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Editor of Plato's Apology of Socrates, Crito, and Phapdo, 

' Tempora cum causis Latium digesta per annum.' 












Dublin : Printeil by Joiiv S. Folds, 5, Bachelor's. Walk. 







April, 1834, 

T. a D. 


The present Edition is submitted to the Student, with 
the hope that it may be found in some degree available 
towards the attainment of correct and competent infor- 
mation, upon the various topics which are comprised in 
the Fasti of Ovid. 

There are, indeed, but few peculiarities connected with 
the habits and manners, or the civil and religious institu- 
tions of his country which the poet has not directly or 
by inference contrived to introduce into the following 
work; — one which has been generally and justly consi- 
dered by the best critics, and amongst the rest by Rapin, 
to be as effective in execution as it is valuable and im- 
portant in design. 

The very nature of the subject afforded ample scope 
for the display of that high order of poetical ability 
with which the name of Ovid must be ever associated 
The religion of heathen Rome, it has been justly ob- 
served, was interwoven with every circumstance of busi- 
ness or pleasure, of public or private life ; with all the 
offices and amusements of society : — hence it may be rea- 
dily concluded that a minute account, such as the Fasti 
presents of the origin and details of the Roman rites and 


ceremonies, founded as the whole system was upon fable, 
could not fail to be enriched by such attractions as My- 
thology could possess for an ardent fancy and cultivated 

This poem, which was originally intended to have been 
dedicated to Augustus but was afterwards published 
under the auspices of Germanicus, was commenced pre- 
vious to the mysterious occurrence which led to the 
author's exile to Tomi, where it was finished. 

There are no good grounds for supposing, in contra- 
diction apparently to what Ovid has stated himself, that 
six books only of the Fasti, were ever written : the si- 
lence of Lactantius upon the six latter books, while he 
speaks fully of those now extant, being accounted for by 
Heinsius, from the strong probability of their having been 
lost previous to the fourth century, the age of the ' Chris- 
tian Cicero.' 

Claudius Quadrigarius, Afranius, Ennius, Lucius Cal- 
purnius Piso, Fannius, Laberius, and others, now only 
known by name, were the authorities whence Ovid de- 
rived the material of his Fasti ; it need scarcely be added 
that they could have supplied him with but little more ; 
its vivid colouring and brilliant ornaments are peculiarly 
the poet's own. 

It will appear in several instances throughout the work 
that the poet has not confined himself to the more gene- 
rally received mythologies and histories ; wherever this 
has occurred the Editor has either stated the distinction, 
or, when possible, has attempted to reconcile the con- 
flicting testimonies so as to afford the least complex 
illustration of the text ; the subjects, however, which 
appeared not to admit of a fuller discussion in the im- 
mediate notes, will be treated of more at large, along 
with other matters, in the Addenda. 


Such variations from the adopted text as were deemed 
worthy ot" notice have been mentioned, with the name of 
the copy from whence they were derived. 

In compiHng his ilhistrations, tlie Editor has consulted 
the most authentic sources, and in most instances has 
quoted, with scarcely any variation, the precise terms in 
which the requisite information was conveyed ; preferring 
what was really useful to an affectation of originality, he 
has hazarded but very few conjectures of his own, and 
those only after considerable study and research. 

Before concluding, the Editor would briefly advert to 
a point of some importance, connected with the introduc- 
tion of the Fasti into the Academic course. It has been 
stated that the general character of the poem is such as 
scarcely to warrant its admission into colleges and schools ; 
— this objection, founded upon utter ignorance even of 
what its name would imply, requires no refutation here ; 
the Fasti, upon such grounds, being as little deserving 
of exclusion as any of the Latin works which have for 
ages formed a part of school and college discipline. 

It must be admitted, however, that the poem is not free 
from a share of those blemishes into which the classic 
writers were betrayed from the peculiar taste and feeling 
of their times ; and consequently, in compliance with 
suggestions which he felt himself bound to respect, no 
less than in accordance with his own views, the Editor 
has omitted all such passages as he conceived could be 
in any degree liable to objection. Such omissions, how- 
ever, have been few and unimportant, so that where the 
poet has suffered no positive injustice, the student may, 
it is hoped, have been wisely spared from even probable 

It has been suggested that the present Edition of the 
Fasti having been already preceded by two others, would 


appear to have been put forward Avitli a claim upon public 
support, which they were not supposed equally well en- 
titled to deserve ; to this the Editor can only reply, that 
there appeared d. wide field open for competition, nor has 
he the presumption to imagine that even yet the lists are 

18, Trinity College, Dublin. 
November, 1834. 


In submitting a Second Edition of the Fasti to the 
Public, the Editor hopes he may be permitted, without 
charge of presumption, to express his unfeigned sense 
of the kind and encouraging reception of which, on ita 
first appearance, the work was thought worthy. That 
the success of his exertions, in the sanction they have 
obtained in England and Scotland, as well as at home, 
has been a source of sincere gratification to him, would 
be an idle affectation to deny ; at the same time 
he is fully aware that he required all the generous 
indulgence which has been so liberally and considerately 

The most careful attention, compatible with the dis- 
charge of momentous professional duties, has been 
exercised in revising and enlarging the present edition 
of the Fasti. In particular, the number of parallel 
passages from the English Poets has been increased ; 
the Editor conceiving that among the many fascinations 

accompanying classical pursuits, not the least attractive 
consists in tracing the analogies of feeling and ex- 
pression between ancient and modern intellect and taste. 
Upon the importance of the Fasti of Ovid as a 
classic whose effective study must necessarily be fol- 
lowed by a valuable and extensive acquaintance with 
history and mythology, it is needless now .to dilate ; 
it has been already felt and acknowledged to an 
extent which precludes dispute. 

i), Upper Sackville- Street, 
Awjust 24, 1838. 

For " n.imes," Note 33, Book II. rend " manc;." 






Kalendis Januarii 

Jani Festura. Templa Jovi el 
.^sculapio sacrata. 


Quarto Nonas. 


Tertio Non. 

Cancri Brachiaoccidunt. 


Pridie Non. 



Lyra oritur. 


Octavo Idus. 


Septimo Id. 


Sexto Id. 


Quinto Id. 

Jani Agonalia. Delpbin oritur. 


Quarto Id. 

Media Hiems. 


Tertio Id. 

Carmentalia. .^des Juturna^ 


Pridie Id. 



Provincise Populo Romano red- 
dits. Csesar Augustus dictus. 


Decirao nono Kalendas 


Dec. octavo Kal. Feb. 


Dec. septimo Kal. Feb. 


Dec. sexto Kal. Feb. 


Dec. quinto Kal. P'eb. 


Dec. quarto Kal. Feb. 


Dec. tertio Kal. Feb. 


Duodecimo Kal. Feb, 


Undecimo Kal. Feb. 


Decimo Kal. Feb. 


Nono Kal. Feb. ' 


Octavo Kal. Feb. 


Septimo Kal. Feb. 

(Ferise Sementivre.^ 


Sexto Kal. Feb. 


. Quinto Kal. Feb. 


Quarto Kal. Feb. 


Tertio Kal. Feb. 

Ara Paci posita. 


Pridie Kal. Feb. 

A 2 




Kalendis Febiuarii. 

iEdes Sospitae dicata. Lucaria. 
Sacra in Vestae et Jovis To- 
nantis templis facta. 


Quarto Nonas. 

Occidunt Lyra tota et Leonis 
medii Terga. 


Tertio Non. 

Occidit Delphin. 


Pridie Non. 



Augustus Caesar Pater Patriae 
dictus. Aquarius oritur. 


Octavo Idus. 


Septimo Id. 


Sexto Id. 


Quinto Id. 


Quarto Id. 


Tertio Id. 


Pridie Id. 



Fabiorum Caedes. 


Decimo Sexto Kalendas Corvus, Crater, et Anguis ori- 




Dec. quinto Kal. Mart 

Lupercalia. Venti incerti. Sol 
in Piscibus. 


Dec. quarto Kal. Mart. 


Dec. tertio Kal. Mart. 

Quirinalia. Stultorum Feriae, 
et Fornacalia. 


Duodecimo Kal. Mart. 



Uadecimo Kal. Mart. 



Decimo Kal. Mart. 



Nono Kal. Mart. 


Octavo Kal. Mart 


Septimo Kal. Mart. 



Sexto Kal. Mart. 


Quinto Kal. Mart. 

(Hirundinum Adrentus. ) 


Quarto Kal. Mart. 


Tertio Kal. Mart. 

Equiria in Campo Martio. 


Pridie Kal. Mart. 



Kalendis IMartii. 

Matronalia. Junoni Lucinse 
^des dicata. Anciliorum 


Se.xto Nonas. 


Quinto Non. 

Piscis Notius occidit. 


Quarto Non. 


Tertio Non. 

Occidit Arctophyla.x. Oritur 


Pridie Non. 

Festum Vestae. 



Templlim Vejovi sacratum. Pe- 
gasus oritur. 


Octavo Idus. 

Ariadnes Corona oritur. 



Septimo Id. 


Sexto Id. 


Quinto Id. 


Quarto Id. 


Tertio Id. 

Equiria juxta Tiberim. 


Pridie Id. 



Annse Perennse Festum, 

, Par- 

ricidium, sive Julii 




Decimo Septimo Kalen- 

Scorpios medius occidit. 



das Aprilis. 
Dec. sexto Kal. Apr. 

Dec. quinto Kal. Apr. 
Dec. quarto Kal. Apr. 

XX. Dec. tertio Kal. Apr. 

XXL Duodecimo Kal. Apr. 

XXIL Uiidecimo Kal. Apr. 

XXIIL Decimo KaL Apr. 

XXIV. Nono Kal. Apr. 

XXV. Octavo Kal. Apr. 
XXVL Septimo KaL Apr, 
XXVIL Sexto Kal. Apr. 

XXVIIL Quinto KaL Apr. 

XXIX. Quarto KaL Apr. 

XXX. Tertio Kal. Apr. 

Liberalia. Pueris Toga Virilis 
data. Argeorum Festum. 
Milvus oritur. 

Sol in Ariete. 

Minervae captae Festum, et 
Quinquatriorum Dies primus. 


Quinquatriorum Dies ultimus. 
Tubilustrium Martis. 

Jani, Concordiae, Salutis, et 
Pacis Festum. 


Pridie Kal. Apr. 

Lunae Festum. 



Kalendis Aprilis. 

Venus Floribus et Jlyrto. 


Quarto Nonas. 


Tertio Non. 


Pridie Non. 




Fortunse Publicse JEdes dicata. 


Octavo Idus. 

Juba victus. Libra occidit. 
Dies pluvius. 


Septimo Id. 


Sexto Id. 


Quinto Id. 


Quarto Id. 


Tertio Id. 

Orion occidit. 


Pridie Id. 

Ludi Cereales. 



Jovi Victori, et Libertati Tem- 
pla dicata. 


Decimo octavo Kalendas Caesar ad Mutinam Victor. 



Dec. septimo Ka' 

1. Mai 

. Fordicidia. 


Dec. sexto Kal. '. 


AugustusCaesar Imperalor dictus. 


XVII. Dec. quinto Kal. Mai. 

XVIII. Dec. quarto Kal. Mai. 

XIX. Dec. tertio Kal. Mai. 

XX. Duodecimo Kal. Mai. 

XXI. Undecimo Kal. Mai. 

XXII. Decimo Kal. Mai. 

XXIII. None Kal. Mai. 

XXIV. Octavo Kal. Mai. 

XXV. Septimo KaL Mai. 

XXVI. Sexto Kal. Mai. 

XXVII. Quinto Kal. Mai. 

XXVIII. Quarto Kal. Mai. 

Hyades occidunt. 

Ludi Circenses. Vulpium Com- 

Sol in Tauro. 
Palilia. Roma condita. 

Vinalia Veneris et Jovis. 

Medium Ver. Occidit Aries. 
Oritur Canis. Rubigalia. 

Floralia. Vestas Palatinap et 
Phosbi Festa. 


Tertio Kal. Mai. 
Pridie Kal. Mart. 


















Kalendis Maii. 

Sexto Nonas. 

Quinto Non. 

Quarto Non. 

Tertio Non. 

Pridie Non. 


Octavo Idus. 

Septimo Id, 

Sexto Id. 

Quinto Id. 

Quarto Id. 

Tertio Id. 

Pridie Id. 


Decimo septimo Kalen- 

das Junii. 
Dec. sexto Kal. Jun. 
Dec. quinto Kal. Jun. 
Dec. quarto Kal. Juu. 
Dec. tertio Kal. Jun. 

XXI. Duodecimo Kal. Jun. 

XXII. Undecimo Kal. Jun. 
XXIIL Decimo Kal. Jun. 






Nono Kal. Jun. 
Octavo Kal. Jun. 
Septimo Kal. Jun. 
Sexto Kal. Jun. 
Quinto Kal. Jun. 

Oritur Capella. Ara Laribus 

Prsestitibus posita. 
Argestes flat. Hyades oriun- 

tur. Floralium Finis. 
Centaurus oritur. 

Lyra oritur. 

Scorpios medius occidit. 



Festum Martis Bisultoris. 

Pleiades oriuutur. Taurus oritur. 
Mercurii Festum. 

Sol in Geminis. Agonalia. Ori- 
tur Canis. 
Q. R. C. F. 
jEdes Publicse Fortunae dicatn. 

Oritur Aquila. 
Bootes occidit. 
Hyades oriuntur. 


XXIX. Quarto Kal. Jun. 

XXX. Tertio Kal. Jun. 

XXXI. Pridie Kal. Jun. 



Kalendis Junii. 

Carnse et Martis Festa. Junoni 
Monet£e,et Tempestati Teni- 
pla dicata. Oritur Aquila. 


Quarto Nonas. 

Hyades oriuntur. 


Tertio Non. 


Pridie Non. 

Bellonee, et Herculi Custodi 
Terapla dicata. 


Nonis Jun. 

Sanco Fidio Semoni Patri Mdes 
dicata. Nubere infaustum. 


Octavo Idus. 


Septimo Id. 

Ludi Tiljerini. 


Sexto Id. 

Menti .^des dicata. 


Quinto Id. 

Vestalia. Ara Jovi Pistori po- 
sita. Palladium ex Igne rap- 
tum. Victi Callaici. Crassi 


Quarto Id. 

Oritur Delphin. 


Tertio Id. 

Matralia. Rutilii et Didii 
Caedes. Fortunae et Concor- 
diae Templa dicata. 


Pridie Id. 



Jovi ^des dicata. Quinquatria 


Decimo octavo Kalendas 



Dec. septimo Kal. Jul. 

Hyades oriuntur. JEies Yestte 


Dec. sexto Kal. Jul. 

Zephyrus flat. 


Dec. quinto Kal. Jul. 

Delphin oritur. Volsci et ^Equi 


Doc. quarto Kal. Jul. 

Sol in Cancro. .^des Minervse 


Dec. tertio Kal. Jul. 

^des Summano data. Ophiu- 
cIjus oritur. 


Duodecimo Kal. Jul. 


Undecimo Kal. Jul. 


Decimo Kal. Jul. 


Nono Kal. Jul. 

Flarainus victus. 


Octavo Kal. Jul. 

Syphax et Hasdrubal victi. For- 
tis Fortunae Festum. 


Septimo Kal. Jul. 


Sexto Kal. Jul. 

Orionis Zona oritur. Solstitiura. 


Quinto Kal. Jul. 

Laribus et Jovi Statori Templa 


Quarto Kal. Jul. 

vEdes Quirino data. 


Tertio Kal. Jul. 


Pridie Ka!. Jul. 

Herculis et Musarum Feitura. 


Ambros. Ambrosianus. 
Arund. Arundelianus. 
Arg. Arsfentinensis. 
Barb. Codex Barberini. 
Bern. Bernensis. 
Cant. Cantabrigiensis. 
Douz, Codex Jani Douzae. 
Fames. Farnesianus. 
Florent. Floreutinus. 
Franco/. Francofurtinensis. 
Gronov. Gronovianus. 
Heins. Codex Heinsii. 
Mazar. Mazarinianus. 
Med. Mediceus. 
Moret. Codex Moreti. 

Neap. Neapolitanus. 

Patav. Patavinus. 

Pat. (Fragmen.) Patavinum. 

Pet. Codex Petavii, 

Pol. Codex Politiaai. 

Pol. (Ex.) Excerpta Politiani. 

Sarrav. Sarravianus. 

Seal. Codex Josephi Scaligeri. 

Seal. (E.T.) Excerpta Scaligeri. 

Thuan. Codex Thuanii. 

Vatie. Vaticanus. 

Ursin. Codex Ursini. 

Voss. Codex Vossii. 

Voss. (Exe.) Excerpta Vossii. 
Zulicli. Zulicliemianus. 



Ez vetusto codice Pomponii LcEii,cujusapographumextat in Vaticanu 

P. OviDius Naso, a. d. xii. Kal. April, Sulmone in Pelignis 
natus est : quo anno bello Mutinensi P. Hirtius et C. Pansa Coss, 
diem obiere. Honoribus Romse functus : fuit enim arbiter et tri- 
umvir, et judicium inter centum viros dixit. Sub Plotio Grippo li- 
teris eruditus : deinde apud Marcellum P'uscum Rlietorem, cujus 
auditor fuit, optime declamavit. Admirator plurimum Porcii La- 
tronis fuit, quern adeo studiose audivit, ut multas ejus sententias in 
versus suos transtulerit. Bonus declamator et ingeniosus habitus 
est, et carmine prosa licenter scripsit, ingenii sui adeo amator, ut ex 
lis quae dixit, etiam precantibus amicis, nihil mutaverit. In carmi- 
nibus vitia sua non ignoravit, sed araavit. Militavit sub M. Varrone. 
Julio Graecino Grammatico familiaris. Tandem cum venisset in 
suspicionem Augusti, creditus sub nomine Corinnse amasse Juliam, 
in exilium missus est ; exulavit Tomis, ibique decessit annum agens 
i.x. novissimum. 


£.r Danielis Heinsii Libro de coustitutione Tragcedia secundum 

Omnes Ovidius transcendit. Sive falsa probabiliter, sive obscura 
perspicue, sive utraque ornate, sive omnia simpliciter sint exponen- 
da. Falsa, ut in IMetamorphosi. Obscura, ut mathematica, et an- 
tiquitatis arcana in Fastis. Quaj ad mores pertinent, ubique. Etiam 
cum ludit aut lascivit. Idque verbis et oratione vulsrari. Ut et dicat 
qure velit, et doceat quje quisque intelligat : tarn admirabili felicitate, 
ut cum quivis idem posse videatur, nemo possit : nemo, nisi mao'ni 
animi et excitati, tentare idem ausit : sapientes etiam desperent. 
Ubique sententizs, ubique loci communes : de ignavia, de disciplinis, 
brevitate formee, opum contemptu. Neque semper falsa n.irrat, Ut 
in opere jam dicto : in quo plurimas historiasexponit. Ut Lucretise. 


(Fast. ii. 721, et seq.) Nam quid cum simplicihite ilia comparandum ? 
quam indocti et rustici fastidiunt : urbani et ingemii sine uUa imita- 
tionis spe adorant. Ecce celeritatem : 

Nox superest : tollamur equis, urbemque petamus. 

Dicta placent : fisenis impediuntur equi. 
Pertulerant dominos : regalia protinus ipsi 

Tectapetunt: custos in fore riullus erat. 

Nulius equus, ac vix cogitato humana, banc celeritatem assequatur. 
Tale est ilhid : 

Sic sedit : sic culta fiiit; sic stamina nevit : 

Injectse coUo sic jacuere comae. 
Hos habuit vultus : hsec illi verba fuerunt, 

Hie color, hiEc facies, hie nitor oris erat. 

Numerorum autem tanta in hoc scripto, cujus partem alteram liabe- 
mus, paritas, simplicitas, ac invidenda suavitas, ut, quid magni viri 
velint, cum mutari quosdam posse existiment, neque ipsi, nisi fallor, 
iieque nos intelligamus. Nondum enim cuiquam id probarunt, cum 
in simili scribendi genere versati sunt. Libri Tristiura, et qui De 
Ponto inscribuntur, quo ab omni affectatione (quanquam iis cum 
plerisque illius scriptis hoc commune est) magisalieni sunt, eo magis 
commendari juventuti debent. Et ubique Latinitas, vel inter prima. 
Ut non temere Muretus, quo, post literas renatas, nemo sine affecta- 
tione elegantius scripsit, quendam, qui auctori tanto hanc detraheret, 
prodigii instar, ovis et sulphure lustrandum existimet. Ut et Jose- 
phus Scaliger. Julius autem, in Rhetoricis (qui illius libri cum 
aliis non paucis perierunt) tanquam absolutuni et perfectum omni ex 
parte exemplum, scripta ejus proponebat. Neque temere alia auc- 
toritate quae docebat, quod non semel ex divino ejus viri filio audirc 
memini, ubique confirmabat. Sed natura ejus viri, candor, ingenui- 
tas, velocilag, quaj in narrationibus potissimum elucet, supra votum 
est. Proxinium est ergo, recte de iis judicare. 




Tempora cum causis Latium digesta per annum, 
Lapsaque sub terras, ortaque signa, canam. 

* Fasturum. Fasti-orum. m. tercalary month of 23 days, which 
Generally, ' chronicles,' ' annals,' formed of course a part of it al- 

public rei,nsters,' Here ' a calen- 
dar,' rifii^oXoyiov. Th. Fas. In its 
primaryacceptation it is equivalent 
to annates, botii terms being^ ap- 
plied indiscriminately to the re- 
cords kept by the Pontifex Maxi- 
rous at Rome, ( Cic. de Orat. 1. 2, 
c. 12) of all the remarkable occur- 
rences there and elsewhere. But 
in the text it is to be understood 
in a more limited sense, as appli- 
cable solely to the business of the 
Roman calendar. There were ori- 
g-inally twelve books of the Fasti, 
' Sex ego Fastorum scripsi totidem- 
que libellos.' Ovid Trist. iii. 594. 
of which six only are now extant. 
1. Tempora, ^'c. Days. {u^a.). 

ready, two extraordinary months 
between Novemberand December, 
the one of 3-3, and the other of 34 
davs, so that this year, which was 
called the last year of confusion, 
consisted of sixteen months, or 
445 days. The year then fell into 
the orderin which it hascontinued, 
with but one variation, that of the 
Old and New Style, occasioned 
by a regulation of Pope Gregory, 
A. D. 1582, to the present time. 
Csesar was assisted in his plan 
by the talent and abilities of 
Sositrenes, a celebrated astronomer 
of Alexandria, whom he brought 
to Rome for the purpose ; and a 
new calendar was formed from his 

Cawsis, (a<T/ov) Origini;f,ordesiga arrangement by Flavius, a scribe, 
in the celebration of each particular digested according to the order of 
day. The etymologies of this word the Roman festivals, and the old 
are various — cavillor, casus, quae -o, manner of computing the days by 
a.~<ra, caveo. kalends, nones, and ides, which 
1, Latium, '^'c. Arranged was published and authorised by 
throughout the Italian year, i. e. the dictator's edict, 
the solar or Julian, which con- The poet commences with the 
tained 365 days and one fourth, month of January, which has re- 
six hours; and which was adopted tained its name since the time of 
by Julius Cajsar when he became Numa Pompilius to the present, 
master of the state, in order to re- with but one interval, during the 
medy many previous abuses. See reign of the emperor Commodus, 
infr. note 43. He did away with in honor of whom, or of whose 
intercalations, and A. U. 707, ad- mistress rather, it wascalled 'Am- 

justed the year according to the 
course of the sun, assigning to 
each year the number of days 
which they still contain. To en- 
sure regularity, from the first of the 
ensuing January, he inserted in the 
current year, in addition to the in- 

azonius ;' the original appellation 
was restored upon his decease by 
a decree of the senate. JElius 
Lumprid, cap. xi. 

2. Canam, in some copies Cano. 
See Virg. jEneid, i. 1. 1, and Fast. 
ii. 7, and iv. 12. 




Excipe pacato, Caesar Germanice, vultu 

Hoc opus ; et timidae dirige navis iter : 
Officiique leveni non aversatus honorem, 

In tibi devoto munere dexter ades. 
Sacra recognosces Annalibus eruta priscis ; 

Et quo sit merito quaique notata dies. 
Invenies illic et festa domestica vobis : 

Sa?pe tibi Pater est, saepe legendus Avus. 
Quaeque ferunt illi pictos signantia Fastos, 

Tu quoque cum Druso praemia fratre feres. 
Caesaris arma canant alii ; nos Caesaris aras, 

Et quoscunque sacris addidit ille dies. 
Annue conanti per laudes ire tuorum ; 

Deque meo pavidos excute corde metus. 
Da mihi te placidum ; dederis in carmina vires ; 

Ingenium vultu statque caditque tuo. 



3. Pacato. Favorable, benign. 

— Germanice. Son of Drusus 
Claudius Nero, and nephew of 
Tiberius, who, by the direction of 
Augustus, became his father by 
adoption. He received the sur- 
name, Gernianicus,from his father 
Drusus, on whom and on wliose 
posterity the senate bestowed it in 
commemoration of his illustrious 
conquests in Germany. 

6. Dexter. Propitious. 

7. Annalibus, ^c. The annals, 
before Ovid's time, were compiled 
by Hemina, Claudius, Afranius, 
Ennius, Attius, Quadrigarius, 
Fiso, Fannius, Fenestella, liabe- 
rius and Licinius. 

— Erutapriscis. In Excerpt. 
Voss. Edita, a word in frequent use, 
in sacred matters, with Z/w, Gron. 
ad Liv. XXV. 12, and xliii. 14; 
but eruta is approved. See Fast. 
iv. 11; for priscis some copies 
read primis. Propert. 1. vii. 3; 
Lucan. X. 51. 

8. Merito. Worth, value, or 

— Notata. Notanda, Got- 
torph. Medic, and Vatic. Sacrata 
Thuau. and another. Vocata Far- 

9. Et festa d. Et signa d. 
some copies. Ut festa Junian. 

— Domestica. So called because 
ordained in honour of the house of 

10. Pater legendus, 8fc. i. e. 
In the course of your study you 
will frequently find your fatlierand 
grandfather (Tiberius and Augus- 
tus, by adoption) the objects of 
your attention. 

11. Pictos. Drawn, painted, sc. 
rninio, with red lead. 

12. Tu quoque, i. e. You too 
shall partake of the glory of your 
race. Druso, son of Tiberius, and by 
adoption, brother of Germanicus. 

13. Canant. Canent Thuau. 
and Moret. 

— Aras. Built and consecrated 
by Augustus. Scaliger suggested 
Aram, as allusion is most likely 
made to the altar consecrated by 
Augustus to Peace. However, aroi; 
is used for aram, Fast. vi. 357, 
where the altar of Saturn is evi- 
dently meant. 

14. Dies. Deos Sarrav. and 15 
ire tuorum, ire deorum Thuan. and 

18. Vultu. Nutu Heins. as inf. 
70 and elsewhere. 


Patina judicium docti subitura movetur 

Principis, ut Clario missa legenda Deo. 20 

QuEB sit enim culti facundia sensimus oris, 

Civica pro trepidis ciim tulit arma reis. 
Scimus et, ad nostras cum se tulit impetus artes, 

Ingenii currant flumina quanta tui. 
Si licet, et fas est, vates rege vatis habenas ; 25 

Auspice te felix totus ut annus eat. 


Tempora digereret cum conditor Urbis, in anno 

Constituit menses quinque bis esse suo. 
Scilicet arma magis, quam sidera, Romule, noras ; 

Curaque finitimos vincere major erat. 30 

Est tamen et ratio, Caesar, qua; moverit ilium ; 

Erroremque suum quo tueatur habet. 
Quod satis est, utero matris dum prodeat infans ; 

Hoc anno statuit temporis esse satis. 
Per totidem menses a funere conjugis uxor 35 

Sustinet in vidua tristia signa domo. 

19. Movetur. Trembles, is 
troubled or agitated. A compli- 
ment to the critical taste of Ger- 

20. Clario Deo. As if sent 
to be perused by the Clarian God; 
Apollo, so called from Claros in 
Asia Minor, where he had a tem- 
ple and an oracle. Tacit, lib. ii. 
Annal. cap. 54. 

— Missa. Musa Francof. 

22. Cum tulit arma reis. Ora- 
vit, says Suetonius of Germanicus, 
causas triumphaleis. And JJio 
Cassius, lib. LVI. K«; avro; /xit 
ouTi» ec^iov firv/iti; fzff^a'i^l, srXjiv on 
xai r'ori uTi^iiixyi(riy. 

23. Ad nostras, ^c. Germani- 
cus evinced a strong natural desire 
(impetus) for literary and especi- 
ally poetical (nostras artes) dis- 
tinction ; he wrote several Greek 

27. Conditor. Rome was found- 
ed by Romulus, B.C. 730. 

28. Constituit menses, ^~c. It 

is generally supposed that Romu- 
lus did not ordain a new year, but 
that he merely made some altera- 
tion in the course of the months 
in that which previously existed. 
It appears that before the founding 
of the city, ten months was the 
year's duration in Latium as in 
many other nations ; at Athens, 
forinstance, where Clisthenes after 
the expulsion of the tyrants, divi- 
ded the people into ten tribes : — 
H^uraviia- 6-/iXukus o ^^otii;. AiripnTi 
ya.^ ZTaoa ' Afrtvaioi; i ifixurof u; iixcc 
TqUTCcviias, oirai xai ^vXa,) riffav, xai 
iv^uretviutrav \»a,trrri (fivXr) kcit iviau- 
Tov iirra.2,, o^tv xai tovs fiitr^ovs xou Ta 
ivoixia, xa.1 ra; ■a^vraviia; xxto, /itjvce. 
iTiXouv. Ammonius Herm. 

32. Tueatur. Defend, excuse. 

36. Sustinet. Preserves, keeps 
up, continues. Signa. The mourn- 
ing garments ; cypress boughs, 
which were hung up in the habita- 
tions of the deceased, &c. 


Hoc igltui- vicllt trabeati cura Quirini, 

Ciim rudibus populis annua jura daret. 
Martis erat primus mensis, Venerisque secundus : 

Hacc generis princeps, ipsius ille pater. 
Tertius a Seiub\is, Juvenum de nomine quartus : 

Quae sequitur, numero turba notata t'uit. 
At Numa nee Janum, nee avitas prseterit umbras 

Mensibus antiquis apposuitque duos. 

37. Trabeati. The trahea was 
a robe worn by kin<;s, consuls and 
autjurs. It was white, adorned 
with stripes of purple (vircjata vel 
palmata a trablbusc/jc^a). Accord- 
in? to Servius, made of purple and 
scarlet (ex purpura et cocco 7nis- 
tum), in Virg. j^neid. vii. 612. 
According to Plinv, Romulus used 
only the trabea. The toga prcetexta 
{ a white robe fringed with purple) 
was introduced by Tullus Hosti- 
lius, and also the latus clavus (a 
tunic or waistcoat with an oblong, 
broad stripe of purple, like a rib- 
bon sewed to it on the fore part,) 
after he had conquered the Tus- 
cans. Plin. ix. 39, s. 63. viii. 48 
s. 74. 

— Quirini. Romulus was called 
Quirinus, as JEneas Jupiter Jn- 
diyes, after he hail been ranked 
among the gods, either from quiris 
a spear, or Cures, a city of the Sa- 
bines. See Fasti, ii. 361-4. 

38. Annua. Pertaining to the 

39. Martis erat, S,-c. Romulus 
is said to have divided the year 
into ten months; the tirst of which 
was called Martius, March, from 
Mars, his supposed father. Fasti, 
iii. 74, 95 ; the second, Aprilis. 


Juno, or in honour of the youn?, 
(juniorum)ns May probalilvofold, 
(^mujorum ) as in the text, & Fast. v. 
4-i3. The rest were named from 
their number, Quiiitdis. Sextilis, 
September, October, November, 
December. Ibid. i. 41. Quintilis 
was afterwards called Julius, from 
Julius Csesar ; because in it he had 
been first made consul, and ha<l 
obtained some remarkable victories 
Suet. 31, Dio. Iv. 6, in particular 
he had become a master of Alex- 
andria iu Egypt, A. U. 724, and 
fifteen years after (lustro terlio), 
on the same dav, probably the 29th 
of Auirust, had vanquished the 
Rhoeti by means of Tiberius. Ho- 
ra/. Of/.iv. 14. .34. Other empe- 
rors <:ave their names to particular 
months, as 1. 3, note I, but these 
were forgotten after their death. 
Suet. Domit. 13. Plin. Pan. 54. 

40. Princeps. Because Venus 
was the mother of j5^neas, the head 
of the Roman descent. Pater. 
]Mars was the reputed father of 

43. Numa. The second kins of 
Rome. He added two months to 
the year of Romulus, called Van»- 
arius, from .7«n«.9,and Februarius, 
ei ther because the people were then 

either from the Greek name of purified, (februabantur, i. e. pur- 
Venus, {\\:pi>otirri.) as above, 1. yabantur vel lustr(d>antur) by an 
39. Horat. Ot/. i v. 1 1 ; or because expiatorysacrifice(i^p?»/'wa//rt)fr<jm 
then trees and flowers open {se the sins of the whole year, for 
<7;)e;(H»<) their buds. Plutarch, in this formerly was the last month 
Numa. Fast. iv. 87 ; tin- third, in the year, Cic. de Leyg. ii. 49. 
Mains, j\lav, from Maia the mo- Tibull. iii. 1, 2, or from the sacri- 
ther of Mercury ; and the fourth, fices (februis) which were offered 
Junius, June, from the goddess in this mouth to the shadesof their 



Ne tamen ignores variorum jura dierum, 

Non habet officii lucifer omnis idem. 
Ille Nefastus erit, per quem Tria Verba silentur ; 

Fastus erit, per quem lege licebit agi. 
Neu toto die sua jura putaris ; 

Qui jam Fastus erit, mane Nefastus erat. 
Nam simul exta Deo data sunt, licet omnia fari ; 

Verbaque Honoratus libera Praetor habet. 



forefathers, which explains 7iec 
avitas, ^c. Numa, following tlie 
Greeks, divided the year into 
twelve months, according to the 
course of the moon, consisting of 
Soi days ; he added one day more 
Plin. xxxiv. 7, to make the num- 
ber odd, which was considered 
more fortunate. But as 10 days, 
5 hours, 49 minutes (or rather 48 
minutes 57 seconds) were wanting 
to make the lunar year correspond 
to the course of the sun, he ap- 
pointed that every other year an 
extraordinary month, railed Men- 
sis Intercalaris, or Macedonius, 
should be inserted between the 
23d and 24th day of February, 
Liv. i. 19. The intercalating of 
this month was left to the judg- 
ment of the Poutitices, who by in- 
serting fewer or more days, caused 
the current year to be shorter or 
longer as was best suited to them- 
selves or those forwhom they were 
interested ; as, for example, a ma- 
gistrate might earlier or later re- 
sign his office, or con tractors forthe 
revenue might have a longer or a 
shorter time to collect the taxes. 
Cic. de Legg. ii. 12 ; Fain. vii. 3, 
1 2, viii. 6 ; Suet. Ccts. 40 ; Dio. 
xl. 62. In consequence ot this li- 
cense the months were transposed 
from their stated seasons; the win- 
ter months carried back into au- 
tumn, and the autumnal into sum- 
mer, Cic. Ait. X. 17. This disor- 

der, as well as its sources, was re- 
moved by Csesar. Seeabove,NoteI. 

45. Variorum, Because diver- 
sified iu their names, times, and 

46. Lucifer. For dies. 

47. Tria Verba. The power 
of the praetor in the administration 
of justice was expressed in these 
three words, Do, Dice, Addico. 
Prcctor DABAT actionem et judi- 
ces ; the praetor gave the form of a 
writ for tryins and redressing a 
particular wrong complained of, 
and appointed judges or a jury to 
decide the cause ; dicebat jus, 
pronounced sentence ; aduickbat 
bona vel damna, adjudged the 
goods of the debtor to the creditor 
&c. The days on which the prae- 
tor administered justice were called 
DIES FASTI, (a fando, quod Us 
dicbus hac tria verba fari licebat. ) 
Tliose days on which it was un- 
lawful to administer justice, were 
called NEFASTi. 

49. Toto. Some days were of a 
mixed character, cnWeii intercisi ; 
when a sacrifice was appointed for 
a particular day, during the time 
of its celebration the day was con- 
sidered nefastus, but after it was 
concluded the remaining portion 
was reckoned dies fastus, and the 
usual business attended to accord- 

52. Honoratus. Honourable 
This title was conferred upon tha 
B 2 


Est quoqne, quo pop\ilum jus est includere Septis: 

Est quoqne, ((ui nono semper ab orbe redit. 
Vindicat Ausonias Junonis cura Kalendas. 

PR.tToR URBANi'S, as he held a 
higher rank than the pu^iiTOR 
PKREGRiN'US ; his laws and edicts 
were called jus honorarium. 

53. Quo populum, ^yc. This is 
the Dies Coraitialis upon which the 
Coniitia were held for the election 
of magistrates, &c. Septis. The 
septum or ocile was an enclosure 
surrounded with boards (^locus ta- 
bulatis inclusus) near the tribunal 
of the consul, into which the cen- 
turies went according to their 
order, when summoned by the he- 
rald. Hence they were said to be 
iyifro vocata, sc. in ovile, Liv. x. 
13. There was a narrow passage 
to it raised from the ground, called 
jPows or Ponticulus, by which each 
century ascended successively, — 
Suet. Jul. 80. Old men of sixty, 
sexa<jenarii, were said in conse- 
quence de pnnte dejici ; and were 
called Depontani, because after 
that age they were exempted Irom 
public business. There were pro- 
bably as many Pontes and Septa, 
or ovilia, as there were tribes and 
centuries, whence they are general- 
ly spoken of in the plural as above, 
also Cic. de Lpijrj. iii. 17, Attic, i. 
\A,ad Herenn.\. 12, pro Mil. 15, 
Lucan. Pharsal. ii. 197. 

54. Qui 7)0)10, S\'c. Every ninth 
day was called Dies A uiidinalis, 
upon which the Niuidina, (quasi 
Novendince from novemdies,) were 
held. The ancient Romans did 
not divide their time into weeks, 
as we do in imitation of the Jews. 
Thecountr) people came to Rome 
every ninth day, to hold a market 
for buying and selling the usual 
commodities. The seven interve- 
ning days, a space of time which 
there is not any particuhir term to 
denote, they employed in rural oc- 
cupations. jDioni/s, li. 18, vii. oS; 

Varro de Re Rust, prcef. 11. By 

the Hortensian law, the nundina, 
which used to be considered as^c- 
ri(E or holidavs, h^vame fa site, or 
court days, that the country people 
who then came to town for market 
might have their lawsuits deter- 
mined. (Lites componerent.) Ma- 
crob. When the nundince fell on the 
first day of the year it was consi- 
dered unlucky, JDio. xl. 47. Ma- 
croh. Sat. i. 13; for this reason, 
Augustus, who was greatly inclined 
to superstition, inserted a day in 
the precedintr year to prevent it, 
which day was subtracted from the 
following years, that the time 
miiiht agree with the arrangement 
of Julius Cajsar. Orbe, Day. 

55. Vindicat. Claims, asserts a 
right to ; the Kalends were sacred 
to Juno, the Ides to .Tupiter. The 
Romans divided their months into 
three parts, by Ktdends, Nones. 
and Ides. The first day was called 
KAT.END^i: or calendoB, (a calendo 
vel vocando) from the priest pro- 
claiming to the people the new 
moon ; the fifth day, non^e the 
nones ; the 13th, IDUS, the ides, 
from the obsolete verb idvare, to 
divide ; because the ides divided 
the month. The nones were so 
called, because counting inclusive- 
ly they were nine (jnovem) days 
irom the ides. 

In March, May, July, and Oc- 
tober, the nones fell on the 7tb, 
and the ides on the 15th. The 
first day of the intarcalary month 
was called calends intercala- 
RES, Cic. Quint. 25 Sexta Ka- 
lendcE, i. e. Kahndee sczti wensis, 
the first day of June. Fast. vi. 
181. See the Kalendarium. 

— Ausonias. Latin or Roman. 
The Greeks had no kalemls in their 
mode of reckoijing, but called the 


rdibus alba Jovi grandior agna cadit. 
Nonarum tutela Deo caret. Omnibus istis 

(Ne fallare cave) proximus ater erit. 
Omen ab eventu est ; illis nam Roma diebus 

Damna sub ad verso tristia Marte tuJit. 
Haec mihi dicta semel, totis ha^rentia Fastis, 

Ne seriem reruni scindere cogar, erunt. 



EccE tibi faustum, Germanice, nunciat annum, 

Inque meo primus carmine Janus adest. 
June biceps, anni tacite labentis origo, 65 

Solus de Superis qui tua terga vides ; 
Dexter ades Ducibus ; quorum secura labore 

Otia terra t'erax, otia pontus agit. 
Dexter ades Patribusque tuis, Populoque Quirini : 

Et resera nutu Candida templa tuo. 70 

first day of the month vou^^wa, or 
new tnoon ; hence ad Gracas 
knlendas solvere, tor nunquam. 
Suet. Auij. 87. 

56. Cadit. Cadet, Ursinus. 

57. Nonarum. An Hypallage, 
for Nona tutela Dei carent. 

— Istis. The kalenJs, nones, 
and ides. 

o8. Ater. Inauspicious, cap. 1. 

59. Omen, &-c. The ausrury is 
the result ot experience. The Ro- 
mans liad tlii'ir /)rffi/((ncs,tii.'hting 
days, and non pra:Uares ; as, tlie 
days after the kalends, nones, and 
ides : they helieved that there was 
something unlucky in the word 
post, iii'tnY, and for tliis reason they 
were called dies religiosi, alri vel 
infausti, as were also the days, al- 
Juiled to in the text, upon which 
any remarkable calamity had oc- 
curred ; for instance, Dies Allien- 
sis, (^T. Liv. vi. 1. 

(i\. Hcerentia. Connected with 
the calendar throughout, common 
to all tlie months, 

62. Scindere. To interrupt. 
Condere Uvs'in. Findere. A]. 

63. Ecce, Sfc. They were accus- 

tomed to look for favorable augu- 
ries and auspices on the kalends 
of January. 

64. Adest. Erit. A\. 65. Biceps. 
Bifrons. A\. 

66. Tua terya vides. Xlocic-ffu 
«.ai o'Trifffff), because ot his beint( 

67. Ducibus. The C.-esars ; 
Auijustus, Tiberius, and Germa- 
nicus. Secura, Post bellum Actia- 
cuin ah liiiperatore Anyustu pax 
terra mariqiie parla. Liv. 

69. Tuis, Tin Burm. 

70. i?e.«era.Tlietempleof Janus, 
built bv Numa, (index belli et pu- 
ds,) had two brazen gates, one on 
each side, to be open in war, and 
shut in time of pe<^ce. Liv. i, 19. 
Vcl. ii. 38. Sen: in Vircj. i. 294. 

vii. 607. But the poet must not be 
understood by using the word re- 
sera, throw open, &c. here, as if 
anxious for a renesval of the hosti- 
lities upon whose cessation, he con- 
gratulates his country; he de- 
mands that the gates should be 
opened of all the temples, that of 
Janus included, to admit the aucri- 


Prospera lux oritur : linguisque animisque favcte 

Nunc dicenda bono sunt bona verba die. 
Lite vacent aures, insanacjiie protinus absint 

Jurgia; differ opus, livida lingua, tuum. 
Cernis, odoratis ut luceat ignibus aether, 

Et sonet accensis spica Cilissa focis? 
Flamma nitore suo teniplorum verberat aurum, 

Et tremulum summa spargit in aede jubar. 


The temple of Janus was shut 
only once during the republic, at 
the end of the first Punic war, 
A. U. 529; three times by Augus- 
tus (^tlanum Quirinum, i, e. Tem- 
plum Jani belli potentis, tfr clau- 
sit. Suet. Aug. 22. Jujiiim Quiri- 
ni, Hor. Od. iv. 15, 9,) first after 
the battle of Actium, and the 
death of Antony and Cleopatra, 
A. U. 725. Dio. li. 20 ; a second 
time after the Cantabrian war, A. 
729, Bio. liii. 20. About the 
third time authors are not agreed. 
Some suppose this temple to have 
been built by Romulus, and only 
enlarged by Numa ; hence they 
understand Janus Quiiini, as the 
temple of Janus built by Romulus. 
Macrob. Sat. i, 9. 

71. Prospera. Happy, favor- 
able, from Gr. ■^^oripo^os, utilis. 

— Linguis, Sfc. "Ev(pnfii7ri. 
This was a customary injunction 
at sacrifices ; a word of ill omen 
spoken during their celebration 
on the kalends of January was 
supposed to influence the wbole 
succeeding year. 

72. Nunc, I'c. Now, on this 
happy day, auspicious language 
must be used. 

74. Differ, ^-c. Put off thy 
task, thou slanderous tongue. 

75. Odoratis. Sweet-scented, 
odoriferous ; from the burning of 
the incense and aromatics upon 
the altars. 

76. Sonet. Crackles. Spica. 
[from arxx,"' Police (r-ra^vi.'^ 

Spikenard, a fragrant plant which 
grows in Cilicia a province of Asia 
Minor. According to Facciolati, 
spica means the crocus, ' cujus ca- 
cumen incapiUamentaet fibra aris- 
tarum similia desinit.' The latter 
interpretation is probably the more 
correct, as Cilicia is celebrated for 
the crocus. Prima nobilitas est 
croco Cilicio, et ibi in Coryco 
monte,deinde Lycio monte Olym- 
po ; mox Centuripino Siliciae. 
Plin. 1. 21. c. 6, 20. Stat. 1. 5, 
Silv. 3, V. 41, and Fast. v. 317. 
Violas arere videres, Filaque pu- 
nicei lanijuida facta croci. Spica 
means also the chives of a flower. 

77. Verberat. Irradiates, au- 
rum, tiie gilded ceilings or the 
golden ornaments of the temples. 

Verberat. Fames, and Vatican, 
and in the following line, sparyit. 

78. Et tremulum, ^'c. Ceilings 
were frequentlv decorated with 
ivory, and fretted or lormed into 
raised work and hollows, {laqueala 
tecta, Cic. leirg. ii. I. Laqueana 
vel Lacunaria, from lacus or lacu- 
na, the hollow interstice between 
the beams, Scrv. in Viry. ^■En. I. 
726), gilt(aHrea, ibid, and Horat. 
Od. ii. 18, inanrata, Plin. xxxiii. 
3), which accounts for their re- 
flection of the altar fires ; and 
painted, Plin. xxxv. II. s. 40. 

— Jubar. F'rom juba ; Quud 
splendor diffundilur in modum 
jubcE leonis ; because light is 
scattered like a lion's inane. 


Vestibus intactis Tarpeias itur in arces ; 

Et populus festo concolor ipse suo est. 
Jamque novi pra^eunt fasces ; nova purpura fulget ; 

Et nova conspicuum pondera sentit ebur. 
Colla rudes operuni praebent ferienda juvenci, 


79 Intactis. i. e. integris. New. 
Tarpeias arces. Tlie Alons Ca- 
pitolinus, upon which the Crtpitol, 
or temple of Jupiter, was liuilt, 
was originally called Saturnius, 
from its havinij been the abode 
of Saturn. Justin, xliii. I. It 
derived the name Tarpeius, from 
Tarpeia a Vestal virgin who was 
killed tliere by the Sabines,to whom 
she had betrayed the citadel, V. 
infra. 26\,arid Liv. i. II. 38, and 
to whom subsequently that mount 
was assigned to dwell in. 

— Itur. The consuls were con- 
ducted by the senate and people, to 
be installed, to tiie Capitol, on the 
kalends of January. In the be- 
ginning of the republic, the con- 
suls had no stated lime for enter- 
ing upon their ofBce. The day first 
appointed was the 23d or 24th of 
February, (vn. or vi. Kal. Mart.) 
the day Tarquin was said to have 
been expelled. Fast. ii. 571 , which 
was held as a festival, and called 
Iiegifii(/ium ; afterwards on the 
1st of August, (Kal Sext.)wh\c\i 
was at that time the beginning of 
the year, (i. e. of the consular, not 
of the civil year, which always Ije- 
gan with January) Liv. iii. 6. In 
the time of the Lfecemviri, on the 
loth of May (Id. Maii), ib. 36. 
About 50 years after, on the 15th 
of December, ( Id. Deceinh.) Liv. 
iv. 37, v. \l. Then on the 1st of 
July, (Kal. Quinctil.) Liv. v. 32. 
viii. 20, which continued until 
near the beginning of the second 
Punic war, A. U. 530, when the 
]5th of ilarrh was the day ap- 
pointed. Finally, A. U. 598 or 
600, ( Q. Fulvio §• T. Annio 
Coss. ) it was transferred to the first 

of January (in Kal. Jan.) which 
was observed ever after. (Dies 
SoLENXis magistratibus ineun- 
dis,) Liv. Epist. 47. Fast. iii. 

80. Et populus, Sfc. Clad in new 
robes in honour of the new year, 

— • The joyous crowds 
Wear the complexion of their holiday.'— 

81. Fasces. A bundle of rods 
tied together with an axe in the 
centre ; forming an important 
part of the customary insignia of 
consular, and also dictatorial and 
praetorian authority. Purpura. 
The consular robe. 

82. Conspicuum. Perspiouum. 
Excerpt. Douz. 

— Ebur. The Sella Curulis, or 
curule chair, so called because it 
was carried in the chariots of the 
Magistratus Curules, such as the 
consuls, prwtors, censors, and chief 
sediles, to the senate-house, and the 
rostra, or tribunal of J ustice, where 
they used this seat in token of pre- 
eminence. It was a stool or seat 
without a back (anadinterium, vel 
tabulatum a tergo surgens in 
quod reclinari possitj, with four 
crooked teet, fixed to the extremi- 
ties of cross pieces of wood joined 
by a common axis, somewhat in the 
form of the letter X (^decussdtim), 
and covered with leather ; so that 
it niitrht occasionally be folded up 
for the convenience of carriage, 
and Set down wherever the magis- 
trates chose to use it, Plutarch, in 
Mar. Suet. Aug. 43. Gell. vi. 9. 
It was decorated witii ivory, hence 
called curule ebur. Horat. Ep. i. 
6, 53. It was borrowed from the 
Tuscans. Liv. i. 8 ; Hor. i. 5. 



Quos aluit campis herba Falisca suis. 
Jupiter, arce sua totum cum spectet in orbem, 85 

Nil nisi Romanum, quod tueatur, habet. 
Salve, laeta dies, meliorque revertere semper, 

A populo rerum digna potente coll. 
Quern tamen esse Deum te dicam, Jane biformis? 

Nam tibi par nullum Grrecia lumien habet. 90 

Ede simul causam, cur de ca?lestibus imus, 

Sitque quod a tergo, sitque quod ante, vides. 
Haec ego cum sumtis agitarem mente tabellis, 

Lucidior visa est, quam fuit ante, domus. 
Turn sacer ancipiti mirandus imagine Janus 95 

Bina repens oculis obtulit ora meis. 
Obstupui, sensique metu riguisse capillos ; 

Et gelidum subito frigore pectus erat. 
Ille, tenens dextra baculum, clavemque sinistra, 

Edidit bos nobis ore priore sonos : 100 

' Disce, metu posito, vates operose dierum, 

' Quod petis ; et voces percipe mente meas. 
' Me Chaos antiqui (nam res sum prisca) vocabant : 

84. Falisca. The Falisci were a 
people of Etruiia, remarkable for 
the extraordinary fertility of their 
soil. Their country was celebrated 
also for a stream which rendered 
the oxen that drank of it perfectly 

86. Nil nisi, &:c. Has nothing 
to exercise his providential rare 
upon but what is actually Ro- 
man, or under the authority of 

92. Sitque quod, Sec. Idque 
quod, drc Al. See Persius. Sat. 1. 
58. Macrobius asserts the dou- 
ble face of Janus to be symboli- 
cal of the wisdom and prudence 
which direct the future by the 
experience of the past. Saturn, 
lib. i. cap. 7. 

95. Ancipiti. Double-faced. 
[Ex am et capio quod px utraque 
parte aequo capiatur. Fest."] 

99: Baculum. To repel vio- 
lence. Clavem. To open and close 
the doors over which he, Janus, 

presided. Frequently an open arch 
or any opening was called Janus 
by the Romans. Janos arcusque 
cum quadrigis et insignibus trium- 
phonim. Sueton. in Domit. Ex 
quo transitiones pervia jatti no- 
minantur. Cicero de Nat. Deer, 
lib. 2. 

100. Ore priore. From his 
front lips, opposite the poet. 

101. Operose. In consequence 
of the task which the poet had 
selected ; celebratintr in verse the 
days of the calendar. 

10.3. Chaos. From ^au.hio, to 
gape, or x^"' X'^^do, to pour, qu. 
X^as. A confused and disordered 
mass or heap of matter which the 
poet and philosophers believed to 
have existed from eternity, 
Unus erat totu Natures cultus in 

Quern dixere chaos ; rudis indi- 
gestaque moles. 

Ovid. Metain. l,i.6. 7f 
and to have been reduced by a 



' Aspice, q\iam longi temporis acta canam. 
' Lucidus hie aer, et, quae tria corpora restant, 105 

' Ignis, aquae, tellus, unus acervus erant. 
' Ut semel haec rerum secessit lite suarum, 

' Inque novas abiit massa soluta domos ; 
' Flamma petit altum ; propior locus aera cepit ; 

' Sederunt medio terra fretumque solo. 110 

' Tunc ego, qui fueram globus, et sine imagine moles, 

' In faciem redii dignaque membra Deo. 
' Nunc quoque, confusae quondam nota parva figurae, 

' Ante quod est in me, postque, videtur idem. 
' Accipe, qusesitae quae causa sit altera formae : 115 

' Hanc simul ut noris, officiumque meum. 
' Quidquid ubique vides, caelum, mare, nubila, terras, 

supreme power to tlie order and 
harmony of the visible world. 
Hanc Deus et inelinr litem Natu- 

ra direinit Ibid. 21. 
They were not able to comprehend 
how something could be produced 
out of nothing-, and being power- 
fully struck with the beauty and 
admirable structure of the universe, 
they attributed it to a being supe- 
rior to nature, or to nature itself, 
which exercised this salutary in- 
fluence over preexistent but con- 
fused and undistinguished matter. 
According to their view, God was 
not a creator, but an architect, 
who modified the already existing 
material, and arranged the dispo- 
sition of the elements according to 
their respective qualities. This is 

strong probability that the Greeks 
borrowed their chaos from him, 
and afterwards intermixed it with 
fables of their own. Through all 
the fanciful absurdities ot the 
Greek and Latin Poets, it is easy 
to discover traces of the Mosaic 
account of the creation; from 
whose severe and sublime simpli- 
city, wide as have been their extra- 
vagant deviations, still in this, as 
in numerous other instances in the 
heathen mythology, the piercing 
light of divine truth is easily ob- 
served to break in upon the ' gross 
darkness' of profane fiction. 

— A'am res sum, ^c. Qui 
vel qua sum, Excerpt. Voss. N^am 
sum res Thuan. Sum res nam. 
Stroz. Prisca. because he existed 

the chaos of the profane writers of before the formation of the world, 
antiquity, who took Hesiodas their 105. Corpora, Nomina. Ex- 
model. See Theog. init. Hesiod, cerpt. Voss. 

again, is supposed with good rea- 107. Lite. "Silxios i| okoiio. 

son to have copied Sanchoniathon, Orpheus, Apollon. Rliod. Argon. 

who wrote his annals previous to I Quia corpore in uno, Frigida 

the Trojan war, and who boasts of pugnabant calidis, humentia siccis, 

having received his account of the ^x. Aletam. i. 17, 18, &c. 

creation from a priest of Jehovah, 
called Jeromiial. This author 
wrote in the Plioenician language, 
and we have only a translation of 
his work by Philo, which is looked 
on by the learned with consider- 
able suspicion. However, there is a 

108. Novas. New, unaccustom- 
ed. Ignea con'-exi vis et sine pon- 
dere cali, Emicuit,summaqve locum 
sibi legit in arce. Metam. i. 26. 
27. Massa. From Gr. fi.a%a. 

117. Nubila. Sidera. Excerpt 
Voss. Used here for aer. 



< Omnia sunt nostra clausa patentque manu. 
* Me penes est unum vast! custodia mimdi ; 

' Et jus vertendi cardinis omne meum est. 120 

' Cum libuit Pacem placidis emitt.ere tectis, 

' Libera perpetuas ambulat ilia vias. 
' Sanguine letliifero totus iniscebitur orbis, 

' Ni teneant rigida; condita bella serai. 
' Praesideo foribus caili cum mitibus horis. 1 ^5 

1 1 9. Custodia. Concordia. 
Editio Nea])olit. Hamb. Medic. 
Vatic, and others. 

J 20. Et jus vertendi. A simi- 
lar power is attributed to him by 
Quintus Septinni^s. 
Stridula cui limina, cui cardinei 

Cui reserata mm/iiint anrca claus- 

tra mundi. 
Cardinis means the pole or axis 
round whicb the earth is supposed 
to revolve. 

121. Pacem. When Romulus 
was engfaijed with tiie Sabines, 
near the CoUis Viminalis, a great 
(juantity of hot water, or according 
to others, of fire, is said to have 
issued from the tjround, where the 
temple of Janus afterwards 
erected, and put them to the rout. 
See infr. 270. Hence the custom 
is supposed to have orii^inated of 
opening tlie temple in time of war, 
and closing it during peace. This 
absurd legend, however, is rejected 
by the more sensible writers. See 
Spence's Polvmelis. Dial. 12 ; 
Virg. iEneid 7, 601-622. 

— Tectis. Temple. 

122. Perpetuas vias. Treads 
her uninterrupted path, free from 
the restraints of war. Per tutas 
vias, is found in many of the old 
copies, per iotas in some. Quin- 
tilian, lib. i. cap. 9. Inst. Orat. 
reckons Amhulare viam, as a sole- 
cism. However, tliere is good au- 
thoritv for the reading in the text. 
Cum Xer.xes Hellesponto juncto 
Athoque pcrfosso mnria amhnla- 
visset, terram navigasset. Cic. de 

Fin. lib. ii. Vadere is used with 
an accusative by Apuleius. Cur- 
rere viam. Prop. 1, 11, 12. Cur- 
ret iter tutum. Virg. iEneid v. 
562,Jestinare vias. Stat. Theb. ii. 
478. Ambulo is derived from Gr. 
u(fro>.i!i, which Pindar, who wrote 
in the Doric dialect, as well as 
others, used for avaToXw, which has 
the sense of avecsroifu, to turn 
bach ; hence the distinction be- 
tween jVe and r///i6«/flr«'; the former 
meaniniT to set out and continue the 
route; the latter logo a certain 
distance and return a<:ain. 

123. Miscehitur. Shall be con- 

124. Ni teneant, A'c. Unless 
the solid bolts restrain the impri- 
soned wars. 

125. Prasideo foribus. Macro- 
bius (lib. 1, Saturn.) gives as tlie 
origin of this opinion among the 
ancients, their having conceived 
Janus to be the sun, and therefore 
double-faced, as tlie Lord of the 
eastern and western gate of hea- 
ven ; the former of which he rose 
to open, and closed the latter wlien 
he set. Hence Horace applies to 
Janus the epithet matutinus. Lib. 
ii. Sat. 6. 

— Cum mitibus horis. The 
HorcE, Hours, were tliree sisters, 
daughters of Jupiter and Themis, 
according to Hesiod, called Euno- 
mia. Dice, and Irene. Some say 
there were nine sisters, others ten. 
Ui/ffin.fab. 18S. where their names 
are mentioned. They were the 
same as the seasons who presided 
over the spring, summei, and win- 



' It, redit, officio Jupiter ipse meo. 
' Inde vocor Janus ; cui ciim Cereale sacerdos 

' Imponit libum, mixtaque farra sali ; 
' Nomina ridebis ; niodo namque Patulcius idem, 

' Et modo sacrifico Clusius ore vocor. 130 

' Scilicet alterno voluit rudis ilia vetustas 

' Nomine diversas significare vices. 
' Vis mea narrata est : causam nunc disce figurae ; 

' Jam tamen banc aliqua tu quoque parte vides. 
' Omnis habet geminas bine atque bine janua frontes ; 135 

' E quibus haec populum spectat, at ilia larem. 
' Utque sedens vester primi prope limina tecti 

' Janitor egressus introitusque videt ; 
' Sic ego prospicio caelestis janitor aulae 

ter, and were represented by the 
poets as opening the gates of hea- 
ven, &c. Ovid mentions their 
standing, at equal distances, about 
the throne of Sol. Metam.ii. 26. 
Valerius Flaccus makes them at- 
tend that Deity at his setting out, 
Val. Flac. iv. 94 ; and Statins at 
liis coming in. Theb. iii. 414. As 
they all agree in making the hours 
the attendants and servants of Sol, 
it is natural that they should be 
stationed with Janus, at the gates 
of heaven, to be in readiness to 
accompany the chariots of the sun 
when setting out on his daily 
course. Gr. "ii^cci, from o^ivuv, to 
guard. Pau-san. Eliac. i. cap. ii. 
Iliad. V. 749. 

126. It, redit. Allusion seems 
to be made by these words to the 
etymology of the term Janus, 
which Cicero derives, quasi Eanus 
from eundo, De Nat. Deor. ii. 27. 

— Jupiter. The light, day. 

127. Cui cum. Mihi cum, Ber- 

— Cereale. Wheaten, lit. 
Of or belonging to Ceres. Ceres, 
the goddess of corn and husbandry, 
was the sister of Jupiter, daughter 
of Saturn and Ops. She was wor- 
shipped chiefly at Eleusis in Greece, 
and in Sicilv. Her sacred rites 

were celebrated, at the former 
especially, with the strictest 
secresy, Horat. Od. iii. 2, 27, 
and by torch-light; whence, etper 
t(pdifere mystica sacra Dcce, Ovid 
Ep. ii. 42. The wicked, scelesti, 
were excluded from them by the 
voice of the herald ; even Nero, 
when in Greece, did not dare to 
profane them. Suet. Ner. 34. 
The Libum mentioned in the text 
was called Janual, being of a spe- 
cies which was exclusively offered 
to Janus. 

129. Patulcius. From patere, 
to lie open. 

130. Clusius. From claudere, 
to shut. Ore sacrifico. By the 
lips of the priest. 

132. Vices. Duties, of opening 
and closing the temple doors. 

133. Vis. Influence and office. 

1 34. Jam tamen, S(c. Already, 
however, in some degree, you ob- 
serve this also. 

\'i~. Primi — tecti. Of the front 
of the building, where the door- 
way was. Burman, inexplan. pri- 
oris, doubting whether the word 
primi could be applied to the lower 
part of the house where the door 
was placed, and to keep up the 
contrast between the guard of a 
private house, and Janus. 


' Eoas partes, Hesperiasque simul. 140 

' Ora vides Hecates in tres vergentia partes, 

' Servet ut in ternas compita secta vias : 
' Et mihi, ne flexu cervicis tenipora perdam, 

' Cernere non moto corpora bina licet.' 
Dixerat ; et vultu, si plura requirere vellem, 145 

Se mihi difficilem non fore, fassus erat. 
Sumpsi animum, gratesque Deo non territus egi ; 

Verbaque sum spectans pauca locutns humum : 
' Die, age, frigoribus quare novus incipit annus, 

' Qui melius per ver incipiendus erat ? 150 

' Omnia tunc florent ; tunc est nova temporis aetas ; 

' Et nova de gravido palmite gemma tumet. 
' Et modo formatis amicitur vitibus arbos ; 

' Prodit et in summum seminis herba solum : 
' Et tepidum volucres concentibus aera mulcent ; ] 155 

' Ludit et in pratis, luxuriatque pecus. 
* Tum blandi soles ; ignotaque prodit hirundo, 

' Et luteum celsa sub trabe fingit opus ; 
' Tum patitur cultus ager, et renovatur aratro : 

' Haec anni novitas jure vocanda fuit.' 160 

Quaesieram multis : non multis ille moratus, 

Contulit in versus sic sua verba duos. 

141. Ora vides, ^c. Diana was US. Difficilem. Obdurate, mo- 
described by the poets as triple ; rose. 

three headed, and three bodied. 149. Die, age, Sfc. Come tell 
Ovid. Her. Ep. 12, 79. ( Med. Jas.) me why the dawning year begins 
Metam. vii. 94, Horat. Od. iii. 22, with wintry colds, which better 
4. Virg. ^neidW. 5\\. She was had begun with spring. All 
the daughter of Jupiter and Lato- things are blooming then ; then 
na. Besides the name Hecate, time is young, and the young bud 
(Gr. Ua;, longe, vel sxarav, quia is swelling on the teeming bough, 
victimis centum placaretur, vel ab The tree is just enfolded by 
"^Karos, Apollo, sicut Plicebe a the fashioned vine ; the corn- 
Phoebus. Facciol.) she had an blade clears the surface of the 
accidental one, Trivia, from her soil ; the birds, with their sweet 
statues being generally placed chirpings, soothe the genial air, 
where three ways met, in ternas, while the herds sport and revel 
^T. Her other names and occu- in the fields. The suns are tem- 
pations are comprehensively de- perate then ; the stranger swallow 
scribed in the following distich ; comes and builds beneath the 
Terret, lustrat, agit, Proserpina, lofty roof his nest of clay ; and 

Lujia, Diana, then the land submits to tillage, 

Ima, suprema, /eras, sceptro, /ul- and is renewed by the plough : 

gore, sagitta. This should be justly called the 

144. Corpore. Car din e, Vati- opening of the year, 
can. Plura licet, Petav. et Sarrav. 



' Bruma novi prima est, veterisque novissima Solis ; 

' Principium capiunt Phcebus et annus idem.' 
Postea mirabar, cur non sine litibus asset 165 

Prima dies. ' Causam percipe ;' Janus ait. 
' Tempora commisi nascentia rebus agendis ; 

' Totus ab auspicio ne foret annus iners. 
' Quisque suas artes obiter delibat agendo: 

' Nee plus quam solitum testificatur opus.' 170 

Mox ego : ' Cur, quamvis aliorum numina placem, 

' Jane, tibi primo thura merumque fero ?' 
' Ut per me possis aditum, qui limina servo, 

' Ad quoscunque velim prorsus, habere Deos.' 

* At cur laeta tuis dicuntur verba Kalendis ; 175 

' Et damns alternas accipimusque preces ?' 
Tum Deus incumbens baculo, quern dextra gerebat ; 
* Omnia principiis,' inquit, 'inesse solent. 

* Ad primam vocem timidas advertitis aures ; 

' Et visam primum consulit augur avem. 1 80 

163. Bruma, The winter sol- 
slice, towards the end of Decem- 
ber, when the days began to in- 
crease in length. 

165. Cur non, §c. Ovid asks 
why business was allowed to pro- 
ceed on the first day of the year, 
which should rather be considered 
as a dies nefastus. Lite Vacent 
aures, Sfc. see supr. 1. 73. 

167. Tempora — nascentia. The 
beginning of the year. 

168. Ab auspicio. Lest in 
conseqiience of consulting the aus- 
pices on the first day of the year, 
the rest of it might be devoted 
to a similar gratification of indo- 
lence, foret iners, to the prejudice 
of the ordinary and necessary 
business of life; or, lest there 
being no business done on that 
day, it might be ominous of inac- 
tivity throughout the year. 

169. Quisque suas, ^c. Expl. 
Each touches slightly upon the 
business of his peculiar occupa- 
tion, and so afi'ords an evidence 
{testificatur) of what the duties 
may be of his customary task 

(solitum opus). And this much 
they did on the kalends of Ja- 
nuary, not for the sake of gain, 
but rather for an omen of future 
industry and prosperity. 

172. Merumque. Precemque. 

175. Lata. On the kalends of 
January the Romans used to ex- 
press in prayers and good wishes 
their anxiety for the safety and 
welfare of their mutual friends. 
179. Timidas, Anxious,watchful. 

180. Consulit. Observes, so as 
to be enabled to interpret the au- 
gury. Augur. The Augures, an- 
tiently called Auspices, Plutarch, 
Q. Rom. 72, are supposed to have 
been instituted by Romulus, 
three in number, one to each 
tribe, Liv. x. 6, as the Haruspi- 
ces, Dionys. ii. 22. And con- 
firmed by Numa, ibid. 64. A 
fourth was added, probably by 
Servius Tullius, when he divided 
the city into four tribes. They 
derived tokens, signa, of futurity 
from five sources chiefly ; from 
appearances in the heavens, as 



* Templa patent auresque Deum : nee lingua caducas 

' Concipit ulla preces ; dictaque pondus habent.' 
Desierat paucis. Nee longa silentia feci ; 

Sed tetigi verbis ultima verba meis : 
' Quid vult palma sibi, rugosaque cariea, idixi. 185 

' Et data sub niveo Candida mella favo ?' 
' Omen,' ait, ' causa est, ut res sapor ille sequatur ; 

' Et peragat cceptum dulcis ut annus iter.' 
' Dulcia cur dentur video : stipis adjice causam, 

' Pars mihi de festo ne labet ulla tuo.' 190 

Ixisit; et, ' O quam te fallunt tua secula,' dixit, 

' Qui stipe mel sumpta dulcius esse putes ! 
' Vix ego Saturno quenquam regnante videbam, 

' Cujus non animo dulcia lucra forent. 

* Tempore crevit amor, qui nunc est summus, habendi : 195 

thunder and lightning, from the 
singing or flight of hirds, Slat. 
Theb. iii. 482, from the quantity 
eaten by chickens, from quadru- 
peds, and from uncommon acci- 
dents, called dirce or dira. The 
birds which gave omen by sing- 
ing, {oscines) were the raven, the 
crow, the owl, the cock, &c. 
Festus. Plin. x. 20, s. 22, 29, s. 
42 ; by flight (alites or prcepetes) 
were the eagle, vulture, &c. Serv. 
in Virg. ^neid iii. 361, Cic. Di- 
vin. i. 47. iVa^ Dear. ii. 64. 

181. Caducas. Incassum fusas. 
Facciol. Unheeded, uncertain, 
which do not enter the ears of the 

184. Tetigi. I touched, i. e. I 
followed the conclusion of his 
speech immediatehj with my ques- 
tion in reply. 

185. Cariea. A kind of dry 
fig, a lenten fig ; so called from 
Caria, a country in Asia Minor, 
now called Anadolia, between 
Lycia and Ionia, on the side of 
Mount Taurus. It was cele- 
brated for figs. Dates, figs, ho- 
ney, and sometimes a piece of 
coin, {slips, of the same value 
with the as,) were the usual new 
year's gifts (slrence) at Rome. 
This custom was prevalent in the 

time of Augustus. Sueton. lib. 
V. cap. 42. 

187. Ut res sapor, Sfc. That 
those gifts and their sweetness, 
might be symbols of the favorable 
course of events throughout the 

189. Stipis. Stips; from siipare, 
because they were stowed in a 
cell, not to occupy much room. 

190. Labet. May be wanting. 
Z,abo — as. 

191. O qiiam te fallunt, ^"c. 
How ignorant you are of the ha- 
bits of your own times. 

193. Saturno. Saturn, the god 
of time, was the son of Coelus or 
Uranus, and Terra or Vesta. 
Having been dethroned by his 
son Jupiter, he fled into Italy, 
and gave name to Latium by be- 
ing concealed there (a latendo"). 
He was kindly received by Janus, 
then king of that country. Un- 
der Saturn is supposed to have 
been the golden age, alluded to 
in the text, Virg. Gear. i. 125, 
which, however, does not appear 
to have been altogether divested 
of the ' auri sacra fames.' 

195. Amor habendi. So Art. 
Amat. iii. 541. Curam habendi, 
Phoedr. prolog, lib. i. Studium 
habendi, Aur. Vict. Caesar, iii. 



' Vix ultra, quo jam progrediatur, habet. 
' Phiris opes nunc sunt, quam prisci temporis annis, 

' Dum populus pauper, dum nova Roma fuit : 
• Dum casa Martigenam capiebat parva Quirinum, 

' Et dabat exiguum fluminis ulva torum. 200 

' Jupiter angusta vix totus stabat in aede ; 

' Inque Jovis dextra fictile fulmen erat. 
Frondibus ornabant, quae nunc Capitolia gemmis ; 

' Pascebatque suas ipse Senator oves. 
Nee pudor, in stipula placidam cepisse quietem, 205 

' Et fcenum capiti supposuisse, fuit. 
Jura dabat populis posito modo Consul aratro ; 

' Et levis argenti lamina crimen erat. 
At postquam fortuna loci caput extulit hujus, 

' Et tetigit summos vertice Roma Deos ; 210 

Creverunt et opes, et opum furiosa cupido ; 

' Et, cum possideant plurima, plura volunt. 
Quaerere ut absumant, absumpta requirere certant ; 

' x4Ltque ipsae vitiis sunt alimenta vices : 
Sic, qixibus intumuit sufFusa venter ab unda, 215 

' Quo plus sunt potae, plus sitiuntur aquae. 
In pretio pretium nunc est : dat census honores, 

"200. Ulva. From uligo, mois- 
ture, th. v>.r,. Weeds that grow- 
in pools and stagnant waters. 
Torum, a couch, from torquco, 
properly means matted grass. 
For Ulva, Alga Jun. Thuan. 
Herba Al. 

201. Jupiter. The statue of 
Jove. Vix totus. Scarcely 
stood erect from the contracted 
size of his temple. It is most 
probahle that allusion is made 
here to the temple of Jupiter 
Feretrius, built by Romulus, 
which was scarcely sixteen feet 
wide. Dionys, Halic. lib. ii. ov 

fiiyav iTi yao avrou ffco^irat kpy^aiov 

'iKtos, &c. Further, the statue of 
Jupiter Capitolinus was in a sit- 
ting posture, as appears from the 
coins, and also the well-known 
practice of placing a laurel branch 
in the lap of the statue on the oc- 
casion of a triumph. Dio. lib. 
Liv. By a similar argument, 

Strabo (lib. xiii.) proves the Pal- 
ladium to have been in a like 
position at Ilium, "n^»;*?,- yao, he 
%\Tites, ■rixXo)/ KiXiuii ^Biitxt 'A(r,- 

202. Fictile fulmen. An earthen 
bolt. Dextra ,- for he had his 
sceptre in his left. 

208. Levis-lamina. A small 
ingot of silver was considered a 
scandal to be possessed of. There 
was a law which confined the 
amount of property to five pounds 
of silver at the utmost. 

210. Et tetigit. So Horace; 
Sublimi feriam sidera vertice. 
Od.i. 1. 36. 

211. Opum f arioso cupido. The 
inordinate desire of wealth. 

215. Quibus. Those affected 
with dropsy. 

217. In pretio pretium — est. 

Money now is highly prized. 

Dat ccTisus honores. He touches 

here upon a complaint very com- 

c 2 



' Census amicitias ; pauper ubique jacet. 
' Tu tamen auspicium si sit stipis utile quaeris, 

' Curque juvent nostras aera vetusta manus. 220 

' vEra dabant olim ; melius nunc omen in auro est : 

' Victaque concedit prisca moneta novse. 
' Nos quoque templa juvant, quamvis antiqua probemus, 

' Aurea ; majestas convenit ista Deo. 
' Laudamus veteres, sed nostris utimur annis : 225 

' Mos tamen est aeque dignus uterque coli.' 
Finierat monitus. Placidis ita rursus, ut ante, 

Clavigerum verbis alloquor ipse Deum : 
' Multa quidem didici ; sed cur navalis in aere 

' Altera signata est, altera forma biceps ?' 230 

' Noscere me duplici posses in imagine,' dixit, 

' Ni vetus ipsa dies extenuasset opus. 
' Causa ratis superest : Tuscum rate venit in amnem 

• Ante pererrato falcifer orbe Deus. 
' Hac ego Saturnum memini tellure receptum : 235 

' Caelitibus regnis ab Jove pulsus erat. 

moti in his time. Plin. Proem. 
lib. xiv. 

•221. j^ra. The first brass 
coin (numnius vel numus ceris, a 
Numa rcge vel a vof/,os lex) was 
called AS or iES, antiently assis, 
and was of a pound weight. A 
golden coin was iirst struck at 
Rome in the second Punic war, 
in the consulship of C. Claudius 
Nero and M. Livius Salinator, 
A. U. 546, called aureus or mi- 
reus nummus, equal in value to 
twenty-five denarii. The dena- 
rius was a silver coin of the value 
of ten asses, or ten pounds of 
brass ; Deni ceris, so. asses. See 
Lanktree's Roman Antiquities, 
Book V. chap. vii. Melius nunc 
omen in auro est. Nunc jacet ws, 
aurvm in summum svccessit hono- 
rcm. Lucret. 1, 274. 

222. Moneta. So called from 
Juno Moneta, in whose temple at 
Rome the money was coined. 
She was called Moneta from 
monere, because the Romans, be- 
ing in want of money in the war 
against Pyrrhus, prayed to her 

for aid, and she advised them to 
act justly if they wished for suc- 
cess, which having obtained, they 
began to worship Juno under the 
title of Moneta, L e. consultrix, 
and decreed that the coin should 
be struck in her temple. Suidas 
in Movtira. 

225. Sed nostris, Sfc. But we 
adopt the manners of our own 

229. JVavalis. To the reason 
assigned for this in the text, may 
be added that of Draco Corcyrce- 
us, who in his treatise, n=oi Xi^euv, 
states Janus to have been the in- 
ventor of ships. See Adams' 
R. Antiquities, p. 456. 

232. Extenuasset. Damaged by 
eflfacing the impression of tlie 
coinage, opus. Vetus dies for ve- 

23-3. Tuscum. The Tiber, 
which flows through Etruria into 
the Tuscan Sea. 

234. Falcifer. Saturn, who was 
always depicted with a scythe, 
Curvam servansstib imagine falcem. 
Virg. jEneid vii. 172. 



' Inde diu genti mansit Saturnia nomen ; 

' Dicta qiioque est Latium terra, latente Deo. 
' At bona posteritas puppim servavit in a^re, 

' Hospitis adventum testificata Dei. 240 

* Ipse solum colui, cujus placidissima laevum 

' Radit arenosi Tibridis unda latus. 
' Hie, iibi nunc Roma est, incaedua silva virebat ; 

' Tantaque res paucis pascua bubus erat. 
' Arx mea collis erat, quem cultrix nomine nostro 245 

' Nuncupat haec aetas, Janiculumque vocat. 

* Tunc ego regnabam, patiens ciim terra Deorum 

' Esset, et humanis numina mista locis. 
' Nondum Justitiara facinus mortale fugarat ; 

' Ultima de Superis ilia reliquit humum. 250 

' Proque metu, populum sine vi pudor ipse regebat : 

' Nullus erat, justis reddere jura, labor. 
' Nil mihi cum bello ; pacem postesque tuebar :' 

Et clavem ostendens, ' haec,' ait, ' arma gero.' 
Presserat ora Deus. Tunc sic nostra ora resolvo, 255 

Voce mea voces eliciente Dei : 
' Cum tot sint Jani, cur stas sacratus in uno, 

241. Solum. Etruria. 

244. Tantaque res. The seat 
of so great an empire ; the site of 
so g'rand a city. 

245. Aix. Janiculum. Hanc 
Janus pater, hanc Saiurniis condi- 
dit arcem, Janicidum huic, illi 

J'uit Saturnia nomen. Viry.^neid 
viii. 337. This citadel was also 
called Antjpolis. 

245. Cultrix. Pious, religious. 

247. Tunc ego. According to 
Macrobius, Janus had a partner 
in the sovereignty of Italy, Ca- 
meses, after whom it was agreed 
mutually, that the country should 
be called Camesene, and the town 
after Janus. ./anicu/am. Macroh. 
Saturn, lib. i. cap. 7. 

— Patiens cum. Before man- 
kind iiad put the gods to flight by 
their crimes. 

248. Humanis. The deities 
were still inhabiting the earth. 

249. Justitiam. Called else- 
where Astraa ; so in Metam. 

Ultima ccelestum terras Astrcea re- 

252. Justis. Thuscis. Moret. 

257. Cum tot sint. Some ex- 
plain Jani by temples, others by 
.statues ; it is well known, how- 
ever, that Janus had but one 
principal temple at Kome, there- 
fore the tot Jani may be un- 
derstood as buildings in which 
there were thoroughfares; as 
transitiones pervicE, are also called 
Jani; (see supr. 99;) and the 
poet may be supposed to ask 
why the deity is worshipped 
in but one, when there were 
so many edifices suited to him 
in tlieir structure; his being 
bifrons inferring the necessity 
of their being pervice. There 
is no need of insisting either ou 
a plurality of statues ; the pas- 
sage in Horace, Janus summus ab 
imo, Ep. i. I. 54, meaning merely 
the street Janus from end to end ; 
medius, Sat. ii. 3, 18, the centre 



' Hie iibi juncta foris templa duobus liabes ?' 
Ille manu inulcens propexam ad pectora barbam, 

Protinus CEbalii rettulit arma Titi : 
Utque levis custos, armillis capta Sabinis, 

Ad summas Tatium duxerit arcis iter. 
' Inde, veUit mine est, per quern descenditis,' inquit, 

' Ardims in valles et fora clivus erat. 
' Et jam contigerat portam ; Saturnia cujus 

' Dempserat oppositas insidiosa seras. 
' Cum tanto veritus committere numine pugnam, 



of it. Livy mentions the Jani 
in the Forum, lib. xli. Curavit in 
his et cloacam circumducendam, et 
forum porticibus tabernisque clau- 
dendum, et Janos ires faciendos ; 
whence the learned conclude that 
the Jani are to be understood as 
marble arches, or thoroughfares 
with groined roofs. The sense 
of the passage then may be ; 
why, when there were so many 
places adapted for his reception, 
did he adhere to the temple which 
he already occupied, close, jtnicta, 
to the two Fora, duobus foris, 
the Boarium, or cattle-market 
and \.h.e Piscarium, ortish-market? 
Janus then proceeds to assign the 

258. Templa. The ground 
where this stood was called also 
Lautola ; a lavando, from the le- 
gend of the flood of hot water 
already mentioned. 

260. Titi. Titus Tatius was 
king of the Sabines, and con- 
ducted the war against Romulus. 
He was called QSbalius, from 
Q^balus, who gave the name 
ffibalia to Laconia, from whence 
a colony had come and settled 
among the aboriginal Sabines. 

261. Levis custos. The faith- 
less guard. Tarpeia, the daugh- 
ter of Tarpeius, who commanded 
the Roman citadel, caugiit, it is 
said, with the beauty of the brace- 
lets which the Sabines wore upon 
their left arms, bargained for them 
by betraying the citadel. 

262. Arcis. The Capitol was 
called Arx, (ab nrceo quod is sit 
locus munitissimus urbis, a quo 
facillime possit hostis prohiberi, 
Varr. L. L. iv. 32, vel ab ax^; 
summus ;) because it was the 
highest part of the city, and 
strongly fortified. See Lanktree's 
Rom. Antiq. p. 14. 

263. Per qvem desc. Per qua: 
desc. Excerpt. Kloek. descendi- 
mus. Excerpt. Voss. 

264. Clivus. From Gr. kXitI; 
JBo). x.Xi'rhs, declivitas, a slope. 

265. Portam. The Porta Vi- 
minalis ; so called from the thick- 
ets of osiers which grew there, 
(vimineta) Varr. L. 1j. iv. 8. Juve- 
nal iii. 71, or Fagutalis, from the 
circumstance mentioned in the 

— Saturnia. Juno ; the 
possessive for the patronymic. 
She was the daughter of Saturn, 
and sister and wife of .Tupiter. 
Her enmity against the Romans 
was owing to their Trojan origin. 
See Virg. JEneid i. 25—6, and 
the fated overthrow of her fa- 
vorite Carthage by the Roman 
arms ; Progeniem sed cnim Tro- 
jano a sanguine duci Audicrut 

Tyrias olim qua vertcret arces 


266. Seras. Bolts. Qu. from 
ff'wa., catena, a chain. 

267. Tanto. Juno, who was so 
prone to the gratification of her 
passion for revenge. 



' Ipse meae movi callidus artis opus : 
' Oraque, qua pollens ope sum, fontana reclusi ; 

' Sumque repentinas ejaculatus aquas. 270 

' Ante tamen gelidis subjeci sulphura venis ; 

' Clauderet ut Tatio t'ervldus humor iter. 
' Cujus ut utilitas pulsis percepta Sabinis, 

' Quaeque fuit, tuto reddita forma loco est : 
' Ara mihi posita est parvo conjuncta sacello ; 275 

' Haec adolet flammis cum strue farra suis.' 
' At cur pace lates, motisque recluderis armis ?' 

' Nee mora, qusesiti reddita causa mihi. 
' Ut populo reditus pateant ad bella profecto, 

' Tota patet dempta janua nostra sera. 280 

' Pace fores obdo, ne qua discedere possit : 

' Caesareoque diu nomine clausus ero.' 
Dixit ; et, attollens oculos diversa tuentes, 

Aspexit toto quidquid in orbe fuit. 
Pax erat ; et vestri, Germanice, causa triumph! 285 

Tradiderat famulas jam tibi Rhenus aquas. 

268. Mea Callidus artis opus. 
Calliditatis opetn. Thuan. Moret 

— Movi. I attempted an 
exploit peculiar to my office or 
profession, i. e. of opening and 
shutting. Opus, from iva facio. 
Artis, from a^im, by sync, vir- 

269. Oraque, S^'c. I opened, by 
the power through which I pre- 
vail, the fountain springs, &c. 

271. Gelidis, Mediis. Bur- 

— Subjeci. I mingled, sul- 
phura, sulphur, (qu. oXziru^, from 
oXoi, totus, and vZ^, ignis, or from 
sal and -ar.) to make the water 
boil. De calido sulphure fumat 
aqua. Ovid. Veiiis. Vena is pro- 
perly applied to metal and stone, 
&c. ; here it means a rill of water. 
Ne male foecundse vena periret 
aquae. Ovid. Trist. 

27-2. Clauderet, Sfc. That the 
boiling flood might check the 
passage of Tatius. 

274. Quaque fuit, Sfc. The 
appearance of the whole place was 
restored to what it was. 

275. Ara mihi posita. Ponitur 
ara mihi, Heins. 

— Sacello. Sacellum, or 
.^dicula, was a small temple or 

276. Adolet. Consumes. Strues 
-is, from struo, a species of cake. 
Fest. Jano struera commoveto. 
Catull. Farra. Farrea liba ; mol/B 
salsa ; cakes made of salt, water, 
and flour. Suis. Spontaneous. 

'ill. Lates. Are you concealed, 
i. e. by the closing of the temple. 
Metis. Whoever was appointed 
to the conduct of the war, en- 
tered the temple of Mars, and 
shook the shield and spear of the 
Deity, crying out ' Mars vigila* — 
awake ! 

282. Nomine. Niimine. Francof. 

— Clausus. See note 67. 

283. Diversa. Before and be- 

286. Rhenus. By Rhenus, we 
are to understand those who in- 
habited Germany on the Rhine ; 
the scene of the conquests of 
Drusus. Germanicus triumphed 
over the Cherusci, Cbatti, and 



Jane, face aeternos, Pacem, Pacisque ministros ; 
Neve suiim, praesta, deserat auctor opus. 


Quod tamen ex ipsis licuit mihi discere Fastis, 

Sacravere Patres hac duo templa die. 290 

Accepit Phoebo Nymphaque Coronide natum 
Insula, dividua quam premit amnis aqua. 

Jupiter in parte est ; cepit locus unus utrumque : 
Junctaque sunt magno templa nepotis avo. 


Quid vetat et Stellas, ut quaeque oriturque caditque, 

Dicere ? promissi pars fuit ista mei. 
Felices animae, quibus haec cognoscere primis, 

Inque demos superas scandere cura fuit ! 
Credibile est illis pariter vitiisque locisque 

Altius humanis exseruisse caput. 



Angrivarii, A. U. 769. Famulas 
aquas. Its subservient waters, 

287. Ministros. Obviously 
Tiberius and Germanicus ; but 
it may be easily inferred that 
Augustus, who was still living 
when the triumph was decreed to 
the two former, was included in 
this prayer of the poet for the 
immortality of the ministers of 

288. Prasta. Grant that the 
founder may not abandon (dese- 
rat) his office, i. e. by death. 

290. Hac die. On the kalends 
of January. Duo templa. One 
to Jupiter, the other to ^scula- 
pius, who was the son of Apollo 
and the nymph Coronis, called 
also Arsinoe, daughter of Phle- 
gias, or according to some, of 
Leucippus. She was slain by 
Apollo, who was informed of 
her intriguing with Ischis, son of 
Elatus of Thessaly, by a raven. 
He took .iEsculapius from her 
womb alive, and gave him in 
charge to Cliiron the centaur, 

who instructed his pupil in me- 
dicine, &c. The raven's feathers 
are said to have then been chang- 
ed from their original white to 
black, in sign of mourning for the 
death of the nymph. 

292. Insula. An island which 
the river ( Tiber) encloses with 
its divided stream. 

293. Jupiter in parte est. A 
temple upon the same island was 
consecrated to Jupiter. In parte, 
may signify to occupy a share of, 
or the half. 

296. Promissi. Propositi. Al. 
See 1. 2, supr. 

207. Felices anima. Animos. 
Voss. Arund. and others. Animos 
or animas Heins. Quibus, SfC, 

299. Credibile est, ^c. It is to 
be supposed that those who made 
the heavens the subject of their 
studious contemplation, were 
raised in thought, by their aspir- 
ings after celestial knowledge, 
equally above the crimes as the 
localities of earth. 



Non venus et vinum sublimia pectora fregit, 

Officiumve fori, militiaeve labor. 
Nee levis ambitio, perfusaque gloria fuco, 

Magnarumve fames solicitavit opum. 
Admovere oculis distantia sidera nostris ; 

^theraque ingenio supposuere suo. 
Sic petitur caelum ; non ut ferat Ossan Olympus, 

Summaque Peliacus sidera tangat apex. 
Nos quoque sub ducibus caelum metabimur illis, 

Ponemusque suos ad stata signa dies. 
Ergo ubi nox aderit Venturis tertia Nonis, 

Sparsaque caelesti rore madebit humus : 
Octipedis frustra quaerentur brachia Cancri ; 

Praeceps occiduas ille subivit aquas. 



301. Sublimia. " To heaven 
erect." Sublimis qu. supra limum. 
A very interesting discussion 
upon the subject of this etymo- 
logy is to be found in the Ap- 
pendix to Stewart's Philosophi- 
cal Essays. Fregit. Has brought 
low, weakened. Compare Horat. 
lib. ii. sat. 2. 77 — quin corpus 
onustum, Hesternis vitiis animum 
quoque prsegravat una, Atque 
affigit humo diviuae particulam 

303. Fuco. Overspread with 
paint, and therefore deceptive. 
Fucus. lit. The herb red alkanet 
or elkanet, which was used for 
rouge and also for dyeing. 

304. Fames. Furor Voss. 

306. JEtheraque, ^c. Brought 
the visible heavens, as it were, 
within the scope of their intel- 
lectual powers. 

307. Sic petitur calum. Thus 
heaven is won ; not by such ef- 
forts as those of Otus and Ephi- 
altes, who fried to reach the skies 
by the means alhided to in the 
text. Ter sunt conati imponere 
Pelio Ossam, Scilicet, atque Osscd 

frondosum involvere Oli/mpum. 
Virg. Geor. i. 281. Ossa, now 
called Kissovo, Pelion, now called 
Plesnid, and Olympus, which still 
retains its ancient name, were 
high mountains in Thessaly. 

310. Ponemusque, Sfc. We shall 
arrange their own peculiar days 
according to the appointed celes- 
tial signs. 

311. Ubi nox. That is, three 
nights before the nones of Janu- 

312. Rore. The morning dew. 
Madescit, madescet Heins. 

313. Frustra. Because on the 
third day of January, towards sun 
rise. Cancer sets cosmically. 
Cancer, the Crab, is said to have 
been enrolled among the constel- 
lations by the kindness of Juno, 
after he had been crusiied by 
Hercules, whose foot he had 
bitten while engaged in combat 
witli the Hydra in the marshes of 
Lerna. Hygin. Fab. 

314. Aquas. Because of the 
stars appearing, when they set, 
to sink into the sea. 




Institerint Nonae ; missi tibi nubibus atris 315 

Signa dabunt imbres, exoriente Lyra. 


QuATUOR adde dies ductis ex ordine Nonis, 

Janus Agonali luce piandus erit. 
Nominis esse potes succinctus causa minister, 

Hostia ceelitibus quo feriente cadit : 320 

Qui calido strictos tincturus sanguine cultros, 

Semper, ' Agone ?' rogat ; nee nisi jussus agit. 
Pars, quia non veniant pecudes, sed agantur, ab acta 

Nomen Agonalem credit habere diem. 
Pars putat hoc festum priscis AgnaUa dictum ; 325 

Una sit ut proprio Uttera dempta loco. 
An, quia praevisos in aqua timet hostia cultros. 

315. Institerint nana. When 
the nones have arrived. 

316. Signa dabunt imbres — 
(Sign. d. Nonce Al. and Nonce 
signa dabunt.) The rain and 
storms announce the arrival of 
the nones, on which Lyra, called 
also ' fidicula,' rises heliacally. 
Lyra- Supposed to be the lyre 
•with which Orpheus charmed the 
Manes in his descent to Hell. 

3l~.Quatuoraddc,^-c. Add four 
days to the none» (gone by in order, 
l^s;?;) which brings us to the fifth 
of the ides, or the ninth of Jan. 
See the Kalendarium, in which it 
sViall also appear that the Romans 
counted backwards, owing to 
their computing the day of the 
month by finding its rfi'stence from 
the kalends, nones, or ides follow- 
ing ; for example, the 2d of Jan. 
was quarto notias, or quarto nona- 
rum Jan. i. e. the fourth day before 
the nones; Jan. the 6th was octavo 
idus, the eighth day before the 
ides, and Jan. l4th, was undevig. 
kal. Feb. the nineteenth day be- 
fore the kalends of February. 

318. Agonali luce. On the 

Agonalian day; the festival on 
which the Agonia, or victim kcit, 
lio'/^Vit, the finest of the flock was 
sacrificed to Janus. The etymo- 
logies of the term agonalis, are 
given in the succeeding lines. 

319. Succinctus. Tightly girt, 
to be the less embarrassed in the 
performance of the sacrifice. 
Nominis, Sfc. You, well -girded 
priest, may be the origin of this 
phrase, beneath whose blows the 
victim falls in honour of the gods. 
Minister. The Rex sacrificulus. 

322. Agone. Do I strike ? 
Varro approves of this as the 
word that gave name to the rite. 

325. Agnalia. This conjecture 
appears more ingenious than pro- 
bable, for it was not a lamb, agna, 
that was off'ered upon tliis occa- 
sion, but a ram, aries, and that 
too the best of the flock. 

327. Timet. 'A.yuvtiu\& the Gt. 
for the metu angor of the Latins, 
and synonymous with timet in the 
text; hence the poet ofFersauother 
probable derivation. 

— Aqua. The water used for 
ablutions at the sacrifices. 



A pecoris lux est ista notata metu ? 
Pars etiam, fieri solitis aetate priorum 

Nomina de ludis Graia tulisse diem. 330 

Et pecus antiquis dicebat Agonia sermo : 

Veraque judicio est ultima causa meo. 
Utque ea nunc certa est ; ita Rex placare sacrorum 

Numina lanigerae conjuge debet ovis. 
Victima, quae dextra cecidit victrice, vocatur ; 335 

Hostibus a domitis hostia nomen habet. 
Ante, Deos homini quod conciliare valeret, 

Far erat, et puri lucida mica salis. 
Nondum pertulerat lacrymatas cortice myrrhas 

329. Pars etiam, ^-c. Some too 
believe that the day derived a 
Grecian title from games that 
used to be celebrated in the days 
of their forefathers. 

330. Graia. 'Aydv, certamen ; 
Hercules is said to have instituted 
the Ludi Agonalcs in Elis. 

331. Et pecus, ^-e. The ancient 
dialect called a victim, agonia ; to 
which Ovid gives the preference 
as the origin of the term in ques- 

333. Rex — sacrorum. The Rex 
sacrificulus ; a priest appointed 
by direction of the consul Brutus, 
after the expulsion of Tarquin, 
to perform the sacred rites, which 
formerly were the province of the 
kings themselves. It was an 
office of trivial importance, and 
subject to the Pontifex Maximus, 
as the other priests were, Xz'y. ii. 
2, Dionj/s. iv. 74, v. 1. Before 
any one was admitted to this 
priesthood, he was obliged to re- 
sign whatever other office he was 
engaged in, Liv. xl. 52. His wife 
was called Regina, Macroh. Suet. 
i. 1 5, and his house anciently iiegria, 
Serv. in Virg. uS^neid, viii. 363. 

335. Victima, ^-c. In this and 
the following lines the poet gives 
the origin of the terms victima, 
and hostia ; the former being so 
called from dextra victrix, the 
victorious right-hand of a con- 

queror ; the latter, hostibus amo- 
tis, from the repulse of an enemy. 
Amotis, A domitis A\. 

337. Ante. Formerly; before the 
Roman empire had attained to the 
height of its splendourand fame. 

338. Mica. From Gr. fiUxo;, 
Dor. for fiix^o;, parvus. A crumb 
or grain. Salt was held in great 
veneration by the ancients. The 
table, at their feasts, was always 
consecrated by setting on it the 
images of the Lares and salt- 
holders, (salinorum appositu) Ar- 
nob. ii. It was used in their sa- 
crifices, Horat. Od. iii. 23, 20 ; 
Plin. xx\i. 7, s. 41. So Moses 
likewise ordained, Levit. ii. 13. 
It appears to have been used as 
generally by the ancient Romans, 
and for the same purposes (Plin. 
ib. Horat. Sat. ii. 2, 17), as cress- 
es (nasturtium) were by the an- 
cient Persians. The family salt- 
cellar (/)«^ern?«H saZ/n «wi sc. vas) 
was preserved with great care, 
Horat. Od. ii. 16, 14. Et pur Hue. 
Et liquidi luc. A\. 

339. Lacrymatas cort. myrr. 
Myrrha is a sweet gum which 
drops from the rind (cortice) of a 
tree of the same name. Lacry- 
matas, Wept from ; — uc-ti ttiuxivoii 
Saxgy — Eurip. Med. 1197, 

" Drop tears as fast as the Arabian trees 
Their medicinal gum." 

Shaks. Othello. 



Acta per aequoreas hospita navis aquas. 340 

Thura nee Euphrates, nee miserat India costum, 

Nee fuerant rubri cognita fila croci. 
Ara dabat fumos herbis contenta Sabinis, 

Et non exiguo laurus adusta sono. 
Si quis erat, factis prati de flore coronis 345 

Qui posset violas addere, dives erat. 
Hie, qui nunc aperit percussi viscera tauri, 

In sacris nullum culter habebat opus. 
Prima Ceres avidae gavisa est sanguine porcae, 

Ulta suas merita caede nocentis opes. 350 

Nam sata vere novo teneris lactentia succis 

Eruta setigerge comperit ore suis. 
Sus dederat poenas : exemplo territus hujus 

Palmite debueras abstinuisse, caper. 
Quem spectans aliquis dentes in vite prementem, 355 

Talia non tacito dicta dolore dedit : 
' Rode, caper, vitem ; tamen hinc, ciim stabis ad aram, 

Cortice, from corium and tego, 
because the bark covers, tegit, 
the tree like a hide, corium. For 
Myrrha, see Ovid. Melam. x.fab. 
9. Her story has also furnished 
Alfieri with a subject for one of 
his finest trasedies. 

340. Hospita. Foreign. 

341. Thura. From Gr. ^««, 
suffio, to perfume. — Frankincense, 
from Saba in Arabia Felix. Eu- 
phrates. From Gr. lu^pocLiviiv, to 
delight. A celebrated river of 
Mesopotamia, flowing eastward 
of Arabia Felix, into the Sinus 
Persicus. According to Strabo, 
it rises in Niphates, a mountain 
in Armenia, where some authors 
suppose the source of the Tigris 
to lie also. The stores of the 
east were conveyed by the Eu- 
phrates to other nations. Costum. 
— us, i. f. and um, i. n. Zeodary, 
a species of shrub that grows in 
Syria and Persia, whose root has 
a strong aromatic smell. 

342. Fila. Filaments, fibres. 
See note 76, supr. 

343. Herbis — Sabinis. The 
Herba Sabina, Savin, a shrub in 

its form and mode of growing, 
bearing a resemblance to the cy- 

344. iVow exiguo. Because the 
leaves of the laurel or bay crackled 
in the fire ; the louder they did so 
the more favorable the omeu was 

345. Factis. Plexis Al. Pactis 
Burm. as Pliii. xxi. I. Pactilis 
corona ; — Mplectilis be not the pro- 
per reading. 

348. iV«Z/«7n. Because the gods 
were not wont to be appeased with 
gifts, but sacrifices. 

350. Ulta, Sfc. Avenging the 
ruin of her property by the merited 
death of the trespasser. Ovid 
Pont. ii. 9, 30. Metam. xv. iii. 

351. Teneris lactentia succis. 
Swelling with young milky juices. 
Succis, from suyo, to suck. Many 
of the best copies read suku!. 

352. Suis. Sus, from Gr. Is, 
(fv;, or iv;, which is the more an- 
cient form, from ^ua, to sacrifice ; 
whence Varro concludes that the 
sow was the first animal used in 

357. Hinc. Hence, i. e. out of 



' In tua quod spargi cornua possit, erit.' 
Verba fides sequitur ; noxae tibi deditus hostis 

Spargitur aftViso cornua, Bacche, mero. 
Culpa sui nocuit, nocuit quoque culpa capellae: 

Quid bos, quid placidae commeruistis oves ? 
Flebat Aristaius, quod apes cum stirpe necatas 

Viderat inceptos destituisse favos. 
Caerula queni genitrix aegre solata dolentem, 

Addidit lia;c dictis ultima verba suis : 
* Siste, puer, lacrymas. Proteus tua damna levabit ; 

' Quoque niodo repares, quae periere, dabit. 
' Pecipiat ue te versis tamen ille figuris, 



the vine, shall come what may be 
sprinkled on your horns when you 
shall stand by the altar; — in allu- 
sion to the practice of pouring out 
wine between the horns before 
the victim was killed. 

359. Verba, Sfc. Truth attends 
the words, i. e. they are verified 
by the result. Noxa. For punish- 
ment; in consequence of his of- 
fence. Cum lex jubet noxse de- 
dere, pro peccato dedi jubet. Fes- 
tus. Hostis. Because of his de- 
stroying the vines. 

361. Culpa sui nocuit, ^c. Her 
crime was fatal to the sow, &c. 

363. Flebat Aristaus. Having 
explained why sows and goats were 
offered up as victims to the deities, 
whose anger they had pi'ovoked, 
the poet proceeds to account for 
the sacrificing of oxen and unof- 
fending sheep, placidcE oves. Aris- 
taeus was the son of Apollo and 
the nymph Gyrene, daughter of 
Peneus, a river of Thessaly ; he 
■was born in the desarts of Lybia, 
and reared by the Seasons, who 
fed him on nectar and ambrosia. 
After he had travelled over the 
greatest portion of the world, he 
settled in Greece, where he mar- 
ried Autonoe, the daughter of Cad- 
mus, by whom he had a son, Ac- 
taeon. He became enamoured of 
Eurydice, the wife of Orpheus,who 

in flying from him was stung by a 
serpent and died, in consequence 
of which, the gods destroyed all 
his bees. In his distress, he ap- 
plied to his mother for counsel, 
who directed liim to seize the sea- 
god, Proteus, and force him to tell 
how his losses might be repaired. 
The result is described in the test. 
See Virg. Georg. iv. 317. Quod 
apes, Sfc. Because he had seen 
that the bees, destroyed utterly, 
with their whole stock, had aban- 
doned the comb they had begun to 
build. Cum stirpe necat. Cum 
prole necat. Francof. 

36.3. Carula. Marine. Qu. 
ccelulus, from caelum. Cceruleos 
habet unda Decs. Ovid. Metam. 
JEijre. Scarcely. 

3G7. Proteus. A sea deity, son 
of Oceanus and Tethys, or accord- 
ing to some of Neptune and Phoe- 
nice. He received the gift of pro- 
phecy from Neptune, because he 
tended the monsters of the ocean. 
He usually resided in the Carpa- 
thian Sea, and like the other sea 
deities, often reposed on the shore, 
where those who wished to consult 
him, generally resorted. He v/as, 
however, difiicult of access, and 
used to assume a great variety of 
shapes to elude his inquirers. He 
is said to have been consulted also 
by Menelaus and Hercules. 



' Impediant geminas vincula firma manus/ 370 

Pervenit ad vatem juvenis ; resolutaque somno 

Alligat aequorei brachia capta senis. 
Ille sua faciem transformis adulterat arte : 

Mox domitus vinclis in sua membra redit. 
Oraque ca?rulea tollens rorantia barba ; 375 

' Qua,' dixit, ' repares arte, requiris, apes ? 
' Obrue mactati corpus tellure juvenci : 

' Quod petis a nobis, obrutus ille dabit.' 
Jussa facit })astor ; fervent examina putri 

De bove ; mille animas una necata dedit. 380 

Poscit ovem fatum ; verbenas improba carpsit, 

Quas pia Dis ruris f erre solebat anus. 
Quid tuti superest, animam cum ponat in aris 

Lanigenmique pecus, ruricolaeque boves ? 
Placat equo Persis radiis Hyperiona cinctuni, 385 

Ne detur celeri victima tarda Deo. 
Quod semel est triplici pro virgine caesa Dianae, 

370. Vincula firma manus. 
Vine. dura. man. Excerpt. KJoek. 

373. Ille sua, Sfc. He, trans- 
formed, chanj^es his appearance by 
his craft. Adulterat, from adulter, 
which is compounded of ad and 
alter, the term meaning ad alterum 
vel alteram ire. 

377. Obrue mactati, Sfc. Bury 
in the ground the carcass of a 
slauffhtered ox. 

378. Dabit. The impression 
was very prevalent among the an- 
cients, that the effect mentioned 
in the text should result from 
employing similar means. 

379. Fervent examina, §"C. 
Swarms burst forth from the putrid 
ox : one life destroyed gave ex- 
istence to a thousand. 

381. Poscit ovem fatum. The 
sheep also was demanded for the 
sacrifice. Verbenas improba, Sfc. 
It wantonly cropped the vervain 
which a devout old woman used to 
offer to the rustic deities. Verbe- 
nas, qu. herbenas, from herba. It 
is used to signify all sacred leaves, 
as laurel, olive, myrtle, rosemary, 

and other sweet herbs wherewith 
the altars were decorated. 

382. Dis ruris. Bacchus, Ceres, 

385. Placat equo, §-c. The 
Persian appeases with a horse Hy- 
perion girded with rays, that a 
slow-footed victim may not be of- 
fered to a nimble god. Hyperiona, 
a son of Coelus and Terra ; mar- 
ried to Thea, by whom he had 
Aurora, the sun and moon. Hy- 
perion is often taken by the poets, 
as in the text, for the sun itself. 

387. Quod semel, Sfc. Because 
a hind was once sacrificed to the 
too the hind falls, but not instead 
of any. Triplici. See note, 141, 
supr. Virgine. Iphigenia, daugh- 
ter of Agamemnon and Clytem- 
nestra. The Greeks on their route 
to Troy were detained at Aulisby 
contrary winds, for which the 
soothsayers accounted from the 
anger of Diana, at the loss of a 
favorite stag killed by Agamemnon. 
Chalcas declared that the goddess 
would only be appeased by the 



Nunc quoque pro nulla virgine cerva cadit. 
Exta canum vidi Triviae libare Sapseos ; 

Et quicunque tuas accolit, Haeme, nives. 390 

Intactse fueratis, aves, solatia ruris ; 

Assuetum silvis innocuumque genus : 
Quae facitis nidos, quae plumis ova fovetis, 

Et facili dulces editis ore modos. 
Sed nihil istajuvant ; quia linguae crimen habetis, 395 

Dique putant mentes vos aperire suas. 
Nee tamen id falsum ; nam, Dis ut proxima quaeque, 

Nunc penna veras, nunc datis ore notas. 
Tuta diu volucrum proles, turn denique caesa est ; 

Juveruntque Deos indicis exta sui. 400 

Ergo seepe suo conjux abducta marito 

Uritur in calidis alba columba focis. 
Nee defensa juvant Capitolia, quo minus anser 

sacrifice of Iphigenia, to which 
her father was with difficulty pre- 
vailed on to consent. When the 
sacrifice was about to be performed 
Iphigenia disappeared, and a hind, 
or according to others, a goat, was 
found in her place, with which the 
goddess was content, and liberated 
the fleet. 

388. Pro mdla. For there was 
no longer a virgin to be redeemed. 

389. Canum. Dogs are said to 
have been sacrificed to Diana, be- 
cause their barking scared away 
the ghosts and spectres which she 
sent on earth. Vidi. Probably 
when he was a wandering exile in 
Thrace, to which frequent allusion 
is made in the ' Tristia.' Sapoeos. 
A people of Thrace, near Abdera, 
called also Sintii, and Saii. 

390. HcEme, A high mountain 
which separates Thrace fromThes- 
saly. It receives its name from 
Hsemus, son of Boreas and Orith- 
yia, who married Rhodope, and 
was changed into this mountain 
for aspiring to divine honours. 
There is little doubt, however, but 
tlj^t the poet alludes here to the 
city Zerinthus, and the cave of 
Hecate, called also ' Cauis antrum,' 

in the neighbourhood of this moun- 
tain. He mentions this place in 
the * Tristia,' and Suidas states 
that dogs were the ordinary sacri- 
fice there to Hecate or Diana. 

391. Intacta. Unharmed. The 
poet now proceeds to account for 
the sacrifice of birds. 

394. Et facili, Sfc. And warble 
sweet measures from your ready 

395. Quia linguce, SfC. Because 
you are accused of utterance, and 
the gods believe that you dis- 
close their purposes. Nor is this 
without reason; for aseachis most 
familiar with the gods, now by 
your wings (sc. prapetes), now by 
your tongues (sc. oscines), you 
give true tokens of their will. 

400. Indicis... sui. Of their 

401. Ergo sape, 8fC. Therefore 
oft, the snowy, wedded dove, torn 
away from her mate, is burned 
upon the glowing altars, i. e. of 

403. Nee defe.7isa juvant. When 
Rome was taken by the Gauls, 
Marcus Manlius, with a body of 
his countrymen, retired into the 
Capitol, which was attacked sud- 
D 2 



Det jecur in lances, Inachi lauta, tuas. 
Nocte Dese Nocti cristatus caeditur ales, 
Q,udd tepidum vigili provocat ore diem. 



Interea Dolphin clarum super aequora sidus 
Tollitur ; et patriis exerit ora vadis. 


PosTERA lux hiemem medio discrimine signal : 
iEquaque praeteritae, quae superabit, erit. 


denly in the night time by the 
enemy ; their approach was dis- 
covered by the cackling of some 
geese which were kept in the tem- 
ple of Juno, and they were suc- 
cessfully repulsed. Geese were 
ever after held sacred among the 

404. Inachi. — is, idis. f. A 
patronymic of lo or Isis, daughter 
of Inachus, theson of Oceanusand 
Tethys, and founder of the king- 
dom of Argos, to one of whose 
rivers he gave his name. lo or 
Isis was esteemed a divinity by the 
Egyptians, and her priests usually 
feasted upon geese and ox-flesh ; 
the livers of the former were ac- 
counted a gi'eat delicacy, to which 
allusion may be made in the word 
lauta. Inache laute, Excerpt. 

405. Nocti. Nox, one of the 
most ancient deities of the hea- 
thens, was the daughter of Chaos. 
From her union with her brother 
Erebus she gave birth to the Day 
and the Light. She was also the 
mother of the Parcse, Hesperides, 
Dreams, Discord, Death, Momus, 
&c. She had a celebrated statue 

in Diana's temple at Ephesus. 
Cristatus — aks. The cock, which 
was sacrificed to Nox for the rea- 
son stated in the text. 

407. Interea. On the Agona- 
lian day; the fifth of tbe ides. 
Delphin. According to some, tiiis 
was the dolphin that carried Arion 
the famous lyric poet and musician 
to Toenarus, when he was thrown 
into the sea by the sailors, who 
wished to get possession of the 
riches which he had accumulated 
on his travels, and which he in- 
tended to carry home to his native 
island, Lesbos. See Fast. ii. 79 — 
118. Others say that the dolphin 
was ranked among the constella- 
tions by Neptune, in gratitude for 
his success in persuading Amphi- 
trite, who was unwilling at first, to 
become the bride of that deity. 

408. Patriis .. .vadis. From his 
native seas. Exerit ora, i. e. exo- 
ritiir, rises. 

409. Postera. The fourth of the 
ides ; the tenth of January ; see 
the Kalendarjum, Hyemem, &c. 
Divides the winter, and the re- 
maining portion shall be equal to 
the past. 




Proxima prospiciet Tithono Aurora relicto 

Arcadiae sacrum pontificale Deae. 
Te quoque lux eadeni, Tumi soror, aede recepit ; 

Hie ubi Virginea Campus obitur aqua. 
Unde petam causas horum, moremque sacrorum ? 415 

Diriget in medio quis mea vela freto ? 
Ipsa mone, quae nomen habes a carmine ductum ; 

411. Proxima. The third of the 
ides; the eleventh of January. 

— Aurora. Qu. aurea kora, 
from the golden hue of the sky at 
sunrise. The goddess Aurora was 
the daughter of Hyperion and Thia 
or Thea, or according to others, of 
Titan and Terra. She became 
enamoured, from his great beauty, 
of Tithonus,the son of Laomedon, 
king of Troy, by Strymo, the 
daughter of the river Scamander ; 
and took him with her to heaven. 
She brought him two sons, Mem- 
non and ^mathion. Hesiod. 
Theoy. 984. Herat. Od. i. 28. ii. 
16. Aurora. Nupta, Heins. and 

412. Arcadia, Sec. This was 
the festival called Carmentalia, in 
honour of Carmenta, a prophetess, 
the mother of Evander, king of 
Arcadia, who was obliged to leave 
his country, by the express com- 
mand of the gods, and having ar- 
rived in Italy deprived the Abori- 
gines of their ancient possessions, 
and reigned in that part of the 
country where Rome was after- 
wards founded. Carmenta was 
called also Themis and Nicostrata. 
Her festival was celebrated with 
peculiar pomp, sacrum pontijlcale, 
by the Pontitices themselves. Dio- 
nysius mentions the Romans hav- 
ing dedicated an altar to her at 
the Porta Carraentalis, (quam 
memorant NymphcE priscum Car- 
mentis honor em, jEn. viii. 239.) 
And Plutarch that she had a tern» 

pie in the Forum which was con- 
secrated to her by the Roman ma- 
trons. The day on which the 
Carmentalia were held, was a 
dies intercisus, see N. 49, or half- 
holiday, for after mid-day it was 
considered a dies profestus, a com- 
mon work day. 

413. Tumi soror. Juturna, 
daughter of Daunus, sister of 
Turnus, king of the Rutuli, whom 
Jupiter requited with immortality 
for the loss of her chastity. Virg. 
JEneid, xii. 878. ^de. This tern, 
pie was in the Campus Martius, 
near the Virgin's aqueduct. 

414. Virginea. According to 
P. Victor, there were twenty aque- 
ducts at Rome; others allow only 
fourteen. They were named after 
the individual constructing them, 
the place from which the water 
was brought, or some other cir- 
cumstances ; thus Aqua Claudia, 
Appia, Nervia, §-c. Virginea 
aqua. ( Virgineus liquor, Ovid. 
Pont. i. 8. 38.) So called, be- 
cause a girl pointed out certain 
rills, which the workmen follow- 
ing found a great quantity of wa- 
ter, Frontin ; but others account 
for it differently. Plin. xxxi. 3. 
Cassiodor. vii. Epist. 6. Made by 
Agrippa, Dio. liv. 14, as several 
others were. Suet. Aug. 42. Dio. 
xlviiif32. xlix. 14, 42. 

416. Diriget. Porriget, Got- 
torph. ZJj'n'^af, Burm. Seesupr. 4. 

417. Qua nomen. Besides the 
etymology given in the text, Car- 



Propositoque fave, ne tuus erret honos. 
Orta prior Luna (de se si creditur ipsi) 

A magno tellus Arcade nomen habet. 
Hie fuit Evander ; qui, quanquam clarus utroque, 

Nobilior sacra2 sanguine matris erat. 
Quae, simul sethereos animo conceperat ignes, 

Ore dabat vero carmina plena dei. 
Dixerat haec nato motus instare sibique ; 

Multaque praeterea. Tempore nacta fidem. 
Nam juvenis, vera nimium cum matre fugatus, 

Deserit Arcadiam Parrhasiumque larem. 



menta has been supposed by some 
to be derived qu. carens metite, 
because the priestess became fran- 
tic when inspired by Apollo. Bac- 
chatur vates magnum si pectore 
possit, Excussisse Deum : tanto 
magis ille fatigat Os rabidum, fe- 
ra corda domans, fingitque pre- 
mendo. Virg. uSneid. vi. 78, 79, 
80. Ipsa mone. Diva or Nympha 
mone. Heins. 

418. Erret. Go astray, be lost. 

419. Orta prior. Having an 
origin previous to that of the moon. 
The name Antelunares, was as- 
sumed by the Arcadians, (in like 
manner as the Athenians called 
themselves aurix^ovn), in sign of 
their nation having existed be- 
fore the moon was in being. Cen- 
sorinus says that their year con- 
tained at first thirteen months, and 
that they were called Proscleni or 
Antelunares, because their year 
had been determined before that 
of the Greeks, which was arranged 
according to the course of the 
moon. See further, Virg. JEneld, 
viii. 51, and Heyne's note in loc. 

420. Arcade. Areas, who is 
said to have given name to Arca- 
dia, anciently called Drymodes, 
from Gr. 3^«;, an oak, was the «on 
of Jupiter and Caliisto. Arcadia 
was in the centre of Peloponnesus, 
bounded by Achaia, Messenia, 
Ells and Argolis. 

421. Utroque. Some say that 
Mercury was the father of Evan- 
der; it would appear otherwise 
from the text. 

422. Sacra. Because of her 
being a prophetess, or from her 
having a temple and altar. 

423. Ignes. The divine afflatus, 
or inspiration. 

424. Ore dabat, Sfc. Uttered, 
with unerring lips, the divinely 
inspired oracles. 

426. Midtaque prater. Mul- 
tam praterito temp. Heins. Tr. 
She had foretold that troubles and 
many things beside were impend- 
ing over her son and herself. 
Having by long experience (of 
her truth) gained credit, &c. 

427. Fugatus, It is not clearly 
known what the nature of the 
circumstance was which obliged 
Evander to fly his kingdom. Some 
suppose that he accidentally killed 
his father. There is no light either 
thrown by any of the commenta- 
tors upon Me puhum pair id pela- 
gique extrema scqucntem. Virg. 
iEneid, viii. 333. 

428. Parrhasiumque larem. — 
Parrhasia, a town of Arcadia 
founded by Parrliasius, the son of 
Jupiter. Larem. Lar is frequently 
put for a house or dwelling. Apto 
cumlare fundus, Horat. Od. i. 12, 
44. Fast. vi. 95, 306, and Penates 
also ; Nostris succede Penatibus 
hospes. Virg. jEneid. viii. 123. 



Cui genetrix flenti, * Fortuna viriliter,' inquit, 

' (Siste, puer, lacrymas) ista ferenda tibi est. 430 

' Sic erat in fatis ; nee te tua culpa fugavit, 
' Sed Deus ; infenso pulsus es urbe Deo. 

' Non meriti poenam paterip, sed Numinis iram : 
' Est aliquid, magnis crimen abesse malis. 

* Conscia mens ut cuique sua est, ita concipit intra 435 

' Pectora pro facto spemque metumque suo. 
' Nee tamen ut primus moere mala talia passus ; 
' Obruit ingentes ista procella viros. 

* Passus idem, Tyriis qui quondam pulsus ab oris, 

' Cadmus in Aonia constitit exul humo. 440 

Fast. vi. 483. Properly the 
Lares and Penates were house- 
hold gods who presided over fa- 
milies, the fornaer were considered 
to be of human, the latter of di- 
vine origin. The images of the 
Lares were clad in skins of dogs 
and placed round the hearth in 
the atrium, or hall. The Penates 
were worshipped only in the in- 
nermost part of the house called 

431. Sic erat in fatis. So Evan- 
der, ' Fortuna omnipotens et in- 
eluctabile fatum.' Virg. JEneid, 
viii. 334. 

432. Urbe. Pallanteum; see 
Virg. ^neid, viii, 51. 

433. Non meriti, Sfc. « You 
are not enduring the penalty of a 
misdeed but the anger of a Deity," 
therefore as Evander had a " mens 
conscia recti," was not aware of 
how he bad incun-ed the resent- 
ment of any god, he might in- 
dulge a hope, spem, and banish 
his apprehensions, melum ,- see 
infr. 435. 

434. Est aliquid, §-c. It is 
something, i. e. it is some conso- 
lation, wben a sense of guilt does 
not accompany great misfortunes. 

435. Conscia mens, ^-c. So 
Juvenal, 'seJudice, nemo nocens 
absolvitur,' Sat. xiii. 2. 

437. Nee tamen, §-c. Mourn 

not, however, as if the first that 
bad endured such miseries. 

438. Procella. A great tem- 
pest, a storm of wind and rain, 
especially at sea ; it is also used 
for calamities of any kind, here it 
means the misery of banishment. 

439. Tyriis — ab oris. From 
PhoBuecia, a country of Asia, at 
the east of the Mediterranean, of 
which Sidon and Tyre were the 
chief cities. It derives its name 
either from Phoenix son of Agenor, 
one of its sovereigns, or from 
the great number of pabn trees, 
(poiuKi;, which grow in the neigh- 

440. Cadmus. Son of Agenor 
king of Phoenicia, by Telephassa 
or Agriope. He was despatched 
by his father to search for his sis- 
ter Europa, who had been carried 
away by Jupiter, with orders never 
to return without her. Not having 
succeeded, he consulted the oracle 
of Apollo, by which he was di- 
rected to build a city where he 
should see a heifer, whose track he 
was to follow, lying down in the 
grass, and to call the country Bobo- 
tia ; from bove, probably. Ovid. 
Metam. iii. 1, 2, &c. Aonia — 
humo. Aonia was one of the an- 
cient names of Boeotia ; it was so 
called in honour of Aon, son of 



* Passus idem Tydeus, et idem Pagaseeus lason ; 

' Et quos pra^terea longa referre mora est. 
' Omne solum forti patria est ; ut piscibus a^quor, 

' Ut volucri, vacuo quidquid in orbe patct. 
' Nee fera tempestas toto tamen horret in anno ; 445 

' Et tibi, crede mihi, tempora veris erunt,' 
Vocibus Evander, firmata mente parentis, 

Nave secat fluctus, Hesperiamque tenet. 
Jamque ratem doctae monitu Carmentis in amnem 

Egerat, et Tuscis obvius ibat aqnis. 450 

Fluminis ilia latus, cui sunt vada juncta Terenti, 

Aspicit, et sparsas per loca sola casas. 
Utque erat, immissis puppim stetit ante capillis ; 

Continuitque manum torva regentis iter ; 
Et procul in dextram tendens sua brachia ripam, 455 

441. Tydeus. Son of (Eneus, 
king of Calydon, and Periboja. 
Having accidentally killed one of 
his friends, or according to some, 
his own brother Olenius, he fled 
for refuge to the court of Adras- 
tus, king of Argos, whose daugh- 
tei' Deiphyle he married. 

— PagascEus. This epithet 
was applied to all the Argonauts. 
Pagasse, was a dock or arsenal of 
Pherae in Thessaly, in which the 
Argo, Pagasaa ratis, is said to 
have been built. According to 
Strabo it derived its name from its 
springs, -arxyoi. Jason. Son of 
iEson king of lolchos and Alci- 
mede ; for his numerous adventures 
see Class. Die. To the above list 
may be added, Teucer, Horat. 
Od. i. 21. 

443. Omne solum, §*c. 

• The hero deems, how wide eoe'er he 

All soils alike his country and hie home.* 

445. Nee fera, ^c. So Ho- 
race, ' Non semper imbres nubibus 
hispidos IManant in agros, nee 
mare Caspium vexant inajquales 
procella; Usque,' &c. 

