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Full text of "Fauna hawaiiensis; being the land-fauna of the Hawaiian islands"

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NOV S, 192, 

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FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 



VOL. I. PART 



MA CROLEPIDOPTERA 



E. Meyrick. 



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The Fauna Hawaiiensis will be published in parts at irregular inter- 
vals, and will it is hoped be completed in about two years. 



Contributions have been made or promised by the following, viz. 



F. E. Beddard, F.R.S. 

Prof. AUGUSTE FOREL 

Dr L. O. Howard and W. H. Ashmead 

G. W. KiRKALDY, F.E.S. 
Sir John Lubbock, F.R.S. 
E. Meyrick, F.Z.S. 

R. C. L. Perkins, B.A. 

R. I. POCOCK 

D. Sharp, F.R.S. ... 
A. E. Shipley, M.A. 

M. EUG. SlMO^J 

E. R. Sykes, F.Z.S. 
The Lord Walsingham, F.R.S. 
Mynheer F. M. van der Wulp 



Earthworms. 

Formicidae. 

Hymenoptera Parasitica. 

Hemiptera. 

Thysanura and Collembola. 

Macrohpidoptera . 

[Hymenoptera Aculeata, Orthoptera, 
\ Neitroptera, and part of Coleoptera. 

Myriapoda. 

Part of Coleoptera. 

Parasitic Worms. 

Arachnida. 

Mollusca. 

Microlepidoptera. 

Diptera. 



It is also intended to give a list of the Vertebrates, with their distribution, 
in the Islands. 



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Subscribers to the whole work will be charged half-price for each part. The parts will 
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any bookseller. Payments for each part should also be made to Messrs C. J. Clay & Sons. 



I 



FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

OR THE 

ZOOLOGY OF THE SANDWICH (HAWAHAN) ISLES 

Being Results of the Explorations instituted by the Joint Committee 

appointed by 

THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON FOR PROMOTING NATURAL KNOWLEDGE 

AND THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 

And carried on with the assistance of those Bodies and of the Trustees of 

THE BERNICE FAUAHI BISHOP MUSEUM AT HONOLULU. 



EDITED BY 

DAVID SHARP, M.B., MA., F.R.S. 

SECRETARY OF THE COMMITTEE. 



VOLUME I. PART II. 

MA CROLEPIDOP TERA 
By E. MEYRICK, B.A. 

Pages 123—275; Plates III, IV, V, VI, coloured ami Plate VII imcoloured. 



I 



CAMBRIDGE : 

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 
1899 

\All Rights resented.] 
June 8, 1899. 



aonSon: C. J. CLAY and SONS, 

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE, 

AVE MARIA LANE. 

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Itipjig; F. A. BROCKHAUS. 

i^tijj Hotk: THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 

BomiiBs: E. SEYMOUR HALE. 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 

By E. MEYRICK, B.A. 



123 



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MACROLEPIDOPTERA "''^'^r>. 

By Edward Meyrick, B.A., F.Z.S., F.E.S. 

In this paper are included all the Lepidoptera except the Pterophoridae, Tortricina, 
and Tineina, which have been entrusted to Lord Walsingham. I propose to give a 
complete enumeration of all the species hitherto observed in the Hawaiian islands, 
describing the very numerous new species, and also redescribing those species of which 
our former imperfect knowledge has been enlarged by the acquisition of new material ; 
and also to discuss some general considerations arising from the study of these forms. 

I have not thought it necessary to quote the synonymy of the species, or to give 
references, except in so far as these have actual relation to the Hawaiian Islands. The 
accurate record of localities is in the case of this fauna so important for purposes of 
comprehension, that I have thought it best to particularise the number of specimens 
obtained from each locality, so as to indicate the value of the available evidence. On 
the other hand, the season of capture seems to depend in most cases only on the 
presence of the collector, and the impression derived from the records is that many 
species are probably obtainable throughout the year. 

§ 1. General considerations on the Macrolepidoptera. 

In the following enumeration 292 species are recorded, of which number exactly 
200 are now described for the first time ; these are assigned to 49 genera, of which 
6 are new. 

Relation of Genera and Species. 

Of the 292 species, 31 occur also in other regions, the remaining 261 (or 89 per 
cent.) are endemic. Future discoveries are more likely to increase this percentage 
than to diminish it. 

Of the 49 genera, only 10 (or 20 per cent.) are endemic, the other 39 occur 
elsewhere. The endemicity of the species is therefore four and a half times as great 
as that of the genera. It appears to me that this ratio, in the case of a highly endemic 
fauna, is an index of the same significance as is the proportion of species to genera in a 
highly apodemic fauna. If, as an example of the latter, we take the Lepidopterous 
fauna of the British Isles, as enumerated in my Handbook of British Lepidoptera, we 
find 2061 species and 458 genera, the ratio being 4^^ to i exactly. I interpret this 
index as a measure of the comparative periods of time required to produce specific and 
M. F. H. 17 



124 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

generic characters, signifying with considerable precision (for I find the same result in 
such other faunas as are available for calculation) that on an average it takes four and a 
half times as long to produce a genus as to produce a species. 

In the Hawaiian fauna, however, the proportion of species to genera is unusually- 
high, being 6 to i, and it may be asked why this is so. It appears probable that, 
owing to the extremely limited character of the fauna, and the relatively very small 
number of genera available in the first instance as a base of development, the generic 
competition has not been sufficiently severe to promote a high rate of modification : 
whilst the variety of situations presented under similar but slightly different conditions 
(such as those depending on altitude, rainfall, and insular separation), is highly favour- 
able for specific development. I shall show presently that even the existing endemic 
genera are not all on the same footing. 

Comparison of Families with other Regions. 

Only 12 families are represented in this portion of the fauna, and two of these, 
the Galleriadae and Pyralididae, only by species of undoubtedly artificial introduction ; 
thus only lo are truly native, all of them being of world-wide distribution. In the 
corresponding portion of the British fauna there are no less than 34 families ; yet all 
those families which are represented in Britain by more than 1 2 species are present in 
the Hawaiian Islands except the Arctiadae, Sterrhidae, and Notodontidae, and none 
which are represented by less ; so that, except for those three families, the results are 
in accordance with the law of chance. The New Zealand fauna so much resembles 
the Hawaiian in its broad outlines that it may be worth while to compare them in 
tabular form. 





New Zealand. 


Hawaiian Islandi 


Arctiadae 


4 





Hypsidae 


I 





Caradrinidae 


59 


38 


Plusiadae 


7 


13 


Hydriomenidae 


93 


17 


Sterrhidae 


I 





Orthostixidae 


2 





Monocteniadae 


4 





Selidosemidae 


25 


33 


Sphingidae 


r 


7 


Nymphalidae 


6 


5 


Satyridae 


4 





Lycaenidae 


4 


2 


Pieridae 


i(?) 





Phycitidae 


3 


7 


Galleriadae 


I 


I 


Crambidae 


49 


8 


Pyraustidae 


76 


159 



MA CROLEPIDOPTERA 1 25 

Neiv Zealand. Hawaiian Islands. 

Pyralididae 2 2 

Psychidae 2 o 

Hepialidae 9 o 

All the Hawaiian families are therefore found in New Zealand, the Galleriadae 
and Pyralididae being introduced in both alike, and 8 other families are also repre- 
sented there, but only by a very few species, amounting altogether to 8 per cent, of 
the total, or an average of i per cent, each, whilst the ten other native families average 
over 9 per cent. each. The single species of Sterrhidae is an abundant Australian 
insect, and not improbably artificially introduced thence ; the small size and weak flight 
of members of this family may account for their not crossing wide seas. The Noto- 
dontidae are absent from both faunas ; they are notoriously seldom seen on the wing, 
and may therefore be habitually incapable of prolonged flight. 

Geographical Distribution of Genera and Species. 

For the consideration of this subject I shall group the genera not by their mutual 
affinities but by their constitution, as follows : [a) wholly ' apodemic (none of these 
contains more than two species), {b) apodemic, with one endemic species, {c) apodemic, 
with from 2 to 6 endemic species, {d) apodemic, with from 9 to 13 endemic species, 
{e) apodemic, with 24 to 57 endemic species, [^f) endemic, with i or 2 species, i^g) 
endemic, with 14 to 30 species. 

{a) Apodemic genera, of one species, or of tnjo species, neither endemic. 

There are 17 of this class, comprising 22 species. 

Nine [Plodia, Ephestia, Ephestiodes, Meliphora, Euchromius, NytnpJmla, Hymenia, 
Hellula, Pyralis), with 1 1 species, have been artificially introduced by man, mostly as 
larvae feeding on preserved foods or cultivated plants, and are now apparently estab- 
lished as residents ; all of them have similarly extended their range over most of the 
warmer regions of the globe (except Ephestiodes, which is hitherto only recorded from 
America), so that their place of origin is sometimes unknown, and is in any case 
unimportant for the present purpose. 

Two {Heliothis, Nomophila), with 2 species, and also Spodoptera exigtia and Sphinx 
convolvuli, are practically cosmopolitan, being found in suitable localities almost every- 
where, and are further known to be possessed of very great powers of flight, having all 
been met with in the open sea, sometimes many hundreds of miles from the nearest 
land. These may have come in from any direction, though Sphinx convolvidi is 
considered to be the American form {cingidata). 

' Endemic denotes that a species or genus is apparently confined to these islands. I define apodemic as 
the opposite of endemic ; it signifies that a form occurs outside the islands as well as in them. 

17—2 



126 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

Hypocala, Anosia, Phtsia biloba, and Sphinx celeus, are American insects, all 
powerful flyers ; Anosia in particular has within recent memory extended its range over 
the whole Pacific to Australia and New Zealand. 

Simplicia robustalis, Spodoptera maiiritia, and Plusia chalciies are very wide- 
ranging species in S. Asia, the Malay Archipelago, and Australia, the two latter 
occurring also in Africa, and the last-named likewise in New Zealand and Europe ; the 
two latter are of powerful flight, but the Siviplicia may prove, when its habits are 
made known, to be artificially introduced. 

This class represents the effect of present-day influences. 1 think it probable that 
the 4 cosmopolitan species actually came from America, and in that case there would 
be a large preponderance of the American element. Hypocala has a well-marked local 
form besides the normal American type, and Hcliothis also shows a tendency to form a 
local race, so that these two approach the character of the next class. 

{b) Apodemic Genera, ivith one endemic species. 

This class includes 7 genera and 1 2 species. 

Caradrina is best omitted from consideration ; the single species (in one specimen) 
cannot be positively assigned to the genus, which is however widely distributed in the 
northern hemisphere. 

Cosmopliila is distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the 
world. It is represented by one apodemic species, which occurs also in Fiji, S. Asia, 
and Africa, but assumes here the character of a tolerably well-marked geographical 
race ; and one endemic species, which may reasonably be regarded as a development of 
the foregoing. 

Hydriomena is a very large genus of universal distribution, but mainly character- 
istic of temperate regions. The single endemic species is not sufficiently near any 
other to allow of its affinity being positively stated ; but I am disposed to regard it as 
being of an Asiatic (Himalayan and Japanese) type. 

Dasyuris consists, so far as is yet definitely known, of one Arctic species (Green- 
land, Labrador, Lapland), two Australian, and five from New Zealand. The Hawaiian 
species is not particularly close to any of these, though generally similar ; geographically 
it is an interesting link. The facts would seem to indicate a New Zealand origin. 

Vanessa is represented by three apodemic species and one endemic. Of the 
apodemic, V. cardni is cosmopolitan, being perhaps the best traveller of all the Lepido- 
ptera, and may have entered from any side ; V. Jninter-a is American, V. atalanta 
European and American, but both have probably alike come from America. The 
endemic species is intermediate between cardui and atalanta, and its nearest ally is 
V. callirrhoe in the Canary Islands ; hence it is probable that both these are the 
insular descendants of a former wide-ranging American species, which was also the 
ancestor of the continental caj-dui and atalanta. 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 127 

Lycaena exhibits one apodemic species, the very widely distributed L. baetica, 
which occurs in many Pacific islands, Australia. Asia, Africa, and Europe ; and one 
endemic species, by no means very close to any other, but belonging to the group of 
L. argiolus (Europe and N. Asia). 

Prionopteryx includes at present 7 American species, 2 African, and one Aus- 
tralian ; the single Hawaiian species is sufficiently remote from any of these, but 
probabilities are much in favour of an American origin. 

Summarising these, and excluding ambiguous forms, the apodemic species (present- 
day) show 2 Asiatic and 2 American ; the endemic (earlier) indicate 2 Asiatic, i New 
Zealand, and 2 American species. 

(f) Apodemic genera, with 2 — 6 endemic species. 

These number 8 genera, with 29 species. 

Hypenodes is a characteristically Indo-Malayan genus, though certain species range 
into Europe, Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. Of the five endemic species, one 
(much the commonest) is closely allied to the wide-ranging H. costistrigalis ; the other 
four are presumably derivatives of this, but are in part rather curiously diverse, showing 
sufficient structural modification to permit of subgeneric separation if desired. The 
mutual relations of these species are however difficult to understand, and the genus 
presents many obscure problems. 

Xanthorhoe is a very large and cosmopolitan genus, though relatively more 
prominent in New Zealand than elsewhere. The four endemic species are probably 
but not obviously of common origin ; they are of an early type, and may have most 
affinity to some Australian and New Zealand forms, but it is uncertain. 

Deilephila includes one apodemic and four endemic species, one of the latter being 
of doubtful generic reference and therefore best neglected for the present. The 
apodemic species is the cosmopolitan D. lineata, an insect of exceptionally powerful 
flicrht, which micrht have come from either side. The three other endemic species 
form a single group, doubtless from a common ancestor, rather markedly distinct from 
any other, but perhaps related most to D. galii, which is widely spread in Europe, 
C. Asia, and N. America. 

Homoeosoma is a generally distributed genus. The two endemic species (extremely 
similar but structurally distinct) must be modifications of a single ancestor, and approach 
very closely H. vagella, which is very common in Australia, and scarce in New 

Zealand. 

Talis includes at present 28 Australian species, i New Zealand, 4 Indo-Malayan, 
2 African, 3 European, and 2 C. and S. American. The 6 Hawaiian species (probably 
there are more to be discovered) form a closely connected group of single origin, which 
seem to resemble most the small and inconspicuous Australian T. ge/asiis. though they 



128 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

show little similarity to the main body of Australian species. It is however also 
possible that the connection is with the Indo-Malayan forms. The distribution of this 
genus is curious, and it was perhaps once more generally prevalent. 

Margaronia is universally distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, but is 
most characteristic of the Indo-Malayan fauna. The two endemic species (quite inde- 
pendent, and belonging to different groups of the genus) are both of Indo-Malayan 
affinity. 

Mecyna is a limited but cosmopolitan genus. There are two endemic species, of 
which one is the local representative of the universally distributed polygonalis group, 
being apparently nearest to the New Zealand form, M. deprivalis ; but here it certainly 
appears probable that the New Zealand representative is derived from the Hawaiian 
and not vice versa, as it shows no immediate relationship to the Australian form. In 
this case the origin of the Hawaiian form must be referred to North America. The 
other species is of somewhat uncertain affinity, but may possibly be a derivative of the 
first. 

Loxostege is characteristic of the northern hemisphere, though stragglers occur as 
far as Australia. The three endemic species form a connected group, not very near 
to any other, but possibly inclining rather to the North American type. 

In this class, therefore, apart from one doubtful and one apodemic cosmopolitan 
form, 9 primary species are indicated, of which three are certainly Indo-Malayan, 
3 probably American, and 3 probably Australian. 

{d) Apodemic genera, with 9 — 1 3 endemic species. 

In this class are comprised 4 genera, with 42 species. 

Leucania is a large and quite cosmopolitan genus ; some of the species are great 
wanderers, and many, perhaps most, of the species feed in the larval state on grasses, 
and therefore find suitable food everywhere ; the genus is relatively prominent in New 
Zealand. The 9 Hawaiian species belong to two quite independent and dissimilar 
groups ; the first 4 species form an endemic group which is rather strikingly distinct 
from anything known to me, and must be classed as of wholly unknown origin ; the 
apodemic L. tmipuncta is spread over sufficiently warm regions of the whole globe, and 
its original home is doubtful ; whilst the remaining 4 endemic species form a connected 
group so closely approaching L. tmipuncta that they must be held to have been derived 
from it. 

Eucyviatoge includes about 20 Australian, Asiatic, and European species. It is 
however also interesting as being the undoubted parent of the very extensive genus 
Tephroclystis, characteristic of the Northern hemisphere but more especially Europe, 
and the also considerable Chloroclystis, which is principally Indo-Malayan, Australian, 
and New Zealand. Hence it is relatively a rather old genus, which would seem to 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 129 

have been largely replaced throughout its range by its improved descendants. The 10 
endemic Hawaiian species form a single group, probably of Asiatic origin. 

Omiodes is a genus of moderate extent, spread over the tropical and subtropical 
regions of the whole globe. The 13 endemic species form one connected group, in 
which the characteristic elongation of the patagia is less marked than usual, and 
the type may therefore be regarded as comparatively early. Their origin would seem 
to be Asiatic. 

Pyrausta is a very large genus, especially characteristic of the Northern hemisphere, 
though a certain number of species are found in the Southern. The 10 endemic 
species constitute a single group, but two of them show a certain structural modifi- 
cation which might be termed subgeneric. In their general character they so much 
resemble the species of the allied genus Phlyctaenia, that it seems fair to presume 
they are an early type, recalling the common ancestor of Phlyctaenia and Pyrausta ; 
and as Phlyctaenia is characteristic of Europe and N. Asia, we may suppose that 
they are probably of Asiatic origin. 

The features of this class, which must be of a considerable age, agree, so far 
as they can be deciphered, in pointing to a predominant Asiatic influence. 

(e) Apodemic genera, with 24 — 57 endemic species. 

These include 3 genera and 106 species. 

Agrotis is a very large and dominant genus of world-wide distribution, but most 
largely developed in Northern temperate regions. Two apodemic species occur, 
A. saucia being common to Europe and N. America, and A. ypsilon ranging through- 
out the Northern hemisphere and extending into the Southern ; the former must 
be reckoned American, the latter uncertain. Besides these there are 23 endemic 
species, not nearly related to the two already mentioned, but apparently all connected 
together ; it is however difficult to affirm this, as change would seem to have taken 
place on much the same lines as in other regions, and there is great similarity between 
the species of different regions. The Hawaiian species as a whole certainly approach 
nearest to those of N. America, some of the forms being so close that at first I thought 
they might be identical ; hence it seems very probable that their origin is American. 

Phlyctaenia is a large genus, especially characteristic of Europe and N. Asia, but 
with a few species elsewhere. There are 24 endemic species, forming a connected 
group, whose origin must be esteemed undoubtedly Asiatic. 

Scoparia includes, so far as known to me, about 30 European species, 12 Asiatic, 
3 African, 3 Madeira, 6 St Helena, 8 N. American, 9 S. American, 24 Australian, and 
65 New Zealand. To these must now be added no less than 57 Hawaiian, all endemic, 
and undoubtedly all belonging to a single group, presumably traceable to a single 
ancestral form. This multiplicity of species is considered by Mr Perkins to be pardy 



I30 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

due to the very great variety of suitable situations afforded, assuming, as Is most 
probably the case, that the larval food consists of lichens. Probably a humid insular 
climate is particularly favourable to them, provided it is also sufficiently cool ; the 
latter condition can be secured by increased altitude, but a low-lying tropical island 
would not be favourable. After making allowance for such local circumstances, how- 
ever, there remains an excess of development of the genus in New Zealand and 
the Hawaiian Islands, which does not seem explicable merely by favourable conditions. 
Early occupation of the ground must have been the other factor in this result, and 
probably at something like the same period in both island-groups, and this would 
imply a common origin. Now the Hawaiian species are characterised by an unusual 
tendency to narrowness of forewings, and by generally showing a few long hairs in 
the cell of the hindwings ; both which characters are also repeated in a section of 
the New Zealand species, and not in those of any other region. The New Zealand 
species as a whole display a much greater variety of size and facies than any others, 
and must be regarded as primitive in type and unspecialised. Two or three Australian 
species of similar character doubtless claim a New Zealand origin. The Patagonian 
S. chordactis, however, and one or two other species from neighbouring portions of 
South America, which are undoubtedly closely related to peculiar New Zealand types, 
are not so easily explained, but must be classed with the considerable body of other 
evidence showing an ancient interchange of fauna and flora between South America 
and New Zealand. An elevation of i loo or 1200 fathoms in the bed of the South 
Pacific Ocean would be required, to allow of this being easily effected ; it is a large 
demand, but cannot be said to be impossible. My present opinion, on the available 
evidence, is that Scoparia originated in the New Zealand region, probably at that time 
considerably extended. The Hawaiian Islands must then have received their original 
species from New Zealand direct, and I should suppose that Christmas Island must 
have been on the line of transmission, and would probably still possess allied species 
as evidence thereof. 

These three genera are then respectively American, Asiatic, and New Zealand. 

(_/) Endemic genera, with i or 2 species. 

A class comprising 7 genera and 9 species. 

Nesamiptis contains two nearly related species ; it is most allied to Uypeiia, which 
is extensive and very generally distributed, but apparently approaches especially the 
type of some North American species. 

Progonostola is almost certainly an endemic derivative of Xanthorkoe. 

Sisyrophyta is undoubtedly an offshoot of Scotorythra. 

Tritocleis is at present of quite uncertain afiinity, and must be neglected. 

Genophanhs is certainly nearest to the monotypic Australian Crocydopora, which 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 131 

also occurs in New Zealand. It therefore stands on quite the same footing as 
Homoeosoina. 

Promylaea is clearly an offshoot of Mestolobes. 

Protaulacistis is undoubtedly closely allied to Orthomecyna, but is in some respects 
more primitive, and may therefore be regarded as a collateral development. 

Excluding the doubtful one, 4 of the above are therefore of native origin, i 
Australian, and i American. 



(_^) Endemic genera, with 14 — 30 species. 

These number 3 genera and 72 species. 

Scot oryt lira contains 30 species. It is distinguished from all genera of the 
Selidosemidae known to me (except its derivative Sisyrophyta) by the peculiar antennal 
character; in other respects it has a general alliance to the cosmopolitan genus 
Selidosema, but is of a somewhat more primitive type, and without the characteristic 
fovea. It is therefore probably earlier in origin than Selidosema, but I cannot indicate 
any nearer relationship with other genera. 

Mestolobes includes 28 species, and Orthomecyna 14. They are collateral genera, 
obviously nearly allied together, yet with differences which imply that they were derived 
not one from the other, but from a common ancestor. They belong to the group of 
Scoparia and Heliothela, more especially approaching the latter and Eclipsiodes, but 
I consider that they cannot properly be regarded as derived from either of these, 
but rather from an earlier ancestral form. The monotypic Malayan Dasyscopa resembles 
them in the presence of a subdorsal hairy groove in the hindwings, but appears not- 
withstanding to be only an offshoot of Scoparia. Heliothela contains only a very 
few species, but is almost cosmopolitan, though with a leaning to the Southern 
hemisphere ; Eclipsiodes is Australian. 

The origin of the three large endemic genera is therefore unknown. But if, 
as inferred above, Scoparia originated in the South Pacific, there is presumptive 
evidence for supposing that the other genera collaterally derived from its parent form 
must have originated there too ; and the distribution of Heliothela and Eclipsiodes 
rather tends to confirm this supposition. If this be granted, why should not Scoto- 
rythra, whose origin cannot be traced elsewhere, but may be presumed from its 
specific development to date from about the same period, be descended from an 
extinct form inhabiting the same region ? For it must be clearly understood that 
these large endemic genera could not have originated in the Hawaiian Islands 
themselves, for want of possible ancestors ; they must be derived from apodemic 
forms, but such as from competition of improved types, or other causes, have not 
survived elsewhere. 

M. F. H. 18 



132 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 



Arrangement of Genera in order of time. 

From a consideration of the foregoing analysis we can now with considerable 
probability group the genera under successive periods of time, and indicate the nature 
of the geographical influences of each period, beginning with the most ancient. 

First Period. 

To this belong 7 genera, viz. Sisyrophyta, Scotorythra (Selidosemidae), and 
Scoparia, Promylaea, Mestolobes, Orthomecyna, Protaulacistis (Pyraustidae), with 133 
species. Probably all these must be traced to a South Pacific origin, and the former 
existence of a considerable land-area (now submerged) between New Zealand and 
South America is postulated. 

Second Period. 

Here are referred 5 genera, viz. Agrotis (except 2 species), Eucymatoge, Omiodes, 
Pyrausta, and Phlyciaenia, with 80 species. Of these the first only is American in 
origin, the other four Asiatic. Possibly this period may coincide in time with the 
considerable extension of the Hawaiian Islands to the north-west which seems to have 
once existed. 

Third Period. 

This includes 18 genera and 48 species. Of the genera 6 are probably Australian 
or New Zealand in origin [Dasytiris, Progonostola, Xanthorhoe, Homoeosoma, Geno- 
phantis, Talis), 5 Asiatic {Hypenodes, Cosmophila, Hydrioniena, Lycaena, Margaronid), 
and 5 North American {Nesamiptis, Vanessa (i species), Prionopteryx, Mecyna, 
Loxostege), showing a nearly balanced equality of influence which implies circumstances 
much as at present. Leucania and Deilephila (4 species) are of doubtful import. 

Fourth Period. 

This is represented by 29 species, contained in 21 genera, viz. Agrotis (2 species), 
Deilephila (i species), Vanessa (3 species), Lycaena (i species), and the 17 genera 
recited above as wholly apodemic. Excluding 9 of these genera, which are presumably 
of artificial introduction, and 7 other species which are practically cosmopolitan, there 
remain only 1 1 species, of which 5 are certainly and 2 probably of American origin, 
and 4 presumably Asiatic. The preponderance of the American element (I think a 
majority of the cosmopolitan species probably also came from that side) seems to 
be explained by the fact that almost all these species possess great powers of flight, 
and find little obstacle in mere distance, but are by no means independent of the wind ; 
this effect is therefore traceable to the influence of the N.E. Trade-winds. 



MA CROLEPIDOPTERA 



133 



It is to be observed that none of the genera of the first and second periods, except 
Agrotis, and only about half the genera of the third period can be esteemed strong 
on the wing ; these must therefore in general have proceeded by way of intermediate 
islands. Moreover, nearly all the genera of decided American origin, in whatever 
period, possess this characteristic of strong flight, and as the trade-winds must always 
have existed, there seems no reason to suspect the previous existence of any inter- 
mediate islands between Hawaii and N. America. 



Inter-Island Distribution of Species. 



The following statistics relate only to the 261 endemic species. No doubt further 
exploration would extend the inter-island range of some species, but probably new 
species of restricted range would be discovered in an equal proportion, so that the 
general results may be taken as fairly representative. 

Of 4 species taken by Mr Blackburn the localities have not been recorded ; I 
suppose 3 to be from Maui and i from Oahu, but they are not included hereafter ; the 
total may then be taken as 257. 

Of these 173, or more than two-thirds (67 per cent.), are confined each to a 
single island. The whole number of species occurring in each island, the number 
of peculiar species, and the proportion between the two numbers, are given in the 
following table : 





Total 


Peculiar 






number. 


species. 


Percentage. 


Hawaii 


128 


65 


51 


Maui 


66 


26 


39 


Lanai 


32 


5 


16 


Molokai 


49 


12 


24 


Oahu 


51 


17 


33 


Kauai 


97 


48 


49 



Of the remaining 84 species, 36 have been taken both in Hawaii and Kauai, at 
opposite ends of the group, and usually in one or more of the intermediate islands ; 
they may therefore be counted as ranging throughout the group. The distribution 
of the others is as follows : 



Hawaii, Maui 

Hawaii, Maui, Lanai 

Hawaii, Maui, Molokai 

Hawaii, Lanai 



9 

I 

3 
4 



134 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

Hawaii, Molokai 7 

Hawaii, Oahu 3 

Maui, Lanai 2 

Maui, Lanai, Molokai, Kauai i 

Maui, Molokai i 

Maui, Molokai, Oahu i 

Maui, Molokai, Oahu, Kauai i 

Maui, Molokai, Kauai i 

Maui, Oahu, Kauai i 

Maui, Kauai 2 

Lanai, Molokai 2 

Lanai, Molokai, Oahu i 

Lanai, Oahu i 

Lanai, Oahu, Kauai i 

Molokai, Kauai 2 

Oahu, Kauai 4 

These figures do not seem to lead to very much. The high percentage of pecuHar 
species in Hawaii and Kauai is apparently only what might be expected from their 
position at the extremities of the group, since interchange of species proceeds in 
their case on one side only, whilst in the intermediate islands it proceeds on both 
sides. 

There are certain well-marked instances of representative species in the different 
islands. Thus in Scoparia there are six species (nos. 7 — 12) which are easily 
distinguishable from all the rest by the entire black subterminal fascia, yet also 
separated by well-marked characters from one another ; five of these are confined 
respectively to the five islands Hawaii, Maui, Molokai, Oahu, and Kauai ; the sixth 
is a Kauai species, but differs from all the other five in being yellow instead of white. 
Scoparia habnaea is the Kauai representative of S. vieristis. Orthoniecyna alloptila, 
chrysophanes, and aibicaudafa are mutually representative in Hawaii, Kauai, and Lanai 
respectively. O. exigiia, which occurs in Hawaii, Maui, and Molokai, is represented 
in Lanai by O. ctipreipennis, and in Kauai by O. mesochasrna. Scotoiythra aruraea, 
from Hawaii, is represented in Oahu by O. caryopis, in Kauai by O. isospora, and 
probably in Maui by O. corticea. 

On the other hand there are some curious instances of allied species, which might 
have been expected to belong to different localities, but which are found occurring side 
by side. Such for example are the two species of Sisyrophyta, which are very similar 
except in the peculiar secondary sexual characters of the males, the females being 
superficially almost indistinguishable ; both of these are common in the same localities 
in Hawaii, though it is true that one also occurs in Molokai. So also Scoparia 
struthias, triacma, and ciyerodes, which are so similar that I took them at first for 
one variable species — perhaps I should add that there is really no doubt of their 
distinctness — all occur commonly together in the same locality, and are confined to 
the same island. Omiodes demaratalis and monogramma are another very closely 



MA CROLEPIDOPTERA 



135 



related pair, inhabiting the same localities in Oahu and Kauai. It seems to me 
that possibly the comparative slackness of competition in the Hawaiian Islands may 
account for this coexistence of two or three similar related forms, of which under 
severer conditions one would probably have been improved up to the point of com- 
pletely ousting the others, or perhaps the weaker would have been superseded by 
a species of a different group. 



Characteristics of the Fauna. 

{a) Absence of primitive forms. 

There are no genera of very early type, such as would help to fill up gaps 
between previously known forms. The conditions might probably have been favour- 
able for the preservation of such genera, if they had ever reached the islands, but they 
do not seem to have reached them. The genera of the first two periods designated 
above are early rather than late ; they belong to the earlier half of the Lepidoptera, 
but that is all that can be said for them. Perhaps the islands, old as they must 
be geologically, are still not old enough for this. 

(3) Prevalent close relationship of species. 

In those genera where the species are numerous, they are also generally very 
difficult to understand. Had the specimens been without locality-labels, I do not think 
it would have been possible to have separated the species satisfactorily ; but when 
arranged in geographical series, the differences, if any, became apparent. This state 
of things would seem to imply that the elimination of species has not been carried so 
far as in other regions where there is a sharper competition, which would have tended 
to increase the divergence, whilst at the same time destroying the intermediates. The 
climax of difficulty is reached in Scotoryt/ii-a, where many of the species are also very 
variable, whilst the sexes often differ considerably and are hard to match, and the 
secondary sexual characters, which often afford a good distinction in the males, are not 
available in the females. It is of course essential that the sexes of these species should 
be able to recognise one another with ease, and the visible differences which exist are 
sometimes so slight or so little obvious that it hardly seems credible that they can be 
appreciated by the insects themselves ; in such cases it would appear necessary to 
suppose that the sense of smell has to supply the deficiency. The expansible hair tufts 
on the genital organs of almost all Lepidoptera are probably scent-producing structures 
connected with this purpose. On the other hand, if the insects themselves do not 



136 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

appreciate slight visible differences, how are these differences preserved from loss ? It 
seems difficult to imagine that the numerous white and black species of the jiicunda 
group of Scoparia, which are no doubt well concealed by their colouring amongst the 
lichens, derive any advantage in this respect from the slight characters of marking in 
which they differ from one another ; and if there were not some influence tending to 
the maintenance of these characters, variation in that particular would be unrestricted 
and they would disappear. In an ordinary fauna this difficulty does not usually present 
itself 



(r) Tendency to variability. 

An unusual proportion of species show strong variability, which in perhaps 1 5 or 
more species becomes excessive. It is impossible to give precise figures on this point, 
that would be of any real value, as many of the species only exist in one or two speci- 
mens. The variation of such insects as Hypenodes altivolans and Eticymatoge nionti- 
colans is quite phenomenal, and the proportion of highly variable forms is certainly 
much larger than in an ordinary fauna. In New Zealand, however, highly variable 
species of the same character are found in perhaps much the same proportion. Such 
species seem to resemble nebulae, which time, or a modification of circumstances, will 
break up and condense into groups of stars. I conceive that species in this state of 
potential multiplication are more plentiful in thinly stocked regions, such as the 
Hawaiian Islands and New Zealand, because the number of unoccupied stations for 
species acts as an apparent incentive by removing a real check. In other words, 
species are being formed relatively much more frequently in such regions, and therefore 
these afford the most favourable opportunity for studying the process. In confirmation 
of this view, it may be noted that the 57 species of Scoparia are remarkably constant, 
not one being even moderately variable, on the available evidence ; in this genus 
specific development has already proceeded so far that suitable stations (assuming 
restriction to a lichen-feeding habit) are probably almost all occupied. 



{d) Tendency to dull colouring. 

It might perhaps be expected that a group of tropical islands, enjoying abundant 
sunshine and possessed of a luxuriant vegetation, would be remarkable for the bright 
colouring of its Lepidoptera, but the case is quite the reverse. Considered as a whole, 
the general effect is exceptionally sombre. This is in some part attributable to the 
accidental constitution of the limited fauna, of which the principal genera are such as 
are usually inconspicuously coloured in all regions ; thus Agrotis habitually assumes the 
obscure tints of the dead leaves and rubbish amongst which the species conceal them- 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 137 

selves by day, and Scoparia the mottled black and white, or grey effects of the lichens 
which it frequents in all stages. Families, such as the Arctiadae or Zygaenidae, which 
are generally brightly coloured, do not happen to occur in the islands at all. But after 
making due allowance for these circumstances, it appears that there is a real local 
tendency to a dusky suffusion, which often obscures brighter pigments, even when they 
are perceptibly present. The best evidence of this is furnished by the local forms of 
apodemic species ; thus the local race of Hypocala andremona is so much overspread 
with dark suffusion that it has been regarded as a distinct species ; and there is a native 
race of Heliothis armigera, in which the suffused dark terminal band of the hindwings 
is considerably extended. Margaroiiia cyanomichla belongs to a group of the genus of 
which all the other members are sharply and clearly marked with prismatic-white 
fasciae, but itself has these markings more or less obscurely suffused with dusky-violet. 
Many species of various genera, when examined with a lens, show a not inconsiderable 
admixture of crimson, green, yellow, or blue scales, but so combined with other dark 
scales that there is little or no appearance of these colours in the general effect ; such 
are Hypenodes cyanias, several species of Eucymatoge, Mestolobes, and even Scopai'ia. 
It seems to me probable that this tendency is connected with the superabundant 
moisture of the climate, and is due to influences exerted in the pupal stage, but it is 
sufficient here to call attention to it as an existing fact. 



Imitative Colouring. 

The question of the assimilation of the colouring of a species to the rocks or plants 
which it frequents, can only be adequately treated by the collector, who has seen the 
insect amongst its natural surroundings. But there seem to be two or three cases of 
apparent mimicry — the assumption by a species of a facies foreign to its own genus but 
closely resembling that of an unrelated genus — which require to be noticed here, though 
they can only be adequately explained by observations made on the spot. These are as 
follows : 

Hypenodes epichaka and H. cyanias (although not at all resembling one another) 
are so like species of Phlyctaenia in general appearance that at first I had grouped them 
with that genus, and was much surprised, on a structural examination, to discover their 
true position. There is no exact imitation, but H. epichaka, which is yellow and black, 
has a strong general resemblance to Phlyctaenia- chalcophanes, and occurs in the same 
locality, and at the same season ; and H. cyanias, which is really partially coloured with 
violet-blue but does not show it to the naked eye, is very similar to P. ennychioides, 
a dark purplish-fuscous species which is found with it. 

Phlyctaenia heterodoxa is quite unlike all its congeners, and has assumed the facies 
of Omiodes demaratalis ; the character of the lines and spots has been entirely altered, 



138 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

the black orbicular dot and straight pale second line being faithfully reproduced. This 
species is from Maui, and I have no record of O. demaratalis from that island, yet as it 
is one of the commoner species, and is known from Hawaii, Oahu, and Kauai, it does 
probably occur in the other islands as well. 

In each of these three cases the supposed mimicking species is apparently com- 
paratively scarce, and the mimicked one undoubtedly common. But there is at present 
no evidence to show that the latter is in any way distasteful or otherwise protected, 
without which the proof breaks down ; future collectors are therefore invited to 
experiment in this direction. It must be remembered that it is also quite possible that 
the members of each pair of similar species are coloured alike merely in similar 
adaptation to identical surroundings. 



Dorsal scale-projection of forewings. 

Finally, I may note that in many of the Pyraustidae there is an unusual tendency 
to increased development of the dorsal scale-projection towards the base of the fore- 
wings, which is normally inconspicuous. In some species it becomes so prominent 
that I at first thought it might be of value as a classificational character ; but finding 
that it occurred in various genera, yet was often conspicuous in one and obsolete in 
another of closely allied species, I was forced to the conclusion that it was of no 
importance as a test of relationship. It is therefore probably an adaptive modification, 
depending on external circumstances. 



§ 2. Systematic account of the Macrolepidoptera. 
CARADRININA. 

CARADRINIDAE. 

Leucania Ochs. 

Head rough-scaled. Eyes hairy. Antennae in c/ ciliated. Thorax with or 
without slight anterior crest. Abdomen not crested. 

1. Forewings with first and second lines entire 2. 

,, „ reduced to dots or obsolete 5. 

2. First line very oblique, to about middle of dorsum 3. 

„ not very oblique, to about f of dorsum 4. 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 139 

3. Forewings more or less rosy or red-tinged {4) euclidias. 

not red-tinged {3) niphadopa. 

4. Orbicular and reniform white i.2) co7npnas. 

not white {i) anthracias. 

5. Reniform marked by a white dot 6. 

not white-marked (6) typhlodes. 

6. Forewings with oblique subapical shade reachmg second line {^) unipuncta. 

„ without subapical shade reaching second line 7. 

7. Hindwings rosy-tinged (7) pyrrhias. 

„ not rosy-tinged 8. 

8. Forewings strigulated with fuscous {8) amb/ycasis. 

„ not strigulated {j) macrosaris. 



( 1 ) Leucaiiia anthracias, sp. nov. 

</■. 34 — 35 mm. Head and thorax fuscous or reddish-fuscous, darker posteriorly, 
pale-sprinkled. Base of abdomen with dense lateral tufts concealed in basal cavities. 
Forewings dark fuscous, slightly or strongly mixed with dull crimson, thinly whitish- 
sprinkled ; subbasal, first, and second lines obscurely dark-edged, first hardly defined, 
second moderately curved ; median shade obscurely darker ; orbicular and reniform 
blackish-outlined, orbicular small, round, pale, dark-centred ; subterminal line bisinuate, 
formed of obscure whitish-ochreous spots, sometimes nearly obsolete except at tornus. 
Hindwings pale fuscous. (Plate IV. fig. i.) 

2 specimens; i Olaa, Hawaii, in September; i Haleakala, Maui, at 9000 feet, 
in October. 

(2) Leucania compsias, sp. nov. 

(/•?. 33 — 36 mm. Head and thorax whitish-ochreous, sometimes partially or 
wholly mixed with dark fuscous. Base of abdomen densely hairy, in </ with dense 
lateral tufts concealed in basal cavities. Forewings rather dark brown or fuscous, 
sometimes much mixed with ferruginous, basal and median areas sometimes much 
suffused with whitish-ochreous ; subbasal, first, and second lines whitish-ochreous or 
white, edged with dark fuscous, waved, first nearly straight, rather oblique, running 
to dorsum at f , second moderately unevenly curved ; a suffused darker median shade, 
right-angled in middle ; orbicular small, transverse, somewhat constricted in middle, 
white; reniform forming an inverted U, white, sometimes connected beneath with 
orbicular by a white spot ; subterminal line whitish, waved, terminal area beyond 
this sometimes wholly suff"used with whitish. Hindwings in ^ pale fuscous, in ? 
fuscous ; a pale subterminal line more or less distinctly indicated. (Plate IV. fig. 2.) 

5 specimens ; 3 Kilauea, Hawaii, in August ; 2 Olaa, Hawaii, at 2000 feet, in 
September and November. A variable species. 

M. F. H. ^9 



J40 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 



(3) Leucania niphadopa, sp. nov. 

%, 34 — 35 mm. Head and thorax rather dark fuscous, pale-sprinkled. Fore- 
wings rather dark fuscous, faintly purplish-tinged ; first and second lines hardly paler, 
obscurely dark-edged, first straight, oblique, running to near middle of dorsum, second 
gently curved on upper f ; orbicular small, round, white ; reniform represented by 
two transversely placed finely connected small white spots, followed by two white 
dots between which is an irregular white spot partially suffused with ochreous-yellow ; 
an obscure darker praesubterminal shade. Hind wings rather light fuscous. 

2 specimens, Olaa, Hawaii, at 2000 feet, in November. 



(4) Letuania eiulidias, sp. nov. 

c/?. 28 — 36 mm. Head and thorax light rosy-ochreous or light crimson-fuscous, 
seldom fuscous. Base of abdomen densely hairy, in ^ with dense lateral tufts concealed 
in basal cavities. Forewings varying from pale rosy-ochreous to deep red, partially 
or wholly suffused with fuscous, with slight purplish reflections, rarely more or less 
irrorated with white ; subbasal line seldom partly whitish ; first and second lines pale 
or seldom whitish, dark-edged, first straight, very oblique, running to about middle 
of dorsum, second nearly straight ; orbicular round, small or dot-like, clear white or 
seldom ochreous-yellow, dark-edged, or often reduced to a dark fuscous dot ; reniform 
represented by an oblique transverse linear usually clear white mark, seldom only 
paler or ochreous-yellowish, sometimes doubled, seldom divided into two spots, in 
one specimen connected beneath with orbicular by a clear white streak ; subterminal 
line pale or whitish, slightly sinuate, usually preceded by a dark band. Hindwings 
in c/ rather light fuscous, somewhat mixed with pale ochreous, suffused with whitish- 
ochreous towards costa and termen ; in ? wholly rather dark fuscous. (Plate III. 
figs. I — I h.') 

87 specimens; 16 Olaa, Hawaii; 3 Kilauea, Hawaii; 2 Kona, Hawaii, at 3000 
feet; 41 Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet; 4 Kaholuamano, Kauai; 19 Mts. Waimea, 
Kauai ; 1 Lihui, Kauai, at 1 500 feet ; i Lanai, 2000 feet ; in February, and from April 
to November. Exceedingly variable. 



(5) Leucania macrosaris, sp. nov. 

<? . 34 — 37 mm. Head and thorax light brownish-ochreous, slightly rosy-tinged. 
Abdomen with lateral dense tufts of very long pale brownish-ochreous hairs attached to 
a long chitinous filament, rising from basal cavities. Forewings brownish-ochreous. 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 141 

reddish-tinged ; first and second lines formed by series of indistinct dark fuscous dots, 
second rather strongly curved ; lower end of reniform forming a clear white dot, 
followed by a fuscous dot. Hindwings pale greyish-ochreous. 

2 specimens; i Kona, Hawaii, at 1500 feet; i Olaa, Hawaii; in June. 



(6) Lencania typhlodes, sp. nov. 

(/. 35 mm. Head and thorax red-brownish-ochreous. Abdomen densely hairy 
towards base, with dense expansible pale brownish-ochreous tufts at base beneath, and 
also in lateral basal cavities. Forewings pale brownish-ochreous, suffused throughout 
with light dull reddish, with some scattered indistinct fuscous strigulae ; lower end 
of reniform represented by a cloudy dark fuscous suffusion ; second line represented 
by a curved series of very obscure dark fuscous dots. Hindwings pale greyish-ochreous, 
somewhat rosy-tinged. 

I specimen, Olaa, Hawaii, in July. 

(7) Leucania pyrrhias, sp. nov. 

^%. 39^ — 46mm. Head and thorax brown-reddish irrorated with whitish-ochreous. 
Abdomen densely hairy towards base, in d" with dense expansible brownish-ochreous 
tufts at base beneath, and also in lateral basal cavities. Forewings pale brownish-ochre- 
ous, densely suffusedly strigulated throughout with brown-reddish ; veins posteriorly 
ochreous-whitish, sprinkled with dark fuscous ; costal edge sometimes white ; first 
and second lines formed by series of indistinct dark fuscous dots, second rather strongly 
curved ; lower end of reniform forming a small white dot, followed by a dark fuscous 
suffusion. Hindwings light rosy-ochreous. (Plate IV. fig. 3.) 

9 specimens; 4 Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 feet; 5 Kaholuamano, Kauai; from 
April to June. 

(8) Lencania amblycasis, sp. nov. 

(/?. 38 — 41 mm. Head and thorax whitish-ochreous, somewhat brownish-tinged, 
thorax posteriorly with a few blackish specks. Abdomen in c/ with very long dense 
expansible pale ochreous lateral tuft attached to a broad spoon-shaped chitinous process 
risino- from basal cavities, and dense yellowish expansible tufts in middle of base 
beneath. Forewings pale brownish-ochreous, indistinctly strigulated with fuscous or 
grey ; dark fuscous dots near base in middle and on costa, indicating subbasal line ; 
first and second lines indicated by series of dark fuscous dots, second partially double, 

19 — 2 



142 



FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 



moderately curved ; lower edge of reniform forming a white dot, edged with dark 
fuscous and followed by a small dark fuscous suffusion ; in ? orbicular and reniform 
obscurely defined, pale yellowish-ochreous ; a wedge-shaped faint darker suffusion on 
termen beneath apex, not reaching second line. Hindwings light greyish-ochreous, 
irregularly suffused with fuscous, becoming darker fuscous posteriorly. 

7 specimens ; 2 Molokai, in May ; 3 Lanai, at 2000 feet, in February ; i Mts. 
Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 feet, in June; i Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet, in May. 



(9) Leucania unipuncta Haw. {extranea Guen.). 

3 specimens ; 2 Kona, Hawaii, at 4000 feet, in July ; i Haleakala, Maui, at 
5000 feet, in April. Occurs also native in America, New Zealand, Australia, S. Asia, 
and as a casual immigrant probably throughout the warmer regions of the world. 



Agrotis Ochs. 

Head rough-scaled. Eyes glabrous. Antennae in </ ciliated, often acutely biden- 
tate or bipectinated with apex simple. Thorax usually with more or less developed 
anterior and posterior crests. Abdomen not crested. Tibiae all spinose. 

1. Antennae in $ at most serrulate 2. 

,, ,, acutely bidentate or bipectinated 8. 

2. Forewings with veins conspicuously pale {ig) neurogramma. 

,, ,, not conspicuously pale 3. 

3. Hindwings grey-whitish, with purple reflections {2) saucia. 

,, fuscous 4. 

4. Forewings at least partly brown-reddish 5. 

„ at most faintly rosy-tinged 7. 

5. Forewings with terminal area markedly pale {21) cinctipennis. 

,, „ not pale 6. 

6. Reniform marked posteriorly with a whitish-ochreous crescentic spot ...(20) selenias. 

,, not so marked (22) chersotoides. 

7. Forewings shorter, claviform strongly marked, broader {16) mesotoxa. 

,, longer, claviform faintly indicated, narrower {i^) crinigera. 

8. Antennae in $ bipectinated 9. 

,, „ bidentate with triangular processes 12. 

9. Forewings with dark submedian streak from base to middle 10. 

,, without such streak 1 1. 

10. Forewings with dark spots between bases of veins 2 — 7 {4) arenivolans. 

„ without such spots , (j) microreas. 

1 1. Hindwings grey-whitish (7) ypsiloii. 

„ fuscous (d) cremata. 

12. First and second lines wholly absent 13. 

>. ,, more or less indicated 16. 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 143 

13. Lower margin of cell marked with a whitish streak 14. 

., „ not marked with whitish streak 15. 

14. Orbicular and reniform combined, present {g) dislocata. 

.. ,, wholly absent (8) aidacias. 

15. Forewings fuscous, spots black-edged (j) perigramma. 

„ red-brown, spots not black-edged (2j) ceramophaea. 

1 6. Claviform dash-like, blackish (7^) spoderopa. 

„ not dash-like 17. 

17. Forewings with defined blackish submedian streak (at least outhned) from 

base to middle 18. 

