberalitas Aug. tr.p. 
II COS. S. C. 

6 Imp. L. Aurel. Commodus Aug. Germ. Sarm. + de Germxinis tr. p. II cos. 

p.p. S. C. or de Sarm. tr.p. IIcos.p.p. S. C. or tr.p. IIcos.p. p. 

7 Imp. Cominodus Aug. Germ. Sarm. Crispina Aug. + wta puhlica. 

8 L. Aurel. Commodus Aug. Germ. Sarm. + Junoni Sospitce. tr. p. II imp. II 

COS. p.p. or tr.p. II imp. II cos. p.p. S. C. On the tribunician years of 
Commodus conf. a. 179. 

A remission of taxes: Euseb. Anno 2193 [from Oct. A.D. 177] Imperatores 
dona largiti sunt multique generis spectacula in theatro ediderunt ; pecunias quo- 
que fisco dehitas remiserunt, schedulasque debitorum in foro Romano exusserunt. 
Conf. Syncell. p. 353 C. Dio 71. 32. rois o^elXovvi ti tw fiamkiKM kw, t(3 Stj- 
fxoo-io) TTacri vavra to o(|)eiXo'/xf i'o a(j)riK€V airo h&v /nr , X"P'J ''^'' '5" '"°'' Abpiavoij 
[conf. a. 118]' koX iravTa to. -ntpl avr&v ypAfJ-jxara tv ry ayopa KavOriVM fKiXeva-f. 

R O M A N I 


3 Secitlab Authors 

4 Ecclesiastical Authobs 

(aiji aiirbv ovk d;7oAijUTrai'oi5<TT/s. Besides the general 
dedication of the whole to Gommodm, he inscribed 
each booli to some of his friends : avrUa tov irpQTOv 
aiiTov TovTov Xoyov 'ApiorofcXfi Ttrt ypdt^fi. — tov 6« ri- 
rapTov 'XovktavQ tw\ a-vnTtoKiTr] koL <l)i\(f TipoiTcfxavd (ttjs 
iv 'PdnTfi lieyaKrji fiovKrji Koivtav^.) The other names 
are Menodorus, Tiberinm, MenophUm, Rufinm, Ithegi- 
nm, Basilides the Milesian sophist. lalib.XI'^pi- 
OTfCbov Tois \6yois (ws <f>rj(nv) (VTv\!iDV apri, rore aKfia- 
(ovTos, 7ro\i/f TOV avbpbi (Ttaivov TioidTai. Aristides is 
now 47 : conf. a. 129. 

Euseb. Chron. Anno 2192 [from Oct. A. D. !/«] 
Atticus Platonieus agmscebatur. At the same year in 
Hieronymus. Named by Syncollus : conf. a. 164. 

Sexttts of Ckwronea the stoic, the grandson of Plu- 
tarch (conf. a. 1.S3), is still alive: Philostrat. V. S. 
II. 1 p. 5.57. iffTtovba^f fiiv 6 avTOKparatp Mapxos ntpi 
'Sii^Tov TOV (k Bo((i>T(ar (pikoarocjiov, dafj.C((av avToj koI (poi- 
T&v ivl dvpais. &pTi bi ijKuv (s tt}i> 'Ptofxr/i' 6 AovKioy 
[the companion of /Jerodes Atticus] ijptTo tov avTOKpojopa 
TSpo'iovra ttoi /3a8(^ot — koI o MdpKOS " koKov'' l<f>r] " Kat 
" yrjpdcTKOvTi to ixavddveiv eifxi brj irpoi '^t^rov tov (f)i\6- 
'• (ro(|)oi'." — Kol 6 AovKios " S> Zev" Ic^tj, " 6 'Paj/xaiaiv 
" I3acn\(vi yr)paaKiav ijbr] b^KTOv f^a^dpifvos.^ Repeated 
by Suidas p. 240«. Marcus quitted Rome about March 
A.D. 170 when he had nearly completed his 49th year. 
He was absent, except a short visit in 174, till De- 
cember A. D. I7G, in his 55th year. He quitted Rome 
for the last time, never to return, Aug. 3 A. D. 1 78. 
As therefore this incident occurred at Rome when 
Marcm was growing old, it may have happened within 
Dec. 176 and Aug. A. D. 178. 

PoUucis Epithalamium : Suidas p. ;i032 A names 
among the works of Pollua; eh Kop^ohov Kaiaapa iitiBa- 
KdpLiov. The marriage of Commodus and Crispina was 
in this year : see col. 2. which Pollux celebrated in 
that piece. 

Persecution in Gaul in the 1 7th of Marcus : Euseb. 
H. E. V. procem. Itos ^i' iirraKaibiKaTov avroKparopoi 
MdpKov Ovjjpov. Chron. Pasch. p. 261 C. D. Marci Au- 
relii Ifi". Sulpicius Sev. H. Sacr. II. 46. Twnprimum 
inter Gallias mariyria visa, serim trant Alp«$ Dei reli- 
gione stiscepta. 

Mission oi Irenceus to Rome: Euseb. H. E. V.4. ol 

6 avTol jxapTvpes koX tov V.lprivaiov irpfO'fivTfpov t6t 6vTa 
Trjs iv Aovybovvif TtapoiKCas — (rvvlariav — " Xalpdv iv 0<(j> 
" (re iv nouTiv ev)(6fte0a km del, ttdrep ^EKevdepe. Tavrd 
" crot TO. ypappiUTa TTpoeTpe\j/dpLeda tov ibekcf>6v fipuav Koi 
" KOivavov Elpyjvaiov biaKopi.C(Tai" k. t. X. Confirming 
the date of Eusebius H. E. lib. V and attesting that 
these transactions occurred when Eleutherm was bishop 
of Rome. 

Epistola ecclesiarum Lugduni et Vienna apud Euseb. 
H. E. V. 1. ot iv Bieviq} koI Aovyhovv<a r^s FoAXfos Ttap- 
OLKovvres bovX.01 Xpiorov tois kutcl t^i* Acriav xai <i>pvyiav 
T^v avTi^v Tf/s airo\vTpiia-fms r]p.iv ttIotiv koI iKirtba i\ov- 
(Tiv\(poli eiprjvr] k. t. \. They record the death of 
Pothinus: 6 be pi.aKdpi.oi Y\oOeivos 6 n/v biaKovlav ttj^ 
^Trio-Koirijs ^11 Aovybovvio ireTrKTrevpLevo^, vnep to, ivevTf- 
KOjTa Irr; ytyorus, — km ovtos iisl Th pijpM iavpeTO k.t.X. 

Irenams succeeds Pothimts: Enseb. H. E. V. 5. Ilo- 
fltirov 8?; i<^ oAots t^s fw^y iTecriv h' <n>v roty iirl raXA^y 
fxapTvp'qcraa-i TeKeuoOivTos, Etpr/roroy njy koto Aovybovvov 
^y 6 VloOeivoi rjyeho irapouiay T^r iTTi(TKOTn}v biabixf^at. 
rioXi/icapTroii bi tovtov &KOv<rrr)v yevecrOai xara riji' viav 
ipLavOdvofiev fiKiKCav. Hieron. Catal. c. 85. Irentem 
Pothini episcopi — pre^yttr a martyribus ejttsdem loci ob 
quasdam ecclesice queestioncs legatns Botnam rnitSHS hono- 
rificas super nomine suo ad Eleuthervm epi$copum ptr- 
fert literas. Postea Jam Poihino pnyte tumoffenarto ob 
Christum martyrio coronaio, in locum e/us tt^ttUuitur. 
Constat autem Polycarpi — fiiisse ditcipulum. He had 
heard both Polycarp and Papias : Irenteus apud Eu- 
seb. H. E. IV. 14. IloXvjtap^roi' r/fxeiy iapaKafxev iv ri) 
Ttpdrr] fipL&v fiXiKia. Idem Ibid. V. 20. iraiy a)i» (ti iv 
TTJ KUTii) AuCq Ttapa T<o rioXvicdpiru) «t. t. X. whore Ireneeas 
describes the discourses of Polycarp. Hieron. Theo- 
dorsB tom. I p. 288. Irenaus vir apostolicorum tempo- 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

Capitolin. Marco c. 23. Trihuta vel vectigalia ubi necessitas cogebat remisit. 
Conf. Oros. VII. 15. On these two terms of 16 years ending A. D. 118, and 
of 46 years ending A. D. 177. conf. Noris. diss, de epochis p. 202 contra Sca- 
ligerum ad Euseb. p. 210. 224. Reimar ad Dionem p. 1196 follows Scaliger. 


931. Orfitus et Julianus 
Bufus Nor. Idat. A. Lam- 
prid. Commodo c. 12. 

'Op<f)iTov TO 8' Koi 'Vovcjiov 
TO /3' Chron. Pasch. 

Tabula apud Norisium : 
conf. a. 17(). 

Aurelii 18 from Nrni. Mart, trib.pot. 32 from Kal. Jan. 

Marcus Aug. 3 proceeds with Commodus to Germany : Lamprid. Commodo 
c. 12. Commodus iterum profectus (in Germaniam) III Nonas Commodias [III 
Non. August.'] Orphito et Rwfo Coss. Capitolin. Marco c. 27- ^d conficiendum 
helium conversus in administratione ejus belli obiit. — Triennio helium postea cum 
Marcomannis Hermanduris Sarmatis Quadis etiam egit ; et, si uno anno super- 
fuissit, provincias ex his fecissit. Dio 71-33. oi Kw);riXtot ovk ffivvr]Qr]aav, kuC- 
■nep bvo re ovm not <j}p6vr]ixa Koi avbpCav (p.TSupiav Te tto\\i}v «x''J'^«y. '"O" ""o^fp-ov 
Tiavaai. koI bia tovt dray/caiojj avTol ol avTOKpuTopei i^ea-Tpdnvcrav. 6 bi MdpKOS 
— i(a)pp7]dr). 

Coins of Marcus : Eckhel. tom. VII p. 65. 1 M. Aurel. Antoninus tr. p. 

XXXII + 2 3/. Aurel. Antoninus Auq.+tr.p. XXXII imp. Villi 

COS. III. S. C. 3 M. Antoninus Aug. tr.p. XXXII. + 

Coins oi Commodus: Ibid. p. 107- \ L. Aurel. Commodus Aug. Germ. Sarm. 
tr.p. Ill +votapublica. imp. II cos. p.p. 2 L. Aurel. Cotnmodus Aug. + cos. p.p. 
or tr.p. Ill imp. II cos. p. p. 3 L. Aurel. Commadm Aug. tr.p. Ill+votapub- 
lica. imp. II cos. p. p. S. C. 

Earthquake at Smyrna: Chron. Pasch. p. 262 C. Xvb. a. in. '0/)^irou to S' 
Koi 'Pov<{>ov TO ^. Ip.vpva Tr\s 'Afftas otto (y(urp.S>v KaT(ppC4>r}. Euseb. Anno 2196 
Hieron. Anno 2195 : Smyrna urbs Asice terrce motu corruit ; ad quam rejicien- 
dam in decern annos vectigalia condonata sunt. The date of Eusebius (from Oct. 
A. D. 180) is at least a year too low ; since it places this event in the reign 
of Commodus. Dio 71- 32. XP^M""^*^ ''^ TroWatj TToXfrnv ebonKtv, (v ah koL rfj 
'Ip.vpvrj huvm into a-eicrpov (})9ap€ia-(i, koi avrriv koi ^ovXfvTrj iaTparqyr^KOTL avoiKO- 
bop.r}(Tai TTpoa-eTa^ev. The narrative of Dio is consistent with the date of Chron. 
Pasch. the year of Orjitus and Bufus. Probably before the march into Ger- 
many, since Aristides Or. 2 1 p. 433 implies that the emperors were still at 
Rome : avTi tov irpidfius Tiepl i)pS>v avafieveiv aiiTol TrpeVjSeis Trepl rip.<av irpos njv 
o'lKoi IBov\r]v KaTedTrjcrav. sc. KaTi<TTr](Tav from KaTtcnrjv. Tillemont tom. II 
p. 391 interprets otherwise. 


932. L. Aurelius Commo- 
dus August m II T. An- 
nuls Aurelius Verm II 

Commodo II et Vera Nor. 
Idat. Chron. Pasch. 

K&)/xti)8os Koi Oiifipos A. 

RomfB apud Gruterum 
p. 65. 9. Sancto Sihano 
M. Junius Castillanws D. 
D. Nonis Januar. Imp. 
Commodo II T. Annio 
Vera II cos. 

Praeneste in Latio apud 
Gruterum p. 77- 3. Dedi- 
catum IV Idus Aug. Imp. 

Aurelii 19 from Non. Mart, trib.pot. 33 from Kal. Jan. 

A victory over the Marcomanni : Dio 7 1 ■ 33. 6 M(ip/cos — ru YlaTipvw bovi 
Xeipffl pieydXrjv (nep-^fv avrbv ds tov rrjs M"X'?* ay&va' Koi oi fiapfiapoi. dvTiTtivav 
piv 8io TTJs rjpepas oTrdo-rjs KaTeKOTirja-av be {mo t&v 'PcapaCayv Trdires, Kal 6 Mdp/coy 
70 biKaTov avTOKpaTcup TTpoarfyopfvdiT Koi d ye nkiov efie^iciiKei, TrdvTa to, «k€i hv 
fKfxfipaTo. Fixed to this year by coins : Eckhel. tom. VII p. 65. 

1 31. Aurel. Antoninus Aug. tr. p. XXXIII+ 

2 M. Aurel. Antoninus Auq. + tr. p. XXXIII imp. Villi cos. Ill p.p. or tr.p. 

XXXIII imp. X cos'. Ill p.p. 

3 Coins of Commodus: Ibid. p. 108. L. Aurel. Commodus Aug. tr.p. I I 11+ 

imp. II cos. II p.p. 8. C. or vota publica. imp. II cos. II. p.p. 

4 After the victory: L. Aurel. Commodus Aug. Germ. Sarm. tr.p. IIII + 

imp. Ill cos. II p.p. 

5 L. Aurel. Commodus Aug. tr.p. IIII + imp. Ill cos. II p.p. S. C. 

6 L. Aurel. Commodus Aug. + tr.p. IIII imp. Ill cos. II p. p. 

R M A N I 


3 Skcular Authors 


rum, et Papice, auditorit etancielistte Joatmii, diaeipu- 
Im. Idem Catal. c. 35. Floruit itiaxime tub Commodo 

Ar'istidis Or. A'^Y". iJiov(fbCa t-nl ^fiipin). see col. 2. 
Schol. ad finein : cnvfTtOt] iv aKapiaCif o/xou tj) ayy(\l(}. 

Aristidis Or. XLI. hnaroKri irfpl Sfxi/pfr;? avroKpa- 
ropi Kal<Tapi MopKu Avprj\l<f 'Avravivio <r</3ooT(j) koI av- 
roKparopi Kaitrapt Aov/ci<j) Avpr)\C<o Kop.6&<f (re^ao-Tco. 
Philostr. V. S. II. 9^ p. 582. oi«(r'rr)i; Se koI rbv 'Ap'i- 
<TTflhr]v TTJs ^iMtpirrjs (Ivcu ovK aXa^oiv iiraivoi dAA.a biKui- 
OTorrfs re ical aX>;0«(rroTos. ttji' yap tsoKw ravrr^v i^ort- 
<rd(i<rav vtto (Tda-pimv rt koX xaa-ndrmv ovrca n (l\o(^t;paTo 
irpos Tov MdpKOV cos t^ ju^f cJAXt/ povMa dapta (TrurTfvd^ai. 
TOP ^acrtXe'a, (Til bi tQ " Ze(f>vpoi tpripr\v avTrjv Koroirre- 
ov<n [p. 763 ubi imTtfiova-i] Kal baKpva T<j) ^i/3A^(j) ^wc- 
OTctfai ^vvoiKlav t( rfj ■n6\(i iK t&v 'Apicnfibov ivboaipxov 
inrivtvaai. Aristides had already seen the emperor in 
Ionia: Philostrat. Ibid. iTvyyav^ b\ koX Ivyytyovias 
ijbr) r(p MdpKia kv 'Iwi'to 'AptoTetSijs. sc. in A.l). 176: 
conf. a. 

Christianity is preached in Britain in the time of 
Eleutherus [A. D. 171—185]: Beda Hist. Eccles. An- 
glorum I. 4. Anno ab iiicarnatione Domini 156<» [a pro- 
chronism of 5 years] Marcus Antcninut Veru$ — re^num 
cum Aurelio Commodo fratre tutetpit. Quorum tempo- 
ribtis cum Eleutherus vir sanctus pontificatui Romawe 
ecclesiie preeesset, mini ad mm Lucius firitannorum rex 
episiolam obsecrans ut per ejus mandatum Chittiamu 
efficeretur. Et mox effectwm pits pogtulationit eoiueeittus 
est, susceptamque jidem Britanni usque in tempora Dio- 
cletiani principis inviolcUam integramque quieta pace 
servabant. But the missionaries were from tho Eaat 
and not from Rome ; for they taught the Eastern 
mode of observing Easter : Conf. Moshoim. do rebus 
Christianorum p. 213 — 216. 

Arisiidis Or. XXI. •naXwi^Ua iisX SjxvpiTj. written 
after tho restoration of Smyrna: p. 431 — -133. and 
before the death of Marcus : p. 430. tois wdrro dpi- 
OToiy ^aaiKivffiv. 

Ghrestm the sophist is contemporary with Adrian : 
Philostr. V. S. II. 11. Tov bi Bviivriov (roc^ior^r Xpij- 
<rrov dStKfi fi 'EWas &p.(\ovvrfs avbpbi bs apiora 'E\- 
X^vav VTTO 'Hp<o6j} iiiaibfvdr). — TraiSevoiri 6^ avr<a Kara 
row Abpiavov tov (ro<^toTo£! Kaipovi iKarov epip.i(T6oi 
iiKpoaral T](Tav. — ^Abpiavov be KaOibpvOivros h TTjy 'Pu/xj/r 
[conf. a. 1 76] ^v/^jjc^iijorro ot 'A^r/vaioi vpfcr^tvcraaOat 
imip Xprjcrrov toj' 'Aflj;rr;(7ir avT<3 dpovov iK /SaTiXe'eos oi- 
ToCrres- 6 Se — fiieXvae n/r irpicr^aKTiv — i-nl woo'ti' fJirur 
" O^x ai pvpCai TOV avbpa." [sc. al ^k /3ao'(\e'(i>; fivpCai 
II. 2: tho salary of 10,000 dr.] He is mentioned again 
with Adrian: V. S. II. 10 p. 588. ' A0i'tvr]<Tiv ivdpdiTMv 
— r(j> Abpiavif TrpocrKfKpovKSi bia ttjp ev\4pfiav tov J/5ovy, 

Irentms Hseres. III. 3 apud Euseb. H. E. V. 5. 6 
marks the succession of bishops of Rome to his own 
time : OtjxeXuiaavTfs (cat oiKobopri<TavT€i oi puucipioi cltto- 
oToAoi Ti;i/ iKKkr)criav Aivtf rifv r^y iiruTKornji Xfirovpyiav 
ivfX'^lpr)<Tav[X.J).(>5\ — biabixtToi b( airrbv'' AviyKktfTos. 

fXtTO, TOVTOV bi Tpha T0'w<j) OTTO TUV CLTlOOTokotV TT)V ilTl- 

(TKOirriv K\ripovTM KX^jujjs o koI iapaKOis tow pLOKaplovs 

dTroaroXovi Kal (rv/n/Jf^AjjKuy avrois tov b( KXripLtvTa 

Toirrov biabf-)(fTai EvdpeoToy, koI tov Evdpearov 'AX€'fal^- 
bpos' tiff ovTMS iKToi aitb tQv iiroaroKav Ka0l<rrarai zv- 
aros. ftero bk tovtov TeX«(7(^o'pos, 6s koi ivb6(ui ip^ap- 
Tvpr]<T(v HuTa 'Tylvor «iro Wios' pLtff ov 'Aviktitos 
[A. D. 150]. biabfiaptvov bi tov 'AvCiojtov Soir^pos 
[A. D. 162], vvv b<abfKiTtf Toiry tov ttjs iitKTKOinji imo 
T&v iito<Tr6\(i>v icoT^tt K\rjpov 'EKevOtpos [A. D. 171]- 
TJj airrfj T<Jf f t Koi tjj ovt^ StSa^^ ij rt awo tuv aitoaroKoiv 
iv T^ iKKkrjoCa TrapdboaK koX to rijs dXr/detas icripxrypLa 

A a 




1 Consuls 


Commodo II et Aurelio 
Vero II COS. 

The 4th tribunician year of Commodus coincides with the 2nd consulship 
A.D. 179; the 15th with the 6th consulship A. D. 190 (conf. a.). But as 
the 1st and 2nd years were both numbered in A.D. 177 (conf. a.), it would 
follow that the Ist was still current after Jan. 1 A. D. 177 and the 16th still 
current after Jan. 1 A.D. 192. And yet the 17th and 18th years are both 
current in the 7th consulship A.D. 192 (conf. a.); which would prove that 
the 2nd had commenced before Dec. 31 A. D. 176 and the 1 7th before Dec. 31 
A. D. 191. The difficulties are considered by Eckhel torn. VIII p.419— 421, 
but are not solved. 

Commodus among other extravagancies in A. D. 191 might anticipate and 
antedate his tribunician years in appointing them to be reckoned in future 
from an earlier day. The 1st was still current in Jan. A.D. 177- But in 
future years, perhaps from A. D. 178, the tribunician years of Commodm 
might be computed, like those of Marcus, from Jan. 1; and the 16th year 
from Jan. 1 A. D. 1 91 ; till Commodus before the close of that year, and while 
the 16th was still current, ordered the 17th to commence. 


933. L. Fulvius Bruttius 
Prcesens II Sex. Quinti- 
lius Condianus 

Preesente et Condiano 
Nor. Idat. 

ITpTjros Koi Kovhiavoi A. 

Prcesens et Gordianus 
Chron. Pasch. Cassiod. 

Lapis apud Gruterum 
p. 1095. 1. L.Fulvio C.f. 
[sc. Caii consulis A.D.I 53] 
Pom. Bruttio Prcesenti — 
COS. II p. p. Agrijppince 
Aug. socero [conf. a. 1 77- 
2] &c. 

Prasente iterum consule 
Lamprid. Comm. c. 12. 
collegse Condiani nomine 
erase ex actis : conf. Ca- 
saubon. ad Lampridium 
p. 99 Norisium torn. II 
p. 975 Panvinium p. 35 1 . 

Death of Marcus: Dio 71-33.34. rfj iTrraxatSeKaTT; tov MaprCov jxer-^Wa^iv — 
err] oktco kol -nevrqKOVTa Kai \XT)vas hiKa qixipas re tiKOcn /cat 8vo (i]cras, kolv tovtois 
TO) Te TTplv ' AvTb>VLV<a cTV)(vbv \p6vov imap^as, Koi avTos ivvia koI Sexo err; koX 
ivbsKa i)fjL^pas avTapx'qa-ai. The date of his death is confirmed by TertuUian 
Apologet. c. 25 tom. V p. 72. M. Aurelio apud Sirmium reipubliccE exempto die 
dedmo sexto Kalendarum Aprilium. The duration of his reign coincides in 
Clemens Alex. p. 339 D. McJ/jkos kvpxjkws 'Avrmvlvos err] id' ^jixepas la. and 
nearly in Theophilus ad Autolyc. III. 27. OuTJpos hrj id' rip-ipas i. Euseb. 
H. E. V. 9. fweaKaibsKa ereaiv. If XVI Kal. April, was the eleventh day of 
his 20th year, Non. Mart, was the first ; and the death of Pius and succession 
of Marcus are fixed to iVow. Mart. A.D. 161. Die's account of the age of 
Marcus will place his birth at Ap. 25 A. D. 121. which is only one day earlier 
than the date of Capitolinus: conf. a. 121. Eusebius places his death in the 
right year : Anno 2195 [commencing Oct. A. D. 179] Antoninus inflammo/- 
tione moritur in Pannonia. The accounts of Eutropius VIII. 14 Capitolinus 
Marco c. 18 XVII I" imperii anno vitce LXI'. of Victor Caes. p. 324 Anno 
imperii XVIII". Victor Epit. p. 374 imperamt annas XVIII. of Orosius 
VII. 15 — annis XIX. are more or less inaccurate. Victor Epit. p. 375 cor- 
rectly : Vita anno LIX« apud Vindohonam morho consumptus est. For the cir- 
cumstances of his death conf. Capitolin. Marco c. 28. 

Coins of Marcus: Eckhel. tom. VII p. 67. 1 M. Aurel. Antoninus Aug. 

tr. p. XXXIIII-\ 2 M. Aurel. Antoninus Aug. + tr.p. XXXIIII imp. X 

COS. Ill p.p. 3 After his death : Divm M. Antoninus Piu8 + consecratio. 
4 Divo Mar. Antonino + Aug . parenti sua. 

Coins of Commodm before the death of Marcus: Eckhel. p. 108. 5 Z-. Aurel. 
Commodus Aug. tr.p. V+Jovi victori. imp. Ill cos. II p.p. S. C. 6 L. Aurel. 
Commodus Aug. +tr. p. V imp. Ill cos. it p. p. 

Commodus returns to Rome: Dio 72. 2 Lamprid. Commodo c. 3. helium — 
remisit ac Romam reversus est. c. 12. Datus in perpetuum ah exercitu et senatu in 
domo Palatina Commodiana conservandus XI Kal. Bomanas [sc. XI Kal. Novl] 
Pratsente iterum cos. 

Coins of this year after the death of Marcus : Eckhel. tom. VII p. 108. 
7 L. Aurel. Commodus Aug. tr.p.V+adeentus Aug. imp. IIII cos. II p.p. 8.G. 

R O M A N I 


3 Secular Authors 


XprjoTov bf t6v ix Bviavrlov o-o</)Ktt^i» idfpiiTfve. Phi- 
lostratus II. 11 mentions tho disciples of Chrestus : 
iroAAoi/s inaCbtvae koI OavfiairCovs &vbpai' &v iyivtro 

llTTTobpOfJl.O'i T( 6 Cro<^Km;S [conf. a. li)5] Kol ft>t\C<TKOi 

[conf. a. 212. 219] Kal 'lo-ayopas 6 ttjs rpayiohCai iroirj- 
T^y prfTopii T« ivhoKipoi. NiK0fXj;8tjy 6 Ik tov ^tpyay-ov 
KoX 'Aici/Xas 6 iK T^s idikov [1. iifov] TaXaTias koX 'Api- 
(TTaCvtTos BvCdimos' koI tS>v iXXoyl,p.<j)i ^iXoiTo<pria&.v- 
T<ov K6.\\aia~)(p6s re 6 'AOrjpalos koI 6 inl fiutpM Saiirwtj. 
Chrestus also taught Athenodortis : II. 14. Apollodorm 
oi Naucratis: II. 19. Heraclides: II. 26. the two last 
of whom were tho disciples oi Adrian: conf. a. 192. 
Chrestm lived 50 years : TTfvrqKovTovrr]^ aitiOavf p. .'592. 
Onomarchus was contemporary with Adrian and 
Chrestus : Philostr. V. S. II. 18 p. 598. Olvoixapxos 

pOvof/iopxos Salmas.] 6 «k rrji'Avbpov (TO(f>urTr]s (TraC- 

htv(Tf. Kara \p6vovi of)s \bpiav6s re koL Xprjcrros 'A07jwj(Tt. 
— TtAevTJjo-oi bi avTov ol fifv 'Adrivricnv ol bi oIkoi, fifVM- 
TroXioV re kol Ttapi6vTa <y yijpas. 

The various accounts of tho times of tho early Ro- 
man bishops shall be given in the Appendix. 

Chryseros, the freedman of Marcus, &i:b ktI(T€<i>s 'P<a- 
/xt;s fx^x/" '^* TeKfVTTJs roC IbCov irdTpbtvoi avroKpixopoi 
Ovqpov <ra(}>Qs itivra avfypa^e ical to, Svofiara xal tovs 
XpoVovy: Theophil. ad Autolyc. III. 27- From hence 
Theophilm gives the duration of every reign to Marcus 

Dio Cassiiis from the accession of Commodus is a 
witness of events : I'l. 4. Xf'yo> b\ Taxni. n koI to. konrh 
OVK i^ a\\oTp(as in irapafidtreus aA\' i^ oiKfCas r/8ij ttjp^- 
<r«a>s. From this time he writes more fully : c. 18. 
iitfibi) — Trapo)/' airrbs iyio Koi dbov (Kacrra koI iJKovffa koI 
iXikrjcra, — to. fir' ifwv vpa\dfVTa koi \fTrrovpyj)(r<o Kal 
KfTrro\oyi)<Ta> /laXXoi; tj to vpoTtpa, on re avviy(i>6p,r)V 
avTots Koi on firfiiva &.Wov oi8a t5)v n bwapifvav fs 
ypa<pT]V ctfiov Aoyov KaraOicrOai biriKpi^toKora avra 6iMoias 
ifwl. His father Apronianus was governor of Oilicia 
at the death of Trajan A. D. 117: 69. 1. He mentions 
his own country: tt) NiKai<} rrj itarpCbi piov 75. 15. 

Herodian begins his history with tho death of Mar- 
cus: I. 1 — 4. He lived in the times which ho de- 
scribes: I. 1. tyoi bi l(rropCav ov ■nap' SLKkatv iiVobf^A.- 
Hfvos &yvu>(rr6v re koI anAprvpov, vtto Vfapa bk Tjj tQu iv- 
Tfv^onivav livrjuri, jnero Trdo-Tjy aKrjdovs iKpifieCai TJOpota-a 
is <rvyypa<f)i]V. I. 2. & fxtra •njv Mdpxov rf\(VTr)v Ttapa 
Ttavra tov ifw,vTOv fiiov ei8oV re koL iJKovaa, lort b'' &v 
Kal •nilpq iJ.eri(r)(ov (v ^atriMKals i] 6r)/io<n'aty virqpfalats 
yevdjueroy, rovro (rvviypa-^a. Lamprid. Alex. c. 52. 
Herodianus Greecus scriptor refert in lihrii temporum 
suonim. Capitolin. Max. Balbin. c. 15. Herodianus 
vitfc su<e temporum scriptor. Artabanus the last king 
of Parthia, who was slain A. D. 226, is mentioned by 
Herodian VI. 2 as contemporary: \\pTapdvov toC KaO' 
finas y(vop.hov. Herodian I. 1 reckons in round num- 
bers about 2tX) years — iv erecrt inpL ttov btaKotrCois — 

Eusebius H. E. V. 9. 10. Kofwbov Kara rd vpHrov Iros 
T&v Kar ' Ak((ivbp(iai> iKKXr)<Tiiav 'lovKiavhs iyxfipdCtrcu 
TT)v iin(TKOTn}v, fill bvoKa(beKa Irfai rriv KfuovpyLav Ara- 
T7Ai)(rarTo$ ^ Aypantivov. ffyt'iTO bf rqvucaiha ttjs tuv vi- 
arr&v axrrddi 6iarpi/3% Tcif airb Trat&eiai ivrip ivbo^oraros, 
ovofia avTif Yldpratvos, ($ ap\aCov iOovi bibaxTKokfCov tUv 
Upav kdytav Trap' avrolj cmi'toToaTos, 6 koI (h rjiias iiapa- 
TflvfTai. — iv bi ToTs fiakurra (tor iK€ivo KOipoS biaXifx\jfai 
Adyos l)(^' '''^'' bfbr)\u>ijJvov, ola Kol avb <f>i\o<r6<pov iy<it- 
y^s rSiv KaXovfiiviav (rrmKQv 6pfiMfiivov. To<TavTr\v b" ovv 
(pafflv avTov — Ttpo&vfiLav irtpl tov Otiov \6yov ivb(l(av6ai 
iy Koi KtjpvKa tov Kara Xpiarbv (vayy€\iov toIs iii ava- 
ToKijs idvicnv iLvabfi)(&r\vai, p.ixpi Kot TJjy '\vbCtv 0T<iA<i- 
p.ivov yr\s [conf. Mosheim. de rebus Christ, p. 206. 207]- 
— o ye fijjf W&VTaivos iitl iroXXoiy KaTopOdiMuri tov kot 
'' AXfldvbpfiav TfKfVTiav ^tirot biba<TKa\fCov. — Korh roC- 
Tov raiy Oeiais ypoc^aiy (n/ratncov/utfoy iii' 'AKflavbpfCai 
iyvotpiCfTo KAr/fiT)y. Conf. a. 194. Hieron. Catol. c. 36. 
Pantcenus, stoi^ce secta phUosophtu, juxta muindctm v*- 
terem in Alexandria eonsuetuainem, vii a Mareo ewm- 
gelista semper ecclesiattici fwn doetoTM, tanta prudm 
ti(e et eruditionis—fuit ut in Indiam quoque ropatui ai 
iUius ffentit legaiis a Demetrio Alexandrite episcopo mit- 
teretur. Conf. a. 190. 

A a 2 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

8 M. Gommodm Antoninus Aug. + lih. Aug. tr. p. V imp. I III cos. II p. p. or 
liheralitas Aug. tr.p. V imp. IIII cos. II p. p. S. C. or tr. p. V imp. IIII cos. 
II p. p. 

The death of Marcus and the return of Commodus to Rome are related by 
Herodian 1. 3 — 7- 


01. 240 U. C. Varr. 934. 
L. Aurelius Commodus 
Augustus III et Burrus 
Nor. Idat. 

Ko/Lijuo'6oii TO y KoiX B^pov 
TO ;8' Chron. Pasch. 

K(d/x&>Sos KOI Bouppoy A. 

Gommodi 2 from XVI Kal. April, trih. pot. 6. 

Euseb. Chron. Anno 2197 [from Oct. A. D. 181] Gommodi 2» Serapeum Alex- 
andrice incendio laboramt. Hieronymus has the same date ; which may refer 
to A. D. 181 or 182. The event is noticed by Syncellus p. 354 A. 

Coins of this year: Eckhel tom. VII p. 109. 

1 M. Commodus Antoninus Aug. + lib. Aug. IIII tr.p, VI imp. IIII cos. Ill 

p.p. or vota decenn, susc. tr.p. VI imp. IIII cos. III. p. p. S. C. 

2 M. Antoninus Commodus Aug. + tr.p. VI imp. IIII cos. Ill p. p. 

On the assumption of the name Marcus for Lucius see Eckhel. tom. VII 
p. 134. 



935. Mamertinvs et Bufus 
Nor. Idat. 

HAafifprlvov koX 'Fov<f)ov 
TO y Chron. Pasch. 

KafiepTivos Kal 'Poi;(|)09 A. 

Tarracone apud Grute- 
rum p. 57, 12. Marti cam- 
pestri sac. pro sal. imp. M. 
Aurel. Gommodi Aug. et 
equif. sing. T. Aurel. De- 
cimus 7 %• VII G- fol. 
prcep. simul et camp.dedic. 
K. Mart. Mamert. et Rufo 

Gommodi 3 from JCVI Kal. April, trih. pot. 7. 

The events of the reign of Commodus are mentioned by Lampridius Com- 
modo c. 13. Victi sunt sub eo — per legatos Mauri, victi Daci, Pannonice quoque 
composites ; in Britannia in Germania et in Dacia imperium ejus recusantwus 
provincialibus. ques omnia ista per duces sedata sunt. Conf. Dionem 72. 8 Lam- 
pridium c. 6. 8. For these wars Commodus was four times called imperator. 
sc. A.D. 182. 183. 184. 186. 

Coins of this year : Eckhel. tom. VII p. 1 10. 

1 M. Commodus Antoninus Aug. + tr. p. VII imp. IIII cos. Ill p.p. 

2 M. Antoninus Commodus Aug. + lib. Aug. V tr.p. VII imp. IIII cos. Ill p.p. 

3 After a victory: M. Gommsdus Antoninus Aug. + tr.p. VII imp. V cos. 

Ill p. p. 

936. L. Aurelius Commo- 
dus Augustus IV et Auji- 
dius Victorinus II 
Gommodo IIII et Victo- 

Gommodi 4 from XVI Kal. April, trib.pot. 8. 

Conspiracy of Lucilla : Dio 72. 4 Herodian. I. 8 Lamprid. Commodo c. 4. 
Coins of this year: Eckhel. tom. VII p. 110. 

R M A N I 


3 Seculah Authous 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

from Avpustus to Marcus. Ho saw the walls of By- 
zantium in ruins: III. 1. In koI vvv to. fi^vovra avrov 
ipeCina koI Kfi'^ava IbouTi 6avfia(fiv lori ical ti^v ri)(vr)v 
t5>v ti]v apxr]v KareiTKfvavdvToyv /tot ri^v aXxriv t&v Tjart- 
pov KadjiprjKOTiav. Tlioy were dismantled by Seeerus in 
A. D. 196: conf. a. 1<)6. 2. 


Athenams lived in the time oi Marcus: Suid. p. 122 B. 
'A^ijz'atos NovicpaT^rjjy, ypa/xfxanitrfv [Athon. VII p. 801 C. 
ip rfj infj J'iavKpArd]' yfyovias ivl tS>v xpovatv ^\&pKov. 
He attests that Commodits reigned in his time: XII 
p. 537 f- Kaff r] K6p.p.obos 6 avTOKpAratp. He intro- 
duces into his dialogue Galen : FaXr^vbi Uepyaixrjvbs, 
hs TocravT eit6e'8ciwce avyypap.p.aTa. and Larensius : tov 
KaOi(TTap.lvov M t&v ifp&v — vtio tov TtavT ipCcTTov ySatri- 
\«'«$ MipKov I. p. 1 — 3. But Athen'cus published his 
work after the death of Commodiis ; XII p. 537 f- and 
after the death of Oppian of Cilicia: I p. 13 b. conf. 
a. 19 1. 

Theophili ad AiUolycum libri ires. Published in the 
reign of Gommodus : III. 27. ylvtrai 6 \p6voi tUv Ko»- 
a-dpav fx^xP' Ov^pov avroKpdTopos rekfirrijs k. t. A. He 
had been bishop of Aiitioch 10 or 12 years before this 
date: conf. a. 171- Eusebius places his succcHsor in 
A. D. 179: Jw»o 2193 [from Oct. A. D. 178] Marci XJo 
Antiocfienorum VII episcopus Maximus [t/Sdo/wy Awo 
T&v d-noiTToKav Mafi/xiros Idem H. E. IV. 24]. Hieron. 
also anno 2193. which is at least two years too high. 
Nicephorus Chronogr. p. 417 C gives Theophihu 13 
years : ©« d<^iXoy Irij ly'. which might terminate anno 
2198 A. D. 183, and are consistent with the date of 
the work ad Autolycum. 

Luciani 'A\«for8pos */ fevbop-avris. Addressed to 
Celsm. — an Epicurean: tom. V p. (j3. 119. Written 
after the death o{ Marcus: p. I07. Otos Mdp/cos. The 
impostor, who had boon a disciplo of a Tyanean, a 
friend oi Apollonim of Tyana — 6 StSda-KoAoy ro yivo<i 
Tvareus, t5)V 'AiroXAwfiiu tu Tvavei t<^ tsovv (Tvyyevo- 
n4v<av p. 69 — founded an oracle of ^sculapius and 
Apollo in his native place in Paphlagonia: p. /O — 77- 
This oracle was consulted by Severianus before his 
campaign in Armenia, whore he was cut off in A. D. 
162: p. 90. 91. And in the war of Dlvus Marcus 
against the Marcomanni in A. D. 170 — 175: p. 107. 
when the Romans lost on one occasion near 20,000 
men: p. 108. h(Tixvpla>v iiov cr-xtbov idpoiav aTToKoufvotv. 
(Ira riKoKovOrjcTf ra irfpl 'AKvkrjtav y(v6yLeva Koi 7; Tiapa. 
lUKpop TTJi woXews iK([vr]s fiXoxris. Lucian himself, while 
his father was yet Hving: p. 114. visited Alexander 
then in his highest reputation: p. 113. Eutilianus at 
the age of 60 : (^kovtovtj]s in;fi0ws p. 97- and before 
the Marcomannic war A. D. 17O: conf. p. 107. mar- 
ried Alexatid^r's daughter : p. 96. He survived Alex- 
ander : p. 1 1 8 (who died ovbf kfiboixriKOVTa Itt) ytyovm 
p. 117)- and himself died at 70: p. 96. i^bop.r)KovTovTr]s 
&.Tiidav(. That visit of Lillian, being after the mar- 
riage of Butilianus, was not long before Alexanders 
death ; who survived that marriage less than 10 years. 
RutiUanics himself, whose death is also recorded in this 
piece, must have died before A.D.I 80. 

Pollux flourished: Suid. p. 3032. Uokvbnia]i Nav- 
KpaHTj]s — iTsaibtvcre bk iv ^AOrjvan iTil Komwbov tov ^a- 
<riA^a)s, Kol iTtKevrqcTt jStotis Irr; v koI r) , avvTO^ai /3(^\ta 
raCra- 'Orofxooruov iv ^i^Klois Se'ita k.t. k. [conf. a. 176] 

Hieron. Chron. Anno 2198 [A. D. 18»] Irenteua epi- 
scopus Luodunensis insiffnis habetur. Conf. a. 177- 
Named in Syncellus p. 354 A although omitted in 
Eusob. Armen. IrencBus and his contemporaries are 




1 Consuls 

2 Evi 

rino Nor. Idat. Chron. 
Pasch. Cassiod. 

Kdfxtobos rb a' [1. to 6 ] 

Kal BlKTOpiVOS A. 

Romse apud Gniterum 
p. 35.1. Ara posita asstante 
sacerdote Sex. Greusyna 
Secundo ut voverant Maxi- 
mm et Maximinusjili imp. 
Commodo Aug. Pio Felice 
IIII et Victorino II cos. 

De Victorino idem p. 
369.2: conf. a. 199. 

The inscription apud 
Gruter. bearing the title 
Felix must have been 
completed at least two 
years after this date : 
conf. a. 185. 2. 3. 

1 M. Gommodus Antoninus Aug. + tr. p. VIII imp. V cos. IIII p.p. 

2 M. Aurel. Gommodus Antoninus Aug. + tr.p. VIII imp. V cos. IIII p.p. 

3 After a victory : M. Gommodus A. Antoninus Aug. + tr. p. VIII imp. VI 

cos. IIII p.p. 

4 M. Gommodus Antminus Aug.-\-mmiificmtia Aug. tr. p. VIII imp. VI cos. 

IIII p. p. 

5 After the name of PiUfS: M. Gommodus Antoninus Aug. Pius+prov. Aug. 

tr. p. VIII imp. VI cos. IIII p. p. S. G. or salus Aug. tr. p. VIII imp. VI 
cos. IIII p. p. S. C. or tr. p. VIII imp. VI cos. IIII p. p. Lamprid. 
Commodo c. 8. Inter hcnc [at the time of the conspiracy of Lucilla] — ap- 
pellalm est Pius. 


937. M. Eggius Marullus 
Gn. Papirius .JElianus 
Nor. Idat. A. 

MapKiWov Koi Alkiavov 
Chron. Pasch. 

Lapis apud Noris. tom. 
II p. 976. /// Non. Ju- 

Eggio Maryllo et Gn. 
Papirio Alliano cos. 

In oppido Tein ad ripani 
Rhodani apud Gruter. p. 

30. 2. Inchoatum XII 

Kal. Mai. consummatum 
Villi Kal. Mai. L. Eg- 
gio Marullo Gn. Parinio 
[Spon. Papirio] ^liano 


Lapis apud Panvin. p. 
352 Gruterum p. 35. 12. 
—Dedic. XV K. Jul. 
Marullo et .^Fliano cos. 

Commodi 5 from XVI Kal. April, trib. pot. 9. 

Successes in Britain : Dio 72. 8. kyivovro 8e kcu TroXeiioC rii»es ovkS irpos rot/s 
VTTfp rrjv AaKiav ^ap^apovs [conf. a. 182], iv oh o re 'AA^iros km 6 Niypos — 
evboKCp.r)<7av. jne'ytoros 6e 6 BperravviKos. t&v yap ev rfj vrjcrip IdvSiv vinpfiifiriKOTaiv 

TO Tfi)(p<S TO blOpi^OV aVTOVi T( Kot TO, TUiV 'P(!>p.aC<x>V (TTpaTOTTfba, KUL TToXXo KUKOVp- 

yovvTbiV, arparrjyov re Tiva p-era tS>v crrpaTLaT&v o-fis eixe KaraKO\j/dvTa)v, (jyo^rjOeh 
6 Ko'fXfxoSos MdpKe\koi> OvKttlov kir avTovs eiTfp.\jrev. — Map/ceAXos pev br) tovs re 
^appdpovi Tovs (V BpfTTavvCa bfw&s fKiKoxrc koX pupov biiv imo tov Koppobov 
pera Tavra bia rrjv IbCav apeTT]v caioOaveZv piKKrjo-as Spas dcfxCdrj. Lamprid. Com- 
modo c. 8. Appellatus est Gommodus etiam Britannicus ah adulatorihus, quum 
Britanni etiam imperatorem contra eum deligere voluerint. This name appears 
on the coins of this year : see col. 3. 

Hieron. Chron. Anno 2199 [A.D. ISf] Gommodi 4" Thermm GommodimuB 
Romce factcE. Cassiod. Marullus et JElianus. His coss. Thermm G. R.f. sunt. 
Omitted in Eusebius Armen. Placed in Chron. Pasch. p. 263 D four years 
later: Indict. 10 Gommodi 9° coss. Grispino et JEliano: &ippai Koppobiaval iv 
'Pdpii cLipiepcod-qcrav. Lampridius Commodo c. 17 ascribes these baths to Glean- 
der : Opera Gommodi prmter lavacrum quod Gleander nomine ipsiiis fecerat nulla 
extant. But if so, the date of Chron. Pasch. is more probable, since Oleander 
did not come into power till after the death ot Perennis: Conf. Lamprid. 
Commodo c. 6 Dionem 72. 12. 

An inscription apud Panvinium p. 352 Gruterum p. 49. 5. Herculi sancto sac. 

P. Pomponius Noetus votum sol. amicos ace. bene M. Eggio Marullo AT. 

[GN. Fabretti] Papirio JSliano cos. L.D.D. D. K. Jul. 


01. 241 U. C. Varr. 938, 
Maternus et Bradua Nor. 
Idat. A. Chron. Pasch. 
Paterno et Bradua Pont, 
et liber pontificalis Da- 
masi p. 594. 

Gommodi 6 from XVI Kal. April, trib. pot. 10. 

Death of Perennis: Dio 72. 9 Herodian. I. 9 Lamprid. Commodo c. 6. After 
this Gommodus assumes the title of Felix: Lamprid. c. 8. Quum occidisset Per- 
ennem appellatus est Felix. And this name appears upon coins of this year : 
see col. 3. 

Hieron. Chron. Anno 2200 Gommiodi 5" [A. D. 18^] Commodus Sepiembrem 

R O M A N I 


S Secular Authoks 

4 Ecclesiastical Authobs 

eh KofMobov KaCaapa (Tn0aK(iiJ.ioi> [conf. a. 177, >*•''• ^• 
Pliilostratus, who is unfavourable to Pollux, gives the 
ibllovving account V. S. II. 12. He was the disciple 
of Adrian: ^Abpiavov d(cpoaiTjs ytvo'jutvos. Appointed 
to the professor''s chair by Gommodua: ikiytro ravra 
KoX fxeKixpa r^ (j>mvf) airayy^KKfiv, fj koL /SacriA^a KJ/x- 
fwbov 6(K(ai tov 'Adi'ivriin dpovov -nap' avrov fvparo. ifiiu> 
IJ,(v oZv is OKTOD Koi TTftm^KovTa Itjj, hfkdjra bi (ttI Ttaibl 
yvrjtriio fiev iTtmbtvria be. Pollux taught Antipater : 
conf. a. 1!)9. 

Contemporary with Pollux was Athenodorm: Phi- 
lostr. V. S. II. 14. 'Afliji'dSwpos 6^ 6 ao<^i<TTf]s to niv ii 
■narepa r^Kov ivicfyavecrTaTOi iji; t&v Kara rrjv Airor, to bi 
is 6i8o(T<c£lXovs Kal T:a(bev<Tiv (paveptaTaTos tov 'EAA.Tji'tKOV 
[conf. a. Ill] — TTaibevatv bk 'AS^VT/cri Kara xpofo^s "^s 
Kol TloKvbevicqs ivaCbevcrev — efi^piOijs be koI to tj^oj yev6- 
fievos hekevTa rj^iov Irt. 

The sophist Pausanias of Cappadoda was contem- 
porary with these. He is placed between them by 
rhiiostratus V. S. II. 12 — 11 and he may be referred 
to this period, among the disciples of Herodes Atticus. 
Conf. a. 125. 

mentioned by Eusebius H. E. IV. 21. 'ikimCov Ik iirl 
TTJs iKK\r]a-ias Hy^crtirwrfy re hv la-fxev ix tUv i;poTipuv 
conf. a. 152. 173] kcH Aioinj(rios KopivOCuv ivCtrKOTros 
[conf. a. 1/3], niimrds re &\Kos rdv iitX Kp^njr ivloKo- 
iros [conf. Ibid.] 4>i\iirit6s re ivl tovtois [Pkilipput epi- 
scopus Cretensis, hoc est, urbis Gortynat, cujus Dionysius 
in epistola sua meminit Hieron. Catalog, c. 30. Conf. 
Euseb. IV. 23. 25] koI ' AvoKivdpios Kal MeKCrotv [conf. 
a. 172], Movo-arrf* re koI M6be<rros, koJ iirl irainv Eipt). 
vahs. Hieron. Catal. c. 31. Muianut, non iffnobilit tM- 
ter eos qui de ecclesiastico domtate teripaertmt, iwh imp. 
M. Antonino Vero confecit librum ad qnotdam fr aires 
qui de ecclesia ad Encratitarum hceresim declinaterant. 
From Eusebius IV. 2H. conf. a. 205. Idem Catal. c. 32. 
Modestus et ipse sub imp. M. Antonino et L. AunUo 
Commodo adversus Marcionem scriptit Uintm. Coaf. 
Euseb. H.E. IV. 25. 

Coins of this year: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 111. 112. 

1 M. Commodus Anion. Aug. Pius + p. m. tr.p. Villi 

imp. VI COS. nil p. p. 

2 After the British victory : M. Commodus Antoninus 

Aug. Pius+p. m. tr.p. Villi imp. VII cos. IIII 
p.p. S. C. or vota suscep. decenn. p. m. tr.p. Villi 
imp. VII COS. IIII p.p. S. C. 

3 M. Comm. Anton. Aug. Pius Brit. +p. m. tr.p. Villi 

imp. VII COS. IIII p. p. 

4 M. Commodus Anton. Aug. Pius Brit. -^ vota suscep. 

deem. p. m. tr. p. Villi imp. VII cos. IIII p. p. 

JUiltiades flourished in the time of Commodus : Hie- 
ron. Catal. c. 39. MiUiades—jlorait M. Antonini Corn- 
modi temporibus. His works are named by Eusebius 
H. E. V. 17 Hieron. 1. c. 6 MiXria8>jj koI iWas rjtiiv t^s 
ibias tsepX TO deia Xo'yio <rnovhrjs pLvfifias KaTaX.e\oii:ev Iv 
re ols irpos 'EAArjiJas cvviTo^e Koyois [Hieron. Magno 
tom. II p. 1083. Scripsit Milciades contra gentes rolu- 
men egregium] xal tois irpos 'lovbaCovs, exaTipq Ibiots vno- 
dia-ei iv bv(Tlv wrarr^o-oy <ruyyp&mJtamv [Hieron. Catal. 
Adversus gentes Judceosque libros alios]- In be koX vpbs tovs 
KO(TiuKovs &pxovTas inrep rjs p^er^ei (f>i\ocro<t>[as ireitolrjTai 
i,T:o\oyiai>. Hieron. Catalog. Principibus illius temporis 
[sc. Marco et Commode] Apologeticum dedit. The Apo- 
ogy was therefore composed before the death of Mar- 
cus. Miltiades also wrote against the Montanittt : 
Euseb. H. E. V. 17. Hieron. Catal. c. 39. Scripait con- 
tra eosdem vdumen preecipuum. This is quoted by an 
anonymous author apud Euseb. H. E. V. 16. I7 who 
wrote against them in the fourteenth year after the 
death of Maximilla: V. I7. reaaapea KaCbeKarov ijbrj irov 
Tovro tTos iiTO T^s MofiftiXAT/s TtAermj?. V. 16. vKeia 
yap 1) TpLiTKalbeKa Ittj els ravrriv rriv i]yjlpav ii o5 Trr«- 
KevTr]Kev ri yvvi\. 

Coins: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 113. 

1 Before the death of Perennis : M. Commodus Aug. 

Pius Brit. + Britannia, p. m. tr.p. X imp. VII cos. 

2 M. Commodus Anton. Aug. Pius Brit. + Italia, p. m. 

Birth of Origen towards the close of A. D. 185 : 
conf a. 202. Placed two years lower in Chron. Pasch. 
p. 263 D. Indict. 10 Commodi 9" coss. Crispino et ^li- 
ano : 'ilpiyevr]s iv ' We^avbpeCa iyevn'jdt). The 10th 
Indiction coincided with these consuls, and was cur- 
rent till Aug. 31 A. D. I87. And this account would 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

Romae apud Gruterum 
p. 192. 13 Panvinium p. 
352. Jovis magni propug- 
natoris supr. D. D. Kal. 
Decembr. Matemo et Bra- 
dua COS. L. Allius Coillus 
Verus cooptatus in cede 

In this inscription De- 
cember is still December. 
See col. 2. 

mensem nomine sua appellamt. From Eutrop. VIII. 15. Septemhrem mensem ad 
nomen suum transferre conatus est. and from Victor Cses. p. 324. Sepiemhrem 
mensem Commodum appellaverat. Lampridius c. 1 1 more accurately : Menses — 
pro Augusto Commodum pro Septembri Herculem pro Ociobri Invictum pro No- 
vembri Exsuperatorium pro Decemhri Amazonium — adulatores vocabant. and Dio 
72. 15. Koi T(\os Koi 01 fjirjves am avTou Trdvres (TteKXridricrav, coore KarapiBixuadai 
avTovi ovTots' ''AfjiaCovLos, 'Avlktitos, k. t. \. Hei'odian. I. 14. i/Wafe 8e koL t&v 
fviavffloiv firjv&v ra ovofiara, oaa fxev apxaia KaraXvcras Ttavras he raXs eavTOV 
TTpoar^yopCais ovofida-as, S)V al TrXflarai, ets 'HoaKXe'a brjBev qjs avhpaoTaTov avifpi- 
povTo. Conf. Lampridium Commodo c. 12 Salmasium ad Lamprid. p. 119 Rei- 
marum ad Dion. p. 1216. From the expression of Dio — koi reXos — the date 
of Hieronymus would seem too early. See also col. 1. 


939. L. ^urelius Gommo- 
dus Augustus V M'Aci- 
lius Glabrio II A. 

Commodo V et Glahrione 
Nor. Idat. Chron. Pasch. 
liber pontificalis Damasi 
torn. I p. 597. 

For Gruter. see col. 3. 

De Glahrione Herodian. 
II. 3 Dio73. 3. 

Commodi 7 from XVI Kal. April, trib. pot. 11. 

A supply of corn is provided from Africa : Lamprid. Commodo c. 17. Clas- 
sem Africanam instituit, qu(B suhsidio esset si forte Alexandrina frumenta cessas- 
sent. Marked on a coin of this year. 

Coins : Eckhel. tom. VII p. 115—1 18. 1 M. Comm. Ant. Fel. Aug. P. Brit. 
+ liberal. Aug. VI p. on. tr.p. XI imp. VII cos. V.p.p. 2 After a victory: 
M. Commodus Ant. P. Felix Aug. Brit.+Jovi exsuper.p. m. tr.p. XI imp. VIII 
cos. Vp.p. S.G. or nobilitas Aug. p. m,. tr. p. XI imp. VIII cos. Vp.p. S.C. 3 M. 
Comm. Ant. P. Felix Aug. Brit. +p. d. S. P. Q. R. latitim C. V. S. C. or optime 
maxime C. Vp.p. 4 M. Commodus Ant. P. Felix Aug. Brit.+provid. Aug. 
p.m. tr.p. XI imp. VIII cos. Vp.p. with a ship in full sail, referring to the 
African fleet. 5 M. Comm. Ant. P. Fel. Aug. Brit. + vota sol. dec. p.m. tr.p. 
XI imp. VIII cos. Vp.p. or pietati senatus. C. Vp.p. 


940. Crispinus et yElia- 
nus Nor. Idat. A. Chron. 

For Gruter. see col. 3. 

Commodi 8 from XVI Kal. April, trib. pot. 12. 

Coins : Eckhel. tom. VII p. 118. I M. Comm. Ant. P. Fel. Aug. Brit.+ 
auct. piet. p. m. tr.p. XII imp. VIII cos. Vp.p. or nobilit. Aug. p. m. tr.p. XII 
imp. VIII cos. V p.p. or pater senat. p. m. tr.p. XII imp. VIII cos. Vp.p. 
or vota sol. dec. p. m. tr.p. XII imp. VIII cos. V p.p. 2 M. Commodus Anto- 
ninus Pius Felix Aug. Brit. + tellus stabil. p. m. tr.p. XII imp. VIII cos. V 
[p.p. omitted by Eckhel should probably be added.] or provid. Aug. p. m. tr.p. 
XII imp. VIII COS. Vp.p. with a ship as in A. D. 186. 


941. C. Allius FvyScianus 
II Duilius Silanus II A. 

Fusciano et Silano Nor. 
Idat. Chron. Pasch. 

Lapis apud Gruterum 
p. 1006. 9. J. 0. M. ala 

Aug. oh virtut. appel. cui 
prisest Tib. CI. Tib. f. 
IILING.-] M. Justinus 
prcef. Fusciano II et Si- 
lano II cos. 

Commodi 9 from XVI Kal. April, trib. pot. 13. 

Lamprid. Commodo c. 9. {Commodus) simulavit se et in Africam iturum ut 
sumptum itinerarium exigeret. c. 12. Tertio meditans de profectione a senatu et 
populo suo retentus est. Vota pro eo facta sunt Nonis Piis [so. Non. April.] 
Fusciano iterum consule. 

Birth of Caracalla according to Dio ; since he was 29 complete Ap. 4 A. D. 
217: conf. a. Victor Epit. p. 378. Aurelius Antoninus Bassianus Caracalla 
Severiflius, Lugduni genitus — vixit annos fere XXX. For the erroneous ac- 
count of his age in some writers see Appendix. 

A fire is placed at this year in Chron. Pasch. p. 263 D. Indict. 10 Commodi 
9" coss. Crispino et ^liano. tovt(o tu x/'"'^'? «" ^^ Ka-weToiXita Voifxris cTKifinos 
(Trea-fv Koi a-(j>obpbs fjuTrprjo-jnos yeyovev koI ras ^LJiXioOriKas xal oXa to. ju.ep?j Pco/xt/s 
avTfjs bLf(t)Xfiev. Hieron. Chron. Anno 2204 [A. D. ISf] Commodi 9" In Capi- 
tolio fulmen ruit, et magna inflammatione facta bibliothecee et vicinee quoque (edes 
concrematcB. Placed by Eusebius Arm. Anno 2201 Commodi Go, Noticed by 

R O M A N I 



4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

tr. p. X imp. VII eos. I III p. p. S. 0. or p. m. 
tr. p. X imp. VII cos. IIII p. p. or voia suscep. 
decen. p. m. tr.p. X imp. VII cos. IIII. p.p. S. C. 
or vict. Brit. p. m. tr.p. X imp. VII cos. IIII 
p.p. S. C. 

3 M. Comm. Anton. Jwj. Pius Brit.+primi decenn. 

p. m. tr.p. X imp. VII cos. IIII p.p. 6'. C. 

4 Comm. Ant. A%ig. P. Brit. + p.m. tr.p. X imp. VII 

COS. IIII p.p. 

5 After the death oi Permnis: M. Comm. Ant. P. 

Fel. Aug. Brit.+teee. fd.p. m. tr.p. X imp. VII 
cos. IIII p.p. 

6 M. Comm. Ant. Aug. P. Brit. Pel.+conc. mil. p.m. 

tr.p. X imp. VII cos. IIII p.p. 

place the birth of Origen in that year; not far below 
the true period. 

An inscription bearing the consuls of this year : 
Grutcr. p. 94. 2. in oppido Zazwaros Transilvan. Nym- 
phis sanciissimii P. JElius Marcellinus signifer et quee- 
stor n. Brit, mortis periculo liber. V.S.L, M. imp. Comm. 
Aug. Felice V et Glabrione it. coss. 

Mention is also made M'Acili Glabrionis cos. II in 
Gruter. p. 344. conf. a. 210. 1. 

An inscription Romse apud Gruterum p. 575. 3 Pan- 
viniuin p. 353. D. M. M. Aurelio Aug. lib. Onesimo cur 
hicul. et a locis cubicul. stati. M. Aurelius I>ionysim pa- 
trono pientissinw et bene merenti fee. oss^ia [sic] posita 
sunt VI Idas Novemb. Crispino et ^liano cos. ara XV 
Kal. Januar. isdem cos. [isdes cos lapis] 

Coins of this year : Eckhel. torn. VII p. 120. 

1 M. Comm. Ant. P. Fel. Aug. Brit.+p. m. tr.p. XIII 

imp. VIII COS. Vp.p. 

2 M. Commodus Ant. P. Felix Aug. Brit. + p. m. tr.p. 

XIII imp. VIII COS. Vp.p. 





1 Consuls 

2 Events 

Syncellus p. 354 B. Orosius VII. 16. Fulmine Capitolium ictum ; ex quo facta 
injlammatio bibliothecam &c. — concremavit. 


01. 242 U. C. Varr. 942. 
Silemm et Silanus 

Dmlus Silanis Nor. 

Duo Silani Cassiod. 

SiXaros KoX StAaj/os A. 

om. Chron. Pasch. 

Commodi 10 from XVI Kal. April, trih.pot. 14. 

Fall of Oleander : Die 72. 13. ^Treo-e kol avrbs ($a[(t>vr)s kuI cmiaKfro nera ari- 
jxias. aniKTuvav 8e avrov o^x oi orpancSrat, wa-irep tov Ylepevviov, aXJC 6 S^juos. 
Related by Dio 1. c. Herodian 1. 12 — 13 Lampridius Commodo c. 7- De Ole- 
andro Ammianus XXVI. 6, 8. 

Euseb. Chron. Anno 2205 [from Oct. A. I>. 189] Commodi lOo colosso caput 
detraxit Cmnmodus suamque imaffinem subsiituit. Hieronymus gives the same 
date. Cassiod. Duo Silani. His coss. Commodus imp. colossi capite sublato sues 
imaginis caput jussit imponi. In Chron. Pasch. p. 263 D at A. D. 187 : Indict. 
10« coss. Grispino et jEliano. Mentioned by Dio 72. 22. tov KoXoa-aov rqv /ce- 
(paXriv aTTOT€fib)v Koi kripav kavTov avriOfls. Herodian. I. 15. tov txtyiarov ay&K- 
jxaros Ko\o(T(naiov oirep difiovai 'Pa/iaiot elKova <^lpov rjAlov [conf. a. 75] rr^v Kecpa- 
Xrjv ciTTOTfixaiv Ibpvaaro (avrov. Lamprid. c. 17. Colossi caput dempsit quod 
Neronis esset, ac suum imposuit. Absurdly called the Colossus of Rhodes by 
Chron. Pasch. p. 263 D. tov koXoo-ctov 'Pobov. and by Syncellus p. 354 B. 
Coins : Eckhel. torn. VII p 120. 

1 M. Gomm/)dus Ant. P. Felix Aug. Brit. + Jovi juveni. p. m. tr. p. XIIII 

COS. V p. p. or Mart, pacat. p. m. tr. p. XIIII cos. V p. p. or Minerv. 
met. p.m. tr.p. XIIII cos. V p.p. or securit. orb. p. m. tr.p. XIIII cos. 

2 M. Commod. Ant. P. Felix Aug. Brit. p. p. +p. m. tr. p. XIIII imp. VIII 

COS. V des. VI. 

3 M. Comm. Ant. P. Fel. Aug. Brit. p.p. +p. m. tr. p. XIIII imp. VIII cos. 

Vdes. VI. 
Inscriptions of the 14th tribunician year: 1 Tusculani apud Panvinium 
p. 353 Gruterum p. 262. 4. Imp. Cces. M. Antonini Pii Germ. Sar. fil. divi 
Pii nep. dim Hadr. pronep. divi Trajani Parth. abnep. divi Ner. adnep. M. 
Aur. Gommado Antonino Pio Fel. Aug. Sarm. Germ. max. Brit. p. m. trib. pot. 
XIIII imp. VIII cos. V p. p. nobilissimo principi Benacenses. 2 Brixiae in 
foro publico apud Gruterum p. 262. 5. Imp. Cwsari divi M. Antonini Pii 
German. Sarmat. filio divi Pii nepot. &c. — 31. Aurelio Commodo &c. pont. max. 
trib. potest. XIIII imp. VIII cos. V p. p. fortissimo principi M. Nonius Arrius 


943. L. AureUus Commo- 
dus Augustus VI M. Pe- 
tronius Septimianus 

Nor. Idat. Chron. Pasch. 

Kcu/ioj8os TO $■ Kal SeTrri- 
ixavbi TO 13' A. 

lionise apud Panvinium 
p. 353 Gruterum p. 300. 2. 

P. Marsius Verus 

imp. Commodo VI et P«- 
tronio Septimiano cos. A. P. 
K. Decern. In palatio in 
decB Jovis propugnatoris 

Commodi 11 from XVI Kal. April, trib. pot. 15. 

Roma colonia Commadiana : Dio 72. 15. Komxobiavrjv ttjv re 'Vdfirjv avrrjv koI 
TO. (TTpaTOTTfha Kop-pLobiava, Tf\v t( 7ip.ipav iv ^ Tavra €\/^7j(^ifero Kofiixohiav KoXei- 
udai Trpoo-eVafey. Lamprid. Commodo c. 8. Fuit ea dementia ut urhem Romam 
coloniam Commodianam vocari voluerit. Marked in this year upon coins. 

Coins apud Eckhel. torn. VII p. 121. 122. 

1 31. Comm. Ant. P. Felix Aug. Brit. p. p. + Apol. Monetw. p. m. tr. p. XV 

cos. VI. 

2 31. Commod Ant. P. Felix Aug. Brit. p. p. + col. L. An. Com. p. m. tr.p. 

XV imp. VIII cos. VI. 8. C. 

3 31. Comm. Ant. P. Fel. Aug. Brit. p.p. -V fidei coh. p. m. tr. p. XV cos. VI. 

or Jidei cokortium Aug. or liberalitas Aug. VII. or votis XX. cos. VI. 

4 Imp. Commodms Aug. Pius Felix. -'rp. m. tr. p. XV imp. VIII cos. VI p. p. 

or Pio imp. omniafeliciap. m. tr. p. XV imp. VIII cos. VI p.p. 

R O M A N I 


8 Secular Authors 


Aristldes attained the ago of fiO years: Philostr. 
V. S. II. 9 p. 585. htoOavfiv lii tov ' ApicrTfCbrjv ol fxiv 
oIkoi ypcuj>ov(rw ol bk iv ''{(avla, (rq fii<o<Tairra oi fxiv i^ri- 
kovtA (jiacriv ol bi iyx"" '"'*'' ^^bofirJKOVTa. As his birth 
is fixed by himself to A. D. 129 (conf. a ), Suidas p. 
563 A is consistent with tliis account of his time : y<- 
yovioi M T( ' AvTufivov tov Ka((Tapoi Kol biarfCvai fifxpt 
Koixobov. He flourished in the reign of Antoninus, at 
whose accession ho was 5) years old ; he was (>0 years 
of age in the lOth of Commodus. I'hilostratus p. 582 
mentions the travels of Aristides : h:obr\p.iai. ''XpumQiov 
oil -noWai- — & 6e' ye iTii)\6(v idvr\ 'ItoAo^ ri [conf. a. 
160. KJl] <iVt Kai''E\Aas [conf. Aristid. l(rdp.iKov Or. 8 
p. 29] icai 7/ irpos Ty .AeXra kotukkt/hsotj Afyi/Tiros [conf. 
Aristid. Or. 48 p. 437- 474]. The Upol Ao'yot in which 
Aristides has recorded his sickness A. D. 160 — 173 
iyriv ibiav n^s vocrov — iv Upols /3i/3Atois avroy <l>pa((i 
Philostr. V. S. II. 9) were composed late in life, many 
years after A. D. 173 : torn. I p. 465 too-ovtois ^reo-t Koi 
\p6vois v(TTfpov. p. 496 TocrovTov {Jorepoi'. p. 500. 505 
TtKTjdovs haiv. He wrote them when SalBim was con- 
sul : p. 46/ ^aXfiCov tov iwv xmdTov. A consul suffectus 
in some year unknown. Without reason supposed by 
some to be Julianus who was consul in A. D. 175. 

Damianus oi Ephesus was the disciple oi Aristides: 
Philostr. V. S. II. 23 p. 605. from whom Philostratus 
learned particulars concerning Aristides : conf. a. 239. 

