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Fayette County, 



Breathes there the man with soul so dead, 
Who never to himself hath said, 

This is my own , my native land ; 
Whose heart hath ne'er within him burned. 
As home his footsteps he hath turned, 

From wandering on a foreign strand ? 
If such there breathe, go, marlt him well: 
For him no minstrel raptures swell. 
High though his title, proud his name. 
Boundless his wealth as wish can claim; 
Despite those titles, power, and pelf, 
The wretch, concentred all in self. 
Living shall forfeit fair renown. 
And, doubly dying, shall go down. 
To the vile dust from whence he sprung. 
Unwept, unhonored, and unsung. 


Published by the Author at Schulenburg, Texas, 1902. 

$TicKEB Steam Preso, 

r 3 ' ^ 


Two Cowtd RecsivED 

SEP. n 1902 


CLM^ i^XXc No. 

;f f 2> n g 


Copyright, 1902, 


F. Lotto, La Grange, Texas. 

All rights reserved. 

Published September, 1902. 


It is customary for a writer to have in the preface of his 
book a sliort address to the reader either to reconiraend his work, 
or tell of its aitrits, its history and the difficulties encountered in 
preparing it. The writer of this book has chosen for his theme 
the description and liistory of the%rai1"d old county of Fayette. 
If works of fiction find the approval of an enlightened public, 
the writer hopes that his book, wherein he has shown, on the 
hand of public records, the development of a struggling commun- 
ity to a prosperous county, one of the proudest and foremost in 
tlie state, the home county of the reader, where the scenes of his 
childhood lie, where he has grown to manhood and of which he 
is a political factor, will appeal to his love of home and be a 
source of interest to him. History is nobler than fiction, a grand 
fact greater than a noble thought. The book contains a world 
of grand facts. If they have not been always treated with the 
dignity of critical exposition and embellished by philosophic 
thoughts, there is nothing to hinder the reader to improve these 
shortcomings and to recall, on hand of these furnished facts, a 
more vivid picture of the scenes and the life of the past. 

Some friends of the writer have asked him to place his bio- 
graphy in this book. Ihis he does not feel inclined to do on 
account of his short residence in the county. But to a history 
of the preparation of this book the reader is entitled, the more 
so as it refiects the greatest credit on the people of Fayette 
County and is also in many other respects quite interesting. 

The intelligence of the writer had secured him the position 
as traveling agent of that great German weekly, "La Grange 
Deutsche Zeitung," in which position he became afilicted with / 

rheumatic fever and landed in the Fayette County Hospital. / 

Here, in his fever visions, the scenes of his childhood and the 
chronique of his native place which he had read in his youth 
presented themselves before his mind so often that after he grew 
well, he considered the question of writing a book on Fayette 

— Vl- - 

County. Kealizing that the people of tliis county are as enlight- 
ened and patriotic as those of his native land and realizing tliat 
his book would take in a wider scope, he talked the matter over 
with his friend Jake VVolters, who quite approved the idea. In 
January, 1901, Mr. \V. R. King and Mr. Chris. Steinmann, wh ) 
both approved the idea, saw the writer in regard to his prospec- 
tive book at the County Hospital, and Mr. King made a verbal 
agreement witli him about printing it. The writer thought a 
book like that could be gotten out in about six months. But in 
this he was mistaken. He has worked at it for about fourteen 
months. It took him more than six months to procure data and 
notes and go over the records. As the progress of the work was 
rather slow, his practical friend "Jake," a leading lawyer of La 
Grange, whom the writer sometimes went to see, one day asked 
him: "Now, look here. Lotto, on what are you going to live 
while writing this book? You have not a cent." To which he 
replied: ''Well, Jake, I have studied Thackeray's chapter 
'How to live on nothing a year,' and my friend, Judge Kennon 
of Colorado county, claims that I could have given Thackeray 
pointers on this. I am just going to freeze it out." "You 
mean sweat it out." "Well, that may amount to the same." 
But a man cannot live on i)rospects; he has to have something 
more substantial. Thus, the writer accepted again the position 
as traveling agent of the great German weekly and gathered ma- 
terial and notes for his book whenever he could. A great many 
citizens of Fayette county welcomed the idea and gave tlie writer 
all possible assistance and encouragement. In a great many 
cases, or rather, to be truthful, in must cases, they went so far 
as to secure him patronage for his book and even bore the 
expenses of obtaining it. He received numerous invitations to 
come and see them and make his sta}'' with them while engaged 
in his work. Where he had no invitation, he was a more or less 
welcome guest anyway. The writer can not thank them too 
much for their kindness. For, without their generous assistance 
and encouragement, he would have despaired of his work. If, 
on his canvass, he sometimes found a man who ridiculed the 
idea of writing a history of Fayette County and in his feeling of 
the superiority of his nothingness looked down on him and 

— Vll — 

refused him his patronage, the thought of the generous friend 
ship of the majority of the people upheld him. The people — 
the generous, liberal, patriotic people of Fayette county 
— were on the side of the writer and this was the greatest source 
of pride and pleasure to him and on that account he could well 
afford to overlook the remarks of cutting sarcasm which werfi 
intended to hinder the author in liis work. The fact remains 
that the generosity of the people of Fayette county enabled the 
writer to get out his work without having a cent in his pocket, a 
fact which reflects still greater credit on them than on him. In 
fact, such could be accomplished only among people of the very 
highest intelligence, among people who judge a man by his acts 
rather than by his money-purse. To have secured tlieir friend- 
ship, or, at least, patronage and good will, will be a source of 
everlasting pride and gratification to the writer. 

The author had labored all these months without money, 
but now he had come to that stage in his work where he must 
have money to procure engravings, binding and a hundred and 
one things which required money. It. was now a question 
whether the work of all these long months should be thrown 
away or whether tiiis book should yet reach the hands of the 
public. The author again turned to Jake Wolters and laid the 
matter before him. With him it was only a question: "How 
much do you i eed, Lotto?" Then he talked to John B. Hollo- 
way, the big-hearted and patriotic cashier of the First National 
bank, and the cashier and Jake fixed it up. Thus the writer 
found his Maecenas in Jake Wolters. To him he is indebted 
for financial aid as well as for his encouragement and influence. 
For the writer must confess that there were times when he felt 
discouraged and felt inclined to throw up the undertaking. But 
words of good cheer always roused him up to move forward. 

He also feels under deep obligations to Prof. Wm. Eilers, 
Prof. J. H. Merz, Mr. J. C. Melcher, Mr. C. L, Melcher, Mr. 
Geo. Huebner, Judge A. Haidusek and a great many others too 
numerous to be mentioned. 

To Mr. W. R. King, who had the contract to print the book 
and who engaged for the printing two extra flrst-class, experi< 

— viu — 

enced printers, he feels obliged for the elegant workmanlike 
manner in which the work has been completed. 

The works of reference that have been used in the History of 
Fayette County are John Henry Brown's History of Texas, W. C. 
Crane's Life of Sam Houston, the Minutes of the Commissioners' 
Court of Fayette County, the Election Records of Fayette County 
and a great number of official bonds and other documents. 

The writer has striven to be as exact as possible, he deeming 
exactness the main quality in a work of this kind. Still, a few 
errors, caused by incorrect spelling in the records, may have 
crept into the book. Of such errors as he has found himself or 
as have been pointed out to him, he has made a list of errata in 
order for the reader to correct the text. Considering the large 
size of the book, they are exceedingly few, and he begs to be 
excused for them. No matter how much care and attention one 
may pay to a book and its printing, there never was a book 
printed yet entirely without errors. 

La Grange, September, 1902. F. Lotto. 





Situation, Climate, J^evel above Sea, Rainfall, Boundaries, 

Area and Population o 

Surface and Soil 5 

Watercourses and Drainage 8 

Produce and Land Price 9 

Resources of the Count}^ 15 

'J'he JNIinerals of Fayette County. By J. C. Melcher 16 

Fayette County's Mineral Res'^iurces. By L. C. Melclier 22 

The Timber of the County. By J. C. Melcher 26 

A Bird's Eye View of Fayette County in Summer Time 37 

Industries 40 

Commercial Highways 40 

Character and Elements of Population 43 

Social Life — Schools, Churches, Clubs, and Societies 51 

Politics 58 

The Newspa])er Press of the County 58 

Possibilities of Fayette County 02 

A Day of Life on a Farm in Fayette County 63 

A Talk with an Old Settler. — Past and Present Compared ijij 

Tile Boundaries of Commissioners' and Justices' Beats and 

Voting Precincts of Fayette County 61) 

1>ART II. 



Introduction 85 

— X — 




Arrival of the First White Settlers 86 

Indian Tribes 86 

Character of the First White Settlers 86 

Nativity of the First White Settlers . 87 

Municipalities 88 

Indian Marauding Expeditions 88 

Indian Fights 88 

Fayette County's Share in tlie War of Indepenpence Ul 

Letter of Joel W. Robison. J>2 

An Act of Congress Establishing Fayette County 94 


CIVIL WAR (1838-1861). 

Organization of the County 96 

La Grange as a Competitor for the Capital 97 

The Dawson Massacre 98 

liattle of Furt Mier „ 99 

State of the County at tlie 'I'ime of Oi'ganization 100 

Taxation 101 

First and Second Court House 102 

I<"irst and Second Jails 104 

Credit of the County 105 

Public Ferries 106 

The First Bridges in the County 107 

County Finances and County Scrip 107 

Defalcations and Suits of the County 110 

A Faithful Officer 112 

Fees of Officers 112 

Prices 113 

Justices of the Peace 113 

Commissioners' Court 113 

County Records II3 

— XI — 


Public Roads 114 

Election Precincts 115 

Citizens' Papers IK) 

Paupers 116 

Apportionment of School Fund to Fayette County 117 

Fayette County School La,nds 117 

County Attorney's Office 1 17 

County Assessments and Negro Population 11^ 

Tliird Court House in Fa^^ette County 118 

Patrol Companies 121 



Secession 128 

Companies Raised in Fayette County 123 

Problems to Solve at Home. 121: 

Bounty War Scrip 1 2-") 

Probable Number of Levied Men 127 

Change Notes 127 

Depreciation of the Currency 129 

Destitution Among Families of Soldiers — War Tax and War 

Tax Scrip 121) 

The Cow Order lol 

A Tax Paid in Provisions 134 

Doubtful Characters at Home 135 

The Negro Population During The War 13G 

Prohibition in La Grange 137 

Physician's Certificates 1^7 

Election Contest. 138 

Road Precincts 138 




Condition of the South, and Especially of Fayette County.. 139 

Taxes, Finances and Salaries of County Officers 141 

Yellow Fever 141 

— xu 


Overflows of 1869 and 1870 142 

Smallpox , 142 

Minor Details 143 

First Board of Medical Examiners... 148 

Road Precincts. 143 

Election Precincts 143 

Transcript of County Records 144 

Paupers 144 

School Affairs 144 

Fayette County School Lands 144 

Suits of the County 145 

The Southern PacKic 146 


EK.\ OF DEVELOPMENT (1876-1902.) 

Railroads liuilt in the County '. 148 

Sale of Fayette County School Lands 149 

Jail and Jail Bonds 152 

Colorado River Bridge and Bridge Bonds 154 

Paupers and Poorhouse _ 157 

Fourth Court House 159 

Public Roads 160 

Bridges and Bridge Bonds 162 

Interesting Incidents 164 

A Friendly Spar with Colorado County - 164 

Salaries and Fees of Some County Officers-- 165 

The Prohibition Question 166 

Epidemics 166 

Yellow Fever Quarantine 167 

Overflow of 1900 168 

Storm of 1900 170 

Election Precincts 171 

School Districts 171 

Justices' Courthouses 171 

Incorporation of Towns 171 

Minor Details 172 

Resolutions of Respect - - 172 

Companies Raised in Fayette County for ihe Spanish War... 173 

— XIU — 



Tlepublic of Texas versus Inconsistent Legislative Acts. . . . i1^) 

Adldavit of ])istrict Attorney Thomas Johnson 17S 

Administrator's Bond of N, VV. Eastland on the Estate of 

Nicholas M. Dawson 17!> 

List of Freeholders in Faj^ette County During the Time of 

the Republic of Texas -. . 171) 

Jjist of Persons Who Paid Occupation Tax in Fayette Coun- 
ty in 1838-39 181 

List of Persons to Whom Licenses Were Issued in 1840-41 182 

An Agreement 184 

List of County Ofiicers Since tlie Organization of the (-ounty 

in 1835 185 



Joseph Echols Baker 1!)1 

Sam C. Lovvrey 192 

Rud. Klatt... 193 

August Loessin 194 

R, T. Bradshaw 195 

C. W. Steinmann 197 

Neal Robison 198 

G. A. Stierling 199 


R. M. Williamson 202 

R. E. B. Baylor 203 

John Hancock 203 

Ttiomas H. Duval 205 

James H.Bell 205 


J. C. Brown 20G 

J. T. Duncan 208 

Hon. H. M. Garwood... 210 

Judge Aug. Haidusek. . . 211 

C. D. Krause 215 

Hon. J. Lane 217 

Hon. C. E. Lane 218 

Thomas W. Lane 220 

Geo. E. Lenert 221 

Hon. L. \V. Moore 222 

Edward II. Moss 223 

Robert Moss.... 225 

Method Pazdral 225 

Hon. W. S. Robson 227 

Hon. liana Teichmueller 229 

Hon. Jacob F. Wolters.. 231 



Chris. Biiumgavten, sr. . . i^BG 

G. A. Banmgarten 238 

Henry Beniker 239 

A. VV. Beniker 241 

Rev. J. Chromcik 242 

Dr. 1. E. Clark 244 

Henry Eilers 246 

Prof, Wm. Eilers 248 

Hon. A. E. Falke 250 

Loreuz Fuclis 251 

Prof. Julius Hansen 253 

A, Heintze, sr 254 

A. Heintze, jr 25G 

John B. Hollovvay 258 

Geo. Huebner *2G0 

Hon, A. B. Kerr 261 

Anton Legler 204 

Auj;. F. Loessin 265 

Will Loessin 267 

Carl Luecke 269 

Hon. Wenzel Matajowski 270 
Geo. Mauer, sr 272 

J. C. Melcher 273 

C. L. Melcher 274 

Julius Meyenberg, sr. . . . 275 

Prof. M. W. Meyer 277 

Mrs. iMaria Muelker 288 

Marshall B. O'Bar 280 

John Oltmanns 282 

F. Presun 283 

Chas. H. Schaefer 285 

Max and Julius Schwartz 286 

Clias. and G. Singelmann 287 

John Speckels, sr 288 

G. E. Speckels 290 

Hon. J. C. Speckels 293 

Josei:)h George Wagner. . 294 

Robert VVolters, .sr 296 

Theo. Wolters 298 

Hugo Zapp, sr 300 

Robert Zapp 303 

B. L. Zapp 305 

W. L. Kreische 306 

Louis Schlottman 307 




La Grange (the County Seat) 323 


Fayetteville 340 Flatonia 351 

Round Top 355 Schulenburg 359 

-XV — 


Ammannsville 872 

Biegel o7r> 

Black Jack Springs 377 

Bluff" 377 

Bridge Valley 371) 

Carmine 380 

Cedar 3S2 

Cistern 382 

Colon V 385 

Dubina 385 

Ellineer 3SG 

Engle 3i»l 

Frey burg 392 

Halsted 302 

Haw Creek 393 

High Hill 394 

Holman 395 

Ledbetter 39(j 

Moravan 398 

Muldoon 3i>9 

Nechanitz 400 

Oldenburg. 400 

O'Quinn 401 

Oso 402 

Plum 406 

Praha 402 

Roznov 40(5 

Kutersville 407 

Stella 408 

Swiss Alp 408 

VValdeck 409 

Wallialla 409 

W'arda 410 

Warrenton 414 

West Point 416 

Winchester 418 

Zapp 421 

Addendum. 423 


On line 36, on page 59 strike out comma before "(luit" and 

insert after quit. 

On line 35, on page 61 instead of "Guerdler" read "Coerdel.'" 
On line 27, on page 88 instead of "J. Russek" read "I. 


On line 19, on page 95 instead of "William Porton'' read 

"William Ponton." 

On line 21, on page 95 instead of "De Wftts" read "De 


On line3 in note, page 95 instead of "Lacaca"' read "Lavaca." 
On line 34, on page 99 instead of "1856" read ^'1846." 
On line 32, on page 172 instead of "January" read "Feb- 

On line 3,_on page 173 instead of "1998" read "1898." 
On line 17, on page 184 instead of "R. S. Hormuth" read 

"R. S. Homuth." 

In list of County Clerks on page 187 instead of "1835 I. 8, 

Sister" read "18381. S. Sister." 

-XVI — 

In list of Sheriffs on i)age 188 instead of "S. Alexander 
Irivvin" read "8. Alexander Irwin."' 

In list of Sheriffs on page 18S instead of "1873 G7" read 

In list of Sheriffs on page 188 instead of "1895 to present 
time" read "1894 to present time." 

In list of Assessors on page 189 instead of "1892 to 96" 
read "1882 to 1896." 

In list of County School Superintendents on page 190 in- 
stead of "1998 to present time" read "1898 to present time." 

In list of District Clerks on page 190 instead of "1854-65" 
read "J854-58" instead of "19G6" read "1866;" instead of 
"177694" read "1876-94," in note instead of "L. H. Moore" 
read "L. VV. Moore." 

In biography of August Loessiu in line 11 on page 195, 
instead of "1869" read "1897." 

In line 18 on page 201 instead of "W. G, Welsh" read "VV. 
G. Webb." 

In line 26 on page 207 instead of "Willow Bayou" read 
"Yellow Bayou" and insert, "and the skirmishes from Double 
Bridges down to Yellow Bayou." 

In line 19 on page 225 instead of "Wm. Krause" read 
"Wm. Kruse." 

In line 16 on page 228 instead of "Then" read "Thus." 

In line 37 on page 245 instead of "Polylinic" read "Poly- 

in line 28 on page 293 instead of "but" read "best." 

In No. 9, on page 309 instead of "Crockett's" read "Cock- 

In line 30, page 320. strike out "part of the," 

In line 16 on page 360 instead of "W. Pierce" read "T. \Y. 

In line 3 on page 361 instead of "Franz and Rosina Stan- 
zel" read "F. A. and Therese Slanzel." 

In line 16 on page 361 strike out the words "who estab- 
lished the first lumber yard m Schulenburg." 

Ln line 6 on page 364 instead of "Plenrv Perlitz" read "F. 
W. Ferlitz." 

In line 3 and 10 on page 383 instead of "Cockrill's" read 

In line 19 on page 400 instead of "Vodkel" read "Voelkel." 

In line 9 on page 420 instead of "Dr. A. F. Verderi" read 
"Dr. A. F. Verdery." 






Fayette County is situated at a distance of about eighty 
miles nortlivvest from tlie Gulf of Mexico in the southern portion 
of Central Texas. It is traversed by the Colorado River, which 
divides it into two nearly equal parts. The thirtieth degree of 
latitude and the ninety-seventh degree of longitude west of 
Greenwich cross each other in the northwestern portion of the 
county near the town of Winchester. The county seat, La 
Grange, is under the same longitude as Dallas, Texas, and Lin- 
coln, Nebraska, which are due north of it, all three places being 
some twelve miles east of the ninety-seventh degree of longitude. 
LaGrange, the county seat, is also under the same latitude as 
New Orleans, 

The climate of Fayette County is delightful. Though the 
county lies in the semi-tropical zone, the heat of the summer is 
never excessive; it is tempered by refreshing south-winds, called 
Gulf breezes; these winds generally rise in summer time about 


ten o'clock ill the morning and last during the balance of the 
day. The winter, too, is very mild. Some winter days are as 
warm as summer days in the North. Seldom the thermometer 
stands at or little beluw the freezing point. That is the time 
when a northwind, called norther, sweeps the vast slope of Tex- 
as; but before it reaches Fayette County, its force is generally 
spent. Nor do these northers last for a considerable time, hard- 
ly ever longer than two days. Still, when they do come, the 
people, being accustomed to warm weather, feel their disagree- 
able effects. Overcoats, long stowed away, hardly ever used, 
are taken from their hiding places. People change their slow 
walk to a quick tramp. Then, too,is the time when resolutions to 
reform are most liable to be broken. But even those cold 
northers are not without scenes that speak to the heart. At that 
time, on the farm, the 'pater farailias' stands by a huge fire in the 
yard, butchering his fatted hog; inside the women folks are busy 
salting the pork, frying the fat, making sausage and preparing 
choice morsels for dinner. The children who want to see papa 
kill and butcher the hog have to be sent back into the house out 
of the cold wind time and again. Our friend goes with his help- 
ing neighbor time and again to the smokehouse where, from a 
corner, he takes a brown jug and they drink. Probably, his 
good wife does not know if vinegar or molasses is in that dusty 
jug. They, of course, know and seem to enjoy it. No wonder 
that they are unusually bright and cheerful at dinner and the 
good humor and glee spreads over the whole family. They 
have a hogkiUing time. Thus, even northers are not without 
their pleasures. But very often a winter is so mild that it is hard- 
ly cold enough to kindle a fire in the fireplace. Very often roses 
and other flowers are blooming in January in the open air. 
Greens, mustard, turnips, radishes, etc., may be had constantly 
for the table. Jt is not the intense heat or cold that makes a 
climate insufferable and unhealthy, but rather the great change 
from intense heat to intense cold. While the summer in the 
North is as hot as ours — and some people claim it hotter — the 
winter up North is as cold as the summer is hot, thereby causing 
a great change of temperature. Here, in Fayette County, the 
mercury in the thermometer climbs up even in the winter time 

very often to 80 degrees Fahrenlieit; and in summer time, it 
does not go much higher (hardly ever to 95 degrees and never 
over 100 degrees) so that we have a warm climate all the year 
around without any great perceptible change. Sunstrokes which 
are caused up North by the great change of temperature from 
cold to heat never happen in Fayette County; unknown cause 
of death to us, only heard of and read of in newspapers. 

As Fayette (bounty is not far from the sea, abundant rams 
are most propitious to crops, while the rolling country well 
drained and about 400 feet above the level of the sea, at the same 
time, gets quickly dry and, therefore, is healthy. Statistics 
about the rainfall in Fayette County could not be obtained, but 
it may be estimated that the rainfall is about twenty to forty 
inches per year. Big winter rains are considered very favorable 
to crops, as the country, in that case well soaked, retains suffi- 
cient moisture for the growth of plants till late in the summer. 

Fayette County is bounded on the east by Austin and Colo- 
rado Counties, south by Lavaca County, west by Gonzales and 
Bastrop Counties, north by Lee and Washington Counties. 

The county contains 963 square miles and has, according to 
tiie U, S, Census of 1900, a population of 30,542 iniuibitants 

Surface and Soil. 

The topography of the county may be reduced to a very 
few simple features that form the frame of the description. If 
the reader has mastered these, he may, if interested, i)roceed to 
the details without fear of becoming confused by their mass. 
To describe the surface and soil of a whole county clearly and 
exactly is always a difficult task, and no matter how clear the 
description, its perusal will always be a constant strain on the 
attention of the reader. For clearness sake, the main features 
are treated of first, in order for the reader to have a frame 
around which to group the details. In the eastern part of the 
county are two gravel ridges, one north, one south of the Colo- 
rado River. These ridges are covered with post-oak. East of 
them are prairies that extend into adjoining counties, west of 

— 6— 

them are large prairies that are entirely in the county. Again, 
west of these latter prairies begins post-oak, enclosing small 
prairies and extending into adjoining counties. 

To reduce this statement still farther: From the eastern 
part of the county prairies extend into adjoining counties; from 
the western part, post-oak; in the middle are extensive, rich, 
black land prairies, surrounded by post-oak. Very simple feat- 
ures, if the reader stops to make a picture of them. 

The reader remembers the two gravel ridges running in the 
middle of the eastern part of the county in a northerly direction, 
north and south of the Colorado River. Pay your attention to 
the northern half of the county, i. e. north of the Colorado River 
first. The mentioned northern gravel ridge runs for the most 
part on the left or western bank of Cumming's Creek. On both 
sides of this ridge is a small belt of sandy post-oak, on the outer 
edges of these post-oak belts are rich black land prairies. On 
the prairie east of this gravel ridge lie the towns of Round Top, 
Haw Creek, and Zapp. This prairie extends far into Austin 
and Washington Counties, being their richest lands, as also the 
Fayette County part of this prairie is one of the richest sections 
in this county. On the prairie west of this gravel ridge lie the 
towns of Rutersville, Oldenburg, and Warrenton. This rich 
prairie is bordered north and west by sandy post-oak which ex- 
tends for a great many miles north through the whole of Lee 
County, far eyen into Milam County, west through the largest 
part of Bastrop County. This post-oak forms the northwestern 
part of Fayette county; in it are the towns of Warda, Winches- 
ter, and Ledbetter, This large sweep of post-oak contains in the 
Fayelte County part several islands of pine woods, notably be- 
tween Warda and Winchester; also several prairies of small ex- 
tent, notably the Cunningham and Ingram Prairies in the neigh- 
borhood of Winchester, the Cottonwood Prairie with the town 
of Walhalla, and Long Prairie with the towns of Nechanitz and 
W'ahlock. The soil of all this post-oak and these pineries is for 
the most part sandy, with red and yellow clay for subsoil, The 
prairies have ricli black soil. The whole swec]) of country is 
drained and traversed by a great many creeks which have very 
good bottom lands. 

The southern part of Fayette County is somewhat analogous 
to the northern part. In sight of LaGrano;e a high rock and 
gravel ridf^e covered with post-oak, called the Blufi', rises ab- 
ruptly from the river. It stretches in a southeasterly direction, 
sometimes receding from the river, thus giving place for the bot- 
tom lands. South of Williams' Creek, it is continued bv post- 
oak which extends into Lavaca County. East of this post-oak 
is the Mullins prairie which towards Weimar takes the name of 
Weimar Prairie, rich black land, part of it still in Fayette Coun- 
ty. West of this post-oak is the black land Navidad or Schulen- 
burg Prairie, rich and extensive, studded with many prospering 
towns and villages. It extends west to the neighborhood of 
Flatonia. In the south, this prairie is bordered by black live- 
oak and sandy post-oak lands of Lavaca County. From this 
southern post-oak a big tongue or peninsula of live-oak and 
post-oak stretches into the prairie lands through Engle to the 
neighborhood of Freyburg in a northerly direction. In the west this 
prairie is bounded, like the prairie in the northern part, by sandy 
post-oak. In this post-oak are also small prairies, notably one 
at Cistern, northwest of Flatonia. In spots in this section the 
post-oak soil is of a chocolate color like the soil in Cistern Prai- 
rie. The subsoil here too as generally in Fayette County, is red 
and yellow clay. In the neighborhood of Muldoon in this post- 
oak, the thin surface soil is broken by big, hard sand rocks. Here 
are the Muldoon quarries that furnish rocks for the Galveston 

It remains for the reader to pay attention to the bottom 
lands of the Colorado Kiver. This river flows through the mid- 
dle of the county. At places high ridges and bluffs fall precipit- 
ately nito the river; at other places they recede even for several 
miles from the river, thus giving place for rich bottom lands. 
These ridges are grown with post-oak which continues further 
on through the whole county, as in the western part or forms 
the border of rich black land prairies as in the eastern part. 
Thus, the prairies in Fayette County are like costly pictures set 
everywhere in a wooden frame, iierc of post-oaks, the picture 
being the more valuable. 

Haviug thus separated the prairie from the post-oak, the 

black lands from the sandy, it remains for the reader to notice 
that the surface is of a rolling nature, not only in the prairies, 
but also in the post-oaks, though more so in the prairies. It rises 
gradually towards the west. It has already been remarked that 
the subsoil of Fayette County generally is red or yellow clay. 
The black land humus which covers it is one to two feet deep, 
therefore very fertile and lasting. The sand is not very deep, 
but rests on a rich loam- bed which makes it fertile. Very few 
complaints, if any, are heard in Fayette County thot the land 
or rather the humus washes away during big rains. The slopes 
of the hills in this county are very little slantinfj, falling only 
very gradually. Besides, the fields are generally small and sep- 
arated from each other by strips of grass, thereby breaking the 
force of the running water. Still it may not be amiss to repeat 
here the advice of the U. S. Agricultural Bureau in regard to 
preventing land from washing away during big rains; First, to 
plant trees on the top of the hills. There the water starts. The 
rcots of the trees suck up the water and thus prevent it from get- 
ting a forcible start from the top of the hills. Second, to plow 
not down the hill, but across it. Third, to leaye at short distanc- 
es strips of grass, thus preventing one downright fall of the 
water. Fourth, where gullies are already caused by rains, to 
fill them with brush and place rocks on top of the brush to the 
brink of the gully at proportionate distances, thus the gully will 
gradually fill up and be arable land again. Advice not neces- 
sary for Fayette county, still worth considering in a few parts. 
Some of these ideas are carried out in Fayette County anyway; 
farmers that had cause, have found them out themselves. 
'therefore, big rains generally do very little damage in the 
county by washing the laud awav. 

Watercourses and Drainage. 

The reader knows that the Colorado River runs through the 
county from northwest to southeast. This river, with its num- 
erous tributaries, is the mam drainage channel of the county. 
Its tributaries in the north are Ilabb's Creek and Cumming's 
Creek; they run nearly parallel to each other in a southerly di- 

rection; Rabb's Creek in the west, Ciunming's Creek in the east. 
The main tributary to llabb's creek on the left or eastern bank 
is Owl Creek, running west; to the Cumming's Creek, on the 
right or western bank, the Clear Creek, running east. The 
main tributaries of the Colorado on the southern bank are 
Buckner's Creek and Wiliianis' Creek, running in an easterly 
direction; Euckner's Creek meeting the Colorado at LaGrange, 
Williams Creek, some eight miles below, in the southeastern 
part of the county the Navidad River and its tributaries, one of 
them the Mixen Creek, drain the surrounding country. All 
thesei creeks are running the whole year, thereby contrib- 
uting greatly to the fertility of the country, Kor is tT^iere any 
need of water for cattle and horses. Strips of bottom timber are 
bordering these creeks preventing greatly their drying out or 
being ruled up with washed up land. May they never be cut 
down. In some parts of other counties where this has been 
done the creeks have been filled up with washed up land; they 
are changed to dry gullies and; at the time of big rains, overflow 
and damage the adjoining farm lands. Therefore, let the trees 
stand at the border of creeks; they also help to retain the mois- 
ture in the ground. For this reason, water in abundance car- be 
found everywhere in Fayette County at a short distance under 
ground, say from 20 to 60 feet. 

Produce and Land Prices. 

Fayette County, as the reader has seen, having good soil 
and subsoil, being well watered and drained, vvitli sufhcient 
rainfall and delightful climate, is necessarily a fertile and pro- 
ductive county. The staple product is cotton. The inexhaust- 
ible bottomlands of the Colorado River and some creeks produce, 
according to the season, from one to two bales of cotton per 
acre and from forty to eighty bushels of corn. The fertile prair- 
ie lands bring from one-half to over one bale per acre, the 
sandy post-oak lands, in wet seasons, the same amount: in dry 
seasons, considerably less; nor is the sandy land as lasting as the 
black, waxy prairieland; its fertility has to be kept up by manur- 
iufj. The i)ost-oak land is not very good land for corn. While 


forty to sixty bushels of corn is only an average crop in the 
black prairie, twenty-five bushels is a good crop for post-oak 
land; and very often it happens that instead of hauling a crop of 
corn from the field, the post-oak farmer gets only some twelye 
barrels of nubbins per acre for his work. Still, where the land 
is well manured and the farming well done, quite satisfactory 
corn crops are obtained even in post-oak-lands. While post-oak 
land is not as favorable to corn as the rich black prairie, it 
beats the latter for raising tobacco and wine, two products that 
do not require a rich soil,^ but do better on sandy land. Though 
both these latter crops do well in Fayette County, they have not 
been raised yet for the market, but only for home consumption. 
Other counties with the same soil and climate as, for instance, 
Montgomery and Lavaca Counties, have raised excellent quali- 
ties of tobacco and found it a very profitable crop. There is no 
doubt that in future time Fayette County post-oak owners will 
engage more extensively in tobacco culture. Till now inexperi- 
ence to some extent in curing the tobacco and bringing it into 
salable shape, also the only small amount raised have not been 
lavorable in obtaining a ready market. But these obstacles will 
be overcome as the tobacco culture progresses. 

Wine, too, of a very good quality, equal at least to the bet- 
ter California grades, can be raised in this county and in some 
places, is raised; but also only for home consumption. In Fay- 
ette County and in Texas in general, the market for wine is not 
very favorable, as here beer and whiskey are the going bever- 
ages. Barkeepers who sell wine charge for Texas wino the 
same price as for imported wines, and, in comparison, Texas 
wine is well worth its price. Still, if they would sell it at half the 
price of other wines, thev would still make a very good profit 
and also start and introduce a new industry that would benefit 
the whole county. Besides, the wine-growers should sell their 
wine m attractive bottles. Instead of filling it into empty beer 
bottles and flostetter Bitters bottles, let them buy wine bottles, 
])ut an attractive label and a nice gold or silver seal on it, in 
short, bring it into sliape attractive to the buyer and spend some 
money for advertising. Keej) on pusiiing it and see if a paying 
niarket will not finally be opened for tiiis product. All wine- 


growers do not raise the same quality; some know tlie processes 
of obtaining a good wine better than others; here experience 
again will come with a more extensive culture. The wines 
raised and that do best in this county are the Herbemnnt and 
Black Spanish; the lirst of a golden, the latter of a dark red 
color. Wine culture requires great care and experience. Wine 
has in nature many enemies, the greatest of them, black-rot 
which destroys the vines. Besides these tame wines, Mustang 
wine from the wild growing vine of the same name is produced 
in Fayette County. It is of different quality according to the 
knowledge and experience of the maker in the i)rocesses of ob- 
taining a good wine. While some i)roduce a tolerable wiae, the 
product of others is of an inky taste. If this writer has compli- 
mented some people on their self made Mustang wines and, a})- 
preciating their good will towards him, from excessive polite- 
ness, acknowledged that their Mustang wines were of superior 
taste, flavor and quality, even if they were only a few months 
old and sour enough to draw up shoe-leather, his great love of 
veracity prevents him from admitting in writing that all Mus- 
tang wines are good. 

Of fruit-trees, peach and pear trees do very well every- 
where in Fayette County. Other varieties of fruit-trees also do 
well here, but are not so extensively planted as the former. 
The fruit is very good and enough of it is raised that shipments 
should pay. But the people are too busy raising their other 
crops, especially corn and cotton so as to pay much attention to 
this crop, though there is little doubt that if done so, it would 
pay well. All the good house-wife can do is to save time to 
cook a small and choice part of the fruit and make preserves of 
them. Of these, a very large stock is found m nearly all house- 
holds. The balance of the fruit is either gathered and given to 
the hogs, or, if there is no time for tliis, as sometimes there is 
not, it rots on the ground. 

Oats and rye are the small grains tnat are raised in the 
county. Both grains make good crops. Rye is planted to some 
extent in the eastern part of the county by German farmers. It 
produces from twelve to fifteen bushels ])er acre. Ground to 


flour, it is used for bread. A great many crops are new in Fay- 
ette County; as for instance, the rye crop; the longer the experi- 
ence in these crops, the better will be the results. 

Garden vegetables grow in abundance and are of the choicest 
quality. Tomatoes, turnips, carrots, beets, radishes, mustard, 
cabbage, asparagus, squash, green pepper, cucumbers, beans, 
peas, watermelons, cantaloupes, pumpkins, cauli-flowers and 
a great many other vegetables which the writer does not know 
the name of grow luxuriously in all varieties. Their shipment 
would hardly pay. Still, if they would be raised in large quanti- 
ties so that it would pay buyers to look after them, and if they 
were paid for on delivery at the shipping place, they would be 
a good money crop, and Fayette County vegetables soon would 
conquer a market and gain a reputation for their choice quality. 
The difficulty in marketing garden-vegetables is that they are of 
a perishable nature and cannot be held like corn or cotton for 
speculation, but must be sold quickly and at any price. It 
would hardly pay the owners to ship them without having pre- 
viously found a market for them and entered into contract with 
the buyers for the terms of their delivery and payment. In 
that case, money may be realized and a good profit made; but 
if the owner should ship them at haphazard to some commis- 
sion house for sale without first having figured on the railroad 
rates, he may find to his great regret that he has shipped them 
with no proceeds whatever, the proceeds only covering expense 
of railroad freight and commission. Some Austin and Colorado 
County farmeis experienced this with a shipment of a car of 
watermelons to Chicago, some years ago. The shippers of the 
Colorado County car were called on by the Chicago commission 
house to pay in addition to the proceeds of their shipment $5.00 
for sale of melons and for freight. The Austin County shippers 
were luckier and realized from the proceeds of the sale of one 
car of watermelons S 16.00, about enough to pay them for haul- 
ing them to the depot. Still, if they are raised close to a ship- 
ping place and care is taken to have a market for them, they 
may be shipped with profit. Careless shipments made in such 
a way are liable to ruin a new industry in the county. Nobody 
doubts he can raise vegetables of the most excellent quality 


in any amount, but before engaging into the business of raising 
them for the market, he should provide for a market first and 
be sure of it. Then there will be great profit in it. 

Sweet potatoes, Irish or white potatoes do splendidly in 
Fayette County. Of sweet potatoes as many as 150 bushels have 
been gathered from an acre. As these products are not of such 
a perishable nature, they are often disposed of in the market 
with profit. If this fails, they are excellent feed for hogs and 
may be used for that purpose. 

Sorghum-cane and ribbon-cane do well. Though I believe 
that instead of ribbon -cane other crops could be raised with 
greater profit. It is raised only for home consumption. Sor- 
ghum-cane makes two to three cuttings a year. It makes a very 
good molasses, far better than the molasses bought in stores for 
thirty-five cents per gallon. This store-molasses, made from corn 
and broomcorn-stalks, is of poor taste and not considered heal- 
thy. Besides this, sorghum cane is excellent feed for horses, cattle 
and hogs and is raised chiefly for this purpose. Now, as some 
attention is paid to fattening: cattle for the market and cotton- 
seed meal and hulls are mostly used for that purpose, it may be 
worth considering the question, if even better feedstufis cannot 
be raised cheaper. 

One crop that would do very well in the rich black land 
prairies, but is not raised in the county, is broomcorn. It brings 
about half a ton to the acre. The price fluctuates from seventy 
to two hundred and forty dollars per ton, according to quality 
and demand. It requires less work in cultivating than cotton, 
but wears out the land, if planted several years in succession in 
the same field. 

Horses, cattle, hogs, sheep and poultry are raised by near- 
ly every farmer. Of late years, great attention has been paid to 
the improvement of stock. The stock farm of Dr. I, E. Clark, 
near Schulenburg, has acquired a reputation eyen beyond the 
limits of the state. Horses and cattle are raised enough for 
home needs and even for sale. While formerly bacon and 
pork was shipped to this county, enough hogs are raised now iu 


the county to meet the home demand. The hens of some farm- 
ers are (|uite industrious so that some farmers meet their whole 
store bills from the proceeds ot tlieir poultry-trade. It seems to 
this writer that in comparison to other meats the price of tur- 
keys and geese is not what it should be; they are at least half as 
cheap as beef. Still, they are used only for Thanksgiving and 
Christmas dinners. 

Well, has the kind reader thought something in perusing 
all this? May be only that it was tedious reading. Very un- 
profitable thought that is and very uncomplimentary to the 
author. But here is one profitable. Fortunes may still be 
made in Fayette County and the men that provide or find a 
market for the great variety of products that can be raised with 
ease and with profit in Fayette County and are as yet without a 
market will make them. There is always profit in introducing 
and developing new industries. This will happen in future time. 
We do not need to be in any hurry about it. Neither soil nor 
its ability to produce these crops will disappear. Considering 
that eighty years ago Fayette County was a wilderness, we 
should feel proud of the achievements of the past and feel hap- 
py that soiiie work is still left for the future. 

Outside of tlie cities and towns the farming countrj' at large 
is densely settled, may be more so than any other portion of 
the state. For this reason, land prices in Fayette county are 
reasonably high, not inflated by a boom like in some other coun- 
ties, but because the lands value more on account of conveniences 
of schools and churches and the comforts of neighborhood en- 
joyed in densely settled districts. Lands of the same quality, 
but removed from the market and the conveniences of modern 
comfort, would not bring half the price;and quite right so, con- 
sidering only one item that their products have to be hauled for 
long distances to a market. Still, lands are not excessively 
high in this county. As the reader knows that there is a great 
variety of soil in Fayette county, gravel, sandy, prairie and bot- 
tom land, the price varies greatly with the quality of the land. 
Post-oak land may be bought at from two to fifteen dollars per 
acre according to improvements and state of cultivation; prairie 

lands are sold from twenty to forty dollars per acre; bottom- 
lands, still higher. There are farmers owning well improved 
farms who would not part with them for lifty dollars an acre. 
Land prices are less fluctuating in Fayette County than elsewhere 
for the reason that there have never been any crop-failures in 
the county. No one who comes to Fayette County to make his 
living by farming has to pack up again on account of crop-failure. 
How often have not people bought land in otlier counties, the val- 
ue of which was inflated by a boom and after several crop-fail- 
ures had to give it up, having lost their all. Such never was 
the case in Fayette County. Here the farmer, knowing what he 
has, is not anxious at all to sell his farm and if he does, the 
buyer gets it at value received. For the reason that there are 
no crop failures, even the fluctuation of prices of the staple pro- 
duct of cotton does not affect the value of land, the farmer being 
well able to weather low, cold prices for years. 

Resources of the County. 

The various products that may be raised in this county 
have been treated of very extensively under another heading, 
may be too extensively even for a patient reader. Besides these, 
the resources of the county are abundant in the greatest varie- 
ties of timber. This subject will be given an entire chapter lat- 
ter on. We will look here for the resources underneath and this 
writer cannot do better than refer to an article on "The Oil De- 
posits of Texas" by jNIr. Dumble, the Texas state geologist, pub- 
lished sometime in January 1901 in the Houston Post. "The 
next important horizon is that connected with the belt of lig- 
nites, one bed of which is exposed at Manton Bluff, above 
LaGrange and the sands which overlie them. In this imme- 
diate vicinity the natural production of oil from lignite beds 
can be seen in progress. Positive proof o-f the presence of 
oil and gas in these beds is found in the Cervenka well near 
LaGrange, and the Greenwine well of Washington County." 
Not alone lignite beds and oil fields are found in Fayette 
County, but also a great variety of other minerals. Mr, J. 
C. Melcher, of O'Quinn has for the last twelve years paid 


liis closest altention to the discoveries of minerals in the 
county, he has made extensive prospecting tours and is 
well qualified to speak on the minerals of the county. The 
following article is prepared by him for this book and deserves 
tlie careful attention of the reader. 


By J. C. Melcher, O'Quinn, Texas. 

A deficiency in the railroad laws proves very disastrous to 
the mining interests of the state. Railroads have no right to con- 
demn a man's land and pay for it at the assessed value in order 
to build a spur to a mineral section of country. Thus, a man 
owning a few hundred yards between a railroad and a mineral 
deposit may jirevent its development by asking an exorbitant 
price for it or by refusing to sell the right of way at all. Amongst 
others, I haye several times suffered from the deficiency of such 
laws. In consequence, my attempts to find gold and other 
precious metals or ores have been very limited, more than they 
would have been otherwise. Many people imagine that there 
might be millions in the ground and that the prosj)ector is try- 
ingto steal them. I have found several valuable minerals on the 
Walter Hamilton and Muldoon Leagues, but failed to make con- 
tracts with the land owners to develop their properties for a 
reasonable compensation. I have some very interesting assay 
certificates, but they do me no good, as the land does not belong 
to me. We need outsiders to come in and take hold of these 
things, as the people are more willing to bargain with them 
than with their neighbors. 

Evidences of Gold and Precious Metals. 

I am of the opinion that even gold may be found in Fay- 
ette County. Old theorists said, 'Precious metals are found only 
in volcanic countries.' Precious metals are found in some, but 
not in all volcanic countries. Eminent geologists say, 'Grold is 
where you find it.' Placer or drift gold may be found any- 
where, but not veingold. Fayette County bears a great many 
evidences of volcanic upheavels. The great bluffs and hills 


north and south of LaGrange and east of Winchester and the 
rocky ridges near Muldoon are positive evidences. The many 
gravel hills and deposits in this county show that there once was a 
very strong current of water coining down from the Rocky Moun- 
tains which brought the rocks and gravel down from the moun- 
tain sides. We know that there is gold in the Rocky Mountains, 
and some of it must have come down here with the drift rock 
and sand. Wherever we find much quartz among the rocks, 
sand and gravel, we may look for some gold or silver in the 
form of placer of drift metal. Mineral springs and sulphur and 
gypsum in the earth are also usually good indications of more 
or less minerals in the vicinity. These we have in many places 
in this county. I have a piece of very rich gold ore, found by 
a negro in a gravel bed near O'Ciuinn Creek. I have heard of 
an outcrop of blue quartz, containing considerable pyrites, south 
ot the Bluff near LaGrange. I have found pyritic sands and 
sulphites in Buckner's Creek and Iron Ore Branch. 


We have many sulphur veins and springs in this county, but 
I do not know of any sulphur deposits large enough to be work- 
ed. There is a large territory along Buckner's Creek in this 
county where it is almost impossible to get good well water on 
account of the ground containing too much sulphur and other 
mineral matter. There are many sulphur and mineral wells in 
other parts of this county, bnt there is also generally enough of 
good water to supply the neighborhoods. 


I think Fayette County has more lignite than any other county 
in the State. One coal belt extends nearly, if not quite across 
the entire county, from near Carmine to Waelder. This lignite 
belt seems to be in places seven miles wide, but it is not a solid 
sheet all the way; in manv places it is broken up. The biggest 
and finest out-crops seem to be between LaGrange and Muldoon. 
One mine, or rather a coal quarry was in operation on the Colo- 
rado River bank, three miles above LaGrange, in twelve to lifteen 
feet of lignite. They have stopped working; for what reason, I 


do not know. I suppose that the oil boom has scared them out. 
Other lignite beds have been discovered along the S. A. & A. P. 
R. R., bui the oil boom has kept them down, A number of suc- 
cessful tests have been made lately with Beaumont oil and lig- 
nite combined. The combination burns and heats much better 
than either alone. It is the cheapest and best fuel for smelting 
iron ores and several other purposes. 


Tliere are many si»ns of oil in the lignite and sulphur districts 
of this county. One good sign is said to be on the Tansey place, 
three miles west of Muldoon. Genuine blue 'mineral oil sands 
crop out in many places below the lignite beds. These sands as 
well as the lignites dip to the south-east and that is the direc- 
tion in which the oil goes or comes. It the theory is correct 
that oil rises (and I have no doubt that it does, until it gets near 
the surface of the earth, when it will disappear again,) then the 
oil may come from the Gulf, crop out here and be the cause of 
the formation of lignites here. If, however, the oil was formed 
here among the lignites and followed the dip to the south-east, 
then we may look for oil on the dip (slope) south-east of here 
or we njay strike the oil vein from the Bastrop County lignites. 

There was some talk about drilling for oil in the north-eastern 
portion of the county. Gen. H. Loessin had leased lands for 
oil near Muldoon. The present cheapness of Beaumont oi) will 
keep the oil and lignite prospects in the county down for some 


I know of only one gas well in this county, but there are a 
number of ordinary water wells which contain small quantities 
of gas. To my knowledge, a well has never been dug in this 
county for the purpose of obtaining gas or oil. The gas well in 
this county was struck while drilling for water at a depth of 124 
feet, about four miles south-west of LaGrange in 1897. One 
day the gas was set afire by an inquisitive experimenter who in 
consequence carried away a considerable amount of experience. 
The hole had to be filled half full of dirt before the blaze could 

be checked. It was said that a local oil company intended to 
reopen the well and go down to considerable depth, if necessary. 
I hear nothing of them now, 1 suppose the Beaumont oil is hold- 
ing them down. 


Kaolin is the finest of white clays, used in the manufacture 
of porcelain ware and for many other purposes. Large beds of 
kaolin are found near Flatonia. There is a great difference in 
the quality and color of kaolins. I have found a large bed of 
the finest kind of kaolin on the S, A. & A. P. railroad, near thg 
Muldoon rock quarries, five miles north-east of Muldoon. Kao- 
lin deposits have also been found in the hills east of Winchester. 

Gypsum, (Plaster Paris. Hydrochlorate of Lime.) 

Gypsum is scattered over many places in this county, but I 
have never found enough of it to pay working, I think it will 
be found in sufiicient quantities in the future. Tlie specimens 
thus far found are very clear and transparent. 


Feldspar is found m payinor quantities in many places be- 
tween O'Ciuinn and Flatonia. It may be used in the manufac- 
ture of pottery and crockery, after it has been prepared. 


Alumina is mostly found among the feldspathic and silici- 
ous clays. It can be found among our valuable white clays in 
the county. I have a sample before me which is white and 
very light, almost like magnesia. 

Common or Potter Clay. 

Common or Potter Clay is abundant in many |)laceH. A 
good clay bank of the right kind near the railroad is very valu- 
able. It will all be needed by and by. especially for good 
bricks, fire-proof bricks, ornamental works and house fronts. 


TiLE AND Jr'iPE Clay, 

Tile and Pipe clay will be needed, and we have worlds of 
it, of all grades and colors. Red clay is also iu abimdance. Peo- 
ple have learned to make a very valuable cement out of certain 
clay. Probably old Fayette has th:=^ very stuff for this. Would 
it not be a great thing, if old Fayette should furnish Galveston 
with rock and cement to build the great sea-wall around Galves- 
ton? They could have the rock and cement all in the same place, 
at very little cost. 

Limestone and Lime. 

Many years ago, some people burned their own lime in this 
county, and a durable lime it was. I will try to give the names 
of some of the old lime makers of this county. They were H. 
L. Kreische. and Kucik on the Bluff, Tiemann on Cedar Creek, 
and Wm. Duelberg at O'Quinu. 1 don't think any lime was 
burned here in the last thirty years. I don't tliink it was the 
lack of material which stopped the manufacture of lime, but we 
could get it elsewhere, just in quantities needed and ready pack- 
ed. What is needed is that some one starts the work again and 
a barrel factory close by. 


Most of our building stone would be called sand-stone, some 
of it is mixed with lime and micaceous matter. I think the best, 
handiest and most availiable building stone is at or near Mul- 
doon. Thousands of carloads have been taken therefiom and 
millions of tons of fine rock are still left there. The rock there 
is a stratified sandstone, mixed with lime and micaceous mat- 
ter so that it cracks and splits very readily under the hammer in 
desired directions. It lies in straight layers, already cracked in 
large cubes, therefore very handy to quarry, break and load. I 
know that sandstone formations and petrifications are going on 
Ibis day. Some sand-stone which was very soft when I was a 
boy is hard enough now. Tlie next big rock quarry in this 
country is about four miles south-east of Ledbelter. Rock fram 
this ])lace has also been used for the Galveston jetties. Tlie 
great and celebrated Bluff, south of LaGrange, contains millions 

—21 — 

of good rock of many kinds and colors, but it is diilicult to get 
them into market, as the place is not easily accessible for rail- 
roads. There are several smaller rock quarries, three to five miles 
south-west of LaGrange. From the High Hill Creek, east of La- 
Grange, ver}^ good thin building stones have also been quarried. 
A nice red sand-stone is found three miles west of Serbin. A 
church house was built of this stone in 1868 which still looks 
very well this day. 


Petrifications are very numerous in this county. Tliey are 
great curiosities in other counties, wliilo we do not pay any at- 
tention to them here. The largest and most interesting pieces 
are three trees on the Leitenberg place near the S. A. & A. P. 
R. R, each of which was over four feet in diameter and forty to 
fifty feet long to the first limbs. The choicest pieces liave been 
hauled away for orupmcnts ; there is a pair still left, twenty-two 
inches in diameter and fourteen feet long, without a crack or 
knot. Many p^etrified bones of antediluvian animals have been 
found. The most numerous petrifications are found between 
Swiss Alp and West Point. I think they probably will be 
looked after in the future, 

Iron and Oxide oi' Ikon. 

A fine large bed of limonite ore has lately been discovered on 
the V/alter Hamilton League and secured l>y a twenty-five years' 
lease. It overlies a thick bed of iron ochre. Plematite and 
oxide of iron eroji out in several places on the Walter Hamilton 
and Muldoon Leagues. Iron oxide mixed with sand and clay is 
found in many places in this county. When pure and strong, it 
is a valuable insecticide, fertilizer, and color maker, like the 
ochre; it is used also as a cheap paint; some of the clay mnkes 
line red pottery, tiling and pipes ; mixed with sand, it makes 
nice red brick. If applied to the cotton plants on blacklands 
with calcareous subsoils, before they die, or if such lands are fer- 
tilized with the oxide of iron, I think it will prevent the cotton 
from dying. Oxide of iron is a poison to all aoisnal lilc having 
white blou(l, and it is necessary to all animal life having red 


blood. Fayette County has millions of tons of this slufT", and the 
time will come when it will be looked after. Old Fayette has 
nearly everythiuo; in the mineral line you may call for. The 
other day I came accidentally across a vertical vein of metallic 
ore on top of a hill one hundred feet high, about six miles north- 
east of Flatonia. Another positive proof that parts of this 
county are of volcanic origin. 

Magnj:tio Sand. 

There is one more interesting mineral in the county to be 
mentioned, magnetic sand. Your readers will notice directly 
after a rain on roadsides or ditches streaks of blue metallic 
sand. If they will pass a magnet over these blue streaks, the 
magnet will pick up the bluish black metallic ore. We have 
places in this county where lightning strikes very often. This 
is mostly due to the metallic magnetic sand in the earth. 
Yours very truly, 

J. C. Melcher. 

As Described by C. L. Melcher, of S\viss Alp, Texas. 

1. There is an outcrop of iron ore in the western part of 
the coanty, beginning near Peacii Creek about ten miles west oi 
Flatonia, thence in a northeastern direction to the Colorado River 
near West Point. Indications show that there is a heavy de- 
posit of iron ore beneath the outcrop]jing which is generally on 
toj) of a hill or on the hillsides. There is an immense quantity 
of iron in the ground near the outcroppings of tiie ore on the 
surface of the ground. 

2. Great quantities of lignite coal are found on a line par- 
allel with the iron ore bed, southeast Irom the iron ore bed. 

Of course, this is not taken from a geological or topographic 
survey or standpoint, and is only viewed by outcroppings of 
said lignite coal on different places along hillsides, branches or 
washouts. These outcroppings indicate in which direction the 
veins, or lodes, of the lignite coal are dipping or traveling, 


The first vein, or lode, which is undoubtedly the mother 
vein, or lode, begins on the Gorham Branch about Ij miles west 
of Hermann Loessin, better known as General Loessin's place, 
where the first outcroppmg of lignite is plainly wa=ihed out, and 
can be traced for several hundred yards in a northeasterly direc- 
tion. Thence it travels to Shed Clayton (col.) or Otto Polsin's 
place on Cedar Creek, where an outcropping in tiie latter creek 
shows a heavy bed of lignite coal. Thence in a northeasterly 
direction to the O'Quinn Branch, near or at Ernst Hengst's 
place, at a washout in this branch ; lignite coal, mixed with 
sulphur, protrudes in the bed and banks of said creek. Thence 
in a northeasterly direction to Iron Ore Branch near or at Henry 
Duelberg's place, where sulphurous deposits mixed with copper, 
also lignite, protrude out of the bed. Thence in a northeasterly 
direction to Buckner's Creek near or at the place known as the 
Dr. Denker place, where lignite protrudes in great quantities 
and burns freeJy in an open blacksmith hearth. 

Thence in a northeasterly direction to the Colorado River 
near or at the Manton farm, about three miles above the city of 
LaGrange, where lignite coal is now mined and proves to be 
very satisfactory. 

Thence northeasterly across the Colorado River, creeping 
under the chalk bluff about three miles above LaGrange, where 
the mother lode is cut off and expires. It undoubtedly has 
been produced and formed at the time when the chalk bluff and 
the bluff at LaGrange, better known as Kreische's Bluff", were 

This will end the mother lode as far as I can trace it. 

Now to the tributaries or branches as they zigzag from tne 
place to another, creeping in the direction of the mother vein 
where they will intersect and unite with their mother lode. 

The second vein begins at Henry Leitenberg's place on 
Buckner's Creek and travels in a zigzag line to J. C. Melcher's 
place, where a shaft has been dug and a solid bed of lignite coal 
twelve feet thick was struck. This coal was tested at Yoakum 
and several other places and proved to be a very good coal. 


This vein still continues on in a zigzag line towards its mother 
lode and intersects the same near Henry Duelberg's and John 
Laux's places on Buckner's Creek. Indications and outcroppings 
on the surface of the ground are plainly visible and show in 
which direction the yein travels, 

The third vein begins somewhere near West Point, travels 
in an easterly direction along the divide between the Colorado 
River and Buckner's Creek, also in a zigzag line toward its mother 
lode and intersects it at the same point where vein No. 2 inter- 

Tins so far ends the lignite coal veins. 

Now to rock. There is a layer of a very coarse, blue-gray- 
ish looking rock, which lies parallel uith the mother lode of lig- 
nile. By examining this rock any person can see that it ia 
formed of nothing else but sea shells or shale and is undoubt- 
edly the cap rock of the lignite. Tliere is another layer or vein 
of rock also running parallel with the coal vein. This rock is 
what is called sand rock and is wery good for building and 
masonry work. This layer begins east of the town of Flatonia, 
thence travels in a northeasterly direction to the bluff near the 
city of LaGrange where an immense quantity of this rock has 
been upheaved and forms the bluff, which is 300 feet high. The 
bluff in some places is i)erpendicular, from 100 to 200 feet high, 
and of good solid rock ; immense boulders of this rock weighing 
from five to ten tons can be found in Mr. Knigge's pasture. 
These boulders are all sticking edgewise or upright in liie ground, 
and all indications show that tht-,se great boulders have been 
blown up under great pressure and have remained in such posi- 
tion ever since. There is no telling what pressure yet remains 
underneath the bluff. 

Now as to gas. First, gas has been found in a well about 
80 feet deep and riglit on top of a hill on Mr. Fritz Nollkaem- 
per's place near Swiss Alp. about eight miles southwest of La 
Granoe. Eighteen years ago this well was called the singing 
well, and no well digger would go into it tor anything in the 
world ; hence the well w:is abandoned and covered up. 

Second, gas was struck about six years ago in a well at a 


depth of 128 feet on Mrs. Cervenka's place, about five miles 
south of LaGrange, and almost at the base on the south side ot 
the bluff. The roar and rumbling of this well could be heard 
for a distance of 400 or 500 yards. 

The well caught fire from strikmg a match near it. by an 
onlooker, and endangered ihe dwelling which stood near by. It 
required ten or twelve men to drag water and earth over and in- 
to the well to extinguish tlie fire. The well was then tightly 
covered up and abandoned; there it still remains. This gas 
well is about 2i miles northeast of the Nollkaemper well and on 
the same ridge which is an extension of the bluflt". This well 
is also on top of a hill. 

In a washout on a branch on the place of Mr. E. Knigge, 
Jr., near Swiss Alp, and about eight miles south of LaGrange. 
an immense lot of bones of all kinds from the smallest rib up to 
teeth tliat weigh 4 J pounds have been found and can be found 
yet. These bones are very brittle and will fall to pieces as soon 
as they get dry. The deposit of bones lies under a soft, white- 
yellowish looking sandstone. 

Now, from the above can be seen and readily understood 
that this (Fayette County) has an ample amount of iron, lignite, 
gas, hundreds of thousands of car loads of good rock for building 
purposes, and very good indications for oil and other minerals. 

Now as to the veins and ridges of the above and in which 
way they travel. 

1st. Iron ore in the western part of the county travels from 
southwest to northeast. 

2nd. Lignite vein is on the east side of the iron ore vein 
and travels parallel with it. 

3rd. The shell rock vein lies on the east side of the lignite 
vein, also traveling parallel with it. 

4th. The upheaved bluff with its extension lies on the east 
side of the shell rock, also traveling parallel with the shell rock 
vein from southwest to northeast. The deposit of bones is on 
the east side of the southwest extension of the bluffj but it can 

— ^6- 

not be traced in which direction it travels. I think it is only a 
pocket and was formed during a great flood, when the various 
animals were washed and lodged and covered np with earth at 
the time the bluft' was uplieaved, 

This so far ends my description of Fayette County concern- 
ing minerals, etc. It is not written from what people say, but 
is all from my own knowledge. 

I was raised in this county and know almost everv foot of 
ground, and if any person desires to go, 1 will take him over the 
ground, and he can convince himself. 

C. L. Melcher, 

Swiss Alp, Tex. 


By J. C. Melcher, O'Quinn, Texas. 

Before describing the timber of the county, I may first state 
where it is found or which sections of the county are timbered. 

The heaviest timber grows in and near the principal bot- 
toms of rivers and creeks viz., in the Colorado River bottom, 
in the bottoms of Cummin's Creek and Rabb's Creek and their 
tributaries, north of the Colorado River and in the bottoms of 
Williams' Creek and Buckner's Creek, south of the Colorado. 
About one-half of the county was timbered, but large portions of 
land are cleared of timber every year and put in cultivation. A 
great mass of useful timber has been destroyed and burned in 
this clearing of lands, valuable and useful timber at that ; but 
fur the reason that it was too far from the market, no use 
was made of it. This destruction of timber goes on year by 
year. There is an immense quantity of valuable timber, espec- 
ially hard timber, in the county that may be used in manufac- 
ture. But we have no factories of that kind in the county. A 
factory which works our hard timber would be a success and a 
blessing to the county. A capitalist would find a good chance 
to invest his money in a factory of this kind. I will now give a 
description of the most common and useful timbers of this 


county, but beg to be excused, if 1 write of tbem as they come 
into my mind, without arranging or classifying them. 

Ash grows in nearly all bottom lands (by bottom lands I 
mean the low, rich, heavily timbered lands along the streams). 
Ash grows to a height of forty to ninety feet, and to four feet in 
diameter. It is generally harder and tougher than the northern 
ash, makes a splendid wagon timber, and is found in sufficient 
quantity to supply all the wheelwrights of this county. A great 
deal of it is sinfully used for firewood, still more of it is dead- 
ened and burned in clearing bottom lands for cultivation, be- 
cause there are no mills, factories or markets near by. 

Black Jack is scattered all over the woods. It is the most 
useless wood we have, good only for fence rails and firewood. 
It resembles Spanish Oak, but is more dwarfish, grows to a 
height of fifty feet and sometimes measures thirty inches in 
diameter, but generally is only ten inches in thickness. The 
tree bears many large acorns. Its bark contains a great deal of 
tannin and acid. 

Bois d'Arc is native in a few places in the northeast por- 
tion of this county and has been transplanted and seeded nearly 
all over the county some twenty to thirty years ago for ornament 
and as hedgeplant. It is one of the hardest woods we have, 
grows rapidly, splits tolerably well, and makes excellent fence 
posts and good wagon timber, although it is a little too heavy 
for the latter purpose. Bark and roots somewhat resemble the 
mulberry and its leaves are equally good silkworm food. The 
seeds cluster into an immense ball wiiich looks like a mammoth 
orange. The color of the wood is yellow. Nice walking canes 
may bo made of the young shoots. Although it is used as a 
hedge])lant, it grows to a thickness of several feet and sixty feet 

Box Elder is something between the ash and the maple, 
more resembling the ash in its leaves and therefore often called 
water-ash. It grows among the ash in the bottoms along creeks 
and branches to a height of fifty feet and often reaches thirty 
inches in dian)etei% The wood is smooth and whit«, ^^I'liost a,^ 

—28 — 

white as the white liolly of the North, hut is not quite so hard. 
It is excellent material for scroll-sawyer's work and for furniture. 
It makes good fence-posts when put into the ground thoroughly 
dry ; also splendid doorsteps and sills. It splits and is worked 
very easily when green, but when dry it is rather hard. The 
seeds are very small and resemble the seeds of the ash. 

Burr Oak grows along the bottoms, but is not so very 
plentiful now. It is much sought after for wagon timber and 
other purposes where good hard wood is required. It has the 
largest leaves and acorns of all the oak family and grows to good 
sized trees. 

Cedar (Red Cedar) was the most valuable timber in this 
county, but nearly all the large trees have been used up. I be- 
lieve that Fayette County had as much or more red cedar than 
any other county in the state. There are a great many young 
cedars growing up again, nnd as wire fencing has come into use, 
cedar rails will not be needed now and the young cedars will 
have a chance to become fair trees. They grow tolerably fast, 
averaging about one-half an inch in the growth of diameter 
every year. I have some cedars in my yard which average 
more than that. I like them better than any other trees for 
ornament and shade. They are a beautiful evergreen and may 
be clipped into almost any shape. They emit a very pleasant 
aroma, grow in nearly every bottom and often among the post- 
oaks, and are not at all particular as to the kind of soil. The 
best time to transplant them is in the months of September .■:\nd 
October, as they grow most in the fall of the year. In the rich 
bottoms they grow to a height of one hundred feet and to several 
feet in thickness. There is no timber ahead of them for fence- 
rails, pickets and shingles. For posts and well-curbing, live- 
oak, bois d'arc, mulberry, and mesquite may excel them, but I 
believe that in black ground ced\r excels them after all. 

Cottonwood is a species of the poplar family and grows 
along the streams, creeks and branches, and also in the pretty 
])rairies of our county, to a height of over one liundred feet ; the 
thickest 1 ever saw was six feet in diameter. If cut in the right 
season of the year, the old trees make splendid limber for box- 


ing, ceiling, franiing and shingles. The younger trees are gen- 
erally rather tough to work and too apt to spring, warp and rot. 
My whole storehouse is ceiled witli cottonwood from only one 
tree ; the same made two thousand six hundred feet of good 
lumber. Cottonwood grows very well after transplanting, but 
only in rich soil, 

SYCAiMORE. I don't think ours is the sycamore of the Nortli; 
ours resembles more the silver poplar. It grows natively in the 
bottoms among the cottonwoods which it somewhat resembles, 
only that the leaves are much larger and the bark is almost snow 
white. It is quite an interesting sight to see the large, huge 
white limbs in the green foliage. When the wind sweeps 
through the large leaves, they rattle against each other like a 
coming hail storm. Sycamore grows to a height of over one 
hundred feet and several feet in diatneter. If trees -are selected 
and cut in the right time, they make lumber of good quality, 
andsif nicely dressed, the prettiest kind of inside work and also 
good looking furniture. Tiiey furnish very often over a thous- 
and feet of lumber. 

Cypress is in resemblance between the cedar and the pine, 
coniform, and known all over the world better than I can des- 
cribe it. It grows along some of the streams east of the Colorado. 
Some fair sized trees still remain standing. The balance has 
been felled and worked up. They are evergreens and, like the 
cedar, grow from the seeds. They grow to a very large size and 
make fine, straight, round saw-stocks. The lumber is light and 
soft, but hard to beat. It is getting scarce too soon. 

China (Wild China) is found scattered in the bottoms. It 
grows to a height of twenty to fifty feet, and ten to sixteen 
inches in diameter. It resembles the tame china in fruit and 
bloom, but the bloom is lighter in color and larger in cluster 
and contains much more nectar than the bloom of the tame china; 
a good place for bee hunters in early spring. The bark is very 
rough, the wood, hard and heavy ; it makes good baskets and 
does not rot easily. The leaves resemble those of the tame and 
umbrella china, but don't make as much shade. The kernel of 


the fruit is jet black, shining, hard and round, Tlie Indians 
used to make beads of them. 

Elm (German Ulme). Of this tree we have three kinds. 
They are very numerous in all our bottom lands. 

Red Elm grows tall and straight to a height of over one 
hundred feet, and to thirty-six inches in diameter. It splits 
well and makes good fencing plank, framevvood, wagon axles, 
tongues, etc. If cut in the riglit season of the year, it will make 
good fence-rails, but is unsuitable for posts, It makes beautiful 
furniture, takes a fine polish, but is very hard to dress. 

White Elm grows among tlie red elms to the same height 
and shape, but even to a thicker size. It is a very j^retty wood, 
but apt to warp and almost impossible to be split. The wood 
laots as long as that of the red elm, but is not so hard and tough. 
It is a pity to see these fine looking trees destroyed by fire in 
clearing the lands for cultivation. 

Gum (Sweet Gam) is scattered all over the county and 
found amongst all kinds of timber. It does not require a partic- 
ular soil, only it grows larger in the bottoms. Its height on the 
high lands is about twenty feet, in the bottoms, forty feet. A 
tree of one foot in diameter in the bottom is of large size. The 
bark is dark gra}^, rough, and finely cracked. The gum looks 
like milk, tastes sweet like good cow milk, and is found between 
the second bark and the tree. Ciiildren love to chew the crude 
bark for its taste and extract from it the gum to play therewith. 
The little flowers of the gum tree are sweet and full of nectar ; 
its fruit is a black berry of sweet taste, of oblong shape, and 
about three-fourths of an inch in diameter. Tiie tree has a great 
many thorns on the smaller twigs, but not as many as the 

Hackberry like sweet gum is found all over the county. 
Many of these trees are planted for shade and ornamental pur- 
poses. After transplanting they are sure growers even if they 
have but few roots and are ten years old. The leaves resemble 
those of the elm. The bark is very rough and covered all over 
Avith hard warts so that the boys cannot well climb the trees. 


The fruit is a small, hard eatable berry of red color and of the 
size of buckshot. In rich bottoms it grows to a height of sixty- 
feet and two feet in diameter. The wood is like that of the elm, 
but lighter in weight and color and much softer. It splits, saws, 
and works well. 

Hickory is scattered over the wooded highland portion of 
this county, but good large trees are scarce. But, even if they 
were plentiful, I think they hardly would be utilized as nearly 
all the manufactured articles for which hickory is used are im- 
ported ready-made from the North. 1 sincerely wish we would 
get factories in this county to utilize our many good hard woods 
of which we have immense quantities, 

Mesquite is found scattered in the county. It is a tliorny, 
dwarfish and brushy tree and bears long pods with beans which 
make a good food for cattle. The pod is sweet and tender. The 
timber of the mes(iuite is very hard and not apt to rot. 

Mulberry. This valuable timber grows in our bottoms to 
a height of thirty-five feet and to a size of twenty-four inches in 
diameter. The wood is of a golden yellow color, saws and 
works well and makes the best fence posts, good furniture, and 
splendid wagon timber. Mulberry trees are sure and prolific 
bearers and fast growers. They grow well after transplanting 
and are often planted for shade and ornament. The berries are 
over an inch long, nearly half nn inch thick, dark red, very 
pulpy and sweet. The leaves are the well known food of silk- 

Live Oak, These beautiful trees are found nearly every- 
where in the county. In the prairies they stand singly, giving 
shade to cattle and increasing the good looks of the country. 
They are beautiful sights. Covered by silver-gray moss which 
hangs from their limbs like a beard, they stand like aged giants 
to speak to man of the time of ages. Tiiey are the most gigantic 
of the oak family, and grow sixty feet high and five feet thick. 
Its acorns are oblong and black, a splendid mast for hogs ; the 
wood is the hardest known. 

Pin Oaks predominate in most of our bottoms. They re- 

—32 — 

semble the white oak, but the wood is of darker color and not 
quite as liard and tough. It saws well and makes good frame- 
wood, good fence rails, in case they do not rot before they get 
dry, good flooring and fine roofing boards (called clap boards by 
most of us). Pinoaks are a very fine large timber. A great 
many of them are deadened for clearing, 

Post-Oak is the principal timber of our county as far as 
quantity is concerned and is used for a great many purposes. 

Pine used to be plentiful in the neighborhood of Rabb's 
Creek, but it is pretty well used up now. 

Pecan is scattered nearly all over this county and grows 
to a large size, to about one hundred feet in height and three to 
four feet in thickness. It resembles black walnut in leaf, bark 
and shape, but its lumber is not so valuable, it ranks between 
Jiickory and walnut. The wood is nearly as hard and tough 
as hickory wood. The old large trees make splendid framing 
and fairly good weather boards. The nuts are preferable to all 

Persimmon (Red Persimmon) grows along some water- 
courses, but not very plentiful. They measure up to twenty 
feet in height and eight inches in diameter. The fruit is of a 
yellowish red, very pulpy and sweet. 

Peach (Wild Peach). I don't know why this tree is called 
wild peach, as it resembles the peach tree very little. It grows 
in the richest bottom lands. Wild peach bottom lands are con- 
sidered the very best for agricultural purposes. The peach tree 
grows about thirty-five feet in height and twelve inches in diam- 
eter. It is a beautiful evergreen, may be clipped into nice 
shapes and then be used for ornamental hedges in the yard. It 
is a fine shade tree, blooms very early, and excels in aroma the 
china ; bees work on its blooms very lively Leaves and bark 
have medicinal properties. The bark is nearly black and is 
cracked all over except on young twigs. The fruit is a slick, 
shining black, round berry of bitter-sweetish taste, and is eaten 
by birds. The wood is hard and tough and a little darker than 
the tame peach. 

Prickly Aph is found all over the county and grows twenty- 
five feet Jiigh and ten inches in diameter. It has thorny i)rickles 
all over. It blooms early in the spring and has aromatic white 
flowers, liees like the flowers ; birds, the little black seed. 
The bark and leaves have a very strong smell and taste, almost 
like hartshorn (Ammoniac.) They contain valnable curative 

Walnut grows in some places on Cummins Creek and on 
Criswell's Creek to fair sizes ; also some on the Colorado lliver 
below LaGrange. Lumber and nuts are harder than those of the 
northern walnuts. It is an excellent timber for every pur])ose. 
Some mills made it a business to export it ; this waa several 
years ago ; they have quit now. Large old sawstock trees are 
getting scarce now, but many young ones are growing up again. 
In some places, tiiey are planted. The wood is known all ovj.r 
the world so that I do not need to describe it. 

Whitp: Oak. This valuable timber is not spread all over 
our woodlands like in the northern and eastern states. It is con- 
fined to a few bottoms near and on the Colorado River, and a few 
are scattered in the northeastern portion of our county. It grows 
to one hundred feet in height and measures many mches in diam- 
eter. The wood splits well, but is harder than the northern 
white-oak and. therefore, does not work so well under the tool. 
It makes the best wagon timber, very good tence-rails and posts. 
VViLLjw, We have only one kind here, the common water 
willow (salix). The tim,ber is of little use. In tlie i)rairies, 
willows are planted around tanks and springs for siiade and 

I will now describe some of our commonest vines and bushes, 
Spanish Mulberiiy, This is more a weed than a tree, and 
why they call it mulberry, I caimot understand. I don't think 
that this is its proper name. It grows in most of our woods 
and the land on which it grows is generally considered rich 
land. It grows to a height of from four to eight feet and is about 
one inch thick. J. eaves and bark resemble some yi>ung wild 
mulberries. Its fruit is a puri)lish red berry, wliich grows in 
clusters ; birds like to cat the berries, 


Su.MACH. I know of but one kind ; it is the kind used for 
dyeing, and it was used extensively for tiie purpose of dyeing 
cloth during? the latter part of the Civil War. It does not grow 
everywhere in this county, is more a shrub than a tree, and at- 
tains a height of fourteen feet. The leaves are formed somewhat 
like the tame China, bat are generally of a reddish color. The 
bloom and seeds grow out on the utmost top of each branch in 
the forni of an upright tassel of four to seven inches in length 
and of deep red color, presenting a pretty appearance. 

Spanish Rattan. The kind which is occasionally found 
natively in this county does not resemble the rattan of South 
America and India. Ours belongs to the Mesquite (chaparall) 
family of Mexico. It grows in almost any soil, is dwarfish, 
hardly ever over ten teet high, and several inches thick, It 
branches from the bottom up and has but few side branches. 
The bark is smooth and green ; the flowers, fine, yellow, and 
containing much nectar. It bears a bean. The wood is hard 
and heavy and makes good walking canes. 

Rattan Vine (Blueberry Vine). This vine is plentiful all 
over the woods, but grows mostly in the bottoms. It grows to 
considerable height and measures several inches in diameter. 
The only point in which it resembles the rattan is in the bark, 
the same being hard, smooth and green. It may be twisted so 
as to grow into peculiar and pretty shapes ; it makes splendid 
walking canes, its hard bark taking.a natural polish by use and 
wearing. The leaves are dark green, oval, smooth, and nearly 
the size of half a dollar. Tiie vines bear blue berries of which 
children and bird;5 are very fond. 

Spanish Grape (Winter Grape). This is a small variety 
of grapes which ri{)ens in September and October. The berries 
are tlio sizo of buckshot, black, not very pulpy, seedy, and some- 
wliat .icid. I don't know if tlioy would make good wine. They 
arc eatable and taste well. The vines and leaves resemble some 
of our tame varieties. It is scattered mostly over the woods 
south of the Colorado River, and some is found on the northeast 
side of the county. 

Spanish Mustanc; Grape. This vine is not confined to 


the woods, but may be found on every creek and along some 
fences in the prairies, It climbs to the top of our highest trees 
and goes even much further than that, and if straightened out, 
would measure several hundred feet in length. It sometimes 
reaches ten inches in diameter ; the average diameter is about 
four inclies. It resembles several of our domestic varieties, but 
the berries are larger, of black color, round, very juicy and 
pulpy. The hull of tiie pulp contains acid and tannin, but is 
easily removable, leaving the very sweet and palatable inside 
juice and pulp. The vines are very prolific ; some vines pro- 
duce as much as four flour barrels of grapes, which quantity 
will make about a fifty gallon barrel of wine. The wine is very 
good and healthy, and if properly made, I like it as well as any 
wine I ever tasted except champagne. The people are learning 
fast how to make it, but the trouble is that they very often do 
not let the grapes get ripe. In the more unsettled woods there 
are thousands of tons of these grape? going to waste every year. 
I have been successful in making good mustang wine for the last 
five vears and if you wish, I will give you my recipe for making 

Black Persimmons are very scarce in Fayette County. 
The trees grow about sixteen feet high and three to six inches in 
diameter. The Iruit is bluish black and about the size of a wild 
plum or a good sized tame plum. Some people like to eat them; 
birds and some animals are very fond of them. The wootl is 
very hard and when cut in certain seasons of the year and turned 
on a lathe when green will turn black while drying. 

Buckthorn (Rhamnus) grows in wet places and along some 
branches, but not to a great extent in this section. It grows to 
a height of sixteen feet, and five inches in diameter. The bark 
is rough and diagonally cracked on old trees ; the young trees 
and the limbs have smooth bark. It is used for yellow dyes. 
It bears black, bad smelling and tasting berries. The charcoal 
pf the tree is preferably used in the nuinufacture of powder. 

Buckeye grows only in some of the richest bottoms and to 
a height of ten to sixteen feet. I don't think it grows over tiiree 
inches thick. It bears nuts of the size of hazelnuts. These 


nuts are enclosed to the number of three or four in one capsule. 
When ripe, the capsule bursts open and the s^eds fall to the 
ground. They resemble a buck's eye of black color, hence their 
name. They are considered poisonous ; some people carry them 
in their clothes to cure rheumatism. The wood is very soft, 
but tough and hard to saw ; the bark is tolerably smooth. 

Bamboo Thorx (Mammoth Brier) is found, but scarcely, in 
rich bottoms. It grows to a length of sixty feet and one inch 
thick. Every fourth of an inch it has a long thorn or needle 
about one-half an inch long. The plant has no fruit. 

Currants (Huckleberries) grow to a heiglit of twelve feet 
and are about tliree inches m diameter. They are scattered in 
the woods over rocky and gravely places. In the northwest 
corner of our county there are thousands of acres thickly cov- 
ered with them. They generally bear every year profusely. 
The berries are nearly as large sm the tame ones, but not so 
imlpy and sweet. They are relished however by boys, beasts 
aiul birds. 

Dogwood We have but very few of the large kind on the 
south side of the Colorado River and very few more on the north 
side. We generally have ni tiiis c»unty the dwarf kind. It 
grows ten feet high in some thickets along branches and in some 
bottoms. Tlie wood is very hard. From the blooms of the tree 
the bee draws honey. 

Elder (German Hollunder) grows native in some ot the 
heaviest and richest bottoms to a height of ten feet and measures 
several inches in diameter. It is almost an evergreen. The flow- 
ers when dried make a fine tea. The berries are black and pos- 
sess medicinal properties. It is often planted in some corner of 
the premises in order to have some flowers and berries for fam- 
ily use. The wood is liard and has a large pith which hardly 
can be pushed out. Who remen^bers not his boyhood days when 
lie m:ide pop-guns and squirts of the hollow stems? Who does 
noL aladly think back of the i)leasure attending the making and 
liie use of these ])op-guns and squirts? 

Poison Ivy grows in the heavy bottoms to a length of prob- 
ably one hundred feet, but it is rarely over two iuqhes thick. It 


bears a beautiful red trumpet-shaped fiower about four inciies 
long and two inches wide at the brim of the trumpet, of attrac- 
tive shape, size and color. The fruit is a pod with beans of the 
size of lima beans. During their blooming the wliole plant and 
bloom is very poisonous to some people, while it does not affect 
others. The simple touching or smelling of it will cause a feel- 
ing of sickness ; the skin will blister and rot off even in places 
not touched by the plant ; this sometimes terminates fatally and 
recjuires often months of skill and care to cure the unfortunate 
patient. I find in the Scientific American a number of receipts 
and treatments for its cure, but don't know which is the best. 

Poison Oak is more plentiful tlian poison ivy ; its vine 
grows thicker and longer than tlie latter. There are two kinds 
of poison oak ; one has tlirec i.u'onged leaves, the other, four 
pronged leaves, otherwise they are alike. Some people hold 
only the four pronged leafed poisonous, but I think they are 
all poisonous at certain seasons of the year, namely in May and 


If by this title the expectations of the readeis siiouid be 
raised to such a ]jitch as to look for a })oetic:d flight describing 
the beauties of Fayette County as they deserve to be de- 
scribed in poetical language, this writer may state at the very be- 
ginning that they will be disappointed. Old poets used to 
place songs and poems praising the beauties of londscnpcs in 
tiie mouth t)f the animal world, thereby i)roducing ma'«ler|)ieces 
of art. Grand as the tlieme would be, it this writer could put 
a song praising the beauties of our county into the mouth (if a 
bird, lie feels that even if he ever had this thought, his wings 
are somewhat cli|)ped and jjerhaps never were vigorous enough 
to carry him on such afliujht mueh less an impatient reader with 
him. To carry him on a poetical flight, the reader must look 
to some other person. May be some fair lady being called in the 

tenderness ot love bird or birdie, and being used to the name, 
perhaps possessed also of its qualities, may carry him on the 
wings of her poetical strength to these elevated realms. As for 
this author, he can proceed only to point out some of the poetic 
beauties of our county in his own very prosaic vernacular. 

The author remarl^ed somewhere that the prairies of F.i}-- 
ette County were set like pictures in a wooden irame of post- 
oaks. And a pleasant picture they are in summer time. The 
scenery is nowhere grand, but always pleasing. Large dark 
green corn and colton fields, checkered with pastures and mead- 
ows like a chess-board ; the tall corn bowing slightly before a 
gentle south breeze ; stri])s of green trees, b)rdering little riv- 
ulets and creeks, intersecting meadows and fields ; sliglit hills 
interchanging with valleys, tlie whole surface studded with 
many neat cities, towns, villages, and farmhouses; church 
steeples and house-roofs looking forth out of groups of green 
trees ; white hous^es with green blinds shining through them, 
sometimes, hidden behind thfui ; here and there, a smoke stack 
of a gin, heated now only by the rays of the summer sun ; in tlie 
woods, farm openings intercepting tlie monotony of the woods ; 
the whole picture enlivened by teams and people working in 
the field and by grazing cattle. 

These prairies are a beautiful picture, pleasing alike to man, 
beast and bird. The writer of idylls may find plenty of scenes 
in Fayette County worthy of his pen, the painter of still life, 
scenes worthy of his brush. If the writer tries to describe some 
of these scenes and fails, may the reader forgive him his failure 
on account of good intentions. After all, a book on Fayette 
County would be incomplete, if the writer should not at least 
attempt to describe some of its scenes of still life and beauty. 
Yonder, at the beginning of a cotton row stand a pair of sleek 
horses hitched to a cultivator. The farmer, an elderly man, 
has worked steadily all the morning. He now squats down to 
light his pipe and as he stops, he may just as well clean it. 
His morning's work is well done as his whole life's work — 
greatest i)art behind him now, with less before him — deserves 

at least the comfort of a pipe of tobacco. May he well enjoy it 
and many more too. In the field on the other side of the road, 
an impatient man witli a patient team ; soon one thing is wrong, 
soon another; he will soon make his team so wild that they do 
not understand what he wants of them, and then it shall be still 
worse. In the garden by tiiat large fine white house witl) its 
green blinds and lofty windows a tall, lithe girl, lier fair face, 
Hushed by the heal of tlie sun, glows like arose. She works 
will) care and knowledge, altoiuJing to her more heirless sister 
iiowers, freeing them from weeds tiiat want to take all the sun- 
siiinc and all the dews of tiie morning; she, "fairer far than 
any blooms of summer are." And there, on the side of the 
hill, an old gray little house, vines ranking to the top of the 
gallery; the little bird finds tliere its ilk; a fair young girl 
standing in the door way, lier fresh rosy face nicely set in the 
green vines ; a i)roper setting. 

Here the writer stops to bring in a word from the reader. 
For (|uite a time this writer has seen his elderly gentlenian 
shake his head as if in disapi)roval, until it became (juite a mat- 
ter of solicitude to him. The elderly gentleman reader who has 
had his experience with ihe ladies and now has struck his b:>l- 
ance sheet and settled their accounts with him and after that 
has settled down to a (}uiet life with his pipe of tobacco, his 
daily Houston Post or Galveston News and his three drinks a 
day before meals, quite disapproves of the passage about the 
fair girls and thinks that in an enumeration of the beauties of 
Fayette County, they should be left out. Dear friend, in 
pointing out beauties, should tiiis writer not passingly mention 
the greatest of them all? Their presence gives the complexion 
of beauty even to a desert and how much more to this beautiful 
spot of old Fayette. But, my elderly friend, let us make peace. 
The ladies of Fayette County will cross you in this book sel- 
dom, not because they are not tlie worthiest subject to be writ- 
ten about, but this author with all his efforts should not be able 
to treat this subject well enough. WMien we come to the sub- 
ject of Statistics, we shall light our pipes and muse and be 
friends again. 