447. Firmaia. Et firman Fran- 

448. Hesperiam. From Hesper 
or Vesper ; the evening star, or 
the evening, from Gr. iu; sioa.;, 
because it comes at the c/oseo/" day. 
Italy was called Hesperia from its 
lying in the direction of the west 
or sunset. Evander arrived in 
Italy, during the reign of Faunus, 
sixty years before ^neas landed 
there according to Dionysius Ha- 

449. Amnem. The Tiber, see 
supr. 233. 

430. Egerat. Vexerat, Al. Rea- 
erat. Heius. Obvius. Against the 

451. Ilia. Carmenta. Terenti. 
Terentus was the name of a place 
at the end of the Campus Martins, 
not far from the Capitol ; where 
stood a temple of Pluto and Con- 
sus, (a deity who presided over 
councils, in whose honour the Con- 
«urt?«a were celebrated. Liv i. c.9.) 
with an altar under ground conse- 
crated to the Inferi. It was so 
called, a terendo, from tlje Tiber 
eating away and making a breach 
in its banks. Hence the Ludi 
Terentini or Seculares. 

453. Utque erat. And as slie 
was, sc. immissis capillis, with 
hair dishevelled, she took her stand 



Pinea non sano ter pede texta ferit. 
Neve daret saltum properans insistere terrae, 

Vix est Evandri vixque retenta manu. 
' Dique petitorum,' dixit, ' ralvete locorum ; 

' Tuque novos caelo terra datura Deos : 
' Fluminaque, et Pontes, quibus utitur hospita tellus, 

' Et nemorum Divae, Naiadumque chori ; 
' Este bonis avibus visi natoque mihique : 

' Ripaque felici tacta sit ista pede. 
' Pallor ? an hi fient ingentia mcenia coUes ? 

' Juraque ab hac terra caetera terra petet ? 
' Montibus his olim totus promittitur orbis : 

.' Quis tantura fati credat habere locum ? 
' Et jam Dardaniae tangent hae littora pinus : 



before the poop and with wild looks 
{being inspired) caught the steer- 
man's Arm. Puppim,(Tom Gr. zs'o^oi, 
sc. dii tutelcE causa puppe locati, 
Torva. Qu. tortiva from torqueo. 
456. Pinea. Strikes thrice with 
frantic foot the pinewood deck. 

458. Vix est Evand. vixq. re- 
tent, man. Vix, Evandre, tua 
vixq. r. m. est. Heins. 

459. Dique. This address to 
the deities of the country was usual 
on occasions similar to that in the 
text. So ^neas, on his arrival at 
the same place. " Salve fatis mihi 
debita Tellus, Vosque, ait, O fidi 
Trojae salvete Penates." — " Ge- 
niumque loci, primamque deorura 
Tellurem, Nymphasque, et adhuc 
ignota precatur Flumina," &c. 

Virg. ^neid. vii. 120, 136. 

460. Novos — Deos. Romulus ; 
the Csesai-s, &c. 

461. Flumina. Rivers and foun- 
tains which this friendly land en- 

462. Naiadumque chori. The 
Naiads were inferior deities who 
presided over rivers, springs, wells 
and fountains; trom Gr. yamt, to 
flow. They are generally repre- 
sented as youthful and beautiful 
virgins, naked to the waist, and 
leaning upon a vase from which 

appears to flow a stream of wa- 
ter. They were held in great ve- 
neration among the ancients. Sa- 
crifices of goats and lambs were 
offered to them with libations of 
wine, honey, and oil, and occasion- 
ally milk, fruits, and flowers only. 

463. Bonis avibus. With good 
auspices. See supr. n. 180. 

464. Ripaque. And let that 
bank be pressed with lucky foot. 

465. CoUes. The seven hills 
(colles, mantes, arces, or juga,) 
upon which Rome was built. Pa- 
latinus, Capitolinus, Aventinus, 
CceHus, Esquilinus, Viminalis, 
Quirinalis. Hence called Urbs 
Septicollis, or Septemgemina. Stat. 
Sylv. i. 2. 191. iv. 1. 6. by the 
Greeks Wray.o^po;, Serv. inJEneid, 
vi. 784. Georg. ii. 535. A fes- 
tival was celebrated in December, 
called Septimontium ; Festus, Suet. 
Dom. 4, to commemorate the ad- 
dition of the seventh hill. Plu- 
tarch. Q. Rom. 68. 

468. Quis tantum, SfC. Who 
could suppose a place should enjoy 
such great good fortune ? 

469. DardanicE. Dardanidcs 
Heins. Trojan. Dardanus, the 
son of Jupiter and Electra was 
considered the founder of Troy. 
So ^neas— ' hinc Dardanus or- 



' Hie quoque causa novi foemina Martis erit. 470 

' Care nepos, Palla, funesta quid induis arma ? 
'Indue ; non humili vindice csesus eris. 

♦ Victa tamen vinces, eversaque Troja resurges : 

' Obruet hostiles ista ruina domos. 

* Urite victrices Neptunia Pergama flammae ; 475 

' Num minus hie toto est altior orbe einis ? 
' Jam pius yEneas saera, et sacra altera patrem, 
' Afferet : Iliacos exeipe, Vesta, Deos. 

tus, lasiusque pater genus a quo 
principe nostrum." j^Eneid. iii. 
167, and Evander " Dardanus, 
Iliaca primus pater urbis et auctor, 
Electra,ut Graiiperhibent, Atlan- 
tide cretus, Adveiiitur Teucros." 
JEneid, viii. 134-5-6. 

470. Hie quoque. His quoque. 
Heins. Here also (as Helen was 
before,) a woman shall be the 
cause of a new war, Faemina. 
Lavinia the daughter of Latinus, 
king of the Aborigines in Italy, 
and Amata ; on her account the 
war broke out between Turnus 
and iEneas. See Virg. jEtieid, 
vii. 51.268, &c. 

471. Palla. Pallas was the son 
of Evander. He accompanied the 
auxiliaries with which his father 
had supplied ^neas against Tur- 
nus, by whom, after a brief but 
glorious career, he was slain. Virg. 
^neid, x. 486 — hence funesta 

472. Non humili vindice. Be- 
cause his death was revenged by 
/Eneas who slew Turnus on his 
account " Tune hinc spoliis indu- 
te meorum Eripiare mihi ? Pallas 
t€ hoc vulnere, Pallas Imraolat, 
et psenam scelerato ex sanguine 
sumit." jEneid, xii. 948-9. 

473. Victa tamen. Alluding to 
the subsequent subjection of the 
Grecian to the Roman powers, 
when Greece became a dependent 
province and was governed by a 

475. Pergama. (plur.n.) Per- 
gamus. («iwf/. f.) The citadel of 

Troy. It is often used for Troy 
itself. It was situated in the 
most elevated part of the town, on 
the shores of the river Scaman- 
der; now called Pergamo. JVep- 
tunia. So called because Nep- 
tune and Apollo when banished 
from heaven by Jupiter, were ob- 
liged to assist Laomedon in build- 
ing the walls of Troy. See Class. 
Die. Urite vict -flamm. Ironical. 

476. Num minus. Nunc mi- 
nor, Francof. Num minor, Uran. 
Nee minus, Zulich. The sense 
of the passage as it stands in the 
te.xt is, whether, in consequence of 
the destruction of Troy by fire, 
are these embers, num hie cinis, 
sc. Rome, the less on that ac- 
count, eo 7?u«!/s, superior, or likel}' 
to prove so, in dominion, to the 
whole world ? toto est altior orbe. 

477. Sacra, Sfc. The fire of 
Vesta; the images of the gods, 
&c. " Tu, genitor, cape sacra 
manu patrisque Penates." j^neid, 
ii. 717. Sacra altera patrem. The 
word sacra may be used here ei- 
ther in reference to the venerable 
character of ^Eneas' burden, pa- 
trem, or to the divine honours 
which were paid to Anchises after 
his decease. 

478. Vesta. For TemplumVes- 
t(B. She was the goddess of fire. 
Two of this name are mentioned 
by the poets, one the mother and 
the other the daughter of Saturn, 
who are frequently confounded; 
but the latter chiefly was worship- 
ped at Rome. In her sanctuary 



Tempus erit, cum vos, orbemque tuebitur idem ; 

Et fient ipso sacra colente Deo : 
Et penes Augustos patriae tutela manebit : 

Hanc fas imperii t'raena tenere domum. 
Inde nepos natusque Dei,, licet ipse recuset, 

Pondera caelesti mente paterna feret. 
Utque ego perpetuis olim sacrabor in aris, 

Sic Augusta novum Julia numen erit.' 



was supposed to be preserved the 
Palladium of Troy, (fafale pig- 
nus imperii Romani, Juiv. xxxvi. 
27), and a fire, kept constantly 
burning, by a number of virgins 
called the Vestal Virgins, brought 
by ^neas from Troy, supr. 477. 
Virg, JE7ieid, ii. 297, hence, 
" Hie locus est Vestse, qui Palla- 
da servas et ignem." Ovid. Trixt. 
i. 39, near which was the palace 
of Numa, ibid. 40. Horat. Od. 
i. 2. 16. Vesta, the goddess of 
Fire, is so called from Gr. ir-Tla, 
focus ; Vesta, the goddess of the 
Earth, from Gr. i(, stabilire, 
see Fast. vi. 277. The temple of 
the former was consecrated at 
Rome by Numa. 

479. Tempus erit, §-c. The 
time shall arrive when the same 
individual shall protect you and 
the world, and sacrifices shall be 
offered, a very Deity assisting in 
their celebration. Idem, in the 
text, refers to Julius Caesar, like- 
wise ipso Deo. Colente, refers to 
his being Pontif. Max, 

481. Augustos. Augustus Cae- 
sar and his posteritv. 

482. Fas. It is'the will of the 

483. Jnde nepos natusque. Inde 
satusque neposq : Cod. Neapol. By 
some commentators this is applied 
to Tiberius, the adopted son of 
Augustus.and consequently^ra/irf- 
son of Julius Caesar ; it is further 
well known that he appeared at 
first reluctant to assume the reins 
of government upon the death of 
Augustus, being desirous to induce 

the Romans to believe that he was 
invested with the purple not from 
his own choice, but by the recom- 
mendation of the late emperor, 
and the urgent entreaties of the 
senate ; and to this allusion may 
be made in licet ipse recuset. 
Others refer the line to Germani- 
cus, whose father and grandfather 
are mentioned, supr. 1. 10, in a 
manner which might bear out the 
application of the text as above, 
nepos natusque Dei ; he also was 
saluted as Emperor by the soldiers 
whom he was commanding in 
Germany at the time Augustus 
died ; but he refused this honour, 
and had some difficulty in appeas- 
ing a tumult which ensued in con- 
sequence. It is right to give the 
opinions on both sides as they are 
supported by high authorities, but 
the former would appear to be 
borne out by 1. 484, which is pro- 
phetic of the sceptre being actually 
swayed, as it was by Tiberius, 
whereas Germanicus was secretly 
poisoned at Daphne near Antioch, 
in the midst of his successes in 
the east, in the 34th year of his 
age, by the direction, as is sup- 
posed, of the Emperor Tiberius. 

484. Pondera. The weight of 
government. Calesti mente. With 
divine wisdom. Paterna. Inhe- 
rited from his father. 

485. Utque ego, ifc. And as 
I shall in time be worshipped at 
immortal altars, 8:c. 

486. Augusta, Livia Drusilla ; 
daughter of L. Drusus Calidianus, 
and wife of Tiberius Claudius 


Talibus ut dictis nostros descendit in annos, 
Substitit in mediis praescia lingua son is. 

Puppibus egressus, Latia stetit exul in herba : 
Felix, exilium cui locus ilie fuit ! 

Nee mora longa fuit, stabant nova tecta ; nee alter 
Montibus Ausoniis Arcade major erat. 

Ecce boves illuc Erytheidas applicat Heros, 


Nero by whom she had Tiberius, 
afterwards Emperor, and Drusus 
Germanicus. Her husband was 
a partisan of i\Iark Antony, and 
was involved in the ill success of 
his cause. Livia, preparing to 
escape the threatening danger, was 
seen by Augustus, who became 
enamoured of her, and married 
her, though she was then pregnant, 
having, with the approval of the 
augurs, divorced his former wife 
Scribonia. Livia is accused of 
having destroyed all the connec- 
tions and relatives of Augustus 
to secure the succession of her son 
Tiberius, and finally of having 
murdered her husband to hasten 
it. She received the namfe Julia 
in consequence of her connection 
with the Julian family, by her 
marriage with Augustus. What 
the poet, in the excess of his ser- 
vile adulation, ventures to predict 
as to her becoming, nonim numen, 
is stated by Suetonius and Dio, to 
laave actually occurred, but long 
subsequent to the death of Ovid, 
divine honours having been de- 
creed to her by her grandson Clau- 
dius, 1. (Tiber. Drusus Nero,) 
who became emperor on the death 
of Caligula. 

487. Talibus ut dictis nost. desc. 
in a)in. Talibus auspiciis Jiostros 
descendit ad agros. Ursin. Zulich. 
JNIaz. Nauger. V^oss. and others. 
But the reading in the text is de- 
cidedly preferable, for the prophet- 
ess, beginning with j3Bneas, came 
down, descendit, to the times of 
Augustus and Tiberius, 7iostros — 

in annos. Dictis, is used for Va- 
ticiniis, Prophecies. 

488. Substitit. Her prophetic 
tongue ceased in the midst of her 

489. Exnl. Evander. 

490. Cui locus ilk. The poet 
may be supposed to have uttered 
this with no ordinary feehng ; 
however his flatteryand hisregrets 
were alike ineffectual with Augus- 
tus and his successor. He died in 
exile, in Tomi on the Euxine 

49L Nova tecta. These ' new 
abodes' were called Pallanteum, 
after the city they had left. Nee 
alter. None other was greater 
than the Arcadian, sc. Evander, 
in the Ausonian hills. 

493. Erytheidas. So called from 
Erythea, or Erythia, an island 
either adjoining, or forming part 
of Gades, of which no trace is to 
he discovered now according to its 
description by ancient authors. 
It was said to be the habitation 
of Geryou, a celebrated monster, 
born, as were also Echidna and the 
Chimsera, from the union of Chry- 
saor, son of I\Ie(iu?a by Neptune, 
with Callirrlioe, one of the Ocean- 
ides. He is represented by the 
poets as having three bodies and 
three heads ; ' Tergemini nece 
Geryonos,' &c. JEneid, viii. 202 ; 
he possessed numerous flocks 
which Were guarded by a two- 
headed dog, Orthos, and Eury- 
thion. One of the labours im- 
posed upon Hercules by Eurys- 
theus was to destroy Geryon; Or- 


Emensus longi Claviger orbis iter. 
Dumque huic hospitium domus est Tegaea, vagantur 495 

Incustoditae laeta per arva boves. 
I\Iane erat ; excussus somno Tirynthius hospes 

De numero taiiros sentit abesse duos. 
Nulla videt taciti quEerens vestigia furti : 

Traxerat aversos Cacus in antra feros ; 500 

Cacus Aventinae timor atque infamia silvae, 

Non leve finitimis hospitibusque malum. 
Dira viro facies ; vires pro corpore ; corpus 

Grande : pater nionstri Mulciber hujus erat. 
Proque domo, longis spelunca recessibus ingens 505 

Abdita, vix ipsis invenienda feris. 
Ora super postes affixaque brachia pendent, 

thos and Eurythion, which he ef- 
fected and carried away the flocks 
and herds to Tirynthus. Virg. 
^neid. vii. G61. viii. 202. Ap- 
plicat. AppuUt. Heins. 

494. Claviger. Hercules, son of 
Jupiter and Alcmena, whose in- 
signia were a club and the skin of 
the Nemasan lion. See Class. Die. 

495. Tegcea. * While a Tegaean 
Louse was his abode,' i. e. the 
Louse of Evander. 'Ad tecta subi- 
bant Pauperis Evandri — Haec, in- 
quit, limina victor Alcides subiit ; 
haoc ilium regia cepit.' Virg. 
JEneid, viii. 359, 362-3. Tegsa 
was a town of Arcadia, situate to 
the north east of Megalopolis, 
between that and Argos, and not 
far from the Eurotas. 

497. Tiri/nthius. Hercules was 
so called, having been reared at 
Tyrins or Tyrinthus, (according to 
Diodorus, at Thebes,) a maritime 
town of Argolis, in Peloponnesus. 
It was anciently called Halieis, 
from Gr. 'AXuls, because inhabit- 
ed by fishermen. 

500. Aversos. Backwards. 
Compare Virg. ^neid, viii. 205, 
et seq. Proper t. iv. El. 9, Liv. i. 
7. Cacus. From Gr. xaxk, malus. 
A celebrated robber, who resided 
ia Italy, son of Vulcan and Me- 

dusa. According to some authors 
he was one of Evander's servants, 
and, if so, stood, it may be pre- 
sumed, in the same relation to 
his master as Caliban did to 

501. AventincB, &,'€. The dread 
and disgrace of the Aventine 
wood, in consequence of his rob- 
beries and murders. See line 507. 
The Mons Aventinus was the 
most extensive of the seven hills, 
lyionys. iv. 26 ; it was called after 
an Alban king of that name, who 
was buried on it, Liv. i. 3. It was 
called also, Murcius, homMurcia, 
the goddess of sleep, who had a 
small temple, sacellum, on it, Fes- 
tvs ; Collis Diana, from a temple 
of Diana, Stat. Silv. ii. 3, 32; 
and Remonius from Remits, who 
wished the city to be founded 

503. Dira viro, §-c. The visage 
of the man was horrible ; his 
strength proportioned to his bulk ; 
his bulk immense. Dira. Dura, 
A\. Mira, Voss. 

504. Mulciber. Mulcifer, Al. 
Vulcan, so called, a vmlcendo fer- 
rum, the god of fire, (Ignipotens, 
Virg. ^n. x. 243) and of smiths; 
the son of Jupiter and Juno, (or 
according to some, of Juno alone, 



Squallidaque humanis ossibus albet humus. 
Servata male parte bourn Jove natus abibat ; 

Mugitum rauco furta dedere sono. 510 

' Accipio revocamen,' ait ; vocemque secutus, 

Inipia per silvas ultor ad antra venit. 
llle aditum fracti praestruxerat obice montis ; 

Vix juga movissent quinque bis illud opus. 
Nititur hie humeris, (ccehmi quoque sederat ilUs) 515 

Et vastum niotu collabefactat onus. 
Quod simul evulsum est, fragor aethera terruit ipsum ; 

Ictaq\ie subsedit pondere niolis humus. 
Prima movet Cacus collata praelia dextra ; 

Remque ferox saxis stipitibusque gerit. 520 

Qtieis ubi nil agitur, patrias male fortis ad artes 

Confugit, et flammas ore sonante vomit. 
Quas quoties proflat, spirare Typhoea credas, 

£t rapidum iEtna^o fulgur ab igne jaci. 

who wished to imitate Jupiter, 
from whose braius Minerva 
sprung), and the husband of 
Venus. See Class. Die. 

509. Male. Scarcely. 

510. Furta. The stolen oxen. 

511. Accipio revocamen. I hear 
the recall. 

513. nie aditum, ^c. He had 
blocked up the entrance with a 
barrier of broken crag ; scarcely 
could twice five team have moved 
the mass. 

515. Caelum quoque. Hercules 
is said to have relieved Atlas for 
a while, and taken the heavens 
on his own shoulders. This fable 
is supposed to have originated in 
Hercules having restored to Atlas 
his daughters, who had been car- 
ried away by Busiris king of 
Egypt, and having in consequence 
received, as a reward, the know- 
ledge of astronomy and a celestial 
globe. The use and advantages 
of which having communicated to 
the Greeks, he was said thence to 
liave borne the heavens himself. 

517. Quod simul avulsum. Quo 
simul avidso. Heins, omittiui' est. 

518. Ictaque, Sj'c. The smitten 
earth sunk down, gave way, be- 
neath the weight of the mass. 

519. Collata — dextra. i. e. co- 
mi?ius. Hand to hand. 

520. Remque ferox. Hemque 
ftrus, Hugen. Excerpt. Feram, 

Arund. Stipitihus. Trunks of 
trees. Stipes, from Gr. arvzfoi, id. 
Gerit. Movet, Excerpt. Kloek. 

521. Male fortis. With little 
courage, less bold. Ad artes — 
patrias. To his father's craft, sc. 

523. Typhoea. A celebrated 
giant, called also Typhon, son of 
Tartarus and Terra. He had a 
hundred heads like those of dra- 
gons, and flames of fire darted 
continually from his mouth and 
eyes. The moment he was born 
he made war upon the gods, to 
avenge the death of his brothers, 
and scared them so that they fled 
in diff"erent shapes; Jupiter be- 
came a ram; Juno, a cow; Apollo, 
a crow, &c. At last Jupiter took 
courage; overcame Typhoeuswith 
his thunderbolts, and crushed him 
under Mount .^tna in Sicily, or 


Occiipat Alcides ; adductaque clava trinodis 525 

Ter quater adversi sedit in ore viri. 
Ille cadit, mixtosque vomit cum sanguine fumos ; 

Et lato moriens pectore p'angit humum. 
Immolat ex illis taurum tibi, Jupiter, unum 

Victor ; et Evandrum ruricolasque vocat. 530 

Constituitque sibi, quae Maxima dicitvu*, aram, 

Hie ubi pars Urbis de bove nomen habet. 
Nee tacet Evandri mater, prope tempus adesse, 

Hercule quo tellus sit satis usa suo. 
At felix vates, ut Dis gratissima vixit, 535 

Possidet hunc Jani sic Dea mense diem. 


Idibus in magni castus Jovis sede sacerdos 
Semimaris flammis viscera libat ovis ; 

according to some under the is- 
land Inarime ; ' ■ durumque 
cubile Inarime Jovis imperils im- 
posta TypLceo.' Virg. JEneid, ix. 

525. Alcides. Hercules, so 
called either from Gr. a>.Kr,, robur, 
or AlcoBus, his paternal grandsire. 
Adductaque, &c. And his triple 
knotted club, wielded, (or swung, 
lit. drawn back, to let the blow 
be more violent from the greater 
fall of the weapon), descended 
thrice and four times ujjon the 
face of his adversary. 

529. Ex illis. Of those that 
had been stolen. 

531. Constituitque sibi. Ac- 
cording to Dionysius and Livy, 
this altar was built in honour of 
Hercules by Evander, pursuant 
to the dii^ections of his mother 
Carmenta. Quce Maxima dicitur. 
' Quaj Maxima semper Dicetur 
nobis, et erit quje maxima semper. 
Virg. uS^neid, viii. 271-2. The 
priests who ministered at this 
altar were the Potitii and Pina- 
rii, instituted by Evander, and 
at that time two of the most il- 

lustrious families in that place. 
I.iv. i. 7. ^neid, viii. 270. 

532. Pars Urbis. The Forum 
Boarium, which is by some sup- 
posed to derive its name a bove, 
from the sacrifice offered by Her- 
cules; by others, from a brazen 
statue of a bull that was erected 
there. Tacit, xii. 24. 

533. Nee tacet, Sfc. Nor is 
Evander's mother silent on the 
subj£ct of the time being near at 
hand, when earth should have 
enjoyed its favorite Hercules 
enough, Suo, is used empha- 
tically here as a term of endear- 

535. Dis gratissima vixit. Gra- 
tissim. dixit. Burmann. as in Me- 
tam. xiv. 123. ' Dis gratissima, 

536. Hunc diem. The third of 
the Ides, on which the Carmen- 
talia were celebrated. 

537. Idibus. On the Ides, the 
thirteenth of January. 

538. Semimaris — ovis. Of a 
wether sheep. Semiinas — aris, 
c. g. Flammis libat. Sacrifices at 
the altar. 

E 2 



Redditaque est oninis popiilo provincia nostro ; 

Et tuns Augusto nomine dictiis avus. 
Perlege dispositas generosa per atria ceras ; 

Contigerant niilli nomina tanta viro. 
Africa victorem do se vocat ; alter Isauras, 


.539. Redditaqup, S(C. Upon 
the Ides of January, a. u. 7'2G, 
A. c. 27, Augustus, liaving by 
every possible courtesy, during 
the preceding year, thoroughly 
insrratiated himself with the Ro- 
man people and secured their af- 
fections, proposed in a set speech, 
to resign his authority into the 
hands of the senate and people. 
As might be expected, the feint 
succeeded, and he was prevailed 
upon by the voice of the nation 
to continue at its head. The 
confidence which he bad thus 
obtained, enabled him to make 
such a distribution of the pro- 
vinces, that he gave up those that 
were completely tranquil to the 
people, to be governed by pro- 
consuls, but those in which any 
symptoms of probable disturb- 
ance appeared, he retained for 
himself, by which means he may 
be said to have disarmed the 
senate, and made himself sole 
master of the military power of 
the state and its preponderating 

540. Tuus. Addressing Ger- 
manicus. See supr. 1. 10. Au- 
gusto. According to the poet, 
Octavius Cffisar was publicly 
called by this name on the Ides 
of January. Censorinus men- 
tions the sixteenth of the kalends 
of February as the day on which 
this occurred, and Orosius, the 
eighth of the Ides. 

o41. Ceras. Images of wa.v. 
Those whose ancestors or them- 
selves had been distinguished for 
any curule magistracy, that is, had 
filled the office of Consul, Prae- 
torj Censor, or Curule .^dile. 

were called ' Nobiles,' and had 
the privilege of making images 
of themselves, jus imayinum, 
which were kept with great care 
by their posterity, and carried 
before them at funerals. Plin. 
XXXV. 2. 

These images were merely 
busts or effigies of persons as far 
as the shoulders, made of wax 
and painted ; which were gene- 
rally placed in the courts, atria, 
of their houses, enclosed in 
wooden cases, and only brought 
out on solemn occasions. Polyb. 
vi. 51. There were titles and 
inscriptions written below them, 
describing the honours they had 
enjoyed, and achievements they 
had performed. Juvenal. Sat. 
viii. 6. Plin. xxxv. 2. Hence 
Imagines frequently stands for 
Nobilitas, Sallust, Jug. 85. Liv. 
iii. 58, and Cerce for Imagines, 
as above, Ovid. Amor. i. 8. G5. 
Anciently this right of possess- 
ing images was peculiar to the 
Patricians ; but afterwards the 
Plebeians also acquired it when 
admitted to curule offices. 

543. Africa victorem. It was 
usual among the Romans to con- 
fer an additional name, Agnomen, 
or Cognomen, upon an individual 
in consequence of some illustri- 
ous action or remarkable event. 
Thus the name Africanus was 
bestowed both upon P. Corne- 
lius Scipio, and P. .(Emilianus 
Scipio, (son of L. uEmiliiis Pau- 
lus, and adopted by the son of 
the great Scipio,) in conse(iuenee 
of their distinguished success in 
Africa in the second and third 
Punic wars. Isauras. P. Ser- 



Aut Cretum domltas testificatur opes. 
Hunc Numidae faciunt, ilium Messana superbum ; 545 

Ille NumantinS. traxit ab urbe notam. 
Et mortem et nomen Druso Germania fecit : 

Me miserum, virtus quam brevis ilia fuit ! 
Si petat a victis, tot sumat nomina Caesar, 

Quot numero gentes maximus orbis habet. 550 

Ex uno quidam celebres, aut Torquis ademptae, 

Aut Corvi titulos auxiliaris habent. 

villus, who was proconsul of 
Asia during the age of Mithri- 
dates, overcame the Isauri, a 
people of Asia at Mount Taurus ; 
he was honoured with a triumph 
in consequence, and received the 
name Isauricus. 

544. Aut Cretum. Q. Metellus 
was surnamed Creticus, from his 
conquests in Crete. Cretum, for 

545. NumidcB. A people of 
Africa, under the dominion of 
Jugurtha ; in consequence of his 
eminent success against them 
during the Jugurthan war, Cseci- 
lius Metellus was called Numi- 
dicus. Messaiia. Or Messala, a 
town in Sicily, conquered by 
Valerius Corvinus Max. who as- 
sumed its name. 

546. Numantina. Numantia 
was a town of Spain near the 
sources of the river Durius, now 
the Douro; it was destroyed af- 
ter a war of fourteen years, which, 
although unprotected by any for- 
titications, it maintained with ex- 
traordinary courage against the 
Romans, by Scipio iErtiilianus, 
thence called Numantinus. 

547. Mortem et nomen. Death 
and glory. Druso. Drusus was 
the brother of Tiberius and fa- 
ther of Germanicus, to whom 
the ' Fasti' are dedicated, 1. 3. 
While engaged with the Ger- 
mans between the river Sala and 
the Rhine, he was killed by a 
fall from his horse. He had 
been a distinguished general and 

signalized himself in Gaul, as 
in Germany, against the Rhaeti 
and Vindelici, for which he was 
honoured with a triumph. He 
is called Germanicus, in history, 
a name which also distinguishes 
his family. 

548. Quam brevis. Drusus 
was killed in the thirtieth year 
of his age. It would appear 
that Ovid is justified in this 
expression of bis sorrow from 
V. Paterculus, who confers a 
noble panegyric upon the cou- 
rage and accomplishments of Dru- 

549. Si petat a victis, ^c. If 
Ciesar were to seek among the 
vanquished, he should assume as 
many names as the vast world 
could reckon nations, 

55 1 . Ex uno qtiidam, ^*c. Some 
derive distinguished titles, on ac- 
count of a collar won, Torquis 
ademptcE, or an assisting crow, 
Corvi auxiliaris, from one, ex 
uno, adversary, or exploit. Man- 
lius was called Torquatus, from 
his having vanquished a Gaul in 
single combat, and stripped him of 
his collar. When the Roman 
array was challenged by one of 
the Senones, remarkable for his 
strength and stature, Valerius, 
a military tribune under Camil- 
lus, undertoolj; to meet him and 
obtained an easy victory by the 
aid of a crow which attacked his 
antagonist in the face with its 
beak and claws, whence Valerius 
received the surname Corvinus. 



Magne, tuum nomen renim mensura tuarum est ; 

Sed qui te vicit, nomine major erat. 
Nee gradus est ultra Fabios cognominis ullus ; 

Ilia domus meritis Maxima dicta suis. 
Sed tamen humanis celebrantur honoribus omnes ; 

Hie socium summo cum Jove nomen habet. 
Sancta vocant augusta Patres ; augusta vocantur 

Templa, sacerdotum rite dicata manu. 
Hiijus et augurium dependet origine verbi, 

Et quodcvmqiie sua Jupiter auget ope. 
Augeat imperium nostri Ducis, augeat annos ; 

Protegat et vestras querna corona fores. 



553. Magne. Pompey was 
called Magnus, from the splen- 
dour and success of his warlike 
enterprises. He was the son of 
Pompeius Strabo, a distinguished 
general in the Italic war, under 
whom he served while a boy, and 
was early instructed in the mili- 
tary art ; see Introduction to the 
Oration on the Manil. Law, sec 
II. in M'Kay's excellent edition 
of the Select Orations of Cicero. 

554. Qui te vicit. Julius Cae- 
sar, who overcame Pompey on 
the plains of Pharsalia. ' Non 
jam Pompeii nomen populare 
per orbera, Nee studium belli : 
sed par, quod semper habemus, 
Libertas et Cassar erunt.' Lucan. 
Pharsal. vii. 

555. Fabios. Q. Fabius Max- 
imus Rutilianus, the first of the 
Fabii who obtained the surname 
of Maximus, for lessening the 
power of the populace at elec- 
tions. This he effected, a. u. 
449, by separating the meaner 
class from all the tribes through 
which they had been dispersed 
by A pp. Claudius, and including 
them in the four city tribes ; 
' Ne humillimorum in manu co- 
mitia essent, omnem forensem 
turbam excretam in quatuor tri- 
bus conjecit, urbauasque eos ap- 
pellavit, &c. Liv. ix. 46. Among 

these were ranked all whose for- 
tunes were below a certain va- 
luation, called Proletarii, and 
those who had no fortune what- 
ever, Capite Censi. Gell. xvi. 10. 
From that time, and perhaps pre- 
viously, the four city tribes were 
esteemed less honorable than the 
thirty-one rustic tribes. 

558. Nomen, Numen. AL ' Hoc 
tu per terras, quod in sethere Ju- 
piter alto, Nomen babes ; homi- 
num tu Pater, ille Deum.' Fast. 
ii. 131. 

559. Sancta. The hallowed 

560. Sacerdotum. Of the chief 
Pontiffs ; by tiie direction and 
authority of the seuate and peo- 
ple. Rite. In due form ; by au- 
guries, sacrifices, &c. 

561. Oriyine verbi. Loca reli- 
giosa, et in quibus ausjurato quid 
consecratur, augusta dicuntur, ab 
aucta, vel ab avium gcstu, gustuve. 
Suet. Aug. 7. 

563. Ducis. Augustus. 

564. Querna Corona. This 
was the Corona Civica, made of 
oak leaves, e Fronde guerna, 
hence called Quercus civilis, 
Virg. uEncid, vi. 772. It was 
the highest reward which could 
be conferred; whoever saved the 
life of a citizen was presented 
with it by the person whom he 



Auspicibusque Deis tanti cognominis haeres 565 

Omine suscipiat, quo Pater, orbis onus. 
Si quis amas ritus veteres, assiste precanti : 

Nomina percipies non tibi nota prius. 
Porrima placantur Postvertaque, sive sorores, 

Sive fugae comites, Maenali Nympha, tuie, 570 

Altera, quod porro fuerat, cecinisse putatur : 

Altera versurum postmodo qiiidquid erat. 
Candida te niveo posuit lux proxima temple, 

Qua fert sublimes alta Moneta gradus. 
Nunc bene prospicies Latiam, Concordia, turbam ; 575 

Nunc te sacratae restituere manus. 
Furius antiquum populi sujierator Hetrusci 

had preserved, and was ever after 
regarded as a parent. This was 
one of the many honours decreed 
by the senate to Augustus, that 
a civic crown should be suspended 
from the top of his house, be- 
tween two laurel branches, which 
were set up in the vestibule be- 
fore the gate, symbolical of his 
being the constant preserver of 
his citizens, and the conqueror of 
his enemies, Dio. liii. 16. Hence 
in some of the coins of Augus- 
tus there is a civic crown, with 
this inscription, ob cives servatos. 
Ovid doubtless alluded to this, 
' Adjice servatis unum Pater Op- 
tune civem, Qui procul extremo 
solus in orbe jacet.' Trist. iii. 1. 

565. Auspicibusque Deis. The 
gods being propitious. Hares. 

566. Omine. With the same 
auspices as his father. Suscipiat. 
Some allusion may be intended 
by this term to the apparent he- 
sitation of Tiberius in accepting 
the supreme power. See n. 483. 

567. Assiste precanti. Stand 
by the priest. So Horace, * As- 
sisto divinis.' Sat. 6, 114. 

569. Porrima — Postvertaque. 
According to some, the sisters, 
to others, the companions of 
Carmenta in her flight from Ar- 

cadia ; therefore they had a share 
in the sacrifices offered to her. 
Porrima was so called from her 
knowledge of events long past, 
porro, Gr. "Tf^ixjau ; Postverta, 
from her knowledge of futurity, 
quod postea venturum, or versurum, 
Gr. hviffffu. Placantur, Placatur. 

570. Maenali, Carmenta, so 
called from Maenalus, a moun- 
tain in Arcadia. 

573. Te niveo posuit templo, 
^c. The succeeding day, lux 
proxima, xvii. Kal. February, 
shrined you, fair Concord, in a 
marble temple, where the majes- 
tic Moneta, i. e. the noble tem- 
ple of Juno Moneta, rears its 
lofty steps. The temple of Juno 
in the Capitol stood near the 
house of M. Manlius Capitoli- 
nus ; it had a hundred marble 
steps. The temple of Concord 
was erected close to that of Juno. 
Fert. Sublim. grad. An hypallage 
for Ferunt sub. grad. 

575. Nunc. Now that your 
reign has been restored, and your 
temple repaired, sc. by Tiberius 
and Livia. Bene prospicies. You 
shall look with kindness on the 
Latin people. 

576. SacratcB manus. Hallow- 
ed hands, i. e. of the priests. 

577. Furius. M. Fur. Camillus 



Voverat, et voti solverat ante fidem. 
Causa, quod a patribus sumptis secesserat armis 

Vulgus, et ipsa suas Roma timebat opes. 
Causa recens melior : passos Germania crines 

Porrigit auspiciis, dux venerande, tuis. 
Inde triumphatae libasti munera gentis ; 

Templaque fecisti, quam colis ipse, deae. 
Haec tua constituit Genetrix et rebus et ara, 



who conquered the Veientes, a 
people of Etruria. Antiquum, i. e. 
Olim, Formerly. E( voti, Sfc. 
And had of old redeemed his 
plijrhted vow. 

579. Sumptis secesserat armis. 
The people demanded that one 
of the consuls should he chosen 
out of their own hody, both 
consuls having been up to that 
time Patricians. After consider- 
able dissension, the commons 
prevailed, and L. Sextus was 
made consul on the part of the 
people, L. ^milius Mamercus, of 
the Patricians, a. u. 328. ' Annus 
hie erat insignis novi hominis 
consulatu,' &c. Ziv. vii. Livy 
makes no mention of the temple 
of Concord at this period, ijut 
he writes that games were institu- 
ted, &c. on account of the restora- 
tion of harmony amontj all ranks. 

580. Ipsa suos Roma timebat 
opes. So Livy, in prsef. ' E6 cre- 
verit ut jam magnitudine laljoret 
sua,' and Sallust, ' Qui labores, 
pericula, dubias atque asperas res 
facile toleraverant, iis otium divi- 
tiae optandffi aliis, oneri miseri- 
ffique,' &c. 

Perhaps allusion may be made 
here to the laws which were then 
promulgated by the Tribunes of 
the people against the property of 
the Patricians and in favour of 
the commons. One of them, in 
regard to debt, was, that the in- 
terest already paid by any debtor 
should be allowed as part pay- 
ment of the principal, and that 
three years should be allowed for 

discharging the balance. Another 
was to prevent any individual 
becoming the proprietor of more 
than fifty acres of land; and a 
third, that Comitia should not be 
held for the election of military 
tribunes, and that one of the 
consuls should be chosen from 
the people. 

581. Passos Germania crines. 
Germany lays at your feet her 
dishevelled hair. It was custom- 
ary to shave the head of captives, 
to which Ovid alludes here. So 
also Propertius ' Africam tonsam,' 
for 'victam' and Ovid. Arnor. i. 
13, ' Jam tibi captivos mittet 
Germania crines.' Tiberius and 
Germanicus overran both Ger- 
many and Pannonia, and a tri- 
umph was decreed them which 
did not, however, take place until 
two years after, in consequence of 
the deep aflBiction which the city 
suffered at the total destruction 
of the Roman army under Quin-. 
tilius Varus, by Arminius, a Ger- 
man chief. Their bodies were 
found six years after by Germa- 
nicus on the field of battle and 
buried with great pomp. 

583. Jjide triumphatcE, Sfc 

Thence you have otfered up the 
treasures of a vanquished nation. 

584. Templaque fecisti. • Dedi- 
cavit et Concordiae sedem, item 
Pollucis et Castoris suo fratris- 
que nomine de raanubiis.' Sueton. 
in Tiber. Quam colis ipse. Qua 
colis ipsa. sc. Germania. Heins. 

585. Hac. sc Templa. Con- 
stituit — et rebus. Established 



Sola toro magni digna reperta Jovis. 
Haec ubi transierint ; Capricorno, Phoebe, relicto, 

Per Juvenis ciirres signa gerentis aquam. 
Septimus hinc Oriens cum se demiserit undis ; 

Fulgebit toto jam Lyra nulla polo. 
Sidere ab hoc, ignis, venienti nocte, Leonis 

Qui micat in medio pectore, mersus erit. 



Ter quater evolvi signantes tempora Fastos, 
Nee Sementiva est ulla reperta dies : 

Cum mihi, sensit enim, ' Lux haec indicitur,' inquit 
Musa ; ' quid a Fastis non stata sacra petis ? 

' Utque dies incerta sacris, sic tempora certa ; 
' Seminibus jactis est ubi fcetus ager.' 


with all things necessary for the 
due performance of the sacred 
rites. Ara. With an altar ; Li via 
Drusilla erected one in the temple 
of Concord. 

386. Magni — Jovis. Augustus, 
who is put on a level here with 
Jupiter. Sola — digna reperta.The 
poet indulges still farther this 
vein of extravagant compliment 
in his Tristia. ii. Eleg. 1. 

587. Hac. sc. Festa. Capricor- 
no. See ii. 2-38. On the sixteenth 
of the kalends of Feb. the sun 
leaves Capricorn and enters the 
sign of Aquarius, juvenis-gerentis 
aquam ,- whence Aquarius is 
sometimes called by the poets 
* Urniger.' See Fast. ii. 145. 

589. Seplimns hine. On the 
tenth of the kalends of February 
Lyra sets heliacally. 

591. Sidere ub hoc. After the 
setting of tliis constellation, sc. 
Lyra, on the nintii, Kal. Feb. 
at the approaci» of night, the star 
which is in the centre of the breast 
of Leo shall set cosmicaliy. 

693. Evolvi. I read over. So 
Horace, Tempora si fastosque 
velisevolvere mundi. Sat.i.3. 112. 

594. Sementiva. The Ferise 
Sementivse consisted in a festi- 
val, or holidays, to be observed 
at seed-time in order to ensure a 
good crop. JVec — ulla reperta dies. 
The Feriaj Sement. belonged to 
that class of holidays called Con- 
ceptivce, which were annually ap- 
pointed, ( Coiicipiebantur vel in- 
dicebantur,) for a certain day, 
which, however, was changeable, 
by the priests or magistrates ; 
Nee ulla, Sfc. which should have 
been otherwise had they come 
under the head of the StativcB 
which were recorded in the Fasti 
and celebrated on fixed and stated, 
statis, days, in the appointed 

595. Sensit enim. For she per- 
ceived the difficulty. Indicitur. Is 
appointed ; sooner or later, being 
regulated by the season, the sow- 
ing of the seed, and also the will 
of the magistrates or priests. 

597. Utque, §-c. Expl. As 
the precise day, dies, for the ob- 
servance of the customary rites 
is uncertain, so the time is sure, 
sc. when the ground is pregnant 
with tlie scattered seed. 



State coronati plenum ad praesepe, juvenci : 

Cum tepido vestrum vere redibit opus. GOO 

Rusticus emeritum palo suspendat aratrum : 

Omne reformidat frigida vulnus humus. 
Villice, da requiem terrae, semente peracta ; 

Da requiem, terram qui coluere, viris. 
Pagus agat festum ; pagum'lustrate, coloni ; 605 

Et date paganis annua liba focis. 
Placentur matres frugum, Tellusque Ceresque, 

Farre suo, gravidae visceribusque suis. 
Officium commune Ceres et Terra tuentur ; 

Haec praebet causam frugibus, ilia locum. 610 

Consortes operum, per quas correcta vetustas, 

Quernaque glans victa est utiliore cibo ; 
Frugibus immensis avidos satiate colonos, 

Ut capiant cultiis preemia digna sui. 
Vos date perpetuos teneris sementibus auctus ; 615 

599. Coronati The oxen on 
such occasions were allowed to 
repose from their daily toil ; 
were indulged with a full crib, 
pletium prcEsepe, and had their 
horns decorated with garlands of 
flowers. ' Luce sacra requiescat, 
humus, requiescat arator; Et 
grave suspenso vomere cesset 
opus. Solvite vincla jugis ; nunc 
ad praesepia debent Plena coro- 
nato stare boves capite.' Tihull. 
ii. Eleg. 1. 

601. Emeritum. Having served 
out its time. A metaphor from 
soldiers who were said to be 
emeritis stipendiis, when the pe- 
riod of military service had ex- 
pired. Palo. A peg. qu. pagulus, 
from Gr. zifriyu, to fix. 

605. Pagus agat festum. This 
was the Paganalia, (which also 
belonged to the Ferise Concept.) 
celebrated in the villages, in pa- 
gis, to the tutelary gods of the 
rustic tribes. This festival was in- 
stituted by Servius TuUius, who 
also ordained that at the time 
of its celebration, the peasants 
should each pay a piece of mo- 
ney into the hands of the indivi- 

dual who presided at the sacri- 
fices ; the men a piece of one 
kind, the women of another, 
and the children of a third sort, 
Dionj/s. iv. 51. Lustrate. This 
purification may have been ef- 
fected by burning heaps of straw 
as at the Palilia, or by compass- 
ing the village in solemn proces- 

606. Et date. Present the year- 
ly cakes upon the village altars. 
Every village had its own pecu- 
liar altar by direction of Servius 
Tullius. Annua lib. fac. Ann. 
ferta vel fercta. Burmann. 

6)0. HcEc. Ceres. Ilia. Terra. 

Oil. Consortes operum. Part- 
ners in the toil by which anti- 
quity was reformed, (Fast. iv. 
375,) and the mast of the oak 
was overcome by the more 
wholesome food. Ceres first 
taught mankind the giowth and 
use of corn, before which they 
used to live upon the produce of 
the beech and oak, &c. ' Cum 
prorepserunt primis animalia ter- 
ris, Mutum et turpe pecus, glmi- 
dem atque cubilia propter, Un- 
guibus, dein fustibus, atque ita 



Nec nova per gelidas herba sit usta nives. 
Ciim serimus, ccelum ventis aperite serenis ; 

Cum latet, aetherea spargite semen aqua. 
Neve graves cultis Cerealia dona cavete 

Agmine laesuro depopulentur aves. 
Vos quoque subjectis, formicse, parcite granis ; 

Post messem praedte copia major erit. 
Interea crescat scabrse rubiginis expers, 

Nec vitio coeli palleat aegra seges. 
Et neque deficiat macie, neque pinguior aequo 

Divitiis pereat luxuriosa suis. 
Et careant loliis oculos vitiantibus agri ; 

Nec sterilis culto surg-at avena solo. 



porro Pugnabant armis.' Horat. 
Sat. i. 99. 

616. Usta. Withered. Uro is 
used to express the effect of cold 
as well as heat. ' Boreas penetra- 
bile frigus advrat.' Virg. Georg. 
and Fasti, iv. 884 ; and not mere- 
ly by the poets but by the philo- 
sophers also. Pliny applies aduror 
to cold : " Aduri quoque fervore 
aut Jlatu frigidiore," and again 
«' adusta iiivibus." 

617. Caliim — aperite. Clear 
by the winds the surface of the 
sky. So Homer — ' LzTtffayyi ««•- 
zriro; aJn^.' viii. 5.58. 

618. ^therea aqua. With rain. 

619. Graves cultis. Injurious 
to the crops. Cerealia dona. The 
seed of the corn. 

621. Subjectis. Sown. Formi- 
CCB. Ants, from Greek f/.v^funi, 
.ffiol. and Dor. jSyj^a|, or afere7i- 
dis micis. 

623. ScahrcE rubiginis expers. 
Safe from the filthy mildew, or 
blight. The blight, ruhigo, is 
a disease to which corn is very 
subject. This is called by Theo- 
phrastus l^v/nlin. It is generally 
supposed to signify the smut, 
which is a putrefaction of the 
ear, and turns it into a black 
slime. Virgil makes it a disease 

of the stalk, ' ut mala culmos 
Esset rubigo.' Georg. i. 151. 

624. Nec vitio, §-c. Nor let 
the sickly-crop be smutted by the 
inclemency of the weather. 

625. Neque pinguior cequo. 
An excessive luxuriance of the 
corn was equally to be deprecated. 
Theophrastus mentions that in 
a rich soil the husbandmen mowed 
the young corn, and fed it down 
to keep it from running too 
much to leaf; and Virgil, < Quid, 
qui, ne gravidis procumbat cul- 
mus aristis, Luxuriem segetuni 
tenera depascit in herba.' Georg. 
i. 112. 

627. Loliis. Loliuni, (a Xetiov 
iXiiiv, i. e. segetem perdere, vel 
Xaiov okoov, i. e. seges noxia.) Dar- 
nel or tares, a weed common in 
corn fields. Oculus vitiantibus. 
When ground and baked, unde- 
signedly, with the flour, it caused 
giddiness in the head. 

628. Avena. The 'Jilgilops' of 
Pliny ; wild oats ; they are not as 
some think a degenerate species 
of the common oats, but of a sort 
totally distinct ; the chaff of them 
is hairy, and the seed small like 
that of grass. * Infelix Lolium, 
et steriles dominantur avena;.' 
Virg. Georg. i. 154. 



Triticeos foetus, passuraque farra bis ignem, 

Hordeaque ingenti foenore reddat ager. 
Haec ego pro vobis, haec vos optate, coloni ; 

Efficiantque ratas utraque Diva preces. 
Bella diu tenuere viros ; erat aptior ensis 

Vomere ; cedebat taurus arator equo. 
Sarcula cessabant ; versique in pila ligones, 

Factaque de rastri pondere cassis erat. 
Gratia Dis domuique tuae, religata catenis 

Jampridem nostro sub pede bella jacent. 
Sub juga bos veniat, sub terras semen aratas 

Pax Cererem nutrit ; pacis alumna Ceres. 
At quae venturas praecedet sexta kalendas, 

Haec sunt Ledaeis templa dicata Deis. 
Fratribus ilia Deis fratres de gente Deorura 

Circa Juturnae composuere lacus. 




629. Triticeos foetus. The 
wheaten crops. Triticum, quod 
tritum est ex spiels. Varr. The 
triticum of the ancients was not 
our common wheat, but a bearded 
sort, hence arista is frequently 
used by the poets for wheat. Mr. 
Martyn mentions, in proof of the 
triticum beinjj bearded, that all 
the statues and medals of Ceres 
which he had seen, had no other 
species represented on them. Sis. 
Because the corn was first dried 
Ly roasting, and then put into 
the oven, when ground, for 
bread. Farra. The ^=/a: or ^U of 
the Greeks. 

630. Hordeaq. Barley. Ovid 
has here incurred the censure 
which Virijil received from the 
notable critics, Bavius and Msevi- 
us, for using /tardea in the plural 
number ; ' Hordea qui dixit su- 
perest ut tritica dicat.' Jiujenti 
foenore. In great abundance. 

6.32. Utraque Diva, Ceresand 

63-1. Vomere. So the prophet 
Joel, " Beat your ploughshares 
into swords and your pruning 
hooks into spears." Cedebat 

taurus — ' Non uUas aratro Dignus 
honos.' Georg. i. 506. 

635. Sarcula. Hoes or rakes. 
Pila. The pilum, a weapon iu 
use among the ancient Romans, 
was a javelin or pike, five feet 
and a half long, having a three 
square head of iron or steel, 
nine inches in length. Ligones. 

636. Cassis. The Tuscan term 
for a helmet. 

640. Pax Cererem nutrit. For 
' Squalent abductis arva colonis.' 
Georg, i. 507, Alumna. The 
foster child ; from alere. 

641. At qucE. The sixth of the 
kalends of February, with us 
Jan. 27th, was remarkable for 
the dedication of a temple to 
Castor and Pollux, the son of 
Jupiter and I^eda. 

642. Ledccis. Ledaicis. Heins. 

643. Fratribus. Castor and 
Pollux. Ilia. sc. Temples. Fra- 
tres. Drusus and Tiberius. 

644. Juturna. A fountain near 
the river Numicus and the Mons 
Albanus in Latium ; called after 
Juturna the sister of Turnus ; see 
supr. 413. Its waters were used 




Ipsum nos carmen deducif Pacis ad aram : 645 

Ha3c erit a mensis fine seciinda dies. 
Frondibus Actiacis comtos redimita capillos, 

Pax ades ; et toto mitis in orbe mane. 
Dum desint hostes, desit quoqne causa triumphi : 

Tu diicibus bello gloria major eris. b'50 

Sola gerat miles, quibus arma coerceat, arma ; 

Canteturque fera, nil nisi pompa, tuba. 
HoiTeat ^neadas et primus et ultimas orbis : 

Siqua parum ilomam terra timebit, amet. 
Thura, sacerdotes, pacalibus addite flammis ; 655 

Albaque percussa victima fronte cadat. 
Utque domus, quae praestat eam, cum pace perennet, 

Ad pia prepenses vota rogate Deos. 
Sed jam prima mei pars est exacta laboris ; 

Cumque suo finem mense libellus habet. 660 

in sacrifices, particularly those 
of Vesta ; they were also said 
to have the power of healing dis- 

645. Ipsum Carmen, i. e. Car- 
minis ratio ; the plan of the Fasti. 
Pacis ad aram. The site of this 
altar is unknown. Claudius com- 
menced a splendid temple con- 
secrated to Peace, at Rome, 
which was finished by Vespasian. 

C46. A mensis fine, Sec. On the 
third of the kalends of Feb. 
with us Jan. 30th, the Pacalia, 
the festival in honour of Peace, 
was held. 

647. Actiacis, In reference to 
the celebrated naval victory, 
which Augustus obtained over 
Antony and Cleopatra, at Ac- 
tiiim, now Azio, a town and pro- 
montory of Epirus, B. C. 31. 
Soon after which he closed the 
temple of Janus, in sign of 

651. Quibtts arma coerceat. 
Qitce hella coerc. Excerpt. Kloek. 
To restrain hostile invasion. 

052. Nil nisi pompa. Let no- 
thing but the solemn processions, 
accompanying the games and fes- 
tivals, be proclaimed by the fierce 

053. JEneadas. The Romans ; 
descended from iEneas and the 
Trojans. Et primus et %iltimus or- 
bis. The eastern and western 

055. Pacalibus flammis. The 
fires lighted upon the altar of 

656. Albaque. The victims 
offered in sacrifice to the celestial 
gods were white, as were also the 
robes of the officiating priest. 

057. Utque domus, ^c. Im- 
plore the gods, who lean to pious 
prayers, that the house, whose 
boon it is, may with peace abide 
for ever. 





Janus habet finem ; cum carmine crescit et annus : 

Alter ut it mensis, sic liber alter eat. 
Nunc primiim velis, elegi, majoribus itis : 

Exiguum, memini, nuper eratis opus. 
Certe ego vos habui faciles in amore ministros, 5 

Cum lusit numeris prima juventa suis. 
Idem sacra cano, signataque tempera Fastis : 

Ecquis ad haec illinc crederet esse viam ? 
Haec mea militia est ; ferimus, quae possumus, arma : 

Dextraque non omni munere nostra vacat. 10 

Si mihi non valido torquentur pila lacerto, 

Nee bellatoris terga premuntur equi ; 
Nee galea tegimur, nee acuto cingimur ense : 

(His habilis telis quilibet esse potest :) 
At tua prosequimur studioso pectore, Caesar, 15 

Nomina ; per titulos ingredimurque tuos. 
Ergo ades, et placido paulum mea munera vultu 

Respice ; pacando siquid ab hoste vacas. 

1. Janus. The month dedi- in which he embarked veils ma- 

cated to Janus, January. joribus. 

3. Velis. See i. 1.4. Elegi. 8. Ad heec. i. e. To treating 
From the Greek Ixiynv, a phrase of sacred subjects. Illinc. From 
peculiar to the expression of sor- the object of his earlier study, so. 
row ; here elegi means merely the Ais Amatoria, Amores, §-c. 
elegiac verses, hexameter and pen- 9. Militia. Employment, ser- 
taraeter. Itis. Ite. Mazar. as in vice. 

Pont. ' Ite leves elegi,' &c. 10. Dextraque. My right hand 

4. Exiguum. As much as to is not destitute of every skill, 
say that the works he had pre- 14. His habilis. Any may be 
viously written were but trifling, convcsant with such arms as 
when compared with the present, these, 





Februa Romani dixere piamina Patres : 

Nunc quoque dant verbo plurima signa fidem. 
Pontifices ab Rege petiint et Flamine lanas, 

Quels veteri lingua Februa nomen erat. 
Quaeque capit lictor domibus purgamina tersis, 

Torrida cum mica farra, vocantur idem. 
Nomen idem ramo, qui caesus ab arbore pura. 

Casta sacerdotum tempora fronde tegit. 
Ipse ego Flaminicam poscentem februa vidi ; 

Februa poscenti pinea virga data est. 
Denique quodcunque est, quo pectora nostra piamur, 



19. Februa. Expiations, pia- 
mina, were called, according to 
Varro, in the Sabine tongue, Fe- 
brua, fromfervere. Hence the se- 
cond month was called February, 
because it was the time appointed 
for the purifications, &:c. 

21. Ab rege. From the Rex sa- 
crificulus, see supr. i. 333. Flamine. 
The Flamines, so called from a 
cap or fiWei, filiim or piZeum, which 
they wore on their head, were the 
priests of particular deities ; the 
chief among them was the Fla- 
men Dialis, mentioned in the text, 
the priest of Jupiter, who was 
distinguished by a lictor, sella cur- 
uKs, and toga prcelexta, and enjoy- 
ed from his office the privilege of 
sitting in the senate. This situ- 
ation was one of considerable 
dignity, Maxima: dignationis inter 
xr. flamines. Fest. The dress of 
the Flamines in general, consisted 
of a purple robe called Icrna, which 
seems to have been thrown over 
their toga, and a conical cap called 
apex. Lucan. i. 604. Lanigeros- 
que apices. Virg. JEneid, viii. 664. 
Lanas. When the victims were 
killed, two youths, of noble fa- 
milies, touched their faces with a 
sword dipped in the blood, then 
some of the attendants ran up, 
and washed away the stain with 

a piece of wool soaked in milk. 
Hence the name februa, i. e. 
cleansing or purifying, was given 
to the wool, lana. 

23. Lictor. Of the Flamen 
Dialis, called Flaminius. Domi- 
bus. The house of the Flamen 
Dial, whicli the lictor purified 
with a salted cake. Torrida cum 
mica fa)Ta, i. e. Far tostum com- 
minutum, et sale mistum. 

25. Nomen idem. sc. Februa. 
Ramo. A branch of the pine. 
See infr. 28. Arbore pura. A 
tree untouched by the axe, or 
used for sacred purposes. ' Pura 
la urea.' Proper t. 

27. Flaminicam. The wife of 
the Flamen Dialis. She could 
never be divorced, and if she 
died, the Flamen resigned his 
office, because he could not per- 
form certain sacred rites without 
her assistance. Plutarch Q. Pom. 

28. Pinea. Spinpa. Heins. 
Laurea. Hamburgr. The reading, 
spinea, is supported by the im- 
pression known to have been en- 
tertained by the ancients, that the 
" thorn" had a peculiar charm 
airaiust evil of every description. 
This subject is alluded to more 
fully in the sixth Book of the 



Hoc apud intonsos nomen habebat avos. 
Mensis ab his dictus, secta quia pelle Luperci 

Omne solum lustrant, idque piamen habent ; 
Aut quia ])lacatis sunt tempora pura sepulchris, 

Tunc ciim ferales prastcriere dies. 
Omne nefas omnemque mali purgamina causam 

Credebant nostri tollere posse senes. 
Graecia principium moris fuit ; ilia nocentes 

Impia lustratos ponere facta putat. 
Actoriden Peleus, ipsum quoque Pelea Phoci 



30. Intonsos. Unshaven, used 
here for anliquos. ' Non ita Ro- 
muli Prsescriptum et intonsi Ca- 
tonis auspiciis.' Horat. Od. ii. 15. 
A barber was tirst introduced 
into Rome by Ticinius Alena, 
A.u. 654. Plin. N. H. vii. 59. 

31. Mensis. The month, Fe- 
bruary. Ab his. sc. Februis. Lu- 
perci. The priests of Pan, the 
god of shepherds ; so called from 
lupus, a wolf, because Pan was 
supposed to protect tlie flocks 
from wolves. Serv. in Virg. jEneid, 
viii. 343. Hence the plate where 
he was worshipped, was called 
Lupercal, and his festival, Lu- 
percaiia, which was celebrated 
during this month. See inf. 333. 
The Lnpcrci ran through the city 
naked, whence omnesolum lustrant, 
having only a girdle of goats' skins 
round their waist, and thongs of 
the same in their hands, secta pelle, 
with whicli they struck whomso- 
ever they met ; particularly mar- 
ried women, who were hence sup- 
posed to be rendered prolific. 
There were three companies, so- 
dalitates, of the Luperci ; two 
ancient, called Fabiani and Quin- 
tiliani, (a Fabio et Quintilio prse- 
positis suis, Fest.) and a third 
called Julii, in honour of Julius 
Caesar, over which Antony was 
the first to preside. See Cic. Phil. 
ii. 34, 43. As the Luperci were 
the most ancient order of priests, 
said to have been instituted by 

Evander, Liv. i. 5, so they con- 
tinued the longest, not having 
been abolished until the time of 
Anastasius, who died a.d. 518. 

32. Idque piamen habent. And 
consider that, i. e. their running 
up and down the city, an expia- 

33. Aut quia placatis, ^r. In 
the month of February they not 
only offered sacrifices to atone for 
the living, but also to expiate or 
appease the dead : had they ne- 
glected the latter, they believed 
that the names of the departed 
would not rest in their tombs, but 
by wandering abroad infect the 
air with pestilence, &c. Hence, 
placatis tempora pura, ^c. 

34. Ferales. ( A fcrendis ad tu- 
mulum epulis, vel a ferendis pe- 
cudibus, Fest.) The Dies ferales, 
were the days upon which the 
sacrifices and oblations for the 
dead were made. ' Feralia mune- 
ra.' Ovid Trist. iii. 3, 81. ' Csena 
feralis,' Juvenal, v. 8.3. See infr. 

37. GrcEcia. The custom was 
borrowed from the Greeks. Ilia. 
sc. Greece, thinks that the guilty 
being purified, lay aside, are ab- 
solved from, their impious crimes. 

39. Actoriden. The grandson 
of Actor, Patroclus, the son of 
Menoetius by Sthenele, called 
also Philomela, or Polymela. 
He was obliged to fly from Opus, 
where his father reigned, on ac- 



Caede per iEmonias solvit Acastus aquas. 
Vectam frsenatis per inane draconibus iEgeus 

Credulus immerita Phasida fovit ope. 
Amphiaraides Naupactoo Acheloo, 

' Solve neias,' dixit: solvit et ille nefas. 
Ah nimiiim faciles, qui tristia crimina caedis 

Fluminea toUi posse putetis aqua ! 
Sed tamen (antiqui ne nescius ordinis erres) 



count of his Laving accidentally 
murdered Clysonomus, the son 
of Amphidamus, and retired to 
the court of Peleus, king of 
Phthia, father of Achilles, where 
he was kindly received. The 
sequel of his history is well known. 
Pelea. King of Thessaly, son of 
.^acus and Endeis, the daughter 
of Chiron. Having been accesso- 
ry to the death of his brother 
Phocus, he was obliged to leave 
his father's dominions, and sousfht 
refuge in lolchos, a town of I^Iag- 
uesia in Thessaly, of which Acas- 
tus was then sovereigrn, who pu- 
rified Peleus of his crime with 
the usual ceremonies. Others 
have given a different account of 
the matter, for which see Class. 
Die. Peleus. 

40. ^monias. Thessalian ; so 
called either from Hsemus, see 
supr. i. 390, or Haemon, the son 
of Deucalion. Hasmonidas. Zu- 
lich. Solvit. Absolved. 

41. Per inane. Through the air. 
J)raconi6!/s. With bridled dragons; 

Siaaxriv rifiTv, 'isuu-a, zroXif^ia; X'i'^' 
Eurip. Med 1318-1319, and 

Sckol. in loc. o;^oufiivti "ioaKOVTUoi; 

K^fiatrt. Horat. Epod. iii. 13. Hoc 
delibutis ulta doiiis pellicem Ser- 
pente fugit alite. Seneca Med. 
i022. Squamosa gemini coUa ser- 
pentis jugo Suinmissa prajbent. 
jS^geus. King of Athens, son of 
Pandion. He was persuaded by 
Medea to promise her an asylum 
in his kingdom after she hail re- 

venged herself upon Jason. Eu- 
rip. Med. 710, hence credulus. 

42. Immerita — ope. An aid 
which she did not deserve, from 
the destructive use to which she 
applied it. Phasida. Medea, so 
called from Phasis, a river of Col- 
chis, where she was born ; by 
this river the Argonauts went up 
the country to obtain the golden 
fleece. See Class. Die. Medea, 
Jason, and ArgonautcB. 

43. Amphiaraides. Alcmaeon, 
son of the seer Amphiaraus; who, 
concealing himself that he might 
not be obliged to accompany the 
Argives in their expedition against 
Thebes, where he knew he was 
destined to perish, was betrayed 
by his wife Eriphyle. She was 
bribed by Polynices, with a gold- 
en necklace, to discover his re- 
treat, and Amphiaraus was com- 
pelled to go to the war, having 
first charged his son to revenge 
his death. When Alcmseou re- 
ceived the news of his father 
having fallen, he murdered his 
motlier, for which he was perse- 
cuted by the Furies until purified 
by the river Achelous. 

— Naupactoo Acheloo. A river 
of Acarnania, which rises in 
Mount Pindus, and dividing 
^^itolia from Acarnania, falls into 
the Sinus Coriuthiacus. It is 
called Naupactous, from Naupac- 
tus, a town of ^tolia, which de- 
rived its name from the ship- 
building carried on there ; now 
called Lepanto. 



Primus, ut est, Jani mensis et ante fuit. 
Qui sequitur Janum, veteris fuit ultimus anni : 

Tu quoque sacrorum, Termine, finis eras. 
Primus enim Jani mensis, quia janua prima est : 

Qui sacer est imis Manibus, imus erat. 
Postmodo creduntur spatio distantia longo 

Tempora bis quini continuasse Virl. 



Principio mensis Phrygiae contermina Matri 55 

Sospita delubris dicitur aucta novis. 
Nunc ubi sint illis, quaeris, sacrata Kalendis 

Templa Dea; ? longo procubuere die. 
Caetera ne simili caderent labefacta ruina 

Cavet sacrati provida cura Ducis ; 60 

Sub quo delubris sentitur nulla senectus : 

48. Ante. Formerly ; i. e. in 
the time of Numa Pompilius, for 
the year of Romulus began with 
March. See i. 39. 

49. Qui sequitur Janum. Fe- 
bruary was the last month of the 
Old year, because the purifications 
&c. took place in this month, and 
also the festival of the god Ter- 
minus. See infr. 525. 

51. Janua. Over which Janus 

52. Imus. The last. 

53. Postmodo creduntur, ^'c. 
i. e. The Decemviri are supposed 
subsequently to have joined in 
immediate succession the periods, 
tempora,sc. January ^ndFebruarij, 
separated by a considerable in- 
terval, spatio distantia longo, hav- 
ing in the time of Numa been 
considered the beginning and end- 
ing of the year. It was deter- 
mined, A. U. 299, by a decree of 
the senate and the order of the 
people, that three ambassadors 
should be sent to Athens to copy 
the celebrated code of laws by 
Solon and to examine the insti- 
tutions, customs, and laws of the 
other states in Greece, £iv, iii. 

31. Upon their return, ten men. 
Decemviri, were chosen from 
among the Patricians, with su- 
preme power, and without the 
liberty of appeal, to draw up a 
body of laws, legihus scribendis, 
all the other magistrates having 
previously abdicated their offices, 
Liv. iii. 32, 33. They made the 
alteration in the kalendar men- 
tioned in the text. 

55. Principio. On the kalends 
of February. Phri/gice — Matri. 
Cybele. See infr. Fast. iv. 179, 
et seq. Contermina. Close to, sc. 
on the Palatine hill, where the 
temple of Cybele stood. 

56. Sospita. The Preserver. 
Juno was worshipped under this 
title; from sospes, ih.a-u^iii. Aucta. 
Enriched. It does not appear by 
whom this temple was built. 

57. Nunc ubi sint illis, quceris. 
Nunc ubi sunt illis qua sunt. Ursin. 
Patav. Illis kalendis. So Fast. iii. 
' Nonis sacrata quod illis Templa 
patent,' and Fast. iv. ' Pinguia 
cur illis gustantur larda kalendis.' 

5S. Longo procubuere die. Have 
sunk to ruin through time. 
60. Ducis. Augustus. 



Nee satis est homines, obligat ille Deos. 
Templorum positor, templorum sancte repostor, 

Sit Superis, opto, mutua cura tui. 
Dent tibi caelestes, quot tu cselestibus, annos ; 

Proque tua maneant in statione domo. 



TuM quoque vicini lucus celebratur Asyli ; 
Qua petit aequoreas advena Tibris aquas. 


Ad penetrale Numae, Capitolinumque Tonantem, 
Inque Jovis sumnia cseditur arce bidens. 


. 62, Nee satis est homines, sc. 
ohligare. Obligat ille Deos. He 
endears the gods to him by his 
pious attention. 

63. Positor. Founder. Repostor. 
Refector. Casaub. ad Suet. Nea- 
pol. Restorer. So Suetonius, 
* Principes viros saepe hortatus 
est, ut pro facultate quisque mo- 
uumentis vel novis, vel refectis et 
excultis Urbem adornarent ; mul- 
taque a multis extructa sunt,' &c. 
The taste of Augustus was no 
less displayed in the number and 
magnificence of various other 
besides sacred edifices. 

66. Maneant in statione, i. e. 
Excubent. Keep watch. 

67. Turn. On the kalends of 
February. Tliis consecrated grove 
/»cus, or asylum, in honour of which 
the Lucaria were celebrated by a 
procession to the place, lay be- 
tween the Via Salaria and the 
Tiber. By some it is said to 
have been the asylum which Ro- 
mulus opened, in imitation of the 
Greeks, as a refuge from punish- 
ment for crime; by others, to have 
been the retreat to which the 
Romans betook themselves in 

their flight from the Gauls. Asyli. 
From Gr. a arid ffvXn. Helemi. 
Heins. as in Fast. vi. ' Adjacet 
antiquus Tiberino lucus Helemi.* 

68. Advena. The Tiber is so 
called because it rises in the Apen- 
nines, and flows thence to Rome. 
Aquas. The Tuscan sea into 
which the Tiber is emptied. 

69. Ad penetrale Numce. The 
temple of Vesta, beside the pa- 
lace of Numa, « Ire dejectum mo- 
menta Regis Templaque Vestae. 
Horat. Od. i. 2. 15—16. Capito- 
linumque Tonantem. The temple of 
Jupiter Tonans, built by Augus- 
tus in the Capitol. Jovis summa 
arce. The temple of Jupiter 
Opt. Max. The Arx Capitolina 
is distinguished also by Livy and 
other writers from the Capitol. 
Arx Summa, x,a.r llox'") ^^ Fast. 
vi. * Arce quoque in Summa Ju- 
noni templa Monetae.' 

70. Bidens. Qu. Duidens, or 
from Biens. i. e. Biennis. A 
sheep so called, because at two 
years old it had two of the front 
teeth longer than the rest, and 
was then considered fit for sacri- 


Saepe graves pluvias adopertus nubibus auster 
Concitat, aut posita sub nive terra latet. 


Proximus Hesperias Titan abiturus in undas, 
Gemmea purpureis ciim juga demit equis ; 

Ilia nocte aliquis, toUens ad sidera vultum, 75 

Dicet, ' Ubi est hodie, quae Lyra fulsit heri ?' 

Dumque Lyram quseret, medii quoque terga Leonis 
In liquidas subito mersa notabit aquas. 


Q.UEM modo caelatum stellis Delphina videbas, 

Is fugiet visus nocte sequente tuos. 80 

Seu fuit occultis felix in amoribus index ; 

Lesbida cum domino seu tulit ille lyram. 
Quod mare non novit, quae nescit Ariona tellus ? 

Carmine currentis ille tenebat aquas. 
Saepe, sequens agnam, lupus est hac voce retentus ; 85 

Saepe avidum fugiens restitit agna liipum : 
Saepe canes leporesque umbra cubuere sub una; 

Et stetit infestae proxima cerva leae. 
Et sine lite loquax cum Palladis alite cornix 

71. Auster. Qu. Hauster, quia 79. Calatum stellis. Studded 
haurit aquas. The south wind, en- with stars, of wliich there are 
veloped in clouds, causes the hea- nine in tlie constellation of the 
vy rains. Hence called by the Dolphin. Stella and Sidus, the 
poets ' nubilus,' ' humidus,' ' plu- oneasingular starjtheotheracon- 
vius,' 'udus,' 'imbrifer.' stellation, differ in this respect 

73. Proximus, §-c. On the like atrrri^ and airr^ov. So Suiiias, 
evening of the second of February, aa-rri^ affT^au ^latpi^u, i /ih rla-Tr,g 
Titan, The sun. s» n 'iim, to Si arr^cv Ik -sroWZt 

74. Gemmea-juga. The jew- o-i/veo-tjixsv. Delphina. See i. 407. 
elled collars. 80. Fwjiet visus. Shall set. 

77. Dumque Lyram quaret. — 81. Seu fuit, Sfc. See i. 407. 

Lyra and Leo both set on the sub. tin. 

fourth of the Nones, the second 82. Cum domino. With Arion 

of February, but Leo in the who was born ia Methymna a 

morning and Lyra in the evening, town of Lesbos. 

Medii quoque terga. Thehmdmost 89. Et sine lite. Because the 

half, for the foremost had already crow and the owl, Palladis alei, 

set. i. 591. Constellations, con- so called from being sacred to Mi- 

sisting of a number of widely scat- nerva, are generally at variance, 

tered stars, set gradually. .iElian, Hist. Animal, iii. 9. 



Sedlt ; et accipitri juncta columba fuit. 90 

Cynthia saepe tuis fertur, vocalis Arion, 

Tanqiiam fraternis obstupuisse modis. 
Nonien Arionium Siculas impleverat urbes, 

Captaque erat Ij'ricis Ausonis ora sonis. 
Inde domum repetens puppim conscendit Arion, 95 

Atqiie ita quaesitas arte ferebat opes. 
Forsitan, infelix, ventos undamque timebas ; 

At tibi nave tna tutius aequor erat. 
Namque gubernator destricto constitit ense, 

Caeteraque armata conscia turba manvi. 100 

Quid tibi cum gladio ? dubiam rege, navita, pinum ; 

Non sunt haec digit is arma tenenda tuis. 
Ille metu vacuus, ' Mortem non deprecor,' inquit : 

* Sed liceat sumpta pauca referre lyra.' 
Dant veniam, ridentque moram : capit ille coronam, 105 

Quae possit crines, Phoebe, decere tuos. 
Induerat Tyrio bis tinctam murice pallam : 

Reddidit icta suos poUice chorda sonos. 
Flebilibus veluti numeris canentia dura 

Trajectus penna tempora cantat olor. 110 

91. CyntJiia. Diana, so called 
from Cyntlius, a mountain of De- 
los, so high as to overshadow the 
whole island. On it Latonagave 
birth to Apollo and Diana. 

92. Fraternix-modis. At the 
melodious strains of her brother 

93. Nomen Arionium, &cc. 
Arion's fame had spread through 
the Sicilian cities, and Italy was 
charmed with his lyric minstrelsy. 

94. Ausonis ora. Italy, so 
called from Auson, son of Ulysses 
and Calypso, from whom the Au- 
sones, a people of Italy, des- 

95. Puppim. A Corinthian 

96. Qucrsitas arte opes. The 
wealth acquired by his musical 

101. Quid tibi, Sfc. The poet 
apostrophises the lielmsman. — 
Dubiam pinum. The frail bark. 

105. Ridentque moram. Ridi- 

cule the nature of the respite he 

107. Tijrio bis tinctam murice. 
The Dibaphri, from Gr. ?<; and 
(SscOTTs/, to df/e twice. Tyre was fa- 
mous for the brilliancy of its purple 
dye, which was said to be obtained 
from the juice of a sliell-fish, mu- 
rex. Pallam. Properlv the outer 
robe of a woman, < Pallam sig- 
nis auroque rigentem, Et circum- 
textum croceo velamen acantho, 
Ornatus Argivae Helen».' Virg. 
^neid, i. 648 ; but it was worn 
also by musicians and actors. 
Suet. Calig. 54. Ovid. Art. Amat. 
iii. 1-I-2; derived either from 
■aaXXu), or quod palam et /oris 
yerebatur, Varr. L. L. iv. 30. 

108. Sues sonos. Its harmoni- 
ous tones. 

1 10. Trajectus penna, §"c. ' As 
the swan chants its mournful 
numbers having its grey temples 
pierced by the cruel feathered 
dart.' According to some com- 



Protinus in medias ornatus desilit undas : 

Spargitur impulsa caerula puppis aqua- 
Inde (fide majus) tergo Delphina recurvo 

Se memorant oneri supposuisse novo. 
Ille sedens citharamque tenet, pretiumque vehendi 

Cantat, et aequoreas carmine mulcet aquas. 
Di pia facta vident ; astris Delphina recepit 

Jupiter, et Stellas jussit habere novem. 



Nunc mihi mille sonos, quoque est memoratus Achilles, 
Vellem, Maeonide, pectus inesse tuum, 120 

Dum canimus sacras alterno pectine Nonas ; 
Maximus hinc Fastis accumulatur honos. 

mentators, the penna should be 
understood of a quill, which is 
said to be found sometimes driven 
into the brain of aged swans. If 
the distich is genuine at all, the 
former appears to be the less fan- 
ciful interpretation. 

That eagle's fate and mine are one, 
Which on the shaft that made him die, 
Espy'd a feather of his own, 
Wherewith he wont to soar on high. 

111. Ornatus. Equipped, sc. 
Palla purpurea. 

113. Inde. Forthwith. Fide 
majus. Beyond belief. Tergo, §-c. 
Tliey say that the Dolphin, with 
arched back, placed himself be- 
neath the unwonted burden. To 
this Propertius alludes, ii. Eleg. 
25. ' Sed tibi subsidio Delphinum 
currere vidi, Qui puto Arioniam 
vexerat ante lyram.' 

113. Ille sedens, §-c. He, seated, 
holds the harp, and in requital for 
his carriage sings, and sooths 
with song the waters of the deep. 
Citharam, Gr. xi9a,^a, from xmh 
ro i^av, quia movet amorem. 

117. Di pia facta vident. The 
gods regard deeds of mercv. 

119. Nunc mihi, ^c. Would I 

bad now a thousand tongues and 
your genius, Homer, by which 
Achilles has been handed down 
to fame ! Pectus. So Gr. ipjsvsf, 
means prcecordia or prudentia. 

120. Maonide. Homer, so called 
from Maeonia, a town of Lydia, 
at the foot of Mount Tmolus, 
where he is supposed to have 
been born, or according to others, 
from his father Ma;on. 

121. Dum canimus, Sfc. While 
with alternate quill we celebrate 
in song the hallowed nones. Sa 
eras. Conseci'ated by public con- 
sent, Augustus having received 
on this day the title, Pater Pa- 
triae. Sueton, ii. 58. This occur- 
red A. D. 758, seven years after 
his thirteenth consulate. Alterno, 
sc. In elegiac verse. Pectine. Pec- 
ten, called also plectrum, the quill 
with which stringed instruments, 
especially wire-strung, were play- 
ed. It is still used abroad with 
the mandolin. Nonas. The nones 
were not always so distinguished, 
see. i. 57. 

122. Maximus, §-c. Hence the 
greatest share of glory is lieaped 
upon the Fasti, sc. by their re- 
cording the praises of Augustus 




Deficit ingenium, majoraque viribus urgent ; 

Haec mihi praecipiio est ore canenda dies. 
Quid volui demens elegis imponere tantum 

Ponderis ? heroi res erat ista pedis. 
Sancte Pater Patriae ; tibi Plebs, tibi Curia nomen 

Hoc dedit, hoc dedimus nos tibi nomen Eques. 
lies tamen ante dedit, sero quoque vera tulisti 

Nomina ; jam pridem tu Pater orbis eras. 
Hoc tu per terras, quod in a^there Jupiter alto, 

Nomen habes ; liominum tu Pater, ille Deurn. 
llomule, concedas ; facit hie tua magna tuendo 



and the rites ordained on his ac- have been anxious to be called 

count. Romulus, tliat lie mitrlit be con- 

123. Deficit ingenium. So Ho- sidered the second founder of the 

race, ' Cupidum, pater optime vi 

res deficiunt.' Sat. ii. 1. 12. Ma- 
joraque viribus. Too great for ray 

124. Prcecipuo ore. In a dis- 
tinguished strain. 

125. Elegis. Because from their 
nature unsuited to the grandeur 
of epic poetry. 

126. Heroi, §-c. Which was a 
subject for heroic measure, sc. 
hexameter verse. 

\21. Pater Patrice. This title 
■was first conferred upon Cicero 
by the senate, either by the ad- 
vice of Cato, Appian. B. Civ. 
ii. 431, or of Catulus, Cic. Pison, 
3, after his suppression of Cati- 
line's conspiracy ; ' Roma patreni 
Patriae Ciceronem libera dixit.' 
Juvenal, viii. 244. It was next 
decreed to Julius Cajsar, Suet. 76, 
some of whose coins are still ex- 
tant with the inscription. Cicero 
proposed that it should be given 
to Augustus, while yet very voung, 
Phil. xiii. 11. The title,' Pater 
Patriae, denoted chiefly the pater- 
nal affection which it was incum- 
bent on the emperors to entertain 
towards their subjects; and also 
that power which, by the Roman 
law, a father could exercise over 
his children. Dio. liii. 18. Senec. 
Clem. i. 14. Augustus is said to 

city ; see supr. 63, but he gave 
up tlie idea lest he should be sus- 
pected of airaiiijj at sovereign, 
power; Dio. liii. 16 ; and accepted 
the title Augustus, which was 
proposed in the senate to be con- 
ferred upon him by Munatius 
Plancus ; Suet. Aug. 7. Servius 
says that Virgil in allusion to the 
desire mentioned above, describes 
him under the name of Quirinus. 
jEneid, i. 296. Georg. ill 27. 
Curia. The Senate, so called 
from their place of meeting. An- 
ciently there were only three 
places where tlie Senate used to 
be convened, Curice or Senacula ; 
two within the city, and the tem- 
ple of Bellona outside it. After- 
wards the number was increased, 
and they assembled in the temples 
of Jupiter Stator, Apollo, Mars, &c. 
The Curice were consecrated as 
temples by the augurs, but not to 
any particular deity. 

128. Eques. The Equestrian 
order to which Ovid belonged, 
nos dedimus, ^'c. 

129. Res tamen, ^c. Reality 
however, conferred the title pre- 
viously, i. e. Augustus was in fact 
deserving of the appellation before 
it was publicly bestowed. 

130. Orbis. Urbis. Heins. 

1 33. Concedas. Give way, ac- 
knowledge your inferiority. 



Mcenia ; tu dederas transilienda Remo. 
Te Tatius, parviqiie Cures, Caeninaque sensit ; 

Hoc duce, Ronianum est solis iitrumque latus. 
Tu breve nescio quid victa? telluris habebas ; 

Quodcunque est alto suo Jove, Caesar habet. 
Tu rapis ; hie castas, Duce se, jubet esse maritas : 

Tu recipis luco, submovet ille nefas. 
Vis tibi grata fuit ; florent sub Caesare leges : 

134. Tu dederas iransilienda 
Remo. You left them liable to be 
vaulted over by Remus. See 
Fast. iii. 70. 

135. Te Tatius, Sfc. The con- 
quests of Romulus were confined 
to the countries adjacent to Rome. 
He overthrew the Sabines, Csenin- 
enses; whose king Acron he slew 
and obtained the first spolia op im a ; 
Antenates, and Veientes. At his 
death, however, the empire was 
bounded by eighteen miles dis- 
tance from the city. Tatius. King 
of the Sabines ; afterwards joint 
sovereign with Romulus. Virg. 
j^ueid, viii. 639. Cures. An in- 
considerable town of the Sabines; 
the birth place of Numa; ' Curi- 
bus parvis et paupere terra Missus 
in impcrium magnum.' Virg. 
jEneid, vi. 812. Canina, A 
town of the Sabines, 

136. Hoc duce. Augustus; see 
Virg. jEneid, vi. 725. The limits 
which he set to the Roman em- 
pire, and which in his will he ad- 
vised his successors not to exceed, 
Tacit. Ann. i. 1 1. Dio. Ivi. 33, 41, 
were the Atlantic ocean on the 
west, and the Euphrates on the 
east ; on the north the Danube 
and the Rhine ; and on the south, 
the cataracts of the Nile, and the 
desarts of Africa and Mount At- 
las ; including the whole Medi- 
teranean sea, and the best part of 
the then known world, so that 
the Romans were not without 
foundation called ' Rerum donii- 
ni,' Virg. ^neid, i. 282, and 
Rome itself, ' Lux orbis terrarum, 



atque arx omnium gentium.' Cic. 
Cat. iv. 6. ' Septem urbs altu 
jugis quse toti praesidet orbi.' — 
Prupert ii. 11. 57. Utr unique latus. 
The eastern and western hemis- 

137. Tu, Romulus. VictaTd- 
luris. supr. 135. 

139. Rapis. See i=as<. iii. 197, 
Castas-esse maritas. In the later 
period of the Roman Republic 
the same liberty of divorce was 
exercised by the women as by the 
men. Some think that this pri- 
vilege was permitted them by the 
law of the Twelve Tables, in 
imitation of the Athenians, Plu- 
tarch, in Alcibiad. It would ap- 
pear otherwise, however, as they 
ccjuld not exercise this right even 
in the time of Plautus ; Mercut. 
iv. 6, except so far as that a wo- 
man, when her husband was ab- 
sent for a certain time, might 
liave been at liberty to marry 
another. Plant. Stick, i. I. 29. 
Afterwards some women deserted 
their husbands so frequently, that 
Seneca says they reckoned their 
years not from the number of 
consuls, but of husbands. Da 
Benef. iii. 16. So, Juvenal; 
' Fiunt octo mariti quinque per 
autumnos,' vi. 228. Martial, 
vi. 7, often without any just 
cause, Cic. Fain. viii. 7. Augus- 
tus is said to have restricted this 
license of Bona gratia divorces 
as they are called. Suet. Aug. 34, 
hence castas, &;c. 

140. Luco. Alluding to the 
Asylum opened by Romulus; see 



Tu Domini nomen, Principis ille tenet. 
Te Remus incusat ; veniam dedit hostibus ille 
Caelestem fecit te Pater ; ille Patrem. 


Jam puer Tdaeus media tenus eminet alvo 
Et liquidas misto nectare fundit aquas. 
En etiam, si quis borean horrere solebat, 


supr.N. 67. Siibmovetillenefas. So 
Horace, ' Evaganti fraena licentise 
Injecit, amovitque culpas, Et ve- 
teres revocavit artes.' Od. iv. 15. 

142. Domini. Augustus would 
not allow himself to be called 
Dominus, Suet. 53. nor Tiberius, 
Id. 27, because that word proper- 
ly signifies a master of slaves, qui 
domi prcEcst vel imperat; Ter.Kun. 
ill. 2, 33. Dio. liii. 44. Principis. 
i. 6. Princeps Senatus ,- Irapera- 
tor, Id. xliii. 44, Caesar, Id. xlvi. 
47, were among the titles con- 
ferred upon Augustus. 

144. Pater. Mars, the reputed 
father of Romulus. The poet 
means to say that Romulus was 
ranked among the deities on his 
father's account, whereas Augus- 
tus ccelestem fecit patrem, caused 
his father, so. by adoption, .Julius 
Caesar, to be ranked among the 
gods and paid him divine honours. 

145. Puer Idaus. Ganymede, 
son of Tros, king of the Tro- 
jans, While hunting on Mount 
Ida in Phrya'ia he was carried up 
to heaven by Jove's eatfle, Virg. 
.Mneid, v. 254. Horat. Od. iv. 4, 
1. et seq. where he took the place 
of Hebe as cup bearer to the 
gods. ApoUonius assarts that he 
was raised to this dignity on ac- 
count of the remarkable beauty 
of his person, Argonaut, iii. ; Xe- 
nophon and others attribute iiis 
elevation to his mental endow- 
ments, Xen. in Si/mpos. Accord- 
ingly his name may be derived 

either from Gr. yawf/.!, gaudeo, or 
ayav and vu, intens. tiwA /jiln^n;, con- 
silium. Ganymede was enrolled 
among the signs of the Zodiac 
under the title of Aquarius. For 
an explanation of the probable 
import of the fable regarding 
Ganymede, see Cic. Tusc. Disp. 
iii. Media tenus-alvo. Rises to 
the waist. 

\46.£t liquidas. So Virg. 'Ex- 
tremoque irrorat Aquarius anno.' 
Georg. iii. 304. ' Inversum con- 
tristat Aquarius annum.' Horat. 
Sat. i. 1. 36. 

' And fierce Aquarius stains the inverted 
year.' — Thomson's Winter. 

l47. Borean. Gr. /Soosaj. The 
north wind, called by the Latins 
Aquilo. Boreas was personified 
by the poets, some of whom make 
him the son of Astracus and Au- 
rora, others the son of the river 
Strymon. He carried away Ori- 
thj-ia, daughter of Erectheus king 
of Athens, of whom he became 
enamoured, having seen her ga- 
thering flowers on the banks of 
the river C!ephisu«, and brought 
her to Thrace, where he dwelt ia 
a cave ; 
"Hfiivo; i-^>jX?f Ko^ulpyjs 'i'ri QeriiKo; 

&ovpo; "Apv; \<pv\aff<Ti evi UTiffi, t/u 

"TE,Tra.[jLu^ou Booiaa va^oc trTios y>u\i- 


Callimach. in Lavacr. Del. 
He had by Oritliyia two sons, 
Zetes and Calais, who joined the 



Gaudeat ; a zepliyris mollioi- aura venit. 
Quintus ab aequoreis nitidum jubar extulit undis 

Lucifer, et primi tem})ora veris eunt. 
Ne fallare tamen ; restant tibi frigora, restant : 

Magnaque discedens signa relinquit hiems. 
Tertia nox veniat : Custodem protinus Ursa^ 

Adspicies geminos exseruisse pedes. 
Inter Hamadryadas, jaculatricemque Dianam, 



Argonatus in their expedition to 

148. Zephyris. Derived from Gr. 
^aihf (P'.^iiv, vitam ferre. The west 
wind ; the Favonius of the La- 
tins. According to the poets, Ze- 
phyrus was the son of Astrseus 
and Aurora. He married a nymph 
called Chloris or Flora, by wliom 
he had a son called Carpos. 
Flowers and Fruits are said to 
have been produced by the genial 
softness and sweetness of his 
breath. He is also described as 
the harbinger of spring and love ; 
' It ver, et Venus, et Veueris 
praenuntius ante, Pennatusgradi- 
tur Zephyrus vestigia propter.' 

' When first the soul of love is sent abroad, 
Warm thro' the vital air, and on the heart 
Harmonious seizes. 

Thorn. Spring. 579. 
Mollior aura. 

' Forth fly the tepid airs; and unconfin'd. 
Unbinding eiirth, the moving softness 

Id. Spring, 32. 

Mitior aura, A\. 

149. Quintus. On the fifth of 
the ides, the ninth of February. 

loO. Lucifer. Gr. *<i«r^«^«f. 
The planet Venus, or morning 
star ; called Hesperus, when it 
appears after sunset in the west. 
According to some mythologists, 
Lucifer was the son of Jupiter 
and Aurora. \n the text, Lucifer 
stands for dies. Quintus uhi cequo- 
reisnitidum jubar e.teritaquis Cyn- 
thius, en primi tcmpura veris eunt. 

151. Restant tibi frigora. 

' As yet the trembling year is unconfirm'd. 
And winter oft at eve resumes the breeze. 
Chills the pale morn, and bids the driving 

Deform the day delightless.' — 

Thomson's Spring, 18. 

153. Tertia nox. The third of 
the ides. Custodem-Ursa:. Arc- 
tophylax, from Gr. a^ (puXdr- 
Tiit, quia Arcton vel ursam custo- 
dit, or Bootes, a constellation 
into which Areas, the son of Ju- 
piter and Callisto, was changed. 

1 54. Geminos exseruisse pedes. 
Consequently on the third of the 
ides, Arcturus, between the legs 
of Bootes, becomes visible. It 
is a star of the first magnitude, 
near the tail of Ursa Major, 
whence the name Arcturus is de- 
rived, from Gr. cc^ktos, ursa, and 
ol^ec, Cauda. 

155. Hamadryadas. From the 
Greek, a^a, simul, and S^t/,-, quer- 
cus. Nymphs who presided over 
trees, with which they were said 
to live and die. It is reported of 
Areas, see supr. 153, that while 
engaged in the chace, he found a 
Hamadryad in danger of perishing, 
in consequence of the tree which 
she inhabited being nearly carried 
away by the violent current of a 
river. Areas changed its course, 
and the nymph, Prospelea, grate- 
ful for her safety, married her de- 
liverer, and bore him two sons, 
Elatusand Aphidas. Jucidatricein 
'lo;yiai'>'xi. Honi. 




Callisto sacri pars fuit una chori. 
Signa propinqua micant. Prior est, quam diclmus Arcton : 

Arctophylax formam terga sequentis liabet. 
Saevit adhuc, canamque rogat Saturnia Tethyn, 

Maenaliam tactis ne lavet Arcton aquis. 160 

Idibus agrestis fumant altaria Fauni, 

Hie ubi discretas insula rumpit aquas. 

156. Callisto, Daughter of Ly- 
caon, king of Ai-cadia. See infr. 
N. 157. Pars una. One, i. e. Cal- 
listo was one of the sacred band 
consisting of Hamadryad?, and 
their leader, the arclieress Diana. 

157. Signa. The constellations 
Arctophylax and Arctus,or Great 
Bear. Callisto was changed into 
a bear by Juno who was jealous 
of her having attracted the at- 
tention of Jupiter by her singular 
Leauty. While in this form on 
earth she was near being killed by 
her son Areas, who met her when 
hunting in the woods ; Jupiter 
then placed her as a constellation 
in the heavens. Propinqua mi- 
cant. Shine close to each other. 

159. ScEvit adhuc. She, sc. 
Saturnia, is still incensed. So 
Virgil, • Sffivas memorem Junonis 
ob iram.' j^neid, i. 4. Canam- 
gue — Tethyn. Tethys was the 
daughter of Uranus and Terra, 
and wife of Oceanus. She was 
considered the mother of the 
deities, hence, canam and Oceanus 
the father 'ilKtaviv n, hcHv yimiriv, fji-nri^a. Tfifvv. Iliad, xiv. 302. 

160. McEnaliam. From Msena- 
lus a mountain of Arcadia where 
Callisto was born. Ne lavet. So 
Virgil, ' Arctos Oceani metuentes 
ajquore tingi.' Georg. i. 246. 

"A^KTov 6\ riti xcu a,fJLa\a,t IwiKXufiv 

' Ht' auTOU (TT^KpiTCCI, KCU 7"' 'iloiuyx 

O'/jj 3' af/,fi./>po; iffri Xotr^uv UKtavoio- 
Iliad xviii. 487. 

161. Idibus. On the ides, the 
thirteenth of February, sacrifices 
were offered to Faunus, during 
the festival Faunalia. Faunus was 
the son of Picus and grandson of 
Saturn ; see Virg. ^neid, vii. 
48. He is said to have reigned in 
Italy B.C. 1300, and was cele- 
brated for his wisdom and prophe- 
tical skill ; he was worshipped as 
a deity after his decease, and con- 
sulted for oracles ; Virg. JEneid, 
vii. 81, et seq. He built a temple 
in honour of Pan at the foot of 
the Palatine hill. He is frequent- 
ly called Sylvanus, and is by some 
supposed to be the same with Pan; 
see infr. 236. 

162. Insula. See i. 292. The 
Tiberina Insula Sacra, an island 
at the mouth of the Tiber formed 
by its being divided into two 
branches; discretas rumpit aquas ; 
consecrated to iEsculapius, who 
in the form of a serpent came 
from Epidaurus, and was wor- 
shipped as a deity, after he had 
landed upon it. It was formed 
according to Livy, by heaps of 
straw having been thrown into 
the river from the fields of Tar- 
quin, which settling there, and 
becoming firm and solid from the 
rapid accumulation of other mat- 
ter, afforded a foundation for 
temples and porticoes. 




HiEC fuit ilia dies, in qua Veientibus arvis 

Ter centum Fabii, ter cecidere duo. 
Una domus vires et onus susceperat Urbis ; 

Sumunt gentiles arma professa manus. 
Egreditur castris miles generosus ab isdera, 

E quels dux fieri quilibet aptus erat ; 
Carmentis portal dextro via proxima Jano est : 

Ire per banc noli, quisquis es ; omen habet. 
[Ilia fama refert Fabios exisse trecentos : 

Porta vacat culpa ; sed tamen omen habet.] 
Ut celeri passu Cremeram tetigere rapacem. 



1G3, HcEcfuit ilia dies. Ovid 
mentions the ides of Feb. as the 
day upon which the calamitous 
destruction of the Fabii occurred ; 
Livy writes as follows, ' Turn de 
diebus religiosis agitari cseptum, 
diemque ad xv kalendas Sex tiles, 
duplici clade insignem, quo die ad 
Cremeram Fabii ccesi, quo deinde 
ad Alliam cum exitio urbis (cede 
pugnatum, a postcriore clade Al- 
liensem appellarunt, &c. Lib. iv. 
sub. init. Veientibus. Veii was 
a city of Etruria, the constant 
and powerful rival of Rome, si- 
tuated on a steep and lofty rock. 
It was taken after a siege of ten 
years by Camillus. 

16-4. Fabii. A noble and nu- 
merous family at Rome, so called 
from faba, because some of their 
ancestors had extensively culti- 
vated pulse. They were said to 
be descended from Fabius, a sup- 
posed son of Hercules by an Ita- 
lian or Arcadian nymph. They 
took upon themselves to carry on 
the war against the Veientes, 
and after considerable successes 
were at length surprised, and in a 
general engagement near the Cre- 
mera the whole family, with oue 
exception, consisting of 306 meu 

were slain, B. C. 477. Liv, ii. 

165. Vires et onus. Because 
the Republic was in need both 
of money and men, and the Fa- 
bii, utta domus, undertook to sup- 
ply both of themselves. 

166. Sumunt gentiles, ^c. The 
hands of a family, or clan, take up 
the arms pledtred to their coun- 
try's safety, ar ma professa. Forcel. 

169. Carmentis porta, Sfc. The 
passage of the gate Carmenta is 
ne.xt to the temple of Janus which 
is on the right hand, i.e. of those 
going out of the city. Carmmti. 
Ursin. Mazar. Zulich. The Por- 
ta Carmentalis used to be called 
Veientina, and Tarpeia, from its 
vicinity to the Capitol. After 
the destruction of the Fabii it was 
always called Scelerata. 

170. Omen. sc. malum. It is 
unlucky. Quisquis es ; omen liab. 
Qucefera nomen hab. Ursin. 

173. Cremeram. A river of 
Tuscany, falling into the Tiber, 
a little to the north of Rome, 
and not far from Veii. Rapacem. 
sc. Rapidam, because of its being 
swollen by the winter rains. Te- 
tigere. Teiiuere. Al. see Fast. iii. 



(Turbidus hibernis ille fluebat aquis) 
Castra loco ponunt : destrictis ensibus ipsi 175 

Tyrrhenum valido marte per agmen eunt. 
Non aliter, quam cum Libyca de rupe leones 

Invadunt sparsos lata per arva greges. 
Diffugiunt hostes, inhonestaque vulnera tergo 

Accipiunt ; Tusco sanguine terra rubet. 180 

Sic iterum, sic saepe cadunt. Ubi vincere aperte 

Non datur, insidias armaque caeca parant. 
Campus erat ; campi claudebant ultima colles, 

Silvaque montanas occulere apta feras. 
In medio paucos, armentaque rara relinquunt ; 185 

Caetera virgultis abdita turba latet. 
Ecce, velut torrens imdis pluvialibus auctus, 

Aut nive, quaj zephyro victa repente fluit, 
Per sata, perque vias fertur ; nee, ut ante solebat, 

Riparura clausas margine finit aquas : 190 

Sic Fabii latis vallem discursibus implent : 

Quosque vident, spernunt : nee metus alter inest. 
Quo ruitis, generosa domus ? male creditur hosti ; 

Simplex nobilitas, perfida tela cave. 

175. Destrictis, S^-c. Their 
swords unsheathed, they penetrate 
with undaunted bravery the Tus- 
can troops. 

177. Lihycd. Mauritania, a re- 
gion of Libya in Africa was re- 
markable for its breed of lions; 
so Horace, ' Nee Jubae tell us tre- 
nerat, leonum Arida nutrix.* Od. 
i. -22—15. 

179. Inhonesta. Dishonorable, 
because received in flight. Ter- 
go. In the back, to which is op- 
posed ' pectus percussithonestum,' 
and 'vulnera ipso loco decora.' 
Tacit. Homer likewise srenerally 
applies the epithet zroriiri; to one 
who (alls by an honorable wound, 
and v-nrrio; in the opposite sense. 
Vulnera accipiunt. So ^'^irgil, 
' Nee vulnera tergo Accipiunt.' 
uSneid, iii. 

18 L Sic iterum. The Fabii 
obtained repeated victories, so 
that the Veientes were oblijjed to 
employ stratagem, insidias arma- 

que c(Bca, with an enemy to whom 
they were unequal in courage, 
though far superior in numbers in 
the field. 

183. Ultima. The limits. 

184. Occulere. To conceal. 
Occulo-is-ui ; from oh and cola, 
i.e. colendo sive arandu teijere. 

185. Paucos. A few men. Ar- 
mentaque rara. Herds here and 
there ; to entice the enemy to 

186. Turha. The main body 
of the Tuscan army. Latent. 

18S. Zephyro victa. Thawed 
by the west wind. 

190. Finil. Restrains, confines. 

192. Quosque vident spernunt. 
They make light of the few who 
were visible. Aec metus alter inest. 
They had no apprehension from 
any other quarter. 

194. Simplex nobilitas. Higli 
birth is unsuspecting, bew.-vre the 
weapons of treachery. 


Fraude perit virtus ; in apertos undique campos 1 95 

Prosiliunt hostes, et latus omne tenent. 
Quid faciant pauci contra tot millia fortes ? 

Quidve, quod in misero tempore restet, habent ? 
Sicut aper silvis longe Lauren tibus actus 

Fulmineo celeres dissipat ore canes ; 200 

Mox tamen ipse perit : sic non moriuntur inulti ; 

Vulneraque alterna dantque feruntque manu. 
Una dies Fabios ad bellum niiserat omnes, 

Ad bellum missos perdidit una dies. 
Ut tamen Herculea; superessent semina gentis, 205 

Credibile est ipsos consuluisse Deos. 
Nam puer impubes, et adhuc non utilis armis, 

Unus de Fabia gente relictus erat. 
Scilicet ut posses olim tu, Maxime, nasci ; 

Cui res cunctando restituenda foret. 210 

198. Quidve, {f-c. What expe- 
dient have they that may avail 
them in this distressing junc- 

199. Longe — actus. Driven to a 
distance. Laurentibus. Lauren- 
turn was a town of Latium, sup- 
posed to be the residence of the 
ancient kings Picus, Faunus, and 
Latinus. It derived its name 
from an adjoining grove of bay- 
trees midway between Ostia and 
Antium. See Virt], JEneid, vii. 
5^, for a different origin of the 
title. It is supposed to have stood 
where San Lorenzo is now, which 
seems to be confirmed from the 
Via Laurentina leading to it from 
Rome. It was celebrated for 
boars, 'Inter qua? rari Lauren- 
tern ponderis aprum, Misimus.' 
Martial. Epi'jr. ix. 19. ' Nam 
Laurens (sc. aper,) malus est, 
ulvis et aruudine pinguis.' Horat. 
Sat. ii. 4. 

200. Fulmineo. Fierce. • Ful- 
minei sic dente sues.' Stat, Sylv, 

205. Herculea gentis. See supr. 
N. 164. 

206. Ipsos considuisse, SfC. — 
That the gods themselves pro- 
vided, &c. 

207. Impubes — eris. adj. Of 
tender years. 

209. Olim. In time to come. 
Maxime. From the single survi- 
vor of the Fabian family, unus 
de Fabia gente, descended Q. Fa- 
bius Maximus, who, in the second 
Punic war, a. u. 536, after the 
destruction of the Consul Fla- 
minius and his array at Thrasi- 
mene, a lake of Etruria near Pe- 
rusia, was appointed Prodictator. 
He did not, like his predecessors 
in command, take the field against 
Hannibal, but continually harassed 
and weakened his army by coun- 
termarches and ambuscades; hence 
he was called Cunctator, cunc- 
tando, from his declining to en- 
gage the enemy openly, ' Unus 
homo nobis cunctando restituit 
rem. Ennius. 





CoNTiNUATA loco tria sidera, Corvus et Anguis 

Et medius Crater inter utrumque jacet. 
Idibus ilia latent ; oriuntur nocte sequenti : 

Quae sibi cur tria sint consociata, canam. 
Forte Jovi festum Phoebus solenne parabat ; 215 

(Non faciet longas fabula nostra moras) 
' I niea,' dixit, ' avis, ne quid pia sacra moretur ; 

' Et tenuem vivis fontibus afFer a(|uam.' 
Corvus inaiu'atum pedibus cratera recurvis 

ToUit, et aerium pervolat altus iter. 220 

Stabat adhuc duris ficus densissima pomis : 

Tentat earn rostro ; non erat apta legi. 
Immemor imperii sedisse sub arbore fertur, 

Dum fierent tarda dulcia poma mora. 
Jamque satur nigris longum rapit unguibus hydrum, 225 

Ad dominumque redit ; fictaque verba refert : 
' Hie mihi causa mora; vivarum obsessor aquarum ; 

' Hie tenuit fontes officiumque meum.' 
' Addis,' ait, ' culpa? mendacia,' Phoebus, ' et audes 

Fatidicum verbis fallere velle Deum ? 230 

' At tibi, dum lactens haerebit in arbore ficus, 

211. Continuata loco. Contigu- 
ous ; from, or in, their situation ; 
or loco might allude to these con- 
stellations having succeeded to 
the position which had been occu- 
pied by Cancer, Leo, and Virgo. 

213. Ilia sc. sidera. Nocte se- 
quenti. XVI. Kal. Mart. 

217. 3fea avis. See Fast. i. N. 
290. The crow was under the 
protection of Apollo on account 
of its auguries. Fast. i. n. 180. 
« Planget Phoebeius ales.' Stat. ii. 
Sih'ar. de Corv. 

218. Et tenuem, Sfc. And bring 
a little water from the gushing 

219. Corvus, Sf'c. The crow 
takes up a gilded goblet in his 
crooked talons, and soars aloft on 
his aiirial route. 

221. Adhuc duris pomis. With 
fruit as yet unripe. 

222. Non erat apta legi. It was 
not easy to be gathered ; because 
of its unripeness. 

223. Imperii. Of the direction 
he had received from Apollo. 

22.3. Hi/drum. From Gr. 5S»», 
aqua ; a water-snake. 

226. Fictaque verba rejert. 
And makes a feigned excuse. 

227. Vivarum obsessor aquarum. 
The keeper of the living springs. 

228. Hie tenuit, Sfc. He with- 
held tiie waters, and the fullilment 
of my task. 

230. Verbis, Versis. Mazar. 
Veris, Hamburg. Veri, Al. 

231. Lactens. The Latins call- 
ed the juice of a green fig lac, 
vdlli i the Greeks, ozri; aud a-raxr»). 



' De nuUo gelidas fonte bibantvir aqiise.' 
Dixit ; et, antiqui monumenta perennia facti, 

Anguis, Avis, Crater, sidera juncta micant. 
Tertia post Idus niidos Ai;rora Lupercos 

Adspicit: et Fauni sacra bicornis eunt. 
Dicite, Pierides, sacrorum quae sit origo : 

Attigerint Latios iinde petita domos. 
Pana denm pecoris veteres coluisse feruntur 

Arcades ; Arcadiis plurimus ille jugis. 
Testis erit Plioloe, testes Stymphalides undse, 

Quique citis Ladon in mare currit aquis ; 



232. De nuUo, ^-c. ' Corvi ante 
solstitium generant ; iidem segres- 
cunt sexagenis diebus, siti max- 
ime, antequam tici coquantur au- 
tumno.' Pliu. X. 12. 

233. Perennia. Patentia. Ur- 

235. Tertia Aurora. The third 
day after the ides, sc. xv. kal. 
Mart. Lupercos. ' See supr. n. 31. 

236. Pauni— bicornis. Pan is 
here called Faun us, a generic 
name of the Satyrs. Various ac- 
counts are given of this Deity's 
descent. Homer in his ' Hymns,' 
makes him tiie son of Mercury, 
goat-footed and with horns, as in 
the text : 

SWEATS fjiouixa., 
'Aiyi'Toonv, OiKipoira,, (piXoK^oroi. 

According to Epimenides, Pan 
and Areas were the twin offspring 
of Jupiter and Callisto. Herodo- 
tus makes him the son of Mer- 
cury and Penelope. Others say 
that he was the son of Penelope 
by all her suitors, whence he was 
called Pan. He was the chief 
of the rural deities ; the god of 
shepherds and the chase. See 
infr. 291. According to Polyajnus, 
he is represented as having horns, 
because he commanded the army 
of Bacchus, in the war between 
the gods and the giants, and upon 
that occasion invented the cornua, 
i.e. alas, the disfositiou of a line 

of battle -with wings. Stratagem. 
i. 2. According to others, he con- 
tinued to wear horns from the 
time that he changed himself into 
a goat to elude Typhon, having 
advised the other deities to effect 
their escape likewise by assuming 
the shape of different animals. 
See i. N. o23. For the service 
which he rendered them on this 
occasion by his prudent counsel, 
it is said that the gods in gratitude 
ranked him among the constella- 
tions by the title of Capricorn, 
Hijgin. Fab. 296. 

237. Pierides. Pierus, a moun- 
tain supposed to have given name 
to Pieria in Macedonia, lies to 
the north of Pherae in Thessaly ; 
so called from Pierus, a poet who 
is said to have been the first who 
sacrificed to the Muses, thence 
called Pierides. Schol. in Ju- 

238. Attigerint, ^c. Whence de- 
rived have they reached the Latin 

240. Plurimus. Most celebrated. 

24:1. Pholoe. A mountain of Ar- 
cadia. Sti/mphalides. Stymphalus 
was the name both of a city and 
river in Arcadia. 

242. Ladon. A small but beau- 
tiful river of Arcadia, falling 
into the Alpheus from north to 
south ; and yielding the finest 
water of all the rivers in Greece. 
It is celebrated for the story of 



Cinctaque pinetis nemoris juga Nonacrini, 
Altaque Cyllene, Parrhasia;que nives. 

Pan erat armenti custos, Pan numen equarum ; 
Munus ob incolumes ille ferebat oves. 

Transtulit Evander silvestria numina secum. 
Hie, ubi nunc urbs est, turn locixs urbis erat. 

Inde Deura colimus, devectaque sacra Pelasgis. 


Syrinx, daughter of the Ladon, 
who, in order that she might es- 
cape the importunities of Pan, 
was changed hy the gods into a 
reed, called by the Greeks irv^iyl, 
syrinx; Ovid. Metam, i. V. 691. 
Martial, ix. ep. 63. 

243. Cinclaqve Pinetis. Cinc- 
taque Spinetis. Al. Encircled with 
groves of pine. Nonacrini. No- 
nacris was a town of Arcadia 
which with two others, Callia 
and Diponsfi, was called Tripolis. 
It was famous for its pestilential 
spring, the Styx; the water of 
which, it is said, could not he 
contained in any vessel but one 
formed of the hoof of a mule. 
Vitruv. V. 3- 

244. Cyllene. A lofty moun- 
tain of Arcadia on the summit 
of which stood the temple of 
Mercury, thence called Cylle- 
nius, who was supposed to have 
been born there. Parrhasiceque. 
See i. 428. Nives. The snows 
on the summits of the Arcadian 

243. Numen equarum. Num. 
aquarum. Al. The latter reading 
is probably the more correct, as 
Pan is said to have been the lead- 
er of the choir of water nymphs. 
A( Se '"'e^'? fciXt^o7</i ^oooy 'Tom iff- 

't'ipKihis iv/itpai, vvfic<pcci ' Auud^vctoi;. 
He was also the god of fishermen 
as appears from the prayers to 

him contained in several Greek 
inscriptions for success in the 
craft. Sophocles also calls him 
aXizffXayKTot, per mare vagantem. 
The variety of objects under his 
tutelage is also mentioned in one 
of the hymns of Orpheus : 

/XOVl /XGX'^Tff.. 

tatTatriCfiv iTuPuiyi, tpofiav tx^ayXi 
Alyovofx-oiT X'^'i'^* "'"^ ■^ioaxa?' '/loi 
EiVxovTS ^)ii7rirh^, ^X"''^ (piXi, truy- 
liovTo:puh~i yiv'iTM^ rru.-iTui, 'JTaXuu- 

" Now lulling with sweet melody 
The weary world to rest ; 
Awaking now the panic fears 
That haunt the human breast. 
Now seeking with the thirsty flock 

The mountain-river's side ; 
Now in the herdsman's lowly cot 

Delighted to abide. 
Huntsman, keen-eyed ; whom Echo 

With lingering tones of love ; 
The chase is o'er ; the dance begun ; 
Nvmphs of the fount and grove 
Tlie leader of their revels call. 

To grace the flowery sod ; 
Parent of ocean. Lord of all ; 

Pan, many-tilled God." 

c. s. s. 

247. Transtulit. Transferred ; 
on his removal to Latium. Syl- 
vestria numina. The sylvan dei- 
ties, Pan, &c. 

249. Pelasgis. i. e. The Arca- 
dians. Arcadia was anciently 
called Pelasgia, Lycaonia, 8cc. 


Flamen ad haec prisco more Dialis erat. 250 

Cur igitur currant ; et cur, sic currere mos est, 

Nuda ferant posita corpora veste, rogas ? 
Ipse deus velox discurrere gaudet in altis 

Montibus, et subitas concitat ille feras. 
Ipse deus nudus nudos jubet ire ministros : 255 

Nee satis ad cursum commoda vestis erat. 
Ante Jovem genitum terras habuisse feruntur 

Arcades : et Luna gens prior ilia fuit. 
Vita ferse similis, nullos agitata per usus : 

Artis adhuc expers, et rude vulgus erant. 260 

Pro domibus frondes norant, pro f'rugibus herbas : 

Nectar erat palmis hausta duabus aqua. 
Nullus anhelabat sub adunco vomere taurus : 

Nulla sub iniperio terra colentis erat : 
Nullus adhuc erat usus equi : se quisque ferebat. 265 

250. Ad hcEc. In the perform- 
ance of these rites, the priest of 
Jupiter was engaged, erat, ac- 
cording to the old custom. This 
was not objectionable as it might 
appear to be ; for P^n, like Ju- 
piter, was considered the repre- 
sentative of universal nature, and 
was therefore entitled to some 
respect, sc. the attendance of the 
Flamen Dialis. Adhuc. Al. 

252. Sic. sc. Posita ve*te. 

253. Ipse Deus velox, &;c. The 
active god himself delights to 
course over the lofty mountains, 
and he pursues the startled game. 
Some explain concitat, he terrifies, 
in allusion to the terror. zrxmKa, or 
'Ha.iiKa. 'Siiuecra, panic fears, which 
Pan could excite. Concipit fugas. 
Ursin. Concipit feras. Al. 

255. Jubet ire. Amat ire. Cod. 

258. Luna prior. See i. N. 
419. It is supposed by some that 
this was the origin of the cres- 
cent having been worn upon the 
buskins of senators and their 
sons at Rome, as a symbol of 
their high descent, Siat. Si/lv. v. 

2. 28. ' Felix, et sapiens, et no- 
bilis, et generosus, Appositam 
nigrse lunam suhtexit alutse.' Ju- 
venal, v'n. 191. According to 
others the c which was worn on 
the senators' buskins was a sign 
of the number, centum, of which 
that body was originally com- 

259. FercE. sc. vita ferince — 
Abulias, ^-c. Passed without any 
social intercourse. So Horace, 

' Mutum et turpe pecus.' Sat, i._ 

3, 100. Tolls Se «I aj;t^f yiynfitmi 
TsJ» ki^pu-xuv (pao'iy t» a,ra,x.Tu xai 
fnoiuhii filio KahtruTxs, &C. Diod. 
Sicul. i. 

260. Artis adhuc, ^'C. They 
were still an uncivilized and un- 
couth crowd. Adhuc. Ad hoc. 

261. Pro domibus, §-c. They 
used the boughs of trees for their 
abodes, and weeds instead of 

262. Palmis duabus. In the 
hollow of both hands. 

265. Usus equi. Bellerophon is 
said to have first taught the use 
of the horse. 




Ibat ovis lana corpus amicta sua. 
Sub Jove durabant, et corpora nuda gerebant, 

Docta graves imbres et tolerare Notos. 
Nunc quoque detecti referunt monumenta vetusti 

Moris, et antiquas testificantur opes. 270 

Cornipedi Fauno ca;sa de more capella 

Venit ad exiguas turba vocata dapes. 
Dumq le sacerdotes verubus transuta salignis 

Exta parant, medias sole tenente vias ; 
Romulus, et frater, pastoralisque juventus, 275 

Solibus et campo corpora nuda dabant : 
(Caestibiis, et jaculis, et missi pondere saxi 

Brachia per lusus experienda dabant.) 
Pastor ab excelso. Per devia rura juvencos, 

Romule, pra^dones, eripe, dixit, agunt. 280 

Longum erat armari. Diversis exit uterque 

Partibus. Accursu praeda recepta Rami. 
Ut rediit, verubus stridentia detrahit exta : 

26G. Lana sua. Because there 
was no need for their being 

,.. 267. Sub Jove durabant. They 
used to dwell, or persevered in 
dwellinef. ia the open air. So Ho- 
race, ' Manet sub Jove frigido 
Venator* Od. i. 2.3—6. 

268. I^otos. From Gr. viroi, 
humor. The south winds. 

269. Detecti. i. e. The Luperci, 
naked, restore the memorial of 
an antique usacfe, and give evi- 
dence of their old resources. 

271. Cornipedi Fauno. The 
poet proceeds to give another 
reason for the priests of Pan 
being naked at the celebration of 
his festival. Cervipedi. Zulich. 
CoEsa capella. A goat was sacri- 
ficed to Pan because of his having 
feet like that animal. 

273. Verubus. Spits or broaches. 
Gr. if:>0.os. a versando. \'^arr. 
Sali(}nis. Made of willow or sal- 

274. Exta. From exsecta, th. 
SCGO. Medias, §"c. At noon-dav, 

Tenente dies. Zulich. Mazar. Voss. 

276. Campo. So. Ludis or Pul- 
veri. The Campus Martius was 
an extensive plain along the Ti- 
ber where the Roman youth used 
to exercise. It belonged origi- 
nally to the Tarquins, ' Superbi 
regis ager.' Juvenal, vi. 523, and 
after their expulsion was conse- 
crated to Mars. Lit: ii. 5. It was 
frequently called Kar l?,o;^t:v, Cam- 
pus, The plain, Horat. Od. iii. 1,10. 

277. Castibus. Gauntlets, a 
ccedendo. Tiiey were a species of 
gloves, chirothecce, which had lead 
or iron sewed into tbem to make 
the blow more effective from th» 
weight of its fall. Virtf. jEneid, 
V. 379, 400. Jaculis. So Virgil, 
' Spicula contorquent, cursuque 
ictuque lacessunt.' JEneid, vii. 
165. Missi pondere saxi. Gr. 
XiSo^'oXai. The stone may have 
been thrown from the hand or 
discharged from a sling. 

280. Eripe. Rescue them. 
283. Detrahit. Delulit. Voss. 
Arond. Mazar. 



Atque ait, Haec certe non nisi victor edet. 
Dicta facit, Fabiique siniul. Venit irritus illuc 

Romulus, et mensas ossaque nuda videt. 
Risit, et indoluit Fabios notuisse Remunique 

Vincere, Quinctilios non potuisse suo- 
Fama manet facti ; posito velamine currunt, 

Et memorem famam, quod bene cessit, liabet. 




FoRSiTAN et quaeras, cur sit locus ille Lupercal ; 

Quaeve diem tali nomine causa notet. 
Ilia Vestalis caelestia semina partu 

Ediderat, patruo regna tenente suo. 
Is jubet auferri parvos, et in amne necari. 

Quid facis ? ex istis Romulus alter erit. 
Jussa recusantes peragunt lachrymosa ministri ; 


285. Fabiique simul. The Fabii 
were the associates of Remus, 
the Quinctilii of Romulus, 

288. Non potuisse. sc. vincere. 

290. Et memorem, SjC. And that 
which had a prosperous result, 
has also permanent renown. 

29 1 . Lupercal. The place where 
Pan was worshipped, so called 
fromLuperci; see supr. 31, and 
infr. 331. It was a cave in the 
Palatine hill, consecrated to this 
deity by Evander. Lyc«eus,from 
Gr. Xuxor, lupus, a mountain of 
Arcadia is said also to have been 
dedicated to Pan, as the guardian 
of flocks ; whence Virgil, ' Geii- 
da monstrat sub rnpe Lupercal, 
Parrhasio dictum Panos do more 
Lycsei. ^Eneid, viii. 342. Luper- 
cal, besides the origin assigned to 
the term in the text may be de- 
rived from luere, i. e. sacrificare, 
caprum, because of their sacrificing 
a goat to Pan in the place already 
mentioned, or from luere, i. e. ex- 
plore per caprum, to make atone- 
ment by such a sacrifice. 

292. Quave. Sfc. Or what 
cause distinguishes the day by 
such a title, sc. LvpcrculiT.. Tan- 
to 7iomine, conj. IJeins. 

293. Ilia. Called also Rhea, 
daughter of Numi tor king of Alba. 
Vestalis. She was devoted to the 
service of Vesta by Amulius her 
uncle, who usurped the sovereign- 
ty of Alba and banished his bro- 
ther, in order that slie might not 
by becoming a mother endanger 
his tenure of the crown. His pre- 
cautions were unavailing, as she 
gave birth to twins, of whom she 
asserted Mars to be the father, 
hence calestia semina. She was 
buried alive — the punishment in- 
flicted upon Vestal Virgins, who 
were convicted of a violation of 
their vows of ciiastity — on the 
banks of the Tiber, whence Ho- 
race ' uxorius amnis.' Od. i. 2. 20. 

296. Quid facis. This may be 
taken either as a remonstrance 
against tiie act, or to show the 
futility of the usurper's designs. 

297. Recusantes. Reluctant, 



Flent tamen, et geminos in loca jussa ferunt. 
Albula, quern Tiberin mersus Tiberiniis in unda 

Reddidit, hibernis forte tumebat aquis ; 
Hic, ubi nunc Fora sunt, lintres errare videres ; 

Quaque jacent valles, Maxime Circe, tuae. 
Hue ubi venerunt, nee jam procedere possunt 

Longius ; ex illis unus, an alter, ait : 
' At quam sunt similes ! at quam formosus uterque 

' Plus tamen ex illis iste vigoris habet. 
' Si genus arguitur vultu, ni fallit imago, 



298. Et geminos. Ut geminos, 
would be the better reading. Loca 
jussa. Loca sola. Heins. 

299. Albula. The ancient name 
of the Tiber ; so called from the 
whiteness of its waters, albis aquis. 
It was called Tiber after Tiberi- 
Bus Sylvius, successor to Capetus 
as king of the Albans, who was 
drowned in it. 

301. Fora. Sc. The Forum 
Boarium, &c. The river was so 
swollen by the winter rains that 
it overflowed the city ; So Horace, 
' vagus et sinistra Labitur ripa.' 
Od. i. 2. 18. 

302. Maxime Circe. The Cir- 
cus Maximus was built by Tar- 
quinius Priscus, and afterwards 
at different times considerably 
enlarged and beautified. It was 
situated between the Palatine and 
Aventine hills, whence, quaque 
jacent valles tuce. It was a mile 
in circumference, and surrounded 
by a dyke or canal, called Euri- 
pus, ten feet broad, and equally 
deep ; it had also porticoes three 
stories high, a-roai ronrTiyat ; both 
improvements designed and exe- 
cuted by Julius Csesar. It is said 
to have contained at least 150,000 
persons, Dionys. iii. 68 ; accord- 
ing to Pliny, 250,000. Plin.xxxvu 
15. s. 24. Here all the games and 
shews were celebrated, in which 
the Romans of all classes took 
such interest and delight. ' Duas 
tantum res anxixs (Populus E.) 

optat, Panem, et Circenses.' — 
Juvenal. Sat. x, 80. It was very 
generally frequented by sharpers 
and fortune-tellers, sortilegi or di- 
vijii, jugslers, prcEstigiatores. &c. ; 
hence ' Fallacem Circum.' Horat. 
Sat. i. 6. 113. It is said to have 
been called Circus, in honour of 
Circe the daughter of the sun, 
to whom it was consecrated; 
whence also, according to some, 
its name Apollinaris; which Livy, 
however, assigns to the Circus 
Flaminius on account of a tem- 
ple of Apollo in its vicinity. 
Liv. iii. 54, 63. There were se- 
veral others, Circus Vaticanus, 
&c. to which may be added those 
built by the emperor Nero, Ta- 
cit. Ann. xiv. Caracalla, Helio- 
gabalus, &c. 

