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(BOf?N FEB. 24. 1500. DIED SEPT. 21. 1558.) 




H IRarrative an& Critical Ibistor^. 




THE FATHERLAND, 14^0-1700; 


XLhc 3fatbcrlan6: 





^be Commonwealtb of Pennsylvania 


Ube lPennsslvanla*<3erman Society. 







Copyright by JULIUS F. SACHSE, 1897. 


ryyjRiTBRS of 

^^^ American his- 
tory have thus far 
failed to accord to 
the German people 
anything like the 
proper amount of 
credit due them for 
the part they took in 
making possible the 
voyages to the un- 
known lands in the 
west, which resulted 
in the discovery of 
this Continent. Nor do they chronicle what promi- 

34 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

nent factors the Germans were, from the earliest days 
of Columbus down to the present time, in the ex- 
ploration, settlement and development of America, a 
name which, by the way, is of German origin ; it 
originated with a German student and was suggested 
by him, and appeared for the first time in history 
upon a German map and globe. 

Instances are extremely rare where the average 
historian has accorded any credit to the German 
people in connection with the history of this country. 
This applies with equal force to both northern and 
southern divisions of the western hemisphere. All 
matters relating to American history, which might 
redound to their glory, seem for some reason to have 
been hitherto studiously eliminated or cast aside by 
historians of all races, Latin, Celtic, British, and I 
may even say American. 

It has been repeatedly stated that Germany, of all 
the chief nations of Europe, was the only one which 
took no active part or interest in the discovery or 
early settlement of the western world. This and 
other statements of similar import, so oft repeated, 
have become accepted as truth ; and as a consequence, 
neither Germany nor her sons appear in the histories 
of the day as factors in America's early history. 
Yet notwithstanding this firmly rooted notion, as 
a matter of history it was due to the great in- 
fluence exercised by Germany and the Germans 
over the trade of the world, during this transitional 
period, more than to any other circumstance, that 
eventually led, not only to the discovery of the 

Dr. John Matthezv Otto. 35 

western continent, but also to that of an ocean 
passage to India. 

The injustice of these many biased statements has 
long been felt by such historical students and inves- 
tigators at home and abroad as boast of either German 
birth or ancestry. The first person to give any prac- 
tical expression to his convictions in this country, 
and thus revive an interest in the subject, was a 
Pennsylvania-German, or, more properly speaking, a 
German who had made Pennsylvania his home. It 
was Doctor Johann Matthew Otto,^ one of the Mora- 
vian Brethren at Bethlehem, a well known scientist 
and medical practitioner of a century ago, and a 

I Doctor Johann Matthew Otto, one of the Moravian Brethren at Beth- 
lehem, one of two brothers both of whom were doctors, was a surgeon 
of note, whose reputation extended far beyond the bounds ol the Breth- 
ren's community in Pennsylvania. Dr. Otto was born at Meiningen, 
November 9, 1714, and studied medicine first under his father, and then 
at Augsburg. He entered into his father's practice about 1740, but two 
years later came to America with a company of about sixty persons on 
the "snow" Irene. The party came via Holland and England, and 
reached Bethlehem on July 8, 1750. Dr. Otto at once became known as 
a surgeon of skill, and his services were called into requisition by the 
authorities durmg the French and Indian war, which swept over the 
Province. His treatment of the Indian Tatamy, as well as his reports to 
Governor Denny, are matters ot record. He was elected a member of 
the American Philosophical Society, April 21, 1769. This was the first 
meeting held by the present Society after the union with the American 
Society, held at Philadelphia, for promoting useful knowledge. Dr. 
Otto was stricken with paralysis, August 7, 1786, and died at Bethlehem 
two days later. The tollowing notice appears in connection with his. 
burial upon the Moravian record : "He served the congregation and 
surrounding neighbourhood ior thirty-six years with great faithfulness, 
by the Lord's help performed many difficult cures, and was held in high 
regard." (See Transactions of the Moravian Historical Society, vol.. 
iv. part 2, pp. 62-64 ; also Memorials of the Moravian Church, vol. i.) 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Seal of the American 
Philosophical Society. 

member of the American Philosophical Society, who 
addressed a " Memoir on the 
Discovery of America" to the 
•Society in 1786 through its 
President, Dr. Benjamin 
Franklin, in which he boldly 
set forth the claims of Martin 
Behaim of Niimberg, as a par- 
taker in the discovery of 
America.^ This paper was 
published in the "Transactions" of the Society,'^ and 
attracted great attention at home and abroad. It re- 
sulted in other investigators of greater and lesser 
degree taking up the study. 

Prominent among scholars who have given their 
attention to the subject are to be found the names of 
Baron Alexander von Humboldt, Doctor F. W. 
Ghillany, City librarian of Niimberg, Doctor Sophus 
Ruge, of Dresden, Doctor D. Th. Scliott, of Stuttgart, 
the exhaustive ''''Fest Schrift " of the city of Hamburg, 
two volumes quarto, published in commemoration of 
the discovery of America by L. Friederichsen, (Ham- 

^ In this paper Dr. Otto closely followed the argument of Wagenseil, 
Altdorf, 1682. {Magenseilii Sacra par entalia B. Georgia Frid. Behaimo 
■dicata, p.i6 etc.) See also Humboldt, Kritische Uftiersuchungen, vol. i, 
pp. 220-224 ; and Stiivenio Jo: Friderico, De Vero Novi Orbis Inventori, 
Dissertatio Historico-critica. Francofurti ad 3Toe?i7int, Apud Domini- 
€am a Sande Anno, mdccxiv, 8vo. (Copy in Carter Brown Library.) 

3 Transactions, American Philosophical Society vol. ii, 1786, pp. 263- 
284. Memoir on the Discovery ot America. (Reprinted London 1787. 
4to. ) A refutation of Dr. Otto's Memoir appeared in the Me^norial literar- 
10 {Madrid, 1788, e7i la Imprenta Real, Jul. p. 1784.) See V. Murr- p. 65. 

New History of Pennsylvania, 


burg, 1892) and finally Dr. Konrad Kretschmer's 
monumental work, with its grand atlas of fac-simile 
plates, which forms a fitting tribute from the German 
Empire of to-day to the quadri-centennial of Colum- 
bus's initial voyage/ 

What has been said with reference to the history of 
America in general applies with equal force to that of 
our own Commonwealth, the greatest upon the west- 
em hemisphere from an industrial point of view, and 
which, of all the numerous political divisions came 
the nearest to being a German one. 

To clear up this lamentable state of ignorance and 
perverted history, at least so far 
as our own Commonwealth of 
Pennsylvania is concerned, the 
Pennsylvania-German Society, 
which is composed of men born 
in Pennsylvania of German de- 
scent, has decreed the compila- 
tion of a new and critical history 
of the Commonwealth. Each di- 
vision or section is to be contrib- 
uted by a member who has made 
some particular epoch in our his- 
tory a special subject for study. 
In the carrying out of this laud- 
able project, the writer has been requested to con- 
tribute a paper, which is to form the introductory 

Insignia of the Pennsyl 
vania-German Society. 

* Festschrift der Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde zu Berlin zur 400 Jtihrigen 
Feir der Endeckung Americas. 

38 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

chapter of tlie new work. The tlieme given him is : 
"The Fatherland," showing the part it bore in the 
discovery, exploration and development of the West- 
em Continent. 

Now to comply with this task, I propose to go back 
to the pre-Columbian period, and in a concise manner 
to trace the political, social, commercial and religious 
changes from the time the Turk first obtained a foot- 
hold on European soil down to the period when Ben- 
jamin Furly, as William Penn's trusted agent at 
Rotterdam, turned the stream of German emigration 
Pennsylvania-wards,^ a movement which resulted in 
the settlement of so large a portion of this fair 
province by our ancestry, where the various races 
united, settled, intermarried, and brought forth that 
sturdy race known all over this country for their in- 
dustry, intelligence and thrift, — the "Pennsylvania- 

I will also show you, in the course of my essay, 
how it was that nautical instruments, the result of 
German ingenuity, made it possible for the Genoese 
sailor to launch out beyond the sight of shore and 
traverse the wide ocean and the Sargasso sea, until he 
dropped anchor beside land which he imagined to be 
an outlying part of Asia. 

Then as to the early settlement of the country, if 
the proper records could be found, they would show 
without a doubt that a number of the early naviga- 

5 See Penna. Mag. of History and Biography, vol. xix, pp. 277-305 ; 
also German Pietists of Pennsylvania, pp. 433 et seq. 

The First Fruiter in America. 39 

tors were Germans*' whose identity is now concealed 
under a Latinized or Hispanicized name, and that 
German industry and enterprise were well repre- 
sented in both sections of the hemisphere. 

As an illustration at this point I will merely touch 
upon two incidents : 

Firstly, to tell you that, the first printer to embark 
for the new world was a German, who left Europe in 
1534) liis destination being an established German 
colony in America. This was fully six years prior 
to the venture of Jakob Cromberger, (Corumberger) 
also a German, to whom is usually accorded the 
honor of having introduced the art of printing into 
the western world. The oldest known specimen from 
the Cromberger press, a '^Mamial de Adicltos^'^ bears 
the imprint 1540, ^^en la gran ciudad de Mexico. . . . 
En Casa de Juajn Cromberger^^^ a fac-simile of 
which is here reproduced. 

His second work, "An account of the great Earth- 
quake in Guatemala," bears the legend 'Fmpresa en 
casa de Juani Cromberger^ ^54^-^^ 

Secondly, let me ask how many students of Ameri- 
can lore are aware that in the earliest days of our 
history, for a term of twenty years and over, one of 
the choicest portions of Spain's continental posses- 
sions in America was controlled, governed, settled, 

6 Several German Jews are known to have been with Columbus, on' 
his first voyage. They were taken as interpreters, and in addition to the 
European tongues were versed in Hebrew, Chaldaic and Arabic. See 
Weltanschaungdes Columbus, (Dresden 1876,) p. 21; also Die Endeckung: 
Amerikas (Munich, 1S59,) p. 79. 

40 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 




SBiplKif decree^ Udic modoQafc^acut^ 
addo^tuirogame^ pftilabundepiue* 

C3«i pjimiofe efle jQ^nual oe ^duUo0 en !fl gra ciut)a&5 
poedia nueiia iEfpana 12 a fu0 eirpcfastcn ca fa 6%9 iIrom# 
ber^cr.glno 61 nacimlcto 6miearo fenozjefu Clpj/to 6mill 
tqumi5t09tcsuaf€ta.® ♦piij.Oiaadl mea o IDejiebic* 

Fac-Simile of the Earliest American Imprint Known. 

Arms of Pennsylvania. 


explored and developed by Germans and under Ger- 
man supervision. Yet sucH is an historical fact, as I 
shall proceed to prove, not only to your satisfaction, 
but also, I trust to that of other critics. 

Arms of the State of Pennsylvania. 


>27 SURVEY of the 
y^fj political situation of 
coutiuental Europe at the 
middle of the XVth cen- 
tury, presents a condition 
of comparative peace. 
Frederick III of the Aus- 
trian dynasty of Haps- 
burg, and the last em- 
peror who was crowned at 
Rome, was on the Imper- 
ial throne of Germany ; 
Coustantine II was upon the Imperial throne of the 
eastern Empire at Constantinople. Thomas di Sar- 
zano (Parentucelli) as Nicolas VI, occupied the Papal 
Chair at Rome. Charles VII was the acknowledged 
ruler of France; Henry VI was king of England. 
The first Christian held sway over Denmark, Norway 
and Oldenburg ; Casimir III was king of Poland ; 

Arms of the Holy Roman Kmpire. 

Social Conditions of Germany. 43 

James II' ruled Scotland; and in the far East, 
Molianimed II succeeded Amurat as Sultan of the 

As to the social conditions of Germany during this 
period, the chief aims of the German nation at large 
were the extension of their commerce, a revival of 
learning,^^ and a release from narrow bonds, both re- 
ligious and political. Two great factors appear op- 
portunel}^ at this time, to aid them in their efforts 
toward the coveted ends viz, : — the invention of 
printing,' and the improvements in making paper.^ 

It was in the year 1455 that Gutenberg completed 
his first great work. The effect of this invention was 

«» It was about this time that the first mention of private schools 
appears in German History. These schools were separate and distinct 
from the various Kloster-Schuhn and were established by the laity, who 
engaged teachers, not in monastic orders. Vide Beitrdge zur Geschichte 
des Schidzuesetis. Von Julius Hans. Zeit SchriJ't des Historischen 
Vereinsfur Schwaben und Newburg, vol. ii, p. loi, etc. 

' The invention of printing, as we now use the term, dates from 
the discovery and use of movable wooden and metal types by the Ger- 
mans Gutenberg, Faust and Schoffer (1440-1460) during which years 
the Bible was printed by them and the proi;ess of casting type was per- 
fected. For earlier attempts at printing, see Knight's Mechanical 
Dictionary, pp. 1789, etc. Article Printing. The Chinese invented print- 
ing some 900 years before the Germans, and their art was described in 
Persian books. Had these books reached Europe earlier than they did, 
we should have learnt to print from the Chinese, instead of having to 
invent it for ourselves. 

8 The improvement in the making of paper here alluded to consisted 
in the use of linen rags for the purpose, and a method for pulping the 
fiber by beating. The first paper-mill in Europe for making paper from 
linen rags was established at Niirnberg in Germany by Ulman Strother as 
early as 1390. This mill was operated by two rollers, which set in 
motion eighteen stampers, a method which continued in use for over 
four centuries. 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

a widespread one, and was not confined by tlie bounds 
of the Fatberland, but rapidly extended into adjoin- 
ing countries, wbere in every case it was introduced 
by German craftsmen. 

Gutenberg's invention was more than a mere 
mechanical triumph. It caused 
a rent in the veil of ignorance, 
so great that it was forever torn 
asunder, and opened to the 
average man the field of learn- 
ing and literature, as at the 
same time it sealed the downfall 

Gutenberg Press. of mOUaStic and ScholaStic CX- 

clusiveness forever. 

How important a factor Germany was in the sub- 
sequent enlightening of the world, is shown by the 
fact that the earliest printing-presses in every coun- 
try were manipulated by German craftsmen. Kven 
the first English book, Caxton's The Recuyell of the 
Histories of Troy, was first printed upon a German 
press, by German printers and upon German soil.^ 

Various organizations or leagues of the larger 
communities or cities had sprung into existence from 
time to time, having for their object a betterment of 
the condition of the educated classes, and mutual 
protection against the oppression and exactions of 
the nobility. One of the noted examples of this 
movement was the establishment of that dreaded 

^ A folio printed at Cologne, in 1471, at the request of Margaret of 
York, the wife of Charles the duke of Burgundy. 




The Vehni-Gericht. 45: 

secret Tribunal in Westphalia, known as the Vehm- 
gericht/*' before whose mandates even the most un- 
scrupulous nobles were apt to quail. 

The most powerful organization, however, a 
strictly commercial one, and the most widespread 
and firmly united one in the old world of which we- 
have any record, — was the Hanseatic League, ^^ which 
virtually dates back to the middle of the Xlllth cen- 
tury. This was a commercial alliance or union be- 
tween certain cities of Germany for the extension of 
their trade and for its protection, not only against 
freebooters at sea, but against government exactions, 
demands of petty rulers, and the rapacity of the rob- 
ber barons. Other objects of this celebrated league- 

^o The Vehm-gericht i Femgericht or Fem-court) was a criminal court, 
of Germany in the Middle Ages, which took the place of the regular 
administration of justice (then fallen into decay) especially in criminal 
cases. These courts originated and had their chief jurisdiction in 
Westphalia, and their proceedings were conducted with the utmost 
secrecy. This system of secret tribunals was most terrible to noble- 
malefactors during the 14th and 15th centuries. The last general Vehm- 
gericht was held at Zell, in the year 1568. 

^^ The Hanseatic League dates from the middle of the 13th century. 
A confederacy was formed of the cities ot Hamburg and Liibeck, to mu- 
tually defend each other against all violence, and particularly against the 
attacks of the nobles This confederacy was shortly joined by other 
German cities, until the League consisted of no less than eighty-five 
cities and communities. About the same time four great factories or 
depots were established in foreign countries: at London, in 1220 ; at. 
Bruges, in 1252 ; at Novgorod, in 1272 ; and at Bergen, in 1278. Diets, 
were held at stated intervals by the League, which exercised judicial 
power at home and a strict discipline over its connections abroad. The 
laws prescribed to the agents of the English fur companies in America, 
such as the Hudson Bay Company, were patterned after those of the- 
Hanseatic factories. The last Diet of the Hansa was held at Liibeck im 
1630, when the old confederation was dissolved. 


The Pennsylvania-Gervian Society. 

were the prevention of piracy and shipwreck, the in- 

■•crease of agricultural 

Hanseatic Arms. 

j)roducts, a develop- 
ment of the fisheries, 
the mining industry 
and the manufactures 
of Germany ;^^ in fact, 
-everything calculated 
to increase the wealth 
and importance of the 

One of the chief re- 
-sults of the wise policy 
■pursued by the Han- 
seatic League was the fact that everywhere through- 
out the known world the German merchants and 
traders became famous for their probity and enter- 
prise. The influence of the League extended to 
Kngland, Sweden, Russia and the lesser countries ; 
.and by the perfection of its organization and co-oper- 
ation with the Venetians, the merchants of Germany 
at the period under consideration may be said to have 
'Controlled the trade of Europe, if not of the world. ^^ 

It is true that the Venetians and Genoese had a 
"monopoly of the Mediterranean and Oriental trade, 
:.and virtually controlled Constantinople, then still the 
capital of the tottering Byzantine empire, and, like 
Alexandria, one of the great centres for East Indian 

"'^Robertson's India (London, 1791,) p. 120. 
■^■' Ibid. 

German Commercial E^iterprise. 


'The Steel-yard" Warehouses of the German Merchants in London, 
IN XVI Century. 

IlANSii^ATic Arms. 
(Bergen, Norway.) 

products. But it must 
not be overlooked that 
a continuance of their 
commercial prosperity 
depended almost en- 
tirely upon the Ger- 
man nation and Han- 
seatic League. It was 
from the mines in 
northern Germany 
whence came the gold 
and silver needed for 
their barter with 


The Pennsylvania-Gennan Society. 

India/* while the Hansa distributed the goods thus 
obtained ; first by land carriage, and again reshipping 
them from nothern ports. Then in return the 
Hansa supplied the Venetians and Genoese with the 
naval stores needed to build and maintain their fleet 
upon the Mediterranean. 

Such was the condition of Continental Europe fifty 
years prior to the ad- 
vent of the Columbian 
era ; — c omparative 
quiet reigned over the 
major part of the land ; 
manufacturers and 
commerce flourished ; 
wealth was accumu- 
lated by legitimate 
means ; and the mer- 
chant and patrician, 
and not the feudal 
baron, were the mighty 
power throughout the land. 

Scarcely, however, had the century passed into its 
latter half, when a disturbing element appeared on 

Hanseatic Arms. 
(CoMToiR AT Bruges.) 

" Robertson's India, p. 120. The gold and silver mines in the var' 
ious provinces ot Germany were the most valuable and productive of 
any known at that time in Europe. See Zimmermann's Political Survey 
of Europe, p. 102. The prosperity ol these mines, mainly in the vicinity 
of Freiberg, continued until the influx of American silver from Mexico 
caused the price of silver to fall so low that the German mines ceased ta 
be productive. This misfortune was hastened by the numerous wars, 
notably that known as the Thirty Years' War. See Festschrift zum 100- 
jilhrigen Jubilaeum der Koniglichen Berg Academie zu Freiberg, 1S66. 

Mohammed II. (The Great). 
Born, 1430. Died, 1481. 

The Capture of Constantinople. 49 

the Bosphorus, which was destined to affect the 
whole political situation of Europe, and at the same 
time bring about the greatest changes in commercial 
circles, — an event which stimulated a series of voy- 
ages and eventually led to the discovery of the West- 
ern world. 

This event was the capture of Constantinople, 
after a heroic defence under the German Germani- 
cus^^ by the Sultan Mohammed 11^^ in 1453, whereby 
the Turk not only obtained a foothold in Europe, but 
was at the same time in a position to control the 
most lucrative trade of the Mediterranean/' 

The immediate effect of this Moslem occupation, 
so far as we are concerned, was two-fold : firstly, the 
expulsion, by the Turks, of the Grecian scholars 
who fled to Italy and Germany, and there obtained a 
foot-hold in the various universities of the two coun- 
tries, bringing about, as we all know, the Renais- 

1^ Johannes Germanicus (Johann der Deutsche,) a German soldier and 
scientist, who was the engineer in charge of the defences of Constanti- 
nople during this memorable siege. He successfully defended the sea 
approaches by aid of a monster chain, and by countermines foiled the 
Turks in their attempts to blow up the walls of the city. It was by the 
ingenuity of this brave German that the breaches made by day were 
successfully repaired by night, and for so many days the Cross defied 
the Crescent. 

18 Mahomet II, emperor of the Turks, succeeded his father Amurath 
in 1451. He was a warrior and religious fanatic. He had sworn to ex- 
terminate the Christian religion ; and in attempting to carry out his oath 
he subdued two empires, twelve tributar>^ kingdoms, and 200 towns, 
and was preparing to subjugate Italy when he died in 1481 after 
a reign of 31 years. His death caused a rejoicing throughout the 
whole Christian world. 

" Robertson's India, p. 128. 


The Pennsylvania-Ger7nan Society. 

sance and the Reformation. Secondly, tlie capture 
of Constantinople effected the expulsion of the 

Genoese from the Le- 
va n t ; a circumstance 
which while it proved 
the downfall of Genoa 
as a commercial centre, 
was yet destined to in- 
crease the influence, com- 
merce and wealth of its 
rivals, the Venetians, 
who, by greater foresight 
or good fortune, had se- 
cured favorable treaties with the Sultan of Egypt, 
and became for the time being masters of the Medi- 
terranean and of the commerce of the Indies. 

The fortunes of the Venetians were so closely al- 
lied with those of the German merchants and Hansa, 
which united the north and south of Europe in com- 
mercial bonds^^ that German mercantile circles ex- 
perienced an equal era of prosperity with their as- 
sociates of Venice/* Great fortunes were amassed 
by some of the German mercantile towns and their 
citizens."" A notable instance was that of the city of 
Augsburg, the Augusta Vindelicorum of old, whose 

Arms of Genoa, A. D. 1450. 

18 Robertson's India, p. 125. Robertson says : "In some cities of Ger. 
many, particularly Augsburg, the great mart for Indian commodities in 
the interior parts of that extensive country, we meet with early ex- 
amples of such large fortunes accumulated by mercantile industry as 
raised the proprietors of them to high rank and consideration in the 

13 Ibid, p. 125. 

Augusta Vindelicorum. 


magnificent Town. 
hall with its golden 
ceil i n g ,^^ is still 
shown to attest its 
former greatness and 
commercial glory. 

The great fortunes 
amassed by the Ven- 
etians^" naturally ex- 
cited the envy and 
jealousy of other 
maritime nations, 
and the f ab u lous 
riches of the Indies 

formed the chief 

Escutcheon of the Republic of Venice. 

dream of the various rulers of countries bordering 
upon the seas. This feeling was heightened by the 

^° The most prominent among these merchants were the establish- 
ments of the "Welser-Geselschaft" and the firm of Raimund and Anton; 

" The Golden HalL ( Golden Saal) of the Rathhaus at Augsburg is still 
shown as one' of the town sights. This hall, the second story of the 
Rathhaus, is a large room 32.65 metres long, 17.33 metres wide, and 
14.22 metres high. It is lighted by no less than sixty windows. Its 
chief beauty consists in the fine panelled ceiling, richly carved and 
heavily gilded. It is also embellished with numerous symbolical and 
allegorical paintings. This ceiling is so called a flying ceiling, being 
suspended from the roof-timbers by heavy chains. Many fine paintings 
and relics are to be seen in the Saal and the four Furstenzimmer adjoin- 

^^ Towards the end of the fifteenth century, Venice was the richest and 
most honored community in Europe. It exercised a powerful influence 
in the commercial as well as in the political world ; and it may be well, 
said that her inhabitants comprised the most civilized people on earthy. 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

glowing accounts o f 
Cathay and the Island 
of Zipango related by- 
Marco Polo,^'^ fragment- 
ary extracts of which 
appeared and were cir- 
culated in manuscript 
even before the art of 
printing was dis- 

One of the chief 
aims of all navigators 
was to find a way to 
reach by water, the Kl-Dorado described by Marco 
Polo. The great obstacle in the way, however, of 
maritime exploration was the lack of any method 
by which the navigator could tell where he was 

Hanseatic Arms. 
(Novgorod Russia.) 

among whom flourished all the arts and sciences. The wealth accumu- 
lated by some of her citizens was phenomenal, and was approached only 
•by that of a few German merchants, who were in contact with both the 
Genoese and the Hansa. 

^^ Marco Polo, the celebrated traveller, was the son of a Venetian mer- 
•chant, who, with his brother, had penetrated to the court of Kublai, the 
great Khan of the Tartars. This prince sent them back as his ambassa- 
dors to the Pope. Shortly afterwards the two brothers, accompanied by 
two missionaries and the young Marco, returned to Tartary, and re- 
mained there for seventeen years, visiting China, Japan, several of the 
East Indian islands, Madagascar and the coast of Africa. The three 
Venetians returned to their native country in 1295, with immense wealth. 
Marco afterwards served in the wars against the Genoese, and being 
taken prisoner, remained many years in confinement, the tedium ot 
which he beguiled by composing the history of the travels of his father 
and himself under the title of ''Delle Maraviglie del Mo7tdo da liii 
veduie, &c." He ultimately regained his liberty; but of his subsequent 
iiistory nothing is known. 


"Fra Mauro's 
Weltkarte Ton ItoD. 

LH.i^emuaaristab noars 






Die Oriivth'uny ifc^- Orufxyols uT um/ek'i>7t . 
y^hn uulm, ia],rr m J„.«-rmr?lSXii7'ir/ 
^cm.chUn ropu- Ar Contuurrn ytrioc re 

,UsOrin,ualsuurahuUch ,/W die 
Sttidli' Ml Still/- dtr]MKIiecttriictitli 
Zrirhiniii^cn ,tes Origtitnlsdui-di Sifl- 


Regiomontamis. 53 

when out of siglit of land. This problem was not 
solved until the German mathematician, Johannes 
Miiller (Regiomontanus)"* of Konigsberg, calcu- 
lated his Ephemerides,^ and Martin Behaim of 
Niimberg, perfected the astrolabe. ^^ 

This brings us down to the last quarter of the 
XVth century. Portugal, under the wise reign of 
Henry, the Navigator,had gradually forged its way into 
the foremost rank of sea-faring nations, and was now 

23a Marco Polo's Travels, a folio edition ot this work was published in 
German at Niirnberg by Fritz Creusner as early as 1477. This was foL 
lowed by another edition by Anton Sorg, at Augsburg, 1481. 

'^* Regiomontanus, (Camillus Johannes Miiller) b. at Konigsberg, 
Franconia, in 1436. He studied at Leipsic, and then placed himself 
under Purbachius, professor of mathematics at Vienna. Later he be- 
came one of the most noted astronomers and mathematicians ol his day. 
In 1471-1475 he sojourned at Niirnberg, where he built an observatory 
and established a printing-press, both under the patronage and by the 
aid of a wealthy patrician named Bernhard Walther, the local representa- 
tive of the celebrated Welser firm of Augsburg. Here Regiomontanus 
printed the first German Almanac in 1474, calculated for the year 1476; 
the price for which was twelve golden gulden each. But five copies are 
known at the present day. His most important contribution to science 
was the publication of his astronomical observations, 1475-1506, under 
the title Ephemerides or Nautical Almanac. Notwithstanding the high 
price of twelve ducats per copy, the edition was soon exhausted. Among 
his many works, the most valuable are: Calendariwn ; De Refonnatione 
Calefidarii ; Tabula magna prima Mobilis ; De Covietce Magnitudine 
Longitudineque ; De Triangulis. He also simplified the astrolabe and 
the meteroscope, and suggested various instruments for the use of navi- 
gators. Regiomontanus died in 1476 by poison administered by a 
jealous scientist. 

^^ Ephemerides, in astronomy, a collection of tables showing the 
present state of the heavens for every day at noon ; that is, the places 
wherein all the planets or heavenly orbs are found at that time. 

■■** An instrument formerly used for taking the altitude of the sun or 
stars at sea. The instrument by that name used by the ancients was 
similar to the modern armillary sphere. 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

under the sway of King John II, an enlight- 
ened Prince who 
planned new expedi- 
tions of discovery to 
sail south along the 
western coast of 
Africa.^^ These ven- 
tures, in which the 
German merchants and 
the Hansa were well 
represented b y men, 
vessels , and ship 
stores,"^ were conducted 
with ardor and scien- 
tific method. 

To improve the study astrolabe of the ancients. 
of navigation, King John established, prior to 1481, 
the celebrated Junta de Mathematicos^ a board or 
commission of scientific men to examine the different 
nautical instruments, almanacs, calculations and 
maps of the period, and report upon their utility. 

This commission consisted of Don Diego Ortiz, 
Bishop of Ceuta and Calcadilha,^^ together with 

*' The chief rulers of Europe at that period were: Friedrich III, Em. 
peror of Germany; Alexander VI, Pope; Ferdinand and Isabella, Spain, 
Naples and Sicily ; Charles VIII, France ; Henry VII, England ; Jo- 
hannes Albertus, Poland ; James IV, Scotland ; Vladislaus, Hungary 
and Bohemia ; Bajazet II, Sultan of Turkey ; Johannes, Denmark and 

28 Kunstmann, Deutsche in Portugal. (Miinchen)— Ruge Endeckungs- 
geschichte der Neuen Welt, pp. 33-34. (Hamburg 1892.) 

28 Don Diego Ortiz was Bishop of Ceuta, but by contemporary writers 

The Jiinia dc Mathcmaticos. 


the king's two physicians in ordinary, Rodrigo^" 

and Josef Judio (an 
Israelite) and the 
German cosmog- 
rapher, Martin Be- 
haim,^"* a pupil of 
Reg iomontanus, 
whose reputation as 
a mathematician and 
astronomer had pre- 
ceded him. The 
three latter were 

Royal Arms of Portugal. 

is usually called Doctor Calcadilha, as he was a native of Calcadilha in 
Galizia. It was he who, after Rodrigo and Josef had officially de- 
nounced Columbus's scheme as a negocio fabuloso, advised King John II, 
to secretly avail himself of the scheme disclosed by Columbus. Hum- 
boldt, vol. i, p. 232. 

'" Evidently Maestre Rodrigo Faleiro or Falero, an astronomer ot 
note. Barrow Voyages, &c. London, 181S, p. 28. 

^"^ Martin Behaim (Behain or Beheim, Martin von Bohmen, Martinus- 
Bohemus, M. Boheimo, Martin de Bohemia), the celebrated German 
cosmographer, was a member of the ancient Bohemian family ot 
Schwarzbach, and was born at Niirnberg, according to some writers in 
the year 1430, but more probably in 1436 (according to Navarrete, the 
same year in which Columbus was born.) According to Humboldt he 
was a descendant of Matthias Behaim, who in 1343 made the first MS. 
translation of the Bible into the German language (copy still preserved 
at Leipzig) and of Michael Baheim, one of the noted Meistersiinger in 
1421. Little is known of Behaim's youth. He appears to have been in 
the cloth trade, and in the interests of his house travelled to Venice in 
1457. In i477''79 we find him in Mechelen. Antwerp and Vienna 
(Regiomontanus sojourned in Niirnberg, 1471-1475.) From 1480 to 1484, 
we find Behaim at Lisbon, where Columbus then was. In i486 to 1490, 
he was at Fayal, and there married the daughter of Stadthalter Jobst 
von Hurter (Jobst Dutra) who was governor of the Flemish colony 
there. He returned to Niirnberg, 1491-1493, where he constructed his 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

constituted a sub-committee with the special injunc- 

t i o n to discover 
of navigating the 
the altitude of the 
struments suitable 
It was upon this 

Commercial Seal 
OF Martin Behaim 

some sure method 
seas according to 
sun^^ and construct 
and nautical in- 
for the purpose.^^ 
occasion that Be- 

haim brought to the notice of the Portuguese the 
celebrated calculations and tables of his former tutor, 
Regiomontanus,^^ which had been printed at Niirn- 
berg as early as 1474.^^^ He also here produced his 
improved astrolabe,^ which was of metal, and could 
be attached in a vertical position to the main-mast of 
a vessel.^ This was the first application of the 

famous Globe. In 1494, he went to France, and thence to Fayal, where 
he appears to have remained until 1506. Returning to Lisbon, he died 
there, July 29, 1507. 

^^ Dr. Sophus Ruge, Geschichte des Zeitalters der Endeckungen, 
(Berlin, 1881,) p. 98. Also Ghillany, Geschichte des Seefahrers Ritter, 
Martin Behaim, (Niirnberg 1853,) p. 53. 

^^ Der verdienst Martin Baheim, (Dresden 1866,) p. 59. 

^^ Von Murr, (Diplomatische Geschichte) questions the statement that 
Behaim was a scholar of either Regiomontanus or Bercalden, but is 
forced to acknowledge that he was well versed in mathematics and the 
science of navigation before he came to Lisbon, and that so far history 
is correct in stating that the fortunate discovery of application of the 
Astrolabe to navigation gave him the reputation of a leading cosmog- 
rapher (v. Murr, pp. 68-69.) 

'^» The first edition of Regiomontanus's German Almanac was printed 
from wooden blocks. In later editions, printed in both German and 
Latin, and in his Ephemerides in 1475, moveable types were used. 
Gelcich, "Losung der Behaim Frage'' (Hamb. Festschrift, vol. i, p. 74.) 

^* Die Verdienste Martin Behaim, (Dresden, 1866,) p. 61. 

'^ See Die wissenschaftliche Bedeutung des Regiomontanus (Dresden, 
1866,) p. 63; also Humboldt, Ex. Critique, vol. i, pp. 234-5. 



(born I'fZQ, DIED JULY Z9, 1506.) 

The Astrolabe of Behaim. 


portable astrolabe to navigation, and together witH 

tbe Jacobstaff,'^^ also 
introduced by B e - 
bairn, ^^ taught the 
sea-farer how to dis- 
cover the position of 
a vessel at sea with- 
out the use of the 
magnetic needle, and 
long and intricate 
calculations. It was 
the introduction of 
these nautical in- 
struments into Port- 
ugal,^ together with 

Portable Astrolabe OF Martin Behaim. \\\p. foKlpc nf T^PCrin- 

montanus which gave the navigators of that land so 

^^* Gelcich, in his "Losung der Behaim Frage," states : 

"Es wird sich moglicherweise herausstellen, dass der deutsche Fach- 
mann, wenn nicht durch Einfiihning des Jakobsstabes, so doch in 
anderer Weise, zu den schon angefiihrten noch wesentliche Dienste der 
SchiflTahrt leistete" Hamburger Festschrift, vol. i. 

^® According to Fournier, (Hydryographie, ed. 1643) the Junto and 
more especially Behaim in the first instance, improved the nautical in- 
struments of the period by the introduction of smaller portable astro- 
labes, and by furnishing mariners with tables of the sun's declination. 
Upon referring to any date these tables would furnish the requisite data, 
to obtain which it was formerly necessary to enter into long and difficult 

^■^ Shortly after the formation of the Junto de Mathematicos, Martin 
Behaim was commissioned to return to his native city of Niirnberg, and 
have the necessary nautical instruments made, and to obtain a number 
of copies of Regiomontanus's new Ephemerides. Upon his return to 
Portugal he was sent with Cao as cosmographer, to submit the new in' 
struments to a practical test. (Ruge, Hamburg, 1892.) 