Victor bishop of Rome flourished ; Euscb. H. E. 
V. 22. SfK^ry T^s KopioSou fiwnkuas Itu biKa itphs Toiy 
TpiaXv iT«n Tqp iTruTKomiv A(X(irov/>y;;K($ra 'EKivOepov 
Sta8«'x<rai BiVrup. V. 28. rovrov bi iTf<n biKa -npoarAv- 
Tos rjjs Xfuovpyiai Ka6l(rra.T<u Z«^piroy, 0)1(^1 
TO ivaTov TTji "Siffiripov ^acriXtias ho9. To the 9th of 
Seeerus A. D. 201 are eleven years. In P^useb. Chron. 
Victor has twelve years, and the interval given \s four- 
teen: Anno 2202 Commodi 7» [from Oct. A. D. 186] 
Victor annis XII. Anno 2216 Sevtri 7" [from Oct. 
A. D. 200] fjiiartus decimus Zephyrinus annit XII. 
But in Hieron. Anno 2207 Commodi 13» [A. D. 194^] 
tertius decimus Victor annis X. Anno ^i 1 7 Seven *J<> 
[A. D. 20^] quartus decimus Zephyrinus. Idem Catalog, 
c. 34. Victor tertius decimus BomantB uriis «piteopu$ ta- 
per queeslione Paschee et alia qutedam tcr^eiu cpuiada 
remt ecclesiam sub Severo principe annis decern. Liber 
pontifical is Damasi papa; apud Acta Concil. torn. I 
p. 597- Victor, natione Afer ex patre Felice, tedit anno$ 
10 menses 2 dies 10. Fuit autem temporibui .^ii Per- 
tinacis et Severi, a consulatu Commoai V et Glabrionis 
[A. D. 186] usque ad Lateranum et Au/fnum [A. U. 19/]. 
— sepultus est V Kal. Aug. On these Tariations see 

Dion Cassius is already a senator under Gommodus 
in A. D. 190: 72. 16 r) re xai ras ywaixas iip.5)v. 
In A. D. 192 he appears as a senator at the games of 
Gommodus: 7-- 17 avTov Ti(n:a(6pL(6a. Ibid. c. 18 rjixels 
TrdvTfs. Ibid. c. 20 inids ol ^ovXfvraL Ibid. c. 21 ^/io$ 

Demetrius of Alexandria : Euseb. H. E. V. 22. 8<- 
KOTO) TTJi Kopiobov fia<n\(Cas It«i — TovAtoroi; b^KOTov Iroy 
dT:oiT\rj(Tatnoi [conf. a. 1 SO], tUv kot ^ kkt^avbpiiav isap- 
oiKiQv Ti]v kfiTovpyCav iyx^ftplC^ai AriiiTJ[Tpu)i. In Eu- 
seb. Chron. Anno 2206 Commodi 11« [from Oct. A. D. 
190] Alexandrina; ecclesiep episeopui undeeimus Deme- 
trius annis XLIII. In Hieron. Ann* 2205 Commodi 

If Pantcenus was sent by Demetrius to India (conf. 
a. 180), liis mission was not before this date. 

Serapion of Ant ioch : Euseb. Chron. Anno 2205 [from 
Oct. A. D. 189] Commodi 10<> Antiochia ecdeiia epi- 
scopus octacus Serapion. In Hieron. at the same date. 
Euseb. H. E. V. 22. Kad' ots [Victorem et Demetrium] 
Kcu riji 'AiTioxt'w iKKXtjaCas oySoos dwo rir drooToAatv 
6 i:p6(T6(v I'lbtf h(br]\<i>pLfVoi In roTt ^panCiov (itCiTKOTtos 

B b2 




1 Consuls 

2, Events 

in locum P. Veri L. Ati- 
dius Cornelianus cooptatus 
Ti. Saturnino et G. Gallo 
COS. [A.D. 198] 4.P.^. (7. 
DCCCCLI prid. eid. Dec. 
Inpalatio in cedeJovispro- 
pugnatoris in locum Atidi 
Gomeliani vita fundi Gl. 
Pat&rnus cooptatus Ti. 
Glaudio Severn G. Aufidio 
Victorino cos. [A. D. 200] 
eid. April. 

For another inscription 
see col. 2. 

5 M. Commod. Ant. P. Felix Aug. Brit. p. p. + liberal. Aug. VII p. m. tr. p. 

XV imp. VIII COS. VI. S. G. 

6 M. Comm,. Ant. P. Felix Aug. Brit. p. p. + voi. XX. p. m. tr. p. XV imp. 


jErea tabula Rhegii reperta apud Gruterum p. 1101. 1. Imp. Gees. M. Au~ 
relio Antonino Aug. Pio Felice VI M. Petronio Septimiano cos. X Kal. April, 
in templo collegi fahrum et centonariorum Regiensium quod referentih. P. Scsnio 
Marcellino et C. Aufidio Dialogo qucestorib. V. F. Ju. Silium Julianum virum 
et vita et modestia et ingenita verecundia omatum et liberalem oportere collegi 
nostri patronum cooptari ut sit ceteris exemplo judici nostri testimonium, Q. F. P. 
D. E. B. I. C. salubri consilio tarn honesta relatione a qucestoribus et magistris 
collegi nostri factam et singuli et universi sentimus et ideo excusandam potius ho- 
nesto viro Juliano hujus tardcB cogitationis nostrce necessitat. 2}etendumque ab eo 
libenter suscipiat collegi n. patronal. Imnorem tabulamque wream cum inscriptions 
hujus decre. n. doma ejus poni censuerunt. 



944. Apronianus et Bra- 
dua Nor. A. 


om. Chron. Pascli. 

Inscriptio apud Norisi- 
ura torn. II p. 978. Q. Va- 
rius Vitalis B.f. cos. aram 
sacram restituit Aproniano 
et Bradua cos. 

Commodi 12 from XVI Kal. April, trib. pot. 16. 

Fire at Rome: Euseb. Chron. Anno 2207 [from Oct. A.D. 191] Commodi 
120 Pomes vehemens incendium eedijicia absumpsit ipsumque palatium et virginum 
domum multasque alias urbis cedes cremavit. At the same year in Hieronymus. 
Inserted by Syncellus p. 354 B. Oros. VII. 16. Deinde aliud incendium [conf. 
a. 188] postea Bomce exortum cedem Vestee et palatium plurimamque urbis partem 
solo cocequMvit. Dio 72. 24. Trpo 6e r^j roC Koiifidbov xeXenrTjs ariixeia rdSe eyevero 
— TTvp vvKTap apOiv f^ oi/cias Tivbs Kcu eis ro Efiprfvaiov e/nreo-oj' ras cmoOriKas r&v 
re AiyvT!Ti<av Kal t&v 'ApajSiwv (poprimv fHiveip-aTo' Is re ro -naXaTiov fxereutpiadev 
flcnjKOe Koi woAXa irdw avrov KariKava-ev, &(tt( koI to. ■ypdp.p.aTa ret rfj apxjl TTpoa- 
rJKOi'Ta oKlyov dew irdwa (jyOapiivM. Described by Herodian I. 14. iyevovTO b4 
Tives KUT (K€ivo Kuipov Kul Sioo-ij/xeiat — Trav to t^s Eip-^vrjs rejoieros KaT€<f)\^\dri, 
p.iyi(TTov Ka\ kAWio-tov yev6p.€vov tQ>v fv rfj TrdXei epyav, k. t. A. 

Gommodus assumes the name of Hercules : Lamprid. Comniodo c. 8. Appel- 
latus est etiam Romanus Hercules. Herodian. I. 14. ets Toaomov re fxavCas Kal 
Tiapoiviai ■npov)(u>p-qrr(v, &)S — Tr)V irarpiiav irpoarjyopCav TrapanricracrdaL — HpaxAea 
Ti Kal Albs vibv avrbv KeKevaas KaXeladai — \fovTi]v fTiearpuivvvTO. Dio 72. 15. 
dvbpidvTfs avTov TrapiirKridf'Ls fv 'HpoicA.eos (Tyrjp.aTL icrrrja-av. Athenseus XII 
p. 537 f refers to this title : conf. a. 194. 3. Determined to this year by coins. 

Coins: Eckliel. tom. VII p. 124. 

1 M. Gomm. Ant. P. Fel. Aug. Brit. p. p. + Apol. Pal. p. m. tr. p. XVI 


2 M. Gommod. Ant. P. Felix Aug. Brit. p. p. + Herc. Gomm. p. m. tr.p. XVI 


3 L. Ael. Aurel. Gmnm. Aug. P. Fel.-\-J. 0. M. sponsor, sec. Aug. cos. VI p.p. 

S. G. or nmtri Deam conserv. Aug. cos. VI p.p. S. C. or magnificenticB 
Aug. COS. VI p.p. 

4 Of this or the next year the following. Ibid. p. 128. L. ^l. Aurel. Gomm. 

Aug. P. Fel. + provident ice Aug. or Serapidi conserv. Aug. 

5 L. uFlius Aurelius Gommodus Aug. Pius Felix ■\-temporum felicitas. 

6 Imp. Gommodus Aug. Pius Felix + votis felicibus. with five ships, referring 

to the African fleet: conf. a. 186. 

945. L. Aurelius Gommo- 
dus Augustus VII P. Hel- 

Gommodi 13 from XVI Kal. April, trib. pot. 17- 18. 
Coins : Eckhel. tom. VII p. 130. 

R O M A N I 


3 Secular Authors 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

iyv(t)pC((To' K(u<Tapfias bi r^r M TlaXauTTlirf] Ka&rfydro 
0((S</>iAo; [conf. a. I!J()]. kbI fiApKuravi fti 6fwU»t — Trjs 
iv 'Ifpoa-oKviwii iKKkrja-ias (n t6t( ttiv kfixavpyiav tt\(V 
KopCvOov bi — iit((TKOTToi ijv BaicxyKoi [conf. a. 196], koI 
rqs iv 'E(l)ia<f irapoiKlai TIoKvicpdrqi [conf. a. 196]. 
Idem V. 19. tuv 8i '' kTtokwaptov [conf. a. 172] koto r^r 
hr}\(aQfl(irii alpiffiiai [MotUani] y.vrjp.r)V TrntoCrjrai ^apa- 
irlotv, bv M T&v brj\ovp,iv<tv \p6i><av ftfrh Maf i/iiroi' iitC- 
(TKOTtov TTJi 'An-iox^ui/ iKKXrja-Ca^ Kari)((i \6yoi ytviaOai. 
}iip,vr)Tai. b( avrov Iv lb(q imaroKfj rij -nphs Kapmhv kuX 
novTiKov K. r. \. Hieron. Catal. o. 41. SerapUm, wtde- 
cimo Commodi imp. anno Antiochia miiccptu ordmatus, 
acripsit Epistolam ad Caricum et Poniiatm dt hcereti 
Montani. His other works are recited Hieron. 1. o. 
Euseb. H. E. VI. 12. He flourished till A. D. 203 : 
conf. a. 

Some works oi Galen are lost in the fire of this year 
(see col. 2): Galen, de libris suis torn. XIX p. 11. 
iypa^a hi aWa iroXAo yvp.vA^a>v ffxavrbv, S>v ivia fxiv 
dircoXero koto Tr)P y(vo)xivr)v irupKa'Cav ijvUa to Ttjs Elpri- 
vrjs Tifxtvos iKuvdri. Idem de comp. medicam. I. 1 torn. 
XI II p. 362. 7;8>; p,oi koI Ttp6(T0(v fyiypairro TrpaypLareCa, 
bvoiv /xiv i( aiirfjs t&v vpmTmv /3i/3\^a)r iKhoOivTutv, iyKa- 
T(xK(i,(^6ivTa>v hi iv r^ Kara njv Upav ohov inrodrjiqj ixfrh 
T&v aKkav, rivUa rb rfjs Elprjvrji Tififvoi oKov iKavOij, Koi 
Kara to ■naXariov oi p.eyd\ai /3i/3AtoS^Kat. rqviKavTa yap 
iTfpuv T( TioXK&v airdKovTO /3i/3A^a koI t&v ipj&v ocra 
KOTO Tr)v airodrjiajv (Kiivrjv iKfiro. He mentions this fire 
again de Antidot. I. l.S torn. XIV p. 66. /caroicoufle^oTjs 
auTTJs 6it6t( (cal rb Trjs Elpi^vtfs ripifvos iKav6r], k. t. \. 
T& piiv ovv vvv {jp&v avTOKparopi ^(^/jpto ttjv avrChoTov 
i<rKeva<ra k. t. X. These three works therefore of Galen, 
■n€pl T&v ihCaiv jSijiXCoDV, irtpl avvdfo-fas t^app&Kmv t&v 
KaTo. yiiTj, itfpl avnhoTcav, were written after A. D. 191. 
The last, Trtpl avrihoTuv, after A. D. 193, towards the 
end of the life of Galen. 

Birth of Phihstratus of Leninos: conf. a. 21.5. 
Herodian witnessed the exiiibitions wliich preceded 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

vius Pertinax II 

Commodo VII et Perii- 
nace Nor. Mat. A. Chron. 

Eomse in sigillo figlinse 
antiquse apud Gruterum 
p. 184. 1 Panvinium p. 
353. Opm dol. Q. Noni 
Prisciani M. Commodo 
Aug. VII Hel. Pertin. II 


Eomse apud Gruterum 
p. 56. 4. Imp. Commodo 
Aug. n. VII et P. Helvio 
Pertinace + er ]}eg.ITER^ 
cos. coh. X Urh. Ti. CI. 
Plautius Ti.jil. Fahia re- 
ceptus Boms — &c. 

1 L. Ael. Aurel. Comm. Aug. P. Fel. + Here. Rom. cond. cos. VII p.p. 

2 L. JElius Aurelius Commodus Aug. Pius Felix, + Here. Bom. conditori. p. m. 

tr.p. XVII cos. VII p. p. 

3 L. Ael. Aurel. Comm. Aug. P. Fel. + lih. Aug. VIII p. m. tr.p. XVII cos. 

VII p.p. or p.m. tr.p. XVII imp. VIII cos. VII p.p. 

4 L. ^lius Aurelius Commodus Aug. Pius Felix + Herculi Bomano Aug. p. m. 

tr. p. XVIII cos. VII p. p. or Here. Bmti. conditori p. m. tr. p. X VIII 
cos. VII. 

5 " Antica incerta" +p«eto Aug. p.m. tr.p. XVIII cos. VII p.p. 

6 L. JSl. Aurel. Comm. Aug. P. Fel. + p. m. tr. p. XVIII imp. VIII cos. 

VII p. p. y 1- F 1 

Romse apud Panvin. p. 354 Gruter. p. 253. 3. 262. 6. Imperatori Ccesari divi 
Marci Antonini Pii Germanici Sarmatici fiUo &c. — L. ^lio Aurelio Commodo 
Augusto Sarmatico Germanico mMximo Britannico pontifici maxima tribunicicB 
potest. XVIII imper at. VIII consuli VII patri patriee. Dio 72- 15 preserves 
an address (r^ /SovA.^ ovrcoy firia-TeXKfv) with these titles : Imp. Cwsar L. ^l. 
Aurel. Comm. Aug. Pius Fel. Sarm. Germ. max. Brit, pacator orhis terr. in- 
mctus Here. Bom. p. m. tr.p. XVIII imp. VIII cos. VII p.p. consulibus prcBtt. 
tribh. plehis senatuique Commodiano Felici salutem. On the tribunician years 
conf. a. 179. 

Commodus slain h rfj TfKevTaia tov trovs wipa [Dec. 31 A. D. 192] Dio "J 2. 
22. Idem Ibid, tu y.(.v ovv Kajxixobio tovto to reXos (y^vero er/j SuSe/ca koL fifjvas 
kvvfa Koi T/jxe'pas t8' ap^avri. €/3ta) be irr) rpiaKovra ev koX ixfjvas ricraapai. Clem. 
Al. p. 339 D. Koixobos trr] i/3' /xfivas 6' ffixepas i8'. Euseb. H. E. V. 26. Se'ica koI 
Tpicrlv erecrt. Eutrop. VIII. 15 Obiit — cum annis XII post patrem et VIII 
mensibus imperasset. Victor Cses. p. 324 Anno regni tertio fere atque decimo. 
Victor Epit. p. 376 imperavit annos tredecim — expiravit anno vitce tricesimo 
secundo. Hieronymus Chron. Anno 2208 [A. D. 19f] Commodi 13o Commodus, 
strangulatur in domo Vestiliani. Oros. VII. 16 Mansit annis tredecim — in domo 
Vestiliani strangulatus interiisse fertur. Cassiod. Begnavit annis XIII. — Com- 
modus VII et Pertinax. His coss. strangulatur in domo Vestiliani. Herodian. 
I. 17- /SatrtXevtras It?j ty' fifra rrjv tov itaTpos TtKevTr\v. Chron. Pasch. p. 264 B 
erroneously gives him only 12 years : ap^a^ irt] t/3'. For his death conf. Dion. 
1. c. Herodian. I. 16. 17 Lamprid. Commodo c. 17 — 19. The tenth month of 
his 13th year began Dec. 17- He therefore reigned 12y 9™ 15''. If he lived 
31y 4'n he was born Aug. 31 A. D. 161, the date assigned by Lampridius. 
Conf. a. 161 et Reimar. ad Dionem 71- 22. 


01. 243 U. C. Varr. 946. 
Q. Sosius Falco C. Julius 
Erucius Claras 

Dio 72. 22 Nor. Capito- 
lin. Pertin. c.l5 Cod. Just. 
111.28,1. IV. 28, I. VI 


Flaccone et Claro Idat. 
<l>\dK/cos Koi KAapos A. 
Chron. Pasch. but placed 
in Chron. Pasch. at the 
wrong indiction on ac- 
count of the two omitted 

The elevation and death o^ Pertinax are related by Herodian II. 1 — 5. 
He was slain March 28 : Dio 73. 10. e/3t&) Se hi) eirra koL i^i']K0VTa Tiacrapwv 
fir)v&v Kol TpiQv riixepSiv biovTa' rjp^e be r]p.epai oyborJKOVTa Kal kirTa. Euseb. H.E. 
V. 26. ov8' oKois jx-qcrlv ef. Victor Epit. p. 376 Imperavit dies octoginta quinque 
— obtruncatur annos natus septem atque sexaginta. Capitolin. Pertin. c. 15 Na- 
tus Kal. Aug. Vero et Bibulo coss. [conf. a. 126] inter/ectus autem V Kal. April. 
Falcone et Claro coss. Vixit annis LX [1. LXVI'\ mensibus VII diebus XXVI, 
imperavit mensibus II diebus XXV. Eutropius VIII. 16 Grandwcus jam, ut 
qui septuagenariam attigisset eetatem — octogesimo imperii die occisus est. Victor 
Cses. p. 325 Octogesimo imperii die. From his birth Aug. 1 A. D. 126 to 
March 28 are 66!/ 7™ 28''. From Jan. 1 {when he began to reign : conf. He- 
rodian. II. 2) to March 28 both inclusive are 87 days. Eusebius inaccurately 
Anno 2209 Pertinax I. Hieronymus Chron. Anno 2208 Pertinax mens. VI. — 
Pertinax septuagenario major. Cassiod. Pertinax mens. VI. — Falco et Glarus. 

R O M A N I 


3 Seculae Authors 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

the death of Commodm: I. 15. rJre yovv tXboy.(v oaa iv 
ypa(f>aii iOavixACofiev d,Tt6 t< yap 'Ivbav Kal AWiJircoi' d 
71 TTpoTfpov iiyvuxTTov 7]V, ixfcrqfjL^pias r< Kol Trjs apKTuas 
yf/y (ma irtirra (povevav 'Vrnfiahis 4b(i(f. 

Adrian secretary to Commodus: Philostrat. V. S. 
II. 10 p. 589. voaovvTi h\ airr^ Karh. t^v 'V(L\».r)v, 5t€ Hj 
Kol irfKfvTa, i-<^r]<p(.iTaTO fiiv rh's ^irtoroXos 6 Ko/z^oSof, 
ftiv iatoXoyia tov p.i) koX Oottov. 6 8^, <7ri5ftdo'ay y.(v roiy 
Moi;(rais SxTTStp fltaOei, TTpoa-Kvvi]<ras bi ray /Sao-iXf&vy bdK- 
Touy, Trfv yl'v\i]v in avrais icpijKev. — ^reXevro d^ aiMjA ra 
iyboi'iKovra <tt). This appointment could not have been 
hitcr than A. D. 192. rrobably not before that year, 
because Adrian at 18 was the disciple of Herodes At- 
ticm : conf. a. l.'il. and it is not probable that Herodes 
taught before 30 years of age. Among the disciples of 
Adrian wore Pollux: Philostr. V. S. 11.12. Apolloniw 
of Naucratis: II. 19. Apollonius of Athens: II. 20. 
Procliis ni Naucratis: 11.21. Dainianus: 11.23. (who 
heard liim at Ephesus: Aafxiavoy — 'Apiore/iSoi/ koX 'A- 
bpuxvov KaTfiXrj^oToiv tov fiiv rrjv 'S.y.vpvav tov bi Trjv 
'E<f)((Toi', r]Kpoa(Taro d/xc^oif iTt\ fivpiaii.) Antipater : II. 
24. Ileraclides: II. 2(). Quirimis of Nicomedia : 11.29. 

Galen delivers lectures in the reign of Pertinax ; 
since ho mentions among his works torn. XIX p. 46 
rcpi Toil' iisl riepTiVaKoy br)fi.oaia p-qOfvrtav (/3i/3Aior) Ir. 
As he completed his 37th year about the autumn of 
A. D. 1G7, he is now 63 : conf. a. 130. 167- 

Dion Cassiiis is a senator under Pertinax: 73- 1- 
YlfpTlvai — aa-naa-dfifvoi ?;/iay. 73. 3 iydyt roVe iirl tov 
TlfprCvaKOi Kal itpSiTov Koi i<T\aTov tov l\o}nty\iavov (tbov 
K. T. A. 'I'i. 7 y^r](^i(Tap.iv(iiv r)\mv. And prsetor elect : 
73. 1 2 i)i>.(l^ bf — ((pojiovfifOa jxkv tov '^ovXiavov koX Toi/y 
(TTpaTworay, koI frnkiara 5<roi ti ol irpoy Tor TlepTivoKa 
fTrmjbfioC Kal yap ly!i> — imo tov TlfprlvaKOi to. t( aWa 
(TtTipi^firiv, Kol (TTpaTrfybs aTTfbfbdyfitjv. He describes 
himself in the time oi Jtdiamts: Ibid, ^y rh povkami- 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

consulships at A.D. 189. 

Inscriptio apud Panvi- 
nium p. 354 Gruterum p. 
475. 3. 4. Suessae in Cam- 
pania ; ab uno latere : C. 
Titio Chresimo Aug. II 
huic ordo decurionum quod 
pro salute et indulgentia 
imperat. Antonini Pii Fe- 
licis Aug. et ex voluntate 
popuU munm familice gla- 
diatoricB ex pecunia sua 
diem privatum secundum 
dignitatem colonics ediderit 
honorem Biselli quo quis 
Optimo exemplo in colonia 
Suessa hahuit et ut aqucn 
digitus in doma ejusflueret 
commxidisque puhlids ac si 
decurio frueretur et Titio 
Chresimo filio ejus ob me- 
rita patris honorem decu- 
rionatus gratuitum decre- 
vit ordo decurionum et Au- 
gustalium etplebs universa. 
Ab altero latere sed literis 
erosis : . . ossio Falcone 
G. Julio Fructo Claro cos. 
Nonis Septemb. Suessm in 
bihliotheca m T. Ju- 
lius Bassus M. Maisius 

Both here and in Grater 
p. 209. 1 for FRVCTO 
read ERVCIO. see col. 2. 

De Falcone consule Dio 
73. 8 Capitolinus Perti- 
nace c. 5. 10. 

His coss. Pertinax occiditur in palatio major septuagenario. Cui su^cessit Beverus. 
Orosius VII. 16 Sexto mense quam regnare coeperat — occisus est. — JuUanus in- 
ter/ectus est mense sejrtimo. Eusebius and Orosius reckon a year between Com- 
modus and Severus ; Hieronymus and Cassiodorus compute 6 months, and 
assign the whole to Pertinax. In Chron. Pasch. p. 264 B. Pertinax has 2 
months and Didius Julianus seven. 

Coins oi Pertinax: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 141. 

1 Imp. Cces. P. Heh. Pertin. Aug. + Dis custodibus. or Jano conservat. 

2 Imp. Cces. P. Helv. Pertinax Aug. + lib. Aug. tr.p. cos. II. S. C. 

3 Imp. Cces. P. Heh. Pertin. Aug . + liberatis civibus. or liberal. Aug. tr.p. 

cos. II. S. C. or Menti laudandce. or Opi divin. tr.p. cos. II. or pon. m. 
tr.p. cos. II. S. C. or providentice deorum. cos. II. or vota decenn. tr.p. 
cos. II. 

Inscriptions : 1 Praenestse apud Panvinium p. 354 Gruterum p. 26. 4. Opi 
divines et Fortunes primigenice sacr. imp. Gcesar. Helvii Pertinacis Augusti V. 
D. D. T. Ccesaris T. f. Herodes V. 8. C. 2 Tarracone apud Gruterum p. 
209. 1. Imp. Cces. P. Helmo Pertinac. princip. senafus pair, patrice cos. II 
Q. Sosio Falcone G. Julio Fructo [read with Norisius EBVGIO for FBVGTO] 
Claro COS. Ill Idus Febr. sententiam quam tulit L. Nonius Rufus leg. 
V. C. inter compaganos Rivi Larensis et Val. Faventinam descriptam et proposi- 
tampr. Non. Novemb. in. V.I. S. Bu/us leg. CCCX decretum ex Tilia recitavit. 
congruens est intentio mea &c. 

Laws oi Pertinax : Cod. Justin. VI. 27,2 Imp. Pertinax A. Lucretio. — pp. 
XI Kal. April. Falcone et Claro conss. IV. 28, 1 Imp. ^lius [leg. Helvius] 
Pertinax A. Atilio. — p p. X Kal. April. Falcone et Claro conss. Attesting that 
Pertinax was still living March 23. 

Julianus buys the empire: Dio 73. 11 Herodian. II. 6. Spartian. Juliano 
c. 3. Facto S. G. imperator est appellatus &c. Uxor etiam Mallia Scantilla et 
filia ejus Didia Clara Augustce sunt appellatce. Coins : Eckhel. tom. VII 
p. 148. I Imp. Goes. M. Did. Julian. Aug. + concord, milit. or p. m. tr.p. cos. 
2 Imp. Cces. M. Did. Sever. Julian. Aug. + rector orbis. 3 Manlia Scantilla 
Aug. + Juno regina. or p. m. tr. p. cos. S. C. 4 Didia Clara Aug. + hilar, tem- 
por. or pietas Aug. 

Niger invited : Herodian. II. "J. &pa>ybv rrj 'Potixaiwv ap\TJ Kal o-e/xj^s /3acri)\.([as 
■npoa-Tirriv Ntypor kitiKoKovvTO k. t. \. Dio 73. 14. rpeis yap brj Tore dvbpes rpiav 
fKaiTTos TroXiTiKciv cTTpaTonihiiiv KoiX oXKtav ^eviK&v (nj)(vS)V apxovTfi avreXd^ovro 
tGiv TTpayndrav, 5 re Se/Srjpos kuI 6 N^ypoy Koi 6 'AX^lvos' ovtos fxiv ttjs BpeiravCas 
apxoiv ^ejBfjpos Se tjjs IlavvovCas Niypos be ttjs '2vplas. Niger assumes the em- 
pire at Antioch: Herodian. II. 8 Victor Epit. p. 377- Severus in Pannonia: 
Herodian. II. 9. Victor p. 377 -^w Pannonice Sabaria. ' Spartian. Sev. c. 5. 
Apud Garnutum Idibus Augustis [lege cum Baronio et Pagio Idibus Aprilis\. 
March oi Severus: Herodian. II. 1 1. 13 Dio 73. 15 — 17. 

Julianus is slain: Herodian. II. 12. 66 days after the death of Pertinax: 
Dio 73. 17- fCwf Se f^riKovrd. re err; Kal iXTJvai Ticrcrapas Kal r]p.ipai itras, a<(>' <Lv 
ef Kal (^rjKovTa ^piev j)p.€pas. Spartian. Juliano c. 9. Vixit annis LVI mensibus 
IV imperavit mensibus duobus, diebus quinque. From March 28 inclusive, 66 
days or (which is the same thing) 2'» 5^ will place his death at June I. 

Severus at Rome: Dio 74. 1 — 5 Herodian. II. 14. 15 Spartian. Sev. c. 6. 7- 
On the 30th day he proceeds to the East : Spartian. c. 8. Domitium Dextrwm 
in locum Bassi prcefecti TJrbi reliquit, atque intra triginta dies quam Bomam ve- 
nerat est profectus. Herodian. II. 14. biarpiyj/ai ovv okiyov xpdvov 6 Iie^fjpos iv 

R M A N I 


3 Seculae Authors 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

pwi> tl(n}kOo^fv [March 28] koI riKovvantv aiirov to t« 
oAAa d^i&>9 iavTov Xiyovros, xaX Sn k. t. X. c. 14 ovbkv 
5 Ti ovK iiTi depaiTflq 7]H<av iTToCti. C. IG pAXiara bf iy€- 
k5>jxtv on TO ■naXa.Ti.ov KiynXUn re koL Bvpaii io^vpaty 
iKpaTvi'aro. As a senator ho voted the death of Juli- 
anus : 73. 17 "^ov re 'lovAtoroC Odvarov KaTfxjrqtfuirafifOa 
Koi Tov 2eli7Jpov avroKparopa utvopAaapiiV T(j) t€ WiprivaKi 
ripaiUas rtjuas d7re6(OKa/xf v. He is present at the entry 
of Severus into Rome: 74. 1 iyivtro >/ Oia -natrtav wv 
idpaxa Kap.TrpoTa.rT}, k, t. A.. And at the consecration 
of Pertinax : "J A. 4 T)p.fis ol fiovktvToi — Trpo<rg(ip,(v. 
c. 5 i]p.(ii t] fiovKri. 

Coins of AUyimu: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 162. 

1 D. Clod. Sept. Alhin. C(B8'. + Concordia. 

2 D. Clodim Septimim Albinxis Ccet. -\-f</rtun(B reduci. 

3 D. Clodiiis Albiniis Cces. +provid. Aug. cos. 

4 D. CI. Sept. Albin. CeBs. + Jlomee eBtemcB. 

Coins o{ Severus: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 16fi — 170. 

1 Imp. C<E. L. Sep. Sev. Pert. Aug. + ecquitas II. 
The same obverse is on all the following : 

2 _fidei kg. tr. p. cos. 

3 leg. I Ad jut. tr. p. cos. 

4 leg. I Ital. tr. p. cos. 

5 leg. 1 Mill. tr. p. cos. 

6 leg. II Adjut. tr. p. cos. 

7 leg. Ill Ital. tr. p. cos. 

8 leg. nil Fl. tr. p. cos. 

9 leg. V Mac. tr. p. cos. 

10 leg. VII CI. tr.p. cos. 

11 leg. VIII Av^. tr.p. cos. 

12 leg. XI CI. tr. p. cos. 

13 leg. XIII Gem. tr. p. cos. 

14 leg. XIIII Gem. tr. p. cos. 

1 5 leg. XXII. tr. p. cos. 

16 Ug. XXX Ulp. V. 

17 liberal. Aug. cos. 

18 iiobil. Aug. tr.p. cos. 

19 vict. Aug. tr. p. cos. 

20 Imp. Co:. L. Sep. Sev. Pert. Aug. cos. I.+Jompns. 


21 Imji- C(FS. L. Sept. Sev. Pert. Aug. imp. I. + liberal. 

Aug. tr.p. COS. S. C. or sasculo jfrugifero tr.p. cos. 

22 Imp. Gee. L. Sep. Sev. Pert. Aug. cos. I. + victor. 

Sever. Aug. or victor, just. Aug. 

23 L. Sept. Sev. Pert. Aug. imp. I.+ 

c c 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

rf) 'Pdfiri — em rqv avaTokr]v rfTnlyero. Dio 74. fi. 6 fie Se^jjpoy ffeo-rpdreDo-e koto 
Tov "Niypov. 

Albinm is declared GcBsar by Semrm: Dio 73. 15 Herodian. II. 1 5 Capitolin. 
Albino c. 3. Idem c. 1. Clodium quidem Herodianus dicit Severi Ccesarem fu- 
isse. Eutropius VIII. 18 Orosius VII. 17 Victor Epit. p. 377 inaccurately : 
Ceesarem se in Gallia fecerat. 

A law of Severus: Cod. Justin. III. 28, 1 Imy. Severm A. Victorino. — pp. 
V Kal. Jul. Falcone et Glaro corns. 

Coins : see col. 3. 


947. L. Septimim Severus 
Augustus II D. Clodius 
Septimius Albinm Ccesar 

Cod. Just. II. 24, 1. II. 
1,2. VI.2,1. VIII. 14,1. 
16, 1. see col. 3. 

Severo II et Albino Nor. 
Idat. A. 

de Albino consule Capito- 
lin. Albino c. 3. 6. 

Severi 2 from JTal. Jun. trib. pot. 2 from Kal. Jan. conf. a. 211. 

Defeat and death of JEmilianus near Cyzicum. Siege of Byzantium by 
Severus. Niger is defeated at Nicsea and Issus, and slain at Antioch : Dio 74. 
6. 7. o At/xtXtaros 8e tstpl \^v(lkov crvn^aKdiv riai rS)v o'TpaTrjySiv tS>v tov 2e/3ij/30v 
fjTrqOr) Trpos avr&v Koi ka-^Ayi). koX ixera ravra /xerafii t&v (rrevSiv t?j9 re NtKaCas 
Kol TT/s Kiev TToKf^LOS avTols jxtyas ylverai koX ttoXvtpottos k. t. A.. — ixera be ravra 

er 'Icro-u Trpos rats KaXovixevan OvAais jJifyCcrrTj yCverai iidxTj. Kal (\>Q6pov h\ 

rovrov nXetcrrov ev 7(56e 7(3 TroAe'/xM crvvfjSr] yeveadar bvo yap /iiipidSes r&v fiera 
rov ^lypov bi(oXovro. — akova-qi be rrjs Avrw)((ias ov ttoAAo) vcrrepov, i<^vyf fxfv 
arr avrrji its Trpos roi/ Evcpparrii' 6 Ntypos, Siayoovjueros es row fiapjSipovs <f>vy(LV 
idXco be inro rSiv Karabiui^avrcav koX anerp-rjOn) ri]v KetjiaKriv. Kal ravrr)v 6 2e^%)os es 
ro BvCavriov Tre'/x^as avearavpaxrev, iv' Ibovres aiirfiv ol Bv^dprioi Trpoo-j^upTjcoxTi. 
Herodian III. 2 relates the action near Cyzicum, the battle at Issus III. 4, 
and the death of Niger at Antioch : ev rivi Trpoaa-reim Kpvnr6p.evos evpeOeCs re — 
rr]v Kecpakrjv anerii-qdr). Spartian. Severo c. 8. ^milianus victus in Hellesponto a 
Severi ducibus Cyzicum primum confugit &c. Conf. Ammian. XXVI. 8,15. The 
death of Niger himself is erroneously placed at Cyzicum by Spartianus c. 9. 
Severus Nigrum apud Cyzicum interemit. Nigro c. 5 Jpud Cyzicum fugiens &c. 
by Eutropius VIII. 18 Nigrum apud Cyzicum interfecit. by Victor Caes. p. 326 
Orosius VII. 17. Victor Epit. p. 377 generally : Pescennium interemit. 

Coins of Niger A. U. 193. 194 : Eckhel. tom. VII p. 153—155. 

1 Imp. Cees. C. Pesc. Niger Just. Aug. cos. Il. + eeternitas Aug. 

2 Imp. CcBs. C. Pescen. Niger Just. Aug. + boni evenfus. 

3 Imp. C<es. Pesc. Niger Justus Aug.+coiicordia. p.p. or Minerva victris. 

4 Imp. Cces. C. Pesc. Niger Aug. +/elicit. temper, or spei firmm. or Marti 

inv .... 

5 Imp. Cces. Pesc. Niger Jus. cos. II. +/elicitas temporum. or moneta Aug. or 

victor. Just. Aug. 

6 Imp. Cces. C. Pescen. Niger Just. Au. -\- fortunes re. or reduci. or Marti Au- 

gusta, or Romce ceternee. or victoria Aug. 

7 Imp. Cats. C. Pesc. Niger Just. Aug. + invicto imp. tropcu. or saluti Aug. or 

saluti Augusti. 

8 avroKp. KaiVap. F. Hfa-Ke. Ntypo) A. + Trpo'voia Oe&v. 

9 avroK. K. F. Uea-K. Ntypos St'x. + Kato-apetas Fep/xai'tK^s. 

iO Imp. Cces. C. Pesc. Nig. Jus. Aug. + Col. ^l. Cap. Commsd. [so. JElia 

Coins o{ Severus: Eckhel. tom. VII p. 170. 171. 

1 Imp. Cce. L. Sep. Sev. Pert. Aug. +Jidei leg. cos. II. 

2 Imp. Cce. L. Sep. Sev. Pert. Aug. cos. II +S. P. Q. R. optima principi. or 

R O M A N I 


3 Secular Autiious 

4 Ecclesiastical Authoes 

Athetueus wrote after the death of Commodus : XII 
p. 537 f. tC $avfj.a(TT6v fl Kol KaO' j/jxas Kofi/xoSos [conf. 
a. 181] 6 avTOKparatp iul r&v 6\r}iJ.dT<iiv TrapOKfijuei'ov eixe 
Tov 'HpaKKfiov poTTaKov — icat 'HpaxATJs KaKucrOai y^fltAfr; 
But as he (juotes no work of Galen, he probably com- 
posed before the death of Galen cir. A. D. 200. 
SchweigluBuser torn. I p. VII who places Athenceus at 
A. D. 228 was misled by the supposed time of Oppian 
of Cllicia. But Oppian flourished in A. D. I7I : conf. 
a. Atheneeus preceded ^lian, who transcribed from 
his work : conf. Perizon. ad /Klian. V. H. prsef. p. 
XXIII. And jElian himself lived in the time oi Elor 
gabaliis : conf. a. 222. 

{Galeni -ntpX t&v Mdtv ^i^Xuav: torn. XIX p. 8 — 48. 
Composed after the reign of Pertinax: conf. a. 193.) 

Laws of Severus : Cod. Justin. VIII. 14, 1 Imp. 
Secerus A. Timotheo. — pp. V Kal. Mart. Severo A. II 
et Albino C. II conss. VI. 2, 1 Imp. Severus A. Theo- 
peni.—Dat. XI Kal. Maii Severe A. II et Albino conss. 
II. 1,2 Imp. Secerns A. Fausto. — p p. Non. Jul. Se- 
vero A. et Albino conss. II. 24, 1 Impp. Severus et 
Anioninm A A. [leg. Imp. Severus A.'\ Mironi. — VI 
Kal. Octob. Secero A. II et Albino conss. VIII. 16, 1 
Imp. Severus A. Carpo. — pp. XI Kal. Nov. Severo A. 
II et Albino C. II corns. 

Inscriptions apud Gruterum p. 263. 3. 4. 5. 6 Panvi- 
nium p. 356. 

1 Imp. C.isari L. Septimio Severo Pertinaci Aug. 
pant. max. tnb. pot. II iiiiperat. II cos. II procos.p.p. 

2 Ad Castra Cicciiia in Hispan. Imp. Gees. Lucio 
Septimio Severo Pertinaci Aug. pont. max. trib.pot. II 
imp. Ill cos. II procos. p.p. optima fortissimo providen- 

tissimoqne principi ex arg. p. XC D. Julio Celso 

et L. Petronio Nigra ....II. V. D. D. 

3 In foro civitatis Nepesinorum : Imp. Ccesari &c. 
trib.pot.II imp.IIII cos. II p.p. Nepeslni optimo for- 
tlsslnwqwe principi suo devoti. 

4 Clusii in Hetruria : Imp. Ccesari &c. pontif. max 
trib. potest. II imp. I III cos. II procos. p. p. ordo Clus. 

Euseb. Chron. Anno 2209 [frooi Oct. A. D. 193] 
Clemens Alexandrite presbyter et Panteenus pkilosophm 
stoicus nostri dogmatis illustres erant. Hieron. Anno 
2210. In Syncellus at p. 355 A. Consistent with 
Clemens himself, who mentions the death of Commodus, 
■n]v Koixp^obov T€\«uTjjr Strom. I p. 336. 337- but never 
names Severus. The Stromata wore therefore com- 
posed in the reign of Severus. Conf. Euseb. H. E. 
VI. 6. Hieron. Catal. c. 38. Clemens Alexandrine Ec- 
clesirc presbi/ter Pantceni — auditor. [Euseb. H. E. V. 
1 1 ovofxacrn. fv ah invfra^fv VTSOTvnuxjfa-iv is hv hiha-. 
VK&kov TOV Vlavralvov y.(p.vr]Tai. VI. 13 <rrp(ayxiTtis ol 
■navTis OKT^— ladpidfioL re tovtoh ehlv ol (Tuycypay-yAvoi 
vttoTvzdxTicov uvTov Ao'yoi, (i> ols ovofiacTTl (Ls hiba(TKa.\ov 
TOV TlavTatvov]\j.ovivii. Phot. cod. 109 p.aOr)Tr)i hk, 
i>s Koi avToi <l>r)ai., ylyovi WavTalvov\ JiOSt ejus mortem 
Alexandria; ecclesiasticam scholam tenuit. — Constat Ori- 
genem Clemsntis fuisse discipulum. Floruit autem Seven 
et Antonini filli ejus temporibus. When the Stromata 
were composed, he had already written the ■npoTptTm- 
Kos (Strom. VII p. 711 C), and after that (Psedagog. 
p. 78 B) the TTaibayuyos iv Tpurl Siaipov/xeros /3i/3Aots 
(Strom. VI p. 616 B) ; and he looked forwards to old 
age as yet future : Strom. I p. 274 C. fjbe fj TTpaynaTfCa 
— VTrofJ.VT^p.aTd /iot «iy yrjpas O'qcravpiCeTai, \ri9t]s ^dpfw.- 
Kov. On Pantoinus and Clemens Hieron. Magno torn. 
II p. 1083. Panteenus stoica; sectts philosophus ob prte- 
cipuce eruditionis gloriam a Demetrio Alexandrice epi- 
scopo missus est in Indiam [conf. a. 180. 190]. — Clemens 
Alexandrinm ecclesice presbyter meojudicio omnium eru- 
ditissimus octo scripsit Stromaium libros et totidtm vtso- 
TVT!(itTea)v, et alium contra gentes, pwdagogi quoque tria 
oolumina. Quid in illis indoctum, immo quid non e me- 
dia pkilosopkia est? Clemens Strom. I p. 274 D men- 
tions his teachers: tovtuiv 6 p.\v «wi tj;s 'EWciSos, 6 
'IcuwKo's. 01 6^ inl njs fxeydXjjs 'EXAdSos* tj^j Koikqi 6a- 
Ttpos avT&v '^vpCas i]V 6 bi dur' AlymTov &W01 6f dva 
TTiv dvaToKriv xaX TavTijs 6 jxiv r^y Tav ' Acrcrvploiv 6 bf tv 
naKaiarivr] E^paios avtKadfV, voraTU S^ T!(pLTv\iiv, bv- 
vdufi bi ovToi [sc. Panteenus] irpuros jjr, dvcnavcrdnrjv ip 
AiyvvTif 0ripd(ra^ XfKrjOora, 2iKfAiKJ| t<5 ovtl i) fiiKma, 
■!Tpo(t>r]TiKov T( Koi dwooToAiKOu KeifjiSivoi TO. avdr] bpeTto- 


C C 2 





1 Consuls 

948. Scapula TertuUus et 
Tineius Clemens 

Nor. Idat. Cod. Just. 
IX. 1,1. Digest. XX VII. 

r^priWos Kol KKrjiJLrji A. 

Basis eruta Ostiae apud 
Gruterum p. 1027. 4. P. 
Martio Quir. Philippo cu- 
ratori vies Prcenestinee &c. 
— corpus fahrum navalium 
Osiiens. quibm ex S. G, co- 
ire licet patrono optima p.p. 
A dextro latere : Dedicata 
III Idiis Aprilis Scapula 
Terttdlo et Tineio Glemente 


Conf. Noris. torn. II p. 

2 Events 

bona spes, or boni eventus. or Cereri frug. or /elicit, tempor. or fortun. 
reduc. or invicto imp. tropce. or Jovi free, orbis. or Mart, victor, or Miner, 
victor, or Monet. Aug. or pieiat. Aug. or victor. Aug. 

3 L. Sept. Sev. Pert. Aug. imp. II. + Pis Auspicib. tr.p. II cos. II p. p. S. C-, 

or p.m. tr. p. II cos. II p. p. 

4 L. Sept. Sev. Pert. Aug. imp. III. -V Africa. S. G. or Libero patri. or p. m. 

tr.p. II COS. II p.p. or vict. Aug. tr.p. II cos. II p.p. 

5 L. Sept. Sev. Pert. Aug. imp. I III. + Apollini Augusto. or p. m. tr. p. II 

COS. II p.p. 

6 L. Septimius Severus Pertinax Aug. imp. IIII. + 

Coins oi Albinus: Eekhel. torn. VII p. 162. D. Glod. Sept. Albin. C«s.+ 
cos. II. or scEculo fecundo. S. C. or sasculo frugifero. cos. II. 

Severi 3 from Kal. Jun. trib.pot. 3 from Kal. Januar. 

The siege of Byzantium continues : ol Bv^avrwi — eirt okov Tpie-nj \p6vov iroXt- 
opKoviiivoL Dio 74. 12. Described by Dio c. 10 — 14. Noticed by Philostratus 
V.S. II. 27 p. 616. 

Severus in the summer crosses the Euphrates : Dio "JS. 1. 2. 2f/3^po9 6e h iL 
Tavra iiioXiopKe'iTO Kara rStv fiapfidptav eiTLdvixCq So^tjs ^(TTpATfvcre, tS>v re Otrpoij- 
vS)V Koi T&v ' AbLal3rjVb}v Kal r&v 'ApayStav — eirei Se tov Ev(pp6.Triv 8ia/3as ey ttiv 
iroXenCav (a^^akfv, avvbpov Trjs X'^P'^^ oiKrqs, aWoos re 8e Kal Tore itXiov vvb rod 
Ofpovs (^iKfjLaarij.fvr)s, eKivbvvevire TTap.TrXriOe'is arpaTidras aTrolSakeiv. — (XfTa bf 
Tavra ds ti\v NiVtjQtf 6 2e/37;pos f\6oiv avrbs p.ev evravda vTTep,€ive, Aarepavov bi 
Kal Kavbibov Kal Aaaov eis roi/y — ^aplSapovs &kkov aWrj dTreo-reiAe. Eutrop. 
VIII. 18. Parthos vicit et Arabas interiores et Adiabenos. Arabas eo usque su- 
peravit ut etiam promnciam ibi faceret. Idcirco Parthicus Arabicus Adiabenicus 
dictus est. Spartian. Sev. c. 9. Deinde circa Arabiam bella plura gessit, PartMs 
etiam in ditionem redactis, necnon etiam Adiabenis — atque ob Jioc reversus [A. D. 
196] triumpho delato appellatus est Arabicus Adiabenicus Parthicus. Sed trium- 
phum respuit, ne videretur de civili triumphare victoria. Recusavit et Parthicum 
nomen, ne Parthos lacesseret. 

Coins : Eekhel. torn. "VII p. 1 72. 

1 L. Sept. Sev. Pert. Aug. imp. IIII. +p.m. tr.p. Ill cos. II p.p. 

2 L. Sept. Sev. Pert. Aug. imp. V. + Arab. Adiab. cos. II p.p. or Part. Arab. 

Part. Adiab. cos. II p.p. or p.m. tr.p. Ill cos. II p.p. 

3 Imp. Gee. L. Sep. Sev. Pert. Aug. cos. 11. + tr.p. Ill imp. V cos. Tl. [conf. 

Eekhel. p. 173]. 

4 L. Sep. Sev. Pert. Aug. imp. VI+p. m. tr.p. Ill cos. Up. p. 

5 L. Sept. Sev. Pert. Aug. imp. VII + Arab. Adiahenic. or Arab. Adiab. cos. 

II p. p. or dim M. Piif. p. m. tr. p. Ill cos. II p.p. S. G. or p. in. tr. p. 
Ill cos. II p.p. 

Inscriptions: 1 Apud Panvinium p. 356 Gruterum p. 40. 12. Vir. Dian<B 
sacr. pro salute imp. Geesaris L. Septimi Severi Pertinacis Augusti pont. max. 
f rib. pot. Ill imp. V cos. II procos. p.p. ordo Glas. 2 In Sicilia Panormi apud 
Gruterum p. 266. 6. Julia Aug. imp. Cces. L. Septimi Severi Pertinacis Aug. 
Pii Parthici Arabici et Parthici Adiabenici p. m. tr. pot. Ill imp. V cos. II 
p. p. respubl. Panhormitanorum. 3 In villa Tusculana supra Benacum lacum 
apud Panvin. p. 356 Gruterum p. 263. 8. Imp. C(es. did M Antonini Pii 
Germ. Sarm.Jil. &c. — Severo Pio Pertinaci Aug. Arabico Adiabenico pont . max. 
trib.pot. III. imp. VII cos. II p.p. procos. design. Benacenses. 

R M A N I 


3 Secular Authoiis 

4 Ecclesiastical Authobs 

Marc'um the heretic is still living: Clem. Strom. IV 
J). 50() B. ovliiv Kbikvd, ■nokk&Kii rr\v avTi)v vaparCOfadat 
ypa(pijv fli (vrpovrfv MapnUovoi, r/v nias j[i«Ta/3dAjjTat 

Hippodromm the sophist presides at the Pi/thia : 
Philostr. V. S. II. 27- 'IiraoS/io/jiaj Trarpis fxer r/v Ad- 
pitra-a, ttoAis (v itpdrrovaa iv ©erraAors, iraTrjp bi 'OAu/x- 
■jriAbatpos, TrapfKdtiiV itrnoTpocjila ©erToXois Ttivras. He 
was the pupil of C^res<«« ; 11.11. He presided twice 
at the Pi/t/iia: II. 27 p. <>1(). ■npoicrrr] hh t&v Y\vdi.KS>v 
&6\b)v. And did justice to Clemens of Byzantium a 
tragic actor, who performed at the games : Ibid. vik5>v 
(cara roiis XP"'""'* "^^^ ''o ^v^dvTwv tiroXiopKeiTo diri/ei 
hliapTa.v<i>v tt/j rtxrjs, is (x?) Sokoi'tj 6i' «vos dvS/jos Krjpvr- 
Tfo-dat i] wo'Ais ottAo ^wl 'Pcufxaiows ■i}pp.(.vr). Hippodromus 
boldly adjudged the prize to the liyzantine. The siege 
of Hyzaiitium by Sevents was in A. D. 194 — 196, within 
01. 243 ; and as the Pythia during this siege occurred in 
01. 243. 3, they are fixed to the autumn of A. D. 195. 

Hippodromus was liberal in speaking of other so- 
phists ; Touy kavTov vpfcyfivTipovs XP'^'-'f woAAw, as Po- 
letno; and xp6v(^ ov toAAw, as Proclus of Naucratis; 
and of his contemporaries, Tois ^oTjAtxay, as HeracUdes: 
and of tiie younger sophists who were to come after 
him, as Philostratus oi Lemnos: p. 617- tov Be 'AOijinjcn 
T&v (TOipicrriiv Opopov KaTacr\i)V (tGiv ttov r«T(Tdp<s!iv anr}- 
vfxOt] Ibid. He excelled all in extent of reading, 
jutrd ye 'AfiixdvLov rhv ano tov irepiTrdrov [conf. a. 2()5]. 
He came to Smyrna to hear HeracUdes: fxerd tov "H- 
paxAeiSj?!' p. 6"I8. left about 30 /ieAe'rai, and died aet. 
70 : ereAevTo bk apujA to. ifibofx/jKovTa, koL oIkol, koI iitl 
viy. p. «20. He taught Aspasitis: V. S. II. 33 p. 628. 

A law oi Severus: Cod. Justin. IX. 1, 1 Imp. Severus 
A. Sylcano. — -p p. V Id. Martii Tertullo et Clemente cmss. 

Digest. XX VII. 9, 1. Ulplanus Itbro 35 ad edictum: 
" Imperaioris Severi oratione prokihiti sunt tufores et cu- 
ratores prcedia rustica vel suburbana distraJwre. Qiub 
oratio in senatu recitata est Tertylh et Clemente consu- 
libtis, Idibus Jiiniis. Et sunt verba ejus hujusmodi : 
" Prwterea, P. C. inferdicam tutoribus" &c. As Severus 
was in Asia in June A. D. 195 (see col. 2), Tillemont 
torn. Ill p. 87 rightly concludes that this address waa 
sent from the East, and not delivered by Severus in 

Enseb. H. E. V. 27- irXetoro p.iv ovv irapa iroAAots 
eJore'n vvv tuj' t6t€ o-wferai naKaiiav Kal ^KxATjiriaoTiKcaf 
&vbp&v IvapiTov <T7rou8^s xnroixvrjfiara' air ye nijv avrol 
bUyvmnfv flij TO. 'UpaKAeiVov eJy tov OTro'trroAor koX tu 
Ma^(p.ov Tif pi TOV TTokvdpvWi^ov TTapa rois alpecriuTais 
frjTTj^aTos, TTfpl TOV Tiodfv 1) KaKia, Koi 7!(pl TOV yevi/njr 
trndpxfiv t7)j> vXrjv [conf. Bouth. Rol. Patrum torn. I 
p. 431 — 463]" Tct re Kavbibov (Is r^r f^aiipLfpov Kcd 'AtsC- 
(tfi'os fls Tjjv avTip xmodfCTiv ojwliai S^frov ittpl ivacrra- 
(rews KOI aAAjj riy viro5e(Tts 'Apa^iavov. All these writers 
are mentioned by Hieronymus Catal. c. 46 — 51. He- 
racUtus sub Commodi Severiqm imperio — Maximus sub 
ii-sdem principibus — Gandidus regnantibus supraicripHs 
— Apian sub Severo principe — Sexlus sub imperatore Se- 
vero — Arabianus sub eodem principe. 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 


949. G. Domitim Dexter 
II L. Valerius Messalla 
Thrasea Priscm 

Cod. Just. II. 19,1. III. 
15, 1. 28, 2. IV. 14, 1. 
19, 1. 26, 1. 26, 2. VI. 
33, 1. 54,3. VII. 32, 1. 
IX. 41, 1. 

Dextro et Frisco Nor. 

A^Korpos TO /3' (cat Kp^cr- 

770y A. 

Neapoli apud Gruterum 
p. 444. 2 Panvinium p. 
356. C. Domitio Dextro 
II L. Valeria Messalla 
TJirasia Frisco cos. VI 
Idus Januar. in curia ha- 
siliccB Aug. Annian. scri- 
bundo adfuermit A. Aqui- 
lius Proculus &c. Quod 
postulante Cn. Gaio Pu- 
denti 0. V. de forma in- 
scription, danda statuce 

Severi 4 from Kal. Jun. trih. pot. 4 from Kal. Januar. 

Byzantium taken after 3 years' siege: Dio 74. 12. Severus being in Meso- 
potamia: c. 14. 6 2e/3jJ/50s ovrus iiaQr) enl rfi oKuxrei tov Bv^avriov is — Iv rfj 
Mf(TOTTOTafj,lq. Tore Sjv k. t. A. Herodian. III. 6. laAa> ijarepov Xijii<S iracrd re r] 
■noKis KaTe(TKa.((>ri. 

Severus returns to Rome: Spartian. Sev. o. 10. Redeunti Romam post helium 
civile Nigri aliud helium civile Clodii Alhini nuntiatum est. The war was ex- 
pected in December: Dio 75.4. t<^ 8e 2€/3^pQ) TroAf/xoj avOn htjito) e/c t&v ^ap- 
^apiK&v avaiTvevcravTi ep.(pv\ios Trpoy tov 'AKjSivov tov KaCaapa (rovrjviydr)' 6 p.\v 
yap ovbf tt]v tov KatWpos avT<^ tn ebCbov Tt/xTJi/, (Treibrj tov Niypov fKirobav eTioi-q- 
craTo K. T. k. i]v piev yap ij Tekivraia irpo tQv Kpoviiov [Dec. 17] 
Herodian III. 6 inaccurately makes the war begin before Byzantium had sur- 
rendered : o be — Tjjs em tov ''AK^lvov obov eXxero. eT!ep\lre be rows to Bv^avTiov 
iroAtop/c^o-orras' epeve yap In KeKXeurpevov. Orosius VII. 17 also inaccurately: 
Continue rapitur vel potius retrahitur in Galliam Severus e Syria ad tertium ci- 
vile helium, omitting the visit to Rome. 

Garacalla is appointed Ceesar : Spartian. Sev. c. 10. Qimm iret contra Alhi- 
num in itinere apud Viminatium filium suum majorem Bassianum apposito Au- 
relii Antonini nomine Ceesarem appellavit. 

Coins of Severus : Eckh. torn. VII p. 174. 1 L. Septimius Severus Pertinax 
Aug. imp. Vll. + divi M. Pii f. p. m. tr.p. IIII cos. II p. p. 2 L. Sept. Sev. 
Pert. Aug. im,p. VII. +p. m. tr.p. IIII cos. II p.p. 3 L. Sept. Sev. Pert. Aug. 
imp. VIII. + adventui Aug. felicissimo. or prof ectio Aug. or p.m. tr.p. IIII 
cos. II p.p. 

Coins of Garacalla: Eckh. tom.VII p. 199. M. Aur. Antoninus Gces.+secu- 
ritas perpetua . or spei perpetuw. 

Coins oi Alhinus : lb. p. 163. Issued in Britain or Gaul: 1 l7np. Ca. D. 
Clo. Sep. Alb. Aug. + dementia Aug. cos. II. 2 Imp. Gas. D. Glo. Sep. Alb. 
Aug. + Gen. Lug. cos. II. 3 Imp. Gees. D. Gl. Albin. Aug. + Mar. ult. cos. II. 
4 Imp. Gees. Gl. Sept. Albin. Aug. + S. P. Q. R. p. p. ob c. s. 

Laws of Severus: Cod. Justin. IV, 19, 1 Impp. Severus et Antoninus A A. 
Faustina. — pp.prid. Kal. Julii Dextro II et Frisco corns. III. 15, 1 Impp. 
Severus et Antoninus A A. Laurince. — pp. IV Non. Oct. Dextro II &c. II. 
19, 1 Impp. Severus et Antoninus A A. Sopatrce. — pp. Ill Non. Oct. Dextro 
II &c. IV. 26, 1 Impp. Severus et Antoninus A A. ^lio. — dot. VII Id. Nov. 
Dextro II &c. VI. 33, 1 Imp. Severus A. et Antoninus G. Lucillo. — pp. XII 
Kal. Dec. Dextro II &c. VI. 54, 3 Imp. Severus A. et Antoninus G. Sym- 
phoro. — pp. XI Kal. Dec. Dextro II &c. IV. 26, 2. lidem A A. Annio. — pp. 
VIII Kal. Dec. Dextro II &c. VII. 32, 1. Imp. Severus A. et Antoninus G. 
Attico. — pp. VI Kal. Dec. Dextro II &c. III. 28, 2 Idem [sc. Sev.] A. et 
Antoninus G. Lucretio. — dat. IV Kal. Dec. Dextro II &c. IV. 14, 1 Impp. Se- 
verus et Antoninus A A. Juventiano. — pp. IV Id. Dec. Dextro II &c. IX. 
41, 1 Imp. Severus A. et Antoninus G. AntiancB. — pp. Kal. Jan. Dextro II he. 
As Garacalla was not yet Antoninus and Gasar in January., the date of this 
last law was probably December; and may be represented thus: pp. * Kal. 
Januar. In six of these laws the description A A \s erroneous. The other 
five have rightly Severus A. et Antoninus G. 

Inscriptio Narbone apud Gruterum p. 266. 7. Julia Domna Augusta imp. 
Gas. L. Septimi Severi Pii Pertinacis Aug. Arabici Adiabenici p. p. p. m. trib. 
pot. IIII imp. VIII COS. II et M. Aureli Antonini Gas. matri itemque castrorum 
Decuman. Narb. 




4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

Heraclides flourished : Philostr. V. S. II. 26. di^p 
eXAoyt/xuroTos Koi 'IlpaxXefSrjs 6 Avxioy koX to, oIacoi fiiv, 
i-nfi&i) TTaTfpaiv re Ayafloii' /</>«, icai &p\ifpi(i>p AvkCohv 
iy(i>€To' — (KKoyifj.taTfpoi hi to, <ro<^i<rn»ta. The disciplu 
of Herodes, Adrianm, Chrestus, and Aristocles: p. ()15. 
Contemporary with IIif)podromus : conf. a. 195. The 
Apollonii and Ptolemy were his rivals : p. 613. iK-nta-iav 

hi TOV OpOVOV TOV 'A6T}lT)Cn, (rV(TTdvT(i>V i'Tt' aVTOV T&V 

'ATToXXcoffov rov NavKparCrov iratprnv [II. 19. 'AttoXX. 6 
NavKp. 'llpa/cXet8j( fitv ivavria iiraihevcTf top 'Aflr/i'rjo-i 
0p6vov KaTiiKr\(\)6Ti. Xo'yov h\ iirtpifXi^Or] ttoXitikov] — (Til 
rriv ^p.vpvav (Tpditfro. — 6 hi rjyf f^i" i^oX rb (k ttjs Kipdirrji 
'EW-qviKOV riyf hi rovs ix ttjs Woy v4ovi, woXXovs hi tjyfr 
AlyvTTTiiav, ovK avTjKOOvs owToC d^rras ^T7<i8r| nroXe/xa^o) 
T^ tSavKpaTLnj (car Afyvuro/; irtpl (TO(j)Cas ijpicrfu. ivi- 
Ttkrjcrf hi Ti]v Sfxvprav op-Ckov Xaixirpov. — Koi Trjr crTec^o- 
i'r)<^6pov &pxr)V "nap ovTOis ^pi^v at\> ?;$ rotj ivMVTois tL- 
diinai. ^fnipvaioi ra ovopLara. iitl 2e^T;pou 6f rov airo- 
kparopoi c^affiv avrbv (T\(hiov koyov iKT:f(T(lv k. t. X. tov 
TOV ' AfniraTpov (pOovov [conf. a. 199] t6t( {xpfcaparo. — 
ixfKfVTa yovv vifip ra it' irr] — koi Ta.(pos piiv avr^ AvKia 

Ptolemy was eminent: Philostr. V. S. II. 15. Xap.- 
itpov (V (TO<f>i(TTals Koi riToXefiaioj 6 NauKparfrrjs I'l^rjcrfv. 
— 'llpdbov hi iiKpoaTr]s p.iv ov p.r]V fj;Xa)T7/s fyfvero' dXX 
is TOV TloXtpLmva ixaKkov VTtr]V(\6r]. — (vhoKi.p.(oTaTOi (to- 
(fiKTT&v ovTos [sc. Ptolemams] vKdara hi (TTe\da)V ^dvq, 
Kal TrXeioTots ^;'0fxiX7/(ros iroXfo-ij', oihapLOv 8i<'/3aXe to 
iavTOV Kkios. — iTfkfvra hi yrjpaibs iv AiyvTrra. 

Apollmilus of Athens: V. S. II. 20. 'Air. 6 "'AOi^vam 
— eirai8«v<rej; 'Adijvr)a-i, KaO' 'HpaKkfihijv re Kal tov o/i<o- 
irvftof [sc. Apollonium Naucrati], tou vokuiKov Opovov 
upoeoTus iiil ToXaiTci). 8io7rpe7rT/s hi to. TTokiTiKO. yfv6p.(V09 
iv T€ •npiafidai.'s xmip tS)V p.ey(<rT<i)V iirpecr^evarfv iv r« 
keiTovpylaii — irpecrlievoyv hi irapa 2e/3?'/poi' iv 'Pdpn tov 
avTOKpdTopa airthva-aro Trpoy 'IlpaKXei'Srjr tov cro(^tcrr^i» 
TOV iiTsip pLfkirris iiy&va. — /SctX^iBa p.iv hi] tov Xo'yov 6 
' Anokkmvios fK Tr)s 'Ahpiavov Ihias ^^/SXtjtoi, 8,t( hi) Kal 
OKpoarj/s yevopievos. — ereXevra piiv ovv dp^l ra oe' lr»j 
iTd(f>r} hi iv r<a TtpoacrrdiD rrjs iv 'EX«u(Tirt Xeux^opon. 

The contemporary Apolhnius lived 70 years : V. S. 
II. 19. 'AttoXX. 6 'NavKp. — ereXeura ijihop.'qKOVTovTqi 'A- 
OT^vrja-tv (x<i)V ivTd<f)iov ti)v i^ airavToiv 'Adt)val<i)V fvvoiav. 
'AhpMvov piiv Kal XprjoTov — dxpoarjjs iyevero, dp.(j)oiv hi 
icjiiarrfKiv Saov oi ptrjhi aKOvaravTts. 

Euseb. Chron. Anno 221 1 Severi 2" nierosolymitcma- 
ecclesite XXXV episc<n»i8 Narcissus [tpiokootos &vb 
Tmv &T:o<rr6k<ov Euseb. II. E. V. 12] Theophilus Ccesari- 
emis Polycrates et liacchylm Asianarum dioecesium pat- 
tores cognoscehantur. Hieronynius Anno 221 1 Severi 3<>. 
The year 221 1 commenced Oct. A. D. 195 ; the second 
of Severus June 1 A. D. 194. 

Theophilus Narcissus Bacchyllut Polycrates are men- 
tioned together by Eusebius H. E. V. 22. conf. a. 190. 

Rhodmi flourished : Euseb. H. E. V. 13. iv Tovrcp [in 
the time of Narcissus] koL 'V6h<i>v yivos tUv ivb 'ArrCas, 
p.a0r)Tfvd€li iTtl 'PeofXJjs ij avrbs loropti TaTiavif, — 8io- 
(l>opa (TWTof as /3i/3X^a pifTa t&v kommv Kal irpoy tt^v Map- 
Kiavos TtapaTaTTfTai aipvriv. He conversed with Apelles 
the disciple of Marcion : Euseb. Ibid. ypd<pii hi its koL 
(Is koyovs ikr]kvdoi T<j> 'AireXXjj <f>axTKOiv ovrois' " 6 yap 
" y^piav 'AireXXijy crvp^lias fjpXv iroXXa fxiv KaK&s k4y<av 

" T]kiyy^r\7' iv t^ avTi^ hi avyypd\i.pxvn KaXXurr^ft 

Ttpo(T<\)(i>vS>v 6 avTos [sc. RliodmC] pL(p.a0r)TiV(T6ai eiri F«- 
p,r\s TaTiavQ iavrbv bp.okoyu. <pr)(jl hi Kal iintovhacrQai 
TM Tartaru T:po^kr)p.dT<t>v /St/SXfor, 8i' 5>v to dirai^is km 
i-niKfKpvpip.(VOV T&v 6(L(i>v ypa(^S)v Trapaanjcrdv vnoer^o- 
p,ivov TOV TaTLavov, avrbs b 'Po8ft)i> iv lbi<o ovyypdpifiaTi 
Tas tQv iKfCvov irpoj3kr]iJLdTb>v iirikva-eis iKd^fffffdai insay- 
yeXXerat. (ftipfrai hi tov avTov koI ety tt]v i^aripLfpov 
imopvTipia. Hieronynius Catal. c. 37 adds Temporibus 
Gomnwdi et Severi floruit. 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 


01. 244 U. G. Varr. 950. 

Lateranus et Rufinus Nor. 
Idat. liber pontificalis 
Damasi torn. I p. 597- 

Laterano et Rufino in 25 
laws in Cod. Justin, see 
col. 3. 

AaTfpVOS Kol 'P0V(j)LV0S A. 

Lapidea tabula fastorum 
pontificalium apud Gruter. 
p. .SOO. Laterano et Rufino 
COS. stiper numerum coop- 
tatus ex S. 0. M. Aurelius 
Antoninus Gees, desfina- 
tm P. R. a A. DCGCC 
XLVII.. Conf. Eckhel. 
torn. VII p. 199. 

Romse apud Panvinium 
p. 357 Gruterum p. 46. 9. 
Herculi invicto et Dihus 
omnibus Deabus q. sacrum 
pro salutem [sic] imp. L. 
Sept. Severi et M. Aure- 
lio Antonino Ccesari Auq. ... — ... G. r.p'r. 
pr. et trihunis Helio Mo- 
nimo Trehio Germano ex- 
ercitatoribus Helius Sabi- 
nianus Aur. Titianus ge- 
nio T. Optati ob reditum 
Numeri votis felicissimis 
T. Fla. Respectus C. Se- 
verinus Vitalis Secius Ge- 
mellinus Pwdss A. S. S. 
fecerunt dedikaverunt V 
Idus Junius Laterano et 
Rufino COS. The names 
of Geta were erased after 
his death by Garacallds 
order, as in Gruter p. 32. 
10. 39.3. 

Severi 5 from Kal. Jan. trib. pot. 5 from Kal. Januar, 

Albinus is defeated and slain Feb. 19: Spartian. Sev. c. 11. Multis varie 
gestis in Gallia prima apud Tinurtium contra Albinum felicissime pugnavit Se- 
verus. — Victus est Albinus die XI Kalendas Martii. The particulars are re- 
lated by Dio 75. 6. 7 Herodian III. 7 CapitoHnus Albino c. 9. Eutropius 
VIII. 18. Albinus — victus apud Lugdunum est et interfectus. Victor Cses. p. 
326. Clodium Albinum Lugduni victutn coegit mori. Victor Epit. p. 377- Albir 
nus — apud Lugdunum occiditur. 

Garacalla pontifex : see col. 1. 

Severus proceeds to the East: Spartian. Sev. c. 14. Profectus deinde ad bel- 
lum Parthicum est, edito gladiatorio munere et congiario populo data. Dio 75. 9. 
fj^era bf ravra 6 2€/3^pos €K(TTpaTfvei, Kara rcav UApOatv. Fixed to this year by a 
coin of Severus. 

Coins of Severus : Eckhel. torn. VII p. 175. 1 Imp. Gce. L. Sep. Sev. Pert. 
Aug. cos. II. + liberal. Aug. 2 Imp. Gas. L. Sept. Sev. Pert. Aug. + liberal. 
Aug. tr.p. COS. II. S. G. 3 L. Sept. Sev. Pert. Aug. imp. VIII + liberalitas 
Aug. II. 4 L. Sept. Sev. Pert. Aug. imp. Villi. + munificeniia Aug. or p.m. 
tr. p. V COS. II p. p. or profectio Aug. 5 L. Sept. Sev. Pert. Aug. imp. X. + 
p. m. tr.p. V COS. II p.p. 

Coins of Garacalla: Eckh. torn. VII p. 199. M. Aur. Anton. Gees. ponti/.+ 
imperii felicitas. or Marti ultori. or pietas. or principijuventutis. or securitas 
perpetua. or destinato imperat. 

The dispute concerning Easter is placed at this date by Hieronymus : see 
col. 4. The facts are in Eusebius H. E. V. 23—25. The churches of Asia 
Minor, the Quartadecimans, commemorated the Crucifixion on the 14th day 
of the moon and the Resurrection on the ICth day of the moon, on whatever 
days of the week these might happen to fall. The other churches, neglecting 
the age of the moon, commemorated the Crucifixion on the 6th day of the 
week and the Resurrection on the 1st day of the week following. The Quar- 
tadecimans again (to commemorate the Last Supper : Matt. 26 Marc. 14 
Luc. 22 Joh. 13) interrupted the fast of Passion Week by eating their Paschal 
supper — TO Tiacrxa — in the evening which began the \4th day of the moon; the 
time of the Jewish Passover (for the Jews reckoned their days from sunset to 
sunset). The other Christians deferred their Paschal supper till Easter day. 
Compare Eusebius 1. c. with Epiphan. hser. p. 420. 823 quoted and explained 
by Mosheim de rebus Chr. p. 440. 

