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Full text of "The law of the federal and state constitutions of the United States, with an historical study of their principles, a chronological table of English social legislation, and a comparative digest of the constitutions of the forty-six states"

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AB Federal and Sbite Powers (i) 

A Federal Powers (17) 

AZ Federal Powers 
forbidtleii to 
States ( W) 

B Powers expressly reserved 
to the States (simply) (3) 

BX Powers expressly 

I o (%) ^^^ reserved to the States 

I |a(2lli2.(2!^V **"^ forbidden to 

Z Powers forbidden 
to the States 
(simply) (11) 

X Powers forbidden to 

U.S. (simply) (37) 

Y Rights or Powers reserved in the People (39) 
ZX Powers forbidden to both States and U.S. (12) 

See Appendix 













Professor of Comparative Legislation in Harvard University ; Late Advisory Counsel 

to the United States Industrial Commission ; Massachusetts Commissioner on 

Uniformity of Laws; Member of Massachusetts Committee 

on Corporation Law 

Author of " American Statute Laio," " The American Constitution " 

" Handbook of Labor Law of the United States " 

etc., etc. 


1908, 1908, 
By Fkkderic Jesup Stimson 



American constitutional law has had its broadest development in 
the last twenty years. Since the cardinal meaning of the Federal 
Constitution was settled by the early great decisions, and the relation 
of the States to the Federal Government once decided by the Civil 
War, there has, in a century, been comparatively little growth until 
the last decade or two. The enormous mass of litigation on the 
meaning of the "obligation of contract"' and of the words "com- 
merce among the States" related, after all, to but two short phrases 
in that great document ; and in the latter of these two instances the 
decisions of the last twenty years far exceed, both in number and 
importance, all that went before. Constitutional law, therefore, 
like the law of labor and free contract, is in the United States "a hve 
science." Both in the States and in the nation it has had its most 
active discussion recently; and the matter bids fair to increase still 
more at the hands of the next generation. The great social prin- 
ciples, of the right of the individual, both to property and even to 
personal liberty, as against the will of a majority or an organized 
minority having the ears of the executive and the legislative branches 
of government, have got to be resettled — the great political ques- 
tions of the social and jurisdictional (not political) relation of the 
States to the Federal Government, the right of the States to their 
own customary law and their own police power, have, it seems, once 
more to be fought over. No apology, therefore, is offered for pre- 
senting this work at this time. It is prepared primarily for the 
author's use in his classes at Harvard University; not, therefore, in 
the first instance, for a practising lawyer ; rather for the citizen and 
the student of politics. Moreover, considerations of space and 
otherw^ise have made it advisable to duplicate no work that has been 
done before. No effort, therefore, has been made to supersede such 
classics as, in America, Cooley's "Constitutional Law"; and for 




English history I have largely relied upon Dicey's "Law of the Con- 
stitution " ; Taswell-Langmcad, " On English Constitutional His- 
tory," Hannis Taylor, and Stubbs' Charters; while for most of the 
sources of information I have gone directly to the "Statutes of the 
Realm," the usual edition of which is Ruffhead's "Statutes at 
Large," London, 17G9, but the original folio "Statutes of the 
Realm," when procurable, is to be preferred, as the "Statutes at 
Large," like most digests or selections, has a curious faculty for 
omittinjj what is historicallv most interesting. Mention in the 
United States should also be made of " Miller's Lectures," Patter- 
son's "The United States and the States under the Constitution," 
and McClain's "Constitutional Law." The book is not, however, 
intended for a case lawyer. I have cited cases only when the propo- 
sition is in some doubt or my authority not easily discoverable. In 
like manner, at least in the prefatory essays (Book I), I have sought 
to lay down the general principles and the broad antitheses, not too 
much delaying the line of discussion to consider exceptions or quali- 
fications. These are usually to be found in the footnotes to Book IIL 
What has been principally sought is to give the history, origin, and 
present tendency of American Constitutions, both Federal and 
State; and for this purpose the bulk of the work is made up of a 
careful comparative presentation of the forty-six State Constitu- 
tions annotated with the corresponding provisions of the Federal 
Constitution, and voluminous footnotes. In Book II is pre- 
sented a chronological digest of the more important statutes re- 
ferring to English constitutional principles, or even common law 
principles which became in the lapse of centuries so universal as to 
be almost part of the "unwritten Constitution"; and also a table of 
excerpts from all the great constitutional documents, arranged 
chronologically, thus showing their growth from the simple phrasing 
of ^lagna Carta to the verbose essays of the Massachusetts Bill of 
Rights. Books II and III, therefore, represent an attempt at com- 
parative study never, I believe, hitherto made ; ^ while the first Book 
is intended for a broad historical essay, not too technical, on those 
parts of constitutional law which now most concern us, and have, 
indeed, been most neglected by other writers ; for it is very recently 

^ That is, before 1886, when the sity, has recently pubUshed a vahxable 

first edition of the present Book I ap- essay on salient features of the State 

peared, without footnotes, in the au- Constitutions, but without citations, 

thor's "American Statute Law," Vol. (Am. Acad. Pol. & Soc. Science, Supp., 

I. Dr. J. Q. Dealey, of Brown Univer- November, 1907.) 


that students of constitutional law have begun to turn their atten- 
tion from the political provisions, which were most important in 
English history, to the broader principles of individual rights which 
most concern us to-day. 

The reason of this is obvious. Personal freedom was established 
in England, substantially as we know it now, in the 12th century. 
It was taken almost as a matter of course by our ancestors, both 
in England and here, until within a very few years. It was the as- 
sertion of political power, and notably of the right to tax and impose 
military rule or law, that remained in question. But when our Con- 
stitution was adopted, these principles also were so engrained in the 
popular mind as to need hardly more than expression. Since then 
more than a century has gone by. Our population has grown from 
four millions to eighty millions, a majority with no inherited training 
in English institutions, and even the American minority, in their 
very security, forgetful of them. Two potent forces are now at work ; 
first that of philanthropy, general benevolence, ethical amelioration, 
seeking results rather than liberty, traceable in theory directly back 
to Austin, Bentham, and Hobbes; the other the class-conscious 
multitude of organized labor, seeking (and for the same reason) to 
reimpose regulations and control upon the actions of others either 
through or beside the State, which was tried but only partially tried 
in the thirteenth or fourteenth centuries in England. For the Eng- 
lish agitations, when not mere risings of the peasants, resulted rapidly 
in an exclusive, almost aristocratic, trade-guild. To show how 
striking is the present activity of these two forces I need but to refer 
to the decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States. In all 
the ninety years from 1796 to 1886 they found only one thousand 
constitutional cases to consider, and in these declared some two hun- 
dred statutes of States or Acts of Congress to be unconstitutional. 
In the twenty years from 1886 to 1906 they considered more than 
thirteen hundred cases of this sort, more than half of which, and 
these much the most important, were set in motion by the two forces 
I have named, and probably a larger proportion than before were 
held unconstitutional.^ For State Constitutional law it is only neces- 
sary to refer to the valuable annual bulletins of the New York State 
Library. One hundred and four laws of the States or of the United 

* The admirable digest of Mr. Ban- present Reporter; it will then show- 
croft Davis, at the end of 131 U. S., precisely the figures which the author 
has, I believe, been ordered by the Pres- can only estimate, 
ident to be brought up to date by the 


States were declared unconstitutional in the one year 190G. It is a 
fact not possibly unconnected with this that during the same year 
forty-six new constitutional amendments were adopted and thirty 
rejected, making the attempted output seventy-six, just about two 
thirds of the one hundred and six nullifications; but only about one 
third of these amendments found the favor of the p^'ople. If these 
amendments embodied in all cases the same provisions which had 
been declared void by the courts, one might draw the inference that 
in about two thirds of the cases the people sustained the courts. 
The true number, however, is far greater than this. Nothing is 
more interesting than the unanimity with which the people, as a 
rule, welcome the decision of their highest court declaring a law 
unconstitutional ; that is, in conflict with their own will as perma- 
nently expressed. Of late years only do we see an ominous ten- 
dency in the other direction, due to the unfortunate fact already 
adverted to, that so many unconstitutional statutes embody the 
rash attempts of philanthropic and labor interests to impose their 
will upon others by law, rather than by persuasion or the legiti- 
mate powers of the trades union. 

In closing, a word should perhaps be said as to the form of this 
work. A table of the Constitutions referred to will be found before 
the preface ; the citations are always made by numbers of chapters, 
sections, etc., without any other abbreviations; thus, 1, 2, 3, will 
mean Chapter 1, Section 2, Clause 3, or whatever other maybe the 
division in the Constitution referred to. To have done otherwise 
would have been to add inconceivably to the bulk of the work. The 
index cites Book III by sections and not by pages in order to avoid 
the necessity of star pages in any future edition. Article 99, Consti- 
tutional Amendments, has been reserved for later constitutional 
amendments which shall be adopted after April 1, 1908 (that being 
the final date of publication of this work). Fortunately most of the 
States do not adopt Constitutions very frequently, and the amend- 
ments they adopt, though numerous, frequently relate to such mat- 
ters of petty detail, the appointment of local officers, etc., as fall 
outside the scope of this work. Thus, Connecticut, Iowa, Oregon, 
Maine, Massachusetts, and several other States, have never had but 
one Constitution; while the amendments proposed in all are more 
often than not rejected. In 1903, for instance, the forty-five States 
then existing adopted twelve amendments and rejected twenty-six, 
and this is about the usual proportion. This would cease to be the 


case, however, if the Western States continue their present unscien- 
tific tendency of embodying all that the present majority wish to be 
law into the framework of the Constitution. This, however, I have 
discussed more fully in Book I, Chapter XL 

F. J. S. 

Cambuidge, M\rch 31, 1908. 


Table of Citations xxi 



I. Introductory 3 

II. The Right to Law 11 

III. The Right of Liberty 18 

IV. Chancery and the Injunction Order 24 

V. The Right to Labor and Trade 30 

VI. The Right to Property 36 

VII. Other Constitutional Rights 41 

VIII. Rights of Government 47 

IX. Government Organization 52 

X. Federal and State Powers 60 

XI. The State Constitutions 68 




Constitutional Principles Protecting Personal Liberties 
AND Private Rights as Expressed in Constitutional 
Documents from Magna Carta to the United States 

I. Liberty 

(a) General Right to; Jury Trial 75 

(b) Habeas Corpus and Indictment 77 

(c) Extent of Bail and Punishment 78 



(d) Trial and Eviilence 78 

(c) Bills of Attainder 79 

(f) Suspending Laws 79 

(g) Treason 79 

II. Law 

(a) Common Law, Judges 79 

(b) Local Courts 81 

(c) INIartial Law, Right to Arms, etc 82 

III. Property and Trade 

(a) Property 83 

(b) Trade and Monopoly 84 

(c) Taxation 85 

(d) INIiscellaneous Rights 86 

Freedom of Speech 86 

Right to Petition 86 

Religion 86 

Search Warrants 86 

IV. Political Rights 

(a) Elections 87 

(b) Legislatures 87 

(c) Theory of Government 87 

(d) The Separation of the Powers 89 


Historical Digest of English Social Legislation ... 90 


Division of National and State Power 

AZ Federal Powers which are Forbidden to the States .... 108 

A Powers Granted to the United States Simply Ill 

AB Powers Common to the Nation and the States Ill 

B Powers Reserved in the States (Simply) 112 

BX State Powers Forbidden to the United States 112 

X Powers Forbidden to the United States Simply 113 

Z Powers Forbidden to the States Simply 115 

ZX Powers Expressly Forbidden to Both the Nation and the States 115 

Y Rights Reserved or Expressly Retained in the People. ... 116 






§ 1. Explanatory Preface 121 

2. Interpretation of the State Constitutions 123 


Bill of Rights 

§ 3. Note 124 

4. Bill of Rights Irrepealable 124 

5. Construction of Bill of Rights 125 

6. Individual Rights 126 


Bill of Rights: Civil 




Art. 1. — Natural Rights. 

§ 10. 



Freedom 127 

Equality 128 

Life and Liberty 128 

Property 128 

Rights to Labor and Trade 129 

Reputation 129 

Special or Exclusive Privi- 
leges 129 

Hereditary Privileges . . 130 

Pensions 130 

Art. 2. — Civil Rights. 


20. General Provisions . . . 

21. Color Distinctions .... 

22. Exceptions to § 21 ... 

23. Sex Distinctions : Voting . 

24. Sex Distinctions : Schools 

25. Sex Distinctions: Occupa- 


26. Sex Distinctions : Property 

27. Sex Distinctions: Custody 

ofCliildren 135 


Art. 3. — Slavery and Appren- 

§ 30. Slavery Prohibited ... 136 

31. Compensation for Slaves . 136 

32. Apprenticeships 133 

33. Tenns of Service .... 133 

Art. 4. — Religious Rights. 

40. General Rights of Con- 


41. Limitations on § 40 . . . 

42. Compulsory Support of 


43. Established Church . . . 

44. State Support 

45. Religious Test 

46. Limitations on § 45 . . . 

47. Oaths and affirmations . . 

48. Sundays and Sabbaths . . 

Art. 5. — Education. 

50. General Right 

51. Free Schools 

52. Time of Holding .... 

53. Age of Scholars 

54. Unsectarian Schools . . . 

55. Compulsory Attendance 

56. Universities, etc 

57. The Language 

58. Libraries 

59. Legislative Restrictions. . 

Art. 6. — MiscelLu\neous 

60. Freedom of Speech . . . 

61. Libel 

62. Arms 

63. Pinkerton Men 

64. Assemblies 

65. Emigration 

66. Immigration 








AuT. 7. — Rights at Law. 


70. General RiKlits 1 IS 

71. Arnsst and Search .... II',) 

72. Trial by Jury loO 

73. Exceptions to § 72 ... ir>0 

74. Waiver 151 

75. Suits against tlie State . . 151 

76. The Cotninon Law . . . 152 

77. Laws Previously in Force 153 

78. Miscellaneous Riglits at 

Law L'):5 

79. Venue 153 

Art. 8. — Debtoes. 

80. Imprisonment for Debt . 153 

81. Debtor Mxemption Laws . 154 

82. Homestead 155 

83. E.vceptions 156 

84. Alienation 157 

85. Recording 157 


§ 86. Duration 157 

87. Stay Laws 158 

88. (jarnisliment 158 

Art. 9. — E.minent Do.main. 

§ 90. General Princij)les .... 158 

91. Taking for Public ITse . . 158 

92. Taking by Private Parties 159 

93. Compensation 160 

94. Jury Trial 160 

95. Tlie Amount of Compensa- 

tion 161 

96. Appeal 161 

97. The Exercise of the Right 

against Franchises . . 161 

Art. 10. — Citizens and Aliens. 
Language, etc. 

§ 100. Who are Citizens .... 161 

102. Aliens' Rights 161 

103. Language 162 

Bill of Rights: Criminal 

Art. 12. — Rights before Trial. 

§120. To Hear Accusation. . . 164 

121. Bailable Offences .... 164 

122. Excessive Bail 165 

123. Imprisonment of Parties 

Accused 165 

124. Witnesses 165 

125. Habeas Corpus .... 166 

126. Suspension of Habeas 

Corpus 166 

127. Indictment 167 

128. Grand Juries 169 

Art. 13. — Rights at Trial. 

§ 130. Rights to Law 169 

131. Jury Trial 172 

132. Juries 174 

133. Venue 175 

134. Counsel 175 

135. Witnesses 176 

138. Criminating Evidence . . 177 

137. Twice in Jeopardy ... 178 

138. Attainder 179 

139. Miscellaneous 179 

Art. 14. — Rights after Trial. 

§ 140. Fines and Costs .... 180 
141. Ex Post Facto Laws . . 182 

§142. Corruption of Blood . . 182 

143. Suicides 182 

144. Deodands 182 

145. Appeals 183 

146. Fees and Costs 183 

Art. 15. — Special Provisions 
concerning CrixMinal Offences. 

§ 150. Treason 183 

151. DuelUng 183 

152. Bribery 184 

153. Lobbying 184 

154. Corrupt Legislation . . . 184 

155. Special Crimes 186 

156. Embezzlement 185 

157. War Exemption .... 187 

158. Felony 187 

Art. 16. 


§ 160. 

Pardon Power 187 

What may be Pardoned . 188 

The Effect of a Pardon . 189 

Reprieves 189 

Fines and Forfeitures . . 189 

Lynch Law 189 



PART ir 
Political Provisions 

§ ISO. Note 


Art. 18. — Rights of Govern- 

§ 181. Authority derived from 
the People .... 

182. Form of Government . 

183. Object of Government 

184. Officers 

185. Fundamental Principles 

186. Representation . . . 

187. Gerrymandering . . . 

188. Initiative and Referen- 


Art. 19. — State Sovereignty. 

§ 190. United States Constitu- 
tion 193 

191. Allegiance 194 

192. Secession 194 

193. State Rights 194 



Art. 20. — Constitution op 
THE State Governments. 




The Three Functions . . 195 
Political Constitution . . 196 

Executive 198 

Terms of office 200 

Special Qualifications for 
Senators and Repre- 
sentatives 201 

Special Qualifications for 

Governor 204 

Pay of the State Legis- 
lature 205 

Art. 21. — Of Offices in 

210. Appointment 206 

211. Vacancies 206 

212. Tenure 207 

213. Pay 207 

214. Extra Pay 208 

215. Farming offices .... 208 

216. Gerrymandering .... 208 

217. Election of United States 

Officers 208 

218. Corruption 209 

Art. 22. — Qualifications for 



Plurality of Offices . 
Age and Citizenship 
Oath of office . 
Official Bonds . 
Political Tests . 

Art. 23. — Elections. 

General Provisions 
Votes by Ballot . 
Majority Vote . . 
Australian Ballot 
Election Day. . . 
Conduct of Elections 
Registration .... 
Freedom from Arrest 
Contested Elections 



Art. 24. — The Right of 



Residence Qualifications 
Losing a Residence, etc. . 
Army and Navy . . . . 
Property Qualification . . 
Educational Qualifica- 

Southern State Provi- 




247. Challenges 

248. Primaries 

249. Municipal Elections, Spe- 

cial Provision .... 

Art. 25. — Disfranchisement. 

§ 250. General Provisions ... 227 

251. Insanity 227 

252. Crime 227 

254. Bribery 229 

255. Betting on Elections . . 229 

256. Duelling 229 






Art. 26. — Removal of Officers. 


260. By Impeachment . . 

261. The Causes of Impeach- 

ment 230 

262. Process of Impeachment 230 

263. Effect of Impeachment . 232 




§ 2G5. Removal by Address . . 232 

2()(). lloinovul by tlu; (lovernor 2;}.'J 

2()7. Removal by the Courts . 234 

2G8. Other Removals from 

Office 234 

Art. 27. — The Legislature. 

§ 270. General Provisions . . . 23.) 

271. Quorum 23.3 

272. Speech in tlie Legislature 236 

273. Freedom from Arrest . . 236 

274. Open Sessions 237 

275. Journals 238 

276. Expulsion of Members, 

etc 2.38 

277. Time of Session .... 240 

278. Adjournment 241 

279. Place of Session .... 242 

Art. 28. — The Executive. 

2S0. Duties of the Governor . 242 

281. Powers of the Governor . 243 

282. The Lieutenant-Governor 243 

Art. 29. — The Militia. 

290. General Provisions 

291. The Militia consists 

292. Civil Power . . . 

293. Martial Law . . . 

294. Standing .\rmies . 

295. Billeting Soldiers . 

296. Privileges of Militia 

297. The Governor is Com 

mander-in-Chief . . 

298. Purposes of the Militia 

299. Miscellaneous Provisions 






Art. 30. — Process of Legis- 

I 300. Bills 249 

301. Form of Bills 249 

302. Passage of Bills .... 250 

303. Voting 251 

304. Veto Power 252 

305. Pocketed Bills 253 

306. General Restrictions . . 254 

307. Amendments, Repeals, 

and Revisions .... 254 

308. When Acts take Effect . 255 

309. Referendum and Initia- 

tive 256 

Art. 31. — Form of Revenue 


J 310. Origin 260 

311. The General Appropria- 

tion Bill 261 

312. Other Appropriation Bills 261 

313. Voting 262 

314. Tax Bills 262 

315. State Debt Bills .... 263 

316. State Aid Bills 263 

Art. 32. — Appropriations. 

§ 320. Warrants, etc 263 

321. State Accounts .... 264 

322. Private Appropriations, 

Claims, and Debts . . 264 





§ 330. 



§ 340. 

Charitable and Sectarian 

Appropriations . . . 266 
Internal Improvements . 266 
Miscellaneous Restric- 
tions 267 

Loans of Credit, etc. . . 267 

Money 267 

Embezzlement, etc. . . 268 

Art. 33. — Taxation. 

General Principles . . . 268 

Taxable Property ... 269 

Exemptions 271 

Taxes Equal 274 

Valuation and Assess- 
ment 274 

Purposes of Taxation . . 275 

Amount of State Tax . . 276 

Special State Taxes . . 276 

Poll Tax 276 

Income and License taxes 277 

34. — Municipal Finance 
AND Taxation. 

General Principles . . . 279 

Amount of Municipal Tax 279 

Prescribed Purposes. . . 281 

Special Taxes 281 

Power to Contract Loans 282 




§ 345. Loans of Credit, etc. . . 282 
346. Limitations on Section 

345 283 

Art. 35. — Collection op 

§ 350. Sworn List 283 

351. Sale for Taxes 283 

352. Redemption 284 

353. Tax Titles 284 

354. State Boards of Equaliza- 

tion 284 

Art. 36. — State Debts. 

5 360. Temporary Loans. ... 284 

36 L Other Debts 285 

362. Payment of Debts ... 288 

363. Ratification by the People 286 

364. Limitations on the State's 

Power to contract 

Debts 287 

365. Repudiation 287 

Art, 37. — Municipal Debts. 

\ 370. Purposes 287 

37L Amount 288 

372. Voting 289 

373. Payment 290 

374. Collection of Municipal 

Debts 290 

375. Form of Bonds .... 290 

Art. 39. — Matter of Legis- 
lative Power. 

\ 390. State Legislatures ... 290 

39L In General 290 

392. Suspending Laws ... 291 

393. Laws Impairing Contracts 292 

394. Laws to be General . . . 292 

395. Local or Special Laws . 293 

396. Laws to be Uniform . . 298 

Art. 40. — Land Laws. 

\ 400. Tenure 298 

401. Feudal Tenure 299 

402. Entails, Primogeniture, 

and Perpetuities . . . 299 

403. Mortmain 299 

404. Monopolies 300 

405. Long Leases 300 

406. Record of Conveyances . 300 

407. Landsof the United States 300 

408. Public Lands 301 

409. Forest Preserve .... 302 



41. — Navigable Waters 
and Easements. 


Navigable Waters . . . 302 

Special Streams .... 302 

Jurisdiction 302 

Water Front 303 

Wharves 303 

Drains 303 

Franchises 303 

Hunting and Fishing . . 304 

Use of Water 304 

Riparian Rights .... 300 

Art. 42. — Personal Property. 

§ 420. Record 306 

421. Seal 306 

422. Interest 307 

423. Money 307 

424. Trust Funds 307 

425. Stockjobbing 307 

426. Lotteries 307 

Art. 43. — Law of Persons. 

Marriage 308 

Registration 308 

Names 308 

Warehouses 308 

Warehouse Receipts . . 308 

435. Drawbacks and Rebates . 309 

436. Carriers 309 

437. Cattle and Stock .... 309 
Physicians 309 



Art. 44. — Health and Mor.\lity. 

§ 440. 

Live Stock . . . 
Board of Health . 
Inspection Laws . 
Dealing in Futures 
Fire Protection 
Liquor Traffic . . 
Prohibition . . . 
Local Option . . 
Dispensary System 
Vagrant Laws . . 


Art. 45. — Labor. 

§ 450. 

General Principles ... 311 

Days' Work 311 

Wages 312 

Public Work 312 

Special Employments . . 312 

Women and Children . . 312 

Wage-payments .... 312 

Liens 312 

Blackhsts 313 




§ 459. Strikes and Boycotts . . .'513 

4(50. Factories, Minos, etc. . . 3i:{ 

461. State Inspectors .... 31.'i 

462. Employers' Liability . . 313 

463. Prison I^abor 314 

464. Alien Labor 314 

465. Arbitration 314 

Art. 50. — Private Corporations. 

§ 500. Definition 315 

501. General Principles . . . 315 

502. Creation 315 

503. Repeal 317 

504. Existing Corporations . 317 

505. Foreign Corporations . . 318 

506. Business, Ultra Vires, etc. 319 

507. Office in the State, Re- 

ports, etc 319 

508. Suits 320 

509. Liabilities of Stockholders 320 

510. Voting 320 

511. Liabilities of Directors . 321 

512. Issue of Stock 321 

513. Increases of Stock ... 321 

514. Preferred Stock .... 322 

515. Time 322 

516. Real Estate 322 

517. Assignment of Franchise 322 

518. Consolidation, Combina- 

tion, etc 322 

519. Taxation 323 

Art. 52. — Railroads. 

§ 520. Highways 324 

521. Carriers 324 

522. Legislative Control . . . 325 

523. Short-Haul Clause ... 325 

524. Discrimination 326 

525. Passes, Commutations, 

etc 327 

526. Connections 327 

527. Consolidations and Com- 

binations 328 

528. The Rolling Stock ... 329 

529. Location 329 

§ 530. 


§ 550. 

Office and Officers, Re- 
ports, etc 329 

Ultra Vires 330 

Railroad Commissioners . 330 

Liabilities 332 

Damages for Death . . . 333 

Street Railways .... 334 

Telegrapli Companies . . 334 

Foreign Railroads . . . 335 

Local Aid 335 

Taxation 335 

Switches, etc 337 

Art. 55. — Banks. 

State Banks Forbidden 
Money and Banknotes 
Specie Payments . . 
Security of Notes 
Insolvency of Banks 
Stockholders . . . 


Limitation of Charter 
Trust Companies . . 


Art. 56. — Insurance Companies. 
§ 560. Deposit 339 

Art. 57. — Miscellaneous Cor- 

§ 570. Religious 339 

571. Co-operative 339 

Art. 58. — Trusts. 
§ 580. General Principles . . . 339 
581. Monopolies and Perpetu- 
ities 340 

Art. 60. — Municipal Corpora- 

§ 600. Local Government ... 341 

601. MunicipaUties 342 

602. Officers 343 

603. Citizens' Rights .... 343 

604. Specified Systems, etc. . 343 

605. Franchises 343 

606. Police Power 345 

Art. 65. 


Judicial System 

650. General Principles . . . 346 

651. Courts 346 

652. Jurisdictions 347 

§ 653. Opinions 348 

653. Appeal 348 

654. Judges 348 



Art. 66. — Remedial Laws. 


660. Laws General 350 

66 L Arbitration 350 

662. Contempts 350 

663. Attorneys 351 

664. Codes 351 

665. Speedy Decisions .... 351 

666. Opinions 351 

Art. 67. — Procedure. 

670. Forms of Action .... 352 

671. Equity 352 

§ 672. Feigned Issues . . . 

673. Juries: Qualifications 

674. Disqualifications . . 

675. Charging the Jury . 

676. Amendments . . . 

677. Witnesses: Parties . 

678. Parties Deceased . . 

679. Depositions .... 

680. Limitations .... 

681. Payment into Court 

682. Abatement .... 



Constitutional Amendments 

Art. 99. — Process of Amend- 

§ 990. How Proposed 355 

991. Ratification by the People 356 

992. Ratification by the Legis- 

lature 356 

993. Restrictions 356 

994. General Revision .... 356 

995. Ratification 357 

996. Amendments to the 

United States Constitu- 
tion 357 




The Constitutions, State and Federal, are cited by section number 
only if, as in many States, it is continuous; otherwnse by number of 
Chapter, Article, or other subdivision, separated by commas. The 
Statutes, State or National, are cited in like manner from the latest 
revision or the volumes of Annual Laws, but are always distinguished 
by an asterisk. 

For the amendments I am indebted to the industry and courtesy of the 
New York State Library in its "Yearbooks of Legislation," founded by 
Robert H. Whitten and continued by Edwin H. Anderson, Director. 
My thanks are also due to the Secretaries of State of the several States 
who have nearly all obliged me with editions of the several State Con- 
stitutions in pamphlet form ; in Georgia, however, it is " not procurable." 
The inaccessibility of State Constitutions is greatly to be deplored. Some 
States, like New Hampshire and Ohio do not print them at all with 
their general law^s. Oregon and other States entirely omit constitutional 
amendments, while hardly any State follows the example of Massachusetts 
in printing the Constitution in its correct form every year. Texas, 
West Virginia, and many another State do not date their Constitution or 
the amendments ; while the usual compilations of the laws of New York 
and the official compilation of Georgia and several other States commit 
the last inanity of printing the State Constitution alphabetically under 
C, as if it were an ordinary law. The following table, however, is believed 
to be accurate so far as is possible under the circumstances. 

Alabama (Ala.), (Constitutions of 1819, 1868, 1867, 1875) Constitution of 1901 

Arkansas (Ark.), (1836, 1864, 1868) Constitution of 1874 

California (Cal), (1849) Constitution of 1879 

Colorado (Col.) Constitution of 1876 

Connecticut (Conn.), (1776) Constitution of 1818 

Delaware (Del.), (1776, 1792, 1831) Constitution of 1897 

Florida (Fla.), (1838, 1865, 1868) Constitution of 1885 

Georgia (Ga.), (1777, 1789, 1798, 1865, 1868) Constitution of 1877 

Idaho (Ida.) Constitution of 1889 

Illinois (III.), (1818, 1848) Constitution of 1870 

Indiana (Ind.), (1816, 1851) Constitution of 1851 

Iowa (lo.), (1846) Constitution of 1857 

Kansas (Kan.), (1855, 1857, 1858) Constitution of 1859 

Kentucky (Ky.), (1792, 1799, 1850) Constitution of 1891 


Louisiana (La.), {1S12, IS.'tS, 1S52, 1S64, ISGS, 1S79) . Constitution of 1S98 

Maine (Mc.) Constitution of 1820 

Maryland (Md.), (1776, 1651, 1SG4) Constitution of l.SO? 

Massachusetts (Mass.) Constitution of 1780 

Michigan (Mich.) Constitution of 1850 

Minnesota {Minn.) Constitution of 1857 

Mississippi (Miss.), (1817, 1SS2, 1868) Constitution of 1890 

Missouri (Mo.), (1820, 1863, 1865) Constitution of 1875 

Montana (Mon.) Constitution of 1889 

Nebraska {Xeb.), (1867) Constitution of 1875 

Nevada (Nev.) Constitution of 1864 

New Hampshire (.V. //.), (1784, 1792) Constitution of 1903 

New Jersey (N. J.), (1776) Constitution of 1844 

New York (N.Y.), (1777, 1821, 1846) Constitution of 1894 

North Carolina (N. C.) Constitution of 1868 as amended 1876 

North Dakota (N. D.) Constitution of 1889 

Ohio (O.), (1802) Constitution of 1851 

Oklahoma (Okla.) Constitution of 1907 

Oregon (Ore.) Constitution of 1857 

Pennsylvania (Pa.), 1776, 1790, 1838) Constitution of 1873 

Rhode Island (R. I.) Constitution of 1842 

South Carolina (S. C), (1776, 1778, 1790, 1865, 1868) . Constitution of 1895 

South Dakota (S. D.) Constitution of 1889 

Tennessee (Tenn.), (1796, 1834) Constitution of 1870 

Texas (Tex.), (1845, 1866, 1868) Constitution of 1876 

Utah (Uta.) Constitution of 1895 

Virginia (Fa.), (1776, 1830, 1850, 1864, 1870) .... Constitution of 1902 

Vermont (Vt.), (1777, 1786) Constitution of 1793 

Washington (Wash.) Constitution of 1889 

West Virginia (W. Va.), (1863) Constitution of 1872 

Wisconsin (Wis.) Constitution of 1848 

Wyoming (Wy.) Constitution of 1889 





The English Constitution is expressed in writing in the Magna 
Carta of King John (1215); with certain omissions and a few 
additions in the Magna Carta of Henry HI (1216), and the Confirma- 
tion of the Charter granted by Edward I in 1297; in' the Petition of 
Rights extorted from Charles 1 in 1G28, and finally enacted in the Bill 
or Declaration of Rights subscribed to by William of Orange in 1689; 
in the Habeas Corpus Act of Charles H (1679); and in the Act of 
Settlement of Queen Anne (1700). Besides this there are certain 
fundamental statutes which by long observance or by frequent 
re-enactment have grown to be such essential parts of the English 
notion of liberty or government as to be in effect constitutional 
documents; such, notably, is the Statute of Monopolies of 1623 and 
the principle against restraint of trade and monopoly of commerce 
or of industry embodied in the long series of statutes against fore- 
stalling, engrossing, regrating, and against by-laws in restraint of 
trade or depriving one of his legal rights, which all begin as early as 
1285,^ and only end under George HI, when such principles were 
immutably established in the popular mind as well as in the law- 
making of Parliament and the law-giving of judges. 

But the English Constitution should hardly be regarded as em- 
bodied only in these documents; nor the American Constitution, 
outside the frame of government, be considered as first expressed in 
1787. Magna Carta and the other constitutional documents are but 

* See Book II, Historical Digest, the date uncertain, but before Ed. Ill; 

James C. Carter (Law, its Origin, His- and the statute punishes forestalling of 

tory, and Function, N. Y. 1907) seems "grain or any other Thing to be sold 

to confuse these statutes with those fix- coming by Land or Water, oppressing 

ing prices, and states that they began the Poor and deceiving the Rich. " For 

in 1552. On the contrary, they were a discussion of their relation to the 

made perpetual soon after (13 Eliz.) modern laws against Trusts, see 

and began under Edward I (1285). Chapters V, VI. 
Statutes at Large (Vol. 1, p. 188) calls 


the record of the victories of the people in the long fight which they 
waged for their liberties against the Crown ; they mark the definite 
establishment of Anglo Saxon notions of liberty and law over the 
feudal or Norman, European, Roman or Civil Law view, which the 
Norman kings after the Conquest, and, later, even the Tudors and 
the Stuarts, endeavored to impose on the English people. Indeed 
the notion of the sovereignty of the Crown, of personal government, 
only ended with George III of the House of Hanover. Magna Carta 
is in form a treaty between the Norman king and his English sub- 
jects, assembled for the first time in a representative assembly in 
which the Commons also took part, whereby he recognizes the 
general body of liberties of the English freemen as known to them at 
that time. The form of these early constitutional documents, con- 
firmations of charters, coronation oaths, etc., is always a recognition 
of prior laws, customs, or liberties, as already existing: "All the laws 
and customs of the men of Kent as they existed in the time of King 
Witliraed." For statute-making in the modern sense was yet un- 
known. Indeed, the very notion of a statute, that is, a law made by 
a sovereign and addressed to his people, with a sanction or threat of 
punishment if disobeyed, is a notion of Roman or Continental law ; 
foreign to the genius of the English folk, who made their laws them- 
selves or, more correctly, recognized all law as but the growth of the 
free customs of the people.^ English legislation before the Conquest 
does not consist in what we should now call making laws, but 
rather in decreeing the scale of punishment for their breach; when 
they do make a law, it is never regarded as a new law, but is merely 
recognized by the Great Council as part of the existing law of Eng- 
land. Their law-making was not statute-making, in the modern 
sense; but at most a recognition, or an expression, in writing for the 
first time, of the law already existing; the primal distinction being 
that, in England, the people made the law, and the king but recog- 
nized it. During four centuries after the Conquest the kings vainly 
endeavored to impose upon the English people the Continental view 
that law is the command of a sovereign to a subject, not the customs 
and usages of the people ; an effort which proved futile, and by the 
eighteenth century did not survive even in the royal veto, but only 

* The admirable lectures of James C. to state broad principles, witlioiit re- 
Carter above referred to argue strongly gard to exceptions and qualifications, 
for this principle. There are doubt- for which the reader is referred to the 
less some Continental examples of such footnotes in Book III. 
custom-law; but this book is intended 


in the formula Ic roij le vcut, by which the king expresses his assent 
to the legislation of Parliament, a perfunctory act. For since the 
days of Queen Anne, no monarch has ventured to use even the gentle 
formula which indicated the royal veto — le roij s'avLsera. 

The history of the regaining by the people of their power to legis- 
late, almost forgotten in the middle centuries, is now, by the effort of 
German and English scholars, well known. We owe it, like our own 
Revolution, to unconstitutional taxation. No Englishman was 
bound to pay taxes but under a general law passed by his representa- 
tives in the Great Council and for the general good of the whole 
people; no arbitrary exaction, aid, impost, or levy by the Crown or 
its officers was tolerated. This fundamental principle, expressed 
with the greatest distinctness in John's Charter, was intentionally 
omitted by Henry III in his, sixteen months later (the usual one 
printed in the statutes), and only restored in 1297 by Edward I when 
the needs of the war in Flanders compelled this concession. But the 
principle was never lost sight of, and there never has been a period in 
the history of England when the people permitted any taxation for a 
considerable length of time in contravention thereof; and from the 
very beginning they used this principle to extort legislation restoring 
their own law; that is to say, decrees or statutes of the king recog- 
nizing the common law of England " as it was in the time of Edward 
the Confessor." For three or four centuries after the Conquest there 
was no new legislation, in the modern sense; only the old laws 
restored. The Commons, with that practical good sense which 
characterizes the English people, caring not for the form provided 
they got the substance, when asked for grants of money would put the 
matters they desired to be recognized as part of the law of England 
into a petition, which would be the foundation of a statute; then, in 
theory, made by the king, but practically dictated by the Parliament. 
Thus, gradually,, all the customs of England, with the common law 
of the Saxon kingdoms, was recognized as the law. Finally the form 
of petition and decree (which still exists in the machinery of legisla- 
tion in many of our State Legislatures) was dropped, the House of 
Commons finding that the law did not always emerge from the king's 
law officers as they had drawn it in their petition ; and the statutes 
were drawn in Parliament as well as enacted there, and only sent to 
the king when in the form of complete Acts for his signature. Thus 
the power of the purse, the taxation power, residing only in the House 
of Commons, drew back to it the power to legislate and the English 


view of the law, — as customs, grown, not made, based on natural 
justice, common usage, and the liberties of the people; laws not 
newly ordered, but the result of evolution and experience. Hence 
their wisdom and their strength. It is hard to fix precisely the first 
date at which anything like constructive legislation, as to ordinary 
matters concerning the people, first appears in England. For two 
centuries the statutes of the realm are concerned with matters of 
taxation, with recognizing or re-establishing the common law, and 
with political matters, defining the powers of the Crown and exclud- 
ing the control of the Roman Church and of the Roman law over 
secular matters. The Statute of Merton, it is true, in 1235 has a 
word about usury and about the legitimacy of children ; but in both 
cases it is merely to enforce the Common Law of England instead of 
the Civil Law of the Church. For a century more they concern 
merely what we should now call procedure, or the penalties for the 
infraction of laws already existing, feudal tenures, and the effort to fix 
the prices of bread and other necessities which was extended in 1349 
to the wages of labor. The first constructive legislation that we do 
find is concerned with those same questions that most concern us 
to-day, — the regulation of charges, and the prevention of the corner- 
ing of markets or the making of artificial prices by individuals or by 
combinations. The price of bread, and ale and tolls of mills were 
regulated by the Assize in 126G; and in 1275 the Statute of 
Westminster I forbids "excessive toll contrary to the common 
custom of the Realm in market towns." Notice that it is still 
"the common custom of the realm" that toll should be reasonable, 
it is not a new law; and in 1285, ten years later, appears the 
statute against forestalling or engrossing; that is to say, monopolizing 
the market, — a common complaint against the modern trust. In 
1691 the rates of carriers are fixed. 

When we come to the American Constitution, though now all ex- 
pressed for the first time in one document, its principles must, so far 
as they express the English Constitution, be regarded as a continua- 
tion, not as a new enactment, and must be taken with all the historical 
meaning and import with which they were viewed in the minds of our 
ancestors, far more familiar with historical law, with constitutional 
history, than we Americans have had to be since. It was at first 
believed by our greatest judges and jurists that the whole English 
Constitution was implied in the Federal Constitution ; that there is, 
as it were, an unwritten Constitution which we inherited in America 


and which consisted, not only of the English Constitution where not 
expressly altered by our own, but of all matters of natural right and 
justice. Doubtless this is the intended meaning of the Ninth Amend- 
ment: "The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall 
not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people." 
Such is not, perhaps, the modern view ; but the question has become, 
in fact, academic, for the reason that in 120 years of interpretation 
our Supreme Court has ever found some clause in the Federal Con- 
stitution into which to read any English constitutional principle 
not therein expressly altered. 

But while w^e must insist that the American Constitution is not an 
instrument or a code of rules created for the first time by a bodv of 
gentlemen however wise, and therefore subject to the errors of an 
ordinary new-made document, we must hasten to accentuate the 
point that it is a different Constitution, the Constitution of another 
country; while it embodies all the liberty principles of the English 
Constitution, what we may call all its human or social side, yet also 
it creates an entirely new frame of government, and it invents 
two or three great new principles, — principles as profoundly im- 
portant as those of Magna Carta, principles now recognized through- 
out the world as America's great contributions to the science of 
government. First of all these we should put that invention, be it 
Franklin's or Felatiah Webster's, by which a centralized national 
government is given all the political power necessary for the pro- 
tection of the whole country and the conduct of foreign relations, 
while the States are carefully preserved to secure to the people their 
own laws and governments and courts at home, — the marvellous 
dual system whereby power, in so vast a country, is made compatible 
with liberty. Second, the great principle of the separation of the 
powers, suggested, indeed, to Montesquieu and others by the practi- 
cal working of things in England, but never formally embodied in 
the Constitution of any country, not even to-day, except our own; 
that principle that they who make the laws may not administer them, 
and he who administers them may not judge them, " to the end it be a 
government of Laws and not of Men." ^ Third, most novel, perhaps, 
and still but half understood, the first great attempt of democracy to 
found a nation without entrusting the sovereign power away from 
itself, or in the hands of any one branch of government. This, to me, 
is the most wonderful political occurrence in modern history; that 
» See Chapters VIII, X, below. 


the people, having (for eleven years from 177G to 1787) for the first 
time in the history of the world gained all the reins of power, should, 
voluntarily and of their own high intelligence and patriotism, have 
put certain things beyond the power of their own Congress, of their 
own Legislatures, of the very government they were about to create.* 
Theirs was the high experiment, to found a nation that should forever 
be without Imperial power ; wherein the Bill of Rights, the cardinal 
principles, should be kept from the hands of sovereignty itself, 
and all the powers of autocratic nations, of continental empires 
and kingdoms, should be given neither to Congress nor to Presi- 
dent, but sleep in the lap of the people until they woke to further 

Lastly, with us the people are sovereign ; not, as in England, the 
Parliament; nor, as in continental countries, the king; and this led, 
logically and necessarily, to the invention and the function of our 
Supreme Court. In all other countries, either there is one sovereign, 
or there are branches of the government co-ordinate and of equal 
dignity; and it would be" presumptuous for the judicial branch to 
question the acts of either other. But in England we had the history 
of the judgments by the courts, of the king's own acts, or those of his 
officers under his orders. " What power the king hath, he hath but 
by law." This English heritage, joined with the logic of our Con- 
stitution, led to the creation of our great tribunal. When a people 
has granted to its government only certain powers, it may not trust to 
the wisdom of that government to judge of its own oversteps. When 
it has parcelled out those powers between Congress and Executive, 
between Federal government and State, neither branch, neither 
forum, may safely be entrusted to determine its own power or to 
limit its own realm. Therefore the people said. This Constitution we 
establish for the government of our country ; it shall stand until we, 
the people, by amendment alter it; and beside the Executive and 
the Congress we place our Supreme Court, which shall judge matters 
arising between States or citizens of different States, or which involve 
any principles of this our Constitution ; and the judges of that Court 
shall be bound by this Constitution and its provisions as against any 

* "Though this Government pos- power of both, as delegated, embraces 

sesses sovereign power, it does not the whole range of what might be 

possess all sovereign power; and so called sovereign power." James B. 

the State governments, though sover- Thayer, "Legal Essays," p. 203, quot- 

eign in some respects, are not so in ing Daniel Webster, in Luther v. Borden, 

all. Nor could it be shown that the 7 How. 1. 


State or power, civil, executive, or military, and as against the acts 
of their own representative assembly. 

This is the great diflFerence, the great distinction of our Constitu- 
tion. It is a commonplace to say that there is nothing like it in 
England, nor indeed elsewhere in the world. No other country has 
dared as yet to grasp the idea that the people may have a guardian 
above the laws made by their representatives. INIany countries have 
WTitten Constitutions, but in none can a statute be declared void 
by the courts. 

And there is another important practical difference between the 
English Constitution and our own. Theirs in the main is composed 
of limitations upon the Executive. Ours limits (what is to-day far 
more important) the legislative assemblies as well. In theory still, 
the English Constitution is a pact between the King and Parliament, 
which is sovereign and brooks no constitutional control. Ours is 
the wTitten will of the people, who are with us sovereign, addressed 
to their servants, the three branches of government, and defining and 
delimitating their powers among themselves. Both constitutions 
embody the frame of government; but in this the English is much 
simpler, for it provides but for the supremacy of Parliament, the 
power of the Commons in money matters, and the limitations im- 
posed upon the king. Even the Cabinet, that committee of the 
House of Commons which now rules the nation, is not mentioned in 
the English Constitution. But it was necessary for our Constitution, 
besides setting up the frame of government, and that more compli- 
cated and explicit, as befits a Republic, also to set forth, in words so 
exact as to be undoubted, both the powers and the prohibitions 
given to Congress and the division of power between the Federal 
government and the States. 

Most important in our Constitution to-day is that portion which is 
not the frame of government, but the liberties of the people; the part 
most neglected by historians and in treatises upon constitutional law. 
In this great domain the English and American Constitutions are 
practically identical ; only that the American Constitutions, Federal 
and State, express in many words what the English Constitution puts 
in a very few, while of course the English restraint upon Parliament, 
though equally (some think more) effective, is a moral one. The 
growth of words in which these cardinal principles are swathed is 
curiously shown in Book II of this work. Besides we have, in our 
Federal Constitution, not only to secure these liberties to the indi- 


vitlual as against the Federal government, but in some cases 
against the State governments as well ; and our State Constitutions, 
which, after all, with us are the charters of the people's liberties in 
the ordinary relations of mankind, seek to protect the individual 
also against the State Legislatures. In this, indeed, they go much 
too far, as we shall later (Chapter XI) discuss. 

This branch of constitutional law forms the main subject of this 
work. There are many political treatises in which matters relating to 
government, hitherto deemed most interesting and perhaps most 
important, have been exhaustively treated ; but in no work has 
attention been concentrated on those constitutional documents which 
embody the people's liberties; and in none is the Federal with all 
the State Constitutions compared and brought together. My last 
predecessor in this attempt (William Smith) wrote in Philadelphia 
what he calls "A View of the State and Federal Constitutions Com- 
pared" in 1797. It fills about twenty-eight pages, and his attention 
is entirely concentrated on the frame of government, the terms of 
governors and judges, and the methods of electing them and the 
members of the State Legislatures. Nothing whatever is said about 
the Bills of Rights, or other matters even such as the Interstate 
Commerce Clause, the clauses limiting State and Federal legislation, 
or the Fifth Amendment, which have proved to be of infinitely 
greater importance; nor of course of those modern restrictions, 
relating to labor, corporations, liquor laws, and the like, so volumi- 
nous in the newer State constitutions. 

These cardinal rights may, for convenience at least, be divided 
into the four great realms of Rights to Liberty, to Property, to Law, 
and Rights of the people as against the Government. Logically and 
historically the first is the right to law, for there can be no property, 
no government and no real Hberty without law. 




The Right to Law, peculiar to the English people, is the right of 
any one, irrespective of rank or station, to appeal to the ordinary law 
courts for trial of any dispute between him and any other person, or 
body of persons, or even any officer of the government. This applies 
as well to criminal as to civil cases, and to any infringement, by any 
person or officer, acting under whatever authority, upon the indi- 
vidual rights to liberty and property, or other civic rights. In 
England, and with us, there is no Administrative Law; no peculiar 
corpus juris extending to the doings or relations of government or 
any officer thereof, such as exists in all continental countries. The 
notion that the doings of the government itself, or even of the king, 
in the person of any of his officers, can be questioned by any subject 
in the ordinary law courts — conjoined with the right of instant in- 
quiry into the reason or pretext of the detention of any man's person 
by the officers of government, civil and military as well as judicial 
— is the principal reason that England has been called free. The 
law required by this general right, furthermore, must be the Common 
Law of the English people. That is to say, in origin, the body of 
their free customs and usages, made by themselves, not by a king, 
and also, in earliest days, enforced by themselves ; and furthermore 
it must be the Common Law, not the Roman or Civil Law, nor the 
Canon or Church Law, nor any supposed Administrative Law, or 
orders or decrees of the king, or king in Council. Even chancery 
jurisdiction, which rests originally on the royal power as wielded by 
the king's chancellor (whence the wi'its of injunction, mandamus, 
prohibition, etc., are called Prerogative wi'its), is hardly an exception. 
For many centuries we find statutes restraining or limiting chancery 
jurisdiction. It arose comparatively recently (we can almost fix the 
time of the first use of equity process, in matters of trade and domes- 
tic affairs as now used, at the time of Jack Cade's Rebellion in 1452) 
and as we all know, the prejudice against the injunction, and the 
interference of Chancery courts with ordinary criminal jurisdiction 


and the prliK'ij)los of tlie Common Law, has not yet disappeared (see 
Chajiter \\). K(|uity therefore, may truly be said to be a modern 
growth iij)(»n the body of the Common Law. All its other compet- 
itors or intruders were early got rid of. Statutes a<;ainst the Roman 
law will be found in the fourteenth century, while the ouster of 
Canon Law, of the Church courts, from their jurisdiction in England, 
begins with the Constitutions of Clarendon. The three great heads 
of the growth of the English Constitution, from the Conquest until 
modern times, are indeed but the resumption by the whole Parlia- 
ment of its power to make laws, by the Commons of their power to 
regulate taxation, and by the people generally of their right to be 
tried in their local courts by their neighbors under the Common 
Law, and to have no royal officer or Civil Law or church tribunal 
hold himself above it. The procedure must always be the people's ; 
and, since the time of Henry II, by grand and petit jury; for the 
Saxon method of trial by ordeal was abolished by the Lateran Coun- 
cil in 1213, and about the same time the English got rid of the 
Norman method of trial by battle. The broad principle remained 
that an Englishman could only be put in peril by a grand jury of his 
neighbors, and definitely condemned or his property forfeited by 
twelve men of his peers. It is true that the machinery of the Norman 
Inquest was applied to the jury system; but the principle of the 
latter pre-existed, even as we go back to the earlier times when a 
man's neighbors helped him to enforce his law, or the earliest times 
when he enforced the law himself. For it results logically, and did 
result historically, from the Anglo-Saxon conception of law that it 
might be enforced by anybody; these were the times of the "un- 
written law," and the law, like the moral code, was supposed to be 
known of every one and justified a man's right hand. Earliest 
statutes, therefore, never declared the law, but merely defined the 
penalties for its enforcement; just as the modern statutes against 
trusts add nothing to the old common law except to define the pen- 
alties for its infringement. In early English trials, therefore, what 
was tried was rarely whether the man did the deed (it was usually 
admitted or known), but whether he was right in doing it: that is 
to say, was he i7i his law? Was he acting upon a state of facts 
whereon the unwritten law gave the right of reparation or vengeance 
into his own hands ? If not, he was out of law, outlaw ; that is, he 
had lost his right to law as against any one molesting him in person 
or property. 


As Stubbs remarks, the early English statutes, before the Con- 
quest, are hardly statutes in the modern sense. When they have not 
to do with matters of procedure, or penalty, they are but vague 
statements of the moral law. The underlying law, like the Ten 
Commandments, is supposed to be known of every one. Written 
statutes busied themselves only with the amount of the were, or 
fine, or (for the first century after the Conquest) with the method of 

Furthermore, the right to law involved the right to trial by a man 
at home by his local courts according to his local customs, originally 
by his neighbors. The jealousy of the King's judicial power, of the 
Court following the person of the king or even centralized in London 
to the exclusion of the jurisdiction of the county courts, is shown in 
every constitutional document, beginning with Magna Carta, in a 
long line of statutes, in the Declaration of Independence, and in the 
American Constitution. 

"The great original principle of the English judicial system was 
that of trial in local courts properly constituted — trial 'per pais, in 
the presence of the county, as opposed to a distant and unknown 
tribunal." ^ And the law enforced was the law as it was in the time 
of Edward the Confessor, — the customary law of the people, not 
the statutes of the Norman sovereign. Thus, in 890, "I, then, 
Alfred, king, gathered these (laws) together, and commanded many 
of those to be written which our forefathers held, those which to me 
seemed good; and many of those which seemed to me not good I 
rejected them, by the counsel of my 'witan.' ... I, then, Alfred, 
king of the West Saxons shewed these to all my 'witan', and they 
then said that it seemed good to them all to be holden." ^ After the 
Conquest every Norman king was made on his coronation oath to 
promise this, the law of Edward the Confessor, until Magna Carta; 
after that they promised to respect Magna Carta instead, which was 
thus reissued or confirmed thirty-two times in the eighty-two years 
which intervened between Runnymede and the final Confirmation 
of charters under Edward I. Thus, W^illiam the Conqueror himself, 
in his charter to the City of London says, in Anglo Saxon : "And I 
do you to wit that I will that ye two be worthy of all the laws that ye 
were worthy of in King Edward's day." ^ So the Domesday Book 
records "the customs," that is to say, the laws, of various towns and 
counties; these bodies of customs invariably containing a mere hst 

' Taswell-Langmead, 6th ed., p. 28. ^ Ibid., p. 83. 
- Stubbs' Charters, p. 62. 


of penalties for the hreacli of tlie established law, while later charters 
usually give the inhabitants of a town all the customs and free privi- 
leges enjoyed by the citizens of Lonilon. In 1100 Henry 1 in his 
Charter of Liberties promises in the first section relief to the king- 
dom of England from all the evil customs whereby it had lately been 
oppressed, and finally i-eturns to the people the law of Edward the 
Confessor "with such emendations as my father made with the con- 
sent of his barons." ' In his charter to the citizens of London - he 
promises general freedom from feudal taxes and impositions, from 
dane-geld, and from the fine for the murder of a Norman ; and the 
Charter of Liberties issued by Henry H in 1154 confirms their 
"liberties and free customs to all men in the kingdom." ^ In Magna 
Carta the right to law is of course primarily guaranteed in Cap. 39, 
that no freeman is to be molested except "by the law of the land"; 
also by Cap. 24, prohibiting minor royal officers from trying criminal 
cases; and Cap. 13, which extends the ancient liberties and the free 
customs of the citizens of London as well by land as by sea to all 
other cities, burghs, towns, and ports in the realm as to their own 
law. In 1309 (see Historical Digest) we already find a statute re- 
straining chancery jurisdiction and forbidding arrest, conviction, or 
forfeiture without a jury, a principle only recently revived in the 
Constitution of Oklahoma;* in 1331 a statute against invasion of 
common law jurisdiction by the chancellor ; in 1383 a protest against 
Roman law and a definite prohibition of it to the courts of England; 
in 1391, no man is to be compelled to answer before a Lord (of mat- 
ters determinable at common law), and there is another statute limit- 
ing admiralty jurisdiction and again prohibiting the Roman law. 
In 1406 the House of Commons present their Petition of thirty-one 
articles, of which the tenth provides that the Council should de- 
termine nothing cognizable at common law unless by the advice of 
the judges ; and other clauses are that all officers shall personally per- 
form their duties ^ and be sworn to observe "the common law of the 
land"; but in 1452, after Jack Cade's Rebellion, the Act 31 Henry 
VI, C. 2, provides that in case of riots or disorder an offender may 
be commanded to appear in Chancery and, if he disobey, the chan- 
cellor may issue writs of proclamation to appear within one month 
or suffer forfeiture or outlawry ; and although this statute continued 

1 Stubbs' Charters, p. 101 (clause * See Book III., §§ 650, 662. 

13). * Forthis principle in modern Ameri- 

^ Ibid., p. 108. can State Constitutions, see Book III, 

« Ibid., p. 135. § 215. 


only seven years, its principle remained and is the historical orif^fin 
of the use of the injunction process to prevent disorder or crime (see 
Chapter IV). So, in 1487, a statute of Henry VII gives special au- 
thority to the Court of Star Chamber over riots and disorders. But 
the abuse of the royal prerogative continued under the Tudors and 
Stuarts, until the Petition of Right in 1627 complains (Article 3) 
that although it is declared (c|uoting Magna Carta) that no man be 
imprisoned nor put out of his freehold, nor franchises, nor free cus- 
toms unless it be by the law of the land, and established that from 
thenceforth none shall be taken by petition or suggestion made to 
the king or his Council unless it be by indictment or presentment of 
good and lawful people of the same neighborhood or by process by 
wi'it originally at the common law, and no one shall be forejudged 
but by the courts of the law, nevertheless of late times divers com- 
missions have issued giving authority to proceed under martial law 
whereby (§ 8) some have been put to death when and where if by 
the laws and statutes of the land they had deserved death, by the 
same laws and by no other they ought to have been judged. And 
finally, the long history of invasion of the common law is closed by 
the entire abolition at the hands of the Long Parliament of the Star 
Chamber and of all but common-law courts. After the Revolution, 
the Bill of Rights complains that James II endeavored to subvert 
the laws and liberties of the kingdom, among other things by issuing 
a commission for a court to be called "The Court of Com- 
missioners" (clause 3), and (Part II, clause 3) that both this com- 
mission and all other commissions and courts of like nature are illegal 
and pernicious. The right to the common law exclusively was too 
well established to need much expression in the Federal Constitution, 
but the Declaration of Independence complains (clause 17) that 
George III " has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction 
foreign to our Constitution and unacknowledged by our laws," and 
(clause 24) arraigns him for "abolishing the free system of English 
laws in a neighbouring province, establishing therein an arbitrary 
government." The Federal Constitution recognizes the principle 
in the seventh Amendment of the ten which are our national Bill 
of Rights, providing for suits at common law and trial by a jury, 
and that no fact so tried shall be otherwise re-examined in any 
court of the United States than according to the rules of the common 
law; while many State Constitutions declare the people entitled to 
the common law of England.^ 

» See Book III, § 76, and note 6, 


The equal right to law was cstabHshed as early as the Charter of 
Liberties of Henry II, and extended not only to the barons but to all 
persons except actual slaves; for even the villeins had full law 
rights. Magna Carta recognizes the principle of equality in Caps. 
30, and in 40, — "To none will we sell, to none will we deny right or 
justice," and in the preamble conceding these liberties also "To all 
free men of our kingdom," and expressly in Cap. GO, extending all 
the foregoing customs and liberties not only to the king's tenants, 
but they are to be observed by all others, both clergy and laity, and 
in Cap. 65 (omitted by Henry III) granting the aforesaid liberties to 
all men. "By 1485," says Hallam, "the principle that all officers, 
administrators, or soldiers are liable at the common law for their 
acts, that is, the prohibition of the continental Administrative Law, 
had been fully established " ; while in 1566 Speaker Onslow tells 
Elizabeth herself that she is subject to the common law. So in the 
Massachusetts Body of Liberties, clause 2, the same justice and 
law is extended to every one, whether an inhabitant or a foreigner ; ^ 
and in the Declaration of Independence appears the famous state- 
ment that "All men are created equal," thus extending the prin- 
ciple established under Henry II, six hundred years before, that 
they are only equal before the law. 

What is due process of law will be discussed later more particu- 
larly. It is particularly notable that the words of Magna Carta, 
"legal judgment of his peers or the law of the land," are, in the 
Statute of 28 Edward III replaced by the words "due process of the 
law," and the Petition of Right (Article 4) quotes the provision in 
the same words. It is probable that historically the words are 
synonymous; that is, "the law of the land" means by indictment 
and procedure at the common law, and "judgment of his peers" 
trial by jury, while "due process" includes both. There is still a 
feeling that the words "due process of law" will not justify prosecu- 
tion by information or in any other manner than a common law 
indictment or trial except by jury.^ The Supreme Court of the 
United States has, however, held that "due process of law" does 
not necessarily include trial by jury or, in certain cases, any court 
trial. The principle is embodied in the Fifth Amendment nearly 
in the words of the Statute of Westminster, "No person shall be 

' See Book II, Constitutional Prin- * See the recent amendment to the 
ciples. Wisconsin Constitution, Book III, 

§ 127, and § 130, note 10. 


deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law," 
and in the Fourteenth Amendment is required, in the same words, 
by the Federal Government of the States. It exists in this 
language in New York and in the newer States copying the 
Federal Constitution, but still stands in the words of Magna Carta 
in New England and the older States.^ Finally, the principle that 
this common law under due process must be afforded to every per- 
son in his home or in local courts is expressed in Magna Carta, 
Cap. 1 7 in the exact terms demanded by the barons (clause 8 of the 
barons' demands),^ that common pleas shall not follow the King's 
Court, but be assigned or held in some certain place; in Cap. 18, 
that recognitions shall only be held in the court of the county where 
the lands lie and that the king shall send two justices into each 
county four times a year to hold assizes where, if all matters cannot 
be tried on the day appointed, a sufficient number of knights and free- 
holders present at the assizes shall stay to decide them. It is fur- 
ther especially provided that the writ prcccipe (Cap. 34) shall not in 
effect be issued so as to cause a freeman to lose his court; and this 
is also the exact words of the barons (clause 24), the object being to 
protect the local jurisdiction against the royal courts ; and in Cap. 45, 
" justices . . . shall only be appointed of such as know the law and 
mean duly to observe it," — also taken literally from the barons' 
request ; the meaning being to require local common law courts held 
by common law judges and allow no other jurisdiction. So in 1391 
the law above quoted preserving the common law as against a Lord's 
courts; while by 1485 Hallam mentions as one of the six liberties 
now established the right to be tried by a jury of the county. In the 
Declaration of Independence the twenty-third clause complains of 
the king's "transporting us beyond seas to be tried for pretended 
offences" and the Virginia Bill of Rights (clause 8) provides for 
trial in the vicinage. The principle is preserved in the Federal Con- 
sitution. Art. 3, § 2, requiring all trials to be held in the State where 
the crime is committed ; and so in most of the States.^ The same 
principles are true of civil cases. Cap. 40 of Magna Carta applies 
to civil as well as criminal matters, slightly expanding the demand 
of the Barons (clause 30) "that justice shall not be sold nor deferred 
nor forbidden" ; and the clause is adopted in almost the same words 
in all the State Constitutions.* 

» See Chapter III, infra; Book III, « See Book III, § 133, 
§ 130. * Ibid., §§ 70, 73, 79. 

^ Printed in Stubbs' Charters. 




Civic liberty, as understood and enjoyed by the English people, 
has, like the right to law, important differences from the conception 
held in other countries. For the right to have one's person free of 
arrest, detention, or control applies as well to the government, the 
actions of officers of the courts of law, as to the trespass of any fellow- 
citizen; and the right of liberty in trade or industry involves the 
notion of protection from any monopoly or any privilege even if 
granted by the State, as well as from any combination of guilds or 
other workmen. Moreover, the right is guarded by the great insti- 
tutions of trial by jury and habeas corpus; the former of which 
indeed has lately been copied in continental countries, but the 
latter, so far as I am informed, not even yet. There is on the Con- 
tinent nothing corresponding to the constitutional right of any in- 
dividual when arrested by an officer of government to demand 
instant information of the cause of his arrest and to be set at large 
unless indicted by a grand jury for a crime not bailable or for wliich 
the person accused is unable to give satisfactory bail. 

The right of personal liberty includes, therefore, the right to life, 
that is, the right not to be deprived of life except under a general 
law of the land previously made, the facts to be found by a jury 
(Magna Carta, Cap. 39); and the right to liberty of the person, 
that is, freedom of bodily restraint either by imprisonment, deten- 
tion, or the being refused locomotion to any place desired, even to 
the extent of leaving the kingdom. In this country this right has 
been found by the Supreme Court to involve the constitutional right 
to move from one State to another free of tax or hindrance,' and this 
is expressly decided not to rest upon the Interstate Commerce 
clause, but upon the right to personal liberty of the American citi- 
zen. On the other hand it involves the right not to be banished even 

> Crandall v. Nevada, 6 Wall. 39. 


for crime, presumably, therefore, not to be banished even from a 
State of the Union.* 

The right to personal liberty is guarded by the writ of habeas 
corpus, preceded by the writ de odio et atia referred to in Cap. 3G of 
Magna Carta: "Nothing shall be given or demanded of another 
for the wTit of inquisition of life or limb, but it shall be given gratis 
and never denied." The right to be informed at once upon arrest 
of the nature and cause of the accusation is a different and indepen- 
dent constitutional right from that to a grand jury or the process of 
indictment; although many State Constitutions confound the two. 
The right to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation ^ 
is instantaneous upon arrest, or at least arises as soon as the accused 
is brought before a magistrate. The requirement that the person 
accused or arrested can only be tried on a finding of a body of twenty- 
tliree men, the grand jury, antedates the petit jury, going back to the 
time when the trial of facts was by ordeal. The English people per- 
sistently struggled for many years after the Conquest to have this 
the only method of accusation ; the practice of beginning a criminal 
suit by information to the king or to a Crown officer, obviously 
Norman in origin, was obnoxious to the people ; it cannot, however, 
be said that it was not finally established, though many of the Ameri- 
can State Constitutions evidently contemplate that procedure by 
information is not "due process of law." Some of the western 
States, however, have shown a tendency to do away with the grand 
jury and use the process of information exclusively.^ 

There were twenty-five thousand slaves in England at the Domes- 
day Book,* probably the result of earlier conquest or punishment, 
possibly of voluntary sale; but they soon disappeared, either by 
exercising a trade (see Chapter V) or by acquiring land, just as 
under the Dawes Act the allotment of land in severalty makes an 
Indian a United States citizen. Villeins were not regarded as 
slaves under the law; and they also disappeared, largely as a conse- 
quence of the rebellions of Jack Cade and Wat Tyler, which suc- 
cessfully established their right to land in severalty and to be paid 
money wages. Subject to this exception the right to liberty was 

* The word "Banishment" is used however, granted by a State governor 

in the sense of compulsory transpor- on condition that the offender leave 

tation beyond the limits of the British the State might possibly be upheld. 
Empire. In early days it was defined ^ See Book III, § 120, notes, 
to mean not beyond the four seas, ^ See Book III, § 127. 
Tangier and the Islands. A pardon, * Taswell-Langmead, p. 18. 


general in England from the earliest times. Henry VIII even, in 
1514, manumits two villeins, using the words of the Declaration of 
Independence, "Whereas God created all men free." 

The Statute of Westminster I, 1275, again refers to the writ 
de odio et alia, and the Statute of Edward III, 1354, in quoting 
Cap. 39 of jNIagna Carta, also says that " no man of what estate or 
condition that he be shall be . . . imprisoned nor disinherited, 
nor put to death without being brought in answer by due process 
of law," expressing for the first time that there must not only be 
lawful trial, but that the person accused must be present; and 
chapter 9 of the same Statute forbids the sheriffs by virtue of 
commissions and general writs to take inquest to cause to indict 
the people at their will, — expressly, therefore, providing for 

"By 1485," says Hallam, "the right not to be imprisoned without 
warrant" was established; and in 1G17 we find the last legislation 
concerning villeinage. During these centuries, however, there had 
been a persistent effort by all the kings to avoid the writ of habeas 
corpus, to arrest people without warrant or indictment, detain them 
without cause or trial, try them without a jury, or punish them by 
martial law. Finally, in the petition of Right (clause 5) the Parlia- 
ment complains of this and that when they were brought up on 
habeas corpus they were still detained, without cause certified, by 
the king's special command; and in clause 10 they pray that no 
free man in such any manner be imprisoned or detained. Fourteen 
years later the Massachusetts Body of Liberties (Preamble) defines 
the denial of liberty to be the ruin of the Commonwealth, and first 
definitely adds to the principles above stated, that no person can 
be deprived of liberty or property or reputation unless by some ex- 
press law of the country, i. e., a general law warranting the same, 
established by a legislature, and sufficiently published ; and (clause 
18) "No man's person shall be restrained or imprisoned by any 
authority whatsoever, before the law hath sentenced him thereto, if 
he can put in sufficient security, bail, or mainprise for his appearance, 
and good behavior in the mean time, unless it be in crimes capital, 
and contempts in open court, and in such cases where some express 
act of court doth allow it." This was enacted nearly forty years 
before the Habeas Corpus Act, in 1679, first cured the defect in the 
writ by providing against delay and for bail, and extending the 
number of judges who are required to grant the writ; and still 


later the English Bill of Rights, prohibiting excessive bail, and a 
statute providing that it should apply as well to commitment upon 
civil as criminal cases; which is followed generally in American 

The Massachusetts Body of Liberties (clause 17) provides for 
liberty to remove from the Commonwealth, and (clause 91 ) that 
there shall never be any bond slavery, villeinage, or captivitv, 
unless lawful captives or such strangers as willingly sell themselves. 
Massachusetts, however, departed from this principle later, and a 
few slaves existed as late as the Revolution, when the Massachusetts; 
Constitution in its Bill of Rights, Article 1, put an end to it by de- 
claring that all men are born free and have inalienable right toi 
liberty; so, the Declaration of Independence, clause 2, and the 
Virginia Bill of Rights (§1), but this was believed not to apply to 

The objection to information or proceedings other than indictment 
is also foreshadowed in Magna Carta, Cap. 38, that no one shall be 
put to his law, that is, trial, by ordeal or otherwise, upon the bare 
saying of a bailiff (prosecuting officer), without credible witnesses to 
prove it, and by 1354 indictments are expressly required. The 
modern law of the English Constitution on this point is first fully 
expressed in the Virginia Bill of Rights, clause 8, that "in all . . . 
criminal prosecutions a man hath a right to demand the cause and 
nature of his accusation, to be confronted with the accusers and 
witnesses, to call for evidence in his favor ' and to a speedy trial by 
an impartial jury of his vicinage without whose unanimous consent 
he cannot be found guilty," anticipating exactly the words of Hallam 
above quoted as early established in England. 

Whatever may be the meaning of due process of law, there is no 
doubt that the words "judgment by his peers," in the great clause in 
Magna Carta, means trial by jury, or w4iat then corresponded to it ; 
and the reading of the clause developed with the growth of the insti- 
tution to make our modern understanding that it must be a unani- 
mous verdict of twelve who are not witnesses of the crime accused.^ 
The Statute of Wales (1284) already provides a complete code of 
procedure with jury trial ; but the system of punishing juries for a 
wrong verdict by attaint existed until 1670, and only at that time 

» Va. B. Rts. 9; U. S. C. Amt. VIII. English Constitution. See Book III, 
See Book III, § 122. § 135. note 6. 

' This right is not expressed in the * See § 131, note 4. 


was finally established their right to be judge of all the facts, a right 
extended in many of our State Constitutions to the law as well as to 
the facts, conjoined with a prohibition to judges to charge the jury 
on the facts or even to state them.' 

The Virginia Bill of Rights requires a jury in criminal cases, and 
holds it preferable to any other mode of trial in civil suits; the 
Declaration of Independence complains of the deprivation of trial 
by jury. There has been no further development of the principle 
except in the direction of allowing verdicts by a smaller number than 
twelve, or, in civil cases, not unanimous." 

The provision against excessive bail, as has been said, dates only 
from the Bill of Rights. That against cruel or unusual punishments 
as well as excessive fines goes even back to Magna Carta, Cap. 20, 
providing that a free man shall only be fined for a small offence after 
the manner of the offence, for a great crime, according to the heinous- 
ness of it, saving to him his contenement; that is to say, his necessary 
tools of trade. The former provision is found in all our State 
Constitutions as well as the Federal ; ^ and the latter in many, * and 
probably always by statute if not at the common law. Banishment 
was early held an unusual punishment, and there was probably 
never any legal torture in England, though once or twice the rack 
was introduced. The Massachusetts Body of Liberties, however 
(clause 43), says that no man shall be beaten with above forty 
stripes nor shall any true gentleman nor any man equal to a gen- 
tleman be punished with whipping, etc.; and clause 45, "no man 
shall be forced by torture to confess any crime . . . unless in some 
capital cases where he is first fully convicted, after which if the 
cause be of that nature that it is very apparent there be other con- 
spirators or confederates with him, then he may be tortured, yet not 
with such tortures as be barbarous or inhuman " ; and in clause 46, 
the usual constitutional provision is anticipated for bodily punish- 
ments, — "we allow amongst us none that are inhuman, barbarous 
or cruel," thus anticipating the provision of the Bill of Rights, 
clause 10, that excessive bail ought not to be required nor excessive 
fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted, copied 
in the Virginia Bill of Rights, § 9; in the Federal Constitution, both 
as to the States and the nation ; and in all the State Constitutions.^ 

1 See § 675. * Ibid., §§ 81, 331. 

' See Book III, §§ 72, 132. « Ibid., §§ 122, 140. 

» Ibid., § 140. 


The only exception to this common-law right to personal liberty 
and court trial (except that exercised under chancery jurisdiction 
discussed in Chapter IV) is the practice of finding a man guilty of 
a criminal offence, usually, but not necessarily, treason, by a bill of 
attainder; that is, a legislative act of the Houses of Parliament de- 
claring the person guilty without trial and even in his absence. This 
practice was freely employed by the Tudors and Stuarts especially 
under Henry VHL* It has never been declared unconstitutional in 
England, though the abuse was so well known to our ancestors that 
they expressly put it in the Federal Constitution as applied to the 
nation and to the States as well." This has been followed in nearly 
all the State Constitutions.^ 

Some of the State Constitutions forbid imprisonment for debt in 
civil cases, a principle first embodied in the INIassachusetts Bcdy of 
Liberties, clause 33, providing that no man should be imprisoned 
for debt if the law could find competent means of satisfaction other- 
wise from his estate. The Body of Liberties also anticipates the 
modern right to counsel (clause 26), which, as a constitutional right, 
does not yet exist in England,^ and (clause 47) requires two witnesses 
in capital cases. 

Finally, the right not to be placed twice in jeopardy goes back 
also for its first clear expression to the Massachusetts Body of Lib- 
erties, which gave many principles both to later English constitu- 
tional documents and to the Federal and State Bills of Rights. 
Clause 42 reads: "No man shall be twice sentenced by civil justice 
for one and the same crime, offence, or trespass." The Habeas 
Corpus Act forty years later provided that no person once delivered 
by habeas corpus should be recommitted for the same offence. And 
while the Fifth Amendment to the Federal Constitution only pro\ades 
that no person shall be subject for the same offence to be twice in 
jeopardy of life or limb, thereby limiting the principle to capital 
cases, many of the State Constitutions extend it to any criminal 
prosecution for which the punishment may be imprisonment.^ 

' See § 138, note 10. ■• See § 134, note 17. 

2 Art. I, § 9, (3); Art. I, § 10 (1). « See Book III, § 137, notes. 

» See Book III, § 138. 




The common law sounds in damages. In early times it was en- 
forced, civil and criminal, only by a money penalty; or by personal 
redress or vengeance. Thus, the earliest codes or statutes merely 
fix a scale of penalties. The notion of compelling a freeman to do 
something or to abstain from doing something was foreign to Anglo- 
Saxon ideas of liberty. Like the doctrine of free will carried to its 
extreme, a freeman was lord of his own acts; only liable for the 
consequences of the same, to the person injured; later only to the 
Crown if a criminal act, and to the individual injured if a private 
wrong. Even when the judgment of the court went against him, the 
defendant was never compelled to do a thing, or even, in ordinary 
cases, to make restitution, as in the Oriental system of rendering 
justice. This principle must never be lost sight of, for it explains 
many things both in local history and in popular prejudice. Prob- 
ably the power of the chancellor to issue injunction writs went as far 
towards prejudicing our ancestors against the courts of chancery 
and Star Chamber (which was merely its criminal side) as the absence 
of the jury and the local county court. Repeated attempts to limit or 
do away with this jurisdiction are found in the Statutes of the Realm, 
and the general prejudice against Chancery courts came to our 
ancestors by direct inheritance. As is known, some States, notably 
Massachusetts, for some time withheld chancery jurisdiction entirely, 
and when adopted it was in a limited and tentative way. On the 
other hand Congress, for the Federal courts, adopted the full 
English practice in the first judiciary act;^ Art. Ill, § 2 of the 
Constitution expressly provides that the Federal judicial power 
shall extend to all cases, in law and equity. 

1 Act of Sept. 20, 1789 c. 20 § 11. of Chancery in England ; and so to-day, 

By Rule XXXIII of the first (1822) where applicable, by its "present" 

Rules of Practice, equity practice is practice, 
regulated by that of the High Court 


The use of the injunction to quell disorder or control the action 
of large bodies of men, with the vigorous use of contempt process, 
to an even greater extent, stirs public opinion to-day, though it also 
has very early precedents going back, like chancery jurisdiction 
itself, to the first century after the Conquest. It was used in early 
times to quell disorder ; but its use to control the action of bodies of 
men in labor disputes may be said to date from the case of Spring 
Head Spinning Co. v. Riley, decided in 1SG8 (L. R. 6 Eq. 551). 
The principle of this case has had vast extension in the United 
States, due not only to the prevalence of labor disputes and the 
activitv of orranized labor, but still more to the inefficiencv in many 
parts of the country of the local courts and of the State police ; and 
most of all to our State and Federal system and the fact that the 
Constitution gives the Federal courts jurisdiction for suits between 
citizens of different States, as railroad, mining and manufacturing 
industry is with us almost entirely carried on by corporations. Fre- 
quently chartered in other States than where the trouble occurred, 
it was a convenient thing for the corporation which feared prejudice 
in the local courts, or distrusted their strength or the strength of the 
local police to enforce their orders, to go into the Federal courts and 
obtain injunctions for the enforcement of which they could, in last 
resort, depend upon the entire military force of the United States. 

English notions of liberty, it is true, resisted the chancellor's power 
in its most dangerous path ; that is to say, in applying the doctrine 
of specific performance to the contract of labor; though we see an 
effort to arrive at the same result in the so-called "peonage laws" 
in the south, as well as in recent injunctive orders or mandatory 
injunctions of Federal and other courts ordering a man or bodies of 
men not to quit work. Specific performance of a contract to render 
services, like a contract for indefinite or long term service, too much 
resembled slavery to be tolerated at the common law. And indeed 
contracts to do work "in gross," piece-work, not paid by the day, 
had to be expressly authorized by a statute of Edward III (1360). 
Nevertheless, statutes requiring a man to labor at some work con- 
tinued for several centuries. 

Bearing in mind firmly the principle that the English law sounds 
only in damages, and that the notion of ordering or even forbidding 
any act (except under a criminal statute) is utterly foreign to its 
system ; and the cardinal principle that no fact can be found without 
the intervention of the petit jury; we shall be able to understand 


both tlie historical reason and tlie present meaning of the objection 
of the American people to the injunctive powers of chancery and 
the ex parte sentences for contempt made by the judge who issued 
the injunction and upon the facts as found by him showing the in- 
fringement of the same. It must also continuously be borne in 
mind that this chancery power to sentence for contempt of an in- 
junction writ is wholly different, both in historical origin and in logic, 
from the necessary inherent power of any common law court to 
punish for contempts committed in the presence of the court itself; 
for this is a power inherent in the Court, and the Massachusetts 
Body of Liberties in 1641 only anticipates the Oklahoma Constitu- 
tion of 1907 in recognizing it only as to "contempts in open court." * 
We have already cited many statutes indicating the dislike of our 
ancestors to courts of Chancery and the Star Chamber ; Coke him- 
self speaks of the latter complainingly as " a court of criminal equity." 
In 1327 King Edward III found it necessary to adopt some more 
effectual measures of police than those which already existed. For 
this purpose justices of the peace were first instituted throughout the 
country, with power to take security for the peace and bind over 
parties who threatened offence ; ^ and only four years after this we 
find the first statute against invasion of common law jurisdiction by 
the chancellor, forbidding the arrest or conviction of a man or the 
forfeiture of his property without a jury trial in a common law court. 
In 1382 the Commons themselves complained to the king of grievous 
oppression by the great barons which rendered the remedies of com- 
mon law courts of no avail. Accordingly the judges of these courts 
themselves were placed under the special supervision of the chan- 
cellor, who began to exercise his authority in repressing disorderly 
obstructions to the courts of law and in affording civil remedy in 
cases of outrage which could not be effectually redressed through the 
ordinary tribunals (precisely the reason advanced for the great use 
made of the injunction writ to-day) ; but thereupon the Commons 
took great umbrage at the exercise of such authority by the chan- 
cellor, claiming that this jurisdiction was an interference with the 
common law, but the king persevered, stating that he would pre- 
serve his prerogative.^ Later the Court of Star Chamber had the 

* Mass. Body Liberties § 18; Book Injunctions," printed as Senate Doeu- 

III, § 662. ment, Report 827, 54th Congress, 1st 

^ Spence, Equity Jurisdiction, pp. Session; Political Science Quarterly, 

342-344. Vol. 10, No. 2. 

^ F. J. Stimson, "Modern Use of 


same jurisdiction and Coke particularly mentions as part of it "the 
suppression ... of great and horrible riots, routs, and unlawful 
assemblies, leaving ordinary offences to the courts of law," ' In 
1348, according to Herbert Spencer, the court of Chancery became 
the Court of Equity with power to relieve in certain cases and a 
fixed abode ; and it is a curious coincidence that the very next year 
was passed the first Statute of Laborers, the first law requiring com- 
pulsory labor save of slaves or villeins in England ; confirmed in 1360 
by a statute which also contains the first prohibition against com- 
binations by trade alliances in restraint of trade or to fix wages, and 
in 13SS villeinage was abolished or commuted to a fixed money pay- 
ment. That is to say, the freedom of labor and the pi'inciple for- 
bidding combinations to control labor grew up together. Then, 
in 1452, after Jack Cade's Rebellion, we have the definite invention 
of chancery process to control riotous laborers already (Chapter II) 
referred to; and in 14S7 the Court of Star Chamber is given special 
authority over riots and disorders. Finally, in the 5th of Elizabeth, 
the gi-eat Statute of Laborers was enacted, consolidating all previous 
laws and still maintaining the principle of compulsory labor and fixed 
wages, but it was only enacted to be forgotten, save for the prin- 
ciple that it bequeathed to English law that strikes and trade 
unions were unlawful combinations. 

Many further authorities can be cited to sustain this position ; 
but these are sufficient to establish the general principle that 
the injunction process and contempt in chancery procedure, as 
well as chancery jurisdiction itself, is looked on with a logical 
jealousy in Anglo-Saxon countries as being in derogation of the 
common law; and that, while an injunction to prevent irre- 
parable injury to property or private rights will not be refused be- 
cause the injury be also a crime or misdemeanor, yet the naked 
principle is undoubtedly true, as indeed is the history and the 
logic of the thing, that under the English legal system the power 
of the king's chancellor may not be invoked to forbid or punish 
a crime as such, thus taking away the jurisdiction of the com- 
mon law courts and depriving the person accused of his trial by 
jury.^ The objection, therefore, to the abuse of the injunction is 

' F. J. Stimson, "Handbook to the right of property, and who makes out 

Labor Law of the United States," 1st that an action at law will not be a suffi- 

Edition, pp. 315-316. cient remedy and protection against in- 

^ "A court of equity has no criminal truding upon his possession." (Macauley 

jurisdiction, but it lends its assistance v. Shackell, 1 Bhgh, N. S., 96, 127.) 
to a man who has, in view of the law, a "... 'If an act be illegal,' said Vice- 


sound, and this in our country not only for the historical reason we 
have explained, but because it tends to make the courts no longer 
judicial but in eflect part of the Executive branch of government. 
This is the sense of the popular phrase — and most popular phrases 
have some sense — "government by injunction." ' 

There has, of course, been no constitutional limitation of the 
powers of equity in England, nor is there in the Federal Constitution, 
which clearly contemplated giving all judicial power which then 
existed in p]ngland to the Federal judiciary in cases where they had 
jurisdiction ; but the State Constitutions are beginning to deal with 
the subject and several States have attempted statutes. The matter 
is likely to be of large importance in thie future, for bills to limit or 
prohibit punishment by contempt for disobedience to injunctions 
granted by courts of equity, at least in labor or trade disputes, are 
pending before Congress and in nearly every State of the Union. 
The constitutional provisions will be found in Book III, § GC2. 
They have so far been adopted in the Constitutions of seven States. 
Whether, in the absence of a constitutional provision, a statute to 
that effect would be valid, is a matter so untouched as yet by any 
decision of a high court that the author can only hazard his own 
opinion. While a legislature cannot take away the power of a com- 
mon law court, at least, to sentence for actual contempt committed 
in its presence, necessary to preserve the dignity of the court, there 
would seem no reason why, in the absence of a constitutional pro- 
vision recognizing chancery jurisdiction, a State legislature should not 
do away with contempt process in equity or even with chancery 
jurisdiction entirely, though perhaps it may not legislate especially 
and only for labor disputes, under the Fourteenth Amendment. In 
some States, as has been pointed out, chancery jurisdiction did not 
originally exist; there are, however, several States which recognize 
it in their Constitutions,^ while other States declare that common 
law and chancery shall be "fused" or that all the courts shall exer- 
cise chancery jurisdiction. In these States, as the doctrine of specific 
performance and the contempt power is the very right arm of chan- 

Chancellor Kindersley, in Solteau v. J. Stimson, "Handbook to the Labor 
De Held, 2 Sim. & Stu. 153, 'I am not Law of the United States," p. 318. 
to grant an injunction to restrain an ' U. S. Senate Report 827, 54th 
illegal act merely because it is illegal. Congress, 1st Session, p. IIG. Charles 
I cannot grant an injunction to re- Claflin Allen, "Injunction and Organ- 
strain a man from smuggling, which ized Labor," 17 American Bar Associa- 
is an illegal act,' nor could he for any tion Reports, p. 299. 
merely criminal or penal offence." F. ' See Book III, § 651. 


eery, it may be questioned whether a State statute may forbid the 
writ of injunction, require a jury trial, or deny the power to enforce 
it by fine or imprisonment; and so Congress, under the Federal 
Constitution, may have no such power. But it may surely limit 
the extent of punishment to be inflicted, as is done by statute in 
Kentucky, to imprisonment for ten or thirty days, or at most six 
months, — the extreme sentence now usually imposed. A shorter 
limit would be adequate to any emergency and equally well pro- 
tect the dignity of the Court. 




Coming last to the liberty of labor or trade, it is the more import- 
ant to trace the appearance of the great principles falling under this 
head for the reason that they have largely been lost sight of in Ameri- 
can jurisprudence. The frequent enactment of acts against trusts, 
monopolies, or contracts in restraint of trade, both State and Federal, 
show that our Legislatures, if not our Bench and Bar, must have 
substantially forgotten the body of the common law, to say nothing 
of the course of English constitutional history upon these matters. 

For the broader understanding of the liberty right involves as 
well as the liberty of life and person, the liberty to support life and 
family. That is, to exercise one's labor freely and without control, 
to acquire possessions, to earn wages and to exercise one's faculties 
in any lawful way, without competition by the State or any organism 
of the State and without restraint or hindrance by the government 
or by individuals. The extent of this right is the matter most dis- 
cussed to-day and therefore it is far the most important one to be 
considered. Closely connected with it is the right to private property, 
at least in so far as such property is the result of a man's labor,^ and 
the right to freedom of contract for such labor or in the exercise of 
such trade both as to reward or profits and conditions. There is 
probably no constitutional principle more often invaded by modern 
statutes than is this. 

Both liberty of the person and liberty of trade are guaranteed by 
the great clause of Magna Carta, especially by the explanatory 
words added in the Charter of Henry HI: "No free man shall be 
taken or imprisoned or disseised of his freehold or his liberties or 
his free customs, unless by the lawful judgment of his peers or by 
the law of the land," which latter expression was, as we have found, 
changed in the recital of later statutes to "due process of law." ^ Sir 

* This kind of property is expressly Book III, §§ 13, 14; also see Chapter 
declared to be the only one guaranteed VIII, infra. 
by the Constitution of Oklahoma; see ^ See §§ 127, 130, notes. 


Edward Coke's famous exposition of this clause points out that it 
protects, and was understood at the time to protect, a man's liberties 
or free customs, meaning both the laws of the realm, any franchises 
and privileges that may have been bestowed upon him, and the na- 
tional freedom possessed by the subjects of England ; and, as being 
opposed to these last, forbids monopolies ; * and we may add to 
these many other matters as we follow the development of this 
clause in the statutes. Moreover, the Preamble begins by saying 
"We have granted to all the freemen of our kingdom all the under 
written liberties"; and a very important result of the constitutional 
right to trade or labor lay in the fact that a villein, although escaping 
from the Lord of his manor, who worked at a trade in a town a year 
and a day, thereby became free. Another great development of 
this principle was the successful insistence of laborers that their 
wages should be paid in money and not in produce; for money is 
the badge of free labor; as we instinctively feel about peonage. 
Still another clause of Magna Carta (Cap. 13) provides that the 
City of London shall have all its ancient liberties and free customs, 
and so of all other cities, etc., which means not only the right to law, 
as described in the last chapter, but the freedom of trade and labor 
as well. Cap. 33 in Magna Carta providing for the destruction of 
all weirs or impediments to navigation, early suggests the general 
freedom of trade under the Enghsh Constitution; so Cap. 41, 
providing for the liberty of merchants, and prohibiting any evil tolls 
other than the ancient and allowed customs; and the Charter of 
Henry III (Cap. 30) amplifies this. EarHer local charters recogniz- 
ing freedom of trade were granted to London by Henry I ; Mo all 
men by Henry H in his Charter of Liberties,^ and so in his 
Charter to the Town of Winchester,* and later by Richard I to 
the same town.^ In 1200 the Charter of Nottingham ^ recognizes the 
trade gild with similar liberties. The usual phrase in all these char- 
ters is "the ancient and free customs which are enjoyed by the 
citizens of London oi' which were enjoyed by the town itself when 
they had them 'best or most free.'"'' So the Charter of York* 
recognizes especially its merchant gild. While, finally, the Charter of 
John to London^ grants them to have "well and in peace freely, 

' Taswell-Langmead, p. 104. • Ibid., p. 309. 

' Stubbs' Charters, p. 108. ' Charter of Winchester, A. D. 1190, 

" Ibid., p. 135. Stubbs, p. 266. 

* Ibid., p. 165. " A. D. 1200, Stubbs, p. 312. 

* Ibid., p. 266. " A. D. 1215, Stubbs, p. 314. 


quietly and in full all its liberties vvhicli they were used to have up to 
that time as well in the town of London as outside, by sea or by land 
and in all other places." All these, it will be noted, preceded Magna 
Carta, and that instrument goes beyond trade, to recognize what we 
should call commerce ; as in Cap. 33, providing for freedom of naviga- 
tion of all rivers, and Cap. 42, granting liberty to all to leave the king- 
dom and return to it at will. So, a statute of 1335 allows free trading 
in England to foreign merchants, and in 1340 all merchants are 
allowed to come freely into the kingdom, and in 1344 all persons 
may buy or export wool and the seas shall be open to merchants. 
The Statutes of Staple are full of provisions requiring freedom of 
trade. In 1362, 36 Edward III, there is a statute requiring mer- 
chants to deal in only one kind of goods, and handicraftsmen to use 
but one mystery or trade, but it is notable that the former part of the 
statute was repealed the following year; the part concerning handi- 
craftsmen, only under Elizabeth. In 1383 Wat Tyler for the villeins 
demanded among other things freedom of commerce in market towns. 
In 1436 is the first statute against by-laws in restraint of trade "by 
persons in confederacy for their singular profit and the common 
damage of the people," using modern language, but recognizing such 
combinations as unlawful by existing law. It would be easy to mul- 
tiply examples of statutes recognizing the general right of the English 
freeman to labor or to trade without being coerced in any manner and 
without combination or privilege against him.^ In the Declaration of 
Independence the king is complained of "for cutting off our trade 
with all parts of the world," but the principle was so thoroughly 
established as to require no express mention in our Federal Con- 
stitution other than that contained in the ordinary due-process-of-law 
clause of the Fifth Amendment, and of the Fourteenth Amendment 
requiring for all persons the equal protection of the laws; the word 
"liberty" being well understood to include this most important 
liberty-right as well as the mere right to life and personal freedom. 
The broad principle is probably nowhere better defined than by the 
Supreme Court of the United States, speaking through Mr. Justice 
Field in the Slaughterhouse Cases ^ "Among these inalienable rights 
as proclaimed in that great document [the Declaration of Independ- 
ence] is the right of men to pursue their happiness, by which is 
meant the right to pursue any lawful business or vocation in any 
manner not inconsistent with the equal rights of others, which may 
» See more particularly Chapter VI I. ' 111 U. S. 757. 


increase their property, or develop their faculties, so as to give them 
their highest enjoyment. . . . The common business and callings of 
life, the ordinary trades and pursuits, which are innocuous in them- 
selves, and have been followed in all communities from time im- 
memorial, must, therefore, be free in this country to all alike upon 
the same conditions. The right to pursue them, without let or hin- 
drance, except that which is applied to all persons of the same age, 
sex, and condition, is a distinguishing privilege of citizens of the 
United States, and an essential element of that freedom which they 
claim as their birthright." And by the same Court through Mr. 
Justice Peckham in Allgeyer v. Louisiana : * "The liberty mentioned 
in that amendment [the fourteenth] means not only the right of the 
citizen to be free from the mere physical restraints of his person, — 
as by incarceration, — but the term is deemed to embrace the right 
of the citizen to be free in the enjoyment of all his faculties ; to be 
free to use them in all lawful ways ; to live and work where he will, 
to earn his livelihood by any lawful calling; to pursue any liveli- 
hood or avocation ; and for that purpose to enter into all contracts 
which may be proper, necessary, and essential to his carrying out to 
a successful conclusion the purposes above mentioned." Neverthe- 
less, a few of the newer State Constitutions express the right and 
express it very well.^ 

As we have said, both the right to labor and the right to property 
necessitate the right of free contract ; and while it may be admitted 
that a legislature in the exercise of the police power may enact a 
statute forbidding for the future a specific class of contracts when the 
court can see that the object of such statute bears an intelligible rela- 
tion to the health or safety of the community or to protect it against 
imposition or fraud, an arbitrary statute, especially when directed 
against certain races or certain classes of the community, should not 
be held constitutional. 

The constitutional freedom of labor and trade involves, as has been 
said, matters commonly invaded by modern statutes; such as our 
laws fixing the hours of labor of adult men in special occupations, 
and of women of full age in all, in States which adopt the theory or 
express in their Constitution the civic equality of women in all 
particulars with men ; ^ Massachusetts, however, allows the labor of 
adult women to be limited by law, at least in ordinary mills and 

» 165 U. S. 589. ^ See Book III, §§ 23, 24, and 25 

=» See Book III, §§ 6, 13, 14, 16, 20. ^ith notes. 


factories; and a law of Oregon prescribing her hours of work in 
all mechanical employment has recently been declared by the 
Supreme Court not to violate the Fourteenth Amendment. In 
all States such regulation is permissible as to persons under age. 
And in all States, it would seem, the labor of women may be re- 
stricted or forbidden in occupations tending to immorality or to 
provoke immorality in others, such as serving in drinking saloons; 
and the labor of adult men may be regulated in such employments 
as are dangerous to the health or safety of the public. But the better 
law is that the hours of labor of adult men may not be limited for the 
benefit merely of the health of those employed. So, of the rate of the 
wages and the payment of wages. It will be seen in the Historical 
Digest that a long series of acts endeavoring to fix the rate of wages 
and, indeed, general prices, began in England as early as 1266, was 
abandoned, and tried again until finally definitely given up for the 
last time about the time of Elizabeth.' The result may be said to be 
that the fixing of wages is part of the freedom of contract with which 
the State cannot interfere, at least in ordinary cases (for the exception 
of seamen is perhaps as old as the principle itself). One State Con- 
stitution states this expressly ; ^ but the expression is probably 
unnecessary. New York alone, in a recent Constitutional Amend- 
ment, makes a step in the direction of allowing the State to fix wages 
in public employments. The question whether the time or kind of 
payment of wages may be regulated by statute is much more difficult. 
This interference with the freedom of contract has led to wide dif- 
ferences of opinion in the courts. In Massachusetts a weekly pay- 
ment law has been held not an infringement upon personal liberty; 
in most of the western and southern States, otherwise.^ Laws requir- 
ing wages to be paid in money or in cash orders, not in commodities 
or store credits, have been more usually held constitutional, as 
tending to protect the public, or a large class of the public, against 
fraud; and as has been said, the contracts of seamen have been 
regulated from time immemorial. The whole question comes down 
to this, whether there is such a constitutional principle as the right 
to freedom of contract ; that is to say, a constitutional right to make 

' See "Historical Digest," Annis commodities were given up much 
1266, 1349, 1350, 1353, 1362, 1388, sooner. 
1389, 1427, 1444, 1514, 1562. The effort ' See Book III, § 14. 
to regulate the labor contract ended ' For a full statement of all these 
with Elizabeth; laws fixing prices for matters, see the author's "Handbook 

to the Labor Law of the U. S." 


what contract the two parties clioose, so long as it be not criminal or 
immoral. It is still impossible to make a final and definite decision 
on this point. The courts, from the Supreme Court of the United 
States down, while they have shown a tendency to sustain a law 
prohibiting future contracts of a certain kind when they can see an 
element of fraud or protection to the people, have, at the same time, 
when their attention is not called primarily to the question of legisla- 
tive power, found, or still more, taken as a matter of course, in 
hundreds of decisions, that there is such a thing as a constitutional 
right to freedom of contract derived from either of two sources, — 
the right of freedom to labor or the right to acquire property ; neither 
right being of value unless one can make contracts concerning it. 

