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Full text of "Fasti romani, the civil and literary chronology of Rome and Constantinople from the death of Augustus to the death of Justin II"



Br. «Jd, i ' 






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M: 



FASTI ROMANI. 

THE 

CIVIL AND LITERARY CHRONOLOGY 

OF 

ROME AND CONSTANTINOPLE. 



VOL. II APPENDIX. 



FROM 

THE DEATH OF AUGUSTUS 

TO 

THE DEATH OF HERACLIUS. 

BY 

HENRY FYNES CLINTON, Esq. M.A. 

LATE STUDENT OF CHRIST CHURCH. 



OXFORD: 

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 
MDCCCL. 



. \ 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/fastironnanicivil02clinuoft 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

1 Emperors 1 

Genealogical Tables 

Hadrianm 18 

Antonini 21 

Severus 32 

Diocletianus 72 

Constantinus 84 

Theodosim 124 

Theodericus 1 43 

Sixty-three years A. D. 579—641 149 

Tiberius II 149 

Mauricius 150 

Fhocas 157 

HeracUus 1 61 

2 Consuls 179 

3 Indictions. Era of Diocletian. Era of Antioch 210 

4 Eusebian Years 216 

5 Scripture Chronology 220 

Gospel Chronology 227 

6 Kings of Parthia. Kings of Persia 243 

Arsacidce 243 

Genealogical Table 251 

Coins 252 

Geography of Western Asia 253 

Sasanidcs 259 

Genealogical Table 263 

7 Greek Authors , 264 

Abstracts of Aristotle 

Phys. Auscult. lib. VIII 339 

de Coelo lib. IV 352 

de gen. et corrupt, lib. II 359 

de anima lib. Ill 366 

Metaphysica lib. XIII 373 

Index to Greek authors 392 



iv CONTENTS. 

Page 

8 Ecclesiastical AuTHOES ,.. 395 

Index to the Ecclesiastical Authors 494 

Abstracts 

Origmis deprincipiis 496 

Hieronymi adversus Bufinum Mb. Ill 507 

ad Ctesiphontem 513 

adversus Pelagianos 515 

Testimonia Patrvm 518 

1 Advantages of the Fathers 519 

2 their testimony to doctrines Ibid. 

3 their superstition Ibid. 

4 the Apostles instituted no ceremonies Ibid. 

5 the Christians had no altars 521 

6 and no temples Ibid. 

7 on celibacy 522 

8 ecclesia 523 

9 of death by ^<fam 526 

10 of unbaptized infants 527 

11 Augustine's OT^timan 528 

rejected Ibid. 

12 of different degrees 529 

13 of persecution and intolerance Ibid. 

Paleifs opinion rejected 531 

14 Intolerant laws of the emperors Ibid. 

15 Some facts and opinions 533 

9 Bishops 534 

Rome 537 

Alexandria 544 

Antioch 548 

Jerusalem ^^Q 

Constantinople 558 

Index 561 

Additions and CoRaECTiONS 607 



APPENDIX. 



I. 

EMPERORS. 

THE years of the Eoman emperors and the fractions of months and days are carefully noted 
by Dio and other historians. But yet even if the genuine numbers were always preserved, 
which is not to be expected, the sum of all the reigns would not express the exact amount of 
time ; for sometimes the reigns are in part contemporary ; as the last 4 months of Justin were 
also the first 4 months oi Justinian ; the last 10 days oi Justin II were the first 10 of Tiberius II; 
the two last days of the same Tiberius were the first two of Mauricius. Galba Otho and VitelUus 
were in part contemporary with Nero and Vespasian. The elder Gordians Pupienus and Balbinus 
were included for the most part in the reign of Maximin. The last day of an emperor was some- 
times counted again as the first of his successor; thus Aug. 19 A. D. 14 was both the last day of 
Augustus and the first of Tiberius. Sometimes a short interval occurred; as 10 days after the 
death of Jovian ; 3 days at the least after the death of Trajan ; a day between Caligula and 
Claudius, called by Suetonius^ two days (current) of liberty. Sometimes the life or reign of an 
emperor was reckoned exclusive of the day of his death; as the life of Caracalh, by Dio^, and 
the reign of Heraclius by Nicephorusc. 

But on the other hand the chronographers give erroneous accounts because they often omit 
fractions of years that they may obtain a more convenient measure of time. They adapt the reigns 
to their own scheme of reckoning by assigning a fictitious beginning to the years of the emperors. 
Thus Theophanes places the years of Justinian each 5 months below the true time ; on the con- 
trary he throws back the years of Justin II 'J4: days, and of Heraclius 34 days, above the true 
position, that each year of every reign may begin with the indiction, at Sept. 1, from whence all 
the years of Theophanes are computed. The Astronomical Canon omits the reigns which are less 
than a year, neglects fractions, and assigns a fictitious beginning to almost every reign. In the 
Paschal Chronicle the reigns are sometimes shorter and sometimes longer than the truth. Euse- 
bius and Hieronymus also in their Canon deviate from the true amount of reigns in many cases. 

The numbers of Theophilus Clemens Alexandrinus and Dio, and of the Paschal Chronicle and 
Cassiodorus, are annexed to this list of the reigns, that the variations may be seen at once. The 
sums of the reigns in each of their accounts may be compared with the true amounts as exhibited 
below. The accounts of Eusebius and Hieronymus, of Syncellus and Theophanes, are examined 
in the Tables d. 

a Claud, c. n. 276. 4 p. 313. 283.4 p. 325 ; for Hieronymus 346. 2 

^ Quoted in the Tables 217. 2 p. 226 and 854. p. 410. for Syncellus and Theophanes the years 

c See Pagi topi. 2 p. 824. 284. 4 p. 327, 325. 4 p. 381 . for Theophanes 491. 4 

^ See for Eusebius and Hieronymus the years 565.4.577.4. 



APPENDIX. 



C. I. 



N.E. y. 



Theoph. Ant. 



Clemens Al. 



Dio Cassiiis 



Emperors 



Chron. Pasch. 



Cassiodorus 



762. 22 
784. 4 

788. 14 

802. 14 

816. 10-< 

826. 3 

829. 15 

844. 1 

845. 19 
864. 21 
885. 23 
908. — 



y 

22. 
3. 



m d 
0. 
8. 7 



(23)13. 8. 24 

6. 28 

7. 6 



13. 



(2) 



y m d 

26. 6. 19 

3. 10. 8 

13. 8. 28 

13. 8. 28 

0. 7. 6 



146 



0. 9. 27 

9. 11. 22 

2. 0. 22 

15. 5. 6 

1. 4. 10 

19. 6. 16 

20. 10. 28 
22. 7. 6 
19. 0. 10 



165. 4. Oe 



1. 0. 2 

11. 11. 22 

2. 2. 
15. 8. 5 

1. 4. 10 

19. 7- 15 

20. 10. 28 
22. 3. 7 
19. 0. 11 



12. 9. 14 



y 


ra 


d 


22. 


7. 


7 


3. 


9. 


28 


13. 


8. 


20 


13. 


8. 





(0. 


9. 


13) 


1. 


0. 


22- 



185. 3. 23 



9. 11. 24 

2. 2. 20 
15. 0. 5 

1. 4. 9 

19. 6. 15 

20. 11. 
22. 7. 26 
19. 0. 11 

12. 9. 14 

0. 5. 

17. 8. 3 

6. 2. 4 

1. 1. 28 

3. 9. 4 



208. 4. 13 



Tiberius 

Caligula 

Claudius 

Nero 

Galba 

Otho 

Vitelliu8(ll">20rf) 

Vespasianus 

Titus 

Domitianus 

Nerva 

Trajanus 

Hadrianus 

Antoninus 

M. Aurelius 

Comraodus 

Pertinax 

Didius Julianus 

Severus 

Caracalla 

Macrinus 

Elagahalus .... 

Alexander 

Maximinus . . . 

Gordiani 

Pupienus 

Balbinus 

Gordianus III . 

Philippus 

Decius 

Galli 

i^milianus . . . 
Valerianus .... 7y 

Gallienus 7- 

Claudius 

Quintillus . . . 
Aurelianus . 
Interregnum . 

Tacitus 

Florianus . . . 

Probus 

Cams 

Carinas 

Numerianus ... 
Diocletianus ... 
Constantius (14 
Constantinus . 
Constantius II . 
Julianus ..(330) 
Jovianus 



e True interval 165. 6. 28 



y m 

22. 6. 

3. 10. 

13. 8. 

. 13. 7- 

0. 7. 

. 0. 3. 

. 0. 8. 

. 9. 11. 

. 2. 2. 

, 15. 0. 

, 1. 4. 

, 19. 6. 

.20. 11. 

22. 7. 

. 19. 0. 



12. 9. 15 



2. 28 
2. 5 
8. 4 
2. 4 
1. 1. 28 
3. 7. 24 



0. 
0. 
17. 

6. 



A.M. y m d 

5522. 22. 0. 

5544. 4. 0. 

5549. 14. 0. 
(5563) 

* (14 y.) 

5577. 9. 11. 22 

5587. 2. 0. 

5589. 16. 0. 

5605. 1. 0. 

5606. 19. 0. 
5625. 21. 0. 
5646. 23. 0. 
5669. 19. 0. 

5688. 12. 0. 

5699. 0. 2. 

5700. 0. 7- 

5701. 19. 0. 
5720. 7 

5727. 1 

5728. 4 



.13. 
.. 3. 

.. 0. 

}o. 

5. 
5. 
2. 
2. 
0. 

14. 

2. 
. 0. 
5. 
0. 
0. 
0. 



0. 9 
3. 

1. 6 

3. 

9. 

6(or7)0 

2. 

4. 

3. 

6. 

2. 

0. 17 

0. 

6. 

6. 18 

2. 20 

5. 



1. 11. 



20. 
24) 1. 
..30. 
..24. 
.. 1. 
.. 0. 



7. 14 
2. 24 
9. 28 
5. 12 
7. 24 
7. 21 



0. 
0. 
0. 



5732. 13. 0. 
6745. 3. 0. 



5748. 6. 0. 

5754. 6. 0. 

5760. 1. 0. 

5761. 3. 0. 

5764. 14. 0. 

5778. 2. 0. 

5780. 6. 0. 

0. 0. 97 

5786. 6. 0. 

5792, 3, 0. 

5795. 20. 0. 

5815. 31. 10. 

5847. 24. 0. 

5871. 2. 0. 

5873. 0. 10. 15 



y m d 
23. 0. 

3. 10. 
13. 8. 28 
7. 27 



13 



. 1. 6. 6 

9. 11. 22 

2. 2. 

16. 5. 

1. 4. 

19. 6. 15 

20. 10. 19 

21. 0. 
19. 0. 

13. 0. 



0. 







18. 0. 

7. 0. 

1. 0. 

4. 0. 

13. 0. 

3. 0. 



6. 0. 

6. 0. 

1. 3. 

2. 4. 

15. 0. 

1. 9. 

5. 6. 

0. 6. 

0. 0. 84 

6. 3. 

2. 0. 

20. 0. 

30. 10, 

24. 5. 23 

1. 0. 
0. 8. 



EMPERORS. 



WEST. 

y m d 

Valentinianus 11. 8. 24 

Gratianus 16. 0. 2 

Valentinianus II Ifi. 4.2.*} 

Honorius . . (28 6 30) . . 28. 7-11 

Valentinianus III 29. 4. 22 

Maximus 0. 2. 27 

Avitus ..(13 0) 1. 1. 

Majorianus 4. 4. 2 

Severus 3. 11. 27 

Anthemius 5. 3. 

Olybrius .. (0 7 0) .... 0. 6. 

Nepos 1. 7. 

Romulus 0. 9. 23 

Odoacer 16. 6. 12 

Theodericus 33. 5. 26 



Emperors 



Valens 

Theodosius . . 

Arcadius . . . . 
Theodosius II 

Marcianus 

Leo 

Leo minor. . . . 



Zeno . 

Anastasius . . 



Justinus . . 
Justinianus 
Justinus II 
Tiberius II 
JMauricius . . 
Phocas . . . . 



y m d 

14. 4. 13 

15. 11. 30 

13. 3. 15 

42. 2. 28 

6. 5. * 

28 



jl6. 11. 



17. 2. 
27. 2. 29 



9. 0. 24 

38. 7. 13 

12. 10. 22 

. 3. 10. 20 

,20. 3. 10 

, 7. 10. 12 



HeracUus 30. 4. 6 



Chron. Pasch. 



A.M. y m d 

5874. 14. 0. 

5888. 16. 0. 

5904. 14. 0. 

5918. 42. 0. 

5960. 7. 0. 

("5967. 16. 0. 

15983. 1. 0. 



5984. 17. 0. 
6001. 27. 0. 



506. 504. 8. 14 



6028. 9. 0. 

6037. 38. 11. 

6076. 11. 8. 

6088. 4. 0. 

6092. 20. 0. 

6112. 8. 0. 



598. 596. 3. 14 



6120. 20 first. 



Cassiodorus 



y m d 

14. 5. 

16. 0. 

13. 0. 

42. 0. 

7. 0. 

}(17) 0. 



17 

(27) 



501. 9. 14 



The collected years in the Paschal Chronicle are 

A. M. y. y. 

to the death of Augustus . . 5521. 

Tiberius .. 5543. 22. 

Cuius 5548. 5. 27 

Elagabalus 5731. 183. 210 

Constantine 5846. 115. 325 

Anastasius 6027. 181. 506 

Phocas 6119. 



to the 20th of Heraclius . . 6139. 



92. 598 
20. 618 



True intervals 



from the death of Augustus 
Aug. 19 A. D. 14 



■ to the death of Antoninus 7 March 161 146. 

of Commodus 31 Dec. 192 178. 

of Elagabalus 31 Jan. 222 207. 

of Constantine 22 May 337 322. 

■* of Theodosius II 28 July 450 435. 

of Anastasius 9 July 518 503, 

of Phocas 4 Oct. 610 596. 

to the 20th inclusive of Heraclius ending 4 Oct. 630. . 616. 



6. 


17 


4. 


13 


5. 


13 


9. 


4 


11. 


ID 


10. 


21 


1. 


16 


1. 


16 



B 2 



4 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

TtBEBiiTs. Tiberius. 

To the inscriptions quoted in the Tables may be added the following. 

1 Muratori p. 443. 1 in Hispania : Imp. Ccesar divi Aug. f. Aug. cos. II trih. potest. XVI imp. 
VII pont. max. M. II. He was^ow^ max. March 10 and his 16'th tribunician year ended June 26 
A. D. 15. See the Tables. This inscription falls within these limits. 2 Muratori p. 223. 3 
Nonae in Delmatia: Ti. Ccbs. divi Aug.f. Augustus pont. max. imp. trih. potest. XVIII cos. desig. 
tert. Within Jan. 1 — June 26 A. D. 17. 3 Caerete apud Gruterum p. 235. 9 et plenius apud 
Muratorium p. 519. 2 Ti. Claudia divi Aug. f. Aug. pont. max. trih. pot. XX L. Paullus L.f. Glu. 
Atticus prcefectm fahrum Ccbt. S. P. ejus C. C. Q. Q. corpor. magnar. corp. tignariorum et corp. 
dendrophor. et ferrariorum, stat. ex cere pr. imm. et corpor. sua pecun. in ded. epul. 4 Grut. p. 
153. 3 Muratori p. 443. 2 Nemausi: Ti. Ccesar divi Aug.f. Aug. pontif. max. trih. pot. XXI re- 
fedt et restituit. IIII. see below, N**. 1 0. 5 Muratori p. 2006. 2 In ponte Arimini : Imp. Ccesar 
divi f. Augustus &c. — trih. pot. XXXVII p.p. Ti. Ccesar divi Augusti filius divi Juli n. August. 
pontif. maxim, cos. IIII imp. VIII trih. potest. XXII dedere. The former part is given from 
Noris in F. H. Ill at A.D. 14. The latter part was added within Jan. 1— June 26 A. D. 21. 
6 Gruter. p. 187. 13 post Panvinium p. 304 Romse : Ti. Ccesar divi Augusti f. Augustus pontif. 
mcucim. imp. VIII trih. pot. XXIIII dedit C. Vibio Bufino M. Cocceio Nerva cos. ex S. C. sc. coss. 
sufectis. conf. Panvinium p. 304. Within June 27 — Dec. 31 A.D. 22. 7 Gruter. p. 235. 10 
Panvin. p. 304 Muratori p. 223.6 In Hispan. Baetica: Ti. Ccesari divi Aug.f. divi Juli nep. Au- 
gusta pontif. max. trih. pot. XXIIX cos. IV imp. VIII Auguri XV viro S. F. VII viro epulan. 
Papirius Severus deer eta ordinis Ilurconiensis ^ Q. Mar do Barea T. Bustio Nummio Gallo coss. 
sc. sufectis. conf. Panvin. 1. c. Within June 27— Dec. 31 A.D. 26. 8 Muratori p. 223. 4 
Orsovse in Servia : Ti. Ccesare Aug. f. Augusto imperato . . . pant. max. tr. pot. XXX leg. IIII 

Scythic. V Maced 9 Muratori p. 206. 6 Puteolis : Ti. Ccesar divi Augusti f. divi Juli n. 

August, pontif. maxim, cos. V imp. VIII trih. potest. XXXII Augustales reipuhlicce restituit. 
10 Muratori p. 2006. 4 Nemausi : Ti. Ccesar divi Aug.f. Aug. pontif. max. trih. pot. XXXII re- 
fecit et restituit. Given in Gruter with trih. pot. XXI. See above N°. 4. and yet repeated with 
trih. pot. XXXII in Gruter p. 153. 6. Given again by Muratori p. 443. 5 Gruter p. 187, 15 
with the date trih. pot. XXXIII. 11 Gruter p. 153. 7 Juxta Herream Hispan. Ti. Ccesar 
divi Aug.f divi Jul. n. Aug. pont. max. trih. pot. XXXV imp. I IX cos. V a Pisoraca. 12 Gru- 
ter p. 153. 4 Cordubse: Ti. Ccesar divi Augusti f divi Juli nepos Augustus pontyf. max. •){• cos. V 
imp. trih. potest. XXXVII ah Jarw Augusta qui est ad Boetem usque ad Oceanum. LXIIII. 13 
Muratori p. 442. 7 Romse : Virg. Ti. Ccesar Aug. pontif. maxim, trih. pot. XXXVIII cos. V imp. 
VIII. I. P. CXL. Within June 27 A. D. 36— March 16 A. D. 37. 

14 Gruter p. 101. 1 Pietati Augustce ex S. C. quod factum est D. Haterio Agrippa C. Sulpicio 
Galha cos. Tib. CI. Ccbs. Aug. Germ. pont. mxix. trihun. pot. Ill cos. IIII imp. Ill p. p. dedicavit. 
These numbers are corrupt. We may read trih. pot. XXIII imp. VIII. Gruter reads XXIIII, 
imp. VIII. 15 Gruter p. 235. 7 Romse: Saluti perpetuce dam. August. Ti. Claudi divi Augusti 
fil. divi Juli nep. Aug. pant. max. tr. pot. XI III imp. II cos. Ill C. Julius Successus prcef. corp. 
fahrum tignar. et tabular . Portuen. D. S. P. P. These numbers (unnoticed by Gruter) are also 
corrupt. In trih. pot. XIIII Augustus was still living. At the death of Augustus Tiherius was 
already imp. VII. We must therefore read trih. pot. XIX imp. VII cos. III. Sc. A.D. 18 
within Jan. 1 and June 26. 16 Gruter p. 235. 8 Albse : Ti. Caisari divi Aug.f. divi Juli n. Au- 
gusta pant. max. cos. V imp. VIII trihun. potest. XVIIl ponti^ces Alhani Q. JuUus Q. f Fab. 
Bufus &c. Quoted by Norisius cen. Pisan. torn. 2 p. 265 as " insignis inscriptio Albae." But 
trih. pot. XVIII (unnoticed by Noris and Gruter) is inconsistent with cos. V, which requires trih. 
pot. XXXII or XXXIII. 



EMPERORS. 5 

17 Gruter p. 226. 2 Romse : Senatus populusque Romanus imp. Ccesari dim Angus, f. font. max. Tiberius. 

imp. COS. trib. pot 18 Gruter p. 235. 5 et Muratori p. 222. 5. 1992. 3 .... Ccesari nepoti 

divi Juli pontifici auguri C. Julius G. Juli Otuaneuni f. Rufus C. Juli Gedemonis nepos Epotsorovidi 
pron. sacerdos Romce et Augusti ad aram quce est ad conjiuentera prmfectus fahrum D. 19 Gruter. 
p. 447. 4. 492. 8. 497. 14 Sex. Palpeio P.f. Vel. Histro leg. Ti. Claudi Cwsaris Aug. pro cos. pr. 
tr. pi. X mr. stl. judic. tr. mil. leg. XIIII Geminw comiti Ti. Ccssaris Aug. dato a diva Aug. C. 
Precius Felix NeapoUtanus memor heneficii. 20 Gruter p. 1073. 7 L. Mumius Achaicus prcef. Coh. 
trib.mil. ab epist. T. Gees, dim Aug.f. item a rat. D. Gees, donatus statua equ. item hast. pur. item 
cor. civ. et dims Augg. auctorib. omnib. ornam. prcet. ex S. G. donatus Neptuno D. D. 21 Gruter 
p. 1084.3 Chalcide in Euboea : Tt/3epios Kaicrap 0eou 'Ze^arrrov vio? Se^aoro?. 22 Muratori p. 
40.5 Patavii: Jano patri Aug. sacrum C. Julius G.f. strator ced. donatus ab Ti. Gees. Aug.f. Au- 
gusta torque majore belle Delmatico ob honorem Ilmratus cum liberis suis posuit. 23 Muratori p. 
441. 4 Brixiae: Divus Augustus Ti. Ccesar divi Augusti f. divi n. Augustus aquas in coloniam per- 
duxerunt. 

24 Gruter p. 236. 1 Romse: Ossa Ti. Gcesaris divi Aug. f. Aug. pont. max. tr. pot. XXXIIX 
imp. VIII COS. V. The 38th tribunician year was current at his death. 

Caligula. Caligula. 

Inscriptions. 1 Muratori p. 225. 2 Cordubse : G. Gcesar Aug. Germanic, imp. p. m. tr. p. cos. 
Gn. Atei. Flac. Gn. Pomp. Flac. Ilvir. Quinq. [sic Muratorius] Sal. Aug. "Within July 1 A. D. 37 
— March 15 A. D. 38. 2 Muratori p. 444. 2 ^ ■^ * ^ Germanici Gee. . . . Ti. Aug. nep. divi Aug. 
pronep. divi Juli abn. Aug. pater patrice cos. II imp. trib. potestate II pontifex max. a Beete et Jano 
Augusto ad Oceanum LXXIII. Within Jan. 1 — March 15 A. D. 39. 3 Muratori p. 134. 1 
■X- -x- -sf ^ divi Aug. n.^ divi Juli . .n. tribunicia potestate I [Muratori " Scribendum //"] cos. II 
pontyf. . . . Gornelius Bassus pontyfex Geesareum D. S. F. We may either read trib. pot. II (within 
Jan. 1 and March 15) or trib. pot. III., within March 16 — Dec. 31 A. D. 39. 4 an inscription 
apud Muratorium p. 1992. 4. 5 bearing consul tertio, trib. pot. quarto (within March 16 — Dec. 31 
A. D. 40) appears to Eckhel torn. 6 p. 224 and to Muratori himself of doubtful authority. 

The works of Galigula at Baise are noticed by Eumenius Panegyr. Constantin. c. 13 p. 387 
Simili navium continuatione Baianum sinum straverit ab Augusto tertius Gcesar. delicata fuit ilia 
vectaiio principis otiosi. 

Claudius. Claudius. 

Inscriptions: 1 Gruter p. 188. 3 Monpelii in Gallia: Ti. Glaudius Drusif. Gcesar Aug. German, 
pont. max. trib. potestate cos. desig. II imp. II refec. 2 Muratori p. 445. 1 and p. 2006. 5 in agro 
Nemausensi : Ti. Glaudius Drusi f. Gcesar Aug. Germanicus pontif. max. trib. pot. cos. desig. II 
imp. II refecit. Within A. D. 41. 3 Panvinius p. 314 Gruter p. 166. 4 Ravennae : Ti. Glaudius 
Drusi f. Gcesar Augustus Germanicus pont. max. trib. pot. II cos. desig. Ill imp. Ill p. p. dedit. 
Less accurately given in Muratori p. 225. 6. More fully in Gruter p. 237. 5 Ti. Glaudius Drusif. 
Gcesar &c. — dedit ob memoriam patris sui dec. VII collegi fabrum M.R.HS.CION. liberalitaie do- 
navit sub hac conditione ut quotannis rasas ad monumentum ejus deferant et ibi epulentur dumtaxat in 
V Id. Julias, quod si neglexerint, tunc ad VIII ejusdem collegii pertinere debebit condicione supra 
dicta. 

4 Panvinius p. 314 Gruter p. 188.4 Ti. Glaudius Gassar Aug. Germanicus pont. max. trib. pot. 
Ill cos. Ill imp. Ill p.p. D. D. 5 Viennae prope Lugdunum apud Gruterum p. 188. 8 et 

* For Aug. n. perhaps Aug. . . .n. sc. Aug. pron. 



6 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

Claudius, emendatius apud Muratorium p. 444. 5 Ti. Claudius Drusif. Ccesar August. Germanicus pont. max. 
'trih.pot. Ill imp. Ill cos. Ill [male Gruter //] p.p. VII. fi Muratori p. 225.9 Faleronae : 

si f. CcBsari August m^anico . . . rib. potest. Ill cos. Ill imp. Ill p. p. nomine fili 

et suo testammto fieri jussit adjectapecunia faciendum curavit. 7 Idem p. 2006. 6 In agro Bracarensi : 
Ti. Claudius Aug. Germanic, pont. max. imp. Ill trih. pot. Ill Brae. Aug. XX. 8 p. 2006. 7 ad 
ripas Minii in Lusitania : Ti. Claudius Ccesar A ug. Germanicus pontifex max. imp. V cos. Ill trih. 
potest. Ill p.p. Braca. XLII. 9 p. 2007. 1 In agro Bracarensi : Claudius Ccesar Aug. German- 
icus pont. mxix. imp. V cos. Ill trih. pot. Ill p.p. Brae. Aug. XXXV. 

10 Gruter p. 176. 4 Muratori p. 445. 3 Romse: Virg. Ti. Claudius Drusi f. Ccesar Aug. Ger- 
manicus pontifex maximus trihvmic. potestat. I III cos. Ill imp. VIII p.p. I. P. CCXL. 

1 1 Muratori p. 2007- 2 Bilboinii in Gallia : Ti. Claudius Drusi f. Ccesar Aug. Ger. pont. Tnax. 
trih. potest. V imp. XI p.p. cos. Ill design. IV Aug. M. P. XXI. 12 Gruter p. 39. 1 In castro 
Apolliniaco Galliae : Ti. Claudius Ccesar Augu. Germanicus pont. max. trih. potest. V imp. XI p.p. 
COS. II II [lege cum Eckhel torn. 6 p. 249 cos. desig. IIII]. 13 Gruter p. 188. 5 ex Panvinio 
p. 314 Ti. Claudius Drusif. Ccesar Aug. Germ. pont. max. trih.pot. V imp. VI cos. des. IIII. But 
as he was already imp. VIII in the preceding year (see N°. 10), we may read imp. IX or imp. X. 
14 Gruter p. 237- 8 Romse : Ti. CI. Drus.f Oces. Aug. Germ. pont. ma^. trih. pot. V cos. Ill des. 
IIII imp. II p. p. ex 8. C. Cn. Calpetanus Statius Sex. Metrohius M. Perpenna Lureo T. Satrius 
Decianus curat, tahul. puhl. fac. cur. Here also we may read imp. IX or imp. X. or imp. XI. ^ 

15 Muratori p. 972. 7 E-omse: Pro sal/ate Ti. Claudi Ccesaris Aug. pontif. m,ax. tr. pot. Ill cos. 
Ill design. IIII Prcesens Aug. lih. ex voto suscepto mat. et scr. lihr. et A. Larcius Lydus dedic. 
Read with Muratori tr. pot. VI. 

16 Panvinius p. 315 Gruter p. 113. 1 Romse : Pro salute Ti. Claudi Ccesaris Aug. Germanici 
pont. max. trih.pot. VII cos. IIII imp. XV p.p. censoris -x- -x- -x- ^ liherorumque ^ -x- -x- -x- ea; voto 
suscepto C. Julius Sex.f. Cor. Postumus prcef. .Mgypti Ti. Claudi Ccesaris Aug. Germanici ex auri. 
P. X VI. 

17 Gruter p. 238. 5 In Anglia: Ti. Claudius Ccesar Aug. p. m. trih. p. Villi imp. XVI de 
Britan. 

18 Gruter p. 113. 3 b ex Panvinio p. 316 Pro salute Ti. Claudi Cces. Aug. Germanici pont. nmx. 
trih. potest. X imp. XIIX cos. IIII design. V sign, argenti P. X et pro salute Neronis Ccesaris f. 
Agrippince Aug. sign. arg. P. V. voto suscep. viatores et scrihce lihr. et prcef. Princeps et Latinus 
Felix ded. 19 Panvinius p. 316 Gruter p. 153. 9 Emeritse: Imp. divus Claudius Drusi f. Cces. 
Aug. Germ. pont. max. trih. pot. X cos. IIII imp. XXI iter, reparavit. Male Gruter imp. XI. 

20 Muratori p. 1041. 1 -x- * -x- imp. XXVI cos. V p.p. civitas Conven. In the 11th tribunieian 
year, or beginning of the 12th. 

21 Muratori p. 225.7'^ Cartimae in Hispania: Ti. Claudio Ccesari Augusto pontifid max. trih. 
potest. XIII imp. XXVII cons. V p.p. cens. Vestinus Rustici f. Xvir et Busticus F.D.8.P.D.D. 
cujus hasis cum vetustate corrupta esset in vice ejus Vihia Rusticana nurus novam restituit. 

The inscription quoted in the Tables A. D. 48 p. 30 from Gruter p. 301. 1 upon the Census of 
Cldudius is justly rejected as spurious by Lipsius ad Tacit. Ann. XL 25. The numbers are too 
large and probably derived from erroneous copies of Tacitus. The author however rightly collects 
that the numbers were intended to express homines armigeros^. 

a In the inscription in the Tables p. 28 A. D. 45 « Referred to in the Tables A. D. 53. 2 p. 36. 

from Sueton. No. 2 Panvinius p. 314 and Gruter p. ^ The genuine numbers of Tacitus appear to give 

176.5, who give that inscription, read imp. XI for 5,984,072, or a total of about 25,419,000. See 

imp.X. F.H.m p. 457,461. 

b Partly quoted in the Tables A D. 50. 2 p. 34. 



EMPERORS. 7 

The census oi Augustus 4,063,000 and the census o^ Claudius 5,984,072, as computed in another c 
work^, contained only the men of military age, to whom the men above the age of 60, the women 
and children are to be added. Against this mode of reckoning it has been argued as follows f. 

" The census of Claudius, bearing 5,0<S4,07-3 free male adults, would make the free population amount to 
23,936,288. Taking that to be the number of free citizens, allowing for but one slave to each, the inha- 
bitants exclusive of strangers would be 47,872,876, which is infinitely too large a population for Italy itself; 
and the number of citizens beyond it no where appears to be great, (p. 1 1 probably but a small part of the 
citizens was composed of persons out of Italy.) We meet another difficulty in the astonishingly rapid 
growth of population shewn by Mr. Chnton's table. In the census in B. C. iiQ the males being 463,000, the 
total is 1,852,000. In the lustrum oi Augustus B.C. 28 the male adults being 4,063,000, the whole free 
classes amount to 16,252,000." 

The numbers of the census had advanced, not in " 114 years only," as Mr. Blair states its, but 
in 58 years, from B. 0. 86 to B. 0. 28. But the increase was made in a still shorter period; in 
forty two years, from B.C. 70 to B C. 28 h. In that space of 42 years their numbers had multiplied 
from 450,000 to 4,063,000. This vast addition was produced by the large admissions to the class 
of citizens which had been granted within that period. Of these admissions many incidental records 
remain. The whole of Gallia transpadana received this privilege from the dictator Cwsar\ His 
legion called Alauda was composed of natives of transalpine Gaul, and the soldiers of this legion 
were made Roman citizens''. Eighty thousand citizens were planted by Ccesar in colonies beyond 
the seas^ And we are quite sure from the facts which modern enquiries have collected, that the 
numbers which were thus withdrawn from Italy would be replaced in Italy by the increase of po- 
pulation in a very few years n^. After the last war in Spain Ccesar conferred the privilege of citi- 
zenship upon some towns in Spain". Pompey had the power granted to him of creating Roman 
citizens". The triumvir Antony raised the inhabitants of whole cities? and even all the Sicilians 4 
to the rank of Roman citizens. Augustus himself granted this privilege to Utica"^: and to some 
of the Salyes and Cavari ^. In Gaul and Spain he withdrew this privilege from some, but granted 
it to others ^ The highest class among the natives of transalpine Gaul were made citizens of 

^ F. H. Ill p. 45/. 461. eKfvOeplav, oXXoiy noXiTeiav, oXXois dreXetai' ttcciXoov. Cic. 

f See Blair's Inquiry into the state of Slavery Phil. II. 36 Neque solum singulis veniebant imrnuni- 

among the Romans p. 212. Edinburgh 1833. I give tales, sed etiam populis universis civitas non jam sigil- 

the substance of his argument. latim sed provinciis universis dabatur. 

g P. 213. q Cic. Ep. Att. XIV. 12 Scis quam diligam Siculos. 

^ See F. H. Ill p. 454. — Mulla illis Ccesar, neque me invito, etsi Latinitas 

i Dio 4 1 . 36 Tolf TaXarats ToTy eWo? Twi/ "AXTTeo)!/ vTTcp \jic. jus Latii'] non ferenda; veruntamen. ecce autem 

TOP ^Wpibavov oIkovo-i rrjv irokiTfiav, are koi ap^as avTwv, Antonius accepta grundi pecuniu fixit legem, a dicta- 

dire8(0K€. noticed by Claudius apud Tacit. Ann. XI. tore comitiis latam, qua Siculi cives Romani. 
24 Transpadani in civitatem recepti. r Dio 49. 16 kuI tovs OvrcK-ricriovs TroXiras eVotTjo-aTo. 

k Sueton. Cees. c. 24 Unam (legionem) et ex Trans- Hence Pliny H.N. V. 4 Uticu civium Romanorum. 
alpinis conscriptam, vocabulo quoque Gallico, (Alauda ^ Strabo IV p. 1 86 tovs 2aXvas — koI tovs Kaovdpovs. 

enim appellabatur,) quam disciplina cultuque Romano iniKparfl be to tuv Kaovdpcov ovopa ovSe ^ap^dpovs 

institutam et ornatam postea universam civitate do- fTi ovtus dX\a p.€TaKfipevovs t6 nXtov els top Tav'Papaioiv 

navit. Tvnov, koX tt] yXcciTTr] Koi tois ^lois. Tivds 8e koi ttj ttoXi- 

1 Sueton. Caes. c. 42 Octoginta civium millibus in Tela. 

transmarinas colonias distributis. t Dio 54. 25 6 yovv Avyovaros eneibr] ■ndvra ro re ev 

™ See F. H. II p. 468. 477 ed. 3. rmy FaXartaty Kai to. iv rais Teppaviais tois t 'l^rjpiais, 

'^ Dio 43. 39 TOIS evvoidv Tiva avTov a'^ovcriv eBonKe p.ev ttoXXo pev dvakaicras u>s (KacrTOis ttoXXo Se Koi Trap eTepuv 

Koi x^pia Koi uTeXeiav, noXiTeiav Te Tiai, /cat aXXotj dnol- Xa/3(ai/, ttjv re eXevdeplav Koi ttjv iroXiTe'iav toIs pev bovs 

Kois tS)v 'Poipmcov vopi^eadai. toIs 5' d(j)eX6pevos SiwK/ycraro k. t. X. Sueton. Aug. 

o Cic. pro Balbo c. 8. 14. c. 47 Urbium quasdam foederatas — Ubertate privavit : 

P Dio 44. 53 a-vxva be Koi Trap' l8i(0Twv Tmv Te bTjpcov alias — levavit — aut merita erga populum Romanum 

Ka\ rmv ^acnXeatv r^pyvpoXoyria-e, to'ls pev ;^a)pav roty Se allegantes Latinitate vel civitate donavit. 



APPENDIX. 



C. 1. 



Claudius. Rome'. Augustus however advised Tiberius to be sparing of this honour, and rarely bestowed it^. 
Hence in the last 40 years of his reign their numbers did not much advance. 

In the 34 years which passed between the last lustrum oi Augustus and the 8th year of Claudius 
about 1,887,000 citizens had been added to the number. In some degree this addition might be 
produced by the increase of population ; but it must have chiefly proceeded from the same cause 
as the increase in the period which preceded the first census of Augustus. For we cannot doubt 
that the policy which had so long been pursued, and which was inherent in the Eoman institu- 
tions, still continued 5^, as we find in a few years after the reign of Claudius the rank of Roman 
citizen, which had been already before the year 48 conferred on the higher class of persons in 
Gaul, was in the year 68 extended to the whole Gallic nation by GalbaV. In the year 63 Nero 
admitted the Alpine nations to the jus Latii^. A few years later Vespasian conferred the same 
privilege upon Spain^. But the effect of this gift was to advance gradually all the chief families 
to the order of Roman citizens b. It is unnecessary to pursue this topic through later times, or 
to shew that Caracalla finally made all the free subjects of the empire Roman citizens. 

If the population of Italy in the time of Augustus was equal to that of modern Italy, it con- 
tained about 20,400,000 inhabitants «, And if we assume with Mr. Blair as an average for all 
Italy that the slaves were equal in number to the free, we obtain about 10,200,000 for the free 
population and about 2,349,634 for the number of freemen of military age, at the proportion of 
2322 in 10,080 persons^. It follows then that, when allowance is made for strangers in Italy, the 
numbers of the first census of Augustus, 4,063,000, would contain probably 1,760,000 citizens 
supplied from the other provinces of the empire. But testimonies remain which justify this con- 



■^ Tacit. Ann. XI. 23 Primores Gallia qiue Comata 
appellatur fcedera et civitatem Romanam pridem asse- 
cuti jus adipiscendorum in urhe honorum expeterent. 
sc. in A. D. 48. As in the year 48 they had long 
possessed the rank of Roman citizens, their admis- 
sion to that privilege may be referred to Augustus. 

"' Dio 56. 33 iiTKTKrp^us rw Tc^fpia Koi tm koivco aX- 
Xaj T€ Koi 01TC0S fir]T aTTtXevdepacn noWovs, iva fifj iravro- 
hanov o)(Kov tt]v noXiv irkTjpaiaaxn, firp- av is ttjv ttoXi- 
Tfiav avxvoiis iaypa^axnv. Sueton. Aug. 0. 40 Civi- 
tatem parcissime dedit et manumittendi modum termi- 
navit. — Livia pro quodam tributario Gallo roganti 
civitatem negavit, immunitatem ohtulit, affirmans se 
facilius passurum fisco detrahi aliquid quam civitatis 
Romance vulgari honorem. 

* That policy, which was the source of the Roman 
power, is described by Cicero pro Balbo c. 13. 14 
Illud vero sine ulla dubitatione maxime nostrum fun- 
davit imperium — quod princeps ille creator hujus urbis 
Romulus foedere Sabino docuit etiam hostibus recipi- 
endis augeri hanc civitatem oportere. cujus auctoritate 
et exemplo nunquam est intermissa a majoribus nostris 
largitio et communicatio civitatis, Itaque et ex Latio 
multi et Tusculani et Lanuvini et ex ceteris generibus 
gentes universce in civitatem sunt receptee; ut Sabinorum 
Volscorum Hemicorum. — At enim quaedam fcedera ex- 
stant, ut Germanorum, Insubrium, Helvetiorum, Japi- 
dum, nonnullorum etiam ex Gallia barbarorum, quorum 
in fcederibus exceptum est ne quis eorum a nobis civis 
recipiatur. Quodsi exceptio facit ne liceat, ibi necesse 
est licere ubi non est exceptum. Dionysius Ant. II. 
17 contrasts the wisdom of the Romans in this re- 



spect with the narrow policy of the Greek repubUcs. 
Aristides Encom. Rom. p. 214 thoUgh in a later age 
yet describes the early practice : p,tyaKoi p.eyaXms ip.€- 
rprjcraTe Trjv ttoKiv, koL ovk airocrejivvva.p.evoi, Tovrm Bavpa- 
OTTjV eTroir](TaT(, tw pT]bfvi ratv SKkav avrrjs pera8i86pai, 
aXXa TO TrXjjpcD/xa avrijs a^iov e^j^TTjaare, Koi to Fapaiop 
eivai eVoiTjtrarf ov TToXecos dhXa yevovs ovopa KOivov twos 
K. T. X. 

y Plutarch. Galba c. 18 tia^oXfjv elxfv — tu irpos rovs 
TaXaras OvivSiia crvvapapevovs. ehoKovv yap ov (^CkavOpca- 
TTi'a Tov avTOKparopos [sc. Galbce] dXX' wvovpevoi irapa 
Oii'iviov Tvyxpveiv dveaeas re Sacrprnv Koi TroXiTeias. Tacit. 
Hist. I. 8 Gallia, super memoriam Vindicis, obligates 
recenti dono Romance civitatis. 

z Tacit. Ann. XV. 32 Nationes Alpium maritima- 
rum in jus Latii transtulit. 

a Plin. H. N. III. 3 Universce Hispanice Vespasia- 
nus imperator Augustus — Latii jus tribuit. 

t> Asconius in Pisonianam Cic. Cn. Pompeius Strabo 
— jus dedit Latii, ut possent habere jus quod ccetercB 
Latince colonice, id est, ut petendi magistratus gratia 
civitatem Romanam adipiscerentur. Appian. Civ. II. 
26 TtoXiv be 'StoKcopov 6 Kalcrap [conf. Strabonem V 
p. 213 Plutarch. Cses. c. 29 Suetonium Caes. c. 28] 
es Aariov BiKaiov irri Toiv " AXneav coKiKei' S)V ocroi kot fTOS 
ripx^v eyiyvovTO 'Pcopaicov TroXTrai* roSe yap ttr^vet to Aa- 
Ttov. Plin. Panegyr. c. 37, 3 Novi (cives), seu per 
Latium in civitatem seu beneficio principis venissent 
&c. Idem c. 39, 2 His quoque, quibus per Latium 
civitas Romana patuisset, idem indulsit &c. 

c The population of Italy from actual enumeration 
is thus given : 



EMPERORS. 



9 



v^ 



elusion. Cicero attests that in his time the commanders of armies conferred the gift of citizenship Claudius. 
upon those who had deserved well of the republic e. This gift was bestowed indifferently upon 
men of all countries, upon natives of Africa or Sardinia or Spain f . By the law already noticed 
Pmipey received the power of creating citizens with the consent of his council of officers. That 
law was passed in B. 0. 72S when he was conducting the war in Spain, and Pompey doubtless 
exercised that power not only in Spain but afterwards in Asia, where he held the supreme com- 
mand for five years B. C. 66 — 62. We have seen that Ccesar advanced some towns in Spain to 
this honour ; that Antony conferred it upon whole provinces and upon the island of Sicily. Sicily 
alone, if we compute its population to be equal to that of modern Sicily, might supply to the first 
census of Augustus 235,000 citizens^. The inhabitants of Utica were made Roman citizens by 
Augustus. The inhabitants of Trapezus were Roman citizens '. We have seen that the leading 
class among the Transalpine Gauls were citizens of Rome. Hence the father of Vindex was a 



To Austria 

Lombardy 2,600,760 

Venice 2,202,529 

4,803.289 

To Sardinia 

Turin 873,310 

Cuneo 566,181 

Alessandria 595,563 

Novara 542,728 

Aosta 78,110 

Nizza 230,718 

Genoa with Copraja 674,988 

3,561,598 

Duchy of Parma in 1846 496,803 

Duchy of Modena 515,343 

Lucca in 1839 168,198 

Tuscany in 1846 1,565,751 

11,110,982 

San Marino 7,600 

Pope's dominions in 1843 2,898,115 

Naples in 1845 including the city") ^ oon ^nR 
of Naples 379,621 / ''"^«^'>"^ 

Total, exclusive of the Islands .... 20,399,403 



The ancient Neapolis was less populous than the 
modern capital ; but this is more than compensated 
by the greatness of ancient Rome, which contained 
according to the moderate estimate of Gibbon 
1,200,000 inhabitants, while Rome in 1827 bad only 
140,673. Northern Italy included the three districts 
Venetia, Carnia and Istria. The two former were in 
Cisalpine Gaul : Mela 2. 4, 2 Carni et Veneti colunt 
Togatam Galliam. Istria was already when Strabo 
wrote annexed to Italy : Strabo VII p. 314 e^ajxev ev 

TTJ TTfpioSei'a Trjs 'iraXtas [V p. 215] — Siori [J-expi- IloXas, 
'loTpiKTJs iToXecos, irporyyayov oi vvv fjje^ves rovs r^s 'Ira- 

Xias opovs. Daru Histoire de Venise tom. 6 p. 258 
assigns to Venice in 1788 Terra Firma, Friuli, and 
Istria, with rather a larger population than the 
amount here given. But at present Istria belongs 
to another province, and the Venetian territories 



have their limit at Udine and at a point to the west 
of Trieste. As however in ancient times Venice itself 
did not exist, the modern population may be assumed 
to represent the inhabitants of those three districts. 

d See F. H. Ill p. 460. 

e Cic. pro Balbo c. 9 Stipendiarios ex Africa Sicilia 
Sardinia ceteris provinciis multos civitate donatos vide- 
mus ; et qui hostes ad nostras imperatores perfugissent 
et magno usui reipublicce nostree fuissent scimus civitate 
esse donatos ; servos denique, quorum jus et fortune 
conditio infima est, bene de republica meritos, perscepe 
libertate, id est, civitate, publice donari videmus. 

^ Cic. pro Balbo c. 1 8 Quod si Afris, si Sardis, si 
Hispanis, agris stipendioque multatis, virtute adipisci 
licet civitatem, &c. How largely this privilege was 
conferred may be gathered from Cicero pro Balbo 
c. 22, although the examples in part occun-ed in 
Italy : Quid ? Cn. Pompeius pater, rebus Italico bello 
maximis gestis, P. Ccesium equitem Romanum, virum 
bonum, qui vivit Ravenna, — nonne civitate donavit ? 
quid ? cohortes duas universas Camertium ? Quid ? 
Heracliensium legionem P. Crassus P — Quid? Massili- 
ensem Aristonem Sulla ? quid ? idem heros novem Ga- 
ditanos? Quid? — Q. Metellus Pius Q. Fabium Sa- 
guntinum ? Quid ? hie qui adest — M. Crassus, non 
Aletrinensem foederatum civitate donavit ? homo turn 
gravitate et prudentia prxstans, turn vel nimium parens 
in largienda civitate ? 

S Cic. pro Balbo c. 8 Lege quam C. Gellius Cn. 
Cornelius ex senatus sententia tulerunt — uti cives Ro- 
mani sint ii, quos Cn. Pompeius de consilii sententia 
[conf c. 17 Cn. Pompeium de consilii sententia civita- 
tem huic dedisse] sigillatim civitate donarit. c. 14 Lex 
Gellia et Cornelia, qua definite potestatem Pompeio civi- 
tatem donandi dederat. These were consuls in B.C. 72. 

^ Population of Sicily, from an enumeration made 
in 1845, 2,040,610. If we assume for Sicily one 
slave to every free inhabitant, we have 1,020,300 
free inhabitants, and these would give for the men 
of military age about 235,000. 

i Tacit. Hist. HI. 47 Donati civitate Romana signa 
armaque in nostrum modum, desidiam licentiamque 
GrcEcorum retinebant. 



10 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

Claudius, senator^'. That some Jews were made citizens we know from Josephus^ and Philof". The father 
of St. Paul was a Roman". These specimens shew that no nation was excluded. 

If the advance of the numbers in those 42 years" from 450,000 to 4,063,000 shall appear to be 
explained by the testimonies here produced, the increase in the 34 yearsP from 4,097,000 to 
5,984,000 will not excite surprise. The increasing wealth and prosperity not only of Italy but 
of the whole empire within that period would produce an increase in the population ; and the 
numbers of the citizens would advance with the numbers of the other classes. The numerous 
colonies beyond the limits of Italy which enjoyed the jus Latii were annually adding new citizens 
to the empire ; and (as already remarked) additional grants of the rights of citizenship continued 
to be made. "We collect from Philo that Caligula was lavish of this gift q. 

Neho. Nero. 

Inscriptions. 1 Muratori p. 445. 4 In Hispania: Ti. Claud. Nero imp. Aug. pont. m. tr. p. cos. 
XIII Augustohrigam M. P. XXII. Omit the erroneous number XIII ^ and this inscription 
falls within Jan. 1 — Oct. 12 A. D. 55. 2 Muratori p. 445. 5 In agro Forojuliensi : Nero Claudius 
Divi Claudi f. Germanici Ccesar. n. Ti. Ccesar. Aug. pronep. Divi Aug. ahnepos Ccesar Aug. Ger- 
manicus pontifex max. tr. pot. IIII imp. iter. cos. Ill p. p. restituit. Within Jan. 1 — Oct. 12 
A. D. 58. 3 Murat. p. 227. 1 In Sancti Germani Civitate: Neroni Claudio Ccesar i Aug. Germ, 
pont. mxix. trih. pot. XIII imp. IIII cos. IIII p. p. L. Stenius Silvanus ex testamsnto. The 
number imp. IIII is defective ; for Nero was already imp. VII in A. D. 60, and is imp. XI in 
another inscription of the 13th tribunician year^ 4 Murat. p. 227. 4 Csecinae in agro Lunensi 
tabula marmorea: partly quoted in the Tables at A. D. (JG p. 48 of the 13th tribunician year. 
The other division of this Tablet is as follows : DivcB Poppcece Augustcs imp. Neronis Ccesaris Au- 
gttst. L. Licinius L. f. Gal. Glaucus Lucretianus flam. Bomce et Aug. Ilvir IV P. C. sevir eq. R. 
Curio prcef. fahr. cos. tr. milit. leg. XXII Primig. prcef. prolegat. insular. Baliarum tr. mil. leg. VI 
Victricis ex voto suscepto pro salute imp. Neronis quod Baliaribus voverat anno A. Licinio Nerta cos. 
[sc. A.D. 65] Ilvir A. Ufeto Vegeto et Q. Ahurio Nepote uhe vellet ponere V. compos posit Jom Ju- 
noni Minervce Felicitati Bomce Divo Aug. Poppcea died in the 12th tribunician year (Tables 
A.D. 65), and this inscription is erected in the 13th, 5 Murat. p. 916. 10 extra Romam: Bis 
Manihus Taurionis opsonatoris Poppcece Aug. 6 Murat. p. 228. 1 6 brjixos Nipa>va 'louAtoi; Kal<rapa 
Tiaiba deov viov Tepyi.avi.Kov KaCcrapos koL dfas AioAi8o$ KapiT0(p6pas ^ AypnTiTitvas. 

Galba. Galea. 

Tabulae senese apud Muratorium p. 306. 307 Florentiae et in Castello a mare : 306. 3 in prima 
facie : Ser. Galba imperator Ccesar August, pontif. max. tr. pot. cos. des. II veteranis qui militave- 
runt in legione I Adjutrice honestam missionem et civitatem dedit quorum nomina suhscripta sunt ipsis 
Uheris posterisque eorum et conubium cum uxoribus quas tunc Jiabuissent cum est civitas iis data aut si 
qui ccelibes essent cum iis quas postea duxissent, dumtaxat singuli singulas A.B. In secunda facie ; 

^ Die 63. 22 'lovXios BtVSt^ eV fuv irpoyovuv 'AniTapos ° From whom St. Paul inherited this privilege : 

Tov ^aaiXiKov ytvovs, Kara be t6v Trarepa ^avKevrrjs rav Acts XXII. 2.5 — 28. 

'PaiMiuv. o B, C. 70 — 28. 

1 Joseph. Bell. II. 14, 9 ^X<Spos (TdXprjaev avBpas P A. D, 14 — 48. 

iTririKov Toyparos pacmyaacu irpo tov ^rjparoi kcli (rravptp q Agrippa apud Philonem Leg. ad Caium c. 36 

irpooTJkma-cu. 2av u Koi to ytvos 'lovbaiop, dXKa to yovv addressing Caligula remarks (f>[Ka)v fvlcov irarplbas oKrjs 

d^iapxi 'PapaiKOP rfv. Quoted by Lardner Vol. 1 p. 224, t^s 'Va>pdiKr)s fj^iaxras TToXiTfias. Not individuals only 

who gives other examples. but the whole people were made citizens. 

n» Philo leg. ad Caium c. 23. partly quoted by ' See the Tables A. D. 60. 2. 66. 2. 
Lardner. 



EMPERORS. 11 

XI K. Jan. C. Bellico Natale P. Cornelio Scipione cos. [sc. sufedis] Diomedi Artemonis f. Phrygio 
descriptum et recognitum et tabula cenea quce fixa est Romce in Capitolio in ara gentis Julice. Tn 
tertia facie : Ser. Galha he. repeated. In quarta facie : Ti. Julius Pardala Sard. &c. Idem p. 
307. 1 Ser. Galha &c. consul designatus II &c. A. D. XI K. Januar. G. Bellico Natale &c. The 
same inscription repeated, with other names appended to it^ This Tabula honestcB missionis was 
dated Dec. 22 A. D. 68. 

Otho. See the Tables A. D. 69. col. 2. 4. Otho. 

ViTELLius. Tables A. D. 69 col. 2. 4. Vitellius. 

VesPASIANUS. Vespasianus. 

To the Inscriptions quoted in the Tables add the following, 

I Gruter p. 573. i (partly quoted in the Tables A. D. 71-4) Aqurleise, imo Romee, in duabus 
tabulis seneis : Imp. Ccesar Vespasianus Aug. pont. max. tr. pot. II imp. VI p.p. cos. Ill desig. 
IIII veteranis qui militaverunt in classe Ravennate sub Sex. Lucilio Basso qui sena et vicena stipen- 
dia aut plura meruerunt et sunt deducti in Pannoniam, quorum nomina subscripta sunt, ipsis liberis 
posterisque eorum civitatem dedit et conubium cum uxoribus quas tunc habuissent cum est civitas iis 
data, aut, si qui cmlibes essenf, cum iis quas postea duxissent, dumtaxat singuli singulas, Non. April. 
&c. 2 Gruter p. 154. 3 Muratori p. 445. 7 Imp. Cces. Vespasian. Aug. pont. max. tr. p. II imp. 
VII COS. Ill desig. IIII p. p. viam a Gappara urbe ad Emeritam usq. Aug. impensa sua restituit. 
LXXIII. [LXIII Murat.] 3 Muratori p. 228. 3 Augustse Taurinorum : Imp. Gcesar Vespa- 
sianus Augustus pontifex maxitnus frib. potestat. cos. Ill cos. design. IIII. 4 Panvin. p. 322 
Gruter p. 189. 7 Imp. Cces. Vespasianus Aug. pont. max. tr. pot. Ill cos. Ill p. p. imp. VIII. 
5 Gruter p. 243. 4 Aventici : Imp. Ccesari Vespasiano Aug. pont. max. tr. pot. Ill imp. VIII cos. 
Ill desig. IIII p.p. 6 Panvin. p. 323 Gruter p. 189. 8 Imp. Gees. Vespasian. Aug. p. m. tr.pot. 
Ill imp. VIII p. p. COS. IIII. 7 Gruter p. 243. 2 Romse, similar to p. 243. 3 Curais given in 
the Tables A. D. 71. 2 from the Appendix to Suetonius. 8 Gruter p. 1019. 7- 1078. 4 Formiis : 
Imp. Vespasianus Gees. Aug. pontifex maximus tribunicics potestatis cos. Ill pater patrice faciendum 
curavit. L XXX VI. 

9 Muratori p. 445. 8 Ex Sardinia: LVI a turre imp. Gcesar Vespasianus Aug. pontifex maximus 
frib. pot. XIII [immo V vel VI. conf. Murat.] cos. V design. VI censor refecit et restituit. 

10 Muratori p. 446. 1 (referred to in the Tables A. D. 75. 2) Thyatirse : Imp. Gcesar Vespasianus 
Aug. pontif max. trib. pot. VI imp. XIII cos. VI desig. VII censor vias faciendas curavit. 

II Muratori p. 1992. 7 Imp. Gcesar Vespasianus Aug. pontif maximus trib. potestat. V imp. 
XVII p. p. censor COS. VII design. VIII. Read with Muratori trib. pot. VII. See Gruter p. 
154. 4 quoted in the Tables A. D. 76. 2. 

12 Panvinius p. 324 Gruter p. 243. 6 Muratori p. 228. 2 ex Hispania. Given in the Tables 
A. D. 77 from the Appendix to Suetonius N°. 2. 13 Muratori p. 2007- 4 in Lusitania: Imp. 
Gees. Vesp. Aug. pont. max. trib. pot. IX imp. XIIX p. p. cos. VIII opus amp. V D D a 
Bracara Aug. M. P. XXVII. Within Dec. A. D. 77— Dec. A. D. 78. 14 Muratori p. 583. 1 
(referred to in the Tables A. D. 78. 1) Romse: L. Geionio Gommodo D. Novio Prisco III Non. 
Jan. magisterio G. Matidi Patruini promagistro L. Veratio Quadrato collegi fratrum Arvalium no- 
mine vota nuncupaveriint pro salute imp. Vespasiani Gcesaris Aug. trib. pot. cos. VIII et T. Gcesaris 
Aug. f Vespasiani cos. VI victimis immolatis in Gapitolio quce superioris anni magister vomrat per- 

8 Muratori remarks p. 306. 3 " Quum unusquisque procuraret ejusmodi indulgentise, nil mirum si aliae 
militum honesta missione donatorum exemplum sibi similes tabellse in aliis locis reperiantur." 

C 2 



1« APPENDIX. C. 1. 

VESPA8IANUS. solvit et in proximum annum nuncupavit prceeunte L. Veratio Quadrato in ea verba quce SSS. Jovi 
Optimo Maxima bovem m/irem &c. 

15 Muratori p. 228.4 Vindobonae : Imp. Vespasiano Ccesari Aucf. ponii/. maximo trib. potest. X 
imp. XX cos. Vim p.p. C. Domitius Florus T. F. I. 

16 Gruter p. 132. 4 Romse : Imp. Ccesar Vespasianus Aug. per collegium pontificum fecit, 17 
Gruter p. 239. 3 Basis marmorea Romae : Pad ceternce donius imp. Vespasiani Casaris Aug. libe- 
rorrnnq. efus sacrum trib. Sue. junior. Dedic. XV K. Dec. L. Annio Basso G. Cescina Pceto cos. [sc. 
sujectis.] 18 Grut. p. 243. 1 Basis marmorea Romse: Victories imp. Ccesaris Vespasiani Augusti 
sacrum trib. Sue. corp. Juliani C. Julius Herm^ mensor bis non. incurat. \IIIIII mrat. Scaliger] 
functus et n&mine G. Juli Begillijili de suo fecit cui populus ejus corporis immunitatem sex centuria- 
rum decrevit. 19 Gruter p. 1075. 8 ad vicum Varum: Imp. Gees. Vespasianus Aug. pontifex max. 
trib. pot. censor cedem Vidorice vetustate dilapsam sua impensa restituit. 20 Gruter p. 373. 1 L. 
Bcebio L.f. Gal. Avito prcef. fabr. trib. mil. leg. X Gem. proc. imp. Gcesaris Vespasiani Aug. pro- 
mncice Lusitanics adlecto inter prcetorios. An inscription with the same titles is given by Muratori 
p. 59. 1. 

21 Muratori p. 2004. 2 in vico insulse Corsicse: Imp. Gcesar Vespasianus Augustus magistratibus 
et senatoribus Uanacinorum salutem dicit. Otacilium Sagittam amicum et procuratorem meum ita 
vobis prcefuisse ut testimonium vestrum mereatur delector. De controversia jinium quam habetis cum 
Marianis pendenti ex is agris quos a procuratore meo Publilio Mem^riaU emistis ut finiret Glaudius 
Glemens procurator meus scripsi ei et mensorem misi. Beneficia tributa vobis ab divo Augusto post 
septimum consulatum quce in tempora Galhce retinuistis confirms. Egerunt legati Lasemo Leucojni 
f. sacerd. Aug, Eunus Tom,asi f sacerd. Aug. G. Arruntio Gatellio Celere M. Arruntio Aquila cos. 
[sc. suject.] IIII Idus Octobr. 

22 Gruter p. 242. item ad calcem Suetonii N**. 10. Tabula aenea Romse : -x- -x- foedusve cum qui- 
bus volet facere Uceat ita uti licuit divo Aug. Ti. Julio Gcesari Aug. Tiberioque Glaudio Gcesari Aug. 
Germanico. utique ei senatum habere relationem facere remittere senatus consulta per relationem dis- 
cessionemque facere Uceat ita uti licuit divo Aug. Ti. Julio Gcesari Aug. Ti. Glaudio Gcesari Aug. 
Germanico. utique cum ex voluntate auctoritateve jussu mandatuve ejus prcesenteve eo senatus habebitur 
omnium rerum jus perinde habeatur servetur ac si e lege senatus edictus esset habereturque. utique quos 
magistratum potestatem imperiv/m curationemve cujus rei petentes senatui populoque Romano commen- 
daverit qwibusque suffragationem suam dederit promiserit eorum comitis quibusque extra ordinem ratio 
habeatur. utique eijin^spomsriiproferrepromovere cum ex republica censebit esse Uceat ita uti licuit 
Ti. Glaudio Gcesari Aug. Germanico. Utique qucecunque ex usu reipublicce mxijestate divinarum 
hwrnanarvm publicarum privatarumque rerum esse censebit ei agere jus potestasque sit ita uti divo 
Aug. Tiberioque Julio Gcesari Aug. Tiberioque Glaudio Gcesari Aug. Germanico fuit. Utique quibus 
legibus plebeive scitis scriptwm fuit ne divus Aug. Tiberiusve Julius Gcesar Aug. Tiberiusque Glaudius 
Gcesar Aug. Germanicus tenerentur iis legibus plebisque scitis imp. Gcesar Vespasianus solutus sit quce- 
que ex quaque lege rogatione divum Aug. Tiberiumve Julium Gcssarem Aug. Tiberiumve Glaudium 
GcBsarem Aug. Germanicum facere oportuit ea mnnia imp. Gcesari Vespasiano Aug. facere Uceat. 
Utique qucecunque ante hanc legem rogatam a^ta gesta decreta imperata ab imjperatore Gopsare Vespa- 
siano Aug. jussu mandatu/oe ejus a quoque sunt ea perinde justa rataq. sint ac si populi plebisve jussu 
acta essent. Sanctio. Si quis hujusce legis ergo adversus leges rogationes plebisve scita senatusve con- 
sidta fecit fecerit sive quod eum ex lege rogationeve plebisve scito S. ve G. facere oporteUt non fecerit 
hvjus legis ergo id ei ne fraudi esto neve quit ob earn rem populo dare debeto neve cui de ea re actio 
neve judicatio esto neve quis de ea re apud se agi sinito. 

Suetonius Vesp. c. 25 remarks that Vespasian and his sons reigned as long as Nero and Glau- 
dium : totidem annis parique temporis spatio utrique imperaverunt. 



EMPERORS. 13 

Titus. Titus. 

Inscriptions not in the Tables. 
1 Muratori p. 228. 5 in Hispania : Tit. Ccesari Aug. f. Vespasiano imp. pont. (rib. pot. VI cos. 
des. VI censori D. D. 2 Gruter p. 1068. 3 in Helvetia : Imp. T. Vespasianus Gees. Aug. VII cos. 
Marti ApoUini Minervce arcum vican. Vindonissensis curicb T. Urhanio Mattone T. Vol. Allano 
L. Veturio Mellocotio Buffo Sextio. 3 Gruter p. 155. 3 Emeritse : Imp. Titus Ccps. Vesp. Aug. 
pon. m. trih.p. F[lege JT] cos. VIII p.p. generis Immani amor et desiderium etiam vi. 4 Gruter 

p. 173. 8 Neapoli : Tiro? Kaiaa . . . eairaa-tavos ^e^acrrbs lktjs e^ovcrias to l' os VTraros 

TO r] TdfxrjTTjs OiTTicras to y yvixva(napxwo.s • . • vjxiTea-ovTa a7roKaT€crTr](T€v w. /*. Vespasia- 
nus Aug COS. VIII censor p. p tibus conlapsa restituit. 5 Gruter p. 244. 5 Tarracone : 

Imp. Titus Ccesar Vespasianus Aug. p.m. tr. potest, cos. VIII p.p. 6 Gruter p. 244. 7 Imp. Cce- 
sari divif. T. Vespasiano Augusto pont. max. trib. pot. imp. X p.p. censori conservatori cedium pub- 
licarum et restitutori cedium sacrarum sodales Flavii P. Martius Verus. Titus was imp. XIIII or 
XV. see the Tables A. D. 79- 2. and imp. JTF is rightly substituted for X apud Gruterum 1. c. 
7 Muratori p. 2007.5 in Lusitania: Imp. Tito Ccesare divi Vesp./. Vespasiano M. pont. max. trib. 
pot. IX imp. XV p.p. COS. VIII Gcesare divi f. Vesp.f. -^ -x- ^ 4«- cos. VII G. CoJpetano Rantio 
QuirinMe Valerio Festo leg. Aug. pro pr. via nova a Brae. Aug. M. P. XXXIIII. The name of 
Domitian erased. 8 Gruter p. 244. 4 Romse: Imp. T. CcBsari divi f. Vespasiano Aug. plebs ur- 
hana qucB frmnentum publicum accepit et tribus. 9 Muratori p, 131. 2 Romse: S. P. Q. B. dim 
Tito divi Vespasiani Vespasiano Aug. Sacrum Jovi Optimo Maximo Salutari cedem voto suscepto. 
10 Murat. p. 229. 1 apud Thebas in Boeotia: avTOKp6.Topa Tltov KaCa-apa Oeov '^e^aaTov Ovecnracna- 

vbv Tj TTokiS' 

The celebrated saying of Titus, diem perdidi, recorded by Suetonius Tito c. 8, is referred to by 
Themistius Or. 6 p. 80 A Or. 8 p. 107 A Or. 13 p. 174 Or. 15 p. 193 A Or. 18 p. 225 A and by 
Ausonius Grat. Act. p. 298 ed. Bipont. 

DOMITIANUS. DOMITIANUS. 

Inscriptions. 1 Muratori p. 229. 5 in Dacia : Imp. Ccesar divi Vespasiani f. Aug. 

pontif. max. tr. pot. imp. II cos. VIII designat. Villi p.p. 2 Muratori p. 229. 6 Cordubse : 

D. N. imperator Ccesar divi Vespasiani Augusti Germanicus ponti/ex maximus trib. pot. 

VIII imp. XXI COS. XV censor perpetuus. Read trib. pot. Villi. See the Tables A. D. 90. 2. 
On the erasure of the name oi Domitian see the Tables A. D. 83. 1. Add Procopius Anecdot. 
p. 25 C D. 

3 Gruter p. 574. 5. 6 Salonse tabulae senese : an inscription of the 12th tribunician year, partly 
given in the Tables A. D. 93. 2 p. 78. The inscriptions there given from Gruter p. 189. \2 ex 
Panvinio (p. 327 " antiqua tabula aenea quse extat adhuc Venetiis") and from Gruter p. 574 ap- 
pear to be the same inscription, imperfectly given at p. 189 but more fully at p. 574, where it 
proceeds thus : Imp. Ccesar &c. — Bomanorum qui peregrines condicionis probati erant et sunt in 
Delmatia sub Q. Pomponio Bufo qui quina et vicena stipendia aut plura meruerunt item dimissis ho- 
nesta missione emeritis stipendiis liberis posterisque eorum civitatem dedit et connubium cum uxoribus 
quas tunc habuissent cum est civitas iis data, aut, si qui cwlibes essent, cum iis quas posfea duxissent, 
dumtaxat singidi singulas, ad III Idus Julias [July 13 A. D. 93] M. Lollio Paulino Valerio Asiatico 
Saturnino C. Antio Julio Quadrato cos. [sc. suffectis'] cohort. Ill Alpinorum cui prceest C. Vibius 
Maximus &c. 

4 Gruter p. 155. 1 Emeritae : Imp. Domitian. Vesp. Cces. Aug. Germ. p.m. opus patern. nequitia 
publicanor. infectum ea gente male mulctata et omni in posterum munere publico priv. confici jussit. 
LXXXVIII. 5 Muratori p. 229. 4 in Catalonia: Imp. Domitiano Ccesari Aug. Germanico L. 
Municius Quir. Novatus et L. Municius Quir. Aureliarms Ti. Cor. Ner. Tern Ilvir. constituti 



14 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

D. P. P. D. D. 6 Muratori p. 447- 2 Senis: OCXC. imp. Domitiani Augusti Germanici cura 
Polludovicis L. Proc. Philiautus lih.fecit^. 

To the accounts of Suetonius and Tacitus, referred to in the Tables, may be added the picture 
of Domitian drawn by Pliny Panegyr. c. 48. 

Nerva. Nerva. 

Inscriptions. 
1 Oolumna milliaria Romse apud Gruterum p. 154. 4. 5. 6 Muratorium p. 446. 2. The column 
in Gruter (described in the Tables A. D. 118 p. 106) commemorates 1 Vespasian. 2 Nerva. 
H Trajan. The column in Muratori has only the two first. The inscription to Vespasian is in 
the Tables A. D. 76. 2 from Gruter. Then follows in Gruter and Muratori : Imp. Nerva &c. cos. 
Ill pater patriae refecit. 2 Gruter p. 246. 1 Romse : Lihertati ah imp. Nerva GcBsare Aug. anno 
ah urhe condita DCCC. XXX. XXXII. XXXI III. 3 Panvinius p. 328 Gruter p. 189. 13 
Romae : Imp. Nerva Ccesar Aug. . . .potest. II imp. II. 4 Panvinius p. 328 Gruterus p. 245. 6 
Romae: Imp. Nervce Gees. Aug. pant. max. trib. pot. cos. Ill p.p. L. Sertorius L.f. Volt. Evanthus 
cedil. C. G. N. D. D. S. P. P. 5 Gruter p. 245. 7 J^mp. Nervce Gcesari Aug. Ill cos. Ti. Glaudius 
Felix et P. Lollius Paris allectores cultores Silvani idem immun. 6 Gruter p. 10/8. 5 e regione 
Setise: Imp. Nerva Goes. Aug. pontifex maximus trihunicice potestatis cos. Ill pater patrice facien- 
dam curavit. XLV. 7 Gruter p. 155, 4 juxta oppidum Arsularum, secundum viam Valeriam: 
XXXVIII. Imp. Nerva Gcesar Augustus pontifex maximus trihunicia potestate cos. Ill pater par 
trice faciendum curavit. 8 Muratori p. 229. 7 Asturicse : Imp. Nervce Gees. Aug. pont. max. trih. 
P'P'P' COS. Ill . . . . Asturic. . . . mil. ... 9 Murat. p. 447. 4 Romse in columnar Imp. Nerva 
Gcesar Augustus pontifex maximus trihunicia potestate cons. Ill pater patrice refecit. 10 Idem p. 
447.5 Cordubae: Imp. Nerva Gees. Aug. pont. maxim, trih. potest. II cos. II [lege III cum Mura- 
torio] proc. pater patrice Gord. restituit. 11 Idem p. 447- 6 cippus milliarius in Hungaria: Imp. 

Nerva Gees. Aug. pontifex maximus trihunicice potestat. cos. Ill p.p. a Malata cus M. P. X. 

Imp. Gees. M. Aurel. Antonino Aug. Pio Fel. a Malata . . . s. v. cus M. P. XVI. 12 Idem p. 
2007. 6 Imp. Nerva Gcesar Augustus pontif maximus trihuni. potestate cos. Ill pater patrice fecit. 
13 Idem p. 447. 7 in via Appia : Imper. Nerva Gcesar August, pontifex maximus trihunitice potestatis 
X cos. Ill pater patrice facien. curavit. XLIII. 14 Idem p. 448. 1 in via Appia: Imper. Nerva 
&c. trihunitice potestatis X cos. Ill pater patrice facien. curavit. XLIV. 15 Idem p. 448. 2 Im~ 
perat. Nerva &c. trihunitice potestatis cos. Ill pater patrice facien. curavit. XLV. 16 Idem p. 
448. 4 in paludibus Pomptinis : Imp. Gcesar Nerva Aug. Germ, pontif. max. trih. potest. Ill cos. 
II II p. p. sua pecunia const. 17 Gruter p. 185. 4 Romae: Imp. Nerva Gees. A. trih. potest. Ill 
imp. II. In 13. 14. 16. 17 for trih. pot. X and /// read trih. pot. II. conf. Eckhel tom. 8 p. 41 1. 
1 8 Gruter p. 246. 2 inventum prope Antium : Sergice Leenatis f Plautillee matri imp. Nervce Gee- 

t Domitian is named in the following : Muratori titulum cum valvis eeneis D. S. P. permissu Herma 

p. 2020. 1 in via Appia ultra Beneventum XXI M. P: Aug. L. a cub. Domitice Aug. On Domitia see Sue- 

Q. Gefridio Nigeria Aufustiano invicto aurigatori in ton. Domit. c. 3. 13 Tito c. 10 Dio 66, 3. 26. 67, 3. 15 

faction, varis pluries agitato semper victori ab imp. Victor Epit. p. 369 Euseb. Chron. anno 2097 et hinc 

Domitiano Aug. Cas. pluries coronato premisq. Ill Syncellus p. 343 C. (erroneously given in the Arme- 

aucto P. S. vix ann. LXIV m. III. Lucilia Appuleia nian Eusebius,) and coins in Eckhel tom. 6 p. 401, 

lucor mar. B. M. fee. His wife Domitia in these : who also p. 399 quotes an inscription In honorem 

Muratori p. 194. 5 Senitii : T. Attico Domitia Aug. memorice domus Domitice AugustcB Cn. Domiti Corbu- 

lib. IV [an VI?'] vir. Aug. Domitius Sollers VIvir lonis fil. &c. Procopius Anecd. p. 25 D is more fa- 

Aug. Atticus Domitia Aug. S. S. Q. P. P. Idem p. vourable to Domitia than other writers. But the 

913. 4 in oppido Marini : Dis Manibus Pieri Aug. L. earlier authorities destroy the credit of his account. 
prac. puerr. Ceesaris N. Flavia Nice conjunx B. M. 



EMPERORS. 



15 



saris Aug. 
trih. pot. 



19 Gruter p. 245. 8 in Hispania: Imp. Nerves Aug. German, inferior, pont. max. 



Phtince 
August. 



Martiance 
Aug. 



Trajanus. 

Trajan was a native of Italica in Spain : Appian. Hispan. c. 38 6 ^KLirCcov — avvcDKLo-e rovs rpav- 
IxarCas es Ttokiv, fjv cltto r^s IraA^as lTa\tKy]v e/c(iAecre' koI narpis eort Tpatayou re koX ^ Ahpiavov twv 
varrepov 'Pw/aatots ap^avrav Trjv avroKpaTopa apx;qv. Victor Oa3S. p. 319 Italica urhe Hispanice ortum. 
Eutrop. VITI. 2 Natus Italicce in Hispania. Dio 68. 4 "l^-qp 6 TpdCavos. Zonaras XI p. 584 B 
Tpdiavbs 8e to yivos eiA/cey e^ 'I/3r/ptas. Themistius Or. VIII p. 1 lOB KCLKdvov top avTOKpdropa. os 
(TTfLbri rdxicTTa rjKev ets rrjv apy7]v k.t.X. refers to the character and exploits of Trajan. 

Plotina the wife of Trajan is described by PHny Panegyr. c. 83. Named in an inscription 
Muratori p. 88/. 9 Extra Romam : D. M. Antiocho Phtince Augustce actori fratres. His sister 
Marciana : Plin. Panegyr. c. 84. 1 Soror autem tua 8ec. Ibid. § 6 Ohtulerat illis senatus cognomen 
Augustarum., quod certatim deprecatce sunt quam diu appellationem patris patrice^ tu recusasses. 
Both are named in Muratori p. 230. 7 Sarzanse : 

Imp. CcBS. NervcB Trajano Aug. 

Germ. Dacico pont. max. tr. pot- 

IX COS. V D.D. [A.D. 105] 

and in Panvinius p. 334 Gruter p. 24/. 6 Anconse : 

Imp. CcEsari divi Nervce f. Nervce Trajano Op- 
timo Aug. Germanic. Dacico et Cyriaco pont. max. Divce 

trih. pot. XVI II I imp. IX [lege imp. XI] cos. Marciance 
VI p.p. providentissimo principi senatus P. Q. B. Aug. 

quod accessum Italics hoc etiam addito ex pecunia sorori Aug. 
sua portu tutiorem navigantibus reddiderit. 

Marciana therefore was already dead in the 19th tribunician year commencing Oct. A. D. 115. 
From Marciana Marcianopolis was named: Ammian. 27. 4, 12 Mysia uhi Marcianopolis est, a 
soror e Trajani principis ita cognominata. 

To the inscriptions in the Tables add the following. 

1 Gruter p. 128. 3 Romse: Imp. Gobs. Trajani Aug. Germ. cos. II permissu T. Allieni Sicini 
Quintiani cur. csd. Sacr. wdiculam regionis VI vico portce Collince vetustate conlapsam a solo sua im- 
pensa restituerunt magistri anni C. V. ... us A. Varro A. L. Felix P. Vettius P. L. Possidonius 
C. Turranius C. L. Gen. ... 2 Panvinius p. 329 Gruter p. 189. 14 Imp. Gees, divi Nervce f. 
Nerva Trajanus Aug. Germanicus pontif. maxim, trihunic. potest, cos. iter. 3 Gruter p. 246. 4 
Romse: Pietati et felicitati imp. Gees, divi Nervce [adde/.] Trajani Aug. Germ. pont. max. tr. pot. 
Ill cos. II p.p. ex S. G. Within October and Dec. 3 1 A. D. 99. 4 Muratori p. 229. 8 Narbone : 
Irnp. Gcesari divi Nervce f. Trajano Aug. Germ. pont. max. trih. pot. cos. II ... . anus Illlllvir 

Aug. de sua mediocritate mento fieri poniq. jussit. 5 Muratori p. 2007- 1 1 inter Emeritam et 

Salmanticam: Imp. Gees, divi Nerves f. divus Nerva Trajanus Augustus Germanicus pontifex niaxi- 
mus trihunicia potestate consul iterum restituit. GUI. 6 Muratori p. 449. 6 in agro Numantino : 
Imp. G(Bsar Nerva Trajanus Aug. Ger. pont. max. trih. pot. p.p. cos. iter. f. ah. Augustohri. M. P. 
Vim. In A. D. 99 on account of the i\i\e pater patricE. See the Tables A. D. 99. 2. 7 Gruter 
p. 155. 5 In Helvetia: Imp. Gcesari divi Nervce f. Nervce Trajano Aug. Germ. pont. max. trib.pot. 
cos. II p.p. des. III. M. P. LXXXV. In A. D. 99. 



Trajanus. 



Plotince 

Aug. 

conjugi Aug. 



▼ See the Tables A. D. 99 for this title. 



16 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

Trajanus. 8 Gruter p. 41. 7 ad Lacum Nemorensem: Diance Nemoresi Vestce sacrum diet. imp. Nervce 
Trajano Aug. Germanico III cos. prcef. ejus T. Voltedio Mamiliano qucestorih. L. Ccecilio Urso II 
M. Lucretio Sabino II cedilih. Q. Vihenna Quieto Ti. Claudio Magna P. Cornelius Trophimus pistor 
Bomaniensis ex reg. XII I I idem cur. vici quadraii et Lania C. f. Thyonoe conjux ejus votum lihens sol- 
verunt. 9 Panvinius p. 330 Pietatis imp. Ccesaris dim Nervce f. Nervce Trajani Aug. Germanici p.m. 
tr.p. Ill COS. Ill p. p. ex S. C. Compare N^. 3. 10 Gruter p. 189. 15 ex Panvinio: Itnp. Cees. 
Nerva Trajanus Aug. p. m. tr. pot. Ill cos. Ill p.p. But Panvinius p. 329 has tr. pot. Ill cos. II. 
which places this within October and Dec. 31 A. D. 99. 1 1 Muratori p. 448. 6 Inter Fundos et 
Tarracinam : Imp. Ccesar Nerva Divi Ner. f. Trajanus Aug. Germ, pontif. max. trih. pot. Ill 
cos. Ill p. p. constr. curavit XXXVIII. 12 Murat. p. 449. 1 in Frentanis: Imp. M. Ulp. 
Nerva Trajanus Cces. Aug. pont. ma,x. trih. pot. cos. Ill p. p. viam lapid. stravit pontem fecit suh- 
structiones addidit. 13 Murat. p. 448. 7 inter Fundos et Tarracinam : Imp. Ccesar divi Nervce/. 
Nerva Trajanus Augustus Germanicus pontif ex m^iximus tribuniiicB potestatis III cos. Ill pater 
patricB refedt. 

14 Muratori p. 449. 5 Cilleise: Imp. Nerva Trajanus Cces. Aug. Ger. pont. max. trih. pot. p. p. 
COS. nil. VI. Within Jan. 1 A.D. 101— Dec. 31 A.D. 103. 15 Gruter p. 190. 2 Augusto- 
brigse Hispan. Imp. Ccesar divi Nervce f. Nerva Trajanus Aug. Germ. pont. max. trih. pot. V cos. 
Ill restituit. Read cos. IIII. Within Oct. A. D. 1 01— Oct. A. D. 102. 

Within October A.D. 103 — Dec. 31 A. D. 1 11 : 16 Muratori p. 2007. 8 in agro Bracarensi: 
Imp. Ccesari divi Nervce f Nervce Trajano Aug. Ger. Dacico pont. m^x. trih. pot. VII imp. IV 
Aquis Flaviis M. P. XLII. 17 p. 2007- 9 Aquis Flaviis in Lusitania : Imp. Ccesar divi Nervce 
f. Aug. Ger. max. trih. pot. VII imp. IV Aquis Flavis M. P. IV. 18 Gruter p. 162. 4 Aqui- 
flavise : Imp. Cces. Nervce Trajano Aug. Ger. Dacico pont. m^ax. trih. pot. cos. V p.p. Aquijiavienses 
pontem lapidevm de suo F.C, 19 Muratori p. 1993. 1 in Lusitania: Imp. Cces. Nerva Trajanus 
Aug. Ger. Doc. pont. max. trih. pot. VII imp. IIII cos. V p. p. 20 Panvinius p. 33 1 Gruter p. 
246. 8 Romae: Imp. Ccesari divi Nervce f. Nervce Trajano Aug. Germanico Dacico pontifici maxima 
trihunic. pot. VII imp. IIII cos. V p.p. trihus XXXV quod liheralitate optimi principis commjoda 
earum etiam locorum adjectione ampliata sint. 21 Panvinius p. 331 Gruter p. 246. 9 Romae : Imp. 
Ccesar divi Nervce f Nervce Trajano Aug. Germ. Dacico pont. mux. trih. potest. VIII imp. IIII 
COS. V p.p. optima principi Sagari theatri Marcell. cultores domus Aug. 22 Muratori p. 2007- 10 
in Lusitania : Imp. Cces. Trajano Aug. pont. max. trih. pot. VIII p. p. a Bracara Aug. M. P. 
XXXVIII. 23 Muratori p. 449. 4 in dioecesi Aquinatensi : Imp. Ccesar divi Nervce fil. Nerva 
Trajanus Augustus Germanicus Dacicus pontif. maximus trih. pat. Villi imp. IIII cos. V p. p. 
restituit. 24 Gruter p. 162. I. 2. 3 Pons in oppido Alcantara^: In medio pontis arcus erigitur 
cum hac inscriptione : Imp. Ccesari divi Nervce f Nervce Trajano Aug. Germ. Dacico pontif max. 
trih. potest. Villi imp. V cos. V p.p. 25 Muratori p. 449. 2 Romae : Lapis miliar. Illlter Appice 

^ Gruter Ibid, collato Muratorio p. 450. 1 Habet Fecit divina nohilis arte Lacer, 

limen superius sic inscriptum : Imp. Nervce Trajano Idem Romuleis templum cum Casare divis 

CtBsari Augusta Germanico Dacico sacrum. Constituit. Felix utraque causa sacri. 

Templum in rape Tagi Superis et Ccesare plenum, C. Julius Lacer H. S. F. et dedicavit amico Curio La- 

Ars uhi materia vincitur ipsa sua, cone Icceditano. In eodem arcu fuere olim tabulae 

Quis quali dederit voto fortasse requiret marmoreae quatuor, quarum superest una: Municipia 

Cura viatorum quos novafamajuvat. provincial Lusitania stipe cantata qua opus pontis per- 

Ingentem vasta pontem qui mole peregit fecerunt, Icaditani, Lancinnenses, Oppidani, Talori, 

Sacra litaturo fecit honor e Lacer. Interannienses, Colarni, Lancienses, Transcudani, Ara- 

Qui pontem fecit Lacer et nova templa dicavit vi, Meidubrigenses, Arabrigenses, Banienses, Pcesures. 

Scilicet et Superis munera sola litant. Some of these names are in Pliny H. N. IV. 22 

Pontem perpetui mansurum in secula mundi p. 242. 



EMPERORS. 17 

vi(p strat. restit. cur. ex S. C. ex auctorit. imp. Ccbs. dim Ner. fil. Nervce Trajan. Aug. German. Thajanus. 
Bade. Parfhic. pont. max. trihun. pot. Villi imp. V cos. V p.p. optim. princ. curante Ti. Julio 

et All these numbers require that Parthici should be omitted. 2G Muratori p. 23 1 . I 

apud Brundusium: Trajano Aug. Germ. Dae. pont. max. trih. pot. XII imp. VI cos. V p.p. C.Ful- 
mus Hermes lib. Epituchanus ex D. D. oh honorem Aug. T. A. 27 Muratori p. 448. 5 Inter Fundos 
et Tarracinam : Imp. Ccesar divi Nervce filius Nerva Trajanus Aug. Germanicus Dacicus pont. 
maximus trihun. potestatis XIII imperator VI cos. V p.p. pontem vetustate collapsum restituit. 28 
Mur. p. 449. 7 Tarracinse : Imp. Ccesar dim Nervce filius Nerva Trajanus Aug. Germanicus Dacicus 
pmitifex mux. trih. pot. XIIII imp. VI cos. V p.p. XVIIII silices sua pecunia restituit. Some 
inscriptions of this period require correction in the numbers ^. 

29 Muratori p. 232. 1 extra Puteolos : Imp. CcEsari divi Nervce filio NervoB Trajano Aug. Germ. 
Dacico pont. max. trih. pot. XV imp. VI cos. VI p.p. optimo principi L. Pluteus L. f. Pal. Phoshus. 
30 Muratori p. 450. 4 in agro Forosemproniensi : Imp. Ccesar divi Nervce f. Nerva Trajanus 
optimus Aug. Germ. Dacicus trihunic. potest. XIX imp. XI cos. VI p. p. faciundum curavit. Where 
Muratori without reason adds " Scribendum imp. IX T See Eckhel tom. 6 p. 463 and the Tables 
A. D. 116. 2. 

31 Gruter p. 1101. 3 Bracarse : L. Terentio M. f. Quir. Buf. prcef. coh. VI Britton. leg. I 
M. P.F. don. don. ah imp. Trajano hel. Dae. p.p. leg. XV Apoll. trih. coTi. II Vig. D.D. 32 p. 
1102. 5 Arimini: M. Vettio M. f. An. Volenti Cfssaris Nerv. Trajani Opt. Aug. Ger. Dacici Part. 
Ilvir. Quinq. press, fiamini auguri patrono colonice vicani vici Aventin. optimo civi patrono suo. 
33 Muratori p. 68. 13 Florentiae : Silvano Aug. sacrum Crescens Alypianus imp. Ccesar is Nerves 
Trajani Aug. Germ. Dacici disp.fiscifr. 34 Idem p. 232. 2 Romse : . . . .potis .... senatus sup- 
plicationes dis immortaUhus .... imp. Cces. Nerva Trajano Aug. Germ. Dacic. senatus ornament . . . 
triumphal, deer, statuamq. in foro Aug. ponendam eensuit. 35 Idem p. 2032. 4 Cormenti: Ippo- 
nianus Secundus P. Cestius Priseus Dueenius proeuratores Nervce Trajani Aug. legionis I turm. VI 
trihun. milit. legionis XXI Bap. 

The Parthian war of Trajan is placed too high by the Paschal Chronicle Hieronymus Cassio- 

'f In a mutilated inscription in Gruter p. 190. 1 was not assumed till A. D. 103, Parthicus in 116. 

Panvinius p. 330, and more carefully given by No- We may read trib. pot. XVIIII. or XX. Muratori 

risius tom. 2 p. 924 A, bearing Daa'cMS, the numbers p. 2007. 7 gives a mutilated inscription: Imp. C. 

probably were trib. pot. XIII cos. V. Gruter p. Divi T [rajani] Parth.f. [divi] Nervce [nepos] Nerva 

199. 1 Romae : Ex auctoritate imp. Cces. Divi Nervce Trajanus Aug. pont. [max.] tr. pot. VI viam . . . . and 

jil. Nervce Trajani Aug. Germanici Dacici Parthici adds " spectat ad annum Ch. 102." But the cha- 

pontificis maximi tribunic. potest . V cos. V p.p. curat. racters here given belong to Hadrian, and require — 

viarum L. Licinius C. f. Sura Illlvir it. M. Julius Nervce nepos Trajanus Hadrian. Aug. Gruter p. 321. 

M.f. Pronto Illlvir T. Lcelius Q.f. Cocceianus IIII 10 in agro Cordubensi : C. Sempronio Sperato flamini 

vir Sex. Flavlus L. f. Falto Illlvir cipp. term divorum Augg. provincice Bceticce imp. Nerva Trajano 

viam Trajanam App. per Bruttios Salentinos pec.publ. Cces. Aug. Germ. Ill Vicerio Alariano et L. Marcio 
contulere Bruttiei Salentinei oppidatim Napetinei Hip- Postumo coss. Hie provincice Bceticce consensu flaminis 
poniatei Mamertinei Rheginei Scyllacei Cauloniatei munus est consequut. peracto honore jlamin. et feciali 
Laometicei Terincei Temsancei Locren .... Thuriat . . . &c. It is not clear to what year this should be re- 
cur. . . mill. P CC. . Reines. reads trib. pot. ferred. To the two Cretan inscriptions given at 

VIII. But such works were carried on in the 12tb A. D. 113 may be added a third apud Gruter. p. 

and 13th tribunician years. See the Tables A. D. 1084. 9 avroKparopi Kaiaapi Btov Ne'pjSa v'uS Nepova 

107- 108. 109. The title Parthicus was in the 19th Tpdiavm cre^aaTto dpia-rco 'App.€viKm [lege rep^aw/fw] Aa- 

tribunician year and 6th consulship : Tables 11.5, 4. klkS dpxifpel jj-eyia-Tco drmapxiKfjs e^ovcrias to m lirdrco to 

116, 2. We may read trib. pot. XVIIII cos. VI. r [lege to e'] rruTpl irarpiSos tw ttjs olKov^evrjs KTioTT) 

Muratori p. 449. 3 Rhegii: Lap. mil. CCCLXXXVI. Aittlcov fj iroKis ha irpcoTOKoa-fiov k. t. X. Gruter p. 

Imp. Cces. Nervce Trajan. August. Germ. Dacic Parth. 248. 1 Imp. Cces. d. Nervce f. Nervce Trajano Aug. 

trib. potes. V p. p. optimo principi ex S. C. fac. cur. Germanico Dacico pont. max. tr.pot. cos. VIII imp. V 

Mur. adds " Id est, A. C. 101 aut 102." But Dacicus p.p. Read cos. V. 

D 



18 



APPENDIX. 



C.l. 



Trajanus. dorus and Malalas. At the 9th of Trajan by Chron. Pasch. p. 253 A Ko/li/^o8ou koX Keparavov. 6'. 
[A. D. 106] TovTois Tols viroLTois Tio\€fxov xaXcTTov iirtl^dvTos TJj 'PafxavCq vtto nepa-Qv Koi ToTdatv kol 
€T€pa>v kOvGiV, Tpa'iavos aT7(py6p.evos ei? tov Tovratv TroAe/xoy &(f)€(nv k)(apl(TaTO tS>v rekStv &yj)i^ &v ein- 
(TTpiy^. and by Cassiodorus : Commodo et Cereale. His coss. Trajanus Hiberos Sauromatas Osrhomos 
Arabas Bosphoranss Colchos infoedus accepit, Seleuciam Ctesiphontem Babylonem, occupavit et tenuit. 
Senecio IV et Sura III [A. D. 107] His coss. Trajanus in mari rubra classem instituit ut per earn 
Indice fines vastaret. Transcribed from Hieronymus. At the 12th of Trajan in Malalas XI p. 352 
eTreorpareuo-e tw t/3' Iret t^s jSaa-tkeCas avrov e^eX^wr kut avrav fxrjVL 'OicrajSpCia tw koX 'TirepfSepfTaCia 
uTTo 'Pw/xTjs — Koi Kari^Oaa-cv kv ^cXevKeia ttJs Suptas ixrjvl 'ATreWaio) t<3 koX AeKCfx^pCia. Although 
he afterwards places it at the 16"th year, or two years before the earthquake, which he refers to 
Dec. A. D. 115 j /xera ^' hr] rijs Trapovcrlas avrov. which would give 113 for the march of Trajan. 
Malalas, though wrong in the year, may have given the right months ; and Trajan might set out 
from Rome in October and arrive at Antioch in December A. D. 1 14. Eusebius does not notice 
the Parthian war, but Hieronymus places it anno 2118 [A. D. lOf] Trajani 5o Trajanus — Iberos 
Sauromatas &c. in fidem accepit. Seleuciam Ctesiphontem Babylonem occupavit et tenuit. in mari 
rubro classem instituit &c. afterwards anno 2128 [A. D. llf] Trajani \5o Trajanus Armmiam 
Assyriam Mesopotamiam fecit provincias. Also transcribed by Cassiodorus. Eutropius VIII. 3 
without marking a date enumerates the nations conquered almost in the terms of Hieronymus, 
who probably transcribed Eutropius. 

Xiphilinus in his epitome may have transposed the narrative of Dio. But the characters of 
time which yet remain and the testimony of coins and inscriptions, confirming the account of Ju- 
lian, enable us to fix with certainty the Parthian war of Trajan^ as it is given in the Tables. 



Hadrianus. Hadeianus. 



Ulpius Trajanus 



Ulpia. 



: Aelius 



Plotina=: Trajanus imp. 



Alarciana 



I 
Matidiab 



Matidiaa 
I 



Hadrianus Afer :=: Domitia Paullina 
\__ 



Sabinac=HADRiANUS imp. 



1 

Paulina = Servianus 

ob. aet. 90 A.D. 136. 



Inscriptions. 
1 Gruter p. 248. 7 p. 254. 1 in Transilvania : Imp. Gcesari divi Trajani Parthici f. dim Nervce 
nepoti Trajano Hadriano Aug. pontifici max. trib. pot. II cos. II p. p. colon. Ulpia Trajana Aug. 
Dacica Sarmiz^^. In both copies p. p. is improperly added. See the Tables A.D. 119. 4 and 
128. 2. 2 Muratori p. 451. 1^ Prope Certimam: Imp. Caesar D. Nervce Trajani f. NervcB nepos 
Hadrianus Trajanus Aug. Dacicus maximus Britannicus ma,ximus GermMnicus maooimus pontifex 



a Matidia Augusta, the mother of Sabina, is named 
in an Ephesian inscription apud Muratorium p. 232. 3. 

^ Gruter p. 2.52. 9 Suessae in Campania : Matidia 
Aug. fil. diva Marciana Aug. nepti diva Sabina Aug. 
sorori imp. Antonini Aug. Pii p.p. matertera Mintur- 
nenses D. D. p. 252. 10 Ibidem: Matidia Aug. fil. 
diva Sabina sorori imp. Antonini Aug. Pii p. p. ma- 
tertera C. Flavius Aug. lib. Onesimus Campanus. 
p. 1085. 3 Capuse : Matidia Aug. fil. diva Sabina 
sorori imp. Antonini Aug. Pii p.p. matertera Sinues- 



ani. De hac Matidia Fronto p. 285 De hereditate 
Matidia. 

<= Sabina in an inscription given in the Tables 
A. D. 139. 4 is called the mother of Antoninus, as 
her sister Matidia is the aunt of Antoninus: see 
Eckhel torn. 6 p. 470. 

cc Compare for this colony Gruter quoted in the 
Tables A. D. 132. 

d Compare the Tables A. D. 1 18. 2. 



EMPERORS. 19 

maximus trib. potest. II cos. II p.p., prceterquam quod provinciis remisit decies tiovies centena millia Hadhianus. 
N. sihi dehita, a Munda etfluvio Sigila ad Certimam usque XX M. P. P. S. restituit. 3 Murat. 
p. 188.4 Romse*^: Imp. Ccesari divi Trajani Parthicifil. dim Nervce nepoti Trajano Hadriano Aug. 
pontif. maxim, trib. pot. II cos. Ill fratri arvali. -1 Gruter p. 248. 6 ex Panvinio p. 334 Imp. 
Ccesari divi Trajani Parthici fil. dim Nervce nep. Trajano Hadriano Aug. pont. mxix. trib. potest. 
COS. II p. p. Illlviri viar. Q. Tamudius Q. f. Palat. Grains Vienna L. Aurelius &c. — fac. cur. 
On account oi p.p. we may read cos. III. 5 Muratori p. 2008. 2 inter Emeritam et Salmanticam : 
Imp. Gc£s. divi Trajani Parthici f. divi Nervce nepos Trajanus Hadrianus Aug. pontif. max. trib. 
pot. V cos. Ill restituit. f> Muratori p. 1083.7 Surrenti: Imp. Ccesari divi Trajani Parthici f. 
divi Nervce nepoti Trajano Hadriano Aug. pont. max. tr. pot. V cos. optimo maximoq. principi decu- 
riones munipesq. Surrentini pecunia conlata. 7 Muratori p. 2008. 3 Tuneti: Imp. Ccesar divi 
Nervce n^os divi Trajani Parthici f. Trajanus Hadrianus Aug. pont. max. trib. pot. VII cos. Ill 
viam a Carthagine Theuesten stravit per leg. Ill Aug. P. Metilio Secimdo leg. Aug. pr. pr. 8 Mu- 
rat. p. 1097. 8 In villa collis agri Aquilani : Imp. Cces. Trajano Hadriano Aug. pont. max. trib. pot. 
XIIX cos. Ill p. p. vicani Forulani. 9 Murat. p. 2008. 4 In Lusitania : Imp. Goes. Trajano 
Hadriano Aug. pont. max. trib. pot. XVIII cos. Ill p.p. a Braca. Aug. M.P. XX. 10 Murat. 
p. 2008. 5 Bracarse : Imp. Ccesari Trajano Hadriano Aug. pontif. max. trib. potest. XIX cos. Ill 
p.p. a Bracara Aug ale M. P. XXXV. 1 1 Murat. p. 147. 5 Lavinise : Imp. Cces. divi Tra- 
jani Part.f. divi Nervce n. Trajanus Hadrianus Aug. pont. max. trib. pot. XX cos. Ill p.p. J. S. 
M. B. statuam ex donis aureis et arg. vetustate corruptis fieri et consecrari jussit ex auri P. Ill et 
arg.P. CGVI. 12 Murat. p. 2008. 6 Aquis Flaviis in Lusitania : Imp. Cces. Trajanus Hadrianus 
Aug. p. m. trib. pot. XX refecit Aquis Flavis M. P. 11.^ 13 Gruter p. 2.52. 1 in Transilvania : 
Imp. Cces. divi Trajani Parth. fil. divi NervcR nepotis [lege nepot%\ Trajano Hadriano Aug. pont. 
nfiax. trib. pot. XXII [lege XXI^ imp. II cos. Ill Messius Busticus curator alvei et riparum Ti- 
beris [sic lege cura Gudio ex Grutero p. 197- 5] et cloacarum urbiss. 14 Murat. p. 1030. 6 in vico 
Genevensis agri : Imp. Cess. Trajano Hadriano Aug. p. m. trib. pot. cos. Ill p.p. Aventicum M. P. 
XXX XI. 15 Murat. p. 524. 3 Collegium lenunculariorum Caere: Imp. Gcesare jEUo Hadriano 
Aug. cos. Ill p. p. mag. lenuncular. Gcere imm. anno VIII. nomine mag. liber, et servorum Aug. 
N. D. L. Lutatius L. lib. Philadelphus &c. 16 Murat. p. 2008. 1 in Lusitania: Imp. Ccesari 
Trajano Hadriano Aug. pont. max. trib. pot. cos. Ill imp. F[lege cum Muratorio imp. //] a Bra- 
cara M. B. M. P. VIII. In N°. 2 we must ormtp.p. 

17 Muratori p. 115. 1 Palrayrse : Ati />teyio-r(o KepavvLw vitep (lUiT-qpias Tpa. 'Abptavov ae^. tov kv- 
pCov AyaddyyeXos A^tXrjvos ttjs beKairoXeois ttji^ Kafxapav uiKob6p.r](T€v koI ttjv Kkivqv ef ihCoiV avidrjKiv 
hovs HIV fxrjvbs A<aov. Lous the 10th month of the year of the Seleucidce 445 fell upon Aug. 
A. D. 134. 18 Muratori p. 1019. 1 Corcyrse : ^Abptavov BovfXLOv avTOKp6.Topa Kaiaapa ^ejSaa-rbv 
Tpdiavov 'Abptavov Oeov Tpdiavov vlov dead Ne'p/3a vl(i)v6v viraTov to E [lege to F] ^ iroXis t&v 
'A/aearwy. avdOrjKe [sic] k-niypainia h^os Aap.ovi,s [f. AapLOViba] tgv 'Apto-rea. 19 Murat. p. 234. 2 
Athenis: avTOKp&Topa KalTapa TpaXavbv 'Abptavov ^OkvpiTTLOv tov acaTripa tov irdTTTTov r]p.&v 4>Lkrifxovo9 
<i>i\rjp.(i)V Kal Hdcrnnros Kal ^ AiroWtavtos tov ibiov evepyiTrjv bt (i:i.]jLeXr]Tov tov iraTpos UoXvovxov Kap- 
TLb(i.p.avTos. 20 Murat. p. 235. 2 Athenis: adirripL kox KTiaTri avTOKpaTopi' Abpiav^^OXvimCta. 21 
Idem p. 235. 5 Athenis : avTOKparopa Tpdiavov 'Abptavov ^OXvpurtov Kaiaapa ^€J3aa-Tbv S^orioi k.t.X. 
22 Murat. p. 235. 4 Athenis : avTOKpaxopa KaCcrapa k. t. k. — ^OkvfMirtov naTepa TiaTptbos Tbv crioTfjpa 
tov Koa-pLOV Av^iov Tr\s KtXiKias rj ^ovkr] Kal 6 8^ju,os bta 7Tpe<jj3€VT&v FT. AlkCov Kaicakov Koi Fatov tov 
^Ak€$dvbpov. 23 Murat. p. 235. 3 Smyrnee : avTOKpaTopt 'Abptav<a 'OA-u/xttio) aoiTrjpt Kal KTiaTj}. 

e Referred to in the Tables A. D. 1 19. 4. in Gruter p. 156. 4 given in the Tables A. D. 136. 2. 

f Compare a similar, perhaps the same, inscription S See the Tables A, D. 121 for Gruter p. 197- 5. 

D 2 



20 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

Hadrianus. 24 Murat. p. 236. 2 apud Mytilenem : avTOKparopL Tpa'Cav<a 'Abpiav^ Kaia-api Se/SaoTw e\ev9epL(o 
'OXvfiTriia KrCa-Tr] Act yapKrrripiov. 25 Murat. p. 1993. 3 in insula Cios: KaiVapa Tpdiavbv 'AbpLavov 
Se/SaoTof M. Ov\mos Aouyios 6 bis Upevs avTov. 26 Add the following apud Murat. p. 236. 4 
bearing trih. pot. JCII and p. p. In Hispania: Imp. Cess, divi Trajani Aug. cos. VI f. dim Nervce 
COS. Ill [IIII cum Murat.] trih. p. II nepoti Trajano Hadriano Aug. pont. max. trihun. pot. XII 
p. p. COS. Ill Marcus Messius Rusticus uEmilius Papus Arius Proculus Julius Celsus Sodal. . . Au- 
gustal. Illlvir marum curandarum tr. mil. leg. Ill Aug. pr. pr. provinc. Africce trih. pleh. pr. 
peregrin, curator vice Aurelice leg. leg. Aug. XX V. V. optim,o principi. 27 To JElius : Muratori 
p. 238. 6 L. ^lio CcBsari imp. Ccbs. Trajani Hadriani Aug. pont. max. trih. pot. XXI imp. II cos. 

Ill p.p. filio dim Trajani Parthici nepoti divi Nervce 28 An inscription to ^lius at 

Beyjik near Hadriani is given in Mr. Hamilton's Asia Minor Vol. 2 Appendix N^. 2 : Alkiov Kai- 
crapa avTOKp6.Topos 'Abpiavov Se/Saorou vlbv Ofov TpaXavov vl(avbv 6€ov Nepoua ^Kyovov br]piap\LKrj^ 
e^ova-Cas, virarov to /3', 'AmVas TkavK(avos a-TpaTrjySiv e/c t&v Ibicov avicrTr](X€V . Set up in A. D. 137- 
L. ^liv,s Commodus Ccesary described in the Tables A. D. 135 — 138, was bom Jan. 13 : Natales 
Caesarum apud Bucherium p. 276 L. JElii Ccesaris Idihus Januarii. 

Hadrian's origin is described by Spartianus c. 1 Origo imperatoris Hadriani vetustior a Picen- 
tihus, posterior ah Hispatiiensihus mmiat: siquidem Adria ortos majores suos apud Italicam Scipionum 
temporihus resedisse in lihris vitce suce Hadrianus ipse commemorat. Hadrianus in vita sua is quoted 
again Spartian. c. 7- 

Hadrian is prsetor JSura his Serviano iterum coss. Spartian. c. 3. See on this Salmas. ad p. 37 
Tillemont torn. 2 p. 510. 

Epistola Hadriani apud Vopiscum Saturnino c. 8 p. 959 Ex lihris Phlegontis liherti ejus prodita : 
Hadrianus Aug. Serviano cos. S. JEgyptum quam mihi laudahas, Serviane carissime, totam didici 
levem, pendulam, et ad omnia fames momenta volitantem. Illi qui Serapin colunt Christiani sunt et 
devoti sunt JSerapi qui se Christi episcopos dicunt. Nemo illic arclmynagogus Judceorum, nemo Samor- 
rites, n£mo Ghristianorum preshyter non mathematicus, nan aruspex, non aliptes. Ipse ille patriarcha 
quum JEgyptum venerit ah aliis Serapidem adorare, ah aliis cogitur Christum, genus hominum seditio- 
sissimum vanissimum &c. Utinam melius esset morata civitas digna profecto quce pro sua profunditate 
\pro sui magnitudine] totius ^Egypti teneat principatum. Huic ego cuncta concessit vetera privilegia 
reddidi, nova sic addidi ut prcesenti gratias agerent. Denique ut primum inde discessi, et in filium 
mewtn Verwm multa dixerunt, et de Antonino quce dixerint comperisse te credo. — Calices tihi allassontes 
versicolores transmisi quos mihi sacerdos templi ohtulit, tihi et sorori mece specialiter dedicatos, quos tu 
velim festis diehus conviviis adhiheas. As Servianus was consul Jan. A. D. 134, Tillemont torn. 2 
p. 243. 526 is at a loss to reconcile the date of this letter with the time oi Hadrian's visit to 
Egypt. And Eckhel torn. 6 p. 489 from the words Verum jiliwm is in diflBculty ; for Verus was 
adopted in 135. But Hadrian could not address that letter to Servianus after the adoption of 
Verus, as appears from Dio quoted in the Tables at 136. He calls him filium therefore on this 
occasion as a term only of affection, as Tillemont understands it, p. 526. But Hadrian had quitted 
Egypt 3 years before the consulship oi Servianus^. It is probable then that this letter was written 
where Scaliger places it ad Euseb. p. 209, in the year 132. The address of the letter is therefore 
either interpolated, and might have stood thus : Hadrianus Aug. Serviano S. or mutilated, and 
might have been Hadrianus Aug. [sc. Augurino] et Sergiano coss. Serviano S. Hadrianus Servia/no S. 
might be the simple address, as Trajanus Plinio S. in the letters of Trajan. 

The rescript of Hadrian in favour of the Christians, alluded to by Justin Martyr Apolog. I. 68 
cir. A. D. 150, is given in Justin I. 69 and from thence in Euseb. H. E. IV. 9. Melito Apolog. 

b See the Tables A. D. 131.2. 134. 1. 



EMPERORS. 



n 



apud Euseb. IV. 26 6 fjikv TrdinTos aov 'AbpLavhs TroAAots fxkv koI ^AXois koI ^ovvbdv<a b^ t(3 avOvTrdriii Hadrianus. 
Tjyoviiivoi Trjs 'Acrias ypa^wy <f)aCv€TaL. 

Athenseus VIII p. 361 F mentions a temple of Fortune erected by Hadrian and a festival, ra 
'PcD/xaia, formerly the Parilia : koprrj to, UapCKia fikv irdXat Kokoviiiva, vvv h\ 'PwjLtaia, t^ tt]s irdAews 
Tv)(?/ vaov KaOibpyfJiivov virb rod "navr apiaTov Koi /xoua-tKwrdrov ^a<n\4<as 'Abpiavov. 



T. Antoninus *. 

Boionia Procilla=AiTius Antoninus^) Fulvius 

I bis consul. cos. A. D. 85. 89. 



T.Antoninus 



Annius Verus 



Arria Fadilla 



Fulvius Annius Verus 



cos.A.D. 120. 



Julia Fadilla T. ANTOKiKUsimp.=Faustina 



Rupilius Bonus 
Consularis 



Rupilia Faustina = Annius Verus 
bis consul. 
COS. II A. D. 121. 



Annius Verus 
prsetor 



filius 



filius 



filia 



Faustina ^=-^i 
Eutrop.VIII. 10, 



Marcus imp. 



Catilius Severus 
bis consul 

I 

Calvisius TuUus 

bis consul. 



Domitia Calvilla 

vel Lucilla: 

Capitolin. Marco 

c. 6. 



Verus c 
ob. ajt. 7. 



Antoninus 
ob. aet. 4. 



COMMODUS imp. 



Lucillad = f 1 Verus imp. 
[ 2 Pompeianuse. 



The beneficent acts of Antmiinus in Greece Ionia and other countries are recorded by Pau- 
sanias VIII. 43, 3. 

Antoninus in the reign of Hadrian was proconsul of Asia : Capitolin. Pio c. 3 Proconsulatum 
Asice sic egit ut solus avum vincerei^^. In the time of the Sophist Polemo: Philostrat. V. S. I. 
25, 3 p. 534 7/p£e likv yap Tidcr-qs opLov ^AaCas 6 ^ AvtcovTvos, koi KaTiXvcrev kv rrj tov Tlo\i[xa)Vos oiKlq, 
0)5 apicrr-Q t&v Kara rrfv 2p.vpvav koI d-pia-Tov avbpos. And of Herodes Atticus: Idem V. S. II. 1, 8 



a Capitolin. Pio c. 1 Tito Aurelio Fulvio Boionio 
Antonino Pio paternum genus e Gallia Transalpina 
Nemausense scilicet. Avus Titus Aurelius Fulvius qui 
per honores diversos ad secundum consulatum et pra- 
fecturam urhis pervenit. pater Aurelius Fulvius qui et 
ipse fuit consul, homo castns et integer, avia matema 
Boionia Procilla, mater Arria Fadilla [conf. Murato- 
riuin p. 572. 1] avus maternus Arrius Antoninus bis 
consul, homo sanctus, et qui Nervam miseratus esset 
quod imperare cospisset. soror uterina Julia Fadilla, 
vitricus Julius Lupus consularis. socer Annius Verus, 
uxor Annia Faustina, filii mares duo, dues foemince. 
gener per majoremjiliam Lamia Syllanus, per minorem 
Marcus Antoninus fuere. Idem Marco c. 1 Marco 
Antonino — pater Annius Verus qui in pratura decessit, 
avus Annius Verus, item consul et preefectus urhi, ad- 
scitus in patricios a principibus Vespasiano et Tito 
censoribus. patruus Annius Libo consul, amita Galeria 
Faustina Augusta, mater Domitia Calvilla Calvisii 
Tulli bis consulis filia. proavus patemus Annius Verus 
pratorius ex Succubitano municipio ex Hispania /actus 
senator, proavus maternus Catilius Severus bis consul 
et prafectus urbi, avia paterna Rupilia Faustina Ru- 
pilii Boni consularis filia, fuere. 

^ Proconsul of Asia in the time of Pliny : Plin. 
Ep. IV. 3 Antonino suo S. Quod semel at que iterum 



consul fuisti, similis antiquis : quod proconsul Asice 
qualis ante te qualis post te vix unus aut alter &c. 

c Capitolin. Marco c. 21 Filium nomine Verum Cce- 
sarem — septennem amisit. Herodian. I. 2 tw ^aaikev- 
ovTi MapKO) dvyarepes fiev eyevovro jrXeiovs appfVfS de 8vo. 
tS)v Se dppevau Tovratv 6 ptv erepof Kopi,^ veoi tov ^iov 
p.erfj\Xa^f' Brjpia-aipas 8* rjv Svopa avra. The twin 
brother of Commodus (see the Tables A. D. 161) died 
at 4 years old : Lamprid. Commodo c. 1 Quum autem 
(Faustina) peperisset Commodum atque Antoninum, An- 
toninus quadrimus est elatus. On the three sons of 
Marcus see Casaubon ad Lampridium p. 92. On the 
daughters of Marcus see Maio ad Frontonem p. 174. 
Maio enumerates 1 Lucilla the wife of Verus. 2 Vibia 
Aurelia Sabina apud Gruterum p. 252. 8. 3 Fadilla 
apud Muratorium p. 242. 3. [add p. 590. 4. J 4. 
Domitia Faustina apud Mabillonium Analect. Vet. 
p. 363. [and in Gruter p. 260. 13.] Marcus himself 
apud Frontonem Ep. I. 5 p. 50 mentions his daugh- 
ters : ParvolcE nostrce nunc apud Matidiam in oppido 
hospitantur. 

d Gruter p. 1065. 8 Romae : Magna Matri Lucilla 
Aug. On her marriage with Verus see Eutropius 
VIII. 10 Capitolinus Marco c. 9 Dio 71. 1. 

e On Pompeianus see Dio 73. 3 A. D. 193. 

ee See above, note ^. 



^2 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

T.Antonixus p. 554 01 bf 'noLoiyL€Voi Karrj-yopiav T&v 'HpcSSou yj^ipStv ws k-nevcxOHaGtv ^Avt(i>vCv(^ kv ry "ISjj r^ opei 
Kara xpovovs ots 6 [x^v t5>v i\ev6€p(t)V irokediv 6 be iraaQv t&v Kara Trjv 'AaCav rjpxov, k. t. A/ 

Antoninus is said to have given salaries to learned men : Capitolin. Pio c. 1 1 Bhetorihm et philo- 
sophis per omnes provincias et honores et solaria detulits. 

Inscriptions. 

I Muratori p. 188. 5 Romae: Imp. Ccesari divi Hadriani f. divi Trajani Parthici nep. divi 
Nervce pron. T. ^lio Hadrian. Antonin. Aug. Pio pont. max. trib.pot. II cos. Ilp.p.fratri arvaU. 
2 Murat. p. 453. 5 In portu Puteolano : Inip. Gcesar dim Adriani [sic] Jil. divi Trajani Parthici 
nepos divi Nervce pronepos T. uElius Adrianus Antoninus Aug. Pius pont. nmx. trih. pot. II cos. II 
designat. Ill &c. Given in the Tables A. D. 139. 4 from Gruter p. 163. 9, who has rightly 
JIadrianus. 3 Murat. p. 1106. 7 in Catalonia: Imp. Ccesari divi Hadriani Jil. divi Trajani 
Partic. nepoti divi Nervce pronep. T. ^lio Antonino Aug. Pio pont. max. trih. potestat. cos. II 
desig. Ill P. D. D. municipi F. Egara. 4 Muratori p. 1078. 7 Sardibus : avTOKp&ropa Kaia-apa 
dead ^Abpiavov vlov Oeov Tpdiavov vicavbv T. AiAtoy ^Abpiavbv ' AvTUivelvov Ftvaefiri Se/SaaToy brjixap' 
j(iK^s e^oucrias ^ virarov rpirov -naripa iraTpibos rj (3ov\7] koI 6 brjiios t&v "SapbLavcav eTelfMrjcrav r}p<aa 
evvoCas avrov xapiv. 5 Muratori p. 238. 1 in ponte oppidi Limosani : Imp. Ccesari divi Hadriani 
Jil. divi Trajani Parthici nep. divi Nervce pron. T. ^lio Hadriano Antonino Aug. Pio pont. maa;. 
trih. pot. Ill cos. Ill p. p. Q. Parius Q. f. Vol. sevir oh honor, quinquen. de H-S. Ill I M. N. ex 
D D. cujrn dedicat. epulum dedit decur. et Augitstal. sing. H-S VIII magist. H-S. Ill plehi H-S. 
UN. 6 Muratori p. 454. 3 Pisis : Imp. Cces. T. ^l. Hadrianus Antoninus Aug. Pius p. m. tr. 
pot. VI cos. Ill imp. II p.p. viam ^miliam vetustate delapsam operihus ampliatis restituendam cur. 
a Roma M. P. CLXXXVIII. 7 Murat. p. 237- 4 in arce Transmutensi : Imp. Ccesari divi 
Hadriani Jil. &c. T. Aelio Hadriano Antonino Aug. Pio pontijici maximo trihunicicB potestatis cos. 
Ill p.p. ala I Augusta Thracum optimo principi. 8 Muratori p. 454. 2 Cilleise : Imp. CcBsar T. 
uElius Hadrianus Antoninus Aug. Pius p. p. pontifex maximus trih. potestatis imp. II cos. III. VI. 
9 Murat. p. 1032. 4 in Frentanis : Imp. Ccesari T. JElio Hadriano divi f. Antonino Pio Felici 
Augusto p.m. trih. pot. VIII [lege F//] cos. Ill Bucani oh merita P. 10 Murat. p. 454. 1 Gal- 
licani in via Prsenestina : Lap. XIIII. Imp. Ccesari divi Hadriani Jil. &c. T. ^lio Hadriano An- 
tonino Aug. Pio pontijici max. trih. pot. VI [lege VII] imp. II cos. designat. IIII p. p. cur. viat. 

C. Valerius Victor C. Torranius . . . Felix C. Lcenatus Castor P. Ccesius Poena Illlvir. 

..con. Muratorius: "Donius legit trih. pot. VI Imp. IIII cos. II. Spectat inscriptio ad A. 0. 145." 
But cos. des. IIII requires trih. pot. VII and belongs to A. D. 144. The numbers of Donius are 
impossible. In No. 9 we must also read trih. pot. VII, which is required by cos. III. The num- 
bers trih. pot. VIII and cos. Ill cannot stand together because the 8th tribunician year began 
in the 4th consulship, either at Feb. 25 (see the Tables A. D. 138) or at Jan. 1 (see the Tables 
A. D. 161). 

II The inscription given in the Tables A.D. 140.4 entire from Panvinius is given imperfectly 

by Gruter p. 253. 8 Pisis : relio [lege Aelio] Hadriano Antonino Aug. Pio pont. max. trih. pot. 

II COS. Ill p. p. indulgentiss. And by Muratori p. 237. 5 Pisis: nep. T. JElio Hadriano An- 
tonino Aug. Pio pont. m^ax. trih. potest. Ill cos. Ill p.p. indulgentissim. The number trih. pot. Ill 

' Polemo is described in the Tables at A. D. 133. although Marcus might advance the amount of the 

135, Herodes Atticus at A. D. 143. salary to the 10,000 drachmas of which mention is 

g This is not inconsistent with what Victor Caes. made by Philostratus quoted in the Tables A. D. 

p. 321 relates of Hadrian, or Dio 71. 31 oi Marcus 179. 3. The passage of Dio concerning Marcus is 

Aurelius, as Salmasius ad CapitoHn. 1. c. appears to given at A.D. 176 p. 172. 
suppose. All these emperors encouraged learning, 



EMPERORS. 28 

is doubtless the true reading, confirmed by Panvinius. If the 2nd tribunician year was current t.Antoninus 
with the third consulship A. D. 140 (as in N^. 4), this could only happen from Jan. 1 to Feb. 24.^ 
12 Muratori p. 1047. 3 Noise: Imp. CcBsari dim Hadriani filio dim Trajani Parthici nep. divi 
NervcB pronepoti T. ^lio Hadriano Antonino Aug. Fiopont. max. trih. pot. XI cos. Ill p. p. Por- 
miani puhlice^^ . Muratori by mistake assigns this to Hadrian: " Dedicata fuit anno Christi 127 
aut 128." But this inscription belongs to the 1 1th tribunician year of Antoninus A. D. 148, and 
we must read cos. IIII. 13 Muratori p. 238. 2 in Piceno : Imp. Ccesari dim Hadriani jilio &c. 
T. Aelio Hadriano Antonino Aug. Pio pontif. max. trih. pot. XII imp. II cos. IIII p. p. pueri et 

puellcB ent . . .ri — 14 p. 238. 3 Urbini : T. yEli Had . . . Antonini Pii pont. 

m . . . trih. pote imp. II cos. IIII p. p. Jilio pueri et puellm alimentari. 15 Idem p. 453. 7 

Narbone : Imp. Cces. dim Hadri Trajani Parthici ne pronepos T. Aelius H 

Aug. Pius pont. maxi imp. II cos. IIII p. p. th consumptas cumpor. . . .et hasilicis 

et omni c . . . . sua r 16 Muratori p. 684. 5 Albacinse : C. Cessio C.f. Ouf. Sihestri p.p. pair. 

munic. curatori viarum et pontium UmhricB et Piceni allecto ah optimo imp. T. yElio Antonino Aug. 
Pio p.p. imp. II liberti patrono optimo ac dignissimo L. D. D. D. 

17 Gruter p. 161. 4 Cyperani: Imp. Ccssar divi Hadriani Jilius dim Trajani Parthici nepos &c. 
T. Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius pontif ex maximus trihunic. potest. IIII [ZZ7 Wouw.] 
cos. IIII [III Wouw.] p. p. opus pontis vetustate conlahs. restituit. Grsevius adds : " Lapis ipse, 
teste Gudio, cos. II imp. IIII p.p. Optirae." The numbers trih. pot. Ill cos. Ill ma,y stand, but 
tr. p. IIII COS. IIII and cos. II imp. IIII are equally inadmissible. 

18 Muratori p. 238. 4 Sestini: Divo Antonino Aug. Pio alimentari. 19 Idem 238. 5 Romse: 
Divo Antonino Augusto Pio Antoninus Augustus et Verus Augustus filii. 20 Idem p. 239. 1 Paesti: 
Dim Pii oh plurimu henejicia ejus erga patriam D. D. P. P. populo postulante. 

21 Muratori p. 239. 2 Pisauri: Divce Faustince Augustce D. D. 22 Idem p. 239. 3 Romse : 
Divce Faustince Augustce imp. Ccesaris T. u^li Hadriani Antonini Aug. Pii pont. maximi trih. pot. 
IIII cos. Ill p.p. Faustina died in the 4th tribunician year: see the Tables A. D. 141. 23 Gru- 
ter p. 261. 1 DivcB Faustince Aug. im,p. Ccesar. T. uFlli Hadriani Antonini Aug. Pii p.p. D. D.^ 

Marcus Aurelius. Marcus Au- 

Capitolin. Aurel. c. 4 Hadrianus octavo cetatis anno [A. D. 128] i?i Saliorum collegium retulii. ^^^''^^• 
Virilem togam sumpsit quinto decimo cetatis anno [A. D. 135] statimque ei L. Ceionii Commodi filia 
desponsata est, ex Hadriani voluntate. Idem c. 5 Octavo decimo cetatis anno [A. D. 138] adoptatus, 
in secundo consulatu Antonini [A. D. 139] — qucestor est designatus. Idem c. 6 Adhuc qucestorem 
[A. D. 139] ^# consulem secum Pius Marcum designavit et Ccesaris appellatione donavit. 

The miraculous rain of the year 1 74 is thus attested : Dio 71-8 vU-q Trapdbo^os ■r}VTvxr)dr)> IJ-clXXoi; 
6e Tiapa 6€ov ib(opr}dr]. KLvbvv€V(ravTas yap iv t^ y^-o-xv tow 'Pw/xatovs irapabo^oTaTa to Oelov e^eVoxre. . 
— K. T. X. vecf)!] irokka €^aC(f)vr]s crvvibpap.^ koI v€T09 ttoXvs ovk d^eel KaTcppdyq. koc ydp tol \6yo$ l^ci 
'Apvov(j)[v TLva [idyov AlyvirTLOV crvvovTa tw MdtpKW aWovs re TLvas baCfxovas koI tov 'Epix^v tov dipiov 
OTi, fidXta-ra \xayyaveiais Tcalv eTTtKakiaacrdat, koL bC avrav tov ojjL^pov iTtKrirdaacrOai. C. 10 Trpoa-TiOrja-t 
be 6 A[(ov OTL TOV ofx^pov KaTappayivTos -upGiTov pkv dvot iidvTfs dviKvnTov KoiX h to, oroftara avT&v eSe- 
XOVTO, lireiTtt ol fxev ras dcnrCbas ol be koI to, Kpdvrj vTTo^dkkovTes k. t. \. — Khv ^iradov tl bcLvbv VTrb t5>v 
TToXepLCatv eTTLKeip.ivoiv avTols Trept to ttCvclv ol irXeCovs ri(TxoXr]ixivoi, et ^irj x^^ctCa iaxvpa Koi KCpavvol 

h That the tribunician years o{ Pius were reckoned ^^ See Panvinius in the Tables 148. 2. 

from Jan. 1 at the close of his reign is reasonably i An inscription in Muratori p. 454. 4 in agro 

concluded by Eckhel quoted at A.D.I 61. But it Nemausensi bearing tr. p. VIII imp. II cos. IIII 

seems from Muratori p. 1078. 7 that they still com- has been given already in the Tables A. D. 145 from 

menced at Feb. 25 in A. D. 140, and that the change Gruter p. 190. 11. 
was made afterwards. 



^4 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

Marcus ovk dXiyoi, rots TroXcfilois fviirecrov. ^v ovv opav kv tw avrw x<«>/'^V ^^^P "^^ ^f^^ ^''^^ "^P ^'^ ''o^ ovpavov 
ArnELius. 0fpo'^€j;a, Kal oi jiAey vypaCvovTo re Kal eircvov ol 8e eirvpovvTo Koi ^OvqcrKov. koX ov re roSy 'Pw/naiooz; r^ 
TTup ^Trrero, dW e? ttov Kai Trpocre/ai^e <t^I(ti.v evOvs ka^evwTo, oiJre rows ^ap(3dpovs 6 verbs w^eXet, 
dWa Kai eTTi /uaWoy r^y <^Adya avT&v, uxTirep IXator, rjyapev. iboap re vofxevoi e(r}Tovv. k. t. \.—'^X.4r)cre 
yovv avTovs koI 6 Mdpjcos. Capitolin. Marco c. 24 Fulmen de coelo precibm suis Marcus contra hos- 
tium machinamentum extorsit, suis pluvia impetrata quum siti lalorarent. Themistius Or. 15 p. 191 B 
mistaking Marcus for Pius : ^AvravCvio r<5 'Po)/xatQ)y avTOKparopi, w rovro avTo eircaiwfjiov 6 Eva-ejSrjs 
rjv, Tov (TTpaTevfiaTos viro bi\}/ovs avT(^ iTLcCofxivov, avaayuiv ro) X^'P^ ^ ^acnkevs irpbs tov ovpavov k.t.X. 
— Kcu ovTOi KaTi^hecre tov Oebv rfj €V)(rj cocrre e^ aldpias rJKOV vecjyikaL vbpo(f)opov(TaL rots arpaTLcaTaLs. Kal 
itbov eyci) iv ypacfyrj eiKora tov ipyov, rbv fxev avTOKpdropa TTpocrevxoiJ-evov ev rfj (paXayyt tovs (TTpaTKaras 
be TO, Kpdvrj rw Ofji^pca v-noTiQlvras Koi ifXTiiTrXaixivovs tov vdpLaros rod OeocrboTov. Idem Or. 34 c. 21 
(f>i\oTLfiovfjLai, TTpbs rbv ^ AvTiavlvov eKetros vbcop iirr^ydyeTo ex tov ovpavov bi^et ttjs (l)6,)\.ayyos 'nie(op.ivr]s. 

Claudian. VI Cons. Hon. 342 Laus Hi nulla ducum, nam flammms imber in hostem Decidit Turn 

contenta polo mortalis nescia teli Pugna fuit. Chaldcea mago seu carmina ritu Armamre deos^ seu 
(quod reor) omne tonantis Obsequium Marci mores potuere mereri. 

Tertullian Apologet. c. 5 At nos e contrario edimus protectorem Christianorum, si litt&rce M. Aurelii 
gravissimi imperatoris requirantur, quibus illam Germanicam sitim Ckristianoru/m forte miUtum pre- 
cationibus impetrato imbre discussam contestatur. Ad Scapulam c. 4 M. quoque Aurelius in Germa- 
nica expeditione Christianormn militum orationibus ad Deum factis imbres in siti ilia impetravit. 
Eusebius : Anno 2 1 88 Antoninus imp. frequentibus bellis implicitus modo per se ipse rem gerebat modo 
duces copiarum mittebat. Jam vera quum Pertinax ejusque comitatus inter Quados siti vehementi labo- 
ra^sentf Christianorwm militum precibus imber impetratus est, contra Tiostes Germanos autem atque 
Sarmatas fulmina delapsa sunt multosque ex iis occiderunt. Fama est quasdam etiam exstare Marci 
imp. literas [Chron. Pasch. p. 261 A Xiyerai b\ m koX eTrtoroXat (^ipovTai. Hieronymus: Extant 
Uterce M. Aurelii gravissimi imperatoris &c. ex Tertulliano] quibus ipse testatur capias suas jamjam 
perituras Christianorum precibus fuisse servatas. Idem H. E. V. 5 Aoyos e^et — bCyjreL iri.eCopLivqs ttjs 
crrparifis iv afxrjxavla yevicrOai, tovs 8e liil r^s MeAtriy^y ouro) Ka\ovpLevr]s Xeye&vos (TTpaTLiaras bia 
irCarecas e^ (kclvov /cat et's bevpo (rvveaTiocrrjs kv rfi irpos tovs iroXefxCovs irapaTd^ci, yovv divTas €ttI ttjv yr}v 
Kara rb otKetoy rjiuv tmv ev^Stv idos em Tas irpbs rbv debv iKecrias TpairiaOai' irapabo^ov be rots 'jroAe- 
nloLs TOV ToiovTov brj 6edp,aTos ^avevTos, dXXo tl Xoyos ix!£i iiapaho^oTepov e7rtKaraAa/3etj/ avTUa, <TKr]Tt- 
Tbv piev els <l)vyrjv Kal duuiXeiav crvveXavvovTa tovs TToAe/xiovs op.^pov be em Tr]v t&v Tb OeXov irapaKeKXri- 
KOTiav arpaTiav, Trdcrav avTrjv eK tov 8t\/rous jxeXXovaav oarov ovtto) biac^Oap-qa-ea-Oai, dvaKTcafxevov. 37 b^ 
hrropCa (f)epeTai \xkv kol irapa rots iroppoi tov Ka& rjp.as Xoyov avyypacpevatv — beb'qXiOTai. be Kal Ttpbs t&v 
ri\ieTep(av. dXXa rot? p.\v ^(aOev l(TTopiKOis dre r?js Trto-rews dyotfcetois re^etrat )xev rb irapabo^ov, ov }xt]v 
/cat rats t5>v r}p.eTep<av ev)(cus tovto b>p.oXoyrjdrj yeyovevai. rots 8e ye rjp.eTepoLs, dre aXrjdeCas ^t'Aots, 
dirAw Kal aKUKOi^Oei rpoTTO) rb Trpay6\v iiapabeboTai. rovTiav 8' av ett] Kal ^AitoXivdpios, e£ eKeCvov (fyrjcras 
TTJV bC e^x^s Tb Ttapdbo^ov ireTTOLriKvXav Xeyedva olKelav rw yeyovori Trpbs tov ^aaiXeois elXr](f)evat mpocr- 
■qyoptavy Kepavvoj36Xov tjj 'Fa>p.al<av eTnKXrjOeicrav cfxavfj' p.dpTvs be tovtcov yevoiT hv dfto'xpews o Tep- 
ruAAiayos k. r. A. — dAAa TavTa piev Siqi ris e^e'A?; TideaOoi. Orosius VII. 15 ad invocationem nominis 
Christi, quam subito m^gna fidei constantia quidam milites effusi in preces palam fecerunt, tanta vis 
pluvim effma est ut Romanos quidem largissime re/ecerit &c. — gloriosissimam victoriam — rudi parvo- 
que militum numero sed potentissimo Christi auxilio reportarunt. Exstare etiam nunc apud plerosque 
dicuntur Uterce imperatoris Antonini, ubi invocatione nominis Christi per milites Christianos ei sitim 
illam depulsam et collatam fatetur fuisse victoriam. Xiphilinus apud Dionem 7 1 • ^ Tama p.ev irepl 
TovT(ov 6 AC(ov (j)ri<rlv, eot/ce 8e yf/evbea-OaL — ooris ovk "qyvoei rb Tdyp.a t&v aTpaTKOT&v Tb Kepavvo^oXov 
iblois KoXovpievov {ev yap t<^ t&v Xomoiv xaraAdyo) koI dvTov p.vr]pi,ovevei), Srrep dii oiSe/utas hepas ahCas 
(ovbe yap dXXr] ris A^yerai) fj dirb tov Kara Tovbe (Tvp-^avTos rbv Tro'Ae/xov o^ro) TrpoarqyopevOr], b Kal at- 



EMPERORS. 25 

TLOV t6t€ Tols Tf 'Pw/uatots TTjs (TOiTrjpLas iyivcTo Kol Tols l3apl3dpoLs Trjs aTTwAetas, aKk ovx 6 Apvov({)i.s Maucus 
o jidyos. — rdyiia rfv rw MapKO) — rwy a-no MeA.tT»ji;rjs orpartctfTwy. eto-i Se rov Xpia-Tov TTp€(r[3cvovT€S A^"^^^^^- 
airayres. ez/ ovv ti] \xd)(r} €K€tvr] irpocnovTa tm Map/co) ror iT:ap)(ov — eiTrety Xeyerai, ws oi (caAov/xeyoi 
Xpt(rTiayo6 o^K eo-Tiy o rt ov hvvavTai toXs €vxals, Koi. otl Trapd (T(f)[cn. ray/Aa oXoy Tvyxavei ov tovtov tov 
yevovs. tov ovv MdpKOV aKOvaavTa irapaKkricreL y^priaaaOai irpos avTov^ w? hv iv^iovrai toJ a-cjieripio ©ew. 
ev^afxevatv 8e avTm> napay^priixa eiraKovcravTa tov debv k.t.X. — e(f) ols KaTairXayivTa tov MdpKov ia)(ypm 
Toy's re Xpia-TLavovs Kara boyixa TipLrjaai /cat tov X.€y€&va K€pavvo[36Xov irpo(rayopevTat. Aeyerat 8e koI ^ttl- 
(TTokqv TLva irepl tovtcov elvat tov MdpKOv. Gregorius Nyssenus torn. 3 p. 505 A — 506 A ^v ti Tayfxa 
(TTpaTMTLKOV TTaXaLov Kara Trjy y^irova ttoXlv iravTos tov eOvovs TTpbs tcls tS>v ^ap^dptav opixas irpoKadri- 
fxevov CKeCvoLs €k tlvos TtpovTrapxova-rjs deoOev €Tn(f)aveia9 irKelov rj tclo-tl^ tcHv TaKTiK&v earrovbdCeTo — 
(TvaTdvTOs yap avTols ttot€ tov irpos tovs (BaplBdpovs Tiokip.ov koX tu>v inLKaCpiov iravTcav irpoKaTakrjcpO^v- 
To>v v7t6 Trjs t5>v kvavTmv cFTpaTias — et? 'icr^aTov ekdovTcs Kovbvvov, etre hi aireLpCav t&v to, rjix^Tepa 
(TTpaT-qyovvTtiiv , et re hid Tiva Kp^iTTova koX OeioTepav olKovop.iav , <as av fj.dki.aTa Kal bia tovtov ^aviii) 
T&v XptaTLav&v TO TTpbs TOV dkko(})vkovs bLd(j)opov, — TOTe KaTakmovTCs ol yawaXoi ttjv eK t&v OTrAwr 
^orjdeLav eyvaxrav rrfv cnxayov koI aKUTaycavLa-TOV iv rots (pofBepoXs iTiLKakicraaOai. (yvpi.p.ayj.av. a(j)eTrres 
yap eiT6 tov crTpaTOirihov tovs fxr]Tta> TrapahebeypLevovs rrfv ttlo-tlv Kal ec^' (avTwv ibidaavTes ixip.ovvTaL tyjv 
fTTt ^HkCov TOV TTpo(j)'qTov y€V0[jt.4vr]V 6avp.aT0vpyLav, Koivrj Tjj (ficovfi Kal (TvvTeTayp.ivr\ kvcnv avrois (^ 
dp.r])(dv(av y^viadai ttjs <TV[j.<f)opds atTTjo-a/xeyot. Kal ol pikv r]v-)(ovTo, rj b\ ivyji Tiapayjprip-a cpyov iyiv^TO 
K. T. k. TOVTOis be ToXs bi.a tZv evyjav TiapaTa^ap.ivois iKavov Trpos dpLffyoTepa yevicrOai, irpos re rqv vIktjv 
t5)V dvTi.T€TayiJ.€V<av Kal Trpos Tr}V irapapcvOiav t% bC^rjs, ttjs Ta>v x^ecpidppcov dTtoppofjs d(pd6v(t>s avTols tov 
TTOTov xoprjy ovarii. 

We may remark, 1 The assertion of TertuUian is not true, that Marcus favoured the Christians 
either before or after A. D. 174. 

2 The legio fulminatrix was so called in the reign of Trajan: Inscriptio apud Gruterum p. 193. 3 
Scaligerum ad Euseb. p. 223 Q. Petronius C. f. Pub. Modestus p. p. bis leg. XII Fulm. et leg. I 
Adjutric. trib. mil. coh. VVic. tr. coh. XII urb. tr. coJi. V pr.pr. dim Nervce et imp. Cces. Nervce 
Trajani Aug. Germ, provin. Hispanice citer. Asturice et Gallceciarum jiamen divi Clau. dedit idemque 
dedicamt. And in the time of ^m^msiJms : Dio 55. 23 ro ScoSeVaroy — to Kepavvocpopov^. 

3 The narrative grows as it proceeds. A small number of Christian soldiers ; then an entire 
Christian legion and a Christian commander ; and in Gregory supernatural agency. 

4 The letter ad calcem Justini Martyris is forged'. And the inscription itself would be a proof: 
AvTOKpdTwp Kalcrap M. Avp. - AvtodvUvos TeppLaviKos TlapdiKos '^app.aTiKO'i. For the titles PartJiicus and 
Sarmaticus had been laid aside in the year 169"^. 

5 The Rescript of Marcus in favour of the Christians is given to Pius by some and to Marcus 
by others : Apud Justini Apol. I. 70 avTOKpaTwp Kato-ap Tiros AtAtos 'ASpiayos AvTaivUvos ae/Baarbs 
evo-e/Brjs dpxtepei;? p.iyi(rTos, br\p.apyj.Kris k^ovaias rb le', {tiraros Tb y , TraTrjp iraTpibos, rw koivS Trjs 'Acrtas 
yaipeiv. — Eusebius H. E. IV. 12. 13 ascribes the edict to Pius., and yet gives the following in- 
scription : avTOKpdT<ap Kalaap MdpKos Avprjkios ^AvToivivos cre^acrTbs 'Ap/xeVtos apxifpevs fxiyiaros, 
brfpiapxi-Krjs e^ovaCas rb 'nefxirrov Kal biKaTov, viraTOs Tb tp'ltov, r<5 koiv^ Trjs ^ AcrCas xaipuv. Rufinus : 
Imp. Ccesar M. Aurel. Antoninus Augustus Armenicus ponti/ex maximus trib. pot. XV cos. III. 
Armenicus is in edd. Zimmerman, et Heinechen. Stroth omits 'App-evLKbs, but without assigning 
a reason. Chron. Pasch. p. 259 D places the rescript in the 1 0th year of Marcus coss. Prisco et 
Apollinari, and also omits Armenicus : avTOKpdTcap Kato-ap M. Avp. 'AvtcovXvos (re^aarbs Sr/jixapxtx^s 
e^ovcrias to te' vTraros Tb y. But that 'ApixeviKos was in Eusebius appears from Rufinus. 

^ Conf. Reimar. ad Dionem p. 795 n. 180. Capitolinum c. 24 p. 207 Reimar, ad Dionem p. 1 184. 

1 Conf. Scaliger. ad Eusebium p. 223 Salmas. ad m See the Tables A. D. 169. 2. 

E 



26 APPENDIX. C. I. 

Marcus Neither of these titles can be genuine. Pirn in his 15th tribunician year was cos. IIII.^ 

A^UH-F"! HIS 

Marcus in his 15th tribunician year was not Armenicus. He assumed that title in the 18th tri- 
bunician year". That such an edict was not published by Pius is well argued by Valesius ad 
Euseb. H. E. IV. 13 from the silence of Melito apud Euseb. IV. 26 who enumerates many cities, 
but omits Asia : 6 8e irarrip a-ov rais TroAeo-t Ttcpl tov ^.rjbev v€(i)T€p[(€LV -nepl rj[xS>v ^ypa^€V' kv oXi /cat 
■Trpos Aapicra-aCovi koI irpos Qe(r(raX.(ovi.KeXs koI ^AdrjvaCovs, koX Trpbs Travras "Ekkrivas. That Marcus 
did not issue such an edict is plain from his conduct to the Christians, whom he persecuted. See 
on these rescripts Reimar ad Dionem p. 1172. The rescript is ascribed by Mosheim de rebus 
p. 240 to Pius. Other writers doubt this point. Pagi tom. 1 p. 150. 151 states and examines 
the arguments, and decides in favour of Marcus. 

The three years mentioned in the Tables A. D. 178 are applied by Capitolinus to the second 
Marcomannic war, and may be understood of three years current ; for Marcus died in the third 
year. But Eutropius VIII. 13 refers this period to the first war : Cum apud Carnuntum jugi 
triennio perseverasset, helium confecit. And from him Orosius VII. 15 Marcomannicum helium 
Tion nisi novo delectu militum, quem triennio jugiter apud Carnuntum Marcus hahuit, gestum fuisse 
refertur. Hieronymus Anno 2194 De hostihus triumphavit quos per triennium apud Carnimtum 
hahens stativa castra vexaveratP. This might also be true. The first war lasted nine years A. D. 
167 — 175, and 3 years of this period might have been passed in Carnuntum. 
Inscriptions. 

1 Gruter p. 258. 8 Romse: M. Aur. Ccesari imp. Ccesaris T. ^li Hadriani Antonini Aug. Pii 
fit. dim Hadriani nep. divi Trajani pronep. divi Nervce ahnep. cos. Petronius MaTnertinus et M. Ga- 
vius Maadmus pr.pr. trihuni cohortium prcetoriarum decern et urhanarum trium centuriones coJiortium 
prcetoriarum et urhanarum et statorum evocati coliortes prcBtorice decern et urhance X XII XII II cen- 
turice statorum optimo acpiissimo. 2 Muratori p. 1060. 2 in Latio urelio Caesari cos. [add, de- 
sign, cum Muratorio] JI imp. Ccesaris Jilii Hadriani Antonini Aug. Pii pontific. maximi trihunic. 
potest, imp. II cos. Illp.p.filio decur. Castri Moiniensium. 3 Muratori p. 239. 4 in Delmatia: 
Marco ^lio Aurelio Vero Ccesari imp. T. ^li CcBsaris Hadriani Antonini Augusti Pii patris patrice 
filio divi Hadriani nepoti divi Trojani [sic] Parthici pronepoti divi Nervoe ahnepoti con. II decreto 
decurionwm. 4 Muratori p. 239. 6 Romse : M. Aurelio Ccesari cos. II imper. Ccesaris T. Aeli 
Hadriani Antonini Aug. Pii pontific. maximi trihunic. potest. Villi imp. II cos. IIII [A. D. 146] 
p.p. filio decuriales pullari et H. V. The preceding in the lifetime of Pius. 

5 Muratori p. 239. 7 Sestini : Imp. Ccesari divi Antonini Piifil. divi Hadriani nep. divi Trajani 
Parthici pron. divi Nervce abn. M. Aurelio Antonino Aug.pon. max. trih. pot. XV \A.. D. 161] cos. 
Ill D. D. 6 Mur. p. 455. 3 Romse : Imp. Gees. M. Aurelius Antoninus Aug. pont. max. trih. 
potest. XV cos. Ill imp. Cces. L. Aurelius Verus Aug. trih. pot. cos. . . . terminos vetustate collapsos 

exaltaverunt et restituerunt proximo termino ped positos ex auctoritate imp. Ccesaris Nervce Trajani 

Aug. curante A. Plcetorio .... lote Galphurniano curat, alvei Tiheris et riparum et cloacarum urhis. 
7 Mur. p. 454. 5 Budae : Imp. Cces. M. Aurel. Antonin. Aug. trih. pot. XV cos. Ill imp. Cces. 
L. Aurel. Ver. Aug. trih. pot. I cos. Ill [recte Murat. cos. II] divi Aug. Antonini fili divi Hadriani 

nepotes divi Trajani Parthici pronepotes divi Nervce ahnepotes ah aq. M.P 8 Mur. p. 188. 6 

Romse: Imp. Ccesari divi Antonini Piifil. &c. M. Aelio Aurelio Antonino Aug. p. p. [lege p. m.] 
trih. pot. XVI COS. Ill fratri arvali. 9 Mur. p. 240. 2 Hydrunti : Imp. Cces. M. Aurelio Anto- 
nino Aug. trih. pot. XVI cos. Ill divi Antonini fil. divi Hadriani nep. divi Trajani Parthici pron. 
divi NervcB ahnep. puhlice. 10 Mur. p. 240. 1 Panormi : Imp. Cces. M. Aurelio Antonino divi An- 

n Tables A. D. 145. 152. 153. o Tables A. D. 164. 

P Not in the text of Eusebius. Compare with the Armenian copy Syncellus p. 353 D. 



EMPERORS. 27 

toninif. &c. po%. max. trib.p. XVII cos. Ill R. P. Panhormit. J 1 Mur. p. 240. 4 Camerini : Imp. Marcus 
Ccpsari M. Aurelio Antonino Augusto Armeniaco trib. pot. XVIII [A. D. 164] imp. II cos. /// Aureliits 
pont. maMmo L. D. D. D. puhlice. 12 Mur. p. 240. 6 Romse : . . . . M. Aurelio Antonino . . . eniaco 

Medico .... maxima cos. Ill . . . .us lib. curator salutaris .... atorum S. P. D.D. 13 Mur. 

p. 240. 5 Belluni : Im,p. Ccesari M. Aurelio Antonino Aug. Armeniaco Medico Parihico max. pontif. 
max. trib. pot. XXI [A. D. 167] i'>np. IIII cos. Ill p.p. dim Antoninifil. &c. D. D. 14 Mur. p. 

240. 7 in Oasiliano : Antoninus Aug. Armeniac. Medic. Parthic. maxim, trib. pot. XXIII 

COS. Ill 'p.p. 15 Mur. p. 455. 1 Salonse : Imp. Cces. M. Aur. Antonino Aug. pont. max. trib. pot. 
XXIIII p.p. coh. I Del. sub cur. Grani Fortunat. trib. coh. ejusdem muri P. DCCC in his turr. 
tma. 16 Mur. p. 1121. 7 in Transilvania : Divo Vero Parth. max.fratri imp. Casaris M. Aurel. 
Antonini Aug, Armeniac. Medic. Germ. Parth. max. tribunic. potestatis XXVI [A. D. 172] imp. V 
[lege VI'\p.p. cos. Ill pro cos. colonia TJlpia Trajan. Aug. Dae. Sarmiz. Eghusa. 17 Mur. p. 455. 2 
Arimini : Imp. Ccesar dim Antonini Pii f. &c. M. Aurelius Antoninus Pius Aug. Germanic, pontif. 
max. trib. pot. XXVIII imp. VI cos. Ill p. p. procos. restituit. 18 Mr. Hamilton Asia Minor 
Vol. 2 inscriptions N". 54 at Sinope: T. Germanico Sarmatico p. m. trib. pot. XXV imp. VIII 
COS. . . . Marcus was not Sarmaticus and imp. VIII till the 29th tribunician yearPP. Wherefore 
we must read in this inscription trib. pot. XXIX. 

19 Mr. Hamilton Asia Minor Vol. 1 p. 113 Vol. 2 Appendix N°. 23 gives an inscription, found 
7 miles east of Ushak : ayadfj tvxtj. avTOKpdropa Kaicrapa M. Avp-qkiov ^ Avruiveivov ^e^acrrbv 'Apfxe- 
viaKov TJapdiKov avTOKparopa Kaicrapa Aovklov Avpr]kiov Ovrjpov "E^jiacrTov ^ApixeviaKov M-qbiKov t] ttoAis 
€JtX 'lepoKXeors ' Apx^^Tcifxcv [1. ^ Apxereijiov] 6.pxovTos to /3' Kapre . . . Ep^ioyivov . . . ixuivos KaX ^iXavOov 

Tpv(f)(t>vos ypa^niaTios Alot (Tnixek-qO^VTOs €ik .... fxa .... 6v . ^ . (tovs crva ixrjvbs . i . /3 . . ya . . y . . 

Marcus is Parthicus and Medicus in A. D. 166^. We may assume that this inscription was set 
up in A. D. 167, ^-nd if the 1^5 Ist year of the city was then current, we ascend to B. C. 84, when 
Sulla rescued Asia from Mithridates, ended the first Mithridatic war, and distributed Asia into 
44 regions. From that epoch the city which erected this inscription might date its years f. 

20 Hamilton Appendix N". 432 at Isaura: ayaO^ "^XV- '^'^^P t"^? \al(s>\vCov avTOKp&Topos Kaicr[a/30s] 
M. AvprjkCov AvTdivelvov ^cjBacrTov ' ApiJ.€Vi[aKOv] MrjbiKOv YlapOtKOV tt. tt. Tvxrjs re Kal ve . . . . /cat aiw- 
VLov biajxavris Kal rov crvju.7rai'ro[s] avTov olkov koI Upa [f. Upas] (wyKkriTov Kal brjixov ['Pa)]ju,a^6)y ttj Kvpiq 
naTpihi M. Mdptos M. Maptov Yliov vlos ^Xaoviavos ITios apxiepaadfievos r-qv crroav K€i6v(t>v ctKOcri. irivTC 
Kal TO, iv avrfi epyacTTxipia irivre aiJv tco \l/aX.Lb(oixaTi ex ^lAort/uia? Karaa-Kevaa-iv [sic] €k tQ>v Ibmv, crvv- 
apxiepacrafJLevqs avT^ Kal Avprj[kC]as ^AOrjvatbos Trjs yvvaiKos. 

21 Muratori p. 2008. 8 in Carniola: Imp. Cces. M. Aurelius Antoninus Aug. trib. potest. Augustus 
Pius imp. Ccesar Aurelius Verus Aug. trib. potest, cos. iterum D. Antonini filii D. Hadriani nepotes 
D. Trajani Parthici pronepotPyS D. Nervce abnepotes 21 Gruter p. 257- 1 1 in Hispania : 

PP See the Tables A. D. 175. 3 Eckhel torn. 7 ton Vol. 1 p. )14 supposes the era to have com- 

P- ^2. menced in B. C. 75 when Nicomedes bequeathed his 

q See the Tables p. 156. possessions to the Romans, and places the inscription 

>• See F. H. Ill p. 150 for the acts of Sulla in at A. D. 170. But in 176 Marcus had laid aside the 

B. C. 84. According to Appian Mithrid. c.61 Sulla, names Parthicus Medicus, and was called Germanicus 

Tr)v 'Ao-iW KaBiardfievos, 'iXieas fiev Kal Xiovs Koi AvkIovs and Sarmaticus : see the Tables A. D. 176 p. 172 and 

Koi 'Podiovs Koi Mayvijaiav Kai rivas dWovs, rj avixfiaxias Eckhel torn. 7 p. 72. 73. And Varus would have 

dfieij36p.evos ^ Siv 8ia TTpoOvyLuiv €Tre7r6v6e(Tav ov fVfKa, been called Qfos or divus. Nicomedes died in B. C. 

tXevdepovs r}(f)i€i Koi 'Pcopaiav dveypa(f>€ cf)lXovs. That 74 at the time of the renewed war with Mithridates. 

city might be one of those towns. If its era com- See F. H. Ill p. 160. But it does not appear that 

menced from that period, its first year would coincide this town lay within his dominions, nor was his 

with the 229th, year of the Seleucidce, which began death an event sufficiently important " to have been 

Oct. B. C. 84, and its 251st would coincide with the adopted as an epoch by the Roman governments of 

479th, which began in Oct. A. D. 167. Mr. Hamil- Asia Minor." 

E 2 



28 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

Marcus Imp. C(BS. L. Aurelio Vero Aug. divi Antonini f. pont. max. [omitte m<ix. conf. Eckhel torn. 7 p. 96] 
■ frih.pot. COS. II p.p. [lege P. id est^ posuerunt\ municip. Ammai. 22 Muratori p. 240. 3 Hy- 
drunti : Imp. Cces. L. Aurelio Vero Aug. trih. pot. II [A. D. 162] cos. II divi Antonini fit. &c. p^ih- 
lice D. D. 23 Mur. p. 189. 1 Rorase: Imp. Ccesari divi Antonini Pii fil. &c. L. ^Elio Aurelio 
Vero Aug. trihunic. pot. Ill cos. II fratri arvali. 24 Mur. p. 242. 2 Narbone: Imp. Ccesari divi 
Antonini Pii Jil. &c. L. Aurelio Vero Aug. Armeniaco pont. maxim, trihunic. potestat. IIII imp. II cos. 
II procos. decumani Narhonenses. 25 Murat. p. 520. 7 Florentise : Imp. Ccesari divi Antonini 
Pii fil. &c. L. Aurelio Vero Aug. Armeniac. PartJiic. maximo Medico trih. pot. VI [A. D. 166] imp. 
V cos. II designat. Ill procos. coll.fahr. tign. Ostis quod providentia et liheralita. de sua indulserit. 
26 Mur. p. 241. 6 Romse: bearing trih. p. Villi. Given in the Tables A. D. 169 p. 164 from 
' Panvinius and Gruter. In all the three copies p.p. is improperly added "^r, 

27 Gruter p. 76. 8 Praeneste: Pietati FortuncE primig. votis susceptis salvis Augustis M. Aurelio 
Antonino et L. JElio Aurelio Fortunatus vema disp. eorum et Aurelia Suscepta lih. L. D. D.D. 28 Gru- 
ter p. 85. 3 Romse : Voto suscepto pro salute imp. Ccesaris M. Aureli Antonini Aug. Pii Felicis Sex. 
Pompeius Primitivus cum M. Virrio Struttofil. columnas cum epistilio deo magno Serapi in introitum 
exornaverunt. 29 Grut. p. 87. 5 in Carinthia: Herculi et Eponce Aug. pro salute imp. Cces. M. 

Aur. Antonini Pii Felicis invicti 30 Grut. p. 114. 2 Romse : Pro salute et gloria imp. 

C(ES. M. Aureli Antonini Aug. L. Aruntius et Q. Clodius Jason et Mercurius filius hujus D. D. 
31 Grut. p. 257. 8 extra Tarraconem: Imp. Cces. L. Aurelio Vero Aug. p. 257- 9 extra Tarraco- 
nem ; Imp. Ccesari M. Aurelio Antonino Aug. 32 Grut. p. 258. 4 Vesontii : Imp. Cobs. Aug. M. 
Aur. Antonino et L. Aur. Vero cives Ve. 33 Grut. p. 1068. 2 Budae : Dis militarihus et genio loci 
pro salute et reditu imp. Cces. M. Aur. Antonini Pii invicti Aug. Clod. Marcellinus S. C. trih. mil. 
leg. II A. P. F. Ant. translat. ex leg. X Fr. Ant. numini ejus semper devotissimus. 34 Murat. p. 
3. 1 in Dacia : J. 0. M. P. S. D. N. M. Aur. Antonini imp. Aurel. Rusticus cav. posuit. 35 Mur. 
p. 9. 8 in Sclavonia : Jovi Depulsori pro salute dom. N. imp. M. Aur. Antonini Pii Aug. Marcus 
Sperat. disp. V. S. L. M. 36 Mur. p. 7- 7 in Gallsecia : /. 0. M. pro salute M. Aurelii Antonini 
et L. Aurelii Veri Augustorum oh natale . . . leg. VII Ge. milites coh. Galleco . . . suh cura .... em. et 

Aug. . . . re et T. Lucret. Patern. . . coh et Ful. 37 Mur. p. 239. 5 Brundusii : Pro salute 

imp. M. Aurelii Antonini Pii. 38 Mur. p. 241. 2 in Creta : avTOKparopa KatV. MapKov Avprjkiov 
^ AvTcovdvov ^(^acTTov Tov Kvpiov TTjs olKOvpLivrjs A. 4>A.. SovATTtfciavos Aa)/o . . V. 39 Mur. p. 241. 3 in 
Creta : avroKpdropa KaCa-apa AovKtov Avp'qX.LOv BTJpoi; Se/Saoroy ^ Ap^xeviaKov top Kvpiov ttjj olKOvyi.ivr]s 
A. <I>. 'LovX-niKiavos Awptiov. 40 Mur. p. 242. 1 Philippopoli : ayaOfj rvxi}. vircp ttjs tG)v avTOKpaTopoav 
KoX vlSiv €v 8ta|U,oi»^? M. Avpr}kCov 'AvTiaveiv. kol A. Avpr\Kiov Ovrjpov ^ ApfxeviaKov 4>t\60-KOs Ka[<Tapoi 

TOV MdpKOv dTreA.""" dveOrjKev .... Te/xicndSt /xerd Upoicrvvriv 'AA^eiov IIoa-CLbavLov, eirt/xeXerevovros 

^Xaovtov EvbaifjLovos tov koi ^Xaov'iavov. 41 Gruter p. 178. 3 Murat. p. 485. 9 Csesense: Balneum 
Aurelianum ex liheralitate imp. Cces. M. Aurelii Pii Fel. Aug. servata indulgentia pecunicE ejus quam 
deus [dominus Gruter.] Aurelianus concesserat facta usurarum exactione curante Statio Juliano V. E. 
[ V. F. Grut.] curatore refecit et perfecit. 42 Murat. p. 454, 6 in arcu Tripolitano : Imp. Cces. M. 
Aurelio Antonino Aug. p.p. [lege/*, w.] et imp. Cces. L. Aurelio Vero Armeniaco Aug. Ser. Co ... . 
Sortitus procos. cum Uttedio Marcello leg. suo dedicavit C. Calpurnius Celsus curator muneris puh. . . . 
S. Ilvir QQ. fiamen perpetuus arcum pecunia sua ex marmore solido fecit. 

The two following after A. D. 176 : 43 Gruter p. 199. 6 Romge : Imp. Ccesar M. Aurelius An- 
toninus Aug. Germanicus Sarmat. et imp. Ccesar L. Aurelius Commodus Aug. Germanicm Sarmatic. 
ho8 limides [lege lapides ex Muratorio] constitui jusserunt propter controversion quce inter mercatores 
et ma/ncipes ortce erant utifinem, demonstrarent vectigali foricularii et ansarii promsrcalium secundum 

"■ See Eckhel tora. 7 p- 96- ■"" Sic lege post Bimardum apud Muratoriuni. 



EMPERORS. 29 

veterem legem semel dumtaxat exigund[6\. Muratori p. 573. 4 gives a similar inscription " Romae Marcus 
ante portam Flarainiam," except that instead of Ccesar L. Aurelius Gommodus Aug. Germ. Sarm. 
it has M. Aurelius Severus Alexander Pirn Felice Aug. in whose reign this edict was repeated s. 
44 Gruter p. 375. 1 Romae: Bassceo^ M. f. Stel. Bufo pr.pr. imperat. Aureli Antonini L. Aureli 
Veri et Aureli Commodi Augg. consularihus ornamentis honorato et oh mctoriam German, et Barmat. 
Antonini et Commodi Augg. corona murali vallari aur. hastis puris IIII totidem,que vexilUs obsidio- 

nalihm leg pr . . .. equ . . trih proc. a rationih. provinciarum Belgicce et duarum Ger- 

maniar. proc. reg. Noric. proc. AsturicB et Gallecice trib. coTi. II pr. trih. coh. X urh. trih. coh. Vmg. 
huic senat. auctor impp. Antonino . ..et . . . Gommiodo Augg. statuam armat. in foro dim Traja/ai et 
aliam civil, amictu in templo dim Pii et tertiam loricatam in templo nendas 

After A. D. 17 1 the following : 45 Hamilton N°. 153 at Orcistus : [avTJoKpdTopa KaCaapa 
MdpKOV AvprfXiov ^ AvTOivelvov Se^Saoroy TcpixavLKov ap){i€pia [xiyLorov br]ixap-)(^LKrjs i^ovcrias ^OpKLcrrqvol 
€l(Tr\yr]craixiv(3iv 'KpixoKparovs Mr]Vob(apov k. t. A. 

To Faustina the wife of Marcus : 1 Gruter p. 260. 7 Tipherni : Faustince Aug. Aurelii Ccesaris 
D. D. 2 p. 260. 8 in agro Tarentino : Faustina Aug. Aurelii car. public, D. D. 3 p. 260. 9 
Barcinone : Faustince Aug. imp. M. Aurel. Antonini Aug. D. D. 4 p. 260. 10 Tarracone : 
P. H. G. Faustince imp. Antonini filice. 5 p. 260. 11 Tarracone: Faustince imp. Antonini Jilice. 
6 p. 260. 12 in ruinis Warhel: Faustince Aug. dim Pii filice col. Sarmiz. J Muratori p. 241. 4 
Barcinone : Faustina: Aug. imp. M. Aureli Antonini Aug. D. D. 8 Muratori p. 241 . 5 in Dacia : 
M. Aurel. Faustince Aug. matri Aug. et castrorum^ sub cura Jul. Paterni proc. syntropTius. 9 Murat. 
p. 242. 4 Rorase in patera argentea : <t6,\^(o Kco/Liju,o8ft) <Prj\L^ ^avarilva^. 

COMMODUS. CosiMODUS 

His masters were Onesicrates in Greek, Antistius Gapella in Latin. Orator ei Atteius Sanctus 
fuit : Lamprid. Commodo c. 1 . 

Gommodus v^a^B Augustus and consul in A. D. 177* conBvMterum in 179, succeeded his father 
March 17 A.D. \m^^. 

Inscriptions. 

1 Muratori p. 2009. 4 in via Appia : Imp. Gees. M. Aur. Antoninus Aug. Arm. Parth. p. p. et 

M.y Aur. Gommodus Aug. procos. reficiend. cur. 2 Mur. p. 340. 2 Romae fragmentum fastorum 

fratrum arvahum : Imp. Gees. M. Aur. Antonino Aug. IIII G. Aufidio Victorino II cos. [A. D. 183] 

in capitolio Q. Licinius N . . . . rum arvalium votorum solutorum et no . . . ausa pro salute imp. Gees. 

M. Aureli .... Antonini . . .m. Ger. maximi p.p. cos. IIII fratres arvales conveneru us Nepos 

mag. Gn. Catilius Severus M. Ulpius Astius pr. ma . . . immolavit Q. Licinius Nepos mag. Jovi 0. M. 
bov . . marem Junoni reg. bovem feminam Minervce homm feminam . . luti publicce P. R. hovem femi- 

s Muratori : " M. Aurelius philosophus et Alex- ^ An inscription in Gruter p. 261. 4 Romse : Fau- 

ander Severus — uterque diversis tamen temporibus stince Augustce magistri quinquennales collegi corp.fa- 

eosdem terminos constituerant." brumferrar. tignar. dendrophor. et centon. lust. XXVII 

t Dio 71-5 ^v 8e Tw MapKo) 6 'Pov(pos 6 Baaa-aios T. Ovinius &c. D. D. Kal. Januar. C. Manlio Tor- 

errapxos, ra p.ev aK\a dyados, aTraiSevros 8e xm dypoiKias, quato et Comelio Messalino COS. It is doubtful whe- 

K. T. X. Vindex the colleague of Bassceus was also ther this refers to Faustina the wife of Pius or Fau- 

honoured with three statues : Dio 71-3 rav Se Map- stina the wife of Marcus. The consuls are consules 

KopAvav — TOP Biv8iKa top MaKplvov eirapxov ovra cmoKTd- suffecti ; for no such consuls appear in the Fasti of 

vavTOiv, Tovrm p,ev Tptls dvdpidvras firrqae. Conf Rei- A.D. 139 — 175. We may read D. D. . . . Kal. Ja- 

mar. ad locum p. 1 179 n. 25. nuar. and assign the inscription to December. 

V So in coins apud Eckhel torn. 7 p. 81 Divce ^x gee the Tables in those years. 

Faustince Aug. niatr. castror. and Divce Faustince Pice y On Marcus for Lucius see the Tables A.D. 181. 2 

+ matri castrorum. and Eckhel there quoted. 



80 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

CoMMODus nam. Isdem [cos.] VII Idus Januar. in pronao fratres arvales sacrificium Bern Dice indiw 

Q. Licinius Nepos mag. velaio capite contra Orientem . . quod honum faustum felix fortunatwm salw- 

tareque sit imp. Cces. M. Aurelio Antonino Aug. Pio Sarmat. Germ, maximo p. m. p. p. cos. 