58 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

great an advantage over tlieir rivals.^^ Colum- 
bus, who was at that time a resident of Lisbon,^^ 
was well acquainted with the German Behaim 
and bis mathematical research ; and it is an un- 
questionable fact that the success of the Portuguese in 
discovering the Atlantic Islands, and of Behaim's 
voyage down the African coast,*° sustained Columbus 

The Jacobstaff. 

in the hope of western discovery, if indeed it had not 
instigated him.'^^ 

Leaving out all claims that Martin Behaim had 
made any previous voyage to America,*^ and confining 

38 According to Humboldt (Examen Critiqued the Astrolabe of Behaim 
was a simplification of or improvement of the meteoroscope of Regio" 

39 According to Dr. Ruge, Columbus first proposed his voyage ot 
western discovery to King John of Portugal, about the year 1483, when 
his proposition was laid before the Commission de Mathematicos who 
reported adversely. The king, however, notwithstanding their report, 
was inclined to enter into the scheme of Columbus, had not the extra- 
ordinary demands made by the latter in the event of success precluded 
him from entering into negotiations so exacting with one who was a 
poor and unknown foreigner. (Zeitalter der Endeckung, pp. 231-2.) 

" See Behaim's Entdeckungs-Reise an der Afrikanischen Kiiste mit 
Diogo Cao. (Ghillany, Geschichte, etc., pp. 41-51-) 

" See Winsor, vol. ii, p. 35 ; Humboldt, Cosmos, English translation, 
vol. ii. p. 662. 

*^ The claim of Martin Behaim rests upon a page in the Latin text of 
the Niirnberg Chronicle, which states that Cao and Behaim having 

German Ingeiinity. 


Method for Using the Jacobstaff. 
(From Cosmographia Petri Apiani et Genomae Frisii. Antwp. 1584.) 

myself to incontrovertible facts alone, it will be seen 
that when finally the dream of Columbus was real- 
ized, under the patronage of Ferdinand and Isabella, 
it was made possible only by the aid of three great 

passed the Equator, turned west and (by implication) found land, and 
thus discovered America. This claim, in the light of modern investiga- 
tion, is not substantiated, as the passage referred to does not appear in 
the German edition of the same year ; and on reference to the manu- 
script of the book (still preserved in Niirnberg) the passage is found to 
be an interpolation written in a different hand. It seems likely to have 
been a perversion or misinterpretation of the voyage of Diego Cao down 
the African coast in 1489, wherein he was accompanied by Behaim. 
That Behaim himself did not put the claim forward, at least in 1492, 
seems to be clear from the globe, which he made in that year, and 
which shows no indication of such a voyage. 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

J- > 

< <& 

a a 

^ t: 
o !3 

Q "S 

Q g 

Sailing Craft of the Period. 


factors, all of German origin : ^'^ The astrolabe of 
Behaim, the mariner's compass from the old German 
town of Niirnberg, and the Bphemerides of Joseph 

Sea-Going Vessel, at Close of XV Century. 

It is not known to a certainty whether there were 
any German adventurers in the original Columbus 

*^ As a matter of fact, all the great navigators, Columbus, Gama, 
Magalhaens, owe their success to the improved German instruments of 
navigation. (Ruge, Berlin, iSSi, p. io6.) 


The Pemisylvania-Gernian Society. 

expedition or not/^ Of the many private expeditions, 
however, whicli left Spain ^'^ and Portugal after the 
year 1495, the greater number were either projected 
or fitted out by the merchants of Germany or the 
Hanseatic League, and German adventurers bore no 
minor part. 

It is a curious fact that both Columbus and Ves- 
pucci should die without knowing that they had dis- 
covered a new hemisphere ; — both lived and died in 
the firm belief that they had but found the extreme 
eastern point of Asia. 

^ See foot note No. 6 supra. 
^* Winsor, vol. ii, p 132. 

Compass "Rose" ®n de la Cosa's Map, 
A. D. 1500. 


YirrcY ^' Ck)vci ludoi 

/)/ L JLIR OCCE ^yO. 
Gener;\l de h^lh^i^, 
^ CoiKjuiihidor- 




fj^ HE earliest pub- 

^ lished account of 
Columbus's initial voy- 
age was a pamphlet 
containing the letter of 
Columbus sent, in 
March, 1493, to the 
royal treasurer, Raph- 
ael Sanchez.'^^ It was 
almost immediately 
translated from Span- 
arms of Columbus. ish iuto Latin by the 

learned Aliander de Cosco, and printed and circulated 
by the German printers, Frank Silber in Rome, and 
Ungut and Pohle, in Seville,'*'^ by express permission 
of Pope Alexander. Four years later it was trans- 
lated into German, and printed at Strasburg by 
Bartolemaus Kiistler ; the title and imprint are here 
reproduced in fac-simile. The curious Avoodcut upon 
the title shows the risen Christ appearing before the 
king of Spain and his suite. The Lord points to 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

^n fcfofi'^iibfc^lcfcn von etUc^ett mjSteii 
9ie ?p in f urnen 5ften funbcn ff no^iilurc^c 
fiintg von ^ifpatuj^vnio fa^t vo gco^ea wurt 
t)ctUc9m^mgen ^le in*de /clbc uij5lcn fyn&» 

ju^Inh^no ifl crctoa wnj cin a /f ccr ^ar ju Gefer3ct/i!kK<> ^e 
Tfit) C6 ^tolomcue vnD^tc^t)€rcrt mnftet ^cr cafnrogtap^i 
l€rentrrtt>fcf>iibenr.vr'an'?cre6(iuit)cri()iit*^er/"c^nbef ee ee 
T?o: "^ar too gcfc^abcn ift vron)en.vnt)^cm funigouc^ '^jtra 
gefcic i/^ wojoen^vf e'^os ct gcfancf ifl wo2X)cn% ju crfarcTu 

•ir^rttticff 5« flru^urgvff griiitccf v5 rnci|?et ©artlomcf 
foftler rm. iav»Q3tCCCC;;cv«,vff f^nt Jeronrmue ug. 

Reduced Fac-Simile of Title Page and Colophon 
Of the Earliest German Broadside Anuounciug the Discovery ot America- 
Original in the Royal Library at Munich. 

ff (f pli^ota €brfff ofbi! €ci!om i ck! ffcienofira ?mi!m dcbat 6t 
Jofulie'JmJif fopia 0angem nuper Inomtie^Bd qiue perqui/ 
rcndaeoctauo antea mmft aufpfd/e t fit mut'ctiflTimt f cmani 
di "Difpamarum'Kegia mHTus ftjcratjad CDsgniftcum dftm "Ra 
pbadcm 09nrie:riufdcm fcitniffimi TUgie ^Tcfaurariu miffat 
qiiamnobifiQ aclittcrame rtr Sliandcrd«<2forco abtHfpanp 
idwmatc in latinum conacrtlf : tmio kafe 07ajj»$D»cccc'jrcUi« 
pomiftcanjeSIcjeandri Sejti Bnno pdmo. 

QUonf an J fufceptf pjoalnrf f rem pcrfatam me cSfccutum 
fijfffc gramm ribi fbzc fdo: baa conftituf crarare: qo? re 
rrtiufcuiufc^rd in bocnofb-o irtnerc gertr? inucntfc^ ad/ 
moncartt: Kr'tcdimorcrtlodiepofl^ (Sadibusdifccffi in mare 
^ndjcu penjeni:rbi plurimae infulae inniunerts babitatae bot 
minibus repperitquarum omnium pio fochcifTmo "Rcge noftro 
p!f conio celebiaro i rejillie extcnfxo contradiccnre neminc pof/ 
rdTlonemaccfpi.-pMmfcpcanjmdiui SaluaroM'enomcn fmpo/ 
fui;euiU3freni^ aunlio ram ad banc^ ad cffcras alias pcruc/ 
nimu0.<f am Ifo 'Jndi (Suanabanin rocant 'Bliarum ctia rnam 
qiianc^ nouo nomine nuncupaui-iDuippf alia infulam San£Cf 
ib;iri^(2Ioncq?rioni9'aliami'cmandmam • aliam t)f fabdlaTn* 
fliiam 5*^banam T lie de reliquie appcllari iufTi'^Dampzimum 
in cam infulam qua dudum ^obana rocari din appulimu8:iu 
jrra ciua lirrueoccidcnrem rerTue aliquanrulumpioceffntamcp 
cam mac^na nwllo rcperro fine inucnitrr non infulam: (cd conr J 
nenrmi (D^atai prouindam dTe crcdidcrimrnullarnridenaop/ 
pida munidpiaue in man'rimie fira confmib^ p:f rcr aliquos ri/ 
cos 1 p:cdia rufhca:cum qno? incolie loqui nf quibam-quarc fl 
null acnoaridcbaur furnpiebanrfugam''p?ogredicbarrltra: 
q' longe admodum p:ogrcfrf9 nibii noui cmergebatn bmoi via 
nor> ad Sq-trenrrioncm deferebatrq? ipfcfugercefopraba'.tema 
crenimregnabarbjuma; ad fluftrmnc^ cretin voro cottndcrc; 

The first printed accounx of the discovery of America. 
(Original Broadside in the British Museum.) 

The Mundus Novus of Vespucci. 65 

tlie wound in his liand ; the king also points towards 
it in a manner to show that he comprehends the 
allusion. The explanation of the picture is that the 
king, in his dealings with Columbus, was long a 
doubting Thomas but now was convinced of a glorious 
realization. This account designates the Islands as 
"Isles of India beyond the Ganges." 

The first printed account of the discoveries (dated 
edition) in which it was proposed to designate the 
new regions as a " New World " appeared in Augs- 
burg in 1504,'*^ "Mundus Novus.^®*^ " In the following 
year, 1505, a German edition was issued at Niimberg, 
" Von der neu gefu7ide Region die wol ein welt 
genennt mag werden dtirch den christenlicheii Kunig 
von Portugall wunderbarlich e^fimdeni''^ 

Thus far the new regions appear as "Terra Incog- 
nita," "Terra Nova," and later as "Terra Sanctae 

We now come to the naming of the western world 
— a question solved by Baron Alexander von Hum- 
boldt, while compiling his epoch-making work 
^''Examen critique de V Histoire de la Geographie 
du Noveau Continent aux i^me et i67ne Sieclesy 

" Reproduced in fac-simile. 

47a Printing was introduced in Seville, Spain, in the year 1492, by two 
-Germans Paul von Kolln, and Johann Pegnizer von Niirnberg, (Von 
Murr Deutsche Erfiindungen, p. 727. ) 

** Augsburg, it will be remembered, was at that time an important 
■centre of commercial activity, and its merchants were intimately engaged 
in the enterprises of both Spain and Portugal. Naturally the earliest 
and most authentic accounts would have reached that city. 

*8a Alberic Vespucci Laurenetio Petri Francisci de Medecis salutem 
plurima dicit "Mundus Novus." 

66 The Pen^isylvania-German Society. 

(" KritiscJie Untersuchtaigen i'lbcr die Historische 
Entwickching der Geographischen Kenntnisse von der 
neue^i Welt. Ideler, Berlin, 1852.) 

It was the above mentioned " Memoir on tlie Dis- 
covery of America," by Doctor Otto, of Pennsylvania, 
wbich gave Hnmboldt the incentive for this work ;^^ 
and, strange to relate, this important feature of nam- 
ing the New World is due to an obscure and unknown 
German geographer, Martin Waldseemiiller,^" (Hyla- 
comus,) a young man from Freiburg in Breisgau, 

*^ See Ghillany, p. 49; also Humboldt, Kritische Untersuchungen, vol. 
i, p. 224. He there states that Dr. Otto appears to have been entirely 
unacquainted with the Geography of the fifteenth century. See also 
footnote 2, supra. 

^" Martin Waltzeemiiller (Waldseemiiller) from Freiburg in Breisgau, 
was born about 1480-1481. He was a friend of the Alsatian Matthias 
Ringmann, a scholar of the celebrated philologus, Jacob Wimp- 
feling. In accord with the usage of the times, both men afterwards as- 
sumed Hellenized names: Waltzeemiiller called himself Hylacomylus or 
Ilacomilus and Ringmann called himself Philesius, with the addition of 
Vogesigena, as his home was upon the Vosges. When, in the year 1507, 
a gymnasium and press were established at St. Die on the Meurthe, at 
the instance of the wealthy Canonicus Walther, under the patronage of 
the Duke Rene of Lorraine, both Ringmann and Waltzeemiiller were 
called as tutors to the new College. Ringmann, while in Italy, became 
acquainted with the renowned mathematician and architect, Fra 
Giovanni del Giocondo, the friend of Vespucci, who translated the 
latter's letters into Latin, by which means the glorious results of the 
Florentine traveller became known to the two Germans, who also be- 
came admirers of Vespucci, and in 1507 had reprinted at Strasburg, 
Giocondo's Latin translation. When Waltzeemiiller printed at St. Die 
his Cosviographiae Introduction he incorporated the four letters of 
Vespucci. In connection with this work he conceived the plan of pub- 
lishing a new edition of Ptolemy, the expense of which was borne by 
Walther Lud. This celebrated book did not appear until two years 
after the death of Ringmann, and was mainly the work of Waltzeemiiller. 
It is in this edition that the celebrated map appears: Orbis typits uttiver- 
salis iuxta hydrographorum traditioneni. This map was long supposed 

Ion von ^ifbdn ia fc^bt ^cm ^uni^ von ^ifpanw vo 
^enm^aiiceUnbeJn'oicvffycmflu^QaiiQen ge 
naiit^'^er ^0 fliifTet am mitten ^urc^ ^js lant? e mvu 
'4 in 9ii0 in-Difcp m6:» ^le cr nehc^m etf (mt>cft ^ar, vit 
^'e !u (ifit)en gefcf^icf nf? mir ^ilfFvu gtofev fcFifftmg* Hu& 
ouc9ethc(^ vo:ragi]ng vo ^enin^ieru ©ee grogmcc^ngiHeii 
^iinige i)^€tnax>o tenant von f^ifpajiiailfiHdCb'^em.vnnt) icf? 
geferai bm von *^em gct?at)t ^ee l^it>9von ^ifpania^^ac m»m 
nennet Cohinas l^crculco* o&er von eno ^tr tctitMn ic^ gef^' 
rcn in ^p vnt) ^^pffig togcn m ^^o mt)ifc^ m<^^S)o ^oh icS ge^ 
funben vil inglen init on5alber volcfo xvo^^fftig^'^ic ^ab ic^ 
aliingcnomenmu vffgeu^ojffncm bjncrvnrer6mec(>tigi|Ten 
f unig0»v91nt) npcrniwi ^ar ficb' gni?i*ocrt nocf^^ iran'oer gcff clt 
in dcinevlcv xi'cg4pDie crf^ 9jc k(> gcfunt>€ 5^/ ^.ibeid^ gc^ 

CCi3 \nf felig mic()er8^5u einergct>ccb'tnr(5 fpticr tvun^erhc^e5 
Pof^en maicftat^ie mic^i^ar^t; ge^olffcn (^^ie von3lnt)u 
peifTeut fi€ g\van.^?un'Tri3ie anT)er h'ab ic(> gcgeiffen vn0 fro 
tPcn enpflf i{rnFU;flFnl Me "difi Bab ic^ gci?a(fen temanDina 
mc^^iQ fumge naniai^Oie vicroc ^ab ict) gebViffcn *^ic () ub 
fcifcinftl^mefiinfftc io^"*anani,vnD t^ab alfo ema pcglic^) 
cnrren mimen gegebnu'^^lnt? ale bal& icb' Pain in ^e m^\'l lo'/ 
^annam alfo genant '^o fitr ic^ an *^emgc(Tdt>e ^muffgqjai oc 
Client watj /*^a font) ic(> ^le iii fcl lang vnnt) f cm enoe *^ar an* 
Baeic^gct>ac9tc6U'creingant5 lanD.vfivpcr^ic pzouintj 3u 
Catt^eigcnant.H)ora()cic{)Ouct>^cincttotnod> fc^lofftT ani 
gefTat^e'^ea mozeo^n ctMcbarcn^rjjcrflirffvnnt* gcflcDcl 
vnt» ^C0 felben sIid?eru^Tiit) mit ^eit f dben^wonem moc^c 

Pac-simile page of broadside, containing the earliest Q-erman 

account of Columbus' discovery. 

(Original in the Royal Library at Munich). 

Cosfuographiac Iiitrodiidio. 


wlio was then a tutor of geography in a school at 
Saint Die (Diey) in Lorraine, an out-of-the-way nook. 








I«rt • 





















, - 
























Finitu. vij. kl'. Maij 
Anno supra sesqui 
millesimum. vij. 









































Imprint of Waldseemuller's Cosmographia Introductio. 

among the Vosges.^^ Here Waldseemiiller ^"^ prepared 
a little cosmographical treatise, which was printed 
upon the college press, during the year 1507.^^ 

to have been drawn by Vespucci. For a reproduction of it see Ruge, 
Zeitalter der Entdeckungen, p. 36; also Kretschmer's Atlas. 

^1 Humboldt, Introduction to Ghillany, Geschichte des Martin Behalm^ 
p. 11; Ruge, Zeitalter der Entdeckungen, p. 338. 

52 Humboldt, Kritische Untersuchungen, (Berlin 1852,) vol. ii, pp. 362,, 
ei seq. 

68 The Pe7insylva7iia- German Society. 

Winsor, in his Critical History of America, states : 
''It was in this precious little quarto of 1507, whose 
complicated issues we have endeavored to trace, that, 
in the introductory portion, Waldseemiiller, anony- 
mously to the world, but doubtless with the privity 

Nuc i^o &: h^ partes funt latius luftratcc/8d: aha 
quarta pars per America Vefputiucvt in fequcnd 
bus audictur )inuenta eft/qua non video cur quis 
iure vetet ab Americo inuentore fagacis ingcnij vi 
Amcriif ro Amerigen quafi Amend terra /Rue Americara 
ca dicendarcu bc Europa 8^ Afia a mulieribus fuafor 

titafintTiomina.Eius fitu 8d gentis mores ex bis bi 
nis Amend nauigationibus qu« fequuntliquidc 

Fac-Simile of Passage, where the Name of "America" 
Is First Suggested, iu the Cosmographiae Introductio of Hylacomylus of 1507. 

'of his fellow-collegians, proposed in two passages to 
stand sponsor for the new-named western world." 

It is further an interesting fact that, in Spanish 
records, the of&cial designation of the western hemi- 
sphere until the year 1550 was exclusively " Las 
Indies." ^ The name " America " does not appear to 
have been accepted by the Spanish authorities until 

53 Cosmographiae Introdvctio \ cvm qvibvs-dam \ GeonietHae \ ac \ 
astrono \ miae principiis \ ad earn rem necessariis \ Insuper qtiator 
Ameici Ve- \ spucij nauigationes. Vniversalis cdos^nographics [jzV] 
descripto \ tain iti solido quam piano, cis etiani \ insertis quts Pthol- 
,omaeo \ ignota a nuperis \ reperta \ sunt. etc. 

^ Prof. Dr. Theodore Schott, Heft 308, Berlin, 1878, p. 28. 




i FflC-SIMILE.) 

The Name '''' America^ 69 

tlie year 1758, when it appeared upon the Lopez 

Thus was the new continent named. We now 
come to the derivation of the name " America "^*^ and 
we find that it is a strictly German one. Humboldt, 
an authority whom none will question, and who was 
further supported by the opinion of Professor Von der 
Hagen ^" of the University of Berlin, shows that the 
Italian name of Amerigo is derived from the German 
Amalrich or Amelrich^ which under the various forms 
of Amalric, Amalrih, Amilrich, Amulrich, was spread 
through Europe by the Goths and other northern in- 
vader s.^^ 

In glancing over the cartography of the western 
hemisphere, it is also found that the first engraved 
map showing any portion of the western continent, 
before the name America came into use, was a Ger- 
man map engraved by Johann Ruysch as a supple- 
ment to the Latin edition of Ptolemy, 1508. The 
same was the case with the earliest map and the 
earliest terrestrial globe upon which the name 

^^ It was not until the year 1600 that the two continents of the western 
hemisphere were officially designated as North and South America 
{Amej-ica septciitrionalis and A. rneridionalis) by Jodocus Hondius- 
(Hamburger Festschrift ; Ruge, vol. i, p. 131.) 

=" The curious claim lately put forth by fules Marcou, that Vespucci 
acquired his name Amerigo from some place in the western world, has 
been fully refuted by Prof. Ruge in Petermann's Mittheilungen, 18S9, p. 

^^ America, ein urspriinglicher Deutscher Name. — Schreiben des Hrn. 
von der Hagen. (Neuen Jahr-buch der Berliner Gesellschalt fiir 
Deutsche Sprache. Heft, i, pp. 13-17.) 

^8 Humboldt, Kritische Untersuchungen, vol. ii, p. 324. 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

America appeared. The former was the handiwork of 

another German, Peter 
Bienewitz, {Petrus Api- 
<3:;22^j,) a native of Saxony 
and one of the noted 
mathematicians of the 
day. In the same year, 
1520, the German, Jo- 
hannes Schoner, who 
for more than twenty 
years exercised a domi- 
nating influence in the 
cartography of the new 

with the new discoveries and issued globes with an 
explanatory text, completed the celebrated terrestrial 
globe which is still preserved in Niirnberg, and is 
distinctively known by his name. It is upon this 
globe that the name " America " appears for the first 

It will thus be seen that the naming of the western 
continent, " America," was due entirely to the Ger- 
man geographers of the period, the example set by 
Waldseemiiller, Apianus, and Schoner being event- 
ually followed by the geographers and map-makers 
of all nations.^^^ 

^* See Catalogue Carter Brown Library, vol. ii. 

*^* See Kunstman, Altesten Karten Amerika's, p. 142. 


ITH the close of the 
medieval period, a 
series of factors incident to 
the great maritime discov- 
eries, appeared in rapid suc- 
cession upon the political, 
social and religious horizon 
of Europe. 

At the beginning of the 
present era, the discoveries 
made by Columbus brought 
little or no profit to Spain : as a matter of fact, none 
of the four voj^ages of Columbus even paid for the 
expense of fitting out the expedition. ''^ The islands 
he had discovered proved to be in a primeval state, 
and required exploration, settlement and develop- 
ment. They were far different from what was ex- 
pected from glowing descriptions of Zimpango and 
other islands in the far east as recorded by Marco 
Polo. In the islands visited by Columbus there 

Royal Arms of Spain. 

72 The Pemisylvania-German Society. 

were no signs of fabulous wealth, and but little or no 

gold,^^ silver or precious 

stones. A similar condition 1 

existed in regard to spices, J^ 

silks and other Oriental fab- 5 

rics. As a matter of history, 

in the earliest days of the 

modern period, Spain's western 

acquisitions were a greater 

source of expense to that 

kingdom than profit. 

Far different, however, was 
the case with Portugal, then 
(1503) under the sway of an 

intelligent and liberal ruler, ^ -^7if!^f^ / > 
who welcomed and encouraged 
German learning and enter- 
prise, and offered every in- 
ducement for German settle- ^ iT^^ \ 
ment within his domain.*'^ 
Five years had hardly elapsed 
since Columbus returned from 
his first voyage, when Vasco 
da Gama, by the aid of Be- 
haim's charts and Hanseatic 
vessels, sailed around the 
Cape of Good Hope, and thus 
found the long sought for 
way to India. This opened 
up at once a most lucrative 
commerce between Portugal 

The Gerynans in Portugal. 


and the East Indies, in which German merchants 
and the Hansa were the chief factors. Special ad- 
vantages were granted, 
every inducement was 
offered to these power- 
ful organizations to 
aid them in developing 
the newly found route. 
An immediate r e - 
suit of this condition 
was that while wealth 
and commerce rolled in 
upon Portugal and the 
Ge r m a n merchants, ^^ 
Spain was virtually 
impoverishing itself in 
the attempt to colonize 
and develop the new 
islands in the west.^* 
The glory of Venice also departed with the loss of 


(From Jean de la Cosa's Map of the Indies, 

A. D. 1500.) 

^ Columbus und seine Weltanschauung, Berlin, 1878, p. 23. 

^^ Roderigo Bastidas of Seville, who visited the coast of South America 
from San Marta to the river of Darien in 1504, there found grains of gold 
in the sands This was the first time the metal had been sent in that 
state to Spain. (Bonnycastle, 161.) 

** The first special grants by Portugal to German merchants and the 
Hanseatic League appear to be the Privelegium issued by King Alfonso 
V, March 28, 1452 (Document in full in J. P. Cassel's Privilegien und 
Freiheiten, welche die Konige von Portugal ehe den Deutschen Kaufleu- 
ten zu Lissabon ertheilt haben. Bremen 1771, 4to. ) These special 
grants and concessions were renewed at different times by the reigning 
sovereigns of Portugal. Noteworthy among them are the grants issued 
by King Emanuel, January 13, 1503, conferring additional privileges 

74 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

her monopoly of the Indian trade, which had formed 
the chief source of her power and opulence.®'^ The 
great bulk of this i trade was now di- 

verted from the A Mediterranean and 

taken around the \\ CapeofGood 

Hope.*^^ The /\ German mer- 

chants were ft quick to adapt 

themselves to the \lo\/ ^^^^ condition of 
affairs. At the fOw ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ 

the decadence of Venice, when the 

• J r 1 T-^ Private mark. 

tide of the Kast (handel-smarke.) India trade turned 

, 1 X • 1 Bartalomeaus Welser (^ ■, (~\' 

towards I^isbon, ^^^ company irom w c find bimon 
Seitz, an agent of letter August isth.A. ^^ Welsers of 

' o D. 1526, to Hans .• 

Augsburg, in- Ehinger, at uim. Stalled in the capi- 
tal of Portugal, and afterwards succeeded by one 
Lukas Rem,*'^ who has left us a complete diary. 

upon the various merchants of Augsburg and other parts of Germany, 
who had established themselves at Lisbon at his invitation, or were 
there represented by resident agents or factors {/did, p. 5; also Sar- 
torius, Hanseatischen Bundes, Gottingen, 1808, p. 653.) The above was 
further extended under date of October 3, 1504. Upon March 16, 1508, 
King Emanuel confirmed two letters given to two German merchants 
releasing them from imprisonment unless condemned by a supreme judge. 
[Ibid, p. 10.) January 22, 15 10, the right of citizenship was conferred upon 
all resident German merchants by King Emanuel, {/bid, p. 15.) Numer- 
ous additional grants and privileges were issued and promulgated from 
1511 to 1525 in favor of the German merchants and the Hanseatic 
League, such as releasing them from taxation, giving them the privilege 
of conducting transactions in excess of 10,000 ducats, etc. Perhaps the 
most curious concession granted the German merchants in Lisbon was 
the edict of December 23, 1524. which gave them the right to dress in 
their native costumes, and accorded permission for them to ride on 
horses or donkeys. (Cassel, Continuation, 1776, pp. 13-14; also Sar- 
torius, p. 65Q.) 










German Merchants in America. 


What was true of Portugal also applied to Spain ; 
and as soon as definite accounts of the extent of 

Columbus's dis- 
covery reached 
Burope, we find 
the factories of 
the German mer- 
chants estab- 
lished at Se- 
ville. Long be- 
fore the interdict 
against non- 
Spaniards was 
removed, the 
chief commer- 
the grubel akms. c i a 1 establish- 

ment in the western world at San Domingo was in 
the hands of the Augsburg merchants, who had ob- 
tained special concessions from the king, and who had 
German vessels bringing cargoes back and forth.^^ 

^ The names of the leading merchants concerned in these enterprises 
were the Fugger, Welser, Hochstetter, Hyrssfogel and Imhof families ot 
Augsburg and Ulm. As early as 1503 the Welsers had a resident factor 
at Lisbon, named Simon Seitz. A German expedition left Portugal for 
the East Indies, May 25, 1505. It consisted ol three vessels, the San 
Raffael, San Jeronimo and Lionarda. Prominent factors in this venture 
were Balthasar Sprenger and Hans Mayr, both of whom left a diary and 
written account of the voyage. (Ruge, p. 148.) 

" According to Las Casas, most persons who had up to that period 
(1518) settled in America were sailors and soldiers employed in the dis- 
covery and conquest of the country; the younger sons of noble families, 
allured by the prospect of acquiring sudden wealth; or desperate adven- 
turers, whom their indigence or crimes had forced to abandon their 
native land. 


The Pennsylvania-Germa7i Society. 

Coincident with this commercial revolution, com- 
menced the season of 
spiritual unrest in Ger- 
many, coupled with a 
desire to throw off the 
shackles of Latin bigo- 
t r y and oppression, 
which resulted in the 
nailing of the ninety- 
five Theses against the 
church door at Witten- 
berg. The Reforma- 

Arms of Kelp v. Sternberg. 

tion, which eventually overspread the whole of in- 
tellectual Germany, and which was followed by the 
efforts of Calvin and Zwingli, went far to break the 
power of monastic rule and priestly superstition, and 
was destined ultimately to prove an active agent in 
the settlement of Pennsylvania and the adjacent colo- 
nies by the yeomanry of Germany. 

Another important incident which falls within this 

*^ Never did the Venetians believe the power ot their country to be 
more firmly established, or rely with greater confidence on the continu- 
ance and increase of its opulence, than toward the'close of the fifteenth 
century, when two events happened that proved fatal to both, viz., the 
discovery ol America and the opening of a direct course to the East 
Indies by the way of the Cape of Good Hope. ^ Robertson, Ancient 
India, p. 130.) 

^ Ibid, America, Book, i, p. 79. 

*' Lucas Rem, (1481-1541) was a factor or agent of the Welser Com- 
pany from 1499 to 1517, mainly at Lisbon. Later he became a partner 
in the firm of Endres, Rem & Company, and Chef of Endres & Lucas 
den Remen. His mother and daughter-in-law were both members of 
the Welser family. 

68 Welserziige in America, p. 29. 



(BORM NOU. 10. IW3. DIED FES. 18. 15*6.) 


** G S ^^ «■ ZL uiJ S S 1m w 




<j & S^ O 5 5? ♦»' £. 

£» ^ e E s 3 V) 
c S?.« 5» S-e 

t» o c o 3 It 2 
2 S 5 ^ S 5 o 

S^ 5 o r* § V? S 
^^cl « ® c-c: 


T 2 s. ^ E ^ S 
«* s s 'J esj »% 2 

9 S ftf * 

3 (^ 

3 o 

yS The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

period was tlie accession to the throne of Spain (15 16) 

of Charles, the son of 
Philip, arch-duke of Aus- 

Cf\l//(j 1/ / tria and grandson of 
(J \J W ^ / Ferdinand and Isabella. 

He, upon the death of 
Maximilian, was elected 
emperor of Germany,^^ 
thus for a time uniting 
the interests of Spain and 
the Fatherland.™ 

Autograph of Emperor Charles V. J- UC prCCariOUS C O n - 

(From Origrinal in the Dreer Collectiou.) dition of thc fiuaUCCS of 

•Spain, caused at the time by the drain of the unre- 
munerative acquisitions in the west, induced Charles 
to look to the merchants of the powerful Hanseatic 
League for assistance. Among those applied to were 
the patrician families of Welser'^^ and Fugger at 

*' The rulers of Europe at this period were: Emperor, Charles V; 
Pope, Leo X; Spain, Charles I; France, Francis of Valois; England and 
Ireland, Henry VIII, (the first ruler to assume this dual title); Turkey, 
Soliman II; Poland, Sigismundus I; Scotland, James IV; Denmark and 
Norway, Christian II; Hungary, Ludovic II; Bohemia, Vladislaus; 
Sweden, Gustavus (Biorn), elected after the expulsion of the Danes. 

'^ When the young king arrived in Spain from the Low Countries, he 
was accompanied by many of the Flemish and German nobility, who 
were in the confidence of the monarch, and were at once invested with 
almost every department of administration, among which was the direc- 
tion of American affairs 

" The Welser Company, at the time of our period, consisted of Anton 
Welser, Conrad Vcihlin and others. The chief houses were in Augsburg 
and Memmhigen. Anton Welser's wife was Katharina Vohlin (Vogelin, 
Pegelin) a daughter of Hans Vohlin, a leading merchant of Memmingen^ 

The Gemnan Baitkers. 79 

Augsburg."" Large loans were negotiated from botli, 
■and among the securities given were the choicest 
parts of Spain's possessions in America. 

The northern part of South America fell to the 
portion of the Welser family, and became known as 
Welserland, now Venezuela. The extreme southern 
and western part of the continent, almost immediately 

and a sister to Konrad Vohlin. In 1518, the firm came into possession 
of the Brothers Bartholomaeus and Anton Welser, sons of Anton 
Branch houses were then opened at Niirnberg and Ulm. Toward 1540, 
there were admitted to the firm Bartholomew's three sons: Bartholo- 
maeus (2), Christoph. and Leonhard; his son-in-law, Christoph Peutin- 
ger; and Jacob Rembold, father-in-law of Welser's son Hans, together 
with the two Hans Vohlin's son and nephew of his uncle Konrad. Of 
these latter Hans Vohlin was the resident member of the factory at San 
Domingo (1534-1539) and upon his return, the elder Bartholomaeus, to- 
wards the close of the year 1540 sent his eldest son to America to take 
•charge of the government of Welserland. In the year 1553 the elder 
Bartholomaeus retired from the firm, when the company was recon- 
structed under the name of Christoph Welser and Company. It was 
under this firm that the formal loss of Welserland and its reversion to the 
Spanish crown occurred in 1555 The great banking house failed in 1612. 
Bartholomaeus Welser. the elder, was the chief spirit in all the East Indian 
(1505) and American (1526-1555) ventures. It was also at his instance 
that the early broadsides giving the news of America were sent to Augs- 
burg, and thence reprinted in German. A family history of the Welsers 
was compiled by the late Joliann Michael Anton Freiherr von Welser 
(ob 1875,) but unfortunately is still in manuscript. See Anmerkungen 
.zur Geschichte der Welserzuge. Hamb. 1892 

" The old imperial city of Augsburg has thus far failed to receive in his- 
tory the proper credit due to its former greatness and its position in the 
<:ommercial world. The same is true of the German merchants: they 
have ever been deprived of the honor due them for their sagacity and 
enterprise in many brilliant epochs when they controlled a large portion 
of the trade of the world. This praise and credit is usually accorded to 
their rivals. (Arthur Kleinschmidt: Augusbur^ und Niirnberg utidihre 
Haiidels Fiirshn. Kassel. 1881.) 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

after the discovery of tiie straits between the main 

land and Terra del Fnego, 

whereby the bounds of the 

hemisphere were defined, 

fell, for the time being, 

to the lot of the Fugger 


Here again German 
learning and ingenuity 
had asserted itself, as it 
was by the aid of Martin 
Behaim's charts ^^^ that 
Magellan was enabled to 
find and sail through 
the straits which now 
bear his name, and thus 
circumnavigate the 

"'^ In the early printed accounts, the Straits are frequently called 
Fretuin Mar Hni Bo he mi. See Cosmographia disciplina. Basil 1561, 4to 
and Ludg. Bat. 1636 i6mo Edit, tert, Cap. ii, p. 22. Also Diplomatische 
Geschichte. Gotha 1801, p. 82 et seq. 

'^ Die Verdienste Martin Behaini's (Dresden, 1866, i p. 61. See also 
Herrera and Pigafetta. Losung der Behaim Frage; Gelcicli, Hamburg 
1892, p. 65 et seq. 



'ROM this period (1522) 
date the first systematic 
atttempts at German colo- 
nization in America, which, 
though interrupted for a 
time, were destined to be re- 
sumed as years passed by ; 
and I venture to say, that if 
a census could be taken to- 
day of the population of the 
whole hemisphere, from 
Bafiins Bay, to the Straits 
of Magellan, it would be 
found that German influence and commercial enter- 
prise are predominant. 

As the interesting facts connected with these early 
attempts at German colonization are not universally 
known, having been largely lost sight of by the 
Hispaniciziug of German narratives and names, a 

Arms of City of Augsburg. 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

few particulars of this important episode in America's 
history will not prove amiss. 