— 40— 

Farming and oardoning have been treated of extensively 
under the head of pro<Jucts ; stockraising also has received 
there some attention ; quarrying, as the reader l)as seen, is car- 
ried on at Muldoon ; coal-mining at LaGrange. It remains to 
state that numerous gins bring the staple product, cotton, in:o 
marketable shape and that at the same places, mills grind the 
corn to meal for home use. At Warda and several other places 
saw-mills cut lumber for their neighborhoods, but none is cut 
for the market; for that purijose the wood is too far removed 
from the railroads. At LaGrange and Schulenburg there are 
oil mills which separate the cotton seed into oil, meal and 
hulls. Their output is (]uite considerable. All these cotton- 
seed products iind a ready market mostly outside of the county, 
LaGrange, l^'Iatouia and Sciiulcnburg have electric light plants. 
In IjiiGrange the [)lant is run in connection with the water 
works system. The >Schulcnburg electric light plant was run 
in connection with a gin. The latter was destroyed by lire and 
tlie electric light plant with it. It is intended to rebuild it this 
fall. Flatonia has a foundry which turns; out good work. 
There is considerable activity in the county to enlarge the field 
of industries. Thus, Fayetteyille built in 1901 a creamery; at 
ju'esent, it has stojjped woiking, but as soon as satisfactory 
arrangements are made, it is intended to run it again. West 
Point has erected a cannery in the jn-eseut year. The prosi)ects 
for its succes, it being situated in the center of a fruit producii g 
country, are very bright. Numerous mechanics as blacksmiths, 
tinners, saddlers, siioenuikers and tailors are sullicient to do all 
repairs and also t^ manufacture several articles in their lii e 
which either are made to order or easily sold in the county. 


IIailuoads. One of the reasons that Fayette Count}^ ranks 
to-day as one of the most populous and pros[)erous counties of 
the state are her great railroad facilities. Shipping places for 
the various larm i)roduets within easy reach are a great conveu- 

— 4i— 


ience and not the smallest inducement to settlement. Quite a 
net of railroads covers the county so that a farmer has to luiul 
his products only a few miles to get to a shipping point. Two 
large througii lines and several large hranch roads constitute 
the main arteries of commerce of Fayette County. Tlic Missou- 
ri, Kansas and Texas jjasses through the center of tlie county, 
through its whole extent. At LaGrange, it crosses the (\)lorado 
River. Soutli of this road, another large through lino, the 
Southern Pacilic, passes througii tlie whole southern extent of 
the county within a* few miles of the southern b'jundary. 
Tlirough the whole extent of the northern i)art runs the iVuslin 
branch of the Houston and Texas Central. Tn the western jjart 
of the county, a branch of the San Antonio and Aransas Pass 
crosses these above named three roads. A branch-road of the 
Southern Pacilic connects the county seal with its main trunk 
line. This is'the railroad net that covers tiie county. There- 
by, the latter enjoys shipping facilities enjoyed onlv by few 
counties 'inthis state to a similar extent. Nor is it excluded 
that these facilities ai'e, they may not increase as the 
location of the county, the fertility of the soil and the industry 
of her people would still prove a ]jr(j(itable iiekl fur future rail- 
road buikling. As the matter stands, Fayette County is well 
connected with the outside world; the news of the day are read 
with more or less eagerness next mornmg. Even nearly all 
country places get their mail daily, some even twice a day, and 
the news of the achievements and the glory of the world ])olicy 
of our present administration may gladden the heart of the 
patriot soon enough, provided he approves this policy. 

Public Roads. Fayette County has as good roads as few 
counties in the state. She has excellent road material and for 
large tracts the roads have been graded. Parts of th3 roads are 
not inferior to macadamized roads. Vast sums of money have 
been expended for road improvements. An iron bridge crosses 
the Colorado River at LaGiange and numerous smaller iron 
bridges lead over the smaller waters of the county. The roads 
are passable during all kinds of weather. First-class roads lead 
from the county seat to all larger places of the county ; the 


latter also are generally connected with each other by first-class 
roads. The roads are divided into road overseer precincts. 
(For further Information on this subject see Public Roads in 
Part II. History of Fayette County.) 

Bridge across Nabor's Creek, flve miles from LaG-range oa 
LaGrange and Schaleaburg' Road. 


The times of the early settlement of Fayette County whcru 
man was left to a great extent to his own resources, were favor- 
able to the development of individuality ; the great later 
achievements, gained against overwhelming odds, proved that 
this individuality, by its strength, was worth its life ; it also 
gave the people a self-consciousness and self-conlidence based 
ou their own merits. How far time and events liave modified 
this individuality in their descendants would be an interesting 
subject for study. The early settlers of Texas came from differ- 
ent parts of the United States, mostly from the soutliern states ; 


already, at a very early date, a large German immigration, sup- 
plemented later on by a Bohemian immigration, came to this 
county. How tliey amalgamated to a harmonious union ; how 
far the individuality of the early settlers impressed its stamp 
on them, to what extent the cliaracter of the descendants of 
these settlers was intluenced by these new elements or shaped 
by new conditions and circumstances created by them, this also 
would be an interesting subject. How climate, the nature of 
the country, the conditions to gain a livelihood influenced and 
shaped old traits of character and brought out new traits, — all 
this and a great deal more will be a profitable subject for consider- 
ation. The reader may estimate from this the difficulties of a 
conscienscions author. If conclusions do not come up to the 
reader's ideas on this subject, let liiin consider that important 
as it is that the conclusions on this subject should be correct, 
tlie most important object for the reader is that he himself have 
correct conclusions, and this he may' do by correcting tiiem 
from the facts given and from his own experience. 

It is already difficult (o form a correct opinion of the char- 
acter of one man. To do him justice, you must underst?nd and 
like him. You must mako allowance at certain times for 
riianges and aberrations of his ordinary course, It is still more 
difficult to arrive at a correct estimate of a whole population. 
One may i^rcscnt them as one knows them from liis own exper- 
ience, and that experience may not be complete or bear only on 
part of their traits. All these difficulties will stand forth still 
more prominent, as three elements: the American, German and 
liohmi.m that constitute this county have to be treated of. 

The Americans are very good neighbors, hospitable, help- 
ful, and accomodating. They are true in their friendships. 
►Sometimes, peo;.)Ie will lake their politeness and congenial be- 
havior for friendship and make a mistake ; but they should not 
complain, for it is their mistake. Tliey are polite and gallant 
to the ladies. Politeness is an innate virtue with them ; it 
forms part of their character that cannot be separated from 
them. With European people politeness is very often a pro- 


duct of education, not an innate trait of character, serving in 
many cases only to cover the very hideonsness of their character. . 
If this censure of the European people should be held unjust, 
I recall the burning the Paris Bazaar in 1899, where helpless 
ladies were pushed back into the fire or trampled down by the 
cream of the young society men of that country in their frantic 
efforts to save themselves. A greater contrast of character to 
the American could not well be found. Most Americans would 
rather die than to be guilty of such barbarism. The sexes 
mingle in this coutry very freely with each other and this has 
the effect of polishing their manners and gives them a certain 
confidence and self-reliance. 

Under these circumstances their marriage relations are very 
conducive to mutual happiness so much so that older married 
men wish other people who are not in such a lucky state, to en- 
joy such a happiness too and talk to the conscience of young 
men telling them how marriage made men of them and improv- 
ed tlieir character ; how their wives have been the making of 
them financially, socially and every other way. Still, some 
men prefer to remain bad boys ; they seem to enjoy some com- 
fort in being bad. 

The leading traits of the American character are preemi- 
nently social virtues. Everyone who appreciates these traits or 
in part, possesses them himself, i& welcome in tlieir society ; is 
one of them. But people deficient of Ihem or partly deficient, 
whose ideas are not social virtues, must naturally be a jar on 
them and fare not so well in their judgment. Just think of it, 
some of their writers call the Germans stupid and stolid. The 
fact is, when a German comes to this country, his aim is not to 
shine in society, but to make an honest living and provide for 
comfort in old age. His ideal is the posseision of a farm, free 
of debt. As soon as lie has a farm, he sets to improving it and 
building a nice comfortable dwelling house. This improved 
farm, together with a few hundred dollars in the bank or put in 
safe vendor's lien notes represent his life's work ; every cent of 
it honest and made by his labor. He has grappled with life's 
difficulties successfuliy and come out ahead. If this is stupidity 

and stolidity, it is of the valuable kind. Sometimes he may 
have the satisfaction, if satisfaction it is, to see an American 
neighbor who ridiculed him lose his fortune either by living be- 
yond his means, or by helping a friend too generously, or by spec- 
ulating in an enterprise that promised so well and turned out so 
bad. But the Americnn is undaunted ; he starts anew and may 
be some day on top again, The rallying power and elasticity of 
the American is wonderful. You may press a rubber ball ; tlie 
moment you release your hold, it assumes its natural shape 
again. Circumstances may press heavy on an American ; the 
moment the pressure relaxes, he assumes his natural sliape ; it 
has left no impression on him. With a German it is different. 
Should the result of his life's work, representing honest and 
frugal wages, be swept away from him, it would be much harder 
for him to start anew again ; his energy would to some extent 
be crippled by the defeat. 

I mentioned that the American sometimes loses a fortune by 
speculation. He is very enterprising and not afraid of great 
risks. As he has been the pioneer in o[,ening the country for 
settlement, he has been in a great many cases the pioneer in new 
enterprises. Not that the Gorman is lacking in enterprise, but 
he liardly ever will open new i)aths. If they are opened for him 
and shown to him by Americans, and on careful examination he 
finds them profitable, he will invest ; in many cases more suc- 
cessfully than the American ; for this reason, experience must 
be paid for, and that the American has done when he started in 
the enterprise ; and with this experience that he did not need to 
pay for, he can now start more successfully, it must be con- 
sidered, too, that the American on account of his greater knowl- 
edge of the condition of the country and his larger circle of ac- 
(juaintances is for that reason generally better qualified to em- 
bark first in new enterjjrises. So, if German papers, with justi- 
fiable pride, point out the great share the Germans had in devel- 
oping this country, they should also not forget how much the Ger- 
mans owe to the American pioneer. In justice to the Germans 
I must point out two ideas which they have started and which 
are well worthy of imitation. 1 meq-n the fir^ and life insurnncf^ 


associations amongst the farmers. The insurance corporations 
demand extraordinarily liigli rates ; tiiey want the fanners to 
make good their losses in other places. Consequence : farmers 
form organizations amongst themselves and insure at a surpris- 
ingly low rate. The safeguard they threw around against abuses 
and tiieir general management of the matter is a great credit to 
their f(.)resig!it and their practical sense, also to their a(hu)til)il- 
ity to self-hel|). Strange to say that these their laudable etturls 
are often overlooked by tiie German press. 

Tlie German is very conservative, liolding generally to his 
old customs and manners. He loves tiie country of his birth 
and naturally wishes that his children retain the language of the 
old fatherland. Most laudable are the efll'urts of the German 
press to assist him in this object. The German press has set 
itself the task to further and maintain the German language, 
but it meets with a great many diflicnlties. 

First, the English language is the language of the country. 
To do business in this country, to be independent of other peo- 
ple in transacting it, one must know it. For this reason the 
Germans are anxious that their children may learn it. Now, 
English is easier than German and therefore better liked by their 
children. Then they mix in the schools with the Am.erican 
children. They have to talk to them in English and if they are 
not held strictly at home to study German, it is soon discarded 
altogether. This is done most rapidly in cities. If all the de- 
scendants of all the Germans that ever came to this country, 
had retained the German language, a great deal over half ot this 
country would be German. 

If there is any prejudice among the Americans against the 
Germans? I think generally not, though there is amongst some 
of them. People who come to this country without knowledge 
of the English language will in the beginning be in a he]()less con- 
dition and naturally not command great respect. There is also 
tlie point that not knowing the language, they will be sometimes 
misunderstood and misjudged. Their different customs and 
manners, their diflerent character, their ditfercnt ideals and 
views of life will likely be i^iisundcrstood in the beginning and 


be liable to misinterpretation. But I may say that during the 
long time the Germans have been in this country, their associa- 
tions with Americans have become more frequent and reduced 
prejudice that might have been to a minimunj. I even think 
that a majority of Americans have a tolerably good opinion of 

I have had a great many talks with Americans on the sub- 
ject of immigration. Some do not object to the Germans, but 
complain that there is no immigration of the class with a higher 
education, that it is the poorer and less. educated class that comes 
to this country. I think this class the most desirable; it has 
health, energy and willingness and ability to work, coupled with 
sound common sense and average intelligence. It easily finds a 
field of usefulness, profitable to themselves and advantageous 
to the upbuilding of the country. Now what fields of usefulness 
are open to the foreigner with a higher education? Shall ho 
labor in the field? Very likely he won't enjoy it ; most likely 
his less educated countrymen will beat him two to one with ease. 
Shall he teach school? At first, he does not know the English 
well enough. Besides, that work is easier in Germany and bel- 
ter paid. For the mercantile pursuit, he is less fit tlum for 
the agricultural. There is no class of immigrated Germans 
with higher education that can provide an opening for him. 

Now, the Germans born in this country who liave a higher 
education — an American college education — will not regard hiiu 
with favor. They fear that their influence amongst their coun- 
trymen would be curtailed, if they allowed him to rise. Tlu; 
German farming population might be willing enough, br.t 
not able to provide a field for him. What then should lie do? 
I advise him to cultivate the friendship of Americans and tr}^ to 
establish a standing amongst them. If he has gained a standin^j 
there, he will have one soon amongst his countrymen. For it is 
strange, in how many cases the Germans look for the judgment 
of Americans, in more cases than they are conscious of and will- 
ing to admit. This is very natural too ; for the (iermans genei-- 
ally wish to be on the best terms with the Americans and a 
countryman of theirs who is, obtains their regard also. All ihis 


is so much true that I do not know of ca single instance where a 
foreigner has risen to any prominence in any of tiie walks of life 
without tliis aid and good will of the Americans, Should he at- 
tain to any prominence, it will be after years of severe appren- 
ticeship. But most likely it is that, while his less educated 
countryman will have a farm and beautiful home, also a well es- 
tablished standing amongst his neighbors, he will have to search 
his pockets to turn up a nickel to buy liim a glass of beer. Thus, 
I dare say that tlie German immigration we get in Texas, and 
also in Fayette County, is the most desirable class, far more de- 
sirable than a class with higher education. 

To sum up tliC differences in American and German char- 
acter : in the American the social virtues are pre-eminent ; in 
the German the domestic. To compare the American and Ger- 
man woman : while, in conversation the brilliancy and wit of 
the American woman may be stimulating, the simple Avays and 
artlessness of the German maiden may be refreshing. 

As stated, there is a difference of character in the American 
and the German in this country. It may be pointed out that 
there is as mueli difference, too, between the German of this 
country and the German of the old fatherland. You cannot call 
the Germans of x\merica, Germans, for they are not ; neither can 
you call them exactly Americans ; they are in a transition 
period. Therefore, the name of German- American should be 
entitled to its right to live, notwithstanding that this distinction 
is not ])leasing to some Anglo-Saxon ears. Those Germans who 
liave lived in this country for a great number of years and taken 
an interest in their surroundings have acquired new virtues and 
sometimes, forgotten old ones ; they haye gained considerably 
in intelligence and self-reliance; and sometimes they have for- 
gotten the great German virttie of modest3^ Son^e of the Ger- 
man papers speak of them, and some papers have a public and 
a private opinicm, as most intelligent and highly cultured. Now, 
in the fatlierland they luive boen farmers, farm laborers or 
mechanics ; it is i.ot probable that any one in Germany went to 
them for fiighest intelligence and great culture ; neither does 
one here except perhaps part of the (merman press which sce.^ 


the high degree of intelligence and cultuie through a magnify- 
ing glass. A German who accepts such a gross flattery, has cer- 
tainly lost the great German virtue of modesty, and what is 
worse, he has lost the German sound common sense. It is cer- 
tain, too, that the pursuance of such a policy can develop only 
unamiahle traits, and defeats the very ends of its aim. It might 
be said that this recourse to flattery is an imitation of the Amer- 
ican, but a very poor one. For, while the American seizes on 
prominent virtues and compliments his audience on them, and 
thereby encourages their development, part of the German press 
at least, seizes on traits which are not prominent and flatters. 
Undoubtedly there are prominent good traits in the German 
character, traits not only of a high, but of the very highest order, 
his unwavering steadfastness of purpose, his patience, his per- 
severance in the chosen path, his practical common sense, trails 
leading to final success and triumph and on account of which he 
can stand a compariscn with any other nation. To encourage 
and develop these traits should be the aim of the German press, 
not to flatter on traits which are not German ; only thus could 
a healthy German life be developed and retain those virtues 
even after being completely Americanized. 

Having spoken of the American and German elements, 
there remains the Bohemian element to be treated of. There is 
one remarked difference between the American and German 
and Bohemian element. While difterences of opinion and char- 
acter split the American and German elements into various 
cliques and parties, the Bohemian element represents nearly 
everywhere a united front. It is therefore enabled to yield a 
powerful influence ; or at least their leaders are. The sturdy 
sons of Bohemia are noted as great lovers of music. Bohemia is 
the country of musicians and traveling artists, so much so that 
Bohemian is a synonym for the light hearted, easy mannered 
student artist all over the world. It may be said that in general 
the Bohemians possess all the virtues and all the faults of that 
class of people to whom they have given a class name. If there 
is a prejudice among some Americans and perhaps among some 
Germans against them, it should be noted that in the musical 
Ayorks of the world's greatest miisicians, Mozart and Haydn, 

—51 — 

natives of Bohemia, there speaks a spirit of greatness and ten- 
derness that is conceded everywhere as a leading trait of the 
nation. They do not v)Ossess to a great extent any of the shining 
social qualities, brilliancy and wit, but the more of the simply 
human: deep feeling and tenderness. 

As in the case of the (Jerman, most of them have come to 
this country poor, and eraployed all their time in making head- 
way in life and acquiring a farm. It may be said that Bohem- 
ians generally settle only on rich black land. They are gener- 
ally more powerfully built than the (lermans and Americans, 
of great physical strength, good workers and excellent fanners. 
Tliey are a most valuable ac(iuisiti'jn to tliis country. The 
Bohemian maidens are exquisite types of beauty, excelling in 
physical vigor and proportioned strength. They compare to the 
maidens of other nations much like the Spartan woman to the 
Athenian woman who was suri)rised at the physical strength 
and symmetrical development of the former. It ma}'- be said 
that as they perform a great amount of manual labor — the great- 
est foe of woman's beauty— their beauty is thereby destroyed 
too soon. 

In conclusion, it may be said that about one-fourth of the 
population are negroes. 'I'hey are viewed from different stand- 
points. Some i^eople get along with, them very well, others 
don't. (Some negroes are good workers and possess their own 
farms, but most of them live just thinking of the present day, 
without any thouglit of the future. They are good field hands, 
if under a strict overseer who knows how to treat them, but only 
a few of them strive to own something and be independent. 


Schools, Churciiks. Cluiss, and Sociktiks. 

Fayette County has a cosmopolitan population. Tlie new- 
comer is sure to make ac(iuaintances tliat suit him ; he has such 
a large choice. The pei)ple are noted for their ho3pitalit3^ 
There is friendly intercourse between them; newcomers malce 


acquaintances at school entertainments, churcli meetings and 
balls, concerts and theatres given under the auspices of tlie vari- 
ous clubs and societies. In winter time, traveling theatre 
troupes often play before large houses in the larger towns. 
Amusements and entertainments are not lacking. 

Fayette County has excellent schools with an able, progres- 
sive corps of teachers. They are under the control of a capable 
superintendent, Prof. G. A. Stierling. There are one hundred 
and thirty-three schools in the county ; eighty-nine for white 
and forty-four for colored children. The scholastic population 
of the county amounts to 5201 white pupils and 2288 colored 
pupils. They are taught by one hundred and six white and 
fifty colored teachers. There are three independent school dis- 
tricts in the county, namely, LaGrange, with 251 white and 196 
colored scholastic population ; Flatonia, with 167 white and 57 
colored, and Ledbetter, with 41 white and 18 colored, 

A great many schools in the county are taught for a term of 
eight to nine months. In a great many sections of the county, 
after the close of the free school, a private school is started and 
is maintained by subscriptions from its patrons; especially is 
this the case in the German settlements. In a great many 
schools of tlie county the German language is taught besides 
English, and in some of them the Bohemian language. 

Nearly every religious creed has its adherents over the 
county. Eloquent preachers work faithfully in the vineyard of 
the Lord, and administer to and comfort distressed souls. Sev- 
eral churches are masterpieces of architecture and impress on 
the spectator the solemnity of their purpose. 

Popular occasions for the meetings of neighbors are furn- 
ished by entertainments, balls, concerts and theatres given un- 
der the auspices of the social clubs, lodges and societies. There 
neighbor meets neighbor, and public affairs and the news of the 
day are discussed. There are quite a number of clubs and soci- 
eties wliere people are banded together for the purpose of amuse- 
ment. Their entertainments are great sources of enjoyment and 
are largely participated in by the people, and it may be said of 

them : the more, the merrier. Besides these entertainments 
open to the general public, private parlies and entertainments 
are of frecjuent occurrence. Tlius, the one who fails to entertain 
and amuse himself in this county, may as well fjive up all hope 
of doing so in this world, and postpone it to his arrival into 
a happier world. 


As said before, there are four elements of people in this 
county : x\mericans, Germans, Bohemians, and Negroes. They 
cast together about 7,000 votes, Of these elements the German 
is numerically the strongest, casting about 3,000 votes ; next 
follows the negro with about 1,600 votes ; then the Bohemian 
with about 1,400, and last the Americans with about 1,000. At 
first it looks as if the numericxJly strongest element, the Ger- 
man, by combination with any other could exert a controlling 
influence in elections ; but this is not the case, for these ele- 
ments are not arrayed on lines ol nationality, but on political 
lines. The Americans belong to either the democratic or popu- 
list party ; the Boiiemians generally vote the democratic ticket 
in a solid body ; the Germans have a democratic and republican 
minority, the large mass of the voters being independent ; they 
generally vote the democratic ticket and form the rearguard of 
the democracy, but they are ready at any moment when the 
course of the march of democracy does not meet their approval, 
to quit the line of march and take a side road. The late Judge 
H. Teichmueller quite approved this their policy of political in- 
dependence ; he deemed it best for the good of the country to 
have a large independent body of voters who by their indepen- 
dent votes could approve or disa})prove of the correctness of the 
ruling party's course. These views of the judge are supported 
by as high authority as the distinguished English historian Mc- 
Caulay, who, commenting on the strength of the whig and tory 
parlies of England, stated that the large mass of the people 
were not aligned to any party ; that they formed the anchor 
which saved the state Irom danger, and that an independent 
mass of voters was the best for the good of the country. In 


justice to himself, this writer feels called upon to state his opin- 
ion against such overwhelming authority that he does not agree 
with it ; at least not in regard to Texas. 

The lowest factor in Fayette County politics is the negro 
element. No doubt there may be some good negroes, but the 
large majority of them are but voting cattle, following blindly 
their bought leaders. They are republicans, but even the re- 
publicans have to spend money to keep them in line and get 
their vote. 

It has been remarked before, that the conditions at the 
early time of settlement were favorable to the development of 
individuality ; those times furnislied favorable occasions to prac- 
tice and strengthen the doctrine of personal rights and of local 
self-government, the doctrine of Thomas .Jefferson, the states- 
man as .Mr. Bryan so appropriately has called him "for all peo- 
ples and for all times." The immigration that came to Fayette 
County was in harmony witli these very principles even before 
their arrival in this country, You may imagine their surprise 
in this country of the free when a strong clique wanted to dic- 
tate to them precepts more tyrannical and more interfering with 
their personal rights and conduct than a monarchical government 
ever iittempted to do. The tyranny of a majority is not n:iore 
supportable than that of a single man ; on the contrary, it is 
more oppressive. And there are certain inalienable rights which 
even a majority should respect. God gave us self-determina- 
tion, the choice of roads, but he commissioned no other man or 
no majority of people to choose for us and make us take their 
choice. Thus, one may pursue his happiness in drinking whis- 
key, another listening to the sermons of Sam Jones. Take your 
choice ; I will take mine, in tlie prohibition campaign excite- 
ment ran high in Fayette County. Hon. Jonathan Lane was the 
most prominent fighter against prohibition. His American fol- 
lowing was joined by the Grerman and Bohemian elements al- 
most in a solid body. The defeat of prohibition made him im- 
mensely popular with these elements. In the Hogg and Cook 
campaign which opened the Railroad Commission <juestion, he 
fought the commission idea. Remembering his leadership in 


the prohibition question, the German and Bohemian elements 
gathered under him at his call ; they held the commission idea 
as an unjustified interference of the state government, much on the 
same base with'prohibition. A large number of Americans who 
had agreed with him on the prohibition (|uestion did not follow 
him in the latter (juestion ; they held that the commission was 
a political body to be established to kee[) corporations from in- 
terfering with and trampling on their rights. On this side Mr. 
\V. S. Robson was a prominent leader. These opposite views 
caused quite a great deal of political excitement. The people 
aligned themselves around these leaders, the cordial entente was 
broken and two factions sprang into existence, Although some 
bitterness was engendered, the prudence and the patriotism of 
the leaders kept them from committing any violence. Two 
bitterly opposed factions would not be a blessing to this county; 
such they are nowhere. Mercantile interests, social interests 
and a great many other interests would suffer. Our unfortunate 
neighboring Colorado County gives an example to what state 
two bitterly opposed parties may lead a county. Two bitterly 
opposed parties whose dislikes would lead them to commit vio- 
lence, never could get control of the affairs of Fayette County. It 
is not likely that the German element of the county would take 
sides with factions and engage in fighting their battles. It is 
more likely that always moderate men as our present county 
officers all are would be elected by that decisively moderate and 
conservative element, After Mr. Lane's removal to Houston, 
Hon. J. F. Wolters became a prominent and popular leader in 
the fights for personal rights. The confidence of the people in 
electing him to the legislature he rewarded with eminent services 
in that body. He was the most energetic and uncompromising 
advocate in that body of the doctrine of personal rights. In 
these later times, thf?se factions have drawn more closely togeth- 
er so that harmony again prevails throughout the county. 

It has already been stated that the majority of the largest 
element, the German element, is largely independent. For this 
reason, the parties have refrained from making county nomina- 
tiouo. For this vote is large enough to decide the success of 


the nominations of either party, and unless backed by this inde- 
pendent vote, nominations would be failures. Some dyed in the 
wool democrats exclaim: "Rule these Germans out of the party." 
My friend, they are out already. Tliose who are in the party 
could be gotten rid of also. But how do you expect to win with- 
out them in this part of Texas? The trouble is not so great ia 
getting them out as in getting them in. Far more difficult that 
IS. It is this independence of party that makes county nomina- 
tions not feasible. This writer is in favor of county nomina- 
tions and endorsements, but does not think the idea practicable, 
unless some preliminary steps are first successfully taken. To 
better understand this question, letuslook at the objections of the 
opponents of county nominations. The objections are weighty 
ones and true. l<"irst, Fayette County has a set of good officers; 
'no man who was not worthy has ever offered himself as a candi- 
date for office in this county. Second, in county conventions 
the nominations will be in the hands of leading politicians, the 
rights of the present independent vote might not be respected, 
they may nominate officers whom the independent voters do not 
desire, the latter would still be bound to vote for them, having 
participated m the convention ; they would have lost their right 
to determine their choice from any number of candidates without 
gaining anything. Much the same may be said in regard to the 
forming of a white man's party in order to counteract the influ- 
ence of the corruptible negro element. It is the same as nomi- 
nations together with endorsements. The question is : first, 
will county officers or candidates for county office who need this 
element at election cut loose from it and place themselves in the 
hands of the politicians of a convention? Second, after having 
cut loose from the negro element, will the leading politicians 
guarantee them good faith? For, while Fayette County has no 
nominations, the experience in other counties is that good faith 
sometimes is broken especially to republicans Nvho are asked to 
join the party. This expression shall not in the least reflect 
on the integrity of Fayette County politicians ; this writer con- 
cedes them integrity ; still no man ever lived who was to all 
men, like Ctesar's wife, above suspicion. Third, will the con- 
vention iiave power enough to elect their candidates? All these 


questions may be profitably considered before starting the agi- 
tation for county nominations. In fact, these county nomina- 
tions should be made with the certain knowledge of success be- 
fore they are engaged in. Tlie object of nominations is a ver}'- 
worthy one, viz : to counteract tlie influence of a corrui)tibIn 
neyro vote. A purchasable vole can never exert a healthy polit- 
ical iniluence. U tends also to corrupt the politicul morals of a 
people. The writer here may state that even a small amount of 
the white vote is purchasable, a sad consequence of the example 
of the negro. He lately heard a gentleman in surprise comuient 
on this on what was no news to tlie writer. The opponents of 
nominations slate that the negro vole in this county is so small 
as not to amount to anything. This is not the case. The negro 
vole amounts to one-fourth. A candidate who gets the solid 
negro vote needs only one-third of the entire vote to be elected. 
If tljree candidates are running for the same office, he needs 
considerably less. Sixteen hundred votes do not amount to 
notliing, but to a great deal. It may be expected that tiie re- 
(|uirement of a poll-tax receipt dated before February 1 preced- 
ing the election as provided in the johit resolution referring to a 
constitutional amendment passed by the last, the Twenty-.Sev- 
enth Legislature, and to be submitted to the people, will some- 
what reduce this vote. 

The way of electioneering is this : a candidate announces 
in the county papers and then during his race addresses the 
people at public gatherings in which he explains his views. 
This is a very good way, much preferable to canvassing the peo- 
ple and explaining to them matters privately. In the first case, 
everything is open and public, in the other case tliere lies dan- 
ger that unfair means may be employed. Attacks on o[)ponents 
at public meetings are very often resented by the audience. 
This should not be, Open charges with which ihe opponent 
may become acquainted are more honorable than the dark ways 
of backbiting which may not become known to the opponent. 
The reason that these public attacks on opponents meet with so 
little favor is this : sharp, cutting speeches, if delivered by the. 
op[)osing candidates are apt to inflame the zeal of their adher- 
ents ; they may imitate their candidates in using cutting lau- 


guage, pleasant relations might be disturbed and bitterness 
might rankle between the opposite parties for a long time after 
the decision of the ballot box. Therefore, such attacks are dis- 
countenanced by the conservative, peaceable elements. 

There is an opinion among some Americans that as the 
negro vote is bought by money, the German and Bohemian 
vote may be bought by beer. Such is not the case. The large 
majority of them would frown on any attempt to bribe them 
with beer. With some the invitation to a glass of beer has the 
opposite effect from the one intended ; they will not vote for 
that candidate. Still a great number, though considerably in 
the minority, look to candidates for free beer. They make no 
distinction. The beer of all the candidates tastes equally 
good. They consider free beer as a tax that is due to them 
Irom the candidates. That part of the German and Bohemian 
votes are not very reliable. Sonjetiraes, at the close of conver- 
sation, tliey have forgotten the very name of the candidate that 
solicits their vote. They make up their mind from the prevail- 
ing sentiment in the community and help to swell the vote of 
the favorite candidate. Treating for no other purpose than to 
bribe therewith voters is a sad waste of money on the part of the 
candidate. Still, by treating, the candidate gets a chance to show 
himself of a companionable nature, he gets a chance to ap- 
proach the voter in a social, congenial way, he gets a chance to 
be listened to with the attention which a companionable man 
well met deserves. Great advantages these. This treating 
system was somewhat abused in late years, but at the last elec- 
tion candidates have spent very little. The influential part of 
the Germans and Bohemians look at wild treating with unmis- 
table disgust and no doubt their influence has put a whulesome 
check on the treat demanding element. 


The intelligence of a community may be judged by its 
newspaper press, The press is the mirror of the intellect, the 
morals and the manners of the people. Already in the early 


clays an intellectual life made itself felt throughout the county, 
with its center in LaGrange. In looking over old rec.n-ds, we 
lind that as early as 1848 an effort was made to estahlish a paper 
in the county. At that time, the court let some printing to one 
Irvin Drake with the stipulation, "if he can get his pa[)cr start- 
ed." Poor fc^llow, you have my sympathy. There you were 
in a i)opulation of great character, but of little wealth. "If 
you can get your pa])er started." Success to you. May some 
good friends take ciiarge of your im])ortunity and, api^recialing 
the value of your enterprise, help you along. Kven with their 
most generous assistance, hard times will be in wait for you. 
The paper did get started and in 1845 we find it referred to as 
'The LaGrange Intelligence.' May your struggles grow less 
now. From tlie records we further find that otlieial notices 
were often printed in the Houston Telegraph, tiie Austin Gazette 
and the Texas Monument. They are gone now, buried in the 
history of their times. During the Civil War we find two news- 
papers mentioned in LaGrange: 'The True Issue' and 'The 
State Rights Democrat;' but they issue no more now, neitlier 
do they advocate state rights any more. Their work was done 
in their time and lies in the past. New issues have arisen and 
new rights are advocated now. These papers were succeeded 
by the LaGrange Record which also hao gone now tiic way of 
all things mortal. 

The oldest papsr in LaGrange is the LaGrange Journal. 
It was started by Col. Mattiny. From him it passed into the 
hands of Messrs. Phelps and Haidusek. They were succeeded 
by Col. P. E. Edmundson. He edited this paper till the time 
of his death (1897). After being edited for some time by Lion. 
J. F. Wolters and later on by Judge VV. S. Robson, it passed in- 
to the hands of the present owner, Mr. Ben Harigel. The paper 
is ably edited, democratic in its opinion, brings able editorials 
and all the important news of the county. Before harmony was 
restored in the democracy of Fayette County, it had a competi- 
tion in the LaGrange Democrat, founded by Hon. Jno. Lane and 
edited by the incomparable James Quarles and later on by 
James Wetherell. The last named editor, (juit the paper was 
revived under the name of 'Latirange News,' but two English 


papers being too many in one city with a comparatively small 
English speaking population, it stopped in 1901. 

The most successful ])aper m the county is Judge A. Haid- 
usek's Bohemian paper, 'Svoboda.' It has a large patronage 
and a circulation of about 4000. It is the Bohemian paper of 
the state and has a large subscription list in nearly all the Bo- 
hemian settlements throughout tlie state. It is a strict advocate 
of democratic principles. It was started by a joint stock com- 
pany consisting of about fifiy members. They employed as 
editor a man from New York, named Chudoba. In 1S87 the 
paper had 400 subscribers and $2400 indebtedness. This was 
not a good showing. The New York man was sent off to hunt 
another job and .Judge A. Haidusek took charge of the paj^er. 
In 1890 he had paid off the indebtedness and increased its cir- 
culation to 3000. He then became owner of the paper. As a 
newspaper manager the judge is hard to beat. 

The next paper in LaGrange is the 'LaGrange Deutsche 
Zeitiing,' edited by Mr. G. A. Heilig. It has no' defined policy, 
but is strictly against prohibition and free silver. It has a cir- 
culation of about 2000. The paper was founded by one Leh- 
mann. Many are the funny stories about tlie early times of 
the paper. Its founder baptized it with beer and it has stuck 
to this German national beverage ever since. From Mr. Leh- 
mann it passed into the hands of F, Lidiak who employed Frof. 
E. Juorgens for two years as editor. Later on Mr. R. Koper 
occupied the editorial chair. In 1896 the paper was bought by 
its present owner, Mr. G. A. Heilig, Mr. Koper remaining 
editor. The owner assumed the editorship on Mr. Koper's 
death in 1899. Under his management the paper increased to 
2000 in circulation. In comparison with former issues, its 
editorials, as well as its news columns, have considerably im- 

Beside? these papers in LaGrange, there are several papers 
in other cities of the county. The most important is the Schu- 
lenburg Sticker, liefore its establishment, Schulenburg had 
several papers, founded by different persons. But the papers 
could not exist on accouni of lack of patronage. Schulenburg 

— 61— 

was ccnsidered a newspaper graveyard. It was in the early 
nineties when Mr. E. Goeth established another paper witli 
the intention to put it on a paying basis and make it stick, he 
therefore named it the Sticker, Tiie pai)er has been a success. 
In 1900 it passed from Mr. Goeth into the hands of the present 
owner, Mr. W. R. King. He is an able editor, filling the col- 
umns of his paper with able editorials and news of the county. 
His paper has a circulation of about one thousand. The j)aper 
is the official organ of the county, i)rinting all county notices 
and citations. It is democratic in its tendencies. 

In April 1901, anotlier newspaper, the Schulenburg Sun, 
was established in this city. It is newsy, full of able editorials 
and paragraphs, and a worthy competitor of the Sticker. Its 
owner and editor, Mr. F. \V. Miller, is a veteran printer and 
editor and works industriously to make his paper a success. 

The city of Flatonia has two papers, the Flatonia Argus and 
tiie Flatonia Record. The oldest paper of the two, as also of 
the whole county, is the Flatonia Argus, It was established in 
1875 by Col. Pocohontas E. Edmondson. Then it passed through 
quite a number of hands : Emmett O'Riley, Maj. Lee Kyle, O. 
P. Bassford, J. J. Moody, Robt. Sheppard and Clarence Renfro, 
W. A. Thatcher, J. R. Crockett and at last it came into tlie 
possession of its present owner, Mr. S. C. Blanton. The paper 
takes care of the mercantile interests of Flatonia city and prints 
the news of the neighborhood. It is well edited and has a cir- 
culation from Canada to Chili and from California to Germany. 

The Record advances, like the Argus, the mercantile inter- 
ests of Flatonia city. It was founded by Mr. R. S. Menefee, 
then owned by Mr. O. P. Basford again by Mr. Menefee and 
then passed into the hands of Mr. Glen Beckham. It is newsy 
and ably edited, and has a large circulation in its neighborhood. 

Carmine also has a paper, the New Century. It is pub- 
lished in the interest of the merchants of that place. Its col- 
umns are filled with interesting reading matter. It was found- 
ed in 1902 by Messrs. Guerdln- and Menu. 

The reader may see from this that a healthy intellectual 


life pulsates in all parts of the county. A local press is a neces- 
ity for the development of a country. It is true that the ]japers 
of the large cities are cheaper. Ikit what about it? Is it not 
worth something to take care ot the interests of our immediate 
neighborhoods? If there should be no local press, most local 
interests would suffer. The local press is the center of intellec- 
tual life of its neigliborhood ; it develops and nurses it; with- 
out a local press, the intelligence of its community could not 
make itself felt in such large circles. Iherefore, this writer 
most heartily wishes the gentlemen who are at the head of the 
press of this county abundant success. 


If we consider the fertility of Fayette County's soil, the va- 
riety of crops to which it is adapted, its promise of great miner- 
al resources, if we compare its density of population with that of 
other countries and find that for instance the United Kingdom 
supports on an average three hunrdred and fifty people per 
square mile and Germany two hundred and sixty per square 
mile, while Fayette County barel}'- supports thirty-eight people 
per square mile, there is no reason to doubt that Fayette 
County will be able to support a population of a quarter of a 
million. Fayette County ranked in 1899 in the production of 
cotton as third county in the United States. Still, the county 
has no cotton factory. She is a wealthy county ; a large 
amount of money of her wealthy men is invested in private en- 
terprises in the development of other counties. Fayette County 
in comparison to her sister counties and a great many parts of 
Texas has advanced in her development; other counties, at pres- 
ent, offer an easier and a more profitable chance of investment in 
old well-known lines. But as the promising chances of future 
development remain, there is no doubt that Fayette County, if 
she does not lead, will follow her sister counties in the develop- 
ment of her home resources. At present there is a kind of 
lethargy in the county ; a reaction has set in of the stirring ac- 
tivity of tlie latter part of tlie last century. It seems that the 
people rest at present to gather new strength for the develop- 


ment of the county in new lines of enterprises. The great nat- 
ural resources of the county remain and there is no doubt that 
people in time will develop them ushering in an era of pros- 
perity to whicii even the unprecedented progress of the last 
period will fall short of comparison. 


The writer of idylls, the novelist, in writing idyllic scenes 
will and cannot lind a better field for observation than the great 
agricultural county of Fayette. Idyllic scenes of farm life speak 
to the iieart, but oiten the line touch is lost in giving them ex- 
pression in writing. The writer feels his weakness as repro- 
ducer of idyllic scenes, and if it were not for his view of making 
this book on Fayette County complete, would hardly dare to un- 
dertake this task. He knows his inability to reproduce in the 
reader those feelings which the latter would have at the actual 
contemplation of these idyllic scenes in Fayette County. 

Fayette County has a great many farmers who are well-to- 
do. The land is fertile, and the people are industrious. They 
work the farm with their families and every dollar mada ac- 
crues to their benefit. Their wants are small ; comfort is, but 
luxury is not known to them. 

A farmer told the writer: "A great many people claim 
that farming does not pay. I do not find it so. Last year I 
made on my two hundred acre farm of which there are about 
ninety acres in cultivation i^early two thousand dollars. 1 had' 
about sixty acres in cotton ; they produced about forty bales or 
sixteen hundred dollars in money. The balance of the land I 
had in corn and sorghum. Of corn I sold about one hundred 
dollars worth. 1 sold also some cattle and hogs, and thus 
came close to two thousand dollars. We had vegetables the 
whole year round, raised our own bacon, and the chickens and 
eggs we sold paid our entire grocery bill." 

13ut the reader may like to visit a Fayette County farmer. 
Let him look at tlie dwelling house first. The building is gen- 
erally a substantial, simple, one-story frame building with a gal- 


lery in front, facing snnth-wnrd to catch the coolina; south breeze 
of the summer time. In front of the house is a lawn with some 
shade trees, but more {generally a flower garden. A garden f)r 
vegetables is close by. ISome flowers in pots stand on the gal- 
lery, the pride of the hoiist-wife. 

The most popular style of building has in the middle a 
large hall with two rooms on each side of it. One of these 
rooms with rocking chairs, carpet, pictures, a few tables "with 
albums and bric-a-brac is the state room that is generally en- 
tered only on festive occasions. The other rooms and upstairs 
are the dwelling and sleeping rooms of the family and contain 
simpler furniture, beds, a few tables, and wooden or raw- hide 

A kitchen and a dining room are generally apart from the 
house, but connected with it by a gallery. 

The reader has not seen the farm if he has not looked at the 
barn. The barn is a large building, generally painted red, built 
in most different styles, the most approved one is with one 
thoroughfare in the middle and stables on each side of it. At 
one of the ends are rooms for corn and rooms for sheltering 
farm utensils. In the loft under tlie roof is the store place for 
hay. A cow pen at the end of a pasture, a hog pen and a 
smokehouse filled with bacon cemplete the surroundings. 

It is daybreak. The men-folks get up to feed the horses ] 
the women milk the cows and prepare breakfast, At sunrise, or 
sliortly thereafier, breakfast is ready. The members of the 
family are seated in the dining ro»m around a large table cov- 
ered with wax-cloth and sometimes with a linen tablecloth. 
The plates and dishes are neat and clean, the meal, very sim- 
ple : some fried ham or bacon, eggs, biscuits or cornbread, but- 
ter and coffee. The head of the family discusses with the older 
members the weather, tiie condition of the soil, and farming af- 
fairs and gives them directions for the work of the day. 

Soon the smaller children dress themselves for school. Af- 
ter filling their dinner pail, the mother dismisses them with a 
loving pat or caress and instructions to obey the teacher. The 
smallest one bids her friend, the yard-dog Dash, good-bye and 


soon sl)e is gone. The house-wife now busies herself in clean- 
ing up the house, working in the garden and preparing dinner. 

At dinner the field-hands come home and feed their 
teams. They take a cool wash and then are ready for dinner. 
Farm affairs and new plans tried by neighbors form again the 
main topic of conversation. The dinner consists of some ham, 
bacon or beef, a variety of vegetables, some pies or preserved 
fruit and coffee. There is plenty of everything and the work 
has sharpened their appetites to relish their meals. After din- 
ner the field-hands lie down on the gallery, stretch themselves, 
and take a short rest in the refreshing south breeze. Ihen they 
go to work again. 

Cotton Field in Fayette County. 

Late in the afternoon the schoolchildren come home and 
bring some newspapcis and letters. Nearly every well-to-do 
farmer kee[)3 three to six newspapers. 

At night the family are again gathered in full around th^ 

— ()6— 

famil3' table. After the horses and hogs are fed and the cows 
milked, they partake of their sin>ple meal. The rest from din- 
ner has been warmed up, some fresh bif^cuits and cornbread 
baked, and under conversation the meal is finished. The head 
of the family opens and reads tlie letters. A relative in a dis- 
tant county complains of poor crop prospects which causes him 
to remark that crop failures are unknown in Fayette County. 
Some read the papers ; perhaps there is a piano in the house 
and the oldest daughter plays for the entertainment of her 
brothers and sisters, or the oldest boy takes the fiddle and gives 
them a tune or two. The hired farm hand lights his tobacco 
pipe and muses over his folks at home, or periiaps over tiie 
beauties of some fair maiden who captured his fancy. 

This is a day of life of a healthy, independent and happy 
family in Fayette County. The regularity of their life is only 
sometimes broken by fishing and hunting trips, by balls and 
concerts at public halls. 


Wonderful must be the experience of the old settler whose 
fortune it was to watch the gradual development of the county. 
This change being his own experience, it presents itself to his 
niind more vividly, and he is apt to express it more forcibly tiuin 
the writer. Thus, let us hear him. 

"Yes, you are right ; limes are diflferent from what they used 
to be. Fifty years ago, there was no railroad in the county. A 
Hjail coach carried the mail from AUeyton by LaGrange to 
Austin. That was a time for teamsters. All the freight had 
to be hauled from Houston by wagon. The teamsters had largo 
heavy wagons and could carry on them from four to five thous- 
and pounds of freight. Ten and twelve bales of cotton made a 
lead. They had oxen then, and it took six yoke of ox?n to })ull 
a wagon like that. Oxen were a good deal better than mules, 
be:ause they did not have to be fed so much. I tell you those 
teamsters made money then, A great m*ny people who now 


have fortunes made their start by hauling freight. The freight 
bills were always made out to the number of three. The shipper 
kept one ; one was sent by mail to the man tlie goods were 
shipped to, and one the teamster got. The teamsters were al- 
ways in crowds, at least always three or four of them, so that 
if anything happened to one of them, the others could always 
help him. And they always carried whiskey with them. I tell 
you those were fine times. At night they would turn loose 
their oxen, sit around a campfire, cook supper, and swaj) jokes. 
In the morning they made breakfast and drove up their oxen. 

You did not hear in those times as much grumbling about 
bad roads as now. But the country was not so much fenced uj) 
then, and if one place was bad, one always could drive around 
it. Well, there were no bridgRS over the creeks then and some- 
times the teamsters were waterbound and could not pass the 
creek. The freight being merchandise would often be piled up 
high and the top part would often be brushed off by limbs, or 
capsize. I remember a fellow once gave me his trunk as freiglit. 
He had a bucket of dewberries in the trunk and the trunk fell off 
more than once. A nice mess it was when he opened it. (jot 
angry? VVell, why did the fool not come along and hold it? 

You ought to have seen the people come at those times to a 
feast or a ball. I tell you that would be a sight now-a-days. U 
people now-a-days do not come to a feast in buggies, but in wag- 
ons, they are considered poor or trifling, not able to make head- 
way enough to get a buggy. People who came in those days in 
wagons were considered as putting on style. In those days 
a family generally sat on a sleigh pulled by oxen and the 
man walked beside them and drove the oxen. Coats were almost 
unknown then, and the boys came to a dance in hickory shirts. 
Platforms! Bosh! Tfie ground was cleaned and smoothed and 
the boys and girls danced there barefooted and ])erha[)s they 
had as much fun then as they have now-a-days. 

In my time when I was young, tiie farm-houses instead of 
frame buildings were generally log houses, the cracks in tlicm lac- 
ing covered with slal.)s. They were generally on the ecige of 
timber or in the timber and close to a creek. For, in those diiys 

— C8 — 

the people raised a, great deal of cattle and on account of them 
wanted to live always close to running water. Tlie man loved 
liis Mary Ann as much then as now. 1 should say that if a 
norther blew through those cracks, he rather would hug close up 
to her 

The neighbors were on very friendly terms with each other 
and had a great deal more of social intercourse with each other 
than they have now. In those times they had a great many 
balls and parties at private houses, called family balls and fam- 
ily parties. Each settlement formed one great family, and the 
settlers all considered each other as brothers and sisters. 

There were plenty of deer and wild turkey' then and the 
people did not need to go very far to provide meat for their fam- 
ily. Vegetables, like Irish potatoes, turnips, radishes, beans, 
and peas were almost unknown then. Flour was a luxury. 
They had cornbread and sweet i)otatoes then, and a man very 
often had to ride ten miles to a mill to have his corn ground into 

Land was very cheap. You could have bought the finest 
land at a dollar an acre, but the people did not have any money 
to buy it with. There were no wire fences then. The jieoijlo 
only had small fields ; for the^' had to put a rail fence all around 
it. Wood was then taken care of. Only the round limbs were 
burned. The trunks of the trees were saved for rails. 

Tliere were few schools in the counts then. Generally 
some preacher taught them during some winter months and 
then went off again. 

Now everything is changed. Wondei'ful progress has been 
made. The ]^eople of those days never dreamed of those com- 
forts the people now iiave. Why, if they would have dreamed 
of them they would have thought that they lived in fairy land. 
But the good old times were not witliout their ))leasures. 
Above all there was the good will and the true i'riendship of 
neighbors ; those were comforts that no improvements can re- 


The writer lias given only the outline of his talk. lie niay 
haye changed to some extent the wording of the old settler. 
That lies in the inability of the writer. His main aim was to give 
a picture of those old times and the reader ma}'- easily supple- 
ment it by personal conversation with an old settler. He then 
will get it in his characteristic style. 


Boundaries of Commissioners' Beats. 

No. 1. — Commissioners' Beat No. I shall be composed of 
Justice precincts numbers 1 and 2. 

No. II. — Commissioners' Baat No. LI shall be composed 
of Justice precincts numbers 3 and 4. 

No. III. — Commissioners' Beat No. Ill shall be composed 
of Justice precincts numbers 5 and 6. 

No. IV. — Commissioners' Beat No. IV shall be composed 
of Justice precincts numbers 7 and 8. 

Boundaries of Justices' Precincts. 

No. I. — Justice Precinct No. I, shall begin at the south 
corner of the E. Savage league ; thence northeast to east corner 
of said league; thence northwest to the south corner of the F. 
Lewis league ; tiience east to the southeast corner of the S. P. 
Brown league ; thence northwest to the northeast corner of the 
James Green league ; thence southwest to the northeast line of 
VVm. Rabb mill tract ; thence northwest with said line to Rabb's 
Cre-ek ; thence down said Kabb's Creek to the Colorado River ; 
thence up the said river to a point where the Chandler road res- 
ervation through the center of the John Cook league from south 
to north intersects said river on its west bank ; thence south 
following the said Cliandler reservation to the northwest corner 
of A. O'Bar survey ; thence soutli with the west line of 
A, O'Bar survey to Buckner's Creek ; thence down said creek 


to the north corner of the J. E. Lewis survej' ; thence south 
with the west line of said Lewis survey to the west corner of the 
D. Berry league; thence southeast to the northwest corner of Fay- 
ette County school land ; thence with tlie west line of said school 
land to the first alley south of Williams Creek ; thence east with 
said alley to the west line of the R. M. Cravens league ; thence 
nortli to the south corner of the Anna Powell league ; thence 
with the southeast corner of the Anna Powell league to William's 
Creek; thence down said creek with its meanders to the Colo- 
rado River ; thence up said river to the place of beginning. 
The Justice of the Peace of this Precinct shall hold the regular 
terms of his Court in the city of LaGrange on the last Monday 
of each month. 

No. IL — Justice precinct No. II to begin at the south cor- 
ner of the E, Savage league ; thence down the Colorado River to 
the Colorado County line ; thence with the Colorado County 
line to the Austin County line ; thence with the Austin County 
line to the northeast corner of the John Jones league ; thence 
with the northwest line of John Jones league to Cummin's Creek ; 
tlience down Cummin's Creek to the mouth of Clear Creek ; 
thence up Clear Creek with its south fork and meanders to the 
southeast line of the N, Townsend league ; thence with the 
southeast lines of said Townsend, S. P. Brown and F. Lewis 
leagues to the south corner of. F. Lewis league ; thence south- 
east to the east corner of the E. Savage league ; thence with 
the southeast line ot said E. Savage to the place of beginning. 

The Justice of the Peace of this precinct shall hold tlie reg- 
ular terms of his court at the town of Fayetteville the first 
Thursday alter the fourth Monday of each month. 

No. III. — Justice precinct No, III, to begin at the south 
corner of the N. Townsend league; thence with the southeast 
line of said Townsend league to the south fork of Clear Creek ; 
thence down said creek to Cummin's Creek ; thence up Cum- 
mins' Creek to the south corner of the W. W. Shepherd league ; 
thence with the southeast line ot said Shepherd league to Austin 
County line ; thence with the Austin and Washington County 
line to Lee County line ; thence with said Lee County line to 

the north corner of Geo. Riddle survey ; thence witli tlie east 
line of said Geo. Riddle, Thos. Green, Jas. Blair, and Ed. 
Powitzki surve3'S ; thence to the east corner of E, Povvitzki sur- 
vey ; thence southwest to the north corner of Jas. Green league ; 
thence with the last boundary line of Beat No. 1, to the place 
of beginning. 

The Justice of the Peace ot this Precinct shall hold the reg- 
ular terms of his Court at Round Top on the first Monday of 
each montii. 

No. IV. — Justice Precinct No. IV, to begin at the mouth 
of Rabb's Creek ; thence up said creek to the north line of VVm. 
Rabb's mill tract ; thence southeast to the west corner of the 
James Green league ; thence northeast to the east corner of Ed- 
ward Powitzki survey ; thence northwest to the Lee County line 
at the north corner of the Geo. Riddle league ; thence with Lee 
County line to the nortinvest corner of J. F. Berry league ; 
thence northwest to the Bastrop County line to the Colorado 
River ; thence down said river to the place of beginning. 

The Justice of the Peace of this precinct shall hold the reg- 
ular terms of his court at the town of Winchester on the Thurs* 
day next after the first Monday of each month. 

No. V, — Justice precinct No. 5, shall begin at the Color?do 
River at the Bastrop County line to the north line of S. Millet 
league ; thence eas1< with said Millet and the Pearson league 
line to Pin Oak Creek ; thence down Pin Oak Creek to the north 
line of E. Dever's league ; thence west with the said Dever'g line 
to the northwest corner of said league ; thence south to the south- 
west corner of said Dever's league : thence east with Dever's 
south line to the northwest corner of L. Wood's survey ; thence 
south to the southwest corner of said Wood's survey ; thence 
east to the southeast cornet of Wood's survey ; thence south to 
the southwest corner of F. A. Bettinger survey ; thence east to 
the northwest corner of J. Vivian survey ; thence south to the 
southwest corner of said Vivian survey; thence east with the 
south line of J. Vivian, J, B. Tatum, L. \V. Peebles survey to 
the west line of N. Carnes league ; thence south to the south- 
west corner of said Carnes league ; thence east to the southeast 


corner of Carnes league ; thence north to the northwest corner 
of S. F. Knight league ; thence east to the west line of R. Smith 
league ; thence north to the northwest corner of 8mith league ; 
thence east to the southeast corner of \V. H. Toy league ; thence 
north with west line of F'ayette County school land to the south 
line of the E. Berry league ; thence northwest to the west corner 
of D. Berry league ; on the south corner of J, Lewis survey in 
east line of S. M. Williams league No. 1 ; thence nortli witli 
said line to Buckner's Creek ; thence up Buckner's Creek to 
southwest corner of A. O'Bar survey ; thence north with west 
line of A. O'Bar survey and the Chandler reservation on the J. 
Cook league to the Colorado River ; thence up said river to the 
place of beginning. 

Tha Justice of the Peace of this Precinct shall hold the reg- 
ular terms of his Court on the Saturday after the first Monday 
in each month at the town of Muldocn. 

No. VI. — Justice Precinct No. VI, to begin in the Lavaca 
county line at the southeast corner of W. D. Lacey survey ; 
thence north to the northeast corner of the said Lacey survey ; 
thence east to the southeast corner of the J. C DuflT league; 
Ihence north with the east lines of said Duff league and M. Mul- 
doon No. 13 league to the noitheast corner of said Muldoon No. 
,lo league ; thence west to the southwest corner of S. F. 
Knight's league ; thence north to the southwest corner of Noah 
Carnes league ; thence with the line of justice's precinct No. 5 
(five) to the Bastrop County line ; thence southwest with the 
Bastrop County line to the Caldwell County line ; thence with 
the Caldwell County line to the Gonzales County line; thence 
southeast with the Gonzales County line to the Lavaca County 
line ; thence east with the Lavaca County line to the place of be- 
ginning except that part of J. G. W. Pierson league lying north 
and east of Pin Oak Creek. 

The justice of the peace of this precinct shall hold the regu- 
lar terms of his court at the town of Flatonia on the second 
Monday of each month. 

No, VII. — Justice Precinct No. VLi, to begin at the point 
where the Colorado County line strikes the west line of the H. 

Austin five league track of land ; tlience north to the southeast 
corner of M, M. Eastland survey ; thence due west with south 
lines of the Eastland, J, Mullins and VV. A. Hall surveys to tiic 
southwest corner of W. A. Hall league; thence due west across 
the John Paino and R. Smith leagues to the west Navitlad (com- 
monly called: Walker's Brancli) thence U[) said branch to the 
south line of VV. H. Toy league ; thence east to southeast corner 
of said Toy league; thence north with the east line of said Toy 
league and the west line of Fayette County school land to tlic 
first alley on said scliool land south of Williams Creek; Ihbuce 
cast with said alley to the west line of the R. M. Cravens league; 
thence north to the south corner of A. Powell league ; thence 
northeast with the southeast line of said Ann Powell league to 
W^illiams Creek; thence down said creek to the Colorado River; 
thence down said river to the Colorado County line ; thence 
southwest with said Colorado County line to the place of begin- 

The justice of the peace of this Precinct shall hold the regu- 
lar terms of his court at Ammannsville on the Thursday next af- 
ter the third Monday of each month. 

No. VIIL — Justice Precinct No. Vlli to begin at the Colo- 
rado County line, where Beat No. 7 begins; thence north with 
line of said Beat No. 7 to the southeast corner uf M. M. East- 
land survey ; thence west with Beat line No. 7 to west Navidad 
(or Walker's Branch) ; thence up said branch to Beat line No. 5 
thence with the south line of Beat line No. 5 to southwest corner 
of Noah Carnes league being a point in line of Beat No. 6 ; 
thence south with line of Beat No. (1, to Lavaca County line ; 
thence east with said Lavaca County line to the Colorado 
County line; thence northeast with Colorado County line to 
the place of beginning. 

The justice of the peace of this Precinct shall hold the regu- 
lar terms of his court in the town of Schulenburg on the Thurs- 
day next after the second Monday of each month. 

(In Justice Precinct No. 1.) 
No. I. — The boundaries of LaGrange shall be composed of 


the following leagues and surveys : the J. Castleman, the south- 
east half of E. St. John Hawkins, \Vm. Rabb's mill tract east of 
Rabb's Creek ; James Green, Fayette County school timber 
land, W. H. Carson, VV. M. Eastland, James Green labor, S. 
Darling, N. W. Eastland, J, H. Moore, John Eblin and E. Sav- 
age. All elections in this J^reciuct shall be held at the Court 
House in LaGrange. 

No. 2.— Bluff" shall be composed of the following leagues 
and surveys : The heirs of John Alley and R. M, Cravens lying 
north of Williams Creek, Anna Powell, Mary Lewis, Fayette 
County school land tracts, Nos. 80, 81, 82, 83, 98, 99 and 100 ; 
the Silas Jones and all of the D. Berry league lying northeast of 
a line drawn from the west corner of Silas Jones' league to the 
south corner of the J. Castleman league and that part of the J. 
Castleman south of Buckner's Creek; the J. J. Lewis, all of the 
D. Berry lying west of a line drawn from the west corner of 
Silas Jones to the south corner of the J. Castleman league and 
Fayette County school land tracts numbers 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 
90, 9L 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 
108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 
121 ; and all elections in this Precinct shall be held at the Bluff 
school house. 

No. 3. — The boundaries of Plum voting Precinct No. 19 
in Justice Precinct No. 1, shall be composed of tiie followirg 
leagues and surveys : The east half of John C'ook league east of 
Chandler road reservation, llie A. O'Bar survey, the A. Castle- 
man, the L. Backsdale, J. Castleman, \Vm. H. Taylor leagues, 
the northwest half of E. St. John Hawkins, and the A. W. 
Wordley survey. All elections hereafter held in said voting 
Precinct shall be held at the school house at Plum. 

No. 4. — Rutersville shall be composed of J. R. Phillips, J. 
H. Cartright, F. Lewis, and S. P. Brown leagues, and all elec- 
tions in this Precinct shall be held at Rutersville. 

(In Justice Precinct No. 2.) 

No. 5. — Biegel shall be composed of the following leagues 
and surveys : The George Duty. Jos. Biegel, J. M, Hensley, 

R. tSchwartz, \V. H. Blair, and that part oi the S. A. Anderson 
and \V. O. Jiarnham lying northwest of Sarrazin's Creek. Ail 
elections in this Precinct sliall hereafter be held at KroU's store. 

No. 6. — El linger shall be composed of the following leagues 
and surveys; The J. J'etty, J. M. Burton, all oftheW. O. 
Burnhani and Lucy Kerr leagues lyin[^- southwest of the liicgel 
and Ellinger road, all of the S. A. Anderson lying southeast of 
S.irrazin's Creek, and all of the Jos. Duty, \V. T. Dunlavy and 
Jug. Ehlinger lying in Fayette County. All elections hereafter 
held in said Precinct shall be lield at Ellinger. 

No. 7. — Fayetteville is bounded as follows : Beginning at 
Colorado County line at Cummin's Creek, to the mouth of Clear 
Creek ; tlience up the said Clear Creek to the southeast line of 
N. 'I'ownsend Iciigue ; thence to the soutli corner of said league ; 
tiience along the n.ortheast lines of the Hensley league tt) its east 
corner; thence along the southeast lines of Hensley and Biegel 
leagues to the Biegel and Ellinger roacJ ; thence with said road 
to the northwest line of the J. M. Burton league ; thence along 
the northwest line of said league to its north corner; thence 
along the northeast line of said league to the east corner of said 
league; thence nilli the Ehlinger league line to Colorado County 
line ; thence with said county line to the place of beginning. 
All elections hereafter held in said Precinct shall be held at tlie 
town of Fayetteville. 

No. 8. — Zapp shall be composed of the John Jones, James 
Miles leagues and that part of the John Andrews league east of 
Cumming's Creek. All elections hereafter held in said Precinct 
shall be held at Zapp's store. 

(In Juotice Precinct No. 8.) 

No. 0. — Warrenton shall be composed of the N. Townsend, 
D. E. Colton, J. Shaw leagues and that part of the W. .1. Russell 
league southeast of tlie present Houston and Bastrop road and 
all of the R. Peebles, B. Greenville and Thomas (iay leagues 
lying north of Clear Creek. All elections hereafter held in said 
Precinct shall be held at the town of Warrenton. 


No. 10. Haw Creek shall be composed of the John Logran 
and W. \V. Sheppard leagues and all of the J. P, Gill, David 
Shelby and W. Sutherland leagues in Fayette County. All the 
elections hereafter held in said Precinct shall be held at Men- 
sing's store. 

No. 11. — Round Top shall be composed of the following 
leagues and surveys : The James Winn, A. Baker. Jesse Ward, 
J. Schultz, W. S. Townsend, W. H.Jack and that part of the 
John Townsend and Joshua Fletcher surveys in Fayette County. 
All elections hereafter held in said Precinct shall be held at the 
town of Round Top. 

No. 12. — Carmine shall be composed of the Mary Pheljjs 
and James Beardsbee leagues and Chas. Fleasner survey in 
Fayette County. All elections hereafter held in said Precinct 
shall be held at Carmine Station. 

No. 13. — Ledbetter shall be composed of the following 
leagues and surveys : The heirs of UeWitt, N. C. Taylor, M. 
Wood, A, P. Thompson, Early Robins, H. R. Craig, John Pain, 
E. Gilpin, J. Mulin, F. Darby, heirs of Green DeWitt, Jas. 
Morrow and M. H. Winburn. All elections hereafter held in 
said Precinct shall be held at the town of Ledbetter., 

No. 14. — Waldeck shall be composed of the Wm. William- 
son, John Vander Worth leagues and the Chas. Mason and K. 
G. Bough surveys and all elections hereafter held in said Pre- 
cinct shall be held at Waldeck. 

No. 15. — Nechanitz shall be composed of the following 
leagues and surveys: The J. G. Wilkerson, J. Longley, W. 
Barnum, B. White, C. F. Weber, M. Holmes, Wm. Goodwin, 
S. McDade, G. W. Brazel, W. Nabers, and all of the J. W. 
Russel's lying north of the present Houston & Bastrop road. 
All elections hereafter held in said Precinct shall be Jield at 

(In Justice Precinct No. 4). 
No. 1(3. — Warda shall be composed of the following leagues 
and surveys: The George Riddle, Thomas Green, S. Shelton, 
Jas. Blair, Ed. Powitzki, A. Milde, G. W. Singelton, Henry 

Dibble, Fayette County school land on Rabb's Creek, J. C. 
Tanahill, F. Keller, \V. Southerland, J. F. EUender, Thos. 
Berry, 1). G. Green, heirs of A. Dixon, J. S, Lester, \V. Nevv- 
ford, \\ . Tryon, D. Cornway, Alex Reid, G. E. Boom, li. M. 
Clements and W. Lewis. All elections hereafter held in said 
Precinct shall be held at Warda. 

No. 17, — Winchester shall be composed of the following 
leagU9s and surveys: The Wm. Kabb Mill tract west of Rabb's 
Creek, J. R. J. Ross, S. VV. Williams, J. Price, J. Ingram, 
J. A. Wells, J. Bogel, Ingram, J. F. Berry, E. Campbell, J. A, 
Thomson, J. F. Tinsley and Cunningham, Whiteside and Green 
in Fayette County. All elections hereafter held in said precinct 
shall be lield at the town of Winchester. 

(In Justice Precinct No. 5.) 

No. 18. — The boundaries of West Point voting Precict No. 
18 injustice Precint No. 5 shall be composed of the following 
leagues and surveys: N. Woods, Reuben Fisher, Thos. Alley, 
M. Woods, J. Sheam, D. Berry, T. Cochran, W. Barton, 
r. H. Grassmeyer which are in Fayette County, and that 
part of the Jolm Cook league west of the Chandler reser- 
vation, all that part of the J. P. McFarland league owned 
Darby Brothers and the B. J^. B. & C. R. R. survey lying 
north of the Dalrymple. All elections hereafter held in said 
voting Precinct shall be held in tne town of West Point, 

No. lO. — Muldoon shall be composed of the following 
leagues and surveys: The Pat Breedy, John Dalrymple, Mul- 
doon No. 5, Muldoon No. 0, E. Devers, heirs of S. C^ottle, L, 
Woods, F. A. Bettinger, John Vivian, J. B. Tatum, L. W. T. 
Peebles, W. M. Evans, Walter F. Hamilton, Wm. Higgins, all 
of the ,1. Barlett north of Huckner's Creek and all of that part 
of tlie B. B. B. & C. R. R. lying between the J. J)alrymi)le and 
W. F. Hamilton surveys. All elections hereafter held m said 
Precinct shall be held at Muldoon. 

No. 20. — Blackjack shall be composed of tlie following 
leagues and surveys: S. M. Williams Nos. 1 and 2, W. 11. 
Toy, T. 0. Berry, Noah Carnes, E. Y, Kean, D. Berry, (i, W. 


Keene, lieirs of M. Smith, J. Harper, the part of the J. Bartlett, 
south of Buckiier's creek. All elections hereafter held in said 
Precinct shall be held at Black Jack Spring church and sciiool 

(In Justice Precinct No. 6.) 

No. 21. — Cistern shall be composed of the following named 
leagues and surveys: The fe. Millett, all that part of the J. CI. 
W, Pierson kague not lying north and east of Pin Oak Creek, 
P. Broun. J. T. Whiteside, J. H. Whitehurst, T. B Beck, 
James Robinson, M. V. Salinas, J. Ellender, C. H. Welborn, P. 
M. Welborn, J. A. Weir, F, George, J. McCoy, parts of F. 
Kestler, T. Zumwalt, C. McKinney, S. M. Williams, J. Beldin, 
C. Mason, H. King, T. B. Beck in Fayette County, the James 
Seaton, S. Darling, J. Thompson, W^ M. W. Thompson, and all 
land lying between J. Stifler and J. Robison leagues. All elec- 
tions hereafter held in this Precinct shall be held at Cistern- 
No. 22. -"Colony shall be composed of the following leagues 
and surveys: The M.. Walton, S. St. John, M. B. Tatum, J, 
McGown, J. Stifler, A. Zumwalt, J. Livergood, J. Shaw, J. 
Seaton, W. Cummins. W. Kuykendall, M. C. Salinas, J. Mene- 
fee, M. DeLaGarza, A. Weaver, S. Nettle, G. Hernandez, H. S. 
Gnge, J. Parrot, F. E. Sellers, E. S. Powell, R. liigsby, E, 
Whitehead, J. Dodd, J. Marshall, J.B. Tatum, J. Schroeder and 
James Gibson. All elections hereafter held in tiiis Precinct 
shall be held at J. A. Young's store. 

No. 22. — Fhitonia shall be composed of the following 
named leagues and surveys : The J. M. Molina, J. D. Elliot: 
Ben Green, Muldoon No. 14, Chas. F. Wright, W, A. Faires, 
G. W . Cottle Jesse Richards, J. Murphy, Jas. H. Ryan, P. Hcpe, 
Thos. Rumley, W. A. Mathews, T. H. Harris and Christopher 
Williams. All elections hereafter held in tiiis Precinct, shall be 
held at the city of Flatonia. 

No. 24 — Praha sliall be composed of the following leagues 
and surveys : The Muldoon No. 13, J. C. Duff, W. K. Paulding. 
Wade Horton, Norman Woods, and W. D. Lacy. All elections 


hereafter iield in this Precinct shall be held at Praha school 

(In Justice Precinct No. VII.) 

No. 25. — Anirnannsville shall be composed of the following 
leagues and surveys : Fayette County school land tracts Nos. 
11, 12, 13, 14, 15," 28, 29, 80, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 52, 53, 
54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 78 and 79 ; W. A. Hall league, J. JVIul- 
lins, James Hunley, Dave Berry, J. Barden, J. M. Ferrill, 
Peter Lopez, B. Kuykendall, all of the R. JM, Cravens south of 
Williams Creek and all lands between school land and L. Lopez 
and other surveys. AH elections hereafter held in this Precinct 
shall be held at Ammannsville school house. 

No. 26, — Pecan shall be composed of the following leagues 
and surveys : The part of the John Alley south of Williams 
Creek, S. A. Pugh, J. Gomez, W. M. Eastland, H. Austin, F. 
Pettus and J. Burnham, and all land between H. Austin, Max- 
well O'Bar and Harper surveys. All elections hereafter held in 
this Precinct shall be held at Pecan school house. 

No. 27. — Swiss Alp shall be composed of Fayette County 
school land tracts Nos. 1 to 10 ; 16 to 27 ; 38 to 51 ; 60 to 77 ; 
122 to 128 inclusive J. Townsend, F. C. Powell and H. T. 
Thayer surveys and the north ])art of John Paine and northeast 
part of R. Smith leagues lying north of Beat line 7 and 8 and 
east of the so called Walker Branch of the west Navidad. All 
elections hereafter held in this Precinct shall be held at Swiss 

(In Justice Precinct No. VIII.) 

No. 28. — Mulberry shall be composed of the following 
leagues and surveys: P. Allison, W. Gorham, James Bell, 
T. Taylor, K. Crier, L. Bostic, E. Anderson, J.H. Whitehurst west 
of Peeler road, M. M. Gillespie, Wm Nabers and Thomas 
Green, and to exclude all of the territjry formerly belonging to 
said Mulberry Precinct No. 29 east of the Peeler road beginning 
at the Lavaca County line at (Tolson) McKinnon's place ; thence 
Dorth to Chris. Bautngarten's place. The Chris. Baumgni-tcn 
and the McKinnon place shall belong to Schulenburg Precinct 


No. 30. All elections hereafter held in this Precinct shall he 
held in the Kaznicov school honse. 

No. 29. — Schulenburg shall be composed of the following 
leagues and surveys; All of the Jessie Burnham and J. G. 
O'Farrell and J. A. Sergeant, south of the railroad and east of 
East Navidad, all of the O'Farrell, Sergeant, W. Brookfield 
and B. Perr}' west of East Navidad, all of the E. Anderson east 
of J^"orster's Creek and south of the Columbus and Gonzales roads, 
all of 1. Almansur east of Schulenburg and LaGrange road, all 
of the K. Cryer and T. Taylor east of West Navidad and south 
of Forster's Creek and all of the territory formerly belonging to 
Mulberry Precinct No. 29 east of the Peeler road ; beginning at 
the Lavaca County line at (Tolson) McKinnon's place, thence 
north to Chris. Baumgarten's place, and to include the last two 
named places in Voting Precinct No. 30. All elections hereafter 
held in this Precinct shall be held in tiie town of Schulenburg. 

No. 30. — Dubina shall be composed of the foUowmg leagues 
and surveys : All of B. Perry, \V. Brookfield, J. A. Sergeant 
and J. O'Farrell east of the Navidad and north of the railroad, 
R. Maxwells, J. O'Bar, .J. Gomez, .J. Harper ami F. \V. Grass- 
meyer. All elections held hereafter in this Precinct shall be 
held at Dubina. 

No, 31. — Hig Hill shall be composed of the following leagues 
and surveys: All of the E. Anderson and K. C'ryer east of the 
Navidad and north of the Columbus and Gonzales road, east of 
Forster's Creek; all of the I. Almansur, west of the LaGrange 
and Schulenburg road and all of the John Paine, south of line of 
Justice Precinct No. 7, all of the Counsel and R Smith leagues 
east of tlie Navidad and Walker branch and south of Justice 
Precinct No. 7. All elections hereafter held in tliis Precinct 
shall be held at some suitable place in the village of High Hill. 

No, 32. — Thulemeyer shall be composed of the following 
leagues and surveys : All of the R. Smith and J. S. Counsel, 
west of the West Navidad and Walker's branch, the S. F. Knight 
and J. A. Harmon, and all of the J. H. Whitehurst and E. An- 
derson, north of Ujjper Pocky and west of the Navidad. All 


elections hereafter held in this Precinct shall be held at the 
M. E. school house. 

No. 83. — Stella shall be composed of the following leagues 
and surveys : ('. VVestner, A. Walker, L. M. Stewart, J. Mc- 
C'aliister, M. Woods, Z. Woods, A. Cook, J. A. Wells, F. W. 
(xrassmeyer, J. P. McFarland (except all lands owned by J. A. 
Darby and Darby brother on said league) and tliat portion of 
tiie T. Thompson, A. (Iraham and Wm. Medford wliicli is in 
Fayetle County, also all that portion of the J. (r. W. Pierson 
league north and east of Pin Oak Creek. All elections hereafter 
held in this Precinct shall be held at K. Breeden's store. 

Note. — Stella Voting Precinct No. 38 belongs to Justice 
Precinct No. 5. 

Mkmi'.krs of Commissioni^rs' Court, 

The names of the present members of the Commissioners' 
Court are : Joseph Eljlinger, presiding officer ; Clias. F. Hacke- 
beil, Commissioner lor Beat No. 1 ; Kossuth Zapp, Commission- 
er for Beat No. 2 ; C. A. Young, Commissioner for Beat No. 8 ; 
Joseph Fietsam, Commissioner for Beat No. 4. 

Precinct Officers. 

The following are the Justices of the Peace of the county : 
H. C. I.edbetter, of Precinct No. 1 ; Tom Hruska,''of Precinct 
No. 2; Charles Schiege, of Precinct No. G; Alex. Ramsey, of 
Precinct No. 4 ; (J. W. Cole, of Precinct No. 5 ; Bob Menefee, of 
Precinct Nt). (3; V. J. Jnnacek, of Precinct No. 7, and C. T. 
Willrich, of Precinct No. 8. 

The fi)llowing are the Constables in these respective i)re- 
cincts: Lee Smith, of Precinct No. 1; F. C. Knippcl, of Prf^- 
'•inct No. 2 ; Adolph Becker, of Precinct No. 3 ; Sam Kedfield. 
ol Precinct No. 4 : N. Pv. Cole, of Precinct No. 5 ; Tom Sellers, 
of J'recinct No.'G ; Robert JMc(iill, of Precinct No. 7, and Robt. 
^\'illiams of Precinct No. 8. 

PART 11. 




The great state and national questions which agitated tlie 
people of Texas found their rettex also in Fayette County. To 
treat of them more extensively would be to write their history, 
but not that of Fayette C'ounty. They are limited to a short 
mention to explain the effects which they produced on Fayette 
County. A history of Fayette County will be a history of her 
development, a record of how a wilderness was changed into a 
prosperous commonwealth, a record that should fill a patriotic 
citizen with just pride and satisfaction and with hope for bright 
prospects in the future. To record these events in chronologic- 
al order would be confusing and would give no clear conception 
of the several problems that were solved in the development of 
the county. To treat of the development of the several interests 
from beginning to end would ensure clearness to the subject, 
but would not give a clear picture of the times. The subjects 
therefore have been arranged with the view of giving a clear 
picture of the several periods and stages of development in Fay- 
ette C'ountv. 



Arrival Of The First White Settlers. 

The history of Fayette Couiity beghis with the arrival of the 
first white settlers under Stephen F. Austin, who settled on the 
rich lands of the Brazos and Colorado Rivers. It is doubtful, 
if before their arrival the foot of a white man ever crossed the 
boundaries of Fayette County. If it did, tlie record of a trans- 
itory stay of a white hunter or trader would be of no import • it 
left no impression on the history of the county ; the history 
begins with the arrival of the first white settlers. The names 
of the first men wlio settled in Fayette County were Bnckner, 
Powell and Jessie Buruham. Thev settled on the banks of the 
Colorado River, 1822. ..- 

Indian Tribes. 

Before tiiat time, some Indiai' tribes inhabited the county, 
the Lipans east of the Colorado River and the Toncahuas west of 
it. Indian relics ihat have been found at LaClrange and in the 
neighborhood of Round Toj) [loint to the fact that the Indians 
had camps at these two places. The Indians lived principally 
from hunting and fishing; the cultivation of the soil was very 
primitive. Thus, the first white settlers found the country 
nearly as (lod made it, a wilderness without roads, crossed only 
by some Indian trails. They had to share it with Indians and 
wild beasts. 

Character Of The First White Settlers. 

The character of the first white settlers was like that of all 
other men who undertake to wrest a country from a wilderness : 
adventurous, energetic, brave and self-reliant. No other men 
would undertake hard jobs like that. Men who look to friends, 
relatives and the government for su|)port and comfort, or men 
who appreciate the bonds ol frienddhip and aflection higher than 


the excitement to risk, act and conquer, men who prefer i)eaca- 
ble pursuits to a life of toil and danger are not elements that 
undertake to settle anew country. They were not needed here, 
and they did not come. But from all parts of tlie United 
States , especially from the Southern States, there came an influx 
of a sturdy, sell-reliant race. Either they had, according to 
their view, not enough elbow room in the older states, because 
the next neigbor lived hardly two miles from them, or they 
were dissatisfied with the progress of established government 
and order; in their opinion, they were in the older settlements 
already too much ruled and governed. A great many of the 
lir?t settlers were well educated men and of high intelligence. 
To all new countries there comes with or soon follows this class 
of settlers a number of public spirited men and politicians who 
have been unsuccessful in public life in tlieir home country or 
found no good chance for their abilities there and now they 
came here to offer their services in building up this country 
with a better chance for acceptance of their services. A class, 
by no means to be undervalued ; a class that had experience in 
affairs of state and foresight in governing people. It should also 
not be forgotten that together w-ith these good classes of ])eople, 
there also came a lawless element, an element which found it 
too hot for themselves in their home country, As a boiling pot 
throws the scum and impurities to its rim, so civilization also 
throws the lawless elements to its borders. Troublesome as 
this class may have been, they soon had to submit to law and 
order. A large proportion of thp first settlers were men of high 
intelligence, of great foresight and ability of governing and knew 
how to deal with these elements and even made use of them. 

Nativity Of The First White Settlers. 

The first settlers came mostly from the Southern States, a 
great many of them from the states of Tennessee and Alabama. 
Very few of the descendants of these old families still remain 
now in Fayette County; most of them have sold their property 
and moved further West ; since the Civil War a new class of 
people has taken possession of the county. Almost simultane- 
ously with the first settlers from the United States there came a 


good spi'inklinff of Germans who settled in the county. Bohe- 
mian settlers came to the county in the early fifties. 


Texas was at the time of the arrival of the first settlers in 
the year 1821 connected with the Mexican State C'oahuila for 
government purposes. The country was divided into munici- 
palities for the purpose of local self-government. The head 
officer of a municipality was called alcalde. Parts of Fayette 
County helonged to the municipality of Colorado (the present 
Colorado County), parts of it belonged to the municipality of 
Mina (the present Bastrop County.) 

Indian Maraudini; Expeditions. 

The Mexican government at first welcomed the American 
settlers; it was very liberal to them in its land grants, but it left 
them without protection, it left them to show what they could 
do. And soon they did show what they could do and made a 
pretty showing for themselves. As stated before, the country 
was a wilderness occupied by wild Indians. Especially the 
Comanche and Keechi tribes of Indians made depredating ex- 
cursions into Fayette County which was then a frontier county. 
The life of the settlers on the frontier at tiiat ilme was unsafe 
and I'emained so during the early days of the republic. In 1833 
one Earthman was murdered by Indians near Nechanitz. A 
white trapper by the name of Alexander was killed near the 
Ledbetter-LaGrange road in a branch which later was named af- 
ter him Alexander Branch. A Mr. Lyons, the father of Warren 
Jjyons, was killed by Comanche Indians on the present J. Rus- 
sek place near Scliulenburg in the latter part of the thirties. 
The Indians attacked him about sundown, killed him and cap- 
tured his boy Warren, then eight years old. They took the boy 
along, and the latter lived for twelve years amongst the Indians. 
A surveyor's party in the West who knew the boy's family found 
him, told liim about his mother and induced him to see her. 
He got leave from the Indians for forty days to see his mother. 
He found her sick, and as she entreated him to stay with her, 
be stayed beyond his stipulated time. At first, it had been his 

— SO— 

intention to return to the Indians ; but gettine; accustomed 
again to the manner and habits of his race and having stayed 
beyond tlie stipulated time, he was afraid to return to them and, 
therefore, remained with his mother. In 1887 the father of Joel 
W. Uobison, his son Walter and a negro servant were murdered 
bv Imliaiis on their return trip from business near the ])resent 
W'airenton. A negro woman walliing with her boy from Town- 
sculI's to the present Warrenton was killed by Indians who 
were iiidden in a large livo-oak tree ; tlie boy was taken along 
hy them. Just half an hour before the killing, some wliite men 
had passed them unbanned, witli a large ox-wagon which had 
high side-boards. The Indians did not attack tliem, very prub- 
ably fur the reason that they supposed some men hidden behind 
the high side-boards of the wagon and that they feared to be 
outnumbered by them. Nearly all ttie old wliite settlers of 
Favette County with whom the writer has had the pleasure to 
talk characterize the Indians as cowardly and treacherous who 
would waylay an unsuspecting traveler, but who were afraid to 
light in the open witli tlie least chances against them. 

InD1.\N FlfUiTS. 

Figlits and punishing expeditions ensued. There was (piite 
a galaxy of daring men in Fayette County who made reputations 
as great Indian fighters ; the greatest of them were Jessie Burn- 
ham, Col. John H. Moore who had come from Tennessee, and 
('apt. ^Vm. J. Russell from North Carolina. It followed what 
always happened in the colonization of a wild country : the sav- 
age and uncivilized tribes were tramped down by the march of 
civilization. In a short time the frontier was moved further 

Tlie writer ijuotes two of tliese Indian fights conducted by 
Fayette County men in both of \vliich Col. John H. Moore was 
the leader from John Henry Brown's History of Texas, Vol. 11, 
pages 182, 183. 

"On the 12tli of February ISH',), Col. John H. Moore at the 
head of ilfly five Tcxans, forty J^ipan and twelve Toncahua Ind- 
ians—a total of lOU — made a daylight attack on a large Co- 


manche euccampinent ou the San Saba Uiver. He killed a large 
number, while the Lipans stampeded and drove in a thousand or 
more Comanche horses, safely reaching the settlements. Bui 
after a contest of an hour Colonel Moore found himself sur- 
rounded by such an overwheming force, down from the villages 
extending five or six miles up the river that retreat became a 
necessity, which he effected with great coolness and caution. 
His horses, having been left a short distance in tiie rear, were all 
captured by the enemy. Six of his men (wounded) had to be 
borne in on litters. After fighting long on the detensive, the re- 
treat was begun, and attended by much suffering, their route 
passing a hundred miles through mountains. They, however, 
safely reached the settlements. 

"John H. jMoore was not a man to forget such a repulse. 
In the great invasion of August, 1840, it has been shown that 
he lost, by several hours, an o])portunity to balance accounts 
with the Comanches (this refers to the interception of the Indians 
by General Felix Huston at Plum Creek in Gonzales County, Aug. 
12, 1840 where the Indians on the return from their marauding 
expedition to Victoria and Linnville were defeated), but he was 
resolved that the balance should be made. To this eiid, about 
the first of October, he left Austin with tw'o companies of citi- 
zen volunteers, commanded by Capts^JThonia^sJ. Rabb and 
Nicholas Dawson, both of Fayette County, with anaggreg;ts 
force of ninety men, besides twelve Lipans under their principil 
chief. Col. Castro. He bore directly up the Colorado about 
throe hundred miles, to the region where now stands Colorado 
City. The Lipans, as scouts discovered in advance a consider- 
able Coman-^he village, in a small bend on the east bank of the 
river, opposite a bluff on the west bank. Sending thirty men, 
under Lieutenant Clark L. Owen, to occupy the bluff" across the 
river, he made an attack as soon as daylight fully appeared, 
charging directly into the camp. Though surprised, warriors 
and squaws fought with desperation. Only two warriors es- 
caped, on the only two horses immediately at hand. A bund 
red and thirty Indians were left dead on the field. Thirty-four 
squaws and children and several hundred horses were brought 


in. A few old men and women were released on the gr()uiul. 
Among the tropliies were goods taken from Linnville. (iuite a 
number of Moore's men were wounded, but none killed. Col. 
Moore doubtless felt tliat his ill success on the San Saba was 
counterbabmced by the terrible punishment indicted by luin on 
tlie Colorado.'" 

Fayictte County's Share in the W'ah of IndivI'kndknci:. 

The Mexican government had left the American settlers not 
only without protection against tiie Indians, but soon should 
give them more cause for alarm than these savage tribes. The 
Mexican government was unstable ; that revolutionary country 
was in tlio throes of another revolution. Ijustainento led a 
strong faction against Santa Anna, the head of the Mexican gov- 
ernment who was in favor of the Constitution of 1824. The 
l)eople of Texas declared in favor of Santa Anna. Bustaniento 
was del'eated. But little good did the American settlers reap 
from their declaration in favor of Santa Anna and Bnstamento's 
defeat. The just demands of tlie settlei'S were refused by the 
Mexican government. Instead it attempted to suppress further 
American immigration and to oppress those settlets then living 
In Texas. War between Texas and Mexico ensued, 'i'he glori- 
nus achicveiuents of tlie early settlors in this war, and the gain 
of independence for themselves and their posterlt}^ are recorded 
in the annals of Texas History. Fayette County largely iiartici- 
jiated in these stiiring events wbicli achieved the independence 
of Texas. 