Ill I Optimo maximoq. principi divi M. Antonini fil. dim Antonini nepoti divi Hadriani pronepoti 
&c. senatui P. R. Q. fratrihusque arvalihus sacrificium Dece Dies hoc anno erit ante diem XVI Kal. 
Junias Bomee^ ante diem XI III Kal. Jim. in luco et domi XIII Kal. Jun. consummahitur. domi 
adfuerunt in coll. Q. Licinius Nepos mxig. Cn. Catilius Severus M. Ulpius Astius pr. M. Antonius 
Juvenis. L. Tutilio Pontiano Gentiano cos. [sc. sujecto] VI Id. Fehruar. in luco Dece Dice Q. Licinius 
Nepos mag. operis inchoandi causa quod infastigio cedisDece Diceficus innata esset eruendam, et cedem 
refi/yimidam immolavit suovetaurilihus majorihus item ad adem Decu Dice }>oms feminas 11^ Jano patri 

arietes II, Jovi herheces II altilaneos 3 Gruter p. 66. 7 Albse Julise : Libero patri sacrum 

pro salute imp. Cces. M. Aur. Commodi Antonini Aug. Pii p.p. L. Calvisius L.f. Velina Becundms 
Falerione p. p. leg. XIII G. P. F. sub Vespronio . . . dido cos. dedic. C. Aurellio sal. D. D. 4 Grut. 
p. 1085. 7 Neapoli: Imp. Cces. M. Aurel. Commodo Antonino Aug. Pio p. p. Ilmr quinquen. Fl. 
Phaneas m^rmorarius. 5 Gruter p. 45. 9 Herculi conservatori pro salute L. Bagoni L. f. Pap. 
Urinati Largi Quinctiani vir. cos. sodal. Hadrianal. leg. leg. XIII Gem. donis milit. donat. ah imp. 
Commmdo Antonina Aug. procos. prov. Sardinice juridic. per Apuliam prcef. F. D. prcet. ced. pi. Q. 
pr. A/ric. VIvir Aug. ex testamento M. Antius Ennius Sergianus amico V. cur. 6 Grut. p. 261. 6 
Olisipone : Imp.' Cces. imper. M. Aurel. Antonin. Aug. f. D. Pii nep. divi Hadr. pro. dim Traj. 
Pa/rthic. abnep. L. Aurelio Commsd. Aug. German. Barm. Fel. Jul. Olis. per Q. Ccelium Cassianum 
et M. Fabricium Tuscum Ilvir. 7 Gruter p. 261. 7 in Carnia : L. uFllio Aurelio Aug.f. Commx)do 
cos. D. D. 8 Muratori p. 109. 7 Romse in tabella senea : Pro salute imp. Cces. Augusti M. Aureli 
Comm^i M. Aurelius M. L. [lege M.f.'\ Favorinus Curtia Favorina V. S. 9 Murat. p. 130. 2 
Arausione : Num. Aug. Matri Deum pro salut. imp. M. Aur. Commodi Antonini Pii Felicis tauro- 

polium fecerunt Sex. PuUicius anus. 10 Hamilton Asia Minor Vol. 2 Append. N°. 53 at 

Sinope has an inscription which refers to Commodus and should be read in this manner : 

Sarmatici f. dim Pii nep. divi Hadriani pronep. ff[ivi] 11 Gruter p. 261. 5 Eomse : Divo 

Commodo fratri imp. Cces. L. Septimi Severi Pii Pertinacis Aug. prcepositus Crescens scribce Fortu- 
natianus Felicianus Quintio Eutyches Philumenus D.B. 12 Murat. p. 243. 2 Thermis in Sicilia: 
Bivo Commodo Aug. D. D. P. P. In an inscription of Severus apud Gruter p. 187. 3, quoted in 
the Tables A. D. 201, Severus is divi Commodi frater. Again p. 191. 5 quoted in the Tables 
A.D. 203 p. 210, divi Cwtimodi frater. Oonf. Lamprid. Commodo c. 17 Severe c. 11. 

Pertikax Pertinax. Tables A.D. 126. 193. 

Pertiriax was three years in Liguria under Permnis, who was slain in 185^. At his election he 

z See the Tables A. D. 185. Capitolinus Pert. o/xo>f ritrav oX vefuaiovrfs im ra elvai avTov TO yevos e^ 

C.2.3Pertinas — Cassiano motu COmposito [A.D. 175] a^avwv t6 Trjs rpayaBias eWXcyov Toiavff 6 T\fjfi(OP no- 

e Syria ad Danubii tutelam profectus est atque inde Xe/no? f^efyya^erai. — tov 8e Kaa-a-iov Kara tt^v 2vpiav veco- 

MoesicB utriusque, max Dacice regimen accepit. Bene repia-avros k. t. X, Capitolin. Pertin. c. 2 Studio Marci 

gestis bis provinciis, Syriam meruit. — Curiam Roma- imperatoris cos. est designatus. — Cassiano motu com- 

nam post quatuor provincias consulates quia consulatum posito &c. His colleague was Julianus : Spartian. 

absens gesserat jam dives ingressus est, quum earn antea Juliano c. 2 Fuit consul cum Pertinace et in proconsu- 

non vidisset. Jussus est praterea statim a Perenne in latu Africa eidem successit. Capitolinus Pert. c. 4 

Liguriam secedere in villam patemam. Nam pater ejus we may with Reimar ad Dionem p. 1189 n. 75 refer 

tabemam coctiliciam in Liguria exercuerat. — Fuitque to the second consulship oi Pertinax A.D. 192, and 

illic per triennium. He was appointed consul (sc. supply in this manner : Ipsi Commodo plurimum pla- 

suffectus) before the revolt of Cassius: Dio 71-21 cvit, cos. quia ille esset [sc. Commodus'], iterum quum 

T(m 8f UeprivoKos cttI tois dvBpayadiais xmarfiap Xa/3<5i/TOf, Pertinax /actus est. 



EMPERORS. 31 

was prcBfedus urhis: Capitolin. Pertin. c. 4. Eutrop. VIII. 16 Pertinax — prcefecturara urbi turn Pertinax 
agens. Victor Ep. p. 376 prcefecturam urhis agens. Hieron. Chron. Anno 2208 Pertinax — quum 
prcefecturam urhis ageret, ex senatusconsulto imperare jussns est. 

He declined the honours of Augusta for his wife, and of CcBsar for his son : Dio 73. 7 Herodian. 
II. 4 Chron. Pasch. p. 264 B. 

To the testimonies given in the Tables for the reign and death of Pertinax, add Zonaras torn. 1 
p. 602 lib. XII. 6. Zonaras gives the duration of his life and reign nearly from Dio : e^tw Se 6 
avr]p eri] CTrra koL e^i^KOVTa, hiovTa Tccradpiav p.r]v5>v, ap^as fxovas r]\xipa% oyhoriKOvra /cat kuTa. 

Coins of Pertinax after his consecration by Severus: Eckhel torn. 7 p- 144 Divus Pert. Pius 
pater + ceternitas. or consecratio. ov fides exercituum. His consecration is described by Dio 74. 4. 5 
Victor Epit. p. 377 Spartianus Severe c. 7 c. 17- Muratori p. 243. 4 gives an inscription 
Romse : Bivos Pertinax Aug. S. C. 

An inscription of March 19 A. D. 193 apud Muratorium p. 345. 2 Romse. In sinistro latere : 
Imp. Gees. P. Helvio Pertinaci Aug. cos. II pontifici maximo trih. pot. p.p. principi sev. fortissimo 
duci et omnium mrtutum principi Gapenates fwder.^^ proc. L. Licinio Sperando. In dextro latere : 
Dedicata XI II I Kal. Aprilis cur. P. Scatilio Prospicio Mucio Muciano, Falcone et Glare cos. 

DiDius JuLiANUs. Tables A. D. 193 p. 192. Didius 

. . JULIANUS. 

He is defeated at the Mulvian bridge in Eutrop. VIII. 17 Hieron. Anno 2208 Victor Cses. 
p. 325 Ores. VII. 16. And has seven months in Eutrop. Victor Epit. Orosius. Chron. Pasch. 
p. 264 C pLTJvas t'- — e(T(f)dyr], obv ir&v $'. Zonaras XII. 7 torn. 1 p. 604 D e/S^o) 8^ irr] k^rfKovra 
Trpbs fJ-rjal rea-crapa-i koL l(Tapidp.ois r}p.ipais, ap^as rjfxipas k^rjKOVTa. 

Pescennius Niger. Tables A. D. 193 p. 192. 194 A.D. 194. Pescennius 

Letters commending Niger from Marcus Gommodus and Severus are given by Spartianus Pescen. 

c. 3. 4. 

He was the author of many good regulations : Spartian. Pescen. c. 7- 

Clodius Albinus. Tables A. D. 193 p. 194, A. D. 196 p. 198, A. D. 197- Clodius 

A letter of Gommodus to Alhinus is extant in Capitolin. Albino c. 2. A letter of Marcus de ^^^^^®' 

Alhino: Ibid. c. 10 Extant Marci epistolce de hoc eodem &c. — Est et alia Epistola qua idem M. 

Avidii Gassii temporihus de hoc eodem scripsit, cujus exemplum hoc est., &c. A letter of Benerus de 

Alhino: Idem Ibid. c. 12 Extat epistola Severi qua ostendit animum suum, missa ad senatum, cujus 

hoc exemplum est ; &c. 

Alhinus was born Nov. 25 : Capitolin. Albino c. 4 Patris epistola ad ^lium Bassianum tunc pro- 

consulem AfriccB. — Epistola Geionii Postumii ad ^lium Bassianum : " Filius mihi natus est VII 

Kal. Becemh.'''' &c. 

Inscriptions: 1 Panvinius p. 355 Gruter p. 45. 12 Herculi defensori pro reditu et itu B. Glodi 

Septimi Alhini G(ssaris B. Glodius B. L. Felix actor Gees. N. B. B. 2 Bimardus apud Muratorium 

tom. 1 p. 138 Lugduni: J. O.M. Gl. Alhino G. Fu. G. P. Gall. Aug. et Lug. lihertatis advers. Seve- 

rum acerrimo mndici. 

Seveeus. His birth is recorded in the Tables A. D. 146, his reign A. D. 193 — 211. Severus. 

zz The Capen'ates foederati appear again in an inscription to Caracalla. See below, Caracalla No. 28. 



APPENDIX. 



C. 1. 



Severus. 



Macer Fulvius Pius 

I I 

Getaa=Fulvia Pia* 



Bassianiis 

I VictorEpit. p. 379. 



Getab 



r 



Severus a imp. = Julia Domnac 

^ 



Maesad= Julius Avitus^ 



r" 



Aetiu8 = filia Probus = filia Caracallag imp. Getag Varius Marcellusd = So8emlas'l Mamsea = Gessius Marcianus 

Spartian. Spartian. 1 I 

c. 8. c. 8. II 

Elagabalus imp. Alexander Severus imp. 

Tillemont torn. 3 p. 451 thinks Ap. 13 too soon after the death of Pertinax for the assumption 
of the empire by Severus. But the distance is only about 660 miles, and the interval 13 days. 
And Severus was remarkable for his celerity — ttoWcS rdxet Herodian. III. 8. Nothing then im- 
probable in the date. After the death of Julianus he is met at Interamna : Spartian. Severe c. 6. 
He therefore entered Rome in the beginning of June, about 54 days after he had assumed the 
empire at Carnuntum. His army might have marched 13 miles a day. 

Severus was prcetor designatus a Marco anno cetatis 32: Spartian. Severo c. 3. in A. D. 177; 
governor of Gaul about A. D. 185. Then of Pannonia in 187- Then of Sicily in 188. Then he 
was appointed to Illyricum, cir. A. D. 190. See all these offices in Spartianus Severo c. 3. 4. 
His age is erroneously called 89 by Spartianus Nigro c. 5. Repeated by Spartianus Severo c. 22. 

Severus wrote de vita sua^ : Herodian. II. 9 Spartian. Nigro c. 4 Capitolin. Albino c. T. 12 
Spartian. Severo c. 3. Idem c. 18 Vitam suam puhlicamque ipse composuit. 

On the wife of Severus see Victor Caes. p. 327 Huic tanto domi forisque uxoris prohra summam 
glorice dempsere. quam adeo famose aniphxus est ut cognita lihidine ac ream conjurationis retentarit. 
Spartianus Severo c. 18 Uxorem Juliam famosam adulteriis tenuit etiam conjurationis consciam. 

Severus adorned his native place with buildings : Procop. jEdif. VI. 4 p. 112 B tioKls r] Aiitri- 



a Spartianus Severo c. 1 Interfecto Didio Juliana, 
Severus Africa oriundus imperium obtinuit, cui civitas 
Leptis, pater Geta, majores, equites Romani ante civi- 
tatem omnibus datam. mater Fulvia Pia, patrui M. 
Agrippa et Severus consulares ; avus maternus Macer, 
paternus Fulvius Pius fuere. Lege cum Casaubono 
paternus Macer, maternus Fulvius Pius. 

b Consul in A. D. 203, Tables 203. I . Died be- 
fore Plautianus in 203 : Die 76. 2 quoted in the 
Tables A. D. 203. 1. 

c Julia died in A. D. 217. See the Tables. On 
Julia Domna see Scaliger ad Euseb. p. 230. To the 
inscriptions in the Tables add Gruter p. 266. 5 Peto- 
viae : JuluE Aug. matri castror. Pcetoviens. p. 267- 1 
Caparae Hispanicse : JuUce Aug. matri castrorum con- 
jugi imp. Cas. L. Sept. Severi Pii Pertinacis Aug. et 
mxitri M. Aurelii Antonini imp. ordo splendidiss. Capa- 
ritanorum devotus numini majestatique ejus. Muratori 
p. 248. 4 in Hispania : Julia Aug. matri castrorum 
respublica Tuccitanorum D. D. P. p. 248. 5 Romse : 
Julia Domna Aug. matri Aug. N. et castror. p. 249. 1 
in insula Gauli adjacente Melitse : Julia Domna Aug. 
matri castr. Augustorum imp. Cas. L. Septimi Severi 
Pertinacis Aug. conjugi municipium Gau . . . Gul. P. P. 

curante Dapsi no. Muratori supplies cast. et. 

p. 249. 2 in Bulgaria : Julia Domna Augusta matri 



castrorum R. P. S. Va. Ulp. curante Q. Anicio Fausto 
leg. Augustorum pr. pr. p. 1088. 2 in agro Reatino : 
Julia Aug. imp. Casaris L. Septimi Severi . . . Pertinacis 

Aug. E et M. Aureli Antonini Casaris imp. destinati 

parenti matri castrorum et P. Trebulani Mutusta anim. 
dev. dedic. D. D. After Aug. for E we may read C 
and supply conjugi. 

d Dio 78. 30 T} Maia-a fj rfjs 'lovXias rrjs Avyovarrjs 
d8eX(f>^ 8vo T€ Bvyarepas 2oat/iu'Sa Kai Mafiaiav i^ 'ifwXtou 
Tov avbpos VTrarfVKOTOs kul 8vo eyyovovs apaevas, eV p.ev 
T^y Soai/xi'Sof Oiiaplov re MapKeWov dv8p6s ofWiBvovs — 
'Aovetroi' . . . kn 8e t^s Maixaias TfO-aiov re MoKpiavov. 
^vpov Kcu avTov e^ "ApKt): iroKeas ovros, — Baanuivov 
exovaa. 

^ Spartian. Sev. c. 19 (Severus) reliquit Jilios duos, 
Antoninum Bassianum et Getam. Idem c. 20 Legisse 
me apud jElium Maurum Phlegontis Tralliani liber- 
tum memini Septimium Severum immoderatissime quum 
moreretur latatum quod duos Antoninos pari imperio 
reipublica relinqueret. But Spartianus c. 21 errs in 
supposing that Julia was the stepmother of Caracalla: 
noverca. Again Caracallo c. 10 novercam suam Ju- 
liam. Geta c. 7 Occidere voluit et matrem Geta no- 
vercam suam. 

^ Referred to by Dio 75. 7 Xeyo) yap oix oaa 6 2e- 
^fjpos fypa^lrfp dXX* ocra dXr/d&s iyePfTO. 



EMPERORS. 33 

ixdyva — /xeyaArj ^lev koI TioXvavOpui'nos to Trakaibv oxxra, eprj[xos be XP^^V vcrrepov yeyevrjix^vr] e/c tov Severus. 
eTTtTrAetoToi'. — 6 Ka9' 17/xas /SacrtAeus [sc. Justinianus] — ai^(«)Ko8oju,7jcraro ra rfjbc yeyovora kv rols avo) 
Xpovots Kal KaTaTTeTTTisxoTa l3a(Tikei.a, '2el3ripov /SacrtAews tov iraKaLov epyov os brj evdevbe 6pixu)[j.€voi 
pLvqixela t% evbatpiovLas tu (Saa-uXeca Tabe a-nikiTrev . 

Laws of A. D. 204 : Cod. Just. VI. 35, 1 Impp. Severus et Antoninus AA. Celeri. Bat. XV Kal. 
April. Cilone II et Lihone conss. V. 62, 1 Aviolce. pp. Kal. Maii Chilone II et Lihone conss. VI. 
28, 1 Faviano. pp. VI Kal. Jun. Cilone II &c. VIII. 14, 2 Lucio. pp. II Kal. Jun. IV. 2, 1 
Modestino. Dot. Kal. Jul. V. 15, 1 Impp. Severus et Antoninus A A. et C. Dionysice. Dot. XIII 
Kal. Aug, VI. 26, 2 Frontince. pp. VI Kal. Aug. II. 44, I Bomano et aliis. pp. V Kal. Aug. 
VI. 53, 2 Frisco, pp. V Kal. Aug. VI. 53, 3 ^lice. pp. V Kal. Aug. II. 13, 3 Pomponio. pp. X 
Kal. Sept. III. 17, I Demetrio. pp. VIII Kal. Sept. V. G2., 2 Habentiano et Cosconio. pp. VIII 
Kal. Sept. V. 68, 1 Severo pp. V Id. Sept. IX. 41, 2 Impp. Severus et Antoninus A A. et C. Ca- 
tulo. proposita III Id. Sept. VI. 2, 2 negotiatorihus. pp. Kal. Dec. VI. 3, 1 Romano, pp. Ill Kal. 
Januar. All except V. 15, 1 and IX. 41, 2 have rightly Impp. Sev. et Anton. AA. and all are 
dated Cilone II et Libone conss. 

To the laws of A. D. 205 given in the Tables add the following, dated after July : Cod. Just. 
V. 53, 1 Impp. Severus et Antoninus A A. Asclepiodoto. pp. Kal. Aug. IX. 1, 2 Ingenuo. pp. XII 
Kal. Oct. V. 69, 1 Fompeiano. pp. IV Id. Oct. VIII. 16, 2 Latince. pp. Id. Oct. VI. 55, 1 
Crispince. pp. Ill Non. Nov. V. 7^» 1 Valentino. Dat. VI Kal. Januar. These have Impp. Se- 
verus et Antoninus A A. and (with the variations noticed in the Tables at 205. 1) are dated Anto- 
nino A. II et Geta C. conss. VII. 21,2 lidem A A. et C. Maximo. F. D. S." Antonino A. II et 
Geta C. conss. 

Inscriptions. 

1 Muratori p. 243. 6 Clusii. Inserted in the Tables A. D. 194. 3 from Panvinius and Gruter. 
2 Murat. p. 243. 7 juxta ruinas via3 sacrae : Imp. Ccesari L. Septimio Severo Fertinaci Aug. p. m. 
trib. pot. Ill imp. I II I cos. II Arabico Adiabenico fratri arvali. 3 Mur. p. 189. 2 Romae: 

Imp. &c. trib. p. Ill imp. IIII cos. II Arabico Adiabenico fratri arvali. 4 Murat. p. 243. 8 
Ardese : Im.p. Cces. L. Septimius Fertinax Fius Felix Aug. pont. max. Germ. max. trib. potest. IIII 
imp. V COS. procos. p.p. et M. Aurellus Antoninus Fius Germ. max. Dacicus max. princeps juventutis 
litus vicinum vice Severiance adsiduis maris adluentibus Jluctibus ad labem ruince lahefactatum agge- 
ribus marini operis in fundamentis ut periculum commeantibus abesset extrui curarunt. 5 Murat. p. 
1104. 6 Capuae: Imp. Cess, divi M. Antonini Germ. Sarm. fil. divi Commodi fratri divi Antonini 
Fii nepo. divi Hadriani pronepoti divi Trajani Farthici ahnepoti divi Nervce adnepoti Septimio 

Severo Fio Fertinaci Ara diabenico p. p. pontif m. trib. pot. IIII imp. VIII cos. II proc. 

colonia Capua. 6 Mur. p. 244. 1 item p. 1993. 6 Ravennse : Aug. invicto imp. Cces. L. Septimio 
Severo Fio Fertinaci divi M. Antonini fil. divi Commodi fratri divi Anto7oini Fii nepoti Arabico 
Adiabenico pontif . max. trib. potest. IIII imp. VIII cos. II procos. p.p. pro victoria et reditu ipsius 
Bufinus lib. procos. provincice Mauritanice Tingitance. Salvo Severo Aug. et Antonino Cas.fil. Varr. 

7 Mur. p. 2009. 1. 2 in via quae ad Sidonem ducit ; from MaundrelFs Journey p. 47 : Imperatores 
Ccesares L. Septimius Severus Fius Fertinax Aug. Arabicus Adiabenicus Farthicus maximus trilu- 
nicia potes. VI imp. XI cos. II procos. p.p. et M. Aurel. Antoninus Aug.filius ejus vias et milliaria 
/r[acta] per Venidium Rufum leg. Augg. I . . . ic. pr. prcesidem provinc. Syrioe Fhosnic. renovaverunt. 

8 Mur. p. 347. 2 Romae ara. in facie: pro salute itu reditu et victoria impp. Ccsss. L. Sept. Severi 
Fii Fert. Aug. Arabic. Adiab. Font, et Fart. max. tr. pot. VIII imp. XI cos. II procos. p. p. et 
M. Aur. Antonini Fii Felicis Aug. tr. pot. Ill procos. -jf ^ ^ ^ -x- et JidicB Aug. M. K. ^ ^ ^ 

& That is, proposita data scripta. 
F 



34 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

Severcs. In uno latere Et genio turm(£ pro reditus [sic] eorwm ah expeditione Parthica quod wverat aram mar- 
moream posuit sua pecunia M. Aurelius Nepos remansor. Dedicata Kal. April. Severo et Victorino 
COS. [A. D. 200.] In alio latere Nomina, P. turmce Jul. Macel. dec. Nonius Severus dup. Jul. Vic- 
torinus &c. 9 Mur. p. 456. 1 Romge. Given in the Tables A. D. 202 p. 208 from Panvinius. 
Muratori, like Gruter and Pagi, gives the erroneous number trih. pot. X/, which is inconsistent 
with Antonini trih. pot. V. 

10 Gruter p. 264. 2 Anagnise : Gommodi /[ratri] divi Antonini Pii nepot. dim a/ni 

pronepot. divi Trajani P ci ahiepot. dim Nervce a . . . .L. Septimio Semro Pio Pertinaei Aug. 

ponti .... maximo Arabic. Adiahenico Parthico maxima cos. Up., trihunicies pot. imp. XI inv .... 
imperatori Anagnini foen. devotissimi nvmini ejus. 11 Murat. p. 348. 6 Romse : Im^p. L. Septimius 
/Severus Pertinax Aug. p. m. cos. Ill D. tr. pl.^ Jom Optimo Max. Salutari Id. Apr. Junonique re- 
gina; columnam erexit. 12 Mur. p. 131. 4 Romse : Imp. L. Septimius Severus Pertinax Aug. pont. 
max. COS. VII D. [lege cum Mur. cos. Ill J.] 0. Max. Salutari Id. Apr. Junoniq. regina columnam 
erexit. 13 Murat. p. 457- 1 Romse. Given already in the Tables A. D. 203 p. 210 from Gruter 
p. 172. 5 more correctly than in Muratori. 

14 Gruter p. 1 1. 4 p. 22. 7 Viennse Austrise : J. 0. M. Sarapidi pro salute imp. L. Sept. Seven 
Pii Pertinac. Aug. Arahici Adiahen. Parthiei maximi et imp. M. Aureli Antonini Aug. L. Quiri- 
nalis Maximus trih. milit. leg. X Gem. P. F. V. S. L. M. 15 Grut. p. 1 1. 5 Romse : J. 0. M. D. 
pro salute Augg. NN. L. Septimi Severi Pii Pertinacis et Aureli Antonini {Pii Felicis Aug.^) et 
Julice Aug. et S. P. Q. E. Semnus Augg. NN lih. optio tahellariorum stationis marmorum aram po- 
suit. 16 Grut. p. 29. 12 in vetusto lapide Narbone cum multis boum capitibus: Imperio D. M. tau- 
roholium promndcB Narhonensis factum per C. Batonium primum fiaminem Augg. pro salute dominorum 
impp. L. Septimii Severi Pii Pertinacis Aug. Arahici Hadiaheni. Parthiei maximi et M. Aureliani 
[lege Aurelii] Aug. 1 7 Grut. p. 32. 1 prope Sintriam in Lusitania : Soli (Memo Lun(B pro ceter- 
nitate imperii et salute imp. Ca . . . . Septimi Severi Aug. Pii et imp. Aug. Gees. M. Aur. Antonini 
Aug. Pii 'k ¥: ¥: 'k Gees, et Julice Aug. matris Goes. Drusus Valerius Godianus &c. 1 8 Gruter p. 
39. 3 Romae : Diance pro salute imp. L. Septimi Severi et M. Aureli Antonini Augg. et -x- -x- -x- -x- 
Julice Aug. matr. castr. •x- -x- 4f -x- 19 Gruter p. 42. 2 Lunce ceter. sacr. pro salute imp. Goes. L. 
Septimi Sev. Pii invic. princ. pont. max. p. p. Julius Balhillus Anullinus prref. vigil. V. S. L. M. 
20 Gruter p. 56. 5 Romse : Imp. Gwsaris L. Septimi Severi Pii Pertinacis Aug. Parthiei Arahici 
Adiahenici pacatoris orhis etfundatoris imperii Romani in ho. R. P. Mart. . .te D.D. 21 Grut. p. 
90. 1 1 Lugduni : Pro salute dom. n. imp. L. Sept. Severi Aug. totiusque domus ejus Aufanis [lege Tanfa- 

niis : conf. Facciolati lexicon v. Aufanie] matronis et matrihus Pannoniorum et Delmatiarum 

22 Grut. p. 191. 3 in Yorkshire from Camden: Imp. Severus Aug. et Antoninus Gees, destinatus re- 
stituerunt curante Virio Lupo leg. eorwm pr. pr. 23 Gruter p. 265. 4 Saltzburgii : Imp. Gees. L. 
Septimi Severi Pii Pertinacis Aug. Arab. Adiah. Parthic. max. et imp. Gcbs. M. Aureli Antonini 
Aug. Parthiei maximi col. Hadr. Juvav. D. D. 24 Gruter p. 266. 3 Romse : Imp. GcEsar. L. Sep- 
timio Severo Pio Pertinaei Aug. Parth. Arah. Adiah. pont. max pacatori orhis et pro- 

pagatori imperii Romani in honor, pon . . . .te . . . . Jov. . . .pos. S. P. Q. R. 25 Murat. p. 455. 6 
in castello agri Damasceni : Lucio Septimio et [lege Sev."] Pio Pertinaei semper Augusto Livius Gal- 
purnius proeos. Geelo Suriw p. hoc prcpsidium construxit in securitatem puhlieam et Sceenitarum Aror- 
bum terrorem. 26 Mur. p. 344. 2 Romse in tabula marmorea : /. 0. D. pro salute imp. L. Septimi 
Severi Pii Pertinacis Aug. Pii Felicis et exereitum et P. R. D. Jun. Paeatus cum Alexandra fil. 
saerarum jussu J. D. sua pec. adampliavit G. A. GcBcilio Rufo 7 saeerdotihus Sopatrus et Marin, et 
Galusf. 27 Mur. p. 348. 4 Vindobonse : Pro salute dom. NN. L. Sept. Sever, et M. Aur. Antonini 

^ Muratori conjectures tr. pot. p. p. ^ Prius erasa sed postea restituta. Grut. 



EMPERORS. 35 

et. * -i^ ■» CcBS. Augg. cult. Jovis. Dedic. VIII K. Aug. Muciano et Fabiano cons. [sc. suffectis.'\ Severus. 
28 Mur. p. 2051. 5 in insula Thera: avTOKparopa KaCcrapa ScTrrt/iAtoy 2ie(3fjpov neprCvaKa ^((Baa-rov rj 
fiovXrj Kttt 6 8t)/u,os QrjpaCatv. 29 Mur. p. 456. 2 Budse : Impp. L. Septimius Severus Pius Pertinax 
Arabicus Adiahenicus maximus et M. Aur. Antoninus Augg. et ^ ¥r ^ ¥: splendidissimcB curante L. 
BceUo Cceciliano leg. Aug. procuratore. 30 Mur. p. 35. 6 Romse : Diance S. pro salute imp. L. 
Septimii Severi et M. Aureli Antonini Aug. et Julice Aug. matri c t>trorum et senatus cur. A. Furius 

Nigrinius DD. NN. proc 31 Grut. p. 266. 2 In ruinis Varhel Transilvanise : Divo Severo 

Pio colonia Ulpia Trajana Aug. Dacic. Sarmiz. 

The following require correction. 32 Gruter p. 157- 6 Radstati Styrise : Imp. Cces. F. Pius 
Severus Per. Aug. trib. potes. IX imp. XII cos. II p.p. Goth, [lege Germ.] imp. Cces. Mar. Aure. 
Antoninus Pius Felix Aug. Arab. Germ. max. nt [lege pow^.] trib. potes. p.p. procon. a T. M. LI II. 
Here, as in the inscriptions given in the Tables A. D. 201, read imp. XI. 33 Grut. p. 258. 2 in 
Alpibus : SE. P. R0MANU8 [lege Imp. Severus'] Pertin. Arab. Adiab. Part. max. [sic lege cum 
Gudio] trib. pot. Villi imp. XII cos. Ill [lege imp. XI cos. II] p. p. procos. et imp. Cces. M. 
Aurel. Antoninus Pius Aug. trib. pot. proc. The rest of this inscription is corrupt. 34 Muratori 
p. 349. 2 Romse : Herculi invicto sacrum genio num. eq. sing. Augg. iVAT. pro salute imp. Cesar. L. 
Septimi Severi et M. Aureli Antonini ^ ^ ^ "Xr et Julice Aug. matri castror. Haug. [lege et Aug.] 
^ ^ ^ ¥: domus divine trib. Occio Valente et Octavio Pisoni e^ 77 exerc. Fl. Titiano et Aurel. Lupo 
C. Julius Secundus vexil. ere suo Deo DO. D. Dedih. Idib. Sept. Severo III et Antonino Augg. NN. 
COS. [sc. Sept. 13 A. D. 202.] Muratori remarks that Cesar divine, ere. are to be ascribed " osci- 
tantiae marmorarii." Num. eq. sign. Muratori interprets numeri equitum singularium. 

Geta the younger son of Severus was consul in A. D. 205. 208. He was murdered in 212 in Geta. 
the 13th month after the death of his father k. 

The name of Geta after his death was erased from inscriptions by order of Caracalla^. 

Caracalla, Caracalla. 

According to Spartianus Carac. c. 9 vixit annis XLIII. This number is consistent with the 
opinion of Spartianus that Caracalla was the son of the first wife of Severus"^. But inconsistent 
with his own account of the age of Caracalla, who is 13 in A. D. 198: Spartian. Severo c. 16. 
and receives the toga virilis in 201: c. 16. Again Severo c. 4 Severus consulatum cum Apuleio 
RufirM primum egit, Commodo se inter plurimos designante. Post consulatum anno ferme fuit Pomce 
otiosus, deinde Lteto suffragante exercitui Germanico prceponiiur. Proficiscens ad Germanicos exer- 
citus — quum epularetur cumfiliis — major filius., qui tunc quinquennis erat, &c. But if Caracalla had 
been born in A. D. 174, he would have been 14 years older than his brother, and 5 years old in 
179. And in 179 Commodus was not yet emperor, and Severus not yet consul. 

Eutropius VIII. 20 has the same errors as Spartianus: novercam suam Juliam duxerit. De- 
functus est vix egressus cetatis XLIII annum. And Hieronymus anno 2232, who repeats Eutro- 
pius. Orosius VIII. 1 8 novercam suam Juliam duxerit. Cassiodorus : Interficitur anno cetatis 
XLIII. Victor Oses. p. 329 Juliam novercam — conjugem affectavit. Victor Epit. p. 378 novercam 
suam duxit uxorem. Victor however p. 378 rightly gives his age : Vixit annos fere triginta. thus -■ 

contradicting his own account ; for at 30 years before A. D. 217, or at 187, Julia was already the 

^ See the Tables in those years. (^ipov alrbv a-uvexaiveva-e. See among the preceding 

1 Die 77- 12 e" ye ris eypa^e to ovopa to tov TeVa inscriptions N^. 8. 18. 27. 34, and the arch of Se- 
Hovov, rj fine fiovov, evdiis dnaXeTO' odev oiS' ei/ rals kco- verus given in the Tables A. D. 203 p. 210. See 
fimbiais ol Ttoir]Ta\ eri avrca expmvro. — Koi rois ras elKdvag upon this subject Eckhel tom. 7 p. 233. 
aitTov ^aarda-acri Xidois apyi^ero koi to vopivpa to npo- ™ See above, note ^. 

F 2 



36 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

Caracalla. wife of Severus"". The age and reign of Caracalla are thus given by Zonaras XII torn. 1 p. 614 B 
d7rci)A.€ro (r](Tas irr) kvvia koX ^Xkoctiv avTapyjicra^ 8' Ik TOVT(av kviavTOvs e^ fTrt hvo fxrjcrl koI fjix^puLs ncrC. 
Orosius VII. 18 erroneously ascribes his death to the enemy: inter Edessam et Carras, ah hostihus 
circumventuSf occisus est. 

The name Caracalla is recorded by Hieronymus anno 2229 [A. D. 2 If]. Caracalla 3° Antoninus 
Caracalla cognominatus propter genus vestis. Repeated by Cassiodorus coss. Messala et Sabino 
[Caracallce So]. For the fact conf. Dionem 78. 2 Victorem Oses. p. 329 Victorem Epit. p. 378. 

In the accounts of the Parthian expedition given in the Tables A. D. 216 Herodian and Spar- 
tianus differ in some lesser points from Dio and from each other. 

Coins apud Eckhel torn. 7 p. 212 mark the worship of Apollo Hercules ^sculapius Serapis, con- 
firming Dio 77- 15 ovT€ yap 6 ^AiroWoiv 6 Tpdvvos [Tpvi'dos Vales.] ovO' 6 'Ao-zcAr/Trios ovd' 6 ^dpairts, 
KaCirep ttoWo. iKeTevcravTi. avT(a — oi)(f)€kr]a-av. 

Laws of A. D. 212°. Cod. Justin. V. 75, 1 Imp. Antoninus A. Mutiano. Accepta Non. Januar. 
duobus Aspris conss. V. 16, 1 Triphencs. pp. Ill Idus Januar. VIII. 16, 3 Martice. pp. VI Kal. 
Feb. VIII. 44, 1 Apronio. pp. Ill Id. Feb. II. 13, 5 Pancratice. IV Kal. Mart. II. 54, 1 
^miliano. pp. V Non. Mart. IX. 22, 1 Severino. pp. Non. Mart. II. 1, 4 EpapJirodito. pp. V 
Id. Mart. VIII. 8, 1 Justino. pp. VI Id. Apr. V. 28, 2 Sabiniano. Dat. Id. Apr. VI. 3, 4 
Valeriano. pp. XIV Kal. Maii. I. 18, I Maximo militi. Dat. VII Kal. Maii. VIII. 18, 2 
Chresto et aliis. pp. V Id. Maii. VI. 3, 5 Terentio. pp. Ill Id. Maii. VI. 47, 2 Libertis Cassiani. 
pp. XVI Kal. Jun. IX. 50, 1 Aquilice. pp. XII Kal. Jun. 

X. 9, I Acutiano. pp. Non. Jul. VIII. 45, 4 Georgio. pp. XI Kal. Aug. VIII. 36, I Claudio. 
pp. X Kal. Aug. V. 16, 4 Claudiano. pp. Ill Id. Aug. VI. 42, 1 ^ pp. XVII Kal. Sept. V. 
37, 3 Eumoso.pp. XIV Kal. Sept. IV. 25, 1 Hermeti. pp. VIII Kal. Sept. IX. 23, 1 Valatio. 
pp. Non. Sept. VI. 21, 1 Floro militi. Acc&pta V Id. Sept. VIII. 45, 5 Petronice. pp. XV Kal. 
Oct. V. 53, 2 Severo. pp. XI Kal. Oct. V. 51, 1 Leoni. pp. V Kal. Oct. V. 58, 2 Primitivo. pp. 

II Id. Oct. VIII. 43, 1 Aristceneto. pp. II Non. Nov. V. 71, 1 Minutiano. pp. XIII Kal. Dec. 
VII. 49, 1 ad Gaudium. Dat. XIV Kal. Januar. All have Antoninus A.., and are dated duobus 
Aspris conss. 

Laws of A. D. 213 P : Cod. Just. X. 3, 1 Imp. Antoninus A. CurticB. pp. Non. Jan. Antonino A. 
IV et Balbino II conss. VII. 57, 1 Bogatiano. prid. Id. Januar. VIII. 36, 2 Julio, pp. XV Kal. 
Mart. IX. 12, 2 Vero. pp. XV Kal. Mart. V. 16, 2 Marco militi. pp. XII Kal. Mart. V. 23, 1 
Didice.pp. Dat. XII Kal. Mart. VII. 52, I Stellatori. XII Kal. Mart. V. 54, 2 Valentino et 
Materno. pp. XI Kal. Mart. VI. 21, 2 Septimo militi. pp. XI Kal. Mart. VI. 44, 1 Septimo. pp. 
VII Kal. Mart. III. 31, 4 Vitaliano. pp. Kal. Mart. VII. 10, 1 Cornelio. pp. Kal. Mart. V. 
16, 3 Epicteto.pp. IV Non. Mart. IX. 20, 1 Placido. pp. XII Kal. April. V. 14, 2 Theodotce. 
Dat. XI Kal. Apr. III. 31, 5 Postumiance. pp. VI Kal. Jun. VIII. 15, 1 Sperato. pp. Kal. Jun. 
V. 56, I Crescentino. pp. Non. Jun. V. (iG., 2 Marcello. Dat. Id. Jun. IV. 1, 1 Herculiano. pp. 
XV Kal. Jul. VI. 37, 4 Sulpicio. pp. V Kal. Jul. VI. 29, I Brutatio. Dat. et pp. IV Kal. Jul. 
I. 9, 1 Claudio Triphonio. Dat. prid. Kal. Jul. V. 54, 3 Vitce. pp. IV Non. Jul. V. 51, 2 Prce- 
sentino. pp. Non. Jul. VIL 65, 1 Sabino. pp. Non. Jul. IX. 9, 3 Juliano. pp. XV Kal. Aug. 
V. 44, 1 Miltiadi.pp. XIII Kal. Aug. III. 8, 2 Magnillce. pp. X Kal. Aug. V. 36, 1 Tiberiano 
et Rufo.pp. VIII Kal. Aug. IX. 20, 2 Aurelio. pp. VII Kal. Aug. II. 3, 7 Julio Maximo, pp. 

III Kal. Aug. III. 33, 3 Antoniano. pp. Ill Kal. Aug. IV. 5, 1 Mutiano. pp. Ill Kal. Aug. 
V. 12, 2 Alluviadi. pp. Dat. Ill Kal. Aug. VIII. 14, 6 Quinto. pp. Ill Kal. Aug. 

o See Reimar ad Dionem p. 1288 n. 1/ Scaliger in the Tables p. 221. 
ad Eusebium p. 230. P In addition to 8 other laws dated Ronue, and 

o Others dated from Rome in this year are given given in the Tables p. 222. 



EMPERORS. 37 

Cod. Just. II. 3, 6 Basili(B. pp. Kal. Aug. V. 65, 1 Saturnino. pp. VII Id. Aug. VI. 38, 1 Caracalla. 
Antipatrce. pp. VI Id. Aug. II. 4, 2 Luctatio. pp. Ill Id. Aug. IV. 29, 2 Nepotiance. pp. Ill 
Id. Aug. IV. 29, 3 Servato. pp. Ill Id. Aug. VII. 26", 1 Flaviano. prid. Id. Aug. IV. 21, I 
Septhnice MarticB. pp. V Id. Sept. VI. 37, 5 Donato. pp. V Id. Sept. VIII. 41, 4 Bu/cb. pp, XV 
Kal. Oct. V. 37, 4 Proculce.pp. XII Kal. Oct. II. 7, 1 Doloni. pp. Ill Kal. Oct. VIII. 18, 4 
Faro. jo^. F 7c?. Oct. VII. 75, 1 Cassia, pp. II Id. Oct. VII. 73, 2 Valeriance. pp. XIV Kal. 
Nov. III. 32, 2 Aristceneto. pp. XII Kal. Nov. III. 44, 1 Doritce. pp. VIII Kal. Nov. VI. 21,3 
Vindiciano. pp. Kal. Nov. IX. 23, 2 Atticio. pp. Id. Dec. IV. 5, 2 Secundince. pp. XIV Kal. 
Januar. II. 9, 1 Claudio. pp. XIII Kal. Januar. VII. 73, 3 Juliance. pp. Ill Kal. Jan. All 
are dated Antonmo A. IV et Balhino II conss. In V. 23, 1 improperly Impp. Severus et Antoni- 
nus AA. The rest have rightly Antoninus A. 

In A. D. 215 in addition to the laws given in the Tables are the following. Cod. Just. V. 43, 2 
Longino. pp. Id. Januar. Lceto II et Cereale conss. IX. 1 6, 1 Herculano et aliis militibus. pp. II 
Kal. Feb. VIII. 47, 2 Maronice. pp. XVI Kal. Mart. IX. 32, 2 Primo. pp. VII Kal. Mart. 
VIII. 17, 3 B.estituto. pp. Ill Kal. Apr. II. 25, 1 Martiance et aliis. pp. II Non. Apr. IX. 43, 1 
Euiiliano consulari Cilicice. pp. VIII Kal. Mai. V. 37, 5 Rufino. pp. Kal. Jun. VI. 31, 2 Severo. 
S. pp. V Kal. Jul. IV. 26, 3 Artemoni. Dat. Ill Kal. Jid. V. 51, 3 Vitalio. pp. Ill Kal. Jul. 
VI. 54, 4 ProtagorcB. pp. Ill Kal. Jul. VII. 73, 4 Quinto. pp. Ill Kal. Jul. III. 34, 2 Martiali. 
pp. Kal. Jul. V. 53, 3 Prisciano. pp. Kal. Jul. VIII. 41, 7 Eroti. pp. Kal. Jul. VI. 46, 3 
Aurello niiliti. pp. VI Id. Jul. VI. 37, 7 Fausto. pp. V Id. Jul. V. 31, 3 Atalantce. pp. IV Id. 
Jul. V. 31, 4 Domnino. />/>. Ill Id. Jul. IV. 6, 1 Callisthenidi. pp. VI Kal. Aug. VI. 42, 2 
Eupatrio. pp. VI Kal. Aug. III. 26, 3 Heliodoro. Dat. X Kal. Sept. IV. 14, 2 Bexico. pp. Ill 
Kal. Sept. V. 18, 3 Hostilice. pp. Ill Kal. Sept. VI. 2, 3 Secundo. pp. VI Id. Sept. II. 54, 2 
Dionysio. pp. XIII Kal. Oct. IX. 6, 2 Eutychiano. pp. VII Kal. Oct. V. 32, 1 Aristohuloi. pp. 
Kal. Oct. IV. 7, 2 Longino. pp. XV Kal. Dec. IV. 19, 2 Aulizano. pp. XV Kal. Dec. VII. 
2, 4 Archelao. proposita VII Kal. Dec. II. 47, 1 Severo. pp. VI Kal. Dec. VI. 42, 3 Rufino. 
pp. V Id. Dec. VIII. 1 8, 3 Syhano. pp. II Id. Dec. All have Antoninus A. and all are dated 
Lceto II et Cereale conss. 

Inscriptions. I Muratori p. 189. 3 Romse: Imp. Ccesari L. Septimi Severi Pii Pertinacis Aug. 
Arahici Adiahenici Parthici maximi filio divi Marci Antonini Pii Germanici Sarmatici nepoti divi 
Antonini pronepoti divi Hadriani abnepoti divi Trajani Parthici et divi Nervce adnepoti M. Aurelio 
Antonino Aug. trib. potest. II [A. D. 199] procos. fratri arvali. 2 Murat. p. 246. 1 Atinse : Imp. 
Gfus. L. Septimi Severi Pertinacis Aug. Arab. Adiaben. Part. max. fil. {divi Marci Antonini nep. 
omitted) divi Pii Antonini pron. divi Hadriani abnep. divi Trajani et divi Nervce adnep. M. Aurelio 

Antonino Aug. trib. pot. Ill procos. D. D. publice. 3 Murat. p. 246. 3 Romee : vero Pio Perti- 

naci maxima fortissimo trib. pot. VIII imp. XI . . . /// procos. p. p M. filio 

divi Commodi [fratri] i Hadriani pronep. divi rv(S adnepoti i urbi. 

Imp. CcBs. M. Aurelio Antonino Pio Felici Aug. trib. potest. IIII cos. designato procos. imp. Gees. 
L. Septimi Severi Pii Pertinacis Aug. Arab. Adiab. Parth. max. fortissimi felicissimi filio divi M. 
Antonini Pii Ger. Sarm. nep. divi Antonini Pii pronep. divi Hadrian, abnep. divi Trajani Parthic. 
et divi Nervce adnepoti sacrce reg. XIIII. In the description of Severus we must read trib. pot. 
Vim imp. XI COS. II, which agrees with trib. pot. IIII cos. des. in the description of Caracalla, 
and marks A. D. 201. 4 Murat. p. 1023. 3 Anagnise : Ii7ip. Cces. L. Septimii Pii Pertinacis Aug. 
Arab. Adiabenici Parthici maximi fortissimi felicissimi p.p. filio M. Aurelio Antonino Pio Felici 
Aug. tribunic. j)otestat. IIII cos. procos. S. P. Q. Anagninus. Trib. pot. /F marks A. D. 201, but 
cos. belongs to A. D. 202. We might read cos. des. procos. Some coins however in Eckhel torn. 7 
p. 204 bear trib. pot. IIII cos. See on this difficulty Eckhel tom. 8 p. 425. 5 Gruter p. 258. 7 



38 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

Caracalla. Imp. CcBs. M. Aur. Antonino Aug. Pio Felici invicto Parthic. maximo Britannico maw. ir. pot. VII 
COS. Ill p. p. procos. fortissimo principi mag. quin. coll. aurificum D. D. cur. P. Valerius P. P. 
Bmeditus et C. Aurelius Carpus QQ. II S. He was cos. Ill in his 11th tribunician year and p.p. 
after his father's death in the 14th tribunician year. Wherefore we may read trib. pot. XV. 
6 Murat. p. 2009. 5 ad Axonam Suessionum : Imp. Cess. M. Aurelio Antonino Pio Aug. Britannico 
max. trib. pot. XIIII [A. D. 21 1] imp. II cos. Ill p.p. procos. ab Aug. Suess. leuc. VII. 7 Pan- 
vinius p. 366 Imp. Cces. M. Aurelio Antonino Pio Fel. Aug. Parthic. max. Britt. max. pont. max. 
trib. pot. XV cos. Ill imp. II p.p. 8 Gruter p. 157- 1 in pago Straetsualtio Sahsburgam versus: 
Imp. Cces. L. Septimio Severo Pio Pertinaci Aug. Arab. Adiab. Parthico max. Britan. max. pontif. 
max. trib. potes. HI [A. D. 195] imp. VII cos. II p.p. procos. et imp. Cces. M. Aurel. Antonino 
Pio invicto Aug. Parthico vnax. Britannico max. Germanico max. pontif. max. trib. potest. XVI 
imp. Ill cos. IIII [A.D. 213]. Two inscriptions are combined, the first to Severus, the second 
to Caracalla. But as Severus was not Britannicus till A. D, 210 trib. pot. XVIII^, Britan. max. 
must have been inserted afterwards. In the titles of Caracalla we must read either tr. p. XVII 
[A.D. 214] or imp. II. See below N°. 15. 9 Murat. p. 247. 1 in Hispania : Imp. Cces. divi 
Septimi Severi Pii Arabici Adiab. Part. max. Brit. max. filio divi M. Antonini Pii Germ. Sarm. 
nepoti &c. M. Aurelio Antonino Pio Augusto Parthic. max. Brit. max. pont. max. trib. pot. XV imp. 
bis COS. IIII p.p. pacatori orbis resp. Turcitanorum D. D. Perhaps the numbers are trib. pot. XVI. 

10 Murat. p. 247. 3 Whitley castle in Great Britain : Imp. Cces. Lu bid Adia ..... m/ix. 

fil. divi Antonini Sarm. nep. &c. M. Aur. Antonino Pio Fel. Aug tr. pot. X . .. imp. . . cos. 

IIII p.p. pro pietate ced. e voto commwni curante leg. Aug. Coh. Ill Nerviorum G. R. Pos. Read 

tr. p. X VI. 1 1 Murat. p. 102 1. 7 Albingauni : go ... . Parth. maximo Marcomannico 

maximo m>aximo maximo pontif ci max. p.p. tribunitice potestat. XIIII cos. IIII imper. Ill 

divi Severi filio &c. fortissimo inclitoque ac super omnes felicissimo principi plebs urbana Albingau- 
nensium numini ipsius devota. Read trib. pot. XVII on account of imp. III. 12 Murat. p. 
1046. 7 Ferentini in Hernicis: Julice Aug. matri Aug. et castror. et senatus ac patrice pice felici. 
Imp. Cces. M. Aurelio Antonin. Felici Aug. Part. max. Brit. m^tx. Ger. mxix. trib. pot. XVI imp. 

11 COS. proc. magno et invicto ac fortissimo principi senatus populusq. Ferentin. 13 Mur. p. 248. 2 
Bracarae : Imp. Cces. divi Severi Pii fil. &c. M. Aurelio Antonino Pio Fel. Aug. Part. max. Brit, 
max. Germanico Tnax. pontifi^i 'max. trib. pot. XVII imp. Ill cos. IIII p.p. procos. 14 Murat. 
p. 2010. 2 in ponte Limise in Lusitania: Imp. Cces. divi Severi fil. &c. M. Aurelio Antonino Pio 
Fel. Aug. Part. max. Brit. max. Germanico max. pontifici max. tribunic. pot. XVII imp. Ill cos. 
IIII p. p. procos. Bracar. Aug. M. P. XX. 15 Mur. p. 455. 7 Vindobonse: Imp. Cces. L. Sept. 

f Severus Pius Pert. Aug. Arab. Adiab. Part. max. pont. max. trib. pot. VIII [A. D. 200] imp. XII 

[lege imp. XI'\ p. p. cos. procos. et imp. Cces. Mar. Aur. Antoninus Pius Fel. Aug. Part. max. 
Brit. mmo. Germ. mxix. pont. max. trib. pot. XVII imp. Ill cos. IIII [A. D. 214] p.p. procos. mi- 
Maria vetustate conlapsa restitui jusserunt. Two inscriptions joined together ; as at N°. 8 from 
Gruter. 16 Mur. p. 524. 2 Puteolis : Magno imp. Cces. M. Aurelio Antonino August, pont. Tnax. 
tribimic. potest, cos. procos. imp. Cces. L. Septimi &c. filio d. Marci &c. colleg. juvenum Puteolanor. 
ob msritaD.D.D. Within A. D. 202 — 204. 17 Mur. p. 1993. 5 Bracarae : iTnp. Ccesari divi Severi 
Pii fil. &c. M. AureUo Antonino Pio Felici Aug. &c. trib. pot. XII imp. Ill cos. IIII p.p. procos. 
The other numbers require tr.p. XVII.^ 

18 Gruter p. 267. 5 Patavii: Imp. Ccesa. M. Aurelio Antonino Aug. imp. Cces. L. Septimi Severi 
Pii Pertincms Aug. Arabici Adiabenici Parthici maximifil. D.D. 19 Gruter p. 7- 1 Romse : et 
Muratorius p. 146. 6 J. 0. M. et Junoni regincs pro salute M. Aurelii Antonini Pii Fel. Aug. et 

q See the Tables A. D. 210. 3. r See N°. 15 and the Tables A. D, 214. 



EMPERORS. 39 

JulicB Aug. Jul. Pudens Severianus aram cum basi posuit. 20 Murat. p. 244. 6 Thebie : tov fxiyta-Tov Cahacalla. 
Kol avU-qrov avTOKpdropa KaL(rapa M. Avp-qMov I>€ovfjpov ' Avrajvelvov AvyovaTov Se/Saoroy 'Apa/3iKoy 
' AbiajBrjvLKov YlapOiKov iv(T€^r\ cvTvxn rj irokts. 21 Mur. p. 245. 8 Cordubcc : Imp. Ccesar did Severi 

Pii fil. &c. Marcus Aurelim Aug. &c. tribunic. potest 22 Murat. p. 246. 2 Romse serea 

tabella : Fro salute imp. Ccesaris M. Aureli Seve. Pii Felicis Aug. 23 Mur. p. 248. 1 Thyatirae : 
TOV Tr)s 6a\d(X(rr]s bea-nor-qv avT. KaCa: M. Avp. ^eovrjpov ' Avroiv^lvov Uapd. jue. Bpir. /xe. Fcp. /xe. Trarepa 
iraTpCtos kavTov koI ttjs TTo'Aews eiiepyir-qv T. 'Air. ^Akcprjvbs ^ ApCyva>TOs to Tpkov yeikiap\os o lepevs tov 
Oiov KoX veoiKopos TOV 2e/3ao-ro{; koI imTpo-nos 2e/3a(rroi5 apxrjs Ai^iavrjs. In altero latere : ayaOfj tuxU- 
avT. K. M. Avp. Seou. ^ AvTtaviivov 2e/3. Evo-. ^vTvyji T. 'Az^r. 'A'\(f)r}vbs 'ApiyvcoTos aub TpiQtv \ukiapyji.5iv 
TOV Xbiov Kvpiov Ka\ TTis TToAews KTLaTTjv 6 Upevs TOV Oiov Koi yewKopos. 24 Mur. p. 249. 3 Florentise : 
Pro salute et incolumitate domini nostri Marci Aureli Severi Anionini Pii et Julice Aug. matris Aug. , 
et castrorum Cereii no. Muratori reads matris and Cereri. 25 Mur. p. 248. 3 Romge : . . . . reUo 

Antonino invicto Pio Felici Aug ne. supra omnes principes fortissimo vkb sucb et Julice 

Aug. matri ejus domince nostr 26 Mur. p. 1081. 5 Signise : M. Aurelio Antonino Cces. imp. 

Cces. L. Septimi Severi Pertinacis Aug. Pii Arabici Adiabenici p. p. filio S. P. Q. S. 27 Murat. 

p. 2010. 1 diviAntonini Pii nep. divi Severi magni filio pont. max. cos. II procos. fortiss. feliciss. 

principi. a Bracara M. P. III. After the death of Severus, and therefore we must read cos. III. 
After Feb. A. D. 21 1 and before Jan. 1 A. D. 213. 

28 Murat. p. 1035. 6 in castello Morhipi : Imp. Cces. Aurelio Antonino imp. Cces. L. Septimi 
Severi Pii Pertinacis Aug. Arabici Adiabenici he. filio divi Marci Antonini Germanici Sarmatici 
nepoti &c. Capenates fosderati Manili Crescentis prcet. In latere : Dedic. XIII Kal. Oct. Satur- 
nino et Gallo cos. sc. A. D. 198. 29 Gruter p. 6. 6 Albse Julise : J. 0. M. et Junoni regin. pro 
sal. imp. M. Aur. Antonini Pii Aug. et Julice Aug. matris Aug. M. Ulp. Mucianus mil. leg. XIII 
Gem. horologiar. templum a solo de suo ex voto fecit. Falcone et Claro cos. These are the consuls of 
A. D. 193, but Caracalla was not Augustus till A. D. 198^ We may therefore suspect that this 
inscription is inaccurately copied. 

30 Gruter p. 109. 8 Romse in Capitolio : Pro salute D. D. imp. Pii Fel. Aug. et matris Aug. N. 
et kastror. cedem genio Cceli Adianti manipuli ejus sua pecunia refecerunt. It may be doubted 
whether this refers to Caracalla and Julia, or to Alexander Severus and Mamcea. 31 Gruter p. 
258. 9 Genevse. Repeated p. 258. 10 Imp. Cces. M. Aurelio Antonino Pio Felici Aug. pont. max. 
tribunicice pot. XVI cos. Ill [in n. 9 trib. potest, cos. sine numeris] civitas equestrium. The num- 
bers suit the emperor Marcus, who was trib. pot. XVI cos. Ill in A. D. 162. But as Felix was 
not his epithet, it may belong to Caracalla, and we may read tr. p. XVI cos. IIII A. D. 213. 
32 Muratori p. 2009. 3 gives an inscription in Carniola which has imp. Cce. Septimius Severus and 
imp. CcB. M. Aurelius, but so inaccurately copied that the genuine numbers cannot be obtained. 

Macrinus. Tables A. D. 217. 218. Macrinus. 

His war against the Parthians is called successful by CapitoHnus Macrino c. 12'. Herodian 
IV. 14 agrees with Dio in the circumstances, except that he supposes Artabanus to have believed 
Caracalla still alive v. 

Reimar p. 1325 marks three letters oi Macrinus to the senate of different import; 1 in Dio, 
2 in Herodian V. 1, 3 in Capitolinus Macrino c. 5. They were written at different times. Dio's 
was the first letter to the senate. Herodian's was some months later, and after the Parthian 
campaign. The judgment of Tillemont tom. 3 p. 468 appears correct, that the letter in Capitolinus 

s See the Table's A. D. 198. 3. * Mentioned Ibid. c. 2 Statim ad helium Parthicum profectus. 

^ See Reimar ad Dionem p. 1334. 



40 APPENDIX. , C. 1. 

Macrinus. is fictitious ; and that the letter in Herodian was composed by the historian himself, but from 
authentic materials. Herodian has condensed into one letter what was said by Macrinus in 
several. 

The Volcanalia are mentioned by Dio 78. 25 avrfi t5>v 'H^atareiwi^ W^P9; — sc. Aug. 23 A. D. 217. 
after which date Macrinus is defeated by the Parthians : /S. 26. 

Inscriptions. 1 Murat. p. 1993. 7 Aquis Flavis in Lusitania: Imp. Cces. M. Opellio Seve. magrio 
[lege Macrinol Pio Fel. invicto et mac/no Aug. et M. Opellio Antonino Diadumeniano nobilissimo Cces. 
principi Juventutis. 2 Murat. p. 2010. 5 Romse : Imp. Cces. M. Opelli Severi Macrini Aug. M. 
Opelli Severi Diadumeniani Cces. prin.ju. castris prcetoris Terentius Cassander fecit. 3 Murat. p. 
459. 1 Cippus e Cilleia Vindobonam devectus : Imp. Cces. M. Opellius Severus Macrinus Pius Felix 
Augustus &c. Given in the Tables A. D. 218. 3 more correctly from Eckhel torn. 7 p. 243"'. 

4 Murat. p. 480. 7 Romae in tubis plumbeis : M. Opelli Macrini pr. pr. C. V. M. Opelli Diadu- 
meniani C. R. stationis patrimoni Augg. NN. Aur. Hilarus et Aur. Gaiane pre 

Elagabalus. Elagabalus ^. 

Zonaras XII tom. I p. 618 A in recording his reign has the same numbers as the extant text 
of Dio: ap^avTi ^tt] rpia kw. fj.r](nv evvia rjixepais re ricTcrapcnv, k^orov tov MaKpivov VLicqcras kv rr] p.a)(rj 
Trji avTap\ia<i TcrvxrjKC. 

Mcesa and her family are described by Herodian V. 3 Capitolin. Macrino c. 9 Dio 78. 30 y. 

Her death in the reign of Alexander is recorded by Herodian VI. 1. 

On the names of Elagabalus see Dio 78. 32. 79. 1 Ammian. 26. 6, 20. He is the eighth 
Antoninus: Capitolin. Macrino c. 3 Sextus Geta, Septimus Diadumenus, octavus Heliogahalus Antonini 
fuere. And the last : Lamprid. Elagab. c. 34 Hie ultimus Antoninorum fuit^ neque postea hoc nomen 
in repuhlica loco principum frequentatwm est. 

Inscriptions. 1 To the father of Elagabalus. senea tabula apud Eckhel tom, 7 p. 245 Romae : 
Se'^TO) OvapL(o Ma/jfceAXo) kTiirpo-nevcravTi eirapxiLOv BpiTavvtas, cinTpoTrevcravTi, A.o'y<ay 7Tp€i,^dTr]s in- 
(TTevOivTi TO. p-ipr] Twv kT:ap)(U)V tov itpaiTiapiov koX 'P(op.r]s kap,T:poTaTi^ avbpl e77cipx<? kpapiov (TTpaTLfo- 
TiKov rjyepLOVL Aeyewros y' Avyova-Trjs ap^avTi kirapyjeiov 'NovpnUas, 'louAt'a 2oat/xtas Bacra-iavr] avv Tois 
TiKVOLS TO) 'npoa(})LX.€aTdT(o dvbpl koI yXuKuraro) TrarpL VV 

2 To Elagabalus himself: Murat. p. 459. 2 Bracarse : Severi Pii Antonini Pii magni 

filio M. Aurelio Antonino .... Felici Aug. pont. max trib. pot. II cos. II proco felicissi . . 

. . . .principi. a Bracara M. P. III. 3 Mur. p. 250. 1 Panormi : Imp. Cces. divi magni Antonini 

[filio] divi Septimi Severi [nepoti] Severo et Pio Fel. Aug. pont. max. tri. po. II cos. Ill col. 

Aug. Panh. rm. D. D. 4 Mur. p. 1045. 8 Genevse : Imp. Cces. divi magn. Antonini Piif. D. Sever. 
Tiepos M. A. , trib. p The names obliterated after the death of Elagabalus^. 

5 Mur. p. 250.2 Valentise in Hispania: Pietate justitia fortitudine et pleno omnium virtutum prin- 
cipi VER CO VERO OE. [f. Severo Aug.] Germanico Ac [f. ac] victoriarum omnium nomi- 

nihus inhsiri M. Aur P. F. invict. V. C. pont. max. trib. p. V cos. IIII procos. Allius 

^ In Muratori the two last lines of the inscription father of Alexander is known from Dio. See above, 

are thus given: provides C.LXIIII s.ntissimi Aug. Sevems, note ^. 

fecerunt. In Eckhel from Maffei thus : providentis- YY In Latin thus, Eckh. p. 246 : Sex. Vario Mar- 

simi Aug. fecerunt. Both copies have Diaduminianus cello proc. aquar. C. proc. prov. Brt. CC. proc. rationis 

for Diadumenianus. privat. CCC. vice prcEf. pr. et urhi functo C. V. prcef. 

" Varius Heliogahalus in Capitolinus Macrino c. 4. cerari militaris leg. leg. Ill Aug. prcesidi provinc. Nu- 

7. 8. midice Julia Soemias Bassiana C. F. cum fliis marito 

y See Valesius apud Reim. ad Dionem p. 1364. et patri amantissimo. 
§ 81. Although Valesius errs in supposing " na- ^ Lamprid. Elagab. c. 17 Nomen ejus, id est Anto- 

turalem Alexandri Severi patrem ignorari." The nini, erasum est senatu jubente. 



EMPERORS. 41 

Maximus V. C. leg. IV B. [p]ro^. Ilisp. Tarraconens. majestati ejus ac numini dicatissimus. 6 Gru- Elagabalis. 

ter p. 85. 1 Romse : Eta-ibi ^apia eiaiv ttjv iv Mevovdc vrrep (r<aTrjpLas tov Kvplov rjixoiv avTOKpd- 

Topo<i 'AvToiveCvov 7 Muratori p. 250. 3 gives an inscription (ex Africa deductus lapis) 

which appears of doubtful authority. 

Vota were offered for Elagahalus on /// Non. Januar. Conf. Spanheim. ad Julianuni p. 
277. 312. 

Alexander Severus. Alexander 

bEVEKUS. 

The marriage 0^ Alexander and his mother's conduct are marked by Dio 80. 2 Herodian VI. 1. 
Lamprid. c. 20 mentions Uxor Memmia Sulpitii consularis filia Catuli ne^^tis, and c. 49 another wife 
from Dexippus : Dexippus dixit uxorem eum cujusdam Martiani filiam duxisse eumdemque ah eo 
CcBsarem nuncupatum. Verum quum vellet insidiis occidere Alexandrum Martiamis, detecta factione 
et ipsum interemptum et uxorem ahjectam. Mamwa., who was declared Augusta in 222% is named 
upon coins apud Eckhel tom. 7 p- 287 1 Julia Mamcea Aug. -\- Juno. Augustce. 2 Julia Mamcea 
Augusta. i-Juno. Augustce or mater Augusti et castrorum. ov felicitas perpetua. 

Alexander fsbYOured the Christians: Laimpr'id. Alex. g. 22 Judceis privilegia reservavit, Ckristi- 
anos esse passus est. c. 29 in larario suo in quo et divos principes — in queis et Apollonium et, quantum 
scriptor suorum temporum dicit., Christum Abraham et Orpheum et hujusmodi Deos hahehat. c. 43 
Christo templum facere voluit eumque inter Deos recipere — sed prohihitus est ah iis qui consulentes sacra 
repererant omnes Christianos futuros, si id optato evenisset, et templa reliqua deserenda. c. 49 Quum 
Christiani quendam locum occupassent, &c. rescripsit &c. c. 51 Clamahat scspius quod a quihusdam 
sive Judoeis sive Christianis audierat, et tenehat, idque per prceconem., quum aliquem emendaret, did 
juhehat, " Quod tihi fieri non vis, alteri ne feceris.'''' 

Mamcea conversed with Or/r/^/i. See Eusebius quoted in the Tables A. D. 226". 4. Repeated 
by Hieronymus Oatal. c. 54 Zonaras XII tom. 1 p. 620 A and Vincentius Lirin. p. 343 Historice 
Origenem a matre Alexandri imperatoris accitum ferunt. and by Syncellus p. 358 D. Syncellus 
adds that she became a Christian : 57 8' avTi] koL Tracrt tois ovopiaa-ToXs TrjvLKavTa Xpiartavoiv btbaaKa- 
kois irpoaeKieLTo bta rrjv et? XpiaTov ttlcttlv. And Orosius VII. 18 Mammcea Christiana Origenem 
preshyterum audire curavit. But this is not affirmed by Eusebius. 

Herodian VI. 2 — 7 describes the Persian war of Alexander, which he supposes to have been 
begun in the 14th year: VI. 2. being the last year according to Herodian oi Alexander s reign t>. 
In this year then according to Herodian Alexander leaves Rome, arrives at Antioch: VI. 3. 4. an 
army marches into Media depovs ovtos' VI. 5. He is defeated in Mesopotamia and returns to 
Antioch: Yl. G. He hears of disturbances in Illyricum, and hastens into Germany : VI. 7' col- 
lects an army in the East, and delays his march : VI. 7- and is slain by the adherents oi Maxi- 
min : VI. 9. All these events occur within one year. This is reasonably rejected by Casaubon 
Tillemont tom. 3 p. 478 Eckhel tom. 7 p. 273 as impossible. Casaubon ad Lamprid. p. 575 sup- 
poses corruption in the numbers, and Tzutcke ad Eutrop. p. 628. But it seems the error of 
Herodian hnnself : tr&v Tpia-Kaih^Ka ovTms, ocrov k-n avrO), ti]V ^CLcrik^iav d/xejUTrrcos Stw/cTjo-e. rw 8e Tea- 
crapecTKaiheKaTdi eret alfj^vibiMS kKop,i(j6r\ ypapLpLara k. t. A. 

Nor is the account of the success in this war less inaccurate than the account of its time : 
Alexander is defeated in Mesopotamia: Herodian. VI. 5. the whole force was ruined: -navres 
bL€^66.pr](rav. /xeyiorrj re avT-q avpL(f)opa kol ov pctbtois pLvrjpLOvevOeiaa 'Pw/iatou? e7reo-)(e, hwdpLCcas p-iyi- 
(TTTjs biat^ydapdcrr]^. The army in Media is destroyed : VI. 6 kn^lvos 6 crTparos eiravioiv TrAciaros 
€v Tois op^ac hLi<p6dprj — w? oXCyovs ttolvv €k noXk&v iiravekOeiv. And Alexander retreats to Antioch 

a See the Tables 225. 3. b See Tables 235. 2, 

G 



42 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

Alexander <7(f)a\ei,s koI yvw/iW koX rmm, Kcix rwy TpiG)V uotp&v tov arpuTOv S>v ivetae to -nXelarTov airoBaXcav, This 

Sever US • • 

narrative is refuted by the testimony of coins which attest his victory and his triumph, and con- 
firm the account of this war given by Lampridius and other writers quoted in the Tables. But 
Herodian is refuted even by himself; for he proceeds to relate that the Persians, instead of fol- 
lowing up these advantages, were so wasted in the campaign that their loss of men was equal to 
that of the enemy, and that for three or four years they never attempted any hostile effort : 8ety/Lta 
TovTO ov fxiKpov T^s Tuiv ^ttp^dpoiv KaK(o(re<t>s' ercSy yovv TpMV rj TiTTApatv rjavxacrav, ov8' iv oirkoii kyi- 
vovTo. Herodian adds a-nep p.avOavuiv 6 ^ AKe^avbpos — ev rfj 'AvTLox^ia bUrpL^ev. from which we are 
not to understand that Herodian included these three or four years within the reign of Alexander 
(as Tzschutke or Ermisch appear to understand it ad Eutrop. p. 628). The words Hiiep p.avddv(ov 
do not refer to the words hwv rpi&v ^ T^TrApdiv, but to the more remote antecedent sentence d'nr]y- 
yiXkiTo 6 Uepa-qs Xva-as ttjv bvvaixLv k.t.K. It is very clear that Alexander was successful in the 
war, if it produced these effects among his enemies. Spanheim ad Julian, p. 150 has seen that 
Alexander was not conquered by the Persians. 

Lampridius Alex. c. 1 supposed Alexander to be Ccesar at the death of Macrinus in A. D. 218 : 
mortuo scilicet Macrino. But if he supposed with Herodian that Alexander was named Ccesar at 
the age of 1 2, this may be the reason for caHing him 2.dy S"* at his death. The day of his birth 
is thus described by Lampridius c. 5 eadem die natalem habet qua ille Magnus excessit e vita. c. 13 
ea die natus est qua defimctus Magnus Alexander. As he was born Oct. 1, the day on which the 
era of the Seleucidce commenced, it is a probable supposition that Lampridius has mistaken this 
for the epoch of the death of Alexander the Great <^. 

Inscriptions. 1 Gruter p. 12. 3 Ferrarise in senea tabella : Pro salute imp. Ccesaris M. Aurelii 
Severi Alexandri Pii Felicis Aug. Jom Optimo Maximo. 2 Grut. p. 27 1. 7 juxta thermas Bade uses 
in Gerraania: Imp. C. M. Aurelius Severus Alex. Aug. pont. max. tr. p. cos. pater patrice. 3 Grut. 
p. 1078. 8 prope Steinbach in marchionatu Badensi : Imp. Ccbs. dim Severi Pii nepoti divi Antonini 
mag. Piifilio M. Aurel. Severo Alexandro Pio Felici Aug. pontifici maxima tribunicice potestas [sic] 
cos. patri patrie C. A. Aq. ah Aq. L. II 11^. 4 Murat. p. 9. 9 Adrise in tabula ahenea in Aprutio: 
Pro salute imp. Ccesaris M. Aureli Severi Alexandri Pii Felicis Aug. Jovi Optimo Maodmo Doliceno. 
Perhaps the same as N°. 1 . 5 Muratori p. 60. 3 Romse : Herculi Conservatori invicto comiti D. N. 
Severi Alexandri Pii Victoris semper Aug. ac optimi principis M. Aurelius Priscillianus V, C. curator 
lympTicei devot. num. M. Q. E. 6 Gruter p. 271. 6 in oppido Guadix Hispanise Tarraconensis : 
Julice Mammece Aug. matri imp. Cces. M. Aureli Severi Alexandri Pii F. Aug. m. castror. col. Jul. 
Gem. Accitana devota numini M. Q. ejus. 7 Murat. p. 250.4 Cortonae in tubo plumbeo: Julice 
Mamice matris Aug. N. 8 Murat. p. 1992. 6 Valentise in Hispania : JuUcb Mamcsce Aug. matri 

Valentini veterani et veteres. 9 Murat. p. 459. 3 Tibure : Ex auctoritate imp. Cces. M. 

Awr. Sever. AUxandr pont. m,ax ; M. Pupius M.f. Antonianus P. Cceponius P.f. Claud. 

Paratus ced. pr. cens. F. C. 10 Mur. p. 459. 4 in Sirmio : Imp. Cces Alexander Pius Felix 

Augustus pordifex maximus tribimic. potestatis VII [A. D. 228] imperator M.P. XV. 

Laws of A.D. 223. 224. 225. 226. 230. 

A. D. 223. January: Cod. Just. XL 51, 3 Idem A. [sc. Alexander] Flavio Aristodemo militi.pp. 
Non. Januar. Maxima II et JEUano corns. VIII. 28, 1 Imp. Alexander A. Pacatce. pp. Id. Jan. 

Feb. : VIII, 39. 2 Menopkilo. pp. Ill Non. Februar. III. 28, 8 Florentino. pp. VII Id. Feb. 
V. 49, 1 Dioni/sodoro. pp. VII Id. Feb. VI. 37, 9 Antiocho. pp. VII Id. Feb. VI. 30, 2 Floren- 

c On the death of Alexander Severus conf. Ammian. ^ Compare an inscription of Elagabalus in the 

26. 6, 20. Tables A. D. 220. 2. 



EMPERORS. 43 

tino militi.pp. VI Id. Feb. IV. 39, 3 Timotheo. pp. V Id. Fehruar. VIII. 42, 1 TimotUo. pp. F Alexander 
Id. Feh. II. 13, 6 Marciano. VI Kal. Mart. X. 58, 1 Martiano. dat. VI Kal. Mart. Sever us. 

March: II. 25, 2 MartiancB. pp. Ill Non. Mart. II. 13, 7 Macrino. pp. VIII Id. Mart. II. 

I, 5 VaUntiniancB. pp. VII Id. Mart. VII. 57, 2 Maximo. IV Id. Mart. IX. 23, 3 Martiali. 
pp. XVII Kal. April. IV. 1, 2 Felici. pp. VI Kal. April. VI. 32, 1 Proculce. pp. II Kal. April. 

April : IX. 8, 1 Paulino, pp. Ill Id. April. X. 11,1 Basso, pp. XIII Kal. Maii. IV. 24, 4 
Hermeo et Maximillce. pp. XII Kal. Maii. V. 63, 1 Symmacho et Diotimo. pp. XII Kal. Maii. 

II. 12, 11 Herennio. pp. X Kal. Maias. IV. 20, 2 Car^o. ;7p. X Kal. Maii. VI. 24, 3 Vitali 
miUti. pp. VI Kal. Maii. VIII. 23, 2 Valeriano. pp. VI Kal. Maii. VI. 2, 5 Cornelio. pp. Ill 
Kal. Maii. VI. 11, 1 Vitali. Dat. Ill Kal. Maii. 

May : III. 34, 3 Bicanm. pp. Kal. Maii. IX. 22, 2 Valerio. pp. Ill Non. Maii. VI. 44, 3 
Verince. pp. Non. Maii. VI. 58, 1 Cassio et Hermionce. pp. Non. Maii. V. 37, 6' Paconio. pp. 
VI Id. Maii. VI. 6, 1 Zotico. pp. II Idus Maii. III. 28, 9 Bomance. pp. Id Maii. IX. 9, 7 
Herculano. pp. XII Kal. Jun. 

June: IX. 9, 5 Vadanti. pp. Id. Jun. V. 31, 5 Fusciance. pp. V Kal. Jul. VI. 42, 4 Victo- 
rino. pp. V Kal. Jul. 

July : III. 44, 3 Bimo. pp. V Non. Jul. V. 37, 7 Valerio. pp. VI Id. Jul. II. 22, 1 Plotiance. 
Dat. V Id. Jul. V. 12, 4 Valenti. pp. IV Id. Jul. VI. 6, 2 Leontogono. Dat. XIV Kal. Aug. 

Aug. : VII. 19, 2 G^a^^o. pp. V Id. Aug. II. 4, 3 Tullice. Dat. prid. Id. Aug. III. 28, 10 
Quintiniano. pp. II Id. Aug. IX. 9, 6 Sebastiano. pp. II Id. Aug. III. 34, 4 Corneliano. pp. 
Idib. Aug. VI. 26, 3 Achilles, pp. XI Kal. Sept. II. 13, 8 Mansueto. pp. VIII Kal. Sept. 

September : III. 42, 3 Felicissimee. pp. Kal. Sept. VIII. 30, 3 Claudio. pp. XVI Kal. Oct. 
VIII. 28, 2 Maximce. pp. XII Kal. Oct. VIII. 57, 1 DapJince. pp. IV Kal. Oct. IV. 21, 2 
Mabiliano. pp. Ill Kal. Oct. 

October: VII. 45, 3 Vectio. pp. Kal. Oct. VIII. 36, 4 Juliano et aliis. pp. II Non. Oct. VI. 
12, 1 Bufo.pp. IV Id. Oct. VIII. 41, 8 Longo. pp. II Idus Oct. VIII. 15, 3 Pars ex rescripto 
Alexandri A. ad Demostlienem. pp. Id. Oct. VI. 50, 5 Damasatce. Si mortis causa immodicas 
donationes in sororem tuam matrem contulisse probare potes, legis FalcidicE ratione secundum constitu- 
tionem dim Severi am mei uti merito potes. pp. XV Kal. Nov. VIII. 46, 1 PuUicio. pp. XV Kal. 
Nov. VI. 33, 2 Eutacto. pp. VI Kal. Nov. VIII. 16, 4 Secundo. pp. V Kal. Nov. 

Nov.: III. 44, 4 Luciano, pp. VI Non. Nov. IX, 2, 3 StepJianidi. pp. IV Non. Nov. VIII. 
28, 3 Luciano, pp. Ill Non. Nov. VII. 11, 1 AntiocJio. pp. Ill Id. Nov. II. 1, 6 Uranio.pp. 
XVI Kal. Dec. III. 41,1 Marcello. pp. XIII Kal. Dec. VII. 71, 1 Irenceo. pp. XII Kal. Dec. 
II. 20, 1 Felici. pp. X Kal. Dec. VIII. 45, 10 Largo, pp. VII Kal. Dec. VIII. 41, 9 Aristocrati. 
pp. V Kal. Dec. VI. 35, 4 Philomuso. pp. II Kal. Dec. 

Dec. : IV. 21, 3 jEliano. pp. Ill Non. Dec. V. 50, 2 Euphido. pp. Non. Dec. IV. 26, 5 
Asclepiadi. pp. VI Id. Dec. VI. 16, 1 Juliano. pp. Ill Id. Dec. V. 55, 1 Zotico. pp. II Id. Dec. 
IV. 29, 4 Alexandres, pp. VI Kal. Januar. V. 28, 3 Gordio et aliis. dat. V Kal. Jan. VI. 50, 6 
Secundince. S. V Kal. Januar. VII. 1 9, 1 Vitalio. pp. Id. * perhaps before August : conf. VII. 
19, 2. VII. 48, 1 Sabiniano. IV Non. * 

A. D. 224 January: Cod. Just. VI. 21, 5 Idem A. [sc. Alexander] Sozomeno. Dat. XVII Kal. 
Feb. Juliano II et Crispino conss. VI. 42, 5 Begince. pp. XV Kal. Feb. Juliano II et Crispino 
conss. V. 57, 1 Imp. Alexander A. Felici. pp. X Kal. Februar. IX. 9, 9 Proculo. pp. VII 
Kal. Feb. 

Feb. : Vlir. 19, 3 Valenti. pp. Kal. Feb. IX. 8, 2 Faustiniano. pp. Ill Non. Feb. III. 1, 3 
Faustince. pp. VI Id. Feb. VI. 42, 6 Nilio. pp. XVI Kal. Mart. 

G 2 



44 APPENDIX. C.l. 

Alexander March : VI. 12, 2 GUrce. Dat. Kal. Mart. VII. 26, 2 Marcellino. Bat. V Non. Mart. V. 29, 1 
Prisco. pp. Ill Non. Mart. II. 6, 2 Polydoro. pp. Non. Mart. VI. 35, 5 Tyranno. pp. VII Id* 
Mart. IX. 41,5 Respecto. pp. VI Id. Mart. VI. 47, 3 Paterno. Proposita XII Kal. April. 

VIII. 10, 3 Evocato.pp. VII Kal. April. VI. 25, 4 ^miliano. pp. VI Kal. April. VIII. 1, 1 
Evocato. pp. VI Kal. April. VIII. 53, I Apro. pp. VI Kal. April. 

April: IV. 24, 5 Dioscoridop. pp. XIII Kal. Maii. V. 44, 2 Evaresto. pp. XII Kal. Maii. 
III. 44, 5 (7as6^w militi.pp. VIII Kal. Maii [om. //]. V. 55, 2 Justo. pp. VIII Kal. Maii. 
May: VI. 2, 6 Pythidoro. pp. Kal. Maii. III. 37, 3 Verecundiano. pp. V Non. Maii [om. //]. 

IX. 1, 6 Proho. pp. V Non. Maii. V. 62, 6 Maximiano. pp. Ill Non. Maii. VI. 3, 6 Minicio. 
Dat. XII Kal. Jun. V. 28, 4 FeliciancB. pp. VII Kal. Jun. VIII. 52, 1 Claudia, pp. Ill 
Kal. Jun. 

June: lY. 29, 5 PopilicB. Dat. XV Kal. Julii. Y. 56, 2 Ampliato. pp. XIII Kal. Jul. III. 
31, 6 Firmino. pp. X Kal. Julii. III. 44, 6 Primitivo et aliis.pp. VIII Kal. Jul. [om. //] IX. 
20, 3 Cornelio. pp. VIII Kal. Jul. IX. 46, 2 Apollonice. pp. VI Kal. Julii. 

July: II. 12, 12 Donato. pp. Kal. Jul. X. 7, 1 Marcello.pp. Kal. Jul. VII. 35, 1 Venuleio. VI 
Non. Jul. V. 75, 2 Paterno. pp. Ill Non. Jul. V. 62, 7 Antonio, pp. Ill Id. Jul. VI. 20, 1 
Deuterice. pp. Ill Id. Julii. 

Aug.: VI. 15, 1 Ulpio. Dat. Ill Idus Aug. VI. 54, 5 Paulince. pp. Ill Id. Aug. 

Sept. : X. 8, 2 Victorino. pp. Ill Non. Sept. VI. 3, 7 Augustino. Dat. III. Id. Sept. VI. 20, 2 
Primo. Dat. Ill Id. Sept. VII. 58, 2 Optato. pp. XVI Kal. Oct. V. 31, 6 Otacilice. pp. X Kal. 
Oct. V. 35, 1 Otacilice. pp. X Kal. Oct. VI. 6, 4 Victorino. pp. II Kal. Oct. 

Dec: III. 28, 11 Ingenuo. pp. IV Kal. Januar. [om. //.] These are dated Juliano II et Cris- 
pino conss. except those in which // is omitted. 

A. D. 225 January: Cod. Just. VI. 23, 2 Imp. Alexander A. Expedito. pp. Kal. Januar. Fusco 
II et Dextro conss. VI. 54, 6 Donato. pp. VI Id. Januar. VI. 57, 1 Evangelo. pp. XV Kal. Feb. 

V. 62, 8 Maximo, pp. IV Kal. Feb. 

Feb.: VII. 16, 3 Quirino. pp. Non. Feb. VI. 42, 7 Septimo. pp. XV Kal. Mart. II. 1, 7 
Valenti. pp. X Kal. Mart. VI. 3, 8 Lictorio. Dat. X Kal. Mart. VI. 54, 7 Proculiano. pp. X 
Kal. Mart. VIII. 17, 4 Evocato. pp. prid. Kal. Mart. 

March: III. 18, 1 Heraclides. Dat. VI Id. Mart. 

April : VII. 4, 7 Nicomedi. pp. Kal. April. VI. 28, 2 HeraclidcB. pp. VI Id. April. IV. 24, 6 
TrophimoB. pp. Idib. April. VI. 21, 6 Valentino, pp. XI Kal. Maii. 

May: IX. 9, 10 Demetriam. pp. V Non. Maii. VI. 42, 8 Masculo. pp. XV Kal. Jun. VII. 
73, 5 MenThce.pp. XV Kal. Jun. 

June : VIII. 28, 4 Crescenti. pp. Kal. Jun. IX. 23, 5 Gallieno militi. pp. XVII Kal. Jul. 

VI. 26, 4 Firmiano. pp. IV Kal. Jul. 

July: V. 34, 2 Artemisice. pp. Kal. Jul. V. 57, 2 Prisco. pp. VII Kal. Aug. 

Aug. : VI. 3, 9 Herculiano. Dat. VII Id. Aug. Y. 18, 4 Apollonio. pp. XVIII Kal. Sept. 

Sept. : X. 4, 1 Epicteto. pp. VII Kal. Oct. 

Oct. : II. 1, 8 Floro. pp. Kal. Oct. VI. 39, 1 Januarice. Accept. Kal. Oct. 

A. D. 226 in January: Cod. Just. V. 38, 1 Imp. Alexander A. Quarto, pp. IX Kal. Feb. Alex- 
andro A. II et Marcello conss. 

March : II. 4, 4 Numidio. pp. II Non. Martii. III. 33, 4 Verbicio. pp. S" [sic] Id. Mart. 

VII. 30, 1 Savino. pp. VII Kal. April. 

April : III. 33, 5 Evocato et aliis. pp. Kal. April. V. 12, 5 Statice. Dat. Ill Id. April. IV. 
25, 2 Callisto. pp. Ill Kal. Maii. 



EMPERORS. 45 

May: VI. 50, 7 Primo et Pomponio. pp. Kal. Mail. IX. 50, 2 Eustico. Bat. Id. Maii. Alexaxdeh 

June: II. 20, 2 Alexandra. pp. VI Kal. Jul. 

July: V. 38, 2 Saturo. pp. Non. Jul. I. 23, 1 Supero. Dot. Id. Jul. II. 44, 2 Justo militi. 
pp. V Kal. Aug. 

August: II. 37, 2 Antiocho et aliis. Bat. Kal. Aug. V, 29, 2 Valeria, pp. VIII Id. Aug. 

Sept. : IX. 9, 11 Narvano. pp. Kal. Sept. IX. 49, 3 Juliano. pp. VI Id. Sept. III. 37, 2 
Avito militi. pp. II Id. Sept. II. 3, 9 Bionysio. pp. prid. Id. Sept. II, 3, 8 Mucatraulio. pp. IV 
Kal. Oct. 

Oct. : II. 5 1 , 2 Petronio centurioni. pp. XIII Kal. Nov. III. 32, 3 Bominicp. pp. Ill Kal. Nov. 

Nov. : III. 35, I Glyconidi. pp. VII Id. Nov. II. 19, 10 Secundo et aliis. pp. XII Kal. Bee. 

Dec. : VI. A6., 4 Licinice. pp. Kal. Bee. II. 52, 1 Secundince. pp. Ill Non. Bee. VI. 53, 5 
Maximo. pp. XIII Kal. Januar. VI. 21,7 Fortunato. Ex his verbis, '•'•Fortunato liherto meo do lego,'"'' 
vindicare tihi lihertatem non potes, si pagani testamentum proponatur. at enim quum testatorem militem 
fuisse proponas, &c. — Bat. XII Kal. Januarii. 

A. D. 230 in January : Ood. Just. II. 4, 6 Pomponiis. pp. VIII Id. Jan. Agricola et Clemen- 
tino corns. 

Feb. : II. 3, 12 Flacillce. pp. Ill Kal. Mart. III. 42, 4 Flacillm. pp. Ill Kal. Mart. IV. 2S, 5 
Muses, pp. prid. Kal. Mart. 

March : II. 2, 1 Trophinio. pp. IV Kal. April. 

April : V. 37, 9 Inclytce. pp. XVII Kal. Maii. 

May: IV. 25, 3 Martice. pp. Nonis Maii. IX. 35, 2 Clavo. pp. prid. Id. Maii. VIII. 20, 1 
Athenioni. pp. Id. Maii. VIII. 25, 1 Mestriano. pp. Id. Maii. 

June: VI. 20, 3 Alexandra. Bat. XIV Kal. Jul. 

July: III. 33, 6 Stratonicce. pp. Kal. Jul. V. 37, 10 Bufince. pp. XI Kal. Aug. VII. 10, 3 
Pompeia. pp. VI Kal. Aug. [ubi Glemente conss.] 

August: II. 19, 12 TheopUlo.pp. Kal. Aug. IX. 1, 7 Felici. pp. XV Kal. Sept. VIII. 41, 12 
Theodoto. pp. VI Kal. Sept. [ubi A. et Clemente.] IX. 22, 5 Petronio. pp. Ill Kal. Sept. [ubi A. 
et Clemente.] 

Sept.. II. 13, 12 Frontoni. V Kal. Oct. I. 26, 1 Theodora. prid. Kal. Octohris. 

October: II. 19, 13 Aquilce. pp. VIII Kal. Nov. 

MaXIMIXUS. GORDIANI. PuPIENUS. BaLBINUS. Maximini s, 

The Gardians, Pupienus, and BalUnus are described in the Tables A. D. 238. An inscription 
naming Pupienus is given by Muratori p. 252. 2 Recineti in statuse basi : Maxima Clodia Pupieno 
Liherali Augusta. 

Herodian is charged by Capitolinus Maxim, c. 13 with favouring Maximin: Ei {quantum vide- 
mus) in odium Alexandri plurimum favit. There is no reason for the charge. Herodian VII. 1 
describes the cruelty of Maximin and asserts that the accusation against Magnus was probably 
forged. Again VII. 3 he strongly mentions the cruelty and rapacity oi Maximin, and ascribes 
his death to his wicked government VIII. 5, 

Eckhel has shewn from the coins quoted in the Tables that Maximin was still acknowledged 
by the senate in the beginning of 238. The narrative of Herodian confirms this. Maximin had 
marched about 240 milese when he heard of the death of the Gardians. We may assign then 
about two months to their reign. After the appointment of Maximus and Balbinus, Ma^imus is 

e See the Tables A. D. 238 p. 252. 



46 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

3IAX1MIVUS, gent to oppose Maximin: Herodian. VII. 12 Capitolin. Max. Balbin. c. 8. Maximin had entered 
Italy in the spring ; and the transactions that followed could not occupy more than the time de- 
scribed in the Tables. 

He is said by Chron. Pasch. p. 269 A to be 65 years old : ol (TTpaTi5>Tai ^a(f)a^av Ma^ifuvov AH- 
yovcTTov ds 'AKvkritav ovra krav $e. T,illemont torn. 3 p. 218 doubts this account, which would 
make him 20 at the accession of Severus. But as we do not know at what age Maximin was in- 
troduced to Severus, nor in what year of the reign of Severus (for this is proposed by Tillemont 
upon conjecture), we have no reason for rejecting the account of the Chronicle^. 

Gordian was 80 at his elevation : Herodian. VII. 5 Capitolin. Gordian. c. 9. And his son 46 : 
Capitolin. lb. c. 15. They are said to reign \y 6"» or rather 6*" in Capitolin. c. 16 : Imperaverunt 
anno uno mensibus sex. but Cod. Palatin. apud Salmasium has imperaverunt mensibus sex. Ac- 
cording to Capitolinus Gord. c. 22 Maximus et Balbinus biennio imperaverant^ but Max. et Balb. 
c. 1 5 imperaverunt anno uno. Victor quoted in the Tables supposes the four reigns to occupy the 
last year of Maximin. The evidence however of coins attests that the true interval from the 
elevation of the Gordians to the deaths of Maximus and Balbinus could be no more than five 
months. The first two months of this period belonged to the Gordians^ the last three months to 
Pupienus and Balbinus. 

Capitolinus has two dates which require notice. Maximino c. 16 VI Kal. Junias [VI Kal. 
Julias Vet. ed.] acceptas literas Junius Syllanus consul ex Africa Gordiani imperatoris patris patrice 
proconsulis recitavit. Max. Balb. c. 1 — 3 Interem.ptis in Africa Gordiano seniore cum filio, quum 
Maximinus ad urbem furens veniret, senatus in cedem Concordice VII Kal. Junias [Cod. Pal. VII 
Idus Junias] concurrit, ludis Apollinaribus &c. — imperatores facti sunt Maximus atque Balbinus. 
The Ludi Apollinares were on July 13, so that these dates are inconsistent with each other; nor 
can they be reconciled with the facts. 

The wife o^ Maximin was mentioned by Ammianus : conf. Ammian. 14 1, 8. 

Maximin is said to be slain by Pupienus : Aquileice a Pupieno occiditur in Hieron. Chron. 

But in Eusebius rightly, occiditur Aquileice. Orosius VII. 19 follows Hieronymus. The same 
inaccuracy is in Eutropius IX. 1 a Pupieno Aquileice occisus est. in Victor Caes. p. 332 Eos Pupi- 
enus Aquileice obsidione confecit. The true account is given in Victor Epit. p. 380 Chron. Pasch. 
Syncellus p. 361 B, Cassiodorus also properly omits Pupienus. 

Eutropius IX. 2 has some errors in speaking of the Gordians and their successors : Postea 
[after the death of Maximin] tres simul Augusti fuerunt, Pupienus Balbinus et Gordianus, duo supe- 
riores obscurissimo genere, Gordianus nobilis, quippe cujus pater^ senior Gordianus^ consensu militum, 
cum proconsulatum Africce ageret, Maximino imperante, princeps fuisset electus. Itaque cum Romam 
venissent Balbinus et Pupienus, in palatio interfecfi sunt, soli Gordiano imperium reservatum. Gor- 
dianus admodumpuer &c. Parthis bellum intulit. But 1 Gordian III was not Augustus but only 
, Ccesar during the lives of Balbinus and Pupienus. 2 Balbinus was not obscurissimo genere. 3 He 
did not return to Rome, for he had never left it. 4 Gordian the son is confounded with Gordian 
the grandson of the proconsul of Africa. Victor Cses. p. 332 has committed the first error and 
the last. Eusebius omits the elder Gordian Pupienus and Balbinus. Hieronymus mistakes with 
Eutropius and Victor the son for the grandson, and places the deaths of Pupienus and Balbinus 
in the reign of Gordian III: Anno 2255 Gordiani 2° [A. D. 2^] Gordiano Romam ingresso Pupi- 
enus et Albinus, qui imperium arripuerunt, in palatio occisi. Capitolinus Gordiano c. 2 remarks 
upon this error Gordiani non, ut quidam imperiti scriptores loquuntur, duo sed tres fu£Tunt. The 

f Zonaras XII torn. 1 p. 622 A gives the same age : ^v h% o Ma^iixlvos h-5>v TreWe Koi f^rfKovra, a.<^' hv epaai- 

KfVCTfV (^. 



EMPERORS. 47 

Paschal Chronicle acknowledges only one Gordian p. 269 B. Gordianus senior reigns six years — .Maximim s, 
v6<T(a fikr]6ds TiKivTo. mv hS>v od'. and is succeeded by FhilippusS. Zosimus I. 14 — 16 in his 
brief sketch of the events of this year has some mistakes, but distinguishes three Gordians. The 
death of the elder Gordian is recorded by Ammianus 26. 6, 20. 

Inscriptions. 1 Gruter p. 158. 7 inter Emeritam et Ulisipponem in columna miliaria: Imp. 
Cces. Cairn Julius Ver. . . noh. itnperator V trihunicicB potest, cos. pro. p. patrice 

2 Gruter p. 151. 5 item Muratorius p. 250. 5 p. 2010. 3 Braccarae in columna : Imp. Cces. C. 
Julius Verus Maximus Pius F. Aug. Germ. max. Daa. max. ^arm. mxLX. pont. max. trih. pot. V 
imp. VII p. p. COS. procos.?>s et C. Julius Verus Max. nohilissimus Ccesar Germ. max. Dae. max. 
Sarm. max. princ. juventutis filius D. iV.h imp.. C. Julii Veri Maximini P. F. Aug. vias et pontes 
tempore vetustatis collapsos restituerunt curante Q. Decio leg. Augg. pret. prcef. a Brae. Aug. M. P. . . 
Read in this inscription trih. pot. IIII or IV., and perhaps imp. F.' 

8 Gruter p. 163. 8 Ardese : Imp. Cces. Maximinus Pius Felix Aug. pontif. max. Germ, maxim, 
trih. potest. IIII imp. V cos. procos. p.p. et imp. Ccesar Maximus F. Germ. max. Dae. max. prineejis 
juventutis litus vieinum vice Severiance assiduis maris adluentis Jiuctihiis ad lahem ruince lahefactatum 
aggerihns marini operis a fandamentis, ut periculum commeantihus ahesset, extrui curarunt. 

Gordianus III. Gouuiam siii 

Inscriptions : 
1 Gruter p. 57- 5 Idem p. 89. 11 Muratorius p. 155. 2 in Ostroch in Dacia : Marti Aug. pro 
salute imp. Cces. M. Antoni Gordiani Pii Felicis Aug. M. Antoniiis Valentinus^ eq. R. dec. m. Apul. 
sacerdos arcB Aug. N. coronatus Dae. Ill D. D. 2 Muratori p. 57- 9 Romse : Veneri sacrum L. 
Paullus L. L. [f. L. f.'] ^gius Passer Illvir A. A. A. F. F. proeurat. patr. imp. Cess. Gordian. 
August, voto suscepto L. M. 3 Murat. p. 250. 6 Romse : Imp. Cces. M. Antonio Gordiano Pio 
Felici Aug. p. m. trih. pot. cos. p.p. Cornelia Prmtextata divinam pietatem ejus .... que suos et .... di- 

cium entiam suam....hamt. 4 Mur. p. 459. 6 Petrovaradini in Hungaria : Imp. Cess. M. Antonio 

Gordiano P. F. Aug.pontifiei maximo trihunieice potestatis patri patrice cos. procos. A. Malata 

5 Murat. p. 1075. 5 Condate Redonum in Gallia: Imp. Cces. M. Antonio Gordiano Pio Fel. Aug. 

E Zonaras XII torn. I p. 622 BC had also met with dians : that according to some they both perished in 

very confused accounts of this period. Maximus and Africa ; according to others the father died in Africa, 

Albinus are appointed by the senate: p. 62 ID. They and the son (whom he here confounds with Gordian 

reign 22 days or less than 3 months : p. 622 B cmi- III) died at Rome of a wound received in battle with 

KT€ivav avTovs. S)V 6 fiev Ma^t/xos ircov rju 08' 6 8e 'AX/Sti/oy the Persians, eVi e^ tpiavTOvs avTapxrj(TavTa. 
^, Koi e^aa-lXeva-av, Kara rivas (lev, Tjfitpas 8vo koI f'lKoai, Sg Muratori p. 250. 5 has COS. NS. proCOS. but at 

Kaff fTtpovs Bf ovx oXovs iJ.Tjvas rptls. Then followed p. 2010. 3 rightly cos. procos. 

Pompeianus : Ibid. /x6to tovtovs ol p.ev noixnrj'iavov riva ^ Thus far Muratori p. 250. 5. But at p. 2010. 3 

a-vyyeypdcpaai rfjv 'Pcofiaioiv eaxTjuevai apxqv, raxvTara d' the inscription is continued thus : C. Juli Veri — re- 

(KTreTrraiKevai aiirris — ovVo) yap 8vo irapeXrjXvdevai p.rjvas, stituer. curante Q. D. leg. Aug. pr. pr. Brae. M. P. 

KOI OTepTjBrivai aiirov Trpbs rfj fiovap^M (cai Tfjs f<o^s dvai- XVIII. 

pedfPTu- Tzapa rlvav be koX 8ia riva aiTLav, p.r\ evprjKois i A similar inscription is given in Muratori p. 

irapeariayTnja-a Koi avros. Then Balbinus : p.e6' ov Uov- 2010. 4 in Lusitania ; which bears imp. VI: Imp. 

nXiov dvreiaaxOr]vai BaX^vov to-rdpr/o-ai'. Thus four CcES. C. Julius Verus Maximus Pius Aug. Germ. max. 

emperors are made out of two. After Balbinus, the Dae. max. Sarm. max. pont. max. imp. VI p. p. cos. 

elder Gordians arrive in Italy: Ibid. koL fiupov n procos. et C. Julius Verus Max. nohilissimus Ccesar 

KCLKfivov Trjs avTopxias dTToyevadp-evov (eVi Tpitri yap p,r](r\v Germ. max. Sarm. max. princeps juventutis filius D.N. 

avTw TTjv dpxTjv 7repi.ypd(f)ov(nv) dvaipfdfjvai KaKtlvov, apri imp. C. Juli Veri Maximini P. F. Aug. vias et pontes 

KardXalBoPTos « Ai^vtjs Topdiavov. — roi' Se Tophavov rrjs temper, vetustate conlaps. restituerunt curante Q. Dec. 

'Pafir/s eTTi/SejSr/KOTfi voa-fjaai — (cat e'/c t^j voaov ravTrjs €K- leg. Aug. prcet. prcpf. Brae. Aug. M. p. XXXII. 
XeXotTreVat fiovas e'lKoa-i Kal 8vo fjfitpas (v ravTt] biayayovra. ^ Valentinus omitted in Gruter p. 89. 1 1 is added 

He reports other accounts p. 623 A of the two Gor- in Muratori. 



48 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

GoRDiAxusiiij9. m. tr.p. COS. 0. B. 6 Mur. p. 1094. 6 In civitate Venciensi: Imp. Gees. M. Antonio Gordiano 
Pio Fel. Aug. pont. max. trih.pot. 7/[A. D. 239] j9.j9. cos. civitas Vint, devota numini majestatique 
ejus. 7 Mur. p. 251. 1 Nursiae : D. Gord. Pio F. Aug. pont. max. trih.pot. his cos. procos. 8 Mur. 
p. 251. 2 Hispelli : Imp. Ccesari M. Antonio Gordiano Pio Felici Aug. pont. max. trih.pot. II cos. 
procos. p.p. puhlice. 9 Mur. p. 460. 1 in Anglia : Imp. Ccesar M. Antonius Gordianus P. F. Aug. 
municipia et armamentaria conlapsa restituit per Mcecilium Fuseum leg. Aug. pr. pr. curante M. 
Aur. Quirino pr. coh. I L. Gord. 10 Murat. p. 460. 2 in Anglia : Imp. Ccbs. M. Ant. Gordianus 
P. F. Aug. halneum cum hasilica a solo instruxit pre [sic] Gn. Lucilianum leg. Aug. pr. pr. curante 
M. Aur. Quirino pre. coh. I L. GR. 11 Mur. p. 251. 3 Romse : Pro 8. imp. M. Antoni Gordiani 
Pii Felicis Aug. et Tranquillince SahincB Aug. venatores immun. cum custode vivari Pont. Verus 
mil. coh. VI pr. Campanius Verax mil. coh. VI pr. Fuscius Crescentio ord. custos vivari cohh. prcett. 
et urhh. Diana [e] Aug. D. S. ex V. P. Dedicata XII Kal. Nov. imp. D. N. Gordiano Aug. [adde IT\ 
et Pompeiano cos. Sc. Oct. 21 A. D. 241. 12 Mur. p. 251. 5 Mazarse in Sicilia: Furies Sahince 
Tranquillince Aug. conjugi M. B. matronce. 13 Murat. p. 251. 6 Granatse in Hispania: Furice 
/Sahince Tranquillincs Aug. conjugi imp. Ccbs. M. Antoni Gordiani Pii Fel. Aug. ordo M. Flori 
Iliheritani devotus numini majestatique sumptu puhlico posuit D. D. 14 Murat. p. 252. 1 Amerise : 
FuricE Sahincs Tranquillincs Aug. conjugi imp. Cces. M. Antoni Gordiani Pii Felicis Aug. D. D. 

15 Mur. p. 1033. 3 Betulone in Catalonia: Sahinice Tranquillince sanctissimcB Aug. conjugi D. N. M. 
Antoni [sic lege] Gordiani Pii Felicis Aug. ordo Betulonens. devoiissimus numini majestatique eorum. 

16 Murat. p. 1049. 2 Gerundse in Catalonia: Sahince Tranquillince Augustcs respuh. Gerund. 17 
Gruter p. 272. 5 Lectorii in Gallia : Furice Sahince Tranquillince sanctissimcs Aug. conjugi domini 
N. M.Antonii Gordiani Pii Felicis invicti Augusti decuriales cedilium plehis Cerealium devoii numini 
majestatique eorum. 1 8 Gruter p. 272. 6 item apud Muratoriura p. 25 1 . 4 Romae in monte Aventino : 
Furice Sahince Tranquillince sanctiss. Augustce conjugi D. N. [domini N. imp. Cces. Murat.] 31. Antoni 
Gordiani Pii Fel. invicti Augusti decuriales cedil. pleh. et Cerial. pleh. [cedilium pleh. et pleh. Ceria- 
lium Murat.] devoti numini majestatique ejus. 19 Gruter p. 1006. 8 at Carlisle : /. 0. M. pro salute 
imperatoris M. Antoni Gordiani P. F. invicti Aug. et Sahince Furie Tranquile conjugi ejus totaque 
domu divin. eorum ala Aug. Gordia. oh virtutem appellat. posuit, cui prceest Aimilius Crispinus pref. 
eqq. natus in pro. Africa de Tuidro suh cur. Nonii Philippi leg. Aug. propreto. Attico et Pretextato 
coss. [A. D. 242]. 20 Gruter p. 1085. 11 Romae : Furice Sahince Tranquillince sanctissimcs Aug. 
conjugi domini N. imp. Cces. M. Antoni Gordiani Pii Felicis invicti decuriales geruli D D. N. ma- 
jestatique ejus. 

21 Gruter p. 1085. 10 Imp. Cces, M. Antonio Gordiano Pio Felici Aug. pontif. ma^. trih.pot. cos. 
Ill [lege COS. II] p.p. fratri arvali. 21 Murat. p. 1048. 5 In portu Trajani : aya6fi tvxj}' o-vto- 
Kpdropa Kaicrapa M. ^Avtcovlov Vopbcavov ^vae^r\ iVTvyj] ^c^arrTov Koap-OKparopa rj ttoXls rj tS>v Ya^aCcav 
Upa Kol acrvkos Kal avromtxos TTtaTrj €vcrel3rjs XapLirpa Kal jueytiAe [sic] e£ ^EvKkvcrevs tov TtarpCov 
deov TOV kavTTJs €vepy(Tr]i> bia Tt/3. K\. UaTreipov kmiieX-qTov tov Upov. 22 Murat. p. 1993. 8 

apud Circeium ex Capitolino [sc. Gord, c. 34] Pivo Gordiano victori Persarum victori Gotthorum 
victori SarmMarum depulsori Bomanarum seditionwm victori Germanorum. (sed non victori Philip^ 
porvmK) 

Laws of A. D. 238 issued after Aug. S\.^ 

In September : Cod. Just. II. 12, 14 Imp. Gordianus A. Jovino. Dat. Kal. Sept. Pio et Pontiano 
conss. VIII. 42, 2 Firmino. pp. Kal. Sept. III. 1, 5 Marcello. pp. IV Non. Sept. VIII. 14, 7 

1 This addition is reasonably rejected as spurious fore the time of CapitoHnus. 
by Muratori, although it had been already added be- >" See the Tables A. D. 238 p. 253, 255, 



EMPERORS. 49 

Martiano. pp. Non. Sept. X. 11, 2 Eutychemo. pp. VIII Id. Sept. VIII. 9, 1 Arisfoni. pp. K/GouniANuslll 
Id. Sept. V. 73, I Felici. Dot. V Id. Sept. IV. 14, 4 Hieroni. jj/j. Id. Sept. VIII. 24, 1 Lamponi 
et aliis. pp. Id. Sept. VI. 42, 9 Pmdinoi. pp. XVII Kal. Oct. IV. 29, 7 Viviano. pp. XII Kal. 
Oct. V. 16', 9 Origeni. pp. VII Kal. Oct. V. 53, 4 Mutiano. pp. VII Kal. Oct. VIII. 43, 3 
Apollonio. pp. V Kal. Oct. VI. 21,8 ^Aerno militi. pp. Ill Kal. Oct. 

October: V. 12, 7 Marco, pp. Dat. Kal. Oct. VI. 21, 9 Valerio. pp. V Non. Oct. II. 23, 2 
Triphoni militi. pp. Ill Non. Oct. II. 53, 1 Pudenti militi. pp. Ill Non. Oct. IV. 13, 1 Candido 
militi. pp. Ill Non. Oct. VI. 24, 4 Ulpio. pp. prid. Non. Oct. IV. 29, 8 Triphoni. pp. Non. Oct. 
V. 74, 1 Licinice. Dat. Non. Oct. VIII. 43, 4 Rufi^ia. pp. II Id. Oct. II. 40, 1 Proto}. pp. Id. 
Oct. VI. 50, 9 Mestriano. pp. XV Kal. Nov. VIII. 43, 5 Celso. pp. XV Kal. Nov. III. 32, 4 
Muniano militi Africce. pp. XII Kal. Nov. II. 53, 2 Secundino militi. Dat. XI Kal. Nov. V. G2., 1 
Valentino, pp. XI Kal. Nov. II. 53, 3 Mutiano militi. Dat. X Kal. Nov. V. 75, 3 Prohiano. 
Dat. VIII Kal. Nov. IX. 6, 5 ^m/wo. jo/?. VII Kal. Nov. VIII. 28, 7 ^aro. ^;?. F Za/. Nov. 

November: V. 43, 6 Felici. pp. V Id. Nov. II. 27, 2 Serence. pp. XV Kal. Dec. 

December : VIII. 34, 2 Jmtce. pp. prid. Non. Dec. II. 4, 8 Lidnio. pp. X Kal. Jan. V. 74, 2 
Alexandro. Dat. VII Kal. Jan. 

Laws of A. D. 239." 
Cod. Just. VIII. 45, 13 Zoilo. pp. XVI Kal. Jun. Gordiano A. et Aviola conss. 
June: VIII. 48, 1 Marti(s. pp. Kal. Jun. III. 41, 2 Quintiliano et aliis. pp. Ill Non. Junii. 
VIII. 42, 3 Mutiano. pp. V Id. Jun. VII. 43, 3 Antistio. pp. IV Id. Jun. II. 12, 15 Sulpicice. 
pp. XVII Kal. Jul. II. 50, 1 Secundino militi. pp. XII Kal. Jul. V. 65, 2 Celeri veterano. pp. 
Ill Kal. Jul. 

July : VIII. 41, 14 Salvio. pp. Ill Non. Julii. IV. 29, 9 Proculo. pp. Nonis Julii. II. 19, 15 
EutycTiiano. pp. VI Id. Jul. III. 32, 6 Ustronio. pp. V Id. Jul. IX. 35,3 Donato. pp. II Id. 
Julias. VIII. 45, 14 Secundino. pp. XIV Kal. Aug. IX. 6, 6 Juliano. pp. VI Kal. Aug. 

August: IX. 1, 10 Mucatraulo militi. pp. Kal. Aug. II. 20, 4 Primo et Euthydico. pp. Ill 
Non. Aug. VIII. 29, 2 Nepoti. pp. Ill Non. Aug. V. 37, 1 1 Ccecilio. pp. Id. Aug. VIII. 23, 3 
Antigono. pp. Id. Aug. III. 1, 6 Junice. Dat. XV Kal. Sept. IV. 2, 3 Sempronio. pp. VIII 
Kal. Sept. 

September : V. 39, 3 Prudentiano. pp. Non. Sept. VI. 20, 5 Alexandro. Dat. Non. Sept. VI. 
47, 4 Dionysio. pp. Non. Sept. I. 54, 3 Celeri pf. p. Dat. Id. Sept. V. 62, 14 Heraclidce. pp. 
Idih. Sept. VIII. 14, 9 Attico. pp. Ill Kal. Oct. 
October: X. 3, 3 Crisjpo. pp. V Kal. Nov. 

November : II. 2, 2 Nocturno. pp. VIII Id. Nov. III. 35, 2 Mutiano. pp. VIII Id. Nov. 
VIII. 42, 4 Stratonico.pp. Id. Nov. VII, 19, 4 Menedemo. Dat. X Kal. Dec. III. 28, 14 Prisco. 
pp. VI Kal. Dec. VI. 13, 1 Herculiuno. pp. VI Kal. Dec. VIII. 41, 15 Claudiano. pp. V 
Kal. Dec. 

December : IX. 20, 4 Paulince. pp. Ill Non. Dec. IX. 9,14 Aquila. pp. Non. Dec. VI. 42, 10 
Firmo. pp. Ill Id. Dec. III. 6, 1 Gandidce. Dat. Id. Dec. II. 4, 7 Junio militi. pp. XIV Kal. 
Jan. II. 51,4 Mastriano. Dat. XII Kal. Jan. VI. 23, 4 Bufino. pp. XII Kal. Jan. II. 20, 5 
Bufo militi. pp. VI Kal. Jan. IX. 34, 2 Valenti. pp. II Kal. Jan. 

Sine mense et die, X. 3, 2 Heracleoni. pp. V Kal. * Gordiano A. et Aviola conss. 

Laws of A. D. 240. 
Cod. Just. V. ,11, 3 Claudio pf.p. pp. Kal. Januar. Sahino II et Venusto conss. 

n See the Tables A. D. 239 p. 254. 
H 



50 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

GoRDiANiTs III February: V. 12, 8 Agrippince. pp. Kal. Feb. V. 43, 7 GorgonicB. pp. VII Kal. Mart. IX. 
19, 1 Zenoni. pp. Ill Kal. Mart. 

April : VIII. 30, 4 Eudemo. pp. Kal. April. VIII. 46, 2 SahincE. pp. VII Id. April. 

May: IX. 41, 6 Herodiam. pp. VII Id. Maii. II. 51, 5 Secundino militi. pp. VI Id. Maii. 
VII. 14, 2 P&mpeiee. pp. V Id. Maii. VI. 44, 4 Alexandra, pp. XV Kal. Jun. VIII. 31, 2 
Domitio. pp. XII Kal. Jun. IV. 21, 5 Frisco et Marco militibus. pp. Ill Kal. Jun. 

June: IX. 9, 12 Basso. pp. Kal. Jun. VII. 73, G Semrianes. pp. Non. Jun. II. 6, 3 Flaviano. 
pp. V Id. Jun. V. 14, 4 Agatho.pp. V Id. Jun. 

July: VI. 37, 12 Mutiano. pp. constitutio V Idus Jul. II. 12, 16 Domitiano. pp. Ill Kal. Aug. 

August: VI. 45, 2 Ammonio pf.p. pp. VI Id. Aug. II. 21, 3 Aquilino. pp. Idih. Aug. 

September: VI. 6, 5 Sulpicice. pp. Non. Sept. 

November: I. 50, 1 Domitio pf.p. Dat. Ill Non. Nov. 

Laws of A. D. 241. 

Cod. Just. II. 18, 1 Imp. Gordianus A. Legitime et aliis. Ill Id. Januar. Gordiano A. II et 
Fonipeiano corns. VII. 57, 5 Jucundo. pp. XII Kal. Feb. 

February: II. 38, 2 Caiano. pp. Ill Nm. Feb. II. 39, 2 Herodotce. pp. Ill Non. Feb. IV. 
16, 1 Hermeroti. pp. XI Kal. Mart. V. 64, 2 Beginio. pp. V Kal. Mart. 

March: IX. 2, 4 Archelao. pp. Non. Mart. II. 31, 2 Solanoce. pp. VI Id. Mart. V. 52, 1 
Optato. pp. VI Id. Mart. VIII. 54, 2 Leonidce. pp. II Id. Mart. III. 35, 3 Dolenti. pp. V 
Kal. April. 

April: II. 3, 14 Ccelio militi. pp. Kal. April. II. 4, 9 Agrippino. pp. VI Id. April. 

June: VIII. 41, 16 Maximo. pp. II Id. Jun. VIII. 51, 2 Publiciano. pp. II Id. Jun. V. 16, 11 
Maximo, pp. V Kal. Jul. X. 11, 3 Ccecilio. pp. prid. Kal. Jul. 

July : II. 23, 1 Gaudiano militi. Dat. Kal. Jul. IV. 24, 7 Juliano. pp. XIII Kal. Aug. VI, 
40, 1 Bono. pp. XIII Kal. Aug. III. 44, 7 Claudio. pp. Ill Kal. Aug. 

August: II. 18, 2 Tertulh. S. VI Non. Aug. VI. 30, 3 Florentino militi. pp. XV Kal Sept. 

September: VIII. 26, 5 Asclepiadi. pp. VI Id. Sept. IX. 2, 5 Paulino. pp. Ill Id. Sept. VI. 
24, 5 Cassiano. pp. V Kal. Oct. 

October: V. 23, 2 Domitice.pp. V Non. Oct. II. 13, 14 Sabiniano. pp. Ill Non. Oct. V. 37, 12 
Octamance. pp. Ill Non. Oct. 

November: VI. 50, 10 Diogenio. pp. V Id. Nov. 

December : VI. 42, 1 1 Papyriano. pp. II Kal. Jan. 

Sine mense et die V. 73, 2 Crispince. Dat. X VI Kal. -x- Gordiano A. II et Pompeiano conss. 

Laws of A. D. 242. 

Cod. Just. III. 3, 1 Vicariis.pp. Kal. Feb. VI. 11, 2 Cornelio.pp. XII Kal. Mart. IX. 32, 4 
Basso, pp. VI Kal. Mart. 

March: IX. 33, 1 Valerio. pp. Kal. Mart. IX. 9, 13 Sylvano. pp. Non. Mart. VIII. 41, 1 7 
Brasida. pp. VI Id. Mart. IX. 9, 15 Ililarino militi. pp. IV Id. Mart. V. 75, 4 Aruntiano. pp. 
Id. Martii. VI. 6, 6 Comelio. Dat. Ill Kal. April. 

April: IX. 34, 3 Hadriano. pp. Id. April. IV. 10, 1 Valeriee. pp. V Kal. Maii. 

September: II. 12, 17 ad Magnum. pp. VIII Kal. Oct. 

October : VII. 53, 5 Amando. pp. Ill Id. Oct. 

In A. D. 243. 
Cod. Just. V. 16, 10 Valeriana, pp. VII Kal. Feb. Arriano et Papo conss. V. 16, 12 Secundince. 
pp. Ill Kal. Feb. 



EMPERORS. 51 

February: III. 33, 7 Ulpiano militi.pp. Kal. Feb. GobdianusIII 

April: IX. 2, 6 Avidiano. pp. IV Non. April. IX. 16, 2 Quintiam. pp. Ill Non. April. V. 
37, 13 Longino. pp. VIII Kal. Maii. 

July : VI. 22, 1 Petronio militi. pp. XII Kal. Aug. 

October: I. 18, 2 Jmenali. Dat. XIV Kal. Nov. V. 62, 15 Tauro. pp. VIII Kal. Nov. VI. 
50, 1 1 Magdmce. pp. VII Kal. Nov. 

November: IV. 14, 5 Chresto. pp. XVI Kal. Dec. 

PhILIPPUS. Philippus. 

Tillemont torn. 3 p. 494 contends that Philip was a Christian. Mosheim torn. 1 p. 197 "The 
Philips both father and son proved so favourable and even friendly to the Christians that these two 
emperors passed in the opinion of many for Christians. The arguments render the fact extremely 
probable ; but as these are opposed by others equally specious, that famous question relating to 
the religion of Philip and his son must be left undecided." His translator adds " The authors of 
the Universal History think it may be affirmed that Philip and his son embraced the Gospel, 
since that opinion is built upon Jerom, Chrysostom, Dionysim of Alexandria, Zonaras, Nicephorus, 
Cedrenus, Bufinus, Syncellus, Orosius, Jornandes, Amm. Marcellinus, Cardinal Bona, Vincentius Li- 
rinemis, Huetius and others." Jortin Vol. 3 p. 260 " It is more probable that Philip was a Pagan." 
Lardner Vol. 8 p. 138 c. 29 examines diligently and impartially whether Philip and his son were 
Christians, and determines in the negative. 

In the first place we may set aside the enquiry about the son of Philip, because he was only 6 
years of age at the elevation of his father, and in his 12th year at his death. His opinions are of 
little consequence, even if they could be known. Secondly, many of the authorities mentioned 
merely repeat one another, and are not independent witnesses nor capable of being witnesses at 
all. We may shortly collect the evidence upon this subject. 

1 Dionysius apud Euseb. H. E. VII. 10 thus speaks of Valerian: ovbe yap akXos rts ovrco tS>v 
■npb avTov ^aai\4oiv eifxevSt^ kol Sefiws irpos tovs XpL<TTLavovs btertdr], ovb' ol k^xO^vres ava(l)avb6v 
Xpta-TLavol yeyovevai. He does not name Philip, and may just as probably refer to Alexander 
Severus and Mamcea. 

2 Eusebius H. E. VI. 34 tovtov Karex^i- Xo'yos Xpia-TLavbv ovra, iv r]p.ipa rijs ixTTaTrjs tov irda-xa 
iravvvxibos, tQ>v e77t t^s €KK\rjcrta9 evxwv to) TrX-qdei juerao-xeiy (OeXrja-ai,, ov TrpoTepov b^ viro tov TrjvLKabe 
TrpocoToiros eTTLTpamivai, dajBaXelv rj t^op.okoyri<jaa-6ai K.T.k. — aXXws yap fxtj av Trore Trpos avTov jxri ov)(l 
TOVTO TTocrjcrai^Ta bia irokkas tmv Kar avrbv ahCas 'napab^xOrivac koX Treidapyriuai ye TrpoOvp-cas Aeyerai, 
TO yvr\<nov Kai cvkajBes rrjs nepl tov deiov <p6(3ov biaOeaeois Ipyots iTnb€biiyfX€vov. According to this 
narrative Philip was at Antioch at Easter 244 ; which will carry back the death of Gordian to 
February or March of that year. Eusebius VI. 35 mentions two letters of Origen : ^eperat be 
avTOV Kal TTpbs ambv ^acnkia ^(.knmov eTiioToX^, Kal akkr] itpbs Tr]V tovtov yafxeT-qv ^e^rjpav. In his 
Chronicle annis 2262 — 2268, where he records the reign of Philip, he makes no mention of the 
fact. 

3 Hieronymus Cat. c. 54 Origenes ad Philippum imperatorem, qui primus de regibus Bomanis 
Christianus fuit, et ad matrem ejus literas fecit, quce usque hodie exstant. Derived from Eusebius, 
to whom he adds nothing; nor do either of them tell us what those letters contained. From the 
mistake of Hieronymus, who calls Severa the mother of Philip, we may conjecture, as Lardner 
observes Vol. 8 p. 140, that he never saw the letters. Hieronymus adds in the Chronicle what 
Eusebius did not think fit to insert. Anno 2260 Philippus primus omnium ex Bomanis impp. Chri- 
stianus fuit. Cas'siodorus" repeats Hieronymus. 

n See the Tables A. D. 244. 
H 2 



52 APPENDIX. C. 1, 

Philippus 4 Leontius apud Chron. Pasch. p. 270 B is the next witness to Eusebius : birjyria-aTo rots irpo 
■fjiJi&v 6 [xaKapLos AeoVnos o ^ttlctkottos 'Ai;Tio)(f^a? [cir. A. D. 348] " ovtos AeKtos ayeiAe tov dytov 
Ba/SuAay ov\ m XptaTiavov (xovov dAX' otl koI (t6\[jli](T€v eTTto-^^eiy tov ^aaikecas ^tkiintov ti]v yvvaiKa 
K(d avrbv tov ^CKittttov X.pi.<rTiavovs ovras dn-cKOetv eis ttjv iKKXtjcrCav, Tiapavop.'^a-avTos tov 4>tA.67r7rov." 
■^v be rj TTupavopLta Toiavrt]' <J>iAi7r7ros 6 ^lovvCcop, (irapxos oiv eirl tov 7Tpor}yr]a-afj.evov avTov ^aaikiut's 
Vophiavov, T:apadriKr]v eA.a^ei' napa Yophiavov tov viov avTov' koI TckevT'^aavTos Topbiavov tov /Sao-iAeo)? 
a(f)d^as TOP Tralba 4>t\tTr7ros kfiacrikivcriv. 

5 Philostorgius VII. 8 relates the fact o^ Numerian or Decius: kniiiKo-nos ^v Trjs ' AvTLo^etas 6 
Ba^vkas. Nov/ueptai'a) be T(S 'Pco/xaiwi' ^acnkeX. rj, ws evioi AeKto) (^ao-t, KUTa b-q Tiva bai^iova yv(ap.r]v 
efXTTeaelv Trkrjdvovcrrjs ttjs fKKk-qaCas ela-ekdeiv (v avTrj' tov 8e ye tov Oeov apxiepea Kara to, Trpoirvkaia 
aravTa tov v€0) rrjv etcrobov d7rorei)(i^ety, (pdarKOVTa Sera ye bvvaTos elrj p.r} irepioyp-ea-OaL kvKOV r<3 iToifxvCio 
Tiap€(,o-bv6pt,€vov' Koi TOV p.ev avTLKa TTJ<} opiMTJs dvaKpovadfjvai.. k. t. k. Transcribed by Suidas v. Ba- 
j3vkas from Philostorgius himself. In this account the emperor excluded by Bah^las is a 
heathen. 

6 It is argued by Lardner Vol. 8 p. 139 that " Eusebius speaks only upon common report and 
does not name the bishop nor the place, but that Chrysostom is supposed to supply this defect, 
as he ascribes a like action to Babylas, but does not name the emperor," The account then of 
Chrysostom deserves to be examined, that it may be seen with how little evidence those who sup- 
pose Philip a Christian have been satisfied. Chrysostom Or. de Babyla torn. 5 p. 446 1. 37 Sav. 
rhetorically ornaments a narrative in some pai'ticulars like that of Leontius : eydveTo rt? jSaa-bkivf 
€ttI t5>v Tipoyovoiv T&v TjixeTepcav. koI to. ju.ey akka ottoXos tis rjv ovtos 6 fiacrtkevs ovk e^co kiyeiv to b\ 
dyos OTiep iTokjxrja-ev aKOvcravTes eicreo-^e Koi Trept rrjs konrrjs tG)V Tpoirav u)iJi6Tr}Tos . tC ovv to dyos rjv; 
^bo^ev edvet tlvX tcHv €K€LV(a TrokepLovvTiav r(3 /3ao-t\et KaTakvcrai, tov TTokejjLov k. t. k. The son of that 
king is put into his hands as a hostage — he murders the youth ; the cruelty of the act, the tears 
and sufferings of the victim, are eloquently described. The murderer thus polluted presents him- 
self at the church, p. 448 Bahylas was then the bishop. Not deterred by the power of the king, 
he excluded him from the church : p. 448. 27 ttjs eKKAr/ata? e£e'/3aAe. " We learn from the act of 
Bahylas that each man must do his duty : p. 453. The freedom of Babylas did not then profit 
that king. The lesson was lost upon him. But the pious bishop fulfilled nevertheless his own duty. 
The guilty king, not satisfied with murder and with shamelessly attempting to enter the church, 
added another murder to his crimes — the murder of the holy Bahylas himself." p. 453. 19 wo-Trep 
yap OVK dpKOVv ets daeftcLav to (f)ov€V(rai koX dvaicryyvTdis iTTLTrrjbrjaai, rw yaw tov deov Trpoa-eTiOei (^oVw 
<f)6vov €Tepov — KoX rjv r} likv irpoTepa e\eetyorepa Trjs bevrepas, rj tov iratbos, rj be btvrepa ivayeaTepa Trjs 
■nporepas, rj tov p.aKapiov Ba^vkd. The orator then describes the martyrdom of Babylas, who suffers 
by the order of that very king whom he had excluded from the church. 

7 Orosius VII. 20 Philippus primus imperatorum omnium Christianus fiiit. — millesimus annus a 
Christiano imperatore celebratus est. c. 2 1 Decius se oh hoc Philippos interfecisse docuit, ad perse- 
quendos interficiendosque Christianas &c. c. 28 Constantinus primus imperatorum Christianus, excepto 
Philippo, qui Christianus annis adm^dum paucissimis ad hoc tantum constitutus fuisse mihi visus est 
ut millesimus Bomce annus Christo potius quam idolis dedicaretur. Orosius merely repeats what he 
had learned from Hieronymus and Leontius. 

8 Vincentius Lirinensis forty-two years after the Catalogue of Hieronymus writes as follows 
p. 343 Quam autem non solum privatw conditioni sed ipsi quoque fuerit Origenes reverendus imperia 
declarant histories, quce eum a matre Alexandri accitum ferunt. — sed et ejusdem epistolm testimonium 
perhibent quas ad Philippum imperatorem, qui primus Bomanorum principum Christianus fuit, Chri- 
stiani mxigisterii auctoritate conscripsit. Vincentius does not quote the letter nor affirm that he had 
read it ; and this passage contains no more than he might have learned from Hieronymus. 



EMPERORS. 5S 

9 Syncellus p. 362 C transcribes Eusebius H. E. VI. 34. S5. Idem p. 3(53 A AeVtos — hta to Piumpimts 
Trpo? <i>tAt777Toy e\^Oos -niKpov riyeipe Kara Xpicmavciiv bL(>)y[x6v. p. .386 B i\66vTo<i Novixepiavov kv 'Ay- 

rio)(jeia kol OeXrjaavTos ei(T(\de'LV ev ttj iKKkrjaLa Kai KaTaaKOTrrjcrat, to, tS>v Xptoriaywy \xv<TTr]pia b aytos 
Ba/3vAas CKcaXva-^v avrov, kiywv k. t. K. — koi ayai>aKT'q(ra<i NoviJi€pi.avbs icfiovevaev avTov. From Phi- 
lostorgius VII. 8. And this account, it will be observed, makes Bahylas still alive in 282, although 
he died in 251. 

10 It is unnecessary to adduce other writers. Anonymus Valesii p. 615 §33 Constantinus im- 
perator primus Christianus, excepto Philippo &c. Zonaras tom. 1 p. 624 C (iravaCev^a^ 6 ^lXltittos 
ew/zefT/? rjv rois XpLo-TLavo'ts, jxaXLcrTa 8e Kara ivLovs koL Tipoa-eredr] Ty Tricrret Xpimov, U)(tt€ koX evy&v 
e7r' iKKXrjo-ias KOLVdivrjcraL \pi(JTiavots, Koi aaix^vais e^ayopevcrai oaa ol rjixdpTrjTai,' ov yap aAAco? ets kol- 
vtiiviav irapa tov TTpoe(TT(oTo<i rffs efCKArjcrtas ^bex^ero el ur] i^oixoXoyrjcreTai,. — KaKiivov Aeyerat T:eiOapyr\(Tai. 
From Eusebius; who is also followed by Nicephorus". Cedrenus tom. 1 p. 257 C ^iXi-mros err; (' . 
OS virripxe ttjs tuv \pL(rTLavS)V Trto-rews anovbacrTrjs, avvecrei. re kol eTrtei/ceta KeKoarfxruxevos. — avfipedt] 
8e aixa rw vlw virep \pi(TTiavG>v Kara AeKtou dywytCo/nei'o?. Rufinus and Jornandes only repeat what 
their predecessors had said ; and among the preceding we may exclude Syncellus, Orosius, Vin- 
centius, as contributing no new testimony ; Dionysius of Alexandria does not name Philip. All 
that we have is contained in Eusebius and in Leontius Chrysostom and Philostorgius compared 
with each other. Hieronymus himself is only founded on Eusebius. If we collect the facts, they 
are these. In Philostorgius the emperor excluded is a heathen, either Numerian or Decius. 
Chrysostom does not name the emperor ; but he is a heathen also in Chrysostom, and is the em- 
peror by whom Bahylas was put to death ; that is, Decius. In the description of a youth whom 
he had murdered, son of a king with whom he had made a peace, is an obscure and imperfect 
account of the act of Philip. In Leontius the emperor is Philip and Philip is a Christian; but 
his inaccurate account oi Philippus junior and of Gordian and his son shews that his knowledge of 
that part of history was very imperfect. Philip might have been excluded from the church at 
Antioch by Bahylas, and yet might be a heathen, as Philostorgius and Chrysostom relate. The 
account that he was a Christian Eusebius gives doubtfully, and scarcely seems to confide in it 
himself. If a letter was really written by Origen to the emperor, this would be no proof that he 
was addressing a Christian emperor, unless we had the substance of the letter attesting that fact. 
The testimony then upon which it has been asserted that Philip was a Christian is insufficient. 
Nor ought it to be omitted that the persecution at Alexandria was carried on during the reign of 
Philip himself, a full year before the edict o^ Decius : Dionys. Alex, apud Euseb. H. E. VI. 41 
ovK aiTO TOV ^acriXiKov TipoaTaypLaTos 6 btcayfxbs Trap' tjijuv ijp^aTo, akXa yap okov ivLavrov T:povka(3e. 
And it may be asked whether this would have been permitted by a Christian emperor. 

Lardner in conclusion Vol. 8 p. 141 shews from four arguments that Philip was a pagan. 

1 Constantine is called by all writers, even by Eusebius himself p, the first Christian emperor. 

2 Heathen writers make no allusion to Philip being a Christian. 3 The secular games were 
celebrated by Philip with the usual rites. 4 Gordian III was deified by Philip, and Philip him- 
self was deified after his death. 

Inscriptions. 1 Muratori p. 252. 4 Philippopoli in Thracia : Maximo et super omnes fortissimo 
imperatori Cwsari M. Julio Philippo Pio Felici invicto Aug. pontifici maximo patri p. 2 Murat. 
p. 252. 3 Matelica3 : M. Julio Philippo nohilissimo Cms. principi juventutis. 3 jNIurat. p. 1049. 3 
Gerundse in Catalonia : M. Julio Philippo nohilissimo CcBsari B. P. Ger. 4 The tabula honesta' 
missionis quoted in the Tables A. D. 248. 3 p. 267 is extant in Muratori p. 362. 1 tabula ienea 
effossa prope Mutinam, nunc Romaj. After cos. II p.p. the Table proceeds thus: Nomina mili- 

o Nicephorus H. E. V. 25. P Euseb. Vit. Const. I. 3 Kwi/o-Tai/nwf (9ew k.t.\. p.6vos yeyova^ cpiXos. 



54 



APPENDIX. 



C. 1. 



Philippus. turn qui militaver. in cohortihus prcetor. Philippianis decern I. II. III. IIII. V. VI. VII. VIII. 
Villi. X Piis Vindicibus qu. ipsi et fortiter militia fundi sunt jus tribuimus conuhii dvmiaxat 
cum singulis et primis uxorihus ut etiamsi peregrini juris feminas in matrimonio suo junxer. proinde 
liheros tollant ac si ex duobus civibus Romanis natos ad VII Id. Jan. imp. &c. cos. coh. VIII pr. 
Philippian. P. V. M. Brceno M. f. Justino Sabatin. Mantua descript, et recognit. ex tabula cen. que 
fix. est Bom. in mur. pos. templum divi Aug. ad Minervam. 

Decius. Decius, 

Inscriptions. 1 Mur. p. 460. 4 Veronae: Imp. Cces. G. Messius Q. Trajanus Decius P. F. Aug. p. m. 
trib. pot. II COS. II [A. D. 251] p.p. XVIII. 2 Mur. p. 1101. 3 in Carolina Transilvaniae : Imp. 
Gees. G. Mess. Quinto Trajano Decio Aug. p. m. trib. pot. II cos. II p.p. restitutori Daciarum col. nova 
Apuls. 3 Mur. p. 2011. 1 in Lusitania: Imp. Gees. Aug. G. Messio Trajano Decio invicto Pio Fel. 
Aug. pont. max. trib. pot. cos. II p.p. a Bracara Aug. M. P. XXVI. 4 p. 201 1. 2 Ibid. Imp, Gees. 
G. Mess. Quinto &c. pont. max. t.p. procos. I I 11^ cos. II p.p. a Brae. Mil. P. XXV. 5 Mur. 
p. 252. 5 in civitate Venciensi : Imp. Gees. G. Messio Quinto Trajano Decio Pio Fel. invicto Aug. 
p.m. trib. pot. ///[lege //] cos. II p.p. civit. Vint. 6 Gruter refers the following to Decius: 
p. 246. 3 p. 273. 5 Tarracone : Pio adque inclito DN. Trajano nobilissimo ac fortissimo et felicissimo 
Gcesari Septimius Acindinus V. G. agens per Hispanias VG. et vice sacra cognoscens numini majesta- 
iique ejus semper dicatissimus. 7 Muratori p. 252. 6 Florentise: Imp. Gees. G. Messius Q. Trajanus 
Deccius invictus Pius Felix Aug. p. m. trib. p. cos. II p. p. procos. II [dele //] Q. Herennius Etruscius 

Messius Deccius Gees. G. Valens Hostilianus 8 Murat. p. 1043. 2 item p. 2049. 8 Dertosae: 

Q. Herennio Etrusco Messio Decio nobilissimo Gces.filio D. N. sanctissimi Trajani Deci P. F. invicti 
Aug. ord. D. G. D. dicatissimus numini ejus. 9 Mur. p. 1036. 4 Carseolis : Herennice Gupressinice 
&c. Given from Eckhel in the Tables A. D. 25 1 . 3 p. 27 1 . 

Hostilianus. Hostilianus. Tables A. D. 251. 3. 252. 2. Mentioned with Decius and Herennius in the 
inscription N°. 7 of Decius given above. Mentioned again in Muratori p. 252. 7 Romae : G. Valenti 

Hostilian Messio Quinto nobilissimo Gcesar trib. potest. II principi juven .... filio. 

Supply, as Muratori suggests, [Decii] trib. p. II. Some have doubted whether Hostilianus was 
the son or the son-in-law of Decius. Eckhel torn. 7 P- 35 1 examines the question, and decides 
that he was the son, from Zosim. I. 25, 2. 



Gallus. Gallus. Tables a. D. 251 — 254. 

' Syncellus p. 376 B mistakes Volusianus for the son of Decius : to, o-rparoTreSa ^aaikia irAXai 
TLva yev6\x€vov xntarov T6Xkov avayopevovuiv afxa Bokov(nav<2 t(5 AeKiov Tiaihi. But this is not the 
mistake of Dexippus, as Tzschutke ad Eutrop. p. 654 supposes, but of Syncellus himself. Dexippus 
is only quoted for jjirjva^ i-q', the 18 months of his reign. Orosius VII. 21 from Eutropius IX. 5 
mistakes Gallus and Hostilianus for one person. Gallus has 3 years in Chron. Pasch. p. 271 B 
and lived 62 years : ereXevTrja-cv ^v hu>v £/3'. two years and 8 months in Zonaras XII tom. 1 p. 
628 C r)TT(aix€VOL be kniOevTO r(3 cr<\>5)v avTOKp&Topi, kcll avekovre'S KaK^ivov /cat lov TiaiSa avTov, ^aat- 
kcvcravras erry bvo Kal fxrjvas oktoj, Ttpoa-TiOevTai ro) PdiiikLav^. The actual duration of his reign 
from his elevation in November 251 to his death in February 254 would be 2y 4™, as Eusebius 
states it. 

Inscriptions. 1 Mur. p. 252. 8 Sestini: Invp. Gees. G. Vibio Treb. Gallo Pio Fel. Aug. p.p. D.D. 
2 p. 252. 9 Romse : Imp. Gees. Vibii Galli August L. Junius Validianus vir Gl. prcef. 

q For PROCOS. IIII read PROCONSULI. 



EMPERORS. 55 

urb. Stat, ex ceti voluvui. Aug. nost. colloc. mm has. sua marm 3 Murat. p. 253. 2 in Piceno: Gailus. 

Imp. Cces. C. ViUo Afinio Gallo Veldumniano 4 Murat. p. 253. 3 extra Spoletum: Imp. 

Cces. G. Vibio Affinio Gallo Veldumniano Volusiano Pio Fel. Aug. Max. 5 Mur. p. 1994, 1 Aquis 

Flavis in Lusitania : s. C. Vibio Afi o Veldumn usiano Pio pont. max. ...II cos. 

procos a[]]€stat. q. eor. The second tribunician year of the Galli was current in A. D. 252. 

See the Tables p. 270. 

AeMILIANUS. Aemilianus. 

Cornelia Supera the wife of ^milianus is commemorated upon coins apud Eckhel torn. 3 p. 39 
torn. 7 p. 374. JEmilianus has Alexandrian coins inscribed L. a. Eckhel torn. 4 p. 91 A. K. Aijut- 
Xiavos eva-i^. tre^S. L. a. One of Cornelia Supera with L. a. Ibid. Eckhel torn. 7 p- 373 observes 
'' Diflficile est annum a cum historia componere. — quae causa est cur lubeat auctoritati Arigonii, 
qui unus vulgavit, diffidere."" But L. y of Gallus was current till his death in February 254. 
then L. a of ^milianus was current for 3 months till May. then L. a' of Valerian and Gallienus 
till Aug. 28. and their L. ^' began in Alexandrian computation Aug. 29 A. D. 254, 

Zonaras XII tom. I p. 629 A KTeivovcri tov AlfXLXiavov, ovTrw Ticrcrapas [xrjvas riyefxoveva-avTa ayovra 
8e T^y rjKiKias Iviavrov T^ararapaKocrTov /cat Tipoa-iaa-iv OvaXtpiavia. 

VaLERIANUS. Valerianus. 

Vakrian was princeps senatus^ in the year 238 : Capitolin. Gordiano c. 9 Trebell. XXX c. 21. 
He is called by Trebellius Valer. c. 1 70 years old at his accession : Cujus per annos LXX vita 
laudabilis in earn conscenderat gloriam — ut imperator fieret. But 61 at his death by Chron. Pasch. 
p. 272 D. €(r(j)dyr] viro YlepaStv iTTavacrTavToiv avT<^ cbv hGtv ^a. his captivity being unnoticed, and 
his death placed in 269, the last year of Gallienus ; or rather the reign of Gallienus is not noticed 
in the Chronicle, and 14 years are given to Valerian. Victor Oses. p. 335 calls Valerian cetate 
robustiore at his captivity anno sexto. 

As Gallienus was 50 at his death, he was 35 at his elevation, and his father Valerian at least 
55; which would suppose him 61 at his captivity, the age assigned by the Chronicle; and 40 
when he was princeps senatus in 238. If he had been 70 at his captivity, he would be princeps 
senMus at 49 and 64 at his accession s. 

The 15 years are better divided by Victor Caes. p. 337 into 7 + 8 than by Trebellius into 6 + 9 : 
Salonino c. 3 Q,uum XV annos eosdem imperasse constet, id est, Gallienum usque ad XV^^ pervenisse, 
Valerianus vero sexto sit captus, alii nomm annos alii decern etiam Gallienum imperasse in literas 
mittant^. Vopiscus Caro c. 3 calls the reign 15 years : Galienum per quindecim annos passa est. 
and Zonaras XII tom. 1 p. 634 C ySao-tAewas ivLavrovs TrevreKaCbiKa ahv tois tov Trarpos. 

Lactantius M, P. c. 5 and Agathias IV. 23 relate the captivity and death of Valerian. 

Valerian's letter apud Vopiscum Aurel. c, 8 is to the following effect: Valerianus Augustus 
Antonino Gallo consuli. Culpas me familiaribus Uteris quod Postumio filium meum Gallienum magis 
quam Aureliano commiserim ; quum utique et severiori et puer credendus fuerit et exercitus &c. As 
Gallienus has now a son, and is himself 35 years old, this puer Gallienus must be some other son 
of Valerian, who also bore that name. 

Coins without a date, apud Eckhel tom. 7 p. 379. 1 Imp. C. P. Lie. Valerianus Aug. + ceter- 
nitas Augg. 2 Imp. C. P. Lie. Valerianus P. F. Aug . -^ cBternitati Augg. or concordia I III ex- 
ercit. 8. C. or GemMmicus Max. ter. ov pontiff . max. tr.p.p.p. or religio Augg. or victoria G. M. 
3 Imp. Valerianus Aug. + Gallienus cum exer. suo Jovi victori. 

^ Tables A. D. 251, s Gibbon understands 70 of the age at his capture. 

t See the Tables A. D, 268. 



56 



APPENDIX. 



C. 1. 



Valerianus. Inscriptions. 1 Murator. p. 253. 5 Aquaspartae : Im]p. Goes. P. Licinio Valeriano Pio Felici 
Aug. pont. max. trib. pot. ter [lege vel trib. potestat. vel trib. pot. iter.] cos. II procos. pp. D. D. 
Valerian was trib. pot. iterum and cos. II together in A. D. 254. 2 Murat. p. 253. 7 Jaderse : 
Imp. Gees. P. Licinio Valeriano Pio Fel. Aug. pont. maximo trib. potestatis cos. Ill p. p. D. D. 
3 Mur. p. 253. 6 Malacse in Hispania : Imp. Gees. P. Licinius Valerianus P. F. Aug. p. m. trib. 
pot. Ill COS. II [lege cos. Ill] p. p- procos. II [lege et] imp. Gees. P. Licinius Gallienus Verm 

Pius 4 Murat. p. 460. 5 Herberise in agro Regiensi : Imp. Gees. P. Licinius Valerianus 

Pius Fel. Aug. pon. max. Germ. max. trib. pot. VII [A. D. 259] cos. IIII p.p. procos. et imp. Gees. 
P. Licinius Gallienus Germ. Pius Fel. Aug. pont. max. trib. pot. VII cos. Ill p.p. procos. et P. Gor- 
nelius Saloninus Valerianus nobiliss. Gees. pont. secul. m ignis consumpt. indulg. sua restitui curave- 
rwnt. 5 Mur. p. 1089. 1 tribus ab Argento leucis : Imp. Gees. Publio Licinio Valeriano Pio Felici 

invicto Augusto civ. Tribocorum. 6 Mur. p. 599. 1 Smyrnse: magistratus harum civita 

quibus te suggeris possidere agere curam qui quod optima placuisse perspicitur perpetua observatione 
teneatur. Vale Apella carissime nobis. Data V Kal. Jun. aydOr] tvx37- avroKpATcap Kaia-ap Ilov^kios 
AikCvvlo? OvaXepiavbs cvcre^rjs evrux^s Se^Sacrros Kal avTOKpdTOip Kalcrap TiovlBXLOs AlkCvvlos TaXXfqvbs 

evTDX^s 2e/3a(rTos koI HovfiXLOs AlkCvvlos i'nL(f)ave(rTaTos Kalcrap 'lovXtca ^ AireWa idto) ^aipeiv 

7 Mur. p. 650. 1 Smyrnae in basi. In dextro latere: "^XW* ^^ "^fl irpd^Tri rrjs 'AaCas KciAAei Kal 

ixey^dei Kal XapLTrpoTdrrj Kal p.r]TpoTi6k^i koX rpls veatKopca t&v Se/Saorwy Kal Kara ra bdyfJLara rrjs Up<a- 
TCLTrjs (rvvK\r]Tov Kal KoafMOV ttjs 'Iw^ias ^[xvpvaliav Avp. ' ATToXXtvdpios OvaTeiprjvbs koI ^jxypvalos kuI 
<I>i\a8eA,^eos [lege ^JiAaSeAc^eus] koI Bv(6,vtios kuI aWcov ttoXcohv TToketTr]s ^ovkevrrjs boX.ixobp6p.os vet- 
Kiqa-as dy&vds re rots VTioyeypap.p.ivois WvOlkov Ylvdia iv AeXcpois YlvOca iv SiSt/ Avyovarcia kv SvareC. 
In latere sinistro : TcipLrjOels be ^varapyiais Trapa t&v Kvpicov rjpLotv avTOKparopav OvaXeptavov Kal FaX- 
Xirjvov 2e/3j8. ev rfj Xap^-npa <I>iAa8eA0e(oz^ ttoXcl Kal iv rfj Xap-Trpa BvCavrCiav iroXn. 8 Mur. p. 1994. 2 
Londini: Divo Gees. Valeriano Lie. Valerianus princeps Juvent. 

Gallienus. Gallienus. 

The writers named in the Tables A. D. 255 give the following account of the events of this 
reign. 





ZosiMUS lib. I. 


Trebellius Gallieno. 


c. 29 


30 ScythcE et Marcomanni. 


A. D. 261 Macrianus and Batista in the East. 




Thessalonica threatened. 


c. 2 Valens. Piso. 




Athens fortified. Isthmus fortified. 


Aureolus in Illyricum slays Macrianus. 




Valerian associates Gallienus. Goes to the 


3 Odenathus Macriano interempto. 




East. Gallienm in Europe. 


4 Per idem tempus jEmilianus in j^gypto. 




Gallienus defends the Rhine. 


Postumus. Gallienus wounded. 


c 


31 Appoints generals to defend lUyricum Italy 


Peace with Aureolus. 




and Greece. 


Scythce Bithyniam invaserunt. 


32. 


33 Scythians at first repelled ; then, toC dipovi. 


A. D. 262 c. 5 Earthquake. Pestilence. 




take Trapezus. 


The Goths and Clodius invade Thrace, Mace- 


34- 


-36 In a second inroad, begun in the winter. 


donia, Thessalonica. 




Bithynia plundered, Valerian being at 


c. 6 Goths repulsed Macriano duce. 




Antioch. 


Temple of Ephesus burnt. 




.36 Valerian taken. 


Byzantium plundered by the troops of Gallienus. 




37 Scythians invade Illyricum and Italy. 


7 Contra Postumum Gallienus Aureolo et Claudio 




Rome defended by the senate. 


duce bellum incepit. 




A pestilence. 


Postumus juvatur auxiliis Francitis. 



EMPERORS. 



57 



ZosiMus lib. I. 


Trbbellius Gallieno. 


38 Gallienus returns to Rome. 


Gallienus at Byzantium. 


Revolt of Cecrops, Aureolus, Antoninus, 


7. 8 Decennia celebrat [A. D. 263]. 


Postumus. 


A. D. 264 c. 10 Successes of Odenathus. 


Saloninus slain. 


Gallienus triumphs. 


' 39 Athens taken. 


1 1 Dum hcec geruntur the Scythians are in Asia. 


Gallienus advances into Thrace. 


Gallienus apud Athenas apxav. 


Success and death of Odenathus. 


c. 12 Odenathus Augustus. 13 Slain with Herodes. 


Zenobia succeeds. 


Zenobia succeeds with Timolaus and He- 


40 Gallienus hastens from the Scythian war 


rennius. 


to meet Aureolus. 


Inter hcec, the Scythians repulsed, the Goths 


Is slain at Milan by Marcian and Clau- 


repulsed Dexippo duce. 


dius. 


c. 14 Gallienus slain with his brother Valerian. 


Victor C^sar. p. 335—337. 


Victor Epit. p. 381. 382. 


Valerian captured. 


Valerian reigns 15 years. 


Gallienus in Gaul and lUyricum. 


Gallienus Augustus. S 


Ingebus in Mursia. 


Cornelius Valerianus Casar. 


Regallianus. 


His imperantibus Regillianus in Mcesin, Postumus in 


Goths enter Thrace Macedonia Achaia Asia. 


Gallia, jElianus apud Moguntiacum. 


Parthians enter Mesopotamia. 


uEmilianus in Egypt. 


Orientem latrones seu mulier. 


Valens in Macedonia. 


Alamanni enter Italy. 


Aureolus at Milan. 


The Franci Gaul Spain Tarraco. 


Valerian is captured. 


Africa. 


Gallienus promotes his other son Saloninus. — defeats 


Dacia lost. 


Aureolus — is slain near Milan. 


Pestilence at Rome. 




Civiles motus. primus omnium Postumus. turn Lollianus. 




Marius biduum. Victorinus biennium. Victoria ap- 




points Tetricus. Aureolus routed. Gallienus slain. 




EUTROPIUS IX. 7 — 11. 


Orosius VII. 22. 


The Germans penetrate to Ravenna. 


Valerianus illico captus. 


Valerian captured by Sapor. 


The Germans penetrate to Ravenna. 


Ingenuus slain in Mursia. 


The Alamanni enter Italy. 


Regalianus slain. 


The Goths ravage Greece Macedonia Pontus Asia. 


Alamanni ravage Gaul, enter Italy. 


Dacia lost. 


Dacia lost. 


The Quadi and Sarmatians waste Pannonia. 


The Goths in Greece Macedonia Pontus Asia. 


Germani ulteriores Hispaniam et Tarraconem, Parthi 


The Sarmatians in Pannonia. 


Mesopotamiam. 


The Germans sack Tarraco. 


Bella civilia— Primus Ingenuus. 


The Parthians ravage Syria. 


Postumus 10 years. 


Thim — Postumus in Gallia per annos X. 


jEmilianus slain at Moguntiacum. 


L. jElianus. 


Marius continuo interfectus. 


Post eum Marius, 2 days. 


Victorinus post paululum. 


Victorinus postea — 2 years. 


Tetricus succeeded him. 


Huic successit Tetricus. 


Successes of Odenathus. 


Dum h(Bc in Gallia geruntur, per Odenathum Persce 


Gallienus slain. 


victi sunt. 




Gallienus slain with his brother Valerian. 


I 



Gallienus. 



58 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

Gallienus. Zosimus follows the course of events rather than the order of time, Victor Epit. omits many 
of the usurpers and all mention of the inroads of the barbarians. Victor Cses. Eutropius and 
Orosius in their accounts of the foreign invasions relate the same facts, but not in the same order. 
In their mention of the usurpers they describe as successive those who were contemporary ; Tre- 
bellius PoUio supplies some dates for fixing the events, but is inaccurate in his own recital. 

The thirty tyrants of Trebellius are reduced to 18 by Tillemont tom. 3 p. 321. 521 and to 19 
by Gibbon Vol. 1 p. 467- Their lists differ from each other. The following differs in some degree 
from both, and contains two names not mentioned by Trebellius. 

NO Trebell. 
XXX tyr. 

1 Cecrops. Zosim. I. 38 €nava<rrdvTaiv aura KeKporros re rov Mavpovcriov Koi AvpioXov fcat 'Avravivov Koi 
fTfpciv nXfiovmv. In excerpta post Dionem apud Malum tom. 2 p. 236 Me/iwp Mavpovaios is men- 
tioned among the usurpers in Egypt ; whom Maio with much probability conjectures to be the 
same person as KfKpoyjr Mavpova-ios in Zosimus. 

2 Antoninus. Zosim. I. 38. See N". 1 . Both Cecrops and Antoninus are omitted by Trebellius. 

3 ( I Cyriades. Joined Sapor : Trebell. c. 2. Slain quum Valerianus ad bellum Persicum veniret : Ibid. 

[So. A. D. 258.] 

4 (2 Postumus. Trebell. c. 3. He reigned A. D. 258—267- See the Tables. A war of Gallienus 

with Postumus is mentioned Trebell. Gallieno c. 4 XXX tyr. e. 3 in which Gallienus is wounded. 
Followed by long hostilities between them, longo hello tracto Ibid. Another war Trebell. Gallieno 
0. 7- After Postumus had associated Victorinus ; therefore not before 265. probably in 265 and 
266 : Contra Postumum Gallienus cum Aureolo et Clodio duce, qui postea imperium obtinuit, — bellum 
incepit, et, quum multis auxiliis Postumus juvaretur Celticis ac Francicis, in bellum cum Victorino 
processit, cum quo imperium participavit. Victrix Gallieni pars fuit. Idem XXX tyr. c. 6 Cum Vic- 
torino contra Gallienum conflixit ; quumque adhibitis ingentibus Germanorum auxiliis diu [A. D. 265. 
266] bella traxissent, victi sunt. Placed however by Trebellius Gallieno c. 7- 8 before the decennia 
A. D. 263. 
' An inscription of Postumus is in Eckhel tom. 7 p. 446 and Muratori p. 460. 6 Cordubae : Imp. 
Qes. M. Cassianius Latinius Postumus Pius Fel. invictus Aug. Ger. max. pont. max. trib. pot. cos. 
Ill p.p. procos. restituit. Before A. D. 264, when he was cos. IIII. Numi vagi apud Eckhel 
tom. 7 p. 441—446. 

' claritas Aug. 

comiti Aug. 

conservatores Aug. 

felicitas Aug. 

Herculi Cretensi 

Herculi Erymanthino 

Herculi immortali 

Herculi invicto 

Herculi Libyco 

Herculi Nemeeo 
^ virtuti Aug. 

2 Imp. C. M. Cass. Lot. Postumus P. F. Aug. + exercitus Isc. S. C. or exercitus Vac. S. C. or 
Felicitas. or Herculi comiti Aug. cos. III. 

3 Postumus Aug. + Herculi Thracio or Herculi Romano Aug. 

4 Imp. Postumus Aug. + concord, equit. 



1 Postumus Pius Felix Aug. + < 



EMPERORS. 



59 



5 Imp. C. Postumus P. F. Aug. + -< 



No XXX tyr. f Adventus Aug. or Augg. S. C. 

Castor. 

conservatores Aug. 
DiantE reduci. 
Herculi Deusoniensi 
Herculi invicto 

Herculi Magusano or Herculi pacifero 
J. 0. M. sponsori saculi Aug. 
Mercurio felici 
Miner, fautr. 
salus provinciarum 
virtus Postumi Aug. 
6 Postumus Pius Aug. + indulg. pia Postumi Aug. 
(3 Postumus filius. Trebell. c. 4 A patre appellatus Ccesar ac deinceps in ejus honore Augustus, cum 

patre dicitur interemptus. 
(4 Lalianus. Trebell. c. 5. Mentioned by the Victors and Eutropius. Lollianus in Victor Caes. 
Trebell. ^lianus in Victor Epit. Lcelianus in Eutrop. ^milianus, perhaps by mistake, in Orosius. 
Eckhel torn. 7 p- 449 has two coins marking his real name : 1 Imp. C. LtBlianus P. F. Aug. + tem- 
porum felicitas. 2 Imp. C. Ulp. Cor. Lcelianus + victoria Aug. 
(7 Marius. See the Tables A. D. 267- Eckhel tom. 7 P- 454 with reason argues that the numbers 
of his coins imply a longer reign than two days : "An credibile intra biduum vel triduum tot feriri 
numos ? Certum est unum vel alterum saltern mensem Marii imperio adjiciendum." The confusion 
in the accounts of the Victors and Eutropius on the one hand and of Trebelhus on the other is 
remarked by Tillemont tom. 3 p. 355. 529, who follows Trebellius, and by Eckhel tom. 7 p- 451, 
who observes " conciliet haec qui volet." The accounts will be reconciled by the explanation offered 
in the Tables A. D. 267. Trebellius himself supplies a hint for correcting his own account. He 
relates that Marius was appointed by the influence of Victoria after the death of her son ; and yet 
in another place (XXX tyr. c. 31) Marius is appointed by his own soldiers. He was elected then 
by his soldiers after the death of Postumus, and acknowledged by Victoria after the death of Vic- 
torinus. Victorinus reached his third year in 267- Victor then, who has post biennii imperium, is 
more exact than Eutropius, who has anno secundo. 

Victor Epit. p. 382 also errs in the time of Victorinus, whom he places after the death of Au- 
reolus and elevation of Claudius in March 268 : His diehus Victorinus regnum cepit. Although 
Tetricus at that time had already succeeded him : see the Tables A. D. 268. Unless with Tillemont 
tom. 3 p. 372 we read Censorinus : namely that Censorinus, qui sub Claudio fuit : Trebell. XXX 
tyr. c. 31—33. 
(5 Victorinus. See the Tables 265. 267- 

(6 Victorinus junior. Slain with his father : Trebell. XXX c. 7 ^ patre et ab avia sub eadem hora 
qua Victorinus interemptus Casar nuncupatus est ac statim a militibus ira occisus. Extant denique 
sepulchra circa Agrippinam brevi marmore impressa humilia, in quibus units est inscriptus " Hie duo 
Victorini tyranni siti sunt." 

Coins of the elder Victorinus apud Eckhel tom. 7 p- 451 not inserted in the Tables. 

adjutrix Aug. 



Gallienus. 



1 Imp. Cas. Victorinus P. F. Aug. + ■< 



I2 



leg. IIII Flavia P. F. 
leg. X Fretensis P. F. 
leg. XX Val. Victrix P. F. 
leg. XXII primigenie. 
leg. XXX Ulp. Vict. P. F. 
leg. XXXVI P. Vict. P. F. 
p. m. tr. p. II COS. p.p. 
^ vota Augusti. 



60 APPENDIX. CI. 

No XXX tyr. 

Galhenus. 2 Imp. Victorinus Pius Aug. + Victoria Aug. 

3 Divo Victortno Pio + consacratio. or providentia Aug. ox fides milit. 

4 Imp. C. M. Piavvonius Victorinus P. F. Aug. 

A mutilated inscription apud Muratorium p. 461. I ad Sancti Mellorii in minore Britannia : 
Imp. Caes [Pi] auomo Victorino p.p. IS Leuc. . . 

(30 Victoria. TrebeU. XXX c. 31 Victoria ubi filium ac nepotem a militibus vidit occisos, Postumium, 
deinde Lollianum, Marium etiam, quern principem milites nuncuparunt, interemptos, Tetricum ad im- 
perium hortata est. — Insignita est praterea hoc titulo, ut castrorum se diceret matrem [conf. c. 25] . 
— Tetrico imperante, ut plerique loquuntur, occisa ; ut alii asserunt, fatali necessitate consumpta. 
Mentioned in Victor Cses. 
8 (23 Tetricus. Trebell. XXX c. 24 Interfecto Victorino et ejus filio, mater ejus Victoria Tetricum sena- 
torem populi Romani preesidatum in Gallia regentem ad imperium hortata — Augustum appellari fecit 
filiumque ejus Ccesarem nuncupavit. For his defeat by Aurelian see the Tables A. D. 274. His 
subsequent fortunes are described by Trebellius XXX c. 24 Pudore tamen victus vir nimium severus 
eum quern triumphaverat correctorem totius Italics fecit &c. — ac non solum vivere sed etiam in summa 
dignitate manere passus est. Vopiscus Aureliano c. 39 more accurately : Tetricum triumphatum 
correctorem Lucanice fecit, filio ejus in senatu manente. Victor Caes. p. 340 Lucania correcturam 
filioque veniam atque honorem senatorium cooptavit. Hence Victor Epit. p. 383 regere aliquam Italics 
partem. Eutropius IX. 13 Tetricus corrector Lucanice posteafuit, ac privatus diutissime vixit. 
Ausonius Parent. IV. 9 commemorates Victorinus and the Tetrici : 

regnum cum Victorinus haberet. 



Victor, et in Tetricos recidit imperium. 

(24 Tetricus junior. TrebeU. XXX c. 25 Hie puerulus a Victoria CcEsar est appellatus. — qui et ipse cum 
patre per triumphum ductus poslea omnibus senatoriis honoribus functus est. 

A coin of Tetricus the father apud Eckhel torn. 7 p- 456 Imp. C. C. Pesu. Tetricus Aug. Coins 
of Tetricus the son : lb. p. 459 1 C. Pivesu. Tetricus Cces. + Imp. Tetricus P. F. Aug. or seculum. 

2 Imp. CS. Tetricus C. + abundant. Aug. 3 C. Pes. Tetricus Caes. 4 Pivesus Tetricus Ccbs. 
5 C. Tetricus Cces. 6 Impe. Tet. Pives. 7 C. Piv. Tetricus A. + Soli conser. 

9 (8 Ingenuus. Tables A. D. 260. His death is described by Trebellius XXX c. 9. Orosius VII. 22 
makes Ingenuus the first : primus Ingenuus, qui purpuram imperii sumserat, apud Mursam occiditur. 
Ammianus XXI. 16^ 1 Gallienus perduellionum crebris variisque adpetitus insidiis, Aureoli et Posthumi 
et Ingenui et Valentis cognomento Thessalonici, aliorumque plurium. 

10 (9 Regalianus. Tables 260. His revolt followed the death of Ingenuus : Trebell. XXX c. 10 Regil- 

lianus in Illyrico ducatum gerens imperator est f actus, auctoribus imperii Mcesiis qui cum Ingenue 
fuerant ante superati. 

Coins of Regalianus : Eckhel torn. 7 p. 462. 
1 Imp. C. P. C. Regalianus Aug. + liberalitas Auggg. 2 Imp. C. P. C. Regalia + Oriens Aug. 

3 Imp. C. P. C. Regalianus . . . + victoria ... 4 .\ coin of Caracalla recoined with the name of 

C. P. C. Regalianu. Conf. Eckhel p. 462. 

11 (10 Aureolus. Tables A.D. 262. 263. 267. 268. Trebell. XXX c. U Hie quoque Illyricianos exercitus 

regens — coactus a militibus sumpsit imperium. — Gallienus pacem cum eo contra Postumium pugnaturus 
fecit. Victor Epit. p. 337 Aureolus, cum per Rhcetias legionibus prceesset, — sumpto imperio Romam 
contendebat. Tillemont torn. 3 p. 525 examines the difficulties in the history of Aureolus. It seems 
however that Aureolus, though in the service of Gallienus in 266, had revolted at an earlier period; 
for it is related that Gallienus made peace with him not only by Trebellius but bv Vopiscus Aure- 



EMPERORS. 61 

NO XXX tyr. 

liano c. 16 Cum quo Gallienus fecerat pacem. Trebellius gives this account of his death: XXX c.ll Gallienus.. 
Aureolum Claudius interfecto jam GalUeno conflictu hahito apud eum pontem interemit qui nunc pons 
Aureoli nuncupatur. Idem Claudio c, 5 Claudius primum ut /actus est imperator, Aureolum — con- 
flictu hahito a reipublicce gubernaculis depulit tyrannumque missis ad populum edictis — -judicavit. His 
accedit quod rogantem Aureolum et foedus petentem imperator gravis et severus non audivit. — Denique 
Judicio militum apud Mediolanum Aureolus dignum exitum vita ac morihus suis habuit. Vopiscus 
Aureliano c. 16 mentions other accounts of the death of Aureolus. 

Coins apud Eckhel torn. 7 p. 465. 1 Imp. Aureolus Aug. -\- concord, equit. 2 Imp. C. Aureolus 
Aug. + concord. II M. C. 

The Greek inscription to Aureolus is given in Gruter p. 163.2 Salmasius ad Trebell. p. 305 
Casaubon ad Trebell. p. 214 Jacobs Anthol. tom. 4 p. 250, and is attested by Trebellius XXX c. 1 1 
— Extat etiam epigramma Grcecum in hanc formam. who inserts a Latin version — versus a quodam 
grammatico translatos. The lines are extant Pontiroli in agro Mediolanensi. 

KXavSios AvpedXw /nera brfiov "Apea Kaiaap 

TO. Kripea, 6vr]rS>v as 6ip.is, evdiboai. 
Ta yap Koi ^wrjV aXX' ovk edeXrjdf <pp6vr]fia 

Tvacnv eTTipprjTOis tov arpaTov dvri^iov. 
Kuvos 8* olKrippxov Koi (rmpxiros ea^^ar oni^cov 

AvpeoXov ye(f>vpap ettraro ttjp t€ TafpTjv. 

12 (11 Macrianus. See the Tables 261. 262. Macrianus is mentioned by Dionysius apud Euseb. H. E. 

VII. 23. 

(12 Macrianus junior. Tables 261. 262. Trebell. XXX c. 13 Hie cum patre a Domitiano victus triginta, 
ut superius dixi, [sc. c. 1 2] millibus militum spoliatus est. 

Tillemont tom. 3 p. 526 supposes in Trebell. Gallieno c. 5, pugnatum est Macriano duce contra 
Gotthos, that Macrianus Augustus is intended. But this is improbable. The name in Cod. Paris. 
is Marianus, and may have been Marcianus. Macrianus Augustus at that time, if not already slain, 
was opposed to Aureolus in lUyricum. Macrianus is for Marcianus in Trebell. Claudio c. 6, which 
confirms the emendation of Salmasius in GaUieno c. 5. 

(13 Quietus, son oi Macrianus. See the Tables 261. 262. 

(17 Balista. Tables A. D. 261. Trebell. XXX c. 18 De hoc utrum imperaverit scriptores inter se am- 
bigunt. Multi enim dicunt Quieto per Odenatum occiso [sc. A. D. 262] Balistce veniam datam; tamen 
eum imperasse. — Alii asserunt privatum eum in agro suo quern apud Daphnem sibi compararat inter- 
emptum. Multi et sumpsisse ilium purpuram et more Romano imperasse — dixerunt; occisum autem per 
hos quos Aureolus miserat ad comprehendendum Quietum. Called Callistus in Syncellus p. 382 A. 