It is well known to students of European history, 
that Charles V, who united so many crowns upon his 
head, and concentrated so much power in himself, 
was engaged by his ambition, or by the jealousy of 
his neighbors, in endless disputes, the expenses of 
which exceeded his resources.^^ In his dire necessity 
he was apt to turn to the patrician merchants of 
Augsburg and Ulm.''^^ These appeals were not in 
vain, and ultimately his indebtedness to the two 
houses of Welser 
and Fugger alone 
amounted to over 
twelve tons' weight 
of goldJ^ 

The Prince offered 
the former, as secur- 
ity for the vast loan, 
a large tract of land 
in America extend- 
ing two hundred 
S ttin den^ {Leguas) 
along the coast," 
which they accepted 
as a fief of Castile. 
From documents in 

^ T 1 • 1 • "■'^ Lakds-Knecht" of the Period. 

the Indian archives 

at Seville,"*^ it appears that a special concession was 

" Raynal's History of the Indies, vol. iv, p. 69. 

^ ^ oil 

84 The Pennsylvania-Ge7'man Society. 

granted by the king to the Welser firm at an early- 
date, with permission to establish a factory or trad- 
ing station at San Domingo, a city which it was in- 
tended should be the metropolis of the new world. 
After the lapse of a year or two we find the Ger- 
mans established there under Ambrose Dalfinger, 
(Khinger)"^ and in control of the whole commerce 

'5 An official list of patrician families of Augsburg engaged in mercan- 
tile pursuits at this period contains the following names: Adler, Arzt, 
Baumgartner, Ehinger, Fugger> Herwart, Hochstatter, Using, Imhof, 
Koch, Koler, Langmantel, Miinlich, Mayr, Neidhardt, Peutinger, Pfister, 
Pimel, Rehlinger, Rem, Rembold, Rentz, Sayller, Schellenberg, Seitz, 
Stetten, Vohlin, Walther, and Welser. 

■"^ The indebtedness of the Emperor to the Welser Company is 
variously stated by contemporary accounts to have been from five and 
one-half to twelve tons of gold. See Weyermann, Nachrichten. (Ulm, 

" See Novus Orhis (Lunduni Bat, 1633); also Marci Velseri Opera 
Historica. Provincia in America. Velseri patricii Augustani, etc. 
(Chris. Arnoldus, Norimbergiae, 1772.) 

■'■'* The original documents relating to the Welser grants have lately 
been found in the British Museum at London. (Catalogued among the 
Spanish Mss. under the title: Cedillas reales tocantes d la provincia de 
Venezuela i^2g a ISSS-) The volume is known as the "Welser Codex;" 
it consists of 159 folios of heavy paper upon which are engrossed 191 
different acts, all relating to the Welser grants in South America. These 
documents extend from September 23, 1529, to May 11. 1535. Many ot 
these papers are written in an almost undecipherable hand. The value 
of this MSS. will be appreciated when it is understood that all the 
various royal concessions to the firm of Welser and Company within the 
above period are recorded here. The volume is bound in parchment and 
the covers are secured with curious leather thongs. Just how this docu- 
ment was abstracted from the Indian Ofiice at Seville, and found its 
resting place in the xManuscript room of the British Museum does not 
appear. This valuable find was thoroughly examined in 1S94 by Doctor 
Konrad Haebler of Dresden, who published extracts and comments of 
the same in the Allgemeine Zeitung, Miinchen, Dec. 1894. See also 
"■IVelser und Ehinger in Venezuela. Ha&hX&r Zeilschri/t fiir Schwaben 
.und Neuburg, Augsburg 1894. 



(born 1484: DIED 1561.) 


Royal Grant to Ehinger 


and carrying trade of tlie new world. About the 
year 1526, Dalfinger, who, according to his instruc- 
tions, had investigated the probable value of the Em- 
peror's grant to his principals, returned to Europe, 
and advised his superiors to accept the security. 

Patents were then issued by the crown, under date 
of March 27, 1528, granting the right of possession 
to Bartholoma and Anton 
Welser,'^^'^ their heirs and 


for the northern 

portion of South America, 
extending from Cabo de 
la Veta to Cabo de Mar- 
capa^ia^ bounded by San 
Marta in the west, and 
Paria in the east.'^^ 

Heinrich Ehinger, of 
Ulm, merchant,'^^^ knight 
of Santiago and ro3^al 
chamberlain, together 
with Hieronymus Sailer,^*' 
were named as their 
agents. ^°^ It is further 
stipulated by the king 
that the Welsers, through Heinrich Siger^^' and the 

'* Ambrose Dalfinger [Talfinger] in Spanish documents, Micer 
Ambrosio, also Micer Ambrosio Alfinger. There appears to be more or 
less uncertainty as to the identity of Ambrose Dalfinger, some author- 
ities in both Germany and Spain holding to the theory that Ambrose 
Dalfinger was in reality an Ehinger. This theory is partly based upon 
the Concession of March 27, 1528, which reads verbatim: ''Primera- 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

above named Hieronymus Sailer ^^^ tlieir agents, 
should deliver, within a given period, not less than 
4000 negro slaves to the royal colonies in the West 

In return it was agreed that all communication 
henceforth with this part of the Indies, whether from 

Europe o r Africa, 
should be by vessels 
owned or controlled 
by the Augsburg 
firm of Welser and 
Company.^'^ Arrange- 
ments were now 
made for the imme- 
diate possession, ex- 
ploration, develop- 
ment, and settlement 
of the newly acquired 
territory, which was 
named Welserland.^* 
ARMS OF THE ehinger FAMILY. Thc first cxpcdition 

and German colony, consisting of about 500 persons. 

mente cumpliendo vos lo quo os ofreceis en ir o evtbiar la dicha armada 
con el dicho tmeslro governador de Santa Maria e pacificando aquella 
conio dicho es, vos doy licencia y facidtad para que vos o qualquier de 
vos y en defecto de cualquier de vosotros Ambrosio & Jorge de Einguer, 
hermanos de vos el dicho Enrique, o qualquiera dellos, podais descubrir, 
etc." The argument is further strengthened by the entry in the Historia 
de la Conqiiista de Venezuela^ Oveido y Banos, Duro Edition vol i, 
chap. iv. "Asislian por aquel tieinpo en la corte de nuestro eniperador 
Carlos V, Enrique de Alfinger y Jeronimo Sailler, agentes y factors de 
los Belzares, etc." From the above it would certainly appear that if 

Departure fro?n Europe. 


who were all Germans ^° set out from San Lucar with 
that of Gracia de Lerma, \vho was interested in the 
adjoining colonj^, known as Santa Marta. The Ger- 
man contingent was under the command of Ambrose 
Dalfineer, the late 

factor at San 
mingo, who 


was commissioned 
as governor of the 
new colon}^, and 
Sailer, his lieuten- 
ant.^'^ The party 
consisted of s o 1 - 
diery, 400 foot and 
80 mounted men, 
the latter under 
command of Casi- 
mir of Niimbergf ®^ 
a number of Ger- 

man miners 


Arms of the Imperial City of Ulb 

{Bergknappeu) ; negro slaves ; and a full band of 

Heinrich Ehinger was an Alfinger, his brother Ambrosio de Alfinger 
must also have been an Ehinger. See Dr. K. Haebler Zeitschrift der 
Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde zu Bedin vol x.xvii, p. 419. 

'8b Although the first royal concession made at Seville, March 27, 1528, 
as well as the amplification granted April 4, 1529, was apparently made 
to Sailer and the Ehinger brothers in fee-simple, the grant was in reality 
for the Welsers as stated in above text. Positive proof of the above is 
presented by a document in the Welser Codex in the British Museum - 
wherein Ehinger and Sailer as repefitani sinners transfer all their rio-ht 
and title to their principals and further state, that, although the grant 

88 The Pennsylva7iia-Ger7na7i Society. 

musicians, playing chiefly of fifes, trombones, bass 
kettledrums, pauken and tambours. These men 
were enlisted and organized for the purpose of inspir- 
ing the natives.^" 

was secured in their names, tliey acted collectively and exclusively as 
agents for Bartholomaeus Welser and Company. 

'^ The actual bounds of Welserland are not definitely known. Even 
Herrera, Historia ii p. 31 1, 1528, merely gives them in a general manner. 
The grant evidently covered a l;;rge tract extending rom the Province 
of San Marta well towards the Atlantic Ocean. The distance into the 
interior was evidently unlimited 

"* Heinrich Ehinger was evidently the trusted representative of the 
Welser company for many years, if he was not a full partner. We first 
meet with him in the present investigations at the Imperial Court at 
Saragossa, January 9, 1519, where he, together with Sebastian Schopperl, 
issues two drafts on Anton Welser and Company, in favor of the 
Emperor Charles V. Again at Saragossa he appears July 4, 1521, as a 
witness to the Testament of Simon Seitz. Later in 1522-3 we find him 
at Seville, where upon the arrival of Maghelhaes vessel "Victory'' from 
the first circumnavigation oi the Globe, he purchases for the German 
merchants the entire cargo of Spices brought from the East Indies. 
Five years later he appears, together with Hieronymus Sailer in the 
Venezuela contract. 

^ Haebler, Koloniale Unternehmungen im xvi Jahrhundert. (Berlin 
1892.) p. 406. 

^'° For a lull insight into this phase of the royal grant, see Dr. 
Haebler's comments upon the Welser-Codex. From this it would 
appear that the Ehinger Brothers together with Sailer attempted to hold 
the concession independent of the Welser Company. See foot note 78b. 

^' Ciguer in Herrera. Liguer in original. 

^^' As late as March one of these documents was to be found in the 
Deposito historografico of the Spanish government at Madrid. It bore 
the following title: '''Ana de 1526. Asiento y CapiUiIacione de los 
Alenianes Enrique Liguer y Gerotiimo Sailler, Obligandose a' hacer una 
Armada de 4 Narrios con 200, hombres o mas Armados y harrtuallados 
por imano, para la pacificacione y poblacion dela Provencia de Santa 
Marta.^'' A transcription of this document was made in 1857 for the late 
Samuel Barlow, Esq, of New York. It consisted of thirty-four pages 
folio At the public sale of that library, it was sold to an unknown 
purchaser for the sum of three dollars. 

90 The Pe7i7isylvania-German Society. 

The fleet of four heavily laden vessels towards the 
end of 1527, arrived safely at San Domingo, where 
they reported to Sebastian Rentz,^^ Welser's factor,*® 
and successor to Dalfinger. 

After landing the Spaniards under de Lerma, the 
voyage was continued to the South American coast, 

** From the above it would appear that the Welser Company were 
active agents in the development of the African slave trade. In this 
phase of our history, their commercial rivals, the Fuggers, stand out in 
glowing contrast. See above. 

*^ According to Oviedo (VVeyland, p 35) the Welser Company agreed? 
(i) To build within two years two cities and three forts within their 
possessions. (2) Four ships were to be sent out during the first year at 
their own cost, taking out at least 300 Spaniards and 50 Germans, who 
were to explore the various Spanish possessions in the Indies, and pros- 
pect for gold and silver mines; the Welser Company to have the right to 
work and develope all such mines. (3) The Emperor conferred the title 
of "'Adelantado,'' or Stadthalter, upon such persons appointed by the 
Welsers. {4) The Emperor granted to the Germans the right to enslave 
all such Indians as would not subject themselves to their authority 
except by force of arms. Oviedo goes on to state that only such por- 
tions of the above contract were complied with, as reverted to the profit 
of the Germans. 

^* Although "Welserland"' for years was the accepted name for this 
Province (exclusively so in Germany), in official Spanish documents, so 
far as known to the writer, it was usually called Venezuela. Bonny- 
castle, who, in his history of Spanish America, closely follows Las Casas, 
gives the following explanation of the derivation of the name Venezuela. 
"The shores in the immediate vicinity of its waters (Lake Maracaybo) 
are unhealthy, owing to the vapors arising in the night after the great heat 
of the day. "When the .Spaniards first landed in this country, they ob- 
served several villages built in the lake, which is the mode adopted by the 
Indians at present, [iSio?] considering this plan the healthiest. The 
appearance of one of these little towns amid the waters, caused the 
Spanish adventurers to name it Little Venice, or Venezuela. Which 
title was afterwards transferred to the whole Province in the neighbour- 
hood. "Four of these villages still remain [1810?] and are under the 
government of a monk, who has a church and the spiritual charge of 
the people." 

Unfurling the Imperial Standard. 91 

and a landing made on February 23, 1528.^^^ Upon 
the following day, Dalfinger, witH four hundred men 
and eighty horses, entered the native village of 
Coro,*" unfurled the Imperial standard, and under its 
folds had himself acknowledged Governor and Cap- 
tain-General of Welserland, the first German colony 
to be established in America, amid salvos of musketry 
and strains of martial music. A regular government 
was organized, a town projected and foundations were 
laid for a christian church, ^'^ whose titular patron 
was St. Anna.^^ 

^ Karl von Kloden, Die Welser in Augsburg als besitzer von 
Venezuela, (Berlin, 1S55), p. 437. Zeitschrift fiir Allgemeine Erdkunde, 

P- 437- 

^ Bartholomaeus Sailer, [Seyler] evidently a relation to Hieronymus 
Sailer and Johannes Sailer of Bamberg, for whom Johannes Schoner in 
1520 constructed his celebrated globe. See above, p. 70. 

*'8» He died during the last Dalfinger expedition, a few days before 
his commander. 

*'"' These miners, all experienced men, were mainly from the St. 
Joachimsthal in the Erzgebirge. The negotiations were made by Hans 
Ehinger, who went to Joachimsthnl for that purpose with Bergmeister 
Reiss and Jorg Neusesser, upon the part of the miners. After signing 
the contract the men were referred to Hieronymus Walther of Leipzig, 
who furnished the transpo: tation to Seville. 

*' Geschichte der VVelser-Ziige in America, p. 42. 

^* Sebastian Rentz had previously travelled extensively through Asia 
and Africa in the interests of his employers the Welser Company, and 
as early as 1517 had obtained some reputation as a cartographer or 
map- maker. 

^3 Not Governor of San Domingo, as stated by Weyermann. 

8^'' Coro was chosen as a landing-place, because the pilots of that day 
were somewhat acquainted with that part of the coast; and further, there 
was a possibility of obtaining assistance there, if necessary, from the 
Europeans who were already in this vicinity. 

90 Originally an Indian village called Coriana. The first Europeans 
who landed here were a party of adventurers under Juan de Ampues, 

92 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Thus was establislied German civilization upon the 
soil of the new world, even prior to the Spanish con- 
quest of Mexico or Peru. 

The musical feature of the above celebration was 
undoubtedly the most inspiring part of the occasion. 
Historically it is the first record of an organized band 
of musicians in the new world. This is but another 
incident where the priority belongs to the German 

Many successive expeditions were sent out to 
America by the Germans after the edict was issued 
by Charles V, granting an extended permission to 
all of his German subjects to emigrate and settle in 

who called the place Coro. Prior to the grant of the Germans, the 
whole territory was known as Coro. See Ternaux, introduction, pp. 4-5. 

^"'^ Dedicated July 26, 1529. 

^' Coro, or Santa Anna de Coro, afterwards became the capitol of 
Venezuela and the seat of the Spanish Viceroy. The town is situated at 
the head of a bay of the Gulf of Maracaibo, called El Golfete. It is 
built on several islands and a narrow sandy isthmus, which separates 
the gulf from the Caribbean sea. It is said that the original village 
found there by the Spaniards consisted of a group of houses built in the 
water upon piles, like those of the lake-dwellers. Recent explorations 
of the shell-mounds on the Florida Keys by Mr. Cushing have brought 
to light numerous remains which seem to indicate that this settlement 
upon the shore ot Coro was a relic of an ancient civilization which once 
extended along the shores of the Caribbean sea and the Gulf of Mexico. 
Spanish records state that on acconut of the marine location of this Indian 
village, they called the place Little Venice, a name which eventually 
became Venezuela. During the Spanish reghne, prior to 1636, the town 
was a rich and important one. After the removal of the seat of govern- 
ment to Caracas in the latter year, it lost much of its wealth and impor- 
tance. It is now chiefly known for its commerce and export trade. The 
town has four fine churches and about 10,000 inhabitants. The great 
drawback to its development has been a lack of drinking water, which 
has to be carried from the mainland. 

Arms of Nilrjiberg. 


tlie West Indies. Among these expeditions of the 
Welsers which deserve special mention, are those 

Arms of the Imperial City of Nurxberg. 

under Nicolaus Federmann, George Hohemuth,^^ von 

"^ George Hohemuth (not Frohermuth, as occasionally written) was- 
a native of Memmingen, but is usually known as of Speyer. 

94 The Pennsylvafiia-Ger77tan Society. 

Speir, and the Frankish knight Philip von Hntten,^^ 
a nobleman from Birkenfeld ; and, later, the expedi- 
tions sent out by the Fuggers to develop the western 
coast of South America. 

*^ Philip von Hutten was a brother to Bishop Moritz von Hutten at 
Eichstedt, He left a diary covering the period from 1538 to 1541, 
■which was published by Meusel, under the title Zeitmig mis Indien 
^{Bibliotheca Historica, vol. iii, Hps., 17S7). 


^ pedition under 
Nicolaus F e d e r - 
mann, a native of 
Ulm, left San Lu- 
car Barameda in 
Andalusia, on 
October 2, 1529, in 
a vessel supplied 
by Welser's agent, 
Ulricli Ebinger. 
The party c o n - 
sisted of 123 sol- 
diers and twenty- 
four German min- 
ers ^^^ {^Bergknap- 
pen.) After a long and stormy voyage the adventur- 
ers reached San Domingo in December, 1529, and 
after refitting and obtaining the requisite number of 
liorses, left for Coro. This expedition is of especial 

Welser ARisrs. 

96 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

importance to us, as Federmann kept a careful ac- 
count of his travels. This was published after his 
death by his kinsman, Hans Kifthaber of Ulm, in the 
year 1557. The only known copy of this book is in 
the Royal library at Stuttgart. It is a quarto of 122 
pages ; following is the unique title and colophon : 

" Indianische Historia. \ Ein sch'one kurtz \ weilige 
Historia Nicolans Fe \ dermanns des Jiingern von 
Ulm I erster raise so er von Hispania iind \ Andolosia 
auss i7i Indias des occea \ nischen Mors get han hat, und \ 
was ihm \ allda ist begegnet diss auff sein widder- 

^^* The contracts for this second contingent of German miners was 
made by Ulrich Ehinger, in the name of Bartholomaeus Welser, 
Ulrich Ehinger and their co-partners. The party was sent by Hieronymus 
Walther, of Leipzig, to Hamburg and Antwerp, whence they were 
transported by VVelser's factors to Seville. Papers relating to this con. 
tract are still in existence. ^Kgl. Hauptstaatsarchiv . Dresden. — Loc. 
10428.) From which it appears that the party consisted of the following: 
Hans Trumpolt from Johannisthal; Velten (Valentin) Landhans (Land- 
thans) from Zigenhals; Sigmunt Geppert (Gebhartt) from Wennsen; 
George Vnglaub (Jerg Vnglob) from Schwatz; Sixt Enderlin from 
Patmos; Wolf Dittrich (Wolff Dietrich) Freiberg; Merten Hoffmann 
from Altenberk; Wolf Gehe (Welff Gehe) from Kirchberg; Melcher 
Reuss from sant Annaberg; [st. Annaberg]; Niekel Teig (Nickell Legk)' 
from Kempis; Critof Richter (Cristoff Richter) from the Neustadt;. 
[Dresden?] Vrban Behm (Vrban Bohem) from Santa Annaberg; 
Moritz Futz (Putzlere) from Sneberg; Hanns Kestell, Burckhardt Ansorg, 
Hanns Weis, Hans Schick, Tomas Vogell, Hans Schenkel, two boys 
(names not given). The wite of Sigmunt Enderlein accompanied the 
party as a cook and washerwoman. She was presumably the first Ger- 
man woman who put her fool upon American soil. A number of these 
German miners not finding the new country to their liking, claimed 
they had been deceived and returned to their native country, where 
they arrived impoverished and disheartened. After their arrival in 
Saxony, they commenced judicial proceedings against all the parties, 
connected with their enlistment. Many of the documents relating to- 
this law suit are still preserved in the Royal Archives at Dresden. 

Federmami' s Diary. 


kunfft in7t Hispaniam^ ^?{^ I kurtzete beschriebeii^ 
gantz I lustig zu lesen. \ MDL VII. Getntckt zu 
Hageiiaw bei Sigfmmd BiindP 

On April i8, 15JO, the colony was reinforced by 

, ferrmfc fo er eon %i^^mM 
rtifcfcit iK^lr^ gct^ctn ^«w/ 6nt> 

tdtetft t>«r*ttt««/'g8rt9 


Title Page of Fedkrmann's Journal. 
(Furnished by Prof. Th. Schott, Royal I^ibrarian at Stuttgart.) 

98 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

tlie arrival of three more vessels with colonists under 
command of Hans Seissenhoffer and George Ehinger. 

The next important expedition to leave Europe 
was under the command of George Hohemuth von 
Speir, which left Spain on October 18, 1534, and ar- 
rived at Coro, February 5, 1535. This party con- 
sisted of over 600 adventurers. iVmong the officers 
were Philip von Hutten,^'* a nobleman from Birken- 
feld ; Hieronymus Koller from Niimberg ; Majordomus 
Andreas Gundelfinger, Paymaster Franz Lebzelter 
from Ulm ; Nicolaus Federmann and Hans Vohlin 
from Augsburg, the last a nephew of the Welsers.^'^ 

Among the adventurers sent out there was a band 
of eighteen musicians, together with a number of 
artisans. Special mention is made of a printer ^^* 
{^Buchdrucker)^ evidently bringing with him a print- 
ing press and type. This is the earliest record of 
any printer having been sent to America. Unfor- 
tunately, beyond the mere mention in the official list, 
that a printer was sent out among the craftsmen who 
went in this expedition, there is nothing to show, 
either in the way of an imprint or documentary 
evidence, that he ever did any printing in America, 
or that a press was even established at Coro. 

Should, however, any imprint of this hitherto un- 
known printer ever come to light, it may prove to be 
a German one printed with German type : it could 

^* In Spanish records Philip de Urre, Uten, Utre, Urra, etc. 

^^ See foot-note, p- 71 supra. 

^^^ Geschichte der Welser-Ziige, p. 94. 

Foinidiiig of Bogota. 99- 

but antedate by a few years the known imprints of 
Jakob Cromberger of 1540 without in the least affect- 
ing the fact that to the German nation is due the 
honor of establishing the printing press in the west- 
ern world. 

It is not within the scope of this paper to follow up 
the various expeditions undertaken during the next 
quarter of a century by the Germans, which extended 
hundreds of miles into the interior of South America, 
to relate how the city of Bogota was founded early in 
1539, by Nicolaus Federmann during his second ex- 
pedition, a city which is now the capital of the 
United States of Colombia. Nor will we recite the 
sufferings of these brave adventurers, or chronicle 
their deeds ; how brave Ambrose Dalfinger died the 
death of a hero,^ or the lamented George von Speir 
fell a victim to the tropical fever.^" It would fill 
several volumes to do justice to this epoch in Ameri- 
can history. Sufiice it to say that the successive 
expeditions under Dalfinger, Sailer,^ Federmann, 
Ehinger, Sarmiento, Alemann,^^ Seissenhofi"er, Hohe- 
muth, Heinrich Rembold and Hutten, ^°° tended to 

^® According to Weyland, Dalfinger was wounded by the natives iu 
1531, in a valley about six hours from Pampelona. This spot still bears 
the name Vale de Micer (Mister or Herr) Ambrosio. He died about a 
week later at the deserted village of Chinacota where he was buried. 
See Geschichte der Welser-Ziige, p. S4-5. 

^'^ Also called George Spirra. His various expeditions into the in- 
terior extended over a period of five years. He returned to San Domin- 
go in 1539, where he shortly afterwards died. 

^^ After the death of Dalfinger, Lieutenant Bartholomaeus Sailer suc- 
ceeded to the command of the Colony. He, however, also died in 1532, 
a short time after his superior. 

loo The Pennsylvania-Germaji Society. 

settle and develop the unknown wilds of tropical 
America, even if they did fail to bring their projec- 
tors the coveted golden reward. 

The Germans in America, however, had a worse 
enemy to contend with than tropical fever, poisoned 
arrows or treacherous elements. This was the 
jealousy of the Spaniard, to whom, after the religious 
peace of Niirnberg, all Germans appeared as Luther- 
ans and heretics. No opportunity was left pass, when 
anything detrimental could be done to the Germans : 
at Court, in Spain, as well as in America, it was al- 
ways the same story. 

Unfortunately the history of this first attempt at 
German colonization in America closes with a double 
tragedy — the brutal murder of the chivalrous Philip 
von Hutten,'"^^ Captain General of Welserland, and 

^ Juan Aleman, Johannes der Teidsche, John, the German. The 
identity of this German adventurer is shrouded in more or less mystery. 
Weyland, in his history of Venezuela, wherein he follows Depons and 
■Oviedo, states that Johannes, a German, was sent out by the Welser 
Company to seize the government of the colony in the event of Alfinger's 
death. The account goes on to state that, either on account of the 
devastation wrought by Dalfinger in his expeditions, or else through 
lack of courage, Johannes is said never to have left Coro. 

1"" The names of Melchior Griibel (.arms on page 75) and Meister 
Hans Kistler aus Geldern also occupy a prominent place in the history 
of German enterprise in South America. 

101 Philip von Hutten (Philip von de Urre) spent over fifteen years in 
Venezuela, most of the time in exploring and developing the country 
and its resources. He was also a firm believer in the existence of an 
El-Dorado in the interior, and led several expeditions with the object of 
finding and conquering that mythical land of gold. His greatest feat 
was when he, together with 39 German soldiers, fought and defeated 
over 15,000 Omegas. See Weyland, Reise in Terra Firma, (Berlin, 
1808, ) pp. 282, et seq. 


J /*» - 

\'. \ K I'll, N* R T 

. .^ n r. 

c K A 

- .VI 

\ !.' 



Murder of the German Commanders. loi 

Bartolomaeus Welser, eldest son of tlie senior mem- 
ber of the great Augsburg firm, who, in 1541, bad 
been sent to Welserland as Governor. The Spanish 

records call him ^^ Don 
Bartolomeo Belzar^ Gober- 
nador de S7c Majestad^ Ade- 
lantado del Reino de Z^/^- 

The two German com- 
manders were murdered 
on April 18, 1546, by order 
of the Spaniard, Carava- 
jal.'°^ When the news of 
this tragedy reached Ger- 
many it caused great indig- 
nation, which even the 
summary execution of Car- 

Philip von Hdtten. ^^,„^„1 C„'.^ J i. 

avajai tailed to assuage. 
The Welser s, from now onward, took less interest 

i"» Hutten, in his diary, writes under date of March lo, 1541: ''Vor 
kurzen Tagen ist Herrn Bartolma Welser's Sohn hier angekommen, ein 
verstiindiger junger Gesell, iiber dessen Ankunft alle grosse Freude ge- 
habt haben ; ich habe keinen Zweifel dass ihn die Herrn Welser zum 
Gubernator machen werden, da Gott ihn zu solcher Zeit geschickt hat." 

^"^ Juan de Caravajal accompanied as notary the first Welser expedi- 
tion to America, which was sent out under Dalfinger. He afterwards 
returned to San Domingo, where it appears he remained until 1542. 
After the death of Heinrich Rembold (1542), he was sent to Coro to 
take charge of the Government in the absence of Philip von Hutten, 
Imperial Captain-General, and young Welser, who were upon an ex- 
tended expedition in the interior. Caravajal at once assumed charge of 
affairs at Coro, and upon learning that the Germans had experienced 
great hardships and were returning in a shattered condition, and that 
the troops were weakened from wounds and disease, he, at the instiga- 

I02 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

in tlie development of their possessions in South 
America. ^"'^'^ They still, however, held the title and 
a dominating influence in its affairs for another de- 
cade, as it was not until the year 1555 that they were 
finally debarred from their concessions for some un- 
explained reason, after an exasperating law-suit 
which was decided against them.^°^ Thus ended the 
first organized scheme of German colonization in 

tion of Pedro de Limpias, attempted to secure control of the govern- 
ment and combine the colony with that of New Granada. Caravajal, 
with a number of Spaniards, rode out to meet the returning Germans. 
Hutten and Welser, who suspected no treachery, were seized while 
their men were out foraging, and at once executed under an old tree, 
which still stands in the plaza of Tocuyo. The two Germans were be- 
headed by a negro with a dull hunting-knife. Some of the German 
troops escaped to Coro, where in the meantime Juan Perez de Tolosa 
had arrived, bearing special concessions from the Crown. As soon as 
he was informed of Caravajal's treachery, he ordered him to be taken to 
the spot and executed in a similar manner. 

102b Prom the Welser Codex in the British Museum, it appears that 
the attempts to dispossess the Germans of their possessions in America 
commenced as early as May ii, 1535, with an instruction sent out by the 
Queen regent to Bishop Bastidas, wherein she implores him to keep a 
watchful eye upon the German colonists in his Province, (Venezuela) 
as it has been stated that a number of persons emigrated to the new 
country without complying with the published statutes, not only to the 
prejudice of the Spanish character of the country, but above all en- 
dangering the unity and purity of the faith. All such cases were to be 
reported direct to Seville at once without delay, and such persons 
[evidently who professed the Lutheran faith] were to be banished 

w* Antheil der Deutschen an der EntdeckungAmerikas. (Stuttgart, 


1"* There are still a number of families in Venezuela who trace their 
ancestry to some of the German adventurers of Welserland. In many 
cases it is a source of pride, not even surpassed by that of the Spanish 

Hispanicized Names. 103 

The question will undoubtedly arise in the minds 
of many persons, why this epoch in German and 
American history has not been brought out with the 
prominence which it deserves ? The answer is that 
most of the accounts bearing upon the subject are 
stored in the archives at Seville, wherein the long- 
forgotten actors are lost under Hispanicized and 
foreign names ;^°^ and such poets as sung the Ger- 
mans' praises in their epic poems ^^ have long been 
cast aside as strains that grate harshly upon the 
jealous Spanish ear/"^ 

The usually accepted account of the German 
regime in America is that of the Dominican monk 
las Casas,^*^ who in his work on the Indies, " Tyran- 

1°^ In Spanish and Portuguese records, the German name of Welser is 
variously changed to Velseri, Berzer, Berzares, Belzares, Belzaras, 
Bersyrs, Belsyres, etc., while the Fuggers appear as Fucares, Folkyres. 
Fouchers, etc. Amerkungen zur Geschichte der Welser-Ziige, p. 297. 

^^ Poems of Juan de Castellanos. Primera parte de las Elegias de 
varones ilustres de Indias, compiiestas por Juan de Castellanos, etc. 
(Madrid, 1589.) See Ticknor, History of Spanish Literature (London 
1863,) ii, p. 472. Volume ii, of Castellanos contains the Welser episode.' 

1°' Hermann A. Schumacher, in Hamburger Fest-schrift, vol. ii, p. 

1"® Bartholomew de las Casas, a Spanish prelate, was born at Seville 
1474, and in his nineteenth year accompanied his father, who sailed with 
Columbus to the West Indies. Five years afterward he returned to 
Spain, and pursuing his studies, entered the ecclesiastical order. He 
again accompanied Columbus in his second voyage to Hispaniola, and 
on the conquest of Cuba settled there, and distinguished himself by his 
humane conduct toward the oppressed natives, of whom he became in a 
manner the patron saint. In 1516 he returned to Europe to state the 
case of the Indians before the Crown. The regent Ximenes appointed 
a commission to investigate the charges. The outcome of this investi- 
gation not meeting with his approbation, he again went to Spain to lay 
the case of the Indians before the new King and Emperor Charles V. 

I04 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

nies et cruautez des Espagnols, co7mnises es Indes 
Occidentales^ qii' ojt dit le Novcau Monde^^ in the 
chapter on Venezuela accuses the Germans (whom he 
called Flemings) '"'^ of the greatest barbarities and 
cruelty, beside which even the tortures of the Inqui- 
sition sink into insignificance. 

There is, however, a twofold explanation of this 
unjust criticism of the German pioneers. The first 
is to be found in the national jealousy that was then 
so strong between the two nations. The other one, 
the religious feature, arose from the fact that the 
Germans were accused of introducing the Lutheran 
religion into the colony. It is difiicult to say just 
what proof there is of this charge. According to v. 
Kloden the entire German contingent in South 
America as early as 1532 had accepted the Lutheran 

Certain it is, however, that the brave Philip von 

Las Casas, by a singular inconsistency, in his zeal for the Indians, be- 
came the author of the slave-trade, by proposing to purchase negroes 
from the Portuguese in Africa to supply the planters with laborers, of 
the want of whom they complained ; a proposition which was unfortu- 
nately put into execution. His famous Bremssitna Relacion de la 
Destruccion des Indies is well known. So far as the charges of cruelty 
against the Germans are concerned, they seem to have been inspired 
mainly by the fact that von Hutten and others refused to attend mass. 
In short he calls the Germans heretics and Lutherans. Las Casas after- 
wards became Bishop of Chiapa. He eventually fell into disfavor with 
his superiors, lost his bishopric, and died in comparative obscurity in 
Madrid in 1556, in the 92nd year of his age. To such as know nothing 
of his inconsistency in regard to the negro, he generally appears as 
a benevolent character, whose chief aim in life was the relief of the op- 
pressed aborigines in the West Indies. 
103 Spanish Edition Paris MDCXCVII pp. 115 et seq. 

Charges against the Germans. 105 

Hiitten refused to attend mass, even if lie was not an 
avowed Liitlieran. Las Casas further states : The 
Flemish General [v. Hutten] is nothing but a 
heretic ; he never attends mass himself, nor suffers 
others to go, and he further shows plain evidences of 
L-utheranism, whereb}^ one may know him.^°^" 

Then again there are three arguments, which con- 
trovert the trustworthiness of the Las Casas ac- 
count '}^^ 

1. He fails to name any one of the German Gov- 
ernors whom he accuses of gross cruelty toward the 

2. The accounts are evidently aimed at Ambrose 
Dalfinger, who was charged with every type of bar- 
barity actually committed by native Spaniards in the 
adjoining provinces. 

3. No charge of cruelty whatsoever can be brought 
against either Johann the German (Johann Alemann), 
or Philip V. Hutten. George von Speir was only ex- 
ceptionally harsh when occasion required it, and 
even Federmann, the soldier of fortune, ever inclined 
toward mercy and humanity.^^^ 

It certainly seems somewhat anomalous for a 

109b .jf ^j^jg ^g gQ then we may claim that date as the introduction of 
the Lutheran faith into the western world. {^Die Welser in Augsburg als 
besitzer von Venezuela, p. 440. ) 

1'*'= Las Casas : Die Verheerung West Indiens. German edition (Ber- 
lin, 1790) pp. 146-7. Also, Relacion de la desirnccion de las Indias 
Occidentalis. Presentado a' Felipe ii. (Philadelphia, 182 1,) Chap. 
Reyno de Venezuela, pp. 109-117. 

"" These charges of Las Casas were publicly contradicted at the time 
by Sepulveda, of Cordova, who was the official historiographer of the 
Emperor Charles V. Rome 15 — . 


TJie Pennsylvania-German Society. 

bishop of the order that introduced the Tribunal of 
the Inquisition into the world, and who was the 
original instigator of negro slavery in America, to 
charge the Germans in America with any such in- 

Further, according to the lately discovered Welser- 
Codex in the British Museum, the fact is proven 
beyond any doubt, that the treatment of the Indians 
in Venezuela by the Germans, was no more cruel 
there than elsewhere. On the contrary, all indica- 
tions point to a policy of friendly intercourse between 
the Germans and the Indians. Consequently, not- 
withstanding the implied permission enjoyed by the 
Germans for maintaining a slave-trade, the condition 
of the Venezuela Indians was by no means so bad as 

Arms of the Republic of Venezuela. 