The Quartadecimans followed the apostles St. Philip and St. John : Polycarp. 
apud Euseb. H. E. V. 24 Irenfeus apud Euseb. Ibid. The other churches 
also asserted for their usage airoo-TokiK-qv -napahocTiv : Euseb. V. 23. Victor 
bishop of Rome attempted to persuade the other churches to join in ex- 
communicating the Quartadecimans, but the other bishops refused their con- 
sent: V. 24. 6 Bticrcop adpobi's rrjs'kaias nAariS &p.a TOis 6ii6pot,9 eK/cXijTl^ais ras 
TTapoiKias aT:oT€p.vfiv cos erepoSo^owas tj}s KOivfis kvaxreas ireipaTai, km a^TrjXiTevei 
ye bia ypap.p.aT(>>v, aKoivmvyTovi 6.phr)v ■navra'i tovs (ku(T( avaKT)pvTTU>v ahfK^ovs' 
dX\' ov TTacTL ye toXs eTncTKOTTOn ravT ijpeo-KfTo. avTLT!apaKe\evovTai brjTa avTM to. 
Tfjs elpr)vr]s koX tt/s xpos row TtKricrLov kv(!>ae(j>s koX dydTTTjy (f>povelv. (jtipovrai be 
Kol al TOVT(i)v (paval TrKrjKTiKaiTepov KaOaitTOfievuiv tov Bt/cTopoj. ev oXi /cai o 
Eiprji^aws fK upoadiTtov uiv ijyeiTo Kara ti]V FaXX-MV abe\(f)S)v fTifrreiXas, k. t. \. 
The Quartadecimans were only put out of communion with the diocese of 
Victor; and they continued to observe Easter after their own way till 
A. D. 325. 

R O M A N I 


3 Secular Authors 

Dion Cassius ia at Rome : 75. 4. rjixtis ol PovktvTox 
r)(rv\iav r/yo/nei'. — On the war with Albinus. Ibid, wap^r 
8e Kot ^yoj rr; 0(a. sc. the games in December A. D. 196. 
After the death of Albinus, 6 ^(fiilpoi — tVi noKKov jj/xas 
Tf Kal Tov hi]^ov ots iiti<TT(iXfv i^((t>6^rj(T(v — juaAnrra 6' 
riijias i$(iT\ri((v on tov t( MdpKov vlbv [see the coins 
A. D. 196. 2] Kal tov Ko/x/^oSov 6.bfK<(>bv iavrov lA«y«. 
Dio 75. 7. 

In Cod. Justin, are 25 laws of Sevenis, distributed 
through all the months of this year. Some of them 
are inscribed Impp. Sevenis et Antoninus AA. others 
have the title Imp. Severus .^. et Antoninus C. Cod. 
Just. II. 12,2 AA. Venerio. — pp. V Id. Januar. II. 
19, 2 A A. Eu/nu'.—pp. X Kal. Februar. VIII. 18, 1 
A. et G. Secundo — pp. Kal. Febr. V. 25,4 AA. Sa- 
bino.—p p. Non. Febr. V, 47, 1 AA. Tertio. — pp. 
XIII Kal. Mart. VII. 4, 1 A. et C. Primo.—p p. 
XIII Kal. Mart. V. 54, 1 A A. Fusciano.—pp. VI 
Id. Mart. VI. 49, \ A. et C. Probo.—pp. XV Kal. 
^pril. VIII. 17, 1 A. et C. Optato.—pp. XII Kal. 
April. V. 18, 1 A A. Gemilla.—p p. Ill Id. April. 
III. 26, 1 AA. I>ioscoro.—p p. VII Id. Maii. VI. 
50, 1 A. et C. Prisco.—pp. Ill Id. Maii. IV. 15, 1 
A A. Valeriana. — pp. XI Kal Junii. III. 28, 3 A. 
et C. Januario.—p p. VIII Kal. Jul. II. 31, 1 A A. 
Hamnice.^1 p. II Kal. Jul. VI. 50, 2 A. et C. Sac- 
tiano.—pp. Kal. Jul. IX. 9, I A. et C. Cassiee. — pp. 
XIII Kal. August. VI. 37, 2 A. et G. Sabiniano. — 
pp. X Kal. Sipt. IV. 30, 1 A A. Hilario.—pp. Kal. 
Sept. VIII. 33, 1 J. et G. Illaro [f. IIilario].—p p. 
Kal. Sept. III. 36, 1 A A. Martiano. — p p. VIII 
Kal. Oct. II. 51, 1 A A. Ghilmi. — pp. Kal. Nov. 
VI. 46, I A. et C. Glaudiee. — pp. Non. Dec. II. 12,3 
A A. ad Metrodorum. — p p. X. Kal. Januar. VIII. 
2, 1 A. et C. Jmto. — p p. VIII Kal. Januar. All sub- 
scribed Laterano et liujino con)<s. The description A A 
is inaccurate ; for Caracalla through the whole of this 
year was only Gcesar. 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

Hioron. Chron. Anno 2212 [A. D. 19^] Severi 4» 
Qiuestione arta in Asia inter episcopos an secundum cy- 
clum May sis XI V" die mensis Pascha obsertandum esset, 
Victor Romance, urbis episcopus et Narcissus Ilierosoly- 
marum Poly crates moque et IrenoMs [conf. Hieron. Ca- 
tal. c. 35 Aelreneeo] et Bacckylus pliirimiqu^ ecclesiarum 
j)astores quod eis probabile visum fuerat Uteris ediderunt, 
quarum memoria ad tigs usque per dur at. Euseb. H. E. 
V. 23. <pfp€Tai 8' (It4ti vvv t5>v koto naXator^^i; rrfvi- 
K&hf <TvyKiKpoTriy.(vav ypa^Tj, u>v irpovTfTo<cro 0<J<^iAo9 
TT)s iv Kaia-apfCq irapoiKiai (TtlrrKoitoi naX NdpuKTcro? r^s 
iv Itpoa-oKvpLOii, Kol T&v (ttI 'Piifit]i bi oiwiui &KXt] irtpl 
TOV aiiTov (r)n]p.aTos, i-nlrrKonov BiKTopa 8»jXoi!(ra. t&v ti 
Kara Vloinov lin.cTKO'ntav u>v IlaA/xaj is a/sxtutJraroj irpov- 
TfTaKTo, Kal tS)v Kara FaWLav bi itapoiKiHv &s Elprjvalos 
eTTfo-Ko'iref en re t&v koto rr/f 'Oa-porjvrjv koI tols iKdcrt 
TToAets. Koi Iblas BaKxv^ov r^s Kopivdiatv (KKXijiriaf ^Trt- 
o-k6itov Kal -nkdaTrnv oa-cav &\\cav k. t.K. Idem V. 25. 
01 ye p.r]v (irl riaAoioTiOTjj — o re KdpKKra-oi Kal 0eo<^iAoy, 
Kal avv avToti Kda-crios ttjs Kara Tvpov iKK\r](Tias Mitko- 
TTos Kal K\dpos Trji ev IlroAe/iatfii, ot re nfTo. Tovnav 
(TvvfXrjXvOoTfs, irepi tjj? icareA^ovoTjs eis aurovs (k biabo^ris 
T&v dwotrroAo)!' irtpl tov nd(r\a TrapoSoVews TrAeiora 8iei- 
A?/<^dTes, KaTo. Tb t^Aos tt/s ypa<prj? avrois prjp.a<Ti,v iviKf- 
yovcTi ravTa' " r^s 8' ima-ToKijs" k.t. A. Hieron. Catal. 
c. 43. Theophilus — sub Severo principe adversum eos qui 
XI V" luna cum Judceis Pascha faciebant cum cnteris 
episcopis synodicam valde xUilem cmnposuit epistolam. 
Idem Catal. c. 44. Bacchylus Corintki episcopus sub eo- 
dem Severo principe clams habitus de Pascha ex omnium 
qui in Achaia erant episcoporum persona elegantem li- 
orum scripsit. Euseb. H. E. V. 24. tUv im V^s 'Ao-^as 
(Tria-KoiTaiv Tb irdAat TrpoTtpov oirots TTopaboOiv bta(f>v\dT- 
Tfiv i6os xpr\vai SiiVrxj/pifo/.ie'ruj' ^yeiro rioAi/Kpdrr/s' 6$ 
Kal avrbs fv fi irpos BUropa koI Trjv 'PiafxaCmv (KKKrja-Cav 
bi€TviT(i(TaTo ypa<f)fj Tr)V fis avTbv iKdovcrav vapdboaiv ix- 
TlOfTai hi.aT0VTa>v '■'■fjii.fh ovv" k.t.\. Hieron. Catal. 
c. 45. Poly crates Ephesiorum episcopus cum ceteris epi- 
scopit AsicB qui juxta quondam veterem consuetudimm 
cum Judceis XI V" luna Pascha celebrabant scripsit ad- 
versus Victorem episcopum Romanum epistolam synodi- 
cam. — Floruit temporibus Severi principis, ead«m estate 
qua Narcissus Ilierosolymte. Polycrates apud Eusebium 
1. c. says of himself, iyia ovv, d8eA<^oi, (IrJKoina iiivTf 
fTTf i)(a>v iv Kvpiia. Rendered by Hieronymus I. c. Seu:- 
aginta quinque annos atatis mecc iiatus in Domino. 
Polycrates probably reckontid the 65 years from his 
baptism rather than from his birth. 





1 Consuls 

2 Events 


951. Ti. Saturninus G. 

Nor. Idat. Pont. Cod. 
Justin, see col. 3. 

^aropvlXoi Koi r<i\Aos A. 

Saturninus et Gallicanus 
liber pontificalis Damasi 
torn. I p. 619. 

Ti. Safurnino et C. GaUo 

Lapis apud Gruter. p. 
300: conf. a. 190. 

Romae apud Gruterum 
p. 99.1 Panvinium p. 357- 
M. jEI. M. f. Busticus 
rector imm. II lion. IIII 
in diem vitcs sucb mesori- 
lus niach. F. P. quihus ex 
S. C. coire licet Castores 
D D et oh dedicatione de- 
dit sing. * // L. Fcenio 
Fidele QQ.II. dedic. XV 
Kal. Jun. Satumino et 
Gallo cos. 

Severi 6 from Kal. Jun. trib. pot. G from Kal. Januar. 

War with the Parthians. Garacalla declared Augustus, and Geta CcBsar : 
Spartian. Sev. c. 16. Aistate jam exeunte Parthiam inqressus Gtesiphontem pulso 
rege pervenit et cepit hiemali prope tempore — et Parthicum nomen meruit. Oh 
hoc etiam Jilium ejus Bassianurn Antoninum, qui Gcesar appellatus jam fuerat 
[so. A. D. 196], annum XIII agentem, participem imperii dixerunt milites. 
[Lamprid. Diadum. c. 6. Garacallum — Severum — anno demum XIII" Antoni- 
num dixisse, quando ei etiam imperatoriam addidisse dicitur potestatem] Getam 
quoque minorem Jilium Gcesarem dixerunt, eundem Antoninum, ut plerique in 
literas tradunt, appellantes. Ilarum appellationum causa donativum militibus 
largissimum dedit, concessa omni prceda oppidi Parthici. Dio 75. 9. tQ>v hi UAp- 
0<ov ov ^SLVavTcov avTov dAA.' ot/cot avaxfitpr^crai'Taiv — ttX-Om KaraaKevaaai 6 Se^STJpos 
iv T(5 EiK^pcLTri Koi TrAeo)!" re koI fiahi^uiv trap avrbv — raxecos rrjv re SfXev/cetai; 
Koi Tr)V Bapv\&va iKXeujjdiLo-as eA.a/3e, koI ixfra tovto koi Tr}v KTijm^&VTa eAuv 
(KfCvriv Tf TTaaav hapnaa-ai rots (rTpaTidrais «(/)7JK€ <p6vov r« avdpdiTwv ■nkiZcTTOv 
elpyaa-aTo kuI ^&vTas h oUa p-vpiahas (Tkiv. Herodian III. 9 relates the cap- 
ture of Ctesiphon, though he places it improperly after the siege of Atra : 
conf. a. 199. These conquests are marked in this year on two marbles quoted 
by Eckhel. tom.VII p. 177 from Muratori p. 2009. 1. 2 where Severus is called 
AraUcus Adiabenicus [conf. a. 195] Parthicus maximus [conf. a. 198] tr. p. VI 
imp. XI cos. II. 

Prope Beneventum in via Appia apud Gruterum p. 1020. 2. Imp. Casar 
L. Septimius Severus Pius Pertinax pont. maximus trib. pot. VI imp. Gees. M. 
Aurelius Antoninus Aug. imp. Severi Aug. jil. trib. pot. procos. pontem vetustate 
dilapsum a solo sua pecimia restituerunt. Inscriptio apud Panvinium p. 357- 
Imp. Cces. L. Septimio Severo Pio Pertinaci ^ug. pout. max. trib. pot. VI imp. 
XI COS. II p. p. 31. Aurelius MenopMlus ornatus judicio ejus equa publico sa- 
cerdos Tusculamis cedil. Polae. cum Menophilo patre lib. Augg. nn. ex procurat. 
indulgetitissimo L. D. D. 


952. P. Cornelius Anulli- 
nus II M. Aujidius Fronto 
Cod. Justin, see col. 3. 

Anulinus et Fronto Nor. 
Idat. A. 

Romse apud Panvin. p. 
357 Gruter. p. 313. 5. Ti. 
Jul. BalUllo sac. Solis Eu- 
tydies Augg. lihertus offi- 
cinator a statuis amico op- 
tiino dedic. K. Jan. P. 
Gornelio Anullino II et M. 
Aufidio Frontone cos. 

In foro Rom. apud Pan- 
vin. p. 357 Gruter. p. 171. 
7. dedic. XV K. Febr. 
per T. Arrium Bassianurn 
G. V. cur. oper. publico- 
rum Gornelio Anullino II 
et Alt/id. Frontone cos. 

Romse apud Panvin. p. 

Severi 7 from Kal. Jim. trib. pot. 7 from Kal. Jan. Garacallce tr. p. 2. 

Unsuccessful siege of Atra: Dio 75. 9. 10. ov p.ivToi — Ty)v KTricn(j)QvTa xar- 
ioyiv, aX)C uxnrep iirl tovto fiovov fUTpanvKw tva avTrp biapiracrr] uxf". — vn^- 
(TTpe\}/f Se Kad' kripav ohov — /cat 01 fjikv avrw r&v crTpaTiaT&v ireCf} o,Vbi Trapa tov 
TiypLV ol 6e KOi eiii tt\ol<iiv avf!Topevdri(rav. tm be BoKoyalcra roi 'S.avaTpovKov Traihl 
— ixepos n TTJy 'App-evtai eirl Tjj flprjvri exapiaaTO. koI /xera tovto 6 Se/STjpos rfip 
Mf(TOT;orap.Lav bcajBas firfipdOi} ptev Kal tu>v 'Arpav ov ixoppai ovtu)v inipave 6' 
ovbiv. On the errors of Herodian III. 9 both in the time of the siege and the 
position of Atra conf Reimar. ad Dionem p. 1263 n. 52. 1264 n. 57- 

The Parthian war is placed in this year by Hieronymus Chron. Anno 2215 
[A. D. iff] Severi ']« Severus PartJios et Adiabenos superavit Arabasque interio- 
res ita cecidit ut regiones eorum Bonianam provinciam fecerit. Ob qua Parthicus 
et Arabicus et Adiabenicus cognominatus est. Repeated by Cassiodorus : Anu- 
linus et Fronto. His coss. Severus Parthos &c. Two distinct wars are here 
confounded. Severus was called Arabicus Adiabenicus in A.D. 195. He was 
called Parthicus maximus for his successes in 198. conf a. The two wars, of 
195 and 198, are mentioned together without distinction by Eutropius VIII. 
18 (quoted A.D. 195) whom Hieronymus follows; by Orosius VII. 17 (Par- 
thos Arahas Adiabenosque superavit) and by Victor Cibs. p. 327. Auxerit impe- 
rium subacta Persarum rege nomine Agatio \\. Abgaro]. Neque minus ArabaSy 
simul adortus ut est, in ditionem redegit provincice modo. Adiabena quoque, ni 
terrarum macies despectaretur, in tributarios concessisset. Ob hac tanta Arahicum 
Adiabenicum et Parthicum cognomento Patres dixere. Abgarus is mentioned 

R O M A N I 


3 Seculae Authors 


Coins of Secerus: Eckhol. torn. VII p. 1/6. 1 L. 
Sept. See. Pert. Aug. imp. X. -i-p. m. tr. p. VI cos. II 
p.p. or annoncc Augg. marking the two Attgusti. or 
fortimce Augg. or vict. Avgg. 2 L. Sep. Severus Per. 
Aug. p. m. imp. XI + Par. Ar. Ad. tr. /j. VI cob. II. 

Coins of Garacalla: Eckh. torn. VII p. 200. 1 Arir 
tonimis Augmtiis-\- bonus eventus. or Seven Pit Aug.jil. 

2 Imp. CcE. M. Aur. Ant. Aug. .. — . . . . 

3 Imp. Cits. M. Aur. Ant. Aug. p. tr. p.-\- . . — . . . . 

4 Imp. CcBS. M. Aur. Anton. Aug. +juventa imperii. 

5 Imp. G. M. Aur. Antoninus pont. Aug. + imperii fe- 

Laws of Severus: Cod. Justin. II. 12,4 lidem A A. 
[sc. Severus et Antoninus] Venustiano. — pp. VI Kal. 
Mart. IV. 28, 2 Impp. Severus et Antoninus A A. So- 
phia.— pp. V Kal. Mart. IV. 28, 3 lidem A A. Ma- 
crino.—pp. Id. Mart. II. 39, 1 A A. Fhrerdio et aliis. 
— pp. VI No^ias Maii. VI. 53, 1 A A. Agrippce. — 
supposita III Kal. Jun. II. 12, 5 A A. Amhrosio. — 
pp. Kal. Jul. All dated Satumino et Gallo corns. 

According to Spartianus quoted in col. 2 Garacalla 
is not Auguiftm till the close of this year. But in Cod. 
Justin, he is uniformly Antoninus A. in Feb. March 
and May ; and this is confirmed by the coins which 
mark him as Augustus when Severus is yet only imp. X. 
Wherefore we may conclude (with Tillemont tom. Ill 
p. 52. 450) that Spartianus is inaccurate. Garacalla 
was probably Augustus in the beginning of this year ; 
many months before the capture of Ctesiphon. 

Antipater the sophist is favoured by Severus : Phi- 
lostr. V. S. II. 24. AvTLTrdTpU) bi tm (rotpinrfj Trarpls fxev 
Jjv 'lepttiroAi? — narrip be Zev^Cbrjfios t&v iTrKpavfcTOLTuiv 
iKfCvrj. 'Abpiavif ixiv Kal noKvbfVKCi (pomjaas &T!o tov 
HokvbevKOVi fxaKKov ijpiwarai,. — iKpoacrdpLfvoi bi koI TJ\- 
v<avoi Toi) ' AQi)valov to Tttpl t»;j; rexvT]" ax/jt/Ses (Kflvov 
ipMOfv. — Koi is iaroplav ?\a^e to. Se^^poi; tov /Sao-iAt'o)? 
^pya. i(f) ov ixd\i(TTa rais fiamKfion ^irioroAais eiTiTa)(Ofh 
kap.-np6v Ti h' airrals 'ixwev. Galen or the author of 
Thoriaea ad Pisonem Galen, torn. XIV p. 216 — 218 
(quoted by Olearius ad Philostrat. p. «Ofi) names An- 
tijjater after A. D. 198: toi> ddov MdpKov Koi i](j.fls ot- 
bajji-fv (v6((rixa)s itorf fiaaiKevtravra k. t. \. im, p.'kv ixfCvov 
TOV /3a(nAf6)y — ^tti bi toiv vvv pLfyia-Ttiiv avTOKpaTopav 
K. T. K. [conf. a. 198. 2] oTroVe yovv ' Ain-iTiaTpos 6 to? 
'EKKrji'LKas eirKrroAas airrmv irpdrreiv Ttcni(n(vp.fvos, Kal 
bia TO crepLVOv tov ijdovi Kal bia ttiv iv tois pijTopucoiy \6- 
yois lvTiXr\ TiaLbtiav fieyaKms vii avT&v Tip.iapevoi, r^ v(- 
(jipiTiKfj biad^cTfi TTfpnreiToiV beiva Kal']Kf(TTa iwo tov 
nddovs (TTaa-xfv, d^UTrawov avT&v ubov ti}v irepi row 
ipChovi — oTTovb^v. His daughter was married to Her- 
mocrates: Philostr. V. S. II. 25. ' EppiOKpaTri? 6 <P(OKa(vs 
— 'Pov<l)Cvov TOV '2fivpvaiov dfCTjicous to a-oif>ia-TiKa roA/xwz'- 

D d 2 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

357Gruter.p.2()3. limp. 
Gas. L. Septimio Severe 
Pio invic. Aug. Jul. Bal- 
billus sac. Sol. D. D. prid. 
Non. April. Anullino II 
et Frontone cos. 

RonifE via Appia inven- 
tum apud Grut. p. 673. 
12. Q. Ceesio Sabino puero 
dulciss. form, sinqul. Vix. 
an. XI m. nil d. XVII. 
Gcesia Venuleia Prisca 
urn. marmor. mcestiss. pos. 
K. Oct. P. Gomelio Anul- 
lino M. Aufidio Frontone 

In litore Hadriatico apud 
Gruter. p. 3t:9. 2. M. Au- 
JidioFrontonipronepoti M. 
Gorneli Frontonis oratoris 
COS. magistri, imperatorum 
Luci et Anionini [conf. a. 
143. 2] nepoti Aufidi Victo- 
rini prcefecti urois II cos. 
[conf. a. 183] Fronto cos. 
filio dulcissimo. 

Spartian. Sev. c. 17- Persarum [male Persarum : conf. Reim. ad Dionem p. 
1256" n. 3] regem Abgarum suhegit, Arabas in deditionem accepit, Adiabenos in 
tributarios coegit. He submitted at the time of the siege of Atra : Herodian. 
III. 9. 6 6€ 2e/3^po9, tS>v iv ' ApiievCa T!po)(b>povvTav Kara yv^ij.r)v, fin rrjv 'Arpt}- 
v&v -q-nfLyfTo. ■npoiTi(i>vye he aiirw koi 6 'OTpoT)vS>v jBaaiXfvs Avyapos, Tovi re 
TraiSay 6p,rjpevfiv fls icr(j)dkfiav iriVTecas efeSwice rofoVas re 7r\e^oTovs ovfipMxpvs 

Coins o{ Severus: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 178. 1 L. Sept. Sev. Aug. imp. XI 
Part. max. +p. m. tr.p. VII cos. Up. p. 2 Severus Aug. Part. max. +profect. 
Augg. fel. [conf. Eciih. ad loc] 3 L. Sept. Sev. Aug. imp. XI Part. max.+ 
vict. Parthicce. 

Coins of Caracalla: Eckh. p. 201. 1 Antoninva Augustus +pont. tr.p. II. 
2 Imp. GoE. M. Aur. Ant. Aug. p. tr. p. II. + . . — . . 

Inscriptio apud Gruterum p. 264. 4. Neapoli : Imp. Gees. L. Sept. Severo 
Pio Pertin. Aug. Arab. Adiab. Parth. m. trib. pot. VII imp. XI cos. II et imp. 
Gas. M. Aur. Antonino Aug. trib. pot. domin. indulgentiss. ordo P. Q. Neapolit. 


9.53. Ti. Glaudius Sevenis 
G. Aujidius Victorinus Cod. 
Just, see col. 2. 

Secero III et Victorino 
Nor. A. 

Severo II et Victorino 
Idat. Cassiod. Chron. 

Ti. Glatidio Severo G. Au- 
fidio Victorino Gruter. p. 
300: conf. a. 190. 

Cararife agri Lucensis 
apud Panvinium p. 358 
Gruterum p. 12. 1. /. 0. 
M. pro salute imp. Gas. 
L. Septimi Severi Aug. et 
M. Aureli Antonini Aug. 
f. clariss. et Jul. Aug. ma- 
tris Gees, sub cura Fl. Mw- 
tiani Ser. M. Firmidjus 
Spectatus. tr. leg. II Ital. 
P.f. consecravit item de- 
dicavit III Idus Apr. Se- 
vero et Victor. COS. [IIII 
Id. April. Severo et Victo- 
rino Panvin.] \ 

Severi 8 from Kal. Jun. tr.p. 8 from Kal. Jan. Garacallce tr.p. 3. 

Severus still in the East. 

Coins of Severus: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 178. 1 L. Sept. Sev. Aug. imp. XI 
Part, max.+p. majc. tr. p. VIII cos. II p.p. 2 Severus Aug. Part. max.+ 
p. m. tr. p. VIII COS. II. 

Coins of Garacalla: lb. p. 201. Antoninus Augustus + pontif ex tr.p. III. or 
P. maximus [sc. Parthicus tnctximus] tr. p. III. 

Inscriptions: 1 Apud Panvinium p 358 Gruterum p. 191. 1. Imp. Gcesar 
L. Septimius Severus Pertinax Aug. Arabic. Adiab. Parthic. max. pont. max. 
trib. pot. VIII imp. XI cos. II procos. iterum restituit. 2 Emeritse apud Gru- 
ter. p. 156. 9. Imp. Ga's. divi M. Anton. Pii Germ. Sarm.f. divi Gommodi frat. 
divi Antonini Pii nep. &c. — Severus Parth. max. [omit Parth. max.] Aug. Arab. 
Adiaben. Parth. max. pont. max. trib. pot. VIII imp. XI cos. IIII [lege cos. 77] 
proc. iterum restituit. LXXII. 3 In Campania apud Panvinium p. 358 Gru- 
terum p. 264. 1. Imp. Ga-sari L. Septimio Severo Pio Pertinaci Aug. Arab. 
Adiab. Part. max. pont. mMX. trib. pot. VIII imp. XI cos. bis p.p. collegium 
eeneator. 4 An inscription marking these consuls apud Panvinium p. 358 
Gruterum p. 269. 2. Romae : Imp. Cois. imp. Gees. L. Septimi Severi Pii Per- 
tinacis Aug. Arab. Adiaben. Parthic. maximi fortissimi felicissim. p. p. filio 
M. Aurelio Antonino Pio Felici Aug. trib. potest. Ill procos. tibicines liomani 
qui sacris public. prfBsto sunt. Dedic. pr. Non. April. Ti. Glaudio Severo G. Au- 
fidio Victorino cos. QQ. G. PrcEcilio Sereno II Ti. Gl. Titiam. 

Laws of Severus: Cod. Justin. VIII. 45, 1 Impp. Severus et Antoninus AA. 
Munitio.—p p. VI Kal. Martii Severo A. et Victorino conss. VIII. 38, 1 AA. 
Secundo. — accepta XVII Kal. Maii Severo et Victorino conss. III. 31,2 AA. 
Marcelh militi. — dat. Kal. Jul. Severo &c. VIII. 41, 1 AA. Lysi(Z. — pp. 

R O M A N I 


3 Secular Authors 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

Tos ixaWov rj xaTopOovvros. — wiiTTros jjiiv 87) aiiTif iyivfTO 
'ArraKoi 6 noKffxoivos tov o-ofjittTTOv iratv ttuttjp hi 'Pov- 
(Tiviavbs 6 Ik <i>atK^<i>v, Aw/p inaTos, KoAAiffro) yriiMM tt]v 
'AttAKov. — ' AvTftt6.Tpov bi TTapeXr/XD^oTos h ras ^acriXd- 
ovi (TTicTToXai I'jbt] a(nra(ofj.4i'ov re apfioa-ai 01 tt/v kavrov 
dvyarfpa, Trorrjpcos ^)(OV(rav tov fthovs, — ov TTpoTfpov etftr 
fi ^((ifipov avTOKpiropa nfTaTT(ix\jravTa aiiTOv is Trjv ii^av 
hovvai o\ Tr]v Koprjv. — koI iKpoariis bk rov 'EpfioKpArovs 6 
avT0Kp6.T<a>p yfvoixivos riydcrdrj airroJ i<ra ry ■na.Tnrif. Her- 
mocrates died, kot iviovs p-iv inria koI (Ikoo-i ytyovas 
ir-q, is hk Ivioi, -nivTi koX dKoai: koX ihiiaro avrov fj tto- 
Tp<fayfi. Philostr. p. 612. 

Laws of Severus: Cod. Justin. II. 19, 3 Tidem AA. 
Hadriano.—p p. VIII Kal. Fehr. IX. 9, 2 Impp. Se- 
verus et Antaninus AA. Cyro.^pp. Kal. Jul. VI. 47, 1 
AA. Maximo. — proposita pria. Kal. Aug. III. 33, 1 
A A. Posidmio.—p p. • Kal. Oct. VI. 25, 1 AA. A- 
lexandro. — pp. Kal. Oct. All these Anullino II et 
Frmitone conss. 


Galen according to Suidas lived 70 years : conf. a. 
130. which would place his death at A. D. 200, as he 
completed his 37th year in A. D. I67 : conf. a. 

Alexander of Aphrodisias (conf. Suid. p. 182 A) 
flourished : Alex. Aphr. de fato p. 163. rjv bi evx^s 
/Aoi, ixiyioToi avTOKparopfs 2e/3^pf koI 'AvTiov'ivf, avT<f 
yero/xero) Trap Ibdv t( ipMS itat irpocrfiTTfiv Koi KaOo- 
pokoyii(Tai x&pi-v avd" utv iiiadov (v Trap' vpS>v TtoWdKis, 

dei rvx^iv irdvTiav Stv Ti^Citxra. — ^Trei 8e fffxlrai. k. t. X. 

iOapcTTjcra -ntp-^ai. oLKeioTaToii vpHv avaOrfpaTbtv atrcivToiv. 
ri yap h.v oUfioTtpov tois yvrjaCias <\)i\o(TO(\>iav rip,iaa-i re 
Kal irpodyova-w dvddrjpa yeVotro ^ijBKCov iinaxvovpivov 
Oitapiav <pi\6<To<l)oif ; irepuxfiv re ro ^i^Klov tt}v bo^av 
■n]v 'Api(TToTiKovi fjv l^ei Trep^ re Kal irtpl tov 
((}> ripiv. ov TT/s (pi\ocro(f)Las Ttpot<TTapai, vtto rijs vpfTepas 
papTvpCas btbd(TKa\oi airriji KfKrjpvyptvos. This address 
was written after A.D. 198 when Caracalla became 
Augustus, and before A.D. 211 when Severus died. 
But Fabrieius (B. G. torn. V p. 6.50) cannot collect 
from tliis passage where Alexander taught; or that 
ho did not teach at Rome. For Caracalla and Se- 
verus during half the period were absent in the East 
or in Britain. This worii is quoted Euseb. Pnep. 
VI. 9 p. 268. Alexander in another work, Comm. in 
Sopliist. Eiench. apud Sciiol. Aristot. p. 29/ ed. Be- 
rolin. quotes Athenceus : Sxy-ntp 'AQ. kv tu binvocro- 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

Another inscription in 
col. 2. 

Id. Oct. Severo Sec. II. .S5, 1 AA. Longino. — dat. Id. Oct. Severo&c. II. 37, 1 
A A. Longino. — dat. « Severo &c. II. 3, 1 A A. Philino. — pp. VII Kal. Dec. 
Severo &c. The erroneous description of the consul Severo A in the first law 
may be corrected from all the others. 


01. 245 U. C. Varr. 954. 
L. Annim Fabianus M. 
Nonius Mucianus 

Nor. Cod. Justin, see 
col. 3. 

Muciano et Fabiano Idat. 

voi A. 

Romae apud Panvin. p. 
358 Gruterum p. 310. 6. 
Nwmisice MaximillcB V. V. 
max. Ti. Jul. Balhillus S. 
Solis ded. Idib. Jan. L. 
Annio Fabiano M. Nonio 
Muciano cos. 

Romae apud Panvin. p. 
358 Gruterum p. 32. 6. 
313.6. (So^i sacr. pro sal. 
Gl. Juliani P. V. prcef. 
annoncE Ti. Jul. Balbil- 
lus S. Sol. ded. XIII Kal. 
Feb. L. Annio Fabiano 
M. Nonio Muciano cos. 

De Muciano Gruter. p. 
442. 1 Brixise : M. Nonio 
M. f. Fab. Muciano cos. 
XVvir. sacris fac. C. Ju- 
lius Sacerdos commilito. et 
amico. p. 442. 4. extra 
Brixiam : M. Nonio M. f. 
Fab. Muciano cos. XVviro 
sacr. fac. Mucianus avo. 

Bennse apud Panvin. p. 
358 Gruter. p. 442. 3. M. 
Nonio M.f. Fab. Muciano 
COS. XVvir. sacris fac. leg. pr.prov. Pannon. 
inferior. L. Ussius Plicen- 
tinus commit, prcesidi Op- 

A fourth apud Grut; p. 
442. 2. where for FOB. 
read FAB. 

Severi 9 from Kal. Jun. tr. p. 9 from Kal. Jan. Caracallce tr. p. 4. 

Hieron. Chron. Anna 2216 [A. D. 20^] Severi 8'> Severo imperante thermw 
Severiance apud Antiochiam et Romce facta, et Septizonium eadructwm. Placed 
in A. D. 201 by Cassiodorus : Fabianus et Mucianus. His coss. thermoe Severi- 
ance et Septizonium, instructum est. Conf. Spartian. Sev. c. 19. 24. 

Severus and Caracalla in Syria at the close of this year are consules designati. 
Caracalla receives the toga virilis : conf a. 202. 

Inscriptions: 1 Romae apud Panvinium p. 358 Gruterum p. 187- 3. Imp. 
Gees, divi M. Antonini Pii Germ. Sarm. Jilius &c. — Severus Pius Pertinax 
Aug. Arabic. Adiab. Parthic. max. pont. max. trib. pot. Villi imp. XI cos. II 
p. p. pro COS. et imp. Gees. &c. — M. Aurelius Antoninus Pius Felix Aug. trib. 
potest. IIII pro COS. arcus Geelimontanos plurifariam vetustate conlapsos et con- 
ruptos a solo sua pecunia restituerunt. 2 Ursini tres columnae apud Gruterum 
p. quarum prima apud Scaligerum ad Euseb. Chron. p. 228 et 
Panvinium p. 358. Imp. Ccesar Lucius Septimius Severus Pius Pertinax Aug. 
Arabic. Adiabenicm Parthicus maximus pontifex max. trib. potest. Villi imp. 
XII [bene Panvinius XI'\ cos. II p.p. procos. et imp. Ccesar Marcus Aurel. 
Anton. Pius Aug. trib. pot. IIII procos. et imp. P. Septimius Geta Antoninus 
vias et pontes rest. ab. Aug. M. P. XXX XI. Imp. Gcesar &c. — trib. pot. Villi 
imp. XII cos. II p. p. procos. et imp. Gcesar &c. — trib. pot. IIII &c. rest. ab. 
Aug. M. P. XXXXII. Imp. Ccesar ha.— trib. pot. Villi imp. XII cos. II 
p. p. procos. et imp. Gcesar &c. — trib. pot. IIII &c. rest. ab. Aug. M. P. XXXIII. 
3 Prope Vilthaimum apud Grater, p. 157- 5. Imp. Gees. &c. — trib. pot. Villi 
imp. XII COS. II p.p. procos. et imp. Gcesar &c. — trib. pot. IIII procos. et imp. 
P. Septimius Geta Antoninus vias et pontes rest, ab Aug. M. P. GX. 4 Pute- 
olis apud Gruterum p. 157- 7- Imp. Gees. &c. — trib. pot. IX imp. XII cos. II 
p.p. procos. et imp. Cees &c. — trib. pot. IIII procos. vias restituit a Puteol. 
5 In Algoia Germaniae apud Gruter. p. 157- 8. Imp. Gaaar &c. — trib. pot. 
Vim imp. XII COS. II p. p. procos. et imp. Ctesar &c. — trib. pot. IIII procos. 
vias et pontes restit. a Gamb. 31. P. XI. In all these inscriptions imp. XII 
ought to be imp. XI, as it is rightly given by Panvinius and Scaliger in one 
of them. All the other characters of time are exact in all. 

6 Apud Panvinium p. 358 Gruterum p. 191.2. Imp. Gcesar L. Septimius 
Severus &c.—pont. max, trib. pot. Villi imp. XI cos. Ill procos. p. p. Read 
cos. II. 


955. L. Septimius Sever m 
Augustus III M. Aurelius 
Antoninus Augustus Nor. 

Severi 10 from Kal. Jun. tr.p. 10 from Kal. Jan. Caracallai tr. p. 5. 
Severus and Caracalla are in Syria Jan. 1 : Spartian. Severo c. 16. Qwum 
Antiochiam transisset, data virili togajilio majori secum eum consulem designavii, 

R O M A N I 


3 Skcular Authoes 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

<(>{(rTTi. who probably wrote a short time before this 
period : conf. a. lyt. 

Amrmnim Saccas taught at Alexandria. He was 
heard by Origm in A. D. 206" and by Heraclas five 
years before Oripen : conf. a. 206. He still taught in 
A. D. 242 : conf. a. so that ho presided in his school 
for at least 42 years. Lonpinus in his youth heard 
Ammonius: conf. a. 2C5. i^to'wus studied under him 
eleven years : conf. a. 232. 242. 

Coins of Severm ; Eckhel. torn. VII p. 178. 

1 Severm Atig. Part. max. + Antoninm Augustus, or 

eeternit. imperi. with the heads of S&verus and 
Caracalla. or eeternitas imperi. with Caracalla 
and Geta. or felicitas seeculi. 

2 Severm Au^. Part. max. p. m. tr. p. Villi. + cos. 

II p. p. 

3 L. Sev. Sept. Aug. imp. XI Part. max. + votis de- 


4 Severus Pius Aug. + cetemit. imperi. or Part. max. 

p. m. tr. p. Villi, or p. m. tr. p. Villi cos. II 

Coins of CaraeaUa: Ibid. p. 202. 

1 Antoninus Augustus + virtus Augg. pont. tr. p. I I II. 


2 Antoninus Pius Aug. + Part. max. poni. tr. p. II II. 

or vict. Part. max. 

Laws of Severus: Cod. Justin. V. 58, 1 Impp. Se- 
verm et A7itoninus A A. Stratoni. — pp. VII Kal. Mart. 
Fahiano et Mutiano conss. IV. 28, 4 AA. CyrillcB. — 
pp. XII Kal. Mali Fabiano &c. V. 12, 1 A A. Ni- 
ceplwro. — pp. data Kal. Augmt. Mutiano et Fahiano 
conss. II. 19,4 AA. Claudia. — pp. Ill Non. Dec. 
Fahiano et Muciano conss. 

Origm's education at this time is mentioned by 
Eusebius H. E. VI. 2. irpoax^tls insh rov itarpbi iv toTs 
'E\Xr]V(i»v fiaOrJiiocriv iKdvfwT(p6v t« itai fifrh Trjv iKfCvov 
T(\evTr)v Tjj iTfpi roiis \dyovs A<r»c^(T<t S\ov liriZovs iaxrrov, 
i)S Koi Ttapa<rK(vr)v inl ra ypafit/xariKCl oi y.(Tpiav i^o-v. 

Dion Cassius is at Rome or in Italy at this period. 
He was prsetor A. D. 194 : conf. a. 193. In the senate 
at the arrival of Severus in 193: 74- 4. r;fx€ty oi fiov- 

Persocution under Severus : Euseb. H. E. VI. 2. 6^- 
Karot) fxiv yap ^ireixe 2(fiijpos Trjs ^acriXfCas Itos, rrydro 
Be AAefavSptias koI ttjj Aoiirffs Aiyvvrov Aalros, tuv bf 




1 Consuls 

Idat. Cod. Just, see col. 2. 

2e/37;pos to 8' koI 'Aitw- 
woy A. 

Lapidea tabula reperta 
Romse apud Gruterum p. 
300.1. (conf. a. 115. 153. 
161. 169) C. Licinim Trio 
PauUnus cooptatus imp. L. 
Septimio Severo Pio Per- 
tinace Aug. Ill et M. Au- 
relio Antonino Aug. cos. 
M. Acilio Faustin... Tri- 
ario Bufino cos. [A. D. 2 1 0] 
M. Antonius Bufinus co- 
optatus P. B.C. A. DCOCC 
LXII. M. Antonius Fei. . . 

Ti. Manilio Ser. CaU 

pumio. . . . (cos.) [ A. D. 228] 
P.B. C.A. DCCCC... 
A. Terentius Pudes imp. 
Cess. M. Aurel. Sebero ... 



In antiqua basi apud 
Panvinium p. 359 Grute- 
rum p. 1082. 10. Dedic. 
L. Septimio Severo III 
M. Aurelio Antonino Augg. 


2 Events 

est statim in Syria consulatum inierunt. Post hoc data stipendio cumulatiore mili- 
tibus Alexandriam petiit. In itinere Palcestinis plurima jura fundavit. Judceos 
fieri sub gram poena vetuit ; idem etiam de Christianis sanxit [see col. 4]. — 
Jucundam sibi peregrinationem hanc propter religionem dei Serapidis — fuisse 
Severus ipse postea semper osfendit. Nam et Memphin et Memnonem et pyramides 
et labyrinthum diligenter inspexit. Mentioned by Dio 75. 13. amos 6e -nAkiv eirt 
TO. 'Arpa fCTTpdrevae k. t. K. eiKocn 8' ovv rjfxipas rf} TioXwpKia Trporrebpfvcyas is ttjv 
YlaXaiaTLVrjv /xera tovto rjXde — Koi es Trjv klyviiTov tt]v avu> 8ta tov Vietkov avi- 
■nkevae, koI ei6e iraaav avrrjv ■jtAj/j' ^pa\ia>v — k(u iT!okvnpayp.6vr)(Ti TravTa koi to, 
■ndw K(KpviJ.iJiiva. 

Severus returns to Rome, celebrates the decennalia and the marriage of 
Garacalla and Plautilla: Dio 76. 1. 6 8e Se/S^pos iiii. ttjj beKaerripibos ttjs dp^fis 
aiiTov ebiap-qa-aTO t(o re 6/xt'\(o Ttavrl t(2 o-troSorou/xeVo) koX rais (TTpaTLiarais k.t.A.. — 
f-!:oirjdr](Tav be koX ol yd/xot tov Tf ' AvTotvivov tov vlov tov 'Sf^rjpov Koi Tfjs Tikav- 
Tikkrjs Trjs TOV rikavTLavov dvyarpoi. Herodian. III. 10. KaTopddcras 8e to. Kara 
TTjV avaTokrjV 6 '2e(3fipos eis rrjv 'Pu/xjjy rjTTtCyfTO ayutv ko.), tovs iraiSas eis rjkiKiav 
e(l)riJ3o)v ijbr] TfkovvTas — tov 6e irpfajBvTfpov — ^ej3fjpQs ^AvTa>vivov iivojxacrev — r\yd- 
yiTO re airco yvvaiKa, yap,(a a'uxfypovCa'ai Oekwv. riv be (KiCvq dvydr-qp tov eiidpyov- 
ros tS)v (TTpaToTtibwu. Dio 75- 15. ^(jSripos Koi ttjv re dvyaTfpa avrov tm vUZ 
flxirqcTTevcrev — v-naTov re [sc. in A. D. 203] dwe'8ei£e. The marriage is fixed to 
this year by coins : see col. 3. 

Laws of this year : Cod. Justin. II. 3, 2 lidem AA. Glaudio.^) p. prid. Id. 
Feb. Severo III et Antonino AA. conss. II. 32, 1 AA. Antonio. — pp. XV 
Kal. April. Sirmii AA. Ill et I conss. II. 3, 3 AA. Bestituto. — p p. VIII 
Kal. April. Severo III Sec. II. 1, 3 A A. Valenti. — Dat. II Kal. Sept. Severo 
III he. 111.9,1 AA. Valenti. — Dat. Kal. Sept. Severo III Slo. Herodian 
III. 10 records that Severus returned to Rome through Thrace and Pannonia: 
ets t}]V 'FufjiTiv riireiyeTO. — avvcras be ti)V obomopCav ret re ev rois eOvecri bioiKr)cras 
&)S eKaoTO) d7r»;ret to \pei,S)bes, Ta re ev Miktois koI YXaiocn crTpaToiteba eirekOmv, 
viKr)(p6poi vT!o TOV ' Pcd/xoiMi' hr}p.ov — vTrebexOrj. And this account is confirmed by 
Cod. Justin, which attests that Severus was at Sirmium in A.D. 202. But as 
Severus passed the beginning of the year in Syria and Egypt, he could not 
have been at Sirmium on the 1 9th of March ; and there is error in the month 
in Cod. Justin. II. 32, 1. For XV Kal. April, we may substitute some later 
month, perhaps September or October. The date XV Kal. Jfpril. appears 
again in the Code at II. 33,2, from whence it was probably transferred to 
II. 32, 1 by the transcriber, misled by the name Sirmii, which occurs in both 

Plautilla, commemorated in a coin of Garacalla, is also recorded in a marble 
apud Eckhel. torn. VII p. 22/- Fulvia Plautilla Aug.JiliaL.Fulvii Plautiani. 

Inscriptio in fronte Panthei Romani apud Panvinium p. 359 Gruterum p. 
1. 1 Eckhel. torn. VIII p. 423. Imp. Cces. L. Septimius Severus Pius Pertinax 
Arabicus &c. trib. potest. X imp. XI cos. Ill p. p. procos. et imp. Cee.i. M. Au- 
relius Antonin. Pius Felix Aug. trib. potest. V cos. procos. Pantkeum vetustate 
corruptum cum omni cultu restituerunt. Optime Panvinius trib. pot. X. conf. 
Eckhel. p. 423. 424. Male Pagius Diss. Hyp. p. 94 male Gruterus trib. 
pot. XI. 


956. P. Septimius Geta 
Pulvius Plautianus II 

Plautiano et Geta Nor. 
Chron. Pasch. 

Severi 1 1 from Kal. Jun. tr. p. 11 from Kal. Jan. Caracallce tr.p. 6. 

Plautianus slain Jan. 22 : Chron. Pasch. p. 266 B. YlkavTLavos 6 viraros eacpayq 
TTpb la Kakavb&v 'I>el3povapLb)v. Dio 76. 3 — 5 relates his death by the contrivance 
of Garacalla : e^aCcfyvrjs be Tavr ev rats deaipCaLs rats ev t&> TraAartw ijpwai TreTtoLrj- 
jxevMs [ludis Palatinis XVI — XI Kal. Febri\, rijj re Qeas a.(j)eip.evr]s koX belTivov 

R O M A N I 


3 Secular Authors 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

KfvraC. — present at his harangue to the people : /'l- 5 
r]f/.fis ■noWa fxiv bia ixiaov tS>v Koyiav avrov iirf^o&ixfv, — 
rjufls 6e fi fiovXr) k. t. A. At Home during the war with 
Albinus A. D. 195: 75- '^ w*'* "l ^ovkcvral r)<n)(iav 
I'lyofifv. — and in A. D. IJOO: 75. IC aScrrf rjiias Oavfjida-ai. 
and at the marriage of Plautilla and Caracalla in 202 ; 
7K. 1 dho^iv hi avTo, bia tt/s oyopos li to TiaXaTiov (to/xi- 
(ofifva- ([(TTiddriiJLfv b( k. t. A. and in A. D. 203 : JG. 8 
i,Kov(TavTfs r/jueis (v hfiv^ iroflti iyfvofieOa k. t. \. And 
after the return of Severus to Rome : JG. 17 o S«/3^poy 
— ^^iv Tois avvbiKaCovinv avr^ Ttappriarlav iroWijv (bCbov, 
At this period Dion often retired to Capua : 76- 2 t^v 
Kam/jji' tr J] ocraKii hv Iv rfi IroA^a oIkH 6toy<a — tovto 
yap rb )((i>plov efeiAojUTjr t&v t« aWav evfKa /cat r?/? fjov- 
X^as on fiaXicTTO, tra (T\o\iiv i/no tUv aariKUV irpayfjuxTcov 
Ayoiv ravra ypdyjfaiiu. 

Coins of Severus: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 180. 1 Se- 
verus Pius Atuf. + advent. Augg. 2 Sever. P. Aug. p. m. 
tr.p. X COS. III. + advent. Augg. 3 Severus Pius j4ug. 
+ Augusti COS. or Icetitia temporum. 4 Severus Pius 
Atig. p. m. tr.p. X. +/elicitas sccculi. 5 Severus Pius 
Au^g. + lib. Aug. III. p. m. tr.p. X cos. Ill p.p. or vota 
suae. dec. p. m. tr.p. X cos. III p. p. or vota suscepta 

Coins of Caracalla : lb. p. 202. 1 Anton. P. Aug. 
pon. tr. p. V cos. + advent. Aug. 2 M. Antoninus Pius 
Am. pon. tr.p. V+ann. Attg. sceculi felicissimi. 3 Ati- 
tomnus Pius Aug. + Jugusii cos. or advent. Augg. with 
a trireme, or advent. Augustor. with a trireme, or 
c&ncordia feluc. 4 Anton. P. Aug. pon. tr.p. V cos.+ 
concordiee eetemee. or Plautillee Augusta;, (conf. Eckh. 
p. 22(>). or propago imperi. 5 Antoninus Pius Aug.-'r 
■vot. stisc. dec. pon. tr.p. V cos. or vota suscepta XX. 
Eckhel p. 202 observes upon the coins with a trireme 
" Insignes hi numi decent Augustos itinere maritimo 
" ex ^gypto in urbem reverses." But this opinion is 
refuted by Herodian and Cod. Justin, quoted in col. 2. 
After the progress through Illyricum Severus might 
have approached Rome from the Adriatic by sea ; 
which may be commemorated in the coins of Eckhel. 

avrodi TTapoiKi&f rifv i7ii(TK0TTr}V vfaarl t6t( fitra 'lovAto- 
vov A-qfirp-pios v7r<iA^0« [conf. a. lyO]. ds M<y<* ^h <'5'' 
r^s Tov buayfwS TrvpKa'iai a(p$(Cirt]S — Ipcai roiroGroj pnxprv- 
pCov TTjv 'ilpiyivovi hi Kofiibrj TtaMs inidp\ovT09 Karti\( 
v/fvxV i>s ofwcrf Toiy Kivbvvoi's xuipuv k.t.X. Origen at 
the death of his father Leonidas (Euseb. H. E. VI. 1) 
had not completed his 17th year: Euseb. H. E. VI. 2. 
is bi TJbri avTif 6 iraTTip fiaprvpCtf TtTtXfuaro, ipr\yxti &fia 
IxryrpX (col j3pa)(vr^pon ib(K(f)oii tov apiOnbv tf iirraKaib4- 
Karov ov itXripts iyaiv /roy KOToAftrtrai. Hieron. Catal. 
c. 54. Origenes, qui et Adamantim [conf. Euseb. H. E. 
VI. 14], decimo Severi Pertinacis anno adversum Chri- 
stianas persecutione commota, a Leonida patre Christi 
martyrio coronato cum sex fratrihut et matre vidua j>au- 
per relinquitur, annos not us circiter XVII. Conf. Phot. 
Cod. 118. If the 17th year of Origen was still current 
in the autumn of A. D. 202, his first year was still 
current in the autumn of A. D. 1 8(>, and his birth may 
be placed at the close of A. D. 185. 

Judas flourished: Euseb. H. E. VI.7. iv TovT<f km 
'\ovbas — eli tos irapa rcjl Aavii]\ i^bonriKovTa i^topMbas 
iyypd<pa)i bM\f\0eh M to btKarov TrJ9 ^fj3ripov jSafft- 
kflas ttrnjc-i ttjv xpovoypatfylav. hi koI Tr)v dpvk\ovp.ivr)v 
TOV &VTi.\pC(TTov TTapov(TLav j/Sjj ToTe irXrjo-idCdP iftro' ovtoi 
ircpobpQs T) ToiJ /cad' fifjMV t6t( bi<aynov Klmjcns tos tUv 
TToW&v dvoreropoxf biavolas. Hieron. Catal. c. 52. Ju- 
das de LXX apud Danielem hebdomadibus plenissime 
disputavit, et Ghronograpkiam miperiorum temporum 
usque ad decimum Severi produxit annum. In qua er- 
roris arguitur quod adventum Antichrusti circa sua temr- 
pora/uturum esse dixerit. Sed hoc idea quia magnitudo 
persecuiionum preesentem mundi minabatur occasum. 

Coins of Severus: Eckhel. tom. VII p. 183. Severus 
Pius Aug. + indulgentia Augg. in Carth. or //// libera- 
litas Augg. or p. m. tr.p. XI cos. Ill p. p. 

Coins of Caracalla: lb. p. 204. 1 Antoninus Pius 

Origen set. 18 teaches at Alexandria: Euseb. H. E. 
VI. 3. (TXpKdioim be r^ Storpt^g, <5y ttov xal ovtoj iy- 
ypd<lxt)s loTopei, fiTjSero's re eVl ttjs 'AXefarSpf I'o? rcji kutt)- 
\(lv ivaKeipifvov, iritrrav bi aT:fKi)\ap.(v<av into Trjs drrei- 
kiji TOV buaypMv, Tspo<rj^iaav avT^ rtr^s aith t5>v idvtov 

E e 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

PlautianoIIet Geta Idat. 

2f7rrijw.tos TtTa's (cat Br\- 
poi A. 

Geta et Plautianus Cas- 

For Cod. Justin, see 
col. 2. 

De Geta' Severi fratre 
Spartianus Severo c. 8.14 
Geta c. 2. Dio 76. 2. 6 
abfkcfyos avT<^ FeVas reXeu- 
70)1' TTorra ra Kara tov 
■ ffMrjinKTfv. 

nXavTiavov - 
Geta therefore died in his 
consulship before Jan. 22. 
Named in an inscription 
apud Gruter. p. 1099. 7- 
GortynsG : Ilovfikiov 2eir- 
rlfiiov TiTav Tafxiav koL 
avTicTTparriyov Kp-qr-qs Koi 
Kvprjvqs K. T. K. 

De Plautiano Herodian 
III. 11. ev Toij bfvrepov 
v-narevcraaiv fTiraKTo. 

IxekXavTOi (<Tfa-dai iyivovTO. — ovtuis vtto re tov yafx^pov eo-c^ctyjj k. t. A.. The ac- 
count of Herodian III. 11, which is adopted by Ammianus XXIX. 1, 17, is 
less probable. For the character the power and the insolence of Flautianm 
conf. Dion. 75. 14 — Hj Aminianum XXVI. (>, 8. 

1 Arch of Severus commemorating his victories: Gruter. p. 265. 1 Eckhel. 
torn. VII p. 205. Imp. Gees. Lucio Septimio M. fil. Severo Pio Pertinaci Aw). 
patri patrice Parthico Arahico et Parthico Adiahenico pontific. maximo tribunic. 
potest. XI imp. XI cos- III procos. et imp. Gees. M. Aurelio L. fil. Antonino 
Aug. Pio Felici tribunic. potest. VI cos. procos. {et P. Septimio Getce nobilissimo 
Ctesari) ob rempublicam restitutam imperiumque populi liomani propagatum in- 
signibus virtiitlbus eorum domi forisque S. P. Q. R. The words et P. Sept. G. n. 
Ceesari were erased by Caracalla after the murder of Geta, and p. p. optimin 
fortissimisque principibus were substituted. 

2 Inscriptio Roniae in porticu tenipli quondam Junonis apud Gruterum p. 
172. 5. Imp. Cess. L. Septimius Secerus Pius Pertinax Aug. Arabic. Adiabenic. 
Parthic. maximus trib. potest. XI imp. XI cos. Ill p. p. et imp. C<bs. M. Au- 
relius Antoninus Pius Felix Aug. trib. potest. VI cos. procos. incendio corrupiam 

3 Romse apud Gruterum p. 191. 5. Imp. Cces. divi M. Antonini Germ. Sarm. 
fil. &c. L. Septimius Severus &c. trib. pot. XI imp. XI cos. Ill p.p. procos. et 
imp. Ctes. &c. M. Aurelius Antoninus Pius Aug. trib. pot. V [lege VI] cos. pro- 
cos. vetustate collapsum restitmrunt. 

4 Apud Vaccseos Hispan. Gruter. p. 264. 3. Imp. Gees. Septimio Severo Pio 
Pertinaci Arabico Adiabenico Parthico max. trib. pot. XI cos. Ill .. . . . R. P. 
Euradensium . ... ex 

Laws of this year : Cod. Justin. V. 66, 1 Im,pp. Severus et Antoninus AA. 
Herodiano. — pp. Non. April. Geta et Plautiano II corns. II. 21, I A A. Gle- 
mentinrp. — accq>ta. dat. Ill Id. Mali Plautiano II et Geta corns. II. 19, 5 
AA. Tryphonio. — pp. XIII Kal. Jul. Geta et Plautiano II conss. III. 31, 3 
AA. Fpictesidi. — pp. V Id. Aug. Geta &c. III. 8, 1 A A. Marcellince et aliis. 
—Dat. XIII Kal. Dec. Geta &c. II. 12, 6 AA. Justo.—^p. VII Id. Dec. 
Geta et Plautiano conss. In all these laws but one Plautianus is cos. II, and 
in all but one Geta is placed first. 


957. L. Fabius Galerius 
Septiminus Gilo II et Libo 
A. Cod. Justin. II. 44, 1. 
III. 17, 1. IV. 2, 1. V. 
15, 1. 62,1. 62,2. 68, 1. 
VI. 2,2. 3,1. 26,2. 28,1. 
35, I. 53,2. 53,3. VIII. 
14,2. IX. 41,2. 

Chilone et Libone 11.13,3. 

Gruter. p. 386.1. 497.13. 
Cilone II et Libone cos. 
XV Kal. No. 

Cilone et Libone Nor. 
Idat. Censorin. c. 17 Zo- 

Severi 12 from Kal. Jun. trib. pot. 12 from Kal. Jan. Caracalla; tr.p. 7- 
Ludi S(sculares : Censorin. c. 17. Octavos (ludos) imperatores Septimius et M. 
Aurelius Antoninus, Cilone et Libone coss. anno DGCCCL VII. Zosim. II. 4, 6. 
6 2e/3^pos tG)V biKa koL tKarbv fvmdvTcov (tS>v a/xa rois ijaLoiv ' Avravivw icai Fera 
Tr]V avTTfV (oprrjv KaTajTr^aaTo, XiAcofoy k<u Ai^utvos ovTcav VTrdrcav. Conf. II. 7, 3. 
Marked on the coins of this year : see col. 3. 

Panvinius p. 359 Gruterus p. 265. 2. Alterius arcus Severi qui in foro boario 
est inscriptio : Dnp. Cees. L. Septimio Severo Pio Pertinaci Au,g. Arabic. Adia- 
benic. Parth. max. fortissimo felicissimo pontif. max. trib. potest. XII imp. XI 
cos. Ill patri patrice et imp. Cces. M. Aurelio Antonino Pio Felici Aug. trib. 
potest. VII COS. Ill p.p. procos. [lege cos. procos. omissis cs&teris] fortissinw feli- 
cissimoque principi et Julice Aug. matri Aug. n. et castrorum et senatus et patria- 

et imp. Cats. M. Aureli Antonini Pii Felicis Aug maximi 

maximi argentari et negotiantes boari hujus loci qui invehent devoti mcmini 

R O M A N I 


3 Secular Authors 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

Aup. pont. tr.p. VT.+indulpmUia Augg. in Carth. '2 
Aiitoninm Pirn Aug. + //// liheralitas Augg. or pont. 
tr.p. VI COS. 

iKovcrdiifvoi t6v Koyop toC 0€ov' wp irpSiTOV iiturrjiJialvfTcu 
yfyovivau Wko^frapypv , 6s ;xrr^ rh iSi&vat xaX&s koX nap- 
TvpCio OfOf (carfKotrpi^Oij* hivrtpov 'HpoicAar rov XWovT&p- 
)(pv iihiki^hv, &y 6^ koI avrhi nap avrif irXf larrfv (f)i\o<T6- 
(jiov 01OV Kol d(r(C7j<Teci)y iirobfiliv Trapa(T\(i)v r^s 'AXtfar- 
bpiuv juera A?j/xTjrpior iitKTKoirrji dfioCrat [conf. a. 233]. 
4tos 8' ^y<f OKTaKaib^Karov Kofl' & rov t-^s KaTTj\rja(as 
■npolim) bibacTKaKfCov. iv <^ xal ■npoKOinu iiti tS>v koto, 
'AicvKav riji ' AKf^avbptCai rjyovfKvov buayyMV. Hieron. 
Catal. c. 54. Hie Alexandrite disperm ecclesia XV III" 
cetatis »um anno (carr/x^trewv opus aggretsus pottea a De- 
metrio ejus urhis epiacopo [Euseb. H. E. VI. 3. ^7r«i8^ 8i 
idpa <})0irrjTas ?/8ij irKdovi itpotriovTai avrif fwiy riji rov 
KaTr]\(lv 8tOT/)t/3f/y inrb Arj/xrjrpfou toC ttjs iKKKrfa-Cai irpo- 
farHroi ^TriTtrpo/x/i^/njs] in locum GlemetUis presbyteri 
confirmatus per muUos annos floruit. Clemens is still 
living ; and it seems that during his absence Origen 
taught at this time. Clemens came between Pantcentu 
and Origen. Panicenus conversed with those who had 
seen the Apostles, Clemens with Panicenus, Origen with 
Clemens. Conf. a. 205. 

Asclepiades succeeds Serapion at Antioch in the 
time of the persecution : Euseb. H. E. VI. 1 1. r^s Kar 
' \i>Ti.6y{ii.av iKK\rj<rlas 'SapairCavos ivairavffaiievov, tt}v 
iina-KOTrfiv 8ia8e'x«'"ot 'Ao-kAtjtticiSjjs fv Toiy Kara tov 8io>- 
yixov 6fw\oy[aK biavpiyjras koI avTos. lUnmjTai koI riji 
TovTov KaTacrrdKTfODi ' AXt^avbpos ' Ainu>\eS<Ti ypicfiotv <58e" 
" AKilavbpos bovKos koI be<rinos 'Irjcrov Xpurrov rrj ixaxa- 
" piq ' AvTiox(<^v ^KKAj/cria iv ia'pC<f \a[pfiv. iXacppd fxoi 
" Koi KOV(f)a ra bfcrfxa 6 Kvpios eiroiJjcre Kara tov xaipov 
" T^s (IpKTTJs TTvOofjifvip TTJs hyCas ipMv tS>v ^AvTio\iav 
" iKKkriaCai — 'A<r(tAT}7r«i8j;i; — Tr)v nrCcmv Trjs ^ttutkott^s 
" fyK(^(ipurp.ivov.—^ravTa b( vy-lv, Kvpiol fxov ab(\(f)ol, ra 
" ypifUMTa aTT^arftXa 8io KX^/ifiroy tov p-aKapCov npta- 
" iSyT^pov." sc. Clement. Alexand. This testimony re- 
futes the date of Eusebius for the appointment of 
Asclepiades, who places it in A.D. 212. Conf. Vales, 
ad Euseb. 1. c. 

Herodian witnessed the games of Secerns at Rome : 
III. 8. (Ibofifv (it' avTov kol d^as tiv&v vavTobaTT&v Ota- 
IxaTiav (V Tiaoi Ofdrpois oftov, if povpyCas r< — aimvCovi bi 
avTas iKoKovv ol Tore [see col. 2], iKovoirrts TpiQv ytvf&v 
biabpap.ov<r6iv fTHTe\€l<Tdai. From the words ol Tore, 
and toy TLVfs tS>v toV* ].(n6pr)(jav III. "J, in the descrip- 
tion of the battle with Albinus A. D. 197, 't appears 
that the history was written long after this period. 

Coins of Severus: Eckhel. tom. VII p. 185. 1 Se- 
verus Pitis Aug. + cos. Ill ludos sac. fee. 2 Severus 
Pius Aug. p. m. tr.p. XII + cos. Ill ludos sac. fee. 

8. C. 3 4- scecularia sacra. S. C. 4 Severus 

Pius Aug. p. m. tr. p. Xll+arcus Auqg. S. C. [conf. a. 
203.2.] 5 Severus Pius Aug. + liberalitas Augg. V. or 
p. m. tr.p. XII cos. Ill p.p. 

E e 2 




1 Consuls 

sim. II. 4, 6. II. 7, 3. 
On Gilo COS. see col. 2. 

2 Events 

Four inscriptions are extant in honour of Gilo the consul of this year : 
1 Romse apud Gruter. p. 406. 9 Panvin. p. 359. L. Fabio M.f. Galer. Septi- 
mino Giloni prcef. urh. C. V. cos. II M. Vihius Maternus Ilurensis a militiis 
candidatus ejus. 2 Romse basis apud Gruter. p. 406". 10. A. ^A^iov KftKmva 
Tov KufxTipoTaTov tuapyov 'Pw/[j.?js vnaTov to /3' 17 firfTpoTioKis tt]s FaXaTtoy 'AvKvpa 
Tov kavTTis TipocrTdTrjv. 3 Roniae apud Gruter. p. 407- 2. L. Fabio M.f. Gal. 
Giloni Septimio cos. prmf. urh. leg. Augg. propr. Pannon. super, duci &c. — Me- 
diolanenses patrono. 4 Romae apud Panvinium p. 359 Grutenim p. 407. 1- -^• 
Fabio M.f. Gal. Giloni Septimino &c. — comiti imp. L. Septimi Severi Sec. Ti. 
CI. Ambratianvs 7 leg. V Macedonicte oh merita. 


01. 246 U. C. Varr. 958. 
M. Aurelius Jntoninus 
Augustus II P. Septimius 
Geta Ciesar 


Antonino II et Geta II 

'Ai'Tui'tos TO /3' Kox Te'yas 
Koio-op A. 

For Cod. Justin, see 
col. 2. In some places 
Cod. Justin, omits Casar, 
in others improperly adds 
Geta COS. " //." 

Perusise apud Panvinium 
p.359 Gruterump.487.2. 
C. Vihio a f. L. n. Tro- 
gallo Proculeiano patrono 
Perusinorum patrono et 
curatoriR.P. Vettonensium 
judici de V dec. CEdili pa- 
trono collegi centon. Vihius 
Veldumnianus avo Jcaris 
simo. oh cujus dedicatio- 
nem dedit decurionih. X. 
pedic. Idih. Jul. Imp. M. 
Aurelio Antonino Aug. Pio 
Fel. II {P. Septimio Geta 
Antonino n. Gees. cos. ad 
dit Panvinius.) 

Severi 13 from Kal. Jun. tr.p. 13 from Kal. Jan. GaracallcB tr.p. 8. 

Severus is at Rome or in Campania: Herodian. III. 10. viK-qcpopos iiro tov 
'Pwjuaiojj' brjixov — v'itfbe)(6r] [A.D. 202] dvaias re Koi eopTas 6ias Te Koi ■navqyvpti.i 
T(p briixu) irapicr^f vofxas re ij.fya\o(j)p6v(i)s fTTibovs Kal 5e'as TfXecrai imviKiovs (tUv 
OVK okiycav iv tjj Pco/xj; 8te'Tpti//e, Stxa^ui' re cTvvf)(<is koI to, iroXiTLKO, tioiK&v tows 
re vleli iraibevav koi (T(3>(\>povl(<3>v. Idem III. !3. 6 6e 2e/37jpos tov fjLfv Xonrov 
[after the death of Plautianus A. D. 203] l-napyovTas bvo t&v aTparo-nibwv kut- 
laT-qvtv, avTos be Ta TrAeicrra tov (iCov biiTpifiev iv rots fiacnXiKols ■npoaareCois koX 
Tols TiapaKioii Trji KajxTravCas xcopi'ois, biKa^tov re xal to. ttoKitcko. bioiK&v. 

In A. D. 205 Cod. Justin, has 20 laws, among which are the following : 
II. 12, 7 ^^- Demetrio. — pp. V Id.Januar. Antonino A. II et Geta Gas. conss. 

II. 12, 8 AA. JJlpice.^pf. X Kal. Mart. Antonino Sec. VIII. 45, 2 AA. 
QuartcB. — pp. II Kal. Mart. Antonino A. II et Geta G. conss. III. 28, 4 AA. So- 
tericho et aliis. — pp. VI Id. Mart. Antonino &c. III. 1, 1 AA. Glementi. — 
pp. Kal. j^pril. Antonino A. II et Geta Gas. II conss. I. 54, ! AA. Firmo. — 
dat. V Idus Aprilis Antonino .^. et Geta Gas. utrisque II conss. VIII. 26, 1 
A A. Proculo. — pp. XII Kal. Maii Antonino A. II et Geta conss. IX. 32, 1 
Euphratce. pp. XII Kal. Maii Antonino A. II et Geta G. conss. VI. 3, 2 
AA. Eutycliieti. — pp. VI Kal. Maii Antonino A. II et Geta Gas. II conss. 

VIII. 14,3 A A. Maximo. — pp. Kal. Maii Antonino A. II et Geta conss. 

III. 33, 2 AA. Felici.—p p. VI Id. Maii Antonino A. II et Geta Ga-s. II conss. 

IX. 12, 1 AA. Pelitia:-—dat. Kal. Juliis liomw, .Antonino A. II et Geta G. 
conss. VI. 46, 2 AA. Galliano. — pp. Antiochice XI Kal. August. Antonino A. 
II et Geta G. conss. As we know not only from historical testimony but from 
the Code itself that Severus was at Rome in July A.D. 205, the name Antiochice 
is improperly inserted here. It probably belongs either to the preceding law 
VI. 46, 1 of A. D. 197, when Severus was at Antioch, or to the following, VI. 
46,3, of A.D. 215, when Garacalla was at Antioch. For the other laws of 
the year 205 see Appendix. 

An inscription apud Gruter. p. 264. 5, when the dates are corrected, may 
be referred to this year : Romse basis ; Imp. Gees. L. Septimio Severo Pio Per- 
tinacipont. max. trib.pot. VIII imp. JX [legendum videtur trih.pot. XIII imp. 
XT\ cos. Ill p. p. imp. Gees. M. Aurelio Antonino trih.pot. IIII [legendum vi- 
detur trih. pot. VIII] COS. II principi Pio Felici nat. . . . JuUcb Aug. matri 

Aug. n. et castror. et senatus collegium augur, p. p. 

The consuls are mentioned by Spartian. Sev. c. 14. Filios consules designavit. 