304. Longius. They could pro- 
ceed no further on account of the 
swelling of the river. Ex illis, sc. 
7ni7iistris. One, or, an, another 
of the attendants says. So • Sau- 
cius, an sanus, numquid tua signa 
reliqui.'iv. 7. 

305. At. And yet how like 
they are. At, is an adversative 
conjunction derived from and equi- 
valent to the Gr. ara^, Voss. in 
Etymol. ' Una mater oppugnat, 
at quae mater ?' Cic. pro. Cluent. 
c. poenult. In the text it is ex- 
pressive of admiration and Com- 

306. Jste. Sc. Romulus. 

307. Ni fallit. Nee fallit, Heins. 


' Nescio quern vobis suspicor esse Deum. 
' At siquis vestrae Deus esset originis auctor, 

' In tarn praecipiti tempore ferret opem. 
' Ferret opem certe, si non ope mater egeret ; 

' Quae facta est uno mater et orba die, 
* Nata simul, peritura sinuxl, simul ite sub undas 

' Corpora.' Desierat, deposuitque sinu. 
Vagierunt clamore pari ; sentire putares. 

Hi redeunt udis in sua tecta genis. 
Sustinet impositos summa cavus alveus unda : 

Heu quantum fati parva tabella vehit ! 
Alveus in limo, silvis appulsus opacis, 

Paulatim fluvio deficiente, sedet. 
Arbor erat, remanent vestigia ; quasque vocatur 

Rumina nunc ficus, Romula ficus erat. 
Venit ad expositos (mirum !) lupa foeta gemellos : 




Imago, qu. Imilago from Imitor, 
or tVotn hy/ia th. 'iixu similis sum. 

310. PrcEcipiti. ' Sed nee Di 
nee homines, aut ipsam (matrem) 
aut stirpem a crudelitate regia 
vindicant : Sacerdos ipsa in cus- 
todiam datur; pueros in proflu- 
entem aquam mitti jubet.' Liv. 

311. Ferret opem, &rc. Your 
mother surely would bring' you 
aid were she not herself ia need 
of help, who has in one day been 
made a mother and childless. 

314. Corpora. Piynora, Patav. 
and Heins. Sinu. In the creek 
formed by the flood. 

315. Sentire ptitares. You 
would think that they were con- 
scious of their fate. 

317. Cavus alveus. The hol- 
low wooden trough. 

318. Quantum fati. In allusion 
to the foundation of the Roman 
empire by Romulus and its sub- 
sequent splendour. Parva tabella. 
Carta tab. Heins. The small 
plank, so. alveus ; ' Et tabula 
distinguitur unda.' Juvenal, xiv. 

319. Appulsus. Having ap- 

322. Rumina ficus. Poetically 
for R ami nalis ficus. This name is 
either a corruption of the original 
Romularis ; or it may be derived 
from ruma or rumen, i. e. mamma, 
a teat or pap, and so called in 
remembrance of the twins havintj 
been found under this iig-lree 
and suckled by a wolf. ' Gemi- 
nos huic ubera circum Ludere 
pendentes pueros, et lambere 
matrem Impavidos;' Virg. ^^neid, 
viii. 631 et seq. : According to 
some it is derived from rumen, 
the throat, because under the 
shade of this tree the cattle used 
to chew the cud, ruminare. The 
words remanent vestigia, 321, can- 
not be more aptly commented 
upon than by the folli wing pas- 
sage ' Eodem anno Rumiualem 
arborem iu comitio, quje super 
octingentos et quadraginta ante 
annos Remi Romulique infantiani 
texerat, mortuis ramalibus, et 
arescente trunco derninutam, pro- 
digii loco habitura est, donee in 

fatus reviresceret.' Tacit, in fin. 
siii. Ann. 

323. Fata, Newly delivered. 



Quis credat pueris non nocuisse feram ? 
Non nocuisse parum est ; prodest quoque. Quos lupa nutrit, 

Prodere cognatte sustinuere manus ! [325 

Constitit, et cauda teneris blanditur alumnis, 

Et fingit lingua corpora bina sua. 
Marte satos scires ; timor abfuit : ubera ducunt, 

Et sibi permissi lactis aluntur ope. 330 

Ilia loco nomen fecit, locus ipse Lupercis : 

Magna dati nutrix praemia lactis habet. 
Quid vetat Arcadio dictos a monte Lupercos ? 

Faunus in Arcadia tenipla Lyca;us habet. 

326. Prodere. To consign to 
death. Perdere. Al. 

328. Et fingit, Sfc. So Virgil, 
' Illam tereti cervice reflexam 
Mulcere alternos, et corpora fin- 
gere lingua.' ^tieid, viii. 633, et 

331. A'omen. Sc. Lupercal. Lu- 
percis. See supr. 31, for the 
generally received origin of the 
term. Plutarch derives it as 
above, .331. This opinion, how- 
ever, is justly controvertetl by 
Livy and Dionysius of Halicar- 
nassus who state that the Luperci 
and Lupercalia were introduced 
into Italy by Evauder, which is 
still further borne out by Virgil, 
jEneid, viii. 343. It is not 
easy to perceive how a festival 
in honour of Pan could be so 
far identified with that which 
was said to be celebrated in re- 
membrance of the wolf that 
suckled Romulus and Remus, as 
that the latter should merge al- 
together into the former, which, 

admitting the former opinion, 
must appear to be the case at 
once to any who inquire into the 
nature and details of this re- 
markable rite. 

332. Magna pramin. In the 
reputation attached to her name. 
This whole fable is said to have 
arisen from the surname Lupa, 
by which, in consequence of the 
levity of her conduct, the wife of 
P'austiiliis the preserver of the 
twins, was generally designated. 

333. Quid vetat, 6:0. The poet 
proposes another etymology for 
Lupercus, from the analogy be- 
tween the term and Lycaeus, the 
one being derived from lupus, as 
the other from Xvxi;- 

334. Fannus i?i Arcadia, Sf'c. 
Lycaon, the son of Pelasgus, 
and the first sovereign of Arcadia, 
contemporary of Cecrops king 
of Athens, is said to have been 
the founder of the Lupercalia 
which he celebrated with great 




Orta dies fiierit, tu desine credere ventis ; 335 

Prodidit illius temporis aura fidem. 
Flamina non constant : et sex reserata diebus 

Carceris ^olii janua lata patet. 


Jam levis obliqua subsidit Aquarius urna : 

Proxim\is aethereos excipe, Piscis, equos. 340 

Te memorant fratremque tuum (nam juncta micatis 

335. Orta diesfuerit. The poet 
having explained fully the origin 
and details of the Lupercalia, 
proceeds to treat of the days, 
their succession and character. 
Dies. The day on which the Lu- 
percalia was celebrated, xv. Kal. 
Mart. Feb. loth. On this day 
the sun entered the sign Pisces, 
see infr. 340, and the winds were 
variable for the six following days. 
Fuerit. Fuerat. Heins. 

336. Prodidit fidem. Sc. Is not 
to be trusted, from its inconstancy. 

337. Non constant. Are un- 

338. Carceris j3Solii. So Virgil, 
' Huic vasto rex jEolus antro 
Luctantes ventos tempestatesque 
sonoras Imperio preinit, ac vin- 
clis ac carcere frenat,' j^ueid, i. 

30. A'/aXs» offT ccyi/mis ai^^rtyiviiff- 

■stolr^fft K^av/wv* Argon, iv 765. 
^olus was the son of Jupiter by 
Acesta or Sergesta, the daughter 
of Hippotas, a Trojan, whence 
he is called Hippotades. He was 
king of Lipara and the adjoining 
islands, called after him JEolian, 
situated between Italy and Sicily. 
One of these, Strongyle ; from 
Gv. (rr^oyyos, round, now Strom- 
boli; being volcanic, it is said 
that the ancient inhabitants could 
tell from the smoke, three days 

before, what wind should blow, 
hence the fable that JEolus was 
king or god of the wind». 

339. Levis. From Gr, Xsw;;, 
cortex J relieved or unburthened 
by the sun having entered another 
sign J KoZipo;, ajiaoY,;, Obliqua. 
The urn which Aquarius held is 
turned obliquebj, or inverted, as if 
the water flowed from it towards 
Piscis. Subsidit. Sinks down ; 
expressive of languor after fatigue. 
See supr. levis. 

340. jSSthereos equos. The 
horses of the sun. Piscis. Sc. 
Boreus, so called from its look- 
ing towards the north ; its place 
is under the arm of Andromeda. 
The other fish is called Notius, 
looking towards the south ; it is 
placed below the shoulder of the 
constellation Equus. 

341. Juncta inicatis signa. The 
constellation Pisces, is called by 
Aratus ffCvdiff/jio; vi-ou^xvios ; either 
fish being connected by a band, 
or train of twelve stars, called by 
the Greeks ffuviifffio; tu]i i^fuuf 
The sign Boreus consisted of 
twelve, and Notius of seventeen 
stars. The poet narrates the 
cause of their being enrolled 
among the constellations, Te me- 
morant, Sfc. 

342. Duos Deos, Dione and 



Signa) duos tergo sustinuisse Deos. 
Terribilem quondam fugiens Typhona Dione, 

Tunc, ciim pro ccelo Jupiter arma tulit ; 
Venit ad Euphraten comitata Cupidine parvo, 

Inque Palaestinae margine sedit aquae. 
Populus et cannae riparum summa tenebant ; 

Spemque dabant sal ices, his quoque posse tegi. 
Dum latet, intonuit vento nemus ; ilia timore 

Pallet, et hostiles credit adesse manus 
Utque sinu natum tenuit, ' Succvu'rite, NymphiE, 

' Et Dis auxilium terte duobus,' ait. 
Nee mora ; prosiluit. Pisces subiere gemelli ; 

Pro quo nunc dignum sidera munus habent. 

343. Typhona. See supr. i. 523. 
Dione. Daughter of Oceanus and 
Tethys, and mother of Venus, 
with whom she is frequently iden- 
tified hy the poets, as in the text. 
345. Euphraten. A river of Asia. 
Cupidine. Cupid was the son of 
Jupiter and Venus. According to 
Hesiod, he was produced at the 
same time with Chaos and the 
Earth. He is generally represent- 
ed as a winged hoy, with a how 
and quiver, and wearing a wreath 
of roses ; in constant attendance 
upon his mother Venus. ' Fer- 
vidus tecum puer, et solutis Gra- 
tiee zonis, properentque nym- 
phae,' Horat. Od. \. 30, 4. 

346. PalcEstina aqiice. The 
Euphrates, poetically so called, 
from its hounding Syria, at the 
opposite extremity of which, next 
to Arahia Petraja, Palestine is 

347. Populus. The poplar tree, 
of which the ancients reckoned 
three species ; the hlack, a'lyu^ot, 
the white, Xivx.n, and that called 
Lybisca, the Libyan, which is our 
aspen, with a very small dark leaf. 
The poplar was sacred to Her- 
cules ; — XivKai, ' H^a.x.Xio; li^ov 'i^- 
vos. Theocrit. Idyll, ii. ; Populus 
Alcidae gratissima j Virg. Eclog. 
7. ; Herculeseque arbos umbrosa 
coronae. Georg, ii, 66, It is a fa- 



vorite tree with the poets, and is 
supposed, on account of the me- 
lancholy rustling of its leaves, 
when agitated by the breeze, to 
have been introduced into that 
matchless simile, ' Qualis populea 
mocrens Philomela sub umbra.' 
Sec. Georg. iv. 511. Canna. Canna, 
Gr. (piXi;, a reed or cane ; a species 
of the arundo, with which it is 
frequently confounded, but smaller 
and more delicate. This, as also 
the poplar and osier, thrives best 
in a marshy soil, or by a river's 

548. Salicps. Osiers or willows; 
of which there were several kinds. 
Graeca salix ; Varr. i. R. R. c. 24, 
which was of a yellow colour ; 
Amerina, called also Sabina sa- 
lix ; ' Atque Amerina parantreti- 
nacula viti,' Georg. i. 2G5, which 
was red, and the salix Gallica, of 
a faded purple, and others, which 
were distinguished by their height 
and strength. His. sc. by the wil- 
lows, &c. Uos. Al. sc. Venus and 
Cupid. Saliceshas, Maz. Zulich. 

350. Hostiles. Of the giants. 

351. Nympha. The nymphs of 
the river. 

353. Prosiluit. She plunged 
into the water, 

354. Pro quo, Sj'c. In return 
for which they, sc. Pisces gemelli, 
enjoy a constellation, a merited 



Inde nefas ducunt genus hoc imponere mensis, 
Nee violant timidi piscibus ora Syri. 



Proxima hix vacua est : at tertia dicta Quirino ; 

Qui tenet hoc nomen, Romukis ante fuit. 
Sive quod hasta Curis priscis est dicta Sabinis ; 

(BelUcus a telo venit in astra Deus) 
Sive suum regi nomen posuere Quirites ; 

Seu quia Romanis junxerat ille Cures. 
Nam pater armipotens, postquam nova moenia vidit, 

Multaque Romulea bella peracta manu, 
' Jupiter,' inquit, ' habet Romana potentia vires ; 

' Sanguinis officio non eget ilia mei. 
* Redde patri natum : quamvis intercidit alter, 

' Pro se, proque Remo, qui mihi restat, erit. 



honour, i. e. have been raised to 
the dignity of a constellation 
which they deserved. Sidera ka- 
hent, for sidus facti. So in Art, 
Amat. ' Munus habe coelum ;' 
whence some read, nunc coelum si- 
dera nomen, Nauger. Petav. Zu- 
lich. Nunc cernis sidera nomen, 

355. Inde nefas, §*c. Whatever 
be the cause, it is upon record 
that the Syrians were averse to 

tish, a-zsrt^ivi;- '"'O;, lia, ra Ivpuv 

^vn*,' Athenwus, viii. Genus, sc. 

356. Timidi. Superstitious ; 
timor is frequently used in the 
same sense with the ^tKri^aifiovia, 
of the Greeks. ' Primus in orbe 
does fecit timor.' Stat. Theb. iii. 
661. ' Quone malo nientem con- 
cussa ? timore deorum.' Horat. 
Sat. ii. 3. 295. 

357. Proxima lux. xiv. Kal. 
Mart. Feb. 1 6th. Vacua. Has no 
mark of distinction. Tertia. Xiii. 
kal. Mart. Dicta. Consecrated, 
because on this day the festival 

Quirinalia, in honour of Romulus' 
was held. 

359. Sive quod. The poet pro- 
ceeds to account for the origin of 
the name Quirinus. Sabinis. The 
Sabines called Mars also Curinus 
or Quirinus, from curis, a spear. 

360. A telo. In consequence of 
his signal achievements in war, 
Romulus was raised to the stars. 

361. Suum nomen. A name 
derived from their own. Quirites, 
The Romans. 

362. Cures. It was agreed upon 
the union of the Romans and Sa- 
bines, that the former should be 
called Quirites in honour of Ta- 
tius, king of Cures, while Rome 
should retain its original name, 
derived from its founder. 

363. Pater. Mars. Nova ma- 
nia. Rome. 

366. Sanguinis mei. Sc. Rom- 
ulus, said to have been the son of 

367. Alter. Remus, slain by 
his brother Romulus, for having 
vaulted in contempt over the new 
walls of Rome. According to 
others, he was killed by some one 
unknown in a quarrel. 



" Umis erit, quern tu tolles in caerula cceli," 

' Tu mihi dixisti : sint rata dicta Jovis.' 370 

Jupiter annuerat ; nutu treniefactus uterque 

Est polus, et cceli pondera sensit Atlas. 
Est locus, antiqui Capream dixere paludem ; 

Forte tuis illic, Romule, jura dabas. 
Sol fugit, et rernovent subeuntia nubila ccelum ; 375 

Et gravis efFusis decidit imber aquis. 
Hinc tonat, hinc missis abrumpitur ignibus aether : 

369. Tuus erit. This verse is 
copied from Ennius, where he 
treats ia his Annals of the same 
subject as that in the text. 

372. Atlas. Son of Japetus and 
Clymene, according to others of 
Asia, Asope, or Libya. He mar- 
ried Pleione, by whom he had 
seven daughters — the Pleiades, 
ranked among the constellations, 
by Jupiter. He is also said to 
have been the father of the Hy- 
ades, so called after their brother 
Hyas, who perished from the bite 
of an adder, and was so deeply 
regretted by his sisters, that they 
died of grief. They were also 
raised to the stars by Jupiter. 
Atlas was the name of a moun- 
tain in Mauritania, so high, that 
its summit was not visible, hence 
it was said that a monarch, of the 
same name and country, support- 
ed the heavens. So ^Eschylus in 
Prometh, who makes him the 
brother of Oceanus; 

ilKiay. OiiSiJT, tTii /lit Kcei xa^iyirrou 
tii^out' "ATXavras", of tpof iir^tfi- 

"ilfiOi? loiiltuv, a.^^oi' iv» iudy^aXov. 

According to others. Atlas was a 
Lybian, and an astronomer, who 
frequented a mountain, called af- 
ter him, for the purpose of making 
his observations, whence the fable 
of his bearing the firmament on 

his shoulders. Some of the poets 
describe Atlas as a sovereign of 
Hesperia, who having refused 
the rights of hospitality to Per- 
seus, in consequence of his having 
been told that he should be de- 
prived of his throne by a son of 
Jupiter, was changed into a moun- 
tain by Perseus' displaying to him 
the head of Medusa. He is said 
in the text to have been made 
conscious of the weight of the 
heavens, coeli pondera, Sfc. from 
their trembling at the nod of 
Jove. Sensit, Novit. Al. 

373. Capream paludem. (Liv. i. 
16, Caprse palus. ) A marsh, which 
lay at a short distance from Rome 
towards the sea, where Romulus 
is said to have disappeared in a 
whirlwind, while either reviewing 
his army, or promulgating laws. 
The place was afterwards called 
Caprilia. Fest, 

375. Sol fugit. According to 
the astronomical tables, this 
eclipse of the sun occurred. May 
26, A. c. 713. 

— Et rernovent. En rernovent. 

376. Imber. From Gr. o^ufi^eg ; 
' agraen aquarum largius ex con- 
cretis nubibus effusum ;' Apul. de 

^11. Hinc tonat, hinc missis. 
Intonat emissis. Mazar. Abrumpi- 
tur. Is cloven ; so Virgil, « Me- 
dium video discedere caelum.' 
jEneid, ix. 20. 



Fit fuga : rex patriis astra petebat equis. 
Luctus erat, falsaeque Patres in crimine csedis ; 

Haesissetque animis forsitan ilia fides. 
Sad Proculus Longa ven^ebat Julius Alba ; 

Lunaque fulgebat ; nee facis usus ei-at : 
Cum subito motu nubes crepuere sinistrae : 

llettulit ille gradus, horrueruntque comae. 
Pulcher, et humano major, trabeaque decorus, 

Romulus in media visus adesse via ; 



378. Fit fuga. Hence, accord- 
ing to the Greeks, this day was 
called in the old calendar, Popli- 
FUGIA, n TOiTfi Tou zrXrJous. Varr. 
V. L.L. Rex. Romulus. Patriis. 
He was borne to heaven in the 
chariot of Mars. 

379. Falsceque Patres, &,~c. ' The 
fathers were accused of an unsub- 
stantiated murder.' So Livy, 
' qui discerptum regem Patrum 
tnanibus taciti arguerent.' 

381. Proculus. A Roman, who 
pledged liimsell by an oath to the 
people, in order to satisfy their 
doubts about Romulus, that he 
had seen and heard him as des- 
cribed in the text. Longa Alba. 
A colony from Lavinium, in La- 
tium, founded by Ascanius the 
son of .^ilneas, at the foot of the 
Mons Albanus. It was called 
Alba, from the following pro- 
phecy of Helenus ; « Quum tibi 
solicito secret! ad fluminis undam 
Litoreis ingens inventa sub ilici- 
bus sus, Triginta capituni fetus 
enixa jacebit, Alba, solo recu- 
bans, albi circum ubera nati ; Is 
locus urbis erit, requies ea certa 
laborum.' Virg. JEtieid, iii. 389, 
et seq. which is further interpret- 
ed, that thirty years after the 
discovery of this white sow with 
her farrow, the city should be 
built :here. li was called Longa, 
from its lengtii, and was the royal 
residence until the building of 
Rome, as foretold by Anchises ; 
' Lavinia conjux Educet silvis 
regem, reguuique parentem : Un- 

de genus Longa nostrum domin- 
abitur Alba.' ^^neid, vi. 766. It 
was all destroyed, with the ex- 
ception of its temple, by TuUus 
Hostilius, who carried the inha- 
bitants to Rome. 

382. Lunaque Julgebat. Surge- 
bat. Petav. So Metam. viii. * Sex- 
ta resurgebant orientis cornua lu- 
nae.' Facis. Fax-acis, from Gr. 
fao), luceo. 

383. Crepuere. Thundered. 
SinistrcE. Omens on the left, in 
whatever position the augur stood, 
were generally considered lucky 
by the Romans, Plant. Pseud, ii. 
4. 72. Epid. ii. 2, 1. Stat. Theb. 
iii. 493. Serv. in Virq. j3Sneid, ii. 
693, ix. 631. Cic. Legg. iii. 3. 
Ovid. Trist. i. 8, 49 ; but some- 
times the contrary, Virg. Eclop. 
i, 18, ix. 15, Ovid. Epist. ii. 115, 
Trist. iv. 3, 69, in imitation of 
the Greeks, whose augurs stood 
with their faces to the north ; and 
then the east, which was the lucky 
quarter, was on the right. ' Sinis- 
trum, quod bonum sit, nostri no- 
minaverunt, extemi, (sc. Grseci) 
dextrum.' Cic. Div. ii. 36. Hence 
dexter, is used ior felix or faustus, 
and sinister for infelix or funestus. 
Thunder on the left was a good 
omen in every case, except for 
holding the Comitia, Cic. I)iv, i. 

385. Humano major. So Juve- 
nal, • Sacra et major imago Hu- 
mana,' &c. xiii. 221. Trabeaque. 
See supr. i. n. 37. 



Et dixisse simul : ' Prohibe lugere Quirites ; 

' Nee violent lachrymis numina nostra suis. 
' Thura ferant, placentqiie novum pia turba Quirinum ; 

' Et patrias artes militiamque colant.' 390 

Jussit, et in tenues oculis evanuit auras. 

Convocat hie populos, jussaque verba refert. 
Templa Deo fiunt, coUis quoque dictus ab illo ; 

Et referunt certi sacra paterna dies. 


Lux quoque cur eadeni Stultorum festa vocetur, 
Accipe : parva quidem causa, sed apta subest. 

Non habuit tellus doetos antiqua colonos ; 
Lassabant agiles aspera bella viros. 

Plus erat in gladio quam curvo laudis aratro ; 
Neglectus domino pauca ferebat ager. 

Farra tamen veteres jaciebant, farra metebant ; 



387. Dixisse simul. Dixisse 
viro. Heins. 

388. Nee violent. ' Nor let them 
insult,' &c. because the deifying 
of their sovereign ought to be 
rather a matter of exultation than 

389. Novum Quirinum. Just 
enrolled among the gods with the 
title of Quirinus. 

390. Patrias artcs colant. So 
Virgil, ' Tu regere imperio po- 
pulos Romane memento ; Hae tibi 
erunt artes : pacisque iroponere 
morem, Parcere subjectis et de- 
bellare superbos.* jEneid, vi. 

391. In tenues oculis. In (rnuem 
ex oculis evanuit auram. Heins. 

392. Populos. The Romans 
and Sabines. Patres. A\. 

393. Deo. Sc. Romulus. Col- 
lis dictus. Sc. Quirinalis ; Festus, 
however, gives a different, and 
probably the more correct ac- 
count ; * Quirinalis collis qui 
nunc dicJtur, olim Agonus appel- 
labatur, antequam in eum com- 

migrarent fere Sabini Curibus 
venientes, &c. A quo banc ap- 
pellationem sortitus est.' 

394. Certi dies. See snpr. i. N. 
6.58. The Quirinalia belonged 
also to the class of Feriae Statae 
or Stativse. Paterna. Romulus 
was generally addressed by the 
title of Pater. 

395. Lux eadem. The same 
day on which the Quirinalia was 
celebrated was appointed for the 
' Stultorum Festa,' the festival of 
fools ; the reason is stated in the 

396. Parva quidem, &-c. A 
trifling indeed, but appropriate 
reason is suggested. 

397. Non habuit, ^'c. The 
primitive earth did not enjoy e.\- 
perienced husbandmen. Lassa- 
bant. ' Gravis armis miles ait, 
multo jam fractus membra la- 
bore.' Horat. Sat. i. 1, 4. ' Vel si 
Romana fatigat militia,' &c. Id. 
ii. 3, 10. Farra jaciebant. Used 
to sow corn ; so xara.SaXXi/v 
asi-s^ua. Demosth. 



Primitias Cereri farra resecta dabant. 
Uslbus admoniti, flammis torrenda dedere ; 

Multaque peccato damna tulere suo. 
Nam modo verrebant nigr-is pro farre favillas ; 

Nunc ipsas igni corripuere casas. 
Facta Dea est Fornax : laeti Fornace coloni 

Orant, ut fruges temperet ilia suas. 
Curio legitimis nunc Fornacalia verbis 

Maximus indicit, nee stata. sacra facit : 
Inque foro, multa circum pendente tabella, 



402. Primitias. "Az^a^^tcr The 
first fruits. Cereri. See supr. i. 
N. 127. Resecta. Reaped. 

403. Usibus admoniti. Warned 
by e.ijperience. 

404. Multaque peccato, §"c. By 
their ignorance of the proper me- 
thod of roasting the corn, they 
suffered many and severe losses, 
sometimes burning it to ashes, 
nigras pro farre favillas, and again 
setting fire to their cottages. 

407. Dea Fornax. In order to 
remedy the evils mentioned above, 
a deity was created, called For- 
nax, lit. a furnace, to whom prayers 
and off"erings were presented to 
secure them against loss or acci- 
dent at this particular time. The 
festival so instituted in honour 
of this deity, was called Forna- 
calia. It is said to have origi- 
nated with Numa : ' Numa in- 
stituit Deos fruge colere,' &c. 
' Is et Fornacalia instituit, farris 
torrendi ferias.' Plin. xviii. 2. 
This festival was ranked among 
the Feriae Imperativae, those oc- 
casionally appointed by order of 
the consul, the prsetor, or ponti- 
fex maximus. Infra. 409. Nee 
stata, S)-c. 

408. Ut fruges temperet. That 
she should moderate the heat of 
the grain while being roasted. 
Ut vires temperet. Al. 

409. Curio. The Roman peo- 
ple were divided into three tribes, 
by Romulus, and each tribe was 

subdivided into ten curia. {Ila 
dicta quod iis rerum publicarunt 
cura commissa sit, Fest. velpotius 
a Ku^ia, sc. iKKXr.iTia, conventus 
populi apud Grcecos ad jubendiim 
vel vetandum quod e republica ceii- 
seretesse.) This number was never 
varied, although the tribes were 
subsequently increased to thirty- 
five. Each curia had formerly a 
chapel or temple for the celebra- 
tion of the sacred rites, Varr. de 
L.L. iv. 32. Tacit. Ann. xii. 24. 
Dionys, ii. 23. He who presided 
over one curia was called CURIO ; 
quia sacra curabat. Fest. ; and 
be who presided over all, curio 
MAXIMUS. This officer was ap- 
pointed from among the patri- 
cians, down to u. c. 544 ; after- 
wards from the plebeians. Liv. 
xxvii. Legitimis verbis. In the 
form prescribed by the ritual. 
Indicit, nee stata. See supr. N. 407. 
sub. fin. 

411. Multa tabella. To each of 
the thirty curiaj was attached a 
tablet, tabella, upon M'hich the 
name of that class to which it 
belonged was engraved. Some of 
them were called after the Sabine 
women, who had been carried 
away by the Romans ; others 
were called after distinguished 
generals, and the ancient towns 
of those who had first settled in 
Rome. Liv. i. 13. Fesius. Varro 
apud Dionys. ii. 83. Plutarch, in 
Romulo, and others. Seven only 



Signatur certa curia quaeque nota, 
Stultaque pars populi, quae sit sua curia, nescit : 
Sed facit extrema sacra relata die. 


Est honor et tumulis ; animas placate paternas, 

Parvaque in extinctas munera ferte pyras. 
Parva petunt JNIanes ; pietas pro divite grata est 


of these names remain upon re- 
cord — Forensis, Rapta, Faucia or 
Saucia, Tatiensis, Tifata, Veli- 
eusis, Velita. 

413. Stultaque pars populi. 
Hence Stultorum Ferise ; a part 
of the people not having found 
their own proper curia, at the 
time appointed for the sacrifice, 
and in consequence at the close of 
the day, extrema die, the rites 
of the Fornacalia were oblit^ed to 
be repeated, sacra relata, &c. 

415. Est lionor et tumulis. The 
Quirinalia were succeeded, after 
an interval of three days, by the 
Feralia, or festival in honour of 
the dead, during which offerings 
were made to the manes of the 
just. This custom was observed 
by the Greeks also; Mia^a] i^s- 

Hesych. The Greek month An- 
thesterion, included a portion of 
the February and March of the 

416. In extinctas pyras, i.e. Iil 
busta. Ou the tombs. Servius 
explains the different acceptations 
of Pyra, Rogus, and Bustum, 
Viry. jEneid, xi. 185. et seq. 
' Constituere pyras, sc. the heaps 
of wood which formed the funeral 
piles. ' Subjectisque igtiibusatris 
ter circuni accensos Decurrere 
rogos ;' the pyrce when lighted, 
were called rogi. ' Semiustaque 
servant Busta;' the pyrce so 
called wlien extinguished. Pyra, 
however, is sometimes used iu 

the sense applied to rogus above ; 
' Quem vetus accensa separat ira 
pyra.' Ovid in Ibin. 36. Ex- 
tinctas pyras may also be used 
for extinctorum pyras. The se- 
pulchres of the dead. 

417. Manes. From manus, i.e. 
bonus, good. The shades of the 
dead. According to Plato, the 
souls of the just after death be- 
came Lares, those of the wicked, 
Lemures or Larva; and the term 
manes was applied to those whose 
state was uncertain, from the 
mixed nature of their deserts. 
Servius, in Virg. JEneid, iii. 6"3. 
says that manes signifies tlie souls 
of men during the interval be- 
tween their departure from one 
body and their taking possession 
of another, according to the Py- 
thagorean doctrines. The term 
is applied by some to the two 
genii, the good and evil, which 
accompanied individuals from 
their birth to their grave, and 
continued to inhabit the tombs 
even after the bodies had been 
destroyed, whence the prejudice 
against those who profaned se- 
pulchres, as they were judged, by 
having done so, to be guilty of 
impiety towards the manes. 
Others make them to be the in- 
fernal deities. Pietas pro divite, 
^•c. So Persius, ' Quin damus id 
superis, de magna quod dare lance 
Non possit magni Jlessala; lippa 
propago, Compositum jus fasque 
animo, sanctosque recessus Men> 



Miinere ; non avidos Styx habet ima Deos. 
Tegula projectis satis est velata coronis, 

Et sparsse fruges, parcaque mica salis : 420 

Inque mero mollita Cereo, violaeque solutae ; 

Ha;c habeat media testa relicta via. 
Nee majora veto ; sed et his placalibis umbra est ; 

Adde preces positis et sua verba focis. 
Hunc morem ^Eneas, pietatis idoneus auctor, 425 

Attulit in terras, juste Latine, tuas. 
Ille patris Genio solennia dona ferebat ; 

Hinc populi ritus edidicere pios. 
At quondam, dum longa gerunt pugnacibus armis 

Bella, Parentales desei'uere dies. 430 

tis, et incoctum generoso pectus 
honesto. Hsec cedo ut admoveam 
templis et farre litabo.' Sat. 2. 
71. et seq. 

418. Shjx ima. The Styx, a 
fountain of deadly water, between 
Nonacris and Pheneus, here used 
for Inferi. 

419. Tegula. The roof or cover- 
ing of the tomb. The first syllable 
of this word is short, but its usual 
quantity is departed from in other 
instances. Fast. vi. 298. In Ibin. 
304. Projectis coronis. With 
scattered garlands. See Addenda. 

421. Inque mero mollita Ceres. 
Bread, softened by being steeped 
in wine, or cakes made of flour 
and wine. Violaque solutce. And 
scattered violets. 

422. Media via. The tombs 
were generally placed by the road 
side. Testa, qu. tosta, from torreo. 
An earthen vessel. Allusion is 
doubtless made here to the feast 
called Silicernium, {canafunehris 
quasi in silice, vel testa, posita. 
Serv. in Virg. jEneid, v. 92, vel 
quod silentes sc. umbrse, earn cer- 
nehant vel parentantes qui non de- 
gustabant. Donatus in Ter. 
Adelph. iv. 2, 48), both for the 
dead and the living. Relicta. Re- 
perta. Nauger. Relecta. Heins. 

424. Sua verba. Suitable lan- 

426. Juste Latine. From what 
has been recorded of Latinus, 
he appears to deserve all that is 
implied by the epithet. Terras 
tuas. Latium. 

427. Patris Genio. To the 
manes, or shade of his father. 
Solennia dona. The customary 
offerings. (The word solennis is 
variously derived ; from solium, 
i.e. totum and annus, by Festus; 
by others from Gr. oXo;, totus and 
iTifivo;, augustus ; and from solus 
and annus, which is the most 
probable.) ' Annua vota tamen 
soleranesque ordine pompas Ex- 
sequerer, strueremque suis altaria 
donis.' Virg. ^neid, v. 33, 54, 
praced. et seq. 

429. Gerunt. Legunt. Voss. 

430. Parentales dies. The days 
upon which the oblations or sa- 
crifices to the dead, inferice, or 
parentalia, were made, consisting 
of urns, victims, garlands, &c. 
They are sometimes classed with 
the Ferise Statte, and again with 
the Iraperativae. The offerings 
were called Feralia Munera, and 
the act of presenting them, Alicui 
infer ias ferre, vel mi ft ere, et par- 
entare. Cic. Legg.W. 21. Phil. i. 
6. So Cffs. de Bell. Gall. Sa- 
guntinorum manibus vastatione 
Italia, ^c. parentatum est; an 



Noil impune fuit ; nam dicitur omine ab isto 

Roma suburbanis incaluisse rogis. 
Vix equidem credo ; bustis exisse feruntur, 

Et tacitae questi tempore noctis avi : 
Perque vias Urbis, Latiosque ululasse per agros 

Deformes animas, vulgus inane, ferunt. 
Post ea prseteriti tumulis redduntur honores ; 

Prodigiisque venit funeribusque modus. 
Dum tamen haec fiunt, viduse cessate puellae : 


atonement was made to the ghosts 
of the Saguntini, &c. Parentare 
proprie esiparentihusiynia. facere, 
Ovid. Amor. i. 13, 4. 

431. Non impune fuit. This 
neglect of a rite, considered so 
important, was not allowed to 
pass with impunity. Omine. so. 

432. Suburbanis rogis. The 
Romans would not permit a body 
to be burned or buried within 
the city, for two reasons, that 
the priests might not be defiled 
by accidental contact with a 
corpse, and that the houses might 
not be endangered by the number 
and extent of the funeral fires. 
For instance, the Flamen Dialis 
was not allowed to go near a 
giave, Gell. x. 15; nor the high 
priest among the Jews, Levit. 
xxi. 11, and if the Pontifex Max- 
imus had to deliver a funeral ora- 
tion, a veil was laid over the body 
to conceal it from his sight. The 
places for burial were either pri- 
vate or public; the private in 
fields or gardens, usually near the 
his^hway, supr. 42*2, that they 
might be easily seen, and remind 
the passengers of their mortality. 
Hence the frequent inscriptions, 
' Siste Viator,' < Aspice Viator,' 
&c. on the Via Appia, Aurelia, 
Flaminia, Tiburlina, Sfc. Liv. vi. 
oQ,Juve7ial,\. 171, Propert,\\i. 16, 
30. The public places of burial 
for the rich were commonly the 
Campus Martins, or Campus 

Esquilinus, granted by a decree 
of the senate, Cic. Phil. ix. 7 ; 
for the poor, outside the Esqui- 
line gate, in places called Puti- 
culse, ' quod in puteos corpora mit- 
tebantur,' Varr. de L. L, iv. 5. 
Horal. Sat. i. 8, 8. The Vestal 
virgins were buried within the 
city, quia lepihus non tenebantur, 
Serv. in Virg. JEn. ix. and some 
illustrious men, as Poplicola, Tn- 
bertus, and Fabricius, virtutis 
causa, legibus soluti ; which right 
descended to their posterity, but 
was not exercised. The rieht of 
building a sepulchre for himself 
within the Pom cerium, was de- 
creed to Julius Csesar, as a sin- 
gular privilege, Dio. xliv. 7. 

433. Bustis exisse. See supr. 
N. 33. Their forefathers, com- 
plaining throughout the period of 
the silent night, are said to have 
issued from their tombs. So upon 
the death of Csesar, ' Simulacra 
modis pallentia miris Visa sub 
obscurum noctis,' Virg. Georg. 
i. 477, and Ovid, on the same 
subject, « Umbrasque silentum 
Erravisse ferunt.' 

436. Deformes animas, vulgus 
inane. ' Unsightly ghosts, an 
unsubstantial crowd.' 

437. Prate)iti honores. The 
neglected honours. 

438. Venit modus. There came 
an end. 

439. Vidua cessate puella. 'Ab- 
stinete marilorum complexibus." 
So Forcellinus explains the pas- 


Exspectet puros pinea taeda dies. 440 

Nee tibi, quae cupidae matura videbere matri, 

sage, and proves the correctness 
of the word puella being taken in 
the sense of a ' married woman,' 
from Horat. Od. iii. 22, 2, ' La- 
borantes utero puellas ;' and Pro- 
pert. El. xiii. o, 21, 34, where 
puella is applied to Antiopa, the 
mother of two grown-up sons, 
Zethus and Amphion ; also Ovid, 
Heroid, ep. i. 11.5, where Pene- 
lope calls herself puella, having 
already given birth to Telemachus. 
It is much more likely that puella 
is to be understood in its limited 
sense, 'young virgins,' and so op- 
posed in a degree to matura, infr. 
441 ; viduce cessate, ' continue 
unwedded ;' this explanation is 
further consistent with the suc- 
ceeding lines, which evidently 
refer to the marriage ceremony. 
Vidua is frequently understood to 
mean 'alone,' ' unmarried;' ' Vi- 
duam non solum earn, quse ali- 
quando nupta fuisset, sed earn 
quoque mulierem, quae virum non 
habuisset, appellari ait Labeo ; 
quia vidua sic dicta est, quasi 
vecors, vesanus, qui sine corde 
aut sanitate esset ; similiter vi- 
duam esse dictam, sine duitate.' 
And again, ' Universim qusecun- 
que seu nupta sive innupta, sine 
viro cubat, vidua dicitur. ' Forcel. 
in voc. cit. So Livy i. 46, ad jin. 
' Se rectius viduam, et ilium coe- 
libem futurum fuisse contendere, 
quam cum imparl jungi.' It is 
very unlikely that vidua puella 
should mean ' widows ;' or that 
the poet should commence by 
impressing his injunctions upon 
such, because independently of 
its being inauspicious to re-marry 
at such a time, second marriages 
were not considered honorable in 
women, while those who had but 
once married, and remained in 

widowhood, were held in particu- 
lar respect. Hence univira is 
often found in ancient inscrip- 
tions as a term of honour. So, 
Uni nupta, Propert. iv. xdt. Such 
as married a second time were 
also excluded from officiating at 
the annual sacred rites of Female 
Fortune. Fortuna Muliehris. Di- 
onys. viii. 56. Val. Max. i. 8, 
4, Serv. in Virrj. jEneid, iv. 19, 
Vidua is derived from iduare, to 
divide, qu. valde divisa, vel a viro 

440. Puros. Auspicious. Pinea. 
It is not clear whether spinea, 
should not be the reading, since 
the sloetree or blackthorn, sp/?Hzs, 
was used as well as the pine, pi- 
nus, for torches at the marriage 
ceremony; see supr. x. 28. Tceda. 
The ceremony was performed at 
the house of the bride's father, 
or nearest relative. In the even- 
in? the bride was conducted, du- 
cebntur vel deducebatur, to her 
husband's house. She was taken 
apparently by force, ahripiehatur, 
from the arms of her m.other or 
next of kin, in memory of the 
violence used towards the Sabine 
women. Three boys, whose pa- 
rents were living, attended her ; 
two of them supporting her by 
the arm, and the third bearing a 
flambeau, tada pinea vel spinea, 
before. Feslus. Catull. lix. 15. 
Plin. xvi. 18. There were five 
other torches carried before her, 
called Faces Nuptiales, Cic. Clu- 
ejit. 6, JMaritae, Ovid. Ep. xi. 
101. Legitimse, Lucan. ii. .356. 
Plutarch Q. Rom. 2. 

441. Cupida matri. In allusion 
to the anxietv of mothers for the 
marriage of their daughters. Ma- 
tura. So ^'^irgil, ' Jam matura 
viro, jam plenis nubilis antiis.' 




Comat virgincas liasta recurva comas. 
Conde tuas, Hymenaee, faces, et ab ignibus atris 

Aufer; babent alias mcesta sepiilchra faces. 
Di quoque templorum foribus celentur opertis ; 

Thure vacent ara;, stentque sine igne foci. 
Nunc animae tenues, et corpora functa sepulchris 

Errant ; nunc posito pascitur umbra cibo. 
Nee tamen hsec ultra, quam tot de mense supersint 


442. Comat hasta. The hair of 
the bride was divided into six 
lociis, with the point of a spear. 
Plut. in Romul. et Quast. 86 vel 
87. If this be the correct inter- 
pretation, hasta must be under- 
stood to mean the acus celiharis, 
the 'looa.riov of the Greeks, a spe- 
cies of small spear or bodkin, 
used for the purpose already men- 
tioned ; however, the epithet re- 
curva makes it appear much more 
likely that by hasta we are to un- 
derstand the acus comatoria, or 
crisping-pin, Gr. fioJvn, with 
wiiich the bride's hair was at once 
aiTanged and adorned. According 
to Festus, this hasta was symbo- 
lical of the guardianship exercised 
over matrons, matrojicc, by Juno 
Curitis, so called from curis, i. e. 
hasta, as has been observed before; 
Ol of the bride becoming in time 
the mother of a race of warriors ; 
or of the dominion exercised by 
the husband over his wife, the 
spear being the type of authority. 

443. Hymenae. Hymen, or 
Hymenseus, the god of wedlock, 
sometimes called Hymen Hy- 
meuffius, was, according to some, 
the son of Bacchus aud Venus, 
others make him the sou of Apollo 
aud Calliope, or Urania, or Clio. 
He is said to have been the first 
to ordain the ceremony which 
makes maiTiage binding, and 
hence the honours paid him upon 
the celebration of the rite. He 
is said by some to have been the 
son of -Magnes, highly accom- 

plished in the art of music, of a 
beauty approaching to feminine; 
and that he expired while singing 
the praises of Bacchus upon his 
marriage A^nth Althea or Ariadne. 
Ignibus atris. From the gloomy 
torches of the Feralia. See Fast. 
vi. 205. 

444. Alias. Distinct. 

445. Celentur. The temple 
doors were closed in order that 
the gods and their priests might 
be secured from all inauspicious 
sights. It is said that the statues 
of the deities on the highways 
were covered with a veil when 
likely to be passed by a funeral, 
&c. Supr. N. 432. 

447. Corpora functa sepulchris. 
The bodies of the dead. The 
phrase functa sepulchris, is equi- 
valent to functus falo, Valer. 
Max. i. c. ult. N. 5, or functuf, 
morte. Velleius, ii. 49. 

448. Posito pascitur umbra cibo. 
During the Feralia, banquets used 
to be prepared in the vicinity 
of the tombs, upon which the 
manes were supposed to feast. 
It was thought that they delight- 
ed in blood, TertuUian de Sped. 
whence various animals, especially 
such as the deceased had been 
fond of, were slain at the funeral 
pile, and thrown into it ; Plin. 
viii. 40, s. 61. 

449. Nee tamen, ^r. The Fer- 
alia were held, xii. Kal. Mart, 
including which, there were eleven 
days to the end of the month, 
the number of feet in a hexame- 


Luciferi, quot habent carmina nostra pedes. 450 

Hanc, quia justa ferunt, dixere Feralia lucem : 

Ultima placandis Manibus ilia dies. 
Ecce anus in mediis residens vinosa puellis, 

Sacra facit Tacitee : vix tamen ipsa tacet. 
Et digitis tria thura tribus sub limine ponit, 455 

Qua brevis occultum mus sibi fecit iter. 
Turn cantata ligat cum fusco licia rhombo, 

ter and pentameter line, qv.ot ha- 
heiit, §'c. This is rather a fanciful 
periphrasis, whereby it is to be 
understood simply that the Fer- 
alia lasted for one day. 

431. Justa. Funeral obsequies, 
so called from jus, 'quia haecmax- 
irae defunctisdebentur.' 

454. Tacitte. The goddess of 
silence, whose worship was or- 
dained by Numa. The poet pro- 
ceeds to recount some additional 
rites accompanying the Feralia. 

455. Tria thura. Three grains 
of fraukincense. ' Tus et thus l.i- 
chryma exiguse arboris in Arabia, 
qua siccata adoletur in sacris. ' 
Force!. Sub linniie. Where the 
slanderer» who were to be si- 
lenced were likely to pass, and 
where the tiny mouse, &c. 

457. Cantata. Enchanted. Cum. 
fusco licia rhombo. Some copies 
read plumbo, lead having been 
used by the ancients in charms. 
The reading in the text is proba- 
bly tiie more correct, as the same 
expression occurs, Ovid. Amor. i. 
el. 8, 8. ' Scit bene quid gramen 
quid torto concita rhombo Licia, 
quid valeat virus amantis equae.' 
Fusco, alludes to the colour of 
the licia, clues of thread which 
were wound round the spindle or 
spinning-wheel, rhombus. They 
were of different shades ; ' Terna 
tibi haec primum triplici diversa 
colore Licia circumdo.' Virg. £cl. 
8, 73, where Servius, ' Bene utitur 
liciis, quae ita stamen implicant, 

at haec adolescentis mentem im- 
plicarecontendit.' From this com- 
ment, as also the passage in the 
text, the reader may be referred 
to that part of Southey's noble 
poem, Thalaba, where the hero 
is taken in the snare of the sor- 

' He found a woman in the cave, 

A solitary woman. 
Who by the fire was spinning. 
And singing as she spun. 
The pine boughs they blazed cheerfully. 
And her face was bright with the flame, 

Her face was as a damsel's face ; 

And yet her hair was grey. 
She bade him welcome with a smile. 
And still continued spinning. 

And singing as she spun. 
The thread the woman drew 

Was finer than the silkworm's. 

Was finer than the gossamer ; 
The song she sung was low and sweet, 
And Thalaba knew not the words. 

' And up she raised her bright blue eyes, 
And sweetly she smil'd on him. 
And he concciv'd no ill ; 

And round and round his right hand, 

And round and round his left, 

He wound the thread so fine. 

And then again the woman spake. 

And still her speech was song; 

" Now thy strength, O stranger, strain ; 

Now then break the slender chain." 



Et septem nigras versat in ore fabas. 
Quodque pice adstrinxit, qiiod acu trajecit ahena 

Obsiitum maenaj torret in igne caput. 460 

Vina quoque instillat. Vini quodcunque relictum est, 

Aut ipsa, aut comites, plus tamen ipsa, bibit. 
Hostiles linguas, inimicaque vinximus ora, 

Dicit discedens, ebriaque exit anus. 
Forsitan a nobis, qua: sit Dea Muta, requiras. 465 

Disce, pel" antiquos qua: niilii nota senes. 
Jupiter, indomito Juturnae captus amore, 

Multa tulit, tanto non patienda deo. 
Ilia modo in silvis inter coryleta latebat : 

Nunc in cognatas desiliebat aquas. 470 

Convocat hie Nymphas, Latium, quotcunque tenebas : 

Et jacit in medio talia verba choro : 
Invidet ipsa sibi, vitatque, quod expedit illi, 

Vestra soror summo nubere laeta Deo. 
Consulite ambobus : nam quee mea magna voluptas, 475 

' Tlialaba strove, but the thread 

Was woven by magic hands. 

And in his cheek the flush of shame 

Arose, commixt with fear. 

She beheld and laughed at him. 

And then again she sung, 

" My thread is small, my thread is fine. 

But he must be 

A stronger than thee, 
Who can break this thread of mine. 
" Sister, sister ! hear my voicel 
Sister, sister ! come and rejoice ! 

The web is spun, 

Xhe prize is won. 

The work is done. 
For I have made captive Hodeirah'sson." ' 

The intention of tlie licia in the 
t6xt was to bind the tongue. 

458. Niyras versar. in ore fabas. 
Thi-3 was also done at the Le- 

460. MancE. A cackerel, pil- 
chard, or minnow, whose head 
was roast in the fire, the mouth 
having been closed with pitch, 
and sewed with a brass needle. 

It was so offered as an emblem 
of silence to the goddess Tacita. 
Obsutum. So Virgil. Georg. iv. 
' Huic geminse nares et spiritus 
oris Multa reluctanti obsuitur.' 
The reading of this passage as it 
stands in the text, was selected, 
after considerable difficulty and 
research, by the indefatigable 

462. Plus tamen ipsa. Hence 
the reading vinosa has been adopt- 
ed, V. 453, instead of annosa. 

463. Vinxinms. We have 
charmed or bound by magic arts ; 
Forcel. Vincire is a term pecu- 
liar to such enchantments. 

465. Forsitan, S(c. The poet 
proceeds to account for the origin 
of the Dea Muta. 

467. JuturncE. Her history has 
been already given. 

469. Coryleta. Copses of hazle. 

470. Cognatas. Because she 
was the daughter of the nymph 
Venilia, and a Naiad. There was 
also a fountain, called Juturna, 
ia Latium. 



Utilitas vestrse magna sororis erit. 
Vos illi in prima fugienti obsistite ripa, 

Ne sua fluminea corpora mergat aqua. 
Dixerat : annuerunt omnes, Tiberinides udx, 

Quaeque colunt thalamos, Ilia diva, tuos 480 

Forte fuit Nais, Lara nomine : prima sed illi 

Dicta bis antiquum syllaba nomen erat, 
Ex vitio positum. Saepe illi dixerat Almo, 

Nata, tene linguam ; nee tamen ilia tenet. 
Quie, simul ac tetigit Juturntc stagna sororis, 485 

EfFuge, ait, ripas : dicta ref'ertque Jovis. 
Ilia etiam Junonem adiit : miserataque nuptara, 

Naiada Juturnam vir tuus, inquit, amat. 
Jupiter intumuit : quaque est non usa modeste, 

Eripuit linguam : Mercuriumque vocat ; 490 

Due, ait, ad Manes : locus ille silentibus aptus. 

Nymplia, sed inferna: Nympha paludis erit. 
Jussa Jovis fiunt ; accepit lucus euntes. 

478. Mergat. Mandet. Heins. 
' Heu quis salsis fluctibus mandet 
me ex sublimi vertice saxi.' Alt. 
Philoc. Cic. Tusc. Quast. ii. 

479. Tiberinides udce. The 
nymphs of the river Tiber. 

480. Thalamos tuos. The Anio, 
a river of Italy, falling into the 
Tiber, three miles to the north of 
Rome, near Antemnse, and rising 
in a mountain near Treba. It is 
here called the thalamus of Ilia, 
because she is supposed to have 
been wedded to the god of this 
river. See Horat. Od. i. 2, where 
she is made the spouse of the 

481. Lara. Called also Lar- 
anda. Prima sed illi, §-c. The 
tirst syllable repeated, Lala, was 
her former name, bestowed from 
her garrulity, ex vitio positum, 
from XaXuv, garrire. 

483. Almo. The father of the 
nymph Lara. A rivulet in the 
territory of Rome, running from 
the Via Appia, near the Porta 
Capena, into the Tiber, a mile 
below the city. Almon, Ambros. 
Metam. xiv. 

485. Juturnm stagna. Beside 
Pallanteum, and not far from the 
temple of Vesta. 

487. Nuptam. Sc. Juno. 

489. Quaque est non usa modeste. 
Which she had used indiscreetly. 

490. Mercuriumque. The son 
of Jupiter and Maia, the daugh- 
ter of Atlas ; the messenger of 
Jupiter and of the gods. His 
name is derived either from mer- 
ces, because he was the patron of 
merchants, and god of gain, or 
qu. Medicurrius, ' quod medius 
inter deos et homines currehaW 
The insignia of Mercury are his 
Petasus, or winged cap ; the 7a- 
laria, or winged sandals for his 
feet; and a caduceus, or wand, 
with two serpents twined round 
it, in his hand. Sometimes, as 
the god of merchants, he bears 
a purse, marsupium. Horat. Od. 
i. 10. Virg. Mneid, iv. '239, viii. 
138. Vocat. Rogat. A\. Monet. 
Ursin. Voss. Zulich. 

492. Infernce paludis. The Styx. 

493. Lucus. ' Sicdemuni lucos 
Stygios, regna invia vivis, Aspi- 
cies.' Virg. jEneid, n. 164. 



Dicitur ilia duci turn placuisse deo. 
Vim parat hie : vultu pro verbis ilia precatur ; 

Et frustra muto nititur ore loqui. 
Fitque gravis, geminosque parit, qui compita servant, 

Et vigilant nostra semper in urbe, Lares. 



Proxima cognati dixere Charistia cari, 

Et venit socias turba propinqua dapes. 
Scilicet a tumulis, et qui periere propinquis, 

Protinus ad vivos ora referre juvat ; 
Postque tot amissos, quidquid de sanguine restat, 

Aspicere, et generis dinumerare gradus. 
Innocui veniant ; procul hinc, procul impius esto 

Prater, et in partus mater acerba suos : 
Cui pater est vivax, qui matris digerit annos, 

Quae premit invisam socrus iniqua nurum. 



494. Duci — deo. "^vxoffriXo; 

■zoii-xiilo;, -^schyl. Eumeu. N:»- 
^^■s;ofji.zjo; Luclan in Dial. Mercur. 
et Maiae. 

497. Geminosque — Lares. Dei- 
ties that presided over the public 
ways, and were worshipped where 
cross-roads, compita, met. Forcel. 
According to the nature of their 
charge, the Lares were called 
Urhani, presiding over cities ; 
Familiares, over houses ; Rusiici, 
over the country; Compilales, 
over cross-roads; Marini, over 
the sea, &c. 

499. Proxima. On the day fol- 
lowing the Feralia, xi. Kal. Mart. 
Feb. 19th. Charistia. A solemn 
festival or banquet, at which none 
but kinsfolk met, in order that if 
there had been any contention or 
misunderstanding amongst them, 
they might be reconciled again, 
their ditferences being made up. 

Val. Max. li. 1, n. S. From Gr. 

•^ccoi^oficci, condono. There was 

a festival wont to be held in Pa- 
dua, called la Dovienica parentela, 
which bears a close resemblance 
to the Charistia. 

500. Turba propinqua. Rela- 
tions and kindred. 

301. Scilicet, Sfc. ' It isj in 
sooth, a pleasure to bring back 
our discourse, ora referre, at once, 
to the living, from the tombs and 
the relatives who are no more.' 
This was the reason why the 
Charistia followed immediately 
the Feralia, and not as has been 
stated in a note on the passage, 
in a late edition of the Fasti, 
' That the dead might visit their 
friends, and have their share of 
the feast !' A moderate acquaint- 
ance with the classics, or even 
common sense, could not fail to 
detect at once the egregious ab- 
surdity of sucli an interpretation. 

507. Vivax. Too long lived. 
Matris di<jerit amws. Computes 
the years his mother has to live. 

508. Premit. Harasses. 



Tantalidse fratres absint, et lasonis uxor, 

Et quae ruricolis semina tosta dedit ; 
Et soror, et Progne, Tereusque duabus iniquus ; 

Et quicunque siias per stelus auget opes. 
Dis generis date thura, boni : Concordia fertur 

lUo praecipue niitis adesse die. 
Et libate dapes, ut grati pignus honoris 

Nutriat incinctos mista patella Lares. 
Jamque ubi suadebit placidos nox ultima Somnos, 



509. TantalidcB fratres. Atreus 
and Thyestes, sons of Pelops ami 
Hippodamia, and grandsons of 
Tantalus. For a history of the 
crimes of this family, see Class. 
Die. Jasonis uxor, Medea. 

510. Et qua. Ino, daughter 
of Cadmus and Harmonia, mar- 
ried to Athamas, king of Thebes, 
after he had divorced Nephele, 
by whom he had Phryxus and 
Helle. Ino, bent upon the des- 
truction of her step-children, who 
should inherit the sovereignty to 
the prejudice of her own, Meli- 
certa and Learchus, gave the 
husbandmen scorched seed, in 
expectation that the failure of the 
harvest would be followed by a 
famine, and that the augurs, 
whom she had bribed, would in- 
sist, in consequence, upon the sa- 
crifice of Phryxus and Helle to 
appease the gods. 

511. Et soror. Philomela, the 
daughter of Pandion, king of 
Athens. Tereus, king of Thrace, 
havinsr been summoned to assist 
the Athenians in war, married 
Progne, who was also the daugh- 
ter of Pandion, and returned 
with her to his kingdom. At the 
request of Progne, he went to 
Athens again to bring Philomela 
to see lier sister, and having 
abused her on the way, he cut 
out her tongue. But Philomela 
sent Progne a robe upon which 
she had depicted the perfidy of 

Tereus, and in revenge Progne 
served up his son Itys at a ban- 
quet on his return. Tereus would 
have slain her, but that they were 
changed by the gods into birds. 
Progne became a swallow, Tereus 
a hoopoe, and Philomela a night- 

513. Dis generis. To the gods 
of the same kindred. Concordia. 
Sc. Dea. 

515. Libate dopes. Sc. Diis. 
Ut grati pignus honoris. As a 
token of grateful respect. 

516. Incinctos. The Lares were 
represented as clothed in the Ga- 
bine habit, which covered the left 
shoulder, leaving the right bare. 
' Bullaque succinctis Laribus do- 
nata pependit.' Pers. v. .31. They 
were sometimes clad differently, 
see supr. i 428. Mista. Some 
copies read ynissa, which is to be 
taken in the sense of oblata : 
mista, alludes to the nature of 
what the vessel contained. Pa- 
tella. A broad vessel, or dish, 
used in sacrifices. Forcell. « Pa- 
tellse, vascula parva sacris facien- 
dis apta, quse erant velut capidu- 
loe, (large pots or jugs, with han- 
dles or ears, used at sacrifices), 
quaedam. In his apponebantur 
diis cibi, praesertim Peuatibus 
Laribusque.' Festus. Hence the 
Lares were called Dii Patellarii. 

517. JVox ultima. ' Night far ad- 
vanced ;' to shew that they had 
allowed full time for the purposes 



Parca precatnrae sumite vina manus : 
Et ' Bene nos, Patriae, bene te, Pater, optime Caesar,' 
Dicite sutFuso, per sacra verba, mero. 520 


Nox ubi transierit, solito celebretur lionore 

Separat indicio qui Deus arva suo. 
Termine, sive lapis, sive es defossus in agro 

Stipes, ab antiquis sic qiioque numen habes. 
Te duo diversa domini pro parte coronant ; 

Binaque serta tibi, binaque liba ferunt. 
Ara fit; hue ignem curto fert rustica testu 

Sumptum de tepidis ipsa colona focis. 
Ligna senex minuit, concisaque construit alte ; 


of the festival. So Virgil, ' Sua- 
dentque cadentia sidera soranos.' 

518. Parca. Sufficient for a 
llbatiou. Precatura sumite ma- 
ims, sc, Precaturi manibus su- 

519. Et, Sfc. 'And having 
poured out the wine, say, in the 
form prescribed, per sacra reria, 
' May it be well with us, with our 
country and with thee, Father, 
most noble Csesar.' The health 
of Augustus was always given 
at private and public entertain- 
ments, according to a decree of 
the senate to that effect. So 
Horace, ' Te mensis adhibet De- 
um; te multa prece, te prosequi- 
tur mero, Diifuso pateris, et La- 
ribus tuum miscet numen.' 

521. A'b.r ubi transierit. On 
the X. Kal. Mart. Feb. '20th, the 
Terminalia, or festival of Termi- 
nus was lield. 

523. Termine. From Gr. rs^^a, 
the god who presided over boun- 
daries, and was supposed to pun- 
ish all unjust usurpation of land. 
The worship of this deity was 
ordained by Numa, and his sym- 
bols, whether stones or trunks of 

trees which separated their diffe- 
rent possessions, were annually 
crowned by the people of the 
country with wreaths of flowers, 
and victims were offered in honour 
of each Terminus or landmark. 

525. Duo domini. The posses- 
sors of the territory at either side 
of the landmark. This alludes 
to the private sacrifice, the public 
was celebrated at the sixth mile- 
stone from the city. 

527. Curto testu. ' In a broken 
pan ;' evincing the poverty of the 
country woman. So Juvenal, 
' cerebrum Testa ferit quoties 
rimosa et curta fenestris Vasa 
cadunt.' Sat. iii. 70. For testu 
some propose testa and testo ; 
however, it occurs again else- 
where, and Petron. in Satyr, c. 1 37, 
a mcd. ' Animadverto Enotheam 
cum testu ignis pleno venientem ;' 
and in other places. Testins a neu- 
ter noun, indeclinable; some make 
it the ablative of Testus — us — ui, 
masc: but without any authority. 
Colona is supposed, with good 
reason, to be used for colonia, 
such a figure being common. 


Et solida ramos figere pugnat humo. 530 

Dum sicco primas irritat cortice flammas, 

Stat puer, et manibus lata canistra tenet. 
Inde, iibi ter fruges medios immisit in ignes, 

Porrigit incisos filia parva favos. 
Vina tenant alii ; libantur singula flammis ; 535 

Spectant, et linguis Candida turba favent. 
Spargitur et caeso communis Terminus agno , 

Nee queritur, lactens ciim sibi porca datur. 
Conveniunt, celebrantque dapes vicinia simplex ; 

Et cantant laudes, Termine sancte, tuas. 540 

Tu populos, urbesque, et regna ingentia finis ; 

Omnis erit sine te litigiosus ager. 
Nulla tibi ambitio est ; nullo corrumperis auro : 

Legitima servas credita rura fide. 
Si tu signasses olim Thyreatida terram, 545 

530. Ramos. The stakes by 
which the pile of wood was pre- 
vented from falling about. Pug- 
nat. Strives. 

.53*2. Puer. Called Camillus, a 
boy of noble birth, whose parents 
should both be living, wa/j 'a^ip/- 
iaXr,i. The boy who attended the 
sacrifices with the Flamen Dialis 
was called Flaviinius Camillus. It 
is supposed by some that Camil- 
lus was formerly synonymous 
with puer. Canistra, Osier bas- 
kets, qu. from canna. Tliey con- 
tained whatever was necessary 
for the sacrifice — the knife, the 
niolae salsaj, and the chaplets. 
So ^schines, Evij^xrai fiiv ra xcc- 
va ; ' canistrorum jam ccepta est 
circumventio ; ' the sacred rites 
are now begun ;' and Schol. 
Bekk. in loc. cit. Ta kolvo, io^Th 
Tap' 'A^r,vaiois, in n at -Ttagiivoi n^a. 
Tito. SriUriTPo; iv xavoi;, rtyouv £v «a- 
viincoi;, IfiaiTTdi,/» Iwt KiifaXni' Shy 
KOnvt^'oBoi xi»>^tivTai, Oiavii lUT^i-uri 
ri^i Ikt) to. xaviffKa ra 'Zgo; Svffia,;. 

And Eurip. Iph. Aul. 1471. Ka- 

►a' S' ivecpXi'i'^^u ri; ; and 15G8, 

Electr. 1142. Aristoph. A v. 851. 

534. Porrigit. Offers. Incisos 

favos. Sliced honeycomb. Filia 
parva, called Camilla. 

535. Libantur singula Jlammis. 
A portion of each was thrown 
into the fire. 

536. Linguis Javent. Abstain 
from words of ill omen. Candi- 
da. Either clad in white, or re- 
ligious, reverent. 

537. Caso agno. So Horace, 
' agna festis cajsa Terminalibus.' 
Communis. To those whose land 
was divided. 

5S9. Celebrantque dapes. 'Throng 
the feast.' So Cicero, ' Domus 
mea quotidie celebratur.' 

545. Thyreatida terram. Thy- 
rea was a town in the Ager Cy- 
nurius, on the confines of Laco- 
nia and Argolis. The Lacedse- 
mouians and Argives in conse- 
quence, each laid claim to it, and 
it was agreed to decide their 
claims by the sword. Three 
hundred men were chosen as 
champion» on either side, and of 
all but three survived ; of the 
Argives, Alcenus and Matbinus, 
and of the Lacedaemonians, 0th- 
ryades. The two former left the 
field as triumphant, but the latter 



Corpora non letho missa trecenta forent : 
Nee foret Othryades congestis tectus in armis : 

O quantum jxitriae sanguinis ille dedit ! 
Quid, nova cum fierent Capitolia ? nempe Deorum 

Cuncta Jovi cessit turba locumque dedit. 550 

Terminus, ut veteres memorant, conventus in aede 

Eestitit ; et magno cum Jove templa tenet. 
Nunc quoque, se supra ne quid nisi sidera cernat, 

Exiguum templi tecta foramen habent- 
Termine, post illud levitas tibi libera non est ; 

Q,ua positus fueris in statione, mane. 
Nee tu ^''cino quicquam concede roganti, 

Ne videare hominem praeposuisse Jovi. 
Et, seu vomeribus, sen tu pulsabere rastris, 

Clamato, ' Meus est hie ager, ille tuus.' 
Est via, quse populum Laurentes ducit in agros, 

Quondam Dardanio regna petita duci. 
Iliac lanigeri pecoris tibi, Termine, fibris 

Sacra videt fieri sextus ab Urbe lapis. 



had strength remaining to collect 
a sufficient quantity of spoila to 
raise a trophy, which he inscribed 
with his own blood to Jupiter 
Tropseuchus. Each party claim- 
ing the victory, hostilities were 
renewed, which terminated in the 
success of the Lacedaemonians, 
by whom their conquest was ce- 
lebrated yearly with a festival, at 
which the presideiits wore crowns 
— called Coronaj Tliyreatica?. 

546. Trecenta. From the pre- 
ceding note it must appear that 
the poet is mistaken. 

547. Congestis armis. Alluding- 
to the trophy. 

548. O quantum, sc. By having 
tau.^ed a second engagement. 

549. Quid, nova, ^c. When 
Tarquinius Superbus was pre- 
paring to erect a temple to Jupi- 
ter on the Tarpeian rock, the 
rest of the deities consented, hav- 
ing been consulted by auyuries, 
that their shrines, sacella, should 
be removed, exaugurari ; Termi- 
uus, however, when consulted, 

conveiitus, refused, in ade restitit; 
(Livy mentions that Juventas 
also declined being moved ; v. 54) 
and this was regarded by the Ro- 
mans as an omen of the strength 
and stability of their empire. 

553. Se supra. When the tem- 
ple, alluded to above, was built, 
an aperture was left in the roof, 
over the statue of Terminus, 
whom it was supposed improper 
to confine within any limits; 
hence the custom of sacrihcing 
to this deity in the open air. 

555. Post illud. Thenceforward ; 
from the time he had refused to 
give way to Jove. Levitas. In- 
constancy. Libera non est. Is not 
permitted you. 

561. Est via. The Via Lau- 
rentina, between the Via Hosti- 
ensis and Via Appia. 

562. Dardanio duci. iEneas. 
See i. 469. 

563. Jllac, 8fc. The public sa- 
crifice was formerly celebrated in 
honour of Terminus at the dis- 
tance of six miles from Rome, 


Gcntibus est aliis tellus data limite certo ; 
Romanae spatium est Urbis et orbis idem. 




Nunc dicenda mihi Regis fuga ; traxit ab ilia 

Sextus ab extremo nomina mense dies. 
Ultima Tarquinius Romanae gentis habebat 

Regna ; vir injustus, fortis ad arma tamen- 
Ceperat hie alias, alias everterat urbes ; 

Et Gabios turpi fecerat arte suos. 
Namqiie trium minimus, proles manifesta Superbi, 

In medios hostes nocte silente venit. 
Nudarant gladios : ' Occidite, dixit, inermem.' 

' Hoc cupiant fratres, Tarquiniusque pater, 
* Qui mea cnideli laceravit verbere terga.' 

Dicere ut hoc posset, verbera passus erat. 
Luna fuit ; spectant juvenem, gladiosque recondunt ; 



whose sway extended subsequently 
over the habitable globe. 

567. Nunc. On the vii. Kal. 
Mart. Feb. 23d. Regis fuga. The 
banishment of Tarquinius Super- 
bus and his family from Rome, 
whence the festival was called 

568. Sextus. Quintus, Neapol. 
which is given upon the authority 
of the ancient kalendar. Septimus 
extremo. Hamburg. See Fast. v. 
671, upon which Forcel. ' Hie 
dies (xi. Kal. Jun.) festus rectius 
Fuga regis Tocatur.' According 
to the kalendar engraved by order 
of Augustus on tables of stone, 
this festival was celebrated on the 
VI. Kal. Mart. Feb. 24tb. 

570. Vir injustus. An usurper, 
liaving murdered his father-in- 
law, Servius Tullius, to obtain 
the throne. Fortis ad arma. He 
was, however, an able general, as 
appears from his successes over 
the Volsci, his capture of Suessa 
Pometia, their principal town, 

572. Gabios. A town of La- 

tium, nearly mid-way between 
Rome to the west, and Praeneste 
to the east. It was founded by 
two brothers from Sicily, Galac- 
tus and Bius. Turpi arte. The 
nature of the fraud is given in the 
text ; hence Juvenal ' Simplicibns 
Gabiis.' 3. 192. 

57.3. Minimus, so. natu. Sextus 
was the youngest of the three 
brothers. Proles manifesta. His 
character proved him to be the 
offspring of Tarquinius Super- 

574. Hostes, sc. Gabinos, with 
whom his fatber was at war. 

575. Nudarant yladios. With 
the intention of putting him to 
death. Occidite, Sfc. So Sinon, 
' Jamdudum sumite pcenas. Hoc 
Ithacus velit, et magno mercentur 
Atridae.' Virg. ^neid, ii. 104. 

576. Fratres. Titus and Aruns. 

578. Dicere ut hoc, Sfc. He had 
submitted to be scourged in tl>fc 
public forum at Rome, that he 
might have the stripes to sh&w 
in proof of his veracity at Gabii, 

579. Luna. Moonlight. 



Tergaque deducta veste notata vident. 580 

Flent quoque, et, ut secum tueatur bella, precantur. 

Callidus ignaris anniiit ille viris. 
Jamque potens, misso genitorem appellat amico, 

Prodendi Gabios quod sibi monstret iter. 
Hortus odoratis suberat cultissimus herbis, 585 

Sectus humum rivo lene sonantis aquae. 
Illic Tarquinius mandata latentia nati 

Accipit ; et virga lilia summa metit. 
Nuncius ut rediit, decussaque lilia dixit ; 

Filius, ' Agnosco jussa parentis/ ait. 590 

Nee mora ; principibus caesis ex urbe Gabina, 

Traduntur ducibus mcenia nuda suis. 
Ecce, nefas visu; mediis altaribus anguis 

583. Jamque potens. He ingra- 
tiated himself easily, so as to se- 
cure the confidence of the unsus- 
pecting Gabini, and finally to be 
placed at the head of their state. 
' Dux ad uUimum belli legitur ; 
it ill tanto caritate esse ccepit, ut 
non pater Tarquinius potentior 
Romse quam filius Gabiis esset.' 

585. Suberat. Was at hand. 

586. Sectus Inimvm, i. c. quoad 
humum. Having its soil divided 
by a gentle rill of purling water. 

587. Mandata latentia. The 
secret instructions. 

588. Lilia. According to Livy 
and Dionysius, Tarquin struck oft' 
the heads of the tallest poppies ; 
< Ibi inambulans tacitus, summa 
papaverura capita dicitur baculo 
decussisse.' Liv. Thrasybulus of 
Miletus is said to have made an 
equally significant reply to a mes- 
senger sent him by Periander the 
tyrant of Corinth, to inquire liovv 
his reign might be best made du- 
rable. The messenger was taken 
to a corn field, where Thrasybulus 
cut off the heads of tiie tallest 
stalks. This was not thrown away 
upon Periander either, for he 
immediately destroyed the noblest 
and wealthiest of his subjects. 

Hence it may be easily seen what 
branch of the state is most obnox- 
ious to the cravings of a tyrant. 
High birth, and its proper twin, 
high principle, if men knew bet- 
ter, are obstacles insurmountable 
to heartless and profligate ambi- 
tion. See infr, 593-4. 

591. Principibus casis. ' Pri- 
raores civitatis, criminando alios 
apud populum, alios sua ipsos in- 
vidia opportunos interemit,' &c. 

592. Traduntur. ' Orba con- 
silio auxilioque, Gabina res regi 
Romano sine uUa dimicatione in 
manum traditur.' Id. 

593. Ecce, Sec. Upon the cap- 
ture of Gabii, Tarquin made peace 
with the Volsci, renewed his league 
with the Tuscans, and turned his 
attention to improving the city 
of Rome ; while engaged in this 
design, the portent appeared as 
described in the text. There were 
three remarkable things connect- 
ed with this portent, as men- 
tioned by the poet, the issuing of 
a snake from amongst the altars, 
its devouring the entrails, and the 
extinguishing of the fires. Livy 
mentions merely that the snake 
came out of a wooden pillar, be- 
longing to the ancient Capitol 



Exit, et extinctis ignibus exta rapit. 
Consulitur Phcebus. Sors est ita reddita : ' Mati i -5^ 

' Qui dederit princeps oscula, victor erit.' 
Oscula quisque sua^ matri properata tulerunt, 

Non intellecto credula turba Deo. 
Brutus erat stulti sapiens imitator, ut esset 

Tutus ab insidiis, dire Superbe, tuis. 600 

Ille jacens pronus matri dedit oscula Terrae, 

Creditus ofFenso procubuisse pede. 
Cingitur interea Roman is Ardea sign is, 

Et patitur lentas obsidione moras. 
Dum vacat, et metuunt hostes committere pugnam, 605 

Luditur in castris ; otia miles agit. 

probably, and proceeded towards 
the palace. 

595. Consulitur Phoebus. Titus 
and Aruns, their brother having 
been designedly left behind, were 
sent to Delphi to consult the 
oracle upon this portent, on which 
occasion they asked also who was 
to succeed their father as king. 
To this latter query, to \a Inch the 
poet does not allude, was given 
the answer in the text. ' Pert'ectis 
patris mandatis, cupido incepit 
animos Juvenum sciscitandi, ad 
queni eorura regnuni Romanum 
esset venturum.' Liv. Surs. The 

596. Princeps. First, 

397. Quisque. According to 
Dionysius, the two youths agreed 
to conceal the oracle from their 
brother, and that, having both 
kissed their parent at the same 
time, they should reign conjoint- 
Iv. Livy, however, states that 
they left it to chance which should 
fo snlute her first. Properata. 
In allusion to the haste with 
which they returned. 

598. Credula turba. Titus and 
Aruns, who misinterpreted the 
oracle, whence credula, and non 
intellecto Deo. 

599. Brutus. His father, M. 

Junius, and elder brother, w^ere 
both put to death by Tarquin, 
who coveted their wealth ; in or- 
der to escape a similar fate, L. J. 
Brutus (see infr. 723) counter- 
feited idiocy, and was retained 
at the court of Tarquin for the 
amusement of his sons. • Ex in- 
dustria fact us ad imitationem 
stultitia;, quum se suaque praed» 
esse regi sineret, Bruti quoque 
haud abnuit cognomen ; ut sub 
ejus obtentu coguominis liberator 
ille populi Romani tempora oppe- 
riretur sua.' Liv. 

601. Pronus. Prostrate. Matri 
Terra. ' Scilicet quod ea con!- 
munis mater omnium mortaliun» 
esset.' Liv. 

602. Offense pede. so. Havins; 

603. Ardea. A town of La- 
tium, twenty-three miles distant 
from Rome, founded by Danae, 
daughter of Acrisius ; Virg. 
yEneid, vii. 409, et seq. so called 
either from an augury taken from 
a heron, ardea, Hi/gin. or from 
the excessive heat of the country, 
nrdor. Martial. It was besieged 
by Tarquin, on the pretence that 
it had received some Roman ex- 
iles, and was conspiring to effect 
their return. 




Tarquinius juvenes socios dapibusque meroque 

Accipit ; atque illis rege creatus ait : 
' Dum nos cUfficilis pigro tenet Ardea bello, 

' Nee sinit ad patrios arma referre Deos ; 610 

' Ecquid in officio torus est socialis ? et ecquid 

' Conjugibus nostris miitua cura sumus ?' 
Quisque suam laudat ; stiidiis certamina crescunt ; 

Et fervent multo linguaque corque mere. 
Surgit, cui clarum dederat Collatia nomen ; 615 

' Non opus est verbis ; credite rebus ; ait. 
Nox superest ; tollamur equis, Urbemque petamus.' 

Dicta placent; froenis iuipediuntur equi, 
Pertulerant dominos ; regalia protinus illi 

Tecta petunt : custos in fore nullus erat. 620 

Ecce nurum regis fusis per colla coronis 

Inveniunt posito pervigilare mere. 

607. Juvenes. So Heins. The 
Delphin edition reiM.h juvenis, and 
refers it to Sextus Tarquinius, 
which, from what follows, maybe 
considered the more correct. 

608. Atque illis. At a. ex illis, 
sc. sociis. A I. Ex illifi so. dapibus, 
j. e. post canam, Delph. 

609. Difficilis. So called from 
the strenuous opposition made by 
the Ardeates, 'difBciles fores,' 
Propert. Eteg. 1. 6. 

611. Ecquid. ^c. Whether does 
the nuptial bed abide in its fideli- 
ty ? torus socialis, is used for tori 
socio;. In officio, lit. in the dis- 
charge of its duty. Tr. Are our 
wives faithful ? 

613. Studiis. By their zeal in 
the commendation of their res- 
pective v.ives. 

610. Collalid. A town of the 
Sabines, situated on an eminence 
•' Collatinas moutiliusarces.' Virg. 
-Eneid, vi. 744, four or five miles 
distant from Ri>me to the east. 
So called ' quod ibi opes aliarum 
civitatum fuerint coUntcE.' Vurr. 
Tarquinius Collatinus was so 
named from his fruln^r Egerius 
haviufif been aj)pointed erovernor 
of Collatia after its capture by 

his uncle Tarquinius Superbus. 
The epithet clarum alludes most 
probably to the glory subsequent- 
ly attached to the name of Col- 
latinus, when he and L. J. Brutus 
were appointed the first consuls 
at Rome. 

616. Rebus. ' Quin — conscen- 
dimus equos, invisimusque prae- 
sentes nostrarum ingenia ? Id 
cuique spectatissimum sit, quod 
necopinato viri adventu occurre- 
rit oculis.' Liv. 

618. Franis impediuntur. Are 

619. Pertulerant dominos. They 
had conveyed their masters to the 
place of destination. Perfero. 
' Usque ad locum destinatum, vel 
usque ad tineni constitutum fero.' 

620. In fore, sc. ad fores. Cus- 
tos nullus. A proof of the care- 
lessniss of those within. 

621. Nurum regis. Thedangli- 
ter-in-law of Tarq. Superb, wife 
of Sextus T. Fusis coronis. The 
wreaths with wliich her hair was 
braided havine fallen down, from 
the effects of her revels, upon her 

622. Pervigilare. Devoting the 



Inde cito passu petitur Lucretia : nebat ; 

Ante torum calathi lanaque mollis erant. 
Lumen ad exiguum famulas data pensa trahebant ; 

Inter quas tenui sic ait ipsa sono : 
' Mittenda est domino (nunc, nunc properate, puellae) 

' Quamprimum nostra facta lacerna manu. 
' Quid tamen audistis ? nam plura audire soletis : 

' Quantum de bello dicitur esse super ? 
' Postmodo victa cades : melioribus, Ardea, restas, 

' Improba, quae nostros cogis abesse vivos. 
' Sint tantiim reduces ; sed enim temerarius ille 

' Est meus, et stricto qualibet ense ruit. 



whole niirlit to her vigils. Posito 
mero- With wine at hand. 

623. Cito. Rapid ; doubtless 
from their anxiety. Lucretia. Wife 
of Collatinus, and dautjhter of 
Spurius Lucretius Tricipitinus, 
a noble citizen of Rome. Nebat, 
§-c. The simplicity with which 
the poet has described the mid- 
night occupations of Lucretia, is 
in perfect keeping with the cha- 
racter which they are intended to 
illustrate and commend. 

624. Calathi. Work-basket. 

625. Data pensa trahebant. 
Were carding the wool assigned 
them. Pensitm, ra «rra^^r^'sy, from 
perido, means a certain weight of 
wool given out to be dressed, &c. 
within a stated time. Furcel. 

626. Tenui sono. In a subdued 
or gentle tone. 

' Her voice was ever soft, 
Gentle, and low; an excellent thing in 


628. Nostra. Vestra. Maz. 
Zulich. Lacerna. A kind of cloak 
or great-coat, worn over the toga 
or tunic, open in front, and fas- 
tened with clasps or buckles, Ji. 
hula;. ^He/J,vi. 118, 329. It was 
worn at fii'st by the military only, 
Patera, ii. SO, whence Lucretia is 
stated in the test to be en «raged 
in making one for her husband. 
It is identified by Neapolis, in his 
comments on this passage, with 

the penula, a species of cloak re- 
sembling the lacerna, but shorter 
and straighter, which was also pe- 
culiar to the army. W'ith a like 
thoughtfulness and affection, An- 
dromache devoted her time to 
Hector in his absence. 
— — «Tag Toi iifJt.a.T' svi uiyccooifi 

A£?rT« T£ Kai ^aonvru., rirvyfA.iva. 

^sp<r) yvvzizcuv. 
AXX' YiToi rail rravra. xara^Xi^a 

Ouoiv troiy' oipiXit, Itii ou» lyxil/riai 

xXio^ livai. 

Iliad, Kxii. 510, et seq. 

629. iVo»i plura. Alluding to 
the propensity, peculiar to the 
class she was addressing, for ac- 
quiring news. 

631. Postmodo victa cades, S^c- 
Heiasius suspects this reading, 
and would substitute, Dummodo 
victa cadas, melioribus Ardea resta, 
as if it were a wish on the part 
of Lucretia ; Burmann, however, 
adopts the reading in the text, no 
doubt correctlv, and exphiins the 
passage, « Hereafter conquered, 
you shall fall ; perversely, Ardea, 
you withstand, restas, more able 
adversaries.' So Forcellinus too 
in voc. resto. 

633. Temerarius ille. So An- 
dromache, Axiy.iui ^ffifii ei -i 
elt fAv-;;. Iliad, vi. 

104 FASTORUM, LIB. 11. 

' Mens abit, et morior, quoties pugnantis imago 635 

' Me subit ; et gelidum pectora frigus habet.' 
Desinit in lachrymas, intentaque fila remittit ; 

In gremio vultum deposuitque suum. 
Hoc ipsum decuit : lachrymse cecidere pudicae ; 

Et tacies animo dignaque parque fuit, 640 

' Pone metum, venio ;' conjux ait. Ilia revixit ; 

Deque viri collo dulce pependit onus. 
Interea juvenis turiatos regius ignes 

Concipit, et ca)co raptus amore furit. 
Forma placet, niveusqiie color, flavique capilli ; 645 

Quique aderat nulla, t'actus ab arte decor. 
Verba placent, et vox ; et quod corrumpere non est : 

Quoque minor spes est, hoc magis ille cupit. 
Jam dederat cantum lucis praenuncius ales ; 

Ciim referunt juvenes in sua castra pedem. 650 

Carpitur attonitos absentis imagine sensus 

Ille : recordanti plura magisque placent. 
Sic sedit ; sic culta fuit ; sic stamina nevit ; 

Neglectee collo sic jacviere comae : 
Hos habuit vultus ; liacc illi verba fuere ; 655 

Hie decor, htec facies, hie color oris erat. 
Ut solet a magno fiwctus languescere flatu, 

6S7. Intentagve fila remittit. 'A.t dea. Stamina. The warp, chain, 

subitus calor ossa reliquit. Ex- or stamen of a web, Forcel. de- 

cussi manibus radii, rc^volutnque rived a staiido, because the an- 

pensa.' Virg. ^neid, ix. 475. cients stood when they wove, 

640. Et facies, ^c. And her placing the web perpendicularly, 

countenance was worthy of, and whence radio stantis (i.e. penden- 

suited to her character. tis) percurrens stamina tela-, Ovid. 

643. Furiatos. Furiales. Heins. Melnm iv. 275, and wrought u))- 

645. Niveusquc color. ' Tlie si- wards, in altitudinem, vel sursum 
lent war of lilies and of roses.' versum, Festus. which method 
Sha?isp. Flavique capilli. ' Her was abandoned, however, by the 
hair, like golden threads, play'd linen weavers, linteones, and in 
with her breath.' Jd. weaving the tunica recta, or re- 

646. Nulla /actus, ^-c. Her un- gilla. Plin. viii. 48, s. 74. 
adorned beauty. 657. Ut solet, Sfc. As the sea 

648. Quoque 7ninor,^c. ' Haply is wont to becalmed after a great 
that name of chaste, unhapp'ly storm, but still there is a lieavy 
set. This bateless edge oti his roll, the effect of the wind that 
keen appetite.' Shaksp. has ceased to blow. This simile 

649. Lucis prccnuncius ales, is highly expressive ; Sextus had 
The bird, the harbinger of day. no longer the object liefore him, 

653. Sic sedit. Such were the but still he was distracted with 
reflections of Sextus Tarquinius the iniquitous passion which its 
an his return to the camp at Ar- present beauty had inspired. 


Sed taraen a vento, qui fuit, unda tiimet : 
Sic, quamvis aberat placitae prgesentia formae, 

Quern* dederat praesens forma, manebat amor. 660 

Ardet, et injusti stimulis agitatus amoris, 

Comparat indigno vimque dolumque tore. 
' Exitus in dubio est ; audebimus ultima,' dixit ; 

' Viderit, audentes forsne Deusne juvet. 
' Cepimus audendo Gabios quoque.' Talia fatus, 665 

Ense latus cingit ; tergaque pressit equi. 
Accipit aerata juvenem Collatia porta, 

Condere jam vultus sole parante sues. 
Hostis, ut hospes, init penetralia Collatini : 

Comiter excipitur ; sanguine junctus erat. 670 

Quantum animis erroris inest ! parat inscia rerum 

Infelix epulas hostibus ilia suis. 
Functus erat dapibus ; poscunt sua tempera somni : 

Nox erat, et tota lumina nulla domo. 
Surgit, et auratum vagina deripit ensem ; 675 

Et venit in Thalamos, nupta pudica, tuos. 
Utque torum pressit, ' Ferrum, Lucretia, mecum est ; 

' Natus,' ait, * regis, Tarquiniusque loquor/ 
Ilia nihil ; neque enim vocem viresque loquendi, 

Aut aliquid toto pectore mentis habet ; 680 

Sed tremit, ut quondam stabulis deprensa relictis, 

Parva sub intesto cum jacet agna lupo. 
Quid faciat ? pugnet ? vincetur foemina pugna ; 

Clamet ? at in dextra, qui necet, ensis adest ; 
Effugiat ? positis urgetur pectora palmis ; 685 

Nunc primiim externa pectora tacta manu. 

661. Injusti. Incesti. Al. 675. Auratum. Ornamented 

664. Viderit. Let Fortune or with gold, 
the deity look to it, which of two 677. Utque torum pressit. 'Si- 
may aid the bold. ' So from him- nistraque manu mulieris pectore 
self impiety hath wrought, That oppresso, Tace, l/ucretia, inquit, 
for his prey to pray he doth begin, Sextus Tarquinius sum, ferrum 
As if the heaven should counte- in manu est ; morieris si emiseris 
nance his sin.' &c. Shaksp. Tocem.' IjIV. 

667. ^ratd. FortiBed with 68-2. Parva sub, Src. ' The 

brass, or it may mean simply, wolf hatli seized his prey, the 

strong, impenetrable. Forcel. poor lamb cries.' Shaksp. 

670. Comiter. So Dionysius ; 686. Externa pectora tacta ma- 

'E|£n|£v auTov as ffvyyivn roZ avd^os mt. ' Save of their lord no bear- 

■sraXKri T^c^ufiia ri Koi <pi\o<p^oirvvn. ing yoke they knew, And him by 

Sanguine junctus erat. Sextus was oath they truly honoured.' Id. 
the cousin of Collatinus. 



Instat amans hostis precibus, pretioqtie, minisque : 

Nee prece, nee pretio, nee movet ille minis. 
' Nil agis ; erij)iam,' dixit, ' pro crimine vitam : 

' Falsus adulterii testis adulter erit. 690 

' Interimam famiilum, cum quo deprensa fereris.' 

Succubit famae victa puella metu. 
Quid, victor, gaudes ? hsec te victoria perdet : 

Hen quanto regnis nox stetit una tuis ! 
Jarnque erat orta dies : passis sedet ilia capillis, 695 

Ut solet ad nati mater itura rogum. 
Grandaevumque patrem fido cum conjuge castris 

Evocat ; et posita venit uterque mora. 
Utque vident habitum, quae luctus causa requirunt : 

Cui paret exequias, quove sit icta male. 700 

Ilia diu reticet, pudibundaque celat amictu 

Ora ; fluunt lachrymae more perennis aquae. 
Hinc pater, hinc conjux lachrymas solantur, et orant, 

Indicet : et casco flentque paventque metu. 
Ter conata loqui, ter destitit ; ausaque quarto, 705 

Non oculos adeo sustulit ilia suos. 
' Hoc quoque Tarquinio debebimus ? eloquar,' inquit, 

689. Pro crimine. For a crime 
with which she was to be falsely 

692. Succubuit fama. The 
dread of her honour being im- 
peached, and her memory dis- 
graced, when she should be uo 
longer alive to vindicate either, 
placed her at last in the disposal 
of the destroyer of her peace. It 
is much to be regretted that the 
poet was not in every instance 
guided by the delicacy and taste 
which so eminently distinguish 
his version of this affecting his- 
tory ; nothing can be more beau- 
tiful, or touchingly simple, than 
the above line, which contains its 
unhappy result. 

694. Heu quanto, ^-c. How 
dear has one night cost your king- 

699. Utque vident hihitiim. In 
allusion to her appearing as des- 
cribed, supr. 695. 

' But now the mindful messenger comes 

Brings iiome his lord and other company ; 
Who finds his Lucrece clad in mourning 

black : 
And round about her tear-distained eye 
Blue circles stream'd, like rainbows in 

the sky.' 


703. Orant indicet. Sc. ut in- 

• Unmask, dear dear, this moody business 
And tell thy grief that we may give re- 


704. Cceco. Because they 
knew not the cause of her afflic- 

705. Ter conata loqui ter des- 

' Three times with sighs she gives her 

sorrow fire, 
Ere once she can discharge one word of 



707. Hoc quoque. In addition 
to what she had already suffered. 



' Eloquar infelix dedecus ipsa meum :' 
Quseque potest, narrat. Restabant ultima : flevit ; 

Et matronales erubuere genae. 710 

Dant veniam facto genitor conjiixque coacto. 

' Quam,' dixit, ' veniam vos datis, ipsa nego.' 
Nee mora, celato figit sua pectora {'eiro ; 

Et cadit in patrios sanguinolenta pedes. 
Tunc quoque, jam moriens, ne non procumbat honeste, 715 

Respicit ; haec etiam cura cadentis erat. 
Ecce super corpus, communia damna gementes, 

Obiiti decoris virque paterque jacent. 
Brutus adest ; tandemque animo sua nomina fallit ; 

Fixaque semanimi corpore tela rapit. 720 

she was further obliged to be the 
herald of her own disgrace. 

711. Dant veniam. So Livy ; 
' Consolantur a»gram animi, aver- 
tendo noxam acoacta in auctorera 
delicti : nieuteni peccare, non cor- 
pus et unde consilium abfuerit, 
culpam abesse.' 

« With this they all at once began to say. 

Her body's stain her mind untainted 
clears ; 

While with a joyless smile she turns 

The face, that map, which deep impres- 
sion bears 

Of hard misfortune, carv'd in it with 

' No, no,' saith she, ' no dame hereafter 

Ey my excuse shall claim excuses giv- 


715. Ne non procumbat honeste. 
So Polyxena ; — h §£, xai 6tmx.o'j(r 

fiova; Tta-iiv. Eurip. Hec. 

718. Obiiti decoris. Hurried to 
extremes by the intensity of their 
grief. Virque paterque. 

* Then son and father weep with equal 


Who should weep most for daughter or 

for wife.' 


719. Animo sua nomina fallit. 
The name Brutvs is said to have 
been given him from his supposed 
idiocy. On this occasion he shows 
his real character, and how iittlu 
he deserved the appellation. 

' He with the Romans was esteemed so. 
As silly, jeering idiots are with kings, 
For sporting words, and uttering foolish 

But now he throws that shallow habit 

Wherein deep policy did him disguise; 
And anned his long hid wits advisedly. 
To check the tears in CoUatinue' eyes.' 

720. Fixaque semanimi. 

« And from the purple fountain Brutus 

The murderous knife, and as it left the 

Her blood, in poor revenge, held it in 

' Now, by the Capitol that we adore. 
And by this cliaste blood so unjustly 

stain 'd. 
By heaven's fair sun, that breeds the fat 

earth's store. 
By all our country's rights in Rome main- 

And by chaste Lucrece' soul that late 




Stillantemque tenens generoso sanguine cultrum, 

Edidit impavidos ore minante sonos : 
' Per tibi ego hunc juro fortem castumque cruorem, 

' Perque tuos Manes, qui mihi numen erunt ; 
* Tarquinium poenas profuga cum stirpe daturum : 

' Jam satis est virtus dissimulata diu.' 
Ilia jacens ad verba oculos sine lumine movit ; 

Visaque concussa dicta probare coma. 
Fertur in exequias animi matrona virilis : 

Et secum lachrymas, invidiamque trahit. 
Vulnus inane patet. Brutus clamore Quirites 

Concitat, et regis facta netanda refert. 
Tarquinius cum prole i'ugit. Capit annua Consul 

Jura : dies regnis ilia suprema fuit. 




Fallimue ? an veris praenuncia venit hirundo, 
Et metuit, nequa versa recurrat hiems ? 

Saepe tamen, Progne, nimium properasse quereris ; 
Virque tuo Tereus frigore laetus erit. 


Her wrongs to us, and by this bloody 

We will revenge the death of this true 



727. Oculos sine lumine. ' Her 
lack-lustre eyes.' 

728. Concussa coma. By bow- 
ing her head. 

729. Fertur in exequias. ' Ela- 

annua Consul jura. Upon the ex- 
pulsion of the kings, a. u. 244, 
two supreme magistrates called 
by the Greeks 'rnATOl, were 
annually created, with an equal 
degree of power and authority, in 
order that they might be a check 
upon each other, and not miscon- 
duct themselves from the too long 

tum dorao Lucrelise corpus in fo- continuance of their command. 

rum deferunt, concientque mira- 
culo, ut fit, rei novae atque indig- 
nitate homines.' Liv. 

7-30. Lachrymas, invidiamque. 
Tears and indignation. 

7.32. Regis. ' Addita superbia 
ipsius regis, miseriseque et labo- 
res plebis, in fossas cloacasque ex- 
hauriendas demersas.' Liv. 

733. Prole. Titus and Aruns 
followed their father to Caere in 
Etruria; Sextus returned, with 
the intention of resuming his au- 

Brutus and Collatinus were the 
first consuls after the extinction of 
regal power. 

735. An veris, Sfc. Or has the 
swallow come, the herald of the 
spring ? 

736. Versa. Lest winter changed 
from the temperature of spring, 
or, altered from its due course, 
should return again, recurrat. 

737. Progne. See supr. n. 51 1 . 
JVimium properasse. To have made 
too great haste ; the season being 
as yet too cold. 

738. Loetus erit. On account 

thority, to Gabii, where he was 

put to death by the avengers of 

tiie many victims sacrificed to of his old enmity to Progne. 

hi» treachery and cruelty. Capit 




Jamque duae restant nocte^ de mense secundo, 

Marsque citos junctis curribus urget equos ; 740 

Ex vero positum permansit Equiria nomen ; 

Quae Deus in Campo prospicit ipse suo. 
Jure venis, Gradive : locum tua tempora poscunt : 

Signatusque tuo nomine mensis adest. 
Venimus in portum, libro cum mense peracto : 745 

Naviget hinc alia jam mihi linter aqua. 

739. Jamque dues. On the III. 
Kal. Mart, was the celebration 
of the Equiria, or chariot races, 
ab equorumcursu, ordcimed by Ro- 
mulus, in honour of his reputed 
father Mars. They were held in 
the Campus Martins, or in case 
of its being flooded, which some- 
times occurred, in a part of Mons 
Caelius, called by Catullus, Cam- 
pus minor, Carm. 55. The Equi- 
ria were repeated, iii. Id. Mart. 
See Fast. iii. 513. 

740. Junctis curribus. Each 
race being contested by a number 
of chariots. 

742. Suo. Sc. Martis. 

743. Jure venis Gradive. Be- 
cause the poet is going to treat 

of the month called after him. 
Mars was c;illed Gradivus, a gra- 
diendo in bella, Fast, or from Gr. 
K^alainn, quia hastam vibrat ; or 
from gramen, because he is said 
to have been produced from a 
flower by the aid of Flora ; see 
Fast. V. 229, whence the corona 
graminea was so highly prized as 
a military honour. Servius, in 
^neid, i. 296, says that Mars, 
when peaceable, was called Qui- 
rinus, but when the contrary, 
Gradivus, in consequence of 
which, he had two temples, one 
within the city, as its guardian 
in peace, the other without, on 
the Appiau way, as its defence in 




Beluce, depositis clypeo paulisper et hasta, 

Mars, ades, et nitidas casside solve comas. 
Forsitan ipse roges, quid sit cum Marte poetae. 

A te, qui canitur, nomina, mensis habet, 
Ipse vides manibus peragi fera bella Minervae. 

Num minus, ingenuis artibus ilia vacat ? 
Palladis exemplo ponendae tempora same 

Cuspidis : invenies et quod inermis agas. 
Turn quoque inermis eras, cum te Romana sacerdos 

Cepit, ut huic Urbi semina digna dares. 
Ilia Vestalis, quid enim vetat inde moveri ? 

Sacra lavaturas mane petebat aquas. 

1. Bellice. This month, con- 
secrated to Mars, the third of 
the Julian year, was the first in 
that ordained by Romulus. On 
the first day of March, new tires 
were kindled upon the altars of 
Vesta, new branches of laurel 
suspended in the palaces, and 
houses of the priests, &c. Clypeo. 
From Gr. yXu:pu, sculpo, because 
of the figures and emblems which 
were usually carved upon them. 
The clypeus diifered from the par- 
ma, in the material of which it 
was composed, the former having 
been made of brass, the latter of 
leather j and also from the scutum 
which was made of wood. They 
are used indiscriminately by the 

2. Et nitidas casside solve comas. 

Free from the casque your glossy 
hair. The poet invokes Mars, 
having laid aside his armour, to 
yield him his aid and attention. 

5. Ipse vides. The poet assigns 
as a reason why he should be al- 
lowed to discuss his present sub- 
ject, the leisure which Minerva 
was enabled to devote to the li- 
beral arts, although her occupa- 
tions were for the most part pro- 
fessedly warlike. 

9. Romana. Trcjana. Heins. 

10. Cepit, Sfc. Captivated you, 
so that you granted a suitable ori- 
gin to this city. 

11. Inde moveri. To set out 
from thence. 

12. Sacra. The vessels used 
at the sacrifices ; which were of 
various kinds, as the acerra or 



Ventum erat ad rnolli declivem tramite ripam : 

Ponitur e summa fictilis urna coma. 
Fessa resedit humi ; ventosque accepit aperto 15 

Pectore, turbatas restituitque comas. 
Dum sedet ; umbrosae salices, volucresque canora? 

Fecenmt somnos, et leve mm^miir aquae. 
Blanda qiiies victis fiartim subrepit ocellis, 

Et cadit a mento langiuda facta manus. 20 

Somnus abit : jacet ilia gravis. Jam scilicit intra 

Viscera, Romanee conditor Urbis, eras. 
Languida consurgit, nee scit cur languida surgat, 

Et peragit tales arbore nixa sonos : 
Utile sit faustumque, precor quod imagine somni 25 

Vidimus. An somno clarius illud erat ? 
Ignibus Iliacis aderam : cum lapsa capillis 

Decidit ante sacros lanea vitta focos, 
Inde duae pariter, visu mirabile, palmas 

thurihulum, a censer for burning 
incense ; simpulum or simpuvium, 
(juttus, capis. patera, cups used 
in libations ; ollce, pots ; tripodes, 
tripods, &c. Aquas. The river 
Numicius, sacred to Vesta. 

13. Tramite. Cross-path; from 

14. Fictilis vrna, Sfc. ' The 
earthen pitcher is set down from 
the top of her head. Wearied 
she sunk upon the ground, wel- 
comed the breeze to her uncovered 
breast, and re-arranged her dis- 
ordered tresses. While she is re- 
clining, the shady willows, and 
warbling birds, with the soft mur- 
mur of the stream, induced re- 
pose. A gentle slumber steals in- 
sensibly on her unresisting eyes, 
and her powerless hand fails to 
support her head.' 

24. Arbore nixa. Supported by 
a tree. 

25. Imagine somni. In a dream. 

27. Ignibus Iliacis. At the Tro- 
jan fires : sc. ot Vesta, broutiht 
away from Troy by ^neas. Virg. 
^neid, ii. 717. 

28. Lanea vitta. The Vestal 

virgins wore round their heads 
fillets, infulcB, srifji-iiara., Dionys. 
ii. 67, viii. 69, and ribbons or 
bands, vittae. Hence the Vestalis 
Maxima is called Vittata Sacer- 
dos, Lvcan. i. 597, and simply 
Vittata, Juvenal,\v. 10. The head 
dress which they wore at the sa- 
crifices was ca]\edsiiffibulum, from 
fibula, because fastened with 
clasps. This dream was prophe- 
tic of what subsequently occurred 
when the insignia of her office 
were removed, in consequence of 
the forfeiture of her vows as a 
Vestal virgin. So Dionysius, 
speaking of Oppia or Opimia, 
convicted of a similar offence ; 

TO, trrifificcra, xai Tof/.TiuovTi; oi 
uyooa.;, Ivts; rii^ov; ^urav xaru- 
su\a.i. Several MS S. read Zaurec 

29. Dua palmce. As the palm 
was the emblem of victory, ' quos 
Elea domum reducit palma cse- 
lestes;' Horat. Od. iv. 2, 17, 
sometimes the victor himself, 
' tertia palma Diores,' Virg. ^n. 
V. 3.30 ; it was an appropriate 



Surgunt. Ex ilHs altera major erat : 
Et gravibus ramis totum protexerat orbem, 

Contigeratque nova sidera summa coma. 
Ecce raeus ferrum patruus molitur in illas. 

Terreor admonitu, corque timore micat. 
Martia picus avis gemino pro stipite pugnant, 

Et lupa. Tula per hos utraque palma fuit. 
Dixerat : et plenam non firmis viribus urnam 

Sustulit. Implerat, dum sua visa refert. 
Interea crescente Remo, crescente Quirino, 

Ccelesti tumidus pondere venter erat. 
Quo minus emeritis exiret cursibus annus, 

Restabant nitido jam duo signa deo. 
Silvia fit mater : Vestae simulacra feruntur 




eyrabol of the future glory of her 

30. Major. Ronrmliis. 

32. Nova coma. With its won- 
drous foliage. 

ii3. Patruus, Amulius. 

34. Terreor, Sec. Inmawedby 
the warning, and my heart palpi- 
tates with fear. 

35. Picus, Gr. 'S^uoxoXa.wTtj;, a 
woodpecker. Pliny savs that this 
bird was so called from Picus, 
father of Fauuus, who was 
chiing-ed into a vvoorj|jecker by 
Circe, whose advances lie con- 
temned. Others derive the name 
from iriixiu, tundo. According to 
Plutarch, the twins Romulus and 
Ri>mus were nounsded both by a 
wolf and a woodpecker, the for- 
mer havinff sucklfd them, and the 
latter supplied tliem with food. 
See infr. 53, 54. The woodpecker 
was sacred to Mars, whence il/ar- 
tia, Gemino pro stipite. For the 
two trees. 

36. Tuta, §-c. By their means 
either tree was preserved. 

41. Quo minus, §c. Ere the 
year should close, its course hav- 
ing been accomplished, two signs, 
(of the Zodiac, i. e. two months,) 
were remaining for the resplen- 
dent god, sc, to enter. A peri- 

phrasis for ten months, Emeritis. 
See i. 601. 

43. VestcE simulacra. The poet. 
Fast, vi. 277, professes to have 
erred in ascribing statues or effi- 
gies to Vesta, which did not exist. 
The goddess was worshipped, no 
doubt, under the image of the 
eternal fire, but it is equally true 
that she was likewise worshipped 
under visible forms. Posidonius, 
(in Heroibus et Dsemonibus,) 
mentions that Vesta was the in- 
ventor of houses, and, in conse- 
quence, paintings were made of 
her, and hung up in every dwell- 
ing to protect it, and preserve its 
inhabitants. In the mythology of 
Natalis Comes, (Hecat. Miles, 
in Genealog. ) Vesta is described 
as a female, seated, and wearing 
a crown, with various plants 
around her, and animals of every 
kind doiuff her homage. It is 
not unlikely that as there weye 
two Vestas, see i. 478, the sta- 
tues were intended to represent 
the Vesta who was the same with 
Terra or the earth, and that the 
other, who was the representa- 
tive of another element, fire, was 
worshipped under that semblance. 
In describing the occurrence in 
the text, the poet does not speak 



Virgineas oculis opposuisse manus. 
Ara dese certe tremuit, pariente ministra ; 45 

Et subiit cineres territa flamma suos. 
Haec ubi cognovit contemtor Amulius aequi : 

Nam raptas fratri victor habebat opes : 
Amne jubet niergi geminos. Scelus unda refugit ; 

In sicca pueri destituuntur humo. 50 

Lacte quis infantes nescit crevisse ferino, 

Et picum expositis saepe tulisse cibos ? 
Non ego te, tantae nutrix Larentia gentis, 

Nee taceam vestras, Faustule pauper, opes. 
Vester honos veniet, cum Larentalia dicam : 55 

Acceptus Geniis ilia December habet. 
Martia ter senos proles adoleverat annos, 

Et suberat flavae jam nova barba comae. 
Omnibus agricolis armentorumque magistris 

Iliadae fratres jura petita dabant. 60 

Saepe domum veniunt praedonum sanguine laeti, 

positively» but says merely, ' are 
reported,' feruntur, Sfc. to which 
is opposed certe. infr. 45. 

45. Ara dea, §"c. ' Undoubted- 
ly the altar of the goddess shook, 
upon the priestess becoming a 
parent, and the affrig-hted flame 
withdrew beneath its own em- 
bers.' This was accounted a fear- 
ful portent by the Romans. 

47. Contemtor aqui. So Me- 
zentius is called, ' Contemtor di- 
vum ;' JEneid, vii. 648. 

50. Destituuntur. 'Tenet,fama, 
quum fluitantem alveum quo ex- 
positi erant pueri, tenuis in sicco 
aqua destituisset, lupam sitientem 
ex montibus, qui circa sunt, ad 
puerilem vagitum cursum flex- 
isse : eam submissas int'antibus 
adeo milem prajbuisse mammas, 
ut lingua lambentem pueros ma- 
gister regii pecoris invenerit. 
Faustulo fuisse nomen fcrunt. 
Ab eo ad stabula Larentise uxori 
educandos latos.' JJv. 

53. Larentia. Laurentia. Al. 
and 5o, Laurentalia. 

55. Larentalia. A festival in 
honour of Larentia, the wife of 

Faustulus, celebrated in Decem- 

56. Acceptus Geniis. On the 
XVI. Kal. Januar. Decern. 17th, 
the Saturnalia, or festival in ho- 
nour of Saturn, was held, which 
■\vas the most distinguished of 
the whole year. All ranks en- 
gaged in the mirtli and festivities ; 
friends interchanged valuable pre- 
sents, and masters were brought 

•on a level with their slaves ; hence 
acceptus geniis. The Genius was 
a daemon or tutelary god, supposed 
to take charge of every indivi- 
dual from his birth, during the 
whole period of his life ; ' Scit 
genius, natale comes qui tempe- 
rat astrum, Naturse deus humanae 
mortalis in unum — Quodque ca- 
put,' Horat. Ep. ii. 2, 187 ; pro- 
pitiated by offerings ; ' Floribus 
et vino genium.' Id. Ep. ii. 1, 14;). 
' Funde merum genio.' Pers. 2, 3. 

57. Alartia proles. Romulus 
and Remus. 

59. Mayistris. Ministris. Neap. 

60. Iliada. Sons of Iha. Jura 
petita dabant, Were dispensing the 
required justice. 



Et redigunt actos in sua rura boves. 
Ut genus audierunt, aniraos pater editus auget ; 

Et pudet in paucis nomen habere casis ; 
Romuleoque cadit trajectus Amulius ense, 

Regnaque longaevo restituuntur avo. 
Mcenia conduntur : quae, quamvis parva fuerunt, 

Non tamen expediit transiluisse Remo. 
Jam, modo qua fuerant silvae, pecorumque recessus 

Urbs erat : seternae cum pater Urbis ait : 
Arbiter armorum, de cujus sanguine natus 

Credor, et ut credar, pignora certa dabo ; 
A te principium Romano ducimus anno : 

Primus de patrio nomine mensis erat. 
Vox rata fit ; patrioque vocat de nomine mensem. 

Dicitiu' haec pietas grata fuisse deo. 
Et tamen ante omnes Martem coluere priores. 

Hoc dederat studiis bellica turba suis. 
Pallada Cecropidse, Mino'ia Creta Dianam. 



63. Ut genus audierunt. When 
tliey learned their descent. Pater 
editus. Their parent being de- 
clared. Agnitus. Ursin. 

64. Nomen habere, ^c. To en- 
joy reputation amidst a few huts. 

66. Regnaque. Sc. The Alban. 
LongcEvo avo. Numitor, father of 
Ilia, now advanced in life. 

68. Non tamen. Because his 
death was the result. 

71. Mars. 

73. A te principium, ^c. Be- 
cause, as has been already observ- 
ed, the year of Romulus began 
with March. 

75. De patrio nomine, sc. Mars, 
from whom March was called. 

77. Omnes. sc. Deos. Priores. 
The Latins, who were familiar 
with the worship of Mai"s before 
the time of Romulus. 

78. Hoc dederat, §*c. The war- 
like people had made this, i. e. the 
worship of Mars, the object of 
their zealous attention. Dederant. 
A\. Dederit. Heins. 

79. Pallada. Minerva, so called 
from -praXkco, quia vibrat hastam. 
According to Festus, she received 

this name either from Pallas, a 
giant ; Cic. de Nat. Dear. iii. 
23, whom she slew for having of- 
fered her violence, or because she 
was born in Pallas, a marshy dis- 
trict of Africa. Cecropidce. The 
Athenians, so called from Ce- 
crops, the most ancient sovereign 
of Athens. He reigned for fifty 
years, four centuries before the 
destruction of Troy. He is said 
to have been the son of Vulcan 
and Terra ; Hygin. fab. 48, and 
158. He was believed by the 
Athenians to have considerably 
enlarged their city, founded by 
Pallas, who was their tutelary 
deity. Mino'ia Creta. Crete, now 
Candia, i.e. a citadel, is one of the 
larger islands in the Mediterra- 
nean sea. The name is of Phoe- 
nician origin, signifying skilful 
bowmen, the bow and arrows 
having been the constant arms of 
the Cretans. It was formerly ce- 
lebrated for its hundred cities, 
whence 'Exarij^woX/; ; for Mount 
Ida, where was shown the cradle 
and the sepulchre of Jova ; the 
amours of Ariadne, Europa, Pa- 



Vulcanum tellus Hypsipylea colit : 
Junonem Sparte, Pelopeiadesque Mycenie : 

Pinigerum Fauni Maenalis ora caput. 
Mars Latio venerandiis erat, quia praesidet armis. 

Arma ferae genti remque decusque dabant. 
Quod si forte vacas, peregrines inspice fastos : 

Mensis in his etiam nomine Martis erit. 
Tertius Albanis, quintus fuit ille Faliscis : 

Sextus apud populos, Hernica terra, tuos. 
Inter Aricinos, Albanaque tempora constant 



siphae, &c. ; called Minoia, from 
Minos, son of Jupiter and Eu- 
ropa, its ancient king, and an 
eminent legislator. According- to 
some its original name was Aeria, 
after which it was called Crete, 
from a nymph of tliat name. Di- 
ana was worshipped there with 
great solemnity, upon Mount 
Dicte, whence she is called Dic- 

80. Tellus Hypsipi/lea. Lem- 
nos, an island in the M^enn Sea, 
so called from Hypsipyle, daugh- 
ter of Thoas, king of Lemnos. 
When all the women in the is- 
land conspired to put the men to 
death to secure their own inde- 
pendence, she preserved her fa- 
ther, and had him conveyed by 
night to Chios. The Argonauts 
captured Lemnos on their way to 
Colchis, and Hypsi])ylea bore 
two sons, Thoas and Euneus, to 
their leader Jason. Lemnos, now 
Stalimene, was sacred to Vulcan, 
who was flung from heaven, by 
his mother Juno, in disgust at 
his deformity, or according to 
others, by his father Jupiter, and 
having continued to descend for 
a whole day, lighted on Lemnos 
at sunset; Tlav §' nfiet^ (pieifmy, 
aux YiiXiu Kxrabivri Kdvxiffa* In 

\r,fiyu- Horn. Some say that he 
fell upon Hephopstias, a motmtain 
in the island, by which they ac- 
countforthe blackness and barren- 
ness of its summit, and its name. 

81. Junonem Sparta, if c Spar- 
ta, now Misitra or Alisistra, a 
city of Peloponnesus in Laconia, 
founded by Spartus, the grandson 
of Inaclius. Mycena. A town of 
Peloponnesus in Argos, built by 
Lacedaemon the son of Semele ; 
according to others, by Perseus, 
the son of Danae, with the assist- 
ance of tiie Cyclops ; Senec. in 
Here. Furens. 997 ; and so called 
after the nymph Mycena. It was 
the abode of Pelops, whence Pe- 
lopeiades, from whose son, Thy- 
estes, it was also called Thyestece. 
Juno was worshipped at Sparta, 
(of which Sparte is the Greek 
form,) with particular respect. 

82. Pinigerum Fauni. Faunus 
is represented as wearinjr a crown 
of pine. He was one of the Dii 
Indiijetes of tiie Arcadians. Mce- 
nalis ora. Arcadia. See i. 570. 

85. Peregrinos Fastos. The 
Fasti of the other Italian states. 

87. Tertius Albanis. March 
was the third month with the 
Albans, the fifth with the Falis- 
ci ; Fast. i. 84, &c. 

88. Hernica terra. The Her- 
nici were a people of Latium, 
between the iEqui and Volsci. 

89. Inter Aricinos, &'c. There 
is an agreement in reckoning, or, 
in tiie order of the months, be- 
tween the Aricini, the Albani, 
sc. Albana mania, and the Tus- 
culani, sc. factag. Tcleg. man. 
that is, March is tlie third month 



Factaque Telegoni mcenia celsa manu. 90 

Quintum Laurentes, bis quintum ^quicolus asper, 

A tribus hunc primum turba Curensis habet. 
Et tibi cum proavis, miles Peligne, Sabinis 

Convenit : hie genti quartus utrique deus. 
Romulus, hos omnes ut vinceret ordine saltern, 95 

Sanguinis auctori tempora prima dedit. 
Nee totidem veteres, quot nunc, hab\iere Kalendas. 

lUe minor geminis mensibus annus erat. 
Nondum tradideras victas victoribus artes, 

with each. Aricia was a town in 
Latium. Tusculura was built up- 
on a high hill, twelve miles dis- 
t?int from Rome, by Telegonus 
the son of Ulysses and Circe. 

91. Quintum. The Laurentes 
made March the fifth month, the 
^quicoli, the tenth. The ^qui 
and -iEquicoli inhabited between 
the Marsi and the Sabines, bor- 
dering on both. Asper. ' Horrida 
praecipue cui gens, assuetaque 
multo Venatu nemorum, duris 
.iEquicola glebis.' Virg. 

92. A tribus hunc primum. The 
first month after three, a tribus, 
i. e. the fourth month. Turba 
Curensis. The Sabines. Some 
MSS. read Ferensis, which is in- 
terpreted of the Ferentini, who 
inhabited the town Ferentum, 
placed by Strabo on the Via La- 
tina. Others read Forensis, by 
which Scaliger would understand 
the inhabitants of Foruli, a town 
of the Sabines ; while some ex- 
plain it of ' Forum populi,' a 
town on the Alban Mount, whose 
inhabitants were called Foro- 
populientes ; Plin. iii. c. 5. The 
reading in the text, however, is 
the most approved, and is fully 
borne out by the two succeeding 

93. Peligne. The Peligni were 
a people of Italy, in Aprutium, 
now Abruzzo. According to Fes- 
tus, they were a people of lUyria. 
They were of a very warlike cha- 

racter, whence miles. ' Marsa raa- 
nus, Peligna cohors, festina vi- 
rum vis.' Enn. apud. Charis. iv. 

94. Genti utrique. The Peligni 
and Sabines, called proavi, as be- 
ing the stock from which the for- 
mer derived th^ir descent. Quar- 
tus deus. i. e. March is the fourth 

95. Ordine saltern. As none of 
the preceding states were defici- 
ent in the worship of Mars, Ro- 
mulus could only surpass them by 
placing the month called after his 
reputed sire at the head of the 
year. Fast, i . 39. 

97. Kalendas. sc. Menses. 

98. Ille minor. See FasM.N.SS. 

99. Nondum tradideras, SfC. 
Before Greece was brought under 
the authority of Rome. ' In the 
history of those kingdoms, (the 
Grecian and Egyptian) the most 
remarkable event is their con- 
quest by the Romans, who gra- 
dually seized all the western 
spoils of the empire of Alexan- 
der, comprehended between the 
Euphrates and the Hadriatic sea, 
and successively reduced them 
into the form of provinces. 
Greece, which came to be dis- 
tinguished by the name of Achaia, 
imparted its literature, its arts, 
and its vices to Italy.' Gillies' 
Greece. Compare Horat. Ep, ii. 
1, 156. ' Grsecia capta ferum vic- 
torem cepit, et artes Intulit 
agresti Latio.' 



Graecia, facundum, sed male forte genus. 
Qui bene pugnarat, Romanam noverat artem : 

Mittere qui poterat pila, disertus erat. 
Quis tunc aut Hyadas, ant Pleiadas Atlanteas 

Senserat, aut geminos esse sub axe polos ? 
Esse duas Arctos ; quarum Cynosura petatur 

Sidoniis, Helicen Graia carina notet ? 
Signaque, qu£E longo Frater percenseat anno, 

Ire per hgec uno mense Sororis equos ? 
Libera currebant, et inobservata per annum 

Sidera : constabat sed tamen esse deos. 




100. Facundum, sed male forte 
genus. * The sloth and servility of 
Asia gradually crept into Greece.' 
' — Reluctantly compelled to 
submit to a master, they lost that 
elevation of character, and that 
enthusiasm of valour, which had 
been produced by Ireedom, nou- 
rished by victory, and confirmed 
by the just sense of national pre- 
eminence.' Gillies' ibid. 

101. Romanam artem. Opposed 
tovictasartes ; and disertus erat, to 

facundum genus, supr. So Virgil, 
' Excudent alii spiranlia mollius 
sera: Credo equidem, vivos du- 
centde marmore vuhus: Orabunt 
causas melius, coslique meatus 
Describent radio, et surgentia 
sidera dicent, Tu regere imperio,' 

103. Hyadas, Sfc. See Fast. ii. 
372. The poet proceeds to prove 
how little conversant the ancient 
Romans were with any science 
except that of war, and h^w un- 
observant of those constellat'ons 
which were afterwards their guides 
in the division of the seasons ; as 
the Hyades were the harbingers 
of winter, the Pleiades of spring, 
&c. Several MSS. read Pliadas. 

104. Sub axe. May either mean 
simply in the open air, under the 
canopy of heaven, Forcel. or the 
poet may be understood to take 
polos, not in the usual sense of 
the extremities of the earth's 

axis, but as a sort of hinges on 
which either extremity of the 
a.xis turned. 

105. Duas Arctos. The Ursa 
Major and Ursa Minor; for the 
former, called Helice, from Gr. 
iXtffffco, volvo, from its revolving 
round the pole, see Fast. ii. N. 
157. Cynosura, the Ursa Minor, 
was one of the nymphs who 
nursed Jupiter on Mount Ida, ia 
Crete, and was raised to the stars 
together with her sisters, for their 
deserts. Cynosura is derived from 
xuaiv,canis, and ou^a,caMC?a, because 
tlie stars behind the bear are so 
situated, as to be thought to re- 
semble the tail of a dog ; Cic. in 
Arat. ii. de Nat. Dear. Tlie mer- 
chants of Sidon, a city of Phoe- 
nicia, in Syria, directed their na- 
vigation by the Ursa Minor, the 
Greeks by the Ursa Major. 

107. Signaque. Of the zodiac. 
Longo anno. The solar year, dur- 
ing wliich the sun, frater, remains 
for a month in each of the twelve 
signs, tiirough which, severally, 
the moon passes in the space of 
one month. 

108. Sororis. sc. Lunse. 

110. Sidera. Because they had 
not yet been made subservient for 
the distinction of times and sea- 
sons, &c. 

— Constabat, SfC. Although 
unobservant of the celestial bo- 
dies, they were still convinced of 



Non illi ccelo labentia signa movebant, 

Sed sua, quae magnum perdere crimen erat. 
Illaque de foeno. Sed erat reverentia foeno, 

Quantum nunc aquilas ccnis habere tuas. 
Pertica suspenses portabat longa maniplos: 

Unde maniplaris nomina miles habet. 
Ergo animi indociles et adhuc ratione carentes 

Mensibus egerunt lustra minora decern. 


the existence of the gods. The 
poet obviously intends to guard 
against an inference, which might 
be deduced from what he had 
previously stated, viz. that the 
ancient Romans were altogether 
unconcerned upon the points of 
religious worship, which, it is 
well known, they were not. There 
does not seem to be any occasion 
for the proposed emendations of 
this passage, as it stands in the 
text ; Constahut sed tamen esse 
Deo. Petav. Perannos Sideracon- 
stabatsed tamen esse suos. Al.Con- 
stahat sed tamen esse diu. Heins. 

111. Non illi, §-c. They re- 
garded not the signs which move 
across the sky. Sed sua. sc. siffiia, 
Standards. Quce magnum perdere 
crimen. To lose or abandon the 
standard was looked upon as 
highly dishonorable, particularly 
in the standard-bearer, and some- 
times as a capital offence, Liu. ii. 
59 ; hence to animate the soldiers 
the standards were sometimes 
thrown into the midst of the 
enemy. Liv. iii. 70, vi. 8, xxv. 1-4, 
xxvi. 5. 

113. De foeno. The first army 
which Romulus contrived to or- 
ganise, consisting of shepherds, 
&c. he divided into companies of 
one hundred each, and assigned 
to every century a standard, man- 
ipulus, a manumimplendo, a bundle 
of hay tied to the top of a pole. 
Aurel, Victor, de orig. pop. Rom. 
c. 22. By this, subsequently, was 
snderstood the troop itself. Sed 
«rat, §*c. In former times this 

primitive ensign obtained the re- 
verence and respect which was 
afterwards evinced towards the 
A quill. 