In the very first encounter between Americans and Mexicans 
at tlie battle of Velasco (June 2G, J8o2), Fayette County people 
acted a conspicuous jxirt Capt. Wm. J. Russell of Fayette 
County commanded the schooner Brazoria, in that battle, attack- 
ing the Mexican garrison at Velasco. In tlic attack on land 
John (t. Robison (later member of ihe first Texas Congress in 
1836, killed by Indians near W'arrenton in 1887) and his sou 
Joel W. Robison took a prominent part. Before the bt-ginning 
of the battle, Father Miguel Muldoon, a resident of Mexico and 
grantee of f)ur leagues of land in Fayette, popular with the 
Mexican goxernment and esteemed by tlie settlers, tried to medi- 


ate between Col. Ugartechea in command of the Mexican force 
and the settlers, but with no success. In the ensuing battle, 
C'ol. Ugartechea was completely vanquished. This first success 
of the American arms inspired the settlers with confidence and 
just pride. 

The battle of Gonzales, the Lexington ofTexas, (October 2, 
1835) was won under command of a Fayette man, the distin- 
guished Indian fighter Col. John H. Moore. 

In the battle of San Jacinto Fayette County furnished a 
cavalry company of scouts under command of Capt. Henry W. 
Karnes. Thus, in all engagements with Mexicans, Fayette 
County people always took a prominent part. Her name is in- 
separably linked in the annals of Texas History to the schieve- 
ment of independence. One of Fayette county's citizens, Joel 
W. Robison, distinguished himself as one of the captors of Santa 
Anna after the battle of San Jacinto, (April 21, 1836). A letter 
from him published in Life and Literary Remains of Sam 
Houston by William Carey Crane, D.D., LL. D., President of 
the Baylor University, Independence, Texas, (1884) which ex- 
plains the eyents incident to the capture of Santa Anna, is here 
given as a matter of interest and of pride to every patriotic citi- 
izen of Fayette County. 

Letter ok Joel \V, Robison. 

"Roundtop, August 5, 188L 
"I have received a letter requesting me to give you the par- 
ticulars of the capture of Santa Anna in 1836. It was as fol- 
lows : On the morning of the 22nd, the day after the battle, a 
party was detailed and sent out under command of Gen. Burle- 
son. This party |)roceeded m the direction of the bridge on 
Vince's Bayou. One object was to pick up any Mexicans we 
could find who had Med from the battle the evening before, and 
particularly to search for Santa Anna and Cos. When we 
reached the bayou we divided into squads of five or six persons 
in each, and went in different directions. The party I was with 
consisted of six, all privates, so far as I know. Their names 
were as follows : Miles, Sylvester, Thompson, Vermillion, 


another, whose name I do not recollect, and myself. From the 
bridn;e we started down the bayou. After traveling about two 
miles, we saw a man standing on the bank of a ravine, some live 
or six hundred yards from us. He, no doubt, saw us first, for 
when we started towards him, he sat down on a high place and 
waited till we came up. It proved to be Santa Anna. I was 
the only one of the party that spoke the Mexican language. I 
asked him if he knew where Santa Anna and Cos were. He 
said, he thought tliey had gone to the Brazos. I asked him 
if he knew of any other Mexicans that had made their 
escape from the battle. He said lie thought there were 
some up the stream in a thicket. I told him we would take 
liim to the American camp. He was very willing to go, but com- 
plained of being very tired. I asked it he was an officer. No, 
he said ; that he belonged to the cavalry and was not accus- 
tomed to being on foot ; that he was run very close by our cav- 
alry the day before and was compelled to leave his horse. 
When we started with him one of our party dismounted and 
went up the ravine to look tor the Mexicans spoken of by Santa 
Anna, and Santa Anna rode his horse some two miles up the 
road. The man that went up the road, finding no Mexicans, 
then came and told Santa Anna to dismount. He refused to do 
it, and the man then leveled his gun at him, when he dismount- 
ed, and asked me how far it was to camp. I told iiim eight or 
nine miles. He said he could not walk so far. Tlie young man 
then wanted to kill him, and 1 told him so. He then said he 
would try and walk, but would have to go slow ; and so we 
started for camp, and the man got behind and would prick him in 
the back with his spear and make him trot for some two or three 
miles. Santa Anna tlicn stoi)ped, and, appealing to me, said if 
he wanted to kill him to do so, but he could not walk any furth- 
er. I then took him up behind me and carried him to camp, 
some five or six miles farther. After lie got U|) behind, we en- 
tered into a general conversation. He asked me if (ien. Hous- 
ton commantled in person at the battle ; how many we killed, 
and how many prisoners we had taken, and when they would 
be shot. I told him 1 did not think they would be shot ; that I 
had never known Americans to kill prisoners of war. He said 


the Americans were a brave iind prenerons i)eople, and a&ked me 
what I thought would be done with the prisoners. I told him 
that I did not know, but the Americans would like the younger 
ones for servants. He said that would be very kind. He asked 
me how many were in our army at the battle. I said, some six 
or seven Inmdred. He thought I was mistaken ; that there must 
be more. I said, No ; and that two hundred Americans could 
whip the whole Mexican army. 'Yes,' said he, "the Americans 
are great soldiers.' I asked him if he was not sorry he had 
come to fight the Americans. 'Yes,' he said, but he belonged 
to the army, and was compelled to obey his officers. I asked 
him, if he was back in Mexico if he would come to Texas any 
more, He said, No ; he would desert first. This brought us to 
camp, when the Mexicans immediately announced his name. 
He asked to be taken to (len. Houston, and was taken to him. 
If you think tliese facts of sufiicient interest, you can put them 
in such shape as you think best. 1 am vours 

Very respectfully. 

Joel W. Robison. 

Joel W. Robison had settled in the neighborhood of the 
present site of the town of Warrenton in 1833 and resided in 
that section up to the time of his death, Aug. 4, 1889. His son, 
the present tax collector of Fayette County, Neal Robison, told 
this writer that Santa Anna had given to his father as a sign 
of gratitude for letting him ride behind him on his horse a gold 
brocaded vest. It became the fad of the young people in those 
days to get married in Santa Anna's vest. No doubt, then tliere 
beat truer hearts behind it than when Santa Anna wore it. This 
vest was lost in lending it to the young people. 

An Act Of Cjnorkss Establishing Fayette County. 

As a result of this war Texas achieved independence and 
became a republic. The progressive American race took the 
place of the] slovenly Mexican and became the molder and 
t^liaper of the destiny of Texas. Following the custom of the 
I'liited States, counties were established in place of the old 
Mexican numicipalities. Fayette County was created out of the 
municiitalities of Colorado and Mina, (the present Bastrop 


County). An act to establish the same was passed by the Con- 
gress of the Republic of Texas Dec. 14, 1887. By a later act of 
that body, May 8, 1888, the southwestern boundary of the coun- 
ty was more clearly defined. 

The act by which the county of Fayette was established 
reads as follows : "An Act to establish the county of Fayette. 

"Be it enacted : 

"§ 1. That the territor}^ embraced within the following 
boundaries shall constitute one of the counties of this republic, 
and be called the county of Fayette : Beginning at Grass- 
meyer's ferry on the Colorado, thence in a nortiieasterly direc- 
tion at right angles with the general course of the Colorado 
River to the divide between the waters of the Cororado and the 
Brazos ; thence down said divide in a soutlieasterly direction to 
the st)uthwest corner of a league of land granted to Wm. Bur- 
nett ; thence southwestwardly, crossing Colorado River where 
the upper line of a league of land granted to J. Duty, corners 
upon same ; thence continuing the same course to the Lavaca at 
the upper corner of the league of land granted to William Por- 
ton ; thence up the Lavaca with the line between Austin and 
DeWltt's colony to the head of said stream ; thence in a north- 
easterly direction to the place of beginning so as to leave Grass- 
meyer's in the county of Mina.* 

"§ 2. That the seat of justice for said county shall be. and 
is hereby established at the town of La(irange, on the east side 
of (he Colorado River, near the [^aBahia crossing of the same. 

"§ 3. Provides fur the organization of the county. 

"§ 4. Provides for holding courts. 

"§ 5. Attaches the county to the fifth judicial district. 

"§ V). Fixes the re[)resentation in congress. 

"§ 7. Provides how election returns shall be made. 

*Noto. The county line with Lavaca County was surveyed in 1848; with Gonzales 
County in 1851; with Bastrop County in UTk); with Vv'a&hington County in. 1871; with 
Austin County in 1870; with Colorado County in 1877; the Lacaca County lino was re- 
survoyed in ISTS; the Colorado Countylinc in 1879; the Bastrop County line in 1870; the 
Lo3 Couaty lir.e; surveyed in 1833; the Washington Cpunty line, resurveyed in 18Sj, 


\VAR. (1833— 1801.) 

Orcanization of the County. 

According to the Act of Congress of the Republic of Texas, 
Fayette County was organized January 18, 1838. This was the 
birth-day of Fayette County when it stepped into the world as a 
body politic with head and trunk. T ho birth-day of a body pol- 
itic always being an important event, the record thereof may fol- 
low in the words as recorded in the Minutes of the Commission- 
ers' Court of Fayette County : 

Republic of Texas, ) ^ ^ ^ ,„ ^^„„ 

'- LaGran(!e, January 18, 1838. 

County of Fayette. V 

The Chief Justice together with the several Justices of the 
Peace for said county having met. his Honor, Andrew Rabb, 
Esq., administered the oath of office to the following persons as 
Justices of the Peace for said county, to-wit : Christopher Fitz- 
gerald, Samuel Alexander, John Lewis and Bernhard Sherrer, 
(I. S. Sister being called on acted as clerk pro tem) and pro- 
ceeded to elect from their nuniber two Associate Justices, which 
resulted in the election of Ciiristopher Fitzgerald and John 
Lewis, after which they proceeded to organize a board of Count}' 
Commissioners and passed the following resolutions : 

Resolved, that a County Tax of twelve and one-iialf cents 
be levied and collected on every hundred dollars worth of prop- 
erty of all and every kind subject to stale lax. 

Resolved, that the following roads be considered highways 
of this county, to-wit : 

Tlie road from this i)hice to Bastrop by Grassmeyer's Ferry, 

The road from this place to San Feli[)iie by S. Alexander. 

The road from this place to Washington. 


The road from this place to ColunUni.s by Eiunham's. 
The road from this place to (lonzale?. 

And there shall be cleared out a road from this place by- 
way of Rabb's Prairie up the Uiver as far as the county line near 
I. C. Cunningham's. 

(Road overseers were appointed by other resolutions.) 
I. S. 81STER, A. Raivh, 

Clk. C. C. Fayette Co. pro tem, Pres. at Bo. Comm. 

LaCtRaxge as Competitor fur the Capital. 

Tlie foundation of the republic and the subse(]uent organi- 
zation of counties were the fruits of American bravery in the 
Mexican contest. The contest was exciting; it stands singular 
in the history of the world. The subsequent history of the 
times of tlie Republic of Texas is none the less exciting and in- 
teresting. Internal questions and dissensions and dangers which 
threatened the young republic fro:-:i Mexico kept all public spir- 
itcfl men and ])atriots in a wliite heat of excitement. 

On account of Mexican invasions, the capital of tlie republic 
was temporarily located further from the Mexican boundary, 
and Houston was selected therefor. LaGrange was a competitor 
for the capital. In the vote of Congress taken for that purpose 
it lost by one vote. The grand jury of the county deuounced 
this action of Congress iu a document entitled, "Republic of 
Texas versus Inconsistent Legislative Acts." (See Appendix A.) 
They arraigned in that document Congress and the administra- 
tion for the sale of Galveston Island at too low a price, for the 
temporary location of the capital at Houston — made only as they 
declared to enable Sam Houston and his friends to sell their 
c^ty properly ;it h;i.h prices— and for the levying of import du- 
ties instead of levying a direct tax. For the latter charge they 
givo a very plausible reason. They ])ointed out that the coUec- 
tiju of imi)ort duties along the extensive border at the Ked and 
Sabine Rivers would be impossible while the population of 
South Texas which had stood the burden of the war received 
their necessaries via Galveston and had no chance to evade the 


revenue laws of the Republic. Tlie writer whose attention had 
been called to this document found same in the vaults of the 
district clerk's office. The document is signed by William 
lifookfield, foreman of the grand jury, and is written in his 
handwriting. The writer showed it to several prominent gentle- 
men of LaGrange. Their opinions about its value greatly vary. 
Mr. J. v. Brown said that he had known William Brookheld, 
that the latter was a disappointed politician and that this way of 
getting up such documents was at that time the way of politic- 
ians in venting their spleen and disappointment, and that such 
documents were issued in preparation for a future campaign. 
Judge A. Haidusek held it a very singular document, written in 
crude English, a document that could not have had any results, 
but that was written witli some S[iirit. Judge W. S. Robson 
held that it showed the interest the people of those times took 
in public affairs and their spirit of independence. These opin- 
ions are not necessarily conflicting with each other ; the writer 
considers them ratiier supplementary to each other. 

The Dawson Massacre. 
The question of the possession of Texas had been setled in 
the battle of San Jacinto. The Republic of Mexico was too 
weak and too much disrupted by internal dissensions to make 
anotlier effort for the con({uest of Texas, but the Mexicans, too 
weak to conquer Texas, harassed the settlers living on the 
frontier. They made several expeditions for that purpose into 
Texas. In one of these expeditions the Mexicans under General 
Woil came as far as San Antonio. They were met by three hun- 
dred mounted Texans under command of Col. Matthew Caldwell 
at the Salado. They were defeated. Rut a company of fifty three 
men from Fayette County who had been mustered in at the 
public S(|uaro at l.aGrange, (the large live-oak under which they 
gathered still stands there opposite tlio Schuhniacher bank) under 
command of Nicholas Dawson who came to Col. Caldwell's 
succor were annitiilated (1842). Of the fifty-three men, forty- 
one wc'i'e left dead on the ground, two escaped, and ten were 
taken prisoners four of whom were wounded. Oneoftliem, 
Norman R. Woccls who liacl received severe wounds died after- 

wards in the prison of Peroto. "Among the ten prisMiers were.: 
Nat W. 1^'aison, Edward T. Manton, Norman P>. Woods, James 
Joseph Shaw, Joseph ('. liobison, VVni. Trimble, J. E. Kornegy, 
Richard Barclay, and Allen li. Morrell. Among the slain were : 
Ciipt. Nicholas JJ.iwson, the venerable Zadock Woods aged 

nearly eighty years, Jerome Alexander, Cnmmings, 

Farrls, and David Berry, oyer seventy years of age." Of the 
iifly-three men only two made their escape : Gonzalvo Woods 
of Fayette and a nian fron) Gonzales. 'AVoods had suvrendered 
to a Mexican wiio had attempted to pierce him with liis lance. 
Woods, ah-cad}' wounded m three ])!;ices, seized tlie lance, 
jerked the Mexican to tlie ground, drove the lance through his 
iieart, mounted tlie Mexican's horse and made his escape." 
(Brown's History of Texas, Vol. II, p. 22i').) Tiie massacre of 
the Dawson men occurred while Col. Caldwell was engaged witli 
General Woll. In the pursuit of WoU's ariny he was joined by 
that old fighter from Fayette County, Col. Jolni H. Moore, who 
came to him witii eiglity men from the Colorado and twenty 
Irom l!ie Lavaca. 

Battle of Fort Mier. 

Iletaliatory expeditions into Mexican territory made against 
the advice of Sani Houston followed, lu one of these expedi- 
tions, the one against Fort JMier, a largo number of Fayette 
Cuunty men took i):irt. They gave battle to tlie Mexicans, but 
limilly surrendered. Being taken into Mexico as prisoners, 
t'ley over[)o\vered their guard, but being recaptured, every tenth 
;:>.m of them, seventeen in number, was shot b ,• order of Santa 
Anna. The prisoners had to draw beans. White beans meant 
life, black ones death. They were shot at the hacienda of Sala- 
do, 110 miles distant from Saltillo, Capt. Wm. M. Eastland of 
Fayette was amongst those wlio drew the black bean and were 

In the Mexican war between the United States and Mexico 
following the annexation of Texas (ISob), Mnjor, afterwards 
(Tcneral Walter P. Lane, on a scouting expedition to San Luis 
Potosi made a detour to the liaeiencla of Salado, had the bones 



of the seventeen men exiiumed and brought under escort com- 
manded by Capt. Quisenburg to LaGrange. Here they were 
interred and placed with military honors in a cemented vault on 
Monument Hill or Kreische's Bluff, opposite LaGrange, in the 
presence of a crowd of thousands who had gathered there on this 
solemn occasion. In the early eighties a joint monument was 
erected on the public square of La Grange to the memory of the 
Dawson men and the Mier prisoners who drew the black be-in.* 

State of the County at the Time of Organization. 

In a preceding paragraph the writer has told of the organi- 
zation of the county. The part which Fayette County has taken 
in the struggles and tights of Texas as a nation has been men- 
tioned in succeeding paragraphs. The reader may now pay his 
attention to county affairs, pure and simple, and follow the writer 
in his exposition of the development of this grand county. 

Only seventeen years liad passed since the arrival of the 
first white settlers, before the county was organized. Their num- 
ber must have been very small at the time of the organization of 
the county. The first census taken of the inhabitants of Fay- 
ette County in 1847 gave the county 2886 inhabitants. At the 
time of the organization of the county their number must have 

*NoTE. — The cemented vault on Monument HiJl, in the course of 
time, got into a dilapidated condition; the last resting place of these 
heroes was disturbed, and their bones were desecrated by the ruthless 
hand of curiosity seekers. This was so much the case that the 
Court called the attention of the public to this condition of affairs by 
the following statement (1893) : "The attention of the Court having 
been called to the bad condition of the Vault on Monument Hill con- 
taining the remains of Dawson's men and the Mier prisoners, and this 
Court having no right to make any appropriation for the preservation 
and repairs of said vault, the Court takes this method of calling pub- 
lic attention to the fact that said vault is in a very dilapidated condi- 
tion and that the bones of these men who gave their lives for Texas 
are desecrated by the careless hand of curiosity seekers, and are now 
reported to be scattered around their tomb in the most wanton and 
rackless manner. We think that this notice will be sufficient to cause 
the liberty loving citizens of our county to take such steps as will pre- 
serve the security of the last resting place of the then heroes and 
prevent any further desecration thereof." The Twenty-Seventh 
Legislature appropriated the sum of One Thousand Dollars to erect a 
new vault over the bones of these heroes, but as the ground on which 
the vault stands is private property, satisfactory arrangements have 
not thus far been made. 

— 101— 

been considerably less. Though an energetic race, much could 
not have been done by thetn in tlie short period of seventeen 
years. The county was still a wilderness. Much had to be 

The county government, the fathers of the county, had to 
face an uninviting situation. They knew that it takes money to 
run the government and that taxes procured this money. But 
how much could this be? Tlie first statement from the asses- 
sor's rolls on record is that of the year 1847, The total value 
of the assessed property of the county was $1,138,696, but it 
may be assumed that at tlie time of the organization of the 
county, it was considerably less. The taxes for county purposes 
which the Commissioners' Court ordered to be levied were 122 
cents on the Iiundred dollars worth of property. Even at the 
assessment of 1847 the proceeds from the taxes could amount 
only to about $1,400; but in 1838 they must have been consid- 
erably less, probably little more than half of this amount, say 

And tliere, with this meagre revenue, the court sat ; no court 
house, no jail, no bridges or ferries and lew public roads. All 
these had to be created from a revenue of about $700. Besides, 
the official family had to be fed from this amount. Surely, their 
salaries and fees were not extravagant. 


In those early days the rate ot taxation for county purposes 
was very low. As we have s:een, it was 12 2 cents on the one 
hundred dollars worth of property in 1838. Up to the year 1860 
it never rose higher than one-fourth of one percent on the hun- 
dred dollars worth of property, but generally was fixed at half 
the amount of the state taxes, Since 1856 li(}uor licenses were 
granted by the county. The court then levied a license tax, but 
it appearing to the satisfaction of the court that it was not author- 
ized to levy an additional license tax, this tax was ordered re- 
funded to tlie parties who had paid it. It was as late as 1860 
when a license tax to the amount of one-half of the state t;ix was 
ordered to be levied by the Commissioners' Court. The increase 


in the rate of taxatiun ke[)t even pace with the gradual develop- 
ment of the county. 

Not oniy wa.s the amount of taxes in those years very small, 
but their collection caused also a s^reat deal of trouble. A great 
many people had left the older states and come to Texas, be- 
cause in their opinion there was too much government ;n (he 
older states. They held it wiser to keep what they had than to 
give it to tiie government. Frequently tax delinquents were 
fined twenty-five dollars and process of scire facias was issued. 
On the payment of taxes this line was remitted. Too glad only 
the county government was to receive the taxes. A great deal 
remained unpaid in spite of fines. The county treasurer in his 
report for 18o3 stated in rei)ly to several questions asked by the 
Commissioners' Court that from 1845 to 1851 at least $l,070.'.»o 
remained uncollected ; considering the low taxes at those times, 
a proportionately large amount. The unwillingness of some 
settlers to pay the same was one reason for the delinquency of 
taxps ; another important one was the scarcity of money in those 
early times. And still there remained so much to be done. 

Fij;sT AND Second Court House. 

()ne of tlie lirst things that had to be done was the procur- 
ing of a court house. It was no ])alatial structure which the 
fathers of tlie county procured. A house was purchased from 
Lester and Eastland which had been formerly occupied by B. F. 
Nabors as a grocery for the sum of $250. Ct. S. Kornegay was 
authorized to contract for the moving of this house to the public 
square, to put it in good rejjair at the expense of the county to 
serve as a court house. There, in that poor shanty, the Com- 
inissioners' Court sat for years and transacted the business of 
the county. INlost of tlie county otiicers had no o'lice rooms in 
the court house. District Court was Jield in rented (juarters; 
the highest rent paid for a room for that purpose was fifty dol- 
lars. The inadequacy of the building for the transaction of the 
county's business was dee[)ly felt. The Commissioners' Court 
longed for a new court house that afforded more accommodation 
for the transaction of business and reflected better on the dignity 


of their office. For long years they sat in that poor shanty and 
employed themselves in making plans for a new court house. 
They appointed agents to contract for the building of a new- 
court house (1839) ; then commissioners to draw a draft for a 
court house. In .1840 they even went so far as to appropriate 
$10,000 for the building of a new court house. They appointed 
a committee to advertise in the Austin Gazette for bids, to solicit 
subscriptions from citizens, and to contract for the building of it. 
13ut finding that there was and came no money into the treasury 
fi'om which to pay such a large appropriation, tliey finally can- 
celed it in 1844. That grand effort of four years for a new 
court house with tiiat fine appropriation of §;10,000 that were not 
in and came not into the treasury had failed. But other eiforls 
followed. "C'an''t we get then at least a court house two stories 
high, with two floors, five windows and three doors?" they said, 
and appointed one Irvin Drake as treasurer for the court house 
funds. Surely, my friends, your demands are very modest ; 
you ought to have a new court house. Still, it lasted till 1847 
before their wishes were fullilled. Finally, in that year, they 
made another plan : to build a court house 30x40, two stories 
high, the walls to be of brick and to have a stone foundation. 
A committee for building a court house was appointed. This 
committee modified the original plan for the court house. 
Their modifications were accepted. It was ordered by the Court 
that the claims for court house building have precedence above 
all other claims against the county ; that they be paid in install- 
ments as the work progressed and that the revenues of the 
county be pledged for the payment of the same. A contract 
was entered into with P.O. Beall for building a court house, and 
contract and his bond were filed. In 1848 the building was ac- 
cepted and thanks were returned to the building committee ft)r 
superintending this work. A bell for $100, to which the citizens 
of LaGrange contributed $20, was bought and now the court had 
a building with more commodious quarters and of better aspect. 

This building served the county as a court liouse till 180."), 
when a new court house was built. It was sold to Jas. A. 
Haynie for $1180 and removed from the public square. This 


builcling still exists. It now stands on the southeast corner of 
the public square and is owned by Judge A. Haidusek and oc- 
cupied by hinj as the printing office of his paper 'Svoboda.' 

First and Second Jails. 

As early as July 1888 the county possessed a jail. A. Uabb 
and I. S. Sister who had been appointed as commissioners b}' 
the good people of the county (1 guess that the bad people did 
not wish a jail) to contract for and sup^rintenci the building of 
a jail, presented a report stating "that said jail had been finish- 
ed according to contract and that the same had cost f460." 
This structure was sufficient for the safe-keeping of prisoners in 
those early times ; for prisoners were ironed and chained ihen. 
But such a cheap building could not last forever. Ten years 
later this jail was advertised to be sold, ''it appearing to the 
satisfaction of the court that the jail is oi" no service to the 
county."' Still, like in the case of the court house, several ap- 
propriations and plans for a new jail were n)ade and again can- 
celed, before they succeeded in building a new jail. Mean- 
while, the jn-isoners of the county were given in charge and 
board to difTerent persons. The charges for boarding a prisoner 
were extraordinarily high, $3.00 per day. This must have in- 
cluded their safe-keeping, else this price would be (|uite out of 
proi)ortion to other services rendered. Of the expenses of the 
county actually paid out during the year 1852, viz $109b the ex- 
traordinarily large amount of $622 was paid out for keeping pris- 
oners from November 1851 to November 1852. (From County 
Treasurer B. B. Hudnall's Report.) No economical administra- 
tion could stand this rate of expenses for any length of time. 

The following case made the necessity for a new jail still 
more deeply felt. A prisoner by the name of John H. Vaughn 
was in the jail on the charge of murderg(1852). It would have 
cost about $800 to guard and feed him till the time of his trial. 
Ihe question of placing him in the jail of Travis County with 
the approval of the sheriff of that county was considered and a 
petition was addressed to the district judge to authorize his 
removal. Then it was considered to bring him to the Brenham 
jail instead of the Austin jail. Several appropriations were 



made to carry him to that jail and pay his expenses overthere. 
He \va5 carried from jail to jail. The last heard of him was 
tliat he was carried to the jail of Austin County and that that 
county received $111 for keeping him. This was as late as the 
fall of 1854. For two years he had been carried from jnil to jail 
at llie expense of the count}-. What surprises is that under 
such cireumslances it took two years to dispose of his case. A 
new jail ft)r the county had become a necessity. In 1852 the 
phvn of William Lewis for a new jail was ado[)ted. Thejail was 
to be 32x2o feet and two stories high with two rooms in each 
slory. One cf tije cells was to he made secure by lining it wilh 
boiler iron or by bar iron crossed and riveted. Tlie jail shculd 
also have a cliimney and (ire flue. An advertisement for sealed 
proposals was to be published in the Texas Monument, tne (Gal- 
veston News and a Houston paper. The njaker of tliis grand 
plan received twenty-five dollars for it. In 1853 two lots for 
$40U were bought from C. S Longcope to build a jail on. In the 
same year A. Animann and H. L. Kreische entered into a con- 
tract with the county to construct a new jail. The same year 
thejail was finished and accepted by the county from the con- 
tractors. A. Ammann and H. L. Kreisclie were comi)limentcd 
on their work "done in a good and workmanlike manner." 
The next year the city council of LaGrange received perniissimi 
to [)ut i)ersons for confinement in that jail. The county was 
heavily in debt to thejail contractors on the com^oletion of the 
jail. A law provided that the state taxes should be relin(]uished 
to counties building jails. To liave the taxes relimiuislied, the 
county treasurer was re(iuested to call on the assessor and col- 
lector of taxes for a statement in writing, in conformity to law, 
relinquishing to the county the State taxes for the years 1852 and 

C'rkdit of thk County. 

We have seen what effort it took to replace the lir.'st shanty 
that served as a court house by a very modest building for that 
purpose, also how long it lasted until that $4(50 jail was replaced 
by another one that was two stories high and had two rooms in 
each story and a chimney and a flue. The revenue of the county 

— 1U(5— 


was exceedingly small, her credit very poor. When in 18o*J 
new ferry boat had to be built for the ferry at LaGrange across 
the Colorado River, Hiram Ferrill, a county commissioner ap- 
pointed to procure a ferry boat, submitted his report that he 
"could not get a boat built on the faith of the county at a 
reasonable price." 

Public Ferries. 
The establishment of ferries, ferry-boats and ferry-ratcs oc- 
cupied a great deal of the time and attention of the commission- 
ers' court. Tiie lirst ferry-boat, at the LaBahia crossing near 
LaGrange, was '"donated" to the county by Jolm li. Moore. 
For this "a compensation of $98 was voted to him, to bo jjnid 
out of any money in tlie treasury not otherwise appropriated." 
As this boat proved unfit and a new one could not be built on 
the faith of the county at a reasonable price, the court finally 
succeeded in ir.aking arrangements with John H. Dancy for the 
use of a ferry-boat. In the next year (1840) a new ferry boat at 
the cost of $250 could be built. A ferry-house out of logs with 
dimensions of ten by fourteen feet and a proportionate height 
was built. The ferry-man had to make weekly settlements with 
tlie county treasurer. The boat-building business in the county 
must have been at a very low stage of development. For, already 
in the short time of two years, a new one had to be built, and the 
old one was sold on credit of six months with bonds and approv- 
ed security. The next boat was boit in 1846. This time ar- 
rangements were made with the ferry-man that he should build 
the boat, that he should dig out the roads on each side of the 
ferry and pay $530 rent for the ferry to the county. VVlien an- 
other new boat was built in 1850, this contract was changed. 
The ferry-man had to build a ferry boat, "good and seaworthy;" 
one-half interest hi the ferry-boat was to belong to the county. 
This half-interest was rented to him for the term of five years for 
the sum of $2000. Other ferries at LaGrange were to be discon- 
tinued. Some specified persons, also jurors and commissioneis 
were to have tlie privilege of crossing the ferry free. The col- 
lecting of the rent from the ferry-man often caused trouble. Ar- 
rangements for the ])ayment thereof had often to be made and 
the ferry-inan had to be given time to pay his rent. Li liie No- 


vember term of 1844 the commissioners' court took a. great step. 
They decreed that for ttie year of 1845 the ferry should be free to 
all persons, but this order was revoked before it took effect. The 
citizens of the county generally i)aid only one-half of the ferry- 
rates which citizens of other counties were required to pay. 
The county paid the ferriage of the commissioners from tlie 
west end of the county at tlie end of the year. For iiorse and 
rider from Fayette County tlie ferry-rate was live cents, rates fur 
teams were higher in proportion. Other ferries that were es- 
tablished during tliesc j^eriods in the count}' were : at Kock 
liliiff, below LaGrange, in 1844; at Wood's prairie, ten. miles 
above LaGrange, in 1846; at Burnhain's in 1847. 

The First Bridges i\ thi': CorxTr. 
The revenue of the county was not large enough to buihl a 
l)ridge across the Colorado, fetill, bridges over the larger creeks 
v.-ere built as early as in the50's. The first bridge built was tlie 
one over Barton's Creek on the LaGrange-Bastrop road. The 
funds for said bridge were raised by public subscription by 
F. W. (irassmeyer and others. They were authorized to build 
said bridge which was to form i)art of the public road. 

In 1854 bids were advertised for in the Texas Monument 
fur building two bridges across Cumming's Creek, one across 
Buckner's Creek and one across Rabb's Creek. The bridges 
were to be live feet above high water mark, of six inch oak 
jjlanks alternating in thickness, one jdank to be 1.' inches ia 
thickness, the next one two. 

h\ 1859 $2000 were appropriated to build a bridge across 
Cumming's Creek and $1100 to build one across Buckner's Creek. 
Tlie contract for the first bridge nas awarded to Harwell and 
Jrloppe ; for the other one, to J. K. Lamb. These bridges were 
completed in the following year. But m 18G1 the bridge across 
Cumming's Creek was waslied auay by high-water and the tim- 
bers and iron of this bridge were ordered to be sold. This was 
the lirst attempt of the county at bridge building. 

County Finances and County Scrip. 

For quite a number of years the county did not know how 

—1 OS- 
she stood financially. Some accounls were paid, but more 
were not paid. How much the county owed nobody knew. 
As late as I80G county scrip dated as far back as 18iO was pre- 
sented for payment. This scrip had generally gone into the 
hands of other parties ; it was largely bought up by some 
county ofBcers who took this chance of making an lionest pen- 
ny to increase their meagre salaries. 

How long payment often was deferred, and how long a 
patient creditor had to wait, show the following cases : James 
P. Hudson had sold to the county a county map for lilty cU)l- 
lars ; this claim was audited in 1848, but no appropriation made 
to pay the same. He had died before his claim was ))aid. His 
executors received payment of same in 1855. C. S. Longcope 
was chief justice in 1848. His claim for oflticial services to the 
amount of fifty dollars was previously refused. But m 1854 he 
iiad become county commissioner and succeeded in getting his 
claim paid. At the same time the unsettled claim of N, W. 
Eastland for services rendered as chief justice in the years 1840, 
1841, 1842 and 1843 to the amount of $300 was allowed and 
ordered paid. Surely, the reward to this faithful servant came 
rather late. 

The first step to bring light and order into the state of fi- 
nances of the county was taken in 1843, At that time, the 
couuty government was already in the fifth year of its existence. 
Three commissioners were appointed to examine into the state 
of the county treasury with power to call for persons and papers. 
They reported in J 844. Their efforts were highly appreciated 
and astonished the court, The report v;as looked at as a won- 
der of financial knowledge. The following resolution of thanks 
was passed and ordered published in the Houston Telegraph and 
LaGrangG Intelligence to let the world know what progress in 
the knowledoje of the county's finances had been made in Fay- 
ette County: 

'^Resolved that the thanks of this court be returned to 
t'le commissioners for tiie able manner m which they Jiave re- 
ported upon the state of the county treasury and that their re- 


port be received and annexed to the minutes of this court and 
that the clerk forward an extract to tlio Houston Telegraph and 
LaGrange Intelligence for publication.'' 

When in 1847 a new court bouse was to be built, it became 
very important to know the indebtedness of the county. A res- 
olution was })assed to ascertain the indebtedness of the county 
and her means to liquidate ihe same. From this time on, all 
county scrip holders were requested to present their claims for 
certification to the county clerk. This notice was to be pub- 
lished in the LaGrange paper, the ''Far West," for eight con- 
secutive weeks. How little wisdom it requires to govern people! 
Eight years had passed before county scrip was required to be 
certified. This step had not the desired result. County scrips 
were not presented as expected, there being in the opinion of 
the court a larger amount outstanding. The chief justice and 
two commissioners weie appointed to act as a board to ascertain 
the amount of the county debt and to adjust the value of the 
county scrip ; for instance, A has recived a certificate for $100 
which at the time it was issued and in payment of accounts for 
services rendered was valued at Twenty Dollars, but owing to 
the depreciation of the value of the county scrip, it was issued 
for One Hundred Dollars. For these old obligations new certif- 
icates were issued after report made by said conimittee. This 
looks like repudiation. 

This question of ascertaining the amount of tlie county debt 
should trouble and exasperate the court for several years. In 
1852 the order was passed that the payment of all claims 
against the county of Fayette incurred previous to July 1, 1847, 
should be postponed till the }'ear 1870. This order was revoked 
at the same term. Finally, in the May term of 18oG, it was 
ordered and decreed that till the August term of tliat year all 
claims against the county dated before 1850 were to he registered 
and certilied to by the county clerk; those not registered and 
certified to by the county clerk were to be declared barred ; 
notice of this order was to be published in the 'True Issue,' 
a LaGrange ])aper, for six consecutive weeks. This order set- 
tled the presentment of claims dated before 1850. 


The presentment of these early claims, the ij^norance of the 
court in regard to tlie county's finances and the amount of the 
county's deht caused enough trouble and confusion. They had 
learned that they could not transact business without keeping a 
record thereof. Thus, in 1847, a finance ledger was ordered to 
be kept in whicii all appropriations made by the county court 
should be registered and those that had been ]jaid should le 
registered and marked as canceled. To prevent any further 
confusion in the presentment i^f claims and in order to trace 
their correctness, certificates were to be signed from that date 
(1847) by the chief justice and to be countersigned by the 
county clerk. 

In 1856 enough progress was made in bringing clearness 
and order into the county's finances so that the court could come 
before the people and show the state of the county's finances. 
In that year the first annual statement of the county's finances 
was published. The same could be read in the columns of the 
"True Issue, the LaGrange newspaper, in which it stood for 
three successive weeks. 

Defalcations and Suits of the County, 

These were not the only troubles of the county. Troubles 
everywhere. So much had to be done ; everything had to be 
built or created. And the revei'Ue was so small and a great 
many people were so unwilling to contribute tileir share of 
taxes. And after taxes were collected, then came the trouble to 
get them out of the hands of the collector again. The collectors 
did not always turn over all the monf?ys collected to the use of 
the county. Nor did the sheriff always turn ov2r the amount of 
fines which he had collected. The maxim in those times seems 
to have been to lake all you can get and to keep all you got. 

The first case of this kind is a very interesting one. It was 
that of sheriff A. A. Gardiner, He did not lack in cunning and 
must have been a very astute man. He first appears to the 
readiu- in the garb of a patriotic citizen. The cjuit had rented 
from him a room for holding district court. He graciously do- 
nated to the court the rent, sending a receipt in full.. Such a 

— Ill- 
man had to be rewarded and a grateful pcojile elected him sher- 
iff. Here he excelled in presenting to the court extraordinarily 
large accounts for boarding and keeping prisoners, which the 
court ordered to stand continued to the next term as the best 
means they could think of to make Inni come down m his de- 
mands. Sonie of his accounts stood this way contiinied till after 
his death, liut he was a man with resources, ingenious to find 
ways and means to sec his accounts ])aid, the continuing order 
of the Commissioners' Court notwithstanding. He made him- 
self paid out of the fines which he collected, and failed to turn 
them over to the court. When after his death, his executor T. 
Weaver presented to tlie court (1847) two accounts, one for $2G8 
and one for $80. ."iO, the court admitted the correctness of the 
second account (which was probably made out by the executor) 
but in regard to the first account, which was probably made out 
by the patriot sheriff himself, they declared that charges for 
ironing and boarding prisoners were unreasonable and unjust, 
that only $141 were just. They refused payment of both ac- 
counts on the ground that sheriff A. A. Gardiner was a defaulter 
to the county, and ordered that they should not be paid, until 
the amount for which A. A, Gardiner was a defaulter to the coun- 
ty was paid. In 1849 the county settled with his executor for 

In 1849 a commissioner was appointed to make a settlement 
with VV. G. Webb, administrator of William Nabors, former as- 
sessor and collector, and to ascertain the amount of fun is col- 
lected by said Nabors as tax collector for the county of Fayette 
and not paid over as directed by law. 

In 1850 John A. Green was authorized to make a settlement 
with or bring suit against the secnritioj of John \V. McKissick, 
late asseossor and collector of taxes, for defalcations during the 
years 1845 to 1848. He made an agreement with one of the se- 
curities, W. L. Adkins, to give his note to the court for the 
amount defalcated. But W. L. Adkins failing to give his note, 
Green was authorized to bring suit ngainst said Adkins at the 
next term of the district court. But before suit was instituteti, 
Adkins came forward and gave his promissory note for §oOO for 


the one-half of the defalcation of I. H. McKissick which he paid 
during the same year. Of this amount Green received ten per- 
cent or $30 as commission. 

In 1856 suit was brought against \V. B. McClellan, former 
assessor and collector, and against the sureties on his bond for 
$1870.60 wljich never liad been paid over by said assessor to the 
county. In 1859 this suit was finally decided in favor of the 
county and her attorneys L. F. and \V. B. Price were paid the 
balance of fees due them. 

In 1857 suit was brought against I. C. Stribling, former as- 
sessor and collector, for $212.08, amount not paid over by him. 
It was won by the county and the amount finally paid by I. C. 

A very interesting character who had a constant wrangle 
with the county was sheriff I. A. Fitz. The county did not al- 
ways get the best of him. At times the county would not allow 
his accounts in full, he agreed to reduce them ; at times lie in- 
sisted on their full payment, brought suit against the county and 

A Faithful Officer. 

Oonsidering these petty troubles with unfaithful servants of 
the people it is the more pleasant to mention a faithful one. In 
1851 resolutions of respect were presented to the Commissioners' 
Court by General 1. S. Mansfield on the death of Albert L. Vail, 
late treasurer of the county. They were unanimously adopted, 
entered in the minutes of the court and published in the Texas 

Fees of Officers. 

The fees of county oflicers in those early times were exceed- 
ingly small. No wonder that part of them turned an honest 
penny by buying up county scrip and others amended their 
poor salary in a less honest way by keeping collected moneys 
which belonged to the county. The salary of the county clerk 
for instance, including stationery and bookcase amounted to 
$273.10 (in J847). County Commissioners received Two DoU 


lars per clay ; this was reduced in 1818 to One Dollar (ifty cents 
per day, and in 1855 raised to the present rate of Three Dt)llars 
per day. Bailiffs and prisoners' guards received One Dollar and 
fifty cents per day. The assessor's fee in 1858 was $357 45 for 
assessing taxes and 1359.48 for collecting taxes. 


Prices were different in those days from prices nowatlays. 
The price of a ferry-boat, for instance, was $250; surveying a 
road was worth $50; surveying a league of land $125. The 
l)ainling of the then courtliouse and the present "Svoboda" 
))rinting office cost $51 for paints and oils and $40.85 for work. 
A copy of the standard weiglits and measures for the use of the 
county cost 1172.55. For translating the railroad tax law into 
German Five Dollars were paid. 

Justices ok the Peace. 

The number of the justices of the peace varied greatly ; they 
also acted as commissioners up to 1848. In 1839 they were five 
in number ; since 1842 there were one cliief justice and nine'jus- 
tices of the peace. From 1848 on there were two justices of the 
peace in eacli election precinct, and in 1860 they were classified 
by the chief justice into class first and class second. It did not 
fail those early settlers considering the scarcity of population a 
frequent and favorable chance to obtain a public office ; but it 
may be assumed that the great number of justices were recpiircd 
o.i account of the turbulent timss among the negro population. 

Commissioners' Court. 

In 1839 the commissioners' court consisted of the chief jus- 
lice and five commissioners who were called associate justices 
and also acted as justices of the peace, Since 1812 it consisted 
of the chief justice and nine commissioners, one from each elec- 
tion precinct. Since 1848 it consisted of the present number of 
fjur commissioners. 

County Records. 
The records of the conntv were kei)t with csre ; onlyfew of 


them bad to be transcribed. The minutes of the commission- 
ers' court proceedings to the year 1847 were transcribed. In 
185G and 1857 books in the assessor and collector's office were 
destroyed by fire. 

Several record books in the district and county clerk's 
office were in a dilapidated condition. The representative of 
the county was asked to have an act passed in the legislature 
authorizing the transcribing of these bonks. This was done. 
The records then were transcribed according to acts of legislature 
and approved and certified to as correct. 

On Nov. 15, 1856, a fire in the surveyor's office destroyed 
the records and field notes of said office. They were transcribed 
and certified to by the commissioner of the general land office 
and an act was passed in the legislature to legalize said trans- 

Public Roads. 

The public roads have been a matter of consideration by the 
court since the earliest times. Uoads were continually opened, 
reviewed and remarked. As early as 1846 tlie court decreed 
that sign posts should be erected at roads on the county line 
and at the intersection of the roads. Still, a great many years 
from that time to the present time have passed and yet the trav- 
eler hardly ever passes a signboard in Fayette County. The 
necessity for them failed to create them up to the present date. 
The first damages for laying out new roads were paid in 1848. 
In the year 1856 the court undertook to classify the roads and 
passed the following order. 

"It is ordered that the following public roads in the County 
of Fayette shall be and are hereby declared roads of the first- 
class, to wit : Ihe stage road leading from the town of LaGrange 
in the direction of Breuham by Rjund Top to the county line ; 
the road leading from Li Grange in the direction of San Felipe 
by the town of Fayetteville to the county line ; the road leading 
from La (Jrange to the county line in the direction of Gonzales ; 
the roid leading' from LaGrange in the direction of liastrop on 
the east side of the Colorado River to where said road intersects 


the Z3astrop and Houston road ; the road from the Bastrop 
cjunty line near Cunningham's by Henry Earthmann and Wil- 
low Springs to the eastern boundary of the county ; the road 
leading from LaGrange to Columbus on the east side of the Col- 
orado River to the county line ; the road leading from LaGrange 
to Columbus on the west side of the Colorado River to the 
county line ; the road from LaGrange running in the direction 
of Hallettsville b}-- McKennon's store to the county line ; the 
stage road leading from the town of LaGrange to liastrop by 
William Scallorn and SorrelTs ferry to tlie county line; and all 
other public roads in said county shall be known as class No. 2."' 

In the following year, 1857. the public roads were divided 
into road overseer precincts : 2'.) of the first, and 24 of the second 
class. They must haye been very large precincts at first ; they 
constantly increased in number, in 1858 there were 30 first and 
28 second class precincts. 

Election Precincts. 

A very im|)ortant subject for the consideration of the com- 
missioners' court was the establishment of election precincts. 
They increased during this period from four in the year 1838 to 
twelve in the year 1801. 

The first four election i)recincts were established in 1838, 
to-wit ; in Wood's settlement at the house of Zadoc Woods, in 
the city of Colorado at the house of Henry Manton, in LaGrange 
at the office of the Clerk of the County Court, on Cumming's 
Creek at the house of David Breeding. 

In 1839 the following three election precincts were added : 
one at the house of Jasper A. Sargeant on Navidad, at the house 
uf ,lohn Ingram in Lucas prairie, at the town of Rutersville. 

in x\pril, 1846, eight election precincts were established ac- 
cor.ling to an act of the legislature of the State of Texas, ap- 
l)roved April 11, 1846, to-wit: 1, LaGrange; 2, House of John 
Ingram ; 3, Rutersville ; 4, Stephen Townsend ; 5, House of 
Sam Alexander ; 6, House of Mrs. Lyons ; 7, House of Leroy T. 
Crisweil ; 8, House of H. S. Wood?. 

— IIG- 

In 1855 the beats were reorganized and the boundaries more 
clearly defined. At that time there were eleven election pre- 
cincts established, but the citizens of beat No. 10 having failed 
to organize, this beat was attached to No. 5, so that there re- 
mained ten election precincts. In 1857 beat 11 was established, 
a school house near the residence of Richard A. Burkley being 
the voting phace. In LaGrange })olis were opened at two dis- 
tinct places. No. 1 at the assessor and collector's office, No. 2 
at the sheriff's office (1858). In 1861 election beat No. 12 was 
established at Nordhausen's store. 

Citizen's Papers. 

In those early days fm-eigners^^applied for citizen's papers 
to the commissioners' court and the pages of the minutes of the 
court are full of grants of citizen's papers in those times. The 
first citizen's papers were granted by the court to R. Stahmer 
from Holstein and Chas. Bauer from J*russia in 1857. 


The taking care of paupers was early considered by the 
court. They decided as early as 1840 to build a poorhouse. Of 
course the structure was to ha in harmony with tiie simplicity 
of the times. It should cost $180 and was to be 16 feet square 
with a floor and a chimney, a shutter to the door and a window. 
But as there never came any funds into the treasury that could 
be applied for that purpose, .this appropriation had to go tlie 
way of a great many other good things and finally was canceled 
in 1844. 

It seems that in those early days very few {)eople had to be 
taken care of by the county. The first instance on record was 
as late as 1852. An interesting case wa.s that of one Michael 
Short. He was the owner of a two-thirds league of land and 
asked the county for relief. He was required to mortgage liis 
land for the advancement of money (185o). In the fuUuwmg 
year lie received $25 for support. In 1856 his petition for suj)- 
port was overruled and rejected. The court was frequently pe- 
titioned by citizens for the sup[)ort of paupers. They granted 
generally from twenty to thirty dollars per (piarier of a year. 


-11 r- 

Apportionment of School Fund to Fayette County. 

In 1854 Fayette County received her first apportionment 
from the public sciiuol fund. Tlie amount was small, 
$709.42. During this period up to the Civil War the highest 
amount was received in 1859, viz: $1,954 04. In those early and 
unsafe times of stage coaches the county treasurer generally 
went personally to Austin to receive the apportionment for Fay- 
ette County. 

Fayette County [school Lands. 

The founders of the Republic of Texas were not unmindful 
of the interests of education. As land was plentiful, they donat- 
ed large tracts to the several counties. The iirst time the Fay- 
ette C'^unty school land was mentioned in the minutes of the 
conimissioners' court was in 1848. Then it was found that 
school land surveys made in 1840 conllicted with other suiyevs 
and they were ordered resuiveyed. In 1852 a patent for 11005 
acres of school land and a patent for 1203 acres were ordered re- 
corded. In 1854 another league of school land was to be locat- 
ed, and the job was given to the county surveyor, J. 13. Arm- 
strong, for $100. Up to 1850 this league was not located and 
the couuty judge was authorized to procure another person or to 
do what he deemed right and proper. In 1857 a patent for 
.785,200 Labor of school land on Kabb's (Jreek was received by 
the county surveyor and ordered to be recorded. In 1801 the 
balance of Fayette County school land was located and the field 
notes thereof presented to the commissioners' court. 

As the school land was not fenced in, depredations of the 
timberlands occurred frequently. But there is only one in- 
stance where a person paid a fine of $7.50 for cutting timber 
on the scliool land. 

County Attorney's Office. 

In those early days the people of Fayette County lived hap- 
py without the protection of that dignified oflicer of county at- 
torney, the terror of evil-doers But in 1858 the people thought 
that they could not live without one and thus, on the petition of 
many citizens, asking the appointment of a county attorney in 


order to suppress lawlessness and Crime, Fred Tate was ap- 
pointed county attorney for the term of one year to strilie terror 
into tlie hearts of evil-doers at the rate of $500 a year. He 
must have been very successful; for in the following year, the 
wrong-doers were so much scared that this ofiice was not deemed 
any longer necessary and therefore abolished. It seems that 
the people can do very well without such an office; these little 
petty offences amount to nothing and only provoke petty legisla- 
tion and spite in neighborhoods. At least, county attorneys 
should rather receive a salary and no fees. 

County Assessments and Negro Population. 

As stated before, at the beginning of this chapter, the in- 
come of the county at the time of the organization of tlie county 
was very small. It will be a more pleasant task of the reader 
to note the gradual increase of the county's wealtli and her in- 
come. While in 1847 — taken from the first record of the as- 
sessor's rolls — the county's assessed property amounted to only 
$1,138,690, and the proceeds of the county taxes, to onl}^ $1,280.- 
11, the property had during the following years up to 18(J0 in- 
creased to $5,115,382, more than quadrupled the assessment of 
1847, and the county taxes instead of $1,230.11 now yielded a 
revenue of $2,958.48 (amount of taxes of the year 1858, the 
highest of that period). A poll of the slaves was also taken, and 
we notice tlieir rapid increase, which was mainly due also to the 
increase of the material wealth of the county. In 1853 there 
were 1422 slaves in the county ; in 185G, three years later, their 
number amounted already to 2135. From that date their valua- 
tion is only given, but frora the increase of their value it may be 
assumed that their number also had increased. In 185G, they 
were valued at $1,214,625 ; in 1860 their valuation had risen to 
$2,021,650. They amounted at the outbreak of the Civil War 
to two-iifths of the total value of the assessed property of the 

Third Court House in Fayette County. 

Such a large negro population was a constant cause of alarm 
to the county, but before this subject be approached, we may 

-4— ' 








first mention the building of tlie tlnrd Fayette County court 

As said before, a new jail, built out of brick, had been ac- 
cepted in 1853. The new jail therefore looked better than the 
court house; the prisoners of the county had quarters of better 
aspect than the county government. This was not to be stood, 
and at least as elegant offices for the county officers had to be 
procured as the prisoners had quarters. Tluis, in ISCo it was 
resolved to build a new court house, though the old one would 
have seemed still sufficient. 

With the building of the third court house the era of hard- 
ships, financial embarrassments and makeshifts was closed. 
The building of the third court house was begun in 1855 ; it 
was completed in 1856 and cost $14,500. This building served 
the county as court iiouse to the year 1890. It was built by PI. 
L. Kreisclie, according to a draft made by William Rosenberg. 
It was a two-story building, built of rock and cement; the 
county oifices were downstairs ; upstau's was the court room. 
It was not an elegant, but a substantial building and showed in 
comparison to the first court house that- the wealth of the county 
had materially increased so as to grant a revenue large enough 
to procure commodious quarters for the county otficers. 

Many instances of orders of the court and negotiations with 
the city council of LaGrange showed the pride the citizens took 
in the new court house. The court room was granted to citizens 
of La(Trange to hold a party in comuiemoration of the battle of 
New Orleans. Many were the instances where this court room 
served for festive occasions. In 18G0 the Grand Lodge of Ma- 
sons of the State met here and held their meetings. Ihose 
were gay times in those days. The cold wave of abstinence fa- 
naticism from the North had not yet chilled the Southern heart, 
and the Southern gentlemen of those days were the last to give 
up their gaiety, chivalry and light-heartedness for the sternness, 
awkwardness and often hypocrisy of Northern zealots. It was 
not until after tlie Civil War that.Jijs chilly doctrine of abstin- 
ence v\as imported by carpet-baggers and Northern immigration 
into Tex:as. It never gained a firm hold in Fayette County. 


Patrol Companies. 

In another paragraph the increase of the negro population, 
the cause of alarm, trouble and excitement tliey gave to the 
wliite population lias been deferred as subject to be treated of 
at a later time. It now becomes apjiropriate to treat of the 
same. All great events cast their sliadows ahead. It did not 
lack of warnings that foreboded the outbreak of the great ("ivil 
War. Statesmen like Thos. Jefferson had foreseen it already in 
their time and counsele 1 against it. liut more passionate minds 
should bring things to a focus. Writers of the Beecher Stowe 
type appealed with their false and fanatical writings to the ])ve- 
judices o( the North. Northern missionaries and preachers tra- 
versed the Soutii and preached to the negro population not the 
teachings of brotherly love, but those of revolt against their 
w.hite masters. This justly embittered the people of the South. 

Tiiey had to protect themselves and their families. L\\ 
1817 the negro population had become so uncjuiet that measures 
had to be taken to keep them in check. Patrol Companies 
were formed in the several beats. A letter of instruction ad- 
dressed by the commissioners' court in 1817 to the Captains of 
Patrol of Beat No. 1 which explains itself is here givc-n. 

"To the Captains of Patrol of said Beat No. 1. Greeting: 


In view of the emergency now existing for a strict Patrol 
the causes of which are so well known that the court does not 
deem it necessary to enumerate them, it is strictly enjoined on 
you as commanders to carry out the provisions of the act regu- 
la,ting Patrols ; you will perceive, Gentlemen, by a reference to 
it which is annexed that you are required to patrol as often as 
may be deemed necessary in order to promote the general wel- 
fare and tranijuillity of the community. In view of the present 
state of trouble, alarm and excitement caused by the running 
away of several slaves as also the general loose and disorderly 
conduct of the slave population generally, it is expected of you 
and your command as patrols that you will by active and 
strenuous exertions as good citizens empowered to act lawfully 
by this Court, proceed at once to remed}'- the evil ; for this pur- 


pose it is recommended that you have your men in service at 
least twice a week and also op the Lord's day dividing them in- 
to divisions as you may see fit ; your attention is further direct- 
ed to the taking up of any white person that may be found 
among any unlawful assemblage of negroes. See Section 4. 

The Court in pursuance to tlie object it has in view viz: to 
preserve order and insure tranquillity and security to property 
refer you to the act to prevent slaves from hiring their own time 
or their owners from hiring them to other slaves, free negroes or 
mulattoes. Such act, if strictly enforced, is calculated to i tlVct 
much good. It will be perceived by reference to this act tliat 
the owners are subject to a tine of One Hundred Dolhirs. It 
is hoped that the laws wliich are amply su.'iicient for the pur- 
pose will be carried out througii the respective agents of wljich 
\'0U form a permanent one. 

Charles S. Longcote, Chief Justice, 
David R. Stout, ^ 

John S. Black, [- Comm. 

Stephen Townsend, ) 

From this tin^e on it was a constant task of the court to ap- 
point Patrol Comuanies. The white people of the South had to 
protect themselves, their families, and their property. Patrol 
Companies were the result of the stirring up of the negro popu- 
lation by northern preachers who counseled them to either run- 
away or revolt against their white masters. Those times lay al- 
ready in the shadow of tliat coming dramatic event, the great 
Civil War. 






Tlie election of Abraliam Lincoln to the oflice of i)resident 
of the United States was the signal of agitation for the ({uestion 
of secession, a movement planned long ago in case of his elec- 
tion. The question was voted upon in Fayette County on Feb- 
ruary 23, 1801. The secession movement was defeated in Fay- 
ette County ; 580 votes were cast for and ()2() votes were 
against secession, liut secession carried in the State. Other 
imj)ortant historical events followed in rapid succession. 

7 he bombardment of Fort Sumter (April 12, 18G1) was tlie 
signal of rally that echoed throughout the youthern States and 
gathered the South under the flag of the Southern Confederacy. 
The cooler heads that still counseled peace or neutrality were 
pushed aside. Governor Sam Houston, refusing to take the 
oath of allegiance to the Constitution of the Confederate States 
was ejected from his office of governor. Jjieutenant-dovernor 
Hon. Edward Clark, more in harmony with the views of the 
people, took the prescribed oath and succeeded Sam Houston in 
otiice. Everywhere troops were levied and ordered out in de- 
fence of the Southern Confederacy by proclamation of the gov- 
ernor of the state. 

Companies Raised in Fayette County. 

The first companies that responded to tliis call in Fayette 
County were the F'ayettc Guards under command of Cajjt. 
A. U. Gates, the Hough and Ready Rebels under command of 
Capt. Ben Shropshire and a company of artillery-men raised by 
J. F. Ernst and E. Creuzbauer. $350 were appropriated for 
them (.June 22, 1851). At the end of 1861 Capt. Ira G. Kil- 
lough's company was mustered in at San Antonio. At the be- 
ginning of 1802 other companies were raised and various appro- 
priations were made for them. The companies then raised 
were: B. Timmon's company, commaDded later by S. C. Izard; 


J. Duff Brown's company ; Capt. M. Cook's company ; Capt. S. 
Alexander's company of conscripts, and Capt. Victor Sladczyk's 
company of conscripts. 

Problems to Solve at Home. 

The battles these troops were engaged in during the Civil 
War, their lieroic struggles and daring feats, their hardships 
and sutfcriugs are a part of the history of that war. Tiiis gigan- 
tic struggle between the North and the South has been repeat- 
edly related by able historians, but much less attention has been 
paid by writers to the condition of t lie people at home. Thi'ill- 
ing as a narration of the daring feats in this war may be, a 
record of the problems which the people left at home had to 
solve is none the less interesting. To this aspect of the Civil 
War the reader is requested to pay his attention. The people of 
the South had to solve in this war three important questions: 
t) provide supplies for the soldiers in the field ; to take care of 
destitute families of soldiers and to hold in check an untrusty 
negro population. They were embarassed in the solution of the 
first two questions by alack of currency which became a ques- 
tion for solution itself. How the South solved these questions, 
the reader will catch a glimpse of by perusing the succeeding 
pages in wliich the author, on the hand of records, shows how 
the people of Fayette County tried to solve them. The perusal 
of these pages also will show the reader conclusively that the 
deliciency of specie, of hard coin money that kept its value 
everywhere had more than anything else to do with the defeat 
of the Confederacy. The genius of the South, the daring of her 
sons were equal to compete with the greater numbers of the 
North ; it was the lack of specie, of hard coin money that could 
have procured her the much needed supplies in the market that 
defeated her. At the very beginning of the war this deficiency 
of specie becanae apparent. Fayette County issued bonds to 
pay for the supplies and equipments of her soldiers. This was 
the way in which she solved the first question. She solved the 
second question, the care of destitute families of soldiers, by 
levying a war tax and issuing scrip, called 'war tax scrip,' for 
same. To supply a currency they again issued paper money, 


called 'Change Notes.' Thus, all transactions were conducted 
on credit with paper mone}', a business ir.ethod that necessarily- 
resulted in its depreciation in proportion to the amount of notes 
issued, until paper money could not procure anything at home 
much lesss abroad. The third problem : to hold in check an 
untrusty negro population, they solved by a strict control over 
them. The reader interested in these subjects will lind a more 
explicit exposition of them in the succeeding pages. 

Bounty War Scrip. 

The first question tlie county had to solve was to furnish 
aiid equip soldiers. In the October Term of ISOl Nine Thous- 
and Dollars were voted to furnish and equip soldiers that may 
be raised in the county. County Bonds were issued for this 
amount, receivable for taxes. A committee was appointed to 
distribute these bonds. The provisions of the order explain 
ihemselves and the order of the court is therefore here given : 
"October Term, 1861, Called Session. It is ordered by the Court 
that the Sum of Nine Thousand Dollars or so much thereof as 
may be necessary be and the same is hereby appropriated for 
the purpose of furnishing and equipping such soldiers as may 
be raised in this county ; Provided that no company of One 
Hundred men shall receive more than Three Thousand Dollars 
and companies of a less number to receive a pro rata payment. 
Such payments to be made in County bonds to be issued as fol- 
lows : Three Thousand Dollars payable on the Isi. of March, 
18(J2, without interest, to be receivable for the taxes of 1861; 
Three Tiiousand Dollars payable on the first of March, 18(53, 
bearing interest at the rate of 10 percent and to be receivable 
for the taxes of 1862, and Three Thousand Dollars payable on 
the first of March, 1864, b?aring interest at the rate of 12 per- 
cent and to be receivable for the taxes of 1863. Said bonds 
shall be signed by the Chief Justice and attested by tlie Clerk 
and siiall be issued in bonds of Five and Ten Dollars. Said 
bonds shall be delivered as they may be required to an Execu- 
tive Committee to be appointed by the Court whose duty it shall 
be to attend to the disbursement of said bonds for the benefit of 
the different companies that may reciuire such aid, and shall 


take the receipt of the Captain of the Company and file the same 
with the (Mel'k of this Court. Provided however tliat it is nut 
intended to fiiniisli horses in any instance, 

"It is further ordered that John H, Moore, L. P. Webb, 

A. Ammann, Ed. Manton, 
and J. L. D. Blackburn be 
and they are hereby ap- 
pointed said Conunittee. 
Signed J. B. McFarland, 
Ch. J., F. Co." 

Supplies were bought 
with these bonds by said 
committee ; in part, tliese 
B bonds were used to pay 
(B the expenses of conveying 
^ the baggage of companies 
ir- to their places of deatina- 

tion. Some clothing for 
"$ soldiers was actually trans- 
^ ported to Bowling Green, 
cB Kentucky and to Virginia, 

1 as shown by an appropria- 
"2 tion to pay an account of 

! 5 one J. S. Powell for his 
^ traveling expenses and for 
transporting clothing for 
soldiers to said place. In 
the beginning of 18G2 said 
committee that had been 
appointed to represent the 
county in the purchase of 
supplies for soldiers re- 
ported and asked to be 
dipcharged. They received 
the thanks of the court for the faithful and impartial manner in 
which they had performed the labors assignect them, were furn- 
ished vvith a cprtified copy of thi^ prder s^\\^ then discharged. 


In the August Term of 18(33 another amount of Four Thous- 
and Dollars of these County Bonds that went by the name of 
"Bounty War Scrip" was issued by llie court to meet the bal- 
ance of the claims on the county due to the soldiers at the rate 
of Fifteen Dollars per man. Of this amount up to Feb., 1804, 
only Three Thousand Six Hundred Dollars were used ; the bal- 
ance of Four Hundred Dollars that still remained in the treas- 
urer's hands was ordered to be burned in the presence of the 
court. As early as 1862 the county treasurer was authorized to 
redeem the county bonds with Confederate Notes that came into 
the treasury. 

Probable Numbp:r of Levied Men. 

Thus, the sum of $12,600 was disbursed to soldiers raised in 
Fayette County. If the share of a soldier was $15 of this money, 
about 800 men must have been levied in Fayette County. This 
seems to be quite probable and is supported by comparing the 
number of votes polled in the county before and during the Civil 
War. The number of votes polled fell off about GOO, notwith- 
standing that at this period there came a large number of citi- 
zens of other states to the county. 

Change Notes. 

We have seen that at the very beginning of the Civil War 
there was no specie money ; even supplies for soldiers were paid 
for with bonds. The war had the effect to drain the whole 
country of what coined money there was in it. This lack of 
money, of hard coin, was the prii-cipal reason for tlie defeat of 
the Confederacy. Still, the people had to have money to trans- 
act business. At lirst, individual notes took the place of money 
and circulated as such in the county. This was fraught with 
danger and to remedy the evil the CDunty like other counties 
had done concluded to go into the banking business and issue 
paper money. These notes were called Change Notes and wore 
redeemable in Confederate treasury notes, whenever presented 
to the amount of 'i'wenty Dollars for redemption. An amount 
of Ten Thousand Dollars of these Change Notes was issued. 

The order providing for the issuance of these Change Notes 


was passed in August, 1862, and reads as follows : "Whereas, it 
lias become ap})arent to the County Court that the circulation of 
individual notes in the county intended to represent money and 
which as a matter of necessity, in the absence of soniething more 
reliable has actually taken the place of money thereby produc- 
ing great detriment and danger to the interests of our public. 
And whereas our sister counties have adopted measures calcu- 
lated to protect their citizens from the evil the effect of which 
we feel will inevitably be to increase the evil among us so long 
as we neglect to adopt similar measures of relief. The County 
Court therefore feel that they can no longer delay the adoption 
of such measures as in their judgment will most etfectually pro- 
tect the interest of the county against the evils of which we com- 
plain and at tlie same time supply a sound, reliable and uniform 
circulating medium. It is therefore ordered and decreed by the 
County Court of l^■ayette County now in session at the Regular 
Term in August, A. D. 1862, that the said court do in the name 
and behalf of said county issue County Treasury Notes to the 
amount of Ten Thousand Dollars, and that the Chief Justice of 
said county be and he is hereby authorized and empowered to 
contract for and superintend the preparing of said Treasury 
Notes in the manner and according to the directions hereinafter 

"Be it ordeieJ and decreed that said Treasury Notes shall 
be of the following denominations and m the following propor- 
tions, towit : For every Twenty Dollars of said notes there 
shall be eight notes of twenty-five cents, eight notes of fifty 
cents, four notes of One Dollar, two notes of Two Dollars and 
two notes of Three Dollars each, be put up in packages of 
Twenty Dollars, and each package to contain ttie number and 
deiDmination of said notes herein specified, the aggregate amount 
endorsed en each package with the number from one to the 
highest number inclusive, made redeemable at the county treas- 
ury in the Treasury Notes of the Confederate States, when the 
amount of Twenty Dollars is presented, and issued by the treas- 
urer alone upon tiie dejjosit of a corresponding amount of con- 
federate treasury notes." 


Depreciation of the Currency. 
As we have seen, these Change Notes were redeemable in 
Confederate Treasury Notes, but even the hitter could not be re- 
deemed in hard money or coin. As a consequence, they depre- 
ciated very rapidly ; lor the most simple articles exorbitant 
prices were paid ; the fees and salaries of county officers rose in 
proportion. In April, 18(14, Confederate money had depreci- 
ated to this extent : an account of $7.25 for repairing jail was 
paid with Fifty Dollars in Confederate money. Bailiff Brown 
received P'ifty Dollars for three days' services waiting on the 
grand jury at the spring term of the district court. 'J"he chief 
justice received One Hundred and Twenty Dollars for two days' 
services in the commissioners' court. The commissioners re- 
ceived the same amounts. 

In December, 1864, the old Confederate Treasury Notes 
were sent to the depository agent' at Houston in order to ex- 
change them for a "New Issue" of Confederate notes. But they 
did not prove any more valuable than the old ones and their 
market value at the beginning of 18G5 was twenty for one dollar 
in specie. 

Of the amount of $84,821.91 reported to be on hand by 
county treasurer B. B. Hudnall at the September Term of the 
Commissioners' Court in 18(54 only Nine Dollars and eighteen 
cents were in specie, the balance was paper money. This 
was not a healthy financial condition. Paper money tliat 
could not be redeemed in hard coin, had become worthless and 
c juld not buy any supplies to carry on the war. As stated be- 
fore, it was the lack of hard money that did more to defeat the 
Confederacy than anything else. 

Destitution A.monc; Families of Soldiers. — War Tax 
AND War Tax Scrip. 
If we consider the sad state of the finances of the South, 
the lack of reward for the services of the soldier, the inability of 
the government to provide him with supplies, we must pay our 
tribute of respect to those brave men wlio left their homes and 
tbeir families and stood up so nobly for the cause of ihe South, 



As the government could not sufficiently^ provide them with 
supplies, the question of what had become of their families, 
Iiow they were taken care of, no doubt, very often agitated their 
minds. They, the support of their families, had gone to the 

scene of war to fight for the 
rights of their native land ; 
weak women and children 
were left to battle for them- 
selves. To quiet the fears 
of the soldiers for their 
home people, the question 
of providing for destitute 
families of soldiers was 
. considered very early. 

j| The county court decreed 

^ in September, 18G2, to 

^ loan Three Thousand Dol- 
^ lars from the county treas- 

o urer to buy cotton there- 


^ with and to send the chief 
^ justice to Mexico with this 
^ cotton to exchange it for 
"2 cotton and wool cards and 
-3 such other supplies for des- 
^ titute families of soldiers 
as the court may deem 
proper. But before this 
order went into effect, it 
was rescinded at the Nov- 
ember Term of ],862. At 
the August election of 1862 
the people of Fayette 
County voted m accord- 
ance with an act of legisla- 
ture a war tax of twenty cents on the One Hundred Dollars' 
worth of })roperty ; property below Two Tiiousand Dollars 
was exempt from this tax. The itroceeds of this tax con- 
stituted the War Tax Fund. Destitute families of soldiers 



who had enlisted in the Confederate or state service for three 
years or during the war were entitled to the benelits tliereof. 
This tax, in the opinion ot the court, would have realized 
$8,011.66; this amount was deemed insufficient to provide for 
destitute families of soldiers. The tax, therefore, was raised by 
the court to twenty-fiye cents, the limit. At a later and more 
careful calculation of the court this tax was computed to yield 
$12,098.48. For this amount scrip of One, Two and Three Dol- 
lar.? denomination, called "War Tax Scrip," was issued. The 
same was receivable for county dues. This tax was annually 
levied to the close of the war. 

To distribute tliis War Tax Scrip amongst the destitute 
families of soldiers, agents were apppointed in each Beat. They 
liad to furnish the court with a list of destitute families. The 
following agents were appointed: in Beat 1, .1. C Stiehl ; Beat 
2, JNlartin D. Ramsey ; Beat 3, C. L. Schulz ; Beat 4, Edward 
Henkel ; Beat 5, G. T. Haswell ; Beat 6, Neill McKinnon ; 
Beat 7, William Gorham ; Beat 8, T. C. Moore; Beat 0, W. P. 
Darby ; Beat 10, .John Y. Criswell ; Beat 11, .Joshua T. Moore ; 
Beat 12, I. B. McFarland ; Beat 13, Robert Zapp. 

In addition to this the legislature provided for destitute 
families of soldiers and apportioned to Fayette County $*.),363.5D 
in paper money. This money was received by the chief justice 
in March, 1863. Another apportionment of paper money to the 
amount of $6,191 00 was received by the county in the next year. 

Now, tliere was enough money for destitute families of sold- 
iers, but there were no supplies. With this War Tax Scrip 
some cotton was bougiit, sent to Mexico, and exchanged there 
for supplies. Other supplies, viz: cotton cards were bought with 
this War Tax Scrip from tlie military board at Austin as per 
letter of advice. The county also purchased a large amount of 
iunmunition which ohe obtained in-incipaliy from citizens. The 
latter had bought it either at Austin or in Mexico. 

Thk Cow Order. 

One order of the court in behalf of destitute families of 
soldiers gave general dissatisfaction througiiout the county 


(1863). It was the order in regard to a plan for the marking 
and branding of unmarked and unbranded cattle, generally 
known as the "Cow Order.'' In printed hand bills, posted in 
public places, the court had recommended to the citizens that 
unmarked and unbranded cattle be branded in the presence of 
two witnesses, that half of tlie proceeds — for a yearhng Ten 
Dollars, for cow and calf Twenty-One Dollars — be turned over 
to the county to provide for destitute families of soldiers. By 
this method of marking and branding unmarked and unbranded 
cattle a great many people have become wealthy and prominent 
citizens. But the grand jury of the county did not hold this 
industry legal and feared that the order of the court would 
rather have the effect to encourage this illegal industry, while 
it should be stamped out. Therefore, the order of the court 
was denounced by them in unmistakable terms, and the court 
was asked to rescind their order, which they did. The language 
of the document is clear, forceful and indignant at the order of 
the court. The document was found by the author on tile in the 
district clerk's office and is here given in full as a matter of 
probable interest to the reader. It is entitled on the back 
"Memorial" and filed May 22, 1863. It reads as follows : 

Filed 22nd May, 1863. 

K. iS. Bennett, 

Dep'ty C, D. C. 

State of Texas, ") District Cotrt — Sprino Term, 

County of Fayette. | May 22nd, A. D. 1863. 

Wherkas, we, the Grand Jury for said County and term ; 
In extraordinary m:^eting find, That the Hon. County Court for 
said County, did on the 23d day of April, A. D, 1863, being as- 
sembled in their court room, in the town of LaGrange and 
County aforesaid ; tlien and there make, pass, — "recommend," — • 
enact and promulgate what is commonly denominated and known 
as the "Cow order," And where^is said court was beyond all 
contradiction actuated by the most pure and patriotic motives 
and had the interest and good of "Soldiers' Wives" and Widows 
a-nd Orphans generally at heart, Still, we are humbly of 


the opinion that this recommendation in its tendency is cal- 
culated to excite and jnit in active operation ! rather than 
check the "cupidity'' of the unscrupulous '-Yearling brander !!" 
We further believe, that there are parties who, if they have not 
already done so, will band themselves together, and under the 
flimsy and gossamer texture of this County Court order, go into 
distant neighborhoods, and drive indiscriminately all that they 
can find unmarked and unbranded, whether strays or not, to 
distant pens, in other sections of the (Jounty, and then and 
there mark and brand and appropriate to themselves such stock. 

We are further of opinion, that some honest correct men 
who may be like "Ciesar's wife" above suspicion, believing that 
this "County Court order" had the sanction of legality in it, 
liave inadvertently and without due consideration marked and 
branded stock under its recommendation. 

[The following words are stricken out again in the 
document: "We further find under the advice and 
opinion of the Hon. 13istrict Court and the Slate's at 
torney: that indictments would not |)robably be sus- 
tained before the Court, against such unlawful marking 
and branding. Therefore, and only upon this advice 
and opinion we refrain from finding indictments against 
all such markers and branders."] 

Therefore for these causes and others uliich we are not at 
liberty to state, we most seriously recommend the Hon. County 
Court to meet at once and revoke said order and thereby put a 
stop to this unlawful "war" upon unmarked and unbranded 

[Stricken out : "and that they now })ass an order, 
recommending all persons who have marked and brand- 
ed under said previous order to counter-brand all tliey 
have branded, drive them back to where they found 
tliem, and discharge them from their illegal ownership 
of the same, and that they be recjuested to donate the 
amounts which they have {)aid into the County Court 
as a fund for destitute soldiers' wives and families and 
"go in peace and sin no more.'"] » 

We request the papers of I.1P Grange to publish this paper. 


Most respectfully submitted with the request that it be 
spread upon the minutes of the Hon. District Court. 
Wm. W. Ligon. N. Thomas. 

W. S. Pope. Joshua I. Moore. 

Albert A. McClatchy. C. P. Flack. 

A. K. Jones. James I. Ross. 

E. S. Cochran. B. Sherrer. 

I. L. Smith. John D. A. Blackburn. 

Thos. C. Moore. Haydn Huut. 

Thos. Secrest. 

The undersigned subscribed to the foregoing paper, but be- 
lieves that every man who branded cattle under the County 
Court order should have been indicted. E. S. Cochran. 

A Tax Paid in Provisions. 

Meanwhile, destitution increased and almost became un- 
bearable. The Federals had become possessed of Brownsville, 
the market place for Texas cotton where supplies could be ob- 
tained for the people at home. A great many people were with- 
out the most necessary means of support. There was enough of 
paper money, but this was worthless and could not procure 
anything. And there was the question now to take care of 
these indigent families when destitution and desolation were 
spreading. In December, 1864, the court decreed that the 
special war tax be raised to the rate of the state tax, which was 
75 cents as authorized by act of legislature in extra session of 
1863. This tax was to be levied in specie according to an act of 
the legislature approved Nov. 15, 1864. As there was no specie 
in the country, the tax payers were allowed to pay it in provis- 
ions at the following prices and in the following proportions, 
to-wit : Corn 50 cents per bushel ; Bacon 12j cents per pound ; 
fresh Beef 2? cents per pound and salt 7 cents per pound. One- 
fourth of this tax was to be levied every three months at such 
time and place as was designated by the county court or their 
agent in the following proportions : t in corn, I m bacon, i in 
beef and Kin salt. This order of the court was carried over the 
protest of Commissioner C. J. E. Graham Who went on record 


as being in favor of levying only a tax of one-fourth of one per- 
cent and allowing the tax payer to pay the whole amount of his 
tax at one time instead of paying one-fourth of the tax every 
three months. In the light of the present times and in view of 
the destitution at that period, his protest records for the reader 
only his narrow-mindedness and his pride therein that even 
went so far as to wish to see them recorded. 

Doubtful Characters at Home. 
The Civil War witnessed a great many heroic actions of 
heroic people. In fact, the whole war was a continuous heroic 
fight of a heroic nation. It was a time when man's character 
was tested ; hut it cannot fail that even among those patriotic 
people of that trying epoch some were found wanting. The 
currency had depreciated, it was almost wortiiless. destitution 
at home, the confederate army hard pressed, the outlook sad 
and unpromising. In this general break up like in a storm- 
wrecked sliip aside of heroism strode utter selfishness. A char- 
acter that raises at least a very reasonable doulit in regard to 
honesty in the mind of an unprejudiced reader was that of a lead- 
ing citizen whose name is here omitted. He was employed by 
tlie count}^ in 1803 to liaul 32 bales of cotton from Fayette Coun- 
ty to Brownsville at 12? cents per lb. freight. According to his 
tale of woe to the commissioners' court he met at King's Ranch 
General Bee's army which had evacuated Brownsville on ac- 
count of the enemy. He was forbid to carry said cotton any 
further for fear of its falling into the hands of the enemy. His 
wagons and teams were impressed by the government, and he 
was forced to sell said cotton at 50 cts. per pound in confederate 
money. His tale of woe induced the court to allow him to 
retain the amount realized for freight. 

Another action of his that gives still more cause to arouse 
the suspicions of a critical reader in regard to his honesty is 
this. He had bought with the county's money of E. Nichols 
16 bales of cotton at 70 cts. per ))ound and the obligation to 
procure an exemption permit for an equal number of bales, 
The permit was granted by Col. W. J. Hutchius, but revoked 
by — Broadwell, the Chief of the Texas Cotton Office. This 


bargain, therefore, had to be re3cinded, as the county could not 
keep part of her obligation. E. Nichols had received $5,780.60 
for his cotton ; he was to pay back this sum in specie at the rate 
of One Dollar in specie for twenty-five in (Confederate Treasury 
Notes, that is to say, |;231.25 in specie for S5,780.60 in confed- 
erate money. This whole business transaction looked to Com- 
missioner L. Franke so doubtful that he requested to go on re- 
cord as disapproving said order. 

The Ne(;ro Population During the War. 

We have seen the brave soldiers in the field poorly e(juip- 
ped, still worse supplied, except what their own bravery pro- 
cured from the enemy, their services unpaid or paid with 
a valueless currency, their families destitute at home, it now 
remains to consider another cause of alarm. 

The country was almost drained of its able-bodied 
men ; a large negro population, the bone of contention 
and the cause of the fight, were left at home. If they caused 
any trouble, cannot be said ; still, it was worth while to watch 
them and keep them in strict order in these trying times. As 
early as September 186ii the court passed an order to prevent 
their roaming about at night which probably might produce an 
outbreak at a very importune time. This they prevented by 
measures taken in the following order of the court : "It is 
ordered, adjudged and decreed by the court that the following 
rules and regulations be and they are hereby adopted for the 
government of patrols of the county and for the proper police of 
said county ; to-wit, 1st, Any male slave above the age of 16 
years who may be found by the patrol on any night visit to be 
absent from the premises of his master or the person having 
charge of such slave without a lawful pass in writing, shall be 
liable to be punished with not more than twenty-five lashes to 
be inflicted by the patrol of said beat at any time whenever such 
slave can be found. 2nd, That each owner and person hayiiig 
charge of slaves shall furnish the patrol of the proper beat with 
the list of the names of all the male slaves in his, her or their 
charge above the age of sixteen years and such patrol shall upon 


each night visit call for each slave belonging to the place and on 
failure ot any to appear, such patrol shall then inquire, if guch 
slave has a lawful pass to be about as aforesaid, and if not, then 
such slave shall be punished as aforesaid. If any such person 
shall refuse to furnish such list, the patrol may obtam it from 
any source they can. 3d, That the patrol of each beat shall 
immediately notify each owner and person having charge of such 
slaves of these resolutions and from and after such notice they 
shall be in full force and effect. 4th, The clerk shall furnish each 
beat patrol with a certified copy of this order." These meas- 
ures seem to have been quite sufficient. The negro population 
did not cause any troubles in those times. 

Prohirition in LaG range. 

On account of the troubled times, very probably also on ac- 
count of large bodies of levied men often passing through La 
Grange with which the police of the county would not have been 
able to compete, the sale of spirituous liquors was stopped by 
the Provoat Marshal in LaGrange on the 18th day of June, 
1862. A proportionate part of the license tax that had been 
paid by one Jonas Forsberg was paid back to him and his per- 
mit canceled. How long this order remained in effect, cannot 
be said ; very probably to the close of the Civil War; for, dur- 
ing this period there is no other issuance of a permit to sell 
spirituous liquors on record. 

Physician's Certificates. 

The attention of the reader may now be called to some 
minor items of interest that occurred during the Civil War. In 
1863 the legislature had passed a law according to which physi- 
cians had to procure a certificate to practice medicine from the 
commissioners' court. In accordance with this law, certificatea 
were granted in 1864 to the following physicians : Dr. John B. 
Taylor, Dr. Thos. C. Cook, Dr. C. P. Rankin, Dr. H. D. Shaw 
of Cuniming's Creek, Dr. ReubenWilkinson, Dr. J.V. Huff, Dr. 
Bird Moore, Dr. J. R. Dodge, Dr. F. A. Dycus, Dr. T. S. Jar- 
mon, Dr. R. S. Shannon and Dr. H. Fahnert. 


Election Contest. 

During the Civil War the county also witnessed an election 
contest between P. J. Shaver and G. F. Has well. The latter 
was elected, but failed to give bond within the prescribed twenty 
days. The suit was dismissed at the cost of both parties and a 
new election was ordered September. 1864. 

Road Precincts. 

Of road precincts there were daring the CUvil War thirty- 
one of the first-class and thirty-six of the second-class (I8O0). 
Election precincts were thirteen. 

This closes the epoch of the Civil War. The same ended 
witli the surrender of Lee's army. The battle worn soldiers re- 
turned to their desolate homes to start life anew again. For a 
time their reigned confusion, but soon order was restored. From 
April to September 1, the comi-nissioners court held no session. 
Tliey then came again together mainly to approve the bonds of 
newly elected officers. The large amount of ammunition that 
had been procured was ordered to be sold. But before this 
order took effect, the same was seized by the federal authorities. 

It remains to remark that tlie State of Texas which was not 
able to care for the destitute families of soldiers who battled for 
her in the, field, gratefully remembered their services at a later 
period. An act of the legislature was passed and approved 
April 9, 1881, p.jjpviding tliat old Confederate soldiers who were 
disabled, and widows of Confederate soldiers who died or were 
killed during the Confederate war — if they remaimed unmarried 
and possessed less than one thousand dollars worth of property — • 
should receive a certificate of 1280 acres of land. The first ones 
wfio received these certificates were Clarissa Anne Anselin, 
widow of Julius Anselin, Reuben Phares who lost an arm in the 
Confederate war and Geo. Birkelbach. 



STRUCTION (1 865-1 87G). 

Condition of the South, and Especially of Fayktte 


The South had been defeated in her great struggle. Ex- 
hausted by it, she still liad to bear its expenses. Texas, like 
the other States of the Confederacy, was placed under military 
rule. It belonged to the Fifth Military District. Troops held 
tlie exhausted country in check. Elections were lield at county 
seats, and voters were under police supervision, but the people 
submitted to this insult knowing that liberty was at stake. The 
negroes, the former slaves of the South, had been set free and even 
were made citizens. A great many adventurers from the North 
who carried their whole property in a carpet bag liocked to the 
South, allied themselves to the negro elements and, by their aid, 
took the reins of governtnent from the borne people and 
enriched themselves at their expense. Colored men now served 
on the jury and grandjur}^ and sat often on the cases of their 
erst-while masters (1870). All this aroused the southern blood ; 
an organization, called the Kuklux, was formed to fight these 
northern adventurers, who were nicknamed carpet-baggers ; tlie 
career of many an adventurer was brought to a sudden close by 
a bullet. It was at this time that a pistol law was passed ; as it 
seems in the opinion of the writer, to a great extent for tlie i)ro- 
tection of these adventurers (1871). The county court was 
called court of police and the cliief justice often went by the 
title of chief of police. 

Many were the instances where county otiicers were deposed 
by military orders. They constantly changed; sometimes two 
and even three different persons tilled a county office during one 
year. Even accounts were often ordered paid by military 
orders. There was a constant interference in county afiairs from 
military headquarters. 

la obedience to Gen'l. Order No. 27 issued from the Head- 

— uo^ 

quarters, 5tii Military District, bearing date March 27, 1869, to 
give effect to Sec. 19 and 21, Art. 5 of the Judicial Department 
of the Constitution, the County of Fayette was divided into five 
Justice's Precincts by the Police Court. 

A special county tax of twenty-five cents for a more efficient 
administration of justice was levied by authority of general 
order No. 41 of the Fifth Military District, State of Texas, 
issued March 5, 1869. 

No doubt, these uncertain times furnished a great many in- 
teresting topics of conversation to the news-monger of those 
days. The writer will name a few of them that may be still in- 
teresting. First, we have an instance, seldom as such an in- 
stance may be, where a citizen of Fa3^ette County was elected to 
office, but refused to qualify and give bond as required by law. 
His name was L. M. Mays ; he had been elected on June 25, 
1866 to the office of assessor. Then we have the case of Sheriff 
N. B. Ferguson. One of his securities on liis bond, Malcomb 
H. Hill, had become entirely insolvent, Ferguson hustled to 
make up another bond, but was unable to make it up, and final- 
ly, to his eminent grief and regret, had to depart from liis office 
(1868). That Fayette County is not without her impeachment 
of officers show the Minutes of the Police Cou t (Book C, page 
149), There a lover of queer records may find a suit, 
styled A. F. Dornwell vs, M. Zwernemann, Impeachment in 
office, entered on the Minutes of the Court. But like most im- 
peachments, it was no sucess ; the complaint was dismissed 
(1871.) During this period there was also an election contest in 
the county ; it was for the office of county treasurer ; li. T. 
Bradshaw contested the election of A. L. Moore (1872). The 
case was finally decided in favor of II. T. Bradshaw who assumed 
charge of the office of county treasurer in February, 1874. 