959. Nummius Albinus 

Fulvius j^milianus 

Nor. Idat. 

Sa/Sivos Kal AliJti\iav6s 

Severi 14 from Kal. Jun. tr. p. 14 from Kal. Jan. GaracallcB tr.p. 9. 

A coin of Severus : Eckhel. tom. VII p. 186. Severus Pius Aug.+p. m. tr.p. 
XIIII COS. Ill p. p. 

A coin of Garacalla: Ibid. p. 205. Antoninus Pius Aug.+pontif. tr.p. Villi 
cos. II. 

R M A N I 


3 Autroes 

4 Ecclesiastical Authobs 

Coins of Garacalla : Ibid. p. 204. 1 Antoninus Pius 
Aug.pont. tr.p. Vll.+arcus Augg. S. C. or cos. hdos 
sa-cul. fee. 2 Anton. P. Aug.pon. tr.p. VII. + Di pa- 
trii. with Hercules and Bacchus. 4 Antoninus Pius 
Aug. + liberalitas Aug. V. 

A coin of Geta : lb. p. 228. P. Septimius Geta Gas. 
+seBcularia sacra. 

See Appendix for 17 laws of A. D. 204. 

Birth of Plotiniis : Porphyr. Vit. PI. c. 2. iiva^r]<pi- 
Covaiv rjixiv ttTTo Tov bevripov Irons t^s K\av8iov ^acri- 
Xftas [conf. a. 270] th tovttC(t<i> hr] ?f t( Ka\ ((rJKOvra 6 
Xpovos aur<j> tjjs yfv4<Tfa)i (Is to TpuTKaibfKaTov Iroy r^s 
^(vripov liam\(Ca9 irCiTTfi [see col. 2]. ovrt bi tov iirjva 
8e87)Aa)K^ tivi Kaff ov ycyivvrfrai ovn rqv y(vi6\iov fin(- 
pav. Suidas p. 3015 B. TIKiaTivos AvKOTcoKCrqs [Eudocia 
p. .S6'3. Tivfs hi AvKOTioKkrjv <f>a(rlv dwA Avkovos tov kv 
T<3 AiucottoAiVt; v6p.ia rfjs \lyxntTov\, OTtb (f)i,\o(T6(f>a>v, fia- 
OrjTi^s liev ' ApLiiOiViov tov Trpdrjv yfvop,ivov <TaKKO<p6pov, 
bibaa-KoXos b( 'AfJieKiov. ov Uopfjivpiot biriKOVcrc tov bi 
'la^x/SAtxoj' TOV bi ScoTrorpoj. iirl be roA.Xiiji'oC yripawi 
<oi> bL(pifi.v(v a)(j)i )(j)6v(iiv f . Eunapius in Vita : nXo)- 
ncos i\v i^ AlyvTTTov ^t.\6TO(f>os. — /tat tj/v TiaTpCba Ttpoa- 
d'^crui. AvK<a) Tavrqv 6vop.dCov(n' (cafroi ye 6 dfcnricrios 
<pt\6(TO<poi riopt^vptos TOVTO ovK av(ypa\^i, p.aOr]rr)s T« 
airoC yiyivfjcrdai Ktyoiv /cat ovve(rxo\aKfvai tov ^iov 

fiirOITO r\ TOV TlkiioTOV TOVTif. 

A coin of Sevenis: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 186. Severus 
Pius Aug.-\-p. m. tr. p. XIII cos. Ill p.p. 

Coins of Garacalla: lb. p. 205. Antoninus Pius Aug. 
+ COS. II. or imp. et Gcesar Aug. fili cos. 

Coins of Geta : lb. p. 229. 1 Geta Gees. pont. cos. 
+ 2 Geta Gas. pontif. cos. +/elicitas smculi. S. G. 

3 P. Septimius Geta Gas. + cos. or princ. juvent. cos. 

4 P. Sept. Geta Gees. pont. + Gastor. 

Euseb. Chron. Anno 2220 Severi 1 1" Cltmmu hoc tem- 
pore ad libros scribendos incumhebat. Mutianut leriptor 
noster agnoscehaiur. Hieron. Aimo 2220 Severi 12o. 
Musianus is placed by Hieronymus Catol. c. .SI in the 
reign of Marcus: conf. a. 1S3. He is named with 
others by Syncellus p. 355 B at the beginning of the 
reign of Severus : KATjfiijy 6 (rrp<oyM.Ttvs, TTpfa-^vrtpoi 
''AKf^avbpeCai, Spioros diSao-KoXos iv t^ xaTa Xpurrbv 
<t)iXo(ro(f>i(} crvvTaTTtjiv bUXaiMire. Tfdvraivos (f>i\6<To<f)os ano 
otui'Ck&v iv T<f deuo \6y(D bU-ttparrtv [conf. a. 15)11. 'A- 
(ppixavbs icrropiKos Xpioriavoi iJKiia^f [conf. a. 22 1 J. A*- 
<>>vCbr)i 'Q,pLy4vovi irar^p ipiapTvprjof buayiuw yeyovoTOi iv 
' A\e^avbpf[q. Movinavbs f kkXj/tiootkcos <TVYypa<f>fvs iyvtt- 
pC(fTo. 'ilpiyivrjs k. t. k. conf. a. 20<>. 

The year 2220 commenced Oct. A. D. 204; the 1 1th 
of Severus June 1 A. D. 203. Hieronymus has cor- 
rected the error. 

Panteenus Gleniens and Origen are named by Euse- 
bius H. E. VI. G. ndvTaivov be KA^fxtjs biabt(dp.fV09 r^j 
KaT ' Akf^dvbpfiav Karqxricrfias — KadriytiTo, i? Kol top 
''ilpiyivriv t&v t^tnyroSi' y€vi(r6ai airoi). 

Ammoniiis Saccas teaches Origen: Porphyrins lib. 
Ill KOTO Xpianav&v apud Euseb. H. E. VI. 19. (quoted 
by Suidas v. "ilpiyew/y p. 2785 A.) &vbphs, (p Kayia ko- 
Hibi] vhi SiV iTi (VTfTV\r)Ka [cir. A. D. 249], <r(^J8pa ev- 
boKifj.i](ravTOi Kal (tl 8t' Siv KaTokikomf ovyypanpidTav 
nboKifjiOvvTos — 'ilpiyivovi, ov Kkioi irapa rots 8i8ao-KaA.oif 

Euseb. Chron. Anno 2221 Severi 12" Origenes admi- 
rabilis AUxandrics tenera eetaie cognoscifur. Hieron. 
Anno 2224 Severi 16o Origenes AUmndrice studiis eru- 
ditur. Marked in Syncellus p. 355 B, but with angry 

expressions : 'ilpiyivqs 6 liaTaio^pav iv ' Akf(avbpfiq 
Kfvobo^&v 'EkXrjviKois boypLOcnv ivf<0T(pi((. k. t. k. The 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

For Cod. Justin, see 
col. 2. 

Ad viam Flaminiam apud 
Panvinium p. 360 Grute- 
rum p. 175. 8. Ti. Clau- 
dius Chresimm ob hm. 
quinquennalitatis collegia 
dendrophor. Romanor. qui- 
hm ex S. C. coire licet ar- 
genti P. X et HS. X milia 
n. reddedit qwce divisa sunt 
populo per gradus collegi n. 
K. Aug. Nummio Albino 
et Ful. Aemiliano cos. 

Laws of A.D. 206: Cod. Justin. V. 14, 1 Impp. Severus et Antoninus AA. 
Niece. — pp. VII Kal. Febr. Albino et ^miliano conss. VII. 53, 1 AA. Justino. 
— pp. Ill Kal. Febr. Albino &c. II. 3, 4 AA. Valerice.—p p IV Id. Febr. 
Albino &c. V. 62, 3 J A. Grispino. — pp. Idib. Mart. Albino et ^liano conss, 
VIII. 31, 1 A A. Antiochicc. — p p. Ill Kal. April. Albino et ^miliano conss. 
V. 37, 1 AA. Modesto.— pp. XII Kal. Oct. Albino &c. VI. 3, 3 AA. Quinti- 
ano. — pp. Kal. Nov. Albino &c. 

An inscription in marmore reperto apud Maceratam Piceni oppidum in co- 
lonia Helvia, apud Panvinium p. 360 Gruterum p. 265. 5. Assigned to the 
13th tribunician year by Gruter, but to the 14th by Panvinius : Imp. Gasari 
L. Veri Aug. Jil. dim Pii nep. dim Hadriani pron. dim Trajani Parth. abnep. 
divi Nervce adnepoti L. Septimio Severo Pio Pertinaci Aug. Arabic. Adiab. 
Parthic. maximo p. m. trib.pot. XIII I [tribunic. potest. XIII Gruter.] imp. XI 
cos. Ill p. p. colonia Helvia Ricina conditori suo. 

Severus in this inscription is still only imp. XI, a title conferred in A. D. 198: 
conf. a. 198. 3. In the 15th tribunician year he is imp. XII for successes ob- 
tained in Britain, conf, a. 207. Tillemont torn. Ill p. 75. 


960. Aper et Maximus 

Nor. Idat. A. Cod. Jus- 
tin, see col. 3. 

Caro et Maximo C. 

Severi 15 from Kal. Jun. tr.p. 15 from Kal. Jan. GaracallcB tr.p. 10. 

War in Britain: conf. a. 208. Dio 76- 10. 2f^^pos — iv rjj BptTTaviq, tovs 
■nokfixovs 6t' kriprnv vik&v. 

Coins of Severus: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 1 86. Severus Pius Aug. +p. m. tr. p. 
XV COS. Ill p.p. or providentia. 

A coin of Caracalla : lb. p. 206. Antoninus Pius Aug. + ponii/. tr. p. X 

Inscriptio Anagnise apud Panvinium p. 360 Gruterum p. 150. 5. Imp. CcBsar 
divi Marci Antonini Pii Germ. Sarmatici filius divi Commodi frater &c. — Se- 
verus Pius Pertinax Aug. Arabic. Adiab. Parthic. max. pontif. max. trib. pot. 
XV imp. XII cos. Ill p. p. et imp. Gasar &c. — M. Aurelius Antoninus Aug. 
Pius Felix pontif. trib. pot. X imp. II cos. Ill des. {* fortissimus ac super omnes 
felicissimus princeps) viam quce ducit in villam magnam silice sua pecunia stra- 

* Prius erasa sed postea restituta: Gruter. 


961. M. Aurelius Antoni- 
nus Augustus III P. Sep- 
timius Geta GcBsar II 

Nor. A. Cod. Justin, 
see col. 3. 

Severi 16 from Kal. Jun. trib.pot. 16 from Kal. Januar. Garacallce trib. 
pot. 1 1 . 

Severus goes to Britain : Dio 76.11. 6 h\ 6r) 2f,87jpos ewt Bpen-aviav e(rrpd- 
revcre, rovi re iraiba? fKbiairap-ivovs opSiv /cat to. crTpaTiv\xaTa vvo apyCai fxAvo- 
ix(va, Kahep eiSus on ovk avaKop.iadriaeTai. Herodian. III. 14. dcrx<iAAoi'Ti 6J 

R M A N I 


3 Skcui.ah Authors 


TO'uTiov tQv \6ymv fJ-^ya hiab^horat. d»tpoar^y yap oCroy 
AiJLixaivCov Tov TtXeCiTTriv ii> Tols KaO ijfxai xpovon iTtlboa-iv 
(v <|)tAo(TO(/)t9 ^flrxijKo'roy ytyovw (h fiiv r^v tUv Koymv 
ifi/rtfiplav ■no\ki]v i!aph. tov 8t6a(rKciAoi/ Ti]V dxpfKaav iK- 
rqiraro, eh bi rfiv dpOtfv tov fiiov T!poalpf(nv Trjv ivavriav 
iKeiva TOV fiiov vopfCav iiroi'qaaTO — kuto. fiiv tov ^lov 
Xpumavbis {(ov koI ■napavop.ui'i Kara h\ Tas tiapa t&v 
■npayfxATuu koX tov OtCov bo^a^ i\\r}vC(ti>v re (cai to, 'EK- 
\rivb)v Tois odvdois viiol3a\\6fj,fvos fivOois. auviiv r« yap 
ael TO) UKaToivi,, rots Tt "Novp-r^vCov kuI KpovCov 'ATroWo(pA- 
vovs Te Kal AoyyCvov xal MobepdTov NiKOfid^ov t€ Ka\ Tutv 
iv Tois VXvOayopiioii iWoylpMtv avbp&v a>p.i\(i cnjyyp&jj.- 
fj.a<nv. (XpfJTo be xal Xaiprip.ovoi tov otwikoC KopvovTov 
Te Tois l3ll3Kois. Trap' S>v tov p.eTa\r]VTi.Kov tSiv Ttap' "EA- 
Xijiri fxvcTTrjpitav yvoiii Tpoirov rais ^lovbdUais irpocrfplre 
ypa<f)aii. Marked by Origen himself apud Euseb. H. E. 
VI. 19. eVet fie avaKeip.ev<^ p-oi riS Aoyio, n^j <^'iws 8to- 
Tpexov(Tr]i -nepl Trjs exeats r/jLwSr, ■Kpo(Triecrav ore jxiv aipe- 
TiKol OTe be oi otto t&v 'E\krjviK&v ij.aQr)p.aT<i>v , /cat p.a- 
Xiora T&v iv (fiiKoaocjiCa, ebo^ev i^erdaai Ta re t&v alpe- 
TiK&v boy^iara Kal to. vvo tS)v (f>LKo(r6<f)<>>v iiepl &\rideCai 
ktyeiv ^TrayyeXAojueva . tovto be Tre-noiy'iKaixev /xijujjo-d^eroi 
re TOV TTpo fjixQv voKkoiis tlx^eA^o-aiTa UdvTatvov, ovk 
6\Cyrjv ev ^KeCvois ^<r(rxf)KoVa Ttapao-Kevyjv, Kal tov vvv 
ev r(j> vpea-jivTepim Kadf(6p.evov ' AKe^avbpeuiv 'HpaKkav 
[conf. a. 2yS]' ovTiva evpov irapa tw 8t6a(rKaA<o t&v <l>i\o- 
<t6(J)<i)V p.aOr]p.AT(i>v [sc. Ammonio~\ ijbr] irevre (Teaiv airrw 
Ttpo(TKapTepi](TavTa -nplv i\xe hp^auQat. aKovew tKiivtav tS>v 
koytav. bib — (pi\6(ro(j)ov ava\afi(iiv <T)(iip,a /xe'x/Jt tov bevpo 
TTjpei, ^i^KCa Te 'EK\r)viKa (cara bwafxiv ov uaverat (j)i\o- 
koy&v. For the date see col. 4. 

year 2221 oomnienoes Oct. A. D. 205 in the 13th of 
Severus. The date of Hieronymus will place this fact 
at A. U. 209. The account given by Origen himself 
quoted in col. 3 is consistent with the date of Eusebius. 
Heraclas might hear Ammmius at Alexandria in A.D. 
201 ; Origen might hear him in the present year. 
Origen was the disciple of Clemens Alexandnnus: conf. 
a. 194. Photius Cod. 118 ex Eusebio : 'Xlpiyt'w/r — 
iiKpoaTr\v -Kal bi&boxov keyovcn yevicrBai KA^fxerros tov 
(TTp(j)iJiaTea>i — KA^^erra 8^ navTaCvov [conf. a. 180] y«- 
veadai keyovvt. Kal &.KpoaTTiv [conf. a. 194] Kal tov biba- 
cTKokeiov bidboxov, UdvTaivov bi t5>v re tow dirotrroAows 
eatpaKOTutv &Kpod(Taa-dai, oil fir]V akka (cot Tiv(i>v air&v 
heivoyv bioKowai. Hut this Alexandrian school began 
to corrupt the primitive simplicity of Christian teach- 
ing by an injudicious mode of combining philosophy 
with scripture. Clemens learned this philosophical 
theology from his master Pant<mus, and taught it to 
his disciple Origen, to the great prejudice of sound 

Laws: Cod. Justin. II. 13, 4 AA. t>atumino. — pp. 
prid. Nan. Jan. VIII. 41, 2 AA. Plotio.—dat. V Kal. 
Fehr. V. 18, 2 A A. AquUiee. — datum prid. Nrni. April. 

VII. 2,3 A A. Euphrosyno.—S. XVII Kal. Mail 

VIII. 29, 1 A A. Marcello.—dat. VI Kal. Mail. VIII. 
37, 1 A A. Paulinte. pp. Kal. Mail. VIII. 1?, 2 AA. 
Rogato.—pp. V Kal. Jul. V. 28, I AA. Sperates.— 
pp. Kal. Aug. III. 26, 2 AA. Aristm.—dat. XII Kal. 
Oct. IV. 24, 1 A A. ad Metrodorum. — pp. Id. Oct. 
II. 19,6 A A. Gallo. — pp. Subjoined to all Apro et 
Maximo conss. 

TertuUiani adtersus Marcionem lib. I. In the 15th 
year oi Severus: 1. 15. Ad XV jam Severi imperatoris. 
Hieron. Chron. Anno 2223 Severi \5<> Tertullianus Afer 
centurionis proconstilaris Jilius omnium ecclesiarum ser- 
mons celebratur. The 15th o{ Severus is derived from 
Tertullian himself; and it coincided with the Eusebian 
year 2223 : conf. a. 208. Tertullian is now a Mon- 
tanist : Marcion. I. 29. Quern qiiidem apud nos spiriialis 
ratio, Paradeto auctore, defevdit &c. 

Coins of Severus: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 187. Severus 
Pius Aug. + liheralitas Augg. VI. or liberalitas Aug. VI. 
or p. m.'tr.p. XVI cos. Ill p. p. 

Coins of Caracalla: lb. p. 206. 1 Antoninus Pius 
Aug. + liberalitas Aug. VI. or vota solut. dec. cos. III. 

Hieron.Chron.^w«o2223[A.D.20i] Seceri 15<> Tertul- 
lianus— celebratur. Idem Catal. c. 53. Tertullianus pres- 
byter nunc demum primus post Victorem {et Apollonium) 
Latinonim ponitur, proeincim Africw, civitaiis Cartha- 
giniensis, patre centurione proconsulari . Hie acris et 




1 Consuls 

Antonino III et Geta III 

Bradleise in comitatu E- 
boracensi apud Gruterum 
p. 130.8. 1017.3. D.Vici 
Brig, et num. Augg. Fl. 
Aur. Aurelian. V. S. DD. 
pro se et suis S.M.A. G. S. 
Antoni. Ill et Geta cos. 

Eomse apud Panvinium 
p. 360 Gruterum p. 45.13. 
Pro salute DD.NN. Augg. 
Herculem defensorem genio 
centyrice ex voto posuit L. 
Domitius Valerianus domo 
Kapitolia de stipe XVIII 
mil. coh. X pr. p. V.J Fl. 
Caralitani lectus in prcB- 
torio DD. NJV. ex leg. VI 
Ferr. F. G. missus honesta 
missione VII Idrn Januar. 
DD. NN. imp. Antonino 
Pio Aug. Ill et Geta no- 
hilissimo Gees. II cos. 

2 Events 

awu ^ttI T(S tolovtm /3i<i) t&v -naihrnv KaX rfj ■nepl to, Oi6.{xaTa anpiTtd (movhfj (tti- 
arik\et, 6 t^s BperravCas ijyovnevoi, orao-tdfeiz; rous fKel l3apj3dpovs (f>acrK(av — Sei- 
crdai ToLwv \€ipo'i ukuovos Ttpbs jBoJideiav tov tottov ?) /^atrtAt/crjs f7nbr]p.Las. 6 be 
2e/3^/30s acrixivais ravra aKovtras, (pvcrei. ixev /cat (/)i\o8o£os aKXias VTTa.p)(aiv — en 8e 
KOL Tovs viovs artayayiiv Trjs 'Pw/xtjs Oekiav — eTrayye'AAet rrjv (Is ti^v BpfTravCaf 
f^obov, ■npi(r^vTr)s tc ijbrj (ov koX vtio tt)* apOpiTibos v6(tov Kapivcav. In the third 
year before his death: Dio 76. 11. ovk fTravrJKev, aWa kol rpiria erei ixtra tovto 
pL(TriK\a$f. which fixes the expedition to A.D. 208. A date confirmed by 
coins: see col. 3. Placed by Hieronymus at the 14th of Severus : Anno 2222 
[A. D. 204] Severi 14» Clodio Albino qui se in Gallia Gcesarem fecerat interfecto 
apud Lugdunum, Severus in Britannos bellum transfert ; uhi, ut receptas provin- 
cias ab incursione barbarica faceret securiores, vallum per GXXXII passuum 
millia a mari ad mare duxit. And by Cassiodorus : Aper et Maximus. His 
coss. Severus in Britannos bellum movet., ubi, ut receptas &c. Eutropius VIII. 
i). Novissimum bellum in Britannia habuit ; utque receptas provincias omni 
securitate muniret, vallum per XXXII millia passuum a mari ad mare deduxit. 
Orosius VII. 17. Albinus apud Lugdunum oppressus et interfectus est. Severus 
victor in Britannias defectu pcene omnium sociorum trahitur. The times of 
these transactions are not clearly distinguished nor truly given. Albinus was 
slain in A. D. 197 ; Severus passed into Britain A. D. 208 ; the wall was com- 
pleted in 210 : conf a. 210. 

An inscription apud Gruter. p. 73. 9 marking the expedition into Britain 
may be referred to this year : Fortunw Aug. sac. pro salute itu ac reditu D D. 
iV A. M. Aur. Antonini Pii Aug. et P. Septimii GetcB nobiliss. Gees. civ. Batavi 
fratres et amid P. R. V. S. L. M. 


01. 247 U. C. Varr. 962. 

Pompeianus et Avitus 

Nor. Idat. A. Cod. Jus- 
tin. VII. 74,1. VIII. 19,1. 

Severi 17 from Kal. Jun. tr. p. 17 from Kal. Jan. GaracallcB tr.p. 12. 

Severus invades Caledonia: Dio 76. 13. 6 8'' ovv I,ej3fipos Tiaaav avtriv Kara- 
crTpe\fra(Tdai deXrjcras (ai^akev ey rriv Ka\ribovlav k. t. k. Herodian. III. 14. tov 
IJ,ev vecarepov t&v vl&v rbv Tfrav KaKovfxevov KaraXiTToiv ev T<j) ^770 'Fafxalov^ fdvei 
biK(i.(TOVTd T( Kal to, TToXiTiKO. Tr]s apX'Js bLoiKTicrovTa, bovs air&J auvebpovs t5>v c^ikatv 
TOVS TTpeajSyTepovs, rov be ^ AvT<i>vivov napaka^utv inl tovs jSapftdpovs TjTretyero. 
Geta is appointed Augustus : see col. 3. 

Laws : Cod. Justin. VII. 74, 1 Impp. Severus et Antoninus A A. Firmo. — 
pp. Kal. Mali. VIII. 19, 1 Marcellincs. — pp. Id. Jul. Both dated Pom- 

peiano et Avito corns. 


963. MAcilius Fausti- 
nus et Triarius Rujinus 

Nor. Idat. A. Gruter. 
p. 300 : conf. a. 202. Cod, 
Justin, see col. 2. 

De FauMino cos. Grute- 
rus p. 344 Panvinius p, 
352: conf. a. 152.2. 

Severi 18 from Kal. Jun. tr. p. 18 from Kal. Jan. Garacallw tr.p. 13 Getm 
tr. p. 2. 

W^all in Britain: Oros. VII. 17- Magnis gravibusque prmliis scepe gestis re- 
ceptam partem insulce a ceteris indomitis gentibus vallo distinguendam putavit. 
Itaque magnam fossam firmissimumque vallmn crebris insuper turribus communi- 
tum per GXXXII M. P. a mari ad mare duxit. Victor Cses. p. 327- Britan- 
niam — muro munivit per transversam insulam ducto utrimque ad finem Oceani. 
Victor Epit. p. 377- In Britannia vallum per XXXII M. P. a mari ad mare 
deduxit. Dio 76. 12. ru biaTUxicrixaTi o ttjv vijcrov bixij TtpLVfi. Spartian. Sev. 
c. 18. Britanniam — muro per transversam insulam ducto utrimque ad finem Oceani 
munivit ; unde etiam Britannici nomen accepit. Fixed to this year by coins. 
For other testimonies conf. a. 208. Spartian. Sev. c. 22. Post murum aut val- 
lum missum in Britannia quum ad proximam mxmsionem rediret non solum victor 
sed etiam in cetemum pace fundata &c. 

R O M A N I 


3 Secular Adthoes 


2 M. Aur. Antoninus Pius Aug.+ponti/. tr.p. XI cos. 

III. or prof. Augg. pontif. tr. p. XI cos. III. 3 

+ vota sol. dec. pontij. tr. p. XI cot. III. 

Coins of Geta: lb. p. 230. P. Septimius Geta C(es.+ 
pontif. COS. II. or liheralitas Aug, Vl. 

Laws: Cod. Justin. VIII. 26, 2 AA. Matemo.—pp. 
II Id. Febr. Antonino A. Ill et Geta II corns. II. 
12,9 Lceto.—pp. XII Kal. Mart. Antonino A. Ill et 
Geta Gips. II conss. VI. 35, 2 Vera.— pp. VII Kal. 
Maii Antonino &c. VII. 45, 1 Quintiliano. — dat. IV 
Kal. Jun. Antonino &c. VIII. 14, 4 Bellio.—dat. Ill 
Kal. Junii Antonino A. Ill et Geta II conss. II. 12, 
10 Severo.—p p. VI Kal. Aug. iisdem conss. VI. 53, 4 
Ammice. — pp. Kal. Aug. Antonino A. Ill et Geta II 
conss. VIII. 41, 3 Maximo.— pp. XVII Kal. Sep. 
Antonino A. Ill et Geta II conss. 

vehementit ingenii mi Smiero prineipe et Antonino Cara- 
calla mcunime floruit Hie cum tuque ad mediam eetatem 

presbyter eecktice permansisset, invidia postea et contu- 
meliis clericorum Bomance ecclesiie ad Montani dogma 
delapsut in multis lihris novee prophetiee meminit—fer- 
turque vixisse usque ad decrepitam eetatem. 

The false and groundless suspicion of Sender con- 
cerning the works of Irenaus and TertulUan is refuted 
with most convincing arguments by Bishop Kaye on 
Tertullian p. 69—90. 

A coin of Severus: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 188. Severus 
Pius Aug. +p. »>. tr.p. XVII cos. Ill p. p. 

Coins of CaracaUa : lb. p. 206. Antoninus Pius Aug. 
+ pontif. tr. p. XII cos. III. or prof. Augg. pontif. 
tr.p. Xll COS. III. S. C. or trajectus. pontif. tr.p. XII 
cos. in. S. C. 

A coin of Geta : lb. p. 230. Imp. Gets. P. Sept. Geta 
Pius Aug. +pontif. tr.p. cos. II. 

(Tertulliani de PaUio. He marks three Augusti: 
c. 2. Preesentis imperii triplex virtus, Deo tot Augustit 
in unumfavente. Geta was appointed Augustus in this 
year: see col. 3. This piece was therefore composed 
between A. D. 209 and Feb. A.D.211, when Severus 

Those who suppose that one of the three emperors 
might be Alhinus (which would place this treatise in 
A. D. 196) have no foundation for their opinion. Al- 
binus never was acknowledged as Augustus. He as- 
sumed the title when he declared war ; and it woidd 
have given the greatest offence to Severus if TertulUan 
had called him so. 

Papinian is in Britain with Severus : Dio 76. 10. 
na'Trti'ioros o i-napxoi. JG. 14 ■napi<m\Ki croi Ylaitiviavos 
6 lirapxos, K. T. \. He was dismissed from his office by 
Caracalla in A. D. 21 1 : Dio 77- 1 '"ovs oUilovs tovs ^\v 
aTrfjWaifv, &v Kal Tlaitiviavos 6 iirapxos r;v. And put 
to death in A. D. 212 : conf. a. 212. 2. The disciples 
ot Papinian were the counsellors o{ Alexander Severus: 
conf. a. 223. 

Coins of Severus: Eckhel. tom.VII p. 188. of Ca- 
racalla: p. 207. oi Geta: p. 230. Before the name 
Britannicus: 1 Severus Pius Aug. + p.m. tr.p. XVIII 
COS. Ill p.p. 2 L. Sept. Severus Pius Aug. + ». m. tr.p. 
XVIII COS. Ill p. p. or victoriee BritanntccB. S. C. 

Caius flourished in the time of Zephyrinus : Euseb. 
H. E. II. 25. itcKXTjciavTiKOi avrip ri'ios oro/uo, koto 
Z((}>vp'u'ov 'P<afiaC(i>v yeyovm iitltTKOirov. — UpSkKu ifjs 
Kara i>pvyas 'npo'i<TTaix(V(o alptafui iyypdffms bia\(\d(Cs. 
Idem VI. 20. iJKiJLaCov (cara tovto [sc. in the time of 
Origen] -nXfCovs Ao'yioi koI lKK\r](Tia(mKol &vbp(s, uv Kal 
^TTioToAay hs irpos dAX^Xovy biexaparrov In wv (rwfo- 
pidvas iipdv txrnopov — TovTiav B^puAAos [conf. a. 227] 
aiv iinaToXaii Kal (nryypdnixaai bLa<f)6povs (piXoKoXCas 
KaTak(X.on!fV iirCaKOTios 8' ovros ijv t&v Karh Boarpav 
'Apd^mv. ixravrms Se Kal 'IinroAvTos [conf. a. 222. 227], 
ir^pai ■ttov Kal avros TTpofortas (KKkrjaCas. riKOe be fls 
flfxas Kal Fatov AoywoTctTov &vbp6i fiioAoyos, firl 'Pwfiijs 
Kara Zf<pvpivov Ttpbs IlpoKAov t^j Kara <l>pvyos alpta-eas 






1 Consuls 

964. Q. Epidius Bufus 
Lollianus Gentianm et 
Bassus Nor. Mat. A. Cod. 
Justin, see col. 2. 

Lapis apud Gruterum p. 
24. 7- Juno B. et Miner, 
sac. genio coh. Ill Brit, 
aram T. Fl. Felix prcef. 
ex voto posuit L. M. dedi- 
cavit Kal. Dec. Gentiano 
et Basso cos. 

Tarracone apud Panvi- 
nium p. 361 Gruterum p. 
404. 7 et plenius apud 
Gruterum p. 417- 5. Q. 
Epidio L. f. Pol. Bufo 
LoUiano Gentiano auguri 
cos. procos. AsicB censitori 
prov. Lug. item Mygd. 
\^pr. pr. prov. Lugdunensis 
Panvin. procos. prov. Lug- 
dunensis Gruter. p. 404] 
comiti impp. Sever i et An- 
tonini Augg. tr. leg. XX 
G. prov. H.C. item censit. 
H.G. X viro stl. jud. Pu- 
teolano. sup. veteranor. 
quccst. candid, prcet. cand. 
tr. leg. XVIII Primiq. 
trih. leg. VII G. P. F. HI 
viro A. A. A. P.F. P. H.C. 
Fab. Marcellinus. 

2 Events 

Inscriptions: 1 Camerini apud Panvinium p. .S61 Gruterum p. 265. 3. Imp. 
Gees. L. Septimio Severo Pio Pertinad Attg. Arahico Adiab. Parthico max. Brit, 
max. pon. max. tr. pot. XVIII imp. XII cos. Ill procos. p.p. et Imp. Gees. M. 
Aurelio &c. — trib.pot. XIII imp. II cos. Ill procos. p.p. &c. — devoti numini 
et ma/estati eor. coh. II Vig. 2 Camerini apud Panvin. p. 361 Grut. p. 266. 1. 
Imp. GcBsari L. Septimio &c. — tr. pot. XIIX imp. XII cos. Ill p. p. ccelesti 
ejus indulgentia in eetemam securitatem adque ghriam, jure wquo foederis sibi 
conjirmato Gamertes. 

Laws: Cod. Justin. III. 32, 1 Impp. Severus et Antoninus AA. Gcecilies. — 
pp. Ill Non. Maii Eboraci. VIII. 54, 1 Lucio.—pp. V Kal. Jul. VI. 4, 1 
Secwad(B. — pp. V Nonas Jul. VIII. 45, 3 Aureliano. — pp. VIII Kal. Aug. 
VIII. 38, 2 Petronio. — pp. Non. Nov. III. 1, 2 Valeria. — pp. VI Kal. Januar. 
All Faustina et Bufino corns. 

Severi trib.pot. 19 from Kal. Jan. Garac. trib.pot. 14 Getts tr. pot. 3. 

Death ot Severus Feb. 4: Dio 76. 17- avrov rj voa-os rfi TerapTri tov ^ejipovapiov 
aTTrjVfyKfv. — ^/3t&) 8e errj e^jjKorra weVre Kal firjvas kwia Kal Tjp.(pas ■nivTe Kal €i- 
KOCTi- rfj yap evbeKaTTj rov 'AnpLWiov fyfyivmjTO'- acf SiV rip^iv (tt] (irraKaCbeKa koX 
ptfivas oKTo) Kal ^jue'pas rpeis. Eiiseb. H. E. VI. 8. iirl b(Ka Kal oktw (Tfcn Tr)t/ 
apxriv (TUKparriuavTa. Victor Epit. p. 378. Imperavit annos XVIII — vixit an- 
nos LXV. Victor Cses. p. 328. Annis regni duodeviginti. Herodian. III. 15. 
IV. 1. IV. 4. jBaa-iKemas oKTaKaCbfKa hiaiv. Spartian. Sev. c. 19. Periit Ebo- 
raci in Britannia — anno imperii decimo octavo. Hieron. Amw 2226 [A. D. 2 j-y] 
Severi IS" Severus moritur Eboraci in Britannia. Cassiod. Gentianm et Bassus. 
His coss. Severus imp. Eboraci — moritur. Qui regnavit an. XVIII. Oros. VIL 
17. Decern et octo annis tenuit. Eutrop. VIII. 19. Decessit Eboraci admodum 
senex imperii anno XVIII mense IV. Male Tzutckius anno sextodecimo mente 
tertio. From Spartianus corrected by Dio and the fragment apud Bucherium 
it appears that Severus was bom Ap. 11 A. D. 146: eonf. a. He began to 
reign June 1 A.D. 193. His reign of 17* 8™ 3'^ (or 18 years current) was com- 
pleted Feb. 4 A. D. 21 1. But from his birth to that date are only 64'J 9" 25'' 
since his 65th year began Ap. 11 A. D. 210 ; so that Dio places his birth one 
year earlier than Spartianus. 

Coins of Severus : Eckhel. tom. VII p. 190. of Garacalla : t^. 207 . of Geta: 
p. 231. Before the death of Severus: 1 L. Sept. Severus Pius Aug. Brit.-^ 
p. m. tr.p. XIX cos. Ill p. p. or vict. Brit. p. m. tr.p. XIX cos. Ill p.p. S.G. 
2 Antoninus Pius Aug. Brit.-\-pontif. tr.p. XIIIIcos. III. 3 M. Aurel. Anto- 
ninus Pius Aug. + vict. Brit. tr.p. XIIIIcos. III. S.G. 4 Antoninus Pius Aug. 
+ victorim Britannicce. S.G. 5 P. Septimius Geta Pius Aug. Brit, -\-pontif. tr. p. 
Ill COS. II. or fort. red. tr. p. Ill cos. II. or vict. Brit. tr.p. Ill cos. II. After 
the death of Severus, marking the return of Garacalla and Geta to Rome and 
the consecration of Severus: (conf. Spartian. Sev. c. 19. 24 Herodian. IV. 1. 2.) 

6 Dim Severo Pio. + consecratio. or divo Septimio Severo Pio + consecratio. S. G. 

7 Divus Severus pater, -i- consecratio. 8 Divo Severo -{■ consecratio. 9 Antoninus 
Pius Aug. Brit. + adventus Augusti. or fort. red. p. m. tr.p. XIIII cos. Ill p. p. 
or liberalitas Aug. VI. or p. m. tr.p. XIIIIcos. Ill p.p. 10 M. Aurel. Anto- 
ninus Pius Aug. Brit. + vict. Brit. p. m. tr.p. XIIII cos. Ill p.p. S. G. \\ P. 
Septimius Geta Pius Aug. Brit. + concordice Augg. S.G. 12 P. Sept. Geta Pius 
Aug. Brit. + adventus Augusti. or fort. red. tr.p. Ill cos. II p.p. or liberalitas 
Aug. V. or lib. Augg. VI et V. 13 P. Septimius Geta Pius Aug. Brit. + libe- 
ralitas Augg. VI et V. S. G. or tr. p. Ill cos. II p.p. 

As the 14th tribunician year of Garacalla is current in these coins before 
Feb. 4, Eckhel tom. VIII p. 425 justly infers that his tribunician years were 
reckoned from Kal. Januar. 

R M A N I 



4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

3 Ant(mimis Pius Auff. + mniif. tr.j). XI f I cos. III. 

4 M. Aurel. Antoninus Ftus Aup.+ponti/. tr. p. XIII 
COS. III. 5 Imp. Cces. P. Sq)t. CI eta Pius Aug.+pontif. 
tr. J). II COS. II. After the name Britannicus: 6 L. 
Sept. Severus Pius Aug. Brit. + eequitati publicce. S. C. 
7 Severus Pius Aug. Brit. + p. m. tr. p. XVIII cos. Ill 
p. p. 8 Antoninus Pius Aug. Brit, -\-pontif. tr.p. XIII 
cos. III. 9 M. Aurel. Antvuinus Pius Aug. Brit.+ 

10 P. Sept. Geta Pius Aug. Brit.+ponti/. tr. p. 

II cos. II. 

iiTtpixa\ovvTa KfKivrjiifvoi, iv <|5 tSiv hi ivamlas ttjv irtpl 
TO (Tvin-dTTdv Kaivas ypaipa.'s itpoTsijuAv t( koI roKnav 
i-niiTroy.liu>v k. t. X. Hieron. Catal. c. 59. Cuius sub Ze- 
phyrino Bmnanee urhis episcojH), id est, sub Ant(mino 
Severi Jilio, disputationem adversum Proculum Montani 
sectatorem valde insignem /uibuit, arguens eum temeritaiis 
super nova prophetia de/endenda. 

Zephyrinus is bishop of Rome A.D. 201 — 214 in 
Euseb. C'hron. A. D. 201—219 in Euseb. H. E. V. 28— 
VI. 21. A. D. 201—219 in Hieron. C'hron. A.D. 198 
— 217 in the liber episcopalis Damasi papsc apud Acta 
Concil. torn. I p. 619. For these variations see Ap- 

Oppian the author of the KvwjyeriKa flourished. He 
dedicates to Caracalla: 1.3. 'AvTcomre, Tov iityiKr] 
Hfyikif (piTvaaTo Aofiva 2<^^p<o. He was of Pclla or 
Apamea (tcvv. II. 114) which he calls (ixrjv ttoKiv II. 
127. Oppian the author of the Halieutica, who pre- 
coded Athenams, was of Corycus in Cilicia : conf. a. 171- 
They are confounded by Scaliger ad Euseb. p. 222 by 
Kuster and Hemsterh. ad Suidam p. 2698 A and by 
Schwcigh. ad AthcntEum torn. VI p. 116. They are 
well distinguished by Schneider Oppian. p. Ill p. 404 
correcting his own error at p. 346. 

Laws of A . D. 21 1 : Cod. Justin. VI. 37, 3 Impp. Se- 
verus et Antoninus AA. Victorino. — p p. VI Kat. Maii. 
11.4,1 Imp. Antoninus A. Celerio. — dat. Kalend. Maii. 
VII. 59, I Imp. Antoninus A. Juliano. — accepta III 
Kal. Oct. III. 28, 5 Impp. Antoninus et Geta A A. 
Helio. — pp. II Non. Oct. 11.21,2 Imp. Antoninus A. 
Agrippee. — dat. Non. Nov. III. 34, 1 Imp. Antoninus 
A. Calpumice. — pp. Ill Id. Nov. III. 38, 1 Imp. 
Antoninus A. Marco. — pp. VI Kal. Dec. IV. 29, 1 
Imp. Antoninus A. LucilUe. — pp. Non. Dec. VI. 45, 1 
Imp. Antoninus A. Satumince. — p p. V Kal. Januar. 
All these Gentiano et Basso conss. In VI. 37, 3 Severus 
is improperly named ; unless for VI Kal. Maii we sub- 
stitute some other date, as VI Kal. Febr. 

Tertulliani ad Scapulam. A vindication of the 
Christians against their heathen persecutors. Written 
between the death of Severus Feb. A.D. 211 and the 
death of Geta Feb. A.D. 212 : c. 4. Ipse etiam Severus 
pater Antonini Christianorum m£mor fuit. c. 5. Parce 
tibi si non nobis ; parce Carthagini si non iihi ; parce 
provinciee. — Magistrum neminem haiemus nisi Deum so- 
lum. — Cceterum quos putas tibi magistros [sc. Caracal- 
lam et Getam] homines sunt et ipsi tnorituri quandoque. 

Scapula appears to have been governor of Carthage, 
where this piece was written: conf. c,5. 

Ff 2 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 


965. Julius Asper et Ju- 
lius Asper 

'AoTTpoi Koi, ' Aa-irpos A. 

Duobus Aspris Nor. Idat. 
Cod. Justin. I. 18, 1. II. 
1,4. 13,5. 54, 1. III. 
28,6. IV. 25, 1. V. 16, 1. 
16,4. 28,2. 37,3. 43, 1. 
51,1. 53,2. 58,2. 71. 1. 
75,1. VI. 3, 4. 3,5. 21,1. 
24, 2. 42, 1. 47, 2. VII. 
49,1. VIII. 8, 1. 14, 5. 
16,3. 18,2. 36, 1. 43,1. 
44, 1. 45, 4. 45, 5. IX. 
22, 1. 23, 1. 50, 1. X. 
9,1. 59,1. 

Sabarise Hungaricte a- 

pud Gruter. p. 132. 1 

Victore C vita V.8.L.M. 

duobus Aspris cos. Idihus 

De his consulibus Julii 
AsprifiUis Dio 77- 5. 

Caracallce 2 from prid. non. Feb. trih. pot. 15 from Kal. Januar. 

Death of Geta: Dio 77- 2. i^ov\r\6r) \j.(v ovv iv tois Kpow'ois [Dec. A. D. 211] 
Tov abf\(}>bv 6 ^AvT<i)v'ivos ^ovtvaai, ovk rjbvvridr] bi. — f-nd ovv /cat aTpaTi&Tai /cat 
yvuvaa-Tot koI ^^(a Kal oIkol koI f/.fff' fifj,(pav Kal vvKTcap (tvxvoI tov Virav eijipovpovv, 
?t:(i<t( Tr]V ix-qripa p-ovovs acpas — p.iTaT!ip.^aa^dai, /cat ovt(o ■nKXTivcravTos tov Tira, 
ilcrrikOe p,fv p,fT avrov k. t. k. In his 23rd year : Ibid, hvo yap kw. UKoa-i lr?j /cot 
p.rjvai evvia kfiim. He was born in May : Spartian. Geta c. 3. Natus est Severo 
et Vitellio coss. Mediolani (etsi aliter alii prodiderunt) VI Kal. Junias ex Julia. 
And therefore was slain in February A.D. 212. which will place his birth in 
May A.D. 189, almost 14 months after the birth of Garacalla. conf. a. 188. 
Herodian IV. 4 describes his death. Victor Cses. p. 328. Geta — obsessus in- 
teriit. Victor Epit. p. 378. Hie fratrem suum Getam peremit. Spartian. Carac. 
c. 2. Fratrem in palatio fecit ocddi. Papinian is slain : Dio 77- 4. t&v p-era tov 
rira yevopivbtv koL ets hvo pvpiahas Ttapaxpf)p.a aiTfKTfivfv, &vbpas airX&i /cat yv- 
valKas — e/c be twv eTTLcfiavav avbpcav AAAous t€ Kot tw YlaTnviavov. Conf. Victor. 
Cffis. p. 328 Spartianum Severo c. 21 Carac. c. 3. 4. 8 Geta c. 6. And Plau- 
tilla : Herodian. IV. 6. rriv re yvvaiKa yevopev-qv eavTov IWavnavov dvyarepa, 
oda-av be ev St/ce\ia, tov re avey^iov avrov '2,efirip(a re opdwpov, Kal tov UeprivaKos 
viov, rrjs Te Koppobov abeX.(f>rji AovKlKkrjs vlov, Kal et tl yevoi rjv /3acriXt/coy ^ ev 
cri/y/cX^TO) ef evirarpib&v Kara^awov, irav e^eKo\j/ev. conf. Spartian. Carac. c. 3. 

Olympic games at Antioch: Malal. XII p. 372 = 284. ot 'Arrtoxfts KTrJTopei 
Kal TroAirai pr]vvcnv Ttoirioavres ebe-qdr]a-av tov aiiTov ^aaiKems Koppobov [a mistake 
for Caracalla : conf Noris. Epoch. Syrom. p. 259] Iva — -npooKvpaxTri 7<5 br]pooiio 
Tas TTpoa-obovs hi etaa-e ttj t5>v ' Avrioyitav itoKei. 2(<Krt/3tos 6 irpoeLpripevos [conf. a. 
44] Xoy<i) 6ea>pi&v TToXvrpoTTcov /cat bia(p6pa)V ayiLvbtv eiriTeXovpevuiv ttj ai/rf; ■noKei, 
Kal Xva pr] ■nopi^'i'VTai Tas vpovobovi ol Tfo\irev6pevoi, aWa to br)p6aiov Kal avTo 
Xop'^yfl Aoyo) T&v emreKovp^viav wpos Tep^iv ttjs TroAecoy ^OKvpiilaiv /cat SXXcoi' 
TtvQv 6eo>pL&v ev rfj avTrj wo'Aet t&v ' AvTwxeutv. koI eiiB^as 6 avrbs ^acnXevs Ko'/x- 
poboi — TTpocreKvprncre tQ brjpooico Tas ■apoo'obovi, — vopoderr]cras Kara TeTpaeTi] x/"*" 
vov iTnTektla-daL apepTTTcas ev rats eopraij t&v ava6r}pAT(i>v iJTOi. Ovcri&v t5>v i^ 
iOovs, roureoTt t^ Ylavepca ijtol 'louXtu prjvl /cat r<5 Acoco tm \eyopev(o Avyovara 
prjvl fTTt ijpepas pe' els eopTr]V tov 'OKvpiriov Atos. — enl ovv rfjs avrov jiao'iXelas 
TTpdroLS eTterekecrdri ra 'OKvpTna toXs ' Avrio^evat. Sv/aots — erovs u^' Xpr^parC^ovros 
Kara roiis avrovs 'AzTtoxets Evpovs iv T(3 irap' avrov KricrOevri, Evorco. -qyopaaav be 
ra avTa 'OKvpiria ot 'Avrioxels irapa r&v tJiaalav rrjs 'EXXaSos [conf. Liban. An- 
tioch. tom. I p. 364] eTr' evevrjKOvra irepiobovs ay&vos 'O\vpm(ov, as elvaL €Tr' irrj 
rf, aypa(p<f ttcj/cto). /cat eyevero ev rfj avrfj ' Avrio\e(a akvTa.p\r]s — ovopaudeis vpSi- 
ros ''Atppdvios 6 am eTT<ipx<>>v, iroXfrjjs 'Avrioxevs. As the era of Antioch began 
in autumn B. C. 49 (conf. a. 44), the 260th year commenced in autumn A. D. 
211, and the games were celebrated in the 9th and 10th months (F. H. Ill 
p. 359) Panemus and Loiis, or July and August A. D. 212. They were dis- 
continued at the close of the 568th year of Antioch : conf. a. 520. 


01. 248 U. C. Varr. 966. 
M. Aurelim Antoninus 
Augustus IV D. CceUus 
Balhinus II 

Antonino IIII et Balbino 
Nor. Idat. A. 

Antonino A. IIII et Bal- 
bino II Cod. Justin, in 

GaracallcE 3 irora prid. Non. Febr. tr.pot. 16 from Kal. Januar. 

Caracalla in Gaul: Spartian. Carac. c. 5. His gestis [conf. a. 212] Galliam 
petiit. — Et, quum Germanos subegisset, Germanicum se appellavit. Marked on 
the coins of this year. 

Coins apud Eckhel. tom. VII p. 209. 1 M. Aurel. Antoninus Pius Aug. 
Brit. + p. m. tr.p. XVI imp. II cos. IIII p.p. S. C. 2 The same, with the 
Circus. 3 M. Aurel. Antoninus Pius Aug. Brit.+p. m. tr. p. XVI cos. IIII 
p.p. ov liber alitas Aug. VIII. A Antoninus Pius Aug. Brit. + prof ectio Aug. or 
liberalitas Aug. VIII. or p. m. tr. p. XVI imp. II cos. IIII p. p. S. C. or p. m. 

R M A N T 


3 Skculak AuTHons 

4 Ecclesiastical Actmobs 

Antipater laments Geta: Philostr. V. S. II. 24. 'Ai^ 
TiitaTpoi [conf. a. 199] StSdo-KoAo'v t« t&v 2<j3r;pov ■naihiav 
ivofj-CcrOr], Kai 0e<ov bi.b<icTKa\ov iKoXovixfv avrhv iv roiy 
inaivoii T7\s a.Kpod(T(iai. [Ho had therefore been the 
preceptor oi Fhilostratm : Ibid. avTo<T)(ihi,oi b\ itv, oibi 
(^povri,(r)xaT<t»v r\jxi\fi, dXX' 'OAu/iwiOKOvv t< 7))xlv hlr)(i koX 
UavaOrivdiKow. And before the death of Geta, who is 
alluded to in fltcDr.] avoOavovros h'i rov vtmripov <T(f>(ip 
in ahla (os T(j) ab(\.(t)<u (iti^ovKcvoi [see col. 2], ypd<f)(i 
Ttpos Tov TTp((jjivT(pov iincrTo\r)v, ixov<fbiav iTr(\ov<Tav koi 
Opjivov K. T. A. v(f>' S>v ■napolvv6r)vai tov jSacnKia ij.i] dwi- 
(nS)p.(v. Philogtratiis records the death of Antipater : 
Ibid. fi[ov fiiv 6ij dfcTu »cai ^^r/xowo irr] r<p 'AvTt,Tr6.Tp<f 
iyivtTo, KoX ^rd^i) otxoi. 

Philisem pleads at Rome before Caracalla: Philostr. 
V. S. II. 30. oCros— Tfjs biiays yfvonivrjs ini tov avTOKpi- 
Topa (' AvTuvivos bi ^v 6 Trjs (fiiKoa-ocpov irais 'loi/Xi'as) 
^ordA?; is ttiv 'Ptipirfv (5>y ra iavTov drj(r6p.fVos. (cat irpocr- 
pvfls Toii TTtpl TTIV 'lovAiof y«i>p.€Tpais Tf (cat <})l\o<r6<pOLS 
(vpaTo Trap' aiiTrji 6td tov /SacrtAfuy tov "'AOi'ivrjcn Opovov. 
Caracalla was offended with his pleading : Ibid, is 
T]K0V(Tfv (tvaC Tiva avra koI bU-qv 17? avros dKpoaTr\s e<rot- 
ro, (ceAet/et — Ttpodireiv ot to p.r\ bC h^pmv bC iavTov bk 
dymv[{ea-dai. itrtl bi irapfiKdev k. t. A. And refused him 
the dr^Aeta : (Itiovtos bi tov ^ikCarKOV, " av ^ot Aetrovp- 
" yi&v drfAetor b(b<i>Kas boiii tov 'A6i]vr](ri Opovov.^ dva- 
^07)(ras 6 avTOKp&.Tu>p " ovTt uv'' Hthv " dreAjjs ovre dAAos 
" ovSetf tu>v TtaibevovTotv." 

Coins of this year : Eckhel. torn. VII p. 209. 1 An- 
toninus Pins Aug. Brit. + liberalitas Aug. VII. 2 M. 
Aurel. Antoninus Pius Aug. Brit. -V p.m. tr.p. XV cos. 
Ill p. p. 

Among 37 laws of A. D. 212 are the following: Cod. 
Justin. VIII. 14, 5 Imp. Antoninus A. Domitio.pp. Id. 
Maiis Romip. VI. 24, 2 Ca-Utio. — p p. XV Kal. Jtilii 
Romce. III. 28,6 Ingenuo. pp. VII Kal. Jul. Roma:. 
X. 59, 1 Pars edicti Imp. Antonini A. pp. Romie V 
Id. Jul. V. 43, 1 Domitiee. — p p. Id. Aug. Roma. All 
dated duobus Aspris conss. 

Inscriptio Capuse apud Gruterum p. 151.4. Imp. 
Ccesar Aug. M. Aurelius Antoninus Pius he. — p. m. 
p. p. COS. Ill des. IIII viam inundatione aqute inier- 
ruptam restituit. 

Apollonius wrote against the Montanists in the 40th 
year after the rise of their sect : Euseb. H. E. V. 18. 
rrji bk (cari <^pvyai Kakovp.ivr)<i alpiafan koI 'AiroWdvios, 
^(C(cAij(Tia(rTiKos cruyypai^ivs, iiKpja(ov<Tr\s flatri t6t( Kara 
TTjv <i>pvyCav i\eyxpv iv(m]<Tinuvoi Ihiov Kar avrStv itt- 
iro^»jToi avyypaixixa, ray ixiv (fxpopJvai avruv ■irpo<f)ijT€Cat 
yj/tvbdi ov<ra9 (card A/ftr eiOvvotv t6v 8i filov t&v t^s 
alpi<T((os lip)(i)yS>v imolos rij yiyovt bi(Kiy)(av, — " dAAd 
" tCs ioTi'v ovTos 6 TTp6(r(}>aT0i Stdd(r(caAos ; — oCrds iorw 
" 6 bibdlai \v(T(is ydyxav, 6 vrjiTTeCai vofxofltT^o-as," (c.r.A. 
— 6 b' avTbs OVTOS ' AnoWuvios (card t6 airro iruyypay^ia 
ioTopei is dpa Ti<T(TapaKo<TThv irvy\av€V Itos ItH tt]v tov 
(Tvyyp&p.y.aTos ypa^r\v avrov i( oi ttj itpoa-jtoirfTi^ ovtov 
TTpo<j)r]TeC(f 6 MovTavos iTTiK(\tCprjK(. Hieron. Catal. 
c. 40. Apollonius— fcripsit adversus Montanum Priscam 
et Maximillam insigne et longum volumen in quo asserit 
Montanum et tnsanas votes periisse suipendio. — dicit in 
eodem libro quadragesimum esse annum — ex quo heeresis 
Gataphrj/garum habuerit exordium. Floruit autem Apol- 
lonius sub Gommodo Severoque principibus. According 
to Hieronymus Montanus and Maximilla were now 
dead. But Apollonius himself addresses Montamts as 
still living : j) 7rpo(/)ijrts [d irpoffiiiTrjs Kouth.] jjixiv tiTrdrci). 
— iiv 6 TtpoipriTTis (TvvovTa woAAois fT«nv dyroti. Conf. 
Vales, ad loc. Their deaths then must have been re- 
corded in some later treatise. 

[Euseb. Chron. Anna 2228 Garacalla: 1" Antiocheno- 
rum nonus episcopus Asclepiades. In Hieron. Anno 
22:^7 Garacallce l". Placed about nine years too low: 
conf. a. 203.] 

Philostratus of Lemnos is 22 years of ago at the 
Olympic games of this year: conf. a. 215. He was 
the friend of Philostratus the author of Vit. Sophist. 
Philostr. V. S. II. 33 p. 628. Trepi 8^ 4>iAooTpdTav toU 
Arjjxvlov, (cat rls p-fv iv 5i(ca<mjpfois 6 dinjp ovros ri's 8i iv 
br]iJir]yoplais ris bi fv ovyypaiJ.\Mi(ri. tCs bi iv (xeAtVats, S<ros 
hi iv (r\(bC(f k6y(f Kal irtpl Nixaydpov tov ' AOr\vaiov 
[conf. a. 245], hs /cat tov 'EAevcrti'iov lepov Krjpv^ iarl' 
(cai 6 'Ayjflvqs re d ^oivil [conf. a. 236] i(f> oo-oj' Tipovfir] 

Tertulliani adversus Apollonium. Written after the 
work of Apollonius (conf. a. 212) against the Mon- 
tanists : Hieron. Catal. c. 40. TertuUianus sex volumi- 
nibus adeersus ecclesiam editis, qua; scripsit irepl ^(cord- 
o-ecos, septimum proprie adversus Apoll&nium dahoravit 
in quo omnia qtue ule ctrgvit amatur defendere. Idem 
Catal. c. 24. Tertidlianits in septem lihris quos scripsit 
adcenus ecclesiam pro Montano. Mentioned again 
c. 53 among the works of Tertullian: De exstasi li- 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

65 laws, once only ^. //// 
et Balhino conss. see Ap- 

Romae apud Gruter. p. 
44. 2. P. j&. Yidorinm 
Romani Viveni f. Aureli- 
ana Popa mil. coh. V pr. 
Antoniniane. P. V. 7 Veri 
Herculi donu.posuit lihiens 
voto ut gratias ago. dedi 
camt III Non. Novemhres 
Imp. Antonino Aug. N. 
IIII et D. Caeilio Bal- 
hino II COS. 

For another inscription 
see col. 2. 

tr. p. XVI COS. IIII p. p. 5 M. Aurelim Antoninus Pius Aug. Brit. p. m. tr. p. 
XVI+imp. II COS. IIII p. p. S. C. 6 M. Aur. Antoninus Pius Felix Aug.+ 
p. m. tr.p. XVI. imp. II cos. IIII p.p. S. C. or p. m. tr.p. XVI cos. IIII p.p. 
7 Antoninus Pius Aug. Germ. + p. m. tr.p. XVl cos. IIII p. p. or liberalitas 
Aug. VIII. or Venus victrix. 8 Antoninus Pius Fel. Aug. + victoria Germanica. 
9 M. Aurel. Antoninus Pius Aug. Germ.+ Venus victrix. 

Cod. Justin, has 66' laws of A.D. 213 (see Appendix), among which are 
the following: III. 37, 1 Imp. Antoninus A. Lucano. pp. Kal. Mart. Bomw. 
VI. 25, 2 Cassia:— pp. VIII Id. Mart. Bomcc. V. 39. 1 Septimio.—p p. VIII 
Kal. Jul. Bomoi. II. 56, 1 Nepotiance. — pp. IX Kal. Aug. Bomce. II. 3, 5 
Demmiwrce. — pp. VIII Kal. Aug. Bomce. V. 41, 1 Sexto. — f p. VIII Kal. 
Aug. Bomce. VIII. 23, 1 Gahinio.^pp. V Kal. Aug. Bomce. V. 60, 1 Her- 
nulce. — pp. IV Kal. Aug. Bomce. All these Antonino A. IIII et Balhino II 
conss. From these testimonies it appears that Caracalla did not leave Rome 
till after July 29. 

An inscription marking these consuls apud Panvinium p. 367 Gruterum p. 
108. 1. 1075. 10. In page Prauniheim circa Francofurtum : In H. D. D. 
Genio sancto M. Aurelius CI. Pompeianus mil. leg. VIII Antoniniance Aug. BF. 
cos. K. Januar. Imp. D. N. Antonino IIII et Balhino II cos. 


967. Messala et Sabinus 

Nor. Tdat. A. Cod. Jus- 
tin, see col. 2. 

Lapis apud Gruterum p. 
4. 6. J. 0. M. et Genio 
Loci Dis D. q. omnibus 
Aur. Superifiius Marsus 
BF. Cos. pro se et suis 
V. S.L.M. Messala et Sor 
hino cos. 

Romse apud Gruterum 
p. 1108. 6. D. M.Flavio 

Severo flio karissimo qui 
vix. ann. VI m. V Fl. Vi- 
talis evok. et Glycera pa- 
rentes infeliciss. mas. ex- 
strusce. item A/ricano lih. 
hene merent. vix. an. 
XVIII. hie decessit lih. 
XVII K. Sept. hahet mas. 
p. XII filius karissimus 
decessit X VIII Kal. Oct. 
depositus p. XII in vas- 
cello et massa a fundus, 
postea placuit lapide Ti- 
hur. ambos in se circumn 
dare et titulum inscribere 
D. G. Messala et Sahino 

For another inscription 
see col. 2. 

CaracaUcB 4 from prid. N<m. Feb. trih. pot. 17 from Kal. Jan. 

Caracalla invades the Alemanni, visits Dacia and Thrace, and winters at 
Nicomedia: Victor. Cses. p. 329. Alamannos gentem populosam — prope Moenum 
amnem devicit. Spartian. Carac. c. 10. Alamannorum gentem devicerat. Idem 
lb. c. 5. Ad Orimitem profectionem parans omisso itinere in Dacia resedit, circa 
Bhcetiam non pauco§ harharos interemit. — Per Thracias cum prcp/ecto preetorti 
iter fecit, inde quum in Asiam trajiceret naufragii periculum adiit. Dio 77- 13- 
6 AiTOjrii'os es roiiy ^ A\a}i^avvovs crTparfvaas k. t. \. — (v tid iroAe/iO) tu> wpoy 
' AXafil3avvovs k. t. A. Idem c. 18. ravTo. re [the acts described c. 16. 17] ev t^ 
NtKo^ijSeia x^'M'^'''"* eirpa^e Ka\ ttjv (f)aXayya ttjv MaKtbovcKriv efjja-KTjo-f, fxrjymn)- 
fiard re bvo ixdyicrra irpos re rov "" Apy.iVLKOv koI iiphi rov YlapdiKov iroXep-ov KUTf- 
(rxevaaev. Herodian. IV. 8. eret be ra Trapa. tu 'lorpti) arpaToTTtba b^K-qcrf Kar- 
fiKde re di QpUK-qv Ma/ceSo'crt yuTViaia-av, evOvs ' AKi^avbpos tjv [conf.Victor. Epit. 
p. 378]. — Tavra 6e -novfiaas to. re iv rals Tioktcri SioiK^tras 0)S efeBe'xfTO, ^Tre^x^r; 
eis Y\(pyap.ov r^s 'Aulas, xprjcraa-dai /SovXo'/xfJ'os 6epaTTeCaLs rod 'AffKX-qTTLOv [see 
the coins of A. D. 215]. a^iK6p.€vos 6j) exei — rJKfv els 'IXioi". — dirdpas 8e ttJs 
'lAi'ou bid re Trjs &Wr]s 'AcrCas Kal BiOvvlas tSiv re kom&v eOp&v — eis ttji* 'Avtio- 
Xeiav [sc. A. D. 215] a<^iKeTo. 

Coins : Eckhel. torn. VII p 21 1. \ M. Aurel. Antoninus Piiis Aug. Germ. + 
p. m. tr.p. XVII COS. IIII p. p. S. C. or lib. Aug. VIII. p. m. tr.p. XVII 
imp. Ill COS. IIII p. p. S. C. " typus congiarii." 2 Antoninus Pius Aug. Germ. 
+ liberalitas Aug. VIII. " typus congiarii." 3 M. Aurel. Antoninus Pius Felix 
Aug. +p. m. tr.p. XVII cos. IIII p. p. 

Laws: Cod. Justin. III. 13, 1. Imp. Antoninus A. Severo et aliis. dat. II 
Id. Januar. V. 31, 1 Chrysanthm. pp. II Non. Fehr. VII. 16, 2 Veroniano. 
dat. Non. Febr. Bomce. IX. 47, 6 Alphio. p p. Ill Id. Fehr. VIII. 15, 2 
Proculo. dat. VI Kal. Mart. IV. 2, 2 Hermogeni. p p. VII Kal. Maii. VI. 
7, 1 Daphno. pp. V Kal. Maii. VIII. 41, 5 Potamoni. p p. VI Non. Maii. 
VII. 53, 3 Agrippa: dat. XI Kal. Jul. VIII. 41, 6 Police, p p. XI Kal. Jul. 
VI. 30, 1 Titice.pp. Kal. Jul. V. 31, 2 Epaphrodito. pp. Ill Non. Jul. VI. 
31,1 Mutatio.pp. Id. Jul. V. 70, 1 Mariniance. pp. IF Kal. Aug. V.40, 1 
Cassio militi. p p. Nonis Novemh. VIII. 21, 1 Venusto. — accept. Ill Kal. Dec. 
IV. 26,4 Lucio. — dat. V Kal. Jan. All Messala et Sahino conss. 

R O M A N I 


3 Skcular Authoks 

4 Ecclesiastical Authobs 

fiw/fiT/s T( Koi &Kptfi(iai, ovK kyX 8*1 yj)&(p(iv koX yap hv 
Koi &T!i.(rr-q6(Cr]v is ^apKrififvos, iirfibr) (piKla not irpoy ov- 
roiry rjv. 

Heliodorm pleads and declaims successfully before 
Caracalla in Gaul: Philostrat. V. S. II. 32. ixfipoTo- 
VTiOi) — TTpo T^y iavTov varpihos h rh. KeXriKo iOvrj ^vv 
irfpio. vo<TovvTOi hi Oaripov, koX \(yop.ivov rhv ^acriKda 
biaypdilxiv woAAay tHi' 6t«&)V, bUbpap.fV 6 'HAio8ti)/ioy ey 
TO (TTpaTOTtfbov K. T. \. Carocalla was in Gaul after 
July in this year : see col. 2. Heliodorm was still 
living when Philostratm wrote : conf. a. 217. 

Phihstratm himself was present at this interview in 
Gaul : V. S. II. 32 p. (526. droTrr/SrJo-ay 6 avTOKparap 
" ivhpa T( olov ovTt(j) lyvdiKa rbv ipMvrov Kaipov fiJpjjKa" 
K. T. \. — Karapxas p-ip ovir (vi-ntai Tty Koi tjpiv opixr] yi- 
XwToy olop-fvois oTi hiaimjoi avrov k. t. K. 

bras sex, et septimum quern advermm ApoUonium com- 

Dion Cmsius at. the close of this year is at Nice- 
media with Caracalla,: 77- 17- 1*^- vapovTiav nai f]p&v 
Koi opatvTiav k. t. \. — ravTa if rfi 'SiKop.rjbela xapdaas 
[A. D. 21^] inpa^f. Here he conversed with Caracalla 
for the last time : 7^. 8. iv tjj Niico/xrjSffa roty Kpovion 
(l(m<iv i] [Dec. 17 A. D. 214] — i^aviaTap.(vii>v i)pS>v, 
•npo(TKoX((Tap,(VOi i^r) " KoWiora, oj Aiatv, koi aKrjdevTaTa 

" F.vpi'iribrii" T(\fVTaiav TavrrjV <t>a)vriv irpoy ipii fp- j 

prjfe. Reimar ad p. 1306 n. 120 who makes Die thej 
companion of Caracalla at Alexandria in A. D. 215 
(" Dionem comitem itineris") is refuted by this pas- j 

Phihstratus composed the life of Apollonius at the 
command oi Julia Domna: V. A. I. 3. irpoariKwv th raJ 
AofiiSi [conf. a. 4.5] ray S^Arovy t&v viro/ui^ftarwr' owttu 
ytyi/cocTKo/xeVay eJy yvSJ<Tiv 'lyaytv lovXla Trj /3a(nAi8i. 
HfrdxovTi, be poi toxj irtpl avTrjV kvk\ov (koL yap rovi pr)- 
ropiKoi/y Travray \6yov'i firjji'fi koI ■!)m;aC,fTo) pfTayp6.\j/ai 
re TTpoa-fTa^f ray biarpi^as ravras Kai r^y airayytXias av- 
tUv iT:ip,(\ridT]vai. Tf yap Ntvio) a-a(f>u>i p,iv ov Sffiuy 6^ 
dmjyy^AAeTo. ivirvxov hi koI Ma((piov rov AiyaUois /3t- 
fiK((f fur«iX?)(^on to h' AJyoiy 'AttoAAui'iou irdma. It is 
not necessary that this command should have been 
given in the reign of Severus, as Olearius pnef. p. V 
supposes. The term /Sao-tAty means only Augusta; a 
title which Julia retained till her death. The use of 
iTtX)V(i KoL r)<rn6.^iT0 (instead of fitawii koX av-na^tTai.) 
rather implies that she was no longer living when that 
passage was written; and that the work, undertaken 
at her command, was not completed till after A. D. 

The author of /3ioi <to(^i(tt5>v quotes this work as his 
own : V. S. II. 5 p. 570. dpryrai aa^Si^ iv rois ii 'AiroA- 

Alexander at Jerusalem succeeds Narciteus: Euseb. 
H. E. VI. 8. 11. ^efirjpov 'Avrcavlvoi 6 Traiy 8ta8^x*'''"- 
iv TovTif be Kal rStv Kara, rov biutyfiov avbpuranevotv 
[A. D. 202] — eh ny i>p ^ AKe^avbpos — rj/y bri\ta0eC<rr}i 
eTTKTKOTtijs ttfiovrot, en Nap)ti(r<rou Sy rjv avr^ TrpoTtpoy 
■nepwvTos Tcp /Sio). — Koi 8ij pLrjKid^ otov re Svtos KeiTovpyeiv 
biM Kmapov yijpai, rbv 'AKe^avbpov ImaKOTtov irepai 
virdpxovra TrapoiKLas olKOVop.Ca Oeov iirl tt)v &pM tw Nop- 
(ciVo-o) keiTovpyiav ettdkei — ravTr) 8' ovv tja-nep Kara ti 
Oeoitpo-niov (k ri/y t5)v KoTnraSo/coli' y^y, ivOa to itpSnov 
T^y eTti(TKo-nr\s fj^LbiTO, tijv Ttopeiav ir[\ to. 'lepoaoKvfta — 
■neTtoir\ixevov tpiko^povecnaTa 01 rf;8e vTioXafioirres ovk4t' 
otxabe avTa iraXirooreiy «T7irp«Vov<Tt. — fivr]piovevei ye roi 
Kal avTos o 'AAe'f ofSpoy ej; IhiaK iTn<TTo\al9 raiy irpoy 'A»^ 
Tiroffray — Trjs NapKCcraov (tvv avTi^ TtpoebpCai — " d<nro- 
" (erai NopKto-croy 6 Trpb ip^ov bUTTbtv tov t6tsov Trf} 
" eTTtcTKOTi^y TOV evOabe — kKaTov beKa Jf ^tt] fjiniKm."" 
Hieron. Catal. c. 62. Alexander episcopiis Cappadociie 
— adnitente ipso vel maxime Nareisso Jlierosolyiniianee 
ecclesice cum eo gubeniaculum suscepit. Hie in fine cujus- 
dam epistolte quam scribit ad Antinoitas super pace ec- 
clesice ait &c. — Scripsit et aliam ad Antiochenses [conf. 
a. 203] per Clementem presbyterum Alexandrite — neawn 
ad Origenem [conf. Euseb. H. E. VI. 14] et pro Origene 
contra Detnetrium, eo qitod juxta testimonium Dernetrii 
etim presbyterum comtituerit [conf. a. 228. 231]. Sed 
et alirc ejus ad dimrsos feruntur epistolce. The library 
founded by him at Jerusalem — ttj koto r^r AiXlav fitr- 
l3\u)0ijKr) — is mentioned by Eusebius H.E VI. 20. For 
the death of Alexander conf. a. 250. 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

Eckhel remarks upon the coins of this year " Cum congiaria vix distribui 
" soHta sint nisi cum principes in urbe adessent, docemur hoc numo Cara- 
" callam saltem partem hujus anni Romse exegisse." This conjecture is con- 
firmed by Cod. Justin. VII. 16, 2 which marks that Caracalla was at Rome 
Feb. 5 A. D. 214. We collect that he returned to Home from Gaul, and from 
Rome proceeded against the Alemanni. 