114. Aquilas. The omens taken 
from tlie eagles' flight were con- 
sidered the most auspicious by 
the Romans, whence the common 
standard of a legion was a silver 
eagle, with expanded wings, on 
the top of a spear, sometimes 
with a thunderbolt in its claws. 
Before the time of Marius, va- 
rious animals were represented 
by the Roman standards, after- 
wards the Aquila generally pro- 
vailed. Tuas. Of Germanicus. 

115. Pertica. Qa. pertigu.lrom 
pertingo. A pole to which the 
trusses of hay were attached. 
Supr. 113. 

116. Maniplaris. sc. A Mani- 

117. Ratione carentes. Deficient 
in calculation. 

1 18. Mensibus egeruntySfc.They 
caused the lustra to come short by 
ti'n months ; because a Iwtrum 
contained generally a space of five 
years ; and as each year, at the time 
alluded to in the text, consisted of 
only ten months, so there were 
but fifty months in a lustrum 
which oueht to have contained 
sixty, had the year contained the 
proper proportion of months, 
twelve, which were subsequently 
assigned to it. With a view to the 
valuation of property and a due 
settlement of the public revenue, 
Servius TuUius instituted a cen- 
$us, or assessment, which was held 



Annus erat, decimum cum Luna repleverat orbem. 

Hie numerus magno tunc in honore fuit. 
Seu quia tot digiti, per quos numerare solemus ; 

Seu quia bis quino femina mense parit ; 
Seu quod adusque decern numero crescente venitur ; 

Principium spatiis sumitur inde novis. 
Inde pares centum denos secrevit in orbes 



at the end of every five years, 
first by the kings, then by the 
consuls, but after the year 310, 
by the censors, the magistrates ap- 
pointed distinctly for that pur- 
pose. After the census was con- 
cluded, an expiatory, or purifying 
sacrifice, sacrificium lustrale, was 
ofi^ered, consisting of a sow, a 
sheep, and a bull, which were car- 
ried round the whole assembly, 
and then slain ; and so the people 
were said to be cleansed, lustrari. 
This sacrifice was railed Suove- 
taurilia or Solitaurilia, and he who 
performed it was said condere lus- 
trum, so called a luendo, i. e. sol- 
vendo, because at that time all the 
taxes were paid by the farmers- 
general to the censors : Varr. 
L. L. V. 2. And because this was 
done at the end of every fifth 
year, hence lustrum is made to 
signify the intervening space. 

119. Annus erat. The year con- 
sisted of ten lunar mouths. 

120. Hie numerus, ^c. The 
poet proceeds to assign the reason 
why the number, ten, was held in 
such estimation. 

121. Seu quia tot digiti. So 
with the Greeks, avatrsittwi^si», to 
count on five fingers. 

122. Seu quia. See Fast. i.83. 

123. Seu quod adusque, 6fC. Or 
because we arrive so far as ten, 
the number increasing ; i. e. from 
units to tens; thence, sc. from ten, 
we make the commencement of 
a new reckoning, beginning with 
unity as before. The poet means 
to say that the use of a decimal 
division of uumbers was another 

reason for the respect paid to the 
number in the text. 

125. Inde pares, ^c. This read- 
ing has been adopted by the most 
approved MSS. and is in all 
probability the more correct, as 
there is little more than vague 
conjecture to support the other 
reading, patres ; there being no 
proof that the senate was ever 
divided into decuries by Romulus, 
upon which supposition only, such 
an interpretation could be found- 
ed as the reading is adduced to 
authorise. It is probable that the 
line Inde pares, ^'c. is to be taken 
as a general observation on what 
had been done by Romulus, which 
is afterwards explained in detail, 
Hastatos, §-c. Hence pares may 
allude to the soldiers of the three 
several kinds of infantry being 
well matched; for instance, the 
Hastati consisted of young men 
in the bloom and vigour of life, 
who formed the first line in bat- 
tle ; the Principes, who occupied 
the second, were men of middle 
age, and the Triarii, who formed 
the third line, were veterans of 
distinguished valour, so that each 
line consisted of a distinct body 
of men, who were at the same 
time equally efiicient in their res- 
pective orders. The pares centum 
may then be understood of the 
hundred soldiers or century con- 
tained in each of the ten com- 
panies, deni orbes, or decern Has- 
tati ; for, as appears from Livy, 
xlii. 24, the first company, or cen- 
tury was called primus Hastatus. 
the second, seatndus Hast, &c. 



Romulus: Hastatos instituitque decern. 
Et totidem Princeps, totidem Pilanus habebat 

Corpora : legitimo quique merebat equo. 
Q.uin etiam partes totidem Titiensibus idem, 
and so with the Piincipes and before them, were called Antepi- 

Triarii, Et totidem, §-c. Whence 
the passage may be interpreted, 
' Thence Romulus set apart a 
hundred equals, or of the same 
age, riXiy.i'Zrai, for each of the ten 
companies, and ordained the ten 
Hastati,' &c. 

126. Hastatos. So called, be- 
cause armed with long spears, 
hastcE, which were, however, af- 
terwards laid aside as inconve- 
nient. Varr. L.L. iv. 16. Thev 

lani. By Pilanus is to be under- 
stood the commandant of the ten 
centuries of the Pilani or Triarii. 
128. Leyitimoequo. When Ro- 
mulus divided the people into 
three tribes, he chose from each 
tribe a hundred young men of dis- 
tinguished rank, wealth, and ac- 
complishments, who served, me- 
rebant, as cavalry, and whom he 
used as a body-guard. The pri- 
ces of these knights, Equites, 

Were the first to engage, and if were, a horse supplied them at 
they failed to make an impres- the public expense, hence called 
sion on the enemy, they withdrew leyitimus ,- a gold ring- ; the aii- 

behind the Principes, who then 
took up the battle. The leader of 
the primus hastatus, was called, 
Ka.T l^ax,''"'^, Hastatus, as Princeps 
and Pilanus infr. 

127. Princeps. The Principes 
were so called from their superi- 
ority over the rest of the infantry, 
' quod essent praecipuum robur 
exercitiis ;' or because they were 
composed of the more noble and 
wealthy class of citizens, or from 
their having originally formed the 
first line in battle. They were 
also divided into ten companies; 
' Cretensi bello, Aletello imper- 
atore, octavum principem duxit, 
i. e. octavum ordinem principum.' 
Cic. ad Brut. Epist. 8. ' A. Man. 
Acilio mibi primus princeps pri- 
ons centuriae est assignatus.' Liv. 
xlii. 34. Under the Caesars the 
Principes were placed in the van 
of the army in battle; Veyet. i. 
de re milit. 20, ii. 2, 8, 15. Pila- 
nus. The Triarii, so called from 
their having occupied the third 
line in battle, were also called 
Pilani, from the pilum or javelin 
which they used, whence the 

gustus clavus, or tunica angusti- 
clavia ; and a separate seat at the 
public spectacles. It cannot be 
inferred from the text that Ro- 
mulus appointed a thousand equi- 
tes, as he did Hastati, &c. but 
merely that he continued to ob- 
serve his rule, selecting ten from 
each curia, or a hundred from 
each tribe. Whence in this, and 
the two precedinsj lines, the poet 
has given the exact amount of the 
legion, as constituted by Romu- 
lus, which contained three thou- 
sand foot, and three hundred 

129. Partes totidem. These 
three hundred horsemen were 
called generallyCe/eres, (ra^n; Wi 
ra, l^ycc, ad opera veloces, Dionys. 
ii. 1'3, or from kO.vs, eques desul- 
torius ; or from Celer, their com- 
mander, who is said to have been 
appointed to this office for having 
murdered Remus; Fest.) and 
were divided into three centuries, 
i.e. three companies, containing 
an equal number, totidem partes, 
the Titienses, Ramnenses and 
Luceres, so named after the tribes 

Hastati and Principes who stood from which they were chosen, the 




Quosque vocant Ramnes, Luceribiisque dedit. 130 

Assuetos igitur numeros servavit in anno. 

Hoc luget spatio femina nicesta virum. 
Neu dubites, primae fuerint quin ante Kalendae 

Martis ; ad haec animum signa referre potes. 
Laurea Flaminibus, quae toto perstitit anno, 135 

Tollitur : et frondes sunt in honore novae. 
Janua nunc Regis posita viret arbore Phcebi : 

Ante tuas fit idem, Curia prisca, fores. 
Vesta quoque ut folio niteat velata recenti, 

Cedit ab Iliacis laurea cana focis. 140 

Adde, quod arcana fieri novus ignis in aede 

Dicitur ; et vires flamma refecta capit. 

first of which was so called from 
Titus Talius, the second from 
Romulus, and the third from 
Lucer or Lucuraon, an Etrurian 
word, siffnifyinfT prince or chief, 
derived from Gr. Xuxociyv, Lycaon, 
the first king of Arcadia. L. Tar- 
quinius Priscus, was called Lu- 
cumo in Etruria, whence he emi- 
grated to Rome. 

131. Assuetos igitur, Sec. Hence 
he adhered to his favorite number 
in the arraneement of the year. 

IS2. Hoc luget. Sfc. See Fast. 
i. 35. 

133. JVeu dubites. Doubt not 
but that the first kalends were 
those of March ; i. e. that March 
was the first month of the year. 

134. Ad hcEC signa. To the fol- 
lowing proofs. 

135. Laurea Flaminibus. The 
laurel, which had been suspended 
for a year in the house of the 
Flamines, is taken down and re- 
placed with fresh boughs. 

137. Regis. Tiie Rexsacrificu- 
lus. Arbore Phcebi. The laurel, 
sacred to Apollo. ' Eodem quo- 
que ingrediente mense, tam in 
regia cjriisque atque flaminum 
domibus laurea; veteres novis lau- 
rels mutabantur.' Macrob. Sa- 
turn, i. 

138. Curia prisca. This is to 
be understood of the four Curia 

Veteres, which were originally set 
apart for sacred purposes only, as 
the rest were devoted to civil af- 
fairs. In the course of time, how- 
ever, an altar and priest were 
assigned to all See Fast. ii. n. 

139. Vesta quoque. This would 
prove that there was a statue of 
V'esta, See supr. n. 43. 

140. Laurea cana. The old 
laurel. Laurea vitta. Heins. Il- 
iacis focis. So called, having been 
brought from Troy by ^neas. 

141. Arcana ade. The secret 
shrine ; because the Vestal vir- 
gins only, or rather the Vestalis 
Maxima alone, had permission to 
enter it. Lucan. i. 598. So Vir- 
gil, ' ^Eternumque adytis effert 
penetralibus ignem ;' ^neid, ii. 
597. Novus ignis. ' Hujus etiam, 
prima die ignem novum Vestae 
aris accendebant, ut, incipiente 
anno, cura denique servandi no- 
vati isrnis inciperet.' Solin. 

142. Flamma refecta. The re- 
kindled flame. Forcel. This fire 
was lighted anew, not from an- 
otiier fire, but from the pure rav> 
of the sun, concentrated by a 
parabolic mirror, and made to 
bear upon the fuel. Plutarch, in 
Num. It was considered a most 
unlucky omen, if by any accident 
the vestal fire was allowed to be 



Nee niihi parva fides, annos hinc isse priores, 

Anna quod hoc coepta est mense Perenna coli. 
Hinc etiam veteres initi memorantur honores 

Ad spatium belli, perfido Poene, tui. 
Denique quintus ab hoc fuerat Quintilis : et inde 

Incipit, a numero nomina quisquis habet. 
Primus, oliviferis Romam deductus ab arvis, 

Pompilius menses sensit abesse duos ; 



extinguished, and expiated by ex- 
traordinary sacrifices, hostiis via- 
joribus ; Liv. xxviii. 11. The 
Vestal who had been guilty of 
such neglect, was scourged by the 
Pontifex Max. Valer. Max. i. 1, 
6, or by bis order, * nuda quidem 
sed obscuro loco et velo medio in- 
terposito ;' Plutarch, in Num. At 
Rome, in the time of the war 
with Mithridates, and in the civil 
wars, the fire was not only ex- 
tinguished, but the altar demo- 
lished. Ibid. 

143. A7mos hinc isse priores. 
That hence the ancient years be- 

144. Anna Perenna. For her 
story, and the origin of her name, 
see infr. 519. etseq. Hoc mense. 
March, when the festival was 
celebrated, and sacrifices offered 
in honour of Anna Perenna, the 
goddess of the year. 

145. Hinc etiam, ^'c. It is im- 
possible to reconcile this asser- 
tion of the poet with history, 
which may fairly be presumed to 
be the more authentic. It has al- 
ready appeared that the first con- 
suls entered upon their ofEce on 
the VII. Kal. Mart. Feb. 23d. 
The time of their appointment 
continued to fluctuate, until a. u. 
598 or 600, when the first of Ja- 
nuary, Kal. Jan. was permanently 
fixed as the ' Dies solennis, ma- 
gistrat. ineund. Liv. xlvii. 

146. Ad spatium belli. Down to 
the end of the third Punic war, 
A. u. 600. Perfide Poene. Hanni- 
bal ; for whose history and achieve- 

ments, see Class. Die. The epi- 
thet perfide, is applied to him in 
allusion to the characteristic 
treachery of his countrymen, 
whereby Punica fides became a 

147. Denique quintus, Sfc. See 
Fast. i. N. 39. 

149. Oliviferis arvis. Trebula 
Mutusca, a town of the Sabines, 
famous for its olives; ' olivifer- 
seque Mutuscse ;' Virg. ^n. vii. 
711. It was called Treb. Mutusca, 
to distinguish it from Trebula 
Suffena, or Suffenatis, another 
Sabine town. Deductus. Accom- 
panied, out of respect; prcesertini 
officii causa ; Forcel. Numa was 
met on the way by the senate and 
people, who expressed unequivo- 
cal delight at receiving him. The 
women bade him welcome with 
joyful acclamations ; sacrifices 
were offered in all the temples, 
and so universal was thejo}', that 
the city appeared not to have 
obtained a king but a kingdom. 
Plutarch, in Num. 

IJO. Pompilius. Numa Pom- 
pil. fourth son of Pomponius, 
an illustrious Sabine. He was 
born on the twenty-first of April, 
the day on which the foundation 
of Rome was laid by Romulus ; 
as it would appear, Plutarch ob- 
serves, under the direction of the 
gods. His character was so dis- 
tinguished for piety and philoso- 
phy, that Talius bestowed on him 
his only daughter Tatia in mar- 
riage. Numa, however, could not 
be induced to make Rome his 



Sive hoc a Samio doctus, qui posse renasci 

residence, aud conformably no 
less with his wife's taste than his 
own, he returned to dwell amongst 
the Sabines, and solace the de- 
clining years of his aged father. 
Upon the death of Tatia, he re- 
tired to the country, and frequent- 
ed the groves and fields consecra- 
ted to the gods. Hence arose the 
story of his communion with the 
goddess Egeria, who is said to 
have endowed him with a know- 
ledge of human and divine sub- 
jects, beyond the ordinary lot of 
man. Menses sensit abesse duos. 
See Fast. i. n. 43. 

151 A Samio. Pythagoras, the 
son of Demaratus, a wealthy 
goldsmith, or according to others, 
of Mnesarchus a seal engraver, 
born in Samos, an island in the 
Icarian Sea, opposite to Ephesus. 
He was so called from Uu^ios, 
Apollo, and ayooa, oratio, because 
his doctrines were received as 
implicitly as oracles. He was a 
pupil of Pherecydes of Scyrus, 
one of the Cyclades, near Delos, 
who lived in the forty-fifth Olym- 
piad, B. c. 600, and according to 
.losephus, Contr. Apion. i. stu- 
died philosophy in Egypt, at that 
period universally resorted to as 
the seat of learning. Having re- 
ceived all the advantages of edu- 
cation which his own country 
could afford, Pythagoras travelled 
into Egypt, whence he derived 
tlie greater number of those doc- 
trines, which he subsequently 
tuuijht with such eminent success. 
He proceeded to Babylon to make 
himself acquainted with astrolo- 
gy, and the discipline of the 
Chaldees; and turned back from 
the east to Crete and Sparta, 
where he made himself acquainted 
with the institutions of Minos 
and Lycurgus. On his return to 
Samos, after an absence of twenty 
years, he found it in possession of 

Polycrates, and retired in conse- 
quence to Peloponnesus, where 
having remained for a time, he 
went into that part of Italy called 
Magna Grsecia. His ordinary re- 
sidence was at Croton, Tarentum, 
Metapontum, and the neighbour- 
ing towns, where he propogated 
his principles with astonishing 
success. It is generally agreed, 
however, that he could not, as was 
supposed by some, have been by 
any possibility the instructor of 
Numa ; Livy writes as follows : 
' Auctorem doctrinae ejus, quia 
non extat alius, falso Samium 
Pythagoram edunt : quern, Ser- 
vio Tuilio regnante Roma;, cen- 
tum amplius post annos, in ulti- 
mse Italise ora, circa Metapontum 
Heracleamque et Crotona, juve- 
num semulantium studia coetus 
habuisse constat. Exquibus locis, 
etsi ejusdem setatis fuisset, quae 
fama in Sabinos aut quo lingure 
commercio, quenquam ad cupi- 
ditatem discendi excivisset; quove 
prsesidio unus per tot gentes, 
dissonas sermone moribusque per- 
venisset ? i. 18. Pythagoras ar- 
rived in Italy during the reign of 
Tarquinius Priscus, in the 51st 
Olympiad, and Numa was chosen 
king of Rome the third year of 
the 16tb. So that thirty-four 
Olympiads, 136 years, intervened 
between Numa's elevation and 
the arrival of Pythagoras. This 
nearly agrees with the computa- 
tion of Dionysius of Halicarnas- 
sus, who says that Numa reigned 
four generations, (a generation 
consisted of thirty years) before 
Pythagoras ; and he further con- 
tradicts the assertion, that Numa 
studied under that philosopher at 
Croton after he was called to the 
crown, by adding that Croton was 
not built until four years after his 
election to the sovereignty of 
Rome. Plutarch says that Py- 


MARTI us. 


Nos putat ; Egeria sive monente sua. 

1 hafforas the Samian was believed 
to have preceded Numa by five 
generations or atres, but that there 
was another of the same name, a 
Spartan, wiio won the prize at the 
Olympic races in tlie 16th Olym- 
piad ; that in his travels through 
Italy, he became acquainted with 
Numa, and assisted him in regu- 
lating the government ; and that 
by the advice of this Pythagoras 
so many of the Spartan institu- 
tions were introduced among the 
Romans. Eratosthenes mentions 
that the Samian also, while very 
young, wfis a victor at the Olym- 
))ic games in the 48th Olympiad ; 
but Lloyd, in his dissertation on 
the chronology of Pythagoras, 
Ed. Lond. 1699, endeavours to 
prove that the Olympic victor 
was not the same person as the 
philosopher, and this might give 
some colouring to the opinion of 
those alluded to by Plutarch. The 
same author mentions that there 
certainly existed several analogies 
between the regulations, rites, &c. 
of Numa and Pythagoras ; the 
worship of Tacita by the former 
looks like an acquaintance with 
the philosopher's precept of si- 
lence. Neither of them would 
permit any images of the deity, 
whom they both agreed in believ- 
ing invisible and incorruptible, 
and to be comprehended in the 
mind alone. Their sacrifices were 
similar ; they were not celebrated 
with efifusion of blood, but con- 
sisted for the most part in offer- 
in<rs of flour, wine, libations, &c. 
Plutarch recounts many other 
particulars, from which it would 
appear that Numa had been ac- 
tually taught by Pythagoras, but 
it is impossible to reconcile this 
supposition with history. It re- 
mains but to adopt the conclusion 
of Livy upon the subject, speak- 

ing of Numa ; ' Suopte ingenio 
temperatum animum virtutibus 

— Qui posse renasci. In al- 
lusion to the Pythagorean doc- 
trine of Metempsychosis, or 
transmigration of souls, which 
Pythagoras probably learned in 
Egypt, where it was commonly 
taught. Upon this doctrine was 
founded the abstinence of the 
philosopher and his disciples from 
animal food, and the exclusion of 
animal sacrifices from their reli- 
gious ceremonies. This latter 
part of the doctrine is described 
with the poet's usual elegance, 
Metam. xv. 158, et seq. and ably 
translated by Dryden. 

• What then is death, but ancient raattter 

In some new figure, and a varied vest: 
Thus all things are but altered, nothing 

And here and there th' unbodied spirit 

By time, or force, or sickness, dispossess'd. 
And lodges where it lights, in man or 

beast,' &c. 

In the Xauira. 'Ear?), or golden verses 
of Pythagoras, supposed to have 
been written by liis disciple Em- 
pedocles. Fabric. Bib. Gr. i. 466, 
directions are given for a suitable 

diet, AXX' i'loyov ^ocaToit u\i h'O'iifAly, 

152. Egeria. ' Simulat sibicum 
Dea. Eg'eria congressus nocturnos 
esse.' Liv. Egeria was a nymph 
of the Arician grove, with whom 
Numa pretended to hold secret 
conferences, in order that he 
might wean the attention of the 
Romans from the tumults and 
excitement of war to the cultiva- 
tion of social harmony and peace. 

' Egeria! sweet creation of some heart 
Which found no mortal resting place 
so fair 
As thine ideal breast: whate'er thou 
Or wert— a young Aurora of the air, 
M 2 



Sed tamen errabant ctiamnum tempora ; donee 
Caesaris in multis lia-c qiioque cura t'uit. 

Non haec ille dens tanta?qiie propaginis auctor 
Credidit officiis esse minora suis : 

Promissumque sibi voliiit pricnoscere coelum ; 
Nee deus ignotas hospes inire domos. 

Ille moras soils, quibus in sua signa rediret, 


The nympholepsy of some fond despair ; 
Or, it might be, a beauty of the earth. 
Who found a more than common votary 
Too much adoring ; whatsoe'erthybirth. 
Thou wert a beautiful thought, and softly 
bodied forth.' 

* * * 

' Here didst thou dwell in this enchanted 


Egeria, thy all-heavenly bosom beating 

For the far footsteps of thy mortal lover, 

The purple midnight veil'd that mystic 

With her most starry canopy.—' 


Numa professed to have re- 
ceived from her the institutions, 
sacred and civil, by the establish- 
ment of which he was enabled to 
accomplish the object he had in 
view. The name Egeria is de- 
rived by some from egerere, be- 
cause the goddess was supposed 
to facilitate childbirth. She is 
said, upon the death of Numa, to 
have retired to the Arician grove, 
where Diana, moved with pity for 
lier unavailing grief, changed her 
into a fountain of the same name. 
Metam. xv. 487, and infr. 261. 

1 b'i.Errabant. See Fast. i. n. 43. 

lo4. CcBsaris. Seeiv/s^i. N. 1. 

155. Tantaque propaginis. Sc. 
Augustus, Tiberius, and Ger- 

157. Promissvmque. ' Hunc tu 
olim coelo spoliis orientis onus- 

tum Accipies secura; vocabitur 
hie quoque volis.' Virg. JEneid, 
i. 289. 

159. Moras soUs, Sfc. The time 
which the sun takes in moving 
from Cancer to Capricorn and 
back again. Some understand by 
vwras solis, the summer and win- 
ter solstice. Moras. Intervals or 
stages, Gr. //.oea, from f-up'^, divido. 
In sua signa. The signs of the 
Zodiac. Traditur exactis dispo- 
suisse notis. Is reported to have 
arranged by distinct tokens, the in- 
tervals, &c. Csesar was guided in 
bis plan of reforming the calendar 
principally by the Egyptian me- 
thod of computation, by which the 
year was divided into l2 months, 
each consisting of 30 days, with 
five intercalary days at the end of 
the year, and of every fourth year 
six, Herod, ii. 4. These inter- 
calary days, Csesar distributed 
among the months which now 
contain 31 days, as also the days 
which he subtracted from Febru- 
ary ; liaving adjusted the year, 
according to Dio, with such ex- 
actness to the course of the sun, 
that the insertion of one inter- 
calary day in 1461 years would 
make up the diiference, Dio. xliii. 
26 ; there was, however, in time, 
found to be a variation of ten 
days between them. Tiie Egyp- 
tian year began with September, 
the Julian with January. Caesar's 
reformation of the calendar sub- 
jected him to some envy and rail- 
lery ; it is said that upon a remark 
having been made by a friend in 



Traditur exaclis disposuisse notis. 
Is decies senos tercentum et quinque diebus 

Junxit, et e pleno tempora quarta die. 
Hie anni modus est. In lustrum accedere debet, 

Qua; consummatm- partibus, una dies. 




Si licet occultos monitus audire deorum 

Vatibus, ut certe fama licere putat : 
Cum sis officiis, Gradive, virilibus aptus ; 

Die mihi, matronse cur tua festa colant. 
Sic ego : sic posita dixit mihi casside Mavors ; 

Sed tamen in dextra missilis hasta fuit : 
Nunc primum studiis pacis, deus utilis armis, 

Advocor : et gressus in nova castra fero. 
Nee piget incepti. Juvat hac quoque parte morari : 



conversation with Cicero, ' Cras 
occidit Lyra,' the orator imme- 
diately replied, 'Nempe, ex edic- 

] 62. Tempora quarta. A fourth 
part, si.\ hours, e pleno die, of the 
whole day, twenty-four hours. 
Some copies read quinta in con- 
sequence of lustrum, in the line 
following, which generally signi- 
fies a terra of five years, however, 
the emendation is unnecessary ; 
' Nihilominus etiam de quadri- 
ennio complete, et quinquennio 
incepto lustrum dicitur. Forcel. 
in voc. et loc. cit. 

163. In lustrum, ^-c. The four 
fourth-parts caused the addition 
of one whole day, quca consumma- 
tur partibus, which is made per- 
fect from the parts, to the term of 
fonr years, lustrum. Consumatur. 

168. Matronce. The kalends of 
March was the day for the Ma- 
tronalia, a festival celebrated by 
matrons. Five causes are assigned 
for this apparent incongruity. 
Colant. On this day it is custom- 

ary for husbands to bestow pre- 
sents on their wives : Tibull. iii. 
1. Suet. Vesp. 19. 

1 69. Posita casside. In sign of 
his having assumed a posture of 
ease; see supr. 1, Some copies 
read cuspide, referring to supr. 8, 
as an authority. 

170. Hasta. Of this weapon, 
which was invented by the Spar- 
tans, there were three species; 
one of a shorter description, 
thrown from the hand, missilis ; 
another, somewhat longer, and 
more heavy, which might be used 
like the former, but was generally 
held in the hand, in close com- 
bat, cominus : the third was so 
heavy as to require to be dis- 
charged from an engine. Some- 
times hasta signifies merelv the 
shaft of the spear ; ' hasta pura,' 
i. e. without an iron head. Vir(/. 
^neid, vi. 70. ' ' 

172. In nova castra. Into a 
strange camp; because of' Nunc 
primum studiis, &c. supr. 

173. Juvat, Sfc. It is pleasing 
to dwell upon this province also, 



Hoc solam ne se posse Minerva putet. 
Disce, Latinorum vates operose dieriim, 175 

Quod petis ; et memori pectore dicta nota. 
Parva fuit, si prima velis elementa reterre, 

Roma : sed in parva spes tamen hujus erat. 
Moenia jam stabant, populis angushi futuris : 

Credita sed turbae tunc nimis ampla suae. 180 

Quae t'uerit nostri, si quaeris, regia nati ; 

Adspice de canna straminibusque domum. 
In stipula placidi carpebat munera somni : 

Et tamen ex illo venit in astra toro. 
Jamque loco majus nomen llomanus habebat : 185 

Nee conjux illi, nee socer ullus erat. 
Spernebant generos inopes vicinia dives : 

Et male credebar sanguinis auctor ego. 
In stabulis habitasse, boves pavisse, nocebat, 

Jugeraque inculti pauca tenere soli. 190 

Cum pare quseque suo coeunt volucresque feraeqiie, 

Atque aliquam, de qua procreet, anguis habet. 

lest Minerva may suppose that 
she only can engage in it effec- 

175. Vates operose. So Fast. i. 

178. Hvjus. AiizTixa;, of this 
which exists at present. Mean as 
the city may have been at its ori- 
gin, elementa, it gave a hope of the 
magnificence to which it had at- 
tained in the poet's time. 

179. Populis angiista futuris. 
Too narrow for its destined po- 
pulation, but thought to be too 
spacious for its numbers at that 
time. Four years elapsed between 
the building of the city, and the 
carrying away of the Sabine wo- 

181. Nati. Romulus. 

182. De carina straminibusque. 
Of reeds and thatch. So Virgil, 
' Romuleoque recens horrebat re- 
<.'ia culmo.' u^neid, viii. 654. 
Domum. Called by Servius, Cu- 
ria Calabra. F'orcellinus places 
this Curia close to the hut of 
liomulus in the Capitol, and says 

that it was called Calabra, acalan- 
do, because previous to the pro- 
mulgation of the Fasti, the people 
were wont to be summoned thither, 
immediately after the new moon, 
by tiie Pontifex Minor, who, up- 
on the offering of the custoraarv 
sacrifices by the Rex Sacrificulus, 
proclaimed the arrangement ol 
the nones and ides, the dies fasti 
and nefrtsti, holidays and games, 
&c, for the ensuing month. The 
primitive habitation of the found- 
er of the Roman empire was re- 
garded with profound veneration 
by his posterity ; one of the most 
important duties of the priests 
was to secure it, by constant re- 
pair, against the ravages of time. 

187. Spernebant. ' Nusquam 
benigne legatio audita est : adeo 
simul spernebant, simul tantam 
in medio crescentem molem si- 
bi ac posteris suis metuebant. A 
plerisque rogitantibus dismissi, 
Ecquod feminis quoque asylum 
aperuissent ? id enim demum corn- 
par connubium fore.' Liv, 



Extremis dantur connubia gentibus : at, quae 

Romano vellet nubere, nulla fuit. 
Indolui ; patriamque dedi tibi, Roniule, mentem. 

Tolle preces, dixi : quod potis, arnia dabunt. 
Festa para Conso : Consus tibi ca^tera dicet, 

Illo facta die cum sua sacra canet. 
Intumuere Cures, et quos dolor attigit idem. 

Tum primum generis intulit arma socer. 
Jamque fere rapta? matrum quoque nomen habebant, 



193. Extremis dantur conriubia 
gentibus. Nations, the most re- 
mote from each other, enjoyed 
the privilege of intermarriage, 
but the proposals of Romulus 
were rejected by those who dwelt 
around him ; ' Legatos circa vici- 
nas gentes misit qui societatem 
connubiumque novo populo pete- 
rent,' &c. Liv. 

197. Conso. The god of secrets. 
It is said that the true name of 
this deity was not allowed to be 
divulged, and consequently they 
distinguished him by one which 
is merely expressive of an attri- 
bute ; Consus being derived from 
conso, an obsolete verb for consu- 
lo, meaning that he w-as the god 
of counsel, or qu. cossxis or coas- 
sus, from con and sum, because iu 
that capacity he is present at, 
and assists in deliberations ; or 
from consum for cunditum,m which 
sense he may be identified with 
equestrian Neptune, who w'as the 
god both of secrets and the sea, 
Ascon. in Verr. ii. 10. A subter- 
raneous altar was consecrated to 
him, in consequence, in the Circus, 
which was never revealed except 
during the sacrifices at the Con- 
sualia ; by which it was to be un- 
derstood that deliberations of im- 
portance were not to be disclosed : 
this will explain the passage in the 
text. Tertullian speaks of this 
altar as existing ip his time in the 
Circus, De Sped. c. 5, at the en- 
trance of the race-course, with 

this inscription, ' Consus consilio. 
Mars duello. Lares comitio po- 
tentes.' Romulus appointed a 
festival in honour of this deity 
when he formed the design of 
carrying away the Sabine women 
in order to ensure its secrecy and 
success. It is supposed by some 
that not merely the Consualia, but 
all the Circensian games, were 
held in honour of equestrian Nep- 
tune ; Virgil appears to class 
them together, ' raptas sine more 
Sabinas Consessu caveje, magnis 
Circensibus actis.' ^neid, viii. 
636. This festival, consisting of 
horse and mule races, &c. was 
held commonly on the xii. Kal. 
Sept. according to the old calen- 
dar, the anniversary of the ex- 
ploit which it was intended to 

199. Intumuere Cures, The Sa- 
bines were incensed. Et quos. 
The Sabines were not the first to 
take up arms and revenge the in- 
sult offered to them. The Cceni- 
nenses, Crustumini, and Antem- 
nates were already in the field, 
while the Sabines were wasting 
time in preparations; but they 
were rapidly defeated, and the 
Sabines were at last roused to 
exertion. They marched against 
Rome under the conduct of Ta- 
tius; the sequel is given in the 

200. Generis. The Romans. 
Socer. The Sabines. 



Tnictaque crant longa bella propinqua mora. 
C'onveniunt nuptoe dictam Junonis in aedem : 

Quas inter mea sic est nurus orsa loqui : 
() pariter raptae, quoniam hoc commune tenemus ; 

Non ultra lente possumus esse pise. 
Stant acies : sed utra Di sint pro parte rogandi, 

Eligite. Hinc conjux, liinc pater arma tenet. 
Quairendum, viduae fieri malimus, an orbae. 

Consilium vobis forte piumque dabo. 
Consilium dederat. Parent, crinemque resolvunt, 

Moestaque funerea corpora veste tegunt. 
Jam stabant acies ferro mortique paratae : 

Jam lituus pugnae signa daturus erat ; 
Cum raptae veniunt inter patresque virosque, 

Inque sinu natos pignora cara ferunt. 
Ut medium campi passis tetigere capillis ; 

In terram posito procubuere genu. 
Et, quasi sentirent, blando clamore nepotes 

Tendebant ad avos brachia parva suos. 
Qui poterat, clamabat avura, tum denique visum : 

Et qui vix poterat, posse coactus erat. 





202. Bella propinqua. Wars 
between kindred. 

20-3. Dictam in cedem. To the 
appointed temple, so, ' dicta sub 
arbore sedit.' Metam. iv. 95. 

204. Nurus. Hersilia, a Sabine 
woman, the wife of Romulus; 
she was deified after death, and 
worshipped as the goddess of 
youth and beauty, under the name 
of Hora or Ora. 

206. Non ultra. We cannot, 
longer, tardily pursue the path of 

207. Utra parte. Romans and 

211. Parent, crinemque resold 
vnjtt. Compare Liv.i 13. Tum 
Sabinae niulieres, quaium ex inju- 
ria helium ortum erat, crinibus 
passis, scissaque veste, victo ma- 
ils muliebri pavore, ausaj se inter 
volantia tela inferre, ex transver- 
so impetu facto, dirimere infestas 
acies, dirimere iras ; hinc patres, 
hinc viros orantes, ' Ne se san- 

guine nefando soceri generique 
respergerent : ne parricidio ma- 
cularent partus suos, nepotum 
illi, liberum hi progeniem. Si 
affinitatis inter vos, si connubii 
piget, in nos vertite iras : nos 
causa belli, nos vulnerum ac cce- 
dium viris ac parentibus sumus, 
melius peribimus, quam sine alte- 
ris vestriim viduse aut orbae vive- 

214. Lituus. A clarion ; from 
Gr. Xtro;, acutus, in reference to 
its sound ; curved slightly towards 
tlie end, and made of brass. Jam 
liticeu pugncE signa daturus erat. 

217. Ut tetigere. Soon as they 
reached, &c. 

219. Quasi sentirent. As if they 
were conscious of what was about 
to take place. 

222. Et qui vix poterat, iVc. 
The infant which scarcely had the 
strength to cry, was compelled to 
the effort by the general lamen-' 



Tela viris animusque cadunt : gladiisque remotis 

Dant soceri generis, accipiuntque manus : 
Laudatasque tenent natas ; scutoque nepotem 225 

Fert avus : hie seuti dulcior usus erat. 
Inde diem, qnse prima, meas celebrare Kalendas 

QEbalides matres non leve munus habent. 
An quia, committi strictis mucronibus ansae, 

Finierant lacln-ymis Martia bella suis? 230 

Vel, quod erat de me I'eliciter Ilia mater, 

Rite colunt matres sacra, diem.que meum. 
Quid ? quod hiems, adoperta gelu, nunc denique cedit, 

Et pereunt victae sole tepente nives. 
Arboribus redeunt detonsae irigore frondes ; 235 

Uvidaque e tenero palmite gemma tumet. 
Q,uaeque diu latuit, nunc se qua tollat in auras, 

Fertilis occultas invenit herba vias. 
Nunc fecundus ager : pecoris nunc bora creandi : 

Nunc avis in ramo tecta laremque parat. 240 

Tempora jure colunt Latiaj fecunda parentes ; 

tation. Some commenlators who 
mistake folly for ingenuity, have 
interpreted this from the preced- 
ing line, and understand the pas- 
sage, ^wi vix poterat clamare avum, 
&c. ' The child that was not ahle 
to call upon its jjrandfather, mads 
the effort hy pronouncing the two 
interjections, a/i and va, i.e. ave /' 
and so succeeded in making its 
pathetic appeal, and quieting the 
critical conscience of these eru- 
dite annotators. 

228. CEbalides. See Fast. i. N. 
260. Non leve munus habent. Hold 
it no unimportant duty. 

229. Quia, committi, §"c. Be- 
cause having dared to be exposed 
to unsheathed swords, they had 
terminated by their tears the strife 
of war. 

2.31. Ilia mater. Supr. 23. 
233. Quid? quod hyems, SjC. 

' From the moist meadow to the withered 

Led by the breeze, the vivid verdure runs. 
And swells and deepens to the chetish'd 


The hawthorn whitens ; and the juicy 

Put forth their buds, unfolding by degrees. 
Till the whole lesify forest stands di>- 

In full luxuriance to the sighing -rales ; 
Where the deer rustle thro' the twining 

brak •, 
And the birds sing conceal'd;' — 
' Some to the holly hedge. 
Nestling repair, and to the thicket sfime ; 
Some to the rude protection of the thorn 
Commit their feeble oflspring :_the cleft 

Offers its kind concealment to a few ; 
Their food its insects, and its moss their 


Thomson's Spring. 

Compare also Virg. Georg. ii. 

322, et seq. 

236. Uvidaque. Humidaq. A]. 
Vividaq. Ambros. Mazar. 

239. Pecoris nunc hora creandi. 
Pccori nunc hora creando est. 

241. Tempora jure colunt. Thrt 
vivifying effects of spring are ad- 
duced as another reason for tha 
celebration of the Matroualia at 
this particular period. 



Quarum militiam votaque partus habet. 
Adde, quod excubias regi Romanus agebat, 

Qua nunc Esquilias nomina collis habet. 
lUic a nuribus Junoni templa Latinis 

Hac sunt, si memini, publica facta die. 
Quid moror, et variis onero tua pectora causis ? 

Eminet ante oculos, quod petis, ecce tuos. 
Mater amat nuptas : matris me turba frequentant. 

Hasc nos prsecipue tarn pia causa decet.' 
Ferte dese flores : gaudet florentibus herbis 

Usee dea : de tenero cingite flore caput. 
Dicite, Tu lucem nobis, Lucina, dedisti. 

Dicite, Tu voto parturientis ades. 



24'2. Quarum militiam. Whose 
province, militia, ami prayers, vo- 
ta, are fulfilled in cliildbirth. So 
Canace, to Macareus, Heroid, Ep. 
xi, 48. ' Nescia quae faceret sub- 
itos mihi causa dolores, Et rudis 
ad partus, et nova miles eram.' 
Militia, translate, est quodcunque 
laboriosum munus ; Forcel. So 
Propertius, Ekg. i. 6, 29. ' Non 
ego sum laudi, non natus idoneus 
armis : Hanc me militiam {sc. 
amoris) fata subire volunt.' See 
also Fast. ii. 9. 

243. Adde. The poet assigns a 
fourth reason. Excubias. Watches 
were set upon the Esquiline hill, 
by Romulus, either during the 
war with the Sabines, or in con- 
sequence of his mistrusting Titus 
Tatius, which is alluded to by Li v. 
* Eam rem, (sc. Tatii cadem) mi- 
nus segre, quam dignum erat, tu- 
lisse Romulum ferunt: seu ob 
infidam societatem {quia plerum- 
que socio regni parumfidendnm est. 
Walker.) regni, seu quia baud in- 
juria cajsum credebat.' i. 14. From 
these excubia:, the hiil is said to 
have been called Exquilia ; others 
say from exculta, because of its 
having been added to the city, and 
cultivated by Servius TuUius, who 
dwelt there. Varro approves of 
the latter etymology, and states 

as a reason for ExquilijB being 
plural, that it consisted of two 
iiills, one of which, he says, was 
called Mons Cispius, the other, 
Mons Oppius; de L. L. i. 8. 
It is more correctly written Exq. 
than Esq. however, they are used 

245. A nuribus. On the kalends 
of March a temple was consecrat- 
ed by the matrons to Juno Luci- 
na ; another reason for the cele- 
bration of the Matronalia upon 
this day. 

247. Quid moror. The poet 
assigns the fifth and last cause. 

249. Mater. Juno, tlie mother 
of Mars. Amat nuptas. Because 
she presides over wedlock and 
childbirth. Matris vie turba freq. 
The train of his mother's wor- 
shippers paid him respect for her ] 
sake. Frequentant, sc. celebrant. 

250. Tarn pia causa. That 
through gratitude to the mother, 
they should do honour to the sou. 

251. Dece. Juno. Florentibus 
herbis. Florent. oris. Heins. 

253. Lucina. Juno, so called, 
because she aids in bringing tlie 
offspring to light, in lucem. Donat. 
ad Terent. Andr. 3. 2. 15. This 
title is also given to her, as Juno 
is frequently made to signify the 
air, through which light is diffused. 



Si qua tamen gravida est, resoluto crine precetur, 
Ut solvat partus molliter ilia suos. 


Quis mihi nunc dicat, quare ccelestia Martis 
Arma ferant Salii, Mamuriumque canant ? 


255. Resoluto crine. With un- 
braided hair ; emblematic of a 

257. Quis mihi nunc dicat. The 
poet having concluded his collo- 
quy with Mars, proceeds to the 
discussion of the Salii, &c. in 
which he prays the assistance of 

258. Arma ferant Salii. By the 
ccelestia arma is to be understood 
the ancile, the shield which fell 
from heaven upon the occasion 
stated in the text, infr. 371. Up- 
on the preservation of this shield 
the security of the city was de- 
clared by an oracle to depend, and 
Numa in consequence, directed 
eleven to be made, of an exactly 
similar form, in order to ensure 
its safety ; the genuine one being 
confounded with the rest. They 
were fashioned by Maraurius Ve- 
turius, an artificer, who asked as 
his reward that his name might 
be inserted in the Carmen Sali- 
are, and chanted by the Salii, 
when they carried the shields 
round the city ; whence Mamu- 
riumque canant, see infr. 387. 
The ancile, called by Plutarch, 

a.yx.u\io)i, from ayy.vXo;, CurVUS, was 

a small oblong shield, rounded at 
either end, with the sides concave, 
i.e. narrowing towards the centre ; 
hence infr. 376. ' Quaque notes 
oculis, angulus omnis abest;' it 
was indented or notched, round 
the edge, like the peltce of the 
Thracians, ' ab omni parte reci- 
sum,' infr. 375, and so derived 
from am sc. circa, and casum. 
Others explain the ' omni parte 

recisum,' to mean a circular shield 
with the verge all round equidis- 
tant from the centre ; in which 
sense it is analogous to the Hom- 
eric, aasrila. zjavTrxri 'i(rr,v ; the for- 
mer, however, is the explanation 
of Forcellinus, which is further 
borne out by Festus, in Mamvr. 
who mentions having seen a me- 
dal of Antoninus Pius, upon 
which the shield was stamped as 
described above. Besides the an- 
cile, there were six other pledges, 
as it were, for the stability of the 
Roman empire, which were most 
religiously preserved ; the needle 
of Cybele ; the ashes of Orestes; 
the sceptre of Priam ; the veil 
of Iliona ; the Palladium ; and 
the four-horsed chariot modelled 
in clay, on the top of the temple 
of Jupiter in the Capitol, which 
the Romans had engaged an artist 
at Veii to construct, and were 
obliged to obtain by waging war, 
because, it is said, the work in- 
creased to such a size during the 
progress of its being baked that 
it could not be removed. This 
was a sufficient omen for the Ro- 
mans, who were sensitively super- 
stitious upon all points connected 
with the durability of their em- 
pire, to insist upon possessing it. 
— Salii. Priests of M;irs, 
instituted by Numa, to guard the 
sacred shields, so called a Sali- 
endo, infr. 387, because they 
danced during their progress 
round the city, wearing the shields 
suspended from their necks. Ac- 
cording to Polemon, they derived 
their name from Salius, an Ar- 



Nymplia, mone, nemori stagnoque operata Dianae : 

Nympha, Numse conjux, ad tua festa vcni. 
Vallis Aricinae silva praecinctus opaca 

Est lacus, antiqua relijjione sacer. 
Hie latet Hippolytus, fuiiis distractus eqiiorum : 

Unde nemiis nullis illud initur equis. 
Licia dependent, longas velantia sepes, 

Et posita est meritae multa tabella deae : 

cadian whom .^neas brouijflit from 
Mantinea into Italy, and by whom 
the Italian youths were taught to 
dance in armour, hiz^Xoi. This 
ceremony of making the circuit 
of the city with the shields took 
place every year in the month of 
JMarch, and lasted for some days, 
after which the shields were de- 
posited in the temple of Mars, 
and during which time no deliber- 
ations were held, or any steps 
taken with regard to war. Forcel. 

259. Nympha. Etreria. Nemori 
stagnoque operata. Ministering to 
the grove and lake of Diana. 
Operor, to be employed in sacred 
rites, to sacrifice ; this is supposed 
to be the primitive signitication of 
the term. Forcel. 

260. Numce conjux. sc. Arnica; 
it is used in the same sense as in 
the following, ' capta cupidine 
conju.x — Fecit avem Circe.' Virg. 
.^neid, vii. 189, where Circe is 
called the conjux of Picus. Ad 
tua festa. To the festival ordain- 
ed by your directions. 

261. Vallis Aricince, &:c. ' There 
is a lake, surrounded by the shady 
grove of the Arician vale, hal- 
lowed by tiaditional veneration.' 
This vale lay to the left of the 
route to Aricia, and here, by the 
advice of the oracle, Orestes con- 
secrated the image of Diana Tau- 
rica. See infr. k. 269. 

263. Hie latet Hippolytus. He 
was falsely accused by his step- 
mother Phaedra to Theseus, of a 
crime to which she had endea- 
voured unsuccessfully to tempt 



him, and fell a victim to his fa- 
ther's imprecation in consequence ; 
Neptune having sent a monster 
from the sea, which terrified his 
horses, as they were proceeding 
along the shore of the Sinus Sa- 
ronicus, and caused them to de- 
stroy both chariot and driver by 
dashing them against the rocks. 
He was restored to life by jEs- 
culapius, and fled to Italy, where 
he assumed the name Virbius, qu. 
vir bis, and was concealed by Di- 
ana in the Arician grove. See 
Virg. ^neid, vii. 761. 

264. Unde nemus nullis, &;c. 
' Unde etiam templo Trivia; lu- 
cisque sacratis Cornipedes arcen- 
tur equi ; quod litore currum, Et 
juvenem mon^t^is pavidi efFudere 
marinis.' Ibid. 

265. Licia. Threads, by which 
the offerings or gifts of those 
who had succeeded in their pray- 
ers, were suspended. Longas ve- 
lantia sepes. Covering the long 
hedges. A nearly similar custom 
prevails at present in many parts 
of this country; the hedges and 
bushes in the vicinity of what is 
supposed to be a holy well, are 
decorated with a motley assem- 
blage of shreds and patches, upon 
the anniversary of its patron 
saint, by the grateful objects of 
its supposed miraculous cures. 

266. Tabella. A votive tablet, 
containing the prayer of the sup- 
pliant ; an acknowledgment of 
his obligations for its success, 
or a painting of the deity, which 
was hung up in honour of whom- 



Saepe potens voti, frontem redimita coronis, 
Femina lucentes portat ab Urbe faces. 

Regna tenent fortesque manu, pedibusque fugaces : 
Et perit exemplo postmodo quisque suo. 

Defluit incerto lapidosus murmure rivus : 


soever the petition was addressed 
to. ♦ NuncDea, nuncsuccurre mi- 
hi, nam posse mederi, Picta docet 
templis muita tabella tuis.' Tibull. 
See Horat. Od. i. 5, 13. 

267. Potens voti. ' Having ob- 
tained her prayer.' 

268. Femina lucentes, ^c. So 
Statius, in Here. Surrent. in al- 
lusion to this rite : ' Fumat Ari- 
cinum Trivise nemus.' Ab urbe. 
sc. Aricia. 

spare one of them, if he would 
convey letters from her to Greece. 
A contest arose between the de- 
voted fi-iends, which should re- 
main and be sacrificed ; ' Ire jubet 
Pylades carum moriturus Ores- 
tem, Hie negat ; inque vicem 
pugnat uterque mori.' Odd. ex 
Pont. iii. el. 2. Pylades at length 
yielded to the importunities of 
Orestes, and consented to carry 
the letter, which he found to be 

269. Regna tenent, Sfc. By reg- directed to Orestes himself. This 

na, is to be understood the priest- 
hood of the Arician qrove, which 
was called as supr. < nemus Dianse;' 
so Strabo v. a med. To V 'Aors- 
fiiiriov, KccXoua-i 'Siino;. The deity 
herself was hence called Nemor- 
alis or Nemorensis, and her mi- 
nistering priest, Rex Nemorensis. 
Runaway slaves, pedibus fugaces, 
Gr. Sja^ETa/, were appointed to 
this office, in order to commemo- 
rate the flight of Orestes from 
the Chersonesus Taurica. Ac- 

led to a discovery, which termi- 
nated in the murder of Thoas, 
and the flight of Iphigenia and 
her brother, bringing with them 
the statue of Diana, which, ac- 
cording to Ovid and others, was 
placed in the Nemus Aricinum, 
where her worship was finally 

The f\\r?^se fortesque manu, al- 
ludes to the circumstance of the 
priest being liable to be murder- 
ed by any candidate for his oSice, 

cording to Euripedes, Orestes who happened to be more power- 
consulted the oracle of Apollo at ful than himself; a species of 
Delphi, how he might escape the usurpation commented upon se- 
Furies, by whom he was perse- verely by Strabo, lib. v. and others; 
cuted for the murder of his mo- mentioned by Suetonius, in Calig. 
ther Clytemnestra. He was de- 35. * Nemorensi regi quod multos 
sired to carry away the statue of jam annos potiretur sacerdotis, 
Diana from the Cherson. Taur. validiorem adversarium suborna- 
of which Tlioas was then king, vit,' whence et perit exemplo, &c. 
by whose order all strangers were 271. Defluit. Flows down the 
immolated at the altars of the grove. Incerto. So gentle as to be 
goddess. Orestes and his friend scarcely distinguished, or to leave 

Pylades, who accompanied him 
on this dangerous enterprize,were 
both seized and condemned to be 
slain. Iphigenia, the sister of 
Orestes, was the officiating priest- 
ess of Diana's temple, and hear- 
ng that the strangers were from 
ner own country, she offered to 

the hearer in doubt whence it 
came ; or it may be used, in the 
sense of its corresponding term 
in the following : 

' There is a little unpretending ril 
Of limpid water, humbler far tha 



Saepe, sed exiguis haustibus, inde bibes. 
Egeria est, quae praebet aquas, dea grata Camcenis. 

Ilia Numa? conjux consiliumque tuit. 
Principio nimium promptos ad bella Quirites 

Molliri placuit jiu*e, deiimque metu. 
Inde datae lege.s, ne firmior omnia posset : 

Cceptaque sunt pure tradita sacra coli. 
Exuitur feritas, armisque potentius aequum est : 

Et cum cive pudet conseruisse manus. 
Atque aliquis, mode trux, visa jam vertitur ara ; 

Vinaque dat tepidis salsaque farra focis. 


That ever among men or Naiads sought 

Notice or name!— It quivers down the 

Furrowing its shallow way with dubious 



Lapidosus rivus. The rocky 
stream, called by Scalisjer, 'Ivriow, 
from the vicinity ot the fountain 

, 272. Exiguis. Because of its 
extreme cold, the draughts might 
be frequent but not long. Bib:s. 
Bibunt. Heins. 

273. Egeria est. Supposed by 
some to be synonymous with Ju- 
turna. Camaenis. So Livy ; * liU- 
cus erat queni medium ex opaco 
specu fons perenni rigabat aqua. 
Quo quia perssepe Numa sine 
arbitris, velutad con<rressum Deae, 
sese inferebat, Carafsnis eum lu- 
cum sacravit, quod Dearum sibi 
cousilia cum conjuge sua Egeria 
essent.' Camcenee was formerly 
written casmence or cnrmencs, a 
canendo or a carmine, Varr. L.L. 
vi. .3. 

274.' Consilium. For Consilia- 
trix. The counsellor or adviser; 
so servitiiim is used for servus, and 
scelus for scelestus, &c. 

275. Principio, Sec. Compare 
Liv. i, 19. 

277. iVe firmior omnia posset. 
That the stronger might not ob- 
tain the supreme power ; all 

right being prescribed, and wrongs 
redressed by law.' ' Jura invent» 
metu injusti fateare necesse est.' 
&c. Hor. Sat. i. 3, 111. 

280. Et cum cive, ^c. There 
was an end to civil strife. 

281. Trux. From atrox by 
aphaeresis ; fierce, stern. Visa 
jam vertitur ara. Is changed or 
reformed at the sight of the altar. 

Vertitur may refer here to the 
custom of suppliants, who with 
their right hand on their lips, 
(adorantes, either, kissing hands, 
ad ora dextram ferentes, whence 
Sueton. in Neron. ' Nee deerat 
Otho prsetendens manus, adorare 
vulgus, jacere oscula,' or kissing 
the statues of the deities, ad ora 
Dear, uscula, Gr. Xafioara, Jeren- 
<es) turned to the right to pray; so 
Plant, iii Curcul. I. 1. 70. • Pk. 
Quo me vortam nescio. Pa. Si 
Deos salutas destroversum cen- 
seo;' and Livy, in allusion to the 
same ceremony, ' Con vertentem se 
inter banc venerationem, traditur 
memorise prolapsum cecidisse.' 
v. 21, sub. fin. Plutarch, in re- 
ference to the same event des- 
cribed by the Roman historian, 
says, that ' Camillus having ad- 
dressed a prayer to Jupiter, and 
turned about, (as the custom of 
the Romans is to turn to tlie right 
when they worship or pray) then 
fell down.' Hence vertitur, may 
mean, ' is turned ;' in order to 



Ecce deiim genitor rutilas per nubila flartimas 

Spargit, et effiisis a^thera siccat aquis. 
Non alias missi cecidere frequentius ignes. 285 

Rex pavet, et vulgi peciora terror habet. 
Cui dea, Ne nimium terrere ; piabile fulmen 

Est, ait, et saevi flectitur ira Jovis. 
Sed poterunt ritum Picus Faunvisque piandi 

Prodere, Romani numen uterque soli. 290 

Nee sine vi tradent ; adhibeto vincula captis. 

Atque ita, qua possint, erudit, arte capi. 
Lucus Aventino suberat niger ilicis umbra, 

Quo posses viso dicere, Numen inest. 
In medio gramen, muscoque adoperta virenti 295 

assume the attitude required in 

283. Ecce Deum. The poet pro- 
ceeds to describe the origin of 
the descent of tlie Ancile. 

284. Effusis,^c. Exhausts the 
air of tlie outpoured showers. 

287. Dea. E^eria. Piabile ful- 
men. The liffhtning admitted of 
expiation. Fulmen. irom fulgere. 

289. Picus Faunusque. See 
supr. N. 35. 

290. Romani numen uterque soli. 
Both Dii Indigetes. 

291. I^ec sine vi tradent. Com- 
pare Fast. i. 367, et seq. Virgil. 
Georg. iv. and Horn. Odyss. iv. 
where Menelaus is described as 
consulting Proteus by the advice 
and assistance of his daughter 
Eidothea. Adhihe sua vincula cap- 
tis. Heins. as Art. Amat. iii. 
' Arida nee vinclis crura resolve 

293. Aventino. One of the se- 
ven hills upon which Rome was 
built. It was so called from the 
hirds, ah avibiis, which used to 
retire there from the Tiber, or 
from Aventinus, son of Romulus 
Silvius, and king of the Albans, 
who was buried there, or ah ad- 
ventu, because the Latins resorted 
in common to a temple huiltupon 
it in honour of Diana. Varro, L. 
L. iv. 7, approves of a nearly simi- 

lar etymology, hut on different 
grounds. He describes this hill 
as having been originally separat- 
ed from the rest hy marshes, over 
which the Romans were conveyed, 
advehebantur, on rafts, paying one 
farthing each for the passage, ad- 
vectus. However he is quoted, de 
vita pop. Rom. hy Servius, in 
^neid, vii. 657, ' Pulcher Aven- 
tinus,' &c. as saying, that upon 
the admission of the Sabines in- 
to the city, the Mons Aventinus 
was allotted to them by Romulus, 
which they so called after a river 
of their own country, Avens. 
This river is not mentioned by 
any other author : Livy, Diony- 
sius, P'estus, and Victor, agree 
that the hill took its name from 
the king of the Albans, already 

Adjacent to this hill was a 
dark grove of holm-oak, lucus 
suberat niger, &c. which from its 
appearance might be supposed 
the dwelling of a god, quo posses 
viso, &c. 

295. In medio gramen, musco- 
que adoperta, Sfc. 

'The mosses of thy fountain still are 
With thine Elysian water-drops; the 
Of thy cave-guarded spring, with years 

N 2 



Manabat saxo vena perennis aquae. 
Inde fere soli Fauniis Picusque bibebant. 

Hue venit, et fonti rex Numa mactat avem. 
Plenaque odorati disponit pocula Bacchi ; 

Cumque suis antro conditus ipse latet. 300 

Ad solitos veniunt silvestria numina fontes : 

Et relevant multo pectora sicca mero. 
Vina quies sequitur : g^elido Numa prodit ab antro, 

Vinclaque sopitas addit in arta manus. 
Somnus ut abscessit, tentando vincula pugnant 305 

Rumpere ; pugnantes fortius ilia tenent. 
Turn Numa, Di nemorum, factis ignoscite nostris, 

Si scelus ingenio scitis abesse meo. 
Quoque modo po?sit fulmen, monstrate, piari. 

Sic Numa. Sic quatiens cornua Faunus ait : 310 

Magna petis, nee quae monitu tibi discere nostro 

Fas sit ; habent fines numina nostra suos. 

Reflects the meek-eyed genius of the 
"Whose green wild margin now no more 
Art's works ; nor must the delicate 
waters sleep. 
Prison 'd in marble; bubbling from the 
Of the cleft statues, with a gentle leap 
The rill runs o'er, and round fern, flow- 
ers, and ivy creep. 


296. Vena perennis aqu(E. 'Eu^ov 
aivvaov,vav vvo Xifftraot 'Virpvi, 
't'ia.ri -zsrizirXn^uiav an'/i^iLTta. TliCO- 
crit. Idyll, xxii. 37. 

297. Inde fere, Sfc. Faunus and 
Picus onl)', were in the habit of 
drinking at this fountain. Ac- 
cording to Plutarch, Picus and 
Faunus traversed Italy, exhibit- 
ing extraordinary ma!>-ical feats, 
in the same way as those called 
by the Greeks the Dactyli of 
Mount Ida. These Dactyli were 
the same as the Curetes, to whom 
Rhea intrusted the guardianship 
of Jupiter while an infant. They 
were in number, five, or as some 
say, ten, and all belonging to Ida 

in Crete. From their benevolence 
to mankind, they were, like Picus 
and Faunus, considered as demi- 
gods. Even their name was re- 
garded as an infallible preserva- 
tive in time of danger. There 
were also stones called Dactyli 
Idaji, which were supposed to be 
endued with sovereign virtues, 
and were frequently wrought into 
amulets, which were worn on the 

298. Fonti. In honour of the 
fountain. Numa mactat ovem. 
Compare Virg. ^neid, vii. 8J. 
' At rex sollicitus monstris ora- 
cula Fauni, Fatidici genitoris, 
adit, lucosque sub alta Consulit 
Albunea,' &c. 

299. Odorati pocula Bacchi. 
Cups of fragrant wine. 

300. Cumque snix. With his at- 
tendants, in number, twelve. Ar- 
noh. Advers. gent. Conditus. Lest 
his snare should be discovered. 

301. Si/lvestria numina. Picus 
and Faunus. 

304. Addit. sc. immittit. 
310. Quatiens cornua. Faunus 
was horned and goat- footed. 
o\2. Habent fines, 8fc. There 



Di sumus agrestes, et qui dotninemur in altis 

Montibus ; arbitriura est in sua tela Jovi. 
Hunc tu non poteris per te deducere ca;lo : 315 

At poteris nostra forsitan usus ope. 
Dixerat haec Faunus : par est sententia Pici. 

Deme tamen nobis vincula, Picus ait. 
Jupiter hue veniet, valida deductus ab arte. 

Nubila promis£i Styx mihi testis erit. 320 

Emissi quid agant laqueis, quae carmina dicant, 

Quaque trahant superis sedibus arte Jovem, 
Scire nefas homini. Nobis concessa canantur, 

Q,ua;que pio dici vatis ab ore licet. 
Eliciunt coelo te, Jupiter, unde minores 3"i5 

Nunc quoque te celebrant, Eliciumque vocant. 
Constat Aventinae «tremuisse cacumina silvse : 

Terraque subsedit pondere pressa Jovis. 
Corda micant regis : totoque e pectore sanguis 

is a limit to the exercise of our 
privileges as deities. Numen, sig- 
nifies properly the attributes of 
the Deus, or deity; ' quo numine 
laeso, Quidve dolens, regina deiun 
SiC.'Virg.^neid, i.8, and Heyne's 
note in loc. cit. 

313. Etqui doviinemvr. Etqui 
dignemur. Neapol, 

314. Arbitrium est, Sfc. Jove has 
full power over his own weapons. 
' Kegum timendorum in proprios 
greges, Reges in ipsos imperium 
est Jovis.' Horat. Od.m. 1, 5, 6. 

313. Deducere coelo. To charm 
him down from the skies. So 
Virgil. Eclog. vi. 71. ' Cantando 
rigidas deducere montibus ornos;' 
and Plutarch, in describing the 
scene in the text, KaTaynv rov 
Ala- Deduco is a term used in in- 
cantations ; whence ' carminibus 
deducere Lunara,' is common 
with the Latins ; y.ardyuv rhv 
itiXyiv/iv with the Greeks. ' Quas 
sidera excautata voce Thessala 
Lunamque coelo deripit.' Horat. 
Epod. d, 45. 

320. Nubila Styx. The gloomy 
Styx. On solemn occasions the 
gods used to swear by this river 

of the infernals, and to violate 
the oath was considered an un- 
pardonable perjury. Abstinence 
from nectar, and a degradation 
from the dignity of a deity for a 
hundred years, constituted the 
penalty for such an offence. ' Sty- 
giamque paludem, Dii cujus ju- 
rare timent et fallere numen,' 
Virg. Mneid, vi. 323. 

321. Emissi quid agant, Sj'c. 
What they do when delivered 
from their bonds, what spells 
they utter, and by what device 
they draw down Jove from his 
supreme abode, it is forbidden 
man to know. 

326. Eliciumque. Jupiter, so 
called, from elicere, as supr. Plu- 
tarch writes Ilicius, from Gr. 
'Jktus, propitious ; but the poet is 
the more correct. The Greeks 
also had their Aiee. Kocrailiarnv, sy- 
nonymous with Elicius. 

327. Cacumina. Qu. acumina, 
the extreme summits. 

328. Subsedit. Yielded beneath 
thepressureof Jove's weight, uporf 
his descent. Compare Psalm xviii. 

329. Corda micant regis. The 



Fugit ; et hirsiitse diriguere comae. 330 

Ut rediit animus, Da certa piamina, dixit, 

Fulminis, altorum Rextjue Paterque deum ; 
Si tua contigimns manibus donaria puris ; 

Hoc quoque, quod petitur, si pia lingua rogat. 
Annuit oranti : sed verum ambage remota 335 

Abdidit, et dubio terruit ore virum. 
Csede caput, dixit. Cui rex, Parebimus, inquit : 

Ca^denda est hortis eruta cepa meis. 
Addidit hie, Hominis : Sununos, ait ille, capillos. 

Postulat hie animam : cui Numa, Piscis, ait. 340 

Risit : et, His, inquit, f'acito mea tela procures, 

O vir colloquio non abigende meo. 
Sed tibi, protulerit cum totum crastinus orbem 

king's heart palpitates with fear. 
Totoq. e pectore sanguis. So Plaut. 
Mostell. 2, 2, 76. ' Guttam baud 
habeo sanguinis,' i. e. prae nietu 
refugit niihi sanguis, ' I have not, 
through fear, a drop of blood in 
ray veins,' Forcel. Sa?iguis, from 
Gr. ffda and yuTov, the health of 
the body depending on the purity 
of the blood. 

•330. HirsutcE diriguere comce, 
' Steteruntque comae.' Virg. 

331. Certa piamina. Distinct 
or positive expiations, for light- 
ning, i. e. to prevent it. Infr. N. 
341, sub. fin. 

333. Ambage. Abl. fem. sing. 
Ambages, nom. pi. from ainbto. 
Amh. remota. Without preamble, 
as appears from the brevity of his 
directions, infr. Ccede caput, S(c. 
at the same time that he conceal- 
ed the truth, abdidit verum, to try 
the ingenuity of Numa. Dubio 
ore. By his equivocal e.xpressions. 
Remota. Remissa. Stroz. 

337. Ccede caput. Jove desires 
him to cut off a head, an opera- 
tion whicli Numa consents to 
perform on an onion, cadenda ce- 
pa, &c. (caput alii. Pers. 5, 188.) 
.love adds, hominis, sc. caput, 
which Numa explains by summos 
capillos, the topmost hairs ; (^ca- 

put and capilli are often used in- 
differently, ' comere caput,' Sue- 
ton, in Aug. c. 79.) Jove then 
demands a life, animam, to which 
Numa replies, 'of a fish;' a pil- 
chard according to Plutarch. 
This conference is eminently 
characteristic of Numa, who de- 
clined the human sacrifice, appa- 
rently implied in the ambiguous 
commands of Jove, and which 
would not have been unsuited to 
the barbarous practice and spirit 
of the times. 

341. His. sc. The head of the 
onion, &c. Facito mea tela procu- 
res. Observe that you expiate my 
weapons. Procurare, to atone, 
e.xpiale, prevent or avert by the 
offering of proper sacrifices ; For- 
cel. ' Magna vis videtur esse in 
monstris interpretandis ac procu- 
randis in haruspicum disciplina ;' 
Cic. de JJicin. i. 2, and, ii. G3, 
sub. fin. ' Procurare et expiare 
signa, quae a diis hominibus por- 

3i'2. Colloquio nonabigcnde meo. 
Not to be repulsed from a con- 
ference with me. Meo, Deum. A). 

343. Sed tibi. But when to- 
morrow's sun shall have revealed 
its disc complete, I shall present 
you with a positive pledge of em- 



Cynthius, imperii pignora certa dabo. 
Dixit, et ingenti tonitru super aethera motum 345 

Fertur, adorantem destituitque Nuraam. 
Ille redit laetus, memoratque Quiritibus acta. 

Tarda venit dictis difficilisque fides. 
At certe credemur, ait, si verba seqviatur 

Exitus. En audi crastina, quisquis ades. 350 

Protulerit terris cum totum Cynthius orbem, 

Jupiter imperii pignora certa dabit. 
Discedunt dubii, promissaque tarda videntur : 

Dependetque fides a veniente die. 
Mollis erat tellus, rorataque mane pruina ; 355 

Ante sui populus limina regis adest. 
Prodit, et in solio medius consedit acerno. 

Innumeri circa stantque silentque viri. 
Ortus erat summo tantummodo margine Phoebus : 

SolIicita2 luentes speque metuque pavent. 360 

Constitit, atque caput niveo velatus amictu 

pire. Cynthius. Apollo, so called 
from Cynthus, a mountain in De- 
los. Pignora certa. The ancile, 
or sacred shield. 

345. Dixit, et, ^-c. He spoke, 
and with loud thunderings is borne 
above the trembling- firmament, 
and leaves Numa in the attitude 
of worship. 

348. Tarda difficilisque fides. 
Credit, slow in coming, and ob- 
tained with difficulty. 

349. Si verba sequatur exitus. 
Should the result correspond 
with the prediction. 

350. Crastina. sc. What shall 
take place to-morrow. Crastine, 
Heins.for qvisquiscrastinus aderis. 

353. Dubii. Hesitating. Tarda. 
Because their belief in what he 
had stated, fides, depends on the 
day yet to come, dependet a veni- 
ente die. Adveniente die. Al. 

355. Mollis erat, Sfc. The earth 
was soft, and sprinkled with the 
morning rime. 

357. Solio acerno. On a throne 
of maple wood. For light and 
elegant workmanship the maple- 

tree, acer, held the next place to 
the cedar in the estimation of the 
ancients. There were several spe- 
cies of it, crispum, crassivenium, 
campesire,&c. Plin.x\i. 15. From 
its extreme hardness, and the 
closeness of its grain, it was in 
frequent use for tablets also ; 
' Veneri fidas sibi Naso ministros 
Dedicat : at nuper vile fuistis 
acer. ' Ovid. Amor. i. Eleg. 1 ) . 
sub. fin. 

359. Ortus erat. The sun had 
merely risen with its extreme 

S61. Niveo amictu. Having his 
head covered with a snow-white 
veil, in order that nothing inaus- 
picious might meet his eyes, and 
interrupt his prayers. So \^irgil, 
' Purpureo velare comas adoper- 
tus amictu, Ne qua inter sanctos 
ignes, in honore Deorum, Hos- 
tilis facies occurrat, et omnia tur- 
bet.* ^neid,ui. By some, amic- 
tus is supposed to have been the 
cap which was tied under tl>e 
chin; peculiar to the priests ; see 
infr. N. 395, sub. fin. 



Jam bene dis notas siistulit ille manus. 
Atque ita, Tempiis adest promissi muneris, inquit. 

Pollicitam dictis, Jupiter, adde fidem. 
Diim loquitur, totum jam sol emerserat orbem : 

Et gravis atherio venit ab axe fragor. 
Ter tonuit sine nube deus, tria fulgura misit. 


3Q2. Bene (lis notas manus. His 
hands, well known to the gods ; 
from their havine^ been so often 
raised in supplication. 

365. Totum emerserat orbem. 
Had raised its entire disc. JEmer- 
go, is generally used in a neuter 
•sense, but here in active ; see 
also, infr. 513. 

366. JEt gravis. En gravis. 

367. Ter tonuit sine nube Deus. 
Thunder in a clear sky was look- 
ed upon as an extraordinary pro- 
digy, from the days of Homer. 
Its effect upoa Horace was such 
as to make him abjure so mucli of 
his Epicureanism as consisted in 
a disbelief in the providence, at 
least, if not in the existence of the 
gods ; ' Parcus deorum cultor et 
infrequens, Insanientis dum sa- 
pientise Consultus erro, nunc re- 
trorsura Vela dare, atque iterare 
cursus Ccgor relictos: namque 
Diespiter, Igni corusco nubila 
dividens Plenumque, per purum 
tonates Egit equos volucremque 
ourrum ; Quo bruta tellus,' &c. 
Od. i. 34, 1, et seq. The Epicu- 
rean doctrine, with regard to thun- 
der, may be deduced from the 
following lines of Lucretius ; 
' Fulmina gignier e crassis, alte- 
que putandum est Nubibus ex- 
structis : nam ccelo nulla sereno, 
nee leviter densis mittuntur nu- 
bibus unquam.' vi. •245. So in 
the ' Nubes' of Aristoplianes, So- 
crates is made to disprove the 
existence of Jupiter, because there 
never was rsiin without clouds. 

STPE"*'. 'O Ziu? S' 11/trv, (p'l^i, cTfos- 

SfiK. Xloiof Zsus" ; ou (t-n y.r,i>r,a'.i<i % 

oiS' 'iart Zsuy. 
2TPE*'. T/ Asyi/r au ; 

aXXa. T/V uii ; Tovri yao Sf^oty 
u'jrotp'/ivcii Touro)! a.'Xa.vTut. 
2nK. Aura/ S») •r«w, ^.lyaXtn^ os <r' 
lyu er,ft.itoit auTo dwa^u. 
(pipi, "XoZ ya.0 <iroi'7ro'T ufiv 'StipiXuf 

Kairoi ;v;«^v aiV^/as" viT» at/rov, rctu- 
To.^ S' avohrifJiU'». 
2TPE'*'. vy\ tIv h'x'oXXu, rroZro y'l 

Toi tZ vwvl Xoy!ti III 'jTooai^vaat- 
Streps. Hold! Olympian Jupiter— Is he 

no god? 
Socr. ^\^]at Jupiter .' \\Tiatgod» 
Prythee no morfr— away with him at 
once ! 
Streps. Say'st thou ? who gives us rain ? 

answer me that. 
Socr. These (sc. the clouds) give us rain ; 

as I will straight demonstrate : 
Come on now — when did you e'er see it 

Without a cloud .' If Jupiter gives rain 
Let him rain down his favours in the 

Nor ask the clouds to help him. 
Streps. You have hit it, 
'Tis so ; heaven help me, &e. 


It may not he amiss to men- 
tion here what deities were ac- 
knowledged by the Aristophanic 
Socrates ; 

2nKP. WXX' on S5t «u *a//.ii7; 
))§£ hov ouSma wX>;v eizTS^ *i/iii;, 
To X.\OS ray-/, xai tu; NE*E- 



Credlte dicenti ; mira, sed acta, loquor. 
A media coelum regione dehiscere coepit : 

Submisere oculos cum duce turba suos. 
Ecce levi scutum versatum leniter aura 

Decidit. A populo clamor ad astra venit. 
ToUit humo munus caesa prius ille juvenca, 

Qua; dederat nulli colla premenda jugo. 
Idque ancile vocat. quod ab omni parte recisum est, 

Quaque notes oculis, angulus omnis abest. 
Tum, memor imperii sortem consistere in illo, 

Consilium multae calliditatis init. 
Plura jubet fieri simili ca;lata figura. 

Error ut ante oculos insidiantis eat. 
Mamurius, morum fabraeve exactior artis. 

Difficile est, illud, dicere, clausit opus. 
Cui Numa munificus, Facti pete praemia, dixit : 

Si mea nota fides, irrita nulla petes. 
Jam dederat Saliis, a saltu nomina ducunt, 

Armaque, et ad certos verba canenda modos. 




AA2 Kai rjjv TAnTTAN, r^m 

Socr. Tis well, so you will ratify your 

In these our deities — chaos and clouds 
And SPEECH— to these and only these 


368. Mira, sed acta, loquor. I 
speak wonders, but realities. 

369. A media, SfC. So Turnus ; 
♦ Video medium discedere coe- 
lum.' Virg. jEiieid, ix. 20. 'As 
if day had cloven the skies.' — 

371. Versatum letiiter. Poised 
gently on the delicate breeze, 

375. Idque ancile vocat, §-c. See 
supr. N. 258. 

377. Imperii sortem. That the 
fate of the empire was identified 
with this, or involved in it. 

.379. Plura. Sc. eleven more. 
Ca.ata. Wrought in a similar 

380. Error ut, ^'c. That de- 

ception might meet, or mislead, 
the eyes of the plotting, 

381. Mamurius, ^c. Mamuri- 
us, it is hard to say whether move 
distinguished, exactior, for his in- 
tegrity, 7norum, or skill in his 
craft, fabrcEve artis, accomplished 
that task. These eleven shields 
were said to have resembled the 
original so strongly, that Numa 
could not perceive the difference. 

385. Saliis. See supr. n, 258. 
sub. fin. Besides the derivations 
already given, Plutarch mentions 
as probable, ayicav, cubitus, ax'i<ri;, 
remedium, &c. 

386. Armaque. According to 
Dionysius and Plutarch, the Salii 
were habited in a purple vest, 
with a broad belt of brass ; on 
their heads they wore a brazen 
helmet, and carried short swords 
in their hands which they struck 
upon the shields, keeping time to 
the dancing and singing. Ad cer- 
tos, ^c. sc. the Carmen Saliare ; 
mentioned by Horace ; ' Jam Sa- 
liare Numse carmen qui laudat 



Turn sic Mamurius, Merces mihi gloria detur, 

Nominaque extremo carmine nostra sonent. 
Inde sacerdotes operi promissa vetusto 

Praemia persolvunt, Mamuriumque vocant. 390 

Nubere si qua voles, quamvis properabitis arabo, 

Differ : habent parvse commoda magna morse. 
Arma movent pugnam, pugna est aliena maritis. 

Condita cum fuerint, aptius omen erit. 
His etiam conjux apicati cincta Dialis 395 

Lucibus irapexas debet habere comas. 

et illud. Quod mecum i^orat, 
solus vult scire videri,' &c. and 
Quinctiliaa i. 6, 40, ' Saliorum 
carniina vix sacerdotibus suis satis 

388. Nominaque. According to 
Tacitus, this compliment of hav- 
ing his name inserted in the Car- 
men Saliare, was decreed to Ger- 
manicus, among other tokens of 
respect, after his decease. 

390. Mamuriumque vocant. By 
many this account is supposed 
to be fabulous ; M. Varro would 
have Veturius Mamurius to sig- 
nify, merely, Vetus memoria. 

394. Condita cum fuerint. After 
the shields have been laid up iu 
the temple of Mars. 

895.IIis — lucibus. During these 
days ; according to Festus thirty, 
others sav but three. Conjux api- 
cati cincta Dialis. The girded wife 
of the mitred priest of Jove, the 
Flamen. Dial. The opcr, whence 
apicatus, was properly a small 
woollea tuft, or tassel, which the 
Flamen, or high priest wore on 
the top of his cap. It also signi- 
fies a small rod, generally of the 
olive tree, which was fi.\ed in the 
top of the cap and wound round 
■with wool tied on with thread ; 
whence it is derived, Serv. ad 
^neid, x. 273, from apere, an 
obsolete verb, signifying to bind or 
tie after the fashion of the Fla- 

mines. Hence by metonomy apex 
is used to imply the cap itself, 
which was generally made of 
sheep-skin with the wool on, and 
worn by the Flamen Dial, when- 
ever he appeared in public, or was 
engaged in sacrificing. It had 
ears, called offendices, quia in men- 
tum offendunt, \.e.incidunt, which, 
except in warm weather, were 
tied under the chin. According 
to Scaliger and Servius, however, 
the inconvenience arising from 
heat was obviated by the priest's 
wearing a smaller species of cap, 
apicidum or filum, and carrying 
the apex or mitre in his hand; 
thus complying with the injunc- 
tions, which he was bound to 
obey ; never to appear in public 
with an uncovered head, and never 
without the mitre. Cincta. The 
wife of the Flamen Dial, wore a 
crimson hood, rica, such as wo- 
men used when engaged in sacri- 
ficing, and a scarlet robe, venena- 
tum, a veneno ; ' Flaminica Dialis 
venenalo operitur, et in rica sur- 
culum de arbore felici habet.' 
MassuT. Sabin. apud Gell. x. 16, 
whence cincta. The Regina, or 
wife of the Flamen Dial, wore 
also at the sacrifices a kind of 
crown, a bough of the pomegra- 
nate, ptinicus malus, bent into a 
circle, and the ends tied together 
with white thread. 




Tertia nox emersa suos ubi moverit ignes ; 

Conditus e geminis Piscibus alter erit. 
Nam duo sunt : Austris hie est, Aquilonibus ille 

Proximus ; a vento nomen uterque tenet. 



Cum croceis rorare genis Tithonia conjux 

Coeperit, et quintae tempora lucis aget ; 
Sive est Arctophylax, sive est piger ille Bootes, 

Mergetur, visus eftugietque tuos. 

397. Tertia nox. On the night 
of the V. Non. Mart. March 3d. 
Suos moverit ignes. Shall have set 
its starry fires in motion. Emersa. 
Having arisen. Demissa. AL JDe 
mense. Ursin. Voss. Arond. Di- 
mensa. Ambros. ; however, the 
reading in the text is sufficiently 
borne out by the best copies, as 
also by the frequent use of the 
term in the acceptation above ; 
Metam. xv. ' Cernis et emersas 
in lucem tendere noctes.' Stat. 
Theb. i. ' quern sol emersus Eoo 
cardine,' &c. 

398. Conditus alter, so. Notius 
sets acronycally. 

399. ^am duo sunt. See Fast. 
ii. NS. 340 — 1. Austris hie est. 
This is called frequently Notius 
Minor, to distinguish it from the 
Notius Major or Piscis Major, 
a constellation which is also in 
the southern region of the hea- 
ven, supposed to be that to which 
Virgil alludes. Georg. iv. 234. 
' Sidus fugiens ubi piscis aquosi,' 
&c. and which is said to be the 
parent of the Zodiacal Pisces, 
having been raised to the stars 
for preserving Isis. Hygin. 

400. A vento. See NS. as above. 

401. Croceis genis. The poet 

imparts to the cheeks of Aurora 
a complexion indicative of the 
mingled hues of red and gold, 
which pervade the sky at her 
rising. Rorare. To shed her 
dews. Rutilare. Zulich. Mazar. 
Rutilare comis. Heins. 

402. QuintcE tempora lucis. On 
the III. Non. Mart. March 5th, 
Arctophylax, or Bootes, sets cos- 
mically. See Fast. ii. N. 153. The 
greater and lesser bear, the for- 
mer of which is likewise called 
Charles' wain, form together the 
sign Arctos, or constellation of 
the Bear. It is also called Cur- 
rus, and Plaustrura, Gr. &ftce.%ot, 
Iliad, xviii. 487 ; and Septentri- 
ones, either because the seven 
stars composing it are so placed 
as to form a triangle, trigonum ; 
or from trioiies, a rustic term, ac- 
cording to Varro, for boves, oxen ; 
qu. terriones, suited for ploughing 
and cultivating the earth, terra. 
From this latter sense Arctophy- 
lax may be called Bootes, from 
Gr. Piovs, as appearing to tend the 
team; others derive the name 
from /juaw, vocifero, without any 
very obvious reason. 

403. Piger. Because of his 
setting tediously. Hggin. 





At non efFugiet Vindemitor. Hoc quoque causatn 405 

Unde trahat sidus, parva referre mora est. 
Amjjelon intonsum Satyro Nymphaque creatum 

Fertur in Ismariis Bacchus amasse jtigis. 
Tradidit huic vitem pendentem frondibus ulmi, 

Quae nunc de pueri nomine nomen habet. 410 

Dam legit in ramo pictas temerarius uvas, 

Decidit : amissum Liber in astra vehit. 


Sextus ubi Oceano clivosum scandit Olympum 
Phoebus, et alatis aethera carpit equis ; 

Q-uisquis ades, canaeque colis penetralia Vestae, 
Cratera Iliacis turaque pone focis. 

Caesaris innumeris. quem maluit ille mereri, 


405. Vindemitor. The constel- 
lation of the vintager, near the 
right shoulder of Virgo. By at 
non effugiet, reference is made to 
the setting of Bootes in the pre- 
ceding line ; and it is to be noted 
that this sign rises acronycally 
oa the in. Non. Mart. In this the 
poet differs from Columella, who, 
xi. 3, sect. 58, says it rises on tlie 
vii. or vr. Kal. Sept. and Pliny 
on the XI. Kal. Sept. The name 
was bestowed on Ampelus, as 
presiding over the vintage season. 
Hoc quoque causam. It is but a 
trifling delay to relate whence this 
constellation derives its origin. 

407. Ampelou. Gr. "Afi^riXo;, 
from ccva, and TsriXo;, Ion. for a'ri;, 
vinum. Intonsum. The long haired 

408. Ismariis jugis. Ismarus 
was a mountain in Thrace, near 
the river Hebrus. 

409. Tradidit huic, SfC. This 
couplet is suspected by Heinsius. 
QucE nunc, Sfc, Called" Afizft>.es, 
de pueri nomine. 

411. Dum legit, ^c. While 

heedlessly he gathers on a bougli 
the blushing grapes. 

412. Vehit. So of Ariadne ; 
' Tigribus in coelum vecta Ariad- 
na tuis? Propert. 

413. Sextus — Pkcebus. Prid. 
Non. Mart. March 6th. Oceano. 
Leaving the ocean. Alatis eq. 
Elatis eq. sc. e mari. Ambros. 
Maz. Zulich. ^thera carpit. 
Climbs the sky. 

415. Quisquis ades. The poet 
addresses the worshippers of 

416. Cratera. Fur libations. 
So Horace ; ' Verbenas, pueri, 
ponite, thuraque bimi cum patera 
meri.' Od. i. 19, 14. 

417. In7iumeris — titulis. It will 
appear from what has been already 
stated on this subject, that the 
term innumeris is scarcely an ex- 
aggeration. The Roman senate 
exhausted their ingenuity in sea- 
soning their adulation. Quem 
maluit ille mereri. Of this dignity 
Augustus was most ambitious, 
in order that he might seem to be 
in favour with the gods. 



Accessit titulis pontificalis honos. 
Ignibus aeternis aeterni numina praesunt 

Caesaris. Imperii pignora juncta vides. 
De veteris Trojae dignissima praeda favilla, 

Qua gravis iEneas tutus ab hoste fuit ; 
Ortus ab vEnea tangit cognata sacerdos 

Numina ; cognatum, Vesta, tuere caput. 
Q.UOS sancta fovet ille manu, bene vivitis ignes. 

Vivite inexstincti, flammaque, Duxque, precor. 



Una nota est Martis Nonis : sacrata quod illis 

418. Pontificalis honos. Augus- 
tus was appointed Pontifex Max- 
imu9, Prid. Non. Mart. u. c. 740 
or 741, in the room of Lepidus, 
deceased. This dignity was as- 
sumed by all the succeeding em- 
perors, until the time of Gratian, 
by whom it was refused, and also 
the rites of Pagan Rome rejected. 
Zosim. iv. 36. The Pontifices 
Max. resided always in a house 
that was public property ; ' habi- 
tavit, (sc. Ccesar,) in Sacra via, 
domo publica,' Suet. Cces. 46, 
called Regia, Plin. Ep. iv. 11, 6, 
' quod in ea sacra a Rege sacrifi- 
culo erant solita usurpari.' Festns, 
vel, quod in ea Rex. sacrif. habitare 
consuesset.' Serv. in Virg. j^neid, 
viii, 363. So when Augustus be- 
came Pontifex. M. he resigned a 
part of his house to the public, 
and gave the Regia, which Dio 
calls the house of the Rex sacro- 
rum, to the Vestal Virgins, to 
whose residence it was adjacent, 
Dio. liv. 27 ; whence it is identi- 
fied by some with the Regia 
Numae, the palace of Nuraa, 
Ovid. Fast. iii. 1. 30; (to which 
Horace alludes; 'Ire dejectum 
monumenta regis Templaque Ves- 
tae,' Od. i. 2, 15;) and Augus- 
tus, Suet. 76; said subsequently 
to have been occupied by the 
atria of Vesta ; see Fast. vi. 247, 

called Atrium Regium, Liv. xxvi. 

419. Ignibus, Sfc. ' The divinity 
of the immortal Caesar presides 
over the everlasting fires; you 
behold the united pledges of the 
empire's safety.' Pignora. The 
fires of Vesta, and Augustus 
Pont. Max. 

421. Z)e veteris, Sfc. ' Most wor- 
thy prize, recovered from the em- 
bers of old Troy, with which 
.^neas, burdened, was protected 
from his foes; a priest, sprung 
from ^neas, claims an alliance 
with your deity; Vesta defend 
your kinsman's head.' Cognata 
numina. Alluding to Augustus 
having descended from .^neas the 
son of Venus, and Vesta being the 
daughter of Saturn. Ortus ab 
JEnea. Because Augustus was 
the adopted son of Julius Caesar, 
and the Julian family boasted 
their descent from lulus, or As- 
canius, the son of jEneas by 

425. Quos sancta, ^c. < Your 
fires, which with a hallowed hand 
he tends, are thriving well.' Ille. 
As Pontif. Max. 

426. Flammaque. Vesta. Dux- 
que. Caesar. 

427. Una nota est Martis. 
' Mars, sc. March, has one dis- 
tinction, because upon the actual 



Templa piitant lucos Vejovis ante duos. 
Romulus ut saxo locum circumdedit alto ; 

Quilibet, Hue, inquit, confuge, tutus eris. 430 

O quam de tenui Romanus origine crevit ! 

Turba vetus quam non invidiosa fuit ! 
Ne tamen ignaro novitas tibi nominis obstet ; 

Disce, quis iste detis, curve vocetur ita. 
Jupiter est juvenis : juveniles adspice vultus. 435 

Adspice deinde manum : fulmina nulla tenet. 
Fulmina, post ausos coelum afFectare Gigantas, 

Sumpta Jovi : primo tempore inermis erat. 
Ignibus Ossa novis, et Pelion altior Ossa 

Arsit, et in solida fixus Olympus humo. 440 

Stat quoque capra simul : Nymphae pavisse feruntur 

Cretides : int'anti lac dedit ilia Jovi. 
Nunc vocor ad nomen. Vegrandia farra colonae, 

Quae male creverunt, vescaque parva vocant. 
Vis ea si verbi est ; cur non ego Vejovis aedem 445 

^dem non magni suspicer esse Jovis ? 

nones, Nonis illis, §-c. i. e. The 
nones of March have cue distin- 
guishing mark. 

428. Vejovis.-is. m. Two ety- 
mologies are given for this name, 
which is compounded either of 
ve, a particle expressive of dimi- 
nution, and so signifies a small 
or infant Jove, infr. 443, or it 
means a wicked Jove, ' qui non 
juvandi sed nocendi potestatem 
haberet ;' ve, having the force of 
non, as in the compounds, vesamts, 
vecors, &c. in consequence of 
which his statue is armed will» 
arrows prepared for mischief; 
he is also frequently identified 
with Pluto, called Vedius, quasi 
nocenft Diits ; Gell. v. 1 2. It is 
evident, however, that the poet 
favours the former. Lucos ante 
duos. Thus described by Livy; 
' locum, qui nunc septus descen- 
dentibus (ex Capitolio) inter 
duos lucos est. Asylum aperit.' 
So Cicero ; ' Assequitur inter 

lucos hominem Milo,' and Dio- 
nysiUS ; To yaa furti^u y^upUv rou 
Tt KccmruXiau xai tTi; axpx;, o x.a,- 
XiiTOii vu», x.a.To, rni/ 'Paifiociuv J/a- 
XixTov, fii^oai/iv dvoTv ooufitu)/. 

432. Quam non invidiosa. ' How 
free from envy or malice ;' be- 
cause they were all of the same 
stamp and class. 

434. Disce, Sfc. Learn who the 
deity is, and why he is so called. 

440. In solida Jixus humo. 
Rooted in the solid earth. 

441. Capra. Amalthea. See 
Fast. v. 111. 

443. Veyrandia, §-c. The 
countrywomen call the corn 
which has grown indifferently, 
vegrandia, i. e. non grandia, mea- 
gre, and what is small, vesca, i. e. 
ve, or sine esca, weak, or delicate. 
So Vejlamines, the inferior Fla- 

445. Vis ea si verbi est. If 
such be the force of the expres- 




Jamque, ubi cceruleum vallabunt sidera ccelum, 
Suspice : Gorgonei colla videbis equi. 

Creditur hie caesae gravida cervice Medusae 
Sanguine respersis prosiluisse jubis. 

Huic supra nubes et subter sidera lapso 
Ccelum pro terra, pro pede penna fuit. 

Jamque indignant! nova frena receperat ore, 


447. Uhi cceruleum. When the 
stars shall gird the blue vault of 

448. Gorgonei equi. On the 
nones the constellation Pegasus 
rises heliacally ; so called from 
rTriy7i,fons, because born near the 
springs or sources of the ocean, 
where the Gorgons dwelt ; whence 
Hyginus and others say, that he 
was born of Neptune and Me- 
dusa. Some, however, with the 
poet, assert the winged steed to 
have sprung from the blood of 
Medusa, whom Perseus slew. 
He was tamed by Neptune or 
Minerva, and presented to Bel- 
lerophon, to assist him in con- 
quering the Chimsera. According 
to others, Pegasus was the name 
of the vessel in which Bellero- 
phon sailed ; see also infr. 453. 
According to Ovid, Metam. iv. 
785, Perseus was mounted on 
Pegasus, when he destroyed the 
sea monster to which Androme- 
da should have been sacrificed, 
but for his protection. See Class. 
Die. Andromeda. 

449. Gravida cervice. From 
her pregnant neck; so called 
because Chrysaor and Pegasus 
sprung from the blood which 
flowed from it upon her decapita- 
tion by Perseus. Medusa was the 
daughter of Phorcus and Ceto, 
a sea monster, and with her sis- 
ters, Euryale and Sthenyo, to 
whom Scylla is added by some, 
inhabited the islands called Gor- 
gades or Gorgones, whence they 

derived their name, in the .Ethi- 
opian sea. The islands are said 
to have been so named from their 
having been infested by a noxious 
animal called ^«gyav. Medusa was 
remarkable for her personal at- 
tractions, and particularly distin- 
guished for the beauty and luxu- 
riancy of her golden hair, whence 
Neptune became passionately ena- 
moured of her, and made the 
temple of Minerva the scene of 
his successful love. The goddess 
indignant at the insult, changed 
Medusa's hair into snakes, and 
doomed all on whom she should 
chance to gaze, to death. Perseus, 
the son of Danae and Jove, by 
order of the gods, put on the 
winged sandals of Mercury, with 
whose sword, and the brazen 
shield of Minerva he was armed, 
and beheaded Medusa while she 
and her snakes were sleeping. 
The goddess subsequently wore 
the Gorgon's head as the device 
upon her shield. 

45 1 . Huic supra, Sfc. ' The air 
was as the earth to him, soaring 
beyond the clouds, and beneath 
the stars; his pinions were as feet.' 

453. Indignanti nova frena ore. 
It is also said that Pegasus was 
caught by Bellerophonat Pirene, a 
fountain in Corinth, and that after 
the destruction of the Chimsera, he 
attempted, mounted on Pegasus, 
to reach the skies, in consequence 
of which Jupiter sent a gadfly, 
which made him throw Bellero- 
phon, who fell on the Aleian 



Cum levis Aonias ungula fodit aquas. 
Nunc fi'uitur coelo, quod pennis ante petebat : 
Et nitidus stellis quinque decemque micat. 



Protinus adspicies venienti nocte Coronam 

Gnosida. Theseo crimine facta dea est. 
Jam bene perjuro mutarat conjuge Bacchum, 

Quae dedit ingrato fila legenda viro. 460 

plain ia Cilicia, and wandered 
about in blindness and poverty 
until death. Pegasus, ascending 
to heaven, became a constellation, 
looking towards the arctic circle, 
touching with his mouth the head 
of the Dolphin, and with his neck 
close to the right hand of Aqua- 

454. Levis Aonias, ^-c. By 
striking his hoof upon Mount 
Helicon, Pegasus opened the foun- 
tain thence called Hippocrene, 
sc. "larwou K^rityi, the ♦ fons Cabal- 
linus' of Persius, Prolog. Sat. I, 
I. That part of Bceotia, in which 
Helicon stood, was called Aonia, 
whence Aon. aquas. 

456. Quinque decemque. With 
fifteen stars ; according to Hy- 
ginus, eigliteen 

457. Venientp. nocte. On the 
VIII. Id. Mart. Coronam Gnosida, 
The Cretan crown, so called from 
Gnosus, a city of Crete, where 
Ariadnt', the daughter of Alinos 
and Pasiphae WHS born. For Cor- 
onam, see infr. 509. 

458. Tkeseo crimine. Owing to 
the guilt of Theseus, she became 
a deity. Theseus, son of ^Elhra, 
the daughter of Pittl'eus and 
JEgeus, was sent to Crete as one 
of the seven chosen youths, 
whom, according to a compact 
with Minos, the Athenians sent 
yearly to be devoured by the Mi- 
notaur. He volunteered this ser- 
vice in order to deliver his coun- 
try, if possible, from this cruel 

and tyrannical tribute, and suc- 
ceeded, by the assistance of Ari- 
adne, who enabled him to track 
the labyrinth with a clue of thread. 
He slew the Minotaur, and sailed 
from Crete, with tlie six youths, 
and seven virgins, whom he had 
saved from beinu destroyed by the 
monster, and Ariadne , but for- 
getful of her kindness, he aban- 
doned her on the island of Chios 
or Naxos, whither he was driven 
by stress of weather on his voyage 
home. The rest of her story is 
detailed in the text. 

459. Perjuro mutarat conjuge 
Bacchum. An hypallage ior per- 

jurum conjugem Baccho, had hap- 
pily exchanged a perjured consort 
for Bacchus. So Horace; ' Ve- 
lox amoenum saepe Lucretilem 
Mutat Lycaeo Faunus.' Od. i. 
17, 1, and ' Cur valle permuteni 
Sabiua Divitias operosiores. ' 

460. Fila legenda. Legere fila, 
est adducere, et colligere obvol- 
vendo : quod fecisse dicitur The- 
seus, qui e labyrintho Cretensi, 
Ariadne monitu, expedivit, se, 
fiium in introitu explicando, in 
reditu colligendo; to gather in or 
7in7id up as a clue. Forcel. Piiny 
speaks of four remarkable laby- 
rinths; {\a.p>v^iv6o;, a Xa.P>^a;, fovea, 
vel a Xaliuii et ^man, quod prehen- 
dendo decipiat, vel quasi Xafilv^u- 
f «s a Xufiiiv 6u^a.i, quod varia ah in- 
gressu apcriuntur, et quasi prehen- 
duntur ostia, nee tamen iavenitur 
exitus) the first and most cele- 



Sorte tori gaudens, ' quern flebam rustica,' dixit, 

' Utiliter nobis perfidus ille fuit.' 
Interea Liber depexus crinibus Indos 

brated was the Egyptian, in Heli- 
opolis, of which the pillars in 
front were made of Parian mar- 
ble, and the rest of porphyry. 
The next was the Cretan, in the 
city Gortyna, built at the com- 
mand of Minos by Daedalus, who 
modelled it from the Egyptian ; 
however, though more intricate, 
it was not within a hundred times 
as large. The third is the Lem- 
nian, remarkable for the beauty 
of its columns, of which it had 
a hundred and fifty. The last was 
the Italian, which Porsena, king 
of Etruria, built as a sepulchre 
for himself. 

461. Sorte tori gaudens.Exuhmg 
in the good fortune of her mar- 
riage, sc. with Bacchus. Quern 
flebam rustica. Whom 1 foolishly 
deplored. Quid fles at rustica. 
A\. Quid flebas rustica. Heins. 

463. Liber. Bacchus, so called 
a liberando, because he fought for 
the freedom of Boeotia, or be- 
cause he sets the mind free from 
the effects of care, or from Xuum 
(oa^n, curcB pondera solvere. The 
genealogies of Bacchus are va- 
rious. According to some, he 
was the sou of Jupiter and Se- 
mele, others make Liber and Li- 
bera the son and daughter of 
Ceres. Orpheus, in one of his 
hymns, describes him as the sou 
of Jupiter and Proserpine, and 
in another, as the son of the 
Egyptian Isis. The poets in ge- 
neral adopt the first of these opi- 
nions. Semele was the daughter 
of Cadmus, and of such singular 
beauty, that she attracted the at- 
tention of Jupiter. Having bound 
him, at the instigation of Juno, 
by an oath, to accede to her 
wishes, she demanded that he 
should appear in his celestial ma- 

jesty, and was consumed in con- 
sequence, being unable to en- 
dure the splendour. Her child, 
of which she had been eight 
months pregnant, was placed in 
the thigh of Jove until the suit- 
able time for his birth arrived. 
Some say that he was saved from 
the flames by Dirce, a nymph of 
Achelous. Depexus crinibus. — 
With his hair trimmed ; this may 
allude, either to his youth or his 
eifeminacy ; ' tibi enim incon- 
sumpta juventa est: Tu puer 
seternus, tu formosissimus alto 
Conspiceris coelo, tibi, cum sine 
cornibus adstas, Virgineum caput 
est.' Ovid. Metam. iv. 15; and 
Euripides in Bncch. T«v (nXufio^- 

yuvai'i) ; &c. or it may refer merely 
to the beauty of his hair, as ; 
' Et dignos Baccho, dignos et 
ApoUine crines, Alet. iii. 421. 
Indos vincit. Of all the expedi- 
tions of Bacchus, that into the 
east is the most celebrated. His 
army consisted of men and wo- 
men, all inspired with divine 
fury, and armed with thyrsi, 
cymbals, &c. His conquests were 
unstained by bloodshed ; he was 
received as a benefactor, for the 
instructions which he freely gave 
the people in the use of the vine, 
in tilling the earth, and in making 
honey. He was accompanied 
by Silenus and Lusus, from 
whom Lusitania is said to have 
received its name ; and when he 
had subdued India and Iberia, 
he made Pan the governor of the 
latter, who called it Pania, after- 
wards Hispania. So Sesoth. de 
reb. Iber. His conquests in the 
east extended to the Ganges ; 
' Oriens tibi victus, adusque De- 
color extreme qua tingitur India 





Vincit, et Eoo dives ab orbe venit. 
Inter captivas facie praestante puellas 

Grata nimis Baccho filia regis erat. 
Flebat amans conjiix, spatiataque littore curvo 

Edidit incultis talia verba comis : 
' En iterum similes, fluctus, audite querelas ; 

' En iterum lachrymas accipe, arena, meas. 
' Dicebam, memini. " Perjure et perfide Theseu 1" 

' lUe abiit : eadem crimina Bacchus habet. 

* Nunc quoque, ' Nulla viro,' clamabo, ' fcemina credat :' 

' Nomine mutato causa relata mea est. 

* O utinam mea sors, qua primiim cceperat, isset ; 475 

' Jamque ego praesenti tempore nulla forem ! 

* Quid me desertis perituram. Liber, arenis 

' Servabas ? potui dedoluisse semel. 
' Bacche levis, leviorque tuis, quae tempera cingunt. 

Gange. Metam. iv. 19, where he 
erected two pillars as impassable 
bounds, hke those erected by 
Hercules in the west; 'Afji.<po7\i ti 


467. Spatiataque littore curvo. 
Wandering on the winding shore. 

469. En iterum fluctus, S^c. Lo ! 
hear ye waves again a like com- 
plaint ; Lo ! sandy shore, receive 
again my tears. Similes. Such as 
she had uttered on her being de- 
serted by Theseus. 

471. Dicebam, §-c. I remember, 
I was wont to say, Perjured and 
faithless Theseus ! 

474. Nomine mutato. Bacchus 
instead of Theseus. Relata. No- 
vata. Zulich. 

477. Desertis arenis. Of Chios, 
or, according to others, of Dia, 
an island in the Cretic Sea, now 
Standia, from Gr. hs r-av Aiav. 

478. Dedoluisse. Once I could 
have ceased to grieve ; sc. had she 
died when deserted by Theseus. 
Of this sense of de in composi- 
tions, there are frequent examples; 
' Optimus ille fuit vindex laeden- 
tia pectus Vincula qui rupit de- 
doluitque semel.' Ovid de rented. 

Amor. 293, and Virgil, ^tieid x. 
809. ' jEneas nubem belli, dum 
detonet, omnem Sustinet;' h. e. 
impetum pugnantium sustinet, 
donee deferveat. Forcel. 

479. Leviorque tuis frondihus. 
Lighter, more easily unsettled, 
than the vine leaves with which 
he was crowned ; whence Virgil ; 
' Foliis tantum ne carmina man- 
da, Ne turbata volent rapidis lu- 
dibria ventis.' j^neid vi. 74, and 
Coleridge ; 

• There is not wind enough in the air 
To move away the ringlet curl 
From the lovely lady's cheek — 
There is not wind enough to twirl 
The one red loaf, the last of its clan. 
That dances as often as dance it can , 
Hanging so light and hanging so high. 
On the topmost twig that looks up at the 

Christabel. Fart 1. 

Compare Horat. Od. iii. 9, 22. 
' Quanquam sidere pulchrior Ille 
est, tu levior cortice, et improbo 
Iracundior Adria.' 



' Frondibus ; in lachrymas cognite, Bacche, meas ; 480 
' Heu ! ubi pacta fides ? ubi, quae jurare solebas ? 

' Me miseram, quoties haec ego verba loquor ! 
' Thesea culpabas, fallacemque ipse vocabas ; 

' Judicio peccas turpius ipse tuo. 
• Ne sciat hoc qnisquani, tacitisque doloribus urar ; 485 

' Ne toties falli digna fiiisse puter. 
' Praecipue cvipiam celari Thesea ; ne te 

' Consortem culpae gaudeat esse suae. 
■ At, puto, praeposita est fuscae mihi Candida pellex. 

' Eveniat nostris hostibus ille color. 490 

Quid taraen hoc refert, vitio si gratior ipso est ? 

' Quid facis ? amplexus inquinat ilia tuos. 
Bacche, fidem praesta ; nee praefer amoribus ullam 

' Conjugis, assuetae semper aniare virum. 
Ceperunt matrem formosi cornua tauri : 495 

' Me tua : at hie laudi est, ille pudendus amor. 

480. In lachrimas cognite meas. 
' Known to my grief;' an idiom 
in modern use. 

481. Heu f uhi pacta fides? 
Compare the lament of Dido, 
for the perfidy of ^Eneas. ^neid, 
iv. 305 et seq. and 365 et seq. 

482. Verba loquor. Sera que- 
ror. Heins. 

484. Judicio, §-c. The crime 
of Bacchus was more aggravated 
from his having condemned the 
treachery of Theseus. 

485. Hoc. So. Her abandon- 
ment by Bacchus. 

489. Fuscae mihi Candida pellex . 
Ironical; as India was not likely 
to furnish Bacchus with a Can- 
dida pellex, 

490. Ille color, sc. pellicis. 

491. Vitio si gratior ipso est. 
If it is the more agreeable, from 
its very defect, i.e. if the com- 
plexion is more pleasing from its 

492. Inquinat. Contaminates; 
from Gr. lyKar/ota, id. 

493. Fidem praesta. Adhere to 
your fidelity. 

495. Ceperunt matrem, Sec. 
Neptune presented Minos with 

a bull, on condition that it should 
be sacrificed at his altar; Minos 
refused, on account of its singu- 
lar beauty ; and Neptune reveng- 
ed himself in consequence, by 
inspiring Pasiphae, the mother 
of Ariadne, with an unnatural 
passion for the animal, of which 
the Minotaur was the monstrous 
fruit. According to some mytho- 
logies, Pasiphae intrigued with 
an officer of her household, Tau- 
rus, and became the parent of 
twins, Minos and Taurus, whence 
the fable of the Minotaur. 

496. il/e tua. sc. cornua cepe- 
runt. The Latin writers, follow- 
ing the Greek, represented Bac- 
chus as having horns ; ' Bacche, 
veni, dulcisque tuis e cornibus 
uva pendeat ;' Tibull. Eleg. i. 1, 
3. ' Te vidit insons Cerberus 
aureo cornu decorum ;' Horat. 
Od. ii. 19, 29; either because 
wine ' addit cornua pauperi.' Od. 
iii. 21, 18, or because excess of 
wine produces contention and 
strife ; Fest. At hie laudi, §-c. 
The latter was to be commend- 
ed and the former to be condemn- 


' Ne noceat, quod amo : neque enim tibi, Bacche, nocebat, 

' Quod flammas nobis fassus es ipse tuas. 
' Nee, quod nos uris, mirum facis. Ortus in igne 

' Dieeris, et patria raptus ab igne manu. 500 

' Ilia ego sum, cui tu solitus promittere ccelum. 

' Heu mihi, pro ccelo qualia dona fero !' 
Dixerat : audibat jamdudum verba querentis 

Liber, ut a tergo forte secutus erat. 
Occupat amplexu, lacbrimasque per oscula siccat : 505 

Et, pariter, coeli summa petamus, ait. 
Tu mihi juncta toro, mihi juncta vocabula sumes : 

Jam tibi mutatai Libera nomen erit. 
Sintque tuae tecum faciam monumenta coronae ; 

Vulcanus Veneri quam dedit, ilia tibi. 510 

Dicta f'acit : gemmasque novem transformat in ignes, 

Aurea per Stellas nunc micat ilia novem. 


Sex ubi sustulerit, totidem demerserit ordes, 

Purpureum rapido qui vehit axe diem ; 
Altera gramineo spectabis Equiria campo, 515 

Q,uem Tiberis curvis in latus urget aquis. 
Qui tamen ejecta si forte tenebitur unda 

Coelius accipiet pulverulentus equos. 

499. JVos uris. An equivoque ; who wafts upon his nimble car 

urere admitting of being applied the blushing day shall have com- 

in a mental or material sense, pleted six risings and as many 

Ortus in igne. In allusion to the settings of his orb ; h, e. the sixth 

manner of his mother's death. day from the viii. Id. Mart, in- 

507. Juncta vocabula. sc. Liber eluded, is the iii. Id. Mart, 
and Libera. March 1 3th, upon which day the 

508. MutatcE. Changed to a Equiria, see Fast. ii. n. 743, were 
constellation. Libera. See supr. celebrated a second time, for 
N. 463. This name properly be- what reason, does not appear, 
longed to Proserpine. Some say, but without sufficient 

509. Sintque tucB. ' I shall take authority, that the first were held 
care that the memorial of your for the purification of the ' Equi- 
crown shall be with you, which tatus,* and the second for the 
Vulcan gave to Venus, she to filling up of their proper number 
you.' This was the Corona sep- in case of any vacancies by deaths, 
tentrionalis or Gnosia, lying to- &c. 

wards the north between Bootes 518. Ccelius. Called originally 

and Hercules. Querquetulanus, quod mullo quer- 

511. Gemmasque, Changes the cm esset consitus. It was subse- 

jewels to nine stars, quently called after Coeles Vi- 

513. Sex ubi, Sfc. When he benna, or CceIus Vibennius, an 




Idibus est Annae festum geniale Perennae, 

Haud procul a ripis, advena Thybri, tuis. 
Plebs venit, ac virides passim disjecta per herbas 

Potat, et accumbit cum pare quisque sua. 
Sub Jove pars durat : pauci tentoria ponunt : 

Sunt, quibus e ramis frondea facta casa est : 
Pars ibi pro rigidis calamos statuere columnis : 

Desuper extentas imposuere togas. 
Sole tamen vinoque calent, annosque precantur, 

Quot sumant cyathos ; ad numerumque bibunt. 
Invenies illic, qui Nestoris ebibat annos : 



Etrurian general, who assisted 
Romulus against the Sabines, 
and received this hill for a set- 
tlement, in recompense. See Fast. 
ii. N. 739. 

519. Idibus. On the ides ; 
March loth. Anna Perennae. 
Anna, the daughter of Belus, 
and sister of Dido, upon the 
death of the latter, and the oc- 
cupation of Carthage by larbas 
king of the Getuli, flying from 
her native country, took refuge 
with Battus, king of Melite. 
She was forced to leave this re- 
treat, in consequence of the 
threats of her brother Pygma- 
lion, and in her wanderings, 
chanced to reach the Laurentian 
shores, where she was kindly re- 
ceived by jEneas. Her sister Di- 
do appeared to her in a dream, 
and warning her against the 
jealousy of Lavinia, who was al- 
ready plotting her destruction, 
suggested the river Numicus as 
her only resource, « Hue rapias, 
germana, viam tutosque receptus. 
Te sacra excipient hilares in flu- 
mina Nymphae, iEternumque 
Italis nunien celebrabere in oris.' 
Sil. Ital. viii. 182. Her story in 
detail is given in the text. For 
Perenna, see infr. 6.56. Festum 
geniale. The convivial festival. 

520. Haud procul a ripis. At 

a place called Annse Perenna; 
nemus, between the confluence 
of the Tiber and Anio and the 
Milvian bridge. Advena. Because 
the Tiber rises in Etruria. Et 
accumbit. Ft accumbunt. Heins. 
Cum pare sua. With his wife. 

524. Quibus, §-c. Whose leafy 
dwelling is built up with boughs. 

525. Rigidis. Phrygiis. Al. 

527. Sole tamen. Notwith- 
standing the shade they had 
formed by extending their cloaks 
upon the upright reeds, and re- 
clining beneath them. Annosque 
precantur. They implore so many 
years additional to their existence 
as they empty cups. Ad numer- 
umque bibunt. Drink by reckon- 
ing, ' Quincunces et sex cyathos 
bessemque bibamus.' Martial. 
Epign. ii. 36, ' tribus aut novem 
Miscentur cyathis pocula com- 
modis.' Horat. Od. iii. 19. 

529. Invenies illic. ' You will 
find a man there to drink off the 
years of Nestor.' He was the son 
of Neleus and Cloris, and king 
of Pylus in Elis. In early life he 
engaged in a war with the Epeans, 
a people of Peloponnesus in 
Achaia, and assisted Pirithou» 
against the Centaurs. Finally, in 
his old age, he accompanied the 
Grecian chiefs to Troy. He is 
stated by the poets to have been 



Quae sit per calices facta Sibylla suos. 
lUic et cantant, quidquid didicere theatri 
Et jactant faciles ad sua verba manus : 


beyond his two hundredth year 
at this period ; however they 
erred in ascribing a hundred years 
instead of thirty, to a yina, or 
generation, so that his existence 
may be limited to ninety. Still 
the ebibat annos of the text, a cup 
for every year, must be received 
with some suspicion of its pos- 

530. Qua sit per calices. A 
woman who by the number of 
her cups equalled the years of 
the Sibyl. Several Sibyllae are 
enumerated by the ancient writ- 
ers ; Plato mentions one, .^jlian 
four, Pliny three, and Varro ten. 
The most celebrated Sibyl, the 
same alluded to in the text, be- 
longed to Cumae in Italy ; and 
hais been variously named, Hero- 
phile, Daphne, Manto, Deiphobe, 
&c. ; but Erythrea is the name by 
which she was best known. 
Apollo is said to have been ena- 
moured of her, and to have of- 
fered her any boon she might re- 
quire ; she took up a handful of 
sand, and wished to live as many 
years as her hand held grains. 
Her request was granted, but she 
forgot, as occurred in the case of 
Tithonus, to add the enjoyments 
of life, health, &c. She accord- 
ingly became aged and decrepid. 
Seven hundred years of her life 
had elapsed at the time when she 
descended with .^neas to the in- 
fernal regions, and six hundred 
more remained to be fulfilled, after 
which she became a mere atom, 
and scarcely discernible but by 
her voice ; * Usque adeo mutata 
ferar ; nullique videnda. Voce 
tamen noscar ; vocem mihi fata 
relinquent.' Ovid. Metam. xiv. 
152. The Cumaean Sibyl, Ery- 
thrae, eo called, from Erythrae 

in Ionia, is said to have been 
bom in Cuma or Cyme, a cele- 
brated city of MoXidi, built by 
Pelops on his return from Greece ; 
and is to be distinguished from 
the Sibylla Cumana, who belong- 
ed to Cumae, which is also called 
Cyme, after Strabo, by Silius 
Italicus and Statius, an ancient 
town of Campania, built by a co- 
lony of Chalcidians and Cumse- 
ans according to some, but its 
origin is ascribed by the poets to 
the former alone. This latter was 
the Sibyl who offered the nine 
books to Tarquinius Priscus, or 
according to others, Superbus, 
for three hundred pieces of gold ; 
he refused her twice, and each 
time she burned three, he then 
purchased the three remaining 
for the original sum. According 
to Pliny, xiii. 13. there were but 
three altogether, of which she 
burned two. The remainder was 
preserved with the greatest ve- 
neration in the Capitol, in a stone 
chest which was deposited in a 
subterranean cell. Two men were 
appointed by Tarquin, called 
Duumviri sacrorum for consult- 
ing and explaining the Sibylline 
books, which they opened and in- 
terpreted only on great' emergen- 
cies. They are said to have been 
burned by Stilicho, a celebrated 
general under Theodosius the 
Great, when be rebelled against 
his successor Honorius ; ' Me tu 
turn palriis ssevires proditor ar- 
mis, Sancta Sibyllin» fata cre- 
mavit opis.' Rutil. ii. 51. 

532. Et jactant, 8fc. And move 
their pliant hands in time to what 
they sing. So Lucretius ; ' Bra- 
chiaque in numerum jactare, et 
caetera membra.' ix. 771. 



Et ducunt posito duras cratere choreas, 

Multaque difFusis saltat arnica comis. 
Cum redeunt, titubant ; et sunt spectacula vulgo : 540 

Et fbrtunatos obvia turba vocant. 
Occurri nuper : visa est mihi digna relatu 

Pompa : senem potum pota trahebat anus. 
Quae tamen hsec dea sit, quoniam rumoribus errant, 

Fabula proposito nulla tacenda meo. 545 

Arserat JEneas Dido miserabilis igne : 

Arserat exstructis in sua fata rogis. 
Compositusque cinis, tumulique in marmore carmen 

Hoc breve, quod moriens ipsa reliquit, erat : 
Prcebuit jS^nea et causam mortis et ensern : 550 

Ipsa sua Dido concidit usa manu. 
Protinus invadunt Numidae sine vindice regnum ; 

Et potitur capta Maurus, larba domo. 
Seque memor spretum, Thalamis tamen, inquit, Elissae 

En ego, quern toties repulit ilia, fVuor. 555 

DifFugiunt Tyrii, quo quemque agit error ; ut ollm 

538. Posito cratere. The bowl 
being laid aside. Duras choreas. 
The uncouth choirs -. duras, is 
here opposed to faciles, supr. 
as the result of their excess in 
drinking, whence also Multaque, 
&:c. ' And many a fair one dances 
with dishevelled hair.' 

542. Digna relatu, pompa. 
Heinsius conjectures that some 
lines are wanting here to com- 
plete the account of the proces- 
sion, which it is not likely that 
the poet would have omitted, 
from the nature of the subject he 
had to treat. 

544. Dea. Anna Perenna. 
Quoniam rumoribus errant. Since 
they vary in their accounts. 

545. Fabula. The story is by 
no means to be passed over in 
my design. 

546. Arserat jEnece. Compare 
Virg. j^neid. iv. 504, and Heroid. 
Ep. vii. where, in Jin, the distich 
Prcebuit, &c. infr. occurs. 

548. Tumulique in marmore. 
The tumulus, or mound of earth, 
was heaped over the vessel con- 

taining the ashes, and on this 
was placed the marmor, Gr. s-TjjXn, 
on which was inscribed the epi- 
taph, &c. of the deceased. 

552. NumidcE. The Africans, 
Moors and Getulians, under the 
conduct of their sovereign, lar- 
bas, the rejected suitor of Dido, 
attacked Carthage immediately 
after her death, by which it was 
left defenceless, sine vindice. 

554. ElisscE. According to 
Servius, in JEneid, i. 344, this 
was her real name ; she was call- 
ed Dido after her decease, which 
in the Punic tongue is synoni- 
mous with virago, in compliment 
to the courage which she evinced 
in her self-destruction, whereby 
she avoided the violence with 
which she was menaced after the 
treacherous flight of jEneas. 
« Quid moror? an mea Pygma- 
lion dum moenia frater, Destruat, 
aut captam ducat Gcstulus larbas. 
Others explain Dido to mean 
tsXocvnTns, a wanderer. 

556. Jjt olini amis^o rege, Sj'c 
So Virgil ; ' Praeterea regem noa 



Amisso dubiae rege vagantur apes. 
Tertia nudandas acceperat area messes, 

Inque cavos ierant tertia musta lacus ; 
Pellitur Anna domo : lathriniansque sororia linquit .560 

McEnia. Germanae justa dat ante suae. 
Mista bibunt moUes lachrimis unguenta favillae ; 

Vertice libatas accipiuntque comas. 
Terque, Vale, dixit : cineres ter ad ora relates 

Pressit, et est illis visa subesse soror. 565 

Nacta ratem comitemque fiigaj, pede labitur aequo, 

Moenia respiciens, dulce sororis opus. 
Fertilis est JVIelite, sterili vicina Cosyrse 

Insula, quam Libyci verberat unda freti. 
Hanc petit, hospitio regis confisa vetusto. 570 

sic ^gyptus, et ingens Lydia, 
nee populi Parthorum, aut Medus 
Hydaspes observant. Rege inco- 
lumi mens omnibus una est : 
Amisso rupere fideni ; construc- 
taque mella Diripuere ipsa;, et 
crates solvere favorum.' Georg. 
iv. 210. 

558. Tertia, ^c. ' Thrice had 
the floor received the harvest to 
be threshed, and thrice the must 
was stored in the deep casks ;' a 
periphrasis for three years, the 
interval between the death of Di- 
do and the expulsion of her sister. 
Muslum, signifies new wine, be- 
fore it was fermented ; how it is 
made to express any given time 
may be explained from Cato, R.R. 
c. 120, ' Mustimi si voles totum 
annum habere, in amphorara 
mus;um indito, et corticem op- 
picato, demittito in piscinam, (a 
large vessel for holding water) 
post XXX. diem eximito : totum 
annum rcustura erit,' and Ovid. 
Metaiu. xiv. 146, * Terceutum 
messes, tercentum musta videre ;' 
h. e. tercent, sestates, totidem 
autumnos, uno veibo, tercent. 
annos, metalepsis. Fuicel. 

559. Lacus. Translate dicitur 
de vase arapio, in quo mustum 
prelo, vel pedibus expressum re- 

cipitur ; a vat or large cask, into 
which new wine or oil was press- 
ed. Forcel. Fast. iv. 854. This 
noting of the flight of years by 
the recurrence of their customary 
occupations and effects, has been 
adopted by poets, and not unfre- 
quently by orators, in all ages, as 
calculated to impress the mind 
more deeply by supplying it with 
a series of sensible and succes- 
sive images, than by the expres- 
sion of a mere interval of time, 
which is too apt to be disregaid- 
ed, when unaccompanied by some 
brief check, as it were, upon the 
rapid train of ihouorht. 

56^3. Ve-rtke lihatna comas. It 
was customary for the relations 
of the deceased to throw upon 
the funeral pile handfuis of hair, 
along with the perfumes, &c. 
Vertice libatas. Offered from the 

568. Melite. An island in the 
Lybian sea, between Sicily and 
Africa, but nearer to the former 
and allotted to it by the Romans ; 
now Malta. Cosyra. Called also 
Cosura, a small, barren island, 
also between Sicily and Africa, 
not more than six or seven leagues 
in length, 



Hospes opum dives rex ibi Battus erat. 
Qui postquam didicit casus utriusque sororis. 

Haec, inquit tellus quantiilacunque tua est. 
Et tamen hospitii servasset ad ultima munus ; 

Sed timuit magnas Pygraalionis opes. 575 

Signa recensuerat bis sol sua : tertius ibat 

Annus, et exsulibus terra petenda nova est. 
Prater adest, belloque petit. Rex arma perosus, 

Nos sumus inibelles, tu fuge sospes, ait. 
Jussa fugit, ventoque ratem committit et undis. 580 

Asperior quovis aequore frater erat. 
Est prope piscosos lapidosi Crathidis amnes 

Purus ager : Cameren incola turba vocant. 
IIIuc cursus erat. Nee longius abtuit inde, 

Quam quantum novies mittere funda potest. 585 

Vela cadunt primo, et dubia librantur ab aura. 

Findite remigio, navita dixit, aquas. 

571. Battus. A sovereign re- 
markable for his mildness; ' Mitis 
Battus, lachrymasque dedisse, Ca- 
sibus humanis facilis,' Sil. Ital. 
viii. 58, the son of Polymnestus 
and Phronime ; his real name was 
Aristoteles, but he received that 
of Battus in consequence of a 
hesitation in his speech. He is 
confounded by some of the poets 
with Battus, a Lacedemonian, 
■who built the town of Cyrene, 
B.C. 630, with a colony from the 
island of Thera, whereas Dido 
fled from Phoenicia, upon the 
murder of her husband, about 
953 years e.c. ; between which 
time and that of her death, there 
was but an inconsiderable inter- 
val, so that they cannot be iden- 

575. Pi/gmaliovis. King of 
Tyre, son of Belus, and brother 
of Dido ; remarkable for his 
cruelty and avarice. He murder- 
ed his sister's husband, Sichaeus, 
priest of Hercules, privately in 
the temple, in order to obtain his 
wealth ; of which Dido having 
been certified in a dream, fled, 
and took with her the riches 

which Pygmalion had vainly 

576. Signa. The sun had twice 
reviewed his signs ; i.e. two years 
had passed, the sun having twice 
traversed the Zodiac, since she 
had left Carthage. 