„ without such streak ig. 

18. First and second lines entire, dark fuscous (j) pamp/ias. 

„ „ indicated by dots or indistinct {10) xiphias. 

19. Forewings with veins black {11) melanoneura. 

,, „ not black 20. 

20. Median line absent 21. 

,, present 22. 

21. Orbicular distinct (72) tephrias. 

„ obsolete (/j) photophila. 

22. Orbicular dot-like (77) epicrenina. 

„ not dot-like 23. 

23. Median line curved 24. 

,, bent in middle {18) baliopa. 

24. Forewings ochreous or brown, orbicular fuscous {24) psammophaea. 

„ fuscous, orbicular pale, dark-centred {2^) austaka. 



(i) Agrotis ypsilon Rott. {snffusa Hub.). 

II specimens; 3 Kona, Hawaii, at 1500 — 4000 feet; i Kilauea, Hawaii; i 
Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet ; i Kaholuamano, Kauai ; i Waianae Mts., Oahu, at 
2000 feet; i Kaala Mts., Oahu, at 1000 feet; 2 Lanai, at 2000 feet; i Molokai, 
at 3000 feet ; from February to September ; apparently established and common 
generally. Occurs also throughout the northern hemisphere. 

(2) Agrotis saucia Hub. 

3 specimens ; 2 Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet ; i Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 
feet; in May. Occurs also in N. America, W.C. and S. Europe, and N. Africa. 

(3) Agrotis in icr areas, sp. nov. 

^%_ 22 26 mm. Head and thorax brown mixed with black, patagia with an 

oblique whitish streak. Antennae in ^ moderately bipectinated. Forewings ferrugi- 
nous-brown, much mixed with black, disc in ? light ochreous ; veins partially suffused 
with white, especially lower margin of cell, i b, and 6 ; orbicular, reniform, and a 



144 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

broad streak beneath cell from base to middle darker. Hindwings dark fuscous, 
darkest terminally. (Plate IV. fig. 4.) 

2 specimens, Kilauea, Hawaii, in September. Differs from all the rest by its 
small size and dark fuscous hindwings. 

(4) Agrotis arenivolans Butl. 

Agrotis arenivolans Butl. Ent. Mo. Mag. xv. p. 269. 

c/ ?. 38 — 52 mm. Head and thorax light brownish sprinkled with whitish and 
dark fuscous, thorax broadly streaked longitudinally with dark and pale. Antennae 
in (/ shortly bipectinated. Forewings fuscous, whitish-sprinkled ; veins sometimes 
forming white streaks ; a thick streak beneath cell from base to beyond middle, 
attenuated and acute at each end, and five elongate spots between bases of veins 
2 — 7 (fourth shortest and sometimes much reduced) dark fuscous, blackish-edged ; 
orbicular and reniform edged with pale or whitish, usually dark-outlined, orbicular 
small, oval, usually preceded and followed by elongate dark fuscous spots ; in one 
specimen beneath and beyond these dark markings the ground is wholly suffused 
with ochreous-whitish ; sometimes a dark fuscous dorsal streak from about middle 
to tornus ; an irregular terminal series of long wedge-shaped sometimes partly confluent 
dark fuscous spots, darker-edged, shortest below apex and below middle, longest in 
middle. Hindwings fuscous. 

3 specimens; 2 Kona, Hawaii, at 4000 feet, in July; i Haleakala, Maui, at 10,000 
feet, in April. Also one received from Mr Blackburn, and the original types in the 
British Museum, which are said to be from Maui, taken flying by day on sandhills 
near the sea. It varies in intensity of marking. 

(5) Agrotis panoplias, sp. nov. 

</. 39 mm. Head and thorax fuscous irrorated with white. Antennae bidentate 
with rather long triangular processes. Forewings fuscous irrorated with white, veins 
dark fuscous ; subbasal line dark fuscous, interrupted ; first and second lines dark 
fuscous, first irregularly angled, beneath costa acutely, second slightly waved ; a dark 
fuscous posteriorly dilated streak beneath cell from base to middle ; orbicular and 
reniform fuscous, dark-outlined, approximated, connected by a narrow dark streak, 
lower edge of reniform confluent with two small dark fuscous spots between bases 
of veins 2 — 4 ; a dark suffusion towards costa before apex, one towards termen above 
middle, and one above tornus. Hindwings fuscous, lighter at base, darker posteriorly. 
(Plate IV. fig. 5.) 

I specimen, Kona, Hawaii, at 4000 feet, in July. 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 145 



(6) Agj'otis cremata Butl. 

Spaelotis cremata Butl. Ent. Mo. Mag. xvii. p. 8, Ann. Mag. N. H. (5) vii. 
1881, p. 321. 

/ ? . 40—43 mm. Antennae in i shortly bipectinated. Forewings light 
brownish, irrorated with whitish and sprinkled with black ; subbasal, first, and second 
lines pale, dark-edged, first dentate, especially acutely inwards above middle ; median 
cloudy, faint; orbicular and reniform faintly pale-edged, hardly defined, sometimes 
separated by a small spot of blackish scales ; subterminal line interruptedly dark-edged, 
especially anteriorly. Hind wings rather light fuscous, darker posteriorly. 

No specimens of this distinct species were taken ; I have therefore described 
the two original types in the British Museum collection, which were bred from pupae 
obtained in September in sandhills, Maui. Larva described in Ent. Mo. Mag. 
XIX. 56. 



(7) Agrotis perigravinia, sp. nov. 

d". 36 — 39 mm. Head and thorax fuscous, irrorated with fuscous- whitish. 
Antennae bidentate with rather long triangular processes. Forewings fuscous, finely 
irrorated with whitish and dark fuscous, appearing ashy-fuscous ; veins marked with 
darker lines ; spots outlined with black, orbicular oval, reniform roundish, sometimes 
connected with orbicular by some black scales and followed by a small spot of black 
scales, claviform large, elongate, extending to not far from base : traces of an 
irregular darker terminal shade. Hindwings light fuscous, becoming rather dark 
fuscous posteriori)'. 

2 specimens, Kilauea, Hawaii, in August. 



(8) Agrotis aulacias, sp. nov. 

<}%. 32 — 38 mm. Head and thorax brownish-ochreous or brown. Antennae 
in (/ bidentate with short triangular teeth. Forewings fuscous or ochreous-brown, 
sometimes slightly whitish-sprinkled ; slender whitish streaks along lower margin of 
cell and vein i b ; remaining veins also often more finely and indistinctly whitish. 
Hindwings fuscous. (Plate IV. fig. 6.) 

13 specimens, Haleakala, Maui, at 8000 — 10,000 feet, in April and May. Also 
one received from Mr Blackburn, probably from the same locality. 



146 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

(9) Agrotis dislocata Walk. 

Leucania dislocata Walk. Cat. ix. p. 112. 

c/?. 34 — 2>1 '"'^- Head and a marginal band along front of thorax light 
ochreous-brown, rest of thorax whitish-fuscous. Antennae in / bidentate with tri- 
angular processes. Forewings light fuscous, more or less irrorated with white, and 
sometimes darker-sprinkled ; veins marked with dark fuscous lines, except lower 
margin of cell, which is white ; interior of cell paler and more ochreous, usually marked 
with a black dot towards base ; orbicular and reniform combined into an elongate 
posteriorly abruptly dilated mark, fuscous, outlined with black ; a darker fuscous black- 
outlined streak beneath cell from base to middle, somewhat dilated posteriorly ; a pale 
ochreous longitudinal suffusion beneath this from base to near tornus ; sometimes short 
undefined blackish dashes or dark-outlined marks between bases of veins 2 — 6. Hind- 
wings fuscous. 

7 specimens; 3 Kona, Hawaii, at 1500 — 4000 feet, in June; i Kaholuamano, 
Kauai, at 4000 feet, in April ; 3 Lanai, at 2000 feet, in February. Also several 
others received from Mr Blackburn and in the British Museum collection, apparently 
from Oahu. 

(10) Agrotis xipJiias, sp. nov. 

(/ ?. 33 — 36 mm. Head dark fuscous, sometimes mixed or suffused with whitish. 
Thorax fuscous to fuscous-whitish, anterior half of collar sharply dark fuscous, with 
a triangular blackish blotch on each side of back behind collar, sometimes extended 
as a streak to posterior margin. Antennae in </" bidentate with triangular teeth. 
Forewings brownish or fuscous, more or less irrorated or sometimes much suffused 
with whitish ; a thick black streak, sometimes edged with pale yellowish, beneath 
cell from base to middle, seldom only indicated by black outline ; sometimes two 
small black spots between bases of veins 2 — 4 ; orbicular and reniform black, or light 
or dark fuscous black-outlined, connected by a narrow black spot, orbicular pear-shaped, 
sometimes preceded by a black mark ; second line indicated by a series of dark dots ; 
subterminal pale, obscure, partially edged with darker suffusion. Hindwings rather 
light fuscous. (Plate IV. fig. 7.) 

14 specimens, Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet (except one at 9000), in April, May, 
and October. Variable in intensity of marking. 

(11) Agrotis vielanonetira, sp. nov. 

c/'. 36 mm. Head brown, mixed with dark fuscous. Thorax pale greyish- 
ochreous irrorated with fuscous, anterior half of collar dark fuscous. Antennae biden- 
tate with triangular teeth. Forewings pale ochreous mixed with light brownish, veins 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA ■ 147 

marked with blackish lines ; basal area suffusedly mixed with dark brown and black ; 
first line indistinctly blackish-edged ; orbicular and reniform dark fuscous, edged with 
pale ochreous, partially black-outlined, connected by an elongate dark fuscous spot ; 
claviform oval, fuscous, black-outlined ; second line edged by series of undefined 
blackish-fuscous dots ; subterminal pale, obscure, edged anteriorly with dark fuscous 
suffusion on costa and in middle, posteriorly by dark fuscous suffusion extending to 
termen. Hindwings fuscous-whitish irrorated with fuscous; a fuscous crescentic discal 
mark, and indistinct subterminal shade. 

I specimen, Kona, Hawaii, at 4000 feet, in July. 



(12) Agrotis tephrias, sp. nov. 

(/?. 34 — 40 mm. Head and thorax brownish sprinkled with whitish, collar 
often with a dark transverse median streak and anterior half paler, patagia with an 
oblique white streak behind collar. Antennae in c/" bidentate with triangular teeth. 
Forewings fuscous, sometimes ferruginous-tinged, irrorated with whitish except in disc, 
which is darker-mixed ; first and second lines obscurely whitish, dark-edged, sometimes 
very undefined ; orbicular rather small, oval, whitish, sometimes dark-centred, dark- 
outlined ; reniform whitish-edged ; claviform slender, dark fuscous, undefined, crossing 
first line and sometimes extended to base ; subterminal line obscurely whitish, edged 
anteriorly with darker suffusion. Hindwings light greyish-ochreous, posteriorly fuscous- 
tinged. 

8 specimens ; 3 Kaholuamano, Kauai, in April ; 5 Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 
feet, in May and June. 

(13) Agrotis photophila Butl. 

Leucania pJiotophila Butl. Ent. Mo. Mag. xv. p. 269 ; Spaelotis lucicolens ib. xvii. 
p. 7 ; Ann. Mag. N. H. (5) vii. 1881, p. 321. 

^. 35—40 mm. Antennae in ,? bidentate with long triangular processes. Fore- 
wings light greyish-ochreous sprinkled with fuscous ; subbasal, first, and second lines 
indicated by more or less distinct blackish dots, first and second sometimes forming 
undefined waved lines ; posterior edge of reniform sometimes indicated by black 
scales ; traces of a darker praesubterminal shade ; a terminal series of dark fuscous 
dots. Hindwings light greyish-ochreous, posteriorly infuscated. 

No specimens of this species were taken ; I have described the two typical 
specimens in the British Museum ; these were taken at light near Honolulu, Oahu, 
and the species is stated to be rare. 



M. F. H. 



20 



148 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 



(14) Agrods spoderopa, sp. nov. 

(/ ?. 38 — 40 mm. Head and thorax light greyish-ochreous or brownish. An- 
tennae in (/ bidentate with triangular processes. Forewings light fuscous or brownish, 
suffusedly irrorated with whitish, sometimes reddish-tinged in disc ; subbasal line in- 
dicated on costa by dark margins ; first line indistinctly dark-edged, twice angulated ; 
second indicated by a fine dark fuscous acutely waved-dentate line, strongly curved ; 
orbicular and reniform obscurely pale-edged, orbicular small, oval, sometimes with 
posterior projection ; claviform dash-like, blackish or dark fuscous, tending to be 
extended as an undefined plical line to base ; subterminal line indicated by indistinct 
irregular darker anterior margin. Hindwings greyish-ochreous. (Plate IV. fig. 8.) 

6 specimens, Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet, in March and April. Also one 
received from Mr Blackburn. 



(15) A gratis crinigera Butl. 

Spaelotis crinigera Butl. Ann. Mag. N. H. (5) vii. 1881, p. 321. 

(/ ?. 49 — 54 mm. Head and front of thorax brownish, rest of thorax light 
fuscous. Antennae in c/ filiform. Forewings long, rather narrow ; light fuscous, 
darker-sprinkled, sometimes partially faintly rosy-tinged ; subbasal and first lines ob- 
scurely pale, dark-edged, first irregularly waved-dentate, very acutely on vein i /; ; 
median thick, cloudy, dark fuscous, slightly curved ; second with dark inner edge 
acutely waved-dentate, outer faint or obsolete, regular ; orbicular oval, dark-centred, 
dark-outlined ; reniform dark-suffused, including three obscure paler transverse marks, 
resting on posterior edge of median line ; claviform faintly indicated, narrow, elongate ; 
subterminal line sometimes faintly paler, faintly darker-edged anteriorly. Hindwings 
light fuscous. 

3 specimens ; 2 Waialua, Koolau range, Oahu, in March ; i Lanai, at 2000 feet, 
in February. There are five specimens in the British Museum collection ; the species 
is recorded by Mr Blackburn from Oahu, Maui, and Hawaii, and said to be uncertain 
in appearance but sometimes to occur in thousands, usually near sea-level. 

(16) Agrotis viesotoxa, sp. nov. 

?. 44 — 46 mm. Head and thorax brown. Forewings relatively markedly shorter 
than in A. crinigera; brown, sprinkled with dark fuscous, and sometimes slightly 
with whitish ; lines as in A. crinigera, but median rather more curved, second only 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 149 

slightly waved, subterminal more strongly dark-margined, forming a conspicuous pale 
elongate dot above middle ; spots as in A. crinigera, but claviform strongly marked, 
dark-outlined, shorter and broader basally. Hindwings fuscous. 

2 specimens, Kona, Hawaii, at 4000 feet, in July and August. 

(17) Agrotis epicremna, sp. nov. 

i ?. 40—45 mm- Head and thora.x grey-whitish mixed with black and ochreous. 
Antennae in ^ bidentate with rather long triangular processes. Forewings fuscous, 
darker-mixed, partially slightly reddish-tinged ; subbasal, first, and second lines hardly 
paler, edged on one side by waved partially interrupted blackish lines; median 
irregular, cloudy, blackish ; orbicular dot-like, cloudy, blackish ; reniform mostly suf- 
fused with blackish ; subterminal line pale, interrupted, edged on both sides by series 
of suffused dark spots. Hindwings light fuscous, terminally broadly suffused with 
darker. (Plate IV. fig. 9.) 

5 specimens, Haleakala, Maui, at 9000—10,000 feet, in May and October. 

(18) Agrotis baliopa, sp. nov. 

cT ?■ 39 — 43 mm. Head and thorax grey-whitish mixed with blackish, some- 
times partially yellowish-tinged. Antennae in ^ bidentate with rather long triangular 
processes. Forewings light fuscous, blackish-sprinkled, sometimes partially slightly 
reddish-tinged ; subbasal, first, and second lines obscurely pale or partially whitish, 
edged on one side by waved blackish lines ; median cloudy, darker, bent in middle ; 
orbicular and reniform whitish-edged, black-outlined, orbicular roundish ; claviform 
suboval, sometimes slightly whitish-edged, black-outlined ; subterminal line pale or 
whitish, interrupted, edged on both sides by series of small dark fuscous spots. 
Hindwings light fuscous, in ? sometimes darker posteriorly. 

9 specimens; 8 Haleakala, Maui, at 6000 — 10,000 feet, in April and May; i 
Kilauea, Hawaii, in August. 



(19) Agrotis neurogranima, sp. nov. 

(/• 44 mm. Head and thorax brown-reddish mi.xed with black, centre of thorax 
whitish-sprinkled, edge of collar whitish. Antennae serrulate. Forewings brown- 
reddish, sufifusedly mixed with black ; veins marked with whitish-ochreous lines ; sub- 
basal, first, and second lines pale, black-edged ; median dark, cloudy, bent in middle ; 
orbicular and reniform finely edged with whitish-ochreous, separated by a subquadrate 

20 — 2 



I50 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

blackish spot, orbicular oblique-oval, preceded by a similar blackish spot; subterminal 
line pale, broadly edged with blackish suffusion. Hind wings whitish-ochreous, fuscous- 
tinged, more infuscated terminally, veins and a crescentic discal mark fuscous ; a dark 
fuscous terminal line. (Plate IV. fig. lo.) 

I specimen, Kilauea, Hawaii, in August. 

(20) Agrotis selenias, sp. nov. 

(/■ %. 42 — 48 mm. Head and thorax brown-reddish sprinkled with black. An- 
tennae in cT hardly serrulate. Forewings brown-reddish, sprinkled with black ; sub- 
basal and first lines black-edged ; orbicular oblique-oval, sometimes partially edged 
with whitish-ochreous, black-outlined, separated from reniform by a subquadrate dark 
reddish-fuscous spot ; claviform indistinctly dark-outlined ; median line only distinct on 
costa ; reniform anteriorly edged with a few whitish-ochreous scales and black outline, 
posteriorly marked with a clear whitish-ochreous crescentic spot ; second line indis- 
tinctly dark-edged, waved, interrupted ; subterminal obscurely pale, edged anteriorly 
with some indistinct small dark spots, on costa by one larger and more distinct. 
Hindwings rather light fuscous or whitish-fuscous, darker posteriorly; a darker cres- 
centic discal mark. 

16 specimens; 9 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet, in April; 6 Mts. Waimea, 
Kauai, at 4000 feet, in May and June ; i Olaa, Hawaii, in September. 

(21) Agrotis cmctipennis Butl. 

Apamea cinctipennis Butl. Ann. Mag. N. H. (5) vii. 188 1, p. 323. 

(/ ?. 38 — 40 mm. Head and thorax red-brown mixed with black, thorax some- 
times more or less sprinkled with white. Antennae in <} hardly serrulate. Fore- 
wings brown-reddish, strigulated with dark fuscous, sometimes partially mixed with 
whitish-ochreous ; subbasal and first lines blackish-edged ; orbicular rather oblique- 
oval, grey or white, with faint darker central dot; reniform partially edged with 
whitish-ochreous or white, black-outlined, sometimes separated from orbicular by 
quadrate spot of blackish suffusion ; claviform short, indistinctly dark-outlined ; second 
line dark-edged, sometimes partly indistinct ; subterminal whitish-ochreous, anteriorly 
sharply defined and edged with dark fuscous suffusion, posteriorly not dark-edged, 
terminal area light brown-reddish, mixed or almost wholly suffused with whitish- 
ochreous. Hindwings light fuscous, posteriorly darker. 

4 specimens; i Olaa, Hawaii, at 2000 feet, in November; i Haleakala, Maui, 
at 5000 feet, in April; i Kaholuamano, Kauai, in April; i Waianae Mts., Oahu, at 
2000 feet, in April. Also one specimen in the British Museum collection. 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 151 

(22) Agrotis chersotoides Butl. 
Apaniea chersotoides Butl. Ann. Mag. N. H. (5) vii. 1881, p. 322. 

</?. 31 — 40 mm. Head and thorax red-brown or dark fuscous, edge of collar 
and a broad irregular median streak from collar to posterior margin often grey- 
whitish or whitish-ochreous. Antennae in </" hardly serrulate. Forewings brownish- 
ochreous, variably suffused with brown- reddish, costa from base to subterminal line 
often broadly suffused with dark reddi.sh-fuscous, more broadly anteriorly, in ? often 
extending over whole wing, sometimes a costal streak of lighter suffusion from base 
to second line ; subbasal and first lines blackish-edsfed ; orbicular and reniform rather 
dark slaty-fuscous or sometimes reddish, partly edged with whitish-ochreous and 
blackish-outlined, connected by a quadrate darker spot ; claviform small, oval, partly 
indistinctly blackish-outlined ; second line indistinctly dark-edged, sometimes with 
dots only, well-marked on costa ; subterminal pale, obscure, partially indistinctly darker- 
edged. Hindwings whitish-fuscous, becoming fuscous posteriorly. 

13 specimens ; 5 Kona, Hawaii, at 4000 feet; 6 Mts Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 feet; 
2 Kaholuamano, Kauai ; from April to September. Also two examples in the British 
Museum, from Maui. Varies very considerably in colouring. 

(23) Agrotis ceramophaea, sp. nov. 

^. 1% mm. Head and thorax red-brown. Antennae bidentate with triangular 
teeth. Forewings red-brown ; orbicular, claviform, and reniform fuscous, orbicular and 
reniform connected by a small quadrate dark reddish-fuscous spot, laterally edged finely 
with whitish-ochreous. Hindwings light fuscous. 

I specimen, Kilauea, Hawaii, in September. 

(24) Agrotis psatnmophaea, sp. nov. 

j$. 35 — 38 mm. Head and thorax brownish-ochreous or brown, somewhat 
sprinkled with pale and blackish, anterior half of collar sharply blackish-fuscous. 
Antennae in t bidentate with triangular teeth. Forewings varying from pale brownish- 
ochreous to brown, sometimes sprinkled with black or much suffused with dark fuscous ; 
subbasal and first lines partially dark-edged; spots fuscous or dark fuscous, black- 
outlined, orbicular and reniform sometimes connected by a small blackish-fuscous spot 
or bar, claviform elongate-oval ; median line cloudy, darker, curved ; second dark- 
edged, margins usually dotted ; subterminal obscurely pale, partially and irregularly 
edged with spots of dark suffusion. Hindwings light fuscous. (Plate IV. fig. 1 1.) 

8 specimens, Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet, in May. Variable in intensity. 



152 FAUNA HAIVAIIENSIS 



(25) Agrotis austalea, sp. nov. 

^^. 22 — 38 mm. Head and thorax pale brownish to fuscous, often whitish- 
sprinkled, collar often with a median transverse blackish line, seldom with anterior half 
blackish-fuscous. Antennae in Z bidentate with triangular teeth. Forewings light or 
seldom rather dark fuscous, sometimes slightly ochreous or reddish-tinged, more or less 
irrorated with whitish, and somewhat sprinkled with black ; subbasal and first lines 
blackish-edged ; orbicular pale, more or less distinctly dark-centred, partly black- 
outlined ; claviform short, semi-oval, sometimes fuscous, black-outlined ; reniform more 
or less dark, anteriorly pale-edged, blackish-outlined, connected with orbicular by a 
small blackish-fuscous spot ; median line cloudy, darker, curved ; second forming a more 
or less distinct series of dark fuscous marks and two series of blackish dots ; sub- 
terminal obscurely pale, more or less edged with dark fuscous suffusion, especially 
posteriorly, and preceded on costa by a well-marked sub-triangular spot. Hindwings 
fuscous, somewhat lighter anteriorly, with a darker crescentic discal mark. 

14 specimens; 13 Kona, Hawaii, at 4000 feet, from July to September; i Mts. 
Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 feet, in June. Varies considerably in colouring. 



Heliothis Oclis. 

(i) Heliothis armigera Hub. {coiiferta Walk.). 

5 specimens ; 2 Kona, Hawaii, at 2000 — 4000 feet, in July ; 2 Wailuku, Maui ; i 
Lanai, at 2000 feet, in February. Also recorded by Mr Blackburn from Haleakala, 
Maui, and Honolulu, Oahu. Variable here as elsewhere, inclining to a rather large 
and deeply coloured form, recorded by Butler under the name of conferta Walk., which 
is however merely a synonym. Occurs also generally throughout the world except in 
cold regions. 

Spodoptera Guen. 

(i) Spodoptei-a mam-itia Boisd. (ijigloria Walk.). 

17 specimens; 12 Kona, Hawaii, at 1500 — 4000 feet, from June to September; 
2 Wailuku, Maui ; 2 Lanai, at 2000 feet, in February ; i Waialua, Koolau range, Oahu, 
in March. Also several sent by Mr Blackburn from Oahu. Occurs also in Australia, 
S. Asia, and Africa. 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 153 

(2) Spodoptera exigiia Hub. {flavimaculata Harv.). 

Caradrina venosa Butl. Ent. Mo. Mao-, xvii. 7. 

5 specimens ; 3 Kona, Hawaii, at 4000 feet, in July and August ; 2 Lahaina, 
Maui. Also recorded by Mr Blackburn from Honolulu, Oahu. It occurs throughout 
the warmer regions of the whole world. 

Caradrina Ochs. 

Head rough-scaled. Eyes glabrous. Thorax sometimes slightly crested. Abdo- 
men not crested. 

The following species, only represented by one % specimen in indifferent preserva- 
tion, cannot be certainly referred generically ; it is however so distinct from any other 
Hawaiian insect that it cannot be passed over. 

( I ) Caradrina exanimis, sp. nov. 

?. 23 mm. Head and thorax whitish. Abdomen elongate. Forewings rather 
narrow, termen very oblique ; whitish-ochreous, with scattered dark fuscous scales 
between veins ; veins white ; cilia whitish irrorated with fuscous. Hindwings whitish. 

I specimen, Kona, Hawaii, at 1500 feet, in September. 



PLUSIADAE. 
SiMPLiciA Gtien. 

(39) Simplicia rohiistalis Guen. {caeneusalis Walk.). 

16 specimens, all $ ; 10 Olaa, Hawaii, at 2000 feet, in November and December; 
3 Oahu, at 2000 feet, in September ; i Kawailoe range, Oahu, at 1 200 feet, in April ; 
I Waianae Mts., Oahu, at 2000 feet, in April ; i Lanai, at 2000 feet, in February. 
Also several sent by Mr Blackburn. Occurs throughout Australia, the Malay 
Archipelago, and India. 

Hypenodes Guen. 

Head loosely scaled, with small frontal tuft. Antennae in ^ ciliated, or bipecti- 
nated with apex filiform. Palpi very long, porrected, second joint thickened with rough 
projecting scales, terminal rather short, cylindrical. Thorax with appressed scales. 



154 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

Abdomen with small crest near base. Tibiae smooth-scaled. Forewings : 7 separate, 
9 and 10 out of 8. Hindwings : 5 parallel to 4. 

1 . Hindwings whitish 2. 

„ fuscous or grey 3. 

2. Palpi about 6 (z) epichaka. 

„ 3 (^4) sarothrura. 

3. Forewings mi.\ed with violet-blue suffusion {2) cyanias. 

,, not mixed with blue 4. 

4. Second line with upper f rectangularly angulated {j) oxygramma. 

„ not so formed (j) altivolatis. 



( I ) Hypenodes epichaka, sp. nov. 

(/ ?. 19 — 21 mm. Head and thorax pale yellow mixed with black. Palpi about 
6. Antennae in </ moderately bipectinated, towards apex filiform. Forewings broader 
than in the other species ; pale yellow sprinkled with black ; lines thick, clear pale 
yellow, partially strongly edged with black, subbasal rather inwardly oblique, first 
angulated near costa, second forming a quadrate loop outwards in disc, subterminal 
sinuate ; a series of black dots along posterior third of costa and termen. Hindwings 
ochreous-whitish ; a grey discal dot ; sometimes traces of grey postmedian and sub- 
terminal lines. (Plate IV. fig. 12.) 

4 specimens ; 3 Olaa, Hawaii, at 2000 feet, in November ; i Kilauea, Hawaii, in 
August. 



(2) Hypenodes cyanias, sp. nov. 

?. 23 mm. Head and thorax dark fuscous. Palpi about 5. Forewings dark 
fuscous, suffusedly mixed except on margins with brilliant violet-blue ; lines partially 
marked with yellow-ochreous, interruptedly edged with blackish and irregularly placed 
tufts of raised scales, subbasal inwardly oblique, first angulated near costa, second 
irregular, forming a quadrate loop outwards round a dull ochreous blackish-edged discal 
spot, subterminal sinuate ; a terminal series of blackish spots alternating with dark spots 
in cilia. Hindwings light fuscous ; a darker discal spot. (Plate IV. fig. 3.) 

I specimen, Olaa, Hawaii, in September. 



(3) Hypenodes oxygramma, sp. nov. 

?. 12 mm. Head and thorax pale ochreous mixed with brownish. Palpi about 4. 
Forewings pale ochreous, irrorated with fuscous and dark fuscous ; subbasal line 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 155 

blackish, well-marked, reaching from costa half across wing, posteriorly pale-edged ; 
first and second lines blackish, externally edged with whitish-ochreous, first sinuate 
outwards below costa and below middle, second with upper f forming a rectangular 
angulation outwards ; subterminal whitish-ochreous, edged with dark fuscous, irregularly 
dentate. Hindwings grey. (Plate IV. fig. 14.) 

I specimen, Kaholuamano, Kauai, in April. This example does not show the 
abdominal crest, but it may have been abraded. 



(4) Hypetiodes sarothrura, sp. nov. 

cT. 19 mm. Head and thorax glossy golden-fuscous, thorax posteriorly suffused 
with coppery-purplish. Palpi about 3. Abdomen roughly tufted with whitish hairs on 
sides from middle to apex. Forewings golden-fuscous, base coppery-tinged ; an oblique 
ochreous-yellow costal mark near base, edged on each side with blackish ; first line 
ochreous-yellow, edged posteriorly with black and then in disc with white, thrice 
sharply dentate ; a short oblique pale ochreous-yellow streak from middle of costa ; a 
thick irregular black longitudinal streak in disc from first to second line ; second line 
ochreous-yellow, anteriorly blackish-edged, posteriorly broadly suffused with white, 
below middle rectangularly broken inwards ; subterminal line on lower half white, 
waved, interrupted, above absorbed in suffusion of second ; three whitish dots on 
posterior portion of costa ; a terminal series of small dark fuscous spots. Hindwings 
with veins 3 and 4 short-stalked ; fuscous-whitish ; a faint fuscous transverse discal 
mark. 

I specimen, Olaa, Hawaii, in July. 



(5) Hypenodes altivolans Butl. 

Scoparia altivolans Butl. Ent. Mo. Mag. xvii. p. 9. Hypenodes altivolans Butl. 
Ann. Mag. N. H. (5) vii. 1881, p. 325. 

^?. II 22 mm. Forewings varying from pale brownish-ochreous to dark 

fuscous, with slight purplish reflections, sometimes whitish-sprinkled ; a variable black 
dot beneath costa near base, sometimes connected with costa, sometimes followed by 
a yellow-ochreous dot; first line more or less blackish-marked, sometimes yellow- 
ochreous, angulated above middle, twice or thrice dentate ; second more or less pale or 
sometimes yellow-ochreous, irregular, oblique, more or less sinuate outwards in middle, 
more or less blackish-edged on one or both sides, often followed by a partial band of 
pale ochreous mixed with whitish, especially towards costa; median line sometimes 
indicated by a pale mark on costa ; a variable black discal spot, round or crescentic or 

M. F. H. ^^ 



156 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

curved-linear or reduced to two dots or wholly absent, sometimes edged with pale or 
white posteriorly, often connected with second line by a blackish longitudinal suffusion ; 
subterminal fine, whitish, interrupted, bisinuate ; all lines sometimes (but seldom) 
wholly absent. Hindwings from rather light to rather dark grey. 

113 specimens; 12 Kona, Hawaii, at 1500 — 4000 feet; 11 Olaa, Hawaii, at 2000 
feet ; 10 Hilo, Hawaii, at 2000 feet ; i Kilauea, Hawaii ; 6 Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 
feet ; 20 Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 feet; 24 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet ; 18 
Waianae Mts., Oahu, at 2000 feet; i Panoa Valley, Oahu ; i Kaala Mts., Oahu ; 8 
Molokai, at 3000 feet ; i Lanai, 3000 feet ; from January to December, apparently 
throughout the islands up to 5000 feet. Also about 20 specimens received from 
Mr Blackburn, from Mauna Loa, Hawaii, and other localities. An excessively 
variable species, differing not only in colour and intensity of marking, but the lines 
themselves appear to vary greatly in form owing to the obsolescence of certain 
portions and the confluence of others, the first and second lines sometimes appear- 
ing almost straight ; the dark spots often look like tufts, but there are no real tufts 
as in H. cyanias. The lighter specimens are usually $, the darker $, but this is 
not always the case. H. croceipicta Hamps., from Ceylon, approaches it closely, 
but seems distinct. The European H. costistrigalis Steph. seems constantly separ- 
able by the whitish hindwings, otherwise it does not differ perceptibly from light- 
coloured Hawaiian examples. The form exsularis Meyr., occurring in New Zealand 
and Australia, has also whitish hindwings, and is therefore distinct from altivolans, but 
perhaps identical with costistrigalis. 



Nesamiptis, gen. nov. 

Head loosely scaled, with frontal tuft. Antennae in ^ ciliated, with longer setae 
at each joint. Palpi in ^ rather long, in % very long, porrected, second joint 
thickened with rough projecting scales, terminal very short, almost concealed. Thorax 
with appressed scales. Abdomen without crest. Tibiae with appressed scales. 
Hindwings : 5 parallel to 4. 

Type N. plagiota. Differs from Hypena especially by the absence of any crest 
on abdomen. 

First line strongly and evenly curved (2) ohsoleta. 

,, straight on lower half, obsolete above {i) plagiota. 

(i) Nesamiptis plagiota, sp. nov. 

,??. 30 — 32 mm. Head and thorax fuscous, whitish-sprinkled. Antennae in ^ 
with fascicles of long cilia, setae very long. Forewings fuscous or pale brown, 
strigulated with dark fuscous and irrorated with whitish ; a black dot towards costa at 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 157 

i ; first line whitish-ochreous or light yellow-ochreous, often strongly edged posteriorly 
with blackish-fuscous, straight, running from \ of dorsum very obliquely outwards to 
middle of disc, where it ceases ; second line whitish or whitish-ochreous, thick, straight, 
slightly more oblique than termen, edged anteriorly with dark fuscous or blackish- 
fuscous ; lower half of median band sometimes darker, or yellowish-tinged, or wholly 
blackish ; reniform indicated by a blackish dot ; an oblique darker shade from apex, 
preceded by a whitish suffusion ; lower f of subterminal line faintly pale, sometimes 
preceded by a dark or blackish-fuscous streak. Hindwings fuscous or light fuscous; 
a darker discal dot. (Plate IV. fig. 15.) 

9 specimens ; 8 Waianae Mts., Oahu, at 3000 feet, in April ; i Mts. Waimea, 
Kauai, at 4000 feet, in May. Varies much in colouring. 

(2) Nesa77tiptis obsoleta Butl. 

Hypena obsoleta Butl. Ent. Mo. Mag. xiv. p. 47; ib. xvii. p. 9; id. Ann. Mag. 
N. H. (5) VII. 1 88 1, p. 324. Hypena insignis Butl. Ent. Mo. Mag. xiv. p. 48 ; 
ib. XVII. p. 9. 

t%. 22 — 30 mm. (one exceptional specimen 34 mm.). Head and thorax fuscous 
or brown, more or less irrorated with whitish. Antennae in <? shortly and evenly 
ciliated, setae moderate. Forewings brown or fuscous, sometimes ferruginous-tinged, 
variably irrorated with whitish and strigulated with dark fuscous ; first and second lines 
whitish or whitish-ochreous or yellow-ochreous or obsolete, first strongly and evenly 
curved, second slightly irregular, sinuate inwards on lower half, included median band 
sometimes partly blackish-edged, or wholly suffused with dark fuscous, or with a discal 
blotch or whole dorsal half blackish ; reniform sometimes indicated by a dark fuscous 
transverse mark ; usually a darker praesubterminal suffusion, marked on costal half with 
a series of dark fuscous spots, sometimes obsolete ; usually an oblique darker shade 
from apex, preceded by a pale suffusion. Hindwings dark grey; a darker discal dot. 
(Plate HI. figs. 2, 2a — 2 g.) 

130 specimens; 29 Kona, Hawaii, at 2000 — 4000 feet ; 6 Olaa, Hawaii, at 2000 
feet ; i Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 feet ; 1 1 Kaholuamano, Kauai ; 31 Waianae Mts., 
Oahu, at 1500 — I 700 feet ; 19 Waialua, Koolau range, Oahu ; 3 Kaala Mts., Oahu ; 29 
Lanai, at 2000 feet ; i Molokai, at 4000 feet ; from February to May, in July, and from 
September to November. Also several specimens in British Museum collection. Mr 
Blackburn records the species from Maui, as well as other islands. Exceedingly 
variable in colour and intensity of marking. 

CosMOPHiLA Boisd. 

Head loosely scaled, with short frontal tuft. Antennae in t ciliated, with longer 
setae on each joint. Palpi rather long, curved, ascending, second joint thickened with 

21 — 2 



jjg FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

dense appressed scales, terminal rather long, cylindrical, obtusely pointed. Thorax with 
posterior crest. Abdomen without crest. Tibiae with appressed scales. Hindwings : 
5 nearly parallel to 4. 

Subbasal line black, triangular {i) nodivolans. 

not black (2) sabulifera. 



(i) Cosmophila nodivolans Butl. 

Toxocampa nodivolans Butl. Ent. Mo. Mag. xvii. p. 8. 

^^. 28 — 33 mm. Head and thorax varying from fuscous-whitish or whitish- 
ochreous to reddish-ochreous or dark fuscous. Forewings with termen obtusely 
projecting on vein 4 ; varying from pale ochreous to rather dark fuscous, usually more 
or less reddish-tinged, sometimes partially whitish-suffused, often darker-strigulated ; 
subbasal line forming a triangular black mark (rarely unicolorous), pale-edged, its 
anterior edge being straight and posterior edge acutely angulated ; first and second 
lines slender, pale or whitish, included median band sometimes wholly suffused with 
dark fuscous, usually more or less black-marked on edges, anterior edge strongly 
concave, with a strong acute projection above dorsum, posterior edge indented 
immediately beneath costa, below this with a short rectangular projection, and a similar 
one in middle, lower half curved inwards ; orbicular represented by a minute white dot ; 
lower edge of reniform usually indicated by a whitish dot, sometimes upper edge also 
marked by a similar dot ; a more or less distinct praesubterminal series of cloudy darker 
spots, interrupted above middle ; subterminal line seldom distinctly pale, irregularly 
dentate. Hindwings rather dark grey. (Plate IV. fig. 16.) 

23 specimens ; 14 Kaholuamano, Kauai ; 5 Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 feet ; 
I Wailuku, Maui; 3 Waianae Mts., Oahu, at 2000 feet; from April to June. Also 
one specimen in British Museum, taken by Mr Blackburn on Haleakala, Maui, at 
4000 feet. Varies considerably in colour and intensity. 



(2) Cosmophila sabulifera Guen. 

Gonitis sabulifera Guen. Noct. vi. 404 ; G. hawaiensis Butl. Trans. Ent. Soc. 
Lond. 1882, 32. 

Varies from light brownish or reddish-ochreous to dark brown ; in one specimen 
the median band is wholly deep red-brown mixed with black. Besides the different 
character of the subbasal line, the species differs from C. nodivolans in the different 
form of the first and second lines, and the larger size. 

15 specimens; 4 Olaa, Hawaii, at 2000 feet, in November; 4 Kaholuamano, 



MA CROLEPIDOP TERA 1 59 

Kauai, in April ; 6 Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 feet, in May and June ; i Panoa 
Valley, Oahu. Also several specimens received from Mr Blackburn, who took the 
species near Honolulu, Oahu. Occurs likewise in Fiji, S. Asia, and Africa. 



Hypocala Giien. 
(i) Hypocala andremona Cram. 

Hypocala velans Walk. Cat. xiii. 11 77. 

2 specimens ; i Kona, Hawaii, at 1500 feet, in August ; i Kaala Mts., Oahu, at 500 
feet, in January : the former an e.xample of the dark suffused variety indicated by 
Walker under the name velans, the latter quite normal. Other examples taken by Mr 
Blackburn, near Honolulu, Oahu, and on Maui. Occurs also in the warmer reg-ions of 

o 

America. I regard the form velans as a native race (Mr Perkins thinks he once saw it 
flying commonly without the type), and typical specimens as recent immigrants. 

Plusia Ocks. 

(i) Plusia biloba Steph. 

3 specimens ; 2 Kona, Hawaii, at 4000 feet, in July ; i Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 
feet, in March; and a single forewing from Lanai, at 2000 feet, in January. Occurs 
also in the warmer parts of America, from Florida to Peru. 

(2) Plusia cJialcites Esp. {verticillata Guen.). 

1 1 specimens ; 3 Kona, Hawaii, at 1400 — 3000 feet ; 4 Olaa, Hawaii, at 2000 feet ; 
3 Waianae Mts., Oahu; i Lanai, at 2000 feet; in February, April, June, and from 
September to December. Occurs also in New Zealand, Australia, S. Asia, S. Europe, 
and Africa. 

NOTODONTINA. 
HYDRIOMENIDAE. 

EUCYMATOGE Hub. 

Face with short cone of scales. Antennae in t ciliated. Palpi rough-scaled. 
Abdomen crested throughout. Forewings : areole double. Hindwings : 8 anasto- 
mosing with cell to beyond middle. 

I . Groundcolour green 2. 

,, not green 3- 



i6o FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

2. Forewings with discal dot obscured in striation, termen subsinuate {8) orichloris. 

„ „ conspicuous, termen not sinuate {'j) prasinomhra. 

3. Hindwings with termen nearly straight, subdentate {4) stanrophragma. 

,, ,, strongly but often unevenly rounded 4. 

4. Face and palpi partly or wholly dull crimson 5. 

,, ,, not crimson 6. 

5. Groundcolour white (j) niphoreas. 

,, light dull crimson (6) rhodopyra. 

6. Abdomen with subbasal reddish band 7. 

„ without reddish band 8. 

7. Forewings with discal spot conspicuous {g) craterias. 

,, ,, obsolete (j) dryitiombj-a. 

8. Wings more or less whitish-striated (id) monticolans. 

„ not whitish-striated 9. 

9. Wings dark fuscous {i) p/meocausta. 

„ dark grey, black-marked j (2) scoriodes. 



( 1 ) Ejicyniatoge pliaeocaiista, sp. nov. 

Z%. 15 — 17 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen dark fuscous, with a few pale 
ochreous-yellowish scales, sides of face with a fine oblique pale ochreous-yellowish line. 
Forewings elongate-triangular, termen very obliquely bowed ; dark fuscous, thinly 
irregularly sprinkled with pale ochreous-yellowish, with indistinct darker striae angulated 
above middle ; margins of median band indicated by more marked pale irroration, 
especially in $. Hindwings with termen rounded, waved ; dark fuscous, in % with a 
few pale ochreous-yellowish scales ; a postmedian series of minute white dots on veins, 
in ^ partially obsolete. 

2 specimens, Molokai ; t above 4000 feet, in June, % in forest above Pelekunu, 
in August. 

(2) Eucymatoge scoriodes, sp. nov. 

t- 15 — 17 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen blackish, face with a few ochreous 
scales, thorax and abdomen sprinkled with whitish, abdomen with a black subbasal 
band. Forewings rather elongate-triangular, termen obliquely bowed ; dark grey, more 
or less thinly sprinkled with pale greyish-ochreous, with indistinct black striae more or 
less accompanied by whitish scales on veins ; edges of median band more strongly 
black-marked, posterior rounded-prominent above middle, a median stria sharply angu- 
lated near costa ; in one specimen an elongate pale yellow-ochreous spot in middle of 
disc. Hindwings with termen unevenly rounded, waved ; dark grey, with striae and 
whitish scales as in forewings, but less marked. (Plate IV. fig. 7.) 

4 specimens, Haleakala, Maui, at 7000 — 8000 feet, in May. 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA iSi 



(3) Eucymatoge dryinovibra, sp. nov. 

c/'?. 16—20 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen brown ish-ochreous, with a few 
dots of dark fuscous scales, or sometimes suffusedly irrorated with dark fuscous, 
abdomen with fuscous-reddish subbasal band black-marked on sides. Forewings 
elongate-triangular, termen very obliquely bowed ; light brownish-ochreous, sometimes 
irrorated with fuscous or dark fuscous, with faintly indicated darker striae; second 
and fifth fasciae and sometimes whole dorsal area suffused with dull crimson irroration ; 
edges of median band irregularly marked with dark fuscous on veins, forming small 
spots on costa, posterior irregularly curved-prominent, sometimes accompanied by 
whitish dots ; subterminal line obscurely ochreous-whitish, most distinct in middle. 
Hindwings with termen rounded, unevenly subdentate ; as forewings, but less strongly 
marked. 

5 specimens ; 4 Molokai, at 4000—4500 feet ; i Olaa, Hawaii, darker throughout 
than the others; in July and September. 



(4) Eucymatoge staurophragma, sp. nov. 

t/?. 21 — 26 mm. Head and thorax pale ochreous, face sometimes suffused with 
dull reddish, with two small blackish spots before antennae, palpi blackish. Abdomen 
whitish-ochreous, sometimes reddish-mixed, especially in ?, usually with a black-reddish 
subbasal band, in </ with dorsal and sometimes lateral series of blackish dots and 
subapical ring. Forewings rather elongate-triangular, termen very obliquely bowed ; 
pale ochreous or whitish-ochreous, sometimes partially or wholly suffused with dull 
reddish irroration ; a subbasal stria indicated by two or three blackish dots ; median 
band in one ? wholly suffused with dull reddish mixed with blackish, sharply contrasted 
with pale ground-colour, in others only margins indicated by series of black marks 
on veins, sometimes accompanied by minute white dots, posterior almost evenly curved, 
somewhat indented beneath costa ; sometimes an obscure darker discal dot ; sometimes 
a few white scales on veins in disc ; subterminal line faintly pale or whitish, preceded 
above middle by two spots of dull reddish or blackish suffusion. Hindwings with apex 
prominent, termen nearly straight, subdentate ; colour and markings much as in 
forewings, but less marked towards base. (Plate IV. fig. 18.) 

9 specimens ; i Kona, Hawaii, above 2000 feet, in September ; i Kilauea, Hawaii, 
in August ; 5 Olaa, Hawaii, in June, November and December ; 2 Haleakala, Maui, at 
5000 feet, in May. The species seems variable, but may be easily distinguished from 
all others by the peculiarly formed hindwings. 



1 62 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

(5) Eucymatoge niphoreas, sp. nov. 

c/. 16 mm. Head and thorax white, face and palpi black mixed with deep 
crimson. Abdomen whitish mixed with dark grey, partially suffused with brownish- 
ochreous except towards base and apex, with a subbasal band of dull crimson suffusion. 
Forewings somewhat elongate-triangular, termen bowed, oblique ; white, with undefined 
striae of grey and black irroration, partly crimson on dorsum ; small costal blotches 
at \ and \, and a costal streak connecting former with base black mixed with crimson ; 
a black transverse discal dot ; posterior edge of median band formed by a fine 
interrupted blackish stria, angulated in middle, dentate on lower half, shortly followed 
by a parallel black stria, much stronger on upper half, especially on costa, and some- 
what more curved ; subterminal line dentate, whitish, margined with dull crimson 
shades, more broadly and deeply on upper half anteriorly, interrupted in middle. 
Hindwings with termen rounded ; white, with well-defined black striae, mixed with 
crimson in disc ; posterior edge of median band more strongly marked, obtusely 
angulated in middle ; discal dot and subterminal line as in forewings, but less marked. 
(Plate IV. fig. 19.) 

1 specimen, Kauai, at 4000 feet, in July. 

(6) Eucymatoge rkodopyra, sp. nov. 

?. 23 mm. Head and palpi dull crimson. Thorax and abdomen fuscous tinged 
with dull crimson. Forewings triangular, termen sinuate beneath prominent apex, 
strongly bowed, oblique ; light dull rosy-crimson, irrorated with fuscous, forming 
obscure darker striae ; a dark fuscous transverse discal dot ; posterior edge of median 
band dark fuscous, pale-edged posteriorly, especially on upper half, running from |- 
of costa straight and obliquely outwards half across wing, where it is acutely angulated, 
thence to dorsum forming an obtuse angle inwards. Hindwings with termen rounded ; 
colour and markings as in forewings, but less pronounced. (Plate IV. fig. 20.) 

I specimen, Kauai, at 4000 feet, in October. 

(7) Eticymatoge prasinombi-a, sp. nov. 

?. 22 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen light dull green, face with two black 
dots before antennae, abdomen with some black scales. Forewings rather elongate- 
triangular, termen obliquely bowed ; light dull green, with numerous undefined striae 
of black and fuscous scales ; a moderate transverse-oval black discal dot. Hind- 
wings with termen unevenly rounded, slightly waved ; colour and markings as in 
forewings. 

I specimen, Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet, in May. 



MA CROLEPIDOPTERA 



(8) Eucymatoge orichloris, sp. nov. 