An inscription marking the winter quarters at Nicomedia at the close of 
this year apud Gruterum p. 122. 1. fragmentum inscriptionum fratrum arva- 

lium : Messalla et Sahino cos. fratres arvales convenerunt P nus Imp. 

CcES. M. Aurelius Antoninus Pius ar felicissime ad. ibema NicomedicB 

promag. vice M. Juli Gessi Bassiani mag ea saluti imp. Anto- 

nini &c. 


968. Lmtus II et Cerealis 

Cod. Justin, in 41 laws 
see Appendix and col. 2. 

LcEto et Cereale 

Nor. Idat. A. Cassiod. 

Romse apud Panvinium 
p. 367 Gruterum p. 3 1 2. 2. 
TerenticB Flavolan V. V. 
maximce Ti. Julius Bal- 
hillus sac. Solis oh plura 
ejus in se merita D. D 
prid. Non. April. Lotto 
II et Cereale cos. 

Caracallee 5 from^n<i?. Non. Feb. tr.pot. 18 from Kal. Januar. 

Caracalla, having wintered at Nicomedia, proceeds to Antioch and thence 
to Alexandria: Dio 77- 19- '"'P'^ ^^ airapai otto NtxojiJjSe^as ay&va ixovofuixCai 
(V avrfj eirl tois kavrov yeveOXiois [Ap. 4] fTToCrja-fv. — koI y-iv rot /cat ra TOiavra 
TioiS>v (coi (V Ttj ^kvTioxfia Tpvcf>(ov K. T. \. Dio 77- 22. 23 then describes the 
march to Alexandria : 6 Se 'Airruvivos, Kai toi rhv '' XXi^avhpov virepayaTrav (jyd- 
(TK<t>v, Tovs ^Keivov TtoXiTas p.iKpov beiv TTavras &phriv aTitaKfafv. aKovmv yap ort 6ia- 
;3d\Aotro (cat (TKciirToiro — eiiC re tols &\\ois Kal ovx ^(ctora rfj d6e\<^o»croj'^a wpfxr]- 
(Tfv fT!l T-qv ' AKe^avbpftav k. t.X. Herodian. IV. 8. et'y ttjv 'AvTiox^eiav cu^UiTO' 
iKtl T( vTiobfx.dels TroXvTeX&s Kal biarpC-^as xpo''ov nvos eVt nji' '' AXe^avbpeiav 
((TTiWfTo K.T.X. Conf. Spartian. Carac. c. 6. That he visited Egypt in this 
year is attested by coins : see col. 3. 

In Cod. Justin, are 41 laws of A. D. 215 ; among which are the following : 
VI. 37, 6 Juliano. p p. VIII Kal. Maii Roma. VII. 29, 1 Theophilo. pp. 
VII Kal. Jul. RomcE. III. 28, 7 Hecundo. — pp. VI Kal. Jul. Roma>. VIII. 
39, 1 Paullino. — p p. Kal. Jul. IhmcE. V. 50, 1 Faustina, p p. VI Id. Jul. 
Roma;. VII. 52, 2 Pacatiano. p p. prid. Non. * Bomae. All dated Lceto II 
et Cereale conss. According to these dates Caracalla is at Rome Ap. 28 and 
June 25 — July 10 A. D. 215. But this is inconsistent both with the coins, 
and the inscription apud Gruter. quoted a. 214, and with the course of events 
(as Eckhel torn. VII p. 215 has argued against Tillemont). If Caracalla was 
at Rome July 10 A. D. 215, the winter at Nicomedia was at A. D. 21^, and 
he set out from that city after Ap. 4 A. D. 216. But his winter at Edessa is 
fixed by his death to A.D. 2 If. Therefore within 8 or 9 months (between 
April and December) happened successively the progress to Antioch, the 
negotiations with Parthia, the march to Alexandria, the return to Antioch 
again, the Parthian war; lastly, the return to Edessa: conf. a. 216. But the 
date Rmnce in Cod. Justin, at A. D. 215 may be justly doubted, for it appears 
also in laws of A. D. 216. conf. a. 216. 

Hieron. Chron. Anno 2231 [A. D. 21f] Caracallee 5" Antoninus Roma th&rmas 
sui nominis cedijlcavit. Cassiod. Sabinus II et Venustus [= Caracalla 5"]. His 
coss. Antoninus Romce ihermas &c. Mentioned by Eutropius VIII. 20 Victor 
Caes. p. 329 Spartianus Carac. c. 9. 


969. C. Atius Sabinus II 
et Cornelius Anullinus A. 
Cod. Justin, see col. 2. 

SaMno et Anullino Nor. 
Inscriptio apud Noris. 

Caracalla: 6 hom prid. Non. Febr. tr. pot. 19 from Kal. Januar. 

Parthian expedition. Caracalla passes the Euphrates — winters at Edessa : 
Dio 78. 1. fierd 8e ravra [after the acts of Alexandria A. D. 215] h revs ndp- 
6ovs (TTpaTivaas, Trpocjyao'iv on ovk rjBiXrjfffV avTif 6 Aprrf/3avos ttjv Ovyaripa p-vrf- 
crTfV(Tap.tV(o (TvvoiKiaai, — iroXAd ix(v Trjs x^pas ttjs irepl ttjv Mr^bCav, &Tf /cat e^am- 
vaCms ep.iTe(TO)v is avrr\v, fK&Kaa-i, woXXd be /cat Tftxij firopdi^a-f, rd re 'ApPrjXa 

R O M A N I 


3 Seculae Authors 


\<oviov [sc. I. 17]. Conf. Oloar. ad locum. The author 
of Vit. Apollon. had boon in Gaul: V. A. V. 2. ras tov 
diKfavov TpoTrai nal avros iTfpl KtXroiis (t^ov. Although 
the work was composed at Homo : imavOa V. 3. Tho 
author of /3iot <TO(j>iaTiii> had been in Gaul in A. D. 2 13 : 
conf. a. The author of Vit. Apollon. was a Lemnian: 
Eunap. V. S. p. 6. 6 Arnjivioi ^iKoarparos fiUiv k-niyp&^^w 
" AiToKKiavwv to. /3i/3Aia. Philostr. V. A. VI. 27. olba 
Kara tj)I' Ai}pLvov Tiaii ffiavrov nva hTjXUcov, k. t. A. But 
the author of /3foi (Totpia-T&v was also a Lemnian : conf. 
a. 23i). These coincidences confirm the interpretation 
of Oieariusad V. A. II.5. 

PMlostratm of Lemnos set. 24 in the reign of Cara- 
calla: Philostr. V. S. II. 30 p. 623. 6 avroKpiTotp nfra 
raika [after an interview with PhiUscus in A. D. 212 : 
conf. a.] <^^Ao(rrp(4To) tu ATip.vC<^ \eiTovpyiS)v drcAeior M 
jueAerr/ «\//)j(/)i(Taro rlrrapa Kal fiKomv irrj ytyovoTi. He 
was 22 at the Olympic games: II. 27 p. 017. o 'Iwiro- 
Spojuos — tovtI judAitrra ev rf; 'OKvfmCa eSTjAoMj-f <l>tAo- 
orpciTCj) yap T(j) Atdj.v[(o, yvit>p[p(f p^iv iavrov ovti hvo h( 
(tat tlKouiv (TTf ytyovoTi, avappmrovvri tivu avTo<T\ibwv 
irAfio-Ta p.ip evibiaKf tt) Ti\vj] tu>v iiraCvcav. From the 
years of Caracalla this could only refer to the games 
of 01. 248. For 22 years in 01. 247 or July A. D. 20;) 
would place the 24th year of Philostratus too soon 
after the accession ; 01. 249 or July A. D. 217 would 
place it after the death of Caracalla. Conf. Olear. ad 
Philostr. p. G 17- 623. He was therefore 22 in July 
A. D. 213; which will determine his birth to the be- 
ginning of 192 or the close of 191. PMlostratm con- 
versed with ^lian in A. D. 222 : conf. a. 

Coins of this year: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 214. 1 An- 
toninm Pirn Aug. Germ.+p. m. tr.p. XVIII eos. IIII 
p. p. with the emperor standing before the altar of 
jEsculapius. 2 M. Aurel. Antoninus Pius Aup. Germ. 
-t-jp. m. tr.p. XVIII imp. Ill cos. IV [sic Eckh.] j). p. 
S. C. The emperor with his foot on a crocodile ap- 
proached by his. — marking the visit to Egypt. 

{Origen at Cresarea: Euseb. H. E. VI, 19. koto, tov- 
Tov TOV xpovov [in the reign of Caracalla: conf. VI. 16] 
ki: AKf^avtpdas avrto ras biaTpi^as ■noiovy.ivto iTsunAs 
Tts rSiv orpaTuaT iKbiv avfbibov ypap.pMTa Arjixrjrptif t( Tip 

TTJS TiapOlKCai iTtl(TK6Tt<0 (Col T<|) TOTf TrjS AlyiTltTOV (Tiipxia 

irapa tov ttJs 'ApaySi'oy ffyovp.4vov, iy hv fxcra ottoi/J^s 
diraoTjs tov ilpiyivrjv Ti(pL\j/oifv Koi.V(i)vri(rovTa Arfyo)j' avru. 
TOiyapovv ■npoTTep.(j)6fi9 VTr avToiv dt/xKZ/cirai (irl ttjv 'Apa- 
fiCav. ovK (is pMKpov bi TO. Trjs i<pl$f(i>s fls itipas ayayitv 
aJflis (Ttl Ti]v '' Akf^&vbpuav inavrfu. After the return 
from this mission Demetnus and Origen are no longer 
satisfied with each other : Euseb. Ibid, yjtovov b\ \U- 
Ta^v biayevop-evov, ov a-p.iKpov KaTo. ttjv ttoKiv avappiiri- 
crdivTos i!okip.ov [see col. 2] vnt^iXduiv Tr\s 'A\f^avbp(ias, 
Kal p.ribe Tas Kar AlyviXTov 8iaTpt/3ds do-^oAeiy iavrif 
T]yovp,(vos, iXdiav evl riaAaicrr&jjs ev KoKrapfCq rdy 6ia- 
Tpi^as fTTOKLTo. (vOa Kal bioKiyfcrOai. Tas re Odas ipp^i)- 
vfvdv ypa(pas iirl tov koivov rf/s iKKX-rjaias oi Tjjbe kttl- 
(TKOTtoi, xaiVot T7(s TOV vpfa^vTtplov \(ipoTovCas ovbeirw 
TfTvxnKOTa, avTov ri^Covv. & koI avTo yivoiT'''hv iKbijXov 
a^ Siv TTfpl TovTov Arip.rp'pCm ypd<^ovT(s '' Aki^avbpos 6 
lepoao\vix<av iniffKOTtos koX QeoKTiaros 6 Kauyapdas — 
d-jroAoyowrat. — Toikov koI hi v^os wv — ov irpos p.6v<av 
rS)V (TvvrjOwv dAAd /cat tUv iirl feVjjs (incTKoTrotv ^rifidro 
Tor Tpo-nov. But Demetrius recalled him to Alexandria 
by special messengers : Ibid.) 

Antiochis was recovered from the Parthians by 
Caracql/a in A. D. 21.'): Dio 77- 15> — 21. fKo-rparfv- 
TavTi bk ovT(3 KOTO T&v Udipdav "npoi^aiTis tov ■no\(p.ov rjv 
oTi Oiiokoyaia-os tov re Ti/piSdrfji" Kal 'Avt[o)(OV Twa ptr 
avTov (^aLTi'juavTi. avrip ovk f^ebiaKfv. 6 be AvtIoxos 6 
avTopoKo'i Kt'Aif piiv rjv, Kal cl>i.\o(ro<pilv KVVTjbbv rd i:pS>Ta 





1 Consuls 

2 Ea 


torn. II p. 988 ex Sponio: 
Dedic. XVIII Kal. Sep- 
tem. G. Alio Sahino II et 
Comelio Anullino cos. 

Tabula marmorea in 
Hispaniis apud Gruterum 
p. 26'0. 1. Imp. Gcesari M. 
Aurelio Antonino Pio Fe- 
lici Aug. Parthic. max. 
kc—trib. pot. XVIII I 
COS. IIII imp. Ill p. p. 
proc. equites in his acla- 
rius leg. VII Gem. Ant. 
P. Fel. devota numini ma- 
jestatiq. ejus. Dedicat. ... 
VII Kal. Oct. Catto [lege 
cum Norisio G. Atio] Sa- 
bino II et Go. Anullino 


De voce acfarius conf. 
Facciolati Lex. h. v. 

vapeaTrjo-aTO. — ol fiiv ovv j3dpl3apoi es to. oprj to, inrep tov Tiypiv [conf. Reim. ad 
locum] aTTe(j)vyov, tva irapaaKivaaoovTaL. Herodian. IV. 10. rotavra 8?) ipyacrd- 
joieroy TTjv TTokiv [sc. Alexandriam], an&pa's etV ^ AvTW'j^iiav d^i/cero. iinOvinqcrai bi 
IJ,€T ov "nokv YlapdiKos K\r]6fjvai — /xTjxayarai roiovbe n' eTnariKkeL t<3 jiacnkei Ylap- 
dvaltav (^ ApTo.jiavo'i 8' ^v 6vop,a avrw) — to 6e ypapniara ekeyev on br] ^ovkerai 
ayayiadai aiiTov ttjv Qvyaripa rcpbi ydp-ov k. t. k. He describes c. 1 1 the ravages 
committed in an unexpected attack : 6 be 'AvTcav'iuos tm Tiokv tjjs UapdvalioD 
yrjs ekaffas — fnavfjkdev els ti}v y[eiTOTTOTap,(av. eKfl be yev6p.evos eiricn-ekkeL rj; re 
(]T(a Koi tQ Poj/xaicoi' Stjjuio Tidaav dvaTokr]v Ke\eipS>(Tdai.. — 8teV/ji/3e Sf ^era 
TavTa ev ttJ Metro'^rorajuta i^vioyeiais crxpkd^aiV koX Orjpia •navTobama avaip&v. 
Spartian. Carac. c. 6. Magnam ccedem Alexandria fecit. Dehinc per Cadusios 
fines et Babylanios ingressus tmnultuarie cum Parihorum satrapis manwm, contulit. 
— Datis ad senatum quasi post mctoriam Uteris Parthicus appellatus est. Deinde 
quum iterum vellet Parthis bellum inferre atque hybernaret Edessa &c. 

Coins : Eckhel. torn. VII p. 216. 1 Antoninus Pius Aug. Germ. 2 M. Av/rel. 
Antoninus Pius Aug. Germ. 3 M. Aur. Antoninus Pius Aug. Germ. All have 
on the reverse^, m. tr.p. X Villi cos. IIII p.p. Conf. Eckh. p. 21 1. 216. 

Laws of A. D. 216 : Cod. Justin. IX. 32, 3 Hdenae. p p. Ill Non. Januar. 
VI. 37, 8 Demstno.pp. VIII Idus Martii Romm. II. 19, 7 EuphratcE. pp. 
VI Idus Martii Romce. IX. 41,3 Imp. Antoninus A. qtium cognitionaliter au- 
disset, dixit, &c. — p p. VII Kal. April. VI. 25, 3 Maxentio d aliis. — 8. prid. 
Kal. Mali. III. 44, 2 Hilariano. p p. Kal. Mali. VII. 53, 4 Marcello militi. 
— pp. Noti. Jun. V. 62,4 Agafhodxmoni. pp. XI Kal. Jul. II. 6, 1 Arfe- 
midoro. pp. Ill Kal. Aug. IX. 6, 3 Proculo. p p. IV Kal. Octobr. Roma. 
VIII. 19, 2 Felici. p p. Kal. Oct. Romce. X. 8, 1 Antiocho.—p p. XV Kal. 
Dec. To all the words Sabino II et Anullino conss. According to the Code 
Garacalla is at Rome March 10 Oct. 1 A. D. 216. But this was impossible ; 
for his winter quarters at Edessa, fixed by his death to the close of A. D. 216, 
were preceded by the Parthian war, and the Parthian war by the march to 
Alexandria; and this was preceded by the progress to Antioch, and this again 
by a winter at Nicomedia, where he remained till after his birthday. If there- 
fore we were to grant to Tillemont and others that the winter at Nicomedia 
was A. D. 21i, still even in this case Garacalla had quitted Rome for the last 
time before December (conf. Dion. 78. 8) A. D. 215 : and the word Roma in 
these four laws of the year 216 is manifestly wrong ; which justifies the 
opinion that the same word Roma in some laws of the year 2 1 5 is also im- 
properly inserted. 

An inscription of the 19th tribunician year : see ool. 1. 

01. 249 U. C. Varr. 970. 
G. Bruttius Prasens T. 
Messius Extricatus II 

Cod. Justin, see col. 3. 

Pra-sente et Extricato 
Nor. Idat. Pont. 

Ilepo-rjs TO 13' Kal 'Eorpt- 
kAtos a. 

Prcesentem et StrigatUim 
liber pontificalis Daniasi 
p. 619. 

Lapidea tabula apud 

Garacallce trib. pot. 20 from Kal. Januar. 

Garacalla slain near Edessa Ap. 8 : Dio 78. 4 — 6. 6 be brj ''Avtodvlvos olvti^ 
■napecTKeva^eTo' ov p-ivroi km ■nokep.rjcrai axirQ e^eyevero, dkk' ev jue'crois rois (rrpa- 
Tuirais — KaTe(T(f>dyr]. — 6 be br) MaKpXvoi (f>oj3r}deh — Nep-ea-iavov re km ''Airokkivd- 
piov dbek(f)ovs Avpr]kiovs km '\ovki.ov MaprwiAtoj' — ■napatrKevdcras eTie^ovkevirev 
av7<S. eT:pd)(dr) be oibe' rfi oyborj tov ' ATTpikkCov e^oparjaavTa avTov e^ 'ESeo-OTjs is 
Kappas — TTpocrekOliiv 6 MapTidkios eirdra^e k. t. k. — rotovrm fxev Tekei eyjprjcraTO 
l3iovs re err} evvia koX etKOcn km rjjxepas Tea-aapas' rfj yap TeTapTij tov ''ATrpikklov 
eyeyevvriTo' Kal avTapxrjaas err; re 1^ Kal ftj/yas bvo /cat rjixepas bvo. Eutropius 
VIII. 20. Anno imperii VI mense II. Victor Epit. p. 378. Impieravit solus 
annos sex. Victor Cses. p. 329. Anno potenticB sexto. Euseb. H. E. VI. 21. Ittj 
eirra Kal p.rjvas ef. Oros. VII. 18. Annis non plenis septem. Chron. Pasch. 
p. 267 A. Itt; C'. Hieron. Anno 2232 [A. D. 21f] Garacallce 6<> interjicitur inter 
Edessam et Garras. Cass\oi. Antoninus et Adventus. [=Garac. 7"] His coss. 

R O M A N I 


3 Secular Ahthoes 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

iirKarrfTO' koI v\(i(TTd yt Ik rovrov roiiy orpaTtoSray \v 
tC^ •!:6ki\iM (j>(f>(\r]afv. — 5dev Trep koI ^prj/jLirmv koI n/xoji' 
not Trap' avTov tov S«/3i)pov koI irapa tov 'Avtoivivov ^tv- 
Xc. itrapOdi hi im tovtok rm Trjpibdrrj crvv((r]Td(r9i] koI 
fj.(T avTov Ttpos TOV llupOov rjiiTop-oKi^cTf [transcribed by 
Suidas p. 396' D]. — tov hi tiipOov <^o(ir]6ivTos koI tov 
Tr)pihaTr\v Koi tov ^ kvrloxov IMvtos, a<f)fiKf rqv orpa- 
Tfiav (V T(j) irapavrUa [sc. in A. D. 215]. Supposed by 
Olearius ad Philostrat. p. 568 Reiraar ad Dionem p. 
1304 and Fabricius B. G. torn. Ill p. 512 to be the 
sophist described by Philostratus V. S. II. 4. 'kvTioyov 
h( TOV cTO(pi<TTi]v a\ KtA^KCtfr klyoX ijveyKav ovtoi n iviia- 
Tpibrjv d)S i>vv (Ti TO dit' aiiTov yevos viraTovs dvai. — 
aKpoaTTjs 'AvTCo\oi iv iraKrl p.iv Aapbdvov tov 'A<T<npiov, 
■KpoLoiv hk is TO. ixfipaKia Aiowaiov iyevfTO MtA-jjo-fov 
KaTt\ovTOS 7/8r; ttjv 'E(p((T[(t)V. — irepi 6e Tf\(VTfjs tov av- 
6pos 01 piiv (j3bop.r]KOVTovTr]v TeOvdvai, avTov oi 8e oinro)' 
Koi 01 ixev oIkoi ot 8^ fTipatOi.. But if those were the 
same person, it is remarkable that Dio should make 
no mention of the sophist and that Philostratus should 
make no mention of the Parthian adventures. And 
the sophist was eminent before this date. He was the 
disciple of Di&nysim, who taught in A.D. 1 19 (conf. a.). 
He was contemporary with Alexander (conf. V. S. II. 5 
p. 574), who flourished in A. D. 160 — 170. He is 
placed in the list of Philostratus V. S. II before Alex- 
ander ; Philager (conf. a. 159) ; Aristides, who was 
bom A. D. 129; and Adrianm, who was bom cer- 
tainly not later than 1 13 : conf. a. 192. It appears 
then probable that A ntiochm of ^ffoi the sophist was 
a different person and somewhat earlier in time than 
the Antiockus of Dio. Eudocia p. 58 has confounded 
together Athmodorus (from Philostr. V. S. II. 14) and 
Antiochus (II. 4) and has made them into one person. 

Dion Cassitis is at Rome at the time of Caracalla's 
death ; being present in the senate when the first let- 
ter of Macrinus is received : 78. 16. (iTffi\lfev ijp.'iv &nva 
Kol avTa 6 TOfxias, uxnrfp koX Irepo avdn Tutv opLoiav, 
dveyvaf koi orpanjyos 6e' Tis to. avTov wore tov Maxpiron 
ypafifxaTa — (Treke^aTo. tj;s 8' ovv irpwTjjy iTnoToXrjs dva- 
yvfj>(j6il(Tris, — exeiVft) oaa etfcos r)v /cat rcS viet avrov (irfyfrrj- 
((>icrdTi. c. 37. TJ) rjfxipa kKiivj) iv rj to Ttp&Ta avTov irepi 
T^y dpx^i ypdp.y.aTa ijpuv dveyvda-Or]. 

Heliodonis is noticed at this date by Philostratus 
V. S. II. 32. diTodavovTOi bl tov /3o<rt\e'<i)s [sc. Caracalla: 
conf. a. 213] irpoa-fTdxdri p.iv tis awu [sc. Heliodoro] 
vij(T0s. Xa^biv bi iv rf) vrjcrM (jioviKijv ahiav dvtuifu^Or) 
is T))v PcojuTjy a)s aTToAoyjjiro/xeros rots tu>v arpaTOTTebaiv 





1 Consuls 

2 Events 

Gruterum p. 300. (confer 
annos 197- 202.) Imp. . . 

. . Severus co- 

optatm C. Bruttio Prm- 
sente T. Messio Extricato 
II COS. p. B. G. ann. 
DCGCGLXX. Q. Aradi- 
us Bufinus cooptatus Imp. 
Antonino II et Sacerdote 
//cos. [A.D. 219] P.^.C. 

interficitur Sec. Herodian. IV. 13 relates the event : frvvi^r] 8e — fleXTjaot top 
AvTavifov biarpl^ovTa iv Kappais tt]s Meo-oTTOTajnias ■npoO\£t'iv njs fiacriXdas 
aisekOiiv re eh top veiiiv rrji Se\^rrjs k. t. \. — ttSs be 6 yjiovo's ev o) )x6vos i^a<n- 
\ev(rev &.vev rod warpos koI tov abeK(j)ov ev tf erea-t, avveTtkead-q. From Feb. 4 
A. D. 21 1 to Ap. 8 A. D. 217 are 6y 2'" 4<i whence we may read in Dio rjixepa^ b'. 
Spartianus c. 6 places his birth two days later and his death two days earlier : 
Quum — hyhernaret Edessce atque inde Garras Luni del gratia venissei, die naidlis 
mi VIII Idus Aprilis ipsis Megalensihus — insidiis a Macritio prafecto pratorii 
positis, qui post eum invasit imperium, interempim est. 

Macrinus succeeds on the fourth day, April 11 : Dio 78. II. 6 8e 8^ MuKplvos, 
TO fj-ev yevos Mavpos cn:o KaicrapeCa's, — es re tov vovv ttjv Trjs avTapxCas e\Triba 
(&VTOS en TOV TapdvTov — evep6XeTo- koI TeAenTTjcrairos avTov (pavep&s ixev ovt 
iKetvT] TTJ riixepq, ovTe Tois ^tieira tols bvo e-ne^ojeva-ev avr-ijs, Xvu. p.r\ em tovt avTov 
aveKTOvevai bo^rj' dXA.' avapKTa TiavTekm tov xpovov eKelvov a.Tf' avTOTekovs S.p- 
XOVTOs TO. tS)v 'P<i>ixaL(jiv ■np6.yy.aTa — bieyeveTo. — Tr\ TeTapTji 7]p,epa, fi tov Sf/S^pou 
yevedkia rjv [Ap. 11: conf. a. 14(i], avTOKpaTap iir avT&v, m /cat KaTa^iaa-dels, 
ripeOt]. Herodian. IV. 14. TekevTrjcravTos be tov ' AvtuvCvov ev a<^a<jla re fjv 6 
(TTpaTos Kal aTTopta tov irpaKTeov. ep.ei.vav re f}p,ep5>v bvo a^aaiKevTOi. Diadume- 
nianus is declared Gcrsar and Antoninus: Dio 78. 19. AMbovp.evLavbv tov vlbv 
avTov KaCa-apa— aT:obebeiyp.evov Kal -npoffhi, to tov ' AvTavCvov ovop.a irpoa-eLkr)- 
(^oVa. Conf. Capitolin. Macrino c. 2. 5. Idem c. 10. Sciendum quod Gcesar 
faisse dicatur, nan Augustus, Diadumenus puer, quern plerique pari fuisse cum 
patre imperio tradiderunt. conf. a. 218. 

Artahanus invades Mesopotamia : Dio 78. 26. 6 8e 8^ Maxpivos t8&)v tov 'Ap- 
TajSavov acjjobpa re e(})' oh e-ne-novQei [conf. a. 216] Ovpovpevov, Kal bvva,p.ei TTokkfi 
es Trjv MecroTioTapiav e/i/Se^XTjKoVo, to pev -npStTov Tori's re aix/xaAcorovs aira aire- 
■ndyyekros Kal koyovs (piklovs enep^rev. — &)s 8e eKeivos ome tovto itpocrebe^aTO Kal 
•npofflTi KOI TO, (j)povpia avTov ros re irokeis ray KaTa<TKa(^.e(.cras avaarfjaai njs re 
MecroTTOTaplas Tiavrekm eKcrTrjvaL K.T.k. — ^Kekeva-ev — ai;avT7](Tas avTi2 Trpos Tr)v 
Nt(n/3if TJb-q TTpoa-iovTL r)TTri6r]. Macrinus purchases a peace: Ibid. c. 27- 6 Ma- 
Kpivos VTTo re beikias ep<pvTov — koi xmo ttJs tSiv (TTpaTiaTav ara^ias ovk eTokprjore 
TTokepiia-ai, akka Kal -navv irokka TTJy eip-qvijs eveKa Kal baipa Kal )(j>iipaTa — eSawa- 
vr]a-ev. Conf. Herodian. IV. 14. He concealed some facts from the senate: 
Dio Ibid, ov pevToi koI -navTa to. TTpa\devTa d(cpt/3a>$ rfj re ^ovkfj eirecrTeike' koI 
8ia TOVTO Kal Ovulai avTw etiiviKioL ey^r\<^ia^6r](jav koX to ovopa to YlapOiKOV eboOr). 
ov prjv ebe^aTo alaxvvOeLs. His Parthian victory is commemorated upon coins : 
conf. a. 218. 

Death of Julia: Dio 7B. 23. 24. tj be br]''lovkLa r/ tov TapdvTov priTj]p erv^e p-ev 
ev tt) ^ AvTLOffeia ovtra' koi ovtix> Ttapa)(pr\pa apa Trf micrTei tov OavaTOv avTov 8te- 
TeOr) K.T.k. Conf. Herodian. IV. 13. 


971. M. Opeliiis Severus 
Macrinus Augustus et 

Dio 78. 13. 14. Index 
lib. 79. 

Antonino etAdvento Nor. 
Idat. Pont. Cod. Justin. 
II. 19, 8. scil. 

Antonino Elagahalo Au- 
gusta Macrini nomine era- 
so : Dio 79. 8. TTj TOV Ma- 

Sedition of the army during their winter in Syria : Dio 78. 28. 01 <TTpaTi&Tat 
— erapdcraovTO' Kal (r(pas ij re ttJj piffdo^opas crvvToprf kol tj tS)v yepS>v k. t. k. — 
(TTeprjaLS — i\ re ev TavTi^ Tpoirov tlvo. Starpi^jj, rjv tov nokepov eveKa yeipaCpvTes 
ev Tfi Supia [A. D. 2 If] eTreTioirjvTo, 'npo(TeTnaxvpi.(rev. Elagahalus is proclaimed 
May 16 : Dio c. 31. apa ttj eo) tjjs tov Matov eKKaibeKaTtjs. Herodian. V. 3. ev- 
Oeas Te tov 770180 itdv to (TTpaTottebov ' AvTaviVov TTporrrjyopevaav, ttj re T!op<^vpq 
Xkapvbi Tiepi-fiakovTes elxov evbov. Macrinus declares his son imperator : Dio 
c. 34. ey re ti]v 'Aiidpetav — 8ia Ta\ea)V rjkde Kal tov vlbv avTOKparopa, Kainep to 
bUaTov eros ayovTa, airebei^ev. Conf. Lamprid. Diadum. c. 2. 8 Elagabal. c. I. 
Diadumenianus was born in September : Lamprid. Diadum. c. 5. Natus est na- 
tali Antonini [sc. XIII Kal. Oct. conf. a. 86]. September may be traced in a 
mutilated fragment of Dio 78. 19 p. 1327. Therefore in September A. D. 208; 

R O M A N I 


3 Secitlab Authoes 

4 Ecclesiastical Authobs 

fiy(iJi6(Ti. bolavn bi avrif KuOapiS tlvai r^y oit^os iiravfCOr) 
Kal 7) injaos' koI yrjp6,(TK€i iv rfj Pwfxj/ fx^t (nTovia(6iitvos 
fjiifrf &ii(\ovixtvos. 

Coins of Caracalla A. D. 217 : Eckhel. torn. VII 
p. 218. 1 M. Aurel. Antmiinm Phis Aug. Germ + 
p. m. tr. p. XX imj). Ill cos. II 1 1 p p. S. G. 2 Anto- 
ninus Pius A ug. Germ. +p. m. tr. p. XX cos. II II p. p. 
or vie. Part. p.m. tr.p. XX cos. IIII p. p. 3 Antoni- 
nus Pivs Aug. Germ. + vict. Part. p. m. tr. p. XX cos. 
IIII p. p. with a Victory bearing a shield inscribed 
vot. XX. 

Coins of Macrinus : lb. p. 236. 1 Imp. C. M. Opel. 
Sev. Macrinm Aug.+pontif. max. tr.p. cos. p. p. or 
vota publica. p. m. tr. p. 2 Imp. Cies. M. Opel. Sev. 
Macrinus Aug. -k-pontif. majj. tr. p. cos. p.p. or ponti/. 
man;, tr.p. p.p. S. 0. or vota tr.p. He is 
sometimes cos. in these coins, and sometimes cos. II in 
the coins of A. D. 218, omGiv vtiaTtvKOTmv Tiy-as ^Txrj- 
Kfi. Dio 78. 13. conf. Reimar. ad locum Eckhel. torn. 
VIII p. 429. 

Inscriptions : 1 In columna non procul a Calzada 
pago in Hispan. apud Gruter. p. 158. 5. Imp. Casar 
dim Septimi &o.—fil. divi Atir. Anton. Germ. Sarm. 
nep. &c. — M. Aurel. Antoninus Pius Felix Aug. Part. 

max. Brit. max. Germ, maxim tri. po. XX imp. 

Ill COS. IIII p.p. procos. fecit CXXXVI. 2 Inter 
Salaciam atque Eboram apud Gruter. p. 191. 6. Imp. 
Cees. divi Septimi &c. f. &c. M. Aur. Antoninus P.P. 
Aug. Parth. max. Britan. max. Germ. max. pater mili- 
tum trib. pot. XX imp. Ill cos. IIII p. p. proc. re- 

Laws : Cod. Justin. II. 19, 9 Imp. Antoninus A. 
Salhstio.—p. p. VIII Kal. Mart. VIII. 38, 3 Hadri- 
ano. p p. VI Kal. Mart. Both Prcesente et Extricato 
II cones. 

Dion Cassius is governor of Pergamus and Smyrna : 
79. 7- avTos (yyvOtv iK n;? Ylepycuiov ciKpi^iiiras iypai^a, 
^s, &(nT(p (cat rrji S/ivpvjj?, raxOds inrb tov MaKplvov 
(■ne(rra.Tr)CTa. Hence Photius Cod. 7 1 • oStos 6 (rvyypa- 
<})(vi rifpydpLOV fj.fv kol S^vpi'r/s (MaKplvoi avT<a Tr]v ap- 
\riv 6 avToKpoLTotp (yxfipC^fi) ewe.TrdTT/crev. That Dio 
conversed with Maerimis after his elevation appears 
from 78. (). Koi TO t5)V (papp^dxav vaTfpov ip.adop.(v napa 
TOV MaKpCvov. And yet he is in the senate when the 
letters of Macrinus are read on the elevation of Ela- 
gabalus : 78. 37. ore to. TTfpl rov vUos tTup-^tv, ovTt into 
T&v virdnav ov9' wo t&v <npaTr)y&v (rvvrf\6np.iv (ov yap 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

Kpivov virarelq. /A^re x^V" 
Tovr]0els eir air^r fi'qTf 
S\a)j ((j)a\j/aii€vos avrfjs 
(wpoSt^wtrro yap) aiirbv 
avTeviypa\\re Ka'aoi to Ka- 
Tapxas 0770 tov ^AbovevTov 
Hev 0)9 Koi jxovorv vuariv 
KOTOS TOV eviavTov ev TpLcn 
Ypdfxp,aai bLabrjKda-as' on 
hevTfpov hr\ xmaTi^uv [A.D 
218] (TTi\fLpr](re, p,r]bep,MV 
TTpoader /x»;re ap\riv \aj3o>v 
fiTfre TL[j,r}i> dpx^s. 

Apud A 'OK\aTiavbs kol 

being now in his tenth year. Defeat of Macrinus June 8 : Dio 78. 39. /cat 6 

fjifv ovTms TTj 'lovvCov dyboT) fjTTr]d(is tov ^liv viov irpos tov ^ ApT&^avov — fT:fp.\(rfv 
avTos be is rfiv ' AvTW\eiav — dcTeXdo>v, (ireiTa biayyfXOeio-rjs t^s rJTTrjs avTOv— 
— aiTibpa. He is brought back from Chalcedon and slain at Antioch : Dio 

Ibid. KaTfXri(f>dr] iv rrj XaA/cr)8oj't In u>v — /cat is Tr}v ' AvTioxfiav fff^iyij. 

Herodian V. 4 describes his defeat and flight, and supposes him to be slain at 
Chalcedon : r^Xet fxev brj rotouroi MaKpivos ixprjcraTo, cruvavaipeQevTos avT(S Koi 
TOV iraibbs, bv ^v wot^cras KaC(Tapa. And Capitolinus Macrino c. 10. 15. Euse- 
bius Chron. Anno 2235 Orosius VII. 18 Cassiodorus and Chron. Pasch. p. 
267 B place his death at Archelais in Cappadocia. Reimar ad Dion. p. 1347 
notices these errors. The duration of his reign is marked by Dio 78. 4 1 . ovTta 
/cat yipwv cbv (TrevrqKOVTa yap /cat Ttaaapa hr] fjye Tpi&v irov rip-fptav beovTa fj 
TtivTe) — KaTeXvOq. — iviavTM /cat bvo jxr/a-l Tpiwv r}p.ip5>v ((oore koI p.(.xpi. Tr\s P'dxqs 
\oyi(opievois (rvpi,pr}vai) biova-iv jyp^fj'. His second year began Ap. 1 1 : conf. a. 
217. The two months would have been completed on the 1 1th of June. His 
reign is called 14 months by Victor Cses. p. 329. Victor Epit. p. 378. Imperor 
verunt menses XIV. Eutropius VIII. 21. Imperium eorum duum ntensium et 
unius anni/mt. Seditione militari ambo pariter occisi sunt. Lamprid. Diadum. 
c. 8. Ric tamen Xllllmense imperii interfectus est cumpatre. Called one year 
in Euseb. H. E. VI. 21 Chron. Anno 2235 Orosius Cassiodorus. Chron. Pasch. 
p. 267 B. fl3aa-[Xev<T€v Iros a'. — fcr(j)dyr] fv 'ApxfXatbi u>v h&v v^' . Herodian. 
V. 2. V. 3. iviavTov p.6vov. 

Elagabalus winters at Nicomedia: Herodian. V. 5. 6 8e ^AvTavwos cmapas 
TTjs Svptas iXObiv re ets ttjv NiKopiribeiav ix^iiia^e. Dio 79. 1. 6 Se 8^ 'Aoyetro9— 
To're pifv /xera Tr)v vUriv ej re Tr]v ' AvTLO^eiav Tjj va-TepaCq eiafiKde, TrevTUKOffCas 
rots aix(f> avrbv o'TpaTKaTais bpa)(jxas 077<as jut; bMpiiAcraicnv avTjjV — TrpovTi:oa-)(6pLivos. 
— /cat is TTjv 'Pcopirjv aWa re ota et'/cos ^r eweVretXe /c. r. K. — /cat ev [lev ttj wpos ttjv 
^ovXrjv fTTicTToXfj T<2 Tf TTpbs TOV bjjixov ypipLpLaTL /cat avTOKpATopa /cat Ka^crapa tov 
re AvtcovCvov vibv /cat tov SejSj/poi/ (yyovov Evcre^rj re /cat EvTV)(r} Kal Avyova-Tov 
Kal avdviraTov ttjv re (^ova-lav ttiv br)ixap)(^iKr]v t\ovTa kavTbv €Viypa\jrf, irpoXafi- 
^6.v<av avTo, irplv \jrr}(f>i,a6fjvai. c. 6. 6 4'ei/8awa)i'ti'os iv Tfi Nt/co/i?j6eta exet/^afe. 
His acts at Nicomedia are related c. 6. 8. Lamprid. Elagab. c. 5. Quum hy- 
bernasset Nicomedice. 

A law oi Elagahalm : Cod. Justin. II. 19,8 Idem A. [so. Imp. Antoninus A."] 
et G. Severo. — VI Kal. Aug. Antonino A. et Advento conss. Idem A. is a wrong 
description. The preceding Antoninus at II. 19, 7 was Caracalla ; the present 
Antoninus is Elagabalus, who began to reign June 8, fifty days before the date 
of this law. 


972. M. Aurelius Anto- 
ninus Augustus II et Sa- 
cerdos II 

Index Dionis lib. 79. A. 
Lapidea tabula fastorum 
pontificalium apud Gru- 
terum p. 300. conf. a. 21 7. 

Antonino II et Sacerdote 
Nor. Idat. 

Lapis apud Gruterum p. 
87. 4. DecB EjyontB M. Opi- 
lius Bestio miles leg. XXII 
Antoniniance P. P. F. im- 
munis cos. cura. Salens 

Elagabali 2 from VI Id. Jun. trib. pot. 2 from Kal. Januar. conf. Eckhel. 
torn. VIII p. 436. 

Elagabalus enters upon his second consulship at Nicomedia : Dio 79. 8. He 
arrives at Rome: Herodian. V. 5. m b\ ets rqv 'Pdnrjv a(j>iK€To — 8ow Tas (rvvrj- 
Oeis r<3 67jju,(i) vop.a.s i-nl rrj Trjs /3acrtXetas 8ta8oxjy, (piXoTLp-ovs re /cot TToAvreAeis ^m- 
reXe'croy TrorroSawos ^e'oy, vfdv re p.iyiaTov /cat /cdXXtcrror /carao-/ceiidcras r<3 <?ea), 
/3(ojLtoi;y re TrXetcrrons wept roz^ rewi; Ibpxxras, k. t. X. Lamprid. Elagabal. c. 3. Ubi 
primum ingressus est urhem, omissis Us quw in provincia gerebantur, Heliogaba- 
lum in Palatino mante juxta cedes imperatorias consecravit eique templum fecit, 
studens et Matris typum et VestcB ignem et Palladium et ancilia et omnia Bomanis 
veneranda in illud transferre templum, et id agens ne quis Bomas deus nisi Helio- 
gabalus coleretur. Victor Cses. p. 330. Tramlato Bomam dei simulacra, in palatii 
penetralibiis constituit. 

Coins of this year : Eckhel. torn. VII p. 248. 1 Imp. Cces. M. Aur. Anto- 
ninus P. F. Aug. + tr. p. II cos. II p. p. 2 Imp. Antoninus Aug. 4- consul II. 

R O M A N I 


3 Secular Authors 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

(Tvxov irapovrfs), dAA.' xnso twv br]fidp)(<i)v iv t^ Tfjs 

^ttiotoXt/s TTpooiixLia KaCaapa koI avroKpajopa avrov ovo- 
jxAtras. Diailumenianm was named imperator after 
May 18: see col. 2. Dio proceeds c. 38. or* -rrtpl 
r^s Tov ^(vbavT<i)Vivov i-navauTdarfas iirdcrretKfv, ihov 
fifv Tiva ol viroToi Kar' avrov, — diTf 8« koI tS>v arpa- 
rqyQv us r&v t( brifidp^mp fTfpoi' koI ^Kfivif fiiv koX t^ 
avfyjnif avrov Kal rati p.r\rp6Lai. rfi re rrjOri iroKeixos re 
iTrrjyydXOrj Kal iirtKripvydri, Toiy he (rvvenavacrracnv avT<2 
&beia cLi> ■yv<ti(Ti.iiaxi]<Tti)(nv, mtrnep Kal 6 MaKpivos avro'is 
VTr^(7)(rjTo, iboOr^. koI yap h SteXe'x^'j rois (rrparuorais 
dveyvmaOrf i^ wv In Kal ixaWov rriv rarreivorrjra avrov 
Kal rijv pMpLav KareyvdiKap-ev k. r. A. 

Coins of Macrinus : Eckhcl. torn. VII p. 238. 

1 Imp. G. M. Opel. See. Macrinus Aug. +ponii/. max. 
tr.p. II COS. p.p. or pontif. nuuc. tr. p. II cos. II p.p. 

2 Imp. Cces. M. Opel. Sev. Macrinus Aug. +p<mtif. max. 
tr.p. II cos. p.p. or pontif. max. tr.p. II cos. II p.p. 
or victoria Parthica. or vict. Part. p. m. tr.p. II cos. II 
p.p. 3 M. Opel. Sev. Macrinus Aug. + cos.II. 

Coins o( Diadumenianus : Ibid. p. 241. 1 31. Opel. 
A7it. Diadumenian. Gees. +princ. Juventutis. 2 M. Opel. 
Antoninus Diadumenianus Gees, +princ. juventutis. 3 
M. Opel. Diadumenianus Cess. +pr inc. juventutis. 

Inscriptio apud Panviniuni p. 368 Grutorum p. 271. 5. 
M. Opeti Antonini Diadumeniani Ga:s. principis juven- 
tutis G. Perpennianus V. C. prwf. TJrh. D. D. Marmor 
apud Eckhel. torn. VII p. 243 ex Maffeio : Imp. Gm. 
M. Opelius Severus Macrinus Pius Felix Augustus po-n- 
tifex max. trih. pot. II p.p. cos. proconsul et M. Opelius 
Antonmus Diadumenianus nohilimmus Cces. princeps 
juveniut. provideniissimi Au./ecerunt. 

Dion Gassius is still in Asia: 79. 18. ravra iv rrj 
'Ao-ia [so. at Perganius or Smyrna : conf. a. 2 1 8] In 
(i}S elnov) o)V, itplv KoiX orLovv nepl rov Bao-criavw iv rjj 
'PdixT) yevecrOai ip.a6ov. He afterwards retires into 
Bithynia : conf. a. 222. 

Philiscus held the professor's chair at Athens till 
this year: Philostr.V. S. 11.30. 4>tXio-icos U o ©trraXos 
'iTTTTobpopLia p.iv [conf. a. 1J)5] (TwiprraL yivos rov be 'Adif- 
irqai Opovov npoxxTTr) irSyv k-nra, ri]v dreKfiav riiv eir' airr<3 
d(f)aiped(is. Ho was appointed through the interest of 
Julia in A. D. 2 12: conf. a. The immunity from public 
burdens, of which Garacalla deprived Philiscus (conf. 
a. 212), he afterwards confen'ed upon Philostratus : 
conf, a. 215. And this imnmnity — to Zffv iv dreXeCa — 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

vico Salodor. DD. XXII 
Kal. Septemhr. D. N. An- 
toninoAug. II et Sacerdote 

3 Antoninus Pius Fel. Av^. + consul II. 4 Imp. Antoninus Pius Aug. + ad- 
mntus Augusti. or lib. Aug. II p. m. tr. p. II cos. II p.p. 5 Imp. Cess. M. 
Aur. Antoninus Pius Aug. +adventus Augusti. 6 Eckhel. p. 249. conf. p. 250. 
Imp. C. M. Aur. Antoninus P. F. Aug. + sanct. deo Soli Elagahal. a chariot 
bearing the lapis conoidicus or representation of the god : Xt'^os ixeyiaros Karaidev 
■ir€pi(f>epr]s kr\yu>v ei's 6^vTr\Ta, Ktavouhis avr^ ^XW" Herodian. V. 3. 7 Antoninus 
Pius Pel. Aug. + the same reverse. 8 Imp. Antoninus Pius Aug. + connervator. 
Aug. with the lapis conoidicm borne in a chariot. 


973. M. Aurelius Anto- 
ninus III et Eutychianus 

Index Dionis lib. 79 
Nor. Idat. 

Bakkepios Koi KofiA^div A. 

De Eutychiano Coma- 
zmte Dio 78. 31. 32. 39. 
79. 4. 21. 

Elagahali 3 from VI Id. Jun. tr.pot. 3 from Kal. Januar. 

Cassiodorus : Gratus et Seleucus. His coss. Heliogahaluin templum Homes wdi- 
ficatur. Cassiodorus places these consuls at the 3rd year before the death of 
Elagabalus, or A. D. 220 ; and to this date may be referred the second temple 
mentioned by Herodian V. 6. KorecrKevacre 8e koX iv tw ■npoacrTfCt^ v€u>v fxiyicrTov 
re KoX Tto\vTeke<rraTov, ds ov fKaarov erovs /car^ye rov dehv aKp.a(ovTOi tov 


Coins : Eckhel. tom. VII p. 249. 1 Imp. Ccbs. M. Aur. Antoninus Pius Aug. 
+ adventus Aug. tr.p. III. S. C. 2 Imp. Antoninus Pius Au,g. + Uberalitas Aug. 
III. 3 " antica varia" +p. m. tr.p. Ill cos. III. 

Columna prope Steinbach apud Gruterum p. 1078. 7- Imp. Cess, dim Severi 
nepoti divi Antonini Mag.fil. M. Aurel. Antonino Pio Felici Aug ■ [p.m. tr.pot.] 
/// COS. Ill p.p. P. F. COS. [lege procosi\ G. A. aq. ab. aq. leug. IIII. 

Pfdlinm the 903rd annual archon at Athens : F. H. I B. C. 683. 


01. 250 U. C. Varr. 974. 
Gratus et Seleucus 

Index Dionis lib. 79 
Nor. Idat. 

Elagahali 4 from VI Id. Jim. trib. pot. 4 from Kal. Januar. 

Alexander Severus is declared Ccesar: Dio 79- 17' toj' Baaaiavov tov avcfibv 
avTOV €is TO avvebpLov fiaayaycov, Kal T-qv Mairrav Kal ttjv 2oai/in'8a (KaTipmOfv 
■napaa-T-qa-apLfvos, naiba edfTo. Herodian. V. 7- V Moio-a inroTTTevovaa re Tovi 
(TTpaTuiTas aTTapicTKeadai, tm ToiovT<f tov fiaaiXfciis /3t<p, — ■neidfi avrov, kov(}>ov a\- 
Aws Kal a(f)pova veavCav, OicrOai vlbv Kaicrapa re airoSeifat tov eavTov p.iv a.viy\n.ov 
fKeCvrjs 6e iyyovov eK r^s (Tepas OvyaTpos Majujnat'as. — pLeTovopA^eTai 8^ 6 'AXefta- 
vbs KoX ' Aki^avbpos KoAeirat. — aTTobeUvvTaL hrj Kalaap 6 ' AXe^avbpo? {jiraTos re 
criiv avTa ' AvTUivivio [A. D. 222]' KarikdcLv re eis ti]V a-uyK\rjTov Tavra eKVp<o(7(, 
ytkoioTttTa \{fij(piaapL(vaiv irAvTcav & exeAevoiro, iraTipa ixev tKiivov hoKuv ^tt} yeyo- 
voTa TjfpC Tiov fKKaibcKa, Tbv ' AXi^avhpov 8e vlbv tov hahfK&rov (nifiaivovTa. Vic- 
tor Epit. p. 379. Consobrinum suum Ccesar em fecit. Lamprid. Alex. c. 1. Ceesar 
a senatu appellatu.i mortvio scilicet Macrino. Idem Elagab. c. 10. Jam Cwsar 
erat a senatu dictus eo tempore consobrinus hujus Antonini [sic legendum videtur 
cum Salmas.]. According to Herodian V. 3 Elagabalus is 14 and Alexander 10 
in May or June A. D. 218 : 6 /iei; Bao-crtai'os wept exTj yeyovci)? Tta-a-apen-KaLbeKa, 
6 bk 'AXf^iavbs SextiroD hovi eiTi/3e/3?)Ka)s. which was the true age oi Elagabalus, 
who was 18 at his death in A. D. 222 : Dio 79- 20. He was therefore I7 
when Alexander was consul elect; and Herodian has placed the adoption one 
year too high. Alexander was born Oct. 1 : Natales Csesarum apud Bucherium 
p. 276. Dim Alexandri Kalendis Octobris. His tenth year might commence 
Oct. 1 A. D. 217 and his thirteenth Oct. 1 A. D. 220. 

R O M A N I 


3 Skculaii Authors 

4 Ecclesiastical Authous 

was still enjoyed by the StSdo-icaXos in the time of Li- 
bauius : Liban. torn. I p. 211. 

Philiscus died i-n\ Ovyarpl, /tot vltj) ovbtvos ail(f ixt- 
Tpov bk avT<f Tov /3iou Irrj iirTCt Kol i^rjKOVTa — iTi(f)r] — iv 
Tfj 'AKabrtniq. Philostr. V. S. II. 30 p. 623. 

Inscriptions : 1 Columna inter Ulissipponem et 
Eboram apud Gmterum p. 158. 3. Imp. Gees, dim An- 
tonini Pit Mapni fil. dim Septimi Severi Pii nepoti M. 
Aurelio Antonino P. Fel.pont. max. trib. pot. II cos. II 
proc. p.p. fortmimo felicisitimoque principi .... ora. 
M. P. XXII. 2 Grut. p. 158. 4. iJracearsD : Se- 
ven Pii nep. Antonini Magnif. Aurelio Antonitio Felici 
Aug. pont. inax. trib. pot. II cos. II proc. fortiss. prin- 
cipi a Braccara M. P. III. 


Preceptors of Alexander Secerus: Lamprid. Alex, 
c. 3. /« prima pueritia literatores habuit Valerium Cor- 
dum et L. Veturium et Aurelium Philippum libertmn 
patris, qui vitam ejus postea in literas misit ; grammati- 
cum in pairia Greecum Nebonem, rhetorem Serapionem, 
philosopnum Stilidnem, Romee grammaticos Scaurinum 
Scaurini Jilium doctorem celeberrimum, rlietores Julium 
Frontinum [conf. Cod. Justin. IV. 51, 4] et Beebium 
Macrinum et Julium Granianum, cujus kodieque oratio- 
nes fertintur. Of Alexander himself it is remarked 
Ibid, that in Latinis non tnultum pro/eat — nee valde 
amavit Latinam facundiam. c. 27. Facundice fuit 
GraccB magis quam Latince. conf. 0. 34. 

The three wives of Elagahalus, 1 Cornelia Paula., 
2 Aquilia Setera, 3 Annia Faustina, (Dio 79. 9 He- 
rodian. V. (>.) his mother Socmias, and his grandmother 
Meesa, are commemorated both on Roman and Alex- 
andrian coins of Elagabalus; the latter bearing the 
years of his reign in Alexandrian computation ; apud 
Eckhel. tom. IV p. 85 torn. VII p. 258—267. 

1 Julia Paula Aug. + concordia. or Venus genitrix. 

^lovkia KopvrjXCa VlavKa. L. y or L. 8'. A coin of 
Tripolis apud Eckhel. tom. Ill p. 376 tom. VII 
p. 259. 'lovKCa Kopvr]\Ca llavXa. j3X<f>. This year 
of their epoch conunenced Oct. A. D. 220. 

2 Julia Aquilia See. Aug. + imp. M. Aur. Antonin. 

Pius Aug. — Julia Aquilia Severa Aug. + cequitas 
publico. "lovKia 'AkuXio 2e/3r;/)o 2f/3. L . 8'. A coin 
of CiBsarea Panias: Eckh. tom. VII p. 260 tom. 
Ill p. 342. "lovKCa 'AkvXCu. (r/cy. The year 223 of 
the epoch of Panias was current till Oct. A. D. 221 . 

3 Annia Faustina Aug. + concordia. or pietas Aug. — 

Annia Faustina Augusta + concordia. S. C. or pie- 
tas. S. C. 'Avvia <t>av(TTLi>a. L. «'. 

Africanus ended his Chronology at 01. 250. The 
Athenian archons are brought down to the 3rd of 
Elagabalus 01. 249. 4. See F. H. I B. C. 683. The list 
of Olympic victors apud Euseb. Chron. I p. 163 ends 
with 01. 249, and he names 01. 150 in Syncellus p. 
324 D. (TvvdyovTai, bk Toliniv oi xpovoi im rrjv tov KvpCov 
Tsapovcriav i.T!o 'Abap. koI ttjs avaarda-eus frq ^f((>ka'. acfi' 
ov xpofov [sc. from 01. 202. 2 in which he places the 
Resurrection] i-nl '"OXvp.TTLaba av (ttj p^y3'. Photius 
Cod. 34. &px€Tai drto Trjs MatwalKfji KotrpLoyovCai Kcii 
KaTdcTiv fbis Tj/s Xpiarov iiapovo-Cas' iTHTpo\ibrjv bk bia- 
\ap.l3di>(t, TO Atto XpKTTov M^X/" '^* MoKpirov— /Soo-iAetos, 
ore avT^ (<5s </)';o'i) koI ijbf 1) (nryypa<j)ri ovveTfKfiTo, iiStv 
ovcra (\j/Ky' [5531 + 192 = 5723]. Tfvxn S^ rb ^t/3AiW 
irivTe. Syncellus p. IO7 D. 'A<ppiKav6s €uts to>v xpovuv 
'AvTotvivov iiTTopria-as' that is, to Elagabalus inclusive. 
His works are named by Eusebius H. E. VI. 31. iiri^ 
otoXjj 'ilpiydvd ypa<p(ia-a (ptpfrai diiopovvTos iy ii.v v66ov 
Kol ■ncnXarrpiiin)^ ovcrr)<! rfjy (v r^ AarnjA. Kara "Zaxravvav 
iarToplar wpos iji> 'Q.piyfinji &i>TLypd<f>fi ■n-Xj/pe'irrara rov 
6' airrov ' A<f>pLKavov koI aA\a tov apiOp.ov -nimf yjtovo- 
ypacpLoiv TjKOfv fh Jyjuaj fir UKpi^h T!€-novr\p.iva <niovbd(T- 





1 Consuls 

Coins oi Elagahalus : Eckhel. torn. VII p. 252. 1 Imp. Antoninus Pius Aug. 
+p. m. tr.p. IIII COS. Ill p. p. 2 Imp. Gees. M. Aur. Anioninics Pius Aug. + 
p. m. tr.p. IIII COS. Ill p. p. 

Coins oi Alexander : lb. p. 268. M. Aur. Alexander Gees. + indulgentia Aug. 
or pietas Aug. 

Romse apud Gruterum p. 46. 10 Panvinium p. .S69. fferculi invicto pro salute 
DD. NN. Imp. Cms M. Aur. Antonini P. F. Aug. et M. Aur. Alexandri no- 
hilissimi Gas. totiusque domus divinte eorum coh. X pr. P.V. Ant. 7 Marciani 
Alasculinus Valens B F. pr. D. R. Feminina et Aur. Fahianus signi/er et Val. 
Firminiis Optio 7 quod proficiscentes expeditionihus sacris voverant regressi cum 
commanipulis libentes votum soherunt. 

2 Events 


975. 31. Aurelius Antoni- 
nus Augustus IV M. Au- 
relius Severus Alexander 

Index Dionis lib. 79 Nor. 
Idat. B. Cod. Justin. IV. 
24,2. 24,3. V. 12,3. 

AvTOKpa.'a>p ' Aki^avbpos 
Koi MobfCTTos A. Antonino 
III et Alexandra Pont. 

Alexandra A. cons. Cod. 
Justin. III. 42, 1 &c. see 
col. 2. 

Romse apud Panvinium 
p. 369 Gruterum p. 528.1. 
G. Aurelio L.f. Pap. Fa- 
vori. eran. [veteran. Pan- 
vinius] leg. Ill Parthic. 
P. F. et a locis cegris cust. 
leg. ejusdem L. Au- 
relius Stephanus patrono 
sanctissima ara pas. K. 
Jan. M. Aurelio Antonino 
Aug. IIII et Aurelio A- 
lexandro Gees. cos. 

Inscriptio apud Panvin. 
p. 369 Gruter. p. 1082.9. 
Gollocata V Idus Mart, 
imp. Gees. M. Aurelio An- 
tonino Pio Felice Aug. IIII 
et M. Aur. AUxandro no- 
hilissimo Gees. cos. 

Romse in basi apud Pan- 
vinium p. 369 Gruterum 
p. 85. 2. Serapi sacr. i^np. 
GcES. 31. Aurel. Antoninus 
Aug. Pius Felix cos. IIII 
p.p. Dedic. Id. Apr. Imp. 
Girs. Ant. Pio IIII et 31. 

Elagabali trih. pot. 5 from Kal. Januar. 

Elagabalus slain: Lamprid. Elagab. c. 15 — 18. Kal. Januariis, qmim simul 
turn designati essent consules, noluit cum consobrino procedere, &c. — Post hoc in 
eum impetus /actus est, atque in latrina ad quam confugerat occisus. — occisa est 
cvmi eo et mater Semiamira, probrosissima mulier et digna Jilio. Herodian. V. 
7- 8. 6 hvTutvwos — p.(TfyCv(i>(TKe Offxevos avrbv vlbv koi Kow(t>vbv Trjs apx'f^ — Trawl 
rpoTTO) fTre^oijKeve ro) ' AXe^av^pai Koi rrj jxrjTpl avTov' dAAa tols fml3ov\as irdaas 
CLTTflpyf re koi iK<i\vev fj koivt) fiAixjxr] aiKpoTepatv Maura k. t. K. — oi be crTpaTiStTai. 
— AvTutvlvov avTov re /cat tt]v y.r]Tipa "Sioaip-iba — avaipovcn. Dio 79. 19. 20. 6 
AXe^avbpos vtto re rjjy p.rfpbs koX rij? rT/^Tjs vito re tS>v arpaiiuiT&v i(T)(yp<as f^v- 
XAaaeTo' Kal ol bopvcpopoi, alaOoixevoi rr^v fiTi\eipr](nv tov ^apbavaTTaXov, Sewois 
(OopvjSr^aav K. T. \. — jXiTa be ravra eirt^e/SouXeiKco)? 77aA.1i' r(S ' A\e^avbp(p Kal, Oopv- 
(BrjadvTiav iitl tovtco twv bopv(f>6p(i)V, (nv avrQ es to arpaToirebov tiaeXOlav, is 
yuOeTo <f)v\a(Ta-6iJ,fvov eavrbv (ill dvaiplaei — ^evyuv wws e.T!e\iLpr]CTe — (jxapadeh 
be dT!ea(f>dyr], OKTiaKalbeKa hrj yeyovuts' Kal air<3 Kal rj ii.rfr]p — a-ufaircoA.eTO. He 
had reigned ^y 9™ 4'' according to Dio c. 3. hecri rpicrl Kal nrjalv ivvea r]p.ipais 
re ria-crapcnv, kv als rjp^e", &)s av rts airb ttjs /xax?)? [conf. a. 218] ev fj rb wai'reA.ey 
Kpdros e(T\€v apt^/iijjcreiei'. His fourth year began June 8 A. D. 221, and the 
<)m 4rf would fix his death at March 11 A. D. 222. Inscriptio apud Eckhel. 
tom. VIII p. 436. Imp. Gees. 31. Aur. Severo Alexandra cos. Eidib. Aprilibus. 
Eckhel observes " Ergo cum omittatur Elagabalus, certuni est eum Id. April. 
" [A.D. 222] jam fuisso caesum, eraso (quod constat) ex fastis ejus nomine." 
The inscription on the chair oi Ilippolytus also attests that the 1st oi Alex- 
ander was already current Ap. 13 A. D. 222. See col. 4. The reign of Elaga- 
balus is called 4 years in round numbers by Eusebius H. E. VI. 21. rtaaapai 
ixovois erecTi. Chron. Anno 2239 Antonini 4" Antoninus interficitur Romw. 
Oros. VII. 18 Cassiodor. Annis IV. Chron. Pa.sch. p. 267 C. ^'"'? 8'- — f(r(f)dyr) 
&)V irutv \r'. Others reckon from his arrival at Rome in A.D. 2 19 : Lamprid. 
Elagab. c. 34. Prope triennio. Eutrop. VIII. 22. Is cum Romam — venisset, 
probris se omnibus contaminavit. Impudent issi me et obscosnissime vixit biennioque 
post et VIII mensibus tumultu inter/ectus est tnilitari, et cwni eo mater Soemia 
Syra. Victor Cses. p. 330. In castris prretoriis tricesimo regni mense suppressus 
est. Victor Epit. p. 379- Iniperavit biennio et mensibus octo — vixit annos sedecim. 
Herodian V. 8 erroneously, els tKTov Iros ekduas rTjs ^amkeias. and an anony- 
mous Chronicle apud Hippolytum Fabricii p. 59 : Antoninus annis sex mensibus 
octo diebus XXVIII. Among the laws of A. D. 222 are these : Cod. Justin. 
IX. 1, 3 hnp. Alexander A. Rufo. p p. Ill Non. Februar. Alexandro A. cons. 
VIII. 45, 6 Imp. Alexander A. Octacio. p p. VIII Id. 3Iart. Alexandro A. cons. 
VII. 64, 1 Imp. Alexander A. Apollinari et aliis. pp. VIII Kal. Ap>ril. Alex- 
andro A. cons. VIII. 38, 4 Imp. Alexander A. Sabinte. pp. II Kal. Ajyril. 
Alexandro A. cons. VIII. 45, 7 Idem A. Ililariano. p p. Ill Non. April. Alex- 

R M A N I 


3 Secdlar Authobs 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

4 Julia Soaimias Aiui.+ Venm GeeksHs. or Juno re- 

ffiiM. or inater Deum. ^\ovkia Soat/x^s or £oa(/x^f. 
L. y . L. 8'. L. f'. 

5 Julia Mam Aug. +fecunditas Aug. or pietas Aug. 

'Iov\ia Maiffo 2€/3aoT^. /xjjr. arpa. L. /3'. L. y'. 
L. 8'. L. «'. 

L. ^' commenced Aug. 29 A. D. 218. 

L. y Aug. 29 A. D. 219. 

L. 8' Aug. 29 A. D. 220. 

L. «' Aug. 29 A. D. 22 1 and waa current 

at the death of Elanabalus. 

liara' iv oU (prjciv iavTov iropfCav <TrtCKa<T0ax M TrfV 
' AKf^dv^ptiav 8ia TroAA^v tov 'HpaKKa <t>VP^r}v — koL iripa 
8i TOV avTov ' A<}>piKavov <^ip(Tai. ^ttiotoAJj ttphs 'ApiTjtl- 
brjv iTfpl TTJi vop.i(oy.ivr)'i biaxpmvlas t&v isapa MaT0aC<f re 
Kal AovkS, tov XpuTTov ytvfa\oyuip [conf. H. E. I. 7l- 
Hioron. Catal. c. fi.S. Julius Africanm, cujttt quiiujue de 
tempuribiu extant vdumina, sub imp. Aurelio Antonino 
qui Macrino successerat legationem pro instauratione ur- 
ois Emmaua suscepit. Conf. a. 222. 

^lian flourished : Philostr. V. S. II. 31. Aikiavbs hi 
'P(i)jLtatoy niv r/v »)TTi,'ictf« 6^ uxrirtp ol (V Tij fif troy eia ''Adrj- 
vaioi, [conf. V. S. II. 1 p. .55.'J] — Ttpoapridds ti o^o^ktti^s 
vito tSiv xo-P<^oyiiv<av to, Toiama oiiK Men fV(Tfv k. t. A. — 
f) p.iv luLnav Ihia tov avbpos a<p(Kfia TipoajSaWovo'a n 
TTJs NiKoaTpdTOv uipas, 17 8e ivioTt Ttpos Aiiava opa koX tov 
(Kflvov t6vov. Contemporary with Philosiratus of Lem- 
nos : lb. fVTV)(i)V M TtOTi avT^ <I>iAo'<rrparos 6 Ar)pvi,os 

/3l/3AtOl» tTt TTpOXfLpOV i^OVTl fjptTO aiiTov o Ti (Tiiovbd^oi. 

Kal Sy " iKTTfiTovr^Tai p.o" ((pr) " naTijyopCa tov rvrriSos" 
" KoAb) yap ovTa tov apTi Kadi'ip-ivov [log. KaOripi]p.ivov. 
" Ka6aipfd(vT(ov in this sense apud Zosim. I. 21] rupav- 
" vov, iiiubr\ a<rt\.y(Cq iracrj; ra 'Pei>p.a[mv jjar^vve.^'' koI 6 
<tiAo'(rrpoTos " iy<i tre" eZnev " idavp,a(ov av el C'^vtos 
" KaTr\yopri(Tai.'" Referring to Elagabalus ; which fixes 
iho time of this incident. ^Uan studied under Favr- 
sanias of Cappadocia and Herodes Atticm : Philostrat. 
p. Crib. YXavcraviov p.iv ovv aKpoartfs lylviTo, eflau/xafe 6e 
TOV [\p(!)hr)v i>i TioiKiXdTaTov prfTopuv. i^i<i> bk inifp to 
iii'jKovTa hrj. From hence Perizonius and Olearius 
undertake to determine the time of ^lians death : 
conf. Olear. ad Phil, p, (;25. But although we know 
that Philostratm of Lemnos is in this year 30 years of 
ago (conf. a. 192. 215), yet, as the time of ^Hail's 
birth is not known, we cannot from hence fix the date 
of his death. 

Dion Cassius in Bithynia: 80. 1. ^k ttjs 'Aalas is tt}i» 

BlOvvCaV i\Oli>V ^ppticTTrjffa' KaxuSfV TTpOS TJ]V iv TJj 'A- 

(()piKJ} 7]yep.oviav i]Tid\dr]v. For his other offices under 
Alexander conf. a. 229. 

Coins of Elagabalus : Eckhel. torn. VII p. 2.52. 
1 Imp. Antoninus Pius Aug. + p. m. tr. p. V cos. IIII 
p. p. 2 Imp. Gas. M, Aur, Antoninus Pius Aug. + 
p. m. tr. p. V COS. IIII p. p. 

Coins o{ Alexander : lb. p. 269. 

1 M. Aur. Alexander Gees.+ponti/ex. cos. S. C. 

After the death of Elagabalus : 

2 Imp. G. M. Aur. Sev. Alexand. Aug. + liberalitas 

Augusti. or p. m. tr.p. cos. or p. m. tr.p. cos. p. p. 

Africanws is mentioned at this year by Eusebius 
Chron. Anno 2237 [from Oct. A. D. 221] In Palwstina 
Emmam restaurata est dictaqus Nicopolis cura et preci- 
bus Julii Africani chronograpki. At the same year in 
Hieron. Chron. Pasch. p. 267 D- vir. Maf i;xov »coi AiAi- 
avov\^A. D. 223] NiictJiToAiy, ^ upoTtpov 'E/i/uaoCy, iKritrOr) 
iro'Ais Ttpeafiivoinos visip avTrjs koI ■npo'iarap.ivoiv '\ovkiov 
'AcppiKovov TOV TO, xpoviKO, (rvyypa\jiap.(vov. Conf. Syncell. 
p. 359 B. 