The scene of battle to-day, for this principle, is the question of 
contracts agreeing or not agreeing to employ, or not to discharge, or 
not to employ, either Union or Non-Union labor (for the legal 
principle must be the same whether the contract concern Union 
labor or Non-Union labor, whether the promise be by the employer 
or by the employees, whether the illegal combination or compulsion 
complained of be exercised by one or the other side to the dispute). 
Many States have passed statutes forbidding discrimination against 
Union labor, that is, forbidding an employer to discharge, or not to 
employ, or to threaten to discharge a person for being a member of 
a Union. In most of the States where such statutes have been con- 
strued by the courts they have been held unconstitutional; and so 
recently by the U. S. Supreme Court.* 

» Adair v. U. S., 28 Sup. Ct. Rep. 277. 




All personal property is the result, in last analysis, of free labor, 
while ownership of land was a cause of freedom in itself. This 
species of property, indeed, preceded the right to labor discussed in 
the last chapter, and while it is probable that there was always prop- 
erty in a man's personal belongings, yet the written law was not 
much concerned with personal property until some time after the 
Norman Conquest when (1100) we find a statute giving a man the 
right to bequeath it at his death. The abstract word "property" 
is not mentioned in any constitutional document before the Virginia 
Bill of Rights; but the Massachusetts Body of Liberties protects a 
man's ''goods or estate," while the words "freehold" and "cattle" 
in Magna Carta itself substantially comprise all varieties of property 
then commonly enjoyed. It is noteworthy that the property right 
is guaranteed by the same words and in the same clause in all con- 
stitutional documents from Magna Carta to Oklahoma, although 
Oklahoma afterwards qualifies it by saying that a man has an inher- 
ent right only to such property as results from his own natural 
industry.^ On the other hand, Washington and Utah expressly 
say that the object of government is to protect and maintain indi- 
vidual rights. The Petition of Rights recites both ^Nlagna Carta and 
the Statute 28 Edward III requiring "due process of law"; while 
the Massachusetts Body of Liberties (Section 1) seems to think that 
a statute might deprive a man of his property, wife, children, or estate 
if it were only general and published beforehand ; while if there be 
no common law or statute for the case, it may be "by the Word of 
God." So, "Christianity is part of the common law." The right 
of the State to take property upon due compensation will be found 
expressed repeatedly in Magna Carta ^ and indeed in many other 
constitutional documents ; while the American Constitutions ^ only 
add that the compensation must be made before the taking, and the 
amount found by a jury.* 

» See Book III, §§ 14, 130, 183. ^ See Book III, §§ 90, 91. 

=" Caps. 28, 30, 31. * See Book 111, §§ 93, 94. 


The usual infringements of the property right are by way of taxa- 
tion, regulation of rates or charges, and the police power.^ The earliest 
tax, in the modern sense, other than the feudal Aids, was the Saladin 
tithe on personal property (1188).' The right to regulate the charges 
of those exercising franchises or enjoying monopolies granted by the 
State does not properly fall under the head of either eminent domain 
or the police power, though often confounded with one or the other, 
and is equally ancient. 

We have already pointed out how Clauses 12 and 14 of Magna 
Carta, requiring that no aid or tax should be taken except by the 
Common Council of the Realm and prescribing how the Common 
Council of the Realm should be held, — that is, by a summons to the 
bishops and greater barons by special writ and to other chief tenants 
by general writ, — were omitted one year later in the Reissue of Henry 
III and not restored until the Confirmation of Charters of Ed- 
ward III in 1297; when the important phrase is furthermore added 
that they must not only be by the common assent, but also for the 
common profit of the Realm; and by 1353 this was established to 
apply also to indirect taxation, and by 1407, that all money bills 
must originate in the lower house. These principles have neither 
been added to nor improved upon in the very latest State Constitu- 
tions, which, indeed, have rather shown a tendency to infringe upon 
them, as in the betterment tax, and in the extension of the right of 
eminent domain to private uses, recently, however, held unconstitu- 
tional in the State of Wyoming.^ The Massachusetts Body of Liber- 
ties (Clause 8) extends the principle of eminent domain only to cattle 
and goods. The Petition of Rights repeats Magna Carta as to taxa- 
tion by assent of Parliament; and the several State Constitutions 
merely repeat the general principle, though they sometimes forbid 
the right to tax to be given or granted away.* So, also, the Federal 
Constitution,^ that taxes must be for the general welfare of the United 
States and be uniform, and " that bills for raising revenue shall origi- 
nate in the lower house. The principle that money raised by taxation 
must be used for purposes to which it is expressly appropriated, 
established in England in 1666, is repeated.^ The Bill of Rights 
complains of the king's levying money without the grant of Parlia- 

' See Mr. Justice Brewer's " Address ' Sterritt v. Young, 82 Pac. 946. 

tothe Yale Law School," June 23, 1891. " See Book III, § 330. 

* For other early tax laws, see His- ® Art. I, § 8, Clause 1. 

torical Digest, Annis 1193, 1203, 1275, « Art. I, § 7, Clause 1. 

1309, 1322. ' Art. I, § 9, Clause 7. 


ment, and the Declaration of Independence that he imposed taxes 
on the Colonies without their consent. 

Neither police power nor the regulation of charges is mentioned 
in any constitutional document ; but the early statutes are full of 
instances independent of the attempted fixing of the price of bread 
and beer according to the price of wheat and barley respectively 
by the Assize of bread and beer ; ' nine years later the great Statute 
of Westminster I prohibits excessive toll contrary to the common 
custom of the Realm in all market towns; and many such statutes 
might be found applying to ferries, wharves, toll roads, or any other 
franchise or monopoly made by law. And finally, in the year 1G91, 
there is a general statute fixing the rates of common carriers. More- 
over the early reports are full of indictments against persons keeping 
a ferry, etc., for extortion.^ Logically, it would seem that the right 
of the State to regulate charges by those enjoying franchises it has 
granted would be absolute; it has no connection with the eminent 
domain principle requiring property not to be taken without com- 
pensation ; but American courts have held the right subordinate to 
the constitutional provisions securing property right.^ 

The principle against monopoly or restraint of trade, though not 
expressed in any constitutional document, is quite as old as many 
that are, and may fairly be considered as part of the law of the land. 
Indeed there is no principle in any of the modern statutes against 
trusts which cannot be traced to an historical prototype. It is only 
necessary to look at our Historical Digest to see how frequently 
these principles find expression in statutes from the very earliest 
times, when statutes were understood but to express the common 
law.* The common law against contracts in restraint of trade and 
engrossing of the market having been thus established, we begin to 
find the same evil reappearing under State grants of monopoly; 
much as to-day when the trusts were forbidden by the Sherman Act 
of 1S90 against trusts, they proceeded to form corporations, thereby 
securing a franchise under the shield of some State. Indeed it is 
hardly too much to say that the so-called anti-trust legislation, by 
preventing any reasonable agreement even when meant only to 

» "Historical Digest," Anno 1266. * See Book II, "Historical Digest," 

^ I. e., discrimination. See Rex v. Annis 1285, 1335, 1350, 1362, 1425, 

Burdett,lLd. Raymond, 143; Roberts' 1436, 1503, 1533, 1552. In this year 

case, 4 Mod. 101; Rex v. Wadsworth, the statute against forestalling was 

5 Mod. 13. made perpetual, and not repealed until 

^ See Book III, § 13 and note; the latter part of the 18th century. 
U. S. C. Amts. 5 & 14. 


make rates equal and prevent discrimination, compelled in itself 
the formation of the thing it was designed to prevent. 

Noticing as we pass an early appearance of the prejudice against 
middle-men, especially coal dealers (1553) and the statute of 1555, 
which seems to anticipate the notions of modern socialists that there 
is a monopoly in the instrumentalities for the production of wealth, 
we find in 1571 a definite complaint of monopoly. In 1601 the abuse 
increases so much that indignant speeches are made about it in the 
House of Commons.' Nevertheless, James I found it too easy a 
method of raising money to abandon, and he awarded patents for 
dealing in articles which were not even inventions or matters of 
special trade. About this time too arose the trading corporation, 
then really first invented, historically derived from the religious 
corporation or the gild, but now directed to private gain and having 
one of the essential modern attributes, perpetual succession, though 
the other, that of non-liability of members, was not, as far as I can 
learn, imagined until a statute of the State of Connecticut enacted 
in May, 1818. These early corporations, however, such as "The 
Turkey Company," "The India Company," "The Hudson Bay 
Company" often gave a monopoly of trade with the respective 
countries indicated ; but the objection would not be felt to be the 
same as that against a monopoly at home. Finally, in 1G23, the 
great Statute of Monopolies was passed, just after the famous case 
of monopolies was decided, holding that such were against the com- 
mon law of the Realm and prohibiting the king from dispensing 
with the common law by granting licenses. This statute, 21 
James I, is extremely like a modern anti-trust statute in that it gives 
remedy in double or treble damages to anybody injured, and makes 
exception of copyrights and certain corporation charters. 

It may fairly be stated, therefore, that the principles against what 
we now call "trusts," against monopoly and against combinations 
to fix prices, limit output, o/ secure a monopoly in restraint of trade, 
are derived from fundamental principles of the common law. The 
modern statutes against trusts, while possibly necessary as to a 
Federal statute, there being no Federal common law in civil matters, 
and therefore comprising but the enunciation of common-law prin- 
ciples as to interstate commerce, with the imposition of a penalty 
and the provision of remedies, were not really necessary as to State 
Legislation. Nearly one-half, indeed, of the State anti-trust laws have 

* See F. J. Stimson, "American Constitution," page 114. 


been declared unconstitutional, either by the U. S. Supreme Court 
or by the courts of the State enacting them ; while the half that is 
valid hardly do more than enunciate the principles of the common 
law.* In England no more legislation was necessary. The Massa- 
chusetts Body of Liberties copies the Statute of Monopolies passed 
eighteen years before: "No monopolies shall be granted or allowed 
amongst us but of such new inventions that are profitable to the 
country and that for a short time." And finally the American 
principle against class legislation, of which in our next chapter. 

* See Book III, Art. 58. The East thus anticipating the principle of stock 
India Co., chartered under Elizabeth, assessments; and tlie charter gave a 
is said to have been the first trading monopoly of trade " into those parts 
corporation in tlie modern sense; that limited by their incorporation." In the 
is, an association for making money same year is a charter to merchants 
and dividing the profit, although it trading in the Russian seas, and in 
allowed the members to trade sepa- 1650 a charter to the weavers of Nor- 
rately. In 1643 came the charter to wich giving power to adopt by-laws, 
the merchant adventurers of England to impose fines for impf-rfect w'eav- 
" for the better maintenance of trade " ing — lately forbidden by statute in 
closing with the words " said Fellow- Massachusetts, which statute was de- 
ship shall be a corporation and shall clared unconstitutional (Croth v. Perry, 
have power to levy moneys on the 155 Mass. 117). A few years later 
members of the corporation and other come the Hudson's Bay and Greenland 
goods for their necessary charge and Companies, 
maintenance of their government," 




There are several other cardinal rights of less importance than 
those to liberty, which may be considered as consequences either 
of it or of the right to law. All of these have been preserved, and 
many of them amplified, in our Constitutions; while hardly a new 
one is added, unless it be the right to reputation, which, indeed, 
Blackstone mentions as a cardinal right, and the recently felt notion 
of right to privacy (this is recognized in a very striking manner in 
the Constitution of Washington ^), and the provision against im- 
prisonment for debt which appears in the jNIassachusetts Body of 
Iviberties and in a few State Constitutions. But most important of 
all, the principle against class legislation found in the Virginia 
Bill of Rights (Clause 4), "That no man or set of men are en- 
titled to exclusive or separate emoluments or privileges from the 
community," the Fourteenth Amendment, § 1, that "no State . . . 
shall deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection 
of the laws," and much more definitely expressed in the State 
Constitutions;^ an American principle, for the great clause of 
Magna Carta, extending the law of the land to all, is no guaranty 
against class legislation contained in an Act of Parliament. 
Closely allied to this is the provision against hereditary privi- 
leges, titles of nobility, etc., contained in both State and Federal 
Constitutions, and deemed of such importance that it is forbidden 
in the Federal Constitution to the States.^ It is difficult to see 
how the provision in the North Carolina and other Southern 
Constitutions against hereditary privileges is consistent in prin- 
ciple with that extending an hereditary right to vote.* Equal law 
is furthermore extended to all races ^ and sexes.^ American 
Constitutions, of course, prohibit slavery, but so, in modern times, 
does the English. A striking statement of the principle of equality 

' See Book III, § 71. * Fourteenth Amendment; Book 

' See Book III, §§ 16, 395. Ill, §§ 20-21. 

« See Book III, § 17. " Book III, §§ 23-27. 

* See Book III, § 246. 


before the law will be found in the Massachusetts Body of Liberties, 
Clause 2.^ 

The principle of equality by birth declared in the Virginia Bill 
of Rights and the Declaration of Independence is not carried into 
the Federal Constitution, though it is found in nearly all State 

The right to bear arms was inherent in the English people; in 
fact, under early laws, was compelled. The barons were required 
to support their king in war but they early complained against be- 
ing led out of the kingdom, and King John's insistence upon this 
was the principal cause leading to Runnymede. This right is ex- 
pressed in every American constitutional document as well as all 
the State Constitutions. On the other hand, the objection to mer- 
cenaries or standing armies seems to have always existed. There 
were practically none in England until the time of the Stuarts, 
(though Italian and German — " Brabazon " — mercenaries were 
first employed in 1449, to suppress Jack Cade) a cause to which 
most students of constitutional history attribute the preservation of 
English freedom and parliamentary government. 

The objection to the use of the army to establish military tribunals 
or to overawe the people is apparent in a long range of constitutional 
documents and statutes. Correlative to this, but having its source 
also in the right to the common law, are many statutes in early times 
protesting against the laws of the Forest ; also the general prohibition 
of martial law, — the English and American principle being that the 
military must never be independent of or superior to the civil power.^ 

The militia, the ancient defence of the realm, we find revived only 
seventeen years after the conquest; and the support of the militia, 
or even of the army and navy, is therefore entrusted to the legisla- 
tive branch both in our Federal and in the State governments, their 
command only entrusted to the Executive, but his use of the army 
is carefully limited to definite emergencies (invasion, insurrection, 
etc.) ; and, as between the State and the Federal power, the President 
cannot employ the State militia but in a national emergency, nor 
Federal troops in a State except when requested thereto by the legis- 
lative authority thereof — save, indeed, where necessary to main- 
tain the functions or officers of the Federal Government, or when 

' See Book II., Constitutional Prin- ^ See Declaration of Independence, 
ciples. Clause 16. 

* See Book III, § 11. 


the State Government ceases to be republican in form ; but of that 
it does not appear from the Constitution whether Congress or the 
President is to be the judge. 

These three principles will be found recognized in every one of 
our constitutional documents^ both English and American, and in 
all the State Constitutions.^ Even military law, the necessary regula- 
tions for the government of the army and navy in actual service, is 
only made possible in England by an annual re-enactment of the 
Mutiny Act, and the same effect is secured in the Federal Constitu- 
tion by the provision that Congress may make no appropriation for 
the army for more than two years. The right to bear arms, how- 
ever, does not prevent laws for the punishment of carrying concealed 
weapons, nor does it authorize bands of men not belonging to the 
militia to drill or parade armed, while the recent provisions in some 
new State Constitutions against "Pinkerton" men, or the employ- 
ment of private armed guards, is curiously reminiscent of the earlier 
English statutes against "retainers." ^ 

Of the other rights which are common to the English and American 
Constitutions, freedom of speech may be first mentioned, which arose 
very early as to members of Parliament or debates in Parliament; 
but is perhaps not otherwise a right recognized in the English Con- 
stitution except so far as involved in the political right of assembly 
and petition, for which see later. It is recognized as a general right, 
however, in the First Amendment to the Federal Constitution and 
in all the State Constitutions. Freedom of speech, in political matters 
at least, is, however, established in England, and freedom of the press 
even more definitely, so that a man is able to write what he will on 
all subjects, being only responsible for libellous matter. There is 
generally no distinction between the two rights made in American 

The important political right of assembly and petition is rather 
the original than a derivation from freedom of speech, and is also 
related to the general political rights of the English subject. It is 
recognized first clearly in the Bill of Rights, and generally in Ameri- 
can Constitutions,* and forms an indispensable part of the political 
liberty enjoyed by the Anglo Saxons. Indeed this, with the right 
to bear arms, has always been the essential difference which has 

» See Book III, §§ 62, 63, 290-295; ^ See Book III, §§ 60, 61. 
Book II, Constitutional Principles. * See Book III, § 64; U. S. C. Amt. 

* See Book III, § 63, note 5. 1. 


attended revolutions or popular reforms in England from other 
European countries. The other political rights are mainly the great 
right of equal representation in the legislative assemblies, with cor- 
related provisions for free elections and for the judgment of dis- 
puted elections by the legislative body itself, not by the Executive, 
nor even, unless the Legislature so will, by the courts.' The re- 
quirement that elections shall be free appears in the Statutes of the 
Realm as early as 1571, but is finally embodied in the Bill of Rights 
as well as in the Virginia and Massachusetts Constitutions. There 
appears to be no English constitutional principle respecting the 
right of suffrage, which, from having been early shared in by all 
freemen, was in 1429 limited to the forty shillings freeholders; but 
it is carefully provided for, to a limited extent saving property rights, 
in the Virginia and INIassachusetts Bills of Rights ; and in the Federal 
Constitution, providing that all electors who vote for the lower 
house of the State Legislature shall vote for the President; and as 
to race distinctions, or even educational or property qualifications, 
in the Fifteenth and Fourteenth Amendments respectively. Hardly 
any property and few educational qualifications remained in the 
State Constitutions a few years ago; but there is a tendency to 
re-impose them." 

Having thus established the right of the people to be represented 
in a legislative body and having established in effect the right of 
that body to participate in all law-making and to originate all laws 
imposing taxes, it only remained for our ancestors to prevent the 
suppression of the legislative body by the Executive, or "personal 
government" attempted without the Parliament or without calling 
the Legislature together. This principle first appears in the statutes 
in 1330 and is embodied in the English Constitution in the Bill of 
Rights, and in the Federal Constitution, Art. I, § 4, requiring annual 
sessions of Congress. 

The important new American principles of government, the sepa- 
ration of the powers, and the effect of the written constitution on 
statutes, have been discussed in an earlier chapter. The former 
principle appears in the Federal and in all the State Constitutions 
with the striking exception, to which attention was called in a recent 
decision of the Court of Appeals of that State, of New York. The 
expression of it in the Virginia Bill of Rights is interesting; and 
they attempt to engraft upon it the possibly more debatable prin- 

' See Book III, § 270. * See Book III, §§ 240, 245, 246. 


ciplc of rotation in office. The exclusion of the judicial branch from 
this last principle is equally striking and counter to prevailing ten- 
dencies to-day.' The more abstract provisions of American con- 
stitutional documents supposed at the time to embody new political 
principles - have so far hardly resulted in more than the sounding 
phrases in which they are couched, while generally principles em- 
bodying the idea that governments are formed for the people and 
by the people, that all officers are but the servants of the people, 
and that, when the government fails of its effect in protecting natural 
rights, the people may and should alter or abolish it, — have hardly 
more practical result in constitutional law than the possibly moral 
justification of a future revolution.^ 

The last important addition made by American Constitutions is 
perhaps that of religious rights * and in State Constitutions, educa- 
tion.^ The former is not completely yet a constitutional principle 
in England, — for there is still an established Church, — and its ex- 
pression originated with the Virginia Bill of Rights, though there 
are foreshadowings of religious freedom even in the Massachusetts 
Body of Liberties. The inclusion of education as a natural right 
by our State Constitutions may have interesting consequences,^ but 
the Federal Constitution does not recognize it. The former principle 
prevents any discrimination against any person on account of his 
religion as well as any sectarian appropriation or established church, 
but it does not justify, under the guise of religious belief, crime or 
practices inconsistent with the safety or well being of the State. 

The last significant innovation, and not the least important, made 
by American Constitutions, is the prohibition of general warrants, 
the exercise by the government of the power to search places or 
seize persons with no specific charge and without a sworn warrant 
specifying an offence, the persons to be seized, and the objects of 
seizure. This principle, originating in Massachusetts ten years 
before the Revolution,^ became later (1765) indeed a constitutional 
principle in England, but is not of course expressed in any of the 

' See Book II, Virginia Bill of Rights « See Book III, §§ 50, 190, note 9. 
§ 5. ' See Book III, § 71, note 10. But 

^ See Book III, §§5, 185. see Petition of Right, Clause 2, com- 

^ See Book II, Constitutional Docu- plaining of commissions directed to 

ments, Chapter III, Clause c, Theory commissioners to raise moneys for the 

of Government; and Chapter VIII king, who administered an oath not 

below. warrantable by the laws or statutes of 

* See Book III, Art. 4. the realm. 

« See Book III, Art. 5. 


so-called constitutional documents, which are usually considered 
as terminating with the Act of Settlement. It is most strongly ex- 
pressed, however, both in the Virginia and Massachusetts Bills of 
Rights and in the United States Constitution, Fourth Amendment. 
It is, of course, closely connected with the right of a person not to 
be compelled to give self-criminating evidence, but it has a far 
broader historical connection with the general objection of the Eng- 
lishman to inquisitions, visitatorial expeditions by king or Crown 
officer, going straight back, indeed, to the great clause of Magna 
Carta. A man's private affairs cannot be looked into nor his papers 
searched except in judicial proceedings or upon the charge of some 
definite offence; while even then he may refuse either to testify or 
furnish documentary evidence if it may reveal him guilty of a criminal 
offence, unless under a law guarantying him immunity not only for 
the offence charged, but for all offences that may be revealed by the 
process directly or indirectly, either in that court or in any other 
court of the same sovereign. The immunity does not, however, 
have to be extended to courts of another State or country, or even, 
in the Federal courts, to those of any State, and vice versa; nor, 
it appears, is the privilege one which may be claimed by corpora- 
tions. On the other hand, the privilege undoubtedly relates only 
to the danger of a criminal prosecution, and can hardly be extended 
to cover a general right to privacy, either of person or possessions, 
however much that is to be desired. 




In England, if there be a sovereign, it was the king in Parlia- 
ment and is now practically the House of Commons. In either 
case, not the people, though they elect their representatives; for 
Parliament can change either law or form of government. In 
America, by definition of our Constitution, it is the people; though 
refiners in substance may trace it back to a majority of an assem- 
blage of three-fourths of the States, by which alone the Constitution 
can be amended.' This, however, seems rather like casuistry; while 
the people provided that their written Constitution could only be 
amended regularly in that way, it equally remains true that the 
people themselves might at any time amend it by a successful con- 
stituent assembly; it hardly needs the assurances of the Declara- 
tion of Independence and other constitutional documents ^ to assure 
that principle. We may therefore lay down the proposition that all 
political power is inherent in the people, that governments derive 
their just powers from the consent of the governed, except, indeed, 
when we exercise territorial jurisdiction, and that the people may 
alter the government when it fails of its design or ceases to be Re- 
publican in form.^ The Declaration of Independence is not part of 
the American Constitution, although printed at the beginning of the 
Revised Statutes of the United States, before the Constitution itself, 
and although certain of the Acts of Congress admitting territories 
provide that they shall adopt Constitutions in accordance with its 
principles. However, therefore, it may be questionable in abstract 
theory, at least for States of the Union, it is true that the people are 

Representative government was a mediaeval — in the forms it has 
most successfully developed, an English — invention. It did away 

» See James B. Thayer, " Legal Es- ' See Book III, § 181. 
says," pp. 200-204. » See Book III, §§ 181, 182, 183. 


with the pure democracy to which "legislation by the people " — 
initiative and referendum ' — would seem to return. Therefore they 
found it necessary to provide particularly for the great Council of 
the Realm, later Parliament, later the representative House of Com- 
mons; and for its frequent meeting. As early as 1330 we find a 
statute requiring annual sessions of Parliament; in 13G2 the prin- 
ciple is repeated. Triennial Acts follow, in 1G41 and IGdi; and in 
1716 the duration of Parliament is extended to seven years. With 
us the Virginia Bill of Rights expresses the doctrine that all magis- 
trates or officers of government are but the trustees or servants of 
the people, and the Federal Constitution as well as the Bill of Rights 
of Massachusetts requires that legislative bodies should meet 

It follows that elections must be free and that Parliament must 
sit without dictation of the executive branch,' the efforts of the 
kings to resist this having proved futile.^ The long attempt of the 
Executive to make laws by orders in Council or by proclamation, or 
indirectly by suspending laws already existing, may be traced through 
the history of the middle centuries until they ended in the Bill of 
Rights.* It is now an established constitutional principle that the 
Executive can neither suspend a law nor suspend a penalty nor even 
pardon an offence in anticipation of trial. 

The history of suffrage may be summed up in the statement that 
originally all free men had the vote ; that is to say, when there was 
a vote. In early times of course only the peers of the realm, the 
barons or tenants in chief, came to Parliament. Beginning with the 
time of JNIagna Carta we may trace the practice of summoning rep- 
resentative commoners by general writ; then for two centuries we 
find indirect general suffrage through the County Courts; but in 
1429 we find a disfranchizing act, restricting the voting qualifica- 
tions to forty shillings a year freeholders, which, in England, has 
never been entirely abolished since. In the United States we have, 
since the Fourteenth Amendment, and under State laws, manhood 
suffrage without distinction of race ; although property, educational, 
or other distinctions are allowed, subject only to the consequent 

* See infra, Chapter IX; Book III, * See "Historical Digest," Annis 

§ 309. The early system was of course 1275, 1407, 1485, 1707. 

the primary assembly or folk-mote, * Ibid., Annis 1539, 1609. 

etc. Early European prototypes dis- * Ibid., Annis 1407, 1414, 1485, 

appeared; only the English Parliament 1539, 1609. Stimson "The American 

endured. Constitution," p. 102. 


diminution of representation in the Federal Congress.* The effort 
to control elections and candidates was, indeed, made in England, 
especially by James I, but was early abandoned, and the principle 
exists there as here that only the legislative body itself can judge of 
the qualifications returns of its members unless, indeed, it choose 
to delegate that power to the courts." Legislative sessions must 
(except executive sessions of Senate), with us, be open; not neces- 
sarily so in England ; but in both countries the legislative body has 
power to protect itself against contempt; and of this it may not be 
deprived. It may expel a member and it may punish a person not 
a member, but probably in America only by fine or imprisonment, 
the latter not to last beyond the duration of the session. Speech in 
the Legislature is free in both countries, and the members them- 
selves are privileged from arrest except for felony or, in England, 
on civil process, which privilege early extended to their servants 
and members of the household ; not, however, to attachment for 
contempt of habeas corpus.^ The principle of freedom of elections 
was reiterated in the English Bill of Rights and is preserved in 
American constitutional documents,* and our State Constitutions 
usually require vote by ballot and secrecy of the ballot, though by 
recent amendments voting machines may be used. 

Officers of the government are, as has been said, the trustees or 
servants of the people. They may not hold place in more than one 
of the three departments or, with us, usually, in both State and 
Federal preferment. They are sworn to support the Constitution of 
the United States and must give attention to the duties of their office 
and not farm it out to others. This principle, dating from the peti- 
tion of thirty-one articles to Henry IV in 1406, is copied in some 
modern State Constitutions.^ They may be impeached by the lower 
house for crime or mere maladministration, which impeachment is 
tried by the upper house; and no pardon is available but they are 
still liable to trial at the common law.® 

The right of assembly has been already discussed.'' By an Act 
of 1549 unlawful assemblies of twelve to alter laws or abate prices 
were made unlawful, which apparently gave rise both to the modern 
riot acts and to the notion that strikes were criminal. This, liow- 

' See Book III, §§23, 240, 245, 246. "See "Historical Digest," Annis 

' See Book III, § 270. 1485, 1512, 1581; Act of Settlement, 

' See Book III, § 273. Clause 8. 

* See Book III, § 237. ' See Chapter VII. 

« See Book III, § 215. 



ever, has iiotliin*^ to do with tlie poUtical right of assembly. In the 
Massachusetts Body of Liberties, Chiuse 12, every man shall have 
liberty to come to any public court, council, or town meeting, and 
tliere by speech or writing move any lawful, seasonable, and material 
(|uestion, so it be done in convenient time, due order, and respectful 
manner. Bowen says that this right was not established in England 
until the Bill of Riglits in IGSO, nearly fifty years later.' 

The early English statutes protecting the subject against attainder 
or trial for treason - and requiring two witnesses to the same overt 
act are copied in American constitutional documents, Federal and 
State, and extended in the Massachusetts Body of Liberties (Clause 
47) to capital ofl'ences. 

Finally, the most important of all our governmental principles, 
that of the separation of the powers into three departments, is ex- 
presslv recognized in both Federal and all State Constitutions, except, 
possibly. New York, though by a recent decision of the Supreme 
Court of the United States, it is not guaranteed by the Federal gov- 
ernment to a citizen of a State in the State. We have already dis- 
cussed this principle as one of the two most important American 
constitutional innovations. Nevertheless, there are foreshadowings 
of it in English constitutional documents or statutes outside of the 
writings of theorists. Thus, in 1615, the attempt of the Executive 
to control the judicial branch led to the famous rebuke of Chief 
Justice Coke. He was indeed removed, and from that time until 
the Civil War judges held office at the king's pleasure, but in the 
Act of Settlement it was for the first time embodied in writing that 
their tenure must be for life, and their remuneration not dependent 
on the caprice of the king. This, also, has been copied in the Federal 
Constitution and originally in all the State Constitutions.^ The States 
have indeed largely departed from this principle since, in so far as 
their appointment is concerned, judges being now elective in almost 
all, but their compensation continues to be fixed, not to be changed 
by the legislature and they may not be removed by the Executive.* 
The Declaration of Independence stated the principle clearly when 
it complained of King George that he made judges dependent on 
his will alone for the tenure of their offices and the amount and pay- 

* See Book II, Constitutional Docu- ' See Smith, "The American Con- 

ments; Bill of Rights, Clause 5. stitutions," Philadelphia, 1797. 

2 See "Historical Digest," Aymo * See Book III, §§ 206, 660. 


ment of their salaries. Furthermore, that he was guilty of usurpation 
in that he refused his assent to laws and forbade the passing of laws 
until his assent should be obtained, and refused to pass other laws 
unless the people would relinquish the right of representation, "a 
right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only," and in 
the Virginia Bill of Rights (Clause 5) we find the principle first ex- 
pressed that the legislative and executive powers of the State should 
be separate and distinct from the judiciary, and the two first should 
at fixed periods be reduced to a private station ; which principle of 
rotation in office, however, is expressly declared not to be applicable 
to the judicial branch. 

Nothing remains but to remark of the American Constitution that 
it creates a government of limited powers and that those not therein 
expressed, however usual to sovereignty in other countries, are not 
given to the present government, but remain with the people ; that 
is to say, the people's will as expressed by the legislatures of three 
fourths of the States or by conventions of the people in three fourths 
thereof. The will of the people in these conventions is final, — higher 
than any other governmental authority, requiring not the consent 
of the Executive; although Abraham Lincoln, with pardonable 
satisfaction, appended his name to the Thirteenth Amendment 
abolishing slavery. And our government must be republican in 
form, and constitutional; that is to say, it must protect even 
minorities or individuals in certain cardinal rights. " Absolute, 
arbitrary power over the lives, liberty, and property of free men 
exists nowhere in a republic, not even in the largest majority." ^ 

1 See Book III, § 182. 




This, the matter usually treated of in constitutional history, we 
may dispose of briefly. The main distinction of the American Con- 
stitution, that of the separation of the powers, we have been com- 
pelled to anticipate. It is not complete; for instance, the Executive 
has, under the Federal Constitution, some legislative powers, such 
as the veto; and during his term of office a certain control over the 
judiciary, by his jx»wer to appoint and promote ; the Senate, in its 
power to confirm appointments and advise and consent to treaties, 
some executive powers ; the judicial branch alone has no part in the 
other two.^ But in England there is no clear division, nor even effort 
to secure it ; though the tendency of history has been in that direction 
and many of the evils complained of by the people have resulted from 
the confusion of the powers or their usurpation by the king or his 
officers. Broadly speaking, English history has gone through the fol- 
lowing stages : In the beginning the people, all freemen who chose to 
attend the Great Council, made the laws; later, after the attempt to 
usurp the law-making power failed under the Norman and Angevin 
kings, they were made by the king in Parliament ; later the king tried 
to secure legislative power to the king in Council. In the last stage, 
the power went back absolutely to Parliament and practically to the 
House of Commons: more practically still, to an inner committee of 
the Cabinet of the party in power, just as with us, short of a great 
popular movement, the real power of shaping ordinary legislation 
rests with the Speaker of the House. English constitutional history 
clearly establishes two or three other principles : That the king can 
neither make laws, nor suspend laws, nor grant pardons in advance 
for a crime or breach of the law, nor ever in cases of impeachment. 
The first and the last are expressed clearly in the Federal Constitu- 
tion, and it might be wished that the other two were also. The 

^ It has been claimed by Mr. Hearst this is not the correct view. See 
and others that the power to declare a p. 8, supra; Stimson's "The American 
law unconstitutional is legislative, but Constitution," pp. 7-10. 


power of suspending laws or their application, or agreeing not to 
prosecute in certain cases or to pardon certain offenders, is a danger- 
ous one in the hands of the Executive, Moreover, there is an in- 
creasing tendency to-day in Congress to grant legislative power to 
the Executive or to boards or commissions of his appointment. 
Notably has this been done in recent years in the case of making 
treaties, fixing customs duties, the rates of railways, and in the con- 
trol of corporations, — all properly legislative matters. The excuse 
made is that Congress but declares the general principle, and that 
the act of the president, for instance, in finding a state of affairs to 
exist upon which he may ratify a treaty or proclaim a commercial 
arrangement, is merely ministerial. An example of the length to 
which this theory may be carried is found in the recent railway 
regulation act or Hepburn Bill, where Congress merely proclaims 
that the rates shall be reasonable and without discrimination, — • 
both mere expressions of the common law, — and leaves the deter- 
mination of what is reasonable between the Interstate Commerce 
Commission and the Supreme Court, neither of them legislative 
bodies. The common law may, indeed, be decided by a judicial 
body; but it is difficult to see why the alteration of the common law 
is not legislation. When, therefore, the Commission fix a "just and 
reasonable" rate,^ if they are applying the common law, their act is 
judicial ; if they are fixing other standards, it is legislative. Federal 
judges have consistently, from the beginning, refused to exercise 
other than judicial functions, though they have accepted functions 
which are in a sense judicial but were not conferred by the Consti- 
tution ; as, notably, in the Venezuela arbitration and in the Electoral 
Commission of 1884. Recent State Constitutions express this point 
particularly, independent of the usual section concerning separation 
of the powers.^ It may be urged in objection to the too frequent 
invocation of the courts in trade disputes that they tend to make the 
courts take part in the administration of affairs.^ 

In England for a time it was urged that the king might make 
laws punishing offences which were mala in se, or might increase 
penalties in such cases, or suspend laws generally directed at things 
not mala in se; but it may be doubted if much be left of that dis- 
tinction to-day. Somewhat analogous to it, however, is the growing 
practice of leaving to the president or the attorney-general or other 

' U. S. Act of February 4, 18S7, as ^ See Book III, §§ 200 n., 650. 
amended June 29, 1906, § 15. ^ See above, Chapter IV. 


oflicers to determine what corporations or combinations arc unlawful 
untler Federal legislation, or otherwise, when in principle or in out- 
ward form they may all be the same. 

Other examples of the confusion of the departments in England 
may be instanced in the usurpation by the Star Chamber, later the 
Privy Council, of executive and judicial functions; it is significant 
that the "Orders in Council" ' survived to be a principal cause of 
the War of 1812. It may be questioned whether Parliament to-day 
would not interfere, were such orders attempted.- The interference 
of the king with legislation bv dictating to Parliament or even bv 
his personal presence, notable under Henry VIII through Cardinal 
Wolsey, and by Charles I himself, is familiar to all readers of history ; 
and his attempt to secure the opinion of judges in advance of their 
decision, or even to dictate and compel them to decide in a certain 
way, as well as the practice of attainting juries, has been discussed 
elsewhere.^ James I also sat personally in court, but was told by 
the judges he could not deliver an opinion.* 

The judicial power has been broadly discussed above.^ Usurpa- 
tion by the judicial branch has never existed in this country nor has 
it been complained of since the time of Thomas Jefferson ; nor ever, 
as to common-law judges, in England; except, indeed, by James I, 
who complained that " The courts of common law had grown so 
vast and transcendent as to meddle with the king's prerogative." ^ 

The executive power, while probably it was intended by Hamil- 
ton and others to be given to the president in much the shape that 
it was enjoyed by a constitutional English king, nevertheless reveals 
striking differences in the two Constitutions. Indeed, our Supreme 
Court has remarked more than once that the American president is 
not a king even for four years; that though in theory he exercise 
the rights of an English sovereign it is with the loss of many a flower 
of the English king's prerogative. On the other hand, he has more 
powers as to treaty making, more powers in fact (though not in 
theory) as to making war, and is expressly made commander-in- 
chief of the Army and Navy. He has the veto power which has 

' See Declaration of Independence, ^ Ibid., p. 100; Book III, § 131. 
Clause 7, and IS: "He has combined * Ibid., pp. 100, 101. 
witli others to subject us to a juris- * See Chapters I, II, III, IV, and 

diction foreign to our Constitution." more particularly throughout the foot- 

These words refer to the Orders in notes follo\\"ing the text of Book III. 
Council. " Stimson, "The American Consti- 

' Stimson, "The American Con- tution," p. 118. 
stitution," pp. 102, 130. 


practically passed from the English king's prerogative, and most 
important of all, he appoints all Federal officers, even the judo-es. 
Practically all these powers are exercised in England by the lower 
legislative house through its committee, the Cabinet. Moreover, 
they, or the prevailing majority, in effect designate the prime min- 
ister and through him the rest of the Cabinet. With us the president 
appoints them, and in this instance at least, his appointments are 
nearly always confirmed. Both king and president make oath that 
they will support the National Constitution. Neither may dismiss 
the Legislature (under recent practice, at least in England) and both 
may call it together. 

The American president is, indeed, liable to impeachment, but in 
England the Parliament or even the House of Commons have many 
times claimed the power of deposition which is very nearly expressly 
recognized in the Act of Settlement; indeed, the king has been called 
but the personification of a majority in the House of Commons. 
Finally, the American president has far more power, even under 
the text of the Constitution, in the execution of the laws than has 
the English king.^ 

Coming to the State Constitutions, we have discussed the political 
powers generally in Book HI, Part 2, and the legislative powder in 
full in Part 3. The principle of representative government is recog- 
nized in all Constitutions, except that of Oklahoma, and, by recent 
amendments, in States adopting the general initiative. Representa- 
tion must generally be apportioned according to population; the 
separation of the powers is most carefully provided for," and the 
constitution and functions of the Legislature are the same as in the 
Federal Constitution. The powers of the governor resemble those 
of the president, except where (as in war, treaties, etc.) restricted 
by the Federal power. The terms of office are usually shorter, and 
sessions of the liCgislature not so frequent as in the case of Congress.^ 
All IvCgislatures are paid, though very much less than members of 
Congress; and the provision in the Federal Constitution against 
plurality of office is much extended, even so far as to forbid in most 
States a member of Congress or person holding any lucrative office 
under the United States from sittino; in the State Legislature or beins: 
elected as governor.* Conversely in New York and Michigan, no 

1 Stimson, "The American Consti- * See Book III, § 220; Stimson's 

tution," pp. 164-166. "American Statute Law, Vol. I, § 220 

- See Book III, §§ 200, 201. (B). 
3 See Book III, §§ 203, 204. 


member of the State Legislature can, duriiifjj his term, be elected 
to the United States Senate; and in New ^ Oik and several other 
States a iiuMnber of the State Legishitiire takiii<^ any United States 
oliice or being elected to Congress vacates his seat. Thus, the Eng- 
Hsh principle that the holder of a Crown office may not sit in the 
House of Commons, is extended, with us, to the holding of a legis- 
lative function in both sovereignties. Practically all State officers 
may be impeached and the usual English constitutional powers are 
given to the State Legislatures.^ The machinery of legislation is 
much the same and the constitutional principle that all revenue 
measures must originate in the lower house and be for the general 
good of the people is fully recognized.^ The veto power is extended 
in all the States except North Carolina and Rhode Island ; usually 
in the same terms as in the Federal Constitution.^ 

But by far the most important innovation in the government or- 
ganization of the States is, of course, the initiative and referendum, 
now adopted generally under the Constitutions of seven States,* and, 
as to local referendum, on certain matters of debt and taxation, in 
many others.^ The wise modern tendency is to require a referendum 
as to all acts of State, county, city, or town government creating a 
municipal debt or granting a public franchise. This, however, 
though similar in principle, is so different in consequence from a 
broad general referendum covering all legislation of any sort, espe- 
cially when coupled with the initiative which enables the people to 
dispense with the Legislature entirely or even to amend the Constitu- 
tion by direct intervention of the people, that the narrower referen- 
dum first mentioned, limited to certain matters affecting local in- 
terest, may be dismissed from our further discussion. The State 
initiative is, of course, direct legislation by the people; and this, it 
must be noted, is no new thing, but merely a recurrence to primeval 
principles, — doing away with that invention of representative gov- 
ernment which has served the English people well for a thousand 
years and has been commended as their peculiar contribution to 
pohtical science. Direct legislation early existed in England, at 
least as to the free men or greater barons; indeed, mention is made 
by historians of a Witenagemot of sixty thousand men meeting on 
SaUsbury Plain not very long after the Conquest.^ The inconven- 

» See Book III, §§ 260, 270. * See Book III, § 309. 

2 See Book III, §§ 300, 310. « See Book III, §§ 316, 363 and 372. 

3 See Book lU, § 304. « Hannis Taylor, I, 240. 


ience and expense of such large assemblies, coupled perhaps with the 
notion of greater wisdom in their chosen representatives, gave rise to 
the device of representation. It is difficult to see why the objections 
of a thousand years ago do not apply to-day, at least as to the initia- 
tive, and even as to the referendum. The inconvenience of referring 
all laws to the people is already shown in the usual provision that 
they must be allowed to vote on each amendment to the Constitution 
separately, and that not more than two or three amendments may be 
submitted in any one year ; ^ for submission of a law by referendum 
is practically the same in working as that of a constitutional amend- 
ment. Indeed, we already have the principle of the initiative in full 
operation in the adoption of new State Constitutions ; - still more so 
when the State Constitutions require the submission of a new Con- 
stitution or the voice of the people as to whether one is necessary, 
every seven,^ ten,* or twenty ^ years. 

One of our political parties peculiarly favors the referendum and 
may, perhaps, even adopt it as applicable to Federal legislation. 
There is no logical difficulty as to this, for, after all, the people made 
the Constitution and not the States; to the people, therefore, may be 
referred both any amendment to the Constitution, and any law, by 
permission of the Constitution when amended so as to allow the 
referendum. Whether such a system would be workable may be 
told better when we have the experience in the smaller field of the 

The objections to the referendum fall into three arguments: 
First, that of inconvenience above referred to; second, that it takes 
away responsibility from the legislatures to the extent of belittling 
both their personnel and their ambition ; third, that the people them- 
selves are not wuse enough or competent to vote directly upon laws. 
If all laws are to be subject to a referendum, the legislature becomes 
nothing but a draughting committee for which it were better to sub- 
stitute a mere parliamentary counsel.^ If, on the other hand, the 
people have the initiative and employ it generally, it is hard to see 
that any function remains to the legislature whatever. 

' See Book III, § 993. of experts, and the adoption of the 

* See Book III, Art. 99. practice in this country has lately been 
^ N. H., see Book ill, § 994. recommended by Bryce. Indeed, the 

* lo. result of the present system may be 

* Md., N. Y., O. seen in Oregon, where the Secretary of 

* It is the practice in the English State complains bitterly of the form in 
House of Commons to have bills which laws are drawn up by initiative, 
draughted by such a permanent body 


Unfortunately, our experience at the time of going to press (Marcli, 
1008), is too liiiiitfd to ciiahle us (o ronii a jiid^^incnt on this great 
c|nes(ion. Sevou States, as we say, have adopted the referendum, 
but three ol" them <h(l so only in the year 190(>. The Oregon amend- 
ment was itself originated by initiative petition and not by the legis- 
lature; and extends the general referendum to items or parts of acts 
and also to all local or numicipal legislation, not more than ten per 
cent of the voters to be recjuired for the referendum or fifteen per cent 
for the initiative.' The early use of the initiative in Oregon is in- 
structive. Under it the Legislature were allowed to regulate the 
binding and printing of State documents — a matter of comparative 
unimportance — and free passes were prohibited to railroads, etc. ; 
but the enacting clause being omitted, this latter law was considered 
of no effect. The veto of the governor does not usually extend to 
measures referred to the people by initiative or referendum, any 
more than it would to constitutional amendments. 

In municipal matters the referendum is making much more rapid 
progress; as has been said, that sphere is peculiarly appropriate to 
it. Indeed, the famed system of municipal government in New 
England, the town meeting, like the early Witenagemot, is nothing 
but the initiative and referendum combined in one assembly. As 
a matter of fact, however, the articles in the w^arrant are shaped by 
a small committee of the town, thus resembling bills prepared by a 
legislature or draughting committee (the Selectmen) and referred 
to the people in town meeting. Other measures than those recom- 
mended may, however, be adopted directly at such town meeting, 
which w^as thus, until the initiative, the only example of direct legis- 
lation in modern times.- 

So far it does not appear that the referendum makes much altera- 
tion in legislation ; though of course the fear of it may prevent many 
laws which the Legislature might otherwise pass; nor does it appear 
that measures begun by the initiative are much more likely to pass 
the popular suffrage than those drawn up by the Legislature. The 
practical working of the initiative leaves, as has been said, much to 
be desired. A constitutional amendment adopted by initiative was 
not even printed in the Oregon Annual Laws. 

* Charles Edward Merriam, in N. Y. pal referendum, see Delos F. Wilcox on 

State Library Bulletin No. 113, Review local government, printed in N. Y. 

of Legislation for 1906. State Library Review of Legislation 

^ For a full discussion of the munici- for 1905, p. 191. 


A more radical measure still, is that of the recall; that is, any 
senator or representative, or possibly even a judge or other officer, 
may be instantly retired by a direct vote of the people. As to this, 
and indeed the referendum, it may safely be said that the laws 
should be very careful to require a sufficiently large proportion of 
the total vote. The writer believes the most serious danger of the 
initiative and referendum to be its perversion to the very corrupt 
purposes the institution is designed to prevent. It would be easy 
enough for a public service corporation, directly or indirectly con- 
trolling possibly a tenth of the voters of an entire city, to propose 
complicated laws, by initiative, which the people might find hard 
to understand or in which they would take little interest; and so 
rush them through a popular election by a vote of their tenth of the 
votes, the rest of the people not taking the trouble to understand 
the question. The experience of constitutional amendments has 
shown that the votes upon them are ridiculously small. In New 
York, for instance, in 1905, a constitutional amendment altering 
the entire economic law as to the rate of wages to be paid in public 
work ^ passed the popular electorate by a vote hardly one-tenth of 
the total vote thrown for governor, — a far less important matter. 

> See Book III, § 453. 




The division of all governmental powers, judicial as well as legis- 
lative and executive, into two sovereignties, whereby a strong national 
government is made compatible with local courts, laws suited to the 
conditions and institutions of each several State, and home admin- 
istration of domestic affairs, — is the most striking of American in- 
ventions and has been discussed elsewhere.' This it is which chiefly 
distinguishes the American public from France or most other modern 
governments; though indeed some resemblance to it may be found 
in the system of the German Empire. Our frontispiece shows 
graphically this division of powers : the whole circle representing the 
sphere of all possible legislation, and every possible division and 
qualification of power being represented in the several zones; the 
blue zones "A" and "B" representing powers granted, express or 
implied, to the Federal Government and to the States respectively; 
the red zones "X" and "Z" representing powers denied or withheld, 
expressly or by necessary implication, from the Federal Government 
and from the States respectively; the perpendicular lines always 
referring; to the States and the horizontal lines alwavs to the Federal 
Government; while that domain of sovereign power left uncovered in 
the centre by either the two blue zones of permission or the two 
red zones of denial represents those cardinal rights and that part of 
ultimate sovereignty which the people who adopted the Constitution 
chose to keep in their own hands not only by necessary implication, 
but by the express iteration of the Tenth Amendment. These 
divisions of power and negations of power we have endeavored to 
analyze in detail in Chapter III of Book II; but it remains for us 
here to study the broad lines and the leading principles of this great 
division of all constitutional powers between the States and the 
Federal Government. 

The Federal powers are political; that is the great criterion. The 
State powers, on the other hand, are domestic, social. They relate 

' See Chapter I; Stimson, "The American Constitution," Chapters V and 
VI; Book 111, Art. 19. 


to the relation between a man and his fellow-men, to his control over 
his own property, taxation for all purposes but national defence, 
and to the trial of his disputes with his neighbors, of his contro- 
versies with all except the Federal Government, and of all his 
crimes or offences except only those which, like treason, relate 
directly to his duty to the Federal Government, or are committed 
in the places subject to its exclusive jurisdiction, such as forts, 
military reservations, national territory not incorporated into a 
State, and the high seas. The Federal Government is a political 
sovereign ; but has almost none of the attributes of sovereignty for 
any other purpose. This broad fact is revealed to us with startling 
clearness when we note that it has generally neither the power of 
capital punishment nor, in effect, of direct taxation. It would be 
hard to find two more necessary attributes of sovereignty, as com- 
monly understood in the science of government, than the power 
over life and the power over property. Moreover, except for speci- 
fied purposes of national defence, etc., it cannot hold any land; 
even the district of the capitol is limited to ten miles square. 
Even its political power is far less than is commonly enjoyed by sov- 
ereign nations; it cannot, for instance, cede territory from any 
State. Moreover, our national sovereign is controlled by the most 
fundamental of all limitations. It may not, under the Constitution — 
that is to say, without going back to the people, which It recognizes 
as the only source of power — change its form from a republican 
form of government,^ not even to a pure form of democracy.' It 
is even possible, under the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments, that 
it may not adopt a system of socialism or communism, or permit a 
State so to do. 

To see how completely this division between what is political and 
what is social, domestic, or relating to private right is carried out in 
the Federal Constitution, it will repay us to run over its provisions 
in some detail. The Preamble relates both to social and political 
objects, such as the common defence, but lays down at the beginning 
the great principle that it is the people and not the States who made 
the nation and the Constitution. The first two sections of Article I 
relating to Congress are political. Section 3 forbids all direct taxes, 
that is, all taxes directly imposed upon property or individuals, 
except they be apportioned to the States according to their popula- 

' Cooley, Const. Law, Chap. XI; ^ Art. IV, 4. 
3d ed., p. 213. 


tion, and not according to their wealth. This not only is, hut was 
intended to be, in effect a prohibition to the Federal Government of 
the power of direct taxation. All the rest of the first seven sections 
are also political; relating generally to the organization, election, 
and liberties of the Congress, and the method of legislation. Sec- 
tion 8 of Article I contains almost the only powers given to the Fed- 
eral Government which may, under our division, be called social; 
and while no one would desire to change the Constitution in this 
particular, it is highly significant that this exception has given rise 
to most of the litigation, most of the discussion, and to the leading 
division between the two great political parties to-day. That is to 
say, while the object of the Federal Government is to protect the 
nation from attack and manage its foreign affairs and impose taxes 
therefor "for the common defence and general welfare of the United 
States," the lesson of the existence of the thirteen States under the 
Confederation showed that they could not be trusted with the regu- 
lation of commerce passing from or to other States and crossing 
their borders. This, therefore, was denied to the States, and neces- 
sarily left to the Federal power ; doubtless, however, rather with the 
intention of preventing the States from interfering with such com- 
merce than of allowing the Federal Government to do so. Then, 
Congress is authorized to make a uniform bankruptcy law through- 
out the United States; the only matter in which the necessary ad- 
visability of uniform laws was recognized in the Constitution and 
expressly given to the Federal Government; and the power to estab- 
lish post offices and post roads and issue national patents and copy- 
rights, being a usual national power, is hardly an exception to our 
rule. Yet these matters, until we come to the Fourteenth Amend- 
ment, are the only subjects in which the Constitution clothes the 
Federal Government with any power relating to the citizen's in- 
dividual affairs and his private business. 

But even the political powers are not broadly given. The eight 
clauses of Section 9 in the first article consist entirely of negations; 
and there are many others.* On the other hand, the entire sov- 
ereignty of the State over individual relations, social and domestic 
affairs, and property rights is shown by the very few restrictions and 
exceptions we can find in the Federal Constitution. And these ex- 
ceptions are purely political,^ except in so far as they guarantee the 

' See Chapter III, Book II (X), ^ i^id., (Z). 


rights of citizens of States to equal law in other States. The expe- 
rience of the Revolution gave rise to Article I, Section 10, Clause 1, 
prohibiting them from passing a law impairing the obligation of 
contracts ; that is to say, a stay law, or a law preventing any creditor 
— and it was aimed to protect creditors outside the State — from 
enforcing lawful contracts or debts. National political powers, as 
well as powers of national taxation, or taxes upon interstate or 
foreign trade, are, of course, forbidden to the States. Article II re- 
lates entirely to the Federal executive power and is entirely political ; 
Article IlPto the Federal judicial power, and here we find that the 
only case where the national courts may be invoked- except to inter- 
pret and define the Federal Constitution is to guarantee a fair trial 
in an impartial tribunal between citizens of different States. Article 
IV, Section 2, does, indeed, provide that a citizen of one State shall 
have all the social and contractual rights that are given in any other 
State to the citizens thereof ; but this can hardly be said to give the 
Federal Government any power over social matters ; rather it merely 
guarantees the right to law in each State to all citizens of other 
States, much as the Fourteenth Amendment later does to all citizens 
of the United States, and even as Henry II guaranteed it to all 
freemen of England. Over the territories, indeed,^ Congress ^ is 
expressly given full power, social and domestic as well as pohtical; 
but it is only of late years that it has generally exercised it in any 
other way than to erect territorial legislatures; and in the older 
territories, at least, there is no meddling with individual rights. 

The first eleven amendments are all restrictions; that is to say, 
they are at great pains expressly to withhold all social and domestic 
affairs, or cardinal liberty rights, from the Federal Government, and 
even some that are political; the first ten, therefore, showing a 
strong reaction in favor of the rights of the States and the liberties 
of the people, in 1791, while the Eleventh Amendment, in 1798, 
was a still more decisive step in that direction, withholding all Fed- 
eral judicial power where a State was directly concerned; much as 
James I endeavored, though vainly, to get Chief- Justice Coke to 
rule that he would not consider a case where the interests of the 
king were involved. The Thirteenth Amendment is striking in that 
it is the only instance where the Constitution is expressly extended 
to any place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, and 

\ Art. IV, Sec. 3. the whole government, both President 

^ Not, as in England it would be, and Congress, but Congress alone. 


wlicrc, as it has recently been put, "The Constitution follows the 
flag." Slavery, therefore, can exist nowhere, not even in the Sulu 
Islands; although even the other cardinal requirement, a republican 
form of government, may constitutionally be withheld from them as 
from the other territorial possessions. 

The modern reaction in favor of the Federal power is shown first 
in the Fourteenth Amendment, proclaimed July 28, 1868, though the 
interpretation which might have revolutionized the whole State and 
Federal system has substantially been denied by the Supreme Court. 
The amendment does, however, and for the first time, interfere be- 
tween the State and the individual, if not between the individual and 
his neighbors. The State is forbidden to deprive any person of life, 
liberty, or property without due process of law, or to deny any person 
within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws, and this 
directly by the Federal Government. The radical upholders of 
centralization, in reconstruction times, undoubtedly believed that 
this brouffht the hand of the Federal Government between a man 
and his neighbors and indeed into all his private affairs ; otherwise 
it would be surprising that it took nearly twenty years of great 
decisions by the Supreme Court to read the amendment in strict 
accordance with its simple words and establish that it applied only 
to a State, and to due process of law of a State; that it did not 
give, as had been given to the King's courts after the Conquest, 
on the mere plea of Englishry or that a Norman was concerned, 
jurisdiction to the Federal courts of all matters and causes where 
a Negro was concerned. As it has therefore worked out, it is merely 
a new national guaranty, like that securing a republican form of 
government, of the cardinal liberty and property rights against law- 
making by the States; and it does not, under the plea that a person 
is being unfairly treated by a neighbor or an official, drag all 
matters of ordinary trade and private right into the Federal courts. 

Whether the extreme interpretation of the interstate commerce 
clause now proposed will carry us to this length, it is too early now to 
say; nor, indeed, is this a controversial essay. That there has been 
for some years a decided trend in that direction, one must admit. 
The effect of the interpretation by the courts and by Congress of 
the words "regulate commerce among the several States" has been 
gradually to extend the meaning of " commerce, " from the things 
transported, the physical instrumentalities of interstate commerce, 
the necessary documents concerning it, to the corporations and 


persons conducting it, the conditions of their labor and the rates 
they may charge, — this by the year 1908, — and the meaning of the 
words "among the several States" from the natural physical trans- 
portation across State lines, to a combination or contract made in 
one or more States intended to act in others or in effect carried out 
in others. It is perhaps obvious that we intend to withhold the right 
of conducting interstate commerce from any corporation not con- 
forming to a Federal standard. Whether we shall go further and 
deny it to individuals; whether, indeed, Congress has the consti- 
tutional right to deny it to individuals; and whether, on the other 
branch of the definition, we shall extend it from commerce, in the 
sense of interstate traffic, to manufacturing, mining, or producing 
goods intended to be sold outside of the State where they are manu- 
factured, mined, or produced; and to the returns, or the profits, or 
the fortunes, or the disposition of the fortunes derived therefrom ; 
and still more, to the contractual relations, the conditions of labor, 
etc., of the persons so engaged, — are all matters for the future to 

Finally, we must never forget that there is a division of power 
more important still, and also made for the first time in the American 
Constitution ; that is to say, the powers, rights, or liberties reserved 
in the people of the United States, not delegated by them to the 
Federal power or always, even, to the State Governments formed 
or to be formed. This principle we have discussed in Chapter I. 
It is expressed in the frontispiece in the central domain "Y, " left 
white, "virgin still with the people." ^ It must be particularly noted 
that this is the only infinite domain of power recognized in the 
Federal Constitution. All the others are definite, delimitated ; given, 
or denied. There has, indeed, of late been a notion that there is 
something like an inherent national power, indefinite in extent; but 
this idea can find no place in any logical study of the Constitution ; 
if there be such powers, they simply fall under the head of implied 
powers of the Federal Government. And from the point of view of 
our study, there is no difference between an expressed power and 
one implied. After the Supreme Court of the United States has 
found an implied power to exist, by necessary implication or other- 
wise, it becomes for our purposes just as much a part of the Federal 
Constitution as if it were definitely expressed. The wording of the 
articles of Confederation (Article II) that "each State retains every 

' See " The American Constitution," p. 197. 


power . . . which is not by this confederation expressly delegated to 
the United States . . ." fell to the ground with the adoption of the 
Federal Constitution eight years later, and received its coup de 
grace in the Civil War; but because this is so, we must not fly to 
the other extreme and hold powers to reside in the Federal Gov- 
ernment, whether they were ever given to it or intended to be given 
by the people, expressly or impliedly, or not. The " inherent national 
power," therefore, finds its natural and legitimate place in our zone 
of "A"; but is not to be robbed from the central liberties of "Y." 

The great right reserved to the people, of course, is that of a re- 
publican form of government. The next is that of personal liberty. 
A republican form of government is forever guaranteed to the 
States, — not, apparently, to the territories ; still less to the insular 
possessions; for the somewhat contradictory opinions of our judges 
on the insular cases seem at least to involve this result : that there 
is a tertium quid, something other than a State or a territory as 
hitherto understood. Just what a republican form of government 
means, it may be for the future to settle. On the one hand, it may 
not be a military dictatorship or military power generally, save, per- 
haps, in the insular possessions; or in time of actual war, or as a 
consequence thereof; on the other hand, according to the text- 
writers, it must involve representative government, and by the letter 
of our Constitution, the institution of private property. The right 
of personal liberty was originally and expressly guaranteed to citi- 
zens of the States alone, but practically, by the Fourteenth Amend- 
ment and many decisions, to United States citizens in the territo- 
ries; while the general institution of slavery, indeed, is the one 
thing forbidden by the Constitution even in our insular possessions. 
The rest of the Federal Constitution, however, does not, by the 
prevailing opinion, extend to the insular possessions, except, at 
least, in such doses as Congress may choose to administer it. As to 
the frame of government, the Constitution makes the most sacred 
thing in it the last sentence in the fifth article, providing that the 
Constitution itself may never be so amended as to deprive any 
State of its equal suffrage in the Senate; this, indeed, being the 
strongest recognition of States' rights in that document, outside 
of the Tenth Amendment, and, indeed, put more strongly than in 
the Tenth Amendment, as it is the one instance in which the Con- 
stitution itself recognizes the right of secession. 

The other cardinal rights reserved to the people are in general 


all those liberty rights discussed in our seven first chapters; in 
other words, substantially the English Constitution. These are, 
for the most part, set forth in the first eight amendments. The 
people are declared in the Preamble to be the sovereign, though 
the expression of that sovereignty is, in the Fifth Article, shifted 
to legislatures or popular conventions in three fourths of the States. 
The political rights are, broadly speaking, popular representation, 
equal suffrage for the lower house, control of their own elections 
and courts, impeachment of Federal officers, the power of the purse 
in the lower house of Congress, uniform taxation for the general 
welfare, limitation of military appropriation to two years, practical 
freedom from direct taxation by the Federal Government, and pro- 
hibition of special privilege; most important of all, that the judges 
shall hold their office for life, not subject to removal by the Execu- 
tive, and for a fixed compensation; and the careful separation of 
the powers already referred to. 

Many of these rights are doubly safeguarded by being forbidden 
both to the nation and to the States.' Freedom of trade amoncr 
the States, supremacy of the Federal Constitution, a republican 
form of government, liberty and racial equality are so guaranteed. 
It will be noted ^ that Massachusetts (1780) preceded and New 
Hampshire (1792) followed the Federal Constitution in reserving 
to the people every power, jurisdiction, and right which was not 
by them expressly ^ delegated to the United States of America in 
Congress assembled. A more striking statement still is found in 
West Virginia (Article I, 2): "The government of the United 
States is a government of enumerated powers, and all powers not 
delegated to it, nor inhibited to the States, are reserved to the 
States or to the people thereof. Among the powers so reserved 
by the States, is the exclusive regulation of their own internal 
government and police ; and it is the high and solemn duty of the 
several departments of government, created by this Constitution, 
to guard and protect the people of this State from all encroach- 
ments upon the rights so reserved." 

' Book II, Chap. Ill, "ZX." Hampshire, but omitted, in accordance 

^ See Book III, § 193, notes. with modem doctrine, from the later 

' Sic, in Massachusetts and New Constitution of West Virginia. 




IMany of the State Constitutions, notably of Virginia and 
Massachusetts, were adopted before the Federal Constitution itself,' 
and served to a certain extent as a model for it, and it is always 
important to remember that the two parties bringing their influence 
to bear upon the adoption of the State Constitutions changed posi- 
tions entirely from those occupied by them in considering these, when 
they came to consider the Federal Constitution. The latter, in 
its most centralized form, giving largest power to the Federal 
Government, was backed by the Federalists ; generally the educated 
and propertied classes, who were desirous of a strong central 
government, not only from motives of personal ambition, but 
because they desired protection from the absolute democracy of the 
State Legislatures. They wanted the nation to be strong abroad, 
their own property and contracts to be protected and respected at 
home, and their trade and business not to be taxed or interfered 
with by State regulations. Too great extension of the Federal 
power was, however, opposed by those whom we should now call 
Democrats, Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry, and others, jealous 
of too much government of any sort, who desired above all things 

' Virginia, June 29 ; New Jersey, vania and Maiyland, was the first Am- 

July 13; Delaware, Sept. 21 ; Pennsyl- erican Constitution actually adopted, 

vania, Sept. 28; Maryland, Nov. 11; that of South Carolina (March 26, 1776) 

North Carolina, Dec. 18, 1776; Georgia, being a political frame of temporary 

Feb. 5; New York, April 20, 1777; government for the " Colony " and soon 

Massachusetts, March 2, 1780. In followed by the Constitution of 1778. It 

Connecticut the charter of Charles II uses the word "Commonwealth;" the 

(1662) was ratified, and a simple Bill Declaration of Independence, and the 

of Rights added, in 1776. New Hamp- Constitution of Delaware are first to 

shire, after one or two abortive at- say " State." Pennsylvania, Massa- 

tempts, adopted its Constitution June chusetts, and Kentucky are also still 

2, 1784. Charles II, in 1663, granted Commonwealths; Connecticut (1776) 

to Benedict Arnold and other " trustie calls itself a Republic, Massachusetts 

and well-beloved subjects " a charter a " free, Sovereign, and Independent 

for Rhode Island and Providence plan- State;" while Maine is officially the 

tations which lasted until 1842, but State of Maine, and Rhode Island also 

this granted autonomy, with the fiber- " of Providence Plantations." Thus 

ties of the common law. Virginia's, doth one star differ from another in 

followed closely by those of Pennsyl- glory 1 


to maintain the political liberty of the individual, and his freedom 
in his home alfairs; while as to the State Governments, having 
enjoyed for the first time in modern English history complete legis- 
lative power unhindered even by a Constitution or a Protector, 
popular leaders were desirous of preserving their sovereignty, and 
therefore wished to give indefinite powers to the State Governments 
and particularly to the State Legislatures, and withhold as much as 
they could from the Federal Government. For, the powers of a State 
government being original, not delegated, its legislature represents 
a power that at its origin was sovereign. Here, therefore, the 
Federalists became the upholders of individual rights and prop- 
erty, and imposed the checks in the State Bills of Rights that we 
find so notable in Virginia and in Massachusetts. It is as true as 
are most antitheses that the people imposed the Bill of Rights upon 
the Federal Government, in the form of the first ten amendments; 
and that the so-called privileged classes imposed similar checks 
upon the State legislatures. Upon one thing only were they agreed, 
— personal freedom. 

These Bills of Rights have been necessarily discussed already; 
for they concern, generally, the cardinal principles of that part of 
the Anglo-x\merican Constitution which is not merely political. 
Every State without exception has one, though Michigan in her 
last Constitution chops up its Bill of Rights and distributes its 
provisions around "under their proper headings."' The political 
framework, also, has been sufficiently discussed in Chapters VIII 
and IX above. It remains for us to discuss here that extraordi- 
nary development of the modern State Constitution which tends 
to reduce all law-making to constitutional provisions; to require a 
periodical referendum; and to a great extent do away with 
representative government.^ New Constitutions, such as those 
of Alabama, Louisiana, and the seven Western States, evidently 
seek to embody all the broad notions of what a present majority 
thinks the law ought to be into the organic law of the State. 
Necessarily this leads to the embodying of the prejudice or caprice 
of the moment into the Constitution itself; for it is human nature 

* I cannot agree with Professor tinuity; moreover the Bill of Rights 

Dealey that this is " a good precedent." should have a greater sanctity than the 

(Am. Acad. P. & S. S. Supp. March organization parts of a modern State 

1907, p. 21). Is the great clause 39 Constitution. 

of Magna Carta judicial alone? Such « ggg goo^ III, §§ 182, 200, 209, 

an arrangement destroys historical con- &c. 


to care more for one's peculiar fancies than for commonplace facts. 
Thus, the Constitutions of several States make licjuor selling, or 
the bribery of officials, necessarily crink's by the organic law; which 
murder is not. It is part of the Constitution of Oklahoma that 
corporations shall be tlenied the rights of ordinary citizens in the 
courts; of California that stockholders shall not be protected from 
unlimited liability; and of several States that fiduciaries may not in- 
vest in corporate securities.' All these fall into that part of our 
Book III that we call "Legislation," and, it will be observed, 
they cover one hundred and thirty-six out of two hundred and 
forty-nine pages of that portion of our work. 

It is significant to compare these modern Constitutions with the 
older Constitutions, such as that of Massachusetts. This is, indeed, 
owing to its elaborate political framework, much longer than most 
Constitutions of the original thirteen States; but it contains only a 
Bill of Rights, and a Part II, setting forth the frame of government, 
— and nothing whatever else ; no directions or instructions or limi- 
tations, upon the Legislature, save that they should enact ^ "all 
manner of wholesome and reasonable laws as they may judge for 
the benefit and welfare of this State." The only other restriction 
which can possibly be considered a regulation or direction in the 
modern sense is a special separate chapter providing for welfare of 
the university at Cambridge, — Harvard College. The Constitu- 
tion of Alabama, on the other hand, contains nearly one hundred 
sections relating to the legislation permitted or denied to the Legis- 
lature ; ^ and thirty-six long sections concern corporations, the 
whole Constitution covering sixty-nine pages of fine print. The 
Oklahoma Constitution runs to one hundred and seventy-five 
pages, — and that without an index. Such Constitutions, of course, 
show distrust by the people of their own Legislatures ; but such dis- 
trust will breed unworthiness.^ Of such nature also are the curious 
restrictions upon the passage of bills, and the elaborate constitu- 
tional provisions against corruption or abuse of official power.^ 
The more reasonable partial referendums, to the people or even to 
the taxpayers, of all bills involving the raising or expenditure of 
public money or the increase of State or municipal debt,® have al- 

> See Book III, §§ 424, 508, 509. ■• See above, Chapter VIII. 

=> See Book III, § 391. ^ See Book III, Articles XXII and 

3 §§ 65 to 111; 204 to 219; con- XXVII. 
earning taxation and exemptions; '^ See Book III, Articles XXXI to 

and 220 to 255. XXXVII, &c. 


ready been discussed. The extraordinary number of things which 
the Legislatures are now forbidden to do by local or special law (fol- 
lowing the precedent set by the Constitution of New York of 1848) 
is another indication of the same distrust.* 

The main lines on which this third or unscientific part of the 
modern State Constitution has sought to hamper posterity may be 
briefly summarized. Land laws, the prohibition of feudal tenures, 
long leases, and absentee land-holding - go back to the first Constitu- 
tion of the State of New York; but the complete alteration of the 
common law as to the use of water, both for irrigation purposes and 
for municipal supply, is the creature of recent Western State Con- 
situtions and Spanish or customary local law.^ The same may be 
said of the "apexing" law of mines, though this has not yet crept 
into any Constitution. The prejudice against dealing in futures, 
stock jobbing, etc.,^ is closely connected with the provisions against 
trusts, of which later. Many States forbid the Legislature to grant 
any divorces.^ Otherwise the law of marriage is not interfered w^th. 
Laws prohibiting the manufacture or sale of intoxicating liquor or 
extending the right so to prohibit it to the counties or tow^ns them- 
selves is, of course, the most striking novelty usually indulged in by 
Constitution-makers;® but is now likely to be surpassed in fre- 
quency of adoption by the provisions protecting union labor, guard- 
ing the labor of women and children, and providing the length of the 
day's work, even of men, for any work done for the State or a public 
contractor; and, in such work, the payment of fixed wages.' But 
the greatest innovation by the Constitution on the legislative domain 
will be found in the law of corporations and of combinations. The 
laws against "trusts" — which, however, in almost no instance 
where the law has been held constitutional, do more than restate 
the principles of the older common law,^ are put into constitutions. 
Not only are general incorporations constitutionally regulated, but 
a special chapter must be given to railroads and banks.^ The 
charges of all public service corporations may be regulated, and 
all discrimination or preference forbidden,*" and they may not en- 
gage in other lines of business," nor can foreign corporations engage 

' See Book III, § 395. ^ See Book III, Articles L and 

" See Book III, Article XL. LVIII. 

» See Book III, Article XLI. » See Book III, Articles LIII and 

* See Book III, Article XLII. LV 

'' See Book III, §§ 395, 430. "> Book III, §§ 506, 521-524. 

• See Book III, Article XLIV. '' Ibid., § 531. 
^ Chapter V; See Book III, Article 



in business not permitted to State corporations ' nor one corpora- 
tion own stock in another.^ Most interesting will be found the 
article against trusts, monopolies, combinations to fix prices, limit 
output, control the market or the actions and business of others.^ 
All these, being common-law principles, have stood the tests of the 
courts; when legislators have gone beyond them, and particularly 
when even State Constitutions have attempted to exempt certain 
classes, such as organized or agricultural labor, or certain busi- 
nesses, such as dealing in farm produce, from the limitations of 
the general law, they have been held unconstitutional ; that is to 
say, State Constitutions have been held void under the Federal 
Constitution, and State laws under both ; under State Constitutions 
frequently even by the courts of the same States which adopted 

A few States have embodied in their Constitution their system of 
municipal government,* but this need not detain us except for the 
striking novelty in newer Western Constitutions that any city or 
even town may form its own charter, thereby making its own law 
and founding its own frame of government, — a recurrence, as in 
many another case, to the earliest of English precedents; thereby 
interesting and probably possible, for what has worked well is likely 
to work again. It is new legislation, made without regard to custom 
or habit, that is apt to be futile.^ 

With the judicial system alone have State Constitutions rarely 
presumed to tamper. They have contented themselves with adopt- 
ing the common law, or such part of it as is suited to their needs and 
to their previous customs; none of them has so far rejected it; al- 
though a good many "fuse" common law with equity; while there 
is a recent tendency to deprive courts of chancery of the power of 
specific performance or of enforcing their decrees by contempt 
process, at least in labor disputes.^ And they have usually pre- 
scribed a scheme of courts, their organization and jurisdiction; 
though even this is not done in New Hampshire.^ 

> Book III, § 505. " See above. Chapter IV, Book 

= Ibid., § 518. Ill, Arts. LXV, LXVII. 

^ See Book III, §§ 518, 527, 580. ' See Book III, Art. LXV, American 

* See Book III, Article LX. Statute Law, Vol. I, § 550, "Table of 

* See James C. Carter, "Law: its Courts." 
Origin, Growth and Function," passim. 





(a) General Right to; Jury Trial 

Cap. 39 

Cap. 43 

Carta of 
Henry III 

Cap. JJ5 

28 Edw. Ill 
Cap. 3 

setts Body 
of Liber- 
ties, 1041 



"No free man shall be taken or imprisoned or disseised, or 
outlawed, or exiled, or anyways destroyed ; nor will we go upon 
him, nor will we send upon him, unless by the lawful judgment of 
his peers, or by the law of the land." 

"In future any one may leave the Kingdom and return at 
will. . . ." 

Wording identical with M. C. cap. 39, save that the very im- 
portant words "Of his freehold or his liberties or his free customs " 
are added after the word "disseised." 

The words "Unless by due process of law" are used instead of 
"the legal judgment of his peers or the law of the land." 

"No mans life shall be taken away, no mans honour or good 
name shall be stayned, no mans person shall be arrested, re- 
strayned, banished, dismembered, nor any wayes punished, no 
man shall be deprived of his wife or children, no mans goods or 
estaite shall be taken away from him, nor any way indammaged 
under colour of law or Countenance of Authoritie, unlesse it be by 
vertue or equitie of some expresse law of the Country warant- 
ing the same, established by a generall Court and sufficiently 
published, or in the case of the defect of a law in any parteculer 
case by the word of god. And in Capitall cases, or in cases con- 
cerning dismembring or banishment, according to that word to 
be judged by the Generall Court." 

" Every man of or within this Jurisdiction shall have free 
libertie, notwithstanding any civill power to remove both him- 
selfe, and his familie at their pleasure out of the same, provided 
there be no legall impediment to the contrarie." 

" There shall never be any bond slaverie, villinage or Cap- 
tivitie amongst us unles it be lawfuU Captives taken in just 
warres and such strangers as willingly selle themselves or are sold 
to us. . . ." 



[book II 

Kill <>r 
(.liiiM-, I77««), 
(Sec. 1> 


tioii of In- 
(July, 177«> 

MaMN. necl. 
of Iti^litM 

Ibid., XII 

V. S. Consti- 
(1787), III, 3 

Ibid.. Amt. 
Y (.1791) 

Ibid., Amt. 

Ibid., Amt. 
XIII (18(J5> 

Ibid., Amt. 
XIV, 1 


" That all men arc by natvirc eciually free and independent, and 
have certain inheront rif^hls, of which wiieii tiiey enter into a 
state of society, they cannot, by any compact, deprive or divest 
their posterity; namely, the enjoyment of life and liberty, with 
the means of uctiuirinj? and possessing property, and pursuing 
and obtaining hap[)incss and safety." 

"... That no man be deprived of his liberty, except by the 
law of the land or the judgment of his peers." 

"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are 
created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain 
unalienable Uights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the 
pursuit of IIapi)iness. . . ." 

"For depriving us in many cases of the benefits of trial by 

"All men are born free and equal, and have certain natural, 
essential, and unalienable rights; among which may be reckoned 
the right of enjoying and defending their lives and liberties; that 
of acquiring, possessing, and protecting property; in fine, that of 
seeking and obtaining their safety and happiness." 

"... And no subject shall be arrested, imprisoned, despoiled, 
or deprived of his property, immunities, or privileges, put out of 
the protection of the law, exiled, or deprived of his life, liVjerty, or 
estate, but by the judgment of his peers, or the law of the land." 

"And the legislature shall not make any law that shall subject 
any person to a capital or infamous punishment, excepting for the 
government of the army and navy, without trial by jury." 

"The Trial of all Crimes, except in cases of Impeachment, 
shall be by Jury. . . ." 

"No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise 
infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand 
Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the 
Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; 
nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice 
put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any 
Criminal Case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of 
life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall 
private property be taken for public use, without just com- 

"In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the 
right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the 
State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, 
which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, 
and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation ; to 
be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compul- 
sory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have 
the Assistance of Counsel for his defence." 

"Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a 
punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly 
convicted, shall exist within the LTnited States, or any place 
subject to their jurisdiction." 

"All persons born or naturalized in the United States and 
subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United 
States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make 

CUAP. l] 



or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immuni- 
ties of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive 
any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, 
nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal pro- 
tection of the laws." 

(For State Constitutions, see Book III, §§ 10, 12, 13, 14, 130, 

(b) Habeas Corpus and Indictment 

Cap. 30 

Petition of 
Ri^flits, V 

Mass. Deel. 
of Rights, 

IT. S. Consti- 
tntion, 1; 9 

Mass. Body 
of I/il»ertles 
Clause 18 

Corpus Act, 

rs'l of 
Sec. 8 

r. S. Consti- 
tution, V 

"The right of inquest of life or limb shall be given gratis, and 
not denied." Substantially the same in the Magna Charta of 
Henry III, cap. 32. 

"... divers of your subjects have of late been imprisoned 
without any cause showed; and when, for their deliverance, they 
were brought before your justices, by your Majesty's writs of 
habeas corpus, there to undergo and receive as the court should 
order, and their keepers commanded to certify the causes of 
their detainer, no cause was certified, but that they were detained 
by your Majesty's special command . . ." 

" No subject shall be held to answer for any crimes or offence, 
vmtil the same is fully and plainly, substantially and formally, 
described to him. . . ." 

"The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be 
suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the 
public Safety may require it." 

(For State Constitutions, see Book III, §§ 125, 126.) 

" No mans person shall be restrained or imprisoned by any 
Authority whatsoever, before the law hath sentenced him thereto. 
If he can put in sufficient securitie, bayle or mainprise, for his 
appearance, and good behaviour in the meane time, unlesse it be 
in Crimes Capital, and Contempts in open Court, and in such 
cases where some expresse act of Court doth allow it." 

Provides, in substance, " that on complaint and request in 
writing by or on behalf of any person committed and charged 
with any crime . . . any of the twelve judges, in vacation, upon 
viewing a copy of the warrant, or affidavit that a copy is denied, 
. . . shall award a habeas corpus . . . returnable immediately. 
. . . That the writ shall be returned and the prisoner brought 
up, within a limited time according to the distance, not exceeding 
in any case twenty days. . . . That no person once delivered by 
habeas corpus, shall be recommitted for the same offence, on 
penalty of £500." 

"That in all capital or criminal prosecutions, a man hath a 
right to demand the cause and nature of his accusation. . . ." 

"No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise 
infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand 
jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the 
mihtia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; 
nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice 
put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any 
criminal case to be a witness against himself. . . ." 

(For State Constitutions, see Book 111, §§ 120, 127, 128.) 



[liOOK II 

C'a|» '20 

MiisN. Tlo«ly 
«»f l.ilM>i-( if.s 
Claiisf 1<> 

<'«irinis Act, 
Cliiuse XI 

nil! of 




Bill of 
See. y 

Mass. I>ecl. 
of HiKhts, 
Clause XXVI 

V. S. Con- 
Amt. VIII 

(c) ExTKNT OF Bail and Punishment 

"A Freeman sliall only be amerced . . . after the manner of 
the offence . . . saving to him liis contenement ... a mer- 
cliant savinfj^ liis merchandise, and a villein saving his wainage; 
tiie amercement in all cases to be assessed by the oath of honest 
men of the neighbourhood." 

" For bodilie punishments, we allow amongst lis none that 
arc inhuman, barbarouse, or cruel." 

That no "inhabitant ... of I'ngland . . . shall or may be 
sent prisoner into Scotland, Ireland, Jersey, Guernsey, Tangier 
... or places beyond the seas . . . within or without the 
dominions of his Majesty. . . ." 

"That excessive bail ought not to be required, nor excessive 
fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted." 

Copies the English Bill (10). 

"No magistrate or court of law shall demand excessive bail or 
sureties, impose excessive fines or inflict cruel or unusual 

"Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines 
imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted." 

(For State Constitutions, see Book III, §§ 121, 122, 123, 140, 

Mass. Body 
of Liiber- 
ties, Clanse 

Clanse 45 

(d) Trial and Evidence 

"No man shall be twise sentenced by Civill Justice for one and 
the same Crime, Offence or Trespasse." 

"No man shall be forced by Torture to confesse any Crime 
against himselfe nor any other unlesse it be in some Capitall case 
where he is first fuUie convicted by cleare and suffitient evi- 
dence to be guilty " (after which he may be tortured to obtain 
evidence against his confederates yet not with such "as be bar- 
barous and inhuman "). 

Clanse 47 "No man shall be put to death withovit the testimony of two 

or three witnesses or that which is equivalent thereunto." 

Forbids a second committal for the same offence. 

"... to be confronted with the accusers and witnesses, to 
call for evidence in his favour, and to a speedy trial by an impartial 
jury of twelve men of his vicinage, without whose unanimous 
consent he cannot be found guilty; nor can he be compelled to 
give evidence against himself. ..." 

"No subject shall ... be compelled to accuse, or furnish 
evidence against himself. And every subject shall have a right to 
produce all proofs that may be favorable to him; to meet the 
witnesses against him face to face, and to be fully heard in his 
defence by himself, or his counsel, at his election. . . ." 

"Nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be 
twice put in jeopardy of life or limb." 

(For State Constitutions, see Book III, § 132, 137, 140.) 

Coryus Act, 

Bill of 
See. 8 

Mass. Decl. 
of Rights, 

r. S. Con- 
Amt. V 

CHAP, ij 

Mass. Deol. 
of Kiglits, 

r. S. Con- 
stitiitiuii, If 

1, 10, (1) 

(e) Bills of Attainder 


"Laws made to punish for actions done before the existence 
of sucli laws, and which have not been declared crimes by pre- 
ceding laws, are vmjust, oppressive, and inconsistent with the 
fundamental principles of a free government." 

"No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed." 

"No State shall . . . pass any bill of attainder, ex post 
facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts. . . ." 

(For State Constitutions, see Book III, §§ 138, 141.) 

Bill of 
Rights (1) 


Bill of 
Sec. 7 

Mass. Decl. 
of Rights, 

(f) Suspending Laws 

" That the pretended power of suspending of laws, or the execu- 
tion of laws, by regal authority, without consent of Parliament, 
is illegal." 

is to the same effect but forbids the "dispensing with laws" 
and leaves out the clause about Parliament. 

" That all power of suspending laws, or the execution of laws, 
by any authority, without consent of the representatives of the 
people, is injurious to their rights, and ought not to be exercised." 

"The power of suspending the laws, or the execution of the 
laws ought never to be exercised but by the legislature, or by 
authority derived from it, to be exercised in such particular cases 
only as the legislature shall expressly provide for." 

(For State Constitutions, see Book III, §§ 126, 392.) 


IJ. S. Con- 
III, 3, (1) 

III, 3, (3) 

(g) Treason 

"No subject ouglit, in any case, or in any time, to be declared 
guilty of treason or felony by the legislature." 

"Treason against the United States shall consist only in levy- 
ing War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving 
them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Trea- 
son unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt 
Act, or on Confession in open Court. 

"The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of 
Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of 
Blood or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person at- 

(For State Constitutions, see Book III, § 150.) 

Cap. 39 

Cap. 40 


(a) Common Law, Judges 
(The right to law, in criminal matters, has necessarily been 

shown above in connection with Liberty. This heading relates to 

general matters.) 

"... unless by . . . the law of the land." (See I, above.), 
"To none will we sell, to none will we deny or delay right, or 




[book II 

Cap. 4S 

28 Kilw. Ill, 
C'liiip. Ill 

Mnss. Horty 
of liiber- 
Clause 2 

Petition of 

Bill of 
Rights (3) 

Aet of Set- 

Bill of 
See. 6 
Sec. 11 

of Inde- 
Clause 13 

Clanse 24 

New York 
tion, Clause 
41 (1777> 

Mass. Deel. 
of Rig;lits, 


"Justices, constables, slieritTs, and bailiffs shall only be ap- 
pointed of 'such as know the law and mean duly to observe 

"No man . . . shall be . . . put out of land or tenement 
. . . nor disinherited . . , without being put in Answer by due 
Process of the Law." 

" Every person within tliis JuriscHc-tion, whether Iiihal)itant or 
forreiner shall enjoy the same justice and law, that is generall 
for the plantation, which we constitute and execute one towards 
another without partialitie or delay." 

Cites Magna Carta and 28 Edw. Ill as above and denounces 
the acts comphiined of as "against the laws and free customs of 
the realm " (clauses II, VI, VII, VIII, IX), "the laws and fran- 
chise of the land " (X). 

Tliat the commission for erecting the late Court of Commis- 
sioners for Ecclesiastical Causes, and all other commissions and 
courts of like nature, are illegal and pernicious. 

"That . . . judges' commissions be made quamdiu se bene 
gesserint, and their salaries ascertained and established ; but upon 
the Address of both Houses of Parliament, it may be lawful! to 
remove them." 

No men can be "bound by any law to w'hich they have not 
[by their representatives] assented. . . ." See Government, below. 

"That in controversies respecting property, and in suits be- 
tween man and man, the ancient trial by jury of twelve men is 
preferable to any other and ought to be held sacred." 

"He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the 
tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their 

"For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neigh- 
bouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary govern- 
ment, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an 
example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute 
rule into these Colonies." 

"... the legislature of this State shall at no time hereafter 
institute any new court or courts, but such as shall proceed 
according to the course of the common law." 

"Every subject of the Commonwealth ought to find a certain 
remedy, by having recourse to the laws, for all injuries or wrongs 
which he may receive in his person, property, or character. He 
ought to obtain right and justice freely, and without being obliged 
to purchase it ; — completely, and without any denial ; — • 
promptly, and without delay; — conformably to the laws." 

"In all controversies concerning property, and in all suits 
between two or more persons, except in cases in which it has 
heretofore been otherways used and practised, the parties have 
a right to a trial by jury; and this method of procedure shall 
be held sacred, — unless, in causes arising on the high seas, and 
such as relate to mariners' wages, the legislature shall hereafter 
find it necessary to alter it." 

CHAP. l] 



MnMs. Docl. 
of Iti^Iits, 

IT. S. Consti- 
Amt. VII 

Amt. V 

"It is essential to the preservation of the rights of every indi- 
vidual, his life, liberty, property, and character, that tliere be an 
impartial interpretation of the laws, and administration of jus- 
tice. It is the right of every citizen to be tried by judges as free, 
impartial, and independent as the lot of humanity will admit. 
It is, therefore, not only the best policy, but for the security of 
the rights of the people, and of every citizen, that the judges of 
the supreme judicial court should hold their offices as long as 
they behave themselves well; and that they should have honor- 
able salaries ascertained and established by standing laws." 

(The Virginia Bill of Rights implies this principle; see III (d), 

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall 
exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be pre- 
served, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined 
in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of 
the common law. 

" No person shall be 

without due process of law 

Amt. XIV, 1 "... Nor shall any State deprive . . . , without due 
process of law, nor deny to any person . . . the equal protec- 
tion of the laws." 

(For State Constitutions, see Book III, §§ 70, 72, 73, 74, 76, 

Cap. 17 

Cap. 20 

Cap. 34 

(b) Local Courts 

"Common pleas shall not follow the King's Court, but be held 
in some certain place." 

Fines to be assessed by honest men of the neighbourhood 
(see I, (c), above). 

The writ called Prcecipe shall not in future be issued, so as to 
cause a freeman to lose his court. 

Bill of 
Ri^'lits (S) 

Deeiaration "He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction 

of inde- foreign to our Constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; 

pendenee, '^ o j i 

Clause 17 

jury of liis vicinage 

giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation." 

Clause 23 

tion, Clause 

IS (1776) 

Mass. Decl. 
of Rights, 

U. S. Consti- 
III, 2, (3) 

"For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended 

" That the trial of facts where they arise is one of the greatest 
securities of the lives, hberties, and estates of the people." 

"In criminal prosecutions, the verification of facts, in the 
vicinity where they happen, is one of the greatest securities of the 
life, liberty, and property of the citizen." 

"The trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall 
be by Jury ; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the 
said Crimes shall have been committed ; but when not committed 
within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the 
Congress may by Law have directed." 

(See for State Constitutions, Book III, § 133.) 



[book it 

(c) Martial Law, Right to Arms, etc. 

Petition of 
Clause V'l 


Clause X 

Bill of 
Clause ' 

Clause G 

". . . of late p;rcat coinpaiiies of soldiers and mariners have 
been dispersed into divers counties of the realm, and the iniiab- 
itants against their wills have been conii)elled to receive them 
into their houses and there to suffer them to sojourn, against the 
laws and customs of this realm, ..." 

"... certain persons have been appointed commissioners, 
with power and authority to proceed . . . according to . . . 
martial law . . . and by such summary course and order as is 
agreeable to martial law, and as is used in armies in time of war, 
to proceed to the trial and condemnation of such offenders, and 
them to cause to be executed and put to death according to the 
law martial. By pretext whereof some of your Majesty's subjects 
have been by some of the said commissioners put to death, when 
and where, if by the laws and statutes of the land they had 
deserved death, by the same laws and statutes also they might 
and by no other ought, to have been judged and executed." 

"... and that the foresaid commissions, for proceeding by 
martial law, may be revoked and annulled . . . that your 
Majesty would be pleased to remove the said soldiers and 
mariners, and that your people may not be so burdened in time 
to come." 

"That the subjects which are Protestants may have arms for 
their defence suitable to their conditions, and as allowed by 

"That the raising or keeping a standing army, within the 
kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of Parhament, 
is against law." 

Bill of 
See. 13 

of Inde- 
Clause 15 

Clauses IS, 

Mass. Decl. 
of Rij^Iits, 


"That a well regulated militia, composed of the body of the 
people, trained to arms, is the proper, natural, and safe defence 
of a free State ; that standing armies in time of peace should be 
avoided as dangerous to liberty; and that in all cases the mili- 
tary should be under strict subordination to, and governed by, 
the civil power." 

"He has kept among us, in times of peace. Standing Armies 
without the Consent of our legislatures." 

"For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us: For 
protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any mur- 
ders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these 

"In time of peace, no soldier ought to be quartered in any 
house without the consent of the owner ; and in time of war such 
quarters ought not be made but by the civil magistrate, in a 
manner ordained by the legislature." 

"No person can in any case be subject to law-martial, or 
to any penalties or pains, by virtue of that law, except those 
employed in the army or na\'y, and except the militia in actual 
service, but by authority of the legislature." 

CHAP. l] 





V. S. Consii- 
tntion, I, 8, 

I, 8, (14) 

I, 8, (15) 
I, 8, (IG) 

Amt. II 

Amt. Ill 

"And the legislature shall not make any law that shall suljject 
any person to a capital or infamous punishment (excepting for 
the government of the army and navy) without trial by jury." 

"The people have a right to keep and to bear arms for the 
common defence. And as, in time of peace, armies are dan- 
gerous to liberty, they ought not to be maintained without the 
consent of the legislature; and the military power shall always 
be held in an exact subordination to the civil authority, and be 
governed by it." 

"To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money 
to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years." 

"To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the 
land and naval Forces." 

"To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws 
of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions." 

"To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the 
^lilitia, and for governing such Part of them as may be em- 
ployed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the 
States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers and the 
Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline pre- 
scribed by Congress." 

"A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of 
a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, 
shall not be infringed." 

"No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, 
without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a 
manner to be prescribed by law." 

(For State Constitutions, see Book III, §§ 62, 63, 290, 291, 
293, 294, 295, 298). 


Cap. 39 

Carta, Caps. 

28, 30, 31 

(a) Property 

The word "disseised" (see I, (a), above) relates to property. 

No constable or other royal baiUfif shall take any man's corn 
or other chattels without immediate payment . . . nor shall 
the King, his sheriffs or bailiffs take any horses or carriages of 
freemen for carriage, or any man's timber . . . unless by con- 
sent of the owner. 

Carta of 
Henry III, 
Cap. 23 

28 E<lTr. Ill, 
Cbap. Ill 

No constable nor his bailiff shall take com or other chattels of 
any man . . . but he shall forthwith pay for the same. 

(See II, (a), above.) A man may not be "put out of Land or 
Tenement " but by due process of Law. 

Mass. Body " No mans Cattel or goods of what kinde soever shall be pressed 

of Liber- qj. taken for any publique use or service, unlesse it be by warrant 

Clause 8 grounded upon some act of the generall Court, nor without such 

reasonable prices and hire as the ordinarie rates of the Countrie 



[book n 

Hill «>r 
See. 1 

MnsN. I>eel. 
of Rif?ht»«, 

II. S. Con- 
Aiut. V 

Amt. XIV, 1 

do afford. And if his Cattel or goods shall perish or suffer dam- 
age in such service, the owner shall be sufhtiently recompenced." 

"... all men . . . have certain riglits . . . namely, the 
enjoyment of life and liberty, with tlie means of acc)uiriiig and 
possessing prupcrty, and pursuing and obtaining happiness and 

"... tliat of accjuiring, possessing, and protecting property; 
in fine, that of seeking and obtaining their safety and happiness." 

(No person shall) . . . "be deprived of life, liberty, or property 
without due process of law; nor shall jirivate property be taken 
for public use without just compensation." 

" Nor shall any State deprive any person of . . . property 
without due process of law." 

(For State Constitutions, see Book III, §§ 13, 90-95, 130, 183.) 

Cap. 13 

Cap. 41 

Cap. 33 

Carta of 
Henry III, 
Cap. 35 

Statate of 



Mass. Body 
of Liberties 

of Incle- 
Clause 20 
Bill of 
Sec. 4 

tion, XXXIX 

Mass. Decl. 
of Rigrlits, 
Clause VI 

(b) Trade and Monopoly 

"The City of London shall have all its ancient liberties and 
free customs as well by the lands as by the seas and so of all other 
cities, boroughs, towns and ports." In Henry III this is ex- 
tended to the barons of the five ports. 

" All merchants shall have liberty safely to enter, to dwell and 
travel in and to depart from England for the purpose of com- 
merce without being subjected to any evil tolls but only to the 
ancient and allowed customs except in time of war. , . ." Iden- 
tical in Cap. 37 of the Charter of Henry III. 

All w^eirs in the Thames and Medway and throughout England 
shall be put down, except on the sea-coast. 

"No freeman shall be . . . disseised of his freehold or liber- 
ties or free customs." The last words relate to trade, and are 
expounded by Coke as including a prohibition of monopoly. 

All monopolies, all licenses to do, use or exercise anything 
against the tenor or purport of any law or statute, declared 
void. 21 James I, Cap. 3. 

"No monopolies shall be granted or allowed amongst us, but 
of such new Inventions that are profitable to the Countrie and 
that for a short time." 

"For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world." 

"That no man, or set of men, are entitled to exclusive or sepa- 
rate emoluments or privileges from the community but in con- 
sideration of publick services; which not being descendible, 
neither ought the offices of magistrate, legislator, or judge to be 

That monopolies are odious, contrary to the spirit of a free 
government and the principles of commerce; and ought not to 
be suffered. 

"No man, nor corporation, or association of men, have any 
other title to obtain advantages, or particular and exclusive 
privileges, distinct from those of the community, than what 
arises from the consideration of services rendered to the public; 
and this title being in nature neither hereditary, nor transmissi- 

CHAP. l] 



IT. S. Consti- 
tution, Antt. 
XIV, Sec. 1 

Cap. 13 

Cap. 14 

Petition of 
Rights, I 

Bill of 
Rigrlits (4) 

Bill of 
See. 6 

of Inile- 
Clause 21 
Mass. Decl. 
uf Rights, X 

Mass. Decl. 
of Rights, 

ble to children, or descendants, or relations by blood, the idea of 
a man born a magistrate, lawgiver or judge, is absurd and 

"... nor shall any State . . . deny to any person within its 
jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws." 

(For State Constitutions, see Book III, §§ 14, 16, 70, 394, 404, 
580, etc.) 

(c) Taxation 

"No scutage nor aid shall be imposed in our kingdom unless 
by the common Council of the realm" (t. e. the Parliament). 

Describes how the National Council is to be summoned by a 
writ to all the nobility and tenants in chief. 