163 



i%. 21 — 24 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen dull light yellowish-green, face 
with two black dots before antennae, collar spotted with blackish, thorax with trans- 
verse band of blackish suffusion, abdomen with an interrupted blackish subbasal band, 
and lateral series of black dots. Forewings rather elongate-triangular, termen slightly 
sinuate beneath apex, very obliquely bowed ; dull light yellowish-green, with numerous 
blackish striae ; edges of median band more strongly blackish-marked, posterior 
obscurely whitish-edged, rounded-prominent beneath costa and in middle ; a small 
indistinct blackish discal dot, obscured in striation ; subterminal line pale, preceded 
by a double suffused blackish spot above middle, above and below which are light 
patches. Hindwings with termen rounded, waved; colour and markings as in fore- 
wings. (Plate IV. fig. 21.) 

12 specimens; 10 Olaa, Hawaii, at 2000 feet, in June and September; i Hilo,. 
Hawaii, at 2000 feet, in December; i Lanai, at 2000 feet, in January. 

(9) Eucymatoge craterias, sp. nov. 

cf ?. 15 — 21 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen fuscous mixed with dark fuscous 
and whitish-ochreous, face with sides or sometimes wholly ochreous-whitish, abdomen 
with ferruginous-reddish subbasal band mixed with black, apical segment in ^ suffused 
with whitish. Forewings rather elongate-triangular, costa posteriorly moderately arched, 
termen obliquely rounded ; whitish-ochreous, suffusedly irrorated with fuscous, obscurely 
striated with dark fuscous ; basal area as far as median band more or less obscurely 
striated with whitish ; edges of median band blackish-marked, strongly curved, posterior 
obtusely prominent beneath costa and in middle ; a conspicuous black transverse discal 
dot ; median band margined posteriorly by a strong white stria, followed by a whitish- 
ochreous stria, from which two obscurely pale or conspicuously whitish longitudinal 
patches extend to termen, one near beneath costa, the other in middle ; in one specimen 
the lower half of the two postmedian striae forms a whitish blotch reaching to near 
termen ; subterminal line sometimes distinctly whitish, sometimes preceded by a reddish 
tinge. Hiadwings with termen unevenly rounded, waved; colour and markings as 
in forewings, but median band whitish-striated, the pale longitudinal posterior patches 
obsolete. 

29 specimens; 15 Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet, in May; 12 Kona, Hawaii, at 

3500 — 4000 feet, from June to August; i Olaa, Hawaii, in June; i Kilauea, Hawaii, 

in July. All the specimens from Hawaii are smaller, and have the pale markings, 

especially the longitudinal posterior patches, more conspicuous than in those from Maui, 

M. F. H. 22 



1 64 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

in none of which are these latter at all prominent ; the form from Hawaii is sufficiently 
distinct in appearance to rank as a geographical variety, which may be named diti'ecta. 
The costa of the forewings is more arched than in the following species, and the anterior 
edge of median band more strongly curved. 

(lo) Eucymatoge monticolans But!. 

Eupithecia monticolens Butl. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) vii., 1881, p. 320. 

^%. 19 — 29 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen white, sometimes ochreous-tinged, 
sometimes variously spotted or mixed with dark fuscous, abdomen sometimes with 
brown or black subbasal ring and dorsal and lateral series of spots. Forewings rather 
elongate-triangular, costa hardly arched, termen obliquely rounded ; white or fuscous- 
whitish, sometimes fuscous-suffused or irrorated with dark fuscous or black, with 
numerous more or less distinct dark fuscous or blackish striae, which are sometimes 
partly suffused with ferruginous-brown ; edges of median band more strongly black- 
marked, anterior gently curved, posterior very slightly prominent near costa and rather 
strongly rounded-prominent in middle, usually followed by two more distinctly whitish 
striae ; discal spot roundish, black, large or dotlike or often wholly absent, in one dark 
specimen white ; praesubterminal stria often more strongly black-marked, especially on 
two spots above middle, opposite which are also often two postsubterminal similar 
spots. Hindwings with termen rounded, waved ; colour and markings as in forewings, 
but usually more uniformly and less distinctly striated, or striae sometimes nearly 
obsolete, not black-marked except on dorsum, discal dot indistinct or absent. 
(Plate HI. figs. 3, ia—2,i.) 

130 specimens; 13 Kona, Hawaii, at 3000 — 4000 feet; 5 Kilauea, Hawaii; 21 
Olaa, Hawaii ; i Hilo, Hawaii, at 2000 feet; 15 Haleakala, Maui, at 2000- — 9000 feet; 
2 Lahaina, Maui, at 3000 feet; 8 Lanai, at 2000 — -2500 feet; 20 Molokai, at 3000 — 
4000 feet; 29 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet; 16 Waimea Mts., Kauai, at 4000 
feet ; apparently therefore generally distributed throughout the group, and is on the 
wing all the year round. It is an extraordinarily variable species, yet easy of 
recognition, and shows no distinguishable geographical forms, but the largest and 
most striking specimens are from Maui, those from Molokai are rather small and 
uniform in appearance, those from Lanai are also small and darker or more brownish- 
tinged. I have modified for orthographical reasons Butler's specific name. 

Hydriomena Hub. 

Face with conical tuft of scales. Antennae in t ciliated. Palpi rough-scaled. 
Abdomen not crested. Forewings: areole double. Hindwings: 8 anastomosing with 
cell to beyond middle. 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 165 

(i) Hydriomena aphoristis, sp. nov. 

i- 23—25 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen dark fuscous, margins of abdominal 
segments sometimes finely whitish. Forewings triangular, costa posteriorly arched, 
termen obliquely rounded, waved ; dark fuscous ; a whitish-ochreous dot on costa at 4- - 
median band limited by fine irregular whitish striae, forming stronger whitish-ochreous 
marks on costa, anterior nearly preceded and posterior nearly followed by very obscure 
yellow-ochreous striae ; subterminal line fine, irregular, whitish, sometimes partially 
obsolete, forming a stronger mark on costa. Hindwings with termen waved; dark 
fuscous; traces of a fine whitish subterminal line. (Plate IV. fig. 22.) 

2 specimens, Kilauea, Hawaii, in July and September. 



Xanthorhoe Hub. 

Face with conical tuft of scales. Antennae in ,? bipectinated, apex simple. Palpi 
rough-scaled. Forewings: areole double. Hindwings: 8 anastomosing with cell to 
beyond middle. 

1. Forewings orange {i) ioxantha. 

,, not orange 2. 

2. Hindwings with termen dentate [4) caustoscia. 

„ ,, hardly waved 3. 

3. Forewings with dark fuscous or blackish striae (2) insularis. 

„ ferruginous-ochreous striae (j) leucoxyla. 

(i) Xanthorhoe ioxantha, sp. nov. 

?. 30 mm. Head and thorax bright orange. Abdomen orange, segmental 
margins purplish. Forewings rather elongate-triangular, apex somewhat produced, 
termen oblique, slightly rounded, faintly sinuate beneath apex ; bright orange ; basal 
area ferruginous-mixed, with an angulated stria of blackish irroration at \ ; edges of 
median band formed by fasciae of two or three subconfluent blackish striae suffused 
with ferruginous, two interior ferruginous striae meeting near costa, posterior edge 
dentate, with two stronger projections below middle ; a small round blackish discal 
spot ; a ferruginous suffusion towards termen except near costa, enclosing a terminal 
series of undefined subconfluent blackish-grey terminal spots. Hindwings elongate, 
termen strongly rounded ; yellow-whitish, dorsal half obscurely yellow-suffused ; a black 
discal dot; a dark grey postmedian transverse shade, thickest dorsally, angulated 
in middle ; a dark grey terminal suffusion, towards dorsum anteriorly suffused with 
ferruginous. (Plate IV. fig. 23.) 

I specimen, Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet, in April. 

22 — 2 



1 66 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 



(2) Xantliorhoe insularis Butl. 

Larentia insula^^is Butl. Ent. Mo. Mag. xv. p. 272. 

J*, 30 mm. ; ?, 25 — 26 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen white, mixed with dark 
fuscous, in ^ more densely, abdomen with double dorsal series of black spots. Antennal 
pectinations of t very short, tooth-like, terminating in fascicles of cilia. Forewings 
rather elongate-triangular, termen hardly rounded, very oblique ; white, with indistinct 
striae of fuscous and black irroration, in ^ largely suffused with fuscous and densely 
irrorated with dark fuscous ; basal patch of four slightly curved striae, in ^ dark fuscous, 
in ? blackish ; median band formed of seven or eight striae, in ^ dark fuscous, in ? 
blackish, anterior edge curved, somewhat indented below middle, posterior irregular, 
middle third forming an angular prominence ; an inconspicuous black transverse discal 
dot ; a more or less interrupted or obsolete blackish praesubterminal stria ; a terminal 
blackish line interrupted to form numerous spots. Hindwings elongate, termen 
rounded, hardly waved ; whitish, with numerous indistinct striae, in ^ hght fuscous, 
in % grey. 

2 $s, Haleakala, Maui, at 6000 — 8000 feet, above forest level, in May ; Mr Perkins 
did not obtain a ^, and I have therefore described one received from Mr Blackburn, 
taken in the same locality, and quite similar to the type specimen in the British 
Museum. The sexes are dissimilar in appearance, the ^ being larger, greyer, and more 
obscure, the $ whiter and more sharply marked, but I think there is no doubt of their 
identity. 



(3) Xantliorhoe leucoxyla, sp. nov. 

?. 34 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen ochreous-whitish mixed with pale 
ochreous, abdomen with double dorsal series of suffused ferruginous-ochreous spots. 
Forewings somewhat elongate-triangular, termen gently rounded, oblique ; ochreous- 
whitish, with indistinct ferruginous-ochreous striae ; basal patch of four slightly curved 
suffused darker striae, costal edge dull crimson near base ; median band of about six 
similar striae, anterior edge acutely indented beneath costa, posterior with middle third 
forming an angular prominence ; a round black discal dot ; subterminal line forming a 
series of small indistinct white spots, one at \ from costa preceded by a small round 
blackish spot. Hindwings elongate, termen rounded, hardly waved ; ochreous-whitish ; 
a median band of several faint fuscous striae. (Plate IV. fig. 24.) 

I specimen, Waimea Mts., Kauai, at 4000 feet, in May. 



MA CROLEPIDOPTERA 



(4) Xantlwrhoe canst oscia, sp. nov. 



167 



^?- 39—42 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen dark fuscous, somewhat whitish- 
sprinkled, in t with a ferruginous spot between antennae, abdomen in ^ mixed with 
dull crimson, especially towards base ; thorax with well-developed central and posterior 
crests ; antennal pectinations in i rather long. Forewings somewhat elongate-triangular, 
termen rounded, oblique, strongly waved ; fuscous, faintly reddish or purplish-tinged, 
with numerous waved dark fuscous striae ; a somewhat darker basal patch, edge slightly 
curved ; median band darker-suffused towards edges, anterior edge slightly curved, 
posterior edge somewhat rounded-prominent beneath costa and on middle third ; 
subterminal line pale, interrupted, in % forming several whitish dots, of which one 
in middle is conspicuous, edged anteriorly with darker spots. Hindwings with termen 
rounded, dentate ; fuscous ; a median band of several darker striae, very faint except 
towards dorsum ; subterminal line similarly indicated. 

2 specimens ; i ^ Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet, in May ; i % Lanai, at 3000 feet, 
in July. 



Progonostola, gen. nov. 

Face with conical scale-projection. Antennae in ^ unipectinated, towards apex 
simple. Palpi rough-scaled. Forewings : areole double. Hindwings : 6 and 7 stalked, 
8 anastomosing with cell to beyond middle. 

Allied to Xanthorhoe, but differs from it and all other near members of the family 
in the uniseriate pectinations of the antennae of $. 



( I ) Progonostola cremnopis, sp. nov. 

i??. 30 — 36 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen dark fuscous, somewhat pale- 
sprinkled ; thorax with developed central and posterior crests. Forewings somewhat 
elongate-triangular, termen slightly rounded, oblique, strongly waved ; fuscous, purplish- 
tinged, with numerous waved dark fuscous striae ; median band preceded by two 
undefined obscure whitish-ochreous striae ; a small transverse blackish-fuscous discal 
spot, followed by a stronger dark stria, beyond which is a more or less obscure whitish- 
ochreous wedge-shaped median suffusion ; posterior edge of median band marked by a 
stronger dark stria, somewhat prominent beneath costa, and with middle third forming 
a short obtuse bilobed prominence, on costa followed by one or two whitish-ochreous 
strigulae ; subterminal line faintly indicated with whitish-ochreous, only distinct on 



1 68 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

costa. Hindwings with termen rounded, dentate ; fuscous, with indistinct darker 
waved striae, edges of median band more strongly marked ; subterminal line faintly 
whitish-ochreous. (Plate IV. fig. 25.) 

14 specimens; 9 Olaa, Hawaii; 5 Molokai, at 3000 feet; in June, September, and 
November. 

Dasyuris Guen. 

Face rough-haired. Antennae in t shortly ciliated. Palpi with long dense rough 
hairs. Thorax and co.xae densely hairy beneath. Forewings : areole double. Hind- 
wings : 6 and 7 stalked, 8 anastomosing with cell to beyond middle. 

(i) Dasytiris holombra, sp. nov. 

$. 36 — 37 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax dark fuscous, thinly and finely whitish- 
sprinkled. Forewings broad-triangular, termen rounded, somewhat oblique ; dark 
fuscous, ferruginous-tinged, with indistinct darker striae ; median band more strongly 
dark-edged, limited by fine obscure striae of whitish irroration, posterior edge with 
moderate bilobed median prominence ; a transverse blackish-fuscous median dot ; sub- 
terminal line fine, obscure, formed of whitish irroration. Hindwings with termen 
rounded ; dark ferruginous-fuscous ; in one specimen a few whitish scales at tornus. 
(Plate IV. fig. 26.) 

2 specimens, Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet, in April and May. 



SELIDOSEMIDAE. 
SiSYROPHYTA, gen. nov. 

Face with tuft of scales. Tongue developed. Antennae in $ bipectinated, simple 
towards base and on apical third. Palpi rough-scaled. Thorax hairy beneath. 
Abdomen in $ elongate, hairy beneath. Femora glabrous, posterior tibiae in $ 
elongate, dilated, containing hair-pencil in groove, posterior tarsi in $ reduced. Fore- 
wings in $ without fovea, more or less distorted, above with longitudinal supramedian 
groove, beneath more or less largely clothed with dense rough hairs ; 10 sometimes out 
of 9, sometimes connected with 9, 1 1 sometimes out of 10 near base, sometimes running 
into or anastomosing with 12. Hindwings in $ above with median groove or streak of 
erect hairs. 

Remarkable for the curiously developed secondary sexual characters of the $. 
The two species have much general similarity ; the $s are obviously distinguished 
by the differences in these secondary sexual developments ; the $s may be separated by 
the difference in size and neuration. Type S. gomphias. 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 169 



(i) Sisyrophyta gomphias, sp. nov. 

(??• 50 — 58 mm. Head and thorax brown. Abdomen pale brownish-ochreous. 
Forewings elongate-triangular, in $ with apex and upper part of termen curved over 
beneath so as to appear strongly rounded off, hardly oblique, in $ termen bowed, 
oblique ; in $ above with deep compressed supramedian groove, beneath with costal 
half clothed with very dense rough hair-scales; 11 out of 10 near base, running into 
or anastomosing with 12; brownish-ochreous or ochreous-fuscous, sometimes sprinkled 
with dark fuscous ; first and second lines of blackish-fuscous dots, usually much 
approximated dorsally, lowest one of each sometimes confluent, first of three dots, 
curved, second of seven or eight dots, in $ strongly curved in disc, in $ somewhat bent 
below middle ; a terminal series of blackish-fuscous dots. Hindwings with termen 
rounded, in $ with compressed longitudinal median groove ; brownish-ochreous, paler 
basally, more fuscous-tinged posteriorly ; sometimes a curved postmedian series of 
indistinct fuscous dots; cilia ochreous-whitish. (Plate IV. fig. 27.) 

38 specimens ; 34 Olaa, Hawaii, at 2000 feet ; 3 Kona, Hawaii, at 2000 — 3000 
feet ; i Molokai, at 3500 feet ; in June, September, November, and December. 



(2) Sisyrophyta ochetias, sp. nov. 

^$. 40-— 48 mm. Head and thorax brown. Abdomen light brownish-ochreous. 
Forewings elongate-triangular, narrower than in S. gomphias, in J with apex, termen, 
and dorsum strongly and continuously rounded, in % with termen bowed, oblique ; in i 
above with irregular supramedian groove, beneath with median longitudinal fringe of 
long erect hairs, dorsal half below this wholly clothed with modified furry scales, with a 
marginal ridge of dense raised scales, costal area partially hairy ; 10 sometimes out of 9, 
sometimes connected with 9, 1 1 separate ; brownish-ochreous or ochreous-fuscous, more 
or less sprinkled with dark fuscous; first and second lines of blackish-fuscous dots, 
moderately approximated dorsally, first of three dots, hardly curved, second of seven or 
eight dots, in t rather strongly curved in disc, in % somewhat curved, sinuate inwards 
above middle; no terminal dots. Hindwings with termen rounded, in t unevenly; in 
t above with a median longitudinal streak-like patch of fine long erect hairs from near 
base to beyond middle, termen partially narrowly folded over, distorted ; in t pale 
ochreous, disc suffused with rather dark grey ; in ? pale brownish-ochreous irrorated 
with fuscous. 

16 specimens; 15 Olaa, Hawaii, at 2000 feet; i Hilo, Hawaii, at 2000 feet; in 
June, September, November, and December. 



I JO FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 



SCOTORYTHRA Butl. 

Face with tuft of scales. Tongue developed. Antennae in t bipectinated, simple 
towards base (on 4 or 5 joints above basal) and on apical third. Palpi rough-scaled. 
Thorax hairy beneath. Femora sometimes hairy beneath, posterior tibiae in ^ more or 
less dilated, containing hair-pencil in groove, posterior tarsi in ^ often reduced. Fore- 
wings in Z without fovea; 10 often connected with 9, 11 rarel)' out of 10 very near 
base, rarely absent, sometimes anastomosing with 12. Hindwings normal. 

Type ^. arboricolans Butl. This genus is endemic ; the species are exceedingly 
puzzling, owing to their number, similarity, and similar variability. In the males the 
secondary sexual characters, such as the length of the abdomen (measured in terms of 
the breadth of the hindwings), the length of the antennal pectinations (estimated in 
terms of the breadth of the stalk), and the structure of the posterior legs (the tarsi 
being measured in terms of the length of the tibia), often afford valuable aid in their 
discrimination ; but the females of allied species are often excessively similar. 

In the neuration of the forewings, the origin of i i out of 10 very near base, or its 
entire absence, appear to be individual abnormalities, which I have observed only in 
one instance of each, of no specific importance ; the connection of 10 with 9 is frequent, 
but (as in Selidosema and allied genera) is also of no importance ; the anastomosing of 
1 1 with I 2 however is worthy of attention, as 1 have found it in some specimens of all 
the first eight species (except corticea, not examined), even in the three monotypic ones, 
it being most constant in isospora, whilst I have noticed no instance of it in the rest ; it 
therefore helps to confirm the grouping of these species together, though too inconstant 
to define them ; these eight species are however distinguished from all the rest by the 
form of the second line. 

In the following tabulation the scheme is double from the eighteenth heading 
onwards, the sexes being thereafter tabulated separately ; this was unavoidable, owing 
to the divergence of the sexes in these species ; the discrimination of the males is then 
rendered comparatively easy by the use of the secondary sexual characters ; that of the 
females is and must remain difficult, the differences between them being extremely 
slight, and the individual variability very considerable. 

1. Apex of forewings subfalcate ; expanse over 80 mm. ( ? only known) (jo) megalophylla. 

„ „ at most somewhat prominent ; expanse under 76 mm 2. 

2. Postmedian line of hindwings well-defined, slender, entire 3. 

„ ,, dotted or cloudy or obsolete 5. 

3. Forewings ochreous (14) demetrias. 

,, not ochreous 4. 

4. First line of forewings acutely angulated above middle {ij) oxyphractis. 

„ „ almost straight (^16) ortharcha. 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 171 

5. Second line of forewings not sinuate inwards above middle 6. 

» .. more or less distinctly sinuate inwards above 

middle 15. 

6. Expanse 46 mm. or more; median shade usually obsolete 7. 

,. 43 mm. or less; median shade distinct S. 

7. Forewings with termen slightly waved (28) euryph 

,. » in i moderately waved, in $ dentate {2g) hyparcha. 

8. First line nearly approximated to median {4) epicy. 



'laea. 



yma. 



,, remote from median o. 

g. Discal spot of forewings very long-transverse, dark, conspicuous {i) syngonopa. 

„ „ oval, indistinct or obsolete 10. 

10. Discal spot annular (2) arboricolans. 

,, not annular n. 

11. Second line of forewings slightly curved; expanse 42 mm {8) homotrias. 

,, ,, moderately curved; expanse not over 38 mm 12. 

12. Second line of forewings nearly approximated to median on dorsal 

third (Oahu species) (3) caryopis. 

„ „ not markedly approximated to median 13. 

13. Forewings with discal dot separate (Maui species) (j) corticea. 

„ „ absorbed or obsolete 14. 

14. Hindwings with termen waved (Hawaii species) {y) aruraea. 

„ „ dentate (Kauai species) (6) isospora. 

15. First line of forewings bent or angulated in middle 16. 

,, ,, ,, above middle 17. 

16. Forewings whitish-ochreous, median line well-marked (/z) anagraptis. 

„ fuscous or brownish-ochreous, median line absent {10) trapezias. 

17. Apex of forewings distinctly prominent (ij) gom'asfis. 

„ „ not prominent 18. 

A. Males (p hecataea, and 20 platycapna unknown). 

18. Forewings with glandular patch of modified whitish-ochreous scales 

beneath in cell {22) trachyopis. 

„ without such patch 19. 

19. Antennal pectinations irregularly blotched with dark fuscous 20. 

,, „ evenly dark-lined 23. 

2 0. Abdomen i ^ — i^ 21- 

„ almost 2 {23) macrosoma. 

21. Discal spot of forewings whitish {21) nephelosticta. 

„ „ not whitish 22. 

22. Forewings fuscous or dark fuscous; posterior tarsi 4 {ig) capnopa. 

„ ochreous-fuscous, reddish-tinged; posterior tarsi | {18) triscia. 

2 3. Abdomen i — \\ ^4- 

t1 25. 

24. Forewings light fuscous, discal spot broader, roundish {12) ido/ias. 

„ brownish-ochreous or fuscous, sometimes ferruginous-tinged, 

discal spot narrower, lunate {13) paludicola. 

25. Forewings with apical spot of pale suffusion 26. 

,, without such spot 27. 

26. Forewings with dorsal edge and terminal cilia clear pale yellowish {23) artemidora. 

„ „ „ not pale {24) pachyspila. 

M. F. 11. ^3 



J 72 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 



27. Posterior tarsi \ • (2^) brachytarsa. 

3_A (27) rara. 



B. Females. 

18. Forewings with discal spot broad, not lunate 19. 

„ „ narrow, lunate 21. 

ig. Discal spot roundish; expanse 33 mm. or less (12) idolias. 

„ trapezoidal, dilated beneath; expanse 40 mm. or more 20. 

20. Forewings narrower, ferruginous-tinged {22) trachyopis. 

„ less narrow, not ferruginous-tinged {23) macrosoma. 

21. Median shade much broader than other hues, distinct (g) hecataea. 

„ not or little broader, generally obsolete 22. 

22. Forewings with apical spot of pale suffusion 23. 

„ without such spot 24. 

23. Forewings with dorsal edge and terminal cilia clear pale yellowish {2^) artemidora. 

not pale {24) pachyspila. 

24. First and second lines dark-dotted 25. 

,, ,, not dark-dotted 28. 

25. Termen of forewings gently waved 26. 

„ „ moderately waved 27. 

26. Expanse 45 mm. or more {27) rara. 

„ 44 mm. or less {i j) paludicola. 

27. Lines and discal spot usually strongly marked (Kauai species) {21) nephelostkta. 

,, „ rather obscurely marked (Hawaii species) {26) brachytarsa. 

28. Head and thorax dark fuscous 29. 

„ „ brown, somewhat reddish-tinged {18) trisda. 

29. Forewings broader, lines obsolete {20) p/atycapna. 

„ less broad, lines distinct . {ig) capnopa. 



(i) Scotorythra syngonopa, sp. nov. 

^. 43 mm. Head and thorax light grey, patagia whitish towards tips. Antennae 
white, faintly greyish-ringed, pectinations 10, laterally black-lined. Abdomen i^, grey, 
segmental margins white, anal tuft ochreous-whitish. Legs grey, posterior tibiae 
whitish-mixed, dilated, enclosing a whitish hair-pencil, posterior tarsi ^. Forewings 
somewhat elongate-triangular, termen rather obliquely rounded, faintly waved, dorsum 
more rounded than usual ; light ochreous-grey, finely strigulated with rather dark 
fuscous ; costa with some irregularly strewn ochreous-white strigulae ; first, median, and 
second lines forming cloudy darker fuscous shades, first faint, curved, median faint, 
sinuate, towards dorsum more distinct and subconfluent with second, second posteriorly 
tolerably well-defined and partially obscurely pale-edged, waved, moderately curved 
outwards on upper f and inwards near dorsum ; discal spot very long-transverse, 
cloudy, rather dark fuscous. Hindwings with termen waved ; colour and markings 



MA CROLEPIDOPTERA i -j^, 

as in forewings. but first line obsolete, second hardly curved inwards near dorsum, 
discal spot much smaller and less distinct. (Plate IV. fig. 28.) 

I specimen, Waimea Mts., Kauai, at 4000 feet, in May. Rather markedly distinct 
by its size, grey-striated appearance, more rounded dorsum of forewings, length of 
discal spot, and form of second line. 



(2) Scotorythra arboricolans Butl. 

Scotorythra arboricolens (prav. form.) Butl. Ent. Mo. Mag. xix. p. 177. 

<?¥• 27 — 35 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen varying from light fuscous or grey 
to (in ?) whitish-ochreous, abdomen in ^ i^— ij, segmental margins white. Antennae 
whitish-grey or ochreous-whitish, darker-ringed, pectinations in $ 7 — 8, whitish, laterally 
black-lined. Legs grey, posterior tibiae whitish-mixed, in ^ somewhat dilated, enclosing 
a whitish hair-pencil, posterior tarsi in <? f to almost i. Forewings somewhat elongate- 
triangular, termen in ^ faintly, in ? more distinctly sinuate beneath apex, bowed, rather 
oblique ; in ^ fuscous or grey, varying in depth, more or less densely strigulated with 
dark fuscous, in % brownish-ochreous to ochreous-whitish, densely strigulated with 
fuscous ; first and second lines indistinctly darker, obscurely dotted with blackish, second 
sometimes posteriorly pale-edged, in one % first obsolete and second represented by a 
white streak, first slightly curved, second with upper f moderately curved or bent out- 
wards ; a transverse-oval discal spot indistinctly dark-outlined, sometimes traversed by 
a dark fuscous median shade ; seldom a darker praesubterminal shade and subapical 
suffusion. Hindwings with termen waved; colour, discal spot, median shade, second 
line, and praesubterminal shade as in forewings. 

12 specimens; 10 Kona, Hawaii, at 2000 — ^4000 feet; i Kilauea, Hawaii; i 
Lanai, at 3000 feet ; from July to September. Butler's type was from Lanai, and I 
have also two other specimens of Mr Blackburn's from the same locality. A very 
variable species, but easy of recognition ; its comparatively small size, greyish colouring, 
outlined discal spot, and form of second line are its most prominent characters. 



(3) Scotorythra caryopis, sp. nov. 

^, 24 — 26 mm. ; ?, 30 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen in ^ light reddish- 
ochreous, in ? whitish-ochreous, abdomen sprinkled with dark fuscous, in ^ i^. 
Antennae whitish-ochreous, fuscous-ringed, pectinations in J 7, blackish-lined. 
Posterior tibiae in t moderately dilated, enclosing a whitish-ochreous hair-pencil, 
posterior tarsi in ^ f. Forewings rather elongate-triangular, termen slightly waved, 
bowed, rather oblique, in ? more oblique and somewhat sinuate beneath apex ; in ^ 

23—2 



174 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

reddish-ochreous or reddish-ochreous-brown, strigulated with dark fuscous, in % whitish- 
ochreous irrorated with dark fuscous ; first Hne curved, in ^ partially marked with dark 
fuscous, in $ with three dark fuscous dots ; median more or less dark, curved outwards 
on upper half ; a transverse-oval fuscous discal spot before median, sometimes obsolete ; 
second line waved, in ^ more or less dark-marked, in % dotted with dark fuscous, curved 
outwards on upper |, nearly approximated to median on lower third, space between 
these sometimes suffused with dark fuscous in middle and on dorsum ; subterminal 
faintly indicated; sometimes an oblique dark subapical streak. Hindwings with termen 
waved ; colour and lines as in forewings, but first line obsolete, median and second not 
much approximated dorsally. 

4 specimens ; 3 near Honolulu, Oahu, at 2000 feet ; i Pauoa Valley, Oahu, at 1 500 
feet ; in March, April, and October. This species, isospora, aruraea, and probably 
corticea, are closely related together, and may be regarded as representative forms of a 
common stock, each being confined to a different island. This species is particularly 
distinguished by the dorsal approximation of the median and second lines of forewings ; 
it is also the smallest in averag-e size. 



&^ 



(4) Scotorythra epicyma, sp. nov. 

$. 43 mm. Head and thorax light ferruginous-brown. Antennae pale brownish- 
ochreous. Abdomen brownish-ochreous, sprinkled with dark fuscous. Forewings 
rather elongate-triangular, apex slightly prominent, termen somewhat bowed, little 
oblique ; ferruginous-brown, slightly sprinkled with blackish ; first, median, second, and 
praesubterminal thick cloudy dark fuscous shades, three former rather near together, 
first and second waved, hardly curved, not reaching costa, median and praesub- 
terminal almost straight, entire, but latter faint at tornus ; a cloudy dark fuscous 
terminal patch beneath apex. Hindwings with termen hardly waved ; colour, median, 
second, and praesubterminal shades, connecting blotch, and subapical suffusion as in 
forewings. 

I specimen, Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet, in April. Evidently allied to the 
isospora group, but distinguished from them all by the straighter lines, larger size, and 
hardly waved termen of hindwings ; the dark suffusion of the markings is probably 
variable as in the allied species. 

{5) Scotorythra corticea Butl. 

Scotosia corticea Butl. Ann. Mag. N. H. (5) vii., 1881, p. 319; Ent. Mo. Mag. 
XIX. p. 177. 

%. 35 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen brownish, segmental margins finely 
whitish. Antennae ochreous-whitish, hardly ringed. Forewings rather elongate- 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 175 

triangular, termen somewhat bowed, oblique ; brown, strigulated with dark fuscous ; 
first and second lines cloudy, fuscous, marked with dark fuscous dots on veins, first 
moderately curved towards costa, second curved outwards on upper f , rather sinuate 
inwards towards dorsum ; median shade thick, rather dark fuscous, sinuate ; an ill- 
defined dark discal dot before this ; a cloudy rather dark fuscous praesubterminal shade. 
Hindwings with termen moderately waved ; colour and markings as in forewings, but 
first line absent, median and second lines little curved, more cloudy, praesubterminal 
little marked. 

Mr Perkins obtained no specimens of this form ; I have described the type in the 
British Museum collection, from Haleakala, Maui, at 4000 feet. There should have 
been a second specimen in Mr Blackburn's collection, but it seems to have been lost. 
The type is a partially deformed female, but there is no doubt of its distinctness from 
all others except S. aruraea ; from this it differs only by the more sinuate median and 
second lines of the forewings, and apparently separate (though little-defined) discal dot ; 
as the two forms are from different islands, and the other most closely allied species are 
each apparently confined to a single island, I have thought it best (in the absence of the 
male of corticea) to keep them as separate species until further material is available. 

(6) Scotorytlira isospora, sp. nov. 

Z%. 26 — ^36 mm. Head and thora.x in t brownish, sometimes pale-sprinkled, in 
% light greyish-ochreous. Antennae whitish or ochreous-whitish, faintly fuscous-ringed, 
pectinations in ^ 7 — 8, laterally blackish-lined. Abdomen in t i*. brownish, sprinkled 
with dark fuscous, segmental margins and anal tuft ochreous-whitish, in $ pale greyish- 
ochreous sprinkled with dark fuscous. Legs in ^ fuscous, posterior tibiae whitish- 
mixed, somewhat dilated, enclosing an ochreous-whitish hair-pencil, in % ochreous- 
whitish sprinkled with dark fuscous, posterior tarsi in t I- Forewings rather 
elongate-triangular, termen faintly sinuate beneath apex, bowed, oblique, waved, in 
% more strongly ; brownish-ochreous in ^, light greyish-ochreous in %, more or less 
densely strigulated with dark fuscous ; first and second lines cloudy, indistinct, 
darker, marked with dark fuscous or blackish dots on veins, first curved, second 
waved, moderately curved, slightly sinuate inwards near dorsum ; median shade 
broader, cloudy, somewhat sinuate, in % seldom also black-dotted on veins ; no 
discal spot ; in ? sometimes a more or less developed broad fuscous suffusion in 
disc posteriorly beneath median vein, extending obliquely upwards to termen 
beneath apex. Hindwings with termen dentate ; colour and markings as in fore- 
wings, but first line obsolete. 

28 specimens; 17 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet; 11 Waimea Mts., Kauai, 
at 4000 feet ; from April to June. Differs from its nearest allies by the dentate termen 
of hindwings, usually also by the paler colouring and more conspicuously dotted lines. 



176 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

(7) ScotorytJira aruraea, sp. nov. 

^?. 31 — 38 mm. Head and thorax in ^ brownish, in % light brownish-ochreous. 
Antennae whitish-ochreous, fuscous-ringed, pectinations in ^ 8 — 9, laterally blackish- 
lined. Abdomen in ^ \\, brownish, segmental margins ochreous-whitish, in % whitish- 
ochreous sprinkled with dark fuscous. Legs in ^ fuscous, posterior tibiae mixed with 
whitish-ochreous, somewhat dilated, enclosing a pale brownish-ochreous hair-pencil, in 
% whitish sprinkled with dark fuscous, posterior tarsi in t i- Forewings rather 
elongate-triangular, termen in I rather obliquely rounded, slightly waved, in % rather 
obliquely bowed, hardly sinuate beneath apex, waved ; light ochreous-brown in ^, pale 
brownish-ochreous to ochreous-brown in $, finely strigulated with dark fuscous ; first, 
median, and second lines darker, indistinct (in % sometimes well-marked), first and 
second more or less distinctly dotted with dark fuscous, first bent near costa, median 
rather curved, second moderately curved on upper | ; a very indistinct darker trans- 
verse discal spot, absorbed in median line ; in one strongly-marked $ a fuscous suffused 
patch extending from middle of disc to termen, except towards costa and dorsum, and 
a praesubterminal shade. Hindwings with termen waved ; colour and markings as in 
forewings, but first line obsolete, discal spot imperceptible. (Plate IV. fig. 29.) 

13 specimens; 4 Kona, Hawaii, at 4000 feet; 8 Kilauea, Hawaii; i Olaa, 
Hawaii ; from June to September, and in December. The females vary much in depth 
of colouring, one being darker than any male, though most are lighter. Closely allied 
to 6". isospora, from which it may be distinguished especially by the waved, not dentate, 
termen of hindwings ; the average size is larger, the general colouring warmer and 
deeper, and the forewings in the $ are without trace of the subapical sinuation, 
which is faint yet perceptible in S. isospora ; the posterior tarsi in the $ are relatively 
longer. 

(8) Scotorythi-a honiotrias, sp. nov. 

%. 42 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen light brownish-ochreous, abdomen 
sprinkled with dark fuscous. Antennae whitish-ochreous, ringed with dark fuscous. 
Forewings triangular, termen hardly waved, slightly bowed, oblique ; brownish-ochreous, 
faintly purplish-tinged, obscurely strigulated with dark fuscous, costa paler and sharply 
strigulated ; first, median, and second lines indistinct, deeper ochreous, slightly curved, 
nearly parallel and equidistant, first and second marked with series of blackish dots ; 
a hardly darker praesubterminal shade. Hindwings with termen gently waved ; colour 
and lines as in forewings, but colour rather deeper and yellower ochreous, first line 
obsolete, others faint. 

I specimen, Olaa, Hawaii, in September. Differs from the preceding group by the 
larger size, less curved termen and lines, and less waved termen of hindwings ; the 
colouring is much as in 5. aruraea. 



MA CROLEPIDOP TERA 1 77 



(9) Scotorythra hecataea, sp. nov. 

?. 39 mm. Head and thorax pale greyish-ochreous. Antennae whitish-ochreous, 
suffusedly ringed with fuscous. Abdomen pale greyish-ochreous, somewhat sprinkled 
with dark fuscous. Legs pale greyish-ochreous, mottled with dark fuscous. Forewings 
elongate-triangular, termen hardly waved, faintly sinuate beneath apex, bowed, oblique ; 
pale greyish-ochreous, irregularly strigulated with dark fuscous ; first line ferruginous, 
strongly curved above middle ; a broad cloudy straight median shade of ferruginous 
and fuscous suffusion, in which is placed a curved-linear transverse whitish discal mark ; 
second line faintly whitish, edged anteriorly by a series of ferruginous dots parallel to 
termen throughout ; a terminal band of ferruginous suffusion, terminated above by an 
oblique subapical streak, and enclosing a slender pale subterminal line. Hindwings 
with termen waved ; light grey, sprinkled with dark grey ; a fine indistinct dark grey 
postmedian dotted line. 

I specimen, Waimea Mts., Kauai, at 4000 feet, in May. This species seems to 
stand rather isolated ; the form of the second line of the forewings is rather peculiar, 
and the sinuate termen, curved-linear pale discal mark, broad median shade, and 
ferruginous colouring are characteristic features. 



(10) Scotorythra trapezius, sp. nov. 

Z%. 26 — 35 mm. Head and thorax fuscous, sometimes darker or reddish-tinged, 
thorax with two small posterior whitish tufts, crown and thorax sometimes spotted with 
whitish. Antennae whitish, irregularly spotted with dark fuscous, pectinations 6 — 7, 
irregularly blotched. Abdomen pale fuscous sprinkled with darker, in ^ \\. Legs 
dark fuscous irregularly spotted with pale whitish-ochreous, posterior tibiae in ^ rather 
dilated, enclosing a pale brownish-ochreous hair-pencil, posterior tarsi in t f • Forewings 
somewhat elongate-triangular, termen bowed, rather oblique ; brownish-ochreous or 
fuscous, usually somewhat reddish-tinged, with scattered black scales, veins in one 
specimen pale ochreous-yellow ; first line darker, on upper half stronger and blackish, 
sometimes dilated anteriorly to form a blackish spot above middle, somewhat bent near 
costa, acutely angulated in middle, sinuate inwards towards dorsum ; a trapezoidal 
lighter or sometimes white blotch occupying cell beyond this, broadest above, upper 
edge parallel to costa, posterior edge formed by a sinuate inwardly oblique fine blackish 
line, sometimes followed by a blackish suffusion which in one specimen invades lower 
portion of the blotch (perhaps representing median line, which is not otherwise 
indicated) ; discal spot crescentic, yellow-ochreous or whitish-ochreous or more often 
quite obsolete, sometimes partially irregularly edged with black ; sometimes a whitish 



178 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

suffusion towards costa beyond this ; second line fine, pale, sometimes dotted with 
ochreous-whitish, edged anteriorly with blackish dots and posteriorly with a line of 
ground-colour, nearly straight, sinuate outwards in middle ; beyond this a band of paler 
suffusion, strigulated with dark grey ; subterminal line sometimes indistinctly pale, 
anteriorly darker-edged; a terminal series of dark fuscous dots. Hindwings with 
termen somewhat waved ; grey ; an indistinct darker discal mark and postmedian 
series of dots. (Plate IV. fig. 30.) 

27 specimens; 20 Kaholuamano, Kauai; 7 Waimea Mts., Kauai, at 4000 feet; 
from April to June. Varies considerably, but easily distinguished from all others by 
the peculiar form of the strongly marked first line, and the pale blotch following it. 



(11) Scotorythra anagraphs, sp. nov. 

$. 38 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen whitish-ochreous, partly brownish-tinged. 
Antennae whitish-ochreous, scantily irregularly spotted with dark fuscous. Legs 
dark fuscous, ringed with whitish-ochreous, posterior pair whitish-ochreous, marbled 
with fuscous. Forewings very elongate-triangular, termen waved, bowed, oblique ; 
whitish-ochreous, with some scattered black scales ; a patch of brownish suffusion 
towards base of dorsum ; first line pale, edged anteriorly with brown and posteriorly 
with black, very strongly curved, slightly angular somewhat below middle ; median 
brown, black-mixed on upper half twice sharply angulated outwards in disc, nearly 
followed by a lunate dark grey discal spot lying between the angulations ; second 
pale, edged anteriorly by a black waved line and posteriorly by a brownish shade, 
nearly parallel to termen, somewhat curved outwards in middle, sinuate inwards above 
this and towards dorsum ; subterminal slender, pale, waved, preceded by an undefined 
brownish shade marked with several small blackish spots, and followed towards apex by 
a brownish suffusion, leaving a pale apical patch ; a terminal series of large round black 
dots. Hindwings with termen unevenly waved ; pale grey ; a darker discal mark and 
postmedian series of dots. 

I specimen, Kauai, at 4000 feet, without further data. Also a very distinct species, 
especially through the peculiar form of the first and median lines. 



(12) Scotorythra idolias, sp. nov. 

<??. 28 — 33 mm. Head and thorax light brown. Antennae pale greyish-ochreous, 
in % obscurely fuscous-ringed, pectinations 7, whitish, laterally blackish-lined. Abdomen 
light greyish-ochreous, in $ i — li Legs whitish-ochreous mottled with fuscous, 
posterior tibiae in $ hardly dilated, enclosing a whitish hair-pencil, posterior tarsi in $ 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 179 

I— f- Forewings somewhat elongate-triangular, termen in ^ strongly rounded, little 
oblique, in ? rather obliquely bowed ; light fuscous, sometimes ochreous-tinged, sprinkled 
with blackish dots tending to form strigulae ; first and second lines fuscous dotted with 
blackish, first strongly curved, more or less abruptly bent near costa, second nearly 
straight, sinuate inwards above middle and more widely towards dorsum ; median line 
absent ; a large undefined roundish dark fuscous discal spot, sometimes with pale linear 
central mark ; an indistinct more or less interrupted fuscous praesubterminal shade ; a 
terminal series of large blackish dots. Hindwings with termen unevenly waved ; 
whitish-fuscous; a faint grey discal mark and postmedian series of dots. (Plate IV. 
fig- 3I-) 

88 specimens; 86, all ,?, Kilauea, Hawaii, in July and August; 2 % Olaa, Hawaii, 
in September. That the consignment of 86 specimens from Kilauea should not have 
included a single female is very curious ; generally in this genus more females were sent 
than males. The species is readily recognised by its small size, uniform light fuscous 
colouring, strongly dotted lines, large roundish discal spot, and entire absence of median 
line ; it varies extremely little. 

(13) Scotorythra paludicola Butl. 

Pseudocoreniia paludicola Butl. Ent. Mo. Mag. xv. p. 272. 

t 28 — 36 mm., % 31 — 44 mm. Head and thorax fuscous or reddish-ochreous-brown, 
crown seldom yellowish, thorax sometimes with posterior extremity whitish. Antennae 
light ochreous, thinly irregularly spotted with fuscous, pectinations 8, whitish, laterally 
blackish-lined. Abdomen greyish-ochreous, in ^ i^. Legs light brownish-ochreous, 
spotted and partly suffused with dark fuscous, posterior tibiae in ^ little dilated, enclosing 
a whitish hair-pencil, posterior tarsi in ^ almost i. Forewings somewhat elongate- 
triangular, termen slightly waved, in ^ strongly bowed, little oblique, in % rather 
obliquely bowed ; varying from light brownish-ochreous to fuscous or ferruginous, 
more or less sprinkled with dark fuscous or blackish dots tending to form strigulae ; in 
one rather dark fuscous $ there is an ochreous-whitish subcostal streak from base to f, 
leaving costal edge ferruginous ; median band sometimes darker, in one Z enclosed by 
broad fasciae of whitish-ochreous suffusion, in % sometimes enclosed by fasciae of light 
ferruginous-ochreous suffusion ; first and second lines indistinctly darker, conspicuously 
dotted with blackish or dark fuscous, first rather strongly curved, sometimes obtusely 
angulated above middle, second tolerably straight, sinuate inwards above middle and 
more widely towards dorsum ; median line absent ; a moderate lunate dark fuscous 
discal spot, usually with more or less distinct pale central linear mark ; subterminal line 
sometimes obscurely pale ; usually a terminal series of large dark fuscous or blackish 
dots. Hindwings with termen unevenly waved ; light grey ; an indistinct darker discal 
mark and postmedian series of dots. 

M. F. H. 24 



i8o FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

28 specimens; 21 Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet; 2 Waimea Mts., Kauai, at 4000 
feet; i Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet; 3 Kilauea, Hawaii; i Hilo, Hawaii, at 
2000 feet ; in January, from March to May, and in August. Closely allied to 6'. idolias, 
but instead of being very constant it is very variable ; it differs further in the deeper and 
brighter colouring, narrower and more lunate discal spot, and frequently larger size, as 
also in the greater proportionate length of the abdomen and posterior tarsi of the male. 
The female is best distinguished from the same sex of 6". rai'a by the smaller size, and 
lighter and more ferruginous colouring. The Kauai specimens, being only females, 
might possibly be found to represent a distinct species. 



(14) Scotorythra denietrias, sp. nov. 

^ 32 mm., $ 43 mm. Head and thorax pale ferruginous-ochreous, darker in %. 
Antennae ochreous-whitish, pectinations 6, blackish-lined. Abdomen whitish-ochreous, 
in ^ i|^. Legs pale ochreous, posterior tibiae in ^ hardly dilated, enclosing an ochreous- 
whitish hair-pencil, posterior tarsi in ^ f . Forewings elongate-triangular, termen bowed, 
oblique, more so in ?, not waved ; in ^ yellow-ochreous, with scattered fine dark 
fuscous strigulae, in % ferruginous-ochreous ; first and second lines well-marked, dark 
fuscous, first almost straight, slightly bent near costa, second slightly bent in middle, 
faintly sinuate inwards towards dorsum, in % first preceded and second followed by 
a fuscous-tinged fascia; discal spot narrow, transverse, light fuscous, undefined. Hind- 
wings with termen unevenly rounded ; ochreous-whitish, more ochreous-tinged termin- 
ally ; a fuscous median line, angulated in middle. (Plate IV. fig. 32.) 

2 specimens, Kilauea, Hawaii, in August. A very distinct species, well character- 
ised by the ochreous-whitish hindwings, with entire fuscous line. 



(15) Scotorytln^a goniastis, sp. nov. 

t 36 mm., % 48 mm. Head and thorax fuscous. Antennae fuscous-whitish, 
pectinations in ^ 6, blackish-lined. Abdomen whitish-fuscous, in t if- Legs fuscous- 
whitish, somewhat fuscous-mixed, posterior tibiae in $ dilated, enclosing a light fuscous 
hair-pencil, posterior tarsi in ^ |-. Forewings elongate-triangular, apex distinctly 
prominent, termen somewhat sinuate beneath apex, bowed, rather oblique ; light 
fuscous, in ^ strigulated with darker, in $ deeper and faintly ochreous-tinged ; in % 
costal edge and all veins ochreous-white ; first and second lines in ^ dark fuscous 
accompanied externally by a second less dark line, in % ochreous-white, first strongly 
angulated near costa, second rather irregular, hardly prominent in middle, sinuate 
inwards towards dorsum ; discal spot narrow, transverse, somewhat lunate, in ^ outlined 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA i8i 

with dark fuscous, in % ochreous-white ; a terminal series of dark fuscous dots. Hind- 
wings with termen sHghtly waved ; pale fuscous ; a faint postmedian series of darker 
dots. 

2 specimens received by me from Mr Blackburn : locality not indicated, but 
not improbably Haleakala, Maui. The white veins and markings of the female 
specimen are very possibly not constant. The species is best recognised (except 
from S. ortharclia) by the prominent apex of the forewings ; the proportionately 
long abdomen of the male, the unspotted shaft of antennae, and the strongly angulated 
first line are also notable characters. 



(i6) Scotorythra ortharcha, sp. nov. 