Hippolytus the disciple of IreruBva brought down hia 
chronology to the reign of Alexander: Euseb. H. E. 
VI. 22. 'IinroAvToy avvTaTTUiV p.era Trkeiaruv &Wm> irno- 
p,VT]p.dT<i)V Kol TO Ttepl TOV Trao-^a Ttcnoii\Tai (jvyypeip.p,a iv 
(5 tSiv xpovmv dvaypa(j)Tiv iKOtpifvos KaC Ttva Kavova exxat- 
bfKaiT-qpiboi TTfpl TOV irdcTxa. Trpodfls iirl to Tip&Tov iTos 
avTOKpdTopoi 'AKf^dvbpov tovs \p6vovs Ttfptypdifxi. This 
date is repeated by Syncellus p. 358 B. Eusebius adds 
1. c. T&v be KoLTimv aiiTov ovyypapLndTOiv to tJs fjfiai <A- 
dovTa ItTTi Tabf fU tt/k k^ariptpov fh ra /xrra tjjv i^aif- 
p,fpoV Trpos MapKlbiva' fts rb acrpxi' (is pi^prj tov 'ItffKtTjA' 
irepl ToO TrdcTxa' irpos aiidaai ras alptVriy. Photius Cod. 
121. &veyv<oTdr} /3i/3At8dpioi' 'ItthoKvtov piaOrjTijf bk Eip'j- 
vaCov 6 'liTTToKvros. r^v bk to (TuvTayp/x ncara alpicrftav A/i', 
dpyjiv TTowvpevov Aoa-idtavovs, Kal /x«'xpi NoJjToii koX No»)- 
Tiav&v biaKap^dvov. Tai/ras bi <f>r](Tiv iK^yxoK inrofiktj- 
Orjvai 6pi\ovvTos Elprivaiov, Stv xat avvo^iv 6 iTriroAvroy 
■7roioi;/x«i'oy Tobf to /3i/3Aioi' Kprial ovvrtTaxivai. rip bk 
(l>pdcn,v (ra</)»)y i<m Kal {rnoaip-voi Koi imtpirros, fl xal 
TTpbs TOV 'Attikoi' oi/K fT!urTp4(f>(Tai, \6yov kfyei bk &X\a 
Tt Tiva TTJy oKpi/ieiai XemopLeva Kal oti f) itpos 'E^paCovs 
iTTidTokr) ovK loTt TOV ditooToKov riavAou. Idem Cod. 
202. 'liTiTokvTov ^TTwricoTrov jcat pAprvpos kpp,r\vfia lis tov 
AariTjA. — to bk Tt)v tov dvTixptvTov iiapovcrLav, xaff fjv 
Kttl T) TOO ala-OrjTov KO^rpMV Tovbe avi>T(K(i,a lOToroi, p-rjbk 
Toiy padrirais bfopevots tov ooDTijpos dTtoKa\v\jfai>Tos, tira 
airrbv tuvti^v re zraicoo-ioty tTicriv oltio Xpioroi) inraxOfvra 
T:fpiypd\jracTdai, ixravfl t&v otto irpwnjy tov Kocrfwv Kara- 
iSoKijs (^aKLTxikiav (t&v (rvvTfKovp.ti'<i)v [see F. H. I p. 
29 1 vj, Koi T^v bi.d\v<TLV avTov ((pfcrrdvai, tovto koi dip- 
paOTipas hv fh] tov ttpootJkovtos yv<I>p.ris, xat rj iirocpaeTis 
dvdpatirCin)9 dyvoCas dAA' ovk fitnri'oLas TTJy &va>Ofv 6ie- 

H h 2 




1 Consuls 

Aur. Alescandro cos. 

Which supposes Elaga- 
halus to be still living on 
the 13th of April. But 
this is refuted by another 
inscription apud Eckhel, 
by the Cod. Justin, by 
Lamprid. Alex. c. 6 and 
by the inscription apud 
Hippolytum ed. Fabric, 
see col. 2. Perhaps for 
ID. APR. the marble 
had ID. JAN. 

In the inscription apud 
Panvin. p. 369 Grat. p. 
1082 the date maybe ex- 
plained by supposing that 
at March 1 1 the name of 
Elagabalus was not yet 
expunged from the fasti. 
But perhaps here also we 
may alter the date, and 
for V ID US Mart, may 
read VI KJL. Mart, or 
Feb. 24 ; the eleventh day 
before Alexander was ad- 
dressed by the senate : 
see col. 2. 

2 Events 

andro A. cons. VI. 35, 3 Imp. Alexander A. Antiochiano. p p. II Non. April. 
Alexandra A. cons. The dates of these laws shew that Elagabalus was already 
dead and that Alexander was Augustus before Id. April. Two bear date Feb. 3 
March 8. The scene therefore described by Lampridius Alex. c. G on the 
Gth of March is to be referred to A. D. 222 : Ex actis urhis ad pridie Nonas 
Martias. Quum senatus frequens in curiam, hoc est, in cedem Concordice, templum 
inauguratum, convenisset, rogatusque esset Aurelius Alexander Catsar Augustus uf 
concineret, ac prinio recusasset, quod sciret de honoribus suis agendum, deinde 
postea venisset, acclamatum " Auguste'''' &c. Improperly referred by Vignoles 
Reimar and others to the second year of Alexander. He succeeded then before 
Feb. 3 ; and the reign of Elagabalus might be 33' Jm 24'i from June 8 A. D. 218. 
and there is a corruption in the numbers of Dio at 79- 3. which perhaps ori- 
ginally stood €T€(n Tpurl Kal jx-qcrlv eirra 7/jue'pais t( Tiaaapai, Koi eiKoiri. 

The other laws of the Code are these ; most of them bearing Alexandra cos. 
alone — three only adding Antoninus. V. 51,4 Imp. Alexander A. Aglao. pp. 
Ill Kal. Mali Alexandra A. cons. III. 42, I Crescenti militi. pp Kal. Maii. 

VII. 56, 1 Masculina. pp. Non. Maii. VII. 8, 4 Sabiniano. p p. VI Id. Maii. 
IX. 1,4 Dionysia. p p. XVI Kal. Jul. IX. 2, 1 Martiano. p p. Ill Kal. Aug. 

VIII. 30, 1 Agrippce. pp. Kal. Sept. VI. 2, 4 Aurelio Herodi.pp. Idib. Sept. 
IV. 24, 2 Demetrio. dat. Kal. Oct. Antonino IV et Alexandra conss. (sic.) IX. 
1, 5 Marcellinee. p p. Kal. Oct. Alexandra A. cons. VI. 50, 3 Hermagorcp. p p. 
Id. Oct. VIII. 35, 1 Victorino. pp. Id. Oct. V. 34, 1 Amphibula.' p p. Kal. 
Nov. VI. 3, 10 Cacilio. pp. Kal. Nov. VI. 44, 2 Faustince. pp. VII Id. Nov. 
VI. 21, 4 Junia. dat. XVI Kal. Dec. III. 42, 2 IX. 2, 2. IX. 35, 1 Syro. p.p. 
XI Kal. Dec. VII. G6, 1 Juliana, pp. Ill Non. Dec. VII. 66, 2 Marcellinee. 
p p. Ill Non. Dec. VIII. 45, 8 Clementina, p p. VIII Id. Dec. IV. 24, 3 

Victorino. pp. VI Id. Dec. Antonino A. IV et Alexandra conss. V. 12, 3 Eu- 
phemio. pp. VI Id. Dec. Antonino A. IV et Alexandra Gas. conss. VI. 34, 1 Se- 
vercB. S. XVI Kal. Jan. Alexandra A. et cons. VIII. 10, 2 Diogeni.pp. XI 
Kal. Jan. VIII. 45, 9 Terentio. p p. XI Kal. Jan. YI. 50, 4 Philetiana. pp. 

V Kal. Jan. VIII. 30, 2 ^miliana. pp. Ill Kal. Januar. 


976. L. Marius Maximus 
II L. Rosciv^ ^lianm 

Idat. Cod. Justin, in 85 
laws : see Appendix, c. 1 . 

Maft/j.oy Kol 'HXiayo's A. 
Mafijuiros TO 8' Kol 'SiKi- 
vos B. Maxima et ^liano 
Nor. Pont. 

Canstadii ad Nicrum in 
ara apud Grut. p. 1005. 2. 
Inh.D.D.JO.M. Genio 
loci et Fortunm diis dea- 
busque Emeritim Sextus mi- 
les legionis XXII pr. P.F. 
Severian<B BF. cos. pro se 
etsuispasuit V.S.L.L.M. 
Maxima et ^liano cos. 
Idibus Januariis. 

Tabula senea apud Nori- 
slum tom. II p. 993. L. 
Mario Maximo II L. lios- 

Alexandri 2 from Feb. trib. pat. 2 from Kal. Januar. 

[Hieron. Chron. Anna 2238 Alexandri 1" Alexander Xerxem regem Persarum 
ghriosissime vicit, et discipline militaris tarn severus corrector fuit ut quasdam 
tumultuantes legiones integras exauctoraverit. Conf. Eutrop. VlII. 23. A pro- 
chronism of many years: conf. a. 233. His date is followed by Cassiodorus : 
His cass. [so. anno Alexandri 1"] Alexander Xerxem regem Persarum vicit. 
And by Orosius VII. 18. Statim expeditione in Persas facta Xerxem — op- 
pressit. Victor Cses. p. 330. Canfestim apparatu magna bellum adversum Xerxem 
Persarum regem movet. which also places that war at too early a date.] 

Coins of A. D. 223 : Eckhel. tom. VII p. 270. 1 Imp. C. M. Aur. Sev. 
Alexand. Aug. +p. m. tr. p. II cos. p. p. 2 Imp. Gees. M. Aur. Sev. Alexander 
Aug. -Vpantif. max. tr. p. II cos. p. p. S. G. 

See Appendix c. 1 for 85 laws of A. D. 223. The care with which Alexander 
framed his laws is described by Lampridius Alex. c. 16. Leges de jure populi et 
fisci moderatas et infinitas sanxit. neque ullam constitutionem sacravit sine viginti 
jurisperitis, et doctissimis ac sapientibus viris iisdemque disertissimis non minus 

R O M A N I 


3 Secular Authors 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

Imp. C<Bs. M. Aurel. Sev. Alexander Pius Felix 
Au^. + lilieralitas Auc/tisti. S. 0. 

Imp. Gees. M. Aur. See. Alexander Aug. + Uberali- 
tag Auffusti. S. G. or p. m. tr.p. cot. p.p. 

Eckhel. p. 281. Imp. Gas. M. Aur. Sev. Alexander 
Pius Felix Aug. + Uberalitas Augusti. 

Kiyxfi. — trwavfyvma-Oii airrov koI Irepos \6yos ittpl Xpt- 
(TTOV KoX a2ni\pC(rrov tv (^ »; rt avrii rHv koyuv Ibia bia- 
Tspi-nfi Kttl TO Toil' vorindruv &it\ov<TTfp6v rt koX ip\ai6- 
rpovov. Conf. Hieron. Catal. c. 61. 

According to Eusebius the Chronicle of Hippolytut 
ends at the first year of Alexander. His Paschal Cycle 
of 1(> years, which is still extant, commences at the 
same date : Cathedra marmorea Ilijywlyti apud Hip- 
polytum Fabric, p. 3fi. hovs a' /Sao-iAe^y ' A\.(£<ivbpov 
avTOKparopos iyivero rj 8t tov "nia^a eWoij 'AirptiX^ttts 
(ro/3/3({T(j), ip.po\ifu>v fitjvbi y(vop.ivov. Icrrat tois i^rfi 
hf(Tiv KiOus VTTOTtTaKTai iv rcj) ■nivoKi. iyiv€TO h\ iv 
rois 'napm)ir]K6<nv KiOms cr«(n;/x«^o)rai. 6.T!ovj]<Tj((f<r0ai 8« 
Set ont h.v ifiTTio-ri Kvpiaio}. 

1. in elbois 'AwpeiA. 

2. irpo 6' vat. 'Aitpfi. 

3. rr« 'Tp^ '/3' wpd lo' KoXavS. 'Awpti. k. t. A. 

The years 3. 7- ' !• 15 of the Cycle are bissextile. But 
A. D. 224. 228. 232. 236 were bissextile; whence it 
necessarily follows that the 1st year of this Cycle of 
Hippolytm, and the 1st of the reign of Alexander, were 
in A. D. 222, and not (as some have supposed) in 223 
or 224. Conf. Noris. de Epochis Syrom. p. 1 1 7 apud 
Hippolytura Fabricii p. 89 Pagium et Basnage apud 
eundem p. 64. 

Counsellors o{ Alexander: Lamprid. Alex. c. 68. Ut 
scias qui viri in ejus consilio fuerint, Fabius Sabimts 
Sabini insignis viri filius, Cato temporis sui ; Domitius 
nipianus juris peritissimus [conf. a. 225] ; ^lius Gor- 
dianus [Gordiani imperatoris pater] et ipse revera vir 
insignis ,• Jtdius Paulus juris peritissimus [conf. c. 26. 
27] ; Claudius Venacus orator amplissimus ; [Pompo- 
nius Icguni peritissimus, Alphenus, Africanus,] Floren- 
tinm, Martianus, Callistratus, Hermogenes, Venuleius, 
PTriphonius, Metianus,] Celsus, Proculus, Modestinm, 
M omnes juris professores discipuli fuere splendidissimi 
Papiniani, et Alexandra imperatoris familiares et socii, 
vZ scribit Acholius et Marius Maximus; Catilius Se- 
verus cognatus ejus, vir omnium doctissimus ; ^lius Se- 
renianus, omnium vir sanctissimus ; Quintilius Marcel- 
lus, quo meUorem ne Idstoriee quidem continent. — Et eos 
quidem malorum cohors depulerat qui circumvenerant 
Alexandrum primis diebus. Sed prudentia juvenis, his 
malis occisis atque dqmlsis, amicitia ista sancta cowvor 
luit. Tlio words enclosed and separated from the rest 
are probably interpolations: conf. Salmasium ct Ca- 
saubon. ad locum. Salinasius omits the whole passage 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

cio JEliano cos. M. Anto- 
nim Priscui L. Annius II 
vir quinquenn. nomitid de- 
curionum in are incidenda 
curaverunt. &c. 


977. JuUanus II et Gris- 
pinus B. Cod. Justin, in 
48 laws : see Appendix. 

An inscription : see 
col. 2. 

Juliano et Crispino Nor. 
A. Cod. Justin. III. 28, 
11. 37,3. 44,5. 44,6. 

Fabiano et Crispino Idat. 

Alexandri 3 from Feb. trih. pot. 3 from Kal. Januar, 

Coins of A. D. 224 : Eckhel. torn. VII p. 271. 1 Imp. C. M. Aur. Sev. 
Alexand. Aug. + liberalitas Aug. II. or p.m. tr.p. Ill cos. p.p. 2 Imp. Go's. 
M. Aur. Sev, Alexander Aug. + liber aUtas Augusti II. S. C. ovpontif. max. tr.p. 
Ill COS. p.p. S. C. 

An inscription apud Panvinium p. 370 Gruterum p. 190. 13. 191. 7- Imp. 

GfEsar divi Antonini Pii fil. dim Severi nepos M. Aurelius Severus Alexander 
Pius Felix Aug.ponti/. max. trib.pot. Ill cos. p.p. restituit. 

An inscription marking these consuls apud Gruterum p. 18. 10 Norisium 
torn. II p. 996. Jovi 0. M. conservatori possessionum Rosciorum Paculi jEliani 
N. COS. et Bosses jiliorumque eor. ex voto L. Roscius Eubulus nutrit. et procurat. 
cum P. Boscio Firmo lib. proc. eorum D. IIII Non. Mart. Juliano II et Crisp. 

. . . cos. 

In Cod. Justin, are 52 laws of A. D. 224 : see Appendix c. 1. 


01. 251 U. 0. Varr. 978. 
Fuscus II et Dexter 

A. et Cod. Justin. II. 
1, 7- 1, 8. III. 18, 1. 
IV. 24,6. V. 18,4. 34, 2. 

57.2. 62, 8. VI. 3, 8. 3, !>. 
21,6. 23,2. 26,4.28,2. 
39, 1. 42,7. 42,8. 54,6. 
54, 7. 57, 1. VII. 4, 7. 

16.3. 73,5. VIII. 17,4. 
28, 4. IX. 9, 10. 23, 5. 
X. 4, 1. 

Fusco et Dextro Nor. 
Fiisciano et Dextro Idat. 

<t>OV(TKOS TO (3' KOL Se'xoTos 


For inscriptions see 
col. 2. 

Alexandri 4 from Feb. trib. pot. 4 from Kal. Januar. 

Coins: Eckhel. tom. VII p. 271. 1 Imp. C. M. Aur. Sev. Alexand. Aug.+ 
p. m. tr.p. IIII COS. p.p. 2 Imp. Ccbs. M. Aur. Sev. Alexander Aug.+ponti/. 
max. tr. p. IIII cos. p. p. 

Romse apud Gruterum p. 191. 8. Imp. Goes, divi Antonini Magni Pii f. dim 

Seceri Pii nep. M. Aur Alexander Severus Pius Fel. Aug. pont. max. trib. 

pot. IIII cos. p. p. restituit. 

Inscriptions bearing these consuls : 1 Ad Rhenum prope Coloniam apud 
Gruterum p. 9. 2. /. 0. M. et Geriio loci M. Aurelius Ursulas BF. cos. pro se et 
suis V. S. L. M. Fusco II et Dextro cos. 2 Fragraentum inscriptionum fratrum 
arvalium apud Gruter. p. 121. VII Id. Nov. [A. D. 224] Swnius Donatm L. 
Fabius Fortunatus fratres arval. in Inc. D. D. via Camp, apud lap. V conv. per 
C. Pore. Priscum mag. et ibi imm. quod vi tempestat. ictu fulmin. arbor, sacr. 
L. D. D. attact. arduer. &c. — Jam patri — Jmi — Marti patri ult. — Jun. — Vir- 
ginib. div. — Fam. div. — Larib. — Font. — Flor. — Summan.patr. — YestcB matri — 
Genio D. N. Severi Alexandri Aug. — item divis XX. — //// Id. Dec. [A. T>. 224] 
fratres arval. in luco dece Diee via Gampana apud lap. V convener, per C. Pore. 
Priscum mag. et ibi immolav. quod ab ictu fulminis arbores luci sacri D. D. 
attacta arduerint &c. — Fusco II et Dextro cos. XIIII Kal. Mai. in luco dew 
Dice &c. 

In Cod. Justin, are 28 laws bearing Imp. Alexander A. — Fusco II et Dextro 
conss. See Appendix c. 1. 


979. M. Aurelius Severus 
Alexander Augustus II et 
Quintilius Marcellus 
Alexandro I let MarceUo 
Nor. Idat. Cod. Justin. 
I. 23, 1. II. 3, 8. 3, 9. 
1,4. 19,10. 20, 2. 37,2. 

Alexandri 5 from Feb. trib. pot. 5 from Kal. Januar. 

Hieron. Chron. Anno 2242 Alexandri S" Thermee Alexandrine Romce a-difi- 
catas. Cassiod. His coss. [sc. anno Alexandri 5"] Neroniante thermm Alexan- 
drines vocatce. sunt. Lamprid. Alex. c. 25. Opera veterum prindpum instauravit; 
ipse nova multa coustituit ; in his thermas nominis sui juxta eas qua; Neronlanee 
fuerunt, aqua inducta quee Alexandrina nunc dicitur. Idem c. 24. Jussit thermas 
et- quas ipse fundaverat et super iores populi usibus exhiberi. 

R O Af A N I 


3 Secular Authoes 

4 Ecclesiastical Authoes 

Pomponivs —Marim Mammus ; Casaubon more rea- 
sonably retains a part, and rejects only those names 
which in his opinion are interpolated. 

Pisander of Laranda flourished : Suid. p. 2974 0. 
Tltitravhpoi N^oropos tov irotrfroD vios, Xapavhtvi ^ Av- 
K&vios, ytyovw iitl 'A\((ivbpov ^atriX^ms roC Ma//a^as 
iroiSoy ^TTOTToto's — fypa\ff€v IcrropCav TronciXrjr 8t' iTt&v, ifv 
imyp6.(pn 'HpaiK&v [1. 'UpmiK&v cum Eudocia p. 358] 
@(oyapii&v iv /3t/3Xfois If \\. f ex MSS. conf. p. 2975 E]. 
Zosimus V. 29. is o wotjjr^y loropei YliLa-avhpoi 6 rfj 
T&v r)p(iiiKoiv dfoyafjii&v iinypa(})jj tiairav its (lirdv l<TTop(av 
■ntpiXafidv. The number 60 is confirmed by Steph. 
Byz. BoauXeta : Yldaavhpos eiVoorf; Ikttj. Kv^iktia : 
Ylficr. hiKixia. AvKo^fia : Yldcr. rf(TCTapi<TKaihiK6.rr\. Ni- 
(ft&rqs: rieio". «;88oW. Oti/urp^a : Ile^o-. TpKr/cat6<K<iT(i). 
Upon Pisander conf. Heyn. ad Virgil, ^n. II torn. II 
p. 315—320. 

Hieron. Chron. Anno 2241 [A. D. 22j|] Alexandri 4" 
Ulpianm jurisconsidtm assessor Alexandri insignissimus 
hahetur. Eutrop. VIII. 23. Adsessorem habuit vel scrinii 
magistrum ITlpianum Juris conditorem. Cassiod. His 
coss. [sc. Alexandri anno 4o] Ulpianua JC'"^ assessor &c. 
Conf. Ores. VII. 18. Ho was promoted by Alexander 
on the death otEloflabalm: Dio 80. 1. 'AXtfarSpoy p.fT 
iKflpov fvdvi ovropxijca? aiiTiKa rrju oueiar p.r)Tipa Ma- 
fiaiav Aiyovnrav avuTTtv — Ao^itwjj 6e' tlvl OvATitai'cj) ti^v 
T( tS>v bopv<f>6pa>v vpodTcurLav kol to Koma ttjs apyjis «7re'- 
Tpfxjre Tipayp-ara. Ulpian with Paulus was the disciple 
o{ Papinian: Lamprid. Alex. c. 26. Alexander Paulmn 
[conf. a. 223] et Ulpianuni in magva honore habuit ; 
mios prce/ectos ab /ieliopabalo alii dicunt /ados [conf. 
Victor. C«es. p. 330], alii ab ipso [conf. Lamprid. Ela- 
gab. c. 16]. Nam «t consiliarius Alexandri et magister 
scrinii Ulpianm fiiisse perhibetur ; qui tamen amho 
assessores Papiniani fuisse dicuntur. The esteem in 
which Ulpian was held by Alexander is described by 
Lampridius Alex. o. 15. 31. 34. P'or the death of 
Ulpian conf. a. 228. 2. 


Coins of A. D. 226 : Eckhel. torn. VII p. 2?!. 

1 Imp. Sev. Alexand. Aug.+p.m. tr.p. V cos. II p.p. 

2 Imp. Cms. M. Aur. Sev. Alexander Aug. + lib. Aug. 

III. pontif. max. tr. p. Vcos. II p. p. S. C. ot porir 
tif. max. tr. p. V cos. II p. p. or liberalitas Au- 
gusti III. S. C. 

{Origen at Antioch: Euseb. H. E. VI. 21. inl ttjj 
'AvTioxi(t)v iKKXrjaCas ' A(TKkr)]v 4>tAj)Toy 6ta8^x*''<" 
[Hieron. Chron. Anno 2233 decimus PAiletus. Euseb. 
Anno 2233 decimus Philippus : unde *A.rp-os rj ^l\nt- 
■nos apud Syncellum p. 359 A], nv bt avroKpaTopos jitj- 
njp Ma/xaia TovvopM, yvvri fleoo-e^eordnj — rijs 'Slpiyh'ovs 




1 Consuls 

2 Events * 

44, 2. 51,2. 52, 1. III. 
32,3. 33,4. 33,5. 35,1. 

37.2. IV. 25, 2. V.12,5. 
29, 2. 38. 1. 38, 2. VI. 
21,7. 46,4. 50,7-53,5. 
VII. 30, 1. IX. 9, 11. 

49.3. 50,2. 

^A\f$avbpos TO Koi 
MapK€\ivos A. Se^Tjpos /3' 
Kal Map/ceXo ro y3' B. [leg. 
MApKeXkos /3'] 

Urbe Lingonum apud 
Gruter. p. 84. 5. H. Bis 
Beab. Bivis trims quadri- 
vis Aurel. Victorimis mil. 
leg. XXI P. F. M. cos. 
Germ, superioris V. S. 
L. M. Imp. [Aur.] Severo 
Alex. it. et Marcello cos. 

De Marcello Laraprid. 
Alex. c. 68. 

Artaxerxes (ArdisAeer) overthrows Artabanus : Dio 80. 3. iroWol 6f koX iiapa 
TTo\K&v enavaardafis yiv6p.evai — KaT€i:avdr]crav to. Se ei> Trj MecroTrorajiiio Koi (po- 
fifpdiTepa Ka\ aKr\Oi<TTipov hios avp-Tracriv ov)^ on Tots ev 'Pwf/t?; dAXa /cat Toty aX- 
A.01S ■napia-)(iv. ' Apra^ep^rj^ ydp tjs Ile'pcrr;?, oy ef acpav&v Koi dbo^cov ^v, rrjv riav 
YldpOav l3aaiXelav Ilepcratj wepteiroi^o-aTo koI ovt&v (fianXivcnv — 6 6' ovv ''Ap- 
Ta^ep^r}i tovs re UdpOovs rpurl juaxaty VLKrjo-as Kol top ^acnXta avrStv 'Aprdjiavov 
aTtoKTfCvas em to, 'Arpa ^TTea-rpdrevirev k.t.X. The date is assigned by Aga- 
thias IV. 24 p. 134 A. erea-iv varepov oktio re kol xpiaKovTa /cat Trei'Tatcoo-tots 'A- 
Xf^dvbpov Tov Trdw rod MaKfbovos [sc. anno Seleucidarum 538»], TfrdpTi^ be erei 
TTjs Oarepov 'AXe^dvbpov tov Ma/xatas dp\fii, ttjs tQv Hepa-oiv /3acrtXetas e-niXajio- 
p-evif Tu ''Apra^dprj — Si^ri^orot xpovos ev avrfi ermv TtevTeKaibeKa, bvolv p.r)volv ev- 
beovToiv. These years do not precisely coincide. A. S. 538 commenced Oct. 
A. D. 226 ; the 4th of Alexander was terminated in Feb. A. D. 226. Abul- 
pharajius p. 80 has the following dates: Alexander: — anno hujus CcBsaris ter- 
tio, qui annus fuit Alexandri 542"*, incepit regnum Persarum ultimum quod 
Sasanidarum audit; duravitque 418 annos, viz. usque ad ortum et regnum 
Islamismi. These years are still more at variance with one another. The 
dynasty terminated at the era of Yezdejird June 16 A. D. 632 (see F. H. Ill 
p. 368) ; and 418 years will carry us back to June A. D. 214 A. S. 525, the 
4th of Garacalla, for the rise oi Artaxerxes. The 542nd year of the SeleucidcB, 
from Oct. A. D. 230, fell upon the 9th year of Alexander: Syncellus p. 360 B 
coincides with Agathias : "'ApTa^dprji 6 koi ' ApTa(ep^r)s hr] le', 7(3 rerdpru erei, 
TTJs l3a(nXeias 'AXe^di/bpov tov Ma/x/xotas. The first year of Artaxerxes might 
begin in the fourth of Alexander and be still current in A. S. 538. The fifteen 
years of Artaxerxes will terminate in A.D. 241, when Shahpoor or Sapor suc- 
ceeded him. 


980. Albinus et Maximus 
Nor. Idat. Cod. Justin, 
see col. 2. 

Sa/Bivos KOI Mcf^tfios A. 

'AA/3iai;oj koX Mafi/xi- 
vos B. 

Moguntise apud Gruter. 
p. 7- 3. J. 0. M. Jim. reg. 
Aulus Mu . . . Gatralis BF. 
leg. leq. XXI. . Alexan- 
K. ... Albino et M . ximo 


Inscriptio apud Noris. 
torn. II p. 1000. B. M. 
Sep. Victori nepotiSep. Jus- 
tus eq. sin. B.N. Aug. tur. 
Antiochi. avunculus nepoti 
B. me. Albino et Maximo 
cos. XVII Kal. Sej^t. 
Vixit a. XXXIII. 

Alexandri 6 from Feb. trib. pot. 6 from Kal. Januar. 

The transactions of Artaxerxes after the death of Artabanus are related by 
Dio 80. 3. eTxl TO, 'Arpa eTrearpdrevaev — Kal to fiev Tel^os bieppij^ev, (tv)^vovs be bfi 
t5>v (TTpaTuaT&v ef evehpas aTTofiaXtiiv eirl ttjv M-qbiav y-eTeaT-q- /cat eKeivrjs Te ov/c 
oXCya Kal ttjs TlapOlas to. piev fiia to, be koI <^o'^ft) TrapaXa^oiv em Ti]v 'App.ev(av 
^Aacre" KavTavOa irpos re rav iirixcaplcov /cat wpos MrjbMV tivQiv t&v Te tov 'Apra- 
l3dvov Tiaibcav TTTaCa-as, as p.ev nves Xeyov(nv, ecf)vyev, o)s 6' Irepot, dve)(d>pr\(Te Trpos 
■Kapa<TKevT]v bvvdpeas p.ei(ovos. All this was done between the defeat of Arta- 
banus and the consulship of Bio A. D. 229. And as these operations would 
require at least two campaigns, they confirm the date of Agathias ; and it 
appears from Dio that the death oi Artabanus and elevation oi Artaxerxes 
could not have happened later than in the fourth, year oi Alexander. 

Laws apud Cod. Justin. II. 19, 11 Herennice. pp. XII Kal. Februar. Al- 
bino et Maximo conss. VI. 37, 10 Imjenum. pp. V Kal. Februar. V. 16, 5 
Quintill(B. pp. Idib. Febr. II. 3, W Niece, pp. Ill Kal. Mart. II. 13, 10 
Gastice.pp. Ill Kal. Mart. II. 4, 5 Ecocato.pp. Kal. Mart. Albino et ./Emi- 
liano conss. II. 10, 1 Aurelim. pp. Kal. Mart. Albino et Maximo conss. VIII. 
26, 3 Tauro.pp. Ill Id. April. VII. 57, 3 Zotico.pp. VI Id. Sept. IV. 6, 2 
Asclepiadi. pp. XIV Kal. Bee. VIII. 47, 3 Artemidoro. pp. VI Id. Bee. 
IX. 22, 3 Cassio. pp. XI Kal. Januar. IX. 6, 4 Veronitiano. pp. VI Kal. 
Januar. IX. 22, 4 Maxims, pp. IV Kal. Januar. All, except II. 4, 5, have 
Albino et Maximo. 


981. T. Manilius Modes- 
tus Ser. Calpurnius Pro- 

Alexandri 7 from Feb. tr. pot. 7 from Kal. Januar. 

Death of tflpian : Dio 80. 2. 6 OvXmavos ttoXXo. piev t&v ovk 6p6&s v-nb tov 

R O M A N I 


3 Secular Authobs 

4 Ecclesiastical Authoks 

3 Imp. C. M. Aur. Sev. Alexand. Aug. +p. m. tr. p. V 

COS. II p. p. or liberalitas A ug. III. 

4 Imp. CcBS. M. Aurel. Sev. Alexander Jug. + Uberali- 

tas Augiisti III. 

In Cod. Justin, are 28 laws of A. D. 22fi. See Ap- 
pendix c. 1. 

dKowf, Tttpi iroXXoC irotfirat t^9 tov ivipbs dias i^iudij- 
vai. — ^77* ' AiiTio\(las ftjjro biarpC^ovva fifra orpoTiwnic^y 
hopvi^npLai avrbv dfaxoAcirat. nap fj \p6vov 8tarpii/ray — 
i-nX ras tTvvT)0(\i iaittvht Siarpt/Say. This visit was in 
the reign of Alexander and in the episcopate of Phi- 
letus, and therefore within A. D. 222 and A. D. 227 '• 
conf. a. 228. and when Mameea was at Antioch. But 
in the beginning of Alexander''s reign she was in Italy, 
and in Italy again in 228: conf a. 228. 2. Wo may 
refer this interview then to about A. D. 226. After 
this visit Origen returned to Alexandria; conf Euseb. 
H. E. VI. 23. and after this visit was ordained a 
presbyter: Euseb. Ibid, which happened in A. D. 228: 
conf. a.) 

After his return from this visit to Antioch, Origens 
Kteraiy labours on the Scriptures commenced : Euseb. 
H. E. VI. 23. <f iKflvov hi Koi 'Qpiyivfi t&v tts ras 
Qiia'i ypa(})as VTiopLvrjixdrcav iyfVfTO &pxVj ' hp-^poa-imi «is 
TO. fj.d\i(7Ta TiapoppMinos avTov k. r. \, conf. a. 235. 

Coins of A. D. 227 : Eckhel. torn. VII p. 272. 

1 Imp. C. M. Aur. Sev. Alexand. Aug. +p. m. tr. p. 

VI COS. II p. p. 

2 Imp. Cces. M. Aur. Sev. Alexander Aug.-'r p. m. 

tr.p. VI COS. II p.p. 

Hieron. Chron. Anno 2243 Alexancbri G" Geminianus 
presbyter Aniiochenus [conf. Hieron. Cat. c. 64], et 
Hippolytus [conf. a. 210. 222 Hieron. Catal. c. 61], et 
Beryllns episcopus Arabia Bostrenus clari scriptores 
hahentur. Idem Catal. c. 60. Beryllus Arahits Bostre- 
nus episcopus, cum aliquanto tempore gloriose rexisset 
ecclesiam, ad extremum lapsus in lueresim quce Ghrisium 
ante incamationem negat, ab Origene correctus, tcrtpsit 
varia opuscula, et maxinie epistolae in quibus Origeni 
gratias agit. — Claruit sub Alexandra Mamnusce filio et 
Maximino et Gordiano. Euseb. H. E. VI. 33. Bi^pvK- 
Xos — TOV iKK\i]<na<TUK6v TtapeKTptTTuv Kavopa ^iva ufh 
Trjs m(TT€<as Tiapudipipuv (itfLparo, rbv a-taTijpa xai Kvpiov 
r)y.S>v Kiyav toXjjmv firj 'npov(j)f<rravai Kar i&iav ova-Cas 
nipiypa(f>i]v irpb ttjs fls ai'Optoitovt iTSi&rip.las, fJ-rfif firjv 
dfOTTjra l5Cav tx*^'"* "^' (iJ.i!o\iTfvop.(vr]v avr<3 fwvrjv ttjv 
TiuTpiKrjv. iid rovTif TrAeiWuj' (■ni(TK6zmv ^jfr^o-«ij koI 6ia- 
\6yovs TTpos TOV avbpa ■ntTWi.rjjj.fvtiv, fxiff iTiputv napa- 
Kki)6i\s 'nptyivrji ndreKn fxev eh opakCav to, -np&Ta TcjJ 
&vbpl — \oyL(rp.£ re wf&ras Kal aTtobeC^d avaXafiaiv avTov 
— iTtl ri]V TTpoTfpav vyuj ^(av aTroKadurrqa-i. xal <pep€TaC 
yt (la-tTi iwv iyypai^a tov t< ^rfpvkKov koI riji bi aiirov 
y€V0fji4vr]s (Tvvobov — iKaoro t&v tots nt-npayixivav irfpii- 
XovTu. Conf. Socrat. H. E. III. 7. 

Origen a presbyter: Euseb. H. E. VI. 23. Oip^avov 
ii:uTKOT!fvcravTa Tjjs 'Pciifxaicov iKK^rjaCai iTea-iv 6kto) bia- 

I 1 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

bus Nor. Idat. A. Cod. 
Justin, see col. 2. 

MoSeoTOs j3' Koi Upo- 
/3os B. 

Tabula lapidea apud 
Gruter. p. 300 : conf. a. 
202. Budse in Hungaria 
apud Gruterum p. 169. 7 
Panvinium p. 370. Schola 
specuhionim legionum I et 
'II Adjutricum Piaruin 
Fidelium Severianartim 
refecta per eosdem quorum 
noniina infra scripta sunt 
dedicante Fl. Aeliano leg. 
Aug. pr. pr. Kal. Octob. 
Modesto et Probo cos. 

'2,aphavaiTa.\ov Trpa\94vT(>iv eir-qvcipdoiae' Toy be 8r/ i>\aj3Mvov rov re Xpi](TTov airo- 
KTiLva^, Lva avTovs biabi^rjTai, koL avrbs ov ttoAAu vcmpov v-nb tQ>v bopv(p6pb>v firi- 
dffj.ev(i>v ol vvKTO'i KaTfa-cpdyrf KaC roi /cat vrpos ro TiakaTiov avahpapZiv koX TTpbs 
avTov Tov avTOKparopa ti]V re fxr^ripa avrov Karacjivyaiv. — Koi 6 'ETrdyoflos, is Kal 
aiTins r<o OvXT:iav(f tov oXiOpov -nXiov yivop-ivos, ts re AlyvTrrov &)s ap^cav avTrjs 
fTTiiJ.(pdri, "va /XT) riy iv rfj 'V(ap.rj KokacrOivTOi avTov rapaxr] yiv7)Tac KUKeWev is 
KpT]Tr]v a.Tra\dih eSt/caiu^?;. Zosimus 1 . 1 1 . 'AAe'f arSpos— €7rtoT?jcras v-napyovs t^ 
avKfj <Pka^Mvbv koL XprjcTTov — MajxaCas be ttjs tov ySacriXe'cos jxrjTpbs einaTqadcrqs 
avTo'is OvkTTiavbv eTiLyvu>p.ova koX Sxr-nep Koivtavbv ttjs ap)(7Js — ein tovtm bv<T-j(epa- 
vavTes avaipetTiv avTti p-r^^favSivTai. Xa&paiav ot (TTpaTL&TM. alaQop.evrj's be tovtov 
MapLaia^, Koi 8.ixa tw <p6daai ttjv eirCOecnv tovs tuvtu l3ov\ev(TavTas dveXowr^s, 
Kvpios Trji t&v vTrdp^aiv dp)(^s OvXiriavbi KaOCcTTaTai p.6vos' iv viTO'^iq be tois 
(TTpaTOTTebois yev6p.evos — avaipevrai aTaaeas KivrjOeCarjs, ovbe tov ISaatXeas apKe- 
aavTos avTiS Trpos ^oijOeLav. Noticed by Syncellus p. 357 D. Lampridius Alex, 
c. 51 relates his danger upon former occasions: Alexander — Ulpianum pro 
tutore habuit, primum repugnante matre deinde gratias agente. quern swpe a mili- 
tuin ira objectu putpuree summ(S de/endit. This event occurred in A. D. 227 or 
228. Probably before Ap. 11 A. D. 228, when Sossianus ia prtef. preet. 

Laws: Cod. Justin. V. 62, 9 Romano. pp. Kal. Feb. VII. 66, 3 Ulpio. pp. 
VI Id. Mart. V. 29, 3 Sossiano pf. p.— pp. Ill Id. April. X. 5, 1 ad Her- 
miam. dat. XV Kal. Mail. V . 3G, 2 Valentiniano. pp. V Id. Jim. VII. 21,4 
Martiano. pp. V * Jun. VI. 2, 7 Data. pp. Idib. Jun. III. 1, 4 Popilio. pp. 
Kal. Aug. I. 54, 2 Dedmio pf. p. Dat. XIII Kal. Sept. IV. 29, 6 Torquato. 
pp. VI Id. Oct. All these Modesto et Probo conss. 

Coins of the seventh tribunician year : Eckhel. torn. VII p. 272. 

1 Imp. C. M. Aur. Sev. Alexand. Aug. 

2 Imp. Cms. M. Aur. Sev. Alexander Aug. 

3 Imp. Sev. Alexand. Aug. 

4 Imp. Sev. Alexander Aug. 

All these have on the reverse p. m. tr. p. VII cos. II p. p. 

5 Imp. Sev. Alexand. Aug. + liberalitas Aug. I II I. 

6 Imp. Sev. Alexander Aug. + liberalitas Augusti I I II. S. C. 


01. 252 U. C. Varr. 982 

M. Aurelius Severus Alex- 
ander Augustus III et 
Cassius Dio II Die 80. 5 
Cod. Justin, see col. 2. 

Alexandro III et Dione 
Nor. Idat. A. Cod. Just. 
II. 13,11. 

^evrjpos Koi 'AXe^avbpos 
Kal ACav 13' B. [forte 1. 
^evfjpos 6 KOL ' AXe^avbpos] 

Tabula lapidea apud 
Gruter. p. 300 : conf. a. 

Alexandri 8 from Feb. tr. pot. 8 from Kal. Januar. 

Alexander''s third consulship : Laraprid. Alex. c. 28. Consulatum ier iniit 
tantum ordinarium ; ac primo nundino sibi alios semper suffecit. His colleague 
was the historian Dio : see col. 3. 

The transactions of the preceding seven years, between February A. D. 222 
and Jan. 1 A. D. 229, are briefly told by Die 80. 2. 3. Ke^aXaicduas ravTa ova 
ye Kol ju.e'xpt t^s bevTepas fxov VTrareCas eTrpayOr) biriyr]( These are, Alex- 
anders marriage ; the divorce of his wife ; the tumults at Rome ; the death 
of Ulpian (conf. a. 228) ; the rise of Artaxerxes (conf. a. 226) ; his attempt 
upon Atra ; his invasion of Media and Parthia ; his repulse from Armenia 
(conf. a. 227). 

Alexander in this year is in Italy : see col. 3. 

Laws : Cod. Justin. V. 43, 3 Fortunatw. pp. Id. Januar. II. 41, 1 Mutato. 
V Id. Mail. II. 13, 11 Sebastiano. pp. prid. Id. Mail VI. 35, 6 Venusto et 
Clemeniino. pp. XV Kal. Jul. V. 62, 10 Crispino. Dat. Id. Aug. II. 12, 13 

R O M A N I 


3 Secular Authors 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

vos [Iliuron. Cliron. Anno 2214 Alexandri 7" [A. D. 
22 j] undecimus Zebennus]. Kad" oiy 6 'ilpiyivr)s i-ntiyov- 
(Tqs XP^'os iKK\j)(Tia(TTU(ov (vexa TTpayfiirtav iitl rifv 'E\- 
Xiba OT«i\a/x<t>os rrjv bia noAatiTTiiT/s iipfiTJSvTfplov \(l- 
poOtvlav iv Kaia-apfL^ irpos iS>v Tjfit (TtuTK6ini)v &veOiafi- 
j3iv(i, Hieroii. Catal. c. 54. Cum jam medicB esset 
aitatis et propter ecclegias Achaiee — suh tegtimonio ecch- 
siasticee ephtolcB Athenas per PaUestinam pergeret, a 
Theodisto et Alexandra Cmsarem et Hierotolymormn 
epincopis preshj/ter ordinatiis Demelrii offendit animum ; 
qui tanta in emn debacchatus est imania ut per totum 
mundum super nomine ejus scriberet. Two synwls were 
held against Origen, described by Eusebius in his De- 
fence of Origen: iv ru bevripia fjs vnip avTov ■nciroiriiitda 
&-!iokoylas H. E. VI. 2.3. from whence Photius Cod. 1 18 
has preserved some particulars : ras be Kara 'ilpiyevovi 
/ctrijo-fij (KfWtv K^yovcriv iKpvrjvai. Ar]p.riTpioi 'AAffav- 
Spei'as iTTevKOTifL, hs 'D,pi.y(vqv bi iiralvwv ti^e koI is 
Tovs (j)i,\TaTovs cvviTaTTtv. dXA' ^Q.pLyivr\s fxiKKiav imal- 
pfiv eis 'Afl^raj \(iip\s r^s rov olKfiov yv<Lp.r\s iTucrKoTsov 
els -npea^vTipov ov beov ivafii^dCeTai, k. t. A. — Tpe'irtrat 
8ta TovTO Ar]p.riTp{(f els p.l(Tos to (f>iKrpov kcI ol Irairoi 
Trpoy Tovs xlfoyovs. Kal avvobos &.6pol^erai Kara ''ilpiytvovs 
iTH(TK6i:<i)V KaC twcov tipev^vTiptav. rj bi, its 6 ndij.<pi\6s 
<l>r)(TL, \{rq({)l((Tai fjLeTaarijvat. p.ev airo ' AKe^avbpetas rov 
'ilpiyevriv — Ti}s p.ivToi tou tspeafivrepLov Tiixrjs ovbapMs 
aTTOKenvrjcrdai. dAA' o ye Aij/i^rpios &pM ti,<tiv iTturKoirois 
AlyvnrCots /cat ttjs lepooTvvrjs &T:(Kr)pvle. Origen quitted 
Alexandria in A. D. 2.31 : conf. a. 

Fontianus is bishop of Rome A. D. 231 — 237 in 
Eusebius H. E. VI. 23—29. A. D. 231—239 in Eu- 
sob. Chron. A. D. 234—239 in Hieron. Chron. A.D. 
231 — 235 in the liber pontificalia ascribed to Dama- 
sus. For the testimonies see Appendix. Origen might 
be ordained presbyter within the time of Zebinm, but 
his ordination preceded the election of Pontianm. 

Dio Cassius between the accession of Alexander in 
February A. D. 222 and his own second consulship 
Jan. 1 A. D. 229 had been in various governments: 
80. 1 Ti}v iv rfi 'A(f>piKjj [conf. a. 222] — eTraveXdiiv re 
is lijv 'IraXCav evOeas, its eliretv, es re ti;i' Aa\p.aTCav, 
KCLvrevOev es r-qv TlavvovCav rt^v oro) S.p^a>v iT!ep.<\>6r]v. 
49. 36 p.eTa. Tr/v iv tt} 'AtppiKfj iyyep-oveiav rj) r« AaA/ia- 
ria, T/s TiOTe koI 6 Tian^p p.ov \p6vov nra Tjpfe, Kat tt) 
Tlavvovia rfj &vo) Ka\ovp,em] T!po(reTd\6rtv. In this go- 
vernment he excited the jealousy of the Syrian army : 
80. 4 ToXfirja-uL — ipik alnda-aa-OaL on t&v iv tt; Uavvo- 
vCq (TTpaTuoTiiv iyKpar&s Tjpia, Kal ^^oiTTJcrai <})Oj3ri0ivTas 
p,r] Kal iKeCvovs tls 6p.oCa>s Toty VlavvoviKOis dp^eaOai 
KaravayKda-T]. After his second consulship he retired 
to Bithynia: 80. 5 6 ''AKe^avbpos — aAAtos re lcrep.wvi 
fxe Kol bexnepov vvaTevaovra avv avria dvebei^e — Kal iKe- 

Euseb. Chron. Anno 2247 Alexandri 8» Origenes hoc 
tempore in sckola versabatiir Alexandrite. In Hierony- 
mus Anno 2245 Alexandri 8". The year 2247 com- 
menced in October A. D. 231, in the 10th year of 

The works which Origen composed at Alexandria 
at this period are named by Eusebius H. E. VI. 24. 
iv T(5 Iktu t&v els to kuto. 'ladvvrjv i^ijyrjTiKHv (rr]p.aCvft 
Ta ■nporepa Tievre iis '' AXe^avbpeias er ovra avTov <tvv- 
rd^ai — Kara be to ivaTov rStv els rqv Yeveaiv {batbeKa hk 
i<TTl TO. TrajTtt) ov p-ovov TOVS Tpo To€ ivdTov biikol i-nl r^y 
^ AXe^avbpeLas VTtep,vr]p,aTla-6at dK\a xal els tovs irpciTovs 
be Ke' \jraXpL0vs' eri bi to. els tovs Op-qvovs — iv ols pepivr]- 
Tai Kal Tb>v TTepl dva(rTd<Te(os. bvo b' etrrl koI ravra. ov 
p.r]v aXXa Kal to. irepl dpx&v Tipo rf/s &it ' A\e^avbpeias 
pLeravaa-Tda-ems ypd<pef koI roi/s iTTLyeypapp.ivovs nTpa- 

I i 2 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

Juventio. XI 11 Kal. Novemb. ipso A. Ill et Dionysio [lege Dione II] conss. 
V. 54, 4 Frontim. pp. VIII Kal. Nov. VIII. 41,11 Salustio. pp. VII Kal. 
Nov. IV. 19, 4 Vito. pp. Kal. Nov. V. 17, 1 Abutinianee. pp. Nonis Nov, 
III. 38, 2 EuphrateB. pp. XVI Kal. Bee. VIII. 34, 1 Nicotce. pp. XIV Kal. 
Dec. V. 37, 8 Aprili. pp. VII Kal. Dec. V. 21, 1 Pohjdemo). pp. Dat. V 
Kal. Dec. IV. 31, 6 Pollidenti. pp. Dat. Kal. Dec. II. 3, 11. IV. 47, 1 
Capitoni. pp. Non. Dee. III. 28, 12 Liciniano et Diogeni. pp. Non. Dec. V. 
15, 2 Papiniance. pp. Non. Dec. V. 16, 6 Nepotiano. pp. Non. Dec. VII. 45, 4 
Severn, pp. XV Kal. Januar. All, except II. 12, 13 and II. 13, 11, have 
Alexandro A. Ill et Dione II conss. 

Coins: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 272. 1 Imp. Sev. Alexand. Atig. 2 Imp. Sec. 
Alexander Aug. Both have on the reverse p. m. tr. p. VIII cos. Ill p. p. 
3 apud Eckhel. torn. VIII p. 437- Imp. Sev. Alexand. Aug. j-p. m. tr. p. VII 
COS. Ill p.p. On tr.p. VII with cos. Ill see the remark of Eckhel. 


983. L. Virius Agricola 
Sex. Catius Glementinus 
Gruter. (see col. 3.) Nor. 
Pont. Cod. Justin, in 18 
laws : see Appendix c. 1 . 
Agricola et Clemente Idat. 
Cod. Justin. VII. 10, 3. 
VIII. 41, 12. IX. 22, 5. 
UpuTKiXXiavbs KoX 'AypiKO- 
Ados A. B. 

Alexandri 9 from Fd>. tr. pot. 9 from Kal. Jamuar. 

Coins: Eckhel. tom. VII p. 273. 1 Imp. Sev. Alexand. Aug. 2 Imp. Sev. 
Alexander Aug. Both having on the reverse p. m. tr. p. Villi cos. Ill p. p. 
3 Imp. Sev. Alexand. Aug. Julia Mamcea Aug. mater Aug.+p.m. tr.p. Villi 
cos. Ill p. p. " Figura militaris tenens clypeum super columella cui inscriptum 
Vat. X." 4 Imp. Sev. Alexand. Aug. + victoria Augusti. a Victory bearing a 
shield inscribed Vot. X. 

See Appendix c. 1 for 21 laws apud Cod. Justin. 


984. Pompeianus et Pe- 
lignianus Nor. Idat. A. 
Pont. Cod. Justin, see 
col. 2. 

Pompeiani et Pelagiani 
liber pontificalis Damasi 
apud Acta Concil. torn. 1 
p. 641. 

Pompeiano et Feliciano 
Prosp. Cassiod. 

Ko/io8oy KOX YlfKiyvMvos 

Alexandri 10 from Febr. trib.pof: 10 from Kal. Januar. 

Persian war. It had not yet commenced in A. D. 229, for Dio 80. 4 at that 
dale relates of Artaxerxes ovtos re ovv ^o/3ep6s j^'" ey^vfTo, (TTpaTivfiarC re 
TToAAo) ov novov TTJ M e(ro7rora/x^a aK\a koI tj) Svpta icpebpivcras koI aii€i,\&v ava- 
KTrifTeaOaL irdira, <ay Kal irpoa-qKovrd ol (k Ttpoyovav oaa. Tiore ot TidKai Ufpa-ai 
ixexpi rfji 'EW'qvLKris daKaa-ar]s ecrxpv. And was concluded in A. D. 233, when 
Alexander triumphed: conf. a. 233. This expedition is described by Lam- 
pridius Alex. c. 50. Iniit Parthicam expeditionem — who relates the sedition of 
a legion at Antioch : c. 53. and a halt of 30 days : c. 54. Alexander — cam 
legionem quam exauctoravit rogatus post dies XXX, priusquam ad expeditionem. 
Persicam projicisceretur, loco suo restituit. 

Coins: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 275. 1 Imp. Sev. Alexand. Aug. 2 Imp. Sev. 
Alexander Aug. 3 Imp. Alexander Pius Aug. All with^. m. tr.p. X cos. Ill 
p.p. 4 Imp. Alexander Pius Aug. + votis vicennalibus. 5 Imp. Sev. Alexander 
Aug. + prof ectio Augusti. S. G. 6 Imp. Alexander Pius Aug. -'r victoria Aug. 
These two last seem properly referred by Eckhel, though upon conjecture, to 
this year. A seventh, bearing Imp. Sev. Alexand. Aug. + victoria Aug., is of 
more uncertain date ; since •' extant numi primo Alexandri anno percussi cum 
epigraphe et typo Victoria), etsi ipse in urbe turn adhjcserit." Eckhel. 

Laws apud Cod. Justin. II. 27, 1 Viliis. pp. V Kal. Feb. VIII. 45, 11 
Clementi.pp. Non. Feb. IX, 34, 1 Alexandro. p p. V Id. Feb. VI. 2, 8 Va- 
lentino, pp. X Kal. Mart. VI. 37, 11 Albiniam. pp. V Non. Mart. VIII. 
28, 5 Sossiano. p p. XII Kal. Aug. V. 1 1, 1 Claudio. p p. Kal. Aug. III. 
22, 1 Aurelio Aristocrati. pp. Xl'll Kal. Sept. II. 49, 1 Licinio. Dat. XIII 
Kal. Oct. V. 36, 3. V. 62, 1 1 Hylm. p p. VIII Id. Dec. IV. 19, 3 Lecena et 
Lupo. p p. V Kal. Januar. All dated Pompeiano et Peligniano conss. 

R M A N I 


3 Secitlae Authors 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

\fvaev 1^0) TT/y 'Pcifxrjs iv r^ 'IroA^a irov 8iaTpi\/foi tcJi- r^j 
VTiareias XP*^"""- '*"'' "t/Tw /xera rawa Is rt r^v 'Pdixijv 
Kol is Trjv Kaiiiraviav wpoy avTov i^XOov koI avvbiarpCyj/as 
Tii'&s Tjix^pas aiiTif — ainjpa olKabe, ■napiy.ivos ivi t% tUv 
iroboiv appbi<TT[q. uxrrt ircliTa tov Xoiirov rov ^lov yjtovov 
iv TJj varpihi (ffaai,. 80. 1 is r^v 'V<!>p.i]v Kal h rrjv 
Kafiiravlav atfiiKofJLfvos irapaxpiijtia oiKabi i^ii>p[iri6r)v. — 
Henoo the transactions of this reign were less known 
to him : Ibid, aypi^m iT:(£(\d(lv ovx. oloi re iyti/opLriv 
bia TO lit} im Tto\vv \p6vov iv t^ 'VdpLji biarpl^ai. Pho- 
tius Cod. 7 1 Tfjs 'AippiKrjs y'lyepLOveva-ev, fira TlavvovCas 
»}pfe, Kal VTiareva-as to bfirtpov oficaSe Aw^pf . 

/iorety, ovras t6v ipiOnbv 8<'(to, IttI r^y atrrfis TrJXfuy (cara 
T^v 'AXt^dvbpov (rvvrdrrd ^amXtiav. All those works 
wore composed before A. D. 231, when he quitte<I 
Alexandria, and after A. D. 226, when he returned 
from Antioch. Conf. a. 226. 

Lapidea tabula fastorum pontificalium apud Gru- 
terum p. 300. 1. (conf. a. 202. 1.) L. Virio Agricola 

Sex. Caiio no III in locum A. Terenti Pvr 

d...isQ.Te. . . . ium Melio ..m.. optatum P. R. G. an. 


Aspasius flourished r Philostr. V. S. II. .S.'i. 'Ao-Trti- 
<TU)v bk TOV o-o<^i(TrT)i' 'Pd^evva p,ev ijvtyKfv — Aij/ijjTptai'os 
bi 6 TTUTijp iiTaCbev<T(v. — iroXvixaOrji 6 'AaTrdcrios koI tto- 
Xv^Kooy — ?)\6e be km, eiri TioKka liji yf/s /xe'pjj /8a(rtX«i re 
(wmv 'Wf^dvbpm nal Ir^pois bi ^vdv. He was secre- 
tary to Alexander: Ibid. p. 028 TtapiKOiav is tos fia(Tir 
Ktlovs iTTi.(TToKds. Alexander was still in the East 
A. D. 2H0— 2.«, in Gaul A. 1). 234 (conf. annos); 
which determines the time of Aspasius who attended 
him. Aspa»iti^ was the di8ci]Jo of Pausanias of Cap- 
padocia and of H'ippodromiis : Ibid. p. (528 Uavaaviov 
fiiv ovv iJ.adr)Tr}s 6 'A(nrd<Tios, '\intobp6ixov 6« [conf. a. 
195] ovK dvi^Koos. He presided in the professor's chair 
at Rome: p. 027 irpoilo-TTj bi tov Kara Tjjr 'Pdfitjv 0p6- 
vov, vfdCbiv fjLfv fvboKtixdTaTOs yr]pd(TKWv bi fxev ^vv ahla 
TOV p.!) haCpio diroffn^i'tti ^ovKtadai. He was still living 
when P/tilostratus wrote : p. 028 iiraCbevae Kara Tr)v 
'Pcofjr/v 'iKavas yijpdiTKOiv ottots jnot rovro iypdtfxTO. 

Aspasius was at variance with the other Philostra- 
ius : V. S. II. 33 p. 027 '/ '"'pos '■«'' Arip.viov <t>i\ooTpa- 
Tov [conf. a. 213] tuj ' Aanratrii^ bi.a<popa I'jp^aTO p.(v diro 
TT/y 'P(ap.r}s iTTtbaiKe bk iv 'lavia, iiib Ka<T<TMVov t( koI 
Avpr]Kiov tS>v (To<\)i<TTiav ai^rjdeia-a. 

Suid. p. 014 13. 'A<nroo-toy Arip.r)Tpiavov tov KpiTiKov 
Koi p.adrip.aTiKov,, 'Paj3(vvaios, o'o<^t(m;y. yeyoruy iirl 'A- 
\f(dvbpov TOV MapaCas. — ^KpodotiTO bk Uava-avCov (tat 
'iTTTTobpopov, /cat iao(f)CiTTfV(rfv iv 'P<ip.Ti, biai!pt\lfas fiixpi 

Ori(fm at Csesarea : Euseb. H. E. VI. 26. 2?. Iroy 8' 
r\v TovTo biKUTov TTJs brjXovpfvrjs fiy<pLovCas [sc. Alexandri 
Severi] Kaff h T7)v iir ' AKf^avbptCas pfTavdcrravLV iirl ttiv 
Kaiadpfiav 6 ''ilpiyivrjs itoir)(TdpL(vos 'HpaicXa to T^y kott]- 
XJiiTetas t&v avrddL bibaa-KoXflov (caToXfiTref ovk fls ndxpov 
bk Kol ArjprjTpios 6 T^y ' A\f^avbpi(i)V iKKKrjcrCas (■ndaKCKOs 
TfkiVTa [sc. A. D. 233: conf. a.]. — bUirpt-nf bk iv tovt(o 
^ipp.tXiavbs KaurapfCas tt\s KaiTTTaboKoiv imtrKOTtos' to<t- 
avTTiv dadyuv Tie pi tov 'U.piyivr]v (ntovbi]V uy Tork p.kv 
avTov dp(pl TO. Kar aiiTov (cAt/xaTa — ^ic»caX«t(T5at TOTk bk 
i>s avTov i-nl rjji; 'lovSa^af areKKfcrdat — ov pir)v aWh xal 
6 Tfjy 'lfpo(roXvfx<«2' Trpotorwy 'AXtfardpoy ©to'irriaTo'y Tf 
6 KUTa Kaiadpfiav tov irdvTa xpdvov, us (iros ttiifu), 
■wpoa-avixovres avTi^, ola biba(TKd\<f jiioVo), to T^y t&v 
OeLoiv ypacpdv IptirjveCas — Trpdrrfti' (nivf^dpovv. Hieron. 
Catal. c. 54. Quantce autem ploriee fuerit hlnc apparel, 
quod Firmilianus Gccsarem episcopus cum omni Gappa- 
docia sum invitamt &c. I'hotius Cod. 118. t^vyaibtv- 
Qfvra bk ttjs ' Ahe^avbptCas tov 'Slpiy4irt]v [conf. a. 228] 
QfOTfKvos 6 IlaAatoTti'jjs daptivus Te bidyfiv iv Kaurapua 
vir«5e'faT0 Kai rov bibdaKtiv itaa-av i^ovcrlav ivfxfipitrf. 
Placed by Hieron. Chron. Anno 2248 Alexandri 1 1«. 
Origenes de Alexandria ad Geesaream Pal<Bstinee tnuuit. 
By Euseb. Armen. Anno 2253 Maximini 1". A mcta- 
chronism of four years. 

Origens removal from Alexandria is touched upon by 
Gregor. Neocaes. Panegyr. p. 57 B, who forbears- to men 
tion the causes : aiTtoXoyeio-flai ovTi olba koX kKuiv Trapr/o-M 





1 Consuls 

985. Lupus et Maximm 

Nor. Mat. A. B. Prosp. 
Cod. Justin, see col. 2. 

Ad Rhenum circa Colo- 
niam Agrippinam apud 
Gruter. p. 8. 6. J. 0. M. 
et Genio loci L. Hilarinius 
Amahilis BF. Cos. pro se 
et suis V. S. L. M. Lup. 
et Maximo cos. 

2 Events 

Alexandri 1 1 from Feb. trih. pot. 1 1 from Kal. Januar. 

Campaign in Mesopotamia: l.amprid. Alex. c. 55. Magna igitur apparatu 
inde [from Antioch] in Persas profectus Artaxerxem, regem potentissimum vicit. 
— Fuso denique fugatoque tanto rege — statim Antiochiam rediit et de prceda quam 
Persis diripuit suum ditavit exercitum. The particulars of his success are 
mentioned by Alexander himself in his speech to the senate apud Lamprid. 
c. 56" after his return in A. D. 233. 

A coin of this year: Eckhel. tom. VII p. 275. Imp. Alexander Pius Aug.+ 
p. m. tr. p. XI COS. Ill 2J.p. 

Laws: Cod. Justin. I. 21, 1 Caperio. Dat. Kal. Mart. VI. 35, 7 Vitalice. 
pp. Id. Mart. VII. 75, 2 Si/mphoriana. pp. X Kal. Jul. VIII. 43, 2 Bassce. 
pp. Kal. Jul. II. 42, 1 Cononidi. — pp. X Kal. Oct. V. 16, / Theodotee. pp. 
Kal. Oct. VI. 23, 3 Antigono. pp. XI. Kal. Januar. All are dated Lupo et 
Maximo conss. 

233 01. 253 U. C. Varr. 986. 
Maximus et Patemus Nor. 
Idat. A. B. Prosp. Cod. 
Justin, see col. 2. 

Alexandri 12 from Feb. tr.pot. 12 from Kal. Januar. 

Triumph of Alexander : Lamprid. Alex. c. 56. 57. Post hoc Bomam 
triumphoque pulcherrims ado apud senatum primum hcec verba habuit. Ex Actis 
senatus VII Kal. Octobr. " Persas, P. C, vicimus^'' &c. — Dimisso senatu, Capi- 
tolium ascendit, atque inde re divina facta — concionem hujusmodi habuit : " Qui- 

rites, vicimus Persas, milites divites reduximus, vobis congiarium polUcemur^'' 
&c. The triumph and the congiarium are marked on the coins of this year 
apud Eckhel. torn. VII p. 276. 1 Imp. Alexander Pius Aug.+p. m. tr.p. 
XII COS. Ill p. p. 2 " adversa incerta." +^. m. tr.p. XII cos. Ill p. p. The 
emperor standing between two rivers is crowned by Victory. 3 " adversa 
incerta."+^. m. tr. p. XII cos. Ill p. p. The emperor in a triumphal chariot. 
4 Imp. Alexander Pius Aug. + liberalitas Aug. V. or liberalitas Augusii V. S. G. 

For the errors of Herodian VI. 2 — 6 in the time and circumstances of this 
war, see Appendix c. 1 . 

Laws: Cod. Justin. II. 43, 1 MawimiancE. pp. XII Kal. April. VIII. 
17, 5. VIII. 18, 5 Septimio. p p. Ill Kal. Maii. VI. 36, 1 Mocimo et aliis. 
pp. Ill Kal. Jul. II. 34, 1 Valenti. Bat. VI Id. Jul. VI. 50, 8 Aurelio p p. 
Id. Sq)t. V. 16, 8 Leoni. pp. V Kal. Oct. III. 26, 4 Maxima-, pp. IV Id. 
Oct. V. 43, 4 Thalidee. pp. VIII Kal. Jan. All Maximo et Patemo conss. 


987. Maximus II et Ur- 
banus Nor. Idat. A. B. 

Alexandri 13 from Feb. tr. pot. 13 from Kal. Januar. 

German war : Lamprid. Alex. c. 59. Post hcBC quum ingenti amore apud po- 

R O M A N I 


3 Secular Authoes 

Plufinm hears Ammonius: Porphyr. V. PI. c. 3. tl 
KOdTov 6^ ical 6yhoov <tos avTov iyovra [conf. a. 205] 
6pfii]<Tai iirl (l)i\o(To<l>(ai', koI toij t6t( Kara rrjv AKf^dv^ 
bpeiav fvboKi.iJ.ova-1 avcjTaOfvra KwrUvai iK rijs &Kpoa(r«i>i 
avT&v (canjc^TJ koI Avtttjs irKrjpri, is xaC nvt r&v (jiCKaiv 
Sir/yeiaflat & Ttacr)^(i. toi> hi avvivra avrov r?js i/'i^X'?* ''^ 
fiov\r]p.a CLTTfviyKai Trpos ' Ap.ix(oviov, ov p-rfbiiTm TreirfCpaTo. 
riv §6 fl(TeKd6vTa — (pdvaL Trpos rov halpov " Tovtov i^rj- 
TOW." Koi Att' ^(ceu'jjy ttjs J/fif'pas (mvex'i'y Tip "'ApLp.oivufi 
Ttapayiivovra TO<javTr\i> i^LV iv (^iAo(TO(/)1^ Kn^rracrOai. ij 
Kal TTJs irapa toij fleptrais ^wtrjjSevo/xeVtjs TTfipaj' Aa/Seii' 
(T7rev<rat /cat ttj? irap' 'IvSoiy KaTopOoviiimj^. Ho remains 
eleven years with Ammonitis: conf. a. 242. Nemesius 
p. (>!) ApLfKaviov Tov 8i6ocrK<iAou nXojr^j'ov. Anmiian. 
XXII. IG, Hi Saccas Ammonius Plotini magider. 
Suidas p. 21!) A ^ Ay,y.(!>vi.os (^tAo(TO(^o9, 'AXefarSpei/y, 6 
^irt/cATjOeiy Saxicay. oCroy CtTro \pi(mavov ytyovev "EWrju, 
&s <t>r]a-i riopf/jvptoy. Ammonius began to teach within 
the reign of Commodus : Theodoret. Therapeut. VI 
p. 869 = 25!) ed. Oxon. Kofiobor iirl tovtov bi 'A/i/iiw- 
vtos & iiriKKr^v SoKKoy tovs iriKKOvs KaraKmiav — tov (Jh\6- 
<TO(pov rjn-Tida-aTO (SCov. rovra <f>oi,Tfj(Tal (}>a(Ti, koI 'ilpiyivrjv 
TOV rjixfTepov [on this mistake conf. a. 24-1] km. nAwri- 
vov. Amirumius might flourish cir. A. D. 190 — 244. 


Gregory of Neoeeeaarea is the disciple of Origen: 
Euseb. H. E. VF. 30. t(J) b\ 'ilpiyivti (m t^s Kaio-apfi'os 
— TToAAol TTpo(ri'it(rav — oii; firitr^/iovy lidXinra tyvrnpifv 
&(6b<i>pov, 8y TJir avTOi oSroy 6 Kaff ^j/as iiruTKOTTuv bia- 
^o'rjroy Fpryyoptoy, t^v Tf avTov abeK<f>6v ' A6riv6ba>pov oti 
&ix<pl TO, 'Ekhrlvuv Kol 'Vb)iial<i>l> yjid-qyMTa bftv&i fTtrorf- 
liivovi, (f)i\o(ro(piai avroiy ivOds iptoTa, T^y irporepay 
(movbiii TJ/K Odav &.(TKr)cn,v vnniKaTokKd^acrOai Ttpovrpi- 
\jfaTo. TtfVTi b\ oAoty (TfffiD ovT(j) avyytvoiiftoi Toaavrrjv 
i.T:r]v(yKavTO T!€pl to. dfia fitKrCuxriv m tri viovi iy.^ 
iTTKTKOTTTJs Tuv KOTO TlovTov iitKKi](Ti<ii> a.(ui>0rjvai. Hie- 
ron. Catal. c. 65. Theodorus qui postea Gregorius appel- 
lotus est, NeoccBsarecB Ponti eprscoput, admodum ado- 
hscens — de Gappadocia Ben/tum et ind« Ceesaream Pa- 
leestince transiit jundo sibi fratre Athenodoro. Quorum 
cum egregiam indolem mdisset Origenes, hortatus est &c. 
— Quinquennia itaque eruditi ab eo remitiuntur ad ma- 
trem. Gregory himself mentions 8 years: Panegjr. 
p. 48. oKTafTTjy ^loi \p6vos ovtos ijbri — He relates that 
at the ago of 1 4 he lost his father : ovri T«TtTap€(rKat- 
b(Ka(Tfl p. 55 D. that he was sent to Berytus : p. a/- 
that in his way thither (p. 58) ho came to Ca^.sarea 
and remained with Origen : p. 58 B. Otlos th (rvvoboi- 
Tj-o'poy KOI TTo/xTToy dyados koX <^vAaf — irapafi€t\/fd/x«roy t6, 
re ciAAo Kal Trjv Brjpvrbv — ivTavOa [CsesaresB] (jt^pav 

Birth of Porphyry: conf. a. 263. Eunapius V. S. 
p. 13. JJopcpvpCa Tvpoy /xev ijv irarpty — ical Trarspey 6^ ovk 
Hcrqiwt. Tvx^v be rrjs TrpotrrjKovcr-qi itaibdai dvd re ebpap.e 
Too'ovTov Kal iirfb<i)K(v w Aoyyivov i\v dKpoaTTi]^. — 
Mc£A)(oy bi KaTo. tijv ^vp(t>v TioKiv 6 flop^vptoy fKa\(iTo 
TO. TTp&Ta' tovto bl bvvaTai, jBa<n\4a X4y(LV. Conf. Por- 
phyrimn ipsum V. Plot. c. 1/. Davides in quinque 
voces Porphyrii apud Crouzer. ad Vitam Plot. p. ci. 
n\<iiTCvov p.a6r]Ti)s yeyovm 6 Flopc^uptoy e(r)(f jxaOriTiiv 
'laiJ.I3\i)(ov TOV XaXKib^a. XoAKiy be roAty ecrzl 2vpCai. — 
Ivdovi 6 Sv'poy, TroKvp,adrii 6 (poCvi^, f-ntibti ''lap.^Ki)(os 
niv i6eo\6yr)(rev dpioruy evOovcriaffOeh, ovtos bi 6 Oop- 
</)vptoy iroAi/jiia^e'oTaroy yiyovev. 