These two clauses were omitted in Magna Carta of Henry III 
but restored in the Confirmation of Charters of Edward I in the 
words "From henceforth we shall not take such manner of aids, 
tasks nor prises but by the common assent of all the realm and 
for the common profit thereof." 

"... your subjects have inherited this freedom, that they 
should not be compelled to contribute to any tax, tallage, aid or 
other Hke charge not set by common consent, in parliament." 

"... that no man hereafter be compelled to make or 
yield any gift, loan, benevolence, tax, or such like charge, without 
common consent by the act of parliament." 

"That levying money for or to the use of the Crown by pre- 
tence of prerogative, without grant of Parliament, for longer 
time, or in other manner, than the same is or shall be granted, is 

". . . all men . . . cannot be taxed or deprived of their 
property for publick uses without their own consent or that of 
their representatives. . . ." 

"For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent." 

"Each individual of the society has a right to be protected by 
it in the enjoyment of his life, liberty, and property, according 
to standing laws. He is obliged, consequently, to contribute his 
share to the expense of this protection ; to give his personal ser- 
vice, or an equivalent when necessary; but no part of the prop- 
erty of any individual can, with justice, be taken from him, or 
applied to public use, without his own consent, or that of the 
representative body of the people. In fine, the people of this 
Commonwealth are not controllable by any other laws than those 
to which their constitutional representative body have given 
their consent. And whenever the pubHc exigencies require that 
the property of any individual should be appropriated to public 
uses, he shall receive a reasonable compensation therefor." 

No subsidy, charge, tax, impost, or duties ought to be estab- 
lished, fixed, laid, or levied, under any pretext whatsoever, with- 
out the consent of the people or their representatives in the 

(For State Constitutions, see Book III, §§ 90, 330, 335, 340, 
310, 311, 312, 314, 320, 322.) 



[nooK II 

mil of 

ClauNt> S> 

ntll of 
Sec. 12 

Mnj«!«. r>ecl. 
of RiKhtH, 
Clnuite X\l 


(d) Miscellaneous Rights 

Freedom of Speech 

"That the freedom of speech, and debates or proceedings in 
Parliament, ou^ht not to be impeached or questioned in any 
court or place out of Parliament." 

"That the freedom of the press is one of the great bulwarks of 
liberty, and can never be restrained but by dcspotick govern- 

"The liberty of the press is essential to the security of freedom 
in a State: it ought not, therefore, to be restrained in this 

"The freedom of deliberation, speech and debate, in either 
house of the legislature is so essential to the riglits of the people, 
that it cannot be the foundation of any accusation or prosecution, 
action or complaint in any other court or place whatsoever." 

Bill of 
Clause 5 

Mass. Decl. 
of Rif?lit8, 
Clause XIX 


Right to Petition 

"That it is the right of the subject to petition the King, and 
all commitments and prosecutions for such petitioning are illegal." 

"The people have a right, in an orderly and peaceable manner, 
to assemble to consult upon the common good ; give instructions 
to their representatives, and to request of the legislative body, by 
the way of addresses, petitions, or remonstrances, redress of the 
wrongs done them, and of the grievances they suffer." 

"The freedom of deliberation, speech, and debate, in either 
house of the legislature, is so essential to the rights of the people, 
that it cannot be the foundation of any accusation or prosecution, 
action or complaint, in any other court or place whatsoever." 

Bill of 
Sec. IG 

Mass. Decl. 
of Rights, 


"That religion, or the duty which we owe to our Creator, and 
the manner of discharging it, can be directed only by reason and 
conviction, not by force or violence, and therefore all men are 
equally entitled to the free exercise of religion, according to the 
dictates of conscience; and that it is the mutual duty of all to 
practise Christian forbearance, love, and charity, towards each 

"And every denomination of Christians, demeaning them- 
selves peaceably, and as good subjects of the commonwealth, 
shall be equally under the protection of the law : and no subordi- 
nation of any one sect or denomination to another shall ever be 
established by law." 

Bill of 
See. lO 

Search Warrants 

"That general warrants, whereby an officer or messenger may 
be commanded to search suspected places without evidence of a 
fact committed, or to seize any person or persons not named, or 
whose offence is not particularly described, and supported by 
evidence, are grievous and oppressive, and ought not to be 

CHAP. l] 



MiiNH. IJeol. 
of Ui^IitM, 

tl. S. Consti- 
Art. IV 

"Every subject has a right to be secure from all unreasonable 
searches, and seizures, of liis person, liis houses, his papers, and 
all his possessions. All warrants, therefore, are contrary to this 
right, if the cause or foundation of them be not previously sup- 
ported by oath or affirmation, and if the order in tlie warrant to a 
civil officer, to make search in suspected places, or to arrest one 
or more suspected persons, or to seize tlicir property, be not 
accompanied with a special designation of the persons or objects 
of search, arrest, or seizure: and no warrant ought to be issued 
but in cases, and with the formalities prescribed by the laws." 

"The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, 
papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, 
shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon prob- 
able cause supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly 
describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to 
be seized." 

(For State Constitutions, see Book III, §§ 71, 136.) 


Bill of 
Clanse 8 

Bill of 
Sec. O 

Masjii. Decl. 
of Riglits, 

V. S. Constl- 
tntion, Fif- 
teenth Auit. 

(a) Elections 
"That election of members of Parliament ought to be free." 

"That elections [of representatives] ought to be free, and that 
all men having sufficient evidence of permanent common in- 
terest with, and attachment to the community have the right of 
suffrage . " 

"All elections ought to be free; and all the inhabitants of 
this Commonwealth having such qualifications as they shall 
establish by their frame of government, have an equal right to 
elect officers, and to be elected, for public employments." 

"The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not 
be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State, on 
account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 

" The congress shall have power to enforce this article by ap- 
propriate legislation." 

(For State Constitutions, see Book III, §§ 230, 235, 240, etc.) 

(b) Legislatures 

Bill of "And that for redresse of all grievances, and for the amending, 

Clau'se'is strengthening, and preserveing of the lawes, Parlyaments ought 
to be held frequently." 

MaH!<. Deoi. The legislature ought frequently to assemble for the redress of 

2^f Risiits, grievances, for correcting, strengthening, and confirming the laws, 
and for making new laws, as the common good may require. 
(For State Constitutions, see Book III, § 277.) 

Bill of 
Sec. 2 

(c) Theory of Government 

"That all power is vested in, and consequently derived from, 
the people ; that magistrates are their trustees and servants, and 
at all times amenable to them." 



[book II 

Hill of 
Sec. ;{ 

of Iiule- 

Mass. Con- 



Mass. Deel. 
of Rights, 



"That government is, or oupht to be, instituted for the 
common benefit, protection and security of the people, nation, or 
comiiiuiiity ; of all (he various modes and forms of government, 
that is best, wliicii is capable of i)roducinf^ the greatest degree of 
liappiness and safety, and is most effectually secured against the 
danger of maladministration; and that, whenever any govern- 
ment shall be found inadeciuate or contrary to these purj)oses, a 
majority of the comnumity hath an indubitable, imalienable and 
indefeasible right, to reform, alter or abolish it, in such manner aa 
shall be judged most conducive to the public weal." 

"That to secure these rights. Governments are instituted 
among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the 
governed. That whenever any Form of Government becomes 
destructive to these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or 
to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its founda- 
tion on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, 
as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and 

"The end of the institution, maintenance, and administration 
of government, is to secure the existence of the body politic, to 
protect it, and to furnish the individuals who compose it with the 
power of enjoying in safety and tranquillity their natural rights, 
and the blessings of life: and whenever these great objects are 
not obtained, the people have a right to alter the government, and 
to take measures necessary for their safety, prosperity, and 

" The body politic is formed by a voluntary association of 
individuals: it is a social compact, by which the whole people 
covenants with each citizen, and each citizen with the whole 
people, that all shall be governed by certain laws for the common 
good. It is the duty of the people, therefore, in framing a con- 
stitution of government, to provide for an equitable mode of 
making laws, as well as for an impartial interpretation and a 
faitliful execution of them; that every man may, at all times, 
find his security in them." 

" The people of this commonwealth have the sole and exclusive 
right of governing themselves, as a free, sovereign, and independ- 
ent state; and do, and forever hereafter shall, exercise and enjoy 
every power, jurisdiction, and right, which is not, or may not 
hereafter be, by them expressly delegated to the United States of 
America, in Congress assembled." 

" All power residing originally in the people, and being derived 
from them, the several magistrates and officers of government, 
vested with authority, whether legislative, executive, or judicial, 
are their substitutes and agents, and are at all times accountable 
to them." 

" Government is instituted for the common good ; for the pro- 
tection, safety, prosperity, and happiness of the people; and not 
for the profit, honor, or private interest of any one man, family, or 
class of men : Therefore the people alone have an incontestable, 
unalienable, and indefeasible right to institute government; and 
to reform, alter, or totally change the same, when their protection, 
safety, prosperity, and happiness require it." 

" In order to prevent those who are vested with authority from 
becoming oppressors, the people have a right, at such periods and 

CHAP. l] 



in such manner as they shall estabhsh by their frame of govern- 
ment, to cause their public officers to return to private life ; and 
to fill up vacant places by certain and regular elections and 

(For State Constitutions, see Book III, §§ 4, 6, 11, 181, 182, 
183, 184, 185.) 

Act of Set- 

Bill uf 
Sec. 5 

Mass. Decl. 
of Riglxts, 

IT. S. Constl- 
tation, I, 1 

(d) The Separation of the Powers 

"That no person who has an office or place of profit under the 
king, or receives a pension from the Crown, shall be capable of 
serving as a member of the House of Commons." 

"That the legislative and executive powers of the State should 
be separate and distinct from the judiciary ; and that the members 
of the two first may be restrained from oppression, by feeling and 
participating the burthens of the people, they should, at fixed 
periods, be reducted to a private station, return into that body 
from which they were originally taken, and the vacancies be 
supplied by frequent, certain, and regular elections, in which all, 
or any part of the former members, to be again eligible, or in- 
ehgible, as the laws shall direct." 

" In the government of this commonwealth, the legislative 
department shall never exercise the executive and judicial powers, 
or either of them : the executive shall never exercise the legisla- 
tive and judicial powers, or either of them : the judicial shall never 
exercise the legislative and executive powers, or either of them: 
to the end it may be a government of laws and not of men." 

"All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a 
Congress of the United States. ..." (See II, 1; III, 1, similarly 
expressed as to the other two powers.) 



[book II 








1 Hen. I 


1 Stephen 


1 Hen. II 



10 Hen. II 


28 Hen. II 


3G Hen. II 

Richard I 


The Conquest. 

Charter of Henry I (" of Liberties ") restores the laws 
of Edward the Confessor " with the amendments made 
by my father with the counsel of his barons."' First 
recognition of personal property at a man's death. It 
is to be divided between his widow and heirs. 

Charter of Stephen mainly concerning church matters, 
simony, and forests; but promises to observe " good and 
ancient laws and just customs " ; and again " all good 
laws and just customs which they had in the time of 
King Edward." 

Confirms " liberties and free customs " to " all counts 
and barons and to all men." 

Scutage substituted for military service. Institution 
of the " Grand Assize" or trial by jury (Taswell-Lang- 
mead, p. 71) supersedes old modes of trial by battle 
(Norman) and compurgation (Saxon). 

Constitutions of Clarendon subjected the church and 
priests to the secular (common) law (I Taylor, 287), 
the church courts still retaining jurisdiction over offences 
between the clergy, marriage, sexual relations, slander, 
usury, and wills. 

Assize of Arms revives the ancient fjTd (militia). — 
Glanvil Justiciar. 

Saladin tithe ; first taxation of personal property. 

Tax of one-fourth of every person's revenue or goods 
to ransom the King. 

Tax of one-seventh on thie barons, (1207) tax of one- 
thirteenth on every man. 


1313 John surrenders England to the Pope and takes it 

back in feud for tribute of 1000 marks. Trial by ordeal 
abolished by the Latcran Council. 

'21K Maqna Carta. C. 7. Establishment of the widow*s 

John ^ 

dower. C. 12. No scutage or aid (tax) shall be imposed 
in our kingdom unless by the comiuon council of our 
realm. C. 14. In order to take the common council of 
the realm in the imposition of aids the King shall smnmon 
tlie archbishops, earls, and barons by separate writ, and 
all other tenants in chief by general writ, with the 40 
days' notice ; and the consent of those present shall bind 
those absent. [These two clauses were omitted in the 
re-issue of Henry III, and only returned in Edward I, 
Confirmation of Charters (1297).] C. 13. Confirms 
ancient liberties and customs of London and of all other 
cities and free ports. C. 17. Common Pleas : Court shall 
not follow the King, but be held in some place certain. 
C. 20. Fines to be reasonable ; with exemption of tools, 
implements of husbandry, stock in trade. C. 39. The 
great Liberty statute : " No freeman shall be taken or 
imprisoned or be disseized [of his freehold or liberties or 
his free customs, in the Charter of Henry III], or be out- 
lawed or exiled or any othenvise destroyed ; nor will we 
go upon him nor send upon him but by law^ful judgment 
of his peers or by the law of the land. C. 40. We will 
sell to no man, we will deny or delay to no man either 
right or justice." C. 34. The Avrit "praecipe " not to 
issue to oust local courts of jurisdiction. C. 36. The 
wa-it of inquest of life or limb [predecessor of habeas 
corpus] to be given gratis and not denied. C. 45. Jus- 
tices to be appointed of such as know the law. (Omitted 
in Charter of Hen. III.) C. 41. Merchants to have 
safe conduct in England in time of peace, subject only 
to the ancient and allowed customs not to evil tolls; in 
time of war they shall be attached, without injury, until 
it be Imown " how our merchants are treated in such 
hostile state ; and if ours be safe, the others shall be safe 
also." C. 42. Any one may leave the kingdom, and re- 
turn at will, except in time of war (omitted in Charter of 
Henry III). C. 60. Extends these customs and liberties 
to the whole nation. 


61 Hen. Ill 


1217 Ilciirv III reissues charier, oniiUinf:^ clauses 12, 14, 

45; improving clause 39; and adding clause 43 con- 
cerning JVIortinain. 

1226 Charter of the Forest and reissue of Magna Carta. 

1235 C. 2. Slatute of Merlon: no usury permitted against 

2(> Hen. Ill ' •' ^ ° 

minors. Children born before marriage to be illegiti- 

1253 In the King's presence, the Archbishop of Canterbury 

37 Hen. Ill ^^^ ^|j ^^^^ bishops, "apparelled in pontificals, with 

tapers burning" curse and excommunicate all who break 

the charters or " the liberties or other customs of the 

realm of England." 

1264 Citizens of towns first represented in Simon de Mont- 

fort's parliament. 

The assize of bread and heer. Fixes the price of 
bread according to the cost of wheat, and two gallons of 
ale for a penny, with barley at 205. The first French 
statute; previously all were in Latin. 

12G7 Statnfe of Marlborough. Concerns actions concerning 

52 Hen. Ill j.p^| estate and trials of clerks for murder. Fanner shall 
commit no waste. 

1275 Westminster the First. First use of the word Par- 

liament. Common right to be done to rich and poor. 
Statute concerns principally criminal law. Nothing to 
be a wreck from which a dog or cat escapes quick out of 
the ship. No disturbance of free elections for parlia- 
ment. Customs tax on wool. Fines to be reasonable. 
Slander made criminal. Eavishment of women of full 
age without their consent, or of maidens under age with 
or without, is now made a crime by secular law, pun- 
ished by fine and two years' imprisonment. " Excessive 
toll, contrary to the common custom of the realm," for- 
bidden in Market towns. Parties indicted, etc., to have 
the writ de odio et atia "lest they be kept long in 
prison, like as it is declared in Magna Carta." — This 
great statute the first complete code of English law. 

1275 Statute of Bigamy aimed against priests with more 

than one wife refers to the Pope as " the Bishop of 

CHAP. Il] 





11 L:d. I 

( Ile-enac-ted 
iL'Sf) and 
called the 


13 Ed. I 


13 Cd. I 



IS E:a. I 

127G or 1 



25 Bd. I 


33 Ed. I 



Statute of Mortmain. 

Statute of Acton Burncl provides for speedy recovery 
of debts due merchants. Foundation of the modern law 
of pledge, sales of collateral, etc. If he have no goods 
to be seized the debtor to be imprisoned, but " the cred- 
itor shall find him bread and water," and, if a stranger, 
may recover expenses of liis trip to England (1285). 
Does away with the Droit D'Aubaine. Provides gen- 
erally for the recovery of ordinary debts; but Jews are 
excluded from its provisions. 

Statute of Wales. A complete code of procedure for 
Wales, Avith jury trial. 

Westminster the Second. De Donis. A still more 
complete code than Marlborough. These two codes 
caused Edward I to be named the English Justinian, 
but mainly concern criminal law and land ownership. 
First game law, protecting salmons, c. 47. 

Statute of Winchester. Provides for the gates of great 
towns to be shut at sunset, and no citizen to bear arms, 
nor taverns to sell drink, after 9 p. m. The duties of 
the watch described in Dogberry's language. 

Statutes for London. 

Statute of Bakers. The first pure food law. 
ment of forestallers. 


Wcstminster Third, or Quia Emptores. Affects land 

Statute of Quo Warranto. (All offices and privileges 
may be tried and challenged in the courts.) 

Statute concerning Jews: Usury forbidden. Chris- 
tian debtors to retain half of their substance. Jews 
must wear mark of two tables joined, on coat. Quia 

The Model Parliament. 

The Confirmation of the Charters. No aid or tax with- 
out common consent of the realm and for the common 

Articles upon the Charters. 

First statute of conspiracy (in maintaining law suits 
only). Else of chancery jurisdiction. Year books begin. 



[book II 


3 Kd. 
5 Kd. 



15 Ed. II 


9 Ed. 



10 Ed. Ill 


11 Ed. Ill 

1340 or 1328 
14 Ed. Ill 


14 Ed. Ill 


18 Ed. Ill 

Summary of Grievances: seizure of supplies by King; 
new customs on wine and cloth and other imports 
whereby their price to the people is enhanced; current 
coin debased; petitions of Commons to Parliament not 
received; delay of actions at law; pardons to felons; 
trial of civil cases by constables; escheats. 

Statute of Stamford. All duties suspended " in order 
to know what advantage will accrue to the people 

Abolition of " new " customs duties. The King shall 
not go out of the realm. First statute restraining chan- 
cery jurisdiction, forbidding arrest, conviction, or for- 
feiture without jury. 

Assertion of right of commonalty to share in legis- 
lation. End of scutage. Customs become part of per- 
manent revenue. 

Yearly sessions parliament, law for. 

Statute against invasion of common-law jurisdiction 
by the Chancellor. 

Statute of Yorl\ Allows free trading in England to 
foreign merchants. Statute de, Moneta; forbids carrying 
money abroad. About this time (records contradictory, 
see 1285) the first law making forestalling penal. 

Unanimous verdict of jury of twelve now necessary. 
De Cihariis. Forbids more than two courses of three 
dishes each for dinner or supper. 

Felony to carry wool out of England or to wear cloth 
made out of England. No clothes made beyond seas to 
be brought into England. The right to wear furs to be 
accorded the nobility only. 

All merchants allowed to come freely into the King- 
dom. Abolition of the laws of staple.* Export of wool 

" The realm and people of England shall not be sub- 
ject to the King or people of France." 

In the royal edict issued the year he assumed the title 
King of France, King Edward also deprecates any in- 
ference being drawn from his assuming the Flower de 
Luces in the first quarter of his arms. 

This statute complains that the French king is tr\dng 
to destroy the English language. The statute itself is 

CHAP, iij 




23 Kd. 




1 350 
25 E}d. 



written in French. All persons may buy or export wool ; 
the seas to be open to merchants. 

Herbert Spencer notes that at this time the Court of 
Chancery became the Court of Equity with power to 
relieve in certain cases and a fixed abode. The Black 

The first statute of laborers. Eequires all persons able 
in body under sixty to do labor to such persons as require 
labor or else be committed to gaol. 

No workman or servant can depart from service before 
the time agreed upon; the old wages and no more shall 
be given. Victuals shall be sold only at reasonable 
prices. (Apparently these prices were to be fixed by 
the mayor.) C. 7 provides that no person shall give 
anything to a beggar who is able to labor. Barring- 
ton notes that this statute is probably illegal because the 
Commons are not mentioned as having joined in its en- 
actment. It recites the great increase of wages by reason 
of the plague. 

Herbert Spencer has a note that this year privileges of 
the trade guilds were confirmed by statute after two cen- 
turies of struggle. Tliis statute, however, cannot be 
found in the Statutes at Large. 

The amended statute of laborers. This law was joined 
in by the Commons and provides elaborately for the 
amount of wages to be paid all sorts of service, including 
agricultural service. Thus, common laborers one penny, 
mowers three pence a day. At this time the Black 
Prince, the head of the army, was paid 20 shillings a 
day, carpenters two or three pence, masons three or four 
pence, servants one-half a penny, tilers three, thatchers 
of fern and straw 3 pence a day. (Confirmed in 1378.) 

The statute of cloths. C. 3 of this statute contains a 
more severe provision against forestalling wines and 
victuals, the buyer to forfeit the value of the amount of 
goods he forestalled, with two years' imprisonment. This 
law confirmed in 2 R. II, 1378. 

Indictments made necessary by statute. 

Statute of the staple re-established and enlarged; cre- 
ates staple towns, giving a law for the staple of wood, 
wool, lead, and leather, and fixing the rent of houses in 



[book II 


2H Kd. Ill 


34 Kd. Ill 


36 Kd. Ill 


51 Ed. Ill 


2 Rich. II 

staple town at a reasonable rate ; merchandise to be freely 
sold at tlu' staple, if not forestalled. Consent of l^ar- 
liament fully recognized as necessary even to indirect 
taxation (I Taylor, 490). 

Another confinnalion of tlic cliariers, notable because 
this time the great clause in the jMagna Carta uses the 
words " due process of law " instead of the previous 
phrases " law of the land," " judgment of his peers/' 
etc. The export of iron is forbidden. 

Confirms the statute of laborers, and allows work in 
gross, i. e., by contract, if well and lawfully done, and 
declares void all alliances and covins between masons, 
carpenters and guilds, chapters and ordinances. La- 
borers refusing work may be imprisoned. C. 10 punishes 
laborers departing to another county. This, though 
claimed to have been repealed by general words in the 
5 Elizabeth, was not expressly repealed until 1869. 

Parliament required to be held once a year, and pleas 
to be in the English language. 

Fixes the price of hens and chickens, capons and 
geese, at from one to four pennies, the reason of such 
a statute being alleged to be the great deamess of such 
articles in the kingdom. By c. 5 merchants are for- 
bidden to ingress or enhance the prices of them, and are 
required to deal in only one kind of goods, and in the 
same way handicraftsmen were allowed to " use but one 
mystery." This statute also prescribes in great detail 
for the apparel of all sorts and conditions of persons, 
their wives and servants. The part of the law forbid- 
ding merchants from using more than one kind of mer- 
chandise was, however, repealed the following year, and 
it was declared that " all people shall be free as they 
were at all times before." 

Ordinance that women might not sue in court by way 
of maintenance or reward, especially Alice Ferrers. 
First impeachment by Commons, Nevil and Latimer. 

Last severe statute concerning villeinage, requiring vil- 
leins refusing to labor to be committed to prison without 
bail at the complaint of the landlord. Villeins fleeing 
to cities were made free after a year and a day. 


i37» First statute concerning frauds by debtors against 


2 Rich. II 

insi All persons not great lords or merchants forbidden to 

*** '■ leave the Jiingdom. No goods to be exported or im- 

ported save in English ships, except (see amending 
statute of 1381) where no English ships are to be had. 
Exportation of gold and silver definitely forbidden. 
Attendance at Parliament made compulsory. 

138.3 Wat Tyler leads rising against villeinage. Growth of 

small freeholders. Villeins demand commutation of ser- 
vice to 4d an acre rent, and freedom of commerce in 
market towns. 

First laws against vagabonds. 

Barons protest against Roman law, and judges forbid 
it to be cited in the courts (T.-L. 145). 

1.38S Laborers restricted to their hundred, and following the 

same trade as father compulsory after twelve. Wages 
of agricultural laborers fixed as well as of handicrafts- 
men at low rates, — shepherds ten shillings a year, plow- 
men seven, women laborers six shillings. Servants may 
carry bows and arrows, not swords ; may not play tennis 
or football. Servants leaving employment required to 
cdSTy testimonial, and none to receive servants with- 
out such letter, — the original of the black list. The 
first Poor Law; those unable to work are to be sup- 
ported in the town where bom. Villeinage, which be- 
gan at the Norman Conquest, according to Fitz-Herbert, 
" because the Conqueror gave lordships with all the in- 
habitants to do with them at their pleasure to his prin- 
cipal followers, and they, needing servants, pardoned 
the inhabitants of their lives, and caused them to do 
all manner of service," — was now abolished by com- 
pensation in a money wage payment. 

The institution of villeinage is last mentioned in a 
commission of Queen Elizabeth, 1574, directing Lord 
Burleigh and others in certain counties to compound 
with all such bondmen or bondwomen for their manu- 
mission and freedom. 

First act against nuisances, forbidding corruption of 
rivers, etc. 





15 Rich. 


[book II 


17 Rich. II 


2 Uen. IV 


2 Uen. IV 





1 Hen. VI 



Wages of artisans and laborers to be fixed at Easter 
and Michael mas by a Justice of the Peace, not as before, 
fixed at a permanent sum. 

No man to be compelled to answer before a Lord of 
matters determinable at common law. Statute limiting 
admiralty jurisdiction. Eoman law prohibited. 

Court of Chancery now established. ( Spence, V, 34-1 . ) ' 

Foreign merchants permitted to carry away half the 
value of their imports in money, spending the other half 
in English commodities. 

First secular law against heresy, making it a capital 
offence. Upon conviction by the ordinary the heretic is 
to be delivered to the secular arm, i. e., burnt. Note 
that the trial, however, still remains with the ordinary, 
i. e., the clerical court. 

English burgesses who marry Welsh women disfran- 

Laborers not to work feast days, nor for more than 
half a day before a holiday. 

Attorneys to be learned in the law and examined by 

Parliament asserts right to ratify treaties and be con- 
sulted on wars. 

Transmutation of metals into gold made a felony, also 
breach of trust and embezzlement. 

Petition of 31 articles. 

King ceases to sit in Parliament. Establishment of 
principle that money bills must originate in the House 
of Commons. 

On account of the felonies committed by Irishmen re- 
sorting to the University of Oxford, all natives of that 
country obliged to leave England, except University 
graduates, clergymen, and lawyers. 

Legislation still by petition of House of Commons, but 
now in English. 

Personal property now legally protected. (Spencer.) 
No one with land of less than twenty shillings per 
annum to apprentice a son or daughter within a city. 

CHAP. Il] 






15 Hen. 




18 Hen. VI 

23 Hen. 


31 Hen. 



3 Ed. IV 

Pound of silver, though worth 32 shillings, fixed at 30s. 

Masons forbidden to confederate themselves in chap- 
ters, etc. 

Attempt to fix wages by law (1388) again abandoned. 
To be fixed by justices as in 1389 "because Masters 
could not get Servants without giving higher ^Yages than 
allowed by the Statute." 

First disfranchising act, restricts voting qualification 
to 40s a year freeholders. Eesidence qualifications for 
both electors and elected — only abolished in 14 Geo. III.. 

Corn allowed to be exported when below a certain> 
price. Importation of manufactured articles and of 
wheat, when under 6s Sd per quarter, forbidden. 

First statute against by-laws in restraint of trade, 
providing for guilds and the corporate companies making 
unlawful ordinances as to the price of their wares for 
their own profit and to the common hurt of the people 
and such made penal and invalid except when approved 
by the chancellor. This statute re-enacted in 1503, 19 
Hen. VII, c. 7. 

Exportation of wool still forbidden. 

Servant in husbandry proposing to depart from his 
master must give him half a year's warning. Wages 
again fixed, overseers 20s, common husbandry 15s, 
women 10s, etc., etc., with meat and drink. Carpenters, 
in summer 4J a day, in winter Sd, etc., and meat and 
drink, or li/^^Z a day in lieu thereof. Women 2i/^(i a day 
and keep at 2d. Eepealed by 5 Eliz., c. 4. 

Prototype of government by injunction. C. 2 recites 
Jack Cade's Eebellion, declares that in cases of riots, 
etc., in the future, if any offender be commanded to 
appear in chancery or before a council but disobey, the 
chancellor, on certificate thereof, may issue writs of 
proclamation to appear within one month or suffer for- 
feiture or outlawry. Statute to continue only seven 

First corn law prohibiting importation of corn, but 
only effective when the quarter of wheat or barley, etc., 


does not exceed a certain price. General prohibition of 
importation of manufactured articles. First example of 
reciprocity; 4 Ed., c. 5, prohibits importation of mer- 
chandise from Burgundy while English cloth is pro- 
hibited there. Strict law regulating apparel, but repealed 
twenty years later. 

1483 Statutes now begin to be in English. C. 12, first 

precedent of prohibitive tariff imposed on manufactured 
articles only, and not on raw materials. 

148.^ " No tanner shall be a currier, nor any currier a 

I Heu. VII , „ 


[Hallam, Const. Hist. I, 2.] Six liberty rights now 
established: taxation by parliament; no person to be 
imprisoned without warrant; legislation by consent of 
commons ; criminal causes triable by a jury of the count}', 
in open court, from whose unanimous verdict no appeal 
could be made ; officers, administrators, or soldiers liable 
for acts at the common law ; impeachment of the King's 

1487 Gives special authority to court of Star Chamber over 

riots and disorders. 

Dispensing power of Crown now denied as to mala 
in se (things against the common law). 

1495 First suits in forma pauperis. 

II Hen. VII 

1503 Bv-laws of guilds, etc., restraining suits at law un- 

19 Hen. VII " . 

lawful. So ordinances " against the common weal of 
the people." 

1509 Paucity of legislation due to attempt at personal 

1 Hen. VIII , 

1511 License required from physicians and surgeons to 

3 Hen. VIII , • 


1513 The Strode Case. Eight of Parliamentary privilege 
established. Benefit of clergy abolished in murder. 
Statute of laborers repealed in so far as it imposes a 
penalty on the master for giving higher wages than the 
law allows. 

1514 Henry VIII manumits two villeins in the following 
form : " Whereas God created all men free , , ." 


1514 The most elaborate of all the acts fixing the wages and 

hours of labor, what time he shall begin and end his 
work, and what time he shall have for his meals and 
sleep. First general commission of sewerage. 

1B23 Wolsey's attempt to intimidate the House of Commons. 

Parliament not summoned for seven years. 

1530 Bakers, brewers, surgeons, and scriveners declared 

not handicraftsmen. 

1B33 New act against the forestalling, and rcgrating of 

victuals, com and especially fish. 

1534 Henry VIII declared supreme head of the Church of 
England. First game law against wild fowl. 

1535 Statute of uses and wills. Third conviction for join- 
ing trade union punished with loss of ear. (H. Spencer, 
but not in statutes at large.) The law, 27 Hen, VIII, 
c. 25, is aimed only at sturdy vagabonds and beggars. 

1536 First State poor law. 

1539 Dissolution of monasteries. The " Bloody Statute " 
against heresy. The sacraments, celibacy, masses, con- 
fessions insisted upon. Punishment, burning. The act 
is entitled " An Act abolishing diversity of opinion on 
certain articles concerning the Christian religion." 

1540 First act against witchcraft. First act establishing 
prescriptions in land titles. First act for the breeding 
of horses, to be over fifteen hands. 

1539 Act giving royal proclamations of the King in Council 

the force of law. 

Abuse of bills of attainder. 

1542 C. 4. First hanhruptcy act, empowering distribution 

34 Hen. VIII ^£ effects, with penalties against absconders and fraudu- 
lent debtors. Prohibits Tindale's translation of the 
Bible and directs that the ISTew Testament in English 
shall not be read by women, prentices, and laborers 
under the degree of yeomen. 

1545 Usury ]a,w — 10'^°. 

1548 Marriage of priests made lawful. 



[book II 


» A: 4 Ed. VI 



7 Ed. VI 


1 P. <& M. 

6 EUz. 


13 Eliz. 

C. 5. Unlawful assemblies of twelve to alter laws or 
abate prices, etc. First (High Church) Prayer Book. 

Tlie last act against regraters, forestallers, and in- 
grossers. 5 Ed. VI, c. 14, made perpetual by 13 Eliz., 
and repealed by 12 Geo. III. Origin of anti-trust laws. 

Two witnesses required to treason. 

First precedent of a coal and fuel law, proliibiting 
middlemen. The Thirty-nine Articles. 

Act for relief of weavers, prohibiting "the ingrossing 
of looms," anticipating Marx. 

C. 4. The great statute of laborers. Consolidation of 
all previous laws. Eecites that wages were fixed too 
small, and not reasonable to this time. Provides for 
many trades, and no person to be hired for less than a 
year. Compels all persons not having an estate of 40s 
per annum to serve in any of the mentioned handicrafts. 
Unmarried persons under 30 not having been brought 
up to any special craft, if not in a nobleman's house- 
hold, may be compelled to labor at the request of any 
person using an art or mystery. Other persons between 
12 and 60 compelled to serve in husbandr}'. None may 
leave or discharge before a year's time, except on order 
of a justice of the peace, and none may leave his city or 
town without a testimonial. Hours of labor between 
March and September from 5 a. m. to 7 p. m. with 
214 hours for meal times, and drink times and sleep 2I/2 
hours. From September to May, dawn to sunset. 
Wages to be fixed by justice of the peace. Unmarried 
women between 12 and 40 to serve in like manner; and 
elaborate rules for the apprentices. None may use any 
manual art who has not been apprenticed to the same. 
Masters prohibited from discharging servants before 
their term without reasonable cause or ^ quarter's warn- 
ing. No servant to be hired without testimonial. 

Speaker Onslow tells Elizabeth she is subject to the 
common law. 

The Pope forbids attendance at the English Church. 

C. 5. Fraudulent conveyances against creditors de- 
clared void. 

CHAP. Il] 





14 BIlz. 








21 James I 

Cominons complain of monopolies. First punishment 
for bribery at elections. 

First recorded expulsion of a member of the House 
of Commons. 

Strict censorship of the press. 

C. 5. The first law against vagabonds and poor law, 
completely re-enacted in 43 Eliz., c. 2, establishing the 
principle of support of the poor by the public, i. e., 
parish, only that the able who refuse work may be sent 
to the house of correction by the magistrates. 

Many acts regulating trades, and encouraging agricul- 
ture, rebuilding villages, etc., passed during this period. 

Height of the monopoly abuse. Elizabeth promises to 
do away with them. 

James attempts to control elections. Asserts Divine 

The " Form of Apology." 

Patents granted for the exclusive sale of article not 
inventions. Beginning of laws licensing liquor sellers, 
aimed against drunkenness. James omits to summon 
Parliament and imposes a duty on imports without its 

The Commons object to laws by proclamation, and the 
King's Bench sustains them. 

James attempts to get the opinion of the judges in 
advance and separately. 

Case of Commendams. Disgrace of Coke. Judges 
now hold office at the King's pleasure. 

Last laws of villeinage. 

C. 3. The statute of monopolies, prohibiting of such 
monopolies both granted and to be granted, giving 
remedy in double or treble damages, making exceptions 
of the charters to municipal corporations, of the trade 
guilds and fellowships, and of copyrights and tavern 

Legal rate of interest now 8^. 


3 Charles I 

The Petition of Right. 


1C41 Massachusetts Body of Liberties. The Grand Bemon' 


1642 Arrest of the Five members. Parliament abolishes 

the Star Chamber and all but common law courts. 

i«43 First Business Corporation: the Fellowsliip of Mer- 

chant Adventurers. 

(Co'minon- The Instrument of Government. 


16G6 Appropriation Act. 

1667 The Statute of Frauds. 

1670 Immunity of jurymen for their verdicts finally estab- 

lished. General verdicts vindicated. 

1679 The Habeas Corpus Act. 

31 Cbarles II ^ 

Standing armies begin, in England. The Mutiny, or 
Army Act. 

1685 Act to encourage the building of ships in England. 

Tax on foreign ships employed in coasting trade. 

1689 Bill or Declaration of Rights. 

IVilliam III 

1691 Eates of carriers fixed by law. 

1700 -^ct of Settlement. Judges' tenure made for life. No 

pardon pleadable to impeachment. 

1707 Last royal veto of an Act of Parliament. 

1716 The Septennial Act. 


General warrants declared illegal by Lords Camden 
and Mansfield. 

1776 Virginia Bill of Rights. 

Declaration of Independence. 

1780 Massachusetts Bill of Rights. 

The Massachusetts Constitution. 

1787 Constitution of the United States. 

1789 First Ten Amendments U. S. Constitution. 

1794 Eleventh Amendment U. S. Constitution. 

1804 Twelfth Amendment TJ. S. Constitution. 

CHAP, ii] 



1840 About this time the invention of the business corpora- 

tion with limited liability to stockholders. 

18G5 Thirteenth Amendment U. S. Constitution. 

I860 Fourteenth Amendment U. S. Constitution. 

1870 Fifteenth Amendment U. S. Constitution. 

18ST Interstate Commerce Act. 

1890 Anti-Trust (Sherman) Act. 

1003 Bureau of Corporations established. Discrimination 

(Elkins) Act. 

1906 Pure Food Law. 

1906 Eailway Eate Eegulation (Hepburn) Act. 




The frontispiece graphically represents the exact division of polit- 
ical and legislative power between the States and the Federal Gov- 
ernment as well as the large field reserved by the Constitution to 
the people; and it does this even to the finer shades of distinction, 
as when powers delegated to the Nation are, at the same time, for- 
bidden to the States or when they are shared by the Nation and the 
States, or when nothing is said about it, so that the matter must 
depend upon the interpretation of the Supreme Court. Thus, the 
entire sovereign and legislative power we will assume represented 
by the entire circle. Then, drawing a zone " A " on the northwest 
of the circle nearly to the centre, we will assume that " A," colored 
blue with horizontal lines, comprises all the powers which are dele- 
gated or permitted to the Federal Government. A corresponding 
zone " B," colored blue with vertical lines, will represent in like 
manner the powers expressly reserved by the Federal Constitution to 
the States; though it is obvious that all powers not comprised in 
the zone " A " must necessarily remain either with the States or 
with the people. It will be observed that these two zones intersect. 
The area covered by both " A " and " B " will naturally and mathe- 
matically represent the powers given, by the express words of the 
Constitution, to both the Nation and the States. These, naturally, 
are few in number. 

Now in a manner precisely corresponding, we can represent those 
powers which are denied or forever withheld, both to the United 
States and to the States, by the wording or necessary implication of 
the Constitution. These denied or withheld powers we have colored 
red. Thus, the zone " X," with horizontal lines, comprises all those 
matters which are expressly or by necessary implication forbidden 
to the Federal Government ; in like manner zone " Z," drawn red 
with perpendicular lines, comprises all those matters which are ex- 
pressly or by necessary implication forbidden to the States. Again, 


where these two zones intersect, is the area "XZ," comprising many 
most important matters which, by the Federal Constitution, are for- 
bidden to both the Nation and the States; that is to say, matters 
wliich the people expressly withheld from either government they 
were creating. In a sense, therefore, this area " XZ " is analogous 
to " Y," the central area, outside of any zone permitted to either 
Nation or State ; the dill'erence being that our area " XZ " will rep- 
resent those matters which are merely denied to both State and 
Federal power, while the area " Y " will represent those which are, 
by the wording of the Constitution itself, expressly reserved or 
declared to remain with the people. 

But we have not yet exhausted all our shades of meaning. The 
intersection of the zone " B," matters permitted to the States, with 
the zone " X," matters forbidden to the Federal Government, results 
in the area " BX," the peculiar domain of States' rights ; that is 
to say, those powers which are both permitted to the States or 
reserved to the States, and, by the wording of the Constitution, ex- 
pressly denied or forbidden to the Federal Government. On the 
other hand, the corresponding area " AZ " in like manner represents 
those powers delegated to the United States and forbidden expressly 
to the States; that is to say, " AZ " is the peculiar domain of the 
imperialist or the supporter of centralization; those great matters, 
notably interstate commerce, which, by interpretation or otherwise, 
he would have given over solely to the National Government, and- 
withheld from any control by the States. 

It is not too much to say that if we knew exactly what matters 
fall within the area " AZ " and the corresponding area " BX " and 
the central domain of " Y," we should have the solution of all the 
questions that are now vexing both the constitutional lawyer and 
the general public; for these neutral grounds, these contested areas, 
grapliically represent both what is given or denied to the Federal 
Government, what is reserved to the States, and finally, what has 
never been parted with by the people. Under the extreme inter- 
pretation at some times proposed by President Eoosevelt, the area 
" Y " almost disappears ; while the area " BX," or indeed the whole 
zone of " X," is much shrunken. On the other hand, according 
to Thomas Jefferson and the old strict-construction Democrats, it 
is the area " Y " that largely expands, and the area " AZ," or in- 
deed the whole zone " Z," what is forbidden to the States, largely 
diminishes. If the reader of this book will take the diagram and 
carefully, for himself, decide (for on some clauses there may be a 
difference of opinion) just what sentences or sections of the Consti- 
tution, or matters or powers mentioned therein, faU witliin each of 


these nine divisions of our sj)liore of tlie total powers of government, 
lie will almost, by the very study re(iuired, the close examination 
of the Constitution necessary, become a good American constitu- 
tional lawyer. But it is needJess to say that hundreds of decisions 
of the Supreme Court have been required to settle these most 
debatable areas, " AZ," " BX," and " Y"; and many more are still 
required before we can be certain on all points. That great power to 
control commerce among the States, under which it seems it is now 
proposed to bring the Federal Government into all the domains of 
law and life in such a manner as to revolutionize our whole system, 
does it, for instance, all fall within the area " AZ " ? or may it go 
into the rest of the zone of " A," that is, a matter over which some 
control or power, co-ordinate, not subordinate to the Federal Gov- 
ernment, rests or remains with the States? In like manner, does 
the power of imposing an income tax belong only in the narrow 
area of " BX " ? or may it go into the other divisions of the zone 
of " B," powers given or reserved to the States, which yet may be 
exercised concurrently by the Nation? 

With this explanation I pass (with some diffidence, for my readers 
may not agree with me on all points) to the division I have made 
into our nine possible categories of the matters and powers enumer- 
ated in the Federal Constitution: 



All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the 
United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. 
I, 1. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other offi- 
cers and shall have the sole power of impeacliment. I, 2, (5). 

The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro tempore 
in the absence of the Vice-President. ... I, 3, (5). 

The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. I, 3, (6). 

Each house shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications 
of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do 
business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be 
authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and 
under such penalties, as each house may provide. I, 5, (1). 

Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members 
for disorderly behavior, and with the concurrence of two tliirds, expel a mem- 
ber. I, 5, (2). 

Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time 
publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy, 
and the yeas and nays of the members of either house on any question shall, 
at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal. I, 5, (3). 

Every bill wliich shall have passed the House of Representatives and the 
Senate shall, before it become a law, be presented to the President of the United 
States ; if he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his ob- 


jections, to that house in which it shall have originated, etc. If approved by 
two-thirds of [each] house it shall become a law. I, 7, (2). 

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect . . . duties, imposts, . . . 
... to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general wel- 
fare of the United States. ... I, 8, (1). 

To borrow money on the credit of the United States; I, 8, (2). 

To regulate commerce with foreign nations and among the several States, 
and with the Indian tribes; I, 8, (3). 

To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the sub- 
ject of bankruptcies throughout the United States ; I, 8, (4). 

To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the 
standard of weights and measures; I, 8, (5). 

To establish post-offices and post- roads ; 1,8, (7). 

To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court; I, 8, (9). 

To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas and 
offences against the law of nations; I, 8, (10). 

To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules con- 
cerning captures on land and water; I, 8, (11). 

To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall 
be for a longer term than two years; I, 8, (12). 

To provide and maintain a navy; I, 8, (13). 

To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces ; 
I, 8, (14). 

To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, sup- 
press insurrections, and repel invasions; I, 8, (15). 

To provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the militia, and for gov- 
erning such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United 
States. ... I, 8, (16). 

To exercise exclusive legislation [over the District of Columbia and] all 
places purchased by the consent of the legislature of the State in which the same 
shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, and other 
needful buildings ; 1,8, (17). 

To make all laws wliich shall be necessary and proper for carrying into exe- 
cution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution 
in the Government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof 
I, 8, (18). 

. . . the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any State on imports 
or exports, shall be for the use of the Treasury of the United States; and 
all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress. I, 

The executive power shall be vested in a President. . . . He shall hold his 
office during the term of four years, and together with the Vice-President, 
chosen for the same term, be elected as follows. II, 1, (1). 

The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors and the day 
on which they shall give their votes, wliich day shall be the same throughout 
the United States. II, 1, (4). 

In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resigna- 
tion, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same 
shall devolve on the Vice-President, and the Congress may by law provide for 
the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of the President and 
Vice-President, declaring what officer shall then act as President, and such 
officer shall act accordingly until the disability be removed or a President shall 
be elected. II, 1, (6). 

The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a compensation, 
which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he 
may have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other 
emolument from the United States, or any of them. II, 1, (7). 


Tlie President shall be Commander-in-chief of the Army and Navy of tlio 
United States, and of the militia of tlie several States when called into the actual 
service of the United States; he may recjuire the opinion, in writinjz;, of the 
priiu'ij)al oflicer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating 
to the duties of their respective oflices, and he shall have power to grant 
reprieves and pardons for olTences against the United States, except in cases of 
impeachment. II, 2, (1). 

He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to 
make treaties, j)rovided two-thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall 
nominate, and, by and witli the advice and consent of the Senate, shall ajjpoint 
ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, 
and all other oflicers of the United States, whose api)ointments are not herein 
otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law ; but the Con- 
gress may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers, as they think 
proper, in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of depart- 
ments. II, 2, (2). 

The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during 
the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions wliich shall expire at the end 
of their next session. II, 2, (3). 

He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the state of 
the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall 
judge necessary and expedient ; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene 
both houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between them with 
respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he 
shall tliink proper; he shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers; 
he shall take care that the laws be faitlifuUy executed, and shall commission all 
the officers of the United States. II, 3. 

The President, Vice-President, and aU civil officers of the United States shall 
be removed from office on impeachment for and conviction of treason, bribery, 
or other high crimes and misdemeanors. II, 4. 

The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one Supreme 
Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain 
and establish. Ill, 1. 

The judicial power shall extend ... to all cases affecting ambassadors, 
other public ministers, and consuls ; to all cases of admiralty and maritime 
jurisdiction ; to controversies to which the United States shall be a party ; to 
controversies between two or more States; between a State and citizens of 
another State ; between citizens of different States ; between citizens of the 
same State claiming lands under grants of different States, and between a 
State, or the citizens thereof, and foreign States, citizens, or subjects. Ill, 2, (1). 

In all cases affecting ambassadors, other pubfic ministers and consuls, and 
those in which a State shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have original 
jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned the Supreme Court shall 
have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions and 
under such regulations as the Congress shall make. Ill, 2, (2). 

The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason. . . . 
Ill, 3, (2). 

. . . the Congress may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such 
acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof. IV, 1. 

The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and 
regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United 
States ; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice 
any claims of the United States or of any particular State. IV, 3, (2). 

New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union. . . . IV, 
3, (1). 

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, 
shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the 


legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a convention for pro- 
posing amendments. ... V. 

. . . But Congress may, by a vote of two thirds of each house, remove 
such disability. Amendment XIV, 3, 


... in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic 
tranquillity, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, . . . 
do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. 

. . . direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may 
be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers. ... I, 
2, (3). 

The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of the Senate. 
... I. 3, (4). 

. . . the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such regulations 
[elections for Senators and Representatives]. I, 4, (1), 

The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their 
services, to be ascertained by law and paid out of the Treasury of the United 
States. I, 6, (1). 

. . . the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other bills 
[bills for raising revenue]. I, 7, (1). 

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes, . . . and excises, 
• • • I'8, d). 

To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current 
coin of the United States. I, 8, (6). 

To promote the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited 
times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings 
and discoveries. I, 8, (8). 

To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execu- 
tion the foregoing powers, etc. ... 1,8, (18). See in AZ. 

The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under 
this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which 
shall be made, under their authority. . . . Ill, 2, (1). 

The electors shall meet in their respective States and vote by ballot for 
President and Vice-President [the general method of election]. Amendment 

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation 
[the article against slavery]. Amendment XIII, 2. 

The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, 
the provisions of this article [the Fourteenth Amendment]. Amendment 
XIV, 5. 

The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the 
provisions of the article [the Fifteenth Amendment]. Amendment XV, 2. 



No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any imposts or duties 
on imports or exports. ... I, 10, (2). 

[or] lay any duty of tonnage. ... I, 10, (3). 


. . . nor any State be formed by the junction of two or more States or parts 
of States, without tlie consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as 
well as of the Congress. IV, 3, (1). 

Tiie Ihiited States . . . shall protect each of them against invasion [the 
States] and on ai)plication of the loj:;islaturc, or of the executive [when the 
legislature cannot be convened], against domestic violence. IV, 4. 

'1 he Congress ... on the application of the legislatures of two thirds of 
the several States, shall call a convention for proposing amendments. V. 


. . . each State shall have at least one Representative. I, 2, (3). 

[A State may lay imposts or duties] absolutely necessary for executing its 
inspection laws. I, 10, (2). 

A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other crime, who 
shall flee from justice, and be found in another State, shall, on demand of tlie 
executive authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be 
removed to the State having jurisdiction of the crime. IV, 2, (2). 

[House shall vote, by States, for President, in case of no electoral majority, 
from the three liighest on the list, each State having one vote]. Amendment 



The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen . . . 
by the people of the several States. I, 2, (1). 

When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the executive 
authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies. I, 2, (4). 

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from 
each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six years, and each Senator 
shall have one vote. I, 3, (1). 

... if vacancies happen by resignation or otherwise during the recess of 
the Legislature of any State, the executive thereof may make temporary ap- 
pointments until the next meeting of the legislature, which shall then fill such 
vacancies [in the Senate]. I, 3, (2). 

The times, places, and manner of holding elections for Senators and Repre- 
sentatives shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof ; but the 
Congress may at any time by law make or alter such regulations, except as to 
the places of choosing Senators. I, 4, (1). 

. . . reserving to the States respectively the appointment of the officers, 
and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed 
by Congress. I, 8, (16). 

The migration or importation of such persons (slaves) . . . shall not be 
prohibited by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and 
eight. ... I, 9, (1). 

Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof may 
direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and Rep- 
resentatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress. ... II, 
1, (2). 

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor pro- 
hibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively. . . . Amend- 
ment X. 


The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to 
any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United 
States by citizens of another State, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign 
State. Amendment XI. 

Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to 
their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, 
excluding Indians not taxed. . . . Amendment XIV, 2. 


Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several 
States according to their respective nmnbers . . . excluding Indians not taxed. 
... I, 2, (3). 

prhe Senators] . , . shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes 
... I, 3, (2). 

The . . . President of the Senate . . . shall have no vote, unless they be 
equally divided. I, 3, (4). 

[The Senate when sitting to try impeachments shall] be on oath or affirma- 
tion. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall 
preside : and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two- 
tliirds of the members present. I, 3, (6). 

Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal 
from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, 
or profit under the United States. ... I, 3, (7). 

[The meeting of Congress] shall be on the first Monday in December, unless 
they shall by law appoint a different day. I, 4, (2). 

Neither house, during the session of Congress, sliall, without the consent of 
the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in 
which the two houses shall be sitting. I, 5, (4). 

No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for wliich he was elected, 
be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States, which 
shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased 
during such time. ... I, 6, (2). 

All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives. 
... I, 7, (1). 

(Vetoed bills) . . . the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas 
and nays, and the names of persons voting for and against the bill shall be 
entered on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be 
returned by the President \vitliin ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall 
have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in Uke manner as if he had 
signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which 
case it shall not be a law. I, 7, (2). 

Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and 
House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjourn- 
ment) shall be presented to the President of the United States ; and before the 
same shall take effect, shall be approved by him or being disapproved by him, 
shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, 
according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill. I, 7, (3). 

... all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United 
States. 1, 8, (1). 

... no appropriation of money [to raise and support armies] . . . shall be 
for a longer term than two years. I, 8, (12). 

The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when 
in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it. I, 9, (2). 



No bill of attainder or ex post facto law sliall be passed. I, 9, (3). 
-No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the 
census or enumeration iiereinljefore dircc^ted to be taken. I, 9, (4). 

No tax or duty siiall be laitl on articles exported from any State. I, 9, (5). 

No preference siiall be given by any regulation of commerce or revetme to 
the ports of one State over tliose of another ; nor shall vessels bound to or from 
one State be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another. I, 9, (G). 

No money shall be drawn from tlie Treasury but in consecjuence of appro- 
priations made by law. ... I, 9, (7). 

No title of nobility siiall be granted by the United States; and no person 
holding any office of profit or trust under them shall, witliout the consent of 
Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, 
from any king, prince, or foreign State. I, 9, (8). 

. . . The judges, botii of the supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their 
offices during good behavior. . . . (See also in Y.) Ill, 1. 

[The trial of crimes] . . . not committed within any State . . . shall be 
at such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed. Ill, 

2, (3). 

Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war against 
them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. ... Ill, 

3, (1). 

... no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, etc. Ill, 3, (2). 

... no State, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in 
the Senate. V. 

All debts contracted and engagements entered into, before the adoption 
of this Constitution, shall be as vaUd against the United States under tliis Consti- 
tution as under the confederation. VI, 1. 

... no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or 
public trust under the United States. (See also in Y.) VI, 3. 

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or pro- 
hibiting the free exercise thereof ; or abridging the freedom of speech or of the 
press. . . . Amendment I. (See also under Y.) 

. . . the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. 
(See under Y.) Amendment II. 

No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the 
consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by 
law. (See under Y.) Amendment III. 

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and 
effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and 
no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirma- 
tion, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the person or 
things to be seized. Amendment IV. 

No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, 
unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising 
in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of 
war or public danger ; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be 
twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal 
case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, 
without due process of law ; nor shall private property be taken for public use 
without just compensation. Amendment V. 

[Trial by jury of the vicinage. Witnesses, evidence, etc.] (See under Y.) 
Amendment VI. 

[Trial by jury in civil cases.] (See under Y.) Amendment VII. 

[Bail, fines, punishments.] (See under Y.) Amendment VIII. 

[Powers not delegated to the United States forbidden.] (See under BX.) 
Amendment X. 

The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, 


including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for ser\nces in 
suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. . , . Amend- 
ment XIV, 4 


No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation ; grant letters 
of marque and reprisal ; coin money ; emit bills of credit ; make anytliing but 
gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, 
ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any 
title of nobihty. I, 10, (1). 

No State shall . . . lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except 
what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws. . . . 
(See also under AB.) I, 10, (2). 

No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, 
keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or com- 
pact with another State or \\ith a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actu- 
ally invaded or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay. I, 10, (3). 

... no Senator or Representative, or person holding an office of trust or 
profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector. II, 1, (2). 

Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the public acts, records, 
and judicial proceedings of every other State. . . . IV, 1. 

The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of 
citizens in the several States. IV, 2, (1). 

Fugitive slave provision, [obsolete^ IV, 2, (3). 

No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the pri\dleges 
or immunities of citizens of the United States ; nor shall any State deprive any 
person of Ufe, liberty or property, without due process of law; nor deny to 
any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. Amendment 
XIV, 1. 

. . . when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for 
President and Vice-President . . . , Representatives in Congress, the executive 
and judicial officers of a State, or the members of the legislature thereof, is 
denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years 
of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for 
participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein 
shall be reduced [in proportion]. Amendment XIV, 2. 

No person shall be a Senator or Representative ... or elector ... or hold 
any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, 
having previously taken an oath ... to support the Constitution of the 
United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebeUion against the same, 
or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. . . . Amendment XIV, 3. 



. . . the electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for 
electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislature. I, 2 (1). 

. . . The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty 
thousand. ... I, 2, (3). 

No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained the age of 


twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States. . . . 
1, 13, (•-'). 

The 8enateof the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each 
State, chosen by the legislature thereof, for six years. ... I, 3 (1). 

No person shall be a Senator wlio sliall not have attained the age of thirty 
years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States. ... I, ',i, (3). 

No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty 
years . . . and who shall not, when elected, be an inliabitanl of that State for 
which he shall be ciioscn. I, 3 (3). 

[Senators and KepresentativesJ shall, in all cases except treason, felony, and 
breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during tiieir attendance at the 
session of their respective houses, and in going to and returning from tiie same; 
and for any speech or debate in either house they shall not be questioned in 
any other place. I, G, (1). 

No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State. (See also 
1,10,(2).) 1,9,(5). 

No person except a natural-born citizen, or a citizen of the United States 
at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office 
of President ; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not 
have attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident 
within the United States. II, 1, (5). 

... no new State shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any 
other State. ... IV, 3, (1). 

The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a republican 
form of government. . . . IV, 4. 

This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which sliall be made in 
pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the 
authority of the United States, shall be tlie supreme law of the land ; and the 
judges in every State shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or 
laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding. VI, 2. 

Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime 
whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United 
States or any place subject to tlieir jurisdiction. Amendment XIII, 1. 

. . . neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt 
or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United 
States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave ; but all such debts, 
obligations, and claims shall be held illegal and void. Amendment XIV, 4. 

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or 
abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or 
previous condition of servitude. Amendment XV, I. 


We, the people of the United States, in order to . . . secure the blessings 
of liberty to ourselves and our posterity ... do ordain and establish this Con- 
stitution for the United States of America. Preamble. 

All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress [separa- 
tion of powers]. . . . (See also II, 1 ; III, 1.) I, 1. 

The House of Representatives shall be . . . chosen ... by the people of 
the several States. ... I, 2, (1). 

[Every Senator or Representative must be] an inhabitant of that State in 
which he shall be chosen. I, 2, (2) ; I, 3, (3). 

. . . each State shall have at least one Representative. ... I, 2, (3). 


[Persons impeached] shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, 
trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law. I, 3, (7). 

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year. ... I, 4, (2). 

[Privilege of Senators from arrest, etc.] (See under XZ.) I, G, (1). 

... no person hoUiing any office under the United States shall be a member 
of either house during liis continuance in ofhce. I, 6, (2). 

All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives. 
... I, 7, (1). 

... all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout the United 
States. I, 8, (1). 

... no appropriation of money ... [to raise and support armies] shall 
be for a longer term than two years. I, 8, (12). 

The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when 
in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it. I, 9, (2). 

No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed. I, 9, (3). 

[No direct Federal taxation]. I, 9, (4). 

No money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in consequence of appro- 
priations made by law ; and a regular statement and accovmt of the receipts 
and expenditures of all public moneys shall be published from time to time. 
I, 9, (7). 

No title of nobiUty shall be granted by the United States. ... I, 9, (8). 

(The President) before he enter on the execution of his office . . . shall take 
. . . oath to . . . preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United 
States. II, 1, (8). 

The President, Vice-President, and all civil officers . . . shall be removed 
from office on impeachment for and conviction of treason, bribery, or other high 
crimes and misdemeanors. II, 4. 

The judges, both of the supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices 
during good behavior, and shall, at stated times, receive for their services a 
compensation which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office. 
Ill, 1. 

The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury ; and 
such trial shall be held in the State where the said crimes shall have been com- 
mitted. . . . Ill, 2, (3). 

. . . No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two 
witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court . . . but no at- 
tainder of treason shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture except during the 
life of the person attainted. Ill, 3. 

The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities 
of citizens in the several States. IV, 2, (1). 

The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a repubUcan 
form of government. . . . IV, 4. 

[Amendments to this Constitution shall be valid] when ratified by the legis- 
latures of three fourths of the several States, or by conventions in three fourths 
thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the 
Congress. ... V. 

. . . the judges in every State shall be bound thereby [this Constitution] 
anything in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstand- 
ing. VI, 2. 

The Senators and Representatives . . . and all executive and judicial officers, 
both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by oath . . . 
to support this Constitution ; but no religious test shall ever be required as a 
qualification to any office or public trust under the United States. VI, 3. 

Congress shall make no law [respecting religion — see in X] or abridging 
freedom of speech or of the press ; or the right of the people peaceably to as- 
semble and to petition the government for a redress of grievances. Amend- 
ment I. 


A well-rejiiilated militia boinp norossary to the Kcriirity of a free State, 
the right of the people to ia-ep aiul l)car arms shall not be infringed. Amend- 
ment II. 

No soldier shall, in time of j)eare, he (luartered in any without the 
consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by 
law. Amendment III. 

The riglit of the people to be secure in tlicir persons, houses, papers, and 
effects, against unreasonal)le searciies ami seizures, .shall not be violated, and 
no warrants shall issue but upon {)robable cause, supported by oath or aflirma- 
tion, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the person or 
things to be .seized. Amendment IV. 

No person .sliall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, 
unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in arising 
in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual .service in time of 
war or public danger; nor .shall any penson be subject for the same offence to 
be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb ; nor .shall be compelled in any criminal 
case to be a witness himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, 
without due process of law ; nor shall private property be taken for public use 
without just compensation. Amendment V. 

In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right to a .speedy and 
public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime 
shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascer- 
tained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; 
to be confronted with the witnesses against him ; to have compulsory process 
for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assi-stance of coun.sel for 
his defense. Amendment VI. 

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty 
dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury 
shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States, than accord- 
ing to the rules of the common law. Amendment VII. 

Exce.s.sive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel 
and unusual punishments inflicted. Amendment VIII. 

The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed 
to deny or disparage others retained by the people. Amendment IX. 

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor pro- 
hibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively or to the peo- 
ple. Amendment X. 

[President elected by electors chosen as the State legislatures may direct, 
but in fact by the people]. Amendment XII. 

Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime 
whereof the party sliall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United 
States or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Amendment XIII, 1. 

All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the juris- 
diction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they 
reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privi- 
leges or immunities of citizens of the United States ; nor shall any State deprive 
any person of life, liberty, or property, w-ithout due process of law ; nor deny 
to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. Amend- 
ment XIV, 1. 






Section 1. Explanatory preface. Of the contents of the 
various State Constitutions, a threefold division may roughly be 
made; they usually contain, first, the Declaration of Rights; 
second, the political constitution and organization of the State; 
and third, very varied and miscellaneous restrictions and injunc- 
tions concerning legislation. I have attempted to incorporate 
herein the entire Constitution of every State, excepting only 
minute and detailed provisions, not of general interest, concerning 
minor administrative offices, courts, and municipal government. 
Where the wording in the several States is not identical, I have 
been careful to give the various forms when there is any possibility 
of a difference of meaning or legal effect. 

This third part has grown out of all proportion to the others ; in 
fact, in the newer Constitutions, particularly in the West, it far ex- 
ceeds the other two in bulk and contains such a code of directions 
or inhibitions as to leave very little real legislative power to the 
Legislature. The Louisiana Constitution, for instance, contains one 
hundred and forty-four pages ! But still more notable is that of 
Alabama, covering sixty-nine pages of fine print, and those of the 
eight new far Western States. Even in States which do not adopt 
the initiative and referendum, as some of these W^estern States do, 
the adoption of such an elaborate Constitution is practically direct 
legislation, "Legislation by the people." Naturally, there is a tend- 
ency in such cases to more frequent amendment ; necessarily so when 
the Constitution, instead of embodying a few great principles and 
the broad framework of the State government, attempts to pre- 
scribe infinite details of legislation and of administrative machinery. 
Historically, and from the point of view of a Constitutional law}^er, 
such Constitutions are entirely unscientific. The late Governor 
Russell of Massachusetts, in his address before the Yale Law 
School, well pointed out the objections of putting such a mass of 


things into tlic Constitution, both as (lcj)riviiig tlio 1 jogislature of 
all sense of responsibility, and as (liscrediting the Constitution itself. 
Such a vast mass of directions cnilxxlying merely the temporary 
desires of a present majority, when either necessity or popular 
opinion requires a change, involves a necessity of such continual 
amendment and frequent alteration as to bring a written Consti- 
tution into contempt. 

It must be borne in mind that this is a comparative digest of 
constitutional provisions only; it does not follow, of course, that 
there may not be in the several States statutes on the same subject. 

All the forty-six States have Constitutions ; not so the Territories, 
or the District of Columbia. Arizona, however, has a "Bill of 
Rights," though it has naturally no greater sanction than an ordi- 
nary territorial statute. In a few cases I have noted similar pro- 
visions in the United States laws which restrict the legislation of 
New Mexico and Arizona. References are also made in the Bill 
of Rights to the provisions of the United States Constitution or of 
the English and American constitutional documents on which such 
articles are founded; and the principles are fully discussed in the 
notes, and elsewhere. 

It may generally be said that the Constitutions of the Western 
States are more elaborate, more cumbrous, and more frequently 
amended than those of the Eastern. One reason for this is, that 
in the West the State Constitution is frequently made the instru- 
ment for enacting laws which are in most States unconstitutional; 
another, that in the West many things are put in the Constitution 
which are elsewhere left to the Legislature. The constitutional 
provisions are, of course, much more stable than ordinary laws. 
Nevertheless, the practice is, as has been said, an objectionable one. 

For the date of the latest State Constitutions and where they may 
be found, see the Table of Citations. States are cited in alphabeti- 
cal order, and the words " Article " or " Section " are left out. That 
is to say, 1, 14, would be Article 1, Section 14, or whatever other 
division is used in the Constitution in question. If there is no 
citation, refer to the one of the same State last preceding. Many 
of the States, however, have the articles of the Constitution num- 
bered continuously. The asterisk sign is used in the rare in- 
stances where, to complete the subject, a statute is cited. 

Since the first edition of this part, published as the first part of 
Volume I. of "American Statute Law," in 1886, no less than eighteen 


new State Constitutions have been adopted, counting Oklahoma. 
Of these, eight are of new Western States, but the other ten are 
new Constitutions adopted in the Eastern or Southern States. It is 
notable that none of the States of the middle West or New England, 
with the exception of New Hampshire, have adopted new Constitu- 
tions during this period of twenty years. The industry of constitution 
making is confined to the more radical States, or to those which have 
the greatest distrust of their legislators. My thanks are due to 
Mr. Robert H. Whitten of the New York State Library for a com- 
plete table of constitutional amendments adopted in the last twenty 
years. Owing to the negligence or stupidity of the State author- 
ities in not printing these with the annual laws, this is a difficult 
matter to ascertain. In Oregon, indeed, where laws and constitu- 
tional amendments are adopted by initiative, the Secretary of State 
complains that they are "full of bad spelling, punctuation, omis- 
sions, and repeated words ! " It appears, however, that only two 
states — Tennessee and Wyoming — failed to amend their Consti- 
tutions in the last twenty years, while California did so forty-two 
times ! 

§ 2. Interpretation of the State Constitutions. — In some of the 
newer Constitutions we find the provision that the Constitution itself 
is mandatory and prohibitory, except where otherwise declared by 
express words. ^ 

^ Cal. 1, 22; Mon. 3, 29; N. D. 21; would seem to be, if the Constitution 
S. C. 1, 29; Utah 1, 26; Wash. 1, 29. defines Trusts or declares the law in 
In other States, whether the Constitu- any way, it is self -executing ; other- 
tion is self-executing is sometimes an wise if it merely says that the legisla- 
important question. It has been par- ture shall enact laws to a certain effect, 
ticularly debated in Kansas and Ohio, If it do both — as has happened in 
where new constitutional amendments several States — we are in a quandary. 
reUeving corporations and stockholders The better rule here would be valeat 
from hability have not been followed quantum valere potest. White (§ 14), 
by legislation to carry them into effect; cites some Pa. cases where it was held 
and in States whose constitutions have directory merely, 
articles against Trusts, etc. The rule 


Paet I 


§ 3. Note io Part I. — The Bill of Rights of the English Statute ' 
has been largely adopted in the States of the Union, somewhat modi- 
fied and largely amplified by the addition of new provisions of a 
similar nature, founded on Magna Carta, the Declaration of 
Independence and the Constitution of the United States, old 
Province charters, and the "\^irginia and IMassachusetts bills of 

§ 4. Bill of Rights Irrepcalahlc.- — Ten States declare that "to 
guard against transgression of the high powers delegated to the 
Legislature by the Constitution, everything in the Bill of Rights is 
declared to be excepted out of the general powers of Government, 
and shall forever remain inviolate; and all laws contrary to the 
Bill of Rights are void." ^ Meaning of course constitutions as well 
as statutes, — a striking attempt to bind posterity. 

"When men enter into a state nf society they surrender up some 
of their natural rights to that society in order to insure the protec- 

* 1 W. & M. Sess. 2. This declara- terity would not, however, sur\'ive 

tion of rights, however, represents but omission in a new State Constitution, 

principles old as Anglo-Saxon freedom, A precedent of such attempt may, 

rewon from Norman or Stuart kings however, be found in England, where 

and thus finally codified in the Revolu- in 1495 an act for the security of a 

tion of 1689. Magna Carta, won in like subject serving a de facto king declared 

manner from John, was not superseded " Every Act made contrary to this 

by it; in theory it had always been in statute shall be void and of no effect." 

force. The Declaration represents only (Taswell-Langmead, p. 295.) 

additions, or, more correctly, precisions, So in Arizona "the Bill of Rights is 

of the old principles. In outward form the supreme law of the land, subject 

the Constitution under Edward I. be- only to the United States Constitution 

came essentially the same as in the and laws. And it cannot be amended 

present day. (Taylor, I. 424. See or altered but by the concurrence of a 

notes to §§ 10, 70, 130.) majority of all the members elected 

2 Compare U. S. C. Amts. 9, 10. to the Legislature, the vote to be taken 

Decl. Ind. § 2. by yeas and nays entered on the 

^ Ala. 1,36; Ark. 2, 29; Del. Art. 1, journal." B. Rts. 32. Neither can 

ad fin. ; Ky. 26 ; N. D. 24 ; N. M.* any other law ! 

1851, July 12, § 20; Pa. 1, 26: R. L A Bill of Rights is still necessary 

Preamble; Tenn. 11, 16; Tex. 1, 29; (R. Wliite, p. 31). 
Va. 1, 17. This attempt to bind pos- 


tion of others; and without such an agreement the surrender is 
void." ' 

In other States also the social compact is recognized. Thus, the 
Constitutions of five States declare that some rights cannot be 
surrendered by men when they enter into a state of society, but are 
inalienable, because no equivalent can be given for them.^ As, for 
example, rights of conscience,^ and other natural rights. "* 

This social compact notion hardly appears in the Federal Consti- 
tution except, possibly, by inference, in the Tenth Amendment. 
This says that "The powers not delegated to the United States . . . 
by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved 
to the States respectively or to the people." But the second para- 
graph of the Declaration of Independence states that "All men arc 
. . . endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights. . . . 
That to secure these rights governments are instituted. "... This, 
and not Rousseau directly, is doubtless the prototype of the State 

§ 5. Construction of Bill of Rights. — By the Constitutions of 
most States it is declared that this enumeration of rights shall not 
be construed to impair or deny others retained by the people.^ 

This section is, of course, founded on the Ninth Amendment to 
the Federal Constitution, the wording being almost identical, 
though the phrase "deny or disparage" is used instead of "im- 
pair or deny." 

And in many States the Constitution declares that a frequent 
recurrence to fundamental principles is necessary to preserve the 
blessings of liberty.® 

> N. H. 1, 3. See also § 182. 1, 25; Va. 1, 17; Wash. 1, 30; Wy. 

2 N. H. 1, 4; Va. 1, 1; W. Va. 3, 1. 1, 36. 

Ala. 1, 1. * m. 2, 20; Mass. 1, 18; N. C. 1, 29; 

3 N. H. 1, 4. N. H. 1, 38; S. D. 6, 27; Utah 1, 27; 

* (See also §§ 12, 13, 14, 15), Va., Va. 1, 15; Vt. 1, 18; Wash. 1, 32; 
W. Va. W. Va. 3, 20; Wis. 1, 22. This refer- 

* Ala. 1, 36; Ark. 2, 29; Cal. 1, 23; ence to fundamental principles is 
Col. 2, 28; Fla. Decln. Rts. 24; Ga. made in several, both of older and of 
1, 5, 2; Ida. 1, 21; 1, 25; lo. 1, 25; the newer, State Constitutions, and 
Kan. B. Rts. 20; La. 15; Me. 1, 24; always in a more or less general 
Md. Decln. Rts. 45; Minn. 1, 16; Miss, phrase. Thus in Idaho (3, 24) "Sobri- 
1,32; Mo. 2, 32; Mon. 3, 30; Neb. 1, ety, morality and the purity of the 
20; Nev. 1, 20; N. C. 1,37; N. D. 24; home "are the words used. In Wyom- 
N. J. 1,21; 0.1,20; Okla. 2, 33; Ore. ing (7, 20) "Health and morality." 
1,33; R. I. 1, 23; S. C. 1, 41; Utah It has not seemed necessary to print 

these phrases in full. 


§ G. Indloulual llijltls. — It is (leclaivd that the object ol" gov- 
ernment is to protect aiul maintain individual rights, in the Con- 
stitution of Washington, and in hoth Washington and Utah it is 
declared that a frecjucnt ret urrence to fundamental prineij)les, etc., 
is "essential to the security of individual right." ' Tliis definite 
recognition of the claims of the individual against socialistic gov- 
ernment is a decided novelty, though a Federal judge in Texas has 
refused to naturalize a socialist on the ground that his doctrine was 
not compatible with the Federal Constitution.- In Oklahoma, on 
the other hand, "the right of the State to engage in any occupa- 
tion or business for public purposes shall not be denied or pro- 
hibited, except that the State shall not engage in agriculture for any 
other than educational and scientific purposes and for the support 
of its penal, charitable, and educational histitutions. " ^ The ques- 
tion whether a State could under the Federal Constitution was 
debated, but not decided, in the South Carolina liquor case ; * and 
municipal coalyards, etc., have usually but not always been held 
unconstitutional under State constitutions.^ 

1 See last note for citations. * 199 U. S. 437. 

^ Ex parte Sauer, 81 Fed. Rep. 355. * Opinion of Justices, 182 Mass. 605. 

3 Okla. 2, 31. 




Note. This division of the Bill of Rights into civil and criminal 
is purely one of convenience, and has no precedent, either in the 
statute of William and Mary or in the various State Constitutions, 
where those rights which we have termed civil and those which 
relate to criminal proceedings are often treated in the same para- 
graph, as, notably, the great clause 39 Magna Carta. See § 130. 

Article 1. Natural Rights 

§ 10. Freedom.^ — The Constitutions of many States have a 
provision that men are free. 

Thus, that all men are born free and independent ; ^ that they are 
by nature free and independent ; ^ that they are equally free and 
independent ; * that they are born equally free and independent ; ^ 
that they are by nature equally free and independent.^ 

"The inhabitants of this State are not controllable by any other 
laws than those to which they or their representative body have 
given their consent." ^ 

* Compare also §§ 12, 30. The great 000 registered population. Villeins 

principles of freedom, both of body were free men as the word is used in 

and of labor or trade, antedate Magna Magna Carta. Wat Tyler led 100,000 

Carta itself; a month before Runny- villeins in 1381, but by 1530 villein- 

mede, John granted to the baronies of age had disappeared (Taylor, I. 510. 

London the right to elect their Mayor; "By nature equally free and indepen- 

and the right to hberty is implied in dent " is the phrase in the Virginia Bill 

several provisions of the Magna Carta of Rights. It is not in the Federal 

of John ("The City of London shall Constitution. Compare §§ 130, 183. 
have all its ancient liberties and free - Mass. 1, 1; S. C. 1, 1. 
customs as well by land as by water: ^ Cal. 1, 1; Fla. Decln. Rts. 1; Ida. 

furthermore we will and grant that all 1, 1; 111. 2, 1; lo. 1, 1; Ky. 1; Nev. 1, 

other cities and boroughs, and towns and 1; N. J. 1, 1; O. 1, 1. 
forts shall have all their liberties and * Ala. 1, 1. 

free customs." — Cap. 13), but more ex- * Ark. 2, 2; Me. 1, 1; Mon. 3, 3; 

presslystatedinthatof Henry III., cap. Neb. 1, 1; N. H. 1, 1; Pa. 1, 1; S. D. 

29: "No man . . . shall be disseized 6, 1; Vt. 1, 1; Wis. 1, 1. 
of his liberties or free customs," etc. * N. D. 1; Va. 1, 1; W. Va. 3, 1. 
There were 25,000 slaves numbered in ^ N. H. 1, 12. 
the Domesday book out of about 300,- 



[book III 

So, many States have preambles resembling the United States 
Constitution (mentioning liberty, justice, etc.).' 

§ 11. Equality.- — The Constitutions of most States declare this 
principle. Thus, that men are born equal, ^ (and this seems to be 
implied in other States);* that they are by nature ecpial ; ^ that 
they are equal before the law;" (and this seems implied in the 
Constitutions of seven other States);^ that all men have e(|ual 
rights when they form a social compact; ^ that "no person shall be 
denied the equal protection of the laws " ; " that all laws should be 
made for the good of the whole ; and the burdens of the State ought 
to be fairly distributed among its citizens.'" 

§ 12. Life and Lihcrty?^ — The Constitutions of most of the 
States declare that all men have a natural, inherent, and inalien- 
able right to enjoy and defend life and liberty, and (in all of these 
except Missouri) to the pursuit of happiness.'^ (The same may be 
implied in other States from the provisions of §§ 10, 71, 184.) 
And in most of these States, also, that they have such natural right 
to obtain safety.'^ 

§ 13. Property?^ — In more than half the States the Constitu- 

» Ala., Ida., Ky., La., Mon., N. D., 
N. Y., S. D., Utah, Wy. 

^ Equality is first mentioned in the 
Virginia Bill of Rights, § 1 : "By nature 
equally free and independent," and in 
the Declaration of Independence, "All 
men are created equal." It is no part 
of the English Constitution, except as 
freemen have equal rights at law. This 
legal (but neither political nor social) 
equaUty was re-estabUshed in England 
as early as Henry II. (II. Taylor, 3), 
and was clearly implied in John's 
Magna Carta, caps. 39, 40; and the 
great statute of Westminster I (1275). 
" Common right shall be done to rich 
and poor alike without respect to 

^ Ind. 1, 1; Mass. 1, 1; Me. 1, 1; 
Neb. 1, 1; N. C. 1, 1; N. H. 1, 1; 
S. C. 1, 1; Vt. 1, 1. 

* Ark. 2, 2; Mon. 3, 3; Pa. 1, 1; 
S. D. 6, 1; Wis. 1, 1; Wy. 1, 2. See 
also §§ 10, 20, and 184. 

« Ida. 1, 1 ; lo. 1, 1 ; Ky. 1 ; Nev. 1, 1. 

• Ark. 2, 3; Fla. Decln. Rts. 1. 

^ Ala. 1, 1; Ga. 1, 1, 2; Kan. B. of 
Rts. 1; O. 1, 2; Va. 1, 1; W. Va. 3, 1; 
Wy. 1, 3. See §§ 10, 12, 20, 184. 

« Ct. 1, 1; Ky.3; N. M.* 1851, July 
12, § 2; Ore. 1, 1; Tex. 1,3. 

9 S. C. 1, 5. 

'» R. I. 1, 2. 

" Inalienable rights are based on the 
social compact theory; but have no 
higher standing than the Constitution 
at law. The word is not in the Declara- 
tion of Independence. 

'2 Ala. 1, 1 ; Ariz.* Preamble B. Rts. ; 
Ark. 2, 2; Cal. 1,1; Col. 2, 3; Del. 
Preamble; Fla. Decln. Rts. 1; Ida. 
1, 1; 111. 2, 1; Ind. 1, 1 lo. 1, 1; Kan. 
Bill of Rts. 1; Ky. 1; La. 1; Mass. 
1, 1; Me. 1, 1; Mo. 2, 4; Mon. 3, 3; 
Neb. 1, 1; Nev. 1, 1; N. O. 1, 1; N D. 
1; N. H. 1, 2; N. J. 1, 1; O. 1, 1; 
Okla. 2, 2 ; Pa. 1, 1 ; S. C. 1, 1 ; S. D. 6, 
1; Utah 1, 1; Va. 1, 1; Vt. 1, 1; W. 
Va. 3, 1; Wis. 1, 1; Wy. 1, 2. 

13 Cal, Col., Fla., Ida., lo., Ky., 
Mass., Me., Mon., Nev., N. D., N. J., 
O., S. C, S. D., Va., Vt., W. Va.; as 
cited in § 12. 

" The property right is recognized 
in Magna Carta (cap. 28. No constable, 
etc., shall take corn or other chattels 
of any man unless he presently give 
him money for it, etc. ; and see also 


tion declares expressly that all men have a natural right to acquire, 
possess, and protect property * (it seems the right of property is also 
recognized in other States by the provisions of § 183,' and compare 
also § 90); but in three, only that all men have such right to the 
enjoyment of the fruits of their own labor. ^ So, the Constitutions 
of other States declare that the right of property is "before and 
higher than any constitutional sanction." * 

§ 14. Rights to Labor or Trade. — "Every citizen of this State 
shall be free to obtain employment wherever possible, and any person 
or corporation maliciously interfering or hindering in any way any 
citizen from obtaining or enjoying employment already obtained from 
any other corporation or persons is guilty of a misdemeanor." ^ 

The rights of labor shall have just protection through laws calcu- 
lated to secure to the laborer proper rewards for his services and to 
promote the industrial welfare of the State. ^ 

No law shall be passed fixing the price of manual labor. '^ 

These provisions are novel and interesting, but may carry the 
courts further than the Legislature intended; for instance, the first 
might make unlawful the sympathetic strike, or any strike against 
union or non-union labor. The right to one's free liberties or 
customs is, however, guaranteed in Magna Carta itself. 

§ 15. Reputation. — In four States the Constitution declares 
that men have a natural right to acquire, possess, and protect 

§ 16. Special or Exclusive Privileges.^ — The Constitutions of 
many States prohibit to the Legislature any grant of special privi- 

caps. 30, 31, 39. No man shall be dis- * Ark. 2, 22; Ky. 13, 3; and see 

seised of his freehold); but the word §§ 90, 130. "Higher" is impossible, 

"property" is first used in the Va. B. ' N. D. 23; Utah 12, 19. 

Rts. The Declaration of Independence « Mon. 1, 22; Wy. 1, 22. 

does not mention it at all. The Fed. ^ La. 51. See Art. 45 for the new 

Const, only in the 14th Amt. (See New York provision as to public work. 

also § 130 and Art. 9, Eminent « Ark. 2, 2; Del. Preamble; N. D, 

Domain.) 1; Pa. 1, 1. 

' Ark. 2, 2; Ariz. Preamble B. Rts. ; Blackstone mentions this as a 

Cal. 1, 1; Col. 2, 3; Del. Preamble; natural right; but it appears in no 

Fla. Decln. of Rts. ; Ida. 1,1; lo. 1, 1; other American or EngHsh Constitu- 

Ky. 1; Mass. 1, 1; Me. 1, 1; Mon. 3, 3; tional document. 

Nev. 1, 1; N. D. 1, N. H. 1, 2; N. J. ^ The usual provision is that such 

1,1; 0.1,1; Pa. 1,1; S. C. 1,1; S. D. privileges may not be granted by 

6, 1; Utah 1, 1; Va. 1, 1; Vt. 1, 1; specialact; and compare §§ 20, 21, 392, 

W. Va. 3, 1. 394, 395 (15), and Arts. 50 and 60, and 

2 Ala. 1, 35; Ga. 1, 1, 2; 111. 2, 1; see U. S. Constitution 1, 9; Va. B. 

Ky. 4; Mo. 2, 4. Rts. 4. There is nothing of this kind 

» N. C. 1, 1; Mo. 2, 4; Okla. 2. 2. in the English Constitution. 


130 THE STATP: constitutions [book III 

leges or immunities to any citizen or class of citizens, ^ or corpora- 
tion.- No man or set of men is entitled to exclusive public emolu- 
ments or privilef^es from the community.^ 

Except in consideration of public services.* 

No special privileges or immunities shall be granted that may not 
be altered or revoked by the Legislature.^ 

In Kansas, the wording is that no such special privilege or immu- 
nity can be granted except by the Legislature. 

And in three States the operation of a general law cannot })e sus- 
pended by the Ix^gislature for the benefit of any individual, corpora- 
tion or association.® 

§ 17. Hereditary Privileges.'' — In many States the Constitution 
declares that no hereditary emoluments, privileges, or honors can be 
granted ; ^ or no hereditar}^ distinctions ; " no hereditary offices ; *" 
no title of nobility; ^^ no hereditary emoluments. ^- 

§ 18. Pensions cannot, by the Constitution of one State, be 
granted but in consideration of public services; and not for more 
than one year at a time.^^ In two, the Legislature are forbidden to 
establish any general pension system.'* 

Pensions may be granted only for military or naval service; but 
officers may not be retired on pay or half pay.'^ 

Pensions to confederate soldiers, sailors and their widows are 
provided for in several Constitutions.'® 

' Ark. 2, 18; Cal. 1, 21; Ind. 1, 23; » Ala. 1, 29; Ark. 2, 19; Ct. 1, 20; 

lo. 1, 6; Ky. 3; Mass. 1, 6; N. D. 20; Kan. B. of Rts. 19; Mass. 1, 6; Me. 1, 

Okla. 5, 51; Ore. 1, 20; S. D. G, 18; 23; N. C. 1,30; O. 1, 17; Tenn. 1,30; 

Tenn. 11, 8; Wash. 1, 12. Wash. 1, 28; W. Va. 3, 19. 

=2 lo., Okla., Wash., Territories. » Ala.; Del. 1, 19; Ind. 1, 35; Ky. 

3 Ct. 1, 1; Ky. 3; N. C. 1, 7; N. M. 23; Me.; Md. Decln. Rts. 42; Ore. 1, 

1851, July 12, § 2; Tex. 1, 3; Va. 1, 29; Pa. 1, 24. 
4; Vt. 1, 7. '" Mass.; N. H. 1, 9; Va. 1, 4. 

* This exception is not made in " Ala., Ky., Ind., Md., Ore., Pa., 

some (Ct., N. D., S. D., Wash.). S. C. 

5 Ala. 1, 22; Cal. 1, 21; Col. 2, 11; ^^ Ala.; S. C. 
Ga. 1, 3, 2; Ida. 1, 2; 111. 2, 14; Kan. " N. H. 1, 36. The same would 

B. of Rts. 2; Mo. 2, 15; Mon. 3, 11; result from the Constitutional principles 

Neb. 1, 16; N. D. 20; O. 1, 2; Pa. 1, of taxation. 
17; S. D. 6, 12; Tex. 1, 17; Utah 1, 23; " Md. 3, 59; S. C. 3, 32. 
Wash. 1, 8. See also §§ 212, 503. '« S. C. 

8 Ark. 5, 25; Tenn. 11, 8. See §§ " Ga. 1893 p. 19, La. 303; 1902, 129; 

394, 395 (15). Miss. 272; S. C. 13, 5; Tex. 1897, p. 

' Compare U. S. C. 1, 9. See also 275. See U. S. 14th Amt. § 4. 


Article 2. Civil Rights 

§ 20. General Provisions.^ — The Constitution of Georgia pro- 
vides that the social status of the citizen shall never be the subject 
of legislation.- So in South Carolina,^ that no person shall be dis- 
qualified as a witness, nor be prevented from acquiring, holding, 
and transmitting property, nor be hindered in acquiring education, 
nor be liable to any other punishment for any offence, nor be subject 
in law to any other restraints or disqualifications in regard to any 
personal rights, than such as are laid upon others under like circum- 
stances. "All citizens of the State possess equal civil and political 
rights and public privileges." * "Every citizen is entitled to equal 
representation in the government." ^ "The civil rights of the 
people shall not be abridged." ^ 

"Since equality in the enjoyment of natural and civil rights is 
made sure only through political equality, the laws of this State 
affecting the political rights and privileges of its citizens shall be 
without distinction of race, color, sex, or any circumstance or con- 
dition whatsoever other than individual incompetency, or unworthi- 
ness duly ascertained by a court of competent jurisdiction." '^ 

§ 21. Color Distinction.^ — By the Constitution of Arkansas also 
no citizen shall be ever deprived of any right, privilege, or immunity, 
nor exempted from any burden or duty, on account of race, color, 
or previous condition.^ 

So in Maryland, as to the right of being a witness in a court of 
law.^° So, in other States, as to the right of suffrage and holding 
office. ^^ Distinction on account of race or color in any case what- 
ever is prohibited, and all classes of citizens shall enjoy equally all 
common, public, legal, and political privileges.*- So, in several, it 
is specially provided that all the public schools should be free and 
open, without regard to race or color, ^^ or caste.'* 

In INIississippi the Constitution provides that the right of all 

» Compare §§11, 16, 184. » Ark. 2, 3. 

' Ga. 1, 1, 18. 1" Md. 3, 53. 

' S. C. 1, 12. " Nev. 18, 1; Okla. 1,6; S. C. 1, 

♦ Ala. 1, 2; S. C. 1, 31. 10; Terr.* U. S. 1860. 

« W. Va. 2, 4. 12 ^vy i^ 3 

« Ariz. Bill Rts. 6. " Col. 9, 8; Ida. 9, 6; Wash. 9, 1; 

' Wy. 1, 3. Wy. 7, 10. 

« Compare U. S. C. Amts. 14, 15, " Wash, 
which of course apply in all the States; 
and see §§ 240, 241. 


citizens to travel upon all public conveyances shall not be in- 

§ 22. Exceptions. — By the Constitutions of a few States the 
right of voting is confined to whites,- but this provision is rendered 
null by the Fifteenth Amendment. 

By the Constitutions of many States white and colored children 
shall not be tauglit in the same [public] schools.^ 

By that of Oregon no Chinaman can hold real estate, or hold or 
work a mining claim."' And by that of three States no native of 
China can vote or hold office.^ The old Constitution of Mississippi 
legitimated all children, born before or after its adoption [bSOS], 
of persons not married, but cohabiting as husband and wife on 
December 1, 1869; and such persons are to be taken as married.^ 
So by the old Virginia Constitution the children of parents, one or 
both of whom were slaves at or during the period of cohabitation, 
and who were recognized by the father as his children, and whose 
mother was recognized by such father as his wife, and was co- 
habited with as such, shall be capable of inheriting from such 
father as if born in la^vful wedlock.'' And by the old South Caro- 
lina Constitution "no person shall be disfranchised for felony or 
other crim'es committed while a slave." * 

The Constitution of Oregon provides that the Legislature shall 
pass laws prohibiting free negroes from coming to or living in the 
State, and making such action felony.^ And in several, the inter- 
marriage of white persons with negroes or mulattoes,^" or their 
cohabitation as husband and wife, is forbidden." 

By that of California the Legislature is to prescribe all necessary 
regulations for the protection of the State and the counties, cities, 
and towns thereof from the burdens and evils arising from the pres- 

1 Miss. 1, 24. « Miss. 12, 22, Constitution of 1868. 
" Kan. 5, 1; Md. 1, 1; O. 5, 1; Ore. ' Va. 11, 9, Constitution of 1870. 

2, 2. « S. C. 8, 12, Constitution of 1868. 

2 Ala. 256; Del. 10, 2; Ga. 8, 1, 1; » Ore. 1, 35. Now unconstitutional 
Ky. 187; La. 248; Miss. 207; Mo. 11, under the 14th Amt. 

3; N. C. 9, 2; Okla. 1, 5; 13, 1; S. C. " A mulatto is a person who has J or 
11, 7; Tenn. 11, 12; Tex. 7, 7; Va. 140; more of ne^ro blood. (S. C, Fla., 
W. Va. 12, 8. See § 50. Miss.) " Colored " or " Negro " means 

* Ore. 15, 8. the African race; all others are included 

^ Cal. 2, 1; Ida. 6, 3; Ore. 2, 6. in white. Okla. 23, 11. Such laws are 
See also Art. 24 for the provisions in valid under the Fourteenth Amend- 
full concerning the right of voting, ments; for they apply to whites and 
This provision is of course abrogated blacks equally. 

by U. S. Constitution, Amt. 15, as to '^ Ala. 102; Fla. 16, 24; Miss. 263; 
voting by U. S. citizens. N. C. 14, 8; S. C. 2, 33; Tenn. 11, 14. 


ence of aliens who are or may become vagrants, paupers, mendi- 
cants, criminals, or invalids afflicted with contagious or infectious 
diseases, and from aliens otherwise dangerous or detrimental to the 
well-being or peace of the State, and to impose conditions upon 
which such persons may reside in the State, and to provide the 
means and mode of their removal from the State upon failure or 
refusal to comply with such conditions; and no corporation shall 
employ directly or indirectly in any capacity any Chinese or ]\Ion- 
golian, and the Legislature shall pass laws to enforce this provision; 
and no Chinese shall be employed in any State, municipal, or other 
public work except as a punishment for crime. ^ And further the 
presence of foreigners ineligible to become citizens of the United 
States is declared to be dangerous to the well-being of the State; 
and the Legislature is to discourage their immigration by all means 
within its power ; and Asiatic coolieism is declared a form of human 
slavery, and prohibited, and all contracts for coolie labor are void; 
and the Legislature may prescribe penalties for companies or cor- 
porations formed in any country for the importation of such coolie 
labor; and the Legislature is to delegate all necessary powers to 
cities and towns for the removal of Chinese, or their location in 
prescribed portions of such towns; and also to provide legislation 
to prohibit the introduction of Chinese into the State. ^ 

§ 23. Sex Distinctions: Voting. — The Constitutions of all the 
older States specify that the elective franchise is confined to males. ^ 

But in three States the Legislature may at any time enact a law 
to extend the right of suffrage to women of lawful age, otherwise 
qualified; and such enactment shall take effect if approved by a 
majority of the electors at a general election.* In Colorado it was 
so submitted and adopted. In two States it was rejected,^ while 
in three States the Constitution provides for female suffrage,® making 
four full suffrage States in all. 

» Cal. 19, 1-3. 6, 2; Va. 18; Vt. 2, 8; Wash. 6, 1; 

^ Cal. 19, 4. W. Va. 4, 1 ; Wis. 3, 1. This would 

^ Ala. 177; Ark. 3, 1; Cal. 2, 1; be the common law in the absence of 

Col. 7, 1; Ct. 6, 2; Del. 5, 2; Fla. 14, 1; statute, though women voted in New 

Ga. 2, 1, 2; 111. 7, 1; Ind. 2, 2; lo. Jersey and possibly other States in 

2, 1; Kan. 5, 1; Ky. 145; La. 185; early times, though never in England. 

Mass. 2, 1, 3, 4; Amt. 3; Md. 1, 1; Me. See § 240. 

2,1; Mich. 7,1; Minn. 7,1; Miss. 247; * Col. 7, 2; N. D. 122; Wis. See 

Mo. 8, 2; N. C. 6, 1; Neb. 7, 1; Nev. § 240 G. 

2, 1 ; N. H. 2, 27 ; N. J. 2, 1 ; N. Y. 2, 1 ; « S. D. 7, 2 ; Wash. 27, 17. The vote 

O. 5, 1 ; Okla. 3, 1 ; Ore. 2, 2 ; Pa. 8, 1 ; in South Dakota was 45, 682 to 22, 072. 

R. I. 2, 1; S. C. 2, 3; Tenn. 4. 1; Tex. « Ida. Amt. 6; Utah 4, 1; Wy. 6, 1. 


But in several States the Constitution provides tliat women of the 
age of twenty-one may vote at any election of school officers, or 
upon aqy measure relating to schools/ or libraries.^ 

And in Louisiana they may vote upon all (juestions submitted to 
the taxpayers as such of any municipal or other political subdivi- 
sions of the State, subject to ordinary age and residence c|uaHfi- 
cations, either in person or by their agents authorized in %vi-iting.' 

Upon all questions submitted to the vote of the taxpayers of the 
State, or any political division thereof, women who are taxpayers and 
possessed of the qualifications for the right of suffrage required of men 
by this Constitution, shall, equally with men, have the right to vote.* 

§ 24. Sex Distinctions: Schools. — The Constitutions of some 
States declare that the Legislature, in providing for the formation 
and regulation of schools, shall make no distinction between the 
rights of males and females.^ So as to admission to the University.* 

And in several States, women may hold any office pertaining 
solely to the management of schools.'' 

§ 25. Sex Distinctions: Occupation. — The Constitution of Cali- 
fornia provides that no person shall, on account of sex, be disquali- 
fied from entering upon or pursuing any lawful business, vocation, 
or profession.^ 

In Missouri and Oklahoma, the Constitution specifies that the 
Governor and members of the Legislature must be male.** 

Women may be notaries public. ^° They may hold any office 
except as otherwise provided by the Constitution.*^ 

* Col. 7, 1; Ida. 6, 2; Minn. 7, 8; statutes of the more advanced States; 
Mon. 9, 10; N. D. 128; Nev. 15, 3; see also Art. 45. These statutes have 
Okla., 3, 3; S. D. 7, 9; Wash. 6, 2. frequently been held unconstitutional 
"Until otherwise provided" (Ida.), as depriving women of their liberties. 
"The legislature may so provide" They are only valid where clearly in the 
(Wash.). interest of morality or the general 

2 Minn. 1897, 175, health, and probably never in States 

' La. 199. with constitutional provisions like the 

* lo.* 1121; Mon. 9, 12. above. Of such nature are the laws 

* Kan. 2, 23; Wash. 9, 1; Wy. 7, 10. limiting their hours of labor or age of 
** Mon. 11, 9. employment differently from men. 
^ Col. 7, 1 ; Ida. 6, 2 ; Minn. 7, 8 ; Tliese liave, in most of the States ex- 

Mon. 9, 10; N. D. 128; Pa. 10, 3. cept Massachusetts, been held uncon- 

" Unless the Legislature otherwise pro- stitutional. 

vide" (Ida.). "Or libraries," in Minn. » Mo. 4, 4 & 6; 5, 5; Okla. 6, 3. 