13 (14 Odenathus. Tables A. D, 260. 264. 267- TreheH. XXX c.} 5 Assumpto nomine primum reguli cum 

uxore Zenobia et filio majore cui erat nomen Herodes, minoribus Herenniano et Timolao, collecto exer- 
citu contra Persas profectus est &c. Macriano interempto fllium Quietum inter/ecit, Balista (ut ple- 
rique asserunt) regnum usurpante. Eckhel tom. 7 p. 496 argues " Odenathi caedes illorumque [sc. 
Zenobia et Vabalathi] regnandi initium seu annus d figendus est inde a die 29 Aug. A. D. 266 
usque ad recurrentem eundem diem anni sequentis." But this does not follow. L. jS' indeed 
began Aug. 29 A. D. 267 ; but we only know from hence that L. d was current to Aug. 28 A. D. 
267- It might have been current only for a few weeks preceding that day, and is by no means 
carried back to 29 Aug. 266. We only learn from those coins that Odenathus died and that they 
succeeded before 29 Aug. 267. How long before, the coins do not determine. 
(15 Herodes. Trebell. XXX c. 16 Non Zenobia matre sed priore uxore genitus cum patre accepit impe- 
rium. Slain with his father : Idem c. 15. 



62 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

No XXX tyr. 
Gallienus. (16 Mceonius. Trebell. XXX c. 17 Hie consobrinus Odenati fuit, nee ulla re alia ductus nisi damnabili 

irwidia imperatorem optimum interemit. 
(26 Herennianus. Trebell. XXX c. 27 Odenatus moriens duos parvulos reliquit, Herennianum et/ratrem 
ejus Timolaum ; quorum nomine Zenohia usurpato sibi imperio diutius quam foeminam dectiit rempub- 
lieam obtinuit. 

(27 Timolaus, son of Odenatkus. Conf. Trebell. XXX c. 27. 28 Vopiscum Aureliano c. 38. 
Vabalathus. See the Tables A. D. 267. 272. 

Inscriptions referring to the family of Odenathus : 1 Muratori p. 744. 2 Boeckh. Inscr. Gr. 
torn. 3 p. 230 No 4491 Palmyrse. Thus given in Boeckh: SeTrrt'/xtoi/ Alpdvrjv 'OBaivddov t6v XafiTrpo- 

rarov (rvvKXrfTiKov i^ [Ibimv hancL^vwv AvprfKi p. HXtoScbpou aTpaTimrrjs Xfy Ktjs rbv 

iTaTpaiv{a\ Tfifirjs Koi evxapiarias x^P'"' ffoi'r yl0> The 563rd year of the SeleucidcB commenced in 
Oct. A. D. 251. This monument was therefore erected twelve years before Odenathus was de- 
clared Augustus. 2 Murat. p. 744. 1 Boeckh p. 233 No 4498 Palmyrse. Thus in Boeckh : Sett- 
Tifiiov Ovopa>8T]v TOP Kpariarov eirirpoTTOV Sf/SaoroO Bovicrjvdpiop /cat dpyairerrfv 'lovXios AvprjXios ^dkfitjs Kaa- 
(Tiavov Tov \MeX\evaiov limrevs 'Ptafmlav tov (f)iKov Kai irpoardrriv, trovs rjocf), p.rfv€\ SavdiKw. 3 Murat. 

p. 745. 1 Boeckh p. 232 No 4497 Palmyrae. Thus in Boeckh : Sorrt/i tov Kpa nov 

2c/3 .... rjvdpiov /cat rjp 'lovkios Aip os ^tTrrifuos M MaXo^a Natrcrou ... 6 Kpd- 

TitTTOf TOV (f)tXov /cat npoordTtjv Tfip,r]s eveKev, crows ^o(^, p,rfvei SavdiKa, 4 Boeckh p. 233 No 4499 
S«iT .... Ovopa)8T)V TOV KpaTiOTOv emTpoTTOV Se^aoToi) Bovktjv . piov /cat dpyaireTqv 'lovXior . vprjKios SfTrri- 
* p,ios 'idbrfs tTTTTi/cof ScTTTt/xt'ov 'AXc^ . vBpov TOV 'HpwSou . TTO <jTpaTiS>v TOV (j)iKov KOI TTpoardTtjv Teip,7Js eveKev, 

€Tovs r)o(f), fir)vel SavbiKa. Xanthicus of A. S. 577 is April A. D. 266, and of 578, April A. D. 267. 
Odenathus and Herodes were slain before the middle of A. D. 267. See the Tables A. D. 267 
p. 296. But these inscriptions establish that Herodes was still living in April ; and we may place 
his death not " towards the beginning of that year" (as expressed in p. 296) but rather " after 
April and before August." 5 Mur, p. 744. 3 Boeckh p. 236 No 4507 Palmyrae : to fivrjfiehv tov 
Ta(f)fa>vos eKTurev e^ tdt'oi/ ScTrrt/xtof 'OdaivaBos 6 XafnrpoTaTOs avvKXryriKos 6 Alpdvov . . 'Oa^aXXddov tov 
Nao-apou, avra re /cat vioiy avroC /cat viavols els to -n-avTeXes alaviov Teip,r)v. We may with Eckhel tom. 7 

p. 489 refer this inscription to Odenathus the husband of Zenobia. Inscribed before he was de- 
clared Augustus. 

1 4 (29 Zenobia. See the Tables A. D. 272. 273 for the defeat and capture of Zenobia ; A. D. 274 for the 

triumph of Aurelian. Zenobia survived the triumph : Trebell. XXX c. 30 Huic ab Aureliano vivere 
concessum est ; ferturque vixisse cum liberis matronce jam more Romance, data sibi possessione in Ti- 
burti qua hodieque Zenobia dicitur. Zosimus I. 59 is inaccurate in supposing that she died on her 
way to Rome. Eutropius IX. 13 relates Zenobia posteros qui adhue manent Romce reliquit. 

15 (20 Piso. Trebell. Gallieno c. 2 Macrianus Pisonem unum ex nobilibus prineipibus senatus ad Achaiam 

destinavit ob hoc ut Valentem qui illic proconsulari imperio rempublicam gubernabat opprimeret. Sed 
Valens, comperto quod Piso contra se veniret, sumpsit imperium. Piso igitur in Thessaliam se recepit, 
ubi missis a Valente militibus eompluribus interfectus est ; ipse quoque imperator appellatus cognomento 
Thessalicus. Idem XXX c. 2 1 Hie a Macriano ad interjiciendum Valentem missus, ubi eum providum 
futurorum imperare cognovit, Thessaliam concessit atque illic paucis sibi consentientibus sumpsit impe- 
rium Thessalicusque appellatus interemptus est ; vir sumnuB sanctitatis. — Ipse Valens, qui ad eum per- 
cussores misisse perhibetur, dixisse dicitur non sibi apud Deos inferos constare rationem, quod, quamvis 
hostem suum Pisonem tamen jussisset occidi, viTnim cui similem Romana respublica tunc non haberet. 
Senatus consultum de Pisone factum — libenter inserui. Die VII Kal. Jul. quum esset nuntiatum 
Pisonem a Valente interemptum ipsum Valentem a suis occisum, Aurelius Fuscus — " Divinos" inquit 
" honores Pisoni decemo P. C. Gallienum et Valerianum et Saloninum imperatores nostras esse con- 
fido" &c. 



EMPERORS. 63 

No XXX tyr. 

16 (18 Valens. See N°. 15. Trebell. XXX c. 19 Vir militaris — proconsulatum Achaiee dato a Ga//ieno Galiienus. 

tunc honore gubemdbat ; quern Macrianus [Martianus male quidam] vehementer reformidans — misso 
Pisone — interfici prcecepit. Valens diligentissime cavens et providens — sumpsit imperium, et brevi a 
militibus interemptus est. Mentioned by Victor Epit. 

17 (21 ^milianus. Treb. XXX c. 22 Qua re coactus ^milianus sumpsit imperium, quum sciret sibi undecun- 

que pereundum. Consenserunt ei ^gyptiacus exercitus — nee ejus ad regendam rempublicam vigor defuit. 
Nam Thebaidem totamque jEgyptum peragravit &c. — Et quum contra Indos pararet expeditionem, 
misso Theodoto duce Gallieno jubente dedit pcenas; siquidem strangulatus in car cere captivorum veterum 
more perhibetur. Trebell. Gallieno c. 4 Per idem tempus JEmilianus apud ^Egyptum sumpsit impe- 
rium &c. He was still living in 263. See the Tables. 

18 (22 Saturninus. Trebell. XXX c. 23 Optimus ducum Gallieni temporibus, sed a Valeriano dilectus fuit. 

Hie quoque — ab exercitibus sumpsit imperium. — Ea die qua est amictus a militibus peplo imperatorio, 
condone habita dixisse fertur " Commilitones, bonum ducem perdidistis et malum principem fecistis." 
Denique quum multa strenue in imperio fecisset, quod esset severior et gravior militibus ab iisdem ipsis 
a quibus /actus fuerat interemptus est. His elevation is placed by Trebellius at 263. See the 
Tables. 

19 (25 Trebellianus. Trebell. XXX c. 26 Trebellianum factum in Isauria principem, — quem quum alii archi- 

piratam vocassent, ipse se imperatorem appellavit. monetam etiam cudi jussit, palatium in arce Isauria 
constituit. — Sed per Gallieni ducem Causisoleum natione ^gyptium, fratrem Theodoti qui jEmilianum 
ceperat [see N". 17], ad campum deductus est victus et occisus. If this expression of Trebellius may 
be trusted, his overthrow was after the defeat of jEmilianus, who still reigned in Egypt in 263. 

20 (28 Celsus. Trebell. XXX c. 29 Afri quoque auctore Vibio Passieno proconsule Africa et Fabio Pom- 

poniano duce limitis Libyci Celsum imperatorem appellaverunt. — Hie privatus ex tribunis in Africa 
positus in agris suis vivebat. — Creatus per quondam mulierem Gallienam nomine consobrinam Gallieni 
septimo imperii die interemptus est. 

Tillemont is deceived on many occasions by the false coins of Goltzius ; as in tom. 3 p. 353. 
Conf. Eckhel. tom. 7 p. 352. 447. 449. 461. 469. 470. 491. All these are quoted by Tillemont 
as genuine. The four years of Odenathus in TiUemont are only derived from the coins of 
Goltzius. 

Gallienus was consecrated by the order of Claudius : Victor Cses. p. 338 GalUenum subacti a 
Claudio patres — divrnn dixere. But in the judgment of Eckhel tom. 7 p. 416 coins of divus Gal- 
limus Augustus have not yet been found. 

Coins of GalUenus of which the years are not known are given in Eckhel p. 395—416. The 
most material are the following. 

I Coins inscribed to Deities. 1 Apollini cons. Aug. 2 ApolUni Pal. 8. P. Q. B. 3 Deo Avr- 
gusto. 4 BiancB cons. Aug. 5 Herculi cons. Aug. 6 Jgmo patri. 7 Jom conservatori. 8 Jam 
cons. Aug. 9 Jo. Cantab. 10 Lihero P. cons. Aug. 11 Mercurio cons. Aug. 12 Neptuno cons. 
Aug. 13 de(B Segetice. 14 Serapidi comiti Aug. 15 SoU cons. Aug. 16 deo Volcano. 

II Coins recording German victories: p. 401. 1 Imp. Gallimus P. F. Aug. Germ. + adlocutio 
Augg. 2 Imp. GalUenus P. F. Aug. + Germ^bnicus rimximus. 3 Imp. P. Lie. Gallienus P. F. Aug. 
+ Gemmmicus mxix. ter. 4 Gallienus P. F. Aug. + Germanicus max. V. 5 Imp. GalUenus Aug. 
Germ. V. + Germanicus max. V. or restitutor. Galliar. 6 Gallimus Aug. Germ. V. + victoria Ger- 
mxinica. 7 Iinp- C. P. Lie. Gallienus P. F. Aug. + mctorice Augg. it. Germ. 8 Imp. Gallienus 
P. F. Aug. Ger. S. + mrtus Augg. 

III Coins inscribed with the legions : p. 402. 



64 



APPENDIX. 



C. I 



Gallienus. 



GalUenus Aug. + ■< 



f cohh. prcBt. VI P. VI F. or VII P. VII F. sc. Pia Fidelis. 
kg. I adj. VI P. VI F. or VII P. VII F. 
leg. I Aug. VI P. VI F. 
leg. I Ital. VI P. VI F. and VII P. VII F. 
leg. I Min. VI P. VI F. and VII P. VII F. 
leg. II adj. VI P. VI F. VII P. VII F. 
leg. II Ital. VI P. VI F. VII P. VII F. ** 

leg. II Part. VIP. VI F. V P. V F. 
legio secunda Augus. 

leg. Ill Ital. VI P. VI F. VII P. VII F. 
leg.IIIIFl. VI P. VI F. 
leg. VMac. VI P. VI F. 
leg. VI Mac. VII P. VII F. 
leg. VII CI. VIP. VI F. VII. P. VII F. 
leg. VIII Aug. VI P. VI F. VII P. VII F. 
leg. Villi Aug. VI P. VI F. 
leg. X gem. VI P. VI F. 
leg. XI CI. VI P. VI. F. or XI C. P. F. 
leg. XIII gem. VI P. VI F. 
leg. XI III gem. VIP. VI F. 
leg. II XX VIP. VI F. VII P. VII F. 
leg. XX VIP. VI F. 
Ug. XXI gem. VIP. VI F. 
leg. XXII VIP. VI F. 
leg. XXX Ulp. VI P. VI F. 

These valuable testimonies display the great resources of the empire even in this unfortunate 
reign. 

IV Of other coins p. 405 the most memorable are these : 1 GalUenus Aug.-\-abundantia Aug. 
8. P. Q. R. 2 Imp. C. P. Lie. GalUenus Aug. -\- ceternitati Augg. 3 Imp. C. P. Licin. GalUenus 
P. F. Aug. -\- cohort, prcef. principi suo. 4 GalUenus Aug. -Vconcordia exerc. VIII. ov fides exerc. 

VIII. or conservat. pietat. or fid. prcetorianorum. or Uberalitas Aug. IIII. 5 Imp. GalUenus Aug. 

+ fides exercitus. 6 GalUenus P. F. Aug. +fidei equitum. 7 Gallienum Aug. P. B. + oh conserva- 
tionem patrice. or ob reddit. lihert. 8 Gallienum Aug. Senatus. + oh lihertatem receptam. 9 GalUenus 
P. F. Aug. + restit. Galliar. 10 GalUenus Aug. + s(sculares Aug. (conf. Eckh. p. 409.) or victoria 
Part, (see the Tables A. D. 264.) or victoria Aug. Ill (in others victoria VI. VII. VIII. Villi.) or 
vict. Gal. Aug. or vict. Gal. Aug. III. 11 Concordia Augg. + Salonina Aug. 12 Imp. C. P. Lie. 
GalUenus P. F. Aug. +S. P. Q. B. optima principi. ' 13 GalUence Augustce-\-uhique pax.^ or victoria 
Aug. 14 Imp. GalUenus Pius Felix Aug. + virtus Gallieni Augusti. 15 Imp. GalUenus Pius Fel. 
Aug. ■\- virtus Augustorum. 16 GalUenus Aug. •\- virtus Valeri. GalUenus is called Valerianus in 
Alexandrian coins : see the Tables A. D. 257 and Eckhel torn. 7 p- 409. But only before the 
death of his father: Eckhel torn. 4 p. 91 " Epigraphe ab Alexandrinis vivo patre tributa est." 
17 Concordia Augg. with the heads of GalUenus and Salonina.+pietas Faleri"^. 



1 Eckhel p. 4 1 4 compares pacata omnia apud Vic- 
torem Caes. p. 337. 

"" A coin apud Eckhel torn. 7 p. 392 bears GalUe- 



nus Aug.-\-p. m. tr. p. X cos. IIII p. p. where the 
numbers do not correspond. See the Tables 262. 3. 
Perhaps from the negligence of that age. 



EMPERORS. 65 

Coins of Salonina: p. 418 1 Cornelia Salonina Aug. •\rabundantia temporum. or cequitas pub- GA\.\.iY.svi. 
lica. 2 Salonina Aug. + annona Aug. or decs Segetice. Alexandrian coins of Salonina are inscribed 
L. te'. which confirm that she still survived at the death of Gallienus^. 

Coins of the Ccesar Saloninus are in the Tables A. D. 255. His Alexandrian coins at A. D. 260. 
Coins of Saloninus Augustus are given by Eckhel torn. 7 p- 422. 1 Imp. Salon. Valerianus Aug. 
-{■ spes publica. 2 Imp. Valerianus P. F. Aug. + cequitas Aug. 3 Imp. C. P. Lie. Valerianus P. F. 
Aug. +principi Juveniutis. or victoricB Augg. it. Germ. Coins after his death: p. 423. 1 Bivo Cces. 
Valeriano. + consecratio. or oriens Augg. or pietas Augg. or principi juvent. He was named 
Ccesar in the beginning of the reign of Gallienus : Victor Cses. p. 336 Salonino filio cui honorem 
Ccesaris contulerat. He was slain in A. D. 260: see the Tables. An inscription quoted by Eckhel 
tom. 7 p- 426 attests that he was living in 259, the 7th tribunician year of Gallienus: " dedicatam 
Valeriano Gallieno, quorum utrique additur trib. pot. VII, et Salonino, qui dicitur P. Cornelius 
Saloninus Valerianus nobiliss. Cces. pont?'' 

The children of Gallienus and Salonina are commemorated in inscriptions apud Panvinium 
p, 379 Gruterum p. 275. 5. 7- P- Hcinio Salonin. Valeriano nob. Cas. prin. juven. Valeriani Aug. 
nepoti Gallieni et Salonince Aug. filio mater pientissima. Imp. Q. Julio filio Gallieni Julice nobiliss. 
Aug. et Salonince Aug. puellcefil. Gallieni Aug. et Salon. Aug. ordo populusque Suessanus parentibus 
eorum publice privatimque devoti. 

Inscriptions. 1 Murat. p. 254. 3 Aqua Spartse : Imp. Cces. P. Licinio Egnatio Gallieno Pio Fel. 
Aug. pont. max. trib. pot. Ill [A. D. 255] cos. procos. p.p. D. D. 2 Mur. p. 254. 4 Triventi : Imp. 

Cces. P. Licinio Egnatio Gallieno Aug. trib. pot. Ill cos. Ill Read cos. II. Gallienus was 

cos. Ill in his 5th tribunician year. 3 Murat. p. 1091. 2 item p. 254. 2 Vasione : Imp. Cces. P. 
Lie. Gallien. invicto P. F. Aug. Vasenses. 4 Murat. p. 254. 5 in agro Tudertino : Gallienus pat. 
pat. Vol. centurio. 5 Mur. p. 1105. 1 Romse. Tn fronte: Publio Cornelio Licinio Valeriano nobi- 
lissimo Ccpsari SS. col. Julia Casfronovo devota numini ejus. In sinistro latere : Imp. Fl. Valerio Se- 
vero nobilissimo Ccesari Castronovanorum. 6 Mur. p. 1105. 2 Romse : CornelicB Salonince sanctissimtB 
Aug. col. Julia Castronovo. devota numini ejus. 7 Murat. p. 254. 7 Pisauri : P. Cornelio Licinio 
Valeriano Ccesari Pisaurenses. 8 Mur. p. 254. 6 in agro Niciensi : Cornelice Salonince sanctissim- 
Aug. conjugi Gallieni junioris Aug. N. ordo Cemenel. cur. Ant. Aurelio Januario V. E. 9 Murat. 
p. 1046. 6 Ferentini : Cornelice Salonince sanctissimce Aug. conjugi D. N. Gallieni invicti Aug. Fe- 
rentinates Novani devoti numini majestatique ejus. 10 Mur. p. 1119. 2 Temesvarise in Hungaria : 
Cornelice SalonincB Aug. conjugi Gallieni Aug. N. ordo mun. Tib. dev. num. majest. qu. ejus. 

Claudius II. A. D. 268 — 270. ClaudiiJs II. 

Claudius is called by Decius apud Trebell. Claud, c. 16 in A. D. 250 tribunum Claudium optimum 
juvenem. If he was 56 at his death x, he was 36 at that period of the reign of Decius. Claudius 
supported Gallienus in his campaign against Postumus and Victorinus : Trebell. Gallieno c. 7- 
which may be placed at A. D. 265 or 266. His letter to Begalianus — Begilliano Illyrici duci — is 
recorded by Trebellius XXX c. 10. Claudius was elected Augustus by Heraclianus and Martia- 
nus: Trebell. Gallieno c. 15. At the death of Gallienus he was at Ticinus: Victor Epit. p. 382 
Ticini positum, and according to both the Victors was not a party to the death of Gallienus and 
was named by Gallienus himself as his successor. Zosimus makes him a party to the conspiracy 2, 

* Zonaras XII tom. 1 p. 633 mentions tj)j/ /Sao-i- the Alexandrian coin. 

Xiaaav — so. Saloniham Augustam — in his narrative of Y See the Tables A. D. 270. 

the war with Aureolus at Milan, at the close of the z See the Tables A. D. 268. 
reign of Gallienus. which agrees with the date of 



QQ APPENDIX. C. 1. 

Claudius II. and Zonaras XII torn. 1 p. 634 D 6 'Hpa/cXciayos KeKoii'wi'TjKws rfjs (inj3ov\ris koI K\avbl<^. But the 
authority of the Victors and of Trebellius, as nearer the times, is to be preferred. 

Zonaras XII torn. 1 p. 636 B on the reign of Claudius observes, dW ovb^ irepl tov xpovov rrj^ tov 
KKavbCov a.p)(r]s ak\-qKois crvix(f)Oivov<riv oi avyypacfyels' ol fx\v yap i(f) iva 6.p^ai tovtov icrTopovcn.v kvi- 
avrhv, ol hi krci hvo, <av kari koX Ev(T€J3t,os. 

Coins of Claudius not recorded in the Tables. Eckhel torn. 7 p- 471 1 Imp. C. Claudius Aug. 
+ conservai. pietat. or deo CaUro. or Jovi fulgerat. or Juno regina. or juventas Aug. or Neptwno 
Aug. or regi artis. or salus Aug. 2 Imp. C. M. Aur. Claudius Aug.+ Venus Aug. 3 Imp. Cess. 
Claudius Pius Felix Aug. 

Tillemont torn. 3 p. 531 quotes, a law of Claudius dated 26 Oct. 270; whence Norisius apud 
Eckhel torn. 7 p- 476 argues that Claudius " exeunte Octobri adhuc vixisse." But Eckhel justly 
contends that no Alexandrian coin of Claudius is extant with L. 8'. A more certain proof is 
supplied by the coins of Aurelian quoted in the Tables A. D, 272, which demonstrate that L. a 
of Aurelian was already current before 28 Aug. A. D. 270. Which justifies the emendation of 
Cod. Justin, proposed in the Tables A. D. 270. 3. 

Inscriptions. 1 Panvin. p. 380 Gruter p. 275. 8 Imp. Cess. M. Aur. Claudio P. F. invicto Au- 
gusta Benacenses. 2 Gruter p. 275. 10 Setabi Hispan. Imp. Cces. M. Aur. Claudio Pio Fel. invicto 
Aug.pont. max. trih.pot. cos. II'^ p.p. procos. 3 Gruter p. 276. 1 Murator. p. 255. 5 Sagunti : 
Senatus et populus Sagmitinorum Claudio invicto Pio Felici imp. Cces. pont. max. trih. pot. p. p. 
procos. 4 Murat. p. 255. 4 Sagunti : Claudio imp. victori 0. F. pontifi. max. cos. I procos. 
5 Mur. p. 255. 2 p. 255.3 Sagunti: Imp. Cces. Claudio invicto Pio Fel. pont. max. trihu. pot. Ill 
COS. II procos. 6 Murat. p. 255. 6 Regii Lepidi : Claudio victori ac triumphatori Aug. Domino ... 
...rum. 7 Mur. p. 255. 7 Thebis: Avyova-Tov avTOKpdTopa M. Avp-qkLov KXavhiov KaCaapa rj ttoKls. 
8 Mur. p. 255. 8 Ex voto pro sal. D. N. P. Claudi Aug. Jlorentissimi princ. C. Julius Cyleros V. C. 
Aug. N.proc. V. cur. J) Mur. p. 1031, 8 Barchinone in basi statuse : Imp. Cces. M. Aur. Claudio 
Pio Fel. Aug. pontif. mxtx. trih.pot. cos. et procos. p.p. muximoque principi nostro ordo Bare, devotus 
numini majestatique ejus. 10 Mur. p. 255. 9 Arelati: Divo Claudio ex testamento L. Valeri Pla- 
cidi. 11 Murat. p. 255. 10 Panormi in praetorio : Divo Claudio resp. Panhormit. 

Censorinus. Censoeinus. Trebell. XXX c. 31 Cmsorinus sub Claudio fuit ah iisdem militihus a quihus pur- 
pura velatus fuerat interemptus. Idem c. 32 Censorinum hominem nohilem, sed qui non tam hono quam 
malo reipuhlicce septem diehus dicitur imperasse. Idem c. 33 Censorinus his consul his prcef. prcetorii 
ter prcef. urhis quarto proconsul tertio consularis, legatus pratorius secundo, cedilitius quarto qucesto- 
rius tertio, extra ordinem quaque legatione Persica functus etiam Sarmutica. Post omnes tamen honores 
quum in agro suo degeret senex atque uno pede claudicans vulnere quod hello Persico Vdleriani tempo- 
rihus acceperat foetus est imperator. — quumque se gravissime gereret — ah his ipsis — a quihus factus 
fuerat interemptus est. 

QuiNTiLLus. QuiNTiLLDs. Tables A. D. 270. 

Zonaras also XII torn. 1 p. 636 gives 17 days to Quintillus : p.a6u)v ttjv avdpp-qa-Lv rod Avpr}\iavov 
(avTov di'eiAe, re/ucay Tr]V (f)\€^a t^s oiKeias x^'pos, koI rfj (KeWev tov alp-aros evaTto-^vias porj, kura- 
KaCbfKa [wvas rjixipas oveipeo^as uKnrep T-qv avTapyiav. 

AUBELIAUUS. AURELIANUS. 

The offices of AureUan before his elevation are described by Vopiscus Aurel. c. 10 Hahuit 

» See the Tables A- D. 269. 1 . 



EMPERORS. 67 

multos ducatm, phrimoe tribunatus, vicarias ducum et tribunorwm diversis temporihus prope qua- Auuelian. 
draginta. 

Tzschutke ad Eutrop. IX p. 688 places the elevation of Aurelian at the end of the year 270 — 
"exeunte anno, ut supra docui." sc. p. 673. — because "lex Claudii commemoratur Oct. 2.6 A.D. 
270."" But the Alexandrian coins oi Aurelian^ and the acts performed between his accession and 
11 Jan. 271 demonstrate that he had already succeeded Claudius many months before October. 
Wherefore, as already shewn, the date of that subscription in the code may be rejected as of no 
authority ; and Tillemont torn. 3 p. 532 properly abandons it. Aurelian in 270 at the death of 
Claudius was engaged in the remains of the Gothic war: Vopisc. Aurel. c. 17 Constat omne contra 
McBotidas helium divum Claudium nulli magis quam Aureliano credidisse. Extat epistola — " Flavius 
Claudius Valerio Aureliano suo salutem. Expetit a te munus solitum nostra respuhlica. Aggredere. 
quid moraris? — Gotthi a Thraciis amovendi ; eorum enim plerique Hcemimontum [sc. A.D. 270] 
Europamque vexant^ qui te pugnante fugerunt. Omnes exercitus Thracicos omnes Illyricianos totumque 
limitem in tua potestate constituo. — Tecum erit etiam f rater Quintillus, quum occurrerit. Ego aliis 
rehus occupatus summam belli illius virtutibus tuis credo." — Secundis igitur prceliis usus auspiciis 
Claudianis rempublicam in integrum reddidit, atque ipse statim consensu omnium legionum factus est 
imperator. Equites sane omnes ante imperium sub Claudio Aurelianus gubernavit, quum offensam ma- 
gistri eorum incurrissent quod temere Claudio non juhente pugnassent. After his elevation Aurelian 
visited Rome ; and then, still in the year 270, engaged the Goths again in Pannonia : Zosim. 1. 48 
Avpr]\Lai>bs 8e Kparvvdixevos ttjv apxrjv /cat ck ttjs 'Pa>ixr]s ekaaas irrl T-qv ^AKvXrjtav €x<opei, KUKeWev 
rjXavv€V €i:l ra nai6v(av eOvt], tovtols tovs Sxv^ay fiaOoiiv iniOicrOai. — -nepaicaOivTOiV 8e t&v j3apj3a.p(i)v 
Kol jucix^? ev TTj Ylaiovia y^voiiivqs ia-cnaXovs, vv^ eTTtyevofjievr] ttjv vUr]V a{Ji(l)ripi(TTOv aficfiOTepoLS neTiot- 
rjKev. iv 8e ttj vvktI tov Ttorapxiv ol fidp^apoi bLajSavres afxa rjjxipa irepl cnrovbcov (TreKripvKivovTo. This 
war is noticed, though under other names, by Vopiscus Aurel. c. 18 Item Aurelianus contra Suevos 
et SarmMas iisdem temporibus vehementissime dimicavit, ac florentissimam victoriam retulit. Orosius 
VII. 23 Expeditione in Danubium suscepta Gotthos magnis prceliis profligavit. The Sarmatce the 
Scythians and the Goths are the same people, and Pannonia is the scene of the war. After the 
Pannonian campaign Aurelian engaged the Marcomanni and Alamanni in Italy : Zosim. I. 49 
quoted in the Tables A. D. 271. He encountered them at Milan : A^opisc. Aurel. c. 18. 

The letter oi Aurelian on the Sibylline books was considered in the Senate Jan. 11 A.D. 271. 
which fixes the other transactions noticed in the Tables at 27 1 • The Juthungi, to whom he grants 
peace in 27 1, had entered Italy with 80,000 foot and 40,000 horse : Dexippus p. 8 C /^lepet eAaxtorw 
Tas TTpos "IcTTpo) TToAets fTreA^oVre? ^IrakCav fiiKpov TTaaav KaretXryt^a/xer, Itttilk^ p.ev crrpaTivaavTis es 
fxvpidbas b' Koi tovtohv — ^lovOovyywv KaOapus, — aa-nCba 8e dyofxcv bLitXaa-iav bvvdfxeas rrjs iTTTTtfCTjs. 
Aurelian in his discourse to the ambassadors apud Dexippum p. 11 says aireCK-qiTTai yap 'Pobavov 
pi^v eio-co KOL tQ>v rip.eT€p(ii)v opicav. Where for the corrupt 'Pobavov the conjecture of Tillemont may 
be accepted — Trora/zou /xev darb). or rather rov Trora/xou piev eicro). Sc. the river Danube. Vopiscus, 
like Zosimus, seems to consider the victory on the Danube obtained over the Juthungi as the 
sequel of the Marcomannic war; for without naming them he ^vocQe^s finito proelio Marcomannico 
Aurelianus — Romam petit^. 

The events of Aurelian's reign in the historians mentioned in the Tables at 270 are in this 
order. 

b,See the Tables A. D. 270. 272. c See the Tables A. D. 271. 

K 2 



68 



APPENDIX. 



C. 1. 



AURELIAK 



Victor Cms. p. 340. 
Aureliantis confestim in Persas. 
Quis delelis, Italiam repelivit Ala- 

mannorum vexationibus afflictam. 
Simxd Germanis Gallia detnotis Te- 

tricum vicit. 
Post Celsum biennii imperii in Iri- 

umphum ductus, 
monelarii deled, 
fanum Soli constituit. 
muri, 
Aurelian ^\&ia. p. 341. 



Victor Epit. p. 383. 

In Italia tribus preeliis. 

Septimius imp. 

monelarii. 

muri. 

Tetrictis. 

Aurelian slain. 



EuTHOP. IX. 13—15. 

Gothos vicit. 
Tetricum superavit. 
Zenobiam cepit. 
triumphum. egit. 
monelarii. 
muri. 

templum Solis. 
Daciam intermisit. 
Aurelian slain. 



Oros. VII. 23. 
Gothi ad Danubium. 
Zenobiam in potestatem 

redegit. 
Tetricum superavit. 
triumphus. 
muri. 



persecutio. 
Aurelian slain. 



Zosimus I. 48, 49 has also some inaccuracies. His account of the two campaigns of Aurelian 
in the North and West in 270, 271 is brief and indistinct. Then Aurelian builds the walls of 
Rome ; which according to Zosimus had no walls before. The narrative then proceeds to the war 
with Zenobia c. 50 — 61 in which he is copious and clear; agreeing in the main points with Vo- 
piscus. Then c. 61 Aurelian visits Alexandria — triumphs at Rome — builds the temple of the Sun 
— and then, rovroiv hK^Kqiiivoav , conquers Tetricus, regulates the coin at Rome, c. 62. and is slain 
near Perinthus. 

. Vopiscus Aurel. c. 39 relates that Dacia was abandoned : Quum vastatum Illyricum ac Moesiam 
deperditam videret, provinciam trans Danuhium a Trajano constitutam sublato exercitu et provinda- 
libus reliquit, desperans earn posse retineri ; abductosque ex ea populos in Moesiam, collocavit appellor- 
vitque suam Daciam, qua nunc duas Moesias dividit. Eutropius IX. 15 Provinciam Daciam — 
intermisit &c. — appellavitque eam Daciam., qua nunc duas Mcesias dividit et est in dextra Danubio 
in mare Jluenti, cum antea fuerit in Iceva. In what year of his reign is not distinctly marked. 
Alluded to in a coin apud Eckhel tom. 7 p. 481 Imp. Aurelianus Aug. + Dacia felix. 

The revolt of the monetarii is described by Vopiscus Aurel. c. 38 Fuit sub Aureliano etiam mo- 
netariorum bellum, Felicissimo rationali auctore, quod acerrime severissimsque compescuit, VII tamen 
millibus suorum militum interemptis, ut epistola docet missa ad Ulpium Crinitum ter consuhm, qui 
eum ante adoptaverat [sc. A. D. 258], '■'■Aurelianus Augustus Ulpio patrV &c. Conf. Eutropium 
IX. 14 Victorem Epit. p. 383. Victor Oaes. p. 340 Intra urbem msnetce opifices deleti, qui — pcence 
m£tu bellum fecerunt usque eo grave, uti per GcBlium montem congressi VII fere millia bellatorwn 
confecerint. i. e. inter fecerint. Aurelian himself distinctly affirms that they slew 7000 of his soldiers. 
Eckhel tom. 7 p. 480 mistakes this for the number of the rebels : '• aucto eorum ad VII millia 
numero." Zosimus I. 61 T^rptKov KadcXcav — ijbr] bi koI apyvpiov viov brjfxoa-Ca bUbuKe, to KL^brjXov 
airoboadai tovs a-nb tov bripiov irapaa-KcvAa-as. According to Zosimus this sedition happened in 
A. D. 274, a little before Aurelian quitted Rome for the last time. Vopiscus does not mark 
the date. 

His victories over the Goths, commemorated in his title Gothicus ^, are noticed by Eutropius 
IX. 13 Gothos strenuissime vicit. Orosius VII. 23 Expeditione in Danubium suscepta Gothos magnis 
preeliis profligavit. Ammianus XXXI. 5, 15 — 17 ascribes it to the victories oi Aurelian that the 
Goths were quiet j9^ multa scecula. Duobus navium millibus perrupto .Bosporo et littoribus Proponti- 
(Us [A. D. 269] Scythicarum gentium catervce transgressce ediderunt quidem acerbas terra marique 
strages; sedamissa suorum parte Tnaxima reverterunt. Ceciderunt dimicando cum barbaris imperatores 
Decii pater et filius [A. I). 251]. Obsessce Pamphylice civitates, insulce populates complures, inflammata 



*1 Vopisc. Aurel. c. 30. His titles are Gotthicus, Sarmaticus, Armeniacus, Parthicus, Adiabenicus. 



EMPERORS. 69 

Macedonia, 8ec. — Post clades acceptas illatasque multas et scevas excisa est Philippopolis, centv/m ho- Aurelian 
minum millihus {nisi fingunt annates) intra mcenia jugulatis. Vagati per Epirum Thessaliamque et 
omnem Grceciam licentius hostes externi ; sed adsumpto in imperium Claudio glorioso ductore, et eodem 
honesta morte prcerepto [A. D. 2'JO], per Aurelianum acrem virum et severissimum noxarum ultorem 
pulsi per longa scecula siluerunt immohiles ; nisi quod postea latrocinales glohi mcina cwm sui exitio 
rarius incursabant. Aurelian encountered the Goths in 270 at the time of the death of Claudius, 
and again in 272 on his progress to Palmyra. The great success appears to have been the victory 
obtained in 270 under the auspices of Claudius already mentioned. 

The authorities in the Tables A. D. 275 may be adapted to the actual duration of this reign 
and of the interregnum that followed. The accounts of Syncellus, Malalas, Cedrenus are of no 
moment in this question. Zonaras XII tom. 1 p. 637 B includes the interregnum : 1^ (VLavrovs 
■qvvKora irapa rrj ^acnXeCa fJLr}vm> 6kiy(ov evbeovras. 

Aurelian left memoirs: Vopisc. Aurel. c. 1 Ephemeridas illius mri hahemus, etiam hella charactere 
historico digesta, quce velim accipias et per ordinem scrihas, additis quce ad vitam pertinent. Vopiscus 
therefore wrote from authentic documents. 

Inscriptions. 1 Muratori p. 1051. 5 Interamnse : Imp. Cces. L. Domitio Aureliano Pio Felici 
invicto Aug. pontif. max. Ger. max. trih. pot. cons, et procons. p. p. Interamnates Nahart. devoti nur 
mini ejus puhlice. 2 Murat. p. 256. 3 Cordubse : Imp. Cces. L. Domitius Aurelian. Pius Fel. in- 
victus p. m. tr.p. 3 Murat. p. 256. 4 Brixiae: Imp. L. Dom. Aur. Pio Fe. invicto Aug. trih. pot. 
p. p. M. Aurelius Rujinus P. P. nee fort. 4 Mur. p. 256. 2 in Piceno : Imp. Ccssari L. Do- 
mitio Aureliano P. F. Aug. invicto p. m. trih. pot. cos. p.p. princ. juvent. or. Sept. pub. D. D. 5 Grut. 
p. 45. 2 Pisauri in Piceno in basi. item apud Muratorium p. 256. 1 Herculi Aug. consorti D. N. 
Aureliani invieti Augusti respuh. Pis. curam agente C. Julio Prisciano V. C. [V. E. Muratorius] 
due. cur. B. P. Pis. et Fan. P. M. [al. P. P. M!\ 6 Gruter p. 276. 3 item Pisauri in Piceno in 
basi : Victories csternce Aureliani Aug. N. respuhlic. Pis. curam agen. C. Julio Priscia. V. E. ducen. 
cur. B. P. Pisaur. et Fan. PP. M. 7 Gruter p. 178. 3 Csesense : Balneum Aurelianum ex lihera- 
litate imp. Cces. M. Aurelii Pii Fel, Aug. servata indulgentia pecunice ejus quam Dominus Aurelianus 
concensserat facta usurarum exactione curante Statio Juliana V. F. curatore Besi. rejecit. 8 A mu- 
tilated fragment in Muratoi-i p. 474. 8 Saponariae : Balnea ex disciplina L. Domiti Au 

victi Aug. po seriem ann tuit Q. ^milius Vict. Saxanianus. 9 Murat. p. 461 . 3 Foro- 

julii : Bestitutor. orhis imp. Cces. L. D. Aureliano Pio Fel. invicto Aug. pont. max. Ger. mxix. Got. 
mxix. Part. max. trih. pot. I III cos. Ill p.p. p. cos. V. These numbers are incompatible. The third 
consulship was in the sixth tribunician year. If this is not from the negligence of the times, such 
as Eckhel tom. 7 p- 479. 482 has remarked in the coins, we may without a number, as in N*'. 1, 
read CONS, for cos. III. 10 Muratori p. 1994. 3 prope Beneventum : Ulpice Severing &c. given 
from Eckhel in the Tables A. D. 275. 3. Severina is also joined with Probus in an inscription 
given below. See Probus N°. 6.^ 

Tacitus. Tables A. D. 275. 276. 2. 3. Zonaras XII tom. 1 p. 637 B C Tokitos Trpea^vTTjs Tacitus 
avr\p, irivre yap kroiv eXvai koX k^bofxriKovTa avayp6.(f>€TaL ore rjpiOr]. — Maft/ityov riva avyyevrj kavrov 
Tjy^ixova TTJi 1,vpCas itpo^yjeipicraTO. 6 h'k KaK&s rfi apxfj XP^^H-^^^s avrjpeOr] irapa o-rpaTuaT^v, /cat beia-avres 
at TovTov av€k6vTe<5 a)S ovk aTifKap^qrovs avTovs 6 avTOKpiroap Trapoyj/CTat, eTTtbita^avTes KaK€ivov avflkov 
ovTTOi e^bofxov fxiiva Tiapa rff ^aaikeCa avva-avra, Kara §e rivas ^rj o\ovs bvo eviavTovs. Inscriptions. 

e In the Tables 'A. D. 275. 3 is an inscription to Aurelian was current at his death. — It had com- 
which the paragraph refers at p. 854 col. 2, where menced therefore before March 275, and the second 
supply as follows: "The 6th tribunician year of had commenced before March 271." 



70 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

Tacitus. 1 Gruter p. 192. 5 gives a mutilated inscription which has Tacitus Pius — Aug. — Ghotycu* 

jnaximus [sic lege] tribunicia potestas bis. 2 Murat. p. 256. 5 Jaderae: Lnp. Cces. M. Glaudio 

Tacito p.p. invicto Aug. N. 3 Murat. p. 461. 4 in Lusitania: Imp. Ccesari Marco Clodio Tacito 
Pio Felici invicto V. C. pontifici tnaximo tribunicice potestatis patri patrice proconsuU. 4 Murat. 
p. 2011. 3 in Lusitania: Imp. Cces. Cla. Tacito Pio invicto Aug. pont. max. trib. potest, pat. pat. 
procos. A Br. M. P. XXXIII. 

Flohianus. Florianus. Tables 276. 2. 3. Zonaras XII torn. 1 p. 637 D oSro? ov8' oKov TpiyL-qvov avixrai 
kv rfi apyr\ koX ttjs fo)^? ^/xa koX ttjs i^ova-iai tK-ni-nTOiKiV , avaipcOeU inrb arparicoTcoy. 

Prouvs. Probus. 

Few historians of his reign : Vopiscus c. 1 Probum principem — scriptorum inopia jam pcene 
nescimus. — c. 2 usus autem swm — prcecipue libris ex bibliotheca Ulpia estate mea thermis Diocletianis, 
item ex domo Tiberiana. Usus etiam [ex] regestis scribarum porticus Porphyreticce, actis etiam senatus 
etpopuli. Zonaras XII torn. 1 p. 638 C ascribes to Probus not quite 6 years: 6 be xP^vos rrj^ av- 
TapxCas Tov Hpojiov owx oKoKkripoi yeyovaa-cv evtavrol e^. 

Probus is adolescens in the reign of Valerian: Vopiscus Probo c. 3. 4 '■'■Valerianus pater Gallieno 
Jilio., Augustus Augusto. Et meum secutus judicium quod semper de Probo adolescente primo habui et 
omnium bonorum qui eundem sui nominis virum dicunt tribunatum in eum contuW &c. Alia epistola 
d^ eodem ad presf. prcet. cum salario. " Valerianus Augustus Mulvio Gallicano prcefecto prcetorii. 
Miraris fortassis quod ego imberbem tribunum fecerim contra constitutum did Hadriani. Sed non 
mulium miraberis si Probum cogitas adolescentem vere probum^'' &c. He was 50 years old at his 
death f: and therefore 22 in the Ist year of Valerian. Aurelian gave him the command of the 
tenth legion : Vopiscus Probo c. 6 " Aurelianus Augustus Probo S. D. Ut scias quanti te faciam^ 
decimanos meos sums, quos Claudius mihi credidit. Isti enim sunt qui quadam felicitatis prcerogativa 
prcesules nisi futuros principes non norunt.^^ Ex quo intellectum est Aurelianum in animo habuisse ut 
— Probum principem faceret. 

Tzschucke ad Eutropium IX. 16 p. 690 supposes the date in Vopiscus Probo c. 1 1 /// Non. Feb. 
to mean 3 Feb. 276, and determines the death of Tacitus to February 276 : " Probus ante 3 Non. 
Feb. electus erat Augustus a militibus. Imperavit igitur Tacitus post 25 Sept. 275 ad Februa- 
rium 276 menses circiter 4."" But this is not possible. For Probus did not address the senate 
till after the death of FlorianusZ ; and Florianus died at Tarsus, at least a month's journey from 
Rome. If therefore that meeting of the senate was held 3 Feb. 276, the death of Florianus (who 
died in summer after two months^ reign) would be placed in January 276, and the death of Tacitus 
would be thrown back before Jan. 1 A. D. 276, when he was consul. The correction therefore 
proposed by Tillemont and adopted in the Tables A. D. 276 is required in that date of Vopiscus. 

The communication of Probus is thus introduced. Vopiscus Probo c. 1 1 Sciendum est quid ipse 
ad senatum, scripserit, quid item ad eum amplissimus ordo rescripserit. Oratio Probi prima ad sena- 
tum. " Rede atque ordine P. 0. proximo superiore anno factum est^"" Sec. It is evident from the 
rest of the narrative that this discourse was not delivered in person by Probus in the senate. 
Thus Vopiscus Caro c. 5 uses oratio of a written communication. Indicat oratio ejus ad senatum 
data. — Na/m quum primum imperator esset creatus sic ad senatorium ordinem scripsit inter ccetera^ &c. 
It also appears from Zosimus that, at the death of Florianus, Probus was at or near Tarsus ; 
from whence his letter to the senate was sent. Vopiscus proceeds Probo c. 13 Accepto igitur hoc 
S. C. secundum wationem permisit patribm ut—proconsules crearent &c. where Casaubon reads per 

f See the Tables A. D. 282. 8 See Vopiscus quoted in the Tables A. D. 276. 



EMPERORS. 71 

secundam orationem, and Salmasius and Gruter secunda oratione — for " supra habiiimus priiiiaiii Prodis. 
orationem.''^ But Prohis had delivered no speech in the senate, and oratio means the letter upon 
which the vote of the senate was founded. We may therefore interpret secundum orationem " In 
conformity with the tenor of his letter ho granted them privileges" &c. 

Idatius in Fastis p. 165 places the death of Prohus in a wrong year : Caro et Carino. His corns, 
occisus est Prohus Sirmium. These were consuls after the death of Prohus. 

Coins of Prohus not assigned to any particular year : Eckhel tom. 7 p- 503 1 Imp. C. M. Aur. 
Prohus Aug. + adlocutio Aug. 2 Virtus Prohi Augf+adlocutio Aug. 3 Imp. Prohus Aug. -\-adlocutio 
militum. or felicia tempora. or fides maxima, or Herculi Romano Aug. or principis juventuti. or 
scBculi felicitas. or victor ioso semper, or victoria Aug. 4 Imp. C. M. Aur. Prohus Aug.-\- Calliope 
Aug. or exercitus Pers. or Herculi Erymanthio. or Siscia Prohi Aug. or victor ice Augg. or victoria 
Gothic. 5 Imp. C. Prohus invict. P. F. Aug. + moneta Aug. 6 " antica yaria'^ + victoria Germ, or 
victories Augusti. vot. Ji. in another vot. XX multis XXXX. " antica varia" + w^w X et XX fel. 
or votis X Prohi Aug. et XX. 

Inscriptions. 1 Gruter p. 277- -^ Granatae Hispan. Imp. Gees. M. Aur. Proho Pio Felici incicto 
Aug. numini majestatique devotus ordo Illiher. dedicatissimus D. P. 2 Gruter p. 1085. 13 Amerise. 
Imp. CcBsar. M. Aurelio Proho Pio Felici invicto. 3 Muratori p. 1090. 3 in Hispania: Imp. Ccesari 
M. Aurelio Proho Pio Fel. invicto Aug. p. m. trih. potestatis VI cos. IIII [A. D. 281] respuhlica 
Tuccitanorum devota numini majestatique ejus D. D. curator e Julio Claudio suh colosso. 4 Murat. 
p. 2011. 4 In vico Taulane in Provincia : Lnp. Gees. M. Aur. Proho P. F. inv. Aug. Ill cos. p.p. 
5 Murat. p. 1994. 4 prope Beneventum: Imp. Gcesari M. Aurelio Proho Pio Felici invicto Aug^ 
cos. D. N. 6 Muratori p. 1994. (> Allifis. In antica parte : Imp. Gcesari M. Aurelio Proho Pio 
Felici invicto Aug. cos. D. N. [A. D. 277-] In postica : Ulpice Severince Aug. conjugi D. N. invicti 
Aureliani Aug. 

Saturninus, Proculus, Bonosus. Overthrown by Pro^MS ; Tables A. D. 280. Sathuninus, 

fiC. 

Carus. His country and origin were uncertain: Vopiscus Caro c. 4 Onesimus — dicit liomce Carv:^. 
ilium et natum et Uteris eruditum, sed Illyricianis parentihus fuisse contendit. Sed Fahius Gerilianus 
— neque Romce sed in Illyrico genitum, neque Pannoniis sed Pcenis parent ihus asserit natum. In 
ephemeride quadam legisse memini Garum Mediolanensem fuisse. In Eutropius IX. 18 he is Narhone 
natus in Gallia ; whom Hieronymus and Orosius follow. 

Inscriptions : 1 Gruter p. 277- 4 Delphis : avTOKparopa Kataapa MapKov Avpr]kLov Kapov evo-ejSri 
evTvxrj a^jSacTTov Upa AeA^wy tto'Ais ebutKev. 2 p. 277- 5 in Hispania : Imp. Gees. M. Aur. Garo 
Pio Felici invicto Aug. pant. max. trih. pot. p.p. procos. II cos. ordo Ehusii D. N. M. E. 3 p. 277- <• 
in Hispania: Imp. Gees. Aug. Garo Pio Fel. invicto Augusto pont. max. tr. pot. p.p. procos. Lico- 
miensis ordo D.N.M. Q.E.fecer. 4 Murat. p. 256. 6 in Hispania: Invictissimo Gcesari piissimo 
principi clementissimo imperatori Marco Aurelio Karo Pio et Felici invicto Augusto pont. maximo 
trihunicicB p. procos. 5 Murat. p. 1084. 4 Tarenti : Herculi sancto servatori victori triumph, pro 
salute et victoria imp. Gees. M. A. Gari ex voto ord. Tarent. 

Carinus. Tables A. D. 282. 283. 2. 3. 284. 2. 3. 285. Carinus. 

Eckhel tom. 7 p. 514 supposes Garinus to be in Gaul at the death of his brother Numerian in 
September 284. , But this is inconsistent with his presence at the Roman games at that time. 
An inscription Aquis Flaviis in Lusitania apud Muratorium p. 1994. 5 names Carinus: Imp. Gees. 
M. Aur. Carino P. F. Aug. tr.p p.p. 



72 



APPENDIX. 



C.l. 



NUMERIAN. NUMERIAN. 

Coins apud Eckhel torn. 7 p- 511. 1 Imp. G. Numerianus P. F. Aug. cos. + adlocutio Augg. 
2 Imp. Numerianus invict. Aug. + oriens Aug. 3 Imp. Numerianus Aug.+p. m. tr.p. cos. p. p.^ 
4 Imp. Numerianus P. F. Aug.+principi juventut. 5 Imp. C. Numerianus P. F. Aug. cos. + tri- 
umphus Quadorum. 6 Imp. Numerianus Aug.-\-undique victores. 7 Pivo Numei'iano + consecratio. 
The Alexandrian coins are in the Tables A. D. 284. 2. 3. Eckhel p. 516 contends " necesse non 
esse ut statuamus a Carino et Numeriano continuatos patris Cari annos fuisse."" But they are 
necessarily continued. L. /8' of the sons commdhced Aug. 29 A. D. 283 and L. y Aug. 29 A. D. 
284. Consequently their L. a was current to Aug. 28 A. D. 283, and this was also L. a' of the 
Alexandrian coins of Carus. 

The duration of the reigns of Cams and his sons is explained in the Tables A. D. 284. The 
Paschal Chronicle p. 274 A has 3 years : Kapos 6,ixa tois viols — hr\ y' . Victor Epit. p. 384 has the 
right number : Carus imperavit annos duos. And Orosius VII. 24 Carus hiennio tenuit. Through 
carelessness they give the whole two years to Carus, although both had Eutropius before them. 

Inscriptions. 1 Murat. p. 256. 7 in Hispania : Domino indulgentissimo Marco Numerio Nume- 
riano nohilissimo et piissimo Ccesari. 2 Murat. p. 461. 5 Carcassone in columna milliaria : Prin- 
dpi jumntutis M. Numerio Numeriano nohilissimo Ccesari N. M. P. I. 

JuLiAsrus. JuLiANUS. Tables A. D. 284. 2. 3. 

Diocletian. Diocletian. 

After the division of the empire among two Augusti and two Ccesars, the persons who held 
supreme power were these : 



IN THE EAST 

C. Vol. Diocletianus Jomus 
GaUrius Vol. Maximianus 
Galer. Val. Maximinus Daza 
Val. Licinianus Licinius. 



IN THE WEST 

M. Aur. Val. Maximianus Herculius 
Flavius Val. Constantius Chlorus 
Flav. Val. Severus 
Flavius Constantinus 
M. Aurelius Maxentius. 



Diocletianus 



Valeria - 
ob. 315 



Galerius 
ob. 311 



Soror 



Maximinus Daza 
ob. 313 



Diocletian was older than Maximian : Mamertin. Genethl. c. 7 p. 125 dispares cetatihus he. 
conf. Incert. Maximiano c. 9 p. 332. Maximian was 60 in 310, Diocletian 68 in 313^; which 
will place the birth of Diocletian at 245, and of Maximian at 250. Patarolus ad Panegyr. p. 333 
has an erroneous account : " Diocletianus imperium deposuit annum agens 7 1 • obiit enim septimo 
post anno, setatis suae 78, juxta scriptorura consensum, unura si excipias Zosimum qui tertio anno 
post ipsum dicit obiisse. At Maximianus obiit sexagenarius, multoque post imperium depositum." 
But Diocletian died in the 9th year after the abdication and not in the 7th, and after Maximian, 
and at 68 and not at 78. 

t See the Tables. 



EMPERORS. 



73 



For the tribunician years o^ Diocletian and Maximian see the Tables 293. 295. Diocletian. 

The distribution of the provinces at the first appointment of the Ccesars in 292 is described by 
Victor Caes. p. 346 Cunda (juce trans Alpes Gallice sunt Constantio commissa, Africa Italiaque Iler- 
culio, Illyricique ora ad usque Ponti /return Galerio, ccetera Valerius retentavit. Praxagoras apud 
Photilim Cod. 62 'KcuvcttS.vtios Bperai'^as e/3aa-tAeiicre Ma^tjuiro? 8e rrjs 'Pwjurjj koX t?}? a\\r]s 'IraAta? 
Kal ^LKekCas, 6 be erepos Ma^ifuvos [sc. Galerius'\ rrj^ re 'EkXdbos koX ttj? *c(ir&) 'Atrias kol QpaKx]^, 
ALOK\.r]TLavbs b^, 6 kol tS>v aKKoav irpea-^vTaTos, rrjs re BtOvvCas rjpx^ i^oX t^s 'Apa^tas /cat r^s Ai^vr]<i 
Kol Ti]s AiyvTrrov, ocrrjv 6 NetAos (Trepxopi'^vos apbei. 

The vicennalia were celebrated Nov. 20'. But the reign o^ Diocletian began Sept. X^^. The 
reason is obscure. Some have thought that Miximian was created Casar 20 Nov. 284, But he 
was not Gcesar before the death of Garinus, and his appointment would have no reference to the 
reign of Diocletian. Others suppose that Diocletian was elected by the army Sept. 17 and ac- 
knowledged by the senate Nov. 20. Others, more probably, that this day was selected merely 
because it was convenient. The 20th year was then current, so that any day within the 20th 
year might be taken. 

The abdication is placed by Eusebius H. E. VIII. 13 in the second year of the persecution: 
ovTUti TTjs rotacrSe KtyTjtrews bevrepov eras Tr€7:Xripo)To. But in Mart. Pal. c. 3 having mentioned the 
end of the second year of the persecution — bevrepov hovs biaXa^ovTos, — Ava-Tpov ij.r]vbs r]p.ipa Kb', rj 
TTpb kvvia KdKavbSiV ' AirpLXkLcav — he records the abdication : €v rovrw ixeTa^oXr} tis tu)v KparovvTcav 
K. T. A. Both these passages place the abdication too high ; for it happened 1 May 305 in the 
third year of the persecution. The Paschal Chronicle p. 277 I^ P- 278 places the abdication 
at the wrong consuls : vtt. AioKk-qnavov to & kox Ma^LjXLavov to r] A. D. 304. although at the 
right year^ Zosimus II. 7 appears also to refer the abdication to the 9th consulship : AiokAtj- 
Tiavo's cvvdm oKxciKis be Ma^iixiavos yeyovacriv vTiaToi — koX Tore AiOKkr]Tiavos IbLcoTrjs e/c /SacriAews 
fyevero, kol Ma^ipnavos tovto tovto TreTrotrjKC. 

His reign is erroneously called 25 years in Victor Epit. p. 385 Diocletianus — imperavit annis 
viginti quinque. Perhaps by an error of the transcriber. The date of his death is also erroneously 
assigned by La Baune Vit. Constantini p. 301 A. D. 313 to the third year after that period : 
tertio post anno, for which he refers to Victor Epit. who makes no mention oitertio anno. 

On the character and court of Diocletian consult Eutropius IX. 26. The institution of new 
court ceremonies is placed by Hieronymus Chron. anno 2310 Diocletiani 10" [sc. A. D. 294-]. 

Valeria the daughter of Diocletian was married to Galerius : Eutrop. IX. 22 Chron. Pasch. 
p. 277 D- Her sufferings after the death of Galerius in 311 are described by Lactantius Mort. 
Pers. c. 39 — 41. She was slain with her mother at Thessalonica by order of Licinius, fifteen 
months after the death of Maximin: Lactan. Ibid. c. 50. 51. — in A. D. 315. 

Coins of Diocletian after his abdication : Eckhel tom. 8 p. 13. 14 1 D. N. Diocletiano heatissimo 
(or beatiss. or hceatissimo or felicissimo) Sen. Aug.-\-promdentia deorum quies Aug. (or Augg.) or vota 
puhlica. 2 D. N. Diocletiano P. F. S. Aug. + quies Augustorum. (or Augg.) 3 D. N. Diocletiano 

ester. Aug. H 4 Diocletiano Sen. Aug. -\ b D. N. Diocletiano B. S. Aug. +pro'oid. deorum 

quies Augg. 

Inscriptions ^ : 1 Muratori p. 256. 8 Nemausi : Imp. Gcesar. G. Valerio Diocletiano P. Fel. 
invic.pont. Aug. [lege j».^. Aug.] pont. max. 2 Murat. p. 256. 9 Panormi : Lnp. Gees. G. Valerio 
Diocletiano Pio Fel. inv. Aug. ponti/. max. trih. pot. cos. Ill p.p. procos. resp. Panhorm. D. N. M. Q. 



i See the Tables A. D. 303. 

k Tables A. D. 284. 

I See below in c. 2 at A. D. 305. 



™ Some inscriptions are inserted in the Tables at 
A. D. 286. 1. 287. 1. 2. 288. 3. 295. 1. 2. 296. 3. 
305. 3. 



74 APPENDIX. 0.1. 

Diocletian, ejus D. D. Within A. D. 287 — 289. 3 Murat. p. 257- 1 Augustse Taurinorum : Imp. Ccesari C. 

Valeria Diocletiano P. F. invict. Aug. ordo »plendidissimu8 civit. 8eg r. cur ante Aur. Baturnino 

V. prcBside D. N. M. Q. E. 4 Mur. p. 257. 3 Mytilenis : Imp. Ccbs. G. Aurelio Valeria Diocletiano 
P. F. Ft. Val. Constantio et C. Val. Maximiano rvohiliss. Ccesarihus Aurelius Accagathus Cenandius 
V. P. prces. proconsul numini m^jestatique eorum dicatissim. V. S. 5 Murat. p. 25. 2 Aquileise : 
Deo Soli Diocletianus et Mawimianus invicti Aug. 6 Murat. p. 257- 2 Item p. 1994. 7 ad Cherso- 
nesum Thraciae : avTOKparopcav AioKkriTiavov koX Ma^Lfxiavov rStv '2(^acrTS>v koa. KiavarravTCov koI Ma^i- 

fxiavov t5>v (TrKpavfordTiav Kaia-dpaiv aypovs 7 Mur. p. 257*4 Palmyrae: es orbis et 

propagatores generis humani DD. NN. Diocletianus ssimi impp. et Constanfius et Maximianus 

nobh. Gees, contra /eliciter condiderunt ntes Ossiano Hieroclete V. P. prcef. provincioe D. N. M. Q. 

eorum. 8 Mur. p. 461. 7 Laude Pompeia : Imp. Gees. Aurel. Val. Diocletianus P. F. inv. Aug. et 
imp. Gees. M. Aurel. Val. inv. Aug. Maximianus P. F. voto. et Flavius Val. Gonstantius et Galerius 

nobilissimi Gcesares M.P 9 Murat. p. 461. 8 Fani Fortunse in Piceno: Impp. Gcess. Flavio 

Diocletiano et Aurelio Valerio Maximiano Piis Felicihus semper Augg. et Flavio Valerio Constantio 
Galerio Val. Maximiano nobh. et invictiss. Gcess. ab urbe Uoma ex S. C. desig. Probably the same 
as the following: 10 Murat. p. 462. 2 Gruter p. 279. 2 Fani: Impp. Gees. Valerio Diocletiano et 
Aurelio Valerio Maximiano Piiss. Felicib. semper Augg. et Flavio Valerio Gonstantio Galerio Val. 

Maximiano Rom. C. XGI \GXGI Gruter] curante L. Turcio Apronian. V. G. prcef. urb.fil. 

Asterio corr. Flam, et Piceni. 1 1 Mur. p. 462. 1 Veronse : Lnp. Gees. G. Val. Diocletianus P. F. 

invict. Aug. et imp. C(BS. M. Aurel. Val. Maximianus P.F. invict. Aug. et Fl. Val. Gonstantius 

nob. Gees M.P. Villi. 12 Murat. p. 462. 3 Veronae : Imp. Gcbs. G. Aurel. Val. Diocletianus 

P.F. inv. Aug. et imp. Gees. M. Aurel. Val. Maximianus P.F. inv. Aug. et Fl. Val. Gonstantius... 
nobill. Geess. XVII. 13 Gruter p. 178. 6 Romse olim extabat. Impp. Diocletianus et Maxi- 
mianus Augg. repurgatis fontium rivis et itinerib. eorum ad perennem usum refectis Tiberino patri 
aquarum omnium et repertoribus mirabilium fabricar. priscis viris honori dederunt, curante aquas 
L. Aelio Dionysio do. V. G. 14 Gruter p. 198. 5 Romse: DD.NN. providentissimi impp. Diocle- 
tianus et Maximianus invicti Augusti ripam per seriem temporum conlapsam ad pristinum statiwi 
restituerunt perped. GX, curante Manio Acilio Balbo Sabino V. G. curat, alvei Tiberis riparum et 
cloacarum sacree urbis. 15 Gruter p. 179. 1 referred to in the Tables A. D. 305. 3. Romse: 
DD. NN. G. Aurel. Valer. Diocletianus et M. Aurel. Valer. Maximianus invicti senior es Augg. patres 

impp. et Gees, p.p DD.NN. Fl. Valer. Gonstantius et Galer. Valer. Maximinus nobilissimi 

GcBsares FF. thermas felices Diocletiano coeptas cedificiis pro tanti operis m^gnitudine omni 

cultu jam perfectas numini ejus consecrarunt 16 Apud Panvinium p. 385 Gruterum p. 278. 6 

Romae : Magno et invicto imp. Gees. G. Aur. Val. Diocletiano Pio Fel. Aug. Basilius Donatianus 
V. P. [V. E. Gruter] rationalis D. N. M. Q. ejus. 17 Gruter p. 279. 1 Romse: Domino nostro 
piissimo Diocletiano invicto Augusto Aimilius Victor Parat. D. N. M. Q. ejus. 18 Gruter p. 279. 4 
Patavii: JEtemo imperatori nostro maxima optim^que prindpi Aurelio Valerio Diocletiano Pio Felici 
invicto Augusto Peetus Honoratus ... vir corrector Italiee numini ejus dicatiss. 19 Grut. p. 1079. 2 
Nicomedise : Perpetuo impo. G. Aur. Val. Diocletia. P. F. Aug. cujus providentia etiam lavacrum 
thermarum Antonianarum funditus ever sum sua pecunia amplificatum populo suo exhiberi jussit. 

20 Gruter p. 1085. 14 Noise : Imp. Gcesari G. Valerio Diocletiano Pio Felici Aug. col. fel. Aug. Nol. 

21 Gruter p. 167. 1. 2 Gratianopoli quae olim Cularo: DD. NN. imp. Gees. Gaius Aurel. Valerius 
Diocletianus P. P. invictus Augustus et imp. Geesar Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Pius 
Felix invictus Aug. muris Gularonensihus cum interioribus eedijiciis providentia sua institutis adque 
perfectis portam Eomanam Joviam vocari jusserwnt. Item in porta urbis : DD. NN. Imp. Geesar 

Gaim &c. portam Viennensem Herculeam vocari jusserunt. 



EMPERORS. 75 

Laws of A. D. 286. Diocletian. 

Cod. Just. VI. 9, 3 Impp. Diocletianus et Maximianus AA. Cresceniio. >S'. Kal. Januar. Maximo 
II et Aquilino conss. 

VI. 37, 13 Impp. Diocletianus et Maximianus A A. Severce. pp. XV Kal. Mail Maximo II et 
Aquilino conss."^"^ 

II. 2.5, 3 AA. Nicomedi. Dot. IV Non. Maii. III. 34, 7 Juliano. pp. IV Non. Mail. III. 
29, 7 AA. Ammiano. pp. V Id. Maii conss. ut supra^. VI. 6, 7 A A. Metrodoro. Bat. V Id. Maii. 
VIII. 43, 9 AA. Cassio. pp. V Id. Maii. III. 42, 7 AA. Vitalianis. pp. XVI Kal. Jwnii. 
IV. 21, 7 AA. Zinimce. Bat. XV Kal. Jun. VIII. 19, 4 AA. CarpopTioro. pp. XV Kal. Jun. 
VIII. 16, 5 A A. Eutychio.pp. XIII Kal. Jun. 

VIII. 48, 3 AA. Martiano. pp. XVI Kal. Jul. V. 16, 13 AA. BufinKB. pp. XII Kal. Jul. 

II. 3, 17 ■^■^' Beximacho. pp. IX Kal. Jul. iisdem co7iss. quihus supra°. 

IV. 1, 3 AA. Severce. pp. X Kal. Sept. VI. 37, 14 A A. Tatiano. pp. II Kal. Sept. 

IX. 41, 7 AA. TJrhance.pp. Kal. Nov. [VIII. 40, 1 AA. Paulines, pp. Ill Non. Bee] VI. 1, I 
A A. ^Emilia. S. Id. Bee. 

Sine mense vel die. VI. 14, 1 AA. Sarpedoni. Bat. IV Non. * VII. 16, 8 AA. Verince. Bat. 
prid. ¥: X. 31, 5 A A. Alexandro. pp. VI Id. -jf 

Laws of A. D. 290. 
Cod. Just. VI. 23, 7 AA. Rufince.pp. XVII Kal. Feb. ipsis AA. IV et III conss. VIII. 14, 10 
AA. Alexandro. Bat. XIV Kal. Feb. ipsis IV et III AA. conss. 

III. 44, 10 AA. AquiliancB. pp. VIII Id. Feb. Biocletiano IV et Maximiano III AA. conss. 

III. 32, 10 Januario. pp. G. II Id. Feb. ipsis IV et III AA. conss. 
VI. 42, 18 Apolausto. pp. Id. Mart, ipsis IV et III AA. conss. 

III. 44, 1 1 Gaudentio. pp. VIII Id. April, ipsis IV et III AA. conss. 

I. 22, 1 Gregorio. Bat. V Non. Maii Biocletiano IV et Maximiano III A A. conss. IX. 41, 9 a«( 
Carissimum prcesidem Series. Bat. VI Id. Maii. Emissa ipsis IV et III AA. conss. VIII. 51,5 
Ursoe. pp. XVI Kal. Jun. VI. 24, 8 Hadriano°°. pp. X Kal. Jun. VI. 26, 5 Hadriance. pp. 
X Kal. Jun. V. 30, 1 Firmince. pp. VIII Kal. Jun. VIII. 51, 4 Hermogeni et aliis. pp. V 
Kal. Jun. 

VI. 23, 8 Marcellino. Bat. XVI Kal. Jul. ipsis IV et III AA. conss. VI. 50, 12 Justino.pp. 
XVI Kal. Jul. VII. 20, 1 Theodoro.pp. XIV Kal. Jul. VI. 23, 9 Patroclice. pp. X Kal. Jul. 
VII. 75, 3 Acyndlno. pp. X Kal. Jul. VIII. 45, 16 Alexandro et Biogeni. pp. X Kal. Jul. 

IV. 1, 4 A A. Maximce. pp. Kal. Jul. ipsis A A. IV et III conss. II. 4, 14 Sopatrce. pp. IV 
Non. Jul. I. 18, 4 Juliance. Bat. VIII Id. Jul. IX. 35, 5 Victorino. pp. VI Id. Jul. VI. 58, 4 
Ccecilio.pp. Idib. Jul. VIII, 54, 7 Julio, pp. Id. Jul. IX. 35, 6 Flaviano. pp. Id. Jul. II. 4, 15 
Pontio. pp. XV Kal. Aug. IV. 7, 3 Bizonti militi. pp. Ill Kal. Aug. 

VII. 32, 4 Nepotiano. pp. Kal. Aug. ipsis IV et III A A. conss. VIII. 26, 8 ApoUonio. pp. 
XIII Kal. Sept. IX. 20, 8 Considio. pp. VIII Kal. Sept. IX. 41, 10 Ptolemceo. pp. VI Kal. 
Sept. V. 51, 6 Cononi et aliis. pp. IV Kal. Sept. 

VIII. 48, 4 AA. Proculiano. pp. Kal. Sept. ipsis IV et III AA. conss. VI. 42, 19 Ampliato. 
pp. VIII Id. Sept. VIII. 54, 8 Florw. pp. VIII Id. Sept. VI. 36, 3 Hyaeyniho et aliis. pp. VI 
Id. Sept. {II. 14, 1 AA. Aristohulo salutem. Bat. IV Id. Sept.v) VII. 35, 3 Numidio correctori 

nun These two before May 1 . The rest (those " Sc. Maximo II et Aquilino III. 29, 5. 

which have the month) were issued after May 1. « Sc. Maximo II et Aquilino II. 3, 16. 

Whence correct the observation in the Tables at oo Read Hadriance from VI. 26, 5. 

A. D. 286. 3. P Read with Beck AA. IV et III conss. 

l2 



76 APPENDIX. 0.1. 

Diocletian. ItalicB. pp. IV Id. Sept. V. 38, 5 Severo. pp. Ill Id. Sept. IV. 6, 5 MartiaU. pp. X Kal. Oct. 
VIII. 26, 9 Hermiam. pp. X Kal. Oct. III. 44, 12 Victorino. pp. Ill Kal. Oct. • VI. 37, 1 5 TV 
/•^<«o e^ aliis. pp. Ill Kal. Oct. 

Cod. Just. VIII. 10, 5 Octavio.pp. VI Nm. Oct. VIII. 28, 10 Rufino. pp. Ill Nm. Oct. IX. 
9, 20 Didymo. pp. Ill Non. Oct. I. 19, 1 FirmincB. Dot. VIII Id. Oct. III. 38, 4 ad Maximia- 
num. pp. XVI Kal. Nov. IX. 9, 21 Silano. pp. XIV Kal. Nov. IX. 9, 22 Ohlimosi. pp. XII 
Kal. Nov. VII. 43, 9 Leontio. pp. XI Kal. Nov. IX. 2, 10 Ursce. pp. Ill Kal. Nov. 

IX. 9, 23 Proculo. 2)p. Kal. Nov. ipsis IV et III AA. corns. VIII. 45, 17 Mutiano. pp. V Id. 
Nov. VIII. 4, 1 Theodoro. pp. XV Kal. Dec. IX. 41, 11 Boetho. pp. V Kal. Dec. IV. 1, 5 
Juliana, pp. IV Kal. Dec. 

VI. 42, 20 Juliano. pp. Ill Non. Dec. ipsis IV et III AA. conss. VIII. 49, 1 Herennio. pp. 
Ill Nm. Dec. IX. 23, 6 Aufidio. pp. VI Id. Dec. VIII. 39, 3 Isidores, pp. Id. Dec. VIII. 
24, 2 Gemello. pp. XIII Kal. Jan. 

Some of the laws issued Ccsss. conss. are given in the Tables A. D. 294, to which these may 
be added : 

Cod. Just. III. 28, 20 A A. et CC. Saviano. Dat. Non. Jan. Sirmii Cesss. conss. VI. 50, 15 
Pomponio. supposita XVI Kal. Feb. Sirmii. VIII. 54, 19 Alexandria: S. XVI Kal. Feb. Sirmii. 

II. 13, 18 Dimysice. S. XIV Kal. Feb. Sirmii. V. 12, 19 Achilli. Dat. XIII Kal. Feb. Sirmii. 

IV. 26, 12 Victori. Dat. XIII Kal. Feb. Sirmii. III. 34, 10 Nymphidio. pp. XI Kal. Feb. Sir- 
mii. VI. 20, 12 PhilantecB. Dat. XI Kal. Feb. Sirmii. V. 51, 10 Pomponio. S. X Kal. Feb. Sirmii. 
VIII. 54, 20 Helinio. S. VII Kal. Feb. V. 34, 9 Maximiano. S. Ill Kal. Feb. Sirmii. 

VI. 20, 13 AntisticB. Dat. VI * Feb. Sirmii. Either Jan. 27 or Feb. 8. V. 18, 7 Erotic. S. V 
Id. Feb. Sirmii. V. 37, 19 Vindiciano. S. Ill Id. Feb. Sirmii. III. 28, 22 Tantillce. Dat. Idib. 
Feb. Sirmii. IV. 13, 4 Achivce. S. XII Kal. Mart. Sirmii. 

VIII. 54, 21 AntonicB. S. V Id. Mart. V. 18, 8 Sallustice. Dat. XIII Kal. April. Sirmii. 

III. 38, 6 ThesidiancB et aliis. Dat. V Kal. April. Sirmii. 

V. 62, 18 Sabino et aliis. Dat. Non. April. V. 12, 20 Tiberio. Dat. V Kal. Maii Sirmii. VIII. 
54, 10 Hermmice. S. V Kal. Maii Ccess. conss. II. 3, 25 Euhemero. S. IV Kal. Maii Sirmii Ccess. 
Ill conss. V. 31, 10 Prisco. S.prid. Kal. Maii Sirmii Ccess. conss. VIII. 54, 11 Sabi'Ao. S. II 
Kal. Maii. 

IV. 22, 3 Maxima. Dat. Kal. Maii Sirmii Ccess. conss. 

V. 24, 1 Ccelestince. S. VIII Kal. Jul. Veronce Ccess. conss. 

V. 16, 22 ArchinocB. S. Kal. Aug. Sirmii. V. 12, 21 ac? Geminium. Dat. Non. Aug. AgrippincB. 

V. 16, 20 ClaudicB. Dat. V Id. Aug. Viminacii. V. 16, 21 MaucalicB. Dat. Ill Id. Aug. Vimi- 
nacii. VI. 24, 10 Asclepiadce. S. XVI Kal. Sept. Sirmii. II. 20, 8 Tryphonio. Dat. XI Kal. 
Sept. Viminacii. 

II. 43, 3 TheodorcB. Dat. XIII Kal. Oct. Sirmii. II. 13, 20 ad Verrinum prcssidem Syrice. 
Dat. X Kal. Oct. Demesso. II. 19, 21 Michrce. Dat, VI Kal. Oct. Viminacii. VIII. 54, 23 Olymr 
piadi. Subscriptum V Kal. Oct. 

II. 3, 26 Comdice, pp. Ill Id. Oct. Variani. IV. 2, 13 Fromtoni. S. XVII Kal. Nov. Nico- 
m^dice. V. 12, 24 AureUo et Lysimacho. Dat. VI Kal. Nov. Antiochics. 

V. 16, 23 CcedUance. S. Kal. Nov. Brundusii. V. 18, 10 Epigono. S. VII Id. Nov. Heradece. 
II. 3, 27 Aurelio Chresimo. S. VI Id. Nov. HeracUcE. II. 4, 33 Euchrusio. S. V Id. Nov. Melan- 
tiadce CC. conss. V. 12, 25 Eutychiano. Dat. Ill Id. Nov. Antiochice. III. 32, 25 Eugnomio. 
Dat. XVI Kal. Dec. Nicmnedice. II. 19, 22 Eulogio. Dat. XI Kal. Dec. II. 4, 35 Hammmi. 
S. IX Kal. Dec. Nicomedice CC. c<ms. II. 55, 1 Attalo. Dat. VI Kal. Dec. Viminacii. VI. 



EMPERORS. 77 

36, 5 Flmice. Dot. VI Kal. Dec. BivellL IV. 2, 15 Charidemo. S. V Kal. Dec. V. 12, 22 Li- Diocletian. 
hyance. Dot. V Kal. Dec. 

V. 51, 11 AA. et CC. Chrusiano. S. Kal. Dec. AncUali Ccess. conss. I. 22, 2 Statice. Dot. Kal. 
Dec. Sirmii. IV. 5, 9 Gratiance. S. IV Non. Dec. Nicomedice. VI. 20, 15 Philippo. Dot. Idih. 
Dec. IX. 9, 27 Phoeho.pp. XVI I I Kal. Jan. V. 12, 18 Menestrato. Dat. XIV Kal. Jan. Sirmii. 
V. 12, 26 Demostheni. Dat. VI Kal. Jan. V. 12, 27 Pompeiano. S. VI Kal. Januar. Sirmii. VI. 
20, 16 Socrati. Dat. V Kal. Jan. VI. 34, 3 EutycUdi. Dat. V Kal. Jan, 

AcHiLLEUs. Tables A. D. 292. 297- He is mentioned by Victor Cses. p. 347 (with some dif- Achilleus. 
ference in the account of his fall). His overthrow is referred to by Malalas XH p. 409. 410. 

MaxIMIAN. Maximian. 

Maximian was a Pannonian: Mamertin. Panegyr. c. 2 p. 16. 

The quinquennalia oi Maximian mentioned in the Tables A. D. 291 are placed at the begin- 
ning of the 5th year, or Kal. Ap. 290, by Pagi, and after him by Arntzenius ad Mamertin. p. 84. 
But at the close of the 5th year, or A. D. 291, by Norisius apud Tillemont torn. 4 p. 602 and 
Schwarzius ad Mamertin. 1. c. These vota quinquennalia., decennalia., vicennalia, were sometimes 
celebrated at the beginning of the year, as the vicennalia of Diocletian in 303 pp, the quinquennalia 
of Constantine in 310: Eumen. gratiarum actio c. 13 p. 455 quinto incipiente suscepta. and the 
quinquennalia of the Ccesars in 321 q. But just as often at the completion of the period ^ And as 
the terms of Mamertinus are express, quinquennia exacto., and as there is no other evidence to 
oppose to this, the present celebration must be assigned to the close of the period, where Schwarz- 
ius places it. 

illfair*ma% in 307 resumes the empire % marries his daughter i^awste to Constantine: Lactant. 
M. P. c. 27. is expelled by his son Maxetitius : Lactant. c. 29. His treachery to Constantine and 
death are related by Lactantius M. P. c. 30^ His death is also described by Eutropius X. 3 
MassilicB oppressus posnas dedit justissimo exitu. Who is followed by Orosius VII. 28 3Iassilice 
oppressus et inter/ectus est. and by Hieronymus quoted in the Tables. These three passages are 
inaccurate in describing the death of Maximian as immediately following his capture at Massilia ; 
for that he was then spared and that some space intervened is attested by Lactantius and Eu- 
menius the contemporaries'*'. 

The 20th year of Maximian is mentioned by Panegyr. Max. et Const, c. 8 p. 329 Te vicesimo 
anno imperatorem octavo consulem Boma mluit detinere. c. 10 p. 333 ilia viginti annorum continua 
felicitas. c. 1 1 p. 336 curis quas viginti annis expertus fueras. marking the period to the abdica- 
tion. The abdication is described c. 9 p. 331. 

Zosimus II. 11 confounds Maximian with Maximinus Daza: 'EpKovkios vocrca mTo. rrjv Tapabv 
fT€K€VTr](T€ ^^. Eusebius Vit. Constantini I, 47 records the death of Maximian out of the due 
order of events. 

Inscriptions. 1 Panvin. p. 385 Gruter p. 192. 4 Imp. Cces. M. Aurelius Valerius Maximianus 
invictus Augustus S'arm. max. Goth. max. pont. max. imp, VIII cos. Ill p.p. procos. iter, reparavit. 
2 Panvin. p. 385 Gruter p. 281. 4 Magno invicto ac super omnes retro principes fortissimo imp. 

PP On the 65th day of the 20th year. t See the Tables A. D. 310. 

q See the Tables 321. 3. v gee the Tables A. D. 310. 2. 3. 

r See Tillemont torn. 4 p. 637. The vicennalia of ^ The error is remarked by Livineius ad Eumen. 

Constantine were celebrated both at the beginning p. 391 Spark ad Lactantium c. 30 Reitemeier ad 

and at the end. Tables 325. 326. Zosimum Tzschutke ad Eutropium p. 751. 

s See the Tables 307. 2. 3. 



78 APPENDIX. 0.1. 

Maximiak. Ccbs. M, Aurelio Maximiano Pio Fel. inmcto Aug. cos. Ill p. p. procos. Septimius Valentlo V. C. 
Aug. prcef. prcet. D.N.M. Q. ejus. 3 Gruter p. 281. 5 Romse : M. Aurel. Val. Maximiano in- 
mcto Aug. pont. max. imp. VIII cos. Ill P. P. P. These three within A. D. 290—292. 4 Gruter 
p. 281. 6 Apud Isaram fluvium: Imp. Cces. Aug. Maximiano P. F. inmcto. 5 Panvin. p. 385 
Gruter p. 161. 3 In via Flaminia: uEterni imperatores Diocletianus et Maximianus Augusti et per- 
petui CcBsares Constantius et Maximianus pontem Metauro. 6 Panvin. p. 385 Gruter p. 279. 2 In 
Piceno: see above Diocletian N°. 10 from Muratori. 7 Gruter p. 159. 1 Patavii: Imp. Ccbs. G. 
Val. Diocletianus p.p. Aug. et imp. Cces. M. Aur. Val. et [lege Valer.] Maximianus p.p. Aug. et Fl. 

Val. Constantinus [lege Constantius] et Gal. Val. Maximianus nobil. Cces. [lege nohh. C<bss!\ M 

8 Gruter p. 199. 4 Oreolo non procul ab Ebora'^ : DD. NN. cetem. impp. C. Aure. Valerio Jovio 
Diocletiano et M. Aur. Valerio [ll]ercul€o Maximiano Piis Fel. semper Augg. terminus inter Pacens. 
et Ehorens. curante P. Datiano V. P. prceside If. H. N. M. Q. eorum devotissimo. Heine Pacenses. 
Heine Eborenses. 9 Murator. p. 461. 6 Cordubse : Imp. Cces. Maximiano Pio Felici Aug. Flora 
M. P. XII. 10 Muratori p. 49. 7 Metis : Deo Mercurio numini sanctissimo Herculius junior 
Augustus. 1 1 Gruter p. 280. 3 Olunise in Hispania : Diocletianus Jovius et Maximian. Herculeus 
,Cces. Augg. amplificato per orientem et occidentem imp. Bom. et nomine Christianorum deleto qui remp. 
evertebant. 

CoxsTANTius. Constantius. 

The elevation of Constantius and the distribution of the provinces in A. D. 305 is described by 
Zosimus II. 8 ijbr} 8e Karaa-TdvTes avT0Kp6,T0p€s KcavcrTavTLOi kol Ma^i/xtai'os 6 FaWeptos avibn^av 
KaCaapas "Si^^ripov koL Ma^iixivov aheX^rjs ovra Tralba rov YakXepiov, ^e^ripa ttjv ^IraXCav Ma£tfi(i;o> 
8e ra Trpbs avCcrxovra i]kiov Trapabovres. Eutropius X. 1 Constantius et Galerius Augusti creati sunt 
divisusque inter eos ita Bomanus orhis ut Gallias Italiam Africam Constantius^ Illyricum Asiam Ori- 
entem Galerius ohtineret, sumtis duohus Ccesarihus. Constantius tamen contentus dignitate Augusti 
Italics atque Africce administrandce solicitudinem recusavit. Idem X. 2 Galerius — Ccesares duos 
creavit, Maximinum quern Orienti prcef ecit et Severum cui Italiam dedit. Ipse in Illyrico commoratus 
est. Orosius VII. 25 Galerius Maximianus Illyricum Asiam et Orientem^ Constantius Italiam Afri- 
cara Hispaniam et Gallias obtinuit. 8ed Constantius vir tranquillissimus Gallia tantvm Hispaniaque 
contentus Galerio cceteris partibus cessit. Galerius duos Ccesares legit, Maximinum, quern in Orients 
constituit^ et Severum^ cuipermisit Italiam, ipse in Illyrico constitutus. Anonymus Valesii p. 610 Ccs- 
sares duo facti Severus et Maximinus. Maximino datum est Orientis imperium, Galerius sibi Illyricum 
Thracias et Bithyniam tenuity Severus suscepit Italiam et quidquid Herculius obtinebat. Idem p. 6 1 1 
Severus Ccesar ignobilis et moribus et natalibus, ebriosus, et hoc Galerio amicus. Hunc ergo et Maximi- 
num Galerius Ccesares fecit, Constantino [1. Constantio] nihil tale noscente. Huic Severo Pannonice et 
Italice urbes et Africce contigerunt. Julian Or. II ad Constantium II p. 51 CD relates the division 
of the provinces as between Constantius and Maximian : 6 ii\v ttjs p.rjTpbs itarqp [so. Maximianus 
Herculius] rr^v 'Pto/xr/i' 8tw/c6t k. t. k. — o ye ixrjv tov irarpos yevvrjrqs [sc. Constantius Chlorus] TakarCas 

idvt} K. T. \. 

Eusebius Vit. Const. I. 18 places the abdication of Diocletian and the elevation of Constantius 
li€Ta TO irp&Tov Itos ttjs t&v kKK\r](n5)V iroXtopKias. and H. E. VIII. 13 oviria bevrepov Itos weTrA^pMTo. 
This is not exact; for from the edict in Feb. 303 to the abdication May 1 A. D. 305 were two 
years complete and the third year current. 

Constantius is placed before Galerius by Eusebius H. E. VIII. 5 bvdv iTTiirapovTOiv — fiaaiXioiv. 
TOV T€ TTp^a-^vrdTov T&v 6X\(t>v [sc. Diocletian] koI tov tov TiTdipTov anb tovtov Trjs Sipxv^ iiriKpaTovvTo^ 

» Sc. oppido Hispaniae ulterioris: Mela III. 1, 8. 



EMPERORS. 79 

jBaOfjLov [sc. Galerius]. Vit. Const. I. 18 Kcoyorairtos itpSiTO's Avyovcrros koX Se/Satrro? avqyopiv^To , Constaxhus. 
TO fxev KaTap)(a^ tw tQv avroKpardpav KataApcav biabripi,aTL XapLTrpwopL^vos, koL tovt(i)V aTretArjc/jcos to. 
7Tpu)Ta. Upon which Eckhel torn. 8 p. 35 observes that, as Galerius was nominated by Diocletian, 
he would have the precedence over Constantius, who was appointed by Maximian Herculius ; and 
concludes that Eusebius gave Constantius the precedence out of compliment to Constantine. ]3ut 
Eusebius is confirmed by the order of the names in Inscriptions y, and in all the consulships of 
Constantius and Galerius^. 

Constantine found Constantius at the point ^f death according to Lactantius de M. P. c. 24 Qui 
cum graviter lahoraret, miserat literas utjilium suum Constantinum remitteret sihi mdendum. — At ille 
incredibili celeritate usus pervenit ad patrem jam deficientem. and Victor Cses. p. 348. Victor Epit. 
p. ^'d^ forte iisdem diehus ibidem Constantium fata ultima perurgehant. And Eusebius Vit. Const. 
I. 21 avrUa 8' ovv kimhi^ rOiv €T7t(3ovkS)V ras ixr])(^avas biabpas (nrevboyv ol^ik^to irpos tov naripa, o/xoC 
}xkv avTos XpovLOs Tiapriv, Kara to avTo be rw itaTpl to. Tri<i tov ^lov rfAevr^? em ^vpov laTaTO' ws 8' 
aTTpoa-boKrjTOV elbev 6 Kcava-TavTios TrapeoTWTa tov TTOiba, e^aXkofxevos ttj^ crrpwjui'Tj? k. r. A. But the 
authorities in the Tables A. D. 306" shew that Constantine arrived some time before his father's 
death, and found him at Boulogne. Arntzenius ad Eumen. Panegyr. p. 370 and La Baune in 
Vita Constantii p. 298 endeavour to reconcile the difference by supposing " duplex adventus 
Constantini," one in 305, and one in SOG. But they forget that Constantine was at Nicomedia 
with Galerius through the year 305. 

Constantine is called Augustus at his father's death by Eusebius Vit. Const. I. 22 avTOKpaxopa 
KoX a-ejBaa-Tbv ck irpaiTr}^ avqyopevov (fiavris. and again H. E. VIII. 13. and by Lactantius M. P. 
c. 24 Constantinus Augustus. Orosius VII. 25 calls him imperator : Constantius Augustus in Bri- 
tannia mortem obiit. Qui Constantinum filium — imperatorem Galliarum reliquit. But the testimonies 
in the Tables at 306 and the coins of Constantine as Ccesar apud Eckhel tom. 8 p. 72 shew that 
he was only Ccesar. 

Coins of Constantius as Ccesar A. D. 292 — 304 apud Eckhel torn. 8 p. 29. 1 Constantius Nob. 
Cces. + comitatus Augg. 2 " Antica \avia!''' + Herculi conservatori. 3 Fl. Val. Constantius Nob. Cces. 
+pr(ssidia reipublic. ov principi juventut.^ or victoria beatissimorum Ccess. 4 Constantius Nob. Cces. 
+ virtus Herculi Ccssaris. or virtus Illurici. or imdique victores. 5 " antica yariii' + vota V. or J;^. 
or XX. C Virtus Constanti Nob. C.-\ 

Coins of Constantius divus:^ Eckhel tom. 8 p. 32. 1 Divo Constantio Aug. + Consecratio. 2 Dim 
Constantio Pio + Consecratio. 3 Divo Constantio Pio princ. + memories ceternce. 4 Divus Constan- 
tius + consecratio. 5 Imp. Maxentius divo Constantio adfini vel cogn. + ceterna memoria. 

Inscriptions. 1 Gruter p. 281. 9 Cluniae Hispan. Imp. Maximian. Hercul. Cms. Aug. Constantio 
in occid. Cess, effecto et imp. reip. longe ef late auc. Diocletiano principi invic. et uno temp, collega 
effecto. 2 Gruter p. 281. 1 Tarracone : Pio adque inclito D. N. Constantio nobilisshno ac fortissimo 
et felicissimo Ccssari Badius Macrinus V. P. P. P. H. T.^ numini majestatique ejus semper devotissi- 
mus. 3 Grut. p. 159. 5 Veronse: Imp. Cces. Fl. Val. Constantio M. P. VIII. 4 Grut. p. 284.4 
Septempedse : Magno principi Flavio Valeria Constantio nob. Cces. ordo Septempedanorum D. N. 31. E. 

y See many inscriptions of Diocletian at p. 74, stantii. c. 14 p. 344 dive Constanti. Incert. Panegyr. 

three inscriptions given above under Maximian Her- c. 25 p. 530 divum Constantium. Eusebius himself 

culius, and three quoted in the Tables at 305. 3. H. E. VIII. 13 Trpwrdy re iv Oeois avriyopeveTO Trap av- 

'- See the Tables at the years 294, 300, 302, 305, rois. He was consecrated by his army in Britain : 

306. conf. Eumen. c. 8 p. 372 Neque enimfas erat diutins 

a Conf. Eumen. pro instaur, Schol. c. p. 191 fieri principem consecratum. 
Constantii vere pr'incipis juventutis. f Sc. prcefectus provincics Hispanice Tarraconensis . 

b See Eutropius quoted in the Tables A. D. 30G. Conf. Gruter. p. 283. 9. 
Eumen. Panegyr. Constantino c. 3 p. 318 divi Con- 



80 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

CovsTAVTivs. pub. 5 Gruter p. 1086.3 Nolae: JD.N. Flavio Valeria Consiantio nohiliss. ac heatiss. Ccesari ordo 
populusque Nolanus D. N. M. Q. ejus. 6 Murat. p. 462. 4 in Albercse vico, IV leucis ab Astensi 
civitate: Imp. Cces. Flavio Valerio Constantio nohHissimo Cess. p.p. M. P.N. XX I II I. 6 Mur. 
p. 1 1 13. 6 Nicomedise : Optimo hmignissimoqv^e principi Flavio Valerio Constantio nob. Ccesari Ger- 
m^nico max. cons. [A. D. 294] colonia Nicom£diensium D. N. M. Q. ejus. 

Helena. Helena was not the concubine but the wife of Constantius. This is attested by Victor and 

Eutropius quoted in the Tables A. D. 292. Anon.^alesii p. 609 Constantius relicta Helena priore 
uxorefiliam Maximiani Theodoram duxit uxorem^ ex qua postea sex liberos Constantini fratres habuit. 
Sed de priore uxore Helma filium jam Constantinum habuit. Eutropius X. 2 Constantinus ex ob- 
scuriori matrim,onio Constantii filius. Imphed also in Incerti Panegyr. Maximiano et Constantino 
c. 4 p. 318 addressing Constantino : Quo enim magis continentiam patris cequare potuisti, quam quod 
te ab ipso fine pueritice illico matrimonii legibus tradidisti? ut primo ingressu adolescentice formares 
animum maritalem. These authorities justify Eusebius H. E. VIII. 13 Kwvorayrios — waiSa yvrjaMv 
Koivaravrlvov avTOKpdropa — KaTaXiTTiav. — KcovcrTdvTLOs — em 8ia8o)(0) yirqaCbi jtaibl — TekiVTrjcras. And 
Cedrenus torn, I p. 269 C fyevvrja-ev e^ 'Ektirqs rrjs Trpdrrjs avrov yvvaiKos KoivaravTlvov. She is 
called a concubine by Hieronymus Chron. Anno 2322 Constantinus ex concubina Helena procreatvx. 
Repeated by Orosius VII. 25 ex concubina Helena creatum. and by Cassiodorus Chron. natus dicitur 
ex Helena concubina. Zosimus II. 8 KiavcrravTivos e£ 6p.(.k[as yvvaLKos ov (refxvrjs ovbe Kara vofjLov crvv- 
eXOovcrrjs Koovo-rarrtw yeyevvqixivos. aaifjivov (xr}Tp6s II. 9. Chron. Pasch. p. 278 A B 6 yap Kiovarav- 
Tii'os — ^^ krepas rivbs p.C^€(os VTirip\€V avria KaivaravTicD irais a-nb 'Fikevrjs. — 6 v69o^ e^ 'EXeV?]? avT^ 
yevoficvos. But La Baune Vit. Constantini p. 232 and Gibbon Vol. 2 p. 1 86 truly remark that the 
divorce of Helena proves her marriage : " repudiari non dicitur nisi quae uxor sit." Scaliger ad 
Euseb. Chron. p. 246 in discussing this question forgets that Minervina was not the wife of Con- 
stantius ChloruSf but of Constantine. Helena was of humble origin : Anon. Valesii p. 609 Constan- 
tinus natus Helena mxxtre vilissima in oppido Naiso atque eductus, quod oppidum postea magnifice 
omavit. That her son was born at Naissus is confirmed by other authorities^. The place of 
Helena''s birth is doubtful. Bithynia according to Procopius ^dif. V. 2 p. 96 B ^ori hi ns h BiOvvia 
TToAis, 'EXeznjs €TT(owpt.os ovaa rrjs Kava-TavrLifOv tov ySacriAewy p.r)Tp6%' €k Tavrrjs yap Tr}v 'EA.^i'tjy ctpixrj- 
aOaC (j)a(n. 

Helena died in about her 80th year^. Gothofredus Chronologia legum p. 28 supposes that she 
died at Rome 18 Aug. 326. La Baune in Vita Constantini p. 303 places her death at Rome 18 
Aug. 327. " Helena XV Kal. Sept. Romse obit." Tillemont tom. 4 p. 228. 651 refers it to 328, 
because time was required for her transactions in Palestine described by Eusebius Vit. Const. III. 
25. 26. 42 after the council of Nice. Eckhel tom. 8 p. 33 adopts the date of Tillemont. Valesius 

^ Steph. Byz. NaWds : TroXt? QpaKrjs, fcrtV/xa Kal ira- rffv voTdrriv ^ovXrjv biopi^opivrj — r^i/ tov /St'ou KareXvf re- 

rpis Kavaravrivov tov ^aaiKeas. Constantin. Porphyr. Xevrfju -rrapovros avTrj Ka\ TrapfarSyros viov to(tovtov. — Koi 

Them. II. 9 p. 26 fiTap)(ia Acucias — Nateros 17 iraTpls tov to (tktjvos 8f t^s paKaplas ov TTfs TV)(OV(rr}s fj^iovTO arrov- 

fieyaXov KcavaravTivov. Hence Cedrenus torn. I p. 8rjs. TrXeiarrj yovv 8opv(fiopia eVi ttjv ^aa-CKfvov<Tav ttoKip 

269 C relates that he was bom wtpl ttjv ttjs Aajct'as dvfKOfil^ero, imavBol be fjpiois /Sao-tXtKotf dirfTidfTO. Re- 

TToXti'. Firmicus lib. I c. 4 Matheseos apud Valesium peated by Socrates I. 17 eia-t^as bumxraara ttju fco^v 

ad Ammian. 21. 1 0, ,5 Apud Naisum genitus. On fTtXevTrja-e irtpl oyborfKoarov eras, koi to a-apa axn^s tls 

Firmicus see Gibbon Vol. 2 p. 187. "7" ^aa-iktvova-av veav 'Papr^v buiKOfua-dev iv toIs /SatriXt- 

« Euseb. Vit. Constant. III. 46. 47 fWi be Xomov ko2s pvrjpaa-iv dneTedT}. And by Sozomen II. 2 eireib^ 

TO T^f avTopKovs bLavv(ra(Ta {co^s eTrt r^v Kptirrova Xfj^iv ebei tov Tfjbe KaTaXirrelv ^iov, evKXews eTeXevTJja-eV err) 

cKoXetro, axebov nov Trjs fjXiKias dpxfn Toiis oyborjKovTa pf}v ap<f)i to oyborjKOPra yeyomna, tov Tralba KaTaXnrovaa 

fviavToiis buipKe<Ta(Ta, npos avTa yevopevt) Ta TeXei owe- apa Kala-apaiv avTTJs eKy6vois 7rao7;s ttjs 'Pvpaiav olieov- 

TaTTfTO Koi bieTiBeTO, en\ fiovoyeve7 via fiaaiXel povdpx^ pevrfs ffyavpevov. 
KotrpoKpaTOpi irauri T€ tovtov Kaia-apaiP fovr^s fK.y6vois 



EMPERORS. 81 

ad Euseb. Vit. Const. III. 47 argues rightly from the time of the death of Crispus that Helena Helena. 
lived till A. D. 327. He understands Rome as the place of burial, as likewise La Baune and 
Tillemont ee. 

Eusebius does not mark the year of her death nor how long she survived after the transactions 
in Palestine. The date of Gothofredus is wrong, because she survived Crispus, and perhaps 
Fausta^. The account of La Baune is also erroneous, because Constantine was present at her 
death, and Constantine was not at Rome in 327-. If she died in 327, ber death did not happen at 
Rome. She might have lived later than that year. If Helena reached her 80th year, her birth 
would be placed at the earliest at A. D. 248 ; perhaps a year or two later. Her husband Con- 
stantius has 56 years in Nicephorus quoted by La Baune Vita Constantini c. 235. Malalas XII 
p. 416 gives him 60 years : 7/2; 8e ivtavruiv k^rinovTa. If he was 60 at his death in 306, he might 
be 2 years or perhaps 3 or 4 years older than Helena. 

Coins of Helena. Eckhel tom. 8 p. 142 Fl. Jul. Helence Aug. -^ Pax puhlica. Conse. or pietas 
JRomana. Conf. Eckhel Ibid. p. 143 — 145. 

Inscriptions. 1 Gruter p. 284. 1 Scaliger ad Euseb. p. 246 Romse : DominoR nostrce Fl. Jul. 
HelencB piissimce Aug. genetrici D. N. Constantini maximi victoris clementissimi semper Augusti avicB 
Constantini et Constanti heatissimorum ac fiorentissimorum principum Julius Maximilianus [3Iaxi- 
mianus Seal.] V. C. comes pietati ejus semper dicatiss. 2 Gruter p. 284. 2 Scaliger lb. p. 246 
Neapoli : Piissimce ac venerabili domince nostrce Helence Augustce matri domini nostri victoris semper 
Aug. Constantini et avice dominorum nostrorum heatissimorum Ccesarum ordo et populus Neapolitanus. 
3 Gruter p. 1086. 2 Neapoli : Piissimce et clementissimcB domince nostrce Augustce Helence matri do- 
mini he. et avicB dominorum iiostrorum Ccesarum heatorum uxori dim Constantii ordo Neapolitanorum 
et populus. 4 Muratori p. 261. I Salerni : Domince nostrce Flavice Augustce Helena divi Constanti 
castissimce conjugi procreatrici D. N. Constantini maximi piissimi ac victoris Augusti avice domi- 
norum nostrorum Fl. Constantini et Constanti heatissimorum ac felicium Ccesarum Alpinus Magnus 
V. C. corr. Lucanice et Brittiorum statuit devotus excellentice pietatique ejus. 5 Murat. p. 261.2 
Romse : Domince nostrce. vener. Helence Augustce genetrici D. N. Constantini maximi victoris et tri- 
wnphatoris semper Augusti L. Pistrius V. P. PP. rerum privatarum pietati eorum semper devotissi- 

mus. 6 Murat. p. 260. 7 Romse ad thermas Helenae : D. N. Helena ven. Aug. mat avia 

beatiss therma istr 7 Mur. p. 260. 6 Mazarse in Sicilia: Hel. Aug. respuh. 

COIHL Y [sic] devota numini eorum. Muratori proposes resp. Lilyh. 



^^ In Nicephorus VIII. 31 quoted by Valesius 1. c. iTa.<pr} be iv rw vaw t^v aylav uTToaTokav ev KIT. — npaiTi] 

the body of Helena was brought from Rome to CP. be ev avra erdipr] f) fiuKapia 'EXevr]. Repeated by Ce- 

two years after her death. But Socrates I. 17 ap- drenus p. 284 B tw k erei. tovtco tw eVei Km Kplanos — 

pears rightly to understand Eusebius to speak of eKoifiridrj, koI 'EXevrj fj nrjTrjp tov /Soo-tXews — els to. 'lepo- 

CP. and not of Rome. (T6\vp,a dnepxeTM. p. 285 A 17 8e paKapia 'EXevrj i^ '\e- 

f On this account Valesius ad Euseb. 1. C. rejects poaokvpwv eiraveXBovcra — ereXevrijarev irav it , koL erdcj)!] 

the date of Cedrenus p. 297 A for the death of He- ev tw va<o ra>v dylwv dTioardXav. p. 295 C tw ku erei — 

lena : fj prjrrjp avrov 'EXevr) rrpo bcabeKa erav rrfs reXevTrjs ev tovtco rm ;(poi'w 17 ay la — 'EXevr] npos Kvpiov e/c8j;/Ltfi 

avTov diTodavovaa. which would be 325. Theophanes ircov ova-a ir' Kal ev tco vaco rav dylcov dTToaroXcov ddnTerai 

has these dates: p. 17 B Constanthii 2*Jo tovtco tm irpaT-q. The 21st year is consistent with the date of 

erf I KpicTTi-os — eKoiprjdr]. p. 20 B Constantini 21" rourw the death of Crispus. And this in the reckoning of 

Tw erei — 'EXevrjv — /xera xp^pdrcov dTrea-reiXev els rd 'lepo- Cedrenus is 1 2 years before the death of Constantine, 

(ToXvpa 6 dehs Kavfrravrlvos. p. 21 C icar avrov tov tO whom he giVeS 33 years: p. 296 D. 
Kaipov Kal T] fiaKapia 'EXevr} eKoiprjOi] ev Kvpia irwv tt . — 

M 



82 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

Oaleaius. Galerius. 

The edict of Galerius issued a few days before his death is given in the original by Lactantius, 
and in a Greek translation by Eusebiuss, who has been faithful to the meaning of his original'*.^ 
Valesius ad Euseb. VIII. 17 quoted by Heinechen observes of the tribunician years of Galerius in 
this edict "Galerius creatus est Csesar a. 291 Kal. Mart, edictum emisit a. 311. Sequitur edictum 
illud scriptuin fuisse ante Kal. Mart." Of Licinius he observes " Licinius Csesar factus est III 
Id. Nov. anno 308. Quartus igitur annus tribuniciae potestatis coepit anno 311 III Id. Nov. ex 
quo efficitur edictum datum esse sub exitum anni 311. Quare necesse est horum duorum locorum 
alteruter mendosus sit." But Valesius himself has erred in placing the accession of Galerius one 
year too high, and the accession of Licinius one year too low. When these errors are rectified, 
the numbers in the edict are consistent with each other and with the true dates of those ac- 
cessions '. 

Coins of the Gcesar Galerius A. D. 292 — 304 Eckhel torn. 8 p. 35 1 Maximianus nob. Ccesar + 
primo ausp. or virtue Jovi Ccesaris. 2 " antica varia." -\-principi juventutis. or votis X. or X m. 
XX. or vot. XX. 3 Maximianus nob. Gcesar -\-XGViy^ AQ,. 

Coins of Galerius Augustus A. D. 305 — 3 1 1 . Eckhel tom. 8 p. 36 1 Gal. Maodmianm P. F. 

Aug. -\ 2 Imp. G. Gal. Val. Maximianus P. F. Aug. -\ 3 Imp. Maximianus jun. Aug. + 

principi juventutis. or securit. pepret. DD.NN. 4 Imp. G. Gal. Val. Maximianus Jun. Aug.-\ 

Coins after his death. Eckhel tom. 8 p. 38 1 Imp. Maxentius dim Maximiano socero or divo 
Maximiano socero Maxentius Aug. + cetemce mem^rice. 2 divo Maximiano Maximimts Aug. fil. + 
cetemcB memories Gal. Maximiani. 3 divo Gal. Val. Maximiano. -\-forti fortunce. 

Inscriptions. 1 Muratori p. 257- 6 Romse: Nobilissim^ Gcesari dcmiino nostro Galerio Valerio... 
...an. Persico mxiximo Sarmatico mwsimo Britannico maximo. 2 Gruter p. 280. 4 Clunise His- 
panise : Diocletian. Gees. Aug. Galerio in Oriente adopt, superstitione Ghrist. ubiq. deleta et cultu 
deor. propagato. 

Carausius. Carausius. Tables A. D. 287 — 291. 293. 

Coins. Eckhel tom. 8 p. 44. 1 Imp. Garausius Aug.-\-adjutrix Aug. ov DiancB cons, or Mars 
ultor. or Marti paci/ero. or victoria Ger. 2 Garausius Aug.-\-adventus Aug. or adventus Augg. 
3 Imp. Garausius P. Aug. +Apollini cons. Aug. 4 Imp. Garausius P. F. Aug. -{-con^cordia Aug. or 
Concordia militum. or Gonstant. Aug. or expectate veni. or fidem militum NN. or Gennanicus mxixu. 
or invictus Au. or leg. IIII Fl. or leg. VII Gl. or leg. Villi Ge. or principi juventut. or Bomce 
ceternce V. or ubertas. or voto publico, or votum publicwm. multis XX. imp. 5 Imp. G. Garausius 

P. F. Aug.+felicitas. 6 Imp. G. M. Aur. V. Garausius P. Aug.-\ 7 virtus Carausi.+pax 

Aug. or Romano, renova. 8 Imp. C. M. Carausius Aug. +pietas Aug. 9 Imp. C. Carausius A. + 
tutela Aug. Lo. 10 " antica incerta." + ?^. // Part. VII P. or leg. VIII ... In. or leg. XX V. V. 
or leg. XXX Ulpia. 

? See the Tables A. D. 311. represents as an excellent prince and no persecutor : 

^ In Eusebius p. 76 ed. Heinechen sc. VIII. 17- " Neque Christianos unquam persecutus fuit — bonus 

for rfi avT^ anovoia we must adopt the reading of the princeps et laudabilis, eximius et felix bellator." 

note Tji ainji xmovoia. which is confirmed by Lactan^ ^ On this number, which also is found upon the 

tius, who has in proposito perseverarent. coins of Diocletian, Maximian, and Constantius Chlo- 

» Scaliger ad Eusebii annum 2326 p. 248 has rus, see Eckhel tom. 8 p. 12 p. 507. 
much mistaken the character of Galerius, whom he 



EMPERORS. 83 

Severds. Tables A. D. 305—307. Severi-s. 

His son Severianus was slaia in 313 : Lactant. M. P. c. 50 Licinius — Severianum, jam estate ro- 
bustum, qui fugientem Maximinum fuerat ex acie secutus, tanquam post obitum ejus de swmenda pur- 
pura cogitasset, capitali sententice subjectum interemit. 

An inscription apud Muratorium p. 258. 4 Fabriani : DD. NN. Flavio Valeria Cofistantio et 
Galerio Maximiano invictis. et clementissimis Augg. et DD. NN. Flavio Valerio Bemro et Gneio 
Valerio Maximiano [lege cum Muratorio Galerio Valerio Maximino] nobilissimis ac fortissimis 

Maximinus Daza. Tables A. D. 305—308. 311.313. Da™""*"' 

Maximinus is mentioned by Hieronymus ad Zachariam c. 14 torn. 6 p. 228 G Legamus Ecclesi- 
asticas Mstorias, quid Valerianm, quid Decius, quid Diocletianus, quid Maximianus [sc. Galerius\t 
quid scevissimus omnium Maximinus^ et nvper Julianus, passi sint, &e. — quod computruerint carries 
eorum^ et oculi contabuerint Sea. [de oculis Maximini Dazce conf. Lactantium M. P. c. 49.] 

Inscriptions. 1 See Mur. p. 258. 4 quoted under Severus. 2 Murat. p. 130. 5 in urbe Teatina : 
Pro salute Imp. Maximiani Aug. [sc. Galerii] et Maximini Gees, taurobolium movit Petronius Mar- 
cellus sacerd. de suo. 3 Murat. p. 258. 5 Panormi: D. N. Galerio Val. Maximino nobilissimo Cces. 
respub, Panliorm. D. N M. Q. ejus. 4 Gruter p. 280. 5 in foro civitatis Nepesinorum in Faliscis : 
D. N C. Galerio Maximino nob. Cces. princip. juv. B. P. Nepesinorum. 

Maxentius. Tables a. D. 306 — 312. Maxentius. 

Lactantius M, P. c. 18 Erat Maximiani Jilius Maxentius Tiujus Maximiani [sc. Galeri%\ gener. 

The day assigned for the death of Maxentius is unnecessarily doubted by Tillemont torn. 4 p. 
634, who also torn. 4 p. 132 mistakes the time of the beginning of the war, which he places in 311. 
The body q{ Maxentius was found the day after his death: Anon. Valesii p. 611 § 12 postera die 
corpus levatum flumine &c. Compare for the fact itself Incert. Panegyr. c. 18 p. 520 Beperto et 
trucidato corpore. Nazar. Panegyr. c. 32 p. 622 Caput reddidit Tiberis. 

For variations in the narrative de Ponte Mulvio conf. Arntzen. ad incert. Panegyr. p. 516. 

Coins : Eckhel tom. 8 p. 57. 1 Maxentius P. F. Aug. + aternitas Aug. n. or Marti propag. 
imp. Aug. n. or principi imperii Bomani. or conservator es Kart. sues, or principi juventutis. or vot. 
QQ. mul. X. or vot. X fel. or vot. QQ. mul. XX. 2 Maxentius princ. invict. or princeps invictus + 
conservator Africce suce. 3 Imp. C. Maxentius P. F. inv. Aug.-\ 4 Imp. CM. A. Val. Max- 
entius P. F. Aug. -{-principi juventutis. or victor omnium gentium Aug. n. 

Inscriptions : 1 Muratori p. 462. 5 Veronee : Imp. Cces. M. Aur. Val. Maxentio P. Fel. invicto 
Aug. M. P. XI. 2 Muratori p. 462. 6 in vico Avii dioecesis Tridentinse : Imp. Cces. M. Aur. Val. 
Maxentio P. F. Aug. 3 Murat. p. 462. 7 Romae : Donino [sic] nostra Maxentio Pio Felici invicto 
Augusto VII. 

Romulus. Tables A. D. 308. 309. Romuli s. 

Bomulus died before his father Maxentius., by whom he was consecrated. Coins Divi Bomuli : 
Eckhel tom. 8 p. 59 

1 Pivo Bomulo nubiss. cons, or nubis. C. \ 

2 Divo Bomulo nub. Auq. f . . 

_ ,^ . 7. t, 7 ^T. > -\-cBterna memoria. or cBternce memorice. 

3 Imp. Maxentius divo Bomulo nu. fiho. i 

4 Imp. Maxentius divo Bomulo nu. cons.filio. ^ 

M 2 



84 



APPENDIX. 



C. l. 



Alexander ALEXANDER. Tables A. D. 308. 311. 

Victor Oses. p, 349 adds Ipse dehili estate^ agrestibus et Pannonicis parentibm vecordior, which 
Anna Fabri ad c. 40 § 17 apud Arntzenium p. 432 underatands of Maxentim. But as Maxentius 
was not dehili cetate, this passage must be referred to Alexander, who is here called a Pannonian, 
although other authors call him a Phrygian. 

LiciNius. LiCINIUS. 

The renewed war is thus introduced by Anon. Valesii p. 613 quoted in the Tables A. D. 323. 
Max bellum inter ipsum Licinium et Constantinum efferhuit. Item cum Constantinus Thessalonicce 
essef Gothi per neglectos limites eruperunt et vastata Thracia et Mcesia prcedas agere coeperunt. Tunc 
Constantini terrore et impetu repressi captivos illi impetrata pace reddiderunt. Sed hoc Licinius contra 
Jidem factum questus est, quod partes suce ah alio/uerint vindicates. Deinde cum variasset inter suppli- 
cantia et superha mandata, iram Constantini merito excitamt. Per tempora quibus nondum gerebatur 
bellum civile, sed item parabatur, Licinius scelere avaritia crudelitate libidine sceviehat, occisis oh 
divitias pluribus, uxoribus eorum corruptis. The character of Licinius is marked by Victor Cses. 
p. 351 Huic parsimonia et ea quidem agrestis tantummodo inerat. — Licinio ne insontium quidem ac 
nohilium philosophorum servili more cruciatus adhibiti modum fecere. And more fully by Victor 
Epit. p. 388 AvariticB cupidine omnium pessimus, neque alienus a luxu venereo. asper admodum, 
haud mediocriter impatiens, infestus Uteris, quas in inscitiam immodicam virus ac pestem puhlicam 
nominabat ; prcecipue forensem industriam. agrarius plane, ac rusticantibus, quia oh eo genere ortus 
altusque erat, satis utilis, ac militice custos ad veterum instituta severissimus, spadonum et aulicorum 
omnium vehemens domitor, tineas soricesque palatii eos appellans. 

[The son of 



Constantine 



Quintillusb Claudius imp. a 



fiUus ' 



/ilius^ 



Crispusc 



ClaiKiiac- 



-Eutropius < 



Eutropii 



Helena : 



(Fausta") 



CoKSTANTius Chlorus imp. 



-Const ANTiNUS imp. 



Minervinali Basilina 



:;Con8tantiu8e- 



rTheodoi 



Oalla Dalm; 



I I I I I I I II 

5 CoNSTANTiNUS CoNSTANTius CoNSTANS Constantmam Helenati Crispus Julianus imp. Gallus Caes. Dalmati 



6 



Constantia Postumao = GRATiANUs imp. 



a On Claudius consult the following testimonies : 
Lamprid. Elagab. c. 35 ad Constantinum Aug. Autor 
tui generis Claudius. Trebell. Gallien. c. 7 Claudia 
duce, qui postea imperium obtinuit, principe generis 
Constantini Ccesaris nostri. Conf. c. 14 Claud. 1.3. 10 
Vopisc. Aurel. c. 44 Eutrop. IX. 22 Constantius per 
filiam nepos Claudii traditur. Eumen. panegyr. Con- 
stantino c. 2 p. 351 Ab ilia enim diva Claudia manat 
in te avita cognatio &c. and Constantine is called the 
third emperor of his family : p. ^o3 past duos familice 
tuee principes [so. Claudium Canstantium] tertius impe- 
rator. Idem Grat. actio c. 4 p. 429 Divum Claudium 
parentem tuum. Julian Or. I p. 6 D mentions the vic- 
tories of Claudius, and their descent from him Or. II 



p. 51 C ra ye firfv ttjs r]fj,fTepas avyyf veins rfp^aro fifv otto 
KXavSi'ov. Caes. p. 313 D K\av8ios, fls ov ainbovres oi 
Beol navTfs Tjyd(rdr](rdv re avrbv rrfs fieyaKoyjrvxtcis, koI eW- 
pevcrav avrov ra yevei ttjv d.pj(T}V biKcuov eivai vofiicravres 
ovTco (f)i\oTra.Tpi8os dv8p6s eirl TrKeloTou eivai to yevos (v 
fjyefiovia. 

b Quintillus. Trebell. Claud, c. 10 defratre Quin- 
tillo, quern consartem habere volebat imperii, respansum 
est Ostendent terris hunc tantum fata. c. 1 2 Quintillus 
f rater ejusdem vir sanctus — delatum sibi omnium ju- 
dicia suscepit imperium, nan hereditarium sed merito 
virtutum, &c. Idem c. 13 Ipsi Claudia liberi nullifu- 
erunt, Quintillus duos reliquit. 

c Crispus. Trebell. Claudio c. 13 Claudius Quin- 



EMPERORS. 



85 



The son of Licinius was slain by Constantine in the same year with CrispusK An act still loss Lkinils. 
to be palliated than the other. Crispus was slain under a mistaken belief of his guilt. But what 
can be alleged for Constantine to excuse the murder of his sister's son at eleven years of ago '. 

He is commemorated in an inscription apud Muratorium p. 2G0. 4 Bracarse : DN Valeria 

Liciniano Licinio ....juniori noh. and with Constantine //apud Mur. p. 4G4. 1 Onsati in agro 

Brixiano: Constantino max. DDD. NNN. Flavio Licinio Liciniano ju. ... Fl. Comtantino jvn. 
Ccesar Villi. 



Valens. Tables A. D. 314. 
Martinianus. Tables A. D. 323. 

CONSTANTINUS. 

Valesius ad Ammian. 14. 1, 2 p. 5 has given the series of the House of Constantine from Con- 
stantius Chlorus to Constantia the daughter of Constaniius II. The following Table exhibits the 
pedigree for six generations, beginning with Crispus the brother of Claudius and ending with 
Constantia. The authorities collected in the notes will illustrate some of the names mentioned 
in this Table. 

The pedigree given by Theophanes p. 15 is both erroneous and defective. 

1 See the Tables A. D. 326. 



\'alens. 

MARIlNIAXUh 
CONSTAM INI J- 



Constantine 



Maximianus imp. 



Fausta i 



Maxentius 



Constantinus Licinius = Constantia^ Bassianus = Anastasiah Eutropiai Romulus 

Licinius Nepotianus 



~1 
Hannibalianus ^ 



tillus et Crispus fr aires fuerunt, Crispi filiu Claudia, 
ex ea et Eutropio nobilissimo gentis Dardance viro Con- 
staniius Ccesar est genitus. Panegyrists and other 
writers quoted above represented this as a descent 
from Claudius himself. 

d Theodora. The marriage of Chlorus with Theo- 
dora is alluded to in Panegyr. c. 7 p- 326 Maximiane, 
— quid provideniia tua dignius facere poiuisii quam ut 
ejus Jilio quern ihi pridem et adfiniiaie adsciveras et 
majestate sociaveras, &c. 

e Julius Constaniius. See the Tables A. D. 338. 
Liban. Epitaph, torn. I p. 524 airiKa t6 yevos avra 
\_Juliano^ iramros fiep ^atrtXevs, os fiaXiara drj ■f^prniaxatv 
virepiBiiV ixaXmra bfj ras twv ap^op-ivoiV fvvoias fKr-qaaro, 



iraTTip be ^aaiKtcos pev vlos ^aaiKfoos S' aSeX</)oy, BiKai6r(pos 
8e Tov axovTOs Tfjv ^aaiXeiav fX^iV aXX' opa)s rjavxaCf kui 
auvfvxero tw Xa^ovri, koX (tvCo>v uSoXtos Kal (piXajv SiereXet. 
yrjpas 8e vndpxov dvyarepa xp'JfToi' [^c. Basilinarn Anicii 
filiani] , — ov 6 noXepios [sc. Constantinus'] vsvlktjkws jjBe- 
(tOt],- — TTotetTat TovTovl TOV api(TTov [sc. Julianunij . 

f Dalmatius and his sons. See the Tables A. D. 
335. 338. Socrates H. E. III. 1 Kavaravrlvos^bvo 
eaxev oponaTpiovs d8f\(f)ovs ovk €K ttJs avrfis yevoptvovs 
pr^rpos, AaX/Liartos ovopa rw tvi, 6aT(p(f 8« KavarcivTios. 

g Constantia. Socrat. I. 25 rjv ddtXcfir] ra [iamXfl 
KutvaTavTivco rovvopa Kwi/oravria" yvvt) bk iyiyovft \ikiviov 
TOV TvpoTfpov pev avp^aa-iXfvaavTOS avrw K(iiV(TTavTiva), 
pfTa Tavra 8< Tvpavvrj(ravTos Ka\ 8ui tovto dvaip(6fVT0s. 



She 



86 



APPENDIX. 



0.1. 



C!oN8TANTiNE Coustantim was born Feb. 27 : Natales Csesarum apud Bucherium p. 276 Divi Constantini III 
Kal. Martii. p. 282 /// Kal. Martii Natalis dim Constanimi. In Britain according to La Baune 
in Vita Constantini p. 296. But this is not asserted in the words illic oriendo apud Panegyr. c. 4 
p. 320. See the interpreters at p. 320, who shew that Constantius was not in Britain till 22 years 
after the birth of Constantine. It has been shewn already P that he was born at Naissus. 

His early life is described by Praxagoras apud Photium cod. 62. He is present at Nicomedia 
at the abdication in A. D.305 : Lactant. M. P. c. 19 Constantinum omnes intuebantur. — Constan- 
tinus astabat &c. Idem c. 18 Eratque tunc prcBsens, jampridem a Diocletiano fcidus trihunus ordinis 
primi. He is acknowledged Ccesar by Galerius in 306*3. The title appears upon coins apud Eckhel 
torn. 8 p. 72. 1 Comtantinus CcBsar or nob. C. or nob. Cces.-\ — 2 Fl. Vol. Constantinus N. C. 
or nob. C.+ Concordia imperii, or plur. natal, f el. 



died before Constantine: Socrat. Ibid. Muratori p. 
260. 5 gives an inscription Romse : Inlustri et divince 
prosap. geniteB venerabili soror. D.N. Constantini Aug. 
et amit<B DD. NN. beatissimorum Cces. D. N. Flavia 
Constantiee. 

^ Anastasia. Anon. Valesii p. 612 Constantium Con- 
stantinus ad Lic'mium misit persuadens ut Bassianus 
C(Bsar Jieret, qui habebat alteram Constantini sororem 
Anastasiam; ut exemplo Diocletiani et Maximiani inter 
Constantinum et Licinium Bassianus Italiam medius 
obtineret. Et Licinio talia frustrante, per Sinicionem 
Bassiani fratrem, qui Licinio fidus erat, in Constanti- 
num Bassianus armatur. qui tamen in conatu deprehen- 
sus Constantino jubente convictus et stratus est. Conf. 
Spanheim. ad Julianum p. 43. Ammianus 26. 6, 14 
Anastasianas balneas, a sorore Constantini cognomi- 
natas. 

i Eutropia. Zosim. II. 43, 3 Mayvevriov diarpi^ovros 
ev KfkTols, NfTTCOTiavos, e^ d8eX.(f)ris KtovoTavripov rexdels 
EirpoTrias ovofia, avvayaycov ttXtjOos k. t. \. On Nepoti- 

anus see the Tables A. D. 350. 

^ Minervina. The mother of Crispus : Zosim. II. 
20, 3 Victor Epit. p. 388. The lawful wife of Con- 
stantine according to Panegyr. c. 4 p. 318 (quoted 
above under Helena) Quo magis continentiam patris 
cequare potuisti, quam quod te ab ipso fine pueritiee 
illico matrimonii legibus tradidisti ? &c. Conf. Pa- 
negpyr. Constantino c. 4 p. 481 Te pudicitia soli dicata 
conjugio &c. 

1 Fausta. See the Tables A. D. 326. 327. Zosi- 
mus II. 39 has a mistake or a false reading where 
he mentions the three sons of Constantine, irixdrfaav 
ovK diro ^avanjs r^s tov 'EpKovXiov Ma^ifuavov dvyarpos, 
aXX' e'l oKXrfs. which Reitemeier remarks and endea- 
vours to correct. Fausta died a. Heathen : Spanheim. 
ad Julianum p. 85. 

"^ Constantina. First married to Hannibalianus and 
then to the Ccesar Gallus: Ammian. 14. 1, 2 Facinora 
Ceesaris Galli, &c. — propinquitate enim regies stirpis — 
efferebatur infastus. — Cujus acerbitati uxor grave ac- 
cesserat incentivum, germanitate Augusti turgida supra 
modum. quam Hannibaliano regi fratris filio antehac 
Constantinus junxerat pater, Megesra qucedam morialis, 
inflammatrix savientis adsidua. humani cruoris avida 
nihil mitius quam maritus. Conf. 14. 7, 4, Idem 



14. 9, 3 CtBsaris imperio truci, ac stimulis regina ex- 
ertantis aurem subinde per aulceum, nee diluere objecta 
permissi nee defensi periere complures. Zosim. II. 
45, 1 KaPo-ravTios VaXKov — Kaicrapa Kadlcmjai Kal Kcoi'- 
aravTiav avra Kareyyvrjo-as ttju aSfX^iji/ k. t. X. Her 

death in A. D. 354 on her way to Constantius is men- 
tioned by Ammianus 14. 11, 6 Cum Bithyniam introi- 
isset, in statione qua Canos Gallicanos adpellatur ab- 
sumpta est vi febrium repentina. She was buried at 
Rome: Ammian. 21,1,5 Inter qua (Julianus) Helena 
conjugis defuncta suprema miserat Romam in suburbano 
via Nomentana condenda, ubi uxor quoque Galli, quon- 
dam soror ejus, sepulta est Constantina. On her name 
conf. Vales, ad Ammian. 21. 1, 6 p. 394. 

1 Helena. See the Tables A. D. 355. Eutrop. 
X. 14 Constantius Augustus — mox Julianum Casarem 
ad Gallias misit, patruelem suum, Galli fratrem, tra- 
dita ei in matrimonium sorore. Her death was in 360 : 
see the Tables. 

o Constantia Postuma. Ammian. 21. 15, 6 Con~ 
stantius-^uxorem pragnantem reliquit, unde edita post- 
uma ejusque nomine ttdpellata, cum adolevisset matri- 
monii jure copulata est Gratiano. Idem 26. 7. 10 
Procopius — Constanta filiam parvulam, cujus recor- 
datio colebatur, sinu ipse circumferens, necessitudinem 
pratendebat et Juliani. — Faustina matre puella casu 
prasente. Idem 26. 9, 3 Ut ante relatum est, Con- 
stantii filiam parvulam cum matre Faustina et in agmi- 
nibus et cum prope in acie starent lectica circumferens 
&c. In A. D. 365. She was married to Gratian 
soon after the irruption of the Quadi in the autumn 
of 374 : Ammian. 29. 6, 7, 8. To the daughter of 
Constantius II we may with Valesius refer the notice 
in Idatius A. D. 383 Merobaude II et Saturnine. Ipso 
anno ingressum est CP. corpus Constantia filia Augusti 
Constantini [lege Constantii] die II Idus Septembr. 
And Chron. Pasch. p. 304 C avr^ tw eVei flaijXdfv t6 
(TKTjvafui KavoTavrias Trjs dxjyarpos Kcovaravrivov [lege 
Ktoj/arai/Tt'oi;] Avyovarov ev KII. fir]p\ Topnuuci irpo /iias 
KoKavbrnv ^eimp^piav [lege l8S>v ex Idatio. conf. F. H. 
Ill p. 361] Kal Kareredr) p.r)v\ 'ATreXXat'o) Kakavhais Ae- 
Kffi^picui. 

V Under Helena note ^. 

q See the Tables. 



EMPERORS. 87 

In 307 Galerius names himfilmm Augustorum"^ . Constantive 

Constantine in 306 after his father's death defeated the Franci : Eutrop. X. 3 Nazarii Panegyr. 
c. 17 p- 581 — 583 Eumen. Panegyr. Constantino c. 10. lip. 377 — 384. where his cruelty to the 
vanquished is praised by his panegyrist and excused by Tillemont torn. 4 p. 97- He also at this 
time invaded the Bructeri: Eumen. Panegyr. c. 12 p. 384. to whom he was equally savage: p. 385 
puheres qui in manm mnerunt — ad poenas spectaculo dati scevientes hestias multitudine suafatigarunt. 
Eutropius X. 3 attests these cruelties : CcBsis Francis atque Alamannis captisque eorum regihus, 
quos etiam hestiis — ohjecit. Another testimony to his cruelty is given by Incert. Panegyr. c. 23 
p. 533 tantam captivorum multitudinem hestiis ohjecit 8ec. where Tillemont tom. 4 p. 147 pronounces 
a better judgment. 

After the victories over the Franci he married Fausta: Panegyr. c. 4 p. 319 multa ilk Francorum 
millia — interfecit &c. This in A.D. 307^ In 3 10 he had already begun his bridge : Eumen. Panegyr. 
c. 13 p. 386 Insuper etiam Agrippinensi pontefaciundo reliquiis adjiictce gentis insult as, ne unquam metus 
ponat&c. And in 310 all the principes are Concordes: Eumen. c. 1 p. 350 cum omnes vos, invictissimi 
principes, quorum concors est et soda majestas, dehita veneratione suspiciam. Livineius and Paturol. 
ad locum suppose that Severus is included. But Severus was dead in 307. The principes are 
Galerius Licinius Maximin. Perhaps Maxentius might at this time be also acknowledged by Con- 
stantine. In 311 Constantine subdues the Alamanni and other barbarous nations: Nazarius 
Panegyr. c. 18 p. 585 Chamavos, Cheruscos, Vangionas, Alamannos, Tuhantes. After the death of 
Maxentius in 312 he is at least two months at Rome : Nazar. Panegyr. c. 33 p. 625 Quidquid mali 
sexennio toto dominatio feralis injiixerat, himestris fere cur a sanamt. which Arntzenius p. 463 by a 
forced interpretation understands of the campaign in Italy ; but which other interpreters much 
more justly refer to the evils at Rome redressed by Constantine after his victory. In 313 Con- 
stantine is in GauP, and engages the barbarians : Nazarius Panegyr. c. 21 p. 527 Tihijam militant 
quos exutos armis impiis adversus hostes harharos rursus armavit, &c. The Gothic war in 332 is 
described in the Tables. Add to the testimonies Eusebius Vit. Const. IV. 5. 6 ra '^KvOSiv kuI 
SavpojuaTwi; ycvrj fxr] irporepov bovXeijciv ixe^xaOriKOTa Trp&Tos avrbs viro (vyov ijyaye k. t. A. Socrates 
H. E. I. 18 ixcTo, be Tavra [after the building of CP.: I. 16] 6 /Sao-iAevs eTrtjueAeWcpos (Sbv irepl ra 
XpLcrTiavwv aTrearpdcfir} ras 'EXXrjviKas OprjorKCias — vtto be tovs avTovs XP'^^^'^^ '^^'- I3apl3dp<av ^app.aT€)v 
Kal TotOohv KaTarpexovTiiiV rrjv 'Pw/xaicoy yrjv — tovs piev Kara Kparos evUa k. t. A, Libanius ^ao-tAt/cco 
tom. 3 p. 282. 5 77 ^kv6S>v eOvos eTtiTrrev ri ^avpopLaT&v v-neKvaTev. The combined testimonies refute 
Zosimus II. 31. 32, who asserts that after Constantinople was built he had no successful wars : 
ixeivas OTroAe/uto? koI Tpv(f)r] rbv fiiov eKbovs. 

The age of Constantine at his death cannot be precisely fixed. By the authorities in the Tables 
A. D. 337 he is called i\G years current, 65, 62, 63 years. By Eusebius about twice 32 years. 
As he was born Feb. 27, he survived his birthday 2»» 26<^, and had entered his 64th year according 
to Eusebius, whom Tillemont follows tom. 4 p. 269. 

Cassiodorus reckons the years of Constantius Chlorus to Constantine : anni ipsius adscrihuntur 
filio ejus Constantino — qui regnamt ann. XXX menses X. But as this was the true duration of 
his reign from the death of his father, it is plain that the reign of Constantius was not included in 
that of his son. And in Hieron. Chron. anno 2321. 2322 two years of Galerius are marked be- 
tween Diocletian and Constantine : Galerius solus hiennio Augustus imperium tenuit ; and these two 
years included the reign of Constantius. But as Constantius is not reckoned in the Chronicon of 
Hieronymus (who calls Galerius the sole Augustus), Cassiodorus supposed that his reign was com- 
puted in that of Constantine. In the duration of the reign of Constantine Victor Epit. is incon- 

r Tables 307. ^ 3. s See the Tables 307- 3. * See the Tables. 



88 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

Ck)W8TANTiNE sistGiit. He calls it 30 years p. 387, — annos XXX. and yet p. 389 he reckons 10+ 12 + 10=32 
years. 

The character of Constantine is not to be taken from Eumenius, Nazarius, Eusebius, or from 
the Christian writers who followed Eusebius. Eutropius X. 6. 7 impartially weighs his merits and 
defects : Insolentia rerum secundarum aliquantum Comtantinum ex ilia favoralili animi docilitate 
mutavit. Primum necessitudines persecutus {filium suum) egregium mrwm et sororis filium commoda 
indolis juvenem interfecit, mox uxorem^ post, nun^rosos amicos. Vir primo imperii tempore optimis 
principibm, ultimo niediis comparandus. Innum^rce in eo animi corporisque virtutes claruerunt. Mili- 
taris gloricB appetentissimus fortuna in hellis prospera fwit, verum ita ut non superaret industriam. — ■ 
Pace Gotthis adpostremum data ingentem apud harharas gentes memorice gratiam collocavit. Civilibus 
artibus et studiis liberalibus deditus, adfectator jmti amoris, quern omni sibi et liberalitate et docilitate 
queesivit, sicut in nonnullos amicos dubius, ita in reliquos egregius, nihil occasionum prcetermittens quo 
opulentiores eos clarioresque prcsstaret. Multas leges rogavit, quasdam ex bono et cequo, plerasque super- 
fluas, nonnullas severas. Victor observes Cses. p. 35 1 Constantinus cunctos hostes honore ac fortunis 
manentibus texit recepitque ; eo plus ut etiam vetus veterrimumque supplicium patibulorum et cruribus 
suffringendis primus remx)verit. Hinc pro conditore sen dec habitus. Victor Epit. p. 389 Fuit ultra 
quam astimari potest laudis avidus. — commodissimus tamen rebus multis fuit calumnias sedare legibus 
severissimis, nutrire artes bonas, prcecipue studia literarum. legere ipse, scribere, meditari, audire lega- 
tiones et qucerim^nias provinciarum. — irrisor potius quam blandus, unde proverbio vulgari Trachala 
decern annis prcestantissimus , duodecim sequentibus latro, decern novissimis pupillus ob profusiones im- 
m^dicas nominatus. 

If he was merciful to the barbarians, it was in his latter years ; for in the beginning of his 
reign we have seen instances of cruelty admitted by his panegyrists. The edict to abolish gladi- 
ators in 325^ may be ascribed to the influence of that purer religion which he had embraced. 
But the deaths of Crispus and Fausta and the young Licinius, and of those many friends of whom 
Eutropius speaks, occurred after he became a Christian. An edict against the Arians reported 
by Socrates I. 9 p. 32 A B shews a sanguinary temper : ckc'lvo iievroi Ttpoayopevoi, m d tls crvy- 
ypa[Xfxa vtto 'Apetov avvraycv (j)<t>pa6eCr] Kpinj/as, nal firf evdeois irpoa-cveyKOiv TwpX KaravaXaxn}, TOVT(a 
ddvaros eo-rai. rj (rjpLia. And yet he who thus denounced death against those who possessed the 
books of Arius afterwards himself favoured the Arians, received baptism from an Arian bishop, 
and persecuted the orthodox party. 

The edict against the Heathen temples is placed by Hieronymus at A. D. 331 : Anno 2347 
[A. D. 33|] Constantini 25o Edido Constantini gentilium templa eversa sunt. At the 26th and 27th 
of Constantine in Cedrenus p. 296 A tw Kf koX <(" erei avrov Tr}v Kara rStv clbcaXtav koL t&v vaG>v avr&v 
KaT6Xv(nv eTrheive, ras 8e elcrobovs avr&v rals €KK\r}<rLai,s tov deov eKvpaxr^. Noticed by Eunapius 
V. S. p. 20:= p. 37 K.(t)V(TTaPTlvos yap ejSaa-ikeve, rd re tS>v Up&v k-niipavicnaTa KaTacrTp^cjxav, koI to. 
tS>v XpicTTtavbiv dveydpoiv olKrjpiaTa. Anon. Valesii p. 615 § 34 places this edict before the Gothic 
war: Edicto siquidem statuit dtra ullam ccedem hominum paganorum templa claudi. Gothorum fortis- 
simas et copiosissimas gentes — delevit. 

Laws of A. D. 313. See the Tables 313. 3. Add the following: Cod. Just. I. 22, 3 Impp. 
Constantinus et Licinius A A. ad Bassum"^ pf.p. Dot. Kalend. Octob. Constantino A. Ill et Licinio 
A. Ill conss. 

Laws of A. D. 319 : Cod. Theod. Vol. 3 p. 4 ac? Januarium. Dot. Id. Januar. ace. V Kal. Aug. 
Corintho Constantino A. V et Licinio Ccbs. conss. Vol. 3 p. 114 1. I de maleficiis. Imp. Constantinus 

V See the Tables. in A. D. 317 and prof. Urbi in A. D. 317—319. 

w Bassus is named asp/. p. in a law of March 18 See the Tables 317. 1 Bucherius p. 238, 239. 
A. D. 306: Cod. Just. VII. 57t 7- and was consul ^ 



EMPERORS. 89 

A. ad Maximum. pp. Kal. Feb. Bomce Constantino A. V et Licinio Ccbs. coss. Wenck. II. 4, I p. 95 Constantine 
Gothofr. Vol. 1 p. 96 Imp. Constantinus A. ad St/mmachum. Bat. prid. Nan. Feb. Sirmii, accepta VIII 
Id. Mar. Corinthi. Gothofr. Vol.4 p. 215 Profuturo pf. annonce. Dat. IV Id. Feb. Sirmio. Cod. 
Just. VI. I, 5 ad Januarium. Bat. XVI Kal. Martii. Cod. Theod. Vol. 2 p. 440 ad Optavianum. 
Bat. XIIII Kal. Mart. Sirmio. Vol. 3 p. 418 a<^ Priscum rationalem. Bat. V Id. Mar. Sirmio. 
Vol. 3 p. 112 Cod. Just. IX. 17, 1 ad Verinum vicarium Africce. Bat. XI Kal. Bee. Licinio V et 
Crispo Ccbs. conss. [A. D. 318] accept. prid. Id. Mart. Carthagine Constantino A. V et Licinio C(bs. 
conss. Cod. Theod. Vol.3 p. 169 ad Verinum. Bat. et ace. XV Kal. April. Constantino A. Vet 
Licinio Cces. coss. Vol. 4 p. 229 ad Bassum p. U. pp. IV Kal. April. Rom. Vol. 3 p. 238 ad 
Verinum vie. Africa, pp. Ill Kal. April. Karihag. Wenck. II. 19, 1 p. 129 Gothofr. Vol. 1 p. 172 
ad Lucrium Verinum. Bat. Id. April. Sirmio. Cod. Just. VIII. 53, 2 ad Proeulum. Bat. VII 
Kal. Mail Cod. Theod. Vol. 2 p. 236 Cod. Just. XII. 29, 2 ad Rufinwmpf.p. Bat. V Kal. Maii 
Sirmii. Cod. Theod. Vol. 5 p. MO ad Proeulum proeons. Afriece. pp. Non. Maii Karihagine. 
Vol. 3 p. 79 o.d Bassum. Bat. [lege j9j9.] V Id. Maii Bomce. Wenck. II. 9, 1 p. 109 ad Bufinum 
pf.p. Bat. IV Id. Mai. III. 5, 1 p. 159 Gothofr. Vol. 1 p. 261 ad Bufinum pf.p. Bat. Ill Id. 
Mai. Sirmio. Vol. 3 p. 115 1.2 de maleficiis. ad populum. Bat. Id. Maii. Vol. 3 p. 378 ad Se- 
verum rationalem Afric. pp. X Kal. Jun. Bom. in foro Trajani. Vol. 5 p. 59 Amabiliano pf. an- 
nonce. pp. V Kal. Jun. Gonstantinop. [dele cum Gothofredo.] Constantino A. V et Licinio Cces. coss. 
Vol. 3 p. 379 ad provineiales. Bat. Ill Kal. Jun. Vol. 2 p. 459 Imp. Constantinus A. ad Leon- 
tium. pp. V Id. Jun. Hierapoli.^ Cod. Just. II. 13, 22 ad Bassum pf. U. Bat. XIII Kal. Jul. 
Cod. Theod. Vol. 4 p. 230 ad Severum vicarium. Bat. X Kal. Jul. Aquil. Vol. 4 p. 350 Patroelo. 
Bat. Kal. Jul. Aquil. Wenck. IV. 9, 1 p. 235 Gothofr. Vol. 1 p. 373 Cod. Just. VII. 10, 7 ac? 
Bassum pf.U. prop. Id. Jul. Cod. Theod. Vol. 2 p. 652 Cod. Just. VI. 60, 1 eonsulibus pratoribus 
tribunis plebis senatui salutem dicit. Bat. XV Kal. Aug. Aquileice, reeitata apud Vettium Bufinum 
pf.U. in senatu Non. Sept. Wenck. II. 15, 1 p. 122 Gothofred. Vol. 1 ^.15S ad Symmachum V. C. 
Bat. VIII Kal. Aug. Naissi. Vol. 3 p. 295 ad Festum prcesidem Sardinice. Bat. IV Kal. Aug. 
Wenck. III. 1, 1 p. 152 Gothofr. Vol. 1 p. 241 ad Profuturum pf. annonce. pp. Id. Aug. Vol. 5 
p. 151 ad Profuturum pf annonce. pp. Id. Aug. Vol. 4 p. 110 a^ Catullinum proc. Afriece. pp. VI 
Kal. Sept. Karihagine. Vol. 2 p. 654 Julio Severo. Bat. VII Id. Sept. Mediol. accept. Non. Oct. Vol. 3 
p. 74 ad Bassum p. U. pp. prid. Non. Oct. Bom. Vol. 2 p. 6 1 6 ad Bassum p. U. Bat. Non. Oct. Wenck. 
III. 17, 1 p. 1 82 Gothofr. Vol. 1 p. S\6 Imp. Constantinus A. et Cces. adBassumpf.p. Bat. IV Id. Oct. 
Aquileice. Wenck. III. 5, 2 p. 160 Gothofr. Vol. 1 p. 263 Cod. Just. V. 3, 15 ad Maximum prce- 
fectum Urbis. Bat. XVII Kal. Nov. prop. VI Kal. Sept.Y Bomce. Cod. Theod. Vol. 6 p. 22 1. 2 
de episcopis. Oetavio correctori Lueanice et Bruttiorum. Qui divino cultui ministeria religionis in- 
pendunt (id est, hi qui clerici appellantur) ab omnibus omnino muneribus excusentur. Ne saerilego 
livore quorundam a divinis obsequiis avoeentur. Bat. XII Kal. Nov. Wenck. I. 16, 3 p. 75 Cod. 
Just. VII. 49, 2 ad Felieem prcesidem Corsicce. Bat. IX Kal. Nov. Sirmii. Wenck. II. 6, 2 p. 100 
Gothofred. Vol. 1 p. 110 ec? Felieem prcesidem Corsicce. Bat. IV Kal. Nov. Sirmii. Wenck. II. 
10, 1 p. 113 Antioeho pf vigilum. Bat. Kal. Nov. Serdiece. II. 10, 2 Antiocho pf. vigilum. pp. Kal. 
Nov. Serdiece. Gothofr. Vol. 4 p. 67 ad Pacatianum vie. Britanniarum. Bat. XII Kal. Bee. Vol. 
3 p. 261 ad Januarium p.U. Bat. VI Kal. Bee. Serdiece. Wenck. V. 2, I p. 281 Gothofr. Vol. 1 
p. 434 Bufino pf.p. Bat. Kal. Bee. Sirmii. Vol. 3 p. 431 ad populum. Bat. et pp. in foro Trajani 
Kal. Bee. Wenck. I. 2, 4 p. 20 Gothofr. Vol. 1 p. 14 Crepereo Bonatiano. pp. Id. Bee. Wenck. 

^ " Ex hac subscriptione colligi videtur banc le- Y Septembres by an error in all the copies. Go- 

gem a Licinio non a Constantino latam fuisse." Go- thofr. reads Deeembres. 
thofred. 

N 



90 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

Ck>N8TANTiNE 1, 12, 2 p. 5? ««? Proculum procomuUm Africce. Dot. VII Kal. Jan. All these Constantino A. V et 
Lidnio Cces. coss. IV. 16, 1 p. 254 Gothofred. Vol. I p. 389 ad Proculum. Dat. VII Kal. Jan. 
Constantino A.V et Lidnio coss. 

Laws of A. D. 320 : Cod. Theod. Vol. 1 p. 251 Imp. Constantinus A. ad popuhm. Dat.prid. Kal. 
Feb. SerdiccB Comtantino A. VI et Constantio [lege Constantino] Cces. coss. Vol. 2 p. 643 ad populiim. 
Dat.prid. Kal. Feb. Serdica pp. Kal. Ap. Rom. Constantino A. VI et Constantio [lege Constantino] 
corns. Vol. 4 p. 68 ad populwm. Dat. Kal. Feb. Constantino A. Viet Constantino Ccesare coss. Vol. 4 
p. 35 1 ad edictum. pp. X Kal. Mart. Vol. 3 p. 239 ad Helianum [lege uElianum] proc. Afric. pp. 
V Kal. Mart. Carthagine. Vol.2 p. 421 Dat. Kal. Mart, in civitate Velovocorum. Vol. 2 p. 34 
jEliano p. U. [lege pf.] Dat. VII Id. Mart. Sirmio. Vol. 3 p. 1 89 ad populwm. Dat. Kal. April. 
Aquil. Vol. 3 p. 380 cul Dometium Dracontium magistnmi privates rei Afric. Dat. XI V KoX. Jun. 
SerdiccB Constantino A. Viet Constante Cess. coss. Vol. 3 p. 9 ad Maximum p. U. Dat. XI Kal. Jun. 
Sirmio ace. Bomce Constantino A. VII et Constantio C. coss. [Gothofr. Constantino A. VI et Constan- 
tino GO'S.] Cod. Just. V. 26, 1 ad populwm. Dat. XVIII Kal. Jul. Constantinis patre etfilio corns . 
Cod. Theod. Vol. 3 p. 33 ad Florentium rationalem. Dat. prid. Kal. Jul. Serdicce. Vol. 4 p. 230 
ad Crispinum. Dat. VIII Id. Julias. Vol. 6 p. 22 1. 3 de episcopis. ad Bassumpf.p. Cum cansti- 
tutio omissa prcscipiat nullum deinceps decurionem vel ex decurione progenitum, ut etiam instructmn 
idoneis facultatibus adque obeundis publicis muneribus opportunum, ad clericorum nomen obsequiumque 
confugere, sed eos de cetero in defunctorum dwmtaxat clericorum loca subrogari qui fortuna tenues ne- 
que mmneribus civilibus tenea.ntur obstricti, cognovimus illos etiam inquietari qui ante legis promulga- 
tionem clericorum se consortio sociaverint, ideoque prcecipimus, his ab omni molestia liberatis, illos qui 
post legem latam obsequia publica declinantes ad clericorum numerum confugerunt procul ab eo corpore 
segregatos curies ordinibusque restitui et civilibus obsequiis inservire. pp. XV Kal. Aug. Wenck. II. 
11,1 p. 117 Grothofr. Vol. 1 p. 145 Furio FeUci. Dat. V Kal. Aug. Constantino A. VI et Constantino 
Cces. coss. Cod. Just. 1. 5 1, 2 ad Bassum pf. U. [lege js/.^.] Dat. XV Kal. Sept. Constantino A. VI et 
Constantino C. conss. Cod. Theod. Vol. 3 p. 489 ad Maximum rationalem Africes. Dat.prid. Kal. Oct. 
Constantino A. VI et Constante Cces. coss. Wenck. I. 12, 3 p. 58 ^liano proconsuli Africce. Dat. 
Kal. Oct. Constantino A. VI et Constantino Cces. coss. Gothofred. Vol. 2 p. 425 ad universos vete- 
ranos. Dat. Ill Id. Oct. Constantinop. [dele cum Gothofredo]^ Constantino A. VI et Constamtio 
[lege Constantino] Cces. conss. Vol. 3 p. 240 ad Januarium agentem vicariam presfecturam. pp. prid. 
Non. Dec. Rom. Vol. 6 p. 257 <*<^ Maximum. 1. 1 de paganis*. Si quid de palatio nostro aut ceteris 
operibus publicis degustatum fulgore esse constiterit, retento more veteris observantice, quid portendat, ab 
hdruspicibus requiratur et diligentissime scriptura collecta ad nostram sdentiam referatur, ceteris etiam 
usurpandcB hujus consuetudinis licentia tribuenda, dwmmodo sacrifciis domesticis abstineant, ques speci- 
aliter prohibita sunt. Earn autem denunciationem adque interpretationem quce de tactu amphitheatri 
scribta est, de quAi ad Hera^lianum tribunum et magistrum officiorum scripseras, ad nos scias esse per- 
latam. Dat. XVI Kal. Jan. SerdAcce, ace. VIII Id. Mart. Crispo II et Constantino II CC. coss. 
[sc. March 8 A. D. 321.] In almost all these laws Ed. Gothofred. has Constantio Cess, for Con- 
stantino Cces. 

Laws of A. D. 321 : Cod. Theodos. 11. 18, 1 p. 127 Wenck. Vol. 1 p. 168 Gothofr. ad Maxi- 
mum. Dat. prid. Id. Januar. Sermii Crispo II et Constantino II coss. Vol. 4 p. 231 aw? Maximum. 

2 The same interpolation, derived from Constan- law is rightly given XV Kal. Mart. Const. A. VII et 

tino following, is in a law of Apr. 18 A. D. 329 : see Constantio Cas. conss. 

the Tables, 329. 2. and in a law of March 8 A. D. a Compare with this two laws of A. D. 319, 1. 1 
326 : see the Tables 326. 3, where in the preceding de maleficiis Vol. 3 p. 1 14 Kal. Feb. and 1. 2 de ma- 
law XV Kal. Mart. CP. omit CP. which is not ex- leficiis. Vol. 3 p. 1 15 /i. Mali, 
pressed in ed. Gothofred. by whom the date of that 



EMPERORS. 91 

Dat prid. Id. Januar. Sirmio. Vol. 2 p. 115 Severo p.U. [forte l.p.p^ Bat. X Kal. Feb. Hirmio Constantine 

ace. Non. Ap. Crispo II et Constantino II CC. conss. Wenck. II. 19, 2 p. 1 29 Gothofr. Vol. 1 p. 174 

ad Claudium prcesidem Dacice. Dat. VIII Id. Feb. Serdicce. Vol. 3 p. 326 Petronio Probiano. Dat. 

Ill Kal. Mart. Serdicce. Cod. Just. III. 12, 3 de feriis. Elpidio. Omnesjudices urbanaque plebes et 

cunctarum artium officia venerabili die Solis quiescant. Pure tamen positi agrorum cultiirm libere 

licenterque inserviant, quoniam frequenter emnit ut non aptius alio die frumenta sulcis aut vinece scro- 

bibus mandentur, ne occasione momenti pereat commoditas ccelesti promsione concessa. Dat. Nonis Mart. 

Cod. Theod. Vol. 2 p. 239 ad Julium Verum vicariwm Italics, pp. Id. Mart. Vol. 4 p. 535 ad edic- 

tum. Dat. VII Id. April. Wenck. II. 17, 1 p. 125 Cod. Just. II. 45, 2 ad Verinum. Dat. VI 

Id. April. Thessal. pp. Ill Kal. Jun. Pomce. Cod. Theod. Vol. 5 p. 279 Menandro. Dat. Ill Id. 

April. Sirmio. Vol.4 p. 143 ad Dometium Dracontium. Dat. XV Kal. Maii Sirmio. accep. XV 

Kal. Jun. Karthag. Wenck. IV. 7, I p. 223 Gothofred. Vol. 1 p. 354 Cod. Just. I. 13, 2 de his 

qui in ecclesiis manumittuntur. Osio episcopo. Qui religionis mente in ecclesice gremio servulis suis 

meritam concesserint libertatem^ eandem eodem jure donasse videantur quo civitas Pomana solemnitatibus 

decursis dari consuevit. Sed hoc dumtaxat iis qui sub aspectu antistitum dederint placuit relaxari. 

Clericis autem amplius concedimus ut, cum suis famulis tribuunt libertatem, non solum in conspectu 

ecclesicB ac religiosi populi plenum fructum Ubertatis concessisse dicantur, mrum etiam cum postremo 

judicio libertates dederint, seu quibuscunque verbis dari prcsceperint, ita ut ex die publicatce voluntatis 

sine aliquo juris teste ml interprets competat directa libertas. Dat. XIV Kal. Maii. Wenck. II. 6, 3 

p. 100 Gothofred. Vol. 1 p. 1 10 ad Bassum.pf.p. Dat. XIII Kal. Junii Sirmii. Vol. 4 p. 290 ad 

Bassum p.U. \iGge p.p.]pp. XIII Kal. Jun. Sirmio. Cod. Just. VIII. 10,6 Elpidio agenti vicem 

pf.p. Dat. VI Kal. Jun. Viminacii. Cod. Theod. Wenck. II. 8, 1 p. 104 Gothofred. Vol. 1 p. 118 

1. I de feriis. Helpidio. Sicut indignissimum videbatur diem Solis venerationis suce celebrem altercan- 

tibus jurgiis et noxiis partium contentionibus occupari, ita gratum ac jucundum est eo die quce sunt 

mawime votiva compleri. Atque ideo emancipandi et manumittendi die festo cuncti licentiam haheant, 

et super his rebus acta non prohibeantur^. pp. V Non. Junii Caralis. Vol. 3 p. 116 1. 3 de maleficiis. 

Cod, Just. IX. 18, 4 «fl? Bassum pf.p. [sic Cod. Just.] Dat. X Kal. Jul. [Jun. Cod. Just.] Aquileice 

Crispo II et Constantino II Ccess. conss. [sic Cod. Justin.] Wenck. IV. 12, 1 p. 243 Gothofr. Vol. 

1 p. 379 Cod. Just. IV. 6\,4 ad Junium Pufum consularem ^'EmilicB. Dat. Kal. Jul. [Cod. Just. 

X Kal. Jul.] Vol. 6 p. 23 1. 4 de episcopis. Cod. Just. I. 2, 1 ad populum. Habeat unusquisque 

licentiam sanctissimo catholico venerabilique concilio decedens bonorum quod optaverit relinquere. Non 

sint cassa judicia. Nihil est quod magis hominibus debetur quam ut supremce voluntatis., postquam jam 

aliud velle non possunt, liber sit stilus, et licitum, quod iterum non redit, arbitrium. pp. V Non. Jid. 

PomcB. Wenck. IV. 12, 2 p. 244 Cod. Just. IV. 61,5 Menandro. Dat. Ill Id. Jul. W^enck. 

IV. 12, 3 Menandro. Dat. Kal. Aug. Gothofr. Vol. 5 p. 23 1. 1 de medicis et professoribus. conf. 

Cod. Just. X. 52, 6 ad Volusianum. Medicos, grammaticos, et professores alios liierarum immunes 

esse cwm rebus quas in civitatibus suis possident prcecipimus, et honoribus fungi. In jus etiam vocari 

eos vel pati injuriam prohibemus, &c. pp. Kal. Aug. Sirmio. Wenck. II, 24, 1 p. 134 Gothofr. 

Vol. 1 p. 195 ad Verinum. Dat. IV Kal. Sept. Vol. 3 p. 352 ad Maximum pf. Dat. XVIII Kal. 

Oct. Sirmio. Wenck. I. 4, 1 p. 24 1. 1 de responsis prudentura. ad Maximum pf.p. Perpetuas pru- 

dentum contentiones eruere cupientes Ulpiani et Paulli in Papinianum notas, qui, dum ingenii laudetn 

sectantur, non tarn corrigere eum quam depravare maluerunt, aboleri prcecipimus. Dat. IV Kal. Oct. 

Gothofred. Vol. 3 p. 170 Cod. Just. IX. 24, 1 ad Januarium. Dat.^ XII Kal. Dec. Pom. Gothofr. 

Vol. 6 p. 221 1. 3 de Judseis. Decurionibus Agrippinensibus. Cunctis ordinibus generali lege concedi- 

^ Compare a law of Theodosius Nov. 3 A. D. 380 : 425 : Tables 425. 3. 
Tables 386. 2 and a law of Theodosius II Feb. 1 A. D. c " Dat. pro reddita vel proposita." Gothofr. 

N 2 



92 APPENDIX. C.l. 

CoNSTANTiNE mu8 JvdcBos vocave ad curiam. Verum, ut aliquid ipsis ad solatium pristin<£ ohservationis relinquatury 
binos vel temos pHvilegio perpeti patimur nullis nominationihus occupari. Dat. Ill Id. Dec. Wenck. 
V. 1,1 p. 270 Gothofred. Vol. 1 p. 422 ad Bassumpf.U. [lege pf-p-] pp- XIV Kal. Jarmar. Bom. 
All these are dated Crispo II et Constantino II Ccess. coss. 

Laws of A. D. 322 : Cod. Theod. Vol. 3 p. 5 a</ Agricolanum. pp. V Id. Feb. Prohiano et Ju- 
liano corns. Cod. Justin. III. 11, 5 ad Maximum prcefeclum Urhi. pp. Bomce VIII Kal. April. 
Prohiano et Juliano conss. Wenck. IV. 8, 4 p. 224 Cod. Just. VII. 16, 42 ad Maximum pf.U. 
Dat. prid. Id. Jun. Sirmii. Gothofr. Vol. 1 p. 98 Wenck. II. 4, 2 p. 96 Maximo pf. p. [lege jt>/. J^.] 
Dat. JT Kal. Jul. Sirmii. Vol. 4 p. 190 Menandro. Dat. prid. Non. Jul. BomcE. Wenck. IV. 8, 5 
p. 225 Gothofred. Vol. 1 p. 357 ad Maximum pf. U. Dat. XIII Kal. Aug. Sirmio. Gothofred. 
Vol. 1 p. 5 Wenck. I. 1,1 p. 12 1. 1 de constitutionibus principum et edictis. ad Lusitanos. Si qua 
posthac edicta sive constitutiones sine die et consule fuerint deprehensa, auctoritate careant. Dat. VII 
Kalendas Aug. Saharice Prohiano et Juliano VV. CO. coss. Gothofred. Vol. 3 p. 267 1- 1 de indul- 
gentiis criininum. ad Maximum p.p. [lege p.U.] Propter Crispi adque Helence partum [paratum 
Gothofr.] omnihm indulgemus prceter venejlcos, /iomicidas, adulteros. Ace. HI Kal. Nov. Bomee. 
Wenck. III. 21, 1 p. 196 ad Severum. Dat. XV Kal. Januar. Serdicce. Cod. Just. V. 71> 18 
Impp. Constantinus A. et Gonstantinus G. ad Senatum. Dai. XII Kal. Januar. All Prohiano et 
Juliano conss. 

Add to the laws of A. D. 324 "^ Cod. Theod. Vol. 4 p. 614 Cod. Just. X. 51, 6 Imp. Gonstantinus 
A. Dalmatio. Dat. XIV Kal. Feb. Sirmii Grispo III et Constantino III GG. conss. 

Laws of A. D. 326 ^ : Cod. Theod. Vol. 3 p. 1 59 ad Maximum p. U. pp. VIII Kal. April, in 
foro Trajani Constantino A. VII et Gonstantio Gcbs. coss. Vol. 5 p. 170 Lucrio Verino. Dat. Ill 
Id. April. Vol. 3 p. 80 Maximiano Macrohio. Dat. XIV Kal. Mart. Sirmio. Vol. 3 p. 57 Cod. 
Justin. IX. 9, 30 ad Evagrium pf.p-pp- Nicomedice VII Kal. Maii. Cod. Theod. Vol. 4 p. 294 
ad jElianum proems. Afric. pp. VI Kal. Maii Kariliag. Vol. 4 p. 357 Ojd Evagrium pf.p. Dat. 
XVI Kal. Jun. Vol. 5 p. 27 ad Bufinum pf.p. Dat. XII Kal. Jun. Vol. 2 p. 246 Cod. Just. 
XII. 31, 1 a<^ Severum pf.U. pp. X Kal. Jun. Vol. 3 p. 71 Cod. Just. IX. 11, 1 a^ populum. 
Dat. IV Kal. Jun. Serdicce. Cod. Theod. Vol. 6 p. 30 1. 6 de episcopis ecclesiis et clericis. ad 
Ahlamwm pf.p. Neque vulgari consensu neque quihuslihet petentihus sub specie clericorum a muneribus 
puhlicis vacatio deferatur. he. pp. Kal. Jun. Vol. 2 p. 515 Menandro. Dat. X Kal. Jul. Vol. 5 
p. 280 Secundo pp. Dat. Ill Kal. Jul. Vol. 3 p. 173 Cod. Just. IX. 24, 2 ad Tertullum procons. 
Afric. Dat. prid. Non. Jul. Mediolani. Cod. Theod. Vol. 5 p. 407 !• 4 de infirmandis his quae sub 
tyrannis &c. ad senatum. Super his qui ex senatorihus ad navicularium munus a tyranno [sc. Licinio] 
d^'ecti sunt, ac restitui suis natalihus depreeantur, placuit vestrce sanctitati Judicium examenque man- 
dare 8ec. Dat. Id. Jul. Vol. 2 p. 440 ad Severum. Dat. Ill Kal. Aug. Aquileice. Vol. 3 p. 419 
ad Severum p. U. Becitata III Non. August, in palatio. Wenck. IV. 11,4 p. 241 Kal. Sept. Ser- 
dicce. Gothofred. Vol. 5 p. 61 ac? Ahlavium pf.p. Dat. XIV Kal. Oct. Wenck. IV. 22, 1 p. 263 
Gothofred. Vol. 1 p. 408 Severo. Dat. X Kal. Nov. Mediolan. Vol. 5 p. 92 ad decretwm navicula- 
riorum. Dat. V Kal. Nov. Vol. 2 p. 574 ad PhUippumpfp. Dat. Ill Nonas Nov. Arelato. Vol. 4 
p. 357 ac? * pf.p. Dat. VIII Kal. Decemh. Wenck. IV. 4, 1 p. 203 Gothofred. Vol. 1 p. 334 
-X- * * pf.U. Dai. XI Kal. Jan. Wenck, III. 17, 2 p. 183 Gothofr. Vol. 1 p. 317 ad populum. 
Dat. pridie Kal. Jan. ipso A. VII et Cces. coss. Vol.3 p. 381 Cod. Just. X. 1,^ ad Volusia/nwm 
pf.U. Dat. prid. Kal. Januar. Sirmii. Some of these, as Vol. 3 p. 80 Vol. 6 p. 30 Vol. 1 p. 334, 
have Constante for Gonstantio ; the rest Constantino A. VII et Gonstantio Gees. coss. 

d See the Tables 324. 3. e See the Tables 326. 2. 3. 



EMPERORS. 93 

Gothofred. places in 326 Cod. Just. VI. 62, 1 Mastichiano prcefecto annonce. pp. XV Kal. ^ Constamivk 
LastroncB Constantio A. VII et Constante C. Ill coss. lege Constantino A, VII et Constantio Cces. 

Laws of A.D. 327 : Cod. Theod. Wenck. I. 5, 2 p. 26 ad Maximum pf. p. Bat XII Kal, Feb,-. 
Constantino et Maximo coss. Gothofred. Vol. 4 p. 54 Acacio com. Macedonice. Dat. Ill Kal. Mart. 
Thessal. Constantio et Maximo coss. Vol. 2 p. 35 Juliano p. U. Dat. prid. Non. Mart. ace. Romce 
Constantio et Maximo coss. Vol. 4 p. 358 ad Annium Tiherianum com. pp. XI Kal. Maii Karthag. 
Constatitio et Maximo coss. Vol. 4 ip. 'JO ad Afros. Dat. XV Kal. Jun. Serdicce Constantino et Max- 
imo coss. Wenck. II. 24, 2 p. 135 Gothofred. Vol. 1 p. 198 ad Constantium p/.p. Dat. IV Kalend. 
Jun. Constantinopoli^ Constantio et Maximo coss. Wenck. II. 7, 2 p. 102 Gothofred. Vol. 1 p. 114 
ad Julianum p.U. Dat. XIV Kal. Aug. pp. Romce Constantino Cces. V et Maximo coss. Vol. 4 
p. 235 Victori rationali Urh. Rom. Dat. prid. Kal. Aug. Constantio et Maximo coss. Wenck. I. 
4, 2 p. 24 W Maximum p/.p. Dat. V Kal. Oct. Treviris Constantino [Cces. V] et Maximo coss.'ii 
Wenck. ad locum: '■'•Cces. V. quse a Cod. absunt, recte addit Closs. jubentibus Fastis." And 
Closs has made the same addition in Wenck. p. 26, which Wenck also approves. But this consul 
is not Constantinus Ccesar the son of Constantine (who was not cos. /Ftill A.D, 329, and never 
was cos. Fat all), but Constantius the brother of Constantine. Cces. V is properly absent from all 
the laws of the Code, except the law of XIV Kal. Aug. where Cces. Vis interpolated in both 
the copies. 