Refutation of Las Casas. 


to justif}^ the charges made against the Germans by- 
Las Casas. This fact is fully set forth in the above 
original document. "^^ 

"1 Karl Klunzinger, Antheil der Deutschen an der Entdeckung Sud 
Americas. (Stuttgart, 1857,) p. iii. 
"'* Der Welser-Codex, see foot note 77a supra. 



^^ of the grant made 
by Charles V. to 
Anton and Hierony- 
mus Raimond Fug- 
ger, merchants and 
bankers at A u g s - 
burg, are not quite 
so clear, as the docu- 
ments bearing upon 
the transaction were 
stored in the archives 
at Seville, and during 
the past centuries, 
like many similar 
ones, have long since been forgotten. 

Lately, however, a number of these papers, bear- 
ing upon the exploration and settlement of the west 
coast of South America, were resurrected, examined 

The Fugger Arms. 

i H m 

















1 II 








The Grant to the Fuggers. 


and published by Senor J. T. Medina."^ Coleccion 
de dociinienias ineditos para la Jiistoria de Chili^ Tom. 

From these records it appears that the grant to the 
Fugger firm embraced the whole lower end of the 
southern hemisphere, between the straits of Magellan 
and the southern boundary of Peru ;"' in fact, that 
Chili, the most progressive of the modern republics 
of South America, was originally a German colony. 
From these documents as 
published it appears that 
the original grant was 
made on July 25, 1529, to 
one Simon de Aleazaba. 
It was not long, however, 
before we find the conces- 
sion transferred to the 
Germans ; Veit Horl,^'^ 
the resident factor of the 
Fuggers at Seville, having 
negotiated the transfer.^^^ 

There appears to have 
been considerable negotia- 
tion between the Spanish 
Indian office and the Ger- 
man merchants in refer- 
ence to the particulars and emoluments. A personal 

iJ[lE R.OMyM.9 FuCruEH 

"^ Zeitschrift der Geselschaft fur Erdkunde zu Berlin. Vol. xxvii, p. 

"^ The concession mentions the stretch of coast extending 200 leguas 
from the west cape of the straits of Magalhen, to the District of Chincha, 

no The Pennsylvania-Ger'ma7i Society. 

appeal to the Bmperor by one of the German mer- 
chants, however, settled the dispute in their favor. 
One of the conditions of the grant was that the Fug- 
gers were to send out three expeditions, with no less 
than 500 men, to take possession and explore the 
country. The same powers vested in the Welsers 
were conferred upon them. The German firm had 
the right of appointment of all officers from Captain- 
General downward. The governorship of the colony 
was to be hereditary for three generations, counting 
Anton Fugger as the first one. This grant also se- 
cured to the Fuggers the monopoly of all trade 
within the bounds of the Province. 

It appears that the Fuggers were very exacting in 
their demands upon the Emperor as to the particu- 
lars of the colonial Government. A demand which 
was imperatively insisted upon was one that should 
forever redound to the honor of the noble German 
house who refused to accept the charter unless it con- 
tained a provision against the system of enslaving 
the natives, known as enconiiendas. 

The Fuggers not only demanded that Charles V. 

which was the southernmost point of the grant made to Pizarro. Ibid p. 
408. See also ''Die Fugger and der Spanische Gewiirzhandel." Augs- 
burg 1S92. 

'^* In the Spanish documents, this factor appears as Guido Herl, 
Hezerle or Horrelo. According to the " Personal Repertorium " of the 
family archives of the noble Fugger family, the correct name is Veit 
Horl. Here is also preserved his last will and testament, together with 
a document wherein Horl endowed a charitable institution in the year 
1546. See also K. Heabler. Zeitschrift, vol xxvii. Berlin, 1892. 

"^ Ibid, pp. 111-112. 

The Earliest Protest against Slavery 


should abstain from granting any encomienda "® 
privileges within the bounds of their province, but 
also undertook, so far as they were concerned, to ac- 
<:ept the provision against this form of slavery in its 
fullest sense. They were evidently satisfied as to 
the iniquit}' of the institution, and that in their 

opinion other and more 
humane means would be 
found to further the colo- 
nization of the colony and 
the civilization of the 
Indians far more rapidly 
than could be done by 
means of servitude. ^^" We 
have here a German pro- 
test against human slavery 
which antedates the cele- 
brated Germantown one 
by fully a century and a 
half."^ It was well toward 
the end of 1531 ere the 
negotiations were ended, 
and the document signed 
by the Spaniards upon one part, and Veit Horl, as 
agent for his principals, upon the other. 

116 Weyland (Berlin, iSoS,) who endorsed this system of slavery, (p. 43) 
gives the following description of the system known in Spanish annals 
as Encomiendas. He states that the object of the system was to bring 
all Indians within a certain district under the supervision of some intelli- 
gent Spaniard, without, however, conferring upon him any absolute 
right of possession ( Eigenthumsrecht. ) He was required: i. To pro- 

112 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Anotlier interesting feature of the concession 
granted to the Fugger company by Charles V. was 
the right and privilege to mint and coin both gold 
and silver money, for circulation at home as well as 
in the provinces granted them. 

Thus far no accounts have been published as to 
the expeditions sent out to Chili, or what efforts, if 

tect them from all imposition and oppression, to which they were liable 
by reason of their ignorance of the requirements of the civil laws. 
2 To unite them in one village, without, however, being permitted to 
live among them. 3. To cause them to be instructed in the Christian 
religion. 4. To regulate their social economy, and obtain the respect 
for the heads of families due them, a condition entirely unknown to the 
Indians 5. To observe the relationship in the various families, and to- 
introduce such customs as would bring about civilized order. 6. To^ 
instruct them in agriculture, and such trades as would be of benefit to- 
them. 7. To eradicate all desires or customs of their former savage 
mode of life. 

For the above endeavors in their behalf, these Encomiendas, as the 
Indians were now called, were required to pay their ]\Iaster or Enco- 
menderos, a yearly tribute, either in manual labor, in the products of 
the ground, or in money. (Weyland, pp. 43-5. See, also Mitchell's 
translation of Depons Voyage to Terra Firma.) The tribute, perhaps in 
most cases, required not only the labor of the head of the family, but of 
every man, woman and child as well. It was merely a cloak for the 
worst kind of slavery. The Indians were parcelled out by thousands by 
the Court of Spain to the various favorites, both male and female. 
There were Encomenderos who never came to America, but collected! 
their tribute by proxy through resident agents, who, if their demands, 
were not paid, simply sold the Indians into absolute slavery in adjoin- 
ing colonies. The law permitting this terrible abuse of the Americars 
natives was abrogated in 1568. See also Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fiir 
Erdkunde zu Berlin, Band XXVII, 1892, pp. 405-419. 

"^ Haebler, Kolonial Unternehmungen der Fugger, ( Berlin, 1892) p. 

"* Done at Germantown, Pennsylvania: "Ye 18 of the 2 month 1688."' 
For text in full see Pennypacker's Historical and Biographical sketches. 
Philadelphia 18S3, pp. 42-45. 

Gei'maiis in Paraguay. 113 

any, were made by the Germans at colonization on 
tlie western coast of America, 

Before passing the subject of German activity in 
the development of South America, we will state 
that the Germans did not confine their attention 
alone to the north and west coast of the new hemi- 
sphere, but were equally active in the exploration of 
Brazil and the countries adjacent to the Rio de la 
Platte. Here again the name and enterprise of the 
Welsers and other German merchants are met with, 
more or less prominently. Two printed accounts 
have come down to us of the exploration and settle- 
ment of the countries now known as Paraguay and 
Buenos Ayres, which show how the Germans shared 
in the vicissitudes of their early settlement. 

The most prominent of these books is the Narra- 
tive of Ulrich Schmidt von Straubingen,^^^ a native 
of Bavaria, and covers the period from 1 534-1554. 
It gives an account of how he went upon an expedi- 
tion to America in one of the Welser vessels. This 

was published at Frankfort by Sebastian Franck 

and Sigismund Feyerabend, in a collection of Voy- 
ages, under the following title :^^° 

" Warhafftige vnd liebliche Beschreibung etlicher 

filrnenien IndianiscJien La7tdschaffte7i vnd Insulen^ die 

vormals in keiner Chronicken gedacht, vnd erstlich in 

der Schiffart Vlrici Schmidts von Slraubingen^ mit 

"' Known in Spanish records as ''Schmidel" and "Ulderiais Faber." 
^'^° An English translation of this book has lately been published by 

the Hakluyt Society. "The conquest of the River Platte, 1535-1555." 

London 1891. 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

grosser gefahr erkimdigt^ vnd von ihni selber auffs 
fieissigst beschrieben vnd darge than. MDLXVII. 

The other work is the narrative of Hans Stade 
and covers the period 1547-1554/^°^ 

Warachti | ge Historie ende be | schrivinge eens 
landts in America ghelegen, wiens inwoonders wilt, | 
naeckt, seer godloos, ende Wreede | Menschen eters 
sijn. Beschreuen door Hans Staden van Homborch 
ut lant van | Hessen, die welcke seiner in Persoone | 
het landt America besocht heeft. | Vt den Hooch- 
duysch-overgheset. | Tantwerpen | By Christoffel 
Plantyn, unde gulden Eenhooren. 1558 Met 
privilgif. I 

Arms of the Republic of Chili. 

120a Copies of both the above rare volumes are in the Carter Brown. 
Library, Providence, R. I. 


ftmSItmg /Wccicfcl/imn6 ^fBncCton/ fo fuxgcni- 
(}aufff nJ>« "JJautcn/ fo fi^iefamfn 

Fac-Simile of the Title Page of Broadside Cort- 

UNY, the Fruehn Article of the Peasants, 

A. D., 1525. 

/p ETURN- 
Vy^ iug o u c e 
more to the per- 
iod of the Refor- 
m a t i o n , two 
other historical 
episodes are re- 
called, which in 
the course of a 
century and a 
half were des- 
tined to exercise 
considerable in- 
fluence upon the 
exodus o f the 
Germans from 
the Fatherland, 
and the future 
complexion o f 
our Common- 
wealth. The 

ii6 The Pen7isylvama-German Society. 

£rst of these movements, the so-called Peasants' War 
(1524-26) was an uprising of the masses in central 
and southern Germany in the interests of a univer- 
sal democracy. It ended in their defeat and an in- 
crease of the burdens of the peasantry, and we may 
say their further enslavement. 

The other episode, a religious movement, under 

icgmn5tUcbmt)n6 rccl> 
jt cnbaiwt ^mckelaUcr 
bauricbafftt>nd bindafdfcii 

licbcn obcrkcften x>onn 




Title Page of the Twelve Articles of 1525. 

the leadership of KnipperdoUing and Johann von 
Leydere, called by various names, most generally 
" Anabaptist " ^^°^ (1519-1534) though small at first 
and accompanied by the wildest excesses of lawless 
fanaticism, ^"^ in the course of years, under the teach- 

120b 'phg Anabaptist movement in Germany was in reality an out- 
come of the Peasants' war. The chief seat of this agitation was at 
Miinster in Westphalen, where under the leadership of KnipperdoUing 
and his son-in-law John of Ley den, both the religious and civil govern- 
ment was assumed by the adherents of the new sect. 


■i, i--\^ier/^] 


JulichCleve'schen Erblander 

zu Aiifan^ d.l7. Jalirhumlerts. 
MaBslab 1:2 200 000. 

10 I D !0 30 40 50 


The JiJLIOH-OLiEVB Hereditary Domain at the commencement 
of the XVIIth Century. 

The Peasants' Broadside. 


^in Sermon gepieoiget x>o\\\ 

^c$iticttfc&c«/iiud) von rtnruf' 

Title Page of Broadside Circulated Among the Peasantry. 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

ings of Menno Simon, who gathered up the scattered 
Baptists, resolved itself into the denominations 
known as Mennonites, Dunkers and similar congre- 
gations, who are now among our most peaceful and 
harmless Christians. Their haven of rest was event- 
ually found in the fertile valleys of our own Penn- 
sylvania,'^' and their descendants are to-day among 
our most thrifty and respected citizens. 

Title of the First German Bible. 
(Reduced Fac-Simile.) 

^'^^ The main cause for these excesses was a certain Johannes Bockhold, 
a tailor of Leyden, who came to IMiinster in 1533. Assuming the name 
of John of Leyden. he excited a portion of the populace, and had him- 
self declared as king of New Zion. From this period 1534, Miinster 
became the theatre of all the excesses of fanaticism, lust and cruelty. 
The city was captured June 24, 1535, by the forces under the Bishop of 
Miinster, and the kingdom of the Anabaptists was destroyed by the 
execution of the chief men. 

Council of Trent. ng 

In tlie year 1520, while tlie emperor Charles V. 
was sojourning in Germany, a letter was handed to 
him from America. This missive, dated July 16, 
1 5 19, and now in the archives of the Imperial 
Library at Vienna, was from Hernando Cortez, and 
told of the capture of a country rich in precious ore. 
This was welcome news to that impecunious ruler. 
The returns for the next decade, however, failed to 
make any great impression upon the finances of 
Spain, and it was not until the stream of blood- 
stained gold from Peru reached Spain in 1534, that 
the emperor of Germany and king of Spain felt him- 
self free from the power of the German merchants^ 
and in a position to curtail the privileges of these 
wealthy commercial corporations, the chief among 
which was the powerful Hanseatic League, whose in- 
fluence had so long excited the jealousy of the German 
emperor and his electors. 

This improvement in Spain's finances and their 
consequent independence of German merchants, was 
followed by a cloud of Latin bigotry and intolerance, 
which again darkened the horizon of the Fatherland 
and threatened to sweep away the last vestige of 
religious liberty obtained after so severe a struggle at 
the Peace of Niimberg in 1532. 

The Council of Trent (1545) had become a matter 
of history. Charles V, being then free from foreign 
complications and acting under the impulses of the 

^^^ See Mennonite Emigration to Pennsylvania, by Dr. J. G. DeHoop 
Scheffer, Amsterdam, in Penna. Magazine of History. Vol. ii p. 117. 

I20 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Council, with the flood of silver at his disposal, 
which was now coming in by the cargo, being the 
output of the mines of Potosi, determined to make a 
mighty effort to crush the independence of the 
estates of the empire in Germany and the Protestant 
religion at the same time. He was urged on by the 
Pope, Paul III, who sent a contingent of 12,000 foot 
and 1,000 horse. Charles V, in his ambition, how- 
ever, was opposed by the so-called Schmalkaldic 
League, ^"'^ a confederation of the Protestant princes 
and imperial cities under the leadership of John 
Frederick, of Saxony. A two-years' war was the re- 
sult, and ended disastrously for the Protestants.^"* 

These troubles did not come to an end until Sep- 
tember 25, 1555, when the religious peace of Augs- 
burg ^~^ was consummated. But this only granted 
religious freedom to such as adhered to the Augsburg 
Confession. It secured no privileges whatever to the 
Reformed (Geneva) religion. 

1-^ The Smalcaldic League was concluded February, 27, 1531, by 7 
Princes, 2 Counts and 1 1 free cities for mutual defence of their 
religious and political independence against Charles V. and the Catholic 

1'-* The victory of the Imperial forces over Philip von Hessen, at 
Miihlberg, April 24, 1547. 

1^5 The territorial princes and the iree cities, who, at this date, ac- 
knowledged the confession of Augsburg, received freedom of worship, 
the right to introduce the relormation within their territories {jus 
reformandi), and equal rights with the Catholic estates. No agreement 
reached as regarded the Ecclesiastical Reservation {Reservatuni ecclesi- 
asticnni) that the spiritual estates (bishops and abbots) who became 
Protestant should lose their offices and incomes. This peace secured 
no privileges for the Reformed (Geneva) religion. 

A Huguenot Colony. 12 1 

This state of religious intolerance and unrest in 
both Germany and France culminated during the 
memorable year of 1555 in an attempt being made to 
establish a distinctively Protestant settlement in 
America. It was made under the patronage of Ad- 
miral de Coligny, but failed through the defection of 
the leader.^-*^ In 1562 and 1564 a second and third 
attempt were made under the same auspices. These 
latter ventures w^ere within the bounds of the United 
States, and among the emigrants were a number of 
Alsatians and Hessians who had served under the 
Admiral's brother. 

The settlement in 1562 was made near Port Royal 
in South Carolina, and was soon abandoned. Two 
years later Coligny sent out an expedition under 
Rene Laudonniere to carry aid and reinforcements to 
Ribault's colony. Finding the settlement abandoned, 
they sailed up the St. John's river in Florida, and 
there built Fort Carolina. Ribault arrived the fol- 
lowing year, August 28, 1565. Three weeks later 
the settlement was captured by Spaniards under 
Mendez de Aviles, who had all the settlers brutally 
tortured and murdered; after which he set up a 
placard : " / do tin's not as to Frenchmen^ but as to 
Luthemnsy Ribault, with a number of settlers, 
escaped to sea, but his vessel was wrecked, and the 
crew and company shared the same fate as their fel- 
lows at Fort Carolina. 

In Germany the era of religious tranquillity proved 

12" Chevalier Nicolaus Durand de Villegegannon. 

122 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

of but short duration. The abdication of Emperor 
Charles V, January 15,1556, at Brussels ; the election 
of his younger brother (Ferdinand I, 1 556-1 564) and 
the reign of the latter's son, Maximilian II, 1564- 
1576, and grandson, Rudolph II, 1 576-161 2, (a 
learned man who fostered the occult sciences, and 
was an adept in astrology, alchemy and astronomy) 
all happened within a quarter of a century. Then 
came a reaction against Protestantism, which led to 
the formation of a Protestant Union (1608) under 
Frederick IV, elector Palatine ; and a Catholic 
Union a year later, led by Maximilian, duke of 
Bavaria.^"^ To further complicate matters, Rudolph 
II was succeeded by his childless brother, Matthias 
(1612-1619.) The latter having obtained the renun- 
ciation of his brothers, secured the imperial succes- 
sion for his cousin Ferdinand, duke of Styria, (Ferd- 
inand II, 1619-1637) who had been educated by the 
Jesuits in strict Catholicism. The outcome of these 
various complications was the great struggle known 
in history as the Thirty Years' War.^-^ 

This struggle is generally divided into four periods, 
which were really as many different wars. The first 
two, known as the Bohemian and Danish, had a pre- 
dominant religious character ; they developed from 

1" Both of the above leaders were princes of the house of V.'ittelsbach. 

^^^ The various rulers of Europe at the outbreak of this celebrated 
struggle were: Emperor, Matthias; Pope, Paul V; Sultan, Osman; Spain, 
Naples and Sicily, Philip III; France, Louis XIII; England, James I; 
Poland, Sigismundus III; Denmark and Norway, Christian IV; Sweden, 
Gustavus Adolphus; Bohemia, Ferdinand II; Hungary, Ferdinand. 

gcimngau^doln/uom i8. 3um|. 2{nno 1609. 

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Fac-simile page from the oldest known G-ennan newspaper. 
It contains a notice of an expedition to Virginia. 

Revolt in Bohemia. 


the revolt in Bohemia to a general attack by Catholic 
Europe upon Protestant Europe. The last two wars, 
the Swedish and Swedish-French were political wars ; 
wars against the power of the house of Hapsburg, 
and wars of conquest on the part of Sweden and 
France upon German soil. 


tory of Germany, since 
it occnpied a place among 
civilized nations, did the 
Fatherland present so lament- 
able and helpless a condition 
as was the case during the 
second half of the XVIIth 
century, after the terrors of 
the great war were over. 

The actual damage entailed 

A Helmet of the Period. 

by the extended struggle 
known as the Thirty Years' War is hard to estimate. 
Perhaps the greatest real harm done to the nation 
was the breaking down of almost every barrier of 
moral or religious restraint ; a condition which led, 
more or less, to the abandonment of all the ties of 
domestic life.'"^^ 

The actual losses of Germany during this period 
of devastation can only be approximated by consult- 


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Devastation of Germany. 125 

ing tlie statistics of individual states or communities. 
Thus in Wiirtemberg, from 1634-41 over 345,000 
human beings perished b}^ sword, famine and pesti- 
lence, and at the close of the war the Duchy had but 
48,000 inhabitants, impoverished and disheartened. 
Eight cities, 45 villages, 65 churches, and 158 school 
and parochial houses had been burned. Before the 
war the Palatinate was credited with a population of 
half a million souls ; at the close of the struggle, a 
census showed less than one-tenth of the original 

Perhaps the most drastic and 3'et not overdrawn 
description of German3^'s condition is given by Scherr 
in his Cultiir mid Sittciigcschichtc^ wherein he states : 
" The scum of Europe's mercenary hirelings spread 
over Germany's fertile plains, and there perpetrated 
the most terrible martial tragedy which has ever been 
recorded upon pages in the history of nations." 

To the nameless licentiousness of the military cus- 
toms of that day must be added a repulsive senti- 
mentality combined with inhumanity, and an insane 
desire to kill for the mere pleasure of murdering. 

The countless cases of arson, robbery and homi- 
cide, the slaughter of innocent children, the rape 
of maiden and matron, often in view of the help- 
less parent or father, who had been previously 
bound, maimed or mutilated ; the massacre of the 
population of entire towns which had been captured ; 
the drenching of the populace with a villainous 

129 Ursprung und wesen des Pietismus. Sachsse, Wiesbaden. iS84. 

126 The Pennsylvania-Gcnnau Society 

A Camp Scene During the Thirty Years' War. 
(The Portable Prison in the I^eft Corner.) 

decoction of l3^e known as tlie so-called Scliweden- 
trank ; the merciless extortions, the wanton destrnc- 
tion of cattle, grain, crops and domiciles ; all these 
and similar tribulations fell to the lot of Germany 
during the eventful thirty years from 1618 to 164S. 

The armies upon either side were a mere rabble 
and a gathering of outlaws, robbers and plunderers, 
who cared more to extort contributions from the de- 
fenceless peasant and helpless citizen than to face an 
armed foe in the cause of the banners under which 
they fought. 

Female Harpies. 127 

There was but little attempt at uniforming tlie 
troops, and with the exception of the French and 
Hollanders, they were never provided with any dis- 
tinctive clothing. The great majority of soldiery on 
both sides could only be told from beggars or stroll- 
ing vagabonds by the arms they carried. So univer- 
sal was this the case, that prior to going into battle 
the various companies would adopt some mark, as a 
white or red band around the sleeve, or a green sprig 
in their hats, so that they might distinguish them- 
selves from the foe. Another difference between the 
armies of the Thirty Years' War and of later wars, 
was the large number of camp-followers ( Tross^ and 
of women ( Tross-ivciber) ; these two classes in some 
cases amounted to more than three or four times the 
number of troops in the field. ^^^'^ No soldier went to 
the wars in those times unless he took a wife or 
Tross-woman with him, who not only attended to the 
cooking, washing and mending for her soldier, but on 
the march also carried all basr2:ao;e for w^hich there 
was no room in the baggage-train. 

It was these female camp-followers who were the 
most dreaded plunderers, and who subjected the 
helpless matron and maiden of the captured towns 
and villages to tortures to which death would have 
been preferable. 

Nothing was left undone by these harpies to ex- 
tract any hidden valuables from the poor victim who 

129a < Geschichte des dreisigjahrigen Krieges," Leipzig 18S2. Vol. iii, 
p. 221. 

128 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

was handed over into their clutclies. A favorite 
method of torture with them was to remove the flints 
from the gun-locks, and insert in their place the 
thumb of the victim, thus improvising one of the 
most painful instruments of torture. 

Another favorite method of these she-monsters was 
to pierce the tongue and draw a fine horse-hair 
through it, and then either lead their prisoner thereby 
or else draw it back and forth. Boring holes in the 
knee-caps ^^*^ was humane in comparison with other 
excesses which are upon record, and vouched for in 
many instances.^^^ 

At last, after such a terrible scourge of thirty 
years' duration, the negotiations which commenced 
in 1643, having for their object a lasting peace, were 
brought to a close in the year 1648. 

The convention which brought this great struggle 
to a peaceful end, was the outcome of an Imperial 
diet held at Regensburg, when it was decreed that a 
meeting of deputies should be convened at Frankfort, 
in May, 1642. This was, however, delayed until a 
year later, when the convention adjourned until the 
following year. It was then resolved that the various 
peace commissioners should assemble at Miinster to 
treat with the French, and at Osnabruck with the 
Swedes, and to perfect a protocol which would lead to 
a lasting peace. 

These negotiations extended over several years, 

" Geschichte des dreisigjahrigen Krieges," Leipzig 18S2. Vol. iii^ 

p. 222. 
^^^ Ibid 

Peace of l]^cstp]ialia. 129 

and it was not until October 24, 1648, that peace 
resolutions were signed by all parties at Miinster. 
This is what is known in history as the Peace of 
Westphalia/'^~ A large silver medal was struck to 
commemorate the close of this memorable struggle ; 
a fac-simile of this token showing both obverse and 
reverse is here reproduced. ^'^-^ 

The chief diplomats engaged in this Congress ^'^^^ 
were Count Troutmannsdorf and Dr. Volmer, upon 
the part of the Imperialists ; d'Avaux and Ser\den 
for the French ; while count Oxenstiema, son of the 
great chancellor, and baron Salvius, represented the 
Swedish interests. In addition to the above, France 
and Sweden, against the will of the emperor, secured 
the participation of the estates of the empire in the 

"■^ For a full account of these negotiations, see Gindley, dreissig- 
jahrigen Krieges, Leipzig 1882. Vol. iii. pp. 174, et seq. 

i32» A specimen is in the collection of Mr. Harry Rodgers of Philadel- 

132b Terburg, the artist, painted a large canvas representing the final 
scene of this memorable Congress. This painting is now in the Royal 
gallery at London. 

133 By this peace, the religious and political state of Germany was 
settled ; the sovereignty of the members of the Empire was acknowl- 
edged. The changes which had been made for the advantage of the 
Protestants since the religious peace in 1555, were confirmed by the 
determination that everything should remain as it had been at the be- 
ginning of the [so-called] normal year, 1624. The Calviuists received 
equal rights with the adherents of the Augsburg Confession or the 
Lutherans. This peace gave the death-blow to the political unity of 
Germany. It made the German empire, which was always a most dis- 
advantageous form of government for the people, a disjointed frame 
without organization or system, a condition from which the nation did 
not recover until the glorious wars against France in 1870-1. 

130 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

The final peace, however, was not executed until 
June 26, 1650, when the historic parchment was 
signed at Niirnberg,^^^ where the occasion was made 
one of great rejoicing, the chief feature of which 
was the banquet given in the town hall by the Im- 
perial general, Piccolomini. 

The Fatherland, at the conclusion of the peace of 
Westphalia, was in a pitiable condition. It had 
suffered an irreparable loss of men and wealth, an 
unheard-of reduction of population, great increase of 
poverty, and a retrogression in all ranks of its inhab- 
itants. This was followed by famine and pestilence, 
and in view of these terrible conditions we may well 
accept the statement that the population of the 
Fatherland fell from sixteen millions to four millions, 
and ended with the almost total annihilation of Ger- 
many's wealth and influence.^^^^ 

Formerly, the German emperor was the acknowl- 
edged head of western nations. Now he was shorn 
of all but the merest shadow of imperial power, and 
his domain served his enemies and neighboring rulers 
as a ready object for division and compensation. 

In former years the fleet of the German Hansa 
ruled the ocean, and brought all sorts of foreign 
products to German ports. Now the glory of com- 

^^* The rulers of Europe, at the time of the peace of Westphalia: 
Emperor, Ferdinand IV; Pope, Innocent X; Sultan, Achmet II, son ot 
Ibraim; France, Louis XIV; Spain, Philip IV; England, Charles I; 
Poland, Casimir; Denmark and Norway, Frederick III; Sweden, Queen 
Christina; Bohemia, Ferdinand IV; Hungary, Ferdinand IV. 

^3*a Sachsse, Ursprung und Wesen des Pietismus Wiesbaden, 1884. 

Decline of the Empire. 


mercial supremacy had been gradually wrested from 
them, fi-rst by the Italians, then by Spain, and later 
by Holland and England. Thus was Germany cut 
off from sharing in the riches of the newly discovered 
regions, or extending her power and influence by 

Nor would it have been possible for Germany un- 
der the then existing conditions to aspire to colonial 
or foreign possessions, for she had by no means been 
able to maintain her own borders. 

Holland and Sw^eden had long since recognized the 
importance of foreign extension, which policy re- 
sulted in the establishment of West India compan- 
ies, under whose auspices attempts at settlement 
were made upon the shores of the Hudson and the 
Delaware, movements in which we again find Ger- 
man blood prominently represented. 



Royal Arms of Holland 

tions were sent out to 
America from Holland at 
an early date, and we have 
vague accounts of attempts 
at settlements under Cor- 
nelius Mej^^^' and Ver- 
liulst/'^^^ It was not, how- 
ever, until the formation of the Dutch West 
India Company, an organization projected by Wil- 
helm Usselinx,^^^'' that the first successful effort at 
colonization was made. This colony was led by 
Peter Minuet, a German from Wesel,^'^** who landed 
on Manhattan island, May 4, 1626, and there laid 
the foundation of New Amsterdam, and at the same 
time that of the Reformed faith in America. 

The German soldier, Peter Minuet, was the first 
governor of the colony of New Netherlands, and 
acted as ruling elder of the church in the infant 
settlement.'''^" It is a fact worth}^ of special mention 



(born dec. 9. ISg^t, DIED NOU. 16, 1632.) 


First Organized Co7igregation. 133 

that the congregation founded on Manhattan island 
during the reign of Peter Minuet, was the first fully 
organized Protestant church on the American conti- 
nent/^ with a settled pastor, with regularly chosen 
officers, a list of communicant members, and the 
stated administration of sacraments. 

Treaties were made with the Indians and commer- 
cial relations were opened with the Puritans in Mass- 
achusetts. The settlers, among whom German 
blood was largely represented, came here to found 

1^^ The first attempt at Dutch settlement in America was made in the 
year 1623, under Director Cordelius Mey. 

135a 'pj^g attempt to found a colony under Verhulst was made in the 
year 1625. 

135b Pqj. tjjg thirty-five different spellings of the name of this pioneer 
promoter, the reader is referred to Jamison's Willem Usselinx, New 
York, 1887. Willem Usselinx was born at Antwerp in June, 1567. The 
exact date of his death is not known, as no record of either his death 
or burial have thus far been found. He probably died in the year 1647, 
at the age of eighty years. It does not appear from any of his numerous 
writings that he ever was married or had any children. 

^'^ Peter Minnewit (Minuet, Menewe, Meneve, or Menuet) was born 
at Wesel on the Rhine, of Protestant parentage. Little is known ot 
his early life. There is also a doubt as to the time and place of his 
death. The most generally accepted account and evidently the true 
one, is that he was drowned in the harbor of St Christophers, during a 
a sudden squall upon his return voyage to Sweden. Kapp, in his mono- 
graph 'Peter Minnewit aus Wesel," Miinchen 1866, without citing any 
authority, states that his death and burial took place at Fort Christina, 
sometime during the year 1641. The former is however no doubt the 
true account: certain it is that Minnewit never returned to Europe. 

^" Pastor Michaelius, who served the Reformed Church at New Am- 
sterdam in 1628, mentions the fact in his '•Bericht" that the Director 
Minnewit of Wesel who had acted as Diakon of the Reformed church in 
his native city, had now assumed the same function in the new church 

138 Peter Minuet by Rev. Cyrus Cort, Dover, Del., p. 23. 

134 T^^^ Pennsylvania-German Society. 

liomes for themselves and their families ; others, 
again, to establish commercial relations with the old 
world, and to develop the resources of the new coun- 
try. All this was in direct contrast to what had 
thus far been the policy of the heartless and bigoted 

As a matter of impartial history ; — to the German 
soldier and adventurer, Peter Minuet, belongs the 
credit for inaugurating the humane and christian 
policy of peaceful negotiation and fair dealings with 
the Indians ; a policy for which so much praise has 
been showered upon William Penn by poet, painter 
and historian. Yet here, upon the banks of the 
North river, stood Peter Minuet, a native born Ger- 
man, and director of the Dutch West India Com- 
pany, bargaining with the Indians for their land 
(Manhattan island) before he would permit any set- 
tlement to be made by his colonists. ^^^ This scene 
was enacted just eighteen years before the birth of 
William Penn and was re-enacted by the same pious 
adventurer on the banks of the South (Delaware) 
river some years later, when in the services of 

Under the administration of Minuet, trade and 
commerce flourished in the new settlement, immi- 
grants continued to arrive, and th.e colony from the 
outset entered upon a career of tranquillity and 

139 Winsor, Critical History. Vol. iv, p. 398. 

1*" This treaty or purchase was concluded from five chiefs of the 
Minquas, belonging to the great Iroquois race. 

German Influence. 


Now, what have been the results from this small 
colony upon the strip of island shore, established 
there by this German adventurer and christian 
soldier, Peter Minuet, who was the first European to 
deal honestl}^ and frankly with the aborigines of the 
North American colonies, and found a settlement 
upon principles of humanity and religious tolerance ? 
The answer is that after the lapse of almost three 
centuries, the small settlement of Dutch and Ger- 
man nationality has become the Empire state of the 
American Union, while the little town founded on 
the extreme end of Manhattan island is now the 
commercial metropolis of America ; and I am proud 
to say that German influence is to-day even more 
paramount in commercial, industrial and social circles 
than it was when the first civil government was 

established there 
by the German, 
Peter Minuet. 

After the States- 
General of Hol- 
land, in 1629, i^" 
troduced the 
feudal system into 
their American 
possessions by 

Royal Arms of Sweden. what is kuOWU aS 

the " Charter for Exemptions and Freedom," Usselinx 
severed his connection with the Dutch West India 
Company, and in the next year, 1630, we find him, 
with his restless activity, seeking to interest Swe- 

136 Tlie Pen7isylvania-Gcrvian Society. 

den's king in a similar project for colonization in tHe 
western world. Two years later, (1632) Peter Minuet 
also resigned his commission nnder the Dutch com- 
pany, and returned to German3^ 

As the Swedes at that time were at the height of 
their power in Germany, it occurred to Usselinx to 
interest German capital and population in the scheme 
as well as the Swedish nation. For this purpose he 

Autograph of Gustavus Adolphds. 

issued a pamphlet called Mercui'ius Germaniae^'^^ 
that is Herald of Germany (or German Mercury) 
setting forth to the Germans the advantages of his 
commercial project, and offering them inducements 
to engage in it, under the amplified charter which 
was to admit them to participation with the Swedes. 

This plan was approved by the king, Gustavus 
Adolphus, by a patent issued at Niirnberg, dated but 
a few days prior to the fatal November day when the 
great Swede fell at Lutzen. An ampflication of this 
charter had also been prepared, with the king's ap- 
proval, in favor of the German nation. This docu- 
ment was dated Niirnberg, October 16, 1632, but was 
left unsigned by the king. 

Mcrcurius Germaniae. 



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Title Page of Mercurius Germaniae. Original at Historical Society 
OF Pennsylvania. 

138 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

The patent, however, wt,s signed at Heilbronn, 
April 10, 1633, by the Swedish chancellor. Axel 
Oxenstjerna^'*^ who, though a Swede by birth, was a 
German by adoption and education. In the follow- 
ing May the chancellor, while still at Heilbronn, 
issued a commission which seems to have been drawn 
up for the king's signature, empowering Usselinx as 
chief director of the new South Company to proceed 
with its immediate organization. 

Usselinx, having obtained his enlarged grant, at 
once issued a German 
prospectus of 1 2 7 pages 
folio, under the title 
Argonautica Gustavi- 
ana}^^ The first item 
in the contents of the 

book is a proclamation^ fj /4*«*»'*''^>^ 

or patent by Oxen- ^^^"t*"*^ %/^M^ '^ ^^L ^ 

stjerna, dated Frank- ^^j*^^^^^^^^ 

fort, June 26, 1633, ^y^ 

fifivinof notice of the re- seal and autograph of oxenstierna. 
newal of the charter, with amplifications and the re- 
appointment of Usselinx, and charging all to assist 
in so good a work.'^^ Meetings were held in differ- 
ent cities ^^^ during the next twelve months to organ- 

"^ "MercuHus Germaniae. that is, Special Exposition for Germany." 
See Jamison, vv iHem Usselinx, p. 312. 