* Cal. 20, 18. At the common law And so in Oklahoma of the other execu- 
every employment was open to them tive officers. This is common law, iu 
except political offices, the army or the absence of any statute. 

navy, and learned professions. They '" Va. 32. 

are now, however, forbidden to engage *^ S. D. 7, 9. In other States, by 

in many trades or employments by the common law, not. See Arts. 20, 21. 


The rights of citizens in two States, "to vote and hold office shall 
not be denied or abridged on account of sex. Both male and 
female citizens of this State shall equally enjoy all civil, political 
and religious rights and privileges."^ 

§ 2G. Sex Distinctions: Property. — In many States there are con- 
stitutional provisions concerning the property of married women. ^ 

In detail : the real and personal property of a female acquired 
before marriage remains her estate and property, and is not (without 
her consent in Florida, executed as a conveyance) liable for the 
debts of the husband, and may be devised and bequeathed by 
her as if unmarried; and so also all property to which she may 
become entitled after marriage.^ The Legislature shall provide for 
the protection of the rights of women in acquiring and possessing 
property, real, personal, and mixed, separate and apart from the 
husband.* The Legislature are to provide for the registration of 
such separate property.^ 

A married woman's separate real or personal property may be 
charged in equity and sold, or the uses, rents and profits thereof 
sequestrated for the purchase money thereof ; or for money or thing 
due upon any agreement made by her in wTiting for the benefit of 
her separate property; or for the price of any property purchased 
by her, or for labor and material used with her knowledge or assent 
in the construction of buildings, or repairs, or improvements upon 
her property, or for agricultural or other labor bestowed thereon, 
with her knowledge and consent.^ 

The Legislature shall never create by law any distinction between 
the rights of men and women to acquire, own, enjoy, and dispose of 
property of all kinds, or their power to contract in reference thereto. 
Married women are hereby fully emancipated from all disability on 
account of coverture. But this shall not prevent the Legislature from 
regulating contracts between husband and wife, nor shall the Legis- 
lature be prevented from regulating the sale of homesteads.^ 

§ 27. Sex Distinctions: Custody of Children. — In Kansas the 

* Utah 4, 1 ; Wy. 6, 1. rights of a man, save that she is to a 

2 Ala. 209; Ark. 9, 7; Cal. 20, 8; certain extent protected. 
Fla. 11, 1; Ga. 3, 11, 1; Kan. 15, 6; * Ala., Ark., Cal, Fla., Ga., Mich., 

Md. 3, 43; Mich. 16, 5; Miss. 94; N. C. N. C, N. D., Nev., Ore., S. C, S. D., 

10, 6; N. D. 213; Nev. 4, 31; Ore. Tex., Utah. 

15, 5; S. C. 17, 9; S. D. 21, 5; Tex. " Fla., Kan., Md., Nev., W. Va. 

16, 15; Utah 22, 2; W. Va. 6,49. By * Ark. 9, 8; Nev.; Ore.; Tex. 
the laws of all States, she has all the * Fla. 11, 2. 

' Miss. 94. 


Constitution provides that the T>(><:^islature shall provide for women 
equal rights with the husband in the possession of their children.' 

Article 3. Slavery and Apprenticeship 

§ 30. Slavcrij Prohihiicd. — In most States slavery and invol- 
untary servitude remain forbidden by the Constitution; and they 
are prohibited in all the States by the Thirteenth Amendment.^ 

Except ^ as a punishment for crime whereof the party has been 
duly convicted; and in Vermont, when bound by law for the pay- 
ment of debts, damages, fines, costs, and the like. 

In Maryland there is a constitutional provision that slavery shall 
not be re-established.* In Tennessee, the Legislature can make no 
law recognizing the right of property in man.^ 

§ 31. Compensation for Slaves. — In two States the Constitution 
provides that the Legislature shall have no power to make compen- 
sation for emancipated slaves.® The provision in Mississippi to 
this effect was left out of the new Constitution. It is forbidden, 
however, by United States Amendment 14 (4). 

And in INIaryland the Constitution declares that, slavery having 
been abolished by the authority of the United States, compensation 
is due the State from the National Government.^ 

§ 32. Apprenticeships. — In Vermont service by indentures and 
apprenticeships is allowed, but must expire at the age of twenty-one 
in males and eighteen in females.^ 

In Indiana, no indenture of any negro or mulatto made out of 
the State is valid. ^ 

§ 33. Terms of Service over the age prescribed in § 32 are for- 
bidden by the Constitution of Vermont unless entered into with 
the full consent of the party serving. ^° 

' Kan. 15,6. 21; Vt. 1, 1; Wis. 1, 2. See § 10, 

" Ala. 1, 32; Ark. 2, 27; Ariz. *B. note. 

Rts. 20; Cal. 1, 18; Col. 2, 26; Fla. ' This exception is omitted in a few 

Decln. of Rts. 19; Ga. 1, 1, 17; Ind. 1, (Vt., R. I., N. M.). 

37; lo. 1, 23; Kan. Bill of Rts. 6; * Md. Decln. Rts. 24. 

Ky. 25; Mich. 18, 11; Minn. 1, 2; Miss. « Tenn. 1, 34. 

15; Mo. 2, 31; Mon. 3, 28; N. C. 1, 33; « Md. 3, 37; N. C. 1, 6. 

N. D. 17; Neb. 1, 2; Nev. Ordinance ^ Md. Decln. Rts. 24. 

3 & 1, 17; N. M.* 76, 1; O. 1, 6; Ore. « Vt. 1, 1. 

1, 34; R. I. 1, 4; Tenn. 1, 33; Utah 1, » Ind. 1, 37. ^° Vt. 1, 1. 


Article 4. Religious Rights 

§ 40. General Rights of Conscience.'^ — In all the States except 
Alabama (for which compare §§ 42, 43), these are recognized by 
the Constitution, in slightly varying phrases. Thus, "every man 
may worship God according to his own conscience." ^ "The free 
enjoyment of all religious sentiments and the different modes of 
worship shall ever be held sacred." ^ "It is the duty of the Legis- 
lature to pass suitable laws to protect every religious community in 
the peaceable enjoyment of its own mode of worship." * "No 
human authority or law ought, in any case whatever, to control or 
interfere with the rights of conscience in matters of religion." ^ 
"No person ought to be molested in person or estate on account 
of his religious persuasion." ^ 

§ 41. Limitations. — ^ But the provisions of §§ 40, 45 are not to 
excuse acts of licentiousness, or justify practices inconsistent with 
the peace and safety of the State ; ^ or polygamy ; ^ or bigamy, or 
advice and propaganda thereto.^ Nor to excuse disturbance of the 
public peace. ^"^ Nor "to justify practices inconsistent with the rights 

* In newer Western States, these Mon. 3, 4; N. D. 4; Nev. Ordinance 

clauses are made irrevocable without 3 & Const. 1, 4; N.Y.I, 3; Okla., 1,2; 

the consent of the U. S. (Ida., N. D., S. C. 1, 4; S. D. 22, 1; Utah 1, 4; Va. 

S. D., Utah, Wash., Wy.). See U. S. 58; Wash. 26, 1; Wis. 1, 18; Wy. 

Amt. 1. "Congress shall make no law Ordinance, 1, 18. 

respecting an establishment of reli- * Ark. 2, 25; Neb.; N. M.* 1851, 

gion, or proliibiting the free exercise July 12, § 4; O. ; Tex. 
thereof." This constitutional right to * Ark.; Del. 1, 1; Ga. ; Ind. 1, 3; 

free worship does not appear to be rec- lo. 1, 3; Kan.; Ky. 6; Mich.; Minn.; 

ognized in any British constitutional Mo.; N. C. ; Neb.; O. ; Ore. 1, 3; Pa.; 

document. It first appeared in a stat- Tenn. ; Tex.; Utah 1, 4; Vt. ; Wis. 
uteof Charles I. and in the Va B. Rts. « Ga. 1, 1, 13; Ida. 21, 19; Mass.; 

16. Md. ; Me. ; Nev. ; N. H. ; N. M.* ; N. D. 

2 Ark. 2, 24; Ct. 7, 1; Del. Pre- 203; Okla ; R. I.; S. D. 26, 18; 22, 1; 
amble; Ga. 1, 1, 12; Ida. Sched. 19; Utah 3, 1; Va. 58; W. Va.; Wy. 21,2; 
Ind. 1, 2; Kan. B. Rts. 7; Ky. 1; Wash. 26,1. 

La. 4; Mass. 1, 2; Md. Decln. Rts. 36; ' Ariz.* B. Rts. 13; Cal. 1, 4; Col. 

Me. 1, 3; Minn. 1, 16; Mo. 2, 5; N. C. 2, 4; Ct. 1, 3; Fla. Decln. Rts. 5; Ga. 

1,26; Neb. 1,4; N.H.I, 5; N.J. 1,3; 1, 1, 13; Ida. 1, 4; 111. 2, 3; Md. 

N. M.* 95, 1; 1851, July 12, § 4; O. 1, Decln. Rts. 36; Minn. 1, 16; Miss. 18; 

7; Ore. 1, 2; Pa. 1, 3; R. I. 1, 3; S. D. Mo. 2, 5; Mon. 3, 4; N. D. 4; Nev. 1, 

6,3; Tenn. 1,3; Tex. 1,6; Utah 1, 1; 4; N. Y. 1,3; S. D. 6, 3; Wash. 1, 11; 

Va. 16; Vt. 1, 3; Wash. 1, 11; W. Va. Wy. 1, 18. 
3, 15. « Ida., Utah. 

3 Cal. 1, 4; Col. 2, 4; Ct. 1, 3; Fla. » Ida., Mon. 

Decln. Rts. 5; Ida. 1, 4; 111. 2, 3; lo. '" N. H. 1, 5 ; Mass. 1, 2; Me. 1, 3; 
1, 3; La. 4; Mich. 4, 39; Miss. 18; Md. 



[hook III 

of others." ' No person is to disturb others in their rcHgious 
worship. - 

§ 42. Compulsory Support of Churches. — No man can be com- 
pelled, against his consent, to support or attend any church.^ Nor 
to send his children to any school to which he may be conscien- 
tiously opposed.' No person of one particular sect shall be com- 
pelled to contribute to the support of ministers of another sect.^ 

§ 43. Established Church. — The Constitutions of some States 
provide that there shall be no established church." Others say 
that there shall be no preference shown any one scct.^ No 
subordination of one sect to another.^ No union of Church and 
State.'' But the Constitutions of two States declare that every sect 
ought to observe the Lord's day and to keep up some sort of 
religious worship.*" 

No charter may be granted to any church or religious corporation, 
but their title to property may be secured to an extent to be limited 
by law,** 

§ 44. State Support. — By the Constitutions of many States no 
money can be taken from the public treasury in aid of any church, 
sect, or sectarian institution.*^ Or in aid of any priest, etc.*^ Nor 
from any municipal corporation.** Nor can property of the State 
ever be appropriated for such purpose.*^ Nor property of any mu- 
nicipality.*" Nor shall money be appropriated for religious services 

1 Md., Mo., Va. 

2 Mass., Me., N. H., N. M.* 

3 Ala. 1, 3; Ark. 2, 24; Col. 2, 4 
Ct. 7, 1; Del. 1, 1; Ida. 1, 4; 111. 2, 3 
Ind. 1, 4; lo. 1, 3; Kan. B. of Rts. 7 
Ky. 5; Md. Decln. Rts. 36; Mich. 4,39 
Minn. 1, 16; Mo. 2, 6; Mon. 11, 9 
Neb. 1, 4; N. J. 1, 3; O. 1, 7; Pa. 1, 3 
R. I. 1, 3; S. D. 6, 3; Tenn. 1, 3; Tex 

1, 6; Va. 58; Vt. 1, 3; W, Va. 3, 15 
Wis. 1, 18. 

* Ky. 

' N. H. 1, 6. 

« Ala. 1, 3; lo. 1, 3; La. 4; N. J. 
1,4; S.C.I, 4; Utah 1,4; Va. 58. 
^ Ala.; Ark. 2, 24; Cal. 1, 4; Col. 

2, 4; Ct. 1, 4; Del. 1, 1; Fla. Decln. 
Rts. 6; Ida.; 111.2,3; Ind. 1,4; Kan. 
B. Rts. 7 ; Ky. 5 ; La. 53 ; Mass. Amt. 
11; Me. 1, 3; Minn. 1, 16; Miss. 18; 
Mo. 2, 7; Mon.; N. D. 4; Neb. 1, 4; 
Nev. 1, 4; N. H. 1, 6; N. M.* 1851, 
July 12, § 4; N. J.; N. Y. 1, 3; O. 1, 7; 

Pa. 1, 3; S. D. 6, 3; Tenn. 1, 3; Tex. 
1,6; Va. 58; W. Va. 3, 15; Wis. 1, 18; 
Wy. 1, 18. 

« N. H., Mass., Me. 

» Utah. 

" Del. 1, 1; Vt. 1, 3. 

" Va. 59. 

12 Ala. 1, 3; Cal. 4, 30; Col. 9, 7 
Fla. Decln. Rts. 6; Ga. 1, 1, 14; III 
8, 3; Ind. 1, 6; La. 53; Mich. 4, 40 
Minn. 1, 16; Miss. 66; Mo. 2, 7; Mon 
5, 35; Okla. 2, 5; Ore. 1, 5; Pa. 3, 18 
S. C. 11, 9; S. D. 6, 3; Tex. 1, 7; Utah 
1, 4; Va. 67 & 141; Wash. 1, 11; Wis. 
1, 18; Wy. 1, 19. 

>3 La. 

'* Cal; Col.; Ida. 9, 5; 111.; Mo. 11, 
11; W. Va. 3, 15. 

15 Cal.; Col.; Ida. 9, 5; 111.; Mich.; 
Mo.; Okla.; S. C; S. D.; Tex.; Va. 
10, 13. 

'« Cal.; Col.; 111.; Mo.; S. C; S. D. 
8, 16. 


in the Legislature.* Nor shall the State or anv countv or muni- 
cipality accept any grant or gift of land, money or other property to 
be used for sectarian purposes.^ 

But by the Constitution of New Hampshire the Legislature may 
authorize towns or parishes to provide at their own expense for the 
support of Protestant ministers.^ And in Massachusetts * and 
Missouri parishes may do so. So in Maine, religious societies.^ 
But in Virginia and West Virginia it is expressly provided to the 

For religious corporations and their support, see also § 323 ; for 
schools, § 54. 

§ 45. Religious Test — In many States no religious test may be 
required as a qualification for office,^ for any public trust under the 
State,^ for voting,*" for serving on juries,*" or for being a witness in 
a court of law.** 

Nor can a man be questioned in a court as to his religious belief, 
in order to shake his credit,*- or be deprived of any civil right as a 
citizen on account of his religious sentiments.*^ 

§ 46. Limitations. — But by the Constitution in a few States, 
a man cannot hold office who denies the being of Almighty God or 
the existence of a Supreme Being.** Nor is he competent as a 

»Mich. 4, 24; Ore. » Ala.,Cal.,Del., Ga., Ind., lo., Kan., 

^ Ida. 9, 5; Neb. 8, 11; S. D. Md., Me., Mich., Minn., Mo., N. J., 

3 N. H. 1, 6. Ore., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Wis., Wy. 

* Mass. Amt. 11. * Ark., Kan., Minn., Utah, W. Va. 

6 Me. 1,3. *" Cal.; Md. Decln. Rts. 36; Mo.; 

8 Tlie introduction of these provi- N. D. 4; Ore. 1, 6; Tenn. 1, 6; Utah; 
sions into the Virginia Bill of Rights is Wash. ; W. Va. ; Wy. 
commemorated on Jefferson's tomb. " Ark.; Cal.; Fla. Decln. Rts. 5; 
The Church of England was " estab- Ind. 1, 7; lo.; Kan.; Md.; Mich. 6, 
lished " in Virginia before the Revo- 34 ; Minn. ; Mo. ; N. D. ; Neb. ; Nev. 
lution, as, more recently, was the 14; N. Y. 1, 3; O.; Ore.; Tex. 1, 5; 
" Congregational " or English Calvinist Utah; Wash.; Wis.; Wy. 
church in Massachusetts and Connec- *- Ore. 1, 6; Wash, 
ticut, to the extent that taxes were " Ala.; Ariz.* B. Rts. 13; Col. 2, 4; 
levied in support of the same. Ida.; 111. 2, 3; lo. 1, 3; Ky. 5; Mich. 

' Ala. 1, 3; Ark. 2, 26; Cal. 20, 3; 4, 41; Mon. 3, 4; N. J.; Okla.; R. I. 
Del. 1, 2; Ga. 1, 1, 13; 111. 5, 25; Ind. 1, 3; S. D. 6, 3; Va. 5, 14; Vt. 1, 3; 
1, 5; lo. 1, 4; Kan. B. Rts. 7; Mass. W. Va. 3, 15. This provision would 
Amt. 7; Md. Decln. Rts. 37; Me. 1, 3; seem to apply generally to the rights 
Mich. 18, 1; Minn. 1, 17; Miss. 18; of voting, holding office, serving on 
Mo. 2, 5; Neb. 1,4; N.J. 1,4; N. M.* juries, or being witnesses. Compare 
95, 1; 1851, July 12, § 3; N. Y. 12, 1; § 40, ad fin. Religious disqualifica- 

0. 1, 7; Okla., 1, 2; Ore. 1, 4; R. I. tion only disappeared from England in 

1, 3; Tenn. 1, 4; Tex. 1, 4; Utah 1, the nineteenth century. 

4; Va. 58; Wash. 1, 11; W. Va. 3, 11; '" Ark. 19, 1; Miss. 265; N. C. 6, 5; 
Wis. 1, 19; Wy. 1, 18. See U. S. 6, 3. S. C. 4, 3; 17, 4; Tex. 1, 4. 


^vitnoss.' Nor, it seems, can ii nuin hold oflice unless he helieves 
in Ciod- and in a future state of rewards and j)unishnients.^ And a 
man who does not believe in (lod and a future state of retribu- 
tion will be deemed incompetent as a witness or juror.* 

§ 47. Oaths and Afjirmuiiuii.s. — The provisions of § 40 shall 
not be construed to dispense with oaths or afhrmations.'' And the 
mode of administering an oath shall be such as is most binding 
upon the ])erson sworn." The general form is to be such as shall 
be deemed by the Legislature the most solemn appeal to God,^ but 
an affirmation may be made, instead of an oath, by Quakers.* 
Any oath or affirmation, taken as above, renders the person liable 
for perjury, if falsely taken, as if the oath were in the ordinary 

§ 48. Sundays and Sabbaths. — By the Constitution of Ten- 
nessee no person shall, in time of peace, be required to perform any 
service to the public on any day set apart by his religion as a day 
of rest.^" 

§ 49. Superstitious u^es are not recognized in the American 
law. White, § 19. 

Article 5. Education 

§ 50. General Right.^^ — In some States the Constitution declares 
that the people have a right to education, which it is the duty of the 
State to guard and maintain,'^ "without distinction of race, color, 
caste or sex." ^^ 

In others, that a general diffusion of knowledge and intelligence 
being essential to the preservation of the rights and liberties of the 
people, it shall be the duty of the Legislature to encourage the 
promotion of intellectual, scientific, moral, social, and agricultural 
improvement,^* "to cherish the interests of literature and the sci- 
ences," ^^ or " to encourage schools and the means of instruction." ^^ 

* Ark. and so, possibly, by the c. 1. in " See § 21. There is, of course, no 
other States. White, p. 65. constitutional right to free education 

^ Md. Decln. Rts. 37; Pa. 1, 4; except where so specified. 

Tenn. 9, 2. i^ N. C. 1, 27 ; Wash. 9, 1 ; Wy. 1, 23. 

" Pa., Tenn. "^ j^a. 9, 6; Wash.; Wy. 7, 10. See 

* Ark.; Md. Decln. Rts. 36. § 21. 

« Ark. 2, 26; Col. 2, 4; Ida. 1, 4; " Cal. 9, 1; Ind. 8, 1; To. 9,2,3; Kan. 

111. 2, 3; Mon.; Neb. 1, 4; O. 1, 7. 6, 2; Mass. 5, 2; Md. Decln. Rts. 43; 

« Ind. 1,8; Ky. 232 ; Md. Decln. Rts. Mich. 13,11; Miss. 201 ; N. D. 151 ; Nev. 

39; Ore. 1, 7; Tex. 1, 5; Wash. 1, 6. 11, 1; W. Va. 12, 12. See also § 391. 

' Ky. 15 Mass.; N. H. 2, 82; Tenn. 11, 12. 

« Mass. Amt. 6; N. H. " i^^^ g^ i- m^ss.; Me. 8, 1; N. C. 

» Mass., N. H., Tex. 9, 1 ; N. D. 147; Neb. 1, 4; N. H.; O. 

'° Tenn. 11, 15. 1, 7; R. I. 12, 1; S. D. 8, 1; Tex. 7, I. 


" All religious societies or bodies of men, united or incorporated 
for the advancement of religion or learning, or other pious or chari- 
table purposes, ought to be encouraged and protected in the enjoy- 
ment of the rights, immunities, and estates which they in justice 
ought to enjoy, under such regulations as the Legislature direct."* 

This right or duty of education is not mentioned or referred to 
in the Federal Constitution, though most of the other fundamental 
principles are. It would therefore seem without the power of the 
national government to prescribe, limit or regulate the State com- 
mon schools (10 Bush, 681), (63 Ky. 49). A treaty to that effect, 
though valid in favor of a foreign power, would not be binding 
upon the States except as a consequence of the war power. 

§ 51. Free Schools. — The Constitutions of nearly all the States 
provide for a system of free schools.^ And in most of the newer 
States there is provided by the Constitution a school fund to be 
used for that purpose.^ 

§ 52. Time of Holding. — The schools must be held, in several 
States, for at least three months a year in every district;* in others, 
at least four months,^ and in some six." 

' Vt. 2, 41. Congress after they had adopted con- 

2 Ala. 256; Ark. 14, 1; Cal. 9, 5 
Col. 9, 2; Del. 10, 1; Fla. 12, 1; Ga 
8, 1, 1; Ida. 9, 1; 111. 8, 1; Ind. 8, 1 

10. 9, 1, 12; Kan. 6, 2; Ky. 183; La, 
248; Md. 8, 1; Me. 8, 1; Mich. 13, 4 
Minn. 8, 3; Miss. 201; Mo. 11,1; Moa 

11, 1; Ord., N. C. 9, 2; N. D. 147 
Neb. 8, 6; Nev. 11, 2; N. J. 4, 7, 6 
N. Y. 9, 1; 0.6,2; Okla. 13, 1; Ore 
8,3; Pa. 10,1; S. C. 11,5; S. D. 8, 1 
22, 1; Tex. 7, 1; Utah 3, 4; 10, 1; Va 
129; Vt. 2, 41; Wash. 9, 1; 26, 1 

stitutions which were declared "re- 
publican in form" (U. S. Stats. 1890, 
656 and 664). One of these enabling 
acts also required it to be according to 
the principles of tlie Declaration of 
Independence ; which would seem to 
make it, after all, a constitutional 

2 Ala. 256, 279; Ark. 14, 2; Cal. 
9, 4; Col. 9, 3; Ct. 8, 2; Del. 10, 2; 
Fla. 12, 4; 1893, p. 491; Ga. 8, 1, 1; 
Ida. 9, 2; 111. 8, 2; Ind. 8, 2; lo. 9, 2, 1; 

27, 1; W. Va. 12, 1; Wis. 10, 3; Wy. Kan. 6, 3 ; Ky. 184; La. 248; Md. 8, 3; 

7, 1; Ord. (Irrevocable witliout the Mich. 13, 2; Minn. 8, 2; Amt. 1903, 25; 

consent of the U. S.; Wy., Wash., Miss. 206; Mo. 11, 6-8; Mon. 11, 2; N. C. 

Utah, N. D., S. D., Mon.) See U. S. 9, 4, 5; N. D. 1, 53; Neb. 8, 3; Nev. 11, 

Stats. 1889, 180. In Georgia, free 2; N. J. 4, 7, 6; N. Y. 9, 3; O. 6, 1; 

schools are to be established only on Ore. 8, 2; Pa.; R. I. 12, 2; S. C. 11, 6; 

two-thirds vote of the town or county S. D. 8, 2; Tenn. 11, 12; Tex. 7, 2; 

or district, and the legislature may Utah 10, 3; 9, 6; Va. 134; Wash. 9,2; 

prescribe who sliall vote at such elec- 16, 1; W. Va. 12, 4; Wis. 10, 2; Wy. 

tion (1903, p. 23). The Dakotas, Mon- 7, 2. (This also is irrevocable without 

tana, and Washington were authorized the consent of the U. S. as above in 

admission by Act of Cong'ess pre- six of the new Western States.) 

scribing that they should adopt State * Col.; lo. 9, 1; Kan. 6, 4; Mich. 

constitutions containing this, with 13,5; Mo. 11, 2; Mon. 11,6; Neb. 8, 

other similar provisions, upon procla- 7; Wis. 10, 5; Wy. 7, 8. 

mation by the President. For Utah, « Miss. 205; Mo. 11, 7; N. C. 9, 3; 

see U. S. Stats. 1894, 138. Idaho and Va. 136. 

Wyoming were admitted by Acts of ^ Cal., Nev. 


In Vermont, there must be one or more schools in each town, 
and one or more grammar schools in each county;' antl one in 
each township, in Minnesota.- 

§ 53. A(jc of Scholars. — The free schools must provide instruc- 
tion for all persons between the ages of 5 and 21,-' G and 21,'' 4 and 
20,^ 5 and 1S,° G and 18/ G and 20,"^ 7 and 20," 7 and 21.'" See 
also § 55. 

§ 54. Unscctarian *S'c/<oo/,v." — No public money shall ever be 
appropriated for the support of any sectarian or denominational 
school; '- and the same would follow from § 44 in other States. 
So, no public money can be appropriated for any school not under 
the exclusive control of the State or its school department.''' 

No sect shall ever have any exclusive right to, or control of, the 
State school fund.'^ So, the school fund is for "the equal benefit 
of the people. ' ' "^ 

No sectarian instruction or control is permitted, directly or in- 
directly in any of the State schools.'" No religious test required, 
for teacher or student.'^ No teacher or student shall ever be re- 
quired to attend or participate in any religious service whatever.'^ 

§ 55. Compulsory Attendance. — The Constitutions of a few 
States specify that the Legislature may enact laws requiring the 
attendance at a free school of all persons between six and eighteen 
years of age for a term of at least sixteen months in all; "^ and 

1 Vt. 2, 41. Utah 10, 13; Wash. 9, 4; Wis. 1, 18; 

' Minn. 8, 3. Wy. 7, 8; Ord. 5. Irrevocable — see 

' lo. 9, 2, 7; Kan.; Minn. 8, 2; § 51 note 2 — in tlie six new States 

Neb. 8, 6. and in Idaho, by Act of Congress 

* Ark.; Col.; Ida. 9,9; Mon. 11, 7; (U. S. Stat. 1890, 656, 658), as to 
N. C. ; Pa.; S. C. 11, 5; Wy. 7, 9. lands granted by the United States. 

* Ore. 8, 4; Wis. 10, 3. '^ Cal.; Mass.; Me. 8, 1; Mon. 5, 35; 
« N. J. 11, 8; N. D.; Pa. 3, 17; S. C. 11, 9; 
' Ida. 9, 9; La. Okla. Va. 141; Wy. 3, 36. 

8 Mo. 11, 1. " Kan. 6, 8; Miss. 208; O. 6, 2; 

« Va. Tex. 1891, 195. 

>" Ala. '" Ct. 8, 2; N. J.; Tenn. 11, 12; 

" See also §§ 44, 323. For sex dis- Wash. 26, 1; 9, 4; Wy. 7, 12, Ord. 

tinctions, color distinctions, etc., in '"Cal.; Col. 9, 8; Ida, 9, 6; Mon. 11, 

schools, see §§ 22, 24. 9; N. D. 147; Neb. 8, 11; Nev. 11, 9; 

'■' Ala. 263; Cal. 9, 8; Col. 9, 7; S. C; S. D. 22, 4; 26, 1; 8, 16; Utah 

Del. 10, 3; Ida. 9, 5; 111. 8, 3; Ky. 10, 1; 3, 4; Wis. 10, 3 (irrevocable in 

189; La. 253; Mass. Amt. 18; Mich, the new States, see § 51, note 2). 

4, 40; Minn. 8, 3; Miss. 208; Mo. 11, ^' Ida. 9, 6; Mon.; Utah 10, 12 & 1. 

11; Mon. 11, 8; 5, 35; N. D. 152; '^ Col, Ida., Wy. 

N. H.2,82; N. Y. 9, 4; Pa. 10, 2; S. C. '"> N. C. 9, 15; Okla., Wy. (unless 

11, 9; S. D. 8, 16; 26, 18; Tex. 7, 5; educated by other means). 


SO, of children between eight and twelve/ not mentally or physically 
disabled." '" So, of all persons between six and eighteen for a terra 
of at least three years, ^ or three months each year.* 

So, in Nevada, the Legislature may enact laws to insure general 
attendance.^ See also § 53. 

§ 56. Universities. — The Constitutions of many of the States 
provide for a State university or college." 

So, in Massachusetts, Harvard College is specially recognized by 
the Constitution and provided for ; ^ and in Connecticut, Yale ; ^ 
In Virginia, William and INIary ; ° in Louisiana, Southern University 
for Negroes; ^° in California, Leland Stanford. ^^ 

And in some States the Constitution provides specially for free 
normal schools or academies. ^^ 

And in others for an agricultural school or schools; ^^ for a 
school of mines; ^* for a mechanical school; ^^ manual training 
or technical schools; ^^ a school of forestry; ^^ a scientific school; ^^ 
kindergartens. ^^ 

§ 57. The Language taught in the schools is, by the Constitu- 
tion of two States, to be English;-" but in Louisiana the instruc- 
tion may be given in French. 

§ 58. Libraries. — The Constitutions of two States provide that 
there shall be at least one public library in each township.-^ 

So, in Iowa, the State school fund may be applied to the estab- 
lishment of libraries.-^ 

§ 59. Legislative Restrictions. — No educational or charitable 

1 Del. 10, 1; Va. 138. Miss. 201; Mon. II, 12; N. C. 9, 14; 

2 Va. N. D. 148-215; Nev. II, 5; N. Y. 9, 
« Col. 9, II; Wy. 7, 9. I; Pa. 3, 17; S. C. 10, 6; Utah 10, 2; 

* Okla. 13, 4. Va. 137; Wash. 9, 2; W. Va. 12, II; 

* Nev. II, 2. Wis. 10,2. 

6 Ala. 264; Cal. 9, 9; Col. 9, 12; " Ala. 266; Cal.; La. 255; Mich. 

Fla. 8, 2; Ga. 8, 6, I; Ida. 9, 10; lo. 13, II; Miss. 8, 8; N. C. 9, 14; N. D.; 

9, 1, II; Kan. 6, 7; La. 255; Mich. Nev.; Okla. 13, 7; S. C; Tex. 7, 13; 

13, 6-8; Minn. 8, 4; Miss. 213; Mo. Utah; Va. 

11,5; Mon. II, 11; N. C. 9, 6, 7; N. D. i* Col. 8, 5; N. C; S. D. 14,5; Wy. 

215; Neb. 8, 10; Nev. II, 4; N. Y. 9,5. 

9, 2; Ore. 8, I: S. C. II, 8; S. D. 14, 4; '' Ala., La., N. C, S. C, Tex., Va. 
Tex. 7, 10; Utah 10, 4; Wis. 10, 6; »« La. 256; Va.; Wash. 9, 2. 
Wy. 7, I-I5. " N. D. 

' Mass. 5, 1. »8 N. D. 

* Ct. 8, 1. 19 La., Utah. 

» Va. 141. 2« Ga. 8, 1, I; La. 251; Mich. 13, 4. 

" La. 256. French was used in the Enghsh House 

" Cal. 1899, p. 493. of Commons until 1414. 
»2 Cal. 9, 6; 1901, p. 948; Fla. 12, -^ Ind. 13, 12; Mich. 13, 12. 
14; Kan. 6, 2; La. 256; Me. 8, 1; -^ lo. 9, 2, 4. 


institution, othcT than the State institutions now existing;, or ex- 
pressly provided for in this Constitution, shall be estahlisiicd by 
the State, except upon a vote of two-thirds of the members elected 
to each House of the General Assembly.' 

Neither the Le<;i.slature nor the State Board of Education shall 
have power to prescribe text-books to be used in the common schools.^ 
In California they must be printed by the State. ^ 

The metric system shall be taught in the public schools of the 
State.* So, agriculture, stock-feeding, and domestic science.'' 

No teacher or officer connected with the public school system 
shall be interested in the sale of text-books." Text-books must 
be uniform.^ Separate schools for white and colored must in 
some States be provided. See § 22. 

Article 6. Miscellaneous Rights 

§ 60. Freedom of Speech. — Nearly all the States ^ provide in 
some phrase for general freedom of speech; ^ thus, "every man is 
given the right freely to vn-ite, speak, and publish his opinions on 
all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that privilege." '" 

No law shall ever be passed to abridge or restrain freedom of 
speech and of the press. ^' This is the form in the Federal Consti- 
tution. And so, in two, of freedom of speech only; ^- and in sev- 
eral, of freedom of the press only.^^ 

In others, there is a declaration that the liberty of the press ought 

1 La. 60. 111. 2, 4; Ind. 1, 9; lo. 1, 7; Kan. B. 

' Utah 10, 9; Wy. 7, 11. Rts. 11; Ky. 8; La. 3; Md. Decln. Rts. 

» Cal. Amt. 1894, Nov. 6. 40; Me. 1, 4; Mich. 4, 42; Minn. 1, 3; 

« Utah 10, 11. Mo. 2, 14; Mon. 3, 10; N. D. 9; Neb. 

«Okl. 13, 7. 1,5; Nev 1,9; N.J. 1,5; N. M.*95, 1; 

« S. D. 8, 17. July 12, 1851, § 5; N. Y. 1, 10; O. 1, 

^ Okla. 13, 6. 11; Okla. 2, 22; Ore. 1, 8; Pa. 1, 7; 

8 (Except Del., N. H., Mass., R. I.) S. D. 6, 5; Tenn. 1, 19; Tex. 1, 8; 

® For speech in the Legislature, see Utah 1, 1; Va. 1, 12; Wash. 1, 5; Wis. 

§272. Freedom of speech and of the 1, 3; Wy. 1, 20. Substantially the 

press are both guaranteed by U. S. C. English law, though not in the Eng- 

Amt. 1. By Eng. Stat. W. & M. S. 2, lish Constitution. See White, p. 87. 

C. 2, the principle is limited to speech in ^' Ala. 1, 4; Cal.; Ct. 1, 6; Fla. ; 

the Legislature ; nor does Blackstone Ga. ; Ind. ; lo. ; Ky. 1 ; La. 3 ; Mich. ; 

give it as one of the fundamental rights. Miss. 13; Mon.; Nev.; N. J. ; N. M.*; 

though he calls liberty of the press N. Y.; O.; Okla.; Ore.; S. C. 1, 4; 

" essential to a free State." See follow- Tex. ; Utah 1, 15; Va. 12 & 58; W. Va. 

ing note. 3, 7; Wis. 

" Ala. 1, 4; Ark. 2, 6; Ariz.* B. Rts. '- Col., Mo. 

16; Cal. 1, 9; Col. 2, 10; Ct. 1, 5; Fla. '^ Ark., Del., Ky., Mass., Me., N. Y., 

Decln. Rts. 13; Ga. 1, 1, 15; Ida. 1, 9; Pa., Tenn. 


to be maintained ; ' or that " the printing-presses shall be free to 
every person who undertakes to examine the proceedings of the 
Legislature or any branch of government; and no law shall ever 
be made to restrain the right thereof." - 

In one, the general right extends only to freedom of speech, and 
freedom to publish matters relating to the government or officers 
thereof;^ while in three "any man may publish his sentiments on 
any subject, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty." ^ 

Limitations. — But the Constitution of West Virginia specifies 
that the Legislature may restrain the sale of obscene books, etc. ; 
and that they may provide for the punishment of libel and de- 
famation; and the Federal Government, under U. S. Const. I. 8, 
(8) denies to such the use of the mails. 

§ 61. Lihel.^ — The Constitutions of many States provide that 
in all civil and criminal trials for libel the truth may be given in 
evidence.® [This would seem implied in certain cases by the 
Constitutions of other States; see below.] So, in seven others, 
when the matter published is proper for public information, or in 
prosecutions for libels on officers or men in a public capacity.'' 
But in some the principal provision applies to criminal trials only.^ 
[This, also, would seem implied by the Constitutions of other States 
mentioned below.] 

And the truth, in all civil and criminal trials for libel, is a suffi- 
cient defence.^ But only in the absence of malice,*" or when pub- 
lished with good motives and for justifiable ends.** 

In other States the truth is a sufficient defence only in indict- 
ments or prosecutions for libel, when the libellous matter was pub- 
lished with good motives and for justifiable ends.*^ 

1 Kan.; Md.; Mass. 1, 16; Minn.; B. Rts. 11; La. 179; Mo. 2, 14; Mon 
N. H. 1, 22; N. C. 1, 20; Vt. 1, 13; Va. 3, 10; Nev. 1, 9; N. D. 9; S. C. 1. 21 

2 Del. 1, 5; Ky. 8; Pa.; Tenn. W. Va. 3, 8. 

3 Vt. 1, 13. ' Ala. 1, 12; Del. 1, 5; Ky. 9; Me 

* Del.; N. C; R. I. 1, 20. 1, 4; N. M.* 1851, July 12, § 6; Tenn 

* The doctrine of the general verdict 1, 19; Tex. 1, 8. 

and evidence of truth in prosecutions ^ Ark. 2, 6; Cal. 1, 9; lo. 1, 7; 

for libel grew up under George III but Mich. 6, 25; Miss. 13; N. J. 1, 5; N. Y 

is not expressed in any English con- 1,8; O. 1, 11; Okla. 3, 22; Utah 1, 

stitutional document. The English 15; Wis. 1, 3. 
Stat. 32 Geo. Ill, C. 60, only dates from » Ind. 1, 10. 
1791 II Taylor, 491. The EngUsh " R. I. 1, 20. 

law is now similar to the American " Fla. ; 111.2,4; Kan.; N. D. ;Neb. 

(note 12) by 6 & 7 Vict. c. 96. See § 132. 1, 5; Nev.; S. D. 6, 5; W. Va. ; \Vy. 

6 Col. 2, 10; Ct. 1, 7; Fla. Decln. 1,20. 
Rts. 13; Ga. 1, 2, 1; Ind. 1, 10; Kan. '^ Ark. 2, 6; .Cal. 1, 10; lo. 1, 7; 



In Indiana the provision is simply that the truth may be given in 
justification in "all prosecutions for libel." ' And in Pennsylvania, 
that no conviction shall be had in any prosecution for the publica- 
tion of papers relating to the official conduct of ofl^icers or men in 
public capacity, or to any other matter proj)er for public investiga- 
tion or information, when the jury find that such publication was 
not maliciously or negligently made." 

In many States the jury are to determine the law and the facts, 
under direction of the court, in all prosecutions for libel ; ^ and in 
some, also in civil suits.* And may give a general verdict as in other 
cases. ^ 

The Constitution of California provides that indictments or infor- 
mations for libels by newspapers are to be tried either in any county 
where the paper is published or in that of the plaintiff's residence, 
unless the venue is changed for good cause. ^ 

§ 62. Arms.'^ — The Constitutions of most States provide that 
the people shall have the right to bear arms in defence of them- 
selves and the State ;^ and this is perhaps implied in three other 
States.^ In others, in defence of themselves only; '° or, in others, 
the provision is simply that "they have the right to bear arms." ^^ 
But the Legislature may prescribe the manner in which arms are to 
be borne; '^ as "with a view to prevent crime," ^* or may forbid the 
carrying of concealed weapons.^* 

Mich.; Miss.; N.J.; N. Y.; O.; Okla.; jects "which are Protestants." The 

S. D. 6, 5; Utah 1, 15; Wis.; Wy. 1, 20. basing of this right upon the necessity 

^ Ind. 1, 10. of miUtia, as in the Federal Constitu- 

^ Pa. 1, 7. tion, is not historically correct. 

3 Ala., Cal., Col., Ct., Del., Ga., Ky., » Ala. 1, 26; Ariz.* B. Rts. 5; Ark. 

La.,Me.,Mich..Miss..Mo.,Mon.,N.D., 2,5; Col. 2, 13; Ct. 1, 17; Fla. Decln. 

N. J., N. Y., Pa., S. C, S. D., Tenn., Rts. 20; Ind. 1, 32; Ky. 1; Mass. 1, 

Tex., Utah. Wis., Wv. See White, p. 98. 17; Me. 1, 16; Mich. 18, 7; Miss. 12; 

* Col., Ct., Mo., Hon., N. D., S. D., Mo. 2, 17; Mon. 3, 13; N. M.* July 12, 

Wy. 1851, § 13; Okla. 3, 26; Ore. 1, 27; 

5 N. D. Pa. 1, 21; S. C. 1, 26; S. D. 6, 24; 

6 Cal. 1, 9. Tenn. 1, 26; Tex. 1, 23; Vt. 1, 16; 

7 See Art. 29. Compare Eng. Stat. Wash. 1, 24; Wy. 1, 24. 

W. & M. S. 2, C. 2. U. S. C. Amt. 2. « Md. Decln. Rts. 28; N. H. 1, 24; 

"The right of feud, or private war, Va. 1, 15. See § 290. 

was a right which every Teutonic free- ^'' Ida. 1, 11; Kan. B. Rts. 4; O. 1, 

man considered inalienable — a right 4; Utah 1, 6. 

which entered with him into every " Ga. 1, 1, 22; La. 8; N. C. 1, 24; 

political or social organization of which R. I. 1, 22. 

he was a part." (Hannis Taylor, I. 195). ^- Fla., Ga., Ida., Utah. 

The right to arms is probably pri- '^ Tenn., Tex. 

mordial; but it is definitely recog- " Col., Ky., La., Miss., Mo., Mon., 

nized in the Bill of Rights, as to sub- N. C, Okla. 


BILL OF rights: CIVIL 


§ G3. " Pinkerton Men, " etc. — No armed person or bodies of 
men shall be brought into this State for the preservation of the 
peace or the suppression of domestic violence, except upon the 
application of the General Assembly, or of the Governor when the 
General Assembly may not be in session.' — No armed police force 
or representative of a detective agency shall ever be brought into 
the State for the suppression of domestic violence ; nor shall any 
other body of men be brought in for that purpose except upon 
application of the Legislature, or the Executive when the Legisla- 
ture is not in session (as provided for the regular army in the 
United States Constitution).^ 

No flag other than the United States flag can be carried.^ 

So, the right to bear arms does not authorize individuals or cor- 
porations to organize, maintain or employ an armed body of men.* 
No corporation or association shall bring any armed person or 
bodies of men into this State for the preservation of the peace or the 
suppression of domestic trouble without authority of law.^ 

§ G4. Assemblies.^ — In all the States except Minnesota and 
Virginia, the Constitution declares that the people have a right to 

1 Ida. 1, 46 ; Ky. 225 ; Mon. 3, 31; 
N. D. 190; Utah 12, 16; Wash. 1, 
24; Wy. 19, 1. As provided for in U. 
S. C. 4, 4. 

2 Ida. 14, 6; Mon. 3, 31; S. C. 8, 9; 
Wy. 19, 1. 

3 Wy. 17, 4. 

* Wash. 1, 24. 

5 Utah 12, 16. The objection to 
private war is by no means new. The 
complaint of "retainers" or armed 
retinue was frequent in feudal times, 
and was one of the causes of granting 
the writ de odio et atla, when justice 
was thereby overborne. The Court of 
Star Chamber was created to sup- 
press such "maintenance" and pre- 
vent " assemblies " of private retamers 
of powerful persons, much as a modern 
injunction is directed against a mob 
of strikers. Taswell-Langmead, p. 296. 

* Founded on U. S. C. Amt. 1 ; and 
(as to the right of petition) on Eng. 
Stat. W. & M. S. 2, C. 2. This right 
to assemble and the right to petition 
are somewhat different tilings. The 
former right is not expressed in any 
written constitutional document of 
England, but it u attributed by Dicey 

(The Law of the Constitution, p. 258) 
to the "result of the view taken by the 
courts as to individual liberty of per- 
son and individual liberty of speech." 
In England both the right to assemble 
and the right to petition in so far as 
they are constitutional principles only 
extend to a peaceable and orderly 
meeting or petition ; in fact the Stat- 
ute of 13 Charles Second Chap. 5 for- 
bids petitions to the Iving or Parlia- 
ment signed by more than twenty or 
presented by more than ten persons 
The U. S. Constitutional amendment, 
however, expresses both rights, "the 
right of the people peaceably to assem- 
ble, and to petition the government 
for a redress of grievances." Tliis 
right to assemble is not merely politi- 
cal (M?Clain, p. 309) but extends to 
assemblies for religion?, social, and busi- 
ness purposes. It would of course in- 
clude the right to meet and combine 
for the purpose of nominating or de- 
feating the nomination of any political 
candidate. Hence an organization of 
American citizens, rich or poor, for 
that purpose, cannot properly be termed 
a conspiracy. 


assemble peaceably, consult together and petition the Legislature 
for the redress of grievances;' to instruct their representatives;^ 
and "for other proper purposes." ^ 

But in one, secret political societies are declared dangerous to 
liberty, and should not be tolerated.' 

§ 65. Emigration. — In six States the Constitution declares that 
all persons have a right to emigrate from the State. ^ Or, that they 
have a rijjht to emigrate from one State to another." 

§ 66 Immigration. — The Constitution of Alabama declares 
that immigration shall be encouraged ; ' but by the Constitution of 
Oregon the Legislature has power to restrain and regulate the im- 
migration into the State of persons not qualified to become citizens 
of the State. ^ 

In a few States there is, by the Constitution, a Commissioner. * 
or a bureau or department of Lnmigration.'" 

In Delaware the Board of Agriculture is to encourage immigration.-** 

In Texas the Legislature is forbidden to create such a department.'^ 

Article 7. Rights at Law 

§ 70. General Rights. '^^ — In nearly all the States the Con- 
stitution declares that every person ought to have a certain remedy 

1 Ala. 1, 25; Anz.* B. Rts. 15; guaranteed by the U. S. Constitution. 
Ark. 2, 4; Cal. 1, 10; Col. 2, 24; Ct. See Crandall u. Nevada, 6 Wall. 35. 

1, 16; Del. 1, 16; Fla. Decln. Rts. 15; « Vt. 1, 19. 

Ga. 1, 1, 24; Ida. 1, 10; 111. 2, 17; ' Ala. 1,30. 

Ind. 1, 31; lo. 1, 20; Kan. B. Rts. 3; « Ore. 1, 32. See § 22. This is 

Ky. 1; La. 5; Mass. 1, 19; Md. Decln. doubtless contrary to the Federal 

Rts. 13; Me. 1, 15; Mich. 18, 10; Constitution. See also § 22. The 

Miss. 11; Mo. 2, 29; Mon. 3, 26; N. C. right of a State to foster immigration 

1, 25; N. D. 10; Neb. 1, 19; Nev. 1, was denied by an executive ruling un- 

10; N. H. 1, 32; N. J. 1, 18; N. M.* der Roosevelt's second administration. 

95, 1; 1851, July 12, § 18; N. Y. 1, » Md. 10, 3. 

9; O. 1, 3; Okla. 3, 3; Ore. 1, 26; Pa. '« N. C. 3, 17; Va. 143; Wash. 2, 34; 

1, 20; R. I. 1, 21; S. C. 1, 4; S. D. 6, Ida. 13, 1. 

4; Tenn. 1, 23; Tex. 1,27; Utah 1, 1; '^ Del. 11, 7. 

Vt. 1, 20; Wash. 1, 4; W. Va. 3, 16; '^ ^ex. 16, 56. 

Wis. 1, 4; Wy. 1, 21. '^ This provision isfounded on Magna 

2 Ariz., Cal., Fla., 111., Ida., Ind., lo., Charta, cap. 40: " We \^-ill sell to no 
Kan., Mass., Me., Mich., N. C, Nev., man, we will not deny to any man 
N. H., N. J.,0.,Ore.,Tenn.,Vt., W. Va. either justice or right." Compare 

3 Ala., Ct., Del., Ky., N. D., Pa., also § 130. See Taswell-Langmead, 
R. I., S. D., Tenn., Wy. pp. 103, 107. The right to law — as 

* N. C. against all, king, officer, or subject — 

* Ala. 30; Ind. 1,36; Ky. 24; Ore. is the cardinal Constitutional right, 
1, 30; Pa. 1, 25 This right is recog- and has been fully discussed in Part I. 
nized in Magna Carta (c. 42) and is See Taylor, I. 516; II. 3, 271. 


at law for all injuries to the person, property or character; and to 
obtain justice freely without being obliged to purchase it, com- 
pletely and without denial, promptly and without delay. ^ So 
"without sale, denial or delay,"- "or prejudice;"^ or, by due 
course of law,* "promptly and without delay;" '^ "by due course 
of law, without sale, denial or delay." ^ 

And in many States that all courts shall be open.'' 

So, in four, no person can be deprived of his right to prose- 
cute or defend liis own cause in any of the courts of the 

But all persons except witnesses may be excluded from court 
room in cases of adultery, rape, etc.^ 

§ 71. Arrest and Search.^^ — In all the States but New York the 
Constitution declares that the people have a right to hold them- 
selves, their houses and possessions without unreasonable search 
and seizure; consequently, no warrant of search or seizure ought 
to be issued but upon probable cause supported by oath; and 
the warrant must describe the thing or person to be seized. ^^ 
Or, that general warrants, whereby an officer may be commanded 
to search suspected places without evidence oF the act committed, 

» Ark. 2, 13; Col. 2, 6; Ct. 1, 12; » Miss. 

Del. 1, 9; Fla. Decln. Rts. 4; 111. 2, 19; ^^ Compare U. S. C. Amt. 4; Decln. 

Ind. 1, 12; Ky. 14; Mass. 1, 11; Md. Ind. (22). See II. Hannis Taylor, 382 

Decln. Rts. 19; Me. 1, 19; Minn. 1, 8; and Va. B. Rts. 10. TWs may be said 

Mo. 2, 10; N. C. 1, 25; N. D. 22; to be the only constitutional principle 

N. H. 1, 14; N. M.* 95, 1; Okla. 2, 6; first established in America (by James 

Ore. 1, 10; Pa. 1, 11; R. I. 1, 5; S. C. Otis, arguing against writs of assis- 

1, 5; Tenn. 1, 17; Vt. 1, 4; W. Va. tance in Massachusetts) and afterwards 

3, 17; Wis. 1, 9. adopted in England (by Lord Camden, 

== Ida. 1, 18; Miss. 24; Mon. 3, 6; State Trials, Vol. XIX. p. 1030). 

Okla. ; Wy. 1, 8. " Ala. 1, 5; Ariz.* B. Rts. 7; Ark. 

=* Ida. 2, 15; Cal. 1, 19; Col. 2, 7; Ct. 1, 8 

Ala. ; Ark. ; Ct. ; Del. ; Fla. ; 111. 
Ind.; Kan. B. Rts. 18; Ky. ; Mass. 
Md . ; Me. ; Minn. ; Miss. ; N. C. ; N. D. 
N. H.; N. M.* 1851, July 12, § 11 
Ore.; Pa.; R. I.; S. C. 1, 15; Tenn 

Del. 1, 6; Fla. Decln. Rts. 22; Ga 
1, 1, 16; Ida. 1, 17; 111. 2, 6; Ind. 1 
11; lo. 1, 8; Kan. B. Rts. 15; Ky. 10 
La. 7; Mass. 1, 14; Me. 1, 5; Mich 
6, 26; Minn. 1, 10; Miss. 23; Mo. 2 

Tex. 1, 13; Vt.; W. Va.; Wis. 11; Mon. 3, 7; N. D. 18; Neb. 1, 7 

^ Kan.; S. C; Wash. 1, 10. Nev. 1, 18; N. H. 1, 19; N. J. 1, 6 

« Ala. 1, 13; La. 6; Neb. 1, 13; O. N. M.* 95, 1; 1851, July 12, § 7; O 

1,16; S. D. 6, 20; Utah 1, 11. 1,14; Okla. 2, 30; Ore. 1, 9; Pa. 1, 8 

' Ala.; Col.; Ct.; Del; Fla.; Ida. 
Ind.; Ky. ; La.; Miss.; Mo.; Mon. 
N.C.; N. D.; Neb.; N. M.*; O.; Okla. 
Ore.; Pa.; S. C; S. D.; Tenn.; Tex. 
Utah; Vt. 2, 4; Wash.; W. Va.; Wy. to be searched; Okla.). 

« Ala. 1, 10; Ga. 1, 1, 4; Miss. 25 

R. I. 1, 6; S. C. 1, 16; S. D. 6, 11 
Tex. 1, 9; Utah 1, 14; Vt. 1, 11 
W. Va. 3, 6; Wis. 1, 11; Wy. 1, 4. 

See also U. S. Amt. 4, ^and the place 


or to seize a person not named, or whose ofFenee is not partifularly 
described and supported hy evidenee, are "grievous and ()u<;ht not to 
be granted.' And in Washington "no jx-rson shall be disturbed 
in his private affairs, or his home invadeil without authority of 
law." - 

§ 72. Trial by Jury.^ — In most States there is a general pro- 
vision in the Constitution that the right to trial by jury shall remain 

In a few this provision applies only to civil cases,'' or only to 
controversies concerning property and suits between two or more 
persons [i. c, civil suits]." So, the right shall only in civil cases 
exist when an issue of fact proper for a jury is joined in a court 
of law.^ In Texas the Constitution further provides that the 
Legislature shall pass laws to regulate trial by jury, and maintain 
its purity and efficiency. 

§ 73. Exceptions. — (For criminal causes, see § 131.) There 
is in many States no constitutional right to trial by jury when the 
amount in controversy does not exceed a certain sum.^ Or in minor 
courts; as, in civil cases, before a justice,'' or in courts not of record. 
But the right usually exists when the title to real estate is involved.'" 
In some States the right is expressly declared to extend to all cases 
at law, without regard to the amount in controversy.'' 

Some States make an exception to the right to a jury "in cases 
heretofore used and practised." '- 

1 Md. Decln. Rts. 26; N. C. 1, 15; N. J. 1, 7; N. M.* 95, 1; 1851, July 12, 
N. H.; Tenn. 1, 7; Va. 1, 10; Vt. § 12; N. Y. 1, 2; O. 1, 5; Okla. 2, 19; 

2 Wash. 1, 7. This seems to estab- Pa. 1, 6; R. I. 1, 15; S. C. 1, 25; S. D. 
lish the much discussed "right to 6, 6; Tenn. 1, 6; Tex. 1, 15; Va. B. 
privacy." Rts. 10; Wash. 1, 21; Wis. 1, 5; ^Ny. 

3 Compare Decln. Ind. (22) and 1, 9. 

U. S. C. Amt. 7. For a fuller discus- ^ Ind. 1, 20; Ore. 1, 17; W. Va. 3, 

sion of the questions of jury trial and 13. See § 131. 

due process of law, see §§ 140, 131. ° Mass. 1, 15; Me. 1, 20; N. C. 1, 

Trial by jury is not the judgment of 19; N. H. 1, 20; Va. 1, 11. 

his peers referred to in Magna Carta, ' Md. 15,6; Vt. 1, 12. For criminal 

c. 39, but grew out of that when it be- causes, see § 131. 

came the usual mode of trial some cen- * In detail, $5. Md. 15, 6; S20, 

turies later. Taswell-Langmead, p. 105. Okla. 2, 19; W. Va. 3, 13; $100, N. H. 

Taylor, I. 281, 310, 331, 332. 1, 20. 

* Ala. 1, 11; Ariz.* B. Rts. 8; Ark 
2, 7; Cal. 1, 7; Ct. 1, 21; Del. 1, 4 
Fla. Decln. Rts. 3; Ga. 6, 18, 1; Ida 
1,7; 111.2,5; To. 1,9; Kan. B. Rts. 5 
Ky. 7; Md. Decln. Rts. 5; Mich. 6, 27 
Minn. 1, 4; Miss. 31; Mo. 2, 28; Mon 

9 W. Va. 

'» N. H. 

" Ark., Minn., S. D., Wis. This 
would seem to follow from the silence 
of the Constitution in other States. 

1- 111., Mass., Md., Me., Mo., N. H., 

3, 23; N. D. 7; Neb. 1, 6; Nev. 1, 3; N. Y., Pa. 


The Legislature may alter the law trial by jur}^ as to causes aris- 
ing on the high seas, or concerning mariners' wages. ^ 

In some the Legislature may in civil cases authorize a trial by a 
jury of less than twelve men.- So, in a few States, in inferior 
courts [as before a Justice of the Peace]. ^ So, in New Jersey,* in 
civil suits involving less than fifty dollars, and in Connecticut in 
cases involving twenty dollars and not more than one hundred 
dollars, by a jury of six men.^ And in three States the parties 
may agree on a jury less than twelve in number.^ In one no jury 
is allowed in cases tried before a Justice of the Peace, except on 
appeal therefrom.^ A jury in justices' courts, civil or criminal, 
consists of not more than six.^ In Kentucky the Legislature may 
provide for a three-fourths verdict in the Circuit Court.'' 

And by the Constitutions of a few States, in civil actions, three- 
fourths of a jury may render a verdict.'" So, two-thirds.'* 

Juries are of eight men, or four in minor courts.'- 

§ 74. Waiver .^^ — By the Constitutions of many States the right 
to a trial by jury may be waived by the parties in all cases in the 
manner prescribed by law.'* In some, the right shall be deemed 
waived, in all civil cases, unless demanded by the parties, or one of 
them, in the manner prescribed by law.'^ 

So, in one State, the Constitution only provides that the right 
shall be preserved if required by either party.'*' 

§ 75. Suits against the State.^'' — In many States the Constitu- 

^ Mass., N. H. " Mon., Mo. (in courts not of 

" Col. 2, 23; Fla. 5, 38; La. 116; record.) 

Mich. 4, 46; Wy. 1, 9. The constitu- " u^ah 1, 10. 

tional number of a jury was always, and '^ For criminal cases, see § 132. 

must necessarily be, twelve men. See " Ark. 2, 7; Ariz.* B. Rts. 82; Cal. 

Taylor, I, 203, 206. 1, 7; Del. 4, 23; Fla. Decln. Rts. 2; 

* Fla. (six men); Ga. (but not less Ida.; Md. 4, 1, 8; Minn. 1, 4; Mon. 
than five men); III.; lo.; Ky. 248 3,23; N. C. 4, 13; Nev. 1,3; N.Y.I, 
(six men); Mo.; Mon.; N. C. 4, 27 2; Pa. 5, 27; Vt. 2, 31; Wash. 1, 21; 
(six men); N. D.; Neb.; Okla. 2, 19 Wis. 1, 5. 

(six men); S. D.; Tex. 5, 17 (six men '' Mich. 6, 27; Tex. 5, 10; Utah 

in the county court); Va. ; Wash.; 1, 10. 

W. Va. " W. Va. 3, 13. 

* N. J. 1, 7. " For the method of prosecuting 
^ Ct.* 679. claims against the State, in the courts, 
® Cal., Ida., Mon. see also § 6.53. The Federal courts 
^ W. Va. were forbidden to entertain suits 

* Mon. against a State by the eleventh 
^ Ky. 248. amendment. A State, being sovereign, 
*" Cal.; Ida. 1, 7; Mo. 1899, p. 381; cannot be sued but with its own 

Nev.; Okla. 2, 19; S. D.; Tex. 5, 13; consent. 
Utah; Wash.; 1, 21. 



[book III 

tion provides that the Legislature shuU direct a method by which 
citizens having claims against it may sue the State.' No special 
act authorizing such suit can, however, be passed.'^ In a few, the 
Supreme Court has, by the Constitution, jurisdiction of claims 
against the State, but its decisions are merely recommendatory.^ 
In others a board is created to audit claims.^ 

In others, the State can never be made defendant in a court of law 
or equity.^ 

§ 76. The Common Laii\^ — By the Constitution of Maryland 
the people are declared entitled to the common law of England.^ 
So, in New York, such parts of the common law as formed the 
law of the colony, April 19, 1775, are declared in force, if not 

So, in four States, to such parts of the common law as were in force 
in the territory, or previously to the adoption of the present Con- 
stitution in the State, if not inconsistent with the State Constitution.^ 

So, in ^Maryland, such English statutes as existed July 4, 

» Cal. 20, 6; Del. 1, 9; Fla. 3, 22; 
Ind. 4, 24; Ky. 231; La. 192; N. D. 
22; Neb. 6, 22; Nev. 4, 22; Ore. 4, 24; 
Pa. 1, 11; S. C. 17, 2; S. D. 3, 27; 
Tenn. 1, 17; Wash. 2, 26; Wis. 4, 27; 
Wy. 1, 8. 

2 Fla., Ind., Nev., Ore. 

3 Ida. 5, 10; N. C. 4, 9. 

* The Secretary, Treasurer, and 
Commissioner of Lands of the State 
shall constitute a board of State 
auditors, to examine and adjust all 
claims against the State not othermse 
provided for by general law (Mich. 8, 4). 
So, the Governor, Secretary of State, 
and Attorney General (Ida. 4, 18; Mon. 
7, 20; Utah 7, 13). They are examined 
by the auditor, and approved by the 
Secretary of State, with appeal to the 
District Court (Neb. 9, 9). 

* Ala. 14; Ark. 5, 20; 111. 4, 26; 
W. Va. 6, 35, and so, where the laws are 

® Altering the common law, as it 
has been altered in England, by growth 
rather than by statute, still prevails in 
most States. California and the Da- 
kotas, Idaho, AVyoming, Utah, Mon- 
tana, and Oklahoma have attempted 
complete codes, however; Georgia, 
New York, and other States, partial 
codes. See Blackstone, Book III. p. 

126, for the earliest argument against 
them; Reinsch, Am. Legislatures, for 
the latest. The effect of a code seems 
to be to render the law uncertain and 
increase the number of suits that are 
carried to the higher courts. The 
so-called codes of the earlier kings, 
Edward the Confessor or Henry II., 
were in no sense codes in this modern 

The Constitutional history of Eng- 
land consists mainly in the reassertion 
of the common English law against 
Norman ideas, whether in the form of 
royal prerogative, statute, order-in- 
council, church authority, chancery, 
martial or civil law. See Part I. "The 
laws of the English, the most ancient 
of modern laws, extend in an unbroken 
series from the first [written] laws of 
Ethelbert. . . (600) down to the pres- 
ent time" (Taswell-Langmead, p. 33). 
They were recognized by William the 
Conqueror (ibid. 52), formally recog- 
nized by everj^ k'ng on his coronation, 
and for the last time questioned by 
Charles I. See Taylor, I. 425, 271. 

^ Md. Decln. Rts. 5. 

« N. Y. 1, 16. 

9 Mich. Sched. 1; N. J. 10, 1; Va. 
Sched. 1; W. Va. 8, 36; Wis. 14, 13; 
Wy. 21, 3. 


1776, and are, or have been found, applicable. In New York, 
grants of land made by the King after October 14, 1775, are 

§ 77. Law Previously in Force. — By the Constitutions gener- 
ally, such laws of the colony (in the original thirteen) or territory 
(in the others) or State, as were in force previous to the Constitution, 
remain in force afterwards unless repugnant to it, or repealed 
by the Legislature.^ 

In Kentucky, all laws, not local, which were in force in Virginia, 
June 1, 1792, are vaUd in the former State if not repugnant to its 
Constitution.^ In Maine all Massachusetts laws in force December 6, 
1819.^ In West Virginia all land titles are valid which existed under 
the laws of Virginia up to 1863.^ 

§ 78. Miscellaneous Rights at Laiv.^ — In Nebraska the Con- 
stitution provides that the right in all civil cases to be heard in the 
court of last resort by appeal, etc., shall not be denied.^ 

§ 79. Venue.^ — Every action shall be tried in the county where 
commenced unless the judges determine that an impartial trial can- 
not be had.® 

Article 8. Debtors 

§ 80. Imprisonment for Debt. — In many States the Constitu- 
tion provides absolutely that there shall be no imprisonment for 
debt.^" In others, no imprisonment for debt in any civil action or 
mesne or final process,'^ or in any action or judgment founded upon 
contract.^- In others, that there shall be no person imprisoned for 

1 N. Y. 1, 17. * Me. 10, 1. 

2 Ala. Sched. 1; Ark. Sched. 1 
Cal. 22, 1; Col. Sched. 1; Ct. 10, 3 
Del. Sched. 18; Fla. 18, 2; Ga. 12, 1, 3 
Ida. 21, 2; 111. Sched. 1; Ind. Sched. 1 
lo. 12, 2; Kan. Sched. 4; Ky. Sched. 1 
La. 325; Mass. 6, 6; Md. Decln. Rts 
5; Me. 10, 1; Mich. Sched. I; Minn 
Sched. 2; Miss. 274; Mo. Sched. 1 
Mon. 20, 1; N. C. 4, 19; N. D. Sched 
2; Neb. 18, 1; Nev. 17, 2; N. H. 2, 89 
N. J. 10, 1; N. Y. 1, 16; O. Sched. 1 
Okla. Sched. 2; Ore. 18, 7; Pa. Sched 
2; R. I. 14, 1; S. C. 17, 11 & 10 
Tenn. 11, 1; Tex. 16, 48; Utah 24, 2 

« AV. Va. 13, 1. 

^ For the right to counsel, see § 134. 

-> See also §§ 654, 665. Neb. 1, 24. 

* For criminal cases, see § 133 

9 Del. 1, 9. See U. S. C. Amt. 6. 

" Ala. 1, 20; Fla. Decln. Rts. 16 
Ga. 1, 1, 21; Ida. 1, 15; Ind. 1, 22 
Kan. B. Rts. 16; Md. 3, 38; Minn. 1 
12; Miss. 30- Mo. 2, 16; N. C. 1, 16 
Nev. 1, 14; Okla. 2, 13; Ore. 1, 19 
S. C. 1, 24; Tex. 1, 18; Utah 1, 16 
Wash. 1, 17; Wy. 1, 5. 

" Ark. 2, 16 ; Ariz.* B. Rts. 18; 
Cal. 1, 15; To. 1, 19; Neb. 1, 20; O. 

Va. Sched. 1; Wash. 27, 2; W. Va. 8, 1, 15; Ore. 1, 15; Tenn. 1, 18. 
36; Wis. 14, 2; Wy. 21, 3. '- Mich. 6, 33 ; N. J. 1, 17; S. D. 

3 Ky. 293. 6, 15; Wis. 1, 16. 


debt in any civil action when he luis ileUvered up his property for the 
benefit of creditors in the manner prescribed by law.* 

And a general exception is made in case of fraud.- So the T>eg- 
islature has power to provide for the punislmient of fraud, and for 
reaching property of the debtor concealed from his creditors.' 
Absconding debtors may be imprisoned ; ' or debtors in cases of 
libel or slander ; ^ in civil cases of tort generally ; " in cases of 
malicious mischief ; ' or of breach of tru.'it ; * or of moneys col- ^ 
lected by public officers, or in any professional employment; " for 
non-payment of fines, etc.'" 

§ 81. Debtor Exemption Laws.^^ — The Constitutions of many 
States have provisions exempting certain property of resident debtors 
from attachment, execution or sale by creditors; thus, in detail 
"that the privilege of the debtor to enjoy the necessary comforts of 
life shall be recognized by wholesome laws exempting a reasonable 
amount of property ; " *- that the Legislature shall pass liberal 
exemption laws;'^ that laws shall be passed protecting from 
forced sale a certain amount of the personal property of adults, 
male and female ; " that certain personal property to be designated 
by law, to the value of five hundred dollars, shall be exempted.'^ 

That personal property (of any nature) to the value of §200, in 
the hands of a husband, a parent, or the infant children of deceased 
parents, shall be exempted.'" Personal property (of any nature) to 
be selected by the debtor, to the value of S500 '^ or of $1000; '^ and 
wearing apparel and tools and implements of trade, to the value 
of $300, of any person.'^ Personal property of a resident not mar- 
ried or the head of a family, to the value of $200 and his clothing, 

* Col. 2, 12; 111. 2, 12; Ky. 18; of real and personal property are not 

Mon. 3, 12; N. D. 15; Okla.; Pa. 1, kept distinct, see §§ 83 e< sej. The ex- 

16; R. I. 1, 11; Vt. 2, 33. emption of a farmer's horse and cattle 

^ Ariz.*, Ark., Cal., Col., Fla., Ida., or plow and of an artisan 's tools goes 

111., Ind., lo., Kan., Ky., Mich., Minn., back to Magna Carta, c. 20. See Tas- 

N. C, N. D., Neb., Nev., N. J., O., well-Langmead, p. 92. 

Ore., Pa., R. I., S. C, Tenn., Vt., ^' Ind. 1, 22; Minn. 1, 12; Mon. 19, 

Wy. 4; N. D. 208; Nev. 1, U; S. D. 21, 4; 

"03.1,2,6. Wis. 1, 17. 

« Ore., Utah, Wash. '^ Col. 18, 1 ; 111. 4, 32. 

« Nev. " Cal. 17, 1; Tex. 16, 49; Wash. 

« Cal., Col., N. D. 19, 1. 

» Cal. " Md. 3,44; Mich. 16, 1. 

8 Ariz.*, Mich. " W. Va. 6, 48. 

9 Ariz.*, Mich. " N. C. 10, 1 ; S. C. 3, 28. 

10 Mo. " Ala. 204. 
'1 For States where the exemptions '* S. C. 


and personal property of the head of a family to the value of $500, 
besides their clothing, are exempt from any process on a debt 
founded on contract; ^ $1000 worth of personal property owned 
by the head of a family.' And the exemption applies only to heads 
of families in other States.^ 

Exceptions. — ■ These exemptions do not prevail against artisans' 
liens on the property claimed as exempt.^ Nor, against a debt for 
the purchase money of the exempt property, in the hands of the 
vendee.^ Nor, against a levy for taxes. ^ Nor for debts of laborers 
or servants.'' 

These exemptions may be waived by an instrument in writing.^ 

By the Constitution of North Carolina a husband may insure 
his life for the sole use and benefit of his wife and children, and at 
his death the claim shall be paid to the widow and children, or 
their guardian, for their use, free from all liabilities of the husband 
or claims of his representatives.'' 

§ 82. Homestead. — The same States usually have provisions 
concerning the homestead exemption; thus, "that the Legislature 
shall pass liberal homestead laws." ^^ That there shall be a home- 
stead exempt, as provided by law.^* That a homestead in the 
possession of each head of a family is exempt, with improvements 
thereon to the value, in all of $1,000,'- or of $1,500,'^ or even of 

In other States the laws vary in great detail.'^ 

' Ark. 9, 1, 2. in any toT\Ti; or instead thereof, at the 

* Fla. 10, 1. option of the owner, any lot in any 
^ Cal., S. C. city, village, or recorded town plat, 
^ Ala. 10, 4; Minn. 1889, p. 1. Amt. or such parts of lots as shall be equal 

1, 12. N. C. 10, 4. thereto, and the dwelling house thereon 

® Ark. ; W. Va. ; Okla. 12, 3. and its appurtenances, owned and 

' Fla., S. C, W. Va. occupied by any resident of the State, 

^ Minn. not exceeding in value $1,500, shall 

* Ala. 210. be exempt from sale under legal pro- 
^ N. C. 10, 7. cess. In Kansas (15, 9), a homestead 

" Col. 18, 1; 111. 4, 32; Mon. 19, 4; to the extent of 160 acres of farming 
N. D. 208; S. D. 21, 4; Wash. 19, 1. land, or one acre in a town or city, 
'' Cal. 17, 1; Nev. 4, 30; Wy. 19, 1. occupied as a residence by the family 
'- S. C. 3, 28; Tenn. 11, 11; W. Va. of the owner, with all improvements, 
6, 48. be so exempt. In North Carolina 
'^ Utah 22, 1. (10, 2), every homestead and buildings 
" Okla. 12, 2. ' thereon, to be selected by the owner, 
*^ Thus, in Michigan (16, 2), every or in lieu thereof a town lot and build- 
homestead, if not exceeding 40 acres ings thereon, owned and occupied by a 
of land, and the dwelling house thereon, resident of the State, not exceeding in 
and the appurtenances to be selected value SI, 000, shall be so exempt In 
by the owner thereof, and not included Virginia (190), every householder or 



[book III 

§ 83. Exceptions. — The liomestcad exemption does not avail 
as against any mortgage or pledge thereon, lawfully obtained;* 
or, as against any lien.- 

Nor, against any obligation or debt contracted for the purchase 
of the premises (or property),-' or contracted for improvements 
thereon.* Nor, against a sale for taxes. ^ Nor against a claim for 

head of a family shall be entitled, in 
addition to the articles now exempt 
from levy or distress for rent, to hold 
exempt his real or personal property, 
or either, to the value of $2,000, to be 
selected by him. 

A married woman is entitled to a 
homestead, her husband not having 
Bufficient property to constitute one 
(S. C). In Arkansas (9, 3-5), the 
homestead of a resident who is married 
or the head of a family, not exceeding 
160 acres of land outside of a town, 
with improvements thereon, nor ex- 
ceeding in value $2,500, but not less 
than 80 acres, without regard to value; 
or, if in a town, not exceeding one acre, 
nor $2,500 in value, but not less than 
one quarter acre, is exempt. In Texas 
(16, 50, 51), the homestead of a family, 
200 acres in extent, with improvements, 
or, in a town, lots to the value of $5,000, 
exclusive of improvements, \^^th the 
improvements thereon (provided the 
same be used for the purposes of a 
home, or as a place of business of the 
head of the family), is exempt. 

In Alabama (205), every homestead 
not exceeding 80 acres, mth improve- 
ments thereon, to be selected by the 
owner, or, in a town, any lot with 
improvements, not in all exceeding 
$2,000 in value, owned and occupied 
by a resident, is exempt. In Georgia 
(9, 1, 1; 9, 4, 1), there is exempt from 
levy or sale of the property of every 
head of a family, or guardian or trustee 
of a family of minor children, or any 
aged or infirm person, or person having 
the care and support of dependent 
females of any age, who is not the 
head of a family, realty or personalty, 
or both, to the aggregate value of 
$1,600 besides improvements (and 
besides this, the Constitution recognizes 
a species of homestead previously 
existing called short homestead. In 
Florida (10, 1), a homestead to the 

extent of 100 acres of land, or lialf an 
acre in a town, and improvements 
thereon, owned by the head of a 
family residing in the State, is exempt. 
In Louisiana (24-1), of every iiead of a 
family, or person having a mother or 
father, or person or persons dependent 
on him for support, there is exempt 
the homestead bona fide owned by the 
debtor and occupied by him, consist- 
ing of lands, buildings, and appurte- 
nances, whether rural or urban; also 
one work-horse, one wagon, one yoke of 
oxen, two cows and calves, twenty-five 
head of hogs, or one thousand pounds 
of bacon or its equivalent in pork, and 
on a farm the necessary corn and 
fodder for a year, and farming imple- 
ments to the value of $2,000; if the 
homestead exceed $2,000 in value, the 
beneficiary is entitled to that amount 
in case a sale of the homestead under 
legal process realize more than that 
sum; but no husband is entitled to a 
homestead whose wife was and is in the 
actual enjoyment of property to the 
value of $2,000. In Oklahoma (12, 1) 
a homestead of 160 acres in the country 
or one acre in a city, town, or village, 
not over $5000 in value, but in no case 
less than one quarter acre. 

1 Ala. 205; Fla. 10, 4; Mich. 16, 2; 
Nev. 4, 30; S. C. 2, 28; Va. 190. 

- Ark. 9, 3; Kan. 15, 9; N. D.; Nev. 

^ Ark. ; Fla. 10, 1 ; Ga. 9, 2, 1 ; Kan. ; 
La. 245 ; N. C. 10, 2 ; Nev. ; Okla. ; S. 
C. 2,28; Tenn. 11, 11; Tex.; Va.; W. 
Va. 6, 48 ; Wy. 19. 

* Fla., Ga., Kan., La., N. D., Nev., 
Okla., S. C, Tenn., Tex. (such claims 
for work or materials used in improve- 
ments must be evidenced by written 
contract for with the consent of the 
wife given as in a deed of the home- 
stead.) W. Va., Wy. 

^ Ark., Fla., Ga., Kan., La., N., C, 
Nev., Okla., S. C, Tenn., Tex., Va., 
W. Va., Wy. 


services thereon by a laboring person or mechanic/ or against 
laborers' or mechanics' liens thereon,^ or against a debt incurred 
by a public officer, fiduciary or attorney-at-law as such,' or trustee 
of an express trust.* Nor against a claim for rent, or for the 
lesral fees of an officer,^ or a debt for the removal of incumbrances 

"The yearly products of the homestead are not exempt as against 
obligations contracted in the production of the same." ^ 

§ 84. Alienation. — A homestead cannot be alienated or mort- 
gaged without the joint consent of husband and wife.^ An instru- 
ment of waiver of homestead rights, besides being so signed, must 
be attested by one witness.® In Texas no mortgage, trust-deed, or 
other lien on the homestead is ever valid, except for the purchase- 
money therefor or improvements thereon, as in § S3, whether such 
mortgage, etc., is created by the husband alone or together with 
his wife; and all pretended sales of the homestead involving any 
condition of defeasance are void.'" 

All homestead rights may be waived by the debtor in writing 
except S300 worth of household furniture and provisions, and 
wearing apparel." 

No temporary renting shall change the character of a homestead, 
no other homestead having been acquired.'" 

§ 85. Recording. — The Constitution of Nevada pro\ades that 
laws shall be enacted requiring homesteads to be recorded. '^ 

§ 86. Duration. — In some States the homestead estate continues 
exempt from the owner's debts after his death, during the minority 
of any of his children." In others, during the life and widowhood 
of his widow, unless she be the owner of a homestead in her own 
right. '^ So, it is provided in general terms that it shall inure to the 
benefit of the widow. '^ So it would seem to be implied in Texas, 
where the Constitution provides "that on the death of the husband, 
wife, or both, the homestead descends and vests like other real 

* Fla., La., Va. " Ala. 210. 

2 Ala. 207 ; Ark. ; Ga. ; N. C. 10, 4. »" Tex. 16, 50. These are surprising 
' Ark., La., Va. innovations. 

* Ark. 11 Ga. 9, 3, 1. 

* Va. »2 Tex. 16, 51 ; Okla. 12, 2. 
« Ga. " Nev. 4, 30. 

' S, C. " Ala. 206; Ark. 9, 6, 10; La. 244; 

« Ala. ; Fla. 10, 1 ; Kan. 15, 9 ; La. Mich. 16, 3 ; N. C. 10, 3 Tenn. ; W. 
246; Mich. 16, 2; N. C. 10, 8; Nev. Va. 6, 48. 
4, 30; Okla., 12, 2; S. C. 2, 28; Tenn. ; '^ Mich. 16, 4 ; N C. 10, 5. 
Tex.; Wy. " Ala. 208; Fla. 10, 2; La ; Tenn. 


property of the deceased, and shall he governed hy the same laws 
of descent and distribution, Jnit shall not he partitioned among 
the heirs of the deceased during the lifetime of the hushand or 
widow, or so long as he or she occupy or use the same as a home- 
stead, or the guardian of minor children be permitted so to do by 
order of court." ' So, in Arkansas, during her natural life (whether 
she marry or not), unless she be the owner of a homestead in her 
own right. In Florida the homestead exemption iimres to the 
widow and heirs of the party enjoying it.^ 

§ 87. Stay Laws. — By the Constitution of Virginia no law 
staying the collection of debts can be passed.^ 

§ 88. Garnishment. — By the Constitution of Texas no current 
wages for personal service shall ever be subject to garnishment/ 

Article 9. Eminent Domain,^ 

§ 90. General Principles. — In two States private property is 
expressly declared by the Constitution to be inviolate. ° But, in 
four, subservient to public welfare when necessity demands it.^ 

But it cannot be taken by law ^ without just compensation being 

§ 91. Taking for Public Use. — The Constitutions of many 
States prescribe specially that no man's property shall be taken, ^" 
damaged, or destroyed for public use " without just compensation 
being made,^^ or not without the owner's consent or just compensa- 

* Tex. 16, 52. only specify property "taken," not 
" Fla. 10, 2. merely damaged, but the distinction 
^ Va. 194. should be unimportant. Property dam- 

* Tex. 16, 28. aged is property "taken" in part, 

* See also section 15 for the general though not destroyed. "Taken or ap- 
principle. The principles of this arti- plied" (Del.). 

cle are covered repeatedly in Magna " /. e., by the State or by a munici- 
Carta. Kansas and North Carolina pal corporation, or, perhaps by a quasi- 
alone have no constitutional provi- public corporation. In some States 
sions covering tliis article, which has the words "public use" extend, by the 
doubtless had its effect in the hberal context, to takings by a private cor- 
opinions of Kansas courts upon laws poration for a public use (N. J., 111., 
destroying property rights, Wy., Wash.). 

•5 Ark. 2, 22; O, 1, 19. '" Ala. 23; Ark. 2,22; Ariz. *B. Rts. 

' Mass, 1. 10; Me. 1, 21; O. ; Vt. 14; Cal. 1, 14; Col. 2, 15; Ct. 1, 11; 

1.2, Seeabo§92. Fla. 16, 29; Ga. 1, 3, 1; Ida. 1, 14; 

^ /. e. either for public or private 111. 2, 13; Ind. 1, 21; lo. 1, 18; Ky. 

use; compare §§ 91-93. 242; La. 167; Mass. 1, 10; Me. 1, 21; 

» Fla. Decln. Rts. 12; 16, 29; Ind. Mich. 18, 14; Minn. 1, 13; Amt. 1895, 

1,21; Mass.; N. M.* 95, 1. 5; Miss. 17; Mo. 2, 21; Mon. 3, 14 ;N. 

1" The U.S. Amt. 5 and many States D. 14; Neb. 1, 21; Nev. 1, 8; N. J., 


tion/ or the consent of the owner's representatives (i c, the legis- 
lature) and just compensation,' or his own consent or that of the 
representative body of the people.^ 

But reservoirs, storage-basins, irrigation canals, ditches, flumes, 
and pipes for water drainage, or mining purposes, working mines, 
as dumps, hoists, shafts, tunnels, etc., are declared a public use 
in the arid States.* So, as to water only,^ or "any other use 
necessary for the complete development of the material resources 
of the State or the preservation of the health of its inhabitants." ^ 

§ 92. Taking by Private Parties.'' — Private property cannot 
constitutionally be taken for private use, or the use of corporations 
other than municipal, without the consent of the owner, except as 
below. ^ 

But land may be taken by private parties in a manner provided 
by law for ways of necessity/ for drains across another's land,^° for 
flumes and aqueducts across another's land.^^ In a few, lands may 
be taken by private persons or corporations, for a public way.^^ or 
for works of internal improvement generally. ^^ 

But the Constitution declares that no man's property can be taken 
for such private use ^* without just compensation.^^ 

No right of way shall be appropriated to the use of a corporation 

(other than municipal) until full compensation is paid or secured 

in money. ^^ 

1, 16; 4, 7, 8; N. Y. 1, 7; O. 1, 19; Okla. 2, 23; S. C. 1, 17; Wash. 1, 16; 

Okla. 2, 24; Ore. 1, 18; R. I. 1 16; S. Wy. 1, 32. 

C. 1, 17; S. D. 6, 13, 17, 18; Utah 1, « Ala.; Col; Ga. ; 111. 4, CO; Mich. 

22; Va. 58; Vt. 1, 2; Wash. 1, 16; 18, 14; Miss. 110; Mo.; Mon. ; N. J. 

W. Va. 3, 9; Wis. 1, 13; Wy. 1, 33. 1, 16; N. Y. 1,7; Okla.; Wash.; Wy. 

See also § 90. Or, in several States, " Col. 16, 7; Ida. 1, 14; 111. 4, 31; 

"secured to be made." (lo., Me., Nev., Mo. ; Mon. 3, 15 ; N. Y. ; Okla. ; Wash. ; 

Pa., Minn., Wash.) Wy. 

1 Md. 3, 40; N. M.* 1851, July 12, "Col.; Ida.; Wash.; Wy. See 

§14; Tex. 1, 17. These distinctions also §§ 91, 418. 

would appear unnecessary. *- Ala.; Ark. 12, 9; Cal. 1, 1±; 

- Del. 1, 8; Pa. 1, 10; Tenn. 1, 21. Minn. 10, 4; N. J. 

3 Mass. ; N. H. 1, 12 ; Vt. 1, 9. '' W. Va. 3, 9. 

•* Ida. ; Wy. " This is probably law in many 

^ Mon. 3, 15. See § 418. other States, as included in the provi- 

* Ida. sions of § 91. See § 91, notes. 

^ In States having no provisions ^* Ala.; Ark.; Col. 2, 15; 16, 7; Fla. 

under this section, the right of eminent 16, 29 ; Ga. 1, 3, 1 ; Ky. 242 ; Mich. ; 

domain can probably only be exer- Minn.; Mo. 2, 21 ; N.J. 4, 7, 8; N. Y. ; 

cised under Sections 90, 91; and land O. 1, 19; Okla.; Pa. 16, 8; Wash.; W. 

can never be taken for private use. Va. ; Wy. 

(See Mo. 2, 21.) »« Cah ; Fla.; Kan. 12, 4 ; N. D. 14; 

» Ala. 1, 23; Col. 2, 14; Mo. 2, 20; Nev. 8, 7; O. 13, 5; S. C. 9, 20; Wash. 

1, 16. 


In Alabama, that the right of eminent domain shall not be so 
construed as to allow taxation or foreed subscription for the benefit 
of railroatis or any corporations, except municipal. 

The fee of land taken for railroad tracks without the consent of 
the owners remains in them subject to the use for which it is taken.* 

§ 93. Compensation. — The compensation must, in most States, 
always be paid - before ^ the taking.* So, when the taking is for 
public improvements in towns.^ But not in some States, when the 
taking is by the State.® Nor when the taking is by a municipal 
corporation.^ Until the compensation is paid, as above, the rights 
of the owner are not, in two States, divested.^ 

§ 94. Junj Trial. — The amount of compensation for property 
so taken must be determined by a jury, either in cases of taking 
by the State,* or by public or municipal corporations,'" or in cases 
of taking by private parties or corporations, under § 92," or, when 
any corporation is interested for or against the right of taking. '^ 

In Wisconsin, the necessity of the taking must also be ascertained 
by a jury in cases of taking by municipal corporations against the 
owner's consent.'^ And so, in Michigan, in all cases where a jury 

1 111. 2, 13; Mo.; Okla. 2, 23; S. D. Col., Mo., Okla. On the appeal from 

6, 13. Or highways; S. D. See § 519. preliminary assessment: Ala. Always 

^ "Except in cases of war, riot, fire, by a jury when required by the owner; 

or public peril, or, in Ohio, making or not, as above, by the commissioners : 

repairing public roads" (O., Nev.). Or, Col. Except when agreed upon by the 

in some States, secured to be paid by parties (this would seem to follow in all 

a deposit in money or bond; see § 91, States). Md., N. D. 

note 1. (lo., Mich., O., Pa., Kan., '"Ala.; Col.; 111. 2, 13, 20; Ky. ; 

W. Va., Ark., Tex., Ore., Nev., S. C.) Md. ; Mich. 15, 15; 18, 2; Mo.; N. Y. 

3 Except, in some States, by the 1, 7; O. ; Okla.; S. D. On the appeal 

owner's consent. [Tliis would seem to from preliminary assessment: Ala., Ky. 

follow in all States, from general Or by commissioners: Col., Mo.,N. Y. 

principles.] Always by a jury when required by 

* Ala. 23; 235; Ark. 12, 9; Cal. 1, the owner; not, as above, by com- 
14; Fla. 16, 29; Ga. ; Ida.; Ind. 1,21; missioners: Col. Except when agreed 
lo. ; Kan. 12, 4; Ky. 242; La.; Md. ; upon by the parties: Md., Okla. 
Mich. 15,9; Minn.; Miss. 17; Mon. ; " Ark., Ala., Cal, Col., 111., lo., 
N. D. 14; Nev. 1, 8; N. J. 4, 7, 8; O. 1, Fla., Ky., Mich., Md., Mo., N. Y., O., 
19; Okla. 2, 23; Ore. 1, 19; 11, 4; Pa. Okla., N. D., S. C, W. V., Wash. On 
16, 8; S. C. 1, 17; S. D. 6, 13; 17, 18; the appeal from preliminary assess- 
Tex. ; Wash.; W. Va. ment Ala., Ky.; Ark. 12, 9. Always 

* Mich. 15, 5 ; Pa. by a jury when required by the owner; 

* Cal.; Ind.; Mich.; N. J. 1, 16; not, as above, by commissioners: Col, 
Ore. 1, IS; Tex.; W. Va. On the appeal from preliminary assess- 

' Cal. ; N. J. ; Wash. 1, 16; W. Va. ment : Ala., Ky., Okla. Or by commis- 

« Col. 2, 15; Mo. 2, 21. sioners: Col., N. Y., Mo. 
» N. D. 14 ; Id. 1, 18 ; Col. 3, 4 ; Md. ; '^ 111. 11, 14 ; Mo. 12, 4. 

O. ; Okla. 2, 24 ; Mo. ; Ala. ; S. D. Or " Wis. 11, 2. 

by commissioners appointed by law: 


trial is required by the Constitution. So, in others, in opening 
private roads. ^ 

The question whether the use alleged to be public is really so 
must be determined by the court, any legislation asserting it to be 
public notwithstanding.^ 

§ 95. The Amount of Compensation must be determined with- 
out any reference to any benefit that may be conferred by better- 
ment or otherwise, in some States, in cases of taking of rights of 
way by a private corporation,^ or in all cases of taking for public 
use,* or in cases of taking by a municipal corporation.^ 

§ 90. Appeal from the preliminary assessment of damage [i. e., 
by commissioners] can, in some States, never be denied in the case 
of taking by corporations; and on such appeal the amount must 
be determined by a jury.® 

§ 97. The Exercise of the Right against Franchises. — The 
right of eminent domain shall never be so construed as to prevent 
the legislature from taking the property or franchises of incorpo- 
rated companies and subjecting them to public use the same as 
that of individuals.^ 

Article 10. Citizens and Aliens. Language, etc. 

§ 100. Who are Citizens.^ — All citizens of the United States 
resident in the State are, by the Constitution, declared citizens of the 
State.'* (For § 101, Forfeiture of citizenship by absence, see Art. 24.) 

§ 102. Alien's Rights.^^ In two States the Constitution provides 

» Mon., N. Y. 6 ; Pa. 16, 3 ; S. D. 17, 4 ; Utah 12, 11 ; 

- Col.; Miss. 17; Mo. 2, 20; Okla. Wash. 12, 10; W. Va. 11, 12; Wy. 
2, 23; Wash. An excellent legislative 10, 9; 10, 10 (4). See § 504. 
recognition of its boundaries on the * Founded on U. S. Amts. 14, 1, 
judicial power. and consequently true in all States ; see 

^ Ark. 12, 9 ; Cal. 1, 14 ; Fla. 16, 29 ; also Aiticle 24. 
Kan. 12, 4; N. D. 14; O. 13, 5; 1, « Ala. 2; Ga. 1, 1, 25; Miss. 8; 
19; S. C. 9, 20; S. D. 6, 13; Wash. Vt. Amt. 1; W. Va. 2, 3. So, in 
1, 16. Alabama, all persons who have duly 

* lo. 1, IS; O. 1, 19; S. D. 1, 16. declared their intention to become 

* Kan. citizens of the United States. But in 
« Ala. 159 ; Ky. 242 ; Okla. 2, 23 ; Vermont there is an oath of allegiance 

Pa. 16,8; S. D. 17, 18; see § 94. required from persons wishing to 

^ Ala. 1, 23; Ark. 17, 9; Cal. 12, 8; become freemen (Vt. 2, 21). 
Col. 15, 8: Ga. 4, 2, 2; Ida. 8; 111. 11, ^° For tax laws, see § 334. By the 
14; Ky. 195; Miss. 190; Mo. 12, 4; Act of Settlement of WiUiam III. no 
Mon. 11, 8; 15, 9; N. D. 134; Neb. 11, person born out of English dominions 



that no distinction whatever can he made hetween citizens and ahens 
with resjK'ct to the possession, enjoyment, or dtscent of property, 
real or personal.' Or, in others, between citizens and aliens bo)m 
fide resident in the State.* But in others, this applies only as to 
mining property.^ 

In ^\>rmont, persons of good character who have come to settle 
in the State, having first made oath of allegiance to the same, may 
take, hold, and transfer real estate.' 

But in others, the legislature shall enact laws limiting the number 
of acres of land which any alien or corporation controlled by aliens 
may own within the State. ^ 

And in Washington, the ownership of lands by alieng, other than 
those who in good faith have declared their intention to become 
citizens of the United States, is prohibited, except where acquired 
by inheritance, under mortgage, or in good faith in the ordinary 
course of justice in the collection of debts; and all conveyances 
of lands hereafter made to any alien directly, or in trust for such 
alien, shall be void. Every corporation, the majority of the capital 
stock of which is owned by aliens, shall be considered an alien for 
the purpose of this prohibition.® This does not apply to mining 
lands or property. 

In Oklahoma,^ no alien or person not a United States citizen 
may take or own land, and if acquired by devise, descent, etc., 
he must sell within five years; but this does not apply to Indians 
nor to aliens who are bona fide residents, nor to lands now owned 
by ahens. 

§ 103. Language. By the Constitutions of four States, the laws, 
public records, and written legislative and judicial proceedings shall 
be conducted, promulgated, and preserved in the English language 
(only).^ So, in Oklahoma, schools must be taught in English only.^ 

although naturalized, except such as And see § 22); Col, 2, 27; lo. 1, 22; 

are born of English parents could be a Mich. 18, 13; Mon. 3, 25; Neb. 1, 25; 

member of the House of Parliament or Nev. 1, 16; Ore. 1, 31; S. D. 6, 14; 

enjoy any office, civil or militarj^ or W. Va. 2, 5; Wis. 1, 15; Wy. 1,29. 

have any granted land from the Crown. ^ Mon. 3, 25 ; Wash. 2, 33. 

This was only repealed by 7 & 8 Vict. * Vt. 2, 39. 

c. 66. ' Miss. 84 ; S. C. 3, 35. 

1 Fla. D. Rts. 18; Kan. B. Rts. 17. « Wash. 2, 33. 

2 Ala. 1, 34; Ark. 2, 20; Cal. 1, 17; ^ Okla. 22, 1. 

Amt. 1893, p. 624; (Except that in » Cal. 4,24; 111. Sched. 18; La. 165; 

California a distinction may be made Mich. 18, 6. 
against such aliens as are not eligible * Okla. 1, 5. 
to become United States citizens. 


In Colorado, laws are also to be published in Spanish and German.* 
And in Louisiana, the legislature may provide for the publication of 
laws in the French language, and that judicial advertisements, in 
certain designated districts, may be made in French. So, in INIissouri, 
certain characters, etc., in the German language.^ So, in Maryland, 
proposed amendments to the Constitution, in German.^ 

1 Col. 18, 8. 2 Mo. 9, 16. 3 Md. 14, 1. 




Article 12. Rights Before Trial 

§ 120. To Hear Accusation^ By the Constitutions of nearly 
all the States, persons accused of crime have the right to hear the 
nature and cause of the accusation.- And in many they are to have 
a copy of the accusation furnished them.'* In Georgia, also, to 
have a list of the witnesses on whose testimony the charge is 

§ 121. Bailable Offences. The Constitutions of most of the 
states provide that all persons shall, before conviction, be admitted 
to bail, upon giving sufficient sureties, except (where proof of their 
guilt is evident or the presumption great) for capital offences.^ Or 
for murder and treason,^ or offences punishable with death or im- 

• The wording of the text is that N. M. * 50, 7; 95, 1; O. 1, 10; Okla. 
of the Virginia Bill of Rights, and 1,20; Ore. 1,11; Pa. 1,9; R.I. 1,10; 
would apparently give the right to any S. C. 1, 18; S. D. 6, 7; Tenn. 1, 9; 
person arrested and accused before Tex. 1, 10; Utah 1, 12; Va. 1, 8; Vt. 
trial or indictment. U. S. Amt. 6 1,10; Wash. 1,22; W. Va. 3, 14 ; Wis. 
confines this right to criminal prosecu- 1, 7; Wy. 1, 10. 

tions. The former doctrine is pref era- ^ Ala. ; Ark.; Ga. 1, 1, 5; 111 
ble, and the principle is an old one, Ind. ; lo. ; Md. ; Me. ; Mon. ; Neb 
asserted by Coke in 1615, and probably O. ; Okla. ; Ore. ; S. D. ; Tenn. ; Tex 
independent of the right to habeas Utah ; Wash. ; Wy. Or of the indict- 
corpus: see § 125. ment (Fla.). 