578. Frater. Pygmalion. 

581. Asperior quovis, SfC. So 
Lear ; 

' Rumble thy belly full ! spit fire ! spout 

rain ! 
Nor rain, wind, thunder, fire, are my 

daughters : 
I tax you not, you elements, with un. 

I never gave you kingdoms, call'd you 

You owe me no subscription.' 


582. Crathidis. A river of Ca- 
labria, now Crate or Gratti, which 
waters Consentia, the capital of 
the Bruttii, now Cozenza, and is 
discharged into the Sinus Taren- 
tinus ; called Lapidosus, because 
it rose in the Appenines. 

583. Purus. Free from trees. 
' Purus ab arboribus spectabilis 
undique campus ' Metam. iii. 709. 
' Purus et patens campus.' Lio. 
xxiv. 14. 

586. Dubia lihravfur ah aura. 
Flutter in the uncertain breeze. 


Dumque parant torto subducere carbasa lino, 

Percutitur rapido puppis adunca Noto : 
Inque patens sequor, frustra pugnante magistro, 590 

Fertur : et ex oculis visa refiigit humus. 
Assiliunt fluctus, imoque a gurgite pontus 

Vertitur, et canas alveus haurit aquas. 
Vincitur ars vento : nee jam moderator habenis 

Utitur ; at votis hie quoque poscit opem. 595 

Jactatur tumidas exsul Phoenissa per undas ; 

Humidaque opposita lumina veste tegit. 
Tum primum Dido feHx est dicta sorori, 

Et quaecunque aliquam corpore pressit liumuni. 
Figitur ad Laurens ingenti flamine Httus 600 

Puppis : et, expositis omnibus, hausta perit. 
Jam pius iEneas regno nataque Latini 

Auctus erat, populos miscueratque duos. 
Littore dotali, solo comitatus Achate, 

Secretum nudo dum pede carpit iter, 605 

Adspicit errantem, nee credere sustinet Annam 

Esse. Quid in Latios ilia veniret agros ? 
Dum secum iEneas : Anna est, exclamat Achates. 

Ad nomen vultus sustulit ilia suos. 
Quo fugiat ? quid agat ? quos terrae quaerat hiatus ? 610 

Ante oculos miserae fata sororis erant. 
Sensit, et alloquitur trepidam Cythere'ius heros. 

Flet tamen admonitu mortis, Elissa, tuae. 
Anna, perhancjuro, quam quondam audire solebas 

Tellurem fato prosperiore dari ; 615 

588. Subducere carbasa. To 602. Jam rer/no anclus. ' Jam 

strike sail. Torto lino. The rope regni compos.' Sil. Ital. \ii\. 72. 

by which the sail was managed. Nataque Latini. Lavinia. 

593. Canas alveus haurit aquas. 603. Populos duos. Trojan and 

h.e. navis accipit in se insilientes Latin. 

turbati maris undas, Forcel Hau- 604. Dotali. Received as La- 

rio, from Gr. a^vu, to draw. vinia's dower. 

597. Lumina tegit. As if to 608. Anna est. Anna en, Heins. 

shut out the sight of danger. 610. Quo fugiat. In order to 

599. Aliquam humum. In op- avoid the presence of the betray- 

position to tumidas vmlas, supr. er and deserter of her deceased 

601. Expositis omnibus. All sister, 

having disembarked. ' Socios de 612. Cythere'ius heros. So called 

puppibus altis Pontibus exponit.' from Cythera, now Cerigo, an 

Virg.^neid,\.267. Hausta perit. island on the coast of Laconia 

Sinks, swallowed up. in Peloponnesus, sacred to Venus. 

ID. MART. 161 

Perque deos comltes, Jiac nuper sede locates ; 

Saepe meas illos increpuisse moras. 
Nee timui de morte tamen : metus abfuit iste. 

Hei mihi ! credibili fortior ilia fuit. 
Ne refer. Adspexi non illo pectore digna G20 

Vulnera, Tartereas ausus adire domos. 
At tu, seu ratio te nostris appulit oris, 

Sive deiis ; regni commoda carpe mei. 
Miilta tibi memores, nil non debemus Elissae. 

Nomine grata tuo, grata sororis, eris. 625 

Talia dicenti, neque enim spes altera restat, 

Credidit, errores exposuitque suos. 
Utque domum intravit Tyrios induta paratus ; 

Incipit yEneas ; caetera turba silet ; 
Hanc tibi cur tradam, pia causa, Lavinia conjux, 630 

Est mihi : consumpti naufragus hujus opes. 
Orta Tyro, regnum Libyca possedit in era : 

Q.uam precor ut carae more soi'oris ames. 
Omnia pi'omittit, falsumque Lavinia vulnus 

Mente premit tacita, dissimulatque fremens. 635 

Donaque cum videat praeter sua lumina ferri 

Multa palam ; mitti clam quoque multa putat. 
Non tamen exactum, quid agat. Furialiter odit ; 

Et parat insidias, et cupit ulta mori. 
Nox erat : ante torum visa est adstare sororis C40 

Squalenti Dido sanguinolenta coma ; 
Et fuge, ne dubita, mcestum, fuge, dicere, tectum. 

Sub verbum qucrulas impulit aiu'a fores. 

617. Meas illos increpuisse mo- cause.' The pious ^neas, hovv- 

ras. See Virg. ^neid, iv. 345, ever, does not descend to particu- 

et seq. lars. 

620. Ne refer. Remind me not. 634. Falsumque vulnus. The 

Adspexi. See Virg. ^neid, vi, wound of unbelief ; because she 

450. doubted his truth. 

622. Seu ratio, Sive Deus. 638. Non tamen exactum. ' It is 

Whether design or the Deity. not certain what she is to do ; 

624. Multa tibi, ^c, ' Grateful, she madly hates, and plans her 

we owe much to you, every thing secret snare, and wishes, when 

to Eiissa ; you shall be welcome revenged, to die.' 

for your own, welcome for your 642. Etfuge, ^c. Heufuge, 

sister's sake.' ne dubita, funestum, ait, htufuge 

628. Tyrios induta paratus. tectum. Heins, 

Clothed in her Tyrian attire ; a 643. Sub verbum. Just at the 

robe of purple and gold. word, the breeze shook the creak- 

630. Pia causa. « A righteous ing door. 

F 2 



Exsilit ; et velox liumili super arva fenestra 

Se jacit. Audacem fecerat ipse timor. 645 

Quaque metu rapitur, tunica vclata recincta, 

Currit, ut auditis territa dama hipis. 
Corniger hanc cupidis rapuisse Numiclus undis 

Creditur, et stagnis occuluisse suis. 
Sidonis interea niagno clamore per agros 650 

Q,uaeritur. Apparent signa nota?que pedum. 
Ventum erat ad ripas : inerant vestigia ripis. 

Sustinuit tacitas conscius amnis aquas. 
Ipsa loqui visa est, Placidi sum Nympha Numici : 

Amne perenne latens Anna Perenna vocor. 655 

Protinus erratis Iseti vescuntur in agris ; 

Et celebrant largo seque diemque mero, 
Sunt quibus haec Luna est, quia mensibus impleat annum : 

Pars Themin, Inachiam pars putat esse bovem. 

644. Humili, 8fc. From her low 
window springs upon the plain. 

645. Tunica recincta. With her 
robe untied ; expressive of the 
haste with which she fled. The 
phrase is used in a similar sense, 
Ovid. Amor. i. 5, 9, and Heroid. 
Ep. 2, 116, ' Castaque fallaci zo- 
na recincta manu.' It may be ex- 
plained also by succincta, girt, 
tucked up, to contribute to her 
speed, but the former is the more 
correct interpretation. 

647. Duma. From Gr. liT/^a. 
metus, th. lulu. It is used as mas- 
culine by Virgil, Georg iii. 539, 
' timidi damae, cervique fugaces,' 
to avoid, says Servius, an 01/-010- 

648. Corniger. An epithet ap- 
j)lied in common, by Greek and 
Latin writers, to rivers, from the 
noise and strength of their waters, 
the winding of their currents, &c. 
Numicius. a river in Latium. 

650. Sidonis — idis. The Sido- 
nian, Anna. 

653. Sustinuit tacitas aquas. 
Stilled its silent waters. Tenues. 

655. Amne perenne. In a per- 
ennial river ; whence it would ap- 

pear she was called, according to 
the poet, Anna Perenna. A more 
probable etymology may be col- 
lected from vs. 1 45 — 6, and 532, 
supr. and the form of supplica- 
tion adopted at her festival. ' Ut 
annare et perennare commode li- 
ceret ;' Macrob. Saturn, i. 12 ; 
' that it might be allowed them 
lo pass happily the whole year 

656. Erratis in agris. In the 
fields that had formerly been tra- 
versed in the search for Anna, 
or which they traversed in imita- 
tion and remembrance of those 
who sought her. 

657. Et celebrant. And they 
do honour to themselves and to 
the day, by a profusion of wine, 
as supr. 533. 

658. Sunt quibus, ^c. And was 
confounded sometimes with Lu- 
na, because the latter was also 
perennis, quia mensibus, &c. 
continuing the whole year round. 

659. Thevnn. According to 
Hyginus, the daughter of .^ther 
or Jupiter, and Terra, and the 
goddess who instructed mankind 
in the established principles of 
piety and justice, ra T'JiifiUu. ; 



Invenies, qui te Nymphen Allan ti da dicant ; 

Teque Jovi primos, Anna, dedisse cibos. 
Hasc quoque, quam referam, nostras pervenit ad auras 

Fama : nee a vera dissidet ilia fide. 
Plebs vetus, et nuUis etiamnum tuta Tribunis, 


she had a temple and an oracle in 
Boeotia near the Cephisus, and 
from her Deucalion received the 
counsel by which he repeopled 
the earth after the deluge. The- 
min is the Greek accus. as Nym- 
phen, infr. Inachiam bovem. lo, 
daughter of Inachus, king of the 
Argives, and priestess of Juno, 
was changed into a heifer by Ju- 
piter, whose afTections she had 
gained, in order that she might 
be enabled to elude the jealousy 
of his wife. She could not how- 
ever, escape the vigilance or the 
vengeance of Juno, and after se- 
vere persecution, and many wan- 
derings, she arrived in Egypt, 
where she prayed to Jupiter to 
restore her to her original form. 
Afterwards she married Osiris, 
king of Egypt, and treated her 
subjects with such lenity, that 
she received divine honours after 
her decease, under the name of 

GdO. Nymphen Atlantida. Some 
identified her with a nymph, one 
of the daughters of Atlas, said 
to have attended Jove in his in- 

662. Hac quoque. The poet 
assigns another reason for the 
celebration of the festival in ho- 
nour of Anna Perenna. 

664. Nullis etiamnum tuta Tri- 
bunis. The disputes between the 
Patricians and Plebeians, on ac- 
count of the persecution and 
bondage to which the latter were 
subjected from their insolvency, 
' propter nexos ob ses alienum,' 
Liv. i. 23, led to their subsequent 
secession from Rome, at the in- 
stigation of Sicinius, to Mons 

Sacer, three miles distant from 
the city, a.u. 250. Before they 
could be prevailed on to return, 
they agreed for a remission of 
debts for such as were unable to 
pay ; liberty for those who had 
been enslaved by their creditors, 
nexi ; and that they should be al- 
lowed to appoint magistrates of 
their own, to protect their rights, 
whose persons should be inviola- 
ble, sacrosancti ,- Liv. iii. 33, 65 ; 
Dionys. vi. 89 ; they were called 
Tribunes, either from Tribunus, 
the commander of a tribe, so 
called by Romulus, (puXa^x's ^'^^ 
T^iTva^X"^' Dionys. ii. 7, or be- 
cause they were elected tribuum 
suffragio, Forcel. or according to 
Varro, because they were chosen 
from amongst the military tri- 
bunes. In the nature and duties 
of their oflnce, they resembled 
the Spartan Ephori. Their great 
power consisted in the negative 
voice, intercessio, which they were 
privileged to exercise upon the 
proceedings of the senate and 
magistrates, whose laws, decrees, 
&c. were valueless, unless stamp- 
ed with the T, the token of the 
Tribunes' sanction. They were 
at first two in number, created at 
the Curiata Comitia, who chose, 
according to Livy, ii. 33, three 
colleagues. They were elected 
for the first time at the Comitia 
Tributa, A.u. 283 ; and a.u. 297. 
ten were created, Liv. iii. 30, 
two from each class, to which 
number they subsequently adher- 
ed. The first encroachment upon 
their almost unlimited power, 
was made by L. Sylla, who was 
indignant at their having espous- 



Fugit ; et in Sacri vertice mentis erat. 665 

Jam quoque, quern secum tulerant, defecerat illos 

Victus, et humanis usibus apta Ceres. 
Orta suburbanis qua?dam fiiit Anna Bovillis 

Pauper, sed multae sedulitatis, anus. 
Ilia, levi mitra canos redimita capillos, 670 

Fingebat tremula rustica liba manu. 
Atque ita per populum fumantia mane solebat 

Dividere. Ha;c ])opuIo copia grata fuit. 
Pace domi facta signum posuere Perennae, 

Quod sibi defectis ilia Uilisset openi. 675 

ed the cause of C. Marius in the 
civil wars ; he deprived them of 
every privilege except that of in- 
tercession. After Sylla's death, 
their authority was fully restored, 
hut only to be abused ; for they 
became the mere venal instru- 
ments of the ambitious and the 
turbulent. Julius Caesar found 
them eminently serviceable in 
promoting his designs while in 
progress, but when he had at- 
tained his object, he reduced 
them to a mere name, and de- 
prived them of their office at will ; 
* potestate privavit,' Suet. Jul. 
78. Augustus managed to have 
the tribuuitian power solely vest- 
ed in himself, and made ample 
use of all the advantages which 
it had at any time possessed. It 
empowered him to convene the 
senate ; assemble the people ; 
decide upon all appeals, and ren- 
dered his person sacred and in- 
violable. Succeeding emperors 
continued to turn this power to 
good account, and although the 
tribunes were still elected, their 
influence was utterly gone ; ' in- 
anem umbram, et sine honore no- 
men. 'P//ra. Ep. i. 23. They were 
finally abolished altogether, along 
with some other ancient offices, 
by Constantine. 

For the return of the people 
to the city, upon the quaint coun- 
sel of Menenius Agrippa, see 
Liv. ii. 32. 

668. Bovillis. An old town of 
Latium, on the Appian way, so 
called, a bove, from an ox which 
escaped from an altar on the Al- 
ban Mount, where it was about 
to be sacrificed, and was caught 
upon the site of this town ; or, 
according to others, from hilie, 
i. e. intestina, because the ox had 
been first wounded by the knife 
of the priest, and fled as far as 
the town, with its entrails pro- 
truded, thence called BohillcE, id. 
quod BovillcE, Non. Marcell. 1 1 ; 
called suburbanas, merely from its 
vicinity to Rome, or probably to 
distinguish it from a town of the 
same name in Campania, near 
Sinuessa. It was not a town of 
any note, whence Persius ; ' Ac- 
cede Bovillas, Clivumque ad 
Virbi.' Sat. vi. 55. 

670. Levi mitra. With a light 
turban ; Scaliger, in Copam Vir- 
gilii, says that the mitra was pe- 
culiar to old women, whence lie 
infers that Copa should be class- 
ed amongst them ; « Copa Syris- 
ca, caput Graia redimita mitella, 
&c. Virg. Opiisc. Copa ; see 
Fast. iv. 491. Mitra, from Gr. 
//,'iroT, liciuin, was a species of 
head-dress common to the Per- 
sians, Egyptians, &c. 

674. Perennce. Probably in 
sign of her being perennis, never 
falling, from the help she afford- 
ed them iu their exigency, sibi 



Praeteriturus eram gladios in Principe fixos ; 

Cum sic a castis Vesta locuta focis : 
Ne dubita meminisse : mens fuit ille Sacerdos. 

Sacrilegae tells me petiere manus. 
Ipsa virum rapvii, simulacraque nuda reliqui. 680 

Quae cecidit ferro, Caesaris umbra fuit. 
Ille quidem coelo positus Jovis atria servat ; 

Et tenet in Magno templa dicata Foro. 
At quicunque nefas ausi, prohibente deorum 

Numine, polluerant pontificale caput, 685 

Morte jacent merita. Testes estote Philippi ; 

676. Prateriturus eram The 
j)oet was about to omit mention- 
ing the assassination of Csesar on 
the ides of March, when he was 
reminded by Vesta. 

C78. Mens fuit ille sacerdos. By 
virtue of his having been Pon- 
tifex Maximus, on whom it was 
particularly incumbent to take 
charge of the sacred rites of 
Vesta ; supr. n. 144. inmed. and 

679. Me petiere. Aimed at me ; 
uci,<tuse they disregarded the 
sanctity of her priest. 

680. Simulacraque nuda His 
mere semblance, or external form, 
because Cfesar himself was car- 
ried up to heaven by Vesta, Ipsa 
virum rapui. 

682. Atria servat. Servo is 
used poetically to signify to dwell 
in or inhabit, as supr. and Virg. 
j^neid, vii. 52, • tantas servabat 
filia sedes.' Georg. iv. 383, 
' Nymphse, Centum quae silvas 
et flumina servant.' 

68-3. Magno Foro. The chief of 
all the F'ora, called Kar l^ax.'nv, 
Romanum, Magnum, or Vetus ; 
where three years after Csesar's 
death, u. c. 712, a temple was 
consecrated to him. 

684. Nefas. Because he was 
Pontif. Max. Prohibente Deorum 
numine. The death of Caesar is 
said to have been preceded by 
strange and numerous prodigies. 

According to Strabo, a vast flame 
seemed to issue from the Land 
of a soldier's servant without 
doing him any mischief ; when 
Caesar was sacrificing, the victim 
was found to have no heart, which 
was believed to be sometimes 
wanting, (though it was known 
that an animal could not live with- 
out one, Cic. Divin. ii. 16,) and 
when such was the case, it was in- 
terpreted as an evil omen ; whence 
the Haruspex Spurinna warned 
Caesar ' to beware the ides of 
March ;' extraordinary noises 
were heard in the night ; strange 
birds flew into the forum, and 
lights, with armies engaged in 
battle, were seen in the air ; thus 
commented upon by Casca -. 

' Either there is a civil strife in heaven. 
Or else the world, too saucy with the god5. 
Incenses them to send destruction — 
When these prodigies 
Do so conjointly meet, let not men say. 
These are their reasons — they are natural ; 
For, I believe, they are portentous things. 
Upon the climate that they point upon.' 
Shaksp. Jul. Css. 

The portents which are said to 
have immediately succeeded his 
decease, are detailed at length. 
Georg. i. 466. 

686. Morte jacent merita. This 
alludes to Brutus and Cassius 
particularly ; but it is said of the 
conspirators generally, that not 

J 66 


Et quorum sparsis ossibus albet humus. 
Hoc opus, haec pietas, haec prima elenienta fuerunt 
Caesaris ; ulcisci justa per arma patrem. 


PosTERA cum teneras Aurora refecerit Iierbas ; 690 

Scorpios a prima parte videndus erit. 


Tertia post Idus lux est celeberrima Baccho. 

one of them survived Caesar three 
years. Philippi. A city of Mace- 
donia, ou the confines of Thrace, 
at the foot of Mount Pangaeus, 
and close to the ^lEgean sea. It 
was anciently called Datos, hut 
having heen fortified by Philip 
of Macedon, against the incur- 
sions of the Thracian barbarians, 
it received the name by which it 
is celebrated in history. It was 
here that Brutus and Cassias were 
defeated by Augustus and An- 
tony, in consequence of which 
Cassius commanded one of his 
own freed men to dispatch him, 
and Brutus shortly after fell by 
his own hand. 

688. Prima elemerda Ccesaris. 
The earliest lesson of Augustus 

690. Postera aurora, xvii. Kal. 
April. March 16th. 

691. Scorpios. One of the 
twelve signs of the Zodiac, con- 
sisting of one and twenty stars, 
between Libra and Sagittarius ; 
from its great size it was said to 
occupy the room of two signs, 
whence its claws chelce, were con- 
founded with Libra ; ' Est locus 
in geminos ubi brachia contrahit 
ardens Scorpios, et cauda, flexis- 
que utrinque lacertis, Pnrrigit in 
spatium sio-norum membra duo- 
rum.' Ovid. Metam.'n. 195. Some 
of the ancients, in consequence, 

did not acknowledge Libra at all, 
and reckoned, like the Chaldeans, 
but eleven signs in the Zodific ; 
the Chaldeans divided the eclip- 
tic unequally, appointing twenty 
degrees to some of the signs, and 
forty to others ; the Egyptians, 
who reckoned twelve signs, allot- 
ting thirty degrees to each. Ac- 
cording to Hyginus, Poet. Astron. 
ii. 26, when Orion boasted of his 
prowess as a hunter, Tellus, in- 
dignant at bis vaunting, sent a 
scorpion to sting him, in conse- 
quence of which he died. Jupiter 
raised the scorpion to the skies, 
as a lesson to the vain-glory of 
mankind ; at the entreaty of Di- 
ana the same honour was bestow- 
ed upon Orion, on condition that 
he should set, in token of fear, 
when the scorpion rose. A Prima 
parte. The fore part will be visi- 
ble, tlie rest having set. 

692 Tertia post Idus. The 
commentators generally suppose 
the poet to have committed an 
error here, since it is certain that 
the festival of Minerva was held 

XIV. Kal. April, and as one dav, 

XV. Kal. April, only, infr. 783, 
intervened between it and the 
Liberalia, the latter should take 
place XVI. Kal. April, which they 
reckon as the Sfcond day after the 
ides, and not as in the text, Ter- 
tia, &c. It is, however, not uuu- 



Bacche, fave vati, dum tua festa cano. 
Nee referam Semelen : ad qnam nisi fulniina secum 

Jupiter afFerret, parvus inermis eras : 695 

Nee, puer ut posses matnio tempore nasei, 

Expletum patrio eorpore matris onus. 
Sithonas, et Seythicos longum enumerare triumphos, 

Et domitas gentes, turifer Inde, tuas. 
Tu quoque Thebanae mala praeda tacebere matris : 700 

Inque tuum Furiis acte, Lyeurge, genu. 
Ecce libet subitos pisces Tyrrhenaque monstra 

Dieere. Sed non est carminis hujus opus. 

sual with the poet to include the 
day from which he reckons, as for 
example, Fast. ii. n. 449, by which 
the difficulty is cleared at once, 
the tertia post idus beiiisr explain- 
ed as the XVI. Kal. April, March 
17 th. 

694. Semelen. See supr. 449. 

695. Parvus inermis eras. Par- 
tus inermis eras. Heins. 

697. Expletvm. Perfected. 

698. Sithonas. A people of 
Thrace, subdued by Bacchus. 

70U. ThebuncB mala prcedn ma- 
tris. Pentheus, king of Thebes, 
son of Echiou, who was torn in 
pieces by his mother Agave, and 
her sisters Ino and Autonoe, for 
his contempt of the orgies of 
Bacchus, which he forbade his 
subjects, on pain of death, to 
celebrate. Ovid. Metam. in, 

701. Lycurye. Son of Dryas, 
king- of Thrare ; he denied tiie 
divinity of Bacchus, and banish- 
ed him from his kingdom, for 
which lie was punished by the 
gods with a tit of insanity, durinir 
which he put his wife and son to 
dertth, and cut off his own legs, 
mistaking them for vine-branches, 
whence inque tuum acte genu. 
He was murdered by his subjects, 
who were informed by an oracle 
that they should not taste any 
wine until Lycuigus was slain. 
Others say that he was torn in 

pieces by panthers, sacred to 
Bacchus, because he set out on 
his Indian expedition clothed in 
panthers' skins, on Rhodope, a 
miiuntain of Thrace. The Abbe 
Banier infers trom this and simi- 
lar fables, connected with Bac- 
chus, which are detailed at lentrih 
in the third and fourth liooks of 
the Metamorphoses, that the wor- 
ship of this deity met with great 
opposition in Greece, and his 
ministeis were obli;i^ed in conse- 
quence to work upon that mate- 
rial, which is scarcely ever found 
to fail the mischievous and de- 
signing, ignorance and supersti- 

702. Subitos pisces. It is said 
that some Tuscan sailors found 
Bacchus one day asleep after a 
fit of drunkenness, and that they 
carried him on board their vessel 
to sell him as a slave. The god 
growing sober, and finding that 
they were not steering towards 
Is'axos, where they promised to 
land him, transformed them into 
dolphins. According to Bochart, 
this fable arose from the wreck 
of a Tuscan merchantman off 
Naxos, whose prow was carved 
like a dolphin, or tlie fish called 
tursio, a porpoise or sea-hog, and 
whose crew having treated Bac- 
chus and his worship with con- 
tempt, was punished accordingly. 



Carminis hujus opus, causas expromere, quare 

Vilis anus populos ad sua liba vocet. 705 

Ante tuos ortus arae sine honore fuerunt, 

Liber, et in gelidis herba reperta focis. 
Te memorant, Gange totoque Oriente subacto, 

Primitias niagno seposuisse jovi. 
Cinnama tu primus captivaque tura dedisti. 710 

Deque triumphato viscera tosta bove. 
Nomine ab auctoris ducunt libamina nomen. 

Libaque : quod sacris pars datur inde focis. 
Liba deo fiunt, succis quia dulcibus ille 

Gaudet, et a Baccho mella reperta t'erunt. 715 

Ibat arenoso Satyris comitatus ab Hebro : 

Non habet ingratos fabula nostra jocos : 
Jamque erat ad Rhodopen, Pangaeaque florida ventum : 

^riferae comitum concrepuere manus. 
Ecce novse coeunt volucres tinnitibus actae : 720 

705. Vilis anus. The poet pro- 
ceeds to account for this custom 
observed at tlie Festival of Bac- 
chus, when old women carried 
about cakes of their own manu- 
facture, sua liba, which they in- 
\'ited the people to buy, and made 
an offerin? for the purchaser, by 
placing a fragment of the cake 
on the altar. Vitisator populus, 
Sfc. Maz. Zulich. Ursin. 

706. Ante tuos ortus. Before 
your nativity. 

708. Gange. See supr. n. 463. 

710. Cinnama, Cinnamon or 
canella, the bark of a tree grow- 
ing in .Ethiopia. Captiva. Be- 
cause it was the produce of con- 
quered India. 

712. Nomine ah auctoris. Sc. 
Liber ; libum, however, whence 
libamina, is correctly derived from 
Xii(itd, fundo, succis quia dulcibus, 
Src. infr. 

716. Satyris. The usual atten- 
dants of Bacchus, called else- 
where ' prseviam Dei turbam.' 
Hebro. A river of Thrace, fall- 
ing into the ^gean sea, to the 
north of Samothrace. 

718. Florida. Covered with 

flowers, and of course a favourite 
resort for the bees. Illse conti- 
nuo saltus sylvasque perajrrant, 
Purpureosque metunt flores.' 
Virg. Georg. iv. 53. Pangaaq. 
fiumina centum. A). 

7 1 9. JEriferce. Bearing cym- 
bals ; which were made of brass 
and hollowed, whence ' aera ro- 
tunda Cybeies.' Propert. Con- 
crepuere. Clashed together. 

720. Nova. Because till then 
unknown. Volucres. Winged in- 
sects. Tinnitibus acta. Urged by 
the tinkling sounds ; Tinnitus- 
que cie, et Matris quate cymbala 
circum.' Georg. iv. 64. The noise 
of brazen vessels is still in use, 
to induce swarms of bees to set- 
tle ; Aristotle doubts whether 
they hear it at all, or if so, to 
what the effect produced by the 
noise is owing ; "'Ern fi'ivroi ahn- 
Xov 'iXu; I'lTi aKovovriti, iln firi» xai 
rr'tiTi^ov fi S(' nhovny toZto ■zfaiovrit 
n lia (pijiov. Varro ascribes it al- 
together to fear ; Circumtinni- 
endo pere, perterritas quo voluerit 
perducet ;' with whom Columel- 
la : ' Nam statim sono territum 
vel in frutice, vel in editiore syl- 



Quaque movent sonitus «era, sequuntur apes. 
Colligit errantes, et in arbore claudit inani 

Liber : et inventi praemia mellis habet. 
Ut Satyri laevisque senex letigere saporem ; 

Qiiaerebant flavos per nemiis omne favos. 725 

Audit in exesa stridorem examinis ulmo : 

Adspicit et ceras dissimulatque senex. 
Utque piger pandi tergo residebut asclli ; 

Applicat hunc ulmo corticibusque cavis. 
Constitit ipse super ramoso stipite nixus ; 73 

Atque avide trunco condita mella petit. 
Millia crabronum coeunt ; et vertice nudo 

Spicula defigunt, oraque summa notaiit. 
Ille cadit praeceps, et calce feritur aselli : 

Inclamatque suos, auxiliumque rogat. 735 

Concurrunt Satyri, turgentiaque era parentis 

Rident. Percusso claudicat ille genu. 
Ridet et ipse deus : limumque inducere monstrat. 

Hie paret monitis, et linit ora Into. 
Melle pater fruitur : liboque infusa calenti 740 

Jure repertori Candida mella damns. 

vae fronde considet, et a vestiga- 
tore praeparato vase reconditur.' 
Pliny differs from both ; ' Gau- 
dent plausu atque tinnitu ijeris, 
eoque convocantur.' Actce, Ictce, 
Burmann ; because the former 
might be understood de abactis 
vel fvgatis. 

T2.A. LcBvisque senex. ' The 
bald old man,' Silenus, the nurse, 
attendant, and preceptor of Bac- 
chus ; said to be the son of Pan, 
or according to others, of Mer- 
cury, or Terra ; born at Malea 
in Lesbos. Divine honours were 
paid him after death, and a temple 
consecrated to him in Elis. He 
is generally represented as old 
and bald, gross in size, riding up- 
on an ass, wearing a garland of 
flowers and continually inebriated. 
Silenus, from Gr. (rikkalyuv, pe- 
tulanter ludere. 

725. Flavos. Dulcc. Vatic. 
^iveos. Al. 

726. Stridorem examinis. The 

humming of a swarm ; but not 
such as he expected, as appears 
from the result. 

727. Dissimulat(jue. In order 
that he might have the prize all 
to himself 

728. Pandi. Bending with the 
weight of the demi-god. 

730. Ramoso stipile nixus. 
Nexus. Petav. Anibros. Hein- 
sius proposes nexum, referring it 
to the ass, Constitit ipse super, 
ramoso stipite nexum, he stood 
himself upon the ass, which was 
tied to the branchy trunk. 

732. Crabronum. Wasps or 

7.36. Turgentiaque. Swollen 
with the stings. 

738. Limum inducere. To smear 
his face with mire. 

740. Pa*er. Bacchus. Liboque, 
8rc. And we justly offer to the 
discoverer, clear honey spread up- 
on the warm cake. 




Fcemina cur praestft, non est rationis operta;. 

Feemineos thyrso concitat ille chores. 
Cur anus hoc faciat, quaeris ? vinosior iEtas 

Haec est, et gravidas munera vitis amans. 745 

Cur hedera cincta est ? hedera est gratissima Baccho ; 

Hoc quoque cur ita sit, dicere nulla mora est. 
Nysiades Nyinphas, puerum quaerente noverca, 

Hanc frondem cunis opposuere novis. 
Restat, ut inveniam, quare toga libera detur 750 

Lucif'ero pueris, candide Bacche, tuo. 

742. PrcEstet. sc. Ad sua liba 
vocet, supr. 705. Prasit, Al. 

743. Feemineos choros. The 
Maenades, Bacchants, &c. Thyr- 
so. The wand of Bacchus, encir- 
cled with ivy and vine. 

746. Cur hedera. The old wo- 
man wore a garland of ivy. 

748. Nysiades. From Nysa, a 
city of Arabia, where the infant 
Bacchus was entrusted to the 
Nymphs by Jove. Noverca. Juno, 
who sought for him to destroy 
him, and avenge herself for the 
infidelity of Jove. 

749. Hanc frondem, sc. ivy. 
Cunis novis. Upon the ciadle of 
the infant. Cistis 7iovis. Ham- 
burg. Apposuisse 7iovis. Heins. 

750. l^oga libera. So called, 
because when it was assumed, 
the restraint of masters, see infr. 
75"2, ceased, ' totaque impune 
Subuvra Permisit sparsisse oculos 
jam canJidus umbo.' Pers. Sat. 
5, 32, called also pura, because 
it was perfectly white, am! virilis, 
significant o( the age at which 
the toga prcelexta, the gown worn 
by young men until seventeen 
years old, was changeit. The ce- 
remony of changing the toga was 
performed with great solemnity, 
ill presence of the Lares; 'ante 
dcos libera sumj)ta toga.' Propert. 
iv. J •32, and upon this occasion 
the bulla also, a lioUow golden 
bail, or boss, either in the shape 
(jf a heart, or with a heurt en- 

graved upon it, worn round the 
neck in boyhood, was hung up in 
honour of these deities ; ' bulla 
rudi dimissa est aurea collo. ' 
Propert. ibid. ' Cum primum pa- 
vido custos mihi purpura cessit, 
Bullaque succinctis laribus dona- 
ta pependit.' Pers, Sat. 5, 30. 
Upon assuming the toga virilis, 
the young men went immediately 
to the Capitol, or some of the 
temples, to pray to the gods: 
they were then conducted to the 
Forum, accompanied by their 
friends, whose attendance upon 
this occasion was called officium 
solenne toga virilis, and there re- 
commended some eminent orator 
whom they should study to imitate, 
whence they were said Jbrumattin- 
gere, or in forum venire,when they 
began to attend public business j 
to this probably Horace alludes ; 
' sive jubebat Ut facereni quid, 
Habes auctorem quo facias hoc ; 
Unum ex judicibus selectis obji- 
eiel at. ' Sat. i. 4, 1 22. 

751. Lucifero tuo. On the day 
of your festival. Tiiis was called 
also Dies toga virilis, Suet. Aug. 
66, or Dies tirocinii. Suet. Tib. 
54, and the conducting of the 
young men to the forum, tiroci- 
nium, from tirones, a name giveji 
to voung soldiers wiien they first 
began to serve in the army. Cic. 
Phil. xi. 15, whence tiro signifies 
a learner or novice. Candide. sc. 
» aperit pr<ecordia Liber.' 



Sive, quod ipse puer semper juvenisque videris ; 

Et media est aetas inter utrumque tibi : 
Seu quia tu pater es ; patres sua pignora, natos 

Commendant curae numinibusque tuis. 755 

Sive, quod es Liber, vestis quoque libera per te 

Sumitur, et vitae liberioris iter. 
An quia, cum prisci colerent studiosius agros, 

Et patrio faceret rure senator opus ; 
Et caperet fasces a curvo consul aratro, 760 

Nee crimen duras esset habere manus ; 
Rusticus ad ludos populus veniebat in Urbem ? 

Sed dis, non studiis ille dabatur honos. 
Luce sua ludos uvae commentor habebat, 

Quos cum tffidifera nrmc habet ipse dea. 765 

Ergo, ut tironem celebrare frequentia possit, 

Visa dies dandae non aliena togae. 
Mite, pater, caput hue placata que cornua vertas ; 

Et des ingenio vela secunda meo. 
Itur ad Argeos ; qui sint, sua pagina dicet. 770 

752. Sive, Sfc. The poet de- 
tails the probable reasons why 
the celebration of the Liberalia 
was the period for the assuming 
of the toga virilis. 
753. Media cetas. sc. adolescentis. 

760. Et caperet fasces, SfC. As 
was the case with Cincinnatus 
and others. 

761. Duras. Hardened by la- 

76.3. JVo7i studiis. Not on their 
pleasures, but on the gods, was 
that respect, ille ludorum honos, 
evinced by the games, conferred. 

764. Luce sua. Upon his own 
festival ; see infr. nunc habet, &c. 
Uva commentor. The author of 
the vine. 

765. Tcedifera Dea. Ceres, so 
called because she lighted two 
torches at Mount JEtna, to con- 
tinue by night her search through 
Sicily for her daughter Proser- 
pine, who had been carried away 
by Pluto, while gathering flowers 
in the plains of Enna; hence 
2a2»i/;^c/, the name given to her 

priests, because they carried 
torches at her festival ; see also 
Class. Die. Eleusinia, for the at- 
tendants of the Hierophant, Sa- 
^ovxos, K-i^ui, &c. By nunc habet 
ipse, is to be understood that for- 
merly upon this day the festival 
of Bacchus only was held, when 
Luce sua, ^c. supr. ; but subse- 
quently the Cerealia, or festival 
of Ceres, ,was celebrated conjoint- 
ly with that of Bacchus, and not 
without reason, as they repre- 
sented the harvest and the vint- 
age, which were justly considered 
as inseparable as they were im- 

166.Tirone7n,Sfc. That a crowd 
might do honour to the novice, 
this day seemed not unfavorable 
for the conferring of the gown. 

768. Placata. With mild in- 
tent. Pacata. Heins. 

769. Vela secunda. As Fast. i. 
4, &c. 

770. Itur. For the purpose of 
sacrificing. Argeos. Argei, cer- 
tain places in Rome, so called 



Hac, si commcniini, pr?eteritaque die- 
Stella Lycaoniam vergit proclivis ad Arcton 

Miluus. H<EC ilia nocte videnda venit. 
Quid dederit volucri, si vis cognoscere, coelum ; 

Saturnus regnis ab Jove pulsus erat. 
Concitat iratus validos Titanas in arma, 

Quaeque fuit fatis debita, poscit opera. 
Matre satus Terra, monstrum mirabile, taurus 

Parte sui serpens posterior fuit. 
Hunc triplici muro lucis incluserat atris 

Parcarum monitu Styx violenta trium. 
Viscera qui tauri flamniis adolenda dedisset, 

Sors erat, aeternos vincere posse deos. 
Immolat hunc Briareus facta ex adamante securi 



because they had been the burial 
ground of some illustrious Ar- 
gives, {Argeus and Argivus being 
synonymous. ♦ Tibur Argeo posi- 
tum c'llono.' Horat.) who, under 
the conduct of the Grecian Her- 
cules, had antiently settled in La- 
tium ; consecrated by Numa; 
< Multa alia sacrificia, locaque 
sacris faciendis, qufe Argeos pou- 
tifices vocant, dedicavit.' Lie. i. 
21, Varr. L. L. 8. According to 
others, Argei means the temple 
of the Spartan deities, Castor 
and Pollux. See Fast. v. 565. 
Sua pagina. This must either 
allude to an account of the Ar- 
gei, contained in the books of the 
Fasti which have been lost, or it 
must be interpreted, ' Their own 
histor)', or records.' It cannot 
refer to the Argei mentioned in 
book V, which all the authorities 
of any consequence unite in des- 
cribing as distinct from the places 
mentioned above ; Varro, for ex- 
ample, affirming that these Argei 
were scattered through the city, 
whereas the ceremony detailed in 
book V. should be limited to the 
Pons Sublicius, whence they flung 
the Argei, figures stuffed with 
straw, into the river. 

771. Hac prateritaque die. On 
the XVII. and xvi. Kal. April. 

772. Lycaoniam ad Arcton. 
See Fast. ii. N. 156. Proclivis. 
Declivis. A\. Proclinis. Francof. 

773. Miluus. The kite, changed 
to a constellation for the reason 
detailed in the text, rises acrony- 
cally ou the night of the xvii. 
Kal. April. Ilia node. On the 
night of the former of the two 
days mentioned supr. 766. 

776. Titanas. Giants, sons of 
Titan and Terra. 

777. Quceque fuit fatis debita. 
See infr. 777. Dedita. Al. 

781. Parcarum. Clothe, La- 
chesis and Atropos, daughters of 
Erebus and Nox, called Parca. 
KccT avTitpoatriv, quod minime par- 
cant. Violenta. Relentless. 

782. Viscera, Sec. ' Whoever 
should have presented the entrails 
of the bull to be consumed upon 
the fires, the oracle declared that 
he should be enabled to get the 
better of the immortal gods,' 

784. Briareus. A giant, son 
of Titan, or according to some, 
of jEther and Terra; so called 
from Gr. fi^7, valde, and "A^ri;, 
Mors, or from (ioia^o;, validus. 
He is described by the poet as 
having a hundred liands and fifty 
stomachs. According to Homer, 
Briareus was admitted into fa- 


Et jamjam flammis cxta daturus erat. 785 

Jupiter alitibus rapere imperat. Attulit illi 
Miluus : et meritis venit in astra suis. 


Una dies media est ; et fiunt sacra Mincrvae : 
Nominaque a junctis quiuque diebus liabent. 

vour with Jupiter again, when 
by the advice of Thetis he was 
summoned from the infernal re- 
gions to assist Jove against Pal- 
las, Juno, and others of the dei- 
ties who had conspired against 
him. riiad, i. 401. Adamante, 
from Gr. a non, and %af/.cL^io, domo, 
properly a diamond, but used fre- 
quently, as in the text, to signify 
any very hard substance. 

786. Attulit illi Miluus. And 
thus prevented the oracle's being 
fultilled in favour of Briareus. 

788. Una dies media est. One 
day intervenes, sc. XV. Kal. Apr!, 
and on the xiv. Kal. April, IVLirch 
19th, the festival of Minerva was 

789. Nominaque, Sfc. Accord- 
ing to the poet, the festival of 
Minerva was called Quinquatria, 
because it lasted for five days, 
quinque dies, in succession, on the 
first of which the sacrifices were 
offered, and the four remaining 
were devoted to gladiatorial shows. 
Others assert tiie shows to have 
taken place on the second, third, 
and fourth days, and the fifth 
day to have been appointed for 
the purification of the city, 
whence, Quinquatria, a quinquan- 
do, i. e. lustrandu. Varro and 
Festus account for the name in 
consequence of the festival liav- 
ing fallen on the fifth day from 
the ides, (i. e. including the ides, 
as has been already observed,) 
in the same way that the Tuscan 

festivals were called Triatriis, 
Sexatrus, Septimatrus, or Sep- 
tenatrus, and with the Falisci, 
Decimatrus, according as tliey 
occurred on the third, sixth, se- 
veuth, or tenth day from the ides. 
Varro further asserts that the 
Quinquatria lasted but one day, 
in which he is joined by Festus, 
who adds that it is alike incor- 
rect to allow five days to the 
Quinquatria, as three to the Sa- 
turnalia or Compitalia, for they 
took up but one day each. He 
also differs from the poet, who 
makes the xiv. Kal. April, the 
birth-day of Minerva, and there- 
fore appointed for her festival, 
asserting that it was in conse- 
quence of a temple liaving been 
upon this day consecrated to her 
ou Mount Aveiitine. It is said 
that an interchange of gifts took 
place between Iriends at this 
time, and tiiat matrons waited 
upon tlieir maids, as masters did 
upon their slaves at the Satur- 
nalia. By some writers the Quin- 
quatria are identified with the 
Panathenaea, festivals in honour of 
Minerva at Athens, first insti- 
tuted by Erectheus or Orpheus, 
and called Athenaea, and renewed 
by Theseus, who caused them to 
be celebrated by all the tribes of 
Athens, whom he had united, 
thence called Panathenaea. Like 
the Quinquatria, tbey were also 
divided into greater Panathenaea, 
and lesser, fiiyaXu and /uix.^a, and 
U - 



Sanguine prima vacat : nee fas concurrere ferro. 790 

Causa, quod est ilia nata Minerva die. 
Altera tresque super strata celebrantur arena. 

Ensibus exsertis belliea IcCta dea est. 
Pallada nunc pueri, tenerieque ornate puellae. 

Qui bene jjfacarit Pallada, doctus erit. 795 

Pallade placata, lanam mollite puella; ; 

Discite, jam plcnas exonerare colos. 
Ilia e tiara stantes radio pecurrere telas 

Erudit ; et rarum pectine denset opus. 
Hanc cole, qui maculas kesis de vestibus aufers : 800 

Hanc cole, vtlleribus quisquis ahena paras. 

held at different periods of the 
year. For the Quiiiquatrus Mi- 
nores, see Fast. vi. 590. 

790. Nee fas concurrere furro. 
Gladiators were not permitted on 
the first day of the festival, for 
the reason in the text. They 
were first publicly exhibited at 
Rome by two brothers, called 
Bruti, at their father's funeral ; 
A.u. 490, lAv. xvi. Vider. M:i.v. 
ii. 4, 7, and for a time they were 
confined to such ociasi.»ns ; but 
subsequently they were exhibit- 
ed by the majfistrates tor the en- 
tertainment of tlie people ; ' Mu- 
nera nunc eduut et verso poUice 
vulgi, Quern libet occidunt popu- 
lariter.' JaveiKil, 3, 4(), chiefly 
at tlie Saturnalia and Quinquatria. 

792. Altera, tresque. The se- 
cond and three, sc. four. Super 
strata arena. The place wliere 
the gladiatois fouji^ht was called 
arena, because it was sprinkled, 
strata, with sand or saw-dust, to 
prevent tiieir slippiuff and to ab- 
sorb the blood ; and the coniba- 
taats Arenarii. Arena is some- 
times used to signify the whole 

794. Ornate. Celebrate ; dur- 
ing the Quinquatria, there were 
contests for prizes in poetry and 
oratory ; whence Juvenal ; ' Elo- 
quium ac famam Demosthenis aut 
Cicerouis Incipit optare, et totis 

Quinquatribus optat, Quisquis 
adhuc uno partani colit asse Mi- 
nervam.' Sat. 10, Il-"3. 

79a. Placarit Pallada. Shall 
have propitiated Pallas. 

796. Lanam mollite. Comb the 

797. Exonerare colos. h.e. neudo 
colli? pensum detrahere, Forcel. 
to relieve, by spinning, the distaff 
o' its weight of wool or flax. 

798. Stantes telas. sc. Stamina; 
see Fast. ii. N. 6j3, in fin. Hence 
the recta, Gr. o^i}-/i luHh;, a tunic 
wrought by one standing upright. 
Forcel, ; parents used to prer^ent 
such to their sons, as being omi- 
nous of uood. i?e^i7/a, diinin. of 
recta. Radio percurrere To cross 
with the shuttle. 

799. Rarum pectine denset opus. 
Closes with the slay the open 
work. Pccten, the siay of a wea- 
ver's loom, resembles a comb, 
through the teeth of which the 
threads of the stamen, the warp 
or chain, pass; when the woof 
subiemen, runs with the shuttle, 
across the stamen, the successive 
transverse threads are made to 
close upon each other by the ac- 
tion of the pecten. 

800. Qui maculas, Sfc. Address- 
ing the fullers, and in the next 
line the dyers, velleribus quisquis, 
t^cc. Ahena, the brazen vessels, in 
which the dye stuff was prepared. 



Nee qnisquam invita facial bene vincula plantae 

Pallade ; sit Tychio doctior ille licet. 
Et licet antique manibus collatus Epeo 

Sit prior ; irata Pallade mancus erit. 
Vos quoque, Phcebea morbos qui pellitis arte, 

Munera de vestris pauca referte deae. 
Nee vos turba feri, censu fraudata, magistri 

Spernite ; discipulos attrahit ilia novos. 
Qiiique moves cslum, tabulamque coloribus uris 



802. Vincula plantcE. Sandals, 

803. Tychio. A celebrated ar- 
tificer of Hyle in Boeotia, who 
made the sliield of Ajax; XaX- 

T£t/;^&)v; Iliad, vi'i. 219. The poet 
appears to have come to a rather 
hasty coiulusion upon the niean- 

illg of ^zuroriftcov o^ aonrro;, Ibid. 
when he would interpret what 
upon consideration would seem 
to imply the repute of Tychius as 
an armourer, merely as a eulogy 
upon his distinction as a cobbler. 

804. Manibus. In mechanical 
work. Epeo. Sou of Panopeus, 
and the builder of the wooden 
horse in which the Grecians were 
concealed when it was drawn into 
Trov, 'ipse doli fabricator Epcos.' 

J^irff, jEneid, ii. :264. 

805. Mancus. Incompetent ; 
chiefly applied to one who has 
lost the use of a hand ; ' Mancus 
et extincta corpus non utile dex- 
tra.' Juvenal, 3, 48. 

806. Phcebea arlt. The medi- 
cal art, of which Apollo was pa- 

808. Nee vos, &-c, ' Neither do 
you, crowd of stern masters, 
cheated of your dues, despise 
her ; she brings you new pupils.' 
It is right to mention that the 
above line, Nee vos, 8fc. has oc- 
casioned great perplexity to the 
commentators, by whom it has 
been considerably tortured. The 
reading in the text has been 

adopted as the most simple and 
obvious; a parallel to feri ma- 
(jistri i with which turba is in 
apposition ; occurs, Horat. Ep. 
ii. 1, 79, ' Memini quae plaiz^osum 
mihi parvo Orbilium dictare,'and 
to censu fraudata, in Juvenal, 7, 
2"28, ' Kara taraen merces, quse 
cognitione tribuni Non egeat — ' 
praeced. et seq. By the census is 
to be understood the minerval, 
the teacher's fee, or entrance 
money, so called either because 
an image of Minerva was set up 
in the schools, over which, as the 
goddess of wisdom, she was sup- 
posed to preside, or because this 
was the particular period at which 
it was paid ; whence an accession 
of pupils would be an object to 
the master, di-cipulos, &c. It is 
to be supposL'd that the sum was 
not very considerable ; ' Quisquis 
adhuc uno partam colit asse Ali- 
nervam.' Juvenal, Sat. 10, 116, 
and, ' cum se verterit annus, ac- 
cipe, victuri popiilus quod postu- 
lat, aurum.' Id. Sat. 8, 242. 

810. Quique moves calam. The 
engraver ; calum, an instrument 
to cut or engrave Vfith, a tool 
used in carving or graving ; a 
style, burin, or chisel ; Gr. yXt/- 
<pi7ov, lyxozciii; ; th. koi'ao;, cavus 
or caelatus. Tabulamque coloribus 
uris. Explained correctly hv the 
French commentator, trar'iiller 
en email, to enamel, or variegate 
with colors fixed by fire. 



Qulquc facis docta mollia saxa man». 
Mille Dea est operum : certe dea carminis ilia est. 

Si mereor, studiis adsit arnica meis. 
Ccelius ex alto qua mons desccndit in a^quum, 

Hie ubi non plana est, sed prope plana via est ; 
Parva licet videas Captae delubra Minerva?, 

Qua} Dea natali coepit habere suo. 
Nominis in dubio causa est. Capitale vocanrnis 

Ingenium sellers : ingeniosa dea est. 
An, quia de capitis fertur sine matre paterni 

Vertice cum clypeo prosiluisse suo ? 
An, quia perdomitis ad nos captiva Faliscis 

Venit ; et hoc ipsum llttera prisca docet ? 
An, quod habet legem, capitis qua? pendere pcenas 

Ex illo jubeat f'urta reperta loco ? 



811. Quiguefacis, §-c. ' And 
you who mould, /acis mollia, the 
marble with a master hand,' sc. 
the sculptor: 'vivos ducent de 
marmore vultus,' Virg. ^neid, vi. 
848. Possibly the poet may al- 
lude to that perfection in the art 
which made Pygmalion enamour- 
ed of his own creation ; 

' A very virgin in her face was seen. 
And had she movM, a living maid had 

One would have thought she could have 

stirr'd, but strove 
With modesty, and was ashametl to move. 
Art hid with art, so well performed the 

It caught the carver with his own deceit.' 


81 4. yEquum. jEqnor. A\. 

815. Hie ubi, §-c. Where the 
way is not level, but nearly so, 
i.e. the temple was situated just 
at the foot of the hill. 

816. CaptcE Minerva. The poet 
proceeds to detail the probable 
origin of this title, and it must 
be confessed his conjectures are 
none of the happiest. The com- 
mentators, with their usual sub- 
tlety, propose various readings ; 

amongst the rest, castte, although 
it is quite evident that captce was 
the difficulty that struck the poet 
himself, from his attempts at ex- 
plaining it. According to Festus 
a place which was, Ictjitime con- 
stitutus, ordained in due form, for 
sacrifices, was called captus locus, 
a consecrated spot ; whence captct 
delubra Minerva, may be inter- 
preted, the temple of the conse- 
crated Minerva, or it may be used 
for capta delubra, Min. the hal- 
lowed shrine of Minerva. 

817. Qua Dea,Sfc. This tem- 
ple was consecrated on Minerva's 

818. Capitale. Shrewd, cun- 
ning. Forcel. Capitalis, eravis, et 
capita rerum attingens. Munut. 

820. An, quia, &fc. A second 
reason, de capitis vertice, &c. 

8'22. Faliscis. A people of 
Etruria, whose city Falisca was 
built, according to Pliny, by Ha- 
lesus an Argive ; colonised by 
the Romans after they had con- 
quered it. Littera prisca. The 
ancient records. 

824. An, quod habet, Sec. Or 
because there is a law that thieves, 
furta, who were detected there, 
ex illo loco, should suffer capital 



A quacunque trahis ratione vocabula, Pallas ; 

Pro Ducibus nostris aegida semper habe. 
Sunima dies e quinque tubas liistrare canoras 

Admonet, et forti saciificare Dese. 


Nunc potes ad solem sublato dicere vultu : 
Hie bere Phryxeae vellera pressit ovis. 

Seminibus tostis sceleratae fraiide novercae 
Sustulerat nuUas, ut solet, herba comas. 

Mittitur ad tripodas, certa qui sorte reportet, 


punishment, capitis poenas. So 
Festus ; ' Capitalis locus, ubi si 
quid violatum est, capite violato- 
ris expiatur.' Furta is used in the 
text for fures ; see supr. N. 274. 

827. Pro Ducibus nostris. Ti- 
berius and Germanicus. jEgida. 
The shield of Minerva, so called 
from Gr. aiyU, pellis caprina, be- 
cause it was covered with the skin 
of the goat Amalthea, that suck- 
led Jupiter. It is sometimes used 
like /on'ca, to signify a breastplate, 
or coat of mail ; ' Ut pariter pec- 
tus pcsitamque in pectore forti 
.^gida concuteret ;' Ovid. Me- 
tam. ii. 753, de Pallade. In the 
passage, ' Credunt se vidisse Jo- 
vem, cum ssepe nigrantem ^gida 
concuteret dextra, nimbosque ci- 
eret.' Virg. jEneid, viii. 354, it is 
argued by some that a-gida signi- 
fies a storm, and that it is derived 
in this sense from alyi^a, inipetu 
fero, which comes from aiyn. pro- 
cella, th. oi'iirtru, ruo ; also that if 
it was a shield, it would not be 
said concuteret dextra, and further 
that Apuleius, De Mund. uses 
catcegis, in a similar sense ; this, 
however, is opposed by others, 
who read dextra with nimbosque 
cieret. In this shield was set the 
Gorgon's head, ^gida, the Gr. 

828. Summa dies, Sfc. The last 
day of the five was devoted to 

the Tubilustrium, or purification 
of the trumpets used in the sa- 
cred rites. On this occasion a 
lamb was sacrificed in a place 
called Atrium Sutorium, which 
apparently means the hall of shoe- 
makers, or tanners, but where or 
what it really was, does not ap- 
pear : Panvinius, in his descrip- 
tion of the city, merely mentions 
its name. The Tubilustrium was 
celebrated a second time on the 
X. KaL Jun, 

829. Forti Dea. Pallas. 

831. Bic here, Sfc. On the xv, 
Kal. April, March 18th, the sun 
enters Aries, and spring sets in. 
Pressit. Weighed down, see Fast. 
ii. N. 339, for the force of this ex- 
pression. Pknjxece ovis. The 
origin of this constellation is de- 
tailed in the text, Cf. Metam. vii. 
7, Tacit. Ann. vi. 34. 

832. Novercce. Ino. 

833. Comas. Coma telluris sunt 
herbse, flores, et segetes, quibus 
tellus ornatur, quemadmodum 
coma caput hominis ; flowers, 
herbage, &c. Forcel. 

834. Tripodas. The sacred tri- 
pod in the temple of Apollo at 
Delphi, here put for the temple 
itself. The tripus, Gr. r^izirou; 
was a seat or table, with three 
legs, upon which the priestess 
sat while delivering the responses 



Quam sterili terrae Delpliicus cdat opem. 8.35 

Hie quoque corruptus pro semine nuntiat Helles 

Et juvenis Phryxi funera sorte peti. 
Utque recusantem cives, et tempus, et Ino 

Compulerunt regem jussa nefanda pati ; 
Et soror, et Phryxus velati tempora ramis, 840 

Stant simul ante aras, junctaque fata gemunt. 
Adspicit hos, ut forte pependerat aethere, mater ; 

Et ferit attonita pectora nuda manu : 
Inque draconigenam nimbis comitantibus urbem 

Desilit ; et natos eripit inde suos. 845 

Utque fugam rapiant, aries nitidissimus auro 

Traditur. Ille vehit per freta longa duos. 
Dicitur infirma cornu tenuisse sinistra 

Fcemina ; cum de se nomina fecit aquae. 
Pene simul periit, dum vult succurrere lapsae, 850 

Prater, et extentas porrigit usque manus. 
Flebat, ut amissa gemini consorte pericli, 
Cseruleo junctam nescius esse dec. 

of the oracle. Certa sorte. By 
a distinct or infallible answer. 
Sede. Francof. 

835. Delpliicus, Apollo, so 
called from Delphi, the seat of his 
most celebrated temple and oracle. 

83b. Hie. The messenger. 
Corruptus, bribed by Ino. Pro 
semine, instead of bringing word 
upon the subject of the seed, 
quam sterili terrcE, Sfc. Corruptus 
cum semine. A\. 

838. Tempus. The unfavour- 
able season. 

842. Ut forte pependerat cethere. 
Their mother Nepliele having 
been changed into a cloud, vapixri, 
while she was floating in the air, 
beheld her children about to be 

844. Draconige.nam urbem. — 
Thebes in Boeotia, built by Cad- 
mus. See Fast. i. n. 440. Having 
found the heifer as described by 
the oracle, he sent his companions 
to bring water from a neighbour- 
ing grove to prepare for a sacri- 
fice to Apollo. The fountain to 

which they went was sacred to 
Mars, and guarded by a dragon, 
which was found by Cadmus 
when he went to search for them, 
feeding on the bodies of his asso- 
ciates. He attacked, and over- 
came the dragon, with the assist- 
ance of Minerva, and sowed its 
teeth in the plain. Armed men 
immediately sprung from the 
ground, who fought until they 
had all fallen but five, with whose 
assistance Cadmus built the city, 
thence called Draconigenam. Dra- 
conigenum, Scalig. Draconigeram. 

846. Nitidissimus auro. Glit- 
tering with a golden fleece. 

847. Traditur. By Mercury. 
Natal. Com. Freta longa, the Hel- 
lespont, which hence received 
its name, infr. cum de se nomina, 

852. Gemini pericli. In allu- 
sion to the sacrifices, supr. stant 
simul ante aras, and the perilous 
mode of their escape. 

853. Cfpruleo Deo. The god 



Littoribus tactis aries fit sidus : at hujus 

Pervenit in Colchas aurea lana domos. 855 


Tres ubi Luciferos veniens praemiserit Eos ; 
Tempora nocturnis aequa diurna feres. 


Inde quater pastor saturos ubi clauserit hoedos, 

Canuerint herbae rore recente quater ; 
Janus adorandus, curaque hoc Concordia mitis, 860 

Et Romana Salus, araque Pacis erit. 


Luna regit menses. Hujus quoque tempora mensis 
Finit Aventino Luna colendajugo. 

of the sea, Neptune, who changed 
her into a nymph. 

854. Littoribus tactis. The ram 
upon landing, was changed into a 
constellation, Phryxus, however, 
brought the fleece to Colchis, 
whose sovereign ^etes gave him 
his daughter Chalciope in mar- 
riage, and some time after had 
Phryxus put to death, in order 
that he might secure the fleece 
for himself. Hence arose the fa- 
mous Argonautic expedition un- 
der the conduct of Jason. 

8j6. Tres ubi, ffc. ' When the 
coming morn, veniens Eos, shall 
have sent its herald thrice, the 
morning star, tres Luciferos ;' lit. 
three morning stars, which pre- 
cede the dawn, whence prcemise- 
rit. The third day after the festi- 
val of Minerva, xi. Kal. April, 
March 22d, according to the poet 
was the vernal equinox, Tempora 
nocturnis, §'c. ; in the ancient ca- 
lendar it is marked viii. Kal. Ap. 
March 25th. 

858. Inde quater, ^c. A peri- 
phrasis, by which it is to be un- 
derstood that when four complete 
days had passed, after the equi- 

nox, the festival was to be ob- 
served as infr. 

860. Ja7ius adorandus. On the 
vr. Kal. April, the joint festival 
of Janus, Concord, Safety, and 
Peace, was celebrated, being, ac- 
cording to the old calendar, the 
anniversary of the conquest of 
Alexandria by Julius Csesar. 

— Concordia. There were 
several temples of Concord in 
Rome. The first and most re- 
markable, close to the Capitol, 
was begun, agreeably to a vow 
made by Caraillus, on the occa- 
sion of his having quelled a popu- 
lar disturbance ; finished by Livia, 
Fast. vi. 579, and consecrated by 
Tiberius. Salus. A goddess, 
daughter of ^sculapius ; her 
temple was built and dedicated, 
on the top of the Quirinal hill, 
by C. Junius Bubulcus. Araque 
Pads. See Fast. i. 645. The 
object in classing these deities to- 
gether is easily apparent from 
their character and offices. 

863. Aven. Luna colendajugo. 
A temple was built upon Mount 
Aventine during the reign of Ser- 
vius TuUius, to Diana or Luna. 




Alma, fave vati, geminorum mater Amorum. 

Ad vatem viiltus rettulit ilia suos. 
Ciuid tibi, ait, mecum ? certe majora canebas : 

Num vetus in molli pectore viilnus habes ? 

1. Alma mater. The poet com- 
mences the following book with 
an invocation to Venus, to whom 
the month of April was consi- 
dered sacred. Geminorum Amo- 
rum, i. e. Cupidinum : some of the 
poets speak of a plurality of Cu- 
pids, Herat. Od. i. 12, 1, Mater 
sseva Cupidinum,' and Orph. 
JJl/nm. 'Tfiviif^sv crzTiioitv ■aroXvavu- 
uev A<poi>yiviins, Kai zf/iynv fiiyci- 
XriM (iociTiXriiov. h; ctTsl ■ru.vrii 'A^oeva- 
Tot •VTi^oiVTis uvifiXaffTrKrccv ""EpaiTis' 

C'icero, De nat. dear. iii. 23, men- 
tions three ; the first the son of 
Diana and Mercury, the second 
of Venus and Mercury, and the 
third, Anteros, (Amori par aut 
aque venustus ac Amor, quia prse- 
positio avr/ etiam instar significat ; 
Forcel. ) the son of Venus and 
Mars. Other writers speak of 
two only, the celestial, ccelestis, 
the son of Venus and Jupiter, 
and the terrestrial, vulgaris, the 
son of Erebus and Nox, who are 
further distinguished, as honestus 
and turpis, in which latter sense 
some understand Anteros, as the 
opposite of Eros. Plato, in Si/m- 

pos. mentions the twin Cupids 

as supr. — \\veiyx,a.7ov Ss S»i xa'i"E^u- 
To. Tov fjiXv rn iTi^a (Tuvi^yoy, 'ravS'>i- 
/Aov, vulgarem, h^6ui xxXtTir^ai, rov 
Se ou^uviov, ccelestem ,- Orpheus, 
also, in one of his hymns, uses 
the term S/ipuJ; in reference to 
Cupid ; so Seneca, in (Edip. v, 
500, ' Concutit tsedas geminus 
Cupido ;' where both the celes- 
tial and terrestial are suitably 
introduced at the marriage of 
Bacchus, a deity, with Ariadne, a 
mortal. They are sometimes dis- 
tinguished as Cupido, an inordi- 
nate, as opposed to Amor, a well 
regulated affection ; ' Amabit 
sapiens, cupient cseteri ;' Afran. 
apud Nan, c. 5, n. 1 , ' Cupido te 
conficit anne amor?' Phut, in 
fragm. ibid. ' Quo Venus Cupi- 
doque imperat, suadetque Amor ; 
Id. in Curcul. 1, I, 3, upon which 
Servius, ad ^neid, iv. 494, ' Di- 
cendo imperat, violentiam oslen- 
dit ; Suadet addendo, moderatio- 
nera signiticat.' Founded as the 
polytheism of the ancients was, 
in a great degree, upon the dei- 
fying, if it may be so called, of 



Scis, Dea, respondi, de vulnere. (Risit ; et aether 

Protinus ex ilia parte serenus erat.) 
Saucius, an sanus, numquid tiia signa reliqui ? 

Tu niihi propositum, tu mihi semper opus. 
Quae decuit, primis sine crimine lusimus annis ; 

Nunc teritur nostris area major equis. 
Tempora cum causis, Annalibus eruta priscis, 

Lapsaque sub terras, ortaque signa cano. 
Venimus ad quartum, quo tu celeberrima, mensem 

Et vatem, et mensem scis, Venus, esse tuos. 
Mota Cytheriaca leviter mea tempora myrto 

Contigit ; et, Cceptum perfice, dixit, opus. 
Sensimus ; et subito causae patuere dierum : 

Dum licet, et spirant flamina, navis eat. 
Siqua tamen pars te de Fastis tangere debet, 

Caesar, in Aprili, quo tenearis, habes. 
Hie ad te magna descendit imagine mensis ; 

Et fit adoptiva nobilitate tuns. 
Hoc pater Iliades, cum longum scriberet annum, 



20 ! 

the human feelings and passions 
to which severally were assigned 
their representative gods, it is a 
matter of little wonder that two 
or more Cupids were considered 
necessary to define the various 
gradations of love. 

5. Scis, Dea. Sein, Dea 9 
Heins. Sic, Voss. Arondel. 

10. JVunc teritur, ^'c. A com- 
mon metaphor with the poets, 
whence Juvenal ; ' Cur tamen 
hoc potius libeat decurrere cam- 
po, Per quera magnus equos Au- 
runcse flexit alumnus.' Sat. 1, 19, 

11. Tempora, S(C. So Fast. i. 

15. Mjjrto. This tree was sa- 
cred to Venus, because, accord- 
ing to Servius, ad Eclog. Virg. 7, 
62, she concealed herself in a 
myrtle when she first rose from 
the sea, that none might behold 
her naked ; this differs slightly 
from the poet's account, infr. 
141. A temple was built under 

the Aventine hill to Venus Myr- 
tea, called also Murcia, from 
iiiyrtus. Servius, ad Georq. ii. 64. 
assigns two other causes for the 
consecration of the myrtle to 
Venus, one because it flourishes 
best by the sea side, ' A mantes 
littora myrtus,' and ' Littora 
myrtetis gratissima,' Georgs. iv. 
and ii. ; and the other, because 
it was prized for its medicinal 
properties in the diseases of 

20. In Aprili. Because the 
Julian family into which Ger- 
manicus had been adopted, 
(whence adoptiva nobilitate, infr.) 
had descended from Venus. 

21. Magna imagine. In allu- 
sion to the JUS imaginum, the pri- 
vilege enjoyed by the patrician 
families, of possessing images of 
their ancestors in proof of their 
noble descent. 

23. Iliades. Romulus, the son 
of Ilia. Longum annum. Simply, 
the extended year. 



Vidit ; et auctores rettulit ipse suos. 
Utque fero Marti primam dedit ordine sortem, 25 

Quod sibi nascenti proxima causa fuit ; 
Sic Venerem, gradibus multis in gente repertam, 

Alterius voluit mensis habere locum. 
Principiumque sui generis, revolutaque quaerens 

Saecula, cognatos venit adusque Deos. 30 

Dardanon Electra nesciret Atlantide cretum 

Scilicet ; Electran concubuisse Jovi ? 
Hujus Erichthonius ; Tros est generatus ab illo; 

Assaracon creat hie : Assaracusque Capyn. 
Proximus Anchisen ; cum quo commime parentis 35 

Non dedignata est nomen liabere Venus. 
Hinc satus ^Eneas, pietas spectata per ignes, 

Sacra, patremque humeris altera sacra, tulit. 
Venimus ad telix aliquando nomen luli ; 

Unde domus Teucros Julia tangit avos. 40 

Postumus huic ; qui, quod silvis fuit ortus in altis, 

Sylvius in Latia gente vocatus erat. 
Isque, Latine, tibi pater est : subit Alba Latinum : 

24. Rettulit. sc. celehravit, as 
infr. 27, * Sic Venerem,' &c. , 

26. Proxima causa. The im- 
mediate cause ; opposed to gra- 
dibus multis, infr. 

28. Alterius 7nensis. Of the 
second month. 

30. Cognatos Deos. Venus 
and Jupiter. 

31. Dardanon, Sfc. Dardanus, 
the son of Jove and Electra the 
daughter of Atlas, setting out 
from Coritus, a city of Etruria, 
or according to others, from Phe- 
neus in Arcadia, or from Crete, 
arrived first at Samothrace with 
his brother Jasius, where they 
divided their household gods be- 
tween them and Dardanus, taking 
the Palladium, passed over into 
Phrygia, where he founded Troy. 
He there married Batia, or As- 
tioche, the daughter of Teucer, 
by whom he had Ericthonius, &c. 
Dardanon, Gr. accus. as Electran 
and Anchisen, infr. I\^esciret, sc. 

ecquis, ' could any one be igno- 
rant ?' 

35. Proximus. Capys. 

38. Altera sacra. ' A second 
pious charge ;' or the phrase may 
be used in allusion to the divine 
honours paid to Anchises by his 
son; see Virg. jS^neid, v. 45, et 

40, Unde, Sfc. Whence the con- 
nexion arises between the Julian 
family and their Trojan proge- 

41. Postumus. The son, ac- 
cording to Virgil, of .lEneas. 

43. Isque, Latine. Virgil and 
others make Latinus the son of 
^neas Sylvius, and grandson of 
Sylvius Postumus, whence it has 
been conjectured that a couplet 
is wanting in the text. As the 
poet differs in some degree from 
Livy and Eusebius, it may not 
be amiss to contrast the genea- 
logies according to their respec- 
tive authorities : 



Proximus est titulis Epytos, Alba, tuis. 
Ille dedit Capyi recidiva vocabula Troja? ; 

Et tuus est idem, Calpete, Cactus avus. 
Cumque patris legnuni post hiinc Tiberinus haberet ; 

Dicitm- in Tuscse gurgite mersiis aquae. 
Jam tamen Agrippan genitum, Remul unique nepotem 

Viderat: in Remulum fulmina missa t'erunt. 
Venit Aventinijs post hos; locus unde vocatus, 

Mens quocjue : post illirni tradita regna ProcfC : 
Quern sequitur diri Numitor germanus Amuli : 


















Eusebius Ovid 

Sylvius A this Epitus 
Calpetus Capetus 



Procas Proca 

Amulius Numitor. 
— Subit. Succeeds. 

44. Proximus titulis tuis. ' Suc- 
ceeds to your dignity,' sc. as sove- 
reign ; titulus, dimin. of titus, Gr. 
TITOS, th. Tit» konoro, Forcel. or 
from tueor, Fest. 

45. Capyi. The eighth king 
of the Albans, who reigned for 
twenty-eight years; the son of 
Epitos, according to the poet ; 
Livy makes him the son of Atys, 
and Eusebius of Sylvius Athis. 
Recidiva vocabula Troja, ' the 
restored title of Troy,' i. e. the 
revived sovereignty of the Tro- 
jan kings, amongst whom appears 
a namesake ot the present Capys, 
supr. v. 34 ; recidiva is a term in 
frequent use with Virgil, ^neid, 
iv. 344, vii. 322, x. 58, where it 
is taken by Servius and other 
commentators in the sense as- 

cribed to it above ; Servius seems 
to derive it from rec'ido, re, and 
ccedo, which the quantit; of tlie 
second syllalde in the Wurd itself 
cannot adipit of', nor indeed the 
sense of the verb ; recldo, re and 
cado, is frequently used in the 
sense of redire, recurrcre, to re- 
turn, or recur, and so furnislies 
the best etymology of the term 
in question, which in its literal 
meaning is applied to the shoots 
which emanate from a bough 
after pruning, or the springing 
of the seed after it has been 
sown. Some propose to read redi- 
viva, which is, however, properly 
applied to a revival of what has 
been completely e.xtinct, whereas 
recidiva means the ix'storing ot 
what had merely undergone a 
temporary suspension, such as 
the regal power of ^Eneas was 
subject to during his ivanderings 
for seven years, until his final 
establishment as sovereign of 

49. Agrippan. Called Acrotas, 
Metam. .xiv. 617, where this ge- 
nealogy also occurs. 

52. Proca. Tiie successor of 
Aventinus ; he reigned twenty- 
three years. 

53. Diri Amuli. So called in 
consequence of his unjust usurpa- 
tion of his brother's kingdom, and 
his cruelty to Ilia and her off- 



Ilia cum Lauso de Numitore sati. 
Ense cadit patruo Lausus : placet Ilia Marti ; 55 

Teque parit, gemino juncte Quirine Remo. 
lUe suos semper Veneiem INIartemque parentes 

Dixit ; et emeruit vocis habere fidem. 
Neve secuturi possent nescire nepotes, 

Tempora Dis generis continuata dedit. tlO 

Sed Veneris mensem Graio sermone notatum 

Auguror ; a spumis est Dea dicta maris. 
Nee tibi sit mirum Graio rem nomine dici ; 

Itala nam tellus Graecia Major erat. 
Venerat Evander plena cum classe suorum ; 65 

Venerat Alcides : Graius uterque genus. 
Hospes Aventinis armentum pavit in herbis 

Claviger, et tanto est Albula pota Deo. 

54. Lauso. Called by Diony- 
sius, ^Egestus, and by Plutarch, 

oo. Ease patruo. sc. ense patrid ; 
tills form oF expression is com- 
mon to Greek and Latin writers ; 
so Homer uses x.a,(riyvr,7ov (povov, 
fraternavi cadem. Patrio, Petav. 

55. Emeruit. ' He deserved to 
gain credit for the assertion ;' sc. 
from his character and exploits, 

60. Tempora continuata. ' Suc- 
cessive months,' March and April. 
Dis generis. ' To the gods of his 
race;' the remote and immediate, 
Venus and Mars. 

61. Graio sermone. According 
to the poet the month Aprilis is 
derived, qu. Aphrilis, from Gr. 
a.<p^oi, spuma maris, in compli- 
ment to Venus, who was hence 
called ' Aip^oSiTii, a spumis, &c. 
infr. Yet the etymology proposed, 
infr. V. 89, though less suited 
to the purposes of the poet, is 
approved by Macrobius and Var- 
ro, who assert the name of Venus, 
either in Latin or Greek, to have 
been unknown to the Romans 
under the kings. Scaliger derives 
Aprilis from Aper, because it 
was customary to sacrifice a boar- 
pig in this month ; in like man- 
ner as the Greek month 'EXapn- 

(ioXiui is derived from \Xa((icc, 

63. Nee tibi. The poet endea- 
vours to show how an old Latin 
name might have been originally 
derived from the Greek. 

64. Grcecia major. To what 
portion of Italy this name was 
applied, and for what reason, 
geographers are not agreed. The 
poet appears to include all Italy 
under this appellation ; according 
to some it is applied to that part 
of Italy which is opposite to 
Greece and Sicily, others ascribe 
the title to that region which was 
occupied by the Greek colonists. 
Pliny ascribes to the vanity of 
the Greeks its having been called 
Magna ; Strabo comprises Sicily 
under the head of jNIag. Gvsecia, 
whence the epithet may have been 
used. According to others it was 
called Magna, in reference to its 
advantages of soil and climate 
over the country which the colo- 
nists had abandoned. The poet 
subjoins a list of the early settlers 
in Italy. 

65. Venerat Evander. See 
Fast. i. 427. 

68. Albula. So called at the 
period of the arrival of Hercules 
in Latium ; see Fast. ii. N. 299. 



Dux quoque Neritius ; testes Laestrygones exstant, 
Et quod adhuc Circes noniina littus habet. 

Et jam Telegoni ; jam moenia Tiburis udi 
Stabant, Argolicae quod posuere manu&. 

Venerat Atiides latis agitatus Halesus, 

69. Dux Neritius. Ulysses, so 
called from Neiitos, which Viriril, 
^neid, iii. 270, and Mela, lib. ii. 
c. 7, appear to hnve considered 
as an island distinct from, but 
adjoining to Ithaca, of which, ac- 
cordinsr to Servins, Neritos is a 
mountain. It formed a part of 
Laertes' kingdom, ' Laertia reg- 
ua,' Virg. in he. siipr. Some 
copies re',n\Nantius. from 'Hd^iroi, 
the Doric form of N'/ja/tos. Las- 
trygoTies. A people of Italy near 
Forinise, of Scythian origin ; they 
■were a race of cannibals, theuce 
called Anthropophagi; testes ex- 
tant, 'are witnesses,' sc. to Ulys- 
ses having arrived at the Italian 
shove, some cf his companions 
having been devoured by the Lbbs- 
trvgones, wl ile he narrowly es- 
caped a similar fate himself. 
Horn. Od'/ss. X. 

70. Circes nomina. Circeium, 
a promontory of Latium, ' Prox- 
inia Cirraeae raJnntur litora terrae;' 

Virg. MneiiU vii. 10 ; see Horn. 
Odyss. X. init. ,- it was formerly 
called MdSA, or ^ase. Servius 
conjectures Circe to have been 
called ^aea. fi om Gr. a", a', hei, 
vte, interjections expressive of the 
misery of those whom she clianged 
by her magic into brutes. 

Who knows not Circe, 

The liaughter of the Sun, whose charmed 

Whoever I- sled, lost his upright shape, 
And downward fell into a grovelling 
swiiic ! 


This name is sometimes applied 
also to Ogygia tiie island of Ca- 

lypso, in the Ionian or Sicilian 

71. Telegoni. Son of Ulysses 
by Circe, who founded Tusculum, 
a town in Latium, to the north 
of Alba, after his return from 
Ithaca, where he went to seek 
his father, and killed him unde- 
signedly in a quarrel, whence 
' Telegoni juga parricidae;' Horat. 
Od. iii. 8, Fast. iii. N, 89, sub. fin. 
Tiburis. A town of Latium, on 
the Anio, whence udi ; now Ti- 
voli. It was founded by three 
Grecian brothers, Tiburtus, Co- 
ras, and Catillus, and named from 
the first. 

73. Atrides. This must be un- 
derstood in a similar sense with 
Agamemnonius, which is applied 
to Halesus by Virgil, ^neid, vii. 
723, and which is understood by 
Hevne to mean an associate or 
fellow-soldier of Agamemnon, 
or probably a descendant ; he 
could not have been, as some 
suppose, the son of Agamemnon, 
for Iiis father is mentioned as 
having been a seer; ' Fata canens 
silvis genitor celarat Halesum,' 
j^neid, X. 417, upon whose de- 
cease Halesus joined Turnus 
against jEneas. It does not ap- 
pear either that Agamemnon had 
a brother of this name, which 
precludes the ordinary accepta- 
tion of Atrides. Fatis agitatus, 
is explained by those who make 
Halesus the son of Agamennon, 
to allude to his banishment in 
consequence of liis having con- 
spired with Clyteranestra to effect 
his father's death ; but it may be 
used, in accordaace with the opi- 



A quo se dictam terra Falisca putat. 
Adjice Trojanae suasorem Antenora pacis ; 

Et generum CEniden, Appule Daune, tuum. 
Serus ab Iliacis, et post A ntenora, flammis 

Attulit Jilneas in loca nostra Deos. 
Hujus erat Solymns Phrygiil comes exul ab Ida, 

A quo Salmon is nioenia nomen liabent. 
Sulmonis gelidi, patria?, Germanice, nostras ; 

Me miserum, Scythico quam procul ilia solo est ! 
Ergo ego — ? tam longas sed supprime, Musa, querelas ; 

Non tibi sunt maesta sacra canenda lyra. 
Quo non livor adit ? sunt qui tibi mensis honorem 85 



nion expressed above, in refer- 
ence to Halesus having shared in 
the ill fortunes which befel the 
Grecian chiefs on their return 
from Troy. 

74. Terra Falisca. By a change 
in the initial letter, the city Fa- 
lisca, called also Falerii, was 
named after its founder Halesus. 

75. Antenora. See Iliad, v. 3i8; 
Aiitenor always advocated peace- 
ful measures in the Trojan coun- 
cils, whence suasorem pads ; so 
Horace, ' Antenor censet belli 
praecidere causam.' Epist. i. 2, 11, 
and Livy; 'duobus, ^nea An- 
tenoreque, et vetusti jure hospi- 
tii, et quia pacis reddendaeque 
Helenas semper auctores fuerant, 
omne jus belli Achivos abstinu- 
isse.' i. 1. He founded the city 
Patavium ; see Livy, in loc. cit. 

76. CEniden. Diomede, grand- 
son of CEaeus, and son-in-law of 
Daunus, an Illyrian of illustrious 
family, who was driven from his 
own country by a rebellion, and 
settled in Apulia, where he be- 
came sovereign of a portion of 
the country called, after him, 
Daunia. He bestowed his daugh- 
ter Euhippa upon Diomede for his 
services in a war in which Dau- 
nus was engaged with the Mes- 
sapii ; he also gave him a tract 
of land, in which Diomede feund- 

ed the city Argos Hippium, af- 
terwards called Argyripa ; ' llle 
urbem Argyripam, patriae cogno- 
mine gentis, Victor Garirani con- 
debat lapygis arvis ;' uEneid, xi. 
246, and lastly Arpi, ibid. 250. 

77. Scrus ab Iliacis, S)'C. .^neas 
did not arrive in Italy until some 
time after the settlers already 

79. Hujus. Cujus. Mazar.Voss. 
Soli/muSjWvitlen also Solemus and 
Solimus, was the reputed founder 
of Solymos, called afterwards 
Sulmo, a small town of the Pe- 
ligni, in Aprutium, betweeu 
Aquila and Venafrum, the birth 
place of Ovid, whence patriae 
nostrcB, infr. This allusion to his 
native home, could not fail to 
awaken the exiled poet's grief; 
the repetition of the name, v. 81, 
is expressive of a deep-seated and 
enduring affection. The epithet 
gelidi, refers to the proverbial 
coldness of the country ; ' et 
quota Pelignis caream frigoribus, 
taces.' Borat. Od. iii. 19, 8. 

82. Scythico solo. It is to be 
supposed that the poet wrote the 
above during his exile in Pontus. 

8^. Ergo ego. An aposiopesis. 
Ergo ego tam longe ? Zulich. Ma- 
zar. ap])roved by Heinsius. 

85. Quo nmi livor adit ? ' To 
what lengths does not envy go ? 


Eripuisse velint, invideantque, Venus. 
Nam, quia ver aperit tunc omnia, densaque cedit 

Frigoris asperitas, foetaque terra parit ; 
Aprilem memorant ab aperto tempore dictum, 

Quern Venus injccta vindicat alma manu. 90 

Ilia quidem totum dignissima temperat orbem ; 

Ilia tenet nullo regna minora Deo : 
Juraque dat coelo, terras, natalibus undis ; 

Perque suos initus continet omne genus. 
Ilia Deos omnes (longum enumerare) creavit ; 95 

Ilia satis causas arboribusque dedit : 
Ilia rudes animos hominum contraxit in imum, 

Et docuit jungi cum pare quemque sua. 
Quid genus omne creat volucruni, nisi blanda voluptas ? 

Nee crescant pecudes, si levis absit amor. ] 00 

Cum mare trux aries cornu decertat ; at idem 

Frontem dilectae laedere parcit ovis. 
Deposits taurus sequitur feritate juvencam, 

Quern toti saltus, quem nemus omne tremvmt. 
Vis eadem, lato quodcunque sub sequore vivit, 10.) 

Servat ; et innimieris piscibus implet aquas. 
Prima feros habitus honiini detraxit ; ab ilia 

Venerunt cultus mimdaque cura sui. 
Primus araans carmen vigilatum nocte nesrata 

Mensis honorem, the merit of Iier lupta tenet copula. Horat. Od. i. 

having given its name to the 13, 17. 

month, assupr. 61. 99. Quid genus. 

90. Injectd vindicat manu. 

' Claims, having laid her hand ' 'Tis love creates this melody, and all 

upon.' "^'''^ waste of music is the voice of love; 

91. 0,hem. Annum. Mazar. That even the birds and beasts the tender 

Zulich. Petav. and others. <^o ■ . 

no i\r , ri j- < u „o "*^ pleasing teaches. Hence tlic glosst 

93. JSatahbus vndis. ' her na- , ■ , 

, kind 

tive \va\es. Trv every winning way inventive love 

95. Longum enumerare. Lun- can dictate, and in courtehip to their 
gum est narrare. Ursin. mates 

98. Et docuit, A'C. Pourforth their little souls.' 


' But happy they! the happiest of their ,p,~ y,-. , 

..j^^," ■' "^*^ JU.!>. t IS eadem. ^-c. 

Whom gentler =tars unite, and in one . Nor undelighted by the boundless spring 

^'® Are the broad monsters of the foaming 
Their hearts, their fortunes, and their deep.' 

beings blend.' IJ. 


109. Carmen vigilutum. Tlie 

' Felices ter et amplius, Quos ir- serenade. 


Dicitur ad clausas concinnisse fores : 110 

Eloquiumque fuit durani exorare puellam ; 

Proqiie sua causa quirque disertus erat. 
Mille per hanc artes mote; studioque placendi. 

Qua; latuere priiis, niulta reperta ferunt. 
Hanc quisquara titulo mensis spoliare secundi 115 

Audeat ? a nobis sit procul iste furor. 
Quid, quod ubique potens, templisque frequentibus aucta, 

Urbe tamen nostra jus Dea raajus habet r 
Pro Troja, Romane, tua Venus arma ferebat, 

Cum gemuit teneram cus[)ide Isesa manurn ; 120 

Ccelestesque duas Trojano judice vicit : 

Ah nolim victas hoc meminisse Deas ! 
Assaracique nurus dicta est ; ut scilicet olim 

Magnus luleos Caesar haberet avos. 
Nee Vcneri tempus, quam ver, erat aptius ullum ; 125 

Vere nitent terrae ; vere remissus ager. 
Nunc herbae rupta tellure cacumina tolhmt ; 

Nunc tumido gemmas cortice palmes agit. 
Et forraosa Venus formoso tempore digna est ; 

Utque solet, Marti continuata suo. 130 

Vere monet curvas materna per aequora puppes 

Ire, nee hibei'nas jam timuisse minas. 
Rite deam Latiae colitis matresque nurusque, 

Et vos, quis vittae longaque vestis abest. 

119. Pro Trojd, ^'C. The poet ' Along these blushing borders, bright 

aiisiffus the cause why she was '"'''^ ^^"^' 

"i- 1 -.i -I And in von mingled wilderness of flowers, 

worshipped with more especial r: • \ . S ■ 

'^r r pajj. handed Spring unbosoms ever? 

reverence at Kome than she was ^^^^ , 

elsewhere. Thomson. 

1"20. LcFsa maimm. See Homer 

Iliad. V. 335. 

' How calm, how beautiful comes on 

T 11 The stilly hour when storms are gone: 

121. Ccelestesque, Sj'C. In allu- when warring winds have died away, 
s-ion to her having borne away the ^^j, douds, beneath the glancing ray. 
palm of beauty from Juno and Melt off, and leave the land and sea 
.Minerva, in the judgineat of Paris sleeping in bright tranquillity,— 
upon JVlount Ida. Fresh as if day again were bom, 

122. Victas hoc meminisse. Again upon the lap of morn.' 
Dictas hoc meruisse. Mazar. Lalla Rookh. 

126. Vere nitent terras. <■ Emi- 134:. Quis vittce, kc. The poet 

cuere rosse, violaeque, et molle addresses those who wore neither 

Cyperon, Albaque de viridi rise- the i'i«a, the fillet peculiar to the 

runt lilia prato.' &c. Petron. Vestal virgins, nor the xtola, the 



Aurea marmoreo redimicula solvite coUo : 133 

Demite divitias : tota lavanda Dea est. 
Aurea siccato redimicula reddite collo ; 

Nunc alii flores, nunc nova danda rosa est. 
Vos qiioque sub viridi Myrto jubet ilia lavari : 

Causaque, curjubeat, discite, certa subest. 140 

Littore sic'cabat rorantes nuda capillos. 

Viderunt Satyri, turba proterva, deam. 
Sensit, et opposita texit sua corpora myrto. 

Tuta fuit facto : vosque referre jubet. 
Discite nunc, quare Fortunae tura Virili 1 4.j 

Detis eo, calida qui locus humet aqua. 
Accipit ille locus posito velamine cunctas ; 

Et vitium nudi corporis omne videt. 
Ut tegat hoc, celetque viros, Fortuna Virilis 

Praestat : et hoc parvo ture rogata facit. 150 

Nee pigeat niveo tritum c<mi lacte papaver 

Sumere, et expressis mella liquata favis. 
Cum primum cupido Venus est deducta marlto ; 

Hoc bibit. Ex illo tempore nupta fuit. 

stole or cimar, (vestis muliebiis 
ad talcs usque demissa; Forcel.) 
characteristic of matrons ; the 
worshippers of Venus being of 
a less grave description than either 
of the foregoing; so, ex Pont. iii. 
ep. 3, 51, Scripsimus hac islis, 
quarum nee vitta pudicos Con- 
tingit crines, nee stola longa 

135. Aurea redwiicula. Golden 
ornaments, necklaces, &c. ; redi- 
micula properlv signifies the rib- 
bons which fall upon the shoul- 
ders from the mitra or turban. 
yiarmoreo collo. ' From the neck 
of the marble statue,' for the pur- 
pose of washing it and re-arran<r- 
ingthe rich dress, divitia, in which 
it was usually robed. 

138. Nunc alii fiores. On the 
kalends of .4pril, the married 
women sacrificed to Venus Ver- 
ticordia ; infr. 160. Upon the 
same day, wearing chaplets of 
myrtle, they bathed in the Tiber, 

near the temple of Fortuna Vir- 
ilis, infr. 145. 

139. Sub myrto, sc. Myrto cor- 
onates, as sub armis for arrnati. 

140. Causaque, See supr. n. 15. 

145. Fortuna Virili. Tuxri av- 
l^'.ix; Dion. The temple of this 
deity contained a wooden statue 
of its founder, Servius Tullius, 
see Fast. vi. 523. 

146. Fo, sc. loco. Calida. Ge- 
lida. Al. 

147. Posito velamine. The ob- 
ject of propitiating Fortuna Vi- 
rilis, was, that she might conceal 
any blemishes upon their persons 
which were likely to render her 
fair worshippers less agreeable in 
the eyes of their husbands. 

151. Niveo tritum, i^c. This 
drink was called cocetum, Plin. 
xix. 8, and was usually presented 
to a bride upon the day of her 
nuptials, as an omen of future 

153. Marito. Vulcan. 



Supplicibus verbis illam placate : sub ilia 155 

Et forma, et mores, et bona fama manet. 
Roma pudicitia proavorum tempore lapsa est, 

CiuTiseam, veteres, consuluistis anum. 
Templa jubet Veneri fieri ; quibus ordine factis, 

Inde Venus verso noraina corde tenet. 160 

Semper ad ^Eneadas placido, pulcherrima, vultu 

Respice, totque tuas. Diva, tuere nurus. 


Dum loquor, elatse metuendus acumine caudae 
Scorpios in virides praecipitatur aquas. 


Nox ubi transierit, ccelumque rubescere primo 165 

Coe|)erit, et tactae rore querentur aves ; 
Seniustamque facem vigilata nocte viator 

Ponet, et ad solitum rusticus ibit opus ; 
Pleiades incipiunt humeros relevare paternos : 

Quae septem dici, sex tamen esse solent. 170 

157. Proavorum tempore, a. u. 
639, in the consulship of Acilius 
Balbus and Porcius Cato, the 
daughter of a Roman kuight was 
struck with lightning, this was 
interpreted by the soothsayers as 
affectine the character of the 
Vestals, three of wliom were con- 
victed, upon investigation, of 
havinii- broken their vows ; the 
Sibylline books were consulted, 
and they required that two Greeks 
and two Gauls should be buried 
alive ; also that a statue should 
be erected to Venus Verticordia, 
to prevent the repetition of such 
a crime. Sulpicia, daughter of 
Paterculus, and wife of Fulvius 
Flaccus, was selected, in conse- 
quence of the eminent purity of 
her character and demeanour, to 
consecrate this statue. Val. Max. 
viii. 15, Plin. viii. 33. 

158. CumcBam anum. The Sibyl 
already mentioned. 

159. Templa. In the Via Sala- 
ria, outside the Porta Collina. 

160. Verso corde. Hence Ve- 
nus Verticordia, the 'Atp^ohlrm 
dwoffrpo^ia of the Greeks, ex- 
pressive of the reclaiming of the 
heart from its vicious wanderings 
to the sway of a well-regulated 

163. Dum loqtior. On the 
morning of the kalends of April, 
the scorpion sets cosmically. 

165. Nox uhi, &'c. On the iv. 
Non. April, the Pleiads set heli- 
acal ly. 

166. Tactce rore. ' Sprinkled 
with the dew." 

169. Humeros paternos. so. of 
Atlas: Relevare, see Fast, ii. N. 

170. Qua septem dici, Sfc. The 



Sen quod in amplexum sex hinc vcnere deorum 

Nam Steropen Marti concubuisse ferunt : 
Neptuno Halcyonen, et te, forninsa Celseno : 

Slaian, et Electran, Tayjjjetenqiie Jovi : 
Septima mortali Merope tibi, Sisypbe, nupsit. 

Pccnitet ; et flxcti sola pudore latet. 
Sive quod Electra Trojae spectare ruinas 

Non tulit : ante oculos opposuitque manum. 




Ter sine perpetuo ccelum versetur in axe ; 

Ter jungat Titan, terque resolvat equos ; 
Protinus inflexo Berecvnthia tibia cornu 

Flabit, et Idaeae festa Parentis erunt. 
Ibunt semimai'es, et inania tympana tundent ; 


Pleiads were seven in number, 
but six stars only appearing in the 
constellation, the poet proceeds 
to account for the lost one. 

' And is there glory from tlie heavens de- 
parted ? — 

Oh ! void unmarked ! — thy sisters of the 

Still hold their place on high. 

Though from its rank thine orb so long 
hath started. 

Thou, that no more art seen of mortal 


171. Hinc. Of the Pleiads. 

175. Sisyphe. King of Corinth, 
whom Merope married and bore 
him Glaucus, Creon, and Laertes. 

176. Pudore. The shame of 
having been espoused to a mortal, 
while her sisters were thought 
worthy the attention of the gods, 

177'. Sive quod, ^c. Or Elec- 
tra, the mother of Dardanus, 
head of the Trojan kings, might 
have been the absent star, having 
concealed herself lest she should 
behold the overthrow of Troy. 

1 79. Ter sine, ^c. Prid. Non. 

April, the festival Megalesia, 
from Gr. //.lydXr., magna, or Ludi 
Megalenses, was held in honour 
of Cybele, the mother of the 
gods, the particulars of which 
are detailed in the text. 

180. Titan. The sun. 

181. Berecvnthia tibia. The 
Phrygian flute, so called from 
Berecynthus,a mountain in Phry- 
gia, sacred to Cybele, or because 
Midas the kin? of Phrygia in- 
vented it. It was widened towards 
the end, which was generally 
made of brass or horn, whence 
probably inflexo cornu, and /o/t-.s 
udunca, infr. for the purpose of 
emitting a graver sound; see Ad- 

182. IdcBce. So c.illed from 
Ida in Phrygia, whence her sa- 
cred rites were introduced into 
Rome, infr. 225. Parentis. 
Among the appellations of Cy- 
bele are Mater Deorum, Ops, 
Magna Mater, Rhea, and Din- 
dymene, &c. 

183. Ibunt semimares. TheGalli 
or priests of Cybele, so called 
from Gallus, a river iu Phrygia, 


.liraque tinnitus oere repulsa dabunt. 
Ipsa sedens molli comitum cervice feretur 1 S3 

Urbis per medias exululata vias. 
Scena sonat, Ludique vocant : spectate, Quirites ; 

Et Fora Marte suo litigiosa vacent. 
Quaerere multa libet ; sed me sonus aeris aciiti 

Terret, et horrendo lotos adunca sono. 190 

I>a, Dea, quas sciter, doctas, Cybeleia neptes. 

Audit, et has curse jussit adesse mese. 
Pandite mandati memores, Heliconis alumnae, 

Gaudeat assiduo cur Dea Magna sono. 
Sic ego. Sic Erato : (mensis Cythereius illi 19<5 

Cessit, quod teneri nomen amoris habet) 
Reddita Saturno sors haec erat; Optime regum, 

A nato sceptris excutiere tuis. 
lUe suam metuens, ut quaeque erat edita, prolem 

Devorat, immersam visceribusque tenet. 200 

Saepe Rhea questa est toties foecunda, nee unqnani 

Mater ; et indoluit fertilitate sua. 
Jupiter ortus erat : (pro magna teste vetustas 

Creditur ; acceptam parce movere fidem.) 
Veste latens saxum cselesti viscere sedit ; 205 

Sic genitor fatis decipiendus erat. 

which was supposed to set mad the period mentioned infra. 225, 

those v\ho drank of it, or from and the latter by Tarquinius 

Gallus, the first priest of the Priscus, Ludique, sc. Megalenscs 

ffoddess, or most likely from the xar' i%ox,r,-/. 

Gallograeci, who had passed into 188. Et fora. Fast. i. 73. 

Greece, and from thence into Marte suo. So Juvenal, 'ubi 

Phrygia. They were called also summa Qusestio, qu£e veniant di- 

Curetes and Corybantes, infr. versa parte sa^itta;.' Sat. 7, 156. 

210, and their chief Archigallus. This was a dies nefastus, whence 

Inania tympana. The hollow fora vacent, &c. 

drums. 190. Lotos. The lote or nettle 

184. ^ra. The cymbals. tree, indigenous to Africa, with 

187. Scena sonat. Hence the a black wood, of which the tibice 

difference between the place and were usually made, 

manner of celebrating the Ludi 191. Doctas neptes. The Mu- 

Megalenses and Ludi Magni : the ses, who being the daughters of 

former having been almost ex- Jupiter, were consequentlv giand- 

clusively confined to the theatre, daughters of Cybele. 

the latter to the circus. There is 205. Veste latens saxum. E» 

also a material difference as to the trzsra^yccvoi; ii'>.nf/.iyot ■x-ir^ov, Neap. 

period of their institution ; the ' lapidem pannis involutum ;' 

former having been founded at ForceL 



Ardua jamdudum resonat tinnitibus Ide, 

Tutus ut infanti vagiat ore puer. 
Pars clypeos sudibus, galeas pars tuiidit inanes ; 

Hoc Curetes habent, hoc Corybantes opu.«. 210 

Res latuit patrem ; priscique imitamina facti, 

JEra Deae comites raucaque terga movent. 
Cymbala pro galeis, pro scutis tympana pulsant ; 

Tibia dat Phrygios, ut dedit ante, modos. 
Desierat. Ccepi : Cur huic, genus acre, leones 215 

Prsebent insolitas ad juga curva jubas ? 
Desieram. Coepit : Feritas mollita per illam 

Creditur : id curru testificata suo est. 
At cur turrita caput est ornata corona ? 

An Phrygiis turres lubibus ilia dedit ? 220 

Hoc quoque, dux operis, moneas precor ; unde petita 

207. Ardua Ide. A hi?h moun- 
tain in Crete, wliere Jove was 
concealed by his mothe:-, who 
employed her priests to drown 
•with their noise his infant cries, 
hence supr. Gaudeat assiduo cur, 

"209. Sudibus. Rods or fenc- 
ingf foils ; such as the gladiators 
used to be presented with, in to- 
ken of their discharge. 

210. Curetes. So called from 
Gr. xou^a, ionsura ; they were also 
called Dactyli, from SaxTuXo;, di- 
gitus, either because thev equal- 
led the fingers of both hands in 
number, or from their having been 
employed by Cybele for similar 
purposes of service as the fingers 
are used. Tlie Corybantes, also 
priests of the Ideean mother, were 
so called from Gr. y.oouir-ro>, caput 
jacto, and fiuiva, incedo, in allu- 
sion to their frantic movements, 
or from Kooa, oculi pupiila, because 
they were said to have slept with 
their eyes open while watching 
the infant Jove, whence the ap- 
plication of xooufiicvriSv, to those 

' whose eyes are open, but their 
senses shut ;' or from xi^ue», the 
name bv which the inhabitants of 

Cyprus designated brass, in which 
one of their mountains abounded. 
They were also called Idsei Dac- 
tyli, because according to some 
mythologists, Cybele flying from 
Saturn, arrived at the Cretan Ida, 
and clasped it with her hands 
while giving birth to Jupiter, 
whence the Corybantes sprung 
from that part of the mountain 
which bore the impression of her 
fintrers. They are said to have 
been three in number, Damna- 
meneus, Acmon, and Celmo. 

212. Haucaque terga. Their 
drums having been covered with 

214. Phrygios modos. The 
Phrygian measure, which was 
used in religious ceremonies, was 
invented by Marsyas, a Phry- 
gian ; the Dorian, which was 
adapted to warlike themes, by 
Thamyras, a Thracian, and the 
Lydian, accommodated to the 
lighter strains of poetry and love, 
by Ampliion. 

221. Hoc quoque. The poet 
proceeds to account for the in- 
troduction of the worship of 
Cybele into Rome. 



Venerit ? An nostra semper in Urbe fuit ? 
Dindymon, et Cybelen, et amaenam fontibus Iden 

Semper, et Iliacas Mater amavit opes. 
Ciim Trojam ^-Eneas Italos portaret in agros, 225 

Est Dea sacriferas pene secuta rates. 
Sed nondum fatis Latio sua numina posci 

Senserat; assuetis substiteratque locis. 
Post, ut Roma potens opibus jam seciila quinque 

Vidit, et edomito sustulit orbe caput ; 230 

Carminis Euboici fatalia verba sacerdos 

Inspicit ; inspectum tale fuisse ferunt : 
Mater abest : Matrem jubeo, Romane, requiras : 

Cum veniet, casta est accipienda manu. 
Obscurae sortis Patres ambagibus errant ; 235 

Quaeve parens absit, quov e petenda loco. 
Consulitur Paean ; Diviimque arcessite Matrem. 

Inquit: in Idaeo est invenienda jugo. 
Mittuntur proceres. Phrygiae tum sceptra tenebat 

Attalus ; Ausoniis rem negat ille viris. 240 

223. Dindymon, ^"c. Moun- 
tains in Phrygia. 

224. Iliacas opes. All Phrygia 
was sacred to Cybele. 

226. Est pene secuta. ' Almost 

227. Sed nondum. The time 
had not arrived for the introduc- 
tion of her rites into Rome. 

229. Secula quinque. v. c. 547. 
' Civitatem eo tempore (secund. 
bell. Punic.) repens religio inva- 
serat, invento carmine in libris 
Sibyilinis, propter crebrius eo 
anno de coelo lapidatum iuspectis. 
Quandoque hostis alienigena terra 
Italia helium intulisset, eum pelli 
Italia viiicique posse, si mater Idcea 
aPessin unteRomam adveclaforet.' 
Liv. xxix. 10. 

231. Carminis Euboici. The 
Sibylline books. 

232. Inspectum. so. carmen. 
Ferunt. Refert, i. e. sacerdos. Er- 

233. Mater. So Cybele was 
called by the Greeks simply 

234. Casta manu. Infr. 279. 

236. Qu(eve parens. According 
to Livy, in the passage already 
quoted, N. 229, there was no such 
ambiguity either as to the person 
or the place. 

237. Consulitur Pcean, Apollo 
so called from Gr. Traito, fcrio, in 
allusion to his having slain the 
Python, or from the same verb 
in its signification of medeor, 
euro, from his having been the 
god of medicine. 

239. Mittuntur proceres. ' Le- 
gates ad eum (Attalum) decer- 
nunt, M. Valerium Lsevinum qui 
bis consul fuerat ac res in Grsecia 
gesserat, M. Cajcilium Metellum 
praetorium, Ser. Sulpicium Gal- 
bam sedilitium, duos quaestorios, 
Cn. Tremellium Flaccum et M. 
Valerium Faltouem.' I^iv. xxix. 

240. Attalus. King of Perga- 
mus, who assisted the Romans 
against Philip, Liv. ibid, his 
name, like that of Crccsus, pass- 
ed, in consequence of his enor- 



Mira canani : longo treniuit cum nnirmure tellus 

Et sic ex adytis Diva locuta suis : 
Ipsa peti volui ; ne sit mora, mitte volentem : 

Dignus lloma locus, quo Deus omnis eat. 
Ille soni terrore pavens, Proficiscere, dixit ; 

Nostra eris ; in Phrygios Roma refertur avos. 
Protinus innumera; ca'dunt pineta secures 

111:1, quibus fugiens Phryx pius usus erat. 
IMille manus coeunt ; et picta coloribus ustis 

Coelestuin IMatrem concava puppis habet. 
Ilia sui per aquas fertur tutissiiiia iiati ; 

Longaque Phryxeae stagna sororis adit ; 
Rhceteumque rapax, Sigeiaque littora transit, 

Et Tenedum, et veteres Eetionis opes. 



mous wealth, into a proverb ; 
• Attalicis conditionibus Nun- 
quam dimoveas,' &c. Horat. Od. 
i. 1, 12 : having had no male issue 
by his wife Berenice, be be- 
queathed his possessions, in to- 
ken of his regard, to the Roman 
people. Rem negat ille. The poet 
is at variance here with the his- 
torian ; ' Pergamum, ad regem 
venerunt. Is legates comiter ac- 
ceptos Pessinuntem in Phrygiam 
deduxit ;" it is fit to mention how 
they found the deity represented ; 
' sacrumque iis lajudem, quam 
r.:atrem Deiim esse incolse dice- 
bant, tradidit, ac deportare Ro- 
mam jussit.' Liv. ibid. 

'J46. iVosfra cris. The ancestors 
of Rome bavin? been Phrygians. 
248. Ilia guibus, §-c. ' Clas- 
^en^que sub ipsa Antandro et 
Phrygiae nioliniur montibus Idae.' 
^-Eneid, iii. 5, 6. 

251. Sui nati. Neptune. 
2-32. Longaque, ^c. The Hel- 

2.53. Rhaeleum. For Rhcctea 
vada, the sea that washes RhoR- 
teuni a town and promontory of 
Troas, as was also Sigeium. The 
former was celebrated for the 
tomb of Aja.x, the latter for that 

of Achilles. Rapax, is used here 
as elsewhere for rapidum. Some 
copies read capax, in reference 
to its having been the station of 
the Grecian fleet. 

254. Tenedum. An inland on 
the coast of Troas, in sicht of 
Troy, with a coenominal ^olian 
town, where there was a temple 
of Apollo Smintheus. It is said 
to have been so called from Teu- 
nes, or Teues, who was exposed 
in a coffin by his father Cygnus, 
a Thracian, at the instigation of 
his mother-in-law, and borne to 
this island, of which be was sub- 
sequently appointed sovereign, 
and deified after death for his 
extraordinary virtues. Its former 
name was Leucophrys. It was 
famous for its earthen ware, Schol. 
in Arisloph. for the manufacture 
of which it afforded abundance 
of excellent red clay, tinedom, 
whence Bochart would derive it» 
name. For Tenedum, Heinsius 
proposes to read Theben, of which 
Fetiou was sovereign, and whose 
shores, between Antandrus and 
Lyrnessus, might have been vi- 
sible to those who were conveying 
Cybele to Italy ; besides the name 
of Eetion is never found in con- 



Cydades excipiunt, Lesbo post terga relicta ; 255 

Qiiaque Cariste'is frangitur unda vadis. 
Transit et Icarium, lapsas ubi perdidit alas 

Icarus, et vastai nomina fecit aquae. 
Turn laeva Cretan, dextra Pelopeidas undas 

Deserit ; et Veneri sacra Cythera petit. 260 

Hinc mare Trinacrium, candens ubi tingere ferrum 

Brontes, et Steropes, Acmonidesque sclent : 
iEquoraque Afra legit, Sardoaque regna sinistris 

Prospicit a remis, Ausoniamque tenet. 
Ostia contigerat, qua se Tiberinus in altum 265 

Dividit, et campo liberiore natat. 
Omnis Eques, mistaque gravis cum plebe Senatus, 

Obvius ad Tusci fluminis ora venit. 
Procedunt pariter matres, nataeque, nurusque ; 

Quaeque colunt sanctos virginitate focos. 270 

junction with the former, while 
it is frequently used by the poets 
with the latter; ' Eetioneas The- 
bas.' Metam. xii. 0'/5/S:)v I'lor.n -roKiv 
'HiTiavos ; Homer, II. i. &c. 

255. Cydades. Islands sur- 
rounding Delos in the iEgean Sea. 

256. Caristeis. So called from 
Caristus, a city of Eubcea op- 
posite to the island of Andres. 

257. Icarium, sc.mare. Between 
Samos and Myconum, so called 
from Icarus, the son of Daedalus, 
who attempted to accomplish an 
escape from Crete by means of 
wings, fastened on with wax, 
' ceratis pennis,' Horat. The 
father succeeded ; but Icarus 
soared too near the sun, aud 
melted the wax, in consequence 
of which he fell into the sea, 
which afterwards bore his name. 

259. Pelopeidas vndas. Which 
wash the Peloponnesus. 

261. Trinacrium. Sicilian; so 
called from the three promonto- 
ries of Sicily, Pachynus, Pelo- 
rus, and Lilyboeum. Candens 
ubi, (J'c. jEtna, in Sicily, was sa- 
cred to Vulcan, the ancients hav- 

ing believed that its eruptions 
were occasioned by the working 
of the Cvclops at their forges. 

262. Brontes, §-c. The three 
Cyclops, so called from /3jovrn, 
tonitru, (rTi^oTn,fid<jur, and axf^uy, 

263. yEquoraque Afra. The 
Libyan Sea. Sardoaque regna. 
Sardinia, now Sardegna, a large 
island between the Tyrrhene and 
Balearic seas ; said to have been 
colonised by Sardus, a son of 
Hercules. It lay to the left of 
those sailing from the Libyan sea 
towards Italy, whence sinistris 
prospicit, &c. 

266, Dividit. The Tiber emp- 
tied itself by two mouths into 
the Tuscan sea, twelve miles be- 
low the city of Rome, whence 
campo liberiore natat. 

269. Procedunt pariter, ^c. 
' P. Cornelius cum omnibus ma- 
tronis Ostiam ire jussus obviam 
Deae, isque earn de nave accipere, 
et in terram elatam tradere fe- 
rendani matronis.' Lit. xxix. 

270. Sanctos. Castos, Petav. 

s 2 


Sedula func viri contento bracliia lassant : 

Vix subit adversas hospita navis aquas. 
Sicca dill telliis fuerat ; sitis usserat herbas : 

Sedit limoso pressa carina vado : 
Quisquis adest operi, plus quam pro parte laborat ; 27o 

Adjuvat et fortes voce sonante maniis. 
Ilia velut medio stabilis sedet insula ponto ; 

Attoniti monstro stantque paventque viri. 
Claudia Quinta genus Clauso referebat ab alto ; 

Nee facies impar nobilitate fuit. 280 

Casta quidem, sed non et credita ; rumor iniquus 

Lfeserat, et falsi criminis acta rea est. 
Cultus, et ornatis varie prodisse capillis 

Obfuit, ad rigidos promptaque lingua senes. 
Conscia mens recti famae mendacia risit : 285 

Sed nos in vitium credula turba sumus. 
Haec ubi castarum processit ab agmine matrum, 

Et manibus puram fluminis hausit aquam ; 
Ter caput irrorat, ter tollit in sethera palmas : 

Quicunque aspiciunt, mente carere putant. 290' 

Submissoque genu, vultus in imagine Divae 

Figit, et hos edit, crine jacente, sonos : 
Supplicis, alma, tuaj, genitrix foecunda Deorum, 

Accipe sub ccrta conditione preces. 
Casta negor ; si tu damnas, meruisse fatebor : 29<') 

Morte luam poenas judice victa DeL 
Sed, si crimen abest, tu nostrae pignora vitas 

Re dabis ; et castas casta sequere manus. 
Dixit, et exiguo funem conamine traxit : 

Mira, sed et scena testificata loquar. .'iOO 

279. Claudia Quinta. ' Ma- 283. CuKits, S^c. Her dress, 

tronse primoies civitalis, inter and her having appeared in public 

quas unius Claudiic Quintse in- with her hair fancifully aiiorned, 

signe est nomen, accepere: cui besides the readiness of her re- 

duhia (ut traditur) antea fama plies to the censures of austere 

clariorem ad posteros tam religi- old age, were the sum of the ob- 

o*o ministerio pudicitiam fecit.' jections against Claudia. 
Liv. ibid. Clauso alto. Atta Clau- 300. Scma. The Megalesia, 

sus, of Sabine origin, was the see N. supr. 187, were called Lu- 

head of tlie Patrician family of di Sccnici, for which scena stands 

the Claudii at Rome ; whence in the text ; the poet inlers the 

some propose to read Atta for truth of the extraordinary fact 

alto. which he has just described, from 

•282. Acta rca est. ' Was ar- its having been commemorated 

raigned.' by represeutation on the stage. 



Mota Dca est ; sequiturque ducem, laudatque sequendo : 

Index laetitiae fertur in astra sonus. 
Fluminis ad flexum veniunt ; Tiberina priores 

Ostia dlxerunt, iinde sinister abit. 
Nox aderat : querno religant a stipite funem : 305 

Dantque levi sonino corpora functa cibo. 
Lux aderat : querno solvnnt a stipite funem : 

Ante tamen posito tliura dedere foco : 
Ante coronata puppe sine labe juvencam 

Mactarunt, operum conjiigiique rudem. 3 1 

Est locus, in Tiberin qua lubricus influit Almo, 

Et nomen magno perdit ab amne minor. 
Iliic purpurea canus cum veste sacerdos 

Almonis Dominam sacraque lavit aquis. 
Exululant comites, fiiriosaque tibia flatur ; 315 

Et feriunt molles taurea terga manus. 
Claudia prsecedit, laeto celeberrima vultu ; 

Credita vix tandem teste pudica Dea. 
Ipsa sedens plaustro porta est invecta Capenii : 

Sparguntur junctas flore recente boves. 320 

Nasica accepit : templi tunc exstitit auctor ; 

Aiigustus nunc est : ante Metellus erat. 

303. Tiberina Ostia. Ostia-cc, 
Livy, Ostia — orum, Strabo. A 
town of note on the left or south 
side of Rome, at the mouth of 
the Tiber, whence its name. The 
first Roman colony was planted 
there by Ancus Maitius, called 
Colonia Ostiensis. It was cele- 
l)ratod for its salt-works, Salinae 
Ostienses, from which the Via 
Saliiria was so called. 

;31 1. Almo. See Fast.n. N. 483. 

313. Sacerdos. 'A^^i^th;; the 
Archigallus. He w;is usually 
dad in purple, the inferior priests, 
liaili, in white. 

315. Exululant. Their usual 
ejaculations were, iva, ffafiol, L'n; 

316. Taurea terga. Drums, 
covered with the hides of bulls, 
as supr. 212. 

319. PortaCapena. NowPorta 
di S. Sebastiano, opening- out on 

the Appian way. The Marcian 
aqueduct passed over this sate, 
whence Juvenal ; ' Substitit ad 
veteres arcus madidamque (^ape- 
nam.' Sat. 3, 1 1 ; madidani dixit, 
quia semper inde aliquid stillabat. 

321. Nasica accepit. '^hospes 
Numinis Idaei ;' Juvenal, Sat. 3, 
137. In consequence of a decree 
of the senate; ' qiiasrendum vi- 
rum optimum in civitale esse, qui 
earn (Cybelen) rite hospitio ex- 
ciperet,' Liv. xxix. 11, P : Scipio 
Nasica, son of Cneius Scipio and 
cousin of Scipio Africanus, wa.< 
appointed on account of the re- 
markable integrity of his life, 
' adolescentem nondum quaestori- 
um, judicaverunt in tola civitate, 
virum bonorum optimum esse,' 
Liv. ibid. 14, to receive the god- 
dess, which he did, according to 
Livy, at the mouth of the Tiber, 



Substitit hic Erato ; mora fit, si caetera quseram. 

Die, inquam, parva cur stipe queerat opes ? 
Contulit aes populus, de quo delubra Metellus 

Fecit, ait ; dandoe mos stipis indc nianct. 
Cur vicibus factis ineant convivia, quaero, 

Turn magis, indictas concelebrentqvie dapes ? 
Quod bene mutarit sedem Berecyntliia, dixit, 

Captant mutatis sedibus omen idem. 



' ad ostium aninis Tiberini ab 
sacerdotibus Deam accepit, &c. 
Liv. ibid. 

— Templi tunc exstitit auctor. 
' Then the founder of a temple 
came forward.' Nasica first re- 
ceived and afforded the deity an 
abode in his own house, then a 
temple was built for her, accord- 
ing to the poet, by Q. Cfficilius 
Metellus, who collected a sum of 
money for this purpose, infr. 325. 
Livy, however, states it to have 
been built by M. Livius and C. 
Claudius, censors. It was restor- 
ed, after it had suffered consider- 
able damage from tire, by Augus- 
tus ; ' Temploruni positor, tem- 
plorum sancte repostor,' Fast. ii. 
63, whence Augustus nunc, Sfc. 
Some copies for tunc exstitit, read 
noraperi-^i^if, alluding to the change 
in the name of the founder. 

324. Parva stipe. See Fast. i. 
N. 185, sub. fin. 'Ante deum ma- 
trem cornu tibicen adunco cum 
canit, exigucB quis stipis sera ne- 
get.' Ex. Pont. Ep. I, 39. During 
the days of her festival, upon 
which the statue of the goddess 
was carried through the city, a 
man and woman, (both Phrygians, 
for by a decree of the senate the 
Romans were forbidden this of- 
fice,) went from street to street 
collecting money to defray the 
expenses &c. of the deity ; so 
Eustathius ; M'/;T^ayyjrjrv, ro /i£- 
<ra TuiiTcivuv xai r/Kuv Toiovruv 'Zioi- 
I'mai, xai Izri tm fcnr^i uytiotiy tso- 

f *f ; whence these collectors were 

called MiiT^ayvarai, from /i-nrti^ 
and ayiiou. Cic. de Let/at. ii. c. 9. 
' Praeter Idseae matris famulos, 
eosque justis diebus, nequis sti- 
pem cogito ;' ibid. c. 16. ' Sti- 
pem suslulimus, nisi earn quam 
ad paucos dies propriam Idaja» 
Alatris excepimus, implet enim 
superstitinne animos et exhaurit 
domos.' The origin of this cus- 
tom is stated in the text. 

327. Cur vicibus, Sfc. ' Why do 
they feast with each other by 
turns,' Furcel. ; more simply ex- 
pressed by the obsolete verb mu- 
tito, probably by syncope for mu- 
tuitu, th. mutuus. * Principes civi- 
tatis, qui hidis IVIegalensibus an- 
tiquo ritu mutitareiit, id est, mu- 
tna inter se convivia (al. dominia, 
feasts where one presided who 
was called dotninus) agitarent.' 
Gell. ii. c. 24. Some, however, 
from mutarit and mutatis, infr. 
355-6, suppose mutito a verb fre- 
quentative from muto. The ar- 
ranifement of the feasts and sa- 
crifices of Cybele as well as the 
other deities, was at last assigned, 
in order to remedy the confusion 
attendant upon them, to the Tres- 
viri Epulones, three men ap- 
pointed to take charge of all such 

328. Turn mngis. Mutuita. 

329. Bene mutarit sedem. la 
coming from Pessinus to Rome. 

330. Sedibus. The houses 
where the feasts were prepared. 



Institeram, qiiare prinii Megalesia ludi 

Urbe forent nostra : CLim Dea, (sensit enim,) 
Ilia Deos, inquit, peperit ; cessere parenti : 

Principiumque dati Mater honoris habet. 
C'lir igitur Gallos, quibus est venerata, vocamus, 335 

Cum tanto Phrygia Gallica distet humus ? 
Inter, ait, viridem Cybelen altasque Celaenas, 

Amnis it insana, nomine Gallus, aqua. 
Qui bibit inde, fiu'it : procid hinc discedite, quels est 

Cura bonag mentis : qui bibit inde, furit. 340 

Non pudet herbosum, dixi, posuisse moretum 

In Dominae mensis ? an sua causa subest ? 
Lacte mere veteres usi memorantur, et herbis, 

Sponte sua si quas terra ferebat, ait. 
Candidus elisse miscetur caseus herba;, 345 

Cognoscat priscos ut Dea prisca cibos. 


Postera cum ccclo motis Pallantias astris 
Fulserit, et niveos luna levarit equos ; 

Qui dicet, Quondam sacrata est colle Quirini 
Hac Fortuna die Publica ; verus erit. 


•3-31. Institeram. ' I had ur- 
gently asked.' Primi. Principal, 
cliief; as appears from their name, 
place of celebration, &c. 

332. Dea. Erato. 

334. Principiumque. Cybele, 
as their general parent, took 
precedence of all the other dei- 

.337. Cyhelen. A mountain of 
Phrygia Magna, near Celcense, 
which was formerly its capital, 
situated at the common springs 
of the Mffiander and AJarsyas, 
on a cognominal mountain ; 
whence alias. 

341. Moretum. Gr. //.uiraTov 
or T^if/.f^x, a kind <f salad, com- 
posed of garlic, parsley, cheese, 
oil, vinegar, onions, coriander, 
and rue. It is discussed in detail 

in a poem entitled Moretum, 
which is to be found among the 
Catalecta of Virgil. 

342. Sua causa. ' A peculiar 

345. EliscE herb(P. Thence 
called r^ifii.,u.a,, from Toifiu, tero. 

346. Priscos. Primitive ; such 
as the goddess may have been 
supposed familiar with in the 
days of Saturn. 

347. Postera. Non. April. 
Pallantias. Aurora; so called 
from her having been the cousin 
of Pallas, the Titan, nephew of 
her father Hyperion. 

348. Levarit. sc. jupo. 

350. Fortuna Publica. (Jr. 
Tu^t^n IrtfioiT'ia. Hac die. Non. 




Tertia lux, memini, ludis erat ; at mihi quidam 
Spectanti senior, contiguusque loco, 

Haec, ait, ilia dies, Libycis qua CiEsar in oris 
Perfida magnanimi contudit arma Juba?. 

Dux mihi Ca.'sar erat, sub cjuo meruisse tribunus 
Glorior ; officio pra;fuit ille meo. 

Hanc ego militia, sedem, tu pace parasti, 


351. Tertia lux. The third 
day of the Megalesia, the day 
after the nones, viii. Id. April, 
the plays were represented in 
commemoration of Casar's tri- 
umph, as infra. 

352. Contiguusque loco. So 
Homer ; ^nSt %t n; {Wsa-^sv thuv i; 

353. Libycis oris. u. c. 707, 
Caesar conquered the united forces 
of Cato, Scipio and Juha, to 
whom the two former liad fled 
into Africa for assistance after 
the defeat of Pompey on the 
plains of Pharsalia. In the course 
of this engagement, Caesar made 
himself master of three camps, 
and killed fitfy thousand of the 
enemy, with the loss, as it is said, 
of fifty men only. This was his 
fourth triumph; 'Triumphavit 
post dcvictum Scipionem quater 
eodem mense, sed interjectis die- 
bus. Primum et excellentissimum 
triumphum egit Gallicum, se- 
quentem Alexandrinum, delude 
Ponticum, proximum Africanum.' 
Sueto?i. It is singular that Plu- 
tarch mentions three only, one 
for Egypt, another for Pontus, 
and a third for Africa. By perfi- 
da arma, allusion may be intended 
to Juba's having been a Numi- 
dian, or his opposition to the arms 
of Csesar, which the poet would 

designate as rebellious. Magna- 
nimi, may be applied in reference 
to Juba's defeat of Curio, whom 
Csesar had sent into Africa, or to 
his having killed himself, with 
Petreius, who had shared his good 
and evil fortune, after he had been 
overcome at Thapsus, and aban- 
doned by his subjects; the Ro- 
mans having considered suicide 
as an act of heroism. 