^*2 Ibid, 317. 

^*^^ This is supposed to be the earliest German book or pamphlet on 
Emigration. For the l^ibliography of the Argonautica, see Ihid, Appen- 
dix No. 26. 

I" Ibid, 319. 


JO ^on t)m 'Bcikm ^ii(tt>md^cu^u§iimimto^m^t 

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3in3»»t>r^^r(fh « 6 } }, Mcnfcjunio. 

Title Page of Argonautica Oustaviana. Original at Historical Society 
OF Pennsylvania. 

140 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

ize regular colonies, but just at tlie time wlien 
success seemed assured, tlie vicissitudes of war, upon 
the well contested field of Nordlingen, put an end to 
tlie undertaking so far as Germany as a nation was 

For a time the project lagged, but it was gradually 
revived, and in the autumn of 1637 a small expedi- 
tion, consisting almost entirely of Hollanders and 
Germans, set out from Gottenberg under Peter 
Minuet. This little fleet reached the shores of the 
South (Delaware) river about the middle of March, 
1638. Here the scenes enacted twelve years 
previously on Manhattan island were repeated.'^*^ 
On March 29, 1638, a treaty was made with the 
Indians upon the spot where Wilmington now 
stands. ^^'' A colony was started, and the foundation 
laid of the first regularly organized Lutheran church 
in America,^"** one of whose chief objects was the 
christianizing of the Indians, for which the catechism 
of Luther was translated into the Indian vernacular 
and printed at an early time long before the century 
had passed into history. 

"^ Accounts of some of these meetings held at Frankfort on the Mayn 
and at Niirnberg, are still in existence. 

146 Peter Minuet Memorial, p. 29. 

"' Vide History of New Sweden, by Acrelius; also Ferris, Original 
Settlements on the Delaware, p. 43. 

"^ The colonists at first had their public worship in the fort erected at 
the landing place. This was the first place dedicated to divine worship 
in the Christian name on the banks of the Delaware. The first pastor of 
this congregation was the Rev. Reorus Torkillus, who came out with 
the expedition, and officiated until his death in 1643. 


•born 1583, DIED 1654.) 

Lutheran CatecJiisrii. 


JLiLI> a 



American - Virgin! 


$ri)cft tot^i i%tX af ^ongf. -^at)". privileg. 

Anno M DC ySl^h 

Title Page of Lutheran Catkchism in the Indian Language. Original. 
IN Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Peter Minuet, the brave German soldier, never re- 
turned from this voyage ; but bis expedition, small 
as it was, bad sowed tbe germ of another of the 
original states of tbe American Union. 


Arms of the Chur-Pfaltz. 

'more to Europe, it is 
found that when event- 
ually France, under the 
rule of Louis XIV, be- 
came the political and in-^ 
tellectual leader of 
Europe, a policy was 
inaugurated whereby her 
borders were extended eastward at Germany's ex- 
pense. The royal power was asserted by the king, 
who, aided by Alazarin, used it to further his ambi- 
tions and unjust plans of aggrandizement. Thus it 
became possible for him to maintain his wars of con- 
quest in Holland, devastate Wiirtemberg and the 
Palatinate, occupy the city of Strasburg, and event- 
ually detach Alsace and Lorraine. 

In this course of rapine and murder upon German 
soil, the French were neither opposed by the German 

144 ^^^'^' Pennsylvania-German Society. 

emperor Leopold, nor by England, which was then 
rent by internal dissension. In justice to the em- 
peror, it may be said that at that critical period he 
was even harder pushed in the far east by the Turks, 
whose triumphant advance was only checked under 
the walls of Vienna by the bravery of the German- 
Polish contingent which had been hurriedly gathered. 

Sweden had also taken a threatening position in 
the north, and made attempts to extend her domain 
southwards from Pomerania : — efforts which were 
only checked by the glorious victory of the great 
elector upon the field at Fehrbellin (1675.) 

None of these unfortunate warlike movements, 
however, would have placed the Fatherland in the 
helpless condition here showai, had it not been for the 
internal dissensions, political and religious, caused 
by the quarrel between the emperor and the petty 
local rulers. 

We will now take a glance at the religious situ- 
ation of Germany at this critical period. After the 
close of the long war in Europe, Germany, under the 
continued strain of warlike excitement, was natur- 
ally slow in recuperating religiously, financially and 
intellectually ; and in the evangelical sections we 
again have a long period of unrest, which to some 
extent spread to the Catholic church, and in which 
mystical theology played an important part. This 
condition resulted in what is known as the Pietistical 
movement in Germany — a striving after some system 
of personal and practical piety, in opposition to the 
stiff and dogmatical theology as taught b}^ the clergy 

Separatists in Germany. 145 

after the close of the great war. This movement, in 
its different phases, spread throughout Europe, and 
was not confined to the Lutheran church : it extended 
into the Catholic as well as Calvinistic countries. 
The Jansenism of Holland, the Quietism of France, 
the Quakerism of England, all sprang from the same 
tidal wave of religion as the German Pietism. 

The Mennonites, after suffering much persecution, 
had been recognized as a denomination in the 
Netherlands, and by the civil authorities were granted 
equal religious and civil rights with the Reformed : 
(1626) an act which was afterwards strengthened by 
a mandate of toleration from the States-General. 
Under this shelter of religious protection the English 
Quakers were enabled to introduce their doctrine on 
the continent at an early day.^^^ William Ames 
went to Holland as early as 1655, ^^^ ^t once entered 
upon an active missionary career. His ministrations 
extended from Hamburg in the north to Bohemia in 
the south, and from the Hague to the kingdom of 
Poland. In the Palatinate and down the Rhine to- 
wards Switzerland, wherever any Mennonites were to 
be found, there William Ames and his co-laborers, 
William Caton, Stephen Crisp, ^^^^^!Tf^^^|mjj|. 
George Rolf and others, preached M '^/ 'Stli'W 
the doctrine of inward light. The lljii^M 
missionaries made Amsterdam their III IJ I^^SI |^^ 
headquarters ; and two of them — jlf II^BlB^^^^^ 
Crisp and Caton — married Dutch n|||I||I^|^ 
women, ^^° and thus became citizens ^ll^^ftP'^ 
of Holland. A number of pani- akmsT^^dam. 

146 The Penjisylvaiiia-German Society. 

pUets and counter-pamphlets were among the results 
of these missionary tours. 

The following were the most important of these 
German missives : 

Ein Klang des Allanns in den Granzen des Geist- 
lichen Egipten geblasen {welcher in Babilon gehoret 
iverden) and die Inwohner der befleckten und besudel- 
ten JVohnungen in der Erde Erschrecken solt^ etc. 
By Stephen Crisp. Amsterdam Gedritckt Anno iSy^. 

Die sache Christi nnd Seines Volks. With a large 
preface by Bienjamin) E{urly) 4to 1662. By William 

Ein Alarm Geblasen an alle Nationen. ^to i6^j. 

Afi Euch Alle., etc. 410 1661. {Relating to the 
Hat controversy}) 

Eine Beschirmnng der unscJmldigen., etc. ^to 1664. 
{Postscript by Benjafnin Enrly.) 

Gezvisser Schall der Warheit. 4to. 166^. 

Ein Wort zur rechter zeit Wider des gewohnlichen 
Sprichwort., ''''Ein Geist Bezeuget.'''' 410. lOy^. 

Die Alte Warheit Erhbhet. {Against the Lutheran 
Ministe^'ium at Hamburg.) 4to. 1664. 

These last six titles are all by William Caton. 

Later on, other English Friends also became 
prominent in the Low Countries and Germany, some 
of whom became residents of the continent and per- 
manently identified themselves with the lands of 
their adoption. Prominent among such was Benja- 

"9 Penna. Magazine of History and Biography, vol. ii, p. 243. 
1^° Stephen Crisp married Gertrude Derricks, a lady of Amsterdam, 
who was remarkably zealous in the cause of the Quakers. 

Pennh Visits to Germmiy. 147 

min Furly/^' who settled at Rotterdam. Others, 
again, were merely transient visitors, such as George 
Fox and William Penn. The latter appears to have 
made at least three different tours through Holland 
and Germany, viz: — in 1671 when, with Clans, the 
Amsterdam bookseller, as a companion and interpre- 
ter, he visited Labadie/^^ Secondly, some time in 
1674, and thirdly, in the fall of 1677. Several tracts 
were the result of Penn's second visit to Germany. 
Two of the most important ones are entitled : 

Send Brieff an die Biirgermeister und Rath der 
Stadt I Danzig^ von Wilhelm Penn, etc. Amsterdam 
Gedntckt ben Christoff Couraden, Anno i6j^. {Ap- 
pejidix plate I.) 

Epistle to the Princess Elisabeth of the Rhine and 
Countess of Homes. ^^^^ London, 1676. 

Penn's last visit to the continent was his most im- 
portant one, when he came to Holland and Germany 
in company with George Fox and a number of public 
Friends. Fortunately William Penn's journal ^^^ of 
this journey is still in existence.^"'^'^ Nothing is 

^^1 For biographical sketch of Benjamin Furley see the Penna. Mag- 
azine of History and Biography, vol. xix, pp. 227, et seq. Also, The Ger- 
man Pietists of Provincial Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, 1S95 pp. 433, 
et seq. 

1*^ Croese, Gerhard Croesen's Quaker Historie, Berlin, 1696, pp. 662, 
et seq. 

152a Penn'c oiiginal draft of this letter is in the collection of Charles 
Roberts of Philadelphia. 

153 William Penn's Travels in Holland and Germany, by Oswald Seid- 
ensticker. Penna. Mag. vol. ii, pp. 237. 

153a Penn's MSS Journal of this Journey is now in possession of Charles 
Roberts of Philadelphia. 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

known of the itinerary of the previous visits. The 
general object of this extended tour was to spread 
the principles and organization of the Society of 
Friends upon the continent not only among the 
Mennonites, but now to launch out boldly among the 
various persons disaffected with the orthodox forms of 
religion, no matter who they were or where they 
might be. 




Title Page of Penn's Manuscript Journal. Original in the Collection 
OF Charles RonERTS, Esq., of Philadelphia. 

m m 


Penii's Letter to the Countess of Homes. 149 

150 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

One of the chief incentives to the movement in 
German}^ were the Collegia Pietatis of Spener and 
his followers ,^^^ together with the Quietists' move- 
ment inaugurated by Molinos, and similar organiza- 

It is not within the scope of this paper to follow 
Fox and Penn in their travels through the Father- 
land. Suffice it to say that, although William Penn 
made two visits to Frankfort to interview Jacob 
Spener, the great father of Pietism, the latter 
studiously avoided any meeting or even a semblance 
of intercourse with the visiting Quakers, carefully 
guarding himself from any utterances which might 
be construed into an endorsement of their doctrines ; 
and this in spite of the fact that both Fox and Penn, 
when in Frankfort,^^^ were the guests of Johanna von 
Merlau, and had preached at her house. 

This visit of William Penn to Germany, coached 

^^* See letter of Penn to the Countess of Homes. An Account of W. 
Penn's Travails, etc. Second Impression, London, 1695. 

^^* Spener, in his Freyheit der Glaiibigen (Franckfurt am Mayn, 1691), 
chapter vii, p. 117, emphatically denies the aspersion made by Dr. 
Meyer of Hamburg, that nothing was known in Leipzig of the Quakers, 
until alter the formation of the Collegium Pietatis. Spener further 
challenges Dr. Meyer to give the name of a single individual who be- 
came convinced of Quakerism through his connection with the Col- 
legium Pietatis, or to quote any case where a Quaker had even gained 
an entrance to the Collegimn, while he, Spener, was present in Leipzig 
He further brands as a base calumny the charge accusing him ot frater- 
nizing or having any intercourse with the Quaker leaders. In conclu- 
sion, Spener states that if any Quakers were to be found in Leipzig 
they came there independently and of their own accord, and may have 
been there prior to the formation of his Collegium Pietatis, 

1^^ Penna. Magazine, vol. ii, p. 261. 

Philip Jacob Spener. 


Philip Jacob Spener. 
b. January 13, I635 ; d. February 5, I705. 

152 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

as lie was by Benjamin Fiirly, brouglit forth a num- 
ber of interesting tracts i'^"^ four of these being of 
an hortatory character were written by Penn, and left 
with Furly for revision and translation, and were 
aftenvards published by him at his own expense. 

The titles are : 

Forderiing der Christenheit filrs Gericht. (A call 
to Christendom, etc.) {Appendix plate 11.) 

'^''Eine Freundliche heymsiichung in der Liebe 
Gottesi''' (A Tender Visitation in the Love of God.) 
{Appendix plate III.) 

''''An alle diejenigen so nnter den Bekennern der 
Christenheit^'' etc. (To all Professors of Christianity, 

"An alle dieje^iigen welche emjinden^'' etc. (Tender 

The above were also published collectively in 
Dutch under the general title : 

" Het Christenrijk Ten O or dee I Gedagvaart^'''' etc. 
Rotterdam 1678, 4to. {Appendix plate IV.) 

Two of the above tracts — "A Call to Christendom," 
and "Tender Counsel," were printed separately at the 
time in English. 

The above tour of William Penn through Germany 
was purely a religious one ; as he himself expresses 
it, " in the service of the Gospel." It had, however, 
the effect of bringing him into personal contact with 
many of the German Mystics and other religious 
leaders of the period. 

156a Biographical sketch of Benjamin Furly. Ibid vol. xix, pp. 277. 

Frankfort CojiipciJiy. 153 

Four 3^ears later, when the grant from Charles II 
to Penn was finally consummated, the attention of 
both Penn and Furl}- w^as at once directed to Ger- 
many as a field from which to obtain a desirable class 
of emigrants. Communications were opened forth- 
with with some of the chief leaders in the Pietistical 
movement at 
Frankfort, and 
the relis^ious 

Separati s t s at autograph of benjamin furly. 

Krisheim and the vicinity, — men and women with 
whom Penn had become acquainted during his visits 
to Germany. These efforts upon the part of Benja- 
min Furly resulted in the formation of two compan- 
ies. The one at Frankfort was a regularl}^ organized 
corporation, known as the " Frankfort Company," 
which according to Pastorius consisted of the follow- 
ing persons ■}"' Jacob Van de Walle, Doctor Johann 
Jacob Schutz, and Daniel Behagel, Handelsmannj^^"^^ 
of Frankfort ; Doctor Gerhard von Mastrich, of 
Duisburg; Doctor Thomas von Wylich and Herr 
Johann Lebrunn, of Wesel ; Benjamin Furly, of 
Rotterdam ; and Mr. Philip Fort, of London. Ac- 
cording to other accounts the original company 
consisted of Jacob Van de Walle, Caspar Merian, 
Doctor Johann Jacob Schutz, Johann Wilhelm Uber- 
feldt, George Strauss, Daniel Behagel, Johann 

1^' Umstandige Geographische Beschreibung Der zu allerletzt erfun- 
denen Provintz Pennsylvanae, etc. F. D. Pastorius, Franckfurt und 
Leipzig, 1700, p 35. 

I"'' Mercliant. 

William Penn. 
b. 1644 ; d. 1718. 

Crefeld Colony 


Laurentz and Abraham Hasevoet. This company 
secured 15,000 acres of land in the new colony, 
and sent out Francis Daniel Pastorius as their 
agent and attorney. 

The other company known as the Crefeld colony, 

was organized upon a differ- 
ent basis, the members pur- 
chasins; their land in an 
individual, and not in a 
corporate capacity /^^ 

The members composing 
this company were mostly 
from Krisheim and Crefeld, 
and had secured the land 
for the purpose of settling 
in the new Province. 

It was this latter contin- 

Seal of WU.LIAM PEN'N. 

gent that crossed the ocean in the Concord a few 
months later, and landed at Philadelphia on the sixth 
of October, 1683. An event which William Penn 
made the subject of a special letter to England, dated 
November 10, 1683, wherein he rejoices at the con- 
tinued good fortune of the Province, and the arrival 
of so many people from Crefeld and the neighboring 
places in the land of " Meurs."^^^ 

To properly place the advantages of Pennsylvania 
before the various races of German people, and thus 
induce a large emigration, a number of tracts or 

158 Pqj. ^j^g amount of land held by these first purchasers, see Penny- 
packer, Settlement of Germantown, Phila., 1883, p. 31. 


The Pennsylvania-G f nrian Society. 

pamphlets, descriptive and othenvise, were issued by 
Penii, Furly and others, in 
both high and low Ger- 
man, for the purpose of 
giving the requisite infor- 
mation to prospective set- 
tlers. Some of these 
brochures were translations 
of the prospectus issued 
by Penn in England; 
others again were written 
with special reference to 
the requirements of the 

As these tracts are all excessively scarce, and as 
they contain the most reliable information we have 
regarding the planting of the colony, a list of the 
series so far as known is here enumerated, with 
notes as to where the originals are to be found, and is 
further supplemented by an Appendix at the close of 

Arms of Penn. 

^^^ Meurs, (Mors) a former German Principality, bounded by the 
Bishopric of Cologne, and the principalities of Cleve, Berg and Geldern, 
and the Rhine. It contained about 28000 inhabitants, who were mainly 
of the Protestant faith, chiefly Reformed. During the Napoleonic wars 
it was ceded by treaty to France in 1801, but was recovered by Prussia 
at the treaty of Paris in 1814. It is now a part of the Department of 
Diisseldorf. The former capital, Meurs, is a town of Rhenish Prussia, 
17 miles N.N.E. of Diisseldorf, on the Eider. It has Lutheran and 
Roman Catholic churches, a normal school, and a town-hall in Iront ol 
which are the sculptured lions found on the site of the Asciburgum of 
Tacitus. Under the French, Meurs was the capital of the department ot 

" Some AccoiiJtt of the Province!''' 157 

this paper showing fac-similes of the various title 

First upon the list is the Royal Proclamation, or 
the King's declaration of his grant to William Penn. 
It was issued under date of April 2, 1681, and is ad- 
dressed : 

" To the Inhabitants and Planters of the Province 
of Pennsylvania : " 

Next we have Penn's : 

"Certain Conditions or Concessions Agreed upon 
by William Penn, Proprietary and Governor of the 
Province of Pennsylvania, and those who are the 
Adventurers and Purchasers in the Same Province, 
the Eleventh of July, One Thousand Six Hundred 
and Bighty-one." 

No pamphlet copy of this tract is known. 

Almost immediately after the grant of the Pro- 
vince was confirmed to William Penn, he published 
an account of it from the best information he then 
had. It is printed in a folio pamphlet of ten pages, 
and is entitled : 

Some I account | of the | Province | of | Pennsil- 
vania | in | America ; | Lately Granted under the 
Great Seal | of | England | to | William Penn, &c. | ''" 
London: Printed, and Sold by Benjamin Clark | 
Bookseller in George- Yard Lombard-street, 1681 | 
{Appe7tdzx plate V.) 

^^" Copies of this tract, (folio iiX^ T]4 inches,) are to be found at the 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania, The Carter Brown Library and 
Harvard College Library. The chief portions of the tract are reprinted 

158 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

This tract was translated into both higli and low 

Ei7ie I Nachricht \ ivegen der Landschaft \ Penn- 
silva7iia \ in \ America: \ Welche \Jungstens nnter 
de7n Grossen Siegel \ Engella^td \ an \ Williani Penn^ 
&c I ^^^ /?i Amsterdam gedritckt bey G/wistoff Gtm- 
raden. \ Imjahr 1681. \ [^Appendix plate VI.) 

This is the earliest German account of Pennsyl- 
vania. Two years later (1683) it was reprinted at 
Leipzig. It also formed a part of the Diariiim 

Een kort Bcricht \ Van de Provintie ofte Land- 
schap I Pennsylvania \ gcnaemt.^ leggende in \ 
America ; \ Nti onlangs onder het groote Zegel van 
Eng eland \ gegeven aan \ JVilliam Penn^ &c. \ ^^^ 
Tot Rotterdam. \ Gedrukt by Picter van Wynbnigge^ 
Bock-Drukker in de \ Leeuwestraat^ in de Wereld 
Vol-Druk. Anno 1681. \ {Appendix plate VII.) 

By referring to the fac-similes of the two latter 
titles in the Appendix, it will be found that Furly, to 
further strengthen Penn's claims to German recog- 
nition and to stimulate emigration, had added a 

in Hazard's Annals of Pennsylvania. Also in Hazard's Register, vol. i, 
P- 305- Fur notice of, see Penna. Mag. of History, vol. iv, p. 187. 

^^^ Copies are at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Carter Brown 
Library and in Loganian Library, Philadelphia. See also Penna. Mag. 
■of History, vol. xix, p. 287, and The German Pietists of Provincial 
Pennsylvania, Phila. 1895, p. 446. 

^''^ A copy of the Dutch Translation is in the Carter Brown Library. 
Also in the Archiv der Gemeentee, Rotterdam. See Penna. Mag. of 
History, vol. xix, p. 288. Also, German Pietists of Pennsylvania, p. 

Pen7ih ^^ Liberty of Conscience P 159 

translation of Penn's " Liberty of Conscience " {Ap- 
pendix plate VIII) to the original "Some Account" 
whicli gave a mere description of his newly acquired 

The two following titles were published during the 
same year (1681,) and although not at the instance 
of either Penn or Furly, yet the}^ did much to bring 
the Province to the notice of the Huguenot refugees, 
and to the Germans of the middle and educated 
classes, especially such as lived in the valle}^ of the 

Petri du Val^ — Geogi'-aphiae Universalis. Das ist 
Der allgemeinen Erd Beschreibufig. Darin^ien die 
Drey Theil der welt nemlich America., Africa und 
Asia., etc. . . Nurnberg. In verleg. fohan7i Hoff- 
manns Buck ttnd Kilnsthandlers. Gedruckt daselbst 
bey Christian Siegmund Frobcrg. M.DC .LXXXP^ 
{Appendix plate IX.) 

" Recit des P estat present des celebres colonies de la 
Virgine., de Marie-Land., de la Caroline., du noveau 
Duche'' d'' York, de Pennsylvania, et de la Nouvelle 
Angleterre, sitiiees dan s V Ame^'ique Septentrionale, 
etc. A Rotterdam, CJiez Reinier Leers. M.DC.LX- 
XXI. 4to. 43pp. zvith three folding plate s.^^ {Ap- 
pendix plate X.) 

Resuming the publications of Penn and Furly, we 
next have the important pamphlet entitled : 

163 Original in Carter Brown Lil:)r;iry. Catalogue vol. ii, Number 1217. 
!«'' Ibid. 

i6o TJie Pennsylvania-German Society. 

The I Articles | Settlement and Offices | Of the 
free | Society | of | Traders | in | Pennsilvania : | 
Agreed upon by divers | Merchants j And others for 
the better | Improvement and Government | of | 
Trade | in that | Province^*^^ | London, | Printed for 
Benjamin Clark in George- Yard in Lombard-street \ 
Printer to the Society of Pennsilvania^ MDCLX- 
XXII I {Appendix plate XL) 

These articles were agreed to March 25, 1682, and 
as stated by Hazard ^^'^ were published in folio upon 
the day following. 

The Charter granted by Penn to the "Free Society 
of Traders in Pennsylvania" was recorded at Doyles- 
town among the records of Bucks County. It was 
first printed in Hazard's Annals of Pennsylvania. ^^^^ 
Philadelphia, 1850, pp. 541-550. 

The above tract was quickly followed by the pub- 
lication of Penn's Frame of Government: 

The Frame of the | Government | of the | Province 
of Pennsilvania | in | America | Together with cer- 
tain I Laws I Agreed upon in England | By the | 
Governour | and | Divers free-men of the aforesaid \ 
Province | To be further Explained and Confirmed 
there by the first | Provincial Council and General 
Assembly that shall | be held, if they see meet | 
Printed in the year MDCLXXXII | {Appendix plate 

165 Original in the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. It is a 
small folio of sixteen pages. The outside measurement of the ruling 
which surrounds the title page is \ofi x 6 in. Tract was republished 
in full in the Penna. Mag. of History and Biography, vol. v., pp. 37-50. 

hiformation fo7' Emigrants. i6i 

Penn's own copy witli his book-plate is in the col- 
lection of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 
It is from this copy that the fac-simile [plate XII) 
is made. 

Shortly after the publication of the two latter pam- 
phlets, there was issued a small folio of three and a 
half pages, two columns to a page, the object of 
which was to furnish information for prospective 
settlers, and set forth the advantages of Penn's 
Province. The heading of the first page reads : 

" Information and Direction ] to | Such Persons 
as are inclined | to | America, | More | Especially 
Those related to the Province j of Pennsylvania.^*^^ | 
{Appendix plate XIII) 

It then goes on to state : 

"That the Value and Improvement of Estates in 
our Parts of America^ may j'et appear with further 
clearness and Assurance to Enquirers, I propose to 
speak my own Knowledge, and the Observation of 
others, as particularly as I can ; which I shall com- 
prise under these Heads :" 

I. The Advance that is upon Money and Goods. 

II. The advance that is upon Labour, be it of 
Handicrafts or others. 

III. The Advance that is upon Land. 

IV. The Charge of Transporting a Family, and 
Fitting a Plantation. 

ifioa Annals of Pennsylvania, Phila., 1850. 

^"^ Copies ot this pamphlet are also to be found in the Carter Brown 
Library, of Providence, R. I., and the Harvard College Library. 

1 62 The Pemisylvania-German Society. 

V. The way the Poorer sort may be Transported, 
and Seated, with Advantage to the Rich that help 

VI. The easier and better provision that is to be 
made there for Posterity, especially by those that are 
not of great Substance. 

VII. What Utensils and Goods are fitting to 
carry for Use or Profit." 

The authorship of this tract has been attributed to 
Penn ; and while there is nothing to prove the asser- 
tion, it was undoubtedly prepared under his direction. 

Both German and Dutch translations of this pam- 
phlet were made, the conditions being somewhat 
modified so as to adapt themselves to the require- 
ments of the Germans and Dutch. No German 
copy of this rare pamphlet is known. A Dutch copy, 
lacking the last pages and imprint, was found among 
the Penn papers in the Historical Society's collection ; 
it is endorsed " Dutch information over Pennsylv." 
Like the English original it merely starts with a 
heading : 

Nader hiformatie of Onderrechtmge voor de ge^ie 
die \genegen zijji om na America te gaan^ en \ we I 
voornameiitlijk voor die geene die ifi de Provi^i \ tie 
van Pensylvania geintresseert zijn. {Appendix plate 

A later Dutch edition, with a somewhat different 
heading was issued in 1686.^^^ 

1"' Copy in Collection of Historical Societs of Penna. It was reprinted 
in the Penna. Mag. of History and Biography, vol. iv., p. 330. A 
Second Edition was printed in Amsterdam, i686. 

" Plantation Work?'' 163 

Before the end of the year, Penn published an- 
other tract, for the purpose of inducing emigration 
to Pennsylvania ; the title was : 

A brief Account of the | Province of Pennsylvania, 
I Lately Granted by the | King | Under the Great | 
Seal of England, | to | William Penn | and his | 
Heirs and Assigns,^'^'^ | London. [Appendix plate 

This was quickly translated and published by 
Furly in several continental languages, Dutch, 
French^™ and German. The heading of the latter 
reads : 

Kurtz Nachricht Von der Americanischcn Land- 
schajft Pennsylvania}"^ {Appendix plate XVI.) 

There was still another work issued in 1682, hav- 
ing for its express object the furthering of emigra- 
tion to America : 

Plantation Work | the | Work | of this | Genera- 
tion. I Written in True-Love. | To all such as are 
weightily inclined | to Transplant themselves and 
Fami | lies to any of the English Plantati | ons 
in 1 America | The | most material Doubts and Ob- 
jections against it | being removed, they may more 
cheerfully pro | ceed to the Glory and Renown of 
the God of | the whole Earth, who in all Undertak- 
ings is to I be looked unto. Praised and Feared for 
Ever.^'~ I London, 1682. {Appendix plate XV.) 

^^* Copy in Carter Brown Library. 

169 Copies of this tract are in tiie Collection of the Historical Society 
of Penna., and the library ot Harvard College. 

164 The Pennsylvania-Gerniaii Society. 

This work contains several abstracts of letters from 
Penns3dvania dated December 1681 ; it does not ap- 
pear to Have been translated. 

The flood of pamphlets, so freely scattered over 
northern Germany by Furly in the interests of 
Penn, attracted the attention of no less a personage 
than Frederick William, elector of Brandenbnrg, 
usually styled " the Great Elector," and the founder 
of the present Prussian monarchy. The battle of 
Fehrbellin had been fought and won, completely 
routing the Swedes. By the subsequent treaty with 
both Sweden and France, he received large sums of 
money and came into possession of a small fleet. 
The elector now devoted himself to establish institu- 
tions of learning and to extend the influence of his 

The first duty assigned to his small navy was to 
enter upon an expedition in the interest of a German 
colonization scheme, which he had proposed as an 
offset to the threatened exodus of German yeomanry 
to the British possessions in America. 

For this purpose two of the staunchest vessels of 
the new navy, the frigates " Chur-printz " and 
" Morian," under the command of Otto Friedrich von 
der Groben, were sent upon a voyage of discovery, to 

"" The writer has seen a copy of the French edition, but has never 
met with a copy of the Dutch tract. 

"1 The only known copy is in the collection of the Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania. 

1" Copies of Plantation work are at the Penna. Historical Society, the 
Carter Brown Library, and Friends Library, Philadelphia. 

B raiide^iburg Expeditioji. 


Flag-ship of the German Squadron in the Harbor of Gluckstat, May, 
16S2. Fac-Simile of a Sketch in V. Groben's Report. 

settle upon the best site for a German colony under 
the standard of the Great Elector and thereby ex- 
tend his domain beyond the sea. 

The instructions of von der Groben were to \dsit 
the west coast of Africa, as well as the east coast of 
North America, returning by way of Ireland, and to 

1 66 The Pennsylvania-Gennan Society. 

report upon sucli location as would be best suited for 
a German colony. 

The little fleet weighed anchor at Hamburg on 
May 1 6, 1682, stopping at Gliickstadt and Kocks- 
haven for supplies and additional soldiery. The 
expedition, after many vicissitudes incident to the 
elements, eventually reached the coast of Africa ; 
landings were made at different points, and barter 
with the natives instituted ; a landino- was made 
on the Gold Coast, a fortification was built, and 
upon January i, 16S3, official possession was taken 
with considerable ceremony. The great stand- 
ard of Brandenburg was unfurled amidst the firing 
of cannon and the music of kettle-drums and shawms 
(Pauken und Schallmeyen.) In honor of the Great 
Klector the post or station was named Der Grosse 
Friedrichs-B erg . This occupation led to an em- 
broglio with the Hollanders, v/ho claimed the terri- 
tory. The Germans, however, maintained possession. 

While von der Groben was engaged in the estab- 
lishment and fortification of his colony, the settlers 
were stricken with the fevers incident to that coast 
and von der Groben himself was seriously ill on the 
frigate Morian. While the expedition was in this 
sad plight, the commander of the Chur-Printz sud- 
denly left with his vessel, sailed along the coast and 
engaged in slave-trade.^^^ 

^"^ Reise-Beschreibung, Des Brandenburgischen Adelichen Pilgers. 
Otto Friedrich von der Groben. Marienwerder, Gedruckt durch Simon 
Reinegern. Anno 1694. (A copy of this book is in library of the 
writer. ) 

Von der Gr obeli's Expedition. 167 

Von der Groben, upon his recovery, in pursuance 
of his original instructions, left tlie African coast 
and sailed for xA.merica by way of the Flemish 
Islands (Azores.) It does not appear from his pub- 
lished report that he made any attempts either to 
land or colonize in the western hemisphere. He ap- 
pears to have sailed as far north as Newfoundland, 
where he traded for codfish. Thence, he headed east- 
ward, he skirted the coast of Ireland, and arrived at 
the mouth of the Elbe in October, 1683, the voyage 
having lasted eighteen months. 

The German settlement thus established upon the 
coast of Africa was subsequently reinforced, and 
gradually spread along the coast, so that in the year 
1687, the flag of Brandenburg waved over four differ- 
ent settlements and fortified trading-stations in that 
region. The insalubrity of the climate, and the 
failure of any requisite pecuniary return, caused 
these settlements to be abandoned after the death of 
the Great Elector, which occurred on April 29, 1688. 

In looking over this almost forgotten episode in the 
history of attempted German colonization, one is 
naturally startled at the thought of how far-reaching 
the results might have been, if the German comman- 
der had sailed direct to the American coast and ob- 
tained a foothold here, instead of wasting his men 
and resources in the vain attempts upon the Gold 

Had he unfurled the standard of the Great Elector 
upon these shores, where the climate would have 
been congenial, and had the wise plans of Frederick 


The Pcnnsylvania-Geiinaii Society. 

William been carried out, either by treaty or otlier- 
wise, with such power as claimed sovereignty over 
American soil, the thousands of German yeomen who 
left the Fatherland during the next three decades to 
be scattered over these shores, and in a great measure 
•developed the British colonies in America, might 
have been concentrated within a single province un- 
der the German standard, which undoubtedly would 
liave proven a nucleus for a German empire in the 
western world. 

Here arise possibilities for thought almost too 
great for contemplation. However, as a matter of 
fact, the failure of the elector's plans for German 
colonization must be laid to the avarice or incapacity 
of those into whose hands was placed the execution 
of his plans, and not to the wise intentions of the 
great ruler whose living monument is virtually the 
great German empire of the present day. 

Arms of Brandenburg. 



Arms of Wurtembeeg. 

H now come to tlie im- 
mediate cause of the 
great emigration to America? 
the emigration of what was 
left of the German population 
within the Palatinate and the 
Duchy of Wiirtemberg after 
the French invasions. 

The edict of Nantes, it will 
be remembered, was revoked 
on October i8, 1685, by which the exercise of the 
Reformed religion in France was forbidden, children 
were to be educated in the Catholic faith, and all 
emigration was prohibited. 

In spite of the latter command, however, many of 
the persecuted Huguenots flocked across the borders 
and accepted the shelter offered them by the Palatine 
Elector.^"^ This induced the notorious IMadame de 
Maintenon, a narrow minded bigot, to induce the 
king utterly to devastate the Palatinate, and peremp- 
tory orders were given through Louvois that the 

lyo TJie Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Palatinate should be destroyed. In pursuance of tliis 
command 100,000 French soldiers were despatched by 
Louis XIV, to do the work. How well this horde of 
murderers did his bidding is a matter of history, 
Bven to the present day, after the lapse of two cen- 
turies, the line of march may be traced from the 
Drachenfels to Heidelberg. Crumbling walls, ruined 
battlements and blown-up towers, still remain as 
mementoes of French vandalism. 

The league of Augsburg was formed, but failed to 
save the fated Fatherland from French pillage and 
rapine. Hardly had the smoke from the blazing em- 
bers died away from one invasion, and the fields and 
vineyards once more begun to show signs of peaceful 
thrift, than another invasion followed and swept with 
a frightful desolation over the doomed valley of the 

This devastation extended into the Duchy of 
Wiirtemberg, and it may be said that in the years 
1688-9 t^^ whole of southern Germany was overrun 
by the French and completely paralyzed with the fear 
of the hireling murderers. The tale of this devasta- 
tion of the fertile Schwabenland has been ably set 
forth by one of Wiirtemberg' s most learned histor- 
ians, upon the occasion of the bi-centennial anniver- 

The chief factors in this blot upon civilization were 

"* Penna. Mag. of History and Biog. vol. vi, p. 318. 
I's Wurttembcrg tind die Fratizosen ivi Jahr 16SS, vofi Theodor 
Schoit, Stuttgart, 1888. 