''No man could be committed to * Compare § 135. 
prison but by a le^gal warrant specify- ^ Ala. 1, 16; Ariz.* Bill of Rts. 11 
ing his offence ; and by an usage nearly Ark. 2,8; Cal. 1,6; Col. 2, 19 ; Ct. 1 
tantamount to constitutional right, 14; Del. 1, 12; Fla. Decln. of Rts. 9 
he must be speedily brought to trial Ida. 1, 6; 111. 2, 7; lo. 1, 12; Kan 
by means of regular sessions of gaol Bill of Rts. 9 ; Ky. 16 ; La. 12 ; Me 
delivery." (Taswell-Langmead, p. 294.) 1, 10 ; Minn. 1,7; Miss. 29 ; Mo. 2, 24 

2 Ala. 1, 6; Ark. 2, 10; Col. 2, 16 
Ct. 1, 9; Del. 1, 7; Fla. Decln. Rts 
11; 111. 2, 9; Ind. 1, 13; lo. 1, 10 
Kan. Bill of Rts. 10; Ky. 11; La. 10 
Mass. 1, 12; Md. Decln. Rts. 21; Me 
1,6; Mich. 6,28; Minn. 1,6; Miss. 26 
Mo. 2, 22; Mon. 3, 16; N. C. 1, 11 
Neb. 1, 11; N. H. 1, 15; N. J. 1, 8 

Mon. 3, 19; N. D. 6; Nev. 1, 7; N. J 
1, 10 ; N. M.* 95, 1 ; 1851, July 12, § 9 
O. 1, 9 ; Okla. 2 8 ; Pa. 1, 14 ; S. C. 1, 20 
S. D. 6, 8; Tenn. 1, 15; Tex. 1, 11 
Utah 1, 8; Vt. 2, 33; Wash. 1, 20 
Wis. 1, 8; Wy. 1, 14. 

6 Ind. 1, 17 ; Mich. 6, 29 ; Neb. 1, 9 ; 
Ore. 1, 14. 

PART l] 



prisonment for life.' And so, ajtcr conviction, except for capital or 
infamous offences in Louisiana. 

§ 122. Excessive Bail? The Constitutions of all the States 
except Illinois provide that excessive bail shall not be required.^ 

§ 123. Imprisonment of Parties Accused. In a few States the 
Constitution provides that no person arrested shall be treated with 
unnecessary rigor.* 

§ 124. Witnesses. In several States the Constitution provides 
that witnesses shall not be unreasonably detained ; '" or that they 
shall not be imprisoned longer than may be necessary for securing 
their depositions; and thereafter shall be discharged on their own 
recognizance.** Depositions so obtained may be used at the trial 
if the witness is dead or absent from the State. ^ They shall 
not be confined in any room where individuals are actually 
imprisoned.^ Cf. § 135. 

Contempts and their punishment are regulated by the Consti- 
tution in Oklahoma and two other States. See § 662. 

' R. I. 1, 9. 

- Compare Eng. Stat. 1 W. & M. 
Sess. 2 ; U. S. Amt. 8. Excessive bail 
was one of the abuses complained of in 
the Bill of Rights, and a usual method 
under the Stuarts of evading the 
habeas corpus. The right to bail was 
granted under the writ de odio et atia 
even before Magna Carta and was the 
means by which a person imprisoned 
on a charge of homicide could get 
released on bail to await the Iter of 
the King's Justices. 

3 Ala. 1, 16; Ariz.* Bill of Rts. 10 
Ark. 2, 9; Cal. 1, 6; Col. 2, 20; Ct. 1 
13; Del. 1, 11 ; Fla. Decln. of Rts. 8 
Ga. 1, 1, 9; Ida. 1, 6; Ind. 1, 16; lo 
1, 17; Kan. Bill of Rts. 9; Ky. 17 
La. 12; Mass. 1, 26; Md. Decln. of 
Rts. 25; Me. 1, 9; Mich. 6, 31 ; Minn. 
1, 5 ; Miss. 29 ; Mo. 2, 25 ; Mon. 3, 20 ; 
N. C. 1, 14; N. D. 6; Neb. 1, 9; Nev. 
1, 6; N. H. 1, .33; N. J. 1, 15; N. M.* 
95,1; 1851, July 12, § 11; N.Y. 1,5; 
O. 1, 9; Okla. 2, 9; Ore. 1, 16; Pa. 1, 
13; R. I. 1, 8; S. C. 1, 19; S. D. 6, 
23; Tenn. 1, 16; Tex. 1, 13; Utah 1, 
9; Va. 1, 9; Vt. 2, 33; Wash. 1, 14; 
W. Va. 3, 5; Wis. 1, 6; Wy. 1, 14. 

* Ariz.* 4, 28; Ga. 1, 1, 9; Ind.l, 
15; Ore. 1, 13; Tenn. 1, 13; Utah 1, 
9; Wy. 1, 16. Compare § 140. So 

the Constitution of Rhode Island 
declares that every man is presumed 
innocent until proved guilty by the 
law; and consequently no act of 
severity not necessary to secure the 
accused should be permitted. (R. I. 
1, 14.) And in Delaware their friends 
and counsel must be allowed access to 
the accused. (Del. 1, 12.) "Theo- 
retically torture was never part of 
the law of England " (Taylor II. 166), 
but was employed under Ehzabeth and 
Henry VIII. to extort confessions from 
Roman CathoUcs by authority of the 
Privy Council. Coke says the rack 
was introduced by the Duke of Exeter 
under Henry VI. and adds: "There is 
no law to warrant tortures in this land, 
nor can they be justified by any pre- 
scription, being so lately brought in, 
and it was declined by the judges in 
the trial of Felton, the murderer of 
the Duke of Buckingham. (Taswell- 
Langmead, p. 360.) 

5 Ariz.* Bill of Rts. 10 ; Ark. 2, 9 ; 
Cal. 1, 6; Fla. Decln. of Rts. 8; Mich. 
6,31; N. D. 6; Nev. 1,6; N.Y. 1,5; 
S. C. 1, 19. 

« Col. 2, 17; Cal.; Mon. 3, 17; Wy. 
1, 12. 

' Mon. 

« Cal, N. D., Wy. 


§ 125. Habeas Corpus.^ Three State Constitutions declare 
the writ of habeas corpus a writ of right.- Two others declare that 
the \\Tit or remedy ouglit not to be denied or delayed.^ 

In others, the legislature are to enact laws to render the remedy 
speedy and effectual.' Or the privilege of the writ is to be enjoyed 
in the most easy, cheap, expeditious and ample manner.^ 

So, North Carolina declares that every person restrained of his 
liberty is entitled to a remedy to inquire into the lawfulness thereof, 
and to remove the same if unlawful." 

§ 126. Suspension of Habeas Corpus.'' By the Constitutions of 
most States, the writ can only be suspended where, in cases of 

* The right to habeas corpus is 383.) The Constitution of the United 
contained in Magna Carta, C. 39. Its States, Art. 1, § 9 (2) providing that 
predecessor was known as the writ de the privilege of the writ of habeas 
odio et alia, which, however, was not corpus shall not be suspended, etc., 
granted as of right and was often only applies to action by the Federal 
refused except for a money payment. Government. (See § 126.) 
Five centuries of effort to evade this ^ Fla. Decln. of Rts. 7; Tex. 1, 12; 
writ, the great guaranty of personal Vt. Amt. 12. 
liberty, ended in the Habeas Corpus * lo. 1, 13; N. C. 1, 18. 
Act of Charles II. wliich applies to any * Tex., Vt. 

person committed and charged with * Fla. ; Mass. 2, 6, 7 ; N. H. 2, 90. 
crime and requires any judge at any * N. C. 1, 18. 

time to issue the writ, returnable ^ Derived from U. S. C. 1, 9 (2). 
immediately, and within two days to "The privilege of the writ of habeas 
discharge the prisoner if bailable, corpus shall not be suspended, unless 
This statute of Charles II. only covered when in cases of rebellion or invasion 
arrests on a criminal charge. This was the public safety may require it." 
only remedied by 56 Geo. III. c. 100. This of course only applies to the 
The right to personal liberty — the Federal Government ; but is most 
most precious of all rights — is as old unfortunately ambiguous as it does 
as the Constitution itself. It rests not say who is to suspend the writ, 
upon the common law wliich was The better law is that the President 
merely defined and declared by Magna may not suspend the writ, but only 
Carta and the stream of statutes Congress; though they may perhaps 
which form that enactment (Taswell- authorize the President to suspend the 
Langmead, p. 488). An EngUsh sub- writ on finding a special state of facts, 
ject was always free from lawful It may be questioned, however, whether 
detention except upon a criminal an act would be constitutional which 
charge or conviction or for a civil authorized the President to suspend the 
debt, and the habeas corpus was in writ at his discretion. Habeas corpus 
theory always a writ of right, but it will issue from a Federal court to a 
was doubtful whether it could be State court or other authority, but only 
issued by a single judge during vaca- on the ground that the person detained 
tion, and it was only issued by the is deprived of a right secured to him by 
Court of lung's Bench. The Habeas or under the Constitution of the United 
Corpus Act of Charles II. fixed no limit States. The President was authorized 
on the amount of bail which might be to suspend the writ by Act of Congress 
demanded, which defect was remedied in 1863, 1866, 1867 (McClain, p. 331), 
by the Bill of Rights in 1689, and it but there is no general act to that 
did not provide against falsehood in effect in Revised Statutes, 
the return. (See II. Taylor, pp. 328- 


invasion or rebellion, the public safety requires it.* In others, it 
can never be suspended in any case.' "Martial law" of course 
would suspend it.^ The writ can only be suspended by the legisla- 
ture.^ In other States this is implied by the general provision of 
§ 392; and it is a general constitutional principle. 

The manner of its suspension is left to the legislature to determine 
by law.^ 

§ 127. Indictment.^ In most States, the Constitution provides 
that no person shall be held to answer for a capital crime ' or a crime 
punishable by imprisonment for life ^ or infamous crime or felony " 
or any criminal offence ^"^ except on indictment or presentment of a 
grand jury.^* So, in others, that no person, for any indictable 

' Ariz.* Bill of Rts. 9; Ark. 2, 11; constitutional provision requiring an 
Cal. 1, 5; Col. 2, 21; Ct. 1, 14; Del. indictment in England, though the 
1, 13; Fla. Decln of Rts. 7; Ida. 1, 5; effect of a habeas corpus is in most 
111. 2, 7; Ind. 1, 27; lo. 1, 13; Kan. cases to make one necessary. Informa- 
Bill of Rts. 8; Ky. 16; La. 13; Me. tions were, however, always unpopular 
1, 10; Mich. 4, 44; Minn. 1, 7; Miss, and are rendered very unusual by the 
21; Mon. 3, 21; N. D. 5; Neb. 1, 8; effect of recent statutes (4 Blackstone, 
Nev. 1, 5; N. J. 1, 11; N. M.* 95, 1; 311) requiring express directions from 
1851, July 12, § 10; N. Y. 1, 4; O. 1, the Court of King's Bench. The con- 
8; Ore. 1, 23; Pa. 1, 14; R. I. 1, 9; stitutional provisions of California and 
S. C. 1, 23; S. D. 6, 8; Tenn. 1, 15; other code States would seem to revive 
Utah 1, 5; Va. 58; Wash. 1, 13; Wis. the information in all criminal cases. 
1, 8; Wy. 1, 17. ' Ct., Fla., La., Me., Nev., N. M.*, 

- Ala. 1, 17; Ga. 1, 1, 11; Md. 3, N. Y., O., Okla., R. L See Note 7 
55; Mo. 2, 26; N. C. 1, 21; Okla. 2, below. 
10; Tex. 1, 12; Vt. Amt. 12; W. Va. » Ct. 

3, 4. Or can only be suspended on the * All the States previously men- 
most urgent occasions, and for a tioned except Ct. and La. ; and also 
limited time (not exceeding in Massa- in Cal., Col., Mo., N. D., and the 
chusetts twelve months, and in New U. S. Const. Amt. 5 as applying to 
Hampshire three months. Mass. 2, 6, Federal courts. An indictment is 
7; N. H. 2, 90). not necessary to due process of law 

^ Compare §§ 293, 392. and consequently is not required by 

* Ark, Ct., Ida., Md., Mich., the Federal Constitution in the State 
Miss., N. H., R. I., Tenn. courts under the Fourteenth Amend- 

* Ida. 1, 5 ; Neb. ment. 

* Compare U. S. Amt. 5. A present- *° Ark., Ill, lo., Ky., Minn., 
ment is the notice taken by a grand N. C, Neb., N. J., Okla., S. C, 
jury of an offence of their own knowl- S. D., Tenn., Tex., W. Va. 

edge without an indictment. Informa- " Ariz.* Bill of Rts. 14; Ark. 2, 8; 

tion is a complaint against a person Col. 2, 8; Ct. 1, 9; Fla. Decln. of Rts. 

for some criminal or penal offence, 10; 111.2,8; lo. 1, 11; La. 9 ; Me. 1, 

filed by the proper officer, on behalf 7; Minn. 1, 7; Mo. 2, 12; Amt. 1899, 

of the people, at his own discretion, on p. 382; N. C. 1, 12; N. D. 8 ; N. M.* 

the relation of some private person; 50, 6; 1851, July 12, § 8; Neb. 1, 10; 

not founded on the oath of a jury, Nev. 1, 8; N. J. 1, 9; N. Y. 1, 6; O. 

although the subsequent proceedings 1, 10; Okla. 2, 17; R. I. 1, 7; S. C. 1, 

are the same. (Stimson's Law Glos- 17; Tenn. 1, 14; Tex. 1, 10; W. Va. 

sary.) There does not appear to be any 3, 4 ; Wy. 1, 13. 


ofTonce, shall be proceeded against criininally, by information.' In 
Wisconsin and Minnesota, no person shall be held to answer for a 
criminal offence without due process of law.- 

But in the "code" States, offences may usually l)e prosecuted 
either by indictment or by information after examination and 
commitment by a magistrate.^ Under this statute indictments 
are practically done away with and all offences are prosecuted 
bv such inforuiation,* except that a grand jury may still be 

Exceptions. But in nearly all these states an exception to the 
above rule is made in cases arising in the army or navy of the State 
or the militia, in time of war or public danger," or at any time.' An 
exception is made also in cases of impeachment.^ 

So, of course, in cases of inferior offences not above described, * as 
petit larceny,'" or in courts not of record," or cases cognizable by a 
justice of the peace,'- or by the county court, '^ or poHce courts," or 
probate courts,'^ or in cases where the punishment is by fine, or by 
imprisonment not in the penitentiary.'" 

A person may be proceeded against by information, by leave of 
court, for oppression or misdemeanor while in office.'^ 

Indictments are (of course) unnecessary in cases where the legisla- 
ture may have dispensed with a grand jury and provided other 
process by law.'^ But without a constitutional permission, such 
dispensing would be invalid. 

In cases where indictments may be employed, indictment and 
information are declared concurrent remedies.'^ 

1 Ala. 1, 8; Del. 1, 8; Ky. 12; » Ariz.*, Ark., Fla., Ida., 111., Me., 
Miss. 27; Pa. 1, 10. Minn., N. C, Neb., Nev., N. M.*, 

2 Minn. Amt. 1903, 269; Wis. 1, 8 N. J., N. Y., O., R. I., S. D., Tenn., 
and Amt. Presumably the same Tex. 

meaning is intended. ® Ala., La., Miss., N. D., O., and 

3 Cal. 1, 8; Ida. 1, 8; La. 9; Mon. others. 

3, 8; Okla.; S. D. 6, 10; Utah 1, 13; '° Ala., Nev., N. Y., O. 

Wash. 1,25. '1 Ala.; Ark.; lo. ; Me.; Minn.; 

* Ida.; Mon.; Utah; Wash. 1, 26. Miss.; Mon. 3, 8; N. J. ; N. M.*; R. L 

^ But not, by information, after a S. D. ; W. Va. 

charge has been ignored by a grand " Okla. 

jury. See § 129. '^ g jy . -pex. 5, 17. 

« Ala., Ariz.*, Ark., Col., Ct., Del., ^* D. C* 1064; Mon. 

Fla., Ida., 111., lo., Ky., La., Me., '^ Ida., Mon. 

Minn., Miss., Mo., N. D., Neb., Nev., '^ jn^ ^eb., Tex. 

N. J., N. M.*, N. Y., O., Pa., R. I., »^ Ala., Ky., Miss., Pa. 

S. C, S. D., Tex., U. S., Wy. ^^ See § 128. 

' Fla., N. Y., N. D., S. D. " Col., La., Mo. 


§ 128. Grand Juries.^ In some States the Constitution gives the 
legislature authority to make laws dispensing with a grand jury in 
any case.^ In Oklahoma (2, 18) it may make the calling of grand 
juries compulsory. So "No grand jury shall be summoned unless, 
in the opinion of the judge of the district, public interest demand 
it."^ One hundred resident taxpayers of the county may, in 
Oklahoma, petition any judge to call one. 

A grand jury shall consist of twelve men, any nine of whom may 
concur to find an indictment or true bill.^ Of seven men, of whom 
five may so concur.^ Of any number from five to fifteen.® Eighteen, 
of whom twelve may so concur.^ Of eight. ^ 

After a charge has been ignored by a grand jury, no information 
will lie.^ The Oklahoma Constitution [unnecessarily] specifies that 
grand juries have power to return indictments for all character and 
grades of crime, and such other powers as the legislature may 

Article 13. Rights at Trial 

§130. Rights to Law.^'' In nearly all the States the Constitution 
provides that no person can be deprived of his life, liberty, or property 

* Grand juries are older than petit nor conceal any guilty one. In other 

juries. By the Assize of Clarendon, words, they were inquisitors represent- 

A. D. 1166, it was ordained that in every ing the earliest form of a jury of 

county twelve lawful men of each presentment. 

hundred, with four lawful men from ^ Col. 2, 23; 111. 2, 8; Ind. 7, 17; 

each township, should be sworn to lo. Amt. 3 ; N. D. 8; Neb. 1, 10; Ore. 

present all reputed criminals of their 7, 18; S. D. 6, 10; Wy. 1,9; Wash, 

district in each county court, at a time In misdemeanors, etc., only: Ala. 1, 

when the persons so presented were 8 ; Miss. 27. 

tried by the water ordeal (Taswell- ^ Ida.; Mo. Amt. 1899, p. 38; 

Langmead, p. 134). In the course of Mon. ; Utah 1, 13; Wash. 1, 26. 
time the element of popular election * Col.; La. 117; Ky. 248; Mo. 2, 

in the mode of nominating the grand 28; Okla. 1, 18; Tex. 5, 13; Wy. 
jury was entirely eliminated. Now, * Mon. ; Ore. ; Utah, 
twenty-four freeholders of each county ^ lo. 
are summoned by the sheriff, of which ' S. C. 5, 22. 
a certain number, varying from twelve * Miss, 
to twenty-three, are sworn. A grand ^ Ida., Utah. 

jury in the United States usually con- '° This provision is founded on 

sists of twenty-three, but they must all. Magna Carta, C. 39. Compare also 

in the absence of express constitutional U. S. C. Amts. 5, 14, and §§ 70, 72, 127. 

provision, concur in order to find a The right of a man to law either as 

bill of indictment. Tajdor traces the against king, officer, or subject, is 

Grand Jury to the Hundred Courts of discussed in Book I., and in matters not 

Aethelred, his law providing that the criminal under § 70. We are now 

twelve senior thegns go out and swear discussing that protect'on to a man's 

on the relic that is given them in hand person, property, or liberty, which, 

tliat they will accuse no innocent man while it always existed under English 


except bv due process of law; ' or by tlie law of the land or the jtidf;- 
mcnt of his peers.- The exact wording may be important as deter- 

law, was so clearly expressed in Mapjna but by the judgment of his peers, that 

Carta, Chap. 39. "No free man shall is, etiuals, or according to tlie law of 

be taken, or imprisonetl, or disseised, the land. Others have said that Jolm 

or outlawed, or exiled, or anyways was in tlie habit of descending upon 

destroyed; nor will we pass upon him his enemies with an armed force, and 

(in some translations, "go upon him"), tliat this was meant to be forbidden, 

nor will we send upon him, unless by Whatever was the historical meaning, 

the lawful judgment of his peers, or the former one has grown to be tlie 

by the law of the land." In these true one, and the words were used in 

clauses are contained both habeas the times of the Tudors and Stuarts to 

corpus and trial by jury, the most prevent any condemnation, outlawry, 

effectual securities against oppression or forfeiture of a subject without the 

which the wisdom of man has hitherto proper forms or law. The words 

been able to devise. "Henceforth," "judgment of his peers or by the law 

says Hallam, "it must have been a of the land," or as they appear in later 

clear principle of our constitution that confirmations of the charter "due 

no man can be detained in prison with- course of law" did not, at the time of 

out trial. Whether courts framed the the original Charter of John, mean 

writ of Habeas Corpus in conformity jury trial, although Coke says they 

with this clause or possessed it already meant the lawful judgment, that is, 

it became from that era the right of verdict of his equals, or the law of the 

every subject to demand it." Coke land, that is, the due course and process 

points out that these clauses, as they of law. It is probable, however, that 

stand combined in the second issue of the words included trial by jury, even 

the Charter under Henry III. with the in the original charter, as it was used 

words "No person shall be disseised at the time, and there can be no ques- 

of his free tenement or liberties, or tion but that by the interpretation of 

customs" recite the evils from which centuries they have come to mean 

the laws of the land are to protect the that both in English and American 

subject, in the order in which they constitutional history. (See Taswell- 

most affect him. First, the liberty Langmead, 107.) The American 

of a man's person. Second, his prop- Supreme Court has decided that the 

erty, liberties, or free customs, that is, words "due process of law" do not 

the right to labor or trade as well as necessarily mean trial by jury, but it 

other franchises; which inferentially is at least probable that they did so 

forbids state-created monopolies, mean, in any case where trial by jury 

Only the third clause, relating to out- was wont to be used ; and such is 

lawry, may be considered obsolete, certainly the Constitution in England. 

The words "Nor will we go upon him," In fact, the Supreme Court in render- 

etc, are much disputed. Coke takes ing this decision do not refer to the fact, 

the simple meaning that no person is nor was it pointed out to them in 

to be condemned at the King's suit, argument, that the words "judgment 

that is, in any criminal or penal suit, of his peers" and "due course of law" 

1 Ala. 1, 6; Ariz.* Bill of Rts. 14; Okla. 2, 7; S. C. 1, 5; S. D. 6, 2; 

Ark. 2, 8; Cal. 1, 13; Col. 2, 25; Ct. Tex. 1, 19; Utah 1, 9; Wash. 1,3; Wy. 

1, 9; Fla. Decln. of Rts. 12; Ga. 1, 1, 1, 6. 

3; Ida. 1, 13; III. 2, 2; lo. 1, 9; Ky. ^ i^gi 17. T^iagg j^ 12; Md. Decln. 

14; La. 2; Mich. 6, 32; Minn. 1, 7; of Rts. 23 ; Me. 1, 6; N. H. 1, 15; N. M.* 

Miss. 14 ; Mo. 2, 30 ; Mon. 3, 27 ; N. C. 95, 1 ; Pa. 1, 9 ; R. I. 1, 10 ; Tenn. 1, 8 ; 

1,17; N. D. 13 ; Neb. 1, 3 ; Nev. 1,8; Va. 1, 8 & 11 ; Vt. 1, 10 ; W. Va. 3, 10. 
N. M.* 1851, July 12, § 15; N. Y. 1, 6; 

PART l] 



mining rights of trade or labor, freedom of contract, etc. Even in 
Magna Carta of Henry III. it includes one's " liberties or free cus- 

are used interchangeably in the several 
issues of Magna Carta and in many 
Acts of Parliament. 

In connection with this clause must, 
of course be read Cap. 40. "To none 
will we sell, to none will we deny or 
delay right or justice." (In some trans- 
lations, " We will sell to no man, we will 
not deny to any man either justice or 
right.") See § 70, notes. "These 
words," says Coke, "are spoken in the 
person of the King, who, in judgment 
of law, in all his courts of justice is 
present, and repeating these words." 
The words "To none will we sell" were 
intended to abolish the fines paid in 
early times for procuring right or 
judgment. "To none will we deny" 
referred to the stopping of suits and the 
denial of writs. "To none will we 
delay" meant the delays caused either 
by the counter-fines of defendants, or 
by the will of the king. Taylor points 
out (I. 389) that the formula of Magna 
Carta was almost exactly anticipated 
in an edict of Conrad II. issued two 
centuries before in the words "No one 
shall lose his benefit except according 
to the custom of our ancestors and by 
judgment of his peers." And in the 
so-called laws of Henry I. it is expressed, 
"Every one is to be judged by his 
peers of his own county." This would 
dispose of the trial by jury theory, 
historically; but it is clearly of not so 
much importance as it seems. What- 
ever the clause meant at the time of 
King John, it has been repeatedly 
established in seven centuries, either aa 
against king, American Congress or 
President, that trial by his peers, at 
least, does mean trial by jury as the 
word is now understood. The only 
real doubt is whether "due course of 
law" does not mean the same thing. 

There is considerable doubt whether 
the law referred to in this section is in 
England the law of the king or the 
law of the people. "Pleas of the 
Crown are criminal prosecutions carried 
on in the name of the sovereign, who is 
supposed by the law to be the person 
injured by every infraction of the public 
rights of the community." (Blackstone, 

reported in Taswell-Langmead, p. 93.) 
On the other hand, as we have dis- 
cussed in the first part, the English 
notion of law was the custom or law 
of the people, written or unwritten, 
not the command of a king to his 
subject. Hence, constitutional his- 
torians will differ on this point accord- 
ing as they take what we may call the 
Norman or the Saxon view. The 
distinction may appear somewhat 
theoretical, but it was not so in early 
days when every king upon his acces- 
sion was compelled to promise to ob- 
serve the laws or customs of the English 
or of Edward the Confessor; and for 
centuries the English people struggled 
to establish or restore the principle 
that the people, that is. Parliament, 
alone could make or unmake a law, — 
with, of course, the consent of the king, 
— against the effort of all the kings, 
at least until the Revolution of 1688 
established the principle that the law 
was theirs and they made it. In 
England, writs still rvm "against the 
peace of the King," but this is probably 
as much of a formality as the words 
"The King so wills" at the end of an 
Act of Parliament. Writs in New York 
run in the name of "The people of the 
State of New York by the grace of 
God free and independent," but in 
most States they run in the name of the 
State or Commonwealth as the case 
may be. (Massachusetts, Pennsyl- 
vania, Virginia, and Kentucky are the 
only "commonwealths ; " all the others 
are States.) As, upon the Declaration 
of Independence, the right of sover- 
eignty reverted to the people of each 
colony and not to the States, in the 
first instance, it may be questioned 
whether the former is not the better 
form. It certainly tends less to con- 
fusion of thought and socialism. 

It is important to note that the 
right to law in England has always 
meant the right to the law of one's o-rti 
country or neighborhood and one's 
local court. Magna Carta itself has a 
chapter on this point, C. 34. "The writ 
called praecipe shall not in future be 
issued so as to cause a freeman to 


toms." Thus in New Ilanipsliiro and Massachusetts: "arrested, 
imprisoned, despoiled, or deprivetl of his jjroperty, immunities, or 
privileges, put out of the protection of the law, exiled, or dij)rived 
of life, liberty, or estate." 

No person shall be arrested, detained, and punished ; or, in 
Alabama, accused, arrested, or detained, except in cases clearly 
ascertained by law.' And according to the forms by law prescribed.^ 

In several States, no person shall be disfranchised or deprived of 
any rights and privileges as a citizen, unless as provided above 

§ 131. Jury Trial.* In most States, the Constitution provides 

lose his court," and the object of this accuse a powerful layman amenable 

writ was to prevent a case being to the bishop's jurisdiction, tiie sheriffs, 

removed to the King's Court from at the bishop's re(|uest, were directed 

the Court Baron or manorial court, to 'swear twelve lawful men of the 

In early times the English people had neighbourhood to tell the truth, accord- 

the same dread of centralizing even to their conscience.'" If the jurors 

the judicial power in London, or with chosen were ignorant of the facts, a 

the king's person, that the founders fresh jury had to be summoned. If 

of the American Constitution had as some were ignorant or if they could not 

against the Federal power. C. 24, agree, others were added, which was 

however, secured the trial of all serious called "afforcing the jury," until a 

crimes before the king's justices. "No verdict could be obtained from twelve 

sheriff, constable, coroner or bailiff of unanimous witnesses . . . just the op- 

the Iving shall hold pleas of the Crown." posite of the modern notion. Trial by 

' Ala. 1, 7; Ct. 1, 10; S. C. jury as the word is used in Magna 

2 Ala. Carta, therefore, must mean a jury of 

' Ark. 2, 21 ; Mass. ; Md. ; Me. ; this sort. The English mode of trying 

Minn. 1, 2; N. H. ; N. C. ; N. M.* ; facts before the jury arose was that of 

N. Y. 1, 1; S. C. ; Tenn. ; Tex. For the ordeal, by water or otherwise ; but 

lynch law, see § 165. this was abolished by the fourth 

* For civil cases, see Art. 7. The Lateran Council in 1215. The Norman 

matter of jury trial is partly discussed method of trial was by battle, but only 

in the notes to §§ 128 and 130. Theorig- if the injured prosecutor demanded it. 

inal petit jury was a jury of witnesses, Even before the abolition of the ordeal 

not a Saxon institution, but operated (says Taswell-Langmead) the practice 

from, or suggested by, a procedure of had grown up of allowing a second or 

the Norman kings, — the Inquest, of petit jury to affirm the finding of the 

commissioners to verify facts. This grand jury ; but for a long time the 

Inquest at first belonged to matters not prisoner was not compelled to plead, 

judicial, as, in 1106, Henry I. directed that is, he might refuse to be tried by 

five commissioners to verify certain jury, in which case he was remanded to 

matters concerning taxation and the prison and submitted to the punish- 

customs of the Church by the oath of ment called -peine forte et dure, which 

twelve of the citizens. (Taswell- was abolished in England only so late 

Langmead, p. 131.) Henry II. applied as George III. and under which Giles 

recognition by jury to every descrip- Corey was executed in the Salem 

tion of business, fiscal and legal. But Witchcraft case. In early times a 

the use of a jury as now understood is verdict of a majority might be received, 

mentioned for the first time in the as in some of the new American States, 

Constitutionsof Clarendon, 1164, where, but by the reign of Edward III. the 
"when no one could be obtained to necessity for an unanimous verdict of 


that (in criminal prosecutions) all persons accused shall have a speedy 
and public trial by an impartial jury/ And so, in several, of all 
persons prosecuted by indictment or information.- In California, 
the provision is simply that the accused shall have a speedv and 
public trial. ^ So, the legislature shall make no law subjecting a 
person to capital [or infamous, in Mass.] punishment without trial 
by jury ; * or, the right to trial by jury shall remain inviolate in 
criminal cases ; ^ no person shall be convicted of any crime but by 
the verdict of a lawful jury in open court.^ (Except upon confession, 
demurrer, etc., in Arizona — an unnecessary exception.) 

Exceptions. The legislature may provide other means of trial for 
offences not infamous,^ for petty offences,^ for all offences less than 
felony, and in which the penalty does not exceed $100 or thirty days' 
imprisonment; these shall be tried summarily before a justice of the 
peace. ** No fine of more than $50 shall be imposed except by a jury.'" 

But in all such cases of trial without a jury there must be a 
right of appeal.^ ^ 

Laws may be made for the government of the army and navy, 

twelve was re-established. As late as ^ Ark. 2, 10 ; Col. 2, 16 ; Del. 1, 7 

Queen Anne the Court of Queen's Fla. Decln. Rts. 11; Ga. 1, 1, 5; Ida 

Bench decided that a jury might give 1, 13; 111. 2, 9; Ind. 1, 13; lo. 1, 10 

a verdict of their own knowledge, but Kan. Bill of Rts. 10 ; La. 9 ; Md. Decln 

ought so to inform the Court, that they of Rts. 21; Me. 1, 6; Mich. 6, 28 

might be sworn as witnesses; though Minn. 1, 6; Mo. 2, 22; Mon. 3, 16 

as early as the year 1450 the mode of N. D. 13; Neb. 1, 11; N. J. 1, 8 

procedure by viva voce evidence was N. M.* 95, 1; 1851, July 12, § 8; O. 1 

the same as at present. Taswell- 10; Okla. 1,20; Ore. 1, 11; Pa. 1,9 

Langmead places the modern principle R. I. 1, 10; S. C. 1, 18; S. D. 6, 7 

— that no juror is competent who Tex. 1, 10; Utah 1, 12; Va. 1, 8; Vt. 

knows anj^hing as a witness — so late 1, 10; Wash. 1, 22; Wj\ 1, 10; and 

as George I. In old days the jurymen, so, as applied to Federal courts, in U. S. 

being witnesses, were guilty of perjury Amt. 6. 

if they gave a wrong verdict; and as - Ala. 1, 6; Ct. 1, 9; Ky. 11; Miss. 

late as 1554 the Court, being dissatis- 26; N. M.* 50, 7; Tenn. 1, 9; Wis. 1, 7. 

fied with a verdict, committed a jury ^ Cal. 1, 13. 

to prison; but in 1670 a London jury, * Mass. 1, 12; N. H. 1, 16; L^tah 1, 

having failed to find William Penn 10. 

guilty of preaching, was heavily fined, ^ Col. 2, 23 ; Fla. Decln. of Rts. 3 ; 

and when one of the jurors brought Ida. 1, 7; N. Y. 1, 2; Wash. 1, 21; 

habeas corpus, he was decided by Chief Wy. 1,9; see also § 72, for other States. 

Justice Vaughan to be improperly ^ Ariz.* 429 ; N. C. 1, 13 ; N. M.* 

imprisoned, though return was m.ade 50, 8 ; W. Va. 3, 14. 

that he had been committed for find- ^ La., Va. (Amt. 1891). 

ing a verdict "against full and mani- * Del. 15, 7; N. C. 

fest evidence and against the direction ^ lo. 1, 11 ; S. C. 5, 21. 

of the Court." (Taswell-Langmead, " Tenn. 6, 14. 

p. 138.) For the procedure in jury '' lo., N. C... S. C. 

matters, see Art. 65 below. 


(and the militia in actual service, in X. II.) without providing for 
trial by jury.' 

All cases in which the punishment may not be at hard labor shall, 
until otherwise provitletl by law, which shall not be prior to 1904, 
be tried by the judge without a jury. Cases in which the punish- 
ment may be at hard labor shall be tried by a jury of five, all of 
whom must concur to render a verdict; cases in which the punish- 
ment may be capital, by a jury of twelve, all of whom must concur 
to render a verdict. - 

Waiver. The Constitution provides that a jury may be waived 
by consent of both parties in all criminal cases not amounting to 
felony.^ So, the accused may in all cases waive jury trial,' with the 
consent of the State's attorney.^ 

§ 132. Juries.^ By the Constitution of Florida the number of 
the jury may in all cases be fixed by the legislature.'' So, in other 
States, in courts not of record,^ or in cases not punishable by hard 
labor or death." Juries in the county or other inferior court consist 
of six men. '° Not less than five." Eight, in cases not capital, or four, 
in inferior courts. '- 

The parties may agree on a jury less than twelve in number, in 
cases of misdemeanor.'^ But otherwise the usual number (twelve) 
is by the Constitution declared indispensable.'^ 

The Verdict of the jury, by the Constitution of several States, 
must, except as below, be unanimous to convict.'^ But in others, a 
verdict of five-sixths, in misdemeanors,'^ or two-thirds, '^ suffices. 
So, in others, nine members of the jury may concur to render a 
verdict in cases not amounting to felony.'^ By the Constitution of 
Louisiana, the accused is given the right to challenge peremptorily 

1 Mass., N. H. In other States '« Mon. 3, 23; Tex. 5, 17; Okla. 
§ 131 does not apply, probably, to cases 1, 19. 

of military law where allowable. See " Va. 

§ 127. '- Utah 1, 10. 

2 La. 116. " Cal. 1, 7; Ida.; Mon. 

» Cal. 1, 7; Ida. 1, 17; Mon. 3, 23. " Me. 1, 7; W. Va. 3, 14; Okla. 

* N. M.* 1851, July 12, § 8 ; Va. 1, 8. ^' Md. Decln. of Rts. 21 ; Me. 1,7; 
« Va. N. C. 1, 13; Okla., S. C, Utah, Va. 8; 

* See § 73 for juries in civil suits, Vt. 1, 10. 
and § 131, note. " Ida. 

' Fla. 5, 38. ^' Mon. 

« Col. 2, 23; lo. 1, 9; Mich. 6, 28; *» Tex. 5, 13; Okla. In such cases 

La. 9; Mo. 2, 28; Mon.; Wash. 1,21; the verdict must be in writing and 

Wy. 1, 9. signed by each member concurring. 

» Ky. 248 ; La. 9. ; S. C. 5, 22 ; Mon. ; 
Va. 1. 8. 


a number of jurors to be fixed by statute/ In Oklahoma, the 
Constitution (7, 21) provides for a general verdict, though the 
court may direct a special finding. 

The Constitution provides that in all criminal cases whatever ' the 
jury shall have the right to determine the law and the facts ;^ but 
under the direction of the court, as to the law.* 

§ 133. Venue.^ The Constitutions of many States provide that 
the jury shall be of the county or district where the alleged offence 
was committed," and this county, etc., shall have been previously 
ascertained by law.'' So, criminal offences must be tried by a jury 
of the vicinage.^ 

Change of. In several, the power to change the verme is vested 
in the courts.** It is to be exercised in such manner as the legislature 
provide.^" And for the same grounds, by State or defendant. ^^ 

In one, change of venue in criminal cases can only be directed by 
the legislature, on report of the judges of the Superior Court, in 
cases of insurrection.^- 

The Constitutions of a few States specially give to the legislature 
power to provide for change of venue. ^^ So, the Constitution specifies 
that the legislature shall so provide in cases where an impartial trial 
cannot be had in the county where the crime was committed." 

The legislatures are frequently forbidden to enact special or local 
laws for the change of venue in civil or criminal cases, ^* 

In Vermont and Oklahoma no person can be transported out of 
the State for any offence committed within it.^" 

§ 134. Counsel}'^ The Constitutions of all the States except 

1 La. 10. S. D. 6, 7; Tenn. 1, 9; Utah 1, 12; 

2 For libel, see § 61. Wash. 1, 22; W. Va. 3, 14; Wis. 1, 7; 
' Ind. 1, 19; La. 179; Md. 15, 5; Wy. 1, 10. 

Ore. 1, 16. ' Minn., N. M.*, Wis. 

* La., Ore. And, subject to the « Ky. 11; Mass. 1, 13; Md. 1, 20; 
right of new trial, as in civil cases (Ore.). Me. 1,6; Pa. 1,9; Va. 1, 8. 

" By the reign of Henry VII. says » Ala. 75; Ariz.* 11, 285; Del. 1, 9; 
Hallam, "the fact of guilt or innocence Md. 4, 8; Pa. 3, 23; W. Va. In civil 
on a criminal charge was determined or criminal cases. (Ala., Col., Ga., 
in a public court, and in the county La., Pa., S. C, Tex.) 
where the offence occurred, by a juiy '" Ala. 1, 6; Ark.; Col. 5, 37; Ga. 
of twelve men, from whose unanimous 6, 17, 1 ; Mon. ; Okla. ; Pa. ; Tex. 3, 45. 
verdict no appeal could be made." '' Mon. 

» Ala. 1, 6; Ark. 2, 10; Col. 2, 16; '- N. H. 
Fla. Decln. Rts. 11; 111. 2, 9; Ind. 1, '=> Ky. ; La. 169. 
13 ; Kan. Bill of Rts. 10 ; La. 9 ; " S. C. 6, 2. 
Minn. 1, 6; Miss. 28; Mo. 2, 22; Mon. ^^ See § 395. 

3, 16 ; Neb. 1,11; N. H. 1, 17 ; N. M.* '« Vt. 1, 21 ; Okla. 2, 29. See § 141. 
50,7; 0. 1, 10; Okla. 1,20; Ore. 1, 11; '^ This constitutional provision does 


Virginia provide citlicr tliat every person accused may defend by 
himself and counsel.' Or (hat he may have the assistance of counsel 
in his defence.- Or that he may be allowed counsel,^ or may be 
heard by himself or counsel.' In several, the above principle, as 
particularized respectively, extends to any suitor in a court of law, 
civil or criminal.^ 

§ 135. Witnesses.^ By the Constitutions of most of the States 
every person accused is entitled to enforce by compulsory process 
the attendance of witnesses [in liis favor],^ or to call for evidence on 
his behalf.^ 

not mean that defendant is entitled tional right. Originally -n-itncsses in 

to have his counsel paiil by the State, England testified broadly to the fact, 

but it is usually so provided by statute, that is, whether the person charged 

(McClain Constitutional Law, p. 327.) was guilty or not, like a modern jury, 

It does not appear that the riglit to or rather to his trustworthiness ; this 

have counsel is a constitutional right trial by "compurgation" being the 

in England. At one time certainly, alternative to trial by ordeal, which 

a defendant was not allowed counsel latter was usually employed only when 

in cases of treason or felony. Counsel there was strong proof of guilt, or when 

was, however, early allowed by express the accused was unable to procure a 

statutes in trials for treason, and sufficient number of compurgators, or 

doubtless this and other statutes made had been guilty of perjury on a previous 

a precedent, and now it is required in occasion. These compurgators were 

all cases by 6 & 7 Wil. IV, chap. 114. thus in reality witnesses of character, 

* Ala. 6 ; Ariz.* Bill of Rts. 14 ; and the oaths of different men varied in 
Ark. 2, 10; Cal. 1, 13; Col. 2, 16; Ct. legal value according to their rank or 
1, 9 ; Del. 1, 7 ; Fla. Decln. of Rts. 11 ; property. Thus, the word of one thegn 
Ga. 1, 1, 4; Ida. 1, 13; 111. 2, 9; Ind. was as good as that of twelve churls. 
1, 13; Ky. 11; Me. 1, 6; Mo. 2, 22; (Taswell-Langmead, p. 31.) Doubt- 
Mon. 3, 16 ; N. D. 13 ; Nev. 1, 8 ; N. H. 1, less these original jury- witnesses gave 
15; N. M.* 95, 1; 1851, July 12, § 8; place to modern \\itnesses under the 
N. Y. 1, 6; O. 1, 10; Ore. 1, 11 ; Pa. 1, jury trial. (Taylor, p. 325.) It does 
9; R. I. 1, 10; S. C. 1, 18; S. D. 6, 7; not appear that the right to compel 
Tenn. 1, 9; .Tex. 1, 10; Utah 1, 12; -^vitnesses is a constitutional right in 
Vt. 1, 10; Wash. 1, 22; Wis. 1, 7; Wy. England, but rather a matter of^time- 
1, 10. honored procedure. White says only 

~ lo. 1, 10; La. 9; Mich. 6, 28; since 1688 (p. 103). 
Minn. 1, 6; N. C. 1, 11; N. J. 1, 8; ' Ala. 6; Ark. 2, 10; Cal. 1, 13; 

W. Va. 3, 14. So in U. S. C. Amt. 6. Col. 2, 16; Ct. 1, 9; Del. 1, 7; Fla. 

3 Ga. 1,1,5; Md. Decln. of Rts. 21 ; Decln. Rts. 11 ; Ga. 1,1,5; Ida. 1, 13 ; 

N. C. 1, 11. 111. 2, 9; Ind. 1, 13; lo. 1, 10; Kan. 

* Ala. 1,10; Ariz.* 426; Kan. Bill of Bill of Rts. 10; Ky. 11; La. 9; Md. 
Rts. 10; Mass. 1, 12; Mich. 6, 24; Decln. of Rts. 21 ; Me. 1, 6; Mich. 6, 28; 
Miss. 25, 26; Neb. 1, 11; Nev. 1, 8; Minn. 1,6; Miss. 26; Mo. 2, 22; Mon. 
N. M.*50, 7; Okla. 1, 20; Wis. 7, 20. 3, 16; N. D. 13 ; Neb. 1, 11 ; N. J. 1, 8; 

« Fla., Ga., Mich., Miss., Nev., Wis. N. M.* 50, 7; 95, 1 ; 1851, July 12, § 8; 

« The word "witnesses" in the first O. 1, 10; Okla. 1, 20; Ore. 1, 11; Pa. 

clause will undoubtedly be extended 1,9; S.C.I, 18; S. D. 6, 7; Tenn. 1,9; 

by judicial construction to include the Tex. 1, 10; Utah 1, 12; Vt. 1, 10; 

right to call for evidence, documentary Wash. 1, 22; W. Va. 3, 14; Wis. 1, 7; 

or other-5\-ise. The right to be con- Wy. 1, 10. 

fronted with witnesses was merely a * Ariz.* 426; Mass. 1, 12; N. C. 1, 

matter of general common law pro- 11; N. H. 1, 15; R. I. 1, 10; Va. 1, 8. 

cedure, hardly in England a constitu- So in U. S. C. Amt. 6. 


In Maryland it is specially provided that the accused may examine 
all witnesses under oath. The legislature has power, in several 
States (except in cases of homicide: Cal.) to provide for the taking 
of depositions, in the presence of the person accused and his counsel, 
when there is reason to believe that the witness will not attend the 
trial.^ But in most States the old rule prevails and the accused 
shall be confronted with the witnesses against him.^ And may 
give evidence (testify) in his own behalf.^ 

In Oklahoma,* in capital cases, defendants must be furnished 
with a list of the witnesses that will be called in chief by the prosecu- 
tion two days before the trial, with their post-ofEce addresses. 

§ 136. Criminating Evidence.^ The Constitutions of most of 
the States provide that no person accused shall be compelled to give 
evidence against himself,*^ or to furnish evidence.^ So, no person 
[whether accused or not, it seems] can be compelled to give evi- 
dence criminating himself in any court of law,^ or in any criminal 

"Any person having knowledge or possession of facts that tend 
to establish the guilt of any other person or corporation charged 
with an offense against the laws of the State, shall not be excused 

^ Cal., Col., Mon., Wy. See § 124. such testimony will be unconstitutional 
^ Ala., Ariz.*, Ark., Col., Ct., Del., unless it guaranties full immunity 

Fla., Ga., 111., Ind., lo , Kan., Ky., La., from prosecution for any offences so 

Mass., Md., Me., Mich., Minn., Miss., revealed ; and testimony actually given 

Mo., Mon., N. C, Neb., N. H., N. J., under compulsion cannot be used 

N. M.* 50, 7; 95, 1 ; 1851, July 12, against them. 

§ 8; O., Okla., Ore., Pa., R. I., S. C, « Ala. 6; Ariz.* Bill of Rts. 14; 

S. D.,6, 7;Tenn., Tex., Utah, Va., Vt., Ark. 2, 8; Cal. 1, 13; Col. 2, 18; Ct. 

Wash., W. Va., "Wis., Wy. So in 1,9; Del. 1,7; Fla. Decln. of Rts. 12 ; 

U. S. C. Amt. 6. ♦ 111. 2, 10 ; Ind. 1, 14 ; Kan. Bill of Rts. 

3 Ala., Utah, Wash. 10; Ky. 11; La. 11; Mass. 1, 12; Md. 

*Okla. 2, 20. See also § 120. Decln. of Rts. 22; Me. 1, 6; Mich. 6, 

* The word "subject," oddly enough, 32; Minn. 1, 7; Miss. 26; Mo. 2, 23; 

is retained in some States (Mass., N. C. 1, 11; Neb. 1, 12; Nev. 1, 8; 

N. H.). The provision is unfortu- N. H. 1, 15; N. M.* 95, 1; 1851, 

nately ambiguous ; does " testify " July 12, § 8; N. Y. 1, 6; O. 1, 10; Ore. 

include furnishing documentary evi- 1,12; Pa. 1,9; S.C.I, 17; Tenn. 1,9; 

dence ? This came up in the Chi- Tex. 1,10; Va. 1,8; Vt. 1, 10; W. Va. 

cago beef-trust cases and was decided 3, 5 ; Wis. 1, 8. 

in the affirmative. — This is also not ^ Ga. 1, 1, 6; Mass.; N. H. ; R. I. 1, 

a constitutional right in England, 13; Okla. 1,21; Va. 

but a rule of common law procedure. * Ida. 1, 13; La.; Minn. Amt. 1903, 

(McClain, p. 320.) It applies, however, 269; Mon. 3, 18; N. D. 13; S. C. 1, 

to all cases, whether civil or criminal, 17; S. D. 6, 9 ; Utah 1, 12; Va. 1, 8; 

and to all persons, whether "accused" Wash. 1, 9; Wy. 1, 11. This is the 

at the time or not ; and to the produc- wording in the Federal Constitution ; 

tion of books or papers as well as oral U. S. C. Amt. 5. 

testimony. Hence a statute compelling 



from giving testimony or producing evidence, when legally called 
upon so to do, on the ground that it may tend to incriminate him 
under the laws of the State; but no person shall be prosecuted or 
subjected to any penalty or forfeiture for or on account of any 
transaction, matter, or thing concerning which he may so testify or 
produce evidence." Okla. 27. 

"The records, books, and files of all corporations shall be, at all 
times, liable and subject to the full visitorial and inquisitorial 
powers of the State, notwithstanding the immunities and privileges 
in this Bill of Rights secured to the persons, inhabitants, and 
citizens thereof." Okla. 28. 

In one State, by the Constitution, husband or wife may not in 
criminal prosecutions be compelled to testify against one another.* 

§ 137. Twice in Jeopardy.^ In most States the general pro- 
vision is found that no person, for the same offence can be twice 
put in jeopardy,^ in jeopardy of life or limb,* in jeopardy of life or 
liberty,^ or in jeopardy of punishment." 

But it is provided that the accused shall not be deemed to have 
been in jeopardy if the jury disagree, or the judgment be reversed 
for error. ^ 

But in several the provision is that no person shall, after an 

' Utah 1, 12. This is the common discharged could not be re-arrested for 
law. the same offence, which is a somewhat 

- See also § 668. The phrase "twice similar principle. The word "limb" 
in jeopardy" may be defined to be the in the provision is, of course, obsolete, 
being confronted with a petit jury as all punishments but death and 
w^hen charged with an offence, though imprisonment have ceased in all States, 
the law varies somewhat in different except, indeed, the wliipping-post in 
States. In about half the States, the Delaware. 

government has the right to appeal in ^ Ariz.* Bill of Rts. 14 ; Cal. 1, 13 ; 
case of mistrial ; that is, for error of Col. 2, 18 ; Fla. Decln. of Rts. 12 ; Ida. 
law, and in all States the accused can 1, 13; 111. 2, 10; Ind. 1, 14; Kan. Bill 
be tried again if the jury disagree. It of Rts. 10 ; Mon. 3, 18 ; N. D. 13 ; Neb. 
is usually, however, the custom not 1, 12; Nev. 1, 8; N. Y. 1, 6; O. 1, 10; 
to try a man more than twice, and Ore. 1, 12; S. D. 6, 9; Utah 1,12; Va. 
thereafter he is released upon bail. 1,8; Wash. 1,9; Wy. 1, 11. 
President Roosevelt has had intro- * Ala, 9; Del. 1, 8; Ky. 13; Me. 1, 
duced a bill giving the government the 8; N. M.* 1851, July 12, § 12; Pa. 1, 
right of appeal in Federal courts. It 10;Tenn. 1, 10. So in the U. S. C. Amt. 
might possibly not be constitutional 5. TMs limits it to capital cases, 
under the 5th Amendment, though the * Ark. 2, 8; Ga. 1, 1, 8; La. 9; 
better opinion is to the contrary. The S. C. 1, 17; Tex. 1, 14; Va. 88; W. Va. 
principle probably dates back to the 3, 5; Okla. 1, 21. 

time of the Bill of Rights, though not " Minn. 1, 7; Miss. 22; Mon.; 
expressly included therein. The Habeas N. D.; Wis. 1, 8. 
Corpus Act provided that a person once ^ Col., Wy. 

PART l] 



acquittal, be tried for the same offence/ or have his Ufe or hberty 
again put in jeopardy for the same offence.- 

But in three, it is specified that such acquittal must be upon the 
merits.^ And in Texas, it must be in a court of competent jurisdic- 

Exceptions. But the person may be tried again on his own motion, 
after conviction.* So, in case of mistrial,^ or if a motion in arrest of 
judgment is sustained," or, if the jury disagree.'' Courts may, for 
reasons fixed by law, discharge the jury and empanel a new one.* 
An appeal is allowed to the State in revenue cases, but not in any 
case involving the life or liberty of any person.' 

§ 138. Attainder. '^'^ Most States have a general constitutional 
provision that the legislature shall pass no bill of attainder, ^^ or, that 
no person can be attainted of treason or felony by the legislature.^^ 
So, in one, of treason alone.*' 

§ 139. Miscellaneous. The Constitutions of two States forbid 
the issue of commissions of oyer and terminer and gaol delivery.** 
By that of Nebraska the writ of error is declared a writ of right in 

1 Ariz.* 427; lo. 1, 12; Mich. 6, 29; judges that a bill of attainder would 

be valid although it condemned a man 
to death for treason without a hearing, 
and himself perished by the same act 
of attainder that he had procured. 
There is no such thing as an executive 
attainder; for this reason President 
Roosevelt's order that the negro sol- 
diers in Texas should be both dis- 
charged and forever precluded from 
holding any civil office was unconstitu- 
tional in its latter part. 

'1 Ala. 14; Ariz.* Bill of Rts. 19; 
Ark. 2, 17; Cal. 1, 16; Fla. Decln. of 
Rts. 17; Ga. 1,3,2; Ida. 1, 16; lo. 1, 
21; Me. 1, 11; Mich. 4, 43; Minn. 1, 
11; N. D. 16; Neb. 1, 16; Nev. 1, 15; 
N. J. 4, 7, 3; N. M.* 1851, July 12, 
§ 14; Okla. 2, 15; S. C. 1, 8; Tex. 1, 
16; Utah 1, 18; Va. 58; Wash. 1, 23; 
W. Va. 3, 4; Wis. 1, 12. Compare 
U. S. 1, 9, 10, forbidding such bills 
both to States and the nation. See 
also § 142. This might be implied in 
other States from § 127. 

1- Col. 2, 9; Ct. 1, 15; Ky. 20; 
Mass. 1, 25; Md. Decln. of Rts. 18;. 
Mo. 2, 13 ; Mon. 3, 9 ; Pa. 1, 18; S. D. 
6, 22; Vt. 2, 20. 

13 Ala. 1, 19. 

" Del. 1, 14; Pa. 1, 15. 

N. H. 1, 16; N. J. 1, 10; N. M.* 50, 9; 
95, 1; R. I. 1, 7; Tex.; Okla. 

2 Mo. 2, 23. 

3 Mich., Miss., N. M.* 
* Ga., La. 
° Ga., La., Mo. 

6 Ljj 

' Ark., Col., Mo., Wy. 
« Ala. 

» Va. 88. 

" Bills of attainder were the usual 
method by which arbitrary kings or 
parUaments evaded the right to law 
described in §§ 70, 131. They could 
only be passed by Parliament, not 
by the Crown, but were used by 
the Stuart kings particularly as a 
method of getting rid of objectionable 
subjects. In effect, of course, they 
were a trial and conviction without 
hearing, witnesses, jury, or other 
process of law, — by mere legislative 
act, and commonly involved both 
death and forfeiture of property. 
Impeachment differed from attainder 
principally in that it was found by 
the Commons and tried by the laws 
and applied only to a political person- 
age. Thomas Cromwell in the name 
of Henry VIII. got a decision from the 


all cases of felony.* So, in Wisconsin, tiie writ shall never be pro- 
hibited by law.- In Kentucky, the le<;islature are authorized to pass 
laws regulating writs ot" error in eriininal or penal cases. ^ And also, 
laws regulating the right of challenge of jurors therein. 

Article 14. Rights after Trial 

§ 140. Fines and Costa J The Constitutions of nearly all states 
provide that excessive fines shall not be imposed nor, except in 
Connecticut and Vermont, cruel or unusual punishments be inflicted."' 
Nor, in one, excessive costs." 

No person shall be compelled to pay costs except after conviction 
on final trial.'' In Texas the legislature may by law require fines 
and costs in prosecutions for misdemeanors to be discharged by 
manual labor in default of payment.^ 

So, all punishments and penalties should be proportioned to the 
offence.® "Indefinite imprisonment" is forbidden. ''^ And in six, 
reformation, not vindictive justice, is declared to be the principle 
of the penal code.** Further, it is specially declared that sanguinary 

» Neb. 1,23. * Ala. 15; Ariz.* Bill of Rts. 10; 

2 Wis. 1, 21. Ark. 2, 9; Cal. 1, 6; Col. 2, 20; Ct. 1, 

3 Ky. 2, 39; La. 10. 13; Del. 1, 11; Fla. Decln. of Rts. 8; 
" Copied from U. S. Amt. 8. This Ga. 1, 1,9; Ida. 1,6; Ind. 1, 16; lo. 1, 

principle goes back to Magna Carta, 17; Kan. Bill of Rts. 9 ; Ky. 17; La. 

Cap. 20. "A freeman shall only be 12; Mass. 1, 26; Md. Decln. of Rts. 

amerced . . . after tlie manner of 25; Me. 1,9; Mich. 6, 31 ; Minn. 1,5; 

the offence . . . according to the Miss. 28 ; Mo. 2, 25 ; Mon. 3, 20 ; N. C. 

hcinousness of it," but the fines re- 1, 14; N. D. 6; Neb. 1, 9; Nev. 1, 6; 

ferred to in Magna Carta were assessed N. H. 1, 33; N. J. 1, 15; N. M.* 95, 1 ; 

by the oath of "honest men of the 1851, July 12, § 11; N. Y. 1, 5; O. 1, 

neighbourhood." The constitutional 9; Okla. 2, 9; Ore. 1, 16; Pa. 1, 13; 

provision refers only to fines imposed R. I. 1, 8; S. C. 1, 19; S. D. 6, 23; 

in courts of law or by statute. The Tenn. 1, 16; Tex. 1, 13; Utah 1, 9; 

exact provision is found in the Bill of Va. 1, 9; Vt. 2, 32; Wash. 1, 14; 

Rights, paragraph 10, and on this our W. Va. 3, 5; Wis. 1, 6; Wy. 1, 14. 

provision is based, it being a favorite The clause about punishment is 

use of the Stuart Icings. "Cruel and omitted in a few. (Ct., Vt.) 

unusual punishments" were also for- * N. C. 

bidden by the Bill of Rights; this is a ^ Fla. Decln. Rts. 14; Ga. 1, 1, 10; 

provision aimed at torturing, maiming, N. C. 1, 11. 

and banishment. No punishment * Tex. 16, 3. 

remains in any of the States except * 111.2,11; Ind.; Me.; N. H. 1, 18; 

death and imprisonment with the Neb. 1, 15; Ore.; R. I.; W. Va. 

exception of the whipping post in " Fla. 

Delaware; but no mode of putting '^ Ind. 1, 18; Mon. 3, 24; N. C. 11, 

condemned persons to death under a 2 ; N. H. ; Ore. 1, 15 ; Wy. 1, 15. 
criminal statute is "cruel or unusual" 
under the court decisions. 


laws shall not be passed.' But the death penalty is in INIontana 
expressly preserved. In all criminal cases when the defendant is 
insolvent or discharged, the legal costs and expenses, including 
officers' fees, must be paid by the counties.^ 

That whipping or corporal punishments shall not, in two, be 
inflicted.^ No mechanical trade shall be taught to convicts in the 
State prison, except the manufacture of those articles of which the 
chief supply for home consumption is imported from other States.* 
But in others, provision is made by the Constitution for punishment 
by hard labor.^ In several, the Constitution forbids the letting 
out of convict labor by contract.^ In New York, also, the product 
or profit may not be sold, but may be used by the State or in 
public institutions. 

No citizen shall be outlaw^ed.' Banishment from the State or 
transportation shall not be allowed as a punishment for crime. ^ 

The gaols shall be constructed with regard to the health of the 
prisoners.® So, the erection of secure and comfortable prisons, and 
the humane treatment of prisoners, shall be provided for.'" 

In North Carolina, the Constitution provides that death, imprison- 
ment, fines, removal from office, and disqualification for office, shall 
be the only punishments known to the laws; convict labor may 
be employed on public w^orks, or farmed out; but no convict 
sentenced for murder, manslaughter, rape, or arson shall be farmed 
out; murder, arson, burglary, and rape may be made punishable 
by death. ^' In Vermont, punishment for crimes not capital should 
be by hard labor.'- Sentence of labor on the highways or public 
works may be imposed.'^ And convicts may be hired out under 
State supervision.'* INIichigan makes provision in the Constitution 
for indeterminate sentences and release of prisoners on parole.'^ 

* Md. Decln. of Rts. 16 ; Me. ; N. H. State for any purpose, without his 
2 Fla. 16, 9 ; Amt. 1894. consent, except by due process of law ; 
^Ga. 1, 1, 7; S. C. 1, 19. but nothing in this provision shall 

* Mich. 18, 3. prevent the operation of extradition 

* Cal. 10, 6; Ky. 153; N. C. 11, 1; laws, or the transporting of persons 
Vt. 2, 37. sentenced for crime to other States 

" Cal. ; Ky. ; Mon. 18, 2 ; N. Y. 3, for the purpose of incarceration." 
29; Wash. 2, 29. Okla. 2, 29. 

' Tex. 1, 20. « Del. 

8 Ala. 1, 30; Ark. 2, 21; Ga. 1, 1, 
7 ; 111. ; Kan. Bill of Rts. 21 ; Neb. ; O. 
1, 12; Tex.; W. Va. ; Vt. 1, 21. 

" No person shall be transported 
out of the State for any offence com- 
mitted within the State, nor shall any 
person be transported out of the 

Tenn. 1, 32 ; Wy. 1, 16. See § 124. 
1 N. C. 11, 12. 
- Vt. 2, 37. 
3 S. C. 5, 33 ; 12, 6. 
* S. C. 12, 9. 
= Mich. 1901, p. 391. 


For contempt, sec § GOS. 

§ 141. A\r Post Facto Laics.^ These arc, in most of tlie States, 
forbidden by the Constitution.^ So, "no person can be punished 
but by virtue of a law ah'cady estabhshcd or promulgated prior 
to the offence." ^ Conversely the repeal or amendment of any 
criminal statute shall not affect the prosecution or punishment of 
any crime committed before sucli repeal or amendment.^ 

§ 142. Corruption of Blood.* The Constitutions of most States 
provide that no conviction shall work corruption of blood or for- 
feiture of estate." But in three, it seems that there may be forfeiture 
of estate during the life of the offender.' 

§ 143. Suicides. The Constitution declares that the estates of 
suicides are not forfeit.*^ Such estates descend as in cases of natural 

§ 144. Dcodands are in seven States abolished by the Constitu- 

' The words ex post facto are here Utah 1, 18; Va. 58; Wash. 1, 23; 

used as the equivalent of retroactive W. Va. 3, 4; Wis. 1, 12; Wy. 1, 35. 

and retrospective; and the law is here So, both as to States and nation, in 

applied only to criminal offences. For U. S. C. 1, 9 (4); 1, 10 (1). 

civil laws of a similar nature, see §§ 392, ^ Ala. 7. 

393, Laws impairing the obligations * Fla. 3, 32. 

of contracts. The provision against ^ Compare U. S. C. 3, 3. The at- 

ex post facto laws does not expressly tempt to enact a statute working cor- 

appcar in the English Bill of Rights, ruption of blood would probably be 

though it was a familiar abuse under held unconstitutional in all the States 

the Stuart kings. Ex post facto has as part of the unwritten Constitution, 

been decided by the U. S. Supreme This, and the following two sections 

Court to refer only to criminal statutes are probably, therefore, unnecessary, 

whereby a man is punished for an " Ala. 19; Ark. 2, 17; Col. 2, 9; 

offence under a law passed after the Ct. 9, 4 ; Del. 1, 15 ; Fla. Decln. Rts. 

offence was committed. They are 23; Ga. 1, 2, 3; Ida. 5, 5 (the clause 

forbidden by the U. S. Constitution, is clumsily worded, so as to apply only 

Art. 1, Sec. 9, Clause 3, to the United to treason or "attainder"); IH. 2, 11; 

States, and by Sec. 10, Clause 1, to the Ind. 1, 30; Kan. Bill of Rts. 12; Ky. 

States, in the Federal Constitution. 20 ; ]\Id. Decln. of Rts. 27 ; Me. 1,11; 

2 Ala. 22; Ariz.* Bill of Rts. 19 
Ark. 2, 17; Cal. 1, 16; Col. 2, 11; Fla 
Decln. of Rts. 17; Ga. 1, 3, 2; Ida. 1 
16; 111. 2, 14; Ind. 1, 24; lo. 1, 21 
Ky. 19; La. 166; Mass. 1, 24; Md 
Decln. of Rts. 17; Me. 1, 11; Mich. 4 
43; Minn. 1, 11; Miss. 16; Mo. 2, 15 
Mon. 3, 11; N. C. 1, 32; N. D. 16 
Neb. 1, 16; Nev. 1, 15; N. H. 1, 23 
N. J. 4, 7, 3; N. M.* 1851, July 12 
§ 14; O. 2, 28; Okla. 2, 15; Ore. 1 
21; Pa. 1, 17; R. I. 1, 12; S. C. 1, 8 
S. D. 6, 12; Tenn. 1, 11; Tex. 1, 16 

Minn. 1, 11; Mo. 2, 13; Mon. 3, 9; 
N. C. 4, 5 ; Neb. 1, 15 ; O. 1, 12 ; Okla. 
2, 15; Ore. 1, 25; Pa. 1, 19; S. C. 1, 
8; Tenn. 1, 12; Tex. 1, 21; Wash. 1, 
15; W. Va. 3, 18; Wis. 1, 12. 

' Del., Ky., Pa. 

« N. H. 2, 88; Pa. 1, 19; Vt. 2, 38. 

» Col. 2, 9; Del. 1, 15; Ky. 21; 
Mo. 2, 13; Mon. 3, 9; N. H. ; Pa.; 
Tenn. 1, 12; Tex. 1,21; Vt. 

10 DeL 1, 15; Ky. 21; Mo. 2, 13; 
N. H. 2, 88; Pa. 1, 19; Tenn. 1, 12; 
Vt. 2, 38. 


§ 145. Appeals.^ By the Constitution of Texas and Virginia 
the State has no right of appeal in criminal cases,- but the defendant 

§ 145. Fees and Cosis.'^ No accused person before final judg- 
ment shall be compelled to advance money or fees to secure the 
rights herein guaranteed.^ 

Article 15. Special Provisions Coxcerxing Criminal 


§ 150. Treason^ is by the Constitutions of most of the States 
declared to consist only in levying war against the State, adhering 
to its enemies, and giving them aid and comfort ; there must be two 
witnesses to the same overt act, in order to convict, or a confession 
in open court. ^ 

§ 151. Duelling. By the Constitutions of many States duelling 
is made a cause of disfranchisement and disqualification to hold 
office.^ And in five, it is made, by the Constitution, a criminal 

The governor may pardon it after five years. ^^ 

* See Art. 70, and § 137. was that the imagination must be at- 
^ Tex. 5, 26; Va. 88. See § 137. tended with the intent or purpose as 
^ Utah 1, 12; Wash. 1, 22. manifeeted by some overt act. Still, 

* This is a new provision although the mental act constituted a treason, 
in the Bill of Rights, threats and not the phj^sical one. Thus, the regi- 
promises of fines and forfeitures of cides were tried not for beheading King 
particular persons before conviction Charles, but for compassing his death, 
are declared illegal and void. of which the killing was only evidence. 

' Utah 1, 12; Wash. 1, 22. See ' Ala. 18; Ark. 2, 14; Cal. 1, 20; 

§ 140. Col. 2, 9; Ct. 9, 4; Del. 6, 3; Fla. 

« Copied from U. S. C. 3, 3. This Decln. of Rts. 23 ; Ga. 1, 2, 2 ; Ida. 5, 

is also an English constitutional prin- 5; Ind. 1, 28-29; lo. 1, 16; Kan. 

ciple, though forfeiture for treason Bill of Rts. 13; Ky. 229; La. 162; 

was only abolished under Victoria. Me. 1, 12; Mich. 6, 30; Minn. 1, 9; 

The principle requiring two witnesses Miss. 10 ; Mo. 2, 13 ; Mon. 3,9; N. C. 

is as old as Edward VI. and they were 4, 5; N. D. 19; Neb. 1, 14; Nev. 1, 

required to be confronted with the 19; N. J. 1, 14; Okla. 1, 16; Ore. 1, 

person charged, although this statute 24; S.C.I, 22; S. D. 6, 25 ; Tex. 1,22; 

was evaded or disregarded under Queen Utah 1, 19 ; Wash. 1, 27 ; W. Va. 2, 6 ; 

Elizabeth and the Stuarts. (Taswell- Wis 1, 10; Wy. 1, 26. 

Langmead, p. 308.) In England, of « See §§ 223, 254, 257. It will be 

course, treason might and usually did noticed that this statute is peculiar to 

rather consist in words or writings the Southern States, 

than in acts. » Ala. 86; Ark. 19, 2; Ga. 2, 4, 2; 

"Imagining the Kings' death" was Ky. 239; Tenn. 9, 3. 

treason in England, but the better law " Ky. See § 160. 


§ 152. Bribery ' of an officc-holdcT, whether aocomphshed or 
attempted, is made a felony - in the person giving or offering the 
bribe, by the Constitution of several States.^ And usually also in the 
office-holder receiving or offering to receive the bribe.^ So, of a 
member of the legislature bribed,^ or offering or seeking to bribe." 

Bribery at elections is, by the Constitution of several States, made 
a criminal offence in both parties.' So, fraud, or other wilful and 
corrupt violation of election laws.** "Any person who shall directly 
or indirectly offer, give or promise any money or thing of value, 
testimonial, privilege or personal advantage, to any executive or 
judicial officer or member of the Legislative Assembly, to influence 
him in the performance of any of his official or public duties, shall 
be deemed guilty of bribery, and be punished in such manner as 
shall be provided by law." ° 

And in many States bribery is cause of disfranchisement or dis- 
qualification for office.^" 

§ 153. Lobbying is declared a felony by the Constitution in two 
States." So, no State or county officer shall accept a fee, reward, etc., 
for lobbying.'^ Lobbying is in California defined to be the seeking 
to influence the vote of a member of the legislature by bribery, 
promise of reward, intimidation, or other dishonest means. 

§ 154. Corrwpt Legislation. No State officer or member of the 
legislature shall directly or indirectly receive a fee or be engaged as 

^ See § 154. The tendency of mod- who shall solicit, demand, or receive, 

ern statutes is to make bribery a or consent to receive, directly or in- 

felony in both the person giving and directly, for himself or for another, 

the person offering the bribe, and more from any company, association, or 

elaborate statutes are being devised to person, any money, office, appointment, 

cover all cases of political corruption employment, or personal advantage 

by influence or otherwise. for his vote or influence or withholding 

^ A penal offence or a misdemeanor the same, or with the understanding 

only (La.). that his vote, etc., shall be in any way 

^ Ark. 5, 35 ; Col. 5, 4,1 and 42 ; influenced thereby, or who shall solicit 

Del. 2, 22; La. 183; Md. 3, 50; N. Y. or demand such money or other ad- 

13, 2 and 3; Pa. 3, 30; Tex. 16, 41; vantage for another, or give or with- 

W. Va. 6, 45. hold his vote in consideration thereof, 

* Ark., La., Md., Nev., N. Y., Tex., is guilty of bribery and shall incur the 
W. Va. disabilities and penalties provided in 

* Cal. 4, 35 ; Col. 12, 6 ; La. ; Md. ; the Constitution for such offence, and 
N. Y. ; Pa. 3, 29-31 ; Tex. ; W. Va. such additional punishment as may 

^ Ala. be provided by law. And so, any 

^ Ark. 3, 6 ; Del. 5, 7 ; Fla. 4, 9 ; person who shall directly or indirectly 

Xa. ; Nev. 4, 10 ; Tenn. 10, 3. offer such money (Ala. 79, 80 ; Pa.). 

» Ark. " See §§ 223, 255. 

« Mon. 5,42;Pa.;S.D.3,2S;Wy.3, '' Cal. 4, 35; Ga. 1, 2, 5. 

43. So, a member of the legislature " Ala. 101. See also § 154. 


counsel, agent, or attorney in the prosecution of any claim against 
the State/ or in advocating any bill or measure.^ Upon clue proof 
thereof he shall forfeit his seat.^ 

So, the offence of corrupt solicitation of members of the Legisla- 
tive Assembly, or of public officers of the State, or of any municipal 
division thereof, and the occupation or practice of solicitation of such 
members or officers, to influence their official action, shall be defined 
by law, and shall be punishable by fine and imprisonment.^ 

Any governor of this State who asks, receives, or agrees to receive 
any bribe upon any understanding that his official opinion, judg- 
ment, or action shall be influenced thereby, or who gives or offers, or 
promises his official influence in consideration that any member of 
the legislative assembly shall give his official vote or influence on 
any particular side of any question or matter upon which he 
may be required to act in his official capacity, or who menaces any 
member by the threatened use of his veto power, or who offers or 
promises any member that he, the sa!d governor, will appoint any 
particular person or persons to any office created or thereafter to be 
created, in consideration that any member shall give his official vote 
or influence on any matter pending or thereafter to be introduced 
into either house of said legislative assembly, or who threatens any 
member that he, the said governor, will remove anv person or persons 
from office or position, with intent in any manner to influence the 
action of said member, shall be punished in the manner now, or 
that may hereafter be, provided by law, and upon conviction thereof 
shall forfeit all right to hold or exercise any office of trust or honor in 
this State.^ 

No member of the legislature can be interested directly or in- 
directly in any contract with the State or a county thereof authorized 
by a law passed during his term," or within one year thereafter.^ 

The governor is forbidden to receive any compensation or promise 
thereof for any service rendered or performed while governor, or to 
be rendered thereafter.^ 

"Any member of the legislature who shall give, offer, or promise 

> Ore. 15, 7; R. I. 4, 4; Vt. 2, 19. « 111. 4, 15; Mich. 4, 18; Miss. 109; 

2 N. H. 2, 7; Vt. Neb. 3, 12; S. D. 3, 12; Tex. 3, IS; 

8 N. H. W. Va. 6, 15. Compare also § 303. 

* Ala. 81 ; Mon. 5, 43; S. D. 3, 28; ' 111., Mich., Miss., Neb., S. D. 
Wash. 2, 30; Wy. 3, 45 ; Pa. 3, 31. « Tex. 4. 6. 

« N. D. 3, 81; S. D. 4, 11; Wy. 4, 


his vote in favor of or against any measure, in consideration that any 
other member shall give or promise his vote on another measure, 
shall be guilty of solicitation of bribery, or bribery [if the thing be 
accomplished] ; and such member shall be expelled, and not there- 
after be eligible for the legisla'ure, and be liable to such further 
penalty as may be prescriljed by law," ^ 

Evidence. By the Constitutions of several, any person may be 
compelled to testify in any investigation or proceeding to esta})lish 
bribery or lobbying offences under these three sections; but such 
testimony cannot be afterwards used against him, except to prove 
perjury.^ And the person so testifying is exempted from punish- 
ment for his own offence.^ He may also testify in his own behalf.* 

§ 155. Special Crimes. The Constitution of Texas provides 
that the legislature shall provide by law for defining and punishing 

Gamhling is by the Constitution of Louisiana declared to be a vice, 
and laws shall be passed to suppress it.** 

Prize fighting is forbidden.^ 

Polygamy and bigamy are made crimes in the Constitution.^ 

§ 156. Embezzlement of public funds or defalcation in public 
office or trust is, in some, declared a felony by the Constitution." 
So, misappropriation of the State or school funds.^" It is a penal 
offence to borrow, or divert from its purpose, any State fund.^^ Or 
for a public officer to make a profit out of public money, or to use it 
for any purpose not authorized by law.^- 

* Col. 5, 40; Mon. 5, 41; N. D. 40; moral obligation; a State when once 
Wy. 3, 42. admitted comes in with all the rights 

2 Cal. ; La. 174 ; Md. 3, 50 ; N. Y. of the older States. So far as this 
13, 3 ; Pa. 3, 32 ; S. D. 3, 28 ; Wash. 2, section is concerned, Utah could prob- 
30 ; W. Va. 6, 45 ; Wy. 3, 44. See also ably amend her Constitution and re- 
§ 239. establish Mormonism to-morrow. 

3 Md., W. Va. » Cal. 4, 21 ; Ida. 18, 2; Amt. Nev. 

* N. Y. 13, 4. 4, 10 ; S. C. 10, 12. 
« Tex. 16, 29. See I. Taylor, 567, for '° Minn. 9, 12. 

the origin of this offence. " Tex. 8, 7. The notion that an 

^ La. 188. See § 426. appropriation could be limited to any 

^ S. C. 8, 12. definite object was only established in 

* Ida. 1, 4. See also § 41. The England as late as Charles II. The use 
enabling acts admitting the eight new of public funds for other purposes than 
Western States usually provided they were originally raised for, although 
against polygamy on account of the probably contrary to Magna Carta 
Mormon influence, and this, with other itself, is usual in other countries, so 
provisions concerning schools, etc., was much so that it has been given a 
made forever irrepealable without the special name, virement, in France. See 
consent of the United States ; see Art. 32. 

Utah 3, 1. This is probably only a ^^ Ark. 16, 3; Cal. 11, 17; Col. 10, 

PART l] 



§ 157. War Exemption. By the Constitutions of two States, no 
person shall be prosecuted in any civil or criminal action for any 
act done by him during the war of secession under orders, or in 
pursuance of military authority vested in him by the United States, 
the Confederate States, or the State. ^ The Florida provision is 
omitted in the new Constitution. 

§ 158. Felony. The Constitution of Colorado defines felony 
to mean any criminal offence punishable with death or imprisonment 
in the penitentiary.- 

Article 16. Pardons 

§ 160. Pardon Power.^ By the Constitution of most States, the 
governor has power to grant pardons and commutations * of sentence 
after conviction.^ And so in all the territories, by U.S.R.S. 1841. 

In some, the governor may grant pardons as above only by and 
with the advice of the Council,'' or Senate,^ or Board of Pardons.^ 

13; Ga. 5, 2, 5; 7, 9, 1 ; Ida. 7, 10; 
Ky. 173; Mo. 10, 17; Mon. 12, 14; 
Okla. 10, 11; Pa. 9, 14; S. D. 11, 11; 
Utah 13, 8; AVash. 11, 14; Wy. 11, 14; 
15, 8. 

' Mo. 14, 2; W. Va. 8, 35. The 
14th Amendment inferentially terms 
rebellion a crime. Presumably a 
Confederate soldier or officer would be 
liable for acts committed during the 
Revolution, even if acts of war, — civilly, 
if not criminally ; but there are hardly 
any instances of such suits being 
brought, though there are one or two 
cases where damages have been re- 
covered for acts improperly committed, 
such as seizures of goods not contra- 
band, or forfeiture of property without 
due process of law. The statutes and 
court decisions of the States in rebellion, 
except in so far as they concern such 
political matters, have been declared 
valid by the U. S. Supreme Court. 

- Col. 18, 4. And the word is always 
so used in this book. This is a proper 
definition, at least in the United 
States; there being no longer any 
forfeiture or corruption of blood. 

3 Compare U. S. C. 2, 2. The pardon 
power is not inherent in the executive, 
like the power to punish for contempts in 
the judiciary, but it may be questioned 
whether it would not be exerted even 

in the absence of a statute. All the 
States have such statutes, however, and 
the tendency is more and more to 
relieve the Executive of the responsi- 
bility by creating boards of pardons. 
The granting of pardons before con- 
viction became an abuse under the 

* Nothing is said about commuta- 
tions of sentence (Kan., Mass., Md., 
Minn., Miss., Neb., N. H., N. J., R. I., 
Tenn., Vt.) "Under the regulations 
and restrictions prescribed by law : " 
(N. Y., O., Ind., 111., Mich., Wis., lo., 
Kan., Va., Neb., Del., N. C, Mo., Ark., 
Cal., Ore., Col., Ga., Ala., N. D., S. D., 

* Ala. 124 ; Ariz.* 1093 ; Ark. 6, 18 ; 
Cal. 7, 1 ; Col. 4, 7 ; Ga. 5, 1, 12 ; 111. 
5,13; Ind. 5. 17; lo. 4, 16; Kan. 1, 7; 
Ky. 77 ; Md. 2, 20 ; Mich. 5, 11 ; Minn. 
5, 4; Miss. 124; Mo. 5, 8; N. C. 3, 6; 
N. D. 76; Neb. 5, 13; N. Y. 77; O. 3, 
11; Okla. 6, 10; Ore. 5, 14; S. C. 4, 
11; S. D. 4, 5; Tenn. 3, 6; Tex. 4, 11; 
Va. 73; Vt. 2, 11; Amt. 8; Wash. 3,9; 
W. Va. 7, 11 ; Wis. 5, 6; Wy. 4, 5. 

« Mass. 2, 2, 1, 8; Me. 5, 1, 11; 
N. H. 2, 51. 

' R. I. C. Amt. 2. 

« Fla. 1895, p. 366, Del. 7, 1 ; Minn. 
1895, 2; S. D. 4, 5; N. J. 5, 10; S. C. 


Pov.'er to pardon, as above, is, in otluTs, vested in the governor, 
judges of the Supreme Court, and attorney-general, or a majority of 
them, of which the governor must be one.' Governor, secretary of 
state, and attorney-general."'^ Governor, secretary of state com- 
missioner of agriculture, controller, attorney-general.'' Governor, 
secretary of state, attorney-general and auditor.' Presiding judge, 
secretary of state, and attorney-general.^ Governor, chief justice, 
and attorney-general.® 

In other States, pardons are issued by the governor, upon written 
recommendation of the lieutenant-governor, secretary of state, secre- 
tary of internal affairs, and attorney-general, or any three of them,' 
or a majority of the board, ^ as above,'' the lieutenant-governor, 
secretary of state, and presiding judge,'" or the attorney-general, 
chief justice, and two electors appointed by the governor." 

The Board of Pardons must sit in open session, give published 
notice of hearings, and record all pardons, etc. ; and communicate 
them to the legislature at each session. '- 

Exceptions. But in California a person twice convicted of felony 
cannot be so pardoned by the governor without the ^Titten recom- 
mendation of a majority of the judges of the Supreme Court. 
And in Kentucky, a person who has participated in a duel may be 
pardoned only after the expiration of five years from the offence.'^ 
Restoration to franchise is by a two-thirds vote of the legislature. '■* 

§ 161. What may be pardoned. In most States all offences may 
be pardoned, according to § 160, except treason and in cases of 
impeachment.'^ Or except only in cases of impeachment.'" Or 
except only treason." In Vermont, except also murder. 

But in some States, no exception is made of either treason or 

1 Nev. 5, 14; Utah 7, 12. Ind., lo., La., Md., Mich., Miss., Mo., 

2 Ida. 4, 7. N. D., Neb., Nev., N. Y., O., S. D., 

3 Fla. Tex., Utah, Vt., Wis., Wy. The 

* Mon. 7, 9 ; Ala. 124. President of the United States is 
^ S. D. authorized to pardon even treason 
6 Minn. (U. S. C. 2, 2, 2), but not impeachment, 
^ Pa. 4, 9. and this is probably a constitutional 

* Mon., S. D. principle in England. There can, of 

* Except minor crimes, S. D. course be treason to a State as well as 
*" La. 69. to the United States. 

" N. D. Amt. 3. '8 Ala., Del., Ky., Mass., Md., Me., 

12 Ida., Mon., N. D., S. D., Utah, Wy. Minn., N. C, N. H., N. J. Okla., Pa., 

" Ky. 239. R. I., S. C, Tenn., Va., W. Va. 

1* Miss. 253. " Ore. 

1^ Ark., Cal., Col., Fla., Ga., Ida., »« Ct., 111., Kan. 


Treason may, in many States, be pardoned by the legislature; 
and the governor may suspend the sentence until the end of the 
session of the legislature next following conviction.^ So, in two 
more, except that this power to pardon is vested in the Senate." 

§ 102. The Effect of a Pardon. In Alabama it does not relieve 
from civil or political disability unless so specifically expressed in 
the pardon. But in South Carolina pardon by the governor restores 
the right of suffrage.^ In Connecticut, the legislature, by a two- 
thirds vote of each full house, may restore the privileges of an 
elector to a person convicted of crime.^ Or embezzlement.^ 

In two, the governor may remove political disabilities consequent 
on conviction,*^ or that of holding office (as to duelling only).^ 

§ 163. Reprieves. By the Constitutions of most States, the 
governor is expressly given powder to grant reprieves in the same 
cases (§ 161),^ but not for more than sixty days.^ The governor 
may grant reprieves, after conviction, except in cases of impeach- 
ment, until the end of the next session of the legislature. ^^ So the 
Board of Pardons.*^ 

§ 164. Fines and Forfeitures may, by the Constitutions of most 
States, be remitted by the governor or other persons in whom the 
pardoning power is vested (see § 160).^- So the governor may 
suspend their collection for a period not exceeding sixty days.^^ 
So, of fines or forfeitures.^* But he may not remit other debts due 
the State.'' 

§ 165. Lynch Law. A prisoner lawfully in custody of any 
officer seized by a mob or other unlawful assemblage and suffering 
violence or death, the officer is guilty of a misdemeanor and upon 
conviction shall forfeit his office and be forever disqualified to hold 
office unless pardoned ; and when death ensues to the person lynched 

1 Cal., Fla., Ga., Ida., Ind., lo., S. C, S. D., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Va., 
Ky., La.. Mich., Miss., N. D., Neb., W. Va., Wis., Wy. 

Nev., N. Y., O., Ore., S. D., Utah, Vt., « Fla., Nev. 

Wis., Wy. 10 Ct. 4, 10; R. I. 7, 4. 

2 Ark., Tex. " Ida. 

3 S. C. 2, 6. 1' Ala., Ariz.,* Ark., Del., Fla., Ga., 
* Ct. Amt. 17. Ida., Ind. 5, 17; lo., Ky., La., Md., 
« S. C. 10, 12. Me.,Miss.,Mon.,N.D.,Nev.,N.J.,Ore., 
« Ky. 145; Va. 73. Pa. 4, 9; S. C., S. D., Territories, 
^ Ky. 240. U. S. R. S. 1841; Tex., Utah, Va. 
« Ala., Ark., Cal., Col., Del., Fla., 73; Vt. 2, 11; Wash. 3, 11; W. Va., 

Ga., Ida., 111., Ind., lo., Ky., La., Md., Wy. 

Me., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mon., '^ Nev. 

N. C, N. D., Neb., Nev., 5, 13; N. J. " Fla. 4, 11; N. J. 5, 9. 

5, 9; N. Y., O., Okla., Ore., Pa. 4, 9; " Md. 


the county where it takes phice is liable in exemplary damages of not 
less than S2000 to his representatives. The county may recover 
back from the parties engaged in said lyncliing.^ 

The sheriff suffering a lynching to take place is liable to 

* S. C. 6, G. Statutes of similar im- « Ala. 138. 
port are being adopted in many States. 


Paet II 


§ 180. Note. Compare, generally, with this part the United 
States Constitution, after which the poHtical systems of the newer 
States are generally modelled. It has proved, since the first edition 
(1S8G) of American Statute Law, owing to frequent amendments of 
this part of the State Constitutions and endless diversity of detail, 
unwise to attempt herein more than a general statement of the 
States' frame of government. 

Article 18. Rights of Government 

§ 181. Authority derived from the People. The Constitutions 
of all States except New York and Michigan declare that all 
political power is inherent in the people,' or that Governments 
derive their just powers from the consent of the governed," or are 
founded on the authority of those governed.^ And that the people 
have at all times the right to make, alter, or reform the government.* 
So, in three, the doctrine of non-resistance is declared to be wrong; 
and the people ought to reform or abolish the government when 
other means of redress fail.' 

' Ala. 1, 2; Ark. 2, 1; Cal. 1, 2; » Ariz.* Bill of Rts. 1; Ark. 1, 2; 
Col. 2, 1; Ct. 1, 2; Del. Preamble; Del.; Ga. ; 111.2, 1; La.; Md. ;Mon.; 
Fla. Decln. of Rts. 2; Ga. 1, 1, 1; Ida. N. C; Neb. 1, 1; N. H.; S. D. 6, 1; 
1, 2; Ind. 1, 1; lo. 1, 2; Kan. Bill of Wash. ; Wis. 1, 1. See Decln. Ind. Ij 3. 
Rts. 2: Ky. 4; La. 1; Mass. 1, 5, & 7; ^ Ala., Col., Ct., Ind., Kan., Ky., 
Md. Decln. of Rts. 1 ; Me. 1, 2; Minn. La., Me., Miss., Mo., Mon., N. M.*, Ore., 
1, 1; Miss. 5; Mo. 2, 1 ; Mon. 3, 1; Pa., S. D., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Wy. 
N. C. 1, 2; N. D. 1, 2; Nev. 1, 2; ^ Ala. ; Ariz.* ; Ark. ; Cal. ; Col. 2, 2 ; 
N. H. 1, 1, & 8; N. J. 1, 2; N. M.* Ct. ; Del. ; Fla. ; Ga. 1, 5, 1 ; Ida. ; Ind. ; 
95, 1; July 12, 1851, § 1; O. 1, 2; lo. ; Ky. ; Mass. Preamble 1, 7; Md. ; 
Okla. 2, 1 ; Ore. 1, 1 ; Pa. 1, 2 ; R. I. 1, Me. ; Minn. ; Miss. 6 ; Mo. 2, 2 ; Mon. 3, 
1; S. C. 1, 1; S. D. 6, 26; Tenn. 1, 1; 2; N. C. 1,3;N. D. ; Nev.; N. H. 1,10; 
Tex. 1, 2 ; Utah 1, 2 ; Va. 1, 2 ; Vt. 1,6; N. J. ; N. M.* ; O. ; Okla. ; Ore. ; Pa. ; R. 
Wash. 1, 1 ; W. Va. 2, 2; 3, 2; Wy. I. ; S. C. ; S. D. ("In lawful and consti- 
1, 1. So in the United States Constitu- tuted methods"), Telkn. ; Tex. ; Utah; 
tion (Preamble; Amts. 9, 10). In Va. 1, 3; Vt. 1, 7; W. Va. 3, 3; Wy. 
England it resides with the Sovereign See also Decln. Ind. ^ 1. See also § 183. 
and Parliament. (Taswell-Langmead, ^ Md. Decln. of Rts. 6 ; N. H. ; Tenn. 
p. 428.) See Decl. Ind., CI. 3. 1, 2. This seems Uke an attempt to 


§ 1S2. Form of Government. The Constitution of Texas declares 
that the faith of the people stands pledged to a republican form of 
government ; ' and that of Kentucky and Wyoming, that absolute, 
arbitrary power over the lives, liberty, and property of freemen 
exists nowhere in a republic, not even in the largest majority.^ 
Representative government is not necessary, however, in Okla- 
homa. See § 201. 

§ 183. The object of Government is declared to be for the 
security, benefit, and protection of the people,^ "for the preserva- 
tion and protection of our liberties," * for their peace, safety, and 
happiness,^ for their benefit, or "for the good of the whole," " "for 
the protection of property," ^ for their equal protection and benefit,^ 
or to protect the citizen in the enjoyment of life, liberty, and prop- 
erty, ° or, to protect and maintain individual rights. ^° And in New 
Hampshire, also in the enjoyment of rights of conscience.'^ In 
Massachusetts, to protect them in the enjoyment of their natural 
rights generally. ^^ 

When Government assumes other functions than as above, it is, 
in Alabama, declared to be usurpation and oppression. So, in 
Missouri, when it fails of its objects as above, it fails of its chief 
design. ^^ And may be reformed or abolished by a majority of the 
community. '* 

§ 184. Officers. — [As a consequence of § 181] all officers are 
by the Constitutions of seven States declared to be accountable to 
the people as their trustees or servants.'^ 

establish a constitutional right to revo- * S. C. Preamble. 

lution! See also §§ 4, 5, 12. ' Del. Preamble; La. 1; Ind. 1, 1; 

1 Tex. 1, 2. Tliis is required by Ky. 4; Ore. 1, 1; Pa. 1, 2; Tenn. 1, 
U. S. Const. 4, 4. A republican form 1; Wy. 1, 1. 

of government is usually understood to ® Col. 2, 1; Ct. 1, 2; Ga. 1, 1, 1; 

be based upon the suffrages of the Ida. 1, 2; La. 1 ; Md.; Okla.; Decln. 

people with a representative legislature of Rts. 1 ; Me. 1, 2 ; Miss. 5 ; Mo. 2, 1 ; 

and an elective non-hereditary execu- Mon. 3, 1 ; N. C. 1, 2 ; N. H. 1, 1 ; 

tive ; while in a pure democracy all Okla. ; R. L ; S. D. ; Tex. 2, 2. 

the people make the laws and elect the ^ Ky. 

officers directly. « Ida.; S. D. 6, 26; Utah 1, 2. 

2 Ky. 2; Wy. 1, 5. This is a good » Ala. 1, 35; Ariz.* Bill of Rts. 1; 
definition of constitutional govern- Ark. 2, 2; Ga. 1,1,2; 111.2,1; Mo. 2, 
ments as distinct from a pure democ- 4; Neb. 1, 1; N. H. 1, 12; S. D. 6, 1; 
racy. Wis. 1, 1. See also Decln. of Ind. If 4. 

3 Ark. 2, 1 ; Cal. 1, 2; Fla. Decln. '° Wash. 1, 1. See also § G. 
of Rts. 2; Ida. 1, 2; lo. 1, 2; Kan. " N. H. 1, 4. 

Bill of Rts. 2; Mass. 1, 7; Minn. 1, 1 ; '= Mass. Preamble. 

N. D. 1, 2; Nev. 1, 2; N. H. 1, 10; " ggg ^Iso §§ 6, 12. 

N. J. 1, 2 ; O. 1, 2 ; Okla. 2,1; R. I. 1, " Va. 1, 3. 

2 ; Va. 1, 3 ; Vt. 1, 7 ; W. Va. 3, 3. ^' Ga. 1, 1, 1 ; Mass. 1, 5; Md. Decln. 


§ 185. Fundamental Principles are referred to, and their observ- 
ance required both of electors and officers.' 

§ 186. Representation is, by the Constitutions of many States, 
required to be apportioned according to population.^ And so of 
representatives to Congress.^ So, in others, it is to be "founded 
on principles of equality." * To be "equal and uniform." ^ Rep- 
resentation according to population in both houses of the Legisla- 
ture is in fact provided for in nearly all.® In others, as to the lower 
house only,^ in Connecticut as to the Senate. In New Hampshire, 
the representative districts are divided according to population, but 
the senatorial according to the proportion of direct taxes paid.* 
For Oklahoma, see also § 182. 

§ 187. Gerrymandering. — See § 218. 

§ 188. Initiative and Referendum. — See § 309. (See also 
§ 182, note 1.) 

Article 19. State Sovereignty 

§ 190. The United States Constitution,^ by the Constitutions of 
a few Southern States, is expressly declared the supreme law of 

of Rts. 6; N. H. 1, 8; Va. 1, 2; Vt. 1, 'Compare § 391. The Federal 
6; W. Va. 3, 2. See § 213. Constitution, Art. 6, § 2, reads: "This 

* N. H. 1, 38. See § 5. Constitution, "and the Laws of the 
'^ Ala. 198, 200, 284 ; Ariz.* Bill United States which shall be made in 

of Rts. 12 ; Col. 5, 45 ; Kan. 10, 2 ; Pursuance thereof ; and all Treaties 

Ky. 33; La. 18, 19; Md.Amt. 1900,432; made or which shall be made, under 

Me. Amt. 25; Minn. 4, 2; Mon. 6, 2; the Authority of the tfnited States 

N. D. 29 & 35 ; Neb. 3, 2 ; Nev. 1, 13; shall be the supreme Law of the Land; 

N. Y. 3, 4 ; S. D. 3,5; Tex. 3, 25, & and the Judges in every State shall be 

26; Wash. 3, 3; W. Va. 2,4; Wy. 3, 3. bound thereby, anything in the Con- 

' Mon.; Va. 55; W. Va. 1, 4. stitution or Laws of any State to 

* Mass. 2, 1, 3, 1 ; N. H. 2, 9. the contrary notwithstanding." It is 
^ Ky., La. therefore quite unnecessary to put 
^ Ark. 8, 1, 2; Cal. 4, 6; Ct. Amts. similar provisions in the State Constitu- 

2, 18, 23, 31 (the equality is still im- tions, though it is probably done in 

perfect, however) ; Fla. 7, 3 ; III. 4, 6 ; memory of the attempted Secession. 

Ind. 4, 5 ; lo. 3, 35 ; Ky. 33 ; Mass. Amt. It will be noted that all treaties made 

21-22; Me. 4, 1, 2; Mich. 4, 4; Miss, under the authority of the United 

4, 34-35; Mo. 4, 2, & 5; Mon. 6, 6; States shall be the supreme law of the 

N. C. 2, 4-5; N. D. 29, 35; N. Y. 3, land. But just as a law must be con- 

4-5; O. 11, 2, & 6; Okla. 5, 9 a, & stitutional, it would seem that a treaty 

10 (c) ; Ore. 4, 6 ; Pa. 2, 16-17 ; Tenn. should be constitutional, and one made 

2, 4-6 ; Vt. 2, 7 ; W. Va. 6, 4, & 7 ; counter to the admitted rights of the 

Wis. 4, 3 ; Wy. 3, 3. States would, according to the better 

^ Ga. 3, 3, 2-3; Md. 3, 2-4; N. J. opinion,not be constitutional, at least as 

4, 3, 1; R. I. 5, 1, but each town or between the States and the Federal gov- 
city is at least entitled to one member ; ernment. 

5. C. 1, 2, and so of the Senate; R. I. Treaties stand on no higher footing 

* N. H. 2, 9, & 25. than acts of Congress and may be im- 



the land,* or that the State is free and independent, subject only 
to the United States Constitution.^ So, the United States Constitu- 
tion is declared part of the State law, anything in the State Consti- 
tutions or laws to the contrary notwithstanding.^ And so of United 
States laws made under the Constitution,* or treaties by the national 
Government.^ This is declared irrepealable without the consent 
of the United States, in the new Western Constitutions, according 
to their enabling Acts ; but this would seem to add no new strength 
to the clause; of. § 155, note 8. 