For the laws of A. D. 329 see the Tables 329. 2. To which may be added the following : Cod. 
Theod. Vol. 4 p. 531 Imp. Constantinus A. Tiberiano com. per Afr'ic. Dat. Nicomedica III Kalend. 
Aug. Constantino A. VII et Constante Cces. coss. But a law is issued on the same day, July 30 
A. D. 326, from Aquileia. Wherefore we may, as Gothofred suggests, refer the law to A. D. 329 
and read Constantino A. VIII et Constantino Cces. IV coss. 

Wenck. II. 25, 1 p. 136 Gothofred. Vol. 1 p. 199 Cod. Justin. III. 38, 11 Imp. Constantinus A. 
Gerulo rationali trium promnciarum. Dat. Ill Kal. Maii Proculo et Paulino conss. The consuls 
are corrupt in all the copies, and Gothofred. ad Cod. Theod. Vol. 1 p. 199 and Beck ad Cod. Just. 
p. 312 restore the true consuls Optato et Paulino coss. and refer this law to Ap. 29 A. D. 334. 

Inscriptions: 1 Muratori p. 258. 6 Mutinse: Imp. Ccesari Flamo Constantino maxima semper 
Augusto divi Constanti filio bono reip. nato. 2 Murat. p. 258. 8 item p. 260. 2 Arelate : Imp. Cces. 
Fl. Val. Constantino P. F. Aug. divi Constantii Aug. Pii filio. 3 Murat. p. 258. 7 Arelate: Imp. 
■CcBS. Fl. Val. Constantino P. F. Aug. restitutori. 4 Murat. p. 259. 1 Romae : Fundatori pads et 
restitutori reipublicce D. N. Fl. Constantino maximo victori ac triumphatori semper Auqusto. 5 p. 
259. 2 Mazarae in Sicilia: Clementissimo et victoriosissimo D. N. Flavio Valeria Constantino maximo 
Pio Felici invicto Aug. Beticius Perpetuus V. C. corr. prov. Sicil. devotus numini maj'estatique ejus 
semper dicatus. 6 p. 259. 3 Alatri : Fortissimo et indulgentissims principi DNO NRO Constantino 
mctori perpetuo semper Augusto Decimius Germanianus vir clarissimus consularis provincice Bceticce 
numini majestatique illius dicatissimus. Compare Gruter p. 283. 8 below at N^. 20, 7 p. 259. 4 
in oppido Divitensi: Virtute D. N. Constantini max. Pii Fel. invic. Aug. suppressis domitisque Fran- 
cis in eorum terris mil. castr. Divitensium sub prcesentia principis sui devoti numini majestatiq. 

ejus duodeviginti hcec vota fecer. 8 p. 259. 6 in agro Bononiensi : D. N. Fl. Valerio Constantino 
Pio Felici invicto Aug, Fl. Valeri Constanti divi Augusti Pii filio bono reip. nato. 9 p. 259. 7 
Nicise: Imp. Ccbs. Flavio Valerio Constantino Aug. Constanti Pii Augusti filio. 10 Mur. p. 260. 1 
item p. 1078. 2 Salerni: Beparatori orbis sui D. N. Flavio Valerio Constantino Pio Felici invicto 
Augusto ordo populusque Salernitanus devoti numini majestatique ejus. 11 Mur. p. 1994. 8 Gruter 
p. 281. 2 Mirabellse : Orbem terrce Romano nomini subjuganti domino nostro Fl. Constantino Pio Fel. 

f On this interpolation see the note z at p. 90. g See this law in the Tables A. D, 327, 3. 



94 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

CoNSTANTiNE seMpeT Auff. Annim Antiochus V. P. corr. JEmil. etjlam. senatus. 12 Mur. p. 1994. 10 Surrenti: 

Instauratori orhis terrarum perpetuo ac ntissimo imp. D.N. Valeria Constantino maxima Pio 

Felici semper victori Aug. resp. Surrentinorvm. 13 Murat. p. 463. 6 Csesense : D. N. Imperatori 
CcEsari Fl. Constantino maximo P. F. vict. Aug. pont. max. trih. pot. XXIII imp. XXII consuli 
VII p.p. proconsuli humanarum rerum optima principi Divi Constanti fit. bono R. P. nato. M. P. 
XV. A similar inscription at Parma (also extant in Muratori p. 259. 5) is given in the Tables 
A. D. 328 from Gruter. A third bearing the same numbers, Altini, is in Gruter p. 283. 3. 14 
Mur. p. 1995. 1 CP. viK&ri Tv\r] K<t>varavT(vov ixeydXcv ^acriXias tov avarariKov vlktjtov al Beviroiv 
evvoovvTCiv. 15 Gruter p. 282. 1 Romse : Imp. Cces. Fl. Constantino Maximo triumfatori Pio Fel. 
Aug. p.p. oh res bene armis consiliisque gestas et rempubl. pacatam S. P. Q. B. 16 apud Panvinium 
p. 394 Gruterum p. 282. 2 Inscriptio arcus Constantini in capite viae Appiae : Imp. Cces. Fl. Con- 
stantino Maximo P. F. Augusto S. P. Q.B. quod instinctu divinitatis mentis magnitudine cum exer- 
citu suo tarn de tyranno^ quam de omni ejus factione uno tempore Justis rempublicam ultus est armis 
arcum triumphis insignem dicavit, liberatori urbis, fundatori quietis. 17 Gruter p. 283. 5 Celeiae : 
D. N. Fl. Constantino clementissimo atq. vict. Aug. Martinianus V. P. presses proving. Norici medi- 
terr. D. N. M. ejus. 18 Gruter p. 283. 4 Ravennae : Propugnatori imperi Bomani fundato. quietis 
publiccB D. Fl. Constantino Max. met. semp. Aug. D. Claudi nepoti divi Constanti filio Sertorius JSil- 
lanm V. P. prcepositus fabricce devotu. N. M. Q. E. 19 Gruter p. 283. 6. 7 Viennse AUobrogum : 
Virtute fortissimo et pietate clementissimo D. N. Fl. Constantino maximo et invicto Aug. M. Alfius 
Apronianus p.p.f. Vienne. D. N. M. Q. ejus. 20 Gruter p. 283. 8 Cordubae. Similar to N°. 6 ; 
except that Gruter has Geminianus and domino nostra and N. M. Q.E. 21 Gruter p. 283. 9 Tar. 
racone: Piissimo fortissimo felicissimo DN. Constantino maximo victori semper Augusto Badius Ma- 
crinus V. P. P. P. H. Tarrac. numini majestatique ejus semper devotissimus. 22 Gruter p. 1078. 9 
Neapoli: D. N. Fl. Val. Constantino Pio Fel. invicto Aug. divi Constanti Piiflio. 23 Grut. p. 1086. 4 
Noise : D. N. Fl. Valeria Constantino Pio Felici imp. semper Aug. ordo populusque Nolanus D. N. M. Q. 
ejus. 24 Gruter p. 1086. 6 Romae : Bestitutori publico libertatis defensari urbis BomcB commwnis 
cm/nium salutis auctari D. N. imp. Fl. Val. Constantino Pio Felici invicto semper Aug. codicarii 
nabiculari infernates devoti N. M. Q. ejus, curante Aur. Victariano V. P. prcef. ann. 25 Gruter 
p. 284. 5 Imp. CcBsari Val. Constantio [lege Constantinal Pio Fel. invicto Aug. divi Constanti Pii 
Aug. fiUo For. CI. Val. bono reipuhlice nato. 26 Murat. p. 260. 3 Romae : Piissimo ac fortissimo 
fundatori pads et restitutori publicce libertatis victariosissimo D. N. Fl. Val. Constantino mwdmo 
Pio Felici invicto Aug. Val. Busticus V. P. rat. S. B. D. M. Q. ejus curante Val. Pelagione prac. 
SMV. una cum PP. et officinatoribus. 27 Mur. p. 1092. 5 Spinatiolae ultra Venusiam : BN. N. 
Constantino} Pio Fel. Aug. perp. p.p. triumphatori orbis ordo et plebs universa Venusinorum D.D. 
28 Gruter p. 165. 2 Fani Fortunae in Piceno, in porta antiqua, quam ab Augusto primum erectam 
posteri in honorem Constantini — verterunt. The inscription which refers to Constantine and his 
sons is this : Diva Augusta Pio Constantino patri dominorum nostrarvm, curante L. Turcia Secundo 
Apronia/ni prcef. urb. fl. Asterio corr. Flam, et Piceni. Upon Asterius see the inscriptions of 
Constantius II N". 3. 4.i 

Cmspus. Crispus. , 

Ccesar in 317-'' Slain in the 10th yearl The legitimate son of Constantine"^. 
Philostorgius II. 4 p. 470 C has the following account of the death of Crispus : (})r](rl tov K(ov- 

^ Referring to Maxentius, who was overthrown in given in the Tables A. D. 321. 322. 323. 328. 334. 
A. D. 312. ^ Tables. i Tables 326. 

> Other inscriptions of the reign of Constantine are •» See above, Helena, Minervina. 



EMPERORS. 95 

aravrtvov aveXdv tov Ibtov iraiSa KpCcmov, bta^oKais rrjs iiryrpvias crvvapTracrO^VTa' KaK^ivriv ttk t:&Ki.v Constaxtine 
(^(apadeicrAv Tivi t&v Kovpcrdtpoiv p.oi\(jip.ivqv rfj tov kovrpov akia (va-noirvLyrivaL TrpooTtif at. /cat t<3 TratStu) 
Tov ^icpovs bibovra Koiva-ravT'ivov ttjv bCKr]v, p.€T ov iioXvv xpovov vtto rStv abek(f)<av (ftapfxdKOLS Kara r-qv 
NiKo/x7j8etay biarpi^ovTa avaipidfjvai,. 

Chrysostom Serm. 15 ad Philipp. torn. 4 p. 87 Sav.= tom. 11 p. 318 Montf. without giving 
names alludes to the deaths of Crispus and Famta with many other tragic events of the emperors 
down to Arcadius — 6 vvv Kpar&v. Famta was exposed to wild beasts : 6r]piois i^€ba>K€v. Crispus 
slain : 6 avros b-q ovtos tov vlbv aTTi<T<f)a^€ tov avrov. 

Coins of Crispus: Eckhel tom. 8 p. 100. 101. 1 Crispus nob. Cces.+juventus. or moneta urbis 
vestrce. 2 Jul. Crispus nob. Cces. 3 Fl. Jul. Crispus nob. Cces.+Alamannia devicia. or gaudium 
Bomanorum. Alamannia. " in aliis FranciaT 4 D. N. Crispus nob. Cces. 5 " Antica varia''' +Jom 
Conservatori. or Soli invicto comiti. or principi juventutis. ov principia jwoentutis. or ubique victores. 
From the first two coins under N^. 5 it is proved that after A. D. 317 Constantino and Crispus 
still acknowledged the heathen gods. For although we grant to Tilleraont tom. 4 p. 139. 635 
that inscriptions with Pagan references might be erected by pagan cities without the approbation 
of the emperors, yet we cannot admit what he asserts tom. 4 p. 223 that coins would be so in- 
scribed ; because these were issued by the order of the emperors themselves. 

Other coins are given in the Tables. 

Inscriptions : 1 Muratori p. 462. 5 Veronse : DB. NN. Jul. Crispus et CI. Constantinus nobb. 
Ccess. M. P. XI. 2 Mur. p. 1995. 2 in vico Lamar in Lusitania: Divo Flavio Julio Crispo nob. 
Cas. Divo would imply that this was placed after his death, which is not probable. We may 
therefore read BNO for DIVO. 3 Gruter p. 284. 7 Romse : Flavio Valerio Crispo nobilissimo 
CcBs. filio Constantini maximi adque invicti semper Aug. et nepoti divi Constanti Ovinius Gallicanus 
V. C. prcef. Urb.^ et judex sacrarum cognitionum devotus JV. M. Q. ejus. 

CONSTANTINE II. CONSTANTINE 

The succession of the three sons of Constantino is marked by Eunapius Vit. -^des. p. 45 tov 
Ttalba KaTikiTTe. l^uiva-T&vTiov, arvix^acrikeva-avTa piev avTia, bLab€^dp.€vov be ttjv apyr]v tov TtaTpbs a-vv 
K(t>v(TTavT[v<a Koi K<iivaravTL rots abek(f)oXs. And Eusebius Vit. 0. I. 9 TpiTTqv iraCbav yovr}v rrjs ap- 
X'fjs bcdboxov kyeipas. 

The death of Constantino II is fixed by Gothofredus to April, from the laws quoted in the 
Tables at A. D. 340. But he assumes a greater certainty than the testimonies warrant. The 
first law, dated from Naissus, is rightly given to Constans by Gothofred. Vol. 1 p. xli Vol. 4 p. 370. 
In the second from Naissus the three provinces are the three Islands (Gothofr. Vol. 3 p. 434), and 
these belonged to Constans^ to whom the law is rightly given Vol. 4 p. 370, although he calls it a 
law of Constantius at Vol. 3 p. 434, and of Constantius and Constans jointly Vol. 3 p. 433. The 
fourth law, from Aquileia, is inscribed Impp. Constantinus et Constans A A. and Gothofred. Vol. 1 
p. 116 argues that Constantino was already dead: " ex hac lege factum discimus ante Fvel VI 
Id. April, quo die hsec lex data dicitur Aquileise." And again on another law from Aquileia of 
the same date, which he gives to Constans., he observes Vol. 3 p. 474 " data Aquileise post csesum 
fratrem." He argues again from the fifth law quoted in the Tables Vol. 4 p. 96 Imp. Constantinus 
A. ad Marcollinum — that this is a law of Constans ^ th&t publicm inimicus there mentioned is his 
brother Constantino^ and that Constantino was then dead, at least before Ap. 29. This evidence is 
not conclusive. It does not follow that the edict of Constans issued from Aquileia Ap. 9 was of 
necessity issued after his brother''s death. The interpretation of inimicus is properly questioned 

^ Conf. Corsin. prsef. urb. p. 17U= 



96 APPENDIX. C.I. 

Ck)NSTAN. by Tilleraont torn. 4 p. 670 and even doubted by Gothofred. himself Vol. 4 p. 9^7* The only proof 
then that Constantine fell before April is founded upon Zonaras, and upon the progress of Constans 
from Naissus to Aquileia, and thence to Milan. 

The law from Milan June 25 is properly given to Constans, because Tatianus to whom it is 
addressed was prsefect of Rome : Bucherius p. 240 Constantio II et Constante [A. D. 339] — VIII 
Kal. Nov. FaUus Titianus P.U. Acyndino et Proculo [A. D. 340] ex die III Non. Mali in VII 
Id. Junii Junius Tertullus vicarius cognovit, eo quod ad Augustvm profeetus est, postea reversus Fa- 
Uus Titianus P.U. Quoted by Gothofred. Vol. 3 p. 137- 

Inscriptions : 1 Muratori p. 259. 8 Arausione : Constantino Pio nobili Ccesari divi Constaniini 
Pii Augmti filio. For DIVI we may read D. N. Constantine II after the death of his father, 
as Muratori remarks, was no longer Ccesar. 2 Murat. p. 261. 3 Salonae : CI. Constantino nohilis- 

simo ac prcestantissimo Ccesari fabrum Veneris. 3 Murat. p. 262. 6 Belgentiaci in di- 

oecesi Tolosana : D. N. Flavio Claudio Constantino patre Aug. majoribus impp. nato Ccesari orhi 
tcerrcB [sic] profuturo. 4 Murat. p. 464. 2 Parmse : [T.] Fl. Claudius Constantinus jun. nob. Cces. 
M. P. L. 5 Murat. p. 2011. 6 in agro Forojuliensi : Imp. Cces. Fl. Val. Constantino P. F. Aug. 
divi Maonmiani Aug. nepoti divi Constant. Aug. Pii filio. XXXIII Constantine the Great was 
also the grandson of Maximian by adoption ; but as he would not have commemorated divum 
Maximianum, this inscription is to be assigned to Constantine the son, after A. D. 337. 6 Grut. 
p. 178. 1 Romse : Imp. Cces. Fl. Constantinus max. Aug. sempiternus divi Constantini Aug. f. toto 
orhe victoriis suis semper ac feliciter celebrandus ihermas fisci sui sumptu afundamentis ceptas ac per- 
actas civitati suce Bemhrum pro solita liberalitate largitus est. 7 Gruter p. 284. 6 Montoro, decimo 
a Corduba lupide : BD. NN. Constantino et Constantio BB. beatissimisque Ccess. BP. EP. 8 An 
inscription p. 282. 6 Romee is given by one editor to Constantius : Piissimo ac fortissimo fundatori 
pacis ac publicce libeiiatis auctori D. N. Flavio Val. Constantino [al. Constantio] nobilissimo Cces. Val. 
Honoratus V. P. rat. S. B. D. N. M. Q. ejus. 9 Muratori p. 1994. 9 Aquis Flavis in Lusitania : 
Dom. N. Constantin. NB. Cces. 

CoNSTAN- Constantius II. 

T I U S II. 

Born in Illyricum : Julian. Or. I p. 5 D 'lAAuptoi, on irap avTols yiyovas k. t. X. On the I3th of 
August according to Cod. Theod. Vol. 2 p. 42°. But Aug. 7 in Bucherius Natales Csesarum p. 276 
Domini Constantii VII Idus Augusti. p. 284 Augustus. VII Idus Natalis Constantii. Whence in 
Cod. Theod. we may correct the date and read VII Id. Aug. Tillemont tom. 4 p. 638 examines 
this question and seems to doubt the account of Bucherius. 

Theophanes p. 29 A places the death of Dehnatius in the 2nd year of Constantius. Followed by 
Cedrenus p. 297 D tw /3' Irei AaXfxATios Kalcrap vtto arpaTiaiTQiv avatpciTai. This account strictly 
interpreted would place the death of Dehnatius after May 22 A. D. 338. But Theophanes ante- 
dates the years of Constantius II ; for he reckons A. M. 5777 the 1st year of Diocletian^ and 
A. M. 5829 the 1st year of Constantius II. The exact term then of 52 years had elapsed at the 
accession of Constantius. But the true interval from Sept. 17 A. D. 284 to May 22 A. D. 337 was 
52y S"* G'i. Theophanes then antedated the years of Constantius II and threw back his second 
year to Sept. A. D. 337. And the death of Dehnatius, at its true date assigned in the Tables, 
would fall within the second year by the computation of Theophanes. 

The action at Singara, which some refer to A. D. 345, may be rather placed at 348. The 
arguments for 348 are these. 

1 Idatius and Hieronymus both agree, or nearly so, 

o See the Tables A. D. 356, p See the Tables A. D. 284. 4, 



EMPERORS. 97 

2 Libanius jSao-iAtKO) torn. 3 p. 306. 21 calls this the last battle — r^y nXeuraia^ V^X^^ — ^v reXev- Constantius 
Taiav T€ /cat ^nyaX-qv rqv avTrjv e^eort irpocrei.'nelv . But Athanasius ad Monachos torn. 1 p. 819 B '^• 
alludes to a victory claimed by Constantius in A. D. 347 at the time of the synod of Sardica : aWrf 
TTpo^dcreL ^py](Taix€voi ws ^a(TL\i(os avTols iuLvCKLa Kara Ylepa-cdi; yp6j\^avT0^. Now if a victory was 

claimed in 347, the battle in 345 could not be called by Libanius the last battle. Moreover the 
second siege of Nisibis was in 346 ; and if the battle of Singara had preceded the repulse of the 
Persians from Nisibis, it could not have been called the last battle. 

3 The date of Julian, as it now stands, — '4ktov Itos — will not place the battle of Singara in 345. 
For the " sixth year" from January A. D. 350 will carry back the date to the summer of 344, and 
this is still less consistent with reAevrata fidn-xr] in Libanius. 

The marriage with Eusehia^ is referred by Tillemont tom. 4 p. 676 to 352, because ribr) or deja 
in Julian implies that the war was not yet completed, and because Ammianus in lib. 14 makes no 
mention of the marriage. But Julian p. 1 1 D expressly says that Constantius married /xera to. 
TpoTTOia, and ras Tro'Aets ka-riQv k. t. k. and this could not be done while the war was yet pending, 
and Magnentius to be encountered at the Cottian Alps. And as a part of Ammianus only remains, 
he may have described the marriage after the death of Magnentius in some former passage. In 
the 14th book no description is given of the revolt of the Jews^ which was suppressed in 353; 
and Constantius first appears at Arelate in October s. An interval of two months, Aug. 1 1 — Oct. 10, 
after the death of Magnentius is not described in the extant history. The silence then of Am- 
mianus is no proof that the marriage occurred in 352. After the death of Eusehia he married 
Faustina : Ammianus XXL 6, 4 Eodem tempore [in the winter of A. D. 36^] Faustinam nomine 
sortitus est conjugem, amissa jampridem Eusehia. 

Faustina is commemorated in an inscription apud Muratorium p. 263. 2 Lunae : Faustince Con- 
stanti Aug. piissimcs et nohilissimce C. Junius Vitrasius V. C. augur D. N. M. Q. E. D. D. 

Constantius is called 45 or 46 at his deaths Libanius /xo^wS. tom. 1 p. 510. 4 gives him only 40 
years: Tea-a-apdKOVTa err] Karicrxe Tr]v yrjv, Kal jxoXls ttots aTiTJXde v6(r(a. Ammianus 21. 15,3 is 
mutilated : Ahiit e vita III Non. Octohrium imperii mtceque anno quadragesimo et mensihus paucis. 
We may correct and supply /// Non. Novemhrium imperii anno tricesimo octavo vitceque quinto et 
quadragesimo et mensihus paucis. As he was born in August, he was in the third month of another 
year at his death Nov. 3. If in his 46th year, he was born Aug. A. D. 316.^ He was buried at 
CP.w and treated with honour by Julian : Mamertin. Panegyr. c. 27 p. 754 Liban. Epitaph, tom. 
1 p. 561. 562. Ammianus says 21, 15, 2 " It was reported that he named Julian his successor." 
But this must remain doubtful. See Wagner ad Ammian. p. 423. 

The timid character of Constantius is marked by Ammianus 16. 8, 10. Idem 16. 12, 69 Magnilo- 
quentia elatus adulatorum tunc et deinde edictis propositis arroganter satis multa mentiebatur, se solum, 
cum gestis non adfuisset, et dimicasse et vicisse &c. He was governed by the eunuchs of the palace : 
Ammianus 18. 4, 3 names Eusehius. Libanius tom. 3 p. 437 (quoted by Valesius ad Ammian. 1. c.) 
riydira be Kol irepl avTov u^e kol (Tvp.^ovXovs Kal bibacrKakovs eTTOietro — oXedpovs Ttvas evvovyovi k. t. X. 
Athanasius ad Monachos p. 834 D (vvov^oi be rjaav ol Kal ravra Kal ra Kara -ndvTdiV Ktvovvres. See 
other testimonies apud Valesium ad 1. c. p. 307- Victor CaBS. p. 355 draws his character in his 
lifetime in A. D. 360, but admits the evil influence of court sycophants : Hcec tanta — ministrorum 
parte maxima absurdi mores— fosdavere. atque, uti verum ahsolvam brevi, ut imperatore ipso clarius, 

q Placed in the Tables at A. D. 353. s See the Tables A. D. 353. 

r To this revolt he may allude in 14. 7, 7 Sere- * See the Tables A.D. 361. 

nianus ex duce, cujus ignavia populatam in Phcenice ^ Conf. Vales, ad Ammian. 21. 15,3 p. 423. 

Celsen ante retulimus. "w Ammian. 21. 16, 20. 



98 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

CoKSTANTius itu opparitorum plerisque magis atrox nihil. Ammianus 14. 5 speaks of his inexorable temper. In 
21. 15 the historian largely enters upon the character of Constantius, and describes his good and 
evil qualities. Of his conduct towards the Christians it is said 21, 16, 18 Christianam religionem 
ahsolutam et simplicem anili superstitione confundens, in qua scrutanda perplexius quam componenda 
gravim excitavit discidia plurima ; quce progressa fusius aluit concertatione verhorum, ut catervis 
antistitum jumentis publicis ultro dtroque discurrmtibus per synodos (quas adpellant) dvm ritvm om- 
nem ad suum trahere conantur arbitritmi, rei vehicularice sucdderet nervos. Notwithstanding his 
persecution of the Consubstantialists and his support of the Arians Constantius is yet mentioned 
favourably by Theodoret H. E. III. 1 p. 914. He distinguishes him from Vakns V. 7 p. 1024 
KoivaraPTLov re fi evKoAta Kal rj BdKevros iioyOripia. Gregorius Naz. Or. 25 ets^Hpcoya in A. D. 379 
admits that Constantius authorised persecution : p. 460 D niXiv TTovrjpa ^aaiKda, koL 7ra\ty dya{rj to 
KaKov — Kox kvKOL /Sttpcis akko^ 6.kKod^v biaXa^ovres rjiJ.as ttjv eKKkrjcrCav <nTap6.TT0V(nv' Upels re Kara 
Up((t)V f^0Tr\i(TdivT€s, KOL brjfioi, brnioLs k'nip.avivT^s, koX jSacrikevs aa-ejSiCq bibovs Ttappricriav koL Kara Trjs 
6p6rj9 bo^rjs vofjio6eT&v. And yet in Or. 4 Kara 'lovXiavov in A. D. 363 p. 93 A — 94 B D he highly 
praises Constantius, without noticing his Arianism. In Or. 21 ds ^AdavdaLov Gregorius p. 399 A 
speaking of Georgius of Cappadocia who expelled Athanasius in 356 '^ adds concerning Constantius 
oiKeioCrai [sc. Georgius] t^v /3acriA.^<as airXoTriTa' ovT(a yap eyw KaXSi r^v Kov(f)6Tr}Ta, albovp.(vos rrfv 
fvAa/Setay. koL yap ^v, ei bd Takrjdes diretv, Cv^ov piev 1^^^ dW^ ov kut iTrCyvcacnv. 

Inscriptions : 1 Muratori p. 262. 1 Imp. D. N. Fl. Julio Constantio nobilissimo Cess. 2 Murat. 
p. 1067. 5 Parrase: Imp. Cces. FL Val. Constantio et Fl. Val. Constanti DN.N. mag. maxim, et 
clement, met. perpetuis semper Augg. Parmenses optata devotione dedicarunt B. R. N. 3 Muratori 
p. 463. 9 Tibure: Beatissimo sceculo dominorum nosirorum Constanti et Constantis Augustorum senatus 
populusque Romanus clivvm Tiburtinwm in planitiem redegit curante L. Turcio Secundo Aproniani 
prcef. Urb. fil. Asterio V. C. correctore Flam, et Piceni. 4 Gruter p. 1079. 1 Tibure: Constant. 
Constantis Augustorum senatus populusque Romanus pontem refecit curante L. Tur. Aproniani prcef. 
[adde Urb.Jil.] AsterioY V. C. Flam. 5 Murat. p. 262. 4 Romse : D. N. Constantio Augusto Fl. 
Leontiusvy V. C. prcef. Urbi iter, vice sacra judAc. D. N. M. Q. ejus. 6 Gruter p. 280. 6 Romse : 
Restitutori urbis Romoi atque orb. et extinctori pestiferce tyrannidis D. N. Fl. Jul. Constantio victori ac 
triumfatori semper Augusto Ner alius Cerealis V. C. prcef ectus urbi^ vice sacra judicans D. N. M. que 
ejus. 7 Gruter p. 179. 2 prope Ciitumni fluvium: Reparatores orbis adque urbium restitutores 
DD. NN. Fl. Jul. Constantius P. F. semper Aug. et Julianus nobilissimus ac victoriosissimus Cces. 
ad ceternam divini nominis propagationem thermas Spoletinis in prceteritum igne consumptas sua lar- 
gitate restituerunt^. 8 Gruter p. 1023. 1 in Dalmatia : Virtute et felicitate omnes retro principes 

* See the Tables. censium utUitati honestatiq. prospexit consensu obse- 

y Apronianus was praf. urbis in A. D. 339 : see quentissimi ordinis ac ejusdem civitatis populi exacto 

the Tables A. D. 337. 1- Asterius his father and administrationis tempore statuam ex <Ere patrono col- 

grandfather are commemorated in A. D. 346 in an locatam. Administravit DD. NN. Ill et II cos. [sic 

inscription Romse apud Gruterum p. 476. 7 (quoted lege cum Corsinio. sc. A. D. 342], decreta est autem 

in the Tables at A. D. 346. 1) : Asterii L. Turcio post consulatum Amantii et Albini. [A. D. 346.] On 

Aproniano V. C. filio L. Turd Aproniani V. C. pra- these inscriptions see Corsin. prsef. Urb. p. 191 — 

fecti urbis [A. D. 339] nepoti L. Turc. Secundi C.V. 196. 

consulis qucestori pratori quindecemviro sacris faciun- YY Upon Leontius conf. Ammianum XIV. II, 14. 

dis correctori Tuscia et Umbrite omni virtute prastanti XV. 7,1- 

statuam &c. Muratori p. 379. 1 Romse : Asteri con- z Sc. A. D. 352. 353. See the Tables. De Nera- 

stantiee abstinentiee testimonium sempiter. L. Turcio tio Cereale Gruter p. 441. 3 Romse : Neratio Cereali 

Aproniano V. C. fil. Turd Aproniani C. V. prof, urbi V. C. consuli ord. [sc. A. D. 358] prof. Urb. conditori 

nepoti Turd Secundi cos. quastori prcetori XV sacris balnearum Cursius Satrius patrono omnia prastantis- 

fadundis correctori Tusdce et Umbrice ob ejus insigne simo. 

meritum singularemque justitiam qua omnifaria Lu- a This inscription within A. D. 356 — 360. 



EMPERORS. 99 

supergresso D. N. Fl. Jul Constantio victori ac trium/atori semper Aug. FL Jul. Bufinus Sarmentim CoNsi'AN'n 
V. C. presses prov. BalmaticB D. N. M. ejus. 9 On the base of the obeh'sk erected by Constantius 
at Rome in A. D. 357''. Gruter p. 18fi. 3. 

Parte australi : 
Patris opus munusque [suum] tihi, Roma, dicavit 
Augustus [toto Constan]^iM5 orbe recepto, 
Et quod nulla tulit tellus nee viderat cetas 
Condidit, ut claris exa[equ] et dona triumfis. 
Hoc decus ornatum genitor cognominis urbis 
Esse volens, ccesa Thebis de rupe revellit. 

Parte orientali : 
Sed gravior divum tangebat cura vehendi 
Quod nulla ingenio nisuque manuque moveri 
Caucaseam molem discurrens fama monebat. 
At Dominus mundi Constantius omnia fretus 
Cedere virtuti terris incedere jussit 
Haut partem exiguam montis, pontocjue tumenti. 

Parte septentrion. : 
Credidit, et placido [vexerunt sequora AJmc^m 
Litus ad Hesperium ^[iberi] mirante carinam, 
Interea Romam Ta . . ro vastante tyranno, 
Augusti jacuit donum studiumque locandi, 
Non fastu spreti, sed quod non crederet ullus 
Tant(B molts opus superas consurgere in auras. 

Parte occidentali : 
Nunc veluti rursus ru . . . avulsa metallis 
Emicuit, pulsatque polos hcec gloria dudum 
Auctori servata suo cum ccede tyranni 
Redditur atque aditu i?o [mae] virtute reperto 

Victor ovans, Urbiq\ue] tropceum 

Principis et munus condi .... que triumfis. 

Laws of A. D. 355. '^ Cod. Theod. Vol. 4 p. 289 Imp. Constantius A. ad Volusianum pf.p. Dat. 
Kal. Jan. Med. Arhitione et Lolliano coss. Cod. Just. VI. 22, 6 ad Volusianum pf.U. [lege jo/".^.] 
Dat. XII Kal. Mart. Mediolani Arhetione et Lolliano coss. III. 26, 8 ad Taurum pf-p. Dat. V 
Non. Mart. Sirmii. Cod. Theod. Vol. 2 p. 625 Cod. Just. VIII. 56, 8 ad Orfitum p. U. Dat. V 
Kal. April. ' Cod. Theod. Vol. 2 p. 301 ad Taurum. Dat. VIII Id. April. Vol. 2 p. 61J) ad Orfi- 
tum p. U. Dat. VIII Kal. Maii. Vol. 1 p. 296 ad Volusianum vicarium urhis. Dat. [so. reddita 
cum Goihofr.] pr id. Kal. Maii Romce. Vol. 5 p. 152 ad Orfiium p.U. [legejo/.p. ob Leontium p.U. 
conf. Corsin. prsef. urb. p. 214] Dat. prid. Non. Jul. Med. Vol. 4 p. 382 ad Taurum pf.p. Dat. 
XVI Kal. Aug. Med. I. 5, 5 p. 27 Wenck. ad Taurum pf.p. Dat. XII Kal. Aug. Mediolani. 

b See the Tables p. 438. Aquileice Constantio A. VII et Constantio Ctes. Ill 

«^ For the preceding and following years see the conss. I. 19, 3 Imp. Constantius A. ad populum. Dat. 

Tables. Add in A. D. 354 Cod. Justin. 11. 20, II prid. Kal. Oct. Constantio A. VII et Constantio Cas. 

Imp. Constantius A. ad Evagrium pf.p. X Kal. Oct. Ill conss. 

2 



100 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

Const ANTIU3 Gothofred. Vol. 2 p. 192 ad LolUanvmp.p. Bat. XI Kal. Aug. Med. ace. XII Kal. Sept. Vol. 4 
p. 245 Cod. Just. VII. 62, 21 ad Lollianum pf.p. Dat. VIII Kal. Aug. Messadensi. pp. CapucB. 
Cod. Theod. Vol. 1 p. 77 o,d Taurum pf.p. Data VIII Kal. Aug. Mediolani. Arbitione et Juliano 
[lege Lolliano] coss. Vol. 4 p. 302 ad Volusianum pf.p. Bat. IV Kal. Aug. Vol. 4 p. 246 Cod. 
Just. VII. 62, 22 ad Volusianum pf.p. Bat. Ill Kal. Aug. Cod. Theod. Vol. 4 p. 580 ad Taur 
rum pf.p. Bat. Kal. Aug. Med. Vol. 4 p. 73 ad Taurum pfp. Bat. IV Non. Sept. Binummw, 
ace. prid. Id. Nov. Karthag. Vol. 6 p. 37 Severo suo salutem. Bata epistula IX Kal. Oct. ace. 
Non. Oct. Vol. 3 p. 242 ad popuVum. Bat. prid. Kal. Nov. Med. These Arbitione et Lolliano coss. 
Messadensis, from whence Constantius dates July 25, is probably a place near Milan, and not, as 
Gothofredus Vol. 1 p. liv supposes, a place in Rhaetia. The Rhsetian war we may place with 
Tillemont tom. 4 p. 683 within Feb. 18— July 6. 

CovsTANS. CONSTANS. 

His character is unfavourably drawn by Victor Cses. p. 353 Ministrorum pravitate exsecrabilis, 
atque prcBceps in avaritiam despectumque militarium &c. Victor Epit. p. 390 Hicfuit debilis pedibus 
manibusque articulorum dolore ; fortunatus cosli temperie, fructuum proventu, nulla a barbaris for- 
midine ; quceprofecto majora fierent^ si provinciarum rectores non pretio sed j'udicio provexisset. Eu- 
tropius X. 9 Constantis imperium strenuum aliquamdiu et justum fuit ; mox cum et valetudine im- 
prospera et amicis pravioribus uteretur, ad gravia vitia conversus, cum intolerabilis provincialibus 
miUtibus injucundus esset, faetione Magnentii occisus est. Eutropius adds however Rebus plurimis 
strenue in militia gestis, exercituique per omne vitce tempus sine gravi crudelitate terrihilis. Constans 
was contracted to the daughter o^ Ablabius, afterwards married to Arsaces: Ammian. 20. 11, 3 
{Constantius) Olympiada Ablabii filAam prcefecti quondam pradorio ei [sc. Arsaci] copulaverat con- 
jugem^ sponsam fratris sui Constantis. Noticed by Athanasius ad Monachos p. 856 C (quoted by 
s Vales, ad Ammian. 1. c.) (KtoyoTtiyrios) Ti\v ixvrja-njv avrov rqv ^0XvixTTi6.ba iSap^dpoii (Kbibaxev, fjv 

eK€tvoi [sc. Constans] iiixpi. reA.evr^s k(^v\am koX ws Ihiav avirp^^^v lauT<S yvvaiKa. 

Coins: Eckhel tom. 8 p. 110 1 Constans Augustus -\ 2 Constans P. F. Aug. +Bononia 

Oceanen. or urbs Rom/i. or urbs Bonfia beata. 3 Imp. Constans Aug. -\ 4 B. N. Constans Aug. + 

virtus exereitum. or vota publica. 5 Fl. Constant vel Constantis P. F. Aug.-\ 6 Fl. Jul. Con- 
stans Aug. vel P. F. vel Pius Felix Aug. +felieia decennalia. vot. X mult. XX. or felicitas per- 
petua. SIS. or ob victoriam triumfalem. vot. X mult. XV — mult. XX. or tr. SIS. or MT. ES. 
or triumfator gentium barbararum. or virtus exercitus Gall. 7 Fl. Jul. Constans perp. Aug. + 
victoria Augustorum. XXV. SMNC. 8 " Antica varia."" +/e?. temp, reparatio. or vot. XV mult. 
XX. or vot. XX mult. XXX. An inscription apud Muratorium p. 261. 4 in civitate Pen- 
nensi : B. N ConManti piissimo felicissim>o victori semper Augusto C, Axeninus Sex. Tranq. II II 
vir ex S. C. 

The sons of Constantino issued 1. 4 de paganis apud Cod. Theod. Vol. 6 p. 263 ^ ad Taurum pf.p. 
Placuit omnibus locis adque urbihus elaudi protinus templa., et accessu vetitis omnibus licentiam delin- 
quendi perditis abnegari. Volwmus etiam cwndos sacrificiis abstinere [see the Tables A. D. 341. 3]. 
Qmd si quis aliquid forte hujusmodi perpetraverit, gladio ultore stematur. Facultates etiam perempti 
fisco decernimus vindicari, et similiter adfligi rectores provinciarum^ si facinora vindicare neglexerint. 
Bat. Kal. Bee. Consiantio IV et Constante II A A. conss. We must read either Constantio III et 
Constante II A A. sc. A. D. 342, or Constantio IV et Constante III A A. sc. A. D. 346. Gothofred 

d Conf. Cod. Just. I. 11, 1 ad Taurum pf.p- where Constantio IV et Constante AA. conss. Sc. A. D. 
the editions before Beck give the date Kal. Dec. 346. 



EMPERORS. 101 

Vol. 6' p. 263. 387 reads Constantio VI et Constantio II coss. A. D. 353 or Consiantio VII et Con- Constans. 
stantio III A. D. 354, because Taurus was " prsefectus prsetorio ab anno 353 ad annum 3G1." 
But this would place the law after the death of Constans ; and Constans concurred in the edicts 
against the pagans. See Sozoinen III. 17 p. 529 B Theodoret H. E. V. 20 Symmachus Ep. X. 
54 p. 288 quoted by Gothofred himself. Taurus, if the inscription is genuine, might be another 
Taurus, earlier in time than the Taurus of whom Ammianus speaks'^. There might be two of 
the name of Taurus in those times, as there were two of the name of Florentius apud Ara- 
mianum 22, 3, 6. 

Magnentius. Tables A.D. 350—353. Vetranio A. D. 350. 351. Decentius A. D. 351. Magnentius. 
353. Nepotianus A.D. 350. Victor Caes. p. 353 — Magnentii, utpote gentis harharce, diro atro- 
cique ingenio, simul his quce post accidere, adeo extincta omnia sunt ut illud hnperium haud injuria 
desideraretur. Turn quia Vetranio literarum prorsus expers et ingenio stolidior idcircoque agresti 
vecordia pessimus, cum per Illyrios peditum magisterio milites curaret, dominationem, ortus Moesice 
superioris locis squalidioribus, improbe occupaverat. Of Nepotianus he adds p. 354 Gujus stolidurn 
ingenimn adeo plehi Romance patrihusque exitio fuit ut passim domus fora vice templaque cruore ac 
cadamribus opplerentur. On Magnentius conf. Zosimum II. 54 on Vetranio Philostorg. III. 22 
Chron. Pasch. p. 291 D 292 A. Decentius is mentioned by Steph. Byz. AcKeVnoi : (.dvos U.avvovias, 
aTTo Ae/cemov tov Mdyvov Traubbs MayvcvrCov b" abek(f>ov. Inscriptions : 1 Murat. p. 1995. 3 in 
Lusitania : B. N. imperatori semper Aug. Maximo Magnentio terra mariq. victori prov. dedicavit. 
2 Mur. p. 263. 3 Cartamae in Hispania : D. N. Magno Decentio imp. nostro piissimo Jlorentissimo 
CcBsari. 3 Mur. p. 2011. 5 in Lusitania: D. N. Magno Decentio nobilissimo et Jlorentissimo Ccesari 
B. R. P. nato. M. P. XXXII. 

Tzschutke ad Eutropium p. 784. 7 supposes Idatius to mark the date of the fall of Nepotianus. 
" Id factum esse notant fasti Idatiani A. D. 351 die VIII Kal. Januar. id est. anno 350 Decemb. 
25." But VIII Kal. Januar. of the year 351 is not Dec. 25 of the year 350, and Idatius there 
speaks of Vetranio and not of Nepotianus. 

Silvanus. Tables A.D. 355. Silvanus was the son of a Frank: Ammian. 15. 5, 33 Licet Sii^vauvs. 
ob tempestivam illam cum armaturis proditionem ante Mursense proelium obligatum gratia retineret 
Constantium, ut dubium tamen et mutabilem verebatur, licet patris quoque Boniti prcetenderet postea 
facta, Franci quidem, sed pro Constantini partibus in bello civili acriter contra Licinianos scepe ver- 
sati. Victor Caes. p. 354 Silvanus in Gallia ortus barbaris parentibus, ordine militim simul a Mag- 
nentio ad Constantium transgressus pedestre ad magisterium adolescentior meruerat^. 

Gallus. Tables A.D. 351. 354. Ammianus names as the emperor's ministers in the death Gallus. 
of Gallus Eusebius, Pentadius, Mellobaudes, Serenianus, Apodemius ; and Scudilo and Barbatio as 
the enemies of Gallus. Philostorgius mentions Eusebius. Zosimus II. 55 Dt/namiuss^ Picentius, 

e A Taurus is pf.p. July 21 A.D. 353 in a law Detn Taurum ex prcefecto prcetorio in exsilium egere 

quoted in the Tables. And yet Taurus apud Am- Vercellum. 

mianum 14. 11, 14 is qucestor in A.D. 354: Eoque f Julian, ad Athenienses p. 273 D names Silvanus 

tempore Taurus qucestor ad Armeniam missus. The according to the emendation of Vales, ad Ammian. 

Taurus of Ammianus is pf.p. in A. D. 355 — 361. 15. 5, 3 p. 124, who for tov NeiXov k&v iv avrm reads 

See the laws of 355 quoted in the Appendix p. 99 tov 2i\ovdv6v avTa. Nepotianus and Silvanus are 

andof A. D. 357 — 361 quoted in the Tables, and the named by Mamertinus Juliano c. 12 p. 698 Heus 

testimonies given in 359. 4. He was consul in .361. Nepotiane atque Silvane, &c. 

See the Tables and Ammianus there quoted. Ban- S Dynamius by an error. Conf. Vales, ad Am- 

ished at the close of that year: Ammian. 22. 3, 4 mian. 15. 5, 3. 4. 



102 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

Callus. Lampadius. Julian ad Athenienses p. 27O D, as might be expected, charges Constantius with all 
the wrong : ^f /ney av€\lnovs ^/xoS re koX kavrov, Tiarepa bk ifxav favTov be delov, /cat TTpocrhi koivov 
^Tepov Tov Ttpos TTarpbi Oklov, abek(p6v re (fxov tov irpccr^vTaTov^, aKplrovs KTcCvas' e/xe 6e koI ^repov 
ab(\(j)6v (fxov iOfkrjo-as fX€v ktcivoi, tcAos be €77i/3aAci)y (pvyfjV — CKelvov be dKCy(o irporepov ttj? (T(f)ayrjs 
ippva-aro to tov KaCaapos ovo\xa. Julian p. 27 1 A speaks of Gallus again : tov \iaKapiTr\v abeX<f)bv epibv 
FaXXov. more fully p. 2/2 els \api.v evbs iivbpoyvvov tov KaraKoip-KTrov. sc. the eunuch Emebius. 
He admits however the cruelty of Gallus: p. 271 D ei tl irepl tov Tpoirov aypiov koI Tpaxv t&v eKeivov 
KaTet^avr). k. t. A. 

JiiLiAKus. JuLiANUs. For his birth see the Tables A. D. 331. His early life and education are described 
by Socrates H. E. III. 1 Kwrorai'Tio) bvo eyevv-qOrjaav viol, TdXkos kol 'louXtaz/o's. ws ovv /xera rqv 
TekevTr]v tov kticttov t^s KIT. 01 orpaTicoTat tov veov avelKov AaA/xaTioy [A. D. 338], totc b-q Koi ovtol 
aTTop(l)avL(TdevTes tov olKeiov iraTpos p.iKpov beiv toJ AaAjuaTio) (TvveKi.vbvvev(Tav , ei fir) r6.X\ov ixev vocros 
TtpoaboKiav eyovcra davdrov eppvcraTO ^lovXiavov be f) rjXtKCa, OKTaeTrji yap rjv hi, bteaaxrev. eTiel be r) Kar 
avrQv tov j3a<n\e(os opfxr} eKe)(avv<iiTo, FciAAo? \xev tois ev ^\aivia KaTo. ttjv "Ecfyeaov e(f)olTa bibaaKaXots, 
ivOa avTols koL KTrjais rjv eK iipoyovuiv ttoAAt^'" ^lovXiavos be av^rjOels tS>v ev KYI. iTai.bevTr]pC(i)V riKpoaro 
— VTTo MapbovCov TOV evvovxov TTaibaycayovjievos^. t5>v piev ovv ypap.p.aTiK5iv Xoyav NikokXjjs 6 A6.K<av^ 
rjv avT^ TTaibevTTjs' prjTopiKriv be irapa 'EKTj^oAto) KaTtapOov tw (TO(pi.crTfj Xpi.(TTLav£ roTe ruyxdvovn. tov- 
Tov be 6 ^amXevs Kiova-TdvTuos irpoevorjae /xjjTrws "EAAtji^os bi,baa-iidX.ov dKpo(ap.evos irpos beidibaipiOVLav 
eKKXivoL. XpL(TTLavbs yap ^v e^ dpxris 'lovXiavos. — fMedC(rTr](nv avTbv eK ttjs /xeyaAoTToAeo)? els Tr)V Nifco- 
(jLTibeiav, KeXevcas iirj (f)0(,Tav Tiapa At^avico rw Svpo) cro^to-r^. Tore yap 6 Aiftdvios virb t&v TtaibaycayGtv 
Tqs Kn. eK^XrjOels ev Trj 'NiKop.rjbeiq tus 8tarpt/3as eTroteiTo"^. — ^lovXiavbs be eKtaXveTo (potrav irap avT^ 
bioTi Ai^dvios "EXX-qv Tr]V Op-qcrKeCav eTvyxjavev <av. ofxas be epaarrjs oi)v t&v Xoyav avTov XeXrjOoTias 
crvvdyatv avTOvs ?7<rK€tro. irpoKOTTTOvros b^ ovtov xara rqv py]TopiKr\v, e(f>L(rTaTai ttj NtKO/xrjSeta Md^ifxos 6 
(f)LX6(TO(f>os — 6 'E^eVios". bv vcnepov wy fxayyaveCas 'rroiovvra 6 fiacnXevs OvaXevTLviavbs dvaipedfjvaL 
eKeXevarev^. By Maximus Julian was perverted — evdvs e/At/jteiro koi ttiv OpqcrKeiav tov ixaibevTov 
Socrates Ibid. 

Julian ad Athenienses p. 278. 279 places the recovery of Agrippina in his second campaign, 
and after the recal oi Marcellus. Having mentioned his first campaign A.D. 356: p. 278 A ov 
KaKws — TOV TTpaTov cTTpaTTfyrjOevTos eviavTov, fcai Tipa\6evTos (movbaCov — and his danger in the winter 
quarters A. D. 35f P, he proceeds p. 278 B eKe'iva piev ovv ovT(as eirpdxdr] TOTe' cis be fcai 6 T(av <TTpa- 
TOTiebatv apx(>)V^ ev VTtoy^ia yev6p.evos avrcS TraprjpeOr] Kal aTrrjXXdyr] ttjs dpxris, ov (T<^6bpa CTrtrj^Seios 
bo^as, eyoiye evop.ia6r]v r]KL(TTa (nrovbalos Kal beivos (TTparrjyds k. t. A. Then follows his second cam- 

^ On these see Valesius ad Ammian. 21. 16, 8. StSao-zcoXetoj/, 6 jSao-tXeW /xej/ mSows /Sao-tXeW 8e d8(\(f>i- 
The elder brother of Julian and Gallus, here men- 8ovs ^aaiXems 8e dve^^n6s. His preceptors are evvovxos, 

tioned by Julian, is mentioned nowhere else. /SeXrttrros craxppocrvvrjs (j)v\a^, koi Traidayayyos erepos, ovK 

i Julian inherited from his grandmother property apoipos Traibdas. 
in Bithynia : Juliani fragm. p. 2i>0 D anta-u>6r} poi rt- 1 Libanius ad Julianum Vol. 1 p. 459 alludes to 

\fios 6 KXijpos TTJs Tirdrjs <. t. X. Ep. 4(5 p. 426 D avy- Nicocles : dvr]p AaxedaipAvios, Upevs Sucaioavvris, fjyfpciv 

KTTf(T(i8iou piKpov dypo>v TfTTapav 8o6evT<ov puoi rrapa r^s TrotSft'as, etSws, elwep ris, ttjs 'Opfjpov yviip.ris to. mropprfra 

TiTdt}! fv Bidvvia Tjj aij BiaOeafi bmpov Bidcopi. — tv €8«|&) pev veos a>v. 

^ Julian Misopog. p. 352 A B apa iTo6(iTf kcu tov- m gee the Tables A. D. 350. 3. 

vona vfup <f)pda-a> tov Tratdayayyov — 2Kv6r}s iiev t6 yivos, ^ Libanius ad Julianum torn. 1 p. 408 refers to 

onawfios 8« TOV TOV Sfp^v dvoTrdaavTOS eVi ttju 'EWdba Maximus : fos 8e ^K€s fls ^laviav koi tl8es avbpa Koi 8o- 

«rrpaT€V(T<u. — (vvov)(os ^v, vno T<a tp^ Ttdpappevos trdn- kovvtu koi ovtu <t6^ov k.t. X. 

TTw, T171' fiTfTtpa Tf)v ffitfv oTTcos dydyjj Bia tS>v 'Ofiffpov Koi ° See the Tables A. D. 372. 3. He was put to 

'Hcrtdfiov TToirjpaTcov. — ptT ipiavrov f^8opov avTa irape- death by Vulens and not by Valentinian. 
bodriv. Libanius Epitaph, torn. 1 p. 525 SUrpl^f irtpl P See the Tables A. D. 356 Julian, p. 278 B. 

avToiis fv Tg fuyioTTi pera ttiv 'Paprjp n6Xti, (fwiTav (s Q Marcellus. See the Tables A. D. 357. 



EMPERORS. 103 

paign: p. 278 D 6 Katva-rdpTios — bCbaxTL ijlol t5)V arpaToiriboiv Tr]v rj-yeixovlav rjpos apxfj k.t.X. p. 279 B Julianus. 
iv TovTots ovaav KarakajSoiV eyw ttjv TaXarCav ttoKlv re av4\aj3ov rrjv ^AypLimCvav eirl rw 'P-qvi^ — kuI 
Tei)(os ^ hpyivTopa ttXtjctlov irpos rais viroipdai^ avTov tov Bapa^yov. After this campaign two years 
followed, A. D. 358, 359 : p. 279 D to br] fxera tovto bevrepoi kviavros koX rpiTor koI Trciyres p.\v aire- 
\ri\avTo TTjs FaXaria? ol ^ap^apoi TrAeto-rat 8e ap^X.T^(f)9r](Tav t&v Tro'Aewy, k. t. A. This remarkable 
variation of Julian from Ammianusr is noticed by Petavius ad locum p. 99. 

Zosimus III. 3 — 8 is not accurate in the Gallic campaigns and other acts oi' Julian. 1 c. 3 
" at Argentoratum 60,000 were slain, and as many more perished in the Rhine." uxire d ns 
e^e'Aot 77/ TTpoi Aapdov ^ Akf^dvbpov p.6.yr] TavTrjv TrapajiaXelv T-qv VLKrjv, ovk h.v €vpoi ravTrjv kKeivqs 
ikcLTTova. Although we were to admit that the numbers were corrupted in the text, yet the com- 
parison o{ Julian to Alexander is a gross exaggeration. 2 c. 4 '■'■Julian crosses the Rhine, pene- 
trates to the Hercynian forest, captures Badomarius the king's son, and sends him to Constantius^ 
Petavius ad Julianum p. 101 has observed that Badomarius is a mistake for Chnodomarius. Rei- 
temeier justly adds that the time is inaccurately marked. Chiodomarius was captured in the 
second campaign, before Julian had crossed the Rhine^ ; Badomarius after Julian was Augustus., 
in A. D. 360 ^ And these chiefs were not merely the sons of kings, but kings themselves. 3 c. 6. 
7-8 " The Saxons send the Quadi to expel the Salii — Julian spares the Salii — spares both the 
Salii and Quadi. Meanwhile Constantius is in the East." Although we allow to Reitemeier that 
Quadi for Chaniavi is an error of the transcriber, yet there are other mistakes. The Salii and 
Chamavi were encountered in the third campaign and not in the fourth ; before the defeat of 
Badomarius and not after it. Constantius was not yet in the East, which he did not reach till 
after Julianas fourth campaign was ended^'. 4 c. 8 " Through Julian Illyricum is safe, and the 
barbarians beyond the Danube are repressed." This was effected by Constantius himself in 358 
and 359^. Falsely ascribed to ./M^m^i by Zosimus. 5 c. 8 " >S'a^or besieges Nisibis, which Xwri/- 
lianus defends ; and Julian himself describes all that was then done. Constantius sends for two 
legions." Petavius acknowledges the error of placing here the siege of Nisibis. Heyne ad locum 
p. 636 attempts to justify Zosimus. To whom we may answer that Lucillianus might now be 
governor of Nisibis, since he was now in the East: Ammian, 17. 14, 3. But Zonaras XIII. 9 
p. 20 A, who relates that Nisibis was attempted by Sapor in 359, is refuted by Aramianus; from 
whom we know that there was no siege of Nisibis in that year, but that Amida was besieged and 
taken 'f. Moreover Julian relates that siege of Nisibis in his panegyric upon Constantius, com- 
posed at least four years before 359. Nor does Julian name Lucillianus, who did not command 
in Nisibis at the siege described by JidianY. 6 c. 9 " Constantius refuses Julian the title of 
Ccesar., and only grants him life." But Julian himself ad Athen. p. 286 B C admits that Con- 
stantius allowed him to be Ccesar : Trpos tovtols hi vvv //oi KatVapi ypd^ei. Recorded by Am- 

»■ And also from his own account of the time of Y Spanheim p. 188 ad Julianum p. 168 calls the 

the recapture of Agrippina : p. 279 B. quoted in the siege of Nisibis in 350 the second siege and supposes 

Tables A. D. 350. Libanius Epitaph, tom. 1 p. 537- the third in 359 or 360. But he is obliged to admit 

538 relates the capture of Agrippina evayxos, and that this third siege in 359 could be only " pauco- 

hefore Julian had the full authority: oiVw rov nav b rum dierum, et irritam :" p. 189. Not therefore 

diavorjdeir] TrpdrreLv els e^ovcriav rJKuv. Then he men- one of the three celebrated sieges mentioned by 

tions the recal of Marcellus, as quoted in the Tables Festus. See the Tables A. D. 338. Valesius ad 

A. D. 357. Ammian. 20. 7, 1 calls the siege in 350 the second, 

s Tables A. D. 357. condemns Hieronymus for placing the second in 348, 

t Tables A. D. 359. and assigns the third to 359, " cujus meminit Am- 

V See the Tables A. D. 359. 360. mianus noster 18. 7." But Ammianus so far from 

w See the Tables. mentioning a siege in 359 distinctly says that there 

* See the Tables A. D. 359. was no siege ; Nisibi transmissa 18. 7> 8. 



104 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

JiJLiAxus. mianus 20. 9, 4 Intra Ccesaris se potestatem continere prcedpiens. § 6 Ccesaris potestatem sufficere 
Juliano cemehat. 7 Zosim. III. 11 " Seica biarpCyj/ai iv t&J BvCavrlta fxrjvas" Inaccurate. See the 
Tables A. D. 362 p. 448. 

Zosimus in his narrative of Julian's last campaign has also some inaccuracies. 1 III. 12, 4 
" He enters Edessa." That he did not enter Edessa we know from Amraianus. conf. Reitem. ad 
Zosimum 1. c. 2 III. 26, 5 He omits Julian's retreat. Conf. Eeitem. ad locum. 3 III. 30, 10 — 
31, 1 *^ Jovian passes the Tigris before the treaty." But Ammianus 2.5. 7? 14 — 8, 1 shews that 
the treaty preceded the passage of the river. 4 III. 36, 1.2 " The empire is offered to Sallust 
after the death of Jovian.''* But Ammianus 25, 5, 3, who was himself present, attests that this 
was done after the death of Julian. Finally we may observe that Zosimus III. 29, 1 describes 
the Persian monarchy as not far from ruin at the death of Julian — ov iroppid airoiKeCas ecrxdrqs. 
And yet a few days afterwards III. 30, 11 the Romans are h Tracri KivbvvoLS. vtto re rcav Trepieo-TcSrtov 

KaK&V KOi TTpOtTiTL kvhdo. TpO(f)r}S TTLe^ofxevoi. 

Noris Ep. Syromac. p. 238 — 240 quoted in the Tables A. D. 362 p. 448 reads JuUo for Junio 
in Hieronymus, first because Thammuz was Jul^ and Haziram was June ; secondly because 
Julian was still at CP. May 12 and then travelled 816 miles; thirdly because he composed the 
Misopogon after he had been 7 months at Antioch ; and when he was " propediem ad bellum 
Persicum profecturus," and after the death of his uncle Julianus. Written therefore in the end 
of February ; and the seven months carry us back to the end of July. Noris on the death of the 
uncle Julianus argues thus. He was still alive Feb. 7- " Extat lex ad Julianum Com. Or. dat. 
VII Id. Mart. Antiochise." But, as Julian had already left Antioch March 5, " levi emendatione 
VII Id. Feb. legendum est. Itaque ineunte Februario adhuc vivebat Julianus comes Or."" Noris 
adds, quoting Ammianus, " Rufinum — in locum avunculi sui recens defuncti provexit. Addit 
vomitu sanguinis extincto Felice comite S. L. eumque coraite Juliano sequuto — prsecesserat aliud 
saevum ; nam Kal. Jan. quidam sacerdos*" &c. Noris infers " Quare cum hie casus contigerit ante 
mortem Juliani com. Or. hujusce obitus accidit labente jam anno 363" &c. There is no need of 
altering the text of Hieronymus. For Thammuz corresponded partly with June and partly with 
July. 2 Julian would not occupy more than six weeks in his journey; which he hastened: pro- 
perans. 3 We must carefully distinguish the two count Julians who are here described by Am- 
mianus 23. 1,4 lisdem diebus &c. imperator Apronianum Romce decrevit esse prcefedum^ Octavianum 
proconsulem AfriccB, Venusto vicariam commisit Hispanice, Rufinum Aradium comitem Orientis in 
locum avunculi sui Juliani recens defuncti provexit. Quibus — ordinatis terrebatur omine quodam. — 
Felice enim largitionum comite profluvio sanguinis repente exstincto, eumque comite Juliano sequuto., 
vulgus publicos contuens titulos Felicem Julianum Augustumque pronuntiabat. This Julianus is pro- 
. perly distinguished from the emperor's uncle by Wagner z, as comss largitionum. Julianus com. Or. 
was already dead, and his successor appointed, before the death o{ Felix; and in Theodoret^ the 
death of Julian the emperor"*s uncle is related before the death of Felix. The date of the law 
quoted by Noris being corrupted will yield us no evidence. The emendation is a conjecture. We 
may read in that law VII Id. JanJ^ If we refer it to Jan. 7 A. D. 363 the death of Julianus 
comss orientis might happen in January, and the Misopogon might be composed at the end of the 
same month c. 

z In Indice ad Ammianum. ^ Cod. Just. VIII. 36, 12. See the Tables A. D. 

* H. E. III. 9 'lovXiavos (Jxv yap [6 tov 'lovKiavov 363 p. 458. 
Ofios III. 7] irapavTiKa voaa x°^*^ irfpnrfo-tbv — 8ie- c See the Tables A. D. 363. 3 p. 455 for the 

<j)6dpi]. — 6 Se *iXi^ f^aniinjs 6fr)\aTov kcu, ai/TOg Se^a/Xfros Misopogon. 
[M(mya — aTTco'/S'} nal avros. 



EMPERORS. 105 

Ammianus 24. 8, 5 quoted in the Tables A. D. 363 p. 456 names XVI Kal. Jul. and then Jui.ianus 
25. 5, 1 gives V Kal. Jul. as the day after the death of Julian. Wagner'^ remarks " Quintum Kal. 
JuUas. Reinesius adscripsit Decimum quintum.'''' Reinesius then supposed that JuUan died XVI 
Kal. Jul. But Ammianus is consistent with the other authorities on the day of Julian's death. 
He enumerates many days between XVI Kal. Jul. and that event. 25. 1, 1 Uhi primum dies 
inclaruit. then a march to Hucumbra §4. then a halt per hiduum. then follows postridie § 5. 
then a progress to Maranga § 10. 11. and a halt of three days: triduo indutiis destinato c. 2, 1. 
After which exorto jam die promota casira § 8. These incidents account for the space of ten days 
from the beginning of the retreat June 16 to the death of Julian June 26. 

The character of Julian is fully drawn by Ammianus 25. 4 and by Eutropius X. 16. Victor 
Epit. p. 393 Fuerat in eo literarum ac negotiorum ingens scientia. u^quaverat philosophos et Groico- 
rum sapientissimos. Usu promptior corporis quam validior quidem, sed hrevis fait. Hcec minuehat 
quarundam rerum neglectus modus. Cupido laudis immodica., cultus numinum super stitiosus. audax 
plus quam imperatorem decet. Augustine^ C. D. V. 21 Ipse apostates Juliano, cujus egregiam in- 
dolem decepit amore dominandi sacrilega et detestanda curiositas, cujus vanis deditus oraculis erat. 
Eutropius adds religionis GliristiancB insectator, perinde tamen ut cruore abstineret. Confirmed by 
Orosius VII. 30 Arte pot'ius quam potestate Christianam 7'eligionem insectatus &c. Hieronymus 
Chron. Anno 2378 Juliano ad idolorum cultum converso, blanda persecutio fuit., illiciens^ magis quam 
impellens ad sacrificandum^. Socrates III. 12 Tr]v jxkv inrepjSdKX.ova-av cttI AtoKkrjriavov wixoTrjra 
VTTepeO^ro' ov firiv iravTr) tov dtw/cetr aTreo-xero. bL(s)y[j.bv be Aeyco to ottoxtovv Tapamiv tovs rjcrvxa- 
(ovras. 

But his narrow and intolerant spirit in forbidding the Christians to teach Grammar and Rhe- 
toric is recorded by Ammianus 22. 10, 7 IHud autem erat inclemens obruendum perenni silentio. 
quod arcebat docere magistros rhetor icos et grammaiicos ritus Christiani cultores. 25. 4, 20 Erat illud 
inclemens^ quod docere vetuit magistros rhetoricos et grammaticos Christianos, 7ii transissent ad numi- 
num cultum. And justifies the invective of Gregory oi Nazianzus: In Julianum I p. 132 C rnoOiv 
ovv eTTrjXde croi tovto, co KovcpoTare ttclvtcov koI dTrArjordrare, to Xoyav aiTOcrTeprjcrai XpLdTtavovs ; tovto 
yap ov tS>v aTjeiXovpLevoiv rjv, aXXa t&v rjbr] vevo[xo6€rriixev(i)v. irodev, ko-k tCvos airias ; k. r. A. He had 
already mentioned this p. 79 H tu>v Xoyav ///xas ain^Xaa-ev k. t. A.'' 

*1 Ad 2.5. 5, 1. prove this. Ammianus 22. II does not shew that 
e Quoted by Valesius ad Ammian. 2.'5. 4, I who Julian put the Christians to death for their religion, 
adds the lines of Prudentius in Apotheosi 449 Theodoret H. E. III. 6. 7 Chron. Pasch. p. 295. 296 
Principibus tamen e cunctis nan defuit unus Theophanes p. 41 . 42 and Zonaras cannot be received 
Me puero, ut memini, ductor fortissimus armis, as impartial witnesses against the clear testimony of 
Conditor et legum celeberrimus, ore manuque Orosius and Hieronymus. These last in what thev 
Consultor patriee, sed nan consultor habendce add record no acts of Julian, but speak only of what 
Religionis, amans ter centum millia divum. he intended to do : Hieron. anno 2379 Julianus in 
Perfidus ille Deo, quamvis nan perjtdus orbi. Persas profectus nostrum post victoriam diis sangui- 
nis management of the finances of the empire is nem voverat. Orosius VII. 30 Christianorum sangui- 
praised by Ambrosius apud Vales, ad Ammian. 25. nem diis suis vovit, palam persecuturus ecclesias, si 
•4,15 Hoc laudant provincice Julianum &c. victoriam potuisset adipisci. 

f Conf. Greg. Naz. epitaph, in Csesarium p. 205 ^ Gregory returns to this subject again in Julia- 

DE Kkeimav tov SiMy/ioi/ eV firuiKfias irXdafJian — nfidovs num 11 p. 174 A ravTa oi ruvXayiov aTroKKfiaOivres rjP'fls, 

ovona irpoarfivai ra yivofieva fir] TvpavviSos — Kal tovs fxtv koto, ttjv /xeyaXj;v koL 6avp.acrTr)v crov vofiodeaiav. Socrates 

XprjfJUKTi TOVS 8e a^iapxKTi tovs be vnoa)^ea-€(Ti Toiis 8e nap- H. E. III. 12 vofico eKeXeve XpiaTiavovs naiSevaeas firj 

Toiais TCfiais v(j)e\K6p,evos. fieTCX^iv, tva prj ((prjalv) dKova>p.evoi ttjv yXarrav eToificos 

S Tzschucke ad Eutropium p. 803. 34 asserts, rrpos tovs 8iaKeKTiKovs tS)v 'EXXjji/wi' diravTuxnv. Theo- 

" Neque tamen actum est sine cruore, ut decent ex- doret. H. E. 111. 4 koL TrptoTov pkv cnrrjyopevcre tu)v TaKi- 

empla misere occisorum quae passim leguntur." But \aiav tovs Traibas — TroiijTiKav koL prjropiKav koX (f)iKoa-6<p<ov 

the authorities which he quotes are not sufficient to peraXayxdveiv Xoyav toIs olKt'iois yap {4>r](n) nTepols, 



106 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

JuLiANus. Ammianus 25. 6, 6 in relating the death of JuUcm mentions a rumour — rumore jactato incerto, 
telo cecidisse Bomano. Libanius Epitaph, torn. 1 p. 614 in A. D. 365, adopting this rumour, charges 
the death of Julian upon the Christians : " I do not know the name of the man who slew Julian. 
" That he was not a Persian clearly appears from this, that no one claimed the reward which the 
" king of Persia offered for the service. We must therefore look among ourselves for the slayer 
'* o{ Julian, Those to whom his life was no benefit (because they lived in violation of his laws), 
" those who had long plotted against him and had not liberty in his reign for their religious wor- 
*' ship, took that opportunity of effecting the deed." He alludes to this in another oration tom. 3 
p. 440. 1 6 ahiKos kv Ylepa-ihi (rCbrjpos — and in an oration addressed to Theodosius irepl ttjs Ttjuwpt'as 
'lovkiavov^^. Although he had before ascribed the wound to a Persian hand'. Sozomen VI. ]. 2, 
quoting Libanius tom. I p. 614, thinks that the charge against the Christians might be true. But 
the words of Ammianus shew that Libanius founded his charge upon an uncertain rumour'^. 

Laws of A. D. 362. See the Tables. Upon the law dated Kal. Aug. Nicomedice Gothofredus 
rightly questions the date, because Kal. Aug. is named in the law as a day yet future, and because 
before Kal. Aug. Julian was already at Antioch. But his correction Vol. 1 p. lxiii ^ Kal. Aug. 
" Dies Kal. Aug. intercidit," cannot be admitted. Julian could not have been at Nicomedia in 
any part of July. He was already at Pessinus in June'. On another law Wagner ad Ammianum 
22. 9, 8 observes, '•'• Ancyrawi] Reinesius adscripsit Hie data est lex Cod. Theod. [Vol. 2 p. 146] ad 
Secundum pf. p. VII Kal. Oct.^ legam tamen Nov. vel VII Id. Oct." This is not intelligible. 
Neither was that law dated from Ancyra, nor was Julian at Ancyra in any part of October 362. 

Inscriptions. 1 Panvinius p. 410 Gruter p. 284. 8 Romae, to Julian as Ccesar : Domino nostro 
CI. Juliano nobilissim^ ac fortissimo Cces. Memmius Viirasius Orfitus V. C. iterum prcef. TJrb. judex 
sacrar. cognition, tertium, D. N.M. Q. ejus^. 2 Panvinius p. 411 Gruter p. 284. 9 Altini in co- 
lumna : u^terno principi D. N. Flavio Claudio Juliano uhique venerando &c. More accurately 
given below at N°. 10 from Muratori. 3 Gruter p. 1086. 7 in foro Popilii: Claudio Juliano vic- 
tori ac triumphatori semper Aug. domino orhis terrarum, B.B.P. nato. 4 Gruter p. 201. 5 in 
Hispania : Trifinium Ilmr. Sacilernusi. Idiensis, Soliensis, ex sentent. Juli Proculi jud. imp. Ccesare 
Juliano Aug. 5 Murat. p. 264. 1 Augustse Taurinorum : Imp. Cms. pontifex max. Claudius Ju- 
lianus semper Augustus. 6 Murat. p. 263. 4 Ancyrae : Domino totius orhis Juliano Augusto ex 

Kara ttjv napoifiiav, ^oKXofifda. See the Tables A. D. ^^ Libanius in that oration tom. 2 p. 27 urges 

362 col. 3. Add Sozomen V. 1 8 ov nf]v ovbe tovs tS>v Theodosius to revenge the murder of Julian by seek- 

Xpumavciv Traibas |vi'6;(a)pet fK8iM(ricf(r6ai roiis nap' "EX- ing and punishing the assassin ; and asserts that the 

Xrjai TToiTjras Koi avyypacjieas, ovbe rols rovrmv bidaa-KoXois late calamities of the empire were to be ascribed to 

(f>oiTav. Julian himself apud CyriUum VII p. 229 C the anger of the Gods, because the murderer was 

— E Tov X*"/"" ip^^s Tav Trap' "EWrfai TrapeadlfTf padt]- left unpunished. 

pdrtop, ftntp avrdpKTis vplv tarlv f) ra>v vfifrepcov ypa(j)S>v i See the Tables A. D. 363. 3 p. 461. 

dvayvwais; He endeavours to justify his prohibition ^ Greg. Naz. in Julian. II p. 155 attests that there 

by argument in Ep. 42 p. 422. He adds however were many reports : ovx fh Xeyerai \6yos, aWos 8( 

p. 424 A 6 ^ovkopevos tS)V veav (f>oiTdv ovk drroKeKKfiaTai' aXXw avp(j)fp€Tai Kal avvriOeTai, rav re irapovrcov Ofioion 

ov8f yap ov8e evXoyov ayvooxJvras (ri roiis nalBas ((f)' on rfj pdxj) xal rav dnovrav. ol pev yap vitb lifpawv avrbv 

TpeTTCOvrai ttJs ^fkTioTTjs dnoicXfUiv 68ov, (f)6^ai 8e Ka\ • KaTTjKovriadai <f)aa\v k.t. X. 

oKOvras a^tiv eVt ra irdrpia. — Ka\ yap, olpai., bibda-Keiv 1 See the Tables. 

aXX' ovxi KoXd^eiv xpv to^^ dvoTjTovs. The prohibition ^ Given in the Tables A. D. 362 p. 450. 

was what Ammianus has explained it to be. ad- » Orfitus was Prcef. U. for the first time from 

dressed to those who taught, and not to those who Dec. 8 A. D. 353 : See the Tables 353. 1. 354. 1. 

learned; to the professors, and not to the pupils. He vt&s prcef . U. the second time in A. D. 357: Am- 

Orosius VII. 30 rightly Aperto pracepit edicto ne quis mianus 17- 4, 1 quoted in the Tables at 357- 2. He 

Christianus docendorum liberalium studiorum professor is still prcef. U. II at March 25 A. D. 359 : See Cod. 

esset. And Augustine Confess. VIII. 5 Lege data pro- Theod. quoted in the Tables 359. 3. Within 357 — 

hibiti sunt Christiani docere literaturam et oratoriam. 359 this inscription was erected to the Caesar Julian. 



EMPERORS. 107 

Oceano Britannico mis per harharas gentes strage resistentium patefactis 7 Murat. p. 263. 5 in Julianos. 

castello Camponisco : Restitutori omnium rerwm et totius felicitatis domino nostro Fl. Juliano Pio 
Felici perpetuo semper Aug. bono reipuhlicce nolo. 8 p. 263. 6 Juderae : D. N. Juliano mdori ac 
trivmphatori totiusqm orbis Aug. bono reip. N. 9 Mur. p. 263. 7 Regii Lepidi : D. N. magno in- 

vido Fl. Glaudio Juliano mctori ac triumphatori semper Aug. vie rum bono reipublicce nato. 

10 Mur. p. 263. 8 Parraae : ^terno principi D. N. Flavio Glaudio Juliano ubiq. venerando semper 
Augusto or do possessoresque Brixillanorum pia devotione dedicarunt bono reipublicce nato. The same 
inscription is quoted at N^ 2^. 

A. D. Works of JulianP. 

355. Or. I kyKtiiixiov upbs tov avTOKp6.Topa K<i)V(rTdvTLov. After the appointment of Julian to be 
Ceesar : p. 44 D 45 B ovk airoxpr] aoi — toIs (pikoi.9 apxas Koi ras ctt avrois Tt/u,as hia- 
vip.civ, dAA' ei p.r] koX /3a(ri\etas eAoio Koivcavov k. t. A. — brjkov ck tov Xiyovros on fxr) 
^evbeii eireia-dyei Koyovs. Composed in the winter of A. D. 35f , as it contains no 
incidents later than that date. 

„^^ r n TTepl T&v TOV avTOKp6,Topos Ttpd^ecav. H m , , a -r^ 

357 1 TTT ' ' ^ - a 'X V" o' ^ Tables A. D. 357- 

L 111 (yK(ofjiiov Ttpos TTjv pacrtMo-a-av Evcreptav. J 

IV els TOV /Sao-iAea "HAioy irpos ^akova-TLov. Addressed to Sallust : S 0tAc SaAoucrrte 
p. 157 B. Rome is called 17 fiaaikevovcra iroAts p. 131 D. conf. p. 153 D. as in Or. I 
p. 5 B Ep. 35 p. 408 A p. 409 C. On Julianas boast p. 157 that this piece was 
written in three nights — h Tpial fidkca-Ta vv^i — see the Tables A. D. 362. 3 p. 451. 
The inscription at the beginning 'lovXiavov Kaicrapos would imply that it was com- 
posed before A. D. 360. But as it was written after Julian had openly professed 
Paganism : conf. p. 131 A. and therefore not sooner than Dec. A. D. 361, that title 
of the piece is inaccurate. 
^ VII Trpos 'Hpdi/cAeioy kvvlkov. ^ 
362 < V ets rqv p.riT4pa t&v di&v. >■ Tables A. D. 362. 

V VI CIS Tovs diraibevTovs Kvvas. ^ 
357 VIII TrapaiJ,v6r]T(.K6s em rrj e£o6&) 2aAov(rrtou. Tables A. D. 357- 
(361) QcpLKTTCio ^tAo(ro0a)<l. 

361 I ^^^r^^""' ^ ^°^^^ '^"^ "^ ^^''^'P^- ) Tables A. D. 361. 

L vpos HoptVULOVS. J 

362 I f.f'^^'P'J; . ^ \ Tables A. D. 362. 

L lion 111 Kara Xpicmavuiv. J 

o For other inscriptions see the Tables 362. 2 8 emaroXas iravrobairds, koI SKKa. 

^' ^?"j ,---0. X , , , V . q In reply to a letter of TAemw^itw ; p. 263 B C. 

P Suidas p. 1777 C l<yv\uivos o napa^arr,: Km ana- ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^-^ ^^^.^^^ Nicolaus, Thrasyllus. 

^arrj,. Pcopaicov ^a<n\.vs K<ovaravriPov rov f^eydkov j^j^sonius : p. 265 C. Julian mentions his former 

^acrcXecos ave^|rios. -eypa>/.e k. r. X. j^^^^^.^ ^^ Themistius : p. 260 A. his love for Athens : 

buidas enumerates j^^j^ describes the difficulties of supreme power : p. 

1 Kmaapas. ^ ^ 260—262. and prefers the influence of Socrates to 

2 Trept r<ov rpuou <rxvP^T<.p _ that of Alexander: p. 264 C. He names p. 259 C 

3 Kpovia. Quoted by Suidas Ibid. E/xTreSoTt/ios p. Carterius and Araxius Written at the beeinnine- of 

1221 A^ Mentioned by Julian himself Or. IV Sl:™_ '':^V^ZT.^. "y^emiks.^ ^ 
p. 157 C.^ ^ ^ Libanius Juliano torn. 1 p. 412. 20—413. 1 n^i/ 

4 MlO-OTTtUVCdl'a n AVTIOVIKOV. J^«T»^*^ 'A «>« -■ 

_ , . / / - "■ crvyypawnv rjv av avros eirpatas crvvttrnKas, o avros ytvo- 

„ . , 1 & / cf r\ T7T Ufvos <ai (rrpaTTiyos Kai avyypa<l>evs. Keierrinff probably 

6 Trpos Toi/s airaiOevTovs. Sc. Or. VI. f th' 'e e "f r or j 

7 Trpos TOV Kvva 'UpaKXeiTOv, irms Kvviarreov, Sc. Or. VII. 

p 2 



JULIANUS. 



A. D. 
363 



108 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

Fragmentum^. 

M.i(To-n<ay(av ^ 'Airioxuos. Tables p. 455. 

EpistolcB^. 

JoviANUS. JoVIANUS. 

The cause of his death is thus described : Eutropius X. 1 8 Multi exanimatvm opinantur nimia 
omditate : inter coenandum enim epulis indulserat ; alii odore cubiculi, quod ex recenti tectorio calcis 



s Written after he had attempted to rebuild the 
Temple : See the Tables A. D. 363 p. 454. (Add to 
the testimonies there referred to Chrysostom. in 
Matt. 4 p. 47 A in Judseos 5 torn. 1 p. 646 A.) Ad- 
dressed to some one person : p. 298 B C. He vindi- 
cates idolatry : p. 293. declaims against the Hebrew 
prophets : p. 295 C. against the Christians : p. 305 
C D. Priests (that is, heathen priests) are to be 
honoured : p. 297- He thinks p. 292 C that a single 
pair could not have peopled the earth. The Gods are 
omniscient and invisible : p. 299 B. Most of the 
books of the Epicureans and Pyrrhonists were not 
then extant: p. 301 C /iJjre ^EiriKovpfios elaiero) Xoyos 
fiTjTe Uvppavfios. ^bij fiev yap KciKas Troiovvres ot deol Koi 
avr]pr)Ka(Tiv, aare fTriKfiTVfiv Koi to. nXflara tSjv ^i^\ia>v. 
He mentions p. 295 B t6v piyav 'EnTrebonpov. Also 

mentioned by Julian, not, as Petavius p. 1 03 sup- 
poses, in the Caesars, but in the Kpovia. from which 
Suidas 'E/i7re8drt/Aos p. 1221 A preserves a fragment. 
Also given by Suidas 'lovXiavos p. 1777 D. (Julian 
there quotes the Chalcidian lamblichus : fiiKpa npo- 
Tepov Koi 6 KKeivbs ffpTiv ebfi^e koL iepo^avrap 'ldp,^\i)(os' 
whom he also quotes in other passages given in the 
Tables A. D. 312. 3 p. 363.) 

* Heyler has collected 83 epistles, of which 64 are 
contained in Spanheim's edition of the works of Ju- 
lian. All these are given in the following list. 

No 1 p. 372 ed. Spanheim. 

2 p. 373 D Proceresio. 

3 p. 374 C Libanio. Priscus is mentioned. 

4 p. 3/5 A 'AptoTo^ei/fi) (f)i\o<r6(f)a. ' Apiarofievei (jiik, 
Petav. Spanh. 

5 p. 375 D TTieodorCB rfj aldfa-ificoTarr]. 

6 A. D. 362 p. 376 A Ecdicio pf. jEgypti. Tables 
362.4 p. 451. 

7 p. 376 C Artabio. He instructs him to spare 
the Christians. 

8 p. 377 A Georgia. 

9 A. D. 362 p. 377 D Ecdicio pf. jEgypti. Tables 
362 p. 449. 451. 

10 A. D. 362 p. 378 D Alexandrinis. Tables 362 
p. 449. 451. 

1 1 p. 380 D Byzantiis. 

12 p. 381 A Basilio. 

13 A.D. 361 p. 382 B Juliano avunculo. Tables 
361 p. 447. 

14 p. 382 D Libanio. Item No 3. 27. 44. 76. 

15 p. 383 A Maximo philosopho. 

16 p. 383 C Majcimo philosopho . 



17 A. D. 356 p. 384 A Oribasio. Tables 356. 

18 p. 386 B Eugenio philosopho. 

19 p. 387 A Hecebolo. 

20 p. 387 D Eustochio. 

21 A. D. 362 p. 388C Callixena. He appoints 
her priestess at Pessinus. 

22 p. 389 B Leontio. He appoints him one of the 
milites domestici : iyKaTe\e^ap.r)v ae ra tS>v olKficov avV' 
Toyixari. 

23 A. D. 362 p. 389 D Hermogeni ex praef. jE- 
gypti. After the death of Constantius : eKtlvos ^v olos 

rjv — eKeivco fxev ovv. frrddf] fjMKapiTqs iyivero, Koi)(f>7] yjj. 
And before the trial of his minions : eVfiSjj avrots ena- 
viaravrai ttoXXoi Karrjyopoi, 8iKa(TTrjpiov dTroKeKkrjpaTat. 

24 p. 390 B Sarapioni tw XanTrporarco. 

25 A. D. 363 p. 396 D 'lovdaiav tS Koiva. He is 
preparing for the Persian war and for the rebuilding 
of Jerusalem : p. 397 D 398 A. 

26 A. D. 362 p. 398 C Alexandrinis. Tables 362 
p. 451. 

27 A. D. 363 p. 399 B Libanio sophista. Written 
from HierapoUs in A. D. 363 describing his march 
to Persia. 

28 p. 402 C Gregorio riytfiovi. 

29 (A.D. 360) p. 402 D Alypio (ube\(f>a Kaiaapiov.) 
Written by Julian now ^aa-iXfvs, and from Gaul. Be- 
tween the spring A. D. 360 and the autumn A.D. 361 . 

30 p. 403 C Alypio eidem. 

31 A. D. 362 p. 404 C Aetio episcopo. Tables 362 
p. 449. 

32 p. 404 D Luciano sophista. 

33 p. 404 D Dositheo. 

34 p. 405 B lamblicho. Item 40. 41 . 53. 60. 61. 

35 p. 407 C avtiriypa(\)os xmtp 'Apyeiav. After prais- 
ing the Argives, he proceeds to relate that they had 
been oppressed by the Corinthians now for the 7th 
year : p. 408 B. although they were entitled to the 
areXeta on account of the Nemean games, which Del- 
phi and Elis enjoyed on account of the Pythian and 
Olympic, and Corinth itself on account of the Isth- 
mian. He addresses p. 410 A the person who is to 
judge the question, and names p. 410 B Diogenes and 
Lamprias, Argive citizens, who had come forward as 
advocates in this cause. 

36 A. D. 362 p. 41 1 B Porphyria. Tables 362. 4 
p. 451. Conf. Suidam emarokr) p. 1400 C. 

37 p. 412 A Amerio. 

38 A.D. 361 Yt. A\ A A Maximo philosopho. Writ- 
ten soon after the death of Constantius. 



EMPERORS. 



109 



grave quiescmtibus erat : quidam nimietate prunarum quas gram frigore adoleri multas jusserat. Jovianub. 
Ammianus 25. 10, 12. 13 Super cujus ohitu ckibietates emersere complures. Fertur mim recenti calce 
cuMculi ilUtiferre odor em noxium nequivisse^ vel extuherato capite perisse succensione prunarum im- 
mensa, aut certe ex collumone cihorum avida cruditate distentus. Orosius VII. 31 Dum ad Illyricum 
rediens per Galatiam iter agit, cum in cubiculum quoddam novum sese cuhiium recepisset, colore pru- 
narum et nidore parietum nuper calce illitorum adgravatus et suffocatus. Sozomen H. E. VI. 6 6 8e 



39 p. 416 A Maximo philosopho. He sends him 
home on account of ill health. 

40 A. D. 363 p. 41 6 C lamblicho. Tables 363. 3 
p. 457. 

41 p. 420 B lamblicho. " You shall receive the 
orations which 1 lately composed (emyxos), by the 
emperor's command, upon the celebrated bridge over 
the Hellespont." See Heyler p. 367. 

42 p. 422 A Christian professors are forbidden to 
lecture upon Heathen authors. See above p. 105. 

43 p. 424 C an edict confiscating the property of 
the church at Edessa. 

44 p. 425 B Libanio. 

45 A. D. 362 p. 426 A Zenoni medico (see the 
Tables 355, 3 p. 431). He restores Zeno from exile 
to Alexandria after the death of Georgius. 

46 p. 426 D Evagrio. He gives him a farm in 
Bithynia. 

47 p. 428 C Thracibus. He grants them a re- 
mission of taxes. 

48 p. 429 B Zenoni. To whom he addressed 
Ep. 45. 

49 p. 429 C Arsacio pontifici Galatia. Conf. So- 
zom. V. 16. Julian p. 430 D fragm. p. 305 B C testi- 
fies to the charity of the Christians towards the poor. 

50 p. 432 B Ecdicio prcef. jEgypti. De Nilo. 
Written about Oct. A. D. 362. 

51 A. D. 362 p. 432I> Alexandrinis. Tables 362. 4 
p. 453. 

52 A. D. 362 p. 435 D Bostrenis. Tables 362. 4 
p. 449. 

53 p. 438 D lamblicho. Julian is wintering in 
Thrace : ^/xSs fikv iv Opaio] biayeiv fifcrr) Koi rois ivravda 
(Tipois €y)(ei.ijui^(iv. 

54 p. 440 B Georgia KadoXiKw. See No 8. 

55 p. 441 A Eumenio et Phariano. In praise of 
philosophy. Written from Gaul : p. 44 1 C iK^e^ap- 
^apcofifvoi. The third month of the fourth year since 
he had been separated from them. Perhaps written 
at the end of A. D. 358. 

56 p. 442 A Ecdicio. Conf. N. 6. 9. 50. Con- 
cerning Alexandria. 

57 p. 442 D Elpidio philosopho. Libanius Ep. 33 
p. 15 Juliano (quoted by Heyler) writing to Julian 
in Gaul after the overthrow of Nicomedia in 358 
(Tables A. D. 358. 3) mentions Elpidius : koL yap el 
pearepos 'EXnidiov crv yeyovas, tS>v koKwp rovrav ''EXnidim 
bibda-KoKos ra irpea-^vTepa, t^s firieiKfias, ttjs •npodvp.ias 

TOV TTOieiv fV TOVS (f)lX0VS K. T. X. 



58 p. 443 B Alexandrinis. On an obelisk to be 
removed to CP. After the death of Constantius : 6 
p,aKapiTr)s KcovardvTios. 

59 p. 443 C Dionysio. Given more fully and cor- 
rectly by Heyler p. 11 1 — 121. An invective against 
Diongsius, whom he chastises with an epistle rather 
than by imperial authority : p. 1 20 Heyl. Dionysius 
is now yeptBj/ p. 117. A line of Babrius is quoted 
p. 113. In p. 118 read from Curtius IV. 8, 7 (Treira 
TO. irepl TOV "EKTopa (jo Hapfievitopos naibiop) top ep At- 
yvTTTa — The words to n. tt. are not to be expunged, 
as Heyler p. 456 supposes, but to be transposed. 

60 p. 446 C lamblicho. 

61 A. D. 363 p. 448 D lamblicho. Tables 363. 3 
p. 457. 

62 p. 450 B a fragment. The beginning is want- 
ing. A letter of reproof to some priest. Julian is 
now pout. max. p. 451 B. conf. Misop. p. 362 B Li- 
banium tom. 1 p. 394. 

63 p. 452 A Theodore dpxiepel. He appoints him 
high priest of Asia. Defective at the end. Julian 
attests the firmness of the Jews in adhering to their 
rites: p. 453D. 

64 May 12 A. D. 362 p. 398 B p. 133 Heyler Cod. 
Theod. Vol. 5 p. 29 ad medicos. Tables 362. 2 p. 450. 

65 p. 134 Heyler. ad populum. 

66 p. 134 trpos Ca)ypa(f)op. 
[67] p. 135 Arsaci Armenio. 

68 p. 136 Sosipatro. 

69 A. D. 363 p. 1 37 Philippe. He mentions to 
pxtKapiTT] KcDvoTapria, and the Spring of his own ex- 
pedition (into Persia). 

70 p. 139 Eutherio. Written from CP. 

71 p. 139 TTaTpiapxiJ. 

72 p. 140 Diogeni. 

73 p. 141 Prisco. 
[74] p. 142 Libanio. 

75 p. 143 Euclidi philosopho. 

76 p. 144 Libanio. On his oration vnep 'Apiaro- 
(l)dpovs. See the Tables A. D. 363. 3 p. 453. Conf. 
Libanii Ep. 670 'lovXiava jSao-iXel. 

(77) p. 145 Basilic. ' Conf. n^m. 12. 
[78—82] p. 147. 

83 -p. 1^0 Eustathio philosopho. Conf. Eustathium 
in Hom. II. k p. 800. 9 apud Heyler p. 526. 

Ep. 67. 74. 78 — 82, and perhaps 77, we may 
with Heyler reject as spurious. He has not 
(p. 495) shewn sufl5cient cause for rejecting Ep. 
68—73. 75. 



110 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

JoviANus. lo^iavos a^i(j)l Skt^ fj.rjva^'^ ev t^ ^ao-tXeta biayivonevos aTTLOiv C7ri rrfv KFI. i^anCvris Iv Aabaa-rdvois 
XOipl(a TTjS BiOvvCas Kaff ohov hekevrrjirev, rj atfxibecrrepov^ &s nres A.eyou(ri, 6ei7rr^(ras, rj virb ttjs d6/u% 
Tov oiK^/xaros Ir <p (KdOevbev, da-/3^<rT&) irpO(T<f)6.T(»>s eyxpicrdivros' errtycv^crdat yap UpiAba koI vortcrdrjvaL 
TOWS ToCxovs anirpats. ttoW&v avdpdKa>v avToOi Kacofiivatv, q)s ^v &pq yjniiGtvos, bia ttjv aKiav. 

Ammianus 25. 10, 14 — 16 gives the character of Jovian. 

An inscription is extant apud Muratorium p. 464. 4 Veronae : D. N. Fl. Jomano victori ac tri- 
vmfatori semper Augusto B. JR. P. N. XV. 

Valekti- Valentinianus. 

A native of Cibala : Hieron, Anno 2380 Valentinianus trihunus scutariorum e Pannonia Ciha- 
lensis apud Nicceam Augustus appellatus fratrem Valentem CP. in communionem regni assumit. 
Socrates IV. 1 navvovws fxkv rjv to y^vos, Tro'Afws KiffdXeois. Zosimus III. 36 l/c Ki/3(iXeft)s uippirjTo, 
TTo'At? be avTT] TlaLoviKT^. Libanius torn. 1 p. 665. 4 k^ira^iaddn bi] koX toIv abekcpolvj oXs ttoKis f) 
KCj3akts. 

His character is given by Hieronymus Anno 2381: Valentinianus egregius alias imperator et 
Aureliano morihus similis, nisi quod severitatem ejus nimiam et parcitatem quidam crudelitatem et 
avaritiam interpretahantur. Victor Epit. p. 394 Fuit vultu decens, solers ingenio, animo gravis, ser- 
mone cultissimus. quanquam enim ad loquendum parous., severus^ vehemens, infestus tamen vitiis, maxi- 
meque avaritics ; cujus punitor ipse fuit acer, et in its qu(B memoraturus sum Hadria.no proximus &c. 
Zosimus III. 36 vokeiKav ^erao^ci)!' ovk oXiyutv naibeucreta^ ovbcfxias /utereo-)(rj/cei. Ammianus has the 
following passages : 27. 7> 4 Quanquam Valentinianus, homo propalam ferus, inter imperitandi ex- 
ordia, ut asperitatis opinionem molliret, impetus truces retinere nonnunquam in potestate animi nite- 
hatur, serpens tamen vitium et dilatum aliquamdiu licentius erupit adperniciem plurimorum. 27- 9> 
4. 5 hunc imperatorem omnium primu/m in majus militares fastus ad damna rerum auxisse communium, 
dignitates opesque eorum sublimius erigentem ; et, quod erat publice privatimque dolendum, indeflexa 
scevitia punientem gregariorwm errata, parcentem potioribus. 30. 5, 3 eo more, quo erat severus in 
gregariis corrigendis, remissior erga majores fortunas vel verbis asperioribus incessendas. § 19 Innata 
feritate concitus, ut erat immanis, dexteram stratoris militis jussit abscidi &c.^ Sulpicius Severus 
de Martino II. 6 '^ ad animum illius immitem ac superbum uxor accesserat Ariana. Socrates IV. 1 
speaks favourably : iMcyaXoxj/vxos 6 avrjp, kuI ael rrjs Tiapovcrrjs Tvxjji fieCCtov k^alv^To. The faith of 
the two brothers, the one orthodox the other an Arian, is distinguished by Socrates IV. 1 a/x^w 
ixkv ^crav XpLaTLavol biecfxavovv be irepl ttjv tov XptoTLavirrpLOV TtlaTiv. OvdKevTiviavos pi^v yap Tr]V ttIcttiv 
Tr\s kv NiJcaia (jvvobov iac^ev, OvdXris be r<o ^Apeiavia 8oy/xart €»c irpoXi^^eas pxiXXov Trpoo-exetro. rqv be 
Ttp6\r]\l/iv eTTOiJja-aTO to virb Evbo^Cov tov TrpoecrTaiTos ttjs ev KIT. 'Apeiainji OprjcrKeias ^e^aTiTladai avrov 
Kal Cv^ov iikv etyov &pi<f)(o cnrovbalov irepl h eKacrros eae^e. And by Sozomen VI. 6 6.ix(f)<a Xpioriavcl) 
T^y 0pr](TKeCav eyeveadrjv, 5ta^ojoa> b^ ttjv bo^av fcai tov Tpoirov Ov6Xr]s fxkv yap Ev8o£ift) tw ^TTicrKoiro) 
fjLvarayaiy^ XPTi(T6.p.evos rjvUa ej3aTrrl(r9r} Triv 'Apelov ttlo-tlv eCrjXov, Kal beivbv rp/eiTO /xtj ^id^ecrdai irdirras 
ofiobo^ovs avT(o TToieXv OvaXevTLVLavbs be to. avTa (^povStv rois ev Nifcata avvekdovcri. tovtovs h^v d>(}>4\et 
ToTs bi eT^p<as bo^dCovaiv ovbiv riv(ax\.ei.y. 

V See the Tables A. D. 364 p. 460. x Quoted by Valesius ad Ammianum 27- 7» 3. 

■* Ammianus 29. 3, 2 — 9 gives examples of his Y Socrates IV. 1 also attests the forbearance of 

cruelty. He admits however the useful qualities of Valentinian : tovs fiev olKeiovs avvfKpoTti rots 8c apeiavi- 

Valentinian: 29. A, \ Et hac quidem morum ejus et ^ovaiv ovbapw rjv 6)(kqp6s. And Ammianus 30. 9, .*) 

propositi cruenti sunt documenta verissima. Solertiee Inter religionum diversitates medius stetit, nee quen- 

vero circa rempublicam usquam digredientis neque quam inquietavit neque ut hoc coleretur imperavit out 

eum vel obtrectator pervicax incusabit. And in his illud. Both the brothers had refused to sacrifice in 

character of Valentinian 30. 8, 1 — 9, 6. the reign of Julian: Socrates Ibid. For which Va- 



EMPERORS. 



Ill 



TINMAN us. 



His father Gratian is mentioned by Ammianus 30. 7j 2 Natus apud Cibalas PannonicR oppidum Valen- 
Gratianus major ignohili stirpe cognominatus est a pueritia prima F unarms &c. — Oh ergo validi cor- 
poris rohur et peritiam militum more luctandi notior multis post dignitatem protectoris atque trihuni'- 
cmnes prcefuit rei castrensi per Africam, unde furtorum suspicione contactus digressusque multo postea 
pari potestate Britannum rexit exercitum. Valentinian was born in A. D. 321^; his brother Valens, 
whom he raised to the empire, was about 8 years younger b. His son Gratian, whom he associated 
in 367 '^j was born in A, D. 359 '^ before the elevation of his father. Valentinian married Justina 
the widow oi Magnentius : Zosimus IV. 19 t^s irpoTipov Mayyei^rtw avvo(,Kr](T6.(rr]s. c. 43 'louoriz^a 
MayvevTi(o jxev, w? etprjTai \ioi, Trporepov avvoiKricraa-a, fJL€Ta be Tr}V kKeivov KadaCpeaiv OvakevTLVLav(2 
TO) ^aartXel 8ta KdWovs vTreplBoXriv avvacpOeiaa. his former wife the mother of Gratian being still 
alive <^. 

At the division of the provinces between the two emperors^ in 36'4s the great officers of the 
Empire, named by Ammianus 26. 5, were thus distributed : 



To Valentinian 

Jovinus. per Gallias magister armorum. promoted by Julian. Consul in 307. 

Equitius. Illyriciano prcEponitur exercitui, nondum magister, sed comes. He is consul in 3/4 ; see 

the Tables, and still in lUyricum : Ammian. 29. 6, 3. After the death of Jovian, — obscuris pauco- 

rum susurris nomen prcEstringitur Equitii, scholce primce scutariorum etiam turn tribuni : Ammian. 26. 

1, 4. See an inscription to Equitius in the Tables 370. I . 

Dagalaiphus. promoted by Jovian. Comes domesticorum under Julian in 361: Ammian. 21. 8, 1. 

Consul in 366. 

Mamertinus. praefect of Italy Africa and Illyricum. He had been Comes Largitionum under Julian : 



lentinian lost his command according to Orosius VII. 
32, and was banished according to Sozomen VI. 6, 
who affirms that he was in exile at Melitine in Ar- 
menia at the accession of Jovian. Ambrosius torn. 5 
p. 1 13 B qui militiam sub Juliano et tribunatus honores 
fidei amore contempsit. 

'■ Victor Epit. p. 394 has the same account, and 
adds, eo merito adscitus in militiam usque ad prcefec- 
turce. prcEtoriancE potentiam conscendit. 

a For he died in his 55th year in A. D. 375 : See 
the Tables 375 p. 484. 

b Valens was near 50 at his death in August A. D. 
378: Tables 378 p. 492. which places his birth at 
about A. D. 329. 

cTables A.D. 367. 

<! Tables A. D. 359 p. 442. 

« Valesius ad Ammianum 30. 10, 4 comparing the 
account of Zosimus with reason rejects as fabulous 
the tale of Socrates IV. 31 that Valentinian had two 
wives at the same time. He has another sufficient 
argument against that account in his note upon So- 
crates p. 58. The first wife however of Valentinian 
was still living at the time of the second marriage ; 
for Gratian after the death of his father acted in the 
matter of Doryphorianus matris consilio : Ammianus 
28. 1, 57 Doryphorianum capitis reum trusumque car- 
cere Tulliano matris consilio princeps (Gratianus) ex- 
inde rapuit, &c. But this is explained by Chron. 
Pasch. p. 302 C 303 C which records that Valentinian 



put away his first wife (called Marina in Chron. 
Pasch. but Severa in Socrates) : e^apiaev av-n^v t^s 
TToXewy. and that Gratian after his father's death re- 
called her : Vpan-avos Avyovaros dveKaXeaaTO ttjv olKeiav 
^TjTepa Maplpav ttjv deanoivav. Justina must have been 
very young at the death of her first husband, since 
Valentinian II the son of her second marriage was 
born in A. D. 371 (see the Tables 375 p. 486) 18 
years after the death of Magnentius. She was already 
married to Valentinian in 369 ; for in that year Am- 
mianus 28. 2, 10 mentions her brothers as kinsmen 
of Valentinian : Constantianus tribunus stabuli impetu 
est clandestine exceptus moxque interfectus,Valentiniani 
adfinis, Cerealis et Justina germanus. Cerealis assisted 
at the elevation of Valentinian II in 375 : Cerealis 
avunculus ejus &c. Ammian. 30. 10, 5. 

^ In A. D. 364 both the emperors after their ele- 
vation were seized with fever : Ammian. 26. 4, 4 
Quibus perfectis [the elevation of Valens'] constricti 
rapidis febribus imperatores ambo din, spe vivendi 
jirmata — suspectas morborum causas investigandas 
acerrime Ursacio officioruin magistro DelmatcE crudo, 
et Juventio Sisciano qucestori tunc commiserunt ; ut 
loquebatur pertinax rumor, invidiam denies Juliani 
memoricE principis &c. — Sed hoc evanuit facile, ne 
verbo quidem tenus insidiarum indicia ullo reperto. 
Zosimus IV. I represents Valentinian alone as sick, 
and at Niciea, before the appointment of Valens. 

g Tables 364 p. 462. 



112 



APPENDIX. 



C. 1. 



Valenti- 

MIANUS. 



Ammian. 21. 8, 1. and consul: Tables A. D. 362. where his other offices under Julian are men- 
tioned. 

Germanianus. pra/ectus Galliarum. Appointed by Julian in 361 to the post of Nebridius : Ammian. 
21. 8, 1. (De Nebridio Ammianus 21. 5, 11.) 

To Valens 

Secundus Sallustius. preef. Orientis. He held this office under Julian : Ammianus 25. 3, 14. and 
•was offered the empire on the death of Julian : Ammian. 25. 5, 3 Itum est voluntate omnium in Sal- 
lustium : eoque causante morbos et senectutem &c. A different person from Sallustius who was prof. 
Galliarum in 361: Ammian. 21. 8, 1. and consul in 363: Tables A, D. 363. The praefect of the 
East is called Secundus Sallustius by Ammianus 22. 3, 1 . and is employed by Julian at Chalcedon in 
December A. D. 361 : Ammianus Ibid.^ 

Victor. A general under Julian: Ammian. 24. 1, 2 Zosim. III. 11, 6, 13, 6. 21, 7- Promoted 
by Jovian. Consul in 369. A native of CP. : Themist. Or. IX p. 128 D fyKaWamia-aa-Ocu -rfi irarpibi. 
ArintJueus. One of the generals of Julian in the Persian war : Ammian. 24. 1, 2. Consul in 372. 
Lupicinus. Served under the Ccesar Julian in Gaul in 359 : Ammian. 18. 2, 7- Sent into Britain in 
360 : Idem 20. 1, 2. Consul in 36/. Lupicinus is mentioned by Libanius de vita sua tom. 1 p. 108. 
Conf. Valesium ad Ammian. 26. 8, 4. 

Serenianus. Sociatus Valenti domesticorum preefecit Schola. His death and character are in Ammianus 
26. 10, 1. 2.i 



^ The two Sallustii are distinguished by Ammia- 
nus 23. 5, 4 — 6 Julianus dum moratur apud Cercusium 
[in April A. D. 363 : Tables 363 p. 456]— literas 
tristes Sallustii Galliarum prafecti suscepit orantis 
suspendi expeditionem in Parthos — Posthabito tamen 
suasore cautissimo, fidentius ultra tendehat. — Hie quo- 
que omen illtetabile visum est, adparitoris cujusdam 
cadaver extentum, carnijicis manu deleti, quern prafec- 
tus Sallustius prcesens — damnarat. And by Suidas 
p. 3246 D ort SaXovoTtof, 6 r^s avXrjs (irapxos tnl 'lov- 
\iavov, dvfip rjv 8ia(f)€p6vrcas irfpiTTos els (f)iXavdpamiav. 
cryf rocrcwTov fjfjLfpoTrjTOs Koi TTpaoTrp-os VTnjpxfv els airav- 
ras &(TT€ Koi tov MdpKfXXop tKtlvov top, fjvuca rjv Kalaap, 
v^piOTiKcis avra ;)^pjj<ra/iei'oi', k. t. A. from Eunapius : 
conf. Vales, ad Ammian. 22. 11,2. who corrects 
the error of Suidas : Idem p. 3247 B ^dkovarios eirap- 
Xos -npaiTOpiav, 6s irpoe^oKeTO ^aa-iXfa BdKfVTiPiavov. 
The first Sallustius, the praefect of Gaul, is referred 
to by Libanius by the name of Phoenix. See the 
Tables A. D. 357- 3 p. 439. Improperly understood 
by Valesius ad Ammian. 25. 5, 3 of the praefect of 
the East. Valesius 1. c. rightly however refers to the 
praefect of the East Greg. Naz. in Julianum I p. 
125 B <j)a(Ti TOi bia ravra koi top TrfPixavra virapxop 
{ytPicrSai yap apbpa "EXXjjva pAp ttjp 6p7]<rK(iap, top Tpo- 
7T0P §€ inrep "EXXiji/a Koi Kara tovs dpiarovs tcop nakai Koi 
pvp (naipovpfpap) , tKflpo wpos top ^curiKta ptTo. Trapptfcrias 
flnt'ip K.T.X. Explained by Socrates III. 19 (2aXou- 
oTj'o) Tw endpxa) and Sozomen V. 20 (SaXovcmos 6 r^i/ 
vnapxpp f^ovalap fTriTtrpafifjifPos) to be Sallustius. They 
speak of Julian at Antioch in A. D. 364. The two 
Sallustii are confounded by Wolf ad Libanii Ep. 1 148 
p. 550. and by Valesius himself ad Ammianum 26. 
7, 4. whom Reitemeier follows ad Zosimum p. 580. 



The praefect of the East was removed in 365 : Am- 
mian. 26. 7. 4 Nebridius in locum Sallustii preef. preet. 
factione Petronii recens promotus. Conf. Zosim. IV. 
6, 2. And appointed by Valens a second time : Zo- 
simus IV. 10, 6 imapxov ttjs avXrjs Av^opiop aTreSfiKPV, 
'SaXovoTiov TavTTjs 8ia t6 yrjpas dcfifls, rjSrj devTepop tuvttjp 
pfToxfipio'dpfvop TTjP dpxr]p. Conf. Eunapium V. S. p. 
61 = 109. ubi SoXour/w et 'E^dwov. He was dismissed 
from his second praefecture in A. D. 367- An in- 
scription apud Gruter. p. 465. 8 is assigned to Sal- 
lustius praefect of the East by Pagi Vol. 1 p. 503 
Tillemont tom. 4 p. 697 and by Wernsdorf Hiraerio 
p. 12. Saturnio Secundo V. C. prcesidi provincice Aqui- 
tanicce magistro memorice comiti ordinis primi procon- 
suli Africa, item comiti ordinis primi intra consisto- 
rium et qucestori, prcef. preetorio iterum, ob egregia 
ejus in rempublicam merita DD. NN. Valentinianus et 
Valens victores ac triumfatores semper Augusti statuam 
sub auro constitui locarique jusserunt. Secundus prof, 
prcet. appears in Cod. Theod. within the years 362 — 
365. He assisted at the election of Valentinian : 

Philostorg. VIII. 8 p. 513 C avPf(f)a^ap€Pov TTJ TTpd^fi 
SeKowSou T6 TOV endpxov Koi 'ApipOaiov tov oTparrjyov koi 
Aayd\at<f)ov tup bopfariKup ovtos fyyeiro. The same 
person as the Secundus of Gruter. But if Satumius 
Secundus was no other than Sallust, it is remarkable 
that the name Sallustius should not appear in that 
inscription. 

' Zosiraus IV. 2, .'> ol pip ovv aXXoi irdpTts oaoi napa 
'lovXiopov Btoucfiarfis i6pS>v fj aK\ai dpxas trvxov eniTf- 
Tpapptpoi irapikvopTo tovtcdp' iv ois Koi 2aXov<mos 6 ttjs 
avXrjs vTrapxos rjp- p6pov Be 'ApipOaiov Koi Biicrapos ais 
eixop npirrepov arpaTKOTiKols dpxais fuipeipavrav fjyepo- 
pims, irap^evap em rag dpxas, its ervxov, oi tovtcup fVi- 



EMPERORS. 113 

Inscriptions. 1 Gruter p. 28.5. 6 Romae : Victoriis triumfisque magnifico D. N. Valentinia7io in- Valenti- 
clyto principi semper Aug. Rufius Volusianus V. C. prcef. Urh. iterwni judex sacrarum cognitionum 
clmnentice ejus dedicatus. 2 Gruter p. 285. 7 Romse : Piissimo felicissimoq. principi Valentiniano 
invictissimo semper Aug. 3 Murat. p. 264. 2 Asculi : Propagatori Romani imperii D. N. Fl. Va- 
lentiniano Aug. semper victori ordo devotus M. ... Mes. P. G. Auc D. D. 4 Murat. p. 78. 4 

Puteolis in basi : Felicitati perpetuce temporis D. Valentiniani victoris ac triumfatoris semper Aug. 
Avinius Valentinus V. C. co?zs. Camp, devotus numinis majes. que ejus. 5 Gruter p. 1086. 9 Legum 
domino Romanarum justitice cequitatisque rectori, domitori gentium harhararum conservatori lihertatis 
D. N. Fl. Valentiniano 'fortissimo invictissimoque principi semper Augusto Fl. Maximus V. P. prcef 
Vig.^ D. N. M. Q. ejus. 6 Oorsini prsef. Urb. p. 229 ex Gudii marmore : DB. NN. Valentinianus 
et Valens Augusti ornatui publico constitui locarique jusserunt, administrante Rujio Volusiano V. C. 
exprcef. proBt. prcef. UrU jud. iterum scm. cog. 7 Gruter p. 285. 10 DD. NN. Fl. Valentinia7io 
et Fl. Valenti dimnis fratrihus semper Augg. 8 Muratori p. 264. 7 Augustae Taurinorum: Valen- 
tiniano et Fl. Valenti felicissimis Augg. 9 Gruter p. 1086. 8 Muratori p. 264. 4 circa Brixiam in 
columna : DD. NN. Flavio Valentiniano et Flavio Valenti divinis fratrihus semper Augustis dewta 
Venetia conlocavit DDD. NNN. Valentiniano Valenti et Gratiano perpetuis piis felicibus semper Au- 
gustis. 10 Muratori p. 265. 1 In Lavarete urbis Aquilanse : L. XXXIII. DDD. NNN. Flaviis 
Valentiniano Valenti et Gratiano piis felicihus ac triumphatorihus semper Auggg. bono R. P. natis. 
11 Murat. p. 265. 2 Reate : DDD. NNN.FFF. LLL. Valentiniano Valenti et Gratiano piis feli- 
cibus ac triumpliatoribus semper Auggg. bono R. natis. votis X multis XX. 12 Murat. p. 264. 8 
Roraae in foro Palatino : Forum populo Romano domini et principes nostri Valentinianus et Valens 
et curante Flavio Eupraxio V. C. 

Laws of A. D. 364, bearing divo Joviano et Varroniano coss) 

Cod. Theod. Vol. 4 p. 102 Impp. Valentinianus et Valens AA. ad Volusianum p.U. Dat. VI Id. 
April. Vol. 5 p. 238 Jovio p.U. Dat. VI Kal. [lege VI Id.] April. Vol. 2 p. 636 ad Jovinum 
p.U. Dat. Ill Id. April. CP. Vol. 5 p. 8 Secundo pfp. Dat. XV Kal. Maii CP. Vol. 2 p. 307 
ad Symmaclium p.U. Dat. X Kal. Maii Antiochice™. Vol. 3 p. 415 ad Mamertinum p.p. Dat. X 
Kal. Maii Sirmio. Vol. 4 p. 148 ad Mamertinum pfp. Dat. VI Kal. Maii. Vol. 2 p. 276 1. 5 de 
re militari. Dat. Ill Kal. Maii Hadrianopoli. 

Vol. 4 p. 403 ad Mamertinum pf. p. Dat. Non. Maii. Vol. 2 p. 488 Vol. 4 p. 404 ad Mamerti- 
num p.p. Dat. Ill Id. Maii Hadrianopoli. Vol. 4 p. 73 ad Dracontium vie. Afr'ic. Dat. Ill Id. 
Maii Hadrianop. Ace. VIII Kal. Oct. Kartli. Vol. 5 p. 67 ad Ampelium proc. Afric. Dat. Ill 
Id. Mart, [lege Maii cum Gothofredo] Hadrianop. Vol. 2 p. 531 ad Mamertinum pfp. Dat. Ill 
Id. Maii. Vol. 2 p. 532 ad Symmachum p. U. Dat. IX Kal. Jul. [Jun. Gothofr.] Philippopolim. 
Vol. 5 p. 287 Cod. Just. VIII. ]2,5 ad Symmachum pf U. Dat. VIII Kal. Jun. Philippis. V. 13, 
14 p. 302 Wenck. Cod. Just. XI. 58. 3 ad Mamertinum pfp. Dat. VII Kal. Jun. Cod. Theod. 
Vol. 2 p. 310 ad Victorem mag. mil. Dat. VI Kal. Jan. \Jun. Gothofredus] Bonamansione^\ Vol. 5 
p. 146 ad Symmachum p.U. Dat. Kal. Jan. [dat. -h- Kal. Jun. Gothofr.] Bonamansione pp. in foro 
Trajani. Vol. 4 p. 587 <«^ Mamertinum pfp. Dat. Ill Kal. Jun. Serdicce. 

Bvnovvres rvxeiv. TiUemont tom. 5 p. 21 observes semper Augusto Flavius Maximus V. P. prcef. Vig. 

that this account is not accurate. In the preceding D. N. M. Q. ejus. 
list given by Ammianus are many who had held 1 See the Tables 364 col. 1. 

command under Julian. m Gothofredus p. lxviii understands an island 

^ The same Mammus is in an inscription of Gra- Antiochia near Constantinople. 

tian: Gruter p. 108(5. 10 Romae : libertatis ^ " A station between Philippopohs and Serdica:" 

D. N. Fl. Gratiano fortissimo invictissimoque principi Gothofred. 



114 APPENDIX. C.l. 

Valenti- Vol. 5 p. 15.S ad Symmachum p.U. Dot. IV Non. Jun. Naisso. Vol. 5 p. 154 ad Symmachum 
ff. Urb. Dat. VIII Id. Jun. Naisso. I. 6, 2 p. 34 Wenck. ad Symmachum pf. U. Dot. VI Id. Jun. 
Mediolani". Gothofred. Vol. 5 p. 186 Vol. 5 p. 261 Vol. 5 p. 288 ad Symmachum p.U. Dat. VI 
Id. Jun. Naisso. Vol. 5 p. 154 a«? Symmachum p.U. Dat. VI Id. Jan. [Jun. Gothofred.] Naisso. 
Vol. 5 p. 155 ad Symmachum p.U. Dat. VI Id. Jan. [Jun. Gothofr.] Naisso. Vol. 5 p. 226 ad 
Symtnachum p. U. Dat. VI Id. Jul. [Jun. Gothofr.] Naisso. Vol. 3 p. 297 (^ Symmachum p^ U. 
Dat. V Id. Jun. Naisso. Vol. 3 p. 298 Anthemio. Dat. Ill Id. Jun. Naisso. Vol. 5 p. 32 ad 
Mameriinumpf.p. Dat. Ill Id. Jan. [Jwn. Gothofr.] Vol. 4 p. 16 ad Symmachum p.U. Dat. Id. 
Jun. Naisso. Vol. 5 p. 289 Tauromedi duci Da^ce ripensis. Dat. XIII Kal. Jul. Med. 

Vol. I p. 132 AmpelicB. Dat. Ill Non. Jul. Sirmio. V. 13, 15 p. 303 Wenck. ad Mamsrtinum 
p/.p. Dat. IV Kal. Aug. Sirmio. 

Cod. Just. X. 26, 2 Anthemio prcesidi. Dat. VII Kal. Sept. Arelati. Cod. Theod. Vol. 4 p. 603 
ad Mamertinum pf.p. Dat. V Kal. Sq>t. Em^nee. Vol. 2 p. 133 1. 2 de domesticis. ad Severum 
comitem domesticorum. Dat. IV Kal. Sept. Vol. 2 p. 133 1. 3 de domesticis. ad Severum comitem 
dom^sticorum. Dat. XII II [lege ////] Kal. Sept. Med. [dele Med.] P. 

Vol. 4 p. 587 «o? Mamertinum pf.p. Dat. VII Id. Sept. Aquil. Vol. 5 p. 10 ac? Florentium com. 
S. L. Dat. VI Id. Sept. Vol. 3 p. 126 ad Secundum p.p. Dat. V Id. Sept. Vol. 4 p. 405 Vol, 6 
p. 45 ad Byzacenos. Dat. IV Id. Sept. Aquil. V. 13, 16 p. 304 Wenck. ad provindales Byzacmos. 
Dat. prid. Id. Sept. Aquileia. Gothofred. Vol. 3 p. 437 Vol. 4 p. 406 ad Byzacenos. Dat. prid. Id. 
Sept. Aquil. Vol. 2 p. 533 ad Florianum comitem B. P. Dat. prid. Id. Sept. Vol. 4 p. 252 ad 
Dracontium vie. Afric. Dat. prid. Id. Sept. Aquil. Ace. XVIII Kal. Dec. Tacapis. Vol. 4 p. 144 
provincialibus Byzacenis. Dat. Id. Sept. Aquil. Vol. 2 p. 240 Have, Anthemi, karissime nobis. Dat. 
XIII Kal. Oct. Aquileia. Vol. 2 p. 479 ad Artemiwm correctorem. Dat. XIII Kal. Oct. Aquil. 
Ace. XV Kal. Nov. Salemi. Vol. 2 p. 533 ad Artemium. Dat. Ill Kal. Oct. Aquileice. Vol. 3 
p. 224 ad Mamertinum p.p. Dat. prid. Kal. Oct. Altino. 

I. 16, 9 p. 81 Wenck. Gothofred. Vol. 1 p. 43 Have Anthemi carissime nobis. Dat. Kal. Oct. 
Aquileice. Vol. 3 p. 226 Vol. 5 p. 419 ad Buleforum cons. Gampanice. Dat. Ill Non. Oct. Altino. 
Vol.4 p. 304 Vol. 5 p. 260 ad Symmxichum p.U. Dat. VIII Id. Oct. Altino. ace. XVI Kal. Nov. 
Vol. 5 p. 155 ad Viventium p.U. Dat. VIII Id. Oct. Altino. Vol. 3 p. 298 Artemio. Dat. VIII 
Id. Oct. Altino. Vol. 4 p. 281 ad Mamertinum pf.p. Dat. Id. Oct. Veronce. V. 13, 17 p- 304 
Wenck. ad Mamertinum pf.p. Dat. et pp. Romce'^ VI Kal. Nov. Gothofred. Vol. 4 p. 407 ^^ 
Terentium corr. Tusc. Dat. V Kal. Nov. 

Vol. 3 p. 384 ad Ccesarium com. B. P. Dat. pridie Non. Feb. Med. Vol. 4 p. 252 Vol. 4 p. 303 
Salutem dicunt ordini civitatis Karthaginis. Dat. prid. Non. Febr. Med. In all these Gothofred. 
reads jprwi^. Non. Nov. conf. Vol. 3 p. 386. Vol. 2 p. 430 ad universos provinciales. Dat. XV Kal. 
Dec. Bom.^ Vol. 3 p. 332 ad Symmachum p. U. Dat. VII Kal. Dec. Mediol. 

Vol. 1 p. 147 II. 12, 2 p. 1 18 Wenck. Sallustio p.p. pp. VI Id. Dec. Gothofred. Vol. 4 p. 408 
ad Symmachum p.U. Dat. IV Id. Dec. Mediol. Vol. 2 p. 308 ad Mamsrtinum p.p. Dat. Idibus 
Decembr. Triv.^ Vol. 2 p. 603 ad Eugrammimum. Dat. XVII Kal. Jan. CP. V. 14, 3 p. 326 

o Read Med. as below XIII Kal. Jul. Med. that mesticis p. 135. 

is, MedianoE, mentioned by Ammianus quoted in the <1 See below, note r. 

Tables A. D. 364 p. 462. Valentinian is at Naissus r Perhaps pp. XV Kal. Dec. Roma, as in Wenck. 

June 8 and 19. p. 305 at Oct. 27 Bat. et pp. Roma, where we may 

P At this date, Aug. 19 or 29, Valentinian had left read Bat. Med. pp. Roma. 

Mediana, and had not yet arrived at Mediolanum. s Gothofr. Vol. 1 p. lxxi observes " Vitium in 

Perhaps for Med. we may read Emon. from whence die." The fault is in the place ; as Gothofr. himself 

he dates Aug. 28. Med. is probably derived by the admits Vol. 2 p. 308, and proposes Trid. sc. Tri- 

transcriber from Med. which occurs in 1. 4 de do- denti. 



TINIANUS. 



EMPERORS. Ill 

Wenck. ad Mamertinum pf.p. Dat. X Kal. Januar. Mediolani divo Jovi Gothofred. Vol. 4 Valek 

p. 589 Victori duci u^gypti. Dat. V Kal. Januar. Vol. 1 p. 79 II. 1,4 Cod. Ambros. apud Wenck 
p. 90 ad Terentium correctorem TuscicB. Dat. Kal. Januar. Mediolani divo Joviano &c. Lege Dat. 
^ Kal. Januar. Sc. Dec. A. D. 364 1. 

In the following the date requires correction : Vol. 2 p. 530 1. 17 de cursu publico. Impp. Va- 
lentinianus et Valens A A. ad Menandrum. Dat.prid. Idih. Mart. Med. divo Joviano et Varroniano 
coss. Ab Valens was not yet emperor, and Valentinian was at Nicomedia, on the 14th of March, 
we may read Imp. Valentinianus A. — Dat. prid. Id. Mart. Nicomed." Vol. 2 p. 247 Cod. Just. 
XII. 32, 1 ad Mamertinum pf.p. Dat. prid. Kal. Novemb. Philippopoli. Valentinian is now in 
Italy. "Wherefore Gothofred substitutes prid. Kal. Jun. Vol. 5 p. 239 ad Mamertinum pf.p. 
Dat. V Id. Decemb. Naissi. Here for the same reason Gothofred. suggests V Id. Jun. at which 
date Valentinian is at Naissus. I. 6, 3 p. 34 Wenck. Severo vicario urhis. Dat. VI Kal. Jul. Con- 
stantinopoli. Valens did not reach CP. again till towards the end of the year. See the Tables 364 
p. 462. We may therefore read VI Kal. Jan. sc. Dec. 27 A. D. 364. 

Laws of A. D. 365, Valentiniano et Valente AA. coss. Cod. Theod. Vol. 5 p. 292 ad Mamerti- 
num pf.p. Dat. Kal. Januar. Med. Vol. 5 p. 68 Vol. 5 p. 93^ ad Bymmaclium p. U. Dat. Ill Id. 
Jan. Med. Vol. 2 p. 603 provincialihus salutem dicunt. Dat. Ill Id. Jan. Med. Vol. 5 p. 157 

Vol. 3 p. 299 ad Symmachum p. U. Dat. XVIII Kal. Feb. Mediol. V. 15, I p. 334 Wenck 

Dat. XVII Kal. Fehr. . . diolani Valentiniano et Valente A A. coss. Gothofr. Vol. 3 p. 28 Valen- 
tino consular. Piceni. Dat. XI Kal. Feb. Med. I. 15, 5 p. GG Wenck. ad Dracontium vicarium 
Africce. Dat. VIII Kal. Feb. Mediolani. V. 1 1, 1 p. 298 Gothofred. Vol. 1 p. 460 ad Clearchum 
vie. A'sicB. Dat. VI Kal. Feb. Vol. 2 p. 578 Cod. Just. XII. 53, 1 Mamertino pf.p. Dat. Ill Kal. 
Feb. Mediol. Vol. 4 p. 419 ac? Mamertinum pf.p. Dat. Ill Kal. Febr. 

Vol. 3 p. 437 ci'd provinciales Afros. Dat. prid. Non. Feb. Med. Vol. 1 p. 129 Pompeio Favonio. 
Dat. VIII Id. Febr. alleg. Kal. Apr. in basilica thermarum Com.^ ipsis AA. coss. Vol. 5 p. 293 ad 
Dracontium. Dat. XIV Kal. Mart. Med. Vol. 4 p. 281 ad Symmachum p.U. Dat. XIV Kal. 
Mart. Med. Vol. 3 p. 243 Cod. Just. IX. 36, 1 edictum. Dat. XIV Kal. Mart. CP. Cod. Theod. 
Vol. 2 p. 466 ad Clearchum. Dat. XIV Kal. Mart. CP. Vol. 2 p. 534 ad Volusianum p. U. Pro- 
lata litteris sub die XII Kal. Mart. Bom. accepta IV Kal. April. Venabri consulatu Valentiniani et 
Valentis A A. Vol. 4 p. 98 ad Florentium com. S. L. Dat. X Kal. Mart. Medy 

Vol. 3 p. 386 ad Symmaclium p.U. Dat. VII Id. Mart. Med. Vol. 2 p. 535 Mamertino pf.p- 
Dat. VI Id. Mart. Mediol. I. 6, 4 p. 34 Wenck. ad Symmachum pfU. Dat. VI Id. Mart. Go- 
thofred. Vol. 5 p. 293 ad Mamertinum pf.p. Dat. Id. Mart. Senigalia. Vol.4 p. 123 Secundo pf.p. 
Dat. XIV Kal. Jpril. CP. Vol. I p. 129 Mamertino p.p. Dat. XII Kal. April, ipsis A A. coss. 
Vol. 2 p. 537 fid Buleforum consularem Campani(s. Dat. IX Kal. April. Med. Ibid, et Cod. Just. 
XII. 51, 5 ad Bymmachum correctorem Lucanice^. Dat. VIII Kal. April. Med. Cod. Theod. Vol. 2 
p. 404 edicta duo per Italiam et Alpes. Dat. VII Kal. April. Mediolani. Vol. 2 p. 490 ad Dracon- 
tium vicarium Africce. Dat. Ill Kal. April. Med. 

t In Gothofred. 1. c. the various readings are Kal. Commodianarum. 

Julii. Id. Jun. and Kal. Decemb. Med. proving an y Two laws ascribed to Feb. and March 365 may 

error in the date, which may be in part restored be transferred to 368: V. 13, 18 p. 305 Wenck. ad 

from Cod. Ambros. Florianum comitem. Dat. IV Kal. Mart. Treviris. Va- 

V Gothofredus Vol. 1 p. lxviii suggests either Ni- lentiniano et Valente A A. coss. Gothofred. Vol. 4 
corned, or prid. Id. Mali. But as Valentinian was at p. 17 ad Mamertinum pf. p. Dat. prid. Non. Mar. Trev. 
Hadrianople on May 14, the former correction is to Valentiniano et Valente AA. coss. Read in both Fa- 
be preferred. ' lentiniano et Valente II A A. coss. sc. A. D. 368, 

^ In p. 93 Id. Jun. read Id. Jan. when Valentinian was in Treviris. 

^ Id est. Allegata Kal. Apr. in basilica thermarum z Lucanice et Britiiorum Cod. Just. 

Q 2 



TINIANUS. 



116 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

Valen- I. 6, 5 p. 35 Wenck. Cod. Just. I. 28, 1 ad Volmianum pf. U. Dot. II Non. April. Mediolani. 
Cod. Theod. Vol. 5 p. 241 ad Maximum pf. annonce. pp. pridie Non. April, p. 242 ad Mamerti- 
num p/.p. pp. prid. Non. April. Vol. 2 p. 444 ad Fetronium pairicium. pp. Beryti Idih. April. 
Vol, 2 p. 335 ad Mamertinum p.p. Dat. XIV Kal. Maii Mediolani. Vol. 2 p. 538 ad Mamertinum 
p.p. Dat. VI Kal. Maii. Vol. 1 p. 130 ad Valentinianum consularem Piceni. Alleg. Ill I Kal. 
Maii Flavia Fenestri in secretario^ ipsis A A. coss. 

Vol. 3 p. 228 ad Valentinum cons. Ficmi. Bat XVII Kal. Jan. [lege cum Gothofr. Jwn.'\ Med. 
Vol. 4 p. 19 a<^ Dracmtivm vie. Afric. Dat. XVI Kal. Jun. Med. Vol. 4 p. 305 ad Symm,achv/ni 
p. U. Dat. XIII Kal. Jan. [Jun. Gothofr.] Med. Vol. 4 p. 74 ad Florianvm c&m. B. F. Dat. VIII 
Kal. Jun. Med. Vol. 2 p. 468 Jovio ma^istro equitwm. Dat. VIII Kal. Jun. Med. III. H, 1 
p. 180 Wenck. ad Theodosium magistrum equitum^. Dat. V Kal. Jun. Vol. 4 p. 415 ad Terentiwn 
corr. Tmc. Dat. V Kal. Jun. Med. Vol. 2 p. 538 ad Fortunatum consularem Fannonice secu/ndce. 
Dat. VKal. Jun. Med. Vol. 2 p. 278 Jovio magistro equitum etpeditum. Dat. prid. Kal. Jun. Med, 

Vol. 5 p. 68 ad S^mmachum p. U. Dat. Ill Id. Jun. Med. [p. 68 male /«».] Vol. 4 p. 20 cw? 
Dracontium vie. Afric. Dat. XV Kal. Jul. Med. Vol. 4 p. 538 ad Mamertinum pf. p. Dat. XIV 
Kal. Jul. Vol. 3 p. 507 «<^ Germanum consularem. Dat. IV Kal. Jul. Med. Vol. 2 p. 56 ad Vo- 
lusianum p.U. Med. ... IV Kal. Jul. CF. [dele GF.] Vol. 4 ip. 417 ad Volusianum p.U. Dat. IV 
Kal. Jul. Mediol. 

Vol. 4 p. 539 ad Secundum pfp. Dat. IV Non. Jul. Ccesarea. Vol. 4 p. 540 ad Mamertinwm 
pf.p. Dat. XV Kal. Aug. Vol. 1 p. 372 Felici cons. Campanice. Dat. XIIII Kal. Aug. Mediolani 
ipsis AA. coss. Vol. 3 p. 407 <^d Severum vie. Urh. Dat. XI Kal. Aug. Med. Cod. Just. VII. 
39, 2 ad Volusianum pf U. Dat. VIII Kal. Aug. Cod. Theod. V. 3, 19 p. 306 Wenck. ad Germa- 
nianum com. S. L. Dat. V Kal. Aug. Gothofred. Vol. 4 p. 543 Cod. Just. X. 70, 2 ad Secundum 
pfp. Dat. Ill Kal. Aug. GF. Vol. 1 p. 132 ^lice Bavonice. Dat. Ill Kal. Aug. Mediolani ipsis 
A A. coss. Vol. 4 p. 21 ad Faventium vie. Ital. Dat. prid. Kal. Aug. Med. 

Vol. 4 p. 540 ad Mamertinum pfp. Dat }^ prid. Non. Aug. Sirmio. V. 15, 2 p. 334 Wenck. ad 
Rufinwm pf.p. Dat. VIII Id. Aug. Mediolani. Gothofr. Vol. 5 p. 187 «<^ Volusianum V. G. vie. 
Dat. VIII Id. Aug. Med. Vol. 4 p. 48 ad Symmachum p. U. pp. pridie Idus Aug. Vol. 4 p. 543 
ad Dracontium, vie. Afric. Ace. prid. Kal. Sept. Constantince. 

Vol. 4 p. 287 ad Volusianum p.U. Dat. Ill Non. Sept. Med. I. 16, 10 p. 81 Wenck. Gothofr. 
Vol. 1 p. 45 ad Valerianum viearium Hispaniarum. FrcBlata VII Id. Sept. Veronce. Vol. 3 p. 37 
ad Valerianum vie. Uispanice. Frcslata Uteris V. C. vicarii VI Id. Sept. Veronce. Cod. Justin. I. 
19, 5 ad Volusianum pf.p. Dat. [lege/)/?.] XV Kal. Oct. BomoB. Cod. Theod. I. 6, 6 p. 35 Wenck. 
ad Frceteoetatum p.p. Dat. XII Kal. Oct. Novamansione. Gothofred. Vol. 2 p. 340 ad Rufinwm 
pf.p. Dat. Vim Kal. Oct. Lucerice. Vol. 2 p. 280 ad Equitium comitem et magistrum militum. 
Dai. [sc. reddita. Gothofr.] VIII Kal. Oct. Heraclece. Cod. Justin. X I. 6 1 , 3 ad Germanianum 
com. S. L. Dat. VIII Kal. Oct. Mediolani. 

Vol. 2 p. 31 1 ad populum. Dat. Kal. Oct. Aquil. Vol. 4 p. 417 ac? Severum p.U. ^ Dat. prid. Non. 
Oct. Veronce. Vol. 4 p. 418 ad Auxonium vie. dioeceseos Asiance. Dat. prid. Non. Oct. Vol. 5 p. 294 
ad Valentinicmvm cons. Ficeni. Dat. prid. Non. Oct. Vol. 4 p. 49 ad Symmachum p. U. Dat. X 
Kal. Nov. Med. Vol. 4 p. 544 Cod. Justin. X. 70, 3 ad Mamertinum pf.p. Dat.^ prid. Kal. 
Nov. Romce. 

^ 1. 1 de nuptiis gentilium. Nulli provincialium, cu- suspecium vel noxium detegitur), capitaliter expietur. 
juscunque or dints aut loci fuerit, cum barbara sit uxore ^ " Dat. pro reddita." Gothofred. We may read 

conjugium, nee ulli gentilium provincialis femina copu- pp. prid. &c. 

letur. Quodsi quae inter provinciales atque gentiles c Vic. Urbis : Gothofr. See above at XI Kal. Aug. 

affinitates ex hujusmodi nuptiis exstiterint (quod in iis ^ Lege pp. prid. &c. Conf. Gothofredum. 



riNIANUS. 



EMPERORS. 117 

Vol. 3 p. 387 ad Dracontium vie. Africce. Dot. [sc. reddita] XV Kal. Dec. Adrumeto. Vol. 3 Valkn 
p. 83 ad senatum. Dat. prid. Kal. Dec. 

Vol. 1 p. 80 II. 1, 5 p. 90 Wenck. ad Felicem vicarimn Macedoni(S. Dat. Kal. Dec. Gothofred. 
Vol. 2 p. 31 1 Secundo p.p. Ace. Kal. Dec. Calcedone. Vol. 3 p. 491 ad Cresconium. com. metallorum. 
Dat. IV Id. Dec. Farisis. Vol. 2 p. 469 ad Uufinump.p. Dat. prid. Id. Dec. Parisis. Cod. Just. 

I. 55, 1 Seneccs defensori. Dat. XV Kal. Janwar. Terici. 
A. D. 36'8. To the three laws inserted in the Tables add the following: Cod. Just. II. 6", G 

repeated by Wenck. p. 115 Cod. Theod. II. 10, 5 Olyhrio pf.U. pp. X Kal. Sept. Valentirdano et 
Valente A A. II conss. A fragment of this law is extant in Gothofred. Vol. 1 p. 140 dated thus : 
accepta XII Kal. Sept. ipsis AA. coss. And Gothofr. Vol. 1 p. lxxxiii observes that Cod. Just. 

II. 6, (> has also ipsis AA. conss. sc. A. D. 36'5, " non adsignato consulatus numero." Beck ad 
Cod. Just. p. 203 has not noticed this. The law however is determined to A. D. 368 by the prse- 
fecture of Oli/hrius. 

A. D. 369. To the laws in the Tables p. 473 may be added Cod. Theod. Vol. 4 p. 549 Probo 
p-P'Pp. VII Id. Jan. SabaricB Valentiniano et Victors coss. Vol. 5 p. 33 ad Probum p/.p- Dat. 
XIV Kal. Feb. Sirmio Valentiniano NB. P. et Victore coss. Vol. 5 p. 196 ad Olybrium p.U. Dat. 
V Kal. Febr. Triv. Vol. 2 p, 603 ad Mamertinum pf.p. Missa a p.p. o. die Id. Febr. Med. Vol. 3 
p. 424 ad Florentinum com. B. P. Dat. IV Kal. Aprilis. Vol. 5 p. 10 ad Probum p/.p. pp. Kar- 
thagine Kal. April. Vol. 3 p. 493 Fortunatiano com. B. P. Dat. prid. Kal. Maii Antiochice. Cod. 
Just. III. 12, 5 ad Olybrium pf.U. Dat. IV Ron. Maii Tiberiade. Cod. Theod. Vol. 2 p. 579 ad 
Viventium p.p.o. Dat. XVI Kal. Jun. Complati. Vol. 3 p. 494 ad Probum pf.p. Dat. prid. Non. 
Jun. Martiatici. Vol, 2 p. 447 ad Probum pf.p. Dat. VII Id. Jun. Sirmio. Vol. 4 p. 282 ad Oly- 
brium p. U. Dat. XIII Kal. Jul. Altaripa. Vol. 3 p. 248 ad Olybrium p.U. Dat. VIII Id. Jid. 
Vol. 4 p. 307 Cod. Just. I. 4, 2 ad Glaudianum pfp.*^ Dat. VII [VIII Cod. Just.] Id. Jul. Cod. 
Theod. Vol. 5 p. 243 ad populum. pp. Bomce Kal. Aug. Vol. 2 p. 242 ad Probum p.p. 0. Dat. Ill 
Kal. Sept. Brisiaci. Vol. 5 p. 330 Fortunaciano com. B. P. Dat. Ill Kal. Nov. Antiochice. 

Within the 12th indiction, that is, within Sept. 1 A. D. 368 — Aug. 31 A. D. 369, the following: 
Cod. Theod. Vol. 3 p. 530 Cod. Justin. XI. 12, 1 Imppp. Valentinianus Valens et Gratianus AAA. 
Auxonio pf.p. Data indictione XII. 

Many laws bearing Valentiniano et Valente AA. coss. or A. D. 365 belong to 368 // AA. coss. 
or to 370 /// A A. coss. or to 373 IV AA. coss.^ The laws of these years are of uncertain date, 
as in the reign of Diocletian the laws bearing Ccbss. coss. are of doubtful years. Gothofredus 
transfers some laws of 365, 368, 370, 373 from one year to another, partly on account of the 
place from whence the emperor issued the edict, partly on account of the person to whom it was 
addressed. We may determine the year of some by their position in the Code?. 

e p. U. Cod. Theod. Male. XIV Kal. April. Trev. ad Olybrium pf.U. " Perhaps 

f See the Tables A. D. 373 p. 480. in 370." G. 

S Gothofredus Chronol. p. lxxxi &c. removes the XII Kal. April. Trev. ad Probum pf. p. Vol. 3 

following from 365 to 368. p. 462. " Perhaps in 370." 

VIII Kal. Feb. missa Rom. ad Rufinum pf.p. Vol. VIII Kal. Apr. Trev. ad Probum pf.p. " Perhaps 

2 p. 569. in 370." 

prid. Kal. Feb. dat. Marcianop. ad Fortunatiannm. Ill Kal. Apr. Trev. ad Olybrium pf.U. " Perhaps 

XIV Kal. Mart. Triv. ad Claudium proc. Afric. in 370." 

Vol. 6 p. 45. /// Non. Apr. Trev. ad Olybrium pf.U. " Perhaps 

VII Id. Mart. Marcianop. ad Felicem com. S. L. in 370." 

Vol. 3 p. 481. Rather in 370, because the preceding Non. April, pp. ad Maximum p. f annonce. " Perhaps 

law was in 369. ' in 370." 

IV Id. Mart. Trev. ad Probum pf.p. Vol.3 p. 532. prid. Non. Apr. Alteio. ad Crescentem vie. Africce. 

Valentinian was not in Treviris in 365. " Perhaps in 370." 



118 



APPENDIX. 



C. 1. 



FiRMus. FiRMus. See the Tables A. D. 372—374. 

Orosius VII. 33 relates the war with Firmus after the death of Valentinian : Interea in Africa 
partihus Firmus sese, excitatis Maurorum gentibus, regem constituens Africam Mauritaniamque vas- 
tavit &c. although begun in his reign : Comes Theodosius — a Valentiniano missus effusas Maurorum 
gmtes multis preeliis /regit ^ ipsum Firmma adjlictum et oppressum coegit ad mortem. On which ac- 
count Tillemont torn. 5 p. 66 places the death of Firmus after the death of Valentinian. and 
therefore after Nov. 20 A. D. 375. But Aramianus expressly says that Valentinian was still living. 
In Ammianus 29. 5, 54 Firmus kills himself; and Theodosius returns to Sitifis in triumph : § 56. 



/// Id. Apr. ad Olybrium p. U. Vol, 3 p. 300. 
Olybrius was p.U. in 368 — 370 but not in 365. On 
the praefecture of Olybrius see Corsin. de prsef. Urbis 
Romae p. 245 — 248 and the inscriptions there quoted. 

XI Kal. Man Trev. ad Florianum cons. Venetia. 
Two laws Vol. 2 p. 589 Vol. 4 p. 74. 

VI Kal. Mail Triv. ad Viventium pf.p. Galliarum. 

prid. Nan. Mali Triv. Remigio mag. Officiorum. 
Vol. 2 p. 344 Cod. Just. I. 9, 4. "Perhaps in 370." G. 

XV Kal. Jul. Trev. ad Probumpf.p. 
. XI Kal. Jul. Med. Rufino pf.p. 

XI Kal. Jul. Raven, ad Rufnum pf.p. 

IX Kal. Jul. Sabarice. ad Probum pf.p. 

Non. Jul. Olybrio pfU. Lecta in Pantheo. 

prid. Kal. Aug. Vangionibus. ad Musufilum vie. 
Africa. 

Kal. Aug. Marcianop. ad Modestum pf p. Vol. 4 
p. 254. See Tillemont torn. 5 p. 697. Gothofr. re- 
peats this law in 373 Chronol. p. xciii. 

/// Non. Aug. Sirmio. ad Probum pf p. 

Kal. Sept. ad Auxonium pfp. 

IX Kal. Oct. ad Viventium p.p. 

prid. Kal. Oct. Agrippince. ad Probum pf.p. Illyrici. 
VI Non. Oct. Festo consulari Syria. 
Ill Id. Oct. Germanopfp. Galliarum. Cod. Just. 
X. 31,29. 

/// Non. Nov. ad Probum pfp. Cod. Just. I. 55, 2. 
XIV Kal. Dec. ad Auxonium pfp. 

X Kal. Dec. ad Viventium pf p. Galliarum. 
Kal. Dec. Triv. ad Claudium proc. Africa. 
Id. Dec. Marcianop. ad Auxonium pfp. 

X Kal. Jan. Directa Sirmio. ad Probum p.p. 

III Kal. Jan. Dat. Trev. ad Viventium pfp. 

These from 365 to 370 : 

XIV Kal. Feb. ad Olybrium p.U. 

XIV Kal. Ap. Triv. ad Probum pf.p. Vol. 3 p. 495. 
The preceding law is in 369. 

XIV Kal. Apr. Triv. ad Maximum pf annonce. Vol. 
5 p. 246. The preceding law is in 369. 

prid. Non. Apr. Alteio. ad Crescentem vie. Africa. 

IX Kal. Maii Trev. Mauris Sitifensibus. Vol, 2 
p. 278 Vol. 4 p. 414. Two laws. " Perhaps in 373." 

VI Kal. Maii Triv. ad Viventium pf p. Galliarum. 

V Kal. Jun. ad T/ieodosium. " Perhaps in 373." 
Vol. 1 p. 306. This has been already given at 365 
from Wenck. 

IV Id. Jun. Cyzico. ad Modestum pf. p. 



prid. Non. Aug. Hierap. ad Clearchum. (See the 
Tables 373.) 

XVI Kal. Nov. Hierapoli. Modesto. (See the 
Tables 373.) 

// Id. Dec. CP. ad Modestum pf p. Vol. 3 p. 1 27 
" Perhaps in 373." G. 

From 365 to 373 the following : 
Kal. Jan. Byritho. ad Modestum pfp. Because the 
praefecture of Modestus began in the middle of 370. 

XII Kal. Mart, ad Volusianum p. U. This law, 
without reason referred by Gothofred. to 373, has 
been given in A. D. 365. See p. 115. 

XIII Kal. Jul. Apollonia. ad Zosimum prcesidem 
Epiri nova. 

IV Kal. Jul. Two laws ad Volusianum p. U. Given 
alreadyp. 116at A.D. 365. 

VIII Kal. Aug. To the same Volusianus. Given 
at p. 116 in 365. 

VIII Id. Aug. Also to Volusianus. Given in 
A. D. 365. 

/// Non. Sept. ad Volusianum. See A. D. 365. 

XV Kal. Oct. ad Volusianum. See 365. 

Gothofredus transfers 

From 370 to 368 : /// Kal. Feb. Dat. Triv. ad 
Pratextatum p.fU. Vol.5 p. 34. 

From 373 to 368 : XVIII Kal. Sept. Altino. ad 
Olybrium p.U. Vol. 4 p. 283. (Given in the Tables 
373 p. 480). Gothofred. p. lxxxiii ad hunc annum 
368 retraho ab anno 373, quo certe Olybrius non 
fuit p.U. But the preceding law Vol. 4 p. 282 is 
addressed to Olybrius p.U. June 19 A. D. 369. He 
went out of office after March 1 and before April 29 
A. D. 370. See the Tables A. D. 370. 3 p. 475 
and, for his successor, Corsin. de praef. Urb. p. 248. 
There seems, then, an error in the month XVIII 
Kal. Sept. Perhaps we may read XVIII Kal. Febr. 
— /// A A. coss. and place that law at Jan. 15 A. D. 
370. On Olybrius see the testimonies in the Tables 
379. 1. 

From 370 to 368 : prid. Id. Nov. Marcianop. ad 
Auxonium pfp. Vol. 4 p. 174. 

From 373 to 370 : XVI Kal. Feb. ad Jovinum 
magistrum militum. 

From 373 to 370 : X Kal. Mart. Trev. ad Julia- 
num proc. Africa. 

From 368 to 370 : IV Id. Aug. Hierapoli. ad se- 
natum. Cod. Just. I. 55, 3. 



EMPERORS. 119 

Valentinian being yet alive : 29. 5, 46 Theodosius ait " Comes Valentiniani mm, orlis terrarum do- 
mini &c. And we may with Valesius refer the death of Firmus to the close of A. D. 374. 

VaLENS. Valens. 

Until the year 369 Valens was blameless: Ammian. 27- 5, 8 Imperator rudis quidem, verum spec- 
tator adJiuc esquissimus rerum, antequam adulationum perniciosis illecebris captus rempuUicam fune- 
rihus perpetuo dejlendis adfligeret. Ammianus 31. 14, 1 — 7 impartially sums up his good and evil 
qualities : Amicus fidelis et firmus, ultor acer ambitionum, severus militaris et civilis disciplines cor- 
rector, — provinciarum cequissimus tutor — trihutorum oner a studio quodam molliens singulari. — Nee 
sub alio principe in hujusmodi negotiis melius secum actum esse meminit Oriens. Super his omnibus 
liberalis erat cum moderatione. He admits however that Valens was magnarum opum intemperans 
adpetitor — in crudelitatem proclivior, subagrestis ingenii, nee bellicis nee liberalibus studiis eruditus. 
— i7i sanguinem scsviebat et dispendia locupletum, — nihil agi contra libidinem suam patiebatur, inju- 
riosus alias et iracundus et criminantibus sine differentia veri ml falsi facillime patens. 

The cause of the revolt of the Goths in 377 is inaccurately told by Zosimus IV. 21,1. See 
Reitemeier p. 589. 

Zosimus IV. 2 — 24 describes the events from the death of Jovian to the death of Valens and 
election of Theodosius in a clear narration. He omits some facts. He does not name the father 
of Theodosius. He omits the death of Arsaces. He does not mark the three years of the Gothic 
war of Valens or the affairs of Sapor in Armenia. In some minor points he is not accurate ; as 
the illness of Valens in 364, and the time of the death of Serenianus^. Heyne ad Zosira. IV. 20, 
10 p. 638 vindicates the historian by alleging that he omits some things from brevity; that he 
enlarges too much on other matters either to vary his narrative or to relate what others had 
omitted ; that when he differs from other historians he is not to be at once condemned for bad 
faith or error, but to be compared with other writers, and his accuracy balanced against theirs. 
But these arguments cannot justify positive errors. Zosimus has erred in the wars of Aurelian^ 
in confounding Maximian with Maximin, in his account of the mother of Constantine and of the 
campaigns of Julian. He is convicted of error by the evidence of contemporaries. 

The authorities quoted in the Tables' for the visit of Valens to Antioch give the following ac- 
counts. 1 Socrates IV. 14 — 21 '■'■Valens in 370 sets forth from CP. to go to Antioch; is detained 
long at Nicomedia. after which a famine occurs in Phrygia. After the famine had begun, he 
proceeds to Antioch and stays there. After the arrival at A ntioch, he proceeds to Edessa ; ex- 
amines the case of Theodorus — hears of the death oi Athanasius." 2 Sozomen VI. 13 — 19 '■'■Valens 
on his way to Antioch is detained at Nicomedia. from Nicomedia, he proceeds through Cappa- 
docia towards Antioch. at Caesarea he finds Eusebius, Basilius being absent. In a second visit 
to Caesarea on the 6th of January he finds Basilius bishop. He arrived at Antioch, was present 
at Edessa; and the death of Athanasius was told to him at Antioch."" 3 The author of the life 
oi Athanasius apud Phot. Cod. 258 '■'•Valens on his way to Antioch is detained at Nicomedia. 
After his transactions there he arrives at Antioch. After his arrival, Athanasius died." 4 Am- 
mianus : " Valens enters Antioch to stay there ; is in danger from a plot ; enquires into the matter 
of Theodorus.'''' 5 Zosimus: ^'■Valens arrives by slow journeys at Antioch, from whence he securely 
directs the war against Persia, passing his winter at Antioch, his summer at Hierapolis ; his 

h Which Zosimus IV. 6, 8 places in the lifetime dium, proditione militum et interitu Procopii cognito, 

of Procopius. But Ammianus 2fi. 10, 1 (quoted by Serenianum intra palatium clausum [conf. 26. 8, II] 

Reitemeier ad Zosim. p. 581) shews that it happened — occidit &c. 

afterwards : Marcellus — agens apud Nicceam prcesi- > Tables A. D. 371. 372. 



120 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

Valeks. winter again at Antioch. While the emperor was at Antioch, the affair of Theodorus happened." 
6 The Theodosian Code records that Valens was at CP. at least from Dec. 8 A. D. 370 to Apr. 7 
A. D. 371''. 7 Libanius attests that he had completed his 57th year when Valens entered 
Antioch. 8 Malalas determines that the emperor entered Antioch on the 10th of November. 
9 Theophanes and Cedrenus place the entry into the city at the 8th year of Valens. 

Valesiusl fixes the arrival "finita jam aestate A. D. 371,"" founding his opinion upon 1. 74. 76"* 
de decurionibus, and upon the age of Libanius. Gothofredus supposes that in 370 Valens trans- 
acted the affairs at Nicomedia ; that he was then at Caesarea"; then that he arrived at Antioch; 
then passed three months at Hierapolis ; and then returned to CP. in December, and that he 
came to Antioch again in 372. Tillemont, rejecting the opinion of Gothofredus, supposes torn. 5 
p. 98 — 101 that Valens wintered at Caesarea in 37| because he was there at the Epiphany Jan. 6 
A. D. 372, and that he made his entry into Antioch in the Spring of this year. 

The opinion of Gothofredus is not tenable. 1 The compass of one year, 370, does not allow 
time for so many movements, as Tillemont has justly remarked. 2 The three months at Hiera- 
polis in that year are founded upon dates assigned by conjecture to laws of uncertain date. 3 All 
the testimonies speak of one arrival and of a permanent stay at Antioch ; Gothofredus supposes 
that Valens arrived twice, and that the stay which Ammianus and Zosimus describe as permanent 
was only a passing visit. The opinion of Tillemont, that Valens passed a whole winter at Caesarea 
and entered Antioch in spring, is refuted by Malalas, who now confirms the judgment of Valesius 
by certain testimony. Valens from his chief station at Antioch — kv tois avToOi ^ao-iAeiois Zosim. 
IV. 13 — might visit Caesarea in January without passing the winter there. He might visit Cae- 
sarea, a distance of not more than 150 English miles, as he visited Edessa and other places. 

Reiske ad Libanium tom. 1 p. 96 Vit. Liban. § 63. &6 imagines three arrivals of Valens at An- 
tioch. In his note at p. 96 fixing with Malalas the arrival at Nov. 37 1 he adds " Sed Socrates 
IV. 2 Valentem ait jam ante Procopii rebellionem Antiochiam venisse. v. Vales, ad IV. 13. Idem 
auctor IV. 1 7 alterum Valentis adventum coUocat in 370, et IV. 21 ait eum a. 371 Antiochiae 
fuisse." In the Life he writes at § 63 " Valentis adventus incidit in Aprilem medium anni 372." 
And yet at § 66 " Juxta Malalam adventus incidit in Nov. anni 371. Sed Socrates IV. 2 ait ante 
Procopii rebellionem venisse. Idem IV. 17 alterum adventum refert ad a. 370, et rursus a. 371 
IV. 2 [lege IV. 21] ait idem factum. Fallitur ergo Valesius in fine notarum ad Socr. IV. 13." 
Now if the arrival was fixed to November 371, how could it happen in April 372? Reiske has 
given the evidence of Malalas and the opinion of Tillemont, not perceiving that both could not 
stand together. As to the arrival " ante Procopii rebellionem" it is true that Socrates IV. 2 and 
Sozomen VI. 7 report this; but the testimony of Ammianus ** shews that they were mistaken^. 
As to the two visits referred to 370 and 37 Ij these are one and the same visit : Socrates IV. 17 
iitl TTiv ^Avn6\€Lav "napayiver ai. In IV. 21 Valens is still there: Kara ttjv 'Ayrio'x^etar bidyovTL. 
Socrates then describes only two visits ; one after the affairs of Nicomedia, which was in truth 
the first visit, and one before the affairs of Procopius, which was an errors. 

k Quoted in the Tables A. D. 371. 2. 370. 3. " He quotes (Cod. Theod. Chronol. p. lxxxviii) 

Gothofredus prolongs the stay of Valens at CP. till Theodoret. IV. 17 Socrates IV. 21 Sozomen VI. 15. 

Mav 1 : Vol. 4 p. 25 ad Modestum p/.p. Dat. Kal. This is by no means accurate. Theodoret speaks 

Maii CP. Gratiano A. et Dagalai/o coss. [A. D. 366.] only of the second visit to Caesarea, when Basilius 

where Gothofr. reads Gratiano A. II et Probo A. D. was bishop, so. in A. D. 372. Socrates does not 

37 1 on account of Modestus pf. p. mention Caesarea at all. 

1 Ad Socratem p. 53, ad Ammianum 29. 1,4. o Quoted in the Tables A. D. 365 p. 464. 

" Cod. Theod. Vol. 4 p. 422 p. 426, quoted in P As Valesius ad Ammian. 26, 7, 1 has observed, 

the Tables 371. 2 p. 476, 9 Reiske however has justly censured Vjdesjus ad 



EMPERORS. 121 

Tillemont torn. 5 p. 105. 70 F supposes Ammianus 29. 1,4 to describe the return of Valens to Valens. 
Antioch after a Persian campaign at the close of 373, and not his first entry into that city after 
his progress through Asia Minor. But the last mention of Valem by Ammianus 27- 12, J 3 was 
the mission o{ ArinthcBUS, which was in 370, as Tillemont himself admits p. 103. And if the next 
mention of Valens was after the campaign of 373, there would be two complete years during 
which he is unnoticed by the historian. This arrangement also leaves a chasm of two years in the 
account of the Persian war; for Arinthceus is employed against Sapor in 370, and Sapor according 
to Tillemont is next mentioned 29. 1, 1 in the close of winter, the beginning of 373. It seems 
clear that Ammianus describes the first entry into Antioch, and that his narrative proceeds with- 
out any years omitted. Arinthceus is employed in 370 ; the winter described in 29. I, 1 is the 
winter of 37t? Sapor is in the field in 371 and is opposed by the generals of Valens. At the end 
of that year he returns to winter at Ctesiphon. At the same time Valens makes his first entry 
into Antioch, which according to Tillemont was in April 372, but according to Malalas in No- 
vember 371. 

Tillemont^ has adopted that arrangement because Themistius in an oration in March 373 
makes no mention of a victory. " Therefore the campaign which Ammianus describes was in 
373, after the date of that oration, and in the end of 373 Valens returned victorious to Antioch^ ." 
But the campaign described by Ammianus was not a victorious campaign ; nor was Valens pre- 
sent v. And it required no particular notice from Themistius. 

After the campaign of 371, described by Ammianus, Sapor was kept in check by the presence 
of Valens in 372 and 373 ; who in those years approached the Euphrates, or was stationed at 
Hierapolis. In 374 Para the Armenian was murdered ; the year 375 was wasted in negotiations '% 
and in 376 the attention of Valens was withdrawn from Persia by the Goths. 

Some inscriptions bearing the name of Valens are given under Valentinian^. Add 1 Muratori 
p. 264. 3 Patris in columna : t&v bea-noTiov rjpcaoav 4>A. BaX^vTLviavov /cat BaAeyros t&v Avyovarav. 
2 Murat. p. 264. 5 Gruter p. 286. 4 ex Panvinio, Romse : Florentiss. et piissim. D. iV. Valenti 
maxim, principi semper August. L. Vocontius Vicasius V. C. prcef. urhi iter. prcBfec. leg. VI Pice 
Fel. pr. pr. prov. Gall. proc. XX Tier, ejusdem J. S. G. D. N. M. Q. E. D. D. 3 Murat. p. 264. 6 
Vicentise : Imp. Ccesari D. N. Fl. Valenti Pio Felici semper Augusta civitas Vigentina. [al. Veicen- 
tina.] 4 Mur. p. 262. 5 Pisauri : Fundatorih. et conservator, imperii Romani DD. NN. Valentiniano 
et Valenti principih. maximis ac triumfatorih. Augg. B. B. P. N. impp. 5 Mur, p. 1055. 3 in agro 
Lunensi: Imp. Gees. D. N. Valenti Pio Felici semper Aug. civit. Lun. M. P. Imp. Gcesari D. Gra- 
tiano Pio Fel. semper Aug. divi Valentiniani A. civit. Lunen. M. P. Imp. Gees. DNE Valentiniano 

semp. Aug. Divi Valentinia dvit. Lunen. M. P. After divi Valentiniani supply filio. 

6 Murat. p. IO70. 8 Pisis : Imp. Gees. D. NBO [Fl. Valenti] Pio Felici semp. Aug. imp. Gees. D. N. 
Fl. Gratiano Pio Felici semp. Aug. divi Valentiniani Aug. filio imp. Gws. Fl. Valentiniano Pio 
Felici semper Aug. divi Valentiniani Aug. filio civit. Pisana. M. P. I I II. 

Peocopids. Tables A. D. 365. 366. Procopius. 

Socratem IV. 13 for defending Socrates (Immerito s Tillemont torn. 5 p. 701. 

Baronius Socratem reprehendit. Neque enim So- * "Valens victorieux vint passer I'hiver a Antioche." 

crates dicit Valentem jam antea venisse Antiochiam Tillemont torn. 5 p. 105. 

&c. p. 52.) Valesius had forgotten the narrative of ^ gee Ammianus quoted in the Tables 371 p. 476. 
Socrates himself m IV. 2. w See the Tables A. D. 374. 375 p. 484. 486. 

r Referred to in the Tables A. D. 371 p. 476. x See above p. 1 13. 

R 



1«« APPENDIX. C. 1. 

Gratianus. GraTIANUS. 

His character is given by Ammianus 31. 10, 18. 19 Prccdarce indolis adulescens, facundus et 
inoderatus et hellicosus et clemens ; ad csmulationem lectorum progrediem prindpum — ni mrgens in 
ludibriosos actus natura laxantihus proximis semet ad vana studia Ccesaris Commodi convertissei, licet 
hie incruentus &c. Victor Epit. p. 395 Fuit autem Gratianus litferis haud mediocriter instiiutus 
&c. — parens cibi somnique, et vini ac libidinis victor; cunctisque fuisset plenus bonis, si ad cognoscen- 
dam reipublicee gerendce scientiam animum intendisset. — Dum exercitum negligeret et paucos ex Alanis, 
quos ingenti auro ad se transtuleratY, ante/erret veteri ac Romano miUti — odia contra se militum 
excitavit. 

Gratian in 374 married the daughter of Constantius 11.^ He had also a second wife, LcBta, 
who survived him. Lceta the widow of Gratian, and her mother Pissamene were living at Rome 
in the first siege A. D. 408 a. 

Inscriptions. 1 Grut. p. 159. 7 Emeritse : Imp. Cces. Gratianus Pius Felix max. vict. ac triumph, 
semp. Aug. pont. max. Germ. max. Alamanus max. Franc, mxix. Goth. m. tr.p. Ill imp. II cos. IIII 
prim. p. pp. restituit C. XI. 2 Gruter p. 1082. 13 Roraae: Fl. Gratianus Pius Felix maximus 
victor ac triumph, semper Aug. pont. Tuax. Germanic, max. Alaman. max. Franc, itnax. Gothicus max. 
trib. pot. VI imp. II cos. primum ppp. In the first inscription either the tribunician year or the 
consulship is wrong. Gratian could not be called cos. IIII before the tenth year of his reign. 
In the second, if the tribunician year is right, the number of the consulship is omitted. Perhaps 
however wo may read trib. pot. Ill imp. II cos. 

According to Zosimus IV. 3f>, 7 — 10 Gratian first declined the title of ponti/ex maximus. And 
yet he is so called in these inscriptions, and in an inscription in the Tables A. D. 370 p. 475 
bearing trib. pot. III. And Ausonius Grat. Act. in A. D. 379, the 12th year of Gratian, gives 
him this title : p. 291. 14 Ponti/ex religione. p. 293. 1 tu ponti/ex maxim,us. But Zosimus impHes 
§ 10 that Gratian declined that title after the revolt of Maximus in the 16th year of his reign; 
which reconciles Zosimus with the preceding testimonies. 

3 Muratori p. 465. 1 Romse : Salvis DDD. NNN. Gratiano Valentiniano et Theodosio victoribus 
semper Augustis Valerius Anthidius V. C. Au. prae/. prcet. stabulum ne animalia cursus publici longi 
itineris labore diutius disperirent providit constituit cedi/cavit adque dedicavit IV {DIXMEI8) 
curante T. Casterio [al. Fl. Asterio] deputato I IX. For the corrupt DIXMEIS Muratori proposes 
ID. MAI AS. 4 Murat. p. 464. 7 Romae : Florente imperio DDD.AAA.CCG. Q.NNN. Gratiani 
Valentiniani et Theodosi principum maximm'um thermarum speciem ruince de/ormitate sordentem et 
pericuhsis ponderibus imminentem quce labantem populum meiu sollicitudinis deterrebat exclusa totius 
scabie vetustatis adfirrnam stabilitatem ummque tectorum Anicius Auchenius Bassus^^ V. C. proconsul 
Campanice vice sacra judicans reparavi in meliorem civitatis effigiem. 

Valentihia- VaLENTINIANUS II. 
Nirs II. 

Bom in 371^. Sometimes confounded with the son of Valens'^. In the division of the pro- 

y Zosimus IV. 35, 3 'AXoj^s nvas avrofiokovs bt^d- VII. 13 tvayxps yrjfuis, koI veos itv, Koi ipariKws rrpos 

fuvos Koi OTpariais (yKardKf^as Bwpfais re idpais erifxa — Tqv yvvaiKa biaredeis. 

K.T. X. rovTO Toiff CTTpartwratr Kara tov ^aa-ikfws ercKe »» On Anicius Auchenius Bassus, who was also 

fiiaos. prce/ectus urbi, see two inscriptions apud Corsin. 

z See above p. 86. o. praef. Urb. p. 275. 

a Zosim. V. 39, 7 Aaira fi Vpariavov fiafriX(v<ravros ^ Tables 375 p. 486. 

yafierrf, Ka\ Uuraajtivr) 17 p.rrrqp Tovrrfs. Gratian had mar- c gee the Tables 369. 3 p. 471. 473. 

ried Lceta a short time before his death : Sozomen. 



EMPERORS. 123 

vinces in A. D. 375, Gratian is to have Gaul Spain Britain, and Valentinian II Italy Illyricum Valentinia- 
Africa^'. 

Valentinian II rexgne^ IGV S^^^ from 22 Nov. 375 to 15 May 392, and nearly 8y 9"» from the 
death of his brother Gratian. In the text of Ambrosius de obitu Valentin, torn. 5 p. 113 ed. 1632 
he is said to have perished octavo regni anno, where the Benedictine editor §57 supplies decimo 
octavo anno. If Ambrosius intended to be exact, for VIII anno we must restore XVII anno. 
In Anecd. Paris. Cramer Vol. 2 p. 6fi is this account : OvaKevTLvtavbs 6 vios ^twaas err] k fiacnk^vaa^ 
8e er?7 r{ KaTaaTpe(f)ei tov ^lov. where for r/' we may read either it] or t^'. 

An inscription. Gruter p. 285.8 Oorsin. praef. Urb. p. 288 Romae: Extinctori tyrannorwm ac 
puhlicce securitati auctori D. N. Valentiniano Perpetuo ac Felici semper Augusto Ceionius Bufius 
Alhimis V. C.praf. urhi iterum vice sacra judicans D. N. M. Q. ejus. Corsini justly remarks that 
this inscription refers to the overthrow of 3Iaximus which happened July 28 A. D. 388. Alhinus 
iBprcef. Urlis in laws quoted in the Tables p. 520. 523 at 18 Aug. 389—4 April 390. 

Maximus. Tables A. D. 383. 387. 388. Maximus. 