Z%. 32 — 39 mm. Head and thorax dark grey or ashy-fuscous, sometimes 
irrorated with black. Antennae fuscous spotted with black, pectinations 7, whitish, 
laterally black-lined. Abdomen pale grey, sometimes sprinkled with black, in ^ i^. 
Legs dark grey, tips of joints whitish, posterior tibiae in t httle dilated, enclosing 
a whitish hair-pencil, posterior tarsi in Z f ■ Forewings rather elongate-triangular, apex 
distinctly prominent, termen sinuate beneath apex, bowed, v/aved, oblique ; purple- 
whitish to light fuscous, sometimes partially bluish-tinged, densely strigulated with 
dark fuscous or blackish ; first line pale, more or less obscure, placed in a dark fuscous 
fascia of which the anterior edge is quite straight and sharply defined, posterior less 
sharp ; a cloudy rather dark fuscous straight median shade, preceding discal spot, 
which is curved-linear, pale or white, black-edged ; second line slender, whitish, 
interrupted, sinuate inwards above middle and more widely towards dorsum, suffusedly 
edged with dark fuscous ; subterminal line pale or nearly obsolete, especially towards 
dorsum, posteriorly edged by a darker shade ; a terminal series of blackish dots. 
Hindwings with termen waved; grey; a fine irregular waved darker postmedian line, 
followed by a faint less dark shade. (Plate V. fig. i.) 

9 specimens, Olaa, Hawaii, at 2000 feet, from September to November. This 
and the following species are distinguished from all others by the entire waved line 
of the grey hindwings, and also by their usually bluish-tinged forewings ; they are 
separated from each other by the difference in the first line, which in 6*. ortharcha 
is practically straight, in 5. oxypliractis acutely angulated near costa. 



(17) Scotorythra oxyphractis, sp. nov. 

^ 35 — 45 mm., % 37 — 51 mm. Head and thorax dark brown sprinkled with white. 
Antennae in $ yellow-ochreous, pectinations 8 — 9, whitish above, elsewhere dark 

24 — 2 



1 82 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

fuscous, in ? brownish-ochreous. Abdomen pale grey, in ^ i^. Legs pale greyish- 
ochreous, mixed or suffused with dark grey, posterior tibiae in t hardly dilated, 
enclosing a whitish hair-pencil, posterior tarsi in t nearly i. Forewings somewhat 
elongate-triangular, termen waved, bowed, rather oblique ; dark fuscous, sometimes 
ferruginous-tinged, irrorated with pale shining purple-bluish or blue-whitish, sometimes 
very sparsely ; first line slender, obscure, of pale irroration sometimes marked with 
yellow-ochreous dots on veins, enclosed in a dark fuscous fascia, acutely angulated 
above middle, bent or sinuate inwards towards dorsum ; discal spot transverse-oval, 
blackish-fuscous, sometimes enclosing a curved linear pale bluish mark, which in 
one t is edged with bright ferruginous, or in % sometimes wholly blue-whitish, lunate, 
without dark edging ; seldom a faint dark median shade beyond this ; second line 
fine, pale, very obscure, sharply edged anteriorly with dark fuscous, sometimes marked 
with yellow-ochreous dots on veins, irregularly waved, sinuate inwards above middle 
and towards dorsum ; subterminal line slender, pale, usually almost obsolete except 
on costal third, where it is preceded by a dark shade ; a terminal series of blackish 
dots. Hindwings with termen waved ; grey ; an irregularly waved dark grey post- 
median line. 

lo specimens ; 9 Olaa, Hawaii ; i Hilo, Hawaii ; in January, June, September, 
and December. Allied to the preceding species, but perhaps not so nearly as the 
close superficial resemblance leads one to believe, since when carefully considered 
they differ in many respects ; the acutely angulated first line is the obvious distinction. 

(18) Scotorythra iriscia, sp. nov. 

^%. 36 — 40 mm. Head and thorax brown, somewhat tinged with reddish. 
Antennae in $ ochreous-whitish, spotted with dark fuscous, pectinations 5 — 6, irregularly 
blotched, in % yellow-ochreous, obscurely spotted. Abdomen light ochreous-grey, in 
^ \\. Legs ochreous-whitish, spotted with dark fuscous, posterior tibiae in t dilated, 
enclosing a whitish hair-pencil, posterior tarsi in ^ f . Forewings elongate-triangular, 
termen hardly waved, bowed, rather oblique ; brownish-ochreous or ochreous-fuscous, 
tinged with reddish and strigulated with dark fuscous ; first, median, and second 
lines represented by thick undefined darker shades, first bent near costa, median 
nearly straight, second somewhat bisinuate ; subterminal line represented by a narrower 
dark shade, sometimes obsolete ; discal spot merged in median shade, obsolete. Hind- 
wings with termen hardly waved ; whitish-grey, obscurely strigulated with darker 
grey ; a small dark grey discal spot, and postmedian series of dots. 

1 2 specimens, Wailuku, Maui, from August to October. Constant ; although 
not conspicuous, it is easily recognised by the uniform light reddish-fuscous colouring 
and three darker shades ; the posterior tarsi of the male are also unusually short, 
though not so short as in 6". bracJiytarsa. 



MA CROLEPIDOPTERA 



183 



(19) Scotorythra capnopa, sp. nov. 

<??■ 36— 39 mm. Head and thorax dark fuscous. Antennae whitish, blotched 
or in ? almost wholly suffused with dark fuscous, pectinations 6, irregularly blotched. 
Abdomen grey, in $ ii. Legs dark fuscous, spotted with ochreous- whitish, posterior 
tibiae in $ dilated, enclosing an ochreous-whitish hair-pencil, posterior tarsi in $ ^. 
Forewings elongate-triangular, termen waved, bowed, rather oblique ; fuscous, strigu- 
lated or almost wholly suffused with dark fuscous, veins pardy ochreous-tino-ed ; first 
and second lines blackish-fuscous, edged externally with dark fuscous shades, irregular, 
first gently curved, second sinuate inwards above middle and more widely towards 
dorsum ; discal spot large, transverse-oval, usually only obscurely darker-outlined, in 
one ? mixed with ochreous ; between second and subterminal lines a somewhat lighter 
fascia, in one $ brownish-ochreous ; subterminal line only indicated by an undefined 
dark brown shade ; sometimes a terminal series of pale ochreous dots. Hindwings 
with termen waved ; grey, darker posteriorly, indistinctly darker-strigulated ; a faint 
darker discal spot. 

9 specimens, Olaa, Hawaii, in June and September. Characterised by the rather 
small size and dark colouring, with darker shades attached to first and second lines. 

(20) Scotorythra platycapna, sp. nov. 

%. 47 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen rather dark fuscous, pale-sprinkled. 
Antennae light greyish-ochreous, fuscous-sprinkled. Legs pale greyish-ochreous spotted 
with dark fuscous. Forewings triangular, termen waved, rather strongly bowed, 
oblique ; rather dark fuscous, darker-irrorated ; veins posteriorly and costal edge 
obscurely ochreous ; a curved band of obscure ochreous suffusion towards base, and 
a nearly straight one at about f , enclosing unusually broad median band ; lines 
obsolete ; a linear curved transverse grey discal spot, edged anteriorly with dark 
fuscous suffusion, and posteriorly with two small dark fuscous spots. Hindwings with 
termen unevenly waved ; fuscous, obscurely darker-strigulated. 

I specimen, Waimea Mts., Kauai, at 4000 feet, in May. A peculiar form of 
dubious specific relationship ; the unusually broad forewings (especially for a female), 
the obsolescence of all lines, and character of the discal spot are the most noticeable 
points, but the male may differ considerably in appearance. 

(21) Scotorythra nephelosticta, sp. nov. 

$ 34 — 42 mm., $ 42 — 49 mm. Head and thorax dark brown or dark fuscous. 
Antennae ochreous-whitish, irregularly spotted and in % mostly suffused with dark 
fuscous, pectinations 7 — 8, irregularly blotched. Abdomen pale fuscous, in Z i^- 



1 84 FAUNA HAWAII ENSIS 

Legs dark fuscous ringed with whitish-ochreous, posterior pair whitish-ochreous 
marbled with dark fuscous, posterior tibiae in ^ dilated, enclosing an ochreous-whitish 
hair-pencil, posterior tarsi in t ^- Forewings elongate-triangular, termen bowed, waved, 
rather oblique ; dark brown or dark fuscous, strigulated with blackish, median band in 
^ broader than usual and generally enclosed by fasciae of lighter brown or sometimes 
pale brownish-ochreous ; first and second lines formed of rather large blackish dots 
on veins, in % sometimes waved, entire, first curved, bent near costa, second sometimes 
accompanied by fine whitish dots, sinuate inwards above middle and towards dorsum ; 
discal spot in t undefined, suboval, transverse, white or ochreous-whitish, sometimes 
seeming a group of dots, in % lunate, hardly paler, dark-edged ; subterminal line 
sometimes obscurely indicated with pale brownish-ochreous or whitish scales ; some- 
times a terminal series of fine pale brownish-ochreous dots. Hindwings with termen 
slightly waved, in % more strongly ; grey, lighter towards base, faintly darker- 
strigulated ; a small discal mark in ^ obscurely darker-outlined, in % usually wholly 
dark ; a postmedian series of darker dots. 

25 specimens; 17 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet; 7 Waimea Mts., Kauai, at 
4000 feet ; i Makaweli, Kauai ; from April to June. The t is readily recognised 
amongst its near allies by the peculiar undefined whitish discal spot ; the % sometimes 
very closely resembles small dark examples of 5". vara, but may be distinguished by the 
more waved termen of forewings. 



(22) Scotorythra trachyopis, sp. no v. 

t%. 44 — 50 mm. Head and thorax brown, ferruginous-tinged. Antennae whitish- 
ochreous, irregularly spotted with fuscous or dark fuscous, pectinations 7 — 8, partially dark- 
speckled, base black. Abdomen pale brownish-ochreous, in ^ \\. Legs pale brownish- 
ochreous, spotted with fuscous or dark fuscous, posterior tibiae in ^ considerably dilated, 
enclosing a pale whitish-ochreous hair-pencil. Forewings elongate-triangular, more 
elongate in $, termen bowed, oblique, in ^ waved-dentate, in % more oblique, waved ; 
in ^ beneath with elongate-oval glandular patch of modified whitish-ochreous scales 
in cell ; ferruginous-brown, irregularly mixed with pale ochreous and blackish ; first and 
second lines darker, waved-dentate, marked with large blackish dots, first angulated 
above middle, second sinuate inwards above middle and towards dorsum, median band 
narrower than usual ; discal spot large, broad-reniform, dark, blackish-edged ; sub- 
terminal line obscurely indicated, pale, edged anteriorly with darker suffusion ; a 
terminal series of large blackish dots. Hindwings with termen somewhat waved; 
whitish-brownish, somewhat ochreous-tinged, indistinctly sprinkled with grey ; discal 
mark and postmedian series of grey dots indistinct or sometimes hardly traceable ; in Z 
beneath with scales somewhat modified towards upper posterior angle of cell. 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 185 

4 specimens; 2 Waimea Mts., Kauai, at 4000 feet; 2 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 
4000 feet; from April to June. A peculiar species, distinguishable by the waved- 
dentate lines and unusually elongate forewings, with other characteristics ; the t differs 
from all by the glandular discal patch of scales beneath, which would admit of generic 
separation but does not seem to require it. 

(23) Scotorythra macrosoma, sp. nov. 

<??• 36—55 mm. (larger specimens usually ?). Head and thorax brown or 
fuscous, sometimes mi.xed with whitish or dark fuscous, sometimes mostly suffused with 
whitish and then showing dark fuscous anterior band and two posterior transverse lines 
on thorax. Antennae whitish, irregularly spotted or blotched with dark fuscous, 
pectinations 6, irregularly blotched. Abdomen pale fuscous, somewhat darker-mixed, 
in t almost 2. Legs whitish or ochreous-whitish, spotted and blotched with dark 
fuscous, posterior tibiae in ^ dilated, enclosing a whitish-ochreous hair-pencil, posterior 
tarsi in ^ I . Forewings elongate-triangular, termen waved, bowed, oblique ; varying 
from fuscous to light ochreous-brown or fuscous-whitish, rather thinly strewn with dark 
fuscous strigulae or dots ; first and second lines darker, conspicuously dotted with dark 
fuscous on veins, first strongly curved, bent above middle and somewhat sinuate near 
dorsum, nearly preceded by a parallel dark shade which in pale specimens is very 
conspicuous, second waved, sinuate inwards above middle and towards dorsum, some- 
times followed by an indistinct pale line and then by a dark shade ; discal spot large, 
broadly dilated on lower half, wholly suffused with dark fuscous, sometimes preceded 
and followed by patches of white suffusion extending to first and second lines ; sub- 
terminal line obscurely pale or seldom whitish, sometimes edged anteriorly with darker 
suffusion ; sometimes an apical spot of pale suffusion, edged beneath with darker ; 
a terminal series of dark fuscous dots. Hindwings with termen waved ; fuscous or 
grey, lighter towards base, obscurely darker-strigulated ; a dark grey transverse discal 
spot, and bisinuate postmedian series of dots. (Plate V. fig. 2.) 

78 specimens; 63 Olaa, Hawaii; 3 Hilo, Hawaii; 2 Molokai ; 6 Kaholuamano, 
Kauai, at 4000 feet; 4 Waimea Mts., Kauai, at 4000 feet; in January, April to June, 
September, November, and December. The $ differs from all by the peculiarly 
long abdomen ; the species varies considerably in colour, but the characteristic 
large dark discal spot, dilated beneath, is always prominent, and renders it easy of 



recognition. 



(24) Scotorythra pachyspila, sp. nov. 

^?. 36 — 45 mm. Head and thorax fuscous, mixed with whitish and dark fuscous 
and sometimes with red-brown, crown and thorax sometimes wholly dark fuscous. 



1 86 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

Antennae whitish-ochreous or pale brownish-ochreous, irregularly spotted and blotched 
or in one ? much suffused with dark fuscous, pectinations 6 — 7, lined with dark fuscous. 
Abdomen pale fuscous, somewhat darker-sprinkled, in ^ i^. Legs pale greyish- 
ochreous irregularly spotted with dark fuscous, posterior tibiae in ^ dilated, enclosing 
a whitish hair-pencil, posterior tarsi in ^ f. Forewings elongate-triangular, termen 
bowed, oblique ; ochreous-brown, fuscous, or bronzy-fuscous, mixed or strigulated with 
dark fuscous, sometimes partly suffused with ferruginous, sometimes mixed with 
greyish-yellowish ; veins sometimes more or less clear ochreous-yellow ; first and 
second lines usually whitish or pale yellowish, internally dark-edged, sometimes black- 
dotted, first strongly curved, somewhat bent near costa, second slightly waved, sinuate 
inwards above middle and more widely towards dorsum, somewhat projecting in 
middle ; in % median band sometimes enclosed by broad externally suffused light 
ochreous-yellow bands ; a usually rather undefined dark fuscous discal blotch, dilated 
beneath, often enclosing a curved-linear ochreous-yellow transverse mark, sometimes 
preceded and followed by patches of ochreous-whitish suffusion ; sometimes a faint 
dark median shade traversing this ; subterminal line whitish, waved, terminating in 
a pale triangular apical patch ; a terminal series of large dark fuscous dots. Hindwings 
with termen waved ; pale grey ; an indistinct dark grey discal mark and postmedian 
bisinuate series of dots. (Plate III. figs. 4, \a — 4^'.) 

16 specimens; 11 Olaa, Hawaii; i Kona, Hawaii, at 4000 feet; i Kilauea, 
Hawaii; 2 Lanai, at 3000 feet; i Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet; in July, and from 
September to December. Very variable ; it cannot however well be confused with 
any other. 



(25) Scot oryt lira aj'tetnidora, sp. nov. 

$%. 35- — 37 mm. Head and thorax light brownish mixed with dark fuscous. 
Antennae pale brownish-ochreous, irregularly spotted with dark fuscous, pectinations 
6 — 7, obscurely dark-lined. Abdomen pale fuscous, somewhat darker-sprinkled, in $ 
i\. Legs pale greyish-ochreous, irregularly blotched with dark fuscous, posterior 
tibiae in $ dilated, enclosing a whitish hair-pencil, posterior tarsi in $ f. Forewings 
elongate-triangular, termen bowed, oblique ; brown, mixed with dark fuscous ; first and 
second lines hardly paler fuscous, internally dark-edged, first strongly curved, somewhat 
bent near costa, second somewhat waved, rather sinuate inwards above middle and 
towards dorsum, somewhat projecting in middle ; a curved narrow ochreous-yellow 
discal mark ; subterminal line faint, obscurely grey-whitish ; a small irregular blotch 
of pale suffusion before apex ; a terminal series of dark fuscous dots ; dorsal edge and 
terminal cilia clear whitish-ochreous or light yellowish. Hindwings with termen 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 187 

unevenly waved ; pale grey, posteriorly darker-strigulated ; a pale dark-edged crescentic 
discal mark ; a bisinuate postmedian series of dark grey dots. 

2 specimens, Olaa, Hawaii, in September. Nearly allied to 6". pachyspila, but 
distinguished from it and all other species by the clear whitish-ochreous dorsal edge and 
terminal cilia of the forewings. 



(26) Scotorythra brachytarsa, sp. nov. 

t 42—45 "im., % 46 — 52 mm. Head fuscous to ochreous-brownish, seldom 
ferruginous or whitish. Antennae ochreous-whitish or (in %) pale ochreous, spotted 
with dark fuscous, pectinations 8, blackish-lined. Thorax fuscous or ochreous-brown, 
often with a more or less developed white or ochreous-yellowish posterior dot or 
spot. Abdomen pale fuscous, in t i^- Anterior and middle legs dark fuscous, femora 
paler, dark-spotted ; posterior legs ochreous-white marbled with fuscous, tibiae in ^ 
considerably dilated, enclosing an ochreous-whitish hair-pencil, tarsi in ^ ^. Forewings 
rather elongate-triangular, termen moderately waved, bowed, rather oblique ; rather 
dark fuscous, in $ sometimes suffused with ferruginous or ochreous-brown, median 
band sometimes enclosed (mostly in %) by broad lighter ochreous-brown fasciae ; first 
and second lines formed of indistinct dark fuscous dots, often accompanied by whitish 
dots, in % sometimes connected by waved dark lines, first curved, second sinuate 
inwards above middle and towards dorsum ; discal spot narrow, crescentic, often 
pale or white or ochreous-yellow, sometimes only obscurely dark-outlined, followed 
by a faint darker median shade ; subterminal line in % often obscurely pale, waved, 
in ^ only indicated by traces of a dark preceding shade ; a terminal series of dark 
fuscous dots. Hindwings with termen gently waved ; whitish-fuscous, becoming 
fuscous posteriorly ; a series of dark fuscous dots at | ; in ^ a dark grey discal dot. 
(Plate V. fig. 3.) 

89 specimens; 88 Olaa, Hawaii, in June, September, November, and December; 
I Hilo, Hawaii, at 2000 feet, in January. A variable species ; the t is distinguished 
from all others by the unusually short posterior tarsi ; the $ is sometimes only separable 
from S. vara by the more waved termen of the forewings, but is not by any means so 
variable as that species, and is not found in the same localities. 

(27) Scotorythra vara Butl. 

Scotosia vara Butl. Ent. Mo. Mag. xv. p. 273 ; ib. .wii. p. 8. 

^ 39 — 46 mm., % 45 — 55 mm. Head and thorax brown to dark fuscous, often 
ferruginous-tinged, crown of head seldom whitish, thorax seldom with whitish posterior 
spot. Antennae in i ochreous-whitish, spotted with dark fuscous, pectinations 8, 
M. F. H. 25 



J 88 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

blackish-lined, in % ochreous spotted or sufFusedly blotched with dark fuscous. 
Abdomen pale greyish-ochreous to fuscous, in ^ \\. Anterior and middle legs dark 
fuscous, femora whitish-ochreous, dark-spotted ; posterior legs ochreous-whitish marbled 
with fuscous, tibiae in t rather dilated, enclosing an ochreous-whitish hair-pencil, tarsi 
in ^ I — |. Forewings elongate-triangular, termen gently waved, bowed, oblique ; 
fuscous or ochreous-brown, sometimes ferruginous-tinged, in % varying also to whitish- 
brown or dark fuscous, strigulated with dark fuscous or blackish ; in % sometimes a 
sharply defined whitish-ochreous, pale reddish-ochreous, or bright ferruginous costal 
streak from base to second line, broader anteriorly ; median band in % sometimes 
conspicuously darker fuscous, enclosed by broad fasciae of ochreous or brownish 
suffusion ; first and second lines formed of dark fuscous or blackish dots, often 
accompanied by whitish dots, in $ sometimes connected by slightly waved dark lines, 
first unevenly curved, sometimes bent above middle, second sinuate inwards above 
middle and more widely towards dorsum ; discal spot lunate, edged with dark fuscous 
suffusion, in ^ seldom whitish or pale ochreous ; median shade very faint or obsolete, only 
in one pale % dark brown, conspicuous ; subterminal line obscurely pale or obsolete, 
or indicated by faint darker preceding shade ; rarely a terminal series of ochreous- 
whitish or dark fuscous dots. Hindwings with termen waved ; a dark grey small 
discal spot and postmedian series of dots, only in one pale ? connected by a waved line. 
(Plate III. figs. 5, la—^d.) 

77 specimens; 35 Waimea Mts., Kauai, at 4000 feet; 22 Kaholuamano, Kauai, 
at 4000 feet; i Honolulu Mts., Oahu ; 3 Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet; 15 Kona, 
Hawaii, at 4000 feet ; i Kawailoa, Hawaii ; from April to June, in August, September, 
and November. I have also three of Mr Blackburn's specimens from the original 
locality, Haleakala, whence comes the British Museum type (a very dark $). The 
male is not very variable, but the female is exceedingly so. The size, dark colouring, 
and only gently waved termen of the forewings will generally serve to distinguish it. 

(28) Scotorythra eiiryphaea, sp. nov. 

t 46 — 59 mm., $ 60 — 71 mm. Head and thorax varying from brown to bright 
ferruginous, seldom dark fuscous or ochreous-yellowish mixed with fuscous. Antennae 
in ^ pale fuscous or fuscous- whitish, unspotted, pectinations 10, laterally black-lined; in 
% yellow-ochreous, thinly spotted with dark fuscous. Abdomen light greyish-ochreous, 
in ^ \\. Legs in ^ fuscous, in $ orange-ochreous marbled with dark fuscous ; posterior 
tibiae pale, in ^ somewhat dilated, enclosing an ochreous-whitish hair-pencil, posterior 
tarsi in ^almost i. Forewings elongate-triangular, broader in ^, termen slightly waved, 
bowed, oblique ; in t dark ferruginous-brown, strigulated with dark fuscous, sometimes 
partially mixed with ferruginous suffusion, in % varying from orange-ochreous to 
ferruginous-brown, strigulated with dark fuscous ; median band in ^ sometimes enclosed 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 189 

by fasciae of partially confluent yellow spots ; first and second lines dark fuscous, often 
very indistinct, seldom forming series of dots, sometimes accompanied by series of 
whitish dots, first unevenly curved, second slightly sinuate inwards towards dorsum ; 
median shade darker, usually very faint, seldom distinct, somewhat angulated above 
middle ; discal spot very obscurely darker, hardly defined, placed on median shade, in 
$ sometimes distinct, oval or lunate ; subterminal line obscurely pale, waved, very faint 
or obsolete. Hindwings with termen in ^ hardly, in % gently waved ; in ^ light fuscous, 
darker terminally, in % ochreous-yellowish irrorated with fuscous or seldom wholly 
fuscous ; usually a faint postmedian series of darker dots. (Plate V. fig. 4.) 

43 specimens; 19 Waimea Mts., Kauai, at 4000 feet ; 21 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 
4000 feet ; 2 Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet; i Molokai ; from April to July, and in 
October. Differs from all the preceding by its large size, long antennal pectinations, 
and peculiar form of the second line of forewings, which is not sinuate above middle. 

(29) Scotorythra hyparcJia, sp. nov. 

J 53 — 61 mm., % 65 — 75 mm. Head and thorax in ,? dark fuscous, in % varying 
from ferruginous-ochreous to dark brown. Antennae in ^ grey, pectinations 10, pale, 
laterally blackish-lined, in % ochreous, spotted or almost wholly suffused with dark 
fuscous. Abdomen in ^ \\, pale grey, darker-mixed, in % pale ochreous, fuscous- 
sprinkled. Legs in t rather dark fuscous, posterior tibiae pale ochreous marbled with 
fuscous, somewhat dilated, enclosing an ochreous-whitish hair-pencil, posterior tarsi i, in 
% light ochreous-yellowish marbled with dark fuscous. Forewings elongate-triangular, 
broader in t, termen in t waved, in ? dentate, bowed, oblique ; in ^ dark fuscous, 
darker-strigulated, in % varying from ferruginous-ochreous or brownish-ochreous to 
dark brown, strigulated with dark fuscous ; first and second lines faintly paler, waved, 
obscurely dark-edged, often accompanied with series of small dark fuscous spots, in one 
Z by ochreous spots, first bent above middle, second hardly curved ; discal spot large, 
oval or narrow-transverse, dark fuscous, more often obsolete ; median line faintly 
darker, beyond discal spot, bent above middle ; subterminal obscurely pale, edged with 
obscure darker shades. Hindwings with termen unevenly waved ; in ^ light fuscous, 
darker terminally, in ? pale fuscous, sometimes ochreous-tinged, darker-strigulated ; 
sometimes a faint darker discal spot. 

7 .specimens ; 5 Olaa, Hawaii, in September : i Hilo, Hawaii, at 2000 feet, in 
December ; i Kilauea, Hawaii, in August. Closely allied to S. eurypkaea, but easily 
distinguished by the more strongly waved or in % dentate termen of forewings. 

(30) Scotorythra megalophylla, sp. nov. 

^. 81 87 mm. Head and thorax yellow-ochreous, sometimes suffused with 

orange or ferruginous. Antennae ochreous, spotted with dark fuscous. Abdomen light 

25 — 2 



I90 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

ochreous-yellowish, sometimes sprinkled with fuscous. Legs orange, spotted with 
fuscous. Forewings rather elongate-triangular, costa slightly sinuate posteriorly, apex 
prominent, subfalcate, termen concave below apex, then waved, bowed, oblique ; 
ochreous-yellow, thinly sprinkled with fuscous, or more or less densely suffusedly 
strigulated with ferruginous-brown ; costa sometimes suffused with fiery orange on 
anterior half; first and second lines ferruginous, sometimes very obscure, more or less 
marked with blackish dots on veins, first gently and evenly curved, second rather sinuate 
inwards on lower half, sometimes followed by a deeper suffusion ; no discal spot ; cilia 
dark fuscous, base ferruginous, tips whitish. Hindwings with termen unevenly waved ; 
light ochreous-yellowish, sometimes tinged with orange or fuscous, more or less 
sprinkled with dark fuscous ; an indistinct darker discal spot, and sometimes a post- 
median series of dark dots. (Plate V. fig. 5.) 

3 specimens; 2 Olaa, Hawaii ; i Kona, Hawaii, at 3000 feet ; in September. It 
is a pity the male of this fine insect was not discovered, but it may be expected to 
present differences analogous to those of the same sex in 6". eiiryphaea. The female is 
apparently variable, but immediately recognisable by its large size and subfalcate fore- 
wings ; the dark cilia are also a characteristic feature. 



Tritocleis, gen. nov. 

Face with projecting scales. Tongue developed. Antennae in ^ bipectinated, 
simple on apical third and on one joint above basal. Palpi rough-scaled. Thorax 
thinly hairy beneath. Femora glabrous, posterior tibiae in Z not dilated, without hair- 
pencil. Forewings in ^ without fovea; 10 out of i r, connected with 9 to form well- 
defined areole. Hindwings normal. 

The connection of vein 10 with 9 is not here (as in the preceding genus and many 
others of the family) the casual and unimportant conjunction at a point of two almost 
parallel and closely approximated veins, but 10 is in its lower portion parallel to the 
upper wall of cell, and only takes an upward direction after its connection with 9. 

(31) Tritocleis microphylla, sp. nov. 

^. 20 mm. Head and thorax whitish-ochreous, sprinkled with black. Antennae 
ochreous-whitish, pectinations 12, finely black-lined. Abdomen whitish-ochreous, with 
double dorsal series of blackish dots, two on basal segment much larger. Forewings 
triangular, termen bowed, oblique ; whitish-ochreous, finely and thinly sprinkled with 
black ; first line indicated only by a blackish dot near dorsum ; a cloudy dark grey 
discal dot ; second line unusually near termen, formed by a series of black dots, running 
from |- of costa to f of dorsum, unevenly curved outwards, beneath costa indented 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 191 

inwards ; cilia ochreous-whitish, with a basal series of small black spots. Hindwings 
with termen slightly waved ; pale whitish-ochreous, sprinkled with black ; a small 
narrow-oval discal spot outlined with blackish ; second line faint, ochreous, marked 
with black dots, curved ; subterminal indicated by a series of blackish dots ; cilia as in 
forewings. (Plate V. fig. 6.) 

I specimen, Olaa, Hawaii, in November. 



SPHINGIDAE. 

Deilephila Ochs. 

(i) Deilephila (?) smaragditis, sp. nov. 

<?. 94 mm. Head yellowish-green, face and palpi dark purplish-fuscous. Thorax 
green, collar and posterior hairs dark purplish-fuscous. Abdomen long, tolerably 
cylindrical, green (partly discoloured), on sides and beneath purplish-ochreous. 
Forewings rather deep glossy bluish-green ; lines forming very indistinct cloudy darker 
yellower-green shades, first absent, median straight, second slightly curved, followed 
below middle by a small spot of black irroration, subterminal near and parallel to 
second ; a terminal streak of dark purplish-fuscous irroration dilated towards apex 
(damaged). Hindwings rather dark purplish-fuscous ; a faintly indicated darker post- 
median shade ; cilia yellow-whitish, base dark fuscous. Wings beneath purplish- 
ochreous, (Plate V. fig. 7.) 

I specimen, Makaweli, Kauai, at 2000 feet, " taken some years ago by ladies of the 
Gay family." This example has lost one antenna and the apical half of the other, and 
also both posterior legs ; it is therefore impossible to determine properly its generic 
position, and it is only provisionally included in Deilephila ; it is superficially very 
distinct from anything known to me. It is a remarkable and beautiful species; and its 
fair captors might earn additional praise by discovering further specimens, and enabling 
its affinities to be accurately ascertained. 

(2) Deilephila pyrias, sp. nov. 

$ ?. 67 — 74 mm. Head and thorax very dark brown, a lateral stripe on head, 
and margins of patagia whitish or yellowish. Antennae dark fuscous, apex whitish. 
Abdomen orange, on sides and beneath suffused with crimson, with a broad dark brown 
dorsal stripe, and broad dark fuscous or black bands on margin of segments above. 
Forewings dark brown, often more or less partially mixed with whitish scales and hairs ; 
lines cloudy, dark fuscous, first curved, indistinct, preceded by triangular dark fuscous 



192 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

or black dorsal blotch, median curved towards costa, often indistinct, second waved, 
distinct, followed by trapezoidal dark fuscous or black dorsal blotch ; a suffused dark 
fuscous discal spot ; a suffused dark oblique apical streak. Hindwings deep orange; a 
suffused irregular-edged dark fuscous basal patch, extending on costa to f ; a straight- 
edged dark fuscous or black terminal fascia, attenuated beneath, hardly reaching tornus ; 
cilia pale yellowish, base dark fuscous or black. Wings beneath more or less crimson- 
suffused. (Plate V. fig. 8.) 

II specimens; 9 Olaa, Hawaii, at 2000 feet; 2 Hilo, Hawaii, at 2000 feet; in 
January, June, September, November, and December. This and the following species 
belong to the section often separated as a distinct genus under the name Choerocampa ; 
they are apparently best distinguished from each other by the abdominal colouring. 

(3) Deilephila calida Butl. 

DeilepJiila calida Butl. Ann. Mag. N. H. (5) vii., 1881, p. 317. 

Head brown, with pale yellowish line above eyes. Thorax brown, margins of 
patagia pale yellowish. Antennae dark fuscous, tips white. Abdomen dark brown, 
beneath pale reddish, three basal segments black on sides except at base which is white, 
three apical segments with yellow-whitish basal spot on sides. Forewings fuscous ; 
basal area suffused with dark brown, more blackish dorsally, outer edge curved, dorsal 
cilia on this area white ; indistinct darker transverse shades towards costa at ^ and f , 
and a roundish dark brown discal spot between these ; second line pale yellowish- 
ochreous except towards costa, nearly parallel to termen but sinuate inwards towards 
dorsum, followed by a dark brown posteriorly suffused and irregular band, enclosing 
a blotch of ground-colour on costa. Hindwings blackish-fuscous ; a rather irregular 
vermilion-red postmedian band. 

No examples obtained by Mr Perkins ; I have described the type in the British 
Museum, from Oahu. 

(4) Deilephila wilsoni Roths. 

Deilephila wilsoni Roths. Nov. Zool. i. p. 83. 

I have not seen this species, but according to the description it should be distinct 
from either of the two preceding, though allied to them. The body (abdomen) is said 
to be deep brown with a white border on each side. Locality Hawaii. 

(5) Deilephila lineata Fab. {livornica Esp.). 

5 specimens ; 3 Olaa, Hawaii ; i Kilauea, Hawaii ; i Molokai, at 3000 feet ; in 
June, September and November. Also recorded by Mr Blackburn from Oahu, and 
apparently rather common. This species is cosmopolitan in warm countries. 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 193 

Sphinx Linn. 

Abdomen yellow-spotted (2) celeus. 

rosy-spotted \i) convolvuli. 

(i) Sphinx convolvuli Linn, (chigulata Fab.). 

19 specimens; 17 Kona, Hawaii, at 1500 feet; i Olaa, Hawaii; i Wailuku, 
Maui ; from September to December. Tliese examples all belong to the American 
and Pacific form, often separated as a species under the name cingulata ; it is how- 
ever incapable of strict definition, and I regard it as a slight geographical form 
only. The species is practically cosmopolitan. 

(2) Sphinx celeus Hiib. 

Protoparce blackburni Butl. Ent. Mo. Mag. xvii. p. 6. 

I specimen, without locality label. Recorded by Mr Blackburn as occurring rarely 
near Honolulu, Oahu. The larva is described by Mr Blackburn, Ann. Mag. N. H. 
1 88 1, p. 319. Widely distributed in America. 

PAPILIONINA. 

NYMPHALIDAE. 

Anosia Hub. 

(i) Anosia ei'ippus Cram. 

6 specimens ; 5 Makaweli, Kauai ; i Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet ; from 
February to April. Indigenous to America, but has spread within the last 30 years 
over the Pacific as far as Celebes, Australia, and New Zealand. 

Vanessa Fab. 

(i) Vanessa atalanta Linn. 

8 specimens ; 6 Olaa, Hawaii ; 2 Kona, Hawaii, at 4000 feet ; in June, August, 
September, and December. Occurs in Europe and North America. 

(2) Vanessa tammeamea Esch. 

Vanessa tammeamea Esch. Kotzeb. Reis. in. p. 207, pi. v. 8. 
Pyrantels cordelia Doubl. Hew. Gen. pi. xxv. 3. 
(Plate V. fig. 9.) 

65 specii-nens ; 40 Kilauea, Hawaii ; 4 Kona, Hawaii, at 3000 feet ; 2 Hilo, 
Hawaii ; i Olaa, Hawaii ; i Panoa, Oahu ; i Honolulu Mts., Oahu ; i Kaala Mts., 



194 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

Oahu, at 2000 feet ; 5 Molokai, at 2500 feet ; i Lanai ; i Haleakala, Maui, at 8000 
feet ; 2 Waimea Mts., Kauai, at 3000 — 4000 feet ; 2 Halemanu, Kauai, at 4000 feet ; 
I Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet ; 3 Makaweli, Kauai, at 2000 feet ; from January 
to October. The anterior spot in the black apical area of forewings is rosy in the 
male, white in the female. The colouring oi the undersurface of hindwings varies 
much ; in the male it is browner, sometimes much ferruginous-suffused, without white 
suffusion, but often with sharply defined white discal and costal spots, in the female 
it is often much whitish-suffused and with irregular whitish median fascia, but 
sometimes very uniform yellow-brownish throughout. The larva is described by 
Mr Blackburn, Ent. Mo. Mag. xix. p. 55. 

(3) Vanessa cardui Linn. 

12 specimens; 6 Halemanu, Kauai, bred; 5 Lanai, at sea level; i Kona, Hawaii, 
at 4000 feet; in February, May, and August. Mr Blackburn records it as occurring 
in various places in plenty, but apparently irregularly, between February and July (Ent. 
Mo. Mag. XVI. p. 161). Some Lanai specimens are very small, one having an expanse 
of only 48 mm. A cosmopolitan species. 

(4) Vanessa huntera Fab. 

10 specimens; 8 Kona, Hawaii, at 4000 feet; i Koele Mts., Lanai, at 2000 feet; 
I Haleakala, Maui, at 8000 feet ; in April, July, and August. Noted also by 
Mr Blackburn as a regular resident. Occurs in North America. 



LYCAENIDAE. 

Lycaena Fab. 

( I ) Lycaena bactica Linn. 

9 specimens; 7 Mauna Loa, Hawaii, at 1500 feet; i Waianae Mts., Oahu ; 
I Molokai ; in April. Also taken by Mr Blackburn, who has described the larva. 
Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1882, p. 31. Occurs in Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, and 
many Pacific islands. 

(2) Lycaena blackburni Tuely. 

Holochila blackbnrni Tuely Ent. Mo. Mag. xv. p. 9. 
(Plate V. fig. 10.) 

70 specimens ; 7 Kona, Hawaii, at 3000 — 4000 feet ; 5 Kilauea, Hawaii; i Panoa 
Valley, Oahu, at 1500 feet; 3 Waianae Mts., Oahu, at 2000 feet; i Lanai, at 3000 



I 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 195 

feet; 16 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet; 36 Halemanu, Kauai, at 4000 feet; 
I Makaweli, Kauai, at 2000 feet ; from February to May, and in August and September.' 
The larva is described by Mr Blackburn, Ent. Mo. Mag. xix. 56. Although differing 
from all other species of the genus in its light bluish-green unspotted undersurface, this 
insect is structurally a true Lycaena, belonging to the group of ai'giolus. 



PYRALIDINA. 
PHYCITIDAE. 

Genophantis Meyr. 

Antennae in ^ rather stout, flatly subdentate, shortly ciliated, above base with 
a very slight sinuation roughened with scales on inner side; remaining characters 
as in ?. 

Described originally from the female, and amongst the 24 specimens now sent 
there were only two males ; the characters of this sex. as anticipated, confirm the 
relationship with Crocydopora. 

(i) Genophantis iodora Meyr. 
Genophantis iodora Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 246. 

i%- 17 — 27 mm. Forewings pale ochreous or greyish-ochreous, variably more 
or less mixed with ferruginous or reddish-fuscous, sometimes much mixed with blackish ; 
in dark-suffused specimens often a pale costal streak, and sometimes an interrupted 
broader light dorsal streak, often reduced to a pale dorsal blotch beyond first line ; 
first line pale, dark-edged, angulated in middle, on dorsum usually preceded by a 
small triangular dark spot ; discal spot usually forming two transversely placed dark 
fuscous dots, sometimes obsolete ; second line pale, sufifusedly dark-edged, nearly 
straight, parallel to termen, slightly indented above middle. Hindwings pale grey ; a 
suffused darker terminal line. (Plate V. fig. 11.) 

24 specimens; 17 Waimea Mts., Kauai, at 4000 feet; 2 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 
4000 feet ; 2 Molokai, at 4000 feet ; i Olaa, Hawaii ; i Waianae Mts., Oahu, at 2000 
feet ; i Honolulu Mts., Oahu ; from April to June, and in September and October. I 
have redescribed the species, as it varies very considerably in colouring, and was 
originally described from a single specimen. 

Plodia Guen. 

(i) Plodia interpimctella Hub. 
Recorded by Mr Blackburn ; as mentioned under Ephcstia Jiculella. 
M. F. H. 26 



196 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

Ephestia Guen. 
(i) Ephestia elutella Hub. 

(2) Ephestia ficulella Barr. (? desuetella Walk.). 

Of these three species no specimens were included ; their previous occurrence 
is recorded in Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 244; they are of course domestic and 
artificially introduced, being now probably cosmopolitan. 

Ephestiodes Rag. 

The separation of this genus from Ephestia is perhaps unnecessary, but may 
pass for the present. 

( 1 ) Ephestiodes gilvescentella Rag. 

Ephestiodes gilvescentella Rag. Diagn. N. Amer. Phyc. p. 16. E. infimella ib. 
p. 16. E. erytJirella ib. p. 16. 

^%. II — 14 mm. Head and thorax grey. Palpi dark grey, sometimes whitish- 
sprinkled, terminal joint very obtuse. Abdomen grey, apex whitish-ochreous. Fore- 
wings elongate, narrow, somewhat dilated posteriorly, termen very obliquely rounded ; 
grey, irrorated with whitish and irregularly sprinkled with black, more or less suffused 
with a pale reddish tinge ; lines cloudy, whitish, darker-edged internally, first slightly 
curved, oblique, second almost straight ; two transversely placed dark fuscous discal 
dots, sometimes nearly obsolete ; cilia grey, irrorated with whitish. Hindwings pale 
grey, semitransparent ; veins and a suffused terminal line dark grey ; in ^ two very 
small pale ochreous-yellowish subbasal tufts, upper appressed, lower erect. 

4 specimens, Molokai, in May. Occurs in North America. I have seen Ragonot's 
types, which seem to me all to belong to the same species. 

HOMOEOSOMA Curt. 

Forewings with veins 4 and 5 stalked {2) ajnphihola. 

)) „ coincident (7) hiimeralis. 

(i) Homoeosoma humeralis Butl. 

Ephestia humeralis Butl. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) vii. 1881, p. 332. E. albosparsa 

ib. p. m- 
Homoeosoma humeralis Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 244. 
t%- 12 — 19 mm. Forewings very narrow, posteriorly somewhat dilated; vein 5 



J 



MA CROLEPID OP TERA 1 9 7 

absent : fuscous or dark fuscous, suffusedly irrorated with white, especially towards 
costa anteriorly ; first line straight, whitish, edged posteriorly by a streak of dark 
suffusion ; sometimes a faint darker discal dot ; second line whitish, obscurely dark- 
edged, very faint or usually wholly obsolete. Hindwings pale grey ; veins and terminal 
line dark grey. 

21 specimens; 8 Kona, Hawaii, from 1500 to 4000 feet; 5 Olaa, Hawaii; 5 
Molokai, from 3000 to 3500 feet ; 2 Waianae Mts., Oahu, at 2000 feet ; i Waimea Mts., 
Kauai, at 4000 feet ; from April to June, and in August and September. Also 
5 specimens received from Mr Blackburn, from Oahu and Hawaii. 

(2) Homoeosotna mnphibola, sp. no v. 

$^. 16 — 22 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax fuscous, irrorated with white. Fore- 
wings very narrow, posteriorly somewhat dilated ; veins 4 and 5 stalked ; fuscous or 
dark fuscous, irrorated with white ; first line almost straight, whitish, edged posteriorly 
by a dark fuscous fascia ; a well-defined dark fuscous discal spot ; second line almost 
straight, whitish, dark-edged, always distinct ; cilia fuscous, irrorated with whitish. 
Hindwings pale grey; veins and terminal line dark grey. (Plate V. fig. 12.) 

33 specimens; 25 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet; 8 Waimea Mts., Kauai, at 
4000 feet ; from April to June. Exceedingly similar to the preceding, but constantly 
distinguished by the neuration, and also by the well-marked second line of forewings. 
It also closely approaches the Australian H. vagella, but may be separated by the 
nearly straight first line, which in that species is angulated. 

GALLERIADAE. 

Meliphora Guen. 
(i) Meliphora grisella Fab. 

1 specimen, Kona, Hawaii, at 1400 feet, in September. Also taken by 
Mr Blackburn. Occurs in Europe, N. America, and Australia. 

CRAMBIDAE. 

EucHROMius Guen. 

(i) Euchroniius ocelletis Haw. {bella Butl., non Hub.). 

2 specimens; i Makaweli, Kauai, at sea-level; i Molokai; in May. Also 
previously recorded. Native in S. Europe, but now occurs in America and Australia 

also. 

26 — 2 



198 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

Prionopteryx Steph. 

(i) Prionopteryx exonoma, sp. nov. 

$. 12 mm. Head and thorax brown. Forewings elongate, termen with a deep 
upwards-oblique semioval excavation below middle ; 4 absent, 7 absent, 9 absent, 
1 1 free ; brown, slightly coppery-tinged ; first and second lines fine, white, blackish- 
edged, first preceded towards costa by broader blackish suffusion, acutely angulated 
outwards above middle and inwards towards dorsum, between these irregular, second 
obtusely angulated outwards above middle and inwards towards dorsum ; a median 
blackish shade on costal half parallel to these ; a very small white wedgeshaped mark 
on costa before apex ; four undefined dashes of blackish suffusion towards termen ; 
cilia fuscous, with a black line interrupted on excavation, and a white basal mark 
at apex. Hindwings with vein 4 absent ; dark grey, suffused with blackish-fuscous 
towards termen, slightly purplish-tinged ; cilia grey, with blackish subbasal line, 
tips whitish. (Plate V. fig. 13.) 

I specimen, Waianae Mts., Oahu, at 2000 feet, in April. Distinct by the small 
size and peculiar neuration (which varies specifically in this genus) ; in the latter 
character it approaches nearest the Australian P. apicistrigella, to which, however, 
in other respects it is but little allied. 

Talis Guen. 

1. First line distinct, subsinuate (6)floricolatis. 

„ angulated near costa or obsolete 2. 

2. Forewings very elongate (Kauai species) {i) geraka. 

„ shorter 3. 

3. Forewings grey (5) hyacinthina. 

,, ochreous or brownish 4. 

4. Forewings with dark tornal spot in cilia (^ oxyptera. 

„ without such spot 5. 

5. Lines more or less distinct (j) hydrophila. 

,, absent (2) homodora. 

(i) Talis geralea, sp. nov. 

Z%- 12 — 17 mm. Palpi 5. Forewings very elongate-triangular, narrower than 
in the other native species, apex in J* obtuse, in ? round-pointed, termen straight, 
oblique, in $ very oblique ; brownish-ochreous or light fuscous, more or less whitish- 
sprinkled, in % sometimes much suffused with white ; a very few scattered black scales ; 
two dark fuscous discal dots transversely placed, sometimes faint ; second line darker, 



MA CROLEPIDOP TERA 1 99 

usually faint or absent, sometimes marked with some black scales, curved, indented 
near dorsum ; an indistinct interrupted dark terminal line. Hindwino-s fuscous 
(Plate V. fig. 14.) "^ ■ 

7 specimens; 3 Waimea Mts., Kauai, at 4000 feet; 4 Makaweli, Kauai, sea- 
level ; in May and June. Differs from all the rest by the more elongate forewings ; the 
whitish irroration and indistinct or absent second line are also characteristic. 

(2) Talis homodora, sp. nov. 

t. 12 — 14 mm. Palpi 5. Forewings elongate-triangular, apex round-pointed, 
termen straight, oblique; whitish-ochreous or pale brownish-ochreous, irrorated with 
fuscous ; a few scattered black scales ; two blackish discal dots transversely placed ; 
second line absent; an indistinct interrupted darker terminal line. Hindwings fuscous. 

8 specimens, Waianae Mts., Oahu, at 3000 feet, in April. Characterised by the 
uniform colouring, and entire absence of lines. 

(3) Talis liydrophila Buder. 

Scotomera hydj-ophila Bull. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1882, p. 36. 
Hednota hydi'ophila Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 242. 

Z%- II — 14 nim. Palpi 4. Forewings elongate-triangular, apex obtuse, termen 
straight, oblique ; brownish-ochreous, irrorated with dark brown ; first and second 
lines dark brown, sometimes indistinct, first angulated outwards above middle and 
inwards below middle, second rather strongly curved, indented near dorsum ; two 
dark fuscous or blackish discal dots transversely placed ; a terminal series of dark 
fuscous or blackish dots. Hindwings fuscous or dark fuscous. 

13 specimens ; 7 Kona, Hawaii, at 4000 feet ; 6 Molokai, from 3000 to 3500 feet ; 
from May to July. According to Mr Blackburn also from Oahu, but perhaps by 
confusion with others. Distinguished by the dark brownish colouring, and peculiar 
form of the first line. 



(4) Talis oxyptera Meyr. 

Hednota oxyptera Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 243. 

Only one specimen sent, a ? of 1 1 mm., from Waianae Mts., Oahu, "on plains," in 
April. My examples were from Honolulu, Oahu, where I found it common in dry 
grassy places in August. Especially characterised by the ochreous colouring and 
distinct darker ochreous lines (first curved outwards on upper f , second moderately 
curved), and particularly by the dark tornal spot in cilia of forewings. 



200 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

(5) Talis hyacinthina, sp. nov. 

^$. 13 — 16 mm. Palpi 4. Forewings elongate-triangular, apex obtuse, termen 
nearly straight, oblique ; grey, more or less irrorated with white and dark grey, 
sometimes mixed with yellow towards base ; a few scattered black scales ; first and 
second lines usually more or less ochreous-yellow, first angulated near costa, sometimes 
obsolete, second marked with black scales, gently curved, sinuate inwards towards 
dorsum ; two black discal dots transversely placed ; an interrupted blackish terminal 
line. Hindwings grey or dark grey. (Plate V. fig. 15.) 