§ 191. Allegiance. — The Constitutions of North Carolina and 
the newer States provide that the State shall always remain a member 
of the American Union. ^ So, that no law shall be passed in deroga- 
tion of the paramount allegiance of the citizens of the State to the 
United States Government.'' And in two, it is declared that the 
State and United States Constitutions apply as well in war as in 
peace. ^ 

§ 192. Secession. — The Constitutions of three States declare 
that there is no right on the part of the State to secede or dissolve 
its connection with the Union, ^ and that all attempts at secession 
ought to be resisted by the State,'" and by the Federal Government, 
if necessary, by force of arms.'* 

§ 193. State Rights. — But the right of local self-government 
belonging to the people of each State is in several of the older States 

paired by a subsequent law counter to * Ga., Md., W. Va. 

their provisions. Under Art. 2, § 2, » Ariz.* Bills of Rts. 2; Cal. 1, 3; 

the president has power, by and with Ida. 1, 3; N. C. 1, 4; N. D. 3 ; Okla. 

the advice and consent of the Senate, 1, 1; S. D. 6, 26; Utah 1, 3; Wy. 

to make treaties provided two-thirds Ordinance; 1, 35. This would seem to 

of the Senate as present concur. They be settled, and it is left out in the new 

cannot be formally abrogated or modi- Constitution of S. C. and Va. 

fied except by the power that made ' Fla. Decln. of Rts. 2 ; Miss. 7 ; 

them, but a law inconsistent with their N. C. 1, 7; Nev. 1, 2 ("In the exercise 

provisions would, nevertheless, take by the United States Government of 

effect pro tanto. the constitutional powers as defined 

1 Ariz.* Bill of Rts. 2; Cal. 1, 3; by the U. S. Supreme Court"). 
Ga. 12, 1, 1; Ida. 1, 3; Md. Decln. « Md. Decln. of Rts. 44; W. Va. 
of Rts. 2; Miss. 6; Mo. 2, 2; Mon. 3, 1, 3. 

2; N. C. 1, 5; N. D. 3 ; Nev. Prelim. " Fla. Decln. of Rts. 2; N. C. 1, 4; 
Act; Okla. 1, 1 ; S. D. 6, 26; Utah 1, Nev. 1, 2. Similar provisions existed 
3; Wash. 1, 2; W. Va. 1, 1; Wy. 1, in Alabama and Mississippi, but have 
35 ; Ordinance. See also § 193. been omitted by the new Constitution. 

^ Col. 2, 2 ; Md. Decln. of Rts. 2-3 ; In substance this is declared by the 
Tex. 1, 1. 14th Amendment. See § 157, note 1. 

3 Ga. 1, 4, 2; Ida. Sched. 22; Md.; Compare also § 191. 
Territories, U. S. R. S. 1891. '" N. C. 

* Ariz.* Ga., Md., Territories, W.Va. *' Nev, 


declared a constitutional right which the national Government can 
never infringe.^ The people of the State have the sole and exclu- 
sive right of governing themselves as a free, sovereign, and inde- 
pendent State; and shall exercise and enjoy every power, jurisdic- 
tion and 7-ight which is not or may not hereafter be, by them, expressly 
delegated to the United States of America in Congress assembled.^ 

So, in Virginia, that the people have a right to uniform govern- 
ment; and therefore that no government separate from, or inde- 
pendent of, the government of Virginia, ought to be erected or 
established within the limits thereof.^ 

And that the powers not delegated to the United States by the 
United States Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are 
reserved to the State.* 

Article 20. Constitution of the State Governments 

§ 200. The Three Functions J" — By the Constitutions of nearly 
all, the powers of Government are divided into three distinct depart- 

» Col. 2, 2; Ga. 1, 5, 1; Md. Decln. is to say, Article 1, § 1, "All legisla- 
of Rts. 4; Mo. 2, 2 ; N. C. 1, 3; Tex. tive powers herein granted shall be 
1,1; Vt. 1,5; W. Va. 1,2. See Book vested in a Congress." Art. 2, § 1, 
I for a full discussion of this principle "The executive power shall be vested 
and its history. in a President." Art. 3, § 1, "The 

* Mass. 1,4; N. H. 1,5. Judicial power of the United States 
' Va. 1, 14. shall be vested in one Supreme Court," 

* Md. Decln. of Rts. 3; W. Va. 1, 2. etc. The Massachusetts provision adds 
To the State or to the people, and the striking words "To the end it may 
so the words run in the U. S. 10th be a government of laws and not of 
Amendment. men," which phrase was praised by 

* This division of the powers of Daniel Webster as its "noblest expres- 
sovereignty into three departments, sion." The omission of the provision 
legislative, executive, and judicial, and from the Constitution of New York, 
constitutional exclusion of either de- with the corresponding omission of the 
partment from the functions of the statement (Sec. 183) that the object of 
other is, with the invention of a dele- government is for the benefit, etc. of 
gated legislative authority subject to the people, is a most striking one. In 
the judgment of the courts, perhaps England the attempt of the kings to 
the greatest political invention of the resist this principle was in modern 
founders. (See Book I.) Although times most notable under Charles I. 
doubtless theoretical precedents are and George III. The effort of James I. 
to be found in the books of l\Iontes- in 1616 to interfere ^\'ith the judiciary, 
quieu and others, the principle does and the resistance of Coke is well de- 
not exist in the British Constitution, scribed in Taswell-Langmead (pp. 406- 
and was really first applied intelli- 407). By the Act of Settlement (12 
gently in our own. The separation of and 13 William III. c. 2) all judges' 
powers is just as clearly expressed in commissions are to be during good 
the Federal Constitution as in those behavior, and their salaries fixed, and 
of the States, although put more they can only be removed upon address 
simply and without the negative; that of both houses of Parliament. In 1780 


ments, — the legislative, executive, and judicial,* "to the end that 
it be a government of laws, not of men." - And in most of these it 
is declared that no person or collection of persons exercising the 
functions of one department siiall assume or discharge the func- 
tions of any other.^ They (tiie three departments) ought to be 
kept as separate from and independent of each other as the nature 
of a free government will admit."* 

In the other States the same thing is implied by the distribution 
of all such power in separate articles, as in the United States 

In others, only that the Legislature can exercise no judicial power 
not expressly conferred by the Constitution,'' or that the judges shall 
have none but judicial duties imposed upon them." 

The legislature shall have no power to deprive the Judicial De- 
partment of any power or jurisdiction \^hich rightfully pertains to 
it as co-ordinate department of the Government; but the Legisla- 
ture shall provide a proper system of appeals, and regulate, by law, 
when necessary, the methods of proceeding in the exercise of their 
powers of all the courts below the Supreme Court, so far as the same 
may be done without conflict with this Constitution.'' 

§ 201. Political Constitution. (See 309.) There is in all the 
States and territories a Legislature.^ Both the Senate and the House 

a resolution was proposed and carried (Except in cases expressly by the Con- 
in the House of Commons affirming stitution permitted : Ark., Cal., Col., 
that the influence of the Crown has Fla., Ga., Ida., 111., Ind., lo., Ky., La., 
increased, is increasing, and ought to Me., Mich., Minn., Mo., Mon., Neb., 
be diminished (Taswell-Langmead, p. Nev., Ore., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Wy.) 
550). * N. H. 

' Ala. 42; Ark. 4, 1; Cal. 3, 1 ; ^ 0.2,32. 
Col. 3, 1; Ct. 2; Fla. 2; Ga. 1, 23; « N. D. 96; Wy. 5, 16. 
Ida. 2, 1 ; 111. 3, 1 ; Ind. 3, 1 ; lo. 3, ^ Ida. 5, 13. See also Art. 65, for 

1; Ky. 27; La. 16; Mass. 1, 30; Md. laws regulating powers of courts in 

Decln. of Rts. 8 ; Me. 3, 1 ; Mich. 3, contempt cases. 

1 ; Minn. 3, 1 ; Miss. 1, 1 ; Mo. 3, 1 ; « ^la. 44 ; Ark. 5, 1 ; Cal. 4, 1 ; Col 

Mon. 4,1; N. C. 1, 8 ; Neb. 2, 1 ; Nev. 5, 1 ; Ct. 3, 1 ; DsL 2, 1 ; Fla. 3, 1 ; Ga, 

3, 1 ; N. H. 1, 37 ; N. J. 3 ; Okla. 4, 1 ; 3, 1, 1 ; Ida. 3, 1 ; 111. 4, 1 ; Ind. 4, 1 

Ore. 3, 1 ; R. I. 3 ; S. C. 1, 14 ; S. D. 2, lo. 3, 1 ; Kan. 2, 1 ; Ky. 29 ; La. 21 

1 ; Tenn. 2, 1 ; Tex. 2, 1 ; Utah 5, 1 ; Mass. 2, 1, 1, 1 ; Md. 3, 1 ; Me. 4, 1, 1 

Va. 5 & 39 ; Vt. 2, 6 ; W. Va. 5, 1 ; Wy. Mich. 4, 1 ; Minn. 4, 1 ; Miss. 33 ; Mo 

2, 1. 4, 1 ; Mon. 5, 2; N. C. 2, 1 ; N. D. 52 

^ Ala. 43 ; Mass. Neb. 3, 1 ; Nev. 4, 1 ; N. H. 2, 2 ; N. J 

3 Ala. ; Ark. 4, 2 ; Cal. ; Col. ; Fla. ; 4, 1, 1 ; N. Y. 3, 1 ; O. 2, 1 ; Okla. 5, 1 

Ga. ; Ida. ; 111. ; Ind. ; lo. ; Ky. 28 ; La. Ore. 4, 1 ; Pa. 2, 1 ; R. I. 4, 2 ; S. C. 3 

17; Mass.; Md.; Me. 3, 2; Mich. 3,2; 1 ; S. D. 3, 1 ; Tenn. 2, 3; Tex. 3, 1 

Minn.; Miss. 1, 2; Mo.; Mon.; Neb.; U. S. R. S. 1846; Utah 6, 1; Va. 40 

Nev.; N. J.; Okla.; Ore.; S. C; S. D.; Vt. Amts. 2-3; Wash. 2, 1; W. Va, 

Tenn. 2, 2 ; Tex. ; Utah ; Va. ; Vt. ; W. Va 6, 1 ; Wis. 4, 1 ; Wy. 3, 1. In many 


are in all States elected by the people at the general election 
day/ Vacancies in either House are nearly always filled in the same 
way by a special election,^ but in Massachusetts, vacancies in the 
Senate are filled by special election upon the order of a majority of 
the senators elected,'' and in New Hampshire by direct vote of the 
two Houses. Where there is no majority vote, see § 232. 

Each house of the Legislature has a negative on the other. ^ Or 
the concurrence of both Houses is necessary to the enactment of laws.^ 
For other States, see § 304. 

The legislative authority of the State shall be vested in a Legisla- 
ture, consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives ; but the 
people reserve to themselves the power to propose laws and amend- 
ments to the Constitution and to enact or reject the same at the polls 
independent of the Legislature, and also reserve power at their own 
option to approve or reject at the polls any act of the Legislature.* 

There is, in most States, a provision that legislative districts shall be 
fixed according to population. ^ In some of the older States, however, 
the districts are fixed by the Constitution, and cannot, apparently, 
be changed.* So, in South Carolina, there must be only one senator 
from each county.'' In several States the number of both Senate 
and House is permanently fixed ; thus, for the Senate, forty-four ; ^^ 

the le2;islature is called the General Utah; Va. 41, 42; Vt. Amts. 5-24,2 

Assembly (Ark., Col., Ct., Del., Ga., 111., Wash. ; W. Va. 4, 7 ; Wis. 4, 4-5 ; Wy 
Ind., To., Ky., La., Md., Mo., N. C, ^ Ala. 46; Ark. 5, 6; Cal. 4, 12 

N. J., O., Pa., R. I., S. C, Tenn., Va., Col. 5, 2; Del. 2, 6; Ga. 5, 1, 13; 111 

Vt.) ; in a few, the Legislative Assembly 4, 2 ; Ind. 5, 19 ; lo. 3, 12 ; Kan. 2, 9 

(Mon., N. D., Ore.); in some of the Ky. 152; La. 23 ; Md. 3, 13; Me. 1897 

old States, the General Court (Mass., resolve 259; Mich. 5, 10; Minn. 4, 17 

N. H.). In the territories the Senate Miss. 77 ; Mo. 4, 14 ; Mon. 5, 45 ; N. C 

is called the Council. In some States 2, 13 ; N. D. 44 ; Nev. 4, 12 ; N. H. 2 

the House of Representatives is called 15 & 33 ; N. J. 4, 4, 1; O. 2, 11 

the Assembly (Cal., Nev., N. Y., Wis.). Okla. 5, 20; Ore. 5, 17; Pa.; R. I. 8 

In others, the House of Delegates (Md., 9; Amt. 11; S. C. 3, 25; S. D. 3, 10 

W. Va.). Tenn. 2, 15 ; Tex. 3, 13 ; Utah 6, 13 

' Ala. 46 ; Ark. 5, 2-3 ; Cal. 4, 3-4 ; Va. 47 ; Wash. 2, 15 ; W. Va. ; Wis. 4, 

Col. ; Ct. 3, 3-4 ; Del. 2, 2, 3 ; Fla. 3,3; 14 ; Wy. 3, 4. See also § 232. 
Ga. 3, 4, 2; Ida. 3, 2; 111.; Ind. 4, 2; ' Mass. Amt. 24. 
lo. 3, 3 & 5 ; Kan. 2, 29 ; Ky. 29, 30, * Mass. ; Me. ; N. H. 2, 2 ; Vt. This 

31 ; La. 191 ; Mass. Amts. 3-15; Md. is, of course, the case in all the States. 

3, 2 & 6; Me. 4, 2, 1; Mich. 4, 2; * lo. 3, 15; N. Y. 3, 15; R. I. 4. 2. 
Minn. 4, 24; Miss. 34, 35; Mo. 4, 2 & « Okla. 5, 1; Mon. 1905, 61. See 
5 ; Mon. ; N. C. 2 ; N. D. ; Neb. 16, 13 ; also § 309. 

Nev. 4,3-4; N. H. 2, 11 & 27; N. J. ^ S. C. 3, 3. See § 186. 

4, 2, 1; N. Y. 3, 2-5; O. 2, 2; Okla. * Ct. 1895, p. 712; 1899, p. 1153; 

5, 9; Ore. 4, 3; Pa. 2, 2; R. I. 8, 1 ; Del. 2, 2. 

S. C. 3, 2 & 6; S. D.; Tenn.; Tern- " S. C. 3, 6. 
tories, U. S. R. S. 1846; Tex. 3, 3-4; '" Okla. 5, 9. 



[rook III 

or fifty.' For the House, one hundred;^ one-hundred and eipjlit;'' 
one hundred and fifty.* 

United States senators must be elected by popular vote whenever 
the Federal Constitution so permits/' and several states have passed 
resolutions urging Congress to call a convention so to amend ; " 
while a few States have statutes authorizing voters to express their 
preferences for United States senators at ordinary elections. 

§ 202. Executive. There is in all the States a governor, a secre- 
tary of state, and a treasurer.^ And so in all the territories by U. S, 
R. S. 1841. In most of the States there is also a lieutenant-governor.^ 
In New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Maine," there still exists an 
executive council with power to advise the governor; so in North 
Carolina, the "council" consists of the secretary, auditor, treasurer, 
and superintendent of public instruction,"' But in some States the 
president of the Senate, etc., succeeds to the governor's office when 

There is in most States also an auditor,'- comptroller,'^ and an 
attorney-general." In the other States these offices may be provided 
for by statute. In many States there is a superintendent of public 

1 N. Y. 1902, p. 199; 1898, p. 1550. 

2 Okla. 5, 10. 

3 lo. 

* N. Y. 

' Okla. 3, 4. 

« lo. 1907, p. 185; Neb. 1907, 203; 
Ore. 1901, p. 476. 

' Ala. 113; Ark. 6, 1; Ariz.* 1143; 
Territories, U. S. R. S. 1843; Cal. 5, 
1 & 17; Col. 4, 2; Ct. 4, 1 & 18 & 17; 
Del. 3, 1 & 15 ; 2, 16 ; Fla. 4, 1 & 20 ; Ga. 
5, 1, 1 ; Ida. 4, 1 ; 111. 5, 1 ; Ind. 5, 1 ; 6, 
1 ; lo. 4, 1 & 22 ; Kan. 1, 1 ; Ky. 69, 80, 
82 ; La. 61 ; Mass. 2, 2, 1, 1 ; 2, 2, 4, 1 ; 
Amt. 17 ; Md. 2, 1 & 22 ; 6, 1 ; Me. 5, 1, 
1 ; 5, 3, 1 ; Mich. 5,1; 8, 1 ; Minn. 5, 1 ; 
Miss. 116, 133; Mo. 5, 1; Mon. 7, 1; 
N. C. 3, 1; N. D. 71, 82; Neb. 5, 1; 
Nev. 5, 1 & 19 ; N. H. 2, 40 & 66 ; N. J. 5, 
1; 7, 2, 3,4; N.Y. 4, 1; 5, 1; 0.3, 1 
& 5 ; Okla. 6, 1 ; Ore. 5, 1 ; 6, 1 ; Pa. 4, 
1 ; R. I. 7, 1 & 12 ; S. C. 4, 1 & 24 ; S. D. 

4, 1 & 12 ; Tenn. 3, 1 & 17 ; 7, 3 ; Tex. 4, 
1 ; Utah 7, 1 ; Va. 69, 80, 81 ; Vt. Amts. 
8-10 ; Wash. 3, 1 ; W. Va. 7, 1 ; Wis. 

5, 1; 6, 1; Wy. 4, 1 & 11. 

« Ala. 112; Cal. 5,15; Col. 4, 1; 
Ct. 4, 3 ; Del. 3, 19 ; Ida. ; 111. ; Ind. 
5, 2; lo. 4, 3; Kan.; Ky. 82; La.; 

Mass. 2, 2, 2, 1 ; Mich. ; Minn. ; Miss. 
128; Mo.; Mon.; N. C. ; N. D. 72; 
Neb.; Nev. 5, 17; N. Y.; O.; Okla.; 
Pa.; R. L; S. C. 4, 5; S. D. 4, 1; Tex.; 
Va. 77; Vt."; Wash.; Wis. See 
§ 282. 

» N. H. 2, 59; Mass. Amt. 16; 2, 2, 
3, 1; Me. 5, 2, 1. 

1" N. C. 3, 14. 

»' See § 282. 

>2 Ala. ; Ark. ; Col. ; Ida. ; 111. ; Ind ; 
lo. ; Kan. ; Ky. ; La. 82 ; Mass. ; 
Mich. ; Minn. ; Miss. ; Mo. ; Mon. ; 
N. C. ; N. D. ; Neb. ; O. ; Okla. ; Pa. ; 
S. D.; Utah; Va. ; Vt. Amt. 1882, 
p. 108 ; Wash. ; W. Va. ; Wy. 

'3 Cal. ; Ct. 4, 19 ; Fla. ; Ga. ; Md. 
Nev. ; N. J. ; N. Y. ; S. C. ; Tenn. ; Tex 

'* Ala. ; Ark. ; Cal. ; Col. ; Del. 7, 1 
Fla. ; Ga. 6, 10, 1 ; Ida. ; 111. ; lo. 5 
12; Kan.; Ky. ; La. 97; Mass. 9, 11 
Md. 5, 1; Me. 9, 11; Mich.; Minn. 
Miss. 143 ; Mo. ; Mon. ; N. C. ; N. D. 
Neb.; Nev.; N. H. 2, 46; N. J. ; N 
Y.; O.; Okla.; Pa.; R. L; S. C. 
S. D.; Tenn. 6, 5; Territories, U. S 
R. S. 1875; Tex.; Utah; Va. 107 
Wash. ; W. Va. ; Wis. 




instruction,' in others, a board of education.^ And the state Constitu- 
tions estabHsh other offices as follows : a secretary of internal affairs; ^ 
a state engineer or surveyor ; * a state corporation commission of 
three members ; * a state examiner of banks ; ® a commissioner 
of charities;^ a state examiner and inspector;^ a commissioner 
of insurance; * of state prisons; '" of immigration, labor, and statis- 
tics; " of charities; ^" of the land office; '^ of agriculture; " a canal 
board ; '^ a superintendent of public works ; ^^ a commissioner of 
mines; " a board of public works; '^ a register of the land office; '" 
a state librarian ; -'* a superintendent of labor and agriculture ; ^' a 
board of railway commissioners;'^ a board of prison commis- 
sioners ; " a state board of health ; ^* a state board of labor may in 
Virginia be established by law." In the other States, many of these 
boards or commissions are created by the statutes and are com- 
posed of certain specified officers. 

There has been a decided movement recently U) establish railroad 
commissions, and in many states they are created by the state Con- 
stitution itself ; see § 532. For arbitration commissions, see § 456. 

Executive officers are, in most States, elected by the people at 
the general election.-^ 

'« N. Y. 

'' Col. 16, 1. 

i« Md. 12, 1 ; Va. 4. 17. 

" Ky. 

20 Md. 7, 3. 

2^ Ala.; Del. 11, 1; Ky. ; La.; Okla. 

6, 31; Md. 10, 1; Mon. 18, 1; N. D.; 
Va. 143. 

22 Neb., N. D. See in § 532. 

2» Mon. 7, 20; Nev. 5, 21. 

2* Del. 12, 1. 

^ Va. 86. 

26 Ala. 114; Ark. 6, 3; Cal.; Col 
4, 3 ; Ct. Amts. 4, 5, and 6; Del. 3, 2, 
&21; Fla. 4, 20; Ga. 5, 1, 3; Ida. 
4,2; ni. 5, 3 ; Ind. 5, 3 ; 6, 1 ; lo. 4, 2, 
& 3; Kan.; Ky. 70; La. 62 & 79; 
Mass. ; Md. 2, 2 ; Me. 5, 1, 2 ; Mich. 5, 
3 ; 8, 1 ; Minn. ; Miss. ; Mo. 5,2; Mon. 

7, 2; N. C; N. D. 74; N. H. 2, 41 
& 59; Neb. ; Nev. ; N. Y. 5, 1 ; O. 3, 
1 & 18 ; Okla. ; Ore. ; Pa. 4, 2 ; R. L 

8, 1 ; S. C. ; S. D. 4, 3 ; Tenn. 3, 2 ; Tex. 
4, 2 ; Utah 7, 2 ; Va. 70 ; Vt. Amt. 1883, 
p. 107 ; Wash. ; W. Va. 7, 2 ; Wis. 5, 3 ; 
6, 1 ; Wy. 4, 3. But in New Jersey the 
treasurer and comptroller are appointed 
by the legislature in joint session; and 

' Ala. 13, 7; Ark. 6, 21 ; Col. ; Fla 
12, 2 ; Ga. 8, 2, 1 ; Ida. ; 111. ; Ind. 8 
8; Kan.; Ky. 91; La. 225; Mich. 
Miss. 202 ; Mo. ; Mon. ; N. C. ; N. D. 
Neb.; Nev. 11, 1; Okla.; Ore. 8, 1 
Pa.; S. C. 11, 1; S. D. ; Utah; Va 
131; Wash.; W. Va. ; Wis. 10, 1 

2 Cal. 9, 2 ; Col. 9, 1 ; Fla. 12, 3 ; 
Ida. 9, 2; lo. 9, 1, 1; Mich. 13, 9; 
Miss. 203; Mo. 11,4; N. C. 9, 8; Neb. 
8, 1; S. C. 11, 2; Tex. 7. 8; Va. 130. 

3 Pa. 

* Cal. ; Nev. ; N. Y. 5, 2. 

' Va. 155. 

« La. 194. 

' Okla. 6, 27. 

8 Okla. 6, 19. 

« N. D. 82 ; Okla. 6, 22. 

" N. Y. 

» Fla.; Ida. 13, 1; Ky.; Md. 10, 3; 
Va. ; Wash. ; Okla. 6, 20. 

'= N. Y. 8, 11. 

" Ark. ; Col. 9, 9 ; Fla. 4, 26 ; Ky. ; 
Md. 7, 4 ; Mich. ; Neb. ; N. Y. 5, 5 ; 
Okla. 6, 32 ; S. D. ; Tex. ; Wash. 

» Ala.; Del. 11, 1; Va. 143. 

1* N. Y. 5, 5. 



[book III 

Vacancies in all executive offices (except the governor or lieutenant- 
governor, see § 282) are, as a rule, filled either by election or appoint- 
ment as originally provided.' But in some, they are filled by the 
governor, with the consent of the Senate, if in session ^ (except in 
Illinois, Montana, North Carolina; and, in Massachusetts, vacancies 
of the council are filled by the joint vote of the Legislature, or, if not 
in session, by the governor and council. Mass. Amt. 25.) 

In a few States, all state offices for the weighing, gauging, inspecting 
or measuring any merchandise or produce are forbidden.'' 

§ 203. Terms of Office. A senator, by the Constitution of 
most States, is elected for four years.* In many others, for two 

the attorney-general and secretary of 
state are nominated by the governor 
and confirmed by the senate (N. J. 7, 
2, 3, & 4) ; so, in New York, the super- 
intendents of pubUc works, and of 
prisons. In Pennsylvania, the secretary 
of state and attorney-general are ap- 
pointed by the governor and confirmed 
by the senate on a two-thirds vote ; 
and so he appoints one superintendent 
of public instruction and all other 
officers whom he is given power to 
appoint (Pa. 4, 8). In Maryland, the 
comptroller and attorney-general are 
elected by the people ; the secretary of 
state, librarian, and commissioner of 
lands appointed by the governor ; and 
the legislature in joint session elects 
the treasurer. In Delaware, the secre- 
tary of state is appointed by the 
governor and confirmed by the senate 
(Del. 3, 10) ; and the treasurer by the 
legislature (Del. 2, 16). In two States, 
the secretary of state is appointed by 
the governor and confirmed by the 
senate (Tex. 4, 21 ; W. Va. 7, 3). In 
Georgia, the school commissioner or 
superintendent is appointed by the 
governor. In several, the secretary 
and treasurer [and commissary] are 
elected by the legislature in joint 
ballot (Me. ; N. H. 2, 66; Tenn. 3, 17; 
7, 3 ; so, in one, the comptroller (Tenn.) ; 
so, in one, the attorney-general (Me. 9, 
11). In one, the attorney-general is 
appointed by the Supreme Court 
(Tenn.), in one, by the governor and 
council (N. H. 2, 45). The state boards 
of charities, lunacy, and prisons are 
appointed by the governor and con- 
firmed by the senate (N. Y. 8, 12). 

In the territories, the governor, sec- 
retary, and attorney-general are ap- 
pointed by the President, and con- 
firmed by the Senate of the United 
States (U. S. R. S. 1877). 

In Maine, the council is elected by 
the legislature in joint ballot (Me. 5, 
2, 2). 

In Mississippi, the governor is chosen 
by votes of the counties or district, each 
one being entitled to the same num- 
ber of votes as it is entitled to members 
in the House, these being designated 
electoral votes and given to the person 
receiving in each county or district the 
highest number; and the person re- 
ceiving a majority of all the electoral 
votes and also a majority of the popular 
vote is declared elected by the House, 
which may determine the contested 
vote of counties or districts by a ma- 
jority vote. If no person have such 
majorities, the House chooses the gov- 
ernor from the two persons who have 
received the highest number of popular 
votes, which election is viva voce. 
(Miss. 140; 141.) 

' See §§ 202, 211. 

2 Ala. 136; Ark. 6, 23; Col. 4, 6 
Del. 2, 9; 111. 5, 20; Kan. 1, 14; Ky, 
76; La. 76; Mich. 8, 3; Minn. 5, 4 
Mon. 7, 7; N. C. 3, 13; Neb. 5, 20 
W. Va. 7, 17. In R. I., the legislature 
elects, as in § 232, by majority vote. 
(R. I. Amt. 11.) 

^ Cal. 11, 14; Pa. 3, 27. 

* Ala. 46 ; Ark. 5, 3 ; Cal. 4, 4 ; Col. 
5, 3 ; Del. 2, 2 ; Fla. 7, 2 ; Ind. 4, 3 
lo. 3, 5 : Kan. 2, 29 ; Ky. 31 ; La. 24 
Md. 3, 2; Minn. 4, 24; Miss. 34, 35 
Mo. 4, 5; Mon. 5, 2; N. D. 27; Nev 


years.* In two, for one year.^ In one, for three years.^ Half the 
senators are, in many States, elected at each general election for 
them, the other half holding over.* And so, one-third are elected 
at each general election, the others holding over.^ In three States, 
a representative is elected for four years.'' But in most States, for two 
years. ^ In four States, for one year.^ In about half, the governor 
holds office for a term of two years.* In most others, for four years.'" 
In two, for one year." In one, for three years. '^ 

The other executive officers, generally, hold office for the same 
period as the governor in all the States. '^ 

§ 204. Special Qualifications for Senators and Representatives.^* 
The usual qualifications required by the state Constitutions for 
state senators and representatives fall into three classes : citizenship, 
age, and residence. Thus, in most States, no person can be state 

4, 4; Okla. 5, 9; Ore. 4, 4; Pa. 2, 3 ; 3, 4; Tex. 4, 4; Vt. Amt. 24, 3; Wis. 

5. C. 3, 6; Tex. 3, 3; Utah 6, 4; Va. 5, 1. 

41; Wash. 2,6; W. Va. 6,3; Wis. 4, '" Ala. 116; Cal. 5, 2; Del. 3, 2; 
5 & Amt. ; Wy. 3, 2. Fla. 4, 2 ; 111. 5, 1 ; Ind. 5, 1 ; Ky. 70 ; 

1 Ct. Amt. 16, 2; Amt. 27; Ga. 3, La. 62; Md. 2, 1 ; Miss. 4, 2; Mo. 5,2; 

4, 1 ; Ida. 3, 3 ; 111. 4, 2 ; Me. Amt. 23 ; Mon. 7,1; N. C. 3, 1 ; Nev. 5, 2 ; Okla. 
Mich. 4, 2; N. C. 2, 3; Neb. 3, 4; N. 6, 4; Ore. 5, 1; Pa. 4, 3 ; Territories, 
H. 2, 24; N. Y. 3, 2; O. 2, 2; S. D. U. S. R. S. 1841; Utah 7, 1; Va. 69; 
3, 6; Tenn. 2, 3; Territories, U. S. R. Wash. 3, 2; W. Va. 7, 1; Wy. 4, 1. 

5, 1846; Vt. Amt. 24, 4. " Mass. 2, 2, I, 2; R. I. 

2 Mass. Amt. 22 ; R. I. 8, I. '^ N. J. 5, 3. 

^ N. J. 4, 2, 1. " In New Jersey, the treasurer and 

* Ark. ; Cal. 4, 5 ; Col. 5, 5 ; Fla. ; comptroller hold office for three years, 
Ind. ; lo. 3, 6 ; Ky. ; Md. 3, 7-8 ; Minn. ; and the attorney-general and secretary 
Mo. 4, 10 ; Mon. ; N. D. ; Okla. Ore. ; of state for five (N. J. 7, 2, 3, & 4). 
Tex.; Utah; 1, 4; Wash.; W. Va. ; The term of the auditor-general is three 
Wis. ; Wy. years, and of the treasurer two (Pa. 

« N. J. 4, 2, 2. 4, 21). In Ohio, the auditor holds office 

' Ala. ; La. ; Miss. for four years. In Indiana, they all 

" Ark. 5, 2 ; Cal. 4, 3 ; Col. 5, 3 ; hold office two years, except the lieu- 

Ct. Amt. 27, 1 ; Del. 2,2 ; Fla. ; Ga. ; tenant-governor. In Minnesota, the 

Ida. ; 111. ; Ind. ; lo. 3, 3 ; Kan. ; Ky. auditor holds office four years (Minn. 

31; Md. 3, 6; Me.; Mich. 4, 3; Minn.; 5,5; Amt. 1883, C. 1). In Maryland, 

Mo. 4, 2 ; Mon. ; N. C. 2, 5 ; N. D. the attorney-general and the superin- 

33 ; Neb. ; Nev. 4, 3 ; N. H. 2, 9 ; O. ; tendent of labor, etc., hold office four 

Okla.; Ore.; Pa.; S. C. 3, 2 ; S. D. ; years (Md. 5, 1). In several, the 

Tenn. ; Territories* ; Tex. 3, 4 ; Utah treasurer holds office two years (Del. 

6, 3; Va. 5, 2; Vt.; Wash. 2, 5; W. 3, 21; 111. 5, 2; Ky. 3, 25). And the 
Va. ; Wis. 4, 4. auditor (Del.). In Tennessee, the sec- 

* Mass. 2, 1,3, 1 ; N. J. 4, 3, I ; retary of state holds office four years 
N. Y. 3, 2 ; R. I. and the attorney-general, eight. In 

® Ark. 6, 1 ; Col. 4, I ; Ct. ; Ga. 5, Nevada, the superintendent of instruc- 
1, 2; Ida.; lo. 4, 2; Kan. 1, I; Me.; tion holds office two years (Nev. 11, 
Mich. 5, 1 ; Minn. 5, 3 ; N. D. 71 ; 1). For citations of other States, see 
Neb. 5, 1; N. H. 2, 41; N. Y. 4, 1; above and § 202. See also § 212. 
O. 3, 2 ; S. C. 4, 2 ; S. D. 4, 1 ; Tenn. ^* For religious quahfications, see 

§§ 46, 47. 


senator or representative who is not a citizen of the United States * 
or in some cases a qualified elector of the State, which would seem to 
mean much the same tliiii<^. Maine alone prescribes that he must 
have been a citizen of the United States for five years. ^ 

The residence qualifications vary considerably and are usually 
greater in the case of a senator than in a representative; thus, no 
person is eligible for state senator who has not been one year,^ two 
years,* three years,'' four years," five years,'' six years,^ or seven years ' 
resident in the State. In a few States the term used is "citizen " in- 
stead of "resident." ^^ In others "a qualified elector." " 

For representatives, the period of residence is one year,^^ two 
years," tliree years, ^* four years, ^^ and five years; '" and in sev- 
eral States he must in like manner be a qualified elector,'^ or a 
citizen. ^^ 

There is frequently required by the Constitution a term of residence 
within the senatorial or representative district which is usually also 
greater in the case of senators than in that of representatives. Thus, 
in many, a candidate must be resident in the senatorial^'* or represent- 
ative "" district at the time of the election ; and if he cease to reside in 
such district he vacates his office."^ The time of residence required 
in the district varies in the case of senators, from sixty days,^ three 

lArk. 5, 4; Col. 5, 4; Ga. 3, 5, 1 ; ^^ ^rk. ; Ga. ; Ind. ; Ky. 32; Mo.; 

Ida. 3, 6; III. 4,3; Ind. 4, 7; lo. 3, 5; N. H. 2, 13; N. J. 4, 1, 2; N. D. 34; 

Mich. 4, 5 ; Mo. 4, 6 ; Mon. 5, 3 ; Ore. S. D. ; Tex. ; Vt. 2, 18. 

4, 8; S. C. 3, 7; S. D. 3, 3 ; Tenn. 2, '* Ala. 47; Cal. 4, 4; Del. 2, 2; 
10; Tex. 3, 6; Utah 5, 1; Wash. 2, 7; Md. 3, 9; Tenn.; Utah. 

Wy. 3, 2. '' Miss. 41 ; Pa. 2, 5. 

2 Me. 4, 2, 6. '« 111. ; La. 24. 

* lo. 3, 5; Me. 4, 1, 4; 4, 2, 6; " Ida.; La.; Md. ; Minn.; Miss. 
Minn. 4, 25 ; Wis. 4, 6. 41 ; Mo. ; N. C. 2, 8 ; Neb. 3, 5 ; N. J. ; 

* Ark.; Ind.; N. C. 2, 7; N. D. 28; S. C; Territories; Tex. 

5. D. '« Ky. ; Wy. 

= Ala. 47 ; Del. 2,3; Cal. 4, 4 ; Md. '» Ct. 3, 3 ; Kan. 2, 4 ; Mass. ; Me. ; 

3, 9 ; Mo. ; Tenn. ; Utah. Mich. ; Miss. ; Neb. ; N. H. ; Okla. 

« Ga.; Miss. 42; N. J. 4, 1, 2; Pa. 5, 17; Territories, U. S. R. S. 1846; 

2, 5. Va. 5, 5. 

^ 111.; La. 24; Mass. 2, 1, 2, 5; ^^ Ct. Amt. 3; Kan. 2, 4; Mass. 

Amt. 22 ; Tex. ; W. Va. 4, 4. Mich. 4, 5 ; Miss. ; Neb. ; N. H. 

8 Ky. Territories; Va. 44; Vt. Amt. 23 

« N. H. 2, 28. Wis. 

" Cal., Del., Ky., Md., N. C, N. J., ^i ^i^. ; Fla. 3, 8; Ga. 3, 4, 8; La.; 

Pa., W. Va., Wy. Mass.; Me.; Mich.; Miss.; Mo. 4, 13; 

'' Ida.; Md.; Minn.; Miss.; Mo.; Neb.; Okla.; Pa.; Tex. 3, 23; Va. ; 

N. D.; Neb. 3, 5; N. J. ; Tex.; Ter- W. Va. 6, 12. 

ritories, U. S. R. S. 1846; W. Va. ^^ lo. In England at one time mem- 

'^ lo. ; Me. ; Minn. 4, 25 ; S. C ; bers of Parliament had to be resident 

Wis. 4, 6. in the district. 


months/ six months,^ one year,^ to two years.* In some States, 
instead of resident he must be a qualified elector,^ in the district. 

In the case of representatives, he must, in like manner, be resident 
in the district at the time of the election,*' and upon ceasing to be such 
resident he loses his office.^ The time of residence required varies 
from sixty days,** three months,^ six months,^*' one year,'' to two 
years. '^ 

Many state Constitutions have also age qualifications for senators 
or representatives, varying from twenty-one '^ in the case of senators 
to twenty-five,''* twenty-six,'^ twenty-seven,'^ or thirty.'^ For repre- 
sentatives, the age varies from twenty-one,'^ to twenty-four,'® or 
twenty-five.^" In Missouri, either senator or representative must 
have paid a state or county tax within one year before election. 

There are certain other miscellaneous special qualifications. (See 
also Art. 22 and § 304.) Thus, in Massachusetts, the Constitution 
forbids any property qualification for the Legislature or Council.'' In 
Nebraska, no person interested in a contract with, or an unadjusted 
claim against, the State, can hold a seat in the Legislature.-" In Dela- 
ware, no person concerned in an army or navy contract; and no 
person who has served as state treasurer is eligible for the Legislature 
before his accounts as treasurer are settled and discharged.-^ In West 
Virginia, no salaried officer of a railroad.-^ No person convicted of 
embezzlement or misuse of the public funds. ^^ No person who has 

1 Me., S. C. Amt. 21; Md.; Mo.; Mon. ; N C; 

^ Minn. Neb.; N. J.; O. 2, 3; Ore.; Pa.; 

3 Ala.; Ark.; Cal. ; Col.; Del. ; Tenn. 2, 9; Tex.; Utah; Vt.; W. Va. 

Ga.; Ida.; Ind. ; Ky. ; Md. ; Mo. 4, 6, 12 ; Wy. 

6; Mon.; N. C. ; Neb.; N. J. ; 0.2, '^ jlL, La., Miss. 

3 ; Ore. ; Pa. ; Tenn. ; Tex. ; Utah ; " Ore. 

W. Va. ; Wy. " Ala. ; Ark. ; Col. ; Ga. ; 111. ; Ind. ; 

* 111., La., Miss. lo. 3, 5 ; La. ; Md. ; Me. 4, 2, 6 ; Miss. ; 
« Fla. 3, 4 ; Kan. ; Mich. ; N. D. ; Mon. ; N. C. ; N. D. ; Okla. ; Pa. ; S. 

Nev. 4, 5 ; Okla. ; S. C. 3, 7 ; S. D. ; C. ; S. D. (24) ; Utah ; W. Va. ; Wy. 

Utah ; Va. ; Wash. ; Wis. '« Tex. 

« Ct. 3, 3 ; Kan. 2, 4 ; Mass. ; Me. ; " Del. 

Mich.; Miss.; Neb.; N. H. ; Okla. " Ky., Mo., N. H., N. J., Tenn., Vt. 

5, 17; Territories, U. S. R. S. 1846; '^ Ala., Ark., Ga., 111., Ind., lo., Md., 

Va. 5, 5. Me., Miss., Mon., N. D., N. J., Okla., 

' Ala. ; Fla. 3, 8; Ga. 3, 4, 8; La.; Ore., Pa., S. C, Tenn., Tex., Wy. 

Mass. Amt. 21 ; Me. ; Mich. ; Miss. ; Mo. '^ Del., Ky., Mo. 

4, 13; Neb.; N. H. ; Okla.; Pa.; Tex. ^o c^i^ q^^ g jy ^ utah. 

3, 23 ; Va. ; W. Va. ^' Mass. Amt. 13. 

* lo. 22 Ngb 3^ g Compare § 154. 
« Me. 23 Del 2, 24. 

'" Minn. =4 -^V. Va. 6, 13. See § 204, note 14. 

" Ala. ; Ark. ; Cal. 4, 4 ; Col. ; ^5 q^. 3, 4, 7 ; Kan. 2, 6. See also 
Del. ; Ga. ; Ida. ; Ind. ; Ky. ; Mass. § 222. 


been convicted of bribery, perjury, or otlier infamous crime,* or 
expelled for corruption.- And also, no person who has collected 
or been intrusted with public money, and has not accounted for 
the same.^ 

Many qualifications similar to these are, of course, contained in 
the general provision for disqualification for office.* 

§ 205. Special Qualifications for Governor.^ Similar qualifications 
for the governor are prescribed in many state Constitutions; thus, he 
must be a citizen of the United States." And he must, in some States, 
have been such citizen for a certain period of time ; thus, two years,'' 
five years,* ten years,® twelve years, *° fifteen years, '* or twenty years.*^ 
In Maine, he must be a natural-born citizen of the United States.*^ In 
others, he must have been resident of the State a certain period of time ; 
thus, one year," two years,*^ three years,'" four years," five years,** six 
years,*® seven years,-" and ten years.-* And in Maine and the terri- 
tories, he must continue to reside in the State or territory during his 
term of office. ^^ In a few States, instead of "citizen," the words 
"qualified elector" are used.^^ The age limitations for the governor 
vary from twenty-one in States where there is no prescription, to 
twenty-five in a few,^* thirty in most,^^ and thirty-five in two.-" 

In a few States the governor is not eligible for re-election for any 
two successive terms (unless the office devolved upon him) ; " and so 
in Delaware, he is not eligible for a third time for the office.-* In 

> N. D. 38; S. D. 3, 4; Okla. 5, IS. " Ore., Va. 

2 Okla. 5, 19. " Vt. 2, 30. 

3 Ky. 45; W. Va. 6, 14. i* Cal. ; Fla. ; III; Ind.; Md. 2, 5; 
* See § 223. Me.; Miss.; N. Y. ; S. C. ; Tex.; 
« See also § 221. Utah; Va. 71 ; W. Va. 4, 4; Wy. 

» Ark. 6, 5 ; Col. 4, 4 ; Del. 3,6; '» Del. ; Ga ; Ky. 72. 
Ida. 4, 3 ; Minn. 5, 3 ; Mon. 7,3; N. D. '" Ala. ; Ark. ; Mass. 2, 2,1,2; Mo. ; 

73; N. Y. 4, 2; Okla. 6, 3; Ore. 5, N. H. 2, 41; N. J.; Pa. 4, 5; Tenn. 
2; Pa. 4, 5; S. D. 4, 2; Tenn. 3, 3; ^i l^., Md. 
Tex. 4, 4; Va. 71; Wis. 5, 2; Wy. 22 ^^^ u g j^ g i841. 

4, 2. 23 Ark. ; Ct. 4, 1 ; Fla. ; Md. ; N. D. ; 
' lo. 4, 6 ; Neb. 5, 2. Nev. ; S. D. ; Utah ; 7, 3 ; Wis. ; Wy. 
« Cal. 5, 3; 111. 5, 5; Ind. 5, 7; =* Cal., Minn., Nev. 

Mich. 5, 2 ; N. C. 3, 2 ; S. C. 4, 3. ^s ^la. Ark., Col., Ct., Del., Ga., Ida., 

« Ala. 117; Fla. 4, 3; La. 63; Mo. 111., Ind., lo., La., Md., Me., Mich., 

5, 5 ; Va. (if of foreign birth). Miss., Mon., N. C, N. D., Neb., N. H., 
1" Del. N. J., N. Y., Okla., Ore., Pa., S. C, 
" Ga. 5, 1, 7. S. D., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Va., W. Va., 
12 Miss. 117; N. J. 5, 4. Wy. 

»* Me. 5, 1, 4. 28 i^y j^o 

" Minn. " Fla. 4, 2; Ky. 71; La.; Miss. 

•»Col. ; Ida.; lo. ; Mich.; Miss.; 116; Mo. 5, 2; N. C. ; N. J. 5, 3 ; Okla. 

Mon.; N. C; Neb,; Nev. 5, 3; Okla.; 6, 3; Pa. 4, 3; Va. 69; W. Va. 7, 4. 
S. C; S. D. 28 Del 3^ 5^ 


Tennessee, not more than six years in any term of eight.' In Indiana, 
not more than four years in any term of eight." In Oregon, not 
more than eight years in any period of twelve.^ In Georgia he is 
not ehgible for four years after a second term.* 

Other executive offices must generally have the same qualifica- 
tions as the governor and this is frequently specified as to the 

Several States provide against long periods of service by the trea- 
surer or auditor; thus, the treasurer is not eligible for any two suc- 
cessive terms,* or for more than five successive years,^ or until two 
years after the end of two successive terras ; * so the auditor is only 
eligible for two successive terms ; ^ and in Oregon, the treasurer and 
secretary are not eligible for more than eight years in any period of 
twelve. '" There are certain other qualifications for the less important 
executive offices in several States which it has not seemed worth while 
to set forth in detail." 

§ 206. Paij of the State Legislature. Many state Constitutions 
provide that members of the Legislature shall receive a fixed compensa- 
tion '' which generally may not be increased or diminished during the 
term for which they are elected. ^^ In a few States it cannot be altered 
at all by the Legislature, the salaries being fixed by the Constitution.'* 

Similar principles apply to the pay of all executive officers in several 


^ Tenn. 3, 4. 3, 23 ; 111. 4, 21 ; Ind. 4, 29 ; lo. 3, 25 ; 

^ Ind. 5, 1. Kan. 2, 3 ; Ky. 42 ; La. 29 ; Md. 3, 15 ; 

3 Ore. 5, 1. Me. 4, 3, 7; Mich. 4, 15; Minn. 4, 7; 

* Ga. 5, 1, 2. Miss. 46; Mo. 4, 16; Mon. 5, 5; N. C. 

8 Ala. ; Cal. 5, 15 ; Col. 4, 4 ; Ct. 2, 28 ; N. D. 45 ; Neb. 3, 4 ; Nev. 4, 

4, 3; Del. 3, 19; 111. 5, 5; Ind. 5, 7; 33; N. H. 2, 14; N. J. 4, 4, 7; N. Y. 
lo. 4, 6; Ky. 82; Mass. 2, 2, 2, 1; 3, 6; O. 2, 31; Okla. 5, 21; Ore. 4, 
Mich. 5, 2; Minn. 5, 3; Miss. 5, 14; 29; Pa. 2, 8; R. I. 4, 11 ; Amt. 11 
Mo. 5, 15 ; N. C. 3, 2 ; Neb. 5, 2 ; Nev. (1900, p. 146) ; S. C. 3, 19; S. D. 3, 6 

5, 17; N. Y. 4, 2; Okla. 6, 3 & 15; Tenn. 2, 23; Terr. U. S. R. S. 1853 
Pa. 4, 5 ; S. C. 4, 5 ; Vt. 2, 30 ; Wis. 1878, 329 ; Tex. 3, 24 ; Utah 6, 9 
5, 2. Va. 45 ; Wash. 2, 23 ; W. Va. 6, 33 

« Ky. 93; La. 80; Mon. 7, 1; Mo. Wis. 4, 21; Wy. 3, 6. 

5, 2; Utah; N. D. 82; S. D. 4, 12; '^ Ark.; Cal.; Col.; Ct. 4, 4; Ind. 

Miss.; Wash. 3, 25; Wy. 4, 11. lo. ; Ky. 74; Me.; Minn.; Miss. 

^Col. 4, 21; Mass. 2, 2, 4, 1 ; Me. Mon. 5, 5 & 8; Nev.; O. ; Pa. 

5, 4, 1 ; Pa. 4, 21. S. C. ; Utah; Va. 72; Wy. 3, 9. 

« 111. 5, 2; Neb. 5, 3. »* Mo., Tex. 

» Col., Pa. " Ala. 118; Ark. 19, 11 ; Cal. 5, 19 

'0 Ore. 6, 1. Col.; Ida. 4, 19; 111. 5, 23; Kan. 

>' Ky. 93; Mon. 7, 3. Ky. 235; N. C. 3, 15; N. H. 2, 17; N 

'2 Ala. 49; Ariz.* 1139; Ark. 5, D. 84; N. Y. ; O. 2, 19; S. D. 21,2 

16; Cal. 4, 23; Col. 5, 6; Ct. Amt. 27; Utah; Wash. 3, 14; Wy. 4, 13. 
Del. 2, 15 ; Fla. 3, 4 ; Ga. 3, 9, 1 ; Ida. 

206 Till': STATi; constitutions [book hi 

When tlie pay of tlio Lrj^islatun' is fixed l)y the Constitution, or the 
term for whieli they are j)ai(l limited (see § 277), the provision be- 
comes more important, as in a certain measure determining the 
lengtli of legishitive sessions. Tlius, in New Hampshire, in the case 
of a special session, legislators receive three dollars a day, but for a 
period not exceeding fifteen days, and the total pay for any regular 
session is two hundred dollars with mileage. See also § 277. Mileage 
is given in most States. 

This pay would doubtless be understood to be all that a member 
of a state Legislature could receive in any manner, direct or indirect, 
for performing the duties of his office without being liable for bribery 
or malfeasance, and the Constitution of INIississippi expressly provides 
that no member can take a fee or act as counsel before either House.' 

Article 21. Of Offices ix General 

§ 210. Appointment. (For the important executive officers and 
the members of the Legislature, see Art. 20; for the judicial officers, 
see Art. 65.) 

Generally speaking, it may be stated that all State officers except 
such important executive officers or judges as are elected by the 
people of the State or the several districts are appointed by the gov- 
ernor,- in Massachusetts, INIaine, and New Hampshire, with the 
consent of the Council,^ and very generally this appointment must 
be confirmed by the Senate.^ Other officers are to be appointed or 
elected as the Legislature may provide.^ INIost State Constitutions 
provide with considerable detail what officers shall be elected by the 
people of the several counties, towns, or districts, usually solicitors 
or district attorneys, sheriffs, registers of deeds and probate, county 
treasurers, and so on. It has not seemed worth while to go into this 
matter in more detail. 

§ 211. Vacancies in any office whatever (except members of the 

1 Miss. 47. * Col., Del., Ida., Ill, La., Md., 

2 Col. 4, 6; Del. 3, 9; Ida. 4, 6; 111. Minn., N. C, Neb., N. J., Pa., Territo- 
5, 10 ; La. 71 ; Md. 2, 10 ; Minn. 5, 4 ; ries, Utah, W. Va. 

Mo. 5, 23; Mon. 7, 7; N. C. 3, 10; * Cal. 20, 4; Fla. 3, 27; Ind. 15, 1; 

Neb. 5, 10; N. J. 7, 2, 9 ; Pa. 4, 8; Kan. 2, 19 & 15, 1; Ky. 93; Mo. 14,9; 

Territories, U. S. R. S. 1857; Utah 7, Neb. 5, 1; Amt. 1883, Nev. 15, 10; 

10 ; Vt. 2, 11 ; W. Va. 7, 8. N. H. 2, 5 ; O. 2, 27 ; Ore. 6, 7 ; Pa. 12, 

3 Mass. 2, 2, 1, 9; 2, 1, 1, 4; Me. 5, 1 ; Tenn. 7, 4; Territories; W. Va. 4, 
1, 8; N. H. 2, 45. 8; Wis. 13, 9; Wy. 6, 12 (6). 


Legislature and the governor or lieutenant-governor or other high 
executive offices) are usually filled by the governor with the consent 
of the council, when there is one, or in some States of the Senate, but 
in other States the whole matter of filling vacancies is left to the 
Legislature. ^Yhere nothing is said, all offices would presumably be 
filled in the same manner as the original appointment (see § 210). 
So, vacancies in elective offices are filled at the next regular election. 

§ 212. Tenure. A few States have the general provision that no 
office can be granted for a longer term than during good behavior,^ 
while in three States no person shall be elected or appointed to office 
for life or during good behavior, but the terms of all offices shall be 
for some specified period (except notaries and in the militia).- In 
several States no office can be created by the Legislature for a longer 
term than four years,^ or in Texas, two years.* 

It is usually provided that all officers (except in case of impeach- 
ment or suspension) shall continue to discharge their duties until 
their successors are duly appointed and qualified ; ^ and in some 
States this provision is expressly made of the governor or other exec- 
utive officers.'^ No law can be passed which shall operate to extend 
the term of any public officer after his election or appointment.^ 

Rotation in office is still, by the Constitutions of Massachusetts, 
Maryland, and Virginia, declared to be a necessary principle in a 
free government.^ 

§ 213. Pay. The State Constitutions frequently provide that all 
officers are to receive a compensation fixed by law, reasonable in 
amount, and paid at stated periods.^ In some, a limit of salaries is 
fixed by the Constitution.**' In Vermont all offices of profit are for- 

1 Ala. 1, 29 ; Del. 1, 19 ; Me. 1, 23 ; Miss. 5, 22 ; Mo. 5, 2 ; Mon. 7, 1 ; N. C. 
Pa. 1, 24. 3, 1 ; N. D. ; Nev. 5, 2 ; 5, 19 ; N. J. 7, 

2 Ky. 23; Miss. 20; S. C. 1, 11. 2,3; Pa. 4, 17; R. I. 8, 1 ; S. C. 4, 2 ; 

3 Cal. 20, 16 ; Fla. 16, 7 ; Ind. 15, 2 ; S. D. 5, 36 ; Tenn. 3, 4 ; Tex. 4, 4 ; 4, 
Kan. 15, 2; Miss. 252; Nev. 15, 11; 22; 4, 23; Vt. Amt. 21; Wash. 3, 2; 
Ore. 15, 2. Wy. 4, 1. 

* Tex. 16, 30. ' Col. 5, 30; Del. 15, 4; 111. 4, 28; 

* Ark. 19, 5; Col. 12, 1; Del. 15, 5; Mo. 14, 8; Mon. 5, 31; Okla. ; Pa. 3, 
Fla. 16, 14; Ind. 15,3; La. 172; Miss. 13; W. Va. 6, 37; Wy. 3, 32. 

136; Mo. 14, 5; O. Sched. 10; Okla. » Mass. 1, 8; Md. 1, 34; Va. 1, 5. 
23, 10; Ore. 15, 1; R. I. 4, 16; Tenn. » Ala. 118; Ark. 16, 4; Ky. 96; 

7, 5 ; Tex. 16, 17 ; Va. 33 ; W. Va. 4, La. 81 ; Miss. 103 ; Mo. 5, 24 ; Okla. 

6; Wy. 6, 12. 6, 34; Ore. 13, 1; N. Y. 10, 9; Tex. 

* Ark. 6, 1 ; Ct. 4, 1 ; Ga. 3, 4, 1 ; 3, 44 ; Va. 83. 

5,1,2; 111.5,1; lo. 3, 3; 4,2; 5,12; "Ark. 19, 23; Ky. 246 ($5000); 
Kan. 1,1; Ky. 73 ; La. 64 ; Mass. Amt. La. ; Md. 15, 1 ; Mich. 9, 1 ; Amt. 1893, 
17 ; Md. 2, 1 ; 5, 1 ; Minn. 5, 3 ; 5, 5 ; p. 433 ; S. D. 21, 2. 


l>iddcii, hut fees or a reasoniihle compensation may be allowed.' 
In two States all fees and perquisites are forbidden,- and the Legisla- 
ture may not increase the expenses of any office by appointing 
assistant officers.^ 

§ 214. Extra Pay. ^ ery generally this compensation may not 
be increased or diminished during the term of office ; and the Legis- 
lature can grant no extra compensation after the service is ended or 
after the contract is entered into.* Nor can it authorize municipal 
corporations to grant such compensation.^ In two States, salaries of 
deceased officers may not be paid beyond the date of death," and it 
would seem that this must be the law in others.^ 

§ 215. Farming Offices. By the Constitutions of three States, no 
person elected or appointed to any oflBce under the laws of the State 
or any municipal ordinance shall hold such office without personally 
devoting his time to the performance of its duties.^ 

§ 216. Gerrymandering. The Constitutions of California and 
Idaho provide that when a congressional district shall be composed 
of two or more counties, it shall not be separated by any county be- 
longing to another district; nor can a county or city be divided to 
form congressional districts, except when rendered necessary by 
excess of population.^ In four, the congressional districts shall be 
formed of contiguous counties, &c., and be "compact."^" 

There are in nearly all States provisions of the same nature as to 
districts electing members of the State Legislature, and in Oklahoma 
an apportionment made by the Legislature is reviewable by the 
Supreme Court at suit of any citizen." 

§ 217. Election of United States Officers. The Constitutions of 
several States provide that senators shall be elected by the two houses 
of the Legislature in joint convention, at such time and in such man- 

1 Vt. 2, 25. 12, 3 ; Utah 6, 30 ; Tex. 3, 44 ; W. Va. 

=^ La. 180; Okla. 6, 38; Wash. 2, 25; Wis. 4, 26; Wy. 

« La. 54. 3, 30; 3, 32; 4, 13. 

* Ala. 68, 98, 118, 281 ; Ark. 5, 27 ; « Ala. ; Cal. ; Ct. ; La. ; Mo. ; N. Y. ; 

Cal. 4, 32 ; Col. 5, 28 & 30 ; Ct. Amt. Tex. 3, 53. 

24; Del. 15, 4; Fla. 16, 11; Ga. 7, 16, » Ala. 97; S. C. 3, 32. 

2 ; Ida. 5, 27 ; 111. 4, 19 ; lo. 3, 31 ; Ky. ^ Compare also § 395. 

235; La. 47; Md. 3, 35; Mich. 4, 21 ; » Col. 12, 2; Mo. 2, 18; Miss. 267; 

Miss. 96; Mo. 4, 48; 5, 24; 14, 8; Okla. 2, 11. 

Mon. 5, 29 & 31; 7, 4; Neb. 3, 16; » Cal. 4, 27; Ida. 3, 5. 

Nev. 4, 28; 15, 9; N. Y. 6, 12; 3, 28; "> Mon. 6, 3; Va. 55; W. Va. 4, 6; 

10, 9 ; O. 2, 20 & 29 ; Okla. 5, 47 ; 23, Wy. 3, 46. 

10; Pa. 3, 11 & 13; S. C. 3, 30; S. D. " Okla. 5, 10 (j). 


ner as may be by law provided.' In Nebraska the Legislature may 
provide that at the general election next preceding the expiration of 
tiie term of a United States senator, the electors may by ballot express 
their preference for some person for such office." In Oklahoma ^ the 
Legislature shall provide for their election by direct vote of the peo- 
ple "at any time the Federal Constitution may permit." By the 
Constitution of Florida, no person can receive credentials as a mem- 
ber of Congress who has not been five years a citizen of the State 
and ten years a citizen of the United States and is not a qualified 

In Colorado, one representative in Congress is elected for the 
State at large.^ Presidential electors must, in Colorado, be elected 
by the people; and it was so prescribed in the old Constitution of 
South Carolina, but seems to be omitted from the present one. 
There is, of course, nothing in the Federal Constitution (Art. 2, 1) 
to prevent a State from appointing the electors in such manner as the 
Legislature direct, or by direct choice of the Legislature itself, if the 
State Constitution were so to provide. Michigan and other States 
in fact elect them by districts. 

Territorial delegates are elected by the people, one from each 

§ 218. Corruption. State officers may not be interested in con- 
tracts awarded by their department.^ 

Article 22. Qualifications for Office 

§ 220. Plurality of Offices. Nearly all the States have provisions 
that no person can hold at the same time a State office and a national 
office of trust or profit, or at the same time two State offices of trust 
or profit, and this applies as well to seats in the Legislature as to 
other offices. The only exception is commonly that of justices of the 
peace and officers in the militia. Generally the holding of such other 
office, State or national, or under any foreign government, would 
make the person ineligible for a State office; and if already holding 
a seat in the Legislature or other State office, his acceptance of such 

» Fla. 3, 31; Minn. 4, 26; Nev. 4, * Fla. 16, 20. 

34; R. I. 4, 18. = Col. 5, 44. 

2 Neb. Sep. Prop. » U. S. R. S. 1862. 

» Okla. 3, 4. ' Del. 15, 8. See also § 304. 



otlier office, State or national, would vacate his seat or amount to a 
resignation. The State Constitutions provide for this subject with 
endless and, it seems, unnecessary detail. 

§ 221. Age and Citizenship. There is not usually much pro- 
vision about age and citizenship qualifications for ordinary offices; 
but in many States no one who does not possess the (pialifications of 
an elector is eligible for office.' A few States make residence in the 
State for one year a necessary qualification for any office; - and in a 
few others he must continue to reside within the State or forfeit his 
office.' (For judges, see Art. Go.) 

A few State Constitutions specially provide that there shall be no 
property qualification for holding office ; " and in New Hampshire 
and South Carolina, every inhabitant of the State having the proper 
qualification has equal right to be elected into office,^ but in New 
Hampshire he must be able to read the State Constitution in English, 
and to write. 

§ 222. Disqualifications. The State Constitutions very frequently 
provide that no person convicted of crime can hold office, and more 
particularly any person convicted of bribery, election frauds, defal- 
cation of public money, or duelling, the attention of State Legisla- 
tures having of late years been especially called to the advisability of 
such disqualifications. Thus, many States provide generally that no 
person convicted of felony or infamous crime can hold office,® or, in 
Kentucky, " high misdemeanors." The special crimes thus disquali- 
fying are defalcation or embezzlement of public ^ money, ^ or the case 
where any person remains liable for public moneys unaccounted for, 
whether actually convicted of defalcation or not.** Bribery is gener- 
ally a disqualification for holding office, both of the party giving 

1 Ark. 19, 3; Col. 7, 6; Ct. 6, 4; Del. 2, 21; Fla. 6, 5; Ga. 2, 21 ; Ida. 
La. 210; Minn. 7, 7; Miss. 250; Mon. 6, 3; 111.4, 4; Ky. 150; La. 202; 
9, 7 & 11; N. H. 1, 14; Nev. 15, 3; Minn. 4, 15; Miss. 44; N. C. 6, 5; 
N. C. 6, 7; Amt. 1900; O. 15, 4; S. C. N. D. 2, 38; Neb. 14, 2; O. 5, 4; Pa. 
2, 2; 17, 1; Wash. 3, 25; Va. 32; 2,7; Tex. 16. 2; Wis. 13,3. 

W. Va. 4, 4 ; Wy. 6, 12 (3). ' Ky. 45 (for the legislature only). 

2 111., Mo., Mon. « Ala.; Ark. 5, 9; Cal. 4, 21; Col. 

3 Ark. 19, 4; Del. 3, 11; Ky. 234; 12, 4; Del. 2, 21; Fla.; Ga. ; Ida.; 
235 ; La. ; R. I. 9, 1 ; Tex. 16, 14. La. 182 ; Nev. 4, 10 ; Pa. ; O. ?, 5 ; 

* Cal. 1, 24; Del. 7, 12; Ida. 1, 20; S. C. 10, 12; Wis. 13, 3. 
Kan. Bill of Rts. 7 ; Minn. 1, 17 ; N. C. « Ark. 5, 8 ; Col. 12, 3 ; Ga. 2,4,1; 

1,22; Utah 1, 4. 111.4,4; Ind. 2, 10; lo. 3,23; Ky. 45; 

« N. H. 1, 11; S. C. 1, 10. See La. 182; Md. 3, 12 ; Mich. 4, 30; Miss, 

also § 246. 43 ; Mo. 2, 19 ; Neb. 16, 2 ; O. ; Ore. 

" Ala. 60; Ark. 5, 9; Cal. 20, 11; 2, 11; Tenn. 2, 25; Tex. 3, 20. 


and the party receiving the bribe.' So specially in a few States brib- 
ery at elections,- but in some only as to the person offering the bribe. 
The giving or offering a bribe to procure the election or appointment 
of the guilty party disqualifies him for that term of office in many 
States,^ and in a few permanently.'' So, in some States specially the 
bribery of members of the Legislature/ or "treating." ® 

In Kentucky, corporations bribing or offering bribes forfeit their 
charters, or foreign corporations their license.' 

A few States have the general provision that malfeasance in office 
shall be a disqualification,** but it would seem difficult to determine 
this without process of impeachment, to which the guilty party is 
nearly always liable. And so, in a few States, corruption in office,^ 
malpractice,'" taking more fees than the law allows," or generally the 
violation of the oath of office. '- 

Betting on elections was, by the old Constitution of Florida, cause 
for the disqualification for office, and now in South Carolina, gam- 
bling,'^ and in two States, fraud or wilful violation of the laws'* 
(whether a candidate for office or not). 

Ordinary crimes are not made by the State Constitutions cause for 
general disqualification for office (see § 206 for disqualification for 
Legislature), but several State Constitutions so prescribe in case of 
perjury,'^ and a few in the case of larceny,'" forgery, ''^ and treason.'^ 
Idaho makes the practice of polygamy or professing IMormonism 
a cause for disqualification.'^ 

Duelling, however, is by the Constitutions of a great many States 
made cause for disqualification for office, for either fighting a duel 

1 Ala. 60; Ark. 5, 9; Cal. 20, 11; « Tenn. 

Col. 12, 4 ; Fla. ; Ga. 2, 2, 1 ; 111. 4, 4 ; ^ Ky. 150. 

Ky. 151; La. 183; Md. 3, 50; Minn. « Cal, Ga. 

4, 15; Miss. 44; O. 5, 4 ; Pa.; Tex. » N. C, Ga. 

16, 2; Wash. 2, 30; W. Va. 6, 45. " N. C. 

The same is implied in other States. " Vt. 2, 25. 

See § 152. '' 111. 4, 5; Md. 1, 7; Mo. 4, 15; 

■ Ark. 3, 6 (but there must be a N. H. ; Neb. 14, 1 ; Okla. 15, 2 ; S. D. 

conviction of actual bribery) ; Ga. 2, 2, 3, 8; W. Va. 6, 16; Wy. 0, 12 (9). 

1; Ida. La.; Md. 1, 3; Miss.; Mass, See § 223. 

2, 6, 2; Nev. 4, 10; N. H. 2, 96; '^ S. C. 17, 8. 

Tex. 16, 5. '* Ark. 3, 6 ; Pa. 8, 9. 

^ Ind. 2, 6; Kan. 5, 6; Ky. 150; "> Ala.; Cal.; Col. 12, 4; Del.; Fla.; 

Mass. ; N. H. ; Ore. 2,7; R. I. 9, 2 ; 111. ; Ky. ; Minn. ; N. C. ; O. ; Pa. ; 

Tenn. 10, 3 ; Tex. 16, 5 ; Vt. 2, 34. Tex. 

* Cal. 20, 10 ; Pa. 8, 9. '« Ga. 

* W. Va. In one, only the member *' Ark., Cal., Tex. 
of the Legislature is so disqualified ** Ga., N. C. 
(Cal. 4, 35. See § 276.) " Ida. 6, 3. 


as principal/ or absence from the State for that purpose,- or being a 
second,'' or tlie giving, carrying, or accepting a challenge,' or the 
being engaged in a duel in any State or country as either principal 
or accessory.^ 

The Constitutions of a few States prescribe that no insane person 
or idiot can hold oflice." The provision would seem to be unnecessary. 

In two, no minister or preacher of any religious denomination can 
be a member of the Legislature.' 

By the United States statutes, no soldier, seaman, or marine in the 
regular army or navy of the United States can hold a State office.* 

The Louisiana Constitution disqualifies paupers or inmates of 
charitable institutions." The same is probably provided by the stat- 
utes of most other States. 

Idaho has a general provision that the disqualifications for office 
are the same as for voting. ^^ There is an extraordinary provision in 
Utah. No officer, employee, attorney or agent of any corporation, 
company, or association doing business under, or by virtue of, any 
municipal charter or franchise, shall be eligible to or permitted to 
hold any municipal office in the municipality granting such charter 
or franchise." 

§ 223. Oath of Office. Members of the Legislature and other 
State officers, executive, judicial, or otherwise, are usually required 
to make oath to support the national and State Constitutions and 
faithfully discharge the duties of their office. Citations on this point 
seem unnecessary ; but in three New England States they only make 
oath to bear allegiance to the State, and support the State Constitu- 
tion.'" In a few they must make oath that they have not, directly or 
indirectly, paid, or offered to pay, any consideration, or made any 
promise, as a reward for the giving or withholding a vote at an elec- 
tion ; '^ or for their own election or nomination ; '* that they will not 

» Ark. 19, 2 ; Cal. 20, 2 ; Col. 12, 12 
Ga. 2, 4, 2; Ind. 2, 7; lo. 1,5; Md. 3 
41; Mich. 7, 8; Miss. 19; Mo. 14, 3 
N. C. 14, 2 ; Nev. 15, 3 ; O. 15, 5 ; Ore 
2, 9 ; Pa. 12, 3 ; S. C. 1, 11 ; Tenn. 9, 3 
Tex. 16, 4 ; Wis. 13, 2 ; W. Va. 4, 10. « U. S. R. S. 1860. 

2 Col. ; Ind. ; Kan. 5, 5 ; Md. ; " La. 202. 
Miss. ; Mo. ; N. C. ; Nev. ; Ore. ; Tex. '" Ida. 6, 3. 

* Ark., Cal., Col, Md., Mo., N. C, " Utah 12, 17. 
Nev., O., Pa., Tex., W. Va. '- Mass. Ami. 6; N. H. 2, 83; Vt 

' Cal., Ga., lo., Md., Mich., Nev., 
S. C, Tenn., Tex., W. Va., Wis. 

« Ga. 2, 2, 1 ; Ida. 6, 4 ; La. 202. 
See § 251. 

' Md. 3, 11; Tenn. 9, 1. 

Ark.; Cal.; Col.; Ga. ; Ind. 
Kan.; Ky. 239; Md. ; Mo.; N. C. 
Nev. ; O. ; Ore. ; Pa. ; S. C. ; Tenn, 

2, 12; 2, 29. 

>» Del., 111., Mon., Neb., N. Y., Pa., 
S. D., Tex., Wy. See also § 154. 

Tex.; W. Va. " Mon., Okla., S. D., Wy. 


accept, or directly or indirectly receive, any valuable consideration for 
the giving or withholding a vote,' or for the doing or not doing any 
duty relating to their office ; ^ that they have not been concerned in a 
duel as above specified ; ^ that they have not violated any election 
law ; * that they are not disqualified for holding office under the 
national or State Constitutions ; ■' that they will not receive the profits 
of any other office during their term as governor, member of the Leg- 
islature, or judge; ^ that they hold no office of profit or trust under 

Violation of the oath of office is in a few States declared to be per- 
jury.^ Any officer convicted of having sworn falsely to, or violated, 
his oath of office forfeits it." And he is always liable to impeach- 

§ 224. Official Bonds. The Legislature shall fix the amount of 
the penalty of all official bonds, and may, as far as practicable, pro- 
vide that the whole or a part of the security required for the faithful 
discharge of official duty shall be made by some guarantee company 
or companies.'" 

§ 225. Political Tests. The Constitution of West Virginia de- 
clares political tests which require persons, as a prerequisite to the 
enjoyment of their civil and political rights, to purge themselves by 
their own oaths of past alleged offences, are repugnant to the princi- 
ples of a free government, cruel, and oppressive.'^ 

Article 23. Elections 

§ 230. General Provisions. The Constitutions of many States 
declare that all elections should be free.^^ Of five, that they shall 

* 111. ; Neb. ; Pa. ; Tenn. 10, 2 ; ment for having participated in the 
W. Va. 6, 16. Rebellion came to naught, partly by 

2 Mo., Mon., Okla., Pa., S. D., Wy. voluntary repeal of the proscription, 

^ Ky., Nev., S. C, Tex. but mainly because decisions of the 

* Mon., Okla., Pa., Wy. United States Supreme Court rendered 

* Fla., S. C. the enforcement of such laws by test 

* Md. oaths impracticable. 

' Vt. Amt. 1883. '- Ark. 3, 2; Col. 2, 5; Del. 1, 3; 

« See § 222. 111. 2, 18 ; Ind. 2, 1 ; Ky. 6 ; Mass. 1, 9 ; 

» 111. 4, 5; Md. 1, 7; Neb. 14, 1; Md. Decln. of Rts. 7; Mo. 2, 9; Mon. 

Okla. ; S. D. ; Wy. 3, 5 ; N. C. 1, 10 ; Neb. 1, 22 ; N. H. 1, 

•0 Miss. 82. 11; Okla. 3, 7; Ore. 2, 1 ; Pa. 1, 5; 

'1 W. Va. 3, 11. The attempt of the S. C. 1, 10; S. D. 6, 19; Tenn. 1, 5; 

United States Government to dis- Utah 1,17; Va. 1, 6; Vt. 1,8; 2,34; 

quahfy persons from office or employ- Wash. 1, 19; Wy. 1, 27. A principle 


be open,' or "not secret, nor the ballots counted in secret;" ^ that 
they shall be equal ^ and frequent/ So, in others, that no power, 
civil or military, shall ever interfere with the free exercise of the 
right of suffrage.* 

§ 231. Votes- by Ballot. The Constitutions of many States pro- 
vide that all elections shall be by ballot." So, in most, all elections by 
the people.^ So, "until the Legislature otherwise direct." * And all 
elections by the Legislature, or by the people in a representative 
capacity, must be viva voce ° (see also § 30G). 

The ballot box must be kept in public view.'" The counting must 
be public." But the secrecy of the ballot shall be maintained. '- Vot- 
ing machines may be used.'^ But ballots may be numbered.''' 

§ 232. Majority Vote. By the Constitutions of nearly all, the 
person having the highest number (i. e., a plurality) of votes is de- 
clared elected.'* And so, a plurality of votes given at any elec- 

dating from very early statutes in S. D. 3, 14; Tenn. ; Tex. 3, 41; Va. ; 

England, and confirmed in the Bill of Wash. 2, 27; W. Va. 6, 44; Wis. 4, 30. 

Rights. '" Va. 

» Col., Mo., Mon., S. C, Wy. " La. 

"' S. C. '= Cal., Ida., Ky., N. D., N. Y., Pa., 

» Ark., Del., 111., Ind., Ky., Mass., Utah, Va., Wash., Wy. 

Ore., Pa., S. D., Tenn., Wash., Wy. » Col.; Cal.; Ct. ; Amt. 23; Utah; 

* Md.; N. C. 1, 28. Va. 37. 

«Ark.; Col.; Ida. 1, 19; Mo.; " Col.. R. D.: Texas 1S91. p. 104. 

Mon.; Neb.; Okla. 2, 4; Pa.; S. C. '^ Ala. 115; Ariz.* 1373; Ark. 6, 3; 

2, 15 ; S. D. ; Utah ; Wash. ; Wy. Cal. 5, 4 ; Col. 4, 3 ; Ct. Amt. 3 ; 

* Cal. 1895, p. 407; Del. 5, 1; 111. D. C* 99-100; Del. 3, 3; Ida. 4, 2; 
7, 2; lo. 2, 6; Md. 1, 1; Mich. 7, 2; 111. 5, 4; Ind. 5, 5; lo. 4, 4 ; Kan. 1, 
Minn. 7, 6; Neb. 7, 6; N. Y. 2, 5; O. 2; Ky. 70; La. 62; Mass. Amt. 14; 
5,2; Pa. 1901, p. 882; Utah 4,8; W. Md. 2, 3; 15, 4; Me. 4, 1, 5; 4, 2, 
Va. 4, 2 ; Wis. 3, 3. 5 ; 5, 1, 3 ; Amts. Art. 24 ; Mich. 5, 3 ; 

^ Ala. 179; Ariz. * 1358; Ark. 3, 3; Mo. 5, 3; Mon. 7, 2; N. C. 3, 3; 

Cal. 2, 5; Col. 7,8; 1905, p. 84; Ct. N. D. 74; Neb. 5, 4; Nev. 5, 4; N. J. 

6, 7 ; Amt. 6 ; Fla. 6, 6 ; Ga. 2, 1, 1 ; 5, 2 ; N. M.* 63, 28 ; N. Y. 4, 3 ; 1898, 

Ida. 6, 1; Ind. 2, 13; Kan. 4, 1; Ky. p. 1550; O. 3, 3; Ore. 5, 5; Pa. 4, 2; 

147; La. 203; Mass. 2, 1, 3, 3; Me. R. I. Amt. 10; S. C. 4, 4; S. D. 4, 3; 

2, 1 ; Miss. 240 ; Mo. 8, 3 ; Mon. 9, 1 ; Tenn. 3, 2 ; Territories, U. S. R. S. 

N. C. 6, 6; N. D. 129; Nev.2, 5; N. H. 1847; Tex. 4, 3; Utah 7, 2; Va. 70; 

2, 14 & 42; N. M.* 63, 22; Okla. Vt. Amt. 5; Wash. 3, 4; W. Va. 7, 3 ; 

3, 6; Pa. 8, 4; R. I. 8, 2; S. C. 2, 1; Wis. 5, 3; Wy. 4, 3. In some States 
S. D. 7, 3 ; Tenn. 4, 4 ; Tex. 6, 4 ; Va. the above rule applies only to elections 
27 ; Vt. 2, 8 ; Amt. 19 ; Wash. 6,6; of the officers of the executive (see 
Wy. 6, 11. §202): Ala., Ark., Cal., Ga., 111.; 

» Ore. 2, 15. Kan., Mo., N. C, Neb., Nev., O., Tex., 

» Ala. ; Ariz.;* 1112; Ark. 3, 12; W. Va. In others, only to elections of 

Cal. 4, 28 ; Fla. ; Ga. 3, 10, 1 ; Ind. ; the governor or lieutenant-governor 

lo. 3, 38; Kan.; Ky. ; La.; Mich. 4, (Cal., Ct., Del., Ind., lo., Ky., La., 

11; Minn. 4, 30; Miss. 76; Mo. 8, 6; Md., Mich., N. J., N. Y.. Pa., Tenn., 

N. C. 2, 9; N. D. 54; Neb. 3, 8; Nev.; Va., Wis.). In others, only to elec- 

N. Y. ; O. 2, 27; Ore.; Pa. 8, 12; tions of the Legislature (Ct., Vt.). 


tion shall constitute a choice, where not otherwise directed in the 

When there is no majority for any person for governor, the Legis- 
lature in joint session elects him. ^ But only one of the two having the 
highest votes.' So, only, in case of a tie.* So, when there is none for 
lieutenant-governor.^ Or for the council." And in the case of State 
senators, when no candidate has received a majority.^ So, for secre- 
tary, treasurer, or attorney-general.^ Or for treasurer." For secre- 
tary of State or comptroller.'" For vacancies in office, see § 201. 

§ 233. Australian Ballot. — Ballots must be uniform, with the 
names of all candidates and the offices to be filled in due order, and 
have no distinguishing mark or symbol; but any voter may erase 
any name and insert another." So elections are by "secret official 
ballot" marked by each voter in private.'^ At all elections by the 
people, except primaries and municipal elections in small towns which 
are not held at the same time as a general election, there must be an 
official ballot which may have a separate device by which the political 
party or the candidate may be indicated; and the voter may vote 
for such device at the head of the list thereby voting for the entire 
ticket, or he may vote for each of the candidates in turn by marking 
him specially by his name. Ballots must be prepared in secrecy at 
the polls, and the names of independent candidates may be printed 
with a device; and names of candidates may be WTitten on the 
ballot. '^ In other States similar provisions are made by statute. 

Cumulative Voting exists by the Constitution of Illinois (each 
district voting for three representatives) each voter may cast as 
many votes for each candidate as there are State representatives to 
be elected, or may distribute his votes, or equal parts thereof, among 
the candidates as he sees fit.'* 

§ 234. Election Day, by the Constitutions of the States (or 
statutes in some States and the Territories) comes as follows: In 
nearly all States, on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in 

> Cal. 20, 13; Fla. 16, 8; Nev. 15, « N. H. 2, 60. 

14; Ore. 2, 16. ' Me. 5, 1, 3; N. H. 2, 33. 

2 Ga. 5, 1, 5; 5, 2, 1; N. H. 2, 41; « Ct., R. I. 
Vt. 2, 10; Amt. 9. For Mississippi, see » Ga., Vt. 

§ 202, notes. '« Ga. 

3 N. H., R. I. " Va. 28. 

* Ala.; Ct. Amt. 30; Ida.; Ky. ; La.; >= Ky. 147; Wy. 5, 11. 
Mon. ; N. D. ; N. Y. ; R. I. ; S. C. ; S. D. ; " La. 212. 

Utah; Wash.; W. Va. 1891, 153; Wy. " 111. 4, 7, and 8. 

* Ct., Vt. 


November, hiennially; in tlie oven years; ' in the odd years.- In a 
few other States it is biennially in the even years but on (lilVerent 
days; thus, in Maine on the second Monday in Septeinl)er ; ' in 
Oregon on the first Monday in June;^ in Vermont on the first 
Tuesday in September; ^ in Arkansas on the first INIonday in Septem- 
ber;" in (Jeorgia on the first Wednesday in October; and in Colo- 
rado (now changed by statute) on the first Tuesday in October.'' 

In other States, the election is held annually on the first Tuesday 
after the first Monday in November.^ In a few of the southern 
States, the elections and terms of office have recently been made 
quadrennial; thus, in Louisiana, every four years on the Tuesday 
after the third Monday in April (next in 1908) ; * in Alabama and 
Mississippi, every four years on the first Tuesday after the first 
Monday in November (beginning in Mississippi with 1895 and in 
Alabama with 1902); and see also § 203.^" But the Legislature, 
in some States, may fix a different day.'^ 

§ 235. Conduct of Elections. — The Constitutions of many States 
provide that the right of suffrage shall be protected by law^s regu- 
lating elections and prohibiting all undue influences from power, 
bribery, tumult, or improper conduct.'- Or, that the Legislature 
may enact laws concerning the judges, time, place, and manner of 
elections ; " that the Legislature shall forbid the sale of intoxicating 
liquors near the polls.'* The Legislature shall provide by law against 
fraudulent voting, etc.'^ In four States, the election officers are sworn 
not to disclose how any person shall have voted, except in judicial 

» Ariz.* 1129; Cal. 4, 3; Ct. Amt. « Ark. 3, 8; Jan. 23, 1875, § 1. 

27, 1 ; Del. 5, 1 ; Schedule, 7 ; Fla. 3, 3 ; ' Col. 5, 2 ; 7, 7 ; Ga. 3, 4, 2. 

1889, p. 314 ; 1895, p. 367 ; Ida. Pol. C* « Col.* 1575 ; Del. 4, 1 ; Ind. 2, 14 

770; 111. 4, 3 and 5, 3; lo. Amt. 1(1882, Kan. 4, 2; Ky. 148; Mass. Amt. 15 

No. 12); 1904, p. 207; Kan. 1905, Neb. 16, 13 ; N.J. 4, 1,3; N. Y. 3, 9 

543; Mich. 4, 34; Minn. 7, 9, Amt. Pa. 8, 2 ; R. I. Amt. 11 (1890, p. 146) 

1883; Mo. 8, 1; Mon.* 1150; N. C. 2, Va.* 109. But note that the terms of 

27; Code, 2668*; N. D. 124; Nev. 4, office may be biennial; see §§ 201, 

3; 15,5; N. H. 26, 40 ("biennially in 202. 

November"); N. M.* 1588; O. 1904, » La. 206. 

p. 640; Okla.* 2906; S. C. 3, 8; S. D. '» Ala. 46; Miss. 102, 140, 252. 

7, 4; Tenn. 2, 7; Tex.* 1659; Utah " Ala., Ga., La. 

6, 3; 4, 9; Wash. 2, 5; 6, 8; W. Va. '^ Ala. 33 and 191; Cal. 20, 11; Ct. 

Amt. 1884; Wis. 13, 1; Wy. 3, 5; 6,6; Fla. 3, 26; Ky. 150; Nev. 4, 27; 

6, 12 (5). Ore. 2, 8; S. C. 1, 9; Tex. 16, 2; Va. 

2 Ky. 30 & 95; Md. 3, 7; 15, 7 ; 36; W. Va. 4, 11; Wy. 6, 12 (1). 
Miss. 102, 252; Va. 41, 42. '^ Md. 3, 49. 

3 Me. 2, 4; Amt. 23. '" Ala. 191; Ga. 2, 5, 1; Ky. 154; 
* Ore. 2, 14. La. 205. 

« Vt. 2, 8; Amt. 24, 1. '' S. C. 2, 5. 



proceedings.' So, in one, a voter may vote by sealed ballot if he so 
choose.- All boards, etc., must be bi-partisan.^ Election managers 
shall require proof of the payment of taxes, etc.* All employers 
must allow employees four hours in which to vote,^ between 6 a. m. 
and 7 p. m. No corporation organized or doing business in this 
State shall be permitted to influence elections or official duty by 
contributions of money or anything of value." 

§ 236. Registration. — The Constitutions of some States have a 
general provision that there shall be laws to preserve the purity of 
elections, prevent fraud, and guard against the abuse of the elective 
franchise.' And in many, provision for registration of voters is 
especially made.^ Permanent lists are kept, and a certificate given 
to the voter. ^ A person denied registration may appeal to the courts. '° 
But in one, the Constitution expressly forbids registration laws.'' 
And in one, no elector shall be deprived of his vote by reason of his 
name not being registered.'- And in one, the Legislature shall estab- 
lish no board or court of registration of voters.'^ Registration must 
be four months before the election; '* so, ten days.'^ 

§ 237. Freedom from Arrest. — In most States, the Constitution 
provides that electors shall be free from arrest while attending, 
going to, or returning from the polls, except for treason, felony, or 
breach of the peace.'" So, in some, on any civil process. '^ They are 
not liable to arrest on civil process during election day.'^ Nor are 
they required to attend court on that day, either as party or witness.'* 

' Ark. 3, 3; Col. 7. 8; Mo. 8, 3; registration in cities and towns); Wy. 

Pa. 8. 4. 6, 12. 

- W. Va. 4, 2. See § 231. » S. C. 

» N. Y. 2, 6. »" La. 201 ; S. C. 2, 5. 

* S. C. 2, 4. See § 244. " Ark. 3, 2. 

« Ky. 148. 1= W. Va. 4, 12. 

« Okla. 9, 40. " W. Va. 6, 43. 

^ Col. 7, 11; Fla. 6, 9; Kan. 5, 4, " Miss. 251. 

Ky. 150; Md. 3, 42; Mich. 7, 6; Mon. "^ N. Y. 

9, 9; Nev. 2, 6; N. Y. 2, 4 ; Okla. 3, >« Ala. 191; Ariz.* Bill of Rts. 24; 

6; Pa. 1901, p. 881; R. I. 2, 6; Tenn. Ark. 3, 4; Cal. 2, 2; Col. 7, 5; Del. 5, 

4, 1; Tex. 6, 4; W. Va. 4, 11. 5; Ga. 2, 3, 1 ; 111. 7, 3; Ind. 2, 12; 

« Ala. 186; Del. 5. 4; Fla. 6, 2; lo. 2, 2; Kan. 5, 7 ; Ky. 149; La. 204 ; 

Ga. 2, 2, 1 (such provision may be Me. 2, 2; Mich. 7, 3; Miss. 102; Mo. 

made by the Legislature) ; Ind. 2, 2 and 8, 4 ; Mon. 9,4; N. D. 123 ; Neb. 7, 5 ; 

14; Ky. 147; La. 197, 214; Md. 1, 5; O. 5, 3; Okla. 3, 7; Ore. 2, 13; Pa. 8, 

Mo. 8, 5; N. C. 6, 3; Amt. 1900, 2; 5; S. C. 2, 14; S. D. 7, 5; Tenn. 4, 3; 

Nov.; N. Y.; Okla. 3, 6; R. LAmt. 7; Tex. 6, 5; Utah 4, 3; Wash. 6. 5; 

Pa. 1901, p. 881; S. C. 2, 4 & 8; Va. Wy. 6, 3. 

18, 19, 20, 25; Wash. 6, 7; Wis. 3, 1; " Ct. 6, 8; Va. 29; W. Va. 4, 3. 

Amt. Cthe Legislature must provide for '* Minn. 7, 5 ; Nev. 2, 4. 

" Mich., Va., W. Va. 



[book III 

And tlicy are not oblifj^cd to perform military duty on election day, 
except in time of war or public danger.' 

§ 238. Contested Elections are, by the Constitutions of many 
States, to be tried in a manner to be provitled by law.- In many 
others, they are to be tried by the Legislature in joint session.-' So, 
in several others, by the Legislature in the manner of law provided.* 
In two States, by a committee of both houses."^ In one, by the house 
alone." In others, by the courts of law.^ But in most of the States, 
the elections of members of each house of the Legislature are to be 
determined by such house.* In the trial of contested elections, 
and proceedings for investigating them, no person can refuse to 
testify on the ground that it will criminate him; but such testi- 
mony shall not afterwards be used against him except in pro- 
ceedings for perjury.^ 

Article 24. The Right of Suffrage 

§ 240. Citizens.^^ — The right of suffrage (subject to the other 
conditions in this article) is, by the Constitutions (or statutes) of all 

» Cal. 2, 3; 111.; lo. 2, .3; Me. 2, 3; 
Mich. 7, 4 ; Mon. 9,5; N. D. ; Neb. ; 
Ore. ; S. D. ; Utah 4, 4 ; Va. ; Wash. ; 
W. Va. ; Wy. 8, 4. 

2 Ark. 19, 24 ; Col. 7, 12 ; Ct. 4, 2 ; 
Ida. 4, 2 ; lo. 3, 7 ; Ky. 38 ; La. 209 ; 
Mon. 7, 2; N. J. 5, 2; O. 2, 21; Tex. 

3, 8; W. Va. 4, 11; Wash. 3, 4. 

* Ark. 6, 4 ; Col. 4, 3 ; Mass. 2, 2, 1, 
3 ; Me. 5, 1, 3 ; Mo. 5, 25 ; N. C. 3, 3 ; 
N. H. 2, 41 ; R. I. 8, 7 ; Tex. 4, 3 ; Va. 

4, 2; Vt. Amt. 9; W. Va. 7, 3. See 
also § 270. 

* Ala. 115; Ga. 5, 1, 6; III. 
Ind. 5, 6; lo. 4, 5; Ky. 90; 
Neb. 5, 4 ; Ore. 5, 6 ; Tenn. 3, 2. 

' Del. 3, 4; Pa. 4, 2. 

« Md. 2, 4. 

^ Ariz.* 1384; Mo. 8, 9; N 
1874, 29 ; Pa. 8, 17 ; Wy. 6. 2. 

« N. H. 2, 21 and 34; N. M.* 63, 
59. For other States, see § 270. In 
some States the above provision applies 
to the contested elections of the gov- 
ernor or other executive officers only 
(Ala., Ark., Col, Ct., Del., III., Mass., 
Me., N. C, Nev., N. H., N. J., R. I., 
Tex., Vt.). In others, for members of 

5, 4; 
Mo. ; 


the Legislature only (lo., Ky., Pa.). 
In others, for the governor or lieuten- 
ant-governor only (Del., Ind., lo., Ky., 
Md., Miss., Mo., Ore., Tenn., Tex., Va., 
W. Va.). But in some States these 
provisions do not apply to contested 
elections for the governor (Mo., Pa.), 
or it only applies to elections of ex- 
ecutive officers other than governor, 
&c. (Mo.). 

» Ark. 3, 9; Col. 7, 9; La. 216; Pa. 
8, 10. 

'" In order to give a complete pres- 
entation of the subject in this article, 
the statute provisions of a few States 
which have no constitutional provi- 
sions on the subject are also incor- 
porated. In England all free men voted 
until 1429. The right to vote even for 
presidential electors and members of the 
House is determined by the laws of the 
States, save only that any one who can 
vote for the lower House of the State 
Legislature must be allowed to vote 
for members of Congress (U. S. C. 1, 2, 
1); therefore it will of course vary in 
the different States of the Union. But 
by the Fourteenth Amendment any 




the States, given to every male (or female, see below) citizen of the 
United States aged twenty-one.' But he must also be a citizen of 
the State.^ So, of any person naturalized ; but he must have been a 
United States citizen ninety days before the election,^ or one month 
before.'' And in many States, also to every male of foreign birth, 
aged twenty-one, who has declared his intention to become a citizen 
according to the United States naturahzation laws,* at least thirty 
days before the election ; ^ at least one year, and not more than five 
years, before ; ^ at least four months before ; ^ or one year, and not 
more than six, respectively.* 

In other States, to every male citizen or inhabitant o^ the State 
aged twenty-one.'" He must have been a citizen ninety days." Since 
the Fourteenth Amendment this provision is of course neutralized ; 
See note 10. 

Indians, aged twenty-one, if civilized, and not a member of any 
tribe, can vote.'^ So, in Michigan, if born in the United States. In 

person naturalized in the United States 
becomes a citizen both of the United 
States and of the State wherein he 
resides ; therefore the State may not 
withhold the right to vote except as 
it may be withheld from other citizens 
in the State ; and never by reason of 
race, color, or previous condition of 
servitude (U. S. C. Amts. 14, 1 ; 15, 1). 
It would seem, however, that foreigners 
newly naturalized may be subjected to 
the same term of residence in the State 
before being allowed to vote as are re- 
quired of citizens coming from other 
States. All limitations of the riglit of 
suffrage are indirectly forbidden by the 
Federal Constitution (Amt. 14, 2). 
That is to say, the representation of 
the State in Congress is reduced in pro- 
portion to the number of male inhabi- 
tants whose right of suffrage is denied 
or abridged except for participation in 
rebellion or for other crime. The edu- 
cational tests, therefore, imposed es- 
pecially by the newer Constitutions, 
would seem to be ground of diminish- 
ing the representation in Congress of 
the States adopting them ; but this has 
not yet been done. The right of suf- 
frage is not, however, a natural right, 
but one of political expediency ; hence 
women, although citizens, do not neces- 
sarily vote. 

' Ala. 177 ; Ariz.* 1347 ; Ark. 3, 1 ; 
1891, p. 314; Cal. 2, 1; 1893, p. 543; 
Col. 7, 1 ; Ct. Amt. 8 ; D. C* 98 ; Fla. 
6, 1; Ga. 2, 1, 2; Ida. 6, 2; 111. 7, 1; 
Ind. 2, 2 ; lo. 2, 1 ; Kan. 5, 1 ; Ky. 
145; La. 197; Md. 1, 1; Me. 2, 1 ; 
Mich. Amt. 1893, p. 438; Minn. 7, 1; 
Amt. 1895, 3; Miss. 241; Mo. 8, 2; 
Mon. 9, 2; N. C. 6, 1 ; N. D. 12l"; 
Neb. 7, 1 ; Nev. 2, 1 ; N. J. 2, 1 ; N. M.* 
1868, 26, 2 ; O. 5, 1 ; Okla. 3, 1 ; Ore. 
2, 2; R. I. 2, 1; Amt. 7; S. C. 2, 3; 
S. D. 7, 1 ; Tenn. 4, 1 ; Territories, U. S. 
R. S. 1859, 1860; Tex. 6, 2; Utah 4, 
2 & 5 ; Va. 18 ; Wash. 6, 1 ; Wis. 3, 
1 ; Amt. ; Wy. 6, 2 & 5. 

^ La., S. C. 

' Cal., Utah. 

* Pa. 8, 1. 

« Ariz.* 1412; Ark.; Ind.; Kan.; 
Mo. ; Ore. ; S. D. ; Terr. ; Tex. ; Wis. 

« Neb. 

' Mo. 

» Col. 

» N. D. 

'" Del. 5, 2; Mass. 2, 1, 2, 2; Amt. 3 ; 
Mich. 7, 1 ; N. H. 2, 12 & 27 ; N. Y. 2, 
1; Okla.; Pa. 8, 1; Vt.*62; W.Va. 
4, 1. 

" N. Y. 