The Burgomaster'^ Wife of Schorndorff. 171 

the Frencli ambassador at the court of Wiirtemberg, 
D'Invigne}', and Alelac, the commander of the mili- 
tary forces ; and in so great detestation is the name of 
the latter held, that even to the present day, "Melac" 
is one of the favorite names for Suabian dogs. 

The story of how this unaccountable fear of the 
French was eventually overcome, and the period of 
German inactivity terminated, is a well-kno\\Ti epi- 
sode in German histor}^ Allusion is here made to 
the Burgomaster's wife at Schorndorff, Anna Barbara 
Walch, a small courageous woman, who, when she 
received an intimation that the Stadt-rath or council 
were considering a demand of surrender by the 
French, went to the town-hall, called her husband 
out and threatened him with death if he dared to 
vote for surrender. She then assembled a number of 
equally brave women, who armed themselves with 
forks, broom-handles, and other domestic weapons, 
surrounded the town-hall, and by main force pre- 
vented the council from surrendering the town. 

The denouement of this uprising is also well 
known. Schorndorff was saved, the French were de- 
feated, and eventually driven out of Wiirtemberg. 

This incident is purposely introduced here, as there 
were many Frankish and Palatinate women of equal 
courage who came here to Pennsylvania and helped 
to make this Commonwealth : women whose descend- 
ants are now members of our societ}^ : men who have 
lost none of the courage, bravery or patriotism im- 
parted to them by their German maternal ancestors. 

Without going into further particulars regarding 

172 The Penitsylvania-German Society. 

the succeeding conflicts that rent the Fatherland, 
suffice it to say that it was this ruthless desolation 
of the valley of the Rhine, more than any other 
cause, that started the great and steady stream of 
German blood, muscle and brains, to Penns3dvania's 
sylvan shores. 

At this period of the Fatherland's helplessness and 
desolation, the darkest days of Germany's humilia- 
tion, messengers were again sent forth to the vari- 
ous towns and in the valley of the Rhine, bearing 
the news that the scheme of William Penn, the 
Quaker, was a successful one, and that the Province 
or the Quaker-valley [Quackerthal) was open to all 
persons who refused to conform to the requirements 
of the orthodox religion as by law established.^"® 

The chief promoter of this scheme for German 
emigration was the same Benjamin Furly, the Eng- 
lish Quaker and merchant at Rotterdam, whose ac- 
quaintance we have previously made as the compan- 
ion and interpreter of William Penn during the lat- 
ter's visit to Germany and Holland in 1677. 

It is at this point that a special tribute is due to 
Benjamin Furly for his efforts to throw safeguards 
around the German emigrant who was not conver- 
sant with either English language, customs or laws. 

William Penn, in drafting the fundamental laws 

^™ Spener. in \\\s Freyheit dcr Gliiiibigen, Franckfurth-am-Mayn, 1691, 
enumerates the following sects of Separatists (Chap, viii, p. 118) Weige- 
lians, the Rosicrucians, Arminians, different kinds of Syncretists, Osi- 
anderians, those who could not bear religious vows ; Pseudo Philoso- 
phers, Anti-Scripturalists, Latitudinarians, Chiliasts and Bohmists. 

Safeg2ia7'ds for German Eviigrants. 173 

of his ^Province, submitted the various drafts to 
Benjamin Furly and possibly to others. Furlv not 
only compared the different "Frames of Govern- 
ment," "Fundamentall Constitutions," and laws pre- 
pared for the Province; but offered substitutes and 
suggestions to the Proprietor, containing provisions 
for the protection of such as were about to transport 
themselves and their families to Pennsylvania at the 
latter's solicitation. He even criticized the Proprie- 
tor, where, in the proposed laws, changes were made 
which did not meet with his approval. Two of these 
documents, in Furly 's handwriting, have been found 
among the Penn papers, now in the collection of the 
Historical Society of Penns3dvania. One is en- 
dorsed : 

"For the Security of Forreigners who may incline 
to purchase Land in Pennsylvania, but may dy be- 
fore they themselvs come to their inhabit." 

This paper was published in full, with an intro- 
duction, by Frederick D. Stone Litt. D., to the 
Sketch of Benjamin Furly by the writer, in the 
Penna. Magazine of History and Biography, October, 
1895.^'" The other paper is a comment on "The 
Fundamentall Constitutions." The manuscript of 
which was found among the "Penn Papers" in posses- 
sion of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, and 
published by the Society in October, 1896.^'^ 

1" Penna. Mag. of Hist, and Biog. vol. xix, p. 295. 
''* ''The Fundamentall Constitutions of Pennsilvania. Ihid vol. xx, 
p. 283, et seq. 


The Pcnnsylvania-Gennau Society. 

These papers show the intimate concern Furly 
felt in the laws and government of the new province 
and the welfare of the German settlers. The former 
document is a valuable one to every student inter- 
ested in the development of our country, but especi- 
ally for Pennsylvania Germans, as it shows how 
earnestly Furly stood up for their ancestors' per- 
sonal rights and estate/"^ 

Then again, his suggestions and advice to Penn as 

s^^g to the course to pur- 

>;/ ^ "T X sue in regard to a 

jZLyC- ^-.-o 4-ccs^cA^ -^L_ possible attempt to 

^*c^>^ ^'^^1o>UC^ introduce negro 

slavery into the 
Province, is of great 
interest, as the first 
public protest 
against this evil in 
America was made 
at Germantown in 
1688 by some of the 
German pioneers 
who came to Penn- 
sylvania under his 
auspices and bounty. 

Fac-Simile of Anti-Slavery Clause ix 
FuRLY's Suggestions to Penn. 

See Articles I and II. I bid vol. xix, p. 297. 


The various pamplilets and tracts issued by Penn 
and Furiy, were : 

" A I Letter | from | William Penn | Proprietary 
and Governour of | Pennsylvaiiia | In America, | to 
the I Committee | of the | Free Society of Traders | 
of that Province, residing in London, j etc/^° Printed 
and Sold by Andrew Sowle, at the Crooked-Billet in 
HoUoway-Lane in Shoreditch, and at several Station- 
ers in London, 1683." {Appendix plate XIX.) 

This pamphlet was quickly translated and issued 
in low Dutch, German and French : 

" Missive I van \ Williain Penn^ \ Eygenaar en 
Gonvei^neur van \ Pennsylvania^ \ in America. \ 
Geschreven aan de Conmtissarissen va7i de Vrye 
Socie I teyt der Handelaars, op de Provintie, \ binnen 
London resideerende. \ etc}^^ Arnsterda^n Gedrukt 
voor Jacob Claus^ Boekverkooper in de Prince-sir aat^ 
1684. {Appendix plate XX.) 

176 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Beschreibiing \ Der in A^nerica 7ieu-erfundenen \ 
Provintz \ Pejisylvanien. \ Derer InwoJiner^ GesetZy 
Arth^ Sit I ten und Gebrach : \ AticJi samtlicher 
Reviren des Landes \ Sonderlich der Haupt-Stadt \ 
Phila-delphia \ Alles glaubwtirdigst \ A?iss des Gov- 
erneurs darinnen crstatteten \ Nachricht. \ In Verle- 
gung bey Henrich Heuss an der Banco \ ini Jahf 
1684}^^ (Appendix plate XXL) 

Recueil \ de \ Diverses \ pieces \ Concernant \ la \ 
Pensylvanie. \ A la Haye^ \ Chez Abraham Troyel^ \ 
Marchand Libraire^ dans la Grand Sale \ de la Cour^ 
M.DC. LXXXIV}^' {Appendix plate XXII.) 

The above three tracts in addition to Penn's letter 
to the " Free Society of Traders," contained Holme's 
description of Philadelphia, and Thomas Paskel's 
letter dated February 10, 1683, n. s. 

180 Originals in Historical Society of Penna., New Vork Historical 
Society, and Philadelphia Library. Six different editions were issued 
during the year. This tract contains the first printed account of Phila- 
delphia by the founder of the Colony. 

^^^ Copies of this tract are in Collection of Hist. Soc. of Penna., and 
Carter Brown Library of Providence. This tract is also exceedingly 
rare, and contains a letter from Thomas Paschal, dated Philadelphia 
Feb'y lo, 1683. The first dated from that locality. Two editions were 
printed in low Dutch, with some variation in the title page ; it contains 
the imprint Den Tweeden Druk 1684. It also contains a plan of the City* 

^^^ One of the scarcest Pennsylvania pamphlets. The only known 
copy is in the Carter Brown Collection of Providence from which the 
fac-simile in Appendix is made. 

^*^ Copies of this excessively rare volume are in the Carter Brown 
Library and the Library of a Philadelphia collector. The copy in the 
British Museum lacks the title page The important parts of this book 
"collection of various pieces concerning Pennsylvania" were translated 
by Hon. Sam'l W. Pennypacker and printed in the Penna. Mag., of 
Biography and History, vol. vi, pp. 311-328. 

So7ne Rare Tracts. 177 

A later French edition, printed at Amsterdam, 
1688, also contains Penn's " Further Account" of 
1685, Turner's Letter, and: — 

" Explanations of Mr. Furly to purchasers and 
renters upon certain articles concerning the establish- 
ment of Pennsylvania. Rotterdam, 1684.^'^^ iAP' 
pendix plate XXI I Di 

The above issues offer an interesting study, as 
they were supplemented to at this time b}^ some ac- 
counts written b}^ actual residents in Pennsylvania, 
and thereby went far to stimulate the German emi- 
gration. The earliest of these pamphlets appears to 
have been a single sheet or two leaves quarto ; it 
bore the following title : 

Twee Missiven gescJireven uyt Pen7isilvania a'' Eiie 
door een Hollander woonachtig in Philadelfia^ d'' 
Ander door Swztzer, woonachtig in German Town^ 
Dat is Hoogduytse Stadt. Van den 16, Maert.^ 1684. 
Nieuzven Stijl. Tot Rotterdam., Anno 1684. 2 
leaves small 4to.^^° 

This tract is an exceedingly scarce one. The copy 
examined by the writer was in the Archive of the 
City of Rotterdam. 

^^* No English edition of Furly's "Explanations" is known to the 
writer. A translation into English from the French Edition, i6S4, by 
Hon. Sam'l W. Pennypacker will be found in Penna. Mag. Biography 
and History, vol. vi, p. 319, et seq. 

185 Copy in Archief der Gemeente Rotterdam, Holland. There is also 
a copy in the Library of Congress (which unfortunately was not available 
at the time our appendix was prepared). This interesting pamphlet was 
translated by Hon. S. VV. Pennypacker. See " Hendrick Penne- 
becker, Surveyor of Lands for the Penns," by Hon. S. W. Penny- 
packer, privately printed, Philadelphia, 1894. Chapter iii, pp. 27-39. 

lyS The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

The next important work upon tlie list is Thomas 
Budd's " Good Order Established ;" this was printed 
by Bradford in Philadelphia :''*^ 

" Good Order Established | in | Pennsilvania & 
New Jersey | in America, | Being a true account of 
the Country ; | With its Produce and Commodities 
there made, etc. . . By Thomas Budd. Printed in 
the year 1685." {Appendix plate XXIVi) 

Another account, a more pretentious one, was by 
Cornells Bom, a Dutch baker, who came to Philadel- 
phia at an early date and here plied his trade. This 
book was published at Rotterdam, 1685, by Pieter 
van Wijnbrugge, a Dutch Quaker and Publisher : ^^" 

Missive van \ Conielis Bojn^ \ Geschreven tiit de 
Stadt I Philadelphia^ \ In de Provintie van \ Pennsyl- 
vania^ I Leggende op d"* Oostzyde va7ide \ Zuyd Revier 
van Nieuiv Nederland. \ Verhaleride de groote voort 
gank 1 van de selve Provintie^ \ Waer by konit \ De 
Getiiygenis van \ Jacob Tehier \ van Afnsterdam, \ 
{Appendix plate XXVi) 

These publications were followed by : 

A Further Account of the Province | of Penns}''!- 
vania, and its Improvements. | For the Satisfaction 
of those that are Adventurers, and | Inclined to be 
so.''' {Appendix plate XXVL) 

This Account was signed " William Penn " and 
dated at the end — " Worminghurst Place" 12, of 

186 Original in Historical Society of Penna. 

1®' Originals are in collection of Hist. Soc. of Penna., and in the 
archives of the Moravian Church at Bethlehem, Penna. 
188 Copy in Hist. Soc. of Penna. 

Edicts Against the Quakers. 179 

the lotli month, 1685. Two editions of it are known 
to have been published. 

A Dutch translation was published early in the 
following year, this tract is exceedingly rare : 

Tiveede \ Bericht ofte Relaas \ Van \ JVilliani 
Penn^ \ Eygenaar e7i Goiiverneur van de Provintie van \ 
Pennsylvania^ \ In America^ etc. A?nsterdam by 
Jacob Clans^ Boekverkoper in de Prince-straat}^^ [.Ap- 
pendix plate XXVIL) 

It is not to be assumed that the efforts upon the 
part of Penn and Furly, followed by the willing re- 
sponse of so many German yeomen, were left un- 
noticed hy the authorities, both religious and secular, 
of the German provinces affected, which were already 
so depleted by the successive wars. 

Numerous edicts were issued by the ruling Princes, 
in such a manner that they included Pietist as well 
as Quaker within their scope. The most important 
anathemas at this period are the following : ^^° 

Sr. Chiir Furstl. Durchl. zu Sachsen, Joh. Georg des Dritten, 
Befehl wider die neuerlich angestellten Convcniiada oder Privat 
Zusammenkiinffte. Publiciret den 25, Martii 1690. 

Der Durchlauchtigsten Fursten und Herren, Herr Rudolph 
Augustus, und Herr Anthon Ulrichs, Gebriidere, Hertzogen zu 
Braunschweig und Liineburg, Edict und Verordnung, wegen der 
hin und wieder sich erreigenden Neuerungen und Sedareyen. 
Publiciret den 2, Martii, Anno 1692. 

^^' The only known originals are in the Carter Brown Library of 
Providence and collection of Historical Society of Penna. 

1^" Copies of the following Edicts, are in the collection of the His- 
torical Society of Penna., and in the Library of the writer. 

i8o TJie Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Ihrer Kiiniglichen Majestiit in Schweden Caroli, des XL 
Edict, wegen der in Teutschland einschleichenden Schwerme- 
reyen vom 6, Octobr, 1694. 

Hoch-Fiirstl. Durchl. Hertzog Eberhard Ludwigs von Wiir- 
tenberg, Edict und Verordnung, wegen der Pietisterey. Pub- 
liciret den 28. Februarii, Anno 1694. 

Hoch-Fiirstl. Durchl. Hertzog Friederichs zu Sachsen-Gotha 
Manifest und Verordnung wegen der so genannten Pietisterey. 
Piibliciret den /\.. Februarii, Anno 1697. 

Desgleichen Hoch-Furstl. Durchl. zu Sachsen-Gotha gna- 
dio-ste Resot7ition, auff Dero hochloblichen Land-Stande des 
Furstenthums Altenburg bey dem Anno 1698 den 3 Nov. 
angestellten Land-Tage unterthanigst gethanen Proposition, die 
heimlichen Conventicula betreffend, und Ausschaffung der neuen 
Schwarmer oder so gemannten Peitisten. 

Hoch-Fiirstl. Durchl. Hertzog Georg Wilhelms zu Braun- 
schweig und Liineburg, Edict, und Verordnung wegen des 
Sectarisclien Pietismi, Quackerismi oder anderen gefahrlichen 
Irrthiimern. Ptibticiret den 'j, ]2in.. 1698. 

Hoch-Fiirstl. Durchl. der Frau Abbatissin zu Quedlinburg, 
o-nadigste Verordnung M-ider die Veriichter des offentlichen 
Gottesdienstes, Beicht-Stuhls und Hochwiirdigen Abendmahls. 
Piibliciret den. i, Aug. Anno 1700. 

These edicts were afterwards publislied under a 
collective title : 

Quacker-Greuel \ Das ist : \ Abscheuliche \ aujfrii- 
rische \ verdammliche Irthum \ Der neueii Schwej^mer \ 
Welche genennet iverden \ Qudcker \ Wie sie dieselbe 
in ihren Scartecken \ Allarni \ Standarte \ Pannier \ 
Konigreich \ Eckstein \ 7ind sonst schrifftlich und 
jnilndlich mit \ grossem Ergerniss ansgebreitet. \ 
A2if Anordnung Eines Edleri Hochiveise7i Paths \ 
Der Stadt Hamburg \ Den Einfdltigen zu treuhert- 

Vindicati07i of IVm. Penn. 


ziger Warming kiirtzlich gefasset \ grundlich wider- 
leget und in Druck gegeben \ diitch \ EtUche hierzu 
verordnete \ Des Ministern in Ha7nburg \ Auf Be- 
gehren holier Personen auffs neue gedruckt \ Im Jahr 
Christi iyo2. {Appendix plate Lllli) 

In addition to the above official proclamations, 
there were also issued a number of books, pamphlets 
and broadsides about and against the Quakers and 
their scheme for colonization. We have here but a 
repetition of what had been the case in England, and 
called forth such works as : 

" A Vindication of William Penn, | Proprietary of 
Pensilvania, from the late Aspersions | spread abroad 
on purpose to Defame him. With | an Abstract of 
several of his Letters since his | Departure from 

Philip Ford,''^ London, 12th, 12th month, 1682-3. 
{Appendix plate XVIII.) 

" A I Letter | from | Doctor More, | with | Passages 
out of several Letters | from Persons of good Credit, 
I Relating to the State and Improvement of | the 
Province of | Pennsilvania. | Published to prevent 
false Reports. | Printed in the Year 1687.'^'' [Appen- 
dix plate XXVIII) 

These were followed by : 

131 Original in collection of Historical Society of Penna. Philip Ford 
was also a member of the original Frankfort company. 

192 Original in Carter Brown Library. This tract was republished in 
full in Penna. Mag. of Hist, and Biog., vol. iv, pp. 445-455. 

i82 The Pe7i7isylvania-German Society. 

" Some I Letters | and an | Abstract of Letters | 
from I Pennsylvania, | Containing | The State and 
Improvement of that | Province. | Published to pre- 
vent Mis-Reports. | London, 1691.^^^ {Appendix 
plate XXXIV) 

A Dutch version of "No Cross no Crown," a new 
edition of Penn's " Frame of Government," and of 
Penn's " Travails " in Holland and Germany, — 

'•^ Zonder Kruys^ Geen Kroon^ etc. ^ door William 
Penn. Amsterdam 168 'j^'^'' {Appendix plate XXIX) 

" The Frame of the Government of Pennsylvania 
In America." London, 1691.^^^ {Appendix plate 

" An Account of W. Penn's Travails in Holland 
and Germany, Anno MDCLXXVII London, 
1695.''' {Appendix plate XXXIX.) 

Among the important descriptive books of the 
time must be mentioned Richard Blome's " English 
America ;" this was published in three languages, 
English, French and German : — and Gerard Croese's 

1^^ This work, a small quarto, gives a number of extracts from letters 
written from Philadelphia during the year 1690. The tract was reprinted 
in the Penna. Blag, of Hist., vol. iv, pp. 189-201. An original is among 
the Penn Papers in the Hist. Soc. of Penna., and with the exception of 
one in the Carter Brown Library is the only one known. 

i9i Original in Bist. Soc of Penna. The first English edition is dated 
1669. For various editions of this work, see Smith's Catalogue of 
Friends' Books 

195 Original at Hist. Soc. of Penna. Republished in Hazard's Reg , vol. 
ii, p. 113. See title of first edition 1682, appendix plate xii. The first 
Frame of Gov't, being found defective on several accounts, the second 
" frame " was established and accepted in the year 16S3. 

Important Descriptive Books. 183 

Historia QuakciHana, which was also printed in sev- 
eral languages : 

The I Present State \ Of His Majesties \ Isles and 
Terrttorzes | In | America | . . . With New Mafs 
of every Place, \ etc. London: \ Printed by H. Clark 
for Dorman Newman, at tJie Kings- Arms in tlie Poul- 
trey, i6S^.^''" {Appendix plate ANN) 

Vamerique \ Angluise, \ on \ Description \ des \ Isles 
et Terres \ du \ Roi D'angleterre, j Bans | ramerique. 
I Avec de nouvelles Cartes de c/iaque Isle & Terres I 
Traduit de PAnglois. \ A Amsterdam, | Chez Abra/iam 
Wolfgang, I pres la Bourse. \ M. DC. LNNNVIII '^ 
( Appen dix plate NNNI. ) 

Riciiardi Blome \ Englisches \ America, \ oder I 
Kurtze doch deutlic/ie \ Beschreibtmg alter derer I 
jenigen Lander tmd Inseln j so der Cron Engeland in 
West-In I dienietziger Zeit ziistaendigund\ untertJiaenig 
smd. I durch eine Jwchberuhmte Feder \ aus dem Eno-- 
liscJien ubersetzt. \ tend mit Kupffern gezieret. \ Leipzig 
I Bev Johann Groszens Wittbe tmd Erben. I Anno 
/dp;. I 199 {Appendix plate NL I I I.) 

Gcrardi Croesi \ Historia \ ^cakeriana, \ Sive I De 
vulgo dictis ^uakeris, \ Ab ortu illorum usque ad recens I 
natum schisma, \ etc. Amstelodami, | Apud Henricum 
& Viduam I TheodoriBoom, 1695. \ ^oo {Appendix plate 

- Original at Hist. Soc. of Penna. The manuscript Journal kept by 

It o? PV, h ? r'"7' '' "°" ^" '^^ ^°"^^^^°" °^ Charles Roberts 
Esq of Philadelphia. See title supra. The first edition was printed 
by Sowle, 1694. Subsequent editions were issued from 1714. 18^, 

- Original in collection of Hist. Soc. of Penna. The part relaiing to 
Pennsylvania is virtually a reprint of Penn's "Further account " lee 
Wm. Penn in America, Phila., 1888, p. 17:5 " 

i»« /did. -^ 

184 TJie Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Berhard Croesens \ ^taker-Hislorie \ Von dercn Ur- 
sprtmg I biss auf jnngsthin entsiandene \ Trenvung; \ 
Darinnen vorne^nlich von \ den Haiiftstiftern dieser 
Secte I derselben Lehrsaetzemmd anderen \ ihres gleichen 
zu dieser Zeit atif- \ gebrac/iten Lehren erzehlet wird. \ 
Berlin \ den 'Johann Michael Riidigern. \ i6p6."^^ i-^P' 
^endix -plate XJLI. ) 

The I General History | of the | Quakers : | con- 
taining I The Lives, Tenents, Sufferings, Tryals, | 
Speeches, and Letters | Of all the most | Eminent 
Quakers, | Both Men & Women ; | From the first 
Rise of that Sect, | down to this present Time. | etc. 

Being Written Originally in Latin | By Gerard 
Croese. London, Printed for John Dunton, at the 
Raven, in Jewen-street. 1696."''^' {^Appeiidix plate 

As the most curious work of the class of Anti- 
Quakeriana may be named a quarto in Latin and 
German, describing the PJiiltris EntJiusiasticis or 
English and Dutch Quaker-powder ; wherein it was 

199 Original in Carter Brown Library. The German edition is ex- 
tremely scarce. 

2™ Specimens of original edition are extremely rare. Copies are in 
Library of German Society of Philadelphia, and of the writer. A 
second Latin edition 1696, is more frequently met with ; a specimen is in 
the Historical Society of Penna., and Phila. Lib. For a full account of 
Gerard Croese and his works, see "The German Pietists of Provincial 
Pennsylvania," Phila., 1895, pp. 43-48. 

'"'I The same remarks in regard to the 1695 Latin edition apply to 
the German edition. The only known copy in America, is the one in 
Library of the writer. A Dutch edition was also printed, this also is 
very rare, no copy is known to be in this country. 

202 Original in the collection of Charles Roberts, Esq. There is also 
a copy in Friends' Library at Philadelphia. 

PJiiltris Enthusiasticis. 185 

sought to prove that such a nostrum was actually in 
use by the Quakers to propagate their faith among 
those whom they wished to proselyte. 

According to this curious book, their scheme was 
secretly to administer this Philtre or potion to any 
influential person, male or female, w^hom they 
thought to be a desirable acquisition. Within a 
short time such person, it was stated, commenced to 
tremble, and soon reached an ecstatic state, when a 
conversion to Quakerism was complete. Several 
afiidavits are further cited in the work by the author, 
to. prove that such was actually the method used to 
extend the faith of George Fox in Germany. As 
books of this kind pleased the popular fancy, they 
frequently had a large circulation, and went through 
several editions, but at the present time they are 
exceedingly scarce and rarely met with. The copy 
in possession of the writer, bears the imprint of the 
university of Rostock, and reads : 

^^ Dissertatio Historico Theologica de Philtris En- 
thusiasticis Anglico Batavis^ etc. . . Postoch/, Ty- 
pis Joh. Weppling. /, Seren. Princ. & Acad. 
Typog}""^ {Appendix plate L VI) 

The mass of literature circulated against the 
Quakers, however, had little or no effect upon the 
impending exodus from Germany. 

In the year 1690, there was issued by Penn a 
Broadside, having for its object the settlement of 

Copy in Library of llie writer. 

1 86 The Pennsylvania-Ger^nan Society. 

another large city upon the banks of the Susque- 
hanna ; it was entitled : 

" Proposals for a second settlement in the Province 
of Pennsylvania." It was a single sheet and bore the 
imprint : " Printed and sold by Andrew Sowle, at the 
crooked Billet in Halloway Lane, Shore-Ditch, 1690." 

Whether the design was partially accomplished, 
where the proposed city was to be located, or what 
was the reason for his relinquishing the plan, re- 
mains an unsolved problem. The only known copy 
of this Broadside was formerly in the collection of 
the late Peter Force of Washington, D. C. It bore 
the marks of age and dilapidation but was in a per- 
fect condition. ^°^ 

At this period the position of Penn and Furly was 
further strengthened in Germany by the publication 
of several missives and tracts from Pastorius and 
others in Pennsylvania, setting forth the advantages 
of the new country in glowing terms. 

The first volume upon this list is a duodecimo, con- 
taining four " Useful tracts " by Daniel Francis Pas- 
torius ; it really only advertises the Province upon the 
title page : 

Vier kleine \ Dock ungemeine \ Und sehr nutzliche\ 
Tractdtlein | . . . . Durch \ Fj^anctscum Danielem \ 
Pastoi'iun. J. U. L. \ Aus der In — Pensylvania neu- 
lichst von niir in \ Grund angelegten und 7iun mit 
^utem I Success aufgehenden Stadt : \ Germanopoli \ 
Anno Christi M. DC. XC. \ "'^ {Appendix plate 

Francis Daniel Pastoriiis. 187 

The earliest tract which really gives an extended 
account of the Province, was written by Pastorius in 
1686, and sent to his parents in Germany. This 
was incorporated by Melchior Adam Pastorius, father 
of the Germantown pioneer, in a historical sketch 
of his native town of Winds heim : 

Kiirtse I Beschreibung \ Des H. R. Reichs Stadt \ 
Windsheim \ etc. . . . Durch \ Melchioreni Adamum 
Pastoriujn^ \ altern BuT-gc7neistern tnid Ober-Rich- \ 
terji in besagtcr Stadt. \ Gednickt zu Niirnberg \ bey 
Christian Sig?nund Froberg. \ Im JaJir Christi 
i6g2r'' (Appendix plate XXXV.) 

The appendix to this work bore the following 
heading : 

Francisci Danielis Pastor li \ Sommerhusano-Fraftci. 
I Kurtze Geographische Besclweibung \ der letztniahls 
erfundenen \ Americanischen Landschafft \ Pensyl- 
vania^ \ Mit angehenckten einige^t notablen Bege- \ 
benheiten nnd Bericht-Schreiben an dessen Hrn. \ 
Vattern Patrioten tmd gnte Freunde. \ (Appendix 
plate XXXVI.) 

This description of the Province was reprinted in 
various periodicals and magazines of the day ,^^ and 
circulated extensively among the yeomanry of Ger- 

^"^ Reprinted in Hazard's Register of Pennsylvania, vol. i, p. 400, 
June 21, 1828. Also in North American and United States Gazette, 
Phila., October 25, 1848. 

205 Original in Historical Society of Penna. This volume is dedicated 
to Tobias Schumberg in Windsheim, a former tutor of Pastorius. 

206 Original in Historical Society of Penna. 
''O' Ibid. 

The Pen7tsylvania-German Society. 

A Ship of the Period During the First German Emigration/ 

♦Note.— It was necessary for the vessels to be armed on account of the wars on the 
Continent, and Freebooters at sea. 

Frame's Description. 189 

Tlie next important issues relating to Pennsylvania 
of which, we have any definite knowledge, was an 
account of Pennsylvania printed in the city of Phil- 
adelphia : 

A Short I Description | of | Pennsilvania, | -^^ Or, 
A Relation What things are known, | enjoj^ed, and 
like to be discovered in | in the said Province. | and 

as a Token of Good Will of England. | By 

Richard Frame. | Printed and sold by William Brad- 
ford in I Philadelphia, 1692. | {Appendix plate 

Of equal importance was the Missive or Report 
by Johann Gottfried Seelig to August Herman 
Francke, one of the fathers of Pietism, dated " Ger- 
mandon in Pennsylvania, America d. 7, August, 
1694," giving an account of the voyage and condi- 
tion of the German Pietists who had left Germany in 
a body two years previously, and emigrated to Penn- 
sylvania under the leadership of Ivlagister Johann 
Kelpius, with the avowed intention of spreading here 
the Gospel of Christ and awaiting the millennium, 
which some of them believed was imminent. This 
work, a quarto, was published for circulation in Ger- 
many early in 1695, i^ i^ without an imprint, but was 
presumably printed either at Halle or Frankfort, and 
freely circulated in Pietistical circles."'^ 

209 Originals of this rare tract are at the Historical Society of Penna 
Also, in Library of the Weisen/mus ( Francke institution) at Halle. This 
missive has heretofore been attributed to Daniel Falckner. But by the 
Spener-Francke correspondence it is shown that the missive was sent 
by Seelig to P>ancke. The original is still in existence, from which a 

190 The Pennsylvania-Gei'inan Society. 

Copia I Elites Se^id-Schreibens aiis \ der neiten 
Welt^ beti'ejfend \ etc. Christi ini JciJir, i6g^. [Ap- 
pendix plate XXXVIII. ) 

Two years later, 1697, a German edition of 
Blome's Knglish. America, was printed at Leipzig. 
{Appendix plate XLIII. ) 

It is supposed that the Hochberiihmte Feder, men- 
tioned upon the title w^as none other than Benjamin 

At this period the list of local issues was aug- 
mented by several curious original contributions of a 
controversial nature, written in America, and circu- 
lated in Holland and Germany with a view to in- 
fluence the Germans either for or against the follow- 
ers of Spener who were attempting to introduce and 
maintain orthodox forms of religion in the Province. 

The first of these tracts of which we have any 
definite knowledge was printed by Bradford in New 
York, for Heinrich Bemhard Koster : 

" Ein Bcricht an A lie Bekenner und Sc/ir'fftsteller, 
7(597." -i** 

This book, printed in the year 1696 or early in 
1697, has the distinction of being the first German 
book printed in North America. No copy of it is 
known to exist ; our knowledge about it is derived 

MSS. copy was lately made for the writer. This correspondence is of 
the greatest importance, as it proves the connection between the Pietists 
in Pennsylvania with the parent organization at Halle. Above facts 
were not known when the ''German Pietists" was written, and the 
authorship is there laid with Falkner. A translation of the tract by the 
late Dr. Oswald Seidensticker, was published in Penna. Mag. of Hist, 
and Biog., vol. xi, p. 430, et seq. See also Cramer Beitriige, p. 323. 

Pastorius's Pamphlets. 191 

from Pastoriiis's so-called " Rebuke " to Koster, in 
which he cites the book and states that it was printed 
in the High-Dutch tongue for circulation in Ger- 

To counteract the influences of Koster's report in 
Germany and Pennsj-lvania, Pastorius prepared two 
counter-pamphlets, one for use abroad, and the other 
for local circulation : 

Ein I Send-Brieff\ Ojjeiiheriziger Liebsbezeugung 
an die \ so genannte Pietisten in Hoch- \ Detitschland. \ 
Zu Amsterdam, \ Gedruckt vor Jacob Clans Buchh'dnd- 
ler, i6gj?^^ {Appendix plate XLIV.) 

Only a single copy of this book is known, now in 
possession of one of the descendants of Pastorius. As 
will be noticed from the title-page which is repro- 
duced in fac-simile,^"'' it bears an European im- 
print. Pastorius was unable to have it done in 
Pennsylvania, because there was no press here at 
that time, so he was obliged to send the work 
to Holland for publication, as he had done upon sev- 
eral previous occasions. 

The title of the tract in the English language, for 
home circulation, was : 

Henry Bemhard Koster, William Davis, | Thomas 
Rutter & Thomas Bowyer, | Four | Boasting Dispu- 
ters I Of this World briefly | Rebuked, | etc. Printed 
and Sold by William BradfDrd at the | Bible in New 
York, 1697. I ''' {Appendix plate XL V) 

''" German Pietists of Prov. Penna; p. 287, et seq. 

2'* Original in private hands. Page 15 closes with colophon : Von 

192 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Leaving tlie controversial works, and turning our 
attention once more to the literature relating exclu- 
sively to the German emigration, we now come to : 

An Historical and Geographical Account | of the | 
Province and Country | of | Pensilvania | and of | 
West-New-Jersey | in | America. | With a Map of 
both Countries. | By Gabriel Thomas, | who resided 
there about Fifteen Years. | London, Printed for, and 
Sold by A. Baldwin, at | the Oxon Arms in Wanvick- 
Lane, 1698. | ''' {Appendix plate XLVI.) 

A German translation of this book was soon after 
published by the Frankfort company : 

PensylvanicB \ Beschrieben von \ Gabriel Thomas \ 
I ^. J'dhringen Inivohner dieses \ Landes \ Franckfurt 
und Leipzig.^ \ Zu finden bey Andreas Otto., \ Buch- 
kdndlern}^'^ (Appendix plate XL VII.) 

Pastorius's extended account of the Province comes 
next in order : 

Umstdndige Georgra- \ phische \ Beschreibu7tg \ 
T)er zn allerletzt erfundene^i j Frovintz \ Pensylva-\ 
nice., I In denen Fnd-GrcFJitzen \ Americce \ In der 
West-Welt gelegen \ Durch \ Franciscum Danielem \ 
Pastorinm^ \ J. V. Lie. und Friedens-Richtern \ daselb- 
sten. I Wo r bey angehencket sind eini- \ ge notable Be- 
gebenheiten., und \ Bericht-Schreiben an dessen Herrn \ 
Vattern \ Melchiorem Adavium Pasto- \ rium., \ Und 
andere gute Freunde. \ Franckfurt und Leipzig., \ 
Z'ufinden bey Ajidrcas Otto. lyoo. \ ^^^ {Appendix 
plate XL VIII.) 

194 The Pennsylvania-German Society, 

An abstract and review of the above was printed 
in the : 

Monathlicher \ Auszug \ aus \ allerhand neu-her- 
ausge \ gehenen, niitzlichen und artigen \ Biichern. \ 
December M. D CC. \ Zu finde/i \ Bey Mcol Fdr- 
stern, Buchhlindl \ in Hanover r-^^ {.Appendix plate 
XL IX.) 