He was acknowledged by Valentinian : Socrat. V. 1 1 OvakevTtvtavbs 8e koI clkcov rfj avayKr\ tov 
Kaipov TTeio-Qels ttjv Ma£i/xov jBaaLKeCav Trpoabix.^Tai. And by Theodosius : Zosim. IV. 37, 2 — 6 Ma^t- 
ixos 8e TTiv ^acrik^iav e)(eiy kv ^xvp<^ 7naT€v<Tdp.evos eVretAe irpbi Qeobocnov 'npe<rj3€Lav k. t, X. — &€obo- 
(Tios 8e 6 /SacTiA-ev? ebe\€T6 re jSacriXea Md^Lpiov eivai, koX dKovcav avTcj) KOivuivelv /cat ^aaiXews irpoarj- 
yopias ri^iov. Pacatus Panegyr. c. 30 Ut foedus abrumpere \^c,. Maximus\ — helium edicere non 
timeret. — qui sub nomine pads ludere — potuisset. Confirmed by a coin given in the Tables 
A.D. 388 p. 518. 

Maximus and his son Victor are commemorated in an inscription apud Muratorium p. 46'5. 3 
Veronse: Impp. Augg. DD.NN. Mag. Maximo et Fl. Victo. perpetuis principihis 31, F. V. 

EuGENius. Tables A. D. 392. 394. Eugevius. 

Chron. Pasch. p. 305 D -inr. ^ApKahiov to y koL 'OvcopCov to . — avT(2 rw eret Atoyerr/s 6 rvpavvo's 
dTT€K€(paXLa6r) Iv 'iTaXCq. An error for Evyevws. The historians vary in some particulars of his 
death, but it seems that he was beheaded in the presence of Theodosius. 

Eugenius is in an inscription apud Gruter p. 192. 1 Colonigc Agrippinse : ....se et imperatoribus 

nost. [Theodo]s^o et Arcadio et Fl. Eugenia conlapsam jussu viri CI. [Arbogasj^is comitis et 

instantia V. C. G6\mitis domesticorum ei es ex integro opere faciund. [cura]?7^V magister 

Prcslius. He is consul in an inscription apud Muratorium p. 394. 1 Ka7rtro)A.ti/ta ('qaaaa hr\ Kr{ kv 
KiTecTL ^LXovavov viradeia Eivyeviov tovto 

Theodosius. Theodosil-s. 

The various branches of the Theodosian family are set forth in the following Table. The testi- 
monies are subjoined in the notes. 

d Zosimus IV. 19, 2. 3. dd in p. 3 at the reign of Valentinian II read 16^ 5"' 24^'. 



R 2 



1^4 



APPENDIX. 



C. 1. 



Theodosius. 



Antonius*' 
COS. 382 



Eucheriusb 
COS. 381 



Theodosius* = Thermantia* 
slain 376 I 



Aelia Flaccillac = Theodosius AuG.d = Gallah 



Honorlus^ 



ob. 386 



ob. 396 aet. 49 



ob. 394. 



3 Gratiaiinss Pulcheiiae Eudoxia& = ARCADius Honorius Placidiai=CoNSTANTius Thermantiaf Seienaf=Stilichof 

ob. 404 I ob, 408 ob. 423 ob. 450 I ob. 421 slain 408 I slain 408 



4 MARCiAN = Piilcberiag: FlaccillaS Arcadiair Theodos. II MariiiaS: Honoriai Y alektis. Ill = Eudoa!ia^ Eucheriusf Maria^ Themiantiaf 
b. 399 b. 397 b. 400 b. 401 I ob. 450 b. 403 b.418 b. 419 ob. 465 I slain 408 ob. 415 



Flaccillak Eudoxia'' 

ob. 431 b. 422 



Olybrius = Placidia™ 
ob. 472 I 

Areobindus'i = Juliana n 
COS. 506 I 



Hunericl = Eudoxial 
ob. 484 I 

Ildericl 
slain 533 



* Paulus Diac. XII p. 528 Theodosius, genitus patre 
Theodosio matre Thermantia, XLI imperator. Victor 
Epit. p. 396 has Hoaorius : Theodosius genitus patre 
Honorio matre Thermantia, genere Hispanus, originem 
a Trajano principe trahens, — imperator effectus. But 
many authorities establish that the father of the 
emperor was Theodosius, whose acts in Britain and 
Africa are recorded in the Tables at the years ;^67, 
368, 369. 370 p. 474, and in the years 372, 373, 
376. and who was slain in Africa in 376. He is 
celebrated by Claudian III cons. Hon. 52 — 56 IV 
cons. Hon. 24 — 29 Seren. 40. 41 and by Pacatus 
panegyr. c. 5. 

^ That Eucherius was the emperor's uncle is col- 
lected from Themistius Or. XVI de consulatu Satur- 
nini, who affirms that in the years preceding .383 
(when Saturninus was consul) Theodosius had given 
♦ the consulship to his uncle and his kinsman. There- 
fore in 381 and 382. We have Eucherius and Sya- 
grius in 381, Antonius and another Syagrius in 382 ; 
whence Harduin ad Themistium infers that Eucherius 
was the uncle of the emperor and Antonius the kins- 
man. Themistius p. 203 D nera tovs dcpi" cuyxLTOs crvy- 
yevels 6 in r^y apeTrjs KaToKfyrjcrfTai' rrfv yap tov yivovs 
dy)(iaTeiav Trparqv Tifirjcras, tov TrarpahiKx^ov Xeya> Koi top 
Kr)8((rTr)v, oiiK edooKas didarrjpM p.fTa^v, dXXa orwaA/^as ol- 
Ktiorrjaiv dvhpayaOiav tpyco (f)avfp6i/ KarearTfa-as on tco 
KparovvTi tS>v oKav ovx rprov evripjov tivai irpotrrjKd, to 
KOT dperffv vTrepe^ov tov kuto. yiveaiv tyyvTOTOi. Euche- 
rius is attested by Zosimus V. 2, 5 who under the 
reign of Arcadius mentions tov tov ^aa-iXeas Btlov Eu- 
Xtpiov. — the uncle (that is, the great-uncle) of Ar- 
cadius. 

c It has been shewn in the preceding note that the 
uncle of Theodosius was Eucherius, consul in 381. It 
follows that his father-in-law — Kr)8fcrrf}s — was consul 
in 382, where the Fasti offer Antonius et Syagrius. 



Olybrius 

Sidonius Ep. 1. 7 p- 47 mentions Afranius Syagrius, 
the grandfather of his friend Ferreolus : Ferreolus 
prcefectorius, Afranii Syagrii consulis e filia nepos. 
Conf. Ep. VII. 12 Ferreolo suo. The consul of 382 ; 
for the consiil of 381 was Flavius Syagrius. Tille- 
mont torn. 5 p. 727 observes that Sidonius makes no 
mention of the alliance of Ferreolus to the imperial 
house, and we may determine that Antonius is the 
father-in-law of the emperor, with Valesius ad So- 
zom. p. 150 Harduin ad Themistium p. 476 Pagi 
Vol. 1 p. 560 and Ruhnkenius diss. I de Galla Pla- 
cidia p. 15. 

His daughter ^/za Flaccilla was the first wife of Theo- 
dosius: Socrat. IV. 31 p. 250 B ^ApKadiov koI 'Ovapiov eK 
ILXaKidris [lege nXaKiXXijr] eax^ t^s -rrpoTepas yvvaiKos. So- 
zom.VII. 6 f) ^aa-iXis IlXaKiXXa, before A . D. 38 1 . Zo- 
simus IV. 44, 7 nXa/ctXXj;? Trjs irpoTepov a\iT(o yqpxipfvrjs. 
Theophanes p. 48 B repeats Socrates. Cedrenus p. 
3 1 5 C nXoKiXXai/ f^ rjs ecrx^v ' ApKaSiov Koi 'Opapiop' tjs 
TeXfvrqada-rjs TaKXap d8f\(f)f]P Tpariapov eyquev. Erro- 
neously called the second wife by Chron. Pasch. p. 
305 A. Her son Honorius was born Sept. 9 A. D. 
384. see the Tables. She is mentioned by The- 
mistius in Or. XIX. Tables A. D. 385. 3. She still 
lived at the first consulship of Honorius Jan. 1 A. D. 
386: Claudian IV cons. Hon. 154—158 
inter cunabula consul 
Proveheris. signas posito modo nomine fastos 
Donaturque tibi qui te produxerat annus. 
Ipsa Quirinali parvum te cinxit amictu 
Mater, et ad primas docuit reptare curules. 
Pagi torn. 1 p. 565 refers her death to 385 on the 
authority of the Paschal Chronicle : " hoc anno 
obiit, ut auctor Chron. Al. insinuat." But the Pas- 
chal Chronicle p. 304 D 305 A makes no mention of 
her death at that year. She probably died in 386, 
about a year before the marriage with Galla. Flac- 



EMPERORS. 



125 



Theodosius in early life served under his father in Britain : Pacatus c. 8, 3 Illud cum patre di- Theodosh-s. 
vino castrense collegium &c. Upon the death of his father in 376 he retired: Pacatus 9, 1 a sta- 
tione castrensi ad quietem. 



cilia died in Thrace : Greg. Nyssen. Or. in Flaccil- 
1am torn. 3 l). 527 B i QpaKT], to (Juvktop ovofia, Z> hvo-rv- 
X« x'^P'O" *• ''"• ^- Her names appear on coins apud 
Eckhel torn. 8 p. 164 I Ael. Flaccilla Aug. + salus 
reipublkes. S. XP. Comb. 2 Jel. Flaccilla Aug.-\- 
salus reipublicce. 

<1 The panegyrists of Theodosius commemorate his 
Spanish origin (for which see the Tables A. D. 37*0 = 
Themistius Or. XXXIV c. 7 '''o^ Qeoboaiov — a>s t6v 
^ Ahpiavov, wr tov MdpKov. as top AvtcovIvov, tovs rrpoTra- 
Topas iavTOV Kol noXiras kol dpxiryffas. Or. XIX p. 
220 C — Tpa'iavov — MdpKov — 'AvtcovIvov, tovs aovs ttoXi- 
Tas Koi dpxnyiTas. Claudian. Ill Cons. Hon. 1 7fi 
IV Cons. Hon. 19 Quae diademata mundo Sparsit, 
Ibera domus. 127 Hispania patrem Auriferis eduxit 
aquis. Conf. 393 Nupt. Hon. 40 in Stihch. II. 2.S6. 
237 in sec. Stilich. 53 laus Serense 50. Pacatus 
panegyr. 4, 2 Nam primum tibi mater Hispania est. 
4, 5 hcec Trajanum ilium, hcEc deinceps Hadrianum 
misit imperio, huic te debet imperium. 

e Gratianus and Pulcheria the children of Flaccilla 
are noticed in these testimonies: Greg. Nyss. Or. Fun. 
de Flaccilla torn. 3 p. 533 A tovs appevas rw Trarpt -rrpoa- 
KaTeXiTTfV, &<TTe eiVai avTOv Trjs jiaaiXfias ipeia-fxaTa, ttjs Se 
I8ias p-epiBos fiovrjv ttjv GvyaTepa ajTOTveTvolr^Tai. AmbrosiUS 
de obitu Theodosii torn. 5 p. 122 F Nunc Theodosius 
regnare se cognoscit — quando recipit etiam filium Gra- 
tianum et pulcherrima ac dulcissima sibi pignora qua 
hie amiserat, quando ei sua Flaccilla adhceret &c. This 
daughter Pulcheria (the name appears in the title to 
the discourse of Gregory of Nyssa els TlovXx^pi-^^ ^o- 
yos. tom.3 p. 514) died a little before the mother: 
Greg. Nyss. in Flaccillam p. 528 B ovirco eVt t§ npo- 
Tfpq TT\r}yfj avaiwevaavTes — tvoKlv ev ToaavTr] yeyovapeu 
(Tvp,({>opa. t6t€ to VfodaXes av6os aTTCoBvpafieda, vvv avTo 
TO epvos d(f)' ov TO civdos e^\da-Trj<rev. We learn from 
Greg. Nyss. that Gratian survived his mother, and 
was living in A. D. 380. 

f Honorius was the brother of the emperor and the 
father of Serena : Zosim. V. 4, 2 2(prjva rjv ttois 'Ova- 
plov, OS QeoBoaici) tS tcov ^aaCkevovTav [sc. Arcadii et 
Honorii'] jraTpl yeyoj/ei/ d8eXcj)6s. Claudian. Seren. 96 
gestabat Honorius arcto Te pater amplexu quoties ad 
limina princeps Theudosius, privatus adhuc, fraterna 
veniret. In Claudian. Nupt. Mar. 39 the emperor 
Honorius addresses Serena : patrui germen, cui no- 
minis heres Successi. 

Thermantia the sister of Serena : Claudian. Seren. 
1 86 Agnovit patrui similetn Thermantia curam. Nupsit 
et ilia duci sed longe fata sororis Inferiora tuis. and 
of Eucherius : Claudian. 1 Stilich. II. 359 adridet 
IcEto Thermantia fratri. The elder daughter of Ho- 
norius : Claudian. Seren. 117 Incedunt gemince proles 
fraterna puellcc, Inde Serena minor, prior hinc Ther- 
mantia natu. 



Serena daughter of Honorius wife of Stilicho : 
Olympiod. apud Phot. p. 177 (2TfXi;(a)i/) "leprivav vojiu 
ydfiov rjjdyeTO, 6(o8ocriov Tavrrjv aiiTW KaTtyyvfjcravTos. 
Claudian. 1 Stilich. I. ^3 Dignum conjugio generum 
thalamisque Serenee. 78 Et gener Augustis, olim so- 
cer ipse futurus. Their children are named by Mar- 
cellin. Basso et Philippe [A. D. 408]. Stilicho comes, 
cujus du(E filice Maria et Thermantia singula uxores 
Honorii principis fuere, utraque tamen virgo defuncta, 
spreto Honorio — Eucherium filium suum paganum — 
cupiens Casarem ordinare ; qui cum eodem Eucherio 
occisus est. See the Tables A. D. 408. Serena is 
also slain in 408 : see the Tables. An inscription 
Mediolani apud Gruter. p. 1056, 4 bears the names 
of Serena and Stilicho on the monument of Naza- 
rius : 

exultat hunc tumuli esse locum 



Quern pius Ambrosius signavit imagine Chris ti 
Marmoribus Libycis fida Serena polit, 

Conjugis ut reditu Stiliconis lata fruatur 
Germanisque suis pignoribus propriis. 

Eucherius was slain in 408 ; Tables. He is named 
by Claudian. 1 in Stilich. II. 352. 358 VI cons. 
Hon. 552. Born at Rome : Claudian. in sec. cons. 
Stilichonis 176—178. 

Maria married in 398 : See the Tables 398. 2. 3. 
She died some time before 408. See the Tables 408. 

Thermantia married Honorius in 408, and was dis- 
missed in the same year after the death of her father 
Stilicho: Tables A. D. 408. Thermantia died in 415: 
Chron. Pasch. p. 305 B quoted in the Tables at 415. 
Zosimus V. 28, 5 mentions her death, but without 
marking the time : t^ Sevrepa 6vyaTp\ (rvvd\j/ai tov 
'Ovapiov ea-TTtvdfv' ov Bfj yevopevov, TeXevTO. pev fj Kopi] 
per ov TToXv, Tavrd ttj irpoTepa iraQovaa. 

E Eudoxia. See the Tables for her marriage Ap. 27 
A. D. 395. The meaning of Zosimus V. 3 there 
quoted is explained by S. Basnage Annal. Vol. 3 p. 
150. Bauto the father of Eudoxia was consul in 
385, and is described by Zosimus IV. 33, 2 under 
the reign of Gratian : TpaTiavbs — Bavdavi tm oTpaTrjya 
TTupahovs, S> Ka\ 'Ap^oydaTrjv (TVvenepyfrfV aprpw Se ^(rav 
^pdyKoc TO yevos, evvoi re (T<p68pa 'Pcopaiois Koi )(pr]pdT<i)v 
ddcopoTUToi. Eudoxia died Oct. 6 A. D. 404 : Tables 
p. 558. 561. This date is unreasonably doubted by 
Savile apud Montfaucon. Chrysost. tom. 13 p. xix 
arguing from the silence of Chrgsostom. The children 
of Eudoxia are named in Chron. Pasch. p. 306 C 
'ApKaSios ecrx^v yvvaiKa 'EvBo^iav, i^ rjs Tt/CTerat Oeodoaios 
6 veos' eG-^ev Se Koi dvywripas TlovXxfpi-av [Tables A. D. 
399] Koi 'ApKadiav [A. D. 400 — ob. 444] Km Maplvau 
[A. D. 403— ob. 449] and p. 306 D her eldest 
daughter Flaccilla, who was born June 17 A. D. 397- 
See the Tables. Pulcheria is mentioned in the Tables 
under the reiffns of Theodosius II and Marcian. Her 



1S6 



APPENDIX. 



C. I. 



Theodosius. Zosimus IV. 33, 8 bears witness that Theodosius put down Paganism : to, t&v O^Stv ebr] Kara 
iraaav tTToAtopKei irokiv koi x<Lpav. He called upon the Roman senate to renounce paganism, 



government in the Tables at A. D. 414. 3. Her death 
at A. D. 453. 

^ Galla. The daughter of Valentinian : Socrat. 

IV. 31 p. 250 A 6 de «yrrat t^v 'louoTiVac, 'a(^' rfi airra 
yivfTcu OvdKfVTiviavQs re 6 vtos koi diryarepfs rpeis, 'lov- 
ara Tpara TaKKa' hv ai fiev 8vo irapdevtvovaai StrreXc- 
cav, rdAXav fie vartpov /SactXeiis fyrjpf Qfohoaios 6 peyas, 
(Uf> rjs ai/ra HXcucidia 6vyarqp (ytvero. Compare Theo- 
phanes p. 48 B. The marriage is fixed by Zosimus 
IV. 44 to A. D. 387, followed by the war with Maxi- 
mus. Theodosius and Galla met at Thessalonica in 
the autumn of 387- Compare the Tables p. 514. 516. 
Marcellinus therefore, quoted in the Tables at A. D. 
386 p. 512, has brought Galla to CP. in the wrong 
year. Galla .died about May 394 : see the Tables 
p. 530. 

i Placidia. Sozom. IX. 16 rovrto [sc. tw 'Ovapiw] 
avvijp FoXXa UXcuuBia opxmarpla avrov abikc^ri, irapaTrKrj- 
crias iroKvv irowvpAvr) \6yov rrfs 6pr)(TK(ias fat rSiV (kkKt)- 
(TiaV ayerai 8e TavTrjv KavaravTios [A. D. 417] o ttjv 
KapoTaPTivov rvpavvida KadtXiiv [A. D. 411], dvfjp p^X'-' 
pMTOTOs KCii OTparqyiKos, ov 6 ^aaiXevs yepaipatv rfj d8eX(p^ 
(TT€(f>dv(0 Kal dXovpyidi Koi rfj Koivatvia tov Kpdrovs eript]- 
(TfV [A. D. 421]' oXiyop 8e xpovov ini^iaxras fTeXevrrja-fV 
[421], OvdXevTiviavov top 'Oi/copiou 8id8oxop koI 'Op<opiav 
rraiSas icaTdXnrap. See the Tables in these years, and 
in 419. For her capture by the Goths in 409, her 
marriage with Ataulphus in 414, and her restoration 
to Honorius in 416, see the Tables. Placidia retired 
from Italy to the East in 423 : see the Tables. Her 
son was appointed Augustus Oct. 23 A. D. 425 : Ta- 
bles p. 604. and for many years she governed the 
Western empire in his name. She died at Rome in 
450 : Prosper Valentiniano VII et Avieno coss. [A. D. 
450] Placidia defuncta est V Kal. Decembres. At 451 
in Idatius : anno 28o [sc. a morte Honorii] Valenti- 
niani imperatoris mater Placidia moritur apud Romam. 
For the reckoning of Idatius see the Tables A. D. 423 
p. 600, 425 p. 604, 451 p. 642. Coins of Placidia: 
Eckhel tom. 8 p. 176 D. N. Galla Placidia P. F. Aug. 
+ 8alus reipublica. XP. or Imp. XXXXII cos. XVII 
p.p. (referring to Theodosius II. See the Tables 444. 3 
p. 631.) or victoria Auggg. or vot. XX mult. XXX. 
(referring to Valentinian III.) Ruhnkenius II de Galla 
Placidia quotes a coin " in cujus altera parte Placidia 
Aug. cemitur dextra erigens Italiam s. crucem ges- 
tans, addita epigraphe vot. XXX mult. XXXX." and 
infers " illam vota tricennalia cum filio celebrasse, 
quae incidunt in a. 45 1 , quo anno victoriam ab Attila 
reportarunt." and that Idatius places her death in 
452 : " anno 28° Valentiniani qui in a. 452 incidit." 
and accordingly Ruhnkenius places the death of Pla- 
cidia in 452. But as Eckhel makes no mention of 
that coin, its genuineness may be doubted : and Ida- 
tius does not there express A. D. 452, for his 27th 
vear contains the death of Theodosius and the eleva- 



tion of Marcian; and these happened in A. D. 450 in 
the 25th year of Valentinian III. 

Placidia commemorates many emperors and many 
members of the Theodosian house in an inscription 
which she placed at Ravenna after her son was ap- 
pointed Augustus. Therefore after Oct. 23 A. D. 425. 
Gruter p. 1048. 1 Muratori p. 1878. 2 Ravennae in 
S. Johannis EvangeUstae templo ad parietem ubi inter 
alia duse naves in raari periclitantes depictse : Galla 
Placidia Augusta pro se et iis [1. sals'] omnibus vot. 
solvit. Ad dextram juxta imagines Augustorum : 
D. Constantinus D. Theodosius D. Arcadius D. Hono- 
rius, Theodosius nep. Ad sinistram : D. Valentinianus 
D. Gratianus D. Constantinus [bene Tillemont Con- 
stantius] Gratianus nep. Johannes nep. Circa subsellia 
ad dextram : DN. Theodosius, DN. Eudocia. Ad lae- 
vam : DN. Arcadius, DN. Eudoxia Aug. Testudini 
inscriptum : Sanctissim. ac beatissimo apostolo Johanni 
EvangelisttB Galla Placidia Augusta cum suo filio Plac. 
Valentiniano Aug. et filia sua [male editur filio suo] 
Justa Grata Honoria Aug. liberationis maris vot. solvit. 
In this inscription Theodosius II and Arcadius are 
named twice. Gratianus nep. is Gratian mentioned 
above in note ^. Of Johannes nep. no other record 
remains. From this inscription it appears that the 
invocation of Saints was already in use at A. D. 425. 
A part of this inscription is quoted by Noris tom. 1 
p. 203, who adds a coin of Honoria Augusta also 
among the coins apud Eckhel tom. 8 p. 189 D. N. 
Just. Grat. Honoria P. F. Aug. + bono reipublicce. or 
salus reipublica. XP. or vot. XX mult. XXX. Eckhel 
doubts whether there are " vota XX fratris Valen- 
tiniani," because " in nullo hactenus cognito Valen- 
tiniani III numo inscripta legimus vota XX soluta 
(conf. p. 187) neque in omnibus ejus votorum numis 
comparet Victoria stans." But as a coin of Galla 
Placidia is extant with the same obverse, given above 
from Eckhel himself, it cannot be doubted that this 
obverse also refers to Valentinian III. His vicennalia 
might be celebrated in A. D. 444. 

Honoria was disgraced at Rome in 434 : see the 
Tables. But was protected by Attila : Tables A. D. 
450. Add to the testimonies quoted at 434. 450 
Paulus Diac. XV p. 550 Theophanes p. 90 C. The 
fear of Attila might influence Valentinian from 434 
to 450, and on this account the title of Augusta re- 
mained to Honoria, and coins were issued with her 
name. 

^ Flaccilla, a younger daughter of Theodosius II 
and Athenais or Eudoxia, died according to Marcel- 
hnus in 431 : Tables p. 614. Eudoxia the elder 
daughter was bom in 422, the year after the mar- 
riage of her parents ; betrothed to Valentinian III 
in 424, married in 437. In A. D. 455, when Valen- 
tinian III had been slain, Eudoxia sought the aid of 
Genseric, and was carried with her daughters into 



EMPERORS. 



127 



though in vain: Zosim. IV. 59, 2. who had worshipped Jupiter for almost 1200 years: ^3 ifhr) Theodosius. 
8taKO(riots koL x'^'oi? ayjehov imnv. He withdrew the allowances formerly paid for sacri- 



Africa. Genseric in 4()2 restored her to Leo with 
her daughter Placidia. See the Tables in those years. 
Coins: Eckhel torn. 8 p. IHS Licinia Eudoxia 
P. F. Aug.+salus re'qmblicce, Comob. or vot. XXX 
mult. XXXX. " Valentinianus et Licinia stantes." 

1 Eudoxia the elder daughter of Valentinian III : 
see the Tables A. D. 4.'i7. 4(52. Married Huneric : 
Procop. Vand. 1. 4 p. 180 C iv 8e Sj) 'Pw/x?; UXuKidia 
fxev irpoTfpov ereXevra [A. D. 450 j eVretra Se OvaXevTivi- 
avos 6 TavTTjs vlos [A. D. 455], anais apcrevos yovov, 
dvyarepe pLevroi avra 8vo i^ 'Ev8o^ias rrjs OeoSocr/ov nai- 
86s iy(via6T]v. C. 5 p. 189 B Ti^epix^os 8e ttjv t€ Eu- 
8o^iav OLfia Ev8oKia Koi Ii\aKi8ia rais avTrjs re Kal OvaXev- 
TWiavov Traialv alxfJ-dXarov elXe [A. D. 455]. — EvSoKiav 
pei> oiv Vi^ipfxps Ovcdpi)(U) Ta> rwj/ TraiScop npea^vrepco 
^vv(OKi(r€, TTjV 8e 8fj irepav {av8pi yap ^vvcoKei 'OXv^pico 
tS)V iv ^ovXfi rfj 'Pcop-aicov euSoKi/xwrarco ) ap.a rfj prjrp] 
'Ev8o^ia, e^aiTT](Tap.evov tov ^aaiXecos, es Bv^dvriov eTvefi-yj/ev 
[A. D. 462]. ^8r] 8e t6 rav ecocou Kparos es AeovTa nept- 
ea-TrjKfi. Evagrius II. "/ t] 'Pa>p.r] aXia-K€Tai' 6 8e Ft^e- 
piX°s — Xa^au TTju EuSo^/ai/ avv koI rais 8iio Qvyarpacnv 
is Toviriaca Trjv tXaaiv TTOietrat — Koi ttjv piv Trpea^vrepav 
T(ov EvSo^/a? dvyarepaiv EiSoKt'ai/ 'Ovcopix^co avvdiTTei t<b 
oiKet'o) TratSt TlXaKi8lav Se ttjv vecorepau apa Ev8o^ia rfj 
pTp-pl (Tvv depaneiais varepov ^acnXiKols is Bv^dvriov in- 
TvepneL, MapKtavov rjpepovpevos [a mistake of Evagrius]. 
— rj pev oiiv IlXa/ctSia ydpois opiXd KeXevapacn MapKiavov 

OXv^pico ravTrjp icroiKiaapievo}, bs in'Krrjpos ttjs yepovalas 
ervyx^avfv a>v, in ttjs 'Pci>p.r]s dXov(TT]s dvd ttjv KII. dcpiKO- 
p.€vos. After 16 years in Africa Eudoxia withdrew to 
Jerusalem: Theophanes p. 102 B Leonis 15° [A. D. 
47 1] rj vTiTTios Ev8oKLa koi Qeo8o(Tiov iyyovq iKKai8eKa 
Xpdvovs iv rfj 'A(f>pi.Kfj 7roir]<Taa-a p-erd tov dv8p6s avrfjs 

Ov(0pLxov /cat TralSa i^ avrov 'lX8epixov yevp-fjcraaa, 8v(r- 
(f)opov(Ta Kara tov dv8p6s cos 'Apeiavov ovtos, a8eiav fv- 
povaa Kal (pvy^ xprjaapevr} rjX^ev els 'lepoaoXvp-a, Kal — 
iTeXfvrqa-fv iv elprjvjj. Conf. Zonaram XIII torn. 2 
p. 48 D. She lived in Africa A. D. 455 — 47 1 . Hu- 
neric succeeded Genseric in 477 and died in 484. 
Ilderic son of Eudoxia was deposed in 531 : see the 
Tables in these years. He was slain in 533 : Procop. 
Vand. I. 17 p.218B VtXip^p 8i — ypa^et is Kapxr]86va 
irpos TOV d8fX(f)6v ^Ap,pdTav 'lX8{pixov p,ev Kal aXXovs — 
diTOKTivvvvai. His daughters were brought to CP. in 
534, and kindly treated : Procop. II. 9 p. 256 B jSa- 
criXfvs re 'lova-riviavos Kal tj ^aaiXls Qeo8<i)pa rds 'lX8epi- 
Xov TratSas re Kal iKyovovs TrdvTas Toiis iK OvaXevTLViavov 
^aaiXecos ^vyyeveias xpVf^<^^''V iKavols iSaprjaavTO. Ilderic 
survived the flight of his mother to Jerusalem 62 
years. He died 78 years after Eudoxia had been 
brought to Carthage. That he was in advanced age 
appears from Procopius quoted in the Tables A. D. 
531 ; for Gelimer who was heir presumptive (as Il- 
deric had no sons) was himself old, and yet was ex- 
pected shortly to succeed Ilderic. See the message 
of Justinian apud Procop. Vand. p. 200 B ovx ocria 



TTOif'is — yipovrd re Kal ^vyyevrj Kal ^aaiXia Bav8iXu)v — iv 

(jivXaKfj €XO)V K. T. X. 

m Placidia was already married to Olybrius before 
the capture of Rome in 455, according to Procopius 
quoted in note 1. Confirmed by Priscus quoted in the 
Tables at A. D. 462. Evagrius (see the preceding 
note) supposes Olybrius to have taken refuge at CP. 
in 455, and afterwards to have received Placidia from 
Marcian. But Procopius and Priscus are to be pre- 
ferred, because Placidia was not sent to CP. till after 
Marcian s death. Marcian therefore promoted the 
marriage before the capture of Rome. Theophanes 
p. 94 D agrees in this particular with Procopius and 
Priscus : 'E,v8o^ia — peTa pids Bvyarpos ILXaKi8i,as, yvvaiKos 
'OXv^plov, iTravrjXOiv i^ 'A(f)piKrjs. Gibbon Vol. 6 p. 204 
places the marriage of Placidia " after she was re- 
stored by Genseric." Zonaras XIII p. 48 D has this 
account : Ti^ipixos — ttjv Ev8oKlav ra TrpeaQvTepw tcov 
oiKeLdv vlcov 'Ovopixdi (Tvvf^fv^e, ttjv fie ye XoiTrfjv pa6a>v 
dv8pl KaTrjyyvrjadai tw TvaTptKioi 'OXv/Sptw irripn, crvv TJj 
pt]Tpl HvSo^la' evda 8vo biayayovcra iviavTovs f] ^aaiXls 
Ev8o^ia inavTJXdfv els to Bv^dvriov pfTa ttjs dvyarpos av- 
Trjs HXaKi8ias, MapKiavov ^aa-iXevovTos. An error in the 
time of the return to CP. 

n Juliana the daughter of Olybrius and Placidia 
was offered in marriage to Theoderic by Zeno after 
the two Theodei'ici had made peace with one another 
(see the Tables A. D. 478). Therefore in A. D. 479. 

Malchus p. 96 C D (Zrjvav) Kpv^a irpos OevSepixov [sc. 
TOV BaXaprjpov^ Trparret irepl (piXias. — iTrayyeXXtadai yd- 
pov avTot 8d}(TeLV ttjs 'OXv^piov 7rai86s, r] iiXXrjs Tav iv- 
86^(>)v yvvaiKav iv ttj TrdXet. After this date then Ju- 
liana married Areobindus : Chron. Pasch. p. 321 D 
OXv^pios — eaxfv yvvaiKa IlXaKi.8iav — -Kal yevva i^ alTr}s 
'OXvfipios 'lovXidvav Ttjv yevopevrjv yvvaiKa ' Ap€o^iv8ov tov 
p,eydXov tov povopaxrjcravTOS iv IlepcrtSf i^ hv yevvdrac 
'OXv^pios 6 piKpos. 

Areobindus — 'Aped/Sii/Sos ^OXv^plov KrjSea-Trjs — is men- 
tioned at A. D. 503 by Procopius and Theophanes 
quoted in the Tables p. 720. Theophanes adds p. 
125 B TovTov [sc. 'ApeojStVSov] Trpos TvaTpos iyiveTo irdir- 
TTOs ' Ape6^iv8os 6 Kara tov 0eo8oo"toii tov veov xpdvov ev8o- 
Kiprjo-as KaTa IIfpa-a)V [cos. A. D. 434 ob. A. D. 449 : 
Tables p. 618. 638]. iTexdr) 8e ' Apec')^i.v8os rw Aaya- 
Xal(f)a) dno Avayrjadias ttjs 'Ap8a^ovpiov Bvyarpos tov 
Trai86s"A(T7rapos. For Aspar see the Tables A. D. 471. 
We obtain the following pedigree. 

Ardaburius cos. A. D. 427 

I 
Areobindus cos. A. D. 434 Aspar cos. A. D. 434 

I 
Ardaburius cos. A. D. 447 

I 
Dagalaiphus cos. A. D. 461 =Dyagesthea 

Areobindus cos. A. D. 506. 
In the year 507 Juliana and Areobindus are men- 



isd 



APPENDIX. 



C. 1. 



Theodosius. fices". To this cause Zosiraus ascribes the decline of the empire : 59, 4. In the year 385 Cynegius 
was sent to abolish paganism at Alexandria: Zosim. IV. 37, 5. 6. after Maximus had been ac- 
knowledged : Zosim. Ibid. The date is confirmed by Cod. Theod. 1. 9 de paganis given in the 
Tables at May 25 A. D. 385, and aptly quoted by Reitemeier ad Zosim. 1. c. 

Theodosius had never been at Antioch in 387 : Libanius in Ellebich. tom. 2 p. 11.3 ovbinoi h\ 
avTov ihiiv. The sedition is fixed to the year 387 by the testimonies given in the Tables. Sozomen 
VII. 23 relates the facts : the levy of money, the sedition, the overthrow of the statues, the inter- 
cession of Flavianus, the pardon obtained ; but places them after the revolt of Eugenius : VII. 22 
four years below the true time. Theodoret H. E. V. 19 describes the sedition, the mission of 
Ellehichm and CcesariuSt the intercession of the monk Macedonim. He places these events after 
the death of Placidia : V. 18 (rvvi^-q ixera xpovov riva rrjy Te.\evTri^ roiovbe ri yevecrQai k. t. K. c. 19 
yvvaiKa — TocravTrjv /uera Te\€VTr]v b^^acrdai TrapoLvCav. But assigns no date to the sedition. ValesiusP 
places it at the decennalia of Theodosius A. D. 388 : " Id ipsum coUigere est ex oratione Libanii de 
reconciliatione. ibi enim inter alia exempla proponit exemplum Valentiniani junioris, qui cum a 
Bomanis Maximo tyranno adulantibus Isesus fuisset, extincto postea Maximo, urbi pepercit. Quod 
iterum affert in oratione post reconciliationem. Ex quo apparet seditionem A. D. 388 contigisse, 
post csedem Maximi, qui oppressus est V Kal. Aug. 388." But 1 There is no allusion to Valenr- 
tinian II. Libanius in the first oration p. 634 alludes to Constantine and his brother, and to Rome ; 
and again in the second oration p. 664 to Constantine and to Rome. 2 If the sedition happened 
in 388 after V Kal. Aug. it could not have happened where it is fixed by Chrysostom himself, 
namely in the beginning of the year and before Lent. 

In the war with Eugenius in 394 many marvellous circumstances are told by the ecclesiastical 



tioned in the Tables in a sedition at CP. Juliana is 
named again by Theophanes p. 135 B at the 22nd of 
Anastasius A. D. 512. 'lovkiava — dyreTroteiro a-(f)68pa 
T^s ev XakKj)86vi (rvvobov. 

Her son Olybr'ms is supposed by Pagi tom. 2 p. 438 
TiUemont tom. 6 p. 378. 563 to have been consul in 
A. D. 491. But as the young Olybr'ms could not be 
more than 10 years old at that date, this is not pro- 
bable. That consul may be called Olybrius junior to 
distinguish him from Olybrius consul in A. D. 464. 
The line of Theodosius was continued by Olybrius son 
oi Juliana: Niceph. p. 404, 405 'OXv^pios dvfip Etpr]VT]s 
Bvyarpos Mayvas dSeX^^s ^Avaaraa-iov /SacrtXe'tos* e| S)v 
eyewfj&rf lipoma yvvfj Ilpo^oV Koi eK tovtchv 'lovXidva yvvr) 
' Apaaracriov nal Ilpo/Sa yvvfj Fecopylov 'Apeo/SiVSou koI 
UXaKiSla yvvT) 'lo»awou tov eVt'/cXj/i' MovaroKaPos: namely 

7 Olybrius = Irene 

8 Proba=Probu8 



9 



Juliana 



Proba 



Placidia 



Probus, the nephew of the emperor Anastasius, is 
mentioned at the year 518 by Anon, Vales, p. 623 
tres nepotes, id est, Pompeium Probum et Hypatium. 
See the Tables, And in the war with Persia between 
524 and 527 by Procopius Pers. 1, 12 p, 33 D Upo^ov 
rbv ^Avaaracriov tov fif^aaiXevKoros d8fk(f>i8ovv, avhpa 
irarpiKiov, ^vv xpfipaai noWols is Bocnropov eirfpy^fv 
K, T. X. He is spared by Justinian in 527 : Malal, 



XVIII p, 171. He is in the sedition vIku in 532 : 
see the Tables. Chron. Pasch, p, 337 B 6 drjpos — 
(Kpa^ov Hpu^ov /SatrtXea Ttj Pcopavia. Koi e^akov Trip fls tov 
oiKov TOV avTOv TTOTpiKiov IIpO/Sou. KoX oXlyciV KovBivTmv 
iKei(f)6T] TO nvp kol f(r^ea3r]. Theophanes p, 1 57 A kut^X- 
6ev 6 brjpos — ds tov oikov Ylpo^ov apd^ovres k.t.X, — when 
his kinsmen Pompeius and Hypatius were slain. Pro- 
bus and his wife Proba were probably cousins ; Pro- 
bus might be the son or grandson of a brother or 
sister of Magna. Magna however is called by Theo- 
phanes p. 131 A not the sister but the sister-in-law 
of Anastasius : Mdym tji vvficf)]] ' Avaa-Taa-iov in dbeXt^at. 
Joannes Mustaco, who married the granddaughter 
of Olybrius and Irene, is mentioned by Theophanes 
p. 214 B at the 1st of Mauricius A. D, 582 : 'ladvvrfv 
TOV MovaTdKava aTparqybv 'Apptvias 6 ^aa-iXevs TreTroir)- 
K€v. He was employed by Mauricius against the 
Avars in Thrace in 587 : Theophylact. II, 17 p. 55 B 
Qaa-iXevs — tov 'ladvvrjv, ov dfj Mva-TOKava to7s ttoXXoIs 
(60s dTTOKoXflv, (TTpaTqyov irpofcrrqaaTO. And in the war 
to restore Chosroes in 591 : Theophylact. IV. 15 p. 
112 B V, 8 p. 129 D 130 C, V. 9 p. 131 C V, 15 

p, 139 A. Theophanes p, 224 C fKeXeva-e MavpiKios 'la>- 
dvvTjv TOV MovaTdKava tov ttJs 'Apfievias OTpanjXdTrjv dva- 
Xa^flv TO OTparevpaTa Kai fV(o6rjvai tw Naptrfj tov dpa 
(rv(TTf](raa6ai tov npos Bapdp iroXtfiov. 

o Zosim. IV, 59, 3 tots Bf] 6 QeoBoaios ^pvvKrdat to 
8r)fi6a-iov eXryf ttj ntpl Ta Upa Kal Tag dvtrias Sairavfj, /Sov^ 
Xeadai re tuvto irfpifXtlv. 

P Referred to in the Tables p. 514. 



EMPERORS. 129 

writers. This success was predicted by John the Hermit : Prosper Arcadio III et Honorio II Theodoshts. 
coss. Joannes monachus anachoreta clarus habetur. qui omatm prophetice gratia Theodosium consulm- 
tem de eventu belli quod adversus Eugenium movehat victorem futurum prcedixit. Repeated by Cas- 
siodorus. Also told by Sozomen VII. 22 and by Theodoret V. 24. Alluded to by Claudian in 
Eutrop. I. 312 — 316. Theodosius has an auspicious dream the morning before his victory : Theo- 
doret. Ibid. p. 106'4. The victory was miraculously announced at CP. : Sozomen. VII. 24 p. 743 A. 

Zosimus names as the generals of Theodosius in this war IV. 57 Timasius, Stilicho, Gainas, Saul, 
Bacurius. Richomer was now dead: IV. 55, 5. According to Zosimus Bacurius fell in the first 
battle ; according to Socrates he gained for Theodosius the victory in the second. Orosius relates 
that Arhetio during the action came over from the enemy and contributed to the success. The 
celebrated Alaric served with Theodosius on this occasion: Socrates VII. 1 'AAapixo? '^'■^ ^dpl3apos 
— r(j) /3ao-i\er ©eoSoo-io) els tov Kara Kvyeviov tov rvpavvov -nokniov aviniayricTa's, koX bia tovto 'Pto/xaiK?) 
a$lq TLixrjdeCi. Zosimus V. 5, 5 avv avr<S r-qv Evyiviov rvpavviba KaOelKe. The scene of action was 
■nepX TOV TTOTap.bv tov KakovfX€vov ^pCyhov Socrat. V. 25. — Kara tov TtOTap.ov, \j/vxp6v vba>p Philostorg. 
XI. 2. Frigidus amnis Claudian. Ill cons. Hon. 99. According to Chron. Pasch. Eugenius was 
slain in Italy : p. 305 D Aioyhrjs 6 rvpavvos [an error for Eugenius] aTteK^^akicrdr} iv 'IraAta. That 
Theodosius used his victory with moderation is attested by Zosimus IV. 58, 7- 8. 

Zosimus V. 38, 4 relates that Theodosius occupied Rome after his victory : Tr}v EvycvCov KadeXoiv 
Tvpavviha TTjv 'P(ap,r]v /careAa/3e Kal ttjs Upas ayuTT^ias eyeTTOtr/o-e iiacrav 6kiy<3>piav, T-qv bqpioaCav bairdvrjv 
TOLs Upols xopriyeiv apvqadixevos k. t. A. and that he then put down heathenism at Rome with Se- 
rena. TTiv 'Pa>ixriv KaTtka^e is rendered by the editor Bomam venit. But it may be doubted whe- 
ther Theodosius visited Rome at this time. /careAa/Se therefore means occupavit. He occupied it 
by his generals, probably Stilicho, the husband of Serena. Stilicho is named in that passage of 
Zosimus 38, 10. 

Zosimus has some errors in his account of the reign of Theodosius. 1 He relates IV. 35, 12 
that Gratian was slain at Singidunum^. 2 He supposes the Gruthungi to be first heard of in 
A. D. 386, and yet they were encountered by Valens in 369''. 3 He speaks of the embassy of 
Libanius to CP. in 387 : IV. 41, 3 alpovvTai Ai^dvcov re tov (T0(j)icrTrjv — /cat 'IXdpLov — Kal 6 pikv cro- 
(f)i(TTr]s TOV Uepl Trjs oracrea)? avT(^ re /Sao-iAei Kal Tjj yepovcrCa Xoyov eiTTO)V ta-)(y(T€ rbv /3acrtAe'a fxcTa- 
(TTrjaaL r?)s KaTa ^ AvTioytcov opyris. He was misled by an expression of Libanius^. 4 He supposes 
an eclipse in the battle with Eugenius in 394 ^ 5 Honorius accompanies his father to Italy in 
Zosimus IV. 58, V. 6 The act o^ Julius, described in Zosimus IV. 26 is placed in the reign of 
Theodosius. But Ammianus is evidence that it happened in 378. Conf. Ammianum 31. 16, 8 His 
diebus. See Tillemont tom. 5 p. 714. 

Zosimus in many parts of his narrative dwells upon the defects of Theodosius, whom he charges 
with negligence IV. 27, 1. 28, 1. The army is diminished through his mismanagement 29. 1. 
There is confusion in the armies 31, 1 — 3. He draws recruits from the barbarians 30, 1. 2. 56, 1. 
He is accused of folly and luxury 33, 5 — 8. He returns to his habits of luxury 50, 2. 3. Luxury 
again is mentioned 43, 4. 44, 1. His court is utterly corrupt 41, 1. His exactions are spoken of 
32, 2 — 4. But yet in his acts Theodosius is very opposite by the account of Zosimus himself. The 
barbarians are detected and destroyed by his vigilance IV. 45, 5. 6. He takes his enemy by sur- 
prise 45, 6. and by his rapid movement captures him at Aquileia 46, 3 — 6. On his return to 
Thessalonica, finding Macedonia ravaged by barbarians, he with five followers traces the enemy 

q See the Tables A. D. 383 p. 506. t Tables 394 p. 530. 

r See the Tables in those years. v Tables A. D. 394. See Reitemeier ad Zos. IV. 

s See the Tables A. D. 387. 3 p. 515. 517. 58, 1. 

S 



130 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

Theodosius. to their concealment in person 48, 1 — 2. 4—9. then defeats and destroys them 48, 13. and Tima- 
sim admires the courage of the emperor 49, 1. In the war with Eugenius he masters the passes 
of the Alps 58, 2. After his auxiliaries were defeated he repairs the loss, attacks the victor the 
next day, and gains a complete victory 58, f. Zosimus himself 50, 4. 5 " wonders at the cha- 
racter of Theodosius, inclined to luxury, and yet courageous and active.'' Reitemeier ad Zosimum 
IV. 33, 5 p. 593 asserts that the charge of luxury was just. But he produces no witness except 
Philostorgius XL 2 to confirm the account of Zosimus. And the Arian Philostorgius was not 
less hostile to this emperor than the heathen Zosimus. Tillemont on the contrary in describing 
the character of Theodosius inserts all that is said by his panegyrists Pacatus, Themistius, Clau- 
dian, Ambrosius, among the historical facts. We may reject this as exaggeration ; but, accepting 
all that Zosimus admits in his favour, adding the account of Victor w, and forming a judgment 
from the acts and laws of Theodosius, we shall find much to praise and to admire. 

To the laws of Theodosius quoted in the Tables may be added the following of Aug. 7 A. D. 389: 
Cod. Theod. Vol. 1 p. 121 Gothofr. 1. 2 de feriis. p. 105 Wenck. Cod. Just. III. 12, 7 Irrvppp. Va- 
lentinianus Theodosius et Arcadius AAA. Albino pf.U. mrmes diesjuhemus esse juridicos. illos tantum 
manere feriarum dies fas erit quos geminis mensibus ad requiem laboris indulgentior annus accepit, 
cestivis fervoribus mitigandis et autumnis foetibus decerpendis. Kalendarum quoque Januariarum con- 
su£fo$ dies otio mancipamus. His adjicimus natalitios dies urbium maoaimarum Homes [Apr. 21] atque 
Constantinopolis [May 11], quibus debent jura deferre^ quia et ab ipsis nata sunt. Sanctos quoque 
Paschce dies, qui septeno vel prcecedunt mtmero vel sequuntur, in eadem observations numeramus. 
Necnon et dies Solis qui repetito in se calcuh revohuntur. Parem necesse est haberi rezierentiam nostris 
etiam diebus, qui vel lucis auspida vel ortus imperii prcetulerunt. Bat. VII Id. Aug. Roma Tim^isio 
et Promote coss. Theodosius was at Rome in that year from June 9 to Sept. 1. See the Tables. 

Inscriptions: 1 Apud Gruter. p. 1019. 8 Terracinae: After an inscription to Trajan, given in 
the Tables A. D. 110 p. 96, an inscription is added as follows, " sed rudi charactere, et longo post 
tempore adjectum :" DDD. NNN. FFF. LLL. Theodosio Arcadio et Honorio PPP. {FFF. addit 
Fabret.) semper Auggg. bono rdpub. naiis. Also in Muratori p. 465. 2 Terracinae. who has 
PPP. FFF. semper Auggg. bono reip. natis. 2 A similar inscription apud Muratorium p. 265. 3 
Signise : Imppp. DDD. NNN. FFF. LLL. Theodosio Arcadio et Honorio &c. 3 Muratori p. 
265. 4 Romse : 

Martia Theudosium dmninorum Roma parentem 

Aetherio divmn venerans sacravit in orbe. 
AacADius. Arcadius. 

Appointed Augustm 16 Jan. 383, succeeded his father in the East 17 Jan. 395, died May 1 
A. D. 408 set. 31^. He was born therefore in 377- His wife Eudoxia is described above at 
p. 125 g. For the character oi Arcadius see Philostorgius XI. 3 Zosimus V. 14, 1 22, 5 24, 3. 

To the laws of Arcadius issued in the year 395, quoted in the Tables p. 534, 535, add the 
following. 

Cod. Theod. Vol. 6 p. 277 l- 13 de paganis. Rufino pf.p. Statuimm nullum adfanum vel quodlibet 
templum habere quempiam licentiam accedendi vel abominanda sacrificia celebrandi quolihet loco vel 
tempore. Igitur universi qui a catholicce religionis dogmate deviare contend/wnt ea quce nuper decreviy 

"■ Victor Epit. p. 396. 397 F^it Tlieodosius moribus cupidinem triumphandi, usque eo detestatus est, ut bella 

et corpore Trajano simUis — Mens vera prorsus similis. non moverit sed invenerit, prohibueritque lege ministe- 

— Clemens animus, communis, solo habitu differre se ria lasdva psaltriasque comessationibus adhiheri &c. 
cceteris putans, in omnes homines honorificus, verum * See the Tables iu those years. 

effusius in bonos. — Largiri magno animo magna &c. 7 That is, the laws de hareticis given in the Tables 

Ilia tamen quibus Trajanus aspersus est, vinolentiam et at 395. 4, dated March 13. 29, 



EMPERORS. 131 

properent custodire, et qum olim constituta stmt de hcereticis ml de paganis non mideant prceterire, Arcadius. 
scituri quidquid divi genitoris nostri legihus est in ipsos vel supplicii vel dispendii constitutvm nrnic 
acrius exsequendum. Sciant autem moderatores provinciarwm et his apparitio ohsecundans, primates 
etiam civitatum, defensores, necnon et curiales, procuratores possessionum nostrarmn, (in quibus sine 
timore dispendii coetus inlicitos hcereticos inire comperimus, eo quod fisco sociari non possunt, quippe 
ad ejus dominium pertinentes,) si quid adversus scita nostra tentatum^ non fuerit vindicatum atque in 
vestigio ipso punitum, omnibus se detrimentis et suppliciis suljugandos quce scitis sunt veterihus consti- 
tuta. Speciatim vero hcec in moderatores austeriora sancimus et decernimus; namque Ms non custoditis 
omni industria atque cautela non solu/m Tianc mulctam quce in ipsos constituta est exerceri^ verwm etiam 
quce in eos prmfinita est qui commissi videntur auctores. Nee his tamen remissa quibus oh contumaciam 
suam juste est inrogata^ insuper capitali supplicio judicamus officia coercenda quce statuta neglexerint. 
Dot. VII Id. Aug. CP. Olybrio et Probino coss. Vol. 4 p. 175 Heracliano com. JEgypti, Dot. prid. 
Kal. Oct. Vol. 6 p. 148 1. 29 de hsereticis. Marcello mMO. officiorwm. Sublimitatem tuam investigare 
prcecipimus an aliqui hcereticorum ml in scriniis, vel inter agentes in rebus, vel inter palatines, cum 
legum nostrarum injuria audeant militare ; quibus, exemplo divi patris nostri, omnibus et a nobis ne- 
gata est militandi facultas. Quoscunque autem deprehenderis culpce hujus adfines, cum ipsis quibus et 
in legum nostrarum et in religionum excidium conhibentiam prcsstiterunt, non solum militia eximi verum 
etiam extra moenia urbisjubebis arceri. Dat. VIII Kal. Dec. CP. Vol. 2 p. 219 Osio C. S.L. Bat. 
IV Kal. Bee. CP. I. 14, 2 p. 63 Wenck. Cod. Just. I. 37, 2 de officio prsefecti Augustalis. Bujino 
pf.p. [lege prcefecto Augustali.] Bat. prid. Non. Bee. CP. Olybrio &c. Not the noted Rufinus, who 
was already dead before this date, but another Bujinus^. 

Laws of Honorius A. D. 395, to be added to the laws quoted in the Tables. 

Cod. Theod. Vol. 4 p. 480 Theodoro pf.p. Bat. XIII Kal. Feb. Vol. 2 p. 448 Basilio p. U. Bat. 
Ill Non. Mart. Med. Vol. 2 p. 559 Bextro pp. o. Bat. XV Kal. Ap. Med. Vol. 4 p. 194 1. 2 de 
indulgentiis debitorum. Bextro pf.p. Quingena viginti octo millia quadraginta duo jugera^ quce Cam- 
pania provincia, juxta inspectorum relationem et veterum Tnonumenta chartarum, in desertis et squalidis 
locis habere dignoscitur, hisdem provincialibus concessimus, et chartas superjiuce describtionis cremari 
censemus. Bat. IX Kal. April. Med. Vol. 3 p. 187 Bextro p.p. Bat. prid. Id. April. Med. Vol.2 
p. 560 Bextro pp. o. Bat. VI Kal. Maii Med. Vol. 2 p. 593 Bextro pf.p. Bat. XVII Kal. Jun. 
Med. Vol. 4 p. 267 p. 481 p. 482 Ennoio proc. Afric. Bat. XVII Kal. Jun. Med. Vol. 4 p. 268 
Andromacho p. U. Bat. VIII Kal. Jun. Med. Vol. 5 p. 78 provincialibus Afric. Bat. VII Kal. 
Jun. Med. Vol. 2 p. 369 ad Andromachum p.U. Bat. prid. Non. Jun. Med. Vol. 1 p. 84 II. 1, 8 
p. 91 Wenck. Pasiphilo suo salutem. Bat. VIII Id. Junii Med. Gothofr. Vol. 2 p. 593 ad provin- 
ciales et ad proconsules. Bat. XVII Kal. Jul. Med. Vol. 4 p. 133 Messiano com. B. P. Bat. XVII 
Kal. Jul. Med. Vol. 4 p. 484 Bextro pf.p. Bat. XVII Kal. Jul. Med. Vol. 5 p. 307 Eusebio con- 
sulari Sicilies. Bat. XI Kal. Jul. Med. Vol. 5 p. 308 Have, Vincenti K.NB. Bat. Ill Non. Jul. 
Med. Vol. 1 p. 150 Andromacho pf.p. Bat. prid. Non. Jul. Med. Vol. 2 p. 594 Andromacho p.U. 
Bata prid. Id. Jul. Med. Vol. I p. 405 Petronio vicario Hispaniarum. Bat. VI Kal. Aug. Med. 
V. 13, 35 p. 315 Wenck. Cod. Just. XI. 69, 3 Hadriano com. S. L. Bat. VIII Id. Aug. Gothofr. 
Vol. 2 p. 16 Florentiop. U. Bat. XVIII Kal. Oct. Vol. 4 p. 485 Theodoro pf.p. Bat. IV Kal. Oct. 

z Wenck p. 63 observes that in Cod. Ambros. the banc igitur sententiam locum ita ut jam editus est 

title \s, Rufino ppo. Augtal. and alters this to pf.p. correxi," But if the noted i^w/wMS ;>/■.;>. is meant, the 

" quum Rufinus pf. p. sit notissimus prsefectus autem date Dec. 4 cannot stand ; for his successor Casarius 

Augustahs hujus nominis ignoretur — censeo hbra- was aheady in office at Nov. 30. See the Tables 

rium, cum scriptum esset prafecto prcetorio. Prafec- p. 534. 
ius Augustalis — hsec ad inscriptionem retraxisse. Ad 

S 2 



132 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

AacADius. Med. Vol. 2 p. 660 Florentino [sic] p. U. Dot. Id. Oct. Med. Vol. 2 p. 65 Dextro pf.p. Bat. Kal. 
Nov. BrixicB. Vol. 3 p. 426 Eulogio com. R. P. Bat. XVIII Kal. Bee. Med. I. 15, 14 p. 71 
Wenck. Eusehio pf.p. Bat. XIV Kal. Jan. Bomce. Gothofred. Vol. 4 p. 486 Ennoio suo sal. Bat. 
VII Kal. Jan. Vol. 4 p. 34 Ennoio^ suo sal. Bat. XII Kal. Jan. [lege VII Kal. Jan.] Med. 
All Oil/brio et Probitio coss. 

Laws of Arcadius A. D. 396 ; not inserted in the Tables. 

Cod. Theod. Vol. 2 p. 219 Martiniano C. S. L. Bat. XV Kal. Feb. CP. Arcadio IV et Honorio 
III AA. corns. Vol. 2 p. 152 Oslo magistro officiorum. Bat. XV Kal. Feb. Vol. 2 p. 173 Oslo 
mag. off. Bat. VII Kal. Feb. CP. Vol. 2 p. 153 Gcesariop.p. Bat. XVI Kal. Mart. CP. Vol. 5 
p. 129 Herodi .... Bat. XVI Kal. Mart. Vol. 2 p. 154 Claudio p.TJ. Bat. XV Kal. Mart. CP. 
Vol. 1 p. 326 III. 19, 6 p. 194 Wenck. EutycUano pf.p. Bat. VI Kal. Mart. CP. Gothofr. Vol. 2 
p. 175 Ccesario p.p. Bat. IV Kal. Mart. CP. Vol. 1 p. 337 IV. 4, 3 p. 205 Wenck. ^ternali 
proc. Asice. Bat. XII Kal. April. Gothofr. Vol. 4 p. 333 ^ternali proc. Asice. Bat. XII Kal. 
April. Vol. 5 p. 308 Ccesario pf.p. Bat. IX Kal. April. Vol. 3 p. 392 ad Paulum .... Bat. V 
Kal. April. CP. Vol. 1 p. 22 III. 1, 7 p. 156 Wenck. Bemigiopf Augustali. Bat. Ill Kal. April. 
CP. Vol. 1 p. 249 Bemigio pf.p. Augustali. Bat. Ill Kal. April. CP. Vol. 2 p. 318 Ccesario p.p. 
Bat. XV Kal. Maii. Vol. 3 p. 446 Laurentio com. B. P. Bat. VIII Kal. Maii CP. Vol. 5 p. 357 
Cod. Just. XI. 45, 1 1. 1 de Maiuma. Ccesario pf.p. Clemsnti<B nostrce placuit ut Maiumce provincia- 
libus Icetitia redderetur &c. Bat. VII Kal. Maii CP. Cod. Theod. Vol. 2 p. 646 ad Ccesarium pf.p. 

Bat. VIII Id. Maii CP. Vol. 4 p. 170 prcesidi {Frygice) Palcestince. Bat.prid. Kal. Jul. CP. 

Vol. 5 p. 253 Africano p. U. pp. Ill Kal. Aug. CP. Vol. 3 p. 23 Maximo pf.p. Bat. Ill Non. 
Aug. CP. Vol. 4 p. 489 Cod. Just. II. 7, 3 Africano p. U. Bat. Ill Non. Aug. CP. Vol. 2 p. 30 
Ccesario pf.p. Bat.prid. Id. Aug. CP. Ibid. Africano p.TJ. Bat.prid. Id. Aug. CP. Vol.3 p. 278 
ad Ccesarium p.p. Bat.prid. Kal. Sept. CP. Vol. 1 p. 331 plenius V. 1, 5 p. 275 Wenck. Aureliano 
pf.p. Bat.prid. Non. Oct. CP. Gothofred. Vol. 1 p. 297 EutycUano pf.p. Bat. VI Kal. Bee. CP. 
Vol. 4 p. 616 Eutychiano pf.p. Bat. XVIII Kal. Jan. CP. Vol. 4 p. 171 EutTiymio vie. Asice. Bat. 
XII Kal. Jan. Vol. 2 p. 65 Simplicio pf.p. Bat. X Kal. Jan. CP. Vol. 5 p. 401 Claudio p. U. 

Bat. VIII Kal. Jan. CP. Vol. 2 p. 66 p.U. Bat. IIII Kal. Jan. CP. Ibid. Eutychiano 

pf.p. Bat. prid. Kal. Jan. CP. 

Vol. 5 p. 309 Ccesario pf.p. pp. Begio. 
'' All these Arcadio IV et Honorio III A A. coss. 

Laws of Honorius in A. D. 396 : Cod. Theod. Vol. 2 p. 438 Florentino p.U. Bat. XIV Kal. 
Maii Med. Vol. 2 p. 410 ad populum. Bat. VI Kal. Maii Med. Vol. 4 p. 269 Messalce pf.p. Bat. 
XIV Kal. Jun. Vol. 2 p. 318 Hilario p.p. Bat. Ill Kal. Jun. Med. Vol. 2 p. 320 Hilariop.p. 
Bat. XVI Kal. Jul. Vol. 5 p. 165 Eusebio pf.p. Bat. VII Id. Jul. Vol. 5 p. 79 Eusebio pf.p. 
Bat. X Kal. Jan. Med. Vol. 4 p. 104 Florentino p.U. Bat. VI Kal. Jan. Med. Vol. 4 p. 160 
Hilario. Bat. V Kal. Jan. Med. These also Arcadio IV et Honorio III A A. coss. The rest are 
given in the Tables. 

A. D. 398 Laws of Arcadius : Cod. Theod. Vol. 1 p. 87 II. 1, 10 p. 93 Wenck. ad EutycUanwm, 
pf.p. Bata III Non. Feb. CP. Gothofred. Vol. 5 p. 131 Eutychiano pf.p. Bat. Non. Mart. CP. 

Vol. 2 p. 320 Bat. VIII Kal. Ap. CP. Vol. 2 p. 321 Eutychiano p.p. Bat. X Kal. Jun. CP. 

Vol. 5 p. 312 Eutychiano pf.p. Bat. V Non. Jul. CP. Vol. 6 p. 68 1. 32 de episcopis. Ccpsario pf.p. 
Si quos forte episc<^i deesse sibi clericos arbitrantur, ex mmiachorum numero rectius ordinabunt, non 
obmxios publicis privatisque rationibus cum invidia teneant, sed habeant jam probaios. Bat. VII Kal. 

* Ennodio in Vol. 5 p. 79 quoted in the Tables p. 534. 



EMPERORS. 133 

Aug. Vol. 3 p. 310 1. 16 de poenis. Vol. 3 p. 361 1. 3 de his qui ad ecclesias confugiunt, Vol. 4 Abcadius. 
p. 270 1. 57 de appellationibus, EutycUano pf.p. Dot. VI Kal. Aug. Mnizo^. Vol. 6 p. 70 1. 33 
de episcopis. Eutychiano pf.p. Dot. Ill Kal. Aug. Minizo. Vol. 5 p. 312 Severo p.U. Dot. V Id. 
Oct. OP. Vol. 4 p. 493 EutycUano pf.p. Dat. VIII Kal. Nov. CP. Vol. I p. 24 I. 2, II p. 23 
Wenck. EutycUano pf.p. Dat. VIII Id. Dec. CP. Gothofr. Vol. 3 p. 527 Oslo magistro officiorum. 
Dat. XVIII Kal. Jan. CP. All Honorio A. IV et EutycUano coss. The rest in the Tables. 

Laws of Honorius A. D. 398 : Cod. Theod. I. 5, 11 p. 31 Wenck. Vincentio pf.p. Dat. Ill Id. 
Feb. Med. Gothofr. Vol. 4 p. 492 Theodoro pf.p. Dat. Id. Feb. Med. Vol. 5 p. 230 Vol. 5 p. 258 
Theodoro pf.p. Dat. prid. Id. Ap. Med. Vol. 5 p. 166 Vol. 6 p. 66 Theodoro pf.p. Dat. VII Kal. 
Mail Med. 1. 12, 6 p. 60 Wenck. Victorio proconsuli Africce et Dominatori mcario Af rices. Dat. 
XII Kal. Jun. Mediolani. Vol. 1 p. 90 Theodoro pf.p. Dat. IX Kal. Jun. Med. II. 1, II p. 93 
Wenck. Cod. Just. X. 19, 6 Theodoro pf.p. Dat. IX Kal. Jun. Med.*" Cod. Theod. I. 11 , 2 p. 56 

Wenck Dat. IX Kal. Jul. Med. I. 7, 3 p. 42 Wenck. Stiliconi magistro militum. Dat. Id. 

Sept. Med. Gothofr. Vol. 3 p. 446 Firmino com. R. P. Dat. VI Kal. Nov. Med. Vol. 3 p. 396 
Firmino com. S. L. Dat. Kal. Nov. Med. Cod. Just. I. 24, I Theodoro pf p. Dat. XII Kal. Jan. 
Med. VIII. 12, 13 Cod. Theod. Vol. 5 p. 311 Theodoro pf.p. Dat. Kal. Jan. Med. Kal. Jan. in 
both the codes; but Gothofred. refers this law to XII Kal. Jan. All these Honorio A. IV et 
EutycUano coss. The other laws of 398 are given in the Tables. 

A. D. 399 to the Laws of Honorius add the following. Cod. Theod. I. 12, 7 p- 60 Wenck. Mes- 
salcs pf.p. et prceposito annoncs. Dat. Ill Kal. Oct. Altini. I. 5, 12 p. 31 Wenck. Messalce pf. p. 
Dat. V Id. Oct. Both Theodoro V. C. cos. 

A. D. 400 Laws of Honorius : Cod. Theod. III. 20, 1 p. 1 95 Wenck. Flaviano pf.p. Dat. Ill 
Non. Mart. Med. Gothofr. Vol. 4 p. 84 Apollodoro procons. Africce. Dat. prid. Id. Mart. Vol. 2 
p. 293 Stilichoni magistro militum. Dat. XIIII Kal. Ap. Med. Vol. 2 p. 41 1 Vincentio pf.p. Gal- 
liarum. Dat. XVI Kal. Jun. Med. Vol. 4 p. 273 Pompeiano pf.p. Dat. Kal. Jun. Med. Vol. 5 
p. 83 Porrupeiano proc. Afric. Dat, XVII Kal. Jul. Med. 1. 15, 15 p. 72 Wenck. ad Vincentium 
pf.p. Dat. XIV Kal. Jul. Med. Gothofred. Vol. 4 p. 6I7. 618 Vincentio pfp. Galliarum. Dat. 
Ill Kal. Jul. Med. Vol. 4 p. 498 Vol. 5 p. 18 Pompeiano proc. Africce. Dat. prid. Kal. Jul. Med. 
Vol. I p. 419 Vincentio pfp. Galliarum. Dat. IV Id. Jul. Med. Vol. 2 p. 563 Messalce p.p. 0. 
Dat. XV Kal. Dec. Vol. 3 p. 403 Messalce p.p. Dat. VI Kal. Dec. Med. Vol. 1 p. 155 Vol. 2 
p. 564 Vol. 4 p. 186 Messalce pf.p. Dat. V Kal. Dec. Med. I. 5, 13 p. 31 Wenck. ad Messalam 
pf.p. Dat. Kal. Dec. Med. Gothofr. Vol. 2 p. 565 Vincentio p.p. 0. Dat. V Id. Dec. Med. These 
JStilichone et Aureliano coss. The other laws in the Tables p. 549. 

Inscriptions : 1 Grut. p. 287- 2 Romse : D. N. Fl. Arcadio Pio Felici victori ac triumfatori semper 
Augusto Ccecina Decius Albinus V. C. prcefectus urbi'^ vice sacra judicans devotus numini majestatique 
ejus. 2 Grut. p. 1051. 9 Bononise: B. M. Uc requiescunt duo fratres innocentes, Constantius Neofitus 
qui vixit annis octo m. II d. VI, depositus III Id. Novemb. cons. DD. NN. Arcadi. et Honor. Augg. 
Justus Fidelis qui vixit annis VII. This belongs either to A. D. 394, or 396, or 402. 3 Murat. p. 

265. 5 Romse : Imperatoribus invictissimis principib DD.NN. Arcadio et Honorio semp. Aug. ... 

. . . senatus populusque Bomanus vindicata republica et Africa re Given more completely from 

Gruter in the Tables A. D. 398 p. 542. But Muratori adds " In latere basis: C. Jubentius V. C, 
p. Ur. DD." The inscription refers to the fall of Gildo. 4 Murat. p. 466. 1 Gruter p. 287. 1 
Romse : Imppp. clementiss. etfeliciss. toto orbe victoribbb. DDD. NNN. Arcadio Honorio et Theodosio 

^ Variously written Mnizo, Mnyzo, Minizo in these ^ Albinus, who was thus preef. Urbi before the death 
laws. of Arcadius May 1 A. D. 408, was again prof. Urbi 

c VIII Kal. Jun. Cod. Just. in the year 414. See the Tables 414. 3. 4 p. 587. 



134 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

AacADius. Auggg. ad permne indicium triumph, quod Gotliorum nationem in omne cevwm dom. eoctra armim simu- 

lacris eorum tropTieisque decora S. P.Q. B. totius opens splendore. After the defeat of Rador 

gaisus in A. D. 405. 

HoKORius. HoNORIUS. 

Born Sept. 9 A. D. 384, appointed Augustus 10 Jan. 393, succeeded his father in the West 
17 Jan. 395, died in August 423 e. 

For the entrance of the Vandals into Gaul in the reign of Honorius A. D. 406, see the Tables 
p. 564. 566. The date proposed, May 31, is more probable than Dec. 31, because 1 all the au- 
thorities in which the consuls are mentioned name the consuls of the year 406 as the epoch of the 
event; 2 it was two complete years before the autumn of 408 f; 3 it was three years before the 
occupation of Spain, which they entered in September or October 4095. 

An inscription is extant in Muratori p. 466. 3 Romse : Salvis acflorentibus DD.NN. Honorio et 
Theodos. perpetuis semper Augg. Ccecina Decius Acinatius Alhinus V. C.proef. urhi [A. D. 414] vice 
sacra judicans cellam tepidariam incUnato omnipariete labent. de qua cellarum ruina pendehat erecto- 
rum afundamsntis arcuum duplid munitione fulcivit D. N. M. Q. eorum. Compare an inscription 

given in the Tables A. D. 414 p. 587. 2 Muratori p. 466. 2 Gi-uter p. 192. 2 Romse : JDD. JVN. 

cetemis prindpihus Honorio et Arcadio Anicius Acilius Glabrio Faustus V. C.prcaf. urbis vice sacra 
judic. fatali casu suhversam in formam prisci usus restituit. 



I Tables A. D. 407- 



Usurpers in the reign of Honorius. 
Marcus 
Chratian 

Constantinus^: Tables 407. 408. 409. Slain in 41 1». 
Constans : Tables 407. 408. 409. Slain in 411. 

Gerontiusl^ Tables A. D. 409. 411. 
Maximus J 

Germtius according to Olympiodorus apud Phot. Cod. 80 p. 184 made his son Maximus Au- 
gustus, pursued Constans and slew him in Gaul at the time at which Constantius was sent by Ho- 
norius. He adds that Constantino was besieged in Arelate by Constantius and Ulphilas; that 
Germtius fled at their approach, was besieged by his own soldiers, and slew himself: TipdvTios — 
<j>€vy€i., Kol KaTaXr](l)d€h. on eyKparm VPX^ ^^'^ oIkclov arpaTov, inr avr&v kKUVtov €infiov\ev€TaL' irvp 
yap Kara ttjs olKias avrov avrj'^av' 6 b^ irpos tovs (TravaardLVTas Kparep&s €[xa,\fTo iva (TvvayoiVLcrTTjv 
€X(ov ^AXavbv to yivos, ds bovKovs avrov apL6p.ovp.ivov. t4X.os tov re 'AXavbv Kal rrjv yvvaiKa, tovto 
TipoOvpLOVfxivavs, avaipei, fTTiKarao-^ci^et b\ Ka\ kavTov. Mdi^t/xos 8e 6 Tials ravra p.a6(iiv itpo'i tovs vtto- 
(TTtovbovs <t>€vy€L ^ap^&povs. Sozomen IX. 13 relates that Gerontius appointed his dependent Maxi- 
mus — rbv avTov oUelov — and placed him in Tarraco ; that he marched himself into Gaul and slew 

c See the Tables in those years. Hujus loco Constantinus, ex infima militia, propter 

f See the Tables p. 566. 572. Add Orosius VII. solam spem nominis sine merito virtutis eligitur, qui 

40 Ante biennium Romance irruptionis — gentes Alano- continuo ut invasit imperium in Gallias transiit. 

rum Suevorum Vandalorum multceque cum his alia » Consiantine is named in an inscription apud Gru- 

Francos proterunt, Rhenum transeunt, Gallias inva- terum p. 1 052. 6 in Treveris : fvda Ktirai Eixre^ia iv 

dunt. f^PV^ ovaa UpoKctpiri diro I. Ka>pr)s 'ASBapav ^rftraa: Tiptp: 

K Tables p. 576 A. D. 409. <>' ^poj irSyv i iv {mareia 'Ovapiov to t]' [A. D. 409] koI 

^ Orosius VII. 40 His [sc. Alanis Suevis Vandalis'\ Kavaravrivov r6 a, prjvl Ilapripov i^ vp^p^ *<»* /3. fv f«- 

per Gallias bacchantibus, apud Britannias Gratianus, prfvrj. July 12 A. D. 409. 
municeps ejusdem insula, tyrannus creatur et occiditur. 



EMPERORS. 135 

Constans at Vienne ; that not long after Gerontim was besieged by his own soldiers in his house Honohhjs. 
and slew himself. Then followed the capture of Gonstantine at Arelate : Sozom. IX. 14^^. Orosius 
VII. 42 has this account : Constantem Constantini filiwm Gerontius comes suus, vir nequam ac im- 
prohus, apud Viennam interfecit^ atque in ejus locum Maximum quendam substituit. Ipse 'oero Ge- 
rontius a suis militibus occisus est. 

Maximus was deposed in 412 and slain in 422 ^ Coins o( Maxitnus are given by Eckhel torn. 8 
p. 178 Z>, iV^. Maximus P. F. Aug. + victoria Auggg. or victoria Bomanor. 

Attalus^. Tables 409. 410. 414. 416. 
Jovinus"^. Tables A. D. 411. 412. 413. 
Sehastianus. Tables 412. 413. 
Heraclianus. 413 col. 1. 2. 3. 

Orosius VII. 42 Heraclianus Africa comes missus., cum Attalus umbram gestaret imperii, Africam 
strenue adversum judices ah eo missos tutatus [A. D. 409], consulatum adsecutus est ; quo elatus super- 
cilio Sdbinum domssticum suum — generum adlegit ; cum quo quorundam periculorum suspiciones dum 
patitur, fecit, atque aliquandiu Africana annona extra ordinem detenta, ipse tandem cum immensa^ 
certe temporihus nostris satis incredihili classe navium, Bomam contendit. — Occur su comitis Marini 
territus et infugam versus, arrepta nam Carthaginem solus rediit, atque ita continuo militari manu 
interfectus est. Sahinus gener ejus CP. fugit, unde post aliquantum temporis retractus exilioque dam- 
natus est. As Heraclianus was consul Jan. 1 A. D, 413, his revolt was after that date. 

CoNSTANTius, who Overthrew Gonstantine and caused the fall of Gerontius, was sent into Gaul Constantius. 
in 411, was consul in 414, married Placidia in 417? was declared Augustus in 421 and died 7 
months afterwards in the same year. See the Tables in these years. Coins apud Eckhel 
torn. 8 p. 175 D. N. Gonstantius P. F. Aug. + victoria Auggg. B. V. Gomoh. or victoria Augustorum. 
B. V. Gon. 

TheODOSIUS II. Theodosius 

Born 10 Apr. 401, Augustus 10 Jan. 402, succeeded his father I May 408, married Athmais^ 
7 June 421, died 28 July 450p. 

k Sozomen also mentions the faithful follower, and gloria Romanorum. or invicta Roma ceterna. Conob. vel 

the wife of Gerontius, who perished with him : Tepov- Comob. or restitutio reip. Conob. or victoria Romano- 

Tios — 8ia<r<odTJvai dvvdfievos ovx etXfro, KaracrxeOels fpari rum. PST. or VOt. V mult. X. 

Nowtp^tay rfjs avTov yapirris' iTep\ Se tt]v eo), irvp ip^a- ^ Coins apud Eckhel tom. 8 p. 179 D. N. Jovinus 

\6vTa>v T§ oIkio. t5)v arpaTuoTciv, ovk e^av 'Xomop amTTjpias P. F. Aug. + restitutor. reip. or victoria Aug. vel Augg. 

eXiriba eKOvros tov (Tvvovtos ai/ra 'A\avov drrorepvei Trjv vel Auggg. or VOt. V mult. X. D.N. Sebastianus P. F. 

Kf(f)a\f]v, jLirra 8e ravra Koi rrjs IBias yaperrjs oko(pvpopivrfs Aug. -\- Victoria Augg. Con. vel Kont. 

Ka\ perd 8aKpva>v Trpocradoixrqs eavTrjv ra ^icfiei, Koi Trplv o For the history of Athenais or Eudocia consult 

11^' erf pots yeveadai irapd tov dvBpos dTTodavelv ahovarfs. the authorities quoted in the Tables at A, D. 421. 

— TepovTios 8e rpiTov eavrov rw |i'0fi iraiaas, as ov Kai- Add Malalas XIV p. 52 — 55, who has the same nar- 

pLav Xa/3a)i/ rjadfTo, (nrairdpfvos to irapd tov prjpov ^i(f}i8iov rative as the Paschal Chronicle. Zonaras XIII tom. 2 

KUTa TTJs Kap8ias ffKacre. p. 40 C gives the same facts : GfoSoo-ico toIvxiv reXeiJ' 

1 Tables p. 582. 600. rjypevco ds ptlpaKas f) d8eX(j)Tj novX^fpta pvrjarevfTai ttjv 

™ De Attala Philostorgius XII. S^AttoXoj/ ('AXdpixos) i^ 'A6rivS)V Ev8oKiav, koKXovs pev exovaav TrepirrSis cro<f)las 

avTois dpayopevfi ^acriXea. ovtos 8e 'lobi' pev rjv to yivos, 8e peraaxova-av TravToBanris' rj dvydrTjp pev ^v AeovTiov 

"EXXtji/ 8e rfjp 86^av, ttjs avTris fie noKeas eirapxos. ovtos tivos (f)iKo(r6(f)ov [male Chron. Pasch. 'HpaKktiTovl 'A- 

8e [sc. Alaricus^ Xoiirov peTd Tr]v dvayopevaiv — tov "At- 6T]vr}6ev wppijpevov, 'Adrjvats S* wvopd^tTO. os yvovs e^ eVt- 

raXoi' Xa^av, koi arparqyov crx^pa nXrjpwv avra, em. rfjv arrjpTjs eiruxTJcrai peXXovaav ttjv BvyaTcpa XapTrpS>s 8iaTi- 

'Pd^fvvav Kaff 'Ovapiov orpaTevei. Coins are given in depevos ttjv pev irepiovcriav avTov toIs viols KaTaXeXonre 

Eckhel tom. 8 p. 180 Priscus Attalus P. F. Aug.-\- (Suo d^^vav OvdXepios koI Teveaios [reVtos Malal. Chron. 



136 



APPENDIX. 



C. 1. 



Theodosius 

II. 



Jornandes Success, p. 705 reckons 43 years to Theodosius : loco patris successif in imperio, ado- 
lescens egrepius, regnavitque annos quadraginta tres. In Paulus Diaconus XIV p. 544 Theodosius 
having reigned 21 years with Honorius, and 27 after his death, of which 25 with Valentinian III^ 
— apud CP. morho consu/mptus obiit ibique sepultus est. The years are rightly given, being computed 
from the elevation of Theodosius in 402. In Evagrius I. 22, quoted in the Tables A. D. 450 p. 640, 
for oKTti) Kol rpi6.K0VTa we may read oKTUi kcu Tea-a-apaKovra. Zonaras XIII torn. 2 p. 45 A Ornia-Kn 
h'k 6 fiaa-Lkevs @€ob6(rtos TTeirrr)KovTovTrji y€v6ix€vos, koI crx^ebbv &TTavTas oi)s ifBLta cvLavrovs /3acriA.eu<ras, 
/Spacer? fxcv tiSlw avv tw marpX tovs 8' oKKovs Kaff kavToV ttjv 8' alrCav rfjs avTOv reXevT?;? ol jxev vocrov 
yeyov4vai. <f)a(nv, ol 8' €v dripa ol ekavvovrt (Tvimecr^lv tov imTov l(TT6pr]arav , koI TrkrjyivTMV avT<^ Kaipitav 
fiepoiv fjL€T okiyov Oaviiv. 

In A. D. 415 1. 58 de hsereticis, partly given in the Tables p. 590, proceeds thus : after iteran- 
dum. Ne eo quoque extra poenam relegationis faturo^ qui sponte adque ultro passus fuerit ad secundum 
se haptisma et geminata semel indulta fidei mysteria imhui temere, vel perperam devocari. Pari poena 
deportationis absque alicujus intercessione in Eunomianos clericos processura, si conventus exercere vel 
in hac inclyta urbe vel in provinciis civitatibus ac territoriis, vel creare ausi fuerint clericos pesti/eri 
dogmatis vel creari. Confirmatis itaque prioribus legibus, quce promulgatce sunt tarn circa inhibendos 
conventus Eunomianorum quam etiam circa inter dictas novissimas voluntates aut liber alitates, illud 
addimus^ ut^ si qui de Eunomianis speciali beneficio meruerant ut eis testamenti /actio indulgeretur vel 
donandi vel accipiendi ex largitate licentia tribuatur, priventur hoc beneficio^ et pares ceteris sint qui- 
bus pares sunt in dogmatis pravitate. Nulli penitus testari liceat Eunomiano in Eunomianum, nulli 
ejusdem perversitatis ex testamento quicquam percipere Eunomiani. neino donet^ nee Eunomianus ab 



Pasch.]) tij be BvyarpX iKorop xpv<Tlvovs povovs 8o6rjvai 
€TTi(TKr]'^f , ypdyjras dpKtlv alr^ Tr]V tvxt]V avTrjs. tSdv yovv 
avyyevmv avTrjs (rcpfrepKrapevaiv ttjv iraTpiKTjV ovtriav, fj 
'Adijvats vopipov V6 olntlov dir^ru Xd^os, Koi rj^lov tovs 
d8(\(f>ovs {Jifj Kara ras tov tvarpos diadrjuas ddtKovs ovaas 
TTOifiv. 01 8e icai rrjs oIkios avTrjv e^acrav Trfs TraTpLKrjs. Se^a- 
ptvrj Toiwv avTqv fj itpbs firjrpos Beta dveXrjkvdev (Is KII. 
Koi TTJs UovXxfpias eSeovro k. t. X, — ^aiTTL^ei avrfjv en 
ovcrap dpvrjTov, Koi 'EvSoKiav peTOVopdaacra ra d8ek(j}6i rav- 
TTjv GfoSocrto) (TV^fvywcn Koi biaSrjpaTi raiviol koi Avyov- 
arav Kokel. — ^ be ^atrtXl? EySoKia fieTOKakelToi, roiis 
dbe\(f>ovs, Koi prjbev avrols prjviaacra, dkkd ;^aptT'as fiaXKop 
opokoyrjcracra, i)S ovk av TV)(ovcra Trjs ^aciXeias el fir] nap' 
avTwv e^oacBri, — tov fiev Teveaiov eirap)(ov Tav 'tkXvptmv 
bia TOV ^acriXeas ireTroirjKe tov be Ovdkepiov enprfcre pd- 
yicTTpov. Her daughter Eudoxia was born in 422. 
See above p. 126 k. The wife of Theodosius was 
declared Augusta Jan. 2 A. D. 423 (Tables). In 444 
Eudocia retired to Jerusalem : Tables p. 630. Conf. 
Zonaram XIII p. 44 C D. She lived there many 
years, and died according to Theophanes p. 94 A in 

the 5th of Marcian A. D. 454 : rw avra h-et ereXev- 
TTjcrev EvboKia ev 'lepoaoXvpois iroXXd KaraXei'^aaa rats 
eKicXTjaiais. Followed by Cedrenus p. 346 C tw e rrtt 
— EiboKia f) Toi) Qeoboariov yvvrj ev lepoaoXvpois TeXexrra 
iroXXd KaTaXei-^aaa k. t. X. Conf. Chron. Pasch. p. 
316 D. But her death is placed at Oct. 20 A. D. 460 
by Cyrillus monachus in vita Euthymii abbatis apud 
Pagium torn. 2 p. 364 : Beat a Eudocia ecclesias quam- 
plurimas Christo cedificavit &c. — in manus Dei spiri- 
tum commendavit mense Octobri 20", 14" indictione. 



Confirmed by Nicephorus XIV. 50 [p. 559 B] apud 
S. Basnage Annal. torn. 3 p. 502 who places the death 
of Eudocia at the 4th year of Leo, set. 6/. The 4th 
of Leo commenced Feb. 7. the 14th indiction Sept. 1 
A. D. 460. The 67th year in October 460 would sup- 
pose her to be 27 at her marriage in June 42 1 . 

Some literary works of Eudocia are described by 
Photius : Cod. 183 dveyvaxrdr) peTd(f)pa(ns ttjs oKTUTev- 
Xov' ripaiov 8' avTTjv peTpov peTenoiei. Xoyoi S* rjcrav rj KaTo. 
dpidpov /cat ToprjV tS>v dpei.(})6evT(ov, EvboKias be Trjs fiaai- 
Xibos ev eTriypa(f)ais ttovov eXeyev rj /3//3Xoj. — ots b eXeyev 
f) l^i^Xos Ttfv TO. perpa to2s Xoyois Texvrjaapevrfv TXeyev 
Ue' 

bevTepitjv Koi rrivbe Qeov Qepibos Kape ^i^Xov 
EvboKir) ^aaiXeia AeovTids evnarepeia. 
Idem Cod. 184 dveyvaxrdrj tw avra perpa Koi Trjs avTrjs 
yXaxTcrrjs peTd(f)pacris Trpo(f)r]TiKcbv Xoyav, tov tc deoTreaiov 
Za^aplov KoX tov icXeivov AavirjX' rj avrr) be X^P''^ ''"'^ 
TexviTov buTTpene Kav tovtois. epirepielxovro be r^ Tevxei 
T<a avTO) TOV peTpov ;(apaKT^pi Xoyoi y els pdprvpa tov 
KvTrpiavov, k. t. X. 

Among the coins of Eudocia or Eudoxia the fol- 
lowing are given to the wife of Theodosius by Eckhel 
tom. 8 p. 184. 1 JEl. Eudocia Aug. + vot. XX mult. 
XXX. Comb. 2 ^l. Eudoxia Jug.+vot. XXX mult. 
XXXX. B. Conob. 3 ^l. Eudoxia Aug. + " sine 
epigraphe. crux in laurea." 4 JS/. Eudocia Aug. + 
" sine epigraphe. crux in laurea." 5 See the Tables 
A. D. 444. 3. 

P See the Tables in those vears. 



EMPERORS. 137 

Eunomiano Uheralitatem preedii vel domus accipiat^ etiamsi per interpositam alterius sectce penonam Theodosius 
vel titulum venditionis imaginarice fraus qucEdam legi fuerit excogitata. Tantvm hi qui ah intestato 
venturi sunt ex legihus in eorum ex hcsreditate succedant, adque his locus pateat successionis ad quos 
jura sanguinis legitimas intestatorum deferunt hcereditates, Conventicula etiam eorum in domos si qua 
fuerint ml possessiones, pro norma generalium sanctionum cErario nostro absque dubio socientur; sibi 
hoc inputante domino qui interdictos ccetus sciens passus est sub tecto proprio vel in prcedio rustico exer- 
ceri. Illo incunctanter exsequendo, ut ubi ubi repperti fuerint Eunomianorum clerici qui auctores iterati 
baptismatis extiterunt, conprehensi in perpetuum subpoena deportationis ad exilium deducantur. Etiam 
illo addendo ut nemo Eunomianus vel milifet vel provinciam sub administratione cujuslibet officii sus- 
cipiat gubernandam Sj-c. 

Joannes. Tables 423 — 42.5. Joannes is described by Procopius Vand. I. 3 p. 182 D, who Joannes. 
gives him 5 years : irivre yovv h-q r-qv TvpavvCba <i\<iiv y.^rplta's c^rjyricraTo^. But his reign began after 
the death of Honorius Aug. A. D. 423, and he was slain before Oct. 23 A. D. 425. 

Coins : Eckhel torn. 8 p. 186 D. N. Johannes P. F. Aug. -\- solus reipublicce. or victoria Augg. 
vel Auggg. Conob. or victoria Augustorum. XP. or Urbs Roma, or " sine epigraphe crux in laurea."" 
He is consul in an inscription apud Muratorium p. 403. 1 extra Romam : Consulatu Johanni Aug. 
Hie requiescit Dativa dep. VI Kal. Feb. in pace. &c. — et Basilia soror ejus hie requiescit dep. V Id/m 
Martias in pace. In Jan. and March of 424 or 425. 

VaLENTINIANUS III. Valentinia- 

NUS III. 

Born July 419, appointed Ccesar in 424, Augustus Oct. 23 A. D. 425. Married Eudoxia 29 Oct. 
437- He assassinates J. e^ms in 454 and is slain himself 16 March 455''. 

Inscriptions. 1 Gruter p. 159. 8 Arelate: Salvis DD. NN. Theodosio et Valentiniano [sc. Theo- 

dosio II Valentiniano III] P. F. V. ac trium. semper Aug. XV cons, vir inl auxiliaris prce. 

presto. Gallia ...de Arelate Ma miliaria poni S. ... M.P. I. 2 Muratori p. 466. 4 Novae in 

Sardinia : Salvis DD. NN. impp. Theodosio et Placido Valentiniano Augg. 

Subductos olim latices patriceque negatos 
Restituit populis pure Flaviolus amove. 

Curante Valerio Ennodio principale ac primario ejusdem urbis. 3 Muratori p. 406. 3 Romae : 
Domino rerum humanarum Valentiniano Augusta Petronius Maximus V. C. fori condito ...post qua- 

tw)r prcefecturas et duos ordinarios consulatus auctori sibi tot honorum loca Maximus was consul 

A. D. 433. 443, which determines this inscription to Valentinian III. 

Maximus. Maximus. 

After the death of Valentinian III the Western Empire was continued for 21 years longer till 
it ended in Romulus A. D. 476. Maximus reigned March 17 — June 12 A. D. 455 s. An inscription 
to the honour of Maximus is given in the Tables A. D. 421. 3 p. 599. His two consulships A. D. 
433. 443 (see the first column of the Tables in those years) are commemorated in another inscrip- 
tion given above under Valentinian III. 

AviTUs. Tables A. D. 455. 2. 3. 456. 2. 3. Avitus &c. 

Avitus reigned from the end of August 455 to September inclusive A. D. 456. 

q Suidas p. 1790 C ('Iwaw?;? 6 Tvpawrja-as) tran- is divus in a law of Marcian Aug. I A. D. 455. 
scribes a part of the account of Procopius. Tables 455. 4. 

r See those years in the Tables. Valentinian III s For Maximus see the Tables 455. 2. 3 p. 650. 651. 

T 



188 APPENDIX. C. I. 

Majorianus. Appointed Augustus Ap. 1 A. D. 457, deposed Aug. 2 and slain Aug. 7 A. D. 461^. 

Severus. Tables A. D. 461. 464. 2. 3. 465 p. 666. He was proclaimed Augustus Nov. 19 A. D. 
461, he died probably Nov. 14 (certainly after Sept. 25) A. D. 465. 

Anthemius". Augustus 12 Ap. 467, slain by Bicimer July 11 A. D. 472. 

Olybrius. For his marriage with Pladdia see above p. 127 ni. He was consul in 464, ap- 
pointed Augustus in April 472, and died Oct. 23 w. 

Glycerius. Appointed Augustus 5 March 473 x. Deposed in 474y. His coins are given at 
A. D. 473. 3 p. 679. 

Nepos. Augustm June 24 A. D. 4 74 2. His coins are in the Tables 474. 3. An inscription is 
given apud Muratorium p. 266. 7 Romse tessella aurea literis argenteis : Saho D. N. Julio Nepote 
P. F. Aug. Audax V. C. prafectus urbi fecit. Nepos was deposed and driven into Dalmatia by 
Orestes Aug. 23 A. D. 475 \ Slain May 9 A. D. 480 b. 

Romulus Augustus*^. Augustus 31 Oct. 475, deposed Aug. 23 A. D, 476. 

Makcianus. Marcianus. Appointed through the influence of Pulcheria Aug. 25 A. D. 450. Present at 
the council of Chalcedon in 451. His laws de fide are given in the Tables A. D. 452. 2. 4 p. 646. 
647. Marcian died between 26 Jan. and 7 Feb. A. D. 457 ^- For his marriage with Pulcheria, 
see above p. 125 g. Zonaras XHI p. 45 n.Qvk)(jEpia 8e fiTjTro) iroXKols yvbxrdiCarjs ttjs tov avroKpd- 
Topos T€k€VTr]s TOV MapuMvov [i^T^'nip.'^aTO^ &vbpa yr]paiov ijbrj xPV^tov be tovs rpoirovs koL (r(a(f)pova, koI 
aTrayyeAAei avr<3 tov /^ao-tXeo)? tov 6dvaTov, koX <^r;criv &)s " ac Trapa irdvTas eis /3acri\ea TtpoKiKpiKa^ ei 
fioi boCrjs TtXripo^opCav Trjpija-aC [lov Tr]v irapdevCav dv47Ta<f)0V, rjv r(5 0e<5 dvaTedeLKa." tov b\ <Tvv9ep.ivov, 
ficTaKaXeiTai tov TraTpLdpxriv koI ttjv ^ovXtjv, koI dvayopevcL tovtov koI Tai.vi.oL btab-qiiaTL. Idem XIII 
p. 49 A MapKiavos b^ dvrja-Kei. ^ ^acTLkeva-as hr) kolL ixrjvas tlvus, ws {j-iv Tives \iyov<Ti, vocrr\(Ta^, m be 
Tiv€s, (f)apixax6eh veuo'ei tov TraTptKiov "Aairapos, irpea-^vrqs yevoixevos, Koi {rjo-as firl p.aKp6v. 

Lbo. Leo. His accession was Feb. 7 A. D. 457. His war with Genseric in 468 is described in the 

Tables p. 668, 670. In October 473 he appointed his grandson Leo Augustus., and died 3 Feb. 474. 

The deaths o^ Aspar and Ardaburius in 471^ are mentioned by Zonaras XIV p. 49 CD (6 /3a- 
(TiAevs) — k-ni^ovkfvovTa^ avrcp (f)(apd<Tas tovs irepl tov "Aa-irapa, KaKtlvov koX tov ^ Apba^ovptov iKT€i.V€. 
Zonaras XIV p. 50 A describes the wife and daughters of Leo: ovtos 6 /3ao-i\evs etx^ yvvaiKa /ce- 
KkqyAvriv BrjpCvav [Tables A. D. 468 p. 668. 670], e^ rjs kyivovTo owtQ dvyaTepes bvo 'Api.dbvT] koI 
AeovrCa' S>v ttjv fi\v t^ Xriv(avi KaTrjyyvija-e [Tables A. D. 469], rrjv b^ AeovTiav o-we^eu^e tw vaTpLKi<a 
MapKiavia, vhZ ^ AvOeyiiov tov ^a<ri.X€V(ravTos (v Tjj 'P(afjt.ri. and the appointment of his grandson : 
XIV p. 51 A — TOvTio r(I) /SacriXei (yyovos €$ *Api.dbvr]s ttjs dvyuTpoi eyevvridr] Koi Z-qv(i)vos, bv AiovTa 
dvojjLdxras ^Kelvos /3a<rtAtK<3 tulvloI bi.abrJixaTt enl vqirCa iidvv rfj tj\lkl^. tov yap 7jr\V(tiva p,r) 7rpoa~^KOVTa 
Tjj ^aa-iXila cKpLVfv otl ^rJTe ttjv yvoi>p.r]v ei^e ^acriKiiajv fM-qTe firfv ctbos d^iov rvpavvCbos. — b(.a tovto Tives 
uTTopovo'iv dvai,p€drjvaL tov 'Ao^rapa koI tov ' ApbajSovpLov irapa tov avTOKpdTopos AeovTos OeXovTos tov 

t See the Tables 457 P- 656, 458. 2. 3. 459. 2. 3. x Tables p. 676. 678. y Tables p. 680. 

460. 2. 3. 461 p. 662. 2 Tables p. 680. a Tables 475 p. 682. 

▼ Tables 467. 2. 3. 468. 3. 469. 2. 3. 472 p. b Tables p. 692. 

674. 676. c Tables 475. 2. 3. 476. 2. 3. 

"^ See the Tables A. D. 472. 2. 3. ^ Tables p. 654. 656. e gee the Tables. 



EMPERORS. 139 

OvyaTpibovv avrov tov fxiKpbv Aiovra (Saa-iXcveLV, ^o^ov^iivov 8' kKiivov^ ws iiiya behvvrjixivovs. — koX 6 I^eo. 
(3a(n\evs 8e Ae'wi' voa-qa-as €$^\ltt€V, ir] ^aaiXcvaas iviavTOvs, tov [iiKpov Acovra bt6.boxov rrjs /3ao-i\etas 
KaTakiTTcav. The character of Leo is in Suidas v. Aecoy /SaonAeus p. 2287 B quoting Malchus, and v. 
Zriv(ov j3a(n\€vs p. 1582 A. 

Coins of Leo: Eckh. torn. 8 p. 194. 1 B. N. Leo perpet. Aug. +imp. XXXXII cos. XVII P. PS 
or victoria Augg. vel Auggg. vel Augustorum. or virtus Augusii. 2 D. N. Leo P. F. Aug.+^'- sine 
epigraphe crux in laurea." Coins of Verina: p. 195 Ael. Verina Aug. -{- victoria Auggg. or "sine 
epigraphe crux in laurea." 

Leo minor. Survived his grandfather ten months, and died in November 474. To the au- Leo MiNcm. 
thorities quoted in the Tables add Zonaras XIV p. 51 C KaTaXu^OeXs 6 jXLKpbs Aicav, vrjina^iav en, 
i(f) €va kviavTov eTre/Stw rr/ ^acriXeia, koX vri-mos iiraTirjXOe rw irdinKd, tov eavTov Tiaripa tov Zr)V(ava 
(SacrtXia KaTaXnrcav, avTos rats avTov X^P^' "^V ^'^^'^on /cec^aAry TicpiOels to Sid^jjjua. 

Zeno. Zeno. 

Zonaras XIV p. 51 D ^y 8e 6 Zrjvav e£ idvovs alcryJicrTov tov t^v ^laavpcav, ato-xicrros /cat avTos koI 
Tr}V iJLop(f)r}V Kol tt]v ■\lrv)(r]V yeyovu)s. — Kara tovtov tov Z-qvcavos ev &paKr} biarpificav 6 ttjs (3a(nXC<T(n]i 
Brjpivqs 6juat/xa)y 6 — BaaiXicrKos avTaipeX x^^P^s "^V^ Brjpivqs (rvvaipoixivrj^ avrw, kuk t% avyKXrjTov TLvSiv. 
8etA.os 8e &>v 6 Zrivoiv koL avavbpos (})€vyeL avTiKa avv 'Aptdbvrj rfi yvvaLKl, iv 'IcravpCa ■npo'S tovs 6fioy€- 
V€LS' 6 BaaiXlcTKOs 8' iX9(i)v iv tw Kdixirio avayopevcTai (3a(Ti,Xevs. 

Theophanes p. 96' A places the marriage of Zeno and Ariadne at the 2nd year of Leo A.D. 458: 
TovT(a T<S iT€L — Kol ZrjVbiv k(^vxdT] ^ Apidbvrj rfj OvyaTpl AiovTos. Followed by Cedrenus p. 347 tQ 
Iret — Zy\v(iiv '' Api6.bvr\ k. t. X. But it appears from CandidusS apud Photium p. 173 that the 
marriage was after the fire of CP. otepxcrat tov avp-^avTa rr) Tro'Aet ip-TTpr^crixov — Kat irepl TiTcavov kol 
Bi,(3t.avov, Kol 0)5 irepl avTwv biivix^V " A(niap kcu, 6 j3a(nXevs, — /cat ws 6 j3a(nXevs 8ta tovto r^raipicraTo to 
'Iaavp(t)v yivos bib. "HapacnKobiaaa 'PovaovpL^XabeoiTov, ov Koi Zrjvava pL€Tovop.daas^ yap-jSpov (TTOLrjcraro, 
Triv TTpoT^pav yvvaiKa davdrov v6pi.(o duofiaXovTa. Therefore after September 465, in the 9th year 
of Leo. Zeno is consul by that name in 469, and is sent into Thrace'. 

The flight of Zeno was in November A. D. 475, his return in July 477, his death Ap. 9 A. D. 
491^. Zonaras XIV p. 52 iXOcbv is ttjv KU. 6 Z-qvcav [A. D. 477] ibexOr] VTto re ttj^ ovyKXrirov koX 
TOV Xaov. /cat 6 BacriAto-KOS tt) €KKXr]crLa piera ttj? yvvatKOS koI tS>v Traibtav irpocmi^ivyev k.t.X. — 6 Zr\V(iiv 
b\ TTJV iavTov TTCvOepav ti]V /SacrtAtSa BrjpCvav k^capicrev^. b yovv BacrtAtcTKOs kiu bvo Tvpavvrjaas iviavTovs, 
etre ws ctpTjrat etre ttcos oAAcos, StcoAero. — Zi^vcav 8e aS^ts Trjs i^ov<T[as bpa^dp.evos Tbv pkv tov ^App.aTiov 
vlbv Ttpoex^i'p^o'o.TO Katcrapa, irX-qpcov ttjv inrocrxeaLV, avTbv be tov ^ App.dTiov (rrpaTriXdTrjV' /cat //.er' oXiyov 
Tbv pkv ^ App^driov e/cret/'6 — tov b\ vlbv iKeCvov Tbv KaCaapa TtmoiriKe kXtiplkov [see the Tables 477- 2 
p. 688]. d^etAe 8e koX Tbv''lXXov Tbv pidyicrTpov Tvpavvibi iinxetprjaavTa [Tables 484. 2. 3. 488. 2], ort 
€yv(i> iinlBovXevop-evos Tiapa Trjs ^aa-LXiaaris 'Aptdbvrjs, et8dros Kat Z-qvavos. dXXa p.7]v /cat FleAdyioy ror 
TiaTpiKiov, avbpa AoytcoraToy re koI biKaLOTarov, — /cat dAAov? 8e TrXeCarovs t&v 7T€pL(f)avo)v dvbpQv 6 
€xdi'<TTOs Zrjvcav aTrcdAeo-e. — Kat ovto) jBlovs /Statcos dTieppdyt) tov (rjv, k. t. X. On the character of Zeno 
compare Evagrius III. 1, 3. Suidas v. Zrivoiv (BacriXivs p. 1582 A is more favourable to Zeno, pre- 

* " Ut in numis Theodosii II." Eckhel. See the iXrjXvdoTos, ovtco Trpocrayopevopfvov. 
Tables 444. 3 p. 631. i See the Tables. 

S See the Tables A. D. 457. 3. ^ See the Tables in those years. 

^ Evagrius II. 15 Aewi' Se ycfi^pov eVi Bvyarpl 'Apt- 1 Verina remained in this exile or imprisonment 

d8vT} Trpoa-Xafi^dverai Zrjvcava, ' ApiKfirj(riov fiev (k a-irapyd- till 484, when she was rescued by Illus, and died 

vcov KoXovixevbv, fiera Se tov ydfiov Koi ttjv Trpoa-rjyopiav soon after. See the Tables A. D. 484. 2. 
TTpoaKTTja-dpfvov eK Tivos Tvapa toIs 'laavpois (s fieya /cXeos 

t2 ^ 



140 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

Zeno. fers him to Leo, and ascribes his errors of government to the influence of Sebastianus. This frag- 

ment in Suidas is referred by Valesius to Malchus, who described the reign of Zeno^. 

Basiliscus. Basiliscus". 

His reign or usurpation was from Nov. 475 to July 477- 

Zonaras XIV p. 52 A may be added to the testimonies quoted in the Tables : ttiv oUdav yafieTtiv 
Zriv(aviba kvyovarav 4(TTe\lf€. koX MdpKov tov vlov irpo€\€ip((TaTO KaCaapa. rjv be koI ovtos tovs re rpo- 
irovs ovb^v fieXrCoiv tov Z-qva>vos, koX ircpl to ai^as ovk dpOm biaKcCpLevos. ttjs yap Evrvxovs koX Aio- 
(TKopov fj.€T€'i)(€ KOI OVTOS aip4(T€<tis, TTapo, TTJi ya/xfTTjs els TOVT-qv -npo^i^aaOeXs, koX crcpobpa Tas tS>v opdo- 
bo^av ^KKXrjcrCas (K^Kaxre, koL Tr}V ^v KaXxrjbovt avvobov rvpavviK^ ypAp.p.aTL &Kvpov elvai. TeOia-niKe. 

Marcianus Romulus and Procopius, sons of Anthemim, revolted against Zeno in 479. Marcian 
was the son-in-law of Leo°. Leontius was proclaimed Augustus by Illus and Verina in 484, and 
slain in 488 P. 

Coins of Leontius: Eckhel torn. 8 p. 201. 1 Z>. iV. Leontius perp. Aug. XP. + victoria Aug. Corw. 
or victoria Augg. Ant. 2 D. N. Leontius P. F. Aug. + victoria Augg. Conob. 3 B. N. Leontius 
perpef. Aug. + victoria Augustorum. 

Akastasius. Anastasics reigned from Ap. 11 A. D. 491 to 9 July 518^. Of Dyrrachium: see the Tables 
491 p. 706. Add Malalas XVII p. 141 ^vppayiov, iroKiv rrjs yea? 'Hireipou ^irapxias, e^ 17s vtrripyjiv 
^AvaoTcurios 6 ^acrikevs' octtis koI TToWa iKTiaev exei. Zonaras XIV p. 53 D describes his elevation : 
■q ^ApidbifT] TOV biKopov ^Aifaardaiov <n\evTi6,piov ovTa — els ttjv ^acriKeiav dvriyaye yv(ap.r] koI ttjs yepov- 
<rCas Koi tov orpaTevpiaTOs, Ovp^iKiov tov kKTop.iov, p.eya Tore bvvap.evov, a-nov'^&cravTOS els Tr]v (kcCvov 
dv6.ppr]<nv. p. 54B 6 'naTpi6.pxr)s Ev^ry/uitos eyypa^ov lbi6)(^eipov tov ' Avaa-TacrCov be^dfievos, ws S^x^'""* 
TO. TTJs eKKXrjaCas Sdyjuara koX to, ttapa t^s kv \akKr]b6vi crvvobov bpKrOevTa t^vXd^ei irdwa^, aTit^ei av- 
Tov 6 be avTiKa ttjv 'ApidbvTjv p.vqaTeveTai, Koi ypa(f)r}v irotetrai ^aaCKeLov d^Lelcrav to. p-^xpi Tore t^ 
brjfiocrCio TTapd Tiviav o^eiXo'/biei'a. rjbri be reo-crapafcoorrjs TrapappveCarrjs rjfxepas /xera ttiv Tacfyqv Zrjvoivos, 
Kal TOVS ydpLOvs kTikecre. 

His financial measures were beneficial to his subjects. He remitted an oppressive tax : Theo- 
dorus lector p. 566 D 'Ayaortio-ios dvia-Teike to yjnxrdpyvpov , kcli to. Kvvqyia ^-nava-ev, koI tcis dpxas 
atvCovs ova-as TipoiKa Ttapelyev. Evagrius III. 39 virepfxeyeOes be KaTeirpd^dr] avrw koI deXov n XPV^^' 
^ TOV KaXovp.ivov xpv<rapyvpov es Te\ebv KcoAvjicrj. Zonaras XIV p. 54 B ba(rp.ov be tovs vtttjkoovs 
■nie(ovTos tov KeyopAvov yjiv(Tapyvpov, *cai tovtov e^eKO\ffev^. Evagrius and Zonaras 1. c. describe this 
odious tax, and Zonaras adds p. 54 D dkka TavTrjv eKKoyjras ttjv ela-((>opav 6 ^aa-ikevs ^ Avaardcrios nal 
avTOLS TCLS irepl TavTr]s dTToypa(j)as kvavriov tov brip.ov Kor^Kavaev ev tw Ittttikw. kox rjV piev ev tovtois c^tXo- 
Ti/xos Kal Tr]v t&v nrokiTLKoiv irpayp-dTUiV bioiK-qcnv KdK(as p.eTep)(6p.evos' Tas yap tioXitlkcls dpxas, b)v[ovs 
Ttapeypp.evas to irplv, eKe'ivos dp-iadovs ebCbov. He remitted seven years'* taxes to towns that had 
been taken by the enemy : Procop, Anecd. p. GG D ^ Avaarrda-Los ^acnkevs eiTTdcTes rais dkova-ats 
{t&v Tioketov) TO. Tekr) iin\(opeiv eyva>. As to Amida : Procop. Pers. I. 7 p- 22 D ^Avaa-Tdmos — 
ij)6povs Te Toiis i-neTeCovs es hrj eiTTa ^pjiavTas d(f)r}Ke Trj Ttokei kol airrovs kolvjj re Kal IbCq ^Kaarov itok- 
kois TUTiv dyaOoks ebapi^aaTo. Justinian at the accession o{ Justin in 518 found the treasury full 
of treasure : Procop. Anecd. p. 56 D •jfjyqp.dTdiv h-qp^oaCoiv l/xirXewr rrji; -nokiTeiav etpev. 'AvacrTdmos 
*| yap irpovor^TiKCiTaTos Te dfia Koi ohovopuKiaTaTos 'JTdvTa>v avTOKpaTopoav yev6p,evos beCaas, oirep eyiveTo, 

m See the Tables A. D. 473. 3. ^ See the Tables in those years. 

n Tables A. D. 468. 475. 476. 2. 3. 477- ' Conf. Evagrium III. 32. 

o See the Tables A. D. 479, and Zonaras torn. 2 ^ Malalas XVI p. 113 iKoxx^ure Tfjv ktiTovpyiav tov 

p. 50 A quoted above under Leo. Xeyopevov xp^aapyvpov. 
P See the Tables. 



EMPERORS. 141 

/x^ ol 6 TTjV ^aa-ikiiav €Kb€^6fX€VOS Xpr]iJL6.T(i>v VTjo(n:av(,((iiv laas tovs nar-qKoovs XtjI^t/toi, xpi^'^ou tov^ Anastasius. 
drjcravpovs &TTavTas KaraKopois iiMirkr^a-dixcvos tov (3Cov ^vveix^Tp^qaaTO^. 

Zonaras XIV p. 57 D mentions tho thunderstorm at the death of Anastasius" , and adds, h hi 
t5>v fiacriXiKSiv KOLTcavcav evpedrj KeCfxevos T€dv€(i)s, Crjcraf ^kv hrj ttt}' , ^acnkevaa^ 8' ef avT&v k(' ctti jxrjo-l 
rpicTLV. iv Tois xpovois TOVTOV yiyov^ o-etcr/xos (pofifpcaraTos' Kal kv fxkv tw Bufair^a) ev bLa<f)6pOLs tottois 
(TVfXTTTcapiaTa a-vpL^e^-qKacrtv rj p.eyd\r] he 'Aj^rto'xeta (T)((^bov amacra KaTeTTTcaOr], Koi ol ravrrjs olKrjTopa 
Tois <rvyMT(i)p.a(n KaTixuxrdrjaav''^. ovtos 6 ' AvacrTacrios iKTtcre to ixaKpov Xeyofxevov Tet)(09 d-nb Trjs jxe- 
yd\ris OaKdaarjs birJKov cixpt rrjs ^r]kvixl3p(as [see the Tables A. D. 507] Sta to-s i(t>6bov9 rSiv ^vaStv ^ 
^ovXydpoiv , KoX tG>v '2iKvdS>v. 

Coins : Eckhel tom. 8 p. 205 D. N. Anastasius Aug. vel P. F. Aug. vel perp. P. F. Aug. vel 
PP. Aug. velperp. Aug. vel P. Aug. vel P. A. + concord. " prsefixa nota arithmetica F. A. I. &c."" 
or invicta Boma. S. C. or victoria Augg. vel Auggg. " addita saepe nota arithmetica Grseca." 

Justin I began to reign July 9 A. D. 518, appointed Justinian Ap, 1 and died Aug. 1 A. D. Justinus i. 
527. Zonaras XIV p. 58 B describes Justin: dvepprjOrj fiaa-ikevs 'lova-rlvot 6 0pa£, yoveo>v juey iK(f)V9 
dcn]ix(>>v Koi, d(f)avS>v, avTos to irpoTcpov avTovpyStv, rj ^ovKokos rvyxdvav koL (rv(f)opp6s, eha eh Tvyr]v 
fiCTUTa^dixevos aTpaTLOiTtKrjv, koI /xe'xpt rayp-aTapxCas e^^afcws koI Ko'/XTy? yevoiievos. His wife was 
Euph&mia: Zonaras p. 58 D yajuer^y 8' eyjav AoviriKiav KeKk-qjxevrfv eorev/^ei; avTr]v Kai dvqyoperxrev 
AvyovcTTav, EvcprjjxCav [ji€Tovofxd(Tas. Procop. Anecd. p. 20 B yvvaiKi be ovofxa AovmiLKLvrf ^vvioKec 
avTT] be bovkt] T€ Koi j3dpl3apos ovaa tov Tipoadev avTr]v ecovqixivov TrakkaKr] yeyove' koX avTr] p.ev $vv 
'louo-rtVo) eirl /3(fou bvarixals ttjv fiaaikeiav ea^ev. Victor Tun. Agapeto II et Magna coss. — Conjunx 
Lupicina nomine dicehatur, quam CP.«"« Euphemiam postea vocaverunt. Called by mistake Theodora 
by Theophanes p. 146 B. Cedrenus p. 364 D imagines a second wife : ea-Texf/e &eobu>pav ttjv yvvaiKa 
avTov Avyovarav, Trjs EvcprjixCas rjbr] Tekevrrja-dcrrjs. In Nicephorus p. 405 B among the AugustcB is 
named Eti^?j/iia ^Iovo-tCvov irpiaTov^. 

Procopius Anecdot. p. 19D affirms that Justin was illiterate: dfjt.d9riros ypap-fxaTcav diTdvToiv koI 
TO bri keyopLevov dvak(f)dl3r]Tos. And Malalas XVII p. 131 ev TTokepiOLs KoircaOels, ^lAonjuos, dypdfx- 
lxaTo<i be. 

Among the facts recorded in the Tables in the reign of Justin Zonaras mentions XIV p. 58 C 
the death of Amantius A. D. 518. p. 59 D the conversion of Tzathus A. D. 522 and persecution 

* Some financial measures of Anastasius are cen- tos kuI (Tdo-jxov <T(f)o8p6TaTov ev 'Avrtoxeia yevea-dai Atye- 

sured by Evagrius III, 42. Compare Malalas XVI rat. And for the fifth time in the reign of Justin 

p. 108 6 ^aa-ikevs 'Avacrrdcrios eTroirja-e xP^(T°^ik(iav. A. D. 52(5 : Tables p. 742. 744. But there was none 

p. 11 6 rfe Marino Syro. in the reign of Anastasius ; and Zonaras has impro- 

V See the Tables 518 p. 734. perly placed in his reign the earthquake of 526. 

"' Marcellinus mentions two earthquakes in the « Nicephorus gives a list of Augusta — oaai yeyo- 

reign of Anastasius, one in 494, and one in 499 : see vaaiv Aiyodarai 'Papaiav — from Constantine to Leo 

the Tables. Cedrenus p. 358 C marks a third in the A. D. 886. The Augustce of these times are 
12th of Anastasius A. D. 502; but none of these 'R-qplva Aeovros tov p.€yakov. 

were at CP. An anonymous chronicle in the Tables "Apedbvr) Ztjixovos 1 Tables A. D. 49 1 . 

has a fourth at A. D. 492, but without naming CP. 'Apedbvr] airrj ' Avaaraa-iov. J Her death A. D. 515. 

Malalas XV p. 96 describes an earthquake at CP. but Eixfyrjpia 'lovarivov irpaTov. Tables A. D. 5 1 8. 4 p. 735. 

in the reign of Zeno : eVi ttjs ^aa-ikeias Zrjvavos tiraOev Qfodapa 'lovcmviapoi tov peydXov. Tables A. D. 52/. 

VTTO deoprjvias (Teiapov to bevTepov avTrjs wdBos KIT. eVl Her death in 548. 

oXi'yoi' dida-Trjpa, ecos tov Tavpov. enade 8e Tore Koi Nt/co- 2o(f)ia 'lova-Tivov. Tables A. D. 566. 573. 574. 

prjdeia — to enTov avTTJs nddos. Spolcos 8e Kal 'Ekevovnokis. 'AvacTTaaia Ti^epiov. 

Antioch suffered from an earthquake for the fourth KavaravTia MavpiKiov. Tables A. D. 577- 

time in the reign of Leo A. D. 458 : Tables p. 658. Aeom-ia ^wko. 

noticed also by Zonaras XIV p. 50 C tovtov Kparoiiv- ^kavia, EvdoKia, Mapriva, 'HpcocXetou. 



141fe APPENDIX. C. 1. 

JusTHfus I. of the Manichees in 524. p. 60 A the overthrow of the cities Anazarbus and Edessa A. D. 525. 
p. 60 D the elevation of Justinian : fxerajcoAeiTai top 'naTpi.apyr]v 'ETri^dytoy, /LteraTre/xTrerai 8e koX rovs 
kv Tckd, Koi I3a<nkia rhv A8e\<^i6oiJi; 'lovariviavov SLvabeUwaLV avros. — koI — i^etcri irpos avTovs forcfi- 
fiivos 6 ^lovariviavbs, koi irapa TtAvraiv €v^r}p.ri6ui iiravrJKev eis ra ^aatkeia, /ixe' Tore Tvy\6.v(iiv kviav- 
r&v. avrUa bi koI tj ya\i€rr\ avrov Qeobotpa SLVCppi^Or] Avyovarra, koX fi€T dkCyov t<^ ^lovarivi^ iirikiiTt to 
Puaaifjiov Pa(Tik€v<ravn evvia Uttj i(f) rjp.€pais eljcocri. 

ViTALiAKus, ViTALiANUs. Tables A. D. 514. 518. 520. Zonaras XIV p. 58 D 'lovor^ro) BiraAiai;os, os to-ra- 
(Tiaaev em ^AvaaracrCov, t:6lw wKeiwro /cat (TTpaTTf)k6.Tr]s TTpoex^LpCcrOr], d.kXa firjv koI v-nAnvcn [A. D. 520] 
Ktti iiiya trapa rcS 'louoriVo) rihvvaTO. p. 59 A 6 BiToAtaros khoko(l>ovridri irapa rCtv "Qv^avriiav ii-qviovTcav 
avr& <MS TToAAous avikovri or iiraviart] Kara ^Avaarraa-Cov. ol 8e iipocrT&^ei rov I3a(nk4a>s ^lovarCvov Koi 
Tov ^lovoTiviavov (^aalv avaipediivaL avrov ev t<3 TrakaTita. — orpaTrjkdrqs be t&v <TTpaT€vix6,T(ov ''lovari- 
viavos TTpoeKex^CpiarTo. 

JusTiviANus. Justinian reigned from I Apr. 527 to 13 Nov. 565. His birthplace is described by Procopius 
iEdif. IV p. 67 A ir Aapbdvots — o\ br] /xera tovs ^EiTLbaiJ.vC<ov 5povs (oKjjirai, tov (\>povpiov ayxicrra oirep 
Bebepiava iiriKoXe'iTai, xotpCov Tavpricnov ovDfjia riv, ivOev ^lovaTLViavos ^aaiXevs — &p\ii]Tai.. Agathias 
Vp. 166 C iraTph b\ rfv avT^ ttoXis ^\kXvpiKr\, Bebepiava jxev Ik Trakaiov 6vop.aCop.ivr] varepov bi IJ piorrj 
'lov<mvLavrf p,eTaKkrjdel<ra. K.T.k. Hence he is called by Malalas XVIII p. 152 @pa$ airo Bebeptdvas. 

Zonaras XIV p. 61 A describes the rapacity and profusion of Justinian and Theodora: rjv be 
olrroj 6 ^acriXews paaros piev irpos evrev^iv Kal dvane'nTap.evas etx^e Tas aKoas irpos bia^okas, o^vs be irpbs 
&p.vvav, d(^eibr\i irpos yj}rip.6.T(i>v ^^6.VTkr](nv kolL irpbs avkXoyriv avTutv acfteLbearepos. ra p.ev yap avrikiaKev 
eh olKobopZ.s — TO. b^ els irokip-ovs Kal Tas irpos tovs dv6i(rTap.evovs Tals avTov Oekriaea-iv epibas. odev del 
yjyqyidTiav be6p.evos e^ekiyeTO TavTa ck Tpoirav ovk evay&v.-^—rj be jSaa-ikls — -qv iropip-iHTdTr} irpos evpea-iv 
KaLvoTepa>v Kal TTokvTpoirav emvoMV evrevdev tois virqKooLs bLXpOev al crvpL^opai' oC re yap erqa-ioL bacrpiol 
^itI fxeTCov ^ripovTo, /cat Katvoi irpoa-eirivevorjvTo. Compare Evagrius IV. 30 p. 405 B. These accounts 
confirm Procopius Anecdot. p. 57 B, who mentions the exactions of Justinian, and his expedients 
to replenish the treasury p. 58 0. That he left the treasury exhausted is attested by Corippusy 
de Justini laudibus II. 260 — 273. 361—389. 

Among the facts recorded in the Tables under the reign of Justinian Zonaras relates the fol- 
lowing, upon which he may be compared with the testimonies given in the Tables. XIV p. 61 C 
— 63 A the truce with Persia and the sedition rtKa in A. D. 532 z. p. 65 C — 66 D the Vandalic 
war A. D. 533. 534. p. 68 A — D the Gothic war which began in 535. p. 68 D the death of 
Theodora in 548. p. 69 D the charge against Belisarius A. D. 562 p. 814. p. 69 D the heresy of 
Justinian at the close of his life A. D. 565 p. 818. 

The reigns of the Vandal kings of Africa are thus given by Zonaras XIV p. 64 D. 

y. 

Gizericus 39 

Honoricus 8 

Chmdamundm 12 

Trasamundus 27 

Jldericus 

Gelimer 

y Quoted by Alemannus ad Procopium Anecd. yakr^i tiuckrjaias Kav6fi(rr}s — irepav noXXa fui((o /col TTf/M- 

p. 468 ed. Bonn. (fiavforepav 6 )3a«riXevs 'lovariviavos mrrjp^aro Kaivovpyelv, 

* Zonaras adds p. 63 B rv t;^ ardati ravru — r^s px- t^s olKodopLijs airfjs dpxdeiarfg Kara t6 ,r/i' eTos, Iv8iktiS>vos 



EMPERORS. 



143 



Compare the account in the Tables A. D. 484 p. 698". 

TheoDERICUS. Theodbricus. 

This great king deserves a place among the Roman emperors because he ruled Italy with the 
consent of the Eastern emperor, and adopted the Roman forms of government. His transactions 
before his march upon Italy are described at the years 478, 479, 483, 484, 487- In 488 he turned 
his steps towards Italy. His Italian campaigns are at the years 489 — 491, 493. From the death 
of Odoacer in 493 he reigned till 30 Aug. 526^. 

Theoderic is called the son of Walamir by Anon. Valesii § 42. 58 and by the Greek writers 
Malchus, Damascius, Malalas, Theophanes'' ; but was in reality the son of Theodemir, The fol- 
lowing Table with its explanatory notes will exhibit the House of Theoderic. 



Walamir 



r 

Theudimundus^l' 



^1 
Theodemir =■ Erelieva** 

I 



r 

= Theoderic = Audefleda c 
ob. 526 I 
set. I 



Amalafredad — Trasamundusd 
I ob. 523 



Widemir 
ob. I 473 

Widemir 



Alarick = Theudegothak SigismTindusi = Ostrogothal Eutharicuse=Amalasuentha? Theodahaduse Amalabergaf = Hennenfredugf 
ob. 607 I "" --..—- 



ob. 523 



Amalaric^ 
ob. 531 



Sigerici 
ob. 522 



ob. 534 



ob. 53G 



Athalaric^ 
ob. 534 



irevreKaibeKarqs evcarafifVTjs, iv ^evpovaplco firjvL Fe- 
bruary of the 15th indiction is Feb. A. D. 537, when 
A. M. 6040 was current in the reckoning of Zonaras. 
See upon this edifice Procopius and Agathias quoted 
in the Tables 532. 3 p. 755. Procopius de ^dific. 
p. 5 B observes that it was built not long after the 
sedition : ov noXka varepov. 

2z Where in 1. 53 for '• his six successors" read 
" his five successors." Jornandes there quoted 
names 

Gizericus 

Hunnericus 

Gundamundus 

Transamundus 

Hilderich 

Gelimer. 
a See the Tables in these years. 
^ For Malchus see the Tables A. D. 478. 2 ; for 
Damascius, A. D. 525. 3 ; for Malalas, A. D. 526. 2. 
Theophanes p. 112 D Qevdepixos 6 OvdKdfjifpos. — rov 
irarpbs avrov OidKdfiepos fierd tovs 'ArrtXa iraidas fiyrjcra- 
fifpov Tap Tordav, eVi ttJs Atovros ^aaiKfias. 

aa The mother of Theoderic is mentioned by Mal- 
chus at the year 479 : p. 84 C 6 Qeobepixos cXeyev as 
eroifios ftt) — ojjLTjpovs irapaa-xfov ttjs &TrdaT]s iriareas Tqv re 
fJiTjTfpa Koi d8e\(f)fiv fxerd e^aKi(r;(iXi<i)v tS>v /noXtoro fiaxi- 
(icov iXdelv wy rdxiara is QpaKTjv k. t. X. She accom- 
panied him into Italy : Ennodius panegyr. Theodor. 
p. 405 Sanctam matrem et venerabilem sororem &c. 
Anon. Valesii § 58 Theodericus cujus pater Walamir 



dictus rex Gothorum naturalis tamen ei fuit ; mater 
Ereriliva dicta Gothica catholica quidem erat, qua in 
haptismo Eusebia dicta. 

bb Theudimundus is mentioned by Malchus p. 81 D 
as the brother of Theoderic : Q(v8ifiovv8os Se 6 erepos 
tS>v BaXap,Tjpov iraiboiv eni ttjs ovpayias. Referring to 
the march in Epirus noticed in the Tables A. D. 479 
p. 692. 

c The marriage with Audefleda (before A. D. 497) 
is mentioned in the Tables at 515 p. 732. 

d Amalafreda : Jornandes Get. c. 58 Amalafredam 
germanam suam., matrem Theodahadi qui postea rex 
fuit, Africa regi Wandalorumque conjugem dirigit 
Trasamundo, filiamque ejus, neptem suam, Amalaber- 
gam Thuringorum regi consociat Hermevfredo. Pro- 
cop. Vand. I. 8 p. 197 eVetS^ Se 17 -yuw) {TfXevra, {Tpa- 
aafiovvBos) is Q(v8epixov rov Tordcov ^aaiXea irep.'^as ^ra 
ol yvvaiKa Tr}V dbf\(pr]v 'AfxaXacppiBav bidovai, rjs dr/ apri 6 
dvTip irfOvrjKfi. 6 8e oi ttjv ddeXfji^v fnefiyjre Koi rdrdcov 
doKipLOiv ;(tXtovs iv 8opv(f)6p<ov Xoyw, ow Sf) ofiiXos depa- 
ireias mreTo is nivre (idXiara p^iXtaSas dvdpcbv pLaxlp-av. 
iBcopT](raTO 8e rfjv d8e\({)r]V Oev8fpixos koi rav StKfXui; 
dKpcoTi]pl(ov ovTcov (V, o 8ff KaKovai ACKv^aioV Kai air av- 
rov eSo^ej/ 6 Tpa(rap,ovv8os irdvrav 8tj tS>v iv B(u>8i\oi,s 
fjyrjcrapJvav KpeicTirav rt etvai koi Swarwrarof, Trasa- 
mund reigned from Sept. 496 to May 523 : see the 
Tables A. D. 484. 523. Theoderic had another sis- 
ter, who died in Macedonia : Malchus p. 81 A 6 8i 
Tov BoKafirjpov imp.evf — rfjv avrov d8f\(f)riv voaa Kartxo- 
fiivTiv, i^ rjs iT€\(VTr)<Tf. The marriage of Amalafreda 



144 



APPENDIX. 



C.l. 



Theodericus. The three brothers served under Attila at the battle of Chalons in A.D. 451: Jomandes Get. 
c. 88 Inter quos Ostrogothamm prceeminebat exercittts, Walamire et Theodemire et Widemire germa/nis 



and TVasamund was in 499 : see below, note f. For 
her death see note ^. 

e Theodahadus is described in the Tables at 534. 2. 3. 
530. 2. 

f Amalabergd's marriage is recorded by Jomandes 
quoted in note d. Procopius Goth. 1. 12 p. 342 A 

Qevdepixos — 'Ep/ifW^pt'So) rav Qopiyyav ap)(OVTt '\fif\o- 
fiepycw TTiv ' AiidKa(f)pi8r]s Trjs d8e\(f)rjs Tralda (rjyyvTjcrev) . 

Anonym. Valesii § 65 — 70 p. 622. 623 Ambulavit rex 
Theodericus Romam [after Nov. A. D. 498 : see the 
Tables 500. 2] — Item Amalafrigda germana sua in 
matrimonium tradens regi Wandalorum Transimundo. 
— Deinde sexto mense revertens Ravennam alia ger- 
mana sua Amaldbirga tradens in matrimonio Hermini- 
frido regi Toringorum ; et sic ibi per circuitum placuit 
omnibus gentibus. Perhaps this marriage was in A. D. 
500. Amalaberga is described by Greg. Tur. H. Fr. 
III. 4 Hermenefridi uxor iniqua atque crudelis, Ama- 
laberga nomine. 

S Amalasuentha was married to Eutharic in 515 : 
see the Tables p. 732. Eutharic is in the Tables 
at 519. 1. 2. 3. Amalasuentha at 526. 2. 534. 2. 3 
p. 760.761. 

** Athalaric succeeded his grandfather in Sept. 526 : 
see the Tables ; died in 534 : Tables p. 760. Chron. 

Pasch. p. 327 D Qfodep\x — oiKTjcrev ttjv 'Pd^ewav, ttoXiv 
7rapadaXa(T(Tiav, e<os tov Oavarov avrov, Koi pera ddvarov 
avTOv eyevfTO prj^ Paiprjs 6 fK yevovs avrov ' ATakXapi^os. 

Cassiodori Variarum libb. VIII. IX are written in 
the name of Athalaric. Some epistles are quoted in 
the Tables, others shall be given here. VIII. 1 — 8 
announce his accession: VIII. 1 Justiniano imperatori 
Athalaricus rex. He asks peace and friendship : Pri- 
mordia nostra solatia mereantur principis longcevi ha- 
bere. He asks amicitiam illis conditionibus quas cum 
divcE memories domno avo nostra inclytos decessores 
vestros constat habuisse. VIII. 2 Senatui. 3 populo 
Romano. 4 universis Romanis per Italiam et Dalma- 
tias constitutis. 5 universis Gothis per Italiam con- 
stitutis. 6 Liberia prafecta Galliarum. 7 universis 
provincialibus per Galliam constitutis. 8 Victorino 
episcapo. 13 Ambrasio. He confers the qusestorship 
per quintam indictionem [commencing Sept. 1 A. D. 
526] . 1 5 Senatui urbis Roma. He commends them 
for electing a bishop recommended by Theoderic : 
domni avi nostri respondistis in episcopatus electione 
judicio. 16 Opiliani. He appoints him comes sacra- 
rum ab indictione sexta [A. D. 52|]. 18 Felici. He 
appoints him qucestor per sextam indictionem. 20 Al- 
bieno. Appointed praetorian praefect per sextam in- 
dictionem in the room of one removed for miscon- 
duct. 

IX. 1 Hilderico regi Vandalorum. He complains 
that Amalafreda had been put to death : Parricidii 
genus est ut, quam vobis fecerat affinem conjunctio regis. 



nefandis ausibus in ejus vos interitum misceretis. — 
Nam ex hoc nobilitati vestra fuisset adjectum, si inter 
Hasdirigorum stirpem retinuissetis Amali sanguinis 
purpuream dignitatem. Trasamundus died in May 523. 
Amalafreda it should seem was not slain by Hilderic 
the successor tiU after the death of Theoderic in Au- 
gust 526. IX. 7 Reparato. He appoints him.^r«- 
fectum Urbis. 8 Osuin. Appointed governor of Dal- 
matia and Suavia. 9 Universis Gothis et Romanis. 
He informs them that he had sent Osuin to govern 
Dalmatia. — Ut primordia nostra a prcestitis inchoarent 
clementissimumque Dominum in ipso regni limine sen- 
tiretis, per quartam indictionem quod a vobis augmenti 
nomine quarebatur illustrem virum comitem patrimonii 
nostri nunc jussimus removere. Indict. 4 ending Aug. 
31 A. D. 526 was the last of the reign of Theoderic, 
and his successor here remits some taxes of that 
year. 10 Universis possessoribus defensoribus Syracu- 
sancE civitatis. He remits the taxes of the preceding 
indiction 4, and mentions the current indict. 5 : Du- 
dum quidem urbis ortum nostri imperii astimavimus 
nuntiandum, &c.- — per quartam indictionem [A. D. 52-i-] 
quicquid a vobis supra consuetudinariavi functionem 
augmenti nomine petebatui — liberalitas nostra concedit. 
— Quicquid a discussoribus novi census per quintam in- 
dictionem probatur affixum [A. D. 52-f ] ad vestram eos 
fecimus deferre notitiam. 1 1 Gildice comiti Syracu- 
sance civitatis. Again he mentions that certain im- 
posts of indict. 4 are to be remitted : Si aliquid per 
quartam indictionem probatur illatum, possessoribus 
sine aliqua imminutione reddatur. 12 Victori et Witi- 
gisclo. on the same subject: Si quid super tributarium 
solidum per quartam indictionem a provincialibus exe- 
gistis sine aliqua eis imminutione reddatis. 13 Wilite. 
He mentions indict. 5 : a quinta indictione [A. D. 52-f-] 
— -faciatis adjungi &c. 15 Joanni papa [who suc- 
ceeded in 532: see the Tables 532.4]. Against 
bribery in clerical appointments, tempus papa Boni- 
facii is mentioned. Bonifacius is in the Tables A. D. 
530. 532. Jomandes Get. c. 59 describes the go- 
vernment of Amalasuentha : — Theodericus eis in man- 
datis dedit — ut regem colerent, senatum populumqne 
Romanum amarent, principemque Orientalem placatum 
semper propitiumque haberent. quod praceptum quam- 
diu Athalaricus rex ejusque mater viverent in omnibus 
custodientes pane per octo annos in pace regnarunt. 
For the deaths of Athalaric and his mother see the 
Tables A. D. 534. An inscription is extant in Mu- 
ratori p. 468. 1 Ticini : D. N. Atalaricus rex glorio- 
sissimus has sedis spectaculi anno regni sui tertio fieri 
feliciter pracepit . Within Sept. 1 A. D. 528 — Aug. 
31 A. D. 529. 

i Ostrogotha. Her marriage is mentioned in the 
Tables 515. Jomandes Get. c. 58 (quoted in the 
Tables 515 p. 732) Theodericus filias habuit, unam 



EMPERORS. 



145 



ductantihus, ipso etiam rege [sc. Attila] cui tunc serviebant nohiliorihus ; quia Amalorum generis eos Theodeiiicus 

potentia illustrabat. Walamir was the chief favourite o^ Attila: Ibid. After the death oi Attila 

in 453 they were seated in Pannonia : Jornandes c. 52 Ostrogotharum, qui in Pannonia sub rege 

Walamir ejusque germanis Theodemir et Widemir morabantur^ quamvis divisa loca consilia tamen 

habuere unita. Nam Walamir inter Scarniungam et Aquam Nigram fluvios, Theodemir juxta lacura 

Pelsodis, Widemir inter utrosque man^bat. Walamir gained a victory over the sons of Attila at 

the time of the birth of Theoderic : Ibid. Eoque tempore cum ad fratrem Theodemirem gaudii nun- 

tium direxisset, eo mox die nuntius veniens felicius in domo Theodemiris reperit gaudium. ipso siqui- 

dem die Theodericus ejus filius quamvis de Erelieva concubina bonce tamen spei puerulus natus erat. 

About the year 454 1. 

Tlieoderic in his eighth year is dehvered as a hostage to Leo: Jornandes c. 52 Qui jam annorwm 
septem incrementa conscendens octavum intraverat annum. Quern dum pater cunctatus daret^ patruus 
Walamir extitit supplicatory tantum ut pax firma inter Bomanos Gothosque maneret. Datus igitur 
Theodericus obses a Gothis ducitur ad urbem CP.""^ Leoni principi, et quia puerulus elegans erat me- 
ruit gratiam imperialem habere. Paulus Diac. XVI p. 558. 559 describes Walamir and his bro- 
thers, and adds Leo imperator cum Gotthis Illyricum vastantibus foedus iniit, ac Theodericum Tliso- 
demiris filium, ex Arilena concubina genitum, ab Walamire ejus patruo obsidem accepit. During this 
period according to Theophanes p. 112 D he received education : ©evSepix^s — ov noXvs fv ^ap^dpocs 
T€ Kol 'Pc«)/u.atois \6yos ws avbpdov re koI irpoixrjOovSf Kal ovb€ Xoycav afxoipov Kara yap to Bv^dvTiov 



nomine Thiudegatum, et aliam Ostrogotho, quas — regi- 
bus copulavit, id est, unam Alarico Vesegotharum et 
aliam Sigismundo Burgundionum. For Sigismund, see 
the Tables 515. 52.3. For Sigeric, the son of this 
marriage, see 516. 522. 

k Theudegotha. See note i. and the Tables 515 
p. 732. Procop. Goth. I. 12 p. 341 D Qevhipixos ra 
TTjviKavTa tS>v Ovcaiyordav ff^ovp.€va> 'AXapi^co tw Ufcorepto 
Qevdixovcrav ttju avTov dvyarepa napdevov fjyyvrjcrfv. Jor- 
nandes quoted in note i seems to confirm Procopius 
who gives Theudegotha to Alaric. But in the Anon. 
Valesii § fi3 p. 622 Theudegotha is given to Sigis- 
mund and her sister is the wife of Alaric: Theodericus 
uxorem habuit ante regnum de qua susceperat filias: 
unam dedit nomine Arevagni [Ostrogotho Jornandi] 
Alarico regi Wisigotharum in Gallia, et aliam filiam 
suam Theodegotham Sigismundo filio Gundebai regis. 
Alaric is in the Tables at A. D. 485. 506. 4. 50?. 2. 
515. Amalaric the grandson of Theoderic is de- 
scribed in the Tables at 508. 511. He reigned till 
531 in Spain : Isidorus p. 721 era 566« [A. D. 528] 
Anno imperii Justiniani primo regresso Italia Theo- 
derico Amalaricus nepos annis quinque regnavit. Qui 
cum ab Ildeberto Francorum rege apud Narbonem proe- 
lio superatus fuisset, Barcinonem trepidus fugit, effec- 
tusque omnibus contemptibilis ab exercitu jugulatus in- 
teriit. Era 569'* anno imperii Justiniani sexto post 
Amalaricum Teudix in Spania creatur in regnum annis 
XVII. From Isidorus himself, quoted in the Tables 
at 511, it appears that the reign of Amalaric was 
computed from A. D. 526 or anno er<£ 564. And his 
5 years will- terminate anno era 569 A. D. 531, in 
the 5th vear of Justinian. Jornandes Get. c. 58 Qui 



Amalaricus in ipsa adolescentia Francorum fraudibus 
irretitus regnum cum vita amisit. Post quern Thiodis 
tutor ejusdem regnum ipsum invadens Francorum insi- 
diosam calumniam de Hispaniis pepulit, et usque dum 
viveret Vesegothas continuit. For Thiodes or Theudes 
see the Tables 508. 2 p. 726. He is slain in 548 : 
Isidorus p. 723 era 58C" imperii Justiniani anno vice- 
simo tertio [immo vicesimo secundo'\ interempto Teudi, 
Teudisculus Gothis prcejicitur, regnans anno uno. Era 
587« [A. D. 549] anno Justiniani 24" [1. 23"] extincto 
Theudisclo Agila rex constituitur, regnans annis quin- 
que. p. 724 era 592^* [A. D. 554] anno Justiniani 
29" [rectius 280] occiso Agilane Athanagildus regnum 
quod invaserat tenuit annis XIV. He was succeeded 
by Liuva in 567 : see the Tables 569. 2. Jornandes 
Get. c. 58 writes in the reign o( Agila: Post Thiodem 
Thiodisglossa regnum adeptus non regnans defecit, oc- 
cisus a suis. Cui succedens hactenus Agil [sic lege] 
continual regnum, contra quern Athanagildus insurgens 
Romani regni concitat vires. Conf. Isidorum p. 723. 
Jornandes wrote in 551 (see 551. 3) in the third 
year of Agila. The name of this king is absurdly 
given in edd. Grot. Benedictin. Hactenusagil. 

1 In the reign of Marcian : Jornandes Ibid. Post 
tempus non multum rex Walamir ejusque germani Theo- 
demir et Widemir consueta dum traderent dona a prin- 
cipe Marciano, quee ad instar strenuce gentis acceperunt 
ut pads fwdera custodirent, missa legatione ad impera- 
torem, vident Theodericum Triarii filium, et hunc genere 
Gothico, alia tamen stiipe non Amala procreatum, om- 
nino florentem cum suis &c. The son of Triarius is 
described in the Tables at 478, 479 ; his death at 
A. D. 481. 

U 



146 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

Theodericus. oiirjpeva-as TTore tols &pC(TToi.9 t&v hiha<TK6Xuiv k<^oiTr](Ttv . In Anon. Valesii p. 620 § 61 Theodcric is 
called illiterate : Hie dum inliteratus esset^ tantce sapientice fuit ut aliqua quce locutus est in vulgo 
usque nunc pro sententia habeantur &c. p. 624 § 79 Theodericus illiteratus erat et sic ohruto sensu ut 
in decern annos regni sui quatvx>r literas suhscriptionis edicti sui discere nullatenus potuisset. de qua 
re laminam auream Jussit interrasilem fieri quatuor literas regis hahentem Theod. [0EOA.] ut, si sub- 
scrihere voluisset, posita lamina super chartam per earn penna duceret. That he was illiterate is 
confirmed by the address of the Gothic chiefs to Amalasuentha in Procopius Goth. I. 2 p. 312B 
(vvoilv avn]v khiKalffw a)S &pa oi Q^vhipLyos yjiapas re rocravrq^ Kvpios yeyoyo)? koi ^aaiXcCav ovbaixodev 
avria irpocrqKovcTav TTfpi^aXXdpLevos T^XiVTrjaeic, KaCrrep irepl ypap,p.6.T0iv ovb^ ocrov aKOT]v kyoav. From 
these testimonies it appears that he neglected the arts of writing and reading, but yet in his resi- 
dence at CP. acquired much practical knowledge and wisdom, and profited by oral instruction. 

After ten years he is released : Jornandes Get. c. 55 Theodemir Gothorum rex'^ — hiemis tempore 
Gothorum ductavit exercitum et tarn Suemrum gentem quam etiam Alamannorum utrasque ad invicem 
fosderatas devicit. — inde quoque victor ad proprias sedes id est Pannmiias revertens TJieodericum filium 
suum, quern CP. ohsidem dederat, a Leone imperatore remissum cum magnis munerihus gratanter ex- 
cepit. Qui Theodericus jam adolescentice annos contingens expleta pueritia octavum decimum peragens 
anntim^f adscitis satellitibus patris, ex populo amatores sibi clientesque consociavit, pcene sex millia 
mros ; cum quibus inscio poire em£nso Danubio super Bahai Sarmatarum regem discurrit — eumque 
svperveniens Theodericus interemit, familiamque et censum deprcedans ad genitorem suum cum victoria 
repedavit. 

In the year 473 Widemir entered Italy, where he died, leaving his son Widemir his successor*^. 
Theoderic attended his father into IllyricumP; and his ten years at CP. may be placed at A. D. 
461 — 47 1> and could not be later than 462 — 472 ; agreeing with his birth at A. D. 454. 

He succeeded his father in the reign of Zeno: Jornandes Get. c. 56. 57 Bex Theodemir in civitate 
Cerras fatali cegritudine occupatus, vocatis Gothis, Theodericum filium regni sui designat hceredem et 
ipse mox rebus hwmanis excessit. Theodericum vero genti sum regem audiens ordinatum imperator Zeno 
&c. whom he aided against Basiliscus^. But this aid was given in 477- and Theoderic began to 
reign not later than 476, when he was about 22 years of age. In 478 he is called ttols by the son 
of Triarius'. 

Theoderic after the defeat of Odoacer sent an embassy to the East : Anon. Vales, p. 620 § 57 
Theodericus enim qui in legationem direxerat Faustum"^ Nigrum ad Zmonem. at ubi cognita morte ejus 
antequam legatio reverteretur, ut ingressus est Bavennam et occidit Odoacrem, Gothi sibi confirmaverunt 
Theodericum regem, nan exspectantes jussionem novi principis. Faustus was probably sent in the 
beginning of 491. Ravenna was not taken till March 493, when the second year of Anastasius — 
novi principis — was nearly completed. Theoderic was acknowledged by Anastasius : Anon. Vales, 
p. 622 § 64 Facta pa^e cum Anastasio imperatore per Festum de prcesumptione regni ; et omnia oma- 
menta palatii quce Odoachar CP. transmiserat remisit. 

™ Walamir had been slain in battle : Jornandes Q Anon. Valesii quoted in the Tables at 477 P- 686- 

c. 53. Paulus Diac. XVI p. 559 Occiso Walamire a Ennodius Panegyr. p. 397 Cum profugo [sc. Zenont] 

Scythis, Thiodemir ejus germanus regiajura suscepit. per te sceptra redderentur. 

^ Paulus Diac. XVI p. 559 Suavi patrata victoria ^ See the Tables A. D. 478. The son of Theodemir 

Vindemir [lege Theodemir'] domum revertitur. Theo- was then about 24 years old, but the son of Triarius 

dericum filium a Leone imperatore missum gratanter had commanded armies for more than 20 years. 

excepit ; qui Theodericus dum jam XVIII*^ annum s faustus or Festus is addressed by Gelasius Ep. 4 

ageret, &c. apud Acta Concil. tom. 5 p. 294 ; named in Ep. 8 

o See the Tables A. D. 473 p. 6/8. Anastasio imp. tom. 5 p. 307- 

P Tables Ibid. 



EMPERORS. 147 

Theophanes, besides the passages already quoted, has the following concerning Theoderic : TnKoi.i:mcus. 
p. IS7 T> Anastasii 23" 'Op/x/!(r8as 6 (TtiaKOTros 'Pw/itjs dxAov/xei/os vtto Qevbefuxov yap^Co^xivov BtraAtaz^tp^ 
Evo'Stov rbv (TTicTKOTTOv eTtejJLyj/ev Kol TOP BiTaXiavuv apx''b''^KOVOv kv tJJ KpoT-qOrivai, rr^v h 'WpaKkda 
avvohov. i]\.dov he kol kiruTKO-noL ws (t' Ik biacpopoyv To-natv oltlixs (^MiraLxOevTes vtto tov -napavoixov 
l3aaL\4m koL Ttixodiov k-KiaKoirov KET. avex^ap-qcrav airpaKToi. At a wrong date : for Hormisdas was 
not bishop of Rome till July of the 24th year of Anastasius. See the Tables A. D. 514, 4. Theo- 
phanes p. 145 A Justini (]" TovTO) r(3 Irei Qevhipiyos KparGtv rrjs 'Pcojutjs ' Apaavocfjpov&v (liidaaro tov 
TTCLintav 'lo)6.vvr]V ekdelv ds to BvColvtiov TTpos tov (iacnkia ^\ov<ttIvov, koX Tipea-fievaai, virep A.p€Lav(av, 

K. T. A. 

This happened in the 7th yejfr of Justin. See the Tables at 524. 3 and 525. 4. 

Theodorus Lector p. 561 A Q€vb€pt\os 6 "Ac^pos, htaKovov Tiva ei^ey opdobo^ov, ov iravv rj-ydiTa. — 
ovTos 6 bca.KOVO'i, vop.C((i)v Qevbepixt^ xP-pi^ea-Oai, r^s tov op.oov(jiov t:l(tt€(os duocTTas toIs 'Apetou k(pp6- 
vr}(r€V. yvovs be Qevbeptyos tov ovt(i>s dyaTTdpLevov evOeoos (meKe^aXiaev^ elirliv, " et rw ©ew tiicttiv ovk 
€(f)v\a^as, TTws dvdpufnut (fivkd^ets ;" Repeated by Theophanes p. 122 B who also calls Theoderic 
&evbepLxos 6 "Ac^po?^. Zonaras torn. 2 p. 55 A relating the same fact, and being misled by Theo- 
dorus or Theophanes, or by both, makes Theoderic a governor of Africa : keyeTai koL Geobepixos 6 
T^s ^A(j)pLKris rjyejjLOiV, ^Apeiavbs (ov, btdKovov Tiva opdobo^ov avT^ irdw (^KeicopLevov k. t. A. Valesius ad 
Theodorum lectorem p. 166 is at a loss for the reason of the epithet "Acppos: " Fateor hujus 
cognomenti causam mihi prorsus ignotam esse."" Theodorus had probably written 'Apeto'^pcor^, 
which was corrupted into "Acppos. 

Inscriptions of the reign of Theoderic: 1 Gruter p. 108. 14 Romse : Regnante D.N. Theoderico 
Constantius V. C. P. U. die. 2 Muratori p. 266. 8 Romse in geminis tegulis : Regnante D. N. 
Theoderico felix Roma. Regnante D. N. Theoderico hono Romce. 3 Murat. p. 467- 6 Ravennse : Rex 
Theodericus faventi DO et hello gloriosus et otio fabricis suis amosna conjungens sterili palude siccata 
hos hortos suavi pomorum foecunditate ditavit. 4 Mur. p. 504. 10 Romae in tribus laterculis: D. N. 
rege Theodorico. RE.DN. Theodorico rono Rum. [lege hono Rom^ Rege Theodorico felix Roma. 

JusTiNus II. Began to reign Nov. 14 A. D. 565, appointed Tiherius Ccesar in December 574, Justinus II. 
and died Oct. 5 A. D. 578. See the Tables in those years. 

Coins : Eckhel tom. 8 p. 217 \ D.N. Justinus P. F. Aug. or PP. Aug. The reverse according 
to Eckhel bears anno with various numbers as far as XIII. Eckhel also gives for the reverse 
" Concordia, /magnum." or '•^ felix respuh. in corona." or " victoria Auggg. additis variis notis arith- 
raeticis Graecis." or " E. I. K. M fornja majore, vel numeri X. XX. intra coronam." or " sine epi- 
graphe. monogramma Christi intra lauream." 2 D. N. Justino et Sofie Aug.+amio KA. " in medio 
X et M." 3 D. N. Justin, et Sofa. + " sine epigraphe, duse Victorise alatse clypeum tenant, in cujus 
medio Stella, subtus K, in imo HM." 

An inscription: marmor Africanum apud Eckhel p. 218^^ Salvis dominis nostris Christianissimis 

et invictissimis imperatorihus Justino et Sofa Augustis. 

Un Vltalui7lUS see the lables ^14. 2. p,r} rjo-u^^dcms dkXa OTdafis kivwv vtto ^vp-na^ov KaBaipflrai 

■^Theophanes again p. 123 Bat the 10th of ^KA- koL els i^oplav TrepwfTai, kol outco Karenavdr] fj a-Taa-is. 

stasius : QevBepixos 6 "A^poy, Kparav rqutKavra 'Paprjs, For Symmachus and Laurent ius see the Tables 498. 4. 

Kainep 'Apdavos ^v, (rvvobov Kporrjaas tottikov 2vppaxov ^ Suidas has this word V. ^Aptiavos p. 554 B. Koi f'| 

peV eTTia-Konov 'Paprfs eKvpaae [sc. A. D. 498] Aavpev- avTOv [sc. 'Apet'ov] icai 'Apfi6(f)povfs. 

Tiov Se ets NoKepetaj^ ttjv nokiv ima-Korrrov Trpoa-era^ev. 6 be ^ From Maffcii Mus. Veron. p. 400. 

u 2 



148 APPENDIX. C. 1. 

TiBBRics II. Tiberius II. 

See the Tables A. D. 574, 575, 576, 577. He is appointed Augustus 26 Sept. 578. To the 
testimonies in the Tables add Zonaras XIV torn. 2 p. 72 A 6 ^ao-iXev? \Justinus'\ npoa-eKoXia-aTo 
Tov "narpiap^v ^vrvyiov {Oavovros yap tov inrb (T)(pka(rTLKQv ^Icadvvov -ndXiv ovtos knavTiydT] koX eJs tov 
dpovov 6.iT0KaT€<TTr] TOV apyj.(paTi.K6v) , (rvvadpoCiras 8e Koi Trjv avyKkqrov, aXKa Kat tov Kkrjpov ttjs ex/cXr/- 
(Tias, /3ao-tAca TovTifiipiov avr]ydp€V(r€vy, iir aKpodcrei -ndvTcav aurw ivTiikdfxevoi to. irpbs &ebv cva-ffidv 
K. T. X. — ravra TrapaivcVas koL (ru/x/SouXewas o 'lovarlvos t<2 TLJ3€pC<a i^cXnrc. Derived from Theo- 
phanes p. 210B who reports the discourse of Justin. Evagrius V. 13 reports the discourse of 
Justin, but refers it to the time of the appointment of Tiberius as Ccesar in 574. Anastasia Au- 
gusta: Theophanes p. 211 A — C fxrjvl *OicT<afipi<a — f^aa-CKfvcre Ti/3e/nos — vTifjpxf Se tw y4vH koL avTos 
Qpa^. ^aaikevaavTos b^ ainov ^Kpa^av to. p.ipr] cttI t^s lin:obpop.ia^ " Ihat, Xhat, ttjv Avyova-Tav P(ap.ai(av. ' 
— Kttt ^Kpa^av TO. p.ipr] " * Avaa-Taa-ia Avyova-Ta, tov /3iKa?^." — aKovcraaa b^ ^0(f)Ca rj tov ^Iov(ttIvov yvvri 
fTTkrjyr] ttjv "^XV^' f/SovAero yap Ti^^piov ka^elv Koi fxetvai Avyova-Ta' ov yap f]b€L oti e?xf yvvalKa. 
Tires bk ikiyov oti koL im ([w^s ^lovcrrivov iTpo(Te(pi\i,(a9r} avrw, Kai avT-q iircLcre ^Iovo-tIvov tov TiOLrjaaL 
avTov Kaiaapa. 6 bk Ti^ipios TT^fi^as ijyayev ^ AvaaracrCav r^y yvvaiKa avTov ^XP'*^^^^ "^^ OvyaTipas 
hvo €^ avTov, XapiTbi koI KtavcrravTlvav. Ka\ tareyf/ev avrqv Avyovarav. koI ippixjnv viraTiCav ttoW-^v' 
[Jan. 1 A. D. 579]. Zonaras XIV p. 72 B ttjv oUeiav yap-cT-qv ' AvaaTacriav Avyovarav dvrjyopevafv, 
fj bvo avT<2 QvyaTipas ^yeCvaTo Xapiro) Kal Kiava-TavTivav. Soc^ia 8e ^ upcojjy ^aaCkia-aa t&v dvaKTopuiv 
■imairekdovaa eZs to. 6pAwp.a kaxrrfj KaTt^KCadr] /3a(riActa, ^acnkiKrjv avTrj tov Ti^epCov bovros tnrrjpecrCav, 
0)9 olKeia p.r]TpC. 

Coins: Eckhel tom. 8 p. 218. \ D. N. Tib. Constant, (rarius Constantinus) PP. Aug. or D. N. 
Constantinus PP. A. or D. N. Tiberius P. A. " D. M. frequenter pro D. N."" +*^Anno, additis 
numeris. In medio M. vel K magnum." or victoria Aug. Augg. Auggg. " additis numeris Grsecis." 
2 B. M. Constantinus PP. Ai.+ victor. Tiberi Aus. " Crux, infra Conob." 3 B. N. Tiberi. PP. 
Aug. + victor. Mauri. Aus.^ '' Crux, infra Conoby 

An inscription apud Muratorium p. 430. 5 B^vennae : Hie requiescit in pace Georgius V. C. Ar- 
gentarius jilius Petri V. C. Argentarii jun. qui vixit annis pi. m. XVII dep. sub d. prid. Nonar. 
Aug. Ind. XII II imp. DN.N. Tiberio Constantino PP. Aug. anno VI et P. C. ejusdem anno III. 
Muratori calls these " notas chronicas ad rite dignoscendum annos imperii et consulatus Tiberii." 
But these numbers cannot stand together. The 1st year of Tiberius began in December A. D. 574^ 
and therefore his 6th began in Dec. A.D. 579 and was current in August of the 13th indiction. 
Again, Post consulatum annus III began in Jan, A. D. 582 and was current in August of the 15th 
indiction, August of his 8th year. "We must therefore read anno VII, and reckon P. C. Ill in- 
clusive of the consulship itself, of which mode of reckoning there are some examples c. 

The period of 63 years A. D. 579 — 641, which includes the reigns of Tiberius Mauricius Phocas 
and IleracUu^, the rise of the Mohammedan power, and memorials in the West of the Gothic 
kings of Spain, will be most conveniently exhibited in a Table, in which the Events and the Lite- 
rature shall be briefly given in two columns. 

y See the Tables A. D. 577. 4. A. D. 577- 

* Sc. ^M vincas. ^ See the Tables 574 p. 834. 

* Eckhel. " Mauricii insignes de fersis victorias ^ See the Tables A. D. 575 p. 838. 
depraedicat." See his campaigns in the Tables at 



EMPERORS. 



U9 



A.D 



579 



580 



581 



Events 



Authors 



Tiberii 2 from Sept. 26. Tiberius cos. Chron. 
Pasch. p. .'J7<> C Indict. 12. 1 Tiberius consul [from 
Jan. 1 A. D. 579]. Ti^epiov Kavaravr. Avy. fiopov B. 

Second campaign of Mauricius in Persia : Tables 
577 p. 838. 5/8 p. 842. 

Death of Chosroes in March : Tables 578 p. 842. 
Hoormuz succeeds him ll^' 6"* : Ibid. Nicephorus 
Callist. H. E. XVIII. 2 tom. 2 p. 810 D relates the 
death of Chosroes as if it immediately followed the 
campaign of Justinian : 6 8e 'lovariviavos (rvvdfia navrl 
Ta (TTpara els ttjv Tlfpcrlba fla^aXXei, Koi rov Kaipov rov 
Xfip-tovos fHftcre didycov oiSe/niW ivodev avria-Tacriv fvpi- 
(TKev' Koi pr]8iv n rov crTparevpaTos dno^aXaiv dfiffn 6e- 
pivas rpoTvds fKeWfv e|?/et. (Tvv ttoW^ S' €v6eia [lege ev- 
Bepia] Koi TTtpK^avei rfj 86^r) rrepl ra pfdopta StereXet 6e- 
pi^av. evrevdev Xoapoijs tw iroXka rrjs KaTaxfddoTjs XvTnjs 
€V dpr]xdva> yevopevos koi ttj iroKippola rav irpaypaTav 
anoTTViyfis per cuax^vr]! dnoXeirrfL to ^rjv — pfrd. S" fKu- 
vov is 'OppiaSav rov rralda SU^aivev ff dp^r]. But the 
acts of Justinian are inaccurately described. He 
was in Persia in A.D. 574, and Chosroes died in 
579. See the Tables A. D. 575. 576 p. 836. 838. 



Tiberii 3 from Sept. 26. Post cons. Tiberii I. 
Chron. Pasch. p. 376 C Indict. 13. 2 /xfru w. TijSe- 

piov Vfov KoivcTTavTivov. ainmara B. 

Third campaign oi Mauricius: Tables 577 P- 838. 
578 p. 842. 
Death oi Austregildis in September : see 581. 2. 



Tiberii 4 from Sept. 26. Post cons. Tiberii II. 
Chron. Pasch. p. 376 C Indict. 14. 3 ptTo. vtt. Tt^e- 
piov vfov KcDVOTavTiPov TO /3' povov. dvxmaTa B. 

Fourth campaign of Mauricius: Tables 577 p. 
840. 57« p. 842. Zonaras XIV tom. 2 p. 73 B C 
briefly describes these campaigns : 6 paa-tXevs — arpa- 



Nicephorus ends his 17th book and begins his 
18th at the death of Justin II : Nicephori Callisti 
Xanthopuli Hist. Eccles. lib. XVII tom. 2 p. 803 A 
eV trq Si reaaapa <rvvhi.ayaya)v Ti^eplo) 'lovarlvos 6 vios 
(KXtiTTd TO f^j/. p. 803 B TTfpUxfi- 8( T) Tvapoxxra i^ poi 
Tav i(TToptS>v xpovov irSav reTTapap trpbi Tois i^r]KOPTa 
ai)P prjarlp o/CTcb* oTnjpUa Koa-pov ptp fTos ,r ipeprjKoarov 
oySoop, dno 8e rijs 6fias tov Kvpiov yeppfiarfcas (j) Tp'iTOP 
Ka\ epepTjKooTop iirepaipeTo. Idem lib. I torn. 1 p. 41 C 
6 8e -ye deKOTos re koI oydoos Xapnpcis ntpU^ei poi, oaa 
eVi Ti^epiov koi MavpiKiov twp avTOKpaTopcop rais eKKkij- 
criais tyepfTO — koi ottcos 6 pfTa MavpiKiop KOKas rvpap- 
PTjo-as ^(OKas alarxpS>s djrqWdyr} tov ^rjp. 

Nicephorus begins his history (dedicated tom. 1 
p. 1 — 28 to Andronicus Palceologus who reigned 
A. D. 1283—1328) at the Nativity in the 42nd of 
Augustus: I. p. 68 C p. 125D. But he gradually 
interpolates 14 years between the 19th of Tiberius 
and the death of Justin II, as appears from his own 
dates at the end of each book. The progress of his 
interpolations will be seen in the following extracts 
from his years compared with the true periods. 

lib. pag. A.M. A.D. 

I. 125 ends at the 19th of Tiberius 5539. 33 
11.219 atthel4thinclusiveofiVero5575. 70 
IV. 341 at the death oi Pertinax 5701. 196 
VI. 437 at the 1st oi Diocletian 5795. 290 



VIII. 667 death of Constantine 5847. 342 

IX. 809 death of Constantius II 5872. 367 

X. 104 death of Jovian 5875. 370 

XI. 216 death of Valens 5891. 386 

XII. 336 death of Theodosius.. . 5909. 404 

XIII. 430 death of Arcadius 5923. 418 

XIV. 581 death of Theodosius II 5965. 460 

XV. 635 death oi Leo 5990. 485 

XVI. 727 death of Anastasius. . . 6034. 529 

XVII. 803 death of Justin II 6098. 593 



True 
year. 

32 

68 
193 
284 
337 
361 
364 
378 
395 
408 
450 
474 
518 
578 



The space of 546 years from the 1 9th of Tiberius 
inclusive to the death of Justin II is expanded into 
560 years by Nicephorus. 



Eulogius oi Alexandria : Tables 578. 4 p. 843. 



[End of the Chronicon of Marius : Anno II cons. 
Tiberii Constaniini Augusti. Ind. XIV. From Sept. 1 
A. D. 580. one year below the true time. See In- 
trod. p. IX Tables 568. 1 p. 824. 578. 1. 2 p. 840.] 
Marius adds this notice : Ea indictione mense Sep- 
tembri Austregildis regina obiit: propter cujus trans- 



150 



APPENDIX. 



C. 1. 



1 

A.D. Events 


Authors 




TTfyov avTols t7riaTT)(Tas MavpiKiov riv KOfirjTa rav (f>oibf- 
pdrav, Koi xmoirrpaTTjyov fiapcn^v top Kov^iKovXapiov, tK- 
TreWo/i^e Kara tS>v Ylfpaav Troktpov 8e (Tvppayfvros, t6 
'PmndiKov im(pT(pT](Tf trrpdrevpa koi TroXeir rSyv fiap^dptov 
Kcu noKkijv xmpav dc^tiKero' vTroarpf'^avTa 8e tov Mavpi- 
Kiov [sc. A. D. 582] /xrra Tiprji 6 ^aaiXfvs VTrebe^aro, 
Koi icj]8e<rrfiv (m t^ Bvyarpi KmpcrravTivrj avrov firoir)- 
(Toro, rrjv 8e iripav Tr)v Xapira ra arpaTrfya avveCev^e 
TeppLOva. 

Leovegildi annus 14 from the close of this year: 
Tables 569 p. 826. 577 p. 840. 


itum interfecti sunt duo medici Nicolaus et Donatus. 
At the right date : Greg. Tur. H. Fr. V. 34. 36 
Anno quinto Childeberti regis Arvernorum — His die- 
bus Austrechildis, Guntchramni principis regina, — 
priusquam nequam spiritum exhalaret — voluit leti sui 
habere participes &c. But the 5th year of Childebert 
ended in the computation of Greg. Tur. Dec. 24 
A. D. 580. See the Tables 574. 4 p. 835. At the 
right indiction in Marius, September A. D. 580. 


582 


Mauricii 1 from Aug. 1 3. Post cons. Tiberii III. 
Chron. Pasch. p. 376 D Indict. 15. 4 /xo-a wr. Tt^. 
— TO y pj6vov. dinmara B. 

Death of Tiberius Aug. 14: Tables 577 p. 840. 
Zonaras XIV tom. 2 p. 73 D i/do-w 8e (f>divd8c Trepi- 
Trecrwi' eV rm rpi^ovvakia (f)opd8r]v eKKop-itrdfls fKfl tov 
MavpiKiov dvapprjffr)vai ^acriKfa TrfnoiTfKe, irapovros tov 
irarpidpxov 'Iwawou koi ttjs (TvyKkryrov ^ovXfjs- — imo- 
arpf-^as 8' (Kudfv (Is to. ^aaiXfia ttjv ^(ofjv (^epeTpTjtre 
^(TiXevcras err) Tpia prjvas 8<Ka koi fjpepas oKTca. Mavpi- 
Kios df Trjs tS>v Koipuv du)iicT]<Tf(i)s ei;^ero, (rTf(j)6f\s vno 
TOV Trarpidpxov 'Itodwov tov vria-TfVTOv. rjv he ore ttjs 
avTap\ias ejri^Tf eTcov Tfaaapdicovra npos Tpuriv. 


Eutychius CP. ob. Ap. 6 : Tables 577- 4 p 841. 
Joannes CP. 13^ 5"*. Nicephorus p. 414 D ^Iwdwqs 
6 VT]crT€VTf)i BidKovos KQ. em Ti^epiov eTt] ly pfjvas e'. 
This period commences Ap. 12 A. D. 582 (see 
Theophanes quoted at 577. 4), and therefore ter- 
minates in the beginning of Sept. A. D. 595. 


583 


Mauricii 2 from Aug. 13. Sine consule. Chron. 

Pasch. p. 377 A Indict. 1. I eviavTOs dvunaTOS. koi ex 
Koivov 86ypxiTOs (ypd(j)r] " pfTO. xmaruav Ti^fpiov — tov 
TTJs dfias Xri^fas (tovs S*." dinnvaTa [sc. Post COtlS. 

Tib. IV-\ B. 