8 specimens, Kona, Hawaii, from 4000 to 8000 feet, from June to August. 
Always separable from its nearest allies by the grey colouring ; the yellow lines 
are very characteristic when present, but are not always well-developed. 

(6) Talis floricolans Butler. 

Gesneria floricolens Butl. Ent. Mo. Mag. xix. p. 180. 

Hednota floricolans Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 242. 

This is the most distinct species of the group, recognisable by the shorter palpi, 
forewings whitish mixed with fuscous, first line very distinct, only slightly sinuate, 
brown mixed with black, preceded by whitish suffusion, second distinct, ochreous more 
or less mixed with brown and black, strongly curved on upper f . (Plate V. fig. 16.) 

12 specimens; 8 Molokai ; 3 Waianae Mts., Oahu, "on plains"; i Waialua, 
Oahu, sea-level ; from March to May. According to Mr Blackburn also from Lanai. 
In this species (as in the others) veins 4 and 5 of the hindwings are normally 
approximated at base, the stalking recorded by me being exceptional. 

PYRAUSTIDAE. 

Nymphula Schranck. 

(1) Nymphula fluctuosalis Zell. {linealis Guen.). 

Oligostigma curta Butl. Ent. Mo. Mag. xv. p. 270. 

14 specimens; 13 Wailuku, Maui; i Waialua, Oahu; in October and November. 
Occurs also in Asia, Africa, and Australia. 

Margaronia Hub. 

(i) Margaronia exaula Meyr. 

Margarodes exaula Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 213. 
Margaronia glauculalis Bud. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) vii. 188 1, p. 327 (non 
Guen.). 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 201 

i%. 40 — 51 mm. Description maybe supplemented as follows: Maxillary palpi 
orange, tips white ; forewings with orange costal streak variable in breadth basally, and 
sometimes extended finely to apex ; cilia pale orange, sometimes greyish-tinged, base 
white. 

5 specimens ; 3 Molokai, at 3000 feet ; i Lahaina, Maui ; i unlabelled ; in 
June. Also recorded by Mr Blackburn from Honolulu, Oahu. The species is at 
once distinguished from M. nereis Meyr. by the entire absence of orange marking 
on face, and from M. glauculalis Guen. {fnarthesmsalis Walk.) by the pale orange 
cilia. 



(2) Margaronia cyanomichla, sp. nov. 

t%. 26 — 28 mm. Head and thorax fuscous, sometimes whitish-mixed. Palpi 
dark fuscous, lower half white. Forewings light fuscous or whitish, more or less tinged 
or wholly suffused with bright bluish-purple, sometimes forming whitish blotches on 
costal half between fasciae ; five dull orange fasciae (in ^ much suffused with whitish), 
edged with dark fuscous, first two rather oblique, third median, including a dark fuscous 
transverse mark above middle, connected with fourth by a slender downward-oblique 
bar below middle, fourth gently curved, obsolete on dorsum, fifth broader, terminal ; a 
dark fuscous dot below costa between second and third ; cilia fuscous-whitish, with a 
dark fuscous subbasal line. Hindwings with groundcolour and fourth and fifth fasciae 
as in forewings, but fourth fascia almost straight, fifth narrowed to a point at tornus ; a 
dark fuscous discal mark, beneath which is sometimes a small orange spot ; cilia as in 
forewings. (Plate V. fig. 17.) 

5 specimens ; 2 Waimea Mts., Kauai, at 4000 feet ; 2 Kaholuamano, Kauai ; 
I Molokai Mts. ; from April to August. The only male is the Molokai specimen, and is 
in very poor condition ; its more whitish colouring may possibly be rather individual 
than sexual. 



Omiodes Guen. 

1. Forewings with veins marked by pale lines 2- 

„ „ not marked by pale lines 5- 

2. Second line with acute projection outwards {i) blackburm. 

„ without acute projection outwards 3- 

3. First line indicated by dark shade 4- 

by dark dots only (7) telcgrapha. 

4. Second line very obtusely angulated below middle (j) epicentra. 

not angulated (<?) a^^cepta. 

5. Forewings ochreous or ferruginous 6. 

fuscous 7- 



202 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

6. Orbicular and discal spots well-marked (ii) demamta/is. 

J, „ absent {id) ?9ionogramtna. 

7. Hindwings with postmedian line angulated or bent in middle 8. 

„ ,, almost straight 10. 

8. Median band of forewings darker 9. 

„ „ not darker {13) localis. 

9. Forewings with second line obsolete (j) asaphombra. 

„ ,, sharply marked {2) euryprora. 

10. Postmedian line of hindwings white 11. 

„ ,, not white 12. 

11. Second line of forewings projecting inwards below middle {12) monogona. 

„ ,, without projection (g) co>itinuatalis. 

12. First line followed by rectangularly bent blackish streak {6) anastrepta. 

„ not so followed (4) iridias. 

, (i) Oiniodes blackburni Butl. 

Botys blackbiwni Butl. Ent. Mo. Mag. xiv. p. 48. 

Omiodes blackbtirni yieyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 214. 

^$. 30 — 37 mm. Sufficiently described by me (1. c.) ; but in one female from 
Lanai the groundcolour of both wings is mostly suffused with rather dark fuscous. 

17 specimens; 7 Olaa, Hawaii, at 2000 feet; 5 Lahaina, Maui, on coast; 
I Honolulu, Oahu ; 2 Lanai, at 3000 feet ; i Makaweli, Kauai, on coast ; i Waimea 
Mts., Kauai, at 4000 feet ; in June, July, and November. Bred from larvae feeding 
on the banana (Afusa), to which it is very destructive. 

(2) Omiodes euryprora, sp. nov. 

,??. 31 — 33 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen fuscous. Palpi dark fuscous, 
lower half white. Legs dark fuscous, tarsi white. Forewings long, apex subacute, 
termen rather strongly sinuate ; fuscous, purplish-tinged, irregularly sprinkled with 
whitish ; a sharply-defined blackish-fuscous very broad median band, not reaching 
costa, anteriorly edged by lower portion of faintly marked angulated first line, anterior 
half of upper edge excavated, with a blackish orbicular dot in middle of excavation, 
posterior edge margined by whitish second line, forming a strong obtuse prominence in 
middle ; a terminal series of blackish-fuscous dots. Hindwings fuscous, darker 
posteriorly ; an obscure paler postmedian line, angulated in middle. (Plate V. fig. 18.) 

3 specimens ; 2 Olaa, Hawaii, at 2000 feet, in June and November ; i Hilo, 
Hawaii, at 2000 feet, in January. 

(3) Omiodes asaphonibra, sp. nov. 

t. 35 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen fuscous. Palpi fuscous, lower half white. 
Forewings long, termen slightly sinuate ; fuscous, somewhat mixed with whitish and 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 203 

darker ; a very broad dark fuscous median band mixed with ferruginous, not reaching 
costa, anterior edge straight, anterior half of upper edge excavated, with a dark fuscous 
orbicular dot in excavation before middle, posterior edge wholly suffused and undefined; 
a terminal series of dark fuscous dots. Hindwings rather dark fuscous ; a slightly paler 
postmedian shade, darker-edged, obtusely angulated in middle. 

I specimen, Waimea Mts., Kauai, at 4000 feet, in May. 



(4) Oiniodes iridias, sp. nov. 

^%. 27 — 28 mm. Head and thorax dark fuscous, with white line above eyes. 
Palpi dark fuscous, lower half white. Forewings rather long, termen slighdy sinuate 
beneath apex ; dark fuscous, irrorated with dull purplish ; lin'es obscurely paler, first 
obtusely angulated above middle, obsolete on costa, second very obtusely angulated 
below middle, straight or slightly curved on upper portion, sinuate inwards below 
angulation ; enclosed median band in ^ hardly darker, somewhat ferruginous-mixed on 
dorsal half, in % blackish except towards costa, upper edge excavated on anterior half, 
with a blackish orbicular dot in excavation before middle ; a terminal series of dark 
fuscous or blackish dots : cilia fuscous, with darker subbasal line. Hindwings rather 
dark fuscous ; an obscurely paler slightly sinuate postmedian line, anteriorly darker- 
edged ; cilia as in forewings. (Plate V. fig. 19.) 

2 specimens, Kilauea, Hawaii, in August. 



(5) Omiodes epicentra, sp. nov. 

^%. 25 — ^26 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen whitish-ochreous mixed with 
brownish, segmental margins narrowly whitish, anal tuft mixed with dark fuscous. 
Palpi dark fuscous, lower half white. Forewings moderate, termen bowed ; pale 
ochreous, irregularly mixed with whitish and sprinkled with dark fuscous ; veins 
indistinctly whitish ; first line dark fuscous, very acutely angulated in middle, upper 
portion indistinct, lower strongly marked and followed by a brownish-ochreous 
suffusion ; a blackish orbicular dot ; two dark fuscous discal dots transversely placed, 
followed by an oblique brownish-ochreous suffusion; second line whitish, edged with 
dark fuscous, with very slight and obtuse angulation below middle ; a terminal 
series of blackish triangular dots. Hindwings grey, darker-sprinkled ; a blackish discal 
dot; a straight whitish postmedian line, edged anteriorly with dark fuscous, and 
posteriorly by a cloudy dark fuscous suffusion ; an interrupted blackish terminal line. 

3 specimens, Waialua, Oahu, on plains, in March. 
M. F. H. ^7 



204 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

(6) Omiodes aiiastrepta, sp. nov. 

%. 28 — 29 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen fuscous. Palpi dark fuscous, lower 
half white. Forewings moderate, termen faintly sinuate beneath apex ; rather dark 
fuscous, more or less whitish-sprinkled ; first line whitish, angulated above middle, 
nearly or quite obsolete above angulation, lower portion margined posteriorly by a thick 
blackish-fuscous streak which is nearly rectangularly bent and continued beneath 
median vein to discal mark, this angle sometimes filled with dark suffusion ; a small 
black orbicular dot ; a transverse blackish discal mark ; second line whitish, slightly 
sinuate beneath costa, edged posteriorly by a suffused dark fuscous band, and some- 
times anteriorly by a series of dark fuscous dots ; a terminal series of blackish dots. 
Hindwings rather dark grey ; a paler slightly sinuate postmedian line, edged 
anteriorly with dark grey dots, and posteriorly by a band of dark grey suffusion ; a 
terminal series of blackish dots. 

2 specimens ; i Kona, Hawaii, at 4000 feet, in September ; i Molokai Mts. 
(forest above Pelekuna), in August. 

(7) Omiodes telegrapha, sp. nov. 

Z. 40 mm. Head and thorax ochreous-yellowish. Palpi yellow-brownish, lower 
half whitish. Forewings long, termen sinuate beneath subacute apex ; light ochreous- 
yellowish, slightly blackish-sprinkled, veins partially white ; first line very acutely 
angulated above middle, only indicated by several blackish dots between veins ; second 
line cloudy, blackish, interrupted by veins, almost straight ; an almost terminal series of 
blackish dots, preceded by white dashes. Hindwings grey, veins whitish ; a dark grey 
discal dot ; a straight whitish postmedian line, edged anteriorly narrowly, and posteriorly 
more broadly with dark grey suffusion ; a terminal series of black dots preceded by 
white dashes. (Plate V. fig. 20.) 

I specimen, Olaa, Hawaii, in September. 

(8) Omiodes accepta Butl. 

Botys accepta Butl. Ent. Mo. Mag. xiv. p. 49. 

Omiodes accepta Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 214. 

Z%. 22 — 33 mm. Sufficiently described by me (1. c). 

16 specimens ; 6 Hilo, Hawaii, at 2000 feet ; 4 Kona, Hawaii, from 1500 to 4000 
feet ; i Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet ; i Molokai, at 3000 feet ; 3 Kaholuamano, 
Kauai, at 4000 feet ; i Waimea Mts., Kauai, at 4000 feet ; in December and January, 
and from April to September. 



\ 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 205 



(9) Omiodes contimiatalis Wall. 

Salbia contimiatalis Wall. Wien. Ent. Mon. i860, p. 175. 

Botys contimiatalis Butl. Ent. Mo. Mag. xv. p. 270. 

Ofniodes continiiatalis Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 215. 

t%. 26 — 32 mm. Sufficiently described by me (1. c). 

30 specimens ; 4 Kona, Hawaii, from 2000 to 4000 feet ; 12 Waianae Mts., Oahu ; 
3 Waialua, Oahu, on coast ; 6 Lanai, from 2000 to 3000 feet ; i Molokai Mts. ; 
3 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet; i Waimea Mts., Kauai, at 4000 feet; from 
February to June, and in September. 



(10) Omiodes monogramnia, sp. nov. 

<?• 25 — 29 mm. Head and palpi deep ferruginous, lower half of palpi white. 
Thorax ferruginous, posteriorly paler and mixed with whitish-ochreous. Abdomen 
ferruginous-ochreous, segmental margins usually finely white. Forewings moderate, 
termen gently bowed ; ferruginous ; costa suffused with dark fuscous from base to 
f ; second line about f , almost straight, white, obsolete on costa, posteriorly edged 
with fuscous suffusion ; a dark fuscous terminal line : cilia grey, with darker sub- 
basal line. Hindwings fuscous, usually suffused with dull ochreous towards dorsum ; a 
white postmedian line, obtusely angulated near tornus, posteriorly edged with dark 
fuscous suffusion, beyond which the terminal area is wholly ferruginous-ochreous ; a 
dark fuscous terminal line ; cilia whitish, with dark grey subbasal line. (Plate V. fig. 21.) 

5 specimens ; 2 Waianae Mts., Oahu ; 3 Waimea Mts., Kauai, at 4000 feet ; 
from April to June. Allied to O. demaratalis, but differs by the larger size, ferru- 
ginous colouring, absence of orbicular and discal dots, second line of forewings 
placed nearer termen, and postmedian line of hindwings obtusely angulated and 
followed by dark fuscous suffusion. 



(11) Omiodes demaratalis Walk. 

Botys dejjiaratalis Walk. Cat. xix. p. 1009. 

Omiodes demaratalis Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 216. 

Sufficiently described. 

22 specimens; 13 Waianae Mts., Oahu; 8 Waimea Mts., Kauai, at 4000 feet; 
I Kona, Hawaii, at 2000 feet ; from April to June and in September. Also 
recorded from Honolulu, Oahu, where I took it in August. 



2o6 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

(12) Omiodes monogona Meyr. 

Omiodes monogona Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 216. O. liodyta, ib. 
217. 

^%. 17 — 28 mm. The second line of forewings varies in form to some extent, 
covering both descriptions, and also in breadth, being sometimes thick and suffused 
posteriorly. The types from which my two descriptions were drawn are now seen to 
belong certainly to the same species ; however the two examples of O. liodyta remain 
peculiar in respect of size, as none of Mr Perkins' specimens are below 22 mm. 

21 specimens; 4 Olaa, Hawaii; 2 Kona, Hawaii, at 4000 feet; 2 Waianae 
Mts., Oahu, at 1700 feet; 12 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet; i Waimea Mts., 
Kauai, at 4000 feet ; in April, from June to August, and in December. 



(13) Omiodes localis Butl. 

Botys localis Butl. Ent. Mo. Mag. xv. p. 271. 

Omiodes localis Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 217. 

Sufficiently described by me (1. c). 

35 specimens; 12 Kona, Hawaii, from 2000 to 4000 feet; 7 Waianae Mts., 
Oahu, from 1 700 to 3000 feet ; i Molokai, at 3000 feet ; 2 Lanai, at 2000 feet ; 
2 Waimea Mts., Kauai, at 4000 feet ; 1 1 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet ; from 
February to September. 

Hymenia Hub. 

(i) Hymenia recurvalis Fab. [fascialis Cram.). 

20 specimens; 7 Kona, Hawaii, at 1500 feet; i Olaa, Hawaii; 10 Waialua, 
Oahu, on plains; 2 Honolulu, Oahu; from March to June. Occurs in Asia, Africa, 
and Australia. 

Phlyctaenia Hub. 

1. Forewings with second line almost straight {24) heterodoxa. 

,, „ more or less broken 2. 

2. Groundcolour of median band white {11) eucretia. 

,, ,, not white 3. 

3. Forewings with sharply marked white spots 4. 

„ sometimes partly whitish-suffused, but without sharp white 

spots 5 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 207 

4. Forewings with white or yellowish discal spot beyond white median 

spot r 

without such discal spot ■. (i) caUiastra. 

5. Cilia sharply barred with whitish (j) synasfra. 

„ not or indistinctly whitish-dotted {2) hyacinthias. 

6. Forewings suffused with shining brassy-yellowish {4) chalcophanes. 

„ not brassy-yellowish ^. 

7. Hindwings whitish, without grey suffusion 8, 

,, terminally or wholly grey 10. 

S. Palpi 3i— 4 {23) pyratithes. 

.. 2i— 3 9. 

9. Forewings with costa posteriorly dotted with dark fuscous {20) liopis. 

„ „ not dotted with dark fuscous {22) rhodias. 

10. First line whitish or ochreous, nearly straight, partly or wholly double 11. 

„ more or less bent, seldom whitish 13. 

11. Forewings with ferruginous-orange costal streak throughout {g) iocrossa. 

„ without such streak 12. 

12. Forewings with reddish-ochreous costal patch beyond second line (/o) 7nicacea. 

,, without such patch {8) nigrescens. 

13. Forewings with dark fuscous subcostal spot beyond second line {ij) metasema. 

„ without such spot 14. 

14. Groundcolour suffused with ferruginous 15. 

,, not ferruginous 17. 

15. Forewings with discal spot white {^14) ommatias. 

,, „ not white 16. 

16. Orbicular and discal spots separated by yellow or orange spot {21) cndopyra. 

,, ,, not separated by yellow spot {ig) despeda. 

17. Forewings with pale or whitish suffusion beyond discal spot 18. 

„ without such suffusion 20. 

18. First line indicated by broad pale fascia, narrowed costally (j) monticolans. 

„ not so formed 19. 

19. Forewings anteriorly with costal f dark, dorsal ^ pale (6) ephippias. 

„ with these areas not contrasted {12) platyleuca. 

20. Groundcolour uniformly dark 21- 

„ much mixed with pale {5) chytropa. 

21. First line very thick, strongly marked {16) pachygramma. 

,, not very thick 22. 

22. Second line more or less whitish-edged posteriorly 23. 

not whitish-edged {18) argoscelis. 

23. Palpi whitish towards base beneath {is) caminopis. 

„ wholly dark fuscous {17) ennychioides. 

(i) Phlydaenia calliastra, sp. nov. 

$%. 20—23 mm. Head dark fuscous, with white lateral line. Palpi 2, dark 
fuscous, basal and second joints white beneath except at apex, more or less yellow- 
suffused. Thorax dark fuscous, two sometimes connected spots behind collar, a mark 
on posterior margin, and sometimes a spot in middle of collar yellowish, and a spot on 
each side of back white. Abdomen dark fuscous, segmental margins white in middle of 



2o8 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

back and on sides. Legs dark fuscous, ringed and banded with white, posterior tibiae 
banded with yellowish. Forewings dark fuscous, sometimes with some yellowish scales 
beneath costa ; markings snow-white ; a basal median dot, another beyond it, a straight 
series of three small spots representing first line, two dots beyond this near costa and 
dorsum, a subquadrate spot in middle of disc, and two dots transversely placed beyond 
this ; second line represented by two connected spots beneath costa, a series of two or 
three dots below middle nearer termen, and a series of three small subconfluent spots on 
dorsal third nearer base ; a series of quadrate dots along termen and posterior half of 
costa ; cilia dark fuscous, apical half spotted with white. Hindwings dark fuscous ; 
apical half of cilia spotted with whitish. 

8 specimens ; 4 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet ; 4 Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 
4000 feet ; from April to June. 

(2) PJdyctaenia hyacinthias, sp. nov. 

^%. 24 — 27 mm. Head blackish, with a white lateral line, back of crown some- 
times ochreous-yellow. Palpi 2^1:, basal and second joints ochreous-yellow beneath 
except at apex. Thorax blackish, with an ochreous-yellow spot on shoulder, two 
ochreous-yellow spots behind collar and one in middle of back sometimes confluent, a 
white spot on each side of back, and white posterior mark. Abdomen blackish, sides 
yellowish-mixed, segmental margins white. Legs blackish, tarsi ringed with white, 
middle and posterior tibiae broadly banded with yellowish. Forewings dark fuscous ; 
a subbasal transverse series of four dots, second white, rest ochreous-yellow ; an 
ochreous-yellow dorsal spot before first line ; first line ochreous-yellow, interrupted near 
costa by a group of three white dots, angulated inwards on lower half, followed by a 
spot of white and yellow scales opposite angulation ; sometimes a streak of ochreous- 
yellow scales strewn beneath costa from first to second line ; dot-like orbicular and 
oval discal spot ochreous-yellow ; a transverse white spot between these, sometimes 
divided into two, and two white dots transversely placed beyond discal ; second line 
represented by two connected white marks beneath costa, a series of two or three 
dots below middle nearer termen, and a series of three connected marks on dorsal 
third nearer base ; sometimes a subterminal streak of ochreous-yellow scales ; five 
white dots on posterior half of costa, yellowish beneath ; a terminal series of white 
dots, sometimes almost obsolete ; cilia dark fuscous, sometimes with indistinct 
whitish dots on apical half. Hindwings dark fuscous ; two obliquely placed darker 
discal dots ; cilia as in forewings. (Plate V. fig. 22.) 

12 specimens, Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet, from March to May. 

(3) Phlyctaenia synastra, sp. nov. 
■??• 15 — 21 mm. Head dark fuscous, with a white lateral line, back of crown 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 209 

sometimes ochreous-yellow. Palpi 2, black, basal and second joints white beneath 
except at apex. Thorax dark fuscous, with two ochreous-yellow spots behind collar 
and sometimes one in middle of back, sometimes confluent, a white spot on each side of 
back, and white posterior mark. Abdomen dark fuscous, sides yellowish-mixed, 
segmental margins white. Legs blackish, tarsi ringed with white, middle tibiae variably 
or hardly pale-banded or with terminal half white, posterior tibiae broadly banded with 
whitish-yellowish. Forewings dark fuscous, sometimes variably strewn with whitish 
and yellowish scales ; a subbasal transverse series of three dots, second white, others 
yellowish ; first line white, sometimes partly yellowish-tinged, irregular, interrupted 
above middle, dilated in middle, sinuate inwards on lower half, followed by two white 
dots above middle and one (sometimes yellow) below middle ; dot-like orbicular and 
oval discal spot yellow or whitish ; a narrow transverse white spot between these, 
seldom reduced to several dots, and two white dots transversely placed beyond discal ; 
second line white, somewhat indented near costa, broken inwards below middle, usually 
interrupted to form three separate groups of subconfluent spots ; sometimes a sub- 
terminal streak of pale yellowish scales ; five white or yellowish dots on posterior half 
of costa ; a terminal series of white dots ; cilia dark fuscous, apical half spotted with 
whitish. Hindwings fuscous or dark fuscous, disc in Z sometimes suffused with whitish ; 
two obliquely placed darker discal dots ; an indistinct pale waved postmedian line ; cilia 
fuscous, apical half more or less whitish. 

15 specimens ; 12 Olaa, Hawaii; 2 Kona, Hawaii, at 2000 — 4000 feet ; i Waianae 
Mts., Oahu, at 2000 feet; in April, June, July, September, and November. 



(4) Phlyctaenia clialcophanes, sp. nov. 

Z%. 21 — 24 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax pale ochreous-yellow sprinkled with 
black, back of crown deeper ochreous-yellow, palpi 2\. Abdomen black mixed with 
pale yellow, segmental margins white. Legs black ringed with pale yellowish, posterior 
tibiae suffused with whitish-yellowish. Forewings blackish, mixed with ochreous- 
yellow ; markings shining whitish-yellow, with prismatic reflections ; basal and subbasal 
spots, sometimes confluent and enlarged ; first line slender, irregular, followed by a 
partially confluent fascia, not reaching costa ; an oval blackish spot containing a pale 
mark representing orbicular, separated by a transverse spot connected beneath with 
preceding fascia from a subquadrate blackish discal spot containing two pale dots ; 
second line waved, sharply indented beneath costa, middle third curved outwards, 
preceded by a suffused fascia confluent above and below middle ; subterminal line 
slender, sharply dentate, teeth touching termen, limiting a series of triangular black 
terminal spots ; cilia fuscous, on apical half suffusedly spotted with whitish-yellowish. 



2IO 



FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 



Hindwings rather dark fuscous ; two obliquely placed darker discal dots ; cilia as 
in forewings. (Plate V. fig. 23.) 

22 specimens; 20 Olaa, Hawaii, at 2000 feet; 2 Hilo, Hawaii, at 2000 feet; in 
January, September, and November. 

(5) Phlyctaenia chyti'Opa, sp. nov. 

$. 18 — 21 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax whitish-ochreous irrorated with dark 
fuscous, palpi 2\. Abdomen dark grey, segmental margins ochreous-whitish. Legs 
dark fuscous, ringed with whitish, middle tibiae suffusedly banded with whitish or 
with terminal half wholly white, posterior tibiae mostly suffused with whitish. Fore- 
wings dark fuscous, irregularly and suffusedly mixed with whitish and whitish-ochreous ; 
a subbasal spot of dark suffusion ; first line irregular, obscurely pale, anteriorly 
suffused, posteriorly dark-edged ; quadrate orbicular and 8-shaped discal spot dark- 
suffused ; second line whitish, anteriorly black-edged, posteriorly partly edged with 
dark suffusion, middle third curved outwards ; subterminal line obscurely indicated 
by whitish suffusion ; three indistinct blackish spots before termen in middle ; a series of 
blackish spots along termen and posterior half of costa ; cilia fuscous, apical half spotted 
with whitish. Hindwings fuscous or rather dark fuscous, darker posteriorly; two 
obliquely placed darker discal dots ; cilia as in forewings. 

2 specimens ; i Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 feet ; i Waianae Mts., Oahu, at 
2000 feet ; in April and May. 

(6) Phlyctaenia ephippias, sp. nov. 

<J. 19 — 24 mm. Head and thorax light ochreous-yellowish irrorated with black, 
thorax with small white central spot. Palpi 2, blackish, sprinkled with pale yellowish. 
Abdomen dark grey. Legs blackish, ringed with white, posterior tibiae suffused with 
white. Forewings dull fuscous-purplish, densely irregularly irrorated with dark fuscous 
and light yellowish ; a darker blotch occupying costal f from base to end of discal spot, 
leaving dorsal fourth more yellowish ; an undefined white median basal dot ; first line 
dark fuscous, bent in middle, interrupted above middle and on costa ; round orbicular 
and 8-shaped discal spot outlined with dark fuscous, with a few white scales between 
them ; an undefined spot of whitish scales below discal spot ; space between discal spot 
and second line irregularly suffused with pale yellowish ; second line pale yellowish, 
anteriorly edged with dark fuscous, slightly waved, sinuate-curved outwards to near 
termen above tornus, indistinct in disc, rectangularly broken inwards to beneath discal 
spot, towards costa marked with a white dot ; a dark fuscous terminal line marked 
with white dots ; cilia light fuscous mixed with whitish, with a dark fuscous line, and 
obscurely spotted with dark fuscous. Hindwings fuscous ; two obliquely placed darker 
discal dots ; cilia as in forewings. (Plate V. fig. 24.) 

4 specimens, Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 feet, in May and June. 



MA CROLEPIDOPTERA 2 1 1 



(7) Phlydaenia monticolans Butl. 

Locastra monticolens Butl. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1882, p. 34. 

Scoptda monticolans Meyr. Op. id. 1888, p. 219. 

^?. 21—25 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax blackish, sprinkled with ferruginous 
or whitish ; thorax crested, with a spot on each side of back and a posterior spot 
whitish; palpi i^ — if. Abdomen dark fuscous, segmental margins whitish. Legs 
dark fuscous, ringed with white, posterior tibiae suffused with whitish. Forewings 
dark fuscous, variably mixed or irrorated with black, reddish-ochreous, and white, 
sometimes from subbasal to second line wholly suffused with reddish-ochreous or 
prismatic white ; a more or less developed straight black subbasal line or fascia ; 
first line thick, black, slightly curved, sometimes broadly interrupted below middle ; 
roundish orbicular and oblong-oval discal spot outlined with black (in one specimen 
almost obsolete) ; second line more or less whitish, anteriorly black-edged, waved, 
suddenly indented near costa, curved outwards to rather near termen, at f abruptly 
broken inwards to beneath discal spot ; a series of large semioval dark fuscous dots 
along termen and apical portion of costa, alternating with white dots, sometimes 
obsolete: cilia dark fuscous, apical half spotted with whitish. Hindwings rather 
dark fuscous, darker terminally ; two obliquely placed darker discal dots ; cilia as 
in forewings. 

17 specimens; 4 Olaa, Hawaii, at 2000 feet; i Panoa Valley, Oahu, at 1500 feet; 
10 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 400Q feet; 2 Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 feet; from 
March to June, and in November. Mr Blackburn's specimens were from near 
Honolulu, at 1500 feet. I have redescribed this species, as my former description 
did not cover the considerable range of variation now shown to exist. 



(8) Phlyctaenia nigrescetts Butl. 

Mecyna nigrescens Butl. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) vii. 1881, p. 328. 

Melanomecyna nigrescens id. Ent. Mo. Mag. xix. p. 179. 

Scapula nigrescens Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 220. 

^%. 14 — 18 mm. Head and thorax dark fuscous mixed with pale ochreous. 
Palpi 2 — 2:^, dark fuscous mixed with whitish. Abdomen dark fuscous, segmental 
margins white. Legs dark fuscous ringed with white, posterior tibiae suffused with 
whitish. Forewings fuscous, with coppery reflections, variably mixed with dark fuscous, 
whitish-ochreous, and whitish ; first line black, preceded by whitish suffusion, lower 
half strong and touching orbicular beneath, upper half reduced to an indistinct mark 
beneath costa ; roundish orbicular and 8-shaped discal spot black-outlined, space 

M. F. H. -8 



212 



FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 



between them often pale ; discal spot followed by a conspicuous white suffusion, 
variable in extent ; second line white, anteriorly black-edged, sinuate-curved to rather 
near tornus, at | abruptly broken inwards to beneath discal spot, near below which 
it emits a short black tooth inwards ; posterior half of costa spotted with blackish, 
alternating with two or more whitish-ochreous spots ; a terminal series of round 
blackish dots : cilia dark fuscous, apical half spotted with whitish. Hindwings rather 
dark fuscous, with darker terminal band ; two obliquely placed darker discal dots ; cilia 
dark fuscous, apical half whitish. 

20 specimens ; 4 Kona, Hawaii, from 1500 to 5000 feet; i Waianae Mts., Oahu, 
at 2000 feet; 3 Molokai, at 3000 feet; i Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet ; i Wailuku, 
Maui ; 10 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet ; from April to August. Also twenty 
specimens received from Mr Blackburn ; the original type-specimen was from 
Haleakala. 

(9) Phlyctaenia iocrossa, sp. nov. 

^. 20 — 25 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax dark fuscous, sometimes much mixed 
with ferruginous, thorax with more or less developed central yellowish spot and 
sometimes white posterior mark, palpi 2^. Abdomen dark fuscous, towards apex 
ferruginous-marked, segmental margins white. Legs dark fuscous, ringed with whitish, 
posterior tibiae whitish above. Forewings rather dark fuscous, slightly purplish-tinged ; 
a more or less defined streak of ferruginous-orange suffusion along costa from base 
to apex, posteriorly marked with four quadrate dark fuscous costal spots ; a white 
median subbasal dot; first line thick, straight, vertical, whitish-orange, beneath costal 
streak forming a quadrate white spot enclosing a dark fuscous dot or mark ; a whitish 
longitudinal dash before second line above middle, and a whitish dot above this ; 
sometimes some orange suffusion towards middle of dorsum ; second line slender, 
whitish-orange, anteriorly darker-edged, marked with white beneath costal streak, 
middle third curved outwards, indistinct or nearly obsolete ; sometimes a whitish 
suffusion between veins towards termen ; a terminal series of indistinct dark fuscous 
spots separated by pale or whitish dots : cilia dark fuscous. Hindwings rather dark 
fuscous ; two obliquely placed darker discal dots, and sometimes a faint second line ; 
cilia dark fuscous, apical half paler. (Plate V. fig. 25.) 

6 specimens; 4 Olaa, Hawaii, at 2000 feet; i Hilo, Hawaii, at 2000 feet; i 
Molokai, at 4000 feet ; in January, June, September, and November. 

(10) P lilyctaenia niicacea Butl. 

Aporodes micacea Butl. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) vii. 1881, p. 326. 
Scopula micacea Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 220. 

t%- 18 — 22 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax dark fuscous, more or less mixed 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 



21 



with black and ferruginous, thorax usually with central and posterior white marks, 
palpi 1^—2. Abdomen blackish mixed with ferruginous, segmental margins white. 
Legs dark fuscous ringed with white, posterior tibiae whitish above. Forewings dark 
purplish-slaty-fuscous, towards base and costa somewhat ferruginous-mixed ; first line 
sinuate or nearly straight, vertical, whitish, nearly preceded by a similar line, space 
between them suffused with reddish-ochreous and whitish except on costa, followed 
by a thick fascia of blackish suffusion, forming a triangular projection below middle : 
orbicular round, blackish, upper half usually filled with reddish-ochreous ; discal spot 
8-shaped, black-outlined, thickened laterally, more or less filled with reddish-ochreous ; 
two small indistinct reddish-ochreous costal spots above this ; second line dentate, 
black, posteriorly partially edged with some white and reddish-ochreous scales, fine 
and indistinct except towards costa, middle third curved outwards, followed by an 
elongate reddish-ochreous costal patch including two dark fuscous costal spots, and 
beneath this edged by a white mark becoming reddish-ochreous posteriorly ; a terminal 
series of minute white dots : cilia dark fuscous, with apical series of whitish dots. 
Hindwings rather dark fuscous, darker terminally; two obliquely placed darker discal 
dots ; cilia dark fuscous, apical half spotted with whitish. 

12 specimens; 9 Kona, Hawaii, from 2000 to 4000 feet; 3 Mts. Waimea, Kauai, 
at 4000 feet ; from May to September. Also recorded from Haleakala, Maui, at 4000 
feet, by Mr Blackburn, from whom I received 14 specimens. 



(11) Phlyctaenia eucrena Meyr. 

Scapula eucrena Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 218. 

^%. 14 — 17 mm. Head and thorax reddish-ochreous, sometimes partially or 
wholly suffused with black, sometimes more or less marked with white. Palpi 2^, 
reddish-ochreous or blackish above, broadly white beneath. Abdomen pale ochreous 
mixed with black, segmental margins white. Legs dark fuscous ringed with white, 
anterior and middle tibiae suffused with reddish-ochreous, posterior tibiae white with 
two black rings. Forewings brownish-ochreous, slightly reddish-tinged ; first and 
second lines thick, white, first sinuate or nearly straight, vertical, anteriorly partially 
black-edged or sometimes preceded by a black blotch, posteriorly edged on lower 
half with some black or grey scales, second irregular, at f abruptly broken inwards 
to beneath discal spot, anteriorly edged with some black scales ; included median 
space wholly suffused with white, except partial black outline of orbicular, sometimes 
a costal spot above it, and a costal blotch before second line partially or wholly suff"used 
with black and representing discal spot ; in one specimen second line mostly suffused 
with black except on costa ; costa posteriorly spotted with blackish, or sometimes 
occupied by a blackish suffusion including two white costal dots; a terminal series 

28—2 



2 14 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

of black dots: cilia fuscous, mixed or spotted with whitish. Hindwings grey, some- 
times suffused with whitish in disc ; two obliquely placed darker discal dots ; second 
line waved, whitish, sometimes nearly obsolete ; a terminal series of blackish spots ; cilia 
whitish, sometimes mixed with grey, with a darker grey basal line. (Plate V. fig. 26.) 

6 specimens ; 4 Olaa, Hawaii, at 2000 feet ; i Kona, Hawaii, at 4000 feet ; 
I Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet ; in April, June, August, and November. The 
locality of the original specimen received from Mr Blackburn was unrecorded. Those 
now obtained show a considerable range of variation. 

(12) Phlyctaenia platyleuca, sp. nov. 

t%. 22 — 25 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax brownish-ochreous irrorated with 
blackish, sometimes partially mixed with whitish. Abdomen ochreous-fuscous or rather 
dark fuscous, segmental margins in t white. Legs dark fuscous ringed with white, 
posterior tibiae suffused with whitish. Forewings fuscous or dark fuscous, irrorated 
with light yellowish ; a dark fuscous spot near base, and usually another larger beyond 
it towards dorsum ; first line black, somewhat bent in middle, interrupted above middle, 
in one t thick, anteriorly white-edged towards dorsum, posteriorly suffused ; roundish 
orbicular and 8-shaped discal spot outlined with black ; in one Z median band beyond 
middle wholly suffused with white, in two $s only a patch of white suffusion between 
discal spot and second line, in other .^s none ; second line blackish, posteriorly 
sometimes more or less whitish-edged, waved, sinuate-curved to rather near termen, 
at f rectangularly broken inwards to below discal spot ; a spot of dark fuscous suffusion 
towards costa beyond this ; posterior half of costa indistinctly dark-spotted ; a terminal 
series of dark fuscous spots, in one Z separated by white dots : cilia dark fuscous, apical 
half obscurely pale-spotted. Hindwings fuscous, in % darker posteriorly ; two obliquely 
placed darker discal dots ; second line faintly darker ; a terminal series of dark fuscous 
dots ; cilia as in forewings. 

6 specimens ; 5 Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet, in April and May ; i Olaa, Hawaii 
(without white suffusion), at 2000 feet, in November. 

(13) Phlyctaenia metasema, sp. nov. 

^ ?. 15 — 23 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax brownish-ochreous, more or less 
irrorated with dark fuscous ; palpi 3, base white beneath. Abdomen whitish-ochreous, 
irrorated with dark fuscous, segmental margins white on middle of back. Legs dark 
fuscous, ringed with white, posterior tibiae whitish. Forewings light ochreous-fuscous, 
more ochreous in $, more or less irrorated with dark fuscous, sometimes more or 
less tinged with dull reddish or ferruginous suffusion ; first line waved, blackish, 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 215 

angulated in middle, interrupted above middle; roundisli orbicular and 8-shaped 
discal spot dark-outlined; second line blackish, interrupted, sometimes posteriorly 
whitish-edged towards extremities, sinuate-curved to rather near termen, at f abrupdy 
broken inwards to beneath discal spot; a roundish dark fuscous or blackish spot 
beyond second line beneath costa ; posterior half of costa spotted with dark fuscous ; 
sometimes some indistinct dark fuscous terminal spots: cilia fuscous, apical half 
indistinctly spotted with whitish. Hindwings in ^ whitish, with dark grey terminal 
band, sometimes reduced to an apical blotch, in $ grey, darker posteriorly; two 
obliquely placed dark grey discal dots; a postmedian series of dark grey dots, 
sometimes indistinct ; sometimes a terminal series of indistinct dark fuscous dots ; 
cilia whitish, with a grey line. (Plate V. fig. 27.) 

17 specimens; 7 Olaa, Hawaii, at 2000 feet; 6 Hilo, Hawaii, at 2000 feet ; 
4 Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet ; in January, May, September, November, and 
December. 

(14) Phlyctaenia ommatias, sp. nov. 

^. 26 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax dark fuscous mixed with ferruginous, 
palpi 3^, base whitish-mixed beneath. Abdomen dark fuscous, segmental margins 
hardly whitish. Legs dark fuscous, tarsi whitish-ochreous, posterior tibiae ferruginous- 
mixed. Forewings deep purplish-ferruginous, irrorated with dark fuscous ; first line 
dark fuscous, irregular, bent in middle ; small round orbicular and crescentic discal 
spot outlined with dark fuscous, discal mosdy filled with white and with lower extremity 
forming a clear white short longitudinal dash ; second line dark fuscous, followed by 
some whitish scales, sinuate-indented beneath costa, at f forming a subquadrate loop 
inwards beneath discal spot ; posterior half of costa spotted with blackish ; a terminal 
series of blackish dots separated by whitish scales : cilia dark fuscous, apical half 
obscurely pale-mixed. Hindwings dark fuscous; two obliquely placed darker discal 
dots; a faint darker postmedian line; cilia as in forewings. (Plate V. fig. 28.) 

I specimen, Molokai, at 3000 feet, in June. 

(15) Phlyctaenia caminopis, sp. nov. 

?. 30 mm. Head, palpi, thorax, and abdomen dark purplish-fuscous, palpi 2\, 
whitish towards base beneath. Legs dark fuscous, posterior tarsi suffused with pale 
ochreous. Forewings dark purple-fuscous, towards termen sprinkled with whitish ; 
first line blackish, angulated in middle, thickened dorsally ; roundish orbicular and 
narrow 8-shaped discal spot outlined with ferruginous-blackish ; second line ferruginous- 
blackish, posteriorly indistinctly whitish-edged, sharply indented beneath costa, at 
I forming a subquadrate loop inwards beneath discal spot ; an indistinct terminal series 



2i6 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

of dark fuscous spots : cilia dark fuscous, apical half obscurely whitish-mixed. Hind- 
wings dark purplish-fuscous ; cilia as in forewihgs. 

1 specimen, Molokai, at 5000 feet, in September. It is possible that this may 
be the other sex of the preceding species, but I do not feel justified in uniting them. 

(16) Phlyctaenia pachygramma, sp. nov. 

%. 27 — 29 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax dark purplish-fuscous, palpi 2. Abdomen 
dark fuscous, with dorsal series of white dots. Legs dark fuscous, apex of posterior 
tibiae whitish. Forewings rather dark purplish-fuscous, costa suffusedly darker ; first 
and second lines very thick, waved, blackish, first somewhat curved, second indented 
beneath costa, at f rather shortly broken inwards ; round orbicular touching first 
line and 8-shaped discal spot strongly outlined with blackish ; a terminal series of 
small blackish spots, separated by pale greyish-ochreous scales : cilia dark fuscous, 
tips whitish-mixed. Hindwings rather dark fuscous ; two obliquely placed darker 
discal dots ; a cloudy darker postmedian line ; a terminal series of darker spots ; ciHa as 
in forewings. (Plate V. fig. 29.) 

2 specimens ; i Olaa, Hawaii, in September ; i Waianae Mts., Oahu, at 2000 feet, 
in February. 

(17) Phlyctaenia ennychioides Butl. 

Mecyna ennychioides Butl. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) vii. 1881, p. 328. 
Melanofttecyna ennychioides id. Ent. Mo. Mag. xix. p. 179 ; M. stellata ib. p. 179. 
Scapula ennychioides Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 221 ; ,S. stellata 
ib. p. 222. 

$%. 19 — 24 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax dark fuscous, palpi 2^ — 3. Abdomen 
fuscous, segmental margins whitish. Legs dark fuscous, ringed with whitish, posterior 
tibiae suffused with whitish. Forewings rather dark purplish-fuscous, costa and base 
sometimes darker-suffused ; first line dark fuscous, bent in middle, sometimes inter- 
rupted above middle ; roundish orbicular and 8-shaped discal spot outlined or sometimes 
wholly suffused with dark fuscous, sometimes obscurely pale-centred ; second line 
waved, dark fuscous, posteriorly partially whitish-edged, especially towards dorsum, 
indented near costa, at | abruptly broken inwards to beneath discal spot ; posterior 
half of costa often obscurely spotted with dark fuscous and pale ; a terminal series 
of dark fuscous spots, sometimes separated by ochreous-whitish scales : cilia dark 
fuscous, apical half more or less mixed with ochreous-whitish. Hindwings fuscous 
or rather dark fuscous ; two indistinct obliquely placed darker discal dots ; a faint 
darker postmedian line ; a terminal series of dark spots ; cilia as in forewings, but more 
whitish. 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 217 

22 specimens; 5 Olaa, Hawaii, at 2000 feet; i Hilo, Hawaii, at 2000 feet; 

1 Kilauea, Hawaii; i Kona, Hawaii, at 1500 feet; 3 Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet ; 

2 Waianae Mts., Oahu, at 3000 feet ; 4 Mololcai, at 4000 feet ; i Lanai, at 2000 feet ; 
4 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet ; in January, and from April to December. Also 
seven specimens received from Mr Blackburn ; the additional material now obtained 
shows that only one species is indicated under the names quoted. My reference 
to Scotomera tristis (1. c. p. 222) must have been made under some misapprehension, 
as it is an Indian species. 

(18) Phlyctaenia argoscelis Meyr. 

Scopula argoscelis Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 222. 

t%- 20 — 25 mm. Head, palpi, and thora.x rather dark purplish-fuscous, some- 
times partly ferruginous-tinged, palpi 3^ — 4, whitish towards base beneath. Abdomen 
rather dark fuscous, segmental margins white on back. Legs dark fuscous, ringed 
with whitish, anterior and middle tibiae and tarsi wholly suffused with white. Fore- 
wings rather dark purple-fuscous, sometimes partially tinged with ferruginous suffusion ; 
first line dark fuscous, bent in middle, interrupted above middle ; small roundish 
orbicular and 8-shaped discal spot suffused with dark fuscous ; second line waved, dark 
fuscous, sinuate-curved, at f abruptly broken inwards to below discal spot ; posterior 
half of costa sometimes pale, more or less distinctly spotted with dark fuscous ; a 
terminal series of dark fuscous spots: cilia dark fuscous. Hindwings rather dark 
fuscous, slightly coppery-tinged ; sometimes two obliquely placed discal dots and 
postmedian line darker ; a terminal series of darker spots ; cilia whitish-fuscous, with 
two cloudy darker lines. 

24 specimens; 3 Kona, Hawaii, at 4000 feet; i Olaa, Hawaii, at 2000 feet; 
4 Waianae Mts., Oahu, at 3000 feet ; i Molokai, at 4000 feet ; 9 Mts. Waimea, Kauai, 
at 4000 feet ; 6 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet ; from April to November. Also 
three specimens received from Mr Blackburn. 

{19) Phlyctaenia despecta Butl. 

Rhodaria despecta Butl. Ent. Mo. Mag. xiv. p. 49. 

Scopula exigtia ib. xvii. p. 9. 

Scopula despecta Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 223. 

^^. 15—27 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax ferruginous, sometimes infuscated, 
palpi 3— 3i, white towards base beneath, thorax sometimes suffused with ochreous- 
yellowish posteriorly. Abdomen grey, sometimes suffused with ochreous-yellowish 
or ferruginous. Legs whitish, sometimes more or less variably suffused with ferruginous. 
Forewings reddish-ochreous or fuscous-ochreous or ferruginous, sometimes much mixed 
with dark fuscous, especially towards costa on anterior half, sometimes much tinged 



2i8 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

with coppery-purplish ; first line dark fuscous, bent in middle but usually obsolete 
on costal half; roundish orbicular and 8-shaped discal spot outlined with dark fuscous ; 
second line waved or denticulate, dark fuscous, more or less curved on upper portion, 
sometimes sinuate near costa, below middle with an abrupt semicircular excavation 
inwards beneath discal spot ; posterior half of costa sometimes spotted with dark 
fuscous ; a terminal series of dark fuscous or blackish dots : cilia rather dark fuscous, 
tips obscurely whitish. Hindwings fuscous, darker posteriorly, sometimes mixed with 
lio-hter ochreous suffusion ; two obliquely placed dark fuscous discal dots ; usually 
an indistinct darker postmedian line as in forewings ; a terminal series of blackish dots ; 
cilia grey or grey-whitish, with dark grey subbasal line. 

55 specimens; i8 Kona, Hawaii, at 3500 — 4000 feet; 3 Olaa, Hawaii, at 2000 
feet; i Hilo, Hawaii, at 2000 feet; 7 Waianae Mts., Oahu, at 2000 — 3000 feet; 
I Lanai, at 2000 feet ; 2 Molokai, at 3000 feet ; 9 Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 feet ; 
14 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet; occurs all the year round. Also recorded from 
Maui by Mr Blackburn, from whom I received 24 specimens ; he has described the 
larva, Ent. Mo. Mag. xix. 56. This species varies locally, especially in size, and I 
found it hard to believe that the extreme forms could be identical, but after prolonged 
examination I can find no reliable distinctions. The small rather dull form originally 
described is the Oahu form ; the Kona specimens are all medium-sized, lighter-coloured ; 
the largest and darkest specimens (mostly purple-tinged) are from Kauai (especially 
Mts. Waimea), but transitional specimens from the same localities also occur. The 
single Hilo specimen is very purple-tinged, indistinctly marked. Probably these 
differences are directly attributable to climatic influences. 



(20) Phlydaenia liopis, sp. nov. 

^?. 20 — 22 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax light fuscous-reddish, palpi 2^ — ^3. 
Abdomen pale whitish-ochreous. Legs whitish, more or less suffused with dull 
ochreous-reddish. Forewings elongate, pale ochreous, suffusedly irrorated with light 
fuscous and reddish ; first line dark fuscous, irregular, sometimes obsolete on costal 
half or wholly ; roundish orbicular and 8-shaped discal spot fuscous, in % ill-defined ; 
second line dark fuscous, waved, sometimes indistinct, upper portion unevenly curved, 
below middle with an abrupt semicircular excavation inwards beneath discal spot ; a 
series of dark fuscous dots along termen and apical third of costa : cilia fuscous-whitish 
with obscure reddish-fuscous line. Hindwings whitish, faintly ochreous-tinged, in ^ 
suffused with light reddish and fuscous towards apex ; two obliquely placed dark fuscous 
discal dots ; in <y a dark fuscous postmedian line ; a terminal series of dark fuscous dots, 
sometimes indistinct; cilia whitish, faintly reddish-tinged. (Plate V. fig. 30.) 