The talk of LaGrange for some time was also the protest of 
two commissioners, B. F, Dunn and S. C. Ferrill, against an 
order of the court. The county again enjoyed the services of a 
county attorney who had been appointed by the commissioners' 
court at a salary of $2.30 per year (1867), The appointee's 
name was B. Timmons. He had secured a great many convic- 


tions, and it was ordered by the police court that the convicts be 
hired to the corporation of LaGranf2;e or to private individuals 
and that tiiey sleep at night in jail. Against this order com- 
missioners B. F. Dunn and S. C. Ferrill protested, unless the 
consent of the convict or convicts could be obtained in all cases. 
All credit to their humanity ; but as far as the consent of the 
convicts to work was concerned, the court might have waited 

Taxes, Finances, and Salaries of County Officers. 

To conclude on the general situation of the county, a few 
remarks may here follow on the taxes, finances and salaries in 
the county. The taxes amounted generally to one-half of the 
State tax. Since 1807 a special tax of five cents on the One 
Hundred Dollars worth of property for repairs on court house 
and jail was levied. In 1868 and following years a tax of fifty 
cents was levied on man's most faithful friend, the dog. Dogs 
for which taxes were paid were furnished with brass-plates ; all 
others were to be killed. This tax yielded a revenue of $890 ; 
there were at least seventeen hundred and eighty animals of the 
howling tribe. The writer cannot state how their owners liked 
this tax, but it seems to him that if the dogs had joined tneir 
owners in a protest against this tax, the court might have re- 
scinded their order. At least, they could have set up a howl 
as the court had never heard before. 

Inspite of taxes the treasury remained in a depleted con- 
dition. In 18G7 County Treasurer A. L. D. Moore reported that 
there were no funds in the treasury and that he had advanced 
$27.35 for the use of the county. Tliis was a sad condition. If 
there came money into tlie treasury, the salary of county officers 
was increased ; county commissioners received Four Dollars per 
<lay ; the judge's salary during this period was increased to 
Four Hundred Dollars per year. 

Yellow Fever. 

In Ihe midst of these corrupt political conditions, in the 
midst of the general destitution of the country when everything 
fell short of the least hope, other great calamities struck the 

—142 — 

people. In 18G7 a yellow fever epidemic broke out in La- 
Grange. The same was said to be brought there by a peddler. 
Another version is that the j^ellow fever germs were imported 
into Fayette County in a box of books that was sent from New 
Orleans to Markmann and Richers, then living near LaClrangc. 
These were the first ones to die in this epidemic. Fearful were 
the losses of life, some families were eniireiy destroyed ; people 
who could fled from town and lived in tents in the country. 
Those ))risoners who were at that time in tlie county jail were 
either removed or discharged. The Commissioners' or rather 
the Police Court held no session from July, 1867, to January, 
1808. The town looked like a grand funeral place ; the empty 
houses stood as grand monuments of wrecked business and for- 
tunes. The town was not cleaned of weeds, they emitted a 
fearful stench ; infected bed cloths were scattered over town. 
Funerals were not conducted any more with decency ; the sup- 
])ly of coffins in the town had given out, and corpses were 
placed for burial in hastily made, rough, wooden boxes. The 
names of the physicians who attended the people during their 
sickness were Drs. Blackmore, McGowell and White. Never- 
theless the mail went regularly to and from LaGrange during 
this time ; it was carried by Chas. Helmcamp. 

Overflows of 1869 and 1870. 

It may be asiiumed that on account of these conditions the 
crops were not well gathered. Destitution may have been more 
felt then than during the war. To make matters still worse, 
the Colorado River overflowed in 1869 and destroyed a large 
amount of property and, to a large extent, the crops of 
tliat year. It was the greatest overflow that ever happened in 
its valley. In LaGrange the backwater stood about five feet in 
the court house yard. In 1870 there was another overflow that 
largely ruined the crops of the Colorado valley. The water 
did not rise as higli this time as the previous year, but came up 
almost to the court house square. It rose high enough to enter 
tlie blacksmithshop now occupied by Mr. Koenig. 

In 1873 smallpox broke out in the county. A citizen of 


Fayetteville, one G. F. Steves, died thereof. • In that year the 
first quarantine regulations were passed and ordered enforced. 
In 1875 smaUpox brolie out in the Pecan neighborliood, and 
the R. IC. Hollovvay farm and the Pecan Grove schooihou'se 
neighborhood were quarantined. 

Minor Details. 

It now becomes necessary to call the attention of the 
reader to some minor changes that took place in the county 
government. Snice 18()7 butciier reports, together with accom- 
panying bills of sale, were required to be filed; the first one filed 
was that of G. M. 23ehrens and Henry Homutb. Since 1870 an 
animal and hide ins])ector appointed by the governor supervisied 
the stock interests of the county. It was again made the duty 
of the court to grant citizens' papers to foreigners and the first 
grants of this kind again on record date January Term, 18G8. 

First Board of Medical Examiners. 

In 1873 the first board of medical examiners was api>ointed 
by the commissioners' court. Drs, T. M. Yates and H. B. Ilen- 
fro of LaGrange and J. M. Horns of Fayetteville were appointed. 
Dr. T. M. Yates declined to act, and Dr. R. A. McKinney was 
appointed in his place, and Drs. F. Warrenmote and S. C. Tut- 
wiler were added to this list. 

Road Precincts. : 

In 18G9 the road precincts had increased to ;>3 of the first 
and 41 of the second class. In 1871 a road overseer over all tlie 
roads of the county was api^ointed. He entered with the' county 
into a contract and gave bond. Both, contract and bond w^re 
filed. The first road oversver over all the county roads was 

Henry B'edsoe. " • 

"■^'' . ■ . 
Election Piu-:cincts. , 

!"^ In 1807 the number of election precincts had increased, to 
fifteen. A new division of election precincts was made in 1871 ; 
their number was reduced to live. In 1873 this order was again 
changed and 20 election precincts were established. ^ 


Transcript of County Rp:cori)s. 

In 1866 some transcripts of public records were ordered to 
be made by the county clerk, viz : the original three Books of 
Marks and Brands. He had completed his labors in 1868 and 
received $170.20 as compensation for his services. These books 
were transcribed by R. L. Shepherd. 


We may now devote a few remarks on the care of paupers. 
From appropriations on record we find that a great many old 
and indigent colored men, called then freedmen, received sup- 
port from the county. The county also paid considerable sums 
of money for conveying insane persons to the state lunatic 
asylum in Austin, also for their board and clothing. In Sep- 
tember, 1875, the county supported twenty-one indigents at the 
expense of $229 per quarter of a year. 

School Affairs. 

In regard to school affairs we learn by gleaning over the 
records that in the year 1867 there were 1819 school children 
between the ages of six and eighteen years in Fayette County. 
The schools were managed since 1870 by school trustees who 
had to report to the police court. In 1872 a board of school 
trustees took charge of school affairs in the county. A school 
tax of 12^ cents on the One Hundred Dollars' worth of property 
was levied at that time in the county. 

Fayette County School Lands. 

It was not a favorable time to sell the school lands of Fay- 
ette County for the reason that money was still scarce in the 
country. If it was done with the view of procuring money, it 
must have failed, because there was no money in tlie country. 
In 1867 the question of selling the school land of Fayette County 
was submitted to the people. The vote was cast for the sale of 
the lands. N. W. Faison was therefore appointed to contract 
for the survey of the school lands. Several orders of the court 
were passed in 1868 in regard to the sale of these school lands. 
Five hundred posters were printed and distributed over the 


county ; the expenses of sale were to be paid out of the interest 
accruing from the notes on the school land. But all these orders 
in regard to the sale of the school land had to be rescinded by 
the court. The state convention in g-ession at Austin declared 
the sales already made null and void, and postponed the sale of 
the lands indefinitely. Therefore, the court passed the follow- 
ing order in accordance with the act of the state convention at 
Austin: "Whereas the state convention now in session at the 
city of Austin, Texas, has declared null and void all the sales of 
public school lands heretofore made by the Police Courts of the 
different counties of this state under the act of the Eleventh 
Legislature of said state of Texas, approved November 1, 1866, 
and whereas said Convention has ordered that all further sales 
of said Public Lands be suspended indefinitely, — It is therefore 
ordered by this court that all proceedings in reference to the 
sale of lands aforesaid be indefinitely suspended." This order 
withdrew the school lands of Fayette County for an indefinite 
time from the market (1868). 

In the same year of 1868 a league of Fayette County school 
land was located by David Thomas on Little Wichita in Baylor 
County. In 1877 the question of locating Fayette County school 
lands in outside counties was again considered by the court. 
Col. N. Thomas was appointed to do this work. The same above 
mentioned lands in Baylor County were again located by him 
and the thanks of the court were voted to him for performing 
this work. 

Suits of the County. 

The question of the sale of school lands should cause the 
county also a suit. N. W. Faison had been employed to survey 
and divide the Fayette County school lands. This he had done. 
But as the county was enjoined from selling the lands, she re- 
fused to pay his claims. His executors brought suit against the 
county for $1130 for the survey. H. Teichmueller and W. H. 
Gazley were appointed by the county to defend her in this suit 
(1872). This suit was won by N. W. Faison's'cxecutors ; it was 
carried on appeal to the SupremejCourt ; this court affirmed the 


decision of the lower court and in 1876 an appropriation of 
$1602.15 was made to pay N. W. Faison's claim. 

Another suit during this period may here also be mentioned. 
It was likewise decided against the county. The court had al- 
lowed the sheriff as charges for boarding a prisoner sixty cents 
per day. Sheriff R. O. Faires charged the county one dollar per 
day for boarding a i)risoner. He brouglit in his account for 
$1254; this was $533 in excess of the county's allowance. The 
county refused to pay his account and employed attorneys 
Delany, Teichmueller and Dunn to defend her in this suit. The 
suit was decided against the county in the district court and was 
carried on appeal to the Supreme Court. Here it was lost also 
by the county. 

In 1871 there was some trouble with Washington County in 
regard to the county line. Taxes had been collected by Wash- 
ington County oliicers in territory that properly belonged to 
Fayette County ; also cases that came within the jurisdiction of 
Fayette County were tried in Washington County and fines were 
collected thereon. A. F. Dornwell was appointed by the court 
to make a settlement with the treasurer of Washington County 
in regard to these unlawfully collected taxes and fines. 

The Southkrn Pacific. 

Diflerent epochs can never be distinctly separated ; events 
thnt belong to one will reach into the other. As remarked at 
tlie close of the second epoch, coming events forecast their shad- 
ow s. But in this case the attention of the reader is turned to a 
more propitious event than tlie one of the second epoch. As 
tlie estabiisliing of jiatrol companies foreshadowed the great 
Civil War, so there was not an event missing at this time which 
foretold a bright and prosperous future. In 1871 tlie Southern 
Pacific was granted the right of way over the school lands of 
F.iyette County. (The road was not built over the school lands 
of the county; anotlier route was chosen.) In tiie following 
year, 1S72, its track was built througii the county. Flourishing 
towns sprang up along its track, viz.: Schulenburg and Flatonia. 
Both places were incorporated, The election for incorporating 


the town of Schiilenburg was held March 16, ISTo ; the town 
was proclaimed incorporated May 24, 1875. The incorporated 
town embraced one square mile. The election for incorporating 
the town of Flalonia was held November 8, 1875 ; November 10, 
it was proclaimed incorporated, and on tlie sixth day of Decem- 
ber, 1875, the first election for mayor and aldermen was held by 
John Cline. 

As a factor in building up and advancing a country the rail- 
roads stand unequaled. Their arrival announces the coming of 
an era of industry and development. The hopes that the citi- 
zens of the county placed in their arrival were rather surj)assed. 
With the arrival of the Southern Pacific into Fayette County 
as forerunner starts the last and brightest epoch m the history 
of the county. 

The minutes of the court of this epoch were closed by the 
Court with the following order : "The foregoing minutes being 
read and found correct, it is ordered that the same be approved 
and that the old county court adjourn to give place to the New 
Board that is waiting to qualify and go to work. Signed Isaac 
Sellers; J. R. Scates, J. P. No. 1; E. Henkel, J. P. No. 2; C. 
Luck, .J. P. No. 3; Chas. Welhausen, J. P. No. 4; R. T. Brad- 
shaw, Treas. Fayette Co.; Louis Jost, Sheriff; Thos. Q. Mullin, 
Co. Clk Elect F. Co. Written across the last page stands the 
following remark: ''Here ended the last lesson of the Old 
County Court on the 18th day of April, A. D. 187G, at 12 M. 
Signed Thos. Q. Mullins. 

This ended the era of reconstruction. The carpet-bagger 
regime was defeated and again the whites managed the affairs of 
government in nearly all the counties of the state. 



ERA OF DEVELOPMENT. (1876-1902). 

Railroads Built in the County. 

Having concluded the last chapter with some remarks on 
railroad building, the writer very appropriately may continue 
his remarks on this subject. The rich lands of Fayette County, 
the promising chances of their development could not escape 
the attention of railroad companies. The Houston and Texas 
Central had been built even before this period. It had paid 
taxes for its line of railroad track through Fayette County in 
Washington County on the claim that its track did not run 
through any portion of Fayette County. The reader remem- 
bers well that taxes from this portion of the county were paid 
in Washington County and that our friend A. F. Dornwell had 
been appointed by the court to make a settlement with the 
treasurer of Washington County in regard to these unduly col- 
lected taxes (1871). From the year 1877 on the Houston and 
Texas Railroad Company was required to pay taxes in Fayette 
County. In 1883 the Southern Pacific built a branch from Co- 
Inmbus to LaGrange, the citizens of Fayette County having 
given to the company the right of way through the county and 
a bonus of $40,000. This was the first railroad connection of 
LaGrange with the outer world. Other railroads followed ; in 
1886 the Taylor, Bastrop and Houston Railroad was built to La- 
Grange. This road was sold to the Missouri, Kansas and Texas 
Railroad Company. The latter company built the line beyond 
the limits of Fayette County to Houston (1892) so that La- 
Grange now lies on the trunk line of that company from Hous- 
ton to St. Lou'S. In 1888 and succeeding years the branch of 
the Aransas Pass from Yoakum to Waco was built through the 
western portion of the count3^ 

The building of railroads in Fayette County gave a great 
impetus to the general development of the county. Fayette 
County people were in constant contact with the outer world. 
A large immigration came into the county to make this their 

borne. Private and public improvements sprang up eVer'y- 
where. Most noticable were the improvements in public. build- 
ings. A new jail, a new court bouse and a poor bouse wer« 
built; instead on a ferry-boat the Colorado was crorsxl on an 
iron bridge. Numberless bridges over small streams and ra- 
vines were built. The public roads were improved. 

Sale of Fayette County School Lands. 

Before we treat of all these subjects, we must permit a 
paragraph to the fund which enabled the county to make all 
these improvements, if for no other reason than that in treatinty 
of these subjects this fund must conslanlly be referred to. It 
was the school fund. The proceeds of the sales of the Favette 
County school lands were invested largely m these improve- 
ments, thereby effecting several benehcial objects. 1. The 
county was improved. 2. This attracted immigration. 3. 
The school fund did not lie idle, but circulated and bore inter- 
est. 4. This accrued to the benefit of schools and education. 

The reader remembers that during the reconstruction period 
in 1867 the question of selling the Fayette County school lands 
was considered by the police court, that the i)eople of the coun- 
ty were in favor of it, but that the sale of the school lands had 
to be postponed indefinitely on account of an act of the state 
convention postponing the sales of these lands. Soon after the 
era of reconstruction this question was again considered by the 
court and with better success (1876). A committee of eleven 
Fayette County citizens was appointed to make a plan for sel- 
ling the Fayette County school lands. The committee reported 
and the following were the main provisions of their plan: 

Five appraisers were to be a^^pointed to value the land. 
The sales thereof were to be made at public auction to the 
highest bidder at the court house door. If the bid fell below 
the appraiser's price, the land was to be withdrawn lo a later 
time for sale. Notices of the sale were to be published in the 
Galveston News, Texas Post and Fayette County Record ; also 
hand bills regarding the sale were to be published in English 
and German and to be distributed over the county. Settlers 
that had settled on school lands should have the right of pre- 


emption. Only the school lands situated in Fayette County 
were to be sold ; the sale of school lands situated in other coun- 
ties was to be postponed. The center tract of 36 sections* of 
prairie land was also to be reserved ; the outside sections sur- 
rounding this tract were to be sold first. 

Tliis plan seems to the writer and perhaps also to the 
reader very carefully drawn up and appears very reasonable. 
Still, not all of the committee concurred in it. L, W. Moore, 
one of the committee, entered the following protest: "1 
protest against the whole system of public sales as delaying the 
sales and in fact making the appraisers the selection of whom 
was in no manner submitted to the consultation of the citizens 
of the county the arbitrary disposers of this valuable trust prop- 
erty given by our forefathers to their children. In fact this 
pretended consultation with a committee was a farce as two of 
the committee are commissioners who said that they had already 
determined the matter. My convictions of duty impel me to 
protest against this mode of disposing of this valuable land. 


L. W. Moore." 

The following were the Fayette County School lands: A 
large tract of prairie land, a timber tract north of the Colorado 
River, and land on Rabb's Creek. 

Of these lands the following sales were made : 1, as per re- 
port of John E. Moore, auctioneer of these school lands, report 
made November, 1876 : Seventy-seven tracts of prairie land 
were sold at prices ranging from $2 to $20.30 per acre and 
brought $40,773.62. Six tracts of Rabb's Creek survey were 
sold at prices from $2.55 to $12.05 per acre and brought $4537.85. 
JSineteeu tracts of timber land were sold at prices from $3.30 to 
$16 per acre and brought $2,403.55. The Grand Total of the 
proceeds was $47,715.02. 

*NoTB. From Minutes of the Commissioners' Court. "That 
thirty-six sections of the prairie land in the form of a square, consti- 
tuting the center of the land according to the plot prepared by N. 
W. Faison and L. W. Alexander, be reserved and that the sections 
surrounding said body of land be first offered for sale." 

The school land was divided into 128 subdivisions of various size, 
and by a section a subdivision of the survey is meant. 


2. On November 18 and 19, 1878, as per report of John 1^. 
Moore, auctioneer, forty-five tracts of prairie land at prices 
ranging from $4.85 to S12 30 per acre were sold and brought 

In 1879 a committee was appointed to invest tins money, 
realized from the s.^le of the Fayette County school lands, in in- 
terest-bearing bonds, 

3, In 1880 an appointed committee recommended the fur- 
ther sale of Fayette County school lands, and in that year John 
E. Moore reported the following tracts of Fayette County school 
lands sold : Twenty-one tracts at prices from 75 cts. to $5.15 per 
acre brought $855.76 ; four tracts of prairie land at prices from 
$10,15 to $12.50 per acre brought rf 4, 561. 86 ; nine tracts of tim- 
ber land at prices from $1,25 to $11 per acre brought $587,98, 
The Grand Total realized by the sale of these school lands was 

4, In 1890 nine tracts of Fayette County school timber 
land, containing 106| acres, were sold to John Grant for $533,75. 

5. In 1891 R. T, Bradshaw was authorized to sell the Fay- 
ette County school lands ; if sale were confirmed by the court, 
the judge should draw a deed for same. R. T. Bradshaw sold 
the entire school timber land, 187.^ acres, at $2.50 per acre. The 
sale realized $468.75. It was confirmed by the court. 

Besides these public sales where the lands were bid in by 
an agent of the county, if they did not realize enough, a great 
number of sales of small tracts of land to single individuals took 
place by special order of court. 

In 1894 county treasurer R, T. Bradshaw made to the court a 

Consolidated and Complete Statement and Report of the 
Permanent School Fund of Fayette County. 

Total Number 

Total Num- 

Av'ge Price 


of Tracts. 


ber Acres. 

Per Acre, 








Rabb's Creek 


4 77^ 







15 percen 

t Premium ( 

3n Bonds so 

Id, $4,650.00 

Total, $96,061.44 


B}' Expenses, Surveying, Advertising, Selling, etc. |3, 115.27 

By Expenses, Purchasing Premiums on Bonds. 890.35 

Invested in 5 percent Bonds 85,500.00 

Invested in 6 percent Bonds 5,000.00 

Cash on hand 1,555.82 

, $96,061.45 

Thus it will be seen that the school lands in Fayette County 
realized clear of expenses $92,055.82. Of this amount $90,500 
were invested in bonds. As there was a constant and dangerous 
risk that these bonds which were made payable to bearer might 
get into the hands of a wrong party, they were ordered, together 
with the coupons attached thereto, to be stamped "non negotia- 
ble ;" they could be sold only by special order of court (1895). 

Jail and Jail-Bonds. 

The reader remembers that in 1853 a jail was built for the 
county by A. Ammann and H. L. Kreische. This jail served 
the county for a great many years. It was remodeled in 1876. 
Though it was a solid building, it was deemed that it did not 
meet the demands for the safe keeping of the modern criminal. 
With the improvement of jails the ingenuity of the criminal to 
break them had equally increased and, therefore, this old simple 
structure, though solid, was not deemed sufhcient to baffle the 
hopes of escape of the ingenious prisoner. In 1881 a committee 
was appointed, one from each justice precinct, with power to ad- 
vertise and receive bids, plans and specifications for the build- 
ing of a new jail. A majority of the committee should make a 
quorum. The committee consisted of Chas. Michelis, Max 
Meitzen, Geo. Weyand, Alex McDow, J. C. Melcher, II. 0. 
Faires, A. Ammann and Geo. Knippa. The bid of F. Schulte 
to build a jail for $22,075 was accepted. An additional appro- 
priation of $3,000 for the building of a new jail was made in the 
same year. Architects Andrewarthe and Wahrenberger were 
appointed as supervisors of the building of the new jail at a salary 
of 1550. A contract was made between county judge J. Stiehl and 
F. Schulle ; the latter gave bond in the sum of Five 'I'housan(f 
Dollars. The building of the jail should commence immediately 


and was*to be ready for occupancy by January 14, 1882. The 
jail was not completed by F. Schulte at the stipulated time. 
The county took charge of completing the jail, but had to pay 
for its completion a larger amount than she had contracted for 
with F. Schulte. The county sued F. Schulte, also jointly 

Tae New Fayette County Jail at LaGrange. 

with him his bondsmen, R. Wolters, F. W. Turner, Chr. Baum- 
garten, J. Kinkier and C. Kruschel for the amount she had to 
pay over the sum contracted for with F. Schulte for building the 
jail. The county employed the attorneys W. H. Ledbetter, J, 
W. Hill, \V. S. Robson and A. J. Rosenthal to bring suit against 
these parties at a fee of Eight Hundred Dollars ; Four Hundred 



Dollars were to be paid on filing said suit and Four Hundred as 
soon as said suit was tried and disposed of (1884). This suit 
was not tried, but compromised by H. J. Hildebrand with F. 
8cbulte's bondsmen (1885). The latter agreed to pay the sum 
of $1250 and costs of suit and paid same to the county treasurer 
resp. district clerk in the same year. 

The new jail is a solid, substantial, modern building with 
■ all the appliances for safely keeping? prisoners. A pretty iron 
fence was built around it at a cost of $2,078 in 1884. In tiie 
same year a sewer pipe of eiglit inch terra cotta piping was laid 
from the jail to the riyer on the east side of Main street for a 
distance of 3, GOO feet, To insure the still better safe keeping of 
prisoners the sheriff was allowed a guard at a salary of Forty Dol- 
lars per month. 

At the completion of the jail, the county was in debt. The 
money to buifcl the jail had been largely borrowed from the 
school fund of Fayette County at five percent interest and deb- 
ited to the general fund. To liquidate this indebtedness a spe- 
cial tax of three-twentieths of one percent was levied for jail and 
court house purposes. In the year 1884 twenty-two jail bonds 
of One Thousand Dollars each, running for fifteen years from 
April 15, 1884, and bearing five percent interest, were issued ; 
the bonds were taken up by the school fund. As early as 1887 
five of these bonds were paid; there are still three remaining out- 
standing (February 10, 1902). But the patriot may justly hope 
that these bonds will be paid before the county starts building a 
new jail. 


Colorado River BRiDciE and Bridge Bonds. 

The completion of the jail was soon followed by anotiier 

improvement. In 1883 people of La Grange formed a company 

and decided that the ferry boat had to give way for abridge over 

the Colorado at LaGrange. It was the same year when the 

/' Southern Pacific built its branch from Columbus to LaGrange. 

./ There was a stirring activity all around LaGrange in those times. 

/ The bridge was completed in 1883 ; it wrs first mentioned in the 

Commissioners' Court proceedings in February, 1884. , 



In 1887 tlie following proceediugs led to the assumption of 
this bridge by the county. A committee was appointed to 
ascertain and report upon the practicability, necessity or im- 
practicability of erecting a bridge across the C'olorado River at 
the city of LaGrange by the following order of court : "It 
is ordered by the court that a committee of sixteen, two mem- 
bers from each Justice Precinct of Fayette County, with the 
County Judge as chairman of said committee, be and they are 
hereby appointed for the purpose of investigating, ascertaining 
and reporting to this court as early as practicable upon the prac- 
ticability, necessity or impracticability of erecting a bridge 
across tiie Colorado River at the city of LaGrange, and if they 
find that a bridge across said river is necessary and practicable 
that they also ascertain the kind and style of bridge and the 
probable cost at which a bridge can be obtained or erected, 
and to do any and all other acts that they deem necessary to 
reach the purpose for which they are appointed and Max Meit- 
i'.on, Ed. Manton, B. Sherer, Fred Luecke, G. C. Thomas, A. 

E. Falke, A. C. Lenert, Adolph Groos, James Marburger, B. 
Foster, Hermann Loessin, Flem. Moore, Chris, Baumgarten, 

F. Thulemeyer, C. L. Melcher and Nat Holman are hereby ap- 
pointed the members to constitute said committee, and they are 
liereby authorized to call to their assistance some practicable 
civil engineer to assist them if necessary in ascertaining the" — 
(Thus closed in Minutes). 

This appointed committee reported that it was necessary to 
have a free bridge across the Colorado River. They called to 
their assistance Civil Engineer B. A. Watham to ascertain tlie 
condition of the bridge of the LaGrange Bridge Company and its 
value. He reported the same in safe condition and worth 
$49,500. Thereupon J. C. Brown, A. T. Bradshaw and VV. S. 
Uobson, on the part of the LaGrange Bridge Company, sold this 
bridge to the county and the city of LaGrange for said amount. 
The county agreed to pay of this amount $41,500 and issued 
coui)on bonds for the latter; the city of LaGrange assumed to 
pay the balance of this amount and also issued bonds therefor. 
When the question came for decision before the commissioners' 
court, Commissioners Geo. Mauer and T. J. Ivey voted for the 


purchase of the bridge; Commissioners John C. Speckels and F. 
G. Seydler against it; the vote resulting in a tie, Judge A. Haidu- 
sek voted in favor of the purchase, and thus the purchase was 

We now have to refer back to the school fund. The sale 
of the school lands had realized a large amount. This amount 
was invested in bonds, partly in state bonds. A committee was 
appointed to negotiate the sale of thirty-one state bonds of One 
Thousand Dollars each held by Fayette County and in which the 
permanent school fund was partly invested; these bonds were 
dated July 1, 1879, and made payable and registered to Fayette 
County. A committee was also appointed to buy twenty of the 
bridge bonds of the LaGrange Bridge Company of Five Hundred 
Dollars each and invest in said bonds the permanent school 
funds of Fayette County then on hand in the treasury. Both 
these committees consisted of Geo. Mauer, J. C. Speckels, Thos. 
J. Ivey, A. Haidusek and John Lane. They reported that the 
eighty-three bridge bonds of live hundred dollars each, held by 
the LaGrange Bridge Company, had been bought by the county 
for Forty Thousand Dollars and that the thirty-one state bonds 
of One Thousand Dollars each had been sold at a premium of 
fifteen percent, amounting to $35,650. The clerk was instructed 
to draw a warrant in favor of the LaGrange Bridge Company on 
the county treasurer for $i,350, payable out of the Permanent 
School Fund then in the treasury, to cover the balance of tbe 
purchase money for the eighty-three bridge bonds, the latter 
amount being the difference between the money realized by the 
sale of the thirty-one state bonds and the purchase money of the 
eighty-three bridge bonds. 

The city of LaGrange issued for her share of the purchase 
money of the bridge, viz., Eight Thousand Dollars, also bonds. 
The permanent school fund of the county was invested in these 
bonds (1887). In 1892 the attention of the court was called by 
the State Superintendent of Instruction lo the fact that this 
investment of the permanent school fund of the county in 
LaGrange City bonds was illegal. No action seems to have 
been taken on this notice. 


LaGrange now had a free bridge. A toUkeeper was appointed 
for the bridge from March 11 to November 11, 1887, but after 
that the bridge was free. In 1897 the bridge approaches were 
turned over to the city of LaGrange by order of the court. In 
1899, a steel structure, instead of the wooden approach on the 
e?st side of the Colorade bridge, two hundred feet in length, was 
to be built by the Wrought Iron Bridge Company of Canton, O. 
L. M. Raphael, a civil engineer of Houston who had made the 
plans and specifications for this steel structure, was appointed 
to superintend the work for the county. The company entered 
into contract with the county, but the price of steel having risen 
in the market, the company objected to building the bridge 
approach according to Raphael's plans and backed out from its 
agreement with the county. New bids were then called for and 
the several bridge companies notified thereof. The contract 
was awarded to the New Jersey Steel and Iron Company. 

Paupers and Poorhouse. 

Another improvement the need of which was felt as early 
as 1840 followed close after the purchase of the iron bridge by 
the county. It was the building of a poor house. Fayette 
County had always been liberal in providing for the support of 
her poor. But the expenses incurred in the support of paupers 
had increased at a rapid rate. 

From $229 per quarter of a year for twenty-one paupers in 
1875, the expense rose in 1877 to $483 per quarter for twenty- 
five paupers ; the expenses were more than doubled in two 
years; still, three years later (J88U) even this amount was almost 
doubled, viz., $838 per quarter for fifty paupers. Therefore, the 
expenses for the support of paupers amounted in that year 
(1880) to over Three Thousand Dollars. 

To retrencli the expense account for the support of the poor, 
the court passed in 1879 several orders, viz.. That no more 
money should be appropriated for pnupers unless on personal 
appearance before court or, in case of inability, on the testimony 
of one or more reliable witnesses; that a person should be 
ap|)ointed to take care of an indigent and that the money should 


be appropriated to his use; that physicians must swear to their 
bills and wait only on paupers at the request of a person having 
charge of a pauper or at the request of the commissioner in 
whose beat the pauper resides; that doctors' bills on prisoners 
must be approved by the sheriff, deputy or constable having 
said prisoners in charge. This order was of no avail, for the 
expense account for the support of I'aupers kept on swelling. 

In 1881 the court tried another plan for tiie care of paupers. 
The court advertised for bids to take care of all the paupers. 
The bid of John T. Rankin to take care of the paupers in the 
county for three years was accepted. He entered into contract 
with the county and gave bond for the performance of his 
contract. His bid was: For keeping the first ten paupers per 
annum $1249, for each additional pauper per month Eight 
Dollars, and for the burial of each pauper that died Nine Dollars. 
This seems to the writer a rather large amount; for the highest 
monthly average of expenses for a pauper, including clothing 
and medical attendance, had been before only $5 93 to the 
county. Still, this contract had one beneficent result; it decreased 
the number of paupers; either they must have died under his 
care or must have preferred not to be under it. At the expira- 
tion of his contract in 1884, he could afford to take care of all 
the paupers in the county for the small sum of $990; his bid 
was then accepted for a term of five years. It may be said also 
tliat a great many people were supported Vjy the county who 
were not in need of support, and when they were placed on the 
farm of John T. Rankin, near Buckner's Creek, to work, they 
l)referred to forego the county's hospitality. 

Finally, after some previous futile attempts in 1877 and 
1880, a poor house was built in 1888, In that year, twenty-four 
acres of the J. Eblin league were bought by the county from 
the Fayette County Stock and Fair Association for the sum of 
One Thousand Dollars. This land should be the poor farm of 
the county ; the deed therefor was giyen May 24, 1888. A 
poor house and county hospital were erected on this land b}'' 
II. Mebus for $8,070 under supervision of J. T. Campbell. The 
building was completed in the same year, accepted, and Mebus 


paid. In 1892 another house was built on the poor farm for 
$475, In 1893 two acres of the poor farm were sold to the city 
of LaGrange which erected a pest house thereon. The poor 
house is now under the management of a keeper and a matron 
who receive salaries. It was for a number of years under the 
management of keeper L Y. Kennedy who was complimented 
at every term of the grand jury by that body on the nice and 
clean condition in which he kept the poor house. The present 
keeper is A. F. Dornwell. In comparison to the plan of the 
poor house that was to be built in 1840, to be sixteen feet square 
and with one window, a shutter and a door, the present poor 
house is a palatial structure. The county has done her full 
duty in caring properly for her poor, and if they are not proper- 
ly cared for, the fault will be with those who have charge of its 

Fourth Court House. 
At this period a desire to make public improvements, to 
liave the prosperity of the county also represented by its public 
buildings, made itself generally conspicuous. The next public 
building erected was the new court house. It may be remarked 
here that the iron fence around the court house square was built 
eleven years previous to the court house by one Wra. Raalz 
at a cost of $1.80 per running foot (1879.) Some minor im- 
provements may also be mentioned here. In 1883 the city of La 
Grange got permission to dig a well and erect a windmill and 
tank pipes for fire protection on the public square. In 1SS4 the 
city erected a house for sheltering a hook and ladder truck on 
the north side of the public scjuare. 

The building of the new court house, the fourth court house 
of Fayette County, was commenced io 1890, In that year the 
grand jury of the county reported the old third court house in 
unsafe condition and recommended the appointment of ex))erts 
to examine, investigate and pass upon the condition of the court 
house building. In accordance with their recommendations the 
following committee was appointed for this purpose: George F. 
Sacrey, United States superintending architect of the United 
States custom-house and postollice building at San Antonio, 


Texas ; C. Michelis of LaGrange and Robert Albert of Flaionia. 
In their report to the commissioners' court they condemned the 
old building and advised the building of a new one. A great 
many citizens in the county regretted to see this old landmark 
go to which so many memories of good and evil times were 

Th3 plans of Riley Gordon, an architect of San Antonio, 
were adopted and he was selected as superintending architect of 
the new court house building. The contract was awarded to the 
firm of Martin, Byrnes & Johnson of Colorado City. The 
building was accepted December 1, 1891 and cost, accordinoj to 
the treasurer's report, $87,356,10; together with salary of 
supervising architect, vault funiture, plumbnig and court house 
funiture, $95,646,39. The court house clock was procured by 
R. F. Day for $725. 

The present court house is an elegant three-story structure. 
Inside it has an open court with fountain ; cemented walks lead 
from eacli side ot the public square to its grand portals. Its 
solidity and massiveness are coupled with elegance. It is furn- 
ished with water works and electric lights. 

For this building Ninety Thousand Dollars Courthouse bonds 
bearing six percent interest were issued and taken up by the Per- 
manent School Fund of the state (1890). In 1895 seventy-five 
of these bonds of One Thousand Dollars each, bearing six per- 
cent interest, were refunded in bonds bearing five percent inter- 
est ; they were to run for forty years from May 15, 189.5, with 
ten years option : a tax often cents on the One Hundred Dollars 
was levied to provide a sinking fund for these bonds ; they were 
taken up by I. B. Thurman & Co. of Chicago, 111., who agreed 
to pay one hundred dollars premium and pay all the expenses 
incidental to tlie issuance of the bonds. 

Public Roads, 

It may be certain that in this busy period of material 
development another subject matter of importance which always 
had received the careful consideration of the court did not now 
lack its proper care and attention, viz,, the public roads. If the 

— 101— 

court failed to consider this subject, petitions always caroe in to 
remind them thereof. As early as 18.S2 citizens of Flatonia 
petitioned thf? court to appropriate ^2,500 to macadamize (the 
minutes have it "acadamize") the Faires lane on the LaGrange 
Gonzales road. This petition was dismissed, but in 1884 the 
Faires lane on the LaGrange Bastrop ro?d, west of the Colorado 
Uiver, was graded at one dollar per yard of lineal measure in a 
width of sixteen feet by one J. F. McClutchy. This was the 
lirst road grading done in Fayette County. A great many road 
contracts were now made for grading and graveling the public 
roads ; team and driver were employed at the rate of $;).75 and 
$4 per day. Especially was there a great amount of road work 
done in 1889. The people having learned to appreciate the 
value of good roads, the court thought it the proper time to sub- 
mit to them the question of levying a special road tax of fifteen 
cents on tlie One Hundred Dollars for the purpose of extending 
the work of road improvement. An election for this purpose 
was held on March 14, 1893, but the road tax was defeated by a 
vote of (Jol votes for and 1582 against it. After the defeat of the 
road tax, the constant improvement of the public roads still was 
not lost sight of. In 1895 the court tried another plan. It 
appointed a special committee to establish a permanent system 
of road working. This committee sent in the following report: 

"To the Hon. Commissioners* Court of Fayette County: 

"Your committee to examine into and pass upon the recom- 
mendation of the county judge concerning a system of road 
working in this county, met at LaGrange during the month of 
October and after due deliberation passed the following 

"llesolved 1. That owing to the present financial condition 
of our county we deem it unwise to spend the sum of $25,000 
in establishing a permanent road plant in Fayette County as 
suggested by County Judge llobson. 

"Resolved 2. That in the opinion of this committee it 
would be to the advantage of the county to adopt some perma- 
nent road system by which the labor of the county convicts 
would be secured on the public roads and made self-sustaining, 


and to this end we suggest that you make some suitable arrange- 
ment with some competent person for a definite period of years 
to work said convicts upon the roads under such rules and regu- 
lations as to you may seem expedient. 

Natt Holm an, 
f. a. schlick, 
Chas, Bittner, 
Wm. Voelkel." 

Bids to work the public roads were called for. The bid of 
Plomuth & Cornelsen to work the public roads for a term of five 
years from January 1, 189G to December 31, 1900. at an average 
price of $3.37* for team and driver i)er day and $1.25 for labor 
of extra hands per day, with at least twenty teams during six 
months of the year, was accepted. They hired the county 
convicts from the county at $7.50 pfer month and board. The 
county had to furnish gravel pits and improyed road machinery, 
as graders, rollers, steam crushers and engines. 

During the term of this contract for five years, the county 
spent $73,005.71 for road improvement; of this amount, there 
were $55,979.85 for team hire and $17,025.86 for extra liands. 
In commissioner's precinct No. 1, there were expended of this 
money $16,964.61; in No. 2, 117,924.42; in No. 3, $19,896.77; 
in No. 4, $17,295.71. 

In 1901 the Legislature passed a special road law for Fay- 
ette County. During that year the question of levying a special 
road tax was again submitted to the jjeople on November 5, 1901. 
The vote stood 508 for the tax and 1135 against it. Thus the 
road tax was again defeated. 

Bridges and Bridge Bonds. 

In this period of general activity and development, the 
bridge building of the county kept equal pace with the road 
improvement. After the lapse of thirty years the county 
started again in the bridge building business. Even before the 
assumption of the Colorado River bridge by the county, some 
smaller bridges over the minor waters of the county were built. 
After several orders and decisions in regard to building bridges, 


the first bridge actually bnilt was the one across Buckner'a 
Creek on the LaGrange-Lockharc road. It was built of wood 
by W. Stoermer and Jesse Blackwell for One Thousand Dol- 
lars (1884). In the f(jllo\ving year the first iron bridge was 
built in the county across Cuniming's Creek within one-half a mile 
of Breeding's Crossing by the King Iron Bridge Company of 
Cleveland, 0., at a cost of Three Thousand, Eight Hundred 
Dollars. A great many petitions for bridges from all parts of 
the county now followed. 

To meat the demands and wishes of the people for increased 
bridge building the court decided to issue bridge bonds. The 
following bridge bonds were ordered to be issued at the following 
dates: Bridge bonds to the amount of $10,000 on February 15, 
1884; bridge bonds to the amount of S6000 on May 16, 1885; 
eleven bridge bonds of One Thousand Dollars each on February 
10, 1S8G; eighty-three bridge bonds at Five Hundred Dollars 
each for purchase of river bridge on May 9, 1887; — they were 
taken up by the school fund (August 15, 1887), — and thirteen 
bridge bonds, dated April 10, 1898, bearing five percent interest, 
redeemable in forty years, with five years option. A sinking 
fund was to be procured by levying a one and one-half cents tax 
on the One Hundred Dollars. These bonds were not approved 
by the attorney general on tlie ground that the one and one-half 
cents tax exceeded the fifteen cents tax authorized to be levied 
for road and bridge puposes. The previous order, therefore, 
was rescinded, the bonds were cancelled, and a new order was 
made as per advice of the attorney general. 

We may now mention here some of the larger bridges that 
were built by the county. The bridge across the East Navidad 
on the Morgan and High Hill road crossing was built by the 
King Iron Bridge Company of Cleveland, 0., at a cost of Three 
Thousand Dollars (1885); the building of the Buckner's Creek 
iron bridge was decided in 188G; two years later iron bridges 
were built across Clear Creek, Williams Creek, West Navidad 
River and Rabb's Creek by the Missouri Valley Bridge Company 
of Leavenworth, Kansas, across Live Oak and Barton's Creek 
by the King Iron Bridge Company of Cleveland, O, 

—164 — 

Interesting Incidknts. 

Of course, the county government had in these times, as in 
previous times, its petty troubles that furnished subjects for the 
people to talk upon. Too extravagant accounts were rejected; 
heat and town o'Hcers were fined for failure to report, but their 
fines were remitted on reports made; persons were fined for 
various reasons for contempt of court. In the matter of a peti- 
tion of the Town of Roundtop vs. the Town of Warrenton as to 
where justice court should be held, the court decided that it 
should be held as formerly in Warrenton (1881), In 18SG the 
court passed an order, rejecting the election returns of Unters- 
ville, Aschen's Store, West Point, Ammannsville and Schulen- 
burg, but this order was rescinded. In 1892 the office of county 
clerk held by J. T, Rankin, on the petition of J, Schuhmacher, 
F. C. Carter, J. C. B, Renfro and forty-nine others, was declared 
vacant, as he was adjudged by the court not to be a resident of 
Fayette County. J. P. Ehlinger was appointed county clerk by 
the court. The county convict question was once solved by the 
court in a manner not quite in harmony with the views of the 
writer. In glancing over the records, he finds that in 188o they 
worked on the labor farm of J. E, &: R, J. White in Grimes 
county. In other words, they received the same punishment 
for a misdemeanor as the state convicts received for a felony, 

A Friendly Spar With Colorado County, 

An interesting trouble of the county which did not lack in 
humor was her altercation with Colorado County in regard to 
the claims of the latter county incurred in running the line with 
this county. The order of the court in regard to it breaks so 
pleasantly the monotony of the routine business that the writer 
greatly enjoyed reading it, and it is iiere given in full as a possible 
source of enjoyment for the reader: ''Be it rememembered that 
on this the sixleentli day of February, A. I), 1882 there came 
on to be heard the certified copy of a decree entered on the 
Minutes of the Commissioners' Court of Colorado County, Slate 
of Texas, in regard to the amount allowed by this Fayette County 
to Colorado County on the claim of Colorado County in having 
the line run between said counties in which Colorado County 


claimed the sum of $l2i».12 and in wliicli after a lawful exauii- 
nation bv tii# Commissioners' CJourt of this County and tl)e 
calculation of the several committees it was found that tlie 
amount due Colorado County was 1^20. 22^V whereupon a draft 
was issued for said sum of ^20.22^ in favor of Colorado County, 
and whereas tiie Commissioners' Court of Colorado County 
caused to be entered in its mniutes a decree donating to Fayette 
County said sum of $20.22i, settin<i forth that it would cost said 
Colorado County more in the way of attorneys' fees etc. to collect 
the amount claimed as the reason of sucli donation and to show 
their appreciation of such a liberal donation and believing in 
the old maxim "It is more blessed to give than to receive" 
that this Court in behalf of Fayette County extend to Colorado 
County a vote of thanks with a rising vote which was unani- 
mously carried. It is further ordered that tlie Clerk furnish the 
Commissioners' Court of Colorado County with a certilied copy 
of this decree." (iuite an interesting exchange of courtesies. 

Another quite amusing circumstance may be mentioned 
here. \'ery often collector J. U. Scates had to pay back amounts 
of taxes wrongly collected. Amongst others he had collected 
poll taxes from a Mrs. Mary J?arbay and a Mrs. E. A. Basford. 
Surely, a county oilicer ought to know better and that ladies are 
not on the poll. 


It is natural that with the increase of the county's business 
the salaries and fees of her oHicers rose in proportion. This 
was not more than right, for their offices entailed more labor and 
demanded greater attention. >'ayette County had passed the 
stage of being a frontier county when an assessor, for instance, 
handed in the following bid : "1 agree to assess the property of 
Fayette County for the sum of $100. B. F. Nabors." Still, the 
fees and salaries had by far not risen to such a lieight as the 
people generally thought they had. Assessor G. A. Heilig's 
commission from the county during the eighties for instance 
never reached to Eight Hundred Dollars ; in this, his commis- 
sion from the state was not included. As the increase of the 
county's business largely fell on the judge's office, his salary wa^ 


increased, in 1886 to Eight Hundred Dollars, in 1888 to Nine 
Hundred Sixty Dollars. 

In 1891 treasurer R. T. Bradshavv made a report on the 
salaries and fees of some county officers. According to it, the 
sheriff had received in fees and for expenses of boarding prison- 
ers and paupers $5,622.60 ; the county judge, salary and fees 
$1,801.65 ; the assessor, $1,967.65 ; the county cierk, salary and 
fees, $696.35 ; the district clerk, $250- These were the fees and 
salaries paid to these officers by the county, but it did not in- 
clude the fees collected by them from private persons. 

The Prohibition Question. 
A great question agitated the people in 1887, the question if 
Texas should become a prohibition state or not. The people of 
the county took great interest in this question. Public meet- 
ings were held everywhere and addressed by prominent speak- 
ers. The county government had the same views on prohibition 
as the overwhelming majority of the people in the county. The 
following order shows this . The district and county clerks 
were instructed to record in well bound books and properly 
index all the old declarations of aliens for naturalization papers 
that may be on file in their offices which have not been hereto- 
fore recorded by their predecessors. For, tlie foreign element 
was to a man against the proposition. However well-meaning 
the intentions of the advocates of prohibition may have been, 
the morals of a people are never improved by law. History 
teaches this fact without exception. Besides, in the opinion of 
the writer, prohibition is a greater evil than the one it seeks to 
remedy. Even before the great state prohibition campaign the 
question of prohibition was discussed and voted upon in local 
option elections in the then beat No, 4. It was defeated every 
lime : in 1877 by a vote of 53 for and 90 against; in 1880 by a 
vote of 66 for and 115 against. After the state campaign for 
prohibition, another local option election was held in West Point. 
This resulted also in defeat by a vote of 91 for and 100 against it. 

During this period several epidemics fell on tlie people of 
Fayette County. Smallpox broke out near Fayetteville (1881). 


Dr. H. D. Shavr, Max Meitzen, Franz Baca, Aue;ust Baca and 
Hugo Zapp were appointed a committee with full power to at- 
tend smallpox cases around and near Fayetteville and to estab- 
lish a quarantine. 

In 1891 smallpox broke out in the gravel pit on the Austin 
Branch of the Texas Central Railroad, near Ledbetter. J)r. W. 
H. Walker was appointed health officer with full power to act 
and employ guards to isolate infected persons. 

In 18'J5 the town of Ledbetter quarantined against all in- 
fected points in this state where smallpox existed and especially 
against the town of Giddings in Lee (Ji)unty. Dr. W. \V. Lunn, 
the county physician, was api^ointed to take the necessary steps 
to carry out said quarantine. 

In 1897 diphtheria broke out on the Joiner farm near Joiner 
Station on the LaGrange Branch of the Galveston, Harrisburg 
and SanAntonio Railroad in Fayette County. Dr. E. D. Lunn 
and the commissioner of that beat were authorized to act, isolate 
the infected persons and furnish tents to them. 

Yellow Fever Quakamtime, 

The reader has not forgotten the fearful yellow fever epi- 
demic of 1867 in LaGrange, the great death rate and the con- 
sternation of the people at that time. Wlien thirty years later, 
in 1897, yellow fever came again into Texas and several cases 
occurred in Galveston, the court took the most strenuous meas- 
ures to prevent its reaching this county. The following order 
was passed : "In the matter of declaring and establishing quar- 
antine throughout the County of Fayette, State of Texas, against 
all yellow fever districts in the State of Texas, in other states 
and foreign countries and to guard against tlie introduction and 
dissemination of said dangerous or infectious disease known as 
yellow fever. Dr. E. D. Lunn, County Physician, Chairman ; 
Dr. C. J. Schramm, Fayetteville ; Dr. E. Knolle, EUinger ; Dr. 
Peare, Carmine; Dr. M. E. Clary, West Point ; and Dr. 1. 
E. Clark, Schulenburg, are appointed a County Board of Health 
to meet in LaGrange and to establish rules and regulations for 
quarantine; the county physician to advise when necessary the 

— 1G8— 

appointment of guards to establish, maintain and supply stations 
or camps for those held in quarantine ; to isolate all infected 
cases ; to advise with the commissioner of the infected district 
to employ guards. The County Physician with the Board of 
Health to have power to prevent the running of all passenger 
and freight trains or the distribution of freight, express pack- 
ages, mails and household goods that come from infected dis- 
tricts ; to prevent persons to come from infected districts by 
private conveyance. The County is divided into four Police 
Districts: 1st, LaGrange, Fayetteville, EUinger ; 2nd, Carmine, 
Ledbetter, Warrenton, Roundtop ; 3d, Winchester, West Point, 
Muldoon ; 4th, Flatonia, Engle, Schulenburg. The Commis- 
sioners are declared chiefs of the respective guards or police 
force that may be appointed throughout the county." Excite- 
ment prevailed throughout the county. The lesson which had 
been taught by the great yellow fever calamity of 1867 had not 
been forgotten. It justified these preventive steps. Passenger 
trains and freigljts were actually prevented from stopping in the 
county. This lasted only for several days. Letters and pack- 
ages received from yellow fever districts came on in a perforated 
condition, the mails having been fumigated. But as the author- 
ities in the yellow fever districts soon had control of the epidem- 
ic, excitement soon subsided. The people had recovered from 
the scare, without being visited by this infectious disease and 
soon the quiet order of things prevailed again. 

In 1899 smallpox broke out in Carmine ; in 1900, in La 
Grange. But the infected persons were promptly isolated in 
both places, and a further spread prevented. 

Overflow of 1900. 

Another calamity may here be mentioned. It occurred 
during the same year of 1900. The writer means the overtiow 
of the Colorado River. In that year the dam at Austin was 
broken. A large volume of water rolled down the river, inun- 
dated its valley and ruined the planted corn and cotton crops 
(April 19, 1900). The water did not rise as high as in 1869 
when it w'as five feet high in the courthouse yard, nor even as 
high as iu 1870, but it still reached within one block of the court 


house square. Great excitement prevailed that day in La 
Grange. People in the overflowed and threatened district were 
busy moving their household goods. Even some merchants on 
the square contemplated moving their goods. A large railroad 
force was employed on the railroad bridge to loosen and start 
again the drift-wood. A great many people from the country 
came in to witness the scene. Small boats were rowed m the 
overflowed districts and through the lower streets of La Grange. 
A humorous incident may be mentioned here. Several negroes 
in a small boat tried their oarsmanship. They could not m;isler 
the current and were thrown with their boat against a wire fence. 
The boat capsized and they received a ducking. They el mbeil 
the posts of the wire fence, not daring to go into the forceful 
current. The one nearest the dry land straddled the wire fence 
and tried to walk on the wire to the land. All went well, until a 
staple got loose. He fell with the wire and hung there in a 
helpless position, until he was rescued by one of his colored 
brethren who carried him under the applause of the spectators 
on his shoulders to the dry land. Kayette County was not dam- 
aged by this overflow as much as the neighboring Colorado 
County. She did not lose her iron bridge nor was the railroad 
bridge at La Grange damaged, while in Colorado County the 
railroad bridge across the Colorado Riyer and also one of the 
wagoia bridges across the river at Columbus were destroyed by 
this overflow. 

Storm of 1900. 

The year 1900 was full of calamities for Texas. The great 
Storm in that year that almost destroyed Galveston and visited 
other parts of this country, leaving a path of destruction behind 
it, also did some damage in Fayette County and ruined especially 
a large part of the crop in the Held. But in comparison to other 
counties, it may be said that this county was almost spared 
by it. 

The writer now mentions some minor matters and leaves it 
to the judgment of the reader to decide, if he deems them worth 
reading. But as notes of them are taken by the writer, their 
contents are here given. May the reader decide if he wants to 
be informed on these small matters or not. 


Election Precincts. 

The election precincts were constantly changed and redis- 
tricted; this was made necessary by the increase of population 
in the various parts ot the county which increase was not always 
proportionate in all parts of the county. Election precincts 
were added during the intervals of redistriction. The voting 
])recincts of the county were redistricted and their boundaries 
defined in 1877. In that year there were twenty-four election 
precincts. They were redistricted in 1880. Tiie present number 
and bDundaries of the voting precincts have been given under the 
head of Political Divisions of the County to which the reader is 
referred. (Page 73 et seq.) 

School Districts. 

Fayette County was also divided for the management of 
the schools into 32 school districts (1884). In 1893 a division of 
the county into school districts was again made. It was made 
by a committee, consisting of the county judge, county clerk 
and county treasurer and one citizen and two teachers from each 
school district. They divided the county into thirty six school 
districts. In 1895 Fayette County was placed under the district 
system with thirty-six school districts. 

Justices' Courthouses. 

In 1888 a justice's courthouse and jail was built by the 
county in Schulenburg at a cost of $800. In 1890 courthouses 
were built in all the justices' precincts. In 1898 the county gave 
to the city of Schulenburg for the building of a City Hall that 
was to be erected at a cost of $822 the sum of $150. 

Incorporation of Towns. 

It seems that in 1880 a great many citizens of Flatonia were 
tired of having their town incorporated. A petition to abolish 
the incorporation re? bed the commissioners' court. In the 
ensuing election the question of abolishing the incorporation 
was defeated. 


Incorporation carried in the town of Fayetteville at an elec- 
tion held February 8, 1882 by a vote of thirty-one for and one 
against said incorporation. The town of Fayetteville was 
declared incorporated Marcii 2, 1882. 

An election at the town of Ledbetter for incorporating it 
for school purposes, held in August 3896, resulted in a vote of 
thirty three for and three against incorporation. 

Minor Details. 

Since 18S3 it was the duty of the commissioners' court to 
appoint public weighers, and, therefore, public weigliers \v( ii; 
appiointed in accordance with law at La Grange, Schuh nl)uig, 
Flatonia, P^llinger, and. a few years later, at Fayetteville and 
West Point. 

Looking over the records we iind that in 1S02 and 181)3 there 
were also some premiums paid by the court for the scalps of 
coyotes and wildcats. 

A great many papers in the assessor's anJ collector's ollices 
which had become entirely worthless and encumbered said offices 
were burned by a committee consisting of A. Haidusek, J. B. 
Holloway, Jos. Ehlinger, R. T. Bradshaw and G. A. lleilig 

Resolution.s of Re.^pect. 

This period did not lack of some tribute of respect by ihe 
court on the death of prominent citizens. In 1887 the court 
adjourned out of respect on the death of H. Stuedemann, a 
member of the supervising committee of the poorhouse. In 
1888 the court adjourned out of respect on the death of Chas. J. 
Bradshaw, an attorney. Resolutions of respect in regard to his 
death were passed by the court, spread on the minutes, signed 
by the courthouse oflicers and published in the La Grange 
Journal and Svoboda. 

In January 1901, the court adjourned out of respect on the 
death of H. Teichmueller wJio had filled the office of District 
Judge for three terms and other offices of public trust with 
great honor. 

Companies Raised in Fayette CountV' for the 
Spanish War. 

When in 1998 war with Spain broke out, Fayette County 
again sustained her reputation of being foremost in the defense 
of her country. A large number of young men of prominent 
families volunteered their services. Three companies were 
raised in Fayette County; a fourth one which it was intended to 
raise was not accepted as Fayette County had furnished already 
mjre than her quota of men. The companies raised in Fayette 
County for this war were: Company H, 1st Texas Infantry ; 
Troop H, 1st Texas Cavalry and Troon C', 1st Texas Cavalry. 

This closes the liistory of Fayette County. Some minor 
events are purposely omitted, for the people have not yet given 
their verdict on them and though the writer's attention has been 
repeatedly called to them, he respectfully declines to blotch his 
work with partisanship. 

The reader can contemplate the development of this great 
country only with the deepest interest. Eighty years ago the 
country was a wilderness; only a few log liouses were hidden in 
the woods. Now the whole county is studded with many pros- 
perous towns and villages. The period of hardships and strug- 
gles was succeeded by a period of prosperity and comfort, ivike 
tlie Two Hundred and Fifty Dollars shanty that served as the 
first courthouse of Fayette County has given place to a more 
commodious building, this to a substantial rock building, and 
this again to an elegant structure, so the simple log huts have 
given place to frame buildings and these to elegant residences. 
The pioneer who lived chiefly by hunting was followed by the 
cattle raispr, lie again by the farmer and the latter by tlie farmer 
with improved methods. The reader who reviews the progress 
made in this county in the short period of eighty years will feel 
confident tiiat she has a great future before her. The descend- 
ants of the men who built up this county are men who success- 
fully continue the work of their fathers. 

The grand old county of Fayette has taken a prominent 
part in the fights for independence against Mexico. More than 


once her sons were leaders in thes« fights, evincing their love of 
liberty and their spirit of independence. But not only on the 
field of battle, in the arena of politics, she has manifested 
the same love of liberty. Since the early times she has been a 
bulwark for the doctrines of Thomas Jefferson, a stronghold for 
the doctrines of local self-government and personal rights, the 
foundation principles of democracy. Reviewing the prosperity 
she has achieved by following these doctrmes, she has come 
forth more than once under able leaders as their defender. If 
ever a county was proof of what prosperity might be achieved 
under these democratic fundamental principles of local self- 
government and personal rights, she is the county. True as she 
always has been to these principles, there is no doubt that when 
another attack is made on them in the future she will rush to 
their defense under able leaders. 



The writer here gives several documents for which he could not 
find a proper place in this history. They are self -explanatory and 
give a valuable key to the character of the timei in which they were 


REruBLic OF Texas versus Inconsistent Legislative Acts. 

The following is tiie document referred to on page 97. 

Republic of Texas versus Inconsistent Legislative Acts. 
Prosecutors : Grand Jury of Fayette County. 
Witnesses : Grand Jury. 
We the Grand Jury find a true bill. * 

William Brookfield, Foreman. 
Filed October 25th, 1839. 

J. B. Alexander, 

Clerk D. C. F. C. 

Republic of Texas, Public weal 

County of Fayette. versus 

Inconsistent Legislative Acts. 
We the Grand Jury being about to end the business as 
respects the County of Fayette specially, are conscious of noth- 
ing more which we are bound to do, as it regards ourselves ; 
but we do feel it to be incumbent on us to present before the 
tribunal of enlightened public opinion the inconsistency of some 
of the acts passed since Nov. 1838 up to Dec. 1838. Viz, — the 
= 'Bargain and Sale" of the Island of Galveston to M. Menard for 
50,0U0 dollars! For, of a truth, said Island of Galveston either 
belonged to the "Republic of Texas," or it belonged to Mr. 
Menard : if it of right belonged to the former, the "bargain and 
sale" to M. Menard was indeed a bargain by which this Govern- 
ment chiselled itsejf out of $2,000,000 minus $50,000 ! If it 
were a vested right m Michael Menard, then this Government 
in chiselling Michael Menard out of $50,000 violated that sacred 
instrument by which, and on which all legislative acts are, or 
ought to be, graduated ! again, — the temporary location of the 
seat of Government at Houston, to promote individyal interest, 

— I7t5- 

and this too without any regard to Public good, by wnich the 
Republic has lost from half a million to one million of dollars, 
Aq^ain, the exercise of a veto, to prevent the permanent location 
of the seat of Government at LaGrange, as it might seem, only 
to afford the j)roprietors of the City of Samuel the First, and 
some of his friends suflicient time to sell their unsold lots ! 
Admirable and Sublime P]xercise ! and also the creation of a 
Tariff in Texas ! An act, vvhicli, for principle, is unparalleled 
in the records of Legislations from the birth of "old Time" him- 
self down to the present day ! Most assuredly it is not to be 
justified by example from the British tariff statutes, for these 
liad for their object to prohibit the introduction of manufactured 
fabrics for clothing from the continent. This object only can 
be inferred from the .i»igh duties imposed. Again, — imme- 
diately after the commencement of the late war between the U. 
States and Great Britain all commerce ceased. In this condi- 
tion of the nation the army and people must be clothed. And 
how accomplish this great object? there was but one way, and 
this was taken by capitalists, the Patriotic Capitalists of the 
land. Tliey, with full confidence in the justice of the cause in 
which they were engage*d, and also in the integrity and good 
faith of their Government, hesitated not to advance their all in 
manufacturing establishments : And most of them, if not all, 
were in the flood tide of success, when peace was made in 1815. 
At this time commerce revived, and the United States were im- 
mediately inundated with European maij-jfactures at prices 
so low as to ruin the American Manufacturer provided he 
was not shielded by Government protectiori. And that shield 
was a Tarifl'. Where then is the parallel? None! 

We say "for principle." Let us examine and we shall see 
that th3 proprietors of vast landed estates are made to pay a 
direct tax of only one-half per cent ad vaUjrem on these estates 
towards the support of government. And the person who owns 
but one-fourth of a sitio paV^ 'the same; ami the whole amount 
so produced falls far sliort of the required stnai. To supply this 
deficiency it was deemed expedient to levy an indirect tax or 
tariff. Now is it presumable that members'of Congress did not 
know that such a tax could not be made to operate on all the 



good people of Texas? Dirt not the idea of the utter impossi- 
hility of enforcing a due collection of tariff duties, in Eastern 
Texas, once occur to their minds when this act was passed? If 
not, it is truly surprising. Did they not know that this section 
is bounded by from 6 to 800 miles of the Red and Sabine rivers? 
Did they not know that Southern and Western Texas bore the 
burthen of invasion and war, and consequently stood in need of 
almost everything to be imported, and this, too, by vessels 
entering port, when there could be no evasion by smuggling? If 
these things were not then' known, we are truly sensible that 
they] are now known ! And we do believe that our next 
congress will consider this matier away. Now, to con- 
clude, suppose "the powers that were" prompted by different 
notions of legislation, had sold the Island of Galveston for One 
and a Half Million of Dollars, the temporary location of the 
government seat for three years, by Government, reckoned at 
the least half a million, the permanent location of the seat of 
government at La Grange One Million; and only one kind of tax 
and that a direct one of one percent ad valorem for 3 years, (and 
no tariff) government would have received between 3 and i 
millions of dollars with which the public debt could have been 
wholly paid; and, consequently our "currency" would have 
been at par, and no need of a "'Five Million"' loan, 

JSow in coming to a final close we feel it our duty to tender 
to his Hon. Judge Mills our cordial thanks for the very prompt 
able and faithful discharge of his judicial duties, only regretting 
that we could not haye been benefited by his attendance on the 
first and second days of our Court term. We add further that 
the solicitor is entitled to our very high regard for the true and 
able discharge of his duties. 

Wm. Brojkfip:ld, Foreman, 

Grand Jury Room Fayette County, Oct, 25th, 1831). 

— ITS— 

Affidavit of District Attorney Thomas Johnson to procure 
warrant to arrest James S. Mayfield and Edmund Burleson on 
the charge of fighting a duel. 

This document gives an insight into the lighting spirit of 
the early times when people very often on slight provocation 
engaged in deadly duels. The peace otficers were not always 
successful in preventing them. 

The Republic of Texas. ^ To the Hon. R. E. B. Baylor, Judge 

V of the Third Judicial District of 
Fayette County, Texas. ) the Republic of Texas. 

Thomas Johnson, District Attorney Third Judicial District 
of the Republic of Texas, states on oatli that he has just and 
probable grounds to suspect and verily does suspect and believe 
that James S. Mayfield of the county of Fayette and Edward 
Burleson of the county of Bastrop'are about to engage in a duel 
which duel he is informed and believes is to be fought in the 
county of Fayette within a few days. 

Therefore he prays Your Honor to issue the necessary 
warrants to take the bodies of the said James S. Mayfield and 
Edward Burleson so as ^to have them before ynu forthwith to 
answer the above charge and to be dealt with according to law. 

Thomas Johnson, Dist. Alt'y 

3rd Jud. Dis. R. T. 

The Republic of Texas, ) 
Fayette County, Texas. J 

This day personally appeared before the undersigned 
authority Thomas Johnson, Dis. Att'y Third Jud. Dis. R. Texas, 
and made oath that the matter and tilings set forth in the above 
petition as far as within his own kn.iwledge are true ; those 
derived from the information of others he believes to be true. 

Thomas Johnson, Dist. Att'y 

3rd Jud. Dist. Republic of Texas. 
Sworn to and subscribed before me this the 25tli day of 
September, A D. 184q. 

R. E. B, Baylor, 

Judge D, 



. 'I 
Administrator's Bond of N. W. Eastland on thk Estate of 

Nicholas M. Dawson. 

Republic of Texas, | 
County of Fayette. ) 

Know all men by these presents that we, Nicholas VV. East- 
land as principal, .James S. Lester, Aaron A, Gardiner as 
securities are held and bound unto II, E. B. Baylor, Judge of 
the Third Judicial District and his successors in office in penal 
sum of Fourteen Hundred Dollars for the payment of which we 
bind ourselves and each of us and each of our heirs, our execu- 
tors and administrators firmly by these presents signed with our 
hands and sealed with our seals this Twenty-seventh day of 
February, A. D. One thousand eight hundred and forty-three. 

The condition of the above obligation is such that whereas 
the above bound Nicholas VV. Eastland has been duly appointed 
Administrator of the Estate of Nicholas M. Dawson, Now if the 
said Nicholas W. Eastland shall well and truly- perform all the 
dutie? that may be required of nim as such administrator, then, 
the above obligation to be null and void, otherwise to remain in 
full force and virtue. 

Signed, sealed and delivered-the day and date above written. 

N. W. Eastland. 
J. S. Lkster. 
Approved: A. A. Gardiner.- 

R. E. B. Baylor, 
Judge etc. 

N. W. Eastland, Bond as Administrator on the Estate of 
N.M.Dawson. Filed Feby 27th. 1843. Attest: James P. 
Longley, Clk D. C. F. Co. 

'•D " 
List of Freeholders in Fayette County DuRiN(i the Time 

OF the Republic of Texas. 
i"T The following list of Freeholders>f Fayette County during 
the time of the Republic of Texas was« found by the writer iu 


the district clerk's office. He cannot say whether it was an 
official list or a list compiled by some officer of the court for his 
private use. The copy is exact and follows the original even in 
the mistakes made in the spelling of names. 

Republic of Texas, 
County of Fayette. 

Aaron A. Gardiner. 
Robert Sellers, sen. 
James Green. 
Vincent L. Evans. 
Lyman M. Stewart. 
James xMorrow. 
Alfred Morrow. 
James Hodges. 
John O'Bar. 
James A. Wits. 
Socrates Darling. 
Richard L. Breeding. 
Richard Breeding, sr. 
Napoleon B. Breeding. 
David Breeding. 
John Engram. 
James S. Lester. 
John H. Moore. 
William Lewis. 
Jasper A. Sargeant. 
Henry Manton. 
Michael R. Goheen. 
Charles Dancy. 
William A. Farris. 
John Dancy. 
Aaron Monroe. 
William Thompson. 


Robert Hellers. 


George Lyon. 
Sam'l Fitzgerald. 


Hezekiah Smith. 

i Wall ace. 



List of Freeholders. 

David Berry. 
George W. Speer. 
Thomas Thompson. 
John Y. Cryswell. 
Lee Cottle, 
Zadok Woods. 
Norman Woods. 
Montville Woods. 
Gonzalvo Woods. 
Jesse Burnam. 
William Townsend. 
Jesse Cliff't. 
Joel W. Robison. 
James Caldwell. 
James Stephens. 
Joseph Beagle. 
Christian Westner. 
Leroy Cryswell. 
James Ragsdale. 
Redden Andrews. 
Nicholas W. Eastland. 
William Eastland. 
William Fitzgerald. 
Jesse Sannehill. 
Michael Andrews. 
B. W. Hopson. 


Wm. Primm. 
Henry Earthman. 
John Rabb. 
John Crownover. 
Neither Crownover. 
John A. Fox. 



George W. Brazil. 


" E." 

List of Persons Who Paid Occupation Tax in Fayette 
County in 1838-39. 
Nothing will show the reader the development of this great 
county more clearly than a glance at the list of persons who 
were engaged in business and paid a license tax during the years 
of 1838-9 and 1840-41. To him who knows the large extent of 
this county, this list sliows how sparsely settled the county was 
at that time. It speaks to him who combines tiie list of names 
with the size of the county, to some extent, of the condition of 
the country and not that alone, it sjjeaks to him also of the 
habits and the manners of those times, how far the people had 
to travel to get their necessaries from a store, how secluded they 
lived, how seldom they saw each other, how, for that reason, a 
visitor was welcomed with the greatest cordiality, etc. 

Republic of Texas, ] District Court, 
County of Fayette. J Fall Term, 1839. 

To the Grand Jury, Greet. — 

I furnish you with the following list of all persons comply- 
ing with the^reveuue lawb living in said County of Fayette : 

April. Lester & Eastland, Merchants. 

Jerome B. Alexander, Liquor, etc. 

Gerret E. Boern, Liquor and Merchant. 

Hugh Trenoo, Peddler. 

J. C. Ragsdale, Merchant. 
May 1. McGovern & Houston, Merchants. 
June. S. Toland & Co., " 

Isaac McGary, Liquors and Merchant. 
August. G. Sanders, " " " 

J. &L. Cronkright" " " 

Griffin & Galaspie " " 


April. Reddin Andrews, Tavern and Liquors. 
Asahel Savery, 
W. Thompson, Merchant. 


Wen. Fitzgerald, Tavern. 

Lester & Eastland, Merchants. 

F. Chenalt, Tavern. 
.July. J. VV. Posten, Peddler. ^ 

J. & J. Shaw, Merchants. 

Ct. Suider, Merchant. 
August, Asa Hill, Tavern. 

Andrews J. Ivy, Liquors. 

Lee M. Gray, Liquors. 

CI.'G. Blackwell, Merchant. 
June. Lester & Eastland, Liquors. 

The foregoing list I certify to be a true copy of memoran- 
dum and account curi-ent kei)t in this office for the government. 

Given under my hand and seal in La Grange this 24tli ot 
October, 1839. 


Clerk CD. 


List of Persons to Whom Lk^ensks Were Issued in 1840-41. 

Date of Receipt. To whom issued. ' For what purpose. 


Nov. 5. 

Sam Crawford, 


" 6. 

Frede & GoUrad, 


11 11 

Retailers of spirituous 
liquors in quantities of 
a quart & upwards. 

" 13. 

Warren I. Hill, 


Dec. 11. 

V.,V. Poinsett, L 

Wines & spirituous liq- 

Manford & L. S. 

ors in quantities of a 


quart & upwards. 




( t 



. 18. 

( ( 









N. VV. Faison, Retailer of wines S: .spir- 

ituous li((uor8 by the 
drink, etc. 
Jesse liurnam, Merchant. 

Charles Howard, Peddler. 

Martin & Stubblefield, 
Jos Angalo & Ant Rnoz, " 
Robt. S. Alwfy, Merchant. 

James Patrick, Peddler. 

" 7; Richard A. Magee, Merchant. 

" " Wines & spirituous liq- 

uors in quantities of a 
quart & upwards. 
May 8. John H Harry, Peddler. 

June 30. Henry Caselaine, " 

July 8. Patrick Mackin, " 

Aug, 20, G. Schneider, Merchant. 

" Wines & spirituous liq- 

uors in quantities of a 
quart & upward. 
Sept. 18. Enoch Jones, " Peddler. 

Oct. 20. Jesse Burnnam, Tavern. 

Nov. G. Frede & Honsman, Merchants. 

" 10. Lyman M. Stewart, Peddler. 

" 12. John I Jacobs, Merchant. 

I do hereby certify the foregoing to be a true transcript of 
the names of the persons to whom Licenses have been issued 
since the 31st of October, 1840, up to this date. 

Given under my hand and seal of office at La Grange this 
15th day of Nov. 1841. 

[sKAL.] Jerome B. Alexaander, 

Deputy Clerk C. C. F. County. 

Endorsement: Names of persons who have obtained Licenses 
in Fayette County since the olst of October. 1841. For the 
Grand Jury Fall Term of the District Court 1841. 


An Agreenent. 

A document that breaks very pleasantly the monotony of 
recorded mortgages and bills of sales is the following : — 

The State of Texas, ) 
County of Fayette, j 

Know all men by these presents that we the undersigned 
subscribers do hereby contract and agree that the first one of us 
who shall engage himself to be married will furnish to T. Q. 
Mulliu, T. T. Alexander, Wm. M. Lewis, Wm. S. Robson R. S. 
Homuth, F. C. StreithofF, John VVertz, Sam Alexander, J. E. 
Rogers, J. B. HoUoway and L. S. Wallace two baskets of cham- 
))agne and cigars in sufficient number, in the District Clerk's 
office within two days after said engagement has been made 

Given under our hands and scrolls this the 18th day of Jan- 
uary, A. D. 1875. 

F. C. StreithoflF. 
R. S. Hormuth. 
Wm. M. Lewis. 
J, E. Rogers. 
Jno. B. Holloway. 
Jno. Wertz, Jr. 
S. Alexander, Jr. 

Properly acknowledged, filed and recorded January 21, 
1875, in Record of Mortgages and Bills of Sale, Fayette County. 
Book A., pp. 473 and 474. 

The lucky one who became engaged first and had to propi- 
tiate the envy of his comrades was Mr. Jno. B, Holloway. The 
day was celebrated in good fashion. Champagne could not be 
obtained in LaGrange ; therefore, other wines were chosen. The 
occasion was celebrated in Schulze's cellar in which his friends 
and their friends had assembled and which became the scene of 
joy and merriment. The sober cashier of the First National 
Bank at LaGrange was young once, too. 


'H/ = 

List of County Officers 
Since the Organization of the County in 1838. 
In compiling a complete and correct list of the county offi- 
cers since the organization of the county in 1888, the Official 
Bonds of said officers filed in the county clerk's otfice, the Min- 
utes of the Proceedings of the Commissioners' Court of Fayette 
County so far as they treat of the approval of said bonds and the 
Record of Election Returns have been used. The official bonds 
are not complete, a great many bonds of the county otlicers are 
missing, neither are tlie Minutes of the Commissioners' Court 
complete on that subject; the Record of Election Returns before 
1848 is missing ; may be a record thereof was never kept; and 
since that time, leaves of same are missing ; at times the office 
for which the several candidates ran lias not been named. Fre- 
quently the election records are not dated ; sometimes the ofRce 
for the performance of the duties of which bonds have been 
given is not named therein as, for instance, in the bond of Dis- 
trict Clerk T. T. Alexander the office to which he was elected 
was not named. Official writings were astonisliingly simple in 
those old times. The tollou^mgis a bid of one Wm. Nabors to 
assess the taxes of Fayette County in 1889 : "I propose to assesa 
the Taxes for Fa3^ette County for the Sum of One Hundred Dol- 
lars. \Vm. iS'abors." Not dated. Official business was conducted 
in an accomraodating way, the bond of sheriff McAhron who was 
elected July 13, 1846, was not filed before January 14, 1848, in 
the county clerk's office. The bonds were generally written out 
in full ; for a great many years the bond of assessor W. B. Mc- 
Clellan remamed the only one written on a printed blank. 
Ihus, all three of these records are very incomplete, but by 
using all three of them a nearly correct list of county officers 
may be compiled. 

The old records are yellowed by age and dusty, they are 
buried and stowed away in out of-the-way corners of the vault, 
dead as the people wlio wrote them, shoved away and forgotten 
like them, still, they bring back the old times when the early 
settlers of Fayette County were living beings, they speak of their 


fears and hopes, of their plans and ambitions. Now a new gen- 
eration has taken their place, new in every respect ; the descend- 
ants of the early settlers have mostly moved away to other parts 
of the state, and now the very names of the old settlers are hardly 
ever heard in the county. The reader, looking over the official 
bonds, will find two of them besmeared with blood ; an emphatic 
reminder that the men of the past were living beings of flesh and 
blood. Did a tragedy happen? Most likely not; for long afU-r 
the filing of their bonds they were acting again in an official 
capacity ; probably, nose bleeding. 

The size of this book prohibits to give of these county offi- 
cers more than their names ; space prohibits to represent them 
in flesh and blood, but people who knew them might recall their 
life pictures, their hopes and ambitions and reflect over their 
dead friends. 

After the close of the Confederate War in 1865 a great many 
county officers were appointed by A. J. Hamilton, Provisional 
Governor of Texas. From this time on (1866) the bonds of the 
county officers all bore U. S. internal revenue stamps to the 
amount of $1.05 and upwards. This lasted to the year 1873. The 
internal revenue stamps were called U. S. Exchange. During 
this period county officers were appointed and removed by mili- 
tary orders of Major General J. J. Reynolds. Resignations had 
to be mailed through the county judge to the post commandant 
at Brenham. During 1872 and several years thereafter the 
county was under the cattle inspection law ; the cattle inspectors 
were appointed by the Governor ; the first one appointed in 
Fayette County was R. J. Carr. 

County Judge's Office. 
It appears that in early times county judges were not re- 
quired to give bonds. The first bond given by the county 
judge that is on record was the one given by Reinhardt Hille- 
brandt in the year I860. It was the duty of county judges in 
conjunction with the commissioners to approve bonds, and from 
the signatures of the county judges on these approved bonds, a 
list of them may be compiled. Up to the year 1866 the conuty 
judge was called chief justice of the county ; in the latter part of 


the 60's the terms presiding justice and county judge were used 
promiscuously ; since 1876 the term county judge is only used. 

County Judges. 

1838 A. Rabb. 
1838-44 N. W. Eastland. 
1844-48 J. S. Lester. 
1848-50 J. li. McFarland. 
1850 N. Ro bison. 
1850-55 Jno. C. Cabaniss. 

1854 Jno. \V. Chandler. 

1855 Jno. McHandun. 
1855-56 L. S. Munger. 
1856-58 Chas. S. Longcope. 
1858-62 J. B. McFarland. 
1862-66 Wm. J. Russel. 

1866 VV. B. Price. 
1866-69 J. C. Stichl. 

1869 Reinhardt Hillebrandt. 
1869-70 H. Teichmueller. 

1870 Wm. Lewis. 
1870-74 P. Y. McAshan. 
1874-76 Isaac Sellers. 
1876-84 John C. Stichl. 
1884-90 A. Haidusek. 
1890-96 W. S. Robson. 
1896-to present time, Jos. 


County Clerks, 

Like the county judges, the county clerks were not requir- 
ed to give bonds in early times ; most of their bonds are on 
record since 1876. In this office there have been deputies at as 
early a date as 1841. The first deputy county clerk on record 
was S. B. Alexander. 

1885 1. S. Sister. 
1838-44 D. S. Kornegay. 
1844-46 Jas. P. Hudson. 
1846-54 N. W. Faison. 
1854-66 Z. M. P. French. 
1866-(;9 N. C. Joiner. 

1869-76 S. L. Smith. 
1876-82 Thos. Q. Mullin. 
1882-90 Jos. Ehlinger. 
1890-92 Jno. T. Rankin. 
1892 J. P. Ehlinger (appointed) 
1892 to Pres. Time, R. Klatt. 

County Attorneys. 

This office was established in 1876. Before that time tlie 
county throu2[h the commissioners' court chose and employed 
lawyers in certain cases at stipulated rates. In 1858 the com- 
missioners' court appointed, on the petition of many citizens, 
'Fred Tate as county attorney for the prosecution of criminals. 
But this office was abolished again the following year. 


1876-78 R. H. Phelps. 
1878-80 L. Lindsay. 
18SO-81 B. D. Shropshire. 
1881-86 J. W. Hill. 
1886-90 Geo. VVillrioh. 

1890-92 C. E. Lane. 
1892-94 J. F. Wolters. 
1894-00 Percy Faison. 
1900 Pres. time Sam C. Lowrey 


Up to 1847 the sheriff' of the county was also at the same time 
tax collector; since that time the collector's office was connected 
with the assessor's office. In the early 70's these two offices of 
collector and sherifi' were again connected. Since 1876 each of 
these offices is kept separate. 


VVm. Nabors. 
1854-45 John W. McKissick. 
1845-46 A. A. Gardiner. 
1846-48 William McAhron. 
1848-49 Dave Grady.* 
1849-52 Lovick D. Webb.* 
1852-55 Jeremiah Moore.* 
1855 J. A. Fitz.t 
1855-57 S. Alexander Iriwn. 
1858-60 J. A. Fitz. 
1860-61 Albert T. Smith. 
1861-63 Wm, M. Davidson. t 
1863 64 James I. Patton. 

1864-65 L. P. Webb. 
1865-66 John L. Smith. 
1866-67 Thos. W. Smith. 
1867 T. P. Hood. 
1867 N. B. Ferguson. 
1868-73 A. T. Smith. 
1873-67 Louis Jost. 
1876-80 U. Rabb. 
1880-82 Nat. C. Rives. 
1882-86 Jno. T. Rankin. 
1886 Wm. A. Rankin. 
1884-94 B. L. Zapp. 
1895 to Pres. time-Aug Loessin. 

Notes — *Dave Grady, Lovick D. Webb and Jeremiah Moore died 
during their term of office. 

tJ. A. Fitz, appointed by District Judge Jno. Hancock. 
+ Wm. M. Davidson, resigned during his term of office. 

County Teeasurp:rs. 

Since 1855 the county treasurer gave also bond for the 
school fund of the county of which he took charge as county 
treasurer in provision with "An Act to establish a System of 
Schools, appr. Jan 31, 1854." Bonds for school funds and 
county funds had to be given separately. 


1838-40 1856-58 Edmund V. McAshan. 

1840-43 Jerome B. Alexander. 1858 Sam M. McAshan. 

1843 James P. Longley. 1858-64 R. S. Carter. 

1843 VV. B. Meriwether. 1864-65 B. B. Hudnall. 

1844-45 G. W. Sinks. 1865-66 R. P. Decherd. 

1845-51 A. L. Vail. 1866-74 A. L. I). Moore. 

1851-52 J. B. McFarland. 1874 to pres. time. R. T. Brad- 
1852-56-B. B. Hudnall. shaw. 

County Assessors. 

From 1847 to 1870 the office of assessor was connected 
with the office of collector, in the year 1847 Assessor J. 
W. McKissick was appointed to take the census of the 
county, the first census taken of Fayette County. In 1858 
Assessor N. B. Yancy had to giye bond to take the census of 
Fayette County correctly in accordance with an Act ap])roved 
January 18, 1858, entitled "An Act to provide for an enumera- 
tion of the inhabitants of the State of Texas for the year 1858." 
1838-39 Michael R. Gohen. 1865-66 \Vm. Lewis, Sr. ' 
1839-40 Wm. Nabors. 1866 69 R. J. Goode. 

1840-46 S. S. B, Fields. 1869 Henry Renick. 

1846-49 J. VV. McKissick. 1869-76 Reinhardt Hillebrandt. 

1849-54 \V. B. McClellan. 1876-80 VV. S. Kobson. 

1854-56 J. C. Stribbling. 1880-82 U. Rabb. 

1856-60 Napoleon B. Yancy. 1892-96 G. A. Heilig. 
1860-65 Jno. C. Cabaniss. 1896 to pres. time. C. H. Stein- 

man n. 
Tax Colleotors. 

This office was connected till 1847 with the sheriff's office, 
then up to 1870 with the assessor's office, then to 187(5 again 
with the sheriff's office and since 1876 it is established separately. 
1876 82 J. R, Scates. 1882 to pres.time. Neal Robison. 

County Suiiveyors. 

1838-42 D. Green. 1877-86 Richard A. Doss. 

1842-44 James P. Hudson. 1886-88 R. Koper. 

1844-48 VV. Lindsay. 1888-90 E. R. Vogt. 

1848-52 Z. M. P. French. 1890-96 Wm. Menefee. 

1852 J. B. Armstrong. 1896-98 J. D. Romberg. 

1873-76 Richard A. Doss. 1898-1900 Theo. Dieckert. 

1876-77 Homer B. Hill. 1900 to pres. time. E. R. Vogt. 


County School Superintendents. 

There was an office of county superintendent also during 
some time of the era of reconstruction. This office was abol- 
ished in 1876. The last superintendent of that period was 
Fred Seydler. His books were found correct. At his departure 
from tiiis office, he was commended by the court for faithful 
performance of duty and furnished with a copy of this order. 
The office of county school superintendent was again created by 
the commissioners' court in 1895. In 1898 the question, if the 
county superintendent's office should be abolished was submitted 
at the general election to the vote of the people. They decided 
for the continuance of this office. 

1894 96 E. Heimann. 1998 to pves. time. G. A. Stifr- 

1896-98 J. H. O'Bar. ling. 

District Clerks. 

1838-42 1865-66 \Vm. B. McClellan. 

1842-46 James P. Longley. 1966 Theo. Carter. 

1846 M. H. Sellers. 1867 Elijah Hanbrough. 

1846-47 James S. Woolley. 1873-76 T. T. Alexander.* 

1847-54 Theodore Carter. 1776-94 Jno. B, HoUoway. 

1854-65 R. S. Carter. 1894-98 C. L, Neese. 

1858-65 Theo. Carter. 1898 to pres. time. J. E. Baker. 

Note. — *T. T. Alexander who was again elected to office in 1876 
did not qualify and district judge L. H. Moore appointed J. B. HoUo- 

— 191— 


Joseph Echols Baker. 

Joseph Echols Baker, the district clerk of Fayette County, 
belongs to some of the oldest families of the United States. 
His ancestors on both sides, on his father's side as well as on 
his mother's side were in America already "in good old Colony 
Times." His ancestry on both sides were patriots and the male 
part distinguished themselves on the fields of battle, sometimes 
as "'rebels," but always in the right. J. E. Baker, their son, 
proved himself worthy of his ancestry. He served during the 
entire war in the confederate army, and after the close of the 
war, he was denied for years the right of suffrage on account of his 
war record. But he remained faithful to his convictions. His 
reward came too. After the overthrow of the carpet-bag govern- 
ment, the wliite people rewarded his sterling worth and elected 
him to ofEce. He has served tiie people in some public capaci- 
ty for the last thirty years, principally as justice of the peace 
and city secretary of La Grange. He has been deputy district 
clerk since the adoption of the constitution in 187(). He was 
elected district clerk in 1898 in which office he, on account of 
his long experience, served the people with great ability. 