•- Ida., Wis., Minn. In other States, 
it would follow from §§ 240 or 21, 22, 
that all Indians not on a reservation 


Oklahoma, all Indians vote like whites; in North Dakota, civilized 
Indians who have two years severed their tribal relation. So, 
in Wisconsin, persons of Indian blood who have once been de- 
clared by Congress citizens of the United States, any subsequent 
act of Congress to the contrary notwithstanding. So, in Minnesota, 
persons of mixed white and Indian blood who have adopted the 
customs and habits of civilization ; and Indians also, after an ex- 
amination by the courts. But in several no Indian not taxed can 
vote.^ And in one, no Narragansett can vote.^ 

The Constitutions of a few States still restrict the right of suffrage 
to white persons (see § 22); but this is void under the Fifteenth 
Amendment. Mongolians may not vote, if not born in the United 
States.^ In four States, women vote in all respects like men.* 
(See also §§ 22, 23.) By the Constitution of others, the Legislature 
may at any time extend the right of suffrage without regard to sex 
to persons not here enumerated;^ but the law must be approved 
by a majority of the voters at a general election.^ 

"The Legislature shall at its first session after the admission of 
the State into the Union submit to a vote of the electors of the State 
the following question to be voted upon at the next general elec- 
tion held thereafter, namely: 'Shall the word "male" be stricken 
from the article of the Constitution relating to elections and the right 
of suffrage?' If a majority of the votes cast upon that question are 
in favor of striking out said word ' male,' it shall be stricken out and 
there shall thereafter be no distinction between males and females 
in the exercise of the right of suffrage at any election in this State."^ 

§ 24L Residence Qualijications. — By the Constitutions of a few 
States, a voter must have been resident a certain period of time in 
the United States.^ And by the Constitutions of nearly all, to vote 
at a State election, a person qualified according to § 240 must have 

are citizens, there being no provision The above question was submitted 

to the contrary. to the people at the election held in 

' Ida. ; Me. 2, 1 ; Miss. 241 ; Wash. November, 1890, and was rejected in 

6, 1. both, in South Dakota by the following 

2 R. I. 2, 4. vote : for, 22,072 ; against, 45,682. 

* Ida. * Ninety days (Cal.). One year 
Mda. Amt. ; Col. 7, 1 ; Utah 2, 6; (Ind. 2, 2; Minn. 7, 1 ; S. D. 7, 1). He 

4, 1 ; Wy. 6, 2. must have been a citizen one month 

* N. D. 122 (perhaps repealed by (Pa. 8, 1). In one, he must he horn in 
Amt. 2); Col. 7, 2 (adopted). the United States, unless he holds a 

' Wis. certain amount of real estate in the 

' S. D. 7, 2. And so, substantially, State (see § 244; R. I. 2, 1 & 2), 
in Washington (27, 17). 




been resident for a certain period immediately preceding the election 
in the State/ In England no residence qualification existed until 
Henry V., and it was repealed under Geo. III. 

In one State, residence on State land ceded to the United States 
is not sufficient (compare § 243).^ Ministers and teachers are 
qualilied after six months' residence.^ And by the Constitutions of a 
few States, a person otherwise qualified must, in order to vote at any 
election, have been resident in the county or legislative district for a 
certain period of time before,* or in the city or township.^ So he 
must be registered in the town by June 30 preceding.® 

§ 242. Losing a Residence, etc. — By the Constitutions of many 
States, no person shall be deemed to have lost a residence for the 
purpose of voting,^ by reason of his absence from the State while 
employed in the service of the United States,^ or of the State. ^ Or, 
while engaged in the navigation of the waters of this State or of the 
United States,^" or temporarily absent from the State.'' Or, while 

' Three months (Me. 2, 1). Four 
months (Minn.). Six months (Ark. 8, 
2; Col. 7, 1; Ida. 6, 1; Ind. 2, 2; lo. 
2, 1 ; Kan. 5, 1 ; Mich. ; Minn. ; Neb. 

7, 1 ; Nev. 2, 1 ; N. H.* 31, 8 ; N. M.* ; 
Ore. 2, 2 ; S. D.). One year (Ark. 3, 
1; Cal. 2, 1; Col. 1901, 47; Ct. Amt. 
8 ; D. C* 98 (in the District) ; Del. 5, 
2; Fla. 6, 1; Ga. 2, 1,2; 111.7,1; Ky. 
145; Mass. Amt. 3; Md. 1, 1 ; Miss. 
241; Mo. 8, 2; Mon. ; N. D. ; N. J. 
2, 1 ; N. Y. ; O. 5, 1 ; Okla. 3, 1 ; Pa. 

8, 1; Tenn. 4, 1; Tex. 6, 2; Utah; 
Vt.* 61 ; Wash. ; W. Va. 4, 1 ; Wis. 3, 
1; Wy.). For two years (Ala. 178; 
La.; N. C. 1900, 2; R. I. Amt. 7; 
S. C. 2, 4 ; Va. 18). Two and a half 
years (Mich.). 

2 R. I. 2, 5. 

" S. C. 

* Ten days (Ark., Minn.). Thirty 
days (Dc!., Ida., Nev., O.* 2945, S. 
D.). Sixty days (lo., Mo., W. Va., 
Wy.). Three months (Cal., Del., 111., 
N. C, Va., Wash.). Four months (N. 
Y., Utah). Five months (N. J.). Six 
months (Ark., Fla., Ga., Ky., Md., N. 
C, N. D., Okla., Tenn., Tex.). One 
year (La., Miss., S. C, Va.). "As by 
law provided" (Col., Mon., Neb., O.). 

^ Sixty days (Ind., Mo., Pa.). Six 
months (Ct., La., Mass., Md., N. H., 
R. I.). Thirty days (Cal., Kan., 
Minn.). One year (Ala., S. D., Va.). 

In the ward or precinct or election dis- 
trict, ten days (Mich., Minn.). Twenty 
days (Mich., O.). Thirty days (Ark., 
Cal., D. C* Del., 111., Ind., Nev., 
N. Y., Okla., Va., Wash., Wis.). Si.xty 
days (Ky. ; Pa. 8, 1 ; Utah.) Three 
months (Ala., Md., Me.). Four months 
(N. C, S. C). And he does not lose his 
residence in the old district for a cor- 
responding period (Va.). 

« R. I. Amt. 11 (1900, p. 149). 

' Or for the purpose of holding office 
(Col., Ky., Tex.). Or for any purpose 
whatever (Ark., Cal., Ind., Wis.). 

» Ariz.* 1693 ; Ark. 19, 7 ; Cal. 2, 
4; 20, 12; Col. 7, 4; Ida. 6, 5; 111. 7, 
4; Ind. 2, 4; Kan. 5, 3; Me. 2, 1; 
Mich. 7, 5 ; Minn. 7, 3 ; Mo. 8, 7 ; Mon. 
9,3; N. D. 125; Nev. 2, 2; N. Y. 2, 3 ; 
Ore. 2, 4 ; Pa. 8, 13 ; S. C. 2, 7 ; S. D. 7, 
6 ; Tex. 16, 9 ; Wash. 6, 4 ; Wis.3,4 ; Wy. 
6, 7. These exceptions do not apply 
to a person serving ovit a sentence 
in the penitentiary for infamous crime. 

8 Ark., Cal., Col., Ida., 111., Ind., 
Ky., Me., Mich., Mo., Mon., N. D., Ore., 
Pa., S. D., Tex., Wash., Wis. 

'" Ariz.,* Cal., Ida., Kan., La., Mich., 
Minn., Mo., Mon., Nev., N. Y., Ore., 
Pa., S. C, Wash. Or. in all these last 
except Idaho and Minnesota, of the 
waters of the high seas. 

'^ Ala. 1, 31; Ariz.*; Ark.; S. C. 
1, 12. 


confined in prison,' or kept at an almshouse or asylum at the public 
expense.^ Or while a student in any institution of learning.^ And 
in several States no person shall he deemed to have gained a 
residence in the State by reason of his presence, for the various 
reasons respectively specified,* 

§ 243. Army and Navy. — And in most States it is specially 
provided that no person shall be deemed to have acquired a residence 
for the purpose of voting by reason of being stationed in the State 
while in the military or naval service of the United States.^ And the 
same law would seem to be implied (by § 242) in a few other States. 

In several, no person in the regular army or navy of the United 
States can vote (see also below).® But those who were soldiers and 
sailors in the Civil War, if United States citizens, have a special right 
to vote.^ And conversely, no person in the actual military or naval 
service of the United States is deemed to have lost his right to vote 
by reason of his absence (in time of war, except in Nevada); ^ but a 
manner in which he may vote is to be provided by the Legislature.^ 
But in three, only when such person is not in the regular army or 
navy. ^^ 

§ 244. Property Qualification. — In nine States there is an 
express constitutional provision that there shall be no property 
qualification for the right of suffrage.'* Except school elections; '- 
elections creating indebtedness.'^ But in one, the Constitution 
dsclares that every free man has a right to vote "who has a sufficient 

1 Ariz.* Cal., Col., Kan., Mich., » Kan. 5, 3 ; Mo. 8, 11; Ore.; Tex. 

Minn., Mo., Nev., N. Y., Ore., Pa. 6, 1. 

- Ariz.,* Cal., Col., Ida., Kan., La., ' R. I. Amt. 6. 

Mich., Minn., Mo., Mon., Nev., N. Y., » Ariz.* 1407; Ct. Amt. 13; Kan. 

Ore., Pa., Va., Wash. 5, 3; La. 208; Me. 2, 4; Mich. 7, 1; 

3 Ariz.* ; Cal. ; Col. ; Ida. ; Kan. ; Neb. 7, 3 ; Nev. 2,3; N. J. 2, 1 ; N. Y. 

La. ; Mich. ; Minn. ; Mo. ; Mon. ; Nev. ; 2, 1 ; Okla. ; Pa. 8,6; R. I. Amt. 4 ; 

N. Y.; Ore.; Pa.; S. C. ; Va. 24; S. D. 6, 19; Utah 1,17; Wash.; Wy. 

Wash. 6, 7. 

* Ariz.,* Cal., Col., Ida., Kan., La., " This last clause is not added in a 

Mich., Mo., Mon., Nev., N. Y., Ore., few States (Wash., Wy.). 

Pa., S. C, Wash. So, in Maine, as to " Ct., Kan., Neb. 

paupers or asylum inmates only. " Ark. 1, 21 ; Cal. 1, 24; Ida. 1, 20; 

« Ark. 3, 7 ; Del. 5, 2 ; Ga. 2, 1, 2; Kan. Bill of Rts. 7 ; Minn. 1, 17 ; N. C. 

111.7,5; Ind. 2, 3; lo. 2, 4 ; Ky. 146; 1, 22; S. C. 1, 11 ; Utah 1, 4 ; 4, 7. In 

La. 175 ; Me. 2, 1 ; Mich. 7, 7 ; Minn. States where there is no express quali- 

7, 4 ; Mon. 9. 6 ; N. D. 126 ; Neb. 7, 4 ; fication, the same would result from 

N. J. 2, 1 ; O. 5, 5; Okla. 3, 2; Ore. 2, § 240 (except as the Constitution 

5 ; R. I. 2, 4 ; S. D. 7, 7 ; Territories, provides). 

U. S. R. S. 1860 ; Va. 24 ; Wash. 6, 4 ; '- Ida. 

W. Va. 4, 1; Wis. 3, 5; Wy. 6, 8. '^ Ida., Utah. 


interest in the community." ' In Virginia, the Legislature may pro- 
vide a property quaHfication not exceeding $250 in town or county 
elections except for members of the Legislature.^ And in several, 
there is a provision requiring a voter to have paid certain taxes.^ 
See also §§ 245, 24G. 

And in municipal elections, in two States, to determine the expen- 
diture of money or the assumption of debt, no person can vote 
who does not pay a property tax in such municipality.* 

And in one, no person can vote in city council or tax or money 
elections unless he have paid a property tax on property in such 
town or city to the net value of $134.28.^ 

Exceptions. — No person who served in the army or navy, U. S. A. 
or C. S. A., is required to have paid such poll tax above required." 

§ 245. Educational Qualifications of the right of suffrage exist 
in several States. Thus, no person can vote who cannot read the 
Constitution and Statutes of the State. ^ No person who cannot 
read the Constitution of the State in English.^ No person who can- 
not wi'ite his name; ^ or, in New Hampshire "write"; in Virginia, 
he must write his application.^" Who cannot read and speak 
English.^ ^ Who cannot read and wiite any section of the State 
Constitution.*^ Physical disability is always an excuse.'^ 

Except persons who now (1904) have the right to vote, or who 
were sixty years old January 1, 1904; " or who were twenty or be- 
came United States citizens before January 1, 1900,'^ or were voters, 
or over the age of sixty in 1893.'^ 

» Vt. 1, 8. * Ida. 1, 20; Tex. 6, 3. (Such a tax 

^ Va. 30. may be required also in scliool elec- 

^ Thus, all taxes except for the year tions. See §§363, 372.) 

of the election (Ga. 2, 1, 2). He must ^ R. I. Amt. 7. 

have paid a State, county, or city tax * Va. 22. 

within two years previous to the elec- ^ Ct. Amt. 11 ; Wy. 6, 9. 

tion (Pa. 8, 1). He must have paid all « Cal. 1893, p. 543 ; Del. 5, 2 ; Mass. 

poll taxes assessed upon him for the Amt. 20; Me. 1891, res. 109; Miss. 

year previous (N. C. 5, 1) ; for a period 244; N. H. 1, 11. 

of two years preceding (Miss. 241; R. ^ Cal., Del., Mass., Me. 

I. 2, 3); three years (Va. 20, 21); to '" Va. 20. 

be prescribed by the Legislature (Fla. " Wash. C. Amt. 1896. 

6, 8; Tenn. 4, 1; Tex. 1901, p. 322). " N. C. 1900, 2; S. C. 2, 4 ; (unless 

He must have paid all poll taxes due he have paid taxes on $300). 

six months before the election (S. C. 2, '^ c^i^ Mass., Me., Del., N. H., Wy. 

4). No person can vote who is excused " N. H. 

from paying taxes at his own request '^ Del. 

(N.H. 2, 28). He must have paid a tax '» Me. 

to the amount of SI, unless he owns real 

estate in the State (R. I. 2, 1 & 2). 


Every inliahitant of the Stiite possessing tlie qualifications required 
by the Constitution has an equal right to vote.' 

In Colorado, the Legislature were authorized to exact an educa- 
tional qualification after 1890.^ 

§ 246. Southern State Provisions. — In Alabama after January 1, 
1903, only those persons can register who can either (1) read and 
write any article of the Constitution of the United States in English, 
and who are physically unable to work or who have worked or been 
regularly engaged in some lawful employment, business, occupation, 
trade, or calling for the greater part of the twelve months next pre- 
ceding; or else (2) the owner in good faith in his own right, or the 
husband of such owner, of forty acres of land upon which they reside, 
or of real estate or personal property assessed to the value of $300, 
provided the taxes have been paid.^ 

In Louisiana an applicant for registration must be able to read 
and write and shall make his own written application in English or 
in his mother tongue, which application contains the essential facts 
and must be entirely written, dated, and signed by him in the pres- 
ence of the registration officer without assistance or suggestion from 
any person, or any memorandum whatever, except the form of appli- 
cation, provided that if unable to write in English he may write the 
same in his mother tongue from the dictation of an interpreter, or if 
unable to write by reason of physical disability, the same shall be 
written at his dictation by the registration officer. 

If he be not able to read or write he may nevertheless be entitled 
to be registered if, at the time he offers to register, he be the bona 
fide owner of property assessed him in the State at a valuation of not 
less than $300 on which all taxes shall have been paid, if the property 
be personal ; but he must make oath that he is a citizen of the United 
States and of the State, over the age of twenty-one, that he possesses 
the qualifications as to residence prescribed in the general laws, and 
that he is the owner of property assessed at such valuation.* 

"Grandfather Clause." — This principle recently adopted in State 
Constitutions, mainly in Southern States, but also in some Northern 
States, operates as an exception to the property and educational 
qualifications. Thus, in New Hampshire, all persons who had the 
right to vote at the time of the adoption of the new Constitution, 
1903, or were sixty years old January 1, 1904. So in Delaware the 

> S. C. 1, 10. ^ Ala. 181, 180. 

'^ Col. 7, 3. * La. 197 (3) & (4). 


educational qualification only applies to persons who become twenty- 
one years old or are naturalized as United States citizens after Janu- 
ary 1, 1900. In Virginia there was a general registration in 1902 
and 1903, at which all male citizens of the United States having 
proper qualifications of age and residence could register if they were 
either, first, a person who, prior to the adoption of this Constitution, 
served in time of war in the Army or Navy of the United States or of 
the Confederate States or of any State of the United States or of the 
Confederate States; or, second, a son of any such person; or third, 
a person who owns property upon which, for the year next preceding 
that in which he offers to register. State taxes aggregating at least 
one dollar have been paid ; or, fourth, a person able to read any sec- 
tion of the State Constitution and give a reasonable explanation of 
the same, or, if unable to read such section, able to understand and 
give a reasonable explanation thereof when read to him by the 
officers. A roll containing the names of all persons thus registered 
w'as to be preserved, and persons so enrolled need not register again. ^ 
In South Carolina, up to January 1, 1898, persons were allowed to 
register permanently who could read or understand the State Con- 
stitution when read to them.^ In Alabama, up to December 20, 
1902, persons who served in the U. S. or C. S. army or navy in the 
Mexican, Indian, Civil, or Spanish wars; the lawful descendants 
of such; and "all persons of good character who understand the 
duties and obligations of citizenship under a republican form of 
government." ^ 

In North Carolina no male person who was, on January 1, 
1867, or prior thereto, entitled to vote under the laws of any State 
in the United States wherein he then resided, and no lineal de- 
scendant of any such person shall be denied the right to register 
and vote by reason of his failure to possess these educational quali- 
fications, provided he have registered prior to December 1, 1908; 
and the Legislature are to provide for the registration of all 
persons entitled to vote without such educational qualifications 
and make a permanent record of such registration on or before 
November 1, 1908, and all persons so registered shall forever there- 
after have the right to vote unless disqualified for other reasons, 
provided such person have paid his poll tax as required.* 

On and after the first day of January, a. d., 1892, every elector 

» Va. 19. ' Ala. 180. 

» S. C. 2, 4. ,^ ♦ N. C. Amt. 1900, 2. 



shall, in addition to the foregoing qualifications, be able to read 
any section of the Constitution of the State ; or he shall be able to 
understand the same when read to him, or give a reasonable inter- 
pretation thereof.* 

In Louisiana " no male person who was in 1807, or prior, entitled 
to vote under the Constitution or statutes of any State of the United 
States wherein he then resided, and no son or grandson of such per- 
son not less than twenty-one years of age at the time of the adoption 
of this Constitution, and no male person of foreign birth who was 
naturalized prior to 1898 shall be denied the right to register and 
vote by reason of his failure to possess the educational or property 
qualifications prescribed by this Constitution, provided he shall 
have resided in the State for five years next preceding the date at 
which he shall apply for registration and shall have registered in 
accordance with this article prior to 1898; but no person shall be 
entitled to register under this section after said date. " 

All registration under this section closed on the 31st of August, 
1898, and permanent records of voters so registering were made, 
and such persons are admitted to register for all elections without 
possessing the educational or property qualifications otherwise pre- 
scribed by this Constitution.^ 

§ 247. Challenges. — By the Constitution of Georgia, any voter, 
on being challenged, must make oath that he has complied with the 
constitutional requirements.^ 

§ 248. Primaries. — Only registered and qualified electors can 
vote at primaries.* The Legislature shall provide by law for the 
regulation of primaries and punishing fraud at the same.^ 

The Legislature shall enact laws providing for a mandatory 
primary system, which shall provide for the nomination of all candi- 
dates in all elections for State, District, County, and municipal 
officers, for all political parties, including United States senators. 
Provided, however, this provision shall not exclude the right of the 
people to place on the ballot by petition any *non-partisan candidate.^ 

§ 249. Municipal Elections, Special Provision. — The voter must 
have been resident four months and paid all taxes due for the pre- 
ceding fiscal year.^ 

* » Miss. 244. s Cal. 1899, p. 501; La. 215; S. C. 

2 La. 197 (5). 2, 10; Miss. 247. 
» Ga. 2, 1, 2. « Okla. 3, 5. 

* La. 200 ; Va. 35. ' S. C. 2, 12. 


No person less than sixty years of age can vote at any election who 
shall not, in addition to the qualifications herein prescribed, have 
paid on or before the end of each year, for two years preceding the 
year in which he offers to vote, a poll tax of one dollar per annum to 
be used for the public schools; but such taxes are a lien only upon 
assessed property, and every person liable for such tax before being 
allowed to vote must exhibit to the registration officers his poll tax 
for two years.* 

Article 25. Disfranchisement 

§ 250. General Provisions. — The Tennessee Constitution de- 
clares that no person shall be deprived of the right of suffrage except 
upon conviction by a jury of some infamous crime previously as- 
certained and determined by law and judgment thereon by a court 
of competent jurisdiction.^ Or, upon lawful conviction of a felony 
at common law.^ 

§ 251. Insanity. — By the Constitutions of most States no in- 
sane or idiot person can vote.* So, in a few, no person under guar- 
dianship.^ No person in gaol on convictiAi of a criminal offence.^ 
In a few States there are constitutional provisions disfranchising 
paupers; thus, in some, that no pauper can vote.^ So, in others, no 
person kept at a poor house or asylum at the public expense.^ So, 
in Texas, no pauper supported by any county. 

Exception. — But these provisions do not apply to any person 
who has served in the United States army or navy in time of war and 
been honorably discharged.^ Nor to Soldiers' Home inmates.'" 

§ 252. Crime. — By the Constitutions of most States, no person 
convicted of infamous crime can vote.'* In other States, the Legis- 

' La. 198. Md. 1, 2; Me. 2, 1 ; Minn. ; N. D. ; R. 

^ Tenn. 1, 5. This is propably im- I.; S. D. ; Wis. 

plied in other States. See § 130. « Ida., Okla. 

=• Ark. 3, 2. ' Del. 5, 2 ; Mass. Amt. 3 ; Me. 2, 1 ; 

* Ala. 182; Ark. 3, 5; Cal. 2, 1 ; N. H. 2, 28; N. J. 2, 1; R. I. 2, 4; 

Del. 5, 2 ; Fla. 6, 4 ; Ga. 2, 2, 1 ; Ida. Tex. 6, 1 ; Va. 23 ; W. Va. 4, 1. 

6, 3; lo. 2, 5; Kan. 5, 2; Ky. 145; « La. 202; Mo. 8, 8; Okla. 3, 1; 

La. 202 ; Minn. 7, 2 ; Miss. 241 ; Men. S. C. 2, 6; See § 242. 

9,8; N. D. 127; Neb. 7, 2 ; Nev. 2, 1 ; 'Mass. Amt. 28; Okla. (or the 

N. J. 2, 1 ; O. 5, 6; Okla. 3, 1 ; Ore. 2, Confederate army). 

3; R. L 2, 4; S. C. 2, 6; S. D. 7, 8; '" La.; Mich. Amt. 1893, p. 439. 

Tex. 6, 1 ; Utah 4, 6; Va. 23; Wash. " Ala. 182; Cal. 2, 1 ; Ct. 6, 3 ; Ga. 

6, 3 ; W. Va. 4, 1 ; Wis. 3. 2 ; Wy. 6, 6. 2. 2, 1 ; Ida. 6, 3 ; lo. 2, 5 ; Md. 1,2; 

» Fla.; Ida.; Kan.; Mass. Amt. 3; La. 202; N. C. 6, 1 ; Neb. 7, 2; Nev. 



[book III 

lature may pass laws to such effect/ or to disfranchise persons con- 
victed of "other high crimes";^ or high misdemeanors.^ So, in 
several, specially, no person convicted of "felony."* And no per- 
son confined in public prison.^ And, specially, no person convicted 
of larceny can vote;*' of forgery;' treason." No person who has ever 
borne arms voluntarily against the United States (if, in Nevada, such 
person was over eighteen at the time).® No person guilty of mur- 
der ; ^^ adultery ; ^^ bigamy ; '^ vagrancy ; '^ receiving stolen goods ; ' * 
living in adultery;''' selling or offering votes ;*^ other offences con- 
nected with the election laws;'' bartering or selling, or offering to 
buy votes ; '^ burglary ; '^ assault and battery on the wife ; ^^ a biga- 
mist or polygamist ; "' or persons advising polygamy ; "" a person who 
preaches or advises that the rules of the State are not our supreme 
law.^^ No person who held civil or military office under the Con- 
federate States ; ^* no person who in any manner voluntarily aided or 
abetted the Rebellion.^^ And no one dishonorably discharged from 
the United States service.^^ For perjury ;^' malfeasance in office ; ^^ 
misdemeanors connected with the right of suffrage ; ^® embezzlement 
of the public funds.^*^ For defrauding the United States, or any 

2,1; N. J. 2, 1 ; Ore. 2,3; R. I. 2, 4 ; '- Ala. ; S. C. 
Tex. 6, 1 ; Wash. 6, 3 ; W. Va. 4, 1 ; 
Wy. 6, 6. Whether the conviction 
was in the home State, or any other 
(Nev.). Compare U. S. Amt. 14, 2. 

» Ark. 1891, p. 314; Fla. 6, 4; 111. 
7,7; Ind. 2,8; Minn. 4, 15; Mo. 8, 10; 
N. Y. 2, 2 ; O. 5, 4 ; Tenn. 4, 2 ; Wis. 
3, 6. 

2 Cal. 20, 11; Tex. 16, 2. 

' Ky. 

* Ark. 3, 2; Del. 5, 2; Fla. 6, 4; 
Ida. 6, 3 ; Kan. 5, 2 ; Ky. 145 ; Minn. 
7, 2; Mo.; Mon. 9, 2; N. C. : N. D. 
127 ; Okla. 3,1; S. D. 7, 8 ; Va. 23 ; 
Wis. 3, 2. 

* Col. 7, 10 ; Ky. ; La. ; Mo. 8, 8 ; 
S. C. 

« Ala. 182 ; Ct. 6, 3 ; Fla. 6, 5 ; Ga. 
2, 2, 1; La.; Md. 1,2; Miss 
6; Va. 23; Wis. 3,6. 

Ala.; Cal. 20, 11; Ct. 14, 4; Miss, be granted by the United States 


Ala. ; S. C. 




Ida., Ky. 

Ala., Miss., S. C. 
20 Ala., S. C. 
2' Ida. 

22 Ida. 

23 Ida. 

2« Nev. 

2^ Kan. 

2* Except, in Kansas, persons honor- 
ably discharged from the military ser- 
vice of the United States, after April, 
1861, and who had served at least one 
year therein, are not so disfranchised. 

S. C. 2, And in Nevada, the foregoing provi- 
sions cease to apply when an amnesty 

2' Ala. ; Cal. 

241; S. C. ; Tex. 16, 2; Va. 

* Ala. ; Ga. ; Ida. ; Ky. ; Minn. ; 
N. D. 127; Neb.; Nev. 2, 1 ; S. D. 7, Miss.; O. ; S. C. ; Tex.; Va 
8; Utah; Va. ; W. Va., 4, 1; Wis. 28 ^la., Cal., Ga, 
3, 2. 

» Kan. 5, 2 ; Nev. 

'" Ala. 

» S. C. 

Ct. ; Minn. 4, 15; 

29 Mo.; S. C; Utah 4, 6. 
'° Cal. Amt. 1893, p. 543; 
Miss. ; Va. 



State government/ or fraudulent bankruptcy.^ Obtaining money 
under false pretences;^ robbery;* arson ;^ miscegenation, sodomy, 
or fornication ; ^ incest ; ' assault to rape ; ^ or to rob ; ^ breach of 
trust/" Unless legally restored to the rights of citizenship,'^ 

§ 254. Bribery. — By the Constitutions of many States, no 
person convicted of bribery can vote;'^ whether giving or receiving 
the bribe.*^ So, no person guilty of giving or offering to give or 
receive a bribe.'* So, no person convicted of bribery at elections, as 
to both parties.*^ A person giving or offering or receiving a bribe 
at an election is disqualified to vote at that election}^ No member of 
the Legislature convicted of bribery can vote." In Pennsylvania, 
any person convicted of wilful violation of the election laws is 
deprived of the right of suffrage for four years.'^ 

§ 255. Betting on an Election disqualifies the persons interested 
from voting at that election.'^ And in Florida, laws shall be passed 
to deprive a person convicted of so betting of the right of suffrage 

§ 256. Duelling. — By the Constitutions of several States a 
person is disfranchised by being concerned in a duel in the same 
cases in the several States respectively that he would be disqualified 
to hold office (see § 223).^' And so, a conviction for duelling is 
cause of disfranchisement.^^ Or sending or accepting a challenge, or 
assisting in a duel.^^ But the Legislature on two-thirds vote may 
remove the disqualification.^* 

' Kan. § 253, notes. For a term not over ten 

^ Ct. years (Me.). 

» Ala., Miss., S. C, Va. » Del., Miss. 

* S. C. " Kan. 

« S. C. 15 Ga.; Ida. 6, 3; Ky. ; Md. 1, 3; 

« Ala., S. C. Me. 9, 13; Va. ; W. Va. 

' S. C. '« Del. 5, 3; N. Y. ; Pa., 8, 8; Vt. 

« S. C. 2, 6. 2, 34. 

» Ala. " Cal. 4, 35. 

'» S. C. »» Pa. 8, 9. 

" Fla., Ga., Ida., Kan., Ky., La., '» N. Y. ; Wis. 3, 6. 

Md., Minn., Mon., N. C., N. D., Neb., ^o YXa.. 5, 4. 

Nev., N. J., O., Olda., R. I., S. C, S. D., ^i Qal. 20, 2 ; Fla. 6, 5 ; Mich. 7, 8 ; 

Wash., Wis., Wy. Miss. 19; Nev. 15,3; Tex. 16,4; Wis. 

12 Ala.; Cal. 20, 11; a. 6, 3; Del. 13, 2. 

5, 7 ; Fla. 6, 5 ; Ga. ; Minn. ; N. J. 2, -^ Ct. 6, 3. ; Va. 23. 

2; N. Y.; O. 5, 4; R. I. 2, 4; S. C. ; =3 Va. 

Tex. 16, 2 ; Va. 23 ; Wis. 3, 6. See ^* Va. 57. 



[book III 

Article 20. Removal of Officers 

§ 2G0. By Impeachment^ — By the Constitutions of many 
States, every civil State Ofiicer may be impeiu-'hed.^ So, in Kansas, 
all officers under the Constitution.^ All "executive" officers;* 
the governor;'' lieutenant-governor;" secretary of State;' treasurer 
of the State;* the council;'* the auditor;'" the comptroller;** 
the attorney-general;*^ all attorneys for the State ;'^ the superin- 
tendent of education;'* the commissioner of public lands ;'^ the 
railroad commissioners ;'° the surveyor-general;*' all judicial ofiicers 
or judges;'^ all judges of the supreme courts;'^ all judges of the 
superior courts;^" all judges of the criminal court;^* all judges of 
the Court of Appeal ;^^ all chancellors.^^ Any such officer may be 
impeached within two years after his term of office expired.^* The 
Constitution forbids impeachment of public officers.'^ 

§ 261. The Causes of Impeachment are in many States, crime. 
Thus in detail (for citations, see also in § 260) : 

Crime (generally).^® Misdemeanors (generally).^' Any high 

* The right of impeachment by the 
Commons, to be tried by the Lords, 
existed from early times, in England, 
but lay dormant from 1449 to 1621 
(T.-L. 409). 

- Ark. 15, 1; Col. 13, 2; Del. 6, 2; 
111.5,15; Ind. 6, 7; lo. 3, 20; Ky. 68; 
Mass. 2, 1, 2, 8; Me. 9, 5; Mich. 12, 1; 
Miss. 50; Mon. 5, 17; N. D. 196; Neb. 
o, 5; Nev. 7, 2; N. H. 2, 37; N. J. 5, 
11; O. 2, 24; Okla. 8, 1; Pa. 6, 3; 
S. D. 16, 3; Utah 6, 19; Va. 54; Vt. 
2, 24; Wash. 5, 2; W. Va. 4, 9; Wis. 
7, 1 ; Wy. 3, 18. 

3 Kan. 2, 28. 

* Ct. 9, 3; Fla.; R. I. 11, 3; S. C. 
« Ala. 173; Ark.; Cal. 4, 18; Col. 

Ct.; Del.; Fla. 3, 29; 111.; lo.; Kan. 
Ky.; La. 217; Minn. 13, 1; Miss. 
Mo. 7, 1; Mon.; N. C. 4, 4; N. D. 
Nev.; N. H. 2, 39; N. J. ; O. 2, 24 
Okla.; Pa.; R. I.; S. C. 15, 5; S. D. 
Tenn. 5, 4; Tex. 15, 2; Utah; Va. 
Wash.; Wis.; Wy. 

« Ala., Cal., Fla., La., Mo., Tex., Va. 

^ Ala., Cal., Fla., La., Minn., Mo., 

* Ala., Cal., La., Minn., Mo., Tenn., 

« N. H. 2, 62. 

'" Ala., La., Minn., Mo. 

" Cal., Tenn., Tex. 

*2 Ala., Cal., La., Minn., Mo., Tex., 

^3 Ark., Tenn. 

" Ala., La., Mo. 

'' Tex. 

" La. 

»' Cal. 

'« Col.; Ct.; La.; Md. 4, 4; Mon.; 
Nev.; N. D.; O.; R. L; S. C; S. D.; 
Tenn.; Utah; Va. ; Wash.; Wy. 

18 Ala., Ark., Cal., Fla., lo., Minn., 
Mo., Okla., Tenn., Tex. See § 551. 

2" Ark., Cal., Fla., lo., Minn., Mo., 

21 Mo. 

2= Tex. 

2^ Ark., Tenn. 

2* N. J. 

2^ Ore. 1, 19. 

26 Ark., Col., Ind., La., Mich., Minn., 
Mo., Mon., N. D., S. D., Utah, Va., 
Wash., W. Va., Wis., Wy. It may now 
be regarded as settled that "high crimes 
and misdemeanors may include mis- 
conduct in office which does not in 
itself constitute a crime." ' (McClain, 
p. 61.) 

" Ark., Col., La., Mich., Minn., Mo., 




crime in office.* Any misdemeanor in office.^ Any offence involving 
moral turpitude, committed while in office, or connected therewith.^ 
Treason.* Bribery.^ Habitual drunkenness.^ Drunkenness, at 
any time or place.^ "Gross immorality."** In several, malfeas- 
ance'* or misconduct in office.'" Corruption in office.'* Or "favor- 
itism." Extortion in oflice.'^ Oppression in office.'^ Neglect of 
official duties.'* "Maladministration."'^ Incompetency.'® Inca- 
pacity, mental or physical.'^ No causes are specified.'^ 

§ 202. Process of Impeachment. — By the Constitutions of nearly 
all, the impeachment is first made by the House of Representatives.'^ 
In most, a majority of a quorum seems to be sufficient for impeach- 
ment in the house as in ordinary votes (see § 304).^° But in a few, a 
majority of the members elected.^' In two, a vote of two thirds of the 
members present," or elected.^^ And the impeachment is then, in 
all these States but two, tried by the Senate, sitting as a court, 
under oath.'* In many States, with the chief justice of the Supreme 
Court presiding (in cases of impeachment of the governor),^^ 

Two thirds of the senators elected must, in many States, concur 

Mon., Utah, Va., Wash., W. Va., Wis., 

^ Del., Miss., Tenn. 

2 Cal, Fla., Del., 111., lo., Kan., Ky., 
Me., Miss., N. D., Neb., Nev., O., Pa., 
S. D. 

3 Ala., Okla. 
* Del., Miss. 

5 Del. ; Miss. ; N. H. 2, 37. 

« Ala., La., Mo., N. D., Okla. 

^ Neb. 14,3; S. D. 

« W. Va. 

» Ark.; Col.; Ic; La.; Mass. 2, 1, 

6; Md. 3, 26; Me. 4, 1, 8; Mich. 12, 
1 & 2; Minn. 4, 14; Miss. 49; Mo. 7, 
2; Mon. 5, 16; N. C. 4, 4; N. D. 194; 
Nev. 7, 1; N. H. 2, 16; N. J. 6, 3, 1; 
N. Y. 6, 13; O. 2, 23; Okla. 8, 3; Pa. 
6, 1; R. L 11, 1; S. C. 15, 1; S. D. 16, 
1; Tenn. 5, 1; Tex. 15, 1; Utah 6, 19; 
Va. 54; Vt. Amt. 25, 3; Wash. 5, 1; 
W. Va. 4, 9; Wis. 7, 1; Wy. 3, 17. 

20 Ark., Cal., Ct., Ga., Ind., lo., Kan., 
Ky., Mass., Me., Mo., N. C, N. H., 
Tenn., Tex., W. Va. 

=' Ala., Col., III., Md., Mich., Minn., 

2,8; Mo.; Mon.; N. D.; Nev.; N. H.; Mon., N. D., Nev., N. J., N. Y., O., 

S. D.; Utah; Va. ; Wash.; Wy. 

'o Ala., La., Mich., Minn., N. D., 
H., Okla., S. D., Va., W. Va., Wis. 

'1 La. 

'2 La. 

" La., Mo. 

" Ala., Ind., Okla., Va., W. Va. 

S. D., Utah, Wash., Wis., Wy. 
N. 22 Fla., Miss. 

23 Del., Ind., R. I., S. C, Vt. 

2* Ala. ; Ark. ; Cal. ; Col. ; Ct. 9, 2 ; 
Del.; Fla.; Ga. 3, 5, 3; Ida. 5, 3; 
III.; Ind.; lo.; Kan.; Ky. 67; La.; 
Mass. 2, 1, 2, 8; Md.; Me. 4, 2, 7; 

»5 Mass.; N. H.; Va.; Vt. 2, 24; Mich.; Minn.; Miss.; Mo.; Mon. 

W. Va. 

« Ala., La., Okla., W. Va. 
" Ind. 

'» S. C. 

N. C. 4, 3; N. D. 195; Nev.; N. H. 2, 
37; N. J.; O.; Okla.; Pa. 6, 2; R.I. 
11, 2; S. C. 15, 2; S. D. 16, 2; Tenn. 
5, 2; Tex. 15, 2; Utah 6, 18; Va.; 

'« Ala. 173; Ark. 15, 2; Cal. 4, 17; Vt. Amt. 7; Wash.; W. Va.; Wis.; 

Col. 13, 1 ; Ct. 9, 1 ; Del. 6, 1 ; Fla. 3, Wy. 

29; 1897, p'. 308; Ga. 3, 6, 3; Ida. 5, 25 ^la.; Del.; Ida.; Mon.; N. D.; 

4; 111.4.24; Ind. 6, 7; lo. 3, 19; Kan. N. H. 2, 39; Okla.; S. D.; Utah; 

2, 27; Ky. 66; La. 218; Mass. 2, 1, 3, Wash.; Wy. 


to convict of the impcacbincnt.* In otliors, two thirds of the senators, 
&c., |)resent.' In four, a vote of a (juoruni, as in other cases (see 
§ 304).^ But in Nebraska, the impeachment is first made by the 
Legishiture in joint convention upon resolution in either house ; and 
a majority of elected members must concur; and it is then tried by 
the judges of the Supreme Court."* So, in Nev^' York, it is tried by 
the Senate and the judges of the Court of Appeals. 

§ 263. The Ejjcct of Impeachment is, by the Constitutions of all 
but Maryland and Oregon, merely to remove from office; and, in all 
these States except Rhode Island, Indiana, Michigan, South Carolina, 
and Oklahoma, to disqualify the person impeached from holding 
any other State office; and the person impeached, whether convicted 
or not on the impeachment, is nevertheless liable to indictment, 
trial, and punishment according to law.^ But in one State such 
disqualification only lasts during the term for which he was elected 
or appointed.^ In many, when an officer is impeached, he is at once 
suspended from his office until acquitted.' In Tennessee, the Legis- 
lature has no power to relieve the person impeached from the above 
penalties (and see also § 162).^ He cannot be again impeached for 
the same ofi'ence.^ 

§ 265. Removal by Address. — Certain officers may, by the 
Constitutions of many States, be removed by the Legislature ; thus, 
in many States, judges of the supreme or superior courts,^" or 
all judicial officers.^^ So, judges of the supreme court, and 
all other judicial officers, on recommendation of the governor, 

1 Cal., Col., Del., Ida., 111., Ind., 15,3; S. D. ; Tenn. 5, 4 ; Tex. 15, 4; 

Kan., La., Md., Mich., Mon., N. D., Utah; Va. 54; Vt. Amt. 7; Wash.; 

Nev., N.J.,0.,R. I., S.C, S.D., Utah, W. Va. 4, 9; Wis. 7, 1 ; Wy. 

Wash., W. Va., Wy. « Ala. 

^ Ark.; Ct. ; Fla. ; Ga. 3, 5, 4 ; lo. ; ^ Fla. ; La. 219; Mich. 12, 4 ; Minn. 

Ky.; La.; Me.; Minn.; Mo.; N. C. ; 13,3; N. D. 198; Neb.; N.J. 6, 3, 2; 

N. Y.; Okla.; Pa.; Tenn. ; Tex. 15, 3 ; N. Y. ; R. I. 11,2; S. D. 16,5; Tex. 

Va.; Vt.; Wis. Soin U. S. C. L 3 (6). 15,5; Utah 6, 20; Wis. 7, 1. 

^ Ala., Mass., Miss., N. H. * The principle that the power to 

* Neb. 3, 14. pardon does not extend to impeach- 

^ Ala. 176; Ark. 15, 1; Cal. 4, 18; ments is embodied in the Act of 

Col. 13, 2; Ct. 9, 3; Del. 6, 2; Fla. 3, Settlement, but was claimed in Danby's 

29; Ga. 3, 5, 5; Ida. 5, 3; 111. 4, 24; case, 1679. 

lo. 3, 20; Kan. 2, 28; Ky. 68; La. » N. D. 201; S. D. 16, 8. 

218; Mass. 2, 1, 2, 8; Me. 4, 2, 7 ; '" Cal. 6, 10; Kan. 3, 15; Miss. 53 

Mich. 12, 2; Minn. 13, 1; Miss. 51; N. C. 4, 31; Nev. 7, 3; O. 4, 17 

Mo. 7, 2; Mon. 5, 17; N. C. 4, 3; N. R. I. 10, 4; S. C. 15, 4; Va. 104 

D. ; Neb. 3, 14; Nev. 7. 2 ; N. H. 2, Wash, 4. 9; Wis. 7, 13; W. Va. 8, 

38 ; N. J. 6, 3, 3 ; N. Y. 6, 3 ; O. 2, 24 ; 18 ; Utah 8, 11. 

Okla. 8, 5; Pa. 6, 3 ; R.I. 11, 3; S.C. " 111.6,30; Nev.; O.; Wash. 




bv vote of two thirds of the senate elected.^ All civil officers,^ or 
all executive officers.^ All officers not liable to impeachment may 
be removed as provided by law.^ In a few, a two-thirds vote of both 
houses elected is necessary,^ or a three-fourths vote.^ In others they 
are removed by a majority vote of elected members in joint com- 
mittee,' or by the governor (or governor and council), upon the 
address of both houses of the Legislature ; thus: all judicial officers 
or judges;^ the judges of the supreme and superior courts;^ all 
State officers except members of the Legislature ; ^*^ the auditor, 
treasurer, secretary of state, attorney-general, and chancellors;^^ 
the attorney-general/^ In one State, by the governor, on address of 
two thirds of the full senate, all officers elected by the people except 
members of the Legislature and judges.^^ Minor judges, by the 
senate on address by the governor/^ 

The Causes of Removal of officers under this section are by the 
Constitutions specified to be any reasonable cause,'^ misbehavior in 
office,^" any infamous crime,^' incompetence,^^ neglect of duty,^^ 
age,^** mental or bodily infirmity ,^^ corruption in office,^" drunken- 
ness,^^ if habitual.^* 

§ 266. Removal hy the Governor. — So, in many States, certain 
officers may be removed by the governor alone, as, namely: any 
officer whom he has power to appoint,^^ all officers not legislative or 
judicial,^® judges,^' sheriff s,^^ coroners,^^ district attorneys,^" county 

> N. Y. 6, 11. 
» La. 163. 
3 S. C. 

* Fla. 14, 15; N. D. 197; S. D. 16, 
4; Utah 6, 21; Wash. 5, 3; Wy. 3, 
19. See also § 268. 

5 Cal., Kan., La., Miss., N. C, N. Y., 
Nev., O., Utah, Wis., W. Va. 

« 111., Wash. 

' R. I., Va. 

» Mass. 2, 3, 1 ; Md. 4, 4 ; Mich. 12, 
6; Mo. 6, 41; N. H. 2, 72; Pa. 5, 15; 
S. C. ; Tex. 15, 8. Two thirds of each 
house must concur (Ark., Ct., Del., 
Ky., La., Md., Mich., Miss., Mo., Ore., 
Pa., S. C, Tex.). 

• Ark. 15, 3 ; Ct. 5, 3 ; Ky. 112, 129; 
Ore. 7, 20. 

'» Del. 3, 13; La. 220; Me. 9, 5; 
S. C. 
" Ark. 
'2 Ore.; Va. 107. 

" Pa. 6, 4. 

'* Cal. 1904, Nov. 8. 

'5 Del., Ky., La., Mich., Miss., Nev., 
Pa., S. C, Wash. 

'« N. D., Ore., Pa., S. D., Wash., 
Wy., Utah. 

" N. D., Pa., S. D., Utah, Wy. 

'» N. D., Ore., S. D., Wash., W. Va. 

'8 Ore., S. C. 

2« W. Va. 

=' Mo., N. C, W. Va. 

22 Wash., Ore. 

^ S. D. 

^* N. D. 

25 Col. 4, 6; 111. 5, 12; Md. 2, 15; 
Neb. 5, 12 ; Pa. 6, 4 (except judges) ; 
W. Va. 7, 10. 

29 Mich. 12, 8. 
2^ Md. 4, 4. 

28 N. Y. 10, 1; 

29 N. Y., Wis. 

30 N. Y., Wis. 

Wis. 6, 4. 


clerks,^ registers of deeds,^ all public officers.^ In Florida by the 
governor, with the concurrence of the senate, all officers not liable to 
impeachment may be removed; in California by the senate on 
recommendation of the governor, judges of inferior courts.^ Me 
may susj)en(l all executive State officers except the lieutenant-governor 
until the next session of the Legislature."' He shall prosecute and 
suspend officers charged with embezzlement." 

The Cmiscs of Removal under this section are specified to be: 
incompetency;' malfeasance in office;^ misconduct ; ** neglect of 
duty ; '" conviction in a court of law of incompetency, misbehavior, or 
neglect in office,or anycrirae(as to judges only) ;" gross immorality.'^ 

§ 2G7. Removal bij the Courts. In a few states, certain officers 
may be removed by the judges of the supreme court. 

Thus, judges of the superior court ;'^ judicial officers;'* all 
officers not liable to impeachment ; '^ any judge (except those 
mentioned in § 2G0) ; '" any prosecuting attorney.'' 

By the judges of the superior courts : — - 

Minor officers;'^ county or town officers;'^ county judges, 
attorneys, clerks of court, and justices of the peace.'" In Oregon, 
all officers may be tried for incompetence, corruption, malfeasance, 
or delinquency in office, as for criminal offences; and judgment 
may be rendered for dismissal from office.^' 

§ 268. Other Removals from Office. The Constitutions of 
other States provide that the Legislature may provide for the 
removal of inferior officers from office, for malfeasance or non- 
feasance of their duties ;^^ for official misconduct, incompetence, 
neglect of duty, or gross immorality ,^^ or for any cause.^* 

' N. Y. " Ala. 174. 

=" Wis. '^ Tenn. 5, 5. 

» Del. 15, 6. '« Ind. 7, 12. 

♦ Cal. 6, 10; Fla. 4, 15. '' Ind. 

» Va. 73. >« La. 222. 

• S. C. 4, 22. '« Ark. 7, 27 ; La. ; Tex. 5, 24. 
' Col. ; Fla. ; 111. ; Md. ; Neb. ; ==" Tex. 5, 24 ; La. 

W. Va. 7, 10. =' Ore. 7, 19. 

• « Col., Del., Fla., lU., Neb., W. Va. =^ Col. 13, 3; Minn. 13, 2; Mo. 14, 

» Md., W. Va. 7; Mon. 5, 18; N. D. 197; Nev. 7, 4; 

>» Col., Fla., 111., Neb., W. Va. S. C. 3, 27; S. D. 16, 4; Utah; Wash. 

" Del., Md. 5, 3;Wy. See § 265, 2d paragraph. 

'2 W. Va. " W. Va. 4, 6. 

" La. 221 ; Tex. 15, 6. ^^ Okla. 8, 2; Tex. 15, 7. 


Article 27. The Legislature 

§ 270. General Provisions} — The Constitutions of all the States 
provide that each house of the Legislature shall judge of the quali- 
fications, elections, and returns of its members, and determine the 
rules of its own proceedings.^ "It has all other powers necessary 
and usual for the Legislature of a free State." ^ In most States, each 
house shall choose its own officers,^ except, in many, the president of 
the senate, which place is filled by the lieutenant-governor,^ or by the 
governor or lieutenant-governor ; ^ if neither, by the secretary of 

§ 27L Quorum. — By the Constitutions of nearly all, a majority 
of elected members in either house constitutes a quorum.^ But in 
some two thirds is necessary.^ And in one State, a majority is a 

> Copied from U. S. C. I, 5. The Ky. 34; La.; Mass. 2, 1, 2, 7; 2, 1, 3, 

right to determine contested elections 10; Md. ; Me. 4, 1, 7; 4, 2, 8; Mich, 

was finally vindicated by the House Minn. 4, 5 ; Miss. ; Mo. ; Mon. 5, 9 ; 

of Commons against James I. who N. C. 2, 18-20; N. D. 31, 36; Neb.; 

tried to transfer such cases to his Nev. ; N. H. 2, 21 &36; N. J. 4, 4, 

own Court of Chancery, in 1604. (T.- 3 ; N. Y. ; O. 2, 8 ; Okla. 5, 29 ; Ore. ; 

L. pp. 389, 390, 421.) Congress, having Pa. ; R. I. 5, 2 ; 6, 4 ; S. C. 3, 12 ; S. D. ; 

delegated powers only, has not sue- Tenn. ; Tex. 3, 9 ; Utah 6, 12 ; Va. 

ceeded to the unlimited powers of 47 ; Vt. ; Wash. 2, 10 ; W. Va. ; Wis. 

Parliament to punish for contempt. 4, 9; Wy. See U. S. C. I, 2 (5); I, 3 

(Reinsch, American Legislatures, 176.) (5). 

2Ala.51,53; Amt.6; Ariz.* 1110; ^ Ala. 51; Col.; Ct. ; 4, 13, 111.; 

Ark. 5, 11, 12; Cal. 4,7 & 9; Col. 5, 10 Ind. ; lo. 4, 18; Ky. ; La.; Mich.; 

& 12 ; Ct. 3, 6 & 8 ; Del. 2, 8 & 9 ; Minn. ; N. C. ; Neb. ; Nev. ; N. Y. ; O. 3, 

Fla. 3, 6; Ga. 3, 7, 1; Ida. 3, 9; 16; Okla. 5, 28; Pa. ; Tex. ; Va. ; Vt. ; 

111. 4, 9; Ind. 4, 10; lo. 3, 7 & 9; Wash. 3, 16; Wis. See also § 282. 
Kan. 2, 8 ; Ky. 38, 39 ; La. 25 ; Mass. « R. I. 6, 2. 
2, 1, 2, 4; 2, 1, 3, 10; Md. 3, 19; Me. ' R. I. 6, 3. 

4, 1,5; 4, 2,5; 4,3, 3 & 4; Mich. 4, 9; » Ala. 52; Ark. 5, 11; Cal. 4, 8; 

Minn. 4,3 & 4; Miss. 38 & 55 ; Mo. 4, Col. 5, 11; Ct. 3, 7 ; Del. 2, 8; Fla. 3, 

17; Mon. 5,9 & 11; N. C.2, 22 ; N. D. 11; Ga. 3, 4, 4; Ida. 3, 10; 111. 4, 9; 

47 & 48; Neb. 3, 7; Nev. 4, 6; N. H. lo. 3, 8; Kan. 2, 8; Ky. 37; La. 34; 

2, 24,34; N. J. 4, 4, 2; N. M.* 63, 35; Mass. Amt. 33; Md. 3, 20; Me. 4, 3, 

N. Y. 3, 10; O. 2, 6 & 8; Okla. 5, 30; 3; Mich. 4, 8; Minn. 4, 3; Miss. 54; 

Ore. 4, 11; Pa. 2, 9 & 11; R. 1. 4, 6 Mo. 4, 18; Mon. 5, 10; N. C. 2, 2; N. 

& 7; S. C. 3, 11; S. D. 3, 9; Tenn. D. 46; Neb. 3, 7; Nev. 4, 13; N. J. 4, 

2, 11 & 12; Tex. 3, 8 & 11; Utah 6, 4,2; N. Y. 3, 10; 0.2,6; Okla. 5, 30; 

10 & 12; Va. 47; Vt. 2, 9; Amt.6; Pa. 2, 10; R. I. 4, 6; S. C. 3, 11; S. 

Wash. 2, 8 & 9; W. Va. 6, 24; Wis. D. 3, 9; Utah 6, 11; Va. 46; Vt. 2, 9; 

4, 7 & 8; Wy. 3, 10 & 12. But see Amt. 6; Wash. 2, 8; W. Va. 6, 24; 

§ 238. Wis. 4, 7; Wy. 3, 11. See U. S. C. I, 

« Mon., N. D., Wy. 5, (1). Compare also § 303. 

* Ala.; Ariz.*; Ark.; Cal.; Col 
Ct. 3, 7 ; Del. 2, 7 ; Fla. ; Ga. 3, 5, 2 
3, 6, 2; Ida.; 111.; Ind. 2, 10; lo. 

» Ariz.* 1116; Ind. 4, 11; Ore. 4, 
12; Tenn. 2, 11; Tex. 3, 10. 


quorum in the house ; but when less than two thirds are present, a 
two-thirds vote is necessary to any act or proceeding; and in the 
senate thirteen are necessary to a quorum, and when less than 
sixteen are present, a vote of ten is necessary.' 

But a smaller number than a (luorum may generally adjourn from 
day to day and compel the attendance of absent members.- 

§ 272. Speech in the Legislature. — The Constitutions of most 
States provide that no member of the Legislature for any speech or 
debate in either house shall be questioned elsewhere.^ So, in many, 
that speech in the legislature can be the foundation of no prosecution 
or action whatever, civil, or criminal, in any other court or place.* 

§ 273. Freedom from Arrest. — By the Constitutions of most 
States, State senators and representatives are privileged from arrest 
in all cases except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, during 
the session of the Legislature, or in going to and returning from the 
Lef^islature.^ For fifteen davs before and after the session of the 

> N. H. 2, 19 & 36. may, however, be expelled by the House 

- Ala., Ark., Ariz., Cal., Col., Ct., itself, as was the case with Sir Richard 
Del., Fla., Ga., Ida., Ind., lo., Ky., La., Steele in 1714 for writing "a seditious 
Mass., Md., Me., Mich., Minn., Miss., and scandalous libel" (T.-L. 579). 
Mo Mon., N. D., Nev., N. J., O., " Mass. 1, 21; Md. 3, 18; Neb. 3, 
Okla., Ore., Pa., R. I., S. C, S. D., 23; N. H. 1, 30; Vt. 1, 14; Wash. 2, 
Tenn., Tex., Utah, Va., Wash., W. Va., 17; Wis. 4, 6. 

Wis.,Wy. Notes. 1. So in U. S. 1.5. « Ala. 56; Ark. 5, 15; Col. 5, 16; 
2. But there are often special provi- Del. 2, 13 ; Ga. 3, 7, 3 ; Ida. 3, 7 ; 111. 
sions for finance bills; see Arts. 30, 4,14; Ind. 4, 8; lo. 3, 11; Kan. 2,22; 
31. Ky. 43; La. 28; Me. 4, 3, 8; Minn. 4, 

3 Ala. 56; Ark. 5, 15; Ariz.* 1118; 8; Miss. 48; Mo. 14, 12; Mon. 5, 15; 
Col. 5, 16 ; Ct. 3, 10 ; Del. 2, 13 ; Ga. N. D. 42 ; Neb. 3. 12 ; N. J. 4,4,8; O. 
3,7,3; Ida. 3, 7; 111.4,14; Ind. 4, 8; 2,12; Okla. 5,23; Ore. 4, 9 ; Pa. 2, 15; 
Kan. 2, 22; Ky. 43; La. 28; Md. S. C. 3, 14; S. D. 3, 11; Tenn. 2, 13; 
Decln. of Rts. 10 ; Me. 4, 3, 8 ; Mich. 4, Tex. 3, 14 ; Utah 6, 8 ; Va. 48 ; W. Va. 
7; Minn. 4, 8; Mo. 14, 12; Mon. 5, 15; 6, 17; Wy. 3, 16. The Protestation of 
N. D. 42; N. J. 4, 4, 8; N. Y. 3, 12; 1621 puts the right in those words: 
O. 2, 12; Okla. 5, 23; Ore. 4, 9; Pa. 2, "And that every member of the 
15; R. I. 4, 5; S. D. 3, 11 ; Tex. 3, 21 ; said House hath like freedom from all 
Tenn. 2, 13 ; Utah, 6, 8 ; Va. 48 ; impeachment, imprisonment, and mo- 
Wash. 2, 17 ; W. Va. 6, 17 ; Wy. 3, 16. testation (other than by the censure of 
This is an old English constitutional the House itself), for or concerning any 
right, finally definitely established in speaking, reasoning, or declaring any 
Strode's case and the Stat. 4 Hen. VIII. matter or matters, touching the Par- 
(Taylor, I. 523). It would probably be liament, or ParUament business." (T.- 
deenied part of the "unwritten consti- L. 419). But it first received distinct 
tution" where not guaranteed here or legislative recognition under James I. 
in § 60. Freedom of speech was first in 1604 (T.-L. 389). Both the right to 
definitely asserted by Peter Wentworth freedom of speech and freedom from 
against Elizabeth in 1576, and is dis- arrest is probably inherent in the 
tinctly claimed as the privilege of Par- Constitution of Parliament and coeval 
liament in the Protestation of Decem- with the first existence of National 
ber 18, 1621 (T.-L. 419). A member Councils in England (T.-L. 259). The 


Legislature.* So ten days before and after.^ In some they are so 
privileged from arrest (except as above) at all times while members 
of the Legislature.^ This privilege does not, in five States, protect 
from arrest in cases of violation of the oath of office.'' 

In two they cannot be arrested or held to bail upon mesne process 
during their attendance upon, going to, or returning from the Legis- 
lature.^ And it is further provided, in a few States, that members of 
the Legislature are not subject to any civil process during the session 
of the Legislature and for fifteen days before such session and after 
its termination.® Or for fifteen days before the session.'' So, in one, 
their persons are free from arrest and their property from attach- 
ment on any civil action during the session and for two days before 
and after it.^ And in one other, they are free from arrest in civil 
process during the session and for four days before and after.® 

§ 274. Open Sessions. — The Constitutions of nearly all the 
States provide that the doors of each house of the Legislature shall 
be open, or that the proceedings shall be public''' Except such occa- 
sions as may, in the opinion of the House, require secrecy," or except 
the senate when in executive session.*^ And in a few it is even re- 
quired that the doors of either house should be open when sitting as 

privilege of freedom from arrest is 4, 12 ; Minn. 4, 19 ; Miss. 58 ; Mo. 4, 

limited to civil causes in England, and 19; Mon. 5, 13; N. D. 50; Neb. 3, 8; 

it is not available in case of attach- Nev. 4, 15; N. H. 2, 8; N. Y. 3, 11; 

ment for refusing to obey the writ of O. 2, 13 ; Ore. 4, 14 ; Pa. 2, 13 ; S. C. 

habeas corpus. It originally extended 3, 23; S. D. 3, 15; Tenn. 2, 22; Tex. 

to the servants or household of a mem- 3, 16; Utah 6, 15; Vt. 2, 13; Wash. 

ber, but this was altered by statute in 2, 11 ; Wis. 4, 10; Wy. 3, 14. One of 

1770 (T.-L. 263). the original privileges of Parhament 

' Cal., Miss., Mo., Neb., Utah, Va. was secrecy of its proceedings; and it 

^ S. C, W. Va. was only after a prolonged struggle 

3 Ariz.* 1118; Cal. 4, 11; Mich. 4, that the right of the pubhc to know 

7 ; Wash. 2, 16 ; Wis. 4, 15. what their representatives were doing 

* Ala., Col., Mon., Pa., Wy. in Parliament was at length conceded. 

' N. H. 2, 20 (this is ambiguous. The Long Parliament in 1641 had per- 

but § 21 seems to confine the word mitted the publication of its proceed- 

" arrest " to arrests for debt) ; Mass. ings, but prohibited the printing of 

2, 1, 3, 10 (the privilege is here con- speeches, and it is still in theory a 

fined to the House of Representatives, breach of privilege to report debates ; 

by the letter of the Constitution). but no action for Ubel will lie for so 

« Ariz.*; Cal.; Ind. ; Kan.; Mich.; doing (T.-L. 579-587). 

Nev. 4, 11; Ore.; Va. ; Wash.; Wis. " Ala., Ark., Ariz.*, Cal, Col., Ct., 

' Ind. ; or 10 days before (Ida.). Del., 111., Ind., lo., Md., Mich., Min., 

« R. I. 4, 5. Miss., Mo., Mon., N. D., Neb., N. H., 

« Ct. 4, 10. N. Y., O., Ore., Pa., S. C, S. D., Tenn., 

I'Ala. 57; Ark. 5, 13 ; Ariz.* II13; Vt., Wash., Wis., Wy. " In the opinion 

Cal. 4, 13; Col. 5, 14; Ct. 3, 11; Del. of two thirds of those present" (O.). 

2, 11 ; Fla. 3, 13 ; Ida. 3, 12 ; 111. 4, 10; '^ Y\si., Nev., Tex., Utah. 

Ind. 4, 13 ; lo. 3, 13 ; Md. 3, 21 ; Mich. 



[book III 

committee of the whol(\' But no person with exception of members 
of the press and certain olliccrs can be achnitted to the floor of either 
house in session. - 

§ 27'). Journals. — The Constitutions of all the States but Massa- 
chusetts provide that each house of the Lcf^^islature shall keep a 
journal of its proceedings;^ and, in all these States except Oregon, 
publish the same. But, in one, they are only to publish it when re- 
quired by one fifth of the members.^ They need not print such parts 
as may require secrecy.'' The yeas and nays of the members of 
either house voting in elections, must in some States be always en- 
tered on the journal,® and in several States the same is required of 
other votes ^ (see also § 304). So in others at the request of any one 
member,^ or at the request of two members in either house," of two 
in the senate, or five in the house,^'' of three in either house," of five in 
either house, ^" of one sixth of the members present in either house, ^^ 
of one fifth of the members present in either,'* of one fifth of the mem- 
bers elected in either,'^ of one tenth of those present,'" or, in one, 
whenever the Constitution requires a two-thirds vote.'' Any member 
may dissent from or protest against any act or proceeding he may deem 
injurious to the public, and have the reasons for his dissent entered 
on the journal.'^ So, in two, any tw^o or more members may do so.'" 

§ 276. Expulsion of Members, etc. — By the Constitutions of 

1 Ark., Col., Del., Ida., 111., Md., 
Miss., Mon., Neb., Ore., Pa., S. D., 
Tenn., Wy. 

2 Ala. 

3 Ala. 55; Ark. 5, 12; Ariz.* 1111; 
Cal. 4, 10 ; Col. 5, 13 ; Ct. 3, 9 ; Del. 

2, 10; Fla. 3, 12; Ga. 3, 7, 4 ; Ida. 3, 
13; 111. 4, 10; Ind. 4, 12; lo. 3, 9; 
Kan. 2, 10; Ky. 40; La. 30; Md. 3, 
22 ; Me. 4,3,5; Mich. 4, 10 ; Minn. 4, 
5; Miss. 55; Mo. 4, 42; Mon. 5, 12; 
N. C. 2, 16; N. D. 49; Neb. 3, 8; Nev. 
4, 14 ; N. H. 2, 23 ; N. J. 4,4,4; N. Y. 

3, 11 ; O. 2, 9 ; Okla. 5, 30 ; Ore. 4, 13 ; 
Pa. 2, 12 ; R. I. 4, 8 ; S. C. 3, 22 ; S. D. 
3, 13 ; Tenn. 2, 21 ; Tex. 3, 12 ; Utah 
0, 14 ; Va. 49 ; Vt. 2, 14 ; Wash. 2, 11 ; 
W. Va. 6, 41; Wis. 4, 10; Wy. 3, 13. 
See in U. S. Const. 1, 5. 

* Ct. 

« Ala., Ark., Ariz.*, Col., Ct., Del., 
Me., Mich., Miss., Mon., Neb., N. Y., 
Pa., S. C, S. D., Tenn., Wash., Wis., 
Wy. Nor proceedings of executive 
sessions (Utah). 

8 Ark. 4, 14 ; Cal. ; Kan. ; lo. 3, 38 ; 
Minn. ; Miss. 76; Okla. 5, 31 ; S. C. 2, 
24 ; S. D. 3, 14 ; Tenn. 4, 4 ; Wash. 2, 
27 ; W. Va. 6, 44. 

' Kan., Minn., S. D., Tenn. 

« Del, N. H., Vt. 

« Col. ; Ind. ; lo. 3, 10 ; Ky. ; Mo. ; 
Mon.; Neb.; O. ; Ore.; Pa.; Wy. 

'0 111. 

'1 Cal., Ida., Nev., Tex. 

'^ Ark., Fla., Md., Tenn., Utah. Of 
five in the Senate, ten in the house 
(S. C). 

13 N. D. ; S. D. ; Wis. 4, 20. 

1* Ct.; Ga. 3, 7, 6; La. 36; Me.; 
N. C; 2,26; N. J.; R. L; Va. 

»« Ariz.*, Mich. 

»« Ala., Miss., W. Va. 

" Ga. 3, 7, 21. 

'8 Ala.; Ariz.*; Ind. 4, 26; lo. ; 
Kan. 2, 11 ; Mich. ; N. C. 2, 17 ; N. H. ; 
O. 2, 10; Ore. 4, 26; S. C. ; Tenn. 2, 
27; Vt. 

>" 111.; Minn. 4, 16. 


most States, either house of the Legislature may expel any of its 
members by a vote of two thirds of the elected members.' So, in one, 
by a majority vote of a quorum.- But no member can, in many, be 
expelled a second time for the same cause ; '' except for theft, perjury, 
etc.* Nor, for any cause known to his constituents before his elec- 
tion.^ The reasons for the expulsion must, in two, be entered on the 
journal with the names of the members voting.** In some, a member 
expelled for corruption is not thereafter eligible for either house.^ 
Each house has, in most States, power to punish its members for 
disorderly conduct.^ And in many, either house may punish any 
person not a member for disorderly or contemptuous conduct, such 
punishment not to extend beyond final adjournment of the session.^ 
It may punish for contempt any person who refuses to attend as a 
witness or produce papers, etc., before the Legislature, either house, 
or a committee of either, or to testify as to any matter which may be a 
proper subject of inquiry by the Legislature.'"' Such punishment is 
to be by imprisonment.'' But not over thirty days.'^ Not over ten 
days.'^ Not over twenty-four hours at a time.'* No time is specified.'^ 

' Ala. 53; Ark. 5, 12; Ariz.* 1110; ^ Yt. 2, 9. 

Cal. 4, 9; Col. 5, 12 ; Ct. 3, 8; Del. 2, ^ Ma., Ark., Ariz., Col., Ct., 111., 

9; Fla. 3, 6; Ga. 3, 7, 1 ; Ida. 3, 11; Ind., lo., Ky., Md., Me., Mich., Minn., 

111. 4, 9; Ind. 2, 8; lo. 3, 9; Ky. 39; Miss., Mo., Neb., O., Ore., Pa., R. I., 

La. 25; Md. 3, 19; Me. 4, 3, 4; Mich. S. C, Tenn., Tex., Wash., W. Va., Wis. 

4, 9; Minn. 4, 4; Miss. 55; Mo. 4, 17; * Miss. 

Mon. 5, 11 ; N. D. 48; Neb. 3, 7; Nev. « Ariz., Mich., Vt. 

4,6: N. J. 4,4,3; O. 2, 8 ; Okla. 5, 30 ; « Ariz., Mich. 

Ore. 4, 15; Pa. 2, II; R.I. 4, 7; S. C. ^ Ala. 54; Ark.; Col.; Mon.; N. 

3, 12; Tenn. 2, 12; Tex. 3, 11; Utah D. 2, 38; Okla. 5, 19; Pa.; Wy. See 

6, 10; Va. 47; Wash. 2, 9; W. Va. 6, §§ 206, 210. 

25; Wis. 4,8; Wy. 3, 12. In many of « Ala. ; Ark. ; Ariz. *1120; Col. 

these States (N. J., Pa., O., Ind., lo., Ct. ; Del.; Fla.; 111.; Ind.; lo. ; Ky. 

Minn., Va., Ky., Tenn., Ark., Tex., La. ; Md. ; Me. ; Minn. ; Miss. ; Mo. 

Okla., R. L, Ore., Col., S. C, Ga., Mon.; N. D. ; N. H. 2, 21, 32; Nev. 

Ala., Mon., N. D., Wy.) the provision N. J.; O. ; Okla.; Ore.; Pa.; R. I. 

is ambiguously worded, and so in U. S. S. C. ; Tenn.; Tex.; L^tah; Va. 

C. 1,5, (2) ; by custom, however, "two- Wash. ; W. Va. ; Wis. ; Wy. 

thirds of the house " should be so inter- * Ariz. ; Fla. 3, 9 ; Ga. 3,7,2; Ky. ; 

preted. In a few it is definitely stated Mass. 2, 1, 3, 10-11 ; Me. 4, 3, 6; Miss, 

to mean members present (Fla., Miss.), 58; N. D. ; Nev. 4, 7 ; N. H. ; S. C. 

and such is general parliamentary 3, 13; W. Va. 6, 26; and tliis is the 

law, in vetoes (§ 304) and impeach- proper rule, 

ments ; and so by the practice of the '" Ky. 39 ; Okla. 5, 42. 

U. S. Senate, even on votes of " Mass. ; Me. ; N. D. ; N. H. ; S. C. ; 

expulsion. It is one of the inherent Tenn. 2, 14. 

powers of a Legislature to expel a *- Mass., N. D. 

member, or punish any person for con- " La. 26 ; Md. 2, 23 ; Mo. ; N. H, 

tempt, but in the Wilkes case it was " 111. ; Ind. 4, 15 ; Minn. 4, 18 ; 

established that a member thus ex- Neb. ; Ore. 4, 16. 

pelled is not thereby disqualified. " Ala., Col., Mon., Wash., Wis., Wy. 


Not over forty-ciglit hours.' Tlie house may commit any person to 
gaol for crime, until duly released by law.^ And it docs not bar a 
criminal prosecution.^ Bribery offered or ell'ected of a member of 
the legislature may be punished bv it directly.'' For punishment 
for contempt, see above. 

§ 277. 2'ime of Session. — There is in three States a general pro- 
vision of the Constitution that the Legislature should be frequently 
convened.^ The regular session of the Legislature is, in six States, 
once each year." Li most States and most territories once every two 
years ; thus in the even year,' and in others in the odd year ; ^ but 
often there are adjourned sessions held in the intervening year; in 
Pennsylvania, such adjourned sessions are, however, prohibited. In 
a few Southern States only once in four years. ^ 

Beginning on the first Monday in January ; '° the first Tuesday ; " 
the first Wednesday in January; '- the first Monday after January 1,'^ 
the Wednesday after the first Monday in January; '* the second 
Wednesday in January ; '^ the first Tuesday after the first Monday in 
January; '^ the first Thursday after the first Monday in January; " 
the second Tuesday in January; '^ the third Monday in January; " 
the first Wednesday of October ; ^^ the second Monday in January ; ^^ 
the second Monday in May ; " the fourth W^ednesday in June ; ^^ 
the Tuesday after first Monday in April.-* 

Extra sessions on extraordinary occasions may be convened by the 

1 Tex. 3, 15. 6, 2 ; W. Va. 6, 18 ; Wash. 2, 12 ; 

' Md. 3, 24. 1891, Wis. 20* ; 4, 11 ; 99* Wy. 3, .5. 

3 Mon., N. D., Okla., Wy. » Ala. 48; Miss. 36. See also § 203. 

* Ky., Mon., N. D., Wy. Beginning in 1903 (Ala.) 1892 (Miss.) ; 

* Mass. 1, 22 ; Md. Decln. of Rts. 12 ; and there is a " special session " in 1894 
S. C. 1, 3. and every four years thereafter (Miss.). 

* Ga. 1891, p. 55; Mass. Amt. 10; '" Mon., O., Tenn. 

N. J. 4, 1, 3; N. Y. 10, 6; R. I. Amt. " Del., Neb., Pa., R. I. 

XL; S. C. 3, 9. '^ Col., Mass., Me., Mich., N. Y., 

7 Ky. 36; La. 23; Md. 3, 14; Miss. N. H. So, after Jan. 1, Md., Mo. 

36; Mon. 5, 6; N. D. 53, 55; O. 2, 25; " Ida., Cal. 

Okla. 5, 27; Va. 46; Vt. Amt. 24, 1. " Ct., 111., N. C. 

« Ark.* 1875, 39, 1; 3520; Ariz.* '^ Va., W. Va., Wis. 

39; Cal. 4, 2; Col. 5, 7; Ct. Amt. 27, '" Ky., Minn., N. D., S. D., Miss. 

1899, p. 1153; Del. 2, 4 ; Fla. 3, 2 ; Ida. Okla. 

3, 8 ; III. 4, 9 ; Ind. 4, 9 ; lo. 3, 2 ; Amt. " Ind. 

1900; Kan. 2, 25; Me. 4, 3, 1; Amt. »« Ala., Kan., N. J., S. C, Wy., Tex. 
23 ; Mich. 4, 33 ; Minn. 3, 4 ; 4, 1 ; Mo. »« Nev., N. M.,* Ariz.* 

4, 20 ; N. C. 2, 2 ; Neb. 3, 3 & 7 ; Nev. ^o yt. 

4, 2; 17, 12; N. H. 2, 32; N. Y. 1898, ^i Wash., Ark., lo., Ore., Utah. 

p. 1550; N. D. 55; N. M., U. S. 1896, ■' La. 

252 ; Ore.* 2371 ; Pa. 2, 4 ; S. D. 3, " Ga. 1890, p. 57. 

2 & 7; Tenn. 2, 8; Tex. 3, 5; Utah ^* Fla. 


governor.* But in the newer States the Legislature so called may 
only legislate on the subject specified in the proclamation.^ So, in 
two, the governor may call the Legislature together sooner than the 
time to which it was adjourned or prorogued, if necessity require.^ 

No session can extend beyond the term of forty,* forty-five,^ 
fifty,*' sixty,^ sixty-one,^ seventy-five,^ or ninety days.'" It must 
be dissolved by the governor if necessary, seven days before the first 
Wednesday of January." So, in others, no member will be paid, 
or paid full rates, for more than a session of seventy-five days,*^ 
of seventy days,*^ of sixty days,** of forty days,*^ or by extra ses- 
sion, thirty days.*® And the session may be continued for thirty davs 
beyond the time so above limited, upon concurrence of two thirds " 
or three fifths *^ of the members. Unless organization is effected 
within four days after a quorum is secured, they get no pay.'^ 

§ 278. Adjournment. — By the Constitutions of all States, 
neither house can adjourn without the consent of the other for more 
than three days,-" or than two days,-* nor without such consent, to 

1 Ala. 122 ; Ark. 6, 19 ; Cal. 5, 9 ; » Ind. 4, 29. 

Col. 4, 9 ; Ct. 3, 2 ; Del. 3, 16 ; Fla. 4, » Col. 5, 6. 

8; Ga. 5, 1, 13; Ida. 4, 9; 111. 5, 8; '" Col. Amt. 3; Md. 3, 15; Minn. 

Ind.; Id. 4, 11; Kan. 1, 5; Ky. 80; Amt. 1889, 1, 2. 

La. 75 ; Mass. Amt. 10 ; Md. 2, 16 ; ** N. H. 2, 3. 

Me. 5, 1, 13; Mich. 5, 7; Minn. 5, 4 ; '^ ^enn. 2, 23. 

Miss. 36; Mo. 5, 9; Mon. 7, 11 ; N. C. '^ Mo. 4, 16. 

3, 9; N. D. 75; Neb. 5, 8;-Nev. 5, 9; " Cal. 4, 2; Del. 2, 15; Ida. 3, 23; 

N. H. 2, 49; N. J. 5, 6; N. Y. 4, 4; Nev. 1891, 11; R. I. Amt. 11 (1900, 

O. 3, 8 ; Okla. 6, 7 ; Ore. 5, 12 ; Pa. 4, p. 146) ; Tex. 3, 24 ; Va. 

12; R. I. 7, 7; S. C. 4, 16; S. D. 4, 4; '^ Ore. 4, 29; S. C. 

Tenn. 3, 9 ; Tex. 4, 8 ; Utah 7, 6 ; Va. '« La., Miss., Neb., S. C, Utah., Va. ; 

73; Vt. 2, 11; Wash. 3, 7; W. Va. 6, or twenty (Fla.). 

19; Wis. 5, 4; Wy. 4, 4; U. S. R. " Ga. 

S. 1923; 1874, 388 (Territories). But '« Va. 

no such extraordinary session can be >" Ida. 3, 10. So, only $2 a day after 

called in the Territories without the ap- 60 days (Okla. 5, 21). 

proval of the President of the United ^o ^i^. 58; Ariz.* 1113; Ark. 5, 28 

States ; so, it must be on appUcation Cal. 4, 14 ; Col. 5, 15 ; Del. 2, 12 ; Fla 

of three fifths of the elected mem- 3,13; Ga. 3, 7, 24; Ida. 3, 9; Ind. 4 

bers, except on extraordinary occasions 10; lo. 3, 14; Ky. 41; La. 35; Md 

(W. Va.) or with advice of the Council 3, 25; Mich. 4, 12; Minn. 4, 6; Miss 

(N. C). 57; Mon. 5, 14; N. D. 51; Neb. 3, 8 

* Ida., Mon., Okla., Utah. Nev. 4, 15; N. J. 4, 4, 5; Okla. 5, 30 
» Mass. 2, 2, 1, 5; N. H. 2, 49. Ore. 4, 11; Pa. 2, 14; S. C. 3, 21; S 

* Wy. 3, 6. D. 3, 16; Tenn. 2, 16; Tex. 3, 17 
« W. Va. 6, 22. Utah 6, 15; Va. 46; Vt. Amt. 3 
« Ala.; Ga. 1891, p. 55. Wash. 2, 11; W. Va. 6, 23; Wis. A 
^ Ark. 5, 17; Ariz.;* Col. Amt. 3; 10; Wy. 3, 15 (Sundays excepted, O. 

Fla. 3, 2 ; Ky. 42 ; La. 23 ; Mon. 5, Kan. ; Minn.). 

5; N. D. 56; Nev. 4, 29; S. D. 3, 6; ^i m. 4^ 10 ; Kan. 2, 10; Mass. 2, 1, 
Utah 6, 16; Va. 46; Wash.; Terri- 
tories U. S. R. S. 1852; U. S. 1881, 7. 




[book hi 

any Other place than tliat in wliieli it may be sitting; hut in one it may 
adjourn to such other place by concurrent vote of two thirds present.' 
And in one other, every adjournment or recess taken by the Legisla- 
ture for more than three days has the effect of an adjournment sine 

Adjournment by the Governor. — In most States, if the two houses 
disagree with respect to the time of adjournment, the governor may 
adjourn the Legislature, to such time as he think proper, not 
beyond the first day of the next regular session,^ or for more than 
ninety days,* or such time as he think proper,^ not exceeding four 
months.' So, if either house remain five days without a quorum.' 

§ 279. The Place of Sessio)i. — The capital, in all States. But 
the governor may convene the Legislature elsewhere in case of war 
or contagious disease, etc., etc.^ 

Article 28. The Executive 

§ 280. Duties of the Governor. — It is in most States declared 
to be the duty of the governor to take care that the laws are faithfully 
executed.* He is generally, at the commencement of each session, 
or from time to time, to give the Legislature information "by message 
of the condition of the State, and recommend such measures as he 
deems expedient.^" He must, in some States, present estimates, at the 

2, 6; 2, 1, 3, 8; Me. 4, 3, 12; Mo. 4, 
23; N. H. 2, 18 & 35; N. Y. 3, 11; 

0. 2, 14; R. I. 4, 9. 
1 Md. 

^ Mo. 4, 21. 

3 Ark. 6, 20; Cal. 5, 11 ; Col. 4, 10 
Ct. 4, 7 ; Fla. 4, 10 ; 111. 5, 9 ; lo. 4, 13 
Kan. 1, 6; Me. 5, 1, 13; Miss. 121 
Neb. 5, 9; Nev. 5, 11; O. 3, 9. But 
only with assent two thirds elected 
members each house : Okla. 6, 14 ; R. 

1. 7, 6; S. C. 4, 16; Utah 7, 7. 

^ Del. 3, 16; Mass. 2, 2, 1, 6; N. H. 

2. 42. 

* Ga. ; Vt. ; Amt. 3. 

« Ky. 81 ; Pa. 4, 12. 

' Kan., O., Minn., S. C. 

« Ala. 4, 8; Ky. 36, 80; La. 75; 
N. D. ; Okla. 6, 14 ; S. C. 3, 9. 

» Ala. 120 ; Ariz.* 1089 ; Ark. 6, 7 ; 
Cal. 5, 7 ; Col. 4, 2 ; Ct. 4, 9 ; Del. 3, 
17; Fla. 4, 6; Ga. 5, 1, 12; Ida. 4, 5; 

111. 5, 6 ; Ind. 5, 10 ; lo. 4, 9 ; Kan. 1, 
3; Ky. 81; La. 75; Md. 2, 9; Me. 5, 
1, 12; Mich. 5, 6; Minn. 5, 4; Miss. 
113; Mo. 5, 6; Mon. 7, 5; N. C. 3, 7; 
N. D. 75; Neb. 5, 6; Nev. 5, 7; N. J. 
5, 6 ; N. Y. 4, 4 ; O. 3, 6 ; Okla. 6, 8 ; 
Ore. 5, 10; Pa. 4, 2 ; R. I. 7, 2; S. C. 
4, 12 ; S. D. 4, 4 ; Tenn. 3, 10 ; Terri- 
tories U. S. R. S. 1841; Tex. 4, 10; 
Utah 7, 5; Va. 73; Vt. 2, 11; Wash. 

3, 5; W. Va. 7, 5; Wis. 5, 4; Wy. 

4, 4. 

1" Ala. 123 ; Ark. 6, 8 ; Ariz.* 1091 ; 
Cal. 5, 10 ; Col. 4, 8 ; Ct. 4, 8 ; Del. 3, 
15; Fla. 4, 9; Ga. 5, 1, 13; Ida. 4, 8; 
111.5,7; Ind. 5, 13; lo. 4, 12; Kan. 1, 
5; Ky. 79; La. 74; Md. 2, 19; Me. 

5, 1, 9; Mich. 5, 8; Minn. 5, 4; Miss. 
122; Mo. 5, 9; Mon. 7, 10; N. C. 3, 5; 
N. D. 75; Neb. 5, 7; Nev. 5, 10; N. 
J.; N. Y.; O. 3, 7 ; Okla. 6, 9; Ore. 
5, 11 ; Pa. 4, 11 ; S. C. 4, 15 ; S. D. 4, 




commencement of the session, to the Legislature of the amount of 
money required to be raised by taxation for all State purposes.^ 

§ 2S1. Powers of the Governor. — By the Constitutions of most 
States, the governor may require information in writing from officers 
of the executive department upon any subject relating to the duties of 
their respective officers.^ So, in a few, from all officers or managers 
of State institutions.^ He may, in some, require such information to 
be given under oath.* So, in two, any officer making a false report is 
guilty of perjury.* The governor and council have a negative on 
each other in nominations and appointments." In Massachusetts 
the council has only advisory power, except that it succeeds to the 
duties of governor if the offices of both governor and lieutenant- 
governor are vacant.^ 

§ 282. The Lieutenant-Governor, by the Constitutions of most 
States, succeeds to the office of governor upon the death, impeach- 
ment, or other disability of the latter.^ But in many (where there 
is no lieutenant-governor), the president of the senate succeeds the 
governor.^ And, after him, the speaker of the house. ^"^ In others the 
secretary of state succeeds (so in the territories, U. S. R. S. 1843), 
and after him the president of the senate." Or, in Delaware, the 
attorney-general, then the president of the senate fro tern-pore, then 
the speaker of the house. And in two, the Legislature, in case of 
vacancy, elects a governor.^' So, if the vacancy occurs in the 
first three years of the term, there is an election by the people.^^ 

4 ; Tenn. 3, 11 ; Tex. 4, 9 ; Utah ; Va. ; 
Wash. 3, 6; W.Va.7,6; Wis.; Wy.4, 4. 

1 Ala.; Col.; Ida.; 111.; Mo. 5, 10; 
Mon. ; Neb. ; Tex. ; W. Va. 7, 6. 

2 Ala. 121; Ariz.* 1088; Ark. 6, 7 
Cal. 5, 6 ; Col. 4, 8 ; Ct. 4, 6 ; Del. 3 
14; Fla. 4, 5; Ga. 5, 1, 18; Ida. 4, 8 
III. 5, 21 ; Ind. 5, 15 ; lo. 4, 8 ; Kan. 1 
4; Ky. 78; La. 73; Me. 5, 1, 10 
Mich. 5, 5; Minn. 5, 4; Miss. 120 
Mo. 5, 22; Mon. 7, 10; N. C. 3, 7 
Neb. 5, 22; Nev. 5, 6; O. 3, 6; Okla, 
6, 9 ; Ore. 5, 13 ; Pa. 4, 10 ; S. C. 4, 14 
Tenn. 3, 8; Tex. 4, 24 ; Utah 7, 5; Va. 
74; Wash. 3, 5; W. Va. 6, 18. 

3 Ala.; Col.; Ida.; Mass. 2, 2, 1, 
12; Mo.; Mon.; Neb.; N. H. 2, 56; 

* Ala., Col., Ida., III., Mon., Te.x. 
6 Ala., Mo. 

• N. H. 2, 46. 

' Mass. 2, 2, 3, 5 & 6. 

« Ala. 127; Cal. 5, 16; Col. 4, 13; 
Ct. 4, 14; Del. 3, 20; Ida. 4, 12; 111. 
5, 17 ; Ind. 5, 10 ; lo. 4, 17 ; Kan. 1, 
11; Ky. 84; La. 65; Mass. 2, 2, 2, 3; 
Mich. 5, 12; Minn. 5, 6; Miss. 131; 
Mo. 5, 16; Mon. 7, 14 ; N. C. 3, 12 ; N. 
D. 72; Neb. 5, 16; Nev. 5, 18; N. Y. 

4, 6 ; O. 3, 15 ; Okla. 6, 16 ; Pa. 4, 13 ; 
R. I. 7, 9; 1890, p. 146; S. C. 4, 
9; S. D. 4, 6; Tex. 4, 16; Va. 78; 
Vt. Amt. 8; Wash. 3, 10; Wis. 5, 7. 
See also § 202. 

» Ala.; Ark. 5, 18; 6, 12; Del. 3, 
14; Fla. 4, 19; Ga. 5, 1, 8; Md. 2, 
7; Me. 5, 1, 14; N. H. 2, 48; N. J. 

5, 12; Tenn. 3, 12; W. Va. 7, 16. 

" Ala. ; Ark. 6, 13 ; Fla. ; Ga. ; Me. ; 
N. J.; Tenn.; W. Va. 

" Del.; N. D. ; Ore. 5, 8; S. D.; 
Utah 7, 11; Wy. 4, 6. 

'■ Md. 2, 6 ; W. Va. 

" W. Va. 


So, if ill the first two years of the term.' So, if a year of the 
term remains unexpired,^ So, if sixty days before the next election.* 

The Heutenant-governor is in most States president of the senate, 
with a casting vote.' And in one, lie is a nieinber of the council, and 
president thereof when the governor's chair is vacant.'' But he cannot 
grant pardons or reprieves, nor can he command the militia, except 
as lieutenant-general, but by advice of the senate." 

Upon the death, inipeachinent, or inability of the lieutenant- 
governor or secretary of State also, the temporary president of the 
senate is, in most States, governor pro tempore.'' But in one, the 
council, or a majority of it, has the power of the governor.^ And in 
others, the secretary of state succeeds.^ And so, by succession, in 
several, the speaker of the house succeeds the president of the 
senate.'" And the secretary of state the speaker." In Rhode 
Island the Legislature elects from the persons having the highest 
votes, as in § 232. '^ 

Article 29. The INIilitia 

§ 290. General Provisions. — In four State Constitutions it is 
declared that every member of society is bound to yield his personal 
service, or an equivalent thereto, to the State for the defence of life, 
liberty, and property.'^ But in many States it is declared that a 
person conscientiously opposed to bearing arms will not be com- 
pelled thereto if he will pay an equivalent.'* But in a few it seems 

1 Ky. 85. N. D. 31; Neb. 5, 18; Nev. ; N. Y. ; 

2 Ark. 6, 14. O. 3, 17; Okla. 6, 15; Pa. 4, 14; R. I. 

3 Ala. 7, 10; S. C. ; Tex. 4, 17; Utah. 
* Ala. 117 ; Cal. 5, 15 ; 1897, p. 646; » Mass. 2, 2, 2, 6. 

Col. 4, 14 ; Ct. 4, 13 ; Del. 3, 19 ; Ida. » Ky. 87 ; La. ; N. D. ; S. D. ; Wash. ; 

4,13; 111.5,18; Ind. 5, 21 ; lo. 4, 18; Wis. 

Kan. 1, 12; Ky. 83; La. 67; Mich. '" Cal., Col., Ida., 111., lo., Kan., 

5, 14; Minn. 5, 6; Miss. 129; Mo. 5, Miss., Mo., Mon., Neb., N. H., N. Y., 

15 ; Mon. 7, 15 ; N. C. 3, 11 ; N. D. 77 ; O., Okla. 

Neb. 5, 17 ; Nev. 5, 17 ; N. Y. 4, 7 ; O. » Del. 

3, 16; Okla. 6, 15; Pa. 4, 4; S. C. 4, >2 j^ j ^^^ n 

5 & 6; S. D. 4, 7; Tex. 4, 16; Va. » Mass. 1, 10; N. H. 1, 12; Ore. 1, 

79; Vt. Amt. 6; Wash. 3, 16; Wis. 27; Vt. 1, 9. 

5, 8. " Col. 17, 5; Ida. 14, 1; lU. 12, 6 

« Mass. 2, 2, 2, 2. Ind. 12, 6 ; lo. 6, 2 ; Ky. 220 ; La, 

« Vt. 300 ; Me. 7, 5 ; Mo. 13, 1 ; N. D. 188 

' Cal.; Ct. 4, 15; Col. 4, 15; Ida. N. H. 1, 13; Ore. 10, 2; S. C. 13, 1 

4, 14; 111. 5, 19; lo. 4, 19; Kan. 1, 13; Tenn. 1, 28; 8, 3; Tex. 16, 47; Vt. 
Ky. 85; La. 68; Mich. 5, 13; Minn.; Wash. 10, 6. 

Miss.; Mo. 5, 17; Mon. 7, 16; N. C; 


that he may be compelled to bear arms in time of war, as the exemp- 
tion applies only to militia duty in time of peacc.^ " Upon such terms 
as may be prescribed by law," he will be relieved from such service.^ 
And in Maine, Quakers and Shakers and clergymen are excused. 
In several, the militia is declared the proper and natural defence of 
a free State.^ 

§ 291. The Militia consists in most States of all able-bodied 
male persons (citizens, lo., Mich., or inhabitants, Fla., N. Y., and 
Ore.) between the ages of eighteen and forty-five,* twenty-one and 
forty-five,^ or twenty-one and forty." In a few, they must in addition 
be white.'' In others, the whole matter (otherwise) is left to the 
Legislature to be determined by law.^ But there must always be 
10,000 men fully equipped, disciplined and ready for action.® The 
Legislature shall provide for maintaining an organized militia con- 
forming as nearly as practicable to the regulation for the government 
of the United States army.^** "Not incompatible with the Constitu- 
tion or laws of the United States." " 

§ 292. Civil Power. — The military is, in all States except New 
York, declared forever subordinate to the civil power.*^ 

» Col. ; Ida. 15, 7 ; 111. ; lo. ; N. D. ; " N. D. 189 ; Wash. 10, 2. 

Ore. ; S. D. ; Wash. 10, 6. " Ala. 27 ; Ark. 2, 27 ; Ariz.* Bill of 

• Fla. 14, 1; Kan. 8, 1; Mich. 17, Rights 3; Cal. 1, 12; Col. 2, 22; Ct. 
1 ; Mo. ; N. C. 12, 1 ; N. Y. 11, 1 ; Wy. 1, 18; Del. 1, 17 ; Fla. Decln. Rts. 21 ; 
17, 1. Ga. 1, 1, 19; Ida. 1, 12; 111. 2, 15; 

^ Ga. 10, 1, 1; La. 6; Md. Decln. Ind. 1, 33; lo. 1, 14; Kan. Bill of 

of Rts. 28; N. C. 1, 24; N. H. 1, 24; Rts. 4; Ky. 222; La. 14, 173; Mass. 

S. C. 1,26; Tenn. 1,24; Va. 13. 1, 17; Md. Decln. of Rts. 30; Me. 1 

* Ala.; Ark. 11, 1; Col. 17, 1; Fla. 17; Mich. 18, 8; Minn. 1, 14; Miss. 9 

14, 1; Ida. 14, 1; 111. 12, 1; Ind. 12, Mo. 2, 27; Mon. 3, 22; N. C. 1, 24 

1; lo. 6, 1; Ky. 219; Mich. 17, 1; N. D. 12; Neb. 1, 17; Nev. 1, 11 

Miss. 214; Mo. 13, 1; Mon. 14, 1; N. H. 1, 26; N. J. 1, 12; N. M.* 1851 

N. D. 188; O. 9, 1; Ore. 10, 1; S. C. July 12, § 16; O. 1, 4; Okla. 2, 14 

13, 1 ; S. D. 15, 1 ; Utah 15, 1 ; Wash. Ore. 1, 27 ; Pa. 1, 22 ; R. I. 1, 18 ; S. C 

10, 1; Wy. 17, 1. 1, 26; S. D. 6, 16; Tenn. 1, 24; Tex 

« Kan. 8, 1. 1, 24; Utah 1, 20; Va. 13; Vt. 1, 16 

• N. C. 12, 1. Wash. 1, 18; W. Va. 3, 12; Wis. 1, 20 
^ Ind., Kan., O. Wy. 1, 25. Compare Eng. Stat. 1 W. & 

M. Sess. 2 ; also Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. See § 240, note. Martial 
law and courts martial are no part of 
the common law of England. It was 
complained of in the Petition of Riglit, 
but is not expressly forbidden in the 

Ala. 271 ; Cal. 8, 1 ; Ga. 10, 1, 1 
Ida. 14, 2; Ky. 220; La.; Md. 9, 1 
Minn. 12, 1; Mon. 14, 1; Miss. 215 
Neb. 13, 1; Nev. 12, 1; N. D. 190 
N. J. 7, 1, 1 ; N. Y. 11, 2 ; Okla. 5, 40 
Pa. 11, 1; S. D. 15, 2; Te.x. 16, 46 

Wis. 4, 29. Bill of Rights. In this country the 

" N. Y. 11, 3. Federal Constitution makes no specific 

*" Ida. 14, 2; Ky. 221; Mon. 14, mention of it, but it is doubtless for- 

2 ; S. D. 15, 2-3 ; Utah 15, 2 ; Wy. bidden by the ordinary constitutional 

17, 2. provisions requiring due process of law 


§ 293. Martial Law is in one State declared inconsistent witli a 
free government and is not "confided" to any department of the 
State government.' And in several, no person can be subjected to 
martial law except the army, navy, or mihtia in actual service.- In 
one, martial law is to be employed only when occasion necessarily 
requires it.^ But in three, it seems any person may be subjected to 
martial law by authority of the Legislature.'' 

§ 294. Standing Armies} — The Constitutions of most of the 
States provide that standing armies are dangerous to liberty and 
ought not to be kept up in time of peace." And in time of war the 
appropriation for such army cannot be for a longer term than two 
years,' or even one year.^ But in several, it seems standing armies 
may be kept up at any time with the authority of the Legislature.' 

§ 295. Billeting Soldicrs.^^ — By the Constitutions of all but 
Vermont, New York, Wisconsin, Virginia, and Mississippi, no 
soldier can be quartered in any house without the consent of the 
owner, except in time of war; and then only (in all these States 
except Louisiana) in the manner by law prescribed." 

(Amts. 5 and 14). When so-called pline, wliich are also contrary to the 
martial law is enforced at the will of common law. Hence the Parliament 
the commanding officer it will not, in has to be summoned once a year." 
ordinary cases, prevent the person tried Anson, Law and Customs of the Const, 
from being tried again at the common 1,248. Henry II. promised never to em- 
law ; nor uill it exempt the officers or ploy mercenary soldiers in England, 
soldiers carrying out orders under mar- though he kept a force of 10,000 
tial law from being responsible for their Braban^ons and many Welsh and Gal- 
acts in the ordinary manner. At most wegians. He faithfully kept his prom- 
it is lawful in the enemy's country ise, but John's mercenary army, though 
in time of actual warfare. There is, raised to repel the French invasion of 
however, a New York decision to the 1213, was one of the greatest occasions 
effect that in that state a statute of his downfall. (1 Stubbs, 588.) 
pro\nding for courts martial is con- ' Ark. 2, 27; Cal. 1, 12; lo. 1, 14; 
stitutional. It will be noted that the Kan. Bill of Rts. 4; Ky. 22; Mass. 1, 
New York Constitution alone has no 17; Me. 1, 17; Minn. 1, 14; N. C. 1, 
provision that the mihtary is forever 24; N. D. 12; Nev. 1, 11; N. H. 1,2.5; 
subordinate to the civil power (see 0.1,4; Pa. 1,22; S.C.I, 26; Tenn. 
§292). People V. Daniel, 50 N. Y. 274. 1, 24; Va. 13; Vt. 1, 16; Wash. 1, 

' Tenn. 1, 25. 31 ; W. Va. 3, 12. 

=> Mass. 1, 28; Md. Decln. of Rts. ' lo., Nev. 
32; Me. 1, 14; N. H. 1, 34; S. C. 1, » Ala. 27. 