3 specimens, Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 — 6000 feet, in April and May. 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 



219 



(21) PJilyctaenia endopyra, sp. nov. 

.??• 15 — 21 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax ferruginous-orange, more or less 
mixed with dark fuscous, palpi 2^ — 3, whitish towards base beneath. Abdomen 
greyish-ochreous mixed with dark fuscous, segmental margins whitish. Legs ochreous- 
whitish or brownish-ochreous, more or less suffused with dark fuscous, posterior tibiae 
more whitish. Forewings elongate, ferruginous-orange or deep ferruginous, sometimes 
suffusedly irrorated with dark fuscous except towards costa, where it is sometimes 
brighter orange ; first line dark fuscous, rectangularly bent in middle, sometimes 
obsolete on upper half; roundish orbicular and 8-shaped discal spot more or less 
suffused with dark fuscous, in $ closely approximated and separated only by a vertical 
yellow linear mark (seldom obsolete), in ? separated by a clear orange quadrate spot, 
orbicular preceded by a smaller similar spot ; posterior half of costa sometimes spotted 
with dark fuscous ; second line dark fuscous, upper portion parallel to termen, slightly 
sinuate near costa, below middle abruptly broken inwards to beneath discal spot ; 
a terminal series of dark fuscous dots : cilia fuscous, tips obscurely whitish. Hindwings 
in $ whitish-ochreous, grey-sprinkled, in % light fuscous, slightly yellowish-tinged ; 
two obliquely placed darker discal dots ; a curved darker grey postmedian line ; in 
$ sometimes a terminal fascia of grey suffusion ; a terminal series of dark fuscous dots ; 
cilia fuscous-whitish, with fuscous subbasal line. 

6 specimens ; 4 Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet, from March to May ; 2 Hilo, 
Hawaii, at 2000 feet, in January. Distinguished from its allies by form of second 
line. 

(22) Phlydaenia rhodias, sp. nov. 

^ ^. IQ — 24 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax ferruginous or dark reddish, partially 
sprinkled with dark grey, palpi 2^— 3, white towards base beneath. Abdomen whitish- 
ochreous. Legs light yellow-ochreous, more or less suffused with reddish. Forewings 
elongate, rosy-ochreous, irrorated with dull crimson ; lines dark grey, ill-defined, first 
obtusely angulated in middle, second waved, unevenly curved on upper portion, below 
middle abruptly broken inwards beneath discal spot ; roundish orbicular and 8-shaped 
discal spot indistinctly outlined or suffused with dark grey; a terminal series of 
blackish dots: cilia dull purplish, mixed with dark grey. Hindwings dull ochreous- 
whitish, sometimes posteriorly rosy-tinged; two obliquely placed grey discal dots; 
an indistinct curved grey postmedian line ; a terminal series of blackish dots ; cilia 
whitish or rosy-whitish. 

3 specimens ; 2 Molokai, at 4500 feet, in September ; i Lanai, at 3000 feet, 
in July. 

M. F. H. ^9 



220 



FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 



(23) Phlydaenia pyranthes, sp. nov. 

^^. 19 23 mm. Head and thorax ferruginous-orange, patagia reddish. Palpi 

^1 4, ochreous-reddish, base white beneath. Abdomen whitish-ochreous, reddish- 
tinged. Legs dark reddish, banded with white, middle pair almost wholly white. 
Forewings yellow-ochreous, almost wholly suffused with purple-reddish ; lines obscurely 
darker or almost obsolete, sometimes mixed or partly dotted with dark fuscous, first 
bent in middle, second sometimes posteriorly pale-edged, curved on upper portion, 
sinuate-indented near costa, below middle abruptly broken inwards to beneath discal 
spot ; roundish orbicular and 8-shaped discal spot darker purple-reddish, sometimes 
fuscous-tinged ; sometimes a terminal series of blackish dots : cilia dull purple or 
purplish-grey, tips whitish. Hindwings pale whitish-ochreous, more or less rosy- 
tinged, especially posteriorly ; two obliquely placed sometimes indistinct dark grey 
discal dots ; sometimes an obscure grey postmedian line ; sometimes a terminal series 
of dark fuscous dots; cilia rosy-whitish. (Plate V. fig. 31.) 

6 specimens; 2 Hilo, Hawaii, at 2000 feet, in January; 3 Mts. Waimea, Kauai, 
at 4000 feet, in May and June ; i Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet, in April. 

(24) PJdyctaenia heterodoxa, sp. nov. 

^ $. 17 — 21 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax brownish-ochreous, palpi 2^, white 
towards base beneath. Abdomen greyish-ochreous. Legs fuscous, posterior pair 
whitish-fuscous. Forewings pale ochreous irrorated with fuscous, sometimes ferru- 
ginous-tinged, especially towards base of costa and on terminal area, sometimes whitish- 
suffused in disc ; orbicular and discal spots dot-like, rather dark fuscous, sometimes 
obsolete ; second line straight or faintly sinuate, parallel to termen, in ^ whitish, edged 
posteriorly with fuscous or dark fuscous suffusion, in $ obscurely paler, edged posteriorly 
by ferruginous terminal area: cilia pale ochreous or ochreous-whitish. Hindwings in ^ 
whitish, in % grey ; two indistinct grey obliquely placed discal dots ; an apical patch of 
rather dark grey suffusion, margined anteriorly by traces of a postmedian line ; cilia in 
^ whitish, in % grey, ferruginous-tinged. (Plate V. fig. 32.) 

4 specimens, Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet, from March to May. 



Pyrausta Schranck. 

I have suppressed the genus Protocolletis Meyr., having shown elsewhere that the 
character on which it was founded, the anastomosing- of vein 10 of the forewings with 
9 towards base, occurs occasionally as an exceptional structure in several species of this 



MA CROLEPIDOPTERA 



221 



and allied genera ; yet as it appears to be constant in Hawaiian forms, I have here 
ranked the two species which exhibit the structure as a separate section. 



I. 



Forewings mixed with green (^) hryochloris. 

„ not green 2. 

2. Forewings with dorsal edge black on median area (8) psychropa. 

,, ,, not black 2- 

3. Orbicular confluent beneath with dark blotch reaching dorsum {2) dracontias. 

„ not confluent with dark blotch beneath 4. 

4. Forewings dark purplish-fuscous {6\ Orontias. 

„ not dark fuscous c 

5. Forewings more or less ferruginous 6. 

,, whitish-ochreous 8. 

6. Hindwings yellowish {10) phaethontia. 

„ light fuscous 7. 

7. Palpi 2i— 3 (j) thermantis. 

„ 5 (p) constricta. 

8. Orbicular and discal spots obsolete {■/) litorea. 

„ ,, distinct 9. 

9. Head and thorax hardly dark-sprinkled (J) dryadopa. 

„ „ densely irrorated with dark fuscous {if) chloropis. 



(i) Pyrausta bryochloris, sp. nov. 

$%. 28 — 32 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax black mixed with green, palpi 2. 
Abdomen rather dark fuscous. Legs dark fuscous, ringed with whitish. Forewings 
blackish, densely irregularly irrorated with light green ; two white basal dots ; a well- 
marked black subbasal line, followed by whitish-green suffusion ; first and second lines 
slender, white, waved, internally black-edged, first irregular, second moderately curved 
outwards between \ and f ; dorsal scale-tuft white mixed with fuscous ; roundish 
orbicular and 8-shaped discal spot outlined with ferruginous, discal marked with two 
white dots ; some light purplish suffusion in disc below these ; blotches of dark ground- 
colour at apex and tornus ; a terminal series of white dots : cilia fuscous, mixed with 
darker and pale. Hindwings dark fuscous, rather lighter anteriorly ; cilia as in fore- 
wings. (Plate VI. fig. I.) 

2 specimens, Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet, in March. 



(2) Pyrausta dracontias, sp. nov. 

^. 26 27 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax dark fuscous mixed with whitish, palpi 

3^. Abdomen fuscous, sprinkled with darker and whitish. Legs dark fuscous, 
sprinkled with whitish. Forewings rather dark fuscous ; first line double, purple-whitish, 
nearly straight ; orbicular trapezoidal, dark fuscous, indistinctly whitish-edged except on 

29 — 2 



222 



FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 



lower margin, where it is confluent with a dark fuscous blotch occupying anterior half 
of median band and extending to dorsum ; discal spot irregularly pentagonal, blackish- 
fuscous, white-edged ; second line slender, white, anteriorly dark-edged, preceded by a 
broad band of whitish suffusion, middle third strongly curved outwards : cilia fuscous, 
mixed with dark fuscous and whitish. Hindwings fuscous ; a darker discal dot ; an 
indistinct darker postmedian line ; cilia whitish, spotted with fuscous, with a dark 
fuscous subbasal line. (Plate VI. fig. 2.) 

2 specimens ; i Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 feet ; i Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 
4000 feet ; in April and May. 

(3) Pyrausta dryadopa, sp. nov. 

^%. 21 — 22 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax pale whitish-ochreous, shoulders with 
a few dark fuscous specks, palpi 3^, thinly sprinkled with dark fuscous. Abdomen 
whitish-ochreous, sprinkled with fuscous and dark fuscous, segmental margins whitish. 
Legs whitish, banded with dark fuscous irroration, posterior tibiae wholly whitish. 
Forewings in ^ with termen strongly sinuate below apex ; pale whitish-ochreous, 
sprinkled with brownish or dark fuscous ; first line pale, edged posteriorly with dark 
fuscous on lower half, obtusely angulated outwards in middle, and more sharply 
inwards near dorsum ; roundish orbicular and 8-shaped discal spot outlined with 
brownish or dark fuscous, space between them pale, discal dark-centred ; a dark fuscous 
costal dot above discal spot ; second line pale, waved, edged anteriorly with dark 
fuscous, upper f moderately curved outwards, thence rectangularly broken inwards to 
beneath discal spot ; costal area beyond this wholly pale except two dark fuscous dots ; 
terminal area in $ suffused with dark fuscous from beneath apex to below middle ; a 
terminal series of dark fuscous dots : cilia whitish-ochreous with two dark fuscous lines, 
and barred with dark fuscous. Hindwings fuscous-whitish, in % irrorated with fuscous ; 
two obliquely placed dark fuscous discal dots ; a waved, darker fuscous postmedian 
line ; a darker subterminal shade, leaving a whitish terminal line, marked with a series 
of black dots ; cilia whitish, with two indistinct interrupted fuscous lines. 

3 specimens ; i Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 feet ; i Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 
4000 feet ; i Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet ; in April and May. 

(4) Pyrausta chloropis, sp. nov. 

t%- 20 — 25 mm. Head, palpi, thorax, and abdomen whitish-ochreous, more or 
less brownish-tinged and irrorated with dark fuscous, palpi 3:5 — 4, whitish beneath. 
Legs ochreous-whitish, indistinctly banded with dark fuscous. Forewings whitish- 
ochreous, irrorated with dark brown ; a dark fuscous suffusion on base of costa ; first 
and second lines dark fuscous, waved, first bent in middle, posteriorly pale-edged. 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 223 

second curved, indented below costa, below middle rectangularly broken inwards to 
beneath discal spot ; included median band rather darker-suffused except on costa ; 
roundish orbicular and reniform discal spot darker, separated by a pale or ochreous- 
white spot ; posterior half of costa dotted with dark fuscous ; a terminal series of dark 
fuscous marks : cilia ochreous-whitish, barred with fuscous, with two dark fuscous lines. 
Hindwings rather light fuscous ; two obliquely placed dark fuscous discal dots ; a waved 
dark fuscous postmedian line, with middle third curved outwards ; terminal marks and 
cilia as in forewings. 

16 specimens; 3 Olaa, Hawaii, at 2000 feet, in November; i Hilo, Hawaii, at 
2000 feet, in January ; 9 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet, in April ; 3 Mts. Waimea, 
Kauai, at 4000 feet, in May and June. 

(5) Pyrausta thermantis, sp. nov. 

,? $. 19 — 21 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax ferruginous, mixed with black and 
pale ochreous, palpi 2^ — 3. Abdomen fuscous, irrorated with whitish-ochreous. Legs 
ferruginous, partly suffused with black. Forewings ferruginous, irrorated with dark 
fuscous ; first and second lines obscurely ochreous-whitish, edged internally with dark 
fuscous, first somewhat angulated above middle, obsolete towards costa, second curved, 
slightly waved, indented beneath costa, below middle sending an abrupt narrow loop 
inwards to beneath discal spot ; roundish orbicular and reniform discal spot outlined 
with dark fuscous, separated by a quadrate spot of whitish suffusion, discal spot followed 
by some whitish suffusion ; costa posteriorly spotted with dark and pale ; a spot of dark 
fuscous suffusion beyond second line beneath costa ; a terminal series of obscure dark 
fuscous dots: cilia grey, paler-mixed, with darker subbasal line. Hindwings light 
fuscous ; two obliquely placed dark grey discal dots ; a curved dark grey postmedian 
line, obscurely pale-edged posteriorly ; a terminal series of dark fuscous dots ; cilia 
grey-whitish, with two grey lines. (Plate VI. fig. 3.) 

3 specimens, Olaa, Hawaii, in June. 

(6) Pyrausta brontias, sp. nov. 

$%. 21 — 25 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax dark fuscous, crown often mixed with 
ferruginous-ochreous, palpi 3— 3^. Abdomen rather dark fuscous, segmental margins 
whitish, anal tuft pale ochreous. Legs dark fuscous, ringed with ochreous-whitish. 
Forewings glossy dark purplish-fuscous ; often a ferruginous-ochreous dorsal suffusion 
before first line ; first and second lines blackish-fuscous, first hardly traceable, second 
often more or less edged posteriorly with ochreous-whitish, curved, indented beneath 
costa, below middle forming an abrupt loop inwards beneath discal spot ; roundish 
orbicular and 8-shaped discal spot darker, sometimes very indistinct ; a terminal series 



2 24 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

of ochreous-whitish marks: cilia dark fuscous. Hindwings fuscous, becoming darker 
posteriorly ; two indistinct darker obliquely placed discal dots ; a terminal series of 
whitish dots ; cilia fuscous, tips whitish. 

lo specimens ; 8 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet ; 2 Mts. Waimea, Kauai, 
at 4000 feet; from April to June. 

(7) Pyrmista litorca Butl. 

Scoptila litorea Butl. Ent. Mo. Mag. xix. p. 178. 

Eurycreon litorea Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 230. 

No additional specimens obtained. Recorded by Mr Blackburn from Mauna 
Lea, Lanai, in September. After careful comparison with allied forms, I consider 
that the face is only somewhat prominently rounded and has no true frontal projec- 
tion. The first and second lines of forewings are sometimes more distinctly indicated 
by dots of blackish scales than is implied in my description, but none of the specimens 
are good. 

(8) Pyrausta psychropa, sp. nov. 

^. 23 — 28 mm. Head, palpi, and thora.x whitish mixed with fuscous or whitish- 
fuscous, palpi 3, with broad lateral blackish-fuscous stripe, base white beneath, edge of 
shoulder black. Abdomen rather elongate, fuscous, whitish-mixed, anal tuft whitish. 
Legs fuscous mixed with whitish. Forewings fuscous, thickly suffusedly strewn with 
white scales, and more or less irrorated with dark fuscous ; a short black longitudinal 
streak from base of costa ; first line darker, only distinct near costa, where it is very 
oblique and somewhat marked with black ; dorsal edge sharply black between first and 
second lines ; oval orbicular and narrow-reniform discal spot outlined with dark fuscous 
or blackish, oblique ; second line hardly perceptible except towards costa, where it forms 
a very oblique blackish streak, followed by a small white costal spot, elsewhere some- 
times partially indicated by dark fuscous dots, apparently sending an abrupt loop 
inwards beneath discal spot ; a terminal series of black dots : cilia whitish, with a fuscous 
subbasal line. Hindwings fuscous, lighter anteriorly ; two obliquely placed darker 
discal dots ; sometimes obscure indications of a postmedian line. (Plate VL fig. 4.) 

3 specimens ; 2 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet ; i Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 
4000 feet ; in April and May. 

Section Protocolletis Meyr. 

(9) Pyrausta constricta Butl. 
Scopula constricta Bud. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1882, p. 40. 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 225 

Protocolletis constricta Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 224. 

No examples of this species were included in the collection. The original specimens 
were bred from larvae feeding between spun leaves of an unidentified plant on the 
mountains near Honolulu, Oahu. 

(10) Pyrausta phaethontia, sp. nov. 

$. 33 — 2,1 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax ochreous-ferruginous, palpi 4, crimson- 
tinged, sprinkled with dark fuscous. Abdomen ochreous-yellowish, sprinkled with 
crimson-ferruginous. Legs ochreous-yellowish, more or less suffused with crimson- 
ferruginous. Forewings ochreous-yellowish, densely irrorated or wholly suffused with 
crimson-ferruginous ; small orbicular and transverse discal spot infuscated but very 
obscure and undefined ; second line darker, hardly traceable, rather curved on upper 
portion, sinuate beneath costa, apparently forming a loop inwards beneath discal spot : 
cilia ferruginous-purplish, somewhat whitish-mixed. Hindwings light ochreous- 
yellowish ; two obliquely placed rosy-grey discal dots ; a faint rosy-grey waved line 
beyond f ; apex more or less rosy-suffused ; cilia purple, tips paler. (Plate VI. fig. 5.) 

5 specimens ; 4 Olaa, Hawaii ; i Kona, Hawaii, at 4000 feet ; in June, Sep- 
tember, and December. 

Mecyna Steph. 
(i) Mecyna au7'ora Butl. 

Anemosa aurora Butl. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) vii. 1881, p. 327. 

Mecyna aurora Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 225. 

(Plate VL fig. 6.) 

A single specimen, without locality ; it is a female (this sex being previously 
unknown), expanding 18 mm., but not differing in any way from the male. By an 
unfortunate perversity the locality of Mr Blackburn's specimens has also escaped 
record. 

(2) Mecyna virescens Butl. 

Mecyna virescens Butl. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) vii. 1881, p. 329; Meyr. 
Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 188S, p. 225. 

41 specimens: 28 Kona, Hawaii, at 4000 feet; 2 Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet; 
7 Waianae Mts., Oahu, at 2000 feet ; 2 Halemanu, Kauai ; 2 Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 
4000 feet ; from March to September. Bred by Mr Blackburn from larvae feeding on 
an Acacia (?), on Haleakala ; 14 specimens sent by him. 



226 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 



LOXOSTEGE Hub. 

1. Forewings reddish-brown (/) conisalias. 

„ orange or ochreous 2. 

2. First and second lines well-marked (j) helioxantha. 

„ „ absent {2) nielanopis. 



(i) Loxostege conisalias, sp. nov. 

^. 19 — 23 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen greyish-ochreous, more or less 
ferruginous-tinged. Antennal ciliations \ (longer at base). Palpi 4^, ferruginous, 
sprinkled with dark fuscous. Forewings with termen rather sinuate beneath apex : 
reddish-brown, sprinkled with dark fuscous ; median band more or less suffused with 
dark fuscous, anterior edge very ill-defined, posterior moderately curved to below 
middle, thence rectangularly broken inwards to below discal spot ; discal spot small, 
white, surrounded by darker suffusion : cilia pale fuscous, with two dark fuscous lines. 
Hindwings light fuscous ; cilia whitish-fuscous, with fuscous subbasal line. 

3 specimens, Hilo, Hawaii, at 2000 feet, in December and January. 

(2) Loxostege melanopis, sp. nov. 

^. 21 mm. Head, palpi, thorax, and abdomen reddish-ochreous, palpi 4^, 
sprinkled with black, abdomen ferruginous-suffused. Antennal ciliations i. Forewings 
with termen faintly sinuate beneath apex ; orange-ochreous, suffusedly sprinkled with 
ferruginous ; costal edge blackish except towards apex ; round orbicular and 8-shaped 
discal spot blackish : cilia apparently ochreous with blackish lines (imperfect). Hind- 
wings pale yellowish-ochreous, suffusedly irrorated with grey except on a terminal band ; 
two indistinct obliquely placed darker discal dots; cilia ochreous-whitish. (Plate VI. 
fig- 7-) 

I specimen, Olaa, Hawaii, at 2000 feet, in November. 



(3) Loxostege helioxantha, sp. nov. 

¥• 32 — 34 mm. Head and thorax light orange, shoulders reddish-brown. Palpi 
6, ochreous, more or less suffusedly irrorated with reddish and sprinkled with dark 
fuscous. Abdomen light yellow-ochreous. Forewings with termen not sinuate ; vein 
10 sometimes stalked with 9 ; light orange, veins more or less marked with grey-reddish 
suffusion ; costal edge dark fuscous on anterior half ; first and second lines grey-reddish, 
first angulated in middle, second slightly waved, curved, indented beneath costa, below 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 227 

middle forming a deep abrupt loop inwards beneath discal spot ; round orbicular and 
reniform discal spot reddish-brown : cilia grey-reddish. Hindwings light yellowish ; 
two obliquely placed rosy-grey discal spots ; a faint rosy-grey postmedian line ; cilia 
whitish-rosy. (Plate VI. fig. 8.) 

4 specimens, Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet, in April. The variation in the 
structure of vein 10 of forewings is curious but does not impair the generic definition, 
though enlarging it ; it appears to be normal in this species, for the four individuals all 
differ in this respect, varying from complete separation through partial fusion to stalking 
for fully half their length. 

NOMOPHILA Hub. 

(i) NoviopJiila noctuella Schiff. 

10 specimens ; i Olaa, Hawaii ; i Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet ; 6 Waianae Mts., 
Oahu, at 1300 feet; 2 Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 feet; from April to June, and in 
September. Almost a cosmopolitan species. 



Hellula Gtien. 

(i) Hellula undalis Fab. 
2 specimens ; i Honolulu Mts., Oahu ; i Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 feet ; in 



June. 



Promvlaea, gen. nov. 



Face rounded, vertical ; ocelli present ; tongue developed. Antennae f , in ^ — ? 
Labial palpi rather short, porrected, with appressed scales, terminal joint short, pointed. 
Maxillary palpi extremely short, resting on base of labial. Posterior tibiae with outer 
spurs f. Forewings normal. Hindwings with vein 3 absent, 4 and 5 closely approxi- 
mated at base, 7 remote from 6 at origin, anastomosing with 8 to near middle, lower 
median without pecten. 

This genus is closely allied to Mestolobes, but differs in the extremely small (hardly 
visible) maxillary palpi, and the separation of veins 4 and 5 of hindwings ; the t may 
probably show differences in respect of the secondary sexual characters of hindwings. 

( I ) Promylaea pyropa, sp. nov. 

%. 18 mm. Head and thorax deep shining bluish-leaden, back of crown orange. 
Palpi orange. Abdomen dark fuscous. Legs prismatic-fuscous, middle and posterior 
M. F. H. 30 



2 28 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

femora pale coppery-golden. Forewings fuscous-blackish ; a patch occupying basal 
fourth, produced on costa, a very broad fascia of irroration beyond middle, becoming 
uniform on costal half anteriorly, and a rather narrow terminal fascia shining bluish- 
leaden : cilia fuscous, basal f blackish-fuscous. Hindwings dark fuscous, with coppery 
reflections, somewhat lighter towards base; cilia as in forewings. (Plate VI. fig. 9.) 

I specimen, Molokai, at 4000 feet. 



Me.STO LOBES Btitl. 

The characters given may be augmented as follows : hindwings with veins 3 and 4 
connate or stalked, 7 frequently separate from 6, anastomosing more or less with 8 ; in ^ 
sometimes with subdorsal groove as in Orthomecyna, dorsal lobe sometimes modified 
into a pocket beneath, with or without costal hair-pencil or ridge of curled hairs. 

1. Forewings with groundcolour uniform blackish or dark fuscous 2. 

„ ,, not uniform dark fuscous 10. 

2. Forewings with several violet-blue-metallic spots in disc {i) amethystias. 

„ without such spots 3. 

3. Forewings wholly without markings (j) sir in a. 

„ with more or less marking 4. 

4. Forewings with white antemedian dorsal spot {8) epidelia. 

„ without such spot 5. 

5. Forewings with four shining leaden fasciae (2) chrysomolybda. 

„ without such fasciae 6. 

6. Palpi wholly whitish {4) crypsichrysa. 

,, not whitish 7. 

7. Forewings with termen concave beneath apex {^) eriitnys. 

„ „ not concave 8. 

8. Forewings with lines orange or ferruginous-mixed 9. 

„ „ not orange or ferruginous {6) ardura. 

9. Forewings with discal spot indicated (11) ombrias. 

,, „ obsolete (j) xant/wsda. 

10. Hindwings whitish or yellowish, at least in disc 11. 

„ not whitish or yellowish in disc 21. 

11. Forewings with basal third almost wholly whitish 12. 

,, ,, not wholly whitish 13. 

12. Hindwings with terminal dark fascia entire [22) chlorolychna. 

„ „ not reaching below middle {24) semiochrea. 

13. Hindwings with entire dark terminal band with median projection 

inwards 14. 

„ without band so formed .. 15. 

14. Hindwings with costal hair-pencil {18) fiessias $ . 

„ without costal hair-pencil {21) inesacma $ . 

15. Palpi fuscous 16. 

,, mostly ochreous-whitish or yellowish 18. 

16. Posterior tibiae with black projecting scales (ij) sc/eropis d . 

„ without black scales 17. 



MA CROLEPIDOP TERA 



229 



17- 



18. 



19. 



23- 



24 



26 



27 



28 



29 



30 



Tuft of dorsal lobe blackish-tipped {20) ap/iHas $ . 

). not blackish-tipped {27) autodo.xa. 

First line with wedge-shaped projection inwards in middle {25) pragmatica. 

„ without such projection ig. 

Forewings ochreous-orange {23) perixantha. 

„ not orange 20. 

First line slender, not suffused ...{26) abnortnis. 

„ broad, suffused on one side {ify orthrias. 

Head and thorax yellow-ochreous {14) ochrtas. 

„ „ not yellow-ochreous 22. 

Forewings with basal area ferruginous-ochreous except on costa {g) iochrysa. 

„ with basal area not ferruginous-ochreous 23. 

First line forming a broad whitish fascia (16) eurylyca. 

„ not broadly whitish 24. 

Expanse 13 mm. or less {ij) minuscula. 

,, 14 mm. or more 25. 

Expanse 16 mm. or more 26. 

,, 15 mm. or less {12) banaiisa. 

Forewings without definite markings {28) homalopa. 

,, with distinct lines 27. 

First line straight {w) droseropa. 

„ curved or angulated 28. 

Hindwings fuscous-grey (ig) chbnonias. 

,, dark fuscous 29. 

Forewings with first line distinctly angulated 30. 

„ „ rather curved (Molokai species) (i^) sderopis ^ . 

First line angulated in middle (Kauai species) {20) ap/irias 'i . 

„ „ above middle (Maui species) {18) pessias 2 ■ 



In the preceding tabulation characters are selected which are independent of sex, 
so far as possible, since in some species only one sex is known ; but the males of allied 
species are sometimes most easily separated by the very well-marked differences in the 
secondary sexual characters, viz. the tufts of hair on the hindwings and legs. 



(i) Mestolobes amethysiias, sp. nov. 

?. 13 mm. Head and thorax dark fuscous, face with lateral whitish line. (Palpi 
broken.) Abdomen dark fuscous, segmental margins white. Legs dark fuscous, 
ringed with whitish. Forewings blackish ; subbasal, first, second, and subterminal 
lines fulvous-orange, subbasal and first forming sinuate fasciae, separated by a violet- 
silvery-metallic line, second and subterminal thick, strongly curved, also separated by 
a violet-silvery-metallic line ; several small scattered pale violet-blue-metallic spots in 
disc ; a whitish wedge-shaped mark on costa before apex : cilia fuscous, with two dark 
fuscous lines. Hindwings dark fuscous, lighter anteriorly; cilia whitish, with dark 
fuscous basal line. (Plate VI. fig. 10.) 

I specimen, Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet, in April. 

30—2 



230 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 



(2) Mestolobes chrysonwiybda, sp. nov. 

^%. 14 — 15 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen dark leaden-fuscous. Palpi 
blackish, beneath pale yellowish. Legs dark grey, ringed with whitish. Forewings 
blackish-fuscous ; subbasal, first, second, and subterminal lines thick, fulvous-orange, 
each preceded by a shining deep leaden fascia ; subbasal and first angulate-sinuate, 
sometimes almost obsolete, preceding fasciae broad ; second sinuate-angulated in 
middle, preceding fascia broad ; subterminal close to termen, curved, preceding fascia 
narrow, remote from second : cilia dark fuscous, with blackish subbasal line. Hind- 
wings dark grey, with broad blackish-grey terminal band ; a more or less marked 
longitudinal streak of whitish suffusion in disc ; in Z with short dorsal lobe ending in 
tuft of white hairs, and whitish costal hair-pencil ; cilia white, with dark grey basal line. 
(Plate VI. fig. I I.) 

3 specimens, Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet, in April. 



(3) Mestolobes xanthoscia, sp. nov. 

?. 12 — 15 mm. Head, thorax, abdomen, and legs dark fuscous. Palpi fuscous, 
sometimes yellowish except towards apex. Forewings dark fuscous, slightly purple- 
tinged ; first and second lines fulvous-orange, usually darker-edged, first about middle, 
curved or somewhat bent, sometimes nearly obsolete except towards costa, second 
rather near termen, curved : cilia rather dark fuscous, with darker subbasal line. Hind- 
wings rather dark fuscous, darker posteriorly ; cilia as in forewings. 

5 specimens ; 3 Kilauea, Hawaii, in August ; i Olaa, Hawaii, at 2000 feet, in 
November; i Waianae Mts., Oahu, in April. 



(4) Mestolobes crypsichrysa, sp. nov. 

t%- 14 — 15 "irn- Head, thorax, abdomen, and legs dark fuscous. Palpi whitish. 
Forewings blackish-fuscous ; subbasal, first, and second lines more or less indicated 
by fulvous-orange irroration, very undefined, first and second sometimes forming 
distinct spots on costa, first about middle, angulated above middle, second at f , angu- 
lated in middle : cilia whitish-fuscous, with dark fuscous line. Hindwings blackish- 
fuscous, somewhat lighter in disc ; in ^ with long and rather broad whitish dorsal lobe, 
ending in tuft of white hairs, and with an ochreous-yellowish costal hair-pencil ; cilia 
whitish, basal third blackish. 

6 specimens ; 4 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet ; 2 Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 
4000 feet; from April to June. 



I 



MA CROLEPIDOPTERA 



(5) Mestolobes erinnys, sp. nov. 



2\\ 



i. 20 mm. Head, palpi, thorax, abdomen, and legs rather dark fuscous. 
Forewings with termen concave beneath obtusely prominent apex, then prominently 
rounded ; dark purplish-fuscous ; first and second lines darker, suffusedly mixed with 
light ochreous-yellowish, first at f, sharply angulated above middle, second at f, 
nearly straight : cilia fuscous, with darker subbasal line (imperfect). Hindwings dark 
fuscous : a moderate fuscous dorsal lobe, ending in tuft of fuscous hairs, but no costal 
hair-pencil; cilia fuscous-whitish, basal third dark fuscous. (Plate VI. fig. 12.) 

I specimen, Waianae Mts., Oahu, at 2200 feet, in April. Differs from all the 
rest by the peculiar form of forewings. 



(6) Mestolobes arctura, sp. nov. 

?. 13 — 14 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen blackish-fuscous, coppery-tinged, 
abdomen with genital tuft of densely packed black hair-scales. Palpi blackish mixed 
with fuscous-whitish. Legs fuscous. Forewings rather narrow, blackish-fuscous, 
coppery-tinged ; first, median, and second lines obscure, grey-purplish, ill-defined, first 
at I", slender, angulated above middle, median broad on costal half, hardly marked 
beneath, second at ^, slender, curved, almost angulated in middle ; some light purplish 
scales on termen : cilia purplish-fuscous, with dark fuscous subbasal line. Hindwings 
dark fuscous ; cilia as in forewings. 

2 specimens, Molokai, at 4500 feet, in July and September. The female is 
distinguished from all others by the singular genital tuft ; but if this is connected with 
oviposition, there may be nothing analogous in the male. 

(7) Mestolobes sirina, sp. nov. 

^. 12 mm. Head, palpi, thorax, abdomen, and legs dark fuscous. Forewings 
rather narrow, dark fuscous, slightly coppery-tinged : cilia fuscous, with dark fuscous 
subbasal line. Hindwings blackish-fuscous ; a moderate whitish dorsal lobe, ending 
in a tuft of whitish hairs, and a whitish costal hair-pencil ; cilia as in forewings. 

I specimen, Lanai, at 3000 feet, in July. 

(8) Mestolobes epidelta, sp. nov, 

%. 14 mm. Head, palpi, thorax, abdomen, and legs dark purplish-fuscous; base 
of palpi whitish ; apex of patagia white ; segmental margins white ; legs ringed with 



232 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

whitish. Forewings dark fuscous, purpHsh-tinged ; a small triangular white spot on 
dorsum before middle ; a smaller ochreous-whitish spot on costa at f : cilia whitish, 
barred with dark fuscous, and with a dark fuscous subbasal line. Hindwings dark 
fuscous, slightly purplish-tinged ; cilia whitish, basal third dark fuscous. (Plate VI. 

fig- 1 3-) 

I specimen, Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 feet, in May. 



(9) Mestolobes iochrysa, sp. nov. 

?. 13 — 14 mm. Head dark fuscous, sides of face and edges of collar whitish. 
Palpi black, obliquely barred with white. Antennae whitish, ringed with dark fuscous. 
Thorax black, somewhat mixed with whitish. Abdomen blackish, segmental margins 
whitish. Legs dark fuscous, ringed with whitish. Forewings blackish ; an almost 
basal undefined ochreous-whitish line, space between this and first line wholly fer- 
ruginous-ochreous except on costa; first line at ^, whitish, angulated above middle, 
followed by a similar ferruginous line ; median area more or less mixed and on dorsal 
half mostly suffused with whitish ; an undefined 8-shaped discal spot filled with fer- 
ruginous ; second line at f, ferruginous, curved, followed by a similar whitish line; 
an undefined ferruginous subterminal line ; a short white costal mark before apex : 
cilia dark grey, on upper half of termen more or less distinctly barred with white, 
with a blackish subbasal line. Hindwings blackish ; cilia dark grey, with blackish 
subbasal line. (Plate VI. fig. 14.) 

2 specimens, Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 feet, in May. 



(10) Mestolobes droseropa, sp. nov. 

$. 17 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax dark fuscous, thorax with a few fuscous- 
whitish scales. (Abdomen broken.) Legs dark fuscous, ringed with whitish. Fore- 
wings dark fuscous, with a few irregularly scattered whitish scales ; subbasal line 
blackish, followed by some whitish scales, interrupted below middle ; first and second 
lines blackish, somewhat mixed with light ochreous-yellowish, first before middle, 
straight, oblique, second at ^, angulated above middle, edged posteriorly on costa 
by a whitish mark ; an undefined 8-shaped discal spot outlined with blackish, partially 
filled with light ochreous-yellowish ; terminal area beyond this strewn with light 
ochreous-yellowish scales ; a small whitish mark on costa before apex : cilia dark 
fuscous, basal third blackish-fuscous. Hindwings dark fuscous, somewhat lighter 
anteriorly ; cilia as in forewings. 

I specimen, probably from Kilauea, Hawaii, in August. 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 233 

(11) Mestolobes ombrias, sp. nov. 

i%. 14— 15 mm. Head, palpi, thorax, abdomen, and legs rather dark fuscous. 
Forewings rather dark fuscous, faintly purplish-tinged; first and second lines thick, 
dark fuscous, slightly ferruginous-tinged or obscurely mixed with ferruginous centrally, 
first at f , slightly curved, second at f , obtusely angulated about middle, sometimes 
followed on costa by a small whitish spot ; an undefined 8-shaped discal spot similarly 
coloured ; sometimes an undefined darker subterminal shade : cilia fuscous, with dark 
fuscous subbasal line. Hindwings blackish-fuscous; in ^ with very small dorsal lobe 
ending in tuft of fuscous or whitish-fuscous hairs, but without costal hair-pencil ; cilia 
fuscous, basal third dark fuscous. (Plate VI. fig. 15.) 

5 specimens ; 3 Lanai, at 3000 feet, in July ; 2 Molokai, at 3000 feet, in August 
and September. 

(12) Mestolobes banausa, sp. nov. 

Z- 14 — 15 mm. Head and thorax ochreous or fuscous, more or less mixed 
with dark fuscous. Palpi rather dark fuscous. Abdomen rather dark fuscous, some- 
what ochreous-sprinkled. Legs dark fuscous ringed with whitish, posterior tibiae 
suffused with whitish. Forewings fuscous, mixed with dark fuscous ; an irregular 
blackish subbasal line on costal half; dorsal area before first lines sometimes suffused 
with light yellow-ochreous ; first line mixed with ochreous and blackish, angulated 
above middle, sometimes preceded by a similar whitish line ; upper half of median 
area more or less strewn with whitish ; an 8-shaped ochreous discal spot, edged with 
blackish ; second line blackish, marked with ochreous towards costa, posteriorly more 
or less completely edged with white, rather irregular, angulated in middle ; subterminal 
line more or less indicated with ochreous and whitish : cilia fuscous, with dark fuscous 
subbasal line, on upper half of termen obscurely barred with whitish. Hindwings 
dark fuscous, lighter anteriorly ; in ^ with moderate dorsal lobe, ending in tuft of 
whitish hairs, but no costal hair-pencil ; cilia fuscous-whitish, basal third dark fuscous. 

%. Lighter and more ochreous-tinged generally ; forewings with first line almost 
straight, preceding whitish line thicker and more distinct ; hindwings lighter or some- 
times suffusedly whitish-ochreous towards base. 

7 specimens, Kona, Hawaii, at 4000—5000 feet, in July and August. 

(13) Mestolobes mimiscula Butl. 

Boreophila mimiscula Butl. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) vii. 1881, p. 325. 
Mestolobes simaethina id. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1882, p. 38. 
Mestolobes mimiscula Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 230. 



234 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

Abdomen in $ beneath with two short tufts of yellowish hairs near base ; fore- 
wings seldom with median band wholly ochreous ; otherwise sufficiently described. 

70 specimens ; 3 Olaa, Hawaii, at 2000 feet ; 2 Kona, Hawaii, at 2000 feet ; 
6 Kilauea, Hawaii ; i Wailuku, Maui ; 5 Molokai, at 3000 feet ; 20 Waianae Mts., 
Oahu, at 1400 — 2000 feet; 3 Kaala Mts., Oahu, at 1000 — 2000 feet; i Lanai, at 
2000 feet ; 27 Lihui, Kauai, at 1500 feet; 2 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet : from 
February to September, and in November. Also 16 specimens received from 
Mr Blackburn, who records it from Haleakala, Maui, at 4000 feet. 



(14) Mestolobes ochrias, sp. nov. 

^. II — 12 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax yellow-ochreous. Abdomen dark 
fuscous, towards base suffused with yellow-ochreous, segmental margins pale ochreous, 
beneath with two yellowish tufts near base. Legs pale ochreous-yellowish or whitish- 
ochreous, anterior and middle pairs sometimes partially banded with dark fuscous. 
Forewings yellow-ochreous or whitish-ochreous, fuscous-sprinkled ; costa marked with 
very undefined spots of blackish irroration ; upper half of subbasal line indicated by 
blackish irroration ; first and second lines somewhat deeper yellow-ochreous, first 
rather curved, edged with a few dark fuscous scales, preceded by an indistinct whitish 
fuscous-edged line, second moderately curved, sinuate towards dorsum, posteriorly 
edged with blackish and followed by a distinct whitish line ; a terminal series of 
cloudy dark fuscous dots : cilia fuscous-whitish with blackish subbasal and grey 
postmedian line. Hindwings dark fuscous, rather lighter anteriorly ; a moderate 
dorsal lobe ending in a tuft of ochreous-yellow hairs, and an ochreous-yellow costal 
hair-pencil ; cilia whitish, with dark fuscous subbasal line. 

2 specimens, Waianae Mts., Oahu, at 2000 feet, in April. 



(15) Mestolobes scleropis, sp. nov. 

,??. 16— 19 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax fuscous, mixed with pale and dark. 
Abdomen rather dark fuscous. Legs in $ whitish, posterior tibiae roughened with 
black scales on apical half above, in $ fuscous, whitish-ringed. Forewings fuscous, 
more or less mixed with dark fuscous and sometimes with fuscous-whitish ; subbasal 
line blackish-fuscous on upper half; first and second lines obscurely pale, more or 
less edged with ochreous suffusion mixed with blackish-fuscous, first rather curved, 
second irregularly curved, more strongly on median third ; an ochreous 8-shaped 
discal spot, edged with dark fuscous ; a terminal series of small cloudy blackish-fuscous 
spots: cilia fuscous, paler-mixed, with dark fuscous subbasal line. Hindwings dark 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 235 

fuscous becoming lighter anteriorly ; in ^ a small patch of pale yellowish suffusion 
below middle of disc, a moderately broad whitish-ochreous dorsal lobe ending in a 
tuft of whitish and dark fuscous hairs, and a yellow-whitish hair-pencil lying in a 
pale yellowish costal patch; cilia whitish or fuscous-whitish, basal third fuscous 
(Plate VI. fig. 16.) 

7 specimens, Molokai, at 3000—4500 feet, from June to September. 

(16) Mestolobes eurylyca, sp. nov. 

<?. 15 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax ochreous-fuscous. Abdomen dark fuscous, 
lighter on back, beneath with two small whitish-ochreous tufts near base. Legs 
whitish-ochreous, anterior tibiae and tarsi and middle tarsi banded with dark fuscous. 
Forewings ochreous-fuscous, mixed with dark fuscous ; first line represented by a 
rather broad well-defined slightly curved ochreous-whitish fascia before middle; an 
obscure ochreous 8-shaped discal spot touching its posterior edge; second line more 
ochreous, curved, but hardly traceable, followed by a few whitish scales, more distinct 
on costa ; a terminal series of cloudy blackish-fuscous spots : cilia light greyish-ochreous 
obscurely barred with dark fuscous, with a blackish-fuscous line. Hindwings dark 
fuscous, lighter anteriorly ; a moderately broad rather dark fuscous dorsal lobe, clothed 
on inner side with whitish and on outer side with blackish-fuscous hairs ; a light 
ochreous curled hair-pencil lying in an ochreous-whitish costal patch ; cilia grey-whitish, 
basal third rather dark fuscous. 

I specimen, Lanai, at 2000 feet, in January. 

( I 7) Mestolobes orihrias, sp. nov. 

$. 17 mm. Head and palpi whitish-ochreous, face white. Thorax ochreous- 
fuscous. Abdomen rather dark fuscous, two basal segments and apical bands of next 
three ochreous-whitish. Legs ochreous-whitish, anterior tibiae and tarsi and middle 
tarsi banded with dark fuscous. Forewings ochreous-brown ; first line thick, curved, 
white, anteriorly edged with blackish, posteriorly with yellow-ochreous suffusion ; an 
8-shaped discal spot obscurely outlined with dark fuscous ; second line very obscurely 
indicated with whitish and dark fuscous scales, slender, curved-bent, forming a more 
distinct whitish mark on costa ; a terminal series of indistinct dark fuscous dots : cilia 
fuscous, base whitish, with a dark fuscous subbasal line. Hindwings ochreous-white ; 
a moderately broad dark fuscous terminal fascia, becoming suffused beneath and not 
reaching tornus ; a moderate ochreous-whitish dorsal lobe, clothed on both sides with 
whitish hairs ; an ochreous-whitish costal hair-pencil ; cilia whitish, basal half grey 
except towards tornus. (Plate VI. fig. 17.) 

I specimen, Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 feet, in May. 
M. F. H. 31 



2 36 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

(i8) Mestolobes pessias, sp. nov. 

^g. 15 — 23 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax whitish-ochreous or whitish, variably 
mixed with fuscous and dark fuscous. Abdomen fuscous or dark fuscous, segmental 
margins ochreous-whitish, in t beneath with lateral curled tufts below middle. Legs 
whitish, variably banded with dark fuscous. Forewings brownish-ochreous or fuscous, 
sometimes mixed with dark fuscous or whitish ; a blackish subbasal line more or less 
marked on upper half; first line white (seldom pale or obsolete), irregular, angulated 
above middle, partially dark-edged, often followed by a fascia of whitish suffusion 
sometimes confluent with it ; an 8-shaped ochreous dark-outlined discal spot, sometimes 
very obscure ; second line white (seldom pale or obsolete), anteriorly dark-edged, 
curved outwards from ^ to f ; a terminal series of dark fuscous spots : cilia ochreous- 
whitish or seldom fuscous, barred with darker fuscous, and with a dark fuscous sub- 
basal line. Hindwings in ^ ochreous-whitish, with a moderately broad dark fuscous 
terminal band, its anterior edge with more or less developed acute projection in 
middle ; in % dark fuscous, darker terminally ; in ^ with moderately broad ochreous- 
whitish dorsal lobe ending in tuft of black scales, and whitish-ochreous costal hair- 
pencil ; cilia ochreous-whitish, with two more or less marked fuscous or dark fuscous 
lines. (Plate VI. fig. 18.) 

74 specimens, Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet, in May. Extremely variable in 
the development of the white and dark fuscous colouring ; the white predominates 
much more in the Z than in the %. 

(19) Mestolobes chimonias, sp. nov. 

^. 20 — 22 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax brown, somewhat mixed with pale 
and dark. Abdomen fuscous, segmental margins whitish-ochreous. Legs dark fuscous, 
ringed with whitish-ochreous, posterior tibiae whitish-ochreous. Forewings fuscous, 
irregularly mixed with ochreous-whitish and sometimes with dark fuscous ; first and 
second lines slender, whitish, more or less dark-edged and margined on both sides with 
yellow-ochreous suffusion, first angulated above middle, sometimes nearly followed by a 
fascia of whitish suft'usion, second at ^, middle third curved outwards ; an 8-shaped 
ochreous-tinged discal spot suffusedly outlined with dark fuscous, sometimes almost 
obsolete ; a terminal series of cloudy blackish marks : cilia whitish-ochreous, barred 
with fuscous, with a dark fuscous line. Hindwings fuscous-grey, somewhat lighter 
anteriorly ; a pale postmedian line faintly indicated ; a small dorsal lobe, clothed with 
ochreous-whitish hairs, but no costal hair-pencil ; cilia whitish, indistinctly barred with 
grey, with dark grey subbasal line. 

4 specimens; 2 Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 — 6000 feet, in March and April; 
2 Molokai, at 4500 feet, in September. 



I 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 237 

(20) Mestolobes aphrias, sp. nov. 

t%. 19— 23 mm. Head and thorax fuscous, in ^ mixed with whitish. Palpi 
fuscous. Abdomen fuscous, segmental margins whitish. Legs ochreous-whitish, 
anterior and middle pair in $ more or less banded with dark fuscous, in $ suffused 
with rather dark fuscous. Forewings white, in J variably irrorated with fuscous and 
dark fuscous, in % almost wholly suffused with rather dark fuscous mixed with yellow- 
ochreous and black ; first line in ^ represented by a moderately broad pale fascia, in ? 
narrower, posteriorly edged with dark fuscous, angularly projecting in middle and near 
dorsum ; an 8-shaped discal spot partially edged with dark fuscous, in <? white, in ? 
ochreous ; second line white, partially edged with dark fuscous, curved outwards 
from i to I ; a terminal series of cloudy dark fuscous spots : cilia ochreous-whitish 
indistinctly barred with fuscous, with a dark fuscous line. Hindwings in ^ whitish- 
yellowish, with an apical blotch of dark fuscous suffusion, and some dark fuscous 
irroration along remainder of termen ; in % dark fuscous, darker terminally ; in ^ with 
whitish-yellowish dorsal lobe, terminating in a tuft of hairs with apical half blackish, 
and a yellowish costal hair-pencil ; cilia whitish-yellowish, in % with dark fuscous line. 

5 specimens, Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet, in April. 

(21) Mestolobes mesacma, sp. nov. 

(?. 14 — 20 mm. Head and palpi ochreous-whitish, sometimes fuscous-mixed. 
Thorax fuscous mixed with ochreous-whitish. Abdomen rather dark fuscous, towards 
base more or less suffused with ochreous-whitish. Legs ochreous-whitish, banded 
with dark fuscous. Forewings brownish-ochreous, more or less mixed irregularly 
with dark fuscous ; subbasal line blackish on upper half; first line thick, ochreous- 
white, somewhat curved or nearly straight, posteriorly edged with blackish ; an 
8-shaped ochreous discal spot outlined with blackish ; second line pale ochreous, 
partially edged with dark fuscous, middle third curved outwards ; a terminal series 
of cloudy dark fuscous spots : cilia fuscous-whitish mixed with fuscous, with a blackish- 
fuscous subbasal line. Hindwings whitish-yellowish, base whiter; a moderately broad 
blackish-fuscous terminal fascia, in middle sending a strong wedge-shaped projection 
inwards to before middle of disc ; a moderately broad whitish-yellowish dorsal lobe, 
ending in a tuft of black hairs ; no costal hair-pencil ; cilia as in forewings. (Plate VI. 
fig. 19.) 