355. Meruisse. ' To have 

356 Prafuit, Because tlie 
old man, senior, supr. 352, was a 
military tribune under the empe- 
ror Csesar, 

357. Hanc sedem. In the four- 
teen rows between the orchestra 
and the pracinctio prima, (see 
Adams' Rom. Antiq. Boyd's new 
edition, pp. 297, 298,) reserved 
for the equestrian order, tribunes, 
&c. It appears, however, that it 
was by virtue of his civil magis- 
tracy, bis (juinos, Ike. and not 
from his privilege as an Eques, 
that this seat was assigned to the 
poet in the text. He was one of 
the Decejivuu litibus judicandis, 
appointed by Augustus, who were 
to assemble the Centumviri, or 
judges, and preside at their courts. 
Ovid probably exercised this ofEce 
a few years previous to his banish- 



Inter bis quinos usiis honore Viros. 
Plura locuturi subito seducimur imbre : 
Pendula caelestes Libra movebat aquas. 



Ante tamen, qiiam summa dies spectacula sistat, 
Ensifer Orion aequore mersus erit. 


Proxima victricem ciim Romam inspexerit Eos, 

Et dederit Phoebo Stella fugata locum ; 
Circus erit pompa celeber numeroque Deorum ; 

Priniaque ventosis pahna petetur equis. 
Hinc Cereris Ludi : non est opus indice causa ; 

Sponte Dess munus promeritumque patent. 
Messis erant primis virides mortalibus herbae, 

Quas tellus nuUo soUicitante dabat. 
Et modo carpebant vivaci cespite gramen ; 



.359. Subito imbre. The setting 
of Libra having been attended 
with rain. Seducimur. The au- 
dience usually returned to the 
porticoes when the eutertain- 
raent was interrupted by rain ; 
there having been no roofs to the 
earlier theatres. 

560. Pendula. Poised ; in re- 
ference to the literal meaning of 

361. Ante tamen. On the in. 
Id. April, Orion sets heliacally. 
Ensifer, Ensiger. A\. in allusion 
to the disposition of the stars in 
the constellation of Orion, which 
were assimilated by the ancients 
to a sword and belt. According 
to the kalendar of Constautine, 
I he Megalesia terminated on the 
IV. Id. April. 

363. Proxima Eos. Prid. Id. 
April, the Cerealia commenced. 

365. Circus. Sc. Maximus, 
wherein the games accompanying 
the festival were celebrated. Be- 
fore they began, the images of 
the gods were carried in proces- 
sion, pompa celeber numeroque, ^c. 
on carriages and in frames, ' in 
theusis et ferculis;' Sueton. Jul. 
76, or on men's shoulders, with a 
considerable retinue of attendants, 
horse and foot. Then followed 
the combatants, dancers, musi- 
cians, &c. When the procession 
was concluded, the sacred rites 
were performed by the consuls 
and priests. 

366. Primaque pahna. sc. vic- 
toria. In imitation of the Greeks, 
palms were given to the victors at 
the games ; those also who had 
received crowns for their warlike 
achievements, first wore them at 
the games, a. u, 459, Liv. x. 47. 



Nunc epula? tenera fronde cacunien erant. 
Postmodo glans nata est : bene erat jam glande reperta ; 

Duraque magnificas quercus habebat opes. 
Prima Ceres, homine ad meliora alimenta vocato, 375 

Mutavit glandes utiliore cibo. 
Ilia jugo tauros collum praebere coegit ; 
Turn primum soles eruta vidit humus. 
iEs erat in pretio : chalybeia massa latebat : 

Heu quam perpetuo debuit ilia tegi ! 380 

Pace Ceres la'ta est : at vos optate, coloni, 

Perpetuam pacem, perpetuumque Ducem. 
Farra Deae, micaeque licet salientis honorem 

Detis, et in veteres thurea grana focos. 
Et, si tlmra aberunt, unctas accendite taedas : 385 

Parva bonae Cereri, sint modo casta, placent. 
A bove succinct! cultros removete ministri ; 

Bos aret : ignavam sacrificate suem. 

The palm-tree is said to have 
been chosen for this purpose, be- 
cause from its elasticity it rises 
against the pressure of a weight 
placed upon it; 'adversus pondus 
resurgit, et sursum nititur ;' Gell, 
iii. 6 ; hence it is used to signify 
any token of victory, or victory 
itself. Ventosis equis. Fleet, 
^\vi{t ; itiiif avifjioio'iii ofjtoloi, Horn. 
II. X. 437. The shows exhi- 
bited in the Circus Maximus 
consisted, according to Tacitus 
and others, principally of chariot 
and horse-races. 

372. Cacumen. The tops of 

375. Prima Ceres, ^'C. Thus 
amended by Heinsius, Prima Ce- 
res hominum victu ad meliora vo- 
cato. ' Prima Ceres ferro mortales 
vertere terram Instituit; cum 
jam glandes atque arbuta sacrse 
Deficerent sylva3, et victum Do- 
dona negaret.' Virg. Georg. i. 

379. In pretio. Owing to its 
scarcity. Chalybeia massa. Steel; 
so called from Chalybes, a people 

of Asia, near Pontus, whose 
country was said to have been so 
barren that they derived their 
support from the metals in which 
only the country abounded. Ac- 
cording to some writers, tempered 
or sheer steel, only, is properly 
called Chalyhs, from its having 
been dipped in a river of that 
name in Spain, in order to harden 
it, whence also the people adja- 
cent were called Chalybes. Stra- 
bo says that this was the ancient 
name of the Chaldeans ; — 0<' It 
vvv XaX^aioi, XaXf/Stj to TuXaiit 
utofiLa.Z,a.tTo, &c. He identities 
them further with the Halizones 
in Homer, and the Alyba of the 
poet with Chalyba ; Klra,^ ' Aki- 
Z,aivu)V ' dhioi Ka.1 'hWitrr^o(fos fi^X'* 
T'/tXohv i^ '.\Xu[ifis, ohi a^yv^au \itti 

387. Cultros removete. A law 
is said to have been in force 
among the primitive inhabitant» 
of Italy, by which a similar pun- 
ishment was inflicted upon out» 
who had killed a man or an ox. 

388. Ignavam suem. A preg- 



Apta jugo cervix non est ferienda securi ; 

Vivat, et in dura sajpe laboret humo. 390 

Exigit ipse locus, raptus ut virginis edam : 

Plura recognosces ; paiica docendus eris. 
Terra tribus scopulis vastum procurrit in aequor 

Trinacris ; a positu nomen adepta loci. 
Grata domus Cereri ; multas ibi possidet urbes ; 395 

In quibus est culto fertilis Henna solo. 
Frigida caelestum matres Aretluisa vocarat ; 

Venerat ad sacras et Dea flava dapes. 
Filia, consuetis ut erat comitata puellis, 

Errabat nudo per sua prata pede. 400 

Valle sub umbrosa locus est, aspergine multa 

Uvidus ex alto desilientis aquae. 
Tot fuerant illic, quot habet natura, colores ; 

nant sow was sacrificed to Ceres, 
because of the injuries it com- 
mitted on the corn fields ; ' et 
prima putatur Hoslia sus meru- 
isse mori, quia semina pando 
Eruerit rostro, spemque interce- 
perit anni.' Metam. xv. 111. Pont. 
ii. 9, 30, 

391. Virginis. Proserpine, 
daughter of Ceres and Jupiter. 

394. Trinacris. Sicily ; so 
called from its situation and tri- 
angular shape. 

395. Grata domus Cereri. Ce- 
res had a temple in Sicily, 
founded by Gelon, a Syracusan, 
containing two images of the god- 
dess, one of marble and the other 
brass. Died. Sic. ii. The fertility 
of Sicily was proverbial, whence 
it easily came to be considered as 
the chosen abode of Ceres. 

396. Henna, or EnJia. A town 
said to be in the centre of Sicily, 
situated on an eminence, to the 
south of the Chrysas ; famous 
for a sacred grove, and the site of 
the temple already mentioned. 

397. Arcthusa. Nymph of a 
fountain in Syracuse, whence/ri- 
gida ; she is said by the poets to 
have invited Ceres to the ban- 

quet, that Pluto might take ad- 
vantage of her absence to carry 
away Proserpine. According to 
Claudian, De Raptu Proserp. i. 
134, both Mars and Apollo were 
her suitors also, for whom res- 
pectively Juno and Latona ex- 
erted their influence with Ceres, 
but without effect. 

400. Nudo per sua prata 

' Nor is the mead unworthy of thy fout. 
Full of fresh verdure, and unnumber'd 

The negligence of Nature, wide, and 

Where undisguis'd by mimic art ihe 

Unboundeti beauty to the roving eye. 

401. Zocws. The cavern whence, 
according to the poets, Pluto is- 
sued to seize his future bride. 
403. Tot fuerant illic, |c. 

• Infinite numbers, delicacies, smells. 
With hues on hues, expression cannot 

The breath of Nature and her endless 

bloom,' &c. 




Pictaque dissimili flore nitebat humus. 
Qnam simul aspexit ; Comites, accedite, dixit ; 405 

Et mecum vestros flore replete sinus. 
Pra;da puellares animos prolectat inanis ; 

Et non sentitur sedulitate labor. 
Haec implet lento calathos e vimine textos ; 

Haec gremium, laxos degravat ilia sinus. 410 

Ilia legit calthas ; huic sunt violaria curse ; 

Ilia papavereas subsecat ungue comas. 
Has, hyacinthe, tenes : illas, amarante, moraris ; 

Pars thynia, pars casiam, pars meliloton amant. 
Plurima lecta rosa est, et sunt sine nomine flores ; 415 

Ipsa crocos tenues, liliaque alba legit. 
Carpendi studio paulatim longiiis itur; 

Et dominam casu nulla secuta comes. 
Hanc videt, et visam patruus velociter aufert ; 

Regnaque caeruleis in sua portat equis. 420 

Ilia quidem clamabat, lo, carissima mater, 

Auferor ; ipsa suos abscideratque sinus. 

408. Et non sentitur. ' Studio 
fallente laborera.' Horat. Sat. ii. 
2, 12. 

411. Calthas. Marigolds. 

413. Hyacinthe. According to 
the poets, the boy Hyacinthus, 
u'ho was undesignedly slain by 
Apollo, was chanced by him into 
a hyacinth, which was marked 
with the notes of lamentation, 
AI, AI, to express Apollo's grief; 
whence iMoschus, in I3ion. mort. 
Nuv uoiKivh Xakii TO, au. yoay.y.dTo., 
x,ot.t 5rX$3v AI, Al, Aati^avi ffoi$ 
TtTccXatiri, xaXn; Tihajn (/aXiktu.;. 
The same flower is said also to 
have sprung from the blood of 
Ajax when he killed himself, the 
letters of the leaves expressing 
half his name, as well as lamen- 
tation at his death ; ' rubefacta- 
que sanguine tellus Purpureum 
viridi genuit de cespite florem,' 
&c. Metam. xiii. 394. Alartyn 
conjectures the hyacinth of the 
poets to be tho Imperial Marta- 
gon, Liliumfloribus refiexis, upon 

the leaves of which he professes 
to have traced the letters in ques- 
tion. Amarante. Amaranth, or 
Everlasting, from Gr. apriv. and 
[ta.^aiii[/.ai, marcesco. 

414. Casiam. See Martyn's 
Georgics of Virgil, ii. 213. Me- 
liloton, the herb melilot, or Italian 

415. Et sunt si7ie nomine flores. 
Lecti sine nomine flores. Heins. 

416. Liliaque alba legit. So 
Claudian ; ' Et aut violas aut 
Candida lilia carpit.' 

419. Patruus. Pluto. 

420. Caruleis. Steeds of such 
a colour were best suited to the 
king of the shades. 

421. /o. ' Dolendi interjectio 
exclamantis in aliquo affectu ; ut 
in dolore,' Forcel. 

422. Abscideratque. Many 
copies read Exscideratq. as Virg. 
jS^neid, iv. ' Turn plus .33neas 
humeris exscindere vestes Auxi- 
lioque vocare Deos.' 


Panditur interea Diti via ; jamque diurnum 

Lumen inassiieti vix patiuntur equi. 
At chorus aequalis, cumulatis flore canistris, 425 

' Persephone,' clamant, ' ad tua dona veni/ 
Ut clamata silet, monies ululatibus implant ; 

Et feriunt moestse pectora nuda nianus. 
Attonita est plangore Ceres ; modo venerat Hennam : 

Nee mora. Me miseram ! filia, dixit, ubies? 4.30 

Mentis inops rapitur, quales audire solemus 

Threicias passis Maenadas ire comis. 
Ut vitulo mugit sua mater ab ubere rapto, 

Et quaerit fcetus per nemus omne suos ; 
Sic Dea; nee retinet gemitus, et concita cursu 43.5 

Fertur ; et e campis incipit, Henna, tuis. 
Inde puellaris nacta est vestigia plantae, 

Et pressam noto pondere vidit humum. 
Forsitan ilia dies errori summa fuisset. 

Si non turbassent signa reperta sues. 440 

Jamque Leontinos, Amenanaque flumina cursu 

Praeterit, et ripas, herbifer Aci, tuas : 
Praeterit et Cyanen, et fontem lenis Anapi ; 

Et te, vorticibus non adeunde Gela. 

423. Panditur. Through the tlirough Catana, falling into tlie 

cavern already mentioned. Ionian sea. For cu7-su Heinsius 

425. Chorus aqualis. — o/it,riXt- proposescarsj/n, the former having 

xWiv i^aTiivri-i. Horn. II. iii. 173. occurred so recently supr. 435. 

432. Tkreicia.i Manadas. The 442. Aci. Acis, a river of 

Thracian Bacchanals, so called Sicily, running from a very cold 

from Gr. ij.a.'iiiof/.oi.i, insanio. spring at the foot of Mount 

440. Turbassent signa. By ^tna ; remarkable for the ver- 

rooting up the ground. dant beauty of its banks, whence 

44:1. Leontinos. Leontium was herbifer, and also for the swift- 

a town of Sicily on the south ness of its current, from which it 

side of the river Terias. The derives its name, Gr. a»h saqitta. 

territory called Campi Leontini, Now called Aci, laci, or Chiaei. 
formerly Campi Laestrigonii, was 443. Cyanen. A fountain of 

remarkable for its fertility. The Syracuse, in Sicily, from which 

name is derived from Leo, a lion a stream runs into the river An- 

having been the impression on apus ; also a river of Sicily, and 

their coins. Now called Lentini, whose name signifies in the Phoe- 

a town situated in the Val di nician dialect, a grape, in which 

Noto, south-east of Sicily. Ame- fruit the country adjacent to the 

nanaque jlumina. The Amena- river abounded, 
nus, now Indicello, a river in 444. Gela. Gelas, now Fiume 

Sicily, rising in mount J5tna, and di Terra Nuova, an exceedingly 

after a course of ten miles rapid river of Sicily, whence vor- 



Liqtierat Ortygien, Megareaque, Pantagienque, 445 

Quaque Simsetheas accipit aequor aquas ; 
Antraque Cyclopuni positis exusta caminis, 

Quique locus curvae nomina f'alcis habet ; 
Ilinieraque, et Didymen, Acragantaque, Tauromenonque, 

Sacrorumque Melan pascua laeta boum. 450 

Hinc Camerinan adit, Thapsonque, et Heloria tenipe ; 

ticibns non adeunde, flowing into 
the sea between Asrrifjentum and 
Syracuse. Virg. ^^neid, iii. 702. 

445. Ortygien. An island ad- 
joininsT Syracuse, of which it 
lormed one of the four parts un- 
der the name of Nasos, Doric for 
'HyKfo; ; it was joined to Syracuse 
by a bridge. Megara, formerly 
called Hybia, was a town towards 
the eastern coast of Sicily ; it 
was extinct in Strabo's time, but 
the name Hybla remained, on 
account of the remarkable excel- 
lence of its honey. Pantagias, 
now Porcari, a small but rapid 
river of Sicily, running into the 
Ionian sea to the north of the 
Sinus Megarensis ; so called from 
Gr. 'xocvra. ayuv, because when 
swollen by the mountain tor- 
rents its current became very 

446. Simatheas aquas, Sime- 
thus, a river near Catana and the 
rocks of the Cyclops ; it was fa- 
mous for its mullets. 

447. Antra. In mount .^tna ; 
' Quam subter specus et Cyclo- 
pum exesa caminis Antra .^tusea 
toiiant ;' Virg. ^-Eneiil, viii. 418. 

448. Quique locus, Sfc. Mess- 
ana ; called also Zancle, from 
Z.riyy.>~ri,falx ; the sickle of Saturn, 
according to the poets, having 
dropped into Sicily, for which 
Zancle was also the general name. 
This fable doubtless arose from 
tlie great fertility of the country. 
Bv some Drepanum is understood 

to be the place alluded to in the 
text, which is so called from (ir. 
'h^i'ru,'iio;,falx, in reference to the 
shape of its shore, or according 
to others, for a similar reason to 
that already given with regard to 
Zancle ; but as there is an im- 
plied allusion to this city subse- 
quently, in the mention of Eryx, 
at whose base it was situated, the 
text may be better explained as 
referring to Messana. 

449. Himera. A town, with a 
cognominal river, between Pelo- 
rus and Lilyboeum. Didymen. 
One of the Liparean islands. 
Acraganta. A town of Sicily, 
built upon a steep hill, between 
Pachynus and Lilyboeum, called 
by the Latins Agrigentum ; now 
Fiume di Gergenti. Tauromen- 
onque. A city of Sicily, between 
Pachynus and Pelorus ; so called 
because it was built on mount 

450. Sacrorum. Intended for 
sacrifices. Melan. A river in 

451. Camerinan. A town near 
the river Gelas. Thapson. A 
peninsula of Sicily, to the nortli 
of Syracuse ; almost level with 
the sea, whence Virgil ; ' Thap- 
sumque jacentem.' jUneid, iii. 
689. Heloria tempe. Helorus 
was a town of Sicily, near Pa- 
chynus, with a cognominal river 
which watered a beautiful plain 
called Helorius campus, the He- 
loria tempe in the text. The name 



Quaque patet Zejihyro semper apertus Eryx. 
Jamque Peloriaden, Lilybseaqiie, jamque Pachynon 

Lustrarat, terrae cornua trina suae. 
Quacunque ingreditur, miseris loca ciincta querelis -0)5 

Implet ; ut amissum ciim gemit ales Ityn. 
Perque vices modo, Persephone, modo Filia, clamat : 

Clamat, et alternis nomen utrumque ciet. 
Sed neque Persephone Cererem, neqiie fiha matrem 

Audit ; et alternis nomen utrumque perit. 460 

Unaque, pastorem vidisset, an arva colentem, 

Vox erat ; Hac gressus ecqua puella tulit ? 
Jum color unus inest rebus, tenebrisque teguntur 

Omnia ; jam vigiles conticuere canes. 
Alta jacet vasti super ora Typhoeos ^Etne, 465 

Cujus anhelatis ignibus ardet humus. 
Illic accendit geminas pro lampade pinus ; 

Hinc Cereris sacris nunc quoque taeda datur. 
Est specus exesi structura pumicis asper, 

Tempe, Gr. pi. Ti^uTfi, is properly 
r'ifiii^;, a sacred grove, or choice 
portion of land, in the ^olic 
dialect rs^u.ra; ; hence it is sup- 
posed the Romans formed temptis 
and its diminutive tempulmn or 
templum. It was formerly applied 
only to the celebrated vale in 
Thessaly, but afterwards any 
place remarkable for its natural 
beauties might have been so 
called ; besides that mentioned 
in the text there was a Tempe 
Teumessia in Boeotia, near mount 

4.52. Eryx. A mountain of 
Sicily, on the sea coast, between 
Panormus and Drepanum, the 
highest, after .33tna, in the 
whole island, whence patet Ze- 
pliyro, §-c. It was so called alter 
Eryx, the son of Venus and 
Butes, who was slain by Her- 
cules in a contest with the cestus, 
and buried on the mountain, 
where he had built a celebrated 
temple to Venus. 

453. Peloriaden, sc. montem. 
Pelorus, one of the three pro- 

montories of Sicily, near the 
strait of Messina, Pelorins, 
sometimes denotes a district dis- 
tinct from the promontory. It 
is said by some to have been so 
called from Pelorus, the pilot of 
the vessel which carried Hanni- 
bal from Italy, who was murdered 
by the latter through unfounded 
suspicion of treachery ; accord- 
ing to others, it had received the 
name long before. Lilyhcea. A 
promontory, town, and port on 
the south-west of Sicily, facing 
the promontories of Carthage, 
whence, according to Bochart, it 
takes name, being opposite to 
Lybia. Pachynon. Now Capo 
Passalo, or Passaro, a promon- 
tory on the south-east side of 
Sicily. Virgil shortens the first 
syllable in Pachynus ; Ovid va- 
ries its quantity; Dionysius Pe- 
riegetes shortens the middle syl- 

469. Pumicis. ' Solent etiam viva 
saxa cavernulis plena, et pumi- 
cem imitantia, hoc nomine appel- 
lari. Forcel. 




Non homini regio, non adeunda feraj : 
Quo simul ac venit, fr<Enatos curribus angues 

Jungit, et aequoreas sicca per er rat aquas. 
Effugit et Syrtes, et te, Zanclaea Charybdi ; 

Et vos, Nisaei, nautVaga monstra, canes ; 
Hadriacumque patens late, bimaremque Corinthon 

Sic venit ad portus, Attica terra, tuos. 



471. Angues. Her chariot is 
represented as drawn by snakes. 

473. Syrtes. Two bays on the 
coast of Africa, destructive by 
reason of their shoals, violent 
eddies, and the reciprocations of 
the tides, by which vessels were 
stranded on the sand banks, and 
hence their appellation from <tv- 
^if>, trahere. They were divided 
into greater and less, the former, 
now g-ulf of Sidra or Zaloco, lies 
on the coast of Cyrenaica, to the 
east ; the latter, the gulf of Ca- 
bes, on that of Byzacene to the 
west. In the text, however, Syr- 
tes is applied to Charybdis and 
Scylla, the former a whirlpool in 
the straits of Messina and Sicily, 
whence Zanclcea ; so called from 
Or. ;^ai\s;v, dehiscere, and fu[iiy,v, 
vehementer ; now Cariddi ; the 
latter a rock in the Fretum Sicu- 
lum, near the coast of Italy, 
equally dangerous to shipping. 

474. N^isai canes. The poets 
frequently confound, as in the 
present instance, Scylla the daugh- 
ter of Nisus king of Megam who 
cut off her father's pnrple lock of 
hair, in order to ingratiate herself 
with Minos, (of whom she was 
enamoured, and who was thus en- 
abled to defeat Nisus, with whom 
he was at war,) and the Scylla 
intended in the text, who was tiie 
daughter of Piiorcns and the 
nymph Chretheis. She was be- 
loved by Glaucus, but rejected his 
suit, whereupon he had recourse 
to Circe in order that she mieht 
enable him to prevail by the aid 

of magic. The goddess however, 
became attached to him herself, 
and to wean him from his con- 
stancy to Scylla, which he affirm- 
ed should last while she lived, 
Circe poisoned the fountain, near 
Rhegium, where she used to 
bathe. Upon her descending into 
the stream, she was transformed 
to the waist, into various horrible 
shapes, of barking dogs, &c. ; 
disgusted with herself she plung- 
ed into the sea and was changed 
into a rock, which was said to 
have resounded still with her 
dogs and wolves, for which the 
affrighted sailors mistook the 
roariug of the waves in its vici- 

475. Hadriacum, sc. mare, call- 
ed also supernum, now the Gulf 
of V^enice, washing the southern 
part of Italy. Simaremque Corin- 
thon. A rich commercial city of 
Achaia, in the southern part of 
the istiimus which joins the 
Peloponnesus to the continent, 
anciently called Ephyra j it is 
washed by two seas, the Ionian 
and ^gean, whence Gr. hfaXa^- 
a-o;, a/it.p^xXatr(rt>;, Lat. Biniaris. 

Yet she stands, 

A fortress formed to Freedom's hands. 
The whirlwind's wrath, tlie earthquake^ 

Have left untouched her hoary rock, 
The keystone of a land, which still 
Though fallen, looks proudly on that hill, 
The landmark to the double tide 
That purpling rolls on either side. 
As if their waters chafed to meet. 
Yet pause, and crouch t^eneath her feet. 



Hic prinium sedit gelido mcestissima saxo ; 

Illud Cecropidae nunc quoque Triste vocant. 
Sub Jove duravit multis inimota diebus, 

Et lunae patiens, et pluvialis aqua. 4bU 

Fors sua cuique loco est ; quo nunc Cerealis Eleusin, 

Dicitur hoc Celei rura fuisse senis. 
Ille donnnii glandes excussaque mora rubetis 

Portat, et arsuris arida ligna focis. 
Filia parva duas redigebat rupe capellas ; 

Et tener in cunis filius aeger erat. 
Mater, ait virgo, (mota est Dea nomine matris,) 

Quid facis in solis incomitata jugis ? 
Restitit et senior, quamvis onus urget ; et orat 

Tecta suae subeat quantulacunque casac. 
Ilia negat ; (simularat anum, mitraque capillos 

Presserat,) instanti talia dicta refert : 
Sospes eas, semperque parens : mihi filia rapta est : 

Heu melior quanto sors tua sorte mea ! 
Dixit : et, ut lachrymae, (neque enim lachrymare Deoruni 
est.) 495 

Decidit in tepidos lucida gutta siuus. 



478. Cecropidae. Fast. iii. N. 
79. Triste. This stone upon 
which Ceres first seated herself 
on her arrival in Greece, was call- 
ed 'AysXao-ra; -riToa., near a well 
called Ka.xy.ixoz''^- Attica, as ap- 
pears from what follows, was 
barren and desolate at the period 
of Ceres' arrival. 

481. Eleusin. — inos. f. A mar- 
itime town of Attica, on the 
western bank of the Cephisus; 
from Gr. \Xiuffi;, adventus, in re- 
ference to the arrival of Ceres, 
to whom it was considered sa- 
cred, and from which her cele- 
brated mysteries, the Eleusinia, 
received their name. The poet is 
accused of an anachronism here, 
since he seems to infer that Ceres 
was the founder of Eleusis, 
whereas it is said to have been 
built by Ogygcs, four hundred 
years before the carrying away of 
Proserpine, which occurred ac- 
cording to Eusebius in the time 

of Lynceus, or more probably in 
the age of Theseus. 

482. Cele'i. This description of 
Celeus seems in some degree at 
variance with the more generally 
received account, that he was the 
sovereign of Eleusis. 

483. Mora. Blackberries ; Gr. 
/jLo^ov or f/,a^oii, from f^aueo;, tiiger. 
Rubetis. Places where bramble 
bushes grow, Furcel. Gr. (iaruv. 

491. Mitrd. Which she wore 
after the fashion of the Phrygian 
and Meeonian women. 

495. Ut lachri/ma. ' Like tears, 
a pearly drop descended,' &c. It 
is to be supposed that as a pe- 
culiar kind of fluid issued from 
a wound inflicted on a deitv, 

■rjj Ti p'zci /jt.oi.y.a.oi(T<n holirt, Horn. IL 
V. 339, so they expressed their 
grief by other tears than those 
shed by mortals, 7ieque enim la- 
chrymare, ^'C. 


Flent pariter, moUes animi, virgoque senexque : 

E quibus haec justi verba fuere senis : 
Sic tibi, quam raptam quereris, sit filia sospes, 

Surge ; nee exiguae despice tecta casae. 500 

Cui Dea, Due, inquit : scisti, qua cogere posses: 

Seque levat saxo, subsequiturque senem. 
Dux comiti narrat, quam sit sibi filius feger, 

Nee capiat somnos, invigiletque malis. 
Ilia soporiterum, parvos initura penates, 505 

Colligit agresti lene papaver humo. 
Dum legit, oblito fertur gustasse palato, 

Longamque imprudens exsoluisse famem. 
Quae quia principio posuit jejunia noctis, 

Tenipus habent Mystae sidera visa cibi. 510 

Limen ut intravit, luctiis videt omnia plena ; 

Jam spes in puero nulla salutis erat. 
Matre salutata, (mater Metanira vocatur,) 

Jungere dignata est os puerile suo. 
Pallor abit, subitasque vident in corpore vires ; 515 

Tantus caelesti venit ab ore vigor. 
Tota domus laeta est, hoc est, materque paterque 

Nataque ; tres illi tota fuere domus. 
Mox epulas ponunt, liquefacta coagula lactis, 

Pomaque, et in teneris aurea mella favis. 52(» 

Abstinet alma Ceres ; somnique papavera causas 

Dat tibi cum tepido lacte bibenda, puer. 
Noctis erat medium, placidique silentia somni ; 

Triptolemum gremio sustulit ilia suo : 
Terque manu permulsit eum ; tria carmina dixit ; 525 

Carmina mortali non referenda sono. 
Inque foco pueri corpus vivente favilla 

Obruit, humanum purget ut ignis onus. 
Excutitur somno stulte pia mater, et aniens, 

Quid facis ? exclamat ; membraque ab igne rapit. 530 

502. Saxo. Siipr. 477. ties into oblivion of her sorrows. 

d07. Oblito palato. Becanse she 510. Mystcp. The priests of 

had resolved to abstain from food Ceres, so called from Gr. fivu, 

until she found her daughter, previa, or //.via, initio. For the 

Servius gives two reasons for the Ephori, EpoptCE, &c. see Class, 

jjoppy being calle<l ' cereale papa- Die. Eleusinia. 
ver,' either from its having been 519. Coagula. Rennet whey, 
used like common food, or from 52S. Humanum onus. The 

(^eres, as supr. having been body of the young Triptolemus. 
soothed by its soporific proper- o29. Stulte pia. Foolishly fond. 



Cui Dea, Dam non es, dixit, scelerata fuisti ! 

Irrita niaterno sunt mea dona metu. 
Iste quidem mortalis erit ; sed primus arabit, 

Et seret, et culta praemia toilet hiimo. 
Dixit ; et egrediens nubem trahit, inque dracones 535 

Transit, et aligero tollitur axe Ceres. 
Sunion expositum, Piraeaque tuta recessu 

Linquit, et in dextrum quae jacet ora latus. 
Hinc init iEgaeum, quo Cycladas aspicit omnes; 

loniumque rapax, Icariumque legit. 540 

Perque urbes Asiae longum petit Hellespontum, 

Diversumque locis alta pererrat iter. 
Nam modo thurilegos Arabas, modo despicit Indos ; 

Hinc Libys, hinc Meroe, siccaque terra subest. 
Nvmc adit Hesperios, Rhenum, Rhodanumque, Padumquc, 

Teque, future parens, Tibri, potentis aquae. [545 

Quo feror ? immensum est erratas dicere terras ; 

Praeteritus Cereri nullus in orbe locus. 
Errat et in coelo ; liquidique irnmunia ponti 

Alloquitur gelido proxima signa polo : 550 

Parrhasides stellae, (namque omnia nosse potestis, 

532. Irrita, Sfc. The object of 
Ceres was to endue him with 
immortality, but her design was 
frustrated by the groundless fears 
of Metanira. 

333. Primus arahit. The ho- 
nour of having invented the 
plough is variously ascribed, by 
some to Osiris or Buzyges, by 
others, with the poet, to Tripto- 

535. Inque dracones. Ascends 
her chariot, drawn by dragons. 

537. Suiiion. A promontory, 
whence expositum, of Attica. 
Piraa. A celebrated port to the 
west of Atheu?, consisting of 
three natural harbours, or basins, 
Pirteus, Cantharon, and Zea. 

538. In dextrum, Sfc. Attica 
lav to the right as Ceres set out 
from Sunium. 

.544. Meroe. An island of 
^Ethiopia, shaped like a shield, 
washed by the Nile, Astapus, 
and Astaboras ; it has a cogno- 

minal town, the metropolis of the 
^Ethiopians. According to Jo- 
sephus it was first called Saba, 
but changed to Meroe by Cam- 
byses, either after his wife or 
sister who died there. Sicca terra. 

545. Hesperios. The Spanish 
and Italian rivers. Rhenum. The 
Rhine, a river of Germany, ris- 
ing in the Alps. Rlwdanum. The 
Rhone, a river of Gaul. Padum, 
anciently called Eridanus, rising 
in mount Vesulus, in the Alpes 
Cottiee, and dividing Cisalpine 
Gaul into Transpadana and Cis- 
padana, now the Po. 

549. Liquidique immunia ponti. 
Those celestial signs which do 
not appear to set, from their 
proximity to the pole; whence 
Vircfil ' Metuentes eequore tingi.' 

55 1 . Parrhasides stella. Helice 
and Cynosura, the greater and 
lesser bear; see Fast. ii. N. 156, 
et seq. and iii. N. 107. 


yEquoreas nunquam ciim subeatis aquas) 
Persephonen natam miserae monstrate parenti. 

Dixerat. Huic Helicc talia verba refert: 
Crimine iiox vacua est : solem de virgine rapta 555 

Consule, qui late facta diurna videt. 
Sol aditus, Quam quaeris, ait, ne vana labores, 

Nupta Jovis tratri tertia regna tenet. 
Questa diu secum, sic est affata Tonantem : 

(Maximaque in vultu signa dolentis erant.) 560 

Si memor es, de quo milii sit Proserpina nata, 

Dimidium curae debet habere tuae. 
Orbe pererrato, sola est injuria facti 

Cognita ; commissi praemia raptor habet. 
At neque Persephone digna est praedone marito, 505 

Nee gener hoc nobis more parandus erat. 
Quid gravius victore Gyge captiva tulissem. 

Quam nunc te coeli sceptra tenente tuli ? 
Verum impune ferat ; nos hasc patiamur inultae ; 

Reddat, et emendet facta priora novis. 57(> 

Jupiter banc lenit, factumque excusat amore ; 

Nee gener est nobis ille pudendus, ait. 
Non ego nobilior : posita est mihi regia ccelo ! 

Possidet alter aquas ; alter inane Chaos. 
Sed si forte tibi non est mutabile pectus, 575 

Statque semel juncti rumpere vincla tori ; 
Hoc quoque tentemus, siquidem jejuna remansit ; 

Sin minus, inferni conj\igis uxor erit. 
Tartara jussns adit sumptis Cadvicifer alis ; 

Speque redit citius, visaque certa refert. 580 

Kapta tribus, dixit, solvit jejunia granis. 

555. Crimine nox vacua est. is called upon to share the con- 

Because she was carried off by cern of Ceres at her loss, 

day. 5G7. Victore Gi/ge. Had Cypres 

557. Soladitiis. The sun being succeeded in his designs against 
accosted. heaven, and taken the deities 

558. Tertia regna. The sove- captive, she could scarcely have 
reignty of the Shades; whence endured worse. 

Neptune, Horn. Iliad, xv. 187, 570. Emendet facta priora novis. 

T^ils yao t' ix. Koovou tlfth a.'iiX^io), Let him atone for his former act, 

ous Tixt'Fii», Z;u; zai lya, r^'irccro; her abduction, by the latter, her 

S' 'A/S»; Ivi^oitriv iciatrtrw/. restoration. 

559. Tonantem. Jove. 573. Posita est, Sj-c. Cessit mihi 
562. Dimidium curae, §"c. Ju- regin cwli. Gottorph. 

piter as the father of Proserpine, 579. Caduciftr. ^lercury. 



Punica quae lento cortice poma tegunt. 
Hand secus indoluit, quam si modo rapta fuisset, 

Moesta parens ; longa vixque ref'ecta mora est. 
Atque ita, Nee nobis cctlum est habitabile, dixit ; 

Taenaria recipi me quoque valle jube- 
Et factm'a fiiit ; pactus nisi Jupiter esset. 

Bis tribus ut coelo mensibus ilia foret. 
Turn demum vultusque Ceres animumque recepit ; 

Imposuitque suae spicea serta coma?. 
Largaque provenit cessatis messis in arvis ; 

Et vix congestas area cepit opes. 
Alba decent Cererem ; vestes Cerealibus albas 

Sumite ; nunc puUi velleris usus abest. 





Occupat Apriles Idus cognomine Victor 
Jupiter ; hac illi sunt d;'ta templa die. 

Hac quoque, ni fallor, populo dignissima nostro 
Atria Libertas coepit habere sua. 


582. Punica poma. Pomegra- 
nates; hence at the celebration of 
Ceres' festival, the Thesmopho- 
riazusse abstained from that fruit. 

586. Tcenaria valle. In the vale 
of Tsenarus, a promontory of La- 
conia, now Cape Matapan, ter- 
minating the Sinus Laconicus on 
the west. It contained a cave, 
sacred to Neptune, through whicli 
Hercules is said to have dragged 
Cerberus from the infernal re- 
gions ; ' Taenarias etiam fauces, 
alta ostia Ditis, Et caligantem 
nigra formidine lucum,' &c. Virg. 
Georg. iv. 467. In the text it is 
used to signify Tartarus itself. 
Some copies read Tartarea. 

588. Bis tribus, S,'c. The an- 
cients believed that Proserpine 
remained beneath the earth with 
her husband during the winter 
months, from the time of the 
sowing of the seed ; and in hea- 
ven with her mother during the 

growth and successive stages of 
the crops. 

591. Largaque provenit, Sfc. 
In allusion to what the poet had 
elsewhere expressed of Ceres, in 
reference to her distraction at the 
loss of her child ; ' Nescit adhuc 
ubi sit ; terras tamen increpat 
omnes, Ingratasque vocat, nee 
frugura munere dignas,' &c. Ces- 
satis. Whose produce had been 

594. PuUi velleris. Such as 
mourning garments were made of; 
pullus, from Gr. zriXo;, or ■yrikki;, 

595. Occupat, Sfc. On the ides 
of April was the anniversary of 
the founding of the temple in 
honour of Jupiter Victor ; vow- 
ed by Q. Fabius Maximus during 
the war with the Samnites, a. u. 

597, Hac quoque, &,•€. On the 
same day a temple to Liberty 



Luce secutura tutos pete, navita, portus ; 

Ventus ab occasu grandine mistus erit. 600 

Sit licet, ut fuerit ; tamen liac Mutinensia Caesar 

Grandine militia contudit arma sua. 


Tertia post Veneris ciim lux surrexerit Idus, 

Pontifices, forda sacra litate bove. 
Forda ferens bos est Ibecundaque, dicta ferendo ; 605 

Hinc etiam foetus nomen habere putant. 
Nunc gravidum pecus est ; gravidae nunc semine terrae ; 

Telluri plenae victima plena datur. 
Pars caditarce Jovis; ter denas Curia vaccas 

Accipit, et largo sparsa cruore madet. 610 

Ast ubi visceribus vitulos rapuere ministri, 

Sectaque fumosis exta dedere focis ; 
Igne cremat vitulos, quae natu maxima Virgo ; 

Luce Palis populos purget ut ille cinis. 
Rege Numa, fructu non respondente labori, 615 

Irrita decepti vota colentis erant. 

which had heen founded by Ti- 605. Forda. Antiently horda, 

berius Gracchus was rebuilt by a pregnant cow, so called a fer- 

Asinius Pollio, by whom it was endo, as \nh. forda ferens bos, ^c. 

considerably improved and en- or from Gr, accus. <p^d.^x, bestiam 

larged, furnished with several gravidam. Sacra litate, sc. sacri- 

noble statues, and a library in ficate. 

which the decrees, &c. of the 606. Foetus. A more probable 

state were deposited. origin of this term isfovere. 

599. Znce secutura. xvin. Kal. 609. Arce Jovis. In the Capi- 

Maias; April 14th. tol. Ter denas, ^c. In each Curia 

601. Sit licet, ut fuerit. ' He it one was sacrificed j Curia is used 
as it may ;' Scilicet ut fuerit. here for Curice. 

Heins. Mutinensia arma. Ante- 613. Vitulos, The embryo 

ny was defeated and deprived of calves. 

his camp by Augustus, at Mu- — Natu maxima Virgo. The 

tina, now Modena, a city of eldest Vestal virgin ; v rr^irfiiv- 

Cisalpine Gaul. ovircc, Die. li. 

602. Grandine. sc. diegrandi- 614. Lttce Palis. The day on 
nosa. which the Palilia were celebia- 

603. Tertia lux. xvii. Kal. ted, infr. 695. 

Mai. April 15th. Veneris Idus. 615. Hege Numa, §-c. The 

The ides of April, which month poet proceeds to detail the origin 

was sacred to Venus. of the above mentioned sacrifice. 


Nam modo siccus erat gelidis aquilonibus annus ; 

Nunc ager assidua luxuriabat aqua. 
Saepe Ceres primis doniinum fallebat in herbis, 

Et levis obsesso stabat avena solo : 620 

Et pecus ante diem partus edebat acerbos : 

Agnaque nascendo saepe necabat ovem. 
Silva vetus, nullaque diu violata securi 

Stabat, Maenalio sacra relicta Deo. 
Ille dabat tacitis animo responsa quieta 625 

Noctibus : hic geminas rex Numa mactat eves. 
Prima cadit Fauno, leni cadit altera Somno : 

Sternitur in duro velliis utrumque solo. 
Bis caput intonsum fontana spargitur unda ; 

Bis sua faginea tempora fronde premit. 630 

Usus abest Veneris: nee fas animalia mensis 

Ponere : nee digitis annulus alius inest. 
Veste rudi tectum supra nova vellera corpus 

Ponit, adorato per sua verba Deo. 
Interea placidam redimita papavere frontem 635 

Nox venit, et secum somnia nigra trahit. 
Faunus adest ; oviumque premens pede vellera duro, 

Edidit a dextro talia dicta toro : 
Morte boum tibi, rex, Tellus placanda duarum ; 

Det sacris animas una necata duas. 640 

Excutitur terrore quies ; Numa visa revolvit ; 

Et secum ambages caecaque jussa refert. 
Expedit erranttm nemori gratissima conjux ; 

Et dixit : Gravidas posceris exta bovis. 
Exta bovis dantur gravidae : t'elicior annus 645 

Provenit, etfructum terra pecusque ferunt. 

620. Obsesso solo. The ground 636. Somnia Nigra. So Euri- 
having: been beset, as it were, by pides; 'O warv/a x^av, MiXxvo^rrt- 
the barren wild oat, levis avena, ovycov fiun^ ovii^ojt. 

to the exclusion of the fruitlul 638. Dextro toro. F"rom the 
grain. right side of the couch, and there- 

621. Ace.rhos. Immature ; a fore auspicioubl5% 

metaphor from unripe fruit. 640. Del sacris, ^c. The diffi- 

624. Manaliv Deo. Faunus, culty of complying with this in- 

or Pan. junction startles Numa, and is 

626. Hic gemivas, Sfc. Com- solved by ^treria. 

pare Virg. ^neid, vii. 86, et 643. Errantem Hcerentem. 

seq. Heins. Nemori. The Arician. 

627. Somno. The god of sleep, 645. jBoias ^rai'uia. Hence the 
son of Erebus and Nox. required sacrifice of two lives. 

634. Per sua verba. In the 
form prescribed^ 




Hanc quondam Cytherea diem properantius ire, et aethereos praecipitavit equos ; 
Ut titulura Imperii quamprimum luce sequent! 

Augusto javeni prospera bella darent. 650 


Sed jam prEeteritas qnartus tibi Lucifer Idus 
Respicit; hac Hyades Dorida nocte petunt. 


Tertia post Hyadas ciim lux erit orta reraotas, 
Carccre partitos Circus habebit equos. 

647. Hanc quondam, §•£. Ve- 
nus, to whom the Julian family 
and its renown was always an 
object of solicitude, directed this 
day, XVII. Kal. Mai. to pass more 
rapidly in order that it might the 
sooner give place to the tbllow- 
ing, XVI. Kal. Mai. upon which 
day Augustus, then in his fifth 
consulship, was first saluted with 
the title Imperator, tilubtm impe- 
rii, infr, A. u. 724, on account of 
his victories ; an honour which 
M-as conferred upon him, accord- 
ing to Dio, one and twenty times ; 
so Tacitus ' Nomen Imperatoris 
semel atque vicies partum.' ^the- 
reos equos. The horses of the sun. 

G50. Prospera bella. Many 
copies read prospera siyna ; the 
reading in l!ic text is decidedly 
preferable, as the period alluded 
to was that at which Autustus 
having returned from iiis Egyp- 
tian conf]u«'sts, erected an altar to 
victory, closed the temple of Ja- 
nus, and received the title as 
above, Irom which he began to 
reckon the years of his reign. 

651 . Quartus Lucifer, xv. Kal. 
Mai. the Hyades set. 

652. Dorida. The daughter of 
Oceanus and Tethys, used here 
to signify the sea. 

653. Terlia lux. On the xiii. 
KaL M. the games were renewed 
in the Circus, which Neapolis, 
however, observes to have conti- 
nued, without interruption, from 
the Cerealia. 

654. Carcerc. So called, • quod 
equos coerccbat, ne exirent, prius- 
quam magistratus signnm mitte- 
ret,' Varr. L. L. iv. 82 ; written 
al>o (Jarccrcs, and repagula, built 
first, A. u. 425, and used to ex- 
press the several openings at one 
end of the Circus, from which the 
horses and chariots started in the 
race-course. In front of the car- 
ceres two small statues of Mer- 
cury, Hernndi, were placed hold- 
ing a chain or cord to restrain the 
horses until the signal was given 
for the race to begin, instead of 
which a white line, alba linea, or 
furrow filled with chalk or lime, 
thence called creta or salx, was 


Cur igitur missse vinctis ardentia tedis 655 

Terga ferant vulpes, causa docenda mihi. 
Frigida Carseoli, nee oli^is apta ferendis, 

Terra, sed ad segetes ingeniosus ager. 
Hac ego Pelignos, natalia rura, petebam ; 

Parva, sed assiduis humida semper aquis. 660 

Hospitis antiqui solitas intravimus aedes: 

Dempserat emeritis jam juga Phoebus equis." 
Is mihi multa quidem, sed et haec narrate solebat, 

Unde meum praesens instrueretur opus : 
Hoc, ait, in campo (campumque ostendit) habebat 665 

Rus breve cum duro parca colona viro. 
Ille suam peragebat humum ; sive usus aratri, 

Sive cavse t'alcis, sive bidentis erat. 
Haec modo verrebat stantem tibicine villam ; 

Nunc matris plumis ova fovenda dabat. 670 

Aut virides malvas, aut fungos colligit albos ; 

Aut humilem grato calfacit igne focuni. 
Et tamen assiduis exercet brachia telis ; 

Adversumque minas frigoris arma parat. 
Filius hujus erat primo lascivus in ssvo ; 675 

Addideratque annos ad duo lustra duos. 

sometimes used, at which the 658. Ingeniosus ager. A soil 
horses were drawn up in a straight naturally fertile. 
row, and held in by pei'sons ap- 669. Tibicine. A prop, but- 
pointed for the purpose, called tress, or pillar ; • Nos urbem co- 
MoTatores. This line, however, linaus tenui tibicine fultam Magna 
seems to have been most usually parte sui.'J«t'e7ja/,3, 193; Ziticen, 
drawn to mark the termination of literally a flute-player, is made «to 
the course, or limit of victory, to bear the interpretation above, ac- 
which Horace alludes, Ep. i. 16. cording to Festus, because instru- 
79; 'Moriar; mors ultima linea mental music supports and sus- 
rerum est ;' it was called by the tains the vocal. Villain. So Po- 
Greeks y^afj.fji.n, whence Euripi- lyxena, Hec. 366, lai^nv n 2wfia,, 
des, in Alttig. Ez<r' UK^av jj'xo^sn xiox'iffiv r l$iffrava.i. 
y^iu.f/.nv KctKui. 670. Plumis fovenda. To be 

655. MisscE. Into the Circus, hatched, 

during the games. The poet pro- 671. Malvas. Mallows ; Gr. 

ceeds to describe the origin of //.aXax>i,abemolliendo ventre;' — et 

the custom alluded to ; see Judges gravi malvse salubres corpori ;' 

XV. 3. seq. Herat. Ep. 2, 57. Fungos albos. 

657. Carseoli. A principal town White mushrooms, 

of the .^qui, near the Anio; its 674. Arma. AVarm cloth) ng,&c. 

supposed site is now called Piano 676. Addideratque, ^c. He was 

di CarsoU. twelve years old. 


Is capit extremi vulpem sub valle salicti ; 

Abstulerat multas ilia cohortis aves. 
Captivam stipula ioenoque involvit, et ignes 

Admovet ; urentes efFugit ilia inanus. 680 

Qua fugit, incendit vestitos messibus agros : 

Damnosis vires ignibus aura dabat. 
Factum abiit, monumenta manent ; nam vivere captam 

Nunc quoque lex vulpem Carseolana vetat. 
Utque luat poenas gens haec, Cerealibus ardet ; 685 

Quoque modo segetes perdidit, ipsa perit. 


Postera cum veniet terras visura patentes 

Memnonis in roseis lutea mater equis ; 
E duce lanigeri pecoris, qui prodidit Hellen, 

Sol abit ; egresso victima major adest. 690 

Vacca sit an taurus, non est cognoscere promptum : 

Pars prior apparet ; posteriora latent. 
Sen tamen est taurus, sive est hoc foemina signum ; 

Junone invita munus amoris habet. 

677. Extremi sub valle salicti. 688. Memnonis. Son of Aurom 
In a valley skirted by an osier and Tithonus, slain by Achilles 
bed. in the Trojan war. 

678. Cohortis. A small encio- 689. Qui prodidit. In allusion 
sure containing poultry, a pen or to the adventures of Piiryxus and 
coop ; sync, chars ; from Greek Helle already mentioned. 
X^i'Ttis, i.e. TTi^i^oXos, a circular en- 690. Victima. Taurus, 
closure. Varro, L L. iv. 16, pro- 691. Vacca situan taurus. As 
poses either of two reasons for half the sign only was visible, 
the ordinary sense of the term pars prior, it was not easy to d,&- 
cokors, a cohort; ' Ducta est ap- cide whether it was a heifer or a 
pellatio vel ex eo quod sicut in buli ; if the former, it was that 
villa ex pluribus tectis conjungi- into which lo was changed, if the 
tur, et quiddam fit unum, sic ex latter, it was in commemmoration 
manipulis copulatur cohors : vel, of Jupiter's having assumed that 
ex eo quod quemadmodum villa- form to deceive Europa; in either 
tica cohors, ita etmilitaris rotun- case the constellation was set in 
da esse solet ; unde et globus tiii- the heavens as a pledge of aiFec- 
littim dicitur.' tion, inunus amoris, against the 

687. Poster a. xn. Kal. Mai. inclination of Juno, 
the sun leaves Aries and enters 




Nox abiit, oriturque Aurora ; Pal ilia poscor : 6% 

Non poscor fVustra, si favet alma Pales. 
Alma Pales, faveas pastoria sacra canenti, 

Prosequor officio si tua festa pio. 
Certe ego de vitulo cinerem stipulasque fabales 

Saepe tuli plena februa casta mann. 700 

Certe ego transilui positas ter in orcline flamraas : 

Virgaque roratas laurea misit aquas. 
Mota Dea est, operique i'avet : navalibus exi, 

Puppis; habent ventos jam tua vela suos. 
I, pete virginea, populus, suffimen ab ara : 705 

Vesta dabit ; Vestae munere purus eris. 
Sanguis equi suffimen erit, vitulique favilla ; 

Tertia res, durae culmen inane fabse. 
Pastor, oves saturas ad piima crepuscula lustra ; 

Uda prius spargat virgaque verrat humum. 710 

Frondibus, et tixis decorentur oviiia ramis ; 

695. Palilia. Written also pa- 
riliii, (quod eo tempore omnia 
sata arboresque et herbse parturi- 
ant pariantque, Forcel.) the fes- 
tival of Pales, the goddess of 
shepherds, was held on the XI. 
Kal. MaJ. April 21, tlie anniver- 
sarv of the foundini;- of the city; 
* dies natalis urbis Roms ; Veil. 
Pat. i. 8. On this day also Caesar 
appointed an annual celebration 
of the Circensian games, because 
the news of his last victory over 
Labietius and tlie sous of Pom- 
pey, at Munda in Spain, had 
reached Rome the evening be- 
fore the festival. The poet de- 
scribes the rites, &c. of the festi- 
val in the text. 

699. De vitulo. Of the thirty 
oxen slain on the Fordicidia, 
which, with the stalks of beans. 
Slip. fabal. culmen inane, infr.708, 
formed the usual purificatory 
oSeTings, februa casta, or as some 
copies re;;d, tosta. 

701. Transilui. This was call- 
«d suffitio ; see infr. 753. 

7C3. Navalibus exi. Metaphori- 
cally ; the poet frequently speaks 
so of his task. 

705. Virginea ard. The vestal 
altar. Suffimen. A perfume or 
scent raised by fire ; any thing 
burned to produce a perfume. 

707. Sajiguis eqni. According 
to Plutarch, in Rom. there was 
not originally any animal sacrifice 
at the Palilia ; 'Ev i.ex,^ V (&.'; 
(puffiv) ovo'i'j i/z^pu^o-/ i^voi ; this 
custom, however, appears to have 
been subsequently changed. 

708. Culmen inane. The stalk 
without the pods. 

709. Pastor, §*c. ' Shepherd, 
purify your p'lstuied flocks at the 
approacli of twilight ;' ce/Jusci/Za, 
from crepcrus, doubtful, because 
of its uncertain light. 

710. Uda virga. The rod or 
branch with wliich the water was 
sprinkled over the sheep, was 
usually laurel, supr. 702, some- 
times of olive, rosemary, or pine. 
Verrat. Vergat. Petav. TergaU 


Et tegat ornatas longa corona fores. 
Caerulei fiant vivo de sulfure fiimi ; 

Tactaque tumanti sulfure balet ovis. 
Ure mares oleas, taedamque, herbasque Sabinasj 715 

Et crepet in mediis laurus adusta focis. 
Libaque de milio railii fisceila sequatur; 

Rustica prajcipiie quo Dea laeta cibo est. 
Adde dapes mulctramque suas ; dapibusque resectis, 

Sylvicolam tepido lacte precare Paler». 720 

Consule, die, pecori pariter, pecorisque magistris ; 

EfFugiat stabulis noxa repulsa meis. 
Sive sacro pavi, sedive sub arbore sacra ; 

Pabulave e bustis inscia carpsit ovis : 
Seu nemus intravi vetitum, nostrisve tugatae 725 

Sunt oculis Nymphae, semicaperve Deus : 
Seu mea falx ramo lucum spoliavit opaco, 

Unde data est aegra^ fiscina frondis ovi : 
Da veniam culpse ; nee, dum degrandinat, obsit 

Agresti fano supposuisse pecus. 730 

Nee noceat turbasse lacus ; ignoscite, Nymphae. 

Lota quod obscuras ungula fecit aquas. 
Tu, Dea, pro nobis fontes fontanaque placa 

715. Mares oleas. The male chanced to come where tlie 

olive. The ancients reckoned nu- nymphs or guardian goddesses of 

merous varieties of olives; Cato the fountains were bathing:, were 

speaks of eight distinct species, deprived of their senses, and such 

Columella of ten ; see Virg. were thence called lymphatici, 

Georg. ii. 85. Some copies read vuu.<poX-/i-UToi, frantic, from Greek 

maris rorem, Gr. kilixvari;, rose- Xi/jW^x for vufi.ptf, dea prases aqiue. 

mary. Herb isque Sabinas. Savin. Semicaperve Deus. Pan or Fau- 

717. Libaque, Sfc. 'And let a nus. 

small basket, fisceila, of millet 729. Dum degrandinat. Verb 

accompany the millet cakes, /tia^^. impers. ' While it hails violently,' 

de milio.' Fvrcel. Gesner explains degran- 

718. Rustica Dea. Pales.,hy donee grandinaredesiuat, 

719. Mulctram. The milk pail, donee grando ,- this force of 
Resectis. Paralis. A\. Peractis. rfc in composition has been alrea- 
Burm. dy remarked; it is often, how- 

723. Sivesacropavi,Sfc. « Whe- ever, as in the former of the two 

ther I have fed my flocks on con- senses above, merely emphatic, 

secrated ground,' &c. ; the poet like valde, as Flor. i. 17, ' Capi- 

proceeds to enumerate the oti'en- tisque superioribus jugis, iu sub- 

ces he might have undesignedly jectos jure suo detonuit.' Hein- 

committed, and ask pardon of tlie sius reads dum Dea grandinat, 

goddess for them. &c. 

725. FugatcE Nymphce. The 732. Lota. Mota. Al. 
ancieats believed that any who 


Nutnina, tu sparsos per nemus omne Deos. 
Nee Dryadas, nee nos videamus labra Dianae; 735 

Nee Faunum, medio cum premit arva die. 
Pelle procul morbos ; valeant hominesque gregesque ; 

Et valeant vigiles, provida turba, canes. 
Neve minus multos redigam, quam mane fuerunt ; 

Neve gemam referens vellera rapta lupo. 740 

Absit iniqua fames ; herbae frondesque supersint ; 

Quasque lavent artus, quseque bibantur, aquae. 
Ubera plena premam ; referat mihi caseus eera ; 

Dentque viam liquido vimina rara sero. 
Lanaque proveniat nullas laesura puellas, 745 

Mollis, et ad teneras quamlibet apta manus. 
Quae, precor, eveniant : et nos faciamus ad annum 

Pastorum dominae grandia liba Pali. 
His Dea placanda est ; haec tu conversus ad ortus 

Die ter, et in vivo prolue rore manus. 750 

Turn licet, apposita veluti cratere caniella, 

Lac niveum potes, purpureanique sapam. 
Moxque per ardentes stipulae crepitantis acervos 

Trajicias celeri strenua membra pede. 
Expositus mos est. Moris mihi restat origo : 755 

Turba f'acit dubium, cceptaque nostra tenet. 
Omnia purgat edax ignis, vitiumque metallis 

735. Nee Dryadas, §-c. For Pollux, x. 24, a milk-vessel ; it is 

tbe reason mentioned supr. 751. derived by some, qu. ca7««ra, from 

Labra. Basins for bathing : Gr. Kau-jrra, in reference to its shape. 
cLffafiitSai, XouTfla. 752. Sapam. Gr. 'i^riu.a,ffipaiot, 

739. Neve minus, ^c. A prayer new wine, or must boiled down 
against any reduction in tbe flock to half its quantity; e. gr. four 
at the close of the day from wl at pints of mu&t boiled down to 
it was in the morning, either by two; according to Pliny, how- 
disease, or the ravages of wolves, ever, xiv. 9, s. il, this was pro- 

744, Vimina rara. The osier perly called defrutum, and sapa 

sieves in which the cheese was was must hoiltd down to a third 

pressed, and the whey, serum, of its original quantity; theob- 

strained off. ject of this was to make it keep. 

743. Nullas Icesura puellas. This mixture of milk and wine 

Consequently of the most deli- was called burrhanica potio, from 

cate description, e^ ad icMeras, ^'c. burrus, G. •rw^^oj, i. e. rufus,puT- 

infr. pureus, ruddy, Lac mislum potes 

750. Vivo Tore. sc. flumine vi- purp. sap. Zulich. Heirs. 

TO, Forcel. ' Qui rore puro Gait- 756. Turba. The number of 

alise lavit crines solutus.' Horat. reasons assigned for the origin of 

Od. iii. 75. this custom. 

751. Camelld. Gr. <ric,xfiiX?.a, 757. Vitium. The dross. 



Excoquit ; idcirco cum duce purgat oves. 
An, quia cunctarum contraria semina rerum 

Sunt duo, discordes ignis et unda Dei, 760 

Junxermit elementa patres, aptumque putarunt 

Ignibus et sparsa tcingere corpus aqua? 
An, quod in his vitai causa est ; iiaec perdidit exul ; 

His nova fit coujux : liaic duo magna putant? 
Vix equidem credo : sunt qui Pliaetonta ret'erri 765 

Credant, et nimias Deucaiionis aquas. 

758. Duce. The sh'.'phurd, or 
it may be, the rara. 

762. lynihus, ^c. Thereby 
making' the tire and water symbo- 
lical of puiificiition : compare 
Virgil, ^iieid, vi. 741, ' — aliis 
sub gurgite vasto In tectum elui- 
tur scelus, aut exuritur igni.' 

763. Vitoe causa est. Fire and 
water were looked upon as the 
essentials of existence, whence 
the ' aquae et ignis interdiclio,' 
tiie forbidding the use of these 
elements, which was equivalent 
to a sentence of banishment, exi- 
lium, a word not in judicial use, 
and by which the object of the 
sentence was obliged to leave 
Italy, but might retire to any 
other state he chose. 

764. His nova Jit conjux. Fire 
and water were placed at the 
door, by which the new-married 
pair entered, and toucl ed by the 
bride and her husband, because 
all things were supposed to be 
produced from these two ele- 
ments, quod in his vita causa, ^c. 
supr. ; thsy used the water also 
for bathing their feet ; Pint. 
Quasi. Rom. 31, I, Varr. L. L. 
iv. 10. ' Ista viri captent, (si jam 
captanda putabunt) Quos faciunt 
justos ignis et unda viros.' Art. 
Amat. ii. 597. 

765. Sunt qui, Sfc. Some would 
understand allusion to be made by 
the fire and water to Ph.ietonand 
Deucalion. The former was the 
son of Phoebus aud Clymene, one 

of t!ie Oceanides ; having been 
taunted by Epaphus, the son of 
lo, with having falsely declared 
liimselt the offspring ot the sun, 
he demanded the chariot of that 
deity, that he might have the 
guidance of it for one day, and 
so prove tlie truth of his descent. 
Phoebus unwillingly complied, 
and Phaeton unable to control 
the steeds was hurried so close to 
the sign of the Scorpion that in 
terror he let go the reins altoge- 
ther; to prevent a universal con- 
flagration by the too near approach 
of the chariot to the earth, Jupi- 
ter struck him with a thunder- 
bolt, and he fell from heaven into 
the river Po. His sisters mourn- 
ed his destruction bitterly, and 
were changed into black poplars, 
which continued to distil tears of 
amber, in token of theli' grief. 
Deucalion was the sou of Pro- 
metheus, married to Pyrrha, 
daughter of Epimetheus ; when 
Jupiter resolved to punish man- 
kind for their impiety by the uni- 
versal deluge. Deucalion and his 
wife escaped by taking refuge on 
the summit of Parnassus, or, ac- 
cording to Plyginus, of .«Etna in 
Sicily. When the waters had 
subsided, they consulted the ora- 
cle of Themis how therace of man 
might be renewed; the answer 
was, ' by their throwing behind 
them the bones of their grand- 
mother,' which they understood 
to mean the stones of the earth ; 


Pars quoque, ciim saxis pastores saxa terebant, 

Scintillam subito prosiluisse ferunt. 
Prima quidem periit : stinulis excepta secunda est; 

Hoc argumenti flamma Palilis habet. 770 

An magis hunc morein pietas iEneia fecit, 

Innocuum victo cui dedit ignis iter ? 
Num tamen est vero propius, cum condita Roma est, 

Transterri jussos in nova tecta lares ? 
Mutantesque domum tectis agrestibus ignem, 775 

Et cessaturae supposuisse casae ? 
Per flammas saluisse pecus, saliiisse colonos? 

Quod sit natali nunc quoque, Roma, tuo. 


Ipse locus causas vati facit. Urbis origo 

Venit ; ades festis, magne Quirine, tuis. 780 

Jam luerat poenas trater Numitoris, et omne 

Pastorum gemino sub duce vulgus crat. 
Contrahere agrestes, et moenia ponere utrique 

Convenit : ambigitur nomina ponat uter. 
Nil opus est, dixit, certamine, Romulus, ullo : 786 

Magna fides avium est ; experiamur aves. 
Res placet ; alter init nemorosi saxa Palati ; 

Alter Aventinum mane cacum.en adit. 
Sex Remus, hie volucres bis sex videt ordine : pacto 

Statur ; et arbitrium Romulus Urbis habet. 790 

Apta dies legitur, qua moenia signet aratro. 

they complied accordingly, and 778. Natali tuo. xi. KaL Mai. 
those which Deucalion threw be- 781. Frater. Amulius. 
hind him became men ; those 787. Alter, Romulus and Re- 
which were thrown by Pyrrha, mus having agreed to determine 
women. by augury which of them should 
767.Pars quoque, ^'c. The poet found the city, and govern it when 
proceeds to account in different built, the former chose the Pa- 
ways for the use of the fire at the latine hill, and the latter, the 
Palilia ; from the accidental dis- Aventine to make their observa- 
covery of it by the shepherds, lions. The result is given in the 
by the collision of flints ; from text. 

the flames of burning Troy hav- 791. Mania signet aratro.Wheii 
ing receded to allow jEneas a a city was about to be built, the 
safe passage from the city ; from founder yoking a cow and a bull 
the cattle and husbandmen having to the plough, as infr. 826, which 
sprung over the burning ruins of had a coulter of brass, marked 
their old habitations, which they by a deep furrow the entire corn- 
fired when about to be transferred pass of the city, after which these 
to the new city of Rome. two animals, with other victims, 


Sacra Palis suberant : inde movetur opus. 
Fossa fit ad solidiim : fruges jaciuntur in ima, 

Et de vicino terra petita solo. 
Fossa repletur humo, plenajcjue imponitur ara ; 795 

Et novus accenso fungitur igne focus. 
Inde premens stivam designat moenia sulco ; 

Alba jugura niveo cum bove vacca tulit. 
Vox f'uit haec regis : Condenti Jupiter Urbem, 

Et genitor Mavors, Vestaque mater ades : 800 

Quosque pium est adhibere Deos, advertite cuncti ; 

Auspicibus vobis hoc niihi surgat opus. 
Longa sit huic setas, doniinaeque ])0tentia terrae : 

Sitque sub hac oriens occiduusque dies. 
Ille precabatur : tonitru dedit omina laevo 805 

Jupiter ; et lasvo fulmina missa polo. 
Augurio laeti jaciunt fundamina cives; 

Et novus exiguo tempore murus erat. 
Hoc Celer urget opus ; quem Romulus ipse vocarat, 

Sintque, Celer, cura;, dixerat, ista tuae. 810 

Neve quis aut muros, aut versara vomere terram 

Transeat ; audentem talia dede neci. 
Quod Remus ignorans, humiles contemnere muros 

Ccepit ; et, His populus, dicer e, tutus erit ? 
Nee mora, transiliit. Rutro Celer occupat ausum: 815 

were sacrificed on the altars. The 79T. Stivam. The plough-tail, 
plough was followed by the new or handle, on the end of which 
settlers, who turned the sods in- was a cross bar, transversa regula, 
wards as they were cut by tiie called also manicula or capulus, 
share, and wlierever they designed by which the plough was direct- 
to make a gate, the plouL;h was ed; it is derived by Varro, qu. 
lifted up, and carried over the stativa, a staiido. Those ceremo- 
required space, whence porta, a nies observed at the founding of 
portando aratrum. tiieir cities, besides many others 

792. Inde. The city having connected with the internal con- 
been founded on the same day stitution of their state, were bor- 
upon which the Palilia were ce- rowed by the Romans from the 
lebrated. Etrurians. 

793. Ad solidum. In the solid 805. Tointru Icevo. ' Fulmina 
ground, in order that the altar laeva prospera, quia sacrificantis 
might be more firmly based ; so vel precantis latus laevum, dex- 
Virgil, Georg. ii. 231, ' In solido truni est ejus qui postulata largi- 
puteum demitti ;' h, e. ubi terra tur.' Plin. 

concava non est, Forcel, 815. Rutro. A mattock, spade, 

794. De vicino solo. As an or pick-axe, a ruenf?o. Varr.L.L. 
omen of the future extension of iv. 31. Some copies read rastro. 
the confines of the city. According to Eusebius, Remu» 

NON. KAL, MAI. 227 

lUe premit duram sanguinolentus humum. 
Haec ubi rex didicit, lachrymas introrsiis obortas 

Devorat, et clausum p'^ctore vulnus habet. 
Flere palatn non vult, exemplaque fortia servat : 

Sicque meos muros transeat host is, ait. 820 

Dat tameii exsequias : nee jam suspendere fletum 

Sustinet ; et pietas dissimulata patet. 
Osculaque applicuit posito suprema feretro ; 

Atque ait ; Invito frater adempte, vale. 
Arsurosque artus unxit : fecere, quod ille, S25- 

Faiistulus, et mcestas Acca soluta comas. 
Turn juvenem nondum facti flevere Quirites : 

Ultima plorato subdita flamma rogo. 
Urbs oritur (quis tunc hoc ulli credere posset ? 

Victorem terris impositura pedem. 830 

Cuncta regas ; et sis magno sub Caesare semper : 

Saepe etiam plures nominis hujus habe. 
Et quoties steteris domito sublimis in orbe, 

Omnia sint humeris inferiora tuis. 


Dicta Pales nobis ; idem Vinalia dicam : 835 

Una tamen media est inter utramque dies. 

was killed by Fabius, a leader was a dispute amon"- the earlier 

under Romulus ; the more gene- citizens as to whether the city 

rally received acrount is, that he should be called Rome or Remo- 

was slain by his brother. Liv. i. 6. ra, or, according to others, Re- 

811 . Lachrymas devorat. So Si- mura or Rema. £1171. apud Cic. 

lius, xii. « Fletumque resorbent,' de divia. i. 48. Dionyn. Halic. 

and Ovid, Heroid. Epist. xi. ' Et i. 85. 

cogor lachrymas combibere ipse 8-30. Victorem.^ kc. So Virgil ; 

meas.' * Omnia sub pedibus vertique re- 

820. Sicque meos,^c. Liv. i. 6. gique videbunt.' 

' Sic deinde, quicumque alius 8-35. Vinatia. On the ix. Kal. 

transiliet mcenia mea.' Mai. was the celebration of the 

827. Nondum facti. Because Vinalia, upon which a libation of 
they were not called by the naiiie the new wines was made to Ve- 
in the text until after the peace nus, whence this festival is called 
with Tatius. by Plutarch 'Aipjoa/Vfa, and ac- 

828. Suhditn flamma, §'c. Re- cording to the poet, infr. 860 et 
mus was buried on the summit of seq. to Jupiter also. This festi- 
the Aventine mount, where he val was held a second time in the 
had taken his augury, in a place year, on the xni. or xiv. Kal. 
called Remuria or Remoria ; see Septemb. and was called by 
Fast. V. 479. It is said that there Varro, rustica ; de L. L. v. 3. o 



Tcnipla frequentari Collinae proxima portae 

Nunc decet ; a Siculo nomina colle tenent. 
Utque Syracusas Arethusidas abstulit armis 

Claudius, et bello te quoque ce{)it, Eryx ; 
Carmine vivacis Venus est translata Sibyllae ; 

Inque suae stirpis maluit urbe coli. 
Cur igitur Veneris festum Vinalia dicant, 

Quaeritis, et quare sit Jovis ista dies ? 
Turnus, an ^neas Latiae gener esset Amatae, 

Bellum erat : Hetruscas Turnus adoptat opes. 
Clarus erat, sumptisque ferox Mezentius armis ; 



med. ' Vinalia rustica dicuntur a. 
d. XII. Kal. Septemb. quod turn 
Veneri dicata zedes; et horti ejus 
tutelsB assignantur, ac turn sunt 
feriati olitores,' from whom Fes- 
tus differs in some degree ; ' Rus- 
tica Vinalia appellanfur mense 
Augusto, XIV. Kal. Sept. Jovis 
dies festus, quia Latini bellum 
jrerentes adversus. Mexentium, 
omnis vini libationem ei deo de- 
dicaverunt. Eodem die Veneri 
terapla sunt consecrata, alterum 
ad Circum Maximum, alterum 
in luco Libitinensi, quia in ipsius 
deae tutela sunt liorti.' 

837. Templa. A temple was 
dedicated to Venus Ericina at 
Rome, A. u. 572, near the Porta 
CoUina ; in the same year a tem- 
ple was dedicated to Piety iu the 
Forum Olitorium. 

838. Siculo colle. Eryx ; • Est 
prope Collinam templum vener- 
abile portara ; Imposuit templo 
norr/ina celsus Eryx.' Ovid. Re- 
ned. Amor. 

840. Claudius. M. Claudius 
Marcellus was the first of the 
Roman generals who obtained 
any advantage over Hannibal ; 
in his third consulship he was 
sent with a considerable force 
against Syracuse, of which he 
made himself master, having en- 
tered the town while the inhabi- 
tants were engaged in their noc- 

turnal celebration of the festival 
of Diana ; whence Syracusas 
Arethusidas, &c.; so named from 
its celebrated fountain Arethusa; 
he was called upon, after the con- 
quest of Syracuse, to oppose Han- 
nibal a second time, and after 
some successful engagements, was 
at last entrapped in the wiles of 
his adversaiy, and killed in an 
ambuscade in the sixtieth year of 
his age, and his fifth consulship. 
He was the third who obtained 
the Spolia opima, having, after 
the first Punic war, gained a vic- 
tory over the Gauls, and slain 
their king Viridomarus, a. v. 

841. Carmine vivacis, Sfc. The 
poet has committed an error here, 
the temple to which he alludes, 
near the Porta Collina, having 
been dedicated by Porcius L. F. 
Licinius, in pursuance of a vow 
made to that effect by L. Porciu» 
during the Ligurian war, a. V. 
572, whereas Syracuse was taken 
a. u. 540 ; and further, the tem- 
ple built in honour of Venus on 
the Capitoline hill, by the com- 
mand of the Sibyl, was built a.V. 
537 ; so that in neither case can 
the poet bo considered correct. 
Translata. From Sicily to Rome. 

845. Turnus, ^-c. This war is 
discussed at large in the six latter 
books of the iEneid. 

SEPT. KAL. MAI. 229 

Et vel equo magnus, vel pede major erat. 
Quern Rutuli Turnusque suis adsciscere tentant 

Partibus : liaec contra dux ita Tuscus ait : 850 

Stat mihi non parvo virtus mea ; vulnera testes, 

Armaque, quae sparsi sanguine saepe meo. 
Qui petis auxilium, non grandia divide mecum 

Praemia, de lacubus proxima musta tuis. 
Nulla mora est operae ; vestrum dare, vincere nostrum est : 

Quam velit iEneas ista negata mihi ! [855 

Annuerant Rutuli: Mezentius induit arma. 

Induit ^neas ; alloquiturque Jovem : 
Hostica Tyrrhenu vota est vindemia regi, 

Jupiter ; e Latio palmite musta feres. 8G0 

Vota valent meliora: cadit Mezentius ingens, 

Atque indignanti pectore plangit humum. 
Venerat autumnus calcatis sordidus uvis ; 

Redduntur merito debita vina Jovi. 
Dicta dies hinc et Vinalia : Jupiter illam 865 

Vindicat, et festis gaudet inesse suis. 


Sex ubi, quae restant, luces Aprilis habebit; 

In medio cursu tempora veris erunt. 
Et frustra pecudem quaeres Athamantidos Helles : 

Signaque dant imbres: exoriturque Canis. 870 

854. De IncuhjiSj^-c. See Fast. 867. Sex ubi, Sfc. When six 
iii. NN. 558, 559. flays of the month of April shall 

855. Opera, sc. auxilio. remain, &c. i.e. the vii.Kal.Mai. 
859. Hoslica. Ot the Kiituli, shall he the middle of the spring, 

in opposition to Latio palmite, which is assigned, however, by 

infr. Columella to the day on which 

861. Vota melinra. Because the festival of Pales was cele- 

they were addressed to Ju))iter. brated, xi. Kal. Mai. 

863. Caicatis sordidus uvis. In 869. Pecudem. The ram, aries, 

allusion to the custom of treading upon which Phryxus and Helle, 

out the grapes, a practice still son and daughter of Athamas, 

frequent in many parts of Italy; are said to have escaped the fury 

' — nudataque musto Tinge novo of their step-mother Ino, Fast. 

mecura riireptis crura cothurnis.' iii. 830, et seq. sets acronycally 

Virg. Georg. ii. 7. on the vir. Kal. Mai. 

'Then conies the crushing swain ; the 870. Signaque dant imbres. 

country floats, , , .^. .. ^ , Fast. i. 315, 816. Exoriturque 

And foams unbounded with the mashy • rrn • • , 

flood.' Tfiomson. Cams, 1 he poet is incorrect here ; 





Hac mihi Nomento Romam ciim luce redirem, 

Obstitit in media Candida pompa via. 
Flamen in antiquae lucuni Robiginis ibat, 

Exta canis flammis, exta daturus ovis. 
Protinus accessi, ritus ne nescius esscm : 875 

Edidit hsec Flamen verba, Quirine tuns : 
Aspera Robigo, parcas Cerealibus herbis ; 

Et tremat in summa teve cacumen humo. 
Tu sata sideribus cceli nutrita secundis 

Crescere, dum fiant falcibus apta, sinas. 880 

Vis tua non levis est ; qiiee tu frumenta notasti, 

Moestus in amissis ilia colonus habet. 
Nee venti tantum Cereri nocuere, nee imbres, 

Nee sic marmoreo pallet adusta gelu, 
Quantum si culmos Titan incalfacit udos ; 885 

Pliny says that according to the 
Boeotians and Athenians, the 
Dog sets on the twenty-sixth of 
April, hut according to the As- 
syrians, on the twenty-ninth ; 
' Sexto calendas Mali Boeotia; et 
Atticae canis vesperi occultatur 
fidicula ; 'mane oritur; quinto 
calendas Assyrise Orion totus 
absconditur, tertio autem canis;' 
Columella mentions also that it 
sets about this time, and dates 
its rising, ii. 2, on the vii. Kal. 
Aug. In order to remedy this 
inaccuracy, some copies read for 
Exoritur, 8fc. Occidit atque canis, 
or Effugietque canis. 

871. Hoc. sc. die. Nomento. 
A town of the Sabines not far 
from the Tiber, and to the east 
of Rome. 

872. Candida pompn. A pro- 
cession of priests clad in wliite 

873. Flamen. sc. Qiiirinalis. 
Robiginis. The festival Robigalia 
was instituted at Rome in honour 
of the goddess Robigo, or accord- 

ing to Varro and Festus, of the 
god Robigus, for the preservation 
of the corn from mildew, robigo ,- 
itvvas or dained by Numa, whence 
antiqua:, &c. in the eleventh year 
of his reign, and celebrated at 
this particular period of the year 
because the growing crops were 
more exposed to the injurious 
effects of smut, mildew, &c. 
Many copies read Hubiginis, 
which seems to accord better 
with its etymology rubor or 
ruheus. According to Panvinius, 
the deity Robigo had a temple 
and sacred grove in the Via No- 
mentana, outside the Porta Catu- 

874. Exta canis. See infr. 

878. Lave. Smooth, opposed 
to scabras, infr. 887. 

884. Marmoreo. ' Dicitur etiatn 
de gelu, quod duritiem marmoris 
et candorem refert; hard as mar- 
ble ;' For eel. 

885. Quaniiim, si, Sfc. The 
most dangerous time to the safety 



Turn locus est irae, Diva timenda, tuae. 
Parce, precor, scabrasque raanus a messibus aufer ; 

Neve noce cultis : po?se nocere sat est. 
Nee teneras segetes, sed durum contere fernim ; 

Quodque potest alios perdere, perde prior. 890 

Utiliiis gladios et tela nocentia carpes : 

Nil opus est illis ; otia mundus agit. 
Sarcula nunc, durusque bidens, et vomer aduncus, 

Ruris opes niteant ; inquinet arma situs. 
Conatusque aliquis vagina ducere ferrum, 895 

Astrictum longa sentiat esse mora 
At tu ne viola Cererem ; semperque colonus 

Absent! possit solvere vota tibi. 
Dixerat : a dextra villis mantele solutis, 

Cumque meri patera thuris acerra fuit. 900 

Thura focis vinumque dedit, fibrasque bidentis, 

Turpiaque obscoenas (vidimus) exta canis. 
Turn mihi, Cur detur sacris nova victima, quaeris ? 

(Quaesieram) causam percipe, Flamen ait : 
Est Canis, (Icarium dicunt,) quo sidere moto 905 

of the crop, was when the sun 
bore with violence upon the ears 
soaked with moisture. Titan. 
The sun. 

887. Scabras. Scurfy, scalled. 

889. Contere. Gnaw, wear 

899. Mantele. And Mantelium, 
a towel, napkin, or table-cloth, 
from manus terere, qu. manule- 
rium, Varr. de L. L. v. 8, extr. 
or from manus and tela. Mantele 
differs from mappa, the former 
having heen used as a table cloth, 
furnished by the host at an en- 
tertainment, and the latter a 
towel for wiping the hands, which 
the guests generally brought with 
them ; hence Martial, xii. 29, 
' Attulerat mappam nemo dum 
furta timentur ; Mantele e mensa 
surripit Hermogenes;' besides 
the mantele was napped or fringed, 
villosum, or villis solutis, while 
the mappa was smooth ; the for- 
mer also was used in sacrifices, for 

wiping the hands after their ce- 

900. Patera. A cup used in 
libations. Acerra. A censer for 
burning incense. 

905. Est Canis, Sfc. When 
Icarius, or Icarus, father of Eri- 
gone was slain by some intoxi- 
cated shepherds, his dog, called 
Mera or Moera, which accompa- 
nied him, returned home, and 
taking hold of Erigone's roiie, 
drew her to the place where the 
dead body of her father lay ; she 
died with grief at the sight, and 
the dog remained by both until 
it perished with hunger. Jove in 
compassion raised them to the 
skies, where Icarius was called 
Bootes, Erigone, Virgo, and the 
dog Procyon, i. e. v^i and xuut, 
Lat. Antecanis, the lesser dog- 
star, so called from its rising be- 
fore the greater. Quo sidere 
moto. At the rising of which 



Tosta sltit tellus, praecipiturque seges. 
Pro Cane sidereo canis hie irnponitur arae ; 
Et, quare pereat, nil nisi nomen habet. 


Cum Phrygis Assaraci Titania fratre relicto 
Sustulit immenso ter jubar orbe suum ; 

Mille venit variis florum Dea nexa coronis : 
Scena joci morem liberioris habet. 

Exit et in Maias sacrum Florale Kalendas : 
Tunc repetam ; nunc me grandius urget opus= 



Aufert Vesta diem ; cognato Vesta recepta est 
Limine : sic justi constituere Patres. 


906. Pracipitur. sc. astu. Is 
dried up. Virg. Eel. 3, 98, ' — si 
lac prseceperit sestus.' Some 
copies read prceciditur, others, 

909. Titania. Aurora, so 
called as the daughter of Hype- 
rion, the Titan; many copies read 
Tithonia, but the reading in the 
text is sanctioned by the best 
copies. Fratre relicto. The poet 
appears to have put Assaracus, 
the son of Troas, and grand- 
uncle of Priam and Tithonus, 
for Priam himself, since fratre 
must apply to Tithonus, whose 
brother Priam was. 

910. Sustulit, S}-c. The festival 
Floralia began on the iv. Kal. 
Mai. See Fast. v. 183, et seq. 

911. Mille venit, S^-c. Flora 
■was the presiding deity over every 
species of plant and flower. 

912. Scena. The theatre in 
which the Ludi scenici accom- 
panying the festival were repre- 
sented. Those games were of 

an excessively licentious charac- 
ter, whence joci morem liberio- 

913. Exitet, Sfc. This festi- 
val which commenced near the 
close of April, was carried on and 
concluded in May ; Faat. v. 185. 

915. Aufert. Aufer, Ursiri, 
Mazar, and others ; in which, 
for recepta est, is read recepta es. 
Cognato. See Fast. iii. 421. 
The te.xt is not to be understood 
as referring to the Vestaha, the 
festival of Vesta, which was cele- 
brated on the VI. Id. Jun. the day 
alluded to above, was the anni- 
versary of the transferring of the 
Vestal fire itito the palace of Au- 
gustus on the Palatine hill, when 
he was elected Pontifex Maxi- 
mus, pursuant to the rule, that 
the priests of that deity should 
live in the immediate vicinity of 
the object of his office. 

916. Sic justi. Whence it 
would appear that the senate 
had decreed the above. 



Phoebus habet partem ; Vestae pars altera cessit : 
Quod superest illis, tertius ipse tenet. 

State Palatini laurus, praetextaque quercu 
Stet domus ; seternos tres habet una Deos. 


d\7. Phoebus habet partem. A 
temple was dedicated by Auarus- 
tus to Apollo on the Palatine hill ; 
whence Ovid, Metam, xv. 864, 
865, ' Vestaque Csesareas inter 
sacrata Penates, Et cum Csesarea 
tu, Phoebe domesticc, Vesta.' It 
contained a public library, in 
which authors, poets especially, 
used to recite their compositions, 
Pers. 1. 15, and in which all 
works of merit were preserved, 
' Scripta, Palatinus qusecunque 
recepit Apollo.' Herat. Ep. i. 
3, 17. 

918. Ipse. Augustus. 

919. PalatmcE laurus, Sfc. In 
allusion to the civic crown of 
oak-leaves, vfhicU the senate de- 
creed should be suspended from 
the top of the house of Augus- 
tus and Claudius, between two 
branches of laurel, which were 
set up in the vestibule in Iront of 
the gate, symbolical of their pre- 
servation of the citizens, and 
triumph over their enemies. 

920. Tres Deos. Augustus, 
Apollo, and Vesta. Una. ec. dif- 
mus. The Palatiuuo. 





Qu^^RiTis, unde putem Maio data nomina mensi ? 

Non satis est liquido cognita causa mihi. 
Ut Stat, et incertus qua sit sibi nescit eundum, 

Cum videt ex omni parte viator iter : 
Sic, quia posse datur diversas reddere causas, 

Qua ferar ignore ; copiaque ipsa nocet. 
Dicite, quae fontes Aganippidos Hippocrenes 

Grata Medusaei signa tenetis equi. 
Dissensere Deae : quarum Polyhymnia ccepit 

Prima ; silent alise, dictaque mente notant. 


1. Quaritis, ^c. The poet 
proceeds to discuss the origin of 
the name of May, upon which 
be consults the Muses, by some 
of whom it is differently ac- 
counted for. 

2. Liquido. Clearly. 

— Cognita. Ascertained. 

3. Ut slat, Sec. 'fi; S'a-ray a;2») 
v««S avt^os, OUT X-Tfl T«XX>iv Vala.)i 
IXtikau^aS, (pjsff'f ■7riVKaXi//.nffi vona'n, 
"Ev^' ii'uv, » 'ivSa, /Lcivoiv/iinii Tt 
ToXKa. Horn. Iliad, xv. 80. 

7. Aganippidos Hippocrenes. 
Aganippe, or Aganippis, was a 
fountain at the foot of JMount 
Helicon, sacred to Apollo and 
the Muses ; Hippocrene, also a 
fountain of Helicon on the bor- 
ders of Bceotia; the poet appears 
to consider them both the same 
in the text. Solinus and others 
more correctly distinguish them, 
and ascribes their being identi- 

fied, as above, to poetic license. 
They were easily confounded, by 
reason of their vicinity, and their 
having been both consecrated to 
the same presiding deities. It has 
been proposed to read the passage 
thus, Dicite, qua fontes Aganip- 
pidos, Hippocrenes, SfC. taking 
the adj. Aganippis, for Aganippe, 
as patronymic adjectives are fre- 
quently used poetically for sub- 
stantives, For eel. 

8. Medusai equi. See Fast. iii. 
448, et seq. 

9. Dissensere. Disagreed in 
opinion. Dissedere, Fames, as 
Metam. xv. G48, ' Dissidet et va- 
riat sententia.' Assensere. Ju- 
nian. Polyhymnia. The muse of 
Lyric poetry ; so called from 
ToXv;, and vfiifo; carmen, or ac- 
cording to some, fiyiici, memoria, 
qu. Polymneia, 



Post Chaos, ut primiim data sunt tria corpora mundo, 

Inque novas species omne recessit opus ; 
Pondere terra suo subsedit, et aequora traxit : 

At ccelum levitas in loca summa tulit. 
Sol quoque cum stellis nulla gravitate retentus, 

Et vos lunares exsiluistis equi. 
Sed neque terra diu coelo, nee caetera Phoebo 

Sidera cedebant ; par erat omnis honos. 
Saepe aliquis solio, quod tu, Saturne, tenebas, 

Ausus de media plebe sedere Deus. 
Et latus Oceano quisquam Deus advena junxit ; 

Tethys et extreme saepe recepta loco est. 
Donee Honor, placidoque decens Reverentia vultu 

Corpora legitimis imposuere toris. 
Hinc sata IMajestas ; hos est Dea censa parentes : 

Quaque die partu est edita, magna fuit. 
Nee mora ; consedit medio sublimis Olyrapo, 

Aurea, purpureo conspicienda sinu. 
Consedere simul Pudor et metus ; omne videres 

Numen ad banc cultus composuisse suos. 
Protinus intravit nientes suspectus honorum : 




11. Tria corpora. See Fast. i. 
103, et seq. 

13. Pondere terra suo, §*c. 
Compare Metam. i. 26, et seq. 

19. Sape aliquis. Compare 
Juvenal, 13, 38. 

20. De media plebe. Gr. tov 

21. Latus junxit. So Horace, 
Sat. ii. 5, 18, < Utne tegam 
Spurco Dam» latus.' This verse 
is suspected by some commenta- 
tors, and various readings pro- 
posed ; Nee latus Oceano quis 
quando leve tegehat ; Mazar. Nee 
latus Oceano, quamvis grandceva 
tegehat, Tethijs, §-c. A). By the 
Deus advena, it is to be under- 
stood that there was at this time 
no distinction of rank or charac- 
ter among the deities. 

22. Extremo loco. On the 
lowest or least honorable couch. 
See Adam's R. Antiq. Boyd's 
new edit. pp. 371, 372. 

24. Corpora, ^c, A periphrasis 

indicative of marriage, which is 
frequently shown by this figure, 
Ovid, ex Pont. iii. ep. 3, 50, ' le- 
gitimes solicitare toros.' Fast. iii. 
511, ' Tu mihi juncta toro.' 

25. Majestas. The offspring of 
Honour and Reverence, whence, 
according to Polyhymnia, the 
name Maia or May. Est censa, 
i.e. numeravit, habuit, Forcel. ; 
the deponent form of censeo ; so 
ex Pont. i. ep. 2, 139, ' Hanc pro- 
bat, et primo dilectam semper ab 
aevo Est inter comites JVIarcia 
censa suas.' 

28. Sinu. Robe or vestment. 

29. Pudor et Metus. The as- 
sociates of majesty by which she 
was preserved inviolable. Coti- 
sedere. So Hesiod, Ejy. H^. 197. 

rroyr' av^^a/vov; A(Sis); xai ytfiiffi;, 

' Called to the eternal synod of the skie?. 
The virgins Modesty and Justice rise.' 


31. Suspectus. Admiration, 


Fit pretium dignis ; nee sibi quisque placet. 
Hie status in coelo multos permansit in annos, 

Dum senior f'atis exeidit arce Deus. 
Terra feros partus, immania monstra, Gigantas 35 

Edidit, ausuros in Jo vis ire domum. 
Mille nianus illis dedit, et pro cruribus angues ; 

Atque ait, In magnos arma movete Deos. 
Exstruere hi montes ad sidera sumnia parabant, 

Et magnum bello solicitare Jovem. 40 

Fulmina de cceli jaculatus Jupiter arce, 

Vertit in auctores pondera vasta suos. 
His bene Majestas armis defensa Dcorum 

Restat, et ex illo tempore firma manet. 
Assidet ilia Jovi; Jovis est iidissima cusitos ; 45 

Et praestat sine vi sceptra tresnenda Jovi. 
Venit et in terras : coluerunt Romulus illam 

Et Numa ; mox alii, tempore quisque suo. 
Ilia patres in honore pio matresque tuetur ; 

Ilia comes pueris virgin ibusque venit-. .50 

Ilia datos fasces commendat, eburque curule ; 

Ilia coronatis alta triumphat equis. 
Finierat voces Polyhymnia : dicta probarunt 

Clioque, et curvse scita Thalia lyrae. 
Excipit Uranie : fecere silentia cunctae ; 55 

Et vox audiri nulla, nisi ilia, potest. 
Magna fuit quondam capitis reverentia cani, 

Inque suo pretio ruga senilis erat. 
Martis opus juvenes animosaque bella gerebant : 

Et pro Dis aderant in statione suis. 60 

Viribus ilia minor, nee habendis utilis armis, 

Consilio patriae saepe ferebat opem. 
Nee nisi post annos patuit tunc curia seros ; 

regard, or esteem. Senec. ii. de piandum, Si juveuis vetulo non 

benef. c. 26, * Nimius sui suspec- assurrexerat, et si Barbato cui- 

tus, et insitum mortalitati vitium cutrque puer.' Juvenal, 13, 54. 
se suaque mirandi.' 60. In statione. At their post. 

34. Senior Dens. Saturn. 61. Ula. sc. atas senilis. The 

39. Montes. Pelion, Ossa, &c. poet proceeds to describe the 

54. Thalia. From Gr. fi/ikxnv, constitution as it was ordaiued 

quia semper virescat poetarum by Romulus, 
gloria. Uranie. From Gr. «uaavoj, G'^. Nee nisi , ^c. In the choice 

or qu, ra eiyto o^uca, qua: sint sur- of senators regard was not only 

sum spectilans. paid to tlieir rank and fortune, 

57. Magiiafuit, SfC. ' Crede- but to their age also ; it is cer- 

bant hoc graude nefas et niorte tain that some particular period 



Nomen et setatis mite senatus erat. 
Jura dabat populo senior ; finitaque certis 

Legibus est setas, iindt petatur honos. 
Et medius juvenum, non indignantibiis ipsis, 

Ibat ; et interior, si comes unus erat. 
Verba quis auderet coram sene digna rubore 

Dicere ? censnram longa senecta dabat. 
Romulus hoc vidit ; selectaque pectora, Patres 

Dixit ad hos Urbis summa relata novae. 
Hinc sua majores posuisse vocabula Maio 

Tango r, et aetati consul uisse suae. 
Et Numitor dixisse potest, " Da Ilomule, mensem 

Hunc senibus ; nee avum sustinuisse nepos. 
Nee leve praepositi pignus successor honoris 




of life was defined, previous to 
which they could not be elected, 
Cic. de. leg. Manil. 21, but what 
that period, the atas senatoria, 
was, is not known. In Cicero's 
time, it is probable, that members 
were admissible at one or two and 
thirty years of age, since he makes 
frequent mention of his having 
obtained all the honours of the 
state, each in his proper year, suo 
anno, as ordained by law, and it is 
known that he had passed his 
thirtieth year before he obtained 
the qusestorship, which he filled 
the year following in Sicily, and 
which was the first civil ofiice 
that gave admission into the se- 
nate. Some are of opinion that 
the qusestorship might have been 
held at twenty-five, Dion. Cass. 
lii. 20, and, therefore, that sena- 
tors might have been chosen at 
such an age ; others, on the au- 
thority of Polybius, vi. 17, (who 
mentions that the Romans were 
obliged to serve ten years in the 
army, for which seventeen was 
the prescribed age, cetas militaris, 
before they could be appointed to 
any civil magistracy,) conjecture 
twenty-seven to have been the 
requisite time of life for a sena- 
tor. It is certain, however, that 

originally the senate consisted of 
men advanced in life ; Sail. Catil. 
6, Cic. de Sen. Flor. i. 15, and 
supr. post annos seros, §t. It may 
be concluded from the laws pre- 
scribed to foreign nations, in 
imitation of the Romans, that ia 
after times the required age for a 
senator was not below thirty ; Cic. 
in Varr. 2, 49 ; Plin. Ep. x. 83. 

67. Medius. The most honor- 
able place, among many ; as it 
was also to walk inside if there 
were only two. See iS'a//. J^«^. II, 
Horat. Sat. ii. 5, 17. 

69. Verba quis, Sfc, TiXivrouet 
ii 01 vicoTaToif Xoyav f^iv ouoivcc Xe- 
yatTii, 'in ya^ Jjv.o'' utir^vi/riS r'o TS 
Fafiaiois TouTo, x,a.) vioj ouhii; IKU- 

Dionys. Halicarn. vii. 

71. Selectaque pectora. So 
Properlius; ' Pellitos habuit rus- 
tic» corda patres ;' and Virgil ; 
' — juvenes fortissiraa frustra Pec- 
tora.' Some copies read corpora. 

74. Tangor, Sfc. i. e. inducor ut 
credam. Forcel. Consuluisse. Con- 
sulted the divinity of their years. 

76. Sustinuisse. Withstood. 

77. Nee leve. June, as derived 
from^Mfenes, is advanced as ano- 
ther argument in favour of May 
having been derived from majores. 

238 FASTORUM, LIB. V. >■ 

Junius a juvenum nomine dictus habet. 
Turn sic, neglectos hedera redimita capillos, 

Prima sui coepit CalHopea cliori : 80 

Duxerat Oceanus quondam Titanida Tethyn, 

Qui terram liquidis, qua patet, ambit aquis. 
Hinc sata Plei'one cum caelifero Atlante 

Jungitur, ut fama est ; Plei'adasque parit. 
Quarum Maia suas forma superasse sorores 85 

Traditur, et summo concubuisse Jovi. 
Haec enixa jugo cupressiferae Cyllenes 

^theri\mi volucri qui pede carpit iter. 
Arcades hunc, Ladonque rapax, et Maenalos ingens 

Rite colunt, luna credita terra prior. 90 

Exul ah Arcadiis Latios Evander in agros 

Venerat ; impositos attuleratque Deos. 
Hie, ubi nunc Roma est orbis caput, arbor et herbae, 

Et paucae pecudes, et casa rara fuit. 
Q,ub postquam ventum ; Consistite, pra^scia mater, 95 

Nam locus imperii rus erit istud, ait. 
Et matri et vati paret Nonacrius heros ; 

Inque peregrina constitit hospes humo. 
Sacraque multa quidem, sed Fauni prima bicornis 

Has docuit gentes, alipedisque Dei. 100 

Semicaper, coleris cinctutis, Faune, Lupercis ; 

Cum lustrant celebres vellera secta vias. 
At tu materno donasti nomine mensem, 

The order of the text in construe- 87. Cijllenes. Fast. ii. N. 244. 
tion is, Et Junius successor, die- 89. Ladonque. Fast. ii. 242. K. 

tus a nomine juvenum, habet nan Manalos. Fast. ii. N. 160. 
leve pignus prcepositi ((|ui Maio 90. Lund credita prior. Fast. 

praecedenti d-itur) honoris. i. N. 419, et seq. 

80. Sui chori. This alludes to 92. Impositos. sc. navi. 

as many of her sister Muses as 97. Et matri etvati. i.e.matri 

were inclined to adopt the opi- pr^scice, hy tlie figure Hendiadys. 

jiion of their leader Calliope ; Nonacrius. Fast. ii. N. 243. 

three only having g^iven an opinion 99. Fauni bicornis. Ibid. N. 230. 

on thesuljject, itis to be supposed 101. Cinctutis. Wearing an 

that the rest were variously influ- apron, or erarment tied round the 

enced by tlie different conjectures, waist and descending helow the 

81. Titanida. Tcthys was so knees; the Luperci wore no 
called from her having been the other clothing, wlience they were 
sister of Titan, or Tit.-.nus, son called nudi. Fast. ii. 255, and de- 
of Ccelus or Uranus, and Vesta tecti, ibid. 269. 

or Terra; Fast. ii. 159. 102. Ciim lustra7it, Sfc. See 

83. Hi7ic sata, ^c. Fast. ii. N. Fast. ii. n. 31. 
372. 103. At tu, ^c. Hence, accord- 



Inventor curvae, furibus apte, fidis. 
Nee pietas haec prima tua est ; septena putaris, 

Pleiadum nutnerum, fila dedisse lyrae. 
Haec quoque desierat, laudataque voce sororum est. 

Quid faciam ? turbae pars habet omnis idem. 
Gratia Pieridum nobis aequaliter adsit ; 

Nullaque laudetur plusve minusve mihi. 




Ab Jove surgat opus : prima mihi nocte videnda 

Stella est in cunis officiosa Jovis. 
Nascitur Oleniae signum pluviale Capellas ; 

Ilia data coelum praemia lactis habet. 
Nais Amalthea Cretaea nobilis Ida 

Dicitur in silvis occuluisse Jovera. 
Huic fuit hasdorum mater Formosa duorum 

Inter Dictaeos conspicienda greges ; 
Cornibus aeriis, atque in sua terga recurvis ; 


ing to Calliope, the origin of the 
name May. 

104. Inoentor, SfC. Mercury 
was the inventor of the lyre, and 
the patron god of thieves ; fidis, 
is used hy prose writers in the 
plural only, indifferently by the 
poets; it had seven strings, 
whence infr. septena putaris, &c. 

108. Habet idem. sc. juris, or 
auctorilatis ; the poet acknow- 
ledgea himself to be at a loss 
what opinion to adopt as each of 
the Muses was entitled to the 
same authority and regard. 

111. Prima mihi, ^c. On the 
kalends of May the goat rises he- 

\ 12. In cunis officiosa. Kindly 
attentive to the infant years of 
.Jove; cunm, htevaWv, a cradle, is 
derived qu. cynce, from Gr. kuu, 

113. OlenicE. The goat, Ca- 
pella, was so called from Amal- 
thea having resided at Olenus, a 
town of Achaia in Peloponnesus, 
situated on the river Melas, be- 

tween Patra and Cyllene. Ac- 
cording to others, Olenus was » 
city of Bojotia in which Amal- 
thsea had been reared, whence 
Aratus ; 'ilXiv'ittv Ss /^iv xTya A(«j 
xa>.iovs' ii'TopiiTai. Pauaanlas men- 
tions Neda and Ithome as having 
been the nurses of the infant 
Jove while in the Dictsean cave ; 
to these some writers add Adras- 
tea, Apollon. Rhod. Argon, iii. 
and Ida, daughters of Melisseus, 
and sisters of the Curetes. Lac- 
tantius, De fals. reliy. mentions 
that Jupiter was nursed by Amal- 
thea and Melissa, daughters of 
Melisseus, king of Crete, upon 
goat's milk and honey. Amalthea 
is sometimes confounded with 
the goat by which Jove was 
suckled, and to which the nymph 
gave her own name, whence pro- 
bably the mistake arose. The 
goat and its two kids were chang- 
ed into stars by Jupiter; the goat, 
«4» appears in the shoulder, and 
the kids in the left hand of Au- 
riga, or 'Hvmxoi ; their rising and 



Ubere, quod nutrix posset habere Jovis. 
Lac dabat ilia Deo : sed fregit in arbore cornu, 

Truncaque dimidia parte decoris erat. 
Sustulit hoc Nyniphe ; cinctumque recentibus herbis, 

Et plonum pomis ad Jovis ora tulit. 
Ille, ubi res coeli teniiit, solioque paterno 

Sedit, et invicto nil Jove majus erat : 
Sidera nutricem, nutricis fertile cornu 

Fecit ; quod dominae nunc quoque nomen habet. 




Praestitibus Maia? Laribus videre Kalendae 
Aram constitui, signaque parva Deiim. 

Voverat ilia quidem Curius; sed multa vetustas 
Destruit, et saxo longa senecta nocet. 

Causa tamen positi fuerat cognominis illis, 
Quod prsestant oculis omnia tuta suis. 


setting were accompanied with 
rain and storm, Hyyin. Poet. As- 
tron. ii. 12, iii. 12, whence signum 

123. IVi/mphe. Amalthea. Re- 
centihus herbis. Theocrit. Idnll. 
xxvi. v=aS»iTT«/ /3»,««( arcE Jluribus 
herbisve recentibus vincia. 

127. Sidera nutricem, Sfc. He 
changed the goat and her horn 
into stars; <]uod domina. Sec. it 

was called xsoa; 'A//,aXhia.;, or 

cornu copifT, the horn of plenty. 
Compare Ovid. Mctam. ix. 85, 
et seq. 

129. Prcestitibus. Infr. 134. 
On tlie Kalends of May every 
year the public sacrifices were 
offered to the Lares. It appears 
that Augustus directed them to 
be pe;-formed twice in the year 
publicly, that the Lares might 
have the primitice, of the spring 
and summer flowers, Sueton. in 
vit. August. 31. and privately as 
often as the families over which 
they presided should happen to 
require their assistance. 

131. Curius. Manius Curius 
Deutatus, a noble Roman who 

held the consulship with P. , Cor- 
nelius Rufinus ; he triumphed 
first over the Samnites, to whose 
ambassadors, (who found him en- 
gaged in dressing some rape root,) 
when they sought to corrupt him 
with gold, he made the celebrated 
reply ; Curium malle imperare lo- 
cupletibus, cjuam locvpletem fieri : 
et qui in acie vinci nun posset, eum 
pecunia corrumpi non posse. He 
conquered the Sabines also, and 
obtained an ovation for his defeat 
of the Lucani. He drove Pyrrhus 
out of Italy, Eutrop. ii. 9 — 14. 
Horace represents him as wearing 
his hair undressed, in allusion, 
probably to the manners of the 
age in which he lived, when the 
refinements of after times were 
held in contempt; ' — incomtis 
Curium capillis Utilem hello.' 
Od. i. 12, 41. He was consi- 
dered as a pattern of frugality 
and courage, whence Juvenal; 
' Qui Curios simulant et Baccha- 
nalia vivunt.' 

132. Saxo. The stone of 
which the images of the Lares 
were made. 



Slant quoque pro nobis, et praesunt mcenibus Urbis ; 135 

Et sunt praesentes, auxiliumque ferunt. 
At canis ante pedes saxo fabricatus eodem 

Stabat : quae standi cum Lare causa fuit ? 
Servat uterque domum ; domino quoque fidus uterque : 

Compita grata Deo ; compita grata cani. 140 

Exagitant et Lar et turba Diania fures: 

Pervigilantque Lares, pervigilantque canes. 
Bina gemellorum quaerebam signa Deorum 

Viribus annosae facta caduca morae : 
Mille Lares, Geniumque Ducis, qui tradidit illos, 145 

Urbs habet : et vici numina trina colunt. 
Quo feror ? Augustus mensis mihi carminis hujus 

Jus dabit. Interea Diva canenda Bona est. 

141. Turba Diania. Dogs, 
which were sacred to Diana, as 
the goddess of the chase. 

143. Gemellorum Deorum. 
Fast. ii. 497. Qucerebam. I was 
at a loss, I was enquiring after. 

145. Mille Lares. A thousand 
statues of the Lares, a definite 
put for an indefinite number, 
■which succeeded the twin statues 
that had fallen to decay. Upon 
the passage of Horace, Sat. ii. 3, 
281, ' Libertinus erat qui circum 
compita siccus Lautis mane senex 
manibus currebat ;' Aero remarks, 
Augustum jussisse in compitis decs 
penates (Lares, id est deos domes- 
ticos. Porphyr.) constilui, ut stu- 
diosius colerentur. In every street 
there were the two statues of the 
Lares, with an image of Augus- 
tus, whence Geniumq. ducis, and 
vici trina numina colunt. By some 
commentators these latter phra- 
ses are supposed to allude to 
Mercury, the father of the Lares, 
Fast. ii. 495, but besides the 
compliment which the poet may 
in this instance be admitted to 
have paid Augustus with since- 
rity, the text is in favour of the 
interpretation as above ; trader e, 
est, offerre alicui tuendum, ornan- 
dum, Forcel. ' Compitales Lares 

ornare bis in anno instituit, ver- 
nis floribus et sestivis.' Sueton. 
Aug. 31, whence tradidit, 145, 
may be correctly explained by 
ornandos instituit. 

147. Augustus mensis. The 
month of August; so Juvenal, 
Sat. 3, 9, ' Augusto recitantes 
mense poetas.' Martial, Fpig. 
xii. G8. ' Augustus redit idibus 

148. Diva Bona. Gr. 'Ayafh 
6ia ; the earth was worshipped 
under this appellation by the Ro- 
mans, becau^e it supplied man- 
kind with all the requisites for 
existence, whence Sana Dca 
is considered synonymous with 
Fauna, afavendo, Fatua, afando, 
quod infantes partu editi non 
prius vocem edunt quam terram 
attigerint ; Forcel. and Ops, ab 
ope ferenda. By some she is iden- 
tified with Maia, by others with 
Juno, or Seniele ; according to 
Varro, Bona Dea was the daugh- 
ter of Faunus, and so strictly 
chaste, that she never left her 
apartment, yuvaixciinrr,; , never saw 
a man, nor was seen by one ; con- 
sequently men were forbidden to 
enter her temple, or be present 
at her sacrifices, which were per- 
formed in secret and by women 




Est moles nativa : loco res nomina fecit. 

Appellant saxum : pars bona montis ea est. 1 50 

Huic Remus institerat frustra, quo tempore fratri 

Prima Palatinae signa dedistis aves. 
Templa Patres illic, oculos exosa viriles, 

Leniter acclivi constituere jugo. 
Dedicat haec veteris Clausorum nominis heres, 155 

Virgineo nullum corpore passa virum. 
Livia restituit ; ne non imitata maritum 

Esset, et ex omni parte secuta virum. 


Postera cum roseam pulsis Hyperionis astris 

In matutinis lampada tollit equis ; 160 

Frigidus Argestes summas mulcebit aristas, 
Candidaque a Calabris vela dabuntur aquis. 

only. The sanctity c. her rites 
was profaned by P. Clodius, who 
was enamoured of Csesar's second 
wife, Pompeia, one of the priest- 
esses of the goddess, and obtained 
admission to the deity's sanctuary 
disguised as a woman. He was 
discovered, however, and driven 
out by Aurelia, Caesar's mother ; 
Sueton. in Cces. 6, and 74. Cicero 
dwells strongly upon this crimi- 
nality of Clodius, in his oration 
in defence of Milo. Sacrifices 
were offered to this deity on the 
kalends of May, in the house of 
the consuls and praetors, to pro- 
pitiate her good will towards the 
Roman people ; a pregnant sow 
was the u-.ual victim. 

149. Moles nativa. A natural 
rock ; Heroid. ep. 5, 61, ' Adspi- 
cit immensum moles nativa pro- 
fundum; Mons fuit." the poet 
proceeds to describe the temple 
of Bona Dea on the Aventine hill. 

152. PalaliiicE ('^•es. The twelve 
vultures which R ,iiulus saw and 
accepted as a favorable augury, 
were so called from his having 
chosen the Palatine hill for his 
place of observation. 

153. Oculos exosa viriles. Supr. 
N. 148. 

155. Veteris Clausorum, Sfc. 
See Fast. iv. 279; there is no 
reason for doubting that the same 
person is intended by both pas- 
sages. The temple was built by 
Claudia, and restored by Livia, 
who desired not to be surpassed 
by her husband in zeal and respect 
for her country's deities. 

159. Postera. vi. Non. Mai. 

161. Aryestes. Called also la- 
pyx ; the north-west wind ; fabled 
to be the son of Aurora. Mulce- 
bit. Seneca, v. Qucest. natur. c. 16, 
draws the following distinction 
between the winds of Corus, and 
Argestes, which are frequently 
identified, the former being con- 
sidered the Latin name for the 
latter ; ' Cori vioienta vis est, et 
in unum partem rapax ; Argestes 

fere mollis est, et tarn euntibus 
communis, quam redeuntibus.' 
Miscehit. Sarrav. concuticndo enini 
miscet aristas, Burman. vndcebit, 
i. e. leviter agitabit, motabit. For- 
cel. So Cicer. in Arat. 88, ' Igni- 
ferum mulcens tremebundis «Mera 
jjennis,' ivinnowing the air. Fast. 
i. 155. 

162. Calabris aquis. Calabria 
lay to the south-east of Italy ; 
Brundisium, one of its principal 




At simul inducunt obscura crepuscula noctem ; 

Pars Hyadum toto de grege nulla latet. 
Ora micant Tauri septem radiantia flammis, 

Navita quas Hyadas Graius ab imbre vocat. 
Pars Bacchum nutrisse putat : pars credidit esse 


cities, was remarkable for the ac- 
commodation and security of its 
extensive harbour; the ordinary 
passage from Italy to Greece was 
from this port to Dyrrachium ; 
whence Horace in his ode to the 
vessel in which Virgil embarked 
for Athens ; ' Sic te diva potens 
Cypri, sic fratres Helense lucida 
sidera, Ventorumque regat pater, 
astrictis aliis prseter lapyga :' 
Od. i. 1, 1. et seq. 

163. At simul inducunt, Sec. 
According to the poet, the Hya- 
des rise acronycally ; in this he 
varies from the more correct au- 
thorities who assert their heliacal 
rising to be on the vi. Non. Mai. ; 
so Pliny, xviii. 66, ' vi. Non. Mail. 
Csesari Suculse matutino oriuntur.' 

164. Pars Hyadum. The poet 
proceeds to discuss in the follow- 
ing lines the origin of the Hyades ; 
they appear to have been so call- 
ed by the Greeks from Gr. unv, 
pluere, in consequence of the 
storms that accompany their ris- 
ing and setting. They are also 
called Sucula, a name which ori- 
ginated in the ignorance of the 
ancient Romans, who supposed 
that the constellation was so 
called from its resemblance to 
the figure of a small sow, sucula, 
dimin. from sus, as bucula from 
60s, in the Greek was ; this error 
was exposed and refuted by Ci- 
cero, /. ii. de Nat. Dear. c. 43, 
' Tauri caput stellis conspersum 
est frequentibus. Has Grseci 
Stellas icclcc; vocitare suerunt; a 
pluendo, ȣ/> enim est pluere. 

Nostri imperite Suculas, quasi a 
suibus essent, non ab imbribus 
nominatae.' A sagacious German 
critic wishes to infer an allusion 
to the name sucula, from toto de 
grege, supr. the application of 
grex however is not to be so limit- 
ed ; Cic. pro. Sull. 28. ' Hones- 
tissimorum hominum greges ;' 
De Orat. i. 10. ' Philosophorum 
greges;' Id. Attic, ep. i. 18. 
' Amicorum greges ;' Horat. Ep, 
i. 9, in fin, ' Scribe tui gregis 
hunc ;' i. e. recipe inter tuos am- 
icos, ForceL Senec. in Irond. 138. 
' Grex regum ;' Sil. vii. 58, 
' Grex ille virorum ;' from which 
it would appear that grex might 
be applied to the assemblage of 
stars which form a constellation, 
independent of any forced con- 
ceit. Another origin of the term 
Hyades is said to be the resem- 
blance in the disposition of the 
stars to the Greek letter T; 

I Go. Ora micant Tauri, ifc. 
The seven stars which constitute 
the Hyades being placed in the 
head of Taurus ; Schol. German. 
Tauro. ' In signo autem Tauri 
frons et facies Hyades appellan- 

167. Pars Bacchum nutrisse. 
According to some authorities, 
these seven stars were originallv 
nymphs of Dodona in Epirus, 
nurses of the infant Bacchus, 
who, dreading the resentment of 
Juno and the cruelty of Lycur- 
gus, were translated by Jupiter 
to the skies. Schol. Horn, ad Iliad, 
xviii. 486, i-l^'.xuir,! Vi t«,- TaJa? 



Tethyos has neptes, Oceanique senis. 
Nonclum stabat Atlas, humeros oneratus Olympo; 

Cum satus est forma conspiciendus Hyas. 170 

Hunc stirps Oceani maturis nisibus ^thra 

Edidit, et Nymphas : sed prior ortus Hyas. 
Dum nova lanugo ; pavidos ibrmidine cervos 

Terret, et est illi praeda benigna lepus. 
At postquam virtus annis adolevit ; in apros 175 

Audet, et hirsutas cominus ire feras. 
Dumque petit latebras foetae catulosque leaenae ; 

Ipse fuit Libycae praeda cruenta ferae. 
Mater Hyan, et Hyan mcestae flevere sorores, 

Cervicemque polo suppositurus Atlas. 1 80 

Victus uterque parens taraen est pietate sororum : 

Ilia dedit ccelum : nomina fecit Hyas. 


Mater, ades, florum, ludis celebrata jocosis ; 

Distideram partes mense priore tuas. 
Incipis Aprili : transis in Tempora Maii. 185 

Alter te fugiens, cum venit alter, habet. 

168. Tethyos neptes. Some 
suppose the Hyades to have been 
the granddaughters of Tethys and 
Oceanus, whose daughter, Stirps 
Oceani, &c. infr. .^thra, was 
married to Atlas. 

169. Nondum stabat. In allu- 
sion to his having been changed 
into a mountain ; see Fast. ii. N. 

172. Nymphas. The Hyades. 

178. Libycce ferce. According 
to some, Hyas died in conse- 
quence of a sting from an adder. 

182. Ilia. sc. pietas. 

183. 3Iater florum. Flora; 
i^a«^ iv. 911. Ludis jocosis. The 
games in honour of this deity 
were checked at last from their 
extreme depravity. 

186. Alter te fugiens, §-c. The 
one, April, engages you at its 
close, fugiens, the other, May, at 

its approach, cum venit. The Flo- 
ralia began April 28th, and end- 
ed May 3d ; they were instituted 
about the age of Romulus, but 
Flora had been worshipped by 
the Sabines long before the build- 
ing of Rome, and likewise among 
the Phoceans previous to the 
same period. Tatius was the first 
who built a temple to her at 
Rome. According to Lactantius, 
i. c. 20, Flora was a celebrated 
courtezan who left the Roman 
people heir to her unbounded 
wealth, on condition that her 
birth-day should continue to be 
celebrated by a festival to be 
called Floralia, or Ludi Florales; 
the senate, however, became 
ashamed of the character to 
which they were thus bound to 
acknowledge their obligations, 
and taking the hint from her 
name, they appointed a deity by 
the same title, who was to be 



Cum tua sint, cedantque tibi confinia mensuni ; 

Convenit in laudes ille vel ille tuas. 
Circus in hunc exit, clamataque palma theatris : 

Hoc quoque cum Circi munere carmen eat. 
Ipsa doce quae sis : hominum sententia fallax. 

Optima tu proprii nominis auctor eris. 
Sic ego, sic nostris respondit Diva rogatis ; 

Dum loquitur, vernas efflat ab ore rosas. 
Chloris eram, quae Flora vocor. Corrupta Latino 

Nominis est nostri littera Graeca sono. 
Chloris eram, Nymphe campi felicis, ubi audis 



worshipped as the goddess of 
gardens and flowers. This festi- 
val was not much attended to 
until u. c. 580. 

187. Confinia mensum. The 
end of one month and the be- 
ginning of the other; so that 
either of the two, ille vel ille, is 
equally suitable for the poet's 
purpose, the praise of the god- 
dess, Convenit in laudes, &c. 

189. Circus. That in which 
the festival of Flora was cele- 
brated was in the sixth quartier 
of the city ; it is used in the text 
for the festival itself; in hunc 
exit, ends in this month, May. 
Clamataque. sc. celebrata ; so 
StHtius, Theb. vi. 557, ' Et bis 
in Isthmiaca victor clamatus arena 

190. Munere. This term is 
applied to shows, spectacles, and 
public sights or entertainments, 
exhibited by the magistrates at 
Rome, chiefly by the ^diles ; 
they were sometimes exhibited 
by private persons, who, during 
the days of their celebration, 
were invested with the insignia 
of magistracy ; such were called 
munerar a or muneratores, editor es; 
' Munera nunc edunt — ' Juvenal. 
and domini. These shows, &c. 
were called munera, ' quia tan- 
quam dona dabantur populo in 
remunerationem accept! ab eo 
honoris.' Furcel. 

194. Vernas efflat ab ore rosas. 
' Flushed by the Spirit of the genial year. 
Her lips blush deeper sweets, she breathes 

of youth.' 


195. Chloris. Gr. XXw^/j from 
^Xa/oos, viridis, th. x^'" herba ; 
whence Flora, by changing the 
Greek X, ch, into *, ph, or F, a 
form observable in other Latin 
words of Greek origin, Fundo. 
Futilis, &c. ; it has been noticed 
in other lantruages also by Wach- 
ter ; " The English quiver s'prung 
from the German hocher, ch. being 
changed into/; or (which has the 
same power) into v." Again ; 
" Liflen, to lift, from Be]g. lichten, 
ch. is often changed into Jl" — 

Valpy's Lat. Etym. Die. in voc. 
] 97. Nymphe campi felicis. Flora 
was a field nymph before she be- 
came the goddess of gardens ; 
her occupations were not much 
changed by her appointment to 
the latter province, the gardens 
of the Romans in the Augustan 
age having owed but little to art 
or cultivation. In the time of the 
younger Pliny more care and at- 
tention was bestowed upon them, 
and the garden beds were dressed 
and bordered with cut box ; it 
was about this period also that 
the fountain of Egeria underwent 
the change of which Juvenal 
complains, Sat. 3, 20. Spence 
supposes the garden of Flora to 



Rem fortunatis ante fuisse viris. 
Quae fuerit mihi forma, grave est narrare modestae ; 

Sed generum matri repperit ilia deum. 200 

Ver erat : errabam ; Zephyrus conspexit ; abibam. 

Insequitur ; f ugio : fortior ille fViit. 
Et dederat fratri Boreas jus omne rapinae, 

Ausus Erechthea praemia ferre domo. 
Vim tamen emendat dando mihi nomina nuptse : 205 

Inque meo non est ulla querela toro. 
Vere truer semper ; vere est nitidissimus annus. 

Arbor habet frondes, pabula semper humus. 
Est mihi fecundus dotalibus hortus in agris. 

Aura fovet ; liquidae fonte rigatur aquae. 210 

Hunc meus implevit generoso flore maritus: 

Atque ait, Arbitrium tu, dea, floris habe. 
Saepe ego digestos volui numerare colores ; 

Nee potui. Numero copia major erat. 
Roscida cum primum foliis excussa pruina est, 215 

Et variae radiis intepuere comae ; 
Conveniunt pictis incinctae vestibus Horae, 

have been the paradise of the 
Roman mythology ; the Romans 
probably derived their notions of 
it from the Greeks, who appear 
to have embodied their concep- 
tions of it in the garden of Alci- 
nous. It would appear to have 
been shadowed out in the Hes- 
perides of the Africans, whose 
site is accurately described by 
Pliny, xix. 4, ' In Mauritania 
Lixi oppidi asstuario : ubi Hespe- 
ridum horti fuisse produutur : 
200 passuum ab oceano ; juxta 
delubrum Herculis, antiquius Ga- 
ditano ut ferunt.' In tiie east 
tbev had the gardens of Adonis, 
to which also Pliny alludes ; 
' Antiquitas nihil prius mirata 
est, quam Hesperidum hortos, ac 
regum Adonis et Alcinoi,' ibid. 
The term Horti Adonides was 
used by the ancients to signify 
gardens of pleasure, which agrees 
exactly with the import of para- 
dise, or the garden of Eden ; as 
Horti Adonis does with the gar- 
den of the Lord. Po/^meJJs. 251,n. 

203. Fratri. Zephyr. 

204. Ausus Erecthea. Boreas 
having carried away Orithyia, 
daughter of Erectheus king of 

213. Sape ego, ^-c. 
' — The living herbs, profusely wild. 
O'er all the deep green earth, beyond the 

Of botanist to number up their tribes ; — 
With such a liberal hand has nature flung 
Their seeds abroad, blown them about in 

Innumerous mixed them with the nurs- 
ing mould. 
The moistening current, and prolitic rain. ' 
215. Pruina. Hoar frost, from 
Gr. voai'ivri, matutina ; ' Matuti- 
nseve prunise.' Ovid. 

217. Hora. See Fast. i. N. 125. 
The Hours were represented as 
clothed in embroidered robes, 
whence pictis incincta vestibus, 
&c. Some copies read pictis Jio- 
ribus, as Alcrous calls the Hours 
ff'7i(pcc-jyi(po^oi and Pindar, rroXuiiv- 
(ifioi, but these epithets may al- 
lude to the flowers interwoven in 



Inque leves calathos munera nostra legunt. 
Protinus arripiunt Charites ; nectuntque coronas, 

Sertaque, coelestes implicitura comas, 220 

Prima per immensas sparsi nova semina gentes. 

Unius tellus ante coloris erat. 
Prima Therapnseo feci de sanguine florem : 

Et manet in folio scripta querela suo. 
Tu quoque nomen habes cultos, Narcisse, per hortos : 225 

Infelix, quod non alter et alter eras ! 
Quid Crocon, aut Attin referam, Cinyraque creatum ; 

their garments ; whence Orpheus, 

avaKTos, Etiv»j«/» tj, Aikti ri, Kal 
'Eionvn toXuoa/S»», XlfrXavs ivvv/iivai 

218. Munera. Flowers, &c. 

219. Charites. The Graces 
were three in number, Aglaia, 
Thalia, and Euphrosyne ; they 
were the daughters of Jupiter 
and Eurynome, or of Bacciius 
and Venus. They were repre- 
sented naked, and twined in each 
other's arms ; whence Horace , 
• Segnesque nodum solvere Gra- 
tis ;' and Seneca, (who discusses 
their characters and provinces at 
length, de Benif. i. 3) ' llle con- 
sertis mauibus in se redeuntium 
chorus.' Eteocles was the first, 
(in the opinion of his country- 
men, who assigned them their 
number, three) who sacrificed to 
the Graces ; the Lacedemonians 
reckoned only two, Clita and 
Phoena. In the remote periods of 
antiquity they were represented 
as clothed. Pausanias could not 
discover by whom they were first 
e.xhibited naked. Dymock's Bib- 
liolh. Class. For arripiunt, some 
copies read accedunt, others, ac- 

221. Prima per immensas, S^'C. 
' Oft let me wander o'er the dewy fields — 
And see tlie country, far dift'us'd around, 
One boundless blush, one white empur- 
pled flower 
Of mingled blossoms ; where the raptured 

Hurries from joy to joy, and hid beneath 
The fair profusion, yellow Autumn lies.' 