His parents were Leonard and Lamira (Garner) Baker; his 
father was a native of Virginia; his mother, a native of Tenn- 
essee. Joseph Echols, their son, was born May 9, 1845, in 
Nashville, Tenn. After the war he came to Texas. In October 
he married Miss Patti Davidson of the Davidson— Caldwell 
family who has resided in Texas over fifty years. They came 
from Bedford County, Tennessee, and still further back from 
"Quid Ireland." The children of Mr. and Mrs. Baker are: 
Mrs. Jose])hine Thompson, Lieut. Leonard Baker, U. S. A., and 
Miss Tibbie Hay Baker. 


Sam C. Lowrey. 

A proof that the people of Fayette County welcome a new- 
comer, provided he is of the right kind, gives the career of the 
subject of this sketch, Sam C. Lowrey. He came to this county 

in 1896, and four years 
later he was popular enougli 
to be elected by the peo- 
ple as county attorney by 
a very fine vote. 

Sam C. Lowrey is a na- 
tive of the state famous for 
fair women, good whiskey 
and fine horses. He was 
born August 26, 1868, in 
Troy, Woodford County, 
Kentucky, right in the 
heart of the blue grass re- 
gion. His parents are Dr. 
John C. Lowrey and Jane 
Guyer Lowrey. He was 
educated at the Central 
University of Richmond, 
Ky. , and received the de- 
gree of A. B. of that institution in June, 1892. He then entered 
the Washington and Lee University of Lexington, Va., graduated 
in law in June, 1895, and received his diploma as L.L.B. He 
was admitted in Lexington, Va., to the bar of Virginia in 1895 and 
in Nicholsville, Ky., to the bar of Kentucky in 1896. During the 
same year he came to Texas. He first struck LaGrange, and as 
he liked the place, he did not look out for a second location, but 
located right here. He opened a law office and practised law. 
In April, 1899, he was elected city attorney of LaGrange. April 
15, 1899, he was married to Miss Carrie McKinney of this city. 
Li 1900 he was elected to the office of county attorney. 

The people did not misplace their confidence. He has prov- 
en an efficient and faithful officer and thereby increased consider- 
ably the number of his friends. 


Sam C. Lowrey, 


RuD, Klatt. 

All the people who have had business in the county clerk's 
office speak in words of high recommendation of the efficiency 
and accommodation of its popular occupant. Rud. Klatt has 
held this office for five terms and during that time has constantly 
increased his reputation for accuracy, carefulness and faithful- 
fulness. The duties of a county clerk are various, very arduous 
and require great ability. An inexperienced man might create 
in that office a world of con- 
fusion. The people are gen- 
erally glad, if they have elected 
to that office an efficient man. 
If he has proven efficient, if 
he is accommodating and un- 
assuming as the present 
incumbent, he becomes so 
solid with the people that an 
opponent does not offer to run 
against him, he very rightly 
])resuming the verdict of the 
])enple to be in the incum- 
bent's favor. The career of 
Rud. Klatt has not always 
been without its thorns and 
reverses. At the youthful age 
i)f six years he lost his fatiier. 
at the age of nine, his mother. 
An older sister took care of 
him. Later he had the mis- 
fortune to lose his left arm in a cornshucker and sheller. Rut we 
always find him undaunted at his post of duty, doing his duty 
toward himself and his fellow-citizens. 

The parents of Rud. Klatt were Andreas and Anna Klatt, 
nee Krause. They were farmers in the county of Wongrovie, 
l)rovince of Posen, Germany. Rudolph was born there July 12, 
1858 and came with his parents to the United States in 185G. 
They settled at Welcome, Austin County, Texas. His fatlier 

Rud. Klatt. 

—194 — 

died when Rudolph was only six, his mother, when he was nine 
j^ears old. Thus, he was left an orphan in a hard world. His 
older sister took care of hini. He was educated at private 
schools in Berlin, Washington County, and High Hill, B'ayette 
County. All his spare time he emyloyed in getting a better 
education, studying by himself. He farmed till the age of 
tvvent3'-one years. He than clerked for Roos Bros., Brenham, 
Texas, for one year. We next hear of him as manager of the 
cotton gin and oil mill at High Hill. Here he lost his jeft arm. 
After farming in the year 1879, he passed his teacher's exami- 
nation in the fall of that year, and followed the profession of 
teaching for a period of thirteen years. From 1879 to 1881 he 
taught at Sedan, from 1881 to 1S85, at Middle Creek, from 1885 
to 1887 at the La Grange High School, from 1887 to 1892 at 
Koundtop. He was recognized ns an able and efficient teacher 
throughout the county and served from 1885 to 1890 on the 
board of examiners. 

He was married in 1875 to Miss Marie Hillje of High Hill. 
His children are Miss Selma, at home; Arthur, assistant mana- 
ger of the Weimar Oil works; Paul, rice farmer and manager of 
a large rice farm near Lane City, Wharton County; Hedwig and 
Annie, at home. 

August Loessin. 

There is no man in the county who is liked better by part 
of the population of this county and feared and hated more by 
the other part than August Loessin. The law-abiding citizens 
look with with confidence and pride upon him, the lawless 
element gives him a wide berth and prefers very much not to 
be in his august presence. Not that he is not a sociable, unas- 
suming gentleman, but the criminally disposed have every 
reason to shun him. As sheriff of the county he has made a 
record for fearlessness and energy not surpassed anywhere in 
Texas. Numerous are the instances where he has arrested 
criminals who had escaped the clutches of the law; very often 
he reached into his own pocket to effect their arrest in order that 
the people might be protected in their lives and properties. It 


is largely due to his efforts that this county enjoys a reputation 
for law and order hardly equaled anywhere in the state. 

August Loessin was born February 19, 1853, in Prussia and 
came with his parents, Fritz Loessin and Frederike Loessin, nee 
Ramthun, when he was only three weeks old, to the United 
States. The healthy sea-breeze was no doubt favorable to the 
development of his strength. He is now considered one of the 
strongest men in the county. His parents first settled near 
Fayetteville and in 1865 they 
moved to Black Jack Springs. 
Here his fatiier died in 1809; 
his mother is still living on 
the old homestead. 

August Loessin was edu- 
cated in the private and public 
schools at Faj-etteville and 
Black Jack Springs. Up to 
1882 he farmed at Black Jack 
and Swiss Alp. In 1875 he 
married Miss Louise Stege- 
mann at the latter place. In 
1882 he went into the mercan- 
tile business at Cedar in which 
he was engaged till 1894. In 
that year he was elected sher- 
iff. Since tliat time he has 
lilled this office to llie general 
satisfaction of the people. august loessin. 

In his arduous duties as sheriff he is very ably and faithfully 
assisted by his two brothers, Willie and Hermann Loessin. 

K. T. Bradshav^'. 

If a name has ever been popular in the county, if a name has 
ever been mentioned with words of praise and respect, if a name 
has ever stood as the emblem of faithfulness and honesty, it is 
the name of the treasurer of Fayette County, R. T. Bradshaw. 

— 1^)0— 

For nearly thirty years he has been at the head of the financial 
department of the county, the best proof of the implicit confi- 
dence the people place m his honesty and reliability. If a 
stranger should meet this unassuming gentleman, he most likely 
would take him for a substantial, well-to-do farmer. The fact 
that his success has not affected in the least his modest, unas- 
suming manners, that he is still the quiet, friendly gentleman he 
used to be in days gone by, that he is still the faithful friend 
and servant of the people thoroughly identified with their in- 
terests, taking a sympathetic share in their joys and sorrows 
has given him a hold on tlieir affection so that they look upon 

him rather as an aged relative 
than as the treasurer of this 
county. Thus, ''Uncle Bob" 
in Fayette County means R. 
T. Brads haw. 

Mr. R. T. Bradshavv was 
born November 6, 1839, in 
Bedford County, Tennessee. 
His parents were Amsi and 
Hannah Bradshaw ; the form- 
er, a Presbyterian minister. In 
1857 the family moved from 
Bedford County, Tennessee, 
to LaGrange. Here his par- 
ents remained till their death. 
Mr. R. T. Bradshaw started 
in the general merchandise 
business in LaGrange in the 
year 1859. Three years later 

he entered a cavalry regiment 
R. T. Bradshaw. , , • , i • 

and served as a private during 
the Civil War. After the close of the war he returned to La 
Grange, clerked there for Carter, Webb & Co., then for Capt. S. 
Alexander and later for White & Bradshaw. He was elected 
county treasurer in 1872. but the former incumbent of the office 
making a contest, it was as late as February 11, 1874, before he 
qualitied and assumed charge of the office, This office he has 


filled to such satisfaction to the people that he has been elected 
generally without any opposition, opposing candidates oiiering 
themselves only at great intervals not for election, but only for 

jMr. R. T. Bradshaw was married in August, 1860 to Miss 
Anna L. Cook of Fayette County. To their union were born 
three children: Anna, wife of Mr. lilackstone White of I^a 
Grange ; Amsi Bradshaw, farmer in Wharton County ; Miss 
Mabel, attending school at Dallas. 

C. H. Stein MANN. 

The following is a sketch of the popular and efficient as- 
sessor of this county, C. H. Steinmann. He is a native Fayette 
County boy and by his affable 
and gentlemanly manners has 
acijuired a wide-spread [)opu- 
larity in the county of his 
birth. On account of this pop- 
ularity he was elected asses- 
sor of the county at the youth- 
ful age of twenty-three years. 
His devotion to his work, his 
faithful performance of the 
duties of his office have met 
with the general approval of 
the people ; and, therefore, 
the number of his friends has 
considerably increased. 

C. H. Steinmann was born 
at the East Navidad on Aug. 
15, 1873. His parents are 
Chris, and Louise Steinmann, 
They came to this county 
when quite young. Chris. 
Steinmann came to this country in 1849 and settled on the 
Bluff; later he moved to the East Navidad, six miles north of 
Schulenburg where he is still engaged in farming and stock 

C. H. Steinmann. 

— 19g— 

C. H. Steiumanu attended the public schools of Walker 
Branch, Middle Creek and Schnlenburg. He then studied at the 
A. and M. College and at HilPs Business College at Waco. 
After graduating at the latter college he accepted a position as 
bookkeeper for M. M. Kemp & Co., Cameron, Texas. From 
1893 to 1895 he kept books for P. B. Stephenson in Yoakum, 
Texas. In 1896 he returned to his native county, made the 
race for assessor and was elected by a nice vote. His work has 
met with the general approval of the people, and he has been 
re-elected to that ofhce twice without opposition, the best proof 
of his efficiency and popularity. 

Neal Robison. 

The name of Robison has more than once adorned the pages 
of Texas History. The reader remembers of having found the 

name of the father of tlie 
present tax collector in a pre- 
vious part of this history as 
one of the captors of Santa 
Anna. Other men may be 
proud of the feats of their 
ancestors, but Neal Robison, 
in his simple democratic way, 
holds that the reputation in- 
herited from one's ancestors 
must be acquired by proving 
one's self worthy of it. The 
merit of the ancestors must 
shine also in their descend- 
ants, if they shall have the 
right to be proud of it. And 
Neal Robison has proved him- 
self worthi'' as a chip of the 
old block. For twenty years 
he has filled the office of tax 
collector, the repeated verdict 
of the people being the very best proof of his high standing 
amongst them. 



The parents of Neal Robison were Joel W. and Emily 
Robison, nee Alexander. l£is fatlier was born in Georgia, tl)en 
moved to the southern portion of Florida and came from that 
state to Texas in 1829. Neal's mother came to Texas in 1830 
from Paducah, Kentucky. They were married in 1838. 

Their son Neal was born July 6, 1848 in the neighborhood 
of the present VVarrenton. He was educated in private schools 
of that neighborhood. From 1860 to 1862 he was a student in 
Prof. Dechard's Academy at La Grange, Texas. In 1863 he 
entered the Bastrop Military Institute, then in charge of Col. 
R. T. 1. Allen, a West Point graduate. There he remained 
until 1865. After the war the present Governor J. D. ISayers 
was one of the teachers of the Institute, and Neal Robison 
received the benetit of his instruction. From 1867 to 1869 he 
was a student in the law class of the University of Virginia, of 
which institution he became a graduate in International and 
Constitutional Law (1869). In that year he returned to Texas 
and in 1872 he went into the general merchandise business with 
his father at Warrenton. There he remained till 1878. In the 
following year he came to La Grange, where he married Miss 
Hallie P. Carter, the daughter of John H. Carter, a successful 
merchant of La Grange. From 1880 to 1882 he was engaged in 
buying cotton in La Grange. In the fall of the latter year he was 
elected tax collector, which olHce ha has held ever since. 

His son, Joel Rush Robison, was born at La Grange in 1883. 
He stays at home with his father and assists him in his work. 

G. A. Stierling. 
The reader will now be made acquainted witli a few data in ' 
the life of our Public School Superintendent. When in ihe 
year 1898 the voice of the people, on account of his long experi- 
ence in teaching, called him to that office, it hardly could have 
secured a better man for that position. Conservative, attentive 
to his duties, he silently, but steadily works for the good of the 
schools ; a work, not much noised about, but none the less 
valuable ; a work in which more hard work is to be done, more 
judgment and common sense to be employed than glory to be 


Mr. G. A. Stierliiig, the son of E. G. Stierling, an owner of 
privileged estate, was born in 1850 on the estate of Kressin, 
Mecklenburg — Schwerin, Germany. He received a superior 
education at the gymnasium of Klausthal, Hanover, a school 
famous for classical learning. In 1868 he entered the 90th regi- 
ment as one year volunteer for military service. In 1869 we 
find him far away from the fatherland engaged in the mercantile 
branch of the tobacco business at Dunedin, New Zealand. 

During the Franco-German 
war he went back to Ger- 
many and entered the 84th 
Schleswig-Holstein bataillon. 
In December 1871 he came 
to Texas. Here, he lirst 
entered the mercantile busi- 
ness and secured a position 
with H. Miller in Bellville, 
next he was employed by H. 
Knittel in Burton. In 1874 
he was married to Miss Exa 
Moses. 1879 was the first 
year he engaged in teaching; 
he has taught with great suc- 
cess in Washington, Austin, 
Bastrop and Fayette Counties 
and established a reputation 
as a thorough and competent 
teacher. In 1898 he was 
elected to the office of public 
school superintendent of Fayette County. His work in this 
office has deserved and also met with the approval of the people. 

His two oldest sons haye chosen their father's profession 
of teaching. His oldest son, Mr. John L. Stierling, is principal 
of the Shiner school and has been elected this year as principal 
of the Germania school in Fayettevilie. His second son, Mr. 
Hubert F. Stierling was engaged as teacher of the Bluff school ; 
both gentlemen are successful teachers. 

G. A. Stierling. 



There has been no iieriod in the History of Texas when 
Fayette County has not played a leadinof or at least prominent 
part in tlie affairs of this state. She owed her prominence largely 
to that galaxy of superior minds who as her citizens adorned the 
bench and bar of the state. These public-spirited citizens dis- 
tinguislied themselves not only as lawyers, but also as patriots 
and history makers of the country,, The reader understands the 
inlluence which Fayette County exerted in the afiairs of Texas 
when he looks at the list of n?mes of lawyers who have practiced 
in La Grange and adorned the bar of Fayette County, viz.. A, 
J. Hamihun, J. W. Stajton, Fred. Chandler, \V. G. Welsli, Vu\. 
B. Timmons, H. Teiclmiueller, Vol. Ellis, Major Jarn.on, Capt. 
11. H. Thelps, Capt. \V. H. Ledbetter, Major B. F. Dunn and 
a great many others. They are dead, but their patriotic spirit 
lives after them in the present Fayette County. Bar who have 
ciiosen their shining examples to guide their conduct and inspire 
their ambition. 

Many of the district judges who had occupied tlie bench 
of Fayette County distinguished themselves later on as mem- 
bers of Congress and influenced and shaped national legisla- 
tion. Fayette County belonged during the days of the Republic 
of Texas to the Third Judicial District; the judges of that dis- 
trict were: U. M. Williamson, October 1838-39; John T. Mills, 
October 1839-41; Robt. E. B. Baylor, October 1841 to fall of 184G. 
In the latter 3'ear Texas was admitted to the Union; the judi- 
cial districts were redistricted and Fayette County was placed in 
the Second Judicial District. The judges of this district were: 
From fall 1846 to May 18.j2 Hon. Wni. E. Jones; from May 
1852 to March 1856 John Hancock; from March 1S56 to Novem- 
ber 1856 Thomas Duval. In the year 1856 the judicial districts 
of Texas were again redistricted and Fayette County now 
belonged to the First Judicial District. The judges of this dis- 
trict were: From November lS56-59(?) James M. Bell; 1859-65 


George W. Smith; ]865-66 Ben Shropshire; Oct.-Dec. 1867 J. B. 
McFarland. During the era of Reconstruction district judges 
were appointed by military orders. After the adoption of the 
constitution of 1876 Fayette County was placed in the Twenty- 
second Judicial District. The district judges of this district 
were: From November 1876 to 1884 L. W . Moore; 1884-1901 H. 
Tbichmueller, and since then again L. W. Moore. 

The writer could not obtain data on the life of all the dis- 
trict judges who occupied the bench of Fayette County. He 
therefore gives to the reader those skezches which he was able 
to obtain. 

R. M. Williamson. 

The first man called to preside in the District Court was 
Robert M. Williamson, one of the historical characters of the 
Republic of Texas. He resided at that time in the old town of 
Washington on the Brazos. He was, upon the organization of 
the judiciary of the Republic, selected Judge of the Third 
Judicial District, of which Fayette County was a part. He held 
this important position from October 1838 to October 1889 when 
he resigned and again took up liis practice. He was born in 
Georgia in 1806, and came to Texas in about 1826. Early in 
life he was attacked by white swelling in one of liis legs, which 
stiffened his knee and made it necessary for him to wear a 
w.ooden leg, and thus he acquired the sobriquet, "Tiiree Legged 
Willie," by which name he was universally known in Texas. 
Judge Williamson was a great lawyer. He was famed for his 
eloquence and bright flashes of wit. Like all truly great lawyers 
and judges, he was always kind and courteous to the young men 
at the bar. He died at Independence, Washington county, in 
December 1858. 


R. E. 13. Baylor. 

The third man to occupy the bench hi Fayette County was 
a Fayette County man. R. E. B. Bayh)r was born in Kentucky 
in 1813 and came to Fayette Countv, Texas, in 1839. He was a 
law3'er and a preacher. He was appointed District Judge in 1841 
and for a while was a member of the Supreme Court of the 
Republic. His decisions would indicate that he followed the 
dictates of his own judgment as to what was justice, rather than 
precedents of the courts of older jurisdiction. However, he 
was a good judge and very popular with the people. He was a 
member of the Constitutional Convention of 1845, and, notwitli- 
standing that he was a preacher, framed the clause excluding 
ministers of the gospel from holding civil office. Those old 
Texans were very jealous of the liberty they had achieved, and 
everything was done tliat man could do to prevent a possible 
union of Church and State. This man's character was good and 
pure; by his example he did much to elevate and purify the bar. 
Baylor University was named after him. He died at Independ- 
ence in December, 1878. 

He was the last judge to preside over the courts of Fayette 
County during tlie existence of the Republic of Texas. 

John Hancock. 

Judge John Hancock was born in Jackson County, Alabama, 
October 24lli, 1824. In early life he worked upon a farm, but 
soon left it to take up the study of the law. In 1847 he came to 
Texas, locating at Austin. He made friends by his frugal and 
industrious habits and in 1851, when not quite 27 years of age, 
was elected Judge of the 2nd Judicial District of Texas, of which 
Fayette County was a part. He was undoubtedly the youngest 
man who had ever been called to the bench in Texas. If there 
were those in Fayette County, who doubted the wisdom of his 
selection because of his youth, their doubts were soon dispelled. 
He opened court one beautiful May morning in 1852 at La 
Grange, and announced that no lawyer, witness or juror would 
be called from the court house ; they must be on hand or pay a 

—204 — 

fine. This was the firot time this time-saving rule, now so com- 
monly in vogue in District Courts, was announced. In those 
days the District Court had jurisdiction of misdemeanors, and 
the one most commonly violated and at that time generally pros- 
ecuted was the violation of gaming laws. Prior to the advent of 
Judge Hancock, it had been customary, when the boys were 
fined, for the sherifi'to turn the boys loose and let them settle up 
when they got ready. The result was that very few fines were 
paid. Judge Hancock put a stop to this and the boys had to 
pay up or go to jail. He was a hard worker, conscientious in 
the discharge of his duties and proved to be an able judge. 

In 1856 he retired from the bench and returned to his [)rac- 
tice. The records of Texas Courts show that few men, if any, 
appeared in more cases than Judge Hancock. He was said to 
be the ablest lawyer in the state. He was not an orator in the 
common acceptation of that term ; he was not a brilliant man, 
but he worked constantly at whatever there was to do. His 
mind was a powerful one. It is said that he was never known to 
spend an idle moment upon the streets during his over forty 
years' residence in Austin. His rule was to be never away from 
his office, unless he was engaged in the court room, or elsewhere 
on business. He was never known to break an engagement of 
any kind. 

He was a democrat, although a strong Union man. In 1870 
the democrats of this Congressional District tendered him tlie 
nomination for Congress. He declined it because of professional 
duties that required liis attention. But in 1872, tne democrats 
practically compelled him to accept the nomination. He was 
elected until 18<7, when he was defeated for the nomination, 
through the efforts of certam politicians. The people so resented 
this treatment of this popular man, that they defeated the nom- 
inee who succeeded him. In all Texas there were probably no 
more interesting and exciting campaigns than those between 
Judge Hancock and Col. "Wash." Jones for Congress in Fayette 

He died in Austin. His fame as a judge and lawyer will 
live and grow brighter as the years pass away. 

—205 — 

Thomas H. Duval. 

Thomas H, Duval, one of the brightest minds that ever 
graced the bench of Texas, succeeded Judge Hancock. He 
served only for a short time, holding but one term of Court in 
Fayette County, he leaving the bench of the District Court to 
accept the position of Federal Judge for the Western District of 

Judge Duval was born in Buckingham County, Virginia, 
removed to Kentucky and from there to Florida with his father's 
family, and in 1845 he came to Austin, Texas. He died October 
10th, 1889, at the age of G7. 

James H. Bell. 

James H. Bell, who succeeded Thomas H. Duval as Judge 
of the District Court in 185G, was the first and strange to say, 
is the only native Texan who has ever presided over the District 
Court of Fayette County. He was born in the town of Colum- 
bia, in Brazoria County on January 21, 1820. It is claimed 
that he was the first white child born in Austin's colony. Be 
tliis as it ma3\ he was surely the first white child born in Texas, 
who grew to manhood to become one of Texas' ablest jurists. 
Young Bell was sent to Braidstown, Kentucky, where he was 
educated. In 1843 he attended Cambridge Universit}'-, Mass., 
where he finished his studies in the law, commenced prior to 
that time in the law otlice of William H. Jack. In 1852, at the 
age of 32, he was elected District Judge, and in 185G, bv a redis- 
tricting of the State, Fayette County was placed in his District. 
In 1858 the people of the State called this gifted son of Texas 
trom the District Court; bench to a seat on the Supreme C )urt of 
Texas, where he remained until 1864 when he returned to his 
practice. In 1873 when the people of Texas by a decisive vote 
elected Coke Governor and thus undertook to oust the carpet- 
bag regime of E. J. Davis, it will be remembered that the latter 
attempted to hold onto the office. It was then that James H. 
Bell went to Washington and interviewed President (Irant and 
induced the president to decline to interfere. And Coke was 
installed as Governor. 

Judge Bell was one of the most eminent Judges Texas has 
produced. Many old citizens of La Grange and Fayette County 
remember him and are his ardent admirers to this day. J. F.\\\ 



J. C. Bkown. 

The surroundings of a man furnish very often a key, if not 
to his character, at least to his likes and dislikes. The building 
in which he dwells is in many cases a criterion of his taste. 
One of the oldest building! in La Grange is the Masonic Tem- 
ple, a simple, solid, massive structure. It recedes somewhat 
from the line of buildings fronting the street as if to indicate 
that conscious of its strength it can do without the attention of 
the public. There, in that simple, solid building has been for a 
generation the office of the oldest practising lawyer of the La 
Grange bar. His professional work in that office has made its 
impress on the pages of the reports of the higher Texas and 
United States courts. The solving of legal problems in that 
office has done its full share in directing the current of public 
opinou and giving line to the channels of business in Fayette 
County. Very much like the building, its occupant keeps out 
of the public throng. He has made the study of law his life 
work aud devoted all his energy to it. His motto is that per- 
severance will reach the furthest goal, 

.1. C. Brown is the descendant of one of the oldest families 
in the United States. His great-grandfather on the paternal 
side was a soldier in the Revolutionary War under General 
Gates. His great-grandfather on the maternal side was also 
a soldier in the Revolutionary War and was wounded in the 
battle of Bunker Hill. 

His father's parents were Kilbey and Rachel Jackson Brown. 
The former was born near Danville, Va., May 1, 1787 and died 
in Houston County, Ga., on October 5, 1856. The latter, nee 
Rachel Jackson, was born in North Carolina March 27, 1788 and 
died in Fayette County, Texas, December 5, 1858. Their son 


was W. A. (William Anderson) Brown, the father of J. C. 
Brown, the subject of this sketch. 

His mother's parents were John and Hannah Shields Jen- 
kins. The former was born in Holland January 7, 1789 and 
died in Mobile, Ala., May 13, 1858. The latter, nee Shields, 
was born September 17, 1791 and died April 12, 1866 in Fayette 
County, Texas. Their daughter was Celiua Jane Jenkins, the 
mother of J. C. 

The father of Mr, Brown of LaGrange, William Anderson 
Brown, a well known surgeon and practitioner of medicine in 
Fayette County from the winter of 1856 until the spring of 1882, 
was born in the state of Georgia July 27, 1818; his mother, 
Celina Jane Jenkins was born in Georgia May 3, 1825. They 
wfre marred July 16, 1843 in Houston County, Ga. His father 
died March 10, 1898 in Los Angeles County, California; his 
mother is yet living in Los Angeles County, Cal. 

J. C. Brown, the eldest child of W. A. and C. J. Brown, 
was born in Houston County, Ga., September 12, 1845. His 
parents moved to Texas in the winter of 1856 and settled in 
Fayette County, Texas, near the present town of Winchester 
and close to the Bastrop County line. J. C. was educated at 
private country schools at and about Winchester and later in the 
school in La Grange taught by Prof. R. P. Dechard. In the fall of 
1863 he enlisted in Company C, 19th Texas Cavalry, and served 
there to the close of the civil war. He took part in the battle of 
Willow Bayou in 1864. After the war he stayed at home and 
studied again for about one and a half years in the Winchester 
school. In 1867-68 he was a student in the law class of the 
University of Virginia. He returned to La Grange and obtained 
licence to practise law in August 186S and since has devoted 
himself exclusively to the practise of his profession. As Hon. 
L. W. Moore, who was practising law when he came to the 
bar, is now on the bench, Mr. Brown is the oldest practising 
lawyer at the La Grange bar. He has occupied his present 
law oflfice since July 10, 1869. a period of thirty-three years. 

He married Miss Olivia J. Dancy of La Grange January 21, 
1871. She was the second daughter of Col. John W. Dancy, an 


early settler and a prominent man in the public aflairs of Fayette 
County up to the time of his deatli in 1864, and the latter's 
wife, Mrs. Lucy A Dancy. To the union of Mr. J. C. lirown 
and Miss Dancy were born live children of whom Leon Dancy 
Brown, now a student in the Ihiiversity of Texas, alone survives. 
His wife died February 19, 1882 at La Grange. 

Ne again married on October 1. 1884, choosing for his life's 
partner Miss Mallie Hill, daughter of M. H. and Mary Jane 
Hill of Fayette County. Tliis union has been blessed by three 
children; the eldest of these, Joe C. Brown, Jr., is now attend- 
ing Major Bingham's school at Asheville, N. C, the second, 
Master Mills Brown, and the youngest, Mildred Knox Brown, 
are yet pupils in the LaGrange School. 

J. T. Duncan. 

The subject of this sketch, J. '1. Duncan, is an old member 
of the Fayette County bar, a law3'^er of repute and extensive 
practice. For years he has studied constantly all new questions 
of law as soon as they arose, paid the closest attention to busi- 
ness and served successfully his large clientage. Besides being 
a master in his profession, he has acquired by extensive reading 
a liberal education. He takes an interestin all public questions, 
but not to such an extent as to push himself into the front as a 
leader. In fact, he admitted to this writer tiiat he had made 
only one political speech in his life and that was fifteen years 
ago. He is the descendant of an old family of Washington 
County, Texas. His father belongs to one of the first and earli- 
est families of Kentucky, his mother to an old family of Pitts- 
burg, Pennsylvania, 

His maternal grandfather Dallas came to Texas in 18oo and 
settled near Independence, Washington County. His father, 
George J. Duncan, also came to that county and settled there in 
1839; he took part in Somervell's mismanaged expedition, 
but went only as far as Laredo with him, when he and two 
hundred others, having no faith in Somervell, made use of his 
permission to return home and marched oft' under Colonel Ben- 
nett, thus escaping the disaster that overtook the balance of the 


expedition at the battle of Mier (Dec. 19, 1842). On his return 
to Washington, he resumed blacksmithing as his occupa- 
tion. In 1851 he was married to Miss Bettie Dallas of Washing; 
ton County. He resided in Washington County to 1880, when 
he moved to Milam County; there he died at a ripe old age in 
1893. His union with Miss Dallas was blessed with five 

The subject of this sketch, their son, J. T. Duncan, was 
born in Washington County, Texas, in 1851. He was educated 
in Baylor University at Inde- 
pendence, then an institution 
of great repute, and graduated 
in 1877. It was there that he 
acquired a love for self-study 
a n d investigation w h i c h 
should prove such a great 
advantage to him in after life. 
Immediately after graduation 
he entered the law office of 
Timmons & Brown of J^a 
Grange as a law student. He 
was admitted to tiie practice 
of law in June 1878 and sub- 
sequently formed a partner- 
shii) with R. J. Ajjdrews 
which lasted till 1881 when 
the latter died. He was ap- 
pointed Mayor of La Grange [| 
in 1878 and was then elected 
and served in that office till 
1882. Since that time he has not aspired to public positions. 
He is attorney for the San Antonio & Aransas Pass Railway 
Company, a position he fills to the entire satisfaction of the 
people interested. In January 1885 he formed a partnership 
with Judge L. W. Moore, distinguished as xMember of Congress 
and District Judge, under the firm name of Moore & Duncan. 
In 1897 the partnership was dissolved, and in the same year he 

f . T. DUNCAN. 


formed a partnership with \V. S. Robson, which is continued to 
tlie present time. 

He was married January 11, 1881 to Miss Genelle Harris of 
Bellville, Texas, the eldest daughter of Ben T. Harris, deceased. 
This union was blessed with three children. Miss Josephine, 
Miss Frankie and Douglass, all at home. 

Mr. Duncan is a member of the A. 0. U. W. and Knights 
of Honor. 

Hon. H. M. Garwood. 

Such readers as are not personally ac(|uainted with Hon. 
H. M. Garwood, have at least often heard of him as an eloquent 
speaker, an able debater and a close reasoner. Hon. Garwood 
is a member of the old established law firm of Brown, Lane tk 
Garwood and a member of the Bastrop, LaGrange and Houston 
Bar. lie is a resident of Houston, but is called to practice in 
the courts of South Texas generally. He has repeatedly 
been elected to or honored with public offices. His present 
office is regent of the State University, 

The })arents of H. M. Garwood were C. B. and Frances 
Garwood, nea Walker. His father was a prominent merchant of 
Bastrop, where he died in 18S(J. His aged mother still resides 
there. H. M. was born January 11, 1804. He was educated at 
the University of the South at Sewanee, Tennessee, and grad- 
uated in that institution with the degree of Bachelor of Science. 
After his return from the university he studied law at Bastrop 
in the office of present Governor J. D. Sayers. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar November 4, 1885. He began the practice of 
law witf> R. L. Batts of Austin, Texas, was associated with 
lion. G. W. Jones and Capt. B. D. Orjain at Bastrop, Texas, 
and on August 1, 1899, formed partnership with J. C. Brown 
and Jonathan Lane at LaGrange. Hon. H. M. Garwood has 
taken a great interest in all public questions ; he has studied 
and discus.sed them before the people. He is exceedingly pop- 
ular and has secured every office f)r which he went before the 
people. From 18SG-8S he represented Bastrop County in the 
Lower House of the Twentieth Legislature; from 18S8 to 1890 


lie served as county judge of Kastrop County ; from 1S90 to 
1892 he represented Bastrop County in the Senate of tlie Twen- 
ty-Second Legislature. In all these offices his eminent services 
attracted the attention of the people and gained him a wide- 
spread reputation. 

lion. H. M. Garwood was married August 8, 1890 to Miss 
Hettie Pag3, daughter of Col. P. D. Page of Bryan, Texas, 
They are the parents of three children: Calvin Garwood, age 
seven; St. John Garwood, age live, and Louise Garwood, age 
two and a half years. 

Judge Auuustinf Haidusek. 

Judge A. Haidusek is known generally throughout the state, 
but his peculiarities are known only to his intimate friends. 
As these peculiarities constitute the man, some of them may he 
mentioned. He possesses a wonderful perseverance and inde- 
fatigable energy ; hence his efi'orts have been crowned with suc- 
cess ; is of strong will power, but not obstinate — and of decided 
views on all questions which he never hesitates to express if re- 
quested to do so ; but generally keeps bis own counsel, knows 
wliat be wants and bow to obtain it; is very liberal, generous 
and always ready to help the needy. Has many warm friends, 
but also some bitter enemies. Maybe pronounced a self-made 
man. Speaks P^nglish, German and Bohemian and is possessed 
of fair general information. 

His i)arents were Valentine Haidusek, m-e Kladiva. They 
as well as their ancestors were tillers of the soil and resided at 
]\— a village in the northeast of Moravia near the Carpathian 
Mountains wiiere they owned considerable land whicl) Valentine 
Haidusek inherited from his fr.ther, Georse Haidusek, This 
was the birth place of A. Haidusek (born September 184G). 
His mother died in the first part of 1847— leaving surviving her 
three children and her husband ; tlie oldest, Theresa, now 
Lebeda, residing in Fayette County ; the next, John who died 
in Capt. Alexander's Comi)any at Browsville, February 14, 18153, 
and tlie youngest, Augustine. After the death of his mother he 
was placed in the care of Mrs. Macliacek, his aunt, who kept him. 


until his father married Miss Mary Broz in 184S, who resides 
with her son Hynek Haidusek on the family homestead, three 
miles west of Schulenburg. 

In September, 1856, his father left the old country with his 
family for Texas and in November landed in Houston. From 
there they traveled in an ox wagon to LaGrange where they re- 
sided two weeks, then settled on East Navidad, now Dubina, 
with six other Bohemian families. They were the first Bohem- 
ians that settled west of tlie 
Colorado River. From that 
place her father moved on the 
farm west of Schulenburg and 
died there December 23, 18G7. 
Augustine had some knowl- 
edge of the Bohemian before 
leaving the old country, and 
in this country iiis father be- 
came I) is teacher. Of the 
PiMglish language he knew 
notliing until the beginning 
of the C^onfedetate war when 
fie went to school to old man 
Black. In LSGo he went witli 
a drove of beeves to Louisiana 
wiiich swam the Mississippi 
at Fort Hudson and were sold 
to the confederate government. 
Upim his return he enlisted in 
Company F, Bates' Regiment, 
stationed at Velasco. June G, 18G5, he returned home and 
helped his father to make a crop. In 18G6 farmed and went to 
school to old man Mays below Weimar. In 18G7 clerked for 
G. W. White in LaGrange for several months, then went home 
and in the fall cut and split 4000 post-oak rails for George 
Morysak and studied English by firelight. 

In 1868 he farmed and during the summer taught school, 
and in 1869 settled in La Grange, read law in the office of 

Judge A. Haidusek. 


Messrs. Jarmon & Cross and on December 22, 1870, was admitted 
to the bar. He was the first Bohemian to be admitted to prac- 
tise law in tlie United Slates. Duruig the congressional cam- 
paign between John Hancock of Austin and Degner of San 
Antonio and between Giddings of Brenham and Clark of Gal- 
veston, he worked hard for democracy. Both democrats were 
elected. Those were trying days for democracy in Texas. 
Elections were held at county seats and voters were under police 
supervision, but they submitted to it, knowing that liberty was 
at stake. In 1872 he taught school at Ross Prairie, near Fay- 
etteville, and in May of that year married Miss Anna Beckn, a 
daughter of John and Catherine Becka. wliu resided at liot^s 
Prairie. Miss Anna Becka, now Mrs. A. Haidusek, was born 
near Bellville, Austin County, Texas, in June 1856. Five chil- 
dren were born to A. and Anna Haidusek, of wiiom Jerome, 
George and Vlasta are living. Tlieir first child, a boy, and the 
last, a girl, are dead. Jerome married Miss Fannie Mosig and 
Vlasta married Joseph Koss. George is a student of the State 
University at Austin, Texas. 

In 1874 A Haidusek wss elected cliairman of the demo- 
cratic executive committee of Fayette County. At tlie city 
election of 1875 he was elected mayor of LaGrange, defeating 
Mr. A. H. Brandt. He was the lirst Bohemian mayor elected 
in the United States. Re elected in 1877, defeating P. Y. Mc- 
Ashan. During the campaign of 1878, he ran for the office of 
county judge against Hon. J. C. Stiebl, but was defeated. 

In 1880 the democrats, assembled in convention in Giddings, 
nominated him as a candidate to represent the counties of 
Fayette and Lee in the Seventeenth Legislature. He accepted 
the nomination in an open letter in which he stated that, if 
elected, he would advocate the measures of the minority plat- 
form which had been rejected by the democrats at a state con- 
yention held at Dallas. He was elected, defeating Jolni L. 
Smith by over 2000 majority. In the legislature he introduced 
two amendments to the state constitution, one to amend the 
immigration clause so as to authorize the dissemination in for- 
eign countries of the revenues and benefits of Texas, one to 
autliorize the investment of tho permanent school fund iu 


county bonds, etc. Both ])ropositions were defeated. He 
opposed the amendment to the constitution proposing to 
require voters to pay their poll tax before allowing them to vote 
which was introduced by ('. L. VVurzbach of San Antonio, and 
secured the amending of the law, compelling county convicts to 
work public roarls. In 1882 he was urged by some of his friends 
to run as an independent candidate for the office of representa- 
tive in congress, to which he replied in an open letter that he 
was a democrat for principle, not for office, that he proposed to 
stand by the democracy because the party in 185G wlien "know- 
nothingism" was rampani stood by the foreigners. In 1884 he 
was elected county judge of Fayette County, defeating Hon. J. 
C. Stiehl. Served six years as judge. Worked zealously to 
improve the public schools and especially the teachers. Required 
the school trustees to eniploy teachers able to teach the Englisii 
language, urging the teachers to make English the language of 
tlie school. For this he was pronounced a renegade by nearly 
all the Bohemian papers in the United States. Particularly 
the Slovan, a Bohemian weekly, published and edited by Joseph 
Cida at La Grange, Texas, very much incensed the Bohesiiians 
of Texas against the judge and they held indignation meetings, 
condemning his efforts in trying to make English the language 
of the school-room in Bohemian localities. To counteract the 
evil tendencies of the Slovan, the friends of the judge started 
another Bohemian paper, the Svoboda. It was a joint stock 
company, consisting of about fifty members. A man from New 
York was employed to run the paper. The Svoboda was 
started December 1885, and in 1887 had about 400 subscribers 
aiid $2400 indebtedness. The New York man, Mr. Chudoba, 
was discharged and A. Haidusek took charge of the paper. 
Under his management the number of subscribers increased 
rapidly and the debt was paid off in two years. In 1890 the 
judge became the owner of the paper; since then he has devoted 
to it his entire time and made it one of the best paying papers 
iri the country. Its circulation is about 4000. It has subscribers 
in sixty-four counties in Texas, besides in other states and in the 
old country. It is a Bohemian paper, but thoroughly American 
in sentiment. 


During the administration of Judge Haidusek public roads 
were graded and macadamized. JNineteen iron bridges were 
built and the bridge spanning the Colorado River at I^a Grange 
was bought which required the deciding vote of the judge. For 
this act he was condemned by many citizens of the county. 
Some also condemned his efforts to grade public roads, claiming 
that it would bankrupt the county. The contract to build the 
present court house wps m; de and the foundation laid for the 
same during his administration. In 1890 he was defeated for 
re-election by Hon. W. S. Robson. 

in the split of the democracy into Hogg and Clark factions, 
Judge Haidusek espoused the cause of Judge Clark. Althougli 
an advocate of tlie gold standard, he supported Bryan at both 
elections, evidently not wishing to abandon democracy. But in 
the congressional light lietvveen 11. J], llawley, ihe republican 
nominee, and VV. S. Robson, the democrat, the judge siii)ported 
Hawley, and it is claimed that on this account Robson was 
defeated. When the First National Bank of La Grange was in 
a depressed condition, the judge became associated with it; later 
on was elected its presi<lent which position lie now holds. Since 
then the bank not only overcame its depression, but has been 
paying its stockholders semi-annual dividends for several years. 

The judge is a member of the K. of H.. A. O. V. W. and 
an honorary member of the C 8. P. S., a Bohemian order, the 
same as K. of H. All the members of his family as well as 
himself are communicants of the Catholic Church. 

C- D. Krause. 

The subject of this sketch is a young man of great promise. 
After passing a very creditable examination, he was admitted to 
the bar on November 22, 1895, but did not engage in actual 
practice until five years later; he remained with his employers — 
then the firm of Brown, Lane & Jackson, by whom he was era* 


ployed as stenographer — and continued to lay the foundation 
for his future professional career. 

Carl Krause received his rudimental education in Germany; 
after coming to his adopted country, he attended the public 
schools of the city of Houston and also received private tuition, 
and then attended the Conyngton Business College in said city, 
where he learned the mysteries of stenography. 

Carl David Krause was born on July 23, 1874 at Cassel, 
Germany, where his parents, Frederick Reinhart Krause and 

Fredericka Krause nue Ker- 
sting, resided. His parents 
died while he was yet in 
early childhood. He came 
to the United States during 
the month of May, 1885, re- 
siding at Houston, Texas, with 
his nncle, Ci)as. F. Ziuke, un- 
til June, 1891, when he came 
to La Grange to accept tiie 
position of stenographer with 
the firm of Brown, Lane & 
Jackson, with whom and 
their successors he remained 
until June 1, 1900, at which 
date he formed a paitnersiiip 
with Hon. C. E. Lane, under 
the firm name of Lane & 
Krause. This hrm in Sep- 
tember, 1901, consolidated 
with the firm of Brown, Lane 
& Garwood, of which he is now the junior member. 

On January 4, 1899 Carl Krause was married to Miss Lena 
Scholz of La Grange. They are the parents of a boy — Hilmer 
by name — born on November 25, 1899. 

He at present is W. M. of Lafayette Lodge No. 34, A. F. & 
A. M., is a Past Sachem in the Order of Red Men and a K. of F. 



Hon. J. Lane. 

There is hardly a man in Fayette County wlio does not 
know or is not familiar with the name of Hon. Jonathan Lane. 
Hon. J. Lane is now a resident of Houston. Before his re- 
moval to that city, he was one of Fayette County's leading 
citizens. Bein;? of strong conviction?, he very often declared 
them in unmistakable language, in the prohibition campaign 
of 1887 he was the ablest 
anti-prohibition speaker 
in the county. His able 
campaign gained him a 
large crowd of enthusi- 
astic friends. There is 
lio man who is more 
popular with the (ier- 
man Bohemian eienientfi 
than he. He still ex- 
erts a strong inliuence 
in the ccninty, tlie num- 
ber of his friends having 
rallier increased. Hon. 
J. Lane is an advocate of 
the fundamental demo- 
cratic doctrine of per- 
sonal riglits and local 
self - government. He 
believes that those peo- 
ple are the best governed 
who are the least governed and he holds that the powers of the 
government should be limited as much as possible or at least 
as far as is consistent with government. 

Hon. J. Lane was born October 15, 1853, in Alabama. 
He went to private country scliools of the Oso neighborhood in 
Texas whereto his parents had moved from Alabama, when he 
was only one year old. His parents were C. J. and E. E. Lane, 
and he is a brother of C. E. Lane and Thos. \V. Lane. He en- 
gaged in merchandising in 1880 and later associated himself with 

Hon. J. Lane. 


Mr. Arnim of Flatonia under the firm name of Arnim & Lane, 
of which firm he is still a member. He studied law from 1880 
to 1882. In the latter year he was admitted to the bar. Was a 
member of the Senate of the Twentieth and Twenty-First Legis- 
latures (1886-90), having drawn a four year's term. 

He was married in 1876 to Miss Alma Harrison of Flatonia, 

Hon. Jonathan Lane is a leading lawyer of the stale. ILs 
practice extends throughout South Texas. He is a meoiber uf 
the firm of Brown, Lane, Garwood, Lane & Krause, with oftices 
in Houston, La Grange and Bastrop. Mr. .1. Lane is mm 
eloquent sp?aker. Following the dictates of his own conscience, 
he chooses on every public question the side which his convic- 
tions tell him to be the right, and, believing his position to be 
right, he maintains it with great ability, in genera] not waiting 
to be attacked, but rather leading an attack on his opponents. 
He is equally brilliant in his utterances of defense and attack. 
In preparing political campaigns and in their management he 
evinces a dash and daring that surprise and confuse his pjlitical 
opponents. ♦ 

Hon. C. E. Lane. 

As is the case with all Lanes, the name of C. E. Lane is 
noted for energy, ability and hone&ty. He is outspoken in his 
likeo and dislikes — either a warm friend or an honest enemy. 
He does not iiold back with his views, leaving the people in the 
dark about them. But sincerely convinced of their correctness 
and noting the dangers of the opposite views, he manfully takes 
Jiis stnnd and explains his ideas. A man of such courage and 
^.incerity has his enemies and he also has his warm friends. 
However enthusiastic the praise from his friends, however bitter 
the censure of his enemies, to the people he always appears as a 
sincere and truthful man who has the courage of his convictions. 
For thirteen years he has been a practicmg lawyer of the county 
and is now connected with the old reliable firm of Brown, Lane 
& Garwood. 


He was born January 20, 3 856 at Oso, Fayette County, 
Texas, three miles northwest of Flatonia. He went to private 
schools at Oso, then engaged in farnnn<jj till 1877 and moved in 
tliat year to Flatonia. Here he clerked for a number of years. 
In 18S1 he became a partner in the mercantile firm of Harrison 
& Lane. In this firm he stayed till 188;] when he dis.solved 
partnershi[) and traveled as a salesman for T. \V. House of 
Houston, Texas, a wholesale grocer and cotton factor. He trav- 
eled for this firtn eight months and in the same year (1883), after 
the death of his father he again engaged in the mercantile busi- 
ness under the hrm name of C. J. Lane & Co. In 1889 he accepted 
a position as traveling sales- 
man for Wallis, Landis & Co. 
During all this time as clerk, 
merchant and salesman he had 
studied law at home as well 
as on the load whenever he 
hati a chance. In 18S9 he 
I'cceived his license to practise 
law. After the resignation of 
(reorge Willrich as county 
attorney in 1890, he was ap- 
l)oiiited to lliat ofHce by tlie 
commissioners' court. In (he 
fall of that year he was elected 
to that office and served in it 
for one term. In 1898 and 
litOO he was elected to the 
legislature by decided majori- 
ties. He has been a practis- 
ing lawyer of La Grange since 
1889 and now enjoys an ex- 
tensive practice. On February 6, 1884 he married Miss C. T. 
Cox of Flatonia. They are the parents of six children : Edna 
and Earl, twins, 17 years old; C. J., 12 years of age; Alma, 9; 
Floyd, 7; Gessner, 2. They all stay at the home of their 


—220 — 

Thomas W. Lane. 

Thomas \V. Lane deservedly has a host of friends in all 
parts of the county. He is a gentleman of (juiet and unassuming 
manners, an able lawyer and a true friend. By his congenial 
ways he soon gathers friends around him wherever he goes. He 
is a member of the law firm of Wolters, Lane & Lenert, a well 
known law firm which transacts as much legal business as any 
other firm in the county. 

His parents were C. J. and E. E. Lane, nee Crockett. They 
were married at Decatur, Morgan County, Ala. His f.itlur was 
engaged in the mercantile business at that place. Li ISVl he 
moved with his family in ox wagons across the country lu TexMS, 
bringing along with him his negroes. He settled in tlie neigh- 
borhood of the fornjer town of Oso. a name that has now disap- 
peared from the ma}) of Texas. (Oso was situated about three 
miles northu- est of Flatonia ) There he engaged in farming 
and preaching up to iy75. Then he started in the general mer- 
chandise business in Flatonia which he managed till the time of 
his death in 1883. His wife died in Flatonia in 18SS. 

Thomas VV. Lane was born at Oso December 7, 18(35. He 
was educated in the jjublic schools of Oso and Flatonia ami in 
the tSoulhwestern Universiiy at Georgetown, Texas, After 
graduating in that institution he studied law under Pheips A 
Lane and was admitted to the bar (Dec. 7. 1888). From 1888 
to 1893 he practised law in Flatonia. In 1893 he moved to La 
Grange, where he formed a partnership witli Hon. J. F. Wolters 
(in 1898). December 28, 1891 he was married to Miss Jessie 
J. Drake at La Grange. 

He resides at present at Beaumont as the manager of .sev- 
eral oil companies and as the superintendent and secretary of the 
Jjondon Oil ik Pipe Line Company with headquarters at Beau- 
mont, Texas. 

Thomas VV. Jjane is a comparatively young man with the 
brightest prospects before him. There is no doubt in the mind 
of this writer that a succeeding biographer will have to devote 
to his life considerably more space, if for no other reason than 


to record the successes which he is about to achieve in connection 
with the Beaumont oil business. 

Geo. E. Lenert. 

A more polite, affable and accommodating gentleman than 
Geo. K. Lenert would be hard to find in this county. Mr. Len- 
ert enjoys the advantages of a superior education, having been a 
student at the Davis Military School at Winston, ]S. C, and an 
alumnus of the Wasliington and Lee University at Lexington, 
Va. He has traveled extensively in Europe and visited most of 
the l.'^^.rger cities of (Jermany, France and England, His talks 
on the nianners and habits of these different peoples are certainly 
more interet^ting than any book ever written on these subjects. 
Mr. Lenert is very sociable and takes a great interest in all 
society affairs. He is the junior member of the reliable law firm 
of W'olters, Lane & Lenert, and pays a great deal of attention 
also to the fire insurance business. 

The pnrents of Geo. E. Lenert are A. E. and Emilie (.Schub- 
mann) Ijcnert. His fatiier was born at Klausthal, Hanover, his 
moth'-'r was born on board a ship. His fattier came to Warren- 
ton antl was for a long time engaged as clerk at the store of Wm. 
Neese. Later he established himself in the mercantile business 
and conducted it for a number of years, acquirmg n reputation 
for honesty, reliability and hard business sense, lie married 
Miss Emilie Schuhmann of Warrenton. 

Their son, Geo. E. Lenert, was born December 31, 1871, at 
Warrenton, Texas, and received there in the public schools his 
first instruction. After completing the course of that school, he 
attended for two years the Davis Military School at Winston, 
N. C. (1889-91), In 1891 he entered the Washington and Lee 
University of Lexington, Va. He attended this institution for four 
years (1891-95). After graduating in that institution he was 
adcnitted to the bar of Virginia in 1^95 and to the bar of Texas 
in 1896. He located in LaGrange. Soon after hanging out his 
shingle as a practising lawyer, he formed a partnership with 
Sam Lowrey under the firm name of Lenert & Lowrey. This 
partnership lasted till 1898, when it was dissolved. In 1900 Mr, 


Lenert made a trip to Europe, vi?iting all the larger cities of 
Germany, France and England. After liis return from Europe, 
he again started in the practice of his profession and, in Novem- 
ber, 1900, he formed a partnership with Wolteis and Lane under 
the firm name of VVolters, Lane & Lenert. 

Mr, Lenert has proven himself in every way worthy of the 
high reputation fur honesty and reliability inlierited from his 
father. He is a painstaking lawyer who sifts his cases to liie 
bottom and on these accounts he is steadily gaining recognition 
as a lawyer in the front rank of his profession. 

Hon. L. W. Moore, 
No history of Fayette county w^ould be complete without at 
least a brief biography of Lyttleton W. Moore, judge of the 22nd 

Judicial District of Texas, of 
whicli Fayette is a part. Judge 
Moore was born on March 2o, 
1835, in Alabama. P]iglit years 
later his fatiier removed his 
family to Mississippi. Young 
Lyt Moore attended the l^iu- 
versity of Mississippi, wliere 
he graduated m law with the 
highest honors of his chiss 
In 1857 he married Miss Anna 
Dunn Wright, daughter of Dr. 
Wright of Cowal Couiit3\ In 
the same year lie brought his 
young bride to Texas, locating 
m Bastrop County. Th.e 
bride of his youth is still willi 
him, the wife of his age, and 
the mother of a large family 
of most interesting daughters 
and sons. The eldest, Mrs. 
\V. H. Tliomas, is the wife of a prominent planter. Miss Lylie 
enjoys the distinction of ranking among the ablest primary 
teachers in Texas. It is more than an acquired talent that 



makes of a person a success as a primary teacher — it requires a 
genius endowed by nature. This talent, so notably possessed by 
Miss Moore, can be easily traced as an inheritance from her 
father, for Judge Moore is never so happy as when surrounded 
by a rollicking jolly se.t of little children. Miss Lottie, another 
dau_sfhter, enjoys the reputation of being a pianist of rare ability, 
with the talent to teach music to others. Captain Wright Moore 
and Dr. Walton Moore are twin sons. The former was a captain 
in the First Texas Volunteer Infantry during the ISpanish- 
American War, later a captain of infantry in the 38th Regi- 
ment, U. S. v., and served with distinction in the Philippines. 
He was rewarded for his services by being appointed First Lieu- 
tenant of Cavalry in the regular army of the United States. Dr. 
Walton Moore is a prominent physician at La Grange. The 
youngest son. Dr. Clay Moore, is a physician located in Mata- 
gorda County. 

Like most men who have succeeded in life Judge Moore 
owes much of his success to his wife. 

At the outbreak of the war between the States, Judge Moore 
became a captain in Col. Flournoy's regiment. In 18G5 upon 
his return from the war, lie removed to La Grange. In 1875 be 
was elected to the Constitutional Convention, which drafted our 
present State Constitution. He was conspicuous as a leader in 
tiiat body of able lawyers, and soon enjoyed the confidence of 
the people of his section to such an extent that he was elected 
District Judge in 1876, which office he held for eight years. In 
1880 he was elected to Congress, where he remained until 1892. 
He again commenced the [)raotice i^f law. In March i9f)l U[)on 
the death of Judge Teichmueller, Gov. Sayers appointed Judge 
Moore, Judge of the 22i!d Judicial District, which office he now 

Edward H. Moss. 

The picture below is the likeness of Edward H. Moss, a young 
man of sterling worth and great promise. He is a man of great 
energy, industry and perseverance. It is such kind of material 
the coming men of our country are made of, While teaching 


school, he studied law, which instance proves his willingness 
to make the best of his opportunities. The people have recognized 
his merit and after his admittance to the bar he soon acquired 
a nice practice which is constantly growing. 

The parents of Edward H. Moss were J. C. and Louise 
Moss, nee Fink. His father was born in New York. His 
mother was born in Germany, but came to Fayette County while 
an infant and was reared in the Kutersville neighborhood. His 

fither was a prominent farm- 
er and stockman in this coun- 
ty. He died in 1897. His 
widow is now living in La 

Edward H. Moss was born 
July 14, 1874, on the farm of 
his hither near Ledbetter. 
He received instruction at the 
public school of Fjedbetter and 
at the high school of Giddings. 
After c()mi)leting his educa- 
tion, he passed the examina- 
tion as school teacher and 
during the next three years 
(18U4 97) taught school in Lee 
County. During his spare 
time he read law while thus 
engaged as school teacher. To 
complete his studies in law, 

EnwARD H. Moss. 

he entered the well known 
Jaw office of Brown & Lnne, and studied there under their direc- 
tion. In May 1898 he was admitted to the bar. His sterling 
worth aud ability were soon recognized by the people and before 
long he had acquired a nice promising practice. The confidence 
the people placed in his ability was further shown by his 
appointment as city attorney of La Grange in November 1900 
and by his election to that office in 1901. 

Mr. E. H. Moss is a pleasant speaker, deservedly liked and 
popular with all classes of people. 


Robert Moss. 

This young man is like his brother, P^dward H, Moss, res- 
pected for his sterling worth, reliability and honesty, and is 
popular on account of his 
pi easing, quiet, gentleman-like 
manners. He is a y^ung 
lawyer of great promise with 
a steadily growing practice. 

Robert Moss was born 
January H, 1876, on the farm 
of his father near Ledbetter, 
Texas. He was instructed in 
the public school of that phice 
and completed his education 
at J. F. Draughon's Business 
College at Galveston (in 1898). 
After completing a course in 
bookkeeping, he clerked for 
one year lor Mr. \Vm. Krause 
of Ledbetter in 1899. He 
then studied law in the well 
known and successful firm of 
Wolters &, Lane and was 
admitted to the bar on June 

10, 1901. He is now a practicing lawyer of l^a Grange, well 
liked by all who know him and with the brightest i)ros'|vects of a 
successful future before him. 

Robert Moss. 

Method Pazdkal. 

There never came a foreigner to the United States who 
acquired a thorough mastery of the English language in shorter 
time] than Method Pazdrai. He came to the United States 
in 1893 and within the short space of five years he was able to 
pass a creditable examination as a lawyer and to obtain his 
license to practice in the courts, a fact that speaks more for his 
energy, perseverance and ability than any recommendation from 
any source. His energy and ability recommend themselves and 


he 18 now a young lawyer of great |)romise in La Grange, highly 
respected by all who know him. He enjoys a steadily growing 

His parents were Uev. Vaclav and Josephine Pazdral (nee 
Voge!). His father was a preacher at Tabor, Bohemia, and 
came witli his family to the United States in 1893. He first 
located in Chicago, but was sent by the Board of Home Missions 
of the North Presbyterian Church to Fayetteville in 1894. 

Method Pazdral was born March 29, 1877, in M. Ostrava, 

Moravia. He attended the 
college of Kladno, Bohemia, 
where he graduated with first 
honors in 1891. From 1891 
to 1893 he was bookkeeper in 
a book store. In the latter 
year he came with his parents 
to tlie United States. Here 
he went to night schools in 
Chicago ami U) the public 
schools of Fayetteville to 
study the English language. 
From 1895 to 1897 he attended 
the Glen Rose CoIIegiatw 
Institute whicli institute 
tute is managed under Presby- 
ti rian nuspiei-s. He graduated 
in 1897. Next he was a 

student in the .lunior Law 
Class of the University of 
Texas, also a student of the 
Academic Department of this institution in the session of 
1897-98. The balance of the year l89S he studied law under 
Robson & Duncan, lie obtained license to practise law Novem- 
ber 11, 1898. From July 1899 to September 1900 he i)ractised 
law in Houston in connection with George A. Byers. He then 
came to Fayetteville where he was appointed city attorney. In 
February 1901 he was appointed assistant county attorney and 
jiioved to La Grange. 

Mrthod Pazdral. 


He was married June 30, 1901, to Miss Susan Norton Little 
of Denison, Texas, the daughter of Rev. H. S. Little, D. D. 
Tliis union was blessed with a baby daughter, Sue Josephine. 

Energy and ability are characteristic of the Pazdral family. 
His younger brother, Dr. George A. Pazdral, is a young physi- 
cian of Fayetteville with a bright career before him. 


Judge W. S. Robson enjoys the distinction of being widely 
known throughout the United States. In 1898 he was elected 
Supreme Master Workman of the A. O. U. VV, of the United 
Ft ites and Canada and tliereby 
became know to the members 
of that order throughout the 
whole country. It is needless 
to dwell on the ability, hon- 
esty, and popularity of Judge 
Rohson ; tlifcv are l)oriie out 
by higher testimony than thai 
of this writer : the repeated 
vnrdict of the pe()[>Ie at the 
ballot-box. He sufftred only 
one defeat, in 181/8 he was 
defeated in his race fur Con- 
gres-s as democratic nominee 
I f tlie then tentii congression- 
al district. It is the per.'-onal 
(•pinion of tiiis writer that the 
])olitical situation in the dis- 
trict was unfavorable to the 
democrats and that at that 
time no man could have car- 
ried the district for the democrats. Nevertheless, his race 
strengthened the democratic ranks and smoothed to some extent 
the paths of the succeeding nominee to success. 



|L ' 



















Hon. W* S. hobson. 


The parents of Judge Robson were John R. and Ann K. 
Robson, residents of Mudison County, Ga. They canoe to Texas 
in the year 1854 and settled in the neighborhood of Roundtop 
where they farmed. His moiher died at Roundtop in 1860. In 
1868 his father moved with his family to La Grange where in 
1867 he died of yellow fever. 

Judge \V. S. Robson was born in Madison County, Georgia, 
February 1, 1851. In April, 1854, he moved with his father to 
Texas, who settled at Roundtop. Ln 1863 after the death of his 
mother he caine with his fatiier to La Grange. W. S. Robson 
was educated in the public schools at Roundtop and La Grange. 
In later years, he constantly perfected his education by exten- 
sive reading and study. After the death of his father he started 
life as a butcher. Already then, Judge L. Moore, recognizing 
his ability, suggested to him the study of law. But first he had 
to make a living. Then he lirsl filled several offices, before he 
commenced the study of law. la 1872 he was elected Animal 
and Hide ln?pectcr in which office he served to 1874. From 
1874: to 1876 he served as DajjUty District Clerk. In February, 
1877, after the adoptiim of the Constitution pf 1876, he was 
elected assessor and reelected in 1878. Daring these two terms 
as assessor he studied law under Timmons and Brown. He was 
admitted to the bar in 1881. In 1884 and 188Q he was elected 
chairm in of the democratic executive coa^mittee of the county. 
In 1885 he was elected messengei- to carry the presidential vote 
to Washington. In 1890 he wis elected county judge which 
office he held fur three terms till 1896. In that year he also 
was a member of the democratic state executive committee and 
delegate to the democratic national convention. In 1898 he was 
elected Supreme Master Workman of the A. 0. U. W. of the 
United States and Canada. This order numbers over 450,000 
members. Judge Robson is still the chairman of the Committee 
on Laws of the order and life member of the Supreme Lodge. 

Judge Robson was married to Miss Lucy Pretorious of La 
Grange in 1876. They have eight ciiildren, of whom two sons 
aod two daughters are grown. 


IIoN. Hans Teichmueller. 

The people of Fayette County gratefully remember the late 
Judge Teichmueller wlio for nearly a generation was a prominent 
citizen of the county and who served them as district judge for 
a period of nearly seventeen years. Judge H. Teichmueller 
possessed the advantages of a 
superior education and, i n 
consequence showed those 
traits of character, namely. 
reserve and even modesty, 
coupled with a self-conscious- 
ness which are tlje cljaracter- 
istics of the classical scholar. 
In his early youth he was 
imbued with high ideals of 
life and duty and lie was 
guided by them in his conduct 
to his very death. He was an 
optimist, a firm believer in 
the goodness of mankind and 
in the mora) and intellectual 
l)rogress of the human race. 
He admired the early times of 
the republic when (]uestions 
involving the highest of liu- 
man rights were solved, and 
he rather regretted that in these latter days the parties were 
more guided by policies than b}' principles. Of practical poli- 
tics he was ignorant. He was continuously elected district judge 
without opposition — not on account of his knowledge of elec- 
tioneering, but because the people held him in high esteem on 
account of his elevated character. The judge, though a (lermau 
by birth, gained such mastery of the English language that the 
style of his essays on various legal subjects is pronounced classic 
by competent critics. His is an intellectual style. The clear 
light of reason shines with a steady light from the pages of his 
writings. Tne warmth of passion and sentiment is missing. 

Hans Teichmueller comes from ? respected family. His 

Hon, H. Teichmueller. 


parents were August and Charlotte Teichmueller, nee von 
Gnrsewald. His father was an officer in the Brunswick army. 
Hans Teichmueller was born on March 7, 1837 at Brunswick, 
Germany, and attended the public schools of that city and the 
gymnasium of Blankenburg, where he graduated. Like all 
German boys, he loved adventure and travel, and when fifteen 
years old, he went with his father's consent, nicely equipped, as 
a sailor to New York. But the life of a sailor is in reality differ- 
ent from the one we read of in books. Naturally, a boy, raised 
in a refined family, could not like the rude jokes and the rough 
ways of a sailor crew. Thus, when the ship arrived in New 
York, he deserted the ship, went to a hotel, gave his trunk in 
pawn, wrote to his father for money to return and, when he had 
received same, went home. After graduation, he intended to 
study theology, but, after the death of his father, the family 
came into straitened circumstances and as a way out of them he 
concluded to emigrate to the United States and try his luck over 
here (1856). The first man he got intimately acquainted with 
was old man Fordtrau of Industry who gave him advice as to 
the condition of the country. He first came to Shelby, from 
there he went to Postoak Point and from there to High Hill 
(18(31). In the latter place he farmed that year (1861), 
but as a farmer he was not a success. Many are the good-natured 
funny stories that still circulate about his innovations and ways 
of farming. He finally sold his crop and yoke of oxen for 
Thirty-six Dollars and engaged in teaching school. He taught 
school during the Civil War at New Ulm and at the 
same time read law. In 1866 he studied law with 
Judge Lindsay and Judge Shropshire. He was admitted to the 
bar and formed a partnership with them. In 1869 he was county 
judge, but in the following year he was deposed by military 
order. He then formed a partnership with Major Phelps and later 
with Major Dunn which firm afterward took in Mr. Meerscheidt 
as a partner. In 1884 he was elected district judge which posi- 
tion he held with honor continuously till the time of his death 
(February 17, 1901). 

He was married June 10, 1858 to Miss Augusta Kellner of 


Postoak Point, the daughter of a highly educated teacher of 
modern languages. Colonel Henderson, then justice of the 
peace, performed the marriage ceremony. To this union were 
born five children. Mrs. May Mattingly, wife of the assistant 
cashier of the First National Bank, died two years ago; Misses 
Minetta and Anna stay at the home of their mother, Mrs. Teich- 

Hon. Jacob F. Wolters. 

In Texas more than in any other country within the knowl- 
edge of the author, it is customary to call men identified with 
public affairs by their given names. Hence, should the reader 
chance to hear in Fayette or adjoining counties people speak of 
"Jake," he may be certain the subject of this sketch is referred 
to. Jake Wolters has had a remarkably successful career in iiis 
profession, the law, as well as in politics. If the writer were 
required to give him an attribute, he would call him "the lucky," 
an attribute coveted by some of the world's greatest men. 

Pe was born near New I'lm, Austin County, Texas, on 
September 2, 1871. His parents are Tiieodore H. and Margaret 
(Wink) Wolters, both native Texans, but of German parents. 
Jacob Wolters, the grandfather of our Jake, came from Germany 
in 1883, and in May 1834 came to Texas. His maternal grand- 
parents, Richard and Catherine Wink, came to Texas from the 
village of Bingen on the Rhine in 1848. Richard Wink was a 
revolutionist against the German government in that year and 
after the failure of the revolution escaped to Texas. He, how- 
ever, remained in Germany long enouorh to wed his chosen 
bride; their wedding tour was a hasty departure from the old 
country and a three months' vo3^age in a sail boat to Texas, 

Jacob F. Wolters, with his parents, removed from Austin 
County Lo Moulton, Lavaca County, in 1878 and, in the following 
year, to Schulenburg, Fayette Count}'-, where his parents still 
reside. He was educated in the public schools of Schulenburg. 
During the vacation months he did hard manual labor, thus 



earning some money for himself. There is an old negro, still 
employed at the Schulenburg compress, who tells with evident 
pleasure how "Mister Jake, what is a lawyer now at La Grange, 
use ter truck cotton." He spent two terms at Add- Ran College, 
when that institution of learning was located at Tliorp's Spring, 
Hood t-'ounly. 

On May 20, 1892, he was admitted to the bar at La (i range. 
In November of tlie same year he was electa I county attorney 
of Fayette County over a strong and popuhir gentleman. There 
is where iiis luck came in. He was a beardless boy, barely 
twenty-one, and the people of Fayette County could not have 
known much of his qualilicatians for the otiice. However, he 
soon satisfied his friends tliat thny iiad made no mistake in 
electing him to this office, for he made an able and fearless prose- 
cuting officer. On April 25, 1893, he njarried Miss Saliie Drane 
of Colun)bus. He declined to stand for re-election to the olhce 
of county attorney, but, Ibrming a [)artnership with Captain li. 
H. Pnelps, entered fully into tiie practice of iiis ijrofession. On 
January 1, 1897, tbe partnership was diojolved by mutual 

In 189fj he was nominated by the democrats, together with 
Captain F. A. Schlick, and in November elected to the 25th 
Lea[islature by an overwhelming mijority. The author repre- 
sented Austin County in the same legislature and there hrst met 
Jake Wolters, In many resj^ects tiie 25th Legislature was one 
of the stormiest in the history of Texas since tlie war between 
the states. Jake soon became identilied as one of the leaders of 
the liberal element in the Ht)use. He was always alert and ready 
to combat the efforts of certain members to enact sumptuarv 
legislation. Under his leadershii) a bill prohibiting baseball 
playing on Sunday was defeated. A bill was reported which in 
etfecl would have taxed social clubs out of existence. A majority 
of the members seemed to favor the [lassage of the bill. Fayette 
County is full of social clubs and the proposed measure would 
have closed them all up. The young man from Fayette County 
took the lead in opposition to the measure. A small but com- 
pact minority stood by him. In this fight he demonstrated his 


abilities as a leader of men. Ihe minority stood opposed by a 
majority, led by able and resourceful men, principally from 
North Texas. Wolters resorted to all parliamentary tactics 
ever known to exist, and even invented some new ones. The 
idea was to delay action. Action was delayed, until a part of the 
majority became converted to the minority and the measure was 
defeated by a small majority. As in this contest, so in every 
important one that came up he took a leadino part. 

Since 1896 Mr. Wolters has not sought office, although he. 
in 1900 was elected as a Democratic Presidential Elector, and in 
that year as Chairman of the Democratic Executive Committee of 
Fayette County managed the democratic campaign with much 
success. He loves politics and delights to help bis friends. In 
fact, one of his cardinal virtues is his loyalty to his friends. It 
cannot be said that he loves his enemies, for, of course, like all 
men of his aggressive temperament, be has them too. But it is 
to his credit that such enemies as he has he made helping his 
friends in politics. He has never been known to "straddle a 
fence" on any public question. He has always fearlessly advo- 
cated what to him seemed right and to the best and lasting 
benefit of a majority of the people. As in politics, so is he in 
the pursuit of his profession — energetic and fearless, always 
jealously upholding a high professional standard of ethics. 

In 1897 he formed a partnership with John A. Kerr, Esq., 
which was dissolved upon the retirement of Mr. Kerr from the 
profession to enter into the mercantile business at Muldoon. 

. When war was declared in 1898 against Spain, Mr. Wolters 
tendered his services to the government and was commissioned 
as 1st Lieutenant of Cavalry and assigned to Troop H. (Lane 
Kangers) 1st Tex. Vol. U. S. Cavalry, commanded by the gallant 
Col. Luther li. Hare. 

In 1899 he formed a partnership with T. W. Lane, which 
firm George E. Lenert joined in 1901, the iirm now being Wol- 
ters, Lane & Lenert, 

Jake Walters is an American by birth and in sentiment, 


and of German descent. It is especially gratifying to tiie writer 
to be able to note that this man, American by birtli and in sen- 
timent, has shown to a certain class of Germans, who look down 
on the country of their birth or ancestry in a mistaken belief 
that thereby they become better Americans, — that he, con- 
scious of the virtue of his ancestry, cherishes and respects their 
memory. Indeed, a respect for our parentage never detracts 
from one's worth as an American citizen ; nay, those men are 
the very best citizens. 

His fearlessness, his uprightness in the advocacy of the 
people's rights have endeared him to the hearts of the' people. 
He may be called the advocate of the people's rights. Jealous 
of the rights of the people and of his own, he neyer fails to stand 
in defence of those rights. Of him it may be repeated that he : 

"Knows his rights 
And knowing dares maintain them." 



Chris. Eaumgarten, Sr. 

Schulenbiirg is proud to number among her many useful 
citizens a man who, by his inventive genius, lias lastingly bene- 
fitted a whole industry and placed it on a paying basis : Mr. 
Chris. Baumgarten. The industry benetitted by his inventions 
is the cotton seed oil industry. Mr. CUiris. Baumgarten has in- 
vented and taken out patents for the following inventio'nls : 
Hydraulic Cotton Baling Press, Plate System for Hydraulic Oil 
Presses, and Linting Piocess of the Delinter for removing the 
last remnants of cotton from the seed after passing through a 
linter. All these inventions are now in general use in all first- 
class oil mills throughout tlie United States. There is no man 
living who knows more about the process of manufacturing 
cotton seed into oil, meal, hulls, etc., than Mr. Baumgarten. 
He is the proprietor of the Schulenburg Oil Mill. This mill is 
a model oil mill. As soon as a new invention is made in the 
processes for crushing cotton seed — and proves to be good — it is 
adopted. He has constantly and unceasingly labored to make 
his oil mill a model establishment and he has succeeded in this 
better than any man in the United States. Like all men of in- 
ventive genius, he is modes-t and unassuming and a stranger 
would hardl}^ know that he is the man who caused a revolution 
in the manufacture of cotton seed oil. Though he pays his 
greatest attention to the oil business, he does by no means stop 
there ; he is forward in promoting all enterprises that tend to 
develop the industries of this county. 

The parents of Mr. Chris. Baumgarten were Christian and 
Maria (Burgemeister) Baumgarten. Their son Chris. Baumgar- 
ten wsis born March 13, 1836, at Tartun, Province Saxony, 
Prussia. He went to the public schools of his birthplace and 
after completing his education there, he learned the trade of car- 


penter. He came to Texas in 1854 and first landed at Galves- 
ton. There he worked seven months at his trade. He next 
worked in a great many parts of the state. In 1856 he came to 
Fayette County and first stayed at Ross Prairie. He then went 
to La Grange where he married Miss Ernestine Pannewitz of 
that city (1859). The same year he moved to High Hill. Here 

Mr. and Mrs. Chris. Baumgarten, Sr. 

he had bought a place where now the western half of Schulen- 
burg stands. He followed the occu})ations of farming and carpen- 
tering. In 1867 he built a small oil mill for F. llillje in High 
Hill, In 1882 he built the Schulenburg Oil Mill. In 1890 he 
organized companies in the state and built eight oil mills in. aU 


of which he retained stock. He also remodelled his Schulen- 
burg Oil Mill which has become a model oil mill in the United 

His children are : Mary, deceased ; Ernst, in the lumber 
business at Schiilenburg ; Alma, deceased ; Gus. A., manager of 
the Schiilenburg Oil Mill ; Emil, dealer in furniture, hardware, 
wagons, buggies and lumber at Schulent>urg ; Annie, wife of Max 
Wolters, merchant at Shiner ; Lillie, deceased ; Elizabeth, wife 
of Gus. Ruhmann, dealer in hardware and furniture at Shiner; 
Christian, bookkeeper for E. Baumgarten & Bro. at Schulen- 
burg; Charles, assistant in oil mill of Schulenburg; Heinrich, 
deceased ; William and Fritz, at home. 

G. A. Baumgarten. 
Gus Bdumgarteti, son of Mr. Chris. Baumgarten, Sr. , is, 
like ills father, an autlinrity on all questions in regard to the 

cottonseed oil industry. 
His thorough knowledge 
of this subject, his ability 
and fuergy, are recog- 
nized tlironghout the 
whole South. For a 
number of years, the Oil 
Mill Superintendents' 
Association of Texas 
elected him for their sec 
retary and treasurer, 
knowing that they coukd 
not lind an abler man 
who was better qualilied 
and more willing to 
faithfully work in their 
interest than liim. 'i'liis 
/^position he resigned on 
account of his many ar- 
Gus. Baumgarten. duous dulies in the oil 

business, but that association honored him for bis eminent ser- 
vices in their behalf during his term as secretary by electing him 


as vice president in 1901. Mr. Baumwarten is the leading spirit 
of that association and of tlie whole oil industry in Texas. His 
opinions and recommendations are highly regarded through- 
out the state. Men in the oil business, iti looking for managers 
of their mills, very often ask hiin to recommend them competent 
men for the position. A great many young men whom he had 
instructed in the oil business in the oil mill at Schulenburg he 
recommended, and they are now earning salaries of from $1800 
to $5000 per year. As is the case with all men who do not 
divide their energies, but direct them all to one single point, I\Ir. 
Baumgarten is a master in his line of business. For the last 
twenty years he has been the superintendent and manager of his 
fa-ther's oil mill at Schulenburg. 

Gus. Baumgarten was born February 14, 1866 at his father's 
house which stood then in the prairie, but now belongs to the 
western part of Schulenburg. He was instructed in the public 
schools (.>f that place. After coni|)letii)g his common school 
education, he attended f)r two se.>;sion-, the Gjiyi C'ity Business 
College of (i'.iiney, 111 Cl8S:vl89D ) He became a graduate of 
ihat institution. In 189 ) lie returned to Texas and l)uilt, in 
company with his father, eight o 1 mills in the state. He was 
tlie moving s|)irit in the organization of the Oil Mill Superin- 
teuilents' Association of Texas, w is elected their secretary and 
treasurer, and in 1901 vice i)resident of that association. 

Mr. G. A B.iumsarten was married on June 22, 1892 to 
Miss Ida Wallace, daughter of Frank Wallace, a conductor on 
the Southern P.iciHc Riilroad. Their union wa-s blessed by two 
children, Wallace and U ly. 

H i:\RY I'kmikkr. 

Schulenburg's reputation for the splendor of its festivities is 
largely due to the unceasing elTjrts of Henry Beniker. The 
population of this city is largely German. They are of the 
opinion that each citizen should enjoy his personal rights to the 
greatest extent consistent with good or^ler. They are the 
most outspoken opponents of prohibition and all sumptuary 
laws. The festivities af Schulenburg have the reputation of 


being conducted with the greatest treedom, combined witii the 
most congenial and orderly behavior. The leading spirit of 
these festivities is the subject of this sketch, Henry Beniker. 
His jolliness and congeniality are as if especially made for 
such festive occasions. To sustain the reputation of Schulen- 
burg as the jolliest old town in Texas, he spares neither time nor 
money. He believes m the doctrine, enjoy life while it lasts, 
or, as the poet says, 

"Let us have wine, women, laughter; 
Sermons and soda water the day after." 

The parents of Henry Beniker are Henry and Helene 
(luergens) Beniker, living at Nordenhaus, Oldenburg, His 

father was a seaman. 

Henry Beniker was born 
at Grossensiel, Oldenburg, on 
A])ril 28, 1858. He went to 
school at Abbehausen and, 
alter completing his education, 
lie learned the joiner's trade 
ill Breraerhaven. To become 
proficient in his trade, he trav- 
eled, as is the custom in Ger- 
many, throughout that coun- 
try, working in his trade 
under different masters. He 
established himself as master 
in his trade at Abbehausen, 
and on November 2, 1883, he 
married Miss Sophie Sommer. 
He came to the United States 
in the fall of 1888 and landed 
at Galveston. From there he 
went to Sweet Home and 
In 1889 he established himself as 
He was very successful in his 

Henry Beniker. 

worked there as a carpenter. 

a building contractor at Wied 

business. In 1893 he moved to Schulenburg and remained there 

in the 3ame business. He had very often as many as twenty 


carpenters under him, a work that required great skill in man- 
agement. In 1899 he went with John Oltmanns in the saloon 
business, in which he remained until his partner's death. In 
1901 he established himself in the same business in company 
with his brother Anton at the same old stand. He is also the 
popular agent of the New Orleans Brewing Association, whose 
interests he serves with ability and success. 

To his union with his wife, the following children were 
born: John, Henry, Willie, Herbert, Mary and Erna. They 
all stay at the home of their father. 

A. VV. Beniker. 

Of A. W. Beniker the same may be said as of his brother. 
He takes great interest in feasts and all social affairs. His jovial 
face, his timely jokes, his pleasant words for everybody, soon 
bring the visitors at feasts into good humor. If you want to 
find him on the feast ground, you may just e;o to where the 
largest crowd is; not that he follovvs tlie largest crowd, but 
wherever he goes, on account of liis jollity, he soon gathers a 
crowd around him. Like his broliier, he spares neither time, 
money nor efforts to make the feasts of bchulenburf^ a success. 
His presence and liis aid at these feasts have become a necessity 
for their success. He also takes a leading interest in all theatri- 
cal performances arranged by the citizens of Schulenburg. 

Anton Wilhelm Beniker was born August 2(j, 1866, at 
Grossensiel, Oldenburg. His father, Henry Beniker, was a 
seaman and perished in a storm at sea, when Anton was only 
two years old. His mother is still living at Bremerhaven. He 
went to school at Atens, and after his school years learned the 
trades of saddler and paper hanger. He traveled extensively 
in Germany to complete his trade education. In 1886 he entered 
the German army and absolved his three years' militar}- service, 
as is the law in that country. He entered the nineteenth regi- 
ment of dragoons which was stationed at Osternburg, Oldenburg. 
Though he was a splendid soldier, and well liked by his officers 
on account of his efficiency and ability, his convictions were 
against this form of government that required the best years of 


a man's life in order to train him to fight for and support a 
monarchical and oppressive form of government. He therefore 
left the fatherland for the United States as a country more in har- 
mony with his political convic- 
tions. He first came to Sweet 
Home and followed the occu- 
pation of painting. From 
there he went to Shiner and 
in 1894 he came to Schulen- 
burg. Here he was a leading 
painter, biing quite successful 
in this business. In December 
1901 he established, in cum- 
pany with his brother Henry, 
a saloon at the old John Olt- 
manns stand. The strict 
attention of the brothers to 
business, their jolliness and 
congeniality, have made their 
business place the most popu- 
lar establishment in Schulen- 

Mr. Anton Beniker was 
married to Miss Louise 
Schlottmann of Schulenburg, Texas, in June 1897. This union 
wag blessed with one boy, Anton, now four years old. 

Anton "W. Beniker. 

Rev. J. Chromcik. 

Dextera praecipue cai^it indulgentia mantes; 
Asperitas odium saevaque bella movet. 


Rev. Father Chromcik is a man whose presence commands 
respect everywhere. He understands the art of guiding man 
without wanting to rule. No man has followed better the line 
of conduct laid down in the above lines of the great Latin poet 
than he. His timely tolerance has conquered him the hearts of all 
he came into contact with, and he carefully has avoided off"end- 
ing anybody by untimely severity. Like all Catholic priests, 


versed in the classical languages, he possesses that reserve 
coupled with urbanity and a spirit of self-consciousness which 
are the characteri5tics of the gentleman and classical scholar. 
Though a firm Catholic, his broad mind takes a sympathetic 
interest in all humanity. When he first came to Texas, there 
were not as many Catholic priests then as there are now, and he 
went on mission in eleven different communities, amongst them 
La Grange. The communities not being connected then by rail 
as they are now, he had to make long trips, mostly on horseback, 
and very often in bad tempes- 
tuous weather. Once he had 
to be in Industry, Austin 
County, for Sunday's service. 
It rained for twenty-four 
hours; the creeks were high, 
especially the C u m m i n g s 
Creek, and he had to cross it. 
His feet got wet and he con- 
tracted a severe attack of 
rheumatism with which he is 
still troubled. He has done a 
world of good everywhere. In 
Fayetteville, he restored the 
Catholic Church building, one 
of the oldest and largest in 
the state. His deep interest 
in education induced him to 
build the Chromcik school in 
the latter place in which he 
taught for fifteen years under 
a first grade certificate. The Catholic priests generally are noted 
for their great accomplishments and splendid education, but 
even among this highly educated class he has but few erjuals. 
Father Chromcik is a linguist and has a perfect knowledge of 
several languages. Men of his character do not care for the 
applause of the world; they have resources in their own minds 
and the consciousness of having lived a useful life which are 
sufficient for them. Still, his friends and the reader will feel 

Rev. J. Chromcik. 


glad to hear that his sterling merits have been highly honored 
by his church. He was diocesan consulter at the synod to help 
and assist the bishop of Galveston in ruling the whole diocese, 
representing the German and Bohemian nationalities and their 
affairs; he is now ecclesiastical judge (judge for the clergy in 
ecclesiastical cases), besides fiscal attorney, i. e. prosecutor and 
defendant in ecclesiastical cases. 

Rev. J. Chromcik was born January 25, 1845, at Olmuetz, 
Moravia, Austria. He finished his course of studies in Olmuetz 
and graduated there in 186G. After ordination he was assistant 
priest at Lichtenau, Moravia. He then became administrator of 
the parish of Senftleben, Moravia. Having been assigned to the 
diocese of Galveston by Bishop Dubuois, he went to Texas and 
arrived there on Christinas eve, 1872. He was sent to Fayette- 
ville where he has resided ever since. In 1894 he made a trip 
to Europe to celebrate the jubilee of the twenty ^fifth anniversary 
of his ordination. On hh return he brought with him four 
worthy young clergym !n : Rsv. 8kocek, Rev. Sebik, Rev. Ma- 
han and Rev. Kacer. 

Dr. I. E. Clark. 

Whenever in election years democracy raises its banner to 
fight monopoly, paternalism, imperialism and republican mis- 
rule. Dr. I. E. Clark is always found in the front ranks fighting 
its battles, a trusted and able captain of that party. It is large- 
ly also due to his unceasing efforts that his home place, Schu- 
lenburg, though the population is largely German and inclined 
to be independent, has become a stronghold of democracy of the 
county and generally gives decided democratic majorities. He 
is a patriot, always placing the welfare of his party above per- 
sonal ambition. To his fellow citizens he has been of the 
greatest benefit in paying his attention to improved stock and 
importing same to this county. His Bermuda Valley Stock 
Farm where he raises the best kind of thoroughbred and stan- 
dard horses and Red Poll and Holstein cattle has acquired a rep- 
utation beyond the limits of this state. 

Dr. Clark is one of the finest surgeons in the state. He 


was the first one in Fayette County that operated for gunshot 
wounds of the intestines where several holes had been made in 
the intestines ; the patient recovered. He removed an ovarian 
tumor weighing sixty-six pounds from an old lady sixty-three 
years of age ; she was well in three weeks. He has performed 
successfully many dangerous operations, a great many of them 
for appendicitis. He is the local surgeon for the Southern Pa- 
cific Railway Company. 

The parents of Dr. I. E. Clark are Dr. H. S. Clark and 
Mrs. Clio A. (Robertson) Clark. They catne from Tennessee to 
Texas in 1854 and first settled 
in Polk County. In 1861 
they moved to Gonzalts 
County and in 1865 to Mixen 
Creek near Kinkier, Lavaca 
County, where his fcither still 
resides, a practising physician 
of Lavaca C o u n t y. His 
mother died there in 1877. 