5 specimens, Molokai, at 3000 — 4500 feet, from June to August. 

{22) Mestolobes chlorolychna, sp. nov. 

^. 14 — 1 2 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax whitish-ochreous more or less mixed 
with fuscous. Abdomen dark fuscous, more or less mixed with whitish-ochreous. 

31—2 



238 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

Legs ochreous-whitish banded with dark fuscous, posterior tibiae above with dense 
blackish tuft of hairs before middle. Forewings ochreous-brown or deep yellow- 
ochreous, more or less sprinkled with dark fuscous ; subbasal line indicated by some 
black scales on upper half; first line represented by a broad ochreous-whitish fascia, 
anteriorly suffused but extending almost to subbasal line, posterior edge slightly curved, 
more or less blackish-margined ; an 8-shaped discal spot sometimes more yellow- 
ochreous but hardly defined ; second line obscurely pale or fuscous-whitish, sometimes 
very little marked, sometimes edged anteriorly with yellow-ochreous and blackish 
scales, middle third curved outwards ; a terminal series of indistinct dark fuscous 
spots : cilia light fuscous, paler-mixed, with dark fuscous subbasal line. Hindwings 
pale ochreous-yellowish ; a moderate blackish-fuscous terminal fascia, with short 
triangular projection inwards in middle ; a moderate ochreous-whitish dorsal lobe, 
with short black tuft of hairs on inner side and similar light yellowish tuft on outer 
side, neither reaching apex, which is naked ; no costal hair-pencil ; cilia ochreous- 
whitish, basal third rather dark fuscous. 

5 specimens, Kona, Hawaii, at 4000 feet, from June to September. 

(23) Mestolobes perixantha, sp. nov. 

i%. 13 — 18 mm. Head and palpi ochreous-whitish to ochreous-yellowish. 
Thorax ochreous-orange, sometimes mixed with dark fuscous. Abdomen ochreous- 
yellow, base of segments more or less marked with dark fuscous. Legs pale 
ochreous-yellowish, more or less banded with dark fuscous. Forewings ochreous- 
orange, very variably irrorated with dark fuscous (very densely, or partially, or 
hardly at all), sometimes mixed with white in disc and towards base ; first line 
thick, white, rather curved, anteriorly edged with blackish-fuscous; an 8-shaped discal 
spot outlined with dark fuscous or almost obsolete, in one specimen preceded by a 
similar white spot ; second line slender, white, sometimes little marked, middle third 
curved outwards : cilia ochreous-yellowish or fuscous-whitish, variably or not mixed 
with dark fuscous. Hindwings ochreous-yellow ; a very variable dark fuscous terminal 
fascia, sometimes occupying posterior half of wing, or narrow, or reduced to an apical 
suffusion, or almost wholly obsolete ; in ^ a rather long broad ochreous-whitish dorsal 
lobe, clothed on sides with pale yellowish hairs, and an ochreous-yellow costal hair- 
pencil ; cilia pale yellowish, sometimes with fuscous line. (Plate VL fig. 20.) 

10 specimens ; 9 Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 feet ; i Kaholuamano, Kauai, 
at 4000 feet; from April to June. Exceedingly variable. 

(24) Mestolobes semiochrea Butl. 

Mestolobes semiochrea Butl. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1882, p. 39; Meyr. op. id. 
1888, p. 229. 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 239 

^. 13— 14mm. Forewings with lines sometimes little marked; an ochreous 
8-shaped discal spot obscurely darker-outlined ; otherwise sufficiently described. 

3 specimens, Waianae Mts., Oahu, in April. Mr Blackburn's examples were from 
the same island " in mountains near Honolulu." 



(25) Mestolobes pragmatica, sp. nov. 

<?. 13 — 14 mm. Head and thorax ochreous-whitish, thinly mixed with dark 
fuscous. Palpi ochreous-whitish. Abdomen dark fuscous, segmental margins more or 
less broadly ochreous-whitish, beneath with two small curled ochreous-whitish tufts near 
base. Legs whitish, anterior and middle pair banded with dark fuscous. Forewings 
fuscous, partially ochreous-tinged, mixed with dark fuscous, especially on median band, 
which is sometimes wholly suffused with dark fuscous ; basal area irregularly mixed and 
spotted with white ; first and second lines white, first sinuate, forming a wedge-shaped 
projection inwards in middle, second slender, curved outwards from :j to f ; an 8-shaped 
discal spot obscurely indicated : cilia ochreous-whitish, with a dark fuscous line. 
Hindwings ochreous-white ; a moderate irregular dark fuscous fascia along upper half 
of termen ; a rather long whitish dorsal lobe, ending in a tuft of whitish hairs of which 
apical third is black ; no costal hair-pencil ; cilia ochreous-whitish, with fuscous subbasal 
line on upper half of termen. 

4 specimens, Olaa, Hawaii, from July to September. 

(26) Mestolobes abnormis Butl. 

Metasia abfwrmis Butl. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1882, p. 35 (?). 

Mestolobes oenone id. 1. c, p. 37 (^). 

Mestolobes abnormis Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc Lond. 1888, p. 228. 

Sufficiently described ; but the tufts of the dorsal lobe, which I have described as 
black, should have been correctly described as having the apical portion black, the rest 
whitish. 

I specimen, Panoa Valley, Oahu, in November; this is a variety having an 
oblique trapezoidal ochreous-white blotch in disc of forewings, extending from above 
middle of first line to termen above tornus, but otherwise normal. Six specimens 
received from Mr Blackburn, who took them flying in the sunshine in a torrent-bed 
near Honolulu, Oahu. 

(27) Mestolobes autodoxa, sp. nov. 

t%. 12— 14 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax fuscous, sometimes ochreous-tinged. 
Abdomen dark fuscous, segmental margins in t whitish towards base. Legs whitish, 



240 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

anterior and middle pair banded with dark fuscous. Forewings fuscous, more or less 
mixed with dark fuscous ; first line obscurely pale or almost obsolete, followed by some 
ochreous and dark fuscous scales ; an 8-shaped discal spot very obscurely indicated ; 
second line pale or whitish-ochreous, slender, curved outwards from ^ to f : cilia fuscous, 
paler-mixed, with a dark fuscous line. Hindwings in ^ ochreous- white, more yellowish- 
tinged dorsally, with moderate dark fuscous fascia along upper half of termen, in % 
rather dark fuscous, becoming blackish-fuscous posteriorly, with a patch of whitish 
suffusion in middle of disc ; in ^ with rather long ochreous-whitish dorsal lobe, clothed 
with long whitish hairs, and a whitish-yellowish costal hair-pencil ; cilia whitish, with dark 
fuscous subbasal line in $ on upper half of termen, in % throughout. (Plate VI. fig. 21.) 
4 specimens, Waianae Mts., Oahu, at 1400 feet, in April. Very similar to 
M. abnormis, yet the $ differs widely in the wholly whitish hairs of the dorsal lobe, and 
the absence of the black tibial tuft. 



(28) Mestolobes homalopa, sp. nov. 

^%. 16 — 20mm. Head, palpi, and thorax pale greyish-ochreous or whitish- 
ochreous, sometimes fuscous-sprinkled. Abdomen in ^ fuscous, segmental margins 
whitish-ochreous, in % darker fuscous. Legs ochreous-whitish, anterior pair sometimes 
banded with dark fuscous. Forewings pale ochreous, sometimes yellowish-tinged, more 
or less irrorated with fuscous, in % sometimes suffused with fuscous ; a few scattered 
dark fuscous scales, but no defined markings : cilia fuscous, paler-mixed. Hindwings 
fuscous, becoming dark fuscous towards termen ; in <J a moderately long ochreous- 
whitish dorsal lobe, clothed with long whitish hairs on inner side, and a ridge of erect 
curled hair-scales along costa towards middle ; cilia fuscous. 

12 specimens, Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet, in May. 

Orthomecyna Bull. 

In the hindwings 7 is sometimes connate with 6, and sometimes anastomoses more 
or less shortly with 8 ; the characters given are otherwise sufficient. The pecten of 
hairs on the lower median vein is as well-defined as in the Crambidae, whereas in 
Mestolobes there is no trace of it. 

1. Hindwings clear orange or yellowish 2. 

,, at most greyish-yellowish, or partly yellow-suffused 6. 

2. Cilia of hindwings fuscous {8) epicausta. 

„ „ yellow or orange 3- 

3. Forewings irrorated or suftused with whitish (ij) mesochasma. 

„ not whitish-irrorated 4. 

4. Hindwings suffused with dark fuscous towards costa (j) albicaudata. 

„ not dark fuscous towards costa 5. 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 241 



'lanes. 



5. Genital tuft of <? whitish (6) chrysoph 

l^'ack {5) alloptila. 

6. Hindwings with more or less yellowish suffusion 7. 

„ wholly without yellowish suffusion 12. 

7. Forewings with lines distinctly black-edged 8. 

„ ,, obscure, not black-edged o. 

8. Hindwings pale greyish-yellowish, with grey terminal band {12) cupreipennis. 

„ dark grey, with two streaks of yellowish suffusion {13) exigua. 

9. Hindwings mostly pale greyish-yellowish 10. 

„ at most with two very indistinct streaks of yellowish suffusion 11. 

10. Abdomen yellow-ochreous (/o) aphanopis. 

,, slaty-fuscous {g) pkrodes. 

11. Forewings with first and second lines closely approximated dorsally ...{2) phaeophanes. 

„ „ „ not closely approximated {4) crossias. 

12. Forewings distinctly ochreous 13, 

,, more grey or dark fuscous 14. 

1 3. Hindwings whitish-fuscous (j) heterodyas. 

„ dark fuscous (2) phaeophanes. 

1 4. Forewings whitish-irrorated (^14) amphilyca. 

„ not whitish-irrorated (7) metalycia. 



( I ) Orthoinecyna metalycia, sp. nov. 

^. 22 — 25 mm. Head, palpi, thorax, abdomen, and legs ochreous-fuscous. 
Forewings rather broad, rather dark fuscous, more or less suffusedly irrorated with 
whitish-ochreous, especially on basal area ; first and second lines whitish-ochreous, 
ill-defined or sometimes almost obsolete, first hardly oblique, triangularly indented 
outwards above middle, posteriorly dark-edged, second moderately curved outwards 
from beneath costa to | ; an indistinct darker transverse mark representing discal 
spot ; a waved whitish-ochreous almost terminal line, seldom obsolete : cilia fuscous 
mixed with whitish-ochreous, with a darker line. Hindwings rather dark fuscous, 
darker posteriorly ; cilia whitish-ochreous, sometimes fuscous-tinged, basal third 
fuscous. (Plate VI. fig. 22.) 

5 specimens, Kona, Hawaii, at 4000 feet, from July to September. 

(2) Orthomecyna phaeophanes, sp. nov. 

^^, 17 29 mm. Head, palpi, thorax, and abdomen ochreous-fuscous or 

ochreous-brown, sometimes mixed with dark fuscous. Legs whitish-fuscous, some- 
times banded with dark fuscous. Forewings rather elongate, ochreous-brown or 
ochreous-fuscous, sometimes mostly suffused with dark fuscous; first and second 
lines lighter ochreous, very obscure or sometimes obsolete, internally dark-edged, 
closely Approximated dorsally, first oblique, more or less triangularly indented out- 
wards above middle, second moderately curved outwards from near costa to f ; 



242 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

sometimes a cloudy dark fuscous discal dot ; sometimes obscure lighter subterminal 
and terminal shades, separated by a sometimes well-marked waved dark fuscous 
line : cilia ochreous-fuscous, tips paler. Hindwings dark fuscous ; sometimes very 
obscure streaks of yellowish suffusion below middle and towards costa posteriorly ; 
cilia light yellowish, more or less fuscous-mixed towards base. 

14 specimens ; 6 Haleakala, Maui, at 4000 — 5000 feet ; 2 Waianae Mts., Oahu, 
at 2000 — 3000 feet ; 4 Molokai, at 3000 — 4000 feet ; 2 Kauai, at 4000 feet ; from 
April to June, and in September. Varies considerably, whilst always very obscure ; 
from O. 7netalycia it differs in the narrower forewings, ochreous colouring, and 
dorsally closely approximated first and second lines. 



(3) Orthomecyna heterodyas, sp. nov. 

i. 25 — 28 mm. Head, palpi, thorax, abdomen, and legs brownish-ochreous, 
fuscous-tinged. Forewings rather elongate, brownish-ochreous, distinctly yellowish- 
tinged, sprinkled with fuscous ; first and second lines cloudy, whitish, first irregular, 
second curved outwards on upper f : cilia fuscous-whitish, mixed with brownish- 
ochreous (imperfect). Hindwings whitish-fuscous, becoming fuscous towards termen ; 
ciha as in forewings. (Plate VI. fig. 23.) 

2 specimens, Kilauea, Hawaii, in June and August. 



(4) Orthomecyna crossias, sp. nov. 

$^. 23 — 28 mm. Head and thorax dark fuscous, somewhat mixed with light 
ochreous-yellowish. Palpi dark fuscous. Abdomen pale yellow-ochreous, in $ little, in 
$ mostly suffused with fuscous. Legs dark fuscous, ringed with pale yellow-ochreous. 
Forewings elongate, brown, densely irrorated with dark fuscous ; first and second lines 
indicated by a diffused ochreous-yellow irroration, only defined on costa, where it forms 
two well-marked yellowish spots ; a more or less marked yellowish suffusion towards 
middle of costa ; a small undefined dark fuscous discal spot, in $ followed by a sub- 
quadrate white spot, and connected with middle of dorsum by a broad irregular whitish 
suffusion ; an undefined ochreous dentate line resting on termen : cilia ochreous- 
yellowish mixed with dark fuscous. Hindwings fuscous, becoming dark fuscous 
posteriorly ; very obscure streaks of yellowish sufiusion beneath middle of disc, and 
towards costa posteriorly ; cilia ochreous-yellowish, base in $ mixed with dark 
fuscous. 

2 specimens, Oahu, at 2000 feet, in April. 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 243 

(5) Orthomecyna alloptila, sp. nov. 

t. 18—21 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax ochreous-orange, palpi somewhat 
infuscated. Abdomen light orange, apex whitish, genital tuft of ^ black. Legs 
ochreous-whitish, anterior pair obscurely banded with fuscous. Forewings elongate, 
ochreous-orange, suffused towards termen with fuscous ; first and second lines hardly 
paler, closely approximated dorsally, median band somewhat infuscated, first straight, 
oblique, second curved on upper half ; a small undefined darker fuscous discal spot : 
cilia ochreous-yellowish or fuscous, basal half darker fuscous. Hindwings light 
orange ; a narrow longitudinal median streak, a broader dorsal streak, and a rather 
narrow irregular terminal fascia cloudy dark fuscous ; cilia light orange, tips paler. 

3 specimens, Kilauea, Hawaii, in June and August. 

(6) Orthomecyna clirysophanes, sp. nov. 

Z%. 18 — 24 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax brownish-ochreous to ochreous- 
orange. Abdomen pale orange, towards apex more or less whitish, genital tuft of t 
whitish. Legs pale yellowish or ochreous-whitish, anterior and middle pair more or 
less banded with fuscous. Forewings rather elongate, ochreous-orange, more or less 
irrorated or in one specimen wholly suffused with fuscous, usually clearer orange 
towards middle of costa ; first and second lines hardly indicated except by cloudy dark 
fuscous internal margins, which are closely approximated dorsally, first nearly straight, 
irregular, second curved outwards on upper half ; a small undefined dark fuscous discal 
spot, seldom with an ochreous-whitish spot beyond it and another below it ; sometimes 
a fuscous shade beyond second line ; usually slender darker fuscous subterminal and 
terminal lines, sometimes suffused together as a narrow fascia : cilia fuscous, with a 
dark fuscous line. Hindwings light orange ; usually a more or less developed 
narrow dark fuscous terminal fascia, with a triangular projection inwards in middle, 
often interrupted below middle or much reduced or sometimes wholly obsolete ; 
sometimes a narrow median streak of dark fuscous irroration, and a broader dorsal 
streak ; cilia light orange, tips yellow-whitish. (Plate VL fig. 24.) 

14 specimens; 13 Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 feet; i Kaholuamano, Kauai, 
at 4000 feet ; from April to June. Very variable. 

(7) Orthomecyna albicaudata Butl. 

Orthomecyna albicaudata Butl. Ent. Mo. Mag. xix. p. 178; Meyr. Trans. Ent. 

Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 226. 
Sufficiently described. 

One specimen, Lanai, at 3000 feet, in July. Mr Blackburn's specimens were 
from the same island. 

M. F. H. 32 



244 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

(8) Orthomecyna epicausta, sp. nov. 

^ %. 13 — 20 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax dark fuscous, sometimes mixed with 
whitish-ochreous. Abdomen ochreous or fuscous, towards apex whitish, genital tuft 
of ^ blackish. Legs ochreous-whitish, anterior pair banded with fuscous. Forewings 
elongate, rather dark brown, more or less mixed and posteriorly or sometimes 
wholly suffused with dark fuscous ; first and second lines obscurely pale or brownish- 
ochreous, often obsolete, approximated dorsally, first irregular, second curved on 
upper f , sometimes united to form a distinct whitish-ochreous dorsal blotch ; a very 
obscure dark fuscous discal spot : cilia fuscous, with two suffused darker lines. 
Hind wings ochreous-yellow or whitish-yellowish ; a moderately broad blackish-fuscous 
terminal fascia, more or less extended along dorsum ; often a narrow median longitudinal 
streak of dark fuscous irroration, and another less marked beneath costa ; cilia fuscous, 
sometimes becoming yellow-whitish towards tornus. (Plate VI. fig. 25.) 

30 specimens, Kona, Hawaii, at 4000 — 6000 feet, from June to September. 

(9) Orthomecyna picrodes, sp. nov. 

t%. 21 — 23 mm. Head, palpi, thorax, abdomen, and legs rather dark slaty- 
fuscous. Forewings rather elongate, slaty-fuscous, darker-sprinkled, in % whitish- 
sprinkled towards termen ; first and second lines in ^ obsolete, in $ obscurely 
whitish, first obtusely bent in middle, second curved on upper f ; in $ a very 
obscure dark discal dot : cilia fuscous, somewhat whitish-mixed, with darker subbasal 
line. Hindwings grey; a dull whitish-yellowish grey-sprinkled suffusion occupying 
whole of disc except an obscure median longitudinal streak ; cilia as in forewings. 
(Plate VI. fig. 26.) 

2 specimens, Hualalai, Hawaii, at 8000 feet, in August. 

(10) Oi-t/iomecyna aphanopis Meyr. 

Orthomecyna aphanopis Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 227. 

No specimens sent by Mr Perkins. The locality for this species is un- 
recorded, but probably it was Maui or Oahu, as most of Mr Blackburn's other 
specimens were thence. 

(11) Orthomecyna mesochasvia, sp. nov. 

t%- 18 — 21 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax whitish mixed with grey. Abdomen 
light ochreous-yellow. Legs whitish, banded with grey. Forewings rather elongate, 
fuscous, much irrorated or sometimes suffused with whitish ; first and second lines 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 245 

whitish, sometimes edged internally with dark fuscous, first almost straight, some- 
what indented in middle, second curved on upper f ; an undefined dark fuscous 
discal dot, and sometimes a second above it ; subterminal line cloudy, dentate, 
whitish, sometimes obsolete : cilia fuscous, more or less whitish-mixed, with darker 
subbasal line. Hindwings clear ochreous-yellow ; median and subdorsal streaks of 
blackish-grey irroration ; a moderately broad blackish-grey terminal band, sharply 
interrupted on a quadrate space below middle ; cilia light yellow, tips paler (Plate VII 
fig. I.) 

7 specimens ; 3 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet : 4 Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 
4000 feet ; from April to June, and in October. 

(12) OrtJiomecyna cupreipcnnis Butl. 

07'thomecyna exigiia, van cjipreipennis Butl. Ent. Mo. Mag. xix. p. 179. 

i- 18 — 20 mm. Abdomen light ochreous-yellowish. Forewings as in O. 
exigiia. Hindwings pale dull ochreous-yellowish, faintly greyish-tinged ; a moderate 
dark grey terminal band ; cilia pale whitish-ochreous, suffused with grey towards 
base. 

I specimen, Lanai, at 2000 feet, in February. Several were obtained by Mr 
Blackburn from the same island, and as the differential characters appear to be 
constant, I think it advisable to allow the form specific rank. 

(13) Orthomecyna exigua Butl. 

Mecyna exigua Butl. Ent. Mo. Mag. xv. ja. 271 ; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) 

VII. 1 88 1, p. 329. 
Orthomecyna exigua Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 227. 

Abdomen varying from pale ochreous to grey ; forewings usually more or less 
irrorated or sometimes much suffused with whitish ; cilia of hindwings sometimes 
suffused with greyish. Otherwise sufficiently described. 

19 specimens; 18 Molokai, at 3000 — 4000 feet; i Kilauea, Hawaii; in May, 
June, and September. Also taken commonly by Mr Blackburn in Maui. 

(14) Orthomecyna amphilyca, sp. nov. 

Z- 16—22 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax fuscous-grey. Abdomen greyish- 
ochreous. Legs dark grey, obscurely whitish-ringed. Forewings grey, irrorated with 
dark fuscous and whitish ; first and second lines whitish, internally edged with 
some blackish scales, first angulated above middle, second curved on upper f ; a 

32—2 



246 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

small undefined blackish-fuscous discal spot ; an undefined whitish subterminal line, 
followed by a row of blackish dots : cilia grey mixed with whitish, with a dark 
fuscous line. Hindwings whitish-ochreous densely irrorated throughout with fuscous, 
with a somewhat darker terminal band ; cilia whitish, with a fuscous line. 

2 specimens, Haleakala, Maui, at 9000 feet, in October. 



Protaulacistis, gen. nov. 

Face rounded, oblique ; ocelli present ; tongue developed. Antennae f, in ^ 
pubescent. Labial palpi moderately long, porrected, second joint with dense project- 
ing scales attenuated forwards, terminal joint concealed. Maxillary palpi moderate, 
terminally dilated with loose scales. Tibial outer spurs f. Forewings normal. 
Hindwings with veins 3, 4, 5 closely approximated at base, 7 out of 6 near origin, 
anastomosing with 8 to near middle, lower median without distinct pecten ; in ^ 
with subdorsal groove above containing loose hair-pencil. 

Although the $ has the subdorsal groove as in the preceding genus, all the 
veins of the hindwings are present in both sexes. The character of the markings 
is quite that of the Pyrmista group. 

(i) Pro/anlacistis cataphaea, sp. nov. 

t%- T7 — 2 1 mm. Head, palpi, thorax, abdomen, and legs rather dark fuscous. 
Forewings rather dark fuscous, strewn with ochreous-brown scales ; roundish orbi- 
cular and 8-shaped discal spot very obscurely darker-outlined, sometimes obsolete ; 
second line dark fuscous, very obscure, curved, waved, forming an abrupt loop 
inwards beneath discal spot ; a terminal series of indistinct dark fuscous dots : cilia 
fuscous, with two faint darker lines. Hindwings dark fuscous, slightly purplish- 
tinged, darker terminally ; cilia grey, with darker subbasal line, tips whitish. 
(Plate VH. fig. 2.) 

13 specimens, Haleakala, Maui, at 6000 feet, in May. 

ScoPARiA Haw. 

I have recently come to the conclusion that Xeroscopa cannot be advan- 
tageously maintained as distinct from Scoparia, the point of distinction being so 
slight and sometimes hardly appreciable, whilst in other respects, structural and 
superficial, there is no difference at all. Probably all the following species show 
more or less of the discal hairs characteristic of Xeroscopa. though in some cases 
they are apparently reduced to the merest rudiment. All the species have the fore- 
wings comparatively narrow, some very narrow. 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 247 



1. Forewings with rhomboidal black patch along central third of 

costa 2 

,, without such patch . 

2. Costal patch enclosing an elongate white costal spot (j) amphicypella. 

„ without white spot , 

3. Posterior edge of costal patch inwardly oblique {2) rhombias. 

" )) outwardly oblique (i) fefranaa. 

4. Forewings with entire black subterminal fascia 5. 

„ without such fascia i, 

5. Upper half of discal spot filled with white {14) thalatnias. 

„ „ absorbed in black costal bar 6. 

6. Groundcolour of forewings pale ochreous-yellowish {11) tyraula. 

., ,, white or ochreous-white 7. 

7. Antemedian black fascia connected in disc with postmedian bar {12) pcntaspila. 

„ ,, not so connected 8. 

8. Antemedian black fascia connected in disc with subbasal fascia 9. 

„ „ not so connected 10. 

9. Connection broad; hindwings grey-whitish (j) orthoria. 

narrow; hindwings grey {8) mcsoleuca. 

10. Head mixed with black {10) antimacha. 

„ not mixed with black {g) tnianiis. 

11. Groundcolour of forewings uniform shining ashy-grey {26) siderina. 

,, ,, not uniform grey 12. 

12. Forewings with groundcolour orange or ferruginous 13. 

,, ,, not orange or ferruginous 16. 

13. First line well-marked, white 14. 

„ hardly defined {36) nyctombra. 

14. Orbicular and claviform blackish 15. 

,, „ not blackish {28) iant/ies. 

15. Second line reduced in disc to dots (2g) marmarias. 

„ entire in disc (jo) aeolias. 

16. First line doubled, well-marked, yellowish-tinged 17. 

„ not doubled, or if so, not yellowish ig. 

17. Head yellowish-fuscous; hindwings grey {40) zophochlora. 

„ yellowish on crown; hindwings whitish-grey 18. 

18. Orbicular obliquely beyond claviform (jg) meliMora. 

,, vertically above claviform (41) /imaiaiiensis. 

19. Head and thorax shining coppery {34) erebochalca. 

,, ,, not coppery 20. 

20. Head yellowish, or mixed with yellowish 21. 

, , not yellowish 22. 

21. Lines white (j/) nectarias. 

„ pale yellowish {2j) parachlora. 

22. Head clear white, at most with black frontal bar, or face sprinkled 

with black 23. 

„ more or less wholly mixed or suffused with fuscous or blackish 34. 

23. Discal spot 8-shaped 24- 

,, absorbed in black costal bar 25. 

24. Thorax black-sprinkled {16) halirrhoa. 

„ not black-sprinkled {17) actias. 



248 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

25. Posterior edge of subbasal fascia angulated, lower portion inwardly oblique 26. 

„ ,, not so formed 28. 

26. Forewings sprinkled with black {6) passalota. 

,, not sprinkled with black 27. 

27. Posterior edge of antemedian fascia with middle third triangularly dilated. ..(^) oxythyma. 

,, „ „ with upwards-oblique quadrate median 

projection (5) balanopis. 

28. Orbicular and claviform separate, distinct {i§) loxocaiti-a. 

,, ,, confluent together or with antemedian fascia 29. 

29. Spot representing orbicular and claviform connected with postmedian bar 30. 

„ ,, ,, not so connected 33. 

30. Forewings more or less sprinkled with black 31. 

„ not sprinkled with black 32. 

31. Apical black blotch enclosing an oblique white apical mark (2j) cryeivdes. 

,, „ without such mark {ij) pachyscma. 

32. Spot representing orbicular and claviform quadrate {20) struthias. 

,, „ „ pentagonal {ig)formosa. 

33. Orbicular and claviform forming a trilobate projection of antemedian fascia {21) iriacma. 

„ „ an 8-shaped spot, at most connected to- 
wards extremities with fascia {22) jucunda. 

34. Forewings with veins white-streaked, other markings obsolete (jj) ve?iosa. 

,, „ not white-streaked, markings more or less distinct 35. 

35. Forewings with a fine blackish line along submedian fold throughout {48) peronetis. 

„ without such line 36. 

36. First line sharply angulated below middle 37. 

,, not angulated below middle 38. 

37. Subterminal line obsolete' ....: {46) epimystis. 

„ „ distinct (47) frigida. 

38. Forewings with defined blackish subbasal fascia 39. 

,, without such fascia 44. 

39. Orbicular white, blackish-edged {44) dactyliopa. 

„ black 40. 

40. Orbicular and claviform merged in dark suffusion of first line {4.3) demodes. 

,, ,, distinct 41. 

41. Orbicular and claviform confluent into an 8-shaped spot 42. 

,, n separate 43. 

42. Postmedian bar connected beneath with apical blotch {24) crataea. 

,, not so connected i^iS) vielanocephala 

43. Orbicular rather obliquely beyond claviform {42) empeda. 

,, vertically above claviform (2^) ombrodes. 

44. Lines almost obsolete (jd) omichlopis. 

„ more or less marked 45. 

45. Forewings with groundcolour fuscous or dark fuscous, sometimes orange-tinged... 46. 

>, „ whitish 51. 

46. Forewings dark, tinged with yellowish, orange, or coppery 47. 

„ appearing grey, without such tinge 50. 

47. Claviform conspicuous, blackish 48. 

„ little marked 49. 

48. Claviform separate (j/) clonodes. 

„ connected with dark margin of first line (j2) biicolica. 



MA CROLEPIDOP TERA 249 

49- Forewings orange-tinged {33) oenopis. 

not orange-tinged {38) thyelhpis. 

50. Orbicular obsolete (^o) melanopis. 

distinct {4g) ischnias. 

51. Claviform conspicuous, black (33) pyrseutis. 

,, obsolete or merged in dark margin of first line 52. 

52. Dark markings suffused with brown {34) platyscia. 

,, without brown tinge c-j. 

53. Expanse 13 mm. or less {43) geraea. 

,, 14 mm. or more ca, 

54. First line indented in middle ce, 

„ not indented in middle eg. 

55. Orbicular elongate or dash-like, blackish {33) probolaea. 

not dash-like i^^j) macrop/ianes. 

56. Orbicular forming a distinct black dot {33) halmaea. 

„ not distinct or dot like {32) wen's f is. 



(i) Scoparia tetranesa, sp. nov. 

?. 16 mm. Head and thorax white, shoulders black. Palpi black, base and 
tips white. Abdomen whitish. Forewings white ; a moderate black almost basal 
fascia, sharply angulated below middle ; a rhomboidal black patch extending along 
costa from before ^ to before |, lower anterior angle touching middle of dorsum, 
lower posterior angle in disc at f ; a small undefined oblique blackish costal mark 
at f ; a moderate black apical spot, and smaller tornal spot : cilia white. Hindwings 
whitish-grey, terminally suffused with grey, more broadly at apex ; cilia grey-whitish, 
with a grey basal line. (Plate VII. fig. 3.) 

I specimen, Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet, in October. 

(2) Scoparia rhombias, sp. nov. 

t%. 16 — 17 mm. Head and thorax white, shoulders black. Palpi black, base 
and tips white. Abdomen light grey, segmental margins white. Forewings ochreous- 
white ; a moderate black almost basal fascia, sharply angulated about middle ; a rhom- 
boidal black patch extending along costa from beyond \ to f, lower anterior angle 
not reaching middle of dorsum, but sometimes connected with it by a few black 
scales, lower posterior angle in disc at f ; two small undefined marks of blackish or 
grey irroration on costa towards apex, and sometimes a smaller one on tornus ; a 
terminal series of blackish dots, sometimes incomplete : cilia white. Hindwings 
grey-whitish or whitish-grey, suffused with grey towards apex ; cilia whitish. 

5 specimens ; 4 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet, in April ; i IVIolokai, at 
4000 feet, in June. 



250 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

(3) ScopaiHa ainphicypella, sp. nov. 

^. 18 mm. Head and thorax white, shoulders black. Palpi black, base and tips 
white. Abdomen grey, segmental margins white. Forewings white ; a moderate 
blackish almost basal fascia, sharply angulated below middle ; a rhomboidal blackish 
patch extending on costa from before \ to before f , lower angles prominent, anterior 
not reaching dorsum, posterior in disc at f, enclosing an elongate semioval white 
costal spot ; an inwardly oblique oblong blackish anteapical spot, and a smaller 
praetornal spot: cilia white. Hindwings grey-whitish, terminally suffused with grey; 
cilia whitish. (Plate VII. fig. 4.) 

I specimen, Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 feet, in May. 

(4) Scoparia oxythyma, sp. nov. 

^ $. 15 — 18 mm. Head and thorax white, shoulders with a black spot. Palpi 
white, with black median bar. Abdomen bronzy-ochreous, segmental margins white. 
Forewings white ; a moderate black almost basal fascia, sharply angulated about 
middle ; a narrow black oblique fascia from \ of costa to middle of dorsum, middle 
third triangularly dilated posteriorly ; an oblique black bar from |- of costa, reaching 
half across wing, lower extremity excavated ; a black praetornal spot ; an inwardly 
oblique oblong black anteapical spot, preceded by a black costal dot ; two or three black 
sometimes confluent terminal dots towards middle : cilia white. Hindwings whitish- 
grey, terminally suffused with grey ; cilia white. 

I I specimens ; 5 Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 feet ; 6 Kaholuamano, Kauai, 
at 4000 feet ; from April to June. This and the following species differ from those 
most similar to them by the broader white apical portion of the palpi, which 
reduces the black central portion to a comparatively narrow bar. 

(5) Scoparia balaiiopis, sp. nov. 

<??. 15 — 17 mm. Head and thorax white, shoulders black. Palpi white, with 
black median bar. Abdomen ochreous-whitish, in ^ more ochreous-tinged. Fore- 
wings white or ochreous-white ; a moderate black almost basal fascia, angulated 
below middle ; a narrow black oblique fascia from \ of costa to middle of dorsum, 
anterior edge with a triangular central prominence, posterior with a strong upwards- 
oblique quadrate median projection ; an oblique black bar from f of costa, reaching 
half across wing, lower extremity excavated ; a black praetornal spot ; an inwardly 
oblique oblong black anteapical spot, preceded by a black costal dot ; a terminal 
series of more or less defined black dots, in middle usually coalescing into a 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 251 

triangular spot: cilia white. Hindwings whitish-grey, suffused with grey towards 
termen, sometimes with a pale posterior line; cilia white. (Plate VII. fig. 5.) 

1 1 specimens ; 3 Kona, Hawaii, at 4000 feet ; 5 Olaa, Hawaii, at 2000 feet ; 3 
Hilo, Hawaii, at 2000 feet; in July, September, November, and December. 

(6) Scoparia passalota, sp. nov. 

,??. 16— 20 mm. Head white, face sometimes with blackish bar. Palpi 
blackish, base and tips white. Thora.x white, a spot on shoulders and central 
dorsal spot black. Abdomen greyish-ochreous, segmental margins whitish. Fore- 
wings white, more or less sprinkled with black, dorsal half sometimes mixed with 
grey and irrorated with black ; a moderate black almost basal fascia, sharply angu- 
lated in middle ; a narrow oblique black fascia from beyond \ of costa to before 
middle of dorsum, posterior edge with strong upwards-oblique subquadrate median 
projection ; a moderate oblique black bar from costa before f , reaching half across 
wing, lower extremity excavated ; anterior edge of second line more or less distinctly 
blackish, forming small spots at extremities ; a rhomboidal black praetornal spot, 
broadest above ; an inwardly oblique oblong black anteapical spot, connected beneath 
with a triangular black spot on middle of termen ; a terminal series of undefined 
black dots : cilia pale fuscous, somewhat whitish-mixed, with interrupted darker 
subbasal line. Hindwings pale grey, terminally suffused with grey ; cilia fuscous- 
whitish, with light fuscous subbasal line. 

8 specimens ; 7 Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet ; i Lahaina, Maui, at 3000 feet ; 
in April and May. Undoubtedly allied to the preceding species in essential 
characters, though differing much in the diffusion of black scales. 

(7) Scoparia orthoria, sp. nov. 

^ $. 14 — 16 mm. Head ochreous-white. Palpi black, tips and base white. 
Thorax ochreous-white, shoulders and a central dorsal spot black. Abdomen pale 
greyish-ochreous, segmental margins broadly white. Forewings ochreous-white ; a 
very broad oblique black almost basal fascia ; a broad oblique black fascia from 
beyond \ of costa to beyond middle of dorsum, narrowed beneath, produced on 
dorsum posteriorly, on upper half confluent with subbasal fascia except on costa ; a 
rather broad oblique black bar from costa before |, reaching half across wing, 
lower extremity sometimes excavated, more or less confluent beneath with following 
fascia ; a broad irregular black subterminal fascia, sometimes including a white costal 
dot ; a terminal series of black dots, sometimes forming a median spot connected with 
preceding fascia : cilia white. Hindwings grey-whitish or whitish-grey, terminally 
suffused with grey; a suffused grey discal spot; cilia white. (Plate VII. fig. 6.) 

4 specimens, Olaa, Hawaii, at 2000 feet, in June, July, and November. 
M. F. H. 33 



252 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 



(8) Scoparia mesoleuca, sp. nov. 

^^. 15 — 17 mm. Head ochreous-white, with small black spot before antennae. 
Palpi black, tips and base white. Thorax ochreous-white, a spot on shoulders and 
a central dorsal spot black. Abdomen brownish-ochreous, segmental margins white. 
Forewings ochreous-white ; a broad black oblique almost basal fascia ; a broad black 
oblique fascia from \ of costa to middle of dorsum, abruptly narrowed dorsally, 
followed by some black scales on dorsum, connected in middle with subbasal fascia ; 
a moderately broad oblique black bar from costa about |, reaching half across wing, 
lower extremity excavated, confluent beneath with following fascia ; a broad irregular 
black subterminal fascia, including a white costal dot ; a terminal series of black 
dots, sometimes forming a median spot connected with preceding fascia : cilia white. 
Hindwings grey, darker terminally ; cilia whitish. 

7 specimens, Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 3000 — 4000 feet, in May and June. 



(9) Scoparia niiantis, sp. nov. 

t. 14 mm. Head ochreous-white. Palpi black, base and tips white. Thorax 
ochreous-white, a spot on shoulders and small undefined dorsal spot black. Abdo- 
men greyish-ochreous, segmental margins whitish. Forewings very narrow, ochreous- 
white, with some irregularly scattered black scales ; a broad oblique black almost 
basal fascia, outer edge irregular ; a broad oblique slightly curved black fascia from 
about \ of costa to middle of dorsum, outer edge irregular ; a moderately broad 
oblique black bar from costa about f, lower extremity almost circularly excavated 
or annular ; a broad irregular black subterminal fascia, enclosing a white costal 
mark, and confluent with a black spot on middle of termen ; a terminal series of 
black dots : cilia whitish, with two interrupted grey lines. Hindwings grey ; cilia 
grey-whitish, with two cloudy grey lines. 

I specimen, Molokai, at 3500 feet, in June. 



(10) Scoparia antiniaclia, sp. nov. 

$. 17 mm. Head and thorax white mixed with black. Palpi black, base and 
tips white. Abdomen ochreous-grey, segmental margins whitish-tinged. Forewings 
ochreous-white, irregularly sprinkled with black ; basal area much mixed and suffused 
with black up to first line ; a moderate oblique black fascia from \ of costa to 
middle of dorsum, posterior edge broadly dilated from near costa to below middle ; 
a black dorsal spot beyond this ; a broad oblique black bar from costa before |, 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 253 

reaching half across wing, lower extremity annular, connected beneath with following 
fascia ; a broad irregular black subterminal fascia, enclosing a white costal dot, 
anterior edge with long acute triangular projection below middle, posteriorly con- 
fluent with a black spot in middle of termen ; a terminal series of black dots : cilia 
white, with much interrupted blackish antemedian line, tips round apex spotted 
with grey. Hindwings grey, terminally darker-suffused; cilia grey-whitish, with grey 
basal line. 

I specimen, Lahaina, Maui, at 2000 feet, in December. 



(11) ScopcD'ia tyranla, sp. no v. 

?. 14 — 16 mm. Head whitish-yellow, with black spots before antennae, some- 
times almost confluent. Palpi black, base and tips yellow-whitish. Thorax whitish- 
yellow, a spot on shoulder and A-shaped dorsal mark black. Abdomen grey. 
Forewings pale ochreous-yellowish ; a rather broad oblique black almost basal fascia, 
followed by undefined black subcostal, median, and subdorsal spots ; a narrow 
oblique black fascia from before \ of costa to before middle of dorsum, posteriorly 
confluent with a quadrate black blotch extending from near costa to below middle ; 
some black irroration towards middle of costa ; a thick oblique black bar from 
before f of costa, reaching half across wing, lower extremity annular, sometimes 
connected with preceding blotch ; a small black dorsal spot beyond middle ; a black 
costal strigula at f , sometimes connected beneath with preceding bar ; a broad 
irregular black subterminal fascia, abruptly contracted below middle, anterior edge 
with acute triangular projection below middle : cilia whitish, more or less barred 
with grey, with interrupted blackish antemedian line. Hindwings grey, darker 
terminally; cilia grey-whitish, with grey basal line. (Plate VH. fig. 7.) 

5 specimens ; 3 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet ; 2 Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 
4000 feet ; from April to June. 



(12) Scoparia ptntaspila, sp. nov. 

^^. 16— 17 mm. (Head and thorax defaced.) Palpi black, base and tips 
white. Abdomen pale greyish-ochreous, segmental margins whitish. Forewings 
ochreous-white, with a few scattered black scales; a broad oblique black almost 
basal fascia, followed by black subcostal, median, and subdorsal marks; a moderate 
oblique black fascia from \ of costa to middle of dorsum, narrow on dorsal third, 
posteriorly dilated from near costa to below middle to form a quadrate black blotch, 

33—2 



2 54 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

connected in middle with following bar ; a broad oblique black bar from costa 
before f, reaching half across wing, lower extremity excavated, connected beneath 
with an inwardly oblique black mark from costa at f , and with following fascia ; a 
broad irregular black subterminal fascia, on upper half very broad and nearly reach- 
ing termen, abruptly and narrowly contracted below this and again dilated down- 
wards ; a terminal series of black dots partially absorbed in this : cilia white, with 
two much interrupted lines becoming obsolete dorsally, first blackish, second dark 
grey. Hindwings light grey, terminally suffused with darker grey ; cilia grey-whitish, 
with two cloudy grey lines. 

2 specimens, Kaala Mts., Oahu, at 2000 feet, in March. 



(13) Scoparia pachysenia Meyr. 

Xeroscopa pachysema Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 236. 

No specimen of this species was obtained by Mr Perkins ; the locality of the 
original type is not recorded, but I should be disposed to conjecture Haleakala, 
Maui. It is a peculiar species, not very near any other, markedly narrower-winged 
than most others, with the black markings largely developed. The narrowed wings 
and dark colouring are somewhat characteristic of Haleakala species, and many of 
Mr Blackburn's other insects are from that locality. 

(14) Scoparia thalamias, sp. nov. 

$. 18 — 21 mm. Head blackish, somewhat white-sprinkled, face mostly suffused 
with white. Palpi blackish, base white. Thorax blackish, variably mixed or much 
suffused with white dorsally, patagia margined with white, tips grey. Abdomen 
greyish-ochreous, segmental margins sometimes whitish. Forewings white, irregularly 
irrorated with black ; basal area irregularly suffused with black ; first line white, 
rather curved, oblique, sharply indented in middle, followed by some black suffusion ; 
orbicular and claviform confluent into an irregular blackish blotch, preceded by a 
clearer white spot ; discal 8-shaped, well-defined, black, halves filled with white, 
connected above with costa, beneath confluent with a very broad blackish terminal 
fascia, containing white costal and dorsal marks, and irregular interrupted sub- 
terminal series of white dots ; an interrupted white terminal line : cilia white, barred 
with dark fuscous, with interrupted blackish antemedian line. Hindwings grey, 
terminally darker-suffused; cilia whitish, with dark grey subbasal line. (Plate VH. 
fig. 8.) 

7 specimens ; 4 Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 feet ; 3 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 
4000 feet; from April to June. 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 255 

(15) Scoparia loxocentra, sp. no v. 

?. 17— 2 1 mm. Head white. Palpi white, with black median bar. Thorax 
white, a spot on shoulders and two dorsal marks black. Abdomen white, some- 
times light ochreoLis towards base of segments. Forewings ochreous-white, with a 
very few scattered black scales ; a rather narrow oblique black almost basal fascia, 
posterior edge with acute median and dorsal projections ; a narrow irregular oblique 
black fascia from about \ of costa to before middle of dorsum, almost interrupted 
(reduced to a very fine line) below middle ; orbicular and claviform small, round, 
black, orbicular obliquely beyond claviform, remote from preceding fascia, claviform 
near or in one specimen confluent with lower portion of preceding fascia; a rather 
narrow irregular oblique black bar from f of costa, sometimes almost obsolete on 
costa, reaching half across wing, lower extremity excavated; a rhomboidal black 
praetornal spot, broadest above, preceded by a black dorsal dot ; an inwardly oblique 
oblong black anteapical spot, preceded by a black costal dot ; an undefined triangular 
blackish spot in middle of termen ; a terminal series of black dots : cilia white. 
Hindwings grey-whitish, terminally suffused with grey, more strongly towards apex ; an 
obscure grey discal mark ; cilia white, round apex with faint grey line. (Plate VII. fig. 9.) 

3 specimens ; i Kona, Hawaii, at 2000 feet ; i Kilauea, Hawaii ; i Hualalai, 
Hawaii, at 8000 feet ; from July to September. 

(16) Scoparia halirrlioa, sp. no v. 

t%- 15 — 16 mm. Head ochreous-white, face black-sprinkled, antennal orbits 
black. Palpi black, base and tips white. Thorax ochreous-white, irregularly irrorated 
with black. Abdomen fuscous or pale grey, segmental margins white. Forewings 
ochreous-white, sprinkled with black ; a narrow angulated black almost basal fascia, 
followed by some black irroration ; a narrow irregular oblique black fascia from \ of 
costa to before middle of dorsum, almost interrupted below middle ; orbicular and 
claviform small, black, orbicular obliquely beyond claviform, widely remote from 
preceding fascia, claviform not touching fascia ; discal 8-shaped, black, more or less 
connected with costa, halves filled with white or in one specimen upper half wholly 
black ; an irregular rhomboidal black praetornal spot, broadest above, preceded by 
a black dorsal dot ; two inwardly oblique black marks from costa before apex, 
connected together beneath and with a triangular black spot on middle of termen ; 
a terminal series of black partially confluent dots : cilia ochreous-white, with two 
interrupted blackish lines. Hindwings whitish-grey, posteriorly suffused with grey; 
cilia grey-whitish, with a grey line. 

3 specimens; 2 Olaa, Hawaii; i Hilo, Hawaii, at 2000 feet; in January and 
June. 



256 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

(17) Scoparia actias, sp. nov. 

^ ^. 16 — 17 mm. Head white. Palpi black, base and tips, and apex of second 
joint white. Thorax white, a spot on shoulders and a A-shaped dorsal mark black. 
Abdomen brownish-ochreous, segmental margins white. Forewings white, with some 
scattered black scales; a moderate irregular-edged oblique black almost basal fascia; 
a narrow irregular oblique black fascia from \ of costa to middle of dorsum, sharply 
attenuated in middle, sometimes expanded posteriorly on dorsum with black suffusion ; 
orbicular and claviform small, round, black, transversely placed, separate or confluent, 
sometimes connected separately with preceding fascia ; discal 8-shaped, black-outlined, 
lower half incomplete, upper touching a small black costal spot ; a rhomboidal black 
praetornal spot, broadest above, anterior edge sharply indented ; an inwardly oblique 
oblong black anteapical spot, preceded by a small black costal mark, and connected 
beneath with a triangular black spot on middle of termen ; a terminal series of 
black dots : cilia white, with a thick blackish interrupted antemedian line, tips 
obscurely spotted with blackish. Hindwings whitish-grey, posteriorly suffused with 
darker grey, with obscure pale posterior line ; a grey discal mark ; cilia whitish, with 
a grey line. (Plate VII. fig. 10.) 

4 specimens ; 3 Olaa, Hawaii, at 2000 feet ; i Kona, Hawaii, at 2000 feet ; in 
July, September, and November. 

(18) Scoparia melanoccp/iala, sp. nov. 

$. 17 mm. Head black, centre of face and sides of crown white. Palpi black, 
base and tips white. Thorax white mixed with black, anteriorly broadly black. Abdo- 
men brownish-ochreous, segmental margins white. Forewings ochreous-white, with 
some scattered black scales ; a moderate oblique black almost basal fascia, posterior 
edge with median and dorsal projections, followed by some black irroration ; a rather 
narrow oblique black fascia from beyond :|: of costa to before middle of dorsum, almost 
interrupted (reduced to a fine line) towards middle ; orbicular and claviform confluent 
into an 8-shaped transverse black spot, connected above and below middle with 
preceding fascia, and in middle with postmedian bar ; a broad oblique black bar 
from costa at f, reaching half across wing, lower extremity excavated ; a rhomboidal 
black praetornal spot, broadest above ; an inwardly oblique black mark from costa 
at f, reaching nearly half across wing ; a rhomboidal black apical blotch, containing 
an oblique white mark not reaching apex ; two black dots on lower part of termen : 
cilia white, with an interrupted black subbasal line, and tips spotted with dark grey 
round apex. Hindwings whitish-grey, terminally suffused with grey ; cilia whitish, 
with a dark grey line becoming obsolete towards tornus. 