Heraclas succeeds Demetrius : Euseb. H. E. VI. 26. 
OVK els pL^Kpov be [not long after the 10th of Alexander] 
Kal Arjpn'iTpios 6 ttjs ' AKe^avbp^aiv eKKKrfalas eitixTKOTtoi 
TeXevra, e(f oAoiy eretri Tpicri Koi TecrrrapiKOvra Ttjv A<i- 
Tovpyiav biapKeaas. biabe^eTai 6' avrov 6 HpaxAdy. 
Idem Chron. Anno 2250 [from Oct. A. D. 234] Alex- 
andri 11» Alexandrinca ecclesice duodecimus Heraclas 
[male Hercules] annis XVI. In Hieron. Anno 2246 
Alexandri \)«. Heraclas had been the disciple of Origen 
(conf. a. 203) and then his coadjutor: Euseb. H. E. 
VI. 15. TOV 'HpaKAap rStv yviapCpioiV ispoKpivas, ev Te roiy 
Oeioii (TTtovbaiov koX clAAwy ovra KoyianaTov dvbpa Koi 
(f>i\o(To<j)Cas OVK apLOipov, kowodvov KadCarri r^y Kar»;x'i'''*<*y' 
He had studied five years under Ammonius: conf. a. 
206. and was in great reputation in the time of A/ri- 
canus, before A. D. 221 : conf. a. Origen in A. D. 231 
left him at Alexandria: conf. a. 

Dionysius succeeds him in the Catechetical school : 
Euseb. H. E. VI. 29. 'HpoKASy r^j; keirovpylav -napei- 
\ri(f>ev, Trjs bi Ttiv avroOi KaTri)(rj(reu>s njf 8iarpi/3i)j' 6io- 
b^Xerai Aiovvaios, els Kal ovtos t&v ^Q,piyevovs yevofievos 
(poirqT&v. Hieron. Catal. c. 69. Dionysius — suh He- 
racla scholam KaTri\t'ia-ea>v presbyter tenuit, et Origenis 
valde insignis auditor fait. 

Coins: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 277. 1 -''«/'• Alexander 
Pius Aug. +p. m. tr.p. XIII cos. Ill p.p. or profectio 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

Prosp. Cod. Justin, 
col. 2. 


pulum et senatum viveref — ad Oermanicum helium profectm est. — Erat autem 
gravissimum reipublicce atque ipsi quod Germanorum vastationibus Gallia diri- 
piebatur ; pudoremque angebat quod metis jam Parthis ea natio imminebat rei- 
publicce cervicibus. — Magnis igitur iiineribus, Icetis militibus, contmdit. Victor 
Cses. p. 330. Xerxefagato in Galliam — contendit. His march to Gaul may be 
placed in the close of this year. 

Laws: Cod. Justin. II. 19, 14 Mutiano Bufo. pp. X Kal. Mart. V. 46, 1 
Brutice. pp. Ill Id. Mart. I. 40, 1 Juliano. Dat. VI Kal. Apr. IV. 34, 1 
Mesteno. p p. VII Kal. Jul. All dated Maximo II et Urbano conss. 


988. Severua et Quintianus 
Nor. Idat. Pont. Prosp. 
Cod. Justin. I. 26, 2 liber 
pontiiicalis apud Acta 
Concil. torn. I p. 641. 

no^777jVaj'6s KOI Kvi/Tia- 
vos A. 

"Siivrjpoi KOi MoKcrtai'os B. 

Alexandri trib.pot. 14 from Kal. Januar. 

Alexander slain : Lamprid. Alex. c. 59. 60. Agentem eum cum paucis in Bri- 
tannia, ut alii volunt, in Gallia, in vico cui Sicila nomen est — occiderunt. — Im- 
peravit annis XIII diebus IX. Vixit annis XXIX mensibus III diebus VII. 
Egit omnia ex consiUo matris, cum qua occisus est. Lampridius is confirmed in 
the duration of his reign by a contemporary chronicle : see col. 3. Victor 
Epit. p. 379. Imperavit annos tredecim — percussori cervices prcebuit anno vitcB 
vicesimo sexto. Victor Cses. p. 330. Agentem casu cum paucis in vico Britannice 
cui vocabulum Sicila trucidavere. — neque ultra annos XlII imperio functus &c. 
Euseb. H. E. VI. 28. Tpialv heaLv em b^Ka. Idem Ohron. Anno 2252 Alex- 
andri 13" Alexander occiditur Moguntiaci. Orosius VII. 18. Aurelius Alexander 
XIII annis. — Sed militari tumultu apud Moguntiacum interfectus est. Cassiod. 
Regnavit annos XIII. — occiditur Moguntiaci. Chron. Pasch. p. 268 D. irr] 
ly. — forcfxxyr^ ev MoyovnaKw, &>v h&v X'. Syncellus p. 358 B. 359 A. Itjj ly. — 
p.tTa TTjV — Kara Uepcr&v fvhoKip.r)(TLV eTraveXOwv iv Pwfirj avaipilrai aiiv iJ.r]Tpl 
Manixaia ev MoyoiTia/cw. Herodian names 14 years: VI. 9. fiaaiXivcravTa erecri 
r«(rcrap ecr (cat's EKo. VII. 1. erav TeacrapeaKalbeKa. Called the 14th year current 
VI. 1. eis T((T(Tapf(TKaLbfKaTov eAacras Trji ^atriXela's iros. Herodian VI. 9 is fol- 
lowed by Anecd. Paris. Cramer tom. II p. 49. Eutropius inaccurately VIII. 
23. Periit in Gallia militari tumultu tertiodecimo imperii anno et die VIII. 
which would mean 12 years and 8 days. His 13th year was completed about 
Feb. 1 A. D. 235. The nine days will place his death at Feb. 10. The death 
oi Alexander in the beginning of A. J). 235 is consistent with the Alexandrian 
coins oi Maximin: conf. a. 237. 

According to Herodian he was four years younger than Elagabalus : conf. 
a. 221. which would make him 27 at his death. Lampridius and the Paschal 
Chronicle, who reckon him in his 30th year, will leave only the difference of a 
year in their ages. For Elagabalus was 18 in February A. D. 222, and was 
therefore born in 204. Alexander is called 30 current in February 235, and 
is therefore born in 205. But this is less consistent with their history. And 
if his birthday was Oct. 1 (conf. a. 221), the months and days in Lampridius 
are also inaccurate ; for from Oct. 1 to Feb. 10 four months and nine days 
had elapsed of the current year, and his age may be called 27^' 4"' 9''. 

A coin oi Alexander : Eckhel. tom. VII p. 278. Imp. Alexander Pius Aug. 
+p. m. tr. p. XIIII COS. Ill p.p. " Numi cum hac trib. potestate non infre- 
" quentes." Eckhel. 

Coins of Maximin: Eckhel. tom. VII p. 290. 1 Imp. Maximinus Pius Aug. 
+p. m. tr.p.p.p. or liberalitas Aug. or votis decennalibus. 

Coins of the son of Maximin: p. 297. Jul- Verus Maximus Cces.+pietas 
Aug. or principi juventutis. 

Cod. Justin. I. 26, 2 Idem A. [sc. Alexander] Bestituto. Dat. Idib. August. 
Severo et Quintiano conss. To bring this within the life of Alexander, for 
IDIB. A VG. we may read ID. lANVAB. 

R M A N I 


3 Seculae Authors 


Atigusti. S. 0. 2 Imp. Alexander Pitu Aug. Julia Ma- 
mwa Aug. mater Aug.+pro/ectio Augusti. " Hi numi 
"ad prsesontein in Gennanos profectioiiom rovocandi 
" visi, quoniam additur Pii nomen." Eckhel. On this 
name conf. Eckhol. p. 281. 

An anonymous Chronicle apud Hippolytum Fabricii 
p. 49 — 59 ends at this date. Called in some copies 
Collectio historica chrcmographica ex anonymo qui sub 
Alexandro Severo imp. vixit, collectore Gallo quodam 
Caroli Magni temporibus. In another Chronologi ano- 
nymi qui sub Alexandro imp. vixisse A. C. 23(» dicitur 
lihellus sen Ckronicon de divisionibus et generationihus 
gentium. The last year of Alexander is called hunc 
diem in the Chronicle p. 49. 56. The original author 
therefore, whether Hippolytus or some other, lived in 
the time of Alexander. Among the periods given in 
the Chronicle are these: From Adam to the Flood 
2242*. From Adam to the Call 338/*. p. 50. 53. 
p. 55 : A generatione Christi usniie ad pasmnem anni 
XXX el a passione iisque ad hunc annum qui est 
XIII imperii Alexandri annux anni GGVI. Fiunt 
igitur omnes anni ab Adam usque ad XIII Alexandri 
imp. annum anni VMDCGXXXVIII. Thus placing 
the Nativity at A. M. 5502. p. 56 : Sunt omnes Olyni- 
piades usque annum XIII Ahxandn Gmsaris Olympia- 
des GGLIII quod sunt anni MX II. The Roman em- 
perors are thus given p. 58: Avavsrvs annis LVII. 
Tiberius an. XXIl mem. VII diebUa XXIII. 
Caiub a. Ill m. IX. Claudius a. XIII m.I d. 
Galea m.V d. XXVI. Otho m. VIII. d. VII. 
ViTELLius m. IX d. XV. m Titvs a. Ill m. II 
d. IL * Trajavus a. XVII m. VIII d. VL Ha- 
DRiANus a. XX m. X d. XX VIII. AtiTomnus Piva 
...m. VIII d. XXII Marcus a. XIX m.Vd. XII. 
CoMMODus a. XII m. VIII d. XXIV, ^lius Per- 
TiNAX m. VII. JuLiANua m. II d. VII. Seferus 
a. XIV. Antoninus — a. Vim. IX d. II. Macri- 
Nus a.I d. VL Antoninus a. Vim. VIII d. XX VIIL 
Alexander annis XIII diebus IX. He probably 
reckoned the 206 years from the Passover in the 15th 
of Tiberius A. D. 29, which was the true period to the 
death of Alexander in Feb. A. D. 235. He is there- 
fore right in the whole period, although wrong in 
many parts of the details of these reigns. 

Aurelius Pkilipptis after this date composed the life 
o{ Alexander iSeverus : conf. a. 220. 

's Martyrio : Euseb. H. E. VI. 28. Maf t- 
ixlvof—iiuyiibv iytCpai [conf. Hieron. anno 2252 Eu- 
seb. anno 2253 Prosper, coss. Maximino et A/rieano] 
Toiii tQ)V iKKKr]<ri(ov SpxoiTas /movovs — ivaipturOat Trpoo'- 
rdrTfi,. t6t€ koI 'ilptY^irqs rbv Ylepl naprvpUw (rwriTTU, 
'A/x/3/)ocruj) Kol nprnroKTriTif •npfv^vripia r^y iv Kaurapfiq 
irapoiKLas i.vaO(U rci avyypay^ut: 3ti hi] ifufm irfpioroo-ty 
oux 17 rv\ov(Ta iv tm 6ib>y^ KaT€iKrj<f>ft. Ambrosius was 
the disciple and fnend of Origen: Hieron. Catal. c. 56. 
Ambrosius primum Marcionites deinde ab Origene cor- 
rectus ecclesics diaconus et amfessionis Dominicm gloria 
insignis fuit. cui et Protocteto presbytero liber Origenis 
de Martyrio scribitur [conf. Origen. tk fxaprvp. c. 1. 36]. 
Bujus industria et sumptu et instantia ad hunc infinita 
Origenes dictavit volumina. Sed et ipse, quippe tU vir 
nobilis, non inelegantis ingenii fuit ,• sicui ejus ad Ori- 
genem epistoles indicia sunt. Obiit ante mortem Origenis 
[conf. a. 246] ; et in hoc a plerisque reprehenditur quod 
vir locuples amid sui senis et pauperis moriens non re- 
cordatus sit. Idem c. 61. Hippolytus — in hujus <emti- 
lationem Ambrosius, quem de Marcionis hceren ad veram 
fidem correctum diximus, cohortatus est Origenem in 
Scripturas commentarios scribere, prccbens ei septem et 
eo amplius notaries eorumque expensas, et librariorum 
parem numerum ; quodque his majus est, incredibili stu- 
dio quatidie ob eo opus exigens. unde in qvadam epistola 
(pyobMKTrjv eum Origenes vocat. Conf. Euseb. H. E. 
VI. 18. ' ApL^pocTLOi TO, TTJi OvoXfirrlvov (Ppovuv alp^ctias 
■npoi lijs vno 'ilpiyivovi ■npfcrpevoft.iirqs dAjjdf I'os iK^yxt- 
Ttti K.T.X.. VI. 23. 'Ap.ppo<rCov (Is rh fioAiora trapop- 
pMVTOi avTor — &<})dovci)T&Tcus T&v (virrfi(C<av \opr]yiats' 
TaxyypcufiOi. yap ovru TT\fCovs 1} iTira tov it.ptdp.ov •napr\(Tav 
vnayopivovTi — ^\wypd<poi. t( oi^ ifnovi k. t. K. Ac- 
cording to Photius Cod. 121 Origen applied the term 
fpyobuiKTTjs to Hippolytus, to whom is ascribed what 
is here told oi Ambrosius. 

Origen addresses Ambrosius in many tomes of his Com- 
mentary on St. John : as torn. I : Vol. 1 p. 8. torn. II: 
Vol.lp.89. <OTn.F/; Vol.1 p.175. tow. A'///: Vol. 2 p. 1 . 
tom. XX: Vol. 2 p. 193. torn. XX VIII : Vol. 2 p. 309. 
torn. XXXII: Vol. 2 p. 3/7. He composed tom. XXII 
after this date: Euseb. H. E. VI. 28. o-eoTjjie^arai tovtovI 
TOV buoypov TOV Kaipbv Iv re tJJ k0 t&v fh to Kara ^l<i>dv- 
vr]v (^riyr]TiK<av /cat iv biaf.opois iinaToXals 6 'ilpiytvtji. 





1 Consuls 

2 Events 


989. C. Julius Verus 
Maximinus Aupustus et 

Cod. Justin. II. 3, 13. 
V. 12, 6 Prosp. Cassiod. 
C. liber pontilicalis apud 
Acta Cone. torn. I p. 647 

Maximo et Africano Nor. 

Maximo III et Africano 

riepirerovoj koI 'A((>pi.Ka- 
vos A. 

Ma^VH-os Koi "'Acjipijuavos 

Maximini 2 from Feh. tr. pot. 2 from Kal. Januar. 

Victories of Maximin in Germany. Marked in the coins of this year by 
the name Germanicus : Capitolin. Maximino c. 1 2. Mirandum apparatum belli 
Alexander habuit ; cui Maximinus multa dicitur addidisse. Ingressus igitur 
Germaniam tramrhenanam per GGG vel CGCG millia [per CGC'C millia Ger- 
manorum vicos incendimus Ibid.] harharici soli vicos incendit &c. Eutrop. IX. 1 
Bella adnersus Germanos feliciter gesto. Victor Caes. p. 33 1 Haud incommode 
prcelio gesto contra Germanos. Herodian. VII. 2 nAvTa tov arpaTov avaXa^cov 
Kol 8ia/3as a^6j3(as Trjv yfcfivpav etxero ttjs wpo9 roiis Fepixavovs p-axn^ — eSijou re 
ovv vao-av ttjv \iipav, fidX-icna t5>v Xrfitav aKixaCovrav, k. t. X. Orosius VII. 19 
inaccurately: Imperator ab exercitu postquam bellum in Germania prosper e ges- 
serat creatus. For the coins of A. D. 235 are without the name Germanicus, 
and Maximin was occupied after the death o{ Alexander by the conspiracy of 
Magnus and the revolt of the Syrian soldiers: Herodian. VII. 1 Capitolin. 
Max. c. 10. 11. The summer then of his German campaign noticed by He- 
rodian {Xrjtav aKjxa^ovTiov) was the summer of A. D. 236. 

Coins of this year : Eckhel. torn. VII p. 291. 1 Imp. Maximinus Pius Aug. 
+p. m. tr.p. II COS. p.p. or victoria Germxinica. 8. C. 2 Maximinus Pius 
Aug. Germ.-\-p. m. tr.p. II cos. p.p. or victoria Augustorum. S. G. 

Laws: Cod. Justin. II. 3, 13 Imp. Maximinus A. Mario, p p. V Id. Jan. 
V. 12, 6 Sulpicio. Dat. Ill Id. Febr. Both Maximino A. et Africano corns. 


01. 254 U. C. Varr. 990. 

Perpetuus et Cornelianus 

Nor. Idat. B. Prosp. 

n&y KoX Kopvr]\Lavds A. 

Lapis apud Gruter. p. 
23. 10. J.O.M. V. V.L. 
Gar. pro salute sua et suo- 
rum Jul. Aur. Decorat. 
dec. col. Aq. Fla. Jul. 
eedil. et M. Aur. filiorum 
S. dec. col. A quern. V. S. 
L. M. Perpetuo et Gorne- 
liano [bene emendant pro 
Goriolano] cos. VIII Idus 

Maximini 3 from Feb. trib. pot. 3 from Kal. Januar. 

Maximin after this campaign winters at Sirmium: Capitolin. Max. c. 13. 
Fuerunt et alia sub eo bdla plurima, ex quibus semper primus victor revertit. — 
Pacata Germania, Sirmium venit, Sarmatis inferre bellum parans. Herodian. 
VII. 2 )((iiJ.5>vos ijbrj KaraXajxIBavovTOi ivavfjXdfv ds Ilaiovas, (v t€ 2ipixCu> Sta- 
Tpi^ijv, rfj fxiylaTTi (ku iroXfi boKOvcrj), to, TTpbs Trjv (Xaobov ds to tap ■napfcrKtvA- 
fero. Salmasius ad Capitolin. Max. p. 250 alters CCG vel CGCG millia [conf. 
a. 236] into XXX ml XL millia : " ilia enim millium summa nimis immanis 
" videtur." But as Sirmium is 600 miles from the Rhine, where Maximin 
entered Germany, it is evident that the numbers in Capitolinus are right ; 
that Maximin ravaged 400 miles of country ; and that he employed two cam- 
paigns in his German wars before he wintered at Sirmium. 

An inscription of the 3rd tribunician year apud Gruter. p. 158. 6. In via 
Ulyssipone Emeritam versus : Imp. Gees. Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus Pius 
Felix invictus Aug. pant, max. pater patriee tribunicice potestatis ter cos. Ger- 
manicus max. Dacic2is max. Sarmaticus max. et C. Julius Verus Maximus nobi- 
lissi. Gasar princeps juventutis Germanicus max. Dacicus max. Rarmaticm max. 
imp. Gees. Cai Juli Veri Maximini Pit Fel. Aug. kc.—flius. IIII. 

R O M A N I 



3 Seculae Authous 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

Apsinea of Gadara — 'A\fflin)i 6 <PoCvi£ Philostrat. 
V. S. p. C28 — flourished in tho reign of Maxhnin : 
Suid. p. f)!)8 A. "'AyjrCvrji rabapeiii, <TO(f>i(rTr]i, (Tirapth (iy 
\6yos) ^K riaros y-aOr^Tixxrat hi (v l.y.vpvTj 'WpaKXdh] t<5 
AvfciM, tlra Ba(riA(f((^ iv ^iKop.r]bfCq, i<TO({>C<rr(v<r(v 'A^jj- 
vrjai fiamKtvovTos Mafi^iarou [lego cum Kustero Mafi- 
IxCvov], vTTauKov \a/3dii' dfioi/za. fho preceptor of Cai- 
anus, who flourisiied in tho reign of Gordian : Suid. 
p. 788 C. Vdiavoi 'ApijBio's, (TO(/)toT7)s, p.adr]Tr]i 'Ax/^iVov 
Toi) FaSapfuy rjv hi ivC re Mafi^oi^ [Ma^ipLWov Kust.] 
(tat FopStorotj. Upon this passage Kuster ad Suidiun 
V. 'A^Cvrji rightly founds his correction of MofifiiVou 
for Ma^ipnavov. Apsines with Nicagoras and Philo- 
stratus of Lemiios was the friend of Phihstratm the 
author of Vit. Soph. conf. a. 213. Which again jus- 
tifies the emendation of Kuster. 

FaMamus bishop of Rome succeeds Anterot : Pont, 
apud Bucherium p. 27 1 et liber pontificalis Damasi 
apud Acta C'oncil. tom. I p. 611. 6-17- 653. Pontianut 
annis V memibm II diebus VII. Fuit temporibus A- 
lexandri a conmlatu Pompeiani et Peligniani fconf. a. 
228]. Eo tempore Nepotianus [Poniianm liber Damasi] 
episcopm et Ilippolytus presbyter ettuks sunt deportati 
m instdam nocivam Sarainiam Severo et Quintiano coss. 
In eadem' insula discincttis est IV Kal. Oct. et loco ejus 
ordinatus est Anteros XI Kal. Dec. conmUbut SS. [Nov. 
21 A. D. 235.] Anteros mense uno diebus decern [diebm 
XII DamasusJ. Dormit III Non. Januar. Maximo et 
Africano coss. [Martyrio coronatur temporibus Maximini 
et Africani considum liber Damasi.] (sc Jan. 3 A.D. 
236.) Fabiamis annos XIV mensem unum dies X. 
Fuit temporibus Maximini et Gordiani et Philippi, a 
consulatu Maximini et Africani u.tqu« Decio II et Grato. 
Passus est XII Kal. Febr. [Jan. 21 A. D. 250.] Eu- 
sebius H. E. VI. 29 inaccurately places Anteros in the 
reign of Gordian: rophi.avov—TT]v rjytiMvLav liab(ia\i(- 
vov, ^oimavov hi,ahi)(tTai 'Arr^pus, xat tovtov ^afiiavos 
iitl fiTJfo rfi hfiTovpylq. biaKovrjcrdiufvov. And Hierony- 
mus Chron. Anno 2254 Gordiani l" RomtB XVIII 
ordinatur Anteros mense uno &c. And Prosper: Per- 
petuo et Comeliano coss. In Euseb. Armen. at the 
right year of Maximin, but the wrong Eusebian year : 
Anno 2254 Maximini 2". 

A coin of A. D. 237 : Eckhel. torn. VII p. 291. 
Maximinus Pius Aug. Germ. + p. m. tr. p. Ill cos. 

Coins of the son of Maximin: p. 298. Maximus 
Gcssar Germ. + pietas Aug. or victoria Augustorum. 
S. C. Belonging to A. D. 236 or 237. 

The Alexandrian coins of Maximin bear the years 
o'. |3'. y. 8'. apud Eckhel. torn. IV p 87 torn. VII p. 
28.4. But his 1th year in Alexandrian computation 
commenced Aug. 29 A. D. 237, because the 2nd year 
of Gordian III was reckoned at Alexandria from 
Aug. 29 A. D. 238 : conf. a. 243. The Alexandrian 
years then of Maximin are 

L0 commencing Aug. 29 A. D. 235. 

Ly' Aug. 29 A. D. 236. 

L6' Aug. 29 A. D. 237, 

current at the death of Maximin. The death of 
Alexander is accordingly thrown back to some date 
in 235 preceding the end of August; agreeing with 
the accounts which place it in February of that 





1 Consuls 

2 Events 


991 . Pius et Pontianus 

Nor. Idat. Cod. Justin, 
see col. 3. 

For Censorin. c. 21 see 
col. 3. 

Topbiavbi koL Ylovnavos 

Pio et Proculo Prosp. 
Casslodor. B. 

Maximini trib. pot. 4 from Kal. Januar. 

The Gordians are proclaimed after the third year of Maximin was com- 
pleted: Herodian. VII. 4. (rv\xT!\.r\pov\xivr]s oiT<S Tpierovs /3ao-tXeiay, ex fxiKpas koX 
(VTeXovs TTpocfxiafODS, ola TVpavviboi <T(f>d\p.aTa, ■npa>Toi OTrXa fKiirqa-av (s Te airo- 
(TTaTiv (va-TaO&s &p\xr]<Tav Ai/Sves k. t. A. Confirmed by coins bearing trib. pot. 
IIII, which demonstrate that his fourth tribunician year had commenced 
(Jan. 1 A. D. 238) before the Gordians were acknowledged by the senate, conf, 
Eckhel. tom. VII p. 294. Maximin hears the news in his winter quarters at 
Sirmium: conf. Herodian. VII. 2. 8 Capitolin. Maxim, c. 13. 17- and in five 
days is on his march to Italy: Herodian. VII. 8. After the death of the 
Gordians M. Clodius Pupienus Maximus and D. Ceeliws Balbinus are appointed 
by the senate: Herodian. VII. 10 Capitolin. Maxim, c. 20. Maximin hears 
of this second appointment on his march at Hemona: Capitolin. c. 21. Hero- 
dian. VII, 12 avva-as Trjv obonopiav eiTfCTTr] roiy rqs ''IraXCas opois. COnf. VIII. 1 
(TiiaTTjaav ■nptitrr} 'IraAtas ■noKn rjv KoXovcnv 'Hp.av. — about 240 miles from Sir- 
mium. and arrives before Aquileia (60 miles from Hemona) when the snow 
had melted from the mountains : Herodian. VIII. 4 ras 8t' oX.ov tov x.^ip.S)vos 
Tiayflaas xi'Ovas \vovcra fj rov hovs copa. After some time spent in the siege of 
Aquileia (conf. Herodian. VIII. 2 — 5 Capitolin. c. 21^23), Maximin is slain 
with his son Maximus: Herodian. VIII. 5 Capitolin. c. 23. Pupienus receives 
the news at Eavenna : Herodian. VIII. G Capitolin. c. 24 Max. et Balbin. c.l 1. 
Intelligence of the death of Maximin was carried in four days from Aquileia 
to Rome : Capitolin. Ma.vim. c. 25 . On the return of Ptipienus to Rome after 
celebrating the Capitoline games — (iriTekovixivov ay&vos tov tSiv KaTT€T(a\[<av 
Herodian. VIII. 8 (which were in this year: conf. a. 86), he is slain with 
Balhinus, and Gordian III is proclaimed by the soldiers : Herodian. 1. c. 
Capitolin. Max. et Balb. c. 13. 14. 

Norisius apud Pagium tom. I p. 221 (with whom Pagi agrees) acknow- 
ledges genuine coins of Maximin bearing trib. pot. IIII, and refers his death 
to spring " verno tempore'" A. D. 238. Pagi p. 222 supposes the deaths of 
Pupienus and Balbinus before the end of May : " ante finem mensis Mail 
interfecti.'" Eckhel tom. VII p. 295 places the events between the beginning 
of March and the end of July. He supposes that the Gordians were pro- 
claimed " initio Martii" and slain in April ; that Maximin was slain " medio 
Maio" and Pupienus and Balbinus " exeunte Julio." But as Maximhi's fourth 
year commenced Feb. 10 (conf a. 235), and as Cod. Justin, names Gordian III 
at June 22, we may place the elevation of Gordian III about 40 days earlier 
than the date of Eckhel. We may thus arrange the events of this memorable 
year. The Gordians were proclaimed in February ; were slain in March (after 
\m Qd gee Casaubon. ad Capitolin. Gordian. c. 16); Pupienus and Balbinus 
were appointed in March, Maximin reached Aquileia in April, was slain in 
the beginning of May ; Pupienus and Balbinus were slain and Gordian III 
proclaimed about the middle of June. All the events might happen between 
Feb. 10 and June 15. Pupienus and Balbinus have 3 months in Chron. Pasch. 
p. 269 A. f/Sao-t'Aevo-e BaX^ifos p.rjvas y koX ea-(j)6.yri. — TlovirKios ^jxe'pas p koI 
iacpdyr]. The 100 days for Pupienus are not exact. Both were appointed 
together and both perished together. Three months for both are consistent 
with the facts. Maximin has three years (in which the Gordians Pupienus 
and Balbinus are included) in Euseb. H. E. VI. 28. ov -nkdovos r\ r/jieroCs xpovov. 
three years also in Euseb. Chron. Chron. Pasch. Cassiod. Isidor. Orig. V. 39 
Victor Epit. p. 380 Anecd. Paris. Cramer Vol. II p. 54 Jornandes Get. c. 15. 
Capitolin. Max. et Balb. c. 15 Per trlennlum ; alii per blennium. Eutrop. 
IX. 1 Im2)eraverat trlennlo et paucls dlebus. Oros. VII. 19 teiiio qiiam 

R O M A N I 


3 Secular Authohs 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 


Cemorini de die natali : c. 21. Hie annus, cujus velrtt 
index et titulim quidam est Ulpii [forte Pit] et Pontiani 
consulatus. To tliia year he refers all his dates : Ibid. 
Conf. F.H. IIIp.xvi. 

The history of Herodian ends in this year at the 
accession of Gordlan III : VIII. 8. (5 8« FopSiavos irepl 
try] TTov yeyovm rpia-KaCbexa avTQKp6.T<ap re iiV€hii)(6r) kolI 
TT]v 'PaixaCoiu apxh" ored^faro. Herodian is quoted by 
Capitolinus Albino c. 1. 12 Maximino c. 13 Max. et 
Balbin. c. 15. 16 by Lampridius Diadum. c. 2 who 
censures his account of Alexander Alex. c. 57- Quoted 
with Dexippxis by Trebell. XXX c. 32. 
Coins of A. D. 238. 

I Of Maximin. Eckhel. torn. VII p. 292, 1 Maximi- 
nus Pius Aug. Germ. +^. m. tr. p. I II I cos. p. p. 2 Maxi- 
minws et Maximus AugvMi Germanici+p. m. tr.p. II II 
COS. p. p. It is attested by Eckhel torn. VIII p. 437, 
who gives these specimens^ that coins with tr.p. IIII 
are " certae fidei nequo infrequentes." Some have S.C. 
conf. torn. VII p. 294. 

II Of the Gordians: p. 302. Imp. C. M. Ant. Gvr- 
dianus Afr. Am.+p. m. tr.p. cos. p.p' or concordia 
Aung, or proviaentia Augg. ov Romce. atemw. or secu- 
ritas Augg. or virtus Augg. or victoria Augg. 

III OfBalbinus: p. 305. 1 Imp. Ctps. D. Gael. 
Balbinus Aug. + amor mutuus Augg. or caritas mutua 
Augg. or fides mutua Augg. or pietas mutua Augg. or 
Uberalitas Augustorum. or patres senatus. or votis de- 
ceimalibus. 2 Imp. C. D. Gael. Balbinus Aug. + p. m. 
tr.p. COS. II p. p. 

IV Of Pupienus : p. 306. 1 Imp. Gees. M. Glod. 
Pupienus Aug. 2 Imp. Gcbs. Pupien. Maximus Aug. 
With the same inscriptions on the reverse as the coins 
of Balbinus have. 3 Imp. G. M. Glod. Pupienus Aug. 
+ Balbinus Aug. Gordianus G<ss, 

V Of Gordian III: p. 309. 1 M. Ant. Gordianus 
Gees. +pietas Augg. After the deaths of Pupienus and 
Balbinus the following: 2 Imp. Gcbs. M. Ant. Gordi- 
anus Aug. + Uberalitas Aug. or votis d^cennalibus. 

In Cod. Justin, among the laws bearing Imp. Gor- 
dianus A. Pio et Pontiani conss. are the following : 
V. 70, 2 Avitio. p p. Kal. Januar. We may read 
pp.* Kal. Januar. marking some day in December. 
VII. 43, 2 Severo. IV Kal. April. Where the date 
may be corrected to some later month; as IV Kal. 
Aug. The other laws are all within the reign of Gor- 
dian : II. 10, 2 Rogato militi. p p. ^ Kal. Jul. a few 
days after his accession. IX. 1, 8 Gaio militi. pp. 
XVII Kal. Aug. V. 51, 5 Victorino. p p. X Kal. 
Aug. VI. 3, 11 Africano. pp. Ill Non. Aug. II. 
22, 2 Alexandro. p p. VIII Id. Aug. II. 20, 3 Gaio. 
pp. VI Id. Aug. VIII. 28, 6 Rogato. pp. XIII Kal. 




I Consuls 

2 Events 

regnabat anno. Victor Cjes. p. 331 hiennium summis potitis — repente Gordianm 
princepsfit &c. — Maximinorum imperio ad hiennium per hujusmodi moras annus 
quessitus. Hieronymus places the death of Maximin in the right year : Aniw 
2253 = A. D. 23|. His reign to the beginning of May might be 3? 3™ or 


992. M. Antonius Gordi- 
anus Augustus et Aviola 

Nor. Idat. B. Prosp. 
Cod. Justin, in 68 laws : 
see col. 2 and Appendix. 

Sa/Sifo; TO /3' icat Kopj't- 
Ktavos A. 

Ad Rhenum apud Gr li- 
ter, p. 8. 7. In H. D. D. 
J. 0. M. et Genio loci M. 
Ingenuius Ingenuinus BF. 
cos. pro se et suis V. S. L. 
M. F. Kal. Aug. Imp. 
D. N. Gordiaim Aug. et 
Aviola cons. 

Apud Lactoratenses : 
Gruter. p. 30. 4. S. M. D. 
Val. Gmnina vires exscep- 
sit Eutychetis IIII Kal. 
April, sacerdote Trajanio 

Nondinio Dno nro Gordi- 
ano et Aviola coss. 

Gordiani 2 [from June] trib. pot. 2 from Kal. Januar. 

Gordian at his elevation about the middle of June A.D. 238 was thirteen 
according to Herodian : conf. a. 238. 3. with whom Victor agrees: conf. a. 
244. He was born in January : Natales Csesarum apud Bucherium p. 27(>. 
Divi Gordiani XIII Kalendas Fehruarii. Repeated p. 281. By this account 
he might complete his 13th year Jan. 20 A. D. 239. Capitolinus Gordian. 
c. 22 records other accounts : Fopulus et milites Gordianum parvulum, annas, 
agentem ut plerique asserunt XI, ut nonnuUi, XIII, ut Junius Cordus dicit, 
XVI {nam XXI I" anno eum perisse asserit), petiverunt ut Cecsar appellaretur 
[conf. Herodian. VII. 10 Capitolin. Maxim, c. 20] : raptusque ad senatwm atque 
inde in condone positus — Cecsar est appellatus. Hie natus est, utplures asserunt, 
ex jilia Gordiani [Victor Epit. p. 380 nepos Gordiani ex fiUa. Herodian. 1. c. 
Tr/s Yophiavov Ovyarpoi TfKvov]. — Gordianus igitur Cwsar factus apud matrem 
educatus est. Et quum, extinctis Maximinis. Maximus etiam et Balhinus militari 
seditio?ie interempti essent, — Gordianus adolescens, qui Gcesar eatenus fuerat, a 
miUtibus et populo et senatu — Augustus est appellatus. 

Coins: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 310. 1 Imp. C(ss. M. Ant. Gordianus Aug.+ 
liberalitas Aug. II. or p. m. tr.p. II cos. p.p. 2 Imp. Gas. Gordianus Pius 
Aug. + liber alitas Aug. II. or p. m. tr.p. II cos. p. p. 3 Imp. Gordianus Fius 
Fel. Aug. +p. m. tr. p. II cos. p.p. 

Laws: Cod. Justin. V. 14,3 Imp. Gordianus A. Torqicatce. Dat. VI Id. Jan. 
Gordiano A. et Aviola conss. V. 31, 7 Dionysio. pp. VI Id. Jan. II. 13, 13 
Luciano militi. Ill Id. Jan. VI. 35, 8 Tatia. p p. XV Kal. Feb. V. 62, 
13 Apollinari. p p. X Kal Feb. VIII. 57, 2 Zoilo. pp.X Kal. Feb. III. 
28, 13 Prisciano. p p. Ill Kal. Feb. V. 71, 2 Clearcho et aliis.pp. Ill Kal. 
Feb. VIII. 43, 6 Alexandra, p p. Ill Id. Feb. III. 32,5 Herasiano. p p. II 
Id. Feb. III. 42, 5 Sabiniano militi. p p. II Id. Feb. IV. 21, 4 Martiano. 
Dot. II Id. Feb. IX. 1, 9 Severice. p p. VI Non. Mart. VIII. 45, 12 Phi- 
lippo. p p. VII Id. Mart. VI. 20, 4 Marino, p p. IV Id. Mart. V. 64, 1 
Guttia. p p. Id. Mart. VIII. 14, 8. VIII. 27, 1 Festo. p p. Id. Mart. VIII. 
26,B Maximo, pp. Ill Non. Apr. Y.'JO,'ii Aurelice. pp.VII Id. April. VI. 
58, 2 Tatiana et aliis. pp. VI Id. April. VIII. 26, 4 Aquilino. pp. XI Kal. 
Mail. VII. 18, 1 Proculo. p p. Kal. Maii. 

At V. 5, 1 is the following : Idem A. [sc. Alexander] rationalibus. Dat. 
Kal. April. Antiachice Gordiano A. et Aviola conss. This is inaccurate for two 
reasons. In this year Alexander was not emperor, and Gordian was not at 
Antioch. The consuls are probably inserted improperly ; and this law might 
be issued from Antioch by Alexander in some former year. See Appendix for 
other laws of A. D. 239. 

Inscriptions: 1 Apud Panvinium p. 373 Gruterum p. 272. 1. Romie : 
. . p. Gmsari .... onio Gordiano . . . Felici invicto Augusta pontif. max. trib. pot. 
II COS. procas. p. p. Numisius Quintianus V, P. ah epistulis Latinis devotus nu- 
mini majestatique ejus. 

2 In aula principis Transilvanise apud Gruter. p. 272. 2. Imp. Gees. M. An- 
tonio Gordiano Pio Felici Aug. pontif. max. trib. pot. II cos. p. p. colonia Ulpia 
Traj. Aug. Dacic. Sarmiz. metropal. dicatissima numini majestatique ejus. 

R M A N I 


3 Secular Aitthobb 


Sept. V. 1 1 , 2 Ilerodoto pf. p. p p. XII Kal. Sept. 
All these before Aug. 2!) A. D. 238, when his second 
year began at Alexandria: conf. a. 243. See Appendix 
for .SJ) other laws of Gordian issued Sept. 1 — Dec. 26 
A. U. 238. 

Phtlostratm composed the /3ioi <to<^i.(ttS>v when Aspa- 
siug, who attended Alexander cir. A. D. 230 — 234, was 
settled at Rome in the decline of life : conf. a. 23 1 . 
Pkilostratus himself had been in Gaul in A. D. 213: 
conf. a. He had been taught by Proclus of Naucratis: 
V. S. II. 21 Toov i^i&v bibaaK(i\<i>v (h oCroy. And had 
heard Antipater before February A. D. 212: conf. a. 
He dedicates his work r<3 kaixTTpoT6.T<f wrdru ''AvTa>v((o 
Fopbiavif, who was descended from Herodes Atticus: 
p. 479. and had conversed with Phihstratm at An- 
tioch : Ibid. fj,ep.vr]fi(vos — tZv Kara ttii> ' Avno\fCav ottov- 
haadtVTuv -noTt fifui> virip aoipidToiv iv t^ tov Aa<f>vaiov 
Lfp(3. A consul suffectus in some year unknown ; not 
Gordian III, as Fabricius B. G. torn. V p. 552 sup- 
poses (who was consul in 239 and 241) ; for Gordian 
III would have been called avTOKpiroop, and being now 
only in his 14th year (see col. 2) could not have been 
known to the author at an earlier period. 

PMlostratus had heard ofDionysius and Polemo from 
AristeBUs: V. S. I 22 p. 524. 'Apunaiov — TTpefffivT&Tov 
t5)v Kar' efxi 'EAA^rui' Kal TrXeroro inrip t&v (ro<f)L<rroiv 
(IboTos. iyripa(TKi p^v 6 Atow/cios ii> bd^rj Xap-TTpq wapjjti 
8' is aKp.r)v 6 Tlo\fp,<av, ovtto) yiyvmcrKop-fvos na Aioitxriu. 
He had conversed with one who described the Pana- 
tkeneEa celebrated by Herodes Atticus : ijkovop II. 1 
p. 550. and with Ciesidemus, who had travelled over 
the isthmus of Corinth with Herodes: p. 552. He 
had heard of Aristocles rmv irpecr^vTtpav II. 3 p. 
567. — of Philager rStv vpfajSvripaiv II. 8 p. 579. 
He had heard of Adrianm from his teachers : rav 
ipMVTov bibaa-KoXiav tJkovov II. 10 p. 585. He knew 
many Athenians who wept at the remembrance of 
Adrianm: p. 587. Adrianus and Aristides were de- 
scribed to nim by Damianus, the disciple of both 
(conf. a. 192): II. 23 bitocra inskp 6.vbpS>v tovtoiv &va- 
yiypat^a Aapi,iavov fiaOaiv etpr\Ka, ev to. ap.^olv dboTos. 
Conf. de Aristide p. 582 iy toi) 'E<^fo-fov AapLiavov 
tjkovov. p. 583 Aapnavov KaK€iva tjkovov. Damianus 
in his old age was known at Ephesus: p. 606 rots 
Kara kK^os avrov cfyoaaxriv (s tiju "E<pe(Tov T!api\<i)v iav- 
Tov avi6r\Ki Kaaoi Tiva avvovaLav. He lived to the age 
of 70 : p. 606 iTiktvra be. oIkoi, irq /3iotis o'. His 
descendants flourished in the time of PMlostratus : 
p. 605 fvboKip.(iTaToi oi air' avTov (f>vvTfs' frvy/cA^rov yap 
/3ovA% [sc. Ephesi] AftoCin-ai iravra. 

The author of the )3fot (Totf>i,(rr<iiv was of Lemnos : 
Eunap. V. S. p. 5. 4>i\6crTpaTos 6 Arjuvios tovs tmv 
(To^LtTTmv i^ (Tiibpop.r\s /xrra y&pvros ■napitvnxre fiiovs. 

(Works of Origm: Euseb. H. E. VI. 32. koI 'ilpt- 
y^vft, b( Kara tovtov tov \p6vov [in the reign of Gordian 
III and in the episcopate oi Fabianus: conf. VI. 29] 
TO th rbv 'Haatav, ev ravT<j) 8^ Kal ro th top 'Itfeici^A 
irvveTdTTtTo. — ytvofifvoi bi Tr/viKibf iv 'A&rivais itepaCvn 
piv TO fli TOP 'Uftfct^A T&v bi fls rb qapxi tQp ^pArotp 
&p\fTai, Kal TTpofia-l yt aiiTodi, /it'xpi Tiip.irrov (rvyyp&p^ 
p.aios. iiraptkOiap bi ii:l ttjp KaKrAptiap koI Tavra tli 
•nipai biKa ovra top ipidpMP iyft.) 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 


993. Sabinus II et Ve- 

Cod. Justin, in 23 laws : 
see Appendix. 

Sabino et Venusto Nor. 
Prosp. Albino et Venusto 

ropbiapos TO ^ /cat Wo\i.- 
i\y\iav6s A. Sa^iroj j8' Kcix 
Bpevaros B. Venusto et 
Sahino Capitolin. Gord. 
c. 23. 

Inscriptions : see col. 3. 

Gordiani 3 [from June], irib. pot. 3 from Kal. Januar. 

Sedition in Africa : Capitolin. Gordian. c. 23. Venusto et Sahino coss. inita 
est /actio in Africa contra Gordianum III duce Sahiniano; quern Gordianus per 
prcesidem Mauritanice obsessum a conjuratis ita oppressit ut ad eum tradendum 
Gaiihaginem omnes venirent. Conf. Zosim. I. 17, 1- 

Coins : Eckhel. torn. VII p. 31 1 . Imp. Gordianus Pius Fel. Aug. +p. m. tr.p. 
Ill COS. p.p. Qvp. m. tr. p. Ill cos. II p. p. Conf. Eckhel. torn. VIII p. 438. 

Inscriptio apud Panvinium p. 374 Gruterum p. 272. 3. Imp. Ca-sari M. An- 
tonio Gordiano Pio Fel. Aug. pont. max. trib.pot. Ill cos. p.p. optimo fortissimoq. 
principi Col. Ven. Lenia Aiig. Alexandria Ant. Apellinatium. 

Cod. Justin. IV. 15, 3 Imp. Gordianus A. Primanio. p p. VI Kal. Febr. Sa- 
hino II et Venusto conss. See Appendix for 22 other laws of A.D. 240. 


01. 255 U. C. Varr. 994. 

M. Antonius Gordianus 
Augustus II et Pompeior 

Nor. Idat. Prosp. Caa- 

Gordiani 4 [from June], trib. pot. 4 from Kal. Januar. 

Preparations for the Persian war. Marriage of Gordian : Capitolin. Gor- 
dian. c. 23. Finita solicitudine in Africa, Gordiano jam iterum et Pompeiano 
[sic Cod. Palat. apud Salmasium] consulibus helium Persicum natum est. Quare 
adolescens Gordianus priusquam ad helium projicisceretur duxit uxorem filiam 



3 Secular Adthors 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

Synes. Dion, initio. <I>. 6 Arnxvw^ i.vaypi<pa)v roi/i plovs 
t5)v y-i-xjiis avTov (rofpinT&v. lie wrote this work in the 
lifetime of Agpasim : conf. a. 231. — of Heliodorus : 
conf. a. 217- — of Nicagoras : conf. a. 213. who waa 
still alive in A. D. 245 : conf. a. The author waa the 
friend of Apsines, of Nicagoras, and of another Phi- 
lostratus of Lemnos, who was born A. D. 192 : conf. a. 

Ilis master Produs was the disciple of Adrian, and 
lived 90 jears: V. S. II. 21 p. fi()3. 604. to bt ixvTjyio- 
rucoj;, fVfinjiKOVTovTris ijbT) yr]pa<TKa>v, koX virip top Sifio)- 
vibTjv (pptaro. Pkilostratus had heard Hippodromvs 
(conf. a. 195) discourse at Athens against Produs : 
II. 27 p. (517. ripo'/cAoi/ Tov Nauicparfrov tov TlopiTTtfiauoi) 
T!pi(T§tvTi.Kr)v ^vvOivTOs litX TtOLVTa'i Tovi TTaiSei/onTas ^AQ-q- 
vrjcri, Koi tov 'lTtTt6bpofiov iyKaTa\(lavTOi tu AotSopur/Lup 
roiiro), fipifts piv (f6p(6a koyov iiKpoAaaa-dai [1. &Kpod- 
tTfcrdai] TTpbs ttjv t&v tlpqixevav fi\(i> ^vyK(ip,(vov 6 hi 
oibiv (li!<i}v (l>\avpov (iiaivov fv<t)ijp.Cai bi€^rjk6fv, k. t. X. 

The author of the Vit<B Sophistarum was also the 
author of the life of Apollonim ; which he quotes : 
conf. a. 214. and which he might have written, or at 
least commenced, 25 years before this date. There is 
no reason, then, for rejecting the account of Suidae 
p. 3805 C. <I>tAo'oTpoToy <I>iXo(7Tparou tov k(u. Bripou Ar\\i.- 
viov a-n(f)i<rTov, koI avTos — o-o(f)iarfV(Tai Iv 'AOrivan, tira 
fv 'V(op,ri, iTH Se/Sf/pov TOV j3acrl\e(i)i, Kal l&)s <I>iXiinrov. 
iypuyj/f p.eKiTas k. t. A. — ^AwoAAeuvfov fiCov tov Tvaviais 
(V /3i^Afots 7j' — /3i'oDs (To<^iaTS>v iv fiifiXlon 6'. [1. ;8']. 
He might have been 10 years older than the other 
Lemnian, whom he describes (conf. a. 215); which 
would make him 32 years of age in A. D. 214, 57 in 
the present year, and (52 at the accession of Philip. 

Inscriptions bearing the consuls of this year : 1 
Apud Panvinium p. 374 Gruterum p. 309. 6 Campiee 
Severince V. V. Max. Dedic. Ill law Maias Saoino 
II et Venusto cos. 2 Lapis Interamnse apud Panvin. 
p. 374 Gruter. p. 411. 3 Dedic. VIII Id. Sept. Sabino 
II et Venusto cos. 

Inscriptions : 1 Apud Lactoratenses : Gruter. p. 29. 
13. S. M. D. Jwnia Domitia tauropol. accepit nosiiis 
tuis sacerdote Trajanio Nondinio [conf. a. 239. 1] D. N. 
Gordiano II et Pompeiano cos. VI Id. Dec. S. M. D. 
Pom. Flora tauropol. accepit hostiis suts sacer. Traja. 





1 Consuls 

2 Events 

siod. Capitolin. Gord. c. 
23 Cod. Justin, in 32 
laws : see Appendix. 

Gordiano et Pmnpeiano 

Tophiavos j3' km Ho/xTri- 
\iav6s a. 

''Attikos Kol 'A/3ioAa. A. 

Inscriptions: see col. 3. 

Misithei, doctissimi mri, quern causa ehquentiee dignum parentela sua putavit, et 
prcBfectum statim fecit. Eutropius IX. 2 Gordianus admodum puer, cum Tran- 
quillinam Romoi duxisset uxorem, Janum geminum aperuit [conf. a. 242] et ad 
Orient em prof ectus Parthis helium intulit. Zosimus I. 17, 3 Trpos ydixoD ayerot 
Vophavos Tifi-qa-LKXtovs Ovyaripa, tS>v (lii itaihivafi. 8ta/3or/TG)i' avhpos, ov xmapxov 
T7)s avkf\i avabeC^a^ eSofe to bia to viov Tijs rjKiKias r^ Kr)bep.ovCa tS>v irpayixaTcav 
iXXeiTTOv &vaT:kr}povv. 

Accession of Shahpoor or Sapor: Agathias IV. 24 p. 134 B. 8ia6e'xeTai to 
Kp6,Tos 2aTTQ)/)7)s eKfivos 6 ivayecTTaTos (cat 8t€^iw irpos tm fvl TpidKovra tovs iravTai 
fvLavTovs, TiXe'icrTa oaa tovs 'VoipLaiovs \vixaiv6pi.evos k. t. A. SynccUus p. 360 D 
2aTrw/)»)s (Ttj \a'. The death of his father and his succession are fixed to this 
year by the authorities quoted at A.D. 226. Sapor is mentioned as king of 
Persia in A. D. 242 : conf. a. 

Coins of this year: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 31 1. 1 Imp. Gordianus Pius Fel. 
Aug. ■\-p. m. tr.p. II II cos. II p. p. 2 Imp. Gordianus Pius Felix Aug. +pon- 
tifex max. tr.p. IIII cos. II p.p. the emperor in a chariot, marking " Gordiani 
processum eonsularem hoc anno actum." Eckhel. 

Coins of the wife of Gordian : p. 318. Sabinia Tranquillina Aug. + concordia 
Augg. or feliciias temporum. S. G. or pudicitia Aug. S. C. 

See Appendix for 32 laws apud Cod. Justin, bearing Imp. Gordianus A. — 
Gordiano A. II et Pompeiam conss. 


995. C. Vettim Atticus 
C. Asinim Prcetextatm 
Nor. Idat. Prosp. H. Cod. 
Justin, see Appendix. 

'Apiavbs Koi BevovcTTos A. 

Inscriptions: see col. 2. 

Prattextato et Atiico Ca- 
pitolin. Gord. c. 2fi. 

Gordiani 5 [from Jtine]. tr. pot. 5 from Kal. Januar. 

Persian war : Capitolin. Gord. c. 26. Pra-textato et Attica coss. aperto Jano 
gemino [conf Victor. Cses. p. 333 Eutrop. IX. 2 Orosium VII. 19 ex Eutropio], 
quad signum erat indicti belli, prof ectus est contra Persas cum exercitu ingenti. — 
Fecit iter in Mcesiam, atque in ipso procinctu quicquid hostium in Thraciis fuit 
delevit. — Inde per Syriam in Antiochiam venit, quce a Persis jam tenebatur. 
Illic frequentibus prwliis pugnavit et vicit, Sapore Persamm rege submoto. — Sed 
keec omnia per Misitheum socerum — electa sunt. Eutropius IX. 2 Bellum mox 
feliciter gessit, prwliisque ingentibus Persas adfixit. Conf. Ores. VII. 1 9. Vic- 
tor Cses. p. 333 assigns a wrong date : eo anno [the 1st of his reign] — in Persas 
profectus est, cum prius Jani cedes, quas Marcus clauserat [conf. Casaubon. ad 
Capitolin. p. 195], patentes more veterum fecisset. Ibi gesto insigniter bello &c. 
Zosimus I. 18 ijbr] tt^s jSaaiXeias ovar]s fi> oxppM, YltpcraL tois Kara Tr]v fifav 
fOveaiv fTTUvai. TrpocrehoK&VTo, Tijv apxipj Sairaipov TtapdKafiovTos p-fTa ' ApTa$ip^T)V 
Tov aiTo Uapdvaiav avdLs (is Uepaas ttjv ap^r^v pLfracrrricravTa [conf a. 226. 241]. 
— roVe Toiwv (Til Ylipcras 6 fiacrikevs j/et ■napa(TKivr\ tt) TTcicrTj. 

Thirteen laws apud Cod. Justin, bearing Imp. Gordianus A. — Attico et Prce- 
textato conss. See Ap[)endix. 

Two inscriptions with these consuls : 1 Apud Panvinium p. 374 Gruterum 
p. 443. 6. G. Vettio Attico et G. Asinio Prcetextato cos. pr. Idus Apr. Peliuini 
Vestinis in curia Aug. ardinem hahentihus &c. 

2 Panvin. Ibid. Grut. p. 309. 7- Gloelice Glaudianee V. V. max. religiosissimtB 
benignissimceque cujus rifus et plenam sacrorum erga deos administrationem urbis 
(Sterna; laudibm S. S. comprobat Octavia Honorata V. V. dimnis ejus admoni- 
tionibus semper provocata coUocata XII Kal. April. G. Aufidio [sic] Attico et 
G. Asinio Pr<ctextato cos. 


996. Arrianm et Papits 

Nor. Idat. Prosp. B. 
Capitolin. Gord. c. 29 
Tabula apud Eckhel. torn. 

Gordiani 6 [from June], trib. pot. 6 from Kal. Januar. 

That the sixth tribunician year was current in Jan. A. D. 243 is attested 
by a tabula honestre missionis apud Eckhel. torn. VIII p. 439 dated a. d. VII 
Id. Jan. tr. pot. VI cos. II Arriano et Papo cos. 

R O M A N I 


3 Secular Authoes 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

Nmd. D. N. Gord. II et Pompei. Cos. VI Id. Dec. 
8. M. D. Servilia Modesta TauropoHum accepit Imtiis 

suis sacerdote Traja. Nund. Dno Gord. II et Pomp. 
Cos. VI Id. Dec. 2 Apud eosdem : Gruter. p. 29. 14 
30. 1. Pro salute imp. M. Antoni Gordiani Pit Fel. 
Aug. et SabincB [f. Sabiniee] Tranquillina- Aug. totim- 
que domus dimncc proque statu dvitatis Lactoraten. tau- 

ropolium fecit ordo Lact. Dno nro Gordiano Aug. II et 
Pompeiano cos. VI Id. Dec. curantib. M. Erotio Festo 
et M. Earinio Caro, sacerd. Trajanio Nundinio. S. M. D. 
Val. Gemina tatiropoHum accepit &c. G<yrd. II et 
Pomp. cos. VI Id. Dec. S. M. D. Venn. Severa tauro- 
polium, accepit &c. — Gordiano II et Pompeiano cos. VI 
Id. Dec. S. M. D. C. Jul. secundus tauropolium accepit 
Sec. Gordiano II et Pompeiano cos. VI Id. Dec. 

Plotinus in Persia : Porphyr. V. PI. c. 3 Fopbiavov 
Tov PacTiXius iitl Toils n^ptras irapUvat fi^Woi'Tos, oovs 
iavTov Tu orpaTOTiibf avveiariei, eros r/6jj TpiaKoarbv 
&y(t>v Kol (varov. (vbtKa yap 3A&)i' (t&v Tsapap.iv(>>v r^ 
' ApLij.b)VL(o crvvetrxoAao-e. Not quite eleven years com- 
plete ; for his 28th year had commenced at the begin- 
ning of this period (conf. a. 232), and his 39th was 
still current at the end of it. 

Coins of this year: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 312. 1 Imp. 
Gordianus Pius Fel. Aug.+p. m. tr. p. V cos. II p.p. 

2 Imp. Gordianus Pius Felix Aug. -(- trajectus Aug. 

3 Imp. Gordianus Pius Fel. Aug. + liberalitas Aug. III. 
or liberalitas Aug. IIII. 

An inscription of the 5th tribunician year apud 
Gruter. p. 2/2. 4. Vicetiae : Imp. Cces. Marco Antonio 
Gordiano Pio Fel. Aug. p.p. cos. II procos. trib. potest. 
Vpont. maximo respublica ex Ubercditate Mattidiarum 


Coins: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 313. Imp. Gordianus 
Pius Fel. Aug. +p. m. tr.p. VI cos. II p. p. Alexan- 
drian coins of Gordian apud Eckh. torn. IV p. 88 torn. 
VII p. 294 bear L. a— L. f'. The 7th year in Alex- 

L 1 2 



1 Consuls 

2 Events 

VIII p. 439 Cod. Justin, 
in eleven laws : see Ap- 
pendix. rieTfTpCvoi Koi 

no/XTTT/i'ai'OS A. 

Panvin. p. 374 Grruter. 
p. 168. 7. Romse : Fl. 
Euryclas Epiti/ncanus V. 
C. prcef. urb. conditor hitr- 
jus fori curavit. Coll. X 
Kal. Fehr. Arriano el 
Papo COS. 

Death of M'mthem: Capitolin. Gord. c. 2^ — 29. Effectam denique est ut 
Persce, qui jam in Italia timebanfur, in regnum suum pupnante Gordiano re- 
dirent. — Sed ista felicitas longior esse nan potuit. Nam Misitheus, quantum ph- 
rique dicunt, artibus Philippi qui post ewm prcefectiis prcetorii est f actus, ut alii, 
morbo extinctus est, herede Bom. republica, ut quicquid ejus fuerat vectigalibus 
urbis accederet. — -Qmo mortuo Apriano [1. Arriano] et Papo coss. in ejus locum 
preefectus prcetorii factus est Philippus Arabs. Zosimus I. 18 tov 'PafiaiKoC 
(TTpaTov bo^avTos iv rfj TTpdri] fiaxji KiKparrjKivai [conf. III. 32, 7]i Tiju.jjo-tKXr/s 6 
rvjs av\i]s ijirapxps reXevT'qcra'i -qKaTTcoa-e ttoXv rcS ^acnXei Trjv etti rfi a(r(f>a\eCq. Tfjs 
7jy(p.ov[as ■niTioidrjcri.v. ^iXbrnov yap viiap\ov Trpo)(fipLcrdivroi, Kara [ipaxy ''^ '"^* 
fis TOV /SairiAea t&v arpaTLbiTciv evvoias imippu. 

Eleven laws apud Cod. Justin, bear Imp. Gordianus A. — Arriano et Papo 
conss. See Appendix. 


997. Peregrinus et ^mi- 

Nor. Idat. H. Prosp. 
Cassiod. Cod. Justin, in 
22 laws : see col. 2 and 

'^iKi.'n-aos 'S,ij3a(rT6i to /3' 
KoX ITeXeKcrrpcji' A- 

Gordiani trih. pot. 7 from Kal. Januar. 

Gordian slain by the arts o^ Philip : Capitolin. Gord. c. 30. Idem c. 31 
Ita Philippus impie non jure obtinuit imperium. Imperavit Gordianus annis 
sex. — Denique Philippus, qaum eum interfecisset, —divum semper appellans — 
peregrina calliditate veneratus est. Idem c. 34 {Interemptus) in Persidis Jinihus. 
— Gordiano sepulchrum milites apud Circeiutn castrum fecerunt in Jinibus Per- 
sidis. Conf. Zosim. I. 18. 19. Aramianus XXIII. 5,7 Ad Zaitliam vmimus 
locum [A. D. 36"3]. — Hie Gordiani imperatoris longe conspicuum vidimus tumu- 
lum ; cujus actus a pueritia prima exercitmimque felicissimos ductus et insidio- 
sum interitum digessimus tempore competenti. Conf. Ibid. 5,17. Victor Cses. 
p. 333 Marci Philippi prcefecti prcetorio insidiis periit sexcennio imperii. Vic- 
tor Epit. p. 380 Imperavit annos sex. — a Philippo prcefecto prcetorio accensis in 
seditionem militibus occiditur anno vitte XIX". He has six years in Cordus: 
conf. a. 239. and in Euseb. Chron. and Orosius VII. 20. Cassiodorus : Regnavit 
annis sex. — Peregrinus et u^milianus. His coss. Gordianus admodum adolescens, 
Parthorum natione superata, qaum victor reverteretur ad patriam, fraude Phi- 
lippi pratfecti prcBtorio hand longe a Romano solo interfectus est. Gordiano milites 
tumulum cedificant supra Euphratem, ossibus ejus Romam revectis. Cui successit 
Philippus. — Qui mox Philippum filium suum consortem regni fecit, primusque 
omnium ex Romania imperatoribus Christianus fuit. Transcribed from Hierony- 
nius Chron. annis 2259, 22C0, who has inserted this in the Chronicon of Euse- 
bius. See Appendix c. 1 for the last particular in that account, on which 
Scaliger ad Euseb. p. 234 has pronounced a true judgment. Eutropius IX. 2 
(whom Hieroiiyuius partly follows) : Rediens haud longe a Romanis fnibus in- 
terfectus est fraude Philippi. — Miles ei tumulum XX" miliario a Circesio, quod 
castrum nunc Romanorum est Euphrati imminens, eedificavit, exsequias Romam 
revexit, ipsum divum appellavit. Eutropius assigns no years. Euseb. H. E. 
VI. 34 (Tfaiv oAoiy f£. Aneccl. Paris. Cramer Vol. II p. 57 fxrio Trji I'lyepovCas 
evMVT^ — (bokoipovriOii. Chron. Pasch. p. 269 A err] f'. The true period from 
his elevation in June A. D. 238 to his death in the spring of 244 might be 
about 51/ 9">. 

Philip returns to Rome : Eutrop. IX. 3 Philippi duo flius ac pater Gor- 
diano occiso — -ad Italiam e Syria prof ecti sunt. Victor Ctes. p 333 Philippus — 
sumpto in consortium Philippo filio, rebus ad Orientem compositis conditoque apud 
Arabiam PhilippopoU oppido, Romam venere. Zosimus I. 19 6 6^ vpos p-tv 
S,ai!u>pr]i> fOsTo (piKiav h'u>poTov [flpi]vr]v al(7)(j.(TTr]v Oifxevos III. 32, 7] ^vaas h\ 
TOV noAepov firl tt]v Paixriv f^oppq, tovs pev arpaTKOTas abpais bLaboaecrL dfpa- 
miiuiv. Hieronymus anno 226"3 erroneously places Philippopolis in the 4th 
year of Philip, and supposes it to be in Thrace. Cassiodorus follows Hie- 

R O M A N I 


S Seciilab Authors 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

andrian computation bepm Aug. 25) A. D. iJ-13. 
Wherefore his years at Alexandria niarked upon the 
coins will bo these : 

L. )3' commencing Aug. 2!) A. D. 238. 

L. y Aug. 29 A. D. 239. 

L. 8' Aug. 29 A. D. 240. 

L. (' Aug. 29 A. D. 241. 

L. r' Aug. 29 A. D. 242. 

L. (' Aug. 29 A. D. 243, 

and current at his death. L. a' (when BaWmus and 
Pupienus were AugusH) is marked upon a coin apud 
Eckh. tom. IV p. 88 while ho was yet Gfvsar: M.'Avr. 
FopStavos Kato-op. L.o'. Beforetheendof JuneA.D.238. 

Plofinus at Rome: Porphyr. V. PI. c. 3. rov bi Vop- 
btavov TTepi nV MecroTroTaju^ar avai,p(devTOi, /10A19 (pfvyiav 
fis T^f 'Aj/Tio'xetai' bieaddr}. koi 4>i\iinrov ttji' lia<n\((av 
KpanjaavTos TfcraapciKovTa ycyovus (Tt) tij t^j; 'VmiJ.j]V 
&vei,<nv. 'E/3f j'w'o) bi koL ^ilpiyivn KaX riAeon'i'a) (rvvOr\KStv 
ytyovviStv fxifiiv (KKaKvTTTdv t5>v ' AfjLfjuaviov boypAriav — 
e^erf KoL 6 n\a>Tivos. a-vviav p.iv ricri tS>v irpoaiovTiav 
Tr)p(iv bi aviKTivaTa to. trapa rov "'ApLptavCov boypLara. 
'EpfvvCov bf Trpdrov ras (rvvd'^Kas Ttapa^dvTOS, 'ilpiyfvqs 
p,(v riKokovOfi T<2 <p9a(TavTi, 'Eperriu, iypa^i b\ ovbkv 
TtKrjv TO n«pt T&v baifjiovav (, koX (w, YaWir\vov 
"On povos o irotTjT^j ^aa-iXtvi. flAajTii'os 6« axpi p-h> ttoX- 
\ov yp&(^(i>v ovbfv bieT^Kfdfv, €k 8e rfji ' kppuivLov crvvov- 
aias TTOiovpfvos ras biarpifidi' koI ovtoh oKtav (t&v b(Ka 
6i«T«'Ae(T€ [A. D. 244 — 253] (rvi>o>v piv run ypdtfxav bi 
ovbfv. Origenes is mentioned by Proclus apud Creuzer. 
ad V. Plotin. p. xciii. 'ilpiyivriv rov tm TlXcaTCvif r^y 
avriji pfTatryovTa waiSeioy. Eunapius V. S. p. 17 <npr- 
(poiT'qTa.l pev oZv (is avrbs dvaypd(j>ei) KparicrToC Ttr«s 
vTri]p)(ov, 'ilpiytv-qi re Koi 'Ajue'pto? [conf. a. 246] koI 
'AkvXivos' Kol (TvyypappaTa ye avr&v TSfpicrdl^iTai, \6yos 
bf avTwv oiibf (h. Not the companions of Porphyry, 
but of Plotinus: Hierocles apud Phot. Cod. 251 p. 1381 
(conf. Cod. 214 p. 553). 'Appdvios — paKiara tois dpi- 
(TTOLs T&v ovTu ovyyiyovoTuiv ITAajTirw koX 'ilpiytvei. 
Mistaken for the celebrated Origen son of Leonidas by 
Theodoret (conf. a. 232) and by many ecclesiastical 
writers. Reinesius ad Suidam p. 2784 E has been 
misled by this error; but the mistake is noticed by 
Valesius ad Euseb. H. E. VI. 19 Fabricius and Creuzer 
ad Vit. Plotin. p. cxii. The Gentile Origen by the 
testimony of Porphyry and of Longinus left only one 
or two works, and lived to the time of Gallienus ; the 
son of Leonidas was older than Plotinus (conf. a. 185. 4), 
was a Christian teacher from his early youth, before 
Plotimis was born (conf. a. 203. 4j, and composed 
many thousand volumes. For the testimony of Lon- 
ginus conf. a. 265. 

Coins of Gordian: Eckhel. tom. VII p. 314. I Imp. 
Gordianm Pius Fel. Aug. +p. m. tr. p. VII cos. II p. p. 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 


Laws of A. D. 244 : Cod. Justin. IX. 2, 7 Idem A. [sc. Gordianus] Proculo. 
pp. VIII Id. Jan. VI. 10, 1 Imp. Gordianus A. Marthanee. Dat. Idib. 
Januar. III. 42, 6 Imp. Philippus A. Paleimnidi. pp. II Id. Mart. II. 4, 10 
Imp. Philippus A. Apollophanice. pp. prid. Kal. April. IX. 34, 4 Imp. Phi- 
lippus A. Euprepio. pp. VI Id. Maii. It appears from III. 42, 6 that Gordian 
was slain before March 14. Wherefore in VI. 20, (> Idem A. [sc. Gordianus] 
Claudio. Dat. VII Kal. Maii we may correct the date, and read VII Kal. Mart. 
Gordian might be slain between Feb. 24 and March 14. Cod. Justin. I. 18, 3 
Imp. Philippus A. Marcellce. Dat. XVI Kal. Jul. III. 44, 8 Imp. Philippus 
A. JulicB. p p. XVI Kal. Jul. IX. 1, 11 Imp. Philippus A. et Philippus G. 
Satumino et aliis. p p. XIII Kal. Jul. II. 44, 3 Imp. Philippus A. Aniiiee. 
pp. II Kal. Jul. Of twelve laws that follow the Gcesar Philip appears upon 
six; at July 28 Aug. 15 Oct. 15. 16. 19. From the other six he is absent. 
See Appendix. 

01. 256 U. C. Varr. 998. 
M. Julius Philippm Au- 
gustus et Titianus 

Nor. Idat. B. Cassiod. 
Cod. Justin, in 19 laws : 
see col. 2. 

om. Prosp. 

IlepoT/s Kal ndTTTios A. 

PUlippi 2 from March, trib. pot. 2 from Kal. Januar. 

War with the Carpi : Zosim. I. 20. eTrl Kaprous (a-Tpdrtvev jjbrj to. iTfpl tov 
ItTTpov X-q'i(Tai/.evovs' M^XI* ^^ yivoy.fvri's ovk fveyKovres ol jSapfiapoi rrjv T:pocrfiokr\v 
ih Ti (ppovpLov avp,(l>vy6vTfs ev iroKiopKia KaOCaravTo k. t. A. — Ao'yons irepl a-irovbcov 
eTToi^a-avTO, oh 6 ^iAitttos paov difxfvos<ipti. 