Dr. I. K. Clark was born 
December 23, 1860, in Polk 
Counly, Texas. He first at- 
tended the public schools of 
Lavaca County and later from 
1875 to 1879 Judge Byars' 
High School of Covington, 
Tennessee, where he also 
studied Latin, Greek and 
French. He received a cer- 
tificate of thoroughness from 
that institution. In 1879 he read medicine for four months 
under his father and from 1879 to 18S2 he studied his profession 
at the Jefferson College of Philadelphia. After graduation he 
completed the practical side of his professional studies as resi- 
dent physician in the Pennsylvania Hospital of Philadelphia. 
In 1890 he visited a great many medical schools in the United 
States and wound up by a one year's course in the Polylinic of 

Dr. 1. E. Clark. 


New York. There are few physicians in the state who have 
prepared themselves with so much thoroughness for the practice 
of their profession as Dr. Clark. He started the practice of his 
profession at Moravia, Lavaca County, in 1883, and in 1887 he 
moved to Schulenburg where he nas been a resident ph3'sician 
ever since. 

In 1888 he married Miss Ella Wolters, daughter of R. 
Wolters, sr., one of the most prominent business men of Schul- 
enburg. Their children are: Clio A. Clark, born 1889, and 
Harvey U. Clark, born in 1891. 

Lately Dr. I. E. Clark has taken great interest in Beaumont 
oil. He has been elected president and manager of the Borealis 
Oil Company, the business affairs of which company he manages 
with great ability and success. 

Henry Eelers. 

Amongst the peace officers of the state who were instrumen- 
tal in establishing law and order, Henry Eilers, the popular 
marshal of Schulenburg, Texas, is found in the front rank. He 
first served the county as constable. At that time, a gang of 
horse and cattle thieves who resided about four miles east of 
Schulenburg operated in the neighborhood and when in town 
very frequently played the hell-roaring desperado. Henry 
Eilers, under Sherifis John T. Rankin and B. L. Zapp, did some 
first class detective work to discover and convict the guilty 
parties. In a short time, the whole country around Schulen- 
burg was cleared of this undesirable element, and the indus- 
trious farmer was assured that he could retain the fruits of his 
enterprise and industry. His services in this line were highly 
appreciated by the citizens of Schulenburg, who rewarded them 
by a repeated bestowal of their confidence in liis ability in con- 
tinuously electing him to the marshalship. 

The parents of Henry Eilers were Hinrich and Auguste 
(Frels) Kilers. They were natives of the grand duchy of Olden- 
burg, His father came to this country in 1846. The latter 


married Miss Augnste Frels at La Grange and thereafter moved 
to Ross Prairie where he was one of the best known leading 
settlers of that section. He 
was largely interested in 
drawing German and Bohe- 
mian immigrants to this fer- 
tile county. He brought the 
first Bohemian immigrants 
into tliis county and more 
immigrants to this section 
than any other two men. He 
died respected by his fellow- 
citizens at a ripe old age in 
1899. His wife had preceded 
him in death in 1895. He 
left the following children: 
(1) Gerhard, merchant in 
Yoakum; (2) Henry, the sub- 
ject of our sketch; (3) William, 
teacher at Fayetteville; (4) 
August, farmer near Hallets- 
ville; (5) Fred, farmer at 

-r. •■-.-. ^r, r^ , Henry Eilers. 

Koss Prairie; (6) fcirnst, part- 
ner in the saloon business with Kaiser at Yoakum, died in 1902; 
(7) Auguste and (8) Annie, staying with (heir brother William. 

Henry Eilers was born July 11, 1857, at Ross Prairie ; went 
to school at Fayetteville, Rutersville college and St. Mary's uni- 
versity, Galveston, Texas. He went to Schulenburg in August, 
1880 and established himself in the saloon business in which he 
remained for three years. In November, 1882, he was elected 
constable in which office he served the people till April, 188G, 
when he resigned on assuming the duties of the office of city 
marshal. He became so popular ia this office that the people 
of Schulenburg have elected him as city marshal ever since. 
Besides this office he holds the office of city assessor and collec- 
tor. He has been a deputy sheriff, deputy collector and deputy 
assessor of the county since 1882. the best proof of the couti- 


dence the people and the officers place in his integrity and 

Mr. Eilers is an outspoken democrat and has always taken 
a leading interest in the advocacy of his party's principles. His 
services to the party have been eminent and unselfish, and his 
influence in that party is, therefore, accordingly great. 

He married Miss Dora Williams of Schulenburg in 1885. 
This union was blessed with five children : Lillie, Henry, 
Adele, Dora, and Erna. 

Prof. Wm. Eilers. 

As is always the case, if a man does not divide his energy, 
but directs it to one single object, he will be successful in liis 
aim. Prof. Eilers has devoted all his time and energy to pre- 
pare himself thoroughly for the profession of teaching. He is 

one of the most progressive 

teachers in the state. He 
stands high among jiis col- 
leagues, and his devotion to 
teaching and his ability havo 
often been recognized. Hr 
was president of the Teachers' 
Institute of Washington Coun- 
ty ; twice secretary of the 
(South Texas Teachers' Asso- 
ciation ; vice-president and 
secretary of the Fayette Coun- 
ty Teachers' Institute ; in- 
structor for two years in that 
institute ; member of the Fay- 
ette County board of examin- 
ers ; member of the state 
board of examiners (1901) and 
is now conductor of the La 
Grange Summer Normal. 
The success of this normal is 
largely due to his unceasing efforls. The school has an enroll- 

Prof. Wm. Eilers. 


meut of fifty-six students, by far the largest enrollment of any 
summer normal ever held in Faj^ette County. 

William Eilers was born in Ross Prairie near Fayetteville 
on October 5, 1863. Up to 1881 he was educated in the public 
and private schools of Fayetteville. He then passed his exam- 
ination as teacher and obtained a first grade certificate. He 
taught school for six years in Kinkier, Lavaca County, and one 
year in Schulenburg. From 1889-1891 he attended the Sam 
Houston Normal of Huntsville, Texas, of which institution he 

The home of Hinrich Eilers, one of the first settlers of Ross Prairie. 

became a graduate in 1891. He next taught school again in 
several towns, viz: In ElJinger, LaGrange and Fayetteville for 
seven years, and in Burton, Washington County, for three years. 
In all these schools he attracted by his skillful manage- 
ment and his able instruction public attention. He has estab- 
lished a reputation for being a successful teacher beyond the 
limits of his county. On account fof his recognized profession- 
al ability he may be called at any moment to larger fields of 


Hon. a. E, Falke. 
The subject of this sketch was born on the 27th day of 
October, 1842, near Weissenberg, in Saxony, Germany. In 
1854, at the age of twelve years, he came to America with his 
parents and first settled at New Ulm: later he and his parents 
moved to this county and settled on Rabb's Creek. In 1861 Mr. 
Falke enlisted as a private in Allen's regiment, Captain Patty's 
company "F." After about fourteen months of active service to 
the Lost Cause, he was captured at Millican's Bend, La., and 
taken north to Young's Point and Memphis, Tenn., where he 
was kept as a prisoner of war; he was finally taken to Cairo, 111., 
where he was released. After working on a farm near Cairo for 
some time, he returned to Texas with $10 in cash, a mustang 
pony and no saddle. 

Landing in Texas without means, he engaged in farming for 

halves, and, by diligence and 
strict economy, ho managed to 
save a little money and in 
1868 he was enabled to pur- 
chase a sawmill on Rabb's 
Creek. In the same year he 
was married to Miss Wilhel- 
mina Peter of Ingram's Prai- 
rie, a poor, but beautiful and 
highly respected young lady. 
This union was blessed with 
fourteen children, nine of 
whom are living. In 1874, 
Mr. Falke, having accumu- 
lated about $2000, engaged in 
the general merchandise busi- 
ness at VVarda. A year later 
he was appointed postmaster 
and established the post office 
at that place. 

In 1894 he was elected as 
a member of the 24th Legislature by the democratic party 
with a handsome majority. 

Hon. a. E. Falke. 


la 1897 Mr. Falke had the misfortune to lose his wife, 
probably the hardest ordeal during his whole life. In 1899, 
after a career of a quarter of a century as a successful merchant 
and financier, he retired from the mercantile business, turning 
over his large stock to his sons, C. A. and E. A. Falke. Mr. 
Falke, though a man of limited education, is eminently practi- 
cal, posse:?ses sound judgment and an excellent natural business 
talent. By liberal donations to various churches and schools 
and other charitable institutions, he has shown himself to be 
very liberal to worthy enterprises. 

He is one of the principal originators of the oil mill and 
compress at Giddings. The old axiom, "Great oaks from little 
acorns grow," can justly be applied to Mr. Falke. From a 
small beginning he has by thrift, honesty and perseverance 
accumulated a considerable fortune. 


The life of Lorenz Fuch^ furnishes an example where per- 
severence, industry, economy and keen business sense were 
crowned with success. Of all the Germans who immigrated to 
this county there was none more successful and none worthier 
of success. He is an example of the German, as a better one 
could not be found anywhere who by perseverance and industry 
has reached the summit of his ambition and on account of his 
accumulated fortune secured himself and his family against the 
adversities of life. But Lorenz Fuchs was not only a success- 
ful man, he was also a good man. Therefore, no one envied his 
success ; his friends rather enjoyed it. He invested his savings 
iu land and as the value of the latter steadily rose, his fortune 
rose with it. At the time of his death, his estate was valued at 
$65,000. His children have inherited the keen business sense 
of their father and number amongst the most successful farmers 
in the state. 

Lorenz Fuchs was born in Pegnitz, Bavaria, on May 11, 
182G. He went to the public city schools of that place. In 184G 


he immigrated with his parents to the United States and land- 
ed at Gralveston, Texa?. His father Wolfgang Fuchs bought a 
farm near Bucknorn, Austin County, Texas. One month after 
their arrival at Buckhorn his father died. The next year (1847) 
Loreuz Fuchs married Miss Frederike Kiel, a native of Wuerz- 
low, Hanover, Germany and assumed the management of his 
father's farm. 

In 1851 he went on account of bad health to La Bahia 
Prairie, bought a farm there and has resided there ever since till 

the time of his death, August 
2, 1900. He had reached the 
ripe old age of seventy-four 
years after a useful life of toil 
and lobor. It may be re- 
marked yet that during the 
Confederate War he was gov- 
verntnent teamster. His wife 
survives liim. 

He left his children all in 
prosperous circumstances. 

The following are his chil- 
dren: 1 Henry, at Burton, 
Washington County, Texas ; 
2. Wilhelm, at Burton ; 8. 
Emily, wife of Penry Broe- 
sche, at Burton ; 4, Fritz at 
Carmine, Fayette County, 
Texas ; 5, James, at Manor, 
Travis County, Texas ; 6, 
Lina, wife of John Ebner, at 
Page, Bastrop County, Texas ; 7, Mary, wife of William Seidel, 
at Brenham, Washington County, Texas ; 8, Lorenz, at Buck- 
holts, Milam County, Texas; 9, August, at Page, Bastrop 
County, Texas ; 10, Charles, at Burton ; 11, Laura, wife of 
Alfred Homeyer, at Burton ; 12, Alfred, at Page; 13, Otto at 
Carmine, Texas. 

Lorenz Fuchs. 



Prof. Julius Hansen. 

The subject of this sketch is well known to the devotees of 
music throughout the state as a master of the highest of human 
arts, the art of music. Not only has he become a master in this 
art himself, but he has also devoted a large part of his time and 
ener^^y to teaching it and to the organization of musical societies 
and singing clubs. He organized the Concordia Singing Club 
of Fredericksburg, Texas, and became the leader of the Mixed 
Chorus of that city; was leader of the Mixed Chorus of Comfort; 
supervisor of singing in the city public schools of Austin (1890- 
1891); organized the Cedar Maennerchor (Dec. 3, 1891); later 
on the Cedar Mixed Chorus; 
he is now leader of the Fay- 
etteville Saengerbund. 

The parents of Julius 
Hansen were Peter Hansen of 
Handerup,Sch]es wig- Hoi stein 
(born 1813) and Anna Doro- 
thea Hansen, nee Andreson, 
born in Ladelund, Schleswig- 
Holstein. His father was the 
proprietor of a tannery and 
shoe factory. This union was 
blessed with three children: 

(1) T. Heinrich Hansen, who 
died in the MO's and left three 
children, Julius, Maria and 
Louise, who are now living in 
Niesgran, Anofeln, Denmark; 

(2) Johann Theodor Hansen, 
landlord of the inn Zur Hei- 
math in Tundern, and Julius. 

Julius Hansen, born August 31, 1851, in Ladelund, Schles- 
wig-Holstein, attended the public schools of his native city until 
his sixteenth year. Then, against his will, he was apprenticed 
in the trade of dyeing in Foehr. The trade not suiting him, he 
eturned home and stayed there till January 2, 18G9. He then 

Prof. Julius Hansen. 


volunteered and enlisted in the 84th regiment. In this regiment 
he served during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71, and took 
part in the battles of Gravelotte, St. Privat, Metz, Noisseville 
and Crozelles. During the siege of Metz he became sick and was 
sent to the hospital of Sachsen-Altenburg. After his dismissal 
from the hospital, he again went to the front and participated in 
the battle of Le Mans. After his return from the war, he taught 
in several small schools from 1872 to 1874. From 1874 to 1877 
he was an alumnus of the Normal at Tundern; he graduated 
there in 1877 in German and Danish. Till the autumn of that 
year he taught m the public school of Keitum, Sylt. 

In November, 1877, he went to New York and in 1878 from 
there to Mexico. In the autumn of 1878 he returned to the 
United States and taught school in New Fountain, Medina County; 
in 1879-81 he wns teacher of German in the Fredericksburg 
College; from 1881 to 188G, princijjal of the Comfort school; in 
1886 he became proprietor of a tinshop in that place which he 
sold in the fall of 1887; in January 1888 he accepted a position as 
tutor in the family of Mr. E. Engle, Bluff, Fayette County; from 
18S8 to 1895 he was teacher in Ce''ar with the exception of the 
year 1890-91, when he was supervisor of singing in the public 
schools of Austin, Texas; in 1895 he opened a private school 
in La Grange, Texas; from 189G to January 1897 he was 
teacher of German in the La Grange city schools. Then he 
moved to Fayetteville and became the proprietor of the tinshop 
in that place. On February 22, 1898, he was appointed post- 
master at Fayetteville, which office he still holds. 

He married Miss Fernandine Schulze of Comfort, Texas, on 
June 3, 1882. His wife died in Comfort in 1896 and left an 
only daughter, Hedwig Hansen, who stays with her grandmother 
in Comfort. On August 26, 1897, he was married to Miss Ji^lla 
Vetter of Fayetteville, Texas. 

A. Heintze, Sr. 

If I ask the reader it he remembers the tall, sturdy figure of 
an old jnan, head still erect, hair white, eye still keen and pene- 


Irating, standing in the neighborhood of Mr. Heintze's store in 
the afternoons, the German reader in the county knows that I 
mean old Mr. Heintze. Old Mr. Heintze is a fine specimen of 
the robust health and sturdiness of the northern German. There 

is still the youthful fire in his 
eyes that was there when he 
joined in the effort of the Kiel 
students to separate from Den- 
mark and join the glorious old 
fatherland, when he served 
under Major v. Vasmer and 
General v. der Tann in that 
war. Men in the forties very 
often show less physical and 
mental vigor than he does at 
eighty. Yes, that is his pres- 
ent age. After a well spent 
life of work, he now enjoys 
a happy repose in his old age, 
visiting his children, of whom 
his son August in l^a Grange is 
(juite a favorite with him, 
staying with them and par- 
taking in their success. His 
steady good humor, still show- 
ing the lio^htheartedness of youth, his jovial manners have made 
a lasting impression and secured him a kind memory in the 
hearts of his friends. 

A. Heintze, Sr. 

Mr. August Heintze, Sr. , was born in June 1820 in Eckers- 
forde, Holstein, Germany. He was a commission merchant in 
stock, cattle and country produce from his early youth till 1885, 
when he retired from business. He was married in 1848 to Mrs. 
Ricklefsen, a widow, nee Wilhelm. Three children blessed this 
union: August Heintze, a merchant in J^a Grange; Miss Sophie, 
who is married to Mr. C. A. Honig employed in the banking 
business at Flensburg, and Dorothea. Mr. Heintze makes 
frequent trips to Germany. 


A Heintze, Jr. 

The ear of the reader is well familiar with the sound of the 
name of A. Heintze. Not only in the confines of this county. 
but beyond them, in the surrounding counties, his name may be 
heard when mercantile affairs are discussed. Mr. Heintze re- 
ceived a thorough mercantile training in his early youth in Ger- 
many. No doubt, after he came to this country, the comparison 
of the mercantile conditions in this country, new to him, with 
those of the fatherland, well known to him, suggested many 
original and practical ideas to his trained judment. He paid 
his especial attention to the cotton trade. This writer and per- 
haps some of his readers re- 
member how in the hitter part 
of the eighties large proces- 
sions tif wagon trains loaded 
witli cotton, laige slieeting 
printed \\i\h the lirm nnine of 
A. Heintze being lacked to 
both sides of the wagons, 
made their rounds through La 
Grange, a very ex[)ensive 
mode of advertising, but a 
very striking one. It mav be 
said tliat no man has done 
more to attract tiie attention 
of the people to La Grange 
and make this city a popular 
market than A. Heintze. Nor 
was this the only gain La 
Grange derived trom his es- 
tablishment in that place. 
While he aimed at success 
for himself, he did not neglect the interest of the farmer. It 
should not be forgotten mat he was the first one who bought all 
kinds of country produce for which the farmer could not find 
any market before, at a time when such a trade was deemed any- 
thing but profitable. He thus gave an impetus to developing 

A. Heintze, Jr. 


a new industry and opening new avenues of trade, and bore the 
charges for this solely by himself. 

Mr. A. Heintze, jr., was born in the year 1850 in Kappeln,' 
Schleswig, Germany. He was educated by a private tutor. He 
received his commercial trainnig in Flensburg and Hamburg in 
large manufacturing establishments. Having been sph.-ndidly 
educated by his tutor, he passed his examination in 1868 
for the one year voluntefr service. The time of military ser- 
vice in Germany for every able subject is three years ; but ' 
the educated who stand a severe test in regard to their scien- 
tific qualifications enjoy the privilege of serving only one year. 
But in that case they have to furnish their own equipments and 
accoutrements, keep a body servant and live in the style of an 
officer. This causes an expense of about ^100 a year. When in 
the Franco-German war the fatherland needed his services, he 
volunteered and served his year in the 84th infantry, ^ih Army 
Corps. He was with Prince Frederick Carl before Metz and par- 
ticipated in the battles of Orleans and LeMans. He was slightly 
wounded in the foot. In 1871 he re-entered the same business 
and in 1873 he came to the United States. There he associated 
himself with his half-brother, \V. R«cklefsen, at Rancho Los 
Olmos, one mile from ths llio Grande frontier, 'i'lie country 
being unsafe on account of marauding Mexicans he left and came 
to Warrenton where in 1870 he took charge of the store of Wm. 
Neese, deceased. He married in 1878 Miss Johanna Speckels 
of Warrenton. 1 heir only son Alfred is now in the mercantile 
business with his father. In 188S Mr. Heintze moved to La 
Grange in which place he became the leading cotton buyer. He 
for a time was a senior member of three mercantile lirms : Heintze ' 
& Co., La Grange ; Asclien & Heintze, Oldenburg, wiiich latter 
])lace he founded in company with Gus. Steenken ; and E. A. 
Froehlich & Co., Warrenton. In the fall of 1901 Mr. Heintze 
opened his present large department store which in an exceeding- 
ly short time has become the leading mercantile establishment 
of La Grange. 


Jno. B. Holloway. 

The writer presents to the reader in the following a bio- 
graphical sketch of Mr. Holloway written by the latter at the 
request of the writer. lie only wants to add that Mr. Holloway 
is known throughout the state as a successful and solid business 
man. His energy, economy, sound judgment and a good knowl- 
edge of human nature laid the foundation for his success which 
in every way he has merited. He is now the cashier of one of 
the most substai.ti il finance institutions in the state, the First 
National Bank of La Grange. But here is the sketch: 

La Grange, Texas, June 4, 1902. 
Mr. Frank Lotto, 

La Grange, Texas. 
Dear Sir: 

As requested, I hand you a short biographical sketch of my 
life to this date, including my photograph that may appear in 
your book, "Fayette County, Her History and Her People," 
to- wit: 

I was born in Person County, N. C, on March 30, 1847, and 
I was the third child of William Dixon Holloway and Elizabeth 
Holloway, nee Woods, one of eleven children — seven boys and 
four girls; 1 had two half-brothers and one half-sister. There 
were in all fourteen children. My father, after the death of my 
mother, married Miss Edith Day. My parents moved to Wake 
County, N. C, while I was quite young and settled near Fish- 
dam on a farm where I grew to manhood. 

In the early part of the year 1864 I joined the Confederate 
army as a private. I belonged to the N. C. Junior Reserves, 
First Regiment, Company ""D," doing principally detached 
service, until the Rarly part of the year 1865, when 
the regiment was attached to Hooker's Brigade, Johnston's 
Army. I took part in the battles of Kingston and Bentonville, 
and was paroled near Durham, N, C, at the close of the war. 

Returning home, 1 lived on the farm with my parents till 
January 1, 1868, when I was employed as a clerk in a country 
fjtore at $16.66§ per month until the early part of 1870. In 


November 1870 I came to Texas visiting relatives. For a while 
I made my home with the family of Major B. F. Dunn of Fay- 
etteville, Texas, who had married m}' first cousin, Miss M. F. 
Holloway. (Her brothers are J. J. Holloway, J. B. HoUoway 
and R. E. Holloway.) ■ 

In February 1871 I moved with the family of Major B. F. 
Dunn to La Grange, Texas. Some time during the year 1871, I 
commenced working as deputy 
sheriff under R. 0. Faires and 
remained with him at a salary 
of Thirty Dollars per month 
and board, until his term of 
office had expired, except for 
the short time I clerked for 
M. Cockrell at Cistern and for 
G. Friedberger at La Grange, 

In the early part of the year 
1874 I was appointed by the 
commissioners' court consta- 
ble of Precinct No. 1, Fayette 
County, Isaac Sellers then 
being the justice of the peace. 
In this office I served till 
1876, when on May 15, 1876, 
I was appointed clerk of the 
district court of Fayette 
County by Hon. L. \V. Moore, 
the district judge. This office, through the goodness of the 
voters of this county, I held till tlie general election in 1894. 
Having accepted the position of cashier of tiie First National 
Bank of La Grange, Texas, on January 8, 1894, I did not offer 
for the office of clerk again. I am still the cashier of said bank. 

I was married on the 28th day of September, 1876, to Miss 
Lizzie B. Robertson, a daughter of W. C. and S. C. Robertson and 
9, niece of A. T. and R, T. Bradshaw of La Grange, Texas. The 



Hh /Ji 

^^^^^B 7^ ^^MUHk 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^K ^m^ ' MS 


^^^^^^H^^^^^L \ 


John B. Holloway. 


result of said marriage to date are ten children, seven boys and 
three girls, all of whom are living except two boys who died 
quite young, viz: J. W. HoUoway, Thornton Holloway(deceased), 
William floUoway, Tom B. HoUoway, Carrie M. Holloway, 
Ijizzie May Holloway, Charles K. Holloway, Leslie Holloway, 
Joseph Holloway (deceased), and Mary Emma Hollowav. 


Jno. B. Holloway. 

Geo. Huebner. 

This country has furnished numerous instances where men 
with only limited education, but with practical sense have risen 
to the highest walks ot life. Not schooling, but practical com- 
mon sense is the key to success. Geo. Huebner is an eminent- 
ly practical man. During his early years as teamster lie had 
the chance to become acquainted witli the ways of life. His 
shrewd observation developed in him a sound judgment. On 
the road, from his fe.lowmen and from nature, but nut from 
books, he gathered his information. His knowledge comes 
from tlie first source. And he not only lias a fund of practical 
knowledge, but also knows how to express liis views with energy 
and clearness. He is an interesting talker. The writer bas 
heard with deep interest his views on road building and road 
improvement and he must confess that h3 never has heard 
sounder views on this subject than those expressed by Geo. 
Huebner. But not only on this, he has sound views on almost 
any question. From 1898 to 1900 iie served one term as county 
commissioner. When he retired from this oflTice, declining to 
stand for re-election, it was the general verdict of the people that 
they never had had a better commissioner. The writer agrees 
fully to their verdict and is of the opinion that a better man, a 
man with sounder judgment and greater common sense can not 
be found for that office. 

Geo. Huebner was born at the Bluff settlement August IG, 
1851. His parents were John A. and Pauline (Willrich) Hueb- 
ner. They came to this county from Germany while quite 
young. His father came from Bavaria, and first immigrated 
to Texas in 1836, but on account of Indian raids lie went back 


to New Orleans without settling in Texas. He returned in the 
early 40's and then settled in the Bluff settlement where both 
parents remained till their death. 

Geo. Huebner worked with his father on the farm, went to 
school and drove team. He acquired quite a reputation as one 
of the most skillful teamsters of the county, for it required skill 
to handle six to eight teams of oxen. After the war, lie married 
Miss Lisette Warnken, the dauglUer of a prominent old settler 
at the Bluff. This union was blessed with six children : Louis, 
Helene, Annie, George, Ellie and Augusta. 

George Huebner is a prominent successful farmer of the 
county. From 18;)8 to 1900 he served the county as commis- 
sioner which offiice he filled with great efficiency to the satisfac- 
tion of the people. 

Hon. a. B Kekr. 
Success is an accepted criterion of a man's worth of char- 
acter; by it, we are all judged and sized up. A great many 
succ?ssful people are only the makings of chance; but such can 
not be said of Hon. A. 13. Kerr, the subject of this sketch. He 
started with nolliing in Texas, but lie had those traits of char- 
acter which are the foundation of success, viz: Honesty, perse- 
verance, economy and above all a keen penetration into the 
chances of business which [iromised to turn out a success. 
Endowed with these superior qualities, he was destined for suc- 
cess. For a number of years he has been the largest taxpayer 
in Fayette County. He owns 50.00 acres of land in Texas, 
of which 4000 acres are under cultivation. He also owns a 
50,000 acres ranch in Mexico. He is the owner of the Muldoou 
rock quarries from which he has shipped for years on an average 
thirty-five to forty cars per day. He is extensively interested 

in the Rockdale coal mines and 
A man who worked himself u 
station is worthy to be held u 
generation that they may 

Hon. A. B. Kerr has kept out of politics and, although be 
served the people as justice of the peace (1870-1S75), as cora- 

numberless other enterprises, 
his brawn and brain to such a 
an example to the younger 
those qualities by which he 


missioner (1870-1874) and also as school director, these offices 
were not sought after by him, but rather accepted by him on the 
demands of his friends. He was also a member of the Senate of 
the Twenty-fifth and Tsventy-sixth Legislatures, representing in 
tliat body Fayette, Colorado and Lavaca Counties. He occupied 
a high place in the councils of that body, not so much on account 
of his oratorical talent as on account of his business acumen, 
keen insight and the wisdom of his utterances. Men like he are 
the anchors that save a commonwealth in stormy times. There 

is no man who is worthier to 
be entrusted with the interests 
of others than Hon. A. 13. 
Kerr, his conservative charac- 
ter being the best pledge for 
their safety. 

The Y^arents of A. B. Kerr 
were Robert G. and Cassandra 
C. Kerr, nee McCutchen, na- 
tives of Virginia. Hon. A. B. 
Kerr's grand-parents distin- 
guished themselves as soldiers 
during the Kevolutionary 
War, viz: On the paternal 
side, William Kerr: on the 
maternal side, Downey Mc- 
Cutclien, known as Captain 

A. B. Kerr was born March 
4, 1832, in Augusta County, 
Va. He attended the common 
schools and the high schools of that country. When twenty 
years of age, he started out for himself. He went to Charleston, 
W. Va., and from there down the Ohio and Mississppi Rivers to 
New Orleans. Many were taken sick with cholera on the boat. 
Boats were not allowed to stop in the towns, but they would 
land at wood yards and other places and there the passengers 
would dig pits in the sand for the corpses of their unfortunate 

Hon a. B. Kerr. 


comrades. On this boat was a lady going south with her little 
boy to join her husband, a New Orleans merchant. The lady 
promenaded the deck with Mr. Kerr, seemingly in the best of 
health, but before morning she was a corpse. Tbe child would 
not go with anyone else, but clung to Mr. Kerr, and thus he 
took charge of the forlorn child until it reached its father in New 
Orleans. From New Orleans Mr. Kerr went to Indianola and 
from there by ox team to Gonzales. He secured a position as 
clerk and bookkeeper with one Mr. Gishard, a Frenchman, at a 
salary of $51 per month. After one month he became sick, 
having contracted pleurisy, and came near dying. On recovery 
he had to pay all his money to the doctors. Left without money, 
without a position and witliout friends and too proud to write 
home for money, he took the tirst job he could get and worked 
as hod carrier for the masons on the tirst brick building in Gon- 
zales, which was then being built for one Kaiber, at seventy cents 
a day and board himself. 

At that time Major Neighbors raised a company of rangers 
to guard a surveyor's party which was going north to survey 
land in Peters Colony, north of where Dallas now stands. As a 
ranger he had to equip himself, and as he had no money, some 
of his friends who had watched his industry trusted liis honesty 
and one furnished him with a horse, another with a saddle, and 
a third one with a pistol. While with the surveyor's party, he 
and one Gibbons, on their trip to Fort Belknap to liave their 
guns repaired, struck an Indian party and were attacked by 
them. Mr. Kerr had a very narrow esoa])e. On November ol, 
1852, he was transferred from the ranger service to the surveying 
corps and here he received twice big former salarv, namely 
Sixty Dollars. Still later, he was transferred to the transcribing 
department of the general land office at a salary of Seventy Five 
Dollars per month. He stayed there till November 1, 1853, 
then went back to Gonzales and paid off" his debts. The last of 
January, 1854, he went to Cibolo, near Selma, Bexar County, 
and purchased a small herd of cattle and a tract of land from J. 
M. Hill. He made considerable money out of this. During the 
fall of 1854 he met his first wife, Miss May Mercer, and while 
she was attending school, they were married, August 2, 1855, 

— 2G4— 

Mrs. Kerr was the daughter of Levi Mercer, a wealthy sugar 
merchant at Egypt. During the fall of 1855 Mr. and Mrs Kerr 
loaded their household goods in an ox wagon and moved to Fay- 
ette County on a tract of two hundred acres of land that her 
grandfather, Judge Menefee, had given her. He engaged in 
farming up to the outbreak of tl}e war. Then he took charge of 
his father-in-law's stock and together with his own, moved tliem 
to Colorado County where he remained for two years. During 
the balance of the Civil ^Var he served in Shaw's Regiment, 
Carter's Brigade, as a private. After return to Fayette 
County, he engaged largely inland speculation, buying and sell- 
ing large tracts of land, and accumulated considerable property. 
B-y his first union Hon. A. B. Kerr became the father of 
four childi-en, as follows: Tliomaa 0., on his ranch in Frio 
County; James L., in business at Muldoon ; William B., in 
wood and coal business at San Antonio ; and R. E , (deceased). 
Mrs. Kerr who was a most estimable lady, and an earnest mem- 
ber of the Baptist chui'ch, died in 18(38. In 1870 Mr. Kerr mar- 
ried Miss Bettie Ragsdale, a native of Texas, and daughter of 
Charles C. and Sarah (nee Scallorn) Ragsdale. l^'our children 
were born to his second union : John A., a graduate of the Law 
Department of the University of Texas, now in the mercantile 
business at Muldoon ; Charles (I., also m the mercantile busi- 
ness at Muldoon ; Miss Mary, died in 1882 ; and Miss Lila in 
San Antonio, at the home of her father. 

Anton Legler. 

Mr. Anton Legler is known throughout the count}' as the 
leader of the famous Bridge Valley music band. In 1892 his 
band received the first prize at the Battle of Flowers' festival at 
San Antonio. 

He was born August 6, 1848, at Neustadtl on Tafelfichte 
Mount in Bohemia. He was educated in the public school of 
that place and then learned the weaver trade. He early loved 
music, showed a great talent for it, studied it and soon became 
an accomplished musician. Bohemia, his home, is world-famous 
for good musicians. In 1871 he married Miss Anna Hanisch in 


that country. He immigrated with his family to the ITnited 
States in 1873, worked first in the La Grange brewery on the 
Bluff' and then settled on the school land on the Bluff. He had 
a small farm of only fifty acres. But hy thrift rnd industry he 
saved money and in 1S85 he bought a large phce in Bridge 
Valley. In 181)8 he established a saloon and mercantile busi- 
ness at that place. As a business man he has been yery success- 
ful and established a reputation for honesty and reliahilil3^ He 
was also appointed postmaster of tliat place. Lately he has 
also bought a place at Plum where he intends to o))en a mercan- 
tile estabiisliment. 

The life of Mr. A. Legler furnishes one of tlie many ex- 
amples where a German, though landing in this country with 
very limited means, by industry, economy and business talent 
has worked himself u)) to a station wiiich coinmands th(j respect 
of his fellow citizens. Mr. j.egler is one of those immigrants of 
whom one may truthfully say that they are an acquisition to this 
country. He is a good citizen and takes a great interest in pub- 
lic affairs. Very often he has taken a leading i)art in the dis- 
cussion of public (juestions. and he explains his views with an 
ability and force possessed only by a man of honest convictions. 

Aug. F. Loessin. 

Aug. F. Loessin is the popular postmaster of La Grange. 
He is an ardent republican, never tired of making converts lor 
his party and of advocating its principles. The principles and 
policy of the republican party have never been explained and 
defended in this county with greater ability and with greater 
courage than by young August F. Loessin. He takes a great 
interest in all questions affecting the welfare of his party. His 
politeness and attention to the duties of his office have made 
^ him popular with the people whom he serves. 

i His parents are Hermann Ludwig and Maria (Sauer) Loessin. 

They were both born in Prussia, his father in the province of 
Pommern and his, mother in Verona, Prussia. His father came 
to Texas in 1853 and first settled in Ross Prairie. His mother 


came with her parents to Postoak Point and moved near Black 
Jack Springs in 1857. His father moved to Black Jack Springs 
in 1865 and two years later he married Miss Maria Sauer of Pin 
Oak and made Black Jack Springs his permanent home, where 
he still resides with his wife on their farm. This union was 
blessed with ten children. 

The eldest, the subject of this sketch, August F. Loessin, 
was born January 14, 186S, at Black Jack Springs, Texas. He 
went to the public school of that place till the age of fourteen; 
then he received private instruction for two years from Prof. J. 

DuUjeatPiu Oak. He worked 
on the farm and in the gin 
till 1890. Then he went to 
Muldoon and clerked for one 
year for Ivey, Stagner & Co. 
In 1891 he went to Seguin as 
manager of the ice plant and 
water works which position 
he held five months. He then 
accepted a position as clerk in 
the saloon of F. Klem and 
remained there till 1893, In 
the fall of 1893 he went to 
Galveston and established a 
grocery business. He was 
married in the same year 1894 
to Miss Mathilde v. Rordorf 
of La Grange. The next year 
he moved to La Grange and 
accepted a position in the sa- 
loon of F. V. Rosenberg which 
position he held till April 19L)0, when he resigned it to accept 
his appointment as postmaster of La Grange. He was appointed 
postmaster under McKinley April 15, 1900, and re appointed 
under T. Roosevelt. 

Being an ardent republican and an able defender of the re- 
publican policy, his party has honored him very often with 

Aug. F. Loessin. 


positions of public trust. He was elected Chairman of the 
Republican League of the Tenth Congressional District at Fort 
Worth (1898) and re-elected at Houston (1900). He has been 
a member of the Republican Executive Committee of the county 
as Chairman of Precinct No. 1 since 1898. His eminent services 
to the republican party have been rewarded by his appointment 
to the Postmastership of La (orange. In case of the success of 
his party his prospects for further promotion are on account of 
his great efHciency and ability very bright. 

Will Loessin. 

If the writer says : Fayette County can boast of a man who 
has done excellent detective work, every Fayette County reader 
can supply the name to this, viz., the City Marshal of La 
Crange, Will Loessin, the brother of our sheriff. To unravel 
the clew to mysterious crimes which leads to the detection of the 
criminal is a special gift of nature, and Will Loessin possesses 
this gift in the highest degree. From a rapid combination of 
circumstances and an inspection of the situation he unfailingly 
points out tlie criminal and soon brings convincing proof of the 
correctness of his opinion. When the negro Clay Ford had 
murdered a negro woman living alone in a house, every clew 
was missing. The crime was committed at night and there was 
not even a witness who had seen the negro enter the house or 
be about the premises on that night. Still, as soon as Will 
Loessin was notitied, he inspected the j)lace of the crime, 
saddled his horse the same night, rode some twelve miles by 
himself, arrested the negro at night in a crowd of other negroes 
and brought him handcutied to La Crange next morning. A feat 
that can hardly be e(iualled in detective stories Tlie negro 
was legally tried, convicted and hung at La Grange, Texas. On 
April 15, 1902, there was a considerable sum of money (over 
$1,700) stolen from Mr. D. M. Croft of Winchester. There was 
no clew to the theft whatever. But there is no suspicious cir- 
cumstance which escapes the watchful eyes of Will Loessin and 
on May 29, 1902, he had the thief arrested and nearly the whole 
sum recovered. Slight circumstances which would ixot even be 


.noticed by others lead him to the detection of the criminal. 
He excels not only in shrewdness, but is also one of the most 
fearless men living. If nothing else — but there are many in- 
stances of his personal bravery — his arresting the negro mur- 
derer Clay Ford in a bunch of 
negroes at night by himself 
would be suflicient proof of 
his fearlessness. His services 
as detective have been of im- 
mense value to the county. 
His shrewdness and cournge 
are not only recognized in this 
county, but throughout the 
state. In 1900 he went with 
II. S. Marshal Geo. Siebrecht 
of San Antonio to Havana and 
arrested there one Borkey for 
postofHce forgery committed 
in Gonzales County. Space 
does not permit the writer to 
mention any more of his dar- 
ing feats. It may be remarked 
that no man in the county 
holds the lawless and turbu- 
lent negro element better in 
check than he. His very name inspires the negro with fear 
and prompts him to obey. But not only the negro element 
fears him, his courage and daring command respect everywhere. 
Will Loeasin is the brother of our sheriff, August Loessin, 
and was born August 20, 1872, at Black Jack Springs. There 
he went to school and stayed and worked on the farm of his 
father. From 1892 to 1894 he attended the Blinn Memorial 
College at Brenham. In the latter year he was appointed deputy 
sheriff by his brother. He was elected city marshal of La Gi-ange 
in April 1900 and re-elected to that office without opposition in 
1902. He has the name of one of the shrewdest and most fear- 
less and efficient peace officers of the state. 

He was married to Miss Katie Stiehl of La Grange, 

Will Loessin. 


the daughter of the well known judge of that name on April 
14, 1901. 

Carl Luecke. 

Industry, economy and perseverance pave the road to suc- 
cess. The life of Mr. Carl Luecke is an exemplification of this 
fundamental truth. Pie has seen in his youth much of hard life, 
but tliis only spurred him in his efforts to achieve success. He 
has grappled successfully with life's difficulties and come out 
ahead. Having provided for old age. he now can look with con- 
fidence into the future. 

Tlie parents of Mr. Car) Luecke were Wilhelm Luecke, a 
native of Hanover, and Jol)anna lAiecke, nee Raabe. Their 

Mr. and Mrs. Carl Luecke. 
union was blessed with six children: (1) Wilhelm, now living in 
Moulton; (2) Johanna, wife of George Frels, a farmer near War- 
renton, deceased; (3) August, died in Nechanilz; (4) Augusta, 
wife of Gerh. Bohms; (5) Friedrich, farmer at Rutersville; and 
(()) Carl, the subject of this sketch, in the gin business at Schu- 
leuburg. His parents came to the United States in 1845 and 
landed in Galveston. After remaining there for some time, they 
went to Houston in tho following year. From there they went 


to Ross Prah-ie, where his father died (1849) when Carl was only 
three years old. After his father's death, his mother married 
Mr. Heinrich Muecke of Ross Prairie. !She died in that settle- 
ment in 1853 when Carl was only seven years old, leaving him 
alone in the world. 

Carl Luecke was born Februarys, 1846, in Houston. As 
we have seen, his father died when Carl was only three years 
of age. Thus, he was left alone in the world to hustle for him- 
self. For that reason, he received very little schooling. He 
had to work to make his way through life. On November 11, 
1870, he married Miss Gesine Muelker of Roundtop and then 
stayed there the next seven years. In 1877 he bought a farm on 
Middle Creek where he farmed till 1895. In that year he moved 
to Schulenburg. Since 1900 he is in the gin business with his 
son-in-law, Mr. Chas. Windel. They have made a fine reputation 
for fair dealing, honesty and business ability, and on that account 
enjoy a very large custom. They are the most popular ginners 
of Schuienburg. 

Mr. Luecke is the father of four children: Laura, wife of 
Mr. Chas. Windel; Lina. wife of Mr. Rich. Alirens, farmer near 
Schuienburg; John and Cliaiies, proprietors of the Scl.ulenbur^ 
soda factory. 

Hon. Wenzel Matajowski. 

Hon. Wenzel Matajowski is highly respected throughout tlie 
county. He is the proprietor of one of the oldest rnerciintile 
establishn eats in Fayette County and in conducting it has 
acquired a high reputation for hjnesiy, fair dealing and reliabilty. 
He is one of the oldest living settlers in the county and still 
takes an interest in public affairs. During the Civil War he was 
a strong Union man and as such he became allied with the 
republican party. For quite a number of years, he was one of 
the ablest republican leaders in the county. During the Civil 
War, he served as constable in his precinct (1862-64). In 1886 
he was honored by the people in being elected representative to 
the Twentieth Legislature, which held the first session in the 
new capitol building. Here he represented faithfully the inter- 
ests of his constituents. Most probably he is the oldest post- 


master in the county, having held the office of postmaster in 
Nechanitz, this county, since 1873. 

Hon. Wenzel Matajowski comes from a highly respectable 
family. His father, Anton Matajowski, born in 1800, was a 
merchant and mayor of the Bohemian city of Nechanitz; 
his mother was Barbara Matajowski, nee Hermann. This union 
was blessed with four children, of whom Wenzel Matajowski, 
the subject of this sketch, was the second. His oldest brother 
Anton was royal and imperial 
landrath (an officer invested 
with the powers of district 
judge and the commissioners' 
court combined) of Prague, 
Bohemia. His younger 
brothers, Eduard and Theo- 
dore, were merchants in Nech- 
anitz, Bohemia. Each of 
them served in that city as 

Wenzel Matajowski w a s 
born in Nechanitz, Bohemia, 
in 1829; he received his edu- 
cation at the gymnasium of 
Trautenau. In 1850 he came 
to the United States and 
landed at Galveston. He first 
farmed on the Bernard. From 
there he moved to Bastrop 
and established a cigar fac- 
tory in the latter place (1852). In the following year he niarried 
Miss Christiana Dietrich of Bastrop. In 1855 he moved to 
Long Prairie and farmed there till 1867, when he bought the 
mercantile business of Robert Zapp, which he still manages. 
He has been postmaster of Nechanitz (formerly Long Prairie) 
since 1878, 

The following children were the fruits of this union with his 
wife : (1) Edward, merchant at Birch, Burleson County ; 

Hon. "Wenzel Matajowski. 


(2)Mary,wife of Gustav Franzo. farmer in Cumming's Prairie near 
Ledbetter, Fayette County; (3) Anna, deceased ; (4) Ottilie, 
wife of Louis Kruse, fanner and butcher near Ledbetter ; (5) 
Clementine, deceased ; (G) Gustav, merchant in Warda, Fayette 
County ; (7) Wenzel, merchant in Yellow Prairie, Chrisman 
P.* 0., Burleson C.iunty ; (8) Auguste, wife of Wm. Kruse, mer- 
chant in Ledbetter ; (9) Clara, wife of Geo. Kruse, stockman 
and farmer near Ledbetter ; (10) Anton, merchant near Dime 
Box, Lee County ; (11) Laura, wife of Joe Dullye, farmer and 
stockman near Giddings, Lee County ; (12) Antonia, wife of 
Albert Speckels, farmer near Giddings ; (13) Charles and (14) 
Paul, at home in the business of their father, 

Geo. Mauer, Sr. 
The subject of this sketch, Mr. Geo. Maaer, ar., stands high 
everywhere in the county, Llis honesty and business ability 
are recognized throughout the county by the people, and they 

have repeatedly elected him 
to positions of |)ublic trust. 
Frcm 1S80 to ISIJO he served 
tlie county as commissioner. 
Iw this office he was far-see- 
iiig, of broad vitnvs and stood 
above petty chicanes. Ho 
iidvocatHd several measures 
that have proveMl of lasting 
l,(Mie(it to the county, lie 
r f s i d e s now ;it Kutcrs- 
v;llf and is one of Hit- most 
successrul farmers of the coun- 

Me was bom in ISpj in 
Liegnitz, Silesia, Germany, 
His parents, Georg and Emi- 
lie Mauer, came to the United 
States in 1850, when their 
son was eight years old. 
They settled in Biegel settle- 
ment, and George went to private schools in Biegel and Fay- 

Geo. Mauer, Sr. 


etteville. When the Civil War broke out, he entered Capt, 
Alexander's Company, Third Texas Regiment, as a private and 
served during the war. hi 18G6 he married Miss Sophia Steves. 
This union was blessed with nine children, live boys and four 
girls : (1) Louis, architect, now in San Francisco ; (2) George, 
proprietor of a saddlery in La Grange ; (o) Penry, architect, inV 
Beaumont ; (4) Charles, merchant in Marlin ; (5) John, clerk in 
Rutersville ; (6) Emily, wife of John Niederauer, proprietor of 
a vineyard at Brenham ; (7) Anna, wife of Alex Schuech, farmer 
at La Grange ; (8) Sophie, teacher, and (9) Lydia, at home. 

His son, George Mauer, jr., is a popoular business man of 
La Grange, liberal, accommodating, reliable and honest, and on 
account of these qualities is bound to make a success. In li*OL 
he was married to Miss Anna Kainer of of La Grange. He is the 
proprietor of a first-class saddlery and a (irst-class workman, and 
deserves for these reasons, the patronage of the people of La 
Grange and neighborhood. 

J. C, Melcher. 

Mr. J. C. Melcher is a man who deserves the most credita- 
ble mention by this writer ; he is one of the few in this county 
who have excelled in the field of invention. He has taken out 
seven patents and received eight diplomas and medals. Among 
others, he possesses four patents for insect destroyers and one for 
a center and extension table. Besides these he invented very 
many ingenious contrivances for which he did not take out any 
patent. At the Texas State Fair in Houston in 187i>, he was 
awarded the first prize for the best sample of tobacco. He is 
observant, a sharp thinker and pays his closest attention to im- 
proved methods. He was the first one to «eall the attention of 
the public to the mineral resources of Fayette County. The 
reader will read Ids article on Minerals of Fayette County with 
interest and be benefitted by the valuable information it con- 

Mr. Melcher belongs to one of the oldest families in Fayette 


County. His father, Johann Friedrich, came in 1846 from 

Preussisch Minden, Germany, 
to La Grange, At that lime 
there were only two stores in 
La Grange. 

Mr. J. C. Melcher was born 
in the town of La Grange 
March 19, 1849. In 1857 he 
moved with his fatiier to 
OHJuinn. He went to private 
schools, practiced self educa- 
tion, and pursued farm work 
and ranching. In 1870 ha es- 
tablished a mercantile busi- 
ness at O'Quinn and was mar- 
ried to Miss Clementine Geb- 
ert. The oldest children of 
this union are : (1) Louis, in 
business at Engle ; (2) Anna, 
wife of Mr. C. J. Luck ; (3) 
Minna, wife of Mr. Fritz Otell; 
(4) Amalia, wife of Mr. A. 

Lampe ; (5) Edward, who helps his father in the store. The 

smaller ones attend school and stay at the home of their father 

and help on the farms and attend to the cattle. 


C. L. Melcher. 

Inventive genius seems to be a kind of hereditary natural 
gift in the Melcher family. Like his brother Charles, Mr. C. L, 
Melcher is an observant man with a clear head and clear ideas. 
He is the inventor and patentee of an improved road grading 
machine (patented Ju«e 2, 1891) and of a cotton baling appara- 
tus (patented September 14, 1897). Like his brother Charles, 
he has also paid great attention to the mineral resources of the 
county, and, therefore, is a most interesting talker on this subject. 

Mr. C. L. Melcher was born September 19, 1851, at La 
Grange. Texas. He went to the private school of Miss Annie 


C. L. Melcher. 

Perlitz in the Lewis settlement and later to the school of Captain 
Eiswald on the Kraerner place. 
He was confirmed by Rev. C. 
C. Rudy in the Pliiladelphia 
Church (Lutheran) on the 
East Navidad. Later he also 
went one year to the nic;ht 
school of Prof. E. Heimann. 
In 18G2-G3 he made a trip as 
government teamster to Mex- 
ico; after that, he was a private 
teamster. Next, he farmed 
till the year 1873, when he 
entered into partnership with 
his brother Charles in the Jat- 
ter's mercantile business at 
O'Quinn; in this business he 
remained for two years. After 
his withdrawal from this business, he established himself as a 
carpenter. In 1880 he built the gin in Swiss Alp where he still 
resides, highly respected by all who know him. 

Mr. C. L. Melcher was married January 25, 1877, to Miss 
Anna Gebert of O'Quinn. This union was blessed with thirteen 
children, of whom one died. The four oldest are: (1) Laura, 
wife of Theodor Boiling, farmer at Swiss Alp; (2) Heduig, wife 
of Louis Boiling, farmer at Swiss Alp; (3) May, teacher in Black 
Jack Springs; (4) Emil, bookkeeper for Perlitz Bros , Schulen- 
burg. Tlie rest of the children are at liome. 

As remarked before, Mr. C. L. Melciier is the pro[jrietor of 
a gin at Swiss Alp, furnished with the latest improvements. He 
pays close attention to business and on account of his watchful- 
ness and observation produces a model staple. Observation and 
inventive genius pay in any kind of business. Besides this, he 
serves the people as a notary public. 

Julius Meyknbek(;, Sr. 
In this picture of the venerable old man the people of Fay- 
ette County recognize at once one of the oldest men and one of 


the oldest settlers in this county, Mr. Julius Meyenberg, sr. 
Mr. Meyenberg is now in his eighty. third year and has seen life 
in all its phases. 

He was born in 1819 at Celle, Hanover, and received a classi- 
cal education in the gymnasium of that city. In 1844 he immi- 
grated to the United States and landed in New Orleans. He 

went to Frelsburg in Colorado 
County and bought a farm 
there in 1845. He next went 
with his brother Franz Lud- 
wig, a former captain of the 
Portuguese army in Brazil, to 
New Braunfels. In 1850 he 
returned to Fayette County, 
bought a farm on the Bluff 
and settled there. He was 
married in that year to Miss 
Kunigunde Oske, born March 
14, 1828, in the Province of 
Saxony, Prussia. This union 
was blessed with eight child- 
ren all of whom were born on 
the Meyenberg farm on the 
Bluff: (1) Helene, born July 
18, 1851, resides on the Bluff; 
(2) Max, born September 2, 
18.53, died September 14, 1867, 
of yellow fever in La Grange ; (3) Franz, born June 25, 1855, 
diad September 13, 1S67, of yellow fever in La Grange ; (4) 
Selma, born March 2, 1857, wife of F. Streithofi'; (5) Edmund, 
born Januarv 25, 1859, proprietor of a saddlery in Pecos City ; 
(6) Elise, born February 14, 1861, died October 15, 1866, on 
the Bluff; (7) Alexander, born March 17, 1863, died Septem- 
ber 6, 1867, of yellow fever at La Grange ; (8) Julius, born 
August 17, 1865, proprietor of a drug store at La Grange. 

In 1865 Mr. Meyenberg went with his family to La Grange 
and established a drug business, A hard blow struck him dur- 

JuLius Meyenberg, Sr. 


ing the yellow fever epidemic in La Grange in 1867. He lost 
his wife and three children. In lonely hours he still cherishes 
their memory. 

Mr. Meyenberg was in his earlier days a sympathizing friend 
and true adviser to the German immigrant. He is gratefully 
remembered by a great many of them. He has gained the high 
respect of his fellow citizens and a great man}-- of them speak of 
him with veneration. 

It may be remarked here that he possesses one of the finest 
collections of insects and butterllies as is hardly equalled by the 
great institutions of learning in this country. 

Years ago, he retired from the drug business. Tlie same is 
now conducted by his son Julius and is the leading drug busi- 
ness in La Grange. 

Prof. AI. W Meyer. 

It is a pleasure to this writer to present to the readv:;r a sketch 
of a countryman of his. Pruf. M.W. Meyer, a native of East Prus- 
sia. East Prussia is tlie native country of ujhu like Kant, Herder 
and Koch, men who have revolutionized science, opened nesw 
channels of thought and started new epochs of science; names that 
are not only known tliroughout Germany, but that shine briglit- 
est on the pages of universal history of phih)sophy. Perha[ts 
it is due to these great men tliat the East Prussian enjoys a repu- 
tation for clearness of mind. The career of Prof. M. \V. Meyer 
furnishes an example of the steadfastness of purpose, the pese- 
verauce and judiciousness of the German mind. When he 
came to this country, he first worked on the farm and earned 
some money to attend a business college. He then taught school 
for five years and saved money to attend the Sam Houston 
Normal. He graduated in that institution. Since then he 
taught school again. Prof. Meyer takes a great interest in edu- 
cational afl'airs and is now recognized as one of the leadmg 
educators of the county. 

The parents of Prof. Meyer were Nathaniel and Antonie 
(Brannies) Meyer. His father owned a shoe factory near Tilsit, 



Kast Prussia. M. \V. Meyer was born Dec. 10, 1870, near Tilsit, 
East Prussia, and attended the public schools of that place. In 
October 1885, he immigrated to the United States and came to 
his uncle, William Brannies, at Seguin. He stayed there five 
years and worked on liis uncle's farm. In 1890-01 he took a 
course in the Blinn Memorial College at Brenham, Texas. He 
graduated, in the commercial course. After that, he taught 
school for five years m Guaglalupe County. From 1890 to 1898 
he attended the Sam Houston Normal at Huntsville, Texas. He 
graduated in tiiat institution (189S) and accepted tiie position of 
superintendent of the Sehulenburg city schools, to which position 
he has been continuously re-elected by the trustees. His services 
as an educator have been eminent, and his ability and success in 
his profession have acquired him a reputation as a leading teacher 
of the county. 

He married Miss Bertha Nitsch of Segnin, on December 6, 
1892, This union is blessed with one child, Lillie, two years 

It is to be hoped that the schools of our country may secure 
more such men as Prof Meyer, and that his services as a public 
teacher in his city may continue for many more years, for it is 
only through such men that our public schools will reach the 
eminence to which they justly and deservedly strive. 

Mrs. Maria Muklker. 

More and more, the old pioneers of the county disai)pear; 
only a few of them who have lived in the early times and can 
talk of them, are still surviving^. One of the oldest settlers of 
the county, still living, is Mrs. Maria Muelker, widow of John 
Muelkerj deceased. Mrs. Maria Muelker belongs to the Aschen 
family, a family noted for long life. Her brothers have all 
attained an old age and are still living: Johann Aschen, eighty- 
nine years old; Anke, wife of Recklefs Meiners, eighty six years 
old; Reinhard Aschen, eighty-three years old, and Heinrich 
Aschen, eighty-two years old. She is the youngest and is eighty 
years old. Mrs. Muelker is of great vitality; her hair is still 


black, and one who sees her would hardly judge her to be over 

Mrs. Muelker was born June G, 1.S22, near Oldenburg, Ger- 
many. She njarried there Mr. John .Muelker, a farmer in that 
country in 1843. In 1847 they came to Te.xas and lauded at 
Galveston. On the voyage over the ocean, their only child, two 
years old, had died on board the shij). From Galveston they 
moved to Houston where they stayed one vear. Here, their 
other child, Gesine, wife of Carl Luecke, was born to them. In 
1848 they moved from Houston to Industry, Austin County. At 

Mrs. Maria Muelker and Her Husband, John Muelker, Deceased. 

that time, there were no railroads in Texas and one could not 
travel then with as great convenience as now. The family moved 
to Industry in an ox wagon drawn by one yoke of oxen and one 
team of horses. Mrs. Mu'^lker laughingly recalls her appear- 
ance in those days, in boots and with a Mexican sombrero. One 
morning on their journey the horses were lost. It was a winter 
morning. A norther with rain made it disagreeable outside. 
The men went off" to look for the horses. She was left by iierself 
on the open prairie. Little did she sleep that night, listening 
to the blowing norther and the falling rain. Next morning the 


men returned with the horses, having found them in the 

In 1850 they moved from Industry to Roundtop, Fayette 
County, where they farmed till 1877. In that year Mr. Muelker 
bought a farm on Middle Creek and moved upon it, where he 
died in 1883. His widow stayed on this farm witli her son-in- 
law, Mr. Carl Luecke, till the year 1895. In October of that 
year they moved to Schulenburg, where she still resides. 

Marshall B. O'Bar. 

Marshall B. O'Bar is known throughout the count}^ for his 
honesty and reliability. As the saying is, he is as honest as the 
day is long, reckoning twenty-four hours to the day. To ihose 
people who are acquainted with him, he is known as a gentle- 
man of irreproachable character ; people who make his acquain- 
tance soon recognize him as one. Mr. O'Bar is a man of marked 
ability. This was never more conspicuous than as when he 
served the couniy as commissioner of his precinct (1892-1890). 
It was the unanimous verdict of the people that the county 
never had a better commissioner. M. O'B.n- is this year a can- 
didate for tax collector and there is no doubt that his honesty, 
reliability and business capacity will receive their due considera- 
tion from the people. 

The family of Mr. O'Bar is one of the oldest in the county. 
His uncle John O'Bar established the first blacksmith shop in 
La Grange. His family was the third family that settled there. 
His grandmother reached the age of one hundred and four years. 
The first marriage license on record in Fayette County was is- 
sued to Mr. O'Bar's aunt. Miss Lottie 0"Bar, who married 
Napoleon Breeding. 

Mr. O' Bar's grandfather John O'Bar was a native of Irehmd, 
being born in the neighborhood of Dublin. He came from that 
country to Virginia, where he died in 1806. 

John O' Bar's son, Alexander O'Bar, also a native of Ireland, 
the father of Marshall, settled in Marshall County, Alabama, 


and was married there to Miss Nancy Burks. Their son Mar- 
shall O'Bar was born there Januar}^ 1, 1844. In 1852 Alexander 
O'Bar moved to Fayette County, Texas, and settled in the 
neighborhood of the present site of Warrenton, April 3, 1852. 
He died there November 1, 1856. 

Marshall was raised on the farm and went to fjrivate 
country schools. During the Confederate War, he entered 
Cook's regiment of heavy ar- 
tillery as a private and was 
promoted during the war to 
the first lieutenancy. After 
the war, he was in the gin 
business with Wm. Neese till 
the year 1873, when he bought 
the property where he still 

Mr. O'Bar was married io 
Miss Mary McCord of Rusk, 
Cherokee County, formerly of 
Fayette County. Tliis union 
was blessed with three child- 
ren who were all born at War- 
renton : (1) John H., born 
October 25, 1871, former 
county superintendent of Fay- 
ette County, now cotton buyer 
under Tally of La Grange for 
Crawford & Byrnes of Austin, 
Texas; (2) Miss Emma M., born April 11, 1873, staying with 
her parents at Warrenton ; (3) Oliver, born February 11, 1875, 
went to the public schools at Warrenton to the age of sixteen, 
two years to the A. and M. College at Bryan, studied three jears 
at Medical College of Galveston and one year at Tulane Univer- 
sity of New Orleans the profession of medicine ; graduated there 
May 3, 1899 and is now a practicing physician. 

Marshall B, O'Bar. 



The memory of John Oltmanns is chet^islied deservedly 
by the Schnlenburg people. Tliere never lived a, more patriotic 
and public spirited man than he. Unceasingly he worked for 
the interests of iSchulenburg, sparing neither time nor money to 
advance them. As a member of the city council, he improved 
the streets of the city and advocated a number of measures and 
improvements that proved of lasting benefit to the city. In 
social affairs he was the leading spirit, constantly arranging 
concerts, balls and theatrical performances that young and old 
might enjoy themselves. It is due to his efforts that Schnlen- 
burg l)as acquired the reputation of being one of the most soc able 

and entertaining cities of the 
state. John Oltmanns wa3 
also a good man. There never 
was a man who applied for 
help to him sent away with- 
out having received tlie solic- 
ited aid. P^specially beat his 
warm heart fur his country- 
men who had just immigrated. 
He assisted them with his 
advice and his purse. Of John 
Oltmanns it may be truthfully 
said tliat the good he has done 
was liot interred with liis 
bones, but lives in the memory 
of all those he befriended. 

John Oltmanns was born 
May 17, 1852. at Hankhausen, 
near Rastede, Oldenburg, 
Germany. His parents were 
Eilert Gerhard and Helene 
Oltmanns, nee v. Esten. They owned considerable real estate. 
John went to school at Hankhausen, and, after his school years, 
learned the baker's trade. In 1874 he established himself in 
the hotel business and also ran a water power mill and bakery, 

John Oltmanns. 


being the owner of all tliree establishments. On May 15, 1S74, 
he naarried INliss Anna Clode, born April 15, 1851, at Holler 
Wuestino;, Oltlenburg. He came to the United States in 1883, 
and in the following year liis family followed him. He lirst 
worked in a bakery in Galveston, then id 1884 he worked some 
months in the saloon of Joe Kainer at High Hill. The same 
year he opened a saloon in Schulenburg. He was ver}^ success- 
ful in this business, and remained there till the time of his 
death, October 22, 1901. 

His wife and four children survive him: (1) Hermine, wife 
of John H. Maliler, clerk in San Antonio; (2) Helene, wife of 
F. F. Schaefer, formerly in the saloon busines-s at Schulenburg; 
(.')) Martha and (4) Jolin, at the home of their mother. 

John Dltmanns was a member of the order of the Sons of 
Herm.ann, O. D. II. S. 

F. Pkesun. 

The name of the subject of this sketcli is well known 
throughout this and adjoining counties: F. PreSun. In wliatever 
business he was engaged, whatever position he has lilled, he 
everywhere established a higli record for industry, honesty and 
reliability. 13eing atfcible and sociable, he is well liked by a 
Jiost of warm friends in all parts of the county. 

Mr. F. Presun was born September 19, 1851, at J^emgo, 
Lil)pe-Detmold, Germany. His parents were Franz and Pauline 
Presun. His father held the high office of auditor of the custom 
house. A sister of his is still Hying in Germany. Mr. Presun 
was educated at the gymnasium in Lemgo and received in that 
school a classical education. In- 1871 he came to Texas and first 
stayed with his uncle, VVilhelm Lange, in Welcome, Austin 
County. In 1872 he entered the commission house of Robert 
Leisewitz in Brenham, a cotton receiving and forwarding busi- 
ness. Here he stayed for nearly four years. In 1875 we find 
him in the employ of a wholesale wooden and willow ware busi- 
ness in St. Louis. In the same year he came back to Texas and 
clerked in the general merchandise store of Hillman & Gans in 
Giddings. Here he was also assistant postmaster with G. Pauli. 


From Giddings he went back to Brenham and there took charge 
of the business of Robert Leisewitz, his former principal. He 
was married in October 1876 to Miss Ella UjfFy of La Grange. 

In 1878 he opened up a general merchandise business in 
Welcome, Austin County, where he remained till 1882. He 
then went to Houston and served in the cotton business of Ull- 
mann, Lewis it Co. In ISSo he took the position as chief clerk 
in the track department of the auditor's office of the Southern 
Pacific Railroad in Houston, Texas, He was transferred as chief 
clerk in the division roadmaster's department and left Houston 
for Schulenburg in charge of this office in 1884. The same year 

he went with his family to Ger- 
many on a visit. He returned 
to Schulenburg in September 
1884 and opened a commission 
business in 1885 which he sold 
in 1890 to Meyer & Stanzel to 
take a position as bookkee[)er in 
t h e business of H. Horner. 
After the death of his wife he 
moved to La Grange and was 
there for three years the agent of 
the New Orleans Brewing Asso- 
ciation. He married jNliss Anna 
Stuedemanu of LaGrange in 1895. 
In 1897 he established the Crown 
Soda Factory which he sold to 
the La Grange Ice and Cold Storage Company. He is now sec- 
retary and treasurer of said company and ships to Taylor, New 
Ulm, Columbus, Weimar and Fayetteville. 

His children are Henry and Arthur Presun. The former 
travels for the Buck's Stove and Range Company of St. Louis 
in the state of Illinois; the latter works in the jewelry business 
of Dietrich & Krengel in La Grange. 

Mr. F. Presun is a public spirited man, not in a political 
sense, but in a commercial and social way. He is unceasing in 

F. Presun. 


his efforts to advance the commercial and social interests of La 
Grange. His ability and energy in this line have been recognized 
by the various lodges and clubs of which he is a member and 
he serves as secretary respectively secretary and treasurer in the 
following organizations: Secretary of Post L, T. P. A.; treasurer 
of La Grange Lodge 565, Knights of Honor; secretary and 
trensiirer of Endowment Ring, K. of P., Section 1477; secretary 
Bismarck Lodge No. 8, 0, D. H. S., and secretary Bluff 
Schuetzen Verein. 

Chas. H. Schaefer. 

"Let us step into the County-Seat Saloon," is a well re- 
ceived suggestion. No wonder. In this popular resort the best 
whiskies, finest liquors, cool beer and other refreshments are 
served by a popular barkeeper, fHs friends have nicknamed 
him '"boss,", not because he bosses so much, but because he 
bosses so little. He much prefers to receive your order, of 
course, for refreshments. His politeness and the good service 
in his place always attract customers ; people who have been 
there once will also call there again. The owners of this pop- 
ular place are Chas. H. Schaefer & Son. 

The Schaefer family is counted among the oldest families of 
Fayette County. Mr, Schaeier's parents, Carl Friedrich and 
Jolianna Schaefer and with them their son Chas. H. Schaefer 
(born in the city of Hanover Nov. 9, 1839) came to La Grange, 
Texas, in the year 1847. His father was a teacher of languages 
in the city of Hanover. At that time the German governments 
were very oppressive ; it was the time of the Holy Alliance. 
The more energetic who also were a highly educated class left 
the fatherland for the home of the brave and the free. Hard 
times also awaited them here. Unused to manual labor, they 
had to learn it to make a living. Mr. Schaefer sawed logs into 
planks for one month and received as compensation a cow. He 
bought a small farm near Cedar where also Bill and John Lewis 
had settled before. In 1853 he bought a farm on the Bluff in 
company with Mr. Carl Otto. After the death of his wife he 


took very little interest in life ; he became very meloncholy ; 
he followed her in 1874. 

Schools at that time were not as numerous as now. Charley 
went to private teachers, Mrs. Grasshoffand Mrs. Knobelsdorf 
who taught school on the Bluff. During the Civil War, Mr, 
Chas. Schaefer served in the 4th Texas Mounted Volunteers, 
Sibley's Brigade — afterwards Green's Brigade — from 1861-1865. 
He took part in the engagement at Monac's Ferry and several 
minor engagements. He was not wounded during the war, but 
lost his brother Fritz in the battle of Glorietta, N. M. Jn 1868 
he was married to Miss Louise Helmcamp of Bluff settlement. 
In December, 1896, he came to La Grange and engaged in the 
saloon business in which he is still engaged. His three oldest 
children are married, their names : Mrs. Elise Prilop, Cedar ; 
Mrs. Louise Eck, Bluff', and George, in the saloon business 
witli his father; his youngest children, Misses Mary and Alvine 
and Ciiarles Schaefer s^ay at the home of their father. 

Max ane Julius Schwartz. 
Messrs. Max and .Julius Schwartz number amongst Schuien- 
burg's most successful business men. They are the well-known 
proprietors of the I. X L. Livery Stable and conduct this busi- 
ness in a popular manner. Tliey keep a great number of fast 

horses and all kinds of vehi-i 

cles S) that tli^y ca:i suit any 

taste and all djininds aiide 

on them in thiir liao of busi- 
ness. Especially drummers, 

as also the traveling public in 

general speak of the obliging 

and accomtnnd iting brothers 
' in words of highest praise. In 

connection with their livery 

and feed business they also 

Max Schwartz. , in, i Julius Schwartz. 

purchase and sell horses and 

mules. Well knowing the qualities of good animals, they pur- 
chase only first-class animals and thus are able to suit their 
customers to satisfaction. They also pay their closest attention 


to the real estate business and persons wishing to sell or buy 
land will do well in securino; their services. Being well ac- 
quainted, on account of their long residence and their business, 
in this and adjoining counties, they understand the wishes of 
their customers and always know what place will suit them best. 

Messrs. Max and Julius Schwartz are botli natives of the 
Khinepfalz, Cxeriaany, Max having been born at Pirmasens, 
Germany, July 17, 1865 and Julius at Busenberg on June IG, 
1872. In 1876 they came from Germany to this country and 
have resided now for over a quavter of a century in Schulenburg. 
Both gentlemen are known throughout the county as great 
hustlers and men of keen business sense. They have made a 
success in their busuiess. The 1. X. L Livery Stable is eiiual in 
equipment, if not superior, to the best livery stables in South 

Chaeles and Gustav Sengelmann. 

A visitor in Schulenburg, walking down Main street, will 
be struck by the elegant appearance of a massive, substantial 
two-story brick building, the property of the Sengelmann broth- 
ers. It is known through- 

out the county as the "Two 
Brothers Saloon," the 
most elegantly equipped 
saloon in the county. Upon 
entering he finds a large, 
roomy hall, the nigh ceil- 
ing being supported by 
massive, elegantly worked 
pillars. Billiard and pool 
tables and tables with the 
leading newspapers and 
the county papers invite 
the visitor. The Sengel- 
maim brothers were the 
first who introduced this feature of holding a fine line of news- 
papers for the entertainment of their patrons in this county. In 

;:?■ The Two Brothers Saloon. 


connection with the bar is a first class cuisine under the manage- 
ment of Mr. David, It may be said that so far as meeting the 
wishes of their patrons is concerned, the Sengehnann brothers 
have no superiors. The line of liquors, wines and cigars which 
they handle corresponds with the other metropolitan equipment 
of their bar. Upstairs is a first class hall which serves for 
public balls, meetings, entertainments and theatrical perform- 
ances, it has an elegant hard polished floor and measures in 
dimensions fifty by eighty-five feet. 

Both gentlemen are natives of Holstein, Germany. The 
elder, Mr. Charles Sengelmann, came to this country with his 
brother August in 1871, when he was sixteen years of age. 
They first located in Columbus, Texas, and in 1877 they moved 
to Schulenburof. In 1885 their brother, Gustav Sengelmann, 
also a native of Holstein, Germany, came to this country and 
two years later in 1887 purchased the interest of his brother 
August who returned to Germany and established himself in 
that country in the saloon business at Garden-by-Kiel. 

The Two Brothers establishment was burned out in 1893, 
but with tiie energy characteristic of the Sengelmanns they at 
once commenced rebuilding and early in 1894 had their present 
elegant building completed. Both brothers are recognized lead- 
ers of Schulenburg society, stand well socially and financially, 
and have a higii rejjutation for reliability throughout the county. 

John Speckels, Sr. 
The memory of good men is not interred with their bones, 
but lives after tliem. The friends of John Speckels cherish liis 
memory and love to recall his sterling merits. 11 is life was a 
success; under the most unfavorable circumstances, he grai)pled 
with life's ditficulties and came out ahead. In his old age he 
could with pride looli back on the early struggles of his youth 
and enjoy their well earned fruits. At the time of his death, 
he left his children all well provided and in prosperous circum- 

John Speckels was born in 1817 in Germany and married 
in that country to Miss Marguerite Imken. In 1847 they came 


to the United States and settled at Frelsbnrg, Colorado Connty< 
Texas, where they remained for one year. In 1849 they came 
to this county and settled on a farm near the present Warrenton 
where they followed agricultural pursuits till 1891. Their 
finances were at a low ebb when they came to this county, and 
for some time, until they could open up land and build a log 
house, they lived in a lent. Mr. Speckels made his own house- 
hold furniture in those days. The family experienced a great 
many hardships and was wholly without Hour during the first 
year. They finally got a start, and Mr. 8[)eckels became a 
prominent stockman of his 
section, owning large herds of 
cattle, sheep and horses. He 
had managed to buy two or 
three negroes previous to the 
war, and although he was too 
old for service, his oldest son 
Clerhard served throughout the 
war. Mr. Speckels was success- 
ful in his farming pursuits and 
at one time, owned 950 acres 
of rich prairie land. In 1891 
he and his wife moved to La 
Grange, where they purchased 
a fine residence. He died in 
1894 at the age of seventy- 
seven. His wife is still living 
at La Grange, ,over eighty 
3'ears old. 

Mr. and Mrs. John .Speckels 
were the parents of eleven 

ciiildren, five sons and six daughters, three of whom died young. 
The names of their children are: (1) Gerhard ; (2) John G., at 
Warrenton, Texas; (3) George, in the saloon business at J. a 
Grange, Texas; (4j Johanna, wife of Mr. A. Heintze, Jr., mer- 
chant in La Grange; (5) Meta, wife of Louis Walter, saddler in 
La Grange; (G) Mary, wife of William Neese, farmer in Wal- 

JOHN Spkckels, Sr. 


halla, Texas; (7) Anna (deceased), wife of R. Aschen, Jr., now 
of Coupland, Williamson County, and (8) H. VV. 

Henry \V. Speckels, the youngest son, was born in 18G4. 
He was educated in the country schools of Fayette County, and, 
when eighteen years of age, started out for himself, although 
(luring a portion of each year, he stayed with his parents. He 
followed clerking and bookkeeping till 1887, when he came to 
La Grange and aocepted the management of Mr. Heintze's busi- 
ness which consisted of dry goods and groceries. Mr. Heintze 
was also a large cotton buyer or cotton broker, and of this 
department Mr. Speckels was general manager. In 1891 Mr. 
Heinlze sold his business to Speckels & Shaw, and Mr. H. W. 
Speckels assumed the management of their immense business. 
In 1893 he was elected mayor of La Grange. In 1894 he was 
elected by the ice and soda water manufacturers as manager of 
their business, and as such he also handled the well known W . 
J. Loiiip's beer. He continued as manager of the La Grange 
Ice & Beer Company till the fall of 1899, when he established a 
grocery business with Mr. F. G. Heim under the firm name of 
Speckels & Heim. The same has become the leading grocery 
business of La Grange. 

Mr. W. H. Speckels was married to Miss Alma Meerscheidt 
of La Grange, daughter of Arthur and Lena Meerscheidt, nee 
von Ri)senberg. This union was blessed with two children, 
Lillian and Gilbert. His wife died in 189G. In 189S Mr. Speck- 
els married Miss Mary Karges, tlie daugliter of one of the oldest 
settlers in La Grange. Tlieir only cliild is nan>ed Irwin. 

Mr. Speckels ii* a member of the Knights of Pythias, the 
K. & L. of H. and the Sons of Hermann. 

G. E. Speckels. 

The life of the subject of this sketch furnishes an example 
of what a man of industry, perseverance and economy can 
accomplish in this countr3^ Mr. G. E. Speckels has followed 
the rule that a dollar saved is a dollar made. Nevertliele&s, he 
was never so economical as to deprive hiiiiself or his family of 


the comforts of life. He started with small means, worked 
hard and saved his money, every dollar of which was honestly 
earned. Now, in his old age, he can look back with satistaction 
on the struggles of his early manhood, having provided against 
the contingencies of old age. 

Mr. G. E. Speckels is the eldest son of Mr. and Mrs. John 
Speckels, Sr., whose biography the reader just has perused in 
the preceding pages. He was born January 8, 1843, in Olden- 
burg, (lermany, and came to thi, country with his parents when 

he was four years old. He __^ 

received his education in the 
public schools of the Warren- 
ton neighborhood. In 1861 
he enlisted for the Civil War 
in Captain Alexander's com- 
pany, Ostwald Battalion. 

The company had enlisted 
for six months; they were , ,^ 

two raontlis on board a man- 
of-war near Galveston; the 
other four months they were 
stationed at San Jacinto where 
they were discharged. Mr. < 
G. E. Speckels next enlisted |. 
for three years in Captain Led- j,^ 
better's company of infantry 
winch belonged to WauTs | 
legion. They were stationed [ --m 
at Brenham. They received 
orders to march to Kansas; 
after having marched about one hundred miles, they were 
recalled to Mississippi. The route was by way of Shreveport 
and across Red River. In Louisiana they struck a railroad 
which for a distance of three hundred miles carried them into 
Mississippi. It took them three days to make the three hundred 
miles by rail, as the engine had much ditliculty m overcoming 
the hills. Thev arrived one day too late for the battle of Holly 

G. E. Speckels. 


Sprinos whereto they had been ordered as reinforcem3nts. The 
enemy drove them from place to place. Sometimes they had a 
small engagement. They were constantly marching, sometimes 
for two or three days without anything to eat. Finally the 
enemy drove them into Vicksburg where, with twelve days' 
rations, they stood a siege of forty-eight days. On July 4, 1863, 
Vicksburg wns surrendered. On July 12, the Confederate troops 
were marched out of Vicksburg into camp. Krom here Mr. CI. 
E, Speckels left for home without money and without provisions 
and reached home sick on August 6, 1863. After the lapse of 
three mouths, he was mustered into CaptainWickland's company, 
Waul's Legion, Captain L'^dbstter's company having been 
almost completely annihilated. Here he served one year. After 
having served the three years for which he enlisted, he got one 
month's leav. Early in 18()5 he went to Mexico, wherefrom he 
returned on August 7. In 18(j(3 he made a crop on his father's 
farm. That year he received fur his cotton thirty cents per 
pound in Galveston. 

After the war he was married in 1867 to Miss Maria Frels 
of Warrenton, Texas;. He t\)llowed the pursuits of a farmer and 
carpenter, and by industry and economy he succeeded in acquir- 
ing a nice fortune. 

Mr. and Mrs. G. E. Speckels are the parents of the fol- 
lowing children: (1) Anna, wife of Mr. E A. Froehlich, in busi- 
ness at Shiner, Texas; (^2) Lucy, wife of Henry Lefzerich. salooii 
and groceries at La Grange; (3) Emma, wife of Fritz Wessels 
in the saloon business at La Grange ; (4) Laura, wife of Charles 
Amberg, in the •mercantile business at La Grange; (5) Rudolph, 
farmer at Uutersville, and (6) Edwin, clerk in La Grange. 

Mr. G. E. Speckels is now a resident citizen of LaGrange and 
lives from the interest of his capital whicli he acquired in his 
youth and manliood by industry and economy. He is proud 
that every cent of it is honestly earned, Being used to an active 
life, he assumed in March, 1896, the position as traveling agent 
for Mr. O. E. Stolz's marble yard in La Grange, an estal>lish- 
ment which is known to turn out masterpieces of art at very 
reasonable prices. This occupation gives him the chance to see 
his friends in all parts of the county. By fair dealing he has 


acquired for the firm a large custom and become very popular as 
well witii the firm as with its customers. 

Hon. J. C. Speckels. 

Hon. J, (!. Speckels is known to the people of Fayette 
County as a successful farmer, a successful business man and a 
successful politician. He is a prominent republican leader who 
ranks high in the counsels (jf his party and whose opinion carries 
with the republican leaders the weight of a successful campaigner. 
For ten years, from 18.S0 to 1800, he served the county as com- 
missioner of his precinct. Tliough tlie county generally goes 
democratic, in 1894 he was elected as a republican member to 
the Twenty-B'uurth Legislature by an overwhelming majority. 
Here, as before, he served his constituency faithfully and dis- 
tinguished himself by his conservative views on tiie measures 
before the house. 

Hon. J. C. Speckels is the second child of John and Mar- 
guerite Speckels, whose biogra[)iiy the reader has just perused 
in the preceding pages. J. C. was born September 20. 1847, in 
Oldenburg, (lermany, and came with his parents to this country 
when he was ou\y ten days old. He went to private schools 
near Warrenton, Waldeck and Frelsburg. For some time (until 
23 years old) he worked on his father's farm. During the (Uvil 
War, at the age of fifteen years, he was a government teamster, 
hauling cotton to Mexico, serving as a substitute for his father. 

February 9, 1871, he was married to Miss Pauline Aschen 
of Waldeck and established himself as a farmer near W^arrenton. 
From 1880 to 1890 he served as commissioner of his i)recinct, 
the repeated verdict of the people in electing him showing but 
their approval of his views on public (jueslions. In 1891 he 
established a mercantile business at La Grange in partnership 
with Mr. VV. L. Shaw under the linn name of Speckels & Shaw, 
he being the senior member of the firm. The firm did an im- 
mense business till 1895, when he sold it to Heilig t*c Co. In 
1894 he was elected on the republican ticket as representative 
from Fayette County to the Twenty-Fourth Legislature. 

Hon. J. C. Speckels and wife are the parents of eight child- 


ren : (1) Clara, wife of Joe Weikel, now farmer near Edna, 
Jackson County, Texas; (2) Johanna, wife of Dr. T. J. Carter, 
Walhalla ; (8) Albert, farmer near Giddings, Lee County; mar- 
ried Miss Antonia Matajowski ; (4) Otto, at home; (5) John, at 
home; (C) Alwin, attending the Blinn Memorial College at 
Brenham ; (7) Gustav, attending the Blinn Memorial College at 
Brenham. and (8) Allan, at home. Hon. J. C. Speckels resides 
at his old home near Warrenton. 

Joseph George Wagner. 

Those readers who have known Joseph George Wagner will 
no doubt be glad to have recalled to their metnory the picture 
and life of this good man. For nearly half a centuiy Joseph 
George Wagner has been a resident of Fayette County. He 
belonged to that class of citizens which are an acquisition to any 
country; he had the same spirit of independence, the same love 
of liberty and the same courage of his convictions which charac- 
terized the early settlers of this country. Mr. Wagner was a 
native of Germany. Tliere he had learned the trade of shoe- 
maker and established himself in that trade in the city of Bres- 
lati, the capital of the province of Silesia, Germany. He took 
an active part in politics and was the founder of many labor 
organizations. He was an American citizen already by senti- 
ment in that country, deeming liberty as the highest of human 
rights. Therefore, it was only natural that he emigrated to a 
country more in harmony with his opinions. 

Joseph George Wagner was born February 12, 1821, in the 
county of Giatz, Silesia. He was educated in the public schools 
and then learned the trade of shoemaker. On January 8, 1849, 
he was married to Miss Maria Pochales at Breslau, where he 
established himsell as shoemaker. He left the old fatherland for 
the home of the free and the brave in 1858. His wife ?nd family, 
i. e. his wife and two children who were born in the old coun- 
try, Oscar and Paulin3, now the wife of Mr. Christian Guggolz, 
afarmer near Gatesville, Coryell County, came with him. They 
landed at Galveston, and in November, 1853, they came to La 
Grange. In the following year they went to Roundtop where 
Mr. Wagner established himself in his trade of shoemaker. He 





followed this pursuit until the year 1859, when he bought a part 

of tlie Nassau farm. From that time he followed the occupation 

of farminji;, acquiring by industry and economy a nice fortune. 

In 1882 he bough.t in addition to his Nassau farm the Lewis 

farm. In 1899 he was fortunate enough to celebrate his golden 

wedding. The same was a 

reunion of all his children 

and grandchildren. A few 

months later he died. His 

wife survives him and still 

lives on the old homestead. 

iie left ail his children in 

good circumstances. Besides 

the two born in the old conn 

try mentioned before, there 

are: (1) (leorge, farmer on 

Nassau farm; (2) Wilhelm, 

mechanic on the International 

& (h-eat Northern; (3) Ma- 

thilde", wife of Geo. Krengel, 

jeweler in La (i range; (4) Paul, 

farmer at ►Shelby, Austin 

C'ounty, Texas; (/>) (Charles, 

druggist in Carmine; (6)Anna, 

wife of Turk Brown, farmer 

and stock raiser near ({ates- 

ville, Coryell County; -and (7) Josej^Ii, farmer on the Lewis farm, 

near Roundtop. 

Mr. Charles Wagner is the seventh child of Mr. and Mrs. 
J. G. Wagner and tneir fifth one born in this country. He was 
born July 11, ISGi, on the Nassau farm; attended the public 
schools at Nassau and later the Normal Department of the 
Alamo City Business College under W. C. Buckman; graduated 
and came to Carmine where he followed the profession of teach- 
ing for three years (1890-1893); from 1893 to 1S9G he was in the 
general merchandise business at Carmine in partnership with 
his brother Wilhelm; 189C-98, justice of the peace in Carmine 

Joseph George Wagner. 


precinct; 189S-1900, editor of the Carmine Enterprise. Since 
1900 in the drug business at that place. Is one of the leading 
democrats of the count}'. 

Robert Wolters, Sr. 

Robert Wolters is one of the few men whose fortune it was 
to witness the development of an infant struggling republic into 
a great state, the coming empire state of the Union. He has 
lived under the flag of the Republic of lexas, under the Union 
flag when Texas became one of the states, under the Confederate 
Hag and again under the Union liag. Just pause and think of 
the different phases of development. Texas, an infant republic, 
in dire distress, the country harrassed by marauding Indians 
when he was a youth, and Texas grown to full manhootl, the 
wonder uf the world as to the possibilities of future development. 
If he looks back to liis own life, he finds an analogy there. 
Robert Wolters, the struggling boy and Robert Wolters, the old 
man, one of the capitalists and most respected men of the county. 

Mr. Robert Wolters was born September 20, lS20, in Elber- 
feld, Prussia, and came with his father, Jacob Wolters, his 
mother and three sisters to the United States in 1834. His 
father had left the old country on account of his political con- 
v4etions. Tlie family lauded in New York and after a short 
time went to Philadelphia where his father established a bakery. 
But the Yankees of those times did not put on as much style as 
their descendants, they generally baked- their own bread, and 
under these circumstances, his father found it a hard task to 
provide for his family, much less to make any headway. There- 
fore the family went to New Orleans in the spring of 1835 and 
in May of that year they came to Texas and landed at Velasco. 
There they took a little steamboat which carried them up the 
Brazos River to Brazoria. From the latter place they traveled 
in ox wagons to where now Frelsburg stands and settled on the 
Piper league. They built the first log house in the Frelsburg 
neighborhood in the fall of 1835, but before the house was ready, 
his mother died under a tree in July 1835. There were very 
few settlers at that time in the country. The comforts were very 

—297 — 

primitive. His father acquired a skill in manufacturing raw- 
hide chairs for which there soon was a great demand. He 
brought and sold them as far as to the Cole settlement in Wash- 
ington County. One time, on his return trip from Cole settle- 
ment, a band of hostile Indians camped near Postoak Point be- 
tween him and his home. To wait in a safe place, until tliey had 
withdrawn was a great inconvenience, to pass by there a still 
greater risk. His father chose the risk to pass by, passed them 
in tlie middle of the night and young Robert had to walk along 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert Wolters, Sr. 