In the following year, 1701, was issued another 
German edition of William Penn's Letter to the 
king of Poland. This was circulated in north-east- 
ern German}^, and was intended to spread the Quaker 
faith in that state, and at the same time induce a 
further emigration to the province : 

Brief \ Aan den \ Koning van Poolen. \ Opgestelt 
door I JFilliam Penn, \ Ifyt de M'aani van zijn ver- 
drukte enlydende jyienden \ tot Dantzig. \ Tfit het 
Engelsch vertaald \ Door \ P. V. M. \fAmsteldam, \ 
By Jacob Clems, \ Boekverkoper in de Prince-straat. 
1 701 . 1 '^^ [Appendix plate L. ) 

Eurem liebgeneigten Fremid Frantz Daniel Pastorius. Germantown in 
Pennsylvania, den letzteti December, 1696. A fac-simile reproduction 
of the wiiole tract, by the writer is in the collection of Historical 
Society of Penna., State Library, Hon. Sam'l VV. Pennypacker and the 
writer. • 

^ii^' Appendix plate XLIV 

212J Original at Friends' Library, Phila. Also one copy in private 
hands. Fac-simile, ibid supra. 

'•^" This was published separately and later incorporated in Pastorius's 
extended geographical account, edition 1704. 

*'= Original at Historical Society of Penna. This book was edited by 
Melchior Adam Pastorius, father of the writer. 

216 Original in Historical Society of Penna. 

*'' Original in Carter Brown Library. 

Falcknerh Repoj^t. 195 

The next important works of the period, are 
Daniel Falckner's " Curious Information," which he 
had placed with the publishers during his visit to 
Germany, 1698-1700;-"^ and his brother's missive 
from Germantow^n : 

Curieuse Kacnricht \ von\Pensylvania \ in \ A''or- 
den-America \ welclie \ Auf Becjehren guter Freunde \ 
Tiber vorgelegte 103. Fra- \ gen hey seiner Ahreiss 
aus Teutseh\land naeh ohigeni Lande Anno 1700. \ 
ertheilet und nun Anno 1702 in den Druck \ gegehen 
worden. \ Ton\Daniel FciRnern, Professore, \ Bur- 
gern und Pilgrim allda. \ Franckfurt und Leipzig, \ 
zuflnden hey Andreas Otto, Buchhdndlern \ Im JaJir 
Christi 1702.^'^ {Appendix plate LI.) 

The Missive of Justus Falckner, a brother of the 
above, who accompanied him to America, was a letter 
to a clerical friend in Holstein, which, as it states 
upon the title, is an account of the religious condi- 
tion of the Province in the years 1 700-1. But a 
single copy of this work is known :'-° 

Ahdruck \ Fines Schreihens | An \ Tit. Eerrn \ D. 
Eenr. Mufilen, \ Aus Germanton, in der Ameri\can- 
ischen Province Pensylvania, sonst Xo- \ va Suecia, 
den ersten Augusti, im Jahr \ unsers-Eeyls eintau- 
send siehenhundert \ und eins, \ Den Zu stand der 
Kirchen \ in America hetreifend. \ JIIDCCII. (Ap- 
pendix plate LII. ) 

218 German Pietists of Prov. Penna. Phila., 1895, pp. 93-99. 299-334. 

219 Ibid, pp. 98-9. Original in Historical Society of Penna. 

22" This heretofore unknown tract on Pennsylvania, was found by a 

ig6 The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

The list closes with two more tracts by Pastorius, 
the first of which is really a second edition of his 
former description of the Province : -^^ 

Umstdndige Geographische \ Beschreibung \ Der 
zu allerletzt erfundenen \ Provintz \ Pensylva\ni(B, \ 
etc. Francl'furt und Leipzig, \ Zu finden beg An- 
dreas Otto. 1704-.\ {Appendix plate LI V.) 

The second one is a '' continuation " of the above, 
to which is added Gabriel Thomas' account and 
Daniel Falckner's tract : "^ 

Continuatio\Der \ Beschreibung der Landschafft\ 
Pensylvanixe \ An denen End-Gr'dntzen \ America. \ 
liber vorige des Herrn Pastorii \ Pelationes. \ In 
sich haltend : \ Die Situation, und Fruchtharkeit 
des I Erdbodens. Die Schiffreiche und an der e \ 
Flilsse. Die Anzalil derer bisshero gebauten Stddte. \ 
Die seltsame Creaturen an Thieren, Vdgeln und 
Fischen. \ Die Mineralien und Edelgesteine. Deren 
eingebohrnen ivilden Vdlcker Sprachen, Religion und 
Gebrduche. Und \ die ersten Christlichen Pflantzer 
und Anbauer \ dieses Landes. \ Beschrieben von \ 
Gabriel Thomas \ 15 Jdhrigen Inwohner dieses \ 
Landes. \ Welchem Tractoitlein nocli beygefilget 
sind : \ Des En. Daniel Falckners \ Burgers und 
Pilgrims in Pensylvania 193. \ Beantwortungen uff 
vorgelegte Fragen von \ guten Freunden. \ Franck- 
furt und Leipzig, \ Zu finden bey Andreas Otto, 
BuchhcBJidlern. \ {Appendix plate LV.) 

As will be seen from the title-pages, the tracts of 
both Pastorius and Daniel Falckner were published 

German Literature a7td Emigration. 197 

simultaneously at Frankfort and Leipzig, under the 
auspices of tlie Frankfort Land Company .^^^ Tkey 
were repeatedly reprinted and quoted in the periodi- 
cals and reviews of the day. One of such reviews is 
now in the Historical Society's collection, ^^* 

This literature did much to influence German emi- 
gration to America, and after events showed that the 
printing-press in Germany was one of the most 
active factors in bringing about the German settle- 
ment of Pennsylvania. 

When fairly started, the effects of this movement 
were phenomenal ; the romantic Rhine became the 
chief artery of travel for the stream of emigrants to 
Pennsylvania. As the barges floated down the river 
past castle-crowned crag and vine-clad hill, from 
every hamlet could be heard the Lebe-wohl^ and 
Geht-m-it-Gott^ which were called after the wanderers. 

Rotterdam henceforth became the chief port of 
embarkation for a large portion of the Germans 
going to the new world , whether directly or by way 
of England. 

correspondent of the writer, in the Library of the University at Rostock, 
after great difficulty a photographic copy of the whole was obtained, a 
reproduction of which is at the Historical Society of Penna. A transla- 
tion made by the writer will be published in the Penna. Mag. in the 
near future. For Biographical sketch of Justus Falckner, refer to Ger- 
man Pietists of Prov. Penna., pp. 341-385. Also Lutheran Church 
Review, vol. xvi, p. 283, et seq. 

^" Original in Historical Society ot Penna. 

*" Ibid, to this are added, Gabriel Thomas' description of Pennsyl- 
vania, and Daniel Falckner's tract, Curieuse nachricht, etc. 

"^ See William Penn in America, Phila. 1888, pp. 304-5. 

*** Monathlicher Auszug, Hanover 1700. 


The Pennsylvania-German Society. 

This desire grew among tlie German peasantry, 
until it assumed such proportions that both England 
and the States-General were forced to take heroic 
measures to turn back the human tide, which not 
only threatened to depopulate some provinces in Ger- 
many, but also to change Pennsylvania into a 
German colony. 

^A^<^^ 7^ iW^^^c^ 


After the above paper was written and put into print, several letters, 
dating from the closing years of the last century, were discovered which 
have caused some doubt to arise in my mind as to the identity of the Dr. 
Otto who sent the communication "On the Discovery of America" to 
Dr. Franklin, by him presented to the American Philosophical Society 
and subsequently printed in the Transactions. 

In the course of this Monograph, following the traditions of the Society, 
the credit of authorship is given to Dr. John Matthew Otto, of Bethlehem, 
a member of the Society and a friend of Franklin, who always signed his 
name "Otto" or "Dr. Otto," as in the communication read before the 

From the letters alluded to, it appears that at the same period (1786) 
there was another person of similar name, Louis Gillaume {sic'\ Otto, the 
French Minister to the United States, who was also a friend and corres- 
pondent of Franklin, and signed himself "Otto." However, it matters 
but little whether the writer was the learned Doctor of Bethlehem or the 
French Minister in New York ; the facts remain the same, viz., that the 
paper quoted formed the incentive for the critical investigations of Baron 
Humboldt into the early history of America. 

Julius F. Sachse. 

October, iSgj. 

J^u£c^A^ ^^f^jOyC^/eA/ <2^^l^^i. 






(3crman immigration 





^be lPeim6v^lvania^(5cnnan Society. 




202 The Fatherland i^^o-iyoo. [1678] 

fitrs ©cricf)t : 

Ciller frcunbficfxn JjcyitifucOuiig \\\ Der 

itcbc (Sottci?/ tin (i(Ic tiu iciuv{c nntcr oflcrlcy Seden 

!in5 Religionen , u'clcl;c cine $3c»^icrbc itnb Q)«» 

lanjjcij Ijrtbeii iwd) ccr 'SBiiOrciKSrfanbtmlC^of* 

fc^/ <i!iff trtp fjc il)m in bet '28arl)cit iinb (Scs. 

rc4'tigfdt m6d;(cn ticncn unb niibfun/ fie 

fcyii iUtcI) \x\: jTc ivoBen. 

tDic <;uclj 

dtxn Scntbricff an aHcMc ienit^c/ tic mitt bcc 

Cbrifllidjen Confeflion, iinb uoii bcu Aii^crlicI'm 

Seften imb C9ememben obcc 5tird'cn nbaefonbcit 


ItnO audj 5ulc5t 

(Jill <5cnt)6ric|f an adclJic )m(^ bic iJonlDcin'2!a(j 

iljver 53<i)mf!:(l;unfi; einpftnblui) i<\)\\ (^civoifcen, 

SBelcbcs attcs 'xr\ (Englifdjci: Bpwd^e 
gefd;»;iebe» ift 



iinb ill bic S2od;fnurclK (Sprfltljc titxM) 


^n 2(mjTer&am/ 
©eftrucft »or Jacob Claus, %\\m 1676. 

Plate II.— German title-page of Penn's " Call to Christendom. 

[1678] Appendix. 203 

^rt atlc bicjenigcn/ tic cin Scrlancjcn (;a6crt/ 

(i)£)tt III fciincn/ iiiii) \\)\\ \\\ lUaclpcit mii) 2luff; 

Kjdjtigt'elt rtn^ubitteu / I'on ivdi? Sede, obcc 

Ttrt uon @i)ttc0bi£iit] bt«felb:gen lu Dcr guiu- 

^ai (fi) geiiaiitcn) (£l)ri|lciia'«rt fenn mo^cn/ 

iiui) uoiiunilici) m i^ocljj un6 5]i€t)«« 


Cin Har ®c;;cu3nfi^ i\x tern altcn 2(porro(i|c()m 

ieben / "JBftJ / uuft 211116(11113 im (Scifl iint> in bee 

JPacbcit ; bie @ott iii bicfer 3f it aiif bcr (Jrbc 

vKbctiim nirb rtiitTnri;tcn/ unb Icbenbi^ 


eciirucec vot jAcob cuus, ^rnio i67«. 

Plate III — German title-page to Penn's "Tender Visitation. 

204 The Fatherland i^jo-iyoo. [1678] 





Eentcderebefoekinge m.dc LiefdcGods. aanallediegene 

die een begccrrc hcbbenom.Godte kennen enhcniin 

Waarheyd en Opregtij^heyd aan te bidden, van wat 

Sdie , of foort van Gcdsdunft de felve zouden 

niogen wcfen 

EenMiffiveaanallediegene.die.onderdebeiydrrs der Chn 


Qn uyterhjke Gemeeiiten. 

Een Miffivc aan al die gene, die gevoellg zijn van 
den dag harer befockin^c. 

sAlles m d' En^e/je Tale gefchyi^'cn . door 


En daar uyi (>veip,erer. 

Toe R O T T F R D A M 

Gedrukt voor jAN PIETERSZ G R O E N >^ O UT._ 
Boekvcrkoopcr , wonetide op het Sp«uy 167^ 

Plate IV. — Fac-simile of the Dutch collective title-page of Penn's Tracts. 
Original in the " Archief der Gemeeute," Rotterdam. 

[i68i] Appendix. 205 






I N 


Lately Granted under the Great Seal 

o F 


T O 

William Penn, &c. 

Together with Priviledgcsand Powers necef- 
fary to the well-governing thereof. 

Made publick for the Information of fuch as are or may be 

difpofcd to Tranfport themfelves or Servants 

into thole Parts. 

LONDON: Printed, and Sold by _'3ei:jjmtn Cbrk 
Bookleliet in Geor^c-ldud Lombard-Jlrcct, \6%\. 

PJate V. — Reduced fac-simile of title-page. 

2o6 The Fatherland 14^0-1^00. [1681] 





William Pen n^&c. 

ubcrgcbeit tvOKt^tt/ 

3um Un<etri(t)t \iXiX J fo cf wan S<r<h$? U\wc^tr) / otet t«)<^ 

an t>Ukti On %a f«hben/^6t<cmft 
f unt) 0<tl)an wifb. 

}Iu^t)em in London ^^tttucUmuvitxni^cwUt) Benjamin Clarck 

*iuihbdHt(crr« in Georee-Yard Lombard-fttect 6tfittbH(fjcm 

^aebfiiit bco9«f»i9teiiu()cwa(i^fmim 1 67r 3abr 9«brMCh<m 
€)(tr«b«ii bf«J obertffljnten Will. Penns^ 

3u "ZI rti Rcrtoin / g^^rucH fcC9 ChrlHoff Ciwraden , ^ 
00134^1 1681. 

Plate VI.— German title-page of Penn's " Some Account of the Province." 

[i68i] Appendix. 207 

Ecn kort Bericht 
Van de T^roVtniie ofte Landfcha]^ 


genacmt, Icggcndc in 


Nu onlangs onder het grootc Zcgel van Engeland 
gegevcn aan 


Van de Privilcgien, ende Macht om 
hct fclve wcl tc Rcgeeren. 

Uyt het Engcis overgcfct na de Copyc tot Londcn gcdrukt by Bfttjd- 
nun Ciirk^, Boekverkoopcr in George Y^rd Lombardftrcet. i 68 i. 

SDact bp nu geboeet ijei ^t ^otificatie ban ^' ibonmg^'plnccatt/ 

tn Date banDem ttp^H i68i,uiaarinneoer(g(n\t)oo;{dijie 

gintwoonoccjBf ban Pennsylvania, bciafi »>o^i> 

"W^iLLEM P£NN cniijnErfgcnainet, c\^ bol^Oltiene 

^pgenaar.sien iSoubcrnfucia;, tegeboo^famcn. 

De Copye vaneen Brief by den fclvcn W.P. gcfchrcvcn aao 

zckcte Regccringc Anno 1675, cegensde Vervolginge 

en voor de Vryhcyt van Confcientie , aan aile&c. 

Tor 7(^0TTEKJ)WhA. 

Gedruktby PiETER van 'Wynbrugge, Bock-Drukkerindr 
LccuwcAraai , m de Wcield Vol - Druk. ^m9 i.6.Si.^ 

Plate VII. — Fac-simile of Dutch title-page of Penii's " vSome Account of 
the Province." [From the original in Carter Brown Library, through cour- 
tesy of John Nicholas Brown.] 

2o8 The Fatherland i^^o-iyoo. [1681] 



Upon its true and proper Grounds 

Asserted 6c Vin dic ate d. 


That no Princei nor State, ought by force to com- 
pel Men to any partoftheDodtrinc, WorHiip, 
or Dirciplinc of the Gofpcl. 

To which is added, 1 lie Second I'ARTi 

Liberty of Confcience, 

The Magiftrates Intereft; 

O R, 

To Grant Liberty of Confcicnce to pcrfons of different per furariom 

in mattcis' of l^eligion, is the great Inrercftof all King-. 

doms and States, and particularly of England i 

AiTerted and proved. 

By aPRoTESTANT, a lover of Truth, and the Peace and 
Profperity of the Nation. 

The ^coni EditloHy covrcfted by the Author, with fotne Addition. 

Undon^ Printed in the Year, 1668. 

Plate VIII. — Title-page of Penn's " Liberty of Conscience." A transla- 
tion of which was printed in the two previous tracts. 

[ 1 68 1 ] Appendix. 209 

geographies: universalis 


55et atlaemcinctt 

JDanoncn Die 55r<»^fc<H UtSSB^lU 


6am( i[)r?n BCtne^mPen ^6niat eleven / ^5to 
^erll / ^nfeln / @tabten uitbecMi^rn / tt>ic «u* 
<«t>b €l)artm utU) ©appsn / mt<nfl&cii<n (i* D«< 
UMt fo rod oor i«n$«r aU furjcr Beit iu^ctw(\cnc8 
$enf;unl> no* beutiflc^ Ifl«c< 5l)cn^wirev 
jicn ^a*«n auf batf bcntltc^ftc (tn* 

maj irt^PAttdfcddjGcogr.Ordin. 

5(njei^oabec in^^(Jmfci)e uberf4ot/un& 

in bieftc i"we^ten€bkttonanU;i(erf(&i«t)(iti|Ktt 

uno J?unO|)5nMer6/ 

©et>rutftD#l]t>il bc^)(Jbn(lian(SiciM 

Plate IX.— Title page of Du Val's Geography (German translation). 
From the original in Carter Brown Library. 

2IO The Fatherland 14^0-iyoo. [1681] 


D E 

L' E S T A T 


D E S 

Oe ti yirginie^ de Marie- Land^ de la Caroline ^ du nouveau Duchc 

d'Tork, de Penri'Sylvmia, dr de lanouvelle Angl€t(rre,fituees 

dansl'AmeriquefeptentrionalCy entreUstrente deuxieme 

^ quara7ite fixime degr'es del'clevatiortdu Pole du 

Tiordt & ^tabliesfous les aufpices , (^ I'autoriti 

fouveraine du. Roy de U grand* Bretagne. 

Tirefidelementdes memoir es des habitans des memes Colonia, 

enfaveur de ccus^ qui auroyent le dejfcin de s'y 

transporter & des^y etablir. 



M. D C. T,X\Xi. 

Plate X.— From the original in Carter Brown Library, through courtesy 
of John Nicholas Brown. 

f^^^2] Appendix. 



Settlement anHf iSm'cesi 





j^greed npon.-by divers 


And OTHERS forthebttteP 

O F 


m TttAT 


Printed for "BenjamHClath^-^rx. Cmge-T&ri'ixt. "Lomldr^-jireei , 
Printer to the Society o£ Fennjihania, MDC LXXXIf. 

Plate XI.— Reduced fac-simile of title-page. 


2 1 2 The Fatherland 14^0-iyoo. [ 1 682 ] 

The FRAME of the 



^(tolJinte of ^ennCiluama 


AM E R I C A^ 

Together wich certain 


Agreed upon in England 




Divers F R E E - M E N of the aforefaid 

To be further Explained and Confirmed there by the firft 

Troviricial Council ^nd general Jjfemi?ly thmt {hall 

he held, if they fee meet. 

Primed in the Year M DC LXXXIh 

Plate X 11. —Title-page of Penn's " Frame of Government. 




information anD iBircction 


Such Perfons as are inclined 

T o 



EfpeciallyThofe related to the Province 


PENNSYLVANIA thf Vjlue and ImfiiweiTipnt of Efl/ites in our 
Parts of yimtrica. msy yet with fur- 
ther cJeamtfs and Aiiiir.wcc to FiK]iiircn, I 
wopofeto*^k my o«' n Know led g, .indthf Obferv.itiftn 
Sf othfVs. .1? particMlai ly as I caii ; which I lh.Ul comprif* 
under theic Heads 

I. The /idvitnce fl;if impel Mnnei and Coo4s 

I I. T/.'f yitliumcthjl 11 upon Labiur, ie it of Han- 
ttUfAftl or ttlxrs. 

, i J I The Aitittiut that is upon J ntid 

IV TlxCha'^c ot 'r.wfporein^ a Family, (ind Fit- 
tpi'ia PUitiiiw). 

V Th,-lf'ay ilKVccrcr fjir m,;; l>v Tratifpcrrcil an.i 
Sijrc.l, with yJ./tJ>.M»c 10 iIk Hich hi Ip rhon. 

VI T'li- cajiii <vii1i'flter frcvij en that ti li U mdiir 
there for i'ojicfiii, eJfcci.tliUr tlxjc thai ,irr not )f f^ic.t.' 

\\\ U%,ii "i'lcy/eli nnJCcodi ttn fnwg 10 ctiryjor 
Vjt 01 I'lofit 

Forifccfirft, Siidi A.'tijfv.ii triHy be earned, .1$ pieces 
of eight, adv,iuot I'hiiiy. .liid Gr.dii ar Un'ti hin- pci 
cc7ir S.iy 1 hjVc 1 v^ / _/ir 1 /. if I .-m but fix in r.unjy, 
I will p.iy my r.\n.ige »nli the .iilvMn^t upon my nio 
t*Y, and tnd my liuni'rc.l iK.unds go6d m ilie Couii- 
iry »\ l.ilt Upon r.oc./', well bought .iiii1 foncd, iIuk- 
•« n L'li p:oi I bur (Diiif money ;« trrj rffiiiifit Ilt 
Trade fikc: Im »i- indu givrs Goods a bener iiurkci , 
loll;,'r coi,l,diiii,|> ilic great qil.inliiy of Gr<<!j ajrcjdy 
nnii-d. It verr 1 oi .in\i),s at prcfenl, if one baW Vicn' 
111 A/f)rrr, ni d the oihr 111 l.iorli 

Ihvs 111 Ctciio^ r>iil It p,incularly encour.igej Mer- 
thaiils becjiife the i>foht Xiy t'h.tvci-, iiWdixii IcfsrVrn 
'iol //•>/ iccrtii, vvliirh is very jjoniidenHsi .in.1 «f 
h.'ve ilrcad) gni loirurTiinigsftirirtilrns »}tliins.t-j,i., 
Hi. lb. Uylc, lii...^ CS.C 

II for l.iif'.. be 'it of !!.■>: Iirrrfr<. oj Oilm, 
ilicrr is a mnfrfrrablc I by ^Ivjr.c; ol pr;cc. 
lOtthar ishrtir, ticr,mfc the GoodliKtinufcChiiei) iIkit] 

1 1 1 Tlie /Uvance upon / and ij EiiCOuracing, whicli 
wiH_be bel^ apiK-ehended by an Englilli uiiderlbiiding m rf 
Coirivinfon with the Lands ol I'.ngiaiid, that be 11 tami- 
\ar\y acquainted with. 

If ^co Acroj ol uncicai'.i Land tliere, inHiffemuIy 
chofei*, will l{ecp as many \iiich Caret, or /at as jnor.t 
B^iOeikj forihe marlCet .11 Sumrjirr, as 50 Acres of im- 
proved Land m EnglanJ. as chofen afortfaid, cjn do. 
then by Computing the value of the Summers Grafs 0} 
<uch fifty Acres of Land berr. wc fli.ill the better 
nnd the v,ilue of sm Acres of Land in An-.nica;, tor 
v^.'tliin compafs, the (.ime quantity of Cattle 
Nuv be well kept Admit this then, tint the Summers 
Crafs o( %r. Acres of middliiig Land in l;,^i.vul. l> 
wortli 1^ / I conceinf ttut makes 10 /, w:,i..;i 1$ the 
price of rlif inhentancr of the 500 ,'\crfs, no 
I'urcluls. Tiie coii to go thither is r,..Ob|edbon, bt-- 
raule it is pud by the /i.l.jme that is upon the Money 
,»i,d fiocxlsai tiie rateaioreforef^ij It the .'■„ zard of fi,i- 
^c,l3!7C ObieCled, w- fce'lu! the/nr /■:/ra'rc:i SIvp uhiip 
ihofe pans, dui'S nor nidcjiry, ainf tie Risi is run 10, 
thcmfcli'is only, Ho«cver, cltrp: •:! Wmcr. I'aliagct 
are pleafaiit, :is w ell as fate 

Bui ih's Cump^'ii i'ra«s Jii OhifkHion np.m v tliai 
niuft bi obvia;cil r , ,u In-ancso/ y.itt J'vcl^^ ,„ ri\- 
II, met ' ; f,iy our ;('6./jiffiialiy keep ihon lor the Mai 
ket till l\ciiii, er, and uiilrfs u be ^ more then ordnury 
Wimer ( winch ij ob!t-»-v«> 10 h.ippcn but once :ji 
lour 01 t'vi- Yurs ortliaiihcy are young flcrt CTCi,f- 
tel bip, Willi Young.they inoftiy ftift tor tlirmfclvcj. M^a 
if Faldtr be wanted, wc have a fupply by Jlty, wc mow 
in the Al.ii-/7;<rj and If o:.//, (ird-.c .Vrr,:* of the Hjiclifli 
Grain «c ufc, or the Tn/'j ,iii.i ittik.! of Lidun CjTi.'anJ 
ioinctiinej ilv<r it felt'; aThiiig l-eaif, gti.-f e.ili.i ra.-j,l 
and IJ goudtulai aswrll as keep andanlKvitto Oats, 
I't'ije, Uiaiis and fi/iiulrrci «f.ouel..iieoi rlKiri 

rUuSdieam of Grj^iw; Jiid ker^rpof S'jc^, may 
iiifonn Ir.quurr: w Iwt 1 ic Woods .inJ L-u-aJs o 
tlKifcCiiuiinjt lolomelofi willdo m pTip^urifinii>L(ji,!( 
hrre. .ind i on'i niioiily , >tni th.iv .ir» im,,;!i ro |„i;,;. 

^ Plate XIII.— This Tract, written by Penn, is of the greatest rarity ami 
of interest as exhibiting the terms upon which Penn disposed of his lands. 

214 The Fatherland 1450- 1 y 00. [1682] 

f I.) 

Nader Tnformatie of Ondcrrcchtingcvoorde gene die 
genegen zijn om na AMERICA te gaan , cii 
wel voornamenclijk voor die geenc die in de Provin- 
tie van PENSYLVANIA gcintrcfTccrt-zijn. 

»jf Pdathct vcrderblijkenmach, hoconfcgocdcrcnciUandcryen , iii Hicaui • 
ticreri van America , vcrmccrdcrt en vcibctert kuniicn woidcn , Co Web ik 
coc mccrdci onderncht cii verfckcnngc van diegecne , die daar lu louden mo- 
i^envragen, voorgenoomcnaanmijncvf^cncrvarcuthcyt en kennille hi die 
take, neven"; de opmcrkmgen'van andcre , met foo vcel omflandighcdcn 
«Is 't docnhjk IS , vooi te ftellen onder de fcvcn navolgcnde hoofcflukkcn. 

I. Hec voordechlat 'er vale op den invocr van gelt . cnkoopmanfciiappcn. 

II. Hctvooidcelop Jcnarbeyc, 'tzy vanambachtcnof anders. 

III. Hcc voordecl dat cr IS te doen ♦ met het land fclfs. 

IV. Wat hec koften zal om ccnhuysgelin dcrwaarcs ce vocien , en ccn plant agic aaiiD" 

V. Opv^atwiifede arme luydcn (buden konncn ovcrgcvocrt wordcn , met voordecl 
Toor de Rijkc , die haar daarin louden bchulpzaam wefen." 

VI. Hoegemakkehjkcr , en bequamer datmcn aldaar fijn nakomclingen kan vcrforgen, 
en voornameiitli)kdcgccne , die nicr (ccr Riik rijn. 

V'll. Wat voor geieeilchappcn en koopinanlcliappcn bcftiiin, omdaat nacoc tcbtrn- 
gcn , t ly om lelk te gcbruylccn , 1 2y om daar met profijt tc vcrkoopcn. 

I. Watnuhet ceiHc Hoofcftuk bclangt, ftukkcnvan achtcn, of Spaanfc partacons , 
gey(:n 50. tcnhondcrtavancc, en koopmanlchappcn wcl ingekocht, so. ten honderr , 
fuiks dat , genoomcn dat ik hadde maar ico. I. fterlingsof 450. pattacons , of Rijksdaal- 
dcrs , mdien mijn familic maaruyt e.perfoonen bcftaat, foofalik de vraclit-penningcii 
uytdewinften ophetgcltbetaalen , en mijn loo.l.daar te landenochhcbben. Op goc- 
deren wcl ingekocht , en wel geforteert , valt 'ex noch mcer profijt : Maareendecl in gel - 
de IS feet dienftig , om des handcls wille. Want men vindt datdcwarcn daar doorbctci 
gerrokken wordcn : fulksdatgemcrkt de grootc quantitcy t van warenalreededaar heiicn 
gevoert, hctnietongeradcnisdatmen tegcnwoordig d'cen hclfr m gclde , endcandcnn 
koopmanfcliappen nccmt. 

Ditzy gcnoech m 't gcneraal gefeyr. Maar de Coopluyden bcvuidcn byfondcrlijkhaar 
fclvenaan<Temcedigtdoor hct piofijt, dat fclden ninider is als 50. ten hondert, "twclk 
cengroote avance'is. Wy hebbcnookvcrfchcydcfakcn, om inRetouren tefenden, als 
Vellen, Peltery , Traan , 0!y, Tabak&c. 

1. Watdenarbcyt of arbcyts-loon aangaat, "tzy voor ambachts-Iuyden > of .indcrc- 
^iaarvoorisdeaanmocdiginc^cniedeconfiderabel , era dat men daar mcer wmt als hicrin 
Engeiaiit ; Want de warea of manufactutcn , diemen daar komt te makcn , worden gcdc- 
bitecrt voor defclve prijs als die, die by de Coopman ingcvocrt worden, en de levcns-middc- 
Icn, daanmmcisfoogoetkoop wclendcals met m Engelant> Ibomoeten de ambachts- 
Iuyden niAmciica ccn fccr gocde tijt en gclcgenthfyt ncbbcn, om datfc ccn dobbclde 

K V.'Uill 

Plate XIV. — The Dutch edition of Perm's " Information and Direction." 

[i682] Appendix. 

A brief AccouDt oF the 

^;oi)mte of ^ennfplbanw. 

Lately Granted by the 



Under the GREAT 

Seal of England, 




Heirs and Affigns. 

Since (by the good Providence ol Cod, and the Favour of the King) a 
Country in Amenc* \% fallen to my Lot, 1 thought it not Icfs my 
Duty, then my Honcft IntcrcfJ, to give fomc publick notice of it to 
the World, that thofe of our own or other Nations, that arc indin'd 
toTranrport Thcmrdves or Families beyond the Seas, may find ano- 
ther Country added to their Choice J that if they (hall hapj-cn to like 
the Place, Conditions, and Government, (fo far as the prefent Infancy of things 
will allow us any profpcft) they may, if they pleafc. fix with mc in the Pro- 
vince, hereafter defcribcd. 

I. The KING'S Tttk to this Cotmry before he granted it. 
It is the Jm Gentium, or Law of Nations, that what ever Warte, or uncul- 
ced Country, is the DircoVery of any PrincC, it b ihc right of that Prince that 
was at the Charge of the Dircovcry : Now this Province is a Member of that 
part of America^ which the King of £«^/<»«</i Anceftors have been at the Charge 
of Difcovering, and which they and he have taken great care to prcfervc anJ 

h if. William 

Plate XV.— Title-page of Penn's " Brief Account" of 1682. 


The Fatherland 14^0-1700. 


[i682] Appendix. 217 

plantation BlSio^Ii 


W O R 



Written in Truc-Love 

To all fuch as are weightily inclined 
to Tranfplant thcmfelvcs and Fami- 
lies to any of the Englijh Pfantati- 


Mod material Doubts and Objeftions againft ie 
bemg removed, they may more cheerfully pro- 
ceed to the Glory and Renown of the God of 
the whole £arth> who in all Undertakings is to 
be loohed unto, Praiied and Feared for Ever. 

Jlfpke ventHTO Itttetttr ut India Stclo, 

LONDON, Trinted iat Benjamm Clarl^ in Ceorge-Tard ia. 
Umkard-^reety i^. 

Plate XVII.— Title-page of " Plantation Work." [For proof of author- 
ship see "William Penn in America," Philadelphia, 18S8, pp. 55-56.] 

2i8 The Fatherland 14^0-Tyoo. [^683] 

A Vindication of W I L L I A M P E N N^ 

Proprietary o^Venfikania, fromthelate Afperfions 
ipread abroad on purpofe to Defame him. With 
an Abflra6fc of feveral of his Letters iince hi^ 
Departure froin England. 

WILLIAM P E AT W having been of. He Anfwcfcd^.TA^^/w^FtfwW-tf/Vwv .for which 
l.ittf TraduceJ a* bting a Pap i(b, and he wai put in the Towr, Note. Thatan Exgli- 
likewife bring D«ad, I thought racer cation was fincerely given forth by W. Penn, con- 
to give a (holt Rel»tioti of the rife ceniing*the faid Book, EmituUil, Innoccncy ap- 
and grvt^nd of that nandejiHis Repati, and D»- ftanp^mth ofnFMt, which gave luehtttisf^fti^ 
t«^it, with an Abftr4c"kof hii <M«nt«tt«rsrcr. oni.l^at.hc^wfasfetat,Liberty. ■> 

ceired fwce to <hew that he i< alive-. • 'So thi^ was the fijbftancc of his Anfwer, by 

which jouotay perceive thefceblenefs of hisfalfe 
.' One of tbf ftfft and mod fiii'i.ou$ Foroeptecs . faggeftion j and. the bafenefs of his Spirit : 
and Author* of that late lying Rnpoit ol Wtlli*m tKctiasto iii»grof>I,ycof fT. P\ kefepinga JefuiC 
Terin'i being a Papift ( afier dkiigertt E.'Kjuiry, to Write bis Books.whcn I chsrgcd him wuh itj 
vAxie) apptaw to be Thomas link}, a liaptift totlut he w«s Mute, and would giverac noAn- 
Ticuher, the envious falle Dialogue-Maker, who: Ivvor, but lliufflcd to another thing 
hat b;tn openly prov'd anotQrious,F<>iger,Slan- Hereby you may lie that the i'iid Tht.Hicl^i: 
derer and Dffemer of the Pcopl. called C^akers,, appears to tea, bufie Slanderer as well as 3,man^> 
wickedly and mahtioully r^Midring tUcmiW f«ft Forger of. notorious falflioods, as bt|ii>re. 
etriftiins, but Qe<civer» and Impoftots, ^((l: charge^ ^ 

airti df faming the»Ti in their fufF^iags, w hich.ansj , The falCe^ggcftfoff.ot Jkn- HifMi taking Airi 
j&M Cooftionce xfiiwif^i* Go4>, iftfinuating , TThof; Jd.efteourag^ ^jthersioaddjhtrndjapdamongft; 
t^ f4tijf<tiiiaf) of tlntr mils ami i.tfis, andfrtmc- the I'evrfrat Stori<s this was one. That iV. Fitvt, 
tint^thtix car)mllntireft,ti) be tht chief mottvt and ptrverted ope. Nlr. E<^'»», zSaJfcx G^ntlennn, 
IfldHfement ffc«'".«, 4/;ii ihf gr<ai t'dnginthetr to the ^ew«yJ> Religion, who lived and died ne«c 
5v,(u in his Dialog, t . /1.75.} As alio his lies and hi» houfe. The firft that i could find who wa?; 
flinders, That h« h?d h lender W. P's Handto. fo bold to a(firw thi>, was F. f . vtho quotect 
iBanifcft hiro the fulkit Villain upon the E»rth, the l^ukc oi. Svmerfet'i Steward for his ^uihdr,' 
«nd:tti»tftver«lof his Friends hsd been with him to whom lapplijcd, my feif, and he ^Skratiia 
tolise it, and were fatufied it wasfo, and defi- he Reported itnot, neither knewany thiog of it:, 
icd hiai not to look 'Jr>on the refl of Friends as. That being 4«e^<d, F. F. chjiged it upon Cap-F 
upon U'. P. And further, that the Booki his ttin Qrmv^uik (^ jth/tx., Crother-in law to thtf 
Name was too. wcie not of his ovn Writing, Ciid Captain E^/ow, to whom MeflTengtr* wcio 
fcuttb.uh; ki-pt a ]'fijitc for ihat purpofe. Xcnt by /^. Prwj's Wife to know the ttut}» 

Now 1 haviriginformafion of th:sfalfe R^poft thtrcpf, and hf ajfo denied it,- and f.iid, //If; 
and Slander, and bring chi(.fiy confern'd in thq i^oKldffitinihe.F<ucafanyiraa>>tk'UXf<)Hldclk$rie; 
A:frairj of W. Pcnn in his Abf;.r.c6, look'dopon u upon him.. This hccUclarcd bi;f6re fevcraS 
piy ielf ob'.ig'd in Confcience to viodicate bisirp WitneflH, and feid. If fhc were not fat!s6td 
noconcy and <. hrirtian Reputation •• Whereupon with what he. h*d there declared , he woulct 
Itookwilhmp R. Davts and ^. Af. with feveral, vyait upoa bsr. apdtgWc hpr whitfa.tisfiftionfh« 
ethers upon the EA-ti(*«f<, an^ asked 7<w, //if ;^^ pjeafed undt;r bit hsjnd,. for he (cojr.'di to abufa 
JfhchadituodcrW^. A«M'«hAiidto inanifeft hi{n' &>, Civil p^ Q«£^tle;TOin behind his^ back : So the 
as aforefaid ? To whith he Anfwtr<d. ?"«, he h^d,- rife of that Story lodges as y« at f . f'i dooc. 
Then I defircd him jto name oite of the Friondf And for the pfetojjded. pcrv<;rt^d P<rfw Captain 
that Wjsb fni»fi«d, hi» (hu/Hmg Anfwer wa«, F^^arv^ ( fqr fp he wasca|le4.>t'Ky who,src4<r, 
Ihere was a great rwny of there, byt could re, firous to be ft)ri,h{:? i^y^k^i waycnquirrof tho 
rKnibtr the Nanici ol none of i}\ta\, it bsijig Warden oi. ihe f'<'^ wNrc , by the Boo.'; 1* 
four or fiveytarjsgo. I then ddiicd to fee his dpsth appea,r . thf f^d- Ri>f»r^ E4f*» wa: c-3fl>- 
Letter? He Aiifwered, He had r\or\e. IQueiiedj mitted Prifoner to theF/e,«f<;)r Qcbt the i7«iog 
What he had underbid own Handthen ? He Re- Nevtmkcr i<^.8. and. npfe kwwn to go.abro;id 
■ • ••- L-.i ;.;., i,'l theTii!c? after Comraitm.-nt to hiidyir.gdavj whith was. 