I specimen, Kona, Hawaii, at 4000 feet, in September. 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 257 



(19) Scoparia forniosa Butl. 

Scoparia jucunda, xa.r. forniosa Butl. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 1881, p. 331. 

Xeroscopa forniosa Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 237. 

t%. 17—18 mm. Head white. Palpi black, base and tips white. Thorax 
white, a spot on shoulders and A-shaped dorsal mark black. Abdomen ochreous, 
segmental margins broadly white. Forewings white or ochreous-white ; a moderate 
black almost basal oblique fascia, posteriorly with sharp median and longer dorsal 
projections, on costa generally followed by some black scales ; a narrow oblique 
black fascia from before \ of costa to middle of dorsum ; orbicular and claviform 
confluent into an irregular pentagonal black spot, anteriorly wholly confluent with 
preceding fascia, posterior angle shortly produced to coalesce with postmedian bar; 
a thick oblique black bar from costa before |, reaching half across wing, lower 
extremity excavated ; a rhomboidal black praetornal spot, broadest above, preceded 
by a black dorsal dot ; a rhomboidal black apical blotch, preceded by a black costal 
dot, and containing an oblique white apical mark ; usually one or two black terminal 
dots below this: cilia white. Hindwings whitish-grey, terminally suffused with grey; 
cilia whitish, with a faint greyish line. 

2 specimens, Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet, in May. Two others previously 
sent by Mr Blackburn from the same locality, at about 4000 feet. 



(20) Scoparia strut hias, sp. nov. 

t. 15 — [6 mm. Head white. Palpi black, base and tips white. Thorax white, 
a spot on shoulders and A-shaped dorsal mark black. Abdomen light ochreous, 
segmental margins white. Forewings white ; a thick black almost basal oblique 
fascia, posteriorly with sharp median and longer dorsal projections ; a narrow oblique 
black fascia from beyond \ of costa to beyond middle of dorsum, anterior edge 
with triangular central prominence, posterior with a quadrate upwards-oblique 
median projection, its posterior angle shortly produced to coalesce with postmedian 
bar; a thick oblique black bar from costa before f, reaching half across wing, 
lower extremity almost circularly excavated ; a rhomboidal black praetornal spot, 
broadest above, upper posterior angle sometimes connected with apical blotch ; a 
rhomboidal black apical blotch, preceded by a black costal dot, and containing an 
oblique white apical mark: cilia white. Hindwings grey- whitish ; a grey discal 
mark, and terminal suffusion; cilia white. (Plate VH. fig. 11.) 

2 specimens, Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 3000—4000 feet, in May. 



258 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

(21) Scoparia iriactna, sp. nov. 

^^. 14— 17mm. Head white. Palpi black, base and tips white. Thorax 
white, a spot on shoulders and A-shaped dorsal mark black. Abdomen ochreous- 
whitish or light ochreous. Forewings white ; a moderate black oblique almost basal 
fascia, posterior edge with sharp median and dorsal projections ; a narrow oblique black 
fascia from J of costa to middle of dorsum, anterior edge somewhat concave, generally 
more or less prominent in middle, posterior edge with strong usually three-lobed or 
three-pointed median projection, lowest point seldom obsolete ; a variable oblique black 
bar from costa about f , reaching half across wing, lower extremity excavated ; a rhom- 
boidal black praetornal spot, broadest above, sometimes preceded by a black dorsal dot ; 
an inwardly oblique oblong black anteapical spot, sometimes preceded by a black costal 
dot, and tending to be connected beneath with a triangular black spot on middle of 
termen : cilia white. Hind wings grey-whitish, terminally suffused with grey; cilia 
white, sometimes with a faint grey line. (Plate VH. fig. 12.) 

17 specimens; 6 Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 feet; 11 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 
4000 feet ; from April to June. 

(22) Scoparia jiicimda Butl. 

Scoparia jucimda Butl. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) vii. 1881, p. 331. 
Xeroscopa juczmda Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 238. 

^%. 14 — 17 mm. Head white. Palpi black, base and tips white. Thorax 
white, a spot on shoulders and central dorsal spot black. Abdomen ochreous, segmental 
margins whitish. Forewings white or ochreous-white, with a few scattered black 
scales ; a moderate oblique black almost basal fascia, posterior edge with acute median 
and dorsal projections ; a narrow irregular oblique black fascia from before \ of costa 
to about middle of dorsum ; an irregularly 8-shaped transverse black mark (representing 
orbicular and claviform) close beyond this, often more or less connected with it above 
and below middle ; a moderate or narrow irregular oblique black bar from costa before 
■|, reaching half across wing, lower extremity excavated ; a rhomboidal black praetornal 
spot, broadest above, preceded by a black dorsal dot ; an inwardly oblique oblong black 
anteapical spot, preceded by a black costal dot, tending to be connected beneath with a 
triangular black spot on middle of termen ; a terminal series of black dots : cilia 
white. Hindwings whitish-grey, terminally suffused with grey, sometimes with 
faint pale darker-edged posterior line ; cilia whitish, with more or less marked 
grey line. 

9 specimens ; 8 Kona, Hawaii, at 2000 — 5000 feet ; i Lanai, at 2000 feet ; in 
February, and from June to September. 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 259 



(23) Scoparia cryerodes, sp. nov. 

<??• 13—17 mm- Head white, with black spot before antennae. Palpi black, 
base and apex white. Thorax white, a spot on shoulders and A-shaped dorsal mark 
black, in $ more mixed with black. Abdomen grey, segmental margins whitish. 
Forewings white, with some scattered black scales, in $ irregularly irrorated with 
black ; a moderate oblique black almost basal fascia, posterior edge with acute median 
and dorsal projections ; a narrow irregular curved oblique black fascia from before \ of 
costa to middle of dorsum ; an irregularly 8-shaped transverse black mark (representing 
orbicular and claviform) close beyond this, connected with it above and below middle, 
and connected in middle with postmedian bar ; a moderate oblique black bar from 
costa before f , reaching half across wing, lower extremity excavated or in $ annular ; 
a rhomboidal black praetornal spot, broadest above, posterior edge indented, in ? 
slenderly connected above with apical blotch ; a rhomboidal black apical blotch, 
preceded by a black costal dot (in ? extended to indicate margin of second line on 
upper half), and including an oblique white apical mark ; a terminal series of black 
dots partially absorbed in this : cilia white, in ? with blackish interrupted subbasal 
line. Hindwings in ,? pale grey, in % grey, terminally darker-suffused ; cilia pale grey, 
in ? with darker basal line. (Plate VII. fig. 13.) 

53 specimens ; 24 Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 feet ; 29 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 
4000 feet ; from April to June. This is the only species of the genus, so far as 
appears, which shows a notable difference in colouring between the sexes ; although 
this consists essentially only of an increase in the black scales of the $, the result 
is sufficiently marked and constant to allow of the sexes being mistaken for distinct 
species. 



(24) Scoparia crataea, sp. nov. 

^ ?. 15 — 20 mm. Head and thorax white, much mixed or partly suffused with 
black. Palpi black, base and tips white. Abdomen grey, segmental margins whitish. 
Forewings white, irregularly irrorated with black ; a moderate oblique black almost 
basal fascia, outer edge with acute median and subdorsal projections, often obscured by 
irroration ; first line clear white, edged posteriorly by a rather narrow curved oblique 
black fascia from before ^ of costa to middle of dorsum ; a rather outwardly oblique 
8-shaped black spot (representing orbicular and claviform), more or less suffusedly 
connected with preceding fascia and with postmedian bar; a moderate oblique black 
bar from costa before f , reaching half across wing, lower extremity excavated or 
annular, connected beneath with apical blotch ; an irregular rhomboidal black praetornal 
M. F. H. 34 



26o FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

spot, broadest above ; an irregular rhomboidal black apical blotch, enclosing a white 
costal strigula, and double white anteapical spot ; a terminal series of confluent black 
dots, partly absorbed in this : cilia white, barred with grey, with dark grey subbasal 
line. Hindwings grey, suffused with darker towards termen ; cilia grey-whitish, with 
grey basal line. 

29 specimens; 23 Olaa, Hawaii, at 2000 feet; 6 Hilo, Hawaii, at 2000 feet; 
in January, June, July, and November. 

(25) Scoparia ombrodes Meyr. 

Xeroscopa ombrodes Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 234. 

$%. 13 — 16 mm. Head and thorax blackish mixed with whitish. Palpi blackish, 
base and tips whitish. Abdomen fuscous. Forewings white or ochreous-white, variably 
irrorated or suffusedly mixed with black ; an undefined irregular oblique almost basal 
fascia, narrowed on costa ; first line white, curved, oblique, edged posteriorly with 
blackish suffusion ; orbicular and claviform small, round, black, separate, vertically 
placed ; discal 8-shaped, black, connected above with costa, lower half filled with white, 
upper half sometimes whitish-mixed ; second line white, more or less blackish-edged 
anteriorly, terminal area beyond this black ; subterminal line white, connected with 
second in middle, interrupted above this ; a terminal series of white dots : cilia whitish, 
more or less barred with fuscous, with a dark fuscous antemedian line. Hindwings 
in ^ pale grey, in % grey, darker terminally ; cilia whitish or whitish-grey, with grey 
subbasal line. (Plate VII. fig. 14.) 

41 specimens; 15 Kona, Hawaii, at 1500 — 4000 feet; 2 Olaa, Hawaii; 4 Lanai, 
at 2000 feet; 7 Molokai, at 3000 feet; 9 Waianae Mts., Oahu, at 1500 feet; 2 Mts. 
Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 feet ; i Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet ; i Lihui, Kauai, at 
1500 feet; from February to September. The two original specimens sent by 
Mr Blackburn were without note of locality. 

(26) Scoparia siderina, sp. nov. 

Z%. 14 — 18 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax fuscous-grey, base of palpi white. 
Abdomen fuscous. Forewings rather dark shining ashy-grey ; a slender blackish 
subbasal fascia ; an irregular transverse blackish blotch- on costa before middle, reaching 
half across wing, connected with dorsum by an undefined blackish line ; traces of 
a very undefined postmedian band of fuscous suffusion ; a small undefined blackish 
spot on costa at f , sometimes preceded and followed by dots of ochreous-white suffusion: 
cilia ashy-grey. Hindwings grey, darker terminally ; cilia grey. (Plate VII. fig. 15.) 

1 2 specimens ; 7 Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 feet ; 4 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 
4000 feet ; i Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet ; from April to June, and in October. 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 261 

(27) Scoparia parachlora, sp. no v. 

?• 13—15 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax dark fuscous, mixed with pale yellowish, 
base of palpi yellow-whitish. Abdomen grey. Forewings dark fuscous, much mixed 
with pale ochreous-yellowish ; a narrow interrupted blackish subbasal fascia, and a 
blackish spot in disc beyond this ; first line oblique, pale yellowish, edged posteriorly 
on upper f by an oblong blackish blotch from costa, its lower angle including claviform ; 
orbicular small, blackish, obliquely beyond this, separate; discal 8-shaped, blackish- 
outlined on sides of upper half, otherwise little defined ; second and subterminal lines 
pale yellowish, little defined, confluent in middle ; a terminal series of cloudy blackish 
dots : cilia grey, basal half dark grey, obscurely barred with yellow-whitish. Hindwings 
grey, darker posteriorly ; cilia light grey, with darker subbasal line. (Plate VII. fig. 16.) 

4 specimens, Olaa, Hawaii, at 2000 feet, in June, July, and November. 



(28) Scoparia iant/ies, sp. nov. 

$%■ 15 — 17 mm. Head orange, antennal orbits black. Palpi dark fuscous, 
mixed with yellowish. Thorax orange, irrorated with blackish, with whitish central 
patch. Abdomen whitish to light greyish-ochreous. Forewings orange, irrorated 
with dark fuscous or blackish ; two white basal dots ; first line white, oblique, irregular, 
rather remotely preceded by a less marked similar line ; orbicular sometimes repre- 
sented by a white dot ; an irregular angular white median spot beyond this, one angle 
sometimes touching it ; a smaller white spot beneath median ; upper half of discal 
spot represented by a white dot surrounded by blackish suffusion (sometimes obsolete), 
lower half by a longitudinal white mark ; a white costal mark about f ; second line 
white, sometimes interrupted ; subterminal white, irregular, more or less interrupted in 
middle, beneath this nearly approaching second line : cilia ochreous-whitish, with two 
interrupted fuscous lines. Hindwings grey-whitish, posteriorly greyer except on a 
whitish posterior line; cilia white or ochreous-whitish. (Plate VII. fig. 17.) 

4 specimens ; 2 Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 feet ; 2 Kaholuamano, Kauai, 
at 4000 feet; from April to June. 



(29) Scoparia marmarias, sp. nov. 

^ $. 17 — 20 mm. Head orange, more or less mixed with blackish, with a white 
line between eyes and antennae. Palpi dark fuscous mixed with yellowish. Thorax 
orange, mixed with black and spotted with white. Abdomen silvery-white. Forewings 
ferruginous-orange, mixed with black or dark fuscous, sometimes more or less mixed 

34—2 



262 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

irregularly with silvery-white ; first line silvery-white, oblique, rather irregular ; orbicular 
and claviform undefined, blackish, preceded and followed by silvery-white spots, 
orbicular rather obliquely beyond claviform ; discal represented by an undefined 
subquadrate spot of blackish suffusion ; a silvery-whitish costal suffusion beyond 
this ; second line silvery-white, much interrupted and in disc reduced to dots ; sub- 
terminal silvery-white, irregular, interrupted above middle and sometimes partially 
reduced to dots : cilia fuscous, barred with silvery-white, with an interrupted dark 
fuscous antemedian line. Hindwings shining fuscous-whitish, posteriorly greyish- 
tinged ; cilia white. 

9 specimens ; 8 Olaa, Hawaii ; i Hilo, Hawaii, at 2000 feet ; in June, September, 
November, and December. 



(30) Scoparia aeolias, sp. nov. 

^. 17 mm. Head ferruginous, with blackish spot before antennae and central 
dot on crown. Palpi ferruginous, somewhat mixed with dark fuscous. Thorax ferru- 
ginous, mixed with whitish and black. Abdomen pale ochreous, segmental margins 
whitish. Forewings ferruginous, irrorated with black ; first line slender, irregular, 
oblique, silvery-white, preceded by a less marked similar line ; orbicular and claviform 
roundish, black, separate, preceded and followed by irregular silvery-white spots, 
orbicular obliquely beyond claviform ; discal undefined, 8-shaped, mostly suffused with 
black, with a white dot in lower half ; median area mixed with silvery-white suffusion 
towards dorsum ; a silvery-white costal spot about | ; second and subterminal 
lines silvery-white, confluent in middle, somewhat interrupted : cilia white, barred with 
fuscous (imperfect). Hindwings whitish-grey, terminally grey-suffused ; cilia white. 

I specimen, in only moderate condition, Oahu, at 2000 feet, in April. 

, (31) Scoparia fieciarias, sp. nov. 

$. 16 — 19 mm. Head pale ochreous-yellowish, sprinkled with dark fuscous. 
Palpi pale yellowish, mixed with dark fuscous. Thorax yellow-whitish, patagia pale 
yellowish mixed with dark fuscous. Abdomen grey or pale grey, segmental margins 
white. Forewings light ochreous-yellow, closely irrorated with dark fuscous ; first line 
white, very oblique, indented in middle, rather remotely preceded by a little-defined 
similar line ; orbicular and claviform blackish, dot-like, claviform touching first line 
beneath, preceded and followed by small white spots, orbicular obliquely beyond 
claviform, sometimes whitish-centred or preceded by a white dot, separated from discal 
by a white spot ; discal spot represented by two white dots connected by a blackish 
suffusion ; second and subterminal lines well-marked, white, more or less confluent 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 263 

in middle : cilia white, somewhat mixed with fuscous towards tips, with a blackish 
or dark yellowish-fuscous antemedian line. Hindwings pale grey, becoming darker 
posteriorly, sometimes with faint whitish posterior line ; cilia whitish-grey or whitish, 
with more or less marked dark grey subbasal line. (Plate VI I. fig. 18.) 

5 specimens ; 4 Hilo, Hawaii, at 2000 feet; i Lanai, at 2000 feet; in January. 

(32) Scoparia biuolica, sp. nov. 

J. 17 — 20 mm. Head and thorax yellowish-fuscous, somewhat whitish-sprinkled. 
Palpi dark fuscous, base and tips whitish. Abdomen fuscous, mixed or suffused with 
whitish. Forewings yellowish-fuscous, irrorated with whitish, sometimes much suffused 
with ochreous-yellowish, more or less sprinkled with black, veins posteriorly sometimes 
marked with black lines ; basal area with irregular median blackish streak, and two 
blackish dashes towards dorsum ; first line somewhat curved, oblique, whitish, posteriorly 
strongly edged with black suffusion ; claviform moderate, roundish, black, confluent 
with this suffusion ; orbicular annular, partly outlined with black, connected with 
discal by a streak or spot of whitish suffusion ; discal 8-shaped, little defined, towards 
middle much suffused with black ; second line whitish, well-defined, nearer termen than 
usual ; subterminal cloudy, whitish, confluent with second in middle, sometimes 
obsolete ; a terminal series of cloudy blackish marks : cilia whitish, mixed with fuscous, 
with darker fuscous antemedian line. Hindwings whitish-grey, terminally grey-suffused ; 
cilia whitish, with grey subbasal line. 

3 specimens, Molokai, at 4000 — 4500 feet, from June to August. 

{11) Scoparia pyrsentis, sp. nov. 

?. 16—19 mm. Head and thorax whitish, more or less mixed or irrorated with 
dark fuscous. Palpi fuscous, base and tips whitish. Abdomen fuscous, segmental 
margins whitish-suffused. Forewings whitish, finely sprinkled with fuscous and 
blackish, sometimes partly tinged with ochreous-yellow suffusion; first line rather 
strongly oblique, straight, white, rather remotely preceded by a similar fainter line, 
and posteriorly edged with darker suffusion ; a short black mark beyond this above 
middle ; claviform elongate, black, touching posterior margin of first line ; orbicular 
small, black, somewhat transverse, obliquely beyond claviform, separated from discal 
by a whitish spot ; discal 8-shaped. litde defined, lower half whitish, upper half laterally 
edged with black ; second line white, tolerably defined ; subterminal cloudy, whitish, 
ill-defined, approximated to second in middle ; a terminal series of dark fuscous or 
blackish dots : cilia whitish, faintly barred with fuscous, with two interrupted or little 
marked dark fuscous lines. Hindwings whitish, terminally grey-suffused ; cilia white. 

2 specimens, Kona, Hawaii, at 3000—6000 feet, in August and October. 



264 



FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 



(34) Scoparia erebochalca, sp. nov. 

j^. 15 — 16 mm. Head and thorax shining coppery, sometimes purplish-tinged. 
Palpi coppery-fuscous, base white. Abdomen ochreous-grey. Forewings shining 
ferruginous-coppery, irrorated with dark fuscous, sometimes purple-shining, sprinkled 
with whitish ; no defined markings, but second and subterminal lines sometimes 
indicated with white scales : cilia light coppery-fuscous, somewhat whitish-sprinkled, 
sometimes whitish-barred and with dark fuscous subbasal line. Hindwings pale grey, 
coppery-tinged, terminally grey-suffused ; cilia whitish, with grey subbasal line. 

9 specimens ; 7 Hilo, Hawaii, at 2000 feet ; 2 Kilauea, Hawaii ; in August and 
December. 

(35) Scoparia oenopis, sp. nov. 

^ ^. 18 — 23 mm. Head dark fuscous, sometimes ochreous-tinged, with a white 
line between eyes and antennae. Palpi dark fuscous, base white. Thorax dark 
coppery-fuscous, sprinkled or spotted with white. Abdomen grey or whitish-grey. 
Forewings dark orange-fuscous, more or less sprinkled irregularly with silvery-white ; 
first line slender, oblique, silvery-white ; orbicular, claviform, and discal spot sometimes 
indicated by darker suffusion, orbicular rather obliquely beyond claviform, claviform 
touching first line ; a median band of silvery-white irroration ; a costal spot of 
white suffusion at |- ; second line silvery-white, more or less interrupted and undefined ; 
subterminal silvery-white, irregular, undefined ; a terminal series of white dots : cilia 
fuscous, barred with white, with dark fuscous antemedian line. Hindwings light fuscous 
or whitish-fuscous, darker terminally; cilia whitish, with a fuscous line. (Plate VII. 
fig. 19.) 

6 specimens; 3 Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet; 2 Hilo, Hawaii, at 2000 feet; 
I Molokai, at 3000 feet; in April, May, June, and December. 

(36) Scoparia iiyctonibra, sp. nov. 

$. 17 — 18 mm. Head dark fuscous, ferruginous-tinged. Palpi rather dark 
fuscous, ferruginous-tinged, base whitish. Thorax dark fuscous, somewhat sprinkled 
with ferruginous and whitish. Abdomen rather dark fuscous. Forewings ferruginous- 
orange, much mixed with dark fuscous ; irregularly scattered groups of white scales, 
indicating first, second, and subterminal lines, and some markings in disc, but all 
undefined : cilia fuscous, basal fourth dark fuscous spotted with white, tips spotted with 
whitish. Hindwings rather dark fuscous, darker terminally ; cilia fuscous, with a 
darker basal line. 

2 specimens, Molokai, at 4500 feet, in September. 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 265 



{'^']) Scoparia c/onodes, sp. nov. 

<? ?. iS — 23 mm. Head dark fuscous, with a white Hne above eyes. Palpi dark 
fuscous, basal joint white. Thorax dark fuscous, somewhat whitish-sprinkled. Abdomen 
grey, segmental margins narrowly whitish. Forewings dark fuscous, irrorated with 
white, sometimes tinged or partially suffused with ferruginous-ochreous, veins posteriorly 
sometimes streaked with black ; first line very obscure, pale, oblique, curved, somewhat 
indented in middle, preceded by a similar line, and edged posteriorly with blackish 
suffusion ; orbicular and claviform blackish, round, separate, claviform sometimes rather 
large, orbicular rather obliquely beyond claviform ; discal 8-shaped, blackish, filled up 
with ochreous, more or less connected with costa ; second line pale, very obscure, 
anteriorly edged with blackish suffusion ; space between second and subterminal lines 
blackish-suffused ; subterminal line whitish, distinct or sometimes obscure, touching 
second in middle ; a terminal series of white dots : cilia whitish, obscurely barred with 
grey, with dark fuscous antemedian line. Hindwings pale grey, slightly yellowish- 
tinged, suffused posteriorly with fuscous ; cilia ochreous-whitish, with a grey line. 
(Plate VII. fig. 20.) 

13 specimens, Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet, in May. The conspicuously marked 
spots distinguish this from the ne.xt species. 



(38) Scoparia thyellopis, sp. nov. 

^^. 15 18 mm. Head dark fuscous or black, with a white line above eyes, and 

a more or less marked white central line on crown. Palpi dark fuscous, basal joint 
white. Thorax dark fuscous or black, sprinkled with white. Abdomen light ochreous, 
segmental margins narrowly whitish, sometimes with ferruginous-tinged antemedian 
band Forewings fuscous or brown, somewhat tinged with purplish or coppery, mixed 
or sometimes much suffused with dark fuscous or blackish, and sprinkled with white ; 
first, second, and subterminal lines indicated by white irroration, usually undefined, 
little marked, first oblique, curved, sharply indented in middle, sometimes edged 
posteriorly with dark suffusion, subterminal approximated to second in middle ; orbicular 
and claviform round, dark fuscous, separate, little marked, orbicular rather obliquely 
beyond claviform ; discal 8-shaped, dark fuscous, usually hardly traceable or only by 
dark central suffusion, sometimes with whitish dot in lower half; a terminal series 
of white dots : cilia whitish, barred with fuscous, with dark fuscous antemedian hne. 
Hindwings pale fuscous or grey, somewhat darker posteriorly ; cilia grey-whitish, with 
a fuscous subbasal line. 

28 specimens; 16 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet; 8 Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 



266 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

4000 feet; i Waianae Mts., Oahu ; 3 Lanai, at 3000 feet ; from April to July. Differs 
from the preceding by the smaller size, somewhat narrower forewings, the frequent 
presence of a distinct white central line on crown, and the indistinctness of the normal 
spots, which are often almost obsolete. 

(39) Scoparia melichlora, sp. nov. 

j*^. 15 — 20 mm. Head pale yellowish, with a blackish spot before antennae. 
Palpi black, tips and apex of basal joint yellow-whitish. Thorax pale yellowish, more 
or less sprinkled with dark fuscous, a spot on shoulders and central dorsal spot blackish. 
Abdomen silvery-grey, segmental margins whitish. Forewings pale ochreous-yellow, 
sprinkled with black ; a moderate oblique black almost basal fascia ; first line pale 
yellow, very oblique, edged anteriorly by an irregular black line narrowly separated 
from edge of basal fascia, and posteriorly by a thicker black line or slender fascia ; 
orbicular and claviform black, dot-like, claviform confluent with posterior edge of first 
line, orbicular obliquely beyond claviform ; discal 8-shaped, black, more or less 
connected by suffusion with costa, upper half pale-centred or wholly black, lower 
half filled with pale yellowish ; a small blackish mark on costa at | ; an inwardly 
oblique oblong black anteapical spot, more or less connected beneath with a triangular 
black spot on middle of termen ; a rhomboidal black praetornal spot, broadest above, 
posterior edge sharply indented, with a triangular black terminal mark entering the 
indentation : cilia whitish, with two more or less marked interrupted lines, first blackish, 
second cloudy grey. Hindwings whitish-grey, termen grey-suffused ; cilia whitish, with 
grey subbasal line. (Plate VII. fig. 21.) 

139 specimens ; 91 Hilo, Hawaii, at 2000 feet ; 47 Olaa, Hawaii ; i Kona, Hawaii, 
at 2000 feet ; in January, June, July, September, and December. 



(40) Scoparia zophocJilora, sp. nov. 

^%. 18 — 20 mm. Head yellowish-fuscous, with a dark fuscous spot before 
antennae. Palpi dark fuscous, somewhat mixed with pale scales. Thorax dark 
fuscous, mixed with pale yellowish. Abdomen fuscous, segmental margins whitish- 
mixed. Forewings dark fuscous, somewhat sprinkled with pale yellowish ; first line 
very oblique, somewhat sinuate, pale ochreous-yellow, preceded by a less marked 
similar line ; orbicular and claviform indicated by blackish suffusion, claviform touching 
first line beneath, orbicular obliquely beyond claviform, preceded by a more or less 
marked yellow-whitish dot, and separated from discal by an irregular yellow-whitish 
spot ; discal 8-shaped, blackish, lower half filled with pale ochreous-yellow ; lower half 
of median area much suffused with pale yellowish ; second and subterminal lines pale 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 267 

ochreous-yellow, well-marked, confluent in middle: cilia fuscous-whitish, barred with 
fuscous, with an interrupted dark fuscous antemedian line. Hindwings grey, darker 
terminally ; cilia grey, more whitish basally, with a dark grey subbasal tine. 
2 specimens, Molokai, at 4500 feet, in June and September. 



(41) Scoparia hawaiensis Bud. 

Scoparia hawaiensis Butl. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) vii. 1881, p. 330. 

Xeroscopa hawaiensis Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 235. 

t%- 15 — JS mm. Head ochreous-yellow on crown, sides somewhat mixed with 
dark fuscous, face dark fuscous, somewhat sprinkled with yellowish, with blackish spots 
before antennae. Palpi dark fuscous, base and tips whitish. Thorax yellow-whitish 
mixed with blackish. Abdomen grey or pale greyish-ochreous, segmental margins 
often whitish. Forewings yellow-whitish, irrorated or mixed with blackish ; a moderate 
irregular oblique black almost basal fascia; first line yellow-whitish or pale yellow, 
oblique, sinuate outwards above and below middle, closely preceded by and sometimes 
partly confluent with a similar line, and followed by a more or less marked fascia 
of black suffusion ; orbicular and claviform separate, black, usually suffused and 
little defined, vertically placed ; discal 8-shaped, black, upper half wholly black or 
only obscurely pale-centred, lower filled with yellow-whitish ; second line obscure, little 
marked, followed on costa and dorsum by black spots ; a terminal series of black dots, 
confluent in middle into a triangular spot : cilia whitish, barred with grey, with an 
interrupted blackish antemedian line. Hindwings whitish-grey, towards termen grey- 
suffused ; cilia whitish, with a grey line. 

83 specimens ; 54 Olaa, Hawaii ; 26 Hilo, Hawaii, at 2000 feet ; 2 Kona, Hawaii, 
at 2000 and 4000 feet; i Molokai, at 4500 feet; in January, June, July, September, 
November, and December. Mr Blackburn's specimens were from Mauna Kea, Hawaii, 
at 7000 feet. This species can always be distinguished from S. empeda by the distinctly 
yellow {sometimes almost orange) crown of the head. 1 am disposed to doubt the 
Molokai locality. 



(42) Scoparia empeda, sp. nov. 

^ ?. 17— 20 mm. Head ochreous-whitish, face dark fuscous. Palpi dark fuscous, 
base and tips whitish. Thorax ochreous-whitish, much mixed with blackish. Abdomen 
fuscous, seo-mental margins sometimes whitish. Forewings ochreous-whitish, mixed 
with blackish ; a nearly basal oblique undefined blackish fascia ; first line strong, 
oblique, ochreous-whitish, preceded by a similar nearly confluent line, appearing to 
M. F. H. 35 



268 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

form together a conspicuous fascia, edged posteriorly with blackish suffusion ; orbicular 
and claviform roundish, blackish, undefined, separate, orbicular somewhat obliquely 
beyond claviform ; discal 8-shaped, blackish, halves filled with whitish or upper half 
mostly suffused with blackish ; second line ochreous-whitish, well-defined ; terminal 
area beyond it suffused with blackish, subterminal line cloudy, ochreous-whitish, 
confluent in middle with second, interrupted above this ; a terminal series of whitish 
dots : cilia ochreous-whitish, more or less indistinctly barred with grey, with a dark 
fuscous antemedian line. Hindwings light grey, darker posteriorly ; cilia grey-whitish, 
with grey subbasal line. 

5 specimens ; 3 Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet ; 2 Lanai, at 2000 feet ; in January, 
May, and December. 



(43) Scoparia demodes Meyr. 

Xeroscopa demodes Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 234. 

%. 17 mm. Head and thorax fuscous, mixed with white. Palpi dark fuscous, 
base white, second joint somewhat mixed with white, at least at apex. Forewings 
white, irregularly irrorated with fuscous or ochreous-fuscous ; a narrow irregular almost 
basal blackish fascia ; first line white, oblique, curved, indented in middle, edged 
posteriorly with blackish suffusion, space between this and subbasal fascia appearing 
to form a broad whitish band ; orbicular and claviform merged in the dark suffusion or 
obsolete ; discal undefined, 8-shaped, partially blackish-edged laterally, lower half 
whitish-filled ; second and subterminal lines white, defined or cloudy, confluent in 
middle ; a terminal series of dark fuscous dots : cilia ochreous-whitish, indistinctly 
barred with fuscous, with a darker fuscous antemedian line. Hindwings pale fuscous, 
darker posteriorly ; cilia whitish, with a grey subbasal line. 

I specimen, Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 feet, in May ; in conjunction with which 
I have redescribed the original type, which entirely agrees with it, and may probably 
be from the same island, though its locality is not recorded. 



(44) Scoparia dacty/wpa, sp. nov. 

^ ?. 18 — 21 mm. Head and thorax white mixed with dark fuscous. Palpi dark 
fuscous mixed with whitish, with a blackish median band, base white. Abdomen 
fuscous, mixed with whitish. Forewings white, irrorated with fuscous and black ; 
an undefined narrow blackish almost basal fascia ; first line white, oblique, rather 
curved, indented in middle, edged posteriorly with black suffusion ; orbicular somewhat 
reniform, clear white, black-edged, touching black suffusion of first line ; claviform very 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 269 

small, irregular, white, black-edged, touching first line ; discal 8-shaped, white, black- 
edged except at top and bottom ; second line white, obsolete except at extremities ; 
subterminal cloudy, whitish, interrupted above middle : cilia whitish, indistinctly barred 
with fuscous, with an interrupted blackish antemedian line. Hindwings light fuscous, 
darker towards termen ; cilia whitish, basal third fuscous. (Plate VII. fig. 22.) 

2 specimens, Molokai, at 4500 feet, in September. 



(45) Scoparia geraea, sp. no v. 

<??. 12 — 13 mm. Head and thorax whitish, sprinkled with grey. Palpi blackish, 
sprinkled with whitish, base white. Abdomen grey. Forewings whitish, finely sprinkled 
with blackish ; a spot of blackish suffusion on base of costa, and one in middle 
near base ; first line white, curved, oblique, indented in middle, edged posteriorly with 
blackish irroration ; orbicular small, roundish, blackish-grey, separate ; claviform 
obsolete ; discal 8-.shaped, halves white, little-defined, separated by blackish-grey 
suffusion ; second and subterminal lines white, confluent in middle, surrounded with 
blackish-grey irroration : cilia white, with grey antemedian line. Hindwings whitish- 
grey, termen suffused with grey ; cilia whitish, with indistinct greyish subbasal line. 
(Plate VII. fig. 23.) 

3 specimens ; 2 Waianae Mts., Oahu, at 2000 — 3000 feet ; i Mts. Waimea, Kauai, 
at 3000 — 4000 feet ; in April and May. Distinct by its small size and pallid 
appearance. 

(46) Scoparia epimystis, sp. nov. 

$. 19 mm. Head and thorax fuscous, mixed with whitish. Palpi dark fuscous, 
base and extreme tips white. Abdomen greyish-ochreous, segmental margins whitish- 
suffused. Forewings fuscous, irrorated with white, more suffusedly towards middle 
of disc ; short black subcostal and median streaks from base ; first line white, anteriorly 
suffused, acutely angulated below middle, upper portion very oblique, lower edged 
posteriorly with dark fuscous ; orbicular small, blackish, white-centred, placed in a 
blackish-fuscous dash reaching first line; claviform small, blackish-fuscous, resting 
on first line above angle ; discal 8-shaped, dark fuscous, halves obscurely filled with 
whitish, lower little defined ; second line obscurely whitish, very undefined ; subterminal 
obsolete ; a terminal series of elongate blackish-fuscous dots : cilia whitish, with dark 
fuscous antemedian and fuscous subapical line. Hindwings light fuscous, termen 
darker-suffused; cilia whitish, basal third and subapical line fuscous. 

I specimen, Kona, Hawaii, at 4000 feet, in August. 

35— 2 



270 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 



(47) Scoparia frigida Butl. 

Scoparia frigida Butl. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) vii. 1881, p. 331. 

^g. 17 — 19 mm. Head and thorax dark fuscous mixed with whitish, head 
sometimes mostly suffused with whitish. Palpi dark fuscous, base and tips white. 
Abdomen fuscous. Forewings very narrow, whitish, irregularly mixed with fuscous ; 
basal area with some dark fuscous scales tending to form longitudinal streaks ; first 
line white, angulated below middle, upper portion straight or slightly curved, very 
oblique, indistinctly edged posteriorly with dark fuscous ; orbicular small, irregular, 
partly edged with blackish-fuscous, separate or connected with first line ; claviform 
only indicated by some blackish-fuscous scales on angle of first line ; upper half of discal 
incompletely margined with blackish-fuscous ; second and subterminal lines white, 
rather thick, cloudy, confluent in middle, included spaces mixed or suffused with 
dark fuscous ; a terminal series of cloudy dark fuscous dots : cilia white, with fuscous 
subapical and dark fuscous antemedian lines. Hindwings rather light fuscous ; cilia 
whitish, basal third fuscous. 

4 specimens ; 2 Lanai, at 3000 feet, in July ; 2 Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 and 
10,000 feet, in April and May. The original type is also from Haleakala, Maui, at 
4000 feet ; but the second specimen, from Mauna Kea, Hawaii, is S. meristis. 



(48) Scoparia peronetis, sp. nov. 

$. 16 mm. Head fuscous, crown suffused with whitish. Palpi dark fuscous, 
base and extreme tips white. Thorax dark fuscous, somewhat whitish-mixed. 
Abdomen light greyish-ochreous, segmental margins whitish. Forewings whitish, 
irrorated with fuscous ; a slender irregular blackish longitudinal line from middle of 
base to middle of first line, continued less distinctly along submedian fold to tornus ; 
first line white, indistinct, angulated above middle, upper portion very oblique, 
indented in middle, towards dorsum followed by a dot of dark fuscous suffusion ; 
orbicular and claviform small, blackish, undefined, claviform placed in an indentation 
of first line, orbicular rather obliquely beyond it ; discal 8-shaped, hardly indicated 
except by a blackish median dash, and a mark on anterior side of upper half; second 
and subterminal lines obsolete ; veins somewhat marked with black posteriorly, and 
a terminal series of elongate blackish dots : cilia whitish, obscurely barred with fuscous, 
with a dark fuscous antemedian line. Hindwings grey-whitish, terminally grey-suffused ; 
cilia whitish. 

I specimen, Kona, Hawaii, at 3000 feet in October. 



MACROLEPIDOPTERA 271 

(49) Scoparia ischnias Meyr. 
Xeroscopa ischnias Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 235. 

cT?- 17 — 21 mm. Head and thorax dark fuscous, more or less mixed with 
white. Palpi dark fuscous, base and tips white. Antennae in ^ pubescent-ciliated 
over whole surface. Abdomen ochreous-grey. Forewings very narrow, fuscous, 
irregularly irrorated with white and black ; a streak of blackish suffusion along fold 
from base to first line, interrupted by an undefined white central dot ; first line white, 
almost straight, rather strongly oblique, posteriorly dark-edged ; orbicular and clavi- 
form dot-like, undefined, blackish, separate, orbicular obliquely beyond claviform ; 
discal undefined, X-shaped, blackish, preceded by a small cloudy white spot ; second 
and subterminal lines cloudy, white, approximated in middle, second interrupted 
towards dorsum : cilia white, with fuscous subapical and dark fuscous subbasal lines. 
Hindwings fuscous-whitish, termen suffused with light fuscous; cilia white, with light 
fuscous basal line. (Plate VII. fig. 24.) 

5 specimens, Haleakala, Maui, at 9000 — 10,000 feet, in April and May. Probably 
the original type was from the same locality. 

(50) Scoparia nielanopis Meyr. 

Scoparia coarctata van .'' iiioiitana Butl. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1882, p. 41. 

Xeroscopa melanopis Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 233. 

No examples of this species were obtained by Mr Perkins ; there is one in 
the British Museum, and two in my collection ; Mr Blackburn gives as locality the 
mountains near Honolulu, Oahu. Two specimens are mentioned by Butler in the 
reference quoted above, but one of these is, I think, a poor example of frigida ; 
the other is this species, and now bears a type-label, which it did not in 1888. 
Considering this fact, and also that (i) Butler's name is varietal, not specific, being 
wrongly identified with angustea {coarctata), (2) there is practically no description 
accompanying it, I have therefore not used his name. 

(51) Scoparia viacrophanes Meyr. 

Scoparia macrophanes Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 231. 

^. 17 20 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax fuscous mixed with white, palpi with 

dark fuscous median band, base white. Abdomen grey, segmental margins whitish. 
Forewings very narrow, fuscous, suffusedly irrorated with white, with scattered black 
scales; indications of a dark subbasal fascia; first line white, moderately oblique, 



272 



FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 



rather curved, Indented in middle, edged posteriorly with dark fuscous suffusion ; 
orbicular small, irregular, detached, laterally edged with dark fuscous ; claviform 
dark fuscous, more or less merged in dark suffusion of first line ; discal 8-shaped, 
partially outlined with blackish ; second line white, distinct ; subterminal cloudy, white, 
confluent with second in middle ; a terminal series of cloudy blackish dots : cilia 
whitish, with dark fuscous antemedian and fuscous subapical line. Hindwings whitish- 
fuscous, termen suffused with fuscous ; cilia as in forewings. 

2 specimens, Haleakala, Maui, at 5000 feet, in May. The original type may 
probably be from the same locality. 



(52) Scoparia meristis, sp. nov. 

Scoparia frigida Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 231, non Butl. 

$%. 14 — 20 mm. Head and thorax fuscous, more or less mixed with white. 
Palpi dark fuscous, base and tips white. Abdomen light greyish-ochreous. Fore- 
wings suffusedly irrorated with white and sometimes sprinkled with black ; sometimes 
a blackish median longitudinal streak in basal area ; veins posteriorly sometimes 
streaked with blackish ; first line whitish, little curved, very oblique, posteriorly 
narrowly edged with blackish-fuscous suffusion ; orbicular small, roundish, more or 
less edged with blackish-fuscous, separate ; claviform obsolete ; discal X-shaped, 
blackish, often imperfectly defined ; second and subterminal lines whitish, ill-defined, 
confluent in middle ; a terminal series of suffused dark fuscous elongate dots : cilia 
whitish, with dark fuscous subbasal and fuscous subapical line. Hindwings pale 
fuscous, darker terminally ; cilia whitish, with fuscous subbasal line. 

31 specimens; 24 Kona, Hawaii, at 4000 — 6000 feet ; 7 Molokai, at 3000 — 4000 
feet; from June to September. Of the two examples referred by Butler to h.\s frigida, 
one (from Mauna Kea, Hawaii, at 7000 ft.) is this species, but the type (as identified 
above) is the other ; the description also clearly indicates the angulated first line 
characteristic of the Maui species, but in 1888 I had not recognised their dis- 
tinctness. 



(53) Scoparia /la/iimea, sp. nov. 

? ?• 14 — 20 mm. Head and thorax white, more or less mixed with fuscous 
and blackish. Palpi dark fuscous, base and tips white. Abdomen greyish-ochreous, 
segmental margins whitish-suffused. Forewings white, more or less irrorated with 
fuscous or dark fuscous ; a dark fuscous suffusion at base of costa, sometimes extended 
to reach a blackish median dash ; first line white, somewhat curved, very oblique. 



\ MACROLEPIDOPTERA 273 

posteriorly edged with dark fuscous suffusion mixed with black ; orbicular small, 
irregularly dot-like, blackish, sometimes connected with preceding suffusion ; claviform 
obsolete ; discal X-shaped, blackish ; second and subterminal lines cloudy, whitish, 
confluent in middle ; a terminal series of indistinct dark fuscous dots, confluent into 
a triangular spot in middle : cilia white, with interrupted dark fuscous antemedian 
and traces of fuscous subapical line. Hindwings whitish-fuscous, terminally suffused 
with fuscous; cilia whitish, with a fuscous subbasal line. (Plate VII. fig. 25.) 

53 specimens; 12 Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 feet ; 41 Kaholuamano, Kauai, 
at 4000 feet ; from April to June. Closely allied to the preceding species, but 
apparently somewhat shorter-winged, with the ground colour more suffused with white, 
and the black scales better developed, so that the markings are more distinct, and in 
particular the orbicular forms a conspicuous black dot. 

(54) Scoparia platyscia, sp. nov. 

^<^, 14 — 23 mm. Head and thorax dark brown, more or less mixed with 
whitish. Palpi dark fuscous, tips whitish-mixed, base white. Abdomen ochreous, 
segmental margins whitish. Forewings whitish, variably mixed with ferruginous or 
dark brown ; an undefined dark ferruginous-brown basal suffusion ; first line whitish, 
oblique, little curved, followed by a variable fascia of dark ferruginous-brown suffusion ; 
claviform dot-like, blackish-fuscous, undefined, touching or merged in preceding 
suffusion ; orbicular small, whitish, edged with dark brown or blackish, obliquely 
beyond claviform ; discal 8-shaped, lower half undefined except at top, upper half 
merged in a ferruginous or dark brown bar from costa, but sometimes partially 
blackish-edged, seldom filled with whitish ; second and subterminal lines obscure, 
whitish, confluent in middle, surrounded with ferruginous or dark brown suff"usion : 
cilia whitish, obscurely barred with fuscous, with interrupted darker fuscous antemedian 
line. Hindwings whitish-grey, termen grey-suffused; cilia whitish, sometimes with 
faint greyish line. (Plate VII. fig. 26.) 

34 specimens; 13 Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 feet ; 4 Kaholuamano, Kauai, 
at 4000 feet; 4 Molokai, at 4000 feet ; 3 Kona, Hawaii, at 2000—4000 feet; 8 Olaa, 
Hawaii; 2 Hilo, Hawaii, at 2000 feet ; in December, January, and from April to 
October. 

(55) Scoparia probolaea, sp. nov. 

t%. 21—25 mm. Head and thorax white mixed with fuscous. Palpi long 
(3i_4), dark fuscous, base white, apex mixed with white. Abdomen pale greyish- 
ochreous or whitish-ochreous. Forewings white, irrorated with fuscous ; short dark 
fuscous subcostal and median dashes near base, sometimes obsolete ; first line cloudy. 



274 FAUNA HAWAIIENSIS 

whitish, curved, very oblique, sharply indented in middle, edged posteriorly with 
dark fuscous suffusion mixed with black ; orbicular elongate or dash-like, black, 
detached ; claviform dot-like, blackish, touching first line and sometimes merged in 
dark suffusion ; discal X-shaped, blackish, separated from orbicular by a clear white 
spot ; second and subterminal lines cloudy, white, hardly defined, confluent in middle ; 
a terminal series of cloudy blackish dots : cilia white, with two interrupted fuscous 
lines. Hindwings whitish-fuscous, termen fuscous-suffused ; cilia whitish, with a 
fuscous basal line. (Plate VII. fig. 27.) 

13 specimens ; 8 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 4000 feet ; 5 Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 
4000 feet ; from April to J une. 



(56) Scoparia omichlopis, sp. nov. 

^%. 15 — 25 mm. Head and thorax whitish, suffusedly irrorated with pale 
brownish-ochreous, shoulders usually dark fuscous. Palpi long (3^ — 4), dark fuscous, 
base whitish, apex more or less mixed with whitish. Abdomen pale whitish-ochreous. 
Forewings white, finely irrorated with brownish-ochreous ; a very short fine blackish 
subcostal dash from base, sometimes obsolete ; first line whitish, almost obsolete, 
curved, very oblique, indented in middle, followed by a dark fuscous mark towards 
dorsum, and usually two or three dots of dark fuscous suffusion towards costa ; a dark 
fuscous dot indicating orbicular, remote from first line ; claviform obsolete ; discal 
indicated by a short dark fuscous dash and two dark fuscous dots above it ; second 
and subterminal lines very faint or obsolete ; a terminal series of indistinct dark fuscous 
dots : cilia whitish, with an indistinct brownish-ochreous antemedian line. Hindwings 
whitish-fuscous; cilia whitish, with a faint fuscous subbasal line. (Plate VII. fig. 28.) 

33 specimens; 8 Mts. Waimea, Kauai, at 4000 feet; 16 Kaholuamano, Kauai, at 
4000 feet ; 6 Olaa, Hawaii ; 3 Hilo, Hawaii, at 2000 feet ; in January, from April to 
July, September and December. 



(57) Scopaj'ia venosa Butl. 

Scopm'ia venosa Butl. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) vii. 1881, p. 332. 
Xeroscopa venosa Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 233. 

$%. 16 — 22 mm. Head and thorax white, sprinkled with fuscous. Palpi dark 
fuscous, base and tips white. Abdomen light ochreous-grey, segmental margins 
whitish. Forewings very narrow, fuscous, more or less mixed with blackish ; all 
veins marked by more or less defined white streaks; normal lines and spots hardly 
perceptible or wholly obsolete : cilia white with dark fuscous antemedian and fuscous 



MA CROLEPIDOP TERA 



75 



subapical lines. Hindwings pale whitish-fuscous, termen somewhat darker-suffused; 
cilia whitish, with fuscous subbasal line. 

6 specimens; 2 Kona, Hawaii, at 4000 feet; 2 Kilauea, Hawaii; 2 Haleakala, 
Maui, at 5000 feet ; in May, July to September, November, December. Mr Black- 
burn's examples were from Mauna Loa, Hawaii, at 4000 feet. 

PYRALIDIDAE. 

Pyralis Linn. 

Cilia of forewings yellow (/) mauritialis. 

„ .„ not yellow {^2) inanihotalis. 

( I ) Pyralis mauritialis Boisd. 

6 specimens, Lihui, Kauai. One of these is stated to have been bred by G. C. 
Munro from a larva feeding in the old nest of a wasp of the genus Polistes [Vespidae). 
The species occurs in Australia, the Malay Archipelago, China, India, and S. Africa, 
but 1 am not aware that the larval habit has been previously noticed. 



(2) Pyralis manihotalis Guen. 

Pyralis achatina Butl. Ent. Mo. Mag. xiv. p. 49. 

Asopia gerontialis Walk., Meyr. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1888, p. 212. 

I specimen, Honolulu, Oahu. Doubtless Mr Blackburn's types were from the 
same place. The species ranges through the tropical regions of Australia, the Malay 
Archipelago, S. Asia, Africa, and S. America. 



M. F. H. 



36 



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