584 


Mauricii 3 from Aug. 13. Mauricius cos. Chron. 
Pasch. p. 377 A Indict. 2. 2 inr. MavpiKiov Avyovarov 
TO a pLOVov. Theophylact. I. 12 p. 25 A dein-epov eTos 
TOVTO TTJs MavptKiov fjyfpovlas, Koi 6 avTOKpdTup ^^eipStPos 

&pa vrroTos dvayopevfTcu. Theophanes p. 214 D Mau- 
ricii 2" TOVTO) Tw (Tfi pr)v\ AfKfp^pia k IvbiKTiavi (3' 
[Dec. 20 A. D. 583] viraTOS 6 ^aa-iXtvs dvayopfvtTai 
/cat iroWoiis Gr^cravpovs tj) TroXet fBtoprja-aTo' irpo^dXXeTcu 
8i ^iXnnriKov arpaTrjyov Trjs iaas, noifia-as avrov yap^pbv 
tts Topdiav Tfjv tdiav dSeXc^^v. Repeated by Cedrenus 
p. 395 A Ta ^ rrei vnaTos 6 ^aatkeus dvayoptveTcu, k. 
T. X. MavpiKiov Ti^fpiov A17. pMVOV B. 

The appointment of Philippicus is marked by 

Theophylact I. 13 A p. 25 B tw 8* eviarapeva TOVT(o 
fviavTu — ^iknnriKos dvTavi(rraTat koi aTpoTijyos dvayo- 
ptvfTai xmo TOV avTOKparopos, dvfjp eVtSe^tof Koi j8a(ri- 
Xiiajs (Tvyytvfiai fyyvTOTos' yap,fTr)s yap tTvyxavtv i>v 
Topdias dbf\(f>fjs tov avTOKpdTopos. — pfTOTrapov Te dpxo- 
fUvov [A. D. 584] irapd t6v Tiyprjv avXiffTtu. 




585 


Mauricii 4 from Aug. 13. Post cons. Mauricii I. 
Chron. Pasch. p. 377 A Indict. 3. 3 p^Ta im. Mavpi. 
Kiov. dvtmaTa B [sc. Post cons. Maur. 7.] 





EMPERORS. 



151 



A.D. 



Events 



Authors 



586 



Philippicus in the East: Theophyl. I. 14 p. 26 C 
(Is TOP (TTiovTa fviavTov rrj 'Ap^avT}vfj x^P*}' ^^ winter 
retires to CP. Ibid. p. 27 C ;^«/iclJi/oy wpa rjbr) nov 
TTapftpaivtTO. Koi tov ^atrtXea dcnraaofifvos (S Bv^diTiov 

^Kfv. The winter of A. D. 584- 

Leovegildi annus 1 8 at the close of this year : 
Tables 569 p. 826. Joannes Biclar. Anno IV Mau- 
ricii imp. qui est Leovegildi regis XVIII annus. 

Theodosius born : Theophan. p. 215 C Cedren. 
p. 395 D. 



Mauricii 5 from Aug. 13. Post cons. Mauricii II. 
Chron. Pasch. p. 377 B Indict. 4. 4 fiera vtt. Mavpi- 
Kiov — TO /3' povov. dvvnaTa [sc. Post cons. Maur. II~\ B. 

Philippicus in spring: Theophyl. I. 14, 15 p. 
27 C Tjpos be rrapaviaxovTos — ^iXittttikos ttjs ^aaikiSos 
€^fBr]prj(T( TToXecaff. Heraclius 6 'HpaKkeiov Tranjp tov 
avTOKpaTopos II. 3 p. 34 B. — Winter : II. 10 p. 44 C. 
The winter of A. D. 58-f-. This campaign is de- 
scribed at the 4th of Mauricius by Theophanes p. 
216 A— 217 B Cedrenus p. 395 D— 396 B. 

Joannes Biclar, Anno IVqui est XVIII &c. Anthane 
[lege Autharis'] Longobardorum rex cum Romanis 
congressione facta superat. In the beginning of 586, 
when tliose years were current together. Autharis 
after the interregnum of 10 years A. D. 574 — 584 
(Tables 574 p. 834) reigned 6 years to September : 
Paulus Diac. Langob. 111. 16 Langobardi cum per 
annos decern sub potestate ducum fuissent, tandem com 
muni consilio Authari Clephonis filium — regem sibi 
statuerunt. III. 36 Rex Authari apud Ticinum No 
nas Septembres, veneno ut tradunt accepto, moritur, 
postquam sex regnaverat annos. As he began to 
reign at the close of 584, his death is fixed to 
Sept. 5 A. D. 590. 

Joannes Biclar. Anno IV &c. Hoc anno Leove- 
gildus rex diem clausit extremum et filius ejus Reca- 
redus cum tranquillitate regni ejus sumit sceptra. 
Anno V Mauricii, qui est Recaredi regis primus — 
Mauricius Theodosium filium suum — Ccesarem facit. 
Isidorus p. 726 era 624 [A. D. 586] — anno tertio 
[lege quartol imperii Mauricii Livingildo defuncto fi- 
lius ejus Recaredus in regno est coronatus. Between 
Ap. 13 and May 8 : Tables 569 p. 826. 



587 



Mauricii 6 from Aug. 13. Post cons. Mauricii III, 
Chron. Pasch. p. 377 B Indict. 5. 5 pera vtt. Mavpi- 
Kiov — TO y povov. oinmaTa B. 

Philippicus and Heraclius in spring : eTrel eaptViSf s 
Zapai K. T. X. Theophylact. II. 10 p. 44 C. Heraclius 
again Idem II. 18 p. 56 A. In this year Comen 
tiolus in Thrace : Theophyl. II. 10 p. 44 D tovt<o 
fijjTO T<5 eVwxuTW KopevrioXos eTTi ttjv 'AyxiaXop rjKe 



152 



APPENDIX. 



C. 1, 



A.D. 


Events 


Authors 




Mauricii 5" Comentiolus apud Theophanem p. 217C, 
Heraclius p. 218 D. 

Recaredi 2 from April. See 586. Theophanes 
p. 220 D Mauricii 6" nrfv\ ^errrffi^pia tv8ucTia)vi r oi 
Aoyyt'^apSot Kara 'Pafiaiav TroXe/xoi/ rjpcarro. Sept. of 

A. D. 587. 


• 


588 


Mauricii 7 from Aug. 13. Post cons. Mauricii IV. 
Chron. Pasch. p. 377 B Indict. 6. 6 lura im.—To S 
fi6vov, anmara B. 

In spring Priscus succeeds Philippicus : Theo- 
phyl. III. 1 p. 62 A ^pos 8* kinyevopLivov 6 pev direxu- 
poTovflro 6 8f TTJs fiytpovias mnjpxfTo. Easter : Idem 
p. 62 B. Winter : Theophyl. III. 4 p. 66 C. The 
winter of A. D. 584. This campaign is improperly 
referred to the 5th of Mauriciu^ by Theophanes 
p. 219BC. 

Recaredi 3 from April. See 586. Joannes Bi- 
clar. Anno VII Mauricii qui est Recaredi regis III 
— Francorum exercitus a Gonterano rege transmissus 
Bosone duce in Galliam Narbonensem obveniunt et 
juxta Carcassonensem urbem castra metati sunt. Cui 
Claudius Lusitanice dux a Recaredo rege directus 
obviam occurrit. Cum quo congressione facta Franci 
in fugam. vertuntur et direpta castra Francorum et 
exercitus a Gothis cceditur. Isidorus p. 726 Francis 
cum LX/ere millibus armatorum Gallias irruentibus, 
misso Claudio duce — triumphavit. Conf. Greg. Tur. 
H. Fr. IX. 31. 




589 


Mauricii 8 from Aug. 13. Post cons. Mauricii V. 
Chron. Pasch. p. 377 B Indict. 7- 7 pfra vn. — to e 
fxovov. ainmara B. 

Spring in Asia : Theophylact. III. 4 p. 66 C D 
('myivopevov 8" ^pos. Comentiolus appointed : Idem 
III. 6 p. 68 D 6 8e ^tknrmKos cmex^'^poTovevro napav- 
TiKCL, Kop-evTioXov 8e arparrfyov 6 avTOKparap avi(m)(Tiv. 
Evagrius VI. 15 irfpirerai ttjs fjyepovlas biAboxos Ko- 
pevTioXos, 0p9^ yevos. Mauricii 6" Theophanes p. 
221 A Cedrenus p. 396 D male. In the 8th of 
Mauricius — eror oyboov rrfs Mavpixlov — Bahram is 
sent to Suania : Theophylact. III. 6 p. 69 C. Ro- 
manus meets him : p. 70 C. Bahram, reproached 
hy Hormisdas for his defeat (III. 8 p. 72 C), revolts, 
and the long war is ended : p. 73 C. Conf. Eva- 
grium VI. 15. 16. At the 6th of Mauricius in 
Theophanes p. 221 B— 222 C. 

Recaredi 4 from April. See 586. 


Concilium Toletanum III : Joannes Biclar. Anno 
VIII Mauricii qui est Recaredi IV annus, sancta 
synodus episcoporum totius Hispanice Galliee et Gal- 
lacicB in urbe Toletana pracepto principis Recaredi 
congregatur episcoporum numero LXXII, in qua 
synodo intererat — Recaredus. Acta Concil. torn. 6 
p. 693 Anno quarto regnante gloriosissimo Domino 
Reccaredo rege, die VIII Iduum Maiarum era 627- 
Sc. May 8 A. D. 589. 


590 


Mauricii 9 from Aug. 13. Post cons. Mauricii VI. 
Chron. Pasch. p. 377 C Indict. 8. 8 pxrh xm.—rb r. 
avimara B. 

Mauricius crowns his son Theodosius at Easter : 
Chron. Pasch. p. 377 C. Theophanes p. 225 B 
Maur. 8" lUfvL Mapri^ kt tvbiKTuivi rf ijj fipipq. rov 


Death of Pelagius of Rome Feb. 8. Gregorius 
succeeds Sept. 3 A. D. 590 : Tables 578. 4. 

Joannes Biclariensis ends at the 4th year of Re- 
caredus: Tables 569. 4. 

Gregorii Romani Ep. I. 9 p. 496 Petro subdia- 
cono. Mense Novembri Indictione IX. 



EMPERORS. 



153 



AD. 



Events 



aylov ndaxa, xp^vcov rtcrcrdptov tjiuctv, f(rT((f)dr) — vtto 
'ladvvov irarpidpxov KIT. Repeated by Cedrenus p. 
397 A. 

Comentiolus is still in winter when the civil war 
begins in Persia : Theophylact. IV. 2 p. 9 1 D. Hor- 
misdas deposed: p. 93 D. Slain: IV. 7 p. 100 A. 
In September : Tables 5/8 p. 842. Chosroes takes 
refuge with the Romans : Chron. Pasch. p. 377 C 
Indict. IX'Mauricii 9 Xoaporjs — r/Xde npos 'Vafiaiovs. 
After September 590. For the facts see Evagrius 
VI. !()— 18 Theophylact. IV. 10 p. 104 A— 1 1 p. 
105 D. Bahram proclaims himself: p. 106 A B. 
Related at the 0th of Mauricius by Theophanes 
p. 222 B— 223 D. At the 7th by Cedrenus p. 
396 D. 

Recaredi 5 from April. See 586. 



Authors 



591 



Mauricii 1 from Aug. 13. Post cons. Mauricii VII. 
Chron. Pasch. p. 377 C Indict. 9. 9 p.eTa vrr. — to {"'. 
dvinraTa B. 

Chosroes in spring — ^pos dpxopevov — sends am- 
bassadors to Mauricius : Theophylact. IV. 13 p. 
107 c. Meanwhile Zadesprates is slain: V. 1 p. 
121 D. (on the 9th of February: p. 136 D.) Narses 
succeeds Comentiolus: V. 2 p. 122 D. Spring: 123 A 
rjpos dpxop.€vov [sc. A. D. 591]. In summer Chosroes 
advances: V. 4 p. 124 C depovs dpxopevov. Defeat 
of Bahram: V. 9 p. 131 A— 139 A. Conf. Eva- 
grium VI. 19. End of the Persian war in the 20th 
year : Tables 572 p. 830. 

Recaredi 6 from April : see 586. 



Chosroes apud Theophylactum V. 13 p. 136 C 
Evagrium VI. 21 addresses a letter of thanks after 
his victory. He mentions Jan. 7 and Feb. 9 of the 
first year of his reign, sc. Jan. Feb. A. D. 591. 
He makes mention Xoapoov ^acnXeios vlov Ka^ddov, 
Toi) Tjfierepov narpos. father for grandfather. 

Gregorii Romani Ep. I. 21 Mense Feb. indict. IX. 
Ep. I. 33 p. 521 Romano patricio et exarcho Italics. 
Mense Martio indict. IX. Ep. I. 45 p. 540 itni- 
versis eplscopis per Illyricum. Mense Junii indict. IX. 
Ep. II. 7 p- 573 Maximiano episc. Syracusano. Mense 
Decembri indict. X. 



592 



Mauricii 1 1 from Aug. 13. Post cons. Mauricii VIII. 
Chron. Pasch. p. 377 D Indict. 10. 1 perd in. — to 
t]' . avvTrara B. 

Mauricius recals the forces from the East : Theo- 
phylact. V. 16 p. 140 A TOf dvvdpfis 6 aVTOKpUTCOp fS 
TTjv 'Evpomrjv as Tdxt(TTa fieTe^i^a^ev, ini Te Tryv 'Ayxi- 
dkov TTjv (Khrfp-iav TrapacrKfvd^eTai. Progress of Mau- 
ricius to Thrace at the time of an eclipse : Theo- 
phylact. p. 140 C KttT (Kflvrjv yovv T-qv Tjpepav 17X10U 
/xeyi'o-TT/ yeyovev eKXeiijns. Zonaras XIV tom. 2 p. 76 B 
(lpr]VT)s yeyowias irpos Tlepa-as, Tas dvvdpeis i^ idas eVi 

rqv QpaKTjv peTrjveyKe Koi avTos e^^X^e Tijs Bv^avTiBos 

OTe Koi 6 rfKiOi ea-Kidadr]. Theoplianes p. 225 D e'^eX- 
dovTi 8e aiiTco — yeyovev ijXi'ou «X€ti//'iy. This eclipse is 
determined by authorities apud Pagium tom. 2 p. 697 
Sara. Basnage Annal. tom. 3 p. 914 to March 19 
A. D. 592. Mauricius after 15 days at Anchialus 
(Theophylact. VI. 3 p. 147 A) returns to CP. 

War with the Chagan : Theophylact. p. 147 C. 
Priscus appointed to command : VI. 4 p. 148 B. 
In the autumn he returns to CP. VI. 6 p. 151 A 
6 pep ovv (TTpaTrjyos peTonaypov dpxopevov — es Bv^dvTiov 
^Ke. The march of the emperor is improperly re- 



Gregorii Romani Ep. II. 10 p. 575 Paulo episc. 
Neapolitano. Mense Januario indict. X. Ep. II. 14 
Mense Februario indict. X. Ep. TI. 17 Data mense 
Martio indict. X. Ep. II. 26 Mense Aprili indict. X. 
Ep. II. 35 p. 598 ad Joannem episc. Ravennatem. 
Mense Julii indict. X. Ep. II. 47 Dominico episc. 
Carthaginensi. Data X Kal. Aug. indict. X. Ep. II. 
48 Mense Augusti indict. X. Ep. III. 4 Mense Oc- 
tobri indict. XI. Ep. III. 14 Mense Deceinbri in- 
dict. XI. 



154 



APPENDIX. 



C. 1, 



A.D 



Events 



Authors 



ferred to the 9th of Mauricius by Theophanes p. 

225 D Cedrenus p. 397 B. The campaign of Pris- 
cus more justly to the 10th vear : Theophanes p. 

226 D Cedren. p. 397 D. 



593 



594 



Mauricii 1 2 from Aug. 1 3. Post cons. Mauricii IX. 
Chron. Pasch. p. 377 D Indict. 11.11 nera vn. — t6 
. annmara B. 

In spring Priscus moves to the Danube : Theo- 
phylact. VI. 6 p. 151 A ^pos 8f dpxofitvov 6 (rrpaTrjybs 
— TTopa TOP "larpov tirffintTo. After this campaign 
winter : Idem VI. 10 p. 157 A and a sedition in 
the army : Karaorao-ta^et fj 'Pafialtov ttXijOvs, irapaxra- 
puivt) Tovs \6yovs tov avTOKparopos' oucoi re rrjv rov yjrv- 
Xovs apav epfxtipfi noirjaaa-daL. The winter of A. D. 
59|^. Petrus is appointed to supersede Priscus: 
VI. lip. 159 A. Meanwhile Priscus passing the 
Danube makes a peace with the Chagan : VI. 1 1 
p. 1 6 1 A. These events are related by Theophanes 
under the 11th oi Mauricius : p. 228 A. the 12th: 
p. 229 B. the 13th : p. 230 A— D. Who is fol- 
lowed by Cedrenus p. 398 C D. 



Mauricii 13 from Aug. 13. Post cons. Maur. X. 
Chron. Pasch. p. 378 A Indict. 12. 12 ptTo. im. — 
TO t'. awnara B. 

Petrus the brother of Mauricius proceeds to 
Thrace: Theophyl. VII. 1 p. 16()A. A mutiny in 
the army is noticed p. 1 66 C D. Petrus violates the 
peace: VII. 4 p. 1/0 A. — is defeated, and Priscus 
reappointed : VII. 5 p. 172 B KaTaTToKfur^Bivros toIwv 
imo tS)v ^ap^apa>v tov UtTpov HpitTKos yivercu irrpaTT)- 
yos, Koi — 6 HfTpoi fV Hv^avriov r^Ktv. Mauricii 15*' 
apud Theophanem p. 231 C — 232 D Cedrenum p. 
399 A. 



A letter of Chosroes in his third year (commenc- 
ing Sept. A. D. 592) apud Theophylactum V. 14 
p. 137 B Evagrium VI. 21 p. 460 B. Theophylact. 
1. c. T^ 8e (TTiovTi eviavra [sc. anno secundo^ 6 tov Ilep- 
(TiKov jSatriXfiif avayopfvfi ^aaiKfiav ^iprjv — TpiTcn 8e erti 
TjVTi^oKfi TOV — ^(pyiov TTOida (k ttjs Sip^s dodrjvai airra. 
fier oi) TToXv be tovtov yeyovoros airra — iiriaTokrjv e^e- 
TTfiv^iv. Written before the close of 593, when 
Evagrius published his history. 

Gregory of Antioch died between March and Au- 
gust : Tables 570. 2. One year too high in Chron. 
Pasch. p. 377 D Indict. 10 Post cons. Maur. VIII 
[from Sept. 1 A. D. 591] tovto tw tviavTa 'Apaard- 
aios 7raTpt.dpx^s 'AvTioxeias firapfjXdep tp 'A»Tto;^cta fiCTO, 
TfXevTTjp Tptyyoplov. 

Evagrius ends his history in the 12th of Mauri- 
cius : Tables 542. 4 p. 779. 

Gregorii Romani Ep. III. 16 Mense Januario in- 
dict. XI. Ep. III. 20 Mense Feb. ind. XI. Ep. III. 
21 Mense Mart. ind. XI. Ep. III. 26 Mense Apr. 
ind. XI. Ep. III. 34 Mense Maio ind. XI. Ep. 
III. 40 Mense Julio ind. XI. Ep. III. 5S Mense 
Aug. ind. XI. Ep. IV. 1 1 Mense Oct. ind. XII. 
Ep. IV. 16 Mense Nov. ind. XII. 



[Chron. Pasch. p. 378 A Indict. 12 Mauricii anno 
12 TTJs €P Kn. — eKKkrjcrias KvpiaKos — TfyeiTai tTj] i^ . 
More than a year before the true time. Joannes 
died and Cyriacus succeeded in the first month of 
indict. 14 or Sept. 595. conf. a. 582. Theophylact. 
VII. 6 p. 172 C has an error of five years current : 
Trpo Terrdptop tovtup eviavrap [four years before the 
close of A. D. 594] ^loidpvrjs 6 ttjp ts Bv^dpriop (kkXt)- 
(Tiap Idvpap TOP TjjBe ^cop aTreXtTTfJ'.] 

Gregorii Romani Ep. IV. 17 Mense Januario in- 
dict. XII. Ep. IV. 19 Mense Apr. ind. XII. Ep. 
IV. 20 Mense Maio ind. XII. Ep. IV. 23 Mense 
Junio ind. XII. Ep. IV. 30 Constantince Augusta. 
Mense Junio indict. XII. Ep. IV. 40 Mense Aug. 
ind. XII. Ep. V. 4 Constantio episc. Mediolanensi. 
Mense Sept. ind. XIII. Ep. V. 7 Mense Oct. ind. 
XIII. Ep. V. 11 Joanni episc. Ravennati. Mense 
Oct. ind. XIII. 



595 



Mauricii 14 from Aug. 13. Post cons. Maur. XI. 
Chron. Pasch. p. 378 A Indict. 13. 13 pxTa vn. — 

t6 la . dpvnaTa B. 

In spring Priscus, restored to the command, pro- 
ceeds from CP. Theophylact. VII. 7 p. 173 C fjpos 
dpxofupov Koi 6 Hpia-Kos tov Bv^ovtiov d7ro<f>oiT^. Passes 



Joannes of CP. dies in September : See the year 
582. Cyriacus succeeds : Nicephorus p. 414 D Kw- 

plOKOS TTpffT^VTepOS TTjS avTTJS fKKkTjiriaS Koi olKdpofios 

(Tf) id. 

Gregorii Romani Ep. V. 1 8 Joanni episc. CP. Data 
Kal. Jan. ind. XIII. Ep. V. 24 Romano exarcho 



EMPERORS. 



155 



A.D. 


Events 


Authors 




the Danube : 173 D. Conference with the Chagan : 
VII. 10 p. 178 A. After the conference the forces 
of Prisons are successful: VII. 12 p. 179 D 180 A. 
And nothing memorable is performed for 1 8 months : 
VII. 12 p. 180 D fVi fi^vas 6KT(OKai8(Ka Koi nepaiTepa 
'Pafmiois re Koi ^ap^dpois rois ava r^v "larpov aiiXi^o- 
pevois ov8ep a^iou (rvyypaiprjs dumeTTpoKTCU. Within the 

years 596. 597. Theophanes p. 233 A C describes 
this campaign at the 16th of Mauricius. 


Italia. Mense Feb. indict. XIII. Ep. V. 29 Mense 
Mart. ind. XIII. Ep. V. 34 Mense Maio ind. XIII. 
Ep. V. 38 Mense Junio ind. XIII. Ep. V. 51 Mense 
Aug. ind. XIII. Ep. V. 53. V. 54 universis epi- 
scopis Galliarum qui sub regno Childeberti sunt. 
V. 55 Childeberto regi Franoorum. All dated die 
XII Aug. ind. XIII. Ep. V. 57 Joanni episc. Co- 
rinthiorum. Ep. V. 58 Universis episcopis per Hel- 
ladiatn constitutis. Both dated die XV Aug. indict. 
XIII. Ep. VI. 17 Mense Oct. ind. XIV. Ep. VI. 
20 Mense Nov. ind. XIV. 


596 


Mauricii 15 from Aug. 13. Post cons. Maur. XII. 
Chron. Pasch. p. 378 A Indict. 14. 14 pera xm. — 
TO ijS'. avxnraTa B. 

Sickness of Mauricius in his 15th year : Theo- 
phylact.VIII. 11 p. 212B. 


Gregorii Romani Ep. VI. 21 Mense Januario ind. 
XIV. Ep. VI. 26 Mense Mart. ind. XIV. Ep. VI. 
29. VI. 31 Mense Apr. ind. XIV. Ep. VI. 35 Mense 
Maio ind. XIV. Ep. VI. 36 Mense Jun. ind. XIV. 
Ep. VI. 41 Mense Jul. ind. XIV. Ep. VI. 51 ad 
fratres in Angliam euntes. Data die X Kal. Aug. 
imperante D. N. Mauricio Tiberio piissimo Aug. anno 
XIV, post consulatum ejusdem D. N. anno XIII, in- 
dictione XIV. Gregorius, like Victor Tun. Marius 
and some others, reckons the years post consulatum 
inclusive of the year of the consulship. See the 
Tables 542. 1. 568. 1. 575. 2 p. 838. Ep. VI. 52 
Data die X Kal. Aug. ind. XIV. Ep. VI. 60 Mense 
Aug. ind. XIV. Ep. VII. 12 Mense Nov. ind. XV. 


597 


Mauricii 16 from Aug. 13. Post cons. Maur. XIII. 
Chron. Pasch. p. 378 A Indict. 15. 15 pera xm. — to 
ly. ainmara B. 


Gregorii Romani Ep. VII. 14 Mense Mart, indict. 
XV. Ep. VII. 1 8 Mense Maio ind. XV. Ep. VII. 
24 Mense Junio ind. XV. Ep. VII. 35 Mense Julio 
ind. XV. Ep. VII. 41 Datum mense Aug. ind. XV. 
Ep. VIII. 4 Mense Nov. ind. I. Ep. VIII. 5 Mense 
Dec. ind. I. 


598 


Mauricii 17 from Aug. 13. Post cons. Maur. XIV. 
Chron. Pasch. p. 378 A Indict. 1. 16 pera xm. — to 
i&. avxmaTa B. 

The Chagan attacks Tomi, Prisons moves to its 
defence : Theophylact. VII. 13 p. 181 A 6 Xayavos— 
Topea Tjj TToKei [Topea et Topeai Arrianus peripl. Pont. 
Euxin. p. 135] e<f)iaraTai, rovrmv 6 Hpia-xos nvdopevos 
iirrfpeaCopevrj ttj iroKei tvpoffopCkei. 'Papaioi roiyapovv Koi 
ol ^dp^apoi fls TO. TTfpl Topeav rrjv nokip (TTparoTzebevov- 
Tfs &pas fTriyivopevTjs ■)(fi.p5>vos ovbapas rbv \apaK.a 8i€- 
\vcravTO. tov 8e ^pos dvi(rx6vTos \ip6s rois 'Papaiois iv- 
€(TKTplt€. The winter of A. D. 59^, the spring of 599. 
Theophanes p. 234 A refers this to the 1 8th of Mau- 
ricius lv8iKTiS)vi y pr)vi Mapricp, or March of A. D. 
600. Cedrenus also p. 399 C tw irf erci. Which is 
refuted by Theophylact. 


Gregorii Romani Ep. VIII. 10 Mense Feb. ind. I. 
Ep. VIII. 14 Mense Apr. ind. I. Ep. VIII. 15 Ma- 
riniano episc. Ravennati. Data mense Apr. indict. I. 
Ep. VIII. 20 eidem. Mense Maii ind. I. Ep. VIII. 
23. VIII. 27 Mense Junio indict. I. Ep. VIII. 33 
Mense Aug. ind. I. Ep. IX. 25 Mense Nov. ind. II. 
Ep. IX. 26 Mense Nov. ind. II, 


599 


Mauricii 18 from Aug. 13. Post cons. Maur. XV. 
Chron. Pasch, p. 378 A Indict. 2. 17 p^a xm. — t6 le. 
dvimaTa B. 

At Easter hostilities suspended : Theophylact. 


Gregorii Romani Ep. IX. 28 Mense Januario ind. 
II. Ep. IX. 35 Constantio episc. Mediolanensi. Data 
mense Feb. ind. II. Ep. IX. 46 Datum mense Apr. 
[al. Mart. al. Maio} indict. II. Ep. IX. 60 Dat. 



X 2 



156 



APPENDIX. 



C. 1. 



A.D. 



Events 



Authors 



VII. 13 p. 181 B. Easter of A. D. 599. (Referred 
to Easter 600 by Theophanes p. 234 B Cedrenus 
p. 399 C.) 

Comentiolus is defeated : Theophylact. VII. 14. 
and retires to CP. c. 15 p. 184 A. Terror of the 
city and court : p. 1 84 B. Mauricius refuses to 
ransom the prisoners : Zonaras XIV torn. 2 p. 77 C 
tK TTji Xo(/iuc^f v6<T0v — d&vfj.r](Tas 6 fidpfiapos t<mevaev 
«»s TO oiKcta etrava^tv^M. dijXot yovv ra MavpiKito f^avrj- 
aaadm roiis alxixaXarovs, iv tcf) tKatrr^ SiSdwt vofuarpa. 
6 if /Sao-tXfiir ou KaTfvtvat. Conf. Theophanem p. 
235 B — D Cedrenum p. 399 D. And the war ceases: 
Theophylact. VII. 15 p. 184 D eV tovtois fiijra 'A^d- 
pois Kcu 'Pmfuuois 6 n6\fpos irepas tkap^avfv. (Who 

omits to tell that the prisoners were not ransomed 
and were put to death by the Chagan.) 



mense Martio ind. II. Ep. IX. 74 Mense Julio ind. 
II. Ep. X. 10 Datum mense Dec. ind. III. 



600 



Mauricii 19 from Aug. 13. Post cons. Maur. XVI. 
Chron. Pasch. p. 378 B Indict. 3. 18 iiera im. — to 

IT. dvvnaTa B. 

Theophylact. VIII. 1 p. 197D— 198 A dTroorcX- 
Xovcrt TTpfo-^eis al nepl ttjv Qpwcqv — dvudptis irpos Mav- 
puuov — rrpo8o(Tica> KaraiTiwpfvai KopevrioXov rov aTparr)- 
yov. TTJs oracfws Toiwv fls to ^aaiXtiov aarv l<T)(ypai 
ytyowias, hibaxriv 6 avTOKpaTap KopevrioXco koi toIs 
irp«r^f<Ti duurrjTas, koI — Xapfidvei fj Karqryopia rrfv iyKO- 
jrrjv Kol avdis 6 KopevrioXos yivfToi arparrjyos. depovs Be 
eiriovTos (^m Trjs TroXeas yiPfToi. War renewed : p. 
198 B. Victories of Priscus : Theophylact. VIII. 2 
p. 199 A — i p. 201 B. Then winter approached: 
p. 201 C. passed by Comentiolus at Philippopolis : 
VIII. 4 p. 202 ocfitrf TTjv &ira<Tav tov )(fipa>vos a>pav 
ivbtarpi'^as [A. D. 60-?-] tapos dpxopevov €s BvCavriov 
irapayiverm. rw 8e iniovTi Ofpei [A. D. 601} TroXti/ 
arpaTrfyhs vn6 Mavputiov — dvadfUwrm. In the 19th 
year of Mauricius nothing is done : p. 202 A. In 
the 20th year Petrus appointed : tTti Se fiKoara tov 
<nrrd8t\(f)ov 6 avroKpdTcop MavpiKios Herpov (rrpaTTjyov 
trpoforria-aro Trjs Evpamr)!. Therefore in August 
A.D. 601. 

Before the 20th year — np6 tovtov tov iviavTov — 
marriage of Theodosius : Theophylact. VIII. 4 p. 
Hj'l A B per oXiyas toiuvv fjpfpas tov ydpoxi, Stpa ;^fi- 
fuovos, (riToBda rir toIs Bv(avTiois evtatar^f. Then fol- 
lowed the festival of Christmas : p. 202 B. and a 
sedition at CP. Dec. 25 of A. D. 600, the 19th year 
of Mauricius. 

Theophanes p. 236 D— 238 A relates the victories 
of Priscus and the winter following under the 1 9th 
of Mauricius. And Cedrenus p. 400 D — 401 B t^ 
iff €Tfi. The marriage of Theodosius is referred by 
Theophanes p. 238 D to November of the 20th 

year • toCtu tw rr<t /xijj/l Noc/x^ptu lv8iKTiS>vi ('. Nov. 

A.D. 601. and by Cedrenus p. 401 D tu k rrei. 
But Theophylact determines that marriage to No- 



Gregorii Romani Ep. X. 21 Joanni prceposito Ita- 
lia. Data mense Apr. ind. III. Ep. X. 26. X. 27 
Mense Maio ind. III. Ep. X. 31 Mense Junto ind. 
III. Ep. X. 63 Mense Aug. ind. III. Ep. XI. 26 
Data mense Nov. ind. IV. Ep. XL 27 Mense Dec. 
ind. IV. 



EMPERORS. 



157 



AD 



Events 



GOl 



602 



vember of the 19th year, A. D. 600. 
Recaredi 15 from April. See 586. 



Mauricii 20 from Aug. 13. Post cons. Maur. XVII. 
Chron. Pasch. p. 37H B Indict. 4. 1 i> fiera inr. — rb 
t.^'. dvimara B. 

Petrus, being appointed to the command in the 
20th year (conf. a. 600), proceeds to the Danube, 
and autumn commences : Theophylact. VIII. 5 p. 
203 A 6 Tiirpos 6 (TTpaTrjyos ras 8vvdp.fis ddpoiaas eVt 
Tov IcTTpov X'^P^' '^'*' f'^ UaXdaroXov dcpiKVfiTai, Koi 
)(dpaKa TTOiTjadfievos ovtco ttjv tov depovs S>pav hirjvvev. 
fieroTrapov re dpxofievov k. t. X. Autumn of A. D. 601. 
Mauricii 2()o apud Theophanem p. 239 A — 240 D. 

Recaredi 16 from April : see 586. He reigned 
15^ l'» 10'*. Conf. Pagium tom. 2 p. 719. His 
death therefore is in June A. D. 601 : Pagi Ibid. 
Isidorus p. 727 Era 639 [A.D. 601] anno imperii 
Mauricii 17" [immo 19"] post Recaredum regent 
regnat Liuba filius ejus annis duobus, ignobili quidern 
matre progenitus, sed virtutum indole insignitus. quern 
in primo flore adolescentia Wittericus — occidit anno 
CEtatis 22". 



Authors 



Mauricii 2 1 from Aug. 1 3. Post cons. Maur. XVIII. 
Chron. Pasch. p. 378 B Indict. 5. 20 pfrd. in. — to 
irj. dvvnaTa [sc. Post cons. Maur. XVIII'] B. 

Summer: Theophylact. VIII. 5 p. 203 B tov be 
Bfpovs intlyovTos, dKorj yiveTat, MavpiKia — coy eVt'njSfs 6 
Xaydvos avaj3o\f]v tw TroXepat Tvap€a-)(eTo k.t. X. The 
summer of A. D. 602. Mutiny in the army of the 
Danube : Theophylact. VIII. 6 p. 204 A B S>pas fie- 
TOTTCopiinjs ev8r)pov(rris — arda-is peyicTTrj. Phocas : p. 

204 D. proclaimed : 205 C. at CP. 210 C. Mau- 
ricius slain : VIII. 11 p. 21 1 C D. Chron. Pasch. 
p. 378 D— 379 A " The revolt of Phocas was in 
Nov. Indict. 6 [sc. Nov. A.D. 602]. Mauricius 
fled Nov. 22, Phocas was proclaimed Nov. 23, and 
crowned by Cyriacus the patriarch ; entered CP. on 
the 25th, and slew Mauricius, four of his sons and 
his brother Petrus, on the 27th." Theodosius and 
Comentiolus are also slain : Idem p. 379 B. Theo- 
phanes p. 241 A — 244 A under the 20th of Mauri- 
cius relates the disorders which preceded and fol- 
lowed the elevation of Phocas, who began to reign 
pT]v\ Noep^pia IvSiKTtwvi. r' p. 244 B. Conf. Cedre- 
num rw k erei p. 403 A — 404 A Zonaram XIV 
tom. 2 p. 77 C 78 D 79 D de Phoca. Idem p. 80 A 
Wave 8e MavpUcos (tS>v ^' , e"iK0(n ^aaiXevaas iviavTovs. 

He reigned Aug. 13 A. D. 582— Nov. 22 A. D. 602 
20" 3™ 1(K These acts are recorded in the Ap- 
pendix ad epistolas Gregorii 0pp. torn. 2 p. 1301 
Per indictionem VI die 23 mensis Nov. temporihus 
DN. papce Gregorii coronatus est Phocas et Leontia 
Augusta Septimo in palatio quod dicitur Secundianas, 



Gregorii Romani Ep. XI. 31 . XI. 32 Datum mense 
Feb. ind. IV. Ep. XI. 52 Datum mense Junii ind. 
IV. Ep. XI. 56 Datum die X Julii ind. IV. Ep. 
XI. 65 Augustino episc. Anglorum. XI. 66 Edil- 
bertho regi Anglorum. XI. <')8 Virgilio episc. Are- 
laiensi. All dated die X Kal. Jul. imperante D. N. 
piissimo Mauricio Tiber io Aug. anno XIX post con- 
sulatum ejusdem D. N. anno XVIII indictione IV. 
The computation includes the year of the consul- 
ship. See 596. Ep. XI. 76 Data XV Kal. Jul. 
[an V Kal. Julii .?] imperante D. N. &c. anno XIX 
P. C. anno XVIII indict. IV. Ep. XII. 1 Mense 
Sept. ind. V. 



[Chron. Pasch. p. 378 B Indict. 5 anno Mauricii 
20" TOVTO} rw eviavTO) prjvl ^e^povapico yeyovev b ydpos 
Qeodoaiov — diro ff Koi avTris ecus le' tov avTov ^e^pova- 
plov prjvos [Feb. 9 — 15 A. D. 602]. koi tjj r' TOV 
'louXtou prjvos TTfs avTTJs e tvSiKTiavos tj^iktov TrpoTedevros 
eypd(j)r} tw Xonra> pepei Toii )(p6vov tov pe^pt trjXovoTi 
'lavovapiov Tfjs r' IvdiKTicovos [Jan. 603] ovtcos' k. t. X, 
An error in the date of that marriage, which is 
fixed to November A. D. 600 indict. 4 Mauricii 19. 
See 600 col. 1.] 

Chron. Pasch. p. 379 B drro ks' tov ovtov Noe^^pioul 
prjvos els TOV XoiTTOv xpovov TOV pexpi- brjXovoTi 'lavovapiov 
prjvos Tijs Trapovarjs eKTrjs lv8iKTici)vos eypd(j)Tj ev rots a-vp- ' 
^oXaiois " ^aa-iXeias ^w/ca eTovs a." His reign how- j 
ever began from Nov. 23, on which day he was ' 
crowned by Cyriacus ev rw 'E^Bopa [Tables A. D. j 
364 p. 462] els TOV (Te^dcrpiov olkov tov dyiov 'ladwov 

p. 378 D. 

[Cedrenus p. 404 C Koapov eVos r^f' rJjy Betas trap- 
Ko)(Tea)s (fi^e' ^(oKas 6 rvpavvos e^aaCXevaev. An erro- 
neous date derived from Theophanes p. 244 B.] 

Gregorii Romani Ep. XII. 24 Datum mense Janu- 
ario ind. V. Ep. XII. 33. XII. 38 Deusdedit epi- 
scopo Mediolanensi. Both Mense Maio indict. V. 
Ep. XIII. 4 Januario episc. Caralis. XIII. 6 Bru- 
nichildte regincB Francorum. Both Mense Nov. in- 
dict. VI. 



158 



APPENDIX. 



C. 1. 



AD. 


Events 


Authors 




et occisus est Mauricitis imp. cum omnibus filiis suis 
masculis, id est, Theodosio jam coronato, Tiberio, &c. 
— simul et Petro fratre suprascripti Mauricii Aug. 
Sed et aliqui procerum qui ei cohcerebant, id est Con- 
stantius patricius et curator et Placidus, sed et Geor- 
gius notarius principis. Venit autem icona — PhoccB et 
Leontiee Augg. Romam VII Kal. Maii et acclamatum 
est eis in Lateranis in basilica &c. 




603 


Phocte 2 from Nov. 23. ammara [sc. Post cons. 
Maur. XIX2 B. 

Phocas consul Dec. 7 : Theophanes p. 245 B 
PhoccB 2" Tovra T^ fTfi firivi AeKefi^pia f Ip8iktiS>pi ^ 
[Dec. 7 A. D. 603] npocrrjXdep ^aKos iv reus eoprais 
piyjras vnarfiav ttoXX^i/. Cedrenus p. 405 C t^ /S* eret 
jrpoo^X^c K. T. X. Chron. Psisch. p. 380 A is there- 
fore inaccurate : Indict. 6 anno Phocte 1 vn. ^wko 
AvyovoTov fwvov. 

Embassy of Phocas to Chosroes in the 5th month 
after his accession : Theophylact. VIII. 15 p. 217 D 
IMjvi Tre/iTTTffl. Chosroes declares war: p. 218 CD. 
Revolt of Narses : Zonaras XIV tom. 2 p. 80 A. 

Wittericus reigns : Isidor. p. 727 era 641 [A. D. 
603] Mauricii 20" [immo Phoca 1"] extincto Liu- 
vane Wittericus regnum quod vivente illo invaserat 
vindicat annis septem, vir quidem strenuus in armo- 
rum arte, sed tamen expers victoria. 


Theophylact ends his history VIII. 15 p. 217 C 
218 D about the middle of the first vear of Phocas. 

Gregorii Romani Ep. XIII. 25. XIII. 26. Both 
mense Mart. ind. VI. Ep. XIII. 28 Datum, mense 
Apr. ind. VI. Ep. XIII. 29 Mense Maii ind. VI. 
Ep. XIII. 31 Phocce Augusto. Gloria in excelsis Deo 
&c. Dat. mense Junii ind. VI. Ep. XIII. 36 Mense 
Julii ind. VI. Ep. XIII, 44 Datum mense Aug. ind. 
VI. Ep. XIV. 6 Data mense Oct. ind. VII. Ep. 
XIV. 9 Data mense Dec. indict. VII. 


604 


PhoccB 3 from Nov. 23. Phocas consul. Gregorius 
Romanus : see col. 2. Chron. Pasch. p. 380 B In- 
dict. 7 anno Phocce 2 fura xm. ^am Avyovarov. Male. 
Conf. Pagium tom. 2 p. 722. B recte hoc anno 

iaKa Awy. fwvov. 

Persian war : Theophanes p. 245 C Cedrenus p. 
405 C. 


Gregorii Rom. Ep. ad Felicem subdiaconum apud 
Pagium tom. 2 p. 722 Data VIII Kal. Feb. D.N.D. 
Phoca Aug. anno II et consulatus ejus anno primo. 
Indict. VII. Gregory reckons the years post con- 
sulatum inclusive of the year of the consulship. 
See 596. 

Death of Gregory of Rome: Paulus Diac. in vita p. 16 
Postquam sedem Romance et apostolicce ecclesice annis 
XIII mensibus sex et diebus X gloriosissime rexit. — 
Sepultus est in ecclesia beati Petri apostoli ante se- 
cretarium IV Id. Martiarum. In the 2nd of Phocas: 
Idem Langobard. IV. 30 Migravit ad Christum, cum 
jam Focas per indictionem VIII [lege VII} anno 
regnaret secundo. His episcopate of 13^ 6"* 10*^ 
began at Sept. 3 A. D. 590 (Tables 578. 4) and 
terminated March 12 A. D. 604 Indict. 7 Phocce 
anno 2. 


605 


Phocce 4 from Nov. 23. Post consulatum Phocce L 
Chron. Pasch. p. 380 B Indict. 8 anno Phocce 3 fiera 
in. 4><i>Ka Avyovtrrov t6 a. cunmara B. 

Executions in June : Chron. Pasch. p. 380 C 

Tovra T<^ (Tfi, [sc. Phocce 3"] fir]v\ Acuaitf Kara 'Pw/xoi- 

ovff ^lovvuf, fiftipq. C- June 7 A. D. 605. 

Constantino and her daughters slain Kara rhv avrhv 
Xpivov Chron. Pasch. p. 380 I>.—Phoc<z 5" (A. D. 
607) apud Theophanem p. 247 C Cedrenum p. 


• 



EMPERORS. 



159 



A.D. 


Events 


Authors 




406 A B T« 6 ?r«. 

Persian war continued Phocce 3" : Theophanes p. 
245 D Cedren. p. 405 D. Narses slain by Phocas: 
Theoph. p. 246 A Cedren. p. 405 D. 




606 


Phoc(c h from Nov. 23. Post cons. Phocce II. 
Chron. Pasch, p. 380 D Indict. 9 anno Phocte 4 
fjifTO. VTT, ^cokS. — TO ^ . ovviTara B, 

Persian war Phoca A" : Theophanes p. 246 C 
Cedrenus p. 406 A. 


Death of Cyriacus of CP. Chron. Pasch. p. 381 A 
Indict. 9 anno PhoccE 4 rovrw tw eVei reXeura KvputKos 
TraTpidpxrjs KII. prjvl 'YTTfp^epfTaia icaTo. 'Pa>paiovs 'Ok- 
Tco^plco, K0 , fjpepa ^', Kol KtjdeveTai Trj X' Toii avTOv prjvos, 
ffptpa TrpiiTT]. In reality October of Indict. 1 A. D. 
606, although in the .4th year of Phocas. Eleven 
years from the death of Joannes were completed in 
Sept. A. D. 606. conf. a. 595. 


607 


Phocce 6 from Nov. 23. Post cons. Phocce III. 
Chron. Pasch. p. 381 A Indict. 10 anno 5 /^tera utt. 
^aKa — TO y . avrnvaTa B. 

Persian war : Theophanes p. 247 D PhoccB 5 
Ilfpacu Tov ^v(f)pdTr]v irepaaravTes naaav ttjv 2vpiav Koi 
liaXata-Tivrjv Koi '^ot,vi<r]v alxpcikdiT(V(Tav, ttoWtjv aXcoa-iv 
iv '?(0paiois TToirjcravTes. Also in Cedrenus p. 406 B 
Tw e' eret. 


Thomas of CP, appointed : Chron. Pasch. p. 381 A 
Indict. 10 anno Phocce 5 rovrw tw Iret pr)v\ Av8vvaia>, 
KUTO. 'Pcopaiovs 'lavovapico, Ky [Jan. 23 A. D. 607] 
yeyove iraTpidpxrjs fv KII. Qcopds dno diaKovcov ttjs pe- 
ydXrjs eKKXrja-las Kol (raiceWdpios tov iraTpidpxov koi 
eTTavco tS)v p^^ftpoTowwi'. Nicephorus p. 414 D Gw/nas 
didKovos TTjs avTTJs eKKXrjcrias Koi craneXkdpios sttj y prjvas 
e. Zonaras tom. 2 p. 80 B KvpiaKov tov iraTptApxov 
eKKiTTovTos peTO, eviavTovs ev8fKa — naTpidp^^js iyevtTo 
Qmpds. p. 80 D 6 naTpiapx^s Qcopds ini Tpia err] koi 
prjvas 8vo TTJs €KK\r]aias irpoa-Tas eTeXevrrja-e, Ka\ uvt- 
eiarjxOri 2epyios, See 610. 

Eulogius Alexandrinus. Tables 578. 4 p. 843. 

Theodorus succeeds : Nicephor. p. 417 B Qe6h<opos 
6 ^Kpi^av eTT] ^. He has two years in Theophanes 
p. 246 D 248 A Phocce 5«, 60. 


608 


Phocce 7 from Nov. 23. Post cons. Phocce IV. 
Chron. Pasch. p. 381 B Indict. 1 1 anno PhoccB 6 
p^TO. VTT. — TO 5'. dinnraTa B. 

Priscus, the son-in-law of Phocas, invites Hera- 
clius : Theophanes p. 248 A Phocce 6" TovTa t^ erei 
6 npla-Kos [de quo Theophanes p. 246 D anno Phocce 
5"], prj imocfyfpcov opdv tovs ddUovs (f)6vovs nal to kuto. 
TO. [lege Tct Koxa to] vtto ^(oKa yevopeva, f'ypayjrev npos 
'Hpdnktiov TOV TTUTpUiov Kul (TTpaTTjyov 'AcfypiKrjs &crTe 
orroaTfTKai UpdKkeiov tov vlov avTov Koi NtKjjrai' tov 
viov Tprjyopd tov naTpiKiov koi VTToaTpaTr]yov avTov, ottws 
eX^tBo-iv Kara tov Tvpdvvov ^coKci. Zonaras tom. 2 
p. 8 1 A arpaTTjyovvTos iv 'A(f)piKfj koL Ai^vrj 'UpaKXeiov 
TOV iraTpos tov ^aa-ikevaavros peTeneiTU 'HpaKkeiov, ol 
TTjs avyK\r]Tov koi avTos 6 UpitrKos 6 a-TpaTrjXdrrjs [Idem 
p. 80 D TTjv 8e Bvyarepa 6 ^(hkcls AopvevTiav UpicrKco tS 
(TTpaTrjXdTTj (Tvvt^ev^f^ buiripirovTO irpos avTov deopevoi 
dnaXXayfjvai Trjs Tvpavvi8os $(B*ca. Repeated from 
Theophanes tw r' «-« by Cedrenus p. 406 B, who 
has Crispus for Priscus. 


An inscription of Aug. 1 A. D. 608 at Rome is 
given by Burgess Topogr. of Rome Vol. 1 p. 489. 
The lacunce are supplied by Mr. Burgess. Optjimo 
clementis\?\mo piissim] ogwe pn«c?pi domino [N. Pho- 
cse imper] a^ori perpetuo A. DO coronato triumpha- 
tori semper Augusto Smaragdus exprcepos. sacri pa- 
latii ac patricius et exarchus Italice devotus ejus de- 
mentia pro innumerabilibus pietatis ejus beneficiis et 
pro \(\ai]ete procurata Ital. ac conser[ydX]a libertate 
hanc sf [atuam pieta]^«s ejus auri splend[ore fulgen] 
tem huic sublimi column[ai ad] perennem ipsiiis glo- 
riam imposuit ac dedicavit die prima mensis Augusti 
indict, und. P. C. pietatis ejus anno quinto. The 5th 
year post consulatum is reckoned inclusive of the 
consulship itself. See examples of this mode of 
computing at 596. P. C. mean post consulatum ; 
not, as Mr. Burgess supposes, prceclarce. The exarch 
Smaragdus is addressed by Greg. Rom. Ep. XIII. 
33 in A. D. 603, and is mentioned by Paulus Diac. 
Langob. III. 27. IV. 26. 29. 33. 


609 


Phocce 8 from Nov. 23. Post cons. Phocce V. 
Chron. Pasch. p. 381 B Indict. 12 anno Phocce 7 
/xero VTT. — TO e, avmrara B, 


The Paschal Chronicle p. 381 BC reckons 272 
years from the death of Constantine to May 22 of 
the 1 2th indiction in the 7th of Phocas : ivTfvBev 



160 



APPENDIX. 



C. 1. 



A.D. 


Events 


Authors 




The Persian war continues in the 7th of Phocas : 
Cedrenus p. 406 C tw ^ eret ol Ilepa-ai e^TJXdov (tvv 
T© Kapbapixa Koi TrapiXa^ov 'Apfifviav koX KaTrrradoKiav, 
tTpe^av be kolX tovs 'Pafiaiovs. napeXa^ov Sc kol Trjv 
TdXaTiav koi Tla(f)Xayoviav, koX ^X6ov pex^pi XaXicfjdovos 
\viJuuv6p,evoi d(f>fi8S)s iraaav rjXiKiav, Theophanes p. 
248 B, who omits a year of Phocas, places this un- 
der the 6th year : Phocce 6" rovra tw erei — ol Uepa-ai 
e^rjXdov (TVV ra KapBaprjya k. t. X. which Cedrenus 

has corrected. Compare Theophanes p. 248 C D 
with Cedrenus p. 406 B— D. 

The calamities of this reign are briefly summed 
up by Zonaras XIV tom. 2 p. 80 B C TroXveidfj p,evToi 

TOTf KOKO. Toi/s 'PiOfMiovs KaTcXa^ev. ev fiev yap rrj ecpq 
Uepaai Tf)V "ZvpLav Kai UaXaurrivrfv koX ^olvIktjv v(^ eav- 
Tovs iTroirj(TavTO, rrjv 'Appeviav de koX KaTTTraboKiav koi 
TfjP Ila(f)Xayoviav Kal TaXariav Koribpapov, Kai pe^pi 
XaXKTjbovos TrporjXdocrav aivavra Xrj'i^opevoi. iv be ttj Eu- 
pumri "A^apes ttjv QpaKTjv ibrjuxrav, mi to. 'Pcopa'iKa arpa- 
TOTTfba a iv dpfportpois rjnav Tois rpfifiaa-i bie^Odprja-av, 
Kal aXXas be 7roXXi7 tu>v dvdpanav 6vrjcris eyevero Kal 
d(f>opia Kap-nSiv Kal ^a>a>v (f)6opa eK ^apxirdrcov p^ft/xtuj/wy. 
eirl Traa-t be 6 dXaarap ^(okos k. t. X. 


eoTiv eXflv wi a<^' ovnep 6 TpurpaKapios KavaravTlvos 
eTeXevTri(rev tov ^lov pe)(pi ttjs k^ tov Maiov prjvos t^s 
eve(TTa)(rr\s 1/3' ewivepf](Teas Kal tov f eTOVs t^s ^(oko. ^a- 
aiXeias TrXrjpovvTai xpovoi (to^ , apxeTai be to aoy diro 
K^ TOV Matov prjvos, IvbiKTiavos ijS'. Having observed 
that in the year of the death of Constantine Easter- 
day was on Ap. 3 and Pentecost on May 22, he 
concludes p. 381 D elalv ovv dno pev ttjs TeXevTrjs 
KavaravTivov eu>s vvv xpovoi <to^, dno be ttjs elKoaaerq- 
plbos avTOv and nXi'jpeis. — vnaToi be dno ^r)XiKiavov Kal 
Tanavov elaiv ao^ eas tov ndaxa ttjs iff ffXiaKrjs Ivbi- 
KTiavos TTJs vvv evioTapevqs' [legendum ex 381 C vel 
Trjs 1)3' fiXiaKTis Ivb. vel ttjs id' aeXr]ViaKrjs tJ/S.] 

The 272 years are exact from May 22 A. D. 337 
coss. Feliciano et Titiano to May 21 A. D. 609 in 
the 7th of Phocas. The reckoning from the 20th 
of Constantine is deficient ; for from May 22 A. D. 
326 towards the close of his 20th year to May 21 
A. D. 609 are 283 years. 

Deaths of Theodorus of Alexandria and Isacius 
of Jerusalem: Chron. Pasch. p. 382 A Ind. 12. 7 
TOVTco TW €T« dnooTaTovaiv 'A(f>piKf) Kal 'AXe^dvbpeia' 
Kal a-(f>d^eTai dno evavTiav 6 ndnas ^ AXe^avbpeias [sc. 
Theodorus : conf. a. 607]. iraveTai be koi 'Io-okios otto 
'lepocoXvpav, Kal yiveToi dvr avTov Zaxapias dno npea- 
^VTepcov Koi CKevocpvXdKCdv ttjs eKKXTjo'ias KH. koi "lEbeatra 
vno JJepaas yiveTai. See col. 1. 


610 


Post cons. Phoca VI. Chron. Pasch. p. 382 B 
Indict. 13 anno Phocee 8 fierd xm. — to g-'. avvirara B. 
sc. post consulatum Phocee annus VI. recte. 

Sedition at Antioch : Cedrenus p. 406 C D t<5 77' 
rr« dTOKTrjaavTes ol 'AiTioxels 'E^palot ardcriv eTroirja-av 
Kara XpiaTiavav, Kal aTroa^dTTova-iv ^Avao'Taaiov tov 
peyav TraTpidp)(r]v 'Avno^eias — crvi/ avra Koi ttoXXovs 
tS>v 'Avrioxecov KaTea(f>a^av . At the right year : 
Chron. Pasch. p. 382 B Phocce H" Kara to nepas tov 
^eiTTep^piov firjuos ttjs tbf IvbiKTiavos [Sept. A. D. 61 0] 
aTrrfyyeXj} a>s ^Avaardaios iraTpidp^r): yevopevos 'Aj/tio- 
Xeias 6 dtrb crxoXaaTiKoov dvrjpedrj vrvb trrpaTKOTciv. 
Theophanes p. 248 C, who omits a year of Phocas, 
records this at the 7th year : tovtco tw eret dTaKTt)- 
a-avTes, k. t. X. which Cedrenus has corrected. 

Elevation of Heraclius — death of Phocas : Chron. 
Pasch. p. 382 C tovtu tw Itci [sc. Phocce 8"] prjvl 
'Yirep^epeTaia, kotu 'Papalovs 'OKTco^pia y, IvbiKTtavos 
tS', fjpepa C> dva<l>aivovTaL nXola iKavd — ev ols rjv Koi 
'YipaKkeios 6 vlos 'KpoKXeiov k. t. X. On Monday 
Oct. 5 Phocas is delivered up to Heraclius and 
slain : p. 383 A ttj r' [lege cum Pagio c'] tov ovtov 
pr}p6s, bia(f>aov(rr)s fjpepas ^. On the same dajf irepl 
Stpav evdTTjv — eareipdr) 'HpoxXetos 6 ^aaiXevs — utt^ 2ep- 
yiov. p. 383 D dno f neat avTrjs tov ^OKTto^piov prfvos 
T^S napovcrrfs 18' IvbiKTiavos [Oct. 7 A. D. 610] pe^pi 
ly TOV 'lavovapiov prjpos TTJi avTrjs IvbiKriMvos [Jan. 13 


Death of Thomas of CP. March 20 : Chron. 
Pasch. p. 382 B Ind. 13 anno Phocee 8 tovtw t« eret 
pTjvl AvaTpco, KaTa 'Papaiovs MapTia, k, f)pepa r', re- 
XevTO. Q(opds naTpidpxrjs KH. kuI KTjbeveTai ttj k^ tov 
avTov pTjvoSy r]pepa a. /cat ttj tj tov 'ApTepiaiov [lege 
cum Ducangio ttj it) tov SavdiKov] KaTa 'Pcopxilovs 'A- 
npiXXiov, TTJs avTfjs ly' IvbiKTiavos, tw peydXm a-a^^aTco 
yeyove narpiapx^s KII. 'Sepyios biaKovos ttjs peydXrjs e'/c- 
(cXj/o-iaf KII. Kal TrTa)xoTp6(f>os, (j^pov^ Xipevos. Nice- 
phorus p. 4 1 5 A 2epyios biaKOVOs ttjs avTTJs eKKXTjaias 
err) ktj', Tjpepas kcl . The episcopate of Thomas from 
Jan. 23 A. D. 607 to March 20 A. D. 610 was 
32' 2"*, the term assigned by Zonaras p. 80 D. 

Anastasius of Alexandria slain in September : see 
col. 1 . Add Zonaras tom. 2 p. 80 D 'E^paioi ara- 
(TidaavTes kuto. Xpiariavciv iv 'AvTioxeia dveTXov tS)V 
^AvTioxecov noXXoiis Kal avTov be tov naTpidpxrjv ttjs no- 
Xea>s 'AvaaTaaiov, koi tov veKpov avTov KaTeKavaav iv ttj 
dyopa. 

Nicephorus Callisti Xanthopuli filius concludes at 
the death of Phocas : Niceph. XVIII tom. 2 p. 887 

ToiovTov pev bfj Tw KaKciv KaKiaTa ^a>Ka t^s Tvpawibos 
iyeveTO TeXos, eTTj oktoj t^s 'Pa>paia>v KaTopx^o'apevm dp- 
XTJs. — TTjvivavTa be ttjs pev 'Papaiav eK*cX>;(rtay TyeiTO 
pera Tprjyopiov 'iwoKevTios' Ttjs be tS)V n6Xea>v ^aatXibos 
pxTCL Oapdv 2epyios tos iKKXTjaiaaTiKas f]vias bielnev enl 
be TOV TTJS 'AXe^avbpeias dpovov pfTU EvXoyioi' Zttj eirra 



EMPERORS. 



161 



A.D. 



Events 



Authors 



A. D. 61 1] KOI dno t8' Koi avTTjs tov aiiTov firjvhs fypd(f)rj 
els TOV i^rjs ^povov rov ii^xp*- A«'Cf/U'/3ptov irXrjpovfifvov r^s 
le' fTrivfp.rj(Tea)s [Dec. 31 A. D. 611] ovtcos' " Kal ima- 
Tfias TOV avTov — SfairoTov." et yap koi nf) irporjXdev eVi 
8i0pou, dXX' ovv fKpi&q Xoyicrdrfvai avTot els VTrareiav. 
The fall of Phocas is related by Cedrenus p. 406 D 
—407 li r^ v ^-rei. Idem p. 407 C J. M. 6103 

A.D. 609 'HpoKXeios — e/SacriXeutrei/ errj Xa', aT((f)6f\s 
vno Sf/jyi'ou naTpidp^ov — €aTe(f>6r) 8e dfia aira koi t) pe- 
p,vr)(TTfvp,evi} avTa ^a^'ia f) Kal 'EvdoKta peTovopMcrdela'a 
AvyovaTu. Zonaras XIV torn. 2 p. 81 CD irpoKa- 
TeXa^f Toiwv HpdiiXeios, kui TrpoaappKre t<5 Xipevi Totv 
^o(f}iav, Kal p-dx^js (TvyKporqOeiarfs virepfax'^ Toiv tov 

^COKa, K. T. X. TM p,ev ovv KaKKTTa ^(OKO. TOIOVTOV TO 

TeXos TTJs Tvpavvidos eytvero, ctt) KaTopxr)a-apev(o ttjs 
^acriXfias oKrca. p. 82 A 'HpaxXeto? 8e vno Sepyi'ou tov 
iraTpidpxov (TT€(f>6fls avTiKa kcli ttjv 'EvdoKiav Tr)V p-vqarriv 
Tacviol. Theophanes, who had lost a year of the 
reign of Phocas and had compressed the events of 
his last 3 years into 2, describes the death of Pho- 
cas under the 1st year of Heraclius: p. 250 A rovrw 

TW ?r6i privl OKTCB/Spt'o) S* IvBiKTcavi i8 rJKev 'UpdKXeios 
dno 'AcfypiK^s (f)epa>v nXola k. t. X. — Ka6d Kal 6 Uicridios 
Teapyios Xey«, Kal arpaTov noXiiv dno 'A(f)piK^s Kal Mav- 
piTavias. — Kal — viKo. ^coKav tov TvpavvoV oi Se dfjpoi 
TOVTOV napaXa^ovTfs dveiXov — elaeXdav 5e 'Hpd/cXeios els 
TO. &aa-[Xeia eaTe(f)6Ti vno ^epyiov. Phocas has 8 years 
in Cedrenus p. 404 C — e^aaiXeva-ev erq rf — in Zona- 
ras 1. c. in Paulus Diac. Langob. IV. 37 per octo 
annorum curricula. Theophanes assigns only 7 years 
p. 244 B. And yet he places the elevation of Pho- 
cas at the right date Nov. indict. 6 and his death 
at the right date, Oct. indict. 14. Phocas reigned 
Nov. 23 A. D. 602— Oct. 4 A. D. 610 p lO'" 12'*. 

Gundemar in Spain : Isidorus p. 728 era 648 
[A.D. 610] anno imperii Focatis sexto [immo octavo] 
Gundemarus post Wittaricum regnat annis duobus. 



npbs Tols elKoa-iv lepevcrdp^vov [conf. a. 578. 607] Q*<5- 
d<i)pos 6 2Kpi^a>v err] bvo iepoTai, tv 6 eK Kvnpov 'icodwijy 
6 eXerjpcop Xapnpoas hiebexeTO' peTO. be Avaardariov Tqv 
TTjs ^AvTioxov eKXrjpovTO iepcoarvmjv 6 eTepos Avaardaios' 
dvd 8e TCL 'lepocToXvpxi BtdBoxos 'lu>dvvov 'Seap.as rjv' pxff 
bv 'laadK: eneiTO 8e npo ttjs alxjidkcoa-ias [conf. a. 614] 
Zaxaptcis KadiaraTO. nepiexei 8e Km fj napovaa it) /xoi 
tS)v laropiav XP^^°^ eTotv Bvo npos TpmKovTa, oTrrjviKa 
Koa-pov p.ev eTos ^r eKaToarov Kal [adde rpto/cocrToj/], dno 
8e TTjs 6eias tov Kvpiov yewTjo-eas e^aKoaioarov Kal nep. 
TTTOV npos r<5 elKoara enepaiveTO. The right term of 
years. The redundancy which was 14 years at the 
death of Justin is still 14 and no more at the death 
of Phocas. See A. D. 579. 

Theophylact after the fall of Phocas recites a 
Monody upon the death oi Mauricius : VIII. 12 p 

2 1 3 B TovTav 8i]Ta utto tov avyypacpecos d8op.ev(ov enl 
TOV ^ripaTos ttJs Tvpawibos Xrj^dtTTjs, nXr]povTai baKpvav 
6 ^vXXoyos K.T.X. 

Mohammed declares himself : Abulfeda in vita 
p. 142 Missionem propheticam accepit annos natus 
40, Meccae substitit vocans homines ad Islamismum 
annos 13 et quod excurrit ; Medina moratus est post 
Hejiram annos ferme decern. Elmakin thus apud 
Gagnier ad Abulf. p. 14 Ut autem annos implevit 40 
vocatus est feria secunda, qui dies erat secundus men- 
sis Rabii I anno 922 Alexandri bicornis [id est Se- 
leucidarum] qui erat vigesimus Cesra filii Hormuz 
filii Nushirwanis. The 922nd year of the Seleucida 
began Oct. A.D. 610, the 20th of Cesra II Sept 
A. D. 609. Abulfeda in vita p. 50 reckons from 
the Mission to the Flight of Mohammed 13^ 2»* H^. 
But the Flight is fixed by Abulfeda to the 8th of 
Rabia I in the first year of the Hejira or the 68th 
day of that first year=Sept. 21 A. D. 622, which 
places what is called the Mission at the 1st of 
Moharram. Abulfeda carries back the Mission to 
A.D. 609. From the dates of Elmakin we may 
perhaps refer it to A. D. 610 in the 20th year of 
Chosroes and the 921st of the Seleucidce. Abul- 
pharajius p. 102 Post completos demum annos (etatis 
40 propheti(E munus sibi arrogavit. 



611 



Heraclii 2 from Oct. 5. Heraclius consul Jan. 14 
— Dec. 31. See 610. 'UpaicXetov Aly. povov B. 
In May the Persians invade Syria : Theophanes 

p. 250 D Tw 8e Maia pr]vl eaTpaTevcrav ol Hepa-ai koto. 
2vpias Kal napeXa^ov Tr)v 'Andpeiav Kal Tf]v''E8e(Taav, koi 
^X6ov eas 'AvTcoxfias. Repeated by Cedrenus p. 407 D 
Heraclii 1". Zonaras XIV tom. 2 p. 82 A ot Uepa-ai 
TTJV eaav KaTeTpexov, Kal Tas pev t5>v xapav v(f) eavroiis 
enoiovvTO rds 8e eXTjt^ovTO. — Kal ttjv Evpa>TrTjv ol *A/3apoi 
Kal oi ^Kvdai r]pr)p,a)<Tav. 

Epiphania born July 7 : Theophanes p. 250 D 
Heraclii 1" r^ e^86p.Tj tov 'lovXiov p.r]v6s IvBiKTiavos f 



Joannes Philoponus, the disciple oi Ammonius, still 
wrote in the time of Sergius : Jo. Philop. procem. 
nepl Kotrponoitas p. 1. 2 noXvs p^v epol nepl Tfjs tov 
Koapov yeveaecos ev noXXals npaypaTeiais BirjwcrTai Xoyos 
— 8e8eixa 8e Kal tbs dpxfjv exei tov eivai, nXeioaiv orijSo- 
Xais tovto avXXoyia-dpevos [sc. in libris adv. Proclum]. 
TToXXoi 8e 8id TavTa (Tvvex'^s rjplv r^vaxXovv, VP^f^°^ ""^^ 
Kal vnaveiBi^ov. — piXttrTa 8e av, TipicnTdTT] poi Ke(f>aX^ 
2epyie, Kal tS>v ev dpxiepevaiv deov TeXovvTav p-eyiarov 
eyKaXXania'pui, noXvs eneKeicro nporpenav, p.ovovovxl Kal 
^la^op-evos, to. els eprjv (rvvei(r<j}epeiv t<5 npdyfwri 8vvapxv. 
(Tvvepybs 8e tov (Tnov8d<rpaTos ^v 6 yvi)pip.os tov yevovs 



16S 



APPENDIX. 



C. 1. 



A.D. 


Events 


Authors 




[f. lv8iKTiQ)vi iS*]. Zonaras p. 82 B yiverai (k Tfjs Av- 
yovarrjs EvSoKi'as Bvydrrfp 'ETTt^avia. 

1 


ovK TKuTTOV TTjV 6f0(Te^eiav 'A6avd<Tios, oia triaipvos to 
fls dpfTTfv dptyj/^apeva avpTrapadeav, rroXtos Se povs iv 
d(TKr](Tfi Xdycoj/ albia-ipov iroul veoTjjTa. Suidas p. 1789 B 
'lcadvvT}s ypappoTiKos 'AKf^avbpevs, 6 fTriKXrjdfls $tXd- 
1T0V0S. TovTov (Tvyypdppara TrdpiroXKa, ypappaTiicd, (jii- 
Xdcro^a, dpiBprjTiKd, prjTopiKa, ttjs re Beias ypa(})TJs, Koi 
Kara tS)v irf UpoKkduiv inixfiprjpdTav, Koi Kord 2(^r}pov. 
Trkfjv on irapd twv r^? eicKKrjcrias dibaaKoXcov a>s TpideiTtfs 
€K^d)0^fTai. Philoponus wrote Comm. in Aristot. 
lib. IV (\>v(T. aKpodar. in A. D. 617- conf. a. 


612 


Heraclii 3 from Oct. 5. Post cons. Heraclii I. 
Chron. Pasch. p. 384 A Indict. 15 anno Heraclii 2" 
/Ltcra \m. 'Hpaickfiov Avyovarov, dinnraTa B. 

Theophanes p, 251 A Heraclii 2" tovtco tw erei 
Ttapeka^ov ot Uepa-ai Kaicrdpeiav rfis KaTTTradoKias nal 
TToWas fivpiddas iv avrfj i^;(/LiaXa)Tev(rai'. 'HpaKXeioy de 6 
^aaiXfvs — evpe TrapcLKiKvp,iva to. ttjs TToXiTfias 'Ptojialav 
TTpdy/iaTa. ttjv re yap EvpaTrqv oi ^dp^apoi r]pr]p,a(Tav Koi 
Trjv 'Ao-taj* ot Hfptrai irdaav KaTi(TTpe-<^av. Repeated by 
Cedrenus p. 407 D rw iS' eVet. It was found that 
only two soldiers remained alive of the army which 
had placed Phocas on the throne : Theophvlact. 
VIII. 12 p. 214 B Theophanes p. 251 B Zonaras 
XIV torn. 2 p. 82 B. 

Constantine born May 3 — Death of Eudocia Aug. 
13 indict. 15: Chron. Pasch. p. 384 A B Theopha- 
nes p. 251 B Cedrenus p. 408 A rm ^ trei. Re- 
corded by Zonaras p. 82 B. Epiphania crowned 
Oct. 4 indict. 1 : Chron. Pasch. p. 384 B Theophanes 
p. 251 C Heraclii 3" Cedrenus p. 408 A tw y erei. 

Isidorus p. 728 Era 650" [A. D. 612] \nno im- 
perii Eraclii 2" Sisebutus post Gundemarum regali 
fastigio evocatus regnat annis VIII mensibus VI. 
After Feb. 13; for his second year was still current 
Feb. 13 A. D, 614: Epitaphium apud Pagium torn. 2 
p. 750 Sacerdos — cetatis sua XLIII die Id. Febr. 
era DCLII [Feb. 13 A. D. 614], feliciter II Sise- 
buti regis. 


Isidorus Hispalensis flourished : Isidor, Pacensis 
apud Fabricium Bibl. Ecclesiast. p. 47 Heraclii imp. 
temporibus, in era C)5i\^ anno imperii supradicti se- 
cundo, Hispalensem Isidorum metropolitanum pontifi- 
cent clarum doctorem Hispania celebrat. qui anno VII 
Sisebuti Gothorum regis [A. D. 018] contra Ace- 
phalorum haresim magna auctoritate Hispali in se- 
cretario sanctce Hierusalem concilium agitat. Ilde- 
fonsus de Scriptoribus Eccles. c. 9 Isidorus post 
Leandrum fratrem Hispalensis sedis provincice Bceticce 
cathedram tenuit, vir decore simul et ingenio pollens. 
— Scripsit opera eximia et non parva ; id est, librum 
de genere officiorum, lib. prooemiorum, lib. de ortu et 
obitu prophetarum, lib. Lamentationum, quern ipse 
Synonymorum vocavit ; libellos duos ad Florentinam 
sororem contra nequitiam Judceorum ; lib. de natura 
rerum ad Sisebutum principem ; lib. differentiarum; 
lib. sententiarum. — Scripsit quoque ultimo ad peti- 
tionem Braulionis Ccesaraugustani episcopi librum 
Etymologiarum, quern cum multis annis conaretur 
perficere, inexpleto opere diem extremum visus est 
conclusisse. Floruit temporibus Reccaredi, Liuvanis, 
Witterici, Gundemari, Sisebuti, Suinthilani, et Sise- 
nandi regum [A. D. 586 — 636], annis fere 40 tenens 
pontificatus honorem. Conf. a. 636. 


613 


Heraclii 4 from Oct. 5. Post cons. Heraclii II. 
Chron. Pasch. p. 384 C Indict. 1 anno Her. 3 /xera 
im. — TO )3'. dinmara B. 

Constantine crowned Jan. 22 : Chron. Pasch. p. 
384 D Kai dir avTr]s Ttjs k^ tov 'lavovapiov p.7]v6s tne- 
Tpdwrj ypd(f)f(T6ai, — " /SatrtXeia? tS)V dtiordrav fjp^v dt- 
atroTcdv — $Xa/3ioii 'Hpa/cXet'ou tov (vae^faTdTOv fTovs y 
Koi peTO. TJ)V VTraTfiav avTOv erovs /3', Kai *Xa^tou 
'Hpa/cXeiov veov KavaTavrivov — eTovs a." At Dec. 25 

Ind. 1 [A. D. 612] in Theophanes p. 251 C. In 
Cedrenus p. 408 A to y erei. Zonaras tom. 2 p. 
82 B ap<pa) TO) TTaWf tovtio [Epiphania and Constan- 
tine^ ^a<Ti\iKa diadrjpaTi T(TCUvi<OKe , 

The Saracens invade Syria: Theophanes p. 251C 
Heraclii 3" etrfOTpdTfvaav Sapcuo/rat Kara ^vpias, kcu 


' 



EMPERORS. 



A.D. 



Events 



Authors 



\vfir)vdfifvoi Uava x<>>P^ct mioTpe^av. 
nus p. 408 A tw y «■«. 



Also in Cedre- 



614 



Heraclii 5 from Oct. 5. Post cons. Her. III. avv- 
Trara B. Chron. Pasch. p. 385 A Jnd. 2. 4 fiera xm. 
TO y. A Jan. 22 Constantini 2. 

Damascus taken: Theophanes p. 251 B Heraclii 
4" TouTcp Tw erei eXa^ov ol Jlfpaai ttjv Aufma-Kov Koi 
rj^p^Xareva-av Xaov tvoKvv. Cedrenus p. 408 A t<o S 
€T€i. Jerusalem taken June of indict. 2 Heraclii 4" : 
Chron. Pasch. p. 385 A B tovtco ra erti nepl p.riva 
lovviov — fifva iroWmv ttjs dvaTokris nokeav rj\a> Koi 'le- 
povcaXrin viro Hepaau km (rcpa^ovrai TroXXai )(iKid8es kv 
avrfj — Koi Zaxapias 6 TraTpiApxTjs Ka\ al)(paXcoTos' yiverai. 
Conf. Eutychium torn. 2 p. 212. Referred to the 
next campaign Heraclii 5" by Theophanes p. 252 A 
Cedrenus p. 408 B. 

Heraclius marries Martina: Theophanes p. 251 D 
Heraclii 4". Cedrenus p. 408 B rw 8' erei. Zonaras 
tom. 2 p. 82 C eyrjiie Maprivav ttjv d8e\(f)67rai8a Koi 
Avyovarav alrr^v dvrfyopevae. 

Ineffectual attempt to treat with Chosroes : Zo- 
naras p. 82 C. Heraclii 4" Theophanes p. 251 D 
Cedrenus p. 408 B. 



615 



Heraclii 6 from Oct. 5. Post cons. Her. IV. dvv- 
Trara B. Chron. Pasch. p. 385 D Ind. 3 anno Her. 5 
/iera vtt. — to 8'. A Jan. 22 Constantini 3. 

Another Constantine born : Heraclii 5" Theopha- 
nes p. 252 B Cedrenus p. 408 C. 



616 



Heraclii 7 from Oct. 5. Post cons. Her. V. dvv- 
iraTa B. Chron. Pasch. p. 388 B bid. 4. 6 /nera vtt. 
— 7-0 e. A Jan. 22 Constantini 4. 

Theophanes p. 252 B Heraclii (>" rovra r« €t« 
irapeXa^ov ol ILepcrai ttjv AiyimTov koi 'AXe^dv8pecav Kal 
A.i^vr)v eas AWcomas. — ttjv Xa\Ki]86va ovk tcrxva-av irap- 
aXa^elv, dWd (f)povpav fdcravres tov TrdkiopKelv dveYapn- 

a-av. Also in Cedrenus p. 408 C to r' eret, who has 
Kapxr]86va for XdKKrj86va. At the preceding year in 
Chron. Pasch. p. 386 B "Indict. 3 anno Heraclii 5 
post cons. IV Saen the Persian approaches Chalce- 
don and Chrysopohs ; and an embassy is sent to 
Chosroes." The particulars of the message are given 
p. 386 B— 388 A. 



Chron. Pasch. p. 388 B — D Indict. 4 anno Her 
Go post cons. V dnb TTjs yevjn}(Tea>s tov 8((nr6Tov Xpi- 
OTOv ecos Tavrqs Trjs viraTeias i'rrKrjpoit6r)crav err] ^(iff kcu 
rjp^avTO TO, )(<'. fK TOVTCov e^aipovvrai Ta /ifXP' ''^^ arav- 
paya-fcis avTov fTT] Xy , koi KaraKel'irovTai (fmr . irpo (f) 
Toiwv iTr' iviavTwv elcrrjXdev 6 MdpTios p-ffv tv fjp,epa e'. 
— 6 yap MdpTios ttjs evforaoT]: 8' tv8iKTia>vos [March 1 
A. D. 616] elaepx^Tai, iv 8tvTepa. Trjs e/SSo/xdSos ffp.ipa. 
— ■\f/'r)(pi^opTes ovv rrpo (^7rr' €Ta>v ttjv aiXrftnjv tvpitrKopxv 
avTYjv Tjj Ky TOV MapTiov pijvos fKeivov tJtis ^v iv fjpepa 
irapafTKevfi e^ovcrav iS'. — dvea-TT] 8i Kvpios ttj f(f)€^ijs kv- 
pioKfj tjTis rjv Ke TOV avTov MapTiov pijvos. This reck- 
oning is consistent with the computation quoted in 
the Tables 562. 4, and these 586 years contain the 
two interpolated years which are there described. 
For if 586 years terminate in March of the 4th in- 
diction A. D. 616, they commence at March 23 — 
25 A. D. 30; and if the 619 years from the Na- 
tivity are completed Dec. 24 A. D. 615 indict. 4, 
they commence at Dec. 25 B. C. 5. But when the 
two redundant years are struck out, 584 years will 
carry us back to March A. D. 32 the true epoch 
intended by the Chronicle, from whence the 33 
years (584 + 33=:617) will place the Nativity, ac- 

Y 2 



164 



APPENDIX. 



C.l. 



A.D, 



Events 



Authors 



cording to the meaning of this Chronicle, at Dec. 
25 B. C. 3. See the Tables B. C. 32. 2. 



617 



Heraclii 8 from Oct. 5. Post cons. Her. VI. dvv- 
nara B. Chron. Pasch. p. 388 D Ind. 5 anno Her. 7 
fiera xm. — to r'. A Jan. 22 Constantini 5. 

Theophanes p. 252 C Heraclii 7" rovra ra Zret, 
(orparfvarav ot Ufpa-ai Kara XaX/ojSdj/os Koi irapeka^ov 
avTTjv TToXf'fjup. Not noticed in Cedrenus p. 408 C. 

Constantine consul : Theophanes p. 252 C tw 8" 
airra rrei fxrjvl 'lavovaplat a Ivbticriavos e' [1 Jan. 617] 
VTrarevafv Kavarravrlvos 6 veos — Koi Trpof^dKero KatVapa 
KaPOTavrlvov tov pxKpov top t8iov d8f\(f>6v top i^ 'Hpa- 
kKeiov Koi MapripTjs yepprjdepTa. In Cedrenus p. 408 C 

TO f ' CTft. 



Joannis Philoponi Comm. in Aristotelis (J>v<t. dxpoda: 
lib. IV p. S 3 lin. 38 (f)apep ydp epeaTrjKfpcu pvp koi cVt- 
avTOP Koi prjpa Kal fjp^pap' tPiavTOP AioKkrjTiapov eros rXy, 

pijpa Udxfop, ffpApap BfKdTijp. This passage was there- 
fore written May 5 A. D. 617- He elsewhere speaks 
of a period 88 years earlier as within his time : In 
Proclum XVI. 4 p. k 15 lin. 46 pvp ydp i(f)' fjfimp koto 
TO diaKoa-ioarop TfcraapoKotTTOP iripiTTOP ^iokKt^tuipov €tos 
ip T© avraJ ^codico tc5 Tavpa yeyopacrip oi errrd TrXapupxpoi' 

or A. D. 521- But he had been taught by Ammo- 
nins; from whom he received what he has delivered 
in his commentaries upon Aristotle : as Comm. in 
Aristot. <l>v(T. uKpoda: lib. I — IV, Comm. in Aristot. 
trepl ylmxfjs, in Aristot. nepl yepetrecas Kal tpdopds are 
'icodppov 'Akf^apbpeas tov ^iKottopov ck tcop avpovauip 
tov 'Ap,p,a>piov tov 'Eppdov. Philoponus had written 
in his youth {tS>p pimp 8e tis — tov ' ApurroTekovf Kori)- 
yopos dp€(f)dpri Simplicius ad Aristot. de coelo p. 6 b 
lin. 34) against Proclus on the eternity of the world, 
before the commentary of Simplicius upon Aristot 
de Coelo, who remarks upon him in that work 
Fabricius therefore B. G. torn. 10 p. 644 need not 
have doubted the meaning of €(f>' f)p£p, as if " paullo 
laxius accipiendum" &c. For Ammonius had stu- 
died under Proclus before A. D, 485, and Simpli- 
cius was already eminent in 531. See the Tables 
531. 3. The year 529 then fell within the lifetime 
of Philoponus, and ecf)' fjp^p is used in its natural 
sense, Philoponus almost 50 years before 617 had 
written against Joannes of CP. Photius Cod. 75 
dpfypoxrdr) 'ladppov tov ^iXottoi/ou ^i^Xiddpiop Kara Tap 
fpdfcos BoypxiTurdePTCop irfpX ttjs dylas Koi opoova-iov Tpi- 
dbos invb tov — 'icodppov dpxifTTKTKOTTOv KII. — tp Ta kot- 
rjXTjTiKm \6yco 6v fnrep eTrt t^s irparqs empfprjo-ecos, ^a- 
a-iXfvopTos 'lovcrripov. sc. A. D. 564- (where Photius 
censures the heretical opinion of Philoponus.) Jo- 
annes, against whom he wrote, died Aug. 31 A. D. 
577- (see the Tables.) The treatise of Philoponus 
was probably written in 568 or soon after. Philo- 
ponus was called in question for his heresy in the 
lifetime of Joannes : Fhot. Cod. 24 dpeypma-dr] /Si/SXiW 
e;^oi/ neirpaypepa avcTTdpTa ivapd tc5 t^s ^acrikiSos (iri- 
(TK&rra 'itodpprj, 'lov<rripov ^acriXfvoPTOs, k. t. X. 



618 



Heraclii 9 from Oct. 5. Post cons. Her. VII. dpv- 
wara B. Chron. Pasch. p. 389 A Ind. 6 anno Hera- 
clii 8 p^d in. — t6 C- a Jan. 22 Constantini 6. 

Another treaty attempted in vain with Chosroes: 
Theophanes p. 252 C Heraclii 8" rovra ra era ttoXiv 
'Hpdxkfios aTTcWetXc irpetr^ds iv Hfpcridi irpbg XocrpStjP 
(dTovpxpoi flprfinjp. 6 8i Xo<rp6t)g Kal vdkip avrovs ant- 
rrepyjlraro Xeyaiv k. t. X. Repeated by Cedrenus p. 



EMPERORS. 



165 



A.D. 


Events Authors 




40H D rw r{ erft. Zonaras XIV p. H2 C ttoKiv oZv 

€T€pa OTf XXerat Trpfo-jSeia irpos avTov (IprjVTjv e^airov/jLevi]. 
6 8e JJepcrrfs vntprjcjidvovs Koi ^XaarcpTjpovs rets dnoKpia-fis 
neTToiTjKe Xeycov K. r. X. 




619 


Heraclii 10 from Oct. 5. Post cons. Her. VI 11. 
dvvnara B. Chron. Pasch. p. 389 B Ind. 7 anno 9 
pfTo. VTT. — TO T). A Jan. 22 Constantini 7. 

The Avars : Theophanes p. 252 D Heraclii 9" 
Tovra T<5 eret ea-rpdrfva-av 'A^dpeis Kara ttjs QpaKrjs, koi 
aTTOoreiXay 6 'Hpa/cXetos npos avrovs fjTei rfjv elprjvriv. tcai 
(TvvBepivov Tov Xaydvov ravnjv ttouIv f^rjXdev 6 ^aaiXfiis 
e^to TOV jMiKpov Telxovs. — 6 fie ^dpjSupos (Kf7vos Tds re 
(TvvQrjKas ddfTTjaas koi tovs opKovs a(f)vco TvpavviKas kutu 
Toil ^aaiXeas e';;^cop;;(7ei/. eWXayeiy 8e 6 jSaaiKevs tw 
dTrpoa-doKTjTto tov rrpdypaTOs (f)vyas enl ttjv ttoXlv vne- 
a-Tpexl^e k. t. X. Also in Cedrenus p. 408 D Ta ff 
(Tei. Related by Zonaras p. 82 D 6 ^aatXevs eVt- 
(rTpaT€V(Tai 8ievo(iTO Kara Ilepaav, 8t6 Koi ecnrevde deadai 
Trpo? TOV Xaydvov airovSas k. t. X. p. 8.'} A avBis ovv 6 
MpdiiXuos 7rpeo-/3eiaj/ '46fTo irpos avTuv — 6 8e (nrivheTai. 
Sc. in A. D. 620. At a wrong year in Chron. 
Pasch. p. 389 B Ivb. la. ly. pfra vir. i/S' prjvl Aaicrico. 
Sc. June A. D. 623, when Heraclius was in Persia. 
Conf. a. 623. 2. 


A law of Heraclius: Pagius torn. 2 p. 760 " prag- 
matica sanctio ab Heraclio emissa qua cavetur ne 
quis cooptetur in clerum nisi in defuncti locum sub- 
Yogetur."—Dat. VIII Kal. Maias CP. DD. NN. pi- 
issimorum perp. Augg. Heraclii anno IX et post con- 
sulatum ejus anno VIII, et Heraclii novi Constantini 
filii ipsius anno VII indict. VII. Ap. 24 A. D. 6 1 9. 

Inscriptio apud Pagium tom. 2 p. 760 Murato- 
rium p. 432. 2 ex Baronio. Romae : Depositus die 
quartadecim. Augusti ind. septima et ejus filius Theo- 
deric. qui vixit M. VII depositus Idus Octobris impp. 
DD. NN. piissimis Augg. Heraclio anno nono P. C. 
ejusdem DN. anno octavo, atque Heraclio Constantino 
novo ji Ho ipsius anno septimo indictione septima. Le- 
git Pagius octava. Therefore Aug. 14 and Oct. 15 
A. D. (519. But at Oct. 15 the lOth year of Hera- 
clius was current. The error seems rather in the 
month Octobris,\\hich. agrees neither with anno nono 
nor with indictione septima. For IDVS OCTOBRIS 
we may read II. K. SEPTEMBRIS. 


620 


Heraclii 11 from Oct. 5. Post cons. Heraclii IX. 
avviraTa B. Chron. Pasch. p. 389 B Ind. 8. 10 peTa 
xm. — TO &. A Jan. 22 Constantini 8. i 

Peace with the Avars : Theophanes p. 253 B ! 
Heraclii 10" tovt<o rw eret 'Hpa/cXeior Trpos tov y^aydvov 
— TTpecr^eis aTToa-TeiXas eVe/caXet k.t.X. fmaTpaTevaai yap ; 
diavoovpevos kutu Yltpcrldos flprjvevfiv pfTa tov Xaydvov 
rjBeXfv. 6 he Xaydvos al8f(T6e\s — elprjvrjv Troielv VTTicrxvdTO. j 

In Cedrenus p. 409 B tw i' eret. j 
Ancyra taken bv the Persians : Theophanes p. 
253 C Cedrenus p.' 409 B r<5 i €T€l. 

The 8^ 6'" of Sisebutus, which began in A. D. 612 
(conf. a.), end in 620. His son succeeds : Isidorus 
p. 729 Relicto Reccaredo filio parvulo, qui post patris 
obitum princeps paucorum dierum morte interveniente 
habetur. Menses septem Pagius torn. 2 p. 76 1 , because ! 
Suinthila was elected in 62 1 . There might have i 
been an interregnum before that election, which will 
reconcile the accounts. i 


621 


Heraclii 12 from Oct. 5. Post cons. Her. X. dvO- 
TTUTa B. Chron. Pasch. p. 389 B Ind. 9. 1 1 peTa xm. 
— TO i. A Jan. 22 Constantini 9. 

Preparation for war with Persia : Theophanes p. 
253 C Heraclii 11" roj^rw r&i eret — 'HpaxXetoy — peTa 
Tcov 'A^dpojv elpTjveva-as, i>s evopt^tv, pfTrjveyKfv ret arpa- 
TevpaTa ttjs EvpcoTnjs eVi ttjv 'Acriav. Also in Cedrenus 
p. 409 B Tw id eTfi. 

Isidorus' p. 729 Era 659 [A. D. 621] anno im- 


[Constantinus Porphyr. de administrando imperio 
C. 16 eK TOV Kavovos ov edepaTKTfv 2T((f)avos 6 padrjpaTi- 
Kos TTfpl TTJs Tciv 'SapaKTjvcov €^68ov. — f^rjXdov 01 ^apa- 
KTjvol prjvl leiTTep^pico Tpirr], lv8iKTiavos heKaTrjs, tls to 
8a)8tKaTov eTos 'Hpa/cXetou. (tos dno /crtcrews Kuapuv ,rpX'. 
This refers to the Hejira. But with an error in the 
year. Sept. of the 10th indiction will give Sept. 3 
A. D. 621 in the Nth year of Heraclius. Cedre- 
nus p. 409 C agrees with Constantine : rw i^ eTtt, 



166 



APPENDIX. 



C.l. 



A.D. 



Events 



Authors 



perii Eraclii decimo [immo 11*] Suinthila gratia 
divina regni suscepit sceptra. — p. 730 Hujus filius 
Riccimiros in consortio regni adsumptus pari cum 
patre solio conltetatur. 



ijyovv Tw ^S'p\a' otto KTiVews K6<Tfiov, injvl ScTTTt/i/Spt'o) y, 
rjnepa e', eyevfTO 6ffw.Tiov rav ^apaKr}vS)V Trapa 2Te(f)dvov 
'AXf^aySpecor tovtois Kavov'uravros Kparfjaai iv laxvi fiev 
err} rff, iv he avaTpo(f)fj koi aKaTaoTaaia Koi avfKJyopa 
CTtpa erq vr , if fivai rfjv dioKparrja-iv avrap &na(rav ev- 
TV)(ov<Tav Koi Bvarvxovvap ert} T^e k. t. X. Sept. 3 
was at the 5th day of the week in 621. But the 
12th oi Heraclius requires Sept. of the Uth indic- 
tion and of A. D. 622. And September A. D. 622 
was also the true date of the Flight of Mohammed, 
to which the notice of Constantine or rather Ste- 
phanus refers.] 



622 



Heraclii 13 from Oct. 5. Post cons. Her. XI. dvv- 
ncera B. Chron. Pasch. p. 389 B Ind. 10. 12 fiera vtt. 
— eros id. A Jan. 22 Constantini 1 0. 

Heraclius sets forth on Monday Ap. 5 : Theo- 
phanes p. 253D Heraclii 12" tovtw tw eret p.rjv\ 'A- 
TrptXXio) d' lv8iKTiS)vi i [Ap. 4 A. D. 622] TfXeaas 6 
^aa-iXfvs 'Hpa/cXetoy rriv ioprfjv tov irda-xa (Ideas Ty 
bevrepa eanepas eKivrja-ev Kara Hepaibos. Cedrenus p. 
409 D Tw i^ erei. After a successful campaign he 
left his army to winter in Armenia [A. D. 624] 
and returned himself to CP. Theophan. p. 256 C 
Cedrenus p. 411 C. Zonaras p.83D e$e\da)v /xera 
TTiP eopTTjv TOV ndaxa rqs iroKews koL Trpocr^aXcov 'S.ap- 
^apco ra tov Xoapoov dp\i<TaTpdirrj — TpeireTai tovtov. 

Theophanes p. 256 C Heraclii 12" tovtw to eret 
Ma/xeS e(f>dvT) dpLrjpds eTTj ff, vy eTos 'Updickeios e^ovaia. 
Heraclii 1 3" p. 258 C bevrepov eros 'Ap,e8. Heraclii 
21" p. 276 D Tovra rw eret dire^io) Movdp.eb 6 twv 2a- 
paKTjvSiu dpxrjyos ical ylrev8oTrpo({)fiTrjs. These dates are 
not exact. According to Theophanes, who reckons 
the years of Heraclius from September, Mohammed 
appeared at Medina in the 13th year ; his 2nd year 
at Medina was conumerary with the 14th. He died 
in the 22nd of Heraclius. See the year 632. Theo- 
phanes at the 21st of Heraclius p. 277 describes 
Mohammed — his descent from Ishmael — his mar- 
riage with Cadijah — his pretended visions of the 
angel Gabriel, p. 278 A " The sect prevailed in 
the parts of JEthrih [Medina] first secretly 10 y. 
then by war 10 y. and openly 9 y." Cedrenus p. 
422 Tw Ka eret repeats this account, and adds a 
description of Islam p. 422 C — 425 C. 



The Hejira is dated from July 16 A. D. 622. 
Determined to this epoch by calculations given in 
Du Fresnoy Tablettes tom. 1 p. 216—219. Abul- 
feda in vita p. 42 on the Flight of Mohammed : 
Facta fuit Fuga anno Missionis [see A. D. 610] 13''. 
p. 45 Ilia Fuga est initium era IslamiticcE. Fixed 
by the Caliph Omar : Ibid. Disquisierunt quodnam 
t empor is punctum facer ent erce IslamiticcB principium, 
atque in eo consenserunt ut initium ejus esset annus 
hujus FugtE. Fuga autem ab Mecca Medinam evenit 
per menses et dies istius anni — Al—Moharram et 
Safar, cum octo diebus mensis Rabii I. — Quare retro 
eundo et numerando dies 68, initium erce statuerunt 
primum diem mensis Moharram ejus anni. Abulfeda 
p. 48. 49 in a series of dates gives from the con- 
quest of Egypt by Augustus [B. C. 30] 652 years, 
from the accession of Hadrian [Aug. A. D. 117] 
507 years, from the accession of Diocletian [Sept. 
A. D. 284] 339 years. Abulfeda apud Gagnier 
ad p. 45 Contigit Hejira anno regni Heraclii 12" 
Eutychius tom. 2 p. 227 ^ Diocletiano ad Hejiram 
anni 338, ab Alexandra [sc. era Seleucidarurn] anni 
933. These two last years are accurate. Both 
were current at July 16 A. D. 622. But Euty 
chius errs in the reign of Heraclius, whose years 
he makes conumerary with the years of the Hejira 
p. 227 Anno primo Heraclii fuit Fuga Mohammedis 
mense Rabia I. p. 239 anno Heraclii 7° eodemque 
Hejira 7"- p- 323 an. Hejira 24* idque anno Hera- 
clii 24". Conf. p. 251. 267. 320. 

The Flight of Mohammed on the 68th day from 
July 16 is fixed to Sept. 21 A. D. 622. 14 days be- 
fore the 1 2th year of Heraclius was ended. 

Georgii Pisida aKpoda-eis rpels. Composed after 
the return of Heraclius to CP. at the close of this 
campaign. He describes the setting forth at Eas- 
ter : I. 132. 154. the return to CP. at the end of 
the campaign : III. 336 — 339. Georgius was him- 
self present in the expedition. See II. 122. III. 131. 
343. 353. quoted by Quercius in notis. 



623 



Heraclii 14 from Oct. 5. Post cons. Her. XII.\ [Chron. Pasch. p. 390 A=p. 713 ed. Bonn. In- 



EMPERORS. 



167 



A.D. 



Events 



dvinrara B. Chron. Pasch. p. 389 B Ind. 11. 13 utra 
VTT. — TO i^. A Jan. 22 Constantini 11. 

Heradius in March sets forth to rejoin the army 
in Armenia : Theophanes p. 256 D Heraclii 13" tov- 
ro) rw eret Maprla le' [xe' Petavius ad Nicephorum p. 
67 ex Chron. Pasch. p. 390 A] IvBiKnwvi, la [March 
15 or 25 A. D. 623] dnapas 6 /Sao-tXevs 'HpaKkeios dno 
TTJs /Sao-iXtSos Kara to-xos dcj)cK€TO els 'Apfitviap. He en- 
ters Persia Ap. 20 : p. 257 A r^ fiKocrnj rov 'AirpiK- 
Xiov fjirjvos flae^aXev fts Trjv JIfp(rl8a. At the end of 
the campaign he wintered in Albania : p. 258 C 
Xfi-p-oivos 8e acjiodpov (nnreaovTos [A. D. 62|^] — (pdaaas 
avTos iv 'AX^avia k. r. X. where lie releases 50,000 
prisoners : Ibid. This campaign also in Cedrenus 
p. 41 1. 412 rw ly erei. 



Authors 



diet. 12 anno Heraclii 14 P.C. XIII. tovt<o t<» eVtanrw ! 
Ij,j]v\ AvcTTpco Kara 'Pcofuiiovs Maprico e Koi k roii firjvos ■ 
[sc. March 25 A. D. 624] — e^r/Xdev iirl ra dvaroXiKa, 
piepr) 6 ^aaiXfiis 'HpaiiXfios ajia rols avrov TfKvois 'Hpa- \ 
AcXei'ft) Acat 'E7n(f)auia — koi tjj ^aaiXiaai] Mapripa, koi inoi- j 
rjcrev (Tvv avrdls ttjv TraaxaXlav eopTrjv TrXrjcnov rqs TrciXems ; 
^iKopr)8eias, Koi p-erd ttjv eoprfjv avros p.ev 6 fiaanXfvs — 
perd MapTLVTjs — apprjaap eTTt rd dvaroXiKa pepi] — ra 8( ' 
rtKva avTOv xmeoTpf^av iv KII. It is plain that this 
is placed at a wrong year by the error of the tran- 1 
scriber. In March of the 12th indiction Heradius^ 
was in Albania, see 624 and Petavius ad Nicephori 
breviarium p. 67. But he set forth from CP. in; 
March of the 11th indiction, and this account be- 1 
longs to his second campaign in his 1 3th year and j 
ought to have been there placed. That some pas- 1 
sages have been transposed in this part of the ' 
Chronicle is shewn in the notes torn. 2 p. 489 
ed. Bonn.] \ 



624 



625 



Heradii 15 from Oct. 5. Post cons. Her. XIII. 
dvvnara B. Chron. Pasch. p. 390 A Ind. 12. 14 perd 
VTT. — TO try'. A Jan. 22 Constantini 12. 

Theophanes p. 258 D Heradii 1 4" tovto) r<5 eVet — 
6 Hpo/cXeio? dpa eapi dnapas Trjs 'AX^avias St' viTTiav 
Tredicov — ttjv ndpohov inoieiTO els Ilepcrida. After a vic- 
tory p. 259. 260 he winters in the enemy's country: 
p. 261 B perd xapds ev eKeivois rols tottols TTape-)(eipaa-ev. 
The winter of A. D. 62|^. Cedrenus also describes 
this campaign rw tS' eVet p. 412 C — 414 A. 



Heradii 16 from Oct. 5. Post cons. Her. XIV. 
uvxmaTa B. Chron. Pasch. p. 391 A Ind. 13. 15 peTa 
VTT. — TO tS'. A Jan. 22 Constantini 13. 

Heradius in March passes the Euphrates : Theo- 
phanes p. 261 C Heradii 15" tovtm tm eVet prjvi Map- 
rico a eirurvva^as 6 ^aariXevs 'HpaKXeios to iavTov crrpd- 
Tevpa ^ovXi)v inoLelTO to noia 68co iropevOf) k. r. X. p. 
262 A 77apa8papd)u evpe rropov' Kal dKiv8vpcos tovtov eive- 
paaev rw Maprt'w pr]v\ Ka\ KUTaXap^dpei to ^apoaaTa. 
K. T. X. After this campaign he winters near the 
Halys : p. 263 A Trepdaas top "AXw iroTapop iv Tavrrj 
Tji X'^Pf 8ieTpij3ev oXov top p^et/xwm [A. D. 62^]. All 
this is described by Cedrenus p. 414 A — 415 A tw 
le' eret. 

[Theophanes anno 15" p. 263 B 'ApdBcop dpxrjyos 
'Ape8 err] &. He had already inserted this at the 
12th year. The 1 5th year coincided with the 3rd 
year of Mohammed.'] 

Suinthilani annus 5'"*. Conf. a. 621. 



Isidorus Hispalensis writes in the 5th year ofj 
Suinthilanus : Isidor. p. 730 Comportatis igitnr Go- 
thorum regum temporibus ab exordio Athanarici regis 
[Idem p. 710 Era 407 [A. D. 369] anno quinto 
Valentis primus Gothorum gentis administrationem 
suscepit Athanaricus regnans anfios XIII] usque ad 
quintum gloriosissimi Sunthilani principis annum reg- 
num Gothorum per annos CCL VI Deo favente repe- 
ritur esse porrectum. Sc. 369 -|- 256 = A. D. 625. 



626 



Heradii 17 from Oct. 5. Post cons. Her. XV. 
dvxmaTa B. Chron. Pasch. p. 391 B Ind. 14 anno 
Heradii 16 peTa im. — eTos le. A Jan. 22 Constan- 
tini 14. 



Georgii Pisidce els ttjv yepopevrjv e^oSoi/ Tap ^ap^d- 
pcop K. T. X, He marks that the assault (see col. 1) 
was made in the summer season: ip depei y. 177- 
The assailants were in number 80,000 : oAcro) pvpi- 



168 



APPENDIX. 



0.1. 



A.D, 



Events 



627 



Theophanes p. 263 B — 264 D Heraclii l6o 
" Chosroes collecting three armies sends one against 
CP. to cooperate with the Avars. HeracUus also 
forms three divisions ; one is sent to protect CP. 
another is led by his brother Theodorus against the 
Persians, the emperor himself leads the third against 
Lazica, and invites the Eastern Turks or Chazars 
to an alliance. The Turks passing the Caspian Gates 
enter Persia. Meanwhile Sarbarus approaches Chal- 
cedon and the Avars from Thrace assault CP. but 
are repulsed. Sarbarus winters [A. D. 62|-] before 
Chalcedon." Cedrenus has the same narrative p. 
415 A — 41 6 C Tw ir' eVft. Nicephorus in breviario 
p. IIB — 13C describes the alliance with the Turks 
and the attack upon CP. by the Avars. 

The Paschal Chronicle p. 391 B— 397 B relates 
at large that the city was assaulted by the Avars in 
conjunction with the Persians and gives the dates : 
Indictione 14 anno Heraclii 16" P. C. XV. The 
army of the Chagan approached June 29 ttjs irap- 
ovcrqs i8' lvbu(TiS>vos p. 392 B. The Chagan himself 
is before the city July 29 : p. 393 C. He assaults 
it July 31 : Ibid. A conference is held on Saturday 
Aug. 2 : Tw 2a/3j3dra) — r^ Bevrepq. tov Avyovcrrov fir]v6s 
p. 394 C. The rear guard of the enemy retired ttj 
irapacTKevri p. 397 A — on Friday Aug. 8. Confirming 
Theophanes p. 264 C Cedrenus p. 416 A that the 
assault lasted 10 days : Sexa fjfifpas rrj TroXti irapoKa- 
6ia-avT€s. The defence was conducted by Sergitts 
the patriarch, by Bonus, by the patricians Georgius, 
Theodosius, Athanasius. 



Authors 



apxias 219. The enemy was composed of the 
Sclave, the Hun, the Scythian, the Bulgarian, the 
Mede : 197. HeracUus had been three years absent 

from CP. rfbr) yap €i;^6 rptls frav irfpibpop.ov: 250. 

That is, from March 623, when he left CP. for his 
second expedition. HeracUus planned the defence 
by letters : 266. 290 — 292. Compare Theophanes 
p. 263 C Cedrenus p. 415 B tovs yxv tivep.'^ev tls 
iftvkaKfjv TTjs TToKfois. Pisides v. 226 &c. addresses 
his poem to Sergius. The peace with Persia is yet 
future : 308 — 310. Composed therefore before the 
death of Chosroes, either in the close of 626 or in 

627. Suidas p. 809 B Teapyios tuucovos T^f neydKrjs 
(KicKrja-ias Koi xapro^xika^, to eniKXrjv IIwn'STjs. e^arjfupov 
hi ldp,^av fls tin} Tpto-;(t'Xta [exstant 1910. conf. 
Quercium prsef. p. xvi]. els 'UpaKkdov t6v ^axriKia 
Koi (Is TOV Kara Ufpaav rrokffiov. en re 'A^apiKa. Kai 
KaTdkoyd8r)v eyKafuov els tov fidprvpa ' Avaardaiov [conf. 
Quercium praef. p. xxi]. 



HeracUi 18 from Oct. 5. Post cons. Her. XVI. 
avxmaTa B. Chron. Pasch. p. 397 C Indict. 15 anno 
HeracUi \^ p.eTa vtt. — to tr'. A Jan. 22 Constan- 
tini 15. 

Death of Bonus : Chron. Pasch. p. 397 C Ind. 15 
anno 17 P. C. XVI touto) t« trei fiTjvl 'ApTepurlco Kara 
'Patfuiiovs Matof la' ereXevTrja-e Bovos. May 11 A. D. 

627. 

Sixth campaign of HeracUus in Asia, after a 
fourth winter A. D. 62f passed there. In Septem- 
ber he enters Persia with his Turkish allies and is 
occupied Sept. — March of the 1 st indiction A. D. 
62-1^ in the operations described by Theophanes 
(see col. 2) under the 15th indiction A. D, 62f. 
Saturday December 12 apud Theophanem p. 266 A 
is Dec. 12 indict. 1 A. D. 627. when that day fell 
upon Saturday. The spring following is the spring 
of the 1st indiction : conf. a. 628. 

[Theophanes p. 272 B HeracUi 17" 'Apdfiav dp- 
X^ry^s Mtoafieb eTT) ff. He had already inserted this 
notice at the 12th year. See 622. 625. Idem lb. 
HeracUi 17" Uepaav jSoo-tXcvs St/xJi/s tros a. An 



[Theophanes p. 264 D— 272 B (and after him 
Cedrenus p. 416 C — 419 C t<S iC' €t«) has con- 
tracted two years into one, and has ascribed to the 
17th year the acts of the 18th : HeracUi 17" TovT<a\ 
T« eTei dno p.r}v6s 2errTep.^piov [he therefore computes 
the years of HeracUus with the indictions from 
Sept. 1] ela-^aXciv ev Unpaihi 'Hpa/cXetof (tvv toIs 
TovpKOis dnpoahoicffTOis Sta tov xeipiava els eKaTaaiv eve- 
/SoXei/ TOV Xoapoijv toCto pa66vTa. oi he TovpKoi tov ^ei- 
fiiova opavTes, Koi Tas (nivexels emhpopds tu>v Ylepaav p.ri 
xmocpepovres — ^p^avTO kot' oXiyov xmoppeeiv, Koi — vne- 
arpe^av. HeracUus is in Persia Oct. 9 Indict. 15 
[Oct. A. D. 626] : p. 265 B. Dec. I he passes the 
Zab : p. 265 C. A battle is fought Dec. 12 rjfiepq 
o-a^jSoTou p. 266 A. Dec. 23 he passes the Lesser 
Zab : p. 267 A. and celebrates Christmas-day ev 
eKeiva t« tottw p. 267 B. He plunders a palace of 
Chosroes Jan.'l [A. D. 627] : p. 267 D. Chosroes 
retired to Ctesiphon, which he had not visited for 
24 years : p. 268 A. HeracUus ravaged Persia 
through the w^hole of February : Skov tov ^e^povd- 
piov p.^va p. 270 C. and advanced in March : Ibid. 
I Siroes rebels : p. 271 A. before March 23 : p. 271 B. 



EMPERORS. 



169 



A.D. 



EVKNTS 



error of one year in the date of this event. See 
col. 2.] 



AuTHons 



Chosroes is seized : 271 D. and slain : 272 A. and 
peace is concluded: Ibid. The death of CVicsToe.? 
is thus placed one year before the true time, and 
the campaign of 027 is omitted. Moreover Dec. 12 
of the 15th indiction A. D. (526 is compared with 
Saturday. But in tliat year it fell upon Friday. , 
The Paschal Chronicle enables us to rectify these 
errors. Conf. Petavium ad Nicephorum p. 70 Pa- ' 
gium torn. 2 p. 773. Theophanes himself corrects j 
his own error bv assigning the true duration to the | 
war. Conf. a. (528. 1.] | 



628 



Heraclii 10 from Oct. 5. Post cons. Her. XVII. 
avxmara B. Chron. Pasch. p. 308 A Indict. 1 anno 
Heraclii 18 yLera vtt. — to lI'. A Jan. 22 Constan- 
tini 1 6. 

Chosroes slain Feb. 28. The intelligence is re- 
ceived at CP. May 15 : Chron. Pasch. p. 398 A rw 
IT] eret rrjs ^aaikeias 'HpaKkeiov Koi fifra VTraTfiav i^' , 
Koi tf' erfi — KatvcTTaiTii'ov , tt] le tov Maiov firjvhs, Iv- 
diKnavos a rjfiepa Trpmrrj, avrfj rfj ayia 7T€VTr]K0(TTrj, dv- 
eyvaxrdrjcrav dnoKpicreis eir ap^copos iv Tjj — peydXi] en- 
KXr](Tia (TTaXflaai eK Ta>v dpaToXiKMP pepcov vno 'Hpa- 
Kkeiov — 8T]Xovaai TTjv ivrmo'LV XocrSpoov koi ttjv dvayo- 
pfvaiv '2fipoiov. The emperor's despatch is given 
p. 308 B — 402 A written from Persia Ap. 8 ; and a 
copy of the letter or treaty with Siroes or Cabades, 
which breaks off in the middle at p. 402 D. He- 
raclius describes his progress from Oct. 17 to 
March 15: p. 300 B, and from Feb. 24 to March 
30: p. 400 C. Ap. 3 : p. 401 C. Ap. 8 : 401 D. 
Chosroes was deposed Feb. 24 of indict. 1 — rfj k8' 
TOV TrapekdovTos ^e^povapiov prjvos ttjs {viarapevTjs Tvpco- 
Tris (mv€p^(reays [Feb. 24 A.D. 628] p. 308 C. Siroes 
proclaimed Feb. 25, Chosroes slain Feb. 28 : p. 300 A. 
Heraclius concludes Ka\ rjpels Se r^ tj' tov uvtov [sc. 
'ATT/stXtou] p-qvos eKLvrjijapev crvv $ea> — 6(f>eiKovTes Trj oSw 
Tjpaiv xpw^^^^'- ^'^' ^hppfviav. The end of the war is 
recorded by Theophanes p. 272 C at the right place : 
Heraclii 1 8" TovTa tS erei elprii/rjs yevopevrjs peTa^v Uep- 
(Tcov Koi 'Papaiaiv, uTreaTfckev 6 ^aa-ikevs Qeodapov top 
eavToii d8iK(f)6v peTO. ypappuTiov Kal dpdpanrcop 'Sipoov tov 
^acTiXfcos Tlfpcraiv oirats tovs eV E^eaarj k. t. X. Uepcras 
dnocrrpey^axrip ep IlepcriSt. — 6 8e ^aaiXfiis eV e^ eTfcri 
KaTaTro\fpr](Tas ttjp Ufpcri'Sa ep e^86pa> flprjpevcras pera 
Xapds peyuXris eVi KIT. vTvevTpe-^ev. Repeated by Ce- 

drenus p. 410 D rw ir{ erei. The war had lasted 
from Ap. A. D. 622 six years, and Heraclius re- 
turned in the 7th year. But the 6 years terminate 
in spring 628 in the ist indiction. Zonaras torn. 2 
p. 85 B recte Tavra ep 1^ ereaip dpvaas 'HpuKkeios — 
Tco e^86pa> eTTaPTjXOep els to jSacriXeui. 

Chosroes had reigned from Sept. 500 to Feb. 628 
37^ f,m Eutychius, who had placed his accession 
too high, assigns him 30 years. Tables 578 p. 842. 



The Paschal Chronicle in the extant copy ends 
with the narrative May 15 A. D. 628 of the news 
of the death of Chosroes. see col. I . But the author 
continued his Chronicle to the 20th of Heraclius : 
p. 10 A eniToprj )(p6pa)P tcop dnb Addp tov 7rpa>TOTr\d- 
(TTOv dp6pa>TT0v ecus < eTovs t^s /SacrtXeta? HpaKkeiov — 
Koi pera viraTeiap erovs iff , Kal it]' ctovs tijs fBaaikeias 
'HpaKkeiov peov Kcopo-raPTiPov tov avTov vlov, Ip8ikti(opos 
y. These vears terminated Aug. 31, Oct. 4, Dec. 
31, A. D. 630, and Jan. 21 A. D. 631. The extant 
copy p. 402 A contains the beginning of the letter 
of Siroes : 'ia-ov vTropptjaTiKov yepopepov diro Ka^aTov 
tov Kal 'Seipoiov tov rjpepaTaTov ftaaikecos Hepacop rrpos 
'HpaKkeiop — He is named in Eutychius tom. 2 p. 
252 Kohades qui et Shirawaih appellatus. This last 
name was corrupted by the Greeks into Siroes. 

The substance of the letter which was given in 
the Paschal Chronicle may be in part supplied from 
Zonaras XIV tom. 2 p. 85 A 2ip6ris — e'yKparrjs ttjs 
Ta>p HepcrciiP dp^rfs yeyopas SiOTre/xTrerat Trpos HpaKkeiov 
— Kal (TTTeicrdpepos avT<a ndpTas tovs ep Uepa-idi al^pM- 
ko)TOVs 'Papaiovs eXevdepovs d(j)fiKe, Kal to Tipia ^vXa 
TOV aaTTjpiov crTavpov aiiTa drrodeScoKe Kal top iraTpidpx^rjp 
Trjs lepovcraXrjp Za^apiav. 

Georgii Pisidce 'HpaKXias, els ttjp TeXelap tttSxtip 
Xoa-poov ^aa-iXeus Uepa-wp. After the news had ar- 
rived at CP. and before the return of Heraclius. 
Therefore in A. D. 628 after May 15. 

Pisida reckons II. 173 — 103 from Ardshir the 
founder of the dynasty to Chosroes II xp'^^°^^ ^*''" 
2vp e^ 8ia8pap6pTas e^-qKOPTacriv v. 170. which Quer- 
cius ad loc. p. 162 Bonn, interprets 7^' years; and 
naturally wonders how this term of 76 years for 
the dynasty can be reconciled with Agathias. But 
e^r]KovTus means a term of sixty years ; and e^ e^rj- 
Koprddfs are 6 times (JO or 360, and the whole pe- 
riod of the poet is 370 years from the founder of 
the dynasty to Chosroes II. These .'>70 years com- 
puted from the death of Chosroes in 628 will place 
Ardshir at A. D. 258. Computed from the acces- 
sion in 500, they will carry back Ardshir to A. D. 
220, not far from the true epoch. 



170 



APPENDIX. 



C. 1, 



A.D. 



629 



Events 



But in another place 38 : p. 252 Cesra cum ad 
urbem suam pervenisset, et quain ibi ccedem fecisset 
Heraclius vidisset, magna correptus est dolore, &c. 
Ipso ergo post annos 38 abdicate, in locum ejus sub- 
stituerunt filium ipsius Kobadem. 



Heraclii 20 from Oct. 5. Post cons. Her. XVIII. 
avimara B. Chron. Pasch. Indict. 2 anno Heraclii 19 
fura xnr. — to iij'. A Jan. 22 Constantini 17- 

Journey of Heraclius to Jerusalem : Theophanes 
p. 2/3 B Heraclii IJl" rovra rw eru dirdpas 6 ^acriXeiJs 
afxa Tci eapi [A. D. 629] dno ttjs ^acriKevovcrrjs TroXecof 
eVt TO. 'lepoaoXvfia fTTopfvero, dtrayaycciv ra ripia Koi fwo- 
TTOid ^vXa Tov dnoSovvai rat 6((a Tf}v ev-)(apiaTiav . — etcr- 
fXdcdv 8e 6 ^aaiXevs iv 'lepoaoXvpois koi dTTOKaTaarrjaas 
Zaxctpiav top TraTpidpxrjv [conf. a. 614] koi to. Tipia koi 
^coonoia ^vXa els tov 'Lbiov tottov — divrfXairev 'E^paiovs 
OTTO Trjs dyias TroXecos, KeXevaas pfj ex^"' avTovs i^ovaiav 
tiTTO Tpiav fuXiav ttjs dyias TToXews TTXrjaid^tiv . KoraXa- 
^a>v be TTjv "Edeaaav aTreSftJKe tt]v eKicXrjaiav toIs opdo- 
8o^ois, inro Nea-Topiapoiv KaTexofiivrfv divo Xoa-poov. Also 
in Cedrenus p. 420 A tw i0 eVei. The date is con- 
firmed by Eutychius torn. 2 p. 239 — 248 who de- 
scribes this visit of Heraclius : Anno nono imperii 
ejusdem, qui et Hejira nonus [conf. a. 622. 2] CF. 
egressus Heraclius Hierosolyma tendebat quo videret 
quid in ipsa devastassent Per see. — Ubi autem Hiero- 
solyma pervenisset, obviam ipsi facti sunt monasterii 
Alsik monachi urbisque Hierosolymitance incolce, co- 
mitante ipsos Modesto. — Cum vero urbem ingressus ea 
qu(E diruerant ac succenderant Persce vidisset magna 
affectus est tristitia. Dein — Modesto ob ea quce fe- 
cerat gratias egit. p. 247 Heraclius e Judceis — in- 
numeros occidit. &c. The 7th year of the Hejira 
ended Ap. 30 A. D. 629, and included the visit of 
Heraclius. Modestus, here mentioned, had acted 
for Zacharias during his captivity A. D. 614 — 628. 
Modestus Zacharice vicarius. Cf. Pagium torn. 2 p. 755. 

Death of Siroes : Theophanes p. 273 C Cedrenus 

p. 420 A (Heraclius) eXdav els Tqu 'UpdnoXiv rJKOvcrev 
OTi '2ip6r)s T(dvT]Kev 6 Totv Uepcrmv ^acriXeiis, 'Abearip fie 6 
TovTOV vlos Tijv ^aaCXnuv Tav Ilepcrav napiXa^ev — prjvas 
eind. Eutychius tom. 2 p. 252 Spatium quo regnavit 
octimestre erat. Deinde post ipsum regnavit Ardshir 
Shirawaihi — filius, quern statim adortus prafectus 
limitum occidentalium ipsum occidit, cum quinque tan- 
tum mensibus regnasset. Nicephorus brev. p. 14C 
ivOvs ovv 2ip6r)s eVeXcvra. The 8 m. place the death 
of Siroes at the end of Oct. 628, and the 5 m. the 
death of Adeser at the end of March 629. Hera- 
clius might reach Hierapolis before the death of 
Adeser was known there. 

[Theophanes p. 273 A Heraclii 18'' p. 273 D He- 
raclii 19" at each year inserts 'Apa/Swi/ dpxrry^s Mou- 
afUB ^TT) e. See A. D. 622. 625. 627-] 



Authors 



Death of Zacharias of Jerusalem. Theophanes 
has an erroneous date: p. 249 D Heraclii 1" 'Ifpocr. 
fTTiiTKOTros Zaxapias trr] k^. ^ . p. 278 C Heraclii 22" 
'lepoa-. eVtWoTTOs MoSeoros eTr] ^. a. His 22 years 
terminate in the 2 1 st of Heraclius, and are placed 
by this account at A. D. 609 — 630. His appoint- 
ment is rightly placed at A. D. 609 (conf. a.), but 
he was succeeded by Modestus in 629 : Eutychius 
tom. 2 p. 248 after describing Heraclius at Jerusa- 
lem in the spring of 629 proceeds : Heraclius Mo- 
destum monachum monasterii Al Ducesi prcefectum 
patriarcham Hierosolymitanum constituit ac se Da- 
mascum sequi jussit. — Reversus igitur Heraclius ab 
Hierosolymis Damascum ibi substitit &c. Sedit autem 
Modestus novem menses, dein mortuus est, ac post 
ejus mortem sex annis sine patriarcha mansit cathedra 
Hierosolymitana. Zacharias therefore presided from 
indict. 12 A. D. 60|- (conf. a. 609) to indict. 2 
A.D. 624, a period of 21 years current. Nice- 
phorus ascribes to him 22 years before his captivity: 
p. 410 D Zaxapias npo t^s alxpaXcoaias (tt) kj3', Mo- 
hearos eros ev. which would place the episcopate of 
Zacharias at A. D. 593 — 614. Nicephorus in bre- 
viario has this account : p. 15 A after the deaths of 
Siroes and his successor, Sarbarus the usurper tto- 
(Tav TTJV dvaToXiKTjv yfjv 'P<B/xatoty aTToSificocri — ra re fwo- 
TTOid ^vXa irpos ^aaiXea areXXei. — 'HpdiiXeios Se Xa^cov 
TO. fcooTTOta ^vXa iaf^payLcrpeva, KoBdivep iXr)(^6j)<Tav [sc. 
in A. D. 614], Biapeivavra Trpos to. 'lepotroXvfta dcjiiKeTO, 
Ka\ MofieoTO) rw dpxiepel Ka\ rw avTov KXrjpa ravTa ime- 
dei^ev. oi Se tijv (r(f)pay'i8a a-d>av eTTfyivmaKov. — tj]V re 
(cXetSa TrjV iir avTols 6 Updpxrjs peivaaav nap' avTa 
rjyaye Kcii dvotyevra irpocrKWovcriv anavTes. vyj/^mdevTCiiv Se 
avTcov e'/cei(re fidiis fls to Bv^dvTiov /3a(riXeus i^ftrep'^fv. 
— devTtpa Se rjv IvdiKTiav f]viKa TavTa eVparrero . There 
are three errors in this account. 1 The relics from 
Jerusalem were restored by Siroes. 2 Modestus was 
not yet bishop when Heraclius came to Jerusalem. 
3 The relics were not borne to CP. at this time, but 
remained at Jerusalem till A. D. 634. Nicephorus 
rightly gives indict. 2 A. D. 62|- as the date of the 
visit of Heraclius to Jerusalem. 



EMPERORS. 



171 



A.D 



630 



631 



632 



Events 



Heraclii 21 from Oct. 5. Post co?is. Her. XIX. 
avvTrara B. Chron. Pasch. Indict. 3 anno Heraclii 20 
fifTo. vTv. — TO iff. A Jan. 22 Constantini 18. See 
A. D. 628. 2. 

Heraclius at Hierapolis. Theophanes p. 274 A — 
275 A Heraclii 20" Cedrenus p. 420 B— D r« k 
erei Zonaras XIV torn. 2 p. 85 C D give the follow- 
ing account: "Heraclius at Hierapolis confers with 
Athanasius the Jacobite patriarch, who is promised 
the episcopate of Antioch if he will accept the coun- 
cil of Chalcedon. He pretends to accept the dogma 
of that council, that there were Two Natures in 
Christ, but enquires whether there were Two Wills 
or only One Will. Heraclius, being surprised by 
the strange expression [^ej/o^coj/T^^eiff Theophan. 
omitted by Cedrenus and Zonaras], writes to Ser- 
gius, and also asks the opinion of Cyrus bishop of 
Phasis. They agree that there was One Will. Ser- 
gius held only One Will. Whereupon the emperor 
writes to Joannes of Rome, who rejects the dogma. 
Meanwhile, upon the death of Georgius, Cyrus is 
appointed patriarch of Alexandria, and with T'heo- 
dorus of Pharan asserts the dogma of One Will. 
At this time Sophronius is chosen bishop of Jerusa- 
lem and condemns the dogma and addresses Sergius 
of CP. and Joannes of Rome upon it. Heraclius is 
perplexed, and issues an edict [the 'duOeais, issued 
in A. D. 638 indict. 12] forbidding men to affirm 
either One Will or Two Wills." This account is 
questioned by Pagius. See col. 2. 

Theophanes and Cedrenus under that 20th year 
continue the narrative down to the death of Con- 
stans in Sicilv in A. D. 668. 



yVuTIIORS 



Athanasius mentioned in col. 1 is called bv Theo- 
phanes and Cedrenus 11. CC. " Adavdcnos o TraTpuipxris 
ra>v 'laKcofSirav, deivos avr]p /cai KOKovpyos rfj rotv Svpojj/ 
(ji^vTtf KaKovpyia. [Travovpyia Cedrenus.] Zonaras 
1. c. omits his name : yevnpivM tw ^aaiXel 'HpaKXclco 
Kara rrjV 'lepovaaXrjp,, 6 Ta>v 'laKaj^iToiv KadoXiKos Trpoa- 
eXrjXvdev, ov eKelvot 7raTpidp)(r]v u>v6pxi^ov. — heivos uiv Ka\ 
TTovr^pias fiearos. Pagius torn. 2 p. 787 rejects the 
account of Theophanes (given in col. 1), and argues 
that Heraclius had already discoursed upon this 
question with Paulus in Armenia in 622, and witli 
Cyrus in Lazica in 626 ; that it appears from Ser- 
gius the question was not discussed between 62f) 
and 633 ; that Honorius was bishop of Rome and 
not Joannes, who was not appointed till 640 ; that 
Athanasius was not a Jacobite patriarch. These 
arguments shew that Theophanes is inaccurate in 
some parts of his narrative, but they do not prove 
that Heraclius did not converse with Athanasius in 
this year upon this subject. The emperor might at 
this time consult with Sergius and with Cyrus upon 
this dogma, which was published to the world bv 
Cyrus from Alexandria 18 years before the year 
649 (conf. a. 638). Pagius p. 787 asserts " Theo- 
phanem finxisse Sergium Cyrum Phasidos episco- 
pum ad se accersitum de hac qusestione interro- . 
gasse" &c. But in the narrative Heraclius himself, 
and not Sergius, consults Cyrus : 6 8e ^aaiXevs ypd- 
(pei Tvpos "Siepyiov, TrpocTKaKflTai be Koi Kvpov Theophan. 
Cedren. 6 S' auTOKpdrcop ypd(p€i irpos 'S.epyiov — aXXd koi 
Kvpov epcoTtjcras rbv ^acriSoy, tcS 'Eepyico evprjKep ojjLoyvoD- 
pLova Zonar. 1 



Heraclii 22 from Oct. 5. Post cons. Her. XX. 
A Jan. 22 Constantini 19. 

Theophanes p. 278 B " Heraclii 21" Indict. 4 
Nov. 7 [Nov. 7 A. D. 630] David son of Heraclius 
born, and on the same day Heraclius son of Con- 
stantine, who was baptized by Sergius Nov. 3 in- 
dict. 5 [Nov. 3 A.D. 631]." 

Isidorus Pacensis apud Fabricium Bibl. Eccles. 
p. 47 Heraclii temporibus Sisenandus in era 669" 
anno imperii ejus XX [immo ZX/] regali locatus 
est solio. 

[Theophanes p. 276 D Heraclii 21" roirco rw eVet 
uTTf^tM Movap,e8 6 tcov 2apaKT]vS)v dpxrjyos Kai yjrfvBo- 
7rpo(f)r]Tr]s, 7rpoxet.piadp.evos 'AjSovjSdxap avyyevrj avrov. 
Repeated by Cedrenus p. 42 1 D t<5 ko.' erei. One 
year before the true time.] 



Heraclii 23 from Oct. 5. Post cons. Her. XXI 
A Jan. 22 Constantini 20. 

Death of Mohammed on Monday [12th] of Ra- 
bia I anno Hej. 11" = June 8 A. D. 632 : Abulf. p. 



The era of Yazdejerd is 3(524 days after the He- 
jira : Noris. Ep. Syromac. p. 71. 72 Ulug Beghtis 
scribit, " Sciendum est quod epocha Graca [sc. Seleu- 
cidarum A. C. 312] pi-ior sit Arabica diebus 340,700, 

z 2 



172 



APPENDIX. 



C. 1. 



A.D 



Events 



Authors 



1 38 Fuit obitus — -feria secunda qui erat dies 1 2"* men- 
sis Rabii I. These characters are inconsistent. The 
1 1 th year of the Hejira began on Sunday March 29 
A. D. 632. The 12th of Rabia I, being the 71st 
day, fell upon Sunday June 7- Monday therefore 
requires June 8 and the 1 3th of Rabia I for the day 
of his death. Abubeker succeeds on the same day : 
Abulpharaj. p. 108 Abubekr chalifa renuntiatus est 
mense Rabia priore, ineunte anno 1 1 ° eodem die quo 
obiit propheta. Eutychius torn. 2 p. 251 though err- 
ing in the day of Mohammed's death: diem obiit die 
Luna qui secundus erat mensis Rabies I anno Hejrce 
1 1 — Mortuus est autem annas natus 63. — Fuitque 
inauguratio ipsius Abubecr eodem die quo mortuus est 
Mohammed. 

An expedition into Syria was delayed a month 
by the death of Mohammed : Abulf. in vita p. 133 
CoEpit (Egrotare sub finem mensis Safar, die 27" ejus- 
dem mensis [the 57th day of the year] — et quidem 
jam turn milites ad expeditionem bellicam ituros cum 
Osama — comparaverat et — ejus profectionem urge- 
bat. Auctores apud Gagnier ad p. 134 Feria prima 
[Sunday June 7] — ^ castris redux Osama ad pro- 
phetam — ingressus est. — Deinde ad castra reversus 
Osama militibus proficiscendi signum dedit. — Postri- 
die [sc. Monday June 8] — nuntius affertur de obitu 
prophetce. quare expeditio in aliud tempus differtur ; 
donee mense Rabia II sequente Abubekri jussu in Sy- 
riam profectus &c. Heraclius being at Emesa : 
Ibid. Cujus irruptionis nuncius cum ad Heraclium qui 
tunc temporis in urbe Hems morabatur perlatus esset, 
ille statim duces suos convocans sic eos allocutus est, 
&c. Abulfeda in vita p. 156 observes Constat obi- 
tus ejus tempore 124 Muslemorum millia recensita 
fuisse. 

Theophanes p. 279 A marks the war in Syria at 
the right year, Heraclii 22<'. 

Yazdejerd is elected king of Persia : Eutychius 
torn. 2 p. 256 Conquisito Cesrce filio nomine Yazde- 
jerdo — ipsum sibi regem preefecerunt, annos turn na- 
tum quindecim. — Regno autem prcefectns est anno Abu 
Becri primo. The troubled interval which followed 
the accession of Siroes Feb. 25 A. D. 628 is thus 
described by Eutychius Ibid. Totum spatium quo 
regnavit Shirawaih [Siroes'] et qui ipsi successerunt, 
tam viri quam foemina, turn qui regnasse perhibentur 
tum qui regum numero haud accensentur, usque ad 
Parachoradchoshraum, una cum intervallo quod inter 
duos quoslibet reges inter cessit, IV annorum fuit, id- 
que turbis et motibus plenum. His detail makes the 
interval 4^ 5"* 22*^, which places the elevation of 
Yazdejerd at Aug. 15 A. D. 632. Elmakin apud 
Pagium torn. 2 p. 799 records his accession at this 
year : Convenerunt Persce anno undecimo Hejira:, im- 
perante Abu Becro. — Petierunt filium Chosroce no- 



prior autem epocha Persica diebus 344,324." — Era 
Persica sive Jesdejirdis est posterior Hejira diebus 
3624, uti tradunt Alfraganus, Alcabitius, Albumasar, 
astronomi Arabes, apud Ricciolium. The numbers of 
Ulug Beg give the same amount; for 340,700 + 
3624=344,324. But if the 3624 days commenced 
at July 16 A. D. 622, they will terminate at June 
17 A. D. 632. Albumazar in Gregory de Epochis 
c. 19 p. 167 is quoted as follows: "This era was 
fixed, saith Albumazar, anno Hegires 1 1" Rabia I 
22° feria 3." Gregory adds "Which answereth to 
the 1 6th of June A. D. 632." But here again (as 
in Abulfeda quoted in col. 1 ) the characters are in- 
consistent ; for, as it has been shewn in col. 1 that 
the 1 1th year of the Hejira commenced upon Sun- 
day March 29, the 22nd of Rabia I, the 81st day, 
fell in that year upon Wednesday June 17. Abul- 
feda however apud Pagium tom. 2 p. 799 also as- 
signs Tuesday : " Abulfeda Ismael banc eram pluri- 
bus explicat in diss, de cognitione epocharum c. 3, 
ubi ait principium hujus epocha fuisse diem Martis, 
initio anni quo primum regnavit Yesdejerdus filius 
Shahliari. which will determine the era to Tuesday 
June 16, the 21st of Rabia I. This era commences 
at the inauguration of Yazdejerd. See the authorities 
quoted in col. 1, and Pagius p. 799. This is im- 
properly reckoned the era of his defeat and death 
by some authors, who have been followed by Sca- 
liger, Petavius, Calvisius, (see Pagi p. 799) and by 
Gregory p. 167- This error has been adopted in 
the Tables at A. D. 226 p. 240, where for " the 
dynasty terminated at the era of Yazdejerd — A. D. 
632" — read " terminated at the death of Yazdejerd 
A. D. 652." Ockley Vol. 1 p. 112 rightly observes 
" The Persian era bears date from the beginning of 
that year in which Yazdejerd came to the crown." 
If the day on which the era commenced was the 
day of Yazdejerd's inauguration, which is probable, 
then the space from the accession of Siroes Feb. 25 
A. D. 628 will be 4^ S*" 23^, instead of 4^ 5"» 22^^ 
assigned by Eutychius. 



EMPERORS. 



173 



A.D. 



Events 



Authors 



G33 



mine Jazdejirdem atque eum regent super se constitu- 
ertmt, cum annos haberet XV. 



Heraclii 24 from Oct. 5. Post cons. Her. XXII. 
A Jan. 22 Constantini 21. 

The battle of Ajnadin : Ockley Vol. 1 p. 65. The 
armies met " on Friday July 13 in the year 633 :" 
Ockley lb. This is inaccurate ; for in the 1 2th year 
of the Hejira, which began on Thursday March 18, 
July 13 fell upon Tuesday. Khaled, " the sword of 
God" — 6 XaXfdos, ov Xeyovai y.a.)(aLpav rov GeoO Theo- 
phanes p. 2/8 D — after his victory addresses a let- 
ter to Abubekr, which is dated " on the 5th day of 
the week, being the 30th oi Jornada I:" Ockley Vol.1 
p. ']S. = Thursday Aug. 12. 

Theophanes p. 279 B Heraclii 23" mentions the 
Syrian w^ar of this year, but omits the battle of 
Ajnadin. 

Heraclius in this campaign is at Antioch : Ockley 
Vol. 1 p. 39. 47. 



634 



Heraclii 25 from Oct. 5. Post cons. Her. XXIIl. 
A Jan. 22 Constantini 22. 

Damascus taken " on Friday Aug. 23 A. D. 634 
Hej. 13." Ockley Vol. 1 p. 99. But as Hej. 13 
commenced on Monday March 7 A. D. 634, the 
23rd Aug. fell upon Tuesday in that year. 

Tie?A\i oi Abubekr : Ockley Ibid. " Abubekr the. 
Caliph died on the same day that Damascus was 
taken — Aug. 23." Hence Abulfaraj. p. 112 as- 
cribes the capture to the reign of Omar : Tempore 
Chalifatus Omari cepit Abu Obeida Damascum, post- 
quam earn septem mensibus obsedisset, et foedus iniit 
cum incolis Misani, Tiberiadis, Casarece, et Baalbeci. 
Cepit etiam Hemesam post duorum mensium obsidio- 
nem. The reign and death of Abubekr are thus 
given: Eutych. tom. 2 p. 264 Obiit 28" Jornada II, 
anni Hejree 13* — Fiiit Chalifatus ipsius 2« 3"* 22^, 
Abulfarajius p, 110 Anno 13" Hejr^e obiit die Luna 
8" JumadcB II, natus annos 63. Fuitque spatium Cha- 
lifatus ejus biennii et quatuor mensium, minus octo 
diebus. Ockley p. 104 •' 63 years old, having 
reigned 2 lunar y. 3 m. 9 days." Theophanes p. 
279 D Cedrenus p. 425 D Heraclii 24" 'A^ov^dxapos 
reXfVTa dp,T]pfv(ras 8vo err] koI fjfiKxv, Koi 7rapaXa/i/3ai/ei 
TTiv dpxTjv Ovfiapos. But in Hej. 13 the 23rd Aug. 
fell upon the 22nd of Jumada II the 170th day of 
Hej. 13 ; and he reigned, June 8 A. D. 632 — Aug. 
23 A. D. 634, 22' 2"' HK In Arabian computation, 
from 13th oi Rabia I anno 11" to 22nd Jumada II 
anno 13", 22^ 3'» 10^. 



[Theophanes p. 279 D and Cedrenus p. 425 D 
under the 24th of Heraclius thus describe the Sy- 
rian war : Ovpapos irapciKafi^dvu Boarpav Trjv Tr6\iv 
(jLera koi oXXcoj/ jroXecoi', direbr^prjaav Se y^«XP' ''""^ Ta^rjda. 
TovTois (Tvp^aXcov QeoSaypos 6 rov jSacrtXeo)? 'Hpa/cXeioii 
ddfXcfios rjTTTjdr] koX irpos rov jSacrtXe'a ev 'Edeacn] epxerat. 
6 8e ^aaiXfvs 7r/3o;^etpt'fe7at erepov arpaTrjyov ovofxaTi 
Badvriv, Kal QfoScopov aaKeXXdpiov fjieTU, peydXi]s dvvdfxeas 
Tre/xTrei Kara 'Apd^av. Trapayempevos Se els ttjv Epe- 
aav avvavTO. nXTJdos ^apaKijvwv, koL anoKTeivas avroiis 
Koi Tov dprjpfvovra avrccp — Trapd rov Bapdavrjaiov ttoto- 
pov Trapa(f)ccKTev€i' HpaKXeios 8e rfjv 2vpiav KaraXirrav 
uis dTTfXTricras, [aTreXTri'cras' KaraXipTrdvei ttjv 2vpiav Ce- 
dren.] apas koL rd rlpia ^vXa drro 'lepovaaXrip [conf. a. 
629] eVi TTIV KIT. aTTJyet. Badvrjv 8e dno AapatTKov (Is 
Epeaav KeXevei (rrpefpeadai, Kal Qeodapov craKeXXdpiov 
i'xovra ;^iXiaSas' p' . Koi SiaKovaiv "Apa^as dno 'Epf(rrjs 
f(os AapaaKov. But Bosra was taken in the 23rd of 
Heraclius A. D. 633, and in the reign of Abubekr ; 
and Heraclius after this journey to CP. returned 
again to Syria, which he finallv left in 638. conf. 
a. 638. 1.] 



635 



Heraclii 26 from Oct. 5. Post cons. Her. XXIV. 
A Jan. 22 Constantini 23. 

The acts in Syria in this campaign are described 



[Theophanes p. 280 and Cedrenus p. 426 under 
the 25th of Heraclius (the campaign of A. D. 635) 
have an inaccurate account of the events of the Sv- 



174 



APPENDIX. 



C. 1, 



A.D. 


Events 


Authors 




by Ockley Vol. 1 p. 149. Abu Obeidah besieged 
Hems (Emesa) in November : Ockley p. 153 "Jbu 
Obeidah went on towards Hems (whither Caled had 
gone before with a third part of the army) and sat 
down before it in November Hej\ 14 A.D. 635." 
Heraclius at this time was in Syria : Ockley p. 148. 
A truce is granted for a year : Ockley p. 154 ''Abu 
Obeidah consented to make a truce with them for 
one whole year and no longer ; which was to com- 
mence on the 1 st of Dulhagjah of the present year 
and expire on the last day of Sjewal Hej. 15." The 
1 0th month Sjewal in Hej. 15 will expire Dec. 4 
A. D. 636. But this representation allows only 
eleven months to the truce. To obtain " a whole 
year" we must substitute the 1 1 th month Du'lkaadah 
for the 12th month Du'lhagjah; and the truce will 
commence Dec. 17 A. D. 635. 


rian war. Heraclii 25" ea-TpaTfva-av oi 2apaKr;i/oi t^v 
'Apa^iav em to. pepri AapacTKOv irXridos ovTfs aireipov. — 
KaTeKa^fv 8e 6 craKfWdpi.os [sc. Theodorus] irpbs Baa- 
vrjv' KCLi airdpavTfs drro ^Epea-rjs avvavToxn toIs "Apa'sjn, 
ical avp^oXris yepopevrjs tjj Trpd^Trj rjpepa ffris rjv TpiTTf ttjs 
i^Bopdbos Ky tov 'lovXi'ov prjvos [r^ rrpaiTr] rjpepa ttjs 
ejBdopAbos Ky tov 'l. p. legit Pagius] tittoovtcu ol nepX 
TOV aaKeWdpiov. araa-ida-avTes oi tov Badvovs BaauT]v 
irpoxeipi^ovTai ^atrikea, Koi 'HpdKkeiov direKfjpv^av. TOTt 
— ol 2apaKr]vo\ evpovTfs abeiau avp^dXKovai noKepov. 
dvepov 8e TzvevaavTos KaTO. 'Papaicov votov, prj SvvrjdevTts 
dvTinpoa-coTrrjo-ai i^dpols hia ttjv KoviopTov fjTTavTai Koi 
eavTovs jSaWoures els Tas (TTfvoSovs tov 'ItppoxBov ttoto- 
pov eKfl aTToiXovTO aphrjv. — TOTe ol ^apuKrjvol Xap7rpS>s 
viKrja-avTes eVi ttjv AapaaKov epxovTcu Koi Tavrrjv irapa- 
Xap^dvovcn koL tcls xa>pas ttjs '^oiv'iKqs, Koi oIk'i^ovtcu, 
cKel. Koi oTpaTevova-i KaT AlyvTTTov. The battle of 
Yermouk is here made to precede the capture of 
Damascus, and both are placed in 635. But Da- 
mascus was taken in August 634, and the victory 
of Yermouk was gained in November 636. The 
correction of Pagi restores the true day of the week 
to July 23 of 635. Perhaps however the characters 
fer. 3 July 23 are genuine, and Theophanes records 
an action which really happened on Tuesday July 23 
A. D. 636, in the year of the battle of Yermouk.] 


636 


Heraclii 27 from Oct. 5. Post cons. Her. XXV. 
A Jan. 22 Constantini 24. 

Battles on the river Yermouk : Ockley Vol. 1 p. 
191 — 195. which determined the fate of Syria : 
p. 204. and continued several days : Ibid. These 
battles were all fought in November A. D. 636 : 
Ockley p. 208. The Saracens after their victory 
rested a month at Damascus : Ockley p. 211. For 
the Yermouk or Hieromax, the scene of these ac- 
tions, see Gibbon Vol. 9 p. 405. For the accounts 
of Theophanes and Cedrenus see 635. 2. Also 
mentioned by Theophanes p. 276 B quoted by Ock- 
ley p. 193 ovTco 8e TTJs eKii\T](rias tots vtto re t&v ^aai- 
\f(OV Koi rav bva-at^SiV Upicov rapaTTOnevris, dvea-n] 6 
eprjfUKciTaros 'AfiaXrjK ■nnrrav fjpas tov Xaov rov Xpiarov, 
Koi ylverai irpdoTj} (j)opa tttSxtis tov 'PapdiKov (rrpaTov, t) 
Kara to Ta^iOa Xeyco Koi 'lepfiovxav Koi Tfjv aOeapov aipa- 
Toxvcriav. Theophanes adds 1. c. fieff f)v al IlaXaio-Tt- 
vS)V Koi KoKrapeav Koi 'lepotroXv/xwi/ ctXaads, eira 6 Ai- 
yimrios okedpos. Repeated by Cedrenus p. 421 B. 


Isidorus Hispalensis obiit : Redemptus archidia- 
conus Isidori apud Pagium tom. 2 p. 812 Finem 
suum consummavit in pace pridie nonas Aprilis Luna 
XIX, era DCLXXIV. sc. Ap. 4 A. D. 636. He 
was bishop of Seville nearly 40 years : conf. a. 612. 
Therefore from about A. D. 596. Add the testi- 
mony of Braulio apud Fabricium p. 47 : Braulionis 
episcopi Caesaraugustani in prsenotatione librorum 
Isidori. Isidorus vir egregius, Hispalensis ecclesice 
episcopus, Leandri episcopi successor et germanus, 
floruit a tempore Mauritii imperatoris et Reccaredi 
regis, in quo quiddam sibi antiquitas vindicavit, imo 
nostrum tempus antiquitatis in conscientiam imaginavit. 
— Edidit — Etymologiarum codicem nimia magnitu- 
dine, distinctum ab eo titulis, non libris. quern, quia 
rogatu meo fecit, quamvis imperfectum ipse reliquerit, 
ego in XX libros divisi. — Obiit temporibus Heraclii 
imperatoris et Christianissimi Chintilani regis. 


637 


Heraclii 28 from Oct. 5. Post cons. Her. XXVI. 
A Jan. 22 Constantini 25. 

Baalbec is occupied by the Saracens " on the 
20th of January, Hejira 15." Ockley Vol. 1 p. 181. 
Therefore Jan. 20 of 637- Hems is entered after 
the battles of Yermouk: Ockley p. 191 "Never a 
man of them (the Saracens) went into the city till 


[Theophanes p. 281 C Heraclii 26" tovt^ tS erei 
fTTforpaTevtrfV Ovpapos kuto. IldkaiaTivrjs, koi irapoKadi- 
aas TTjv ay'iav iroKiv buTri xp^vov irapeka^ev avTrjv Xoyw. 
2a>c})p6vL0S 8e 6 'lepotroXvpcov dpxifpfvs \6yov eka^ev nd- 
arrjs Tla\ai(rTivr]s dac^dKetrraTov . flafXdav 8e Ovpapos els 
TTjv dyiav ttSXiv Tpix^uois « KapfjXcav ivbvpairiv r)p(pifar- 
pevos eppv7r(opfVois k, t. X. — eV tovtois dntfiio) 6 Soj^pci- 



EMPERORS. 



175 



A.D. 



Events 



after the great battle of Ycrmouk which determined 
the fate of Syria." And this agrees with the period 
of the truce (see 035), which expired Dec. 4 A. D. 
(J3(>. 

Jerusalem taken. Ockleyp. 211 "Abu-Obeidah 
having received orders to besiege it [at the close 
of <).'30] sent Yezid thither first with 5000 men," 
&c. p. 2iri "At last the patriarch [Sophronius] 
consented that the city should be surrendered upon 
condition that the inhabitants should receive the 
articles from the Caliph's own hands." Omar en- 
tered the city (Ockley p. 22G) Hej. 10 A. D. 037 : 
Elmakin apud Ockley p. 229. He continued there 
about 1 days : Ockley p. 230. On Omar at Jeru- 
salem see Eutychius tom. 2 p. 284 — 291. 

Omar while at Jerusalem " divided Syria into 
two parts, and committed all between Hauran and 
Aleppo to Abu Obeidah. Yezid took charge of all 
Palestine and the sea shore [Theophanes p. 282 A 
TO) avTa €T€i [the year of the fall of Jerusalem] ayro- 
\vet Ovfiapos tov 'laadov els ttjv Supi'aj/]. Amrou was 
sent to invade Egypt." Ockley p. 232. conf. p. 281 . 
Aleppo and its castle were taken in 4 or 5 months: 
Ockley p. 233. 244. 250. Probably before the 
close of 037- Meanwhile Yezid attempted Csesarea 
in vain : p. 233. And Amrou " did not march di- 
rectly to Egypt, but continued awhile in Palestine." 
— " As he was marching towards Csesarea, the Sa- 
racens found the weather extremely cold." p. 281. 
282. conf. p. 292. " Constantine guarded that part 
of the country." p. 282. 292. We discern here 
the winter of A. D. G3|. 

Yazdejerd defeated retires to Ferganah. Ockley 
Vol. 1 p. 229 " In the same year in which Jerusa- 
lem was taken Saed was making havoc in the terri- 
tories of Persia: he went to Madayin," &c. — p. 230 
" After this in the same year the Persians were 
defeated by the Saracens in a great battle near 
Jaloulah. Yazdejerd — retired to Ferganah, a city 
of Persia." 



Authors 



VLos, 6 Xoyw Koi npa^ei rrju ' If poa-oXvfKop KaraKoap-rja-as 
iKKkrjcriav, Kai Kara rfjs HpaKkfiov Koi raiv avv avrco p.o- 
vo6eKrfTu>v KUKoSo^las dyuvKrdpevos 2(pyiov koi Tivppov 
[conf. a. 030]. Repeated by Cedrenus p. 420 tw 
<cr' erei. An error both in the duration of the siege 
and in the year of the surrender. The siege was 
begun^ and the city was. taken, within the 27th j^ear 
of Heraclius. Sophronius therefore died in 037- 
Eutychius tom. 2 p. 291 also marks his death soon 
after the visit of Omar : Porro mortuus est Sophro- 
nius patriojrcha Hierosolymitanus , postquam munere 
illo IV annis functus esset. Nicephorus p. 410 D 
ends with Sophronius : MoSecrros eVos (u [conf. a 
029]. SoX^powos.] 



038 



Heraclii 29 from Oct. 5. Post cons. Her. XXVII. 
A Jan. 22 Constantini 26. 

Fhght of Heraclius from Antioch : Ockley Vol. 1 
p. 271. of Constantine from Csesarea : p. 297- Both 
are at CP. on the 4th of July : Constantin. Por- 
phyrog. de Cerem. II. 27 Kara rrjv TerdpTrjv tov 'lov- 
Xt'ou p.r]vos, Ivb. id [4 July 038] 6 alroKpaTcop deXrjcras 
duayopevcrai HpaKkeiov k.t.X. 6 /i€i/ TraTpidp^r)s flcrriXdei' 
irpos TOV ISaa-iKea, TrapovTOs koX Kwva-Tavrivov. Heraclius 
was still at Antioch after Aleppo had fallen and 
when the Saracens assaulted Antioch : Ockley p. 
257- 259. 204. 207. therefore through the winter 
of 03 g and the spring of 038. Constantine in Pa- 
lestine at the same period, conf. a. 637- Ocklev 



The ticBecns oi Heraclius was published in the 12th 
indiction; therefore not before September 038. The 
date is fixed by Martinus of Rome in the Lateran 
Council which was held imperii Constantini anno IX 
sub die III Nonas Octobris indictione VIII : Acta 
Concil. tom. 7 p. 78. and sub die VIII Id. Oct. 
indictione VIII: lb. p. 103. and Constantini anno 
IX sub die XVI Kal. Nov. indictione VIII: lb. p. 
105. and sub die XIV Kal. Nov. ind. VIII: p. 215. 
and sub die prid. Kal. Nov. ind. VIII : p. 274. that 
is, Oct. 5. 8. 17. 19. 31 A. D. 049. Acta Con- 
cil. tom. 7 P- 80 Martinus — prepsidens sancto coiicilio 
dixit — " Utinam quidem latenter in semetipsos tan- 
tummodo hoc malum circumscripsissent — Cyrus Alex- 



176 



APPENDIX. 



C. 1, 



A.D. 



Events 



Authors 



639 



p. 292. 297. 

After their departure Antioch surrenders : Ock- 
ley p. 273. " Abu Obeidah entered Antioch on 
Tuesday Aug. 21 Hej. 17 A. D. 038." Gibbon 
Vol. 9 p. 414 points out the inconsistency: Aug. 21 
was on a Friday in 638. Perhaps the true date of 
the capture was Tuesday July 21. Theophanes p. 
282 C refers this event to the right year ; and Ce- 
drenus p. 429 D ra ktj erei TTapeka^ov ol "Apa^es ttjv 
AvTioxfiav. 

Caesarea surrendered in this year to Amrou the 
future conqueror of Egypt : Ockley p. 297 " Con- 
stantine departed for CP. — In the morning — the 
people surrendered the city to Amrou — in the 17th 
year of the Hejira and the 5th of Omar's reign." 
The 5th of Omar began on the 22nd of Jumada II 
the l/Oth day oi Hej. IJ. conf. a. 634. which day 
fell upon July 11 A.D. 638; and this date brings 
down the loss of Caesarea to the middle or end of 
July, more than a month after the flight of Con- 
stantine. Ockley adds "^ in A. D. 639 and the 29th 
of Heraclius." These are not admissible. The year 
639 is inconsistent with Hej. I7. The 29th of He- 
raclius would delay the capture till October. 

After this all the other towns in Syria surren- 
dered : Ockley p. 297- and " all was subdued in 
six years from their first expedition in Abubekr's 
reign." p. 297- The conquest then was completed 
in 638 ; and the six years are within A. D. 632 — 
638. He/. 11— 17. 



Heraclii 30 from Oct. 5. Post cons. Her. XXVIII. 
A Jan. 23 Constantini 27. 

A pestilence in Syria : Ockley Vol. 1 p. 299 " In 
the 18th year of the Hejira A. D. 639 there was 
such terrible mortality in Syria that the Arabs call 
that year the year of destruction. The Saracens lost 
by that plague 25,000 men, among whom was Abu 
Obeidah, then 58 years old." — " Caled survived 
them about 3 years and then died." After the 
death of Abu Obeidah Moawiyah is lieutenant in 
Syria. Named by Theophanes p. 282 C Hei-aclii 
28" €Trfii(f)dr) yiavias xmo OvpApov (TTpoTqyos koL dp.r]pas 
TTcuTTfS TTis VTTO Tav ^apaKTfvcov x^pas OTTO AlyvnTov eas 
Tov Evcjipdrov. Also in Cedrenus p. 429 D ra ktj' trei. 
One year before the time. 

Amrou invades Egypt : Ockley Vol. 1 p. 299 — 
301. He entered Egypt June 6 : Renaudot pa- 
triarch. Alex. p. 162 Scribit Severus — venisse Arabes 
in ^gyptum cum potentissimo exercitu — die 1 2" men- 
sis Bdini. The month Baini or Payni began on 
May 26 : F. H. Ill p. 356. Siege of Alexandria 
in November : conf. a. 640. 



andrinee ecclesice episcopus et Sergius CP.^ antistes, 
necnon et ejus successores Pyrrhus et Paulus. — Et 
Cyrus quidem ante hos decern et octo annos [conf. a. 
630] unam operationem in Christo in eadem Alexan- 
drina urbe dejiniens Divinitatis ejus et Humanitatis — 
ordinando capitula numero novem in ambone prcedicans, 
cum anathemate qui sic non saperet, impie promulga- 
vit ; Sergius autem per epistolam propriam ad Cy- 
rum scriptam &c. — et non solum hoc sed etiam post 
aliquot annos ejusdem Cyri novce adinventionis, hoc 
est per nuper XII indictionem elapsam, hcereticam et 
ipse conscribens Ecthesin fidei sub nomine tunc impe 
rantis Heraclii unam — voluntatem et operationem in- 
stiiuit." A copy of the Ecthesis — 17 eKdea-is 'Hpa 
likeiov TOV fiaa-iKeas — is extant Ibid. p. 201. Re- 
ferred to by Theophanes p. 275 A Cedrenus p 
420 D Zonaras tom. 2 p. 56 A. conf. a. 630 col. 1. 

Death of Sergius in indict. 12 : Nicephonis in 
breviario p. 30=:p. 18 A Kara be ttjv daSeKarqv Ivbi- 
KTiStva fTfXfvra ^epyios 6 tov Bv^avTiov izpoebpos. As 
he was appointed Ap. 18 A. D. 610 (conf. a.) the 
space assigned to him by Nicephorus quoted in 610, 
282^ 0"» 21^*, is too short, for these would terminate 
in the 1 1th indiction at May 8 A. D. 638. Pagius 
tom. 2 p. 818 from a comparison of copies supplies in 
the text of Nicephorus prjvas eirTa. and this amended 
period 28^ 7™ 21'^ will place the death of Sergius 
in the right indiction at 8 Dec. 638. Theophanes 
p. 248 C 282 B rightly assigns 29 years current : 
2fpyios eTTj K& . 



Pyrrhus succeeds Sergius: Niceph. in breviario 
p. 30= 1 8 A Koi eTreidrjTTfp TrpocreKeiTo HpaiiKeios Hvppa 
dbeXcpov T€ enoKei, — Koi afxa (OKfuofievov 'Sepyia Kol avv- 
dcaiTW/JifVov eyivciXTKe, tovtov dpx^iepea tov Bv^avTiov dvrj- 
yopevcrev. Zonaras tom. 2 p. 86 A Sepyiov 6e TOV TOV 
dpovov exovTOS KII. Ttfv ^mrjv KOTaarpe'^avTos, Hvppos 
avTov 8if8e^aTo, to. ovto. fKeiva So^d^cov. Nicephorus 
p. 415 A Jlvppos Trpea^vTfpos ttjs avTrjs (KII.) povaxps 
mi apxciv Tcov povaa-Trjpiav Koi r)yovp.evos Xpv<ro7r6\fu>s. 
(TTdcrfcos fie y{Vop.€vr]s avTci Trapurqaaro, erq /3' prjvas & 
fjfiepas 0. Theophanes p. 282 C gives him 3 years 
current. Pyrrhus was deposed in October 641 : 
Nicephorus in breviario p. 36 =p. 21 D irpoxeipiC^Tai 
ILavkos [the successor of Pyrrhus^ Kara tov 'OKTa^piov 
prjva Trjs TTfVTfKaiStKaTrjs IvbiKTiwvos. Theophanes p. 
283 D Uvppov 8e iK^\r]6evTos ttjs iwiarKon-qs [conf. Zo- 
naram tom. 2 p. 87 B], exfipoTovf)6i] irarpidpxrjs KIT. 
UavKos — pr)v\ 'OicTco^pico IvSlkticovi U . As the 2^ 9"* 0'* 
terminated in Oct. 641, they commenced in January 
A. D. 639 ; Jan. of the 12th indiction. 



EMPERORS. 



177 



A.D 



Events 



Authors 



640 



Heraclii 31 from Oct. 5. Post cons. Her. XXIX. 
A Jan. 22 Constantini 28. 

Alexandria taken : Ockley p. 309 " The Saracens 
entered and took possession Hej. 20 A. D. 640, 
after they had besieged it 14 months, and lost 
23,000 men before it." Abulpharajius p. 112 Am- 
rus filius Aasi urbem Metsr vi cepit, cepit etiam A- 
lexandriam deditione. Eutychius torn. 2 p. 316 In- 
gressi sunt Moslemini Alexandriam postquam in ipsius 
obsidione menses XIV insumsissent. p. 319 Capta 
est vi, sine promisso aut pactis conventis, nullo 
cum ipsis inito foedere aut sponsione. Capta autem 
est die Veneris mensis Moharram novilunio, anno 
Hejrce 20" — qui Chalifatus Omari octavus fuit. Also 
fixed to Friday by Elmakin in Gibbon Vol. 9 p. 433. 
The 1 St day of Moharram and of the 20th year of 
the Hejira fell upon Thursday Dec. 21. The cap- 
ture therefore is determined to the 2nd of Mohar- 
ram, Friday Dec. 22 A. D. 640. The 8th year of 
Omar's reign commenced in Arabian computation 
on the 22nd of Jumada II, the 1 70th day of Hej. 
20 : conf. a. 634. Which coincided with June 7 
A. D. 641. And at the capture of Alexandria his 
7th year was still current. 

At the time of Amrous invasion the Copts in 
Egypt were 6,000,000 : Eutychius tom. 2 p. 31 1 
Numerum inierunt eorum e Cophtitis prcEsertim qui 
tributo pendendo obnoxii essent ; fueruntque qui nu- 
merati sunt homines sexies millies mille, quorum cen- 
sus duodecies millies aureorum millia. Quoted by 
Ockley p. 305. This Coptic population was com- 
posed of various races, aboriginal Egyptians, Nu- 
bians, Ethiopians or Abyssinians, and Jews : Re- 
naudot p. 164. This number, 6,000,000, is cre- 
dible if we understand it of the total Copt popula- 
tion, and not (with Eutychius) of the male adults 
only. In the reign of Nero A. D. 66 Egypt ex- 
clusive of Alexandria contained 7.500,000 inhabit- 
ants — TTfVTTjKom-a Tvpbs reus eTrraKocriais (xowa fivptahas 
dvOpanaiv Sixa rav 'AXe^dvSpeiav KaroiKovvrav Joseph. 
Bell. II. 16, 4. In the amount of tribute in Euty- 
chius there must be exaggeration or error. 



[Joannes Philoponus was still living according to 
Abulpharajius p. 114 (quoted by Ockley Vol. 1 p. 
312 — 314) : Hoc tempore claruit inter Muslemios 
Johannes quern vocamus nos Grammaticum, qui Alex- 
andrinus fuit fidemque Christianorum Jacobiticorum 
professus. — Vixitque donee caperet Amrus Alexan- 
driam, et ad Amrum accessit, qui, cognito quem in 
scientiis locum teneret honore ipsum affecit &c. — Dixit 
illi Amrus, " Quid est quo opus tibi sit ?" Dixit illi 
'* Libri philosophici qui in bibliothecis rcgiis repe- 
riuntur." &c. But Philoponus was born about the 
year 525. This may be collected from the age of 
his master Ammonius the disciple of Proclus. For 
we may assume that Ammonius was at least 60 
years of age in A. D. 525, 40 years after the death 
of his master Proclus. And we collect from Philo- 
ponus himself that he was born before A. D. 529. 
conf. a. 6I7. He was born then 116 years before 
the fall of Alexandria. This space of 1 1 6 years, 
525 — 640 both inclusive, will bring that event be- 
low the lifetime of Philoponus. The account of 
Abulpharajius is adopted by Gibbon Vol. 9 p. 435 
who introduces " John the last disciple of Ammo- 
nius" conversing with Amrou in December 640. 
But Gibbon has altogether missed the time of Phi- 
loponus when he supposes (Ibid, note) that the 
commentary dated May 10 A. D. 6 1 7 was an " early" 
work. Ockley accepts the tale, and Renaudot de 
patriarch. Alex. p. I7O Fabricius B. G. tom. 10 p. 
640 Brucker H. Ph. tom. 3 p. 529, who reckons 
Joannem octogenario major em obiisse after A. D. 640. 
Born therefore cir. A. D. 560. But this is refuted 
by Joannes himself, by the time of Ammonius, and 
by Simplicius who quotes Joannes. 

Leontius de Sectis c. 5 quoted by Basnage An- 
nal. tom. 3 p. 747 and by Pagius tom. 2 p. 555 at- 
tests " that while Theodosius yet lived at CP. the 
dogma of Tritheism was agitated again, of which 
Joannes Philoponus was the chief author." But 
Theodosius dwelt there till 567 : See the Tables 
567. 4. On Theodosius at CP. see the Tables p. 
789 A. D. 548. 4. Pagius 1. c. ad annum 535 
quotes the address of Philoponus to Sergius, and 
then, forgetting the time of Sergius, adds that Phi- 
loponus lived usque ad jinem fere hujus seculi; which 
supposes his death before the year 600. An oppo- 
site error to that of Abulpharajius.] 



641 



Post cons. Her. XXX. A Jan. 22 Constantini 29. 

Death of Heraclius: Niceph. in breviario p. 31 = 
1 8 D ereXfiiTa (r](ras err) e| Koi e^rjKOVTa, iv 8e rfj fia<n- 
Xeia 8iavvcras fTj] TpioKovra p.rjvas Ticra-apas ^fiepas f^. 

These, 30^' 4'» 6^ from Oct. 5 A. D. 610 will ter- 
minate on Saturday Feb. 10 A. D. 641. Pagi tom. 
2 p. 824 from an anonymous Oriental Chronicle 



Pyrrhus of CP. is deposed and Paul appointed in 
October. Conf. a. 639. 



A a 



178 



APPENDIX. 



C. 1. 



A.D 



Events 



Authors 



collects defunctus est die Dominica. Therefore on 
Sunday Feb. 11. Theophanes p. 283 B places his 
death in March : Heraclii 31" reXfirra fir}v\ Mapria 
tvBiKTicivi i^ — /3a(rtXfu(raf ctj; X' firjvas i. ^aaiKevti 8e 
fi(T avTov KavoTavrivos 6 vlos avrov firjvas reacrapas, kuI 
(JxippaKevdfls imo Maprivrjs ttjs avrov firjrpvids Koi Hvp- 
pov TraTpidpxov reXeuro. Koi ^aaiKevd 6 'Hpa/cXewvas — 
aiiv T^ (i^Tpl MaprivT] — prjvas e^. — Kal i^opiaavres av- 
Tovs dvf^i^acrav Ka>v(TTap viov KavaTavrivov eyyovov 
'HpaKXeiov — koi fKpdnja-ev err} k(,' . Cedrenus p. 430 
TO) Xa' eret reXfirra — prfvi Mapria) id, ^aaiXfvaas eTtj X' 
pfjvas t. — pera tovtou — Kavaravrlvos prjvas S' — reXevra 
8f (f)appaK€v6fls imo Maprivrfs — koi Ilvppov. — ^aaiXtiifi 
8e 'HpaKkwvas <tvv prjrpl Maprivr) pfjvas f^. — dve^i- 
^atrav KwvaravTa roy vlov KatvaTavrlvov — os iKparrja-fv 
trq k(. Abulpharajius p. 113 Obiit Heraclius, cut 
successit filius ipsius Constafitinus, quern quatuor post 
mensibus veneno sustulit Martina uxor patris ejus, fi- 
liumque suum Heracliolum substiiuit Davidis novi no- 
mine illi indito. Magnates vero regni imperium ejus 
(Egre ferentes eo abdicato preefecerunt Constantinum 
occisi filium. Zonaras XIV p. 87 A inaccurately : 
OvfjCKfi 6 /SacrtXeuy rpiaKoarov e(f>* 4v\ xpovov dvvatv — 
ptra^aivei 8e f) avrap^ia npos tov vlov avrov Kcovarav- 
tIvov, ^s fipaxy rt diravaTO. eva yap povap\r](ras eviavrov 
<f)appaK(p StwXfTo. Constantine reigned 103 days 
(4 months current) : Niceph. in breviario p. 33 
(Tvp^aaiKevaas ra irarpX e-n} Krf xat eni^iovs els rfjv ^a- 
(Tikfiav €TL fipfpas fKarov rpt'is irfkevrrfa-e. These 103 
days are Feb. 11 — May 24 A. D. 641. The reign 
of his son Constans or Constantine had begun before 
Oct. 5, for his 9th year had begun before Oct. 5 
A. D. 649 : Acta Concil. torn. 7 p- 77 quoted at 
638. 2. little more than 4 months after the death 
of his father. The sole reign of Heracleonas then 
was less than 5 months. 