223. TherapncEO sanguine. In 
allusion to Hyaciuthus ; see Fast. 
iv. 413 ; who was born at Amy- 
clae, a town founded by his father 
Amyclas, in the vicinity of The- 
rapnas in Laconia. According to 
Apollodorus, he was the son of 
Venus and Adonis. In remem- 
brance of his untimely death, the 
Spartans celebrated a yearly fes- 
tival, Hyacinthia annua sacra, in 
spring, or as some say, in sum- 
mer. Ovid. Metam. x. 19. 

225. JSarcisse. Son of the river 
Cephisus and the nymph Ly- 
riope ; while quenching his thirst 
at a fountain he became enamour- 
ed of his own reflection in the 
water, and gradually pined away 
under the influence of his una- 
vailing passion, until he was 
changed into a flower which bore 
his name. Pliny derives it from 
va^xr,, torpor, because its scent 
induces sleep ; xxi. 5 ; and v. 9. 

226. Alter et alter. One of two, 
and different or distinct from the 
other ; the poet means to say that 
Narcissus was unfortunate in his 
shadow not having a separate ex- 
istence and independent of his 

own. Alter, qu. «XXaj 'iri^o;. 

Fest. or alius eorum. Ihre. 

227. Crocon. A youth ena- 
moured of the nymph Smilax; 
he was changed into a flower of 


De quorum per me vulnere surgit honor ? 
Mars quoque, si nescis, per nostras editus artes. 

Jupiter hoc ut adhuc nesciat, usque precor. 230 

Sancta Jovem Juno, nata sine matre Minerva, 

Officio doluit non eguisse suo. 
Ibat, ut Oceano quereretur facta mariti ; 

Restitit ad nostras fessa labore fores. 
Quam simul adspexi ; Quid te, Saturnia, dixit, 2.35 

Attulit ? exponit, quem petat, ilia locum. 
Addidit et causam. Verbis solabar aniicis 

Non, inquit, verbis cura levanda mea est. 
Si pater est factus neglecto conjugis usu 

Jupiter, et nomen solus utrumque tenet ; 240 

Cur ego desperem fieri sine conjuge mater : 

Et parere intacto, dummodo casta, viro ? 
Omnia tentabo latis medicamina terris ; 

Et freta, Tartareos excutiamque sinus. 
Vox erat in cursu : vultum dubitantis habebam. 24.5 

Nescio quid, Nymphe, posse videris, ait. 
Ter volui promittere opem, ter lingua retenta est : 

Ira Jovis magni causa timoris erat. 
Per, precor, auxilium, dixit ; celabitur auctor : 

Et Stygiae numen testificatur aqua?. 250 

the same name, and Smilax into him after he had been killed by a 

a yew-tree. Ovid. Met. iv. 283. wild boar, into an anemone. 
Attin. A younor Phrygian with 229. Mars quoque, S'c, Fast. ii. 

whom Cybele fell passionately in N. 743 ; the poet proceeds to ac- 

love ; she prevailed on him to count for the birth of Mars, 
swear that he would continue al- 230. Ut adhuc nesciat. Lest his 

ways chaste, but having' violated indignation should be provoked, 
his vow with the nymph Sagari- "231. Sine matre. Having sprung- 

tis, the goddess struck him with from the head of Jove, 
madness, and he inflicted a wound 240. Zftnayiqtie. Of either pa- 

upon himself, from which the rent. 

blood that fell was changed into 244. Tartareos sinus. • Fiec- 

a violet. He was changed into tere si nequeo superos Acheronta 

a pine tree. Cinyraque creatum. movebo.' Viry. u'Eneid,\\\.ii\'2. 
Adonis, son of Cinyras king of 245. Vox erat in cursu, i.e. She 

Cyprus, by his daughter Myrrha. was in the midst of her speech; 

Some say that he was the son of < in cursu ipso orationis ;' Cic. ,- 

Thoas, king of Assyria and iWyr- when Flora evinced by her looks 

rha ; Hesiod makes him the son the possibility of her assisting 

of Phcenix and Alphesiboca. He Juno's design, while she hesitated 

was singularly beautiful, and be- to promise through her apprehen- 

loved by Venus, who changed sion of Jupiter's anger. 



Quod petis, Oleniis, inquam, mihi missus ab arvis 

Flos dabit. Est hortis unicus ille meis. 
Qui dabat, Hoc, dixit, sterilem quoque tange juvencam ; 

Mater erit. Tetigi ; nee mora, mater erat. 
Protinus hserentem decerpsi poUice florem. 255 

Tangitur : et tacto concipit ilia sinu. 
Jamque gravis Thracen, et laeva Propontidos intrat : 

Fitque potens voti ; Marsque creatus erat. 
Qui memor accepti per me natalis, Habeto 

Tu quoque Romulea, dixit, in Urbe locum. 
Forsitan in teneris tantum mea regna coronis 

Esse putes. Tangunt numen et arva meum. 
Si bene floruerint segetes ; erit area dives. 

Si bene floruerit vinea ; Bacchus erit. 
Si bene floruerint ole^e, nitidissimus annus; 

Pomaque proventum temporis hujus habent. 
Flore semel lasso pereunt viciaeque fabaeque : 

Et pereunt lentes, advena Nile, tuae. 



251. Quod petis, Sfc. ' The 
aid which you require a flower 
shall afford, sent to me from the 
Olenian field ;' so called from 
Olenus in Achaia. 

257. Thracen. So called from 
Thrax a son of Mars, or from 
•roa;t;«j, asper, from the character 
of its inhabitants, who are thus 
described by Pomponius IVIela, 
ii. c. 2, — ' feros homines, aspero 
cultu et indecenti : ceterum fe- 
roces, immitesque et ad bella pro- 
clives. Quare poetse inter eos ha- 
bitare Martem, et ab iis prsecipue 
coli dicunt ;' it is now called 
Romania. Propontidos. Now the 
sea of Marmora ; it was so called 
from its being the entrance, ^rgo, 
ante, to the Pontus Euxinus ; it 
formed part of the eastern boun- 
dary of Thrace, whence lava 
Propont, &c. 

261. Forsitan in teneris, ^'c. 
Flora asserts that her influence 
is not confined to the produce of 
the garden, or coronary flowers ; 
she claims a wider field for her 
dominion and agency. 

265. Si bene floruerint olece, 
^c. Compare Virg. Georg. i. 187. 
Nitidissimus. Nitidi dicuntur un- 
guentis delibuti ; unguenta enim 
nitent. Hinc nitidus annus apud, 
Ovid, qui oleo abundat ; Forcel. 
in voc. 

268. Lentes. Lens.-tis. f. Len- 
tils, a species of pulse, ' Nee 
Pelusiacae curam aspernabere len- 
tis," Virg. Georg. i. 228; that 
which grew in Pelusium, a town 
of Egypt, which gave name to 
one of the seven mouths of the 
Nile, was considered of the best 
description. Advena. The Nile 
was so called because its source 
was in .35thiopa, which Philos- 
tratus said was possessed of its 
springs, as Egypt was of its 
mouths. The Nile runs in a 
straight course from Ethiopia, 
northward to the place named 
Delta ; or according to Hero- 
dotus, to Cercasorum, a town si- 
tuated at the point or vortex of 
the Delta; as Plato calls it; 
where the river divides itself into 
two channels; the right, or east, 



Vina quoque in magnis operose condita cellis 

Florent : et nebulae dolia summa tegunt. 270 

Mella meum munus. Volucres ego mella daturas 

Ad violam, et cytisos, et thyma cana voco. 
Nos quoque idem facimus tunc cum juvenilibus annis 

Luxuriant animi, corporaque ipsa virent. 
Talia dicentem tacitus mirabar. At ilia, 275 

Jus tibi discendi, si qua requiris, ait. 
Die, Dea, ludorum, respond!, quae sit origo. 

Vix bene desieram ; rettulit ilia mihi. 
Caetera luxuriae nondum instrumenta vigebant : 

Aut pecus, aut latam dives habebat humum. 280 

Hinc etiam locuples, hinc ipsa pecunia dicta est. 

Sed jam de vetito quisque parabat opes. 
Venerat in morem populi depascere saltus : 

which leads to Pelusium, and 
the left, or west, which leads to 
Canopus. With regard to the 
number of its channels and its 
mouths, authors are not agreed ; 
Aristotle making all the mouths, 
except the Canopic, artificial, 
while Herodotus ascribes five out 
of the seven to nature. 

269. Vina florent. In allusion 
to the scum on the surface of 
new wine; Cato. R. R. xiv. 21. 
' Flos vini candidus probatur ;' 
h. e. spuma tenuis vino innatans ; 
Forcel. in which sense nebula is 
also to be understood. 

271. Volucres, The bees. 

272. Cytisos. From various 
passages in the Eclogues of Vir- 
gil, it would appear that this plant 
was grateful to both bees and 
goats. It is generally allowed to 
be the Cytisus Maranthse, the 
wood of which is described by 
Theophrastus as hard and thick, 
bearing the closest resemblance 
to ebony ; whence the Turks use 
it when the plant has grown old, 
for the handles of their sabres, 
and the monks of Patmos for 
their beads. Thyma. The thyme 
of the ancients is essentially dis- 
tinct from the plant which is 

known by that name in this 
country ; the former abounded 
upon the mountains of Greece, 
which were celebrated for the 
exquisite fragrance and flavour of 
their honey. 

273. Idem facimus. sc. flore- 

279. Catera, Sfc. Flora pro- 
ceeds to account for the origin of 
the games which were celebrated 
in her honour. Instrumenta. Ap- 
pliances ; money, &c. 

280. Aut pecus, Sfc. Property 
consisted either of cattle or land; 
whence locuples, from locus taken 
in the sense of ager and plenus ,- 
qu. plenus agrorum, or cui pleni 
sunt agri ,- and pecunia, which is 
derived from pecu, the first coin 
at Rome having been stamped 
with the figure of cattle ; or be- 
cause it was given in exchange for 
cattle as the chief commodity, or 
because it was first made of the 
hide of cattle ; whence Seneca ; 
' Qui aureos debet, et qui corium 
forma publica percussum, quale 
apud Lacedsemonios fuit, quod 
usum numerate /)ec«?n'ffi pra3Stat.' 

282. Sed jam de vetito, Sfc. See 

283. Populi saltus. The pascua. 



Idque diu licuit, pcenaque nulla fuit. 
Vindice servabat nullo sua publica vulgus : 285 

Jamque in privato pascere inertis erat. 
Plebis ad aediles delata licentia talis 

Publicios : animus defuit ante viris. 
Rem populus recipit : mulctam subiere nocentes. 

Vindicibus laudi publica cura fuit. 290 

Mulcta data est ex parte mihi : magnoque favore 

Victores ludos instituere novos. 
Parte locant clivum, qui tunc erat ardua rupes. 

Utile nunc iter est ; Publiciumque vocant. 
Annua credideram spectacula facta : negavit : 295 

public pastures or land ; every 
thing from which the public re- 
venues were raised ; so Pliny, 
xviii. 3, ' Etiam nunc in Tabulis 
Censoriis pascua dicuntur omnia, 
ex quibus populus reditus habet, 
quia diu hoc solum vectigal fu- 
erat.' Depascere. To consume by 
feeding upon, to depasture ; a 
trespass upon the public proper- 
ty countenanced by superior in- 
terest and favour, which by long 
sufferance had become an estab- 
lished custom, to the prejudice of 
the state. 

285. Publica. Many copies 
read pabula, but the former is 
preferable, both because of pri- 
vato in the line following, and 
loca publica, or publica simply, 
being in frequent use among the 
writers upon the property and 
revenues of the Romans. 

286. In privato. The privilege 
of the public pastures having 
been withdrawn, it only remained 
for the feeble and spiritless, in- 
ertis erat, &c. to confine their 
cattle to their own private and 
inadequate estate. 

287. JEcliles Publicios. Two 
brothers, L. M. Publicii Malleoli, 
./Ediles of the people ; iufr. 291 
and 294. 

288. Ante. They had not the 
courage in the first instance to 

taice up the subject with the 
promptness it deserved. 

291. Mulcta data est, Sfc. With 
which a temple was built, and 
games instituted ; so Tacitus, 
Annul, ii. ' lisdem temporibus 
(a. u. 769) Deum sedes vetustate 
aut igni abolitas, coeptasque ab 
Augusto dedicavit ; Libero, Li- 
beraeque et Cereri, juxta Circum 
Maximum, quas A. Postumius 
Dictator voverat ; eodemque in 
loco aedem Florae, ab Lucio et 
Marco Publiciis ^dilibus con- 
stitutam,' (a.u.5I3) and in whose 
consulship appears from Pater- 
culus ; ' Torquato Sempronioque 
Consulibus, Brundisium coloniis 
occupatum, et post triennium 
Spoletium : quo anno Floralium 
ludorum factum est initiura.' 

292. Victores. sc. .^diles. 

293. Clivum. sc. Capitolinum. 
It was let on condition that it 
should be levelled for a carriage- 

294. Publiciumque. Varro, de 
L. Z. iv. ' Clivus Publicius, ab 
.^dilibus plebei Publiciis, qui 
eum publice aedificarunt. Simili 
de causa Publicius vicus et Cos- 
conius vicus, quod ab his viris 
dicuntur aedificati.' 

295. Negavit. For sixty-six 
years previous to the time at 
which the goddess is supposed to 



Addidit et dictis altera verba suis. 
Nos quoque tangit honos : testis gaudemus, ct aris : 

Turbaque ccelestes anibitiosa sumus. 
Saepe deos aliquis peccando fecit iniquos : 

Et pro delictis hostia blanda tuit. 300 

Saepe Jovem vidi, cum jam sua mittere vellet 

Fulmina, ture dato sustinuisse manum. 
At si negligimur, magnis injuria pcenis 
"^ Solvitur : et justum praeterit ira modum. 
Respice Thestiaden ; flammis absentibus arsit. 305 

Causa est, quod Phoebes ara sine igne fuit. 
Respice Tantaliden ; eadem dea vela tenebat. 

Virgo est, et spretos bis tamen ulta focos. 
Hippolyte infelix, velles coluisse Dionen, 

Cum consternatis diripereris equis. 310 

Longa referi'e mora est correcta oblivia damnis. 

Me quoque Romani praeteriere Patres. 
Quid facerem ? per quod fierem manifesta doloris ? 

have spoken, her festival bad 
not been celebrated ; the poet 
describes how this neglect was 
visited upon her careless wor- 

305. Thestiaden. Meleager, 
grandson of Thestius, by his 
mother's side, son of CEneus and 
Althaea : at his birth, the Parcse 
informed his mother that he would 
live until the piece of wood then 
burning on the fire was consumed; 
upon which she removed the fag- 
got, and preserved it with the 
utmost care. Meleager having 
killed the wild boar at the hunt 
of Calydon, Horn. Iliad, ix. gave 
its skin to Atalanta, who had 
first wounded it, and of which his 
maternal uncles having attempted 
to deprive her, were slain by Me- 
leager. Althsea having been in- 
formed of her brother's death, 
threw into the fire the piece of 
wood upon which her son's life 
depended, and he expired imme- 
diately on its being destroyed; 
whence flammis absentibus, &c. 

She afterwards killed herself 
through grief; Ovid. Metam. viii. 
446 et seq. 

306. Quud Phoebes ara, §-c. 
See Homer, Iliad, ix. 

307. Tantaliden. Agamemnon, 
the great grandson of Tantalus. 
Vela tenebat. See Fast. i. N. 387. 

308. Virgo est et spretos, Sfc. 
With all the gentleness of a 
maiden, she still had the spirit 
to avenge the insults oifered to 
her dignity. 

309. Hippolyte. Proverbial for 
his contempt of Venus and her 
worshippers; Eurip. Hipp. 102, 
Tlpiffti/^iv aurm ayvo; an a.ff'Tdi.Cjai/.a.t ; 
and, 113; T'/jv o-jjv oi Y^-vit^it ^oXX' 
lyui ;(;a/j£iv Xkyia ; see Fast. iii. N. 

313. Fierem manifesta doloris. 
' By what means could I shew 
symptoms of my displeasure ;' 
the genitive is highly emphatic in 
its dependance on manifesta ; so 
Sallust, in Jug. 39, ' Manifestus 
sceleris;' and in Catil. 56, extr. 
' Manifesti rerum capitalium.' 

SEXT. NON. MAI. 253 

Exigerem nostrae qualia damna notae ? 
Excidit officium tristi mihi. Nulla tuebar 315 

Rura : nee in pretio f'ertilis hortus erat. 
Lilia deciderant : violas arere videres, 

Filaque punieei languida facta croei. 
Saepe mihi Zephyrus, Dotes corrumpere noli 

Ipsa tuas, dixit : dos mihi vilis erat. 320 

Florebant oleae ; venti nocuere protervi. 

Florebant segetes ; grandine isesa Ceres. 
In spe vitis erat ; coelum nigrescit ab Austris, 

Et subita frondes decutiuntur aqua. 
Nee volui fieri, nee sum crudelis in ira : 325 

Cura repellendi sed mihi nulla fuit. 
Convenere Patres : et, si bene floreat annus, 

Numinibus nostris annua festa vovent. 
Annuimus voto. Consul cum consule ludos 

Postumio Laenas persoluere mihi. 330 

Quaerere conabar, quare lascivia major 

His foret in ludis, liberiorque jocus : 
Sed mihi succurrit, numen non esse severum, 

Aptaque deliciis munera ferre deam. 
Tempora sutilibus cinguntur tota coronis ; 335 

Et latet injecta splendida mensa rosa. 
Ebrius incinctis philyra conviva capillis 

Saltat, et imprudens utitur arte meri. 
Ebrius ad durum formosae limen amicae 

Cantat ; habent unctae mollia serta comae. 340 

Nulla coronata peraguntur seria fronte ; 

Nee liquidae vinctis flore bibuntur aquae. 
Donee eras mistus nuUis, Acheloe, racemis; 

314. Nota. Disgrace ; Senec. consulship of L. Posthumius 
in Here. Fur. 634, ' Hanc ferat Albinus and M. Popilius Laenas. 
virtus notam.' 335. Sutilibus coronis. ' Ex 

315. Excidit officium, ^-c. In- rosarum foliis consutis factae^' 
dignant at her ill-treatment, Flora Forcel. ; called by Hesychius, 
ceased t© exeixise her cherish- f,a.u/u,aTa dv^iva, from px^^rrru, con- 
ing care over that portion of na- suo. For tota Heinsius proposes 
ture, assigned as her dower by pota, i. e. potu madida. 
Zephyrus, and which was in- 337. Philyra. The inner bark 
debted to her constant protection of the linden. 

for its bloom and beauty ; the re- 338. Arte meri. Such skill as 
suits are detailed in the text. drunkenness could teach. 

327. Convenere Patres. The 343. Acheloe. Upon the hanks 
annual celebration of the Flora- of this .^tolian river, the vine is 
lia commenced u. c. .580, in the said to have been planted first. 



Gratia sumendae non erat uUa rosae. 
Bacchus amat floras : Baccho placuisse coronam, 345 

Ex Ariadnaeo sidere nosse potes. 
Scena levis decet hanc ; non est, mihi credite, non est 

Ilia cothurnatas inter habenda deas. 
Nunc monet aetatis specie, duni floreat, uti : 

Contemni spinam, cum cecidere rosae. 350 

Cur tamen, ut dantur vestes Cerealibus albae, 

Sic haec est cultu versicolore decens ? 
An quia maturis albescit messis aristis ; 

Et color et species floribus omnis inest ? 
Annuit ; et motis flores cecidere capillis, 355 

Accidere in mensas ut rosa missa solet. 
Lumina restabant, quorum me causa latebat ; 

Cum sic errores abstulit ilia meos. 
Vel quia purpureis coUucent floribus agri ; 

Lumina sunt nostros visa decere dies : 360 

Vel quia nee flos est hebeti, nee flamma, colore, 

Atque oculos in se splendor uterque trahit : 
Vel quia deliciis nocturna licentia nostris 

Convenit. A vero tertia causa venit. 
Est breve praeterea, de quo mihi quaerere restat, 365 

Si liceat, dixi. Dixit et ilia, Licet. 
Cur tibi pro Libycis claudantur rete leaenis 

Imbelles capreas, sollicitusque lepus. 
Non sibi, respondit, silvas cessisse, sed hortos, 

Arvaque pugnaci non adeunda ferae. 370 

Omnia hnierat : tenues secessit in auras. 

Mansit odor : posses scire fuisse deam. 
Floreat ut toto carmen Nasonis in aevo ; 

Sparge, precor, donis pectora nostra tuis. 

345. Coronam, See Fast. iii. of Flora, the garments of her 

N. 457 and N. 509. worshippers were variously dyed, 

348. Cotliurnatas Deas. i. e. to resemble the flowers over which 

graviores, severioresque, Force!, that deity presided, 
n.ajestic or tragic deities ; so 356. In mensas. The tables of 

called because cotlnirnus was the the ancients were decorated at 

buskin or shoe worn by trage- their banquets with a profusion 

dians. Servius ascribes its intro- of flowers, principally roses, 
duction on the stage to Sopho- 357. Lumina. The poet pro- 

cles, others to iEschylus. ceeds to inquire why torches were 

351. Ciir tavien, ffc. As white used at the Floralia. 
robes were worn at the Cerealia, 367. Claudantur rete. In order 

ia imitation of the colour of the that they might be let loose and 

ripening corn : so at the festival chased in the Circus. 



Nocte minus quarta promet sua sidera Chiron 375 

Semivir, et flavi coipore mistus equi. 
Pelion Haemoniae mons est obversus in Austros : 

Summa virent pinu : csetera quercus habet. 
Phillyrides tenuit. Saxo stant antra vetusto, 

Quae justum memorant incoluisse senem. 380 

Ille man us, olim missuras Hectora leto, 

Creditur in lyricis detinuisse modis. 
Venerat Alcides exacta parte laborum ; 

Jussaque restabant ultima paene viro. 
Stare simul casu Trojae duo fata videres : 385 

Hinc puer iEacides, hinc Jove natus erat. 
Excipit hospitio juvenem Philyreius heros, 

Et causam adventus hie rogat, ille docet. 
Perspicit interea clavam spoliumque leonis : 

Virque, ait, his armis, armaque digna viro. 390 

Nee se, quin horrens auderent tangere setis 

Vellus, Achillae continuere manus. 
Dumque senex traetat squalentia tela venenis ; 

Excidit, et laevo fixa sagitta pede est. 
Ingemuit Chiron, traxitque e corpore ferrum : 395 

Adgemit Alcides, Haemoniusqvie puer. 
Ipse tamen lectas Pagasaeis collibus herbas 
Temperat, et vai"ia vulnera mulcet ope. 
Virus edax superabat opem : penitusque recepta 

375. Nocte minus quarta. On 382. Lyricis modis. Chiron in- 
the third night from the Kalends, structed Achilles in the lyre. 
V. Non. Mai. the constellation 385. Stare simul casu, ^c. 
Chiron rises. He was one of the 'You might perchance behold 
most distinguished among the standing together, the two de- 
Centaurs, whence Semivir, et structive destinies of Troy ;' 
flavi, &c. son of Saturn and Phi- Hercules, who subverted it in the 
lyra, and celebrated for his skill reign of Laomedon, Achilles, in 
in herbs and in medicine. His that of Priam, 
daughter Endeis was the mother 387. Philifrelus heros. Chiron; 
of Peleus, and grandmother of supr. y. 375, a med. 
Achilles, whom, as also iEscu- 393. Venenis. The poison of 
lapius, Chiron is said to have the Lernsean hydra, in which 
nursed. Hercules had dipped his arrows ; 

377. Pelion, &fc. The poet Ovid. Metam. ix. 130. 

describes the abode of Chiron. 397. Pagasais. Gathered in 

HamonicE. See Fast. ii. N. 40. Pagasae, a town of Thessaly. 


Ossibus, et toto corpore pestis erat. 400 

Sanguine Centauri Lernseae sanguis Echidnae 

Mistus ad auxilium tempora nulla dabant. 
Stabat, ut ante patrem, lachrymis perfusus Achilles : 

Sic flendus Peleus, si moreretur, erat. 
Saepe manus aegras manibus fingebat amicis ; 405 

Morum, quos fecit, praemia doctor habet. 
Oscula saepe dedit. Dixit quoque saepe jacenti : 

Vive, precoi- : nee me, care, relinque, pater. 
Nona dies aderat ; cum tu justissime Chiron, 

Bis septem stellis corpora cinctus eras. 410 


Hunc lyra curva sequi cuperet ; sed idonea nondum 
Est via. Nox aptum tertia tempus erit. 


Scorpius in coelo, cum eras lucescere Nonas 
Dicimus, a media parte notandus erit. 


Hinc ubi protulerit formosa ter Hesperus era, 415 

Ter dederint Phcebo sidera victa locum ; 
Ritus erit veteris, nocturna Lemuria, sacri ; 

Inferias tacitas Manibus ilia dabunt. 

401. Echidna. Gr. 5ra«a to twenty-four, but including a vic- 
'i;^tiv\v luuT^TYiv yoMYi^ cLy^Bi favaTou; tim which the Centaur is sup- 
quod continet in se tetum usque posed to hold in his arms, 
ad mortem, id est donee pulli 412. Nox tertia. On the in. 
nimiam raoram pertsesi, eroso Non. Mai. Lyra rises acroni- 
matris utero pareuteque necata, cally. 

erumpant ; sic vipera, Latine, 413. Cum eras, ^-c. Prid. Non. 

quia vi parit. Forcel. Mai. half the Scorpion sets cos- 

406. Morum, quos, §-c. Hein- mically ; ' Pridie Nonas Maias 

sius suspects this line to have Nepa medius occidit, Columell. 

been interpolated, the genuine where Nepa is syuonvmous with 

having been lost, and condemns Scorpios. 

it as semi-barbarous. 415. Hinc ubi protulerit, Sfc. 

409. Nona dies aderat. After On the vn. Id. Mai. the Lemu- 

nine days suffering Chiron died, ria began, and occupied three 

and was raised to the skies as a days, but not consecutively ; see 

constellation, consisting of four- infr. 488. The origin of the fes- 

teen stars j Hyginus reckons tival is described in the text. 



Annus erat brevior ; nee adhue pia februa norant : 

Nee tu dux mensum, Jane bifbrmis, eras. 420 

Jam tamen extincto cineri sua dona ferebant ; 

Compositique nepos busta piabat avi. 
Mensis erat Maius, majorum nomine dictus, 

Qui partem prisci nunc quoque moris habet. 
Nox ubi jam media est, somnoque silentia praebet, 425 

Et canis, et variae conticuistis aves ; 
Ille meraor veteris ritus, timidusque deorum, 

Surgit : liabent gemini vincula nulla pedes. 
Signaque dat digitis medio cum pollice junctis ; 

Occurrat tacito ne levis umbra sibi. 430 

Terque manus puras fontana perluit unda 

Vertitur, et nigras accipit ore iabas. 
Aversusque jacit ; sed dum jacit, Hsec ego mitto ; 

His, inquit, redimo meque meosque fabis. 
Hoc novies dicit, nee respicit. Umbra putatur 435 

Colligere, et nullo terga vidente sequi. 
Rursus aquam tangit, Temesaeaque concrepat sera : 

419. Annus erat brevior. See 
Fast. i. N. 28, and 43. Pia Fe- 
brua. Fast. ii. N. 19. 

420. Dux mensum, Jane. Fust. 
i. 66. 

421. Extincto cineri. Fast. ii. 

423. Majorum nomine. Supr.73. 

428. Habent gemini vincula, 
Sfc. Because it was customary to 
perform the magical rites witli 
bare feet, whence Seneca's Medea, 
' Secreta nudo nemora lustravi 

429. Signaque dat digitis, Sfc. 
This is to be understood simply 
of the noise made by snapping 
the fingers ; the thumb and mid- 
dle finger; whence medio pollice. 

432. Nigras accipit ore fabas. 
See Fast. ii. 458. ' P'abam neque 
tangere Diali mos est neque no- 
minare : quod ea putatur ad mor- 
tuos pertinere. Nam et Lemura- 
libus jaciturlarvis, et parentalibus 
adhibetur sacrificiis, et in flore ejus 
luctus litteroe apparere videntur.' 
Fab. Pictor. apud Gell. x. 15. 

433. Aversusque. With his head 

turned away; ' — subjectam more 
parentum Aversi tenuere facem :' 
Virg. .^neid, vi. 224. 

434. Redimo meque meosque. 
Varr. apud Non. c. 2. N. 513. 
' Quibus temporibus in sacris fa- 
bam jactant noctu, et dicunt, se 
lemures dome extra januam eje- 

435. Novies. Probably a ma- 
gical number ; Metam. xiii. 952. 
' Et purgate nefas novies mihi 
carmine dicto,' and Virg. Georg. 
iv. 480, ' — novies Styx interfusa 

437. Aquam tangit, if c. As supr. 
431, and then clashes together 
the Temesssan cymbals ; so called 
from Temesaor Temsa, an inland 
town of Cyprus, famous for its 
copper-works, ' JEs cum de fossili 
sere sermo est, significat quandam 
metalli speciem rubro colore, qute 
Anglice dicitur, copper ; cum 
vero de eere loquimur quod in 
opere aliquo sit, ut in vasis sereis, 
in statuis, pecunia, &c. significat 
metallum illud quod Angl. dici- 
tur brass, item illud quod Angl, 
z 2 


Et rogat, ut tectis exeat umbra suis. 
Cum dixit novies, Manes exite paterni ; 

Respicit, et pure sacra peracta putat. 440 

Dicta sit unde dies, quae nominis exstet origo, 

Me fugit. Ex aliquo est invenienda deo. 
Pleiade nate, mone, virga venerande potenti : 

Saepe tibi Stygii regia visa Jovis. 
Venit adoratus Caducifer. Accipe causam 44.5 

Nominis : ex ipso cognita causa deo est. 
Romulus ut tumulo fraternas condidit umbras, 

Et male veloci justa soluta Remo ; 
Faustulus infelix, et passis Acca capillis 

Spargebant lachrymis ossa perusta suis. 450 

Inde domum redeunt sub prima crepuscula mcesti ; 

Utque erat, in duro procubuere toro. 
Umbra cruenta Remi visa est assistere lecto, 

Atque haec exiguo murmure verba loqui ; 
En ego dimidium vestri parsque altera voti, 455 

Cernite, sim qualis ; qui modo qualis eram ! 
Qui modo, si volucres habuissem regna jubentes. 

In populo potui maximus esse meo. 
Nunc elapsa rogi flammis, et inanis imago. 

Haec est ex illo forma relicta Remo. 460 

Heu ubi Mars pater est? si vos modo vera locuti ; 

Uberaque expositis ille ferina dedit. 
Quern lupa servavit, manus bunc temeraria civis 

Perdidit. O quanto mitior ilia fuit ! 
Saeve Celer, crudelem animam per vulnera reddas : 465 

Utque ego, sub terras sanguinolentus eas. 

bronze, quoniam liasc duo metalla 452. Utque erat. sc, ut fieri so- 

non fossilia sed factilia sunt. For- lebat ,- as usual ; a frequent accep- 

cel. tatio;; of the verb sumo ; Plaut. 

443. Pleiade nate. Mercury. Rud. prol. 3, ' Ita sum' — such is 
Virga. The Caduceus ; Isidor. viy way ; Forcel. A late com- 
Orig. viii. 11. ' Virgam tenet qua mentator, whose ingenious incor- 
serpentes dividit, id est, venena. rectness does not depend upon 
Nam bellantes interpi-etura ora- this passage only for proof, ex- 
tione sedantur ; unde et secun- plains zitque erat, by ' as they 
dum Livium legati pacis caducea- (each of them) were !' 

tores dicuntur.' 455. Dimidium vestri, SfC. Be- 

444. Scepe tibi, Sfc. In allusion cause he had shared with Romu- 
to his office as '^vxo'^o/^vo;- lus their solicitude and affection. 

448. Male veloci. Fast. iii. 70. 462. Expositis. Fast. iii. 52. 

449. Faustulus, Fast. iii. 52, 463, Civis. Fast.iy.S]o, 
and iv, 826. 

QUART. ID. MAI. 259 

Noluit hoc frater. Pietas aequalis in illo est. 

Quod potuit, lachrymas in mea fata dedit. 
Hunc vos per lachrymas, per vestra alimenta rogate, 

Ut celebrem festo signet honore diem. 470 

Mandantem amplecti cupiunt, et brachia tendunt 

Lubrica prensantes effugit umbra manus. 
Ut secum fugiens somnos abduxit imago ; 

Ad regem voces fratris uterque fenmt. 
Romulus obsequitur, lucemque Remuria dixit 475 

Illam, qua positis justa feruntur avis. 
Aspera mutata est in lenem tempore longo 

Littera, quae toto nomine prima fuit. 
Mox etiam Lemures animas dixere silentum. 

Is verbi sensus, vis ea vocis erat. 48(> 

Fana tamen veteres illis clausere diebus ; 

Ut nunc ferali tempore operta vides. 
Nee viduse tsedis eadem, nee virginis apta 

Tempora. Quae nupsit, non diuturna fuit. 
Hac quoque de causa, si te proverbia tangunt, 485 

Mense malas Maio nubere vulgus ait. 
Sed tamen haec tria sunt sub eodem tempore festa 

Inter se nullo continuata die. 


Sed quid et Orion, et caetera sidera mundo 

Cedere festinant, noxque coarctat iter ? 490 

467. Noluit hoc frater. Fast. 488. Inter se nullo continuata 

iv. 8-24. die. The days of the Lemuria 

472. Lubrica prensantes, Sfc. were the vii. v. and iii. of the 

So Virgil, Mneid, vi. ' Ter frus- Ides; May 9th, 11th, and l.3th. 
tra coraprensa manus effugit im- 489. Sed quid et Orion, ifc 

ago, Par levibus ventis, volueri- This constelhition sets on the v. 

que simillima somno,' and Homer, Id. Mai. Orion, according to 

Odyss. xi. 205, T^is «i i^oi la x,^i^- Hesiod, was the son of Neptune, 

Z'j ffx.m i'la-cXov, n xai itiUta, "E^r- by Euryale, daughter of Minos ; 

TXT.' he wasaceleorated hunter, and a 

475. Romulus obsequitur, ^c. favorite companion of Diana in 

Fast. iv. 828. the chase, by whom, after his 

477. Aspera Ulera. a having death, he was raised to the ^tars. 
been changed into L, Remuria 490. Coarctat. Shortens, or 

became Lemuria. compresses ; by this, as by Cedere 

482. Ferali tempore. Fast. ii. festinant, Sfc. supr. the poet de- 
N. 445 and 451. signs a compliment to Augustus, 

483. Vidua tadis. For the mar- the night having, as it were, pass- 
riage of a widow. Cf. i^«sMi. 439. ed more rapidly to give place to 



Quid solito citius liquido jubar aequore toUit 

Candida, Lucifero praeveniente, dies ? 
Fallor ? an arma sonant ? non flillimur : arma sonabant. 

Mars venit ; et veniens bellica signa dedit. 
Ultor ad ipse suos ccelo descendit honores, 495 

Templaque in Augusto conspicienda Foro. 
Et deus est ingens, et opus. Debebat in Urbe 

Non aliter nati Mars habitare sui. 
Digna Giganteis haec sunt delubra tropaeis : 

Hinc fera Gradivum beila movere decet : 500 

Seu quis ab Eoo nos impius orbe lacesset ; 

Seu quis ab occiduo Sole domandus erit. 
Prospicit Armipotens operis fastigia sumini : 

Et probat invictos summa tenere deos. 
Prospicit in foribus diversae tela figurae, 505 

Armaque terrarum milite victa suo. 
Hinc videt ^Enean oneratum pondere sacro ; 

Et tot liileae nobilitatis avos. 

the day upon which the emperor 
consecrated the temple to Mars 
Ultor, in the Forum, which he 
had huilt himself, Augusto foro, 
infr. 496. 

491. Liquido, Vitreo. Mazar. 
as Horat. ' vitreus pontus.' 

492. Lucifero. The morning 

496. Augusto foro. There was 
only one forum under the repub- 
lic. Julius Caisar built another, 
which cost H. s. millies, i. e. 
£807,291 13s. 4rf. and Augustus 
a third ; whence triiia fora, tri- 
plex forum, Suet. Jul. 26. Ovid. 
Trist. iii. 12. 

499. Giganteis iropceis. Won 
by Mars in the war with the 
sjiants ; by whom the poet may 
intend to allude to the defeated 
enemies of Augustus. 

oOO. Hinc fera Gradivum, SfC. 
' JKdem Marti, bello Philippensi 
pro ultione paterna suscepto vo- 
verat. Sanxit ergo ut da bellis 
triumphisque hie consuleretur se- 
natus : provincias cum Imperio 
petituri, hinc deducerentur : qui- 

que victores redissent hue insig- 
nia triumphorum inferrent.' Suet, 
in Aug. 29. 

503. Operis fastigia summi. The 
fastigium of the Latins, the r^i- 
^cu^oy, or T^iyavov of the Greeks, 
was a species of roof peculiar to 
the temples of the gods, of a tri- 
angular form, on the vertex of 
which stood the statue of the 
deity. The house of the Caesars 
was allowed this token of pre- 
eminence after the Romans had 
begun topay them divine honours ; 
whence Cicero, Phil. ii. c. 43, de 
Jul. CcEs. ' Quern is majorem ho- 
norem consecutus erat, quam ut 
lial)eret pulvinar, simulacrum, fas- 
tigium, flaminem ?' The roofs of 
the temples were ornamented, 
Vitruv. iii. c. 2. Liv. xxvi. 23, with 
statues of clay, brass, or stone ; 
whence invictos summa teneri: 
Deos, supr. 

505. DiverscE telafigura. See 
N. 500 supr. sub. fin. 

507. Pondere sacro. Anchises ; 
see Fast. i. 477. 



Hinc videt Iliaden humeris ducis arma ferentem : 

Claraque dispositis acta subesse viris. 510 

Spectat et Augusto praetextum nomine templum, 

Et visum, lecto Caesare, majus opus. 
Voverat hoc juvenis tunc, cum pia sustulit arma ; 

A tantis Princeps incipiendus erat. 
Ille manus tendens, hinc stanti milite justo, 515 

Hinc conjuratis, talia dicta dedit : 
Si mihi bellandi patei' est, Vestaeque sacerdos 

Auctor, et ulcisci nomen utrumque paro ; 
Mars, ades, et satia scelerato sanguine ferrum : 

Stetque favor causa pro meliore tuus. 520 

Templa feres, et, me victore, vocaberis Ultor. 

Voverat ; et fuso laetus ab hoste redit. 
Nee satis est meruisse semel cognomina Marti: 

Persequitur Partha signa retenta manu. 
Gens fuit et campis, et equis, et tuta sagittis, 525 

509. Iliaden. Romulus bearing 
the spolia opima, having slaia 
Acron, king of the Ceninenses. 

510. Subesse. On the base of 
the statues the name and exploits 
of those whom they represented 
were inscribed. 

511. PrcBtextum. Adorned; 
Fast. iv. 919. 

512. Lecto CcEsare. From the 
perusal of Caesar's name. 

513. Cum pia sustulit arma. 
To avenge his father's death ; 
Fast. iii. 676, et seq. 

514. A tantis. With so great 
omens of future greatness. Prin- 
ceps. When Augustus became 
the head of the government, he 
avoided those titles which were 
associated in the minds of the 
Romans with all that was tyran- 
nical, and assumed that of Prin- 
ceps, to which no such idea could 
be attached, from their having 
been long familiarized to the 
titles of Princeps senatus, and 
Princeps juventutis. 

515. Milite justo. The army 
with which Augustus was to 
punish the murderers of Cajsar. 

516. Conjuratis. Brutus and 
Cassias, with their partizans. 

518. Nomen utrumqxie. That 
of Father, and Pontifex Maxi- 
mus. Some copies read numen 
utrumque as referring to the dei- 
fied Julius and Vesta. 

524. Persequitur Partha, ^c. 
There was not any event in the 
life of Augustus more distin- 
guished, or upon which he prided 
himself more, than his having 
recovered, without bloodshed, by 
the mere terror of his name, the 
military standards, spoils, cap- 
tives, &c. which the Parthians 
had taken from the Romans under 
M. Licin. Crassus. Hence it be- 
came a favorite theme with the 
poets ; Horat. Od. iv. 4, et seq. 
' Tua Cscsar a2tas Fruges et 
agris retulit uberes, et signa nos- 
tio restituit Jovi, Derepta Par- 
thorum superbis postibus' — ; see 
also Fast. vi. 419. Virg. j^neid, 
vii. 606. 

525. Gens fuit et campis, Sfc. 
Parthia was a celebrated country 
of Asia ; according to Justin, lib. 
xli. 1, the Parthians were origi- 


Et circumfusis invia fluminibus. 
Addiderant animos Crassorum funera genti ; 

Cum periit miles, signaque, duxque simul. 
Signa, decus belli, Paribus Komana tenebat ; 

Romana^que aquila? signifer bostis erat. 530 

Isque pudor mansisset adbuc, nisi fortibus armis 

Ceesaris Ausoniae protegerentur opes. 
lUe notas veteres, et longi dedecus aevi 

Sustulit. Agnorunt signa recepta suos. 
Quid tibi nunc solitaj mitti post terga sagittae, 535 

Quid loca, quid rapidi profuit usus equi ? 
Parthe, refers aquilas : victos quoque porrigis arcus. 

Pignora jam nostri nulla pudoris babes. 
Rite deo templumque datum, noraenque bis ulto : 

Et meritus votis debita solvit honos. 540 

Sollenni ludos Circo celebrate, Quirites : 

Non visa est fortem scena decere deum. 


Pleiadas adspicies omnes, totumque sororum 
Agmen, ubi ante Idus nox erit una super. 

Turn mihi non dubiis auctoribus incipit aestas ; 545 

Et tepidi finem tempora veris habent. 

nally Scythian exiles ; others sup- years having elapsed before this 

pose the term Parthi to signify stain upon the Roman name was 

horsemen. They fought chiefly removed by the arms of Augus- 

on horseback, a mode of battle to tus. 

which the nature of their country 539. Bis ulto. Whence the 

was favorable, Dio. Cass, si. they title Bisultor, owing to the double 

also used their arrows, even in success of Augustus, at Philippi 

flight, with considerable dexter- and against the Parthians. Some 

ity; Virg. Georg. iii. 31, ' Parthus copies read nomenque Bisultor. 
fidens fuga versisque sagittis.' oA\. Sollenni Ludos Circo, ^c. 

Propert. iii. 9, 54, ' Parthorum On the iv. Id. Mai. the annual 

astutae tela remissa fugae.' Horat. celebration of the games in the 

Od. i. 19, II, ' Parthus animosus Circus, in honour of Mars, took 

versis equis.' place ; they consisted of chariot- 

526. Circumfusis fluminibus. races, &c. theatrical shows having 
The Tigris, Euphrates, &c. been considered of too light a 

527. Crassorum funera, M. character for the occasion ; hence 
Licinius Crassus, and his son P. Non visa est fortem scena, &c. infr. 
L. Crassus, both fell in the Par- 544. Ubi ante Idus, §-c. On the 
thian war. in. Id. Mai. the Pleiads rise heli- 

533. Notas veteres. Thirty two acally. 

PRID. ID. MAI. 263 


Idibus ora prior stellantia tollere Taurum 

Indicat: huic signo fabula nota siibest. 
Praebuit, ut taurus, Tyriae sua terga puellae 

Jupiter, et falsa cornua fronte tulit. 550 

Ilia jubam dextra, laeva retinebat amictus ; 

Et timor ipse novi causa decoris erat. 
Aura sinus implet : flavos movet aura capillos ; 

Sidoni, sic fueras accipienda Jovi. 
Saepe puellares subducit ab aequore plantas, 555 

Et metuit tactus assilientis aquae ; 
Sajpe deus prudens tergum demittit in undas, 

Hsereat ut collo fortius ilia suo. 
Littoribus tactis stabat sine cornibus uUis 

Jupiter : inque deum de bove versus erat. 560 

Taurus init ccelum. Te, Sidoni, Jupiter implet. 

Parsque tuum terrae tertia nomen habet. 
Hoc alii signum Phariam dixere juvencam ; 

Quae bos ex homine est, ex bove facta dea. 
Turn quoque priscorum virgo simulacra virorum 565 

Mittere roboreo scirpea ponte solet. 

547. Idihusora prior, Sfc. Prid. So Horace, Od. iii, 27, 74, ' Mitte 
Id. Mai. the head of Taurus rises singultus; bene ferre magnam 
cosniicall}'. Prior, sc. dies. Disce fortunam : tua sectus orbis 

548. Huic siffno, Sfc. Fast. iv. Nomina ducet.' 

691. et seq. 563. Phariam juvencam. lo, or 

549. Ti/rice puellce. Europa, Isis, so called from Pharos, an 
daughter of Agenor king of Phoe- island at the Canopic mouth of 
nicia. the Nile. Fast. iv. 691. 

551. Jubam. The neck of the 565. Virgo. The Vestalis 

bull ; properly, the mane of any Maxima, who was attended upon 

animal. LcEva retinebat amictus. this occasion by her sister Vestals 

See Lucian's Dialogue of Zepliy- priests, prajtors, &c. Priscorum 

rus and Notus on the subject in virorum, Prid. Id Mai. the effi- 

the text. gies of thirty old men, stuffed 

553. Sinus. The folds of her with straw or rushes, simulacra 
robe. scirpea, were thrown from the 

554. Sidoni. voc. of Sidonis- Sublician bridge, roboreo ponte, 
idis. Europa, so called from Si- by the Vestal virgins, into the 
don in Phoenicia. Tiber. For the origin of this 

556. Assilientis. Springing up, practice, the poet assigns three 
as it were, to kiss her feet. opinions, vs. 567, et seq. infr. 

557. Prudens. Intentionally. 566. Roboreo ponte. The Pons 
562. Parsque tuum terra, kc. Sublicius, or ^milius ; a wooden 



Corpora post decies senos qui credidit annos 

Missa neci, sceleris crimine damnat avos. 
Fama vetus : turn cum Saturnia terra vocata est, 

bridge erected by Ancus Martius 
over the Tiber, Liv. i. 33, in order 
to form a communication between 
Janiculum and the city; it was 
so called from suhlicce, stakes, of 
which it was at first formed, but 
it was subsequently rebuilt with 
stone by iEmilius Lepidus. It 
was called by Plutarch, |t/Xiv»! yi- 
ipy^a,and generally by the Greeks, 
uja, in allusion to the veneration 
with which it was regarded by the 
Romans for its antiquity, or be- 
cause it was traversed by the sa- 
cred processions, when crossing 
the Tiber to celebrate any of their 
usual solemnities at the far side of 
that river. 

567. Corpora post decies, ^'c. 
The poet gives the first opinion 
as to the probable origin of this 
custom ; and asserts that those 
who believe old men of sixty to 
have been thus got rid of, bring 
a charge of guilt against their 
ancestors as having countenanced 
such a crime. See N. 569, infr. 

569. Turn cum Saturnia, ^~c. 
Some commentators appear very 
anxious to remove this stigma, 
571, infr. from the ancient Latins. 
One, in particular, with a pecu- 
liarly unhappy affectation of sin- 
gularity, has, in a late work, 
'hinted his opinion that human 
sacrifices were totally unknown 
in the heroic ages of Greece, and 
that all legends relating to such 
are comparatively late fictions!' 
Upon this it is merely necessary 
to observe, that Homer speaks of 
twelve Trojan captives having 
been sacrificed at the funeral of 
Patroclus, to which may be added 
the immolation of Polyxena at 
the tomb of Achilles, and the 

oifering of Iphigenia at the altar 
of Diana, which are sufficient to 
prove, if nothing else, that the 
Greeks were at least familiar 
with the accounts of such sacri- 
fices. But in later ages the prac- 
tice was anything but unusual. 
Aristomenes the Messenian, sa- 
crificed three hundred men, among 
whom was Theopompus, one of 
the kings of Sparta, to Jupiter 
of Ithome. ThemiStocles, in or- 
der to procure the assistance of 
the gods against the Persians, as 
Plutarch relates, sacrificed some 
captives of that nation. Bacchus 
had an altar in Arcadia, at which 
young women were beaten to 
death with bundles of rods, and 
the Lacedaemonians seem to have 
had a similar custom, of scourging 
their children, frequently to death, 
in honour of Diana Orthla. The 
Christian Apologists, Clemens of 
Alexandria, Lactantius, Minutius 
Felix, Cyril of Alexandria, Eu- 
sebius and others, discuss this 
subject of human sacrifices suffi- 
ciently to set the question at rest, 
and shew the futility of any opi- 
nion as opposed to fact. But 
the commentator proceeds still 
further, and extends ' his theory' 
to Italy, asserting « that there 
are no testimonies on which to 
rely, of such a practice, viz. hu- 
man sacrifices, having prevailed 
in it at the time when the poet 
says it was called Saturnia terra.' 
Why the ancient Latins, who ob- 
served with such complacency 
the worship of a Deity whom 
they believed to have devoured 
his own children, should have 
been in any degree more refined 
than the barbarous aborigines of 



Talia fatidici dicta fuere dei : 570 

Falcifero libata seni duo corpora, gentes, 

Mittite ; quae Tuscis excipiantur aquis. 
Donee in hsec venit Tirynthius arva, quotannis 

Tristia Leucadio sacra peracta modo ; 
Ilium stramineos in aquam mississe Quirites ; 575 

Herculis exemplo corpora falsa jaci. 

any other nation, does not so 
clearly appear ; at all events they 
seem to have fallen away sadly 
from their first estate, when the 
Roman Homer ventured to depict 
the liero of the j5^neid in such 
colours as the following ; — ' Sul- 
mone creates Quatuorhicjuvenes, 
totidem, quos educat Ufens, Vi- 
ventesrapit, inferias quos immolet 
umbris, Captivoque rogi perfundat 
sanguine flamraas. ' yErieid, x. 
517, see also xi. 81, 82. The 
subject may be dismissed with 
Heyne's note upon the passage 
as above, ' Nondum igitur ea 
aetate metuendum fuit Maroni, 
ne displiceret immaue facinus lec- 
toribus : nee ^neas, ubi ira ad 
furorem actus summa cum crude- 
litate supplicem ac pretium offer- 
entem Magum obtruncat et Tar- 
quiti cadaveri insultat, ad Roma-- 
norum sensus videri debuit inhu- 
maniter et impie egisse ; etsi hoc 
ad nostrum sensum aliter se habet.' 

570. Fatidici Dei. The Dodo- 
najan Apollo. 

571. Falcifero. Saturn. Libata. 
Offered in sacrifice. Gentes. The 

572. Tuscis aguis. The Tiber. 
573 Tirynthius. Hercules. 

Arva. sc. Latina. 

574. Leucadio modo, Leucadia, 
or Leucas, formerly called Neri- 
tis, now Santa Maura, was ori<(i- 
nally a peuinsula of Acarnania, 
but the isthmus having been cut 
through, it became an island. 
Some derive its name from Leu- 
cas, a companion of Ulysses, or 

a boy beloved by Apollo ; others 
with more probability, from the 
white rocks which form the cele- 
brated Lover's leap. The custom 
alluded to in the text was that of 
throwing a criminal, upon the 
celebration of the sacred rites of 
Apollo, from the brow of the 
mountain into the sea, having 
first attached to his body a spe- 
cies of wings, and a great number 
of birds to break his talL At the 
bottom, small boats were so dis- 
posed as to receive him with the 
least possible injury, and transfer 
him to another country. It was 
usual for those who had lost their 
parents, or entertained an ineffec- 
tual passion, to precipitate them- 
selves from this rock ; whence 
the name, Lover's Leap. Ovid. 
Heroid. ep. xv. 165, ♦ Hinc se 
Deucalion, Pyrrhae succensus 
amore, Misit, et illaeso corpore 
pressit aquas.' From this pro- 
montory Sappho, too, is said to 
have thrown herself. Cf. Bvron. 

« 'Twas on a Grecian autumn's gentle 

Childe Harold hailed Leucadia's cape 

afar : 
A spot he longed to see nor cared to 

leave : — 



But when he saw the evening star above, 
Leucadia's far-protecting rock of woe, 
And hailed the last resort of fruitless 
He felt, or deemed he felt no common 
glow : 
And as the stately vessel glided slow. 
Beneath the shadow of that ancient 

2 A 


Pars putat, ut ferrent juvenes suffragia soli, 

Pontibus infirmos pra;cipitasse senes. 
Thybri, doce verum : tua ripa vetiistior Urbe. 

Principium ritus tu bene nosse potes. 580 

Thybris arundiferum medio caput extulit alveo ; 

Raucaque dimovit talibus ora sonis : 
Haec loca desertas vidi sine mcenibus herbas : 

Pascebat sparsos iitraque ripa boves. 
Et quern nunc gentes Tiberin noruntque timentque. 585 

Tunc etiam pecori despiciendus eram. 
Arcadis Evandri nomen tibi stepe refertur : 

Ille meas remis advena torsit aquas. 
Venit et Alcides, turba comitatus Achiva. 

Albula, si memini, tunc mihi nomen erat. 590 

Excipit hospitio juvenem Pallantius heros : 

Et tandem Caco debita poena venit. 
Victor abit, secumque boves, Erythe'ida praedam, 

Abstrahit. At comites longius ire negant. 
Magnaque pars Iiorum desertis venerat Argis : 595 

Montibus his ponunt spemque Laremque suum. 
Saepe tamen patriae dulci tanguntur amore ; 

Atque aliquis moriens hoc breve mandat opus : 
Mittite me Tiberi : Tiberinis vectus ut undis 

Littus ad Inachium pulvis inanis eam. 600 

Displicet heredi mandati cura sepulchri : 

Mortuus Ausonia conditur hospes humo 
Scirpea pro domino Tiberi jaciatur imago, 

Ut repetat Graias per freta longa domos. 

He watched tlie billows' melancholy 588. Ille meas remis, ^c. Fast. 

flow- i. 449. et seq. 

And sunk albeit in thought as he was 539^ 5r„,.^„ Achiva. See infr. 



More placid seemed his eye, and smooth trd r> 7; j- i r< 1 

.. „. , „ ., 591. 1-^aUantius heros. tivander. 

hxs paU id front.' en'j r w -j j c 

Cavto 2, Stanzas iO-il. 5dd. Enjtluida pradam. See 

Fast. i. N. 493. 
577. Pars putat, Sfc. A third 594. Comites. sc. turba Achiva. 

opinion, that this ceremony might 589. They refused to accompany 

have originated in a niisconcep- Hercules on his departure from 

tion of the custom mentioned. Italy. Virg. jE)ieid, x. 779. 
Fast. i. N. 53, a vied. 598. Atque aliquis moriens, ^c. 

579. Thybri, doce verum. The Viry. ^'Eneid, x. 782, — ' et dulces 

poet invokes the god of the Tiber moriens reminiscitur Argos.' 
to afford him the requisite infor- 600. Littus ad Inachium. Ina- 

mation, which is detailed in the chus was a river of Argos. 
text. 604. Graias domos. Whence, 

ID. MAI. 267 

Hactenus : ut vivo subiit rorantia saxo 605 

Antra, leves cursum sustinuistis aquae. 


Clare nepos Atlantis, ades : quern montibus olim 

Edidit Arcadiis Ple'ias una jovi. 
Pacis et armorum superis imisque deorum 

Arbiter, alato qui pede carpis iter : 610 

Laete lyrse pulsu, nitida quoque laete palaestra : 

Quo didicit culte lingua favente loqui, 
Templa tibi posuere Patres spectantia Circum 

Idibus ; ex illo est haec tibi festa dies. 
Te, quicunque suas profitetur vender e merces, 615 

Ture dato, tribuas ut sibi lucra, rogat. 
Est aqua Mercurii portse vicina Capenae : 

Si juvat expertis credere ; numen habet. 
Hue venit incinctus tunicas mercator ; et urna 

Purus suffita, quam ferat, haurit aquam. 620 

Uda fit hinc laurus : lauro sparguntur ab uda 

Omnia, quae dominos sunt habitura novos. 
Spargit et ipse suos lauro rorante capillos ; 

Et peragit solita fallere voce preces. 
Ablue praeteriti perjuria temporis, inquit. 625 

Ablue praeterita perfida verba die. 

as also from vs. 589 and 595, the and venders used to sprinkle 

name of those figures, Argei may themselves for purification ; infr. 

have originated. 623. 

606. Cursum sustinuistis. In 618. Numen. A divine virtue, 
token of reverence for the deity. 619. Incinctus. i. e. quoad tuni- 

607. Clare nepos Atlantis, cas. The tunic was fastened by 
The poet invokes Mercury, a girdle, or belt, about the waist, 
whose festival was celebrated on to keep it tight, which served 
the Ides of May, on which day also as a purse in which they 
a temple had been dedicated to kept their money, whence incinct. 
him near the Circus Maximus ; ttinic, mere, the merchant in his 
infr. 613. tunic girt. 

608. Pleias una. Maia. Area- 622. Omnia, quce dominos, §-c. 
diis montibus. Cyllene. Every thing which was sroing to 

617. Est aqua Mercurii. Out- to be sold, and so become the 

side the Porta Capena, on the property of new owners. 
Appian way, there was a well, 625. Ablue prateriti, ^-c. Com- 

sacred to Mercury, with the pare Persius. Sat. 2, 5, et seq. 
waters of which the merchants 



Sive ego te feci testem, falsove citavi 

Non audiUiri numina magna Jovis; 
Sive deum prudens alium divamve fefelli ; 

Abstulerint celeres improba dicta Noti. 
Et pereant veniente die perjuria nobis : 

Nee curent Superi, siqua locutus ero. 
Da modo lucra mihi, da facto gaudia liicro ; 

Et face, lit emtori verba dedisse juvet. 
Talia Mercurius poscentem ridet ab alto, 

Se memor Ortygias surripuisse boves. 




At mihi pande, precor, tanto meliora petenti, 
In Geminos ex quo tempore Phoebus eat ? 

Cum totidem de mense dies superesse videbis, 
Quot sunt Herculei facta laboris, ait. 

Die, ego respondi, causam mihi sideris hujus. 
Causam facundo prodidit ore deus : 

Abstulerant raptas Pceben Phcebesque sororem 


628. Non audituri. Whom the 
perjurer did not wish to hearken 
to his abjuration. 

631. Pereant veniente die. Let 
there be no trace remainin? of 
the perjuries on the succeeding 
day ; or, as some copies read 
pateant, let an opportunity of 
such frauds be afforded me on the 
day to come. 

634. Et face, ut emtori, ^c. 
And make it profitable to me 
to have imposed upon the pur- 

636. Ortygias hoves. Ortygia 
was the ancient name of Delos ; 
from Gr. o^rul, a quail, into which 
Latona was chansred, and so dis- 
guised fled thither for refuge from 
the persecution of Juno. The 
circumstance alluded to in the 
text was Mercury's having stolen 
the oxen of Admetus, king of 
Pherae, in Thessaly, which were 
tended by Apollo ; whence Or- 

tygias i. e. Delias boves. Ortygia 
was the name also of an island 
near Sicily, over against Syracuse, 
Virg. jSHneid, iii. 694. Ephesus, 
in Ionia, was so called ; Plin. v. 
c. 20. 

638. In Geminos ex quo, SfC. 
The sun having left Taurus, en- 
ters the sign Gemini on the xin. 
Kal. Jun. twelve days before 
the end of the month ; whence 
cum totidem de mense, &c. infr. 

641. Die, ego, ^c. Addressing 
Mercury ; the poet asks for the 
origin of this constellation. 

643. Phwberi Phcebesque soro- 
rem. Phoebe and her sister Elaira, 
or Hilaira, daughters of Leucip- 
pus brother of Tyndarus king of 
Sparta, and Philodice daughter 
of Inachus, were betrothed to 
Idas and Lynceus, the sons of 
Aphareus. The twins, Castor 
and Pollux, became enamoured 


Tyndaridae fi*atres, hie eques, ille pugil. 
Bella parant, repetuntque suas et frater et Idas ; 645 

Leucippo fieri pactus uterque gener. 
His amor, ut repetant, illis, ut reddere nolint, 

Suadet : et ex causa pugnat uterque pari. 
EfFugere Qi^balidse cursu potuere sequentes ; 

Sed visum celeri vincere turpa fuga. 650 

Liber ab arboribus locus est, apta area pugnse. 

Constiterant illic : nomen Aphidna loco. 
Pectora trajectus Lynceo Castor ab ense 

Non expectato vulnere pressit humum. 
Ultor adest Pollux : et Lyncea perforat hasta, 655 

Qua cervix humeros continuata premit. 
Ibat in hunc Idas, vixque est Jovis igne repulsus : 

Tela tamen dextrae fulmine rapta negant. 
Jamque tibi ccelum, Pollux, sublime patebat ; 

Cum, Mea, dixisti, percipe verba, Pater. 660 

Quod mihi das uni, ccelum par tire duobus : 

Dimidiun^ toto munere majus erit. 
Dixit, et alterna fratrem statione redemit : 

Utile sollicitae sidus uterque rati. 


Ad Janum redeat, qui quaerit, Agonia quid sint ; 665 

Quae tamen in Fastis hoc quoque terapus habent. 

of the sisters, and carried them cordina: to Theocritus, Idyll, xxii. 

off; the result is given in the and Pindar, Nem. Od. x. this 

text. combat took place at the tomb of 

644. TyndaridcE. Sons of Ju- Aphareus, in Messene. 
piter by Leda, who was married 658. Tela tamen dextra. Idas, 
to Tyndarus, son of CEbalus ; though stricken with the thunder- 
whence CEbalidcB, infr. seeN. 649. bolt, did not allow the arms to be 

647. His. Idas and Lynceus. forced from his hand. 

Illis. Castor and Pollux. 663. Alterna statione. Jupiter 

649. CEbalidcE. The twins may having permitted Castor to share 

have been so called, CEbalia being his brother's immortality, each 

synonymous with Laconia, their alternately visited heaven and 

native country. hell, according to some with a 

652. Aphidna. One of the day's, to others, with six months' 

£i.rifji,oi, or hamlets of Laconia, of interval. Redemit. sc. a morte. 

the tribe Leontis, where Theseus Virg. j^neid, vi. 121. 

is said to have detained Helen, 664. Utile sidus. Horat. Od. 

and from whence she was deli- iii. 32, and 12, 27. 

vered by Castor and Pollux. Ac- QQ5. Ad Janum redeat. On the 

2 A 2 



Nocte sequente diem canis Erigoneius exit. 
Est alio signi reddita causa loco. 


Proxima Vulcani lux est ; Tubilustria dicunt. 

Lustrantur purae, quas facit ille, tubse. 670 


Quatuor inde notis locus est ; quibus ordine lectis 
Vel mos sacrorum, vel Fuga Regis inest. 


Nee te praetereo, populi Fortuna potentis 
Publica ; cui templum luce sequente datum. 

XIII. Kal. Jun. the Agonalia dicat ad comitium ad quod tern- 
were celebrated again. See Fast, pus est nefas, ab eo fas ;' whence 
i. 317, et seq. mos sacrorum, 'm(r. The latter al- 
667. Noete seque.nte. On the ludes to the Rex Sacrificulus, (who 
night of the xiii. Id. Jun. Cani- was debarred from the exercise 
oula rises; (sets, according to of any civil office ; Jtzs?, i. n. 333, 
Pliny, xviii. 27.) See Fas<. iv. n. sub. fin.) attending the Comitia 
905. to regulate the sacrifices, at the 

669. Proxima Vulcani lux est. termination of which he was im- 
On the XII. Kal. Jun. the Tubi- mediately obliged to depart ; 
lustria were celebrated a second whence i^w^a i?e(7«, infr. Inde. sc. 
time ; see Fast. iii. N. 828. Dies sequens. The xi. Kal. Jun. 

670. Quas facit ille. Because was the day so marked in the 
Vulcan was the god of operatives. Calendar. 

671. Quatuor notis. The \etteTS 673. Fortuna Publica. On the 
Q. R. c. F. which signify either x. Kal. Jun. a temple was dedi- 
QUANDO REX coMiTiAViT, FAS. Gated to Fortuna Publica ; Fast. 
Fast. i. N. 54, a vied ; or quando vi. 523, or, according to some, 
REX coMiTio FUGiT. The former Fortuna Primigenia ; « prseses 
is thus explained by Varro ; « Dies rerum gignendarum, vel quae est 
qui vocatur sic, Q. R. c. f. dictus unicuique a primo ortu comes, 
ab eo quod eo die rex sacrificulus Forcel. Liv. xxxiv. 53, a med. 

NO?i. KAL. J UN. 271 

Hanc ubi dives aquis acceperit Amphitrite ; 675 

Grata Jovi fulvse rostra videbis avis. 


Auferat ex oculis veniens Aurora Booten : 
Continuaque die sidus Hyantis erit. 

675. Hanc ubi dives, §-c. On 402, sets, and on the day imme- 

the evening of this day Aquila diately succeeding, Continuaque 

rises. die, viii. Kal. Jun. the Hyades 

677. Auferat ex oculis, §*c. ix. rise heliacally. 
Kal. Jun. Bootes, Fast. iii. N. 




Hic quoque mensis habet dubias in nomine causas : 
Quae placeant, positis omnibus, ipse leges. 

Facta canam ; sed erunt, qui me finxisse loquantur, 
Nullaque mortali numina visa putent. 

Est deus in nobis ; agitante calescimus illo. 

1. Hie quoque mensis, ^c 

June, like some of the preceding 
months, presents a difficulty with 
regard to the origin of its title, 
which Juno, Hebe, and Concord 
separately promise to solve. 

5. Est Deus in nobis. To ob- 
viate the objection that might 
arise to the poet's having been 
favoured so far as to have held a 
personal conference with a deity, 
he advances an irresistible and 
impressive argument which is 
strikingly suitable to his purpose, 
the consciousness of the god 
within. The sense of the text 
could not be more ably or beauti- 
fully developed than in the fol- 
lowing lines. 

" What is that thing, 

That nameless tiling, about us, or within. 
That will not brook the bondage of our 

But revels wildly like the mountain. 

wind ? 
—That bounds at will o'er Nature's bat. 

Where awful shade her adamantine 


Cast on the confines of the universe ? 
—That glides, too, through the closest seal 

of thought. 
More subtile than thin air .'—that range» 

Amongst the mysteries pre-adamite. 
Then in a moment starts, and shoots 

Unmeasured years before us, to the 

Where the great book is opened, and the 

Of men is seen upon his cloudy throne} 
—That plunges into earth an hundred 

Beneath the knotted roots of ancient 

And then emerges in its vast rebound, 
As high as unto heav'n?— ay, what is 

That glows and freezes in the conscious 

Thinks in the head, and lives within the 

— Not mortal, surely— not akin to clay^ 
Not weak, degraded, foul— but great, 

divine — 
Immortal— pure— almost omnipotent— 
—Say — is not this a God f" 

D. P. Starkey. 



Impetus hie sacrae semina mentis habet. 
Fas mihi prajcipue vultus vidisse deorum : 

Vel quia sum vates ; vel quia sacra cano. 
Est nemus arboribus densum, secretus ab omni 

Voce locus ; si non obstreperetur aquis. 10 

Hie ego quaerebam, coepti quae mensis origo 

Esset; et in eura nominis hujus eram. 
Esse Deas vidi : non quas praeceptor arandi 

Viderat, Ascraeas cum sequeretur oves : 
Nee quas Priamides in aquosae vallibus Idas 15 

Contulit. Ex illis sed tamen una fuit. 
Ex illis fuit una, sui germana mariti. 

Haec erat, agnovi, quae stat in aree Jovis. 
Horrueram ; tacitoque animum pallore fatebar : 

Cum dea, quos fecit, sustulit ipsa metus. 20 

Namque ait, O vates, Romani conditor anni, 

Ause per exiguos magna referre modos : 
Jus tibi fecisti numen cceleste videndi, t 

Cum placuit numeris condere festa tuis. 
Ne tamen ignores, vulgique errore traharis ; 25 

Junius a nostro nomine nomen habet. 

6. Impetus. Ovid. ex. Pont. 
iv. JEp, 2, 25. ' Impetus ille sacer, 
qui vatum pectora nutrit.' 

' From hearen my strains begin ; from 

heaven descends, 
The flame of genius to the human 

And love and beauty, and poetic joy 
And inspiration.' Akeruide. 

7. Fas mihi pracipue, Sfc. See 
infr. 23. 

1 3. /VoK quas prceceptor arandi. 
Hesiod. Deor. Gener. 21. "A* vu 
cr»^' 'Hf'iniov xaXji» ES/Sa|av aoihnv, 

(iZPdv liiTati 'MoZffai '0\u/£TiaSts, 
xovaai Ajoy Alyio^oii' 

—And all the holy race of deities. 
Existing ever — They to Hesiod erst. 
Have taught tlieir stately song : the 

whilst his flocks 
He fed, beneath all-sacred Helicon. 
Thus first those goddesses their heavenly 


Addressed, the Olympian Muses bom of 
Jove.' Elton. 

The poet applies to Hesiod the 
title in the text in reference to 
his "Eoya. xcu 'Hfiioai ; through 
which the Muses were his guides, 
whereas Juno vouchsafed to in- 
struct Ovid. 

14. Ascrceas oves. So called 
because Hesiod was born at As- 
cra, a town in Bceotia, to which 
his parents Dius and Pycimene 
had removed from Cyme, one of 
the jEolian islands, to the north 
of Smyrna. 

15. Priamides. In allusion 
to the judgment of Paris upon 
Mount Ida, in which he awarded 
the prize of beauty to Venus in 
preference to Juno and Mi- 

18. Qua stat in arce Jovis. 
The temple of Juno was on the 
right, and ^Minerva's on the left of 
the temple of Jove in the Capitol. 

26. Junius. Qu. Junonius. 

JUNIUS. 275 

Est aliquid nupsisse Jovi, Jovis esse sororem. 

Fratre magis, dubito, glorier, anne viro. 
Si genus adspicitur ; Saturnum prima parentem 

Feci. Saturni sors ego prima fui. 30 

A patre dicta meo quondam Saturnia Roma est ; 

Haec illi a coelo proxima terra fuit. 
Si torus in pretio est ; dicor matrona Tonantis : 

Junctaque Tarpeio sunt mea templa Jovi. 
An potuit Maio pellex dare nomina m.ensi ? 35 

Hie honor in nobis invidiosus erit ? 
Cur igitur regina vocor, princepsque dearum ? 

Aurea cur dextrae sceptra dedere meae ? 
An faciant mensem luces, Lucinaque ab illis 

Dicar ; et a nullo nomina mense traham ? 40 

Turn me pcEniteat posuisse fideliter iras 

In genus Electrae, Dardaniamque domum. 
Causa duplex irae. Rapto Ganymede dolebara ; 

Forma quoque Idseo judice victa mea est. 
Poeniteat, quod non foveo Carthaginis arces ; 45 

Cum mea sint illo cuitus et arma loco. 
Poeniteat, Sparten, Argosque, measque Mycenas, 

Et veterem Latio supposuisse Samon. 
Adde senem Tatium, Junonicolasque Faliscos ; 

Quos ego Romanis succubuisse tuli. 50 

Sed neque poeniteat ; nee gens mihi carior ulla est. 

Hie colar, hie teneam cum Jove templa meo. 
Ipse mihi Mavors, Commendo moenia, dixit, 

Haec tibi : tu pollens urbe nepotis eris. 
Dicta fides sequitur. Centum celebramur in aris : 55 

Nee levior quovis est mihi mensis honor. 

30. Sors. The daughter. laid aside with sincerity. Forcel. 

35. Pellex. Mala, the mother of 42. Genus Electra. The Tro- 
Mercnry. jans, descended trom Electra, the 

36. Invidiosus. i. e. invidendus. mother of Dardanus. 

39. Luces, sc. Dies. 46. Cum mea sint, SfC. Com- 

40. Et a nullo nomina mense pare Virg. jEneid,i. 12, et seq. 
traham. ' Shall I not have the 55. Centum. A definite for 
credit of naming any month ?' an indefinite number ; Juno had 
this is the meaning- of the passage many altars and shrines at Rome, 
which the poet has expressed ra- variously denominated, Caproti- 
ther obscurely. nse, Juyse, Matutae, Sorori», Sos- 

41. Turn me poeniteat, ^c. In pitas, &c. 

case she should be refused the o6. A"ec levior quovis. The res- 
honour of giving the month its pect paid her in so calling the 
name. Posuisse fideliter. To have month, was not inferior to any 


Nee tamen hunc nobis tantummodo pra;stat honorem 

Roma : suburban! dant mihi munus idem. 
Inspice, quos habeat nemoralis Aricia fastos, 

Et populus Laurens, I^anuviunKpie meum. 60 

Est illic mensis Junonius. Inspice Tibur, 

Et Praenestinae moenia sacra dea; ; 
Junonale leges tempus. Nee Romulus illas 

Condidit : at nostri Roma nepotis erat. 
Finierat Juno. Respeximus. Herculis uxor 65 

Stabat ; et in vultu signa dolentis erant. 
Non ego, si toto mater me cedere coelo 

Jusseric, invita matre morabor, ait. 
Nunc quoque non luctor de nomine temporis hujus. 

Blandior, et partes pcene rogantis ago. 70 

Remque mei juris malim tenuisse precando ; 

Et faveas causae forsitan ipse meae. 
Aurea possedit socio Capitolia templo 

Mater ; et ut debet, cum Jove summa tenet. 
At decus omne mihi contingit origine mensis. 75 

Unicus est, de quo soUieitamur, honor. 
Quid grave, si titulum mensis, Romane, dedistis 

Herculis uxori, posteritasque memor ? 
Haec quoque terra aliquid debet mihi nomine magni 

acknowledgment of her divinity of Juno only ; whence Junonia 

and influence. Hebe; Val. P/acc. viii. 231. She 

58. Suburbani. The inhabi- was the goddess of youth, and as 
tants of those towns wluch were such, called by the Latins, Ju- 
in the vicinity of Rome. ventas or Juventa. On account of 

59. Nemoralis Aricia. Fast. iii. her remarkable beauty she was 
2<33, et seq. appointed cup-bearer to the gods 

60. Lanvviumquemenjn. Where by Jupiter, who deprived her of 
there was a temple and grove, the office after«-ards, and bestow- 
sacred to Juno Sospita. ed it on Ganymede. When Her- 

62. Prcenestina. At Praeneste cules, after his decease, became 
also, Juno had a temple. a deity, Juno's enmity against 

63. Junonale tempus. sc. Juno- him entifely ceased, and she gave 
nis mensem. Nee Romulus illas, ^-c. him Hebe in marriage, by whom 
Juno argues that since her wor- he had two sons, Alexiares and 
ship was so carefully attended to Anicetus. 

in those towns which were not 72. Faveas ipse. Faveat ipsa. 
founded by Romulus, she was sc. Juno. Al. 
doubtless entitled to a similar 73. Socio templo. Supr. N. 18. 
respect in a city upon which she lb. At decus omne, ice. All the 
had a just claim, as it had been credit which she enjoyed consist- 
founded by her grandson. ed in her having given the month 

65. Herculis uxor. Hebe, the its name, 

daughter of Jupiter and Juno, or 79. Nomine. On account of. 

KAL. JUN. 277 

Conjugis. Hue captas appulit ille boves. 80 

Hie male defensus flammis et dote paterna 

Caeus Aventinam sanguine tinxit humum. 
Ad pi'opiora voeor. Populum digessit ab annis 

Romulus, in partes distribuitque duas. 
Haee dare consilium, pugnare paratior ilia est : 85 

Haec aetas bellum suadet, at ilia gerit. 
Sic statuit, mensesque nota secrevit eadem. 

Junius est juvenum ; qui fuit ante, senum. 
Dixit : et in litem studio certaminis issent ; 

Atque ira pietas dissimulata foret. 90 

Venit ApoUinea longas Concordia lauro 

Nexa comas, placidi numen opusque Ducis. 
Haec ubi narravit Tatium, fortemque Quirinum, 

Binaque cum populis regnaque coisse suis : 
Et lare communi soceros generosque receptos ; 95 

His nomen junctis Junius, inquit, habet. 
Dicta triplex causa est. At vos ignoscite, divae : 

Res est arbitrio non dirimenda meo. 
Ite pares a me. Perierunt judice formae 

Pergama ; plus laedunt, quam juvet una, duae. 100 

Prima dies tibi, Carna, datur. Dea cardinis hsec est. 

80. Captas boves. Fast. i. 493, 101. Carna. On the kalends of 
et seq. June the festival of this deity was 

81. Dote paterna. Ibid. 521. celebrated. She was a nymph of 
83. Digessit ab annis. Accord- the grove of Helernus or Hilerna, 

ing to their age. anciently called Grane or Crane, 

88. Qui fuit ante, senum. In al- and by metathesis, Carne or Car- 
lusion to May having been so na. She was generally engaged in 
called from Majores. See Fast, the chase, and from the purity 
V. 73. and simplicity of her life was 

89. Issent. Juno and Hebe. considered the sister of Diana ; 
92. Ducis. Tiberius, who built but having been betrayed by the 

the temple of Concord, Fast. i. artifices of Janus, he requited the 

57.3. loss of her innocence by appoint- 

97. Triplex. By Juno, Hebe, ing her to preside over doors, &c. 

and Concord. whence Dea cardinis ; and the 

99. Perierunt judice formce. exterior of houses, whence she 
Supr. N. 15. was to remove all noxious birds, 

100. Plus ladunt, S^c. Juno &c. Some suppose that Carda, 
and Minerva having conspired for or Cardea was the title of the 
the destruction of Troy, which goddess of hinges, and that Carna 
Venus was unable to protect. had a different province, that of 

2 B 



Numine clausa aperit, claudit aperta suo. 
Unde datas habeat vires, obscurior aevo 

Fama ; sed e nostro carmine certus eris. 
Adjacet antiqui Tiberino lucus Helerni : 

Pontifices illuc nunc quoque sacra ferunt. 
Inde sata est Nymphe, Granen dixere priores, 

Nequidquam multis sa?pe petita procis. 
Rura sequi, jaculisque feras agitare solebat, 

Nodosasque cava tendere valle plagas. 
Non habuit pharetram : Phcebi tamen esse sororem 

Credebant: nee erat, Phoebe, pudenda tibi. 
Huic Janus, spinam, qua tristes pellere posset 

A foribus noxas, haec erat alba, dedit. 
Sunt avidae volucres : non quae Phineia mensis 

Guttura fraudabant ; sed genus inde trahunt. 
Grande caput, stantes oculi, rostra apta rapinse : 




guarding the heart and stomach ; 
the poet, however, combines those 
offices in the one deity. Her wor- 
ship was ordained at Rome, and 
her festival celebrated on the Coe- 
lian mount, by Junius Brutus, 
pursuant to a vow which he had 
jjlighted on the expulsion of Tar- 

113. Spinam. The efficacy 
which the ancients attached to 
the white thorn has been already 

115. Non qua Phineia, Sfc. 
They were not the Harpies who 
were sent by Juno to pollute and 
plunder the temples of Phineus, 
to avenge the ci^uelty which he 
exercised toward his sons by Cle- 
obula, Plexippus and Pandion, 
in putting out their eyes at the 
instigation of their step-mother, 
Idffia, who accused them falsely. 
He was subsequently delivered 
from them by Calais and Zethes, 
in requital for some important 
information which he gave to the 
Argonauts on the subject of their 
celebrated expedition, as, owing 
to the advice of Phineus, it was 
made more certain of success. 

According to Apollodorus, the 
Harpies, called by Hesiod Aello 
and Ocypete, were the offspring 
of Thaumas and Electra. Vale- 
rius P'laccus makes them the 
daughters of Typhon. Aello is 
said to have fallen, in her flight, 
into the river Tigris, in the Mo- 
rea, thence called Harpys. Ocy- 
pete having passed over the Pro- 
pontis, arrived at the island Ech- 
inades, called afterwards Stropha- 
des, from Gr. (rr^i^u, because 
wearied with fatigue she turned 
to the shore and dropped down. 
ApoUonius Rhodius mentions that 
they both reached the Strophades, 
where they were allowed to re- 
main in safety, having sworn to 
their pursuers that they would 
not molest Phineus more. 

117. Grande caput. The poet 
proceeds to describe the stria or 
screech-owl, Gr. 2tj(| from trr^'t^a, 
strideo, infr. 140. What is stated 
of this bird in the text agrees 
closely with the description of 
the Vespertilio vampyrus of Lin- 
naeus, the la rusette or rougette of 
Bufi'on ; a species of bat with 
large canine teeth, sharp, black 



Canities pennis, unguibus haraus inest. 
Nocte volant, puerosque petunt nutricis egentes ; 

Et vitiant cunis corpca rapta suis. 120 

Carpere dicuntur lactentia viscera rostris ; 

Et plenum poto sanguine guttur habent. 
Est illis strigibus nomen : sed nominis hujus 

Causa, quod horrenda stridere nocte sclent. 
Sive igitur nascuntur aves, seu carmine fiunt ; 125 

Naeniaque in volucres Marsa figurat anus ; 
In thalamos venere Procae. Proca natus in illis 

Praeda recens avium quinque diebus erat. 
Pectoraque exsorbent avidis infantia linguis. 

At puer infelix vagit, opemque petit. 1 30 

Territa voce sui nutrix accurrit alumni ; 

Et rigido sectas invenit ungue genas. 
Quid faceret ? color oris erat, qui frondlbus olim 

Esse solet seris, quas nova laesit hiems. 

beak, the claws very strong and 
hooked. They inhabit Guinea, 
Madagascar, and all the islands 
from thence to the remotest in 
the Indian Ocean, Buffon sup- 
poses that they were not unknown 
to the ancients, and that they gave 
rise to the fictions of the Harpies. 
Linnaeus calls this species of bat 
the vampyre, conjecturing it to 
be the kiud which draws blood 
from any it can find asleep. It 
bleeds so dexterously that, it in- 
serts its aculeated tongue into 
the vein without causing any pain, 
and then sucks the blood until it 
is sated ; all the while fanning the 
air with its broad wings, so as to 
cast the sufferer into a still sound- 
er sleep. Pennant's Hist. Quadrup, 
ii. 548, &c. Stantes oculi. Virg, 
JEneid,\\. ' Stant lamina flarama.' 

119. Puerosque petunt. So Isi- 
dorus ; ' Haec avis vulgo Amma 
dicitur ab amando parvulos.' 

121. Lactentia. Metam. xv. 201. 
' Nam tener, et lactens, puerique 
simillimum aevo Vere novo est:' 
sc. Annus. 

124. Horrenda nocte. Horrenda 
voce. Al. Horrendum stridere. 

Jun. Vlit. as .^neid, vi. ' bellua 
Lernaj Horrendum stridens.' 

125. Sive igiturnascuntur aves, 
Sfc. Whether they are actually 
birds, or are made so by enchant- 
ments, carmine fiunt ; the ancients 
having believed such a metamor- 
phose possible, as that mentioned 
infr. 126. 

126. Naniaque Marsa. The 
Marsi were celebrated for sor- 
ceries, having been, according to 
Gellius, descended from !Marsus, 
the son of Circe ; whence Horace, 
Epod. 5, 75, ' Nee vocata mens 
tua Marsis redibit vocibus,' and 
17, 29, ' Caputque iVlarsa dissi- 
lire naenia.' Striges and Striga 
were terms in use with the an- 
cients to signify hags or witches ; 
whence Isidorus, in Gloss ,- ' Stri- 
ges, mulieres volaticae ;' so call- 
ed from their power of assuming 
the shape of a bird. 

127. Proca. Fast. iv. n. 42. 

128. Quinque diebus. At five 
days old. 

133. Qui frondihus olim, Sfc. 

' But see the fading many-coloured 

Shade deepening over shade, the 
country round 


Pervenit ad Granen, et rem docet. Ilia, Timorem 135 

Pone, tuus sospes, dixit, alumnus erit. 
Venerat ad cunas : flebant materque patcrque. 

Sistite vos lachrymas, ipsa medebor, ait. 
Protinus arbutea postes ter in ordine tangit 

Fronde : ter arbutea limina fronde notat. 140 

Spargit aquis aditus, et quae medicamen habebant : 

Extaque de porca cruda bimestre tenet. 
Atque ita, Noctis aves, extis puerilibus, inquit, 

Parcite : pro parvo victima parva cadit. 
Cor pro corde, precor, pro fibris sumite fibras. 145 

Hanc animam vobis pro meliore damus. 
Sic ubi libavit, prosecta sub aethere ponit : 

Q,uique sacris adsunt, respicere ilia vetat. 
Virgaque Janalis de spina ponltur alba : 

Q-ua lumen thalamis parva fenestra dabat. 150 

Post illud nee aves cunas violasse feruntur ; 

Et rediit puero, qui fuit ante, color. 
Pinguia cur illis gustentur larda Kalendis, 

Mistaque cum calido sit faba farre, rogas ? 
Prisca dea est ; aliturque cibis, quibus ante solebat: 155 

Nee petit adscitas luxuriosa dapes. 
Piscis adhuc illi populo sine fraude natabat : 

Ostreaque in conchis tuta fuere suis. 
Nee Latium norat, quam pra^bet Ionia dives, 

Nee, quae Pj'gma^o sanguine gaudet, avem. 160 

Embrown ; a crowded umbrage dusk Horat. Sat. ii. 2. 49. ' Tutus erat 

Of every O, from wan derljning green rhombus, tutoque ciconia nido 

To sooty dark.' Donee vos auctor docuit Praeto- 

Thovison. j.jyg , 

Novahyems. Winter just set in. J59 jy^^ Latium norat. Sec. 

141. Qticc medicamen habebant. The ancients were unacquainted 

sc. Aquis lustralibus. with the Attageii Jonius .- which 

147. Prosecta. The entrails answers probably to the heath- 
cut up ; called also prosicice and cock, or wood-cork ; so called, 
porricice : Gr. 6ufji,ikraiv a.-zja.ii^a.i ; because the best-flavoured came 
that part of the victim which is from Ionia ; Horat. Epod. 2, 53, 
set apart for the object of the and also with the crane, quce 
sacrifice. Pygmao sanguine, ^-c. in allusion 

148. Respicere ilia vetat. So at to the wars said to have been car- 
the Lemuria; i^asf. V. vii. Id.Mai. ried on between the cranes and 

149. Janalis. ' A Jano accep- the Pygm»i, a people of Thrace, 
tii.' Forcel. Seosupr. 113. Hein- who are represented to have been 
sius proposes Ramalis, as Mctam. but a foot and a half in height ; 
viii. 644. Pers. 5, 39. a fiction prohaldy derived from 

157. Piscis adhucilli populo, ^c. their name, -aruyw», cubitus. 



Et praeter pennas nihil in pavone placebat ; 

Nee tellus captas miserat ante feras. 
Sus erat in pretio : caesa sue festa colebant. 

Terra fabas tantum, duraque farra clabat. 
Quae duo mista simul sextis quicunque Kalendis 

Ederit ; huic laedi viscera posse negant. 



Arce quoque in summa Junoni templa Monetae 
Ex voto memorant facta, Camille, tuo. 

Ante domus Manli fuerant : qui Gallica quondam 
A Capitolino reppulit arma Jove. 

Quam bene, di magni ! pugna cecidisset in ilia 


161. Et prceter pennas, SfC. 
Compare Horat. Sat. ii. 2, 14, 
et seq. 

162. Ante. Heinsius conjec- 
tures Afra or Inda, either of 
which would agree with the im- 
port of miserat, by which it is to 
be understood that the delicacies 
alluded to came from abroad ; so 
Virg. Georg. i. 57, ' India mittit 
ebur.' As the text stands, miserat 
is to be taken in the sense of 

165. Qua duo mixta. Gr."Erv5; 
or 'Erv)}j«v 'i^ni/^ct. Sextis Kalen- 
dis. The kalends of June, the 
sixth month. 

167. Junoni MonetcB. Fast. i. N. 
573. On the kalends of June this 
temple was consecrated by Ca- 
millus in that part of the Capitol 
where the house of M. Manli us 
had stood. 

168. Voto Camille tuo. SeeLiv. 
V. vi. and vii. 

169. Qui Gallica quondam. 
M. Manlius was alarmed by the 
cackling of the geese in the tem- 
ple of Juno, in time to hurl from 
the walls the Gaul who had al- 
ready ascended, whose fall pre- 
cipitated those who were climb- 
ing after him, and so the Capitol 
was saved. He was rewarded by 

a donation of half a pound of 
corn and a quart of wine from 
each individual in the citadel ; no 
slight token of respect and regard 
from those who were suffering 
severely from the great scarcity 
of provision ; he received also in 
remembrance of this achievement 
the surname Capitolinus. His 
disposition was naturally turbu- 
lent and envious, and he suffered 
himself to be led away so far as 
to aim at exciting discontent be- 
tween the patricians and plebei- 
ans. He was convicted of having 
falsely accused some of the no- 
bility, and was imprisoned in 
consequence, by A. Cornelius 
Cossus, who had been appointed 
dictator to take charge of a war 
with the Volsci, and to quell the 
commotions caused by Manlius 
at Rome. Having been set at 
liberty, he continued his seditious 
proceedings, and aspired at last 
to sovereign power, for which he 
was condemned to be thrown 
from the Tarpeian rock, the scene 
of his glory having been chosen 
for the punishment of his guilt. 
Virg. jEneid, viii. 652, Liv. 
v. 31, et seq. 

171. Quam bene Di Magni, 8fc. 
See Juvenal, Sat. 10,278, etseq. 



Defensor solii, Jupiter alte, tui ! 
Vixit, ut occideret damnatus crimine regni. 
Hunc illi titulum longa senecta dabat. 


Lux eadem Marti festa est ; quern prospicit extra 175 

Appositum Tectae porta Capena viae. 


Te quoque, Tempestas, meritam delubra fatemur ; 
Cum p£Ena est Corsis obruta classis aquis. 


Haec hominum monumenta patent. Si quaeritis astra ; 
Tunc oritur magni praepes adunca Jovis. 1 80 

175. Lux eadem Marti festa. 
Oa the kalends of June, a sacri- 
fice was offered to Mars, outside 
the Porta Capena, where his 
temple stood. 

176. TectcE vice. Some copies 
read rectos, others dextrce, but the 
commentators by whom these 
emendations are proposed, do not 
attempt to support them. The 
text seems unobjectionable as it 
stands, taking tecta in the sense 
of paved ; no uncommon appli- 
tion of the term ; Hist, de Bell. 
Alexand. ' Alexandriae ajdificia 
tecla sunt rudere, aut pavimen- 
tis.' sc. a stone-floor, Forcel. 
Auct. de B. Hispan. ' Omnia loca 
rudere non tetrulis teguntur ;' sc. 
are floored with rubbish instead 
of tiles. Stephanas, in Thes.Ling. 
Lat. explains tcctoriuiii, from tego, 
as a mortar composed of lime and 
sand ; arenatum, hoc est quod fit 
ex calce et arena ; as opposed to 
marmoratuin, which was made of 
lime and marble dust, of which, 
with some other ingredients, the 
hardest cement was formed. The 
Appiaa way, that alluded to ia 

the text, called, »ar s?»;^»», i?e- 
yina viarum, Liv. ix.29, was paved 
with the hardest flint so firmly, 
tiiat in several places it is still en- 
tire, after an interval of above 
2000 years, since it was first con- 
structed by Appius Claudius, the 
censor, a. u. 441. The stones of 
which it was formed were of dif- 
ferent sizes, but so skilfully 
joined, that they appeared as but 
one stone. There were two strata 
underneath ; the first stratum of 
rough stones cemented with mor- 
tar, and the second with gravel ; 
the whole about three feet thick. 
Adam's R. Antiq. Boyd's edit 
pp. 493-6. From the foregoing 
it may probably be allowed that 
TecUe via admits of the sense 
proposed above. 

177. Tempestas. A temple 
was built in honour of this deity 
by L. Scipio, the colleague of C. 
Aquilius Florus in the consul- 
ship, B. c. 261, in gratitude for the 
escape of his fleet from the efi'ects 
of a violent storm while laying 
siege to Sardinia and Corsica ; 
both of which islands he laid 




Postera lux Hyadas, Tanrinse cornua frontis, 
Evocat : et raulta terra madescit aqua. 


Mane ubi bis fuerit, Phcebusque iteraverit ortus : 

Factaque erit posito rore bis uda seges ; 
Hac sacrata die Tusco Bellona duello 185 

Dicitur, et Latio prospera semper adest. 
Appius est auctor, Pyrrho qui pace negata 

Multum animo vidit ; lumine captus erat. 
Prospicit a templo summum brevis area Circum. 

Est ibi non parvae parva columna notas. 190 

waste, and having brought a num- 
ber of captives to Rome, had the 
honour of a triumph. Flor. ii. 2. 

180. Tunc oritur, Sfc. On the 
evening of the kalends of June, 
Aquila rises. 

181. Postera lux. On the iv. 
Non. Jun. the Hyades rise heli- 
acally. Taurince cornua frontis. 
A synonym for Hijadas, as they 
were situated in the forehead of 
the Bull. 

183. Mane ubi his fuerit, sc. 
Prid. Id. Jun. a temple was con- 
secrated to Bellona, the sister 
and wife of Mars, and goddess of 
war; called also Duellona, as 
duellum for bellum infr. 185, near 
the Circus Maximus, in front of 
the Porta Carmentalis. It had 
been vowed by Appius Claudius 
Cajcus during a war with the 
Etrurians, Liv. x. In this temple 
the senate gave audience to 
foreign ambassadors, and others 
who were not allowed admission 
into the city ; the ninth district 
in whicli this temple was situ- 
ated, not having been considered 
a part of the metropolis itself. 

187. Pyrrho qui pace negata. 
Pyrrhus, king of Epirus afforded 
assistance to the Tarentiui on the 

occasion of war having been de- 
clared against them by the Ro- 
mans. Upon his arrival in Italy 
he was joined by the Samnites, 
Lucani, and Brutii, with whom 
he overran the greater part of the 
country. He then offered peace 
to the Romans on condition of 
his being allowed to retain the 
possessions he had acquired by 
his conquests ; they were dis- 
suaded from accepting his pro- 
posals by Appius, of whom Va- 
lerius Maximus writes ; ' Qui fes- 
sus jam vivendo, lectica se in 
Curiam deferri jussit, ut cum 
Pyrrho deformem pacem fieri pro- 
hiberet. Hunc csecum aliquis no- 
minet, a quo Patria, quod hones- 
tum erat, parum per se cernens, 
coacta est pervidere ?' 

189. Summum Circum. The ex- 
treme part of the Circus. Area. 
The court in front of the temple. 

190. Parva columna, V/hen 
the Romans considered them- 
selves injured by any nation in 
such a manner as to require re- 
dress, they sent one or more of the 
Feciales to demand it, allowing 
thirty-three days for the conside- 
ration of their claim. The Fecial 
order of priesthood was instituted 



Hinc solet hasta manu, belli praenuntia, mitti ; 
In regem et gentes cum placet arma capi. 


Altera pars Cirei custode sub Hercule tuta est : 
Quod deus Euboico carmine munus habet. 

Muneris est tempus, qui Nonas Lucifer ante est. 
Si titulos qua;ris ; Sylla probavit opus. 


by Numa Pompilius, and bor- 
rowed, according to Dionysius, 
from the Greeks ; See Liv. i. 24, 
and xxxvi. 3. To this order was 
assigned every thina^ relating to 
the proclamation of war, and con- 
cluding of treaties. Accordingly 
at the expiration of the period 
alluded to, if their appeal had 
been ineffectual, the Feciales 
went again to the confines of the 
aggressors, and h;iving thrown a 
spear dipped in blood across the 
boundaries, made a declaration of 
war. Liv. i. 32. In later times, 
when the boundaries of the Ro- 
man empire became so widely 
extended, and their arms were 
carried beyond the seas, it was 
found impossible to adhere so 
strictly to the above custom ; its 
spirit and intention, however, 
were preserved by the erection 
of a small pillar, parva columna, 
called also bellica, in front of the 
temple of Bellona, over which 
the priest threw the spear into a 
field called Ager Hostilis, to sig- 
nify the commencement of hos- 
tilities. The form of words in 
which the declaration was made, 
was called Clarigatic ,- a clara 
voce qua utehatur, Serv. Virg. 
j^neid, ix. 52, x. 1 4, whence also 
clarigatum, i. e. res raptas dare 

] 93. Altera pars Circi. The 
Circus Flaminius contained also 
the temple of Hercules Magnus, 
as appears from a fragment of the 

old kalendar ; Herculi Magno 


194. Euboico carmine. Pur- 
suant to the direction of the Cu- 
maean Sibyl, in compliance with 
which the temple was built. Nea- 
polis conjectures that there were 
two temples of Hercules in the 
Circus Flaminius, one built by 
the senate, that mentioned above, 
and the other by Fulvius Nobi- 
lior, which was subsequently re- 
stored by Philip, the step-father 
of Augustus; infr. 744. Munus. 
sc. the temple. 

\95. Muneris est tempus. This 
temple was dedicated Prid. Non. 

1 96. Si titulos quceris, SfC. * If 
you require tlie superscription, &c. 
Probavit. This term was peculiar 
to the office of the Censors, who 
having the charge of the public 
buildings, temples, &c. agreed for 
their erection, and sanctioned 
them, if deserving, with their 
approval when completed ; pro- 
bavcrunt 1. e. recte et ex ordine 
facta esse pronunciaverunt. In this 
sense it must be applied to Sylla 
in the text. According to Plu- 
tarch, he dedicated the tenth part 
of his immense wealth to Her- 
cules, in whose honour he cele- 
brated sumptuous public festivals 

2uA.Xaj TO) 'HaaxXsr oiKaTn-t, IfTia- 
ffilS, i'TOlUTa TU "iyi/iu ToXvTiX(7s. 

It was usual for those who had 
obtained great riches, to devote a 




Quaerebam Nonas Sanco Fidione referrem, 
An tibi, Semo pater ; cum mihi Sancus ait ; 

Cuicunque ex illis dederis ; ego munus habebo. 

Nomina trina fero : sic voluere Cures. 200 

Hunc igitur veteres donarunt aede Sabini, 
Inque Quirinali constituere jugo. 

tenth to Hercules, as the posses- 
sors were believed to be indebted 
to him for the whole; whence, 
Horat. Sat. ii. 6, 12, ' Dives ami- 
00 Hercule.' Pers. 2, 12, « O si 
6ub rastro crepet argenti mihi se- 
ria dextro Hercule;' and because 
that deity was said to have been 
pleased with a moderate use of 
his behests. 

197. Queer eham Nonas, ^c. On 
the Noues, a temple had been de- 
dicated to Sancus, Fidius, or 
Semo ; the poet is at a loss to 
which of them he should appro- 
priate the day, until informed that 
the three names belonged to the 
one deity, Sancus. This was the 
Sabine name for Hercules ; it is 
written also Sangus, and Sanctus, 
but more correctly as above. This 
deity was so called a sanciendo ; 
Propert. iv. 10, sub. Jin. 'Nunc 
quoniam manibus purgatum sanx- 
erat orbem sic Sancum Tatise 
composuere Cures. ' Sabus, from 
whom the Sabines are said to have 
derived their name ; Sit. Ital. viii. 
423, ' — pars laudes ore ferebant 
Sabe tuas ; qui de patrio cogno- 
mine primus Dixisti populos mag- 
na ditione Sabinos;' was the son 
of Sancus Dioni/s. Halic. Antiq. 
ii. 51. Fidius or Dius Fidius is 
applied to Hercules as the son of 
Jove, Dijovis filius ; in like man- 
ner as the Greeks called Castor 
At'offKov^ov, I having been changed 
into (/. Hence arose the oath Me- 

dius Fidius, i. e. Me dius Fidius 
juvet ; as mehercules, niecustor, i.e. 
me Hercules, me Castor juvet or 
amet. Some however explain me- 
dius, by the Greek fio. Aim, per 
Jovem ; others by medius fidius 
understand, per divifidem, or per 
diurni temporis, i. e. diei fidem. 
Fidius is further explained by 
fidus or fidelis from the Aio; Uia-- 
rioi, Dius Fidius, of the Greeks. 
<Se»io is a contraction of Semiho- 
mo, or semihemo ; hemonem occur- 
ring for horniriem, Fnn. apud 
Priscian. vi. p. 683. Putsch. ; as 
nemo from we homo or heme, and 
was used by the ancients to ex- 
press a deified mortal, the n^as of 
the Greeks ; it was applied to 
Hercules in reference to his hav- 
ing been enrolled among the gods 
after he had terminated his earth- 
ly career. For Semo pater, 198, 
some copies read Seviipater, but 

2Q\. Donarunt adeSahini. The 
poet differs in thus attributing the 
founding of this temple to the 
Sabines, from the historian Dio- 
nysius, who asserts it to have 
been built by Tarquinius Su- 
perbus on the Quirinal hill, l^r) 
ToZ 'EvvaXiov Xo(pou; but the credit 
of its consecration was, by a de- 
cree of the senate, given to the 
consul Spurius Postumius, a. u. 
298, probably from dislike to 




Est mihi, sitque, precor, nostris diuturnior annis, 

Filia : qua felix sospite semper ero. 
Hanc ego cum vellem genero dare : tempora tsedis 

Apta requirebam, quaeque cavenda forent. 
Tum mihi post sacras monstratur Junius Idus 

Utilis et nuptis, utilis esse viris. 
Primaque pars hujus thalamis aliena reperta est. 

Nam mihi sic conjux sancta Diahs ait : 
Donee ab Ihaca placidus purgamina Vesta 

Detulerit flavis in mare Thybris aquis ; 
Non mihi detonsos crines depectere buxo, 

Non ungues ferro subsecuisse Hcet : 



203. Est mihi filia, ^c. In dif- 
ferent parts of his compositions 
the poet speaks in affectionate 
terms of his daughter Perilla ; 
the seventh elegy in the third 
book of the Tristia is addressed 
to her, and contains directions for 
her mental improvement, with 
encouragement to aim at the im- 
mortality which taste and genius 
only can confer; ' — nil non mor- 
tale tenemus. Pectoris exceptis 
ingeniique bonis.' Trist. 7. 43, et 
seq. She was twice married ; 
♦ Filia me mea bis prima fecunda 
juventa, Sed non ex uno conjuge 
fecit avum.' Trist. One of her 
husbands appears to have been a 
senator ; Senec. de Constant. Sa- 
pient, xvii. ' In senatu flentem 
vidimus Fidum Cornelium, Na- 
sonis generum. 

206. Cavenda. Timenda. Ber- 

207. Post sacras Idus. It was 
considered inauspicious to marry 
previous to the ides of June, the 
remaining portion of the month 
was not liable to this objection. 
Heinsius proposes to read post 
actas idus, as the text seems to 
contradict what has been stated 
Fast, i. NN, 58, 59 ; where it ap- 
pears that the days immediately 

after the kalends, nones and ides 
were reckoned unlucky, so that 
the day after the ides of June 
could not be said, utilis esse nup- 
tis, S^c. Besides from .v. 213, infr. 
it is evident that the day alluded 
to, xviii. Kal. Jul. is included 
among the dies atri, so that post 
sacras idus must be taken in a 
more extended sense, as referring 
to the concluding part of the 
month, and not to the day suc- 
ceeding the ides. 

209. Hujus. sc. mensis Junii 

210. Sancta Dialis. Or Cincta. 
Heins. See Fast. iii. n. .395-6. 

211. Donee ab Iliaca, |-c — 
' Stercus ex aede Vest», xvii. 
Kal. Jul. defertur in angiportum 
medium fere clivi Capitolini : qui 
locus clauditur porta Stercoraria. 
Tantae sanctitatis majores nostri 
esse judicaverunt.' Festus .• with 
whom Varro agrees as to the 
place in which those cleansings 
were deposited. The poet, as it 
appears, differs from both ; see 
also infr. 655. It is evident both 
from the above and what follows, 
that up to the xvii. Kal. Jul it 
was unlawful to contract marriage. 

213. Detonsos crines depectere. 
To dress or trim the hair after it 
had been cut ; Burmann explains 


Non tetigisse virum ; quamvis Jovis ille sacerdos, 
Quamvis perpetua sit mihi lege datus. 

Tu quoque ne propera ; melius tua filia nubet, 
Ignea cum pura Vesta nitebit humo. 



Tertia post Nonas removere Lycaona Phoebe 
Fertur ; et a tergo non habet Ursa metum. 

Tunc ego me memini ludos in gramine Campi 
Aspicere, et didici, lubrice Tibri, tuos. 

Festa dies illis, qui lina madentia ducunt, 
Quique tegunt parvis aera recurva cibis. 



Mens quoque numen habet ; Menti delubra videmus 

Vota metu belli, perfide Poene, tui. 
Poene, rebellaras ; et letho Consulis omnes 

Attoniti Mauras pertimuere manus. 


detonsos crines, by tantum extrema 
parte detonsos, i. e. ne luxurient 
nimis et ne intricati et densi nimis 
caput deforment, Buxo. Gr, ktiU 

215. Jovis ille sacerdos. The 
Flamen Dialis. 

216. Perpetua lege. See Fast. 
ii. N. 27. 

218. Pura humo. Supr. n. 21 1. 

219. Tertia post Nonas. On 
the VII. Id. Jun. Arctophylax 
sets, in the morning. Fast. ii. N. 
153. Lycaona, for Li/caonida, 
Areas having been the grandson 
of Lycaon ; so Pindar, iv. Neni. 

32, ' AfiC,(piT^uciiv for ' Afit.<piT^tjavi^yi;, 

and X. Olynap. 42, MoXiovi; for 

220. Non habet Ursa metum. 
In allusion to Areas having nearly 
killed Callisto after she had been 
transformed into a bear ; Fast. ii. 
N. 157. She had nothing to fear 
now, the sign into which her son 
was changed having set. 

221. Tunc ego me memini, Sfc. 
— Upon the same day the Ludi 
Tibrales were celebrated in the 
Campus Martius, in honour of 
the river Tiber, and also the Pis- 
catorii Ludi, or festival of Fish- 

224. u^ra recurva. TvafiTrx 
ayKia-T^a. Horn. 

225. Mens quoque numen habet. 
After the miserable overthrow of 
the Roman army by Hannibal, 
near the lake Trasimene, where 
the consul C. Flaminius was slain, 
B.C.217, in the second Punic war; 
whence Poene, rebellaras, infr. ; 
the Sibylline books were con- 
sulted, and, by the direction of the 
Decemvirs, a temple was vowed to 
Mens by Attilius the praetor, and 
consecrated by Otacilius Crassus. 
In the same year the temple was 
dedicated to Venus Erycina by 
Q. Fabius Maximus. 

228. Mauras. so. Carthagi- 


Spem Metus expulerat : cum Menti vota Senatus 

Suscipit ; et melior protinus ilia venit. 230 

Aspicit instantes mediis sex lucibus Idus 
Ilia dies, qua sunt vota soluta Deae. 


Vesta, fave ; tibi nunc operata resolvimus ora ; 

Ad tua si nobis sacra venire licet. 
In prece totus eram ; ccelestia numina sensi, 235 

Laetaque purpurea luce refulsit humus. 
Non equidem vidi (valeant mendacia vatum) 

Te Dea ; nee fueras aspicienda viro. 
Sed quae nescieram, quorumque errore tenebar, 

Cognita sunt, nuUo praecipiente, mihi. 240 

Dena quater memorant habuisse Palilia Romam, 

Cum flammas custos sede recepta sua est. 
Regis opus placidi, quo non metuentius ullum 

Numinis ingenium terra Sabina tulit. 
Qua; nunc aere vides, stipula tunc tecta videres : 245 

Et paries lento vimine textus erat. 
Hie locus exiguus, qui sustinet atria Vestae, 

Tunc erat intonsi regia magna Nuraae. 
Forma tamen templi, quae nunc manet, ante fuisse 

Dicitur : et formse causa probanda subest. 250 

Vesta eadem est, quae Terra ; subest vigil ignis utrique ; 

230. Melior ilia. sc. Mens. In 237. Non equidem vidi, Sfc. See 

allusion to the judicious conduct mh.211. Valeant mendacia vatum. 

of Q. Fabius Maximus, surnamed Farewell to the poets' fictions. 
Cunctator, who, as prodictator, l^l.Denarjuater memorant, See 

undertook the war with Hannibal After forty anniversaries of the 

after the battle of Trasimene. Palilia, Fast.iv. 695, i.e. f .c. 40, 

2S1. Aspicit insta7ites,^'c. That the worship of Vesta was intro- 

day, VII. Id. Jun. beholds the ides duced by Numa into Rome ; 

approaching with an interval of whence Begis opus placidi, &c. 
six days. 247. Qui sustinet atria VesttB. 

232. De(E. sc. Menti. The atrium was that part of the 

233, Vesta, fave. On the v. Id. regia, in which the Vestal virgins 
Jan. was the celebration of the lived; the poet appears to iden- 
Vestalia. Operata. Employed in tify them. 

sacred subjects; this is a sense 249. Forma tamen templi, ^'c. 

peculiar to operor. Virg. Gtorg. The temple was round, for the 

i. 339, ' Sacra refer Cereri, laetus reasons subjoined, 

operatus inherbis.' 251. Vesta eadem est, qua Ter- 

236. Purpurea luce. Flame- ra. See Fast. i. n. 478, and iii. 

coloured light. K. 45. also infr. vs. 275, and 414, 



Significant sedem terra focusque suam. 
Terra pilae similis, nullo fulcimine nixa, 

Acre subjecto tam grav3 pendet onus- 
Ipsa volubilitas libratum sustinet orbem : 255 

Quique premat partes, angulus omnis abest. 
Cumque sit in media rerum regione locata, 

Et tangat nullum plusve minusve latus ; 
Ni convexa foret, parti vicinior esset : 

Nee medium terram mundus haberet onus. 260 

Arte Syracosia suspensus in acre clauso 

where the poet appears to con- 
found Vesta, the earth, with 
Vesta, the principle of fire. 

252. Significant, ^c. The earth 
being in the centre of the world, 
and the tire of Vesta in the mid- 
dle of the temple mutually inti- 
mate their respective positions. 

254. A'e're subjecto. The earth 
having been entirely encompassed 
by the aer, or atmosphere ; aer is 
derived by sonae «^o tov ai^nv, 
quod terram ferat, vel quod ab 
ipsaferatur; see n. 261, infr. a 
med. an etymology which suits 
the text as supr. Others derive 
it from einui, spiro or u.i) jiiuv, 
semper fluere. 

255. Ipsa volubilitas, See. This, 
and the five following lines, are 
not to be found in the oldest and 
most authentic copies. They are 
intended to express the earth's 
being kept in equilibrium by its 
roundness, volubilitas ; there being 
no angle to make it bear in any 
direction unequally, Quique pre- 
mat paries, ^'c. 

257. Serum. Of the svstem. 

259. A7 convexa foret, ^c. The 
poet is desirous to shew that in 
order to its being the exact centre 
of the system, the earth must be 
round ; otherwise it would not be 
the medium onus of the universe. 
Parti may be used for parte, ' in 
some degree,' as Plaut. Men. 3, 
2, 14, ' Satur nunc loquitur de 
me, et de parti mea.' 

260. Mundus. qu. movendus, 
quia non alius est, quam quod 
moveri possit ; Festus ,- the uni- 
verse ; ' — ingens illud corpus 
ccelo terraque constans, perfectum 
undique, itaque omnia in se com- 
plexus ;' Forcel. and Cic. de TVat. 
Deor. ii. I4, ' ut nihil sit, quod 
non insit in eo ;' sc. mundo. 

261. Arte Si/racosia. Archi- 
medes, one of the most distin- 
guished geometricians of anti- 
quity, was a native of Syracuse, 
born B.C. 291. He is said to have 
formed a sphere of exquisite 
workmanship, by means of which 
he illustrated the relative posi- 
tions and movements of the earth, 
planets, &c. ; upon which Clau- 
dian composed the well-known 
epigram ; ' Jupiter in parvo cum 
cerneret aethera vitro Risit et ad 
superos talia dicta dedit,' &c. 
Hence it would appear to have 
been formed of glass, but some 
authorities are opposed to this ; 
Lactantius, lib. ii. cap. v. writes 
as follows ; ' Archimedes Siculus 
coniavo sere similitudinem acfigu- 
ram potuit machinari, in quo ita 
Solem Lunamque composuit ;' 
&c. Sextus Empiricus states it 
to have been made of wood, and 
Coelius Rhodiginus, of brass ; 
' Archimedis ingenium divinum, 
in mundi opificio Deum, fere ip- 
sum lacessere visum est, quando 
tam concinne Coelum conflasse 
aereum memoratur,' &c. Of what- 

2 C 



Stat globus, immensi parva figura poli. 
Et quantum a summis, tantum secessit ab imis 

Terra. Quod ut fiat, forma rotunda facit. 
Par facies templi : nullus procurrit in illo 265 

Angulus. A pluvio vindicat imbre tholus. 
Cur sit virgineis, quaeris, dea culta ministris ? 

Inveniam causas hac quoque parte suas. 
Ex Ope Junonem memorant Cereremque creatas 

Semine Saturni : tertia Vesta fuit. 270 

Utraque nupserunt ; ambae peperisse feruntur : 

ever material it may have been 
constructed, the concluding part 
of the line in aere clauso has no- 
thing to say to it, although these 
words are explained by an acute 
critic as referring to the ' sphere 
having been enclosed in a glass- 
case !' How this allusion is to be 
made reconcilable to the sense 
of the terms, does not so immedi- 
ately appear. Some of the classical 
commentators explain in aere clau- 
so, by in ipsa templi concavitate ; 
others by amhitu ccele&tium. circu- 
lorum • hoc est, quibns Archimedes 
ccelorum inotus imitattis est. Ovid. 
Op. Franco/, apud Claud. Mam. 
Ed. 1601; while the greater num- 
ber either pass the difficulty alto- 
gether, or account for it unsatis- 
factorily. The latter of the two 
senses given above seems not in- 
consistent with the signification 
of aer as given by Cicero ; ' ele- 
mentum illud, quod medium spa- 
tium complet inter caelum, et ter- 
ram ;' whence by aere clauso may 
be understood the air, in which 
the terra or centre of the system 
according to Archimedes, stood ; 
and which was enclosed between 
it and the orbits in which the 
planets were made to move. This 
sense is further confirmed by the 
description of the sphere as given 
by Martianus Capella, Satyricon 
Sfc. lib. vi. ' Tellus qu» rapidum 
consistens suscipit orbem Puncti 
instar medio hajserat ima loco. 
Hanc tenet et vitreis (inconstant) 

circumvolitabilis auris Aer com- 
plectens imbrificabat aquis ;' and 
again ; ' Texerat exterior qui ful- 
get, circulus orbis jEtheris astri- 
fico sidera multa peplo ;' upon 
which Cicero may agrain be quoted 
in illustration of the sense as above 
proposed ; ' Aerem amplectitur 
immensus aether qui constat altis- 
simus ignibus,' and again ; ' Re- 
stat ultimus omnia cingens et 
coercens coeli complexus qui idem 
aether vocatur.' Hence aere clauso 
may be explained as the air or 
atmosphere, in which the earth 
was supposed to rest, as supr. 
254, and which was consequently 
enclosed between the earth and 
the caelum or cether, in which the 
paths of the planets were de- 

263. Et quantum a summis, Sfc. 
Supr. 259. 

266. Tholus. A cupola; whence 
the temple was called Haos ioXo- 


267. Cur sit virgineis, Sfc. The 
poet gives two reasons for Vesta's 
having been attended by virgins ; 
one, because she was unmarried 
herself, the other because she is 
identified with fire, from which 
nothing is produced ; to which 
two others may be added from 
Cicero ; ' Vestae colenda; virgi- 
nes prsesunt, ut advigiletur faci- 
lius ad custodiam ignis, et senti- 
ant mulieres in natura feniinarum 
omnem castitatem pati.' 

271. Utraque. Juno and Ceres. 



De tribus impatiens restitit una viri. 
Quid mirum, virgo si virgine laeta ministra 

Admittit castas in sua sacra manus ? 
Nee tu aliud Vestam, quam vivam intellige flamtnam. 275 

Nataque de flamma corpora nulla vides. 
Esse diu stultus Vestae simulacra putavi : 

Mox didici curvo nulla subesse tholo. 
Ignis inexstinctus templo celatur in illo. 

Effigiem nullam Vesta, nee ignis, habent. 280 

Stat vi terra sua : vi stando Vesta vocatur. 

Causaque par Graii nominis esse potest. 
At focus a flammis, et, quod fovet omnia, dietus : 

Qui tamen in primis aedibus ante fuit. 
Hinc quoque vestibulum dici reor : inde precando 285 

AfFamur Vestam, quae loca prima tenes. 
Ante focos olim longis considere scamnis 

277. Esse diu stultusVesta,Scc. 
See Fast. i. n. 477, and Fast. iii. 
N. 45. The worship of Vesta, 
and the Eternal Fire, as has been 
elsewhere observed, was intro- 
duced into Rome by Numa ; ' a 
prince,' as Spence remarks, ' who 
was too philosophical to admit of 
any statues at all, either as the 
objects of devotion, or as helps 
to it. He thought that method 
liiore likely to debase the gods 
than to assist mankind ;' in proof 
of which may be adduced the fol- 
lowing passage from Plutarch ; 
in Num. p. Go, Ed. Steph. Par, 

1624; AiiK&iXufflM avS^(ii<7roiiori xat 
^uofiOff(pov iixosia 6iov roi; 'Pufia'tois 
tofii^tiv, ouo nv zrai auTdls ouri/ypccTr- 
Toy, ouTi rrXafTov iioo; 6tov z^portpoi/. 
'AA.X' iKari)/ ipiho/inxoyra rois T^u- 
Tais 'iniri vaov; fiXv olxtihofiisufiivoi 
iiinXauv, koi xaXid^ccs h^as i/rruvTi;, 

v«i iitriXouy, whence it may be 
concluded that Vesta, as identi- 
fied with the eternal fire, was 
only worshipped under such a 

281. Vi stando Vesta vocatur. 
See Fast. i. n. 478, sub. fin. 

283. Focus. Derived by the 
poet, qu. fovicus, a fovendo ; as 
cherishing the fire, or other things 
by the fire which it contains. It 
may also come from (piui; ; one 
of the senses of <pus, according 
to Donnegan, being, 'a blazing 
hearth ;' as specus, from irrios. 
Others derive it from (payu, to 
roast, or boil. 

284. Primis adibus. The ves- 
tibulum, infr. so called, according 
to the poet, from its having been 
consecrated to Vesta, 286, infr. 
from which it may be derived, 
as tkuribulum from thus; thuris. 
Here also the fire was kept burn- 

285. Inde precando, Sfc. Thence 
in supplication we address Vesta, 
' thou who dwellest in the 
porch.' This was doubtless the 
commencement of a form of 
prayer used at the sacred rites of 
that deity. Various emendations 
are proposed for Affamur Vestam, 
286, which appears much less ob- 
jectionable however than any of 
the suggested corrections. 

287. Longis considere scamnis. 
The Romans originally sat at 



Mos erat, et mensae credere adesse deos. 
Nunc quoque, cum fiunt antiquae sacra Vacunae, 

Ante Vacunales stantque sedentque focos. 290 

Venit in hos annos aliquid de more vetusto : 

Fert missos Vestae pura patella cibos. 
Ecce coronatis pan is dependet asellis ; 

Et velant scabras florida serta mola». 
Sola prius furnis torrebant farra coloni ; 295 

Et Fornacali sunt sua sacra deae. 
Suppositum cineri panem focus ipse parabat ; 

Strataque erat tepido tegula quassa solo. 
Inde focuni servat pistor, dominamque focorum, 

Et quae pumiceas versat asella molas. 300 

Quam tu, Diva memor, de pane monilibus ornas : 

Cessat opus : vacuae conticuere molae. 

their meals, and also tbe Greeks ; 
Horn. Odyss. i. iii. &c. Tac. Mot. 
Ger. 22, so Isidorus, in Varr. vit. 
Pop. Roman. ' Majores nostri 
sedentes epulabantur ; quera mo- 
rem habuerunt a Laconibus et 
Cretensibus.' The custom of re- 
clining on couches was intro- 
duced from the east, and at first 
was only adopted by men, but was 
subsequently allowed to women. 
Scamnum, literally a stool, or 
small flight of steps, is to be un- 
derstood in the text as a bench or 

289. VacuncE. The goddess of 
leisure and indolence ; she is 
identified by some with Diana, or 
Ceres, by others with Venus. 
After the harvest had been ga- 
thered in, she was worshipped by 
the husbandmen, chiefly among 
the Sabines, in sign of their re- 
pose throuirh the ensuing winter. 
She had a temple and an annual 
festival at Rome. 

291. De more vetusto. This is 
to be taken in reference to what 
follows ; the ancient custom of 
making an off'ering at all sacrifices 

to Vesta having been adhered to 
at the Ludi Pistorii ; whence 
Jndefocum servat pistor, &c. 299, 

293. Ecce coronatis panis. Sec. 
In allusion to the custom of or- 
namenting with garlands of flow- 
ers such animals as were required 
to take part in the festival of any 
deity ; see Fast. i. 599. 

295. Solapriusfurnistorrebant, 
§-c. See Fast. ii. N. 407. 

297. Suppositum cineri panem, 
§-c. Formerly, the poet says, they 
only used the furni, or ovens, for 
drying the grain, while the bread 
was baked between pieces of 
broken tiles, tfgulce guassce, over 
and under which were strewed 
hot embers from the hearth ; 
whence Inde focum servat, &c. 
There were no bakers at Rome 
before a. u. 580 ; the Romans, 
chiefly the women, made their 
own bread. 

299. Dominamque focorum. — 

300. Pumiceas. Rough as pu- 
mice-stone ; scabras, supr. 294. 

301. De pane monilibus ornas. 




Nomine, quam pretio, celebratior arce Tonantis, 

Dicam, Pistoris quid velit ara Jovis. 
Cincta premebantut trucibus Capitolia Gallis : 

Fecerat obsidio jam diuturna famem. 
Jupiter, ad solium Superis regale vocatis, 

Incipe, ait Marti. Protinus ille refert : 
Scilicet ignotum est, quae sit fortuna meorum, 

Et dolor hie animi voce querentis eget ? 
Si tamen, ut referam breviter mala juncta pudori, 

Exigis ; Alpino Roma sub hoste jacet. 
Haec est, cui fuerat promissa potentia rerum, 



In allusion to a species of loaf in 
the form of a ring, which used to 
be put over the head of the ass, 
and worn like a collar round the 
neck. Flavius Vopiscus describes 
a nearly similar kind of loaf, when 
referring to the distribution of 
bread to the people by the empe- 
ror Aurelian ; ' Non prsetermit- 
tenduni videtur coronas eum fe- 
cisse de panibus qui nunc siligi- 
nei (made of siligo, or tine wheat) 
vocantur, et singulis quibusque 
donasse, ita ut siligineum suum 
quotidie toto sevo sue, et unus- 
quisque reciperet, et posteris suis 

303. Nomine quam pretio cele- 
bratior, ^c. More distinguished 
in name than in fact. The poet 
proceeds to account for the erec- 
tion of the altar to Jupiter Pistor. 
Niebuhr, Rom. Hist. vol. ii. 546. 
' The famine (during the siege of 
the Capitol by the Gauls) had 
reached such a height, that the 
besieged had begun to eat the 
leather of their shields and the 
soles of their shoes, when the 
Gauls gave ear to an offer of a 
sum of money as the price of 
their evacuating the city. So long 
as they hoped by nerseveranee to 
eam poss'^ssiin of a!! the treasures 
in the Capitol, as well as ot cap- 

tives of rank, who would have 
been ransomed by such of their 
relations as had made their escape, 
or by their friends in other cities, 
they had scorned every proposal 
calling on them to be satisfied 
with a part. But their host was 
melting away : they received in- 
telligence that the Venetians, 
taking advantage of the absence 
of their fighting men, had invaded 
their territory : and if Brennus 
had sent a portion of his troops 
back to the Po, the forces col- 
lected at Veil might easily have 
relieved the city. As the Moors 
in the Spanish ballad, when the 
knight, after a seven years' 
siege, threw the only loaf in his 
castle at them, abandoned their 
undertaking and decamped, so 
the Roman lays fabled that Ju- 
piter in a vision prompted the 
distressed garrison to bake their 
whole stock of flour into bread, 
and to pelt the loaves like stones 
at the besiegers, that they obeyed 
his behest, and that the Gauls 
were thus led to believe that their 
enemies were rolling in abun- 
dance. It was agreed that they 
should receive a thousand pounds 
of gold to quit Rome and its ter- 
ritory. ' 

313. Cui fuerat promissa poten- 
2 c2 



Jupiter? banc terris impositurus eras ? 
Jamqiie Suburbanos, Hetruscaque contudit arma. 