Laws: Cod. Justin. VI. 39, 2 Imp. Philippus A. et Philippus C. Victories. 
pp. Kal. Januar. Philippo A. et Titiano cams. IX. 32, 5 Simplicio. pp. XV 
Kal. Fehruar. VII. 7 1 , 2 Abascando. pp. XIII Kal. Febr. IV. 28, 6' Theo- 
pompo. pp. VI Non. Mart. IV. 19, G Romulo. pp. Idib. Mart. IX. 22, 6 
Gulpio. pp. XV Kal. April. VIII. 10, 4 Victori. pp. IV Kal. April. V. 38, 3 
Gratiano. pp. Ill Kal. April. IV. 19, 5 Sertorio. pp. VII Id. April. VIII. 
43, 8 Bujino. pp.V Id. Maii. V. 63, 2 Aulizano. p p. XIV Kal. Jun. III. 
28, 15 Imp. Philippus A. Aphrodisiee.pp. V. Kal. Aug. V. 37, 14 Imp. Phi- 
lippus A. et Philippus G. Glementi. pp. prid. Non. Aug. III. 29, 1 Imp. Phi- 
lippus A. Nicanori et PapiancB. pp. XIV Kal. Sept. V. 38,4 lidem A. et G. 
Flora, pp. XII Kal. Sept. II. 27, 3 ^liana. pp. XVIII Kal. Nov. III. 
32, 7 Dnp- Philippus A. et Philippus N. Gees. Antonio, pp. XIII Kal. Nov. 
V. 48, 1 Imp. Philippus A. Dextro. pp. XII Kal. Nov. III. 44, 9 Idem A. 
et Philippus G. Faust inee. pp. VI Kal. Deo. The Geesar Philippus is added in 
all except the three laws here marked. 

A coin of this year : Eckhel. torn. VII p. 322. Imp. M. Jul. Philippm Aug. 
+p. m. tr.p. II cos. p. p. 

999. PrcBsem et Alhinus 

Nor. Idat. Prosp. Cas- 
siod. Cod. Justin, in 12 
laws : see col. 2. 

^ikiTT-noi Se/3a(JTos to y3' 
KoX AifiiXiavos A. 

B<icro-os KOI 'AX^iavds B. 


Philippi 3 from March, trib. pot. 3 from Kal. Januar. 
Coins of the elder Philip: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 322. 1 Imp. M. Jul. Phi- 
lippus Aug. +p. m. tr.p. Ill cos. p.p. 2 Goncordia Augustorum. +p. m. tr. p. 

III cos. p. p. 

Coins of the son of Philip : p. 333. 1 M. Jul. Philippus Gees. 2 M. Jul. 
Philippics nohil. Gess. + concordia Augustorum. These belong to A.D. 244 — 
246, before he was named Augustus. In Alexandrian coins apud Eckhel. torn. 

IV p. 89 he is called Geesar in the years a. ^'. y. 8'. and Augustus in coins of 
L. 6'. which commenced Aug. 29 A. D. 246 (conf. a. 249) ; whence it follows 
that he became Augustus while the fourth year was current, and before Aug. 
29 A. D. 247. 

Laws : Cod. Justin. III. 34, 5 Imp. Philippus A. et Philippus G. Luciano 
militi. p p. Kal. Feb. Preesente et Albino conss. IV. 2, 4 Maximo, propos. XV 
Kal. Mart. VI. 24, 6 Antonio, pp. XII Kal. Mart. IV. 24, 8 Satumino. pp. 

R O M A N I 


3 Secular Authors 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

2 Imp. Gordianus Pius Felix Aug. +p. m. tr. p. VII 
cog. lip. p. or virtus Augmti. tr.'p. Vll. 

Coins of Philip : p. 320. 1 Imp. Jul. Philippm 
Aug. + adventus Augg. 2 Imp. C. M. Jul. Philippm 
P. F. Aug. p. tn.+pax fundata cum Perm. 3 6'o»- 
cordia Augustorum + adventus AuguMorum. or ex ora- 
culo ApoUinis. or liberalitati Augg. 4 Imp. Jul. Phi- 
lippm Aug. +pietas Augg. or votis decennalibm. S. C. 


Nicagoras flourished : Suid. p. 2592 D. Nucaydpas 
Mvjjo-aiou prjTopos, 'Adrjvaios, (70(|)i(rT^s. yiyovi 8e Kara, 
4>iAt7r7roi^ tov Kaiaapa. jiiovs ^XAoyijuo*)'. iiepl KA«077(irpaj 
rf/s fv TpoidSt. TTpta-^fvTiKOv irpbs 'tiKiinTov tov ' Fci)|uat<i)i' 
fiam\(a. Tlie friend of Philostratiis who wrote the 
jSi'ot (To(jn(TT(iv : conf. a. 213. and who also mentions 
him with Hippodromus V. S. II. 2^ p. 620. Nicagoras 
was known to Longinm and Poiphyry : Porphyr. apud 
Euscb. Prsep. X p. 464 A. ra XWariitvua [conf. p. 46/ D] 
k<mSiv I'jixas Aoyyivos ^Adrjvrjai KtKK-qKiv iWovi t( ttoX- 
Kovs Koi NiKayopav tov (TO(pL(TTi}v koI Maiopav, 'AwoXAei- 
viov re TOV ypa/xjuariKoy koI ArfjxriTpiov tov yea>y.iTpr}v, 
l\poarivr]v re tov TiipataTrfnKov koX tov (ttuHkov KaXiiTj\v 
p.(ff S>v ifihop.oi avTos KaTaK\{,vQw k. r. A. In Tliargelioti 
of A. D. 245 Porphyry is only 12 years of age. This 
meeting then of Porphyry Longinm and Nicagoras was 
some years later than this date, and yet before A. D. 
263, when Porphyry removed from Greece to Gome: 
conf. a. 

Amelim at Rome : Porphyr. V. Plot. c. 3. irpoaiiKOf 
8^ (r(|) riAtorifo)) 6 A/xe'Aios Tpuov eros 6,yovTi iv 'Pctf^JJ 
[conf. a. 244] KaTa to Tphov tt/s 'J>tAi7n70u /3o(rtAeias 
Iros, (tot a\pi tov TTpdrov fTovs n^s KKavbCov /Sao-tAt^as 
■aapaiieCvai hrj oKa avyyiyovev fiKOai koI Ti(r<rapa [A. D. 
246 — 269], f^LV niv fx<ov, ot( TrpomjXBfv, otto ttjs Av(ti- 
nd-xpv crvvovcTias, i^ikoiiovia 8f VTt(p^aK\6p.iV0i tuiv Ka9' 
avTov ■navTuiv, hia to koX a)((hov navra to. 'i\ovp.r\viov \tov 
'A-napLia 'Novp.i'iviov Porphyr. V. PI. c. 17. Nod/xjjj'ios 
\^Trap.fvs am Svp^as, (/jtAo'cro^os UvOayopeios Suid.] Kal 
Yp(i\j/ai Koi (Tvvayayiiv. Suidas p. 23/ D 'Afie'Aios 'Atto- 
l>.ivs, <|)tAo'.TO(|)os, padr}Ti]i nAwrirov, 8i8do-KaAos Vlopcpv- 
piov, (Tvyx^povCaas 'Afxfiwi'iio Kal "'ilpiyivei, [conf. a. 244]. 
A melius was not the teacher of Porphyry (a mistake 
thrice made by Suidas: conf Suid. nAurir. llopipvp.) 

Origen is mentioned at thia date by Euscbius H. E. 

VI. 36. ToVf 8^0 [sc. 30 Philippi: c. 35] vntp to. iirf 
KOVTa <f)a(Tlv <T7j roi' 'Q.piy4vr]v yevofttvov, &t( ntyiaTqv 
»/8?j (TvAAeftJjueroi' ck tt/s pMKpas TrapaarKfvfis t^iv, ras kitX 
TOV Koivov \(yop.h'as avru biaXd^tis Ta\vypd<f>oii jxtra- 
Aa^eir (TnTpiyjrai [i^rjKombv ayiav (tos Syncell. p. 362 C]. 
ev T0VT<a (cat to Ttpos tov i-aiytypafipiivov Kaff i)p.S>v K^A- 
crov ToC 'Eirticoiiptiou ciAjj^t) Ao'yoi' Jactm toj' dpidpjbv crvy- 
ypa,p.p.aTa a-wTixTu, (cat roiy eis to (coto MoT^aior ivay- 
yiXiov et(co(n TrtfTe tcJ/xodv, tovs t« fiy tovs 6<tf8«Ka irpo- 
(^TjTay, dc^' (5r juoVovs evpoixfv itivrf (cai et(tocri. Origen 
completed his 60th year in the close of A. D. 245 : 
conf. a. 202. After which date these works were com- 
posed. Origen adv. Celsum III. 15 marks that perse- 
cution had long ceased : to tUv f^aOfv 6«os — ircnaiJaOai 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

VIII Kal. Mart. VI. 42, 13 Sempronio. pp. VIII Kal. Mart. III. 32, 8 
Philippo militi. p p. II Non. Mart. V. 67, 1 Sahino. p p. XIII Kal. April. 
VI. 20, 7 Imp. Philippus A. Tyrannice. pp. VI Kal. Maii. VI. 21, 10 Imp. 
Philippus A. et Philippus C. Justino militi. p p. XII Kal. Jun. VI. 21, 11 
uEmiliano militi. p p. VII Kal. Jul. VI. 21, 12 Domitiee. p p. VI Non. Jul. 
V. 4fi, 2 Asclepiadi et Menandro. p p. IV Id. Julii. In only one is Philippus 
CcBsar omitted. 


1000. M. Julius Philip- 
pus Augustus II M. Julius 
Philippus Augustus 

Nor. Idat. B. Prosp. 

<l>tAfn-7ros to y Koi ^iKiir- 
■ffos avroKpArtap A. 

Philippi 4 from March, trih. pot. 4 from Kal. Januar. 

Philip the son is named Augustus at the age of 10 years: Victor Epit. 
p. 380. Filius ejus C. Julius Satuminus, quern potentiee sociaverat, Romce occi- 
ditur [in A.D. 249] agens vitee annum duodecimum ; adeo severi et tristis animi 
ut jam tum a quinquenni estate nulla prorsus cujusquam commento ad ridendum 
solvi potvsrit, patremque ludis scBcularibus petulantius cachinnantem, quanquam 
adhuc tener, vultu notaverit aversato. Fixed to this year by Alexandrian coins : 
conf. a. 246. Zosimus I. 22 neglects to tell that the son of Philip was called 

Coins of the elder Philip: Eckhel. tom. VII p. 322. 1 Imp. M. Jul. Phi- 
lippus Aug. -Vp. m. tr.p. IIII cos. II p. p. or p. m. tr. p. IIII cos. p.p. or lihe- 
ralitas Augg. II. 2 Imp. Philippus Aug. -{-p.m. tr.p. IIII cos. II p.p. or p.m. 
tr. p. IIII COS. p. p. 

Coins with the head of the son of Philip : p. 334. Imp. M. Jul. Philipput 
Aug. 4j». m. tr.p. IIII cos. II p.p. S. C. or p. m. tr.p. IIII cos. p.p. 

Tabula honestse missionis apud Eckhel. tom. VIII p. 439. Imp. Ccpsar M. 
Julius Philippus Pius Felix Aug. pontif. max. trih. pot. IIII cos. Ill des. p.p. 
proc. et imp. Gas. M. Julius Philippus Pius Felix Aug. pont. max. tr.pot. IIII 
COS. II designat. p. p. — a. d. V Kal. Jan. imp. M. Julio Philip^ Pio Felice 
Aug. COS. des. Ill et imp. M. Julio Philippo Pio Fel. Aug. cos. II des. cos. From 
this it appears that the fourth tribunician year was still current Dec. 28 
A. D. 247. In the coins and inscriptions of the son sometimes the tribunician 
years and sometimes the consulships of the father are inserted. Conf. Eckhel. 
tom. VIII p. 442. 


1001. M. Julius Philip- 
pus Augustus III M. Jur- 
Urn Philippus Augustus II 

Nor. Idat. Prosp. Ta- 
bula : see col. 3. 

AlluXiavos TO /3' koL <I>t- 


Pdliikiavos Koi 'A.Kv\- 

Kivos ;-'• B. dc. Phi- 

lippi anno VI» the con- 
suls Philippus III el Phi- 
lippus II being omitted. 

Philippi 5 from March, trih. pot. 5 from Kal. Januar. 

Ludi sceoulares: Eutrop. IX. 3 Philippi duo: — His imperantibus millesimus 
annus Eomee urhis ingenti ludorum apparatu spectaculorumque celehratus est. 
Capitolin. Gord. c. 33 Has omnes feras — Gordianus parahat ad triumphum 
Persicum. Sed votum publicum nihil valuit ; nam omnia hac Philippus exhihuit 
seecularibiis ludis et muneribus atque Circensihus, quum millesimum ah urbe con- 
dita annum in consulatu suo et Jilii sui celehravit. Victor Cses. p. 333 Annum 
urhis millesimum ludis omnium generum celebrant. Fixed to this year by coins : 
see col. 3. Eusebius places them at the wrong year : Anno Philippi primo, 
sub primordiis Philippi cumflio imperantis annus Romce millesimus expletus est; 
bellueeque ccesee &c. — tum et ludi in Martio campo celebrati trihus continenter 
diehus totidemque noctihvs [conf. Zosim. II. 5 fv Tpicrlv rjntpais (i> tu tov 'Apeos 
^TiLTeXovm TTfSta) km rais ttrais vv^Q. Pompeii theatrum incensum itemque heca- 
tonslylon in urhis Eomanm solemnihus. And Hieronymus : Anno Philippi se- 
cundo, regnantihus Philippis millesimus annus &c. Anno 3" agon mille annorum 

11 O M A N I 


S Skculab Authors 

4 Ecclesiastical AnxHORt 

but h\B fellow pupil: conf. a. 'JJO. Amelius waa a 
Tuscan: Porphyr. Ibid. o. 7- 'Aju^AiJr rt dno tt)? Tov- 
(TKias, ov TO ovo\xa Tfv TiVTiKi.avo$ to KVpiov avrbs b( ha 
Tov p 'Aixfpwv avTov KoKtlv ri^lov. 

ffir) xp6vif ■nKtCovi. which will place that work towards 
the close of the reign of Philip, and before the perse- 
cution under Decius. The work is addressed to Am- 
brosius : oonf. adv. Cels. I. 1. III. 1. IV. I. V. 1. 
VI, 1. VII. 1. VIII. 76. who is therefore still living 
in A. D. 246, although he died before Origen : conf 
a. 235. 

Quadratus brought his history to this period U. C. 
1000: Suid. p. 2135 A. KoSpdros 'Pu^aios, loropucos, 
iypa^iv "lahi hiaXiKTta 'urropiav ' Vuip.di.KT]v iv ^tfiXiois if , 
iT:iypa<j>7]v bk XiKi(Tr]piba [Steph. Byz. 'AvOiov : irdAiy 
'IraX^ay. KovabpdTos iv bfVTfpq 'Pujuaiic^s XtAtdfioy. 
Idem Qa\lf(TtoKis : — KovabpaTos ifi' 'VupidiKoiv. Idem 
'Ofv^ioi : — KovabpdTos ib' 'Pco/xaiVc^y XiXiapx^"0' ""-^ '"*' 
pi^X*' ^"'o KTliTfois 'Ptdjujjs ((OS 'AKf^dvbpov TOV Mana(as 
viov KaCcrapos. Alexander died U. C. Varr. 987. Either 
therefore Suidas is wrong, as Kuster supposes, or 
Quadratus began his narrative 13 years before the 
date of Varro. 

Quadratus is quoted by Xiphilinus 70. 3 on the death 
of Antoninus: KovabpiToi yripaiov p,4v ip-qaiv ainov Te\(v- 
TTiaai. by Zosimus V. 27, 1. Kovabp&Tio yap oijuat OiTiov, 
(V Tfi KaTCL TOV fiaviXia Mi.pKov IcrTopia tovto TiipX tovttjs 
T^s iroAeus [sc. de Bamnnal bu^tKdotm. by Vulcatius 
in Cassio c. 1. Avo genitus Avidio Severe, cuj'us Quadra- 
tus in historiis meminit. by Agathias I p. 17 C. ol b( 
'A\ap.avo\, tl ye XPV 'A(nvv[<f Kovabp^Tif fTTfaOai, avbpl 
'Ito^uotd Kal TO. TeppLaviKa is to d(cpt)3es avaytypafiufvif, 
$vyK\vb4s flaiv &vOp(i>Troi Kal ftiydbts. 

Quadratus also wrote Parthica : Capitolin. Vero c. 8. 
Quadratus belli Parthici scriptor: de Cassio A. D. H>7. 
Steph. Byz. rrjKvs: (Ovos ov fxtpunyrai 'A<t(vvios Kova- 
bpaTos ev TrpwTto UapdiK&v. Tapcros :—K. iv Tphf Tlap- 
diK&v. rd(aKa: iiokis p.(yl(rTr\ ttjs MrjStas, i)S K. fv 
6yb6<o Ylap0LKoiv. SdAtijua : K. erdry YlapOiKav. Conf, 
V. B6y)(i>ai. 


Coins: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 323. 1 Concordia Au- 
gustorum + Germ. max. Carpici max. Ill et II cos. 
Marking the victory over the Carpi. 2 Imp. Philip- 
pus Aug. + liheralitas Aug. III. 3 Pietas Augustomm. 
Ill et 11 cos. -r Marcia Otacilia Severa Aug. 4 Imp. 
Philippus Aug. +p. m. tr. p. V cos. Ill p. p. 5 Imp. 
M. Jul. Philippus Aug. + miliarium saculum. S. C. cos. 
III. fi Imp. Philippus Aug. + sacidares Augg. cos. III. 
or stEculares Augg. or sa-eulum novum. 7 J^- Otacil. 
Severa Aug. + miliarium saculum. S. C. or soeculares 
Augg. 8 Imp. Cas. M. Jul. Philippus Aug. -i- saculum 

Coins of the son of Philip : 1 Imp. M. Jul. Philip- 
pus Aug. + saculares Augg. S. C. cos. II. or seeculares 

Cyprian is appointed bishop of Carthage four years 
before July A. D. 252 : Cypriani Epistola 59 = 54 ad 
ComeUum. Caterum — quando ^piscopus in locum de- 
functi substituitur, quando popuK untverst tuffragto in 
pace deligitur, quando Dei auxilio in persecvtione prote- 
gitur \8Q. A. D. 2501,— plebi mcB in episcopatu quadri- 
ennio jam probatus &.O. Hieron. Catal. c. 67- Cyprianus 
Aferprimum gloriose rhetoricam docuit, exinde suadmte 
presbytero Co'cilio — Christianus factua omnem substan- 
tiam pauperibus erogavit, ac post non multum temporis 
ekdus in presbyterum etiam episcopus Carthaginteiuit 
constitutm est. Hujus ingenii super/luum est indicem 
texere, cum sole clariora sint ejus opera. For the time 
of that epistle of Cyprian conf. a. 252. 

M m 





1 Consuls 

01. 257 U. C. Varr. 1002. 
Aemilianus II et Aqui- 

Cod. Justin. IV. 16, 2. 
VIII. 5«, 1. IX. 32, 6. 
X. 16, 3. 

^miliano et Aquilino 
Nor. Prosp. Cassiod. 

uEmiliano et Aquiliano 

A^KLos TO /3' KM, KavXt- 
vos A. 

Ae'/cios p' Kot rpiros B. 

Lapis apud Panvinium 
p. 375 Gruterum p. 103. 
11. Dedicata III Non. 
Jan. ^miltano II et A- 
quilino cos. P. Sergio Max- 
imo M. Lollio Sabiniano 
II vir. Q. Q. cura agente 
Verentto Januario lib. ark. 

Viennae apud Grute- 
rum p. 74. 6 p. 130. 2. 
Fortunce conser. genioque 
hujus loci in honorem Jun. 
Tiberlanici ir. mil. leg. X 
G. P. P. Fee. [lege 'Fel.] 
T. Gl. Valentimis Corni- 
cularius ex voto .... vie. . . 
V Kal. Jun. ^mil. II 
et Aquilin. cos. 

2 Events 

actus. Cassiodorus at the wrong consuls, but the right year of Philip : ^mi- 
lianus et Aquilinus. {Philippi 5") His coss. millesimus annus &c. et agon niille 
annorum actus. Orosius VII. 20 from Hieronymus: Post tertium imperii ejus 
annum millesimus — impletus est &c. 

Philippi 6 from March, tr. pot. 6 from Kal. Januar. 

Philip slain at Verona : Zosim. I. 20 — 22. ■nokXSii; Kara ravTov (fjLTTfirovcr&v 
Tapax^v TOLs irpdyixacn, ra fiiv Kara rrjv ((oav Tats t&v c\>6p(av eia-irpd^ccn Koi tia 
npCijKOV, ap)({i.v tQv «Ket<re KaBiarap-evov fOv&v, dfpoprjTov S.7ta<TLV elvai ^apvvo- 
pfva, Koi bia tovto irpbs to veartpC^eiv TpwnivTa, tov ''lutTaTnavbv Ttaprjyayov (Is 
Tr\v tS)V okutv dp)(i')v, TO h\ Mv(rS)v raypaTa Koi llaiovciiv Maptvov. (TvvTapa\6ivTos 
he i-nl TovTois 4>i\^7nrov, koX bfoptvov rfjs yepovaCas rj (rvWa/SeVflai 01 irpos to. Kadf- 
(TT&ra J) yovv, el ttj avToi) hvcrapiaToiev dpx]}, Tavnjs a<j)elvai, — AeVios kuI yevei 
■!rpoe\a>i) koI a^idpaTi,, ■npoa-eTi he /cat Traaais hMnpe-nwv rats apeTais, p&rrjv eXeyev 
avTov eTH TOVTOIS dyatviav paov yap ev eavTols TavTa hi.a(p6api')(re(rdat.. — roC he 
^latTainavov re koI MapCvov (riiv oii ttoAAo) Tioru KaOaipeBevTmv, ovhev tjttov iv 
<t)6^ois 6 <I>tAfjnros riv, to t&v (TTpaTuaT&v pliros Trepl tovs eKelire Ta^iip\ovs (cat 
i]yep.6vas eihds. Trapendkei toCwv tov AtKtor Tav ev Mvo'Ca koL Daioi'ia TaypdToiv 
avahe^ao-dai. ri^v dp\riv, k.t.X. — ot he TavTrj (rrpaTmTcu, tov AeKiov op&VTes Tois 
ijpapTrjKOcnv eTie^Lovra, KaXXi-ov elvaL acpCaiv i]yi](ravT0 — TTpoaTrjo-aa-dai. p6vap)(ov os 
Kat tS>v KOivwv av eTnpeXriOeii} Kpeiaaov koi ov a-vv Troro) irepiecTTai ^iXitttiov. — 
TTepiOevTes ovv avTw ti]v aXovpyCha, /cat e<p' eavr^ Xombv 6ppa>hovvTa Trpbs ti]v t&v 
TTpaypaTav Kal aKovra avvwdovin Krjhepoviav, k.t. X. In the battle which ensued, 
inecrov piv «/c ttjs ^iXCtiiiov pepChos iroAAol, /cat aiiTos he rrvv avrols dvaipelTai, Koi 
TOV vaihbs, bv ^Tvxe ttj tov KatVapos afia Tipricras [conf. a. 247], airoatpayeifTos, 
ovT(i> pev ovv 6 Ae'/ctos ttis tUv oXcoi' a.p\T^s iyevero Kvptos. Eutrop. IX. 3 Ambo 
ab exercitu inter/ecti sunt; senior Philippus VeroncB, RomcB junior . Annis quinque 
imperavenmt. Infer divos tamen relati sunt. Victor Cajs. p. 334 Quanquam 
debili per aiaiem corpore [Chron. Pasch. p. 270A. hb>v pe'], adversum Decium 
profectus VeroncB cadit. — Quis Romce compertis, apud castra prcetoria JiUus inter- 
ficitur. Annas potentiee quinque egere. Victpr Epit. p. 380 Imperavit annos 
quinque. Veronce ab exercitu interfectus est. Anecd. Paris. Cramer tom. II 
p. 57 TovTtav dyyeXdevrutv tw <I'tAt7777&) /cara t?;;' B«poiji' [1. Beptdn/r] (^evyovTi — 
dvaipovcriv TrtpnTov iviavTov TTpoaTdvra tSiv Ttpaypajtiiv. In Eusebius and Ilie- 
ronymus he has 7 years: Euseb. H. E. VI. 39 tTecnv e-nTa. Idem Chron. 
Philippi "Jo Philippus cuinfilio interjicitur. Hieronymus adds Philippus senior 
Verona^, MonKS junior, from Eutropius. Cassiodorus: Annis VI. But as 
Cassiodorus gives him seven pairs of consuls, and transcribes Hieronymus : 
Philippus senior Veronce he. we may perhaps read annis VII. Orosius VII. 20 
follows Hieronymus : Mansit annis septem. In Chron. Pasch. p. 269 C erri ?•'. 

Philip is still living in Cod. Justin, at June 17 : see col. 3. That he survived 
till after Aug. 29 is proved by his Alexandrian coins apud Eckhel. torn. I V^ p. SS ; 
which have L. C- Tlie 7th year of Gordian ///was marked Aug. 29 A. I). 243 : 
conf. a. The Alexandrian coins therefore of Philip are fixed to the foliowiiig 
dates: 'A. K. M. '\ovX. ^iXiintos Ev. lefi. L. p! from Aug. 29 A. D. 244. L. / Aug. 
29 A. D. 245. L. 8' Aug. 29 A. D. 246. L. e Aug. 29 A. D. 247. L- r' Aug. 29 
A. D. 248. L. f commencing Aug. 29 A.D. 249 and current at his death. 

R O M A N I 


3 Secular Autuobs 

Augg. 2 Imp. Ccbs. M. Julius Philippus Aug. -\- sttcu- 
lum novum. 

Tabula honestcD missionis apud Eckhel. torn. VIII 
p. 4S!). Imp. Ccbs. M. Julius Philippm Pitts Fel. Aug. 
pmit. mam. tr. pot. V cos. Ill p. p. jirocos. Impi Cats. M. 
Julius &c. tr. pot. II COS. II p. p. — a. d. Vll Id. Jan. 
imp. M. Julio PAilippo Pio Fel. Aug. Ill et imp, M. 
Julio Philippo Pio Fel. Aug. II cos. This monuniont 
attests that the 5th tribunician year had communced 
before Jan. 7 A. D. 248. 


(Porphyry in his early youth saw Origen: conf. a. 
206". At Alexandria according to Vincentius Com- 
monit. p. .343. Impius ilk Porphyrius excitum se fama 
ipsius Alexandriam /ere puerum perrexisse ibique eum 
vidissejam senem. But Origen had quitted Alexandria 
in A. 1). 2;n before the birth of Porphyry, and was at 
Caesarca when Porphyry heard him. The error of 
Vincentius is remarked by Brucker torn. II p. 241. 242 
and by Heinichen ad Euseb. H. E. VI, ly torn. II 
p. 200.) 

Laws of A. D. 249 : Cod. Justin, IX. 32, 6 Idem 
A. et G. [sc. Philippus] Basilice. pp. X Kal. Mart. 
JEmiliano II et Aquilino corns. VlII. 56, 1 Imp. 
Philippus A. Cosmino. Dat. XV Kal. Jul. X. 16, 3 
Imp. Decius A. Citicio. Dat. p p. XVII Kal. Nov. 
./Emiliano II et Aquilino corns. IV. 16, 2 Imp. Decius 
A. TelemachcB. p p. XIV Kal. Nov. ./^miliano II et 
Aquilino corns. 

Coins of A. D. 249 : 

1 A coin of Marinus (see col. 2) issued at Philippo- 
polis in Thrace: Eckhel. torn. II p. 44 torn, VII p. 337. 
0«<j> Mapivio + 4>iXiinT07roAiTd)j' KoKcavCas. S. C. 

2 Roman coins of Philip : Eckhel. torn. VII p. 328. 
Imp. M. Jul. Philippus Aug. +p. m. tr. p. VI cos. p. p. 
A coin Ibid. p. 334 bearing the same inscriptions, with 
the head of the younger Philip. 

3 Coins of Decius : p. 342. 1 Imp. Trajanus Decius 
Aug. + adventus Aug. 2 Imp. C. M. Q. Trajanus De- 
cius Aug.+adventm Aug. or liheralitas Aug. S. C. 
3 Imp. Cms. C. Mess. Q. Decio TraJ. Aug.+votis de- 
cennalibus. 6'. C. 4 Imp. C. M. Q. Trajanus Decius 
Aug.+principi jtiventut. 

Dionytius succeeds HeracUu : Euseb, Chron, Anno 
2264 Philippi 3« Alexandrina eeeUtia epueopw XIII 
Dionysius. Hie autem Dionyriiu vir lui Umporis elo- 
quentissimus summa gloria floruit. Hieronymus: Anno 
2264 Philippi b<> XIII eptscopuB Dionynus ann. XVI J. 
Eusebius H. E. VI. 35. Tpirov 8> OiX^inry trot ijp tto0 % 
IxfTaXXd^avTOi "HpaxAo tov fiCov itrl ixKalbiKa trtvi rijt 
Tipoaraa-lai tUv kut ''AXtftivbptiav ^kkAt/o-iwi' tijv iiruTKO- 
•nrjv Aiovvcnos vitoKan^dvei. The year 2264 in reality 
commenced in October A. D. 248 in the fl/th year of 
Philip and not in the third; and Hieronymus has 
rectihed the error of Eusebius : conf. a. 276. But, as 
Dionysius presided 17 years and died in A. D. 265 
(conf. a.), his commencement may be placed in the 
beginning of A, D. 249 anno Euselnano 2264. 

H m 2 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

Decius is Augustus in Ood. Justin. Oct. 16 A. D. 249. The death of Philip 
then may be placed between Sept. 1 and Oct. 16. His reign, from March 
A. D. 244, was 5 years and 6 or 7 months. 


1003. G. Messim Quintus 
Trajanus Decius Augus- 
tus II et Gratus 

Nor, Idat. Pont. Ponti- 
ficalis liber apud Acta 
Concil. torn. I p. 653 Cod. 
Justin. III. 22,2. V.12,9. 
VI. 30, 4. 58, 3. VII. 
32,3. VIII. 54,3. 

Decio et Grato Greg. 
Tur. I. 28 Prosp. Cassiod. 

AeVtos TO y koL Yparos A. 
om. B. 

Decii 2 from Sept. or Oct. trib. pot. 2. 

Victor Ca!s. p. 334 Decius Sirmiensium vico ortus [e Pannonia inferiore Bu- 
dalice natus Eutrop. IX. 4 Victor. Cses. p. 380 Hieron. Chron.] militice gradu 
ad imperium conspiraverat, Icetiorque hostium nece jilium Etruscum nomine Cee- 
saremfadt [Decium Jilium suuni Ccesarem fecit Victor Epit. p. 380. Jilium suum 
CcBsarem fecit Eutrop. IX. 4. conf. Ores. VII. 21], statimque eo in Illyrios prce- 
misso Roma aliquantum moratur mcenium gratia, quce instituit, dedicandorum. 
Et interea ad eum lotapiani [conf. a. 249] — ora, uti mos est, inopinato feruntur; 
simulque per eos dies L. Prisco qui Macedonas pressidatu regehat delata dominaiio 
Gothorum concur su, postquam direptis Thracice plerisque illo pervenerant. Qua 
causa Decio quam potuit maturrime Roma, digresso Julius Valens cupientissima 
vulgo imperium capit. Verum utrique mox ceesi, cum Priscum nobilitas hostem 
patriee censuisset. Eutropius IX. 4 Bellwm civile quod in Gallia motum fuerat 
oppressit. Syncellus p. 376 A "iKvdai TrepauadivTa ol Xeyoixtvoi rordoi t6i> 
]<TTpov T!OTay.ov k-nl AckCov TrXeioroi TrjV 'VoifxaCciiv t-aiKpaTHav KaTevfpLOVTO. The 
ravage of Thrace by the Goths (who besieged and took Philippopolis : r^s er 
QpaKfi 4>tAi7r7rot;7roAeti)s aXova-qs Zosim. I. 24) was in A. D. 249, 250. We may 
place the mission of the son of Decius into Illyricum at the close of 249, and 
the departure of Decius himself from Rome at the close of 250. 

Seven missionaries are sent into Gaul : Greg. Tur. I. 28. Sub Decio imperor 
tore multa bella adversutn notnen Christianum exoriuntur et tanta strages de cre- 
dentibus fuit ut nee numerari queant. Babylas episcopus Antiochenus [see col. 4] 
cum tribus parvulis, id est, Urbano Prilidano et Epolono, et Sixtus Romance 
ecchsiee episcopus et Laurentius archidiaconus et Hippolytus, ob Dominici nominis 
confessionem per marti/rium consummati sunt. — Hujus {Decii) tempore septem vin 
episcopi ordinati ad prcedicandum in Gallias missi sunt, sicut historia passionis 
sancti martyris Saturnini denarrat ; ait enim, " Sub Decio et Grato consulibus — 
" primum ac summum Tolosana civitas sanctum Satuminum habere cceperat sa- 
" cerdotem^ Hi ergo missi sunt. Tvronicis Gatianus episcopus, ARETALEysiauH 
Trophimus episcopus, Narbonje Paulus episcopus, Tolosx Saturninus episcopus, 
Parisiacis Dionysius episcopus, Arvernis Stremonius episcopus, Lemovicinis 
Martialis est destinatus episcopus. Gregorius has confounded the martyrdom 
of Sixtus in A. D. 258 (conf. a. 258. 4) with the martyrdom of Faiianus in 
A. D. 250. 

The Christian Faith was already planted at Vienne and Lyons in A. D. 177 
(conf. a.) ; and perhaps in some other part of Gaul at an earlier period (conf. 
Mosheim. de rebus Christian, p. 209. 210). But those former converts were 
probably small congregations, and only in a few districts of the country. 


1004. C. M. Q. Trajanus 
Decius Augustus III Q. 
Herennius Etruscus Mes- 
sius Decius Cmsar 

Nor. Idat. 

Dedo IV et Dedo II 

Duobus Deciis Trebell. 
Valer. c. 1. 

Decii trib. pot. 3 

Campaign of Decius against the Goths : Zosim. I. 23 'Siicvdai tov Tarai'v 6ia- 
jiavTis iXyji^ovTo to. TTfpl Tr]v QpqK-qv x,'>>p^o,' oh fue^eXdliiv AfKios Koi iv irdo-ai? 
KpaTrjaas rals fio-x^ais, TrapeXo/xei'oy 8e koX rf;? Kftas fjv iTV\ov €iA?j(^oVes k. t. A. 
According to Dexippus apud Syncellum p. 376 A Decius sustained some re- 
verses : Ae'/ctoy iinKOiiiv avrois, ws AeftTWOs la-Topei, koI Tpia^fxvpiovs KTfivai eAar- 
rovTai Kara rfiv fiaxrjv, cos koi Trfv <J>tAi7rirowTroAtv aTTokia-ai \r](f>d(i(Tav v-n ain&v 
KoX QpaKUi TTokKovs avaipedrjvai,' firaviovcri 6f !S,Kv9ais (tjI to. (T(^iTtpa o avros 
AfKios (TnOfixevoi k. t. A. But if the Goths lost 30,000 men and were retiring 
homewards, we may suspect that (as in the account of Victor : conf. a. 250) 

R O M A N I 


3 Seculae Authoks 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

Laws : Cod. Justin. VI. 30, 4 Imp. Dedus A. Athe- 
naidi. pp. X Kcd. Mart. Decio A, 1 1 et Grata corns. 
VIII. 54, 3 Marcellino. pp. Non. Mart. VII. 32, 3 
Rufino.p p. V Kal. April. V. 12, 9 Imp. Decius A. 
et G. Urbtcanee. pp. Vl Id. Jun. III. 22, 2 Imp. 
Deems A. Felici. pp. Kal. Dec. VI. 58, 3 Asclepio- 
dotce. pp. II Non. Dec. 

Inscriptio apud Gruterum p. 1021. 6. Mognzani ad ri- 

pam Benaci in columna: Imp G.M^s»ms Quint]M« 

Trajanus Dedus F. Aug. p.p. trih. pot. II cos. Ilpi.c. 
[lege proc] 

Inscriptio Valentise apud Gruterum p. 274. 1 Q. 
Herennio Etrusco Messio Decio nohilissimo Gees, prin- 
cipi juventutis Valent. Veter. et Veteres. 

FaUanus Alexander Baiylas perish in the Decian 
persecution : Euseb. H. E. VI. 39. ^a^iavov M 'Pw^jjy 
fixxpruplif TfkfuaOivTO'i [Feb. 21 : conf. a. 23C], Kopi/^Aioj 
ri]v imcTKOTtriv bi.ahi\(T<u [conf, a. 25 1 ]. iisl h\ FIoAot- 
(TTitrrji 'AXf'foi'Spos 6 Trji 'UpocToXvfuav iKKKr)(rUii ivCa-KO- 
TTOS — hf(rna>rr)plov irfiparai, Kiirap^ TIP*'' *<*' <^*M'^ iroKiq 
KaTtcntixp.ivo'i. tovtov bi — iitl Trjs (IpKriji KomrjOitrros. 
Mofa^dnjs biAboxos rrji iv 'UpocroAiJ/xots i-nt,crKOTn\i &.va- 
bfUvvTai. r(p 8' 'AXffdi'8p(j) -napaTiXTfcritai (v 'Awio;(<ia 
Tov T&afivKa p.fTa t)\v bfxokoylav iv bKTyMTr\piif p.(Tak- 
Kd^avTos, <l>a^ioi rrji avroOi TtpottnarM (KK\r\iTla^. The 
persecution at Alexandria is described by Dionysius 
oi Alexandria in his epistle to Fabius oi Antioch apud 
Euseb. H. E. VI. 41. 42. Origen suffers imprisonment 
and torture : Euseb. VI. 39. Hieron. Catal. c. 54 Cum 
etiam Fabianus RomaruB ecclesice episcopus occubuerit et 
Alexander Babylasque pontifices in carcere pro confes- 
sione Ghristi obdormterirU. Et super Origenis statu si guts 
scire velit quid actum sit, primum quidem de epistolis 
ejus quee post perseaitionem ad diversos missts sunt, de- 
inde de sexto Emebii Gcesariensis Ecclesiastics historiee 
libro et pro eodem Origene in sex voluminibtis poterit li- 

For the churches founded in Gaul see col. 2. 

Coins of A. D. 251 : 
I Of Herennius: Eckhel. torn, VII p. 349. Imp. 
G. Q. Her. Etr. Mes. Decio Aug.+princ. juventut. or 
securitas Augg. or victoria GermMnica. 2 Herennia 
Etruscilla wife of Decim is commemorated upon coins 
apud Eckhel. p. 847- Her. Etruscilla Aug. or Herennia 
Etruscilla Aug. +fecunditas. or Juno reqina. or pudi- 
citia. Nunius coloniee Rkescena ; in cujus antica air. 
K. Yv. Me. K. Tpa. AiKLoi cnfi. ^Epei'i'. 'Erpovo-iciWa o-f/3. 
an Alexandrian coin : toui. IV p. 90 inscribed 'Ep. 

GomeKw bishop of Rome: Pont, apud Bucherium 
p. 271. Gornelius annos II memes HI dies .V. a consn- 
librn Decio IV et Decio II [lege Decio III et Deci6\ 
usque Gallo et V^olwsiano. Sub episcopatu ejus Novatus 
extra ecclesiam ordinavU Novatianum in urbe Roma et 
Nicostrattim in Africa. There was a long interval 
between the death of Fabian and the election of Cor- 
nelius, for which see Appendix; and according to this 
author himself Cornelius was elected in 25 1 and died 
in 252. Wherefore Pearson Annal. Cyprian, p. 29 




1 Consuls 

Decio II et Rustico Prosp- 

FciAAos TO /3' xat Af'/ctos 

Y^aiaap TO l3' B. 


2 Events 

the victory of the Goths and the loss of PhiHppopolis had preceded the arrival 
o{ Deems. Decius is still engaged in the campaign Oct. 27 A. D. 251 : Trebell. 
Valer. c. 1. Duohus Deciis consulihus VI Kal. Novemh. die, quum oh imperatorias 
Uteras in cede Castorum senatus haheretur, ireturque per sententias singulorum cui 
deheret censura deferri {nam id Decii posuerant in senaius amplissimi potentate), 
ubi primum prcetor edixit " Quid vobis videtur P. C. de censore deligendo ?" atque 
eum qui erat princeps quum senatiis sententiam rogasset, absente Valeriana, {nam 
ille in procinctu suo cum Decio agebat,) omnes una voce dixerunt — ^'Valeriani vita 
" censura est,'" &c. Hoc senatusconsultum ubi Decius accepit. Sic. 

Death of Decius before the end of this year, since Galium is Augustus Jan. 1 
A. D. 252 : conf. a. 252. 1. Slain by the contrivance of Gallus, according to 
Zosimus I. 23. Eutrop. IX. 4 Gum biennio ipse etfilius imperassent, uterque in 
barbarico interfecti sunt et inter divas relati. Victor Cses. p. 334 Decii barbaros 
trans Danubium persectantes Bruti [lege cum Grutero Abruti\ fraude cecidere, 
exacto regni biennio. Victor Epit. p. 380 Imperavit menses XXX. — In solo 
barbarico inter confusas turbas gurgite paludis submersus est ita ut nee cadaver 
ejus potuerit inveniri. Filius vero ejus bello extinctus est. Vixit annos quinqua- 
ginta. Ammianus XXXI. 5, 16 Ceciderunt dimicando cum barbaris impera- 
tores Decii, pater etjilius. Ibid. 13, 13 Ccesarem accepimus Decium dimicantem 
cum barbaris acriter, equi lapsu prostratum — abjectumque in paludem, nee emsr- 
gere potuisse nee inveniri. Syncellus p. 376 A (-naviovcn "^Kvdais (TnOfixtvos avai- 
pfirai ev^A^pvT<f [in Abritto Euseb. ev 'AfivpTia Chron. Paseh. in Abricio ThradcB 
loco Cassiod.] — <tvv t(3 TiatSt 8ta vu/croy. Euseb. Chron. Cassiod. Regnavit anno I 
mensibus III. Chron. Pasch. p. 270. 271. (tos a'. — icrt^ayr] &iv kr&v f'. Euseb. 
H. E. VII. 1 oi6' okov iT!iKpaTr](TavTa hvolv krolv \p6vov. His third year is 
marked upon an Alexandrian coin apud Eckhel. tom. IV p. 90. 'A. K. T. M. K. 
TpaCavbs Aexioy fva: 2. I., a. /3'. /. His 2nd year began Aug. 29 A. D. 250, 
because Aug. 29 A. D. 249 was the seventh year of Philip : conf. a. The 3rd 
of Decius therefore — L. y' — at Alexandria commenced Aug. 29 A. D. 251, and 
was current at his death in November following. He might reign two years 
and two months. 


1005. C. Vibius Treboni 
anus Gallus Augustus II 
G. Vibius Volusianus Gal- 
lus Ccesar Nor. Idat. B. 
Cod. Justin. II. 19, 16: 
see col. 3. 

Gallo et Volusiano Pont. 
Prosp. Cassiod. 

Bo\ov(TLavos TO /3' koX Bo- 
Kova-iavos A. 

Romse apud Panvinium 
p. 377Gruterump.995.9. 
1081.1. Monumentum quod 
est via triumpale (sic) inter 
miliarium secundum et ter- 
tium euntibus ah urbe parte 

Gain 2 from Nov. tr. pot. 2 from Kal. Januar. 

Victor Caes. p. 334 Patres Gallo Hostilianoque Augusta imperia Volusianum 
Gallo editum Cmsarem decemunt. Victor Epit. p. 381 Vibius Gallus cum Vo- 
lusiano filio imperaverunt annos duos. Hoicum temporibus Hostilianus Perpenna 
a senatu imperator creatus. Eutrop. IX. 5 Imperatores creati sunt Gallus, 
Hostilianus, et Galli filius Volusianus. — Nihil omnino clarum gesserunt. Sola 
pestilentia et morbis atque cpgritudinibus notus eorum principatus fuit. Zosimus 
I. 24. 25 marks the elevation of Volusianus : -napekOovTos eis ti^v apx^jv roi) 
riWov Kal <TvvavabeC^avTOi fai/ra tov TTolba OvoXovmavov /3a(ri\f'a. and the 
adoption of the son of Decius: ti^v apxrjv eit^Tj/xcds r^s AckCov /SairiXeias ip.i\xvr\To, 
Kol TOV (TL irepiovTa t&v ovtov iraCboov eTroieiTo. These appointments were made 
in November A. D. 251 (conf. a.), from whence the reign of Gallus is dated. 

Return of Gallus to Eome: Zosim. I. 24. to. rijj evr]iJ,fpCas t&v jiap^apav 
av^rjv fkdfijSavfV ov yap p.6vov eiravekdelv avTols els to. ot/ceia ^vvfx.'^pei ixfTo. Trjs 
keias 6 rdXA.os aXka xal Xpr]n6.TU>v ri jueVpov Irovs fKdarov xopiiye'i^v VTreVxero, KOt 
Toiij alxfiakuTovs — evebtbov /car e^ova-lav cmdyeLV — TaijTa ixkv ovTa>s 6 Tdikkos bua- 
KrjKuii eis t^v 'Pci>/X7jy a(j)CKeT0, p.iya (ppov&v cm TfOelarj Trpoy roiis fiap^apovs dpr]vr]. 

R M A N I 


3 Seculak Authors 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

Koi/TT. AhpovcncCWa a-f^. Named with Dedtu and his 
sons in an inscription — lapis CarseoHs effossus — apiid 
Eckhol. torn. VII p. 347- Herenniee Cupressmies Etrm- 
dllcB Aug. conjugi D.N. Deci Aug. matri Augg. nn. et 
castror. S. P. Q. C. 

3 Coins of HostUianus: p. 353. Imp. Gee. G. Val. 
Hos. Mes. Quintm Aug.+princeps juventuds. S. G. or 
voiis decennalibus. 8. G. 

4 Of Gallm: p. 354. Imp. Gees. Trebonianm Aug.-¥ 
p. m. tr. pot. COS. p.p. 

5 Of Volusianus: 
principi juventutis. 

Herermius is still Gcesar in the beginning of this 
year in an inscription apud Eckhol. torn. VI I p. 349. 
Q. Herennio Etrmco Messio JJecio nohilissimo Gcbs. prin- 
cipi juventutis COS. 

p. 3fi6. G. Vibio Volusiano Gees. + 

and Fagi torn. I p. 242, to make this writer consistent 
with himself, read annum I menses III dies X. and 
this period reckoned upwards from the death of Gor- 
nelius Sept. 14 A. D. 252 (conf. a.) will place his elec- 
tion at June 4 A. D. 251. Eusebius H. E. VII. 2 
Chron. anno 2263 allows no interval, and gives Gome- 
litis 3 years. Hieronymus Chron. annis '2254. 2267 
also allovys no interval, and assigns him two years. 
Idem Catal. c. 66. Cornelius Uomance urbis episcopus, 
ad quern octo Gypriani exstant epistolee [sc. Ep. 44. 45. 
47. 48. 51. 52. 59. GO ed. Oxon.l, scripsit epistolam ad 
Fabium AntiochentE ecclesiee episcoptim [conf. Euseb. 
H. E. VI. 43] de Synodo Romana Italica Africana, et 
aliam de Novatian-o et de his qui Utpsi sunt, tertiam de 
gestis synodi, quartam ad eundem Fabium valde pro- 
lixam [conf. Euseb. VI. 43]. — lUxit ecelesiam annis du- 
obus sub Gallo et Volusiano. 

The schism oi Novatian: Euseb. Chron. Anno 2270 
GaUi 1" Novatius schismate se ab ecclesia reinovit; Iub- 
resim auiem Novatianus invexit, quern prolixis scriptis 
Dionysius objurgat. Hieron. Anno 2268 GaUi I" [for 
this variation conf. a. 276] Novatus presbyter Gypriani 
Bomam veniens Novaiianum et cmteros amfessores sibi 
social, eo quod Gomelius paenitenies apostatas recepisset. 
Conf. Hieron. Catal. c. 70. The Ist of Gallus, in 
which these transactions occurred, in reality coincided 
with the year 2267. Prosper (whom Cassiodorus fol- 
lows) places Novatian after the death of Cornelius, in 
A . D. 253 : Volusiano II et Maximo. Novatus presbyter 
Gypriani Itomam veniens Novatianum et cceteros confes- 
sores sibi sociat &c. a metachronism of two years. 

Dionysii ad Novaiianum ^nstola : Euseb. H. E. VI. 
45. Aioirvaios Novdr(i) tc5 abt\(f>^ \a(pfu'. Ei Hkoiv, iy 
(^j;s, ']X^1^' Sf'ffis. ^v ivaxa>pri(Tris (ndv. Conf. Hieron. 
Catal. c. 69. 

Coins of Gallus: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 355. 

1 Imp. G. G. Vib. Treb. Gallus P. F. Aug. + adven- 
tus Augg. 

2 Imp. Gallus Aug. imp. Volusianus Aug. + adven- 
tus Augg. 

3 Imp. Gees. C. Vibius Trebonianus Gallus Aug.-^ 
adventus Augg. or p.m. tr. p. cos. II p.p. S.G. "Omis- 
sus numerus in lioc numo trib. potestatis, ut ssepe 
alias hoc sevo factum." Eckhel. 

4 Imp. Gallus Aug. imp. Volusianus Aug.+ponti/. 
max. tr. p. II cos. II. with the two emperors in a tri- 
umjjhal chariot, or pontif. max. tr. p. II cos. II et cos. 

5 Imp. Gas. C. Vibius Trebonianus Gallus Attg.i- 
votis decennalibus. 

Dionysii ad Gomelium epistola de Novatiano : Euseb. 
H. E. VI. 46. KopvriKl(f tw Kara 'Pdfitjv ypa(f>(i Sff<i- 
fifvoi avTov T^i» naTO. tov NovAtov iiticrro\TJv. u xal crr)- 
ixaivei, brfX&v lovror TTapaK(Kkrj<T0ai v-no re 'EKivov rod iv 
Taptro) rfji KtXtKiay iiticTKOTiov — ^ip\ixKiavov re tov iv 
KoTTxaSoicia, Koi tov kuto. noAoicrTtrrji' &€oktC<ttov, is &v 
(Til TT)v (Tvvobov CLT:apn]<Toi. TTjv Kara 'Arrto'xetai', (vda tov 
Novdroi; KpaTvvnv rivf j lTtfj((lpavv to <r\i(Tp.a. irpoi tov- 
TOts iT!i(TTiW€i p.rji'vdijpai avTm <l>d/3tor fji,(v [conf. a. 250] 
K(K0ipLTJa-6ai Ar]fj.r]Tpi.avov be btabo)^ov iKfivov — Kadfcnd- 

The birth of A ntonirn the monk is placed at this 
date by Hieronymus Chron. Anno 2267 [A. D. 25 i] 
Decii 1» Anfonius monachus in ^gypto nasdtur. A 
notice not inserted by Eusebius himself, as Pagi ad 
Baronium torn. I p. 239 supposes, but added by Hie- 
ronymus ; since it is not in the Armenian copy. Con- 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 

Iceva in dim Cinnee &c. 
— Actum pr. Kal. Aug. 
impp. DD. NN. Gallo 
Aug. II. et Volusiano Aug. 
coss. Isdem coss. eadem die 
Statia Irene I. L. H. donor 
iioni monumenti S.8. sicut 
supra scriptum est consensi 

subscripsi et atsignam 


His return to Rome and the peace with the barbarians are marked on the 
coins of this year. 

The pestilence begins: Hieron. Chron. Anno 2268 [A.D. 25^] Galli \« pesti- 
lens morbus multas totius orbis provincias occupavit maximeque Alexandrian, et 
jiEgyptum, ut scribit Dionysius [conf. epistolam apud Euseb. H. E. VII. 22], et 
Cypriani de Mortalitate testis est liber. Placed by the Armenian Eusebius in 
the preceding year: Decii l** pestis multas orbis partes &c. — uti narrat Dio- 
nysius. Where Eusebius, to whom the works of Cyprian were unknown, 
makes no mention of Cyprian. Victor Cses. p. 334 Pestilentia oritur ; qua 
atrocius sesviente Hostilianus interiit. Gallo Volusianoque favor qucesitus qvxid 
anxie studioseque tenuissimi cujusque exsequias curarent. Victor Epit. p. 381 Nee 
multo post Hostilianus pestilentia consmnptus est. Conf. Orosium V 1 1. 2 1 . Zosim. 
I. 26 6 Xoijuos TToAecrt re koI KiofjMis iinyevoixivos, el ri XeXeifjLuevov ^v avQpdituov 
y4vos, biffjidfipfv K. T. \. He imputes the death of Hostilianus to Gallns: c. 25. 
(Tti^ovKiVii davarov avT^, ome r^s irotricreojs ovre tov koX&s fxovros Xoyov riva 
isoirjfT&jxevo^. Whatever was the cause, his death may be placed at the close 
of A. D. 252. This pestilence began in the autumn, and lasted fifteen years : 
Cedrenus p. 258 A tireKparei 6 Xoifios iv tois fifiipais fKeCvais [the reign of 
Gallus], Kiirqdfh aiTO AWioTiLas l^fXP'- '"^* bvaems, i>s fir]bffiCav ttoKiv ixelvai tovtov 
&lxoipov, TioXkdKis 8e koI 6is t^j iroKeais eirripxeTO. STreicpdrei be en) le apxoiievoi 
OTTO (f)6ivoTr(apov Koi \riymv ttj tov kvvos e7riro\f/. Zonaras tom. I p. 628 B oAXa 
Kal Xoiixos Tore rais X'^P'"* evea-Krj-^ev i^ AlOiovCas ap^dfievos, Koi TTCurav a-xebop 
firiveixr)6eh \<i)pav eiaav re koI ecmipiov, koI voWai r&v TidKeav tSiv oiKryropiav 
eKevaxrev, e-nl TtevreKaCbeKa biapKicrai ertai/Touy. Mentioned by Jornandes Getio. 
c. 1.9. conf. a 552. 3, 

R M A N I 


3 Secular Authors 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

The pestilence is marked by many coins of Gallus 
apud Eckhel. p. 357- *' advorsa ytiria,.'''' + Apollo mlu- 
taris. or Apoll. salutari. with an Apollo. Imp. Gag. C. 
Vibius Trebonianm Gallus Aug. + Amasi. with Apollo. 
Imp. CcB. C. Vib. Treb. Gallus Aug. + Amazi. with 

Coins of Volusianus : Eckhel. p. 357. ^'"/'- C'^r. C. 
Vib. Volusiano Aug. + Amazi. with Apollo, p. 367- 
Imp. Cce. G. Vib. Volusiano Aug.+ votis decennalibus. 

S. G. 

Volimanus was still Casar at Jan. 1 A. D. 252 ; 
which is not contradicted by the coins given above at 
N". 4. Ho was Augustus at Aug. 1 : see col. 1. And 
at April 21 : Cod. Justin. II. 19, Ifi Impp. Gallus et 
Volusianus A A. Eutychiano. pp. XI Kal. Maii Gallo 
II et Volusiano A A. conss. 

sistontly with this account the death of Antoniu$ ia 
placed in the year 2372, which Hieronymus inaccu- 
rately calls the 19th of Gonstantius: Anno 2372 Con- 
stanti 19" [A. D. 355] Antonius monachtu centesimo et 
quinto eetatis anno in eremo moritur, soliius muliis adve- 
nientibus de Paulo quodam Thebceo mirce beatitudinis 
viro re/erre complura .• cujus exitum brevi libello expli- 
cavimus. Prosper in Chron. follows Hieronymus : 
Decio II et Mustico [1. Etrusco. sc. A. D. 25 1 ]. Antonius 
monachus tiascitur. Gonstantio VIII et Juliano Gw- 
sare [A. D. 356]. Antonim monachus centesimo [adde 
quitdo] atatis sua anno moritur &o. The account here 
given is at variance with the account in the life of 
Paulus hero quoted : Hieron. Vita Pauli p. 366. Sub 
Decio et Valeriana persecutoribus, quo tempore Gomelius 
Romce [A. D. 252] et Cyprianus Carthagine [A. D. 258] 
felid cruore damnati sunt, multas apud jEgyptum et 
Thebaida ecclesias tempestas sceva populata est — Per 
idem ergo tempus quo talia gerebantur apud inferiorem 
Thebaida — Paulus relictus est annorum circiter quin- 
decim. Paulus then was born at the earliest in A. D. 
235. and yet when Paul is 113 Antonius is 90: Hie- 
ron. Ibid. p. 368. Gum jam centum et tredecim annos 
beatus Paulus vitam ccelestem ageret in terris, et nona- 
genarius in alia solitudine Antonius moraretur. Anto- 
nius then is 90 according to this narrative about 
A. D. 347, which would place his birth at 357. Conf. 
a. 356. 

Gypriani op. 59 = 54. Gomelio. He notices p. 72. 2 
letters to Gomelius, coepiscoporum suorum de Fortunato 
isto pseudepiscopo, written priore anna, and p. 73. 1 the 
council held at Carthage in the preceding year : anno 
priore in concilia, p. 75. 2 de illis priore anno judica- 
verunt. The council held in A. D. 251 after Gyprian''s 
return to Carthage. The second council is mentioned 
p. 73. 1. In concilio quod habuimus Idibus Maiis qua> 
proximce fuerunt. sc. May 15 A. D. 252. This epistle 
therefore is written in the middle of A. D. 252. 

Death of Gomelius. In the year of these consuls : 
conf. a. 251. on the same day of the same month as 
Gyprian : Hieron. Catal. c. 67 Gyprianus passus est 
eodem die quo Itom<e Gomelius, sea non eodem anno. 
But Gyprian was martyred XVIII Kal. Odobr. conf. 
a. 258. which fixes the death of Gomelius to Sept. 14 
A. D. 252. The day of his death is marked in the 
corrupt and interpolated account of the liber ponti- 
ficalis apud Acta Concil. tom. I p. 683. Gomelius epi- 
scopus Gentumcellas pulsus est. — Gujus corpus node col- 
legit beata Lucina cum clericis et sepelivit — XVIII 
Kalendas Odobris. Pont, apud Bucherium p. 271. 
Gentumcellis expulsi. Ibi cum gloria dormitionem ac- 

N n 




1 Consuls 


01. 258 U. C. Varr. 1006. 
C. Vihius Volusianm Gal- 
lus Augustus II et 3Iaxi- 
mus Nor. Idat. Prosp. 

Volusiani et Maximini 

BaAepiavos Koi Ma^ifiwos 

OvKovffiavos TO /3' koX 
TaXrjv^s to a B. 

2 Events 

Gain trib. pot. 3 from Kal. Januar. 

^milianus is proclaimed in McBsia : Victor Caes. p. 335 His Bonus moran- 
tihus, ^^inilius uJSmilianus summam potestatem corruptis militibus arripuit. Vic- 
tor Epit. p. 381 Sub his jlSinilianus in Mossia imperator effectus est. Eutrop. 
IX. 5 Sub his ^milianus in Mcesia res novas molitus est. Zosim. I. 28 Aifxt- 
\iavoi YlaiovLK&v fiyov\iivo% rd^tav, dro'A/xovs ovTas tovs vcf) kavrbv (TTpaTidtrai 
avTi<TTT]vai Tr\ t&v jSap^ipav evrj/jiepi'a irapaOapcrvvas ojs olos re ^v — fTrjjei toIj 
fvpedflcTLV (Kelae fiapj36.pois aTrpoaboK-i'jTbii' Koi Tovi tioX\oi/s av€K(i>v k. t. K. — ai- 
pfiTaL irapa twv r^8e arparLcoToiv avTOKpdriap. avvayayiiv 6e Tas avroOt bwapLtn, 
fK Trjs Kara t&v ^apfiapuiv fiKJjs (ppcapLfveaTipas yeyfvr^iJ.ii>as, (ttI Tf)v ^IrakCav 
7]\avvev. Eighteen months after tlie elevation of Gallus ; for so we may in- 
terpret Dexippus apud Syncellum p. 376 B. ^aTiXivovcri [Gallus cum flio] Kara 
Ai^iTT-nov ixijvas vq , irpd^avTfi oibtv a^ioXoyof Kara be akXovs Tivas (tyj y. *al 
Kad'' trepovi ht] /3' [Euseb. H. E. VII. 10 ovb' oXois (real bvo]. These last 
compute to the deatli of Gallus ; Dexippus to the elevation of yEiiiilianus, 
which will thus be placed in May A. D. 2.53 : consistently with a coin of M.^ 
in Cilicia apud Eckhel. torn. VII p. 365. 374 torn. Ill p. 39, where ^milianus 
is called Augustus at the date 6^<r: air. AipilKLos Aipi.iKiavbs cn^.A- Klytaitav 
vfcjK. vavap. d^<T. The era of JEgsa commenced in autumn B. C. 47 anno Se- 
leucidarum 266: conf. Eckhel. tom.III p. 3i). Therefore the year 299 A. S. 
564 commenced in autumn A. D. 252, and yEmilianus is proclaimed in the 
middle of that year. 

Valerian is proclaimed in Rhaitia : Zosim. I. 28 6 6e FaXXos OvaktpLavov 
loreXAe to. kv KeXrois Koi. repp.avols T6.yp.aTa ol(TovTa. Victor Cses. p. 335 Mi- 
lites qui contracti undique apud Rhatias ob instans lellum morabantur Licinio 
Valeriano imperium deferunt. Eutrop. IX. 7 Licinius Valerianus in Restia et 
Norico apens ab exercitu imperator et max Augustus est /actus. Followed by 
Orosius VII. 22. He was proclaimed Augustus before the close of this year, 
because his second tribunician year is dated from Kal. Januar. A. D. 254. 

An inscri|)tion in honour of ^milianus is in Panvinius p. 377 Gruter. 
p. 273. 7 Corsini pi-sef. urbis p. 134. D. N. C. ^Emiliano fortissimo principi 
Herculi conservatori L. Virius Paullinus V. G. comes domesticorum praf. urb. 
D. N. M. Q. ejus. 


1007. P. Licinius Vale- 
rianus Augustus II P. 
Licinius Gallienus Augus- 
tus Nor. Idat. Pr. Cod. 
Justin. II. 9, 2. 

Valeriano et Gallieno 
Prosp. Cassiod. 

BaXXf^iavo? to ^ xat Fa- 
Xrjvoj TO /3' A. 

Ovakkfpiavbs (cat FaXij^os 
TO /3' B. 

Valeriani et GalUeni 2. trib. pot. 2 from Kal. Januar. 

Gain trib. pot. 4 from Kal. Januar. 

The fourth tribunician year of the Galli, commencing Jan. 1 A. D. 254 
(because the 2nd w'as reckoned from Jan. 1 A. D. 252), is attested by coins 
apud Eckhel. tom. VII p. 356. 367. 1 i^»ip. Ccos. G. Vibius Trebonianus Gallus 
Aug. + p.m. tr.p. II 11 cos. II p.p. S. C. 2 Imp. Gee. C. Vib. Volusiano Aug.+ 
p. m. tr. p. Ill I cos. II. or p. m. tr. p. Ill I cos. II. S. G. or p. m. tr. p. I III 
COS. II p.p. S. G. And by an inscription Ibid. p. 369. Imp. Gees. G. Vibio 
Treboniano Galh PioFdici A. . . .pontif. max. trib. pot. IIII cos. II p.p.procos. 
Imp. Gees. G. Vibio AJinio Galh Veldumniano V. . . . . Pio Felici Aug. pontif. 
max. trib. potest. IIII cos. II p. p. They are slain at Interamnse : Victor Epit. 
p. 381 Gontra ^milianum ambo profecti apud Interamnam ab exercitu sua cm- 
duntur, anno cBtatis pater septimo circiter et quadragesimo. Eutrop. IX. 5 Ad 
JEmilianum opprimendum cum ariibo profecti essent, Interamnen interfecti sunt, 
non completo biennio. Orosius VII. 21 vix duobus annis. Victor Cses. p. 335 
biennio. Zosim. I. 28 fxeTo, ttoXXoi" be tuxovs AipuXiavov ttj 'IraXia iTpocrayayov- 
Tos, fTtfibr] ■n\r)crlov dXXvjXajv yeyove to. (TrpaTivp.aTa, ttoXXuS toi' FaXXoi" (Kanov- 
fifvov TOLS bvvdp.e<TLV 6pS)VTfs oi (Tvv avT(S — dvaipovaiv avTov p.€ra tov ttoiSo's. In 
Euseb. Chron. Hieron. and Cassiodor. they reign an. II mens. IV. Cassio- 

R O M A N I 


S Sechlae Ahthohs 

4 Ecclesiastical Authors 

Plotinm begins to write: Porphyr. V. Plot. o. 3. 
nXo)Tii>os 8^ axpt (jXv ttoXAoC ypi.<pijiv ovh^v iuriKftTtv, 
Ik be Ti]i ' AixntavCov avvovcrlas [conf. a. 212] Troiovfxeros 
Tas harpijiAs' (cat ovrtus oAoii' hiiv h(Ka bifTdK((T( <rvv!itv 
fiiv Ticn ypA(p(i)v t\ ovhiv. xjv h\ f) hiaTpt^i], ws of axnov 
(rjTfiv TTpoTpfTioft.ivov Tous dvvovTas, &Ta^Mi TrXTjpjjs (cat 
TToXA^s (^At/apias, its 'A^^Aioy thhv birj-yelTO. From the 
Ist year of Gallienus: conf. a. 263. 

A coin of Gallm: Eckhel. torn. VII p. ;i.5fi. Imp. 
CcBg. G. Vibiua Trebonianus Gallus Aiip.+p. m. tr. p. 
HI COS. II p.p. 8. C. 

Alexandrian coins of Gallus: Eckhel. torn. IV p. 90 
torn. VII p. 363. A. K. T. Ow/3. Tptfi. TdAAoy d. (r«/3. 
with L. a. L. 0'. L. y'. Aug. 29 A. D. 251 was the 
third year of Decitts : conf. a. consequently FtiAAoii 
L. ^ will be at Aug. 29 A. D. 252 and L. / will com- 
mence Aug. 29 A. D. 253, and was current at the 
death of Gallus. 

Coins of ^milianus: Eckhel. torn. VII p. 3/1. Imp. 
^milianus Pius Fel. Aug.+p. m. tr.p. I p. p. or 
p. m. (r.pot. p. p. S. 0, 

Cypriani de Mortalitate. Conf. Hieron. Chron. arnio 
2268 Augustin. de Prsedestinat. Sanctorum c. 14. 
Cyprian refers to the pestilence prsefat. prcesentis ni&r- 
talifads copiarn. c. 2 morbi istitts valetudo — mortalitas 
ista. c. 3 hac mortalitate — mortalitas ista — pestis isia 
et lues. It happened in a time of persecution : c. 3 
Foriasse aliquis dicat. Hoc me in prtvsenti mortalitate 
contristat, ■quod — martyrio meo priwr,,&c. sc. in the 
persecution continued by Gallus. The pestilence had 
recently commenced : c. 1 Ne iriopinatus nos et novus 
rerum in/estantiutn metus quateret. &c. As it com- 
menced in the autumn of 252, we may place this trea- 
tise of Cyprian in the beginning of A. D. 253. 

Death of Origm in the reign of Gallus, in his 69th 
year: Hieron. Catal. c. 54 Viait usque ad Galium et 
Volusianum, id est, usque ad LXIX"" tetatis s>ue an- 
num, et mortuus est Tyri, in qua urbe et sepidtus est. 
Phot. Cod. 11 8 ol 6« <f>a(Tiv avTov tas TtiAAov koI Bo- 
\ov(navov hiapKirravra koX i^r)KO(rTov ivarov tros ttjs r]\i- 
KLas ayovTa fv Tvp<f koL TfKevrijaai koI Ta<f>ij irapaboOfjvai. 
Suid. p. 2788 C ^Cvt bi lo)s FdAXov koI BoKov<tmi'ov, 
tovtIotiv ims & kcli ^ Ijutv — koX lKOi^r\Qr\ iv Tvp<f iv jj 
KoX hdcpr]. Euseb. H. E. VII. 1 Aextov — TdAAos bia- 
b(x,eTai. 'Q.piyevr]s iv tovtio kvos b^ovra ttjs (u>tjs e^So/xj;- 
KOVTa d.TTOTT\i](ras Irr) Ttkcur^. Gallus was slain in the 
beginning of A. D. 254 : conf. a. 254. 2. Oripen's 17th 
year was current in A. D. 202 : conf. a. Consequently 
his 68th was current in 253. and he could not have 
completed 69 years within the reign of Gallus. We 
may therefore place his death at the close of A. D. 
253, when he had just entered his 69th year ; con- 
formably with the accounts of Hieronymus and Pho- 

Gmnsoi ^milianus issued between May A. D. 253 
andMay A. D.254: Eckhel. torn. VII p.371. 1 Imp. 
Caes. JEmilianus P. F. Aug. + eeternitas Augg. S. C. 
2 Imp. ^milianus Pius Fel. Aug.-\-spes publica. S. C. 
or votis decennalibus. or p. m. tr. p. p. p. 8. C. 3 Imp. 
Cevs. C. Jul. JEmilianus Pius Pel. Aug.-i-Apol. con- 

Coins of Valerian : p. 377- I>W- C'- P- Lie. Valeri- 
anus A ug. +p. m. tr.p. II cos. II p.p. or p. m. tr. p. II 
cos. p. p. the number of the consulship being omitted, 
" quod hac a^tate frequenter."" Eckhel. 

A coin of Gallienus : p. 389. Imp. G. P. Lie. Galli- 
enus Aug. +p. m. tr. p. II cos. p. p. 

In the Alexandrian coins, Aug. 29 A. D. 253 was 
L. Y of Gallus: conf. a. Wherefore in the coins of 
Valerian and Gallienus L.jS' at Alexandria would be- 
gin Aug. 29 A. D. 254, and the last year of Gallienus 

Tryphon a disciple of Origm flourished : Hieron. 
Catal. c. 57. Tryphon Origenis auditor, ad quem non- 
nuUee ejus exstant epistol/p, in Scripturit erudititsimus 
fuit. Quod quidem et multa ejus sparsitn ostendunt 
opuscula. Manes was opposed by a presb}'ter Trypho. 
conf. a. 261. Possibly the disciple of Origm. 

N II 2 




1 Consuls 

2 Events 


dorus places their deaths at the right year : Valerianus et Gallienm. His coss. 
Gallus et Volusianus Interamnce interfecti sunt. 

uSmilianus slain three months after the Galli : Eutrop. IX. 6 JEmilianus — 
tertio mense exstinctus est. Followed by Orosius VII. 21. Zosimus I. 29 Oiia- 
Kepiavov 8^ juera t&v virep tcls 'AATTfis bwdfjieiav im rrji' 'IraXiav eKavvovro^ koI 
avv ttoAXm t;Ki]6€l toj» AlfJiLXiavov KaraTtoXfixfjcrai T:podv)x.ovjXivov, Ofapovvrei ol cniv 
avT(^ K. T. K. — avaipoviTL. Victor Epit. p. 381 ^milianus vero menses IV domi- 
natus (ctEditur) apud Spoletium sive pontem, quem a