The domestic history of Heraclius may be collected from Nicephorus. His wife Martina was the 
daughter of his sister Mary and of her first husband Martinus ^. Martina accompanied Heraclim in 
his expedition in 623, and some of their children were born in Asia^. His children by both marriages 
were these. 

Ex Eudocia 

1 Epiphania A. D. 611. {EvhoKia Nicephoro p. 18. 25. 28.) 

2 Constantinus A. D. 612. ob. 641. 



* Niceph. breviario p. 16^ 10 D dvydrrip avri) Mapias 
TTis avTov i-nrfxavev d8f\(f)fjs, irarpos 8e Maprivov, bv Mapia 
npo EvrpoTTiov yaptTqv iKeKrqro. 

^ Heracleonas was born in Lazica : Niceph. p. 17 = 
p. 1 1 B firfipdro 8ia Aa^iKrjS fls ttjv TlepacK^v eto-^aXflv 
Kaff T)V TiKTeTai avra vlos (K Maprivrjs ttjs yvvaiKos (fitff 
iavTov yap tovthv ijyfro) hv koi eTravopaafv 'HptucXetoi'. 



Heracleonas is en 8eKerr]s in the year of his father's 
death in Zonaras p. 87 B. But Heraclius was in La- 
zica in 626 : Theophanes p. 263 C. compare the 
Table at A. D. 626. and Heracleonas must have been 
16 at the time of his reign and deposition. See Pagi 
torn. 2 p. 826. 



CONSULS. 179 

E Martina 

1 Heracleonas (HpdKXeLos Nicephoro p. 33 — 36.) 

2 Augustina Aug. 

3 Anastasia Aug. 

4 David Gcesar 

5 Martinus NB. (Maplvos Nicephoro p. 31.) 

The children of Martina are named in this order in A. D. 639 by the people of CP. apud Con- 
stantinum Porph. de cerem. II. 29 p. 630. Besides these surviving children of Martina two sons 
and two daughters died during the campaigns of Heraclius in Asia<^. Constantino, who was born 
in 615, was one of these, as Pagi torn. 2 p. 826 reasonably concludes. Perhaps the Flavins of 
Nicephorus p. 1 6 was this Constantine. 



II. 

CONSULS. 

• THE consuls are illustrated in the Tables from Gruter and Norisius. In the following list 
farther testimonies are added in the notes from the copious and valuable collections of Muratori% 
whose work was not within reach when the Tables were composed. From that collection the 
descriptions and the names of some consuls have been corrected or supplied : as Eggius Ambihulus 
at A. D. 126, M. Antonius Hiberus at 133, Bruttius Prcesens II at 139, M. Pompeius Macrinus in 
164, Sosius Priscus Senecio in 169, P. Cornelius Scecularis II et Junius Donatus II in 260, Antonius 
Marcellinus et Pefronius Probinus in 341, Flavius CcEsarius et Nonius Atticus in 397. 

The second and third columns give an expanded view of the consulships in the Paschal Chro- 
nicle and in Cassiodorus, that these may be compared with the true list in each step of the series. 
From the 7th of Constantine A. D. 312 to the 20th of Heraclius A. D. 630 the Chronicle has 
the right number of consulships b, but in the preceding period, from the death of Augustus A. D. 
14 to the 7th of Constantine A. D. 312, are some interpolations and some omissions, which disturb 
the series in many parts, and place many consulships either above or below their true position. 
In the whole number between Sew. Pompeius Sex. Apuleius A, D. 14 and Constantin. II Licin. II 
A. D. 312 the Chronicle has two interpolated years, which carry back the consuls Pompeius et 
Apuleius to A. D. 12 two years higher than their real station. 

In F. H. Ill Introd. p. v — ix the errors of the Chronicle with respect to the consulships are 
shewn in a descending series from B. C. 280 down to the reign of Augustus ; in the present Table 
the errors and variations are shewn in an ascending series proceeding from A. D. 579 upwards to 
the last year of Augustus. It must also be observed that the Chronicle shortens the space between 
the death of Ccesar and the death of Augustus^ which is called 56^ 6'« p. 189 D, and for which 
only 56 years are allowed in the detail. But from the death of Ccesar March 15 B.C. 44 to the 
death of Augustus Aug. 19 A. D. 14 the real interval was 57^ 5»* 5< 

c Nicephorus p. 25 = 15 C vnapxavri 6e 'HpoucXeta iv L. A. Muratorio. 4 Veil. fol. Mediolani 1739 — 1/42 

r^ UepcTiKtl eTeXevrqaav aira 8vo viol Koi dvyarepts 8vo, pp. 2134. 

* Novus thesaurus veterum inscriptionum, collectore ^ See below, A. D. 312 note ". 

A a 2 



180 



APPENDIX. 



0.2. 



Cassiodorus omits the consuls of A. D. 503 ; and this omission brings down the preceding con- 
sulships one year too low as far as the year 347- At 347 an interpolation restores the consuls 
Leontius and Sallustius A. D. 344 to their right year and the preceding consulships are right up 
to A. D. 297. At that point Maximian V GaUrius II are omitted, and the consuls are again 
below the true year. At 276 another omission brings down the consulships two years too low till 
we arrive in the ascending series at A. D. 227- There between Alexander II et Marcelhs A. D. 
226 and Modestus et Prohus A. D. 228 he interpolates a consulship, and the variation is reduced 
to one year below the time. This continues up to the year 162 Eusticus et Aquilinus. Before that 
consulship he has two interpolated years, and Varus et Bradua in 160 are one year too high in 
the list of Cassiodorus. He interpolates again at 144, he omits at 130. At 117 he again inter- 
polates. He has another interpolation at 102, another at 95. But he omits a consulship at the 
year 87, omits at 63 and at 56. At 5 1 he interpolates two consulships. At A. D. 40 one is 
omitted. At the year 38 is another interpolation, and another at 32. When these twelve inter- 
polated consulships are balanced against the eight omitted*^, between Pompeius et Apuleius A. D. 
14 and Cethegus A. D. 504 he has on the whole amount four years too many, and the first consuls 
in this list are carried upwards four years too high. If we suppose, what is very probable, that 
Dexicrates et Volusianm A. D. 503, who were within the personal knowledge of Cassiodorus him- 
self, were inserted by Cassiodorus, and omitted by the error of the transcriber, we shall find a 
redundancy of five years upon the whole period, and Pompeius and Apuleius will be placed in the 
list of Cassiodorus at A. D. 9. 



A.D. 



Consuls 



14 Sex. Pompeius Sex. Apuleius 

Augustus ob. 

15 aDnisus et Flaccus 

16 b Taurus et Libo 

17 cRufus et Flaccus 

18 d Tiberius III et Germanicus II 

19 eSilanus et Norbanus 

20 fMessala et Cotta 



01. Ind. y. Chhox. Pasch. 



198. 15. 55 Pompeius et Apuleius 

1. 56 a Brutus et Flaccus 

Augustus ob. 
2.1b Taurus et Libo 

3. 2 Crassus et Rufus 

199. 4. 3 Tiberius III et Rufus II 

5. 4 

6. 5 Messala et Gratus 

7. 6 & Tiberius IV et Dmsus 

200. 8. 7 hAgrippa et Galba 



Cassiodok. 
Sex. Pompeius Sex. Apuleius 

His coss. Augustus ob. 
aDrusus Caes. et C. Norbanus 
bSisenna Statilius et L. Scribon. 
L. Pomponius et C. Caibilius 

dTib. Caesar et German. Caes. 

ejVf . Silanus et C. Norbanus 
f M. Valerius et M. Aurelius 
S Tib. Caes. et Drusus Caesar 
b D. Haterius et C. Sulpicius 
i C. Asinius et C. Antistius 
Scr. Cornelius et L. Visellius 



c The interpolations are one at each of the years 
32, 38, 95. 102. 117, 144, 226, 347, two at A.D. 
51 and two at 161. The omitted consulships are at 
A. D. 40, 56. 63, 87, 130, 276, 297. 503. 

17 An inscription apud Muratorium p. 301. 1 in 
Lucania : /. 0. et Mercurio Reduci ob reditum M. 
Clcerii Pacati M. Vibius M. Lib. Geminus II X vot. 
P. C. CcEcilio Ru/o L. Pomponio Flacco cos. 

18 Gruter p. 187. 14. 228. 8 Florentise : Ti. Ca- 
sare tert. Germanico Casare iter. cos. Cn. Acceio Cn. 
f. Am. Rufo Lutatio T. Petilio P.f. Quir. Ilvir. De- 
cretum. adiculam et statuas has hostiam dedicationi 
victims natali Aug. VIII Kal. Octob. duce qua pp. 
immolari consuettB sunt ad aram qua numini Aug. de- 
dicata est Villi Kal. Oct. immolentur, item natali 
Tiberi Cas. perpet. acturi decuriones et pop. cenet, 



quant impensam C. Cascellio Labeoni in perpet. polli- 
centi gratia agantur munificentia ejus, eoq. natali ut 
quodannis vitulus immoletur et natalib. Augusti et 
Tiberi Cass, priusquam ad vescendum decuriones eant 
thure et vino genii eorum invitentur. Aram Numini 
Aug. pec. nostra ponendam et ludos ex Idib. Aug. dieb. 
sex faciundos curavimus. natali Augusta mulsum et 
crustula mulierib. vicanis ad Bonam Deam pec. n. 
dedimus. item dedicatione statuarum Casarum et Au- 
gustarum mulsum et crustula pecunia nostra devotis 
omnib. et populo dedimus perpetuoque ejus die dedica- 
tionis daturos nos testati sumus. quern diem quo fre- 
quentior quotannis sit servabimus VI Idus Martias, 
quia hac Ti. Cas. pont. max. felicissime creatus est. 
[SeetheTables A.D. 15]. 



CONSULS. 



181 



A.D. 



Consuls 



21 g Tiberius IV et Drusus II 

22 hAgrippa et Galba 

23 iPoUioet Veter 

24 l^Cethegus et Varro 

25 1 Lentulus et Agrippa 

26 mSabinus et Gaetulicus 

27 " Piso et Crassus 

28 oSilanus et Nerva 

29 P Gemiims et Geminus 

30 qVinicius et Louginus 

31 r Tiberius V et Sejanus 

32 sAhenobarbus et Camillus 

33 t Galba et Sulla 

34 vVitellius et Persicus 

35 wGalluset Nonianus 



36 X Papinius et Plautius 


204. 9. 


37 aProculus et Nigrinus 


10. 


Tiberius ob. 




38 b Julianus et Asprenas 


11. 


39 c Caesar II et Caesianus 


12. 


40 dCaisar III Solus 


205. 13. 


41 e Caesar IV et Saturniuus 


14. 



Caligula ob. 

42 ^Claudius II et Largus 

43 g Claudius III et Vitellius II 



01. Ind. y. Chron. Pasch. 

9. 8 i Pollio et Veter 

10. 9 k Cethegus et Varus 

11. 10 1 Agrippa II et Lentulus 

201. 12. 11 mGaetulicuset Sabinus 
1,3. 12 n Crassus et Piso 

14. 13 oSilanus et Nerva 

15. 14 P Geminus et Geminus 

202. 1. 15 [Rufus et Rubellinus] 

2. 16 flVinicius et Longinus 

3. 17 r Tiberius V solus 

4. 18 V Persicus et Vitellius 
rh 5' iriax"' ^'' V ■"'e'roi'Oei'. 

203. 5. 19 sAruntius et Ahenobarbus 

6. 20 q Galba et Sulla 

7. 21 w Gallus et Nonianus 

8. 22 X Lelianus et Plautus 

a. 4 Tiis ava.\iii\iews. 
His coss. Tiberius ob. 

1 a Proculus et Nigrinus 

2 ^ Julianus et Aspernas 

3 c Claudius et Cersianus 

4 d Claudius II solus 
His coss. Caligula ob. 

1 e Claudius III et Antoninus 

2 f Claudius IV et Largus 

15. 3 g Claudius V et Vitellius 
1 . 4 h Crispus et Taurus 



Cassiodor. 

M. Asinius et Cossus Cornelius 

mC. Calvisius et Cn. Gaetulicus 

nL. Piso et M. Crassus 

oAppius Silanus et P. Silius 

P C. Rubellius et C. Fusius 

'iM. Vinitius et L. Cassius 

rTib. Caisar V 

sCn. Domitius et Camillus Scribonian. 

[Vinitius et Longinus] 

tSulpicius et Sulla 

V Priscus et Vitellius 

w Gallus et Novianus 
X Gallienus et Plautianus 

His coss. Tiberius moritur. 
a Proculus et Nigrinus 
b Juliamis et Asprenas 



[Publicola et NervaJ 
c Caesar et Julianus 

His coss. Caligula occiditur. 
e Caesar II et Saturninus 
Secundus et Venustus 

Tiberius et Gallus 
h Crispinus et Taurus 

i Vinicius et Cornelius 
kAsiaticus et Cornelius 



21 Gruter p. 1042. 17 extra portam Capenam via 
Appia : M. Turranius M. f. Pal. Amator M. Turra- 
nius M.f. Pavinus &c. — D. D. Kal. Sept. Ti. Claudia 
Nerone Cees. JIII Ti. Claudia Druso Cces. II cos. 

27 Murat. p. 302. 1. 2 Veronae in tabula ahenea : 
M. Crasso Frugi L. Calpurnia Pisone cos. Ill Non. 
Febr. civitas Themetra ex Africa hospitium fecit cum 
C. Silia C.f. Fab. Aviola eum liberos posterosque ejus 
sibi liberis posterisque suis patronum cooptaverunt. 
C. Silius C.f. Aviola civitatem Themetrensem liberos 
posterosque eorum sibi liberis posterisque suis in fidem 
clientelamque suam recepit. egerunt Banno Himilis f. 
sufes, Azdrubal Baisillecis f Iddibal Bosiharis f. leg. 
In altera tabula ahenea : M. Crasso Frugi L. Pisone 
cos. senatus populusque Thimiligensis hospitium fece- 
runt cum C. Silio C.f. Fab. Aviola prcef.fabrum eum- 
que liberos posterosque eorum sibi liberis posterisque 
suis patronum cooptaverunt. C. Silius Aviola prcef. 
fabr. Teiimiliigens. universes sibi liberis posterisque 
suis suorumque in fidem clientelamque suam suorumque 
recepit. egerunt legati Azrubal sufes Annobalis f. &c. 

P col. 3 Sc. Gemini duo. Prosper and Victorius 
begin their list.s from these consuls. The first con- 
suls are thus given in Prosper and Victorius. 

1 Rufino Gemino Rubellio Gemino 

2 Vinicio et Longino 



Sulpicio et Sulla 
Prisco et Vitellio 
Gallo et Noniano 
Gallieno et Plautiano 
Proculo et Nigrino 
Juliano et Asprenate 
Publicola et Nerva 
C(esare et Juliano 
Ccesare II et Saturnino 

12 Secundo et Venusto [^Saturnino II et Ven. Prosp.] 

13 Tiberio et Gallo 

14 Crispino et Tauro [Crispo Victor.] 

15 Vinicio et Cornelio 
Asiatico et Silano 
Tiberio II et Vitellio 
Vitellio II et Publicola 
Verannio et Gallo [Veinno Prosp .^ 
Vetere et Nerviliano 
Claudio et Orphito 

Silano et Silio [Silvano et Silvio Victor.] 
Tiberio III et Antonino 
Silano et Othone 

25 Silano II et Antonino [Silano et Antonino Victor.] 

43 Muratori p. 304. 1 Tibure : Proserpina Bussi- 
ancB L. Busseius L. f. Vel. Annianus Busseia Prima 
Victorina D. K. Febr. Ti. Claudio Cas. Ill L. Vitellio 



4 
5 
6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 



16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 



182 



APPENDIX. 



C.2. 



A. D. Consuls 

44 hCrispinus II et Taurus 

45 iVinicius II et Corvinus 

46 kAsiaticus II et Silanus 

47 iClaudius IV et ViteUius III 

48 mVitellius et Vipsanius 

49 nGallus et Veranius 

50 oVeter et Nervilianus 

51 P Claudius V et Orfitus 

52 q Sulla et Otho 

53 r Silanus et Antoninus 

54 sMarcellus et Aviola 

Claudius oh, 

55 tNero et Vetus 

56 vgatuminus et Scipio 

57 ^Nero II et Piso 

58 xNero III et Messala 

59 yApronianus et Capito 

60 zNero IV et Cornelius 

61 aPaetus et Turpilianus 

62 ^Marius et Gallus 

63 cRegulusetRufus 

64 ^Bassus et Crassus 

65 e Silianus et Vestinus Atticus 

66 'Telesinus et Paulinus 

67 e Capito et Rufus 

68 hitalicus et Trachalus 

Nero ob. 

69 AGalba II et Vinius 

70 ^ Vespasianus II et Titus 

71 '^ Vespasianus III et Nerva 

72 D Vespasianus IV et Titus II 

73 ^Domitianus II et Messalinus 

74 b Vespasianus V et Titus III 



01. Ind. y. CnaoN. Pasch. 

206, 2. 6 iVinnicius et Corvinus 
3, 6 l^Asiaticus et Silanus 



9, 13 g: Capito et Rufus 
10. 14 hitalicus et Trachalus 
His coss. Nero ob, 

212. 11. 1 AGalbaetRufinus 

12. 2 2 Vespasianus solus 

13. 3 ^Vespasianus II et Nerva 

14. 4 ° Vespasianus III et Titus 

213, 15. 5 [Vespasianus IV et Titus II] 

1. 6 ^Domitianus et Messalinus 

2. 7 ''Vespasianus V et Titus III 



Cassiodor. 

1 Tiberius II et ViteUius 
m ViteUius II et Publicola 
nVerannius et Gallus 

o Vetus et Servilianus 
P Claudius et Orfitus 
[Sylvanus et Sylvius] 
[Tiberius III et Antoninus] 
q Silanus et Otho 

His coss. Claudius moritur. 
'Silanus II et Antoninus II 
sMarcellinus et Aviola 
tNero et Vetus 

wNero II et Piso 
xNero III et Messala 
yC. Capito et Apronius 

2 Nero IV et Cornelius 
a Pius et Turpilianus 
''Macrinus et Gallus 

d Crassus et Bassus 
Sylvanus et Paulinus 
Celsinus et Apuleius 
f Telesinus et Paulinus 
e Capito et Rufus 
hitalicus et Turpilianus 
Sylvanus et Otho 

His coss. Nero se interfecit. 
Vespasianus et Titus 

Vespasianus II et Titus II 
Vespasianus III et Nerva 
Vespasianus IV et Titus III 
Vespasianus V et Titus IV 
Vespasianus VI et Titus V 
Vespasianus VII et Titus VI 



// COS. p, 304. 2 Romae : Pro salute Tt. Claudi Ca- 
saris Aug. pontif. max. tr.pot. Ill cos. Ill desig. IIII 
PrtEsens Aug. L. ex voto suscepto viat. et scrib. libr. 
et A. Larcius Lydus ded. On desig. IIII see the 
remark of Muratori. 

k col. 2 In Chron. Pasch. p. 233 A it is added at 
these consuls mro t^j avdKifi^emi rov Kvpiov — err] i& 
firjvfs I . 

55 Muratori p. 305. 1 Romae : Ex privat. L. Ser- 
vili Fortunati Macedon. T. Stati muneri Nero Claud. 
C<es. L. Ant. Vetus cos. 

57 Mur. p. 305. 2 Romae : Nerone Claudio Ceesare 
Aug. Germanico II L. Calpumio Pisone cos. C. Popi- 
lius Prima unguentarius fecit. 

69 Murat. p. 307. 5 prope Lugnanam in lamina 
aenea : Gn. Flaccus Q. Ful. f. decumam partem Her- 
culi et pro reditu felicissimo ex Africa Vibi fratris et 
pro sal. Petirue matris signa aurea Fortunes Pran. et 
Feronia Sanctissima D. D. T. Vinio cos. 

70 Murat. p. 308. 1 Romse : Junoni reginee D. D. 



K. J. P. Annius P. f Pal. Cams sacerdos Nept. pa- 
tron, col. Ost. quinq. iter. Fl. Vespasiano Augusto II 
et Tito Vespasiano Cces. cos. 

S col. 2 After a hiatus of 20 years (the amount is 
determined by the indictions) the Chronicle p. 240 D 
resumes at these consuls. 

B col. 2 At these consuls Chron. Pasch. adds p. 

246 D a. 39 dno Trjs dvdkrj^eas. p. 247 D fl, 40 diro 
TTJs dvdkT]yj^e(0s. — ffl 15" Tiberii erq fi^ . 

o col. 3 At these consuls Prosper p. 379 marks 
the beginning of his first cycle : Vetere et Nerviliano : 
Paschalis Cycli ratio ab his coss. incipit per annos 
XXCIV et ad eandem legem revertens. But he had 
more properly placed the beginning at I : Tiberio II 
et Vitellio [sc. A. D. 47] initium Cycli primi. which 
agrees with the beginning of the second in A, D. 
131. See below. 

y col. 3 Omitted by Prosp. and Victorius. 

f col. 3 Omitted by Prosp. and Victorius. 

h col. 3 Silio Italico et Turpil. Prosp. 



CONSULS. 



183 



A.D. 



Consuls 



01. Ind. y. Chron. Pasch. 



75 cVespasianus VI et Titus IV 

76 dVespasianus VII et Titus V 

77 eVespasianus VIII et Titus VI 

78 f Commodus et Priscus 

79 CVespasianus IX et Titus VII 

Vespasianus oh. 

80 h Titus VIII et Domitianus VII 

81 iSilva et Pollio 

Titus ob. 

82 kDomitianus VIII et Sabinus 

83 1 Domitianus IX et Rufus II 

84 ni Domitianus X et Sabinus 

85 n Domitianus XI et Fulvus 

86 o Domitianus XII et Dolabella 

87 P Domitianus XIII et Satuminus 

88 q Domitianus XIV et Rufus 

89 r Fulvus II et Atratinus 

90 s Domitianus XV et Nerva II 

91 tTrajanus et Glabrio 

92 V Domitianus XVI et Satuminus 

93 wCollega et Priscus 

94 '^Asprenas et Lateranus 

95 y Domitianus XVII et Clemens 

96 zValenset Vetus 



214. 



215. 



8 c Vespasianus VI et Titus IV 

9 d Vespasianus VII et Titus V 
10 Titus VI et Domitianus II 
His coss. Vespasian, ob. 

1 h Titus VII et Domitianus III 

2 i Galba et Pollio 
His coss. Titus ob. 

1 k Domitianus IV et Sabinus 

2 1 Domitianus V et Rufus 



10. 3 m Domitianus VI et Sabinus 

11. 4 n Domitianus VII et Fulvius 

216. 12. 5 oDomitianus VIII et Dolabella 

13. 6 PDomitianus IX et Satuminus 

14. 7 1 Domitianus X et Rufus II 

15. 8 rFulvius II et Atratinus 

217. 1. 9 s Domitianus XI et Nerva 

2. 10 t Glabrio et Trajanus 

3. 11 vDomitian. XII et Satuminus 

4. 12 wPompeius et Crispinus 

218. 5. 13 [Domitian. XIII et Clemens] 

6. 14 xAspemas et Lateranus 

7. 15 yDomitian. XI Vet Clemens II 

8. 16 zValens et Veter 
His coss. Domitian. ob. 

219. 9. 1 A Nerva et Rufus III 



Cassiodor. 

Commodus et Rufus 
Vespasianus VIII et Titus VII 
Vespasianus IX et Titus VIII 

Sylvanus et Verus 
Domitianus et Messalinus 

His coss. Vespas. mortuus. 
1 Domitianus II et Rufus II 
™ Domitianus III et Sabinus 

His coss. Titus periit. 
Domitianus IV et Rufus III 
oDomitianus V et Dolabella 
q Domitianus VI et Rufus IV 
Flavins et Trajanus 
s Domitianus VII et Nerva 
tTrajanus II et Glabrio 
V Domitianus VIII et Salvinius 
w Sylvanus et Priscus 
^Asprenas et Clemens 
yDomitian IX et Clemens II 
Nerva II et Rufus 
Fulvius et Vetus 
Sabinus et Antoninus 
^ Nerva III et Trajanus III 

^ Senecio et Pal ma 



75 Gruter p. 109. 7 Romse : Pro salute dominorum 
genio horreor. Satuminus et Successus horreari donum 
dederunt Imp. Vespas. VI Ccesare Tito IIII cos. Mu- 
rat. p. 309. 1 Tibure : Herculi sanctissimo pacifero 
sacrum Julia Casantra et Jul.Fuficius V.S.L.M. dedic. 
XIIII Kal. Jul. Imp. Vespasiano Aug. VI Tito Flavio 
Ceesare IIII cos. The inscription quoted in the Ta- 
bles A. D. 75. 1 from Gruter p. 223. 3 is of doubtful 
authority. 

81 Murat. p. 312 Romse fragmentum duorum la- 
pidum spectantium ad fratres arvales. After men- 
tioning acts of the year 80 the inscription proceeds : 
L. Flavio Silva Nonio Basso Asinio Pollione Verrucosa 
cos. XVIII Kal. Fehr. in luco Deed dice piaculum fac- 
tum per calatorem et publicos ejus sacerdoti quod ar- 
bor a vetustate decidit &c. — L. Flavio Silva Nonio 
Basso Asinio Pollione Verrucosa cos. Ill Nonas Jan. 
magister C. Junius Tadius Mefitanus collegi fratrum 
arvalium nomine vota nuncupavit pro salute imp. Titi 
Casaris divi f. Vespasiani Aug. pont. max. tribunic. 
potest. COS. VIII et Ccesaris f. Domitiani cos. VII et 
Julice Aug. liherorumque eorum victimis immolatis in 
capitolio quae superioris anni magister voverat persolvit 
Jovi 0. M. boves mares II Junoni regince vaccas duas 
Minerva vaccas duas, Saluti publico vaccas II, et in 
proximum annum nuncupavit prceeunte L. Pompeio 
Vopisco C. Arruntio Castello Celere in ea verba qua 
infra scripta,sunt. Juppiter 0. M. si imp. Titus Casar 
Vespasianus Aug. pont. max. trib. potest, p. p. et Ca- 
sar divif. Domitianus quos nos sentimus dicere vivent 
domusque eorum incolumis erit ad III Non. Jan. qua 



proxima P. R. Q. reip. P. R. Q int et cum diem 

eosque servaveris ex periculis si qua sunt turn 

diem eventumque bonum ita uti nos sentimus dicere .... 
statu quo nunc sunt aut eo meliore servaveris ast tu . . 
in. collegi fratrum arvalium bubus au 

88 Murat. p. 314. 1 Romae : Numini domus Aug. 
sacrum decuriones in hac curia qui conveniunt aram et 
aream silic. S. P. straverunt dedicatum Nonis Janua- 

ris imperat Casare Augusto Germanic 

.... Minicio Rufo cos. Januario et Ti. Claudio excel- 
lenti immunibus ter . . . . tuis a magisterio. The name 
of Domitian twice erased. See the Tables A. D. 83. 1 . 

94 Mur. p. 314. 2 Romse : P. Rubrins Trophimus 
et Rubrius Agathos C. L. atrium refecerunt et vermi- 
culum straverunt item pavimentum spicam straver. et 
sedilia circumitum refecerunt inpensa sua L. Nonio 
Torquato Asprenate T. Sextio Magio Laterano cos. 

96 Mur. p. 315. 1 Romae : D.M. P. Fannius Avi- 
lius Proculus fecit Titia Firma et P. Fannio Proculo 
parentibus bene merentibus et P. Fannio Primigenio li- 
berto et Fannia Ranausidi libertis libertabiisque poste- 
risque eorum C. Antistio Vetere Manlio Valente cos. 

d col. 2 After this consulship at e are the wrong 
consuls ; f, g, are omitted. 

o col. 3 After these consuls, Domitiano VI et Ru- 
fino Victor. 

t col. 3 Trajano et Glabrione Victor. 

y col. 3 Domitiano IX et Clemente Victor, The 
next two consulships are transposed in Prosper. 
Victorius agrees with Cassiodorus. 



184 



APPENDIX. 



C. 2. 



A.D. Ck)xsuLs 

Domitian. ob. 

97 ANerva III et Rufus III 

98 BNerva IV et Trajanus II 

Nerva ob. 

99 cSenecio II et Palma 

100 » Trajanus III et Fronto III 

101 ETrajanusIVet Paetus 

102 Sossius III et Sura II 

103 ^'Saburranus II et Marcellus 

104 " Trajanus V et Maximus II 

105 ^Candidus II et Quadratus II 

106 bCommodus et Cereeilis 

107 cSossius IV et Sura III 

108 dGalluset Bradua 

109 e Palma II et TuUus 

110 fPriscinus et Orfitus 

111 erPiso et Bolanus 

1 12 t Trajanus VI et Africanus 

113 >Celsus II et Crispinus 

1 14 kHasta et Vopiscus 

115 iMessala et Pedo 

116 injElius et Vetus 

117 n Niger et Apronianus 

Trajanus ob. 

118 oHadrianus II et Salinator 

119 PHadrianus III et Rusticus 

120 qSeverus et Fulvus 



01. Ind. y. Chrok. Pasch. 

His coss. Nerva ob. 

10. 1 ^ Trajanus solus 

11. 2 ^ Palma et Senecio 

12. 3 D Trajanus II et Pontianus 



^Trajanus III et Paetus 
Syrianus et Syrius 
Trajanus IV et IMaximus 
Syrianus II et Marcellus 
a Candidus et Quadratus 
I'Commodus et Ceratinus 
c Syrianus III et Senecio II 
dGallus et Bradua 
e Palma et Tullus 
f Orphitus et Priscianus 
e Piso et Julianus 
h Trajanus V et Africanus 
i Priscianus et Celsus 
kMalsus et Vulciscus 
IMessala et Pedo 
m^lianus et Veter 
His coss. Trajanus ob. 
nApronianus et Niger 
oHadrianus et Salinator 

P Hadrianus II et Rusticius 
qSeverus et Fulcus 



225. 3. 6 rSeverus II et Augurinus 



220. 


13. 


4 




14. 


5 




15. 


6 




1. 


7 


221. 


2. 


8 




3. 


9 




4. 


10 




6. 


11 


222. 


6. 


12 




7. 


13 




8. 


14 




9. 


15 


223. 


10, 


16 




11. 


17 




12. 


18 




13. 


19 


224. 


14. 


1 




15. 


2 




1. 


3 




2. 


4 



Cassiodob. 

^ Trajanus IV et Fronto 

His coss. Domitian. occisus. 
Trajanus V et Orphitus 

*■ Senecio II et Sura 

His coss. Nerva periit. 
" Trajanus VI et Maximus 
Senecio III et Sura II 
''Urbanus et Marcellus 
a Candidus et Quadratus 
b Commodus et Cerealis 
c Senecio IV et Sura III 
d Gallus et Bradua 
Africanus et Crispinus 
Crispinus II et Solenus 
Piso et Rusticus 
h Trajanus VII et Africanus 
i Celsus et Crispinus 
kAsta et Piso 
IMessala et Pedo 
nijEmiHus et Vetus 
li Niger et Apronianus 

[Clarus et Alexander] 
oHadrianus et Salinator 

PHadrianus II et Rusticus 
iServilius et Fulvius 

His coss. Trajanus extinctus i 
'Verus et Augur 



98 Muratori p. 315. 4 Romse : C. Valerius C. lib. 
Menander natus Nerva IIII cos. IIII Nonas Decem- 
bres vixit annis LX. 

101 Murat. p. 316. 1 Romse : Cces. Trajano N. IIII 
cos. ex rat. prees. Cces. N. Ser. Clcetiani. 

110 Murat. p. 318. 1 Romse: Lentulo et Corvino 
Messala cos. qui hoc monumentum adificaverunt cum 
Ustrina L. Melius Papia et Mcelia Hilara et Rocius 
Suras et M. Ccesennius et Furius Bucconius hoc moni- 
mentum libertis Ubertabusque ut de nomine non exeat 
ita qui testament o scripti fuerunt Scr. Salvidieno Orfito 
M. P(Educ(BO Priscino cos. iis liberti libertorum ad quos 
ea res pertinebat hoc monimentum neglegentUE curatum 
post multis annis restituerunt. Lollia Aprilis emit de 
L. Cornelio &c. — L. Flavio Silvano Pollione Verrucoso 
cos. [A. D. 81] aria [sic] empta de L. Octavio Spen- 
donte quee est contra eum monimentum quee appellatur 
Veturiana et Cceciliana, longa P. XXII in agro P. 
XXIII, S. L. M alius Successus qui cum Meslia Syn- 
tycJien, matre sua semisse portionem habebat hujus aria 
peroEquavit cum sociis suis ut omnibus communis set his 
qui S. SS. libertis libertabusq. posterisq. eorum ita qui 
testamento scripti fuerint. In altero latere : D. D. 
M. Aur. Aug. lib. Celadianus et Fl. Urbica compara- 
verunt sibi lib. Ubertabusque posterisque eorum H. M. 



D. M. A. For Flavio Silvano we may read Flavio 
Silva Non. that is, Flavio Silva Nonio. See an in- 
scription quoted at A. D. 81, and the Tables at that 
year. 

Ill Mur. p. 318. 2 Romae : Servilia annorum XIII 
Pis. et Bol. cos. 

113 Mur. p. 319. 1 Romse : CelsoII et Crispino cos. 
ex rat. Primigeni Ccesaris N. Ser. N. LXXXIV. 

115 Murat. p. 319. 2 Romse : Victorice M. 

socrum con flatura arg. F. . . . monetce . . . 

&c. — dedicat L. Vipstanio Messala M. Ver- 

giliano Pedone . . . 

™ col. 3 jEmiliano et Vetere Prosp. 

n col. 3 Nigrino et Aproniano Prosp. After this 
consulship Clarus et Alexander are also interpolated 
in Prosper and Victorius. 

117 Muratori p. 319. 4 Romse in figlina : Op. dol. 

E. P. Q. Pomp. Janura. Nigra et Aproniano cos. 

119 Murat. p. 319. 5 ad ostia Tiberina: Imp. Cas. 
Hadriano III cos. exarat. testi. N. CCXXIX. p. 
319. 6 Ibidem : Imp. Hadriano N. Ill cos. ex rat. 
test. N. CXLIIX. p. 319. 7 Ibid. Imp. Cces. Traj. 
Hadr. Aug. cos. ex a ratione marm. Rhod. num. CCX 
L. Juni Urvasi. Muratori reads in all the three ex 
rat. for ex rationario. 











CONSULS. 


A. D. Consuls 


Ol. 


Ind 


y. Chron. Pasch. 


121 


rVerus II et Auguriniis 




4. 


6 sAvioIa et Pansa 


122 


sAviola et Paiisa 




5. 


7 t Apronianus II et Pampinus 


123 


tPaetiims et Aproniaims 




6. 


8 V Glabrio et Torquatus 


124 


vGlabrio et Torquatus 


226. 


7. 


9 wAsiaticus et Aquilinus 


125 


wAsiaticus 11 et Aquiliims 




8. 


10 xSevei-us III et Ambibulus 


126 


xVerus III et Amhibulus 




9. 


1 1 y Titianus et Gallicanus 


127 


yGallicanus et Titianus 




10. 


12 z Torquatus et Libo 


128 


z Torquatus 11 et Libo 


227. 


11. 


13 '^Marcellus et Celsxis 


129 


^Celsus II et Balbns 




12. 


14 J^CatuUinus et Libo II 


130 


''Catullinus et Aper 




13. 


15 "^ Pontianus et Rufus 


131 


^ Pontianus et Rufinus 




14. 


16 °Augurinus et Sergianus 


132 


"Augurinus et Sergianus 


228. 


15. 


17 '^Iberius et Sisinnus 


133 


^Hiberus et Sisenna 




1. 


18 '■"Severus et Varus 


134 


J'Servianiis III et Varus 




2. 


19 *> Pontianus II et Aquilinus 



185 



123 Murat. p. 321. 3 — 11 Romae. : sc. 3 Apron, et 
Pcet. COS. PPB. salar. ex fig. L. Amd Veri. 4 Memmi 
Scepti Aproniano et Pcetin. cos. 5 Q. Oppi Verecundi 
dom. Lucill. Apron, et Pcetino cos. L. Venuleio 
Apron. Q. Arrio Pcet. cos. ex fig. . . Anni Veri Saiar. 
P. P. R. [lege Ventidio.] (7 Q. Oppi Verecundi dol. 
de dom. Lucill. Apron, et Patino cos. No 5 repeated.) 
8 Apron, et Pcet. cos. Coso. Herm. 9 Myrtilus dom. 
Lucili [lege Lucill.^ Delia [lege dolio'] Pcetin. et 
Apron, cos. 10 Ex fig. Cant. C. Capetani Hermet. 
D. Pcetino et Apronian. 1 1 Ex fig. Q. Asin. Marcell. 
Opu. dol. C. Nunnidi Fortu. Pcet. et Apro. cos. p. 

322. 1 — 16. sc. 1 Romse : Pcet. et Apr. cos. Op. D. 
Dionys. Domiti Flucti. 2 Tibure : Peto et Aproniano 
COS. Q. Rusti. Q. L. Eutyc. opus dolear. prcedia Heli. 
3 Fsesulis : 0pp. Dionys. Domit. P. F. Lucil. Pee. et 
Apr. COS. 4 — 10 Romse : sc. 4 cos. Pcetino et Apron, 
dol. ex fig. Anterotis Cces. N. ser. 5 Dol. ex fig. 
Anterotis Cces. N. ser. Pcetino et Aproni . . . cos. 
6 Ex pr. Sent. Satr. Ccepio Pcet. et Apron, cos. 7 Ex 
prced. P. L. Aug. Isini Pudent. Pcetin. et Apronia. cos. 
8 Dol. ex prced. Cat. . . C. Aquili Aprilis Pcetino et 
Aproniano cos. 9 Apr. et Pcet. cos. ex f. Cromall. 
Sal. PPB. 10 Q. Oppius T. Op. dol. delic. dom. 
L. Petino et Apronia. cos. 1 1 Pcetino et Aproniano 
cos. M. Bas. Ccepioniana. 1 2 M. D. L. S. dol. delic. 
Pcetin. et Aproniano cos. 13 CLMCODDERL. Pce- 
tino et Aproniano cos. 14 C. N. dom. Adjeco .... 
SD. ex P. dom. Luc. Pcetino et Aproni. cos. 15 Dol. 
ex fig a. et .... is Cces. N. S. Pcetino et Apronian. cos. 
10 Exf. Domit. Domi .... IP. Pcetin. et Apron, cos. 

124 Mur. p. 322. 18 Romae : Dol. ex pr. C. Aquil. 
April. Glabr. et Torquat. cos. Mur. p. 331. 1 Pisauri 
Grut. p. 1024. 1 Arrice L. f. Piarice Verce Priscillce 
Flaminicce M'Acili Glabrionis cos. D. D. publice. Im- 
properly referred by Mur. to A. D. 152. 

126 Mur. p. 32.'). 1 Romaj : L. Bruttidi. Augusta- 
lis fee. opus dol. ex fig. Cces. N. Prop, et Ambi. cos. 

323. 2 Romse : D. M. M. Ulpio Aug. lib. Mcenophilo 
adjutori proc.-Ap. ornamentis vixit ann. XXXV men. 
V. posuerunt P. JElius Aug. lib. Mcenophilus pater et 
Caminia Fortunata mater infelicissima et Julia Pas- 
serilla conjux pientissmia ex decretu sociorum Annio 



Cassiodou. 

s A viola et Pansa 

Paternus et Torquatus 

Glabrio et Apronianus 

wAsiaticus et Quintus 

X Verus et Ambiguus 

yGallicanus et Titianus 

z Torquatus et Libo 

'^Celsus et Marcellinus 

^Pontianus et Ruiinus 

•^Augurinus et Sergianus 

■"' Hiberus et Silanus 

'^Sergius II et Verus 

^ Pompeianus et Atilianus 

" Porapeiaiuis II et Commodus 



Vero III et Eggio Ambibulo cos. The two inscrip- 
tions apud Norisium torn. 2 p. 940 quoted in the 
Tables at A. D. 120. 1 are justly rejected by Mura- 
tori as not describing a consul. Read therefore in 
the Tables M. Annius Verus III Eggius Ambibulus. 
Murat. p. 323. 3 Cortonae : Q. Oppi Pusti Fortunat. 
ser. feet. Vero III et Amb. cos. 323.4 Romse : Vero 
III et Ambibul. cos. ex P. Claudice Marcellince Regul. 

127 Mur. p. 323. 5 Romae : Tert. D. L. exf. Can. 
op. dolii Tit. et Gall. cos. 

128 Murat. p. 323. Romae : Ex pr. Q. Ser. Pu- 
dent. cur. hed. Torq. II et Libone cos. 

130 Mur, p. 323. 9 Tibure : Catullino et Apro cos. 
opus dolear. Aeli Apollophani Dilic. Cynosarg. Aug. 
N. F. p. 324. 1 Romae : Q. Fab. Cat. M. Fla. Apr. 
COS. D. P. Q. Ser. Pud. Cured. 

131 Mur. p. 324. 2 Romae: Ex prced. Q. Ser. Pud. 
Suchedyts. Pontian. et Rufino cos. 

133 Murat. p. 324. 3 Tibure : M. Antonio et Si- 
senna cos. ex P. Lucanoni. Hebet. Sc. M. Antonio 
Hibero. See below at A. D. 149. 

A col. .3 This and the following consulships are 
thus given in Prosper and Victorius : 

VlCTORirS 

1 Vetere et Vcilenie 

2 Celso et Marcellino 

3 Augurino et Sergiano 



PROSPER 

Celso et Marcellino 
Catulino et Apro 
Pontiano et Rufino 
Augurino et Sergiano. 

B is omitted by Victorius and Cassiodorus. 

c col. 3 Prosper p. 382 Pontiano et Rufino [A. D. 
131] Finis Cycli primi et sequentis exordium. These 
are in Prosper the 85th consuls from Tiberius II 
[sc. Claudius IV] et Vitellius [A. D. 47] where his 
first cycle began. 

F col. 3 Sergiano II et Vero Prosp. Victor. 

134 Mur. p. 324. 4 — 12. Sc. 4 Florentiae : Serviano 
III cos. Sal. ex pr. L. Cimen. 5 Romae : Ex fig. 
Domi VCODDION DOMIVSE Serviano III et 
Varo COS. Tibure : Serviano III et Vara cos. ex 
figul. Dionysi et Festi ser. D.N. 7 Tibure : Serviano 
III et Varo cos. ex figul. P. Dionysi et Planci dom. 
Aug. ser. 8 Romae : Ex fig. Ccesar. 0. D. Oppi 
B b 



18$ 



APPENDIX. 



C. 2. 



A.D. Consuls 

135 '^ Pontianus et Atilianus 

136 H Commodiis et Pompeianus 

137 ^iElius Verus II et Balbinus 

138 bCamerinus et Niger 

Hadrian, ob. 

139 cAntoninus II et Praesens II 

140 ^Antoninus III et Aurelius 

141 egiloga et Severus 

142 fRufinus et Quadratus 

143 STorqiifetiis et Herodes 

144 hAvitus et Maximus 

145 »Antoninus IV et Aurelius II 
J 46 ItCIarus II et Severas 

147 ^Largus et Messalinus 

148 ™Torquatiis et Juliamis 

149 nOrfitus et Priscus 



01. Ind. y. Chrok. Pasch. 

3. 20 " Commodus et Pontianus III 

229. 4. 21 aAelianus et Balbinus 

His coss. Hadrian, ob. 
5. I ^ Camerinus et Niger 
6. 2 c Antoninus et Praesentus 

7. 3 ^Antoninus II et Verus 

230. 8. 4 eSeverus IVetSilanus 

9. 5 f Rufinus et Quadratus 

10. 6 eTorquatus et Herodes 

11. 7 ^Aviola et Maximus 

231. 12. 8 » Antoninus III et Aurelianus II 

13. 9 k Severus V et Veiinus 

14. 10 ILargus et Messalinus 

15. 11 m Torquatus II et Julianus 

232. 1. 12 nOrphitus et Priscus 
2. 13 oGlabrio et Veter 



Cassioook. 

^Laelius et Albinus 
b Camerinus et Niger 

c Antoninus et Praesens 
Antoninus II et Praesens II 

Severus et Sllvanus 
fRufinus et Torquatus 

His coss. Hadrian, moritur. 
K Torquatus II et Herodes 
hAviola et Maximus 
i Antoninus III et Aurelius 
Gratus et Seleucus 
Antoninus IV et Aurelius II 
ILargus et Messalinus 
m Torquatus III et Julianus 
nOrfitus et Priscus 
oGlabrio et Vetns 



Stabilis Serviano III et Varo. 9 Velitris : Serv. Ill 
COS. ex pr. CI. Max. O.feg.fe. 10 Romse : Ex fig. 
QAMODCNIN Fortunce Serviano et Varo cos. 1 1 
Romae : ex fig. qa. M. OD. Ser. Graphici Serviliano 
III et Varo cos. 12 Romse : ex fig. Arri Antonini 
C . . ndiniannau Servian. Ill et Varo cos. 

135 Murat. p. 325. 1 Albae Juliae in Transilvania : 
J. O. M. Junoni reg. Minervce Jul. Bassus leg. Aur. 
trib. veteran, leg. XIII G. M. imper. pri. Idib. De- 
cemb. Pontiano et Atelano [Atiliano~\ coss. milites fa- 
ciun. eurar. 325. 2 Romse : Op. dol. ex pr. Lucill. 
Fel. C(B. fe. Pont, et Atilia. cos. 

137 Muratori p. 325. 6 Tibure : L. Ael. Cces. et 
Balbino cos. opus dolear. Aug. N. Q. Appi Verissimi 
et Oppi Mimita loc. 

138 Murat. p. 325. 7 Romae : Paristha ex pr. Li- 
ceio com. C. F. Nigro et Camerino cos. The same in- 
scription is thus given p. 326. 1 OD Aristea ex pr. 
L. Ocio com. C. F. Nigro &c. 

139 Murat. p. 326. 2 Romse : P. Petius Hilarus 
dedic. Kal. Jun. imp. T. JElio Hadriano Aug. Pio II 
C. Bruttio Preesente II cos. Mur. p. 326. 4 Ephesi. 
After a fragment of a Greek inscription, which ends 
thus, (jiiXodff Ka\ ^iKdvdpume Kaurap, KeXea-dai Bodrjvai 
fjMi ra dvTiypacjia tSdv xmofivrjiiATOiV ojf Koi 6 Of 6s nalrfjp 
aov] avvexaprjafv, follows Imp. Cces. T. Aelius Hadri- 
anus Augustus Pius Sextilio Acutiano sententiam divi 
patris mei . ... si quid pro sententia dixit rescribere 
tibi permitto rescripsi recogn. undevicesimus act. VI 

Idus April. Roma Ctes Antonino II et Preesente 

II COS. ... If e(T(f)payi(TOP tv 'Pmprj irpb rpiav vavStv Matav 
avTOKpdropi Kaiaapi T. AlKia 'Atpiava 'Ai/rai/etVo) to /S* 
Faico BpovTito Tlpaiafvri to ^ vTrarois. Trapfjcrap T. 4>X. 
MaKpeivos k.t.X. At p. 327. 1 Muratori repeats 326. 2. 

140 Murat. p. 327. 2 Romae : Anton. Aug. Ill et 
Ver. COS. ex r. Eutych. et Hermetis loc. Hecat. 327- 3 
Romae : Ex pr. dom. Lucill. 0. D. ser. modes, imp. 
Antoni. et Vero cos. 

141 Murat. p. 327. 4 Romae : Silvano Aug. sacrum 



C. Julius Castrensis ex voto. Dedic. Villi Kal. Jun. 
T. Hcenio Severo M. Pcpducceo Siloga cos. 

142 Muratori p. 327. 5 Romae : Ex fig. Asinia: 
Quadratillce 0. D. C. Nunnidi Fortunat. Lucio Qua- 
drato COS. 

143 Mur. p. 327. 6 Tibure : Curantibus M. Antonio 
Floro C. Vecilio Karo Illlvir. dedicat. X Kal. Mart. 
C. Bellicio Torquato Ti. Claudio Attico cos. p. 327- 7 
Romae : D. M. Phcebus qui et Tormogus Hispanus na- 
tus Segisamone III K. Martias C. Bellicio Torquato 
Ti. Claudio Attico Her ode cos. defunctus III I Nonas 
Augustas Q. Mustio Prisco M. Pontio Lceliano cos. 
Phoebion. et Primigenia fiMo karissimo filio dulcissimo 

fec.erunt. Priscus and Lcelianus are probably consules 
suffecti. 

144 Murat. p. 328. 1 Florentiae. Also in Gruter 
p. 301 militum laterculus. Referring to A.D. 143, 
144. Torquato et Attico cos. FC. L. Vibius Secundus 
Aquil. &c. Avito et Maximo cos. C. Julius Primitivus 
Amitern. &c. Torquato et Attico cos. Sex. Beebius 
Secundus Ticino &c. Avito et Maximo cos. Sp. L. 
Atilius Terentianus Bonon. &c. Torquato et Attico cos. 
C. Septicius Crispinus Amitern. &c. Avito et Maximo 
COS. Sp. T. Casernius Festinus Emona &c. 

148 Mur. p. 329. 3 in via Flaminia. A mutilated 

inscription : LIVM . P. . LA . . . rum marmori- 

bus ornatum ratam clipeo posito in curia ex arg. 

&c. At the end, posuit [Torqujato et Salvia Juliano 
coss. p. 330. 1 in Heilbronnensi oppido : Fortunce 
respicienti sacr. Nasellius Proclianus leg. VIII Aug. 
propositus cohor. I Helvetiorum Torquato et Juliano 
cos. V. S. L. L. M. 

149 Murat. p. 330. 2 Romae : L. Balbilius Numi- 
torianus natus pr. Idus Mains Antonio Hibero et Num- 
mio Sisenna cos. [A.D. 133] decessit VII K. Janua- 
rias Orfito et Prisco cos. q. vix. an. XVII m. VII 
d. XII. Numitoria Cleopatra mater infelicissima fecit. 
The true interval requires that we should read vix. 
an. XVI. 



CONSULS. 



187 



A. D. Consuls 

150 oQallicanus et Vetus 

151 PCondiaiius et Maximiis 

152 qGlabrioet Homullus 

153 rPraesens et Rufinug 

154 sCommodus et Lateranus 

155 tSeverus et Sabinianns 

156 vgilvanns et Augnrinus 

157 ^Barbaruset Regulus 

158 xTertuUus et Sacerdos 

159 yQuintilius II et Priscus 

160 z Bradua et Varus 

161 ^Aurelius III et Commodus II 

Antoninus ob. 

162 ^RusticHS et Aquilinus 

163 ^Lselianus et Pastor 



Ol. Ind. y. Chron. Pasch. 

3. 14 P Condianus et Maximus 

4. 15 qGlabrio II et Jumilius 

233. 5. 16 rPraesenset Rufinus 

6. 17 8 Commodus et Lateranus 

7. 18 tSeverus VI et Sabinianus 

8. 19 vSilvanus et Augurinus 

234. 9. 20 wBarbarus et Regulus 

10. 21 X Tertullus et Sacerdos 

11. 22 yQuintilius et Priscus 

12. 23 z Bradua et Verus 

His coss. Antoninus ob. 

235. 13. 1 ^Aurelius et Commodus 

14. 2 [Aurelius et Commodus II] 

15. 3 B Rusticus et Aquilinus 
1. 4 "^^lianus et Pastor 



Cassiodob. 

P Gordianus et Maximus 
qGlabrio II et Romulus 
"■ Praesens et Rufus 
B Commodus et Lateranus 
t Verus et Sabinus 
vSilvanus et Augurinus 
wBarbarus et Regulus 
X Tertullus et Sacerdos 
y Quintillus et Priscus 
z Venis II et Bradua 

^Antoninus V et Aurelius III 
[Post Cons. Antonin. Viet Comm. IV] 

Antoninus moritur. 
[Duo August!] 
^Rusticus et Aquilinus 



150 Mur. p. 330, 4 Romae : Ex pr. L. .Eli Aug. 
Piif. op. dollar. Aristio Success. Gallic, et Veter. cos. 

151 Mur. p. 330. 5 Algezirse in Hispania. Quoted 
by Reimar ad Dionem in the Tables A. D. 151. 1. 
The Inscription begins thus : L. Herennio Herenniano 
L. Cornelius Herennius Rusticus nepos ex testamento 
posuit Nonis Martiis Sex. Quintillo &c. 

152 Mur. p. 330. 6 Romse tesserae in lamina ^rea 
ex Hispania delatse : M. Licinio Crasso L. Calpurnio 
Pisone cos. [A. D. 27] UII KL. Maias gentilitas 
Desoncorum ex gente Zoelarum et gentilitas Tridiavo- 
rum ex gente idem Zoelarum hospitium vetustum anti- 
quom renovaverunt eique omnes Alisalium in Jidem cli- 
entelamque suam suorumque liberorum posterorumque 
receperunt. egerunt Arausabii Cceni et Turaius &c. 
per Abienum Pentili magistratum Zoelarum actum cu- 
runda Glabrione et Homullo cos. V Idus Julias idem 
gentilitas Desoncorum et gentilitas Triadavorum in 
eandem clientelam eadem fadera receperunt ex gente 
Avolgicorum Sempronium Perpetuum Orniacum et ex 
gente Visaligorum Antonium Arquium et ex gente Ga- 
bruagenigorum Flavium Frontonem Zoelas. egerunt L. 
Domitius Silo et F. Flavins Severus Asturicce. p. 
.331. 2 Romae : Glabrione Omullo cos. ex rat. L. Zel. 
N. CXXCIIII. p. 331. 3 Romae: Diante Lucince 
invictce Cn. Pompeius Cn. L. Barbius procurat. tubicin. 

Rom. voto suscepto L. M. D. Ill Kal. et Omullo 

cos. 

154 Murat. p. 331. 5 Lubianae : L. Aelio Aug. f. 
Commodo cos. D.D. p. 331. 6 Cestriae : /. O.M. 
Tanaro T. Elupius Galer. Preesens Guntia. pri. leg. 
XX V. V. Commodo et Later ano coss. V. S. L. M. 
p. 331. 7 Romae : P. Lucili Culvin. opus dol. ex p. I. 
Luci lovin. Commod. et Lceterano cos. 

155 Murat. p. 332. 1 Ancyrae : r. 'loiXiov T. vl6v 
^a^ia ^fovrjpov yevofifvov irpSyrov fieu TvevreKaihfKavbpov 
TOiV (KdiKa^ovrav tu irpdyfiara nrna 8ripo(ria> Tifjujdem-a 
;^iXiap;^oi/ Xeyewvos d '2icvdiKi]s rapiiav Kavdidarov 8fjpMp)(^ov 
KapbiSarov lepe[_a] e Koi i avhpov ini to UpoTTOuov arpa- 
TTjyov ovp^avov irpea^fVTfjv \fyfS)vos X' OvXirias NiKT)<f)6pov 
eTTtp.eKr)Tr}v obov 'ATTTTiaff vnarov [sc. A. D. 155] 7rpe(r/3. 



dvTioTpdTTjyov ^vpias TlaKaKTTeivrjs Tpe^ios Kokkcios 'A- 
\f^av8pos Tov iavTOv evepyirqv. p. 332. 2 Neapoli : 
Given from Gruter in the Tables A. D. 155. 2. 

157 Mur. p. 332. 3 In Dacia : Herculi Aug. Valer. 
M. Felix Rufi Saturnini G. P. P. T. P. ex pr. IV sta- 
tionis Tsiernen. II II Id. anno XI Barbato [sic] et Re- 
gulo cos. ex voto posuit. p. 333. 1 Praeneste : in al- 
tera facie Domus C. Valeri Hermaisci templum Serapis 
schola Faustiniana fecit. C. Valerius Hermaiscus dedic. 
Idib. Dec. Barbara et Regulo coss. 

159 Mur. p. 333. 2 Romae : Quintillo et Prisco cos. 
of. ex pra. Plauti Aquilin. p. 333. 3 Carthagenae : 

C. Apsion. A. Calio Illiano Maximo ced. sacr 

ded. . . . Sept. Quintillio Prisco cos. The inscription 
given in the Tables A. D. 159. 2 from Gruter was 
examined by Muratori at Milan, and he found it 
written Fidib. Januar. Plautio Quintilio II Statio 
Prisco cos. 

160 Mur. p. 333 Lugduni; in anteriori facie Tau- 
robolio matris D. M. Id. quod factum est ex imperio 
matris D. Deum pro salute imperatoris Cees. T. Aeli 
Hadriani Antonini Aug. Pii p.p. liberorumque ejus et 
status colonice Lugdun. L. jumilius Carpus Illlllvir 
Aug. item dendrophorus vires excepit et a Vaticano trans- 
tulit ara et bucranium suo inpendio consacravit sacer- 
dote Q. Sammio Secundo ab XV viris occabo et corona 
exornato cui sanctissimus ordo Lugdunens. perpetui- 
tatem sacerdoti decrevit App. Annio Atilio Bradua T. 
Clod. Vibio Varo cos. D. D. D. In altero latere : 
Cujus mesonyctium factum est V Id. Dec. 

^ col. 3 PrcEsente et Rufino Prosp. 

161 Murat. p. 334. 1 Puteolis : in anteriori facie 
Tannonio Boionio Chrysantio puero egregio ab origine 
patrono ordinis et populi ob ejus insigne meritum uni- 
versus ordo et populus statuam digno curaverunt. In 
latere : Locus datus ex auctoritate Flavi Longini cl. V. 
cur. P. adsignata M. Valeria Pudente Ilvir. curat. X 
Kal. April, imp. Ceesare M. Aurelio Antonino Aug. Ill 
et imp. Ceesare L. Aurelio Vero Aug. II cos. 

163 Mur. p. 335. 2 in Callaecia : /. O. M. pro sa- 
lute M. Aurelii Antonini et Aurelii Veri Augustorum 
B b 2 



188 



APPENDIX. 



C.2. 



A.D. 



Consuls 



1 64 D Macrinus et Celsus 

165 ^^Pudens et Orfitus 

166 FpudensetPoUio 

167 *'Aurelius III et Quadratus 

168 "Apronianus et Paulus 

169 a Priscus et ApoUinaris 

1 70 b Cethegus et Clams 

171 <^Severus et Herennianus 

172 dMaximus et Orfitus 

173 eSeverus II et Pompeianus 

174 fGallus et Flaccus 

175 & Piso et Julianus 

176 hPoIlioIIet Aper II 

177 'Commodus et Quintillus 

178 k Orfitus et Rufus 

179 ICommodus 11 et Verus II 

180 mpraesens II et Condianus 



01. 


Ind. 


236. 


2. 




3. 




4. 




5. 


237. 


6. 




7. 




8. 




9. 


238. 


10. 




11. 




12. 




13. 


239. 


14. 




15. 




1. 




2. 


240. 


3. 



y. Chron. Pasch. 

5 '^ Macrinus et Celsus 

6 ^Orphitus et Pudens 

7 ^Pudens II et Pollio 

8 <^Aurelius III et Quadratus 

9 "Apronianus et Paulus 

10 aPriscus et Apollinarius 

11 b Cethegus et Clarus 

12 cSeverus et Herennianus 

13 dOrphitus II et Maximus 

14 eSeverus II et Pompeianus 

15 fGallus et Flaccus 

16 Orphitus III et Rufus 

17 b Pollio et Aper 

18 iCommodus et Quintillus 

19 kOrphitus IV et Rufus II 
His coss. Marcus ob. 

1 ICommodus II et Verus 

2 m Praesens et Gordianus 



Cassiodor. 

^ Laelianus et Pastor 
^ Macrinus et Celsus 
*■ Orfitus et Pudens 
F Pudens II et Pollio 
^Venis III et Quadratus 
"Apronianus et Paulus 
aPriscus et ApoUinaris 
b Cethegus et Clarvis 
cSeverus et Herennianus 
d Orfitus et Maximus 
eSeverus II et Pompeianus 
f Gallus et Flaccus 
S Piso et Julianus 
h Pollio et Aper 
iCommodus el Quintillus 

k Orfitus et Rufus 
ICommodus II et Verus II 



ob natale Aqu . . . . « vexillarior. leg. VII Ge. sub cur a 

Licini Pater. 7 leg. ejusd. . . mili Augustorum lib. 

proc. et Lucreti Paterni decan. coh. I Cel. et Bcetica 
Fab. Martian, bis proc. August or. et Juli Juli ante- 
signan. leg. ejusd. IIII Idus Juntas L. jEliano [recte 
Mur. Leeliano'] et Pastore cos. 

164 Mur. p. 335. 4 Anagni^ : C. R. Tito F. Vitale 
frat. F. C. T. R. FN. Oct. Macrino et Celso cos. p. 
335. 5 In agro Tiburtino : Mattucim L. F. Pompeio 
Macrino cos. p. 335. 6 Romse : Ovrinus Augustor. 

N. ser. pel Nymphas posuit puteum inst. . . . legis 

D. D. quod dedicatum e. . . M. Pompeio Macrino P. 

Juven p. 336. 1 Romae : M. Pompeio 

Macri. P. Juvent. Cel. cos. ex pr. Plauti Aquil. DO. 
Gruter therefore in the Tables A. D. 164. 1 is im- 
properly quoted for the name of Macrinus. 

166 Murat. p. 336. 2 Romse : Serbilio Pudente et 
Fufidio Pollione cos. ccesura Cia. Hier. Attici et Apol- 
loni Lupi. 

167 Murat. p. 336. 3 in Callsecia : Pro salute M. 
Aurelii Antonini Pii et Aurelii Veri Augustorum ob 
natales signor. vexillarior. coh. Ill Celtib. &c. — Idib. 
Octobris imp. Aurelio Vero III et Quadrato cos. 

168 Mur. p. 336. 4 Romse : Herculi victori pollenti 
potenti invicto D. D. L. M. C. Ulpius Fronto viator 
dedic. Ill I. Jul. L. Vettio Paulo T. Junio Montano 
COS. As the colleague of Paulus is called Apronianus 
in all the authorities, either he was named T. Junius 
Montanus Apronianus, or these were consules suffecti 
in some year unknown. 

169 Murat. p. 336. 5. 6 Arimini : Aurelice Calli- 
genicE Tib. Sabiniani pudentissimce honor ificentissimaq. 
femincE col. fabb. splendidissimce civitatis Ariminensium 

ob munificentiam in se trisq. collatam. L.D.D.D. 

Dedicat. Idib. Jan. Q. Sosio Prisco Senecione P. Calio 
Apollinare coss. cujus dedicat. sing. D. D. HS. N. IIII. 
c col. 2 At this consulship Chron. Pasch. p. 257 D 
anno 133" otto Tijs ets ovpavoiis avakrp^tias tov Kvpiov. 



161 A col. 2. 3 For the interpolations after this 
consulship see the Tables A. D. 161. 1. 

G col. 3 Vero IV et Quadrato Prosp. Victor. 

H col. 3 In Prosper p. 384 these consuls are in- 
serted twice : Aproniano et Paulo. — Aproniano et 
Paulo. An error of the transcriber. Victorius 
agrees with Cassiodorus. 

173 Muratori p. 337. 4 Tibure : M. Popilio M.f. 
Quir. Fausto Lucilio sodali Titiali et sodali JElian . . 
Hadrianali et Antoniali et Faustinian. vixit ann. 
LXXXVI mens. VII d. VI h. VIII C. Popilius M. f. 
Quirina deponianus fili indulgentiss. pos. Kal. Septemb. 
M. Aurelio Severo II Ti. Claudio Pompeiano cos. 
Panvinius p. 347 seems to suppose Pompeianus to be 
the son-in-law of Marcus. But the son-in-law of 
Marcus, (who was twice consul : Capitolin. Marco 
c. 20 filiam suam Claudio Pompeiano dedit, quern postea 
bis consulem fecit), was consul for the first time in 
A. D. 176, when he was a consul suffectus. See the 
Tables A. D. 175. 2. Pompeianus therefore in A. D. 
173 is another person. 

175 Julianus is mentioned by Suidas p. 863 D 
AafxocjiiXos (piKocTOCJios, (TO(j>iaTr]s, ov aveOpey^taro lovKiavos 
6 inl MapKov tov fiaaiKeas vrraros. 

176 Muratori p. 339. 2 Aostae in Delphinatu : 
Pro salute imp. Cces. M. Aur. Antonini Aug. tectum 
porticus cum suis columnis et pcenul. duab. et oper. tect. 
Sex. Vireius Sextus decur. D. S. P. D. Pollione II et 
Apro II cos. 

178 Murat. p. 339. 3 /. O.M. Nymphis C. Sp. L. 
Novirius Camerinus Optio leg. XXIIpr.P.F. V.S.L.L.M. 
Orfito et Rufo cos. 

(180 Murat. p. 339. 5 In Lavarete agri Aquilani : 

C. Brutti ProEsentis I uxor C. Brutti Prtesentis 

COS. mater jFlsculapio ex argenio P. C. testamento fieri 
jussit C. Bruttius Prcesentis II cos. et her. posuit. 
Muratori on account of this inscription rejects Gruter 
quoted in the Tables A. D. 180. I as spurious or in- 



CONSULS. 



189 



A.D. 



Consuls 



Marcus ob. 

181 nCommodus III et Burinis 

182 oMamertinus et Ilufus 

183 PCommodus IV et Victorinus II 

184 qMarullus et yElianus 

185 rMaternuset Bradua 

J 80 sCommodus V et Glabrio II 

187 '-Crispinus et iElianus 

188 vFuscianus II et Silanus II 
18!) w Silanus et Silamis 

190 xCommodus VI et Septimianus 

191 yApronianus et Bradua 

192 zCommodus VII et Pertinax II 

Commodus ob. 

1 93 ^ Falco et Clarus 

Pertinax ob. 

194 ^Severus II et Albiiius II 

195 c Tertiillus et Clemens 

196 D Dexter II et Priscus 

197 ^-Lateranus et Rufinus 

198 ''Saturninus et Gallus 

199 ^Anulinus II et Fronto 



01. Ind. y. CiinoN. Pascii. 



4. 3 nCommodus III et Verus II 

5. 4 o]\Iamertinus et Rufus III 

6. 5 PCommodus IV et Victorinus 
7- 6 iMarcellus et jElianus 

8. 7 ' Maternus et Bradua 

9. 8 s Commodus V et Glabrio 

10. 9 tCrispinus et jElianus 

11. 10 V Fuscianus et Silanus 

12. 11 X Commodus VI et Septimianus 

13. 12 ZCommodus VII et Pertinax 

His coss. Commodus ob. 

14. 1 ^Flaccus et Clarus 

15. 1 ^ Severus et Sabinus 

1 . 2 c Tertullus et Clemens 



241 



242. 



243. 



244. 



2. 3 1* Dexter et Priscus 

3. 4 ''■Lateranus et Rufinus 

4. 5 '^ Saturninus et Gallus 

5. 6 ^Anulinus et Fronto 

6. 7 "Severus II et Victorinus 

7. 8 aMucianus et Fabianus 



Cassiodor. 

His coss, Marcus periit. 
m Praesens et Gordiaiuis 
nCommodus III et Burrus 
oMamertinus et Rufus 
PCommodus IV et Victorinus 
qMarullus et TElianus 
•"Maternus et Bradua 
s Commodus V et Glabrio 
tCrispinus et ^Elianus 
vFuscianus et Silanus 
wDuo Silani 

Commodus VI et Septimianus 
yApronianus et Bradua 

zCommodus VII et Pertinax 

His coss. Comm. strangulatur. 
^ Falco et Clarus 

His coss. Pert, occiditur. 
■^Severus et Albinus 
^ Tertullus et Clemens 
^ Dexter et Priscus 
'^Lateranus et Rufinus 
'■" Saturninus et Gallus 



accurate, and concludes that the consul of this year 
was C. Bruttius PrcEsens II. But C. Bruttius Prccsens 
COS. in this inscription is rather Prasens consul in 
A. D. 153, whose father and mother are here men- 
tioned ; and the sense seems to require that we 
should read C. Bruttius Pr(Esentis f. cos. et her. that 
is, filius et heres. On the inscription in Gruter p. 
1095. 1 (quoted in the Tables) Norisius torn. 2 p. 975 
remarks " erronee exscripta aut suppleta est. ibi 
enim Agrippince Augusta nomen perperam insertum 
est [instead of Crispina]. — Ex illo tamen quamvis 
depravato intelligitur prsenomen Bruttii." Which 
opinion seems reasonable.) 

182 Mur. p. 340. 1 riorentise. In anteriori facie : 
Q. Tersina Q. f. Scap. Lupus Floren. miles coh. XII 
urb. 7 Dextri genium centurice cum base marmorea tes- 
tamento poni jussit. In dextro latere : Posita Idib. 
April. Mamertino et Rufo cos. 

185 Mur. p. 343. 1 in Valentia : M. Cornelio M.f. 
Gal. Nigrino Curiatio Mater no cos. leg. Aug. pr. pr. 
provinc. Mossia et cunc. Syria:, p. 343. 2 Smyrnee : 
NfcoKopoy ^fivpvaioiv drjfxos irifirjaev MdpKov 'AtiXiov Bpa- 
8ova TOP a.v6vivaTov einfiekr^devros MdpKov AvprfKlov Ilep- 
irepov Tov eVt rcov oTrkav a-Tparrj-yov. There is no reason 
for referring this last inscription to the consul of 185 
rather than to the consul of 191. 

190 Murat. p. 343. 4 Colonise : J. 0. M. et genio 
loci et Rheno CI. Marcellinus BI cos. [forte BF. cos.'] 
V. S. L. M. imp. Commodo VI cos. 

V col. 2 The consulships ^^-y- are omitted in 
Chron. Pasch. 

^. ^ col. 3 These two consulships are contracted 



by Prosper into one : Prasente et Burro, p. 385. 

191 Murat. p. 344. 1 (and imperfectly in Gruter 
p. 10. 9) (Spoleti Gruter) Salonse : /. 0. M. Q. Rao- 
nius Diodorus ex voto posuit libes merito IIII Idus 
Maias Aproniano et Bradua coss. In Gruter : . . pro- 
niano et P. P. du. cos. p. 344. 3 Romae : Item auxit 
salvo imp. L. Sep. Severo Per. Pio Fel. Aug. N. M. 
Cacilius M. f. Jul. Rufus concord. 7 l^g- J II Cyre- 
naicce ex corniculario ^li Juliani pr. vig. . . tetrasty- 
lum nymphceum crateram cum columella et altarium 
cum columella marmorea et aliam columellam item 
orbiculum cum columella et crateram ornavit J. D. D. D. 
dedicavit per Clodium Catullum pr. vig. adsistente Or- 
bio Laetiano sub pr. et Castricio Honorato trib. coh. 
II vig. . . . pr. Kal. Aug. Aproniano et Bradua cos. . . . 
C. A. Herculanio Liberale V. A. Begun in this year, 
completed in the reign of Severus. 

192 Mur. p. 345. 1. Given already in the Tables 
A.D. 192 from Gruter and Panvinius. 

193 Compare the inscriptions of Pertinax given 
above at p. 31, and of Caracalla N" 29. 

196 Murat. p. 346. 2 Mediolani : Mercurio lucro- 
rum potenti et conservator, sacr. C. Gemellius C. fit. 
Ouf. Valerianus Illlvir A. P. preef. J. D. cum Cilonia 
Secunda conjuge et Gemellio Valeriano Secundo et 
Valeria liberis suis ex voto donum posuit et dedicavit 
L.D.D.D. Ex altero latere : Dedicata III I. Junius 
Dextro II et Fusco cos. Muratori p. 346 conjectures 
either that Priscus also bore the name of Fuscus, or 
that Fuscus was a consul suffectus of this year. 

198 See No 28 of the inscriptions of Caracalla. 

z col. 2 Under this consulship Chron. Pasch. re- 



190 



APPENDIX. 



C. 2. 



A.D. 



COKSULS 



200 "Severus et Victorinus 

201 aFabianus et Mucianus 

202 bSeverus III et Antoninus 

203 cGeta et Plautianus II 

204 dCilo II et Libo 

205 e Antoninus II et Geta 

206 f Albinus et ^Emilianus 

207 s Aper et Maximus 

208 h Antoninus III et Geta II 

209 » Pompeianus et Avitus 

210 kFaustinus et Rufinus 

211 iGentianus et Bassus 

Severus ob. 

212 niAsper II et Asper 

213 n Antoninus IV et Balbinus II 

214 ojviessalaetSabinus 

215 PLaetus II et Cerealis 

216 qSabinus II et Anulinus 

217 ■■ Praesens et Extricatus II 

Caracalla ob. 

218 sMacrinus et Adventus 



Ol. Ind. y. Chron. Pasch. 

245. 8. 9 IJ Severus III et Antoninus 
9. 10 c Plautianus et Geta 

10. 11 dChiloet Libo 

11. 12 e Antoninus II et Geta II 

246. 12. 13 f Albinus et ^milianus 

13. 14 ETAper et Maximus 

14. 15 )i Antoninus III et Geta III 

15. 16 i Pompeianus et Attus 

247. 1. 17 Taustinuset Rufinus 

2. 18 IGentianus et Bassus 

3. 19 niAper II et Aper 

His coss. Sev. ob. 

4. 1 lAntoninus IV et Albinus 

248. 5. 2 oMessalaet Sabinus 

6. 3 P Lentulus et Cerealis 

7. 4 iSabinus II et Anulinus 

8. 5 ' Praesens et Extricatus 

249. 9. 6 s Antoninus V et Adventus 

10. 7 ^Antoninus VI et Sacerdos 

His coss. Caracalla ob. 

11. 1 V Antoninus et Comazon 



Cassiodor. 

''Anulinus et Fronto 

" Severus II et Victorinus 

aFabianus et Mucianus 

l> Severus III et Antoninus 

cGeta et Plautianus 

dCilo et Libo 

e Antoninus II et Geta II 

f Albinus et ^lianus 

&Aper et Maximus 

hAntoninus III et Geta III 

i Pompeianus et Avitus 

I'Faustinus et Rufus 

iGentianus et Bassus 

His coss. Severus moritur. 
mDuo Aspri 
nAntoninus et Balbinus 

Messala et Sabinus 
PLaetus et Cerealis 

1 Sabinus II et Venustus 

I' Praesens et Extricatus 



cords the death of Pertinax, and under A. the death 
of Julianus. 

200 See No 8 of the inscriptions of Severus. 

201 Murat. p. 348. 4 Vindobonse : Pro sal. dom. 
NN. L. Sept. Sever, et M. Aur. Antonini et * * * * 
Ctss. Augg. cult. Jovis. Dedic. VIII K. Aug. Muciano 
et Fabiano cos. On the name erased see the Tables 
A.D. 197. 1. 

202 Murat. p. 348. 7 Romse fragmentum marmo- 
reum : Imp. Cees. L. Sep. Severe Pio Pertin. Aug. N. 
Ill et imp. M. Aurelio Antonino Aug. fil. cos. See 
also No 34 of the inscriptions of Severus. 

204 Muratori p. 350. 2 Romae : P. Ccelio Apollinare 
COS. P.R.C.A. DCCCCXXII [A.D. 169] Q. Clodius 
Marcellus cooptatus. T. Aelio Cilone II Flabio Libone 
... P.R.C. A. DCCCCL ...M. Valerius Peetus Aquil . . . 
cooptatus. C. Julio [sic leg.] Aspro II C. Julio Aspro 
...P.R.C. A. DCCCCL V. [A. D. 21 2] L. Julius Fau- 
stinianus cooptatus. Aug. Illet Coma [zonte] ...P.R.C.A. 
DCCCCLXX... [A. D. 220] ... p. 350. 1 Romae : 
XL. L. Fab. Oil. M. Ann. Lib. cos. 

205 Mur. p. 351. 1 Romae in coemeterio Callisti. 
An inscription inaccurately transcribed, which ends 
in this manner : Aur. Januarius /actus dec. in provinc. 
Syria Foinicia et Aurel. Maximinus fact. dec. in prov. 
Dalmatia sub Mcecio LcEto et Mmilio Papiniano pp. 
pp. Mem. Octavio Pisone et Valeria Herculano tribb. 
equit. sing.DDD.NNN. Auggg. [lege DD.NN. Augg.] 
et ^lio Flaviano et Aur. Lupo et Ulpio Pceto "J. 77 
exercitator. Dedic. Impp. [lege Imp.'} M. Aurelio An- 
tonino II it [et legendum cum Muratorio] P. Septimio 
Geta coss. V Kal. Junias. Geta was not Augustus till 
A. D. 209, after his second consulship. 



209 Mur. p. 352. 5 Romae : Aurelio Muciano mil. 
coh. V pr. Barbati militare ccepit Pompeiano et Avito 
cos. ann. XV vixit ann. XLV natus Tremontiee. CI. 
Paulina cojugi karissimo ex testamento fecit. 

212 Mur. p. 353. 1 prope Grottaferratam : Asper 
bis cosul prafectus Urbi. One of the brothers is com- 
memorated in the following inscriptions apud Nori- 
sium Ep. Syromac. p. 184. 185 in basi grandiori, via 
Latina, XI ab urbe lapide : C. Julio Aspro cos. pree- 
tori curatori vice Appiee sodali Augustali trib. pi. pr. 
gucestori prov. Africce curatori adium sacr. Sex. Umi- 
dius amico inconiparabili. Alterum epigramma eodem 
loco erutum : . , Julio Cn. f. Po. Aspro pr. tr. plebis 

qucest. provincice Africce Cornelius amico incom- 

parabili. The sister of their father is named in another 
apud Muratorium p. 353. 2 Romae : Julice Juliance 
sorori Aspri. On these inscriptions conf. Corsin. 
praef. urb. p. 111—113. 

^ col. 3 Antonino II et Geta Prosp. 

^ col. 3 Faustino et Rufino Prosp. Victor. 

213 Murat. p. 353. 3 in arce Tarraconensi : Aucto- 
ritate imp. Cas. M. Aurelii Antonini Pii Felic. Aug. 
Parthic. max. Brit. max. pont. max. et decreto coll. 
XV sac. fac. Servius Calpurnius Domitius Dexter 
promagist. aram Circes sanctissimce restituit. Dedicat. 
XVII K. Jul. imp. Antonino Aug. IIII Balbino II 
cos. 

218 Murat. p. 354. 1 Romae : Diana Cariciana. M. 
Aurelius Caricus Aquarius hujus loc. cum libertis et 

alumnis M. D D. Aug. et Dedic. Idib. Aug. 

Oclatino Advento cos. This inscription confirms the 
Fasti Graeci quoted in the Tables A. D. 218. 1. 



CONSULS. 



191 



A.D. 



Consuls 



Macrimis ob. 

219 *: Antoninus II et Sacerdos II 

220 V Antoninus ill et Comazon 

221 wGratus et Seleucus 

222 X Antoninus IV et Alexander 

Elagabalus ob. 

223 yMaximus II et ^Elianus 

224 2 Julianus II et Crispinus 

225 AFuscus II et Dexter 

226 ^Alexander II et Marcellus 

227 ^ Albinus et Maximus 

228 °Modestus et Probus 

229 ^Alexander III et Dio II 

230 ''Agricola et Clementinus 

231 G Pompeianus et Pelignianus 

232 H Lupus et Maximus 

233 a Maximus et Patenms 

234 b Maximus II et Urbanus 

235 cSeverus et Quintianus 

Alewander ob. 

236 d Maximinus et Africanus 

237 ^ Perpetuus et Cornelianus 

238 f Pius et Pontianus 

Maximin. ob. 

239 sGordianus et Aviola 



OL Ind. y. Chhon. Pasch. 

His coss. Macrinus ob. 
12. 1 wGratus et Seleucus 

250. 13. 2 X Antoninus II et Alexander 

14. 3 yMaximus et i^lianus 

15. 4 zFlavianus et Crispinus 

His coss. Heliog. ob. 
1. 1 ^IFuscianus et Dexter 

251. 2. 2 ^Alexander II et Marcellus 



252. 



253. 



254. 



3. 


3 ^ Albinus et Maximus II 


4. 


4 Djviodestus et Probus 


5. 


5 E Alexander III et Dio 


6, 


6 ^ Agricola et Clemens 


7. 


7 ^ Pompeianus et Pelignianus 


8. 


8 " Lupus et Maximus III 


9. 


9 a Maximus IV et Paternus 


10. 


10 b Maximus V et Urbanus 


11. 


11 cSeverus et Quintianus 


12. 


12 d Maximus VI et Africanus 


13. 


13 e Perpetuus et Cornelius 




His coss. Alexand. ob. 


14. 


1 f Ulpicius et Pontianus 


15. 


2 &Gordianus et Aviola 



1. 3 h Albinus et Venustus 

His coss. Maximin. ob. 

2. 1 iGordianus II et Pompeianus 



Cassiodor. 

8 Antoninus et Adventus 

His coss. Antoninus interjicitur. 
t Antoninus II et Sacerdos 

His coss. Macrimis occiditur. 
V Antoninus III et Comazon 
wGratus et Seleucus 

X Alexander et Augustus 
yMaximus et iElianus 

His coss. Heliog. occiditur. 
z Julianus et Crispinus 
AFuscus et Dexter 
^Alexander II et Marcellus 
^Annianus et Maximus 
[Albinus et Maximus] 
^ Modestus et Probus 
^Alexander Ilfet Dio 
Gratus et Seleucus 
^ Pompeianus et Felicianus 
" Lupus et Maximus 
a Maximus et Paternus 

b Maximus II et Urbanus 
cSeverus et Quintianus 

His coss. Alex, occiditur. 
d Maximinus et Africanus 

e Perpetuus et Cornelianus 



219 Mur. p. 354. 3 Romae in thermis Antonianis : 
Dedic. Kal. Jan. domino N. Antonino Pio Fel. Aug. II 
et Sacerdote II cos. per Felicem Aug. lib. proc. 

222 Liber Pontificalis in vita Callisti papse : Cal- 
listus natione Romanus — -fuit temporibus Macrini et 
Heliogabali, a consulatu Antonini et Alexandri. 

223 Murat. p. 354. 4 Romae : L. Mario Maximo 
V. C. prof, urbi cos. Q. Attius Q.f. Sabinus ob mer. 
p. 354. 5 Romae : Jovi 0. M. et Fidei cand. sacr. pro 
salute L. Mari Maximi C. V. preef. urb. cos. suffragator 
Q. Attius coll. F. C. p. 355. 2 prope Cliviam : In h. 
D. D. pro salute imp. Severi Alexandri Aug. Deo A- 
pollini Dyserolus Olo de milites leg. XXX V. V. P. F. 
sub cura agent. T. F. Apri Commodiani leg. Aug. P. P. 
F. Canuti Modesti leg. leg. Sept. Mucatra imag. et 
Sept. Gallus et Sept. Mucatra et Sept. Deospor. et 
Sept. Samnus et Sept. Mucatra candidati V. S. L. M. 
Maximo et ^liano cos. 

" col. 3 Antonino IV et Balbino Prosp. 

o col. 3 Prosper p.' 386 Messala et Sabino : finis 
cycli secundi et initium tertii. The third cycle of 84 
years terminates at A. D. 298. See below. But he 
has only 80 consulships in his third cycle, having 
omitted four, namely the consuls of the years 222, 
245, 255, 2/6. See below. When these four are 
inserted, the term of 84 years is complete. 

* col. 3 This consulship is omitted by Prosper. 

224 Muratori p. 355. 3 in Dacia : /. 0. M. Divo 



Fulc ralis sacrum Juliano et Crispino cos. 

227 Mur. p. 356. 3 Autissiodori : Pro salute domi- 
norum V. S. L. M. dedicavit Modesto et Probo cos. 

229 Mur. p. 357. 1 Romae : Insul. L. Satri Felic. 
Alexandro Aug. Ill et Dionysio cos. Also given in 
Panvinius p. 370 thus : Alexandro Aug. Ill et Diony- 
sio COS. insul. L. Satri Felic. Both here and in Cod. 
Just. II. 12, 13 for Dionysio we may read Dione II. 

230 Murat. p. 357. 2 prope* Cliviam : /. 0. M. 
Martius Victor sig. leg. XXX V. V. Severiana Alex- 
andri P. F. V. S. L. M. Agricola et Clementianus cos. 

233 Mur. p. 358. 1 Romae : . . . . annis in pace .... 

an. pi. m. XLI DP. XIII Kal. Nob Pateri et 

Maxsimi. Annianus in pace qui bissit ann .... VIII 
DP. Idus Feb. cons. DN. Leonis. 

235 Mur. p. 358. 3 Romae : Aurelia dulcissima filia 
quce de seeculo recessit, vixit an. XV m. II 1 1 Severo et 
Quintin. cos. p. 358. 4 Aquileiae : T. Casern. Macedo 
Quinctian. cos. collegio fabrorum D.D. 

e col, 2 At this consulship Chron. Pasch. p. 268 C 
inserts anno 205*' ttjs €ls ovpavovs dvaXrjyjreas. 

col. 3 After these consuls Albinus and Maximus 
are also interpolated by Prosper and Victorius. 

G col. 3 From hence Prosper is quoted in the 
Tables col. 1. 

239 Murat. p. 360. 3 prope Cliviam : /. O. M. 
Junoni regina Minerva T. Quartinius Saturnalis sig- 
nifer leg. XXX V. V. pro se et suis V. S. L. M. imp. 



192 



APPENDIX. 



C. 2. 



A. D. Consuls 

240 hSabinus II et Venustus 

241 iGordianns II et Pompeianus 

242 l^Atticuset Praetextatus 

243 lArrianus et Papus 

244 m Peregrinus et ^milianus 

Gordianus ob. 

245 nPhilippus et Titianus 

246 o Prsesens et Albinus 

247 PPhilippus N et Philippus 

248 q Philippus III et Philippus II 

249 rAemilianus II et Aquilinus 

Philippus ob. 

250 s Decius II et Gratus 

251 t Decius III et Etruscus 

Decius ob. 

252 vGaUus II et Volusianus 

253 w Volusianus II et Maximus 

254 xValerianus II et Gallienus 

255 y Valerianus III et Gallienus II 

256 z Maximus II et Glabrio 

257 ^ Valerianus IV et Gallienus III 

258 B Tuscus et Bassus 
251) ^jErailianus et Bassus 

260 »Saecularis II et Donatus II 

261 ^Gallienus IV et Volusianus 

262 ^ Gallienus V et Faustinas 

263 GAlbinus II et Dexter 

264 " Gallienus VI et Saturninus 



Ol. Ind. y. Chron. Pasch. 

255. 3 2 kAtticus et Praetextatus 

4. 3 lAurelianus et Papus 

5. 4 °> Per^rinus et ^milianus 

6. 6 n Philippus et Tatianus 

256. 7. 6 oPrtesentus et Albinus 

His coss. Gord. ob. 

8. I PPhilippus II et Philippus 

9. 2 q Philippus III et Philippus II 

10. 3 I'^milianus II et Aquilinus 

257. 11' 4 s Decius et Gratianus 
12. 5 vGallus et Volusianus 



13. 

14. 

258. 15. 
1. 

2. 



6 w Volusianus II et Maximus 

His coss. Philippics ob. 
1 t Decius et Decius 
His coss. Decius ob. 

1 X Valerianus et Gallienus 

2 y Valerianus II et Gallienus II 



3 z Maximus II et Glabrio 
His coss. Galium ob. 
3. 1 A Valerianus III et Gallienus III 

259. 4. 2 B Tuscus et Bassus 

5. 3 ^Aemilianus III et Volusianus II 

6. 4 I'Secularius et Donatus 
7.5^ Gallienus IV et Volusianus III 

260. 8. 6 F Gallienus V et Faustinianus 
9. 7 '^Albinus et Dexter 

10. 8 " Gallienus VI et Saturninus 

11. 9 'Valerianus IV et Lucianus 

261. 12. 10 [Valerianus V et Lucianus II] | 



Cassiodor. 

f Pius et Proculus 

His coss. Max. occiditur. 
g Gordianus et Aviola 
hSabinus et Venustus 

His coss. Pap. et Balb. occisi. 
i Gordianus II et Pompeianus 
^Atticus et Praetextatus 

lArrianus et Papus 

m Peregrinus et jEmilianus 

His coss. Gord. interfectus. 
n Philippus et Titianus 
o Praesens et Albinus 
PPhilippus II et Philippus 

q Philippus III et Philippus II 

r^Emilianus et Aquilinus 

s Decius et Gratus 
t Decius II et Rusticus 

His coss. Philippus occiditur. 
vGallus et Vohisianus 

His coss. Decius occiditur. 
w Volusianus II et Maximus 
X Valerianus et Gallienus 

His coss. Gallus et Volusian^us ob. 
y Valerianus II et Gallienus II 
z Maximus II et Glabrio 
^Valerianus III et Gallienus III 
'^ Tuscus et Ba&sus 
c ^milianus et Bassus 
^ Secularis et Donatus 
E Gallienus IV et Gentianus 
'f GalUenus V et Victorinus 



D. N. Gordiano et Aviola coss. Kal. Jul. p. 360. 4 
Clangenfurti in Carinthia : Pro salute Aug. in hono- 
rem DD. Soli invicfo Mythr. Hilarus Aug. lib. tab. 
pr. N. et Epicetus ark. Aug. N. tern, vetustate conl. 
sumptu suo cum pictura refe. imp. D. N. Gordiano Aug. 
et Aviola . . . C. Rom. D. N. Licin. Marcello pat. D. 
VIII K. Julias, p. 361. I Romae: Dedicata I III 
Idus Mart. imp. Domino N. Gordiano Aug. et M'Acilio 
Aviola cos. perQ.Veturiofelicissimo electo QQ. C. Julio 
Evangelo et Marcio Crysostomo T. Aurelio Eutychete 
curatoribus. 

240 Mur. p. 361. 2 Romse : Campia Severing V. V. 
max. sanctissimce benignissimce pro conlatis in se benefi- 
ciis equest. ord. item secund/e militia /Emilius Pardalas 
trib. coh. I Aquitanicee petito ejus ornatus dedic. IIII 
Idus Maias [III Idus Panvin.] Sabino II et Venv^to 
coss. Partly given by Panvinius and Gruter, whose 
account is inserted in the Tables A. D. 240. 3. 

1 col 3 Ariano et Pappo Prosp. 

n col. 3 Omitted by Prosper. 

260 Murat. p. 364. 1 Roraae : P. Cornelia Scecu- 
lare II et Junio Donato II cos. Kal. Julis Sentiuis 



cum in scola sua frequens numerus coll. fabr. Sentina- 
tium coiivenissent nuraerum abentibus C. Julio Martiale 
et C. Casidio Rufino QQ. ct referentib. ipsis semper et 
in prceteritum ita splendidissimum N. N. conisum esse 
ut adfectione splendoris sui in singuios quoquee con- 
dignos merentes exhibeant vel maxime in honore adque 
dignitate Memmiae Victoria quondam indoles mamoria 
femine matris numeri nostri proorsus usquceque esse 
provectum nomen domus ejus ut per ordinem generis sui 
omnes in numerum N. patroni in collegium nostrum ap- 
pellarentur optandaque erant ut omnes universisque in- 
colum.es in numerum nostrum viderentur, et quoniam vir 
splendidus Coretius Fuscus patronus numeri debeat ex- 
emplo pietatis parentium et matris honorijicentia, ita- 
que si omnibus videretur tabula aream ei offerri &c. 
Some of the barbarisms in this inscription are, as 
Muratori calls them, " raarmorarii sphalmata;" some 
perhaps proceed from the inaccuracy of the tran- 
scriber. 

y col. 3 Omitted by Prosper. 

z col. 3 Glabrione et Maximo II Victor. 

c col. 3 JEmiliano et Basso II Victor. 



CONSULS. 



193 



A.D. Consuls 

265 I Valerianus II et Lucillus 

266 aGallienus VII et Sabiiiillus 

267 bPaternus et Arcesilaus 

268 cPaternus II et Marinianus 

Gallienus ob. 

269 d Claudius II et Paternus 

270 e Antiochianus et Orfitns 

Claudius ob. 

271 f Aurelianus et Bassiis II 

272 e Quietus et Voldumianus 

273 li Tacitus et Placidianus 

274 iAurelianus II et Capitolinus 

275 kAurelianus III et Marcellinus 

Aurelianus ob. 

276 1 Tacitus II et iEmilianus 

Tacitus ob, 

277 ™ Probus et Paulinus 

278 n Probus II et Lupus 

279 o Probus III et Paternus II 

280 PMessala et Gratus 

281 q Probus IV et Tiberianus 

282 r Probus V et Victorinus 

Probus ob. 

283 sCarus II et Carinus 

Carus ob. 

284 t Carinus II et Numerianus 

Numerianus ob. 

285 vDiocletianus II et Aristobulus 



01. Ind. y. Chron. Pasch. 

13. 11 aGallienus VII et Sabinianus 

14. 12 b Paternus et Arcesilaus 

15. 13 c Paternus II et Marinianus 

262. 1. 14 d Claudius et Paternus III 

His coss. Valerian, ob. 

2. 1 e Antiochianus et Orphitus 

3. 2 f Aurelianus et Bassus 

His coss. Claudius ob. 

4. 1 & Quietus et Vudumianus 

263. 5. 2 h Tacitus et Placidianus 

6. 3 [Quietus II et Bradumianus] 

7. 4 iAurelianus II et Capitolinus 

8. 5 k Aurelianus III et Marcellus 

264. 9. 6 1 Tacitus II et ^milianus 

His coss. Aurelianus ob. 

10. 1 mPi-obus et Paulinus 

11. 2 n Probus II et Lupus 

12. 3 o Probus III et Paternus 

265. 13. 4 P Messala et Gratus 

14. 5 q Probus IV et Tiberianus 

15. 6 r Probus V et Victorinus 

1. 1 s Carus et Carinus 

266. 2. 2 [Diocletianus et Bassus] 

3. 3 t Carinus II et Numerianus 



Cassiodor. 

^ Albinus et Maximus 
" Gallienus VI et Satuminus 
■ Valerianus et Lucillus 
aGallienus VII et Sabinillus 

'•Paternus et Arcesilaus 

c Paternus II et Marinianus 

d Claudius et Paternus 

His coss. Gallienus occiditur. 
e Antiochianus et Orfitus 
f Valerianus et Bassus 

His coss. Claudius moritur. 
g Quietus et Voldumianus 
h Tacitus et Placidianus 

i Aurelianus et Capitolinus 

k Aurelianus II et Marcellus 

m Probus et Paulinus 

1 Probus II et Paternus II 

His coss. Aurel. occiditur. 
o Probus III et Paternus III 

His coss. Tacitus occisu^. 
P Messala et Gratus 
q Probus IV et Tiberianus 

r Probus V et Victorinus 

s Carus et Carinus 

t Carus II et Numerianus 



268 Mur. p. 3Go. 2 Romce : Pasto . . . iliance Mar- 

ciana et Chr dano filio benemerenti DN.fec. . . . 

vi . qui vixit annus XII M. II et . . . . qui cru . . . ac- 

cepit D. N. die XII Ka. . . . ctobres .mo Pa- 

terno II coss. et rede XI Kal. vitas inter Sanctis 

IHA 

269 Muratori p. 366. 1 Romse : Latin in Greek 
letters. Kwo-ovXe KXvSettB eS XlaTepj/w vavais No/3ei'- 
(Bpei^ovs Self Bevepes Xovva XXIII AevKfs ipfXeie ^fjBrjpe 
Kap€(Tcrep,e irocroveTe eS eicnrfipfiTco cravCTa tov(o .... Tova 
awovcopcap, rL ed prjaapaiv XI deovpav X. 

270 Murat. p. 366. 2 in agro Tudertino : Dedicata 
Id. Jan. Antiochiano II et Orjito cos.. qua die sex viris 
juvenibus collegiatis et populo utr 

271 Mur. p. 367. 1 Romse ; sive Secenarii in Mar- 
sis: L. Vibius Severus cedilis Illlvir Q. Q. splendidus 
eq. Romanus pair onus civitatis Supercequanorum item 
patronus civitatis Anxatium Frentanor. et Peltuinorum 

Vestin. hie ob honorem adilitatis L. Vibi Rujii fili sui 
eq. R. ad deam Pelinam primus huic loco venationem 
edidit deinceps ludos sollemnes L. Vibius Nepos filius 
(Bd. Illlvir J. D. eq. R. patronus civitatis ob nomen 
fratris sui titulum publice dicavit Aureliano Aug. et 



Basso II cos. XVI Kal. Jun. 

275 Murat. p. 367- 2 Beneventi : J. Nonio Mar- 
cellino V. C. cos. Cap. ^cons. Camp. Gruter p. 357. 5. 
37 1 . 1 ] patrono dignissimo ob insignia beneficia quibus 
longa populi tabedia [tccdia Gruter] sedavit universa 
plebs Beneventana censuit ponendam. Referred by 
Muratori to the consul of 275. But the name in 
Gruter is T. Antonio Marcellino at p. 357. 5, and 
T. Avonio Marcellino at p. 371. 1. 

279 Murat. p. 367- 3 Romse : Vixit Severa Seleu- 
ciane cum Aurelio Sabutio annis dece et septe imp. 
Probo Aug. Ill et Nonio Paterno bis cons, quot vixit 
in seculo annis triginta duo et mensis duo. imp. Claudio 
Aug. et Paterno cons. [A. D. 269.] Igitur recte Fasti 
Graeci et Victorius Paterno II. As the year 269 has 
no reference to what precedes, we may read in the 
inscription Claudio Aug. et Paterno conss. * * * * 

k col. 3 After this consulship Tacitus II et ^Emi- 
lianus are omitted in Prosp. Victor, and Cassiodorus. 

o col. 3 Probo III et Paterno II Victor. Recte. 
See above at 279. 

t col. 2 Chron. Pasch. p. 274 B his coss. anno 255" 
rrjs els ovpavovs dvaXfj'^fais tov Kvpiov. 

C C 



194 



APPENDIX. 



C.2. 



A. D. Consuls 

Carinus ob. 

286 ^Maximus II et Aquiliuus 

287 "Diocletian. Ill et Maximianus 

288 y Maximianus II et Januarius 

289 z Bassus II et Qiiintianus 

290 A Diocletian. IVetMaximian.III 

291 B Tiberianus et Dio 

292 ^Hannibalian. et Asclepiodotus 

293 i^Diocletianus V Maximian. IV 

294 ^' Constantius et Galerius 

295 ^ Tuseus et Anulinus 

296 ^Diocletian. VI Constantius II 

297 ^ Maximianus V et Galerius II 

298 aFaustus II et Grallus 

299 b Diocletian. VII Maximian. VI 

300 c Constantius III Galerius III 

301 dTitianus II et Nepotianus 

302 e Constantius IV et Galerius IV 

303 f Diocletian.VIII Maximian.VII 

304 g Diocletian. IX Maximian.VIII 

305 h Constantius V et Galerius V 

the abdication. 

306 i Constantius VI et Galerius VI 



Ol. lud. y. Chron. Pasch. 

Hix coss. Car us cum filiis ob. 

4. 1 vDiocletianus II et Aristobulus 

5. 2 wjviaximus et Aquilinus 

267. 6. 3 xDiodetianus III et Maximianus 

7. 4 y Maximianus II et Januarius 

8. 5 z Bassus et Quintianus 

9. 6 ^Diocletian. IV et Maximian. Ill 

268. 10. 7 ^ Tiberianus et Dio 

11. 8 *^ Hannibalianus et Asclepiodotus 

12. 9 DDiocletian.VetMaximian.lv 

13. 10 ^Constantius et Maximianus 

269. 14. 11 FTuscuset AnuUinus 

15. 12 <^ Diocletian. VI et Constantius II 

1. 13 ** Maximian. V et Maximianus II 

2. 14 aFaustus et Gallus 

270. 3. 15 b Diocletian. VII et Maximian. VI 

4. 16 ^Constantius III et Maximian. Ill 

5. 17 dTatianus et Nepotianus 

6. 18 e Constantius IV et Maximian. IV 

271. 7. 19 fDiocletian. VIII et Maxim. VII 

8. 20 g Diocletian. IX et Maxim. VIII 

the abdication. 

9. 1 bConstantius V et Maximian. V 



Cassiodor. 

V Diocletianus et Aristobulus 

His coss. Probus occiditur. 
wMaximus et Aquilinus 

His coss. Carus interiit. 
X Diocletianus II et Maximianus 
His coss. Numer. Carin. ob. 
y Maximianus II et Januarius 
z Bassus et Quinctianus 
^Diocletianus III et Maximianus III 
B Tiberianus et Dio 
^Hannibalianus et Asclepiodotus 
I' Diocletianus IV et Maximianus IV 
'^ Constantius et Maximus 
^ Tuseus et Anulinus 
^ Diocletianus V et Constantius II 
aFaustus et Gallus 
b Diocletianus VI et Maximianus V 
c Constantius III et Maximus III 
dTitianus et Nepotianus 
eConstantius IV et Maximus IV 
f Diocletianus VII et Maximianus VI 
& Diocletian. VIII et Maximian. VII 
b Constantius V et Maximus V 

'Constantius VI et Maximus VI 



286 Mur. p. 368, 2 Romse : Ccelia Claudiana V. V. 
maximcs sanctissimce piissinueque, cujus egregiam sanc- 
titatem et in deorum infatigabilem sacrorum operatio- 
nem meritis suis laudis (eternam adhibita gravitate nu- 
men quoque Vesta comprobavit, sacerdotes sacree urbis. 
Dedicata V Kal. Mart. M. Junio Maximo II et Vettio 
Aquilino coss. curante Fl. Marciano V. E. fictore V. V. 
Compare the inscription in the Tables A. D. 286. 1. 
p. 368. 3 in Latio : Principi juventutis Junius Pris- 
cillianus Maximus V. C. cur. laur. lau. die. N. M. Q. 
ejus. Dedicata Eid. Febr. Maximo II et Aquilino cos. 

291 Murat. p. 369. 1 Romse : Ex tHrginio tuo be- 
neme. convixsist. libent. conjuca innocentissima Cervonia 
Silvana refrigera cum spirita sancta. Dep. Kal. Apr. 
Tiberiano II et Dioni coss. 

295 Mur. p. 369. 2 Romae : Statilia Alexandra an- 
nor. V m. [lege pi. w.] XI I II virgo mortua es Tusco 
et Anullino cotiss. ^III Kal. Sept. filia Alexandra Ros. 
" r sigma Graecorum respondens nuraerali Latino- 
rum notae VI." Murat. 

297 Mur. p. 369. 3 Romae : [DD.] NN. Maximiano 
Aug. V {M]aximiano C<es. II cons. . . C. gessit Vale- 
rius Victor Paternus. 

298 Mur. p. 370. 1 Florentiae : 2ifj.n\iKia fj Ka\ KaX- 
Xaypvixos f^T}(T€P trq la rjfiepas ay eTfKfvrrj(r€V npo ty kgX. 
No^€/x^p. 4>avaT(f koi TaXXm viruTois. p. 370. 2 Romae : 
D. M. Q. Liberia, vicxit ann. N. II mens. N. Ill dies 
N. VIII. R. Anicio Fausto et Virio Gallo cons. 

299 Murat. p. 370. 3 Romae : 'AirpiXiav ^apfwvdl a 
V7r6 ray levpitav fjfmv AioicXriTiavov Sf/3. r6 ^ koi Mo^t/xta- 



pov 2€j3. TO r' Tcmos edodtf virh Bakepiov vnaTiKov lepav 
vaS>p. 

300 Mur. p. 370. 4 Romae : Terentice Rufilla V. V. 
maximcE sanctissimce religiosissima pudicissimce prae- 
stantissimce cujus merita circa me semper sensi JEl. 
Januaria qua et Leontia ex veto digniss. posuit. Dedi- 
cata XIII I Kal. Jan. Constantio III et Maximiano 
III Cass. coss. curante Aur. Niceta. 

p col. 2 Chron. Pasch. p. 275 C his coss. anno 267* 
Tijs fls ovpavovs avaXTfyjrecos. 

H col. 2 Chron. Pasch. p. 275 D his coss. anno 269" 

TTjs fls ovpavovs a,vd\T]yfAf<os . 

B col. 3 Tiberio et Dione Victor. 

G col. 3 After this consulship, h is omitted in 
Cassiodorus, though inserted in Prosper and Vic- 
torius. 

a col. 3 Fausto et Gallo item Victor. At this 
consulship Prosper p. 389 adds Finis cycli tertii 
quartique principium. See above at A. D. 214, note 
o col. 3. 

301 Murat. p. 371- 1 Romse. Partly given in the 
Tables A. D. 301. 1 from Panvinius. More fully in 
Muratori thus : Mira sanctitatis adque in ceremoniis 
antistiti deorum Tereniia Rufill^ V. V. max. Aur. Eu- 
tyches voti compos redditus patrona erga se prestantis- 
sima. Dedicata pri. Non. &c. 

305 Mur. p. 37 1 . 2 Romae : M. D. M. I. DD. NN. 
Constantio et Maximiano nobb. Cass. V conss. XVIII 
Kal. Maii Julius Italicus V. C XVvir S. J. taurobo- 
lium percepi/elic. 



CONSULS. 



195 



A.D. 



Consuls 



Constantius oh. 

307 J Maximian. IX et Constantlnus 

308 kMaximianusXetGaleriusVII 

309 IP. C. Maxim. X et Galer. VIT 

310 mil P. C. Max. X et Galer. VII 

311 nGalerius VIII solus 

312 o Constantlnus II et Licinius II 

313 PConstantin. Ill et Licinius III 

314 iVolusianus II et Annianus 

315 r Constantlnus IV et Licinius IV 

316 sgabinus et Rufinus 

317 *Gallicanus et Bassus 

318 uLicinius V et Crispus 

319 V Constantinus V et Licinius 

320 wConstantin. VI et Constantin. 

321 X Crispus II et Constantinus II 

322 y Probianus et Julianus 

323 zSeverus et Rufinus 

324 ^ Crispus III et Constantin. Ill 

325 ^Paulinus et Julianus 

326 ^ Constantin. VII et Constantius 

327 ^Constantius et Maximus 

328 ^ Januarinus et Justus 

329 J'Constantin.VI II Constantin. IV 

330 ''Gallicanus et Symmachus 

331 " Bassus et Ablavius 



01. Ind. y. CiiRON. Pasch. 



10, 



2 i Constantius VI et Maximian. VI 
His coss. Constantius ob. 

272. 11. 3 J Constantinus Augustus solus 

12. 4 ^Decies et Galerius VII 

13. 5 n Maxim. VI II et Galer. Maximus 

14. 6 [Constantinus II et Licinius] 

273. 15. 7 ^Constantinus III et Licinius II 

1. 8 P Constantinus IV et Licinius III 

2. 9 iVolusianus et Annianus 

3. 10 r Constantinus V et Licinius IV 

274. 4. 11 sSabinus et Rufinus 

5. 12 tGallicanus et Symmachus 

6. 13 u Licinius V et Crispus 

7. 14 V Constantinus VI et Licinius V 

275. 8. 15 ^Constantinus VII et Constantius 
9. 16 X Crispus II et Constantius II 

10. 17 y Probianus et Julianus 

11. 18 zSeverus et Rufinus 

276. 12. 19 Crispus III et Constantius III 

13. 20 Paulinus et Julianus 

14. 21 Constantinus IX et Constantius IV 

15. 22 Constantius V et Maximus 
277- 1. 23 Januarius et Justus 

2. 24 Constantinus X et Constantius V 

3. 25 Gallicanus et Symmachus 

4. 26 Bassus et Ablabius 



Cassiodor. 

J Diocletianus IX et Constantiiuis 

k Diocletianus X et Maximus VII 

the abdication. 
IP. C. Diocletian. X et Maxim. VII 
mil P. C. Diocl. X et Maxim. VII 
"Maximus VIII et Licinius 
o Constantinus II et Licinius II 
PConstantinus III et Licinius III 
q Volusianus et Annianus 
r Constantinus IV et Licinius IV 
SSabinus et Rufinus 
tGallicanus et Bassus 
u Licinius V et Crispus 
V Constantinus V et Licinius 
w Constantinus VI et Constantinus 
X Crispus II et Constantinus II 
y Probianus et Julianus 
zSevenis et Rufinus 
^Crispus III et Constantinus III 
^ Paulinus et Julianus 
^ Constantin. VII et Constantius IV 
° Constantius V et Maximus 
^Januarius et Justus 
'^ Constantin. VIII et Constantius VI 
*^ Constantius VII et Symmachus 
^ Bassus et Ablavius 



321 Murat. p. 373, 2 Romse in Capitolio : in uno 
latere Herculi invic. M. Jun. Ccesonius Nicomachus 
Anicius Faustus Paulinus C. V. P. V. D. D. in altero 
XII Kal. Octob. Crispo et Constantino Ccess. II coss. 
p. 373. 3 Romse : DD.NN. Crispo et Constantino ju- 
niore nohilissimis Ccess. it. coss. Ill Non. Sextil. ordo 
M. Diditunorum hospitium amicitiamque fecit cum Q. 
Aradio Val. Proculo V. C. et ipsum liber os posterosque 
ejus sibi liberis posterisque suis patronuni cooptavit. 
Q. Aradius Val. Proculus V. C. prtBses p.p. hospitium 
amicitiamque fecit cum ordine M. Diditanorum ipsos 
liberos posterosque eorum sibi liberisque suis in fidem 
clientelamque suam posterorumque suorum recepit agente 
ordine. Add this to similar inscriptions quoted in the 
Tables A.D. 321, 2. 

j col. 2 Chron, Pasch, p. 279 B Ivh. id. y. itv. No- 
jSi'ou KcovoTavrivov Aiiyovarov fiovov. No^lov is a mere 
corruption of novies. this consulship being called no- 
vies et Constantino. See the Tables A.D, 307. 1- 

k col. 2 After this consulship Chron. Pasch. p, 
279 B omits 1 and m. Again after n Chron. Pasch, 
interpolates p. 280 A Kwi/orai/rti/ow AiyovoTov to ^ koL 
AiKiviov. 

o col. 2 From hence Chron, Pasch. has the right 
number of consulships. See the Tables A, D, 562, 4 
p. 815. It has been thought desirable however to 
continue the list of the Chronicle in this second co- 
lumn, in order to exhibit the indictions, the years of 



each reign, and any variations in the name or de- 
scription of the consuls, 

1 col. 3 Maximiano et Licinio Victor. Galerius is 
called Maximus in Cassiod, at c &c. and in Victorius, 
Rightly Maximianus in Prosper, In the error of 
Diocletian for Maximian at k 1 m Cassiodorus is pre- 
ceded by Prosper and by Victorius, 

325 col. 2 Chron. Pasch. p, 282 B anno 295" t^s 
els ovpavovs a.pd\T]-\lr€<os tov Kvplov. Under this year the 
Chronicle has these dates : 

1 Council of Nice June 19, 

2 Constans (Constantius) declared Ccesar Nov. 8. 

3 Vicennalia at Rome. 

4 Battle of Adrianople (against Licinius) June 27; 

of Chalcedon Sept, 18. 

5 Crispus slain. 

The true dates of 2 and 4 will be seen in the Tables. 

c col, 3 Constantino et Constantio Victor, 
D col. 3 Constantino et Maximo Victor. 
F col. 3 Constantino et Const ante Victor. 
G col. 3 Constantio et Symmacho Victor. 

330 col. 2 Chron, Pasch. p. 284 anno 301" -rqs ds 
ovpavovs avdKTjyj/eas. 

331 Muratori p. 375. 1 Romse : Asellus et Lea 
Prisco patri benemerenti in pace, qui bixit annis 
LXIIII mensibus III dies N. XII. V K. Oct. D. 
Basso et Ablavio conss. 

C C 2 



196 



APPENDIX. 



0.2. 



A.D. 



Consuls 



332 aPacatianus et Hilarianus 

333 b Dalmatius et Zenophilus 

334 cOpUtus et Paiilinus 

335 dConstantius et Albinus 

336 e Nepotianus et Faciindus 

337 f Felicianus et Titianus 

ConstarUinus ob. 

338 rUrsus et Polemius 

339 h Coiistantius II et Constans 

340 iAcyndinus et Proculus 

341 ''Marcellinus et Probinus 

342 IConstantius III et Constans II 

343 na Placidus et Romulus 

344 n licontius et Sallustius 

345 oAmantius et Albinus 

346 PConstantius IV et Constans III 

347 iRufinus et Eusebius 

348 rPhilippus et Salia 

349 s Limenius et CatuUinus 

350 tSergius et Nigrinianus 



01. 
278. 



279. 



Ind. y. Chron. Pasch. 

5. 27 Pacatianus ^^ Hilarianus 

6. ?8 Dalmatus et Zenophilus 

7. 29 Optatus et Paulinus 

8. 30 Constantius VI et Albinus 

9. 31 Nepotianus et Facundus 

10. 32 Felicianus et Tatianus 

His coss. Constant, ob. 

11. 1 Ursus et Polemius 

12. 2 Constantinus IV et Constans VII 



280. 



281. 



282. 



13. 


3 Acindynus et Produs 


14. 


4 Marcellinus et Problnus 


15. 


5 Constantius V et Constans II 


1. 


6 Placitus et Romulus 


2. 


7 Leontius et Sallustius 


3. 


8 Amantius et Albinus 


4. 


9 Constantius VI et Constans III 


5. 


10 Rufinus et Eusebius 


6. 


1 1 Philippus et Salia 


7. 


12 Limenius et CatuUinus 


8. 


13 Sergius et Nigrinianus 



Cassiodor. 

a Pacatianus et Hilarianus 
^Delmatius et Zenophilus 
c Optatus et Paulinus 
d Constantius et Albinus 
e Nepotianus et Facundus 
f Felicianus et Titianus 

S Ursus et Polemius 

h Constantius II et Constans 

His coss. Constant, moritur. 
iAcyndinus et Proculus 
I' Marcellinus et Probinus 
IConstantius III et Constans II 
m Placidus et Romulus 
n Leontius et Sallustius 
PConstantius IV et Constans III 
oAmantius et Albinus 
[P. C. Amantii et Albini] 
<lRutinus et Eusebius 
r Philippus et Sallia 
s Limenius et CatuUinus 



334 Murat. p. 375. 2 Lugduni : Optato et Paulino 
consulibus Kal. Febraris depos. Selentioses. 

337 Mur. p. 303. 1 Romse : Fabius Titianus V. C, 
consul preef. urbi curavit. 393. 2 Romse : Titus Fabius 
Titianus V. C. cons. ord. prcsf. urb. curavit. p. 393. 5 
Romae : .... maximo victori ac triumphatori semper 
Aug. Fabius Titianus Aug. cons, ordinarius prof, urbi 
iterum [see the Tables A. D. 351. 1] judex cognitio- 
num sacrarum majestati ejus dicatissimus. These refer 
to the consul of this year. No 5 is addressed to 
Magnentius in 351. Conf. Zosimum II. 49 ^k€ Tirt- 
avos — Xoyovs dirb Mayvevriov (j)fpcav k. t. X. 

338 Mur. p. 376. 2 Romse : Attie Publicce B. ques- 
quenti in p. [i. e. " bene quiescenti in pace." Murat.] 
Ursus pater Urso et Polemio coss. p. 376. 3 Romse : 
Fq. Heraclius qui fuit in sceculum an. XVIII m. VII 
d. XX et jilo suo benemerenti in p. decessit VII IDF 
STEB. [lege Idus Feb.'] Urso et Polemio conss. p. 
376. 4 Romse : Anime innocenti Gaudentice que vixit 
ann. V m. VII dies XXT in pace Mercurius pater filice. 
D. V Idus Novemb, Urso et Polemio coss. p. 376. 5 
Aquilse : Dedicata III Kal. Jul. Urso et Polemio cons, 
ob cujus dedicationem dedit plebi urbance ad (tpulum 
convivii panem et vinum tauros II verbeces XV prce- 
terea et area eorum folles m, . . ex quorum usuris per 
singulos annos convivium dedicationis sibe exsibeant. 

339 Mur. p. 377- 1 Romse : Aur. Candidiante bene 
quesquenti [conf. p. 376. 2] in pace quee vixit annis 
XXXI menses Villi cum marito fuit annos XI menses 
VIII dies X deposita Kal. April. Constantino Aug. II 
et Constante Aug. coss. Male Constantino pro Con- 
stantio. 

341 Muratori p. 377- 2 Neriti : Antonio Marcellino 
et Petronio Probino coss, II Nonas Maias succlamante 
populo Empurii Naunce de . . offerenda tabula cerea in- 



cisa patronatus M. Salv. Balerio vivo splendido cut 
jamdudum secundum bocis ejusdem populi et bolunta- 
tem onor patronatus oblatus est &c. — placet itaque uni- 
verso populo Empurii Naunitani tabulam ceream inci- 
sam ei offerri debere quo gratius digne onorem sibi 
conlatum a devotissimo populo Empurii nostri libenti 
animo suscipiat, censuentibus Cn, Julio Memio prcetore 
C. Jul, Secundo .... Gem. Afrodisio d 

343 Mur, p. 378. 1 Romse : Felicitas in pace XVIII 
Kal, Dec. Placido et Romulo coss. 

344 Leontii et Sallustii consulatus is named in Cod. 
Theod. V. 13, 15 p. 303 Wenck. in a law dated Sir- 
mium July 29 A. D. 364. 

345 Mur. p. 378. 3 Extra Romam : . . . . teni so- 

rori castissim, B, Amantio et Albino con XXII. 

Dep, XIII K. Aug aulo conss. 

348 Murat. p. 379. 2 Romse : 

Tov Tvacrqs dpenis (lhr]fxova (pcora ^iKnmov 

irpea^vv 'Aovltjs efXTrepafiov (ro(f)ir)s 
Av(rovi(ov inrarov itaripa kKvtov 'Avriyovoio 

dpe^e MaKTjdovlri Se^aro S' EtraXt?;. 

p. 379. 3 Extra Urbem Romam : Mire bonitatis atq. 
sanctitati L. Subiee JanuarieR conjugi que vixit mecum 
annos XVIII m, V d. XX Varadius Melissus maritus 
et sibi fecit, Deposita in pace III Kal, Apr. Filippo 
et Salio coss. 

o P col. 3 For the transpositions and interpola- 
tions of Prosper Victorius and Cassiodorus at A. D. 
345 see Introduction p. xi and Tables A. D. 345. 1. 

349 Murat. p. 380. 1 Romse : Limenio et Catulino 
cons. III Idus Januarias defunctus est Euvodius qui 
vixit annos LXV menses tres et dies XI, benemerenti 
in pace fecit conjnx, p. 380. 2 Romse : . . . . menses 
IX dies XVII ibit in pace VI Kal. Decenbres Limenio 



CONSULS. 



197 



A.D. 



Consuls 



351 up. c. Sergii et Nigriniani 

352 vConstantius V et Constantius 

353 w Constantius VI et Constant. II 

354 X Constant. VII et Constant. Ill 

355 yArbetio et Lollianus 

356 zConstantins VIII et Julianns 

357 ^Constantius IX et Jiilianus II 

358 J'Datianus et Cerealis 

359 ^ Eusebius et Hypatius 

360 I' Constantius X et Julianus III 

361 *^ Taurus et Florentius 

Constantius ob. 

362 Mamertinus et Nevitta 

363 Julianus IV et Sallustius 

Julianus ob. 

364 Jovianus et Vai-ronianus 

Jovianus ob. 

365 Valentinianus et Valens 

366 Gratianus et Dagalaiphus 

367 Lupicinus et Jovinus 



01. Ind. y. Chron. Pasch. 

9. 1 4 Sergius et Nigrinianus 

283. 10. 15 Constantius VII et Constans 

11. 16 Constantius VIII et Constans II 

12. 17 Constantius IX et Constans III 

13. 18 Arbetio et Lollianus 

284. 14. 19 Constantius X et Julianus 

15. 20 Constantius XI et Julianus II 

1. 21 Datianus et Cerealius 

2. 22 Eusebius et Hypatius 

285. 3. 23 Constantius XII et Julianus III 
4. 24 Taurus et Florentius 

His coss. Constant, ob. 
6. 1 Mamertinus et Nevitta 
6. 2 Julianus IV et Sallustius 

His coss. Julianus ob. 

286. 7. 1 Jovianus et Varronianus 

8. 1 Valentinianus et Valens 

9. 2 Gratianus et Dagalaiphus 
10. 3 Lupicinus et Jovianus 



Cassiodou. 

t Sergius et Nigrinianus 

up. C. Sergii et Nigriniani 

V Constantius V et Constans 

w Constantius VI et Constans II 

X Constantius VII et Constans III 

yArbetio et Lollianus 

z Constantius VIII et Julianus 

A Constantius IX et Julianus II 

^Titianus et Cerealis 

^Eusebius et Hypatius 

'^Constantius X et Julianus III 

Taunis et Florentius 
Mamertinus et Nevitta 

His coss. Constantius ob. 
Julianus IV et Sallustius 

His coss. Julianus ob. 
Jovianus et Varronianus 

His coss. Jovianus ob. 
Valentinianus et Valens 
Gratianus et Dagalaiphus 



et Catulino conss. p. 380. 3 Asturicse : Aco Catul- 
linus vir consularis presses pro salute sua suorumque 
omnium posuit. 

351 Murat. p. 380. 4 Romae : . . . . eventi [forte . . 
. . erenti] qui bixet cum co . . . . XXI mes. Ill deposi- 
tus . . . . mes. Ill d. VIII. depositus T. . . Mannentio et 
Decentio coss. Some testimonies name in 351 Mag- 
nentius et Gaso. See the Tables A.D. 351. 1. For 
Decentius see above c. 1 p. 101. 

355 Murat. p. 380. 5 Romag : Statilia Tigris filia 
dulcissima que vixit ann. XXII d. XVIIII et cum ma- 
rito fecit ann. IIII m. Ill d. VII Kal. Julias quiescet 
in pace Flaviis Arbitione et Lolliano cons. p. 381. 1 
Extra Romam : ... Justina . . . XVII D. . . . cintum 
sum vidua . . .VI Idus Sep. in pace . . .vixit annos XXV 
m. IIII ioni et Lolliani cons. 

358 Mur. p. 381. 2 Salone : Fl. Julius Zaconus et 
Aurelia Meria conjux ejus hoc sarcofagum sibi vibi 
posuerunt. Si quis post nostram pausationem hoc sar- 
cofagum aperire voluerit, inferat ecclesice Salon, ar- 
genti libras quinquaglnta. Dep. Jul. Zaconis die III 
Novembres Datiano et Cereale coss. 

359 Mur. p. 381. 3 Nolee : a mutilated inscription 
ends with Eusebio et Ypatio coss. DP. in pace VI 
Kal. Jan. p. 382. I Romse : Eusevio et Ypatio CC. 
V Idus Junias decesset Prima quce vixit annus XXXV 
m. II. Deposita in pac. p. 382. 2 Romse : Junius 
Bassus &c. Given already in the Tables A. D. 359. 1 
from Gruter p. 1162. 

360 Mur. p. 382. 4 Romae : Parentes Dionisio filio 
dulcissimo. vix. an. V m. VII d. VIII. DP. XVI Kal. 
Sept. Constautio X cos. in p. Dulcissime filie Erotia- 
neti. vix. an. II m. VII d. XI. Dep. XIIII Kal. Sep. 
Constantio X cos. in pac. 

362 Mur. p. 382. 5 Romae : Mamcrtino et Nebitta 



CO. Nonius Victor Olympius V. C. et Aur. Victor Au- 
gentius tradiderant Leontica Kal. April, felic. alia tra- 
diderunt con. SS. VI Idus Apr. felic. Leont. cons. SS. 
tradiderunt Cryphios VI Idus Apr. felic. p. 383. 1 
Cinguli : Fl. Fortunio viro divotissimo palatino patrono 
dignissimo ob insignia ejus merita ordo Cingulanorum 
ponendum decrevit die VI Idus Octobres Mamertino et 
Nivitta conss. 

364 Mur. p. 383. 2 Romae : Puer natus divo Joviano 
Aug. et Varroniano coss. era noctis IIII in uxit. VIII 
Idus Madias die Saturnis Luna vicesima Sicno Capri- 
corno nomine Simplicous. Muratori : " Legendum 
fortasse in exit. In calce restitue in signo Capricorni 
nomine Simplicius." 

365 Murat. p. 383. 3 Romse : Bonee memorice filio 
dulcissimo Laurentio. vixit ann. XVI m. V d. IIII de- 
cessit IIII Idus Aug. Valentiniano et Valente conss. 

366 Mur. p. 383. 5 Romae : Cecili dominus Felicis 
post cons. Valentiniani et Valentis VII Kal. Feb. depos. 
Apollinus qui vix. ann. XVIIII m. VII d. VI. quescet 
in pace, mater Leopardes. p. 383. 6 Romae : Bene- 
merenti filice Agapeni vircini in pace dep. Ill Kal. Dec. 
Gratano et Degala'ifo coss. V. a. XX. p. 384. 1 In- 

teramnae : .... quce defuncta est XIIII Kal 

cons. Gratiano et Dalhfo. 

367 Murat. p. 384. 2 Romae : Flaviis Lupicino et 
Jobino conss. VII Idus Junias decesset de seculum puer 
Victorinus qui bixit annus XXXVII m. X d. X et cum 
uxsore fecit anus II m. III. DP. V Idus Junias. vene- 
merenti in pace. p. 384. 3 extra Romam : Beneme- 
renti in pace Festo qui vixit annos XI et menses Villi 

depositus XI K Jovino et Lupicino. Benemerenti 

Compari Hilarino qui vixit a. . . . Depositus VI Kal. 
Octob. Valentiniano II et Va . . . [sc. A. D. 368.] 



198 



APPENDIX. 



0.2. 



A,D. 



COKSULS 



368 Valentinianus II et Valens II 

369 Valentinianus et Victor 

370 Valentinianus III et Valens III 

371 Gratianus II et Probus 

372 Modestus et Arintheus 

373 Valentinianus IV et Valens IV 

374 Gratianus III et Equitius 

375 P. C. Gratiani III et Equitii 

376 Valens V et Valentinianus 

377 Gratianus IV et Merobaudes 

378 Valens VI et Valentinianus II 

Valens ob. 

379 Ausonius et Olybrius 

380 Gratianus V et Theodosius 

381 Eucherius et Syagrius 

382 Antonius et Syagrius 

383 Merobaudes II et Saturninus 



01. 

287. 



288. 



289. 



Ind. y. 



Chhon. Pasch. 



11. 4 Valentinianus II et Valens II 

12. 5 Valentinianus III et Victor 

13. 6 Valentinianus IV et Valens III 

14. 7 Gratianus II et Probus 

15. 8 Modestus et Arinthwus 

1. 9 Valentinianus V et Valens IV 

2. 10 Gratianus III et Equitius 

3. 11 Gratianus IV et Equitius II 

4. 12 Valens V et Valentinianus 

5. 13 Gratianus V et Merobaudes 

6. 14 Valens VII et Valentinianus II 

His coss. Valentinianus ob. 

7. 1 Ausonius et Olybrius 



290. 8. 2 Gratianus VI et Theodosius 

9. 3 Syagrius et Eucherius 

10. 4 Antoninus et Syagrius II 

11. 6 Merobaudes et Saturninus 



Cassiobor. 

Lupicinus et Jovinus 
Valentinianus II et Valens II 
Valentinianus et Victor 
Valentinianus III et Valens III 
Gratianus II et Probus 
Modestus et Arintheus 
Valentinianus IV et Valens IV 
Gratianus III et Equitius 
P. C. Gratiani III et Equitius 
Valens V et Valentinianus 
Gratianus IV et Merobaudes 

Valens VI et Valentinianus II 

His coss. Valens ob. 
Ausonius et Olybrius 
Gratianus V et Theodosius 
Syagrius et Eucherius 
Antonius et Syagrius 



369 Mur. p. 384. 5 Romse : Hie posita est puella 
Benigna quce vix. ann. XVI d. X. Dep. VIII Kal. Aug. 
Valentiniano n.p. et Victore. 

370 Murat. p. 384. 6 Romae : Aur. Alexander qui 
vit. annus XVII MN. VII. DP. XII Octob. Valen- 
tiniano III et Valente III coss. p. 385. 1 Romae : 
Puer Rufin. qui vixit ann. XVIIII di. Villi. D. prid. 
Idus Oct. DD. NN. Valentiniano et Valenti Auc. Ill 
con. p. 385. 2 Romae : Benemer. mart, dulcis. qui 
vix. in pace. D. Non. Se. Dominis nostris Vtin. et VN. 
Augg. Ill cons. 

371 Murat. p. 385. 3 Romae : Hie jacet Musculo 
que et Galatia que vix. ann. duoh. mens. duoh. et D. 
XVII. Dep. XV Kal. Aug. Gratiano Aug. II et Probo 
conss. in pace. Bone memorie adque innocentie Sums 
qui bixit annos duos men. VII dies XVII. in pace dec. 
VII Idus Julias. Probus is commemorated in Mura- 
tori p. 385. 4 Verouae : Petronio Probo V. C. totius 
admirationis viro procons. Af rices, prcef. pratorio Illy- 
rid preef. prat. Galliar. II prcef. prcet. Italice atq. A- 
friccE III cons, ordinario civi eximite bonitatis disertiss. 

atq. omnib. rebus eruditissimo patrono nepoti Probiani 
[see the Tables A. D. 322. 1. 3] Jilio Probini [Tables 
A. D. 341] VV. CC. praf. urbis et cos. See the Ta- 
bles A. D. 395. 1. 

373 Mur. p. 386. 1 Romae : Cintia B. M. in P. Q. V. 
an. P.M. XXV m. Id. V. Dep. D. V Non. Octob. 
Valentiniano Augg. IIII. 

374 Murat. p. 386. 4 Romae : Benemerenti in pace 
libera que bixit an. ^11 Neofita. Dep. die III Nonas 
Maias con. Gratiano III et Equitio. 

375 Murat. p. 386. 5 Sestini : Votivitate et tota 
mente devota genium curia dedicatum in statuam in 
curia Aug. positum perpetue lucis posuit admenestra- 
tionis suee Vesenus Frontinianus curator R. P. hujusce 
patritE, posita sub dice XII K. Octobris post consulatu. 
D. N. Gratiani Augusti III et Equitio consulibus. 
p. 386. 6 Romae : Petronia digna conjuci que vixit 
annis XXI et fecit cum compare suo m.Xd.F Kal. 



Nob. pos. conss. Gratiani et Equiti Ursus maribis sibi 
et innoceiiti compari fecit. Cesquet in pace. p. 387. 1 

extra Romam : Hie quiesce ianus. Dep. . . . 

Martias post cons. Gratiani et . . . . ti. p. 386. 3 ex- 
tra Romam : Conpari dementi .... marito qui vix. 
. . . . t Idibus Februar. .... ani Aug. Ill et Equitii. 
. . . .in pace. 

377 Murat. p. 387- 2 Romae : M. D. M. Idea et 
Attidi &c. Given from Gruter in the Tables A. D. 
377. 1. But Gruter is less complete than Muratori. 
Mur. p. 387. 3 Pisauri: Joviano karissimo fecit Lam- 
padius et Soteres fratres pientissimi Merobaude. p. 

388. 1 Romae : M. D. M. J. et Attidi menotyranno 
conservatoribus suis Ltelius Hilarianus V. C. duo de- 
cembur urbis Roma P.S. et hierocerux J.M.S.D.L.S.D. 
Hecate D. N. Gratiano Aug. et Merobaude conss. IIII 
Idus Maias. p. 388. 2 Romae : Marcus . . . fecerunt 

.... Petrus vixit X Kal. Apr. DD. NN. 

Gratiano IIII et Mer Anastasa Dec. Ill .... 

qua vix. ann. IIII d. X. Marcus qui vixit a . . . 

380 Murat. p. 388. 4 Romae : Venemerenti in pacem 
qui vvixit anus XVII m. XI. depositus III Nonas Oc- 
tobris DD. NN. Gratiano Theodosi. Auculeo. [Augusto 
recte Mur.] p. 388. 3 Romae : Leo depositus III 
Nonas Octobris DD.NN. Gratiano et Theodosio Augg. 
coss. ipsi benemerenti in pace qui vixit annos XVII 
mens. XI titulus positus. p. 388. 5 Romae : H. 0. 
Eustolius V. C. cum filia The . . . depositus X Kal. Aug. 
depo . .. DD. NN. Gratiano V et Theodosio Augg. 
coss. J. P. 

381 Murat. p. 389. 1 Romae : 

Presbyter hie situs est Celerinus nomine Die 

Corporeos rumpens nexus qui gaudet in astris. 

Dep. Villi Kal. Jun. Fl. Syagrio et Eugerio. p. 

389. 2 Romae : . . . . s et Innocentia Fl. . . annos V et 
menses IIII. Be ... . grio et Eucherio vi. cl. 

383 Mur. p. 389. 3 Romae : Hie Jacet Ticira. vixit 
annis V mensib. Ill Dep. Ill Kal. Mai. Merubaude et 









CONSULS. 


A.D. Consuls 


OL 


Ind 


y. Chron. Pasch. 


384 Richonieres et Clearchus 


291. 


12. 


6 Richomeres et Clearchus 


385 Arcadiiis et Baiito 




13. 


7 Arcadius et Bauto 


386 Honoriiis et Euodius 




14. 


8 Honorius et Euodius 


387 Valentiniaims III et Eutropius 




15. 


9 Valentinianus IV et Eutropius 


388 Theodosius II et Cynegius 


292. 


1. 


10 Theodosius II et Cynegius 


389 Timasius et Proraotus 




2. 


1 1 Timasius et Promotus 


390 Valentinianus I V et Neoterius 




3. 


12 Valentinianus IV et Neoterius 


391 Tatianus et Symmachus 




4. 


13 Tatianus et Symmachus 


392 Arcadius II et Rufinus 


293. 


5. 


14 Arcadius II et Rufinus 


393 Theodosius III et Abundantius 




6. 


15 Theodosius III et Abundantius 


394 Arcadius III et Houorius II 




7- 


16 Arcadius III et Honorius II 
His coss. Theodosius ob. 


395 Olybrius et Probinus 




8. 


1 Olybrius et Probinus 


Theodosius ob. 








396 Arcadius IV et Honorius III 


294. 


9. 


2 Arcadius IV et Honorius III 



199 



Cassiodor. 

Jlerobaudes II et Saturninus 
Ricimer et Clearchus 
Arcadius et Bauto 
Honorius et Euodius 
Valentinianus III et Eutropius 
Theodosius II et Cynegius 
Timasius et Promotus 
Valentinianus IV et Neoterius 
Tatianus et Symmachus 
Arcadius II et Rufinus 
Theodosius III et Abundantius 

Arcadius III et Honorius II 

Olvbrius et Probinus 



Saturnino conss. p. 389. 4 Romse : M. D. M. J. et 
Attidi sancto menotyranno Q. Clodius Flavianus V. C. 
pont. major XVvir S. F. septemvir epulonum pontifex 
del Solis taurobolio crioboUoque percepto aram dicavit 
Nonis Aprilibus FF. LL. Merobaude et Saturnino 
conss. p. 389. 5 extra Romam : Johan. venerabili 

benemerenti. deposita in pace cons dii et Saturn. 

.... Vibo fecit, p. 389. 6 Ibidem : Locus domine ac 
b siati benem. . . . an. XXVIII. deposit. . . Mero- 
baude compar. se vivo. 

384 Murat. p. 390. 1 Romse : DD. NN. Clearcho 
et Ricomede VV. CC. consulibus benemerenti Olibioni 
qui vixit annus XV mesis VI dies XX decessit die XII 
Kalendas Octobres in pace. p. 390. 2 Romse : Cas- 
tissimce filice Domitianeni Viroine mater pro amore fe- 
cit que vixit annis .... menses IIII dies tres. Deposita 
XV Kal. Octobres Ricimere et Cliarco consulibus. 

385 Murat. p. 390. 3 Vindobonse : FL Arcadio et 
Baudone conss. X Kal. Julias defunctus Leontius Neo- 
fitus qui vixit ann. plus minus XXVIII mes. V d. XV. 
venemerenti in pace. 

386 Mur. p. 390. 4 in agro Interamnse : Post con- 
sulatum Arcadi et Bautoni V. C. cons. VI Nonas Mart, 
deposita est Nervinia Euresia H. F. in pace que vixit 
annos pi. m. XXVIIII Crispinus maritus sed et Um- 
bricia Abundantia dulcissimce filiee et sibi fecit. 

387 Mur. p. 391. 1 Roma3 : Felicitas que bix. an. Ill 
m. Ill et d. XIII. DP. Ill X KL. Feb. cons. Valen- 
tiniano III. p. 39 1 . 2 in Hispania : Fx officina Ho- 
moni utere felix Vasconi in X. Proc. Tiberiano Jactus 
est horreum D. N. Valentiniano Aug. ter et Eutropio 
V. C. cons, scrib. Elefanto. p. 391. 3 Romae : . . . . 

pere mors . . . .per annos .... ecula lugens .... Valen- 
tiniano III et Eutropio . . Qu. [sc. quievit : Murat.] 
Onorio III Aug. coss. [A. D. 396.] p. 391 . 4 Romte : 
. . . . nti in pace Q. . . ritum anni LVII. . . Kal. Jan. 

deposita est XIII no III et Eutropio conss. 

390 Mur. p. 392. 1 . Given in the Tables 390. 1 
from Gruter. ' Mur. p. 392. 2 extra Romam : . . . . 
miliana . . ib. . pr<storia . . columna Paul . . natale X. 
Valentiniani Aug. Ill et Neoteri V. C. administrante 



ei Filippo vir. . . In superiori parte columnse : Siri- 
cius episcopus A. Christo tola mente devotus : Christo 
expressed by a monogram with co. On Siricius see 
the Tables A. D. 384. 4. 

391 Mur. p. 393. 3 Romse : Tetiliano benemerenti 
in pace qui vixit annus N. LXV d. V in pacem VII 
Idus Maias Tatiano et Symmaco conss. 4 Romse : 
Hie posita est Adeodata Q. V. an. VI m. Ill d. 
XXIIII in pace dep. Ill Non. Mai. Tatiano et Summa. 

392 Mur. p. 393. 6 Romse : Totius pudicitice Veritas 
Ignatia Gerontia quae vixit annos P. M. XLIII fecit 
cum conpare suo ann. XXIIII ivit in pace X Kal. A- 
pril. D. N. Arcadio II et Rufino cons. p. 393. 7 Pi- 
sauri : AioaKopos pavKKrjpos codr] rjKVfiidrj iv rjprjvr) r]^r]a. 
rjTT] Kq . irapaKari. ff koK. Map. vmraT. rw ApKad. 2. koI 
'Povcf)r]v. {a)8e iK0ipLr)6r} iv elprjvrj. e^rjaev e-rr) kt)' . TrapqKa- 

TiBr] K. T. X.) 

394 Murat. p. 394. 2 Romae. In anteriori facie : 

probitate morum industriaque vivendi atque 

utrisque litteris erudito jam inde a majoribus suis in- 
lustribusq. familiis civitatis patrono cujus opera ac 
beneficio recepit civitas elementum cujus mentum series 
temporis vetustasque consumserat. nam ejus cui'a sump- 
tuque aqua modo non deest necessariis usibus civitatis 
verum etiam in eruendis plurimis locis splendidissimum 
urbi prcBstitit ornamentum. huic igitur ob liatc insignia 
genera meritorum statuam Sceniasium [Scenensium Mur.] 
ordo decrevit adque in teternee urbis privatis ejus cedibus 
conlocavit. In latere : Dedic. Idus Aug. DD. NN. 
Arcadio III et Honorio II Augg. conss. 

396 Mur. p. 395. 2 in oppido Bazzano : Catervio 
flio dulcissimo qui vixit an. XXIII d. XIII. De. XII 
Kal. Sep. Arcadio IIII et Onorio III. p. 395. 3 
Romse : Hie requiescit Quodvultdeus honeste recor- 
dationis vir qui vicxit annos L^l. Depositus in pace 
die V Idus Octobres conss. DD. NN. Arcadio Aug. 
quater et Honorio Aug. ter consulibus. p. 395. 5 
Romse : Huic tumulo quiescet totius f. . . . integritatis 

homo opinionis boni au ratione fidelis mentis in- 

tegrcB amicorum ob hoc igitur Neoftus Spac . . 

. . Aufinianus qui vixit annis XLII. Depositus DD.NN. 



200 



APPENDIX. 



C. 2. 



A.D. 



Consuls 



397 Caesarius et Atticus 

398 Honorius IV et Eutychianus 

399 Theodorus et Eutropius 

400 Stilicho et Aurelianus 

401 Vincentius et Fravitta 

402 Arcadius V et Honorius V 

403 Theodosius et Rumoridus 

404 Honorius VI et Aristsenetus 

405 Stilicho II et Anthemius 

406 Arcadius VI et Frobus 

407 Honorius VII et Theodosius II 

408 Bassus et Philippus 

Arcaditis ob. 

409 Honorius VIII et Theodosius III 

410 Varanes et TertuUus 

411 Theodosius IV 



01. 


Ind. 


y. Chron. Pasch. 




10. 


3 Caesarius et Atticus 




U. 


4 Honorius IV et Eutychianus 




12. 


5 Theodorus solus 


295. 


13. 


6 Stihcho et Aurelianus 




14. 


7 Vicentius et Fravitta 




15. 


8 Arcadius V et Honorius V 




1. 


9 Theodosius et Romoridus 


296. 


2. 


10 Honorius VI et Aristsenetus 




3. 


1 1 Stilicho II et Anthemius 




4. 


12 Arcadius VI et Probus 




5. 


13 Honorius VII et Theodosius II 


297. 


6. 


14 Bassus et Philippus 
His coss. Arcadius ob. 




7. 


1 Honorius VIII et Theodosius III 



2 Varanes solus 

3 Honorius IX et Theodosius IV 



Cassiodoh. 

His coss. Theodosius moritur. 
Arcadius IV et Honorius III 
Caesarius et Atticus 
Honorius IV et Eutychianus 
Mallius et Theodoras 
Stilico et Aurelianus 
Vincentius et Fravitta 
Arcadius V et Honorius V 
Theodosius et Rumoridus 
Honorius VI et Aristaenetus 
Stilico II et Anthemius 
Arcadius VI et Probus 
Honorius VII et Theodosius II 

Bassus et Philippus 

His coss. Arcadius moritur, 
Honorius VIII et Theodosius III 
Varan et Tertullus 



Arcadio IIII et Honorio III Aug. cos. p. 396. 1 
Romse : . . . .in pace IIII Nonas .... qui vixit annis 
LXXX io IV Honorio III ic posi. 

397 Mur. p. 396. 2 Romse : Revecce innocenti qucs 
vixit annum unum mensem unum dies XVII benemerenti 
in pace deposita Villi Kal. Septembres Flavio Caesario 
et Nonio Attica VV. CC. conss. Parentes benemerenti 
fecerunt. 3 Romae : Hie requiescit Perina in pace . . . 

. . a que bixit annos. Deposita Villi Kal. Sep. Fl. C<e- 
sario et Attico VV. CC. Syr a cum ... 4 Romse : . . . 

benata . . se vibi Fl. Casario ... 5 Romse : 

SanctcE conjugi Ceelestinee quce vixit annis XX mensen 
I dies XXII fecit autem cum AmpUato marito annis 
IIII dies XXI benemerenti in pace, deposita Villi 
Kal. Junias. Hilaritati filice benemerenti in pace qute 
vixit annis XXIII m. VIII d. XXVIII fecit cum ma- 
ritum annos V dies VI. Deposita IIII Non. Jul. Casario 
et Attico cos. 

398 Mur. p. 396. 6 Romse : . . . . ntiani et Epini- 

cenis Ill et Fl. Euticiano VV. CC. cos. . . 

.... XVI Kal. Octobr. depositus est .' ads qui 

vixit ann. P. M. LXV. 

399 Mur. p. 397. 2 Romse : Stabilis V. C. tribunus 
. . . an. pi. min. KL [lege XL] depositus in pace .... 
Ap]n7. Fl. Theodoro V. C. cons. 

400 Murat. p. 397. 3 Romse : Ubincentius qui vi. 
ann. P. M. LX. D. prid. Id. Jan. Fl. Stiliconi V. C. 
COS. in pace Q. p. 397- 4 Romse in monte Ccelio : 
L. Mario L.f. Quir. Maximo Perpetuo Aureliano cos. 
sacerdoti feciali leg. Augg. pr. pr. provincia Syrice 
Col<E leg. Aug. pr. pr. provincue Germanite inferioris 
item provinc. Belgiae dud exercit. Mysiaci apud Bi- 
zantium et apud Lugdunum leg. leg. I Italic, cur. vice 
Latinee item rdp. Faventinorum allecto inter pratorios 
trib. pleb. candidato qucestori urbano trib. laticl. leg. 
XXII Primig. item III Italicee HI J viarum curandarum 
M. Julius Artemidorus 7 leg. Ill Cyrenaica. 

402 Murat. p. 397. 5 extra Romam : Ic quiscet 
Cutinus in pace qui vixit anus P. M. XXVI. Deposit. 



Onorio Agusto V. Laurentius amicus dolis iscribit. 

p. 398. 1 Romse : Hie requiescit in pace qui vixit 

annos XXXIII m XV oras VI. recessit 

D. N. Onorio Aug. V. Cubecularia hunc titulum posuit. 

403 Mur. p. 398. 2 Romse : Hie requiescit in pace 

sacr. . . . germana Sunius ut Bonifatia DP. VIII 

Kal. Jan. cons Simboletiano C. F. Ares . . . . m 

fecerunt se vivi locum cum suis .... morido V. C. coss. 

404 Murat. p. 398. 3 Romse : Deposita Constantia 
VI Kal. Julias Honorio Aug. VI consule die dominica, 
quee vixit annos plus minus sexaginia benemerenti in 
pace. p. 398. 4 Romae : Hie requiescunt in pace Ere- 
trius et Antonina virginii qui siniul fecerunt ann. X.X^. 
mariius vixit ann. XL^III et uxor vixit ann. XXX? II. 
DP. Idus Decembris Honorio r cos. p. 398. 5 extra 

Romam : Hie quiescet Cutinus iw pace qui vix 

Honorio Augusto r Laurentio. The same inscription 
is at 402 Honorio V given already ; where Cutinus 
and Laurentius are named, p. 399. 1 extra Romam : 
Hie requiescet Istratoni qui vixit annus XXXVI. Dep. 

consulatu D. N. Honori Aug. VI ptim. V Idus 

Junias. 

405 Mur. p. 399. 3 Romse : Dis salutiferis. dedi- 
cata Stilikone et Antemio coss. Kal. Apr. 

406 Murat. p. 399. 4 extra Romam : Dulci Maria 

quce deposita est in pace die Idum Octobs. D VI 

et Petronio Probo V. C. cos. 

407 Murat. p. 399. 5 Tuscanellae : Innocentissimo 
filio Theodosio cujus pracipua claritas suadet D. cujus 
ego pater perenni luctu percius talem filium superstitem 
habere N. merui, qui vixit annis XVIII quievit in pace 
XIII Kal Octob. DD.NN. Honorio VII et Theodosio 
II Aug. p. 400. 1 Romse : Hie requiescit in pace Fe- 
licissima qua vixit annus LX, qua fecit cum viro suo 
annus XLV. Deposita pridie .... Honorio Aug. VII. 
Hdarianus conjugi iwtum posuit. 

410 Murat. p. 400. 2 Pisauri : Romana dulkisma 
CO. regeskit I. diem jud. Dep. Ill Kal. Mart. Var. 
Tertu. 



CONSULS. 



201 



A.D. Consuls 

412 Honorius IX et Theodosius V 

413 Lucius 

414 Constantius et Constans 

415 Honorius X et Theodosius VI 

416 Theodosius VII et Palladius 

417 Honorius XI et Constantius II 

418 Honorius XII et Theodos. VIII 

419 INIonaxius et Plinta 

420 Theodos. IX et Constantius III 

421 Eustathius et Agricola 

422 Honorius XIII et Theodosius X 

423 Asclepiodotus et Marinianus 

424 Castinus et Victor 

425 Theodosius XI et Valentinianus 

426 Theodosius XII et Valentin. II 

427 Hierius et Ardaburius 

428 Felix et Taurus 

429 Florentius et Dionysius 

430 Theodos. XIII et Valentin. HI 

431 Bassus et Antiochus 

432 Aetius et Valerius 

433 Theodosius XIV et 31aximus 

434 Areobinda et A spar 

435 Theodosius XV et Valentin. IV 

436 Isidorus et Senator 



01. Ind. 

298. 10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 

299. 14. 
15. 

1. 
2. 

300. 3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 

301. 7. 
8. 
9. 

10. 

302. 11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 

303. 15. 

1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 



304. 



y. Chron. Pasch. 

4 Theodosius V solus 

5 Lucius solus 

6 Constantius et Constans 

7 Honorius X et Theodosius VI 

8 Theodosius VII et Palladius 

9 Honorius XI et Constantius II 

10 Honorius XII et Theodosius VIII 

1 1 Monaxius et Phntha 

12 Theodosius IX et Constantius III 

13 Eustathius et Agricola 

14 Honorius XIII et Theodosius X 

15 Asclepiodotus et Marinianus 

16 Victor et Castinus 

17 Theodosius XI et Valentinianus 

18 Theodosius XII et Valentin. II 

19 Hierius et Ardaburius 

20 Felix et Taurus 

21 Florentius et Dionysius 

22 Theodosius XIII et Valentin. Ill 

23 Antiochus et Bassus 

24 Valerius et Aetius 

25 Theodosius XIV et 3Iaximus 

26 Areobinda et Aspar 

27 Theodosius XV et Valentin. IV 

28 Isidorus et Senator 



Cassiodor. 

Theodosius IV 

Honorius IX et Theodosius V 

Lucius V. C. cos. 

Constantius et Constans 

Honorius X et Theodosius VI 

Theodosius VII et Palladius 

Honorius XI et Constantius II 

Honorius XII et Theodosius VIII 

Monaxius et Plinta 

Theodosius IX et Constantius III 

Agricola et Eustathius 

Honorius XIII et Theodosius X 

Marinianus et Asclepiodotus 

Castinus et Victor 

Theodosius XI et Valentinianus 

Theodosius XII et Valentinianus II 

Hierius et Ardabures 

Felix et Taurus 

Florentius et Dionysius 

Theodosius XIII et Valentinian. Ill 

Bassus et Antiochus 

Aetius et Valerius 

Theodosius XIV et Maximus 

Aspar et Areobindas 

Theodosius XV et Valentinianus IV 



414 Muratori p. 400. 3 Spoleti : 

Rapta jaces natis quos mater ad ubera liquit 
Atque viro pariter quern cito destituit. 

Triste ministerium gemini solvere parentes, 
Funere de tanto quos coquit ipse dolor. 

Deposito SupercB diem quinctum KL. Juliarum con- 
sule Constantio V. C. Quce vixit ann. XXVII. 

415 Mur. p. 401. 2 B. M. hie etiam requiescit Gal- 
licanus V. C. qui vixit in seculo pi. m. an.LX. Dep. VI 
Id. Oct. DD. NN. Hotiorio X et Theodosio V Aug. 
coss. Muratori reads Theodosio VI. The numbers 
might also be restored to IX et V, expressing A. D. 
412. p. 401 . 3 extra Romam : . . . . uni et Agape . . 

. . ti manice ei Kal. Maias .... eodosio VI conss. 

.... ann]MS LXVIII. 

417 Murat. p. 401. 4 Florentise : evda KLrelKelrai] 
Mala dvydrrjp 'lodvvov K". NtKfparwi'. f^r^afv airr] \fTrf\ 
rpla fiT). rpir rjp,. tr TnoTt] iTeXevrrjo-fv firj. ^avdiKov S' f 
viraria 'Ovopiov Awy, to ai Kal Koaravriov to ^ . 

419 An epistle of Bonifacius of Rome apud Acta 
Concil. torn. 3 p. 43G is dated an this consulship : 
Bonifacius episcopus Patroclo Remigio Maximo Hilario 
Severo Valeria Juliano Castorio Leontio Constantino 
Joanni Montano Marino Mauricio et ceteris episcopis 
per Gallias et septem provincias constitutis. — Data sub 
die Idus Junias Monaxio viro clarissimo consule. 

422 Murat. p. 402. 1 extra Romam : Deposio Je- 
naries. Kal. Jenua . . cum virum suum an. XX^I c . . : 
. . i scripsit tibi virgineus tuus .... rebellasti quod ad- 
ominum Hi .... Anustasio ben in pace viro H . . 



. . qui vixit annis P. M die Nonas Octob. . . . 

Theodosi Aug. X. 

423 Mur. p. 402. 2 extra Romam : Hie quiescit . . . 
que vixit an. . . . in pace Till K. IV. . . Mariniano V. 
p. 402. 4 Rom 33 : . . . na Emisina que .... cum virgi- 
neum suum .... die Mariniano viri nob 

424 Murat. p. 402. 5 extra Romam : Deps est in 
pace Filo . . . Castino V. C. cons. 

425 Murat. p. 402. 6 Ravennse : Stephana Protasio 
et Gervasio heato martyrio et sibi memoriae Lauricius 
dedicavit sub die XIII Kal. Octobr. Theodosio XI et 
Placido Valentiniano coss. p. 402. 7 Romae : Hie re- 
quiescit Vitales Sema qui vixit an. pi. m. IIII et Bene- 
nat. qui vixit an. pi. m. IIII. D. pride Idus Augustas 
die Mercuris DD. NN. Teudosio Aug. XI et Valentano 
puero florentissimo Casare. 

426 Mur. p. 402. 8 Rom^ : D. NN. Theodosio XI 
et Valent. terrum cons. Idus Decern. Lege Theodosio 
XII et Valent. iterum. 

427 Mur. p. 403. 2 extra Romam : . . . . quern fa- 

talis u set institutum est. . . Hierio et Artabure 

coss. 

431 Muratori p. 404. 1 extra Romam : Hie requi- 
escit Felix V. C. vixit annis LXI recessit cons. Basso 
et Ant\\oc}\o.'] 

435 Murat. p. 404. 3 Catana; : Avitianus Fidelis 
hie in pace XPI. quiescit qui vixit an. XII requievit D. 
XVI KL. Aprili. cons. Theodosi XV et Fl. Valentini- 
ani IIII. 

436 Mur. p. 404. 4 Florentiae : B. M. hie requiescit 
in pace Aquilia Paulina L. F. quae vixit annos P. M. 

Dd 



202 



APPENDIX. 



C.2. 



A.D. 



Consuls 



Ol. Ind. y. Chron. Pasch. 

5. 29 Aetius II et Sigisvuldus 

6. 30 Theodosius XVI et Faustus 

7. 31 Theodosius XVII et Festus 

305. 8. 32 Valentinianus V et Anatolius 
9. 33 Cyrus solus 

10. 34 Eudoxius et Dioscorus 

11. 35 Maximus II et Patemus 

306. 12. 36 Theodosius XVIII et Albinus 

13. 37 Valentinianus VI et Nomus 

14. 38 Leontius III et Symmachus 

15. 39 Ardaburius et Alypius 

307. 1 ■ 40 Zeno et Postumianus 

2. 41 Protogenes et Asterius 

3. 42 Valentinianus VII et Avienus 

His coss. Theodosius ob. 

4. 1 Marcianus et Adelphius 



437 Aetius II et Sigisvultus 

438 Theodosius XVI et Faustus 

439 Theodosius XVII et Festus 

440 Valentinianus V et Anatolius 

441 Cyrus 

442 Eudoxius et Dioscorus 

443 Maximus II et Paterius 

444 Theodosius XVIII et Albinus 

445 Valentinian. VI et Nomus 

446 Aetius III et Symmachus 

447 Callepius et Ardabures 

448 Postumianus et Zeno 

449 Asturius et Protc^enes 

450 Valentinianus VII et Avienus 

Theodosius ob. 

451 Marcianus et Adelphius 

452 Herciilanus et Asporacius 

453 Opilio et Vincomalus 

454 Aetius et Studius 

455 Valentinian. VIII etAnthemius 

456 Joannes et Varanes 

457 Constantinus et Rufus 



LX. Deposita die S"/ KL. Octob. cons. Isidoro et Se- 
natore VV. CC. con. p. 404. 5 Interamnse : In pace 
C. . . post consula . . . Thedosi VX .... Plac. Valen. 
I in Aug. 

438 Murat. p. 404. 6 Romae : . . . . et juste quo se 
vivi sibi emer. . . . conss. D.N. Teodosio XVI et Anicio 
Acil. Glabrione Faust. 

439 Mur. p. 405. 1 extra Romam : Hie requiescit 
Eutimus auriga qui vixit ann. . . m. I d. VII. Dep. V 
Idus Octob. Theodosio Aug. XVII et Festo V. C. 

441 Muratori p. 405. 3 Romae: P.CC.DD.NN. 
Valentiniani V et Anatoli die XV Kalendas Maias 
Const an. depositus in pace qui vixit annis LXX men . . . 
locus Constant, arcitec. qui fuit. p. 405. 4 Viennse 
Allobrogum : .... Olprjvrjs err) rf(T<TapaK^na, kcCi, Upas 
TeKfvra p^ra rffv xmarlav rStv heairormv f)p,S>v BaXevriviavov 
TO TvepiTTov KCLi 'AvaToXiov Tov XapirpoTaTov iv prjvl [sic 
emendat Mur.] Tlfpiriov eicn] — What follows is 
obscure and corrupt. But Muratori is not justified 
in supposing that Easter could ever fall within the 
month Peritius. 

442 Muratori p. 406. 1 Noise : BP. Ep. Paulini 
junloris d. Ill Septe. Fl. Diosmoro [sic] cons. p. 
406. 2 Romae : 

Hac tenet urna duos sexu sed dispute fratres 

Quos uno Lachesis mersit acerba die. 
Ora puer dubice signans lanugine vestis 

Vix hiemes licuit cui geminasse novem. 
Nee thalamis longinqua soror trieteride quinta 

Teenarias crudo funere vidit aquas. 
Ille Remi Latio fictum de sanguine nomen 

Sed Gallos claro germine traxit avos, 
Ast hcEc Grajugenam resonans Arcontia linguam 

Nomina virgineo non tulit apta choro. 



308. 5. 


2 Sphoracius et Herculanus 


6. 


3 Vincomalus et Opilio 


7. 


4 Aetius et Studius 


8. 


5 Valentinianus VIII et Anthemus 


309. 9. 


6 Varanes et Joannes 


10. 


7 Constantinus et Rufus 



Cassiodor. 

Isidorus et Senator 
Aetius II et Sigisvultus 
Theodosius XVI et Faustus 
Theodosius XVII et Festus 
Valentinianus V et Anatolius 
Cyrus V. C. cos. 
Dioscorus et Eudoxius 
Maximus II et Patemus 
Theodosius XVIII et Albinus 
Valentinianus VI et Nonius 
Aetius III et Symmachus 
Callepius et Ardabures 
Postumianus et Zeno 
Asterius et Protogenes 

Valentinianus VII et Avienus 

His coss. Theodosius moritur. 
Marcianus et Adelphus 
Herculanus et Asporatius 
Opilio et Vincomalus 
Aetius et Studius 
Valentinianus VIII et Anthemius 
Joannes et Varanes 



Depositi Nonis Novemb. consul. Dioscori V. C. 

444 Murat. p. 407- 1 Genuse : Hie requiescit bonce 
memorice Sanctulus subdiac. in pace qui vixit annos 
P. M. LXXX. DP. ejus VI Kal. Maias cons. Albini 
Vi. C. cons. 

445 Mur. p. 407. 2 extra Romam : Locus Leonis 
RI. presbeteri incomparabilis cujus filia hie requiescit 
in pace que vixit annos XX et d. XLI [f. X//] . DP. 
Vim Kal. Nob. cons. Valentiniani VI. 

446 Mur. p. 407. 3 Romse : Kal. Decern. Actio III 
et Sym .... quce vixit pi. m 

447 Murat. p. 407. 4 extra Romam : Hie quiescit 
Gaudiosa C. F. ancilla Dei qua vixit annus XL et 
men. V. Dep. X Kal. Octob. Callepio V. C. con. p. 
407. 5 Romse : Hec Datillce H. F. Domus lucis A. . . . 
cujus animam pro casto sancto . . . nemo dubitat ceelum 
pet .... fortassis poneret sepu . . . . sui parte tota cum 
sa V Kal. Mart, conss. Cal. .... 

449 Diptychon Leodense apud Norisium tom. 3 
p. 689 B Arevalum prolegom. ad Sedulium p. 77 
Pagium tom. 2 p. 310: Fl. Astyrius [^Asturius Sir- 
mond. ad Ennodium Ep. I. 24] V. C. et inl. com. et 
mag. utriusq. mil. cons. ord. The consul of this year. 
Mentioned by Idatius in A. D. 443. See the Tables 
443. 2 p. 628. 

450 Mur. p. 407- 6 Romae : Hie positus est Antioc- 
chos candidatus premeceri qui visit anus P. M. L. in 
pace ^I Kal. Mart, domini nostri Valentiniani Augg. 

VII et Abinio cos. 

452 col. 2 Chron. Pasch. p. 319D Anno 422" r^r 
ety ovpavovs avciKry^eois tov Kvpiov. 

456 Mur. p. 40H. .3 Romae : Dep. Timothea in pace 
d. Kal. Nov. cons. D. N. Aviti. See the Tables A. D. 
456. 1 . Mur. p. 408. 4 Romae : In pace con. D. N. 



CONSULS. 



A. D. Consuls 

Marcianus ob. 

438 Leo et Majorianus 

439 Ricimeres et Patricias 

460 Magnus et Apollonius 

461 Severinus et Dagalaiphus 

462 Leo II et Severus 

463 Basilius et Vivianus 

464 Olybrius et Rusticus 

463 Hermenericus et Basiliscus 

466 Leo III 

467 Puseus et Joannes 

468 Anthemius II 

469 Marcianus et Zeno 

470 Severus et Jordanes 

471 Leo IV et Probianus 

472 Festus et Marcianus 

473 Leo V 

474 Leo junior 

Leo ob. 

475 Zeno II 

476 Basiliscus II et Armatus 

477 P. C. Basilisci II et Armati 

478 lUus 

479 Zeno III 

480 Basilius junior 

481 Placidus 

482 Trocondus et Severinus 

483 Faustus 

484 Theodericus et Venantius 



01. Ind. y. Chkon. Pasch. 

His coss. Marcianus ob. 

11. I Leo et Majorianus 

12. 2 Recimeres et Patricius 

310. 13. 3 Apollonius et Magnus 

14. 4 Dagalaiphus et Severianus 

15. 5 Leo II et Serpentius 
1. 6 Vivianus et Basilius 

311. 2. 7 Rusticius et Olybrius 

3. 8 Basiliscus et Armenarichus 

4. 9 Leo III solus 

5. 10 Pusaeus et Joannes 

312. 6. 11 Anthemius II solus 

7. 12 Zeno et Marcianus 

8. 13 Gordianus et Severus 

9. 14 Leo IV et Probianus 

313. 10. 13 Marcianus et Festus 

11. 16 Leo V solus 

12. 1 Leo junior 

Leo jun. ob. 

13. 1 Zeno II 



314. 14. 


2 Basiliscus et Armatus 


15. 


3 Basiliscus et Armatus 


I. 


4 Illus solus 


2. 


5 Zeno III solus 


315. 3. 


6 Basilius solus 


4. 


7 Placitus solus 


3. 


8 Trocondus et Severianus 


6. 


9 Faustus solus 


316. 7. 


10 Theodorichus et Venantius 



Cassiodor. 

Constantinus et Rufus 

His coss. Marcianus oh. 
Leo et Majorianus 
Ricimer et Patricius 
Magnus et Apollonius 
Severinus et Dagalaiphus 
Leo II et Severus 
Basilius et Vibianus 
Rusticus et Olybrius 
Herminericus et Basiliscus 
Leo III 

Pusffius et Joannes 
Anthemius II 
Marcianus et Zeno 
Severus et Jordanes 
Leo IV et Probianus 
Festus et Marcianus 
Leo V 

Leo junior 

Hoc COS. Leo defunctus. 
P. C. Leonis junioris 
Basiliscus II et Armatus 
P. C. Basilisci II et Armati 
Illus V. C. cos. 
Zeno II 
Basilius junior 
Placidus V. C. cos. 
Severinus V. C. cos. 
Faustus V. C. COS. 



Aviti. p. 408. 5. 6 Romse : Locus Geronti presb. de- 
positus XI II I Kal. Jul. cons. Eparchi Aviti. No 5 
for dep. XIIII Kal. Jul. has requiescit in DNO. and 
to Aviti adds V. C. 

462 col. 2 Serpentius (which is a corruption of 
Severus) also appears in Theophanes p. 97 A Leonis 
6" Tovra TW erft ea-<j)dyrj Ma'iaplvos els Tapriava vivo '?€- 
fxiKiov TrarpiKLOv, Kal inr]p6r) els ^atnXea 2evrjpos Kal 2ep- 
nevrios vavais 'lovKiais. Where we may read ^evrjpos 6 
Kal 2epirevrios. 

464 Murat. p. 409. 6 Romse : . . . . pace Pratest. 
MIP. CO ... . Aug. conss. Rustici et Olibri . . . pace. 
Dep. V Id. Mart et Hermineric. ^ 

465 See Mur. at A. D. 464. Idem p. 410. 1 ex- 
tra Romam : Herclanite unt sibi et suis , . . con- 

sulat. . . Arminerico et Basilisco VV. CC. 

468 Mur. p. 410. 3 Interamnse : Hoc parvo teg. . . . 
qui fuit us . . .fidel . .posjiituit vitce . . . credere ne co. . 
. . a domino celi .... nee tamen id . . ejhus que pe . . . 
Depositus in pa . . DN. Anthemio . . . qui vixit an- 
nos .... 

470 Murat. p. 410. 4 Vasione : Rusticus voto suo 
fecit. Moritur bonce memorice mater mea Stephania 
XVIII Kal. Novembris die Lunce Luna XVIII. 
Vixit annis XXVIII Severo et Jordane con. ut pro 



voto suo fecit. Read with Muratori XIIII Kal. No- 
vembris. that is, Monday Oct. 19 A. D. 470. Idem 
p. 410.5 Lugduni : . . . XXV recessit VI Kal. Octob. 
DN. N. Severo et Jordane VV. CC. 

471 Murat. p. 411. 1 Ticine : ev6a avairava-ovrai. oi 
KakoKvp,. HaTpiKios Kal IlaOXos yvrjaioi d8e\(f>ol viol 'Ap- 
^cocra Kal ^Qp,pkipa)Ta t5>v opcov ' Airafieav. ert Trpoa-eTerrjrrj 
[iaKapes p.vr]p.r]s Ylerpos f^rjTT] os fK yvos tov Trpoyevov Ila- 
TpiKiov vlos QeoBapov Kal Ev(f)oip.ias eriK. firjvi ropnuov r 
eV vnar. t. beairqv Aecovos t. 8' Kal Upo^uivov r. \afi7r. 
p. 4 1 1 . 2 extra Romam : Hie quiescit in pace Anthe- 
mius cubicul. qui vixit annos LX. Depositus IIII Non. 
Octobr. cons. Probiani. 3 Ibidem : . . . . Palati qui 
vixit .... dies VII. Depositus Probiani V. C. cons. 

472 Mur. p. 405. 2 extra Romam : Hie requiescit 
in pace PreBtextatus V. I. exqucestor SC. P. DP. VII 
Idus Octobr. Festo V. C. cons. [sc. A. D. 472] flia 
ejus Pratextata C. F. DP. XV Kal. Aug. Decio V. C. C. 
[A. D. 486.] 