Spes erat in cursu : nunc Lare pulsa suo est. 
Vidimus ornatos, aerata per atria, picta 

Veste, triumphales occubuisse senes. 
Vidimus Iliacaj transferri pignora Vestae 

iia. Virg. JEneid, i. 278. ' His 
ego nee metas rerum nee lempora 
pono ; Imperium sine fine dedi.' 

315. Suburbanos. The Romans 
had already conquered the Sa- 
bines, Ceninenses, Fidenates, 
Volsci, &c. Hetruscaque arma. 
Falisci and Veii. 

316. Spes erat in cursu. The 
hope of extending the limits of 
the empire was in progress to- 
wards fulfilment. Nunc Lare pulsa 
suo est. Because the citizens were 
driven from their abodes to take 
refuge in the Capitol. 

317. u^rata per atria. The 
halls, whose doors were covered or 
adorned with brass; so Hurat. Od. 
ii. 16, 21, ' seratae naves;' Virg. 
^neid, viii. 67o, 'aerata classis:' 
vessels whose prows were pro- 
tected and decorated with brass. 
Forcel. See Aineid, i. 448, and 
Heyne's note, in loc. Reserata 
atria. Al. Picta veste. Tlo^tpu^av 

affTl^cov ^ouffuv ivv!pufffjt,ivov. Appi- 

an. Triumphahs occubuisse senes. 
Called by Plutarch, in Caniill. 
i^iaf^liixoh; at/2oas, in allusion to 
picta veste supr. the triumphal 
robe of purple and gold tissue. 
It is not certain whether the 
massacre of the senate by the 
Gauls took place in the Forum or 
in the Comitium ; according to 
Plutarch, in the former. Niebuhr 
describes it as follows, ii. 341. 
' When the Gauls had broke into 
the city through the Colline 
gate, they found it all desolate 
and deathlike : they were seized 
with that awe which comes upon 
a stranger on passing in summer 
through a town in a high northern 


latitude at midnight, when all is 
clear as day, yet no mark of life 
to be seen in the streets. Every 
house was closed : they marched 
onward till they came to the Fo- 
rum. Here they saw the armed 
men above in the citadel ; and in 
the Comitium the aged chiefs of 
the senate, looking like beings of 
another world. In doubt whether 
the gods were not come down to 
save Rome or to avenge it, a Gaul 
went up to one of the priests, 
M. Papirius, and stroked his 
white beard : the old man indig- 
nantly struck him on the head 
with his ivory sceptre ; the bar- 
barian cut him down, and all were 

319. Vidimus Iliaca, ^c. Plu- 
tarch, ibid. To 2e erl/^ t?; 'Ea-Tjaf 

f/.i>ioi ifuyov. Liv. ' Placuit Fla- 
minem sacerdotesque Vestales 
sacra publica a csede, ab incendiis 
procul auferre.' Transferri. To 
Caere, in Elruria, where those 
who fled with the Roman gods 
and the sacreJ fire of Vesta were 
hospitably received. In requital, 
the senate, at the suggestion of 
Camillus, decreed that a league 
should be formed with the inha- 
bitants of the town, and the free- 
dom of the city granted them ; a 
privilege which they subsequently 
forfeited by a revolt. Hence, 
when the censors deprived a citi- 
zen of the right to vote, his name 
was said to be entered in the re- 
gister of the Cserites ; so Herat. 
Epist. i. 6, 62, ' Quid deceat, quid 
non, obliti Cserite cera Digni.' 

QUINT. ID. JUN. 295 

Sede. Putant aliquos scilicet esse deos ? 320 

At si respicerent, qua vos habitatis in arce, 

Totque domos vestras obsidione premi ; 
Nil opis in cura scirent superesse deorum, 

Et data soUicita thura perire manu. 
Atque utinam pugnae pateat locus ! arma capessant : 325 

Et, si non poterunt exsuperare, cadant. 
Nunc inopes victus, ignavaque fata timentes 

Monte suo clausos barbara turba premit. 
Turn Venus, et lituo pulcher ti-abeaque Quirinus, 

Vestaque pro Latio multa locuta suo. 330 

Publica, respondit, cura est pro mcenibus istis, 

Jupiter : et poenas Gallia victa dabit. 
Tu mode, quae desunt fruges, superesse putentur, 

Effice ; nee sedes desere, Vesta, tuas. 
Quodcunque est Cereris solidae, cava machina frangat ; 

Mollitamque manu duret in igne focus. 336 

Jusserat, et fratris virgo Saturnia jussis 

Annuit ; et mediae tempora noctis erant. 
Jam ducibus somnum dederat labor Increpat illos 

Jupiter, et sacro, quid velit, ore docet : 340 

Surgite, et in medios de summis arcibus hostes 

Mittite, quam minime perdere vultis, opem. 
Somnus abit, quajruntque novis ambagibus acti, 

Perdere quam nolint, etjubeantur, opem. 
Ecce Ceres visa est. Jaciunt Cerealia dona. 34,5 

320. Putant aliquos scilicet esse 335. Cereris solida. Com not 

Deos ? The note of interrogation yet ground. Cava machina. The 

is correctly subjoined to this sen- mill ; so called because the lower 

tence which, with the following, stone was slightly hollowed ; 

announts to this ; Do they, sc. the whence its name catillus, dimin. 

Gauls, imagine that there are any of catinus, a dish or platter. < In- 

gods? — if so, looking to the straits ferius molse saxum appellatur ca- 

to which you, the deities, and tillus, quia contrita grana ad mo- 

your worshippers are reduced, dum catini ora cavata et exstante 

they must have little confidence continet.' Forcel. 

in the providence which has failed 336. Mollitamque. Kneaded, 

to protect its votaries. 337. Virgo Saturnia. Vesta. 

329. Lituo. The crooked staff 342. Quam minime perdere vul- 

with which the augurs marked tis. Such equivoques were not 

out the quarters of the heavens ; unusual with Jupiter ; see Fast. 

from Gr. X/toj, thin, slender. iii. 335, et seq. 

334. Sedes tuas. Latium tuum. 345. Ceres visa est. The loaves 

Ambros. and Laet. which had been baked. 



Jacta super galeas scutaque longa sonant. 
Posse fame vinci spes excidit. Hoste repulso, 
Candida Pistori ponitur ara Jovi. 


Forte revertebar festis Vestalibus iliac, 

Qua nova Romano nunc Via juncta Foro est. 
Hue pede matronam vidi descendere nudo ; 

Obstupui, tacitus sustinuique gradum. 
Sensit anus vicina loci ; jussumque sedere 

Alloquitur, quatiens, voce tremente, caput. 
Hoc, ubi nunc fora sunt, udae tenuere paludes : 

Amne redundatis fossa madebat aquis. 
Curtius ille lacus, siccas qui sustinet aras, 

Nunc solida est tellus, sed lacus ante fuit. , 
Qua Velabra solent in Circum ducere pompas ; 



346. Scutaque longa. So Dio- 
dorus ; Qvpinl; y^oaitTHi avhoof^rixiff', 
■XiTmx.iXfiivot; i^ior^ozsraj; ; and Li- 

vy ; < Scuta longa, ceterum ad 
amplitudinem corporum parum 
lata ; et ea ipsa plana, male tege- 
bant Gallos.' 

348. Pistori. From piriso or 
piso, to bruise or grind. 

344. Forte reverlebarfestis Ves- 
talibus, SfC. The poet proceeds to 
mention a circumstance that befel 
him on the Vestalia, by which 
probably it was called to mind. 

350. Qua Nova Ronuaio nunc, 
SfC. The Via Nova led from Ve- 
labrum to Rome ; it was joined 
to the former and the Via Sacra ; 
in its vicinity stood the statue ot 
Vertumnus, iufr. 363, and the 
temple of Vesta. 

Soo. Hoc, 2ibi nunc fora sunt, 
^•c. The old woman explnins the 
cause of the poet's surprise. Fora. 
The Ronianum, and Boarium, 
whose site had been a mere marsh 
owing to the overflowings of the 

357. Curtius ille lacus. Called 
also Curtilacus. Flisturians are 
not agreed as to the origin of this 

appellation. By some it is sup- 
posed to have been the scene of 
the self-devotion of Marcus Cur- 
tius ; whose name it retained in 
memorial of his disinterested he- 
roism. Others recount that during 
a battle with the Romans under 
Romulus, a Sabine soldier, by 
name Curtius, plunged into this 
marsh in order to approach the 
enemy more closely ; which he 
was unable to effect by the sink- 
ing of hii horse, which he aban- 
doned, and secured his retreat to 
his own army ; whence the name 
of the marsh, Curtius. Livy 
adopts the former of these opi- 
nions. Siccas qui sustinet aras. 
The Curtius lacus, having been 
drained, became the site of an 
altar ; whence P. Victor ; ' Ara 
Saturn! in lacu Curtii ;' or if aras 
is to be taken literally, it may al- 
lude to those of Augustus, and 
the Lares, as some conjecture 
from Suetonius. 

359. Qua Velabra solent, ifc. 
Triumphal processions passed 
through the Velabra into the 
Circus. It is used in the plural, 
because there was a greater and 



Nil praeter salices cassaque canna fuit. 360 

Saepe suburbanas rediens conviva per undas 

Cantat, et ad nautas ebria verba jacit. 
Nondum conveniens diversis iste figuris 

Nomen ab averse ceperat amne deus. 
Hie quoque lucus erat, juncis et arundine dtnsus, 365 

Et pede velato non adeunda palus. 
Stagna recesserunt, et aquas sua ripa ccercet : 

Siccaque nunc tellus ; mos tamen inde manet. 
Reddiderat causam. Valeas, anus optima, dixi ; 

Quod superest asvi, moUe sit omne, tui : 370 

Castera jam pridem didici puerilibus annis, 

less Velabrum, lying between 
the Palatine and Capiloline bills. 
They were so called a vehendo, 
because formerly tbey were tra- 
versed in boats, and the freight 
was named velatura. So Varro, 
' Palus fuit in minori Velabro, 
unde quod ibi vehebantur lintri- 
bus, Velabrum ut illud majus.' 
Propert. ' Qua Velabra suo stag- 
nabant flumine quaque Nauta per 
urbanas veliticabat aquas.' The 
term is derived by some a velis, 
because oil, fruit, and other mar- 
ketable commodities were sold 
there under awnings of sail-cloth, 
or in tents ; but the former is the 
preferable etymology. 

362. Ad nautas ebria verba 
Jacit. ' — absentem ut cantat ami- 
cam Multa prolutus vappa nauta, 
atque viator Certatira.' Horat. 
Sat. i. 5, 15. 

363. Conveniens diversis iste 
figuris. It was after the draining 
of the marsh alluded to, that the 
statue of Vertumnus was erected, 
so called, according to the. poet 
abaverso amne, from having check- 
ed the inundations of the Tiber; 
so Propertius, Eleg. iv. 2. 7, 
' Hac quondam Tiberinus iter 
faciebat, et aiuut Remorum au- 

ditos per vada pulsa sonos. At 
poslquam ille suis tantum conces- 
sit alumnis Vertumnus verso dicor 
ab amne deus.' By diversis figu- 
ris, the poet alludes to the variety 
of forms assumed by Vertumnus, 
while wooing the nymph Pomo- 
na; Metam. xiv. 637, et seq. 
where this deity is described as 
the god of trees and fruits which 
ripen in autumn ; whence his 
name may be derived ; quod anni 
vertentis poma perciperet.' Forcel. 
According to some, he was the 
god of mercliandise ; so called a 
vertendo, taken in its sense of 
trafSckmg, as Pers.Sat. 5, 137, 
' Verte aliquid, jura.' Others 
make him the deity who presided 
over the thoughts, and so repre- 
sented him as fickle and multi- 
form as the subjects of his influ- 
ence ; whence Horat. Sat. ii. 7, 
14, ' Vertumnis, quotquot sunt, 
natus iniquis.' 

366. Pede velato. With covered 

368. 3Ios tamen inde manet. 
In memorial of its having been 
formerly a marsh. 

371. Cater a jam pridem didici, 
^c. The poet now proceeds to 
give an account of the Palladium 



Non tamen idcirco prstereunda mihi. 
Moenia Dardanides nnper nova fecerat Ilus ; 

Ilus adhuc Asise dives habebat opes. 
Creditur armiferae signum coeleste Minervae 

Urbis in Iliacae desiluisse juga. 
Cura videre fuit : vidi templumque locumque. 

Hoc superest illi : Pallada Roma tenet. 
Consulitur Smintheus : lucoque obscurus opaco 


which, unlike the subjects he had 
previously discussed, he had been 
familiar with from his early years 
but not so as to diminish his sense 
of its importance ; Non tamen 
idcirco prcetereunda, Sfc. 

373. Dardanides Ilus. Ilus, 
the great grandson of Dardanus. 
Moenia nova. Ilium. 

375. Signum coeleste. Gr. To ay- 
aX/^a XlaXXaio; ; the Palladium, 
called also AioTfris, because it was 
said to have fallen from heaven 
near the tent of Ilus, while en- 
gaged in building the citadel of 
Troy. According to others it fell 
at Pessinus in Phrygia, and an- 
other, made to imitate it, was 
placed in the temple of Minerva 
which the priests induced the 
people to believe was the real 
Palladium ; probably for the same 
reason which led Numa to secure 
the safety of the sacred shield ; 
Fast. iii. 379. Various accounts 
are given of the image itself, and 
the manner in which it was ob- 
tained ; infr. 387. By some it is 
described as a wooden statue of 
the goddess, about three cubits 
high, holding in her right hand a 
pike, and in her left a spindle and 
distaff : by others, as formed of 
the bones of Pelops, and by 
ApoUodorus, as a species of au- 
tomaton. An ancient oracle de- 
clared that Troy could not be 
taken while the Palladium re- 
mained within the walls ; whence 
Jatale Palladium ; Virg. ^neid, ii. 
166, in consequence of which it 
was preserved with the utmost 

care. The Greeks sent Ulysses 
and Diomede to carry it away by 
night, which they accomplished, it 
is said, by means of Helenus. 
The Romans, who boasted of 
their Trojan descent, were un- 
willing to allow that the Greeks 
obtained possession of the Pal- 
ladium, and maintained that it 
was not the true one which was 
withdrawn from the temple of 
Minerva ; a difficulty, of which 
the poet hints at another solution 
infr. 388.Dymock'sBibliotk. Class. 

377. Cura viderefuit. Ovidwas 
sent, while very young, to Athens, 
where he studied for a considera- 
ble time. He subsequently, in 
company with L. iEmilius Macer, 
a cotemporary poet, whose pre- 
mature death he bitterly laments, 
travelled over the greater part of 
Greece and Asia Minor, and 
doubtless examined with attention 
the interesting memorials vThich 
they every where presented of 
former times. Vidi templumque 
locumque. The original temple 
was destroyed before Ovid was 
born, by the consul C. Flavius 
Fimbria, who served with such 
success in Asia, and displayed 
considerable courage in his en- 
counters with the armies of Pon- 
tus, having nearly made a prisoner 
of their sovereign Mithridates. 
It was probably rebuilt, for Strabo 
speaks of a Palladium which oc- 
cupied a similar position to the 
old one, in his own time. 

379. Smintheus. Apollo ; so 
called from Gr. e/i'i^Sot, or ffindl, 

QUINT. ID. JUN. 299 

Hos non mentito reddidit ore sonos : 380 

iEtheriam servate deam ; servabitis Urbem : 

Imperium secum transferet ilia loci. 
Servat, et inclusam summa tenet Ilus in arce : 

Curaque ad heredem Laomedonta venit. 
Sub Priamo servata parum. Sic ipsa volebat, 385 

Ex quo judicio forma revicta suo est. 
Seu genus Adrasti, sen furtis aptus Ulixes, 

Seu pius Mneas, eripuisse datur. 
Auctor in incerto : res est Romana ; tuetur 

Vesta, quod assiduo luniine cuncta videt. 390 

Heu quantum timuere Patres, quo tempore Vesta 

Arsit, et est adytis obruta paene suis ! 
Flagrabant sancti sceleratis ignibus ignes ; 

Mistaque erat flammae flamma profana piae. 
Attonitae flebant, demisso crine, ministras : 395 

Abstulerat vires corporis ipse timor. 
Provolat in medium, et magna, Succurrite, voce, 

Non est auxilium flere, Metellus ait. 
Pignora virgineis fatalia tollite palmis : 

Non ea sunt voto, sed rapienda manu. 400 

Me miserum I dubitatis ? ait. Dubitare videbat, 

Et pavidas posito procubuisse genu. 
Haurit aquas : tollensque manus, Ignoscite, dixit, 

which, in the Phrygian dialect, 
signifies a mouse. It is said that 
Scamander, the son of Corybas 
and Demodice, having left Crete 
with a number of followers, con- 
sulted the oracle of Apollo where 
they might establish a colony, and 
was directed in reply, to settle 
wherever they found a quantity of 
mice. When they arrived in Phry- 
gia, the strings of their bows and 
straps of their corslets were 
gnawed asunder by mice, where- 
upon Scamander planted his co- 
lony in that country, at the foot 
of Mount Ida, and erected a tem- 
ple to Apollo Smintheus. One of 
the Scholiasts on Homer accounts 
for the name, from Apollo's hav- 
ing cleared the gardens and orch- 
ard of his priest Chryses, of the 
rats by which they were infested 
and laid waste. 

386. Ex quo. so. tempore. Suo. 
In allusion to Paris having been 
the son of Priam j some copies 
read sua ,• others tua, and in the 
preceding line volebas, 

387. Genus Adrasti. Diomede, 
the grandson of Adrastus. 

388. Datur. i. e. narratur. 

889. Auctor. sc. rapiendi. 

391. Heu quatitum timuere Pa- 
tres, §-c. In allusion to the de- 
struction of the temple of Vesta 
by fire, which occurred A.u. 512, 
in the consulship of Q. Lucatius 
and A. Manlius, when L. Caeci- 
lius Metellus was Pontifex Max- 

399. Pignora fatalia. The Pal- 

403. Haurit aquas. For puri- 


Sacra : vir intrabo non adeunda viro. 
Si scelus est ; in me commissi poena redundet. 405 

Sit capitis damno Roma soluta mei. 
Dixit, et irrupit ; factum dea rapta probavit, 

Pontificisque sui munere tiita f\iit. 
Nunc bene lucetis sacrge sub Caesare flaramae : 

Ignis in Iliacis nunc erit, estque, focis. 410 

Nullaque dicetur vittas temerasse sacerdos 

Hoc Duce : nee viva defodietur humo. 
Sic incesta perit : quia quam violavit, in illam 

Conditur : et Tellus Vestaque numen idem est- 


Turn sibi Calla'ico Brutus cognomen in hoste 415 

Fecit, et Hispanam sanguine tinxit himium. 


Scilicet interdum miscentur tristia laetis ; 

Ne populum toto pectore festa juvent. 
Crassus ad Euphraten aquilas, natumque, suosque 

Perdidit, et leto est ultimus ipse datus. 420 

406. Sit capitis damno, Sfc. Let 415. Turn sihi Calla'ico, Sfc. On 
Rome be absolved at the expense the da)' of the Vestalia, a.u. 618. 
ofiuylife. D. Junius Brutus overcame sixty 

407. Dixit, et irrupit, SfC. Me- thousand of the Callseci, a people 
tellus rescued the Palladium, at who inhabited the north of Hither 
considerable personal risk, with Spain, so called from Calle, now 
the loss of his sight, and conse- Oporto, an ancient city near the 
queutly of liis priesthood, as the month of the river Durius, or 
law ordained sacerdos integer Douro. Hence he obtained the 
SIT, in return for which a statue surname Callaicus. They are call- 
was erected to him in the Capitol, ed by some Galla^ci, but incor- 
and he was allowed the peculiar rectly, as appears from the origin 
privilege of being conveyed to the of their name. 

senate in a chariot. AM. Scilicet interdum, ^c. Be- 

409. Nunc bene lucetis. Because cause on the same day Crassus 

Augustus, as Pontifex Maximus, was defeated by the Parthians, 

had enhanced the character and and he and his son were both 

rights of the Vestals. Sueton i. slain. 

c 21. 420. Zeto est ultimus. Crassus 
412. Viva defodietur humo. In engaged with Surena, the general 
allusion to the punishment of a of the forces of Orodes, the Par- 
Vestal virgin for the violation of thian king, in a large plain on the 
her vows. banks of the Euphrates ; after his 



Parthe, quid exsultas ? dixit dea ; signa remittes : 
Q-iiique necem Crassi vindicet, ultor erit. 


At simul auritis violge demuntur asellis,^ 
Et Cereris fruges aspera saxa terunt ; 

Navita puppe sedens, Delphina videbimus, inquit, 
Huraida cum pulso nox erit orta die. 



Jam, Phryx, a nupta quereris, Tithone, relinqui ; 

Et vigil Eois Lucifer exit aquis. 
Ite, bonae matres, vestrum Matralia festum, 

Flavaque Thebanae reddite liba deae. 
Pontibus et Magno juncta est celeberrima Circo 

Area, quae posito de bove nomen habet. 
Hac ibi luce ferunt Matutae sacra parenti 

Sceptriferas Servi templa dedisse manus. 


defeat, lie was induced to trust 
himself into the power of the 
enemy, on pretence of proposing 
terms of accommodation, and was 
immediatly put to death. His 
head was cut off, and sent to Oro- 
des, -who poured melted lead into 
his mouth, in mockery of his re- 
puted thirst for gold. His son, 
Publius Crassus, was slain at the 
beginning of the encounter; 
whence leto ultinms ipse, Sfc. 

421. Signa remittes. See Fast, 
V. 524. 

423. At simul auritis demuntur, 
^c. On the IV. Id. Jun. the day 
after the Vestalia; in sign of 
whose termination their garlands 
were taken off, and the asses set 
to work in the mill again ; the 
Dolphin rises in the evening. 

427. Phryx. Because he was 
the son of Laomedon. On the in. 
Id. Jun. the festival of matrons, 
Matralia, was celebrated, in ho- 
nour of the goddess Matuta, infr. 

430. Flavaque liba. See infr. 
485.' 'iThebana DecB. Ino ; who 
was supposed to be the same as 

431. Pontibus et Magno, ^c. 
The poet describes the site of 
Matuta's temple in the Forum 
Boarium, which was close to the 
Palatine bridge, and the Circus 
Maximus. She had another at 
Satricum, a town of the Vol- 
scians. Liv. v. 19, 23. 

433. Hac ibi luce ferunt, SfC. 
On the III. Id. Jun. this temple 
was dedicated by Servius Tullius; 
it was subsequently rebuilt, after 
the taking of Veii, by M. Furius 
Camillus. Matutce. The Latin 
name of Ino, who was called by 
the Greeks Leucothea ; infr. 499. 
Both of the preceding appella- 
tions are applied by some writers 
to Aurora; whence Horat. Sat. 
ii. 6, 45. 'Matutina parum cautos 
jam frigora mordent,' and Lucret. 
V. 655, ' Tempore item certo ro- 
seam Matuta per oras ./Etheris 



Qu£E dea sit, quare famulas a limine templi 435 

Arceat, arcet enim, libaque tosta petat ; 
Bacche, racemiferos hedera redimite capillos, 

Si domus ilia tua est, dirige navis iter. 
Arserat obsequio Semele Jovis. Accipit Ino 

Te, puer, et summa sedula nutrit ope. 440 

Intumuit Juno, I'apta quod pellice natum 

Educet. At sanguis ille sororis erat. 
Hinc agitur Furiis Athamas, et imagine falsa : 

Tuque cadis patria, parve Learche, manu. 
Moesta Learcheas mater tumulaverat umbras ; 445 

Et dederat miseris omnia justa rogis. 
Haec quoque, funestos ut erat laniata capillos, 

Prosilit, et cunis te, Melicerta, rapit. 
Est spatio contracta brevi, fi-eta bina repellit, 

Unaque pulsatur terra duabus aquis. 450 

Hue venit insanis natum complexa lacertis ; 

Et secum e celso mittit in alta jugo. 
Excipit illaesos Panope, centumque sorores, 

Et placido lapsu per sua regna ferunt. 

auroram defert etlumina pandit;' 
where MatutcB has the force of 
Leucothea, Gr. Xivkvi da., alba dea, 
the dawn. There was another 
Matuta, a deity who presided 
over ripened ^TA\n, frumentis ma- 
tiirescentibus, as Flora over the 
blossom, Lacturcia over the ^reen 
ears,y>-. lactescentibus, and Run- 
cina over the uprooted stubble, 
fr. runcatis. 

435. Famulas arceat. See infr. 

437. Bacche. The poet applies 
to Bacchus for the required in- 
formation and guidance, Si domus 
ilia tua est. Because he was the 
son of Semele, Ino's sister. Di- 
rige navis iter. Fast. i. 4. Some 
copies read vatis opus. 

439. Arserat obsequio Semele 
Jovis. See Fast. iii. n. 403. Ac- 
cipit Ino. See Fast. ii. N. 510. 
According to Apollonius, the 
nymph ^Iatris, daughter of Aris- 
taeui, was the nurse of Bacchus, 

others say Dirce. The poet agrees 
in the account which is given in 
the text with that in the Hymns 
of Orpheus. 

443. Imagine falsa. Athamas 
having been struck with madness 
by Juno, slew his son Learchus, 
supposing him to be a lion's 

449. Est spatio contracta brevi, 
§-c. The poet describes the 
Isthmus Achaicus, whence Ino 
plunged into the sea : it was very 
naiTow, and extended only six 
thousand paces between the 
.^gean and Ionian seas. 

451. Jnsariis. Because her act 
was that of a madwoman. 

452. Celso jugo. The rock 

453. Panope, centumque soro- 
res. Panope was the daughter of 
Nereus and Doris, by whom, 
with her hundred sister-Nereids, 
Ino and Melicerta, were coaveyed 
safely over the sea. 

TERT. ID. JUN. 303 

Nondum Leucothee, nondum puer ille Palaemon 455 

Vorticibus densi Thybridis ora tenent. 
Lucus erat ; dubium, Semelae, Stimulaene vocetur ; 

Maenadas Ausonias incoluisse ferunt; 
Quaerit ab his Ino, quae gens foret. Arcadas esse 

Audit, et Evandrum sceptra tenere loci. 460 

Dissimulata Deam Latias Saturnia Bacchas 

Instimulat fictis insidiosa sonis : 
O nimium faciles, O toto pectore captae, 

Non venit hsec nostris hospes arnica choris. 
Fraude petit, sacrique parat cognoscere ritum. 465 

Quo possit pcEnas pendere, pignus habet. 
Vix bene desierat ; complent ululatibus auras 

Thyades efFusis per sua coUa comis : 
Injiciuntque manus, puerumque revellere pugnant. 

Quos ignorat adhuc, invocat ilia deos : 470 

Dique, virique loci, miserae succurrite matri, 

Clamor Aventini saxa propinqua ferit. 
Appulerat ripaj vaccas CEtaeus Iberas. 

Audit ; et ad vocem concitus urget iter. 
Herculis adventu, quae vim modo t'erre parabant, 475 

Turpia femineae terga dedere fugae. 
Quid petis hinc, cognorat enim, matertera Bacchi ? 

455. Nondum Leucothee, 8fc. 458. Manadas Ausonias, The 

Before Ibo and Melicerta had Latin bacchanals, 

been acknowledged as deities; 461. Dissimulata Deam. Vidiw- 

called by the Greeks Leucothee ing disguised her divinity, 

and Palnemon ; their Latin ap- 466. Piynus habet. Alluding 

pellations having been Matuta to Melicerta. 

and Portunus. 470. Quos ignorat adhuc. As 

457. Lucus erat, Sfc. Their Ino was a stranger in Latium. 

wanderings closed at Latium, 472. Aventini. See Fast. i. n. 

where they were kindly received 501. and 472, infr. 

by Nicostrata, the mother of 473. Appulerat ripce, Sfc. Her- 

Evander, and subsequently be- cules, (called CEta;us, prolepti- 

came the objects of Arcadian cally ; (Eta, a mountain in Thes- 

worship. SemelcE Stimulcene. The saly, having been the place 

poet doubts whether this grove where, by his own directions, his 

was sacred to the mother of Bac- body was burned after his decease) 

chus, or the goddess Stimula, in had just arrived in Italy with the 

reference to whom the Scholiast herds which he had taken from 

upon Juvenal, Sat. 2, 3, writes ; Geryon ; see Fast, i. n. 493 ; in 

' Bacchanalia Romee condemnata time to afford Ino the assistance 

fuisse, cum probatum esset Sen- she required, 

atui, honestissimas feminas ad 477. Matertera Bacchi. Ino 

Stimulae dese lucum foede adulte- was said to have been the sister 

rari.' of Semele. 


An numen, quod me, te quoque vexat, ait ? 
Ilia docet partim ; partim praesentia nati 

Continet : et furiis in scelus isse pudet. 480 

Rumor, ut est velox, agitatis pervolat alis : 

Estque frequens, Ino, nomen in ore tuura. 
Hospita Carmentis fidos intrasse penates 

Diceris, et longam deposuisse famem. 
Liba sua properata manu Tegeaea sacerdos 485 

Traditur in subito cocta dedisse foco. 
Nunc quoque liba juvant festis Matralibus illam ; 

Rustica sedulitas gratior arte fuit. 
Nunc, ait, O vates, venientia fata resigna, 

Qua licet ; hospitiis hoc, precor, adde meis. 490 

Parva mora est ; ccelum vates ac numina sensit, 

Fitque sui toto pectore plena dei. 
Vix illam subito posses cognoscere ; tanto 

Sanctior, et tanto, quam modo, major erat. 
Laeta canam : gaude defuncta laboribus, Ino, 495 

Dixit, et huic populo dextera semper ades. 
Numen eris pelagi : natum quoque pontus habebit. 

In vestris aliud sumite nomen aquis. 
Leucothee Graiis, Matuta vocabere nostris. 

In portus nato jus erit omne tuo. 500 

Quern nos Portunum, sua lingua Palaemona dicet. 

Ite, precor, nostris aequus uterque locis. 
Annuerant : promissa fides : posuere labores. 

Nomina mutarunt : hie deus, ilia dea est. 
Cur vetet ancillas accedere, quaeritis ? odit. 505 

478. An numen quod me, ^c. 483. Carmentis. See FasL i. N. 
In allusion to the enmity of Juno 41 2. 

against Hercules. 485. Tegecea sacerdos. Car- 

479. Partim pra-sentia nati. menta, so called from Tegea, a 
She was ashamed to avow before town of Arcadia. 

her son, that she had made an 487. Nunc quoque liba, ^c. 

attempt at their mutual destruc- Supr. 430. 

tion by plunging with him into idl.Ccelumet numina. Hendi- 

the sea. adys, for caelestia numina. 

481. JRumor ut est velox. Ino 500. Jn portus nato jus erit, Sfc. 

and her child having been saved See N. 453 supr. 

hy the interference of Hercules, 501. Sua lingua. His native 

her name spread quickly through tongue, the Greek. 

Latium ; her reception by Evan- 505. Cur vetet ancillas accedere. 

der's mother, and the prophecy by Supr. 435. One, however, used 

the latter of their future great- to be admitted into the temple of 

ness, 497 infra, are detailed in Matuta, but she was always so 

the text. treated as to be made understand 



Principiumque odii, si sinat ipsa, canam. 
Una ministrarum solita est, Cadmei, tuarum 

Saspe sub amplexus conjugis ire tui. 
Improbus banc Athamas t'urtim dilexit : ab ilia 

Comperit agricolis semina tosta dari. 
Ipsa quidem fecisse negat, sed fama recepit. 

Hoc est, cur odio sit tibi serva manus. 
Non tamen banc pro stirpe sua pia mater adoret, 

Ipsa parum felix visa fuisse parens. 
Alterius prolem melius mandabitis illi ; 

Utilior Baccho quam fuit ipsa suis. 




Hanc tibi, Quo properas ? memorant dixisse, Rutili ; 
Luce mea Marso Consul ab boste cades. 

that it was not owing to any in- 
clination of the goddess in her 

507. Cadmei. Ino, daughter 
of Cadmus. 

510. Comperit agricolis. See 
Fast. ii. N. 510. 

513. ]Vo7i tamen pro stirpe sua, 
i^c. According to the poet, mo- 
thers were not to address prayers 
to the goddess Matuta for the 
safety of their children ; Ino 
having heen so unfortunate as to 
have lost one, Learchus, and 
suffered much with the other; 
whence Ipsa parum felix, ^-c. 
But mothers might pray tor their 
daughters' and sisters' children ; 
Alterius prolem melius, Sfc. Ino 
having been more successful in 
her care of her sister Semele's 
son, than of her own ; Utilior 
Baccho, &(c. 

517. Hanc. Matuta; who, ac- 
cording to the poet, warned Ru- 
tilius of his disastrous defeat on 
the lu. Id. Jun. the day of the 
Matralia ; whence Luce mea. 

518. Marso ab hoste. The So- 
cial, or Marsian war, so called 
because it originated with the 
Marsi, who claimed the privi- 

lege of Roman citizenship, in con- 
sequence of the many services 
they had conferred upon the Ro- 
man state, which refused to ac- 
knowledge their pretensions, al- 
though urged with all the elo- 
quence and interest of M. Livius 
Drusus, then in his tribuneship, 
B. c. 93. The Marsi were joined 
in this war against the Romans 
by all the states to the south of 
the Liris ; and carried it on with 
great success for three years, 
during which the Roman generals 
were repeatedly defeated, as P. 
Rutilius Lupus, supr. who took 
the field as consul with eight 
thousand men, a. u. 664. They 
were finally reduced to submis- 
sion, more by policy than valour ; 
the Romans having offered their 
allies the rights for which the 
Marsi were contending, the latter 
were too much weakened to main- 
tain the war by themselves. It 
came in consequence to a close, 
but an honorable one for the 
Marsi, as their objeet was sub- 
sequently obtained ; the inhabi- 
tants of all the states of Italy 
having been invested with the ci- 
tizenship of Rome. 

2d 2 



Exitus accessit verbis : flumenqe, Tolenum 
Purpureo mistis sanguine fluxit aquis. 

Proximus annus erat : Pallantide ciESus eadem 
Didius hostiles ingeminavit opes. 



Lux eadem, Fortuna, tua est, auctorque, locusque 

Sed superinjectis quis latet aede togis ? 
Servius est ; hoc constat enim ; sed causa latendi 525 

Discrepat : et dubium me quoque mentis habet. 
Dum dea furtivos timide profitetur amores, 

Coelestemque homini concubuisse pudet ; 
Arsit enim magno correpta cupidine regis, 

Caecaque in hoc uno non fuit ilia viro ; 530 

Nocte domum parva solita est intrare fenestra : 

Unde FenestelltE nomina porta tenet. 

519. Tolenum. Or Telonus, a 
river of the Marsi. 

521. Proximus annus erat. In 
the year following that on which 
Rutilius was defeated, on the 
same day, Pallantide eadem, Fast. 
iv. N. 347, Didius, who, accord- 
ing to Appian, was Prsetor during 
the Marsian war, was also over- 
come. He is supposed to have 
been the T. Didius who, as pro- 
praetor, gained some advantages 
over the Scordisci, b. c. 1 14, and 
fourteen years after held the con- 
sulship with Q. Csecilius IVIetellus 
Nepos. When proconsul he con- 
quered the Celtiberi. He and his 
colleague passed a law, regulating 
the method of proposing and pass- 
ing laws, which was called after 
them Lex Cajcilia Didia. He is 
alluded to by Sallust, Frag. 1. 

523. Lux eadem. On the day 
of the Matralia, the festival of 
Fortuna Virilis was also held; 
whose temple was dedicated in 
the Forum Boarium, by Servius 
Tullius, and which contained a 
wooden statue of that monarch, 
■whose head was covered with a 

toga ; the probable reasons for 
which are described in the text. 

527. Dea. Fortuna. 

528. Ccelestemque homini, SfC. 
Compare Fast. iv. 175. 

529. Arsit enim magno, §"c. 
Fortune, who from her apparent 
want of discrimination in the se- 
lection of her favorites, was be- 
lieved to be blind, did not, ac- 
cording to the poet, in the case 
of Servius, give evidence of her 
defect, which in this case only, 
in hoc lino viro, appeared to have 
been removed ; Servius having 
merited the patronage which he 
received from the enamoured 

531. Nocte domum parva. The 
poet assigns the first of the three 
probable causes for the head of 
the statue having been covered. 
Parva fenestra. Fortune having 
been in the habit of obtaining 
admission by night into the house 
of Servius through the window, 
one of the gates of the city, or 
according to others, of the Pa- 
latium, was called in commemo- 
ration, Porta Fenestella; whence 



Nunc pudet, et vultus velamine celat amatos : 

Oraque sunt multa regia tecta toga. 
An magis est verum, post TuUi funera plebem 535 

Confusam placidi morte fuisse ducis ? 
Nee modus uUus erat : creseebat imagine luctus ; 

Donee eam positis occuluere togis. 
Tertia causa raihi spatio majore canenda est ; 

Nos tamen abductos intus agemus equos. 540 

Tullia, conjugio, sceleris mercede, peracto, 

His solita est dictis exstimulare virum : 
Quid juvat esse pares, te nostras csede sororis, 

Meque tui fratris, si pia vita placet ? 
Vivere debuerant et vir meus, et tua conjux, 545 

Si nullum ausuri majus eramus opus. 
Et caput et regnum facio dotale parentis. 

Si vir es, i, dictas exige dotis opes. 
Regia res scelus est. Socero cape regna necato : 

Plutarch; — ovZv iiviffrixXav ■auXnt 

53S. Viiltus amatos, OfServius. 

535. An magis est verum. The 
poet assigns a second reason ; the 
intense grief of the people upon 
the death of TuUius, increased 
at the sight of his statue, creseebat 
imagine, ^c. and they were obliged 
in consequence to conceal it from 
sight with their robes. 

539. Tertia causa, Sfc. The 
third reason is discussed, as its 
nature requires, at greater length. 
Compare Liv. i. 46, 47. 

540. Intus, Sfc. So Horace, 
Sat. ii.6, 26, ' Interiore diem gyro 
trahit;' and Ovid, Amor. iii. 2, 
12, ' Nunc stringam metas inte- 
rioi-e rota ;' Art. Amat. ii. 426, 
' Interior curru meta terenda meo 
est.' This metaphor, taken from 
the turning of the chariot round 
the goal, to which the nearer it 
approached, the smaller the circle 
it described, is frequently used 
by the poets when they profess 
to confine their subjects within a 
narrow compass. 

541. Sceleris mercede. Tullia 

having poisoned her husband, and 
Tarquinius Superbus his wife. 

543. Quid juvat esse pares, Sfc. 
Macbeth. Act i. sc. 7. 

Ladt/ yt. Was the hope druDk, 
Wherein you dressed yourself ? hath it 

slept since; 
And wakes it now to look so green and 

At what it did so freely? From this 

Such I account thy love. Art thou afeard 
To be the same in Uiine own act and 

As thou art in desire? Wouldst thou 

have that 
Which thou esteem'st the ornament of 

And live a coward in thine own esteem ? 

Hie thee hither, 

That I may pour my spirit in thine ear ; 
And chastise with the valour of my 

All that Impedes thee from the golden 

Which fate and metaphysical aid doth 

To have thee crowned withal. 

549. Regia res scelusest. ' Crime 
is an action worthy of a king ;' 
a strange inducement to aim at 
royalty ! 



Et nostras patrio sanguine tinge manus. 550 

Talibus instinctus solio j)rivatus in alto 

Sederat. Attonitum vulgus ad arma ruit. 
Hinc cruor, hinc caedes ; infinnaque vincitur aetas. 

Sceptra gener socero rapta Superbus habet. 
Ipse sub Esquiliis, ubi erat sua regia, caesus 555 

Concidit in dura sanguinolentus humo. 
Filia, carpento patrios initura penates, 

Ibat per medias alta feroxque vias. 
Corpus ut adspexit, lachrymis auriga profusis 

Restitit. Hunc tali corripit ilia sono : 560 

Vadis ? an expectas pretium pietatis amanim ? 

Due, inquam, invitas ipsa per ora rotas. 
Certa fides facti : dictus Sceleratus ab ilia 

Vicus, et seterna res ea pressa nota. 
Post tamen hoc ansa est templum, monumenta parentis, 565 

Tangere ; mira quidem, sed tamen acta loquar. 
Signum erat in solio residens sub imagine Tulli ; 

Dicitur hoc oculis opposuisse manum. 
Et vox audita est, Vultus abscondite nostros, 

Ne natae videant ora nefanda meae. 570 

550. Et noslitts patrio, ^c. — 
Macbeth. Act i. so. 5. 

Lady M. Come, come you spirits 
That tend on mortal thoughts, unsex 

me here ; 
AikI fill me, from the crown to the toe, 

top. full 
Of direst cruelty ! make thick my blood. 
Stop up the access and passage to re- 
morse ; 
That no compunctious visitings of nature 
Shake my fell purpose, nor keep peace 

The effect, and it ! Come to my woman's 

And take my milk for gall, you mur- 

dering ministers. 
Wherever in your sightlesf substances 
You wait on nature's mischief! Come, 

thick night. 
And pall thee in the damned smoke of 

That my keen knife see not the wound it 

makes ; 
Nor heaven peep through the blanket of 

the dark 
To cry Moid, HoUi. 

553. Hiiic cruor, hinc cades. 
According to the poet, the insur- 
rection of Tarquinius excited a 
fray between his partisans and 
those who remained faithful to 
the king ; in which Servius, 
while flying homeward, was slain 
at the foot of the Esrjuiline : 
hence the bloody corpse was lying 
before the carnage, when TuUia 
drove to take possession of the 
palace. The mules shrank back, 
and her servant pulled in the 
reins, but she ordered iiira to drive 
on, and the blood from the dead 
body was sprinkled over the 
wheels and her dress. The street 
in which this occurred ever after 
bore the name Sceleratus, the 

557. Carpento, Putat Ovid. 
dictum carpentum, quasi carmeiu- 
tum quod eo Carmenta Evandri 
mater usa sit. ForceL 

567. Sub imagine Tulli. Bear- 
ing the resemblance of Tullius. 



Veste data tegitur : vetat banc Fortuna mover! 

Et sic e templo est ipsa locuta suo : 
Ore revelato qua primum luce patebit 

Servius ; ba?c positi prima pudoris erit. 
Parcite, matronae, vetitas attingere vestes : 

Sollenni satis est voce movere preces : 
Sitque caput semper Romano tectus amictu, 

Qui rex in nostra septimus Urbe fuit. 



Te quoque magnifica, Concordia, dedicat aede 

Livia, quam caro praestitit ilia viro. 580 

Disce tamen, veniens setas, ubi Livia nunc est 

Porticus, immensse tecta fuisse domus. 
Urbis opus domus una fuit : spatiumque tenebat, 

Quo brevius muris oppida multa tenent. 
Haec sequata solo est, nuUo sub crimine regni, 585 

Sed quia luxuria visa nocere sua. 
Sustinuit tantas operum subvertere moles, 

573. Ore revelato, Sfc. The 
goddess declares that the removal 
of the robe from the face of the 
statue should inevitably attach to 
the Roman matrons the stigma of 
having abandoned the sense of 
shame and horror which they en- 
tertained of Tullia's impiety, and 
which they could not but feel 
while they gazed upon the sad 
memorial of the daughter's guilt, 
the muffled countenance of her 
father's image, 

576. Movere preces. To pray. 

578. Rex septimus. Including 
Tatius ; the following is the or- 
der of the Roman kings ; Rom- 
ulus and Tatius, Numa, Tullus, 
Ancus, Servius, Tarquinius Su- 

579. Te quoque magnifica. On 
the III. Id. Jun. a temple was 
dedicated by Livia to Concord, 
near the Livife Porticus, in sign 
of the harmony in which she lived 
with her husband Augustus. 

581. Veniens atas. sc. Posteri. 
Ubi Livia nunc est, ^c. The site 

of the Livia Porticus had former- 
ly been occupied by the noble 
mansion of Vedius Pollio, which 
must have been laid out, accord- 
ing to the poet, with great mag- 
nificence ; Urbis opus domus una 
fuit, §-c. He bequeathed it to 
Augustus, by whom it was taken 
down, its splendour furnishing a 
bad precedent, and the portico, 
as above, erected in its place. 

585. Nutlo sub crimine regni. It 
was customary when any one had 
been convicted of aiming at so- 
vereign power, to level the house 
of the offender to the ground, as 
in the case of Manlius and others. 
No charge of this kind, however, 
was to be implied against Vedius 
Pollio in the pulling down of his 
palace ; the objection against it 
was of another character, quia 
luxuria visa est, Sfc. 

587. Sustinuit. This word im- 
plies a degree of moral courage 
in Augustus, who did not hesitate 
to sacrifice his own aggrandise- 
ment in consideration of the ad- 


Totque suas heres perdere Caesar opes. 
Sic agitur censura, et sic exempla parantur ; 

Cum vindex, alios quod monet, ipse facit. 590 


Nulla nota est, veniente die quam ducere possis. 
Idibus invicto sunt data templa Jovi. 


Et jam Quinquatrus jubeor narrare minores. 

Nunc ades O, cceptis, flava Minerva, meis. 
Cur vagus incedit tota tibicen in Urbe ? 595 

Quid sibi personae, quid stola longa, volunt ? 
Sic ego ; sic posita Tritonia cuspide dixit ; 

Pace velim doctae verba referre deae. 
Temporibus veterum tibicinis usus avorum 

Magnus, et in raagno semper honore fuit. 600 

Cantabat fanis, cantabat tibia ludis : 

Cantabat mcestis tibia funeribus. 
Dulcis erat mercede labor ; tempusque secutum. 

vantages and convenience of the 591. Nulla nota est. The day 

public. See Sueton. Aug. c- 56. following, Prid. Id. Jun. was not 

589. Sic agitur censura. i. e. distinguished in the calendar by 
hoc est vere esse censorem. Augus- any festival. 

tus, it is well known, declined 592. Invicto Jovi. On the ides 

both the censorship and dictator- of June, a temple was dedicated 

ship ; and yet Macrobius, Saturn, to Jupiter, and the minor festi- 

ii. 4, addresses him by the title, val of Minerva was celebrated, 

as the poet does in the text. He It is not known whether the 

exercised the office, however, poet intended Invicto as an epi- 

though without the name, for he thet or a surname ; the former is 

was invested by the senate with most probable, and that the tem- 

the same censorian power, which pie alluded to was that of Jupiter 

Julius Csesar enjoyed as Prff/ec<Ms Sponsor, or Latialis. For the 

tnorum, or moribus, for five sue- Qainquatria Majora, see Fast. iii. 

cessive years; whence Horace, N. 789. The Quinquatrus minores 

Epist. ii. 1, ' Cum tot sustineas, was the festival of flute- players, 

ac tanta negotia solus, Res Italas the origin and mode of which is 

arrais tuteris, moribus ornes, Le- detailed in the text, 

gibus emendes.' &c. and Sueto- 598. Pace. With leave, 

nius ; Aug. 27, ' Recepit et mo- 603. Mercede. The privilege of 

rum legumque regimen perpetu- feasting at the banquets in the 

urn.' temple of Jupiter. Tempusque 

590. Vindex. sc. Censor. Some secutum. The period to which the 
copies read Judex. poet alludes was during the cen- 



Quod subito Graiae frangeret artis opus. 
Adde quod aedilis, pompam qui funeris irent, 

Artifices solos jusserat esse decern. 
Exilio mutant Urbem, Tiburque recedunt ; 


sorsliip of Appius Claudius, Ho- 
rat. Sat. ii. 6, 20, and C. Plautius, 
A.u. 443, by the former of whom 
the flute-players were prohibited 
from banquetting in Jupiter's tem- 
ple. Previously to this, however, 
their privileges had been infring- 
ed by Appius, who, by virtue of 
his authority as JFAW^, restricted 
the number which should accom- 
pany funerals, to ten. 

604. GraicB artis. The flute, 
according to the poet, having been 
invented by Minerva ; 697, infr. 
Some copies read Gratm. 

6C7. Exilio. See Fast. iv. n. 
763. According to Cicero, exi- 
lium was not banishment, but 
merely the act by which a man 
renounced the freedom of his 
own city, by taking up his muni- 
cipal franchise ; and the liberty 
which a person, bound by sureties 
to stand his trial before the peo- 
ple, had, of withdrawing from the 
consequences of their verdict by 
exiling himself, was only an ap- 
plication of the eeneral princi- 
ple ; De Orat. i. 39, 877, ' Qui 
Romam in exilium venisset, cui 
RovicE exulare jus esset.' If the 
accused staid till sentence was 
passed, be was condemned as a 
Roman, and it would be executed 
upon him wherever he was taken ; 
but if he availed himself of his 
municipal franchise in time, he 
had become a citizen of a foreign 
state, and the sentence was null 
and void. The ground of this ex- 
emption was not his emigrating, 
but his attaching himself to a 
city which had a sworn treaty of 
isopolity with Rome : they who 
had settled in an unprivileged 
place needed a decree of the peo- 

ple, declaring that their settle- 
ment should operate as a legal 
exilium. Niebiihr. vol. ii. 62, 63. 
The able and ingenious author of 
' English Synonymes,' draws the 
following distinction between 
banishment and exile ; the former 
follows from a decree of justice, 
the latter either from the neces- 
sity of circumstances, or an order 
of authority ; the former is a dis- 
graceful punishment, inflicted by 
a tribunal on delinquents, the 
latter is a disgrace incurred with- 
out dishonour ; the latter removes 
one from his country, the former 
drives him from it ignominiously ; 
it is the custom in Russia to 
banish offenders to Siberia, Ovid 
was exiled by the order of Au- 
gustus. Banishment is a certain 
compulsory exercise of power 
over another which must be sub- 
mitted to; 

' O banishment ! eternal banishment! 
Ne'er to return ! must we ne'er meet 

again ? 
My heart will break.' Otway. 

Exile is a state into which one 
may go voluntarily, in which 
sense it is justly applied as in the 
text. Cf. Byron. 

Childe Harold basked him in the noon- 
tide sun. 
Disporting there like anj' other fly ; 
Nor deemed before his little day was done 
One blast might chill him into misery. 
But long ere scarce a third of his passed 
Worse than adversity the Childe befel ; 
He felt the fulness of satiety : 
Then loathed he in his native land to 
Which seemed to him more lone than 
Eremite's sad cell. 





Exilium quodam tempore Tibur erat. 
Quaeritiir in scena cava tibia ; quaeritur aris : 

Ducit supremos naenia nulla toros. 
Servierat quidam, quantolibet ordine dignus, 

Tibure ; sed longo tempore liber erat. 
Rure dapes parat ille suo ; turbamque canoram 

Convocat. Ad festas convenit ilia dapes. 
Nox erat, et vinis oculique animique natabant ; 

Cum praecomposito nuntius ore venit. 
Atque ita, Quid cessas convivia solvere ? dixit ; 

Auctor vindictae jam venit ecce tuae. 
Nee mora ; convivae valido titubantia vino 

Membra movent : dubii stantque labantque pedes. 620 
At dominus, Discedite, ait : plaustroque morantes 

Sustulit. In plaustro sirpea lata fuit. 
Alliciunt somnos tempus, motusque, merumque ; 

Potaque se Tibur turba redire putat. 
Jamque per Esquilias Romanam intraverat urbem 

Et mane in medio plaustra fuere foro. 


And [now Childe Harold was sore sick at 
And from his fellow-bacchanals would 
'Tis said at times the sullen tear would start 
But pride congealed the drop within 
his e'e; 
Apart he stalked in joyless reverie, 

And from his native land resolved to go. 
And visit scorching climes beyond the sea. 
Canto i. 4, 6. 

608. Exilium quodam tempore, 
Sfc. The poet seldom loses an 
opportunity of alluding to his 
own unhappy position ; he touch- 
ingly contrasts in the above line 
his remoteness from a country to 
which he appears to have been 
bound by the most tender feelings 
of regard, with the vicinity of 
Tibur, which once was considered 
a sufBcient exile, to Rome. 

G09. Quaritur in scena, &fc. The 
want of the flutes was deeply felt 
at all celebrations in which the 
players had formerly taken such 
a distinguished part. The poet 
proceeds to explain how they were 

616. Praconiposito ore. With 
feigned intelligence. 

618. Vindicta, Properly the 
rod with which the slave was 
struck in sign of his manumis- 
sion ; so called, as some suppose 
from Vindicius, or Vindex, a 
slave of the Vitellii, who gave 
information to the senate of the 
conspiracy undertaken by the 
sons of Brutus and others to re- 
store the Tarquins, and who is 
said to have been first freed by the 
Praetor having placed the rod up- 
on his head, and gone through the 
rest of the ceremony which af- 
terwards obtained in Rome. It 
is used in the text to signify 

622. Sirpea. A mat, or other 
covering made of twigs, Forcel. 
which was thrown over the waggon 
that contained the musicians ; 
Plutarch calls those vehicles,!.a.i,a; '^ifpt(ri xvxXm vi^iKaXuzrro- 
fiiva.;. Some copies read scirpea, 
from scirpus. 

626. Et mane in medio,kc. ' Nee 
prius sensere, quam plaustris in 
foro relictis, plenos crapulae eos 
lux oppressit.' Liv. 

ID. JUN. 313 

Plautius, lit possent specie numeroque Senatum 

Fallere, personis imperat ora tegi. 
Admiscetque alios : et, u*' hunc tibicina ccetum 

Augeat, in longis vestibus ire jubet. 630 

Sic reduces bene posse tegi : ne forte notentur 

Contra collegae jussa redisse sui. 
Res placuit ; cultuque novo libet Idibus uti, 

Et canere ad veteres verba jocosa modos. 
Hsec ubi perdocuit, Superest mihi discere, dixi, 635 

Cur sit Quinquatrus ilia vocata dies. 
Martins, inquit, agit tali mea nomine festa : 

Estque sub inventis haec quoque turba meis. 
Prima terebrato per rara foramina buxo, 

Ut daret, effeci, tibia longa sonos. 640 

Vox placuit ; liquidis faciem referentibiis undis 

Vidi virgineas intumuisse genas. 
Ars mihi non tanti est ; valeas, mea tibia, dixi ; 

Excipit al)jectam cesplte ripa suo. 
Inventam Satyrus primum miratur : at usum 645 

Nescit, et infiatam sentit habere sonum. 
Et modo dimittit digitis, modo concipit auras : 

Jamque inter Nymphas arte superbus erat. 
Provocat et Phcebum. Phoebo superante pependit : - 

Caesa recesserunt a cute membra sua. 650 

Sum tamen inventrix auctorque ego carminis hujus. 

Hoc est cur nostros ars colat ista dies. 

627. Plautius. Claudius, Cal- was not always required among 
lidus, and Cautius are proposed in- the Censors, one ot whom might 
stead of the reading in the text, reject, and another retain an in- 
to which there is no ostensible dividual in the senate or his tribe, 
objection. It is most likely that &c. Liv. xl. sub. Jin. 
Plautius was anxious to make the 63-3. Res placuit. sc. Tihicini- 
tibicines some atonement for the bus et senatui. 
indignities they had received from 637. Quinqua- 
Appius, and by the artifices de- trus, 

scribed in the text shewed them 638. II(ee turba. sc. Tibicinum. 

to be a body of such importance 639. Prima. Minerva claims 

as to secure their remaining at the credit of having invented the 

Rome. pipe, with which she was put out 

629. Tibicina. A band of fe- of conceit, having seen, by the 

male minstrels. reflection of her face in the water, 

631. Ne forte notentur, ^c. that it disfigured her by swelling 
Plautius wished it to be supposed her cheeks. She threw it away, 
that the musicians had returned and it was found by Marsyas, the 
by the consent of his colleague as Satyr, who after some effort, sue- 
well as his own. This consent ceeded in performing so well that 

2 E 



Tertia lux veniat, qua tu, Dodoni Thyene, 

Stabis Agenorei tronte videnda bovis. 
Ha?c est ilia dies, qua tu purgamina Vest;E, 655 

Thybri, per Etruscas in mare mittis aquas. 


Si qua fides ventis, Zephyro date carbasa, nautae ; 
Cras veniet vestris ille secundis aequis. 


At pater Heliadum radios ubi tinxerit undis, 

Et cinget geminos stella serena polos ; 660 

Toilet humo validos proles Hyriea lacertos : 
Continua Delphin nocte videndus erit. 

Scilicet hie olim Volscos ^Equosque fugatos 
Viderat in campis, Algida terra, tuis : 

he became the admiration of the 659. Heliadum. The daughters 
nymphs, and even challenged of the sun, and sisters of Phaeton. 
Apollo to a contest of music. Radios uhi tinxerit undis. On the 
Apollo was finally successful, night of the xvi. Kal. Jul. Orion, 
upon which he tied Marsyas to the son of Hyreus, whence pro- 
it. tree and flayed him alive ; the les Hyriea, rises acronycaJly. 
tears which were shed by the ru- 660. Stella serena. Stellaishere 
rai deities for their favourite's used for Stella, as Fast. iv. 364 ; 
misfortune, formed, it is said, the but the poet applies Geminos 
beautiful river in Phrygia, ever incorrectly as an epithet of polos, 
after known bv his name. Tere- which is used to express the fir- 
hrato buxu. Tlie perforated box, mament indifferently in the sin- 
of which wood the pipe was gular or plural, 
formed. 662. Continua nocte. On the 

653. Tertia lux veniat. Includ- night of the xv. Kal. Jul. the 
ing the ides, xvii. Kal. Jul. the Dolphin rises. This day was re- 
Hyades rise ; Thyene was one of markable for the triumphant vic- 
them, and is here put for the tory obtained by the dictator A. 
whole constellation ; for Dodoni Posthumius Tubertus over the 
see Fast. v. x. 167. -(Equi and Volsci; see Livy, iv. 

654. Agenorei bovis. See Fast. 26 ; who had pitched their camp 
165 and 551. in Algidus, a town of Latium. 

658. Cras. xvi. Kal. Jul. 


Unde suburbano clarus, Tuberte, triumpho, 665 

Vectus es in niveis, Postume, victor equis. 


Jam sex, et totidem luces de mense supersunt ; 

Huic unum numero tu tamen adde diem. 
Sol abit e Geminis, et Cancri signa rubescunt; 

Ccepit Aventina Pallas in arce coli. 670 


Jam tua, Laomedon, oritur nurus : ortaque noctera 

Pellit, et e pratis uda pruina fugit. 
Reddita, quisquis is est, Summano templa feruntur. 

Turn cum Romanis, Pyrrhe, timendus eras. 


Hanc quoque cum patriis Galatea receperit undis, 675 

Plenaque securae terra quietis erit ; 

665. Suburbano. Because Al- the temple was situated near that 
gidus lay between Tusculum and of Juventus, PUn. xxix. c. 52, 
the Alban mount. This deity is mentioned by Cicero 

666. In niveis equis. See Ad&m's De Divin.i c. 10, and "Plautus, 
Rom. Antiq. Boyd's edition, pp. Bacch. 4, 8, 54, where he is call- 
325, 326. ed Submanus. 

667. Jam sex, et totidem, ^c. By 674. Turn cum Bomanis. See n. 
this and the following line it is to 187 supr. According to Varro, 
be understood that thirteen days the worship of this deity was in- 
before the end of the month, so. stituted by Tatius. 

xrv. Kal. Jul. the sun leaves 675. Hanc. sc. Auroram. Ga- 

Gemini and enters Cancer ; upon latea. A sea nymph, daughter of 

which day a temple was dedicated Nereus and Doris. On the night 

to Minerva on Mount Aventine. of the xiii. Kal. Jul. the constel- 

671. Jam. xiii. KaL Jul. Nu- lation Ophiuchus rises; JEscula- 

rus. Aurora. pius, who was raised to the stars, 

673. Summano. On this day a having been so called, from Gr. 

temple was dedicated to Summa- o^i;, unguis, nnA'{^(a,\nir. 619. By 

nus, a deity with whom the poet some this constellation is suppos- 

professes to be unacquainted. It is ed to have represented Hercules, 

probable that Pluto was worship- to whom its name is applicable, 

ped under this title, qu. Summus as alluding to his having strangled 

Manium. Mart. Capell. li.^. 40; the serpents which Juno had placed 


Sui'sjit luimo juvenis telis afflatus avitis, 

Et gemino nexas porrigit angue manus. 
Notus amor Phaidrae, nota est injuria Thesei ; 

Devovit natum credulus ille suum. 680 

Non impune pius juvenis Troezena petebat. 

Dividit obstantes pectore taurus aquas. 
Solliciti terrentur equi ; frustraque retenti 

Per scopulos dominum duraque saxa trahunt. 
Exciderat curru, lorisque morantibus artus 685 

Hippolytus lacero corpora raptus erat : 
Reddideratque animam, multiim indignante Diana. 

Nulla, Coronides, causa doloris, ait ; 
Namque pio juveni vitiim sine vulnere reddam ; 

Et cedent arti tristia fata meae. 690 

Gramina continuo loculis depromit eburnis ; 

Profuerant Glauci Manibus ilia prius : 
Tunc, cum observatas augur descendit in herbas ; 

Usus et auxilio est anguis ab angue dato. 
Pectora ter tetigit, ter verba salubria dixit : 695 

Depositum terra sustulit ille caput. 
Lucus eum, nemorisque tui, Dictynna, recessus 

Celat : Aricino Virbius ille lacu. 
At Clymenus Clothoque dolent ; hsec fila reneri, 

in his cradle; Virg, jEneid, viii. 688. Coronides. jEsculapius, 

288, ' — ut prima noverceeMonstra son of the nymph Coronis. 

manu geminosque premens elise- 692. Glauci. Son of Minos, 

rit angues.' It is also explained restored to life by JEsculapius. 

of Carnabo, king of the Getse, 693. Tunc, cum observatas, Sfc. 

Phorbus, son of Triopa, king of This distich is also rejected by 

Thessaly, &c. Hygin Poet. Astr. Heinsius. 

ii. 14, ■n-here it is also attributed, 694. Ususet auxilio. It is said 

as bv the poet, to .32sculapius. that while .^i^sculapius was con- 

677. Ttlis afflatus avitis. See sidering how he might recover 
infr. 701. Giaucus, he killed with his staff 

678. Et gemino nexas, §-c. Ophi- a serpent which came in his way, 
uchus consists of seventeen stars, whereupon another serpent ap- 
and the snake of twenty-three. proached •nnth an herb in its 

679. Amor Phadrce. See Fast, mouth, with which having touch- 
iii. X. 263. v. n. 309. ed the head of the dead one, it 

681. JVon impune, ^c. This and came to life again, and they both 
the verse following are rejected withdrew. With this herb he sub- 
by Heinsius. Trazena. A city sequently performed his extraor- 
of Peloponnesus. dinary cures. 

682. Dividit ohs'.antes pectore, 698. Aricino Virbius ille lacu. 
Sfc. See Eurip, Hippol. where Frist, iii. N. 261. Virg. j^neid, 
the catastrophe alluded to is des- vii. 761. 

cribed in full. 699. Clymenus. Pluto, so call- 

687. Multum indignante Diana, ed either as cravra x.a.\ut rrol; lav- 

Eurip. Hippol. 1420. tov, quia omnia ad sevocet, or from 

OCT. KAL. Jul. 317 

Hie, fieri regni jura minora sui. 700 

Jupiter, exemplum veritus, direxit in ilium 

Fulmina, qui nimise moverat artis opem. 
Phoebe, querebaris : Deus est : placare parenti : 

Propter te, fieri quod vetat, ipse facit. 


Non ego te, quamvis properabis vincere Caesar, 705 

Si vetet auspicium, signa mov ere velim. 
Sint tibi Flaminius Trasimenaque litora testes. 

Per volucres aequos multa monere deos. 
Tempora si veteris qua?ris temeraria damni ; 

Quartus ab extremo mense bis ille dies. 710 


Postera lux melior : Superat Masinissa Syphacem ; 
Et cecidit telis Hasdrubal ipse suis. 


Tempora labuntur, tacitisque senescimus annis ; 

Et fugiunt, freno non remorante, dies. 
Quam cito venerunt Fortunae Fortis honores ! 715 

Post septem luces Junius actus erit. 

kXiiu), audio, quia auditur ah omni- nisba and family made prisoners ; 

bus ; Forcel. Reneri, To be spun a.u. 350. Liv. xxx. 3 — 13. 

anew. 712. Hasdrubal. The brother 

704. Propter te, ^c. In con- of Hannibal ; he was defeated by 
sequence of the complaint of the Roman consuls M. Livius 
Apollo, Jupiter restored jEscu- Sali'nator and C. Claudius Nero, 
lapius to life, and raised him to in a battle on the banks of the 
the skies. Metaurus. Claudius caused his 

705. Non ego te, Sfc. On the head to be cut off and thrown 
IX. Kal. Jul. Flaminius was de- before the advanced guard of 
feated at the lake Trasimene, Hannibal. By suis telis the foet 
having engaged in the battle con- means, ' his own stratagems ;' the 
trary to the auspices; whence counterplots of Claudius Nero 
tempora temeraria, infr. 709. having succeeded against the 

708. Per volucres. See Fast. i. wiles of Hasdrubal. 

N. 180. 715. Quam cito venerunt, S^c. 

711. Postera lux melior. On the On the viii. Kal. Jul. the festi- 

VIII. Kal. Jul. Syphax, king of val of Fors Fortuna, or Fortuna 

Numidia, was defeated by C. Virilis, whose temple was dedi- 

Loelius, and Masinissa, king of the cated by Servius Tullius, was ce- 

tbe Massyli ; his capital, Cyrta, lebrated. Supr. 523. 
was taken, and his wife Sopho- 

2e 2 



Ite, Deam \xi[ Fortem celebrate, Quirites : 

In Tiberis ripa niunera regis liabet. 
Pars pede, pars etiam celeri decurrite cymba ; 

Nee pudeat potos inde redire domum. 
Ferte coronatae juvenum convivia lintres ; 

Multaque per medias vina bibantur acjuas. 
Plebs colit banc : quia, qiu posuit, de plebe fuisse 

Fertur, et ex bumili sceptra tulisse loco. 
Convenit et servis ; serva quia TuUius ortus 

Constituit dubiae templa propinqua Dea?. 


Ecce suburbana rediens male sobrius aede 



717. Deam Fortem. The god- 
dess Fors. 

718. In Tiberis ripa. This 
temple was situated at the far 
side of the Tiber, which was 
crossed either by bridges or boats, 
infr. 719. Pars, pede, pars etiam, 
§-c. To this it is objected, that 
decurrite cannot be made to sig- 
nify cross/»(7 the river, hwirunning 
down or along ivith it, and that 
consequently the temple was at 
the side of the river next the city. 
It appears, however, that decurro 
may be taken in the sense of per- 
curro, to run across or traverse 
hastily , Forcel. ; whence Ovid, 
Metam. xiv. oO, 'decunit podibus 
super sequora sicci,' and, ix. 5f)0, 
' decurrere mari.' Lucret. vi. (j(j8. 
* Perque mare et terras rapidus 
percurre turbo ;' this is sufficient 
to meet the objection, as supr. 
advanced by two late commenta- 
tors upon the Fasti, in a tone 
which seems to savour rather of 
presumption than truth. 

721. Cvronata lintres. In allu- 
sion to the custom of suspending 
garlands from the prows. 

723. Qui posuit, de plehe fuisse. 
la allusion to the birth of Servius 
Tullius, who was the son of 
Ocrisia, a handmaid of queea 

Tanaquil, and one of the captives 
taken at Corniculum. While she 
was offering some cakes to the 
household genius, she saw an ap- 
parition of the god in the fire on 
the hearth ; she was directed by 
Tanaquil to array herself as a 
bride and shut herself up in the 
chapel. She became pregnant by 
a god ; by many of the Romans 
the householdgenius was believed 
to be the father of Servius ; by 
others, Vulcan. The former sup- 
ported their opinion by the festi- 
val instituted by Servius in ho- 
nour of the Lares ; the latter by 
the god of fire having saved the 
statue of Servius on the occasion 
of the temple having been burned 
in which it was placed. Niebuhr. 
ii. 358. Dionys. iv. 2. 

726. Templa propinqua. There 
were two temples of Fortune, in 
the same place, but the poet is 
incorrect in attributing the dedi- 
cation of both to Servius. Liv. 
X. 46. ' Carvilius consul (u. C. 
459. ) de reliquo sere sedera Fortis 
Fortunoe de manubiis faciendam 
locavit prope eedem ejus deae ab 
rege Servio TuUio dedicatam.' 

727. Suburbana cede. Of Fors 

PRID. KAL. JUL. 319 

Ad Stellas aliquis talia verba jacit : 
Zona latet tua nunc, et eras fortasse latebit ; 

Dehinc erit, Orion, adspicienda mihi. 730 

At si non esset potus ; dixisset eadem 

Venturum tempus solstitiale die. 


Lucifero subeunte Lares deliibra tulerunt, 
Hie ubi fit docta multa corona manu. 


Tempus idem Stator asdis habet, quam Romulus olim 735 
Ante Palatini condidit ora jugi. 


Tot restant de mense dies, quot nomina Parcis, 
Cum data sunt trabeae templa, Quirine, tuae. 


Tempus luleis eras est natale Kalendis : 

Pierides, cceptis addite summa meis. 740 

Dicite, Pierides, quis vos adjunxerit isti, 

Cui dedit invitas victa noverca manus ? 
Sic ego; sic Clio : Clari monumenta Philippi 

730. Dehinc Orion, Sfc. On 738. Trabea Quirine tua. For 
the VI. Kal. Jul. the belt of Orion Tibi, Quirine, trabeato ; see Fast, 
rises heliacally. i. n. 37. ii. 385. 

731. Eadem die. sc. vi. Kal. 739. luleis Kalendis. Julius 
Jul. According to Columella, vm. Cajsar was born on the fourth of 
Kal. Jul. is the summer solstice. the ides of July, whence the 

^ 733. Lucifero subeunte. On the month received its name. 

V. Kal. Jul. a temple was dedi- 741. Adjunxerit isti, SfC. A 

cated to the Lares in the Forum, temple was built to Hercules, 

and also that to Jupiter Stator, u. c. 57.5, by M. Fulvius Nobilior 

which had been vowed by Ro- in the Circus Flaminius, wherein 

raulus in the Sabine war; see were placed the statues of the 

Liv. i. 12. Muses. This temple was subse- 

737. Tot restant de mense, Sfc. quently restored from decay, u. c. 

Three days from the end of this 767, by Marcius Philippus, the 

month, IV. Kal Jul. a temple step-father, 751 infr. of Augus- 

was dedicated to Romulus, Fast. tus. 
ii. N. 393. 



Adspicis: uncle trahit Marcia casta genus ; 
Marcia, sacrifice deductum nomen ab Anco, 

In qua par tacies nobilitate sua. 
Par animo quoque forma suo respondet in ilia, 

Et genus, et facies, ingeniumque simul. 
Nee quod laudamus formam, tarn turpe putaris ; 

Laudamus magnas hac quoque parte deas. 
Nupta fuit quondam niatertera Caesaris illi. 

O decus, O sacra fcemina digna domo ! 
Sic cecinit Clio ; doctae assensere sorores ; 

Annuit Alcides, increpuitque lyram. 



744. Marcia. The daughter of 
M. Philippus, whom Cato of 
Utica mariied<_ after be had di- 
vorced Attilia. 

745. Sacrifico ab Anco. ' Nu- 
mse Pompilii regis nepos, filia 
ortus, Ancus Marcius erat.' — 
' longe antiquissimum ratus, sacra 
pubiica, lit ab Numa instituta 
erant, facere ; omnia ea ex com- 
raentariis regis pontificem, in al- 

bum relata, proponere in publico 
jubet.' Liv. i. 32. 

751. Nupta fuit quondam, Sfc. 
Philip's first wife was sister to 
Csesar's mother ; his second, Ac- 
cia, or Atia, the mother of Au- 

754. Increpuitque lyram. And 
struck the lyre ; in token of 



20. Missa. In the temple of 
Apollo, built by Augustus on the 
Palatine hill, there was a public 
library, where authors, particularly 
poets, used to recite their compo- 
sitions, sitting, in full dress, some- 
times before select judges, who 
passed sentence on their compara- 
tive merits. The poets were then 
said committi, to be contrasted or 
matched, as combatants ; and the 
reciters, committere opera. Hence 
Caligula said of Seneca, that he 
only composed commissiones, 
showy declamations. Suet. Aug. 
4j. 89, ' Committit vates, et com- 
parat inde Maronem.' Juvenal, 6, 

23. Impetus. Cf. Ov. pont. 
' Impetus ille sacer qui vatum 
pectora nutrit.' 

25. Si licet etfas est. Cf. Liv. 
I, 2. ' Quemcunque eum dici 
jus fasque est.' — Speaking of 

47. Nefastus. Dr. Crombie's 
Gymnasium ii. 52, et seq. * Days 
among the Romans were distin- 
guished into three general divisions, 
the Dies festi, Dies profesti, and 
Dies intercisi. The Dies festi, 
holy days, were consecrated to reli- 
gious purposes ; the Dies profesti 
were given to the common business 
of life ; and the Dies intercisi were 
half-holydays divided between sa- 
cred and ordinary occupations. The 

Dies festi were set apart for the 
celebration of these four solemni- 
ties, ' Sacrificia,' ' Epulaj,' ' Ludi,' 
and ' FerisB.' 

* The profesti were Fasti, Comi- 
tiales, Comperendini, (days for 
giving bail); Stati, for deciding 
causes between a Roman and a fo- 
reigner, and Praeliares." — p. 53. 

64. Janus. For Zanus, (as Zvyov, 
jugum) from Zav, Jupiter, (see 
Donnegan in Zav). Jamieson : 
' Janus is said to be the Jon of the 
Scandinavians, one of the names 
of Jupiter, which is given to the 
sun, as signifying that he is the 
father of the year, and of heaven 
and earth. The sun was worship- 
ped by the Trojans under the name 
of Jona, as appears from one of 
Gruter's inscriptions.' 

Al. for Janus from Gr. i'&i, to 
go ; from the procession or motion 
of the sun. Thus £Tos,a year, is 
from 'iai, to go : Ovid : ' EuNT 
ANNi more fluentis aquse.' Janu- 
ary in Armoric is ' misjenver,'' i.e. 
the month of cold air ; from jen, 
cold, and ae'r. \V. Valpy's Ktym. 

64. Inque meo, &c. Cf. Clau- 
dian, xxviii. 640. ' Novum fastis 
aperit felicibus annum Ore corona- 
tus gemino.' 

118. Omnia sunt nostra, Sfc. 
Heuce janua, from Janus. 

151. Omnia tunc florent, Sfc. 



At once arrayed 

In all the colours of the flushing year. 
By Nature's snift and secret working 

The garden glows, and fills the liberal 


With lavish fragrance ; while the pro- 
mised fruit, 
Lies yet a little embryo, unperceived 
Within its crimson folds. 

Thomson's Spring. 

164. Bruma. Though bruma 
and hj/ems are frequently identified, 
yet the ancient Roman authors 
used them to express two very dif- 
ferent ideas. Hiems properly sig- 
nified a whole season, or quarter of 
the year : and Bruma only one 
day, and that the shortest in the 
year; the winter solstice ; whence 
Bruma novi prima est, ^'c. ; and 
Varro, L.L. 5, ' Bruma dicta, 
quod brevissimus dies.' Hence the 
month of December is called the 
month of Bruma ; whence Mar- 
tial, viii. Ep. 41 (of December) 
* Quae medio brumae mittere mense 
sclent.' vii. 94, 'Bruma est; et 
riget horridus December.' v. 104. 
' Post Novembres, imminente jam 

193. Saturno. Jamleson; 'The 
Saxons, a nation of Scythic origin, 
worshipped Saturn under the name 
of Seater. The same day of the 
week was consecrated to him that 
bore his name in the Roman ca- 
lendar. Varro derives the name 
ab satu. Vossius refers Saturnus 
to the Hebrew str, to hide oneself. 
whence the god Latius. 

211. Creverunt et opes. Cf. 
Juvenal, xiv. 139. ' Crescit amor 
nummi, quantum ipsa pecunia cres- 
cit.' So Sallust speaks of this 
' Opum furiosa cupido,' Catil. xi. 
' Semper infinita insatiabilis, neque 
copia. neque inopia minuitur.' 

313. Octipedis, S^c. A star is 
said to rise cosmicalli/, when it rises 
at the same time with the sun ; or 
with that degree of the ecliptic in 
nhieh the sun is then situated. 

Cosmical setting is when a star 
sets and goes down in the west, at 
the same time that the sun rises in 
the east. 

But, according to Kepler, to 
rise or set cosmically is only to 
ascend above or descend below the 

The term Heliacal, applied to 
the rising of a star, planet, &c. 
denotes its issuing or emerging out 
of the rays and lustre of the sun, 
wherein it was hidden before ; whe- 
ther this be owing to the recess of 
the sun from the star; or that of 
the star from the sun. When ap- 
plied to the setting of a star, it 
denotes entering or immerging into 
the sun's ravs, and so becoming 
inconspicuous by the superior light 
of that luminary. 

A star rises heliacally, when af- 
ter it has been in conjunction with 
the sun, and on that account invi- 
sible, it gets at such a distance from 
him, as to be seen in the morning 
before the sun's rising. 

The same is said to set helia- 
cally, when it approaches so near 
the sun as to be hidden therein. 
So that in strictness the heliacal 
rising and setting are only an ap- 
parition and occultation. 

The ancients computed that a 
star, between the tropics, would be 
forty days before it got clear of the 
sun's rays, and became conspicuous 
again. Hesiod first made this com- 
putation, and the rest followed him. 
The period comes very near to 
the computation of the moderns; 
for the sun advancing nearly a de- 
gree every day, it will be twenty 
days approaching to it, from the 
heliacal setting of the star, and 
thirty days more withdrawing, till 
the heliacal rising. 

Among the ancients, a star was 
properly said to be acronycal, or 
to rise acronycally, which rose 
in the evening when the sun was 
set. Greek writers, it is true, use 



the term icx^ovuxia;, indifferently, 
in speaking eitiier of the evening 
or morning, because both are con- 
sidered as ax^a. r-/i; vukto;, the ex- 
tremities of the nif/lit, and hence 
they applied acronijcal to the ris- 
ing and setting of the stars, either 
in the morning or evening. But 
the ancients were more distinct, 
and by axoovuxTio;, understood ra- 
ther the beginning or approach of 
night than the end of it ; accord- 
ingly, with them, those stars which 
rose in the evening, not those in 
the morning, were said to rise acro- 

339. Lachrijmatas cort. myrr. 
The Editor is indebted to the 
kindness of an ardent admirer of 
Shakspeare, for directing his atten- 
tion to the passage quoted in the 
note, as it stands in the folio of 
1623. The much agitated ques- 
tion, whether the proper reading is 
' their medicinal gum,' or ' their 
gum medicinal,' is here set most 
satisfactorily at rest — 

— ^ " Of one, whose subdued eyes 
Albeit, vn-vsed to the melting moode, 
Drops teares as fast as the Arabia trees 
Their midicinable gumme." 
Shaks. Fol. Ed. 1623. Isaac Jaggard,^c 

342. Fila croci. Hence the 
Greeks called it '^«.iiSor^i^a kp'oxov. 

353. Ezemplo. Punishment. 
Phaedr. iii. fab. vi. 20. ' Justoque 
vindicavit exemplo impetum.' So 
the Greeks used crcc^ahiyfta.. Cf. 
New Test. Matt. i. 19, xai fi» /I'lka» 
auTr,v •Tra.^a^iiyu.a.Tiffai, &C. and 
Blomfield in loc. 

385. Hyperiona. The sun, 
the Mithres of the Persians. Strab. 
XV. p. 732. Tifiuiri Ti xai "HX;o», 
jv x,a.Xouffi M;^^av. 

389. Exta canum vidi. Hence 
Diana was called Kwoff^ayhi ^--oc. 

443. O nine solum forti patria. 
This sentiment is borrowed from 
Euripid. Frag. No. 27, "Awas (ti* 
a-/)^ ctiiru) •Ttipafftfjt.o;, " K'xaaa. oi ^6uiv 
a,w^i yivva'iM TecTpi;. 

607. Ceres. Jamieson ; ' Could 
we view it as of Scythian origin, 
it might be traced to Suio-Goth. 
kaera, which is exactly synony- 
mous with the Latin queror ; be- 
cause she went from place to place 
bewailing the loss of her daughter.' 
Or for queres, from querur. 

Al. for geres from Vr,ous, which 
is stated by Hesychius to be one of 
her names. 

jiVl. from cereo which is said to 
be an obsolete word for creo, to 
create ; as producing the fruits ot 
the earth. Valp. Etym. Die. 


35. Omne nefas, &c. The 
iXairfto;, icyiairfio;, KteTa^iirfios of 
the Greeks ; lustratio of the La- 

87. Scepe canes leporesque, &c. 
Compare Isaiah xi. 6. " The wolf 
also shall dwell with the lamb, 
and the leopard shall lie down 
with the kid ; and the calf, and 
the young lion, and the falling 
together ; and a little child shall 
lead them." 

110. Trnjectus penna. Bur- 
mann understands this of an arrow 
with which the swan had been 

195. HcEcfait ilia dies. Ovid 
must have mistaken the day of 
their departure for that of their 
destruction ; since the latter is uni- 
versally and most positively said 
by other writers to have been the 
same which afterwards acquired a 
still more disastrous celebrity from 



the taking of Rome, and which is 
likewise held to have been that of 
the battle on the Allia. The day 
on which the race of heroes left 
Rome was also not to be forgot- 
ten. Niehuhr. ii. n. 194, where 
see the history of this family. 

198. Anna professa. One of 
the senses attached to the partici- 
ple professus by Stephens in the 
Thesaurus Ling. Lat. is explained 
by the Greek;, in 
which signification it is to be taken 
in the text, which he also quotes, 
as supr. This interpretation, and 
its peculiar applicability to the 
text, is at once borne out by the 
following extract from H. Ste- 
phens' Thesaurus Graec. Ling. 
' ''EirciyyiXia., interea L de eo di- 
citur, qui aliquid in se praestandum 
suscepit, qui sponte agit, non coac- 
tus, aut invitus. Ita de Corona. 
p. 2/1. /.I — ' AiTi^uivTa, o; l-pray- 
yitXafiivo; 'J'/X/^ryau to. vicoom iu-ffor,- 
aui. Sic adv. Leptin. p. 460, 27. 
Og&iv — (T'jfa.Vii^oiTa, Toil o>ifiov ^"»7- 
fiarcitv, raXcivTOM iiuKiv ahro; i'Tru.y. 
yiiXafjiilo;. I. e. Ultro, Spontc sua. 
Similiter fere de Coron. 263. pen. 
'fiv //.'iiroi yi Ix. rr,; l^ia; ov<ria; 
l-rxyyiiXdfiivos VihoaKa. Inde ali- 
quoties, cum quadam plenitudine 
dicitur, auTi-TrccyyiXTou; ihXovrce; : 
de Coron. 247, 24. 2. Deinde 
significat PoUiceri, Fidem dare, 
et se obstringere ad aliquid praes- 
tandum ;' of which many examples 
are given. From the foregoing, 
the phrase arma professa may be 
interpreted of a war, voluntarily 
undertaken by a family, who bound 
themselves of their own accord to 
bring it to a close. 

2U1. Carmends porta. With- 
out doubt they had previously as- 
sembled and sacrificed on the Qui- 
rinal, where their gens was wont 
to celebrate its religious worship, 
and where, perhaps, they all still 
dwelt ; as may be inferred with re- 
gard to the Comelii from the 

Vicus Cornelius, which retained 
its name even down to the six- 
teenth century ; from thence they 
marched through the Carrnental 
gate, which lay next to that hill 
and at its foot, along the road from 
which they were never to return. 
All the Roman gates had two 
arches, one for such as were going 
out of the city, the other for such 
as were coming in -. each kept to 
his right hand : five hundred years 
passed away, and no Roman, 
whose mind was swayed by the 
faith of his ancestors, went out of 
the city by this gate. 

Its site was on the line drawn 
from the corner below Ara Cell to 
the foot of the Quirinal, not far 
from Marcel de' Corvi, and is now 
covered by rubbish to a great 
height. At the laying out of Tra- 
jan's forum, the wails between this 
gate and the Quirinal, if not the 
gate itself, must have been thrown 
down, and so a way was opened 
which no superstition forbad. As 
the Fabii marched out at this gate 
on their way to Etruria, it is clear 
that there were no protecting walls 
then going down to the Tiber; else 
they would have had to enter 
through another to get at the 
bridge. However near any might 
have lived to it, they still went 
round to another gate ; whence Ire 
per hanc noli, Sfc. Into the town, 
through the other arch, every one 
came without scruple ; as appears 
by the procession in the second 
Punic war. Livy, xxvii. 37. 

421. Projectis coronis. It was 
usual for the guests, on their de- 
parture, to throw away the gar- 
lands they had worn at the feast ; 
so Ovid, Ep. xxi. 165. 

Projicit ipsa suas deducta fronte coronas, 
Spisiaque de nitidis tergit amoina suis. 

to which Moore alludes also in 
the well known and exquisite 
lines J 



I feel like one. 

Who treads alone. 
Some banquet-hall deserted ; 

Whose lights are fled. 

Whose garlands dead, 
And all but he departed, &c. 

615. Et lihate. Lihare is used 
of liquids, as the (r-TTivhiit and Xu'- 
/s»> of the Greeks. 

657. Ut sulet a magna, §-c. Cf. 
Byron : 

" The wind was down, but yet the sea ran 

This simile is illustrated by 
Aulus Gellius, Noct. Att. ii. 30, 
speaking of the south or south 
west wind : «' Quibus jam nihil 
spirantibus undaa tamen fact» 
diutius tumenf, et cum vento qui- 
dem jamdudum tranquillse sunt, 
sed mare est etiam atque etiam 

669. Hoslis ut JiQspes. Livy 
employs a similar lusus verborum, 
in loc. " hostis pro hospite mihi 
sibique," S;c. 


116. Quantam nunc aquilas. 
" The eagle," says Johnston, "chal- 
lengeth the first place, not that it 
is the best dish at table, for none 
will eat it, but because it is the 
king of the birds." Pindar speaks 
■of " the great eagle, the chief ma- 
gistrate of the birds." Josephus 
says that the eagle was selected 
for the Roman legionary standards, 
because he is " the king of all the 
birds, and the most powerful of 
them all, whence he has become 
the emblem of the empire and 
the omen of victory." The gol- 
den eagle with extended wings 
was borne by the Persian monarch, 
Xen. Cyrop. vii. from whom it 
is probable the Romans adopted 
it, as it was subsequently adopted 
from them by Napoieon, and the 
United States : while the Persians 
themselves may have borrowed the 
symbol from the ancient Assyrians, 
in whose banners it waved till 
Babylon was conquered by Cjtus. 
This may serve to explain why 
the expanded eagle is so frequently 
alluded to in the prophetic works 
of Scripture. Hosea viii. 1, 
Ezek. xvii. 3-7. ( Cf. also Psalm 
103.5.) It was, no doubt, on the 

same account that the eagle was 
assigned in the ancient mytholo- 
gies as the bird of Jove. Lib. of 
Entert. Knowl. Hab. of Birds. 

260. Salii. Were twelve in 
number; their dress consisted of 
an embroidered tunic, bound with 
a brazen belt, and a toga prsetexta 
or trabea; on their head they wore 
a high cap, shaped like a cone ; a 
sword hung from their side ; in 
their right hand they carried a 
spear or rod, in the left one of the 
Anciiia ; which however, accord- 
ing to Lucan. i. 603, hung from 
their neck ; ' Et Salius laeto por- 
tans anciiia collo ;* ' The Salii 
blithe, with bucklers on the neck.' 
Rowe. They used to go to the 
Capitol through the forum and 
other parts of the city, singing the 
verses called by Festus axamenta 
or assamenta, because they were 
written on tablets. See Horace 
Epist. ii. 1, 86, Tacitus, Annal. 
ii. 83. 

No one could be admitted into 
the order of the Salii, unless a 
native and freeborn, whose father 
and mother were alive. Lucan 
calls them lecta juventus patricia, 
because chosen from the patrician 



order. Their chief was called Prct- or Collini, from their chapel having 

syl ; their principal musician, been on the CoHine hill. Those 

Votes ; and he who admitted new instituted b}' Numa had their cha- 

members, MagisUr. Accordinjr pel on the Palatine hill ; whence, 

to Dionysius, Tullus Hostilius for the sake of distinction, thej 

added twelve other Salii, who were called Palatini, 
were called Agonales, Agonenses, 


1. Geminorum Amorum. Ac- 
cording to Hesiod, Theog. 201. 
Cupido, "Eov;, and Jocus "ifjLioos, 
Cf. Horat'od. I. ii. 33, " Quam 
Jocus circumvolat et Cupido." 

4. MolU pectore. ' Molle me- 
ura levibus cor est violabile telis; et 
semper causa est cur ego semper 

9. Primis sine crimine, 8fc. Cf. 
Amor. II I. XV. 4. ' Nee me de- 
liciae dedecuere mese.' Horat. Ep. 
I. xiv. 36, ' Nee lusisse pudet, sed 
non incidere lusum.' 

157. Lapsaest. Degenerated. 
Cf. Cic. Leg. ii. 1 5, ' Mores lapsi 
ad rnollitiem;' and Liv.prsefat, 'la- 
bente paulatim disciplina,' and a 
littleafter 'ut mores magismagisque 
lapsi sint.' 

165. JVox ubi transient. Cf. 
Hygin. Post. Astron. ii. 21, «Nee 
unquam uUius oculis certum est, 
sex an septem existimentur.' 
Schol. Pind. ad Nem, 13. xara. 
r^» tfristay, esse Septem, sed xara 
rht o^if, sex. Hence the[constella- 
tion was called s^a^rrsjov. 

169. Pleiades. Vergilise quo- 
que dictae, quia earum ortu ver 
fiiiitur, et aistas incipit ; Festus ; 
and Isidorus, Orig. iii. c 70. Has 
Latini Vergilias dicunt a temporis 
sijinificatione, quod vere oriuntur. 
Al. scrib. Virgilice quod virgulse 
modo porrigantur, ut est apud 
Voss. in Etymol. Forcel. 

219. At cur turrita. Cf.^neid, 
vi. 786. X. 2j3. Lucret. ii. 640. 

Sqq. «Muralique caput summurn 
cinxere corona, Eximiis munita 
locis quod sustinet urbis.' And on 
' cur huic genus acre,' supr. ' Ad- 
junxere feras, quia quamvis effera 
proles OflSciis debet moUiri victa 

225. Cum Trojam, §-c. Cf. 
iEneid, i. 68, « Ilium in Italiam 
portans, victosque Penates.' Sa- 
criferas ; because they bore the 
Penates and Vesta. 

249. Picta coloribus vstis. Cf., 
Plin. XXXV. 41, 'Tertium accessit, 
resolutis igni ceris penicillo utendi, 
quce pictum in navibus nee sole' 
nee sale, ventisque corrumpitur. 
Arnobius describes thus what At- 
talus sent to the Romans ; — ' Ex 
Phrygia nihil quidem aliud dicitur 
missum rege ab Attalo, nisi lapis 
quidem non magnus, ferri manu 
hominis sine ulla impressione qui 
posset, coloris furvi, atque atri, an- 
gellis prominentibus inajqualis.' 

288. Pur am. Which has a pu- 
rifying etEcacy. The water with 
which they usually sprinkled them- 
selves on coming into the presence 
of the Gods, was called ros. Hence 
Metam. i. 371, — 'ubi libatos irro- 
ravere liquores vestibus et capiti.' 

304. Sinister abit. ' Nempe 
Tiberis per duos alveos in mare 
effluit, dextrum et sinistrum.' 

319. Ipsa sedens plaustro. 
Hence Orpheus, Hymn. xiii. 2. 
calls her chariot txu^o^o^oi aftfta,. 



320. Sparguntur flore. Lucret. 
ii. 627. ' Ningunt rosarum floribus, 
umbrantes Matrern comitumque 
catervas. ' 

3G3. Inspexerit. i.e. Ex alto 
despexerit. So Virgil, speaking of 
the wooden horse, ^neid, ii. 47. 
Machina inspectura domos. Cf. 
Nov. Test. 1 Pet. i. 12,— tU S. 
i'^iiuftovffiv ciyyiXoi va^aKUipm. 
' This earnest desire of the angels 
to contemplate the sufferings of the 
Christ, was emblematically signified 
by the cherubim placed in the in- 
ward tabernacle with their faces 
turned down toviaxAsthemercy-seat. 
Exod. XXV. 20. To that emblem 
there is a plain allusion in the word 
■ra^ce.x,v\]/cci, to stoop.' Macknight 
in loc. cit. 

384. Veteresfocos. Cf. Horat, 
Epod. ii. 43, " Sacrum vetustis 
exstruat lignis forum." 

396. Henna, or Enna, was 
called from its situation as men- 
tioned in the note, umbilicus Sici- 

UCE, Gr. of^paXos "XixiXix;, 

398. Dea flava. Ceres, so call- 
ed from the colour of ripe corn. 

399. Consuetis puellis. The 
daughters of Oceanus and Miner- 
va and Diana. Horn. Hymn, in 

Cerer, Tcti^ouffx^ xou^tifi cu» uKtatod 

411. Violaria, Properly, beds 
of violets; here, violets themselves. 

431. Mentis inops rupitur. 
Hom. in Cerer. 43. uer oluvcs i-ri 

491. Simuldrat anum. Horn. 
Hymn. y^Ki -raXaiyuii hjaXlyxio;. 

493. Semperque parens. Never 
suffering the loss of a child. 

531. JDum non es scelerata, §-c. 
See for a similar oxymoron, Me- 
tam. iii. 5. ix. 408. ' facto pius 
et sceleratus eodem.' 

537. Sunion expositum. ' Suni- 
um's marbled steep.' Byron. 

556. Qui late, ^'c. Gr. 5ravS£^«>;j. 
Ceres thus addresses these men in 
Homer, Hymn. 69. i'u ydo 2« Tacrav 
I'pr) ^Sovu, xai xaTtt, •?rovrot Ai^iee; 
la oins, xoLTccdiPiciat LxTi^iaei, 

625. Animo quieto. The da- 
tive case ; the answer was given 
while the mind was at rest in sleep. 


57. Magna fuit quondam, Sfc. 
Among the many and equitable 
reasons for rendering to old age 
that deference and respect which 
it deserves, not the least is its pos- 
session of that superior degree of 
knowledge, which is only to be 
acquired by long experience. Cf. 
Euripid. Belleroph. Fragm. 22, 
a yap ^povo; otoayf^u, ToixiXaiTarov, 
Aristot. Polit. vii. 9. 'H /mv Hva- 

fAtS It VtaiTi^lllS, h oi (p^OVVtffli Iv Tpiff- 

Bjjri^ot; iiTTiv. Eurip.Melan. Fragm. 

J.7. TlccXaiOi a'lvos' 'Eeycc fiiv viu- 
Tiettf, BovXa-f V i^y^ove-i rat yieairi- 

^uv K^a.70i. Cicer. Senect.6. Con- 
silio, auctoritate, sententia res 
magnse geruntur, quibus non mode 
non orbari, sed etiam augeri sencc- 
tus solet. 

19S. Rem fortunatis, Sj'c. 'Your 
sires' islands of the blest.' Byron. 
The vwoi ftax-aout are supposed 
by some to have been what are 
now called the Canary Islands. See 
Mitsch. in Horat. Ep. xvi. 41. 
Homer, Od. A. 563. 

283. Venerat in morem. The 
student shall find some most im- 
portant information on this subject 


by referring to Adams' Roman 600. Pulvis inanis, Anacr. iv. 

Antiquities, Appendix pp. 505-6. 9. aX/y»» xiicriftKrfa, xitif, Horat 

Boyd's edition, 1834. IV. Od. vii. 16. Pulvis et um- 

551. Ilia jubavi dcxtra. Lu- bra sumus. 
clan, Dial. Zephyr, et Not. fi U 624. Solita fallere voce. Cf. 

rn Xaia fit* ii^iro raZ xi^arof, us Horat. I. Epist. Xvi. 58, * Quan- 

«.>) uToXiirid.'Joi, rti trsaa 'h\ rittfiu- docunque deos vcl porco, vel bove 

a:»av TO* irlirXtv ^vHi;^t. placat ; Jane pater clare, clare 

577. Pars putat, Sfc. Nonius, quum dixit Apollo ;Labramovetme- 

' Quum in quintum gradum per- tuens audiri ; pulchra Laverna, Da 

venerant, atque habebant sexaginta mihi fallere, da justo sanctoque 

aiinos, turn denique erant a pub- videri : Noctem peccatis, et frau- 

licis negotiis liberi atque expediti dibus objice nubem.' 
et otiosi : ideo in proverbium qui- 645. Hie eques, ille pvgil 

dam putant venisse^sexagenanos de Schol. Pind. 144. Karre^d f'lv- 

ponte dejici oportere, id est, quod, ko.) aiSXo(pe^a* ILiXvStvxsa. 

suffr^ium non ferant, quod per Horn. Iliad, iii. 237. 
pontum ferebant.' 


10. Obstreperetur. Obstrepere 657. Temporibus veterum. Ac- 
is especially used to signify the cording to Perizonius, Animad. 
murmuring of waters, or the whis- Histor. c. 6, it was customary 
paring of the wind among the among the ancient Romans for the 
leaves of the trees. praises of great men to be sung to 

133. Qui frondibus olim esse the flute at their banquets; a fact 

solet seris. Cf. Macbeth, Act v. which Cicero only learned from 

Sc. ii. Cato, who seems to have spoken of 

it as a usage no longer subsisting ; 

"I have lived long enough; my way of Tusc. Quaest. iv. 3. " Gravissimus 

life auctor in Originibus dixit Cato, 

Is fallen into the sear, the yeUow leaf." morera apud majores hunc epula- 

rum fuisse, ut deinceps, qui accu- 

240. Mens. Gr. MSt/j. barent, canerent ad tibiam claro- 

275. JVec tu aliud Vestam, Sfc. rum virorum laudes atque vir- 

Lactant. Inst. I. xii. 5. ' Quia tutes." 

is^nis inviolabile sit elementum. The Naenia, one of the various 

nihilque nasci possit ex eo, quippe forms of Roman popular poetry, 

qui omnia, quae arripuerit, absu- containing the praises of the dead, 

mat.' was also sung to the flute at the 

320. Putant aliquos tcilicet esse funeral processions. Cicero de 

deos. Compare Psalm xlii. 3. Legib. ii. 24. 

' My tears have been my meat 659. Cantabatfanis. The flute, 

day and night, while they daily Gr. alxi;, was used in the sacri- 

say unto me. Where is now thy fices of the gods, at festivals. 

God?' games, entertainments, and fune- 



rals. Minerva is said to have in- 
vented the straight, and Pan the 
oblique flute: Bion. Idyll, iii. 7 ; 

'ii( ivoi* TXay'iuuXov o Xlxv, ai; avXov 

In scripture Jubal is mentioned as 
the inventor of the flute ; Gen. 
iv. 21. Among the Greeks the 
first inventor of this instrument is 

said to have been Hyaglus, a Phry- 
gian, who lived in the time of 
Joshua. Flutes were made of the 
bones of stags or fawns, and hence 
called Mi^^iwi aiikai ; the manufac- 
turing them of such materials is 
ascribed to the Thebans. They 
were also made of the bones of 
asses, and of elephants; likewise 
of reed, box, and lotus ; Fast. iv. 
N. 190. 

2f 2 



Note — The nvmerah refer to the book, and thefigureito Vie line of 
each book in which Ute tcord occurs. 

ACASTUS, ii.40 

Acca, iv. 826 
Achates, iii. 603 
Acheloii?, ii. 43, v. 343 
Achilles, v. 403 
Acis, iv.442 
Acragas, iv. 449 

Actiacae frondPS, i. 647 

Aptorides, ii. 39 

Adrastus, vi. 387 

iEacides, v. 386 

.Ediles Plebis, v. 287 

-Egaeum, ir 539 

.SiS'eus, ii. 41 

^Emoniae aquae, ii. 40, 
puer, V. 396 

-'Eneadm, i. 653 

jEneas, i. 477, ii. '425, iii. 
546, 602, iv.37, 845 

.Solius career, ii. 338 

^qui, vi. 663 

.Squicoli, iii. 91 

;Ethra, v. 171 

iEtna, iv. 4&'> 

Africanus, i. 543 

Ag'anippp, v. 7 

Aarenoriiis bos, vi. 654 

Agonalia, i.325 

Agrippa, iv. 49 

Alba, iv. 44 

Alba Long-a, ii. 381 

Albani, iii. 89 

Albula, ii. 299 

Aloides, i. 525 

Alg-ida terra, vi. 664 

Alrno, il 433, iv.311 

Alpinus hostis, vi. 312 

Am.althea, v. 115 

Amata, iv. 845 

Ameoanu?, iv. 441 

Amores gemini, iv. 1 

Ampelog.iii. 407 

Amphiaraides, ii. 43 

Amphitritp, v. 675 

Amulius, iii 47, 65, iv. 53 

Anapus, iv. 44.3 

Anchises. iv. 35 

Ancilp. iii.375 

Anguis. ii. 211 

Anna Perenna, iii. 144, 
519, 655 

Antenor, iv. 75 

Aoniae, aqune, iii. 454, hu- 
mus, i. 440 

Aphidaa, v. 652 

Appius Caeciis, vi. 187 
Aprilis, iv. 89 
Aquarius, ii 339 
Aquila, v. 675, Romana, 

v. 530 
Arabes, iv. 543 
Arcadia,!. 41'2 
Arctophylax, ii. 158 
Arctos, ;ii. 157, duai, iii, 

Ardea, ii. 603 
Aretbusa, iv. .397 
Argei, iii. 770 
Arg'estes, V. IGl 
Arg-os, v.59a, vi. 47 
Ariadnes corona, iii. 457 
Aricina vallis, iii. 261 
Aricini, iii. 89 
Aries, iii. 846 
Arion, ii. 83 
Aristae us, i. 363 
Ascrseae oves, vi. 14 
Assaracus, iv. 34, 909 
Asylum, ii. 67 
Athamas, vi. 443, 509 
Atlas, ii. 372, v. 83 
Attalus, iv. 240 
Attica, iv. 476 
Attis, V. 227 
Arentinus, iv. 51 
Aug-usta, i. 486 
Augusti, i. 481 
Aurora, i. 411 
Ausonia, iv. 264 
Auaonii, iv. 240 

BACCB.E L.itise, vi. 461 
Bacchus, i. 360, iii. 466, 

480,692,715,716, T. 345 
Battus, iii. 571 
Bellona, vi. 185 
Berecynthia, iv. 329, tibia, 

iv. 181 
Bootes, iii. 403 
Boreas, v. 203 
Bnvillas, iii.66S 
Briareus, iii. 784 
Brutus, ii. 599, vi. 415 

Cacus, i 500 
Cadmeis, vi. 507 
Cadmus, i. 440 
Caducifer, iv. 579 
Ceoina, ii. 125 

Cjesar, Au^stns, i. 540, 

iv. 650, Germanicus, i. 

3, 2a5, Julius, iii. 1.54, 

681, iv. .153 
Calabrse aquse, v. 162 
Callaicus, vi.415 
Calliopea, v. 80 
Callisto, ii. 156 
CalpetuSjiv. 46 
Camere, iii. 583 
Camerina, iv. 451 , 
Camillus, vi. 168 
Cancer, i. 313 
Capella Olenia, v. 113 
Capitolium, i. 403, ii.549. 

vi. 73 
Caprea palus, ii. 373 
Capta Minerva, iii. 816 
Capys, iv. 34, 35 
Carmenta, i. 449 
Carna, vi. 101 
Carseoli, iv. 684 
Carthag-o, vi 45 
Carystus, iv. 256 
Castor, v. 653 
Cecropidse, iii. 79 • 
CetensE, iv. 337 
Celteno, iv. 173 
Celer, iv. 805 
Celeus, iv.482 
Centaurus, v. 401 
Cerealia, iv. 593, dona, i. 

619, herbaj, iv. 877 
Ceres, i. 640, iii. 367, iv. 

375, 468, 593, 619, solida, 

vi. 335 
Chalybeia massa, iv, 379 
Chaos, i. 103 
Charistia, ii. 499 
Charites.v. 219 
Charybdis, iv. 473 
Chiron, v. 375, 409 
Chloris, V. 195 
Circe, iv. 70 

Circus Maximus, ii. 302 
Claudia, iv. 279 
Claudius, iv. 840 
Claviger, Deus, i. 228, 

Heros, i. 494 
Clausus, iv. 279 
Clio, V. 54 
Clotho, vi. 699 
Clusius,i. 130 
Clymenus, Ti. 699 
Culchos, iii- 855 



CoUatinus, u. C15 
Concordia, i. 575, ii. 513, 

iii 860, vi. 91 
Consnl.U. 733 
Census, iii. li)7 
Corinthus, iv. 475 
Corona Gnossis, iii. 457, 

querna, i "i(>4 
Coronides, vi. G88 
Coronis, i. 291 
Corvinus, i. .552 
Corvos, ii.2Il 
Corybantes, iv. 210 
Crassi, v. .527 
Crassus, vi 419 
Crater, ii. 212 
Crathis, iii. 582 
Cremera, ii. 173 
Creta, iii. 79 
Creticus, i. .544 
Crocos, V. 227 
Cumaea anus,iv. 158 
Cure-s, ii. 135, ui. 92, 199 
Curetes, iv. 210 
Curio, ii. 527 
Curius, V. 131 
Cyane, iv. 443 
Cybele, iv. 191, 223 
Cyclades, iv. 2-55 
Cyclopes, iv 262, 447 
Cyllene, ii. 244,v. 87 
Cynosura,iii. 105 
Cynthia, ii. 91, 159 
Cvntliius, iii. 346 
Cythera, iv. 260 
Cytliereius mensis, iv. 19.3 
Cytlieriacamyrtus, iv. 15 

Dardania, dotnas, vi. 42, 
dux, ii. 562, pinus, i. 469 

Dardanus, iv. 31 

Daunus, iv. 76 

December, iii. 56 _ 

Decemviri, ii. 54, iv. 358 

Delphin, ii. 79 

Deorum Mater, iv. 237 

Diana, i. 387, ii. 155, iii. 
79. vi. 687 

Diania turba. v. 141 

DictJei greges, v. 118 

Dictynna, vi.697 .522 

Dido, iii. 546 

Didyme, iv. 449 

Dindymus, iv.223 

Dione, ii. 343, v. 309 

Dis, iv. 423 

Dodonis, vi. 653 

Doris, iv. 652 

Drusus, i. 12, 547 

Eetiov, IV. 2.54 
Egeria, iii. 152, 273 ' 
Eleotra, iv. 31,vi. 42 
Eleusin, iv. 481 
Elissa, iii. 554 
Eos, iii. 856 
Epeus, iii. 804 
Equiria, ii. 741, iii. 515 
Erato, iv. 195 
Erechthea domus, v. 204 
Erichthonius, iv. 33 
Eryx, iv.450, 840 
EsquilisB.- i". 244, vi. 555 

Evander, i. 421 
Euboicura carmen, iv. 231 

Fabii, ii. 164, 285 ' 
Falisci, i. 84, iii. 87, 822, 

iv. 74, vi. 49 
Fasces, i 81 
Fasti, i. 11 
Faiiniis, iii. 289, a^restis, 

ii. 161, bicornis, ii. 2:36, 

cornipes, ii. 271- Ly- 

cajiis, ii. 3.34, piniger, 

iii. 82, seiniciiper, v. 101 
Faustuius, iii. 54, iv. 826 
Februa, ii. 19, iv. 700 
Fenestella, vi. .532 
Feralia, ii. 451 
Flainen, ii. 21 
Flaminica, ii. 27, Dialis, 

vi. 226, ii. 2.50, Quirina- 

lis, iv.876 
Flaminius, vi. 707 
Flora, V. 195 
Fornax, ii. 407 
Fortuna, vi. .523, Fors, vi. 

715, publira, iv. 3.50, vi. 

rilis, ir. 145 
Forum, i. .302, Augustura, 

V.496. Mairnum, iii. 683. 
Furius, i. 577. 

Gabii, ii 572. 
Galatea, vi. 675. 
Galli, iv. 336. vi. 305. 
Gallus, iv. 338. 
Ganges, iii. 708. 
Gatiymedes, vi. 43. 
Gelas, iv. 444. 
Gemini, v. 637 
Genii, iii. 56 
Genius, ii, 427, v. 145 
Gigantes, iii. 437, v. 2b 
Glaucus, vi. 692 
Gradivus, ii. 743, iii. 167 
Graecia Major, iv. 64 
Graiie, vi. 107 
Gyges, iv. 567 

Hadriaclm, iv. 475 
Hwmus, i. 390 
Halcyone, iv. 173 
Halesus, iv. 73 
Hamadrvades, ii. 155 
Hasdrub'al, vi. 712 
Hastati, iU. 126 
Hebe, vi. 65 
Hebrus, iii. 716 
Hecate, i. 141 
Hector, v. 381 
Helernus, vi. 105 
Heliades, vi. 659 
Helice, iii 106 
Helicon, iv. 193 
Helle, iii. 836 
Hellespontus, iv. 541 
Helorus, iv. 451 
Henna, iv. 396 
Hercules, i. 493. Custos, 

vi. 193 
Hernici, iii. 88 
Hesperia, i. 448 
Hetrusci, i. 577 
Hiraera, iv. 449 
Hippocrene, v. 7 

Hippolytu?, iii. 263. V- 209 
Honos, V. 23, 66 
HorJE, V. 217 
Hyades, v. 164 
Hyas, V. 170 
Hymensus, ii 442 
Hyperion, i. 385 
Hyperionis, v. 159 
Hypsipylwa tellus, iii. 80 
Hyriea proles, vi. 661. 

Janalis virga, vi. 149 
Janiculum, i. 246 
Janus, i. 64, 127, iii. 860, 

vi. 113 
larba, iii. .5.53 
lason, i. 441 
Icarium, iv. 257 
Icarus, iv. 258 
Ida Crt-twa, v. 115, Phry- 

gia, iv. 7.'', 246 
Idasus, judex, vi. 44. Pa 

tens, iv. 182, puer, ii. 

Idas, V. 645 
Idus, i. 56 

Ilia, ii 293, iii. II, iv. 54 
Iliaci, foci, iii. 140, ignes, 

iii. 27, opes, iv. 224, Ves- 
ta, vi. 211, urbs, vi. 376 
Iliadae fratres, iii. 60 
Iliades, iv. 23. v. 509 
Inachia, bos, iii. 659, littus, 

v. 600 
Inarhis, i. 404 
Indi depexi, iii. 463 
Indus, iii. 699 
Ino, iiL 838, vi. 439 
Ionium, iv. 540 
Isauricus, i. 543 
Ismarus, iii. 408 
Itvs, iv. 4.56 
lulei, avi, iv. 124, nobi- 

litas, V. 60S 
Julia, i.4S6 
Julia domus, iv. 40 
lulus, iv. 39 
Junius, V. 78, vi. 26, 95 
Juno, V. 231, Lucina, iii. 

24.5, Moneta, vi. 107. 

Sospita, ii. 56 
Junonale tempus, vi. 63. 
Junonius mensis, vi. 61 
Jupiter, v. 230, Capitoli. 

nus, vi. 170, Elicius, iii. 

32,5, Pistor, vi. 304, Sta- 

tor, vi. 735, Stygius, v. 

444, Tarpeius, vi. SI, 

Tonans, ii. 69, Victor, 

iv. 595. 
Justitia, i. 249 
Juturnae lacus, i. 644, ii. 


Kalend.£, i. 55 

Lacus, Aricinus, vi. 698, 
Curtius, vi. 357, Jutur- 
nae, i. 644, Trasimenu», 
vi. 707 

Ladon, ii. 242 

Laenas, v- 330 

Lrestrygones, iv. 69 



Lanuvium, vi. 60 
l.aomedon, vi. 3-S4 
Lara. U. 481 
Larda, vi. 153 
Larentalia. iii; 55 
Larentia, iii. 53 
Lares, ii. 498, incinrti, ii. 

51C, Praestites, v. 129 
Latinus, ii. 426, iv. 43 
Latiura, i 238, iii. 83 
Lavinia, iii- 630 
Laasus, iv. 54 
Learchns, vi. 444 
Lemares, V. 479 
Lemuria, v. 417 
Leo, 1 .591 
Leontini, iv. 441 
Lernse Echidna, v. 401 
Lesbos, iv. 2.55 
Leucadius modus, v. 574 
Leucippus, V. 646 
Leucothee, vi. 455 
Liber, iii. 463 
Libera, iii. 508 
Libyca fera, v, 178, fre- 

tum, iii. 569 
Libys, iv. 544 
Liljrboeuro, iv, 453 
Li via, i. 581 
Livia porticas, vi. 581 
Luceres, iii. 130 
Lucina, iii. 2.53, vi. 39 
Lucretia, ii. 623 
Luna, iii. 862 
Lupercal, ii. 291 
Luperci, ii. 31, 269, cine. 

tuti.v. 101 
Lycurgu?, iii. 701 
Lynceiis, v. 655 
Lyra, i. 316, Lesbis, ii. 82 

MilNA, ii. 460 

Maenades, Threiciae, iv. 

432, Ausonia, vi. 458 
Maenalis, Diva, i, 570, ora, 

iii. 82 
Manalos, V. 89 
Msonides, ii. 120 
Majpius Pompeias, i. 553 
Maia, iv 174 
Msgestas, v. 25 
Mains, v, 73 
Mamorius, iii. 381 
Manes, ii. 417, 724 
Manlius, vi. 169 
Marcia, vi. 744 
Mars, iii. 2, 171, v. 229, 

Ultor, 5, 521, bis ultus, 

I^farsa ncenia, vi. 126 
Martia, avis, iii. 35, cam. 

pns, ii. 742, proles, iii. 

Masinissa, vi. 711 
Mater Phrvgia, ii. 55. 
Matralia. vi. 429 
Matuta, vi. 433 
Mauri, vi. 228 
Maxiraus Fabius, i. 556. 

ii. 209 
Medusa, iii. 443 
Megalesia, iv. 331 
Megarea, iv. 445 
Melas, iv, 450 

Melicerta, vi. 448 
Melite, iii. 568 
Memnonis, iv. 687 
Mens, vi. 225 
Mercuriiis, v. 617 
Meroe, iv. 544 _ 
Merope, iv. 175 
Metanira, iv. 513 
Metellus, iv. 322, vi. 398. 
Metus, V. 29 
Mezentius, iv. 8-57 
Miluus, iii. 773 
Minerva, iii. 5, 174, 791, 

816, V. 231, vi. 594 
Mulciber, i. .504 
Mutinensia arroa, iv. 601 
Mycenae, iii. 81 
MystJe, iv. 510 

Narcissus, v. 225 

Nasica, iv 321 

Neritius dux, iv. 69 

Nestor, iii. 529 

Nilus, v. 268 

Nissei canes, iv. 474 

Momentum , iv. 871 

Nonacris, ii. 243 

NonsB, i- 57 

Numa Pompilius, i 43, 
iii. 150 

Numantinns, i .546 

Numicius, iii. 648 

Numidicus, i. 545 

Numitor, iv. 53 

Nymphae Cretides, iii. 441, 
Nysiades, iii. 748, Tiber- 
aides, ii. 479 

OCEANUS, V. 21, 81 

CEbalidffl, v. 649 

CEbalides matres, iii. 228 

CEbalius Tatius, i. 260 

CEnides, iv. 76 

CEtKus, vi. 473 

Olenia arva, v. 251. Ca- 

pella, V. 113 
Olympus, i. 307' 
Ophiuchus, vi. 677 
Ops, vi. 269 
Orion, iv. 362, v. 489 
Orionis Zona, vi. 729 
Orty^JB bovps, v. 636 
Ortvgie, iv. 445 
Ossa.i. 307 
Othryades, ii. 547 

Pachtnos, iv. 453 
Padus, iv, .545 
Paean, iv. 237 
Pagasjei,! colles, v. 397. 

lason.i. 441 
Palsemon, vi. 4-55 
Pales, iv. 614. 748 
Palilia, iv. 695 
Palilis flamma, iv. 770 
Palladium, vi. 378 
Pallantias.iv. 347. 
Pallantis, vi. 521 
Pallas, i. 471 
Pallas, vide Minerva 
Pan, ii. 239 
Panes, i. 398 
Pangaea, iii. 718 
Panope, vi. 453 

Pantagie, iv. 445 
ParcSB, iii. 781 
Parrhasia, i. 42* 
Parrhasides Stella, iv. 551 
Parthi. v. 524 
Patres, v. 71 
Patulcius, i. 129 
Pax, i. 640, 64? 
Pesfasus, iii. 448 
Peiasgi,ii. 249 
Pelens, ii. 39, v. 404 
PeligTii, iii, 93 
Pelorus, iv. 453 
Pentheus, iii. 700 
Pergama, i. 475. vi. 101 
Persephone, iv. 426 
Persis, i.385 
Phaedra, vi. 67.^' 
Phariajuvencp, v. K3 
Phasis, ii. 42 
Philippi, iii. 680 
Philippus, vi. 743 " 
Phillyrides, v. 379 
Phineus, vi. 115 
Phocus, ii. 39 
Phoebe et soror, r. 04.3 
Phcebus, vi. (U'J 
Pholoe, ii.241 
Phrygia, iv. 239 
Phryxea, ovis, iii. 831. 

soror, iv. 252 
Phryxus, iii. 837 
Pious, iii. 289 
Pierides, vi. 741 
Pilani, iii. 127 
Piraeus, iv. 537 
Pisces, iL 339 
Plautius,vi. 627 
Pleiades, iv. 169, v. 84 
Pleione, v. 83 
Ptenus, iii. 146 
Pollux, v. 6.55 
Polyhymnia, v. 9 
Pontificale caput, iii. 685, 

honos, iii. 418, sacrum, 

i. 412 
Porrima, i. 569 
Porta, Capena, iv, 319, 

Carmentis, ii. 169, Col. 

Una, iv. 837 
Portunus, vi. 501 
Posthumius, v. 330 
Poithumus, iv. 41, Tu- 

bertus, vi. 665 
Postverta, i. 569 
Praenestina Dea, vi. 62 
Priamides, vi. 15 
Priamus, vi. 385 
Principes, iii. 127 
Proca, iv. 52, vi. 127 
Proculus Julius, ii. 381 
Progne et soror. ii. 511, 

Propontis, v, 257 
Proteus, i. 367 
Publicii. V 283 
Publicium iter, v. 294 
Pudor, V. 29 
Punica poma, iv. 5H2 
Pygmalion, iii. 574 
Pyrrhus, vi. 187, 671 

QuATUoaNotae, v. 67! 
QuinctilU, iJ.2S8 



Quinquatria, minora, vi. 

Quintilis, iii. 147 
yuirinus, ii. 857. Marti- 

^ena, i. 199, trabeatus, 

Quirites,». 361, iii. 275, iv. 

827, straininei, v. 675 

Ramxes, iii. 130 
Resis fuga, ii. 567, v. 672 
Reraulus, iv. 49 
Rerauria, v. 475 
Remus, ii. 282, iii. 68, iv. 

oG, 789, 813, V. 400 
Reverentia, v. 23 
Rex, nemorensis, iii. 269, 

sacrificulus, i. 333 
Rhea, iv. 201 
Rhenus, i. 286 
Rhodanus, iv. 545 
Rhodope, iii 718 
Romulus, i. 29, iii.95, vi. 84 
Rilbigo, iv. 873 
Rumina ficus, ii. 322 
Rutilius, vi.517 
Rutuli, iv. 849 

.Sabini, i. 273, vi. 201 
Salus Romana, iii. 801 
Samos, vi. 4S 
SancusFidius Semo, 197 
Sapjei, i. 389 
Saturnia, i. 237 
Saturnus, i. 2.35 
Sceleratus vicus, vi. 563 
Scorpios, iii. 691 
ScytltEB, iii. 698, iv. 82 
Semele, iii. 694, vi. 457 
Senatus, v, 64 
Servius Tullius, vi. 434, 

52.5,535, .574,725 
Sibylla, iii. .530, iv. 841 
Sidonii, iii. 100 
Sidonis, iii. 650, v. 561 
Sigeura, iv. 254 
Sisyphus, iv. 175 
Sithones, iii. 70S 
Smlntheus, vi.X379 
Solymus, iv. 79. 
Somnus, iv. 627 
Sparta, iii. 81 
Sterope, iv. 172 

Stimala, vi. 4.57 
Stultorura fe<ta, ii. 395 
Stymphalus, ii.241 
Styx, ii. 418, iii. 320, 781 
Sulla, vi. 190 
Sulmo, iv.80 
Suminanus, vi. 673 
Suninn, iv. .537 
Sylvia, iii 43 
Sylvius, iv. 42 
SymsEtlius, iv. 446 
Svpliax, vi. 711 
Syracuse, iv. 839 
Syri, ii. a56 
Syrtes, iv. 473 

Tacita, ii. 454 
TEEnaria valli?, iv. 586 
Tantalidffifratres, ii.509 
Tantalides, v. 307 
Tarpeia, i. 201 
Tarpeiae arces, i. 79 
Tarquinius, Sextus, ii. 573. 

Superbus, ii. 569, vi. 554 
Tartara, iii. 621, iv. 579 
Tatius, i. 262 
Tauromenos. iv. 449 
Taurus, v. 547 
Taygete, iv. 174 
Tegeaea, domus, i. 495, sa- 

cerdos, vi. 485 
Telegonus, iii. 90, iv. 71 
Temesaa sera, v. 437 
Terapestas, vi 177 
Tenedos, iv. 254 
Terenti vad.i, i. 451 
Tereus, ii. 738 
Terminus, ii. 50, 523 
Tethvs, ii. 159, v. 22,81 
Thalia, v. 54 
Thapsos, iv. 451 
Themis, iii. 059 
Therapnseus sanguis, v. 

Theseus, iii. 473, vi. 679 
Thestiades, v. 305 
Thrace, v. 2oi 
Thyades, vi. 408 653 
Thyreatis terra, ii. 545 
Thyrsus, iii. 743 
Tiberini, ludi, vi. 222, ostia 

iv. 303 

Tiberinus, iv. 47, S65 
Tibris, i. 242 
Tibur, iv. 71, vi.007 
Titaiws, iii. 776 
Titania, iv. 90!M 
Tithonus, i. 411 
Titienses, iii. 129 
Titus, i. 260 
Tolenum, vi. 519 
Tonans, ii. 09 
Torquatu?, i .551 
Trasimena litora, vi. 707 
Trinacris, iv. 394 
Triptolemus, iv. 524 
Tritonia, vi. .597 
Trivia, i. 141,3s9 
Troezena, vi. 6S1 
Troja, i. 473, iv. 225, v. 

Tros, iv. 33 
Tubilustria, v. 609 
TuUia, vi. 541 
Turnus, iv.' 845 
Tychius, iii. 803 
Tydeus, i. 441 
Tyndaridae fratres, v. 644 
Typhccus, i. .523, iv. 465 
Typhon, ii. .343 
Tyrii, iii. 550 
Tyrius,mure.x, ii. 107, pa- 

ratus, iii 628, puella, v 

Tyros, iii. 032 

Vacuna, vi. 289 

Vacunales foci, vi. 290 

Veientia arva, ii 163 

Vfiovis templum, iii. 428 

Venus, iv.27, 36, 119, 843 

Vesta, iii. 415, 424, 077. 
vi. 233,251,275, 281, 334, 

Vestalis.iii. 11, humo de- 
fossa, vi. 412 

Vinalia, iv. 8.35 

Vindemitor, iii. 405 

Virbius, vi. 698 

Ulixes, vi. 387 

Volsci, vi. 663 

Uranie, V.55 

Vulcanus, v. 669 

Z ANCLE, iv. 473' 
Zephyrus, v. 201 


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