With a piece of bacon skin and every once in a while grease the 
axles of the ox wagon to keep them from squeaking. They 
reached their home safely without having encountered the 
Indians. His father married again ni 1838 and then moved to 
the Mill Creek near Industry. Robert and his brother August 
remained on their father's farm near Frelsburg, until his father 
had sold the same. After this, young Robert worked for some 
years on the farm, until he had money enough to buy a team 


and then he traveled for three or four years as a teamster. 
December 25, 1849, he married Miss Adolphina Wellhausen of 
Cat Spring, Texas. Ho bouglit 400 acres of the Pettus league in 
Austin County and farmed there till 1858 with his brother. 
In that year he moved to Cypress, Blanco County, a county 
still harrassed by Indians. In 1865 he bought a farm two miles 
east of High Hill, Fayette County, and moved to his place in 
the same year. In the fall of 1866 he established a store iu 
High Hill and in 1872, when the Southern Pacific came t^ Fay- 
ette County, he moved to Schulenburg where he still resich^s. 

Mr. Wolters is now eighty-two years old, still of good 
health, and a fine example of the vigor of the nortliem (TiM-niMii. 
He has a number of ciiildren, a great many grandciiildrrii and 
great-grandchildren, and a great host of warm friends wijo all 
wish him a continuuice of his good health and prosperity. 

On Chrii-tmas day ISUO Mr. and Mrs. Wolters celebrated 
their golden wedding, which festive occasion was a grand reunion 
of their children, grandcliildren and great-grandchildren. 

Thi::,). Wolters. 

When the witor of songs penned the line, "And he is a jolly 
good fellow," he ver}^ probably would have thought of the 
mayor of Schulenburg, had he ever been acquainted with him. 
Theo. Wolters is known to almost everybodj' throughout the 
county as a man of wit and jovial disposition. On account 
of liis congenial disposition, our mayor numbers liis friends by 
the hundreds. He is a man whom all people like to see come 
rather than go. Pie is also of kind disposition. Pie takes a deep 
interest in the welfare of his friends and, in case they have the 
blues, as most men sometimes will have them, he cures tliem 
thereof by liis jokes and soon they are "o'er a' the ills of life 

His parents were Jacob and Louise (May brink) Wolters. 
His father was the manager of a large bakery at Duesseldorf, 
Germany, successful in business, but being of independent dis- 
position, his political convictions did not agree with those of the 
government. He could not stand the oppression of the govern- 
ment which was especially oppressive in those days, and inimi- 


grated to the United States as a country more in harniony with 
his convictions (1834). He first settled near Industry, Austin 
County, in 1835. In 1838 he married Miss Louise iMay brink of 
Houston, Texas. His wife died at Industry in 1802; he followed 
her in death in 1805. 

Their son, Theodore WoUers, was born near Industry, Austin 
County, Texas, April 15, 1840. He went to private kcIiooIs 
such as they were at that time. When the Civil War broke out, 
he went, only seventeen years of age, as a private into the Con- 
federate Army and entered 
Creuzbauer's company ot liglit 
artillery. After the close o( 
the war. he clerked one year 
for his brother, Robert Wol- 
ters, Sr., in High Hill (1807) 
In tlie following year he wen! 
to New Ulm and learned ihi- 
wagon maker's trade. On 
January 7, 1871, he married 
Miss Margaret Wink of New 
Ulm. He farmed there until 
1879. In that year lie went 
to Moulton, Lavaca C)unty, 
and the year after he came to 
Schulenburg and engaged in 
the saloon business. On 
April 1, 1902, he bought the 
cotton platform in Schulen- 
burg and he is now public 
weigher of that place. 


^ »•/ 





^^V''-^~-^^v i 




H^^H ^^^ 4 


^^A' -^^^1 


^^^^- v^J 


Theodore Wolters. 

His children have all had great success in life. They are: 

(1) Hon. J. F. Wolters, a leading lawyer of La Grange; 

(2) Eduard, clerk in the law oflice of Wolters, Lane & Len- 
ert; (3) Mrs. Ottilie Baumgarten, wife of Mr. Chris. Baumgarten, 
Jr., bookkeeper for Baumgarten Bros, at Schulenburg; (4) Misa 
Katie Wolters, in the millinery business at Schulenburg, and (5) 
Wallace, at home. 


Mr. Theo. Wolters is a public spirited man and takes a 
great interest in public affairs. He was elected alderman of 
Schulenburg, and his services in tliat office met with tbe general 
approval of the people. In 1889 he was elected Mayor of Schu- 
lenburg, which office he has held ever since except in the year 
1890. As mayor of Schulenburg, he has been progressive; tlie 
attractiveness of the city and her commercial influence are 
largely due to liis untiring efforts. He is a staunch true demo- 
crat, always found in the front ranks of that party where the 
ffght is hardest. He is proud of never having sfralcbed a 
democratic ticket in his life, even if the party nominees were 
not personally agreeable to him. 

Hut;o Zapp, Sk. 

The writer gives liere to the reader a biographical sketch of 
one of the oldest living settlers of Faj^ette County. Mr. Hugo 
Zipp, sr., is one of those sturdy German settlers who through 
all kinds of iiardships and reverses, by business talent, industry 
and economy achieved success. In his ripe old age he may 
look back now on a usefully spent life, on a life of toil and 
danger. He has the satisfaction of seeing his children well pro- 
vi led and in good circumstances. The following talk on his 
life, written down by his son, H. W. H. Zapp, is here given in 
full as the same tells very interestingly of some incidents of his 
life which are characteristic of the early times of Texas. 

My parents, John Hy. Zjpp and Elizabeth Zapp, nee Besen- 
bruch, lived in Elberfeld during their lifetime. My father was 
in the mercantile business. I was born September 6, 1822, in 
Elberfeld, Germany, raised and educated there as merchant. 
In my twenty-fifth year I emigrated with my brother Hermann 
to this country, landing in New Orleans, La., in December, 1847. 
I had several good positions offered me there, also in St. Louis, 
Mo., but I declined them. From New Orleans I went to Gal- 
veston and further on to Industry, Texas, where I bought me a 
small farm between the town of Industry and the banks of Mill 
Creek. In the banks of same there was a lovely, very strong, 
cold and clear spring of water, gushing through the rocks. 

—301 — 

[Tnderneath them I made a fine bath basin and tliere I enjoyed 
many a cool bath the first year in our warm climate. I chose 
farming as my occupation to make a living, as 1 wanted to lead 
an independent and free life when 1 adopted this country as my 
future home. My nearest neiglibors lived only a few hundred 
yar Is distant ; they were Mr. Jacob Wolters, Herr von Wedel 
and Mr. Ernst, sr. Here I had m.y first experience in farming ; 
the lirst time in my recollection that I ever touched a plow or 
hoe or even saw one. My good readers can therefore well 
imagine how well I succeeded 
at first with my new vocation, 
but as 1 was determined, I 
soon learned. In 1849 my 
brother Hermann started with 
a party for California where 
he remained a couple of years 
and then returned to Elber- 
feld, where he now resides. 
In 1850 I bougiit a tract of 
timber land, about four miles 
west of Fayetteville, near Clear 
Creek, which 1 began to im- 
prove with the aid of some 
good friends and, by years of 
hard toil, I got a nice field. 
Ln the first y.^.ir I built a gen- 
uine Texas house tliereon ; 
perliaps some of your readers 
will hardly know what a gen- 
uine Texas house is ; hence I 

will explain : It is a log tiouse, 'covered with split sliingles with- 
out the use of a single nail; as the latter were a scarce article in 
Texas in oltl times, the citizens were forced to make inventions. 
1 lived there a couple of years as bachelor and many an interest- 
ing episode as well as hardship 1 went through durmg this 
period. In 185') I married near Uoundtop my wife, Caroline 
Bode, and spent the liappiest part of my life right on this little 
farm ; always raised enough cuttow to ipake a good living anc^ 

Hugo Zapp, Sr. 

plenty of corn so that I could raise good stock of which I had at 
all times an abundance. After some years when my children 
began to grow up, I concluded to get near a town so as to give 
them schooling. I chose Fayetteville whereto I moved in 1865, 
and there I have lived ever since. Began merchandising which 
I followed up to 1890, with success, although my means for the 
lirst years were very limited. I have never run for an office, 
neither have I ever taken much stock in politics in this my 
adopted country, I was not admitted as a soldier in the Civil 
War on account of my poor eyesight, 1 being nearsighted. In 
the fali of ISOl a band of robbers attacked me at my house at 
night for money ; as I had none, th'ey attempted to hang me ; 
1 had already the rope around my neck and over the limb of a 
tree, when, at a proper moment, I quickly loosened the rope 
from my neck, sprang behind the tree and ran for dear life, they 
tiring six or eight shots after me, when I fell over a log an! 
they, sui)posing that tliey bad killed mo, ran, jumped on tlieir 
horses and escaped. This v.'as the third time I had a narrow 
escape for life. 

We raised a family of nine children, six daughters and three 
sons: My eldest daughter, Mary, born June 11, 1854, married 
H. J. Meitzen, a school teacher wlio lives three miles west of 
here; (2) my son, H. W . H. Zipp, l)orn Mav 7, 1857, a mer- 
chant here in Fayetteville; (o) my son, C. T. Zapp, born Jan. 11. 
185'.), a speculator and investor at, Zi|)p P. 0., Texas; (4) my 
daughter Ciroline, born August o, l^ol, married Ad. Z )ll, mer- 
chandising here; (5) my son, H C Z:ii)p, born Aug. 17, 18G2, 
uierchandi'^ing at Ben Arnold, Milam County, Texas; (0) my 
daughter Mathilde, born A[)ril 4, 18G4, married E T. Pagel, 
merchandising here with my son, II. W. Zipp; (7) my chiughter 
Julia, born IV'bruary 11, 180G, married Rud. Franke, a book- 
kee|)pr at Houston, Texas; (8) my daughter Louise, born March 
13, 1869, died May 9, 189'J, and (9) my daughter Ida, born, 
August 28. 1871, married D:-. H. E. Gaedcke of Fayetteville. 
Died October 25, 1900. leaving four little children. 

In 1897 my eyes began bothering and paining me very much 
and grew worse from time to time, until in 1900 I went totally 
blind. The only comfort and company was my dear wife up to 


the 18th day of March, 1902, when it pleased our Father above 
to also take her, my last support, from me and leave me alone 
with my good children who try to do for me all they can. 


Hugo Zapp, per II. 

Robert Zatp. 

The name of Robert Zapp, whenever mentioned, is forever 
linked with steadfastness of purpose, unimpeachable honesty 
and the hishest order of moral courage. He was firm in his 
convictions. No matter what the clamor of excited citizens, no 
matter what their threats, no 
matter what mi^iit be tlie con- 
sequences of resisting an un- 
reasoning mob, he could not 
be moved a step from the line 
of conduct his conscience and 
ripe judgment had dictated to 
him. There never was a for- 
eigner who on account of Ihe^e 
virtues was more respected by 
liis American fellow citizens 
than Robert Zapp. He was 
a power for good, a man wlio 
set a shining example by his 
conduct for posterity to walk 
the line of rit;ht. 

Ivobert Z tpp was born at 
Elberfeld, Germany, in 1818. 
In tliat country he received a 
splendid education, and, after 
learning the trade of engraver, 
he established himself in that business. On account of iiis revo- 
lutionary views, in which he advocated a republican form of gov- 
ernment, he came into conflict with the ruling powers. He left 
Germany in 1847 and arrived that year in Texas. The United 
States were then in a state of war with .Mexico. Hs served 

Robert Zapp. 


several months as a governiDent teamster, but became sick of 
fever and was sent to the New Orleans hospital. After his dis- 
missal from the hospital he returned to Texas. Here he made 
tlie acquaintance of Miss Johanna Hubertina Huepgens (born 
June 14, 1826, at Eupen, Germany,) and was married to that 
iady in the same year (1847) at Liverpool, near Galveston. In 
1848 he moved to La Grange. Here he wori^ed for about seven 
years as a carpenter. He then established a mercantile business 
at La Grange in 1855. It burned up on the night of Buchanan's 
election. He was then a democrat. When his friends expressed 
their sympathy to him about his loss, he answered coolly: 
"Never mind. This was a bonfire for Buchanan's victory." 
The course pursued by Buchanan's administration did not meet 
his approval; Robert Zapp changed his party affiliations and 
became an ardent republican. Daring the Civil War he was a 
strong Union man. lie was elected a member of the Twelfth 
Legislature. When Coke was elected governor and Davis 
intended to resist him in assuming charge of this office, when 
partisan feeling ran so high that bloodshed seemed to be 
unavoidable, he was one of the republican leaders who counseled 
moderation and agreement to the verdict of the people as given 
at the last election. His influence in his party and the conddence 
they |)Iaced in the suundness of his judgment carried so much 
weight witli them that his party appr.jved his counsel, and 
bloodshed was thereby averted. During Davis' ad:uinistratinn, 
he also held the office of superintendent of county sciionls. la 
188) he ran against Miller for Coni^i-ess on the republican ticket, 
and, though defeated, he had the consolation of cai-rying his 
Jiome county, where he was best known and where his high 
qualities and principles were m):it apprnniuted, by a two-tliirdi 

In 185() he built np his burnt business in La Grange, He 
stayed there until 18 jU. In that year he opened a general mer- 
chandise business at Long Prairie (the present Waldeck). In 
1857 he opened branch stores at Ledbetter and Roundtop. He 
sold his business at Long Prairie to Matajowski & Aschen and 
moved that same year to Roundtop. Here he remained m busi- 


ness till one year before his death. He then sold the same to 
Alex y. Rosenberg. He died in 1885 at his home in Roundtop, 
after a useful life, honored and remembered not only by his 
friends and neighbors, but also by the people at large. His 
name until today stands as a byword for sternness of character, 
unimpeachable honesty and unwavering constancy. His beloved 
wife followed him in death in 1897. 

B. L. Zapp. 

The subject of this sketch is a son of the man whose biog- 
raphy the reader has perused just before. He has proved liim- 
self a chip of the old block and worthy in every respect of the 
reputation established by his father. During his terms as sheriff 
of the county from 1886 to 189i, he has established a reputation 
for fearlessness and efliciency 
well known throughout South 
Texas. By the faithful dis- 
charge of his duties in that 
office he has made a great 
number of strong friends 
throughout the county. 

Brutus L. Zapp was born 
August 15, 1851, at La Grange, 
He received only ten months' 
schooling in his life, but in 
later years he acquired a fair 
education by self- study. After 
iiis father had moved to 
Roundtop (1SC7), he worked 
on the latter's farm staying at 
his home. His fearlessness 
and efficiency had already 
attracted the attention of his 
fellow citizens, so that they 
elected him marshal of Round- 
top. In 1882 he went to La Grange and served as chief deputy 
sheriff under John T. Rankin up to 1882. In that year he mar- 
ried Miss Mary Wertz of La Grange. The following year he was 

B. L. Zapp. 

elected sherifTof the county. In this oflice he served four terms 
till 1894, when he declined to run for re-election. He was in the 
gin business since 1890, He started mercantile business in 1896 
in which business he sliil remains, enjoying the implicit confi- 
dence of his customers. 

To the union with his wife ^were born two children, Violet 
L. and Robert Lee. Both stay with their father at home. 

[Note. -^ By oversig^ht, in the hurry of work, the following biogra- 
phies were not put in thsir proper places. Tne writer begs to be ex- 
cused for his oversight. Tha first should follow the biography of 
Hon. A. B. Kerr on page 284, and the second the biography of Chas. 
H. Sehaefer on page 286.] 

H. 1j. Kreische. 

H. L. Kreische was one of the first and best architects 
who ever came to Fayette County. He was the builder of tlie 
third Fayette County Court House, a solid, substantial structure 
which at the time it was buiU, was one of the finest court houses 
in the state. The reader will find a picture of this court house 
on paore 118. There are a great many citizens in the county 
who preferred this court house to the more elegant new building 
and who regretted to see this substantial building in which they 
had gathered in good and evil times, torn down to give place to 
a new building. The court house built by him in 1855 was 
demolislied in 1890. Prior to 185o he had built the second Fay- 
ette County jail in company with Mr. A. Ammann. They were 
complimented by the commissioners' court on this work "done 
in a good and workmanlike manner," and this resolution was 
spread on the minutes of tlie court (see page 195). The 
buildings erected by H. Ij. Kreische excelled by their solidity 
and massiveness. The rock building on the 131uff now occup.ed 
by his family, and the brewery nearby are specimens of his ex- 
quisite workmanship and give fnir promise to stand for ages. 

H. L. Kreische was a perfectly honest man who judged 
other people by his own standard of honesty. It could not fail 
that such a man sometimes misplaced his confidence and tliis 
embittered the last years of the life of this good mau- H. L, 



Kreische was also a public spirited man and bore his full share 
in advancing and developing Fayette County. 

Mr. Kreische was born at Goetschen, Saxony, and was 
educated there as an architect. He came to Texas in 1840. In 
1855 he was married to Miss Josepha Appelt who had come to 
this country with her brother Franz Appelt in 1853. H. L. 
Kreische died in 1882. His widow and six children, three sons 
and three daughters, are surviving him. They are the owners of 
the Bluff, the mo8t beautiful spot in Fayette County, 


The genial disposition, the big-heartedness and the irre- 
proachable honesty of L. Schlottman are well remembered by the 
people of Schulenburg. He was a man who had seen much of life, 
who had met with reverses as every man has, and finally reached 
a secure port in the position of bookkeeper for the oil mill and 
lumber business of Chris. Baumgarten, Sr. This position he 
filled ably, faithfully and honestly for a period of twenty years, 
leaving to his children as the best inheritance a good name. 

Louis Schlottman was born on January 13, IS-']?, at Ham- 
burg, Germany. In 1853 he came with his father, Dr. Adolphe 
Schlottmann, a very highly educated gentleman, from Germany 
to the United^ States and first settled near Uoundtop, Texas. 
Here they farmed for a number of years. At the beginning of 
the Civil War, his father opened a drugstore at lloundtop and 
conducted same during the war. Love of adventure and travel 
and a longing to see the world caused Louis to leave home and 
thus we find him working in Nicaragua on the first railroad built 
in that country. He also bought some real estate there. But 
after a time, he became tired of Nicaragua and made several sea 
voyages, one of which brought him to Liverpool, England. 
Here he met the wife of his choice, Miss Lucy Marten, became 
ac(iuainled with her and was married to her on July 3, 1SG5, 
in J.iverpool. The same year he returned to lloundtop and 
assumed the management of his father's drug business at that 
place, Later ou he was appointed postmaster at)Uouudtop. la 


1880 he moved with his family to Schulenburg, Texas. Here 
he worked lirst as a carpenter, but soon secured a position as 
bookkeeper for the oil mill and lumber yard of Mr. Chris. 
Baamgarten, Sr., which position he held for a period of twenty 
years to the time of his death on August 30, 1901. 

He left three children : Louise, wife of Mr. A. W. Beniker, 
in the saloon business at Schnlenburg; Bismarck, employed at 
Mr. Chris Baumgarten's oil mill oat Schulenburg, and Wilhelm, 
a farmer near Schulenburg. 


Increase of Population. 

The Census Reports show that the i)opulation of Fayette 
County in 1850 was 3,756; m 1860, 11,604; in 1870, 16,863; in 
18S0, 27,996; in 1890, 31,481, and in 1900, 36,542. 

(Figures obtained through kindness of Hon. Geo. Burgess, 
M. C.) 






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1. Election held for coroner, Oct. 1848. The Rutersville candi- 
date D. G. Gregory elected. 

N. E. no election held. N. R. no returns. 

2. Nov. 7, 1848 was election for Presidential Electors. L. Cass 
Pres. Al. O. Butler Vice Pres. received of 267 votes that were cast 175. 

3. Election for State officers and Representatives Aug. 6, 1849. 

4. For Seat of Government Austin received 409 votes, Ruters- 
ville 1, Washington 2. For a special Jail Tax 35 votes were cast for 
and 284 against, i; March 4, 1850.) 

5. On order of Chief Justice an election was held at the Court 
House in LaGrange in accordance with the provisions of the act in- 
corporating the town of La Grange for one mayor, five aldermen and 
one constable on the 4th day of March 1850, 51 votes were cast ; B. 
Townsend was elected mayor ; Francis Frede, P. C. Beall, P. V. Shaw, 
James Murphy and Lewis Williams were elected aldermen and E. P. 
Howland constable, 

6. Leaves on General Election of Aug. 5, 1850 are missing. 

7. Election held 1st day of August, 1853 for Gov., Lieut. Gov., 
liand Com. and Representatives (State and LT. S.) Constitutional 
amendment relating to River appropriation and Court House resolu- 
tion was defeated. 

8. Elections for State, County and Beat officers. Aug 7 1854 
for and against the Liquor License 785 votes were cast in this election ; 
of these only 114 voted for and 270 against the liquor license ; the bal- 
ance not voting. For Free Ferry 182. against fiee Ferry voted 69. The 
County Commissioners were voted for by the whole county. In this 
year there were 9 justice and election beats. 9 Justices of the Peace 
and 9 constables were elected. The same day was also first election 
for School Trustees ; the county was divided into 18 school districts. 
Also election for mayor, aldermen and town constable in La Grange. 
Mayor Charles Longcope elected. 

9. Elections for county officers and beat officers were ordered 
by chief justice of the county to fill vacancies. 

10. El, Aug. 7, 1855 for Gov., Lieut. Gov., Land C, Member C. 
and State Senator and Repres. 

11. El. Aug. 4, 1856 for State and county officers Beat No. 4 is 
the first time called Roundtop, No. 5, Fayetteville, No. 6 Lyons, No. 7 
Black Jack, No. 8 Scallorn, No. 9 Burleson, No. 10 is skipped. No. 11 
Mulberry. This election 10 Justices and constables were elect8d. 

12. In this year 5 justices of the peace having failed to qualify 
after the Electoral Election they were voted for again; then for one no 
returns were made ; 3 again failed to qualify. Elect, held Nov. 4, 56 
also for Presidential Electors. 

13. In a special election for an Associate Justice of the Supreme 
Court to fill the vacancy occasioned by the death of Hon. A. S. Lips- 
comb only 136 votes were cast, three precincts only making returns. 
The returns certified to by county commissioners William Hunt and 
William Young, probably in the absence of the county judge, but the 
latter made a like return as the above commissioners and wrote 
across the first certification the words: Null and Void. In a special 
election for representative, held August 27, 1851, there having been a 
tie at the election held August 3, 1857, two county commissioners cer- 
tified again to the returns of the election viz., Joel W. Robison and 
William Young, but this time the judge seems to have accepted their 
certificate as valid. 


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— 3J2— 


1. Election held for Gov., Land Comm. and Repr. (U. S. and 
Statej 11 Justices of the Peace. 

2. Election for State Officers: Chief Justice S. C, Ase. Justice, 
Att'y. Gen'l., Comptroller of Accounts, Treasurer, Diet. Att'y., Coun- 
ty and Beat Officers. 

3. Election for Presidential Electors. 

4. Election for Gov., Lieut. Gov., Land Com. and Repr. Aug. 
1, 1859. 

5. At an election hold March, 19, 1860 upon the proposition to 
levy a special tax to aid in the construction of the B. B. B. & C. Rail- 
road, tax proposition received 516 votes ; against 286. 

6. Elect. Aug. 6, 1860 for State, county and beat officers. 

7. The 23d day of February 1861 the question of secession was 
voted upon. 580 votes were cast for and 626 votes against secession in 

the county. 

8. Aug. 6, 1861 election was held for Gov., Lieut. Gov., Land 
Com. and State Representatives. 

9. El. held Nov. 6. 1861 for Electors for Pres, and Vice Pres. of 
the Confederate States and for Member of Congress of the Confeder- 
ate States. 

10. Elect, held Aug. 4, 1862 for State and connty officers, 2 jus- 
tices of the peace and one constable in each beat, 13 beats; for War 
Tax 372 ; against 154. 

11. Elect. Aug. 3, 1863 for Gov., Lieut. Gov., Land Com., Att'y. 
Gen'l., Member of C, State Sen. and Rep. 

12. Elect, held Aug. 1, 1864 for State, County and beat officers, 
5 justices of the Peace and 1 constable for each precinct. There were 
not candidates enough for five justices in each precinct. County Com. 
elected by the whole county (4 Comm.) 

13. Elect, held Jan. 8, 1866 by order of Andrew J. Hamilton, 
Provisional Gov. for one delegate to a State Convention for the pur- 
pose of altering and amending the constitution. 484 votes were cast. 

14. Elect, held June 25, 1866 for Gov. and all State officers, all 
County officers ; 2 justices of the peace and 1 constable for each of 
the 14 beats. 

Elections During Reconstruction. 

During the era of Reconstruction, election records were kept 
very carelessly. For some time elections were held only at the 
county seat. Voters had to register and pass in line. Some 
notes are here given on elections during these times. 

In the election of 1874 there were elected five justices of the 
peace and five school directors. The whole county voted for 
them. In that year the first vote in Fayette County for state 
superintendent of public instruction was recorded. 

For a constitutional convention, 1091 votes were given in 
Fayette County; against it, 945. 

Statistics OF Vote of Fayette County, Texas, 

No. of Year, Year. 

Precinct. Place of Election. 1876 1876 

1. La Grange 460 486 

2. ' Rutersville 121 ISl 

3. Bluff 146 138 

4. Fayetteville 357 384 

5. Live Oak Hill 97 100 

6. KroU's Store 97 101 

7. Kock House 33 45 

8. Round Top 223 263 

9. Warrenton 376 181 

10. Aschen's Store 135 134 

11. Ledbetter 28 28 

12. Haw Creek 92 100 

13. Falke's Store 41 43 

14. Winchester 216 208 

15. Ivey's School House, called also Grey's. 64 69 

16. Black Jack , 230 224 

17. Cistern 113 116 

18. West Point 209 215 

19. Flatonia 290 317 

20. Pecan 207 209 

21. Schulenburg 397 401 

22. High Hill 118 117 

Total 3850 4010 

Note.— The first election in 1876 was held on February 15, 1876, 

in regard to the adoption of the constitution. 1969 votes were cast for 

the adoption of the constitution and 1921 were cast against it. The 

second election in 1876 was held for electing state, national and 

county officers. Neither date nor offices for which the various candi- 
dates ran is given. 

— 3U— 

Statistics of Vote of Fayette County, Texas. 

Vote of 1878. Vote of 1880. 

1. La Grange 4o4 1. La Granie 508 

2. Rutersville 140 2. Kutersville IGl 

8. Bluff 147 8. Bluff IGO 

4. Fayetteville ........ 200 4. Engel 67 

5. Ehlinger 158 5. Fayetteville 20i) 

6. KroH's 120 0. Live Oak 140 

7. Rock House 72 7. Kroll's J 24 

8. Roundtop 281 8, Rock House 07 

0. Marburger 84 40 

10. Aschen's 80 10. Koundtop 272 

11. Ledbetter 82 11. Haw Creek 08 

J2. Warrentoii 180 12. Aschen 60 

13. Nechanitz 80 18. Ledbetter 45 

14. Winchester 10-5 14. Warrenton 101 

15. Falke 47 15. Nechanitz lUl 

10. Blackjack 217 16. Winchester \>06 

17. West Point 250 17. Falke 50 

18. Ivey School House. . 68 18. Blackjack 222 

10. Flatonia 877 10. West Point 278 

20. Cistern 188 20. Ivey's School 71 

21. Pecan 181 21. Flatonia 880 

22. Amtnannsville 04 22. Cistern 162 

28. Schulenburg 467 23. N. P 117 

24. High tlill 115 24. Pecan 106 

25. Amniannsville 107 

26. Schulenburg 402 

27. High Hill 108 

Total 4148 Total 4642 

Note— In the election of 1880 the question for locating Main 
University and Medical department was voted on. The vote went 
against separation of the Medical Department from the Main Univers- 
ity, and Austin was selected as the place for the University by an 
overwhelming vote. 

Election Returns. 
Votes Cast. 1882 1884 1886 1888 18!»0 18!»2 

La Grange 532 535 555 OGl 653 751 

Rutersville 149 167 174 16l> 170 167 

Bluff" 142 136 113 1G2 140 140 

Engel's Store 68 81 72 70 55 05 

Fayetteville 212 203 1;>!» 233 271 26() 

EUiiiger Depot 181 198 209 195 19:> 17C 

KroU's Store (Biegel) 117 134 142 137 158 168 

Iloekhouse (Zapp) 67 68 82 119 101 95 

WeikersMill 49 ()3 64 79 79 82 

Koundtop 269 28i 275 215 192 175 

Haw Creek 86 93 !»4 86 81 86 

Asclien's Store (Waldeck) 60 73 70 73 67 64 

Ledbetter 61 57 57 57 59 64 

Warrenton 142 175 150 223 222 221 

Nechanitz 76 68 65 50 62 50 

Winchester 196 203 191 196 219 256 

Ealke's Store (Warda) 77 99 106 113 113 120 

Black Jack Springs 207 197 228 163 152 149 

West Point ...265 27l 271 159 207 241 

Ivey's Scliool(Muldoon) 83 97 118 118 131 130 

Flatonia 399 439 416 350 350 425 

Cistern 165 l9l 187 97 140 146 

New Prague (Praha) 85 89 111 ll!> 123 110 

Pecan < 176 193 184 167 149 178 

Ammannsville 112 165 158 133 117 88 

Schulenburg „ 451 286 352 346 334 365 

High Hill 80 130 83 76 87 89 

Mulberry 117 107 122 11^ 127 

Moravia (Dubina) 113 106 91 118 114 

Thulemeyer's 70 95 81 87 

Plum . — 152 160 188 

Colony 140 141 151 

Swiss Alp 66 74 86 

Stella — 34 

4507 4925 5009 5232 5319 5654 

— 31G— 

Statistics of Vote of Fayette County, Texas. 

1894 1896 1898 1900 

La Grange 832 913 875 786 

Bluff 148 172 141 126 

Moravau 63 49 43 44 

Rutersville 174 179 153 165 

Biegel 167 185 162 149 

EUinger 202 239 210 215 

Fayetteville 274 313 316 352 

Zapp 101 lOG 94 92 

VVarrenton 230 268 220 275 

Haw Creek 73 96 92 87 

Round lop 199 221 207 191 

Carmine 108 127 130 123 

Ledbetter 73 81 68 78 

Waldeck 80 90 72 85 

Nechanitz 63 61 54 55 

VVarda 134 150 119 130 

Winchester 264 244 212 237 

West Point 235 217 201 210 

Plum 200 223 173 171 

Muldoon 179 192 173 220 

Black Jack 196 182 1C6 182 

Cistern 155 150 138 134 

Colony 178 164 154 140 

Flatonia 423 491 422 434 

Praha 127 138 108 107 

Ammannsville 121 132 123 120 

Pecan 202 245 195 165 

Swiss Alp 82 97 87 97 

Mulberry 93 91 99 111 

Sclmlenburg 434 507 453 497 

Dubina Ill 145 120 116 

High Hill 81 91 89 73 

Thulemeyer 104 98 98 96 

Stella 34 33 32 35 

Totals 6140 6690 5998 6098 


Growth of Value of Taxable Property. 
The earlier records on Uiis subject are stored away in the 
cellar of the court house and in a dilapidated condition. The 
amounts of the taxable property assessed in tlie county from 
18-47 to 1860 are taken from the Minutes of the Commissioners' 
Court. It is sufficient for this book to show the increase in 
taxable! property since 1878 as found in the records at the tax- 
collector's office. JiOoking at the increase of taxable property, 
there is nothing unreasonable about it. A disaffected politician 
may find here a chance to speak of the increase of taxes anil of 
the tax-ridden people, but it should be borne in mind by the 
reader that three railroads, the branch of the Galveston, Har- 
risburg and San Antonio Railway Company from Columbus to 
La Grange, the Missouri, Kansas and Texas, and the San An- 
tonio and Aransas Pass (branch from Yoakum to Waco) have 
been built since that time. Not only did their property add to 
the wealth of Fayette County, but they also enhanced the value 
of the farm lands. 

(From Minutes of Commissioners' Court.) 
Year, Taxable Property. Year. Taxable Property. 

1847 $l,i;58, ('.!)('. 1857 $3. 007, 280 

1853* 2,026,872 1858 4 272,402 

1855* 2,942,288 1860 5,115,302 

1856* 3,183,472 

[*NoTE.— In 1853 the number of neojroes was 1422; in 1855 it was 
2072: in 1856 it was 2255, they were valued at .^1,214,625.] 

(From the Assessor and Collector's Rolls.) 

Year. Taxable Property. , Year. Taxable Property. 

1878 S5, 123,748 18'.)0 $8,283,720 

1879 4,939,143 1891 7,952,410 

1880 5,080,885 1892 8,235.230 

1881 5,361,658 1893 8,418,643 

1882 5,523,365 1894 8,474,690 

1883 6.009,430 1805 8,317,310 

1 884 6, 745, 430 1 896 8, 223 ,030 

1885 7,033,720 1897 8,476,760 

1886 7.234.910 1898 8,551,050 

1887 7,482,554 J899 8,434,870 

1888 7,932,105 1900 ,,.,..,-,,,,., 8,482,134 

1889 8,049,240 

Total Amount of Taxes Levied From 1847 to 18G0. 

(From Minutes of Commissioners' Court.) 
1847 $3689.43 1857 S9523.56 

1853 5821.50 1858 8875.74 

1855 7240.32 1860 9183.22 

1856 7849.70 

Total Amount op Taxes Levied From 1880 to 1900. 
(From Tax Collector's Rolls.) 






























62,424 15 













Number of 

Polls on the Assessor' 

s List From 

1891 to 1900 





















Growth of Numi?er of School Children, Accordinc; to 
Scholastic Census. 

A record of the growth of the number of school cliiklren 
h;is not been kei)t by the preceding superintendents. What 
purports to be this record may be clear to the individuals who 
have written it as notes to make a report from, but to no one 
else. The reader will notice in the table below the sudden falling 
oflffrom 9762 children in 1898 to 7401 in the year 1899. This is 
due to the stricter methods now employed in taking the gcho- 
lastic census. Still, in a great many instances, these methods 


cause a great deal of confusion and oversight on account of the 
unfamiliarity of the people with them. The present incumbent, 
Superintendent Stierling, states that in spite of all efforts to take 
a correct and complete census, the figures for the number of 
school children during the last two years have fallen to about 
500 below what they should be. Superintendent Stierling was 
kind enough to furnish the following information as regards his 
term of otiice. 

Number of School Available School Funds Pro- 
Year. Children. portioned to F. Co. 

1897 1)401 $42,409.98 

1898 «»762 48,022.!»5 

1899 7401 30,4G6.00 

1900 7499 40,445.71 

LENGTH OF Railroads, Telegraph axd Telehhone Lines in 
Fayette Counny, and Their Assessments. 

The main line of the Galveston, Harrisburg and San Anto- 
nio Railway Company passes througli the southern part of 
Fayette County, through Schulenburg and Flatonia, for a length 
of 22 miles, and is assessed at $198,092. The branch road of 
this company from Columbus, or rather from Smith Junction, to 
LaGrange runs through the county for a distance of 13 2 miles, 
which are assessed at S79,865. The proportionate amount of 
rolling stock of this railroad company is assessed at $45,44o. 
Thus, the total value of the property of this company is assessed 
at $;523,400. On this the company i)ays $2788.12 state and 
county taxes. These assessments, as well as the subse(iuent 
ones, have been taken for tlie year lllOO. 

The Missouri, Kansas and Texa.s Railway Comi)any passes 
through the center of tiie county and through the county seat. 
La Grange. It assesses in the county '-VA miles of railroad track 
at $280,500; its proportionate amount of rolling stock at 
$23,886. Thus the assessment of this company amounts to 
$804,386, on which it pays $2576.71 state and county taxes. 

The Aransas Pass Railway Company assesses 30.8 miles of 
railroad track running through the western ptvrt pf the county 


at $215,900; the proportionate amount of rolling stock, at 
$24,111. The total value of the assessed property ia $240,011, 
on which $2032.09 state and county taxes are paid. 

The Houston and Texas Central Railroad Company, whose 
railroad line passes through the northern part of Fayette County, 
through Carmhie and Ledbetter, assesses its 6 miles of railroad 
track at $48,090; the proportionate amount of rolling stock at 
$9,727, the total assessment being $57,817, on which $489.52 
state and county taxes are paid. 

The Southwestern Telephone and Telegraph Company owns 
76 miles of line m the county, assessed at $4000, and pays 
$33.87 state and county taxes thereon. 

The Western Union Telegraph Company owns 110.4 miles 
of line in the county, assessed at $0430 and pays $54.44 state 
and county taxes thereon. 

The Postal Telegraph and Cable Company owns 33 miles of 
line in the county, assessed at $2150, and pays $18.20 state and 
county taxes. 

The total value of the property of the Railroad, Telegraph 
and Telephone Companies in Fayette Ci^unty is assessed at 
$938,144 ; the taxes paid thereon amount to $7,942.95. A glance 
at this statement shows that whatever prejudices against the 
railroads some people may have, they must admit that the rail- 
roads are well taxed. Their property amounts to about the 
ninth part of the property of the whole county and the taxes 
paid thereon to nearly the tenth part of the taxes. The differ- 
ence between the part which their property forms in relation to 
the property of the whole county and the part whic'i the taxes 
collected thereon amount to in relation to the taxes of the whole 
county, their property being the ninth part of the whole part of 
the county and the taxes paid thereon only the tenth part of the 
taxes collected in the county, is due to the amount of poll tax 
collected in the county besides the tax on property. As the 
taxes paid by the Railroad, Telegraph and Telephone Companies 
amount to $7,942.95 per year, pro rated per day their taxes 
amount to $21.21 ; an amount of taxes paid only by the county's 
substantial farmers. 





La Grange lies in*a big bend of the Colorado River. For 
about a mile, the Colorado rnns due south until it (strikes the 
Blul!" mount, opposite La Grange ; here its course is turned 
eastward so that it encloses in this angle the city. West and 
south of La Grange rises the Blutf, north of La Grange abruptly 
rises a high plateau, while towards the east tlie land rises grad- 
ually. La Grange, therefore, lies in a deep basin, sheltered on 
all sides against storms. It is said that the Indians always built 
their camps in storm-proof localities and for this reason the pres- 
ent site of La Grange was the former location of an Indian camj). 

La Grange is a beautiful city. The best view of it may be 
had from the Bluft'. Two hundred feet below, at the feet of the 
spectator, flow the red waters of the Colorado, enclosing from two 
sides a fertile bottom checkered by corn and cotton fields, a 
beautiful foreground for a picture of the city. Tiie court house, 
the steeples of churches and the red roofs of some larger resi- 
dencfs break pleasantly through tlie green of liveoak groves. 
To the left the bridges and waterworks, to the right the compress 
and the railroad wagon park give this picture a fitting termina- 
tion. The high wood-covered hills rising back of La Grange 
form an appropriate background with Chalk Bluff to the left and 
the town of Rutersville to the right as a close of the background. 
What strikes most, is the harmony and symmetry of the picture. 
An artist could not arrange his subject more artistically than 

fly \» 

1 1 UAe S^irst 9?ationai ^ank If 

}^ 3 ! a^ yf> 

m \«> 

^ o/ o^or Sran^e, Uexas. |K 

<» Sl» 

<ft - \» 


<ft ^!? 

flV John W. Taylor, B. White, Dr. Otto Witte, Jonathan Lane, Wm. Ilcrmes, W 

^ A. C. Lenert, Jno. B. Holloway, R. T. Bradshaw, Aug. Warnken. ^j^ 

'^ A. Haidusek, Dr. C. Gevers, W. A. Brown, Mrs. R. \^ 

«S H. Phelps, C. Letzerich and J. C.Brown. <g 

<l> W 

fl> «> 


(Hi >» 

% A. Haidusek, R. T. Bradshaw, Aug. Warnken, B. White, t 
i Dr. Otto Witte, J. W. Taylor, J. B..Ho]lo\vav. % 

<»> f 


^ A. Haidusek, President. ^ 

S R. T. Bradshaw, Vice President. % 

Jno. B. Holloway, Cashier. ^ 

Ed. Mattingly, Ass't Cashier. ^ 

^ Lad. V. Vanek, liookkeeper. i)^ 

<^ — >p 

<» ^^^ 

<ft The Safest Place to Deposit Your Money. | 
$ \»> 

I Make Collections through Banks in I 

I any part of the United States .... « 

JJI fi@"Money sent to any place in the United States, as well as ^ 

% to any place in Europe. vV 

* I 


I Svoboda Job Office.... I 

A. HAIDUSEK, Proprietor. 

t — r» -^'^ Sran^o, Uexas, 

Job Work Done 
j^ in All Modern 
* languages,.. 

Programs, Letter Heads, Enveloiies, Circulars, Cards, Checks 
and Drafts— all work done in this line finished better than can 
% be done in any inland office. 

^ Commercial ^ob iPrinii'nff a Speciaiti/. 

^ i^^lWW^ www ftWWAWWM^WAWMM^^ 

nature has done here. Fitting foreground and background for 
the mahi picture of the city, with appropriate beginning and 

The principal streets of La Grange are those leading from 
the public square. Most of the streets are nicely graded and 
graveled. The residences are elegant, with beautiful gardens 
and lawns in front, What strikes the stranger most upon visit- 
inf La Grange is the great number of large and beautiful live- 
oak trees, veterans of the wood that reach back into past centu- 
ries. Of the more noticeable buildings may be mentioned the 
court house, the jail, the First National Bank Building, the Schuh- 
macher Bank building, the Heintze building, the Rooenberg 
building, the Meyenberg building, the Casino, the Opera House, 
the school and the compress. 

La Grange was settled in the latter part of the twenties on 
land granted to John H. Moore. It was for a long time a very 
inconsiderable place. The first settlers had come from Tenne.-- 
gee and named their new home after their old home, LaGrange 

!27 — 


The Photographer, 

Has his Studio at the Southeast Corrior of the Public Square. A nice 
picture of yourself, taken with artistic taste, is a most acceptable 
and cherished gift to your friends. L. Rice is sure to please you. 
Come and call on him "at 




[Office in Schuhmacher Building.] 
LA (i R A N G K , TEXAS. 

Will practice in all State and United States Courts. 

in Tennessee, (La Grange is French, the name of La Fayette's 
estate, and means "the mansion.") 

The Census of L)()0 gives La Grange 2400 inhabitants. Its 
population is American, German and Bohemian. About one- 
tliird of the population are negroes. 

La Grange is an independent school district; it lias two 
schools, one for white and one for colored pupils. Tlie school 
for white pupils is managed by Prof. C. A. Brown with the assis- 
tance of an able corps of teachers and visited by 251 pupils. The 
colored school is visited by 106 pupils and managed by Prof. 
. Jefferson. The city levies a district school tax. 

The lodge brother has a large choice of lodges to join to. 
There are not less than nine lodges in La Grange : Odd Fellows, 
Knights of Honor, Knights and Ladies of Honor, Free Masons, 
Knights of Pythias, United \Vorkmen, Sons of Hermann, Fra- 
ternal Mystic Circle and A. L. of H. Some of these lodges in- 
sure the lives of their members, others aid them in case of sick- 


M. J.Connell. 

J. W. Holloway. I C. J. von Rosenberg. 

1 Alex. E. von Rosenberg. 

Gonnell & Holloway, Rosenberg & Co. 

.Dealers in 


Charter Oak Stoves, 

Glassware, Tinware and Ammu- 
nition, Rubber Belting, Hose 
and Cotton Gin Supplies. 



Dealers in 



Buyers of Cotton and 
Country Produce. 



ness. Besides these lodges, the Fayette County German Mutual 
Aid Society pursues the same object. 

The city ot La Grange has made a reputation for sociability 
over the whole State. The principal gathering place is the 
Casino, Here the whole town, enforced by a great many out- 
siders, gathers on festive occasions. The building is owned by a 
club, the Casino Club. Another club that contributes its share 
to entertainment is called "the La Grange Froesch," a German 
singing club which repeatedly has earned ppplause at feasts by 
their songs, Traveling theater troops generally find large aud- 
iences in this social city. 

La Grange lias a fertile surrounding country that contrib- 
utes to its trade, it has the rich Colorado bottom land north- 
west and southeast of it, the fertile Rutersville prairie to the 
northeast and the rich Navidad prairie to the southwest. Only 
very little land around La Grange is not fit for cultivation. The 
county being one of the oldest in the State, one of the original 

— 329— 
^ fytf ± "y/ * • i farmers' 

^uffust Jteintze.... je^^.^uanors. 

Xa (3ranoe 
I Store— -^^x I 

^ Men's, Boys' and (Children's Suits exceedingly cheap. % 

3; Receives daily new goods, as Shoes, Hats, Underwear, ^ 

% Cloth, Porcelain Ware, Notions, (iroceries, etc., etc., which p 

% he sells at exceedingly low prices. Cotton and Country ^ 

3 Produce are bought at highest cash prices. Come and see ^ 
% our immense stuck of brand new goods, before you buy % 
% elsewhere. % 


counties, a great many small places in the county sprang up 
before the arrival of the railroads. The stores and sliops in 
these places are a great convenience for their neighborhoods, but 
impair the otherwise brilliant business prospects of La Grange. 

La Grange is situated on the Missouri, Kansas and Texas 
Railroad and on a branch of the Southern Paciiic from Colum- 
bus. There are two express companies in La Grange, the 
American and the Wells Fargo. By telegraph it is connected 
with the outside world through the Western Union and the Pos- 
tal Telegraph Cable Company. La Grange is the headquarters 
of the Southwestern Telephone Company, a local system. 

The main pursuit of the citizens of La Grange is the mer- 
cantile business, supplying the farmers of the neighborhood and 
purchasing their products. There is one wholesale grocery 
business in La Grange ; there are 7 general merchandise stores, 

4 groceries, 5 dry goods stores, 3 hardware stores, 3 furniture 
houses, two saddleries, 2 jewelry stores, 3 drugstores, 11 bar- 
rooms, 2 beer agents, 3 blacksmith shops, 3 shoemakers, 2 

— 330— 

©uv 2)v^ (3oobs lEnipoviunv 

furnishes its customers the very latest styles of Dress 
Goods, Millinery, etc. Nowhere else will ihv purchaser 
find a firm who takes such pride to keep up with the times 
and the changes of fashion. If you wish to be dressed in 
up-to-date style, examine our dress goods and millinery, 
always of the lateat. We will suit you in styles and in prices. 

CARL MOSie, Proprietor. 


T. ^Y. MOOR}!), M. D., 

Ipb^eician anb Suvgcoii, 


tailors, 1 millinery, 2 restaurants, 3 hotels, 1 lumberyard, 2 
livery stables, 2 granaries, 1 marble yard, 1 English, 1 German 
and 1 Bohemian newspaper, 16 lawyers, 2 dentists, 5 physicians, 
2 banks, 2 meat markets and two photograph galleries in La 

Of industial establishments of greater importance are the 
waterworks and electric light plant, a cotton oil mill, a cotton 
compress, a soda and ice factory and two gins. 

The writer will now mention some of the business men of 
La Grange to whom he is obliged for patronage of his book. It 
may be said that these gentlemen take some pride and interest 
in their county and do not look only on dollars and cents, but 
are public spirited enough to give their support to a worthy en- 
terprise. In the writer's judgment, such men who feel an interest 
in their county are worthier to be patronized than those who do 
not, who live only in the county to accumulate all the dollars 
they can, who show no other interest for the people among whom 
they live as gathering from them dollars first, last and all the 
time. A man who deals with people to whom he presents only 
dollars and cents never will receive as fair treatment from them 


%/%/%/%/%/%. >t,/%/%^/%^^ -W%/%/%/% 'V%^%/%/%A> '%/%''<*/% 

..Particular Printers.. 

refuse to use cheap inks, 
shoddy papsr and old type. 
There is nothing that is so 
critically examined as job 
printing. It always shows 
the kind of stuff it is made 
of at a glance. 


We are Particular 

because we take a pride in 
the product of our shop 
and because experience 
has proven that good print- 
ing brings more printing 
to do. 


Establislied in 1880 


and publshed continuously 
since, the 

La Grange Journal 

is recognized as the lead- 
ing English paper in Fay- 
ette County and is read by 
2000 people. "Tne Old 
Reliable" is a weekly 
gu^st of the intelligence 
of Old Fayette. 


B. F. Haripl, Prop. 

■ f 


as frotn men who, on account of their station in life, feel obliged 
to evince an interest in the advancement of the community 
where they live. It is only natural for the writer to wish that 
the latter may reap benefits from their liberality towards him 
and he takes this occasion to bespeak tlie jiatronage of the friends 
of this book for those business men wlio enabled him by their 
support to get out this work. 

Judge A. Haidusek, the owner of the Svoboda and president 
of the birst National Bank of La Grange, has established a rep- 
utation for liberality throughout the state. Tliere never has 
come a literary man or printer who solicited his aid and who did 
not receive his hearty support. There is no man who takes 
greater pride in Fayette County than the judge and it was most 
natural that he gave his aid to this writer in getting out this 
book. The writer only hopes that his work may meet his ex- 

The first National Bank of La Grange with Judge A, Hal- 



and Svirgeou 

La. Gra-ngo, _ - . Texas, 



7Jm, Sranite and ^yate Ware 


S/^oofin^, Sutterin^ and Salvanized Sron 'Double ^lues 

made to order on short notice. Customers treated with 
promptness and dispatch. 

LA GRANGE, - - - - TEXAS. 

dusek as president and John B. Hollovvay as cashier is the most 
solid financial institution in the county and debervedly enjoys 
the fall confidence of the people. The Schuhmacher Bank is 
the other financial institution of La Grange and shares with the 
First National Bank tlie patronage of the capitalists of the 

Of the merchants of La Grange August Heintze, jr., is un- 
doubtedly the leading one. There is not a more liberal, more 
energetic and more accommodating merchant living in La 
Grange than he. Since he has opened his large department 
store, a great many faces of people who traded before elsewhere 
have appeared again to trade in that city. He carries an im- 
mense stock of goods. 

Rosenberg & Co. are the owners of an elegant store and car- 
ry an immense stock of goods. In the dry aoods line Carl 
Mosigis up-to date and keeps up with the fashion. Friedberger 
& Johnson are their able competitors. 

Frank Reichert and A. Harigel have well stocked furniture 



There is no place like home when it is cosy and 
comfortable, and there's no place like A. Hariget's 
Furniture Emporium to get the means to make it so. 


aniceCo'flnor basket is essential to public opinion. 
Ourline of Undertaker Goods is in keeping with the 




0/y Soocis 

Notious, Fancy Goods, Shoes, Trunks and Valises, Carpets 
and House Furnishing Goods. 

m^% r 1 GRANQE, TEXAS. 

stores and treat their customers liberally. Aug. Streithoff and 
Connell k, Holloway are the hardware firms in La Grange and 
also do first-class work in roofing, guttering, etc. 

The marble yard of 0. E. Stolz has a reuutation for turning 
out masterpieces of art in the monumental line, well established 
throughout South and Central Texas, and is assisted l)y a corps 
of able agents. 

The most popular saloons are the County Seat Saloon owned 
by Chas. Schaefer k. Son, and the Diamond Saloon owned by 
Hackebeil & Wefseis. 

In the hotel business Joe Kainer ranks in the front as well 
for accommodations as for liberal rates. No hotel in South 
Texas furnishes its patrons ao many accommodatiQ,ii» aa tela- 

— oo4 — 
Hermann Hackebeil, Fritz Wessels. 


HACKEBEIL & WESSELS, Proprietors. 

East Side of Public Square, - - La Grange, Texas. 

Finest Wines, Liquors 
and Cigars 

constantly in stock. Ice Cold Beer always on tap. New Billiard and Pool Tables for 
the entertainment of our esteemed patrons. 




fine Sabbles anb THavneee | 

^ A full assortment of Collars, Bridles, Hames, Chains, ^ 

§ Collar Pads, Whips and Lap Robes. Hand Made Work p 

^ and Repairing a specialty. ^ 

I South Side of Public Square. LA GRANGE, TEXAS. I 

phone, bathrooms, electric lights, elc., at such liberal rates. 
The rooms and the board cannot be surpassed. 

B. White, Wm. Hermes, jr., and J. Meyenberg, jr., are en- 
gaged in the drug business and share the patronage of La Grange 
and neighborhood with each other. 

Drs. T. W. Moore and II. A. McKinney have a large prac- 
tice and are known for their liberal rates. They do not cure a 
man first to kill him with their bills for medical attendance 

Dr. .J no. Baur, an erstwhile pupil of the writer, is a consci- 
encious young man, engaged in tlie practice of dentistry. 

Louis nice is engaged in photography and turns out first- 
class i)icture3. 

The lawyers of La Grange are a class any city may be proud 
of. The writer refers tiie reader to their biographies. 

The history of the La Grange Journal, tUe Syoboda and 


T T^ A T TT? ^^^""^ '"'^'' ^"^^ omce. 


Serman spoken here. ^^ Sra/l^Cj TjGXaS, 

I WM. HER.MES. Jr., j 


^ruffSy 7/^eciicmes^ Stationeri/ | 

T(3ilet Articles. School Books, | 

Paints and Oils. | 

LA GRANGE, - - . . - TEXAS, g 

the La Grange Deutsche Zeitung will be found under the head 
of "Newspaper Press of the County." 

La Grange is well protected against fire. As stated before, 
it has a good waterworks system. A volunteer lire company 
does eflicient service in case of fire. 

While La Grange has not increased very rapidly in popula- 
tion, it has been on a constant, steady growth. Wliile in 1880 
there were only two storehouses on the public scjnare, in 1850 
it was large enough to be incorporated. During the last decade 
its population increased thirty-five percent. In 18!)0 it 
according to the U. S. census ISOO inhabitants, now their num- 
ber is 2400. The increase of its business kept pace with the in- 
crease of its population. 

During the last few years the farmers around La Grange 
made only little more than half of the usual crop on account of 
the boll weevil plague, This vyfts ^ great drf^wtlvick to t|je Uusi- 


^ Leo Frede, Cashier. John Schuhmacher. H. C. Schuhmacher, Ass't Cashier. ^ 

i /...„.k1| '^obn Qcbubniacbev, 

I >^l. S^'^- .j^ 

1 ,f^*^^^#=:*^ R^esponsibility, SI50.000.00. g 


'^"""uJ'n'drdT''*"' L^ Graiig-e, Texas. | 




ness of La Grange. There also being a large number of pros- 
perous, thriving villages in the immediate vicinity of La Grange, 
doing a general merchandise business and thereby curtailing 
that of La Grange, it may be said that for its present po})ulation 
and its tributary country, the mercantile business is overdone in 
La Grange, l^a Grange is favorably situated for the manufac- 
turing business. If it shall not remain at a standstill, it must 
engage in these pursuits. Lately, the establishment of a cotton 
factory has been much talked about. It should be the time udw 
to start this enterprise, before Texas is overcrowded with estab- 
lishments of this kind. The conditions for a market of the 
manufactures may then be less favorable than now. The mar- 
ket may then be overcrowded. 


La Grange was built about the year 1828 on land belonging 
to J no. H. Moore, In 1838 it had only very few stores. In 


u/olters, jCane dc jCenert, 

Stitornej/s at ^aw. 

Serynan spoken in this office. 

Practice in all courts, write deeds, 
last wills and other legral documents. 

Office over First National Bank. 

roe JriCi 


ainer s 



La Grange, Texas. 

My new hotel is furnished with all modern equipment.s for tha 
accommodation of the traveling public, viz., Electric Lights, Hot and 
Cold Baths, etc. Airy Rooms, Good Table, Prompt Service, Liberal 
Rates. Your patronage solicited. 

Streot I'ro.ii Mohrhusen's corner to the River in the Overflow of April, 19i)0. 

-338 — 

7)ietrich dt j^renffcL.. 

jCa Srani^e, Tjexas. 

TJhe Watchmakers 
jewelers and Opticians 
of J'ai/ette Countt/ 

The most reliable firm to supply your 
wants in Watches, Jewelry, Clocks, 
Silverware, Spectacles, etc. 

that year the location of the future capital of the Republic of 
Texas was considered by congress ; La Grange was a competitor 
for obtainnig the seat ; the bill making it the capital of Texas 
carried in congress, but was vetoed by President Houston. In 
1850 La Grange was incorporated. In 18BU the Grand Lodge of 
Free Masons held its session in La Grange. In 1862 the sale of 
spirituous liquors was stoppcid in La Grange by order of the 
Provost Marshal. In 1867 a yellow fever epidemic broke out 
in La Grange. In 1869 and 1870 the Colorado River overflowed 
considerable portions of the city. In 1900 another overflow of 
the Colorado inundated portions of La Grange. The picture of 
the strvet going west towa^rds the river from Mohrhusen'S (for- 
merly Wm. Haase's!'corner) gives an idea as to how far the 
water went. In 1901 the Grand Lodge of the Order of the Sons 
of Hermann held its sessions in La Grange. The oldest building 
in La Grange stands on the northwest corner of the public square. 
It is a two story building, known as the Fink building and built 
in 1810. 







»,,»,, ^resh and S^ure ^ru£fs 

Medicines, Patent Medicines, Perfumery, Fancy Goods, Toilet 
Articles, Stationery, Cigars, etc., in fact, eve'rythins: that is 
usually carried in a first-class drug store. Physicians' prescrip- 
tions filled with care and dispatch. Your patronage solicited. 


rati k IReicbe tt ^^^y% '"" -^-^-^^--^ 

D ealer in F Urn itUi'^p 

Tapestry, Ste» 

Keeps constantly in stock a large selection of Furniture at low 
prices; also Baby Carriages, Window Curtains, etc., etc. 

,^^ ^%^v LA GRANGE ^ 

€'^^'"-"--"'"\ Marble Works 

>K and ^^ui/dina ^l 

V^< ^ W O. E. STOLZ, Prop., 

^f Stone. W 

.^kl wC Manufacturer and Dealer in 

^^ utatuary 

ilfarblef SranitOf jrfeac/stones \ 

Vases, Coping and Iron Fencing. 
^ Correspondence solicited. La Grange, Te.xas. ^ 

The following gentlemen constitute the present city govern- 
ment : Robert Sample, mayor; Will Loessin, marshal; Ed. 
Mattingly, treasurer; Frank Rosenthal; secretary; E. H. Moss, 

Aldermen of the first ward, B. L. Zapp and Win. McKin- 
ney ; second ward, L. Rosenthal and Gus Werth ; third ward, 
Chas. Helmcamp and Lotliar Rose ; and fourth ward, F. H. 
Wagner and J. M. Byrnes. 



Located on the eastern edge of the rich and fertile Ross 
Prairie, lies one of the most beautiful little cities of Kouth Texas, 
the City of Fayetteville. All around Fayetteville lie fertile 
prairie lands ; one mile east of it, postoak begins, about three 
miles west of it, the timber lands of Cumming's Creek limit the 
prairie. The substantial farms, the beautiful gardens and the 
fruit-bearing fields speak of the industry and the wealth of the 
population and are the delight of the traveler. Faj^etteville is 
situated about twelve miles east of La Grange on the Missouri, 
Kansas and Texas railroad. Occupying the slopes of a hill, it is 
of picturesque appearance. In the middle of the large public 
square stands the court house, which was erected there by the 
county to serve as the justice's court house. Of the more no- 
ticeable buildings may be mentioned the Chromcik school, the 
Germania school, the Catholic church, the Presbyterian church 
and tlie Z:rpp building, the latter a handsome brick building at 
llie northwest side of the public square, 

Fayetteville is a very old place. It used to be called in the 
early times Sam Alexander's, thus named after the first settler in 
that country who had come there during the early days of the 
republic. In the year 1847 it was laid out by P. J. Shaver who 
owned the land on which it is now situated as a town. Tlie 
population of the to\yn and surrounding country was at that 



I S^hi/S(cian 

I """' Surgeon. . . . 


3 Dealer in Drusrs and Medicines, Sponges, Brushes, Perfumery, Sj 

% Fancy and Toilet Articles. Prescriptions carefully ^ 

«S compounded. g 

"* ^^ 

PATRON I ZE^^.,.raiaCZZZ^ 
We J* 


jFanc^ anb Staple Groceries 

Crockery and Hardware. He also keeds Fresh Beer on tap and invites 
your custom. Call on him and you will call again. Pays highest mar- 
ket lirice for country produce. 


time mostly American and German, but iu the early fifties a 
large number of Bohemians comnienced to como in. The 
Bohemian element is now in the majorily,* or, at least, the 
numerically strongest. Tlie (irst settlers of Fayetteville were : 
S. S. Munger, Panchard, Dr. Gregory, Wm, Wade, Dr. Manly, 
J no. Flnm, Henry Kurtz and Ad. Kauffmann, The oldest 
settlers now living in Fayetteville are Pliigo Zapp, C. J^anglotz, 
J. M. T. Webb, Hon. Max Meitzen, H. Steves and Ed. Sarrazin. 

Tiie people of Fayetteville are a free and open hearted |)eo- 
ple. They are known throughount the cotinty as a jolly set, 
and are therefore accordingly popular The entertaiinnents, 
bal!s and festivities which the people of this city arrange have 
become famous throughout South Texas. Tlie easy manners, 
the cordiality with whicii a visitor is received by these generous 
people are not the least attraction which these festivities ofier. 
The Fayetteville music band furnishes delightful music and has 





:» j^ic/Uest Prices S,- 

I ^..v^/.r (Seneral nftercbanbise, | 

^ Cotton ^ 

^ and other country Wines, Whiskies, Beer g 

^ produce. and Fine Cigars. ^ 

August Heinsohn . .. 

Dealer in Rough and Dressed 

^'^-^^ Yellow Pme 

Shingles, Sash, Doors and Blinds, Barbed Wire, Nails and Hardware, 
Office on North Side Depot, Fayetteville, Texas. 

come out victor in more than one band contest. The Fayette- 
ville Saengerbund under the leadership of Prof. J. Hansen has 
repeatedly received recos;nition and applause at state "saenger- 
feasts." A club that deserves favorable mention for tlie balls 
and entertainments it arranges is the Germania Verein with 
Hon. Max Meitzen as president and Mr H. W. H. Zapp as secre- 
tary. The Verein owns a fine large two stor}^ building which 
also serves as a school house. 

Fayetteville has quite a number of lodges which to tlie 
mystically inclined offer chances to be initiated in lodge secrets 
and degrees and to ride the goat. They are : the Woodmen, 
A, T. Thanheiser, C C, Henry Hotmann, clerk-; Knights of 
I'^thias, John R. Kubena, C. C, Dr. C. J. Schramm, K. of K. 
i& S.; Masons, Henry Gloeckner, \V. M., William Eilers, sec- 
retary ; Knights of Honor, Max Meitzen, president, William 
jiiler.s, secretary; Hermann Sons, Julius Hansen, president, 


AdoIfZoll, secretary; S. P. J. S. T. (a Bohemian organization), 
Toni Hruska, president, John Slavik, secretary. 

Of the religious side of life two churches, the Catholic with 
Rev. Father J. Chronicik, and the Presbyterian with Rev. Wen- 
zel Pazdral take care. There are a great many Bohemian Catho- 
lic Societies under the auspices of the Catholic Church. They 
have associated then:iselves to promulgate the teachings of that 
church and to serve in the interest of hum mity and religion. 
Tiieir names are: St. Joseph's, Father J. Chromcik, presitlent, 
Valentine Michalsky, secretary, Frank Machala, corresponding 
secretary ; St. John's, Aug. Pavel, i)i'esident, Roiidan Kallus, 
secretary ; Bohemian Catholic Workmen Society (Benevolent 
Association), Rohdan Kallus, president, Jgnaz Rek, secretary ; 
Bohemian Catholic Young Men's Society (Stanislaus), Joseph 
Slansky, president, Louis \V . Machala, secretary; Altar Society, 
Mis. Mary Wichita, president, Mrs. Agnes Kubena, secretary. 

Corpus Christi Day at Fayettevillo. 

One of the gala days of the Catholic Church and of Fay- 


etteville is Corpus Christi Day. A long procession led by the 
Catholic priest starts in the morning from the Catholic diurcli, 
walks around the square and stops at each corner to hold ser- 
vices. Very often thousands come to Fayelteville from far and 
wide to witness this impressive ceremony. The reader finds a 
picture of this attractive scene. 

Germania ScHool. 

Fayetteville has two schools, the Chromcik school and the 
Germania school. The Chromcik school was founded by Faither 
Chromcik and named after him. It is under the management 
of Mrs. \Vm. Langlotz. The Germania sciiool has been for 
a n'lmber of years under the able management of Prof. Wm. 
Eilers, a teacher of great reputation ; this year it will be taught 
by Prof. John L. 8tierling, former superintendent of the Shiner 
schools. The school is taught in the building of the Germania 
Verein, a large two story frame building of which a picture is 
given in ihia book. 

—346 — 

UtUffO otapp S OOnS ^Propneior. 

:i-Gener©Ll MerchoLndise 

tSfiiTvrii i 

Dry Goods, Clothing, Hats, Shoes, Notions, Drugs, School 
Books and Supplies of every description. Handle the Cele- 
brated Standard Cultivators and Implements, Newton 
Wagons, New Home Sewing Machines, etc. Highest prica 
paid for cotton and country produce. 



is the place to go for 


Fine Whiskies and Liquors, Do^^93tic and Imported Cigars and Fresh 
Beer. It is the most popular resort of Fayetteville and neighborhood. 

The business of FayelteviUe is mostly merchandising. The 
city consists of 4 ^zeneral merciiaudise stores, 5 groceries, 2 dry 
goods and notions stores, 4 full saloons, 5 beer saloons, 2 black- 
stnilii and wlieelwright shops, 2 fiirnitore and hardware stores, 
1 tin and hardware store, 1 saddkr, 2 gins, 2 beef markets, 2 
beer agencies, 1 Jivery stable, 2 hotels, 2 drug stores, 5 physi- 
cians, 1 lawyer, and 1 lumber yard. Among the business men 
of Fayplleville the writer especially mentions H. \V. H. Zapp, 
the owner of the oldest and largest mercantile establishment in 
Fayetteville; Dr. C. J. Scliramm, a physician of fine learning 
and widespread reputation and ))roprietor of the leading drug 
store in Fayetteville; August Heinsohn, the proprietor of an 
immense lumber yard, the largest in Fayette County; Otto A. 
Vetter, the jovial proiirietor of a saddlery ; F. Kallus, merchant 
tailor, equal in skill and workmanship to the best in any city ; 
C J. Klimicek, F, J. Piwetz and Kubena & Co. are successful 
business men, they are in tlie saloon and grocery business. 

Fayetteville is an energetic town and makes laudable efforts 
to get out of the ruts. Jn 11)01 a creamery was built in Fay- 



— { 








liiUii? "^wit 

W JBiiMB i ^iirii ■ ^mii. ■/- 

—348 — 

Por Saddles, Harness 

Bridles, Hames, Whips. Robes and Collars, call on 


He carries a complete assortment ill this lino and sslls his gjols at 
live-and-let-live prices. Give liim a trial. 

etteville, the same is at present not in operation. People as is 
always the case have to n\y fur their experience in business whi'jh 
they do n )t know. Bat tliere is no reason why a ci'i'a n.-i-y 
under proper management should not prove a success. 

Fayetleviile is a husilin^ town. In 1882 it was incorpo- 
rateil for the purpose of improving the town. Hon. JNIax Meitzen 
was the lirst in:iyor uf the In October. 1S87, the Taylor, 
Bastrop and Houston railroad — which later on was bought by 
the Missouri, Kansas & Texas — came into the city, and since 
tlien Fayeltevilie lias been on a steady and healthy growth. 
'J'here is now quite a difference between the city of Favetteville 
of to-d.iy — a thriving railroad station of the M., K. & T. — and 
the sleepy countr}^ town of seventeen years ago. The reader 
will lind a picture of Fayetteville seventeen j'ears ago and make 
tlje comparison, in 1S93 four business houses burned down 
and elegant, substantial buildings were erected in their stead. 

Fayetteville is well protected against fire. A well and 
windmill and a large water tank have been erected on the public 
square. Mains have b.^en laid over the largest portion of the 
town with hydrants at convenient distances. A volunteer fire 
company under command of Captain Henry Steves is prepared 
to do efficient service in case of fire. ] 

Below follows a list of the oldest settlers of Fayetteville, | 
prepared by Prof. VVm. Filers, and a list of the oldest Bolieniian' 
settlers, prepared by Judge Tom Hruska. They will no doubt 
be most acceptable to the readers and recall to a great many of 
them the memory of their dead friends. 


Is the popular place for 

Dry eoodS, Croeeries, Goots, 

Shoes, Hats, Sewing Machines, 
Jewelry, Notions, etc. 

Give him a trial and you will obtain the most surprising bargains. 

First settlers of the Fayetteville neighborhood : — Jack 
Crier, was assassinated, when he was over one hundred years 
old, near EUinger ; Sam Ross, after whom Ross Prairie was 

named; Grover, son-inlaw of Jack Crier; JNeil Munn ; 

Klave Jarmon ; Jim Gay and U, Gay, after whom Gay's Hill 
was named; Sidney Gregory; Kidd Chirk; W.Cook; tlie 
breeding family which numbered thirty-seven members ; Nie. 
Ware, relatives to Tanner; the Barnetts, near Biegel settlement; 

Geo. Turner ; Jim Groce ; Thompson ; Markham Hill ; 

Monroe Hill ; S. Zeal ; J. E. Pearsall ; F. iMunger ; Don- 

athan ; J. P. Schaefer ; Frels (184S) ; Beyer; Wash. 

Cummings, after whom Cutnming's Creek was named; G. M. 
T. Webb; J. F. Johnson ; A. B F. Kerr, a justice of liie peace; 

Jacob F.Dlrr; Wilhelm Wiedemann; Ellerbuscii ; Henry 

Birkmann ; Hermann Hildebrandt ; Hillebrandts at l^iegel ; 
Hermann Hillmann ; Budwig Hillmann: C. H. Hillmann ; 

Henry Kiesel ; Maschek ; Wm. Buecke ; Chas. Luecke ; 

Capt. Fisher; R.J.Zimmerman; Dr. Benno Matthes. ]\B)St 
of these parties iiave died or moved away to other places. 

First Bjliemian settlers : — Tom Batla; deceased, came to 
Fayetteville in lS5o ; Vine. Rypel in BSjI ; both came from 
Bohemia; Jos., John and Baul Wychopen, Jos. Bastovica, Jos. 
Jecmenek, Paul .Jecnienek, all deceased, and Jos. Hlawaty, still 
living, came from i\B)ravia to Fayetteville in BS5.") ; John 
Hruska, John Odlozelik, Frank Horak, Jos. Horak, tlie latter 
still living, came from Moravia to Fayetteville in LS5(). 

The present officers of Fayetteville are : Henry Tftuch, 
mayor; Conrad Bertsch, marshal : Dr. C. J. Schramm, O. A. 
Veiter, John R. Kubena, Geo. Z)ll and John IJelble^ alderiiieu, 


Ov Some of thr Or^T> Settlers in the FAYETTEVitri-.w IVeighbor- 


Old Settlers of Ross Prairie. 
(Ross Prairie lies between Fayetteville and Ellinger.) 

Hinrich Eilers, born Nov. 24, 1820, in the Grand Duchy of Olden- 
burg. He came to Texas in 1845, lived at Warrenton two years and 
then moved to Ross Pi-airie where he lived continuously until his 
death Jan. 23, 1899. 

H. G. Cook, born March 12, 1824, in the Gx-and Duchy of Olden- 
burg. He came to Fayette County in 1845. He died at his old home 
in Ross Prairie March 16, 1880. 

Dietrich Hattermann came to Ross Prairie from the Grand Duchy 
of Oldenburg in 1845. He died at his old home. 

Henry William Luecke came to Ross Prairie from Westfeld, Han- 
over, in 1845. He died there two years after his arrival. 

Jacob Laferre was born in Germany Sept. 23, 1828. He came to 
Ross Prairie in 1847. Left for the gold fields in California in 1849, re- 
turning to Ross Prairie after an absence of several years, and lived 
there to the time of his death, Aug. 28, 1901. 

Joseph F. M. Sarrazin came to Cat Spring, Austin County, in 1834, 
from Westphalia. He moved to Ross Prairie in 1843 and Jived there 
up to the time of his death. 

John H. Meyer settled in Ross Prairie in 1842. He came from 
Hanover and lived there until his demise. 

John F. Meyer arrived from Hanover in 1850, settling in Ross 
Prairie and living there to the time of his death. 

Henry Kurtz came to Ross Prairie from Germany in 1847. He 
died at Fayetteville in 1901. 

Other old settlers Neimann, Neumann, Wacker, ■ 

Baumbach, Sommer. Anton Sommer, G. Mueller, Doni, 

August Beyer, Girndt, Ze:llitz, and Dirr. 

Old Settlers of Fayetteville. 

Sigbert Frank Steves, born at Crefeld, Kreis Geldern, Prussia, in 
1808. Came to Fayetteville in 1853. Died there. 

Chas. Aug. La ^g'.otz was born at Schoenfeld, Saxony, Feb. 23, 
1826. He came to Housron in 1848, and moved from there to Fayette- 
ville in 1850, where he still lives. 

Other old settlers were: Brandt, Wink, • 

Kaufmann, Hugo Zapp, Sr., Dietrich, Meyer, 

Kirsch, Gloeckner, Schaefer, Dr. Mathis, 

Donaldson, and Donath. 

Old settlers in the Fayetteville vicinity: Meitzen, Meit- 

zen, Stelzig, Dr. Shaw. 

Old settlers of Biegel P. O : Mr. B. Schcrer came to Biegel in 
1834 from Switzerland. 

K John Christodemus Helble settled at Biegel in 1844. He left for 
the gola fields in California in 1849 and returned in 1851. He died 
some years ago over, 80 years of age. 

Other old settlers were: — Biegel, — Andre, Meyer, 

Tschiedel (still living). 



Flatonia is situated in the southwestern part of the county 
on the crossing of the Southern Pacific and the San Antonio and 
Aransas Pass Railway. East and south of it are rich black 
prairie lands, west and north is postoalc. Flatonia is favorably 
situated, in the best part of the mineral region of Fayette County. 
In its neighorhood are tine kaoUn and clay beds ; coal may also 
be found in the neighborhood of Flatonia. While none of these 
mineral resources are developed right now, there is a chance of 
their future development on account of tlie city being situated 
at the crossing of two important railroads. 

Flatonia stands on a bed of rich black clay. In wet weather 
the streets are muddy and cause a great deal of inconvenience. 
There are several substantial brick buildings in Flatonia. 

The land on which Flatonia stands was owned by \Vm. 
Ferris and bought of him by the Southern Pacific Railway Com- 
pany which laid out the town on its arrival in that section of 
country, early in 1878. One mile southeast of Flatonia was sit- 
uated old Flatonia (a place that has now disappeared from the 
surface), and three miles northwest of Flatonia was the town of 
Oso (no trace of that, town is left). The people of these towns 
moved on the arrival of the Southern Pacific to the new town 
and in a very short time it was a thriving little city. It soon 
was incorporated. The election for incorporating the town of 
Flatonia was held November 8, 1875 ; November 10 it was pro- 
claimed incorporated and on the sixth day of December, lS7o. 
the first election for mayor and aldermm was held by John 

The oldest settlers m that ])art of the county are the Har^ 
risons, Cockrill, Yaeger, Flato, Sloma, Ferris and Menefee 

The population of and about Flntonia was originally en- 
tirely American, but after the Civil War a great many Germans 
and Bohemians have been attracted by the fertile lftnc]g ^nd 

- 352— 




S y^/ne Ql^his/cies direct from ^t'st/iler^, 

^ Smporied cl^i'nes and Ct'^ars. -'.- ^rosA S/Jeer on (Jap, 

p Lunch Stand in Connection with Bar 


The old reliable dealer in 

Saddles, J^arness, S^ridiesj J^ameSj Tl^hips,, S^obes 

and Collars, 

has added to his complete stock of elegant goods in the Saddlery line 

^ ^ Vehicles ^ ^ 

A carload of Buggies, Surries and Farm Wagons just come in. 

Will sell at Reasonable Prices. 


settled there. Now Ihe^' form the tnnjority of the population. 
During the last ten years a great many Greeks, Arabians and 
Italians liave settled in Flatonia and established themselves in 
business, selling pea-nuts by the pack. 

The summit of the nourishing times in Flatonia was 
reached before the arrival of tiie San Antonio and Aransas Pass. 
Those were lively times then. C .tton was carried then to P^la- 
tonia fronj as far as Yoakuu). At that time the country w:is a 
stock country. The cowboys held their rendezvous m Flatonia 
and very often made times too lively for peaceable citizens. 
But those times liave ])assed. Since the arrival of the San 
Antonio and Aransas Pass Railway, Flatonia had an energetic 
competitor in tlie thriving town of Moulton, Its trade was cut 
off from all sides and tlie disappointment of having lost it which 
could not be helped, still reflects from the business attitude of 
its citizens. Puringtbe last decade it not only not gained, but 


^W^M. FritscheJ 




.♦'Any style Shoe in toe or otherwise for I 

Men or Ladies made to order on short ^ 

notice. Nothing but the best material I 

*used. Repair work of every description ^ 

neatly and promptly done. | 

Cowboj/ Scoots a Speciaiti/. Satisfactioit Suaranieed. ^ 
f-^^ FLATONIA, TEXAS. * i 

even lost in population ; according to the census of 1900 nearly 
two hundred. 


Of the business men who treated this writer with kindness 
and patronized him in spite of the hard times— which kindness 
for that reason he appreciates the more — he mentions tiie former 
mayor of Flatonia, the jovial and popular Stotfers, the proprietor 
of a iirst-class saddlery ; Mr. Win, .Stein who excels in Jiis line 
of work in rooting and guttering, and who is prepared to do all 
kinds of tin work ; Wm. Fritsche, the artistic shoe maker, and 
last but not least, Ernst Olle, who keeps in his popular barroom 
the purest and best brands of whiskies, liquors, wines, beer and 
cigars. In connection with this business he runs a restaurant. 

The city of Flatonia has two able newspapers which have 
^ been spoken of under the iiead of "Newspaper Press of the 
County." The [)eople are public spirited and take a great interest 
, in .county alLiirs. On all public questions Flatonia is generally 
heard from. The late crop failures have to some extent de- 
pressed the spirit of her citizens, but there is no doubt that 


Mm. Stein, 

Dealer in~'^-',.^aiiiUSSS^ 

JVardware, Stoves and Zj in ware. 

Agent for the 
and the 


ealvanized Iron Tanks, 
Plues, Troughs. 

And Everything in the Tin and Sheet 
Iron Line made on short notice. 



Flatonia some of these days will awaken and regain some of her 
former prosperity. 

There are two churches in Flatonia: the Methodist with 
Rev. W. T. iMcDonald, and the Baptist with Rev. J. M. Sallee. 
The people of Flatonia are religious and earnest members of 
their churches. 

The following lodges are represented in Flatonia : Knights 
of Pythias; VVoodmen of the World, J. H. Murphy, C. C, H. 
R. Thulemeyer, clerk ; Woodmen Circle, Miss Maud Murphy, 
clerk ; Knights of Honor; A. O. U. W.; Hermann Sons; R. A. 
M.; A. F. and A. M., J. F. Mulcahey, W. M., F. P. Yaeger, 
secretary; Odd Fellows, J. H. White, N. G., W. A. Beckham, 
secretary ; Royal Society of Good Fellows. 

The following gentlemen are the city officers : Mayor, J. D. 
Bunting; Secretary, H. R. Thulemeyer; Treasurer, B. A. 
Kempe ; Attorney, Chas. Nesrsta ; Marshal, W. O. Goode ; 
Aldermen, J. H. White, F. P. Yaeger, Wm. Stein, R. L. Sim- 
mons, Frank Worley, C. Stoffers, Albert Kubjana, and J. A. 



This little city is quite an historic place. It was formerly 
calledTownsend's. Two miles from it is the former colony of 
the "Nassau Adelsverein," founded in the forties. 

Round Top is situated about sixteen miles from La ({range 
on the Ija Grange-Breniiam road. It is built on top of a hill 
which overlooks the Cumming's Creek bottom lands. Northeast 
is the rich La Bahia prairie. North towards Ledbetter is post- 

Round Top used to be in olden times (juite a considerable 
l)lace. Even afier the arrival of the Texas Central and the 
building of Carmine, it held its own f)r a long time. Lately, 
Carmine being situated on the railroad, has cut off some of the 
trade of Round Top on account of its more favorable location. 
Still, the traditions and old established business relations of the 
place will always retain for it a considerable trade. 

The population of Round Top is now entirely German, very 
few of the old American settlers .having remained in its neigh- 
borhood. Among the old settlers of Round Top may be men- 
tioned Geo. Fricke, a vetcan of the Mexican War who served in 
that war under Gen. Wintield Scott ; C. E. Bauer, the Weyand 

family. Dr. Rankin, White, Taylor, John Bell, I. C. 

Hill, Joel W. Kobison, Wm. v. Rosenberg, Ferd., Henry and 
Ad. Kneip, C. W. Runimel, ('has, Schiege, Robert Zapp, C. 

Henkel, Weikel, Rev. A. Neuthard. the late ])astor of the 

Lutheran church who for a generation worked faithfully at that 
place in the vineyard of Our Lord, higlily respected and beloved 
by all who knew him. 

Round Top has two churches, the Lutheran and a colored 
Baptist church. 

The city of Round Top was known in earlier times for the 
splendor of its feasts. Governors and staie officers thought the 




^Fancy and Staple Groceries,* 

Crockery, Glassware, Hardware 
and l^oodenware. 

jg@°'PAYS Highest Market Price for Country Produce and 






Round Top, Texas, 

place important enough to deliver their public addresses there 
before intelligent audiences.* These feasts are still very famous 
and always attract a large crowd. They are generally arranged 
by the Round Top Shooting Club, an organization known 
throughout South Texas, The president of this organization is 
Fritz Fricke, the secretary is Hy. Pochmann. 

There are two lodges at Round Top : Knights of Honor, G. 
Froehlich, sr., secretary ; and Sons of Hermann, H. C. Ruramel, 
president, Fritz Fricke, secretary, (membership 32). 

The Round Top school has been for a number of years 
under the able management of Prof. G. Froelilich and has re- 

*NoTB. — In those early times Round Top was quite apolitical cen- 
ter. It was the home of the two leading politicians of the north side 
of the county, Judge C. Henkel, a democrat, and Robert Zapp, a re- 
publican. Both took an active interest in politics and were great 


I uhe oCone Star Saloon I 

5 is known throughout the whole northern section ^ 

^ of the county for its ^ 

I Bj^^^^o^ Whiskies, Liquors and Wines. \ 

^ 'Domestic and imported Ci^fars. 5^ 

^ Call on us and you will call again. t 

i GUS. BENDER., - - - Round Top, Texa.s. % 



(jin, Salvanized jron and J^ardivare, 

Aj- Cisterns, Roofing, Guttering, and Galvanized Iron 

..^■■BSi^KA^Double Flues made to order at Reasonable Prices. 

Ml Work Guaranteed, -:- -:- -:- ROUND TOP, TEXAS. 

tained uuder him its old established reputation for high grade 
of scholarship. 

As remarked before, Round Top is, for a town not connected 
by any railroad, on account of its surrounding rich agricultural 
country, a very considerable trading place. Of the business 
men who appreciated the work of the writer on their home 
county to such an extent as to plac3 with him a small ad. and to 
whom, therefore, the friends of the book should feel kind, be- 
cause it enabled the writer to get out such a work, he mentions 
Ernst Fricke, the accommodating postmaster of Round Top, who 
is the proprietor of a good sized mercantile establishment, deal- 
ing in groceries, crockery and hardware; W. J. Dippel & 
Bro, in the general merchandise business ; \Vm. Ginzel, the 
old popular tin man of Round Top ; O. H. Helmecke, who is 
the proprietor of one of the largest blacksmith and whcelwrigiit 
shops in the county and a skillful workman; Gus Bender, whose 



Dealer in 

jfarntinG Implements. 

My Blacksmith and Wheelwright Shop is prepared to turn out first- 
class work. All kinds of Machinery Repaired. 

WaLgorvs a-nd Fa.rmirvg Implements Made to Order. 

,tll tt'ork till a I'd III ml ti.t ^''trsl-t'lass. 


^afc... /» Generg^l MercheLndise 

Dress Goods, Cassimeres. Domestics, Trimmino^s, 
Boots and Shoes, Hats and Caps, 


We pay highest prices for Cotton, Bacon, Lard, Chickens and Eggs. 

saloon is the popular meeting place of the Round Top people ; 
and Dr. A. Posch, a skillful and learned physician and surgeon, 
a man of high standing among his colleagues and the people. 
Round Top has lour stores, three saloons, one drug store, one 
tinsmith shop, one gin, one blacksmith shop, one cigar factory, 
one photograph gallery, one physician and one shoemaker. 
Quite a considerable place. It is the seat of justice for the pre- 
cinct. A nice court house and calaboose stand on the public 

Round Top has daily mail, a money order postoffice, and is 
connected with the outside world by telephone. 

A fire company has been organized to protect the city against 
fire. The president of the fire company is Hermann Rummel, 
the captain of the hook and ladder company Otto Poppe. 

The town was incorporated in 1865. Otto Poppe is the 
present mayor of the town ; P. Klar, marshal. The population 
numbers about 250. 



No city in Texas has a greater reputation for the congenial- 
ity of its people than Schulenburg. The free and easy and yet 
refined manners of its inhabitants never fail to make the stranger 
feel at home. The splendor and the tasty arrangements of its 
festivities have made for Schulenburg the name of the festive 
city of South Texas. 

Schulenburg is situated in the soutiiern part of Favette 
County on the Southern Pacific Uiilroad. It is at a distance of 
eighteen miles from the county seat. It lies in the rich black 
land Navidad prairie, one of the richest agricultural sections in 
the state. The elegant farm residences, the beautiful gardens in 
front of them, the rolling prairie laid out into fertile corn and 
cotton fields, speak of the industry and energy of its people and 
leave on the traveler a pleasing impression. The section is tra- 
versed by the Navidad and its tributary the Mixen Creek. 

One mile southeast of Schulenburg lie the grounds of the 
Schulenburg Live Stock and Fair Association. The semi-annual 
races held there attract the sporting element of the wliole state. 
Dr. I. E. Clark, Mr. \Vm. Cornelson and Mr. H. (Iraf may be 
mentioned as the principal promoters of the races. One mile 
northwest of Schulenburg is the Filers Park. The same is not 
yet finished, but gives promise to become one of the most attrac- 
tive spots in Texas. A sixteen feet high dam, forty feet widp 
at the foot and thirty feet wide at the top has been built across 
a creek. On the lake which this dam will hold, two boats will 
invite the visitor to take a row along its beautiful banks covered 
with verdure and interspersed with liveoak groves. This park, 
the writer predicts, will become a very popular resort for the 
Schulenburg people and their guests. 


If you are looking for Good Bargains in 

SaLddles, Bridles, Collars, Ha^ri\ess, Lap Robes, 
B^g^y Whips, Curry Combs, Brushes, etc., go to 

Schulenburg, - - Texas. 