474 Mur. p. 41 1. 5 Niciae : Hie requiescit bona me- 
morice Spectabilis Expectatus Q. vixit annus L m. VII cu- 
jus DP. est sub die VIII Kal. Junii DN. Leone junre 

V. c. ss. 

484 Murat. p. 412. 1 Hie requiescit Andreas notar. 
qui vixit ann. XXV. Depositus in pace sub die 

D d 2 



204 



APPENDIX. 



C. 2. 



A. D. Consuls 


01. 


Ind 


y. Chrok. Pasch. 


Cassiobok. 


485 Symmachus 




8. 


1 1 Symmachus solus 


Theodericus et Venantius 


486 Decitis et Longinus 




9. 


12 Longinus et Decius 


Symmachus V. C. cos. 


487 Boethius 




10. 


13 Boethius solus 


Decius et Longinus 


488 Dynamius et Sifidius 


317. 


11. 


14 Dynamius et Sifidius 


Boethius V. C. cos. 


489 Probinus et Eusebius 




12. 


15 Eusebius et Probinus 


Dynamius et Sifidius 


490 Longinus II et Faustus 




13. 


16 Longinus 11 et Faustus 11 


Probinus et Eusebius 


491 Olybrius 




14. 


17 Olybrius solus 


Faustus junior cos. 


Zeno ob. 






Hoc COS. Zeno ob. 




492 Anastasius et Rufus 


318. 


15. 


1 Anastasius et Rufus 


Olybrius junior 

Hoc COS. Zeno occubuit. 


493 Eusebius II et Albinus 




1. 


2 Eusebius II et Albinus 


Anastasius et Rufus 


494 Asterius et Praesidius 




2. 


3 Asterius et Praesidius 


Albinus V. C. cos. 


495 Viator 




3. 


4 Viator solus 


Asterius et Praesidius 


496 Paidus 


319. 


4. 


5 Paulus solus 


Viator V. C. cos. 


497 Anastasius II 




5. 


6 Anastasius II solus 


Paulus V. C. cos. 


498 -^^ Joannes et Paulinus 




6. 


7 Joannes et Paulinus 


Anastasius 11 


499 s Joannes Gibbus 




7. 


8 Joannes solus 


A Paulinus et Joannes 


500 ^Patricius et Hypatius 


320. 


8. 


9 Patricius et Hypatius 


^Joannes V. C. cos. 


501 J^Ponapeius et Avienus 




9. 


10 Pompeius et Avienus 


•^Patricius et Hypatius 



Venantio V. C. cons. p. 412. 2 Noise : Dep. sane. 
Felicis Epsc. V Id. Febr. pos. cons. Fausti V. C. 
p. 412. 4 Sitiani in agro Novariensi : Z). Die requise. 

C Augusta parvula. vixit in sceeolo anno uno et 

menses X et die XXXIII et deposita est sub die Idus 
Julias Indie. XII Fl. Sehuderico Vs. Cs. Cs. 

486 Mur. p. 413. 1 extra Romam : Nonnosa fidelis 
in pace . . . qui vixit \\. que vixit'] annos triginta. De- 
posita V K. Nobebres Deci . . .s in pace qui vixit annis 

plus m depos. Idus Octobs. Decius is also named 

above at A. D. 472. 

487 Murat. p. 413. 2 Romae : Generosus eunuchus 
depositus in pace VII Id. Octob. Boetio V. C. cons. 
p. 413. 3 Romse : Valens V. D. Comit. depositus Kal. 
Jul. cons. Boethi V. C. p. 413. 4 Romse : QuiejsaY 

in pace Sabina qui [lege que] vix quinque dies 

dece deposita I III ... cons. Boetio V. C. consul. 

488 Murat. p. 413. 5 Panormi : Hie requiescet in 
pace Munatia religiosa femina qua vixit anno pi. m. 
LXX. Deposita sub die pridie Nonas Februarias Dy- 
namio et Sifidio VV. CC. 

489 Mm"at. p. 413. 6 Massiliae : Hie requiescit in 
pa . . Nymfidius ex pra .... qui vixit annos .... recesset 

VIII Kalen Probino et Euseb 

490 Mur. p. 414. I Romse : Thomas cum Agnete se 
vivo comparaverunt die Kal. Septb. cons. Fausti V. C. 
junioris. p. 414. 2 Noise; DP. Theodosi epc. die VIII 
Idus Decembrues Fl. Fausto juniore V. C. cons. Con- 
firming the description of Cassiodorus. 

491 Mur. p. 414. 4 Viennae in Delphinatu : In hoc 
tumulo conditur bona memoria Severianus qui religio- 
nem devota mente suscepit sic quern anima ad authorem 
DM. remeanie terrena membra terris reliquit exactis 
vita annis XXXII obiit pridie Idus Augustas resurgit 
in XPO. DM0. nostro post consulato Longini bis et 
Fausti. 

492 Mur. p. 414. 6 Lugduni : In hoc tumolo requi- 
escit bone memorius Cesarius. vixit arms X. . . requibit 



in pace sub die Kal. Decembris Anastasio et Rufo VV. 
CC. p. 414, 8 in agro Aquilano : Hie Hilarianus 
requiescit in pace s. d. Xrl Kal. Decembriis DN. Ana- 
stasio PP. Ag. consl. PP. is not, as Muratori in- 
terprets, patre patriae, but perpetuo. sc. perpetuo 
Augusto. 

494 Mur. p. 415. 1 Ravennse : Hie RQ. in P. SOS. 
pap. Johan. D. S. an. XVI m. X d. XVII. DP. sub 
d. Non. Jun. Asteri et Pras. VV. CC. 2 extra Ro- 
mam : Ccecilia qua vix. . . Deposita in pace Asterio et 
Prasidio ... 3 extra Romam : . . s. d. X Kal. Aprilis 
de . . . cons. Asteri et P annus XI. 

Arevali prolegom. ad Sedulium p. 71 " In multis 
MSS. codd. Sedulii annotatur Asterium carmina Se- 
dulii dispersa coUegisse — Antiquissimus codex noster 
Vaticanus Reg. 1 sic habet : Hoc opus Sedulius in 
certas chartulas dispersum reliquit, quod recollectum 
adunatum atque ad omnem elegantiam divulgatum est 
ob Turcio Ruffo Asterio V. C. ex consule ordinario at- 
que patricio. Post notam illico exscribitur epigramma 
Asterii Sume sacer meritis — Sed non exprimitur quia 
sit hie sacer meritis." Idem p. 78 " Extat in vetus- 
tissimo Virgilii codice Mediceo Turcius Rufius Apro- 
nianus V. C. et inl. ex comite domest. protect, ex com. 
priv. largit. ex prof, urbi patricius et consul ordin. 
legi et distincxi codicem fratris Macharii V.C. non met 
Jiduda set ejus cut si et ad omnia sum devotus arbitrio 
XI Kal. Mai Roma. Distincxi emendans, gratum mihi 
munus amici &c. [conf. Vales, ad Socratem H. E, II. 
29 Anthol. Latin. II. 187 tom. 1 p. 371]." Asterius 
here described is taken for the consul of A. D. 449 
by Sirmond, by Mirseus ad Isidorum c. 7. hut more 
rightly the consul of 494 by Arevalus himself proleg. 
p. 85 by Noris tom. 3 p. 687—692 Pagi tom. 2 p. 
446 Burman Anthol. Lat. tom. 1 p. 371 and Corsini 
Prsef. Urb. Rom. p. 364. For another Asterius in 
339 see the inscriptions of Constantiiis II N° 4 above 
at p. 98. 



CONSULS. 



205 



A. D. Consuls 

502 *^Probus et Avienus 

503 ^'Dexicrates et Volusianus 

504 ^Cethegus 

505 "Sabinianus et Theodorus 

506 'Areobinda et Messala 

507 ^Anastasius III et Venantius 

508 bCeler et Venantius 

509 clmportunus 

510 dfioethius 

511 eSecundinus et Felix 

512 fPaulus et Muschianus 

513 ET Clemen tinus et Probus 

514 hCassiodorus Senator 

515 iAntheraius et Florentius 

516 kPetrus 

517 lAnastasius et Agapetus 

518 niMagnus 

Aiiastasius ob. 

519 iiJustinus et Eutharicus 
620 oVitalianus et Rnsticus 

521 P Justinianus et Valerius 

522 qSymmachus et Boethius 

523 Maximus 

524 Justinus II et Opilio 



Ol. Ind. y. Chron . Pasch. 

10. 11 Probus et Avienus II 

11. 12 Dexicrates et Volusianus 
321. 12. 13 GCethegus solus 

13. 14 "Sabinianus et Theodorus 

14. 15 'Areobindus et Messala 

15. 16 aAnastasius III et Venantius 



325. 



326. 



[1] [17] mMagnus solus 

Hoc COS. Anastasius ob. 
[2] [18] n Justinus et Eutharichus 
13. 2 oVitalianus et Rusticus 

3 P Justinianus et Valerius 

4 qSymmachus et Boethius 

5 Maximus solus 

6 Justinianus II et Opilio 



14. 
15. 

1. 

2. 



Cassiodor. 

^Avienus et Pompeius 
^Avienus jun. et Probus 
^ Cethegus V. C. cos. 
" Theodorus et Sabinianus 
'Messala et Areobinda 
^Anastasius III et Venantius 
''Venantius jun. et Celer 
cimportunus V. C. cos. 
dfioethius V. C. cos. 
e Felix et Secundinus 
'Paulus et Muschianus 
e Probus et Clemen tinus 
t Senator V. C. cos. 
iPlorentinus et Anthemius 
l^Petrus V. C. cos. 
1 (Anastasius et Agapetus) 
i«( Magnus) 

n Eutharicus et Justinus 



502 Murat. p. 415. 6 Grabedonse : B. M. hie requi- 
escet in pace famula Christi Agnella qua vixit in hoc 
seculo ann. pi. m. XXX. Deposeta sub die III Ka. 
Aprilis Avieno V. C. ind. X. [sc. March 30 A.D. 502.] 
The following belongs either to 501 or to 502 : Mur. 
p. 416. 1 Lugduni : In hoc tumolo requiiscet bonce 
memoriae Thalasia qui vixit annus XI. obiit in pace r 
/// K. Septembris Avieno C. V. con. 

506 Mur. p. 416. 3 extra Romam : Hie requiescit 
Helpidius qui vix. ann. XVIII. Deposi . . . Fl. Mes- 
sala . . . 

508 Mur. p. 416. 4 Grabedonse in agvo Comensi : 
B. M. hie requiescet in pace famula Christi Honoria 
que vixit in seculo ann. pi. m. XX. Deposita die Fill 
Kal. Jul. Venantio V. C. ind. I [sc. July 1 A. D. 
508.] 

514 Murat. p. 417. 5 Interamnae : Hie requiescit 
sancte memories Aelonus qui vixit annus LV et menses 
III. Depositus in pace sub d. Nonas Febr. Senatore 
V. S. eonsules. 6 extra Romam : Medicus dep. . . . 
cons. Senatore. Q. vix. annus XLIII. 

516 Murat. p. 418. 1 extra Romam : . .us Devio 
Arcadia . . . Jul. Petro V. C. cos. 2 Romae : . , . 
annos XIII mens III dies XXI. Deces. consulatu Pe- 
tri V. C. 

517 Murat. p. 414. 7 Aquis Sextiis. Given in the 
Tables 517-2 from Gruter. Referred by Muratori to 
Anastasius Aug. cos. A. D. 492. But the description 
belongs to Anastasius consul in 517. 

518 Mur.' p. 418. 3 extra Romam: Hie requiescit 
Valeria cum filias suas F Kal. Octob. P. C. Agapiti. 

519 Mur. p. 418. 4 Vasione : Hie in pace requiescit 
sanetee memorice Eripius PBR. qui vixit ans. XXVII 



mens. X d. XVIII ob. Villi KL. Februar. P. C. ite. 
rum Agapiti F. C. conss. 

G col. 3 For the omission before this consulship 
see the Tables A. D. 503. 1 . 

520 col. 2 Ind. 13 Justini 2. Chron. Pasch. p. 
332 A shews by these numbers that the lacuna after 
Ind. 15 Anastasii 16 p. 330 B contained the right 
number of consulships between Anastasius III et Fe- 
nantius A. D. 507 and Magnus A. D. 518, and that 
the numbers at ™ and ^ were Ind. 1 1. 27 Ind. 12. 1 . 
The numbers Ind. 1.17 Ind. 2. 18 have been trans- 
ferred from their true position at b. c. A. D. 508. 509. 

522 Mur. p. 418. 7 extra Romam : Hie requiescit 
in pace Sabinus F. S. prcef. ann. qui bisit annus 
LIIII et dies XXIIII. DP. XFI Kal. Agustas eons. 
Symm. et Boetio F. C. conss. 8 Hie requiescit in pace 
Decentia qua vixit P. M. an. XXFII. Dep. conss. 
Symmacho et Boetio FF. CC 9 Romse : Maximus 
parbulus qui vixit annos FII menses FIl dies X Sym- 
macho et Boetio FF. C. eonss. Given more fully by 
Norisius Ep. Syromac. p. 407 who adds after dies X 
Depositus est sub d. Id. Augustar. Symmacho et Boetio 
FF. CC. cons, in fine ind. XF. Less accurately by 
Pagi tom. 2 p. 523. 

523 Mur. p. 419. 1 Aostse in Delphinatu : Hie re- 
quiescit in pace bone memorie Aliberca qui vixit annos 
numero XXX obiit in XPO III Nonas Febr. P. C. 
Semmachi et Boithi FF. CC. 2 Ravennse : Hie re- 
quiescit in pace Gerontius V. C. pa[e]nitentiaHs qui 
vixit ann. pi. m. LFI. Depositu. est sub d. Non. 
Decemb. Maximo F. C. eons. ind. se. 3 Romse : . . . 

. . . eit in pa ice Felicia nnus plus. . . 

.... itus sub dia Maximo F. C. cons. 



206 



APPENDIX. 



C.2. 



A.D. 



Consuls 



525 Philoxenus et Probus 
626 Olybrius 

527 Mavonius 

Juslinus ob. 

528 Justinianus II 

529 Decius 

530 Lampadius et Orestes 

531 P. C. Lampadii et Orestis 

532 II P. C. Lampadii et Orestis 

533 Justinianus III 

534 Justinianus IV et Paulinus 

535 Belisarius 

536 P. C. Belisarii 

537 II P. C. Belisarii 



525 Murat. p. 419. 5 Compendii in diptycho: Fl. 
Theodorus Filoxenus Sotericus Filoxenus vir illust. 
com. domest. ex magistro m. per Thracia et consul 
ordinar. 

TovTo TO hSypov TJI <TO(^fi ytpovcTiq. 

vnaros xmap\oiV Trpoo-c^epco ^iKo^tvos. 
p. 4 UK 6 Mediolani : Hie requiescit in pace sane. M. 
Adeodatus presb. qui vixit in seeculo ann. plus minus 
octoginta quinque. Depositio sub die nana Kalendas 
Julii Probojun. consule per indictione tertia. [sc. June 
23 A. D. 525.] 

526 Mur. p. 414.3 extra Romam: Hie requiescit 
in pace Laurentius prcepositus basilice heati Pauli apo- 
stoli qui vixit annus P. M. LX Olibrio V. C. cons. 
p. 414. 5 Interamnse : VV. CC. Olibrio conss. S. est 
Aufidius qui vixit an. VII. Item hie pos. D. H. C. Le. 

p. 420. 1 Interamnse : Hunc si vis cogitor 

tor. Hie requie . . . venerabilis sem episcopatu. 

Depos. in pace V. . Olibrio. It cannot be determined 
whether these belong to A. D. 491 or to 526. 

528 Mur. p. 420. 3 Romse : Hie requiescit in pace 
Pa.stor Num. vir V. qui vixit ann. XV men. XI die 
VII. Dep. s. d. XIIII Kal. Decembris P. C. Maburti 
V. C. cons. 4 extra Romam : Hoclatarius qui visit 
an P. C. Maborti V. C. cons. 

529 Mur. p. 420. 6 Romae : . . . Hie requies 

casta Deo . . . Decio junio ... p. 421. 1 Caietae : 
w. 18. 

Pande tuas, paradise, fores sedemque beatam, 

Andrea meritum suscipe pontificis &c. — 
— Prasule sub tanto florens ecclesia mater 
Crevit muneribus, crevit et officiis. 
Vixit ann. P. M. LXX presb. Romanus VII et in ep. 
ann. XXVII m. X d. XX. Requievit in pace XIIII 
Kal. Nov. cons. Decijun. 

530 Mur, p. 421. 2 extra Romam: Hie requiexit 
in pace Constantinus horrearius qui viset P. M. an. 
XL VI I. Dipositus est VII K. Dec. cons. Fl. Lam- 
padii et Orestis VV. CC. p. 422. 1 Romae : . ... is 

filiMS Kalop nnus XX. Depositu Lampadi 

et Horestis. p. 422. 2 Romae : Theodori Gennara fi- 
Ua . . . cons. Flavi Lampadi . . . cum maritu annus I et 
mens. VI. 



Ol. 


Ind. 


y. Chbon. Pasch. 




3. 


7 Philoxenus et Probus 




4. 


8 Olybrius solus 




5. 


9 Mavortius solus 

Hoc COS. Justinus ob. 


327. 


6. 


1 Justinianus III 




7. 


2 Decius solus 




8. 


3 Lampadius et Orestes 




* 


* * * * 


328. 


10. 


5 II P. C. Lampadii et Orestis 




11. 


6 Justinianus IV 




12. 


7 Justinianus V et Paulinus 




13. 


8 Belisarius solus 


329. 


14. 


9 Belisarius solus 




15. 


10 Belisarius II solus 



531 Mur. p. 422. 3 Veronae. Given in the Tables 
A. D. 531. 1 from Gruter. The numbers are thus 
expressed in Muratori : Vixit ann. pi. m. LXXXV — 
sedit — annos 5" 7/ menses Tll et dies Xflll et recessit 
sub d. ^III Kal— ind. ^lU. p. 422. 4 extra Ro- 
mam : Hie requiescit in pace Theodosus qui vixit an- 
nus XII. Dep. V KL. Augustas. Hie requiescit in pace 
Dumilda H. F. quce vixit pi. m. annus LIIII. DPS. 
Ill Non. S. P. C. Lampadi et Orestis. 

532 Murat. p. 422. 5 Romae : Eunuchus qui vixit 
annos plus minus IV. depositus sub d. HI Id. Febru- 
ariarum iter. P. C. Lampadi et Orestis VV. CC. conss. 
6 Arelate : Hie in pace requiesc. bona memoricB Thau- 
musta quce vixit annos XL et obi. sub d.pr. Idib. Dec. 
indictione undecima iterum post cos. Lampadi et Orest. 
VV. CC. 

534 Murat. p. 423. 1 in oppido Anse : 
Germine sublimi Proba nomine mente provata 

Quce subito rapta est hie tumulatajacet. 
In qua qdquid habent cunctorum vota parentum 

Contulerat tribuens omnia pulchra ds. 
Hinc mestus pater est avics matrique perennis 

.... heuf acinus perit pietas. 

Accipe qui lachrymis perfundis jugiter ora, 
Mors nihil est. Vitam respice perpetuam. 
Quae vixit annis V mensis Villi obiit s. d. HI IDS. 
Octubris Paulino V. K. C. 

535 Murat. p. 423. 3 Tusculi : . . . . qui vixit ann. 
LXVII. dep. d. Kal. . . Vilisari V. C. 4 Tusculi : . . 
con .... ann. XV mensi . . . C. Vilisari. 5 Romae : 
Hie requiescit .... cons. Fl. Bilis. 

536 Mur. p. 423. 6 extra Romam : Hie requiescit 

in pace Andrea C. . . . qua vixit virgo ann 

Dep. pridie Id. Octobr. . . . Bilisari V. C. ind. p. 424. 1 
extra Romam : Hie requiescit i . . . qui vixit ann. pi. . . 
.... iter. P. C. Paulini. 424. 2 extra Romam : Deus 
det qui vixet annus P. M. XX .... Maias iterum pos. 
con. Paulini Avit. sol. et Tremisse. p. 423. 2 Ra- 
vennae : Hie requiesc. vir j'uv. presb. B. . . .et Vindi- 

mius qu . . vix. ann. . . . Dep. est sub d II P. C. 

Paulini cons, in . . . 

537 Mur. p. 424. 3 Aostae in Delphinatu : Hie re- 
quiescit in pace bone memoria Ingildus qui vixit annis 



CONSULS. 



207 



A. D. Consuls 

538 Joannes 
639 Apio 

540 Justinus junior 

541 Basilius 

542 P. C. Basilii 

543 P. C. Basilii II 

544 P. C. Basilii III 

545 P. C. Basilii IV 

546 P. C. Basilii V 

547 P. C. Basilii VI 

548 P. C. Basilii VII 

549 P. C. Basilii VIII 

550 P. C. Basilii IX 

551 P. C. Basilii X 



nil et mensibus octo obiit in XPO. Ill KL. Novembr. 
tertio P. C. Paulinijun. V. C. C. 

538 Murat. p. 424. 4 Romse : Hie requiescit Maria 
H. F. DP. in pace XIII Kal. Januaris Fl. Johanne 
Orientale V. CI. con. 5 Noise : Hie requiescit in pace 
Januaria Q. vixit pi. m. ann. XXVIIII cum maritu fee. 
ann. XV m. XI d. X. Dep. d. XV Ka. Febmar. P. C. 
Bilisari VI [recte Mur. 7//] ind. prima [sc. Jan. 1 8 

A. D. 538]. Hie requiescit in pace Filicellus SBD. 

539 Murat. p. 424. 6 Ticini : Hie in pace requiescit 

B. M. Theodora diaconissa qua; vixit in seculo annos 
pi. m. XLVIII. D. XI Kal. Jug. V P. C. Paulinijun. 

V. C. ind. II [sc. July 22 A. D. 539]. 

540 Murat. p. 425. I extra Romam : Hie requiescit 
Abundantius .... ectianus qui vixit ann. pi. m. XL. 
Dep. in pace VI Idus Septemb. Fl. Justino V. C. cons. 

~54I Mur. p. 425. 3 Ravennse : Hie requiescit in pace 
vir SBL. Sedaignucus et cubicularius regis Theoderici, 
qui vixit ann. pi. m. XL. Depositus est sub d. IIII Id. 
Martias Basilio jun. V. C. cons, indictione quarta. [sc. 
March 12 A. D. 541]. p. 425. 4 Lugduni : In hoc 
tumulo requiiscet bonce memorice Necteria qui vixit annos 
XXV obiit in pace pridie Kal. Maias P. C. Justini. 
542 M ur. p. 425. 6 Curiae in Rhjetia : 
Hie jacet in tumulo quern flevit Rhcetica tellus 

Maxima summorum gloria pontijicum, 
Abjectis quifudit opes nudataque texit 

Agmina captivis pramia largaferens. 
Est pietas vicina polo, nee funeris ictum 
. . . sentit ovans qui petit astra bonis. 
Hie [lege his] pollens titulis Valentiniane sacerdos 
Crederis a eunctis non potuisse mori. 
Qui vixit in hoc seculo ann. pis. mn. LXX. Dps. sub 
die Id. Jan. Sps. P. CS. Basili V. C. ind. V [Jan. 13 
A. D. 542]. Paulinus nepos ipsius hac fieri ordinavit. 

544 Murat. p. 425. 5 Romse : . . Cappina R. se vivo 

hie req xit ann. plus m. XVII. De . . . . ter P. C. 

Fl. Basili V. C. cons. Referred by Muratori to A. D. 
542. But it either expresses i]?er. P. C. sc. A. D. 543, 
or ter P. C. sc. A. D. 544. 

545 Mur. p. 426. 1 Aostse in Delphinatu : Hie re- 
quiescit in pace bonce memoricp. adulescens itegre camis 
nomine Leudomari qui vixit annis numero IIII et dies 
VIII obiit in XPO sex. K. Mai. post C. IV Basili 



Ol. Ind. y. Chron. Pascii. 

1. 11 Joannes solus 

2. 12 Apio Strategii f. solus 

330. 3. 13 Justinus jun. solus 

4. 14 Basilius solus 

5. 15 P. C. Basilii 

6. 16 P. C. Basilii II 

331. 7. 17 P. C. Basilii III 

8. 18 P. C. Basilii IV 

9. 19 P. C. Basilii V 
10. 20 P. C. Basilii VI 

332. II. 21 P. C. Basilii VII 

12. 22 P. C. Basilii VIII 

13. 23 P. C. Basilii IX 

14. 24 P. C. Basilii X 

VV. CC. SS. ens. p. 426. 2 Ravennse : Consecuti be- 
neficia archangeli Miehaelis Bachauda et Julianus a 
fundamentis feeerunt et dedieaverunt sub die Non. Maii 
quater P. C. Basilii junioris viri elarissimi cos. ind. 
VIII [May 7 A.D.545]. 

546 Mur. p. 426. 3 Ticini : . . . . diaconus qui vixit 
in hoe seculo annos p. min. XLV. Dep. sub d. V Kal. 
Novembr. duodeeies P. C. Paulini jun. V. C. ind. X 
[Oct. 28 A. D. 546]. p. 426. 4 Augustse Pr^torise : 
Hie requiescit in pace SCF memoria Gallus EPS. qui 
vixit in episcopatu annos XVII menses II dies XX. 
DPS. sub d. Ill Nonas Octobris duodeeies P. C. Pau- 
lini junior. V. C. indictione decima. 

547 Mur. p. 426. 5 Ravennse : B. Vitalis basilicam 
mandate Ecclesii episcopi Julianus Argentarius adifi- 
cavit consecrante viro reverendissimo Maximiano epi- 
scopo sub die XIV Kal. Maii sexies P. C. Basilii ju- 
nioris V. C. ind. X [Ap. 18 A. D. 547]. p. 426. 6 
Aostae in Delphinatu : Hie requiescit in pace bone me- 
morie Teoptcunde qui vixit annos num. X obiit in XO. 
VI KL. Decemr. novies P. cons. Johannis V. C. 

548 Mur. p. 426. 7 Tarracinae : Hie requiescit Jo- 
annes B. M. Q. V. pi. m. an. LX. DP. in pace C. Ill 
Idus Febr. septies P. C. Basilii V. C. 

549 Murat. p. 427. 1 Ravennse : In hoc loco stetit 
area beati Apollinaris sacerdotis et eonfessoris a tem- 
pore transitus sui usque dia e qua per virum beat. Maxi- 
mianum episeopum translata est et introducta in basili- 
cam quani Julianus Argentarius a fundamentis tedifica- 
vit et dedicata ab eodem viro beatissimo die VII Idus 
Maiarum ind. XII octies P. C. Basili jun. [May 9 
A. D. 549.] 

550 Murat. p. 427. 2 Ravennse : In honorem suneti 
protomartyris Stephani servus Christi Maxiniianus epi- 
scopus hanc basilicam ipso juvante a fundamentis eon- 
struxit et dedicavit die III Id. Deeembr. indict. XIIII 
novies P. C. Basilii jun. V. C. [Dec. 11 A. D. 550.] 

551 Murat. p. 427. 3 Ravennse : 
Clauditur hoc tumulo Benedicti fida jugalis. 
Qua; tenuit castam defuncto conjuge vitam. 
Nomine Puleheriafuit, sed nomine formam 
Signavit mentemque simul vitamque decentem. 
Filius his Thomas, aluit quern blanda relictce 
Simpliciter pietas, cari post fata mariti 



208 



APPENDIX. 



C. 2. 



A.D. 




Consuls 


652 P. 


C. 


Basilii XI 


553 


P. 


C. 


Basilii 


XII 


554 


P. 


c. 


Basilii XIII 


555 


P. 


c. 


Basilii XIV 


556 


P. 


c. 


Basilii XV 


557 


P. 


c. 


Basilii XVI 


558 


P. 


c. 


Basilii XVII 


559 


P. 


c. 


Basilii XVIII 


560 


P. 


c. 


Basilii XIX 


561 


P. 


c. 


BasUii XX 


562 


P. 


c. 


Basilii XXI 


563 


P. 


c. 


Basilii 


XXII 


564 


P. 


c. 


Basilii XXIII 


565 


P. 


c. 


Basilii XXIV 
Jiistinian. o6. 


566 Jastinus 




567 P. 


c. 


Justin. 


I 


568 


P. 


c. 


Justin. 


II 


569 


P. 


c. 


Justin. 


III 


570 P. 


c. 


Justin. 


IV 


571 


P. 


c. 


Justin. 


V 


572 


P. 


c. 


Justin. 


VI 


573 


P. 


c. 


Justin. 


VII 


574 


P. 


c. 


Justin. 


VIII 


575 P. 


c. 


Justin. 


IX 


576 


P. 


c. 


Justin. 


X 


577 


P. 


c. 


Justin. 


XI 


578 


P. 


c. 


Justin. 


XII 








Justinus ob. 


579 Tiberius cos. 





Officium sula exibuit commune parentum ; 

Ipsius hie collo genetrix portata guiescit. 

Tale decus meruit funeris pia mater habere. 
DP. s. d. Id. FB. X P. C. Basil, ind. XIIII. In v. 6 
is sula for sola. p. 427. 4 Viennse in Delphinatu : In 
hoc tomolo quiescit in pace bona memoriae famola Dei 
Dulcitia sane, morebus optimis voluntate di . . . . ehari- 
tate largissima qua vixit plus menus ann. XXXV obiit 
in pace nan. Kal. Mains X P. C. Basili V. C. cons, 
indictione quarta decima [Ap. 23 A. D. 551]. 

553 Murat. p. 427- 5 Noise : Dep. sanete M. Re- 
parati diac. Dep. d. XIIII Kal. Novemb. XII P. C. 
Basili V. C. 

554 Mur. p. 428. 1 extra Romam : Hie requiescit 
in pace Yppolitus V. C. amator pauperum qui dep. est 
.... Aprilis XIII P. C. Basili ind. II . . . quis pra- 
sumpserit vel intul ..... [March or April A. D. 554.] 

563 Muratori p. 428. 2 Romie : Locus Marcelli sub 
d. reg. sexte eoneessum sibi et posteris ejus a beatissimo 
papa Joanne, qui vixit ann.pl. m. LXVIII. Dep. P. C. 
Basili V. C. ann. XXII ind. XI undecima Kal. Janua- 
rias. [sc. Dec. 22 A. D. 563.] 

565 Murat. p. 428. 3 Romae : . . . . Lucina in pace 

qui visse pi. m P. C. Basili V. C. anno XXIIII 

. . . Dipo. Decembrium. 

568 Murat. p. 429. 2 Albingauni : Hie requiescit in 
pace B. M. Honorata clarissima et P. F. eonjunx Tzit- 



Ol. 


Ind 


y- 


Chrok. Pasch. 


333. 


15. 


25 


P. C. Basilii XI 




1. 


26 


P. C. Basilii XII 




2. 


27 P. C. Basilii XIII 




3. 


28 


P. C. Basilii XIV 


334. 


4. 


29 


P. C. Basilii XV 




5. 


30 


P. C. Basilii XVI 




6. 


31 


P. C. Basilii XVII 




7. 


32 


P. C. Basilii XVIII 


335. 


8. 


33 


P. C. Basilii XIX 




9. 


34 


P. C. Basilii XX 




10. 


35 


P. C. BasUii XXI 




11. 


36 


P. C. Basilii XXII 


336. 


12. 


37 P. C. BasiUi XXIII 




13. 


38 


P. C. Basilii XXIV 




14. 


39 Justinus junior II solus 








Justinianus ob. 




15. 


1 


P. C. II Justini junioris 


337. 


1. 


2 


P. C. II Justin, jun. II 




2. 


3 


P. C. II Justin, jun. Ill 




3. 


4 


P. C. II Justin, jun. IV 




4. 


5 


P. C. II Justin, jun. V 


338. 


5. 


6 


P. C. II Justin, jun. VI 




6. 


7 


P. C. II Justin, jun. VII 




7. 


8 


P. C. II Justin, jun. VIII 




8. 


9 


P. C. II Justin. IX 


339. 


9. 


10 


P. C. II Justin. X 




10. 


11 


P. C. II Justin. XI 




11. 


12 


P. C. II Justin. XII 
Justinns ob. 




12. 


1 


Tiberius Aug. 



tani com. et trib. quce vixit in hoc scec. ann. XL. Depos. 
est sub d. Kal. Febr. ind. prim. imp. et cons. D. N. 
Justino PP. Aug. anno tertio. Rogo te per D. M. 
Omnpm. et JHM X . . . . Nazarenum ne me tangas nee 
sepulcrum meum violis, nam ante tribunal aterni Judicis 
mecum causam dieis. On Feb. 1 ind. 1 A. D. 568 the 
third year of Justin was current, and also annus post 
eonsulatum lertius, reckoned, as in some other in- 
stances, inclusive of the consulship itself. See the 
Tables A. D. 542. 1. 568. 1. 575. 2. 

569 Mur. p. 429. 3 Capuse : Hie requiescit in somno 
pacts Justina abbatissa fundatrix sancti loci hujus, qua 
vixit plus minus annos LXXXV. Deposit, sub die Ka- 
lendarum Novembrium imp. D. N. Justino PP. Aug. 
anno III P. C. ejusdem indictione tertia [sc. Nov. I 
A. D. 569]. 

572 Mur. p. 430. 2 Capuae : Vir beatissimus Pro- 
binus episc. sedit ann. I mens. Villi dies III I. De- 
positus sub die XIII Kal. Septembres imp. D. N. Jus- 
tino anno VII P. C. ejusdem anno V indictione quinta. 
In Aug. 20 A. D. 572 the 5th indiction was still cur- 
rent, and the 7 th year oi Justin. But for P. C. anno V 
we must read P. C. anno VI. Murat. p. 430. 3 Ra- 

vennae : Hie requiescit in pace Faustinus V. C 

Q. vixit ann. pi. m. LIII. Deposit, est sub d. prid. 
Kal. Mai. ind. V [Ap. 30 A. D. 572] imp. D. N. 
Justino PP. A. 



CONSULS. 



209 



The notation of the Paschal Chronicle from 580 to the end, with the fuller account which 
it contains of the times of fferacUus, in whose reign the author lived, will be found in the first 
chapter of this Appendix. Holstenius and Du Cange suppose that there were two authors of 
this Chronicle; that the first ended at the 17th of Comtantius II A. D. 354, about whoso time 
he lived; and that the second author continued the Chronicle to the 20th of Heracliua^. This 
opinion is adopted by Cave, Oudin, Harles^. But the only reason assigned for this opinion seems 
to be that a MS. ended at that point '^- Which is no sufficient reason. There might be other 
causes why the MS. ended there. The internal evidence of the Chronicle itself is against the 
supposition that a first author lived about the time of Constantius II. I The unity of design 
implies one author. 2 Some errors occur in the narrative which a contemporary would probably 
have avoided ; as the appointment of Constantius to be Ccesar is placed at a wrong year p. 282 D. 
at A. D. 325 instead of 323. the death of Magnentius p. 292 D is also at a wrong year. 3 In the 
Chronicle p. 1 1 A B are mentioned certain feasts observed by the Church ; the Nativity Dec. 25 
(a date also mentioned p. 202 D), the birth of St. John the Baptist at June 24, the Annunciation 
March 25, the Presentation in the Temple Feb. 2. But, as will be shewn hereafter, Dec. 25 was 
not appointed to be observed at Antioch till about A. D. 378 ; and the author of this Chronicle 
wrote in the East. The other dates are still more decisive. The feast of the Presentation in the 
Temple on the 2nd of February is referred by Cedrenus to the reign of Justin ; by Nicephonis 
and Sigebertus to the reign of Justinian^. Bingham dates the original of the feast of the Annun- 
ciation March 25 from the 7 th century e. There is no need to assume that the author of these 
passages inserted them in an older Chronicle. Till more sufficient proof of an elder author shall 
be given (at present this is mere conjecture), the most easy and obvious conclusion is that the 
whole Chronicle was compiled by one and the same author, who lived in the reign of fferaclius. 



a Du Cange in praefatione p. 8 § x Constat ilium a 
quo ad Heraclium perductum est non esse totius operis 
scriptorem sed allerius quod in annum 354 desierit con- 
tinuatorem et interpolatorem. Id docemur prasertim ex 
Holstenii observationibus quas codici suo Chronici Alex, 
edito subinde affixerat hisce post hcec verba [p. 292 D] 
flbcbv hvyovarov adscriptis. " Hic desiit auctor Chro- 
nici Paschalis. ccctera sunt continuatoris." Inde ergo 
colligitur primum auctorem vixisse circa tempora Con- 
stantii. Quin porro continuator Chronici sub Heraclio 
vixerit negari fere non potest. 

l> Cave torn. 1 p. 581 Binos auctores agnoscere vi- 
detur, unum qui priorem operis partem contexuit et ad 
a. 354 — deduxit, alterum qui hunc excepit et ad He- 
raclii a. 20 continuavit ; ut ex vetustissimo Holstenii 
codice ejusque in ilium notis ostendit du Fresne. Oudin. 
torn. 1 p. 1601 Ex Du Cangii mente hoc Chronicon ex 
variis auctoribus est. advertit enim Holstenius ad mar- 
ginem sui exemplaris primum scriptorem finiisse ad an- 
num 17 Constanta. Jacobus autem Goar continuatorem 
vixisse sub Heraclio. — Incertus igitur hujus Chronici 
auctor est, anonymusque jure censendus. Harles In- 
trod. in linguam Grsecam torn, 2. 1 p. 482 Duo fyi,- 



erunt auctores, quorum alter quidem res ab or be con- 
dito ad a. 354 exposuit, alter vera ad annum Heraclii 
2QMm continuavit. Vossius also remarks de Hist. 
Grsecis II. 23 p. 277 Facile mihi persuadeo non unius 
hanc fuisse operam ; quod et Raderus ex inscriptione 
prcefatione et Ccesarum syllabo conjectat. 

c See the two preceding notes. 

d Cedren. j^. 366 A de Justino seniore : im avrov be 
eTVTra>&T] ioprd^fiv Tjfj,as Koi ttjv iopTrjv Ttjs xmaiTavTfjs t^j 

/if'xP' TOTf w iopTa^onevrjs. Nicepliorus Callisti XVII. 
28 p. 779 D de Justiniano: rarret be kw. TTjv Tov 2<t)TT}pos 
vjraTravrqv apTi irpcuTcas aTvavTa)(ov t^j yrjs eoprd^fadcu. 
Sigebertus in Chronico p. 27 b Justiniani 15^ A. D. 
542 CP. mortalitate magna insurgente statuta est so- 
lennitas purijicationis beatce Maries, qua: Greece Ypa- 
panti id est obviatio dicitur, eo quod die illo Symeon 
obviaverit oblato in templum Domino. 

e Bingham Antiquities Vol. 9 p. 183. 184 " Before 
the time of the Council of TruUo it was come into 
use [sc. A. D. 692. conf. Acta Concil, tom. 7 p. 1371] 
— And therefore we may date its original from the 
7th century." We learn from the Paschal Chronicle 
that it was already in use before A. D. 629. 



E e 



«re: APPENDIX. C. 3. 

III. 

INDICTIONS. ERA OF DIOCLETIAN. ERA OF ANTIOCH. 

IT has been shewn in a former work^ that the era of Antioch was reckoned from Nov. I B.C. 49 
U. C. Varr. 705. The first year therefore of Antioch was nearly conumerary with the 26'4th year 
of the Selmcidce, which commenced in October B. C. 49 U. 0. Varr. 705''. But if the first year 
was conumerary with the 264th, the 30 1st of Antioch, with which this Table begins, was conu- 
merary with the 564th of the SeleucidcB. 

That the era of Diocletian was reckoned from his accession in A. D. 284 is determined by Theon 
ad Ptolemsei /Aey. awTa^S^ who attests that the 29th day of Athi/r in the year of Nahonassar 1112 
fell within the 81st year of Diocletian. Athyr 29 of the 1 1 12th year was Nov. 25 A . D. 364, and 
the 81st year of Diocletian was then current. But if the 81st year was current Nov. 25 A. D. 364, 
the first was already current Nov. 25 A. D. 284, and we are carried back to his accession Sept. 17. 
It is probable however that in Alexandrian computation the years of this era were deduced from 
Aug. 29, as in the Alexandrian coins of Diocletian given in the Tables at A. D. 285 p. 328. 

The Indictions in Marcellinus^ and in the Tables of Du Fresnoy tom. 1 p. 174 are compared 
with the consulship and the Julian year in which they end. In the following Table they are 
compared with the years in which they begin, because the years of the Christian era are here 
made the measure of the rest and contain the beginnings of all the other epochs. 

The Paschal Chronicle rightly places the Indiction at September 1 : p. 1 87 B al XvhiKToi XPW^- 
rl^iiv ^p^avTo diTo Trpatrrjs Kal avrrjs tov ropTrcaiov firjvos. But in that Chronicle each year of the 
indictions is reckoned one year too low. The indictions from Constanfine are thus assigned : 
Chron. Pasch. p. 281 B IvhtKncaviav Kava-TavTLVtavc^v ivT^vdev apxrj. Ivb. a. r( . vtt. KaivcrravTivov 
AvyovcTTov TO 8' koI AiKivLov TO y. ivb. ^'. & . VTT. BoXovcTtavov Kol 'Avtavov. Repeated p. 374 D to r{ 
iTos Kciva-TairrCvov — kuB' o tj irpwrrj tvbcKTos iTiOx] kv vTraTeCq. BoXovcriavov koI 'Aviavov. It appears 
then that the author reckons ind. 1 to begin at Sept. 1 Constantino IV Licinio III coss. and to 
terminate at Aug. 31 Volusiano et Anniano coss. in which consulship ind. 2 begins at Sept. 1. But 

^ See F. H. Ill p. 365 — 367- The era of Antioch pov err) qpi^ k. t. X. Idem p. 285 1. 1 t6v 8e xpovov t^j 

has been noticed in the Tables of the present Work /xe'tnjs av^vyias kot Alyxmriovs pfi> pera apas s-' r' t' rfjs 

at A. D. 44. 3 p. 29 A. D. 2l2. 2 p. 220. 520. 2 ev -nj r' tov ^apevad iJLe<TT)pBpias, Kar ' AXe^avhpelas 8e 

p. 738. pera &pas r' r' i t^s iv ttj k9' tov ^AOi/p peoTjp^plas. 

^ See the Table of Parallel Years in F. H. Ill That is to say, the 6th day of the moveable Egyptian 

p. 466. month Phamenoth coincided with the 2f/th of the 

c Theon p. 277 !• 1 <<rr<a Cv'^'^" Vf^^ ^^f ''«Ta TO api^ fixed Alexandrian Athyr. See F. H. II p. 328. 329 

(Tos anb 'Sa^ovaadpov TTpaTrjs <rvvo8iK^s (Tv(vyias tov xpo- :=396. 397. But the 29th of the fixed Alexandrian 

vov K, T. X. He divides the period into its parts p. 282 Athyr fell upon Nov. 25. See F. H. Ill p. 356. And 

fin. a0eiXo/iej/ tS)v dno ttjs dpxjjs ^a^ovaa-dpov kot At- as the 1st day of the moveable Egyptian Thoth, 

yvTrriovs fTciv qpi^ to. ptxP'' ""1^ ^AXe^dvBpov TfXfvTrjs eTr) which was at June 25 in A. D. 238 N. E. 986 (see 

vk8', Koi TaXonrd dnb ^iXlmrov (TTj x'^v'. '^•T.X. 424+ F. H. Ill Introd. p. xvi), had fallen back in 126 

688 = 1112. Idem p. 284 tva fie koi t&u a-fXrjviaKcov years to May 24, the 6th day of the 7th month Pha- 

fitXfiyl^fav evfKa €k irpoxf'i-pov excoptv Trava-fXrjvtxncfjv rrv^v- menoth, the 186th day of the Egyptian year, also 

yiav eicXenrTiKfjv eKTfdeipeinjv, (TreXoyia-dptda TrjV yeyevij- coincided with Nov. 25 in N. E. 1112. The 2 1st of 

fifVTjv KOT 'AXf^avbpfias tw na eret AiokXtjtuivov 'A6vp the 6th month Mechir, the 171st day, fell in that 

fj-yjvi, KOT AlyvTTTiovs Tw 6e avra [lege kot AlyvTrriovs 8e year upon Nov. 10. 
TM avra] ira tTti ^anevuiB a, in(i8rjKep fj Trpoyeyfvrjptvi] <i See Introduction p. IX Tables A. D. 379. 3 

avT^sjrvvo8os auTa ttjv npofKTfdfipevrjv fjplv e(fio8ov els Tr]u p. 495. 
TOV Mexip Ka tyyiara iriTrrei. & avvdyeTM dvb l^a^ovacrd- 



INDICTIONS. ERA OF DIOCLETIAN. ERA OF ANTIOCH. 



211 



in reality the first indiction commenced Sept. 1 of the preceding year and terminated at Aug. 31 
of the consulship of Constantine and Licinim; the 2nd indiction commenced in the year preceding, 
and ended in the consulship of Volusianus and Annianus^. Each indiction then is computed one 
year too low. They are however apparently right as placed in the Chronicle, since the last 8 
months of ind. 2 fell within the consulship of Volusianus and Annianus. 

The Chronicle p. 187 A B places the beginning of the Indictions and the era of Antioch in the 
same year : y^p^ixaTiC^i rris ixcydkrjs 'Airtoxeta? ets rtjurjy avrrjs (tos a kol ttp&tov hos r^s TievriKaibc- 
Ka€Tr]pCbos tG)V IvbUrcav airb irputTov hovs Tatov 'lovXtou Kaiaapos. vn. AeTrtSou koL YlXdyKov. a. TaCos 
'loiJAto? K. T. A. — apxn IvbiKTicavuiV' airb irpcaTov erovs Tatov 'IovKlov KaCaapos Kal tG>v T:poKei\xiv<av vird- 
T(av AeTTiSou koI UXdyKov^, rjyovv t/3' /cat avrrjs rod ' Aprcfxiaiov fj.rjvb9, 'Ayrioxets tow kavrGiv xpdvov9 
dpiOiiovai, Koi al IvhiKToi 8e xPW^t^C^'-^ -ijpiavTo airb Trpwrjjs koI avTTJs tov Topinaiov fxr^vos. This is 
true when the era of Antioch is assigned to its proper position, the autumn of A. D. 49 ; but the 
notation of the Chronicle brings the indiction one year below, in this manner. 



Indict. 1 Sept. 1 

Indict. 1 Sept. 1 

Indict. 1 Sept. 1 

Indict. 1 Sept. 1 

Indict. 1 Sept. 1 

Indict. 1 Sept. 1 

Indict. 1 Sept. 1 



True period. 

B. C. 49 
B. 0. 34 
B. C. 19 
B.C. 4 
A.D. 12 
A.D. 27 
A. D. 42 



Chron. Pasch. 

B. C. 48 
B. C. 33 
B.C. 18 
B.C. 3 
A.D. 13 
A.D. 28 
A. D. 43 g 



The Indictions and the era of Antioch both began in the same Julian year B. C. 49, the indic- 
tions at Sept. 1, the era of Antioch a little later, at the 1st of Bius, which after the adoption of 
the Julian fixed year at Antioch coincided with Novembersg. But in the notation of the Chronicle 
the indiction falls within the first year of Antioch, towards the close of that year. 

On reference to the preceding list of consuls we shall find that in the years marked in the 
Chronicle 01. 204. 1 — 206. 2 the consuls are at the wrong indiction. Again, after the lacuna, the 
consuls from 01. 211.4 to 212. 4, and from 01. 218. 2 to 235. 1 are at the wrong indiction^. In 
01. 235.3 — 242.1 they are at the right indiction; that is, as in Marcellinus, at the indiction 
which terminates in the consulship. Then deranged by omissions or interpolations from 01. 242. 2 
to 273. 1. Then again at the right indiction (that is, the indiction in which the consulships com- 
mence) from 01. 273. 2 to the end. 



e Compare the preceding list of consuls in c. 2 at 
A.D. 312—314 with the following Table at those 
years. 

f The year B. C. 49 which contained these epochs 
was in reality the consulship of Marcellus et Lentulus. 
The consulship of Lepidus et Plancus here named in 
the Chronicle belonged to B. C. 42, and is assigned 
to the 1 st year of Ccesar through the errors in the 
Chronicle which have been explained in F. H. Ill 
Introd. p. VI. vn. 

& See the indictions, as exhibited in the Paschal 
Chronicle, given above in c. 2. Although the in- 
dictions are regularly deduced in the Chronicle 
from the ist year of Julius Ccesar, yet they must 



only be considered for the first 24 periods or 360 
years as a measure of time. That the indictions 
were not in use before the reign of Constantine is 
shewn by Norisius Ep. Syromac. p. 197 — 199=;tom. 
2 p. 208. 209 against Scaliger. 

fg See F. H. Ill p. 353. 

h Thus, for example, 01. 204. 1 Ind. 9 Proculo 
et Nigrino coss. But ind. 9 commenced Sept. 1 
A. D. 35 and ended Aug. 31 A.D. 30 ; and the con- 
suls Proculus and Nigrinus began Jan. 1 A. D. 37- 
01. 218. 4 Ind. 8 Valente et Vetere coss. Indict. 8 
ended Aug. 31 A. D. 95, but those consuls com- 
menced Jan. 1 A. D. 96. 

E e 2 



212 APPENDIX. C.3. 

But when the consuls are at the right indiction they are at the wrong Olympic year ; for the 
Olympic years compared with the consulships are each an unit too high. Thus in A. D. 73 
Domitiano et Messalino coss. 01. 213. 1 commenced in July and indict. 1 was current till Aug. 31. 
But in the Paschal Chronicle these consuls and this indiction are placed at 01. 213. 2. In A. D. 
162 Rv^ico et Aquilino coss. 01. 235. 2 began in July and indict. 15 was current till Aug. 31. In 
the Chronicle these consuls and indict. 15 are at 01. 235. 3. In A. D. 313 Constantino III Lici- 
nio III coss. indict. 1 was current till Aug. 31 and 01. 273. 1 commenced in July ; but the Chro- 
nicle refers these consuls and indict. 1 to 01. 273. 2. At p. 374 A March of A. D. 562 P. C. Ba- 
silii XXI is said to fall in 01. 335. 3. But in reality in March 562 01. 335. 1 was still current, 
and 01. 335. 2 commenced in July. This mode of notation is continued throughout. The Olym- 
piads are thrown back that they may correspond with the bissextile years of the Roman calendar. 
Thus A. D. 164 Mdcrino et Celso coss. was a bissextile year in which 01. 235. 4 began in July; but 
in Chron. Pasch. this is called 01. 236. 1. A. D. 420 Theodosio IX Constantio III coss. was bis- 
sextile, and contained 01. 299| ; but this is called in the Chronicle 01. 300. 1. 

We may trace the true places of the indictions in some passages of the Chronicle. As in A. D. 
527 the 5th indiction is marked as already current at April 1 , which agrees with its true com- 
mencement at Sept. 1 A. D. 526'. Again p. 341 B Ivb. ta. r- vtt. 'lova-nvLavov Avyovarov to 
h' fiovov [A. D. 533]. TovT(o rw erei fxrjvl Aio) Kara 'Pw/ixaiovs Noe/i/3/)ia) ttjs i.^ IvbtKniavos — There- 
fore in Nov. A. D. 533 the 12th indiction had already commenced. The true date ; for indict. 12 
commenced Sept. 1 A. D. 533. p. 344 A ivb. i^. (*'• vt:. 'lovarLVLavov to e koI Uavkivov [A. D. 534]. 
i-nl TovToiv TUfV vitoLTUiv — OLTtb r^s Ttpb b' KaXavbuiv ^ lavovapiav ivbiKTi^vos ly . At Dec. 29 A. D. 534 
it is rightly said that the 13th indiction was current ; for it began at Sept. 1. At A. D. 562 the 
10th indiction is rightly marked as already current on the 20th of March'', p. 375 A B Ivb. la. 
Ag-'. /xera vtt. Bao-iA.etou to kj3' iiovov [A. D. 563]. TovTdi tw Af' ^ret — iir]v\ 'ATreAAaio) Kara 'Pwfta^ovs 
AfKciJL^pCov Kb' Tjixepa irpcaTrj [sc. feria prima], ttjs i^ ivbLKTi.<avos — In Dec. 24 A. D. 563 the l2th 
indiction was already current. It is rightly marked that in A. D. 574 on the 7th of September 
the 8th indiction had already begun ^, although that year is called in the Chronicle indict. 7 P. C 
JvMini VIII. 

The right place of the indiction may be often traced in the Theodosian Code, although some- 
times the notice is obscure or corrupt. The fourth indiction is current Nov. 16 A. D. 360™. In 
A. D. 367 indict. 10 is mentioned Cod. Theod. Vol. 3 p. 387 1. 1 1 de jure fisci : Alexandrino com. 
It. P. — Decima indictione singulas tantum dependant centesimas &c. — Dat. VII Kal. Oct. Dorostori 
Lwpidno.et Jovino coss.^ Gothofred. p. 388 supposes that this 10th indiction began VII Kal. 
Oct. A. D. 367 and was still future at the date of that law. But indict. 10 had already passed, 
and began in the preceding year 366, and the law refers to a payment then due upon it*'. A. D. 
369 within ind. 12 : see above c. 1 Valentinian. p. 117. Ind. 15 A. D. 386 ind. 1 A. D. 387 in<l. 9 
A. D. 395 are in Cod. Theod. Vol. 4 p. 196 1. 3 de indulgentiis debitorum : Andromache p. TJ. — usqm 
in consulatum primum clem^ntice nostra [A. D. 386] id est usque indictionem quintam decimam quce 
proxima fuerit, reliqua imiversa concedimus. — Post consulatum vero mansuMudinis nostrce [sc. A. D. 
387], id est, a prima indictione, in consulatum Olyhrii et Prohini [A. D. 395], omnium reliquorum 
exactionem suspendi oportere censemus. — Ex consulatu sane Olyhrii et Prohini, id est, ex nona indic- 

i See the Tables A. D. 527. 2 p. 746. Tables A. D. 367) but the mention of the Indiction 

^ See the Tables A. D. 562. 4 p. 813. is omitted. 

1 See the Tables A. D. 574. 2 p. 834. o See against Gothofredus Noris. Ep. Syromac. 

°* See Cod. Theod. quoted in the Tables A. D. p. 406, who shews that Gothofredus numbers the 

360. 3 p. 445. indictions one year too late. 
" This law is repeated Vol. 4 p. 548 (quoted in the 



INDICTIONS. ERA OF DIOCLETIAN. ERA OF ANTIOCH. 213 

tione, in prcesentem diem Sec. — Dat. VII Kal. Jul. Med. Vincentio et Fravitta coss. This law is 
therefore issued June 25 of the I4th indiction. Ind. il current in A.D. 368 ind. 5 current in 
A. D. 407 ind. 12 current A. D. 414 are named in Cod. Theod. at Ap. 9 A. D. 414 quoted in the 
TablesP. The 8th indiction is current at Aug. 26 A. D. 410 : Cod. Theod. Vol. 4 p. 503 1. 173 de 
decurionibus : Anthemio pf.p. — Placuit ut ah instanti octava indictione descriptiones &c. Dat. VII 
Kal. Sept. CP. Varane V. C. cons. Ind. 8 A. D. 424 is mentioned Cod. Theod. Vol. 4 p. 42 1. 33 
de annona: Isidoro pf.p. Illyrici. — Q,u(b dispositio inperpetuum observanda initio indictionis octavce 
congruum sumere dehehit exordium. — Dat. VI Id. Oct. CP. Viciore V. C. cons. This law was issued 
on the 40th day of the 8th indiction. The 14th indiction is mentioned as future in A. D. 430 : 
Cod. Theod. Vol. 4 p. 155 1. 6 de coUatione donatarum. Antiocho pf.p. — Ex quarta decima feliciter 
futura indictione, translatione servata Sec Dat. prid. Kal. Jan. CP. DD. NJV. Theodosio XIII et 
Valentiniano III A A. coss. But as the 14th indiction was already current at Dec. 31 A. D. 430, 
we may read prid. Kal. Jun. sc. May 31 A. D. 430, when the 14th indiction was yet future. 

The indiction began in each year at Sept. 1 both in the Eastern and Western Empire. This 
has been shewn by Norisius Ep. Syromac. p. 210. 406. 407- and is admitted by Sirmond apud 
Acta Concil. tom. 6 p. 606 : " Romani cum reliqua ItaHa, sicut et Grseci, novas indictiones incho- 
abant a, Kal. Sept. quod in Gregorii magni Joannis VIII et Gregorii VII epistolis observare est."'! 

In the description of the earthquake at Antioch, given in the Tables at the year 458, Sept. 14 
of the second year of Leo is called by Evagrius the 506th year of Antioch and the 1 1th indiction. 
Scaliger ad Euseb. p. 157 uses this passage to prove that the indictions began after Sept. 14. 
Norisius Ep. Syromac. p. 208 — 218 argues that as the indiction began Sept. 1 this was Sept. 14 
of A. D. 457> and consequently that the year of Antioch 506, being then current, had already 
commenced on the Ist of Gorpiwus or September. He contends that Evagrius marks the fol- 
lowing day or the 15th as Sunday: Kvpias €TnKaTakaj3ovcrr]s rifxepas — and that this happened in 457; 
that the eleventh indiction then current commenced Sept. 1 A.D. 457; that the earthquake is 
referred to the first year of Leo by Theophanes and Cedrenus, which will give A. D. 457 ; that 
Malalas places it Sept. 13 or Sunday and in the consulship of Patricius. But as these characters 
mark the year 459, he rejects the account of Malalas. 

But it may be answered, 1 that Theophanes p. 95 A places the accession of Leo in the 1 1 th 
indiction, which is not accurate. 2 that Evagrius places September of the 11th indiction in the 
second year of Leo, which is also inaccurate. 3 Malalas places September of the 506th year of 
Antioch within the consulship of Patricius, which is granted by Norisius to be an error. Each of 
these writers has committed a mistake. 4 Norisius, who has truly interpreted k-ntKaToKa^ovcrr}^ , 
argues from the Sunday that Evagrius marks Sept. 14 as Saturday; which happened in 457; that 
Malalas has erroneously named Sept. 13 as Sunday, which was true in 459. But from Malalas 
we may correct Evagrius; and he will then express in the words of Norisius p. 210 "die 13^ 
Gorpisei sive Septembris circa horam quartam noctis jam cadente, ac post duas horas Dominica 
die Gorpisei 14* adventura." And this happened in September A. D. 458. Norisius himself p. 213 
admits that Evagrius may have mistaken the indiction : " Quispiam suspicari posset a Joanne 
rhetore qui ilium terrse motum accurate descripsit designatum fuisse annum 506 serse Antiochense, 
ac secundum imperii Leonis diemque 14 Septembris, quibus indicatur U. C. 1211 A. D. 458, 
Evagrium vero notas ferige atque indictionis XI perperam adposuisse quibus ille casus ad A. D. 
457 retrahitur." This last opinion, that Evagrius had mistaken the indiction, appears to be the 

P See the Tables A. D. 407- I 414. 3. Compare practice was different, and the practice of the Franks 
the Tables A. D. 415. 3 p. 589 1. 45. in A. D. 572. 869. 

^ Although Sirmond contends that the ancient 



214 



APPENDIX. 



C.3. 



truth. The event happened on Saturday Sept. 13 A. D. 458, towards the close of the 506th year, when the 2nd 
oi Leo was current, and on the 13th day of the 12th indiction. 

It has been already explained that in this following Table of Parallel Years the indictions the years of Dio- 
cletian of Antioch of the SelmcidcB^ and the Olympic years, are all placed at that year of the Christian era in 
which they begin. 



Ind. 1 


Diocl. 


Ant. 


Sel. 


A. D. 


Olymp. 


Ind. 


Diocl. 


Ant. 


Sel. 


A. D. 


Olymp. 


Ind. 


Diocl. 


Ant. 1 


Sel. 


A. D. 


Olymp. 


Sep. I. « 


5ep 17. ] 


Vov. I. 


Oct. 


Jan. I. 


July. 


Sep. I. i 


5ep.i7. : 


'^OV. I. 


Oct. 


Jan. I. 


July. 


Sep. I. i 


5ep.i7. Nov. I. 


Oct. 


Jan. I. 


July. 
2 


1 




301 


564 


252 




5 


18 


350 


613 


301 


270.1 


9 


67 


399 


662 


350 


2 




302 


565 


253 


258.1 


6 


19 


351 


614 


302 


2 


10 


68 


400 


663 


351 


3 


3 




303 


566 


254 


2 


7 


20 


352 


615 


303 


3 


11 


69 


401 


664 


352 


4 


4 




304 


567 


255 


3 


8 


21 


353 


616 


304 


4 


12 


70 


402 


665 


353 


283.1 


5 




305 


568 


256 


4 


9 


22 


354 


617 


305 


271.1 


13 


71 


403 


666 


354 


2 


6 




306 


569 


257 


259.1 


10 


23 


355 


618 


306 


2 


14 


72 


404 


667 


355 


3 


7 




307 


570 


258 


2 


11 


24 


356 


619 


307 


3 


15 


73 


405 


668 


356 


4 


8 




308 


571 


259 


3 


12 


25 


357 


620 


308 


4 


1 


74 


406 


669 


357 


284.1 


9 




309 


572 


260 


4 


13 


26 


358 


621 


309 


272.1 


2 


75 


407 


670 


358 


2 


10 




310 


573 


261 


260.1 


14 


27 


359 


622 


310 


2 


3 


76 


408 


671 


359 


3 


11 




311 


574 


262 


2 


15 


28 


360 


623 


311 


3 


4 


77 


409 


672 


360 


4 


12 




312 


575 


263 


3 


*1 


29 


361 


624 


312 


4 


5 


78 


410 


673 


361 


285.1 


13 




313 


576 


264 


4 


2 


30 


362 


625 


313 


273.1 


6 


79 


411 


674 


362 


2 


14 




314 


577 


265 


261.1 


3 


31 


363 


626 


314 


2 


7 


80 


412 


675 


363 


3 


15 




315 


578 


266 


2 


4 


32 


364 


627 


315 


3 


8 


81 


413 


676 


364 


4 


1 




316 


579 


267 


3 


5 


33 


365 


628' 


316 


4 


9 


82 


414 


677 


365 


286.1 


2 




317 


580 


268 


4 


6 


34 


366 


629 


317 


274.1 


10 


83 


415 


678 


366 


2 


3 




318 


581 


269 


262. 1 


7 


35 


367 


630 


318 


2 


11 


84 


416 


679 


367 


3 


4 




319 


582 


270 


2 


8 


36 


368 


631 


319 


3 


12 


85 


417 


680 


368 


4 


5 




320 


583 


271 


3 


9 


37 


369 


632 


320 


4 


13 


86 


418 


681 


369 


287.1 


6 




321 


584 


272 


4 


10 


38 


370 


633 


321 


275.1 


14 


87 


419 


682 


370 


2 


7 




322 


585 


273 


263.1 


11 


39 


371 


632 


322 


2 


15 


88 


420 


683 


371 


3 


8 




323 


586 


274 


2 


12 


40 


372 


635 


323 


3 


1 


89 


421 


684 


372 


4 


9 




324 


587 


275 


3 


13 


41 


373 


636 


324 


4 


2 


90 


422 


685 


373 


288.1 


10 




325 


588 


276 


4 


14 


42 


374 


637 


325* 


276.1 


3 


91 


423 


686 


374 


2 


11 




326 


589 


277 


264. 1 


15 


43 


375 


638 


326 


2 


4 


92 


424 


687 


375 


3 


12 




327 


590 


278 


2 


1 


44 


376 


639 


327 


3 


5 


93 


425 


688 


376 


4 


13 




328 


591 


279 


3 


2 


45 


377 


640 


328 


4 


6 


94 


426 


689 


377 


289. I 


14 




329 


592 


280 


4 


3 


46 


378 


641 


329 


277.1 


7 


95 


427 


690 


378 


2 


15 




330 


593 


281 


265.1 


4 


47 


379 


642 


330 


2 


8 


96 


428 


691 


379 


3 


1 




331 


594 


282 


2 


5 


48 


380 


643 


331 


3 


9 


97 


429 


692 


380 


4 


2 




332 


595 


283 


3 


6 


49 


381 


644 


332 


4 


10 


98 


430 


693 


381 


290.1 


3 


1 


333 


596 


284 


4 


7 


50 


382 


645 


333 


278.1 


11 


99 


431 


694 


382 


2 


4 


2 


334 


597 


285 


266.1 


8 


51 


383 


646 


334 


2 


12 


100 


432 


695 


383 


3 


5 


3 


335 


598 


286 


2 


9 


52 


384 


647 


335 


3 


13 


101 


433 


696 


384 


4 


6 


4 


336 


599 


287 


3 


10 


53 


385 


648 


336 


4 


14 


102 


434 


697 


385 


291.1 


7 


5 


337 


600 


288 


4 


11 


54 


386 


649 


337 


279.1 


15 


103 


435 


698 


386 


2 


8 


6 


338 


601 


289 


267.1 


12 


55 


387 


650 


338 


2 


1 


104 


436 


699 


387 


3 


9 


7 


339 


602 


290 


2 


13 


56 


388 


651 


339 


3 


2 


105 


437 


700 


388 


4 


10 


8 


340 


603 


291 


3 


14 


57 


389 


652 


340 


4 


3 


106 


438 


701 


389 


292.1 


11 


9 


341 


604 


292 


4 


15 


58 


390 


653 


341 


280.1 


4 


107 


439 


702 


390 


2 


12 


10 


342 


605 


293 


268.1 


1 


59 


391 


654 


342 


2 


5 


108 


440 


703 


391 


3 


13 


11 


343 


606 


294 


2 


2 


60 


392 


655 


343 


3 


6 


109 


441 


704 


392 


4 


14 


12 


344 


607 


295 


3 


3 


61 


393 


656 


344 


4 


7 


110 


442 


705 


393 


293.1 


15 


13 


345 


608 


296 


4 


4 


62 


394 


657 


345 


281.1 


8 


111 


443 


7O6 


394 


2 


1 


14 


346 


609 


297 


269.1 


5 


63 


395 


658 


346 


2 


9 


112 


444 


707 


395 


3 


2 


15 


347 


610 


298 


2 


6 


64 


396 


659 


347 


3 


10 


113 


445 


708 


396 


4 


3 


16 


348 


611 


299 


3 


7 


65 


397 


660 


348 


4 


11 


114 


446 


709 


397 


294.1 


4 


17 


349 


612 


300 


4 


8 


66 


398 


661 


349 


282.1 


12 


115 


447 


710 


398 


2 



* Indiction of Comtantine. 



C. 3. 



INDICTIONS. ERA OF DIOCLETIAN. ERA OF ANTIOCH. 



21^ 



Ind. 


Diool. 


Ant. 


Sel. 


A. D. 


Olymp. 


Ind. 


Diocl. 


Ant. 


Sel. 


A. D. 


Olymp. 


Ind. 


Diocl. 


Ant. 


Sel. 


A. D. 


Olymp. 


Sep. I. 


Sep. 1 7 


Nov. I. 


Oct. 


Jan. I 


July. 


Sep. I. 


Sep. 1 7 


Nov. I 


Oct. 


Jan. I. 


July. 


Sep. I. 


Sep. 1 7 


Nov. I. 


Oct. 


Jan. I. 


July. 


13 


116 


448 


711 


399 


3 


10 


173 


505 


768 


456 


4 


7 


230 


562 


825 


513 


323.1 


14 


117 


449 


712 


400 


4 


11 


174 


506 


769 


457 


309. 1 


8 


231 


563 


826 


514 


2 


15 


118 


450 


713 


401 


295.1 


12 


175 


507 


770 


458 


2 


9 


232 


564 


827 


515 


3 


1 


119 


451 


714 


402 


2 


13 


176 


508 


771 


459 


3 


10 


233 


565 


828 


516 


4 


2 


120 


452 


715 


403 


3 


14 


177 


509 


772 


460 


4 


11 


234 


566 


829 


517 


324.1 


3 


121 


453 


716 


404 


4 


15 


178 


510 


773 


461 


310. 1 


12 


235 


567 


830 


518 


2 


4 


122 


454 


717 


405 


296. 1 


1 


179 


511 


774 


462 


2 


13 


236 


568 


831 


519 


3 


5 


123 


455 


718 


406 


2 


2 


180 


512 


775 


463 


3 


14 


237 


569 


832 


520 


4 


6 


124 


456 


719 


407 


3 


3 


181 


513 


776 


464 


4 


15 


238 


570 


833 


521 


325.1 


7 


125 


457 


720 


408 


4 


4 


182 


514 


777 


465 


311.1 


1 


239 


571 


834 


522 


2 


8 


126 


458 


721 


409 


297. I 


5 


183 


515 


778 


466 


2 


2 


240 


572 


835 


523 


3 


9 


127 


459 


722 


410 


2 


6 


184 


516 


779 


467 


3 


3 


241 


573 


836 


524 


4 


10 


128 


460 


723 


411 


3 


7 


185 


517 


780 


468 


4 


4 


242 


574 


837 


525 


326.1 


11 


129 


461 


724 


412 


4 


8 


186 


518 


781 


469 


312.1 


5 


243 


575 


838 


526 


2 


12 


130 


462 


725 


413 


*298. 1 


9 


187 


519 


782 


470 


2 


6 


244 


576 


839 


527 


3 


13 


131 


463 


726 


414 


2 


10 


188 


520 


783 


471 


3 


7 


245 


577 


840 


528 


4 


14 


132 


464 


727 


415 


3 


11 


189 


521 


784 


472 


4 


8 


246 


578 


841 


529 


327.1 


15 


133 


465 


728 


416 


4 


12 


190 


522 


785 


473 


313. 1 


9 


247 


579 


842 


530 


2 


1 


134 


466 


729 


417 


*299. 1 


13 


191 


523 


786 


474 


2 


10 


248 


580 


843 


531 


3 


2 


135 


467 


730 


418 


2 


14 


192 


524 


787 


475 


3 


11 


249 


581 


844 


532 


4 


3 


136 


468 


731 


419 


3 


15 


193 


525 


788 


476 


4 


12 


250 


582 


845 


533 


328.1 


4 


137 


469 


732 


420 


4 


1 


194 


526 


789 


477 


314. 1 


13 


251 


583 


846 


534 


2 


5 


138 


470 


733 


421 


300. 1 


2 


195 


527 


790 


478 


2 


14 


252 


584 


847 


535 


3 


6 


139 


471 


734 


422 


2 


3 


196 


528 


791 


479 


3 


15 


253 


585 


848 


536 


4 


7 


140 


472 


735 


423 


3 


4 


197 


529 


792 


480 


4 


1 


254 


586 


849 


537 


329.1 


8 


141 


473 


736 


424 


4 


5 


198 


530 


793 


481 


315.1 


2 


255 


587 


850 


538 


2 


9 


142 


474 


737 


425 


301. 1 


6 


199 


531 


794 


482 


2 


3 


256 


588 


851 


539 


3 


10 


143 


475 


738 


426 


2 


7 


200 


532 


795 


483 


3 


4 


257 


589 


852 


540 


4 


11 


144 


476 


739 


427 


3 


8 


201 


533 


796 


484 


4 


5 


258 


590 


853 


541 


330.1 


12 


145 


477 


740 


428 


4 


9 


202 


534 


797 


485 


316. 1 


6 


259 


591 


854 


542 


2 


13 


146 


478 


741 


429 


302. 1 


10 


203 


535 


798 


486 


2 


7 


260 


592 


855 


543 


3 


14 


147 


479 


742 


430 


2 


11 


204 


536 


799 


487 


3 


8 


261 


593 


856 


544 


4 


15 


148 


480 


743 


431 


3 


12 


205 


537 


800 


488 


4 


9 


262 


594 


857 


545 


331.1 


1 


149 


481 


744 


432 


4 


13 


206 


538 


801 


489 


317.1 


10 


263 


595 


858 


546 


2 


2 


150 


482 


745 


433 


303.1 


14 


207 


539 


802 


490 


2 


11 


264 


596 


859 


547 


3 


3 


151 


483 


746 


434 


2 


15 


208 


540 


803 


491 


3 


12 


265 


597 


860 


548 


4 


4 


152 


484 


747 


435 


3 


1 


209 


541 


804 


492 


4 


13 


266 


598 


861 


549 


332. 1 


5 


153 


485 


748 


436 


4 


2 


210 


542 


805 


493 


318. 1 


14 


267 


599 


862 


550 


2 


6 


154 


486 


749 


437 


304. 1 


3 


211 


543 


806 


494 


2 


15 


268 


600 


863 


551 


3 




155 


487 


750 


438 


2 


4 


212 


544 


807 


495 


3 


1 


269 


601 


864 


552 


4 


8 


156 


488 


751 


439 


3 


5 


213 


545 


808 


496 


4 


2 


270 


602 


865 


553 


333. 1 


9 


157 


489 


752 


440 


4 


6 


214 


546 


809 


497 


319. 1 


3 


271 


603 


866 


554 


2 


10 


158 


490 


753 


441 


305. 1 


7 


215 


547 


810 


498 


2 


4 


272 


604 


867 


555 


3 


11 


159 


491 


754 


442 


2 


8 


216 


548 


811 


499 


3 


5 


273 


605 


868 


556 


4 


12 


160 


492 


755 


443 


3 


9 


217 


549 


812 


500 


4 


6 


274 


606 


869 


557 


334.1 


13 


161 


493 


756 


444 


4 


10 


218 


550 


813 


501 


320. 1 


7 


275 


607 


870 


558 


2 


14 


162 


494 


757 


445 


306. 1 


11 


219 


551 


814 


502 


2 


8 


276 


608 


871 


559 


3 


15 


163 


495 


758 


446 


2 


12 


220 


552 


815 


503 


3 


9 


277 


609 


872 


560 


4 


1 


164 


496 


759 


447 


3 


13 


221 


553 


816 


504 


4 


10 


278 


610 


873 


561 


335.1 


2 


165 


497 


760 


448 


4 


14 


222 


554 


817 


505 


321. 1 


11 


279 


611 


874 


562 


2 


3 


166 


498 


761 


449 


307. 1 


15 


223 


555 


818 


506 


2 


12 


280 


612 


875 


563 


3 


4 


167 


499 


762 


450 


2 


1 


224 


556 


819 


507 


3 


13 


281 


613 


876 


564 


4 


5 


168 


500 


,763 


451 


3 


2 


225 


557 


820 


508 


4 


14 


282 


614 


877 


565 


336.1 


6 


169 


501 


764 


452 


4 


3 


226 


558 


821 


509 


322.1 


15 


283 


615 


878 


566 


2 


7 


170 


502 


765 


453 


308. 1 


4 


227 


559 


822 


510 


2 


1 


284 


616 


879 


567 


3 


8 


171 


503 


766 


454 


2 


5 


228 


560 


823 


511 


' 3 


2 


285 


617 


880 


568 


4 


9 


172 


504 


767 


455 


3 


6 


229 


561 


824 


512 


4 


3 


286 


618 


881 


569 


337. 1 



* 01. 298 or 299 probably the last. 



216 



APPENDIX. 



C. 3. 



Ind. 


Diocl. 


Ant. 


Sel. 


A. D. 


Olymp. 


Ind. 


Diocl. 


Ant. 


Sel. 


A. D. 


Olymp. 


Ind. 


Diocl. 


Ant. 


Sel. 


A. D. 


Sep. I. 


Sep. 1 7. 


Nov. I. 


Oct. 


Jan. I. 


July. 


Sep. I. 


Sep. 1 7. 


Nov. I. 


Oct. 


Jan. I. 


July. 


Sep. I. 


Sep. 1 7. 


Nov. I. 


Oct. 


Jan. I. 


4 


287 


619 


882 


570 


2 


5 


318 


650 


913 


601 


345.1 


5 


348 


680 


943 


631 


5 


288 


620 


883 


571 


3 


6 


319 


651 


914 


602 


2 


6 


349 


681 


944 


632 


6 


289 


621 


884 


572 


4 


7 


320 


652 


915 


603 


3 


7 


350 


682 


945 


633 


7 


290 


622 


885 


573 


338.1 


8 


321 


653 


916 


604 


4 


8 


351 


683 


946 


634 


8 


291 


623 


886 


574 


2 


9 


322 


654 


917 


605 


346.1 


9 


352 


684 


947 


635 


9 


292 


624 


887 


575 


3 


10 


323 


655 


918 


606 


2 


10 


353 


685 


948 


636 


10 


293 


625 


888 


576 


4 


11 


324 


656 


919 


607 


3 


11 


354 


686 


949 


637 


11 


294 


626 


889 


577 


339.1 


12 


325 


657 


920 


608 


4 


12 


355 


687 


950 


638 


12 


295 


627 


890 


578 


2 


13 


326 


658 


921 


609 


347. 1 


13 


356 


688 


951 


639 


13 


296 


628 


891 


579 


3 


14 


327 


659 


922 


610 


2 


14 


357 


689 


952 


640 


14 


297 


629 


892 


580 


4 


15 


328 


660 


923 


611 


3 


15 


358 


690 


953 


641 


15 


298 


630 


893 


581 


340.1 


1 


329 


661 


924 


612 


4 


1 


359 


691 


954 


642 


I 


299 


631 


894 


582 


2 


2 


330 


662 


925 


613 


348.1 


2 


360 


692 


955 


643 


2 


300 


632 


895 


583 


3 


3 


331 


663 


926 


614 


2 


3 


361 


693 


956 


644 


3 


301 


633 


896 


584 


4 


4 


332 


664 


927 


615 


3 


4 


362 


694 


957 


645 


4 


302 


634 


897 


585 


341.1 


5 


333 


665 


928 


616 


4 


5 


363 


695 


958 


646 


5 


303 


635 


898 


586 


2 


6 


334 


666 


929 


617 


349.1 


6 


364 


696 


959 


647 


6 


304 


636 


899 


587 


3 


7 


335 


667 


930 


618 


2 


7 


365 


697 


960 


648 


7 


305 


637 


900 


588 


4 


8 


336 


668 


931 


619 


3 


8 


366 


698 


961 


649 


8 


306 


638 


901 


589 


342.1 


9 


337 


669 


932 


620 


4 


9 


367 


699 


962 


650 


9 


307 


639 


902 


590 


2 


10 


338 


670 


933 


621 


350.1 


10 


368 


700 


963 


651 


10 


308 


640 


903 


591 


3 


11 


339 


671 


934 


622 




11 


369 


701 


964 


652 


11 


309 


641 


904 


592 


4 


12 


340 


672 


935 


623 




12 


370 


702 


965 


653 


12 


310 


642 


905 


593 


343.1 


13 


341 


673 


936 


624 




13 


371 


703 


966 


654 


13 


311 


643 


906 


594 


2 


14 


342 


674 


937 


625 




14 


372 


704 


967 


655 


14 


312 


644 


907 


595 


3 


15 


343 


675 


938 


626 




15 


373 


705 


968 


656 


15 


313 


645 


908 


596 


4 


1 


344 


676 


939 


627 




1 


374 


706 


969 


657 


1 


314 


646 


909 


597 


344. 1 


2 


345 


677 


940 


628 




2 


375 


707 


970 


658 


2 


315 


647 


910 


598 


2 


3 


346 


678 


941 


629 




3 


376 


708 


971 


659 


3 


316 


648 


911 


599 


3 


4 


347 


679 


942 


630 




4 


377 


709 


972 


660 


4 


317 


649 


912 


600 


4 




















1 1 



IV. 
EUSEBIAN YEARS. 

THE BIRTH of Abraham is placed by Eusebius in October B. C. 2016*. The years are computed from 
that point. In the following Table an expanded view is given of the first 104 years. In the obscure cen- 
turies that follow it is sufficient to mark the beginning of each century. But the thirteenth century con- 
tains the Olympic era, and in the following centuries the most important events of ancient history are 
registered down to the Christian era. From this last epoch the Eusebian years are every where quoted 
in the present Work, and this Table will exhibit them from the year 1201 to the end. The notation of 



* Eusebius therefore places it 20 years above the date of Usher, but more than a century below the real time. I 
subjoin, to be compared with Eusebius, the dates of some eminent chronologers for the birth of Abraham, together 
with my own date for that event. 

B. C. 

Hales 2153 

Cuninghame 2146 

Fasti HeUen. Vol. I 2130 

Greswell 2064 

Eusebius 2016 

Usher 1996 



EUSEBIAN YEARS. 



217 



the Armenian Copy is followed, which places the first Olympic games in the year 1240'' and the Nativity 
in the close of the year 2015 in the 4th year of the ]94th Olympiad «=. The Eusebian years commence in 
October; and as 1240 contained the beginning of 01. 1. 1 July B. 0. 77^, it commenced in October B.C. 
777, 01. ]9'i. 4 was the 776th Olympic year commencing in July B. C. 1. But, as the Eusebian year 1240 
was still current when the first Olympic year began, then 1240 + 775 = 2015, and the 2015th year was still 
current when the 776th began. And as the year 1240 commenced in October preceding, or Oct. B. C. 777» 
so the year 2015 commenced in October preceding, or Oct. B. C. 2. These two epochs determine the posi- 
tion of the other years. Hieronymus throws back the year 1241, which in the mind of Eusebius began 
in October B.C. 776 and contained the last nine months of the first Olympic year, to July preceding, and 
reckons it to commence with that first Olympic year in July B. C. 776 ''. But it is not necessary to sup- 
pose that the notation of Hieronymus in Scaliger was also the notation of Eusebius on account of 01. 
65. 1 and 201.4 quoted in F. H. Ill p. 303. For, as it is also there shewn, the year H97 contained 
the last nine months of 01. 65. 1 and the year 2044 the last nine months of 01. 201. 4. 



Eus. Oct. B.C. 


Eus. Oct. B.C. 


Eus. Oct. B.C. 


Eus. Oct. B.C. 


Eus. Oct. B.C. 


Eus. Oct. B.C. 


Eus. Oct. B.C. 


Eus. Oct. B.C. 


1 


2016 


14 


2003 


27 


1990 


40 


1977 


53 


1964 


66 


1951 


79 


1938 


92 


1925 


2 


2015 


15 


2002 


28 


1989 


41 


1976 


54 


1963 


67 


1950 


80 


1937 


93 


1924 


3 


2014 


16 


2001 


29 


1988 


42 


1975 


55 


1962 


68 


1949 


81 


1936 


94 


1923 


4 


2013 


17 


2000 


30 


1987 


43 


1974 


56 


1961 


69 


1948 


82 


1935 


95 


1922 


5 


2012 


18 


1999 


31 


1986 


44 


1973 


57 


1960 


70 


1947 


83 


1934 


96 


1921 


6 


2011 


19 


1998 


32 


1985 


45 


1972 


58 


1959 


71 


1946 


84 


1933 


97 


1920 


7 


2010 


20 


1997 


33 


1984 


46 


1971 


59 


1958 


72 


1945 


85 


1932 


98 


1919 


8 


2009 


21 


1996 


34 


1983 


47 


1970 


60 


1957 


73 


1944 


86 


1931 


99 


1918 


9 


2008 


22 


1995 


35 


1982 


48 


1969 


61 


1956 


74 


1943 


87 


1930 


100 


1917 


10 


2007 


23 


1994 


36 


1981 


49 


1968 


62 


1955 


75 


1942 


88 


1929 


101 


1916 


11 


2006 


24 


1993 


37 


1980 


50 


1967 


63 


1954 


76 


1941 


89 


1928 


102 


1915 


12 


2005 


25 


1992 


38 


1979 


51 


1966 


64 


1953 


77 


1940 


90 


1927 


103 


1914 


13 


2004 


26 


1991 


39 


1978 


52 


1965 


65 


1952 


78 


1939 


91 


1926 


104 


1913 


201 


1816 


401 


1616 


601 


1416 


801 


1216 


1001 


1016 


1102 


915 


1104 


913 


1106 


911 


301 


17I6 


501 


1516 


701 


1316 


901 


1116 


1101 


916 


1003 


914 


1105 


912 


1107 


910 


1201 


816 


1224 


793 


1247 


770 


1270 


747 


1293 


724 


1316 


701 


1339 


678 


1362 


655 


1202 


815 


1225 


792 


1248 


769 


1271 


746 


1294 


723 


1317 


700 


1340 


677 


1363 


654 


1203 


814 


1226 


791 


1249 


768 


1272 


745 


1295 


722 


1318 


699 


1341 


676 


1364 


653 


1204 


813 


1227 


790 


1250 


767 


1273 


744 


1296 


721 


1319 


698 


1342 


675 


1365 


652 


1205 


812 


1228 


789 


1251 


766 


1274 


743 


1297 


720 


1320 


697 


1343 


674 


1366 


651 


1206 


811 


1229 


788 


1252 


765 


1275 


742 


1298 


719 


1321 


696 


1344 


673 


1367 


650 


1207 


810 


1230 


787 


1253 


764 


1276 


741 


1299 


718 


1322 


695 


1345 


672 


1368 


649 


1208 


809 


1231 


786 


1254 


763 


1277 


740 


1300 


717 


1323 


694 


1346 


671 


1369 


648 


1209 


808 


1232 


785 


1255 


762 


1278 


739 


1301 


716 


1324 


693 


1347 


670 


1370 


647 


1210 


807 


1233 


784 


1256 


761 


1279 


738 


1302 


715 


1325 


692 


1348 


669 


1371 


646 


1211 


806 


1234 


783 


1257 


760 


1280 


737 


1303 


714 


1326 


691 


1349 


668 


1372 


645 


1212 


805 


1235 


782 


1258 


759 


1281 


736 


1304 


713 


1327 


690 


1350 


667 


1373 


644 


1213 


804 


1236 


781 


1259 


758 


1282 


735 


1305 


712 


1328 


689 


1351 


666 


1374 


643 


1214 


803 


1237 


780 


1260 


757 


1283 


734 


1306 


711 


1329 


688 


1352 


665 


1375 


642 


1215 


802 


1238 


779 


1261 


756 


1284 


733 


1307 


710 


1330 


687 


1353 


664 


1376 


641 


1216 


801 


1239 


778 


1262 


755 


1285 


732 


1308 


709 


1331 


686 


1354 


663 


1377 


640 


1217 


800 


1240 


777 


1263 


754 


1286 


731 


1309 


708 


1332 


685 


1355 


662 


1378 


639 


1218 


799 


1241 


776 


1264 


753 


1287 


730 


1310 


707 


1333 


684 


1356 


661 


1379 


638 


1219 


798 


1242 


775 


1265 


752 


1288 


729 


1311 


706 


1334 


683 


1357 


660 


1380 


637 


1220 


797 


1243 


774 


1266 


751 


1289 


728 


1312 


705 


1335 


682 


1358 


659 


1381 


636 


1221 


796 


1244 


773 


1267 


750 


1290 


727 


1313 


704 


1336 


681 


1359 


658 


1382 


635 


1222 


795 


1245 


772 


1268 


749 


1291 


726 


1314 


703 


1337 


680 


1360 


657 


13§3 


634 


1223 


794 


1246 


771 


1269 


748 


1292 


725 


1315 


702 


1338 


679 


1361 


656 


1384 


633 



b See F.H. vol. I p. 150. 



c See F.H. Ill p. 258. 2/6. 
F f 



d See F.H. I p. 152. 



218 



APPENDIX. 



C. 4. 



Eus. Oct. B.C. 


Eus. Oct. B.C. 


Eus. Oct. B.C. 


Eus. Oct. B.C. 


Eus. Oct. B.C. 


Eus. Oct. B.C. 


Eus. Oct. B.C. 


Eus. Oct. B.C. 


1385 


632 


1443 


574 


1501 


516 


1559 


458 


1617 


400 


1675 


342 


1733 


284 


1791 


226 


1386 


631 


1444 


573 


1502 


515 


1560 


457 


1618 


399 


1676 


341 


1734 


283 


1792 


225 


1387 


630 


1445 


572 


1503 


514 


1561 


456 


1619 


398 


1677 


340 


1735 


282 


1793 


224 


1388 


629 


1446 


571 


1504 


513 


1562 


455 


1620 


397 


1678 


339 


1736 


281 


1794 


223 


1389 


628 


1447 


570 


1505 


512 


1563 


454 


1621 


396 


1679 


338 


1737 


280 


1795 


222 


1390 


627 


1448 


569 


1506 


511 


1564 


453 


1622 


395 


1680 


337 


1738 


279 


1796 


221 


1391 


626 


1449 


568 


1507 


510 


1565 


452 


1623 


394 


1681 


336 


1739 


278 


1797 


220 


1392 


625 


1450 


567 


1508 


509 


1566 


451 


1624 


393 


1682 


335 


1740 


277 


1798 


219 


1393 


624 


1451 


566 


1509 


508 


1567 


450 


1625 


392 


1683 


334 


1741 


276 


1799 


218 


1394 


623 


1452 


565 


1510 


507 


1568 


449 


1626 


391 


1684 


333 


1742 


275 


1800 


217 


1395 


622 


1453 


564 


1511 


506 


1569 


448 


1627 


390 


1685 


332 


1743 


274 


1801 


216 


1396 


621 


1454 


563 


1512 


505 


1570 


447 


1628 


389 


1686 


331 


1744 


273 


1802 


215 


1397 


620 


1455 


562 


1513 


504 


1571 


446 


1629 


388 


1687 


330 


1745 


272 


1803 


214 


1398 


619 


1456 


561 


1514 


503 


1572 


445 


1630 


387 


1688 


329 


1746 


271 


1804 


213 


1399 


618 


1457 


560 


1515 


502 


1573 


444 


1631 


386 


1689 


328 


1747 


270 


1805 


212 


1400 


617 


1458 


559 


1516 


501 


1574 


443 


1632 


385 


1690 


327 


1748 


269 


1806 


211 


1401 


616 


1459 


558 


1517 


500 


1575 


442 


1633 


384 


1691 


326 


1749 


268 


1807 


210 


1402 


615 


1460 


557 


1518 


499 


1576 


441 


1634 


383 


1692 


325 


1750 


267 


1808 


209 


1403 


614 


1461 


556 


1519 


498 


1577 


440 


1635 


382 


1693 


324 


1751 


266 


1809 


208 


1404 


613 


1462 


555 


1520 


497 


1578 


439 


1636 


381 


1694 


323 


1752 


265 


1810 


207 


1405 


612 


1463 


554 


1521 


496 


1579 


438 


1637 


380 


1695 


322 


1753 


264 


1811 


206 


1406 


611 


1464 


553 


1522 


495 


1580 


437 


1638 


379 


1696 


321 


1754 


263 


1812 


205 


1407 


610 


1465 


552 


1523 


494 


1581 


436 


1639 


378 


1697 


320 


1755 


262 


1813 


204 


1408 


609 


1466 


551 


1524 


493 


1582 


435 


1640 


377 


1698 


319 


1756 


261 


1814 


203 


1409 


608 


1467 


550 


1525 


492 


1583 


434 


1641 


376 


1699 


318 


1757 


260 


1815 


202 


1410 


607 


1468 


549 


1526 


491 


1584 


433 


1642 


375 


1700 


317 


1758 


259 


1816 


201 


1411 


606 


1469 


548 


1527 


490 


1585 


432 


1643 


374 


1701 


316 


1759 


258 


1817 


200 


1412 


605 


1470 


547 


1528 


489 


1586 


431 


1644 


373 


1702 


315 


1760 


257 


1818 


199 


1413 


604 


1471 


546 


1529 


488 


1587 


430 


1645 


372 


1703 


314 


1761 


256 


1819 


198 


1414 


603 


1472 


545 


1530 


487 


1588 


429 


1646 


371 


1704 


313 


1762 


255 


1820 


197 


1415 


602 


1473 


544 


1531 


486 


1589 


428 


1647 


370 


1705 


312 


1763 


254 


1821 


196 


1416 


601 


1474 


543 


1532 


485 


1590 


427 


1648 


369 


1706 


311 


1764 


253 


1822 


195 


1417 


600 


1475 


542 


1533 


484 


1591 


426 


1649 


368 


1707 


310 


1765 


252 


1823 


194 


1418 


599 


1476 


541 


1534 


483 


1592 


425 


1650 


367 


1708 


309 


1766 


251 


1824 


193 


1419 


598 


1477 


540 


1535 


482 


1593 


424 


1651 


366 


1709 


308 


1767 


250 


1825 


192 


1420 


597 


1478 


539 


1536 


481 


1594 


423 


1652 


365 


1710 


307 


1768 


249 


1826 


191 


1421 


596 


1479 


538 


1537 


480 


1595 


422 


1653 


364 


1711 


306 


1769 


248 


1827 


190 


1422 


595 


1480 


537 


1538 


479 


1596 


421 


1654 


363 


1712 


305 


1770 


247 


1828 


189 


1423 


594 


1481 


536 


1539 


478 


1597 


420 


1655 


362 


1713 


304 


1771 


246 


1829 


188 


1424 


593 


1482 


535 


1540 


477 


1598 


419 


1656 


361 


1714 


303 


1772 


245 


1830 


187 


1425 


592 


1483 


534 


1541 


476 


1699 


418 


1657 


360 


1715 


302 


1773 


244 


1831 


186 


1426 


591 


1484 


533 


1542 


475 


1600 


417 


1658 


359 


1716 


301 


1774 


243 


1832 


185 


1427 


590 


1485 


532 


1543 


474 


1601 


416 


1659 


358 


1717 


300 


1775 


242 


1833 


184 


1428 


589 


1486 


531 


1544 


473 


1602 


415 


1660 


357 


1718 


299 


1776 


241 


1834 


183 


1429 


588 


1487 


530 


1545 


472 


1603 


414 


1661 


356 


1719 


298 


1777 


240 


1835 


182 


1430 


587 


1488 


529 


1546 


471 


1604 


413 


1662 


355 


1720 


297 


1778 


239 


1836 


181 


1431 


586 


1489 


528 


1547 


470 


1605 


412 


1663 


354 


1721 


296 


1779 


238 


1837 


180 


1432 


585 


1490 


527 


1548 


469 


1606 


411 


1664 


353 


1722 


295 


1780 


237 


1838 


179 


1433 


584 


1491 


526 


1549 


468 


1607 


410 


1665 


352 


1723 


294 


1781 


236 


1839 


178 


1434 


583 


1492 


525 


1550 


467 


1608 


409 


1666 


351 


1724 


293 


1782 


235 


1840 


177 


1435 


582 


1493 


524 


1551 


466 


1609 


408 


1667 


350 


1725 


292 


1783 


234 


1841 


176 


1436 


581 


1494 


523 


1552 


465 


1610 


407 


1668 


349 


1726 


291 


1784 


233 


1842 


175 


1437 


580 


1495 


522 


1553 


464 


1611 


406 


1669 


348 


1727 


290 


1785 


232 


1843 


174 


1438 


579 


1496 


521 


1554 


463 


1612 


405 


1670 


347 


1728 


289 


1786 


231 


1844 


173 


1439 


578 


1497 


520 


1555 


462 


1613 


404 


1671 


346 


1729 


288 


1787 


230 


1845 


172 


1440 


577 


1498 


519 


1556 


461 


1614 


403 


1672 


345 


1730 


287 


1788 


229 


1846 


171 


1441 


576 


1499 


518 


1557 


460 


1615 


402 


1673 


344 


1731 


286 


1789 


228 


1847 


170 


1442 


575 


1500 


517 


1558 


459 


1616 


401 


1674 


343 


1732 


285 


1790 


227 


1848 


169 



EUSEBIAN YEARS. 



219 



Eus. Oct. B.C. 


Eus. Oct. B.C. 


Eus. Oct. B.C. 


Eu9. Oct.A.D. 


Eus. Oct.A.D. 


Eus. Oct.A.D. 


Eus. ( 


3ct.A.D. 


Eus. Oct.A.D. 


1849 


168 


1907 


110 


1965 


52 


2023 


7 


2081 


65 


2139 


123 


2197 


181 


2255 


239 


1850 


167 


1908 


109 


1966 


51 


2024 


8 


2082 


66 


2140 


124 


2198 


182 


2256 


240 


1851 


166 


1909 


108 


1967 


50 


2025 


9 


2083 


67 


2141 


125 


2199 


183 


2257 


241 


1852 


165 


1910 


107 


1968 


49 


2026 


10 


2084 


68 


2142 


126 


2200 


184 


2258 


242 


1853 


164 


1911 


106 


1969 


48 


2027 


11 


2085 


69 


2143 


127 


2201 


185 


2259 


243 


1854 


163 


1912 


105 


1970 


47 


2028 


12 


2086 


70 


2144 


128 


2202 


186 


2260 


244 


1855 


162 


1913 


104 


1971 


46 


2029 


13 


2087 


71 


2145 


129 


2203 


187 


2261 


245 


1856 


161 


1914 


103 


1972 


45 


2030 


14 


2088 


72 


2146 


130 


2204 


188 


2262 


246 


1857 


160 


1915 


102 


1973 


44 


2031 


15 


2089 


73 


2147 


131 


2205 


189 


2263 


247 


1858 


159 


1916 


101 


1974 


43 


2032 


16 


2090 


74 


2148 


132 


2206 


190 


2264 


248 


1859 


158 


1917 


100 


1975 


42 


2033 


17 


2091 


75 


2149 


133 


2207 


191 


2265 


249 


1860 


157 


1918 


99 


1976 


41 


2034 


18 


2092 


76 


2150 


134 


2208 


192 


2266 


250 


1861 


156 


1919 


98 


1977 


40 


2035 


19 


2093 


77 


2151 


135 


2209 


193 


2267 


251 


1862 


155 


1920 


97 


1978 


39 


2036 


20 


2094 


78 


2152 


136 


2210 


194 


2268 


252 


1863 


154 


1921 


96 


1979 


38 


2037 


21 


2095 


79 


2153 


137 


2211 


195 


2269 


253 


1864 


153 


1922 


95 


1980 


37 


2038 


22 


2096 


80 


2154 


138 


2212 


196 


2270 


254 


1865 


152 


1923 


94 


1981 


36 


2039 


23 


2097 


81 


2155 


139 


2213 


197 


2271 


255 


1866 


151 


1924 


93 


1982 


35 


2040 


24 


2098 


82 


2156 


140 


2214 


198 


2272 


256 


1867 


150 


1925 


92 


1983 


34 


2041 


25 


2099 


83 


2157 


141 


2215 


199 


2273 


257 


1868 


149 


1926 


91 


1984 


33 


2042 


26 


2100 


84 


2158 


142 


2216 


200 


2274 


258 


1869 


148 


1927 


90 


1985 


32 


2043 


27 


2101 


85 


2159 


143 


2217 


201 


2275 


259 


1870 


147 


1928 


89 


1986 


31 


2044 


28 


2102 


86 


2160 


144 


2218 


202 


2276 


260 


1871 


146 


1929 


88 


1987 


30 


2045 


29 


2103 


87 


2161 


145 


2219 


203 


2277 


261 


1872 


145 


1930 


87 


1988 


29 


2046 


30 


2104 


88 


2162 


146 


2220 


204 


2278 


262 


1873 


144 


1931 


86 


1989 


28 


2047 


31 


2105 


89 


2163 


147 


2221 


205 


2279 


263 


1874 


143 


1932 


85 


1990 


27 


2048 


32 


2106 


90 


2164 


148 


2222 


206 


2280 


264 


1875 


142 


1933 


84 


1991 


26 


2049 


33 


2107 


91 


2165 


149 


2223 


207 


2281 


265 


1876 


141 


1934 


83 


1992 


25 


2050 


34 


2108 


92 


2166 


150 


2224 


208 


2282 


266 


1877 


140 


1935 


82 


1993 


24 


2051 


35 


2109 


93 


2167 


151 


2225 


209 


2283 


267 


1878 


139 


1936 


81 


1994 


23 


2052 


36 


2110 


94 


2168 


152 


2226 


210 


2284 


268 


1879 


138 


1937 


80 


1995 


22 


2053 


37 


2111 


95 


2169 


153 


2227 


211 


2285 


269 


1880 


137 


1938 


79 


1996 


21 


2054 


38 


2112 


96 


2170 


154 


2228 


212 


2286 


270 


1881 


136 


1939 


78 


1997 


20 


2055 


39 


2113 


97 


2171 


155 


2229 


213 


2287 


271 


1882 


135 


1940 


77 


1998 


19 


2056 


40 


2114 


98 


2172 


156 


2230 


214 


2288 


272 


1883 


134 


1941 


76 


1999 


18 


2057 


41 


2115 


99 


2173 


157 


2231 


215 


2289 


273 


1884 


133 


1942 


75 


2000 


17 


2058 


42 


2116 


100 


2174 


158 


2232 


216 


22ro 


274 


1885 


132 


1943 


74 


2001 


16 


2059 


43 


2117 


101 


2175 


159 


2233 


217 


2291 


275 


1886 


131 


1944 


73 


2002 


15 


2060 


44 


2118 


102 


2176 


160 


2234 


218 


2292 


276 


1887 


130 


1945 


72 


2003 


14 


2061 


45 


2119 


103 


2177 


161 


2235 


219 


221,3 


277 


1888 


129 


1946 


71 


2004 


13 


2062 


46 


2120 


104 


2178 


162 


2236 


220 


2294 


278 


1889 


128 


1947 


70 


2005 


12 


2063 


47 


2121 


105 


2179 


163 


2237 


221 


2295 


279 


1890 


127 


1948 


69 


2006 


11 


2064 


48 


2122 


106 


2180 


164 


2238 


222 


2296 


280 


1891 


126 


1949 


68 


2007 


10 


2065 


49 


2123 


107 


2181 


165 


2239 


223 


2297 


281 


1892 


125 


1950 


67 


2008 


9 


2066 


50 


2124 


108 


2182 


166 


2240 


224 


2298 


282 


1893 


124 


1951 


66 


2009 


8 


2067 


51 


2125 


109 


2183 


167 


2241 


225 


2299 


283 


1894 


123 


1952 


65 


2010 


7 


2068 


52 


2126 


110 


2184 


168 


2242 


226 


2300 


284 


1895 


122 


1953 


64 


2011 


6 


2069 


53 


2127 


111 


2185 


169 


2243 


227 


2301 


285 


1896 


121 


1954 


63 


2012 


5 


2070 


54 


2128 


112 


2186 


170 


2244 


228 


2302 


286 


1897 


120 


1955 


62 


2013 


4 


2071 


55 


2129 


113 


2187 


171 


2245 


229 


2303 


287 


1898 


119 


1956 


61 


2014 


3 


2072 


56 


2130 


114 


2188 


172 


2246 


230 


2304 


288 


1899 


118 


1957 


60 


2015 


2 


2073 


57 


2131 


115 


2189 


173 


2247 


231 


2305 


289 


1900 


117 


1958 


59 


2016 


1 


2074 


58 


2132 


116 


2190 


174 


2248 


232 


2306 


290 


1901 


116 


1959 


58 


2017 A.D. 1 


2075 


59 


2133 


117 


2191 


175 


2249 


233 


2307 


291 


1902 


115 


1960 


57 


2018 


2 


2076 


60 


2134 


118 


2192 


176 


2250 


234 


2308 


292 


1903 


114 


1961 


56 


2019 


3 


2077 


61 


2135 


119 


2193 


177 


2251 


235 


2309 


293 


1904 


113 


1962 


55 


2020 


4 


2078 


62 


2136 


120 


2194 


178 


2252 


236 


2310 


294 


1905 


112 


1963 


54 


2021 


5 


2079 


63 


2137 


121 


2195 


179 


2253 


237 


2311 


295 


1906 


111 


1964 


53 


2022 


6 


2080 


64 


2138 


122 


2196 


180 


2254 


238 


2312 


296 



Ff2 



220 



APPENDIX. 



Eus. Oct.A.D 


Eus. < 


Dct.A.D. 


Eus. 


Oct.A.D. 


Eus. Oct.A.D. 


Eus. < 


Oct.A.D. 


Eus. ( 


— s 

Oct.A.D. 


Eus. ( 


Oct.A.D. 


Eus. Oct.A.D. 


2313 


2Jt7 


2332 


316 


2351 


335 


2370 


354 


2389 


373 


2407 


391 


2425 


409 


2443 


427 


2314 


298 


2333 


317 


2352 


336 


2371 


355 


2390 


374 


2408 


392 


2426 


410 


2444 


428 


2315 


299 


2334 


318 


2353 


337 


2372 


356 


2391 


375 


2409 


393 


2427 


411 


2445 


429 


2316 


300 


2335 


319 


2354 


338 


2373 


357 


2392 


376 


2410 


394 


2428 


412 


2446 


430 


2317 


301 


2336 


320 


2355 


339 


2374 


358 


2393 


377 


2411 


395 


2429 


413 


2447 


431 


2318 


302 


2337 


321 


2356 


340 


2375 


359 


2394 


378 


2412 


396 


2430 


414 


2448 


432 


2319 


303 


2338 


322 


2357 


341 


2376 


360 


2395 


379 


2413 


397 


2431 


415 


2449 


433 


2320 


304 


2339 


323 


2358 


342 


2377 


361 


2396 


380 


2414 


398 


2432 


416 


2450 


434 


2321 


305 


2340 


324 


2359 


343 


2378 


362 


2397 


381 


2415 


399 


2433 


417 


2451 


435 


2322 


306 


2341 


325 


2360 


344 


2379 


363 


2398 


382 


2416 


400 


2434 


418 


2452 


436 


2323 


307 


2342 


326 


2361 


345 


2380 


364 


2399 


383 


2417 


401 


2435 


419 


2453 


437 


2324 


308 


2343 


327 


2362 


346 


2381 


365 


2400 


384 


2418 


402 


2436 


420 


2454 


438 


2325 


309 


2344 


328 


2363 


347 


2382 


366 


2401 


385 


2419 


403 


2437 


421 


2455 


439 


2326 


310 


2345 


329 


2364 


348 


2383 


367 


2402 


386 


2420 


404 


2438 


422 


2456 


440 


2327 


311 


2346 


330 


2365 


349 


2384 


368 


2403 


387 


2421 


405 


2439 


423 


2457 


441 


2328 


312 


2347 


331 


2366 


350 


2385 


369 


2404 


388 


2422 


406 


2440 


424 


2458 


442 


2329 


313 


2348 


332 


2367 


351 


2386 


370 


2405 


389 


2423 


407 


2441 


425 


2459 


443 


2330 


314 


2349 


333 


2368 


352 


2387 


371 


2406 


390 


2424 


408 


2442 


426 


2460 


444 


2331 


315 


2350 


334 


2369 


353 


2388 


372 



















V. 
SCRIPTURE CHRONOLOGY. 

BEFORE we enquire into the Gospel Chronology, it will be convenient to take a brief survey of the 
whole subject of Scripture Chronology as it is set forth in the first Volume of the Fasti Hellenici. It 
is there shewn that the Hebrew notation gives 1656 years from Adam to the Flood, and 352 from the 
Flood to the birth of Abraham ; that 505 years are marked in Scripture from the birth of Abraham to 
the Exode; that from the Exode to the Temple were 612 years. Then followed the last 37 years of 
the reign of Solomon, and 389 from the death of Solomon to the destruction of the Temple, which hap- 
pened in the 587th year before the Christian era. Reckoning upwards from this point, we obtain from 
these collected numbers B. C. 2130 for the birth of Abraham, B.C. 2482 for the Flood, and B. C. 4138 
for the creation of Adam. 

Mr. Cuninghame, whose laborious calculations and copious Tables are valuable aids to the student 
in Sacred Chronology, for all the time which follows the birth of Abraham, has preferred in the preceding 
periods the longer generations of the Septuagint, and places Adam at B. C. 5478 and the Flood at B, C. 
3217- The chronology of Mr. Cuninghame has been adopted by Professor Wallace, who also accepts the 
longer computations of the Greek Version and rejects the numbers of the Hebrew Text ; and has fully 
treated the subject in his dissertation on the True Age of the World 3. The arguments by which he has 
maintained his propositions shall in this place be briefly examined. 

1 Professor Wallace p. 50 observes 
The argument that the shorter generations are repugnant to the course of nature is neither placed in a clear light 
nor fairly answered by Mr. Clinton Fast. Hellen. Vol. 1 p. 292. 

I have affirmed at p. 294 that from Jacob to Moses the average of life was from 150 to 120 years, 
and I ha.ve shewn from Scripture that in this period Benjamin had 10 sons before he had attained 30 



a A dissertation on the True Age of the World, in which is determined the Chronology of the period from the 
Creation to the Christian Era. By Professor Wallace. London 1844. 8vo. pp. 307- 



SCRIPTURE CHRONOLOGY. 

years; that in the line of Judah two generations were of 15 years each; that in the line of 
Joshua 9 generations were of 20 years each. From which facts it was not an unfair but a ne- 
cessary conclusion that the age of puberty was the same at that time as at present. 

2 Wallace p. 55 

Mr. Clinton sees nothing wonderful in the fact that Idolatry should have sprung up during the lives of 
Noah and Shem, and accounts for it on the principle of the fecundity of mankind and their dispersion. — It is 
very strange however that Terah, who is mentioned in Joshua XXIV. 2 as the only idolater among the post 
diluvian patriarchs, should have dared to follow the practices of the Heathen while aU his pious ancestors 
were yet alive ! 

The epithet only is added by Mr. Wallace himself. No such expression appears in the original 
text, which is as follows : " And Joshua said — Thus saith the Lord God of Israel, Your fathers 
dwelt on the other side of the flood in old time, even Terah the father of Ahraham and the father 
of Nachor, and they served other Gods.""^ 

3 At p. 57 it is observed 

The shorter computation is inconsistent with the credible accounts of profane history and the existence 
of so many populous kingdoms and empires in the days of Abraham. — The history of the battle of the four 
kings against five in Gen. XIV implies a very great degree of populousness and civilisation in a single re- 
gion, and more than can be admitted on the shorter computation. Nor can Sir Isaac Newton's answer be 
considered decisive, that the numbers of the allied armies must have been small because they were overcome 
by Abraham with a very small force ; for it is the province of the Most High to save by many or by few. 
The account of Egypt at the descent of Abraham indicates that it was then an ancient populous and long 
established kingdom, and the profane records of its history — reach to a period far beyond that assigned by the 
Hebrew text. In an excellent article entitled Annotations Geologiques a la Genese, — it appears that the 
epoch B. C. 2900 may in fact be considered as that of the foundation of the kingdom of Egypt. 

We are not to be misled by the pompous appellations Kings and Kingdoms into the behef of 
the existence of populous states and empires. In the language of that early time the chief of 
every petty township was a king. Joshua conquered 31 kings within the narrow space of Canaan c. 
The territories of all the five kings the allies of Abraham lay within a region perhaps 17 miles in 
length d. With respect to the kingdom of Egypt, the years assigned to the Egyptian dynasties 
are not sufficiently authentic to justify us in placing that kingdom at B. C. 2900. Josephus^ 
places Menes more than 1300 years before the reign of Solomon; that is, at about B. C. 2320. 
Jackson f in his Chronological Antiquities after a careful investigation places Menes at B. C. 2219, 
or 2220. Halesg at B. C. 2231 h. 

4 p. 59 Mr. Clinton has proved that an army of Medes occupied Babylon about B. C. 2233 — according 
to his own computation about 250 years after the Flood, — when, as he says, the population of the earth 
would amount to many millions. And yet in the same page he remarks " it is not Hkely that 101 years after 

^ Thus rendered in the LXX : -rripav tov ttotoiiov Modem Judea : " The kings of those days resembled 

napmicrja-av ol Trarepes vfiav ro arrapx^y, Qdpa 6 iraTr^p the Sheikhs of modern times." 

'A^paap, KOL 6 Trarrjp 'Nax^p, koX iXdrpevaav deots irepon. ^ Joseph. Ant. VIII. 6, 2 drro Mivaiov tov Mi^c^iv 

Dathe : Trans Euphratem habitarunt majores vestri olKodoiiijo-avTos, os ereac ttoXXois ffnrpoa-Sfv iyivero rov 

antiquissimis temporibus, Terachus pater Abrahami et ircmirov fip,a>v 'A^pdfiov, p.exP'- ^oXofxavos TrXdoviov hmv 

Nachoris, aliosque deos coluerunt. rpiaicoalav koL x^Xiav nera^v 8ieXriXv66T0>v. B. C. 1016 

c Joshua XII. 24. +1300=231 6 to the first year of Solomon. 

d See a Pastor's memorial, by the Revd. J. Fiske, f Vol. 2 p. Ill — 114. 

p. 314 " The original lake might have been 40 miles S Analysis Vol. 3 p. 430. 

and the region of the five cities 17 miles in length." ^ Although he calls this date " rather too low." 

Mr. Fiske adds a very judicious remark from Wylie's p. 432. 



222 APPENDIX. 0.5. 

that event the population would exceed 50,000 persons, and this number they would certainly have reached 
within 160 years of the Flood." Now even on the Eulerian ratio this number would increase only to about 
6^ millions in his interval of 90 years, which is far from many millions. 

There is no inconsistency in my argument. I have assumed as probable that the numbers 
would double themselves every twelve years for 300 years after the Flood. Not to repeat here the 
numbers given elsewhere', it will be sufficient to remark, first, that in 156 years thirteen periods 
would produce 49,152, and in 168 years fourteen periods would produce 98,304. I was therefore 
justified in concluding that at 160 years from the flood the numbers would be at the least 50,000. 
Secondly, that in 240 years twenty periods would produce 6,291,456, and in 252 years twenty-one 
periods would give 12,582,912. Therefore in 250 years from the flood the numbers of mankind 
were fast advancing to this latter amount, and might be assumed at nine or ten millions. The 
term many is relative, and its value is fixed by the other circumstances : 9,000,000 or even 
6,000,000 would be many in Holland, but few in France ; would be many in Egypt, but few in 
China. If the inhabitants of the earth had been 9 or 10 millions, these might be called many at 
250 years after the flood, at the time of a war between the Modes and Babylonians. When 
Ahraham after the 75th year of his life^ visited Egypt (in which Professor Wallace p. 58 imagines 
a difficulty) the population of the earth upon the lower estimate had attained more than two 
hundred millions i. 

5 Mr. Wallace p. 61 writes as follows : 

Mr. Clinton adds that " it is difficult to imagine what adequate motive the Jews could have had for short- 
ening their genealogies." Not more difficult in our opinion than to imagine what adequate motive the Jews 
could have had for shortening the life of Jesus Christ. A difficulty however " to imagine an adequate mo- 
tive" for any transaction is no proof that it did not take place. 

But in this case, in the absence of all evidence, it is absolutely necessary to assign a motive. 
He who charges the Jews with corrupting their own genealogies, in order to make his accusation 
credible, is bound to shew why they did it. The whole force of the charge depends upon this. 
Mr. Home in his Introduction to the Scriptures"^, having traced the genuineness of the Pentateuch 
up to the reign of Solomon, very justly concludes that the Pentateuch which we possess is genuine 
because the Jews could ham had no motive during the period between Joshua and Solomon for sub- 
stituting a spurious production. 

Professor Wallace however finds that they had a motive for corrupting their genealogies, which 
he states as follows. 

Page 6 1 The Jews did not attempt to " shorten the genealogies," that is, to corrupt the chronology of 
the Scriptures, till all the witnesses were dead who knew Jesus. — But when they found afterwards that the 
Christians constantly proved out of the Septuagint that Jesus was the Messiah, they had then a sufficient 
motive for " shortening the genealogies," if they could make it appear from the Hebrew text that our Lord 
had come about 15 centuries earlier than the time fixed by tradition; and that the epoch of the true Mes- 
siah's advent had not yet arrived, p. 172 (according to the Rabbins) the world is to last in its fallen state 
6000 years, and then is to be restored and purified as at the beginning. — There are to be seven ages of the 
world, each containing 1000 years, p. 178. 179 " The belief of the seven ages," says Dr. Russell, "has been 
detected in the writings of Heathens, Jews, and Christians. It is traced in the Sibylline Oracles, in Hesiod, 
ip the work ascribed to Darius Hystaspes the king of the Medes, to Hermes Trismegistus. — Plato quotes 
from Orpheus the same mystical doctrine-^that the earth was doomed in the seventh age to be consumed 

i F. H, Vol. 1 p. 295 note q. l See F. H. Vol. 1 p. 295. 

k Perhaps in his 76th year : Gen. XII. 4—19. in m Vol. 1 p. 54. 55 of the 9th edition, 1846, 
the 328th ypar from the flood. 



SCRIPTURE CHRONOLOGY. 223 

by fire"." Dr. Russell discovers in these opinions, however ill founded and absurd they may seem, the prin- 
cipal motive which actuated the Jews about the beginning of the second century in their attempt to vitiate 
the most authentic of their chronicles. " Their rejection of Christ," says he, " rendered necessary an ex- 
tensive change in their dates and calculations." p. 188 It is manifest that there is great reason to suspect 
that the numbers contained in the Hebrew text which have reference to dates and to the age of the world 
have been systematically and extensively altered. Dr. Russell cites a passage from the celebrated Abulpha- 
rajius, in which he asserts that the Jews, believing it to have been foretold that the Messiah was to have 
been sent in the last times, altered the chronology in order to produce a reason for rejecting Jesus Christ. 
Thus they made it appear by their new computation that Christ was manifested in the very beginning of the 
fifth millennium, near to the middle of the period to which the duration of the earth was to be limited ; that 
is, — not more than 7000 years in all. But the computation of the Septuagint, he observes, shewed that 
Christ did actually come in the middle of the 6th millenary, the very time at which the prediction of the 
Old Testament led mankind to expect his advent. The learned Doctor refers also to the candid Augustine, 
who states that the Jews were suspected of having corrupted their copies — and particularly of having altered 
the generations and lives of the antediluvian patriarchs out of dislike to the Christians. — Though Augustine 
saw that the temptation to vitiate the sacred text lay with the Rabbins, and that the Greek translators had 
no inducement to alter the original, he was unwiUing to believe that either party could have intentionally 
altered the Scriptures, thinking it more probable that the differences had originated in the wish of a tran- 
scriber to render the generations more natural, p. 191 Dr. Russell states that the publication of the 8eder 
Olam Rabba in A. D. 130 may with certainty be regarded as the epoch at which the Jews altered their ge- 
nealogies, and changed the dates of the great events. 

Halego had already suggested the same argument from Ephrem Syrus and from Abulpharajius 
that the Jews expected the Messiah in the middle of the 6th millennium, and shortened the gene- 
alogies to make it appear that the true time was not yet come. He proceeds to shew that the 
origin of this notion of (>000 years is explained by Gregory of Oxford, whom he quotes. He refers 
also to the Sibylline Oracles, Hesiod, Hystaspes, and affirms that this period of 6000 years was 
adopted by the fathers, and that the prevalence of the tradition throughout the Pagan Jewish 
and Christian world was a sufficient reason with the Jews for shortening their Chronology, 

HystaspesP and the Sibyl are largely quoted by Lactantius VH. 15 — 21 p. 643 — 652. It is 
needless to urge that these are spurious writings, like the writings falsely ascribed to Orpheus 
and to Sanchoniatho. Nor is it necessary here to examine the authority of that cabalistic period 
of 6000 years. We have only to enquire how the Jews understood it, and whether they were 
induced on this account to mutilate their genealogies. This term of 6000 years was understood 
to terminate at the end of the world. The language was, ^State in sexta cessaUt machina mundi. 
The world was to be destroyed by fire, as in one of the Sibylline lines €pya 8e x^V^^'^''"" ^^^^ 
KaraKavO^arovTai,^. Then was to follow a regeneration and a reign of Apollo or the Sun ; as in the 
Sibyl quoted by Servius ad Eclog. Virg. IV. 4 Flnitis omnibus seculis rursus eadem renovari. The 
Jews then would not, as Ephrem Syrus and Abulpharajius suppose, have altered their numbers 
to meet the argument of the Christian fathers. They would assert that the characters described 
had not yet appeared. The fathers are inaccurate in their period. For if there is any thing in 
the Jewish period of 6000 years, it is required that the six millenniums should be perfect and com- 

n Where Mr. Wallace adds this note : " eVra iv I. 20. 44. by Agathias II. 24 p. 62 C Clemens Al. 

yivefi KaraKava-eTM noa-nos deidrjs. Philebos p. 157 cited Strom. VI p. 636 C Ammianus Marcellinus XXIII. 

by Dr. Russell p. 77 of his Connexion." Whether by 6, 32. " Conf. Walchii comment, de Hystaspe et 

accident or design I know not, the note of Mr. Wal- ejus vaticiniis apud patres in commentat. Soc. reg. 

lace has eVra instead of exri?. Getting, tom. II p. 3 — 18." Wagner ad Ammian, 

Analysis of Chronology Vol. 1 p. 78. 1. c. 

P Hystaspes is mentioned by Justin Martyr Apol. q Lactant. VII. 19. 



224 APPENDIX. C. 5. 

plete from Adam to the birth of Christ in the reign of Augustus. But as the fathers could only 
ohiohn five millenniums and a halfiYora. their Chronology, they inaccurately substituted this defec- 
tive and incomplete period for six millenniums. But how could 5500 years represent 6000 years ? 

Dr. Eussell quotes and Professor Wallace approves a line of Orpheus from Plato recording the 
ages of the world and its destruction by fire. Their guide to this error has been Jackson. But 
it is remarkable that neither Russell nor Wallace should have taken the trouble to consult Plato 
himself in order to know what Plato really said •■. 

Mr. Wallace refers those mutilations of the genealogies to A. D. 130, which Dr. Russell, whom 
he follows, has affirmed to be with certainty the epoch. But Mr. Cuninghame himself admits that 
the shorter genealogies were known to Josephus and were inserted before the Jewish war: Synopsis 
of Chronology p. vii^ " I have recently been led to change my opinion upon one point, being now 
" compelled by the force of evidence to conclude that the corruption of the Chronology must have 
" taken place at an earlier period than I formerly supposed. I now believe it to have been in the 
" interval between our Lord's death and the beginning of the Jewish war. This allows more than 
" 30 years for the purpose, which is quite sufficient. I also conceive that it must have been well 
" known to Josephus, and the end for which it was done." 

But this fact, that the shorter genealogies were already in the Hebrew within 30 years after 
the Ascension, makes the charge of corruption still less credible. For at that early period the 
Christians had not yet sufficient influence to be formidable to the Jews, who had hopes, while 
Jerusalem and their Temple yet stood, of putting down the rising sect. Is it to be believed that 
within 30 years of the Ascension the Jews would corrupt the genealogies in order to produce so 
obscure and unintelligible a result as that which arises from the period of 6000 years ? To what 
purpose were they to mutilate their genealogies, when there were yet 500 years to their Messiah's 
advent, and half a millennium wanting to complete the destined period ? If the short numbers 
were in the copies before the Jewish war, they were there before the Crucifixion. And this is 
confirmed by another consideration. The Jews are charged with expunging the Second Cainan 
from the postdiluvian patriarchs when they altered their numbers. It was done at the same time 
and from the same motive. But Cainan II was absent from the copies used by Philo, and Philo 
was an old man in A. D. 40 and probably 50 years of age at the time of the Crucifixion. He had 
therefore studied the Scriptures in Hebrew copies extant before that period. But if Cainan II 
was absent from those copies, we may infer that the long computations were absent also. 

6 Mr. Wallace observes p. 62 
Mr. Clinton finally asserts that the translators had a very obvious motive for enlarging the Chronology 
because the Chaldeans and Egyptians laid claim to a remote antiquity. But the difi'erence between the 
Hebrew and Septuagint is only about 15 centuries. This difference indeed was quite sufficient for the pur- 
pose of the Jews in denying the advent of the true Messiah, but it was wholly insufficient nay utterly useless 
for the purpose of coping with the pretensions of the Chaldeans and Egyptians. For it appears — that 
Berosus claimed for the Chaldeans — no less than 4/0,000 years., and from the fragments of Manetho and 
the Old Chronicle preserved by Syncellus that for the first Egyptian kings an antiquity is claimed of 36,525 
years. — The argument therefore is so very absurd that it completely refutes itself. 

r Lobeck Aglaophamus p. 788 «tj; S ev ytvefj Kara- ubi Socrates enumeratis quinque voluptatum generi- 

Kova-fTai Koafios aeihris. Eodemque modo hunc versum bus addit «r»; S iv yevfa, (fjrjo-lv 'Op(f)fvs, Karanava-aTe 

Boissardus de Divinat. p. 137 Jacksonus Ant. Chro- Koa-fiov doi8rjs. pro vulgari perorandi formula (v6d8t 

nol. p. 71 aliique hujus ineruditce atatis, quorum unus KararTava-a tov \6yov. Dr. Russell and Professor Wal- 

ab altero errorem quasi per manus accepit, nuUus au- lace are now to be added to the long list of those 

tem quid tandem Plato dixerit quserere dignatus est. who have not deigned to consult Plato himself. 
Is vero longe aliud quiddam dixit in Philebo p. QQ C, » Second ed. 1845. 



SCRIPTURE CHRONOLOGY. 225 

The absurdity would be in supposing that these amounts of years were believed to be historical 
time, which were only astronomical periods. The Egyptians themselves never laid claim to more 
than 8000 years in the time of Solon, as we learn from Plato ^ Eudoxus in the time of Plato 
interpreted those myriads of years to mean months: Proclus ad Timaeura p. 31 1. 50 eZ 8e koL o 
(j)rj(nv Evbo^os a\ri9€9, on AlyvTTTLOt top \xr\va kviavTov kKoXovv^ ovk hv rj t&v •rroA.A.diy tovt(i)V ivLavT&v 
aTTapCOfxrjans e^ot n davfxaa-Toif. And as months they are explained in the Armenian Eusebius^'. 
But the 36',525 years were an astronomical cycle obtained by multiplying 1461 by 25 : as Syncellus 
computes p. 52 A B. In like manner the Chaldean period of 432,000 years in Syncellus p. 30 A 
is an astronomical period produced by multiplying 24,000 by 18.^ and 473,040 years were pro- 
duced by multiplying 1460 by 324 x. 

7 It has been shewn in the first volume of the Fasti Hellenici p. 289 that the second Cainan was 
absent from the copies of Philo and Josephus, and omitted by Berosus. On this point Professor 
Wallace writes as follows. 

Page 35 Sjmcellus very properly includes Shem in the genealogy, although he is necessarily omitted in 
the chronology because he was an antediluvian by birth, his antepaidogonian age being entirely omitted in 
the Scripture, and the birth of his son being reckoned from the flood. Hence we find that all the ancient 
writers reckon Noah the tenth from Adam, and Abraham the tenth from the flood, Shem being evidently the 
eleventh from Adam, and Abraham the twenty -Jirst. p. 40 Nothing is more surprising than the pertinacity of 

error. We have seen that when the second Cainan is admitted into the text Abraham must be reckoned 

the tenth generation from the flood ; consequently, if he be rejected, Abraham must be reckoned only the 
ninth, contrary to the united voice of antiquity, both sacred and profane. Hales and Clinton have both cited 
extracts in proof of their argument ^from Berosus Josephus and Philo shewing that Abraham was univer- 
sally reckoned the tenth generation after the flood. The subterfuge adopted by the advocates of the Hebrew 
verity in reckoning Shem — as one of the generations after the flood in order to make up their number is too 
weak to require any comment. There is no doubt therefore that both Hales and Clinton are in the wrong 
and that Jackson and Cuninghame are " in the right." p. 245 Africanus states that from the flood and 
Noah to the descent of Abraham into the promised land were ten generations — and from Adam twenty 
generations. We have sufficiently discussed the question of the number of generations in pp. 34 — 40. It 
is quite unnecessary therefore to resume the subject. Suffice it to say that Shem was an antediluvian, and 
therefore his generation could not be reckoned in the number of generations after the flood. Neither was it 
reckoned in the number before the flood, for Noah was reckoned the tenth from Adam, and Abraham the tenth 
from the flood. 

And yet Mr. Wallace had told us at p. 35, 36, that Syncellus had properly included Shem in 
the genealogy, and that Abraham was the twenty-first from Adam. We are not however left in 
doubt of the meaning of Philo. For Philo ^^^ having marked ten generations of which Noah was 
the tenth, proceeds to give ten other generations, of which he expressly names Shem as the first 
and Abraham as the last. And that twenty-one generations were reckoned by those who admitted 
the second Cainan is proved by Gregory of Nazianzus Or. 41 p. 733 D. For Gregory, who 
with the LXX admitted a second Cainan, reckons Abraham the 21st from Adam: top (Ikoo-tov 

* Plato Timseo p. 23 & SoXwv — (fj dfbs) ttju re vfie- myriadas consurgit annorum, qui tamen lunares, nempe 

Tfpap Kol TTji/S' eXaxf fat edpe^e kcu iivalbeva-e, nporepav menstrui, sunt. Sed revera dominatio quam narrant 

p.€v rf)v Trap' vp-lv ereo-i x'^'ots — Trjvde Be varepav ttjs 8e ^gyptH Deorum Heroum et Manium tenuisse putatur 

ev6a8l dianoa-prjcreas Trap fjpiv iv rois Upois ypapfia<nv lunares annos omnino 24,900, ex quibus fiunt solares 

6KTaKta-xi^i<^v fTcbv dpidpos yiypairrcu. nepl 8e t5>v eva- anni 2206. 

KUTxt^ia yeyovoTcov trq TroKirav aoi di^XaxrcD bia ^paxfcov w See Hales Vol. 1 p. 143. 

vofwvs re Koi rav epyav avrols b KaKkiarov iirpaxOrj. x Hales Vol. 1 p. 144, explaining Diodorus. 

V Euseb. Chron. I. 20 p. 93 Ex Egyptians Ma- xx in the passage quoted in Fast. Hellen. Vol. 1 

nethonis monumentis. Summa temporum in mille p. 289 note P. 

Gg 



226 



APPENDIX. 



0.5. 



TTp&Tov 'A^padfi. But Origen, who otnitted Cainan II, reckons Abraham the 20th from Adam : 
Comm. in Joannem torn. XX Vol. 2 p. 197 ^A^paafj, elKoa-ros yeyivvrjrai airb tov irpatToirXda-Tov 
b(Ka yap yevfoi aiib 'A8afx €tu NcSe, Kot Sexa airb Naie ivl 'AfipaAp.. In the first series the ten gene- 
rations include Noah, in the second series the ten are exclusive of Noah. On comparing Philo we 
perceive that Berosus in the phrase ixcra rbv KaraKkva-pibv beKdrrj yevca Y speaks inclusively of the 
generation in which the flood happened ; and Hales is in the right in his interpretation of the 
meaning of Berosus. That Josephus omits the second Cainan will not I suppose be denied, who 
says Ant. I. 6, 4 ^ Apcfya^dbov h^ ttols yiveraL ^6Xr]<}' tov 8e "E/Sepos. 

8 In the period from the Exode to the Temple I have the satisfaction of finding that the 
amount which I have assigned, 612 years, is confirmed by Mr. Cuninghame, who agrees also in 
6 1 2 years for the interval. Mr. Wallace supposes a difference between the Hebrew and the Sep- 
tuagint in this period. 

Page 49 Mr. Clinton endeavours to defend the Hebrew chronology especially in the first two ages of the 
world : although he is forced to yield to the mass of evidence against it in the book of Judges. 

He considers p. 59 my date for the flood obtained by " a computation partially interpolated 
from the Septuagint." That is, in the period from the exode to the temple, in which I have 
added 133 years to the numbers of Usher. But there is no such difference between the two 
copies. It will appear from the following list of dates that the Hebrew and the Septuagint agree. 





] 


Hebrew 


LXX 




Moses. Deut. I. 3 .... 




40 


fiV erei k. r. X. 




Joshua Joshua XIV. 7. 10= 


E^ ^ 


. . 






the Elders 










1 Servit. Mesopotam. Jud. III. 8 

Othniel III. 11 .... 

2 Servit. Moab III. 14 




..8 

..40 

..18 


OKT& 

Tea-a-apoKOvra 

8tKaOKTU> 




Ehud III. 30 ... . 

Shamgar III. 31 . . . , 




..80 


eiKoori 




3 Servit. Canaan IV. 3 , . . . 




..20 




Deborah and Barak V. 31 

4 Servit. Midian VI. 1 




..40 

..7 


T€(r(rapdKOVTa 
firra 




Gideon VIII. 28 . 

Abimelech IX. 22 ... . 




..40 
..3 


Tfo-aapaKovra 
Tpia 




Tola X. 2 




.23 


fiKoa-i KoL Tpia 




Jair X. 3 




..22 


eiKOiTl Koi 8vo 




5 Servit. Ammon X. 8 




..18 


oKTaKcudfKa 




Jephthah XII. 7 ... 

Ibzan XII. 9 . . . 




..6 
..7 


fTTTci 




Elon XII. 11 . 




..10 


8fKa 




Abdon XII. 14 ., 




..8 


OKTa 




6 Senrit. Philistin XIII. 1 . . . 

Samson XVI. 31 . 




..40 
..20 


TevaapoKovTa 
ftKoai 




Eli 1 Sam. IV. 

Saul 


18 


..40 


TfacrapoKOVTa 




David 1 Kings II. 

Solomon 1 Kings VI. 1 3 y. S 


11 

5 m. 


..40 


Tfo-a-apoKOPTa 
rret TtTaprca, (irjvi 


BfXJTtpCO 



y In F. H. Vol. 1 p. 289 note q. 

* The 40 years and the 45th year of the Hebrew 



are in the Septuagint also TtaaapoKovra and Ttavapa- 

KOVTOV KOi irefiTTTOV tTOg. 



SCRIPTURE CHRONOLOGY. 227 

The numbers which are the elements of our calculation are identical in both copies. 

Mr. Wallace p. 73 speaks of a difference in the regal period. 

The difference between the Hebrew and Septuagint chronologies in this period amounts only to about 
fifteen years, which is chiefly owing to an interregnum between the reigns of Amaziah and Uzziah not 
acknowledged by Usher and his followers. 

Again p. 95 

Eusebius acting under Jewish influence reduced the era by the omission of fifteen years in the 

Monarchal period. 

But here also no difference exists between the copies. In the texts upon which the interregnum 
is founded the Hebrew and the Septuagint have the same numbers ^. 

The period from the death of Solomon to the destruction of the Temple is thus given. 

By Usher B.C. 975— 588 = (388) 387 y. 
In F. Hellen. Vol. I B.C. 976—587 = 389 y. 1 m. 
By Cuninghame B.C. 990— 588 = 402 y. 

In the second Volume of the Fasti Hellenici the edict of Cyrm and the termination of the 
Captivity are assigned to the 536th year before the Christian era^. Cuninghame and Wallace 
also agree in placing these events at that year. 

We now proceed to the Gospel Chronology. The various opinions upon the duration of the 
Ministry have been touched upon in the Tables ^, and the computations of some early fathers, of 
Irenseus of Clemens Alexandrinus of TertuUian, have been given. It is shewn from Augustine ^ 
that no evidence remained to fix the year of the Nativity or the year of the Ascension, The 
early fathers knew nothing upon this subject beyond what was contained in the Scriptures which 
we now possess. If the apostles in their oral teaching recorded more concerning the life and 
actions of their Master than is now extant in the Scripture narrative, more was not transmitted 
to succeeding times. The decisions of the fathers upon the year of the birth of Christ and the 
duration of the Ministry were founded as ours are upon Scripture and not upon traditions'^. 

The whole Gospel History chronologically considered refers to three periods. 1 before the 
Ministry. 2 during the Ministry. 3 from six days before the last Passover to the end of the 
Gospel History. 

1 The following parts of the four Gospels belong to the First Period, including all the time 
before the Ministry. 

Matthew I. 1— IV. 11. 

Mark I. 1—13. 

Luke I. I— IV. 13. 

John I. 1 — 18 describes the Eternal Existence and the Deity of the Son of God. 

a The numbers in 2 Kings XIV, 21 eKKaibeKa irav e If the three decads of years and the three years 

and in XV. 1 eV erei, flKoarm koL fj386fia ra 'lepo/3oa/x in of the Ministry, which Hales Vol. I p. \99 confi- 

the LXX are also 10 y and the 27th year in the dently quotes as the testimony of Ignatius, were 

Hebrew. The reasons for not admitting the inter- genuine, Ignatius might have received these from 

regnum are offered in F. H. Vol.1 p. 31(), personal communication with S^./oAw. Butthese occur 

b See F. H. Vol. II p. 301 — 312=3G() — 378, in a spurious passage of the Epist. ad Trallenses. 

Towards the close of B. C. 536, within 01. 61. 1 Compare the interpolated text in p. 13 of ed. Genev. 

U. C. Varr.'218. 1623 with the genuine text in p. 336 of Jacobson's 

c See the Tables A. D. 29 col. 2. 3. 4. Edition Oxon. 1838. 

d See the Tables A. D. 29 col. 3 p. 15. 

Gg2 



APPENDIX. C.5. 

3 The transactions of the Third Period are contained in these passages. 

Matthew XXVI. 1 7 t?) 8^ irpciTri t&v aCvfMcav to the end, XXVIII. 20. 
Mark XIV. 12 fcai rf) irpatTr) rjfxepa t&v aCvpiiav — to the end, XVI. 20. 
Luke XXII. 7 ^A.^f 8e 57 ^/x^'pa t&v a(vfjt.(ov — to the end, XXIV. 53. 
John XII. 1 6 ovv 'Iricrovs irpo l£ 7]p.epQtv rov 7T6.(T)(a — to the end, XXI. 25. 

The arrangement of the times of these two parts is sufficiently clear. The Second Part com- 
prehending the intermediate space is more difficult. The only probable method of arranging it is 
to select some particular facts and to distribute the other incidents around them. 

The question is, whether there were three Passovers during the Ministry or only two ; whether 
the last Passover was the fourth or the third. iSt. John notices six feasts, three of which are 
named as Passovers. 

1 TO Tracrxa Tcav ^lovbaCoiv II. 13. The^rst Passover. 

2 eopTTj rSiv 'lovSatwi' V. 1. 

3 TO irdcrx^a r) koprq tS>v ^lovhaiatv VI. 4. The last Passover hut one. 

4 7] kopTT] T&v 'lovbaC(>)V rj crKrjvoTrriyLa VII. 2. 

5 TO. kyKaCvia ev toIs 'lepoarokvpLOLS X. 22. 

6 rjv be eyyvs to irdayja. XI. 55. Ttpo be ttjs koprij^ tov Trda-xa XIII. 1. The last Passover. 

He mentions the first Passover II. 13 And the Jews' Passover was at hand, and Jesus went up to 
Jerusalem. II. 23 Now when he was in Jerusalem at the Passover in the feast day many believed in 
his name. This Passover happened before John the Baptist was cast into prison : III. 22. 24. 
after this Passover Jesus came into Galilee : IV. 3. after that journey another feast : V. 1 after 
this there was a feast of the Jews., and Jesus went up to Jerusalem. St. John then briefly relates 
some of the things which were done by Jesus during that stay at Jerusalem, and then proceeds 
VI. I — 4 After these things Jesus went over the sea of Galilee which is the sea of Tiberias., and a great 
multitude followed him because they saw his miracles which he did on those that were diseased. And 
Jesus went up into a mountain and there he sat with his disciples. And the Passover a feast of the 
Jews was nigh. Was the second of these three feasts a Passover, mentioned at V. 1 , or was it 
some other feast ? 

The space from the Baptism to the Ascension was either a little more than three years, or a 
little more than two. Each of these periods is adopted by some of the ancient writers. 

Melito, who flourished about A. D. 160 — 172, calls the Ministry three years: apud Routh 
reliq. patrum torn. 1 p. 115 CTiLorcaaraTo fjiuv r-qv deorrjTa avTov bia tS>v arjixiitav (V ttj TpierCq ttj fxeTo. 
to ^aTTTUTna. Hippolytus, who flourished A. D. 220 — 227, places it within three years: Routh 
Rel. patrum tom. I p. 136 " Hippolytus in Interpretatione sua in Dauieleai §. 4 Christum docet 
advenisse anno mundi 5530 possum vero esse anno 5533.'"' Origen, who wrote within A. D. 210 — 
253, varies in his accounts. In his work iiepX ap\5>v compiled within A. D. 227 — 230 ^ he imagined 
the period to be a year and a few months. But in the hom. in Lucam he rejects or doubts this 
opinion. In the work against Celsus, composed about A. D. 248 ^ he reckons the ministry at less 
than 3 years ; and in the comm. in Matthaeum, composed according to Eusebius after the work 
against Celsus h, almost 3 yearsK Eusebius A. D. 308—340 computed 3 years and a half''. 

* That is, after A. D. 226 and before 231. See i Origenes itepX dpxS>v IV. 5 tom. 21 p. 401 ed. 

the Tables A. D. 229. 4. Berolin. okiyov hiayeyevijfievov xP^vov TTjs MaaKokias 

K Towards the close of the reign of Philip : See avrov. iviavrhv yap ivov kuX p^vas okiyovs (8i8a$ev. Idem 

the Tables A. D. 246. 4. . Serm. XXXII in Lucam tom. 5 p. 208 Prcedicare 

^ Tables A. D. 246. 3. annum Domini acceptum [Isaiah LXI. 1]. Juxta sim- 



GOSPEL CHRONOLOGY. 229 

Apollinarim of Laodicea A. D. 362 — 366 reckoned only two years : Hieron. ad Danielem c. 9 
p. 503 A Apollinarius Laodicenus — " Tricesimo enim juxta evangelistam Lucam anno cetatis sues 
ccepit in came Dominus evangeliwm 'prcedicare^ et juxta Joannem evangelistam per tria paschata duos 
postea implevit annos.'''' Epiphanius A. D. 347 — 402 reckons three passovers; Adv. haer. torn. I p, 
444 B ov fxovov bvo Trda^a o^oXoyel ra (vayyekLa akXa bvo fxev irpcoTa A.eyei koi ovto be kv w TTerrovdev 
6 <ra)Tr}p, rpla Yldcrxa t&v iv t<S K-qpvyiiari TreTTpay^aTivixivonv. p. 448 A TrXrjpbiOivTos tov bterov^ \p6vov 
K. T. \. Ghrysostom A. D. 381 — 407 marks the third year current: Ep. 3 ad Olympiadem torn. 7 
p. 70, 38 Sav. 6 yap rStv airoaTokoiv xopbs Tptrov has avyyevop-evos rw Xpto-Tw. Interpreting John 
V. 1 torn. 2 p. 699,32 " ixera ravra ^p eoprr) t&v 'lovbaCwv," he observes iroia eopTrj ; tjuot boKcl tj ttjs 
TTevTrjKocrnjs. Gaudmtius A. D. 387 quoted by Lardner Vol. 4 p. 503 allowed only one year : An7ii- 

culus est quia post illud baptismum usque ad passionis suce diem unius anni tempus impletur. 

Annianus and Panodorus A. D. 412 reckoned 3 years to the ministry^ 

The Paschal Chronicle cir. A. D. 629 p. 217 D numbers four passovers and computes 3 years 
and 76 days'" from the Baptism to the Passion. Andreas of Ccesarea (cir. A. D. 800) assigns 
three years and a half to the Ministry: Comm. in Apocalypsin ex versione Peltani p. 170 spatium 

quod a Christi Baptismate usque ad illius in ccclum ascensum fluxit trieteridem cum anni semis se. 

Lastly Syncellm A. D. 808 computes 3 years from the Baptism to the Crucifixion ". 

Modern chronologers are also divided in their opinions. Scaliger, Archbishop Newcome, 
White, Hales and Greswell agree in four passovers. Others, as Cardinal Noris"!^ Bishop 
Tomline" and Mr. BensonP, think that the feast in John V. 1 was not a passover, and that the 
last passover recorded in the Gospels was the third and not the fourth. 

The Second of the Three Periods into which we divided the Gospel History q begins at the 
Baptism and terminates six days before the Last Passover. But this period again may be sub- 
divided into two parts ; the first part ends at the feeding the 5000, a miracle recorded by all the 
four Evangelists ; the second embraces the rest of the second period. The space contained in 
this second subdivision is accurately defined. It includes the last Passover but one in Spring, 
the feast of Tabernacles in Autumn, the feast of Dedication in Winter, and ends six days before 

plicem intelligentiam aiunt una anno Salvatorem in i^airridBr) Koi ihiha^iv — eVl rpia frrf as ftvai tov otto 

Judcea evangelium prcedicasse [see the Tables A. D. rrjs Betas avrov a-vXkrjyj/^fcos xp^^^^ — Mapriov Ke p.exP'- 

29. 3 p. 1 3] . et hoc esse quod dicitur prcedicare annum ri^s fwoTroioO dvaaraa-ecos Kara r^v avrrjv avfiirfa-ova-av 

Domini acceptum Nisi forte quiddam sacramenti r^jiepav Ke Maprlov erav Xy koi rjjxepas pias — d<^' rjs enl 

in prcedicatione anni Domini divinus sermo significat. t^v els ovpavovs — avaKr)'^i,v rjpepai p.'. p. 3 B rpidKovra 

Idem contra Celsum II. 12 torn. 18 p. 157 6 8« 'lov8as rpiav pev irwv koi fjpepwv reaa-apaKOPra Tjjs eVi yj)? oIko- 

irapa tS 'Ijjo-oC ov8e rpia bierpi'^ev errj. Idem comm. in vopias. 

Matthseum opp. torn. 4 p. 276 Prcedicationis Domini ^n Norisius torn. 3 p. 517 " Christus anno inse- 

fere annos ires. quenti sexta Januarii [Jan. 6 A. D. 27] a Joanne 

^ For Eusebius see the Tables A. D. 33. 2. But baptizatus fuit, ac proinde tria tantum paschata cele- 

Eusebius has confounded the testimony of St. John bravit antequam mortem duobus Geminis consuUbus 

with the testimony of St. Luke, and has attributed [A. D. 29] subiret." 

to St. John what he has not said. Eusebius affirms o Elements of Christian Theology Vol. I p. 338. 

H. E. III. 24 that the three Gospels (of Matthew 523. Dr. Burton in his edition of the Greek Testa,- 

Mark and Luke) contain only one year's narrative ment supposes John to speak of only three passovers, 

after the imprisonment of John the Baptist: tovs and the feast in V. 1. to be some other feast. See 

aXKovs yoiiv rpels evayyeXifrras (rvvibelv irdpeaTi pova ra the notes to John II. 13. V. 1. VI. 4. XI. 55. And 

pera ttjv iv tw deapaTTjpla 'icoai/vov tov ^airria-Tov Kadeip- yet he calls the Ministry " three years ;" note on 

^ivfcji eva eviavrov ire-npay^ieva t« o-wr^pi (rvyyeypa^oras, Luke XIII. 32. Which, strictly taken, is inconsistent 

which is inconsistent with his other account of 3 with the former opinion. 

years and a half for the whole Ministry. P As quoted in Home's Introduction , Vol. 2 p. 

; 1 See the Tables A. D. 412. 4. 354. 
! m Tables A. D. 32. 2. i See above p. 227- 

" Syncellus p. 325 C 'Ij/o-ois be ^v ixrel e'rwi/ X' — 
I . •■ ; 



280 



APPENDIX. 



0.5. 



the last Passover in the spring following. The transactions of twelve months or a little more are 
contained in this part of the narrative. Our limits of inquiry are therefore confined to the space 
between the Baptism and the feeding the 5000. The accoimts of the four evangelists in the 
Second Period are set forth in the following Table. 



Matthew 


Mark 


Luke 


John 


A the baptism III. 13. 


A the baptism I. 9. 


A the baptism III. 21. 


1 testimony of the Baptist I. 


B the temptation IV. 1. 


B the temptation 1. 13. 


B the temptation IV. 1. 


16—36. 

2 Jesus in Galilee I. 43. 

3 the marriage in Cana II. 

1. 

4 the Passover at hand. 














II. 13. 








5 he purgeth the temple II. 

14. 

6 teacheth Nicodemus III. 1. 








r. 






7 baptizeth in Judea III. 22. 
John not yet in prison III. 
24. 


C Jesus in Galilee after John 


C Jesus in Galilee after John 


C returned into Galilee IV. 


C departeth again into Gali- 


was cast into prison IV. 


was cast into prison I. 


14. 


lee IV. 1. 


12. 


14. 

D Peter and Andrew, James 
and John called I. 16 — 
20. 

E he went to Capernaum and 




8 talketh with the woman of 

Samaria IV. 7. 

9 healeth the nobleman's son 

at Capernaum IV. 46. 


E he went to Capernaum IV. 


E he went to Capernaum and 




12—13. 


cast out an unclean spirit 


cast out an unclean spirit 






I. 21—27. 


IV. 31—36. 




D Peter and Andrew James 






D Peter and Andrew James 


and John called IV. 18 






and John called I. 37 — 


—22. 






42. Phihp caUed I. 43. 




F Peter's wife's mother heal- 


F Peter's wife's mother heal- 






ed I. 31. 


ed IV. 39. 




he teaches through Galilee 


he teaches throughout Ga- 


he teaches throughout Ga- 




IV. 23—25. 


lilee I. 38, 39. 


lilee IV. 43, 44. 




f the Sermon on the Motmt, 








V. I~VII. 29. 




D Peter and Andrew, James 
and John called V. 1 — 
11. 

G he cures a leper V. 1 2—15. 




G the leper VIII. 2—4. 


G he cures a leper I. 40 — 45. 




the centurion's servant 








VIII. 5—13. 








F Peter's wife's mother cured 








VIII. 14—17. 










H cures a paralytic II. 1 — 


H cures a paralytic V. 17 — 






12. 


26. 




N he calms a tempest VIII. 


I Matthew caUed II. 13-17. 


I Matthew caUed V. 27—32. 




23—27. 






10 healeth at the pool of Be- 
thesda, at a feast of the 
Jews V. 1,2. 
[the Passover.] 



GOSPEL CHRONOLOGY. 



Matthew 


Mabk 


Luke 


John 


O casts out the legion of de- 


J ears of corn gathered on 


J ears of com gathered on the 




vUs VIII. 28._IX. 1. 


the Sabbath II. 23—28. 


Sabbath — ^(vriptf irp<irtp 
VI. 1—5. 




H cures the paralytic IX. 2 


E the withered hand III. 1 


K the withered hand VI. 6 — 




—8. 


_5. 


10. 




I Matthew caUed IX. 9—13. 


L he ordaineth the twelve apo- 


L he ordains the twelve apo- 




P Jairus' daughter IX. 18 


stles III. 13—19. 


stles VI. 12—19. 




—26. 




1[ the Sermon on the Mount, 




he teaches throughout Ga- 




VI. 20—49. 




lilee IX. 35. 




the centurion's servant 




Q sends forth the twelve apo- 




VII. 1—10. 




stles X. l—XI. 1. 




the dead man at Nain VII. 




S' John the Baptist sends to 




11—17. 




enquire XI. 2 — 6. 




8* John the Baptist sends to 




J ears of com gathered XII. 




enquire VII. 18—24. 




1—8. 




the woman anoints him at 




K the withered hand healed 




the Pharisee's house VII. 




XII. 9—13. 




36—50. 
he preaches again through- 
out Galileee VIII. 1—3. 




M the parable of the sower 


M the parable of the sower 


M the parable of the sower 




XIII. 1—23. 


IV. 1—20. 


VIII. 4—15. 






N he stills a storm IV. 35— 
41. 


N he stills a storm VIII. 22 


• 




casts out a legion of devils 


— 25. 

casts out a legion of devils 






V. 1—20. 


VIII. 26—39. 






P Jairus' daughter V. 22— 


P Jairus' daughter VIII. 41 






43. 


—55. 






Q he sends forth the twelve 


Q he sends forth the twelve 






apostles VI. 7—13. 


apostles IX. 1 — 6. 




R John the Baptist already 


R John the Baptist already 


R John the Baptist now dead 




dead XIV. 1, 2. 


dead VI. 14. 


IX. 7—9. 




[he parenthetically relates 


[he parenthetically relates 






the death of John XIV. 


the death of John VI. 






3—11.] 


17—29.] 






S the 5000 XIV. 13—21. 


S the 5000 VI. 30—44. 


S the 5000 IX. 10—17. 


S the 5000 VI. 1—14. 
the Passover being nigh 
VI. 4. 



The four narratives meet at this point. From this undoubted and unquestionable date the 
Gospel History of the Ministry proceeds through the last Passover but one to the last Passover 
itself; as in the following Table : 



Matthew 


Mark 


Luke 


John 


(S the 5000.) 


(S the 5000.) 


(S the 6000.) 


(S the 5000.) 


T Jesus walks on the sea 


T he stills another storm VI. 




T he walks on the sea and 


and calms a storm XIV. 


45—52. 




calms a storm VI. 16 — 


22—33. 


he returns into the land of 
Gennesareth VI. 53—66. 




21. 



232 



APPENDIX. 



C. 5. 



Matthew 


Mark 


Luke 


John 


X justifies the unwashen 


X justifies the unwashen 




11 He discourses at Caper- 


hands XV. 1—14. 


hands VII. 1—23. 




naum VL 24— 71.r 


Z cures a Canaanitish wo- 


Z cures a Syrophenician 






man's daughter in the 


woman's daughter in the 






coasts of Tyre and Sidon 


borders of Tyre and Si- 






XV. 21—28. 


don VII. 24—30. thence 








coming to the sea of Ga- 








lilee cures a deaf man VII. 








31—37. 






AA feeds 4000 XV. 29—38. 


AA feeds 4000 VIII. 1—9. 






warns his disciples of the 


at Bethsaida cures a 






Pharisees XVI. 6—12. 


blind man VIII. 22—26. 






BB Peter's confession of 


BB Peter's confession of 


BB Peter's confession of 




Christ XVI. 13—20. 


Christ VIII. 27—30. 


Christ IX. 18—21. 




CC Christ foretels his own 


CC Christ foretels his own 


CC Christ foretels his death 




death XVI. 21—27. 


death VIII. 31—38. 


IX. 22—26. 




DD the Transfiguration 


DD the Transfiguration IX. 


DD the Transfiguration IX. 




XVII. 1—13. 


2—13. 


28—36. 




he casts out the devil 


he casts out the devil 


he casts out the devil IX. 41. 




XVII. 14—21. 


IX. 14—29. 






EE he foretels his death while 


EE passes privately through 


EE he foretels his death IX. 




they abode in Galilee XVII. 


Galilee and foretels his 


43—45. 




22—23. 


death IX. 30—32. 






FF comes to Capernaum and 


FF comes to Capernaum and 






pays the tribute money 


(GG) teaches humility IX. 






XVII. 24—27. 


33—37. 






GG teaches humility XVIII. 


his discourse in answer 


GG teaches humility IX. 46 




1—14. 


to John IX. 38—50. 


—48. 




Parable of the 10,000 




a in his way to Jerusalem he 


12 Jesus goeth up from Ga- 


talents XVIII. 21 35. 




is rejected by the Samari- 


lilee to the feast of Ta- 






tans IX. 51—56. 


bernacles VII. 2—53. 






j3 he sends the 70 X. 1—16. 


13 the woman taken in adul- 

tery VI IL 1—11. 

14 he answereth the Jews 

VIIL 13—59. 

15 the man that was bom 

blind restored to sight 
IX. 1— X. 21. 






7 the 70 return 17—24. 








S the good Samaritan X. 29 








-37. 








e he is received by Martha 








and Mary X. 38—42. 








r the Lord's Prayers XI. 1 

—10. 
( he reproves the Pharisees* 




* 










XI. 37—54. 








rj the fig-tree XIIL 6—9. 





' St. John adds VII. 1 Trepurrarfi 6 'itfaovs fiera 
Tttvra iv ijj FoXtXata, ov yap fjOektv eV rfj 'louSat'a ireptira- 
Tt'iv Sti ((jjtovv avrbv ol 'lovhaioi. airoKTtl.vai. He re- 
mained in Galilee and the adjacent country between 
the last Passover but one and the feast of Taberna- 



cles : from Spring to Autumn. 

8 Included by St. Matthew VI. 9 in the Sermon 
on the Mount. 

' In Matt. XXIII after the Entry into Jerusa- 
lem. 



GOSPEL CHRONOLOGY. 



233 



Matthew 



Mark 



HH he departs from Galilee 
and goes beyond Jordan 
XIX. 1. 



11 blesses the young children 

XIX. 13—15. 
KK the young rich man 

XIX. 16—30. 
LL he foretels his death XX. 

17—19. 
MM heals two blind men 

near Jericho XX. 30 — 34. 



NN his entry into Jerusalem 
by Bethphage and Bethany 
and the Mount of Olives 
XXI. 1—17. 



HH he goes beyond Jordan 
into Judea. of divorce X. 
1—12. 



II blesses the young children 

X. 13—16. 
KK the young rich man X. 

17—31. 
LL he foretels his death X. 

32—34. 
MM heals a blind man near 

Jericho X. 46—52. 



Luke 



NN his entry into Jerusalem 
by Bethphage and Bethany 
and the Mount of Olives 
XI. 1—11. 



he cures an infirm woman 
on the Sabbath XIII. 10 
-17. 
( journeys towards Jerusalem 

XIII. 22. 
K at the house of a Pharisee 
on the Sabbath the parable 
. of the Great Supperv XIV. 

15—23. 
\ the lost sheep w and lost 
piece of money XV. 1 — 10. 
(J. the prodigal son XV. 11 — 

32. 
V the unjust steward XVI. 1 

—13. 
o the rich man and Lazarus 

XVI. 19—31. 
HH he passed through the 
midst of Samaria and Ga- 
lilee as he went to Jerusa- 
lem XVIL 11. 
ir the ten lepers XVII. 12 — 

19. 
1 1 blesses the young children 

XVIIL 15—17. 
KK the young rich man 

XVIIL 18—30. 
LL he foretels his death 

XVIIL 31—34. 
MM heals a bhnd man near 

Jericho XVIIL 35—43. 
p the conversion of Zacchaeus 

XIX. 1—10. 
(T the Ten Talents x related 
in the ascent to Jerusalem 
XIX. 11—28. 
NN the entry into Jerusa- 
lem by the way of Beth- 
phage and Bethany and 
the Mount of Olives XIX. 
29—46. 



John 



16 at Jerusalem at the feast 

of Dedication in the 
winter X. 22. 

17 he went again beyond 

Jordan X. 40. 

18 he raiseth Lazarus XL 1 

—53. 
retires to Ephraim XL 
54. 



19 Jesus at Bethany six days 
before the Passover XII. 
1—9. 

NN his entry into Jerusa- 
lem XII. 12—15. 



If the Last Passover hut one was the second Passover, a space of less than a year is given from 
the first Passover named in the preceding table to the feeding the 5000. But the things trans- 
acted and the regions visited seem to require a longer time. After the first Passover Jesus came 
into Judea and dwelt there, and the Baptist continued his ministryy. Then followed the impri- 
sonment of John, after which event Jesus came, into Galilee z, then into Samaria*, thence again to 
Galilee^. Then he came to Nazareth^. Leaving Nazareth he came and dwelt in Capernaum «*. 



V In Matt. XXII. 2 after the Entry into Jeru- period, 
salem. - y John III. 22. 23. 

w Told by St. Matthew XVIIL 12—14 under a John IV. 3. 4. 

GO. c Luke IV. 16. 

^ Related by St. Matthew XXV. 14 at a later 

Hh 



z Mark I. 14. 

b John IV. 43. 

d Matthew IV. 13. 



S84 APPENDIX. C.5. 

After this he made the circuit of all Galilee^. Then he is present at Jerusalem at a certain feast '^. 
From Jerusalem he journeys into Galilee s. In Galilee he dehvers the Sermon on the Mount ^, 
after which he is at Capernaum'. He teaches in Galilee^^ and at Capernaum'. Then he passed 
over to the country of the Gadarenes"". After this he is at Nazareth". Being in Galilee he sends 
forth the twelve Apostles", who return from their missionP. After their return he passed to the 
desert of Bethsaida and there wrought the miracle of feeding the 5000^. The discourses and 
actions of JesuSy and the miracles performed in his progress, might well occupy almost two years, 
extending over a second Passover to the approach of a third. 

If the feast in St. John V. 1 was not a Passover, this would not determine that no passover 
intervened between the first and the last but one. For John has omitted other feasts, as for 
instance he has omitted to name the feasts of Tabernacles and of Dedication which fell within 
the first year of the Ministry. Jesus was absent from Jerusalem at the last Passover but one, 
and he might have also been absent from the second Passover, if there were four. 

If the expression in St. Luke VI, 1 (rdjSjSaTov bcvrepoTTpcaTov is rightly interpreted by Scaliger, 
Casaubon"", Schleusner* and others to mean the first sabbath after the Passover, this would at 
once establish a Passover between the first and the last but one; for, as Mr. Greswell Vol. 2 p. 283 
justly argues, that narrative must be inserted between John V. 1 and John VI. 4. But the inter- 
pretation offered by Valckenaer and Grotius* is perhaps equally probable, that bevTepoTrpcoTov 
means the Sabbath which followed Pentecost. Even this interpretation however would still con- 
firm that a passover intervened between the first and the last but one. For as it is certain that 
this Pentecost could not have followed the Jirst Passover, it must of necessity have followed a 
second Passover not named, which occurred between the Passover in John II. 13 and the Passover 
in John VI. 4, and therefore adds a fourth Passover to the Ministry, 

The precise interval between the Baptism and the First Passover is not fixed by the Gospel 
narratives. We may collect however that it could not be long ; for the first miracle which Jesus 
wrought was the miracle at Cana, and after this miracle he went down to Capernaum and con- 
tinued there not many days, and the Passover was at hand''. Chrysostom in Joann, hom. 23 tom, 8 
p. 133 A Montf. calls the interval " a few days :"" iipb oXiytav rjpLcp&v tov Ttdaxa k^aitnaaTo. Epi- 
phanius places the Baptism at November 8^. The author of the Paschal Chronicle at Jan. 6, 
reckoning 76 days to the Passover x. Some modern chronologers agree in a short interval, Pagi 
tom. 1 p. 17 and Norisius tom. 3 p. 517 assign Jan. 6 for the Baptism, Mr. Greswell assumes 
Jan. 24 as the day of the Baptism and April 9 as the day of the Passover ; and this also places 
the Passover at the 76th day after the Baptism. Other modern interpreters assume longer 
periods 7. 

e Matthew IV, 23. ^ John IV, 54, V, 1. commentario ejus capitis. 

g Luke VI. 1 — 4. s Schleusner in v, devrfponparos. Mr. Greswell 

^ Matt. V — VIIL 1 Luke VI, 20 — 49, Vol, 2 p, 292 seems also to agree in the interpre- 

i Matt. VIIL 5 Luke VII, 1, ^ Matt. IX, 35, tation of Scaliger, and refers to Suidas v. aa^^arov 

1 Mark III. 7. 9. ^ Luke VIIL 26. [p. 3238 B], 

n Matt. IX. 1. o Matt, X, 1, XI, 1. * Quoted by Burton in his note upon Luke VI. 1. 

P Luke IX. 10. q Luke IX. 10—17. ^ John II. 11—13. 

r Casauboni in Baronium Exercit. XIV p, 308. ' ^ Tables A, D. 28. 2, 31, 3. 

309 Observat Scaliger non a bfvrfpov et npSyrop con- " See the Tables A, D. 32. 2. 

flatam esse illam vocem sed a bevrepa et npSyrov. ut y Mr. Bennet, as quoted by Home Introduction 

sit secundo — primum sabbatum, illud sabbatum quod Vol, 2 p. 354, thinks that " the Baptism was per- 

secimdam Paschatis proxime sit secutum, Rationes formed in or about the month of November :" that 

novae sententiae ex ipso auctore petant studiosi lib, is, about 5 months before the first Passover ; which 

VI de emend, temporum in diatriba de tertio Domini coincides with Epiphanius, Hales Vol. 1 p. 202 

Paschate, et Isagog, Canonum Ub, I. 6, et lib. III in fixes it " near autumn," or 6 months before the 



GOSPEL CHRONOLOGY. 235 

The beginning of the ministry of the Baptist is limited by the date of Pilate's government ^. 
From Josephus we lecarn that he governed ten years, and we may collect that his first year was 
current in the 12th year of Tiberius. Our knowledge of the times of the procurators of Judea is 
derived from Josephus, who relates that after the banishment of Archelaus in A. D. 6^ Augustus 
appointed three successive procurators, Coponius, Ambivius, and Bufus, the last of whom was still 
in office at the death of Augustus^; that Tiberius sent Gratus as the successor of Rufus, that Gratus 
remained eleven years in Judea, and was succeeded by Pilate: Ant. XVIH. 2. 2 8ia8^x^rai Tr]v 
riyifxovtav T4/3epios Nipcav — /cat TrefxirTos v-n avrov TTaprjV ^lovbaiois iirapxps, bidboxp^ 'AvvCov *Pov(f)ov, 
Ovakepios Tparos. — koI FpaTos piev — ets ^P(op.r]u k'nava^tap^l, €vb€Ka hi] btaTp(\j/as iv rfj ^lovbaiq, Uov- 
TLos be UlXAtos bidboxos avT<S rJK€v. Bufus then was still in office Aug. 19 A. D. 14. But Gratus, 
appointed by the new emperor, might arrive in Judea at the close of A. D. 14 or the beginning of 
A. D. 15. His eleventh year would be current from the close of A. D. 24 or the beginning of 25. 
If Pilate then arrived towards the close of summer A.D. 25, his predecessor had been eleven years 
current in his government*^, and Pilate'' s first year is current in the 12th of Tiberius which began 
Aug. 19 A. D. 25. Eusebius H. E. L 9 interprets Josephus in this manner: 6 8' avTos cv oKTcuKai- 
SeKctTft) TTJs apx_aiokoytas Kara to boabiKarov Iros rrjs Ti/3epiov ^aaiXcCas — U.6vtloi^ OiAciroy €ti Lrpairrivai 
TTjv ^lovbaCav brjX.oL'^. Pilate remained ten years in his government, and was then deposed by 
Vitellius and sent to Rome : Josephus Ant. XVHI. 4, 2 '2ap,apiuiv fj j3ovX.ri irapa OvCt4\Klov vira- 
TLKov lacTiv avbpa ^vpias Tr]V tj-yeiJiovCav cxovra Kal UiXdrov KaTrjyopovv iirl rrj cr(})ayfj tG>v d7roAa)A.ora)z;. 
— KoX OviTeWioj MdpfceAXoy tov avrov (f)L\ov kK'nip.y^as eTrtjaeAijr^y rots 'louSatots yevqa-op-evov YliXdrov 
€K€\€V(T€V Itti 'PciJjur/s diiiivai. TTpbs h KaTrjyopolev 'louSaiot bibd^avra [1. bibd^ovra] tov avTOKpdTOpa. koL 
YliXdTos Se/ca ^reo-t biarpL^as eTri ^lovbaCas ets 'F(ap.r]v riTTeiycTo, Tat? OmreAA^ov irei^o/xeyos evroXals, 
ovK ov avTiLTielv — "KpXv b\ Tj TTj 'P<«)ju,r/ Tipocryeiv [1.7rpoo-(rxeti'] avTov, (f)6dv€t TiySeptoy /xeraorcis. Josephus 
elsewhere observes that Tiberius in a reign of 22 years appointed only two procurators of Judea : 
errj bvo irpbs rots cXkoctlv avTOKpdTOip y€v6p.evoi bvo tovs Trayras'louSatots e^iirepi^e biOKT^aovTas to idvos, 
rpdrov re koX IltAdroi' 6s avT<2 bubi^aro ttjv riyepioviav^. 

Passover. He has not explained his reasons. Usher kos 'Afi^iovios. — Siabexerai 8e koi tovtov "Awios 'Povcj^or, 

Annals p. 818. 819 seems, as we collect from his icj) ov St) koX reXevra Kai<rap. 

dates, to place the Baptism in November A. D. 27 c Perhaps 10^' S"* reckoned from the beginning of 

and the first Passover in the spring of A. D. 30, a A. D. 15, or 10^' 10"* computed from the close of 

space of two years and 5 months. He has not sup- A. D. 14. 

ported this long period by any arguments. When d Eusebius in his Chronicle assigns a lower date 
however from John II. 12 he says that Jesus " tar- to Pilate's government : Anno 2042 Tiberii 13* Fi- 
ned at Capernaum many days," he has not rendered latum Tiberius— mittit. This year began