Plate XVIII.— Heading of Philip Ford's "Vindication of William Penn." 

[1683] Appendix. 219 

L E T T E R 

Proprietary and Governour of 


In America, 




:Jf tee ^onetp of Craijets 

ofchac Province, refilling ia London. 


A General Defcriptionof the (aid ProviMft, its Soil, Air, tVttefySafout tM ffoJlatt^ 

both Natural aod Arti^ial, and tiic good EncreaTc tticrcof. 

OHViNiisivtso^ Aborifintt, ibeir Z.4';(;»4.jf , Chjiami ix^MoaicTi, Oitt, HfufmCTWif' 

icamst Libtrakty, cufu xoxj of ^»*<'»if, Flyftk.^ Snri*l, RtUgitn, StPrifcH and Cfmm*^ 

Ft^ivuls^ Cuternpurt, and ilicir order i» CokikU upoi Trcadcs^for 

LaodiCVc. tlicir 'jiAt'se upon Eiil Doen. 

Of the/rj? P/*»;£r/, ths Dure/;, &c. zail the pre/exr ComUntM ioi SwUmem of Gk 

faid Prrjincty and Ccurti oijKftkt^Cfi'c. 

To which is added. An AcciA'iit of the C I T Yof 


Newly laid omc. 

Its Scituation between two Navigable Rivers, VeUfure and Skulkill, 


Portraiture or Plat-form thereof, 

WbireiU the P«rcbafers Loti are diftingoiflied by certain Konbert infened. 

Afldthe ProTperouj and Advanagious Settlements of thc.&riefraforclaid, within 

the faid City aod Country, ^f- 

Ttiiiui tttiSoU h Andrew Sowk, ti the Crookd-Btlh U HoUoway-I^mt >» 
I Shoreditcb, Mudit/evtrdlStaiomrsimtMioa, t^8}. 

Plate XIX.— Title-page of Penn's letter to the "Free Society of Traders. 

220 The Fatherlmid 1 4^0-1 yoo. [1684] 



William Penn^ 

Eygenaar en Gouverneur van 



Gelchreven aan de Commiffariflen van de Viye Socie- 

teyt der Handelaars , op de felve Provintic , 

binnen London refideerende. 


Cctttlcntrsl2Btftft,2bbingc ban tebotynoemtic l^^ohinries tt faierm/ bau 
finw ^^cnfe/Jlucl^/JBattr/^ifomenm't p^oDuft/foo upr fee iituuur cl^ 
tmi littbQutoen/ ncfmj^U grootc bermeerbcttnge of m^m30i)Ui)l()ni>^ 
ce/ toelP&e j^eraaWS albaar umaebenbeii;?. 

SCIsi mebt: baRbeBatureHenor3fnboo,i(mijcnbc^2anbisiJ/j2a:(5£!:nar^ 
(JBctooontmr^ oijaanieren / Saat^pijfen/ I^Ufffen of iii^bjam;^/ 
31©iIt>Bept / fictnacMijciie maniet ban lebm / JiBcBicnnm / maj«?rcn hm 
95c0taaffemj*/ <JBobjftitenft/ #jfer9anbenen<3cfan0en/ fiaacli^ocati 
fceiTen / JUtgatinge / en o^b^e in nare iRabm / toamtciec fp mtt j^tmsnfet 
j&anbefcRobtT^?{: berJioopcnbanllanbtrpm/ (|c, j^cbmjiJ §au3ut^ii 
tie/ of j^ecj^t bocn obcc quaatbomberjS. 

^itjjgabcijittn^&triflit banbtetrOJ^oIonicriS be!|«Ilanbcri>7 (|c. €« 
ban be tcficntooo^biije tocftam en toclaeflelriicpt b«n te b«o|noe3«be P^Cjj 
bmtie en SectjtbanBen/ (|c. albaac 

Waar by noch gevocght is cen Befchrijving vandc Hooft-Stadt 


Nu onlangs uytgefct , en gelcgcn tuflcKen twee Navigable Rivicrca, 
namentlijk : tuflcncn Delaware cnSchuylkil- 

Cnbe ccnbettjaalban beboojfpoebtfic enboo^bceligEfianbrbanfaiftcttbatt 
be boo^noembr#§ocietept binnen be boo^nocmbe <$tabt en Piobmtie / |c. 


C ^drwkt voor Jacob Ciaus, Bo^kverkoopcr in dc Princc-fl raar , x 6 84. 

Plate XX.— Title of Dutch Edition. 

[1684] Appendix. 221 

©or in AMERICA wm^mm» 



2lii^6ftf Gouverneurs i^ruiticn rr(laf(cfm 

3tt ^crlcawig 6ri; ^f«rt0-9ml? m Urr Banco/ 


Plate XXI.— Title-page of German version. [From the original in 
Carter Brown Library. ] 

232 The Fatherland i^^o-iyoo. [1684] 

R E C U E I L 





A LA H A Y E, 
Chez Abraham T r o ye l, 

Marchand Libraire^ dans la Grand Sale 
dcla Cour, M.D C.LXXXIV. 

Plate XXII.— Title-page of " Collection of Various Pieces Concerning 

[1684] Appendix. 223 

Eclainijfey^r/js de Mo?ijiiivi F-niy j 
fur Pliifieiirs i^^ ticks toucha.a 
i'etabfijjcr/iira dili Fcnjjivame. 

A U 3C A C H L T E U R S. 

LE Gouverneur vend trois mille Acre^ 
oa portions de Tcne cent livrcs 
Sterling qui valenr onic ccns livrcs 
d'HolIandc, ou trcize cc.slivres de Fran- 
ce. Chiique Acre . ou lO'tion, dtantdeli 
grandeur ouenv iron d'un A ipemdHoUan- 
dc ; a la charge que rAchctenr s'obligera , 
tant pour lui que po.incs Detccndans, d'cn 
payer a perptftuittf, & celad'an en an, unc. 
rente d'unfchclin Anglois, quivaur dou?.c 
fols dWngleccrrc , pour chaqiic cent A- 
cres , ex on rcra arpenter & dclivrer l.iauc 
Tcrreaufdits Achctcurs tourcfois & quau- 
tes qa'ils le ibuhaitcront , Ibi: a i:a\--nK-iie$; 
ou a ccux qui auront procuratioa d'cux^ 

Cctte 'I'crrc ccant dciivrec de la iijtc, 

I'Achetcur le;atci\u . danslctcrinedc-tiois 

.•iJi5.. dVtablir unc lauuilc iar •.. '^."^uc por- 

i' •; "lion 

Depuisquele Gouverneur a dcrit la Let 
tre que vous allez voir, il en a encore cn- 
Toyed'autres enAngleierrc endatrc diidix 
Novembrc 1683. ftilc nouveau , la ou il 
donne a connoitrc le progres des fuccds hcu- 
reur<iui arrivenc dans cettc Province ; & 
cue dansce moisilyetoic arrive cinq Vaif- 
ieaux , entr'autres un qui a apporte bcau- 
toupdcgens de Crevclt , & des licux ciicoii- 
voi^Mv''^ dttMary land > Je fuis 

yi T(,otttrdan 


Voire trtfafffWoH*:: yimt . 

Plate XXIII. — Heading and Colophon of Furly's "Explanations to 
Purchasers and Renters" in the French edition. 

224 The Fatherland 14^0-ijoo. [1685] 

G(jQd Order EUabliJhed 

I N 

pennfilvania &NeW'.]erfey 


Being a true Accoanrof the Country 
"With its Produce and Commodities there made. 


And the great Improvements th.u maybe made by 
means of ^ublicfe ^toje^ljoufejB: forl^emp, flaic and 

ILinneUi-ClOt^ \ alfo, the Advantages of a I^UbUcfc;; 
^t^OOl, the Profits of a ^llbU'cfe^Banb, and the Proba- 
bility of its arifing, ifthofe directions here laid down are 
followed. With the advantages of publick <15;ianaiicSf, 

Likcwife, feveral ether tilings needful to be under flcod by 
thofe that are or do intend to be concerned in' planting ia 
the (aid Countries. 

All which is laid down very plain^ in this fraall Treatife ', it 
keing eafic to bcunderftood by any ordinary Capacity. To 
which the Re*dcr is referred for his further fatisiaftion. 

"By Thomas "BudJ. 

Printed in the Year 1685. 

Plate XXIV.— Title-page of Budd's Tract, printed by William Brad- 
ford, Philadelphia. [See Hildeburn's " Issues of the Press in Penna.," p. 4. 




Miflive van 


Gefchreven uit cle Stadt 


In it Provinde van 


Lcggcndc op d'Ooftzydc van d« 

Znyd Revicr van Nieuw |>Ie4crl3nd. 

Kcrhalendedegroote Voortgirtfc 

van de fclve Provintie- 

V^tut b|i iiomt 

De GctLiygenjs van 


van Amfterdam. 

Tct Il©tt«-dani gedrukt , by Pieter vat 
"Wijnbruggc, In de L€euwel\rac:. i ^8 : 

Plate XXV. — Title-page of Cornelis Bom's " Account. 

226 The Fatherland 14^0-iyoo. [1685] 

A Further Account of the Provuicc 

of PENSYLVANIA,and its Improvements. 

For the Satisfa^ion ofthop that are Adventurers , and 
Inclined to be jo. 

IT has I kriow,bcen mucli expeded from mc thai I lliould give fome 
farther Narrative of thofe parts of An,enca , where I am chieily 
intcrcflcd, and have lately been; having continued there above a 
Year atter my former AV/j^/c;?, and receiving fince my return, the 
frcllicft andfullet^ Advices of its frifgrfyx and Ir,iprovetnent. But as the 
reafjn of my coming back, was a difference between the Lord Balta- 
niore and my felf, about the Lands of Delaware, in confequence , rcpu* 
ted ofmighty moment to us.fol wav'd pubUdimgany thing that 
might look in favour of thg Country or inviting to it , whiift it lay 
under the Difcouragemeot and Difrcputation of that Lord's claim and 

But fmce they ai^c , aficr mtriy fair and full hearings before the 
Lords of the Committee ^or P/anratiofis]\ii[\y and happily Dtfm//f ,2nd 
the things agreed; and that the Zf//f/-y which daily prefs me from 
all parts, on the fubjed of America , are fo many and voluminous , 
thit to anfwer them feverally, were a Task too heavy, and repeated 
t) perform. I have thought it mof\ eafie to the Enquirer, as uxll as my 
feU', to make this Account Publick, left my filence, or 2 more private 
intimation of things, lliould difoblige the jufl inclinations ofany to 
/America, and at a timc-tfoo, when an extraordinary Providence fccm? 
to fevour i\s plantation, and open a Door to Europeansio pais thither. 
That then which is my jxirt to do- in this Advcrtifement is, 

Fu(l,7'(7 Hebtccur Pro^refs^efpecia/Iy Jwce my lafl oj the Mjnth c.-J- 

/eoAirguf^, 8^. 

Scc<y\\A\yj yThe Capacity of the place for farther Improvement^ in order 

to Trade and Commtnc. 

A z Laftly, 

Plate XXVL — Heading of Penn's " Further Account." 

[1685] Appendix, 227 

T W E E D E 

Bericht ofte Relaas 


William Penn, 

Eygeiiaar en Gouverncur van deProvintie van 



Behelfende een korte Befchfijvinge van den 

tegcnwoordige toeftand en gelegentheid 

van die Colonie. 

Satt penninfltn toe foubm betfcljietetu 

Uyt het Engeb ovcrgcfct. 

f A M S T X R D A M, 

^jAcofi c t AU$, 5iM^)m1i09a:mtK9jto(Hltaat. 

Plate XXVII.— Title-page of Dutch edition of Penn's "Further 
Account." [From the original in Carter Brown Library.] 

228 The Fatherland i^^o-fjoo. [1687] 




Paffages out of feyeraL Letters 
from Peifojas oi good Credit. 

Relatiiig to the State and Improvement of 
ike Province of 


Fulltjhedto prevent fcdjc^B^yort^. 

Printexi iiitlic "^ar 1687. 

Plate XXVIII. 

[1687] Appendix. 




Of eene 


der Naruurc en Tucht 
van het heylig' 


Datcfe verloocheningzyns zelf^'i en Iict 

tlagelyks draagcn vanhet 

ecnigewc|; totde Ri'rteen het K«nin^- 

ryke GoJs is. 

Tot bfkrachtjpfnge vsn 't welke hier bvgeVoegd 

zyu, veelc tritt'dyke ReJeren en Voorbceldcn 

van vei nnaardc cii gelccrie pcrfoonen 

dciaafoude tyden^ 

Alt mc'le 

Vtrrc^cJrderteGctiiygeni/rcn van Ifedetj rab 

Staat en Gfleerdhcyd, op himne 

flerf-flonJe iiytgeli'rok«u. 



Gouverneur en tygenaar van 


In it Bngclfche Taale btfchree»tn,en in rf?i:li'eecni- 

gereyici.h'rJrukt, en nu liaaruyt.icn ciicnfieci.-'i Nedcrduytfch gvbticht 


VV'". ScWtL.' 

^'Arafterdjm , by J A C O IJ C L A U S . Bncfc- 
vcrkooper indc Pruife-ftraai. K87. 

Plate XXIX. — Title-page of Dutch edition of Penn's "No Cross No 
Crown." Original English edition printed in the j^ear 1669. 


The Fatherland i4^o-i']00. 



Prefent State 

Of His Majeftics 

Ifles and Territories 

I N 



jantcffo, S. tocent, 
2DomIn(ca, iReto'31erfcp,i 
^m0tt)ania, S^nferat,. 

CaroUna, ^tc(ipin(a, 

With New Maps of every Place. 

Together with 

Agronomical T A B L E S^ 

Whichwillfcrveasaconflant Diary or Calendar, 
for the ufe of the £«^//]?; Inhabitants inthofe 
Iflands ; from the Year 16S6, to 1700. 

AKozTdbJehY which, at arty time of the Day or Night here in 
Engldndy you may know what Nour it is in any of thofe parts. 
And how to make Sun.J)iaJs fitting for all thofe places. 

Licenid^ July 20. i685. Eogcc ?l'<£flcange. 


Printed by H. Clark, for ^Do^man il^ftoman, at the 

Kings- Arms in the PoMltrey, 1687. 

Plate XXX.— Title-page of Blouie's " English America." 

[i688] Appendix. 231 


o u 


D E S 


D U 


L'A M ER I aET E. 

Avec de nouvelles Cartes clccha- 
que I fie 6c Torres. 

Traduit de I'Anglois. 


Chez Abraham "^'olfg ano^, 
pres la BourCe. 


Plate XXXI.— French-title page of Blome's "English America. 

232 The Fatherland 1 4^0-1 joo. [1690] 



0c dftiniutti San^orum Vitis 

I. Deomnium Pontific\5m Statutis 

II. DeConCiliorum Decifionibus 

V. De Epifcopis &: Patriarchis Conftall* 
'^^t ift: 
1 , 1?<>B filler *5eiHttif!t fiebens^Ubftiig 

J. IDon Hx Concilicii Bttitt^Sopinmg* 
t, t)wi ^cnen Stfc^6ffcii unb Patmrc^en 
|u ConiiantnTopd* 

gum Q5rnnbe 

Oct tunfftfgbtn nod)ferner biirauf 




®runl) QHijeUgtcn / unD uun mit gut<m 

Succefs aufeel)fnt)en (gtabt: 


Ama Cbrifii Af. DC. XC. 

Plate XXXII. Title-page of Pastorius' " Four Useful Tracts. " 

[1691] Appendix. 233 





Of the Pro'vince of 
111 America. 

Printed, and Sold by Aicirevo SoitU tt 
r.he Crookcd-Billet iwHoHovoAy'Lamiii. 
Shtreditchj 1691- 

Plate XXXIll. — Title-page second edition of Penn's " Frame of 

234 The Fatherland 14^0-Tyoo. [1691] 







The State and Improvement of that 


PnUifhedto prevent Mif'Reforts. 

PrhiteiJ, and Sold by Andrei? Souve^ at the Croohd'SUhx in HoUo'^ 
WaymLafie^ ill Shonditchj l<r$kl« 
Plate XXXIV. 

[1692] Appendix. 335 


unD mftrbaffti9enUtfacl)ett tbvecfo gcofs 
fen Decadent un& Scbacmuna^ tvflc^ 

?l(ten glaubttJiltbicjen Documentis uni 

Q5ti«filid)eri UrfunDen ( bet i^o (cbcnben licbeu 

SBur^erfdMlft / unt) S)erD tf^acbfommen / ju 9ut« 

^«c6nw alfo iufammen getragen / unD in 

Den 2)i:ucf gegeben 


Melchiorem Adamum Paftorium j 

ftltem asurgemcijlern unb Obct-^O^ict)' 

tern m befagtec @taDt 

®ebru(f t su 3Jfirnberg 

Plate XXXV. — Title-page of Melchior Adam Pastorius' Tract on 
" Windsheim and Pennsylvania." 

236 The Fatherland 1450-iyoo. [1692] 

Francisci Danielis Pastorii 

Sommerhufano- Franc i. 

bcr U^tmabl^ erfunOcncn 

Sdncticanifcben gan^fc^afft 


(Dvit angeOcnctten cinigert ti6tab(cn23cg€^ 

jjcnbeitcn unb ^)cricbt;@i1)reiben an D^flen^rn. 
"pattern/ PatriotenunDgute 5«wn£)e 

(Bnilge befunt)r/auf waeVPcifc 16:^1 
v»oti memen ^inbesb^ih^n an/ 4uf 
&emtt):0e Mefer 5eiclict)f etc meincrt 
Icbcns^auff gegen 6ie ti*ot>eiEvvic|f eft 5U/dn> 
3eficl)tet unOinaU^mmeincmClbun6abmg^^ 
aad)cet b^bc/ vtJie id? C>en allctn rjutert VbitUrt 
©Octes effcnnurt / feinc bobe 2irimact){:fui'd> 
'en / unb feine unci-gvrmblict)e (Sure Iteben lei'); 
oenmod^te. WnXi obwoblen (d) nebfianbdrt 
•ytxwimtvi VOijTenrdjrtffcen bet* fieyen ^Kiinfte/ 
Daa Studium Juris feliciterabrolviiet/ptc Jta? 
itanird>'unb ^luttJ^fif^i)^ Bpi'ad)cnexfunda- 
memo becjciffen / aiid^Dcnronenunrtrengiop 
fen Tour biii'd) bie Hanbfdjaffffn 0etb4:n / (^ 
babeid>jebod>im aUen(r>i:tenurtbiHnDen mct^ 
rten r^uof|ef^<^'* ^^lt''0 unb^einubunq an anbei'S 
njd;tj?getvenbcc/al9 eigentlid; ju eifabtettAtx) 

4 doc^ 

Plate XXXVI. — Heading of description of Pennsylvania in Melchior 
Adam Pastorius' " Windsheim Tract." 

[1692] Appendix. 237 

A Short 


o p 

Qlr, A Relation What things are known, 

enjoyed, p.r.d like to be difcovcred m 

in the faid Province. 

of England. 
T.y Richard Frame. 

T tinted ani Sold hy William Bradford i> 
Philadelphia, 1692. 

Plate XXXVII.— Title-page from Frame's "Description of Penn- 
sylvania." [Original in L. C. P. Presented (?) as a Token of Good Will to 
the People (?) of England.] 

238 The Fatherland i^jo-iyoo. [1695] 


Dec neucn ^c(f/6efrcffent) 
]ie ^rjelfung einet gefdf)rficfxn 

S$ifffavf^/unt 9(iid(i($en2ln(dnbung etli^ei: 

Stl^riftl/djen 9teifeijefe^i:ten/ft)eli:5e jutem (Jn- 

t^e fciefe QBaUfatict angetretten/ ben C3la«- 

ten an iSfiim ^l^rrfrum ad^o^uf ^ 


r^^. xiL cf. 

man l;f nitc{) pretfcn mil) offcribareir. 

(5<t>mcf t fm ^a^ri^pj". 

Plate XXXVIII.— Title-page of Johami Gottfried Seelig's "Report 
to A. H. Fraucke, after his arrival in Pennsylvania," 




A N 


O F 

Wl. Mentis 


I N 


For the Service of the Gofpel 
of Chrift, by way of fouma!. 

Containing alfo Divers Letters and 
Jipiftles writ to fcvcral Great and 
Eminent Perfons whilil there. 

C^e feecWXD 3|mp?ffjSlOji, Correfted by 
the Author's own Copy, with Anfwcrsto fome of 
the Letters, not before Printed. 

(Lcmloii, Printed and Sold by T. Sorvk , ia wbitC' 
Htn-Cotert in Grdct-Cburch-Strcct. i d^t,. 

Plate XXXIX.— Tttlc-page of Second Edition of " Penn's Travels in 
Germany. ' ' 


The Fatherland j^^o-iyoo. 


Gerardi CroesI 

H I S T O R I A 



Dc vulgo diftis Q^aKeriSj 

Ab ortu illorum ufbue ad rec^ 
natum fcbilma , 

L I 8 a 1 1 1 L 

In quibus prjefertim aginir de ipifb* 

yum pr«ccipu;s anteccfloribus , &l dogmaus 

( uc & fimilibus placitis alioium hoc 

tempore ) fadifo^ue ac cifibiiSs 

mejtiorabilibu . 


Apud Henricum 8c Viduam. 
The ODOR I Boom. 16^5. 

Plate XL. — Title-page to original edition of Croese's " Historia 
Quakeriana. ' ' 





tip auf iungft^itt erttftaiiOene 

Jacmncn t)ornem(icI) s^m 

fccn Jpauptftiftcrn liefer igccfe/ 

^erfelben £ef)rfdi^en/unb anbcreii 

j^reg()ld(|enju Mcfcr 3citauf^ 

gebra^teii £c^ren/cr|e^lct 

let) 3o&ann ?9Jicf)aeI fJlu&igcrit. 

t 6 P ^a 

Plate X LI. —Title-page to German edition of Croese's " Quakeriana. 

242 The Fatherland 14^0-iyoo. [1696] 


General Hiftory 

F T H E 



Speeches, arid Letters , 

Of all the mod t^ 

Eminent Quakers, 

Both Men and Women ; 

From the firfl Rife of thars^XT, 
down to this prefent Time. 

ColkBed from Ma/fufcrspts^ &c. 

J Work mvsr attempted before w Englifli. 

Being Written Originally in Latin 

To which is added, 

A L E T T E R writ by George Kjith , 
pnd fent by him to the Author of this 
Book : Containing a Vindication of himfelf^and 
feveral Remarks on this Hiftory. 

LONDON, Printed for Jlobn 3Duntoil, aC the Raytu 
I in "Jcwm-Jirsct. \6^6. 

Plate XLII.— Title-page of English edition of Croese's "Quakeriana." 

[1697] Appendix. 243 



fs\\x\]t ^ocf) Dcutlicfte 
lenigcn £diiDer unD ^.nfdn 


tiu'cb cine {)od)berii5ttife Jd^cj: 

aiiC' t'ctn (fnalifd;en ubcrfc^if 
unO mit ^upfiern ^kxtt 

^ci) 3ol)anii ©ve§cn6^1>ittbc unD -^en* 
5lnno- 1697. 

Plate XLIII. — Title-page to German edition of Blonie's "English 
America." [From original in Carter Brown Librarj-.j 


The Fatherland 14^0-1^00. 




3u ^m^x^^^' ^mi 

Plate XLI v.— Title-page of Pastorius' " Missive to the Pietists in 

[1697] Appendix. 245 

Henry Btmh^yd Kj}/Ier^ l/Villidm O^is^ 

Thorn di Ratter ^ Thorn ai Boryer^ 


Boafling Dirputers 

Of this World bneBy 


And Anfwered according ro their Foiry, 
which they vhemfelves have manifefted in a 
late Pamphlet, entitiled^ Advice for all Pro- 
fe/fcri anil \Vr iters. 


ffsntti Danitl Pafior/t/j^ 

PrinCed And Sold by WtHutn Bradford ;\\ ihe 
Bible in New^Tori^ ' <J9 7' 

Plate XLV.— Title-page of Pastorius' "Rebuke." 

246 The Fatherlaiid 1 4^0-1 yoo. [1698] 

AnHiftqaAcaland Geographical Account 


O F 





The Richiftfs of the Soil, the Sweetnefs of the Situation 
(he WholeTpmnefs of the Air. ihe Navigable Rivers:> and 
others, the jj^digiousEncreale-of Corn, the flourilhing 
Condition of ftie City of Vhiladflpbttu, with the (lately 
Buildings, and other Improvements thert. The ftrani^ 
CreatuTes, &sJBtrdf,lieafis,FtJhe.'. and FottfiSy %vi(hthif 
feveral forts of Miner a1s._ Purj^inglVaiers, dnd Stones* 
lately difcovered. The Natives, ^borcgmes, theirX,4» 
gva^^^ Religion., Laa/s, and Cuftomf ; The fir ft Planler.s, 
thebu^fA, Sweedt., and JEn^^Jh, with the numbet of 
itslnhabiunff ; As^Llfo a Touch upon Ccorge Keith's 
Ketv J^eftgiim , rn his fecoiid Chaiige fince he left the 

With a. %lap of both Countries, 


who refidfed there about Fifteen Years. 

Lonion^ Printed for, and Sold by A.SalcUvm^at 
the Oxon Arws-ia iVarmch't^fte^ L6pBi 

Plate XLVI. — Title-page of original edition of Gabriel Thomas' 
" Account." 







Enfyivaniallcat jtt>ird^en ber^vei^ 
te t)c^ 40. uno 4f.feraDc^ : ^ox 
XOeil/Jeiff y acqcn Often / Piiv 
ginif n gegen^Sfieflen / tTJaricm 
lan^ ()cgen v^juben/ unt) <Cana6a 
gegcn ^"Ji ovDcn. 3n Der i'^nge l>at e^ brep bury 
t)eit / uiiD m Dev *:^mte bi^nDert unD actji.^ 

'IDie in Dcm i(xc\^ ju erfl gcbo^rne Q55lcfcr/ 
oDcv a'|]e ^£in\T>ol)nei' bicfec £anDe^/merben/iiac5 
il)icm Uifpvutiq/ beo ben meijlcn ';Q5lcfern bafut* 
iV^'balten / baji (je t)on ben jcl)en lerjltroieten 
©rdmmcn cjemcfcn / meil ftc ben 3u^cn an bee 
(jan^en (BejuUr fef)v u^n(i6fmb : ©iebalteii 
DlClTfu*tnon^e fie opffem ibvc Ufifllmgc 
cmem/ben ftefureinen ©ott Mten/unDlTJa* 
n*to ncnnen/beren fic jwei> f)abcn/ einen/( wk 
jie ibncn einbilben) bevcbenmobnet unbent ill/ 
luib einen anbern/ bei- bier unten/unb bo|i ifl/ 
DftbCJ) lie cine 2Ut »cn £aiiber(?utt^n'^e)}ba- 

Plate XLVll. — Heading of German edition of Gabriel Thomas' 

248 The Fatherland 14^0-ijoo. \\']o6\ 

©ct ju allcrtei^t cQiltroGRii 


Snbtncn €nb?©i;att|fen 



J. V, Lie. unDS^ ^^^^n^'0^»*t«c'i 


ge notable ^e3et)enf)ejten / iin& 

S9crtcl)t;©c6i:eibert an Ocflift "Derm 




3«fint)cn f)ej) S(n^rea$ -Otco. i/oa. 

Plate XL VI 1 1.— Title-page of Pastorius' "Geographical Description." 
[First edition.] 

[lyoo] Appendix. 249 

VII. UmftdnfcfKl>e e^t\ar(T»j6<fcf)r ^j^ 

^fflttt ^;0l*in6 Ptniylvani* ttt 
DftlfR cn^t^ran&cit America? UT 
tti qi^cf! * QBcft .qeicgm Wiif^ 

Fran ci (til in Darnel em t'aftoriurn 

J. U. L u»D gricOen^ 9\(c^tan 

fli«) cintgc 3?etal)ic Segf ben^ei# 
ten uno ^Sci14)t'©^)ff^t«?n,rt^' 
ttcflca QSiUein Metch. Adamuin^ 
Paltonuiii ( i) unD (twtrc flufe 

feep ^trtr. Oeto. «7oo. in «. lo. 

famff it acregetyijnb nac§ ^enMMm U»ftJei1I# 
tafcn^3af)icn grancfreicft unt> €t'^fflnt nfbff 
<ln^cvn ^fiubfrn Diirc^reifef. S^a cr ^fnn Die 
citflfcit ber ^iffee" 5Bflr nPenHCt ui;D Dicfcr:* 
tve^en nti^^etifpIUQnien gcjooen tim bafelbf! 
ten 21mencauifcl)cn ^j^cjlcfcrn i)ie i!)iu Don 

Plate XLIX.— Heading from Pastorius' Description in Monaihlichcr 
Auszug. Hanover, 1700. 

250 The Fatherland i^jo-iyoo. [1701] 

R I E F 

Aan den 


Opgeftelt door 


Uyt de Naam van ztjn verdrukte en lydende Frkndm 
tor D A N T z 1 G. 

Uit hct Engelfch vertaall 


P. V. M. 

T'A M S T E L D A M» 

By Jacob$> 

Bockvctkopcr indcPrincc-ftraat. i?©*- 

Plate L. — Title-page of Penn's " Missive to the King of Poland." 
[From the original in Carter Brown Library.] 

[1702] Appendix. 251 

Curieufe »pi{ 




[^oclJcii* America 

gen / bet) faner 2tt>rc(6 au6 Seuifd^ 

lan^ nad) obigem t^anC>e Anno 1700* 

evtl}cilct/uni)nun Anno iToiinDcnl^rucf 

^Daniel ^alfnecn/Profeflbrc, 

^rancffuit unt) ^eipjtcf / 
Sti pnbeji bej> 2(nbrea^ Otto/55uAh(5nb(cni- 

3m ^c (iowiii ,70,. 

Plate LI. — Title-page of Falkner's "Curious luformation." 
[From Diffenderfler's " Great Exodus to England."] 


The Fatherland 14^0-i'joo. 




Tit* $erm 
u^ ©ertttanfon / in Der ^ttieti^ 

nifd^Cn Province Penfylvama, fOJiff No. 

ya succia, tmerfun Aupfti, im^a^i: 
m\iU^t^U cintaufenl) jtciien^unDtit 

m 2lmcrtca5cfrcffeni>* 

Plate LI I. —Title-page of Justus Falckner's " Account of the Religi- 
ous Condition in America." [From the original in the University of Ros- 
tock, Germany.] 






ai6f($eu(l(5e/ auffWinf(f)e/ wrt)ammlirt)cgirlHnn 

^el*( gmwtKt n>n*<ti 

QSiu fte Mcfeltjc in i^rcii Scarterfen/ Cdfarm/ 6toiitnrtc/ l^nti 

nicr/^6n(grcid)/ 6-cf|lcin/ unb fonft fd)rifftli* unD tnunOtict) mit 

3fO|T«n Ct'gcmig auegebrtitet. 

®ec ^fabC iiam5ur(5 

©en SInfaltigen ju muljer^iger SBarnung fur^Iid) gefaffet/ grunWIA 
tt)t0(rl«g«/ imb in ©riicf gcaf&tn 


€tlid}c ^ierju t>erorbncf c 
^d Minifferii in ilamfut^. 

3m 3at)i- eJjnji! 170;, 

Plate LIII. — Title-page of a specimen of " Anti-Quakeriana." 

254 The Faiherlajid I4f;o-I'/Oo. [1704] 





J. V. Lici nn^ griebcn5'-?5ti(fitw 


SBotbet) ange^encf et |mt) etnf^e no^ 

table SBegeDeit^ettett/ tIn^ S3enc^ 
©Areiben an tejjen ^errn 


Unt) anl>crc gutc SreutiDt. 
Suptttw bcp ^ma§ Otto. i704» 

Plate LIV. — Title-page of second edition of Pastorius' "Geographical 

[From Diffenderffer's " Great Exodus to England."] 

[1704] Appendix. 255 




Ubep Jjorige DeeJ J£)erm 3)a(iorlt 

3ri jic^ l?altenb : 

SQfe Situation, unbgnicftt&arf eft bed 

(5rDbo&en(?. 2)te@4)<ffcfi(6etin&anfefre 

gluffe. 2)ie 2(njaf)lbeicr bi^^^p oebauten (gtdbte. 

£te tcltiame ^reafurrn an £t)iei:(n/93dig(lii nab SifctKO* 

2)ie Mioeratien iinD (f tielt)e/t(ine 2)er(0 (inge^brnen »il* 

Jen ©6(cf«r (£pra(^en / 8l«l<a<oti un6 ®<&t4uc&c. Un^ 

i&tfc^rtebet) von 


«a?e(cf;cm Traadtt^in ntx^ bepgefuget (tnb : 

^urgcr^ uni> ^ilgrim^ in Penfylvania 193. 
S&eantivoctujngcn uff vorgelc^te gragen ooo 
gutta S^Hi^fn- 

^rancf flirt unb 2.eip«g / 
3tt ptttJcn bej^SCnfcrea^ Otto/^u(fefi5ntltttt. 

Plate LV. — Title-page of Pastorius' "Continuation." 
[From Diflfenderffer's " Great Exodus to England."] 

256 The Fatherland i^jo-i'joo. [1708] 










ri^OfZURlMUMtiEyEReNDi/, t^uBJUSSlMOy AT^jnLPRJt* 







Hoit-U (Confyetis 



^.?;?<><r^/,Typis Joh.WepplingI,SER-EN.PRINC. & Acad, Typogt 

Plate LVI. — Specimen of " Anti-Quakeriana. " 

3 1 198 01934 5664 


i TMnimiguamM Bi i