He keeps a complete assortment of first-class goods in this line. 
Repairing done promptly at reasonable prices. 5 ^ ? ^ 



■ It you want to take a drink of tlrst-class liquor 
with a friend come to our Saloon and try our 

....Wliiskies, Liquors and Wines,... 

We keep only the best brands, also fresh beer, and 
domestic and Imported cigars. .--^^^ 

Not less attractive t,han its surroundings is the city, itself. 
A stranger walkine: through its streets will be , impressed by the 
solid and substantial business houses and the elegant residences. 
In the fall of the year, the business streets, viz , Main street 
— which presents quite a metropolitan appearance — and Lyons 
and Upton Avenues are crowded willi wagons, buggies and 
other vehicles, and give a good idea of the extent of Schulen- 
burg's business. Of tlie more noticfable buildings may be men- 
tioned the Sengelmann Building, tlie most elegant saloon in the 
county; the Perlitz Building ; the R. A. Wolters Building; the 
Ilussek Bank Building ; the Schaefer Building, and the Wolters 
Business Buildings. The Southern Pacific owns a fine garden, 
nicely laid out, in front of the depot. 

Schulenburg is named after Louis Schulenburg who owned 
a four hundred and fortv acre farm south of the, railroad. trp,ck 
which he sold to W. Pierce. Schulenburg stands, on the; l^nd; 
owned by him, on sixty acres of Mr. Chris. Baumgarten's land, 



Boettcher Bros Co., 


Constantly Carry a Complete 
Line of 


which is offered their patrons upon most reasonable terms. 
They pay the highest value for country produce and always 
offer more for cotton than can be obtained elsewhere. 

A Trial Will Convince You 
and Save You Money. 

on one hundred acres of Frank and Rosine Stanzel's land, on 
liftcen acres of John Wittbecker's land and on cue and a half 
acres of Franz and Rosine Stanzefs land. All these parties gave 
one-half of their lands to the Southern Pacific Railroad Com- 
pany as an inducement to locate the town thereon. fSchuIen- 
burg was built in 1873. A great many Higli Hill jjeople moved 
to Schulenburg on the arrival of the Southern Pacific and built 
up the latter place. The city grew rapidly ; May 24, 1875, it 
was incorporated. 

Of the old settlers of Schulenburg may be mentioned first 
Mr. Chris. Baumgarten who by a great many ])eople is called 
"The Father of Schulenburg," not only on account of his age, 
but because there wab no man who took more interest in build- 
ing up Schulenburg and promoting its industrial enterprises 
than he. Other old citizens of Schulenburg are Krnst Baum- 
garteu who established Uie first lumber yard in Schulenburg, 





Bermuda Valley Stock Farm 

'Dr. S. C. C/arA; Proprietor. 


One of the Finest 

Stock Farms 















l)y King J;iy ISird. dam Daisy B, w 
(lam of Aslilaiul Wilkes. ti)e sire of yi, 
•lohn U. Gentry. J. B. is one of jj< 
the best bred trotters in Texas and vV 
is sire of extreme speed, having \v 
sired Louise \\'., record 2:28 as a % 

it consists of oUO acres of FincBotlom Land. The Navi- 
dad River runs through the farm, of wliich one hundred 
acres is well set with iJerniiKhi (ira>^s and JJiirr Clover. 
Alfalfa grows finely on this farm, an 1 in fact is the only hay 
fed on the i)remises. 'J'here are two stallions on the farm, 


by Tenny, dam Queer (iirl by ^ 
Himyar, is a descendant 
stake winners from the time Moses was a baby. 

of f 

The excellent herds of Red Polled and Holstein Cattle, w 

^ always to be peen grazing on the green pastures of the farm ^{j| 

/|\ invariably attract the attention and inspire the admiration of <t> 

fl^ the observer. Only registered stock is permitted on the farm <•/ 

2x which has always for sale trotters, runners, fine milch cows and ^ 

^\ registered bulls, ^ 

j«L ^ , ^ •'* 

—364 — 

IL. A. Wolters... ^"'"T' , 

y V Proprietor of the 




Men's, Boys' and Children's Suits exceedingly cheap. We 

receive daily new goods such as Shoes, Hats, Underwear, 

Cloth, Porcelain Ware, Notions, Groceries, etc., which 

we sell at exceedingly low prices. 

Cotton and Country Produce are bought at Highest Market 
Prices. Come and see our immense stock of brand new goods before 
you buy elsewhere. SCHULENBURG, TEXAS. 

R. Wolters, sr., the capitalist, M. C. Levey, H. P. Schaefer, 
Max and Julius Schwartz, I. Russek, H. Graf, W. D. Keuper 
and a great many others. Of those who have died may be 
mentioned: Heinrich Schaefer (came to the United States in 
185G, first settled at Round Top, came to Schulenburg in 1872, 
died in 1885;; Henry Perlitz and Paul Breymann, sr. 

The population of the town is nearly entirely German ; 
with a sprinkling of Americans and Bohemians. Like ail towns 
of South Texas, it has its share of negroes. The population 
numbers about 1200 inhabitants. 

It has been remarked before that Schulenburg has a wide 
reputation for sociability and the splendor of its festivities. 
People who do not approve of feasts and tlie drinking incident 
thereto speak of this city as the "Free Republic of Schulen- 
burg," a name that rather pleases the burghers. If people of a 
prohibition stamp who condemn such feasts would only once 
visit a Schulenburg feast, the orderly behavior of the guests, 
the innocent enjoyment of life with many harmless, humorous 


H. P. Schaefer, 


W!S^!l^^^^:H!!^ : dealer m- 


rr" -^f 


Wind Mills 
^"^ House 

Agent for All Kinels of Machinery. 


incidents would convince the most scrupulous that these feasts 
are really necessary to build up an independgnt, contented, 
happy and strong race of people. Tlie Turn Verein is an ardent 
promoter of these festivities. 

A literary society which owns a fine library attends to tlie 
pertaining of a higher education and to elevating the moral tone 
of JSchulenburg society to a higher plane. 

The Schulenburg school is under the superintendence of 
a line teacher, Prof. M. W. Meyer, who has prepared himself 
thoroughly for his work. 

There are live lodges in Schulenburg: Odd Fellows, 
Joseph Berger, N. (1., M. T. Everton, Secretary; Knights of 
Pythias, Joseph Stanley, C. C, CJus Ulrich, Secretary; I'nited 
Workmen (Robert Blum Lodge), M. C. Levey, M. W., \Vm. 
Keuper, jr., recorder ; Hermann's Sons, EmilSciuilz, President, 
H. Beniker, Secretary ; Masons, Dr. 1, }<^. Clark, W. M., 
Fred. Ebeling, Secretary. 




4— ' 


-(— ' 


— SG7— 

M. C. Levey's 

^ Notary Pviblic Office ^ 

is on Main Street, just Opposite the 
Passenger Depot at Schulenburg. 

He will promptly write out his Official Certificate and Seal 
every Legal Document you may present to him. He will aJso 
write for you Land Deeds, Releases, Bills of Sale, Powers of 
Attorney, Wills and anything else in that line, in English, Ger- 
man or French. If you have any land, houses or any property 
to sell, give a description of it — price, locality and so on — to M. 
C. Levey and he will look up a purchaser for you; or if you 
want renters, he will hunt them for you; if you want to buy land 
or other property, go right away and 

Tell Levey About It. 

And that very same M. C. Levey also runs a store just across 
from the depot, where he offers for sale 

Staple and Fancy 

The old fellow is not noisy; he will not pull you in by the coat 
collar, but if once you buy of him, you will always do so. He 
carries as a specialty the most popular brands of Chewing and 
Smoking Tobaccos, the Best of CofTees— green, roasted or 
ground, the Choicest Stock of Candies, Fruits, Nuts and Pastes. 
Also a complete assortment of Notions, Overalls, Jumpers, 
Socks, etc.. Toys, Dolls and Christmas Goods, Fancy Vases, 
Fancy Cups and Saucers. 

JB^i°'And then if you want anythmgfrom New York, Chicago 
or any other big city, simply leave your order with the man 
who will attend to it right; his name is 


— 3G8— 

^^ > *A ^7^ Cotton, Srain and 

. , . jDcaters in, . . 

Seneral 7/ferchanciise 

Pay Highest Prices for Cotton and Country Produce. 


Schulenburg, Tex, ^^f^J^iH:^"^ | 



Most of the people of iScliulenburg and neighbjrhood are 
communicant& of tlie Catholic cluirch. Schulenburg has a fine 
Catholic church of which Kev. Father Madiis is the priest. 
The otlier denominations ; Lutheran. Christian, Methodist, 
Baptist, etc., own togetiier a church building, called the Union 
church, in which preachers from otlier communities explain the 
scripture of Our Lord and show the audience liow to walk tlie 
way of righteousness. 

Schulenburg, in the center of tlie richest ngncuUural sec- 
tion of the county, is a great trading jjoinl. Perhaps its mer- 
chants do more business than tliose of any other town in tlie 
county. Schulenburg has nine general merchandise stores, 
four groceries, one hardware store, one jewelry store, two sad- 
dleries^ two blacksmith shops, one livery stable, two lumber 
yards, one furniture stoie, one buggy and wagon business, three 
bjilding contractors, one joiner, two newspapers, one bank, one 
opera •-hous'e^ two dancing halls, six full saloons, two beer 
saloons, two hotels, two restaurants, three meat markets, one 





Scrupulously Careful 

in the selection of any drugs to 
get the very purest arid freshest 
and also to use the exact amoant 
called for by the doctor. 

If You Want It 

whether it be Drugs, Patent 
Medicines, Stationery, Rubber 
Goods, Sundries, Toifet Articles, 
Infants' Supplies or Trusses, 

We have it at 
most pleasing 

bakery, three physicians, two drug stores, one dentist, one 
photographer, three beer agents, one tailor, three shoemakers, 
two millineries, three gins, one oil mill and one compress. 

The oil mill is the property of Mr. Chris. Baumgarten, sr., 
and under the able management of his son, Gus- Baumgaiten. 
It is.a model oil mill and hardly e([ualed anywhere in the United 

Of the business men to wliom the writer is obliged for their 
patronage he names Boettcher Bros. Co., Perlitz Bros., and U. 
A. Wolters in the general merchandise business, H. P. Schaefer 
who is the owner of a lirst-class hardware store, the largest be- 
tween Houston and San Antonio, Schwartz J5ros., the proprie- 
tors ot a lirst-class livery stable and successful horse traders, 
Dr. I. E. Clark, the widely known owner of the Bermuda Valley 
Stock Farm, a farm as famous as the blue grass region of Ken- 


e. J. SUULY 


Invites the public to try his' noted fine brands of Whiskies, 
Liquors, Wines and Cigjars. Fresh Beer always on tap. Call 
on us, you will be pleased and call again. Fine Restaurant in 
connection with the bar. 

Jt. */* Okarke..., 

^Proprietor of 

Zj/ie Ounni/ South Saloon 

Keeps in stock the Finest Brands of Whiskies, Wines and 
Liquors, especially the Famous Saratoga, Pennland, Met- 
ropolitan Club and Old Reserve. Keeps the choicest 
brands of Cigars. The famous New Orleans beer always 

tucky for breeding fine horses, Paul Breymann, -the proprietor 
of a drug store of metropolitan style, 0. Kallus, who does a 
large business in the saddle and harness line, Sengelmann Bros,, 
Beniker Bros., E. J. Gully, John Vacek and H. F. Skarke in 
the saloon business, F. M. VVilks, the popular jeweler of Schu- 
lenburg. VVm. Tauch, who makes as fine a photograph of 
yourself as can be made in any city as large as San Antonio or 
Houston and not to forget, M. C. Levey, real estate agent, 
notary public and leading grocer and contributor of original 
writings to the county papers. The writer found him a well 
educated gentleman and most interesting talker. In his writings 
there breathes a spirit of true iiuman kindness that attracts and 
pleases the reader. 

The writer may mention once more the two newspaper men of 
Schulenburg to whom he is indebted for many interesting hours. 
With Mr. \V. R. King he was in business relations in regard to 
printing his book which relations haye been altogether pf the 


F. M. Wilks.... Jewelry 



1 keep in stock a large assortment of the latest and most fashiona- 
ble styles of Jewelry which I sell at the very lowest prices. If you 
need any jewelry for presents to your family or friends, you will 
obtain better and more satisfactory bargains by dealing with a relia- 
ble home firm than by sending money away to fraudulent concerns 
and receiving shoddy goods. Repairing of Watches and Jewelry a 

Wm. Tauch's Photographic Studio 


is prepared to take your photo in the latest 
style on the best material. 

Platino aristo and platinitc photos in the latest and most fashion- 
able styles are guaranteed to meet the most exacting demands. 

most pleasing nature. The priming entailed a great amount of 
very particular work and the style in which it is done is a credit 
to the Sticker and will no doubt meet tho approval of tiie reader 
as it has met that of the writer. 

To Mr. Frank Miller the writer is obliged for repeated kind 
mention in that lively paper, the Schulenburg Sun, of his book 
on Fayette County. It would be hard to iind a more accomo- 
dating and pleasing gentleman than Mr. Miller. 

Schulenburg is on a steady growth. It numbers about 
1200 inhabitants. Its business is steadily spreading out in an 
enlarging circle, 

Schulenburg has for fire protection seven wells and water- 
tanks. It has a fire department with one engine company and 
one hook and ladder company, consisting of about 36 members. 
The officers are Henry Eilers, President and Gus. Depmore, 
Chief. The latter is a very experienced lire-man, having been 
lor a number of years chief of the Columbus fire department and 


having served also in the St. Louis and Galveston fire depa:rt- 
ments. The city voted to issue $11,500 in bonds for erecting a 
stand-pipe and laying mains through Schnlenburg for its protec- 
tion against fire. Tlie proposition carried and the bonds have 
been approved by the Attorney General. As soon as they are 
sold the work will start. This thriving little city will 
then be protected against fire as few cities in the state. 

The city officers are: Mayor, Theo. Wolters ; Marshal, 
Hy. Eilers; Aldermen, H. Bohhnann, Dr. I. E. Clark, Chas. 
Windel, F. F. Schaefer, serving also as city secretary and R. 
A. Wolters, serving also as city treasurer ; \V. R. King, City 



Ammannsville, the seat of the justice court of precinct No. 
7, Fayette County, is one of the most thriving lit'tle country 
towns in the county. It is situated in a rich blackland prairie 
on the Fa3'-ette County school lands, about eleven miles south of 
La Grange. It is a nice handsotne place; the population is 
German and Bohemian and as liberal and generous as can be 
found in the county. Most of the people are communicants of 
the Catholic Church. They own a fine church building in 
which their resident priest. Rev. Joe Szimanski, preaches to 
large and attentive audiences. The town has two schools, one 
under the management of Prof A. Pastusek, the other under 
the management of Miss M. A'razel. 

Ammannsville does a considerable business. It has three 
stores and saloons, two blacksmith shops, one drugstore, 
one physician and two gins. The business men of Ammanns- 
ville showed themselves most liberal in their patronage of the 
work of the writer, and the latter, therefore, wishes them abun- 
dant success which in every way they merit. The writer had 

— 3/8 — 

*• Oexas, 

invites the people of this neighborhood 
and the public in general to try his 

Pine Whiskies and Liquors 

Domestic and Imported Cigars. Fresh Beer always on tap. One of 
the finest halls for dancing in connection with the business. 

Joseph Vaccek, Jr., ^"^rxSr"'^- 

recommends to the public his Thorough-bred Stallion 

and his Kentucky Jack, SANDY. Rates reasonable. 


Ammannsville, Texas, 
recommends himself to the public for 

Moving Houses and All Kinds of Carpenter Work. 

Satisfaction Guaranteed. 
Ammaunsville, TexaSj 


Established in tlie Gin Business 

for twenty-three years, enjoy the reputation of satisfying their cus- 
tomers and turning out a first class long tibi-e cotton that receives the 
highest price in the market. Your custom solicited. 


(f (T Of i Oddest Senerat 77/ercantile !^usi^ 

jT^ Jt' i^ClCQK „^^^ -^ J^mmannsville. 

A First Class Saloon 

and a Fine Hall for dancing and theafrical performances have estab- 
lished a reputation in the southern part of Fayette County. Agent 
for F. Lotto's Book on Fayette County, Her History and Her People. 



Ss prepared to treat cases of 
S^icokoli'sm and 'Diseases of 
^l/omen at his residence 

Telephone Connection with all points in county and state. 
^7' 9^<f C? J^mmannsvilie, 

Proprietor of a 
First Class . . . 

Blacksmith i Wheelwright Shop 

All worlj: guaranteed. Keeps in stock all kinds of Agricultu- 
ral Implements. Come and see him. 

the pleasure of becoming acquainted with Dr. .John S. Zvesper, 
a learned Bohemian physician; Mr. J. J. Vacek, the jovial post- 
master of Ammansville; F. J. Parma, one of the most successful 
pushing business men in the county; Joseph Vacek, Jr., owner 
of fine thoroughbred stallions; F. F. Ohnheiser, the Ammanns- 
ville architect; T. R. Heller, J. P. Heller and J. J. Munke, the 
popular ginners, of solid standing and reliability; F. A. Ganzer, 
the blacksmith whom it would be hard to beat in his line of 

— 375- 

. J. Parma... 



Staple and Fancy Groceries 

Drugs, Paints, Oils, Toilet Articles, Dry Goods, Boots, Shoes, 
Hats, Hardware, Crockery and Glassware. 

A Saloon in connection 
with the business 


5 Cotton and country produce bought and the highest market 

5 price paid for cotton. Invites the custom of the neighborhood. ^ 


J^eller dc T/funke, 

Proprietors of a 


with the latest and most modern improvements which turns out a 
first class long fibre staple. They run in connection with the gin a 
corn and grist mill. Come and see them. You will find them O. K. 


Ammansville was located on the Fayette County school 
lands, which became settled in the early seventies. Tlie place 
was named after old man A. Ammann, one of the oldest settlers 
of the county, a man who was widely knosvn as an excellent 
architect. Other old settlers were F. Kossa, Sr., J. Vacek, Sr., 
F. Sobolik, deceased, J. Heller, Sr., deceased, P. Fiser, Jno. 
Stefek, Aug. Pauler, J. J. Fietsam, Jos. iMunke, Chas. Munke, 
Jno. Lewis, deceased, Jos. Bartas and his brother and Henry 


Theo. Kroll ... I 

General Merchandise 

I Established 1866. 



Biegel lies about eight miles east of La Grange on the La 
Grange-Fayetteville road, between Cedar and Baylor Creek. 
The surrounding country is sandy and gravel postoak. The 
better portions and the creek bottom lands are cultivated, the bal- 
ance serves for pasture Biegel settlement is one of the oldest 
settlements in Fayette County. It was founded by Joseph Biegel 
in 1832. It is a voting precinct and since 1875 a post-office. 
Mr. Theo. Kroll is the postmaster and merchant in that place. 
This mercantile business was established by his father, Mr. H. 
Kroll, in 1866, and is the oldest mercantile business in the 
county. From 1862 to 1866 Mr. Kroll also ran a distillery, the 
only distillery ever run in Fayette county, to the knowledge of 
the writer. In the earlier times Biegel used to be quite a prom- 
inent place. The dances, balls and feasts that were arranged 
there acquired quite a reputation and attracted guests from 
miles afar. The feasts now-a-days are given under the auspices 
o/ the Biegel shooting club, which was organized in 1872. The 
founders of this club were Theo. Kroll, Geo. Siebrecht, Louis 
Struve and (ieo. Mauer. Its officers now are R. December, 
president, and Otto Kirscb, secretary. 

Among the first settlers of Biegel were: B. Sherer, the first 
commissioner of that precinct (deceased); his son, August; C. 
Hallinger, J. 0. Tschiedel, Carl Wolle and Struve, a Rus- 
sian oflicer who publishtd his autobiography, full of adventures. 

—377— . 

Black Jack Springs is situated about ten miles southwest of 
La Grangfi on the La Grange-Flatonia road, on tlie north side of 
the rich and fertile Navidad Prairie. Nortli of Black Jack 
Springs is postoak. Black Jack Springs is the name of a post 
office and a voting precinct of Fayette County. It was settled 
in the early fifties. Among the first settlers were the Gorham, 
Dr. Routh, J. P. Romberg, G. W. Tuttle, Jones and O. B. Fitz- 
gerald families. The population is American, German and 
Bohemian. There is a Lutheran Church in the settlement with 
Rev. Kern as preacher. 


Opposite La Grange, across the Colorado River and south 
of Buckner's Creek, begins the Bluff settlement, extending as 
far as Williams' Creek. The bottom lands of Buckner's Creek 
and Williams' Creek, the blackland liveoak sections in the 
western part of the settlement and the blackland i)ortions of the 
Navidad Prairie are very fertile. It contains also a great many 
gravel hills, covered with postoak. Of these latter lauds only 
the better portions are used for fields, the balance remains as 
pasture land. The Bluff is the most picturesque section of tlie 
county; in fact, there is found nowhere in Southern Texas more 
beautiful scenery. First, there is the road leading up to the 
Bluff between hills and valleys, nicely graded and graveled. 
This excellent piece of road work was the first road work done 
in Fayette County; it was done under Judge A. Haidusek's 
administration and still remains a model piece of road work. If 
the traveler, after reaching the summit, takes the first road to 
the left, it leads him to Kreische's Blulf. From this i)lace the 
best view of the city of La Grange may be had. Precipitately 

• —378— 


@)o§eph p\Qu§mann %i4i, 3"exa 

General Merchandise, Boots, 
Shoes and Hardware 

5 First class gin witli all improved appliances. Blacksmith work ^ 
5 done promptly. ^ 

the bluff falls about two hundred feet. Its foot rests on tlie 
river bottom surrounded by trees that vainly try to reach, its 

On top of the Bluff is the vault that holds the bones of the 
Dawson men and the Mier prisoners who died for their country 
in expeditions against Mexico. Here is also the beautiful pavilion 
of tlie Bluff' shooting club, and the residence of Mr. Kreische, a 
solid two story brick building. A fine building that at present is not 
used is the brewery built by Mr. H.L. Kreische, three stories high, 
built of rock and picturesquely situated. In earlier times it was 
a popular resort of the La Grange people and perhaps in time it 
may be so again. If the traveler descends the sloping sides of the 
Bluff and walks along its base, he finds huge rocks that have 
solved themselves from the Biuff" and fallen down. To notice 
their shapes and how they are piled upon each other is quite a 
pastime. On some of these rocks a little dirt and the seeds of 
trees have gathered, and good size trees have grown on them, 
their roots having split the rocks. There are a great many 
springs on the Bluff with the choicest water. 

The Bluff settlement is one of the oldest settlements in the 
county. It was settled in the thirties and named after the bluff. 
A great many of the old settlers are Germans who left their 
country on account of the revolution in Germany of 1848. They 
were a highly educated, intelligent class of immigrants, friends 
of liberty and democrats at heart. A superior class of immi- 
grants lias never reached the shores of this land from any Euro- 


pean country. Among the oldest settlers are the Huebner 
Willrich, Richers, Helmcamp, Kreische, Otto, Tell, Hausmann, 
Kraemer, H. Loehr, Wildner and Hinke families. The popu- 
lation is German with a sprinkling of Bohemians and Ameri- 

Two clubs which own fine halls take care of the social 
side of life, the Bluff Shooting Club at the Blufi" pavilion and 
the Teutonia Club at the Teutonia hall. 

Bluff is a voting box of the county and a post office, it has 
two stores, a blacksmith shap and agin. The reader will find 
Mr. Joseph Hausmann, the proprietor of a store, a fine black- 
smith shop and a first-class gin, a very accommodating gentle- 


Picturesquely situated on the base of a large bend of 
Buckner's Creek, lies the Bridge Valley settlement. West and 
south of it is Buckner's Creek. Behind Buckner's Creek to the 
south rise the wood-crowned hills of the Bluff. It is situated 
on the La Grange Flationia road, about three miles west of La 
Grange. The land is the fertile Buckner's Creek bottom, black- 
land, and to the north sandy postoak. 

The population is German and American. The first settlers 
were Col. John Daucy, Farquhar, Ed. Miiuton and the Kirks. 
It was settled in the forties. The German and Bohemian pop- 
ulation came there in tJie eighties. In 1898 it became a post- 
office. The voting is done at La Grange. 

Bridge Valley, being so near to L? Grange, is a small place. 
It consists of a store and saloon, a blacksmith shop and a school. 
in A. Legler, the jovial postmaster and mercliant of this 
place, the visitor will find a very entertaining talker. 


Carmine lies in tiie northeastern part of Fayette County, 
right on the Washington County line, on the Austin branch of 
the Houston and Texas Central. South of it lies the rich La 
Bahia prairie, north of it is sandy postoak. 

It is a thriving business town. It consists of four general 
merchandise stores, four saloons, two blacksmith shops, one 
lumber yard, two drugstores, one millinery, one furniture house, 
one livery stable, two gins, two meat markets. The town has a 
newspaper, the New Century, edited by Messrs. iMenn and 
(loerdel, two enterprising gentlemen who promise to make a 
success of their paper. There live three resident physicians in 
the town. 

Of the business men who treated the author of this book 
with kindneas, he mentions Mr. Chas. Wagner, a public-spirited 
citizen, well known not only in Carmine, but in the county, the 
proprietor of the leading drugstore in Carmine; Umland & 
Hoppe; A. M. Weyand & Bro., proprietors of large general mer- 
chandise stores, and E. F. Hetzel, a worthy ypung man from 
Austin County, who has established himself in the butcher 
business at Carmine. 

There is a Union Church at Carmine in which Lutheran 
and Methodist preachers liold services. 

Carmine has two lodges, the Woodmen of the World and 
the Sons of Hermann. In the VV^oodmen lodge, C. Gillespie is 
presiding oflicer and Henry Menu secretary. In the Sons of 
Hermann lodge, Hermann Wendorf is president and Julius 
Menke, secretary. 

Carmine was built in the year 1884. It lirst went by the 
name of Sylvan. After the establishment of the post office at 
that place, it took the name of Carmine. The first settler in the 
town was Dr. B. J. Thigpen, who owned the land on which 



A\i Do you look for good bargains in Staple Groceries, Dry Goods, Boots, ;^ 

^\, Shoes, Hats, Hardware, Cutlery, Glassware and Crockery ? Then go to yu 




fl\ who keep the largest depot of General ;\Iorohandise in Carmine. They also ^ 

<^\ pay the highest market price for cotton, and country produce. Leaders in ^!> 

fl\ bargains for Garland Stoves. ^ 


If You Want tlie Best Beef.... i 

and other Meats, go to Sp 


He is a buyer of the choicest cattle and pays the best price for ^ 

them. t 


^„<.../,. Generivl Merch©.ndise 

Staple Groceries, Dry Goods, Boots, Shoes, Hats, 
Caps, Hardware, Cutlery, Crockery aud Glassware. 

Highest Prices Paid for Cotton and Produce. CARMINE, TEXAS. 

Carmine was built. Almost contemporary with him were Henry 
Weyand, Phil. Saunders and J. Hill. 

Old settlers of the Carmine neighborhood are the L. Fuchs 
family, C. Krueger, F. Hermann, Hermann Eichler, Wm. Johle, 
Ed. Garland, Wm. Krause and Chas. JNIeinicke. 

The population of Carmine is American and German, 


About five miles west of La Grange lies the Cedar settle- 
ment. It lies on the La Grange Flatonia road on the north edge 
of the fertile Navidad Prairie. The name of Cedar was given 
to the settlement on account of the many cedars planted in its 
neighborhood. In old times, it used to be a very popular resort 
for amusement and it was known as such throughout the county. 
The laud around Cedar is very fertile. The first settlers in the 
Cedar district were Bill Lewis, John Lewis, Ferrill, Dr. Denker, 
Franke and Allen. They settled there in the forties. Cedar 
consists of a store, saloon and postoffice combined, also of one 
large hall. It has a physician. It is not a voting place, but is a 
post-office. The people vote at the Bluff box. The Cedar 
Macnnerchor which holds its meetings at O'Quinn takes care 
of the social side of life.- Cedar also has a lodge of the Sons of 
Hermann. The population of Cedar is mostly German. 


Cistern is situated in a fertile mesquite prairie of a rich 
brown chocolate color. Parts of the prairie are mixed with post- 
oak. A great deal of fine pasture land is still lying outunfenced. 
About two miles west of Cistern runs the Peach Creek through 
fertile bottoms. The Peach Creek is a tributary of the Guada- 
lupe River. Cistern is at a distance of twelve miles northwest 
of Flalonia, at the same distance northeast of VVaelder, Gonzales 
county; ten miles west of Muldoon, nine miles east of Rosanki, 
Bastrop county, and sixteen miles south of Smithville, Bastrop 
county. Therefore, it has several market places situated on 
diverse railroads to bring its products to. 

It is located on the top of a hill which commands a wide 
sweep of surrounding country. The buildings are around a 



-Carries One of the Largest Assortments of 

Pure Drugs 


Patent Medicines, Toilet Articles, 
Perfumery, Garden Seed, etc. 

Prescriptions carefully and 
accurately prepared. 

The Best Brands 

and Liquors, 'Domestic and 
Imported V.'ines and Cigars. ^''' 

Fresh Beer on Tap. 

Invites your trade and custom. Telephone Exchange for 
Local and Long Distance Telephone. 


public square. It was settled in the latter part of the fifties. 
First it went by the name of Whiteside's Prairie, then by the 
name of Cockrill's Hill, and since 1863 it went by the name of 
Cistern. The latter name was given to the place, because, on 
account of minerals, the wells did not furnish good tasting drink- 
ing water, and the people all built cisterns for water. The water 
from the wells generally contains iron and sulphur. The water of 
Slack's well was especially noted for its health-producing and 
curing properties and was used by a great roany patients. The 
first settlers were the Cockrills; other old settlers were C. H. 
Wellborn, deceased; Ira Mullen, deceased; William Brown, 
Adam Zumwalt. 

Cistern has a population of about 150 inhabitants. The 
population consists of Americans, Cermans and Bohemians. 
They live in the greatest harmony. 

The religious side of life is taken care of by Rev. L. P, 


Alfred Egg— -^ ^'^*%"exas. 

Blacksmith and Wheelwright 

Does your work in his line promptly and cheaply. Keeps in 
stock Plows, Middlebreakers, Cultivators, Cotton and Corn Planters 
and Cornstalk Cutters. Wagons and Buggies made to order. Horse 
shoeing a specialty. Your custom solicited. 

F. Knight—^ ^'"^T^ 



First Class Cotton Gin 

with all modern equipments. Best gin in that section of country. 
Prepared to gin forty- five bales per day. Corn Mill, Corn Crusher 
and Grisl Mill in connection. 

Netardus, of Praba, who holds services in the Catholic Church, 
and by Rev. Kern, of Black Jack Springs, who preaches to a 
Lutheran congregation in the Cistern schoolhouse. 

The social life of Cistern centers in the Harmony Club. Its 
membership consists of Germans and Americans. The founder 
of the club was Ad. Plentl. The club owns a tine hall with a 
beautiful park of four acres. The president of the club is Jacob 

There are two lodges in Cistern: Cistern Lodge No. 155, O. 
D. H. S., with Leopold Michalski, president, and Carl Rietz, 
secretary, and a lodge of the Woodmen of the World. 

Cistern has a general merchandise store, a drugstore con- 
ducted by Mr. Wm. Mennike; a saloon also conducted by him; 
a blacksmith shop conducted by Mr. Alfred Egg; agin conducted 
by Mr. Felix Knight, and a physician. 


Colony is situated eight miles northwest of Flatonia. The 
surrounding country is sandy and loamy postoak. It has one 
store, a blacksmith shop and three churches. The l>aptist 
Chnrch is in charge of Rev. J. M. Fricrson, the Cliristian Ciiurch 
in charge of Rev, G. M, D. Thomason, and the Methodist 
rhurch is at present without a preacher. It was settled in 1880 
by Mississippians; it was named by them Colony as colony of 
Mississippians. The population is American. 

I Joseph Peter^^ ''■"^"\..A 


% .....J'/rsi Class Cotton Oi'n % 

I Corn and Sr/si Tl^ill. | 

fl> Also keeps in Stock Staple and Fancy Groceries. Owns a full vj> 

Jj^ first class saloon — Domestic and Imported ^{J 

/j\ Liquors, Wines and Cigars. \\t 

«^_ /f> 


Dubina lies about fourteen miles south of La Grange m a 
rich, fertile country. The hind is postoak and liveoak and black 
prairie. It lies on Hedden Creek and one mile from the Navidad 
Creek. Hon. Josei)h Peter is the proprietor of a large store and 
barroom, of a gin and of a l)lacksmith shop in Dubina. Dubina 
has a hue Catholic Church building and a hall for public meet- 
ings and entertainments. Dubina is a Bohemian name, meaning 
in Englisii ''oak grove." The name was given to the place by 
Judge A. Haidusck, whose father, Valentine llaidusek, and 
Joseph Peter were the first settlers in that j)art of the country. 
The population is German and Bohemian. 

— 38G— 

EUinger is situated on the branch road of the Southern 
Pacific Railroad from Columbus to La Grange, about twelve 
miles southeast from La Grange. It is located on the W. 0. 
Burnham league; one hundred acres of its present site belonged 
to John H. Meyer and one hundred to Henry Fordtran of Gal- 
veston. The name of EUinger was given to the place by a 
Bohemian named Andreas Ondrey, who suggested the name to 
James Converse, superintendent of the Southern Pacific Rail- 
road, while in conversation with him. It was laid out in 1883 
and the first men who opened up business in EUinger were Fritz 
Hotmann, Charles and Dan Meyer, Chas. v. Rosenberg and Hill 
& Hill. 

North of EUinger lies the rich black land Ross prairie, 
south of it the productive bottom lands of the Colorado River. 
These rich, fertile lands are separated from each other by a sand 
and gravel ridge covered with postoak. Therefore the surround- 
ing country of EUinger, with the exception of said gravel ridge, 
is a rich agricultural section. 

EUinger has two churches — a Lutheran, with Rev. Robert 
Heise, who also preaches in Fayetteville and Haw Creek, and a 
Catholic, situated about one mile north of EUinger at a place 
called Live Oak Hill. The Catholic Church is under the care 
of Rev. Father Cblapic. 

The school of EUinger is under the able management of 
Prof. Dippel, a conscientious and faithful teacher. 

EUinger has four lodges: The Sons of Hermann, C. F. 
Steves, president. A. F. Weber, secretary; Woodmen of the 
World, E. J. Weber, presiding officer, A, F. Weber, secretary; 
Odd Fellows, and C. S. P. S., a Bohemian lodge. 

A large public hall serves as meeting place for public gath- 
erings and for festive occasions. 

Before the building of the Missouri, Kansas & Texas l^ail- 

— 3S7— 


C. %/. Steves 


Doors, Sash, Blinds, Deere Implements, 
Buggies, Grub and Stump Machines, 
Window Glass, Wagons, McCormick 
Mowers, Well Tubing, Pipe Fittings, 
Paints and Oils, Rubber Belting. 

g@^Conneeted by Fayette County and Lon^^ Distance Tele- 
phone Systems. Pi-oprietor of line \o Halsted. 


Scheel Bros., ^'""fe'L. I 

is the popular meeting place of all 
connoisseurs of 

Fine whiskies, Liquors 

Wines, Domestic and Imported Cigars. Call and j'ou will find « 
^ good company. ^ 

— — — r^ ";^ ; \ 

road to Fayetteville the business of P]l linger was considerably 

larger. This road, running at a distance of about four miles 

from Ellinger, has cut off a large part of its trade. Still, as it 

lies in a rich agricultural section, which, year by year, becomes 

more developed, it maintains the volume of its old trade and 

does as much business now as ever, though the scope of country 

\v"hicli"was tributary to Ellinger has been somewhat reduced. ;t^ 

'^~^" Ellinger consists of four general merciiandise stores, three 


I J. & B. Wacker ^" "Ss 

( Established in 1884.) 


Fancy and Staple Groceries I 
[Jardware, Crockery and Glassware i 

Notions, Boots and Shoes. i 

Make a specialty of Flour, Sugar, Salt and Coffee, jg 
Keep in stock a complete assortment of Guns, Pistols and g 
Ammunition. Buy Cotton, Cottonseed and all kinds of < 
Country Produce at highest market prices. Come and see % 
them. ^ 

groceries, two furniture houses, three hardware stores, one im- 
plement and carriage house, one drugstore, two gins, two black- 
smith shops and four saloons. 

The writer is obliged to the following gentlemen who took 
some interest in his work on their home county for their patron- 
age and hopes that the bestowal of their confidence may have 
been placed on a worth3'- enterprise and that his work may meet 
their approval. 

The oldest business men in P^llinger are Messrs. J. and B. 
Wacker, who established themselves in business at Ellinger in 
1884. They carry a large stock of staple and fancy groceries, 
hardware and crockery, and especially a fine assortment of pis- 
tols, guns and ammunition. They are reliable gentlemen and 
substantial, solid business men. Their father, Mr. Dietrich 
Wacker, was one of the first settlers in Ross prairie. C. F. Steves 
has a lumber and hardware business of the most extensive 
assortment, carrying everything from a nail to a stump-pulling 
machine. A customer can get there articles which he often 


I J. Y. Machalek ^^^''^fx'As. ' 
Furniture, Stoves 

Dealer in 

Tin and Agate Ware, Keeps a complete stock in his g 

line. CISTERNS matte to order. Call on him and g 

you will get first class bargains. t 




|W. F. Burow ^"^'Ss.i 

/{\ Proprietor of a ^|^ 

I First Class Improved Douglass Gin | 

% with four 70-8aw giii stands, with Kingsland & Douglas Pneu- -{-I 

iH\ matic Elevator and all the latest modern improvements. Gins \J/ 

^j^ the cotton clean and produces a long valuable fiber which never '^•^ 

/}\ fails to bring the highest price. Your custom solicited. j'jl 

would fail to get in large size cities. E. J . Weber keeps in his 
elegant drugstore pure and fresh drugs and other lines of goods 
that are usually kept in a first-class drugstore. He also serves 
the public as notary public and sets up all legal documents 
in binding shape and style. W. F. Burow owns a first-class gin 
and turns out a superior class of cotton. He constantly studies 
how to improve his machinery, and on account of his close atten- 
tion to business has become a model ginner in the county, J. Y. 
Machalek is a popular young merchant in the furniture and 
hardware business at EUinger, and a skillful mechanic. Scheel 
Brothers are the proprietors of a first-class barroou], which has 
become the headquarters for the farmers of Kllinger. 

In Live Oak Hill, one mile north of Eiliuger, Mr. Aug. 
Girndt welcomes in his elegant saloon his guests from near and 
far, keeps the purest whiskies and other liquors. He is the 



Aug. Girndt's Saloon 

Live Oak Hill. Texas, 

is the popular meeting place of all who appreciate 

J'ine il/hiskiesy u/inej and jCiquors 

Domestic and Imported Cigars. A fine hall with one of 
the best floors in the county gathers young and old for 

£, 5. rnnebcr,,. 



iJruffs and i/^edicines 

Toilet and Fancy Articles, Musical Instruments, Wall 
Paper, Paints and Oils. 

jg@°^ Writes all kinds of Legal Instruments. 

proprietor of a fine hall with one of the best floors for dancing 
that can be found in the county. Young and old gather there for 
amusement and recreation. 

The population of EUinger is German and Bohemian. 
Among the first and the oldest settlers of the Ellinger neighbor- 
hood may be mentioned Dietrich Wacker, Dan Meyer, John 
Meyer, Aug. Beyer, Joseph liaabe, Chas. Ehlinger, 8arrazin, 
Dohm, Jacob Dirr, Peter Koelil, Joe Koehl, Jacob Koehl, Andreas 
Schreiner, Muegge, Henry Cook. Jos. Sommers, Wm. Hoelscher, 
Anton Hoelscher, Fietsam, Hy Fattmann. 


Louis Melcher, 


A First=Class Photograph Gallery. 

¥I*oj*A- twnaraiilfftl to hr xatixt'tiftorf/. 

Proprietor of a tirst-class Saloon. Call on him for line Whiskies 
and Li(juors, Domestic and Imported Cigars. 




GeneroLl Merch©Lndise. 

Oldest mercantile business at Engle. Office of Notary Public. 

Writes all kinds of Legal Documents. Land and Real 

Estate Agent. Has always a great number of 

valuable places at low prices on his list. 



Engle lies midway between Schulenburg and Flatonia on 
the Southern Pacific Railroad. North of it is postoak, south of 
it rich, fertile prairie land. It is a thriving little town; has a 
postoffice. The voting is done at Mulberry, a schoolhouse thus 
named in its neighborhood. It consists of two general merchan- 
dise stores, three saloons, one blacksmith shop, one photograph 
gallery, one tinsmith shop and one lumber yard. The popula- 
tion is German and Bohemian. Amongst the first settlers of 

the place are I. J. Gallia, Bucek, L. Melcher. Old settlers 

in the neighborhood are Chas. Hertel, Chris. Brueggemann and 

Olle. Mr. I. J. Gallia is an old poi)ular merchant of that 

place, deals also in real estate and serves as notary public. Mr. 
Louis Melcher has a first-class saloon and a fine photograph gal- 
lery. Mr. 1. J. Gallia was the first merchant in that place and 
bailt his business there in 18'JU. 





Y will supply you at the most reasonable prices with 

> everything you may need in the line of general 

^ merchandise. 

^ '^yvGr)iicfr) V^Gr)fupy /"iepcr)ar)l 



Freyburg is situated about seven miles north of Engle. one- 
half a mile east of the East Navidacl in a tine looking jjrairie. It 
lies in one of the richest agricultural sections of the county. 
It is a postoffice and a voting place. As voting place it goes by 
the name of Thulemeyer's. A tine M, E. Church building 
gathers in its roomy aisle a devoted Methodist conoregation. 
Rev. F. Bomfalk is the preaclier in that church. The mercantile 
business of that place was established in the year 18G(S by Mr, 
F. Thulemeyer; it is now ownfd by Mr. C. F. Thulemeyer. 
There are also a gin and a blacksmith shop close to the place. 
The population is German and Bohemian. Among the first 
settlers were F. Thulemeyer, B. Warnken, Fr. Burns, J. Rom- 
berg, Bernh. Romberg, F. \V. Richter, John Czichos, Aug, Hahu, 
Fritz Laux. 


Halsted is the name of a station about six and a half miles 
east of La Grange on the Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railroad 
and two miles and a half north of the Colorado River. The 
immediate surrounding country is sandy postoak and gravel and 

— oUo — 


•2 Headquarters for S 

§ Sroceries and Senega/ 97f ere hand ise, | 

5 fodder in J'/our and Sra/n, t 

^ Dealer in Lumber and, in fact, everything you call for. Pro- ^ 
^ prietor of a First Class Gin and Mill. g 

I HALSTED, - - - - - 7'fJr45. I 

serves mostly for pasture, but a short distance soutli of it lies 
the fertile Colorado River bottom and north of it the very fertile 
liutersville prairie. In its immedtate neighborhood lie also some 
very fertile bottom lands of Baylor and Wuerzner's Creek. Hal- 
sted is a pnstoffice and has telephone connection, daily mail and 
freight and passenger service. Mr. .J. H. VVessels established 
his mercantile business at that place in 1S*)0. He is also the 
proprietor of a saloon, a large lumber yard and a first-class gin, 
equipped with all modern improvements, In fact, he and his 
employees are Halsted. In 1900 it became a postoftice. The 
voting is done at Biegel. The neighborhood of Halsted was 
settled long before the place was established. Among the oldest 
settlers of the neighborhood, P. Heller, C. Halfinger, B. Decem- 
ber, L. Struve, Kobt. Fohl, Mrs. A. VVoUe may be mentioned. 
The population is German with a sprinkling of Bohemians. , 


Haw Creek is situated about ten miles in a northerly direc- 
tion from Fayetteville on the William H. Sheppard league. It 
has a rich agricultural surrounding country with the Haw Creek 
and Cummings Creek bottoms in its immediate neighborhood. 
It is a postoffice and a voting precinct and consists of a store, a 
gin and a blacksmith shop. Among the oldest families and set- 
tlers in that neighborhood may be named the Menking family, 
the Aschenbeck family, L. Bartliugk, Draws and Voelkel. 


Theo, Helmcamp 

Proprietor of a First Class Saloon, 
invites the public to try his 

Pine Whiskies and Liquors 

Imported and Domestic Cigars. Fresh Beer always on tap. In 
connection with the business a fine liall for Dancing. 

High Hill, Texacs. 



Before the arrival of the Southern Pacific into Schulenburg 
High Hill was quite an important place. At that time it con- 
sisted of six stores — some of them made of self-made brick — 
and three blacksmith and wheelwright shops. It was built in 
two different localities at a little distance apart. The upper part 
of the town had the name of Oldenburg, but now the name of 
High Hill stands for the whole place. 

High Hill is situated about three miles north of Schulen- 
burg on top of a hill and its buildings and the tall steeple of its 
fine Catholic Church building can be seen in clear weather from 
Schulenburg. It is built on the E. Anderson league. West 
Navidad and Forster's Creek gre in its neighborhood. 

High Hill is a postoffice and a voting precinct of the county. 
It has a fine Catholic Church which was built in 1870 and of 
which Rev. Father H. Gerlach is the priest. 

Theo. Helmcamp is the proprietor of a first-class saloon and 
also of a fine hall where the people of High Hill gather for 
amusement and entertainment. John Wick is the postmaster 
and merchant of that place. There is also a gin and blacksmith 
shop at High Hill. 

High Hill is an old place. The oldest settlers of that place 
were Eckert, Hermann Bauch, the Fahrenthold and Eschenberg 
families, F. CI. Seydler, Perkins, Green, Adamek 




J'anci/ and Staple Sroceries 

Dry Goods, Boots, Shoes, Hats, Caps, Hardware, Crockery. Glass- 
ware and Saddlery. Keeps a first class assortment in these 
lines. Highest prices paid for country produce. 

A. Bilamek, Franz Wick, Anton Bednarz, Joseph Hollas, Joseph 
Heinrich, sr. , F. Kleinemann, Geo. Herder, Gerh. Siems, P. 
Stuelke, Gerh. Nordhansen, Chas. Hiukel, Edward Schubert, 
Capt. Chas. Wellhansen, Aug. Knechler, Ernst Goeth, J. F. 
Hillje,who built the first cotton gin and oil mill in the High Hill 

The population is German and Bohemian. Most of the 
High Hill people belong to the Catholic Church. 

Kristek Bros, ---^^ 

Have been established 

In the Sin Susinoss 

for eight years and have ginned on an average 1425 bales of cotton 
per year, notwithstanding bad years. They have the latest and most 
modern gin improvements, enjoy the confidence of the neighborhood 
and run in connection with their gin a corn and grist mill. They have 
electric lights, are progressive and always meet the demands for first 
class work. — 1» . HOLMAN, TEXAS. 

Holman is picturesquely situated on Pecan Creek, about 
thirteen miles southeast from La Grange on the La Grange- 
Weimar \'alley road, two miles distant from the Colorado in 
Mullins' Prairie. North of it are the bottom lands of Williams 
Creek. The country is very rich and fertile blackland prairie. 
The population is American, German and Bohemian. First 
settlers, G. W. Lewis, Nat Holman, J no. Ossina, Lott Fisher 

—396 - 

and the Seydler family. It consists of two stores and saloons, a 
blacksmith and wheelwright shop. Kristek Bros, are the pro- 
gressive owners of a first-class gin which gins on an average 
1425 bales per year. At night the gin building is illumed by 
electric lights. 

Holman is also called Pecan after tiie creek by that name. 
It is a postofiice and a voting precinct. 


Ledbetter lies in the northern part of the county on the 
Houston & Texas Central about one mile north of Cummings 
Creek on the watershed between the Colorado and Brazos Rivers. 
The surrounding country is postoak. In its neighborhood are 
gravel pits and rock quarries tiie rock of which was used for the 
construction of the Galveston jetties. 

To the traveler, coming from La Grange, Ledbetter presents 
a pretty appearance. A small prairie lies in front of it, forming 
a lawn for the town. The pretty red-roofed residences are 
pleasantly set off by the green of the postoak. 

The town has a Union Church, in which Rev. B. W . Allen 
of Giddings preaches to a Methodist and Rev. Coupland of 
Rockdale to a Presbyterian congregation. The Baptists also 
own a church building. Rev. F. H. Morgan is the preacher of 
their church. 

The town is incorporated for school purposes. The princi- 
pal of the school for this year will be Prof. Saunders, who for- 
merly taught at Walhalla. 

Ledbetter is a postoflice and a voting precinct of the county. 
It consists of four general merchandise stores, two lumber yards, 
two drugstores, two saloons, one blacksmith shop. There are 
two resident physicians in the town. While in Ledbetter, the 
writer became acquainted with T. M. Vernon, the leading drug- 
gist in Ledbetter, Wm. Kruse, a popular merchant of that place 


Ledbetter Go-operative Lumber Association, 

[Organized 1888. J 
P. OF H. AND F. A. 

" The Farmers' Lumber Yard," 

Lumber, Shingles, Doors, Sash, 

J^uilders' Hardware, Oils, Paints, etc. 

L. 0. EUMMEL, Agent- Highest market price paid for Dry Hides. 


T. n. Vernon... '-^^''^^Ix'as. 


2)ruo3t ^ebicines 

stationery, Toilet Articles, Paints and Oils. Prescriptions filled with 
care and dispatch. 

WM. KRUSE^-^^ ''^•"^"^flxAs. 


^^^— General flUetcbanbise 

Dry Goods. Boots, Shoes, Hats, Notions, Hardware, Crockery, Sad- 
dlery, etc. My motto is: Quick sales and small profits. Highest 
prices paid for cotton and country produce. 

and he was also patronized by his friend L. C. Rummel, the 
eflicient and successful manager of the Ledbetter Co-operative 
jAimber Association, an association of substantial farmers who 
invested their surplus capital in this lumber business. It was 
organized in 1888. The officers of the company are J. C. Specks 
els, president, B. E. Siegmund, secretary, and \V. 13. Barnes, 
\Vm. Peters, Fritz Knoche, Paul Schuhmanu and J. H. Hushing, 




Thfe population of tlie town and neighborhood is American, 
German and Wendish. Amongst the oldest settlers of the town 
may be mentioned J. C. Hillmann, L. C. Kummel and K. Albers; 
of the neighborhood, John Rost, Geo. Eschenberg, Friedrich 
Mueller, Fritz Rethke, Tabken, and Kruse. 

Notes.— The Houston & Texas Central Railroad came to Ledbetter 
in 1870. A few miles south of Ledbetter is Alexander Branch, thus 
named after a white trapper who was killed there by Indians. 


The Moravan settlement lies in Navidad Prairie, about 
seven miles southwest of La Grange and two miles south of the 
La Grange- Flatonia road. It consists of a fine Catholic Church, 
a store and saloon. The land is fertile and occupied mostly by 
Bohemian settlers. Moravan has no postoffice. It used to be a 
voting precinct of the county. The first settlers in that settle- 
ment were W. Brookfield. John A. Huebner, Evans and 

Will rich. It was settled in the forties. 

In Moravan, the K. J. T., a Bohemian Roman Catholic 
Benevolent Union of Texas, was organized and incorporated on 
August 15, 1895. It consists of 3f5 lodges and does an insurance 
business, limited to Texas. Most of its members live in Fayette 
County. The total insurance in force amounts to $617,400. 
The society commenced business in July, 1899. Last year they 
paid out $9000 in death claims. The officers of the organiza- 
tion are: Rev. J. Chromcik, Spiritual Director, Fayetteville; F. 
A. Parma, President, Praha, Texas; F. C. Janda, Secretary, La 
Grange. These data speak better of the energy, ability and 
solid standing of its officers than any words of the writer. They 
speak for themselves and are a high credit to the energy, will 
power and business talent of the Bohemian element. 


PhysiciaLi\ ak.i\d Surgeon. 

Office hours, 9 to 11 a. m. and 2 to 4 p. m. 
Piione 2. All calls promptly attended. 

Muldoon, _ _ _ - Texas. 


Muldoon is a railroad station on the Waco branch of the 
San Antonio & Aransas Pass Railroad, midway between Flatonia 
and West Point. In its neighborhood are the large rock quarries 
of Hon A. B. Kerr, from which rock was shipped to Galveston 
for the construction of the jetties. The surrounding country is 
mostly postoak. The Buckner's Creek bottom in its neighbor- 
hood is very fertile, Muldoon is a postoffice and a voting pre- 
cinct of the county. It consists of one general merchandise 
store, conducted by Kerr Bros., one saloon, one hotel, one black- 
smith shop. In Dr. H. H. Mitchell, who has been a resident 
physician ot Muldoon since 1891, the writer found a pleasant gen- 
tleman, a physician of fine standing among the people with 
whom he lives. 

The Muldoon country was settled in the thirties. It was 
named after Rev. Fatlier JMiquel Muldoon, a resident Catholic 
priest of Mexico, to whom the Mexican government had granted 
four leagues of land in Fayette county. On one of these leagues 
the town of JMuldoon is situated. It was built in 188G. The 
population of town and neighborhood is mostly American, witb 
a sprinkling of Germans and Bohemians. Among the old set- 
tlers may be mentioned Alex. St, Clair, li. Leitenberg, Chas. 
Luck, Jesse Parker, W. P. Ivey, Jesse Blackvvell, J. J. Sullivan, 
Herm, Loessin, Bennett Ilay, J. M. Ray^ II. Harkins. 


Nechanitz lies eleven miles north of La Grange and nine 
miles south of Ledbetter, on the La Grange-Ledbetter road in 
Long Prairie. This prairie extends to Waldeck and is fertile 
land. Nechanitz is a voting jjrecinct and a post office. It was 
named after Nechanitz, Bohemia, the home of Hon. Wen^el 
Matejowski, one of the oldest and most reliable merchants in the 
county. He owns tlie store and gin at Neclianitz. The post 
office was established in 1873.' The population is now German. 
Old settlers: Wenzel Matejowski, Recklefs Meiners, Frank 
Ahlhorn, Julius Weisshuhn, Anton Weber, Chas. Oeser, William 
Peters, John Marquardt, Christian Marquardt and others. 


Oldenburg is the name of a settlement about ten miles 
northeast of La Grange on the La Grange-Round Top road on 
the banks of Clear Creek. The surrounding country is rich black 
land prairie. 

The town consists of two stores, a saloon, a physician's 
office, a blacksmith shop, a tin shop and a gin. Louis Vodkel 
is the leading merchant of the whole neighborhood, who has 
been in business at Oldenburg for sixteen years, and Muesse 
Bros, are the popular young saloon men of the town. They own 
a fine hall in a beautiful grove of liveoaks. The entertainments 
given in the park are very popular. 

Oldenburg is a postoffice, but not a voting precinct of tlie 
count}^; the people do their voting at Rutersville and Warrenton. 
It was founded in IBSO by Gus. Steenken, in company with A. 
Heintze, and named Oldenburg because a great many people of 
the neighborhood had come from that country, their native 
home, and settled here. The population is German and Bohe- 


^, 6c ucf, Jr. 7/fuesse,.. 


Hpadqiiariers U)v 

Fine Whiskies and Wines 
Domestic and Imported Cigars 

Fresh Cool Beer. Finest Park in the County, Beautiful Live-oak 
Grove. Large Hall serves for festive occasions and public meetings. 


(General /llbercbanbtsc 

^oo/Sj Shoes, jVats, J^ardivare, 

and iJ'arminff implements. 

Cotton and Country Produce bought and sold. 


niian. Among the old settlers may be named Gerh. Belirens, 
F. Oppermann, John Imken, Aug. Gan, Hy. Alhorn, Albert 
Meinardus, J. B. Meinardus, 


The O'Quinn settlement is situated seven miles southwest 
of La Grange on the La Grange-Flatonia road on OHiuinn's 
Creek. South of 0"(iuinn is the rich Navidad Prairie, nortli of 
it the sandy postoak of Buckner's Creek mixed with loam. The 
Biickner's Creek bottom lands are very fertile. It was settled 
mostly by Germans as early as 1850. Among the first families 
who settled there were the Sellers, Luck, Sample, Duellberg, 
Melcher, Bruns and John Voigt families. The settlement was 
named after an Indian chief by the name of O'Ciuinn; another 
version is that it was named after an Irishman by that name. 
O'Quinn is a postoflice, but not a voting place. The people 


I T. A. Dieckert^^^ '"'^Ml^.c. j 

general Merehandise. | 

Agent for all the Leading Newspapers and Periodicals. % 

Buys cotton and all kinds of Country Produce. ^ 

3 O'Quirvrv, - - - - - Texa.s. g 

mostly vote at Black Jack Springs. O'Quinn has two stores — one 
conducted by Mr. J. C. Melcher, the other one by Mr. T. A. 
Dieckert,both popular gentlemen — a gin and a blacksmith shop. 
It has two lodges, the Knights of Honor and the Fraternal 
Mystic Circle. 


The old settlement of Oso is situated about three miles 
northeast of Flatonia. It used to be quite a town, but nothing 
has renaained of it but the name retained by the neighborhood. 
After the Southern Pacific passed through the county the town 
of Oso was deserted and its people settled in Flatonia. Once 
there were three stores, a mill and a gin, a tannery and a black- 
smith shop at Oso. In old times it was a voting precinct, but 
after Flatonia was built the latter city became the voting precinct 
of that section of the county. Among the first settlers were the 
Menefee, Lane, Harrison and Cobb families. The population is 
American and German, 


Praha is situated about three miles east of Flatonia, south 
of the Southern Pacific Railroad, on the Jesse Duff league. 
Located on a hill in a beautiful liveoak grove, it presents a very 


I Anton Jezek — "^^ ''""\l^.^.s. | 

% Proprietor of a First Clas'a % 

^ . A ^ 

I Jalacljsn^ifl^N w^celyv^piqljf ©l^op | 

5 All work in these lines satisfactory. Keeps Buggy-tops. p 

g Paints buggies at reasonable prices. ^ 

IF YOU WANT ^^^.^atzsz^" 

Fine Whiskies, Wines 
Liquors, Cigars 

and Fresh Cool Beer, always go to 


A fine floor for dancing in connection with the business. 

fine view. The high steeple of the Catholic Church may be 
seen for miles, reminding the faithful of the place of worship. 
The Catholic Church of Praha is the finest in the county, nay, 
even in the state — a very majestic structure. It is a solid rock 
building. Che aisle of the building is very high and makes a 
most solemn impression (jn the beholder. The altar is a master- 
piece of artistic carving and construction. The imposing glass 
windows contain paintings representing scenes from the Holy 
Scripture. Rev. Father L. P. Nethardus is tlie priest of tlie 

Praha is a nice town, being built around a public square. It 
consists of two stores, two saloons, one blacksmith and wheel- 
wright shop, a meat market. It has a resident physician. Jos. 
A. Drozd ftnd F. A. Parma are tlie leading merchants of the 
place. Frank Vyvjala is the popular proprietor of a first-class 
saloon and owns also a fine platform and hall for dancing. 
Anton Jezek is the proprietor of a blacksmith and wheelwright 
shop and is prepared to do all kinds of work in tiji-top style. 

- 404- 
Jos. A. Drozd. F, A. Parma. 



General Merchandise 

Buyers of Cotton and Country Produce. PRAHA, TEXAS. 

The population of Praha and neighborhood is entirely Bohe- 
iiiian. The Bohemians commenced settling in this neighborhood 
in the fifties. First settlers: M. Novak, F. Branitzky, Jos. 
Vyvjala, Geo. Morysek, Jos. Hajak, M. Jares, Jno. Baca. The 
place was named Praha by Postmaster J5. Knesek in 187G. It 
was formerly called Mulberry. The first Catholic Church in 
Praha was built of wood in 1868. In 1875 anew church was 
built. The present rock building was completed in 1891. 

There are two schools in Praha. Tlie public school has 
been for over twenty-five years under the able management of 
Prof. A. Nesrsta, a highly educated gentleman and a thorough 
teacher. The sisters' school was organized in 181»6, is taught by 
three Sisters of Divine Providence, and has actually enrolled 
from 1111 to 120 pupils. 

In Praha are two lodges of the K. J. T., a Bohemian Roman 
Catholic Union of Texas, a benevolent society, which was organ- 
ized in 181)5 at Moravan, Texas. (See Moravan.) F. A. Parma 
is the president of this union. The president of one of the 
Praha lodges of the K. J. T. is Chas. Lev, the secretary, John 
Vanek; the president of the other is Vine. Darilek, the secretary, 
Anton Jezek. The total membership of the two Praha lodges is 
from 80 to 1>0. 

The Catholic Young Men's Society is composed only of 
unmarried persons. They pay to each member at his wedding 
a marriage portion. Quite an inducement, though it may be 

Catholic Church at Praha, 

— 40G — 

presumed that the lady is the highest. The society has about 
thirty members. 

Other societies are the Christian Society of Married Women 
(over thirty members), Altar Society of Virgins (twenty mem- 
bers) and a Reading Club. All these societies are Bohemian 
Catholic Societies; they are associated for worthy objects and 
tend to elevate and educate the character of young men and 
women to a higher plane. 


Plum lies eight miles from La Grange on the Missouri, Kan- 
sas ik Texas Railroad. The surrounding country is prairie and 
postoak. It is a postoltice and a voting precinct of the county 
and consists of two stores, one saloon, two gins and iwo black- 
smith shops. There is a resident physician in Plum. 

Plum has a Baptist C'hurch, called Plum Grove Church, of 
which Rev. (i. T. Simpson is the pastor. Theie is also a Cattiolic 
Church at the place. 

The ]:)opulation is American, German and Bohemian. Old 
settlers: Buck Drisdale, Ed. Manton (deceased), Jno. Drisdale 
(deceased), Jim O'Donnell. 


Roznov is about three miles east of Warrenton in the eastern 
portion of the county. The land is sandy postoak with a great 
many fertile lands in the Clear Creek and Cummings Creek bot- 
toms. The population is largely Bohemian with some Germans 
among them. It is a postoffice, but not a voting precinct of 
the county. The people of Roznov vote at Warrenton. It con- 
sists of a store and saloon and a blacksmith shop. The oldest 
settlers of the neighborhood are .Joe Weikel, John Halamicek, 
FredKnutzen, Bernhard Cordes, Joseph Orsak, Joseph Cerveuka. 

— 407— 

G» D. Wesser s Saloon... 

Is known throughout the county as a popular meeting 
place of all connoisseurs of Fine Whiskies and Wines, Im- 
ported and Domestic Cigars. 

-..The Fine Hall^-^^ 

with the finest dancing floor in the county, situated in a beautiful 
park, is the most popular resort of the young people of La Grange, 
Rutersville and surrounding towns. RUTERSVILLE, TEXAS. 


Rutersville lies about six miles northeast of La Crrange in 
the fertile Rutersville prairie, hoji; wallow land, near the banks 
of Rocky Creek. It is located on the Franklin J^ewis league. 
Rutersville is an old historic place. In the early days it was a 
competitor for the capital of the Republic of Texas. At that 
time there was a military school owned by the state under the 
management of Prof. Forshea and a female college under the 
management of Supt. Thrall at Rutersville. On account of these 
schools, the town was a local option precinct. These schools 
were closed during the Civil War and not reopened thereafter. 
A stock company bought the college and sold it to the Lutheran 
congregation; they sold it to the Methodists, who for a long time 
used it for a school. 

Rutersville consists or a store, a saloon, a gin and a black- 
smith and wheelwright shop. It is a voting place of the county 
and a postoffice. Mr. G. D. Wessels is the owner of a fine hall 
for dancing, the best in the county. He also is the owner of a 
first-class saloon. 

The Rutersville country was settled by Americans and Ger- 
mans, but now thi country is almost entirely German with a 
sprinkling of Bohemians. Old settlers: C. Amberg, sr. (de- 
ceased), Geo. Mauer, J3. \V. Hobson (deceased), F. Luecke, VV. 
Hancord, the Mohrhusens, H. Harms, Carl Schulz, R. Pohl, L, 
Struve, Joe Brendel. 


Slella lies about eight miles southwest of VVcft Point. It 
is a postoffice and ^a voting precinct and consists of one store. 
The surrounding country is postoak. The population is Amer- 

SBO. VOST"-^^^ ^T^x^s'^.^''' 

Dealer in 

Staple anb fm\c^ (Suoceiiee 

Dry Goods and Notions, Hardware 
Crockery and Glassware 

Country Produce bought at market prices. Come and give him a 

Chas. Bruns ^Tex'as^'" 

"^J^^ZJlLSeneral 9?/erchancii'se 

tPaj/s J^i^^hest Cash ^Prices for Country ^Produce. 

A fine hall and a saloon In connection therewith gather young and 
old for amusement. 


Swiss Alp is one of the most picturesque and fertile sections 
of the county. The rolling prairie is studded with elegant resi- 
dences surrounded by gardens and trees. The blackland is very 
rich and productive; the population well-to-do, substantial farm- 
ers; they are progressive Germans. It is a comparatively new 
country, situated on the Fayette county school lands, about 


eleven miles from La Grange and seven miles from Schuleuburs. 
It is a voting precinct of the county and a postoffice. Geo. Vogt 
and Chas. Bruns are popular young merchants of Swiss Alp; L. 
C. Melcher, the proprietor of one of the finest gins in the county. 
There is also a blacksmith shop. It was settled in the seventies. 
Among the first settlers are Chris Steinmann, A. Franke and 
Mrs. Au^i^uste Boiling. At Swiss Alp there are large bone depos- 
its, found especially in Mr. Knigge's pasture. They have been 
described by Mr. L. C Melcher in his essay on minerals of the 
count V. 


Waldeck lies about fourteen miles north of La Grange 
on the La Grange-Ledbetter road. The country is black land 
and post-oak. The population is German. It is a voting pre- 
cinct of the county and a post office. It consists of a store, a 
saloon, a gin, a blacksmith shop and a JAitheran church, of 
which Uev. Chas. Baer is pastor. Old settlers: Fritz Weber, 

Friedrich Schuhmann, A. F. Dornwell, Meiners, Traugott 

Sommer. Gerh. Albers, (deceased), Carl Schuhmann, (deceased), 
Dietricli Ahlrich. 


Walhalla lies fourteen miles in a northerly direction from 
La Grange. It is situated in Cottonwood prairie, fertile black- 
land. It is a post-otiice and a voting precinct of the county, 
and consists of a store, a saloon and a blacksmith shop. A 
physician resides there. The population is (German. Old set- 
tlers: William Koepke, (ierhard Imken, John H. Bluhme, Geo. 
Oetken, sr., Hon. J. C. Speckels, Hy Alhorn, Chas. Meinhold, 
Carl Sump, Carl Schubert, Louis Heller, Tom Heller, Dick 
Meinen and L. F. Tiemanu. 


Warda lies about twelve miles north of La Grange on the 
La Grange-Giddings road, not far from the banks of Rabb's 
Creek. Tlie bottom lands of this creek are very fertile. The 
balance of the land is postoak and pinewood. In the early days 
tliere was a sawmill on the banks of Rabb's Creek that furnished 
lumber to a great scope of surrounding country. These lands 
were settled very early, about the year 1830. In the early thir- 
ties a Mr. Earthman of that place was killed near the present 
Nechanitz by marauding Indians. The population is mostly 
Wendish, a Slavic tribe that has become almost completely Ger- 
manized under the rule of the German government. They are a 
very religious people. A fine German Lutheran Church under 
the pastorate of Rev. Buchschacher is the center of religious life 
of that neighborhood. Said congregation supports also entirely 
by private means a school under the management of Prof. G. M. 
Schleyer, where the children are taught to walk in ways pleasing 
to God. 

The public school of that place is under the able manage- 
ment of a thorough and conscientious teacher, Prof. J. H. Merz. 
There are few teachers in the county who are his equal m schol- 
arship and there is none who takes a greater interest and devotes 
more care to the progress of his pupils than he. He is a born 
educator, a gentleman of unassuming manners, of broad views 
and of high moral character. 

Warda is situated twelve miles from L? Grange and ten 
miles from Giddings. The whole surrounding country is tribu- 
tary to its business. Falke Bros, are the leading merchants of 
Warda. They are the proprietors of a large department store 
hardly equaled anywhere in the county. Their store contains 
anything you may call for from a six-penny nail to a mowing 
machine, from a spool of thread to an elegant suit, from a shoe- 
peg to a fashionable set of furniture. They are wide-awake, 
liberal and sell cheap, with very small profits. They take a 


C. ^. J'alke d ^ro. 



Sonera/ i/ferchandise 

Warda, Texas. 

This business firm was established by A. E. Falke in the 
year 1875. It has been conducted by members of this family 
for 27 years. Therefore, it is one of the oldest — most probably, 
the oldest— business firm in Fayette County. Not only is it 
noted for its age, buf also for its reliability, financial standing 
and solidity. It is one of the very largest department stores of 
the whole county — equal to any, excelled by none. 

The large buildings of this firm are stored with the most 
complete assortment of the most various kinds of 

Staple and Fancy Groceries 

Dry Goods, Boots, 


Hats, Caps, Hardware, Cutlery. 
Glassware, Crockery, Furniture^ 
Saddlery, Buggies, Wagons and 
All Kinds of Farming Implements 

In low prices, promptness and polite ti'eatment of customers 
it is a successful competitor with the largest department stores 
in any part of the county. Its sales are not excelled anywhere 
and it purchases at highest market prices its full share of cotton 
and country produce. It enjoys the perfect confidence of its 
customers and the respect of its competitors. u 


J a. Jtotnmann ..«. ^r^^^^ I 

^j\i — Proprietor of yj^ 

I ...Blacksmith 5hop I 

(^ v»/ 

^{^ All work in his line done in first-class, workman-like manner, vj/ 

^{y All work guaranteed, and nothing but first-class work turned ^{J 

/jv out of the shojD. vj/ 

I ^. ^roehlic/i & Son, '^"uZ.s. \ 

S are the Proprietors of a ^ 

I ,,,,»J'irst Class Cotton Sin | 

5 witli all the Latest and Most Modern Appliances. g 

^ In connection therewith they run a grist-raill and p 

5 saw-mill. They insure their customers good and p 

% prompt service and invite your trade. % 

friendly interest in their customers and are, on that account, 
exceedingly popular. In fact, the writer would like to be shown 
better merchants than they are. He has not found them. They 
have money, they have strong financial backing, they have suc- 
cess and they deserve it. Sometimes merchants are called in 
newspapers in a kind of flattery, merchant princes. If any mer- 
chants in Fayette county deserve this title, they are the men. 
The writer has found so seldom wealth coupled with liberality 
and the feeling of obligation which wealth and high station im- 
pose on a man; here they are. Thus, the writer considers that 
the title of merchant princes of Fayette county is one to which 
they have a just and right claim. They are worthy of their 

Gus. Matejowski is the other merchant of Warda, jovial, 
jolly and popular. He does a large business, and to be a com- 


O/ ^■^.^■^^■^.^- • .. •■ -^j 


«> \«/ 

I p)h\|§ieian and (^^urqeon, % 

/ft >» 

i\\ Sraciuaie "Uuiane 1/niversitt/ H? 

I of9/ew Orleans, Xa. | 

$ WARDA, - - - TEXAS. t 

I *7i/j iTfatejowskif | 

&« Dealer in ^ 

I Groceries, Dry Goods, Hats, Boots, | 

5 Shoes, Hardware, (iueensware, Crockery, J)rngs, ^ 

5 Patent Medicines, Farming Implements. Fresli 

% Beer always on tap. Buys Country Produce. 

% Your custom invited. Warda, Texas. 

petitor with the Falkes and to do good business in competition 
with them is a credit to any man. 

G. Rothmann is a line blacksmith, a very skillful workman 
who would be a credit to any city. 

C. Froehlich & Son are tirst-class ginners. Their gin is as 
well equipped as any in the county. They pay close attention to 
business and turn out a fine staple. They do the best work in 
that whole section of the country. 

Last, but not least, may be mentioned Dr. Paul Beckmann, 
one of the finest physicians and surgeons in the county. He is 
a graduate of Tulane University, the finest medical school in the 
South, excels in his profession and has effected wonderful cures, 

Warda has dail}^ mail and telej)iione connection. The oldest 
settlers now living are the Falke family, Carl Teinert, tiie flerhig 
family, ,J. G. Neitsch, Mr. AI. Moerbe, .John Lorenz, M. Doinasch, 
tJ. Krakoski, Ernst Kunze. 


oCeffal TJencier Oaloon, . . 

is one of the most popular resorts 
of the county. The finest brands of 

jCiquorSj Wines, C/^ars and ^eer 

are always kept in stock. Remember that the Harmonia Hall 
has one of the best floors for dancing. 

Wm. Trueper, - - Warrenton, Texas. 

PhysicisLii ©Lnd Surgeon, 

Warrenton, Texas. 


Warrpnton lies about thirteen miles northeast of La Grange 
on the La Grange Round Top road. It is located on the J. Shaw- 
league. The surrounding country is rich blackland prairie, one 
of the linest agricultural sections of the county. The town was 
founded in the early sixties and named after Warren Ligon War- 
renton. The Warrenton school is under the able management of 
Prof. Meitzen. 

There are two churches in the town, the Lutheran, of which 
llev. Grosse is the pastor, and the Catholic, in which Rev. J. 
Chromcik of Fayetleville preaches. Two lodges are at the place: 
\\'oodmen, Wm. Neese, M. W., Chas. Brendle, secretary, and 
Sons of Hermann. 

Warrenton consists of two stores, two blacksmith shops, one 



Proproietor of 1 

I Meat ilarkets | 

i t 

I in l^arrenton and Oldenburg. Fresh Beef | 

I twice a week. | 

Cherries Fra^nz.... "'"''"'"rixas. 

Dealer in. 

General Merchandise 

Dry Goods, Boots, Shoes, Hats, Hardware, Crockery and Saddlery. 
Cotton bought. Highest prices paid for Country Produce. Call on 
us and examine our goods. You will obtain fine bargains. 

gin and one saloon. Two physicians reside there. Of the gen- 
tlemen who thought well enough of the aim of the author to edit 
a book on Fayette county to the extent of patronizing him with 
an ad, he names, Chas. Franz, the popular postmaster of War- 
renton, who is 0. K. and treats you 0. K. Dr. Robt. II. Sey- 
mour is a learned physician, an old resident of VVarrenton, and 
stands well among the people as well as among his colleagues. 
He is an Irishman, a good scholar and one of the few who are 
still versed in the Gaelic language. He is a leading democrat of 
that section of the county. VVm. Trueper is the proprietor of an 
up-to-date saloon and a fine hall that serves for balls, theatrical 
performances, public meetings, etc. The hall is situated in a 
beautiful park. Robert Voelkel is the proprietor of two meat 
markets, one at Warrenton and one at Oldenburg. He supplies 
these two communities with fresh meat twice a week. Marshall 
B. O'Bar is the ginner of the place and has been in the business 
for about thirty years. 

Warrenton was first named lN>ese's Store, Mr, Win. j^eese, 


sr,, the proprietor of the store, was killed by a negro burglar in 
1872. After his death the Lutheran Church of that place was 
built and the place received its present name Warrenton, after 
Warren Ligon, an old settler. 

The population of the place is now German and Bohemian, 
with a sprinkling of Americans among them. First and old 
settlers: Joel W. Robison (deceased), D. Ahrens, Warren Ligon 
(deceased), John Speckels, sr. (deceased), John White, W. S. 

Rose, Randall, Spencer, H. Moellenberndt, Conrad 

Tiemann, Conrad Moellenberndt, Albert Kaltwasser, Dr. Mc- 

Gown, C. Letzerich, Friedr. Oetken, Rev. Rich. Atkinson, 

Bohms, Martin Dippel, Weikel, M. B. O'Bar, Bell. 


West Point lies on the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railroad 
and the Waco branch of the Sun Anlonio and Aransas Pass Rail- 
way, about twelve miles from La Grange. The section from 
which West Point draws its main trade is the rich fertile Colo- 
rado bottom, deep alluvial soil. The town consists of three 
stores, one drug store, two physicians, three hotels, two black- 
smith shops, two cotton gins, one molasses press owned by Mr. 
House who turns out a superior molasses known over the 
county, and one cannery. The latter is owned by a stock company 
of enterprising citizens and was completed this year at a cost of 
$6500. The rich surrounding country has various kinds of soil, 
mostly rich loam beds. It is very favorable to the raising of 
fruits and vegetables. West point deserves the credit of starting 
the industry which (the conditions warrant the belief) promis*-s 
to become a success. Other sections of the county may follow 
the example set, quite increasing thereby tlie income of the 
farmer and making him independent of the staple article, 

S. A. Shelburne, a native of Austin County, has been for 
the last nine years \n the general merchandise business at West 


c5l ^. uhelburne 

litest iPoint, 

[Established in 1893. 
Dealer in 

General Merchandise 

keeps in his department store a full line and a 
large assortment of Faijcy andlStapie Groceries, 
Drnojs and Patent Medicines, Dry Goods, 
Ready Made Suits, Shoes, Roots, Hals, Hard- 
ware, Tinware, Saddles, Harness, Crockery, 
Glassware, Furniture, Coffins and First Class 
Undertakers' Goods, and a complete line of the 
Latest Improved Farming Implements. This 
reliable firm sells its first class goods at low 
prices. It enjoys tlie confidence of its patronsi 
and is always able to offer them specially good 


Physician and Surgeon, 

Diseases of Women and 
Children a specialty. 

Cures Cancer without the knife. Consultation Free. 


Point and is the leading merchant of that place. F. J, Johnson 
is the postmaster at West Point, a druggist and a grocer. Mr. 
Shelburne is a leading democrat and Mr. Johnson a leading 
republican. 0. L. Lee is the proprietor of a first class saloon 
and keeps the purest and best brands of whiskies. Dr. M. E. 
Clary is a resident pliysician of West Point. He has practiced 
there since 1891, is a fine physician and is regarded as such by 
the people and by his colleagues. 

There are two churches in West Point, a Baptist Church, 


'. L. Lee's Bar... "^tZT"' I 

is the only place in West Point wliere j^ou can ^ 

get drinks of the best brands of :^ 

I Whiskies, Liquors and Wines | 

I % 

3 Fine Cigars and a Fresh, Cool Glass of Beer. Don't forget the g 
p place and call when in West Point. ^ 



Pure Drugs, Medicines, Toilet 
Articles, Jewelry, Notions, etc. 

Prescriptions carefully and promptly filled. Keep also on hand 
Fancy and Staple Groceries and Garden Seed. Your custom solicited. 

West Point, Texats. 

Rev. VV. M. Daniels, pastor, and a Methodist Church. Rev. J. J. 
Calloway, pastor. 

The first settlers in the West Point settlement arrived about 
the year 1840. The town is located on land that formerly be- 
longed to Bill Young. It is a postoffice since 1872. The popu- 
lation is American with a few Germans among them. Prominent 
settlers: J. Darby, C. W. iMoore, J. L. House, A. W. Young 
(deceased), T. C. Moore (deceased), W. A. Young (deceased), 
J. H. Baker, Seth Green, F. J. Johnson and others. 


Winchester is situated in the northwestern part of Fayette 
county on the Waco branch of the San Antonio & Aransas Pass 
Railroad. It is about twenty miles distant from La Grange. 


Sam. F. Drake... '^^V"±f ^'' 



Bepartment Store. 

The Largest and Leading Mercantile Establish- W 
ment in Winchester. jj 

Solid, reliable, enterprising, receives daily freight 
consisting of Staple and Fancy Groceries. ]Jry Goods, 
Hardware, (."rockery, Glassware, etc. On account of 
immense sales, all our goods are fresh, new and up-to- 
date. They are sold at snaall profits. 

The fertile Colorado River bottoms close by are tributary to its 
bisiness. Part of the land is fertile mesquite prairie. There is 
also a great deal of postoak near Winchester. The Ingram prai- 
rie and the Cunningham prairie, lithe latter in Bastrop county, 
are in its neighborhood. 

The teacher of the Winchester school is Miss Gillespie. Of 
lodges there are the Odd Fellows, Knights of Honor and \\'ood- 
men of tlie W'orkl. 

The town has a Lutheran Church, Rev. A. L. Grasens, pas- 
tor; a Baptist Church, Rev. Duke, pastor; a Presbyterian Church, 
Rev. J. W. Montgomery, pastor; and a Methodist Church, Rev. 
C.illoway, pastor. 

The town of Winchester was founded and laid oil' about the 
year 1857 by John Frame, who now lives in Falls county. It 
consists of seven general merchandise houses, one hotel, one 
butcher shop, two drugstores, two physicians, one saloon, one 


I Dr. A. P. Verdery, I 

I Ipb^sician anb SuvGCon | 



Little & riohler 

Tl^inchesierf XJexas. 

own the most popular and favorably known resort 
in the northern section of the county. They keep 
the finest brands of Whiskies, Liquors and Wines, 
Cigars and Fresh Cool Beer. Your custom invited. 

lumber yard, one blacksmith shop, one gin and one barber shop. 

Of all the towns of Fayette county which are not incor- 
porated Winchester does the largest business. It has become a 
lively town, due to the energy and business talent of her mer- 
chants, of whom Messrs. Sam F. Drake, W. A. Giles and E. 
Zilss may be mentioned as the most enterprising. Little cfe 
Mohler is the only saloon in the town; they are liberal and pop- 
ular men and do as much business as any saloon in the count}^ 
Dr. A. F. Verderi is an old resident eminent physician of Win- 
chester, who has effected a great many cures. 

The settlement is one of the oldest in the whole county. As 
early as 1822 John Ingram, after whom Ingram's Prairie is 
named, came into tliat neighborhood and settled on the prairie. 
John C. Cunningham was another old settler of the Winchester 
neighborhood, but he settled in Bastrop county on the 
prairie named after him. The oldest settler of the Win- 
Chester neighborl^ood now living is A. D. Saunders. He has 


P 711 CC ^ IsTinchester, 

Texas . . 


Staple and Fancy Groceries 

Dry Goods, Boots, Shoes, Hats, Caps, Hardware, Cutlery, Crockery 
and Glassware, invites your custom. He pays the highest market 
prices for cotton and country prodace. 

^W. A. GILES, 


General Merchandise 

I do not pretend to compete with "Cheap John" goods. I handle 
the best makes, brands and productions and sell them as cheap as they 
can be sold in any market. 

come there in the early forties and still remembers the last 
Indian raid in that neighborhood. Other prominent settlers are 
J. H. McCullom, Paul Haske, Dr..A. F. Verdery, G. C. Thomas, 
Mrs. James roung, Joseph Mohler, sr., Mrs. T. T. Parr. - 

The population of the settlement is largely American. Of 
late a great many Germans have come in. Winchester is a rail- 
road station, postoffice and voting precinct of the county. 


Zapp is situated about seven miles north of Fayetteville in 
the extreme eastern portion of the county on Willow Spring. A 
more jdeasing landscape can hardly be found in the slate. The 
elegant white painted farmhouses, tiie substantial large barns, in 
the midst of verdant fields, speak of the industry of its people. 
The people rre well-to-do, independent and contented. They 
enjoy life, being well fixed against any contingencies, The pop- 


Ad. Weig:e.^^^ ^Te 


Proprietor of a First Class 

. , . Blacksmitii and Wtieelwriglit Shop 

Agricultural Imjilemenls and Wagons made to 
order. Repairing done promptly. Horse-shoeing 
a specialty. All work guaranteed first class. 


Kirsf olass v^offor) fer) 

Corn and Grist Mill, furnished with the latest improved equipments. 
He respectfully invites the custom of the neighborhood. 

C. F. Garlin ''°"TZ''L.s. 

offers to the public first class bargains in 

©fdple ar)a K(2[r)CY trrocenes 

Dry Goods, Hardware and Crockery. Patronize him and you will be 
pleased with your bargains and your treatment. Buys country pro- 
duce at market prices. 

ulation is German and Bohemian. The place was named after 
C. T. Zapp, who was the first postmaster in that place (1881.) 
Zapp is also called Willow Sprino^s, after the school hy that 
name, which for the last few years has been under the able 
direction of a thorough and conscientious teacher, Prof. Wm. 

C. F. Garlin, a very accommodating gentleman, is the pres- 
ent postmaster and merchant of that place. His reliability and 
congenial ways deserve the custom of the neighborhood. Ad. 
Weige is a youno- blacksmith at that place, a skillful workman 


I The Mutual Life Insurance Co. i 

I OF NEW YORK,— .s^. | 

;i «> 

Jj is the Oldest and Most Conservative Insurance Company V{<' 

'/^\ in America, and sells a More Attractive Policy for ^{J 

*\\ smaller premiums carrying a higher guarantee than any SI/' 

J|^ other large company in the world. V{^ 

?j «> 

/}x 2^. ^. J^in£i, ^ffent. Schuionbure^, ZJexas. % 

XTbe Scbulenburg Sticker... 

W. R. KI^G, 

-Official Organ of Fayette County, 

Is the most extensively read English paper published in this community. 

^-"^"^ — Book Printing and Job Work a specialty. 

and a good honest man- L. C. Muenzler owns a very fine gin, 
does very good work in his line and satisfies his customers 

Zapp is a very old settlement. It was settled early in the 
thirties and as early as 1839 it is spoken of in the minutes of the 
commissioners' court as the German settlement. Old settlers 
are F. Garlin. Ad. Schuiz, Wra. Krebs, Gerh. Peinsohn, VVm. 
W'eidemann, V. Scharnberg, Mrs. Johanna Heinsohn (age 96 
3^ears), Julius Krebs. Among the old settlers who have passed 
from life and gone to whence there is no return Carl Albrecht, A. 
Muenzler, F. Pagel, Christian Henniger may be named. 


The following letter of Mr. J. C. Melcher contains additional 
valuable information in regard to minerals of Fayette county. It 
was received after his article had been printed. It is here given 
in full as addendum. 

O'QuiNN, Texas, July 30, 1902. 
Prof. F. Lotto, 


Dear Sir and Friend: — Since reporting for you last on your 
valuable book on Fayette county, some new discoveries in the 
mineral line have been made, as follows: 

A large bed of natural volcanic pumiceous dust, near the 


great kaolin deposits on the J. Bartlett league. The stuff is 
nearly pure white, comparativeh^ clean, over nine teet thick and 
is quarried like common soft sandstone. Pumiceous dust is used 
for tooth polish, for polishing all kinds of metals, glass and 
chiuaware and for healing powders. Baked into soft bricks, it is 
used for water filters, candlesticks, oil torches, glycerin sticks, 
artificial madstones, fire brick, boiler covers, porous water ves- 
sels and decanters. 

Last month I accidentally came across a vein of metallic ore 
on top of a high hill on tlie No. 4 S. F. Knight league. The ore 
seems to be valuable and contains silver, lead and iron. 

Last week 1 received the new map of the U. S. geological 
survey ot Texas. Upon this map is marked a mineral field of 
o0x30 square miles, covering part of Fayette county. The east 
boundary line of this mineral field runs north from near Engle 
Station to West Point and thence to Winchester. 

There are sixty-one such mineral fields marked down on the 
map of Texae. Texas will be a great mineral state in the future. 
This latest map was a consolation to me, because ic proved that 
I was right in claiming that parts of Fayette county are mineral 
sections. Yours respectfully, J 

J. C. Melcher. 

IFayette CouisrTY,| 



Price. S:2.50. 

Agents wanted. Write for terms, i 

Address your orders for books to % 

F. LOTTO, La Grange, Texas. | 


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