26 ; Tenn. 1, 25 ; Vt. 1, 17 ; W. Va. 3, » Ala. ; Del. ; Ky. ; Mass. ; Ud. 

12. Decln. of Rts. 29 ; Me. ; N. H. ; Pa. ; 

3 R. I. 1, 18. S. C. 

* Mass. ; N. H. ; S. C. "> U. S. C. Amt. 3. 

« " The existence of a standing army " Ala. 28 ; Ark. 2, 27 ; Ariz. B. Rts. 

in time of peace is contrary to law. It 4; Cal. 1, 12; Col. 2, 22; Ct. 1, 19; 

is legahzed each year for a year by the Del. 1, 18; Fla. 16, 23; Ga. 1, 1, 19; 

Army Act; as are the punishments and Ida. 1,12; 111.2,16; Ind. 1,34; lo. 1, 

procedure for the maintenance of disci- 15 ; Kan. Bill of Rts. 14 ; Ky. 22 ; La. 




§ 296. Privileges of Militia. — Members of the militia are, by 
the Constitutions of several States privileged from arrest during 
their attendance at musters and elections and in going to and return- 
ing from them, except in cases of treason, felony, and breach of the 
peace.^ And in several, no person can be imprisoned for a militia 
fine in time of peace.^ 

§ 297. The Governor is Commander-in-Chief of the militia 
(and army and navy of the State), by the Constitutions of all States.^ 
And so, in the territories, by U. S. R. S., 1841. Except, in many, 
when they are called into the United States service.^ But he is not, 
in a few, to command in person in the field unless he is advised to 
do so by resolution of the Legislature.^ And he is not, without 
legislative authority or their consent, to lead or order the militia out 
of the State.'' Officers are to be appointed as by law.'' Captains and 
subalterns are to be nominated by the field officers and appointed by 
the governor and council.* No officer can be removed except by 
court martial or upon address of both houses to the governor." 
The officers appoint their respective aids and the captains and sub- 
alterns their non-coms.'" 

§ 298. Purposes of the Militia. — The governor may, by the 
Constitutions of most States, call out the militia to execute the laws, 
to suppress insurrection, and to repel invasion." So, in Louisiana, 

173 ; Mass. 1, 27 ; Md. Decln. of Rts. 
31 ; Me. 1, 18 ; Mich. 18, 9 ; Mo. 2, 27 ; 
Mon. 3, 22; N. C. 1, 36; N. D. 12; 
Neb. 1, 18; Nev. 1, 12; N. H. 1, 27; 
N. J. 1, 13; O. 1, 13; Okla. 2, 14; 
Ore. 1, 28 ; Pa. 1, 23 ; R. I. 1, 19 ; S. C. 
1, 26; S. D. 6, 16; Tenn. 1, 27; Tex. 
1, 25; Utah 1, 20; Wash. 1, 31; W. 
Va. 3, 12; Wy. 1, 25. 

1 Ala. 275; Ark. 11, 3; 111. 12, 4; 
Miss. 220; Mo. 13, 5; N. D. 193; S. C. 
13,2; S. D. 15, 5; Wash. 10,5. 

- Cal. 1, 15; lo. 1, 19; Mich. 6, 33; 
Nev. 1, 14; N. J. 1, 17. 

" Ala. 131; Ark. 6, 6; Cal. 5, 5; 
Col. 4, 5; Ct. 4, 5; Del. 3, 8; Fla. 4, 
4; Ga. 5, 1, 11; Ida. 4, 4; 111. 5, 14; 
Ind. 5, 12 ; lo. 4, 7 ; Kan. 8, 4 ; Ky. 75 ; 
La. 183, 73 ; Mass. 2, 2,1,7; Md. 2, 8 ; 
Me. 5, 1, 7; Mich. 5, 4; Minn. 5, 4; 
Miss. 119, 219; Mo. 5, 7; Mon. 7, 6; 
N. C. 3, 8 ; N. D. 75 ; Neb. 5, 14 ; Nev. 
5,5; N. H. 2, 50; N.J. 5, 6; N. Y. 11, 
6 ; O. 3, 10 ; Okla. 6, 6 ; Ore. 5, 9 ; Pa. 
4, 7; R. I. 7, 3; S. C. 4, 10; S. D. 4, 

4 ; Tenn. 3, 5 ; Tex. 4, 7 ; Utah 7, 4 ; 
Va. 73 ; Vt. 2, 11 ; Wash. 3, 8 ; W. Va. 
7, 12; Wis. 5, 4; Wy. 4, 4; 17, 5. 

* Ala., Ark., Col., Ct., Del., Fla., 
Ida., 111., Ky., La., Me., Miss., Mo., 
Mon., N. C, N. D., Neb., Nev., O., 
Okla., Pa., R. I., S. C, S. D., Tenn., 
Tex., Utah, Wash., W. Va., Wy. 

« Ala., Ky., Md., Mo. 

* Mass., Me., Mon., N. H. 

' Ida.; N. D. 191; Wash. 10, 2; 
Wy. 17, 3. Or elected (Ala. 271). 

« N. H. 2, 47. 

9 N. H. 2, 52. 

" N. H. 2, 53. 

" Ala. 131; Ark. 11, 4; Cal. 8, 1; 
Col. 4, 5; Fla. 14, 4; Ida. 4, 4; 111. 5, 
14 ; Ind. 5, 12 ; Kan. 8, 4 ; La. 301 ; 
Md. 2, 8 ; Mich. 5, 4 ; Minn. 5, 4 ; Miss. 
217 ; Mo. 5, 7 ; Mon. 7, 6 ; N. C. 12, 3 ; 
N. D. ; Neb. 5, 14 ; Nev. 12, 2 ; Okla. 
6, 6; Ore. 5, 9; S. C. 13, 3; S. D. ; 
Tex. 4, 7; Utah; Va. 73; Wash. 10, 
2; W. Va. 7, 12; Wy. 17,5. 


"when the pubh'c service requires it." But so, in three, only when 
the Legishiture deehire l)y law that the puhHc safety re(|uires it.' 
So, in Tennessee, only witii special enactuient of the Legislature; 
or in Texas, to protect the frontier, or the puhlic health.- And, 
in five, to preserve the public peace.^ 

§ 299. Miscellaneous Provisions. — (See also § 63.) The Cali- 
fornia Constitution provides that all military organizations receiving 
State support should carry under arms no device or flag of any 
nation other than the United States or State flag.^ The legislative 
assembly shall provide by law for the establishment of volunteer 
organizations of the several arms of the service, which shall be 
classed as active militia, and no other organized body of men shall 
be permitted to perform military duty in this State, except the 
army of the United States, without the proclamation of the governor 
of the State.^ 

« Mass. 2, 2, 1, 7 ; N. H. 2, 50 ; Tenn. ^ Ark., Fla., La., S. C, Wy. 
3, 5. " Cal. 8, 2; Ida. 14, 5; Wy. 17, 4. 

2 Okla. « N. D. 190. 




Paet III 

Article 30. Process of Legislation 

§ 300. Bills. — (See also §§ 201, 310.) By the Constitutions of 
many States, no law can be passed except by bill ; ^ and bills may 
generally originate in either house of the Legislature,^ but they may 
be amended, altered, or rejected in the other house.^ (The same is 
probably implied in all other States; see § 303.) But not, in some 
States, so as to change the original purpose of the bill,'' nor upon or 
after the last reading.^ 

§ 301. Form of Bills. — The Constitutions of most States pre- 
scribe that no law shall relate to more than one subject, and that 
this shall be expressed in the title," indicating clearly the subject 
matter.^ Except, in a few, general appropriation bills,** and in two, 

> Ala. 61; Ark. 5, 21; Cal. 4, 15; 
Col. 5, 17 ; Ida. 3, 15 ; Ind. 4, 1 ; Kan. 

2, 20 ; Md. 3, 29 ; Miss. 60 ; Mo. 4, 25 ; 
Mon. 5, 19; N. D. 58; Neb. 3, 10; 
Nev. 4, 23; N. Y. 3, 14; Pa. 3, 1; 
Tex. 3, 30; Va. 50; Wash. 2, 18; 
Wis. 4, 17 ; Wy. 3, 20. After the Con- 
quest EngUsh legislation was based on 
petitions addressed to the king by the 
House of Commons ; this resulted in 
their not always getting the legislation 
they desired, so that it soon became 
the practice to accompany the petition 
with the precise law asked for. Later, 
laws were made by Ordinances or Orders 
in Council without the consent of 
Parliament. (T.-L. p. 249.) 

■ Ariz.* 1114; Cal; Fla. 3, 14; 
Ida. 3, 14 ; 111. 4, 12 ; Ind. 4, 17 ; lo. 

3, 15 ; Kan. 2, 12 ; Md. 3, 27 ; Me. 4, 3, 
9; Mich. 4, 13; Miss. 59; Mo. 4, 26; 
N. D. 57 ; Neb. 3, 9 ; Nev. 4, 16 ; N. Y. 
3,13; 0.2,15; Ore. 4, 18; S. C. 3, 15; 
S. D. 3, 20; Tenn. 2, 17; Tex. 3, 31; 
Va.; W. Va. 6, 28; Vt. Amt. 3; 

Wash. 2, 20 ; Wis. 4, 19. See, however, 

3 Ala., Ark., Cal., Col., Fla., Ida., 
111., Ind., lo., Kan., Md., Me., Miss., 
Mo., N. D., Neb., Nev., N. Y., O., Ore., 
Pa., S. C, S. D., Tenn., Tex., Va., 
Wash., W. Va., Wis. 

* Ala. ; Ark. ; Col. ; Mo. ; N. D. 58 ; 
Pa. ; Tex. ; Wash. 2, 38 ; Wy. 3, 20. 

« N. Y. 

« Ala. 45; Cal. 4, 24; Col. 5, 21; 
Del. 2, 16; Fla. 3, 16; Ga. 3, 7, 8; 
Ida. 3, 16 ; 111. 4, 13 ; Ind. 4, 19 ; lo. 
3, 29; Kan. 2, 16; Ky. 51; La. 31; 
Md. 3, 29 ; Mich. 4, 20 ; Minn. 4, 27 ; 
Mo. 4. 28; Mon. 5, 23; N. D. 61 ; Neb. 
3, 11; Nev. 4, 17; N. J. 4, 7, 4; O. 3, 
16; Okla. 5, 57; Ore. 4, 20 ; Pa. 3, 3; 
S. C. 3, 17; S. D. 3, 21; Tenn. 2, 17; 
Tex. 3, 35; Utah 6, 23 ; Va. 52; Wash. 
2, 19; W. Va. 6,30; Wy. 3, 24. 

' Miss. 71. 

» Ala., Col., Del., Mo., Mon., Okla., 
Pa., Te.x., Utah, Wy. See § 311. 



[book III 

the principal provision only applies to private or local hills.' But, in 
several States, if there are other subjects in the hill not embraced in 
the title, the bill is nevertheless f^ood pro tanto as to those that are.- 
By the Constitutions ot" three States, every act is to be plainly worded, 
avoiding, so far as possible, the use of technical terms.^ And by 
that of Louisiana, the Legislature shall never adopt any system or 
code of laws by general reference to such cotle, but shall in all cases 
recite at length the provisions enacted (compare § SO?).* Every 
statute is a public law unless otherwise declared.^ 

§ 302. Passage of Bills.^ — By the Constitutions of some States, 
no bill shall be considered for passage unless it has first been re- 
ferred to a committeee and reported therefrom.^ And in Texas, no 
bill shall be passed unless so referred and reported at least three 
days before the final adjournment of the Legislature. Except if 
the committee refuses or fails to report a bill "within a reasonable 
time" any member may call it up.^ 

Reading of Bills. — Every bill must ordinarily, by the Constitu- 
tions of most States, be read by sections on three different days in 
each house of the Legislature.^ But in case of urgency, either house 

1 N. Y. 3, 16; Wis. 4, 18. 
- Cal., Col., Ida., III., Ind., lo., Mon., 
N. D., Ore., Tex., W. Va., Wy. 

3 Ida. 3, 17; Ind. 4, 20; Ore. 4, 21. 

* La. 33. 

« Del. 2, 23. 

* While these directions as to the 
method of passing laws are manda- 
tory in form, they are binding only on 
the conscience of the legislative body. 
The courts, in the v«ry nature of things, 
are obliged to accept the enactment of 
the law as conclusive proof of the com- 
pliance of the Legislature with the 
necessary formalities, and cannot con- 
sider questions of fact relative to the 
regularity of procedure. It has been 
expressly decided that such matters will 
not be inquired into by the courts. In 
Kilgore v. Magee, 85 Pa. 401 (1877), it 
was contended that an act of Assembly 
had been so altered during its passage as 
to change its original purpose, and also 
that the required forms had been dis- 
regarded. As to this the court said : 
"In regard to the legislation required 
by the constitution, we think the sub- 
ject is not within the pale of judicial 
inquiry. So far as the duty and the 

consciences of the members of the Leg- 
islature are involved, the law is manda- 
tory. They are bound by their oatlis 
to obey the constitutional mode of 
proceeding, and any intentional disre- 
gard is a breach of duty and a violation 
of their oaths. But when a law has 
been passed and approved and certi- 
fied in due form, it is no part of the 
duty of the judiciary to go behind the 
law as duly certified to inquire into 
the observance of form in its passage. 
The presumption applies to the act of 
passing the law, that applies generally 
to the proceedings of any body whose 
sole duty is to deal with the subject. 
The presumption in favor of regularity 
is essential to the peace and order of 
the State." T. R. White, The Consti- 
tution of Pennsylvania, p. 212. 

' Ala. 62 ; Col. 5, 20 ; Ky. 46 ; La. 
39 ; Miss. 74 ; Mo. 4, 27 ; Mon. 5, 22 ; 
Pa. 3, 2; Tex. 3, 37; Va. 50; Wy. 3, 

« Ky. 

» Ala. 63; Ark. 5, 22; Ariz.* 1117; 
Cal. 4, 15; Col. 5, 22; Fla. 3, 17; Ga. 
3, 7, 7; Ida. 3, 15; 111. 4, 13; Ind. 4, 
18; Kan. 2, 15; Ky. 46; La. 39; Md. 


may dispense with such rule, on a vote of four fifths of the members 
present/ three fourths/ two thirds/ or of a majority of those elected.* 
But in Minnesota and Florida, every bill must have been read at 
least twice at length, in order to pass either house. Provision may 
be made by law for reading by title only.^ And every bill, in order 
to become a law, must, in many States, have been read at length on 
its final passage," on its second reading/ its first/ or on its first and 
third.^ It must be printed for the use of members,'" and no amend- 
ment is allowed on the last reading." 

Of Private or Local Bills,^^ there must, by the Constitutions of 
several States, be notice given ; as by thirty days' publication of the 
bill in the locality affected before its introduction into the legislature,'^ 
or in others four weeks' notice by such publication.'* In one State, 
the manner of notice is expressly left to the Legislature to determine.'^ 
All private or local bills must, in Georgia, originate in the lower 
house, and be referred to a committee.'" There is a permanent 
joint committee on special private or local legislation.'^ 

§ 303. Voting}^ — By the Constitutions of most States no bill '^ 
can become a law unless on its final passage it receive in each House 
a vote of a majority of "each house," ^° or of the members elected.-' 

3, 27; Mich. 4, 19; Minn. 4, 20; Miss. Wy. It must have been "upon their 

59 ; Mo. 4, 26 ; N. C. 2, 23 ; N. D. 63 ; desks in its final form three calendar 

Neb. 3, 11; Nev. 4, 18; N. J. 4, 4, 6; legislative days " (N. Y.). 

O. 3, 16; Okla. 5, 34; Ore. 4, 19; Pa. '' N. Y. 

3, 4 ; S. C. 3, 18 ; S. D. 3, 17 ; Tenn. 2, '^ See also §§ 395, 501. 

18 ; Tex. 3, 32 ; Utah ; Va. 50 ; W. Va. " Ark. 5, 26 ; Ga. 3, 7, 16 ; La. 50 ; 

6, 29. It seems the readings need not Mo. 4, 54 ; N. C. 2, 12 ; Okla. (four 

be on different days (Mich.) ; and the weeks) ; Pa. 3, 8; Tex. 3, 57 (60 days) ; 

first two may be on the same day (N. Fla. 3, 21. 

D., S. D.). '* Ala. 106; Okla. 5, 32. 

' Tex., Va., W. Va. »^ N. J. 4, 7, 9. 

2 O. '« Ga. 3, 7, 15. 

3 Ark., Cal., Fla., Ida., Ind., Kan., '' Miss. 89; Va. 51. 

Md. (of the members elected), Minn., *^ Notes. Whether by ballot or not, 

Miss., Nev., Okla., Ore. But only so see § 231. See also § 314. 

far as to allow all three readings on the "' So, also, of joint resolutions (Kan., 

same day (Ark.). Md.). 

* Ky. 20 Ala. 63 ; Ark. 5, 22. 

" S. C. So on the first reading =' Cal. 4, 15; Col. 5, 22; Del 2, 10; 

(Fla.). Ga. 3, 7, 14; 111.4,12; Ind. 4, 25; lo. 

« Ala.; Cal.; Fla.; Ida.; Ind.; lo. 3, 17; Kan. 2, 13; La. 39, 40; Md. 3, 

3, 17; Kan.; Mich.; Miss.; Nev.; N. 28; Mich. 4, 19; Minn. 4, 13; Mo. 4, 

Y. (implied) 3, 15; Ore.; W. Va. 31; N. D. 65; Neb. 3, 10; Nev. 4, 18; 

' Fla., S. C. N. J. 4, 4, 6; N. Y. 3, 15; O. 2, 9; 

« Ky. Okla. 5, 34 ; Ore. 4, 25 ; Pa. 3,4; S. D. 

» N. D., S. D. 3, 18; Tenn. 2, 18; Utah 6, 22; Wash. 

" Ky. ; Ida. 3, 15 ; Men. ; N. Y. ; 2, 22 ; Wy. 3, 25. 


In otliors, of a majority of t\\v members present,' and this would be 
implied in States where the Constitution is silent, as in the United 
States Congress. In two, a majority vote including two fifths of 
the members elected. - 

The names of the members so voting for or against a bill on its 
final passage must usually be entered in the journals.^ 

In many States, a member who has a personal or private interest 
in any measure or bill, proposed or pending, must disclose the fact 
to the house of which he is a member, and cannot vote thereon.'* 

All votes on the final passage of any measure shall be subject to 
reconsideration for at least one whole legislative day, and no motion to 
reconsider such vote shall be disposed of adversely on the day on which 
the original vote was taken, except on the last day of the session.^ 

§ 304. Veto Power. — In all States but Rhode Island and North 
Carolina, and in the territories " the Constitution provides that every 
bill or every joint or concurrent resolution, except for adjournment,^ 
passed by the legislature shall be presented to the governor before it 
becomes a law; and if he approves he is to sign it.^ Except in 
Missouri, resolutions for amending the Constitution. The governor 
may generally veto a bill, by returning it with his objections to 
the house in which it originated,^ or in Kansas, to the house of 
representatives. It will then become a law, by an ordinary ma- 

' Ariz.* 1117; Fla. 3, 17; Ida. 3, « Ala. 125; Ark. 6, 15; Cal. 4, 16; 

15; Mon. 5, 24. Col. 4, 11; Ct. 4, 12; Del. 3, 18; Fla. 

2 Ky. 47; Va. 50. 3, 28; Ga. 5, 1, 17; Ida. 4, 10; 111. 5, 

» Ala. ; Ark. ; Ariz.* ; Cal. ; Col. ; 16 ; Ind. 5, 14 ; lo. 3, 16 ; Kan. 2, 14 ; 

Del.; Fla.; Ga. ; Ida.; 111.; lo. ; Ky. 88; La. 41, 76; Mass. 2, 1, 1, 2; 

Kan. ; Ky. 46 ; La. ; Md. ; Mich. ; Md. 2, 17 ; Amt. 1890, 394 ; Me. 4, 3, 

Minn.; Mo.; Mon.; N. D. ; Neb.; 2; Mich. 4, 14 ; Minn. 4, 11; Miss. 72; 

Nev. ; N. J. ; N. Y. ; O. ; Okla. ; Pa. ; Mo. 4, 39 ; Mon. 7, 12 ; N. D. 79 ; Neb. 

S. D.; Tenn. 2, 21; "By yeas and 5, 15; Nev. 4, 35; N. H. 2, 43; N. J. 

nays": Utah 6, 22; Va. ; Wy. The 5, 7; N. Y. 4, 9; O. 1902, p. 962; 

same would follow in other States Okla. 6, 11; Ore. 5, 15; Pa. 4, 15; S. 

from § 275. C. 4, 23 ; S. D. 4, 9 ; Tenn. 3, 18 ; Tex. 

* Ala. 82 ; Col. 5, 43 ; Del. 2, 20 ; 4, 14 ; Utah 7, 8 ; Va. 76 ; Vt. Amt. 

La. 52; Ky. 57; Mon. 5, 44; N. D. 11; Wash. 3, 12; W. Va. 7, 14; Wis. 

43; Okla. 5, 24; Pa. 3, 33; Tex. 3, 5,10; Wy. 4, 8. And so in U. S. C. L 7. 

22 ; Wash. 2, 30 ; Wy. 3, 46. See « Ala. ; Ark. ; Ariz.* ; Cal. ; Col. ; 

also § 154. Ct. ; Del. ; Fla. ; Ida. ; 111. ; Ind. ; 

^ Miss. 65. lo. ; Ky. ; La. ; Mass. ; Md. ; Me. ; 

" U. S. R. S. 1842. Mich. ; Minn. ; Miss. ; Mo. 4, 39 ; Mon. ; 

7 Ala.; Ark. 6, 16; Ariz.*; Col. 5, N. D. ; Neb.; Nev.; N. H. ; N. J.; 

39 ; Del. ; Ga. ; Kan. ; Ky. 89 ; La. N. Y. ; O. ; Okla. ; Ore. ; Pa. ; S. C. ; 

78 ; Mass. ; Me. ; Mich. ; Minn. 4, 12 ; S. D. ; Tenn. ; Tex. ; Utah ; Va. ; Vt. ; 

Mo. 5, 14 ; Mon. 5, 40 ; Neb. ; N. H. 2, Wash. ; W. Va. ; Wis. ; Wy. ; Territories, 

44; Okla.; Pa. 3, 26; S. C. ; Tenn.; U. S. R. S., 1842. 
Tex. 4, 15; Va. ; Wy. 3, 41. 




jority vote in each house/ or a majority of the elected members of 
each house,' of three fifths of the elected members of each house,^ 
two thirds of the members present in each house * (the provision 
is ambiguous, however, on these points in some States, though, by 
custom, it means the members present '"), two thirds of the elected 
members of each house," two thirds of the elected members of the 
house which originated the bill, and of a majority in the other 
house,^ or two thirds of the members present, and a majority of 
those elected, in each house.** The votes must in this case be 
entered on the journal ^ by yeas and nays. Any bill may be 
vetoed in part.^" 

§ 305. Pocketed Bills. — In most States, if a bill be kept a cer- 
tain length of time by the governor, without returning it, it will 
become a law except in case of adjournment by the Legislature ; as, 
three days, Sundays excepted," five days,'- six days,'^ or ten days.'* 
But Sundays apparently are not excepted in some States.'^ But in 
most States, if the Legislature adjourn before the time respectively 
limited above, the bill does not (except as below) become a law.'® 
In several States, however, the bill does become a law if not returned 
by the governor within five days after the adjournment," ten days 
after,'^ fifteen,'^ twenty,^ thirty days after; -' or, within two -^ or tlu-ee 

> Ct. 

2 Ala., Ark., Ind., Ky., N. J., Tenn., 
Vt. W. Va. 

«' Del., Md., Neb. 

* Fla. ; Ga. 5, 1 ; Ida. ; Mass. ; Me. ; 
Minn. ; Miss. ; Mon. ; N. H. ; Ore. ; 
S. C; S. D.; Tex.; Wash.; Wis.; 
Territories. So in U. S. C. I. 7. 

5 Ga., Miss., S. C. 

« Cal., Col., 111., Kan., La., Mich., 
N. D., Nev., N. Y., O. (and it must not 
be less than on the original passage) ; 
Okla., Pa., Utah, Wy. 

' Mo. 

» Va. 

» See also § 303. 

>« (See § 310.) O., Va., Wash. 

'» Ct., Ind., lo., Kan., Minn., N. D., 
Nev., N. M., Okla., S. C, S. D., Wy., 

^* Ark., Fla., Ga., Ida., La., Mass., 
Me., Miss., Mon., Neb., Nev., N. H., 
N. J., Ore., Tenn., Utah, Va., Vt., 
Wash., W. Va., Wy. 

» Ala., Md. 

" Ariz. ; Cal. ; Col. ; Del. ; lU. ; 

Ky.; Mich.; Mo. 4, 40; N. Y. ; O. ; 
Pa.; Tex. 

1^ Col., La., Mass., Mo., Pa. 

i« Ala. ; Ark. ; Cal. ; Col. ; Ct. 
Del.; Fla.; Ga. ; 111.; Ind.; lo. : 
Kan. ; Ky. ; La. ; Mass. Amt. 1 ; Md. 
Me. ; Mich. ; Minn. ; Miss. ; Mo. 5, 12 
Mon.; N. D. ; Neb.; N. H. ; N. J. 
N. Y. ; O. ; Okla. ; Ore. ; Pa. ; S. C. 
S. D. ; Tenn.; Tex.; Va. ; Vt. ; W 
Va. ; Wis. ; Wy. ; and the territories 
In Vermont it does not become a law 
if the Legislature adjourn within three 
days after its presentment to the 

" Ind., Ky., Neb., Ore., S. D., W. 

Sundays are excepted, except in Ark., 
Fla., 111., Ind., Neb., N. Y., S. D., W. 
Va. Tex. 

i« Fla.*, 111., Ida., Ky., Nev., S. D., 
Utah, Wash. 

" Mon., N. D., Wy. 

2" Ark., Tex. 

" Col. ; Mo. ; N. J.* 1880 ; 173 ; Pa. 

"2 Ala., S. C. 


(Jiivs after the next meeting of the Legislature,' or ten days after." 
And in California,^ the bill becomes a law // returned and signed 
within ten days after the adjournment, in Oklahoma fifteen days, 
in New York thirty days after. So, in Michigan, if returned signed 
within five days of the adjournment, the bill having been passed 
in the last five days of the session ; or, in Minnesota, if passed 
in the last three days of the session, if signed within three days 
of the adjournment; and in Iowa, if returned within thirty days 

§ 306. General Restrictions. — By the Constitutions of several 
States, no new bill can be introduced into either House after the 
first thirty * or fifty ^ days of the session ; or, not during the last three 
days of the session." In others, not within the last ten days, except 
by a two-thirds vote of a full house.^ And in one, no bill can be 
passed by either house on the day prescribed for adjournment,* nor 
be presented to the governor within two days of the final adjourn- 
ment,^ nor within the last twenty days except on special message 
of the governor."^ 

By the Constitutions of three States, after a bill or resolution has 
been considered and defeated in either house, no bill the same in 
substance shall be passed during that session," or be again proposed 
without the consent of a majority of the house which rejected it.'- 
In New Mexico and Ai'izona, all laws passed by the territorial 
Legislature and governor must be submitted to Congress, and, if 
disapproved, shall be void.^^ 

There can be no legislation at special sessions on subjects other 
than those designated in the Governor's proclamation except on 
two-thirds vote of each House. ^* • 

In other States these matters are usually provided for by the 
Legislature itself. 

§ 307. Amendments, Repeals, and Revisions. — The Constitu- 
tions of many States provide that no law shall be revived, altered, 
or amended by reference to its title only; but the act revived, and 

1 Me., Miss. « Ind. 5, 14. 

=> 111. " Minn. Amt. 1889, p. 2. 

* Sundays excepted. " Ga. 3, 7, 13 (without the consent 

* Col. 5, 19, Amt. 1887. of two tliirds of the house which re- 

* Cal. 4, 2 (unless by the consent of jected it) ; Tenn. 2, 19 ; Tex. 3, 34. 
two-tliirds of the members). '- La. 38. 

« Ark. 5, 34 ; Miss. 67. " U. S. R. S. 1850. 

" Md. 3, 27 ; Wash. 2, 36. " Ala. 76 ; Ida. ; Mon. ; Okla. ; Utah. 

« Minn. 4, 22. (See § 277.) 


sections altered or amended, sliall be enacted and published at 
length.' And the sections so amended shall, in tlu-ee, be repealed. ^ 
So, in two States, no act shall be passed which shall provide that 
any existing law or any part thereof shall be made or deemed a part 
of said act, or shall be applicable, except by inserting it in such act.^ 
But in two others, all acts wliich repeal, revive, or amend former 
laws, shall recite in their caption or otherwise the substance of the 
act repealed or revived.* Amendments may not turn a general law 
into a special, private, or local one.^ 

§ 308. When Acts take Effect. — In some States the Constitution 
provides that laws go into effect immediately upon publication,^ or 
on the fortieth day after final passage,^ the sixtieth day,^ or the nine- 
tieth day,^ or ninety days after the end of the session ; ^° or sixty days 
after; " on the July 1st after the passage of the law,'- the July 4th 
following,'^ or the June 1st following.'* In Louisiana, on the day of 
publication in the place where the State journal is published ; else- 
where, twenty days thereafter.'^ In other States the Legislature is 
to prescribe the time when its acts take effect.'® In several, the 
Legislature are to provide for the speedy publication of laws.'^ 
The above rules are subject to exception in several States ** if the 
Act so provide." '^ 

No law can be in force until published.'® In three States, no law 
shall be passed the taking effect of which shall be made to depend 
upon any authority, except as provided in the Constitution.^" 

But in some States the Legislature may, "in case of emergency" 
provide that any law shall go into effect sooner than the time re- 

1 Ala. 45 ; Ark. 5, 23 ; Cal. 4, 24 ; » Col. 5, 19. 

Col. 5, 24 ; Fla. 3, 16 ; Ida. 3, 18 ; 111. '" Ky. 55 ; Mich, 4, 20 ; Mo. 4, 36 ; 

4,13; Ind. 4, 21; Kan. 2, 16; Ky. 51 ; Neb. 3, 24; Okla. 5, 58; Ore. 4, 28; 

La. 32 ; Md. 3, 29 ; Mich. 4, 25 ; Miss. S. D. 3, 22 ; Tex. 3, 39 ; Va. 53 ; Wash. 

61 ; Mo. 4, 33 & 34 ; Mon. 5, 25 ; N. D. 2, 31 ; W. Va. 6, 30. 

64 ; Neb. 3,11; Nev. 4, 17 ; N. J. 4, 7, '' Fla. 3, 18 ; Ida. 3, 22 ; Utah 6, 25. 

4; O. 2, 16; Okla. 5, 57; Ore. 4, 22; '- 111. 4, 13; N. D. 67. 

Pa. 3, 6 ; Tex. 3, 36 ; Utah 6, 22 ; Va. >' lo. 3, 26. 

52; Wash. 2, 37; W. Va. 6, 30; Wy. " Md. 3, 31. 

3, 26. '= La. 42. 

^ Kan., Neb., O. This seems un- '" Kan. 1, 19. 

necessary. " Col. 18, 8 ; lo. ; Kan. ; La. ; Mich. 

3 N. J.; N. Y. 3, 17. 4, 36; Neb.; Nev. 15, 8; N. Y. 6, 23; 

* Ga. 3, 7, 17 ; Tenn. 2, 17. Utah 6, 25 ; Wis. 

« Va. 64. See § 394. »» Md., Miss., Ore., Tenn. 

« Ind. 4, 28; Wis. 7, 21. '» Kan., Wis. 

' Tenn. 2, 20. -" Ind. 1, 25; O. 2, 26; Ore. 1, 21. 

« Miss. 75. But see § 309. 



[book III 

spectlvely above limited,' as by a two-thirds vote of all members 
elected to each house,^ a four-IH'tlis votc,^ or a majority of those 

No amendment to bills by one house shall be concurred in by the 
other, except by a vote of a majority thereof, taken by yeas and 
nays; and the names of those voting for and against recorded uj)()n 
the journals; and reports of committees of conference shall in like 
manner be adopted in each house. ^ 

"Emergency" is strictly defined in Oklahoma.® 

§ 309. Referendum and Initiative. — Some States impliedly for- 
bid the referendum in their Constitutions (see §§ 201, 300).^ Six 
have adopted it: Montana, Nevada, Oklahoma, Oregon, South 
Dakota, and Utah ^ — all new or far western States; and in 

» Col., Fla., Ida., Ind., lo., Ky., 
Mich., Mo., Neb., Ore., S. D., Tex., 
Utah, Va., Wash., W. Va. 

^ Col., 111., Mich., Mo., N. D. (pres- 
ent). Neb., Olila., S. D., Tex., Utah, 
Wash., W. Va. 

' Va. 

* Ky. 

« Miss. G2. 

* "No act shall take effect until 
ninety days after the adjournment of 
tlie session at wliich it was passed, 
except enactments for carrying into 
effect provisions relating to the initia- 
tive and referendum, or a general ap- 
propriation bill, unless, in case of 
emergency, to be expressed in the act, 
the Legislature, by a vote of two-thirds 
of all members elected to each House, 
BO directs. An emergency measure 
shall include only such measures as are 
immediately necessary for the preser- 
vation of the public peace, health, or 
safety, and shall not include the grant- 
ing of franchises or Ucense to a corpo- 
ration or individual, to extend longer 
than one year, nor provision for the 
purchase or sale of real estate, nor the 
renting or encumbrance of real prop- 
erty for a longer term than one year. 
Emergency measures may be vetoed 
by the Governor, but such measures so 
vetoed may be passed by a three- 
fourths vote of each House, to be 
duly entered on the journal " (Okla. 
3, 58). 

^ "No law, except such as relates 
to the sale, loan, or gift of vinous, 

spirituous, or malt licjuors, bridges, 
turnpikes, or other pubhc roads, pub- 
lic buildings or improvements, fencing, 
running at large of stock, matters per- 
taining to common schools, paupers, 
and the regulation by counties, cities, 
towns, or other municipaUtics of their 
local affairs, shall be enacted to take 
effect upon the approval of any other 
authority than the General Assembly, 
unless otherwise expressly provided in 
tliis Constitution " (Ky. 60). 

* "The legislative power shall be 
vested in a Legislature — except that 
the people expressly reserve to them- 
selves the right to propose measures, 
which measures the Legislature shall 
enact and submit to a vote of the elec- 
tors of the State, and also the right to 
require that any laws which the Legis- 
lature may have enacted shall be sub- 
mitted to a vote of the electors of the 
State before going into effect (except 
such laws as may be necessary for the 
immediate preservation of the public 
peace, health or safety, support of the 
State government and its existing 
public institutions). 

"Provided, that not more than five 
per centum of the qualified electors of 
the State shall be required to invoke 
either the initiative or the referendum. 

"This section shall not be construed 
so as to deprive the Legislature or any 
member thereof of the right to propose 
any measure. The veto power of the 
executive shall not be exercised as to 
measures referred to a vote of the 




Oregon the secretary of state complains that the laws adopted by 

people. This section shall apply to 
municipalities" (S. D. 3, 1). 

"The legal voters, or such fractional 
part thereof, of the State of Utah as 
may be provided by law, under such 
conditions and in such manner and 
within such time as may be provided 
by law, may initiate any desired legis- 
lation and cause the same to be sub- 
mitted to a vote of the people for ap- 
proval or rejection, or may require any 
law passed by the Legislature (except 
those laws passed by a two-thirds vote 
of the members elected to each house 
of the Legislature) to be submitted to 
the voters of the State before such law 
shall take effect. 

"The legal voters or such fractional 
part thereof as may be provided by 
law, of any legal subdivision of the 
State, under such conditions and in 
such manner and within such time as 
may be provided by law, may ini- 
tiate any desired legislation and cause 
the same to be submitted to a vote 
of the people of said legal subdivision 
for approval or rejection, or may re- 
quire any law or ordinance passed by 
the law-making body of said legal sub- 
division to be submitted to the voters 
thereof before such law or ordinance 
shall take effect" (Utah 6, 1, Amt.). 

"The legislative authority of the 
State shall be vested in a Legislature, 
consisting of a Senate and a House of 
Representativ'es ; but the people re- 
serve to themselves the power to pro- 
pose laws [and amendments to the 
Constitution in Oklahoma and Oregon] 
and to enact or reject the same at the 
polls independent of the Legislature, 
and also reserve power at their own 
option to approve or reject at the 
polls any act of the Legislature" (Mon. 
1905, 61 ; Okla. 5, 1 ; Ore. 4, 1, Amt. 
1899, p. 1129). 

"Except, that the people may not 
propose laws relating to appropriations, 
constitutional amendments, or local or 
special laws [as enumerated in § 395] 
and they have no right to approve or 
reject acts of the Legislature which are 
necessary for the immediate preser- 
vation of the public peace, health or 
safety, or laws relating to appropri- 

ations of money, or laws for the stib- 
mission of constitutional amendments 
or local or special laws as above." 

"The first power reserved by the 
people is the Initiative, and eight per 
cent ot the legal voters of the State 
shall be required to propose any meas- 
ure by petition ; provided, that two- 
fifths of the whole number of the coun- 
ties of the State must each furnish as 
signers of said petition eight per cent 
of the legal voters in such county, and 
every such petition shall include the 
full text of the measure so proposed. 
Initiative petitions shall be filed with 
the Secretary of State, not less than 
four months before the election at 
which they are to be voted upon" 

"The second power is the Refer- 
endum, and it may be ordered either by 
petition signed by five per cent of the 
legal voters of the State ; provided, 
that two-fifths of the whole number of 
the counties of the State must each 
furnish as signers of said petition five 
per cent of the legal voters in such 
county, or, by the Legislative Assem- 
bly as other Bills are enacted" (Mon.). 

"Referendum petitions shall be 
filed with the Secretary of State, not 
later than six months after the final 
adjournment of the Session of the 
Legislative Assembly which passed the 
Bill on which the Referendum is de- 
manded. The veto power of the gov- 
ernor shall not extend to measures re- 
ferred to the people by the Legislative 
Assembly or by Initiative Referendum 
petitions" (Mon.). 

"All elections on measures referred 
to the people of the State shall be had 
at the biennial regular general election, 
except when the Legislative Assem- 
bly, by a majority vote, shall order a 
special election. Any measure referred 
to the people shall still be in full force 
and efTect unless such petition be 
signed by fifteen per cent of the legal 
voters of a majority of the whole num- 
ber of the counties of the State, in 
which case the law shall be inoperative 
until such time as it shall be passed 
upon at an election, and the result has 




[rook III 

initiative are "full of bad spelling, punctuation, omissions, and 

been determined and declared as pro- 
vided by law. The whole miinber of 
votes cast for governor at the regular 
election last preceding the filing of any 
petition for the Initiative or Referen- 
dum, shall be the basis on which the 
nvimber of the legal petitions and 
orders for the Initiative and for the 
Referendum shall be filed with the 
Secretary of State ; and in submitting 
the same to the people, he, and all 
other officers, shall be guided by the 
General laws and the Act submitting 
this amendment, until Legislation shall 
be esi)ecially provided therefor. The 
enacting clause of every law originated 
by the Initiative shall be as follows: 

"'Be it enacted by the people of 
Montana' : 

"This section shall not be construed 
to deprive any member of the Legisla- 
tive Assembly of the right to introduce 
any measure" (Mon.). 

" By the Oklahoma Constitution, the 
initiative consists in the proposal by 
eight per cent of the legal voters of 
any legislative measure, and in the 
same manner fifteen per cent may pro- 
pose amendments to the State Consti- 
tution by petition. Every such peti- 
tion must include the full text of the 
measure proposed. The referendum 
may be ordered except as to laws neces- 
sary for the immediate preservation of 
the public peace, health or safety, 
either by petition signed by five per 
cent of the voters, or by the Legisla- 
ture as other bills are enacted. The 
ratio and per cent to be based on the 
total number of votes cast at the last 
general election for the State office re- 
ceiving the highest number of votes. 
Referendum petitions must be filed 
with the Secretary of State not more 
than ninety days after the final ad- 
journment of the session of the Legisla- 
ture which passed the bill on w^hich the 
referendum is demanded. The gov- 
ernor has no veto power on measures 
voted on by the people. The elections 
upon such measures are held at the 
next election held throughout the State 
except when the Legislature or gov- 
ernor order a special election, and must 
be passed by a majority of votes cast. 

whereupon, apparently, it takes elTect 
immediately. The referendum may be 
demanded by the peojile against one 
or more items, sections, or parts of any 
act of the Legislature as well as on a 
complete act, and the fihng of a peti- 
tion against a part does not delay the 
remainder of the act from becoming 
law. the referendum, ap- 
parently, suspends its operation. 
powers of initiative and referendum are 
further reserved to the local voters of 
every county and district in the State 
as to all local legislation or action in 
the administration of county and dis- 
trict government in and for their re- 
spective counties and districts. The 
manner of such powers to be pre- 
scribed by general laws. The requi- 
site number of petitioners for the 
initiative and referendum in counties 
and districts to be twice the ratio to 
the whole number of legal voters in 
such county or district as herein pro- 
vided for the State at large. Any 
mea,sure rejected by the people through 
initiative or referendum cannot be 
again propo.sed by the initiative within 
three years by less than twenty-five 
per cent of the legal voters. This reser- 
vation of the powers of initiative and 
referendum does not, however, deprive 
the Legislature of the right to repeal 
any law, propose or pass any measure 
which may be consistent with the Con- 
stitution of the State and of the United 
States. Laws shall be provided to 
prevent corruption in making, procur- 
ing and submitting initiative and 
referendum petitions" (Okla. 5, 2-8). 

"The powers of the initiative and 
referendum, reserved by this Constitu- 
tion to the people of the State and the 
respective counties and districts therein, 
are hereby preserved to the people of 
every municipal corporation now ex- 
isting or which shall hereafter be cre- 
ated within this State, with reference 
to all legislative authority which it may 
exercise, and amendments to charters 
for its own government in accordance 
with the provisions of this Consti- 

" Everj?- petition for either the initia- 
ative or referendum in the government 




repeated words;" and an important amendment to the Constitu- 

of a municipal corporation shall be 
signed by a number of qualified electors 
residing within the territorial limits of 
such municipal corporation, equal to 
twenty-five per centum of the total 
number of votes cast at the next pre- 
ceding election, and every such pe- 
tition shall be filed with the chief 
executive officer of such municipal 

"When such petition demands the 
enactment of an ordinance or other 
legal act other than the grant, exten- 
sion or renewal of a franchise, the 
chief executive office shall present the 
same to the legislative body of such 
corporation at its next meeting, and 
unless the said petition shall be granted 
more than thirty days before the next 
election at which any city officers are 
to be elected, the chief executive officer 
shall submit the said ordinance or act 
so petitioned for, to the qualified elec- 
tors at said election ; and if a majority 
of said electors voting thereon shall 
vote for the same, it shall tliereupon 
become in full force and effect. 

"When such petition demands a 
referendum vote upon any ordinance 
or any other legal act other than the 
grant, extension, or renewal of a fran- 
chise, the chief executive officer shall 
submit said ordinance or act to the 
qualified electors of said corporation at 
the next succeeding general municipal 
election, and if, at said election, a ma- 
jority of the electors voting thereon 
shall not vote for the same, it shall 
thereupon stand repealed. 

"When such petition demands an 
amendment to a charter, the chief ex- 
ecutive officer shall submit such amend- 
ment to the qualified electors of said 
municipal corporation at the next 
election of any officers of said corpora- 
tion, and if, at said election, a majority 
of said electors voting thereon shall 
vote for such amendment, the same 
shall thereupon become an amendment 
to and a part of said charter, when 
approved by the Governor and filed in 
the same manner and form as an orig- 
inal charter is required by the provi- 
sions of this article to be approved and 
filed" (Okla. 18,4). 

"The legislative authority of the 
State shall be vested in a legislative 
assembly, consisting of a Senate and 
House of Representatives, but the 
people reserve to themselves power to 
propose laws and amendments to the 
Constitution, and to enact or reject 
the same at the polls, independent of 
the legislative assembly, and also re- 
serve power at their own option to 
approve or reject at the polls any act 
of the legislative assembly. The first 
power reserved by the people is the 
initiative, and not more than eight per 
cent of the legal voters shall be required 
to propose any measure by such peti- 
tion, and every such petition shall 
include the full text of the measure so 
proposed. Initiative petitions shall be 
filed with the Secretary of State not 
less than four months before the elec- 
tion at which they are to be voted 
upon. The second power is the refer- 
endum, and it may be ordered (except 
as to laws necessary for the immediate 
preservation of the public peace, health 
or safety) either by petition, signed by 
five per cent of the legal voters, or 
by the legislative assembly, as other 
bills are enacted. Referendum peti- 
tions shall be filed with the Secretary of 
State not more than ninety days after 
the final adjournment of the session of 
the legislative assembly which passed 
the bill on which the referenduiTi is 
demanded. The veto power of the 
governor shall not extend to meas- 
ures referred to the people. All elec- 
tions on measures referred to the people 
of the State shall be had at the biennial 
regular general elections, except when 
the legislative assembly shall order a 
special election. Any measure referred 
to the people shall take effect and be- 
come the law when it is approved by a 
majority of the votes cast thereon, and 
not otherwise. The style of all bills 
shall be : * Be it enacted by the people 
of the State of Oregon.' This section 
shall not be construed to deprive any 
member of the legislative assembly of 
the right to introduce any measure. 
The whole number of votes cast for 
justice of the Supreme Court at the 
regular election last preceding the filing 



[book III 

tion rc'(juliiiig constitutional anioiuliiienls proposed hv initiative 
to be submitted to the j)r()j)le at the next election, and calling for 
a constitutional convention, is not included in the Oregon law of 
1907, though adopted by the people June 4, lUOO. It is yet too 
early to judge of the effect in the other States. In Delaware the 
Legislature "are to provide a system of advisory initiative and 
referendum." ' 

Article 31. Form of Revenue Bills 

§ 310. Origin. — All bills for raising revenue must, by the Con- 
stitutions of most of the States, originate in the lower house; but 
the senate may generally propose amendments as in other bills.^ 
But no new matter not relating to the revenue can be so introduced.^ 
The governor may, in most States, veto certain items in an appro- 
priation bill and allow the others to become a law.* In several States, 

of any petition for the initiative or for 
the referendum sliall be the basis on 
which the number of legal voters neces- 
sary to sign such petition shall be 
counted. Petitions and orders for the 
initiative and for the referendum shall 
be filed with the secretary of state, and 
in submitting the same to the people 
he and all other officers shall be guided 
by the general laws and the act sub- 
mitting this amendment until legisla- 
tion shall be especially provided 
therefor" (Ore. 1S99, p. 1129, Amt. to 
IV. 1). 

"Whenever ten per centum or more 
of the voters of this State, as shown by 
the number of votes cast at the last 
preceding general election, shall ex- 
press their wish that any law or resolu- 
tion made by the Legislature be sub- 
mitted to a vote of the people, the 
officers charged with the duties of an- 
nouncing and proclaiming elections 
and of certifying nominations or ques- 
tions to be voted on, shall submit the 
question of thg approval or disapproval 
of said law or resolution to be voted on 
at the next ensuing election wherein a 
State or Congressional officer is to be 
voted for, or wherein any question may 
be voted on, by the electors of the 
entire State. 

"When a majority of the electors 
voting at a State election shall by their 

votes signify approval of a law or reso- 
lution such law or resolution shall 
stand as the law of the State and shall 
not be overruled, annulled, set aside, 
suspended, or in any way made inop- 
erative except by the direct vote of 
the people. When such majority shall 
so signify disapproval, the law or reso- 
lution so disapproved shall be void and 
of no effect" (Nev. 1901, p. 139). 

1 Del. 1905, 53. 

== Ala. 70; Ark. 6, 17; Col. 5, 31; 
Del. 8, 2; Ga. 3, 7, 10; Ida. 3, 14; 
Ind. 4, 17 ; Ky. 47 ; La. 37 ; Mass. 2, 1, 

3, 7; Me. 4, 3, 9 ; Minn. 4, 10; Mon. 
5, 32; Neb. 3, 9; N. H. 2, 17; N. J. 

4, 6, 1 ; Okla. 5, 33 ; Ore. 4, 18 ; Pa. 

3, 14; S. C. 3, 15; Tex. 3, 33; Vt. 
Amt. 3; Wy. 3, 33. This principle 
was fully established in England as 
early as 1407 (T.-L. p. 248). It is also 
contained in the United States Con- 
tution (I. 7 (1)). See also § 300. 

3 Del. ; Ky. ; Me. ; Vt. ; Miss. 69. 
* Ala. 126 ; Ark. ; Cal. 4, 16 ; Col. 

4, 12; Del. 3, 18; Fla. 4, IS; Ga. 5, 1, 
16; Ida. 4, 11; Kan. 1903, 545; Ky. 
88; La. 77; Md. Amt. 1890, 194; 
Minn. 4, 11; Miss. 73; Mo. 5, 13; 
Mon. 7, 13; N. D. 80; Neb. 5, 15; 
N. J. 5, 7 ; N. Y. 4, 9 ; Okla. 6, 12 ; Pa. 
4, 16; S. C. 4, 23; S. D. 4, 10; Tex. 
4, 14 ; Utah 7, 8 ; Va. 76 ; Wash. 14, 
12 ; W. Va. 7, 15 ; Wy. 4, 9. 


no appropriation bill can be passed in the last five ' or ten ^ days 
of the Legislative session, or not after the first forty days but by 
unanimous consent.^ 

§ 311. The General Appropriation Bill may contain only, in 
some States, appropriations for the ordinary expenses of the State 
in its legislative, executive, and judicial departments.' So, in several, 
for the general expenses of government.^ And in a few, for the in- 
terest on the public debt,^ for the sinking fund,^ for public schools,^ 
or public charities.^ In more detail, it may contain appropriations 
for salaries of State officers generally,'" of the Legislature, or for the 
"civil list"; " for the cost of collecting the revenue;'^ for institu- 
tions under the exclusive control and management of the State; '^ 
for the support of the eleemosynary institutions of the State." It 
may not contain any other enactment or provision unless it relate 
specifically to some particular appropriation.'^ 

§ 312. Other Appropriation Bills must, by the Constitution of 
a few States contain no provisions on any other subject; "^ and so, 
in one, of all bills for raising revenue ; " so, they must, in other States, 
contain only one item or subject.'^ 

They must, in several, be for a certain specified purpose ; '*' and it 
is not sufficient to refer to any other law to fix such purpose.-" So, no 
appropriation can be made under the title of " contingent " ; -' all must 
specify the sum appropriated,-^ and none may last six months be- 
yond the next meeting of the Legislature.^^ No moneys shall be 
issued out of the treasury but for the necessary defence and support 
of the State government and the protection of the inhabitants.-* 

1 Ala. ; La. 57 ; Miss. 68 ; Okla. ; '' Mo. 
Wy. 3, 22. See also § 306. '' Cal., Ga. 

2 Mon. 5, 21. " Mo. 

3 N. D. 60. 15 N. Y. 3, 22. 

* Ala. 71; Ark. 5, 30; Col. 5, 32; "" Ala. 71; Fla. 3, 30; Ga. 3, 7, 9; 

Ga. 3, 7, 9; Miss. 69; Mon. 5, 33; La. 55; Miss. 69; Okla. 1, 16; Pa. 3, 

N. D. 62; Pa. 3, 15; S. D. 12,2; Wy. 15; S. D. 12, 3. 

3, 34. " Del. 8, 2. 

' Cal. 4, 29; La. 55; Neb. 3, 19; '« Ala.; Ark. 5, 30; Cal. 4, 34; Col. 

Ore. 9, 7. 5, 32 ; Ga. ; La. ; Miss. ; Mon. ; Pa. ; 

« Ala. ; Col. ; Ga. ; La. ; Miss. ; Mo. N. D. 62 ; S. D. ; Wy. 3, 33. 

4, 43 ; Mon. ; N. D. ; Pa. ; S. D. ; Wy. '» Ark. 5, 29 ; Cal. ; La. 56 ; Mo. 10. 
' Mo. 19; N. Y. 3, 21; Okla. 5,55; S. C. 
» Ala., Col., Ga., La., Miss., Mo., 4, 23. 

Mon., N. D., Pa., S. D., Wy. ^° Mo., N. Y. 

« La. 2' La. 

»" Cal. ; 111. 4, 16 ; Neb. ; Ore. ; - N. Y. 
W. Va. 6, 42. -' Miss. 64. See also § 300. 

" Mo. '* Mass. 2, 2, 1, 11 ; N. H. 2, 56. 


In one the rjcncral appropriations (§ ol 1 ) must be made first, and 
take precedence of any others.' 

§ 313. Voi'nuj. — The Constitutions of several provide tliat a 
bill appropriating money or projx'rty for private or local purposes 
must receive a vote of two thirds of the elected members of each 
house.- So, in two, an appropriation for charitable or educational 
institutions not under the absolute control of the State.' In two, 
a bill appropriating money for extraordinary purposes (not included 
in §§ 311, 335) requires a two-thirds vote in each house.* The yeas 
and nays must always be entered on the journal, on the passage of 
a bill appropriating money ; ^ and three-fifths of each house are 
necessary to a quorum.*' So, in two, such act must be voted for by 
a majority '' or two thirds of the members * elected to each house, 
or of three fifths of those present." So, any act releasing, discharg- 
ing, or commuting any claim or demand of the State '" must have 
a majority vote of members elected, or of a quorum of three fifths, 
as above." 

§ 314. Tax Bills. — The Constitutions of several States re- 
quire that every law imposing a tax shall state distinctly the object 
of the same, to which only it shall be applied.'' So, in a few, of a 
bill creating a debt.'' And it is not sufficient to refer to any other 
law, to fix such object.'* 

In several, all taxes must be levied and collected by general laws.^^ 

In two, a bill imposing a tax must receive the necessary vote in a 
quorum of three fifths of each house, to be entered in the journal 
(as in § 313) ; '" and in one of a majority of a quorum of two thirds 
of the elected members, in the house.'^ In one other, it must be 
read three several times in each house, and pass the tliree readings 
on different days, the yeas and nays of the second and third read- 
ings entered in the journal.'^ In others, a bill imposing a tax for 

» Mo. 4, 43. 4; Ky. 180; Mich. 14, 14; N. C. 5, 

2 lo. 3, 31; Mich. 4, 45; Miss. 60; 7; N. D. 175; N. Y. 3, 24; O. 12, 5; 
N. Y. 3, 20; R. I. 4, 14. Okla. 10, 19; Ore. 9, 3 ; S. C. 10, 3; 

3 Ala. 73; Pa. 3, 17. S. D. 11, 8; Va. 50; Wash. 7, 5; Wy. 
* Ark. 5, 31 ; S. D. 12, 2. See also 15, 13. See also § 330. 

§ 314. '^ Col. 11, 4; Ga. 7, 4, 1 ; Ky. 178; 

' Ga. 3, 7, 12 ; N. Y. 3, 25 ; Wis. 8, 8. N. Y. 7, 4 ; Nev. 9, 3 ; Pa. 9, 5. 

« N. Y., Wis. " lo., Mich., N. Y., Va. 

■> Ky. 46; Miss. 64; Va. 50. '^ Col. 10, 3; Ga. 7, 2, 1 ; Ky. 171; 

« S. D. 12, 2. Mo. 10, 3 ; Pa. 9, 1 ; Tex. 8, 3. See 

» Miss. 70. § 395. 

" Va. 50. See also § 304. >« N. Y. 3, 25 ; Wis. 8, 8. 

" N. Y. " Vt. 2, 9. 

»2 Ark. 16, 11; lo. 7, 7; Kan. 11, i» N. C. 2, 14. 


extraordinary objects (not included in § 335) requires a two-thirds 
vote in each house/ or a majority of the members elected.^ 

§ 315. State Debt Bills.^ — Bills providing for a loan to the State 
or creating a State debt require the assent of two thirds of the elected 
members of each house,* or of three fourths/ or of a majority of 
members elected," or of a majority of members present ; but three 
fifths are, in such case, necessary to a quorum (as in § 313).^ They 
must be read three times, like tax bills (see § 314).^ The law must 
state the purpose for which the money is borrowed.^ 

§ 31G. State Aid Bills. — In four States the Legislature ^° has no 
power to give or lend the credit of the State in aid of any person or 
corporation, unless the law be approved by direct vote of the peo- 
ple." So, law creating a State debt must be approved by the people 
at a general election ; '^ and in South Carolina it must receive a two 
thirds vote. 

Article 32. Appropriations '^ 

§ 320. Warrants, etc. — By the Constitutions of most States, 
no money shall be paid out of the treasury except upon appropria- 
tions duly made by law specifying the purpose, etc. (see Art. 31).^* 
And there must be warrants drawn by the proper officer. ^^ And in 

* Ark. 5, 31. in 1665 under Charles II. Since then 
- Va. it has been "an undisputed principle, 
^ See also § 314. For temporary recognized by frequent, and at length 

loans, see § 360. constant practice," that "suppUes 

* Minn. 9, 5. granted by parUament are only to be 

* Del. 8, 3. expended for particular objects speci- 
« Kan. 11, 5; Wis. 8, 6. ficd by itself." (Hallam, Const. Hist., 
^ N. Y. 3, 25; Wis. 8, 8. vol. ii. p. 356.) 

« N. C. 2, 14. '* Ala. 72 ; Ark. 5, 29 ; 16, 12 ; Ariz.* 

« Del. ; Mon. ; N.Y. 7, 5 ; Okla. 10, 16. Bill of Rts. 25 ; Cal. 4, 22 ; Col. 5, 33 ; 

»» Compare § 326. Also Art. 36. Del. 8, 6 ; Fla. 9, 4 ; Ga. 3, 7, 11 ; Ida. 

" Ark. 10, 6; Ky. 50; N. C. 5, 4; 7, 13; 111.4, 17; Ind. 10,3; lo. 3, 24 ; 

S. C, 10, 11. ' Kan. 2, 24; Ky. 58, 230; La. 45; Md. 

'- Ky. ; Mon. 13, 2; S. C. See also 3,32; Me. 5, 4, 4; Mich. 14, 5; Minn. 

§§309,361. 4,12; 9,9; Miss. 60; Mo. 4, 43 ; Mon. 

'' See U. S. C. 1, 9. The appropria- 5, 34; 13, 2; N. C. 14, 3; N. D. 186; 

tion of suppUes to objects specified in Neb. 3, 22 ; Nev. 4, 19 ; N. J. 4,6,2; 

the law dates from 1353, but was only N. Y. 7, 8 ; O. 2, 22 ; Okla. 5, 55 ; Ore. 

put in practice occasionally, and at 9, 4; Pa. 3, 16; S. C. 10, 9; S. D. 11, 

long intervals. An account of the ex- 9 ; Tenn. 2, 24 ; Tex. 8, 6 ; Va. 186 ; 

penditure of the last subsidy was re- Vt. 2, 17; Wash. 8, 4; W. Va. 10, 3; 

quired from Richard II; and the Wis. 8, 2; Wy. 3, 35; 16, 7. So in 

principle that an appropriation should U. S. C. 1 9, (7). 

be diverted to no other purpose was " Ala. ; Cal. ; Col. ; 111. ; Mass. 2, 2, 

expressly asserted by the Commons 1,11; Mo. 10, 19; Mon.; Neb.; N. D. ; 

under Henry VI, and finally vindicated N. H. 2, 55 ; Pa. ; S. D. ; W. Va. ; Wy. 


a few States, no appropriation can be made for a longer term than 
two years;' so in otliers, the warrant must be issued within two 
years - or two and a half years of the act of appropriation.^ 
INIoney raised by taxation, loan, or assessment for any purpose 
shall not be diverted to any other purpose except by authority of 

No appropriation shall be made, nor any expenditure authorized, 
by the Legislature, whereby the expenditure of the State during 
any fiscal year shall exceed the total tax then provided by law, and 
applicable to such appropriation or expenditure, unless the Legisla- , 
ture making such appropriation shall provide for levying a sufficient 
tax, not exceeding the rates allowed in [§ 33G], to pay such appro- 
priation or expenditure within such fiscal year. This provision shall 
not apply to appropriations or expenditures to suppress insurrec- 
tion, defend the State, or assist in defending the United States in 
time of war.^ 

§ 321. State Accounts. — By the Constitutions of most States, 
a regular statement and account of receipts and expenditures of 
public moneys must be published annually," semi-annually,^ or after 
every session of the Legislature, with the laws,^ or in such manner 
as by law directed.' 

§ 322. Private Appropriations, Claims, and Debts. — The Con- 
stitution of Illinois provides that the Legislature shall make no ap- 
propriation of money out of the treasury in any private law.^'' So, 
in Texas, that no appropriation for private or individual purposes 
shall be made." In Mississippi, no law granting a donation, etc. 
without a two-thirds vote of members elected in each house. '^ So, 
in several States, no appropriation of money or grant of property 
can be made by the State to any individual or corporation, municipal 
or otherwise.'^ And by the Illinois Constitution, the Illinois and 

» Ark., Kan., La., Mo., Mon., O., « Cal. 4, 22; Fla. 3, 19; Ga. 3, 7 

Tex., Va. 11; 111. 4, 17; Ind. 10, 4; lo. 3, 18 

2 Kan., Mo., N. Y., Wash. Md. 3, 32; Me. 5, 4, 4; Mich. 18, 5 

3 Okla. Minn. 9, 11; Miss. 113; Mon. 7, 19 
* Ky. 18; O. ; N. D. 130; S. D. Neb. 3, 22; Nev. 4, 19; Ore. 9, 5 

10, 2. S. C. ; Tenn. 2, 24 ; Va. 10, 18 ; Vt. 

« Ida. 7, 11; Mon. 12, 12. 2, 28. 

« Ala. 72; Del. 8, 6; Ky. 230; » Ark. 19, 12; Ct. 4, 21; Kan. 15, 

N. C. 14, 3; S. C. 19, 8; S. D. 11, 12; 5; Mo. 10, 19; O. 15, 3; S. D. ; Tex. 

12, 4 ; Tex. 16, 6 ; Utah 13, 6 ; Wash. " 111. 4, 16. See also § 395. 

7, 7; W. Va. 10, 3. Quarterly: Ga. ; '' Tex. 16, 6. Compare Art. 39. 

La. ; Mon. 12, 13. '- Amt. 1906, 238. 

' Ky. 53; Miss, 137. '' Ga. 7, 16, 1; Ky. 177; Mo. 4, 46; 


INIicliigan Canal can never be sold or leased but by vote of the peo- 
ple/ Except that in two States a grant of aid may be made in case 
of a public calamity.^ And a right of way through public land may, 
in one, be granted to a railroad or canal.' 

The Constitutions of two States provide that the Legislature 
shall not audit nor allow any private claim or account ; * nor, in 
several, authorize the payment of any claim against the State under 
an agreement or contract made without the authority of law.^ Or 
of any such claim against a municipality ; ^ and all such private or 
special contracts are void.' Nor, in a few, can money be paid on 
any claim the subject matter of which is not provided for by pre- 
existing laws.* Such claim may, however, be allowed on a two- 
tliirds vote of the full Legislature." So, in two, no special act mak- 
ing compensation to a person claiming damages against the State 
can be passed.^" 

In ^Maryland, the Legislature can appropriate no money in pay- 
ment of a private claim over $300 unless proved before the comp- 
troller and reported on by him." And in Indiana (10, 7), the State 
is freed from all liability on account of Wabash & Erie Canal stock. 

Exceptions. But, in a few States, the Legislature may appro- 
priate for expenses incurred by private persons in suppressing in- 
surrection or repelling invasion. ^^ 

The Constitutions of several States provide that the Legislature 
shall have no power to release or extinguish, or to authorize the 
releasing or extinguishing, in whole or in part, any indebtedness 
or liability, of any corporation or individual to the State,^' or to 
any municipal corporation therein.'* This follows, practically, in 
other States, from the provisions of § 395.'^ 

So, in several, the Legislature have no power to release, alienate, 

N. D. 185; Neb. (of land only) 3, 18; 16, 11; lo. 3, 31; Nev. 4, 28; O. 2, 

N. J. 1, 20 ; Tex. 3, 51. See also § 326. 29 ; Pa. 3, 11 ; Tex. 3, 44. 

' 111. Sep. § 3. 9 Ark., Fla., O. 

=" Mo., Tex. " Ind. 4, 24; Ore. 4, 24. 

3 La. 58. " Md. 3, 52. 

* Ariz.* B. Rts. 27; Mich. 4, 31; '^ 111., Miss., S. D., W. Va. 

N. Y. 3, 19. 13 Ala. 100 ; Ark. 5, 33, 12, 12 ; Col. 

« Cal. 4, 32; 111. 4, 19; Ky. 58; 5, 38; 111. 4, 23; Ky. 52; La. 59; 

La. 47; Miss. 96; Mo. 4, 48; Mon. 5, Miss. 100; Mo. 4, 51; Mon. 5, 39; 

29; S. D. 12, 3; Tex. 3, 53; Utah 6, Okla. 5, 53; S. D. 3, 24; Tex. 3, 55; 

30 ; W. Va. 6, 38. Utah 6, 27 ; Wy. 3, 40. 

« Cal.; Ky. 162; La.; Tex. " Ala., Col., 111., Ky., La., Miss., 

^ Cal., m., Ky., La., Mo., S. D., Mon., Okla., Wy. 

W. Va. '5 Cal., Md. 

« Ark. 5, 27 ; Col. 5, 27 & 28 ; Fla. 


or alter the lien held by the State upon any railroad,' or as against 
any corporation.- And in Illinois, specially of the Illinois Central 
Railroad, no lien, contract, obligation, or lialnlity in the original 
charter, shall ever be released or inij)aire(l.-' 

In one State, no claim shall be allowed (by the Legislature or 
other body or officers acting for the State) against the State which 
would be barred by lapse of time if made against a private person; 
except that a claim may be so prosecuted within two years of the re- 
moval of a legal disability of the claimant.* 

The Legislature shall not authorize payment to any person of 
the salary of a deceased officer beyond the date of his death ; '' nor 
retire any officer on pay, or part pay, or make any grant to such 
retiring officer." 

§ 323. Charitable and Sectarian Appropriations. — The Con- 
stitutions of a few States provide that no appropriation shall be 
made for private, charitable, educational, or benevolent purposes 
to any person or community or any corporation not wholly under 
the State authority ; ^ nor to any denominational or sectarian insti- 
tution ; * except by a vote of two-thirds the members elected ; ^ and 
see § 313. 

Exceptions. But in California, grants of aid may be made to 
orphan or indigent asylums in accordance with a uniform rule. And 
in Pennsylvania, to asylums for soldiers' widows or orphans.^*' 

§ 324. Internal Improvement. — By the Constitutions of a few 
States the State cannot be interested in works of internal improve- 
ment, or "engage in them"" except on two-thirds vote of the 
people ; ^' nor, in Alabama, loan its credit in support of such 
works ; ^^ nor, in several States, create or contract debts for them ; ^* 
nor be a party to carrying on such works. ^^ 

But the Tennessee Constitution declares that a well-regulated 
system of internal improvement should be encouraged by the 

1 Ark. 5, 33 ; Mo. 4, 50 ; Pa. 3, 24 ; » Ala. 
Tex. 3, 54. " Pa. 3, 19. 

2 Pa. " Mich.; N. D. 185; S. D. 13, 1; 

3 111. Sep. § 1. Wy. 16, 6. 

^ N. Y. 7, 6. '2 N. D., Wy. 

« Miss. 92. " Ala. 93. 

6 Miss. 93. '* Ala. ; Md. 3, 34 ; Minn. 9, 5 ; O. 

' Ala. 73; Cal. 4, 22; Col. 5, 34; 12,6; Wis. 8, 10. See, however, §361. 

La. 53; Mon. 5, 35; Pa. 3, 17 ; S. C. '« Ala. ; Kan. 11, 8; Md. ; Mich. 

11, 9; Va. 67; Wy. 3, 36. See also 14, 9; Minn.; Wis. 

§§ 44, 54. '" Tenn. 11, 10. 

« Wy. 


§ 325. Miscellaneous Restrictions. — The Constitution of Texas 
provides that the State shall make no appropriation for a bureau of, 
or to encourage or assist, immigration/ Not for war debts of the 
State or any county, city, or town.^ 

§ 326. Loans of Credit, etc.^ — The State, by the Constitutions 
of most of the States, cannot lend money or its credit to any indi- 
vidual, association, or corporation, municipal or otherwise, what- 
ever/ Except corporations for religious or charitable purposes; 
or for the support of the poor/ So, specially, it cannot loan, etc., 
to railroads or canals." 

Nor, in many, can the State become a stockholder or bondholder 
in any corporation,^ in any bank,^ railroad,^ or highway.^" 

The Constitution provides, in general terms, that the State may 
not be interested in any private or corporate enterprise," or internal 

Nor, in many, can it assume the debts of any (individual or) muni- 
cipal corporation ; ^^ except, in several, when incurred in time of 
war for the benefit of the State." 

Nor, in Tennessee, can any bonds of the State be issued to any 
railroad which is in default in paying interest on bonds previously 
loaned to it, or has sold them for less than par.^^ 

Limitations. But in North Carolina, the credit of the State 
may be so loaned, contrary to the above rules, upon vote of the 

§ 327. Money. — The Constitution of Texas provides that the 

1 Tex. 16, 56. See § 202. Cal. 12, 13 ; Col. ; Fla. ; Ga. ; Ida. 

2 Va. 186. See U. S. C. Amt. 14. Ind. ; lo. 8, 3; Ky.;. La.; Mich. 14 

3 Compare § 316. See also Art. 36. 8; Miss.; Mo. 4, 49; Mon. ; N. D. 
* Ala. 93; Ark. 16, 1; Cal. 4, 31; Nev. ; O. ; Okla. ; Ore. 11, 6; Pa. 

Col. 11, 1-2; Del. 8, 4; Fla. 9, 10; S. C. ; S. D. ; Tenn. ; Utah; Va. 

Ga. 7, 5, 1 ; Ida. 8, 2 ; lU. 4, 20 ; Ind. Wash. ; W. Va. ; Wy. 

11, 12; lo. 7, 1; Ky. 177; La. 58; « III., Ind., Kan., Mo., Tenn. See 

Md. 3, 34 ; Me. 9, 14 ; Mich. 14, 6 ; § 530. 

Minn. 9, 10; Miss. 258; Mo. 4, 45; « Ky. 

Mon. 13, 1 ; N. C. 5, 4 ; N. D. 185 ; >° Ky. 

Neb. 14, 3; Nev. 8, 9; N. J. 4, 6, 3; " Ala., La., Va. See § 324. 

N.Y. 7,1; 8, 9; 0.8, 4; Okla. 10, 11; ^^ Va. 

Pa. 9, 6 ; S. C. 10. 6 ; S. D. 13, 1 ; Tenn. i^ ^rk. 12, 12 ; Cal. ; Col. ; Ga. 7, 8, 

2, 31; Terr. U. S. 1886, 818; Tex. 3, 1; Ida. 12, 3; 111.; Ind. 10, 6; lo. ; 

50; Utah 6, 31; Va. 185; Wash. 12, Ky. 176; La.; Mon. 13, 5; Nev. 9, 4; 

9; 8, 5; W. Va. 10, 6; Wis. 8, 3; O. 8, 5; Okla. 10, 14; Ore. 11, 8; Pa. 

Wy. 16, 6. 9, 9 ; S. D. ; Tex. ; Utah 14, 6 ; W. Va. ; 

« N. D., S. D. Va. 

« 111. Sep. §3; Wy. 3, 39; 10, '" Ark., Ga., Ida., lo., Ky., Nev., O., 

10 (5). Okla.. Ore., Pa., S. D. 

' Ariz.* Bill of Rts. 27 ; Ark. 12, 7 ; " Tenn. 2, 23. 


State shall have no power to issue treasury notes or warrants in- 
tended to circulate as money.^ 

§ 328. Embezzlement, etc. (See § 15G.) — The Legislature shall 
provide by law for the establishment and maintenance of an efhcient 
system of checks and balances between the officers of the Executive 
Department, and all commissioners and superintendents, and boards 
of control of State institutions, and all other officers entrusted with 
the collection, receipt, custody, or disbursement of the revenue or 
moneys of the State whatsoever.^ 

Article 33. Taxation 

§ 330. General Principles.^ — In the Constitutions of several 
States it is declared that every member of society is bound to con- 
tribute his proportion to the expenses of the government; but no 
part of his property can be taken without his own consent or legisla- 
tive authority.* 

So, in many, no tax, impost, duty, or charge can be levied except 
in pursuance of a law ; ^ or by consent of the people,^ or their repre- 
sentatives in the Legislature.^ Taxation can be for public purposes 
only ; ^ and must be levied under general laws.^ 

^ Tex. 16, 7. See U. S. C. 1, 10. power is subject to the broad limita- 

" Okla. 5, 60. tion that it may be exercised only by 

2 Compare Art. 9. The history of Congress and to pay the debts and 

English taxation, as distinct from provide for the common defence and 

feudal aids, begins with the imposi- general welfare of the United States; 

tion of the Dane-geld, a. d. 1008. The and that all indirect taxes shall be 

first tax on personal property was the uniform throughout the United States, 

Saladin tithe, a. d. 1188 (see Historical and direct taxes, if any, imposed upon 

Digest). The English constitutional the States according to their respective 

principles affecting taxation are fully numbers, now excluding only Indians 

discussed in Book I. ; in substance, not taxed. 

that no tax, direct or indirect, shall * Del. 8, 1; Mass. 1, 10; Md. 

be imposed upon the people or upon Decln. of Rts. 14 & 15; N. H. 1, 12; 

their property, real or personal, wliich Okla. 10, 14; Va. 1, 6; Vt. 1, 9; Wy. 

has not been voted or assented to by 15, 13 ; 13, 3. 

the House of Commons; second, that * Ark. 16, 11; Fla. 9, 3; Kan. 11, 

all taxes must be for the common 4 ; Ky. 171 ; Mo. 10, 1 ; Mon. 12, 16 ; 

benefit or the general advantage of N. D. 175 ; O. 12, 5 ; Ore. 9, 3 ; S. C. 

the Realm. To these, American Con- 8, 3 ; 10,3; Wash. 7, 5. 

stitutional Law may be said to have " Mass. 1, 23; Me. 1, 22; N. C'l, 

added a tliird principle, that taxes 23; N.H.I, 28; Ore. 1,32; S.C.I, 7; 

shall be proportionate and uniform. S. D. 6, 17; Wy. 1, 28. 

The Federal Government has practi- ^ La. 224 ; Mass. ; Md. ; Me. ; 

cally no power of direct taxation ; this N. C. ; N. H. ; Ore. ; S. C. ; S. D. ; Wy. 

remains with the people of the States. * Ky. 171 ; Minn. Amt. 1907, p. 18; 

Otherwise the powers of taxation be- 9, 1 ; S. C. ; S. D. 10, 2. See note 1. 

long both to the Federal and the State * Ida. 7, 5 ; Ky. ; Mon. ; Okla. ; 

governments; though the Federal Va. 168. 


And in Vermont, previous to any law for a tax, the purpose for 
which the tax is levied ought not to appear of more importance to the 
community than the money would be if not collected. 

By the Constitution of Arkansas, "the State's ancient right of 
eminent domain, and of taxation, is expressly and fully conceded." ^ 
In Georgia, taxation is declared to be a sovereign right of the State, 
absolutely inalienable.^ 

In several, the Legislature has no power to release (in Louisiana, 
postpone) the inhabitants of, or property in, any town or county from 
payment of State or county taxes ; ^ except in case of great public 
calamity,* and by a two-thirds vote of each house.^ So, in others, 
the power to tax shall not be surrendered or suspended by any act, 
contract, or grant to which the State is a party ; " so, specially, of 
the power to tax corporations and their property. ^ 

And in several, no power to levy taxes can be delegated to indi- 
viduals or private corporations.^ See § 340. 

In Illinois, the Constitution provides that the specification therein 
of the objects and subjects of taxation shall not deprive the General 
Assembly of the power to require other subjects or objects to be 
taxed in such manner as may be consistent with the principles of 
taxation fixed in the Constitution.^ 

§ 33L Taxable Property. — In many States, the Constitution 
declares that all property, real and personal and mixed, is taxable.'" 

In others, taxes "shall be levied upon such property as is 
described by law." " "Polls, estates, and other classes of property, 
including franchises and property when passing by will and 
inheritance." '' 

' Ark. 2, 23. clause of the Federal Constitution, and 

^ Ga. 4, 1, 1. prevent the granting or bargaining 

^ Cal. 11, 10; Col. 10, 8; 111. 9, 6; away of the sovereign right of taxa- 

La. 212; Mo. 10, 9; Neb. 9, 4; Tex. tion, in conformity with the views of 

8, 10. a persistent minority in the United 

* La., Tex. States Supreme Court. 

« Tex. 8 Ala. 212; Cal. 11, 13; Col. 5, 35; 

« Cal. 13, 6; Ga. ; Ida. 7, 7; Ky. Ga. 4, 1, 1 ; Pa. 3, 20. Compare § 340. 

175; Me. 9, 9; Minn.; Mon. 12, 6; » 111.9,2. 

N. D. 178; Okla. 10, 5; Wash. 11, 9; " Cal. 13, 1; Col. 10, 3; Fla. 9, 1; 

Wy. 15, 14. And this applies also to Ind. 10, 1 ; Ky. 174 ; Minn. 9, 3 ; Mon. 

municipal taxation (N. D.). 12, 16; N. C. 5, 3; N. D. 176; Nev. 

^ Ark. 16, 7; Col. 10, 9; Ga. 7, 2, 5; 10, 1; O. 12, 2; S. C. 10, 13; Tenn. 

Ida. 7, 8 ; La. 228 ; Miss. 182 ; Mo. 2, 28 ; Utah 13, 2 ; Va. 168 ; Wash. 7, 

10, 2 ; Mon. 12, 7 ; Pa. 9, 3 ; S. D. 1 ; W. Va. 10, 1. 

113; Tex. 8, 4; Va. 64; Wash. 7, 4. » Ida. 7, 3; Mich. 14, 11; Wis. 8, 1. 

These two provisions show the desire ^- N. H. 2, 6. 
to escape the impairment of contract 


In one, the personal property of residents of the State is taxable in 
the county or city where the resident hoiici fide resides for the greater 
part of the year; and not elsewhere, exccj)t goods and chattels "per- 
manently located." ' But in two, all property is to be assessed where 
situated (except rolling stock, etc., of railroads).'' 

Land and the improvements thereon are to be separately assessed.' 
Mortgages, except mortgages by railroads, etc., are taxed to the 
owner, and the property less the value of the mortgage to the 
mortgagor. "^ INIortgages may be taxed where the huui is." 

In Texas, all property of railroads in towns shall bear its share of 
municipal taxation; " and all property of railroads shall be taxed.' 

The property of all corporations shall, by several State Constitu- 
tions, be subject to taxation the same as that of individuals ; ** so of 
corporations for pecuniary profit only.^ But this shall not be 
construed so as to authorize the taxation of the stocks of any com- 
pany or corporation when the property of such company or cor- 
poration represented by such stocks is within the State and has 
been taxed. ^'^ 

"The Legislature shall provide for taxing all moneys, credits, in- 
vestments in bonds, stocks, joint stock companies, or otherwise ; and 
also for taxing the notes and bills discounted or purchased, moneys 
loaned and all other property, effects or dues of every description, of 
all banks and of all bankers, so that all property employed in bank- 
ing shall always be subject to a taxation equal to that imposed on the 
property of individuals." " 

In Maryland, the Legislature are to provide for the taxation of the 
revenue of foreign corporations doing business in the State.'- 

1 Md. 3, 51. Del., Mass., Me , N. J., N. Y., N. C, 

- Cal. 13, 10; Tex. 8, 11. Tex., Vt., Wash., W. Va. See Re- 

^ Cal. 13, 2; Wy. 15, 1; Del. 8, 7. port Committee on Corporation Laws, 

* Cal. 13, 4. Massachusetts, 1903, pp. 273-279. 

s Md. Amt. 1898. » Ala., lo. 

« Tex. 8, 5. " Mon. 12, 17. 

' Mon.; Tex. 8, 8. See § 540. " S. D. 11, 4. 

« Ala. 217; Col. 10, 10; Fla. 16, '^Md.3,58. See in § 509. There is 

16; Ida. 7, 8; lo. 8, 2; Ky. ; Miss, no Constitutional limit to the power of 

181; Mon. 12, 7; Nev. 8, 2; 0.13,4; imposing a franchise tax on foreign 

S. D. 11, 2; Utah 13, 10; Wash. 7, 3. corporations, even to the point of 

See § 330. This provision would not, driving them from the State; property 

however, be held to preclude franchise taxes, however, must be identical with 

taxes, or taxes on the capital stock, those imposed on home corporations, 

and the imposition of such in addition In 1903 such taxes existed in ten 

to a property tax is not double taxa- States: Ala., Col., Mass., N. C, N. Y., 

tion. Already, by the year 1903, such O., Tex., Vt., Wash., W. Va. These 

taxation existed by law in : Ala., Col., principles do not, however, hold of 


In three States, mines and mining claims may not be directly 
taxed, but only their proceeds.^ Coal lands not being mined are 
to be taxed according to value.- All mines are to be taxed ac- 
cording to gross product, and the land (except improvements) is 
exempt.^ So, the net proceeds; but the land is taxed at the price 
paid the United States.* There is a special and separate assess- 
ment of coal or mineral land.'' 

The Legislature may provide for a special mode of valuation and 
assessment for railroads, and railroad (and other corporate) 

§ 332. Exemptions. — The following are the constitutional ex- 
emptions from taxation (there are these and many others existing 
by statutes; indeed the older States have not deemed it advisable 
to put such matters in the Constitution) : 

(A) Burying-grounds.'' 

(B ) Public schoolhouses ; ^ school buildings and apparatus ; ^ 
libraries and grounds used for school purposes. ^° 

(C) Churches; ^^ church property used for religious purposes ;^^ 
public hospitals; ^^ parsonages.^* 

(D) Academies ;^^ colleges, universities, and seminaries of learn- 
ing; ^^ public libraries; ^^ books, paintings, and statuary, kept in a 
free public hall; ^^ institutions of purely public charity; ^^ of educa- 
tion ; -" or free museums.-^ 

interstate commerce corporations. See " Ala. ; Ark. ; Ga. ^ c j La_ j S. C. ; 

Mass. Corporation Committee Report, Tex. 

Digest by F. J. Macleod, p. 295, ut ^° Ark. ; Col. ; Ga. b c ; i,a. c ; 

supra. Minn. 1907, ix; N. D. ; S. C. ; Va. 

' Col. 10, 3 ; Nev. 10, 1 ; Wy. 15, 3. " Ark. ; Ga. b c ; Ky. ; La. c ; Minn. ; 

See § 519. Mon. ; O. b; Pa. b; s. C. ; Tex.; 

2 Wy. 15, 2. Utah ; Va. ; Wy. 

^ Wy. 15, 3. 1- Cal. 1899, p. 447 ; Col. ; Ky. ; 

* Mon. 12, 3 ; Utah 14, 4. Minn. ; Utah ; Wy. 

« Va. 172. " Minn., Mon., S. C. 

« Ky. 182; Miss. 112. See § 519. " Ky. ; La. 1902, 129; Va. ; Wy. 

^ Ala. 91; Ark. 16, 5; Col. c 10, 5; '' Ga. b c; Minn.; S. C. ; Va. 

Ga. b c 7^ 2, 2 ; 111. b 9, 3 ; Ky. c 170 ; >« Ga. b c ; La. <= ; Minn. ; S. C. ; Va. 

La. c 230 ; Minn. 9, 3 ; Mo. 10, 6 ; '' Cal. 1893, p. 658 ; Col. 10, 4 ; Ga. 

Mon. c 12, 2 ; N. C. b 5, 5 ; N. D. b ; Ida. 7, 4 ; Ky. ; La. ; Mon. ; Okla. ; 

170; Neb. b 9, 2; O. b 12, 2 ; Okla. S. C. ; Utah; Va. ; Wy. 

10, 6 ; Pa. b 9, 1 ; S. C. 10, 4 ; S. D. '« Ga. b c ; Ky. ; La. c. 

11, 6; Tex. beg, 2; 1905, p. 410. '« Ga. b c; La.; Minn. ;0. b; Pa. c; 
Utah 13, 3 ; Va. c 183 ; W. Va. b 10, S. C. ; Tex. b. 

1; Wy. c 15, 12 a. :o Ky c. 

» Cal. 13, 1; Col.; La. <=; Minn.; ^i Cal., Okla. 
O. b ; Okla. ; S. C. ; Tex 



[book TTI 

(E) Public property used exclusively for any public purpose;^ 
or for any numicipal purpose; ^ all public- j)r()perty.^ 

(F) So, any property (real or pei\s(>nal), held for educational 
or scientific ' or literary purposes;'' or charita])le purposes;" or re- 
ligious purposes;' by agricultural or horticultural societies.^ So, 
lots in towns, within one mile of the limits, to one acre in extent ; and 
lots one mile or more distant from towns to five acres in extent, with 
buildings thereon, used exclusively for religious, school, or purely 
charitable purposes ; " for lodge purposes ; '" for public monuments 
or historical collections." 

(G) In several, lands the property of the United States are ex- 
empt;^'- all property exempt by United States laws;*^ all property 
belonging to the State ;" all property belonging to the United States;*^ 
all property belonging to nmnicipal corporations ; *" the property 
of religious or charitable corporations, or of educational "cor- 
porations." ^' 

(II) In a few Western States, the Legislature may exempt for a 
time the increase in value of private lands caused by the planting 
of hedges, orchards, and forests; ^^ so, "a limited amount of im- 
provements on land";^^ so, fruit or vines planted 4 or 5 years 

(I) The personal property of every individual is exempt, to the 

' Ark.; Kan. 11, 1; Ky. 170; 
Minn. ; Nev. b lO, 1 ; O. b ; Ore. b 9, 
1; Pa. b; Tenn. b2, 28; Tex. 11, 9; 
Va. ; W. Va. b. 

^ Ind. b 10, 1; Kan.; Va. 10, 1; 
S. C. 

3 Ala. ; Ga. b c ; La. c ; Mon. 

* Ala. 91; Cal. ; Fla. b 9, 1; 111. b 
Ind. b; Kan.; La.; Mon.; N. C. b 
N. D.; Neb. b; Nev. b; Okla. 91 
Ore. b; S. C. b; S. D.; Tenn. b; Tex. 
Va. • W. Va. b. 

^'ria. b; Ind. b; Kan.; N. C. b 

» Ala. ; Mo. b. 

»" Va. 

" La. 

'^ Ida. ; Kan. Ordinance ; Minn. 2, 
3; Mo. 14, 1; Mon.; Nev. Ordinance; 
N. D. 176; Okla.; S. D. 115; Utah; 
Wash. 7, 2 ; Wis. 2, 2 ; Wy. 

" Cal. 13, 1 ; Utah ; Wash. 

" Ala. ; Cal. ; Col. 10, 4 ; Ida. ; 111 
Mo.; Mon.; N. C. ; Neb.; N. D 
Okla.; S. D. ; Tenn.; Utah; Va 
Wy.; Wash. 

'' Cal. ; Ida. ; Mon. ; N. D. ; S. D. ; 
Nev. b; Ore.; S. C. b 10, 1 ; Tenn. b; Terr. U. S. R. S. 18ul ; Utah; Wash.; 
W. Va. b. Wy. 

« Ala. ; Ark. ; Col. ; Fla. b ; m. ; Ind. 's 

b ; Kan. ; Ky. ; Mon. ; N. C. b ; N. D 
Neb. b ; Nev. b ; Ore. b ; S. C. b ; S. D. 
Tenn. b ; Tex. ; Va. b ; W. Va. b. 

' Ala. b; Fla. b; m. b; ind. b 
Kan. ; Ky. ; N. D. ; Neb. b ; Nev. b 
N. C. b ; Okla. ; Ore. b ; S. C. b ; S. D. 
Tenn. b ; Va. ; W. Va. b. 

« Ala. ; 111. b ; Mo. b 10, 6 ; Mon. 
Neb. b; S. D. 

Ala.; Cal.; Col.; Fla. b; Ida. 
111. b; Ind. b; La. c; Mo. ; Mon. 
N. C; N. D.; Neb.; Nev. b 8, 2 
Okla. ; S. C. ; S. D. ; Tex. 8, 1 ; Utah 
Va. ; Wash. ; Wy. 

" Fla. b ; Nev. b. 

»« Col. 18, 7. 

i« Ida. 7, 2. 

20 Cal. 1893, p. 623. 


value of $200;' $100;- $250, if with a family ;3 of $1,000;* 
household property to the value of $500; ^ of $250; « $200 of heads 
of families; ^ $300; ^ of every widow or disabled person, $200.^ 

(J) Growing crops are exempt.'" So, the direct products of the 
soil in the hands of the producer; " and of his immediate vendee.'^ 
And no articles manufactured of the produce of the State shall be 
taxed otherwise than to pay inspection fees." Supplies for home or 
farm use are exempt.'* 

(K) All wearing apparel is exempt ; arms for muster; all house- 
hold furniture; mechanical instruments of mechanics, and agricul- 
tural implements of farmers; libraries; scientific instruments; but 
the total value of exemptions under this paragraph cannot exceed 

(L) Such property as the Legislature may except for the public 

(M) For a period of 10 years from 1900, mining and manufac- 
turing property in factories where five hands are employed and (up 
to 1904) certain railroads.'^ So, railroads constructed between 1905 
and 1909.'^ See also § 331. 

(N) Provision shall be made by general laws whereby cities and 
towns may be authorized to aid and encourage the establishment of 
manufactories, gas works, water works, and other enterprises of 
public utility other than railroads, within the limits of said cities or 
towns, by exempting all property used for such purposes, from muni- 
cipal taxation for a period not longer than ten years.'* 

(O) The General Assembly may authorize any incorporated city 
or town to exempt manufacturing establishments from municipal 
taxation for a period not exceeding five years, as an inducement to 
their location.-'^ So the Legislature may grant a general exemption 
from taxation to manufacturing corporations or enterprises of public 
utility for one year.^' 

1 Kan. (of every family); Minn.; " Ky. ; Tenn. 2, 30; Tex. 8 19 
N. D.; O. b; S. D. (1879, p. 192). 

2 Cal. 1904, Nov. 8 ; Okla. '^ Tenn. 

» Ky. " Tenn. 2, 30. 

* Tenn. " Tex. 

« La. « N. C. b. 

8 Ky. 170 ; Okla. ; Tex. 8, 1. '« Del. 8, 1 ; Wash. 

' Col. 1899, p. 89. " La. 206. 

8 Wash, b Amt. 1900. *« La. 1904, 16. 

8 Fla. 9, 9. '» Miss. 192. 

"> Cal., Ky., Okla. ^° Ky. 170 ; Okla. 10, 6. 

" Miss. 82. 


(P) Cities and towns may exempt by ordinance, except for 
school purposes, manufactories, for five years from tlieir establish- 
ment, upon majority vote of all the qualified electors at a special 
election.' State or municipal bonds are made exempt from taxation.^ 

(Q) Except as above, all laws exempting property from taxation 
are, in several States, void.* 

§ 333. Taxes Equal.* — The Constitutions of many States pro- 
vide that taxation shall be "equal and uniform" throughout the 
State or throughout each municipality levying a tax;'^ or "pro- 
portional and reasonable." ® 

Lands belonging to persons resident out of the State cannot, in 
several, be taxed higher than lands belonging to residents.'' 

The Legislature shall not enact any law which will permit any 
person, firm, corporation, or association to pay a privilege, license, or 
other tax to the State of Alabama, and relieve him or it from the 
payment of all other privilege and license taxes in the State. ^ 

§ 334. Valuation and Assessment. — In most States the Con- 
stitution provides that all taxes levied shall be assessed in exact 
proportion to the value ^ of the property. '"^ 

» S. C. 8, 8. 7,5; Ind. 10, 1 ; Kan. 11, 1 ; Ky. 171 ; 

2 O. 1904, p. 652. La. 225; Mich. 14, 11; Minn. 9, 1; 

^ Ark. 16, 6; Col. 10, 6; Ga. 4, 2, Miss. 112; Mo. 10, 3; Mon. 12, 2 & 

4; Ky. 3; Mo. 10, 7; Mon. 12, 1; 11; N. C. 5, 3; N. D. 176; Nev. 10, 1 ; 

Okla. 5, 50 ; Pa. 9, 2 ; S. D. 11, 7 ; Tex. N. J. 4, 7, 12 ; Okla. 10, 5 ; Ore. 1, 32 ; 

Notes, (a) See also §§ 394, 395; 9, 1; Pa. 9, 1 ; S. C. 10, 1; S. D. 6, 17; 

these same States being apt to restrict Tenn. 2, 28 ; Tex. 8, 1 ; Va. 16, 8 ; 

their legislatures' powers to enact Wash. 7, 2 ; W. Va. 10, 1 ; Wis. 8, 1 ; 

special laws, (b) In these States the Wy. 1, 28. 
Constitution only provides that tliis * N. H. 2, 5. 

property may be exempted by law. ' Ida. 21, 19; Kan. Ordinance; 

(c) In these States, only burying- Minn. 2, 3 ; Mo. 14, 1 ; N. D. 203 (2) ; 

grounds, etc., wliich are not held Nev. Ordinance; Okla. 1, 3; S. D. 

for personal or corporate profit, or 22 (2) ; Terr. U. S. R. S. 1851 ; Wash, 

are "actually occupied." (S. C.) 26, 1 (2); Wis. 2, 2; Wy. Ordinance. 

* I. e., in the same class of subjects * Ala. 221. 
(Col., Minn., Pa., Mo., Va., Ga., Del.) ; * /. e., the cash value (Ky., La., 

but " no one species of property can be Mich., Minn., N. C, N. D., Okla., 

taxed higher than another species, of S. D.). 

the same value" (Ark., Tenn., W. "Ala. 211; Ark.; Cal. 13, 1 ; Ga. ; 

Va.) ; except Ucense or corporation Ida. 7, 2; 111. 9, 1; Ind.; Ky. 172; 

taxes (Mich. 1900, p. 15). (See, how- La.; Mass. 2, 1, 1, 4; Me. 9, 8; Mich, 

ever, § 339). This principle generally 14, 12; Minn.; Miss. 112; Mo. 10, 4; 

applies only to property taxation; not N. C. ; N. D. 179; Neb. 9, 1 ; N. H. ; 

inheritance or license taxes, or other N. J. 4, 7, 12 ; Okla. 10, 8 ; Ore. 9, 1 ; 

excises. S. C. 3, 29 ; S. D. 11, 2 ; Tenn. ; Tex. ; 

' Ala. 217; Ark. 16, 5; Col. 10, 3; Utah 13,3; Va. 169; Wash.; W. Va. ; 

Del. 8, 1; Fla. 9, 1; Ga. 7, 2, 1 ; Ida. Wy. 15, 11. 


The Legislature is to provide for a just valuation, no time being 
specified.* Every five years ; " every ten years. ^ 

In Louisiana, the assessment of all property shall never exceed the 
actual cash value thereof. Taxpayers have a constitutional right of 
testing the correctness of their assessments in the courts. The val- 
uation put on property for purposes of State taxation must be taken 
as the proper valuation for local taxation.* 

In California, cultivated and" uncultivated land of the same quality 
and similarly situated are to be assessed at the same value ; ^ so, 
plowing is not an improvement to be taxed.^ The value or rental 
value of the buildings as well as the land must be included in all 
assessments.^ Grain held in elevators, grown in the State, may be 
specially taxed. ^ 

§ 335. Purposes of Taxation. — (See § 330, note *). The Con- 
stitutions of many States prescribe certain limits to the taxing power. 
Thus taxes can be levied, only for the ordinary expenses of the State 
Government and Public State Institutions ; ^ for the costs of col- 
lecting the revenue ; ^^ to pay any deficiency in the finances of the 
previous year;" to pay the interest on the State debt; '"to pay 
the principal of the State debt.'^ So, in Texas, for the benefit of a 
sinking fund, which (tax?) shall not be more than two per cent 
of the State debt. Special taxes (§ 337) only are levied for these 
purposes,'* or for educational purposes generally.'^ For the support 
of free schools;'® to suppress insurrection, repel invasion, and 
defend the State in time of war;'^ to protect the frontier,'® for 
the necessary defence of the government;'^ for the erection and 
repairs of public buildings ; ^° for maintaining and erecting levees ; ^' 

» Col. 10, 3 ; Fla. ; Ida. 7, 5 ; Mon. '» Tex. 

12, 1 ; Nev. 10, 1 ; R. I. 4, 15 ; S. C. " Minn. ; Nev. ; Okla. 10, 3 ; Ore. 

10, 1; Utah; Wash.; Wy. 9,6; S. C. ; S. D.; Wash. 7,8; W. Va; 

2 Mich. 14, 13; N. H. 2, 6; Va. 171. Wis. 

3 Mass. 2, 1, 1, 4; Me. 9, 7. '^ Ark., Fla., Ga., La., Mich., Okla., 
* La. 225. Ore., S. D., Tex., Va., Wash., W. 
5 Cal. 13, 2. Va. 

» N. D. 177. »* Ark., Fla., Ga., La., Mich., Okla., 

^ Del. 8, 7. This seems like an at- S. D., Utah, Va., Wash., W. Va. See 

tack on the "single-tax" theory. § 362. 

» N. D. Amt. 5. » Mich. 

« Ark. 3, 31 ; Col. 10, 2 ; Fla. 9, 2 
Ga. 7, 1, 1; Kan. 11, 3; Ky. 171; La 
227; Mass. 2, 1, 1, 4; Mich. 14, 1 
Minn. 9, 2 ; N. D. 174; Nev. 9, 2 
N. H. 2, 5; Okla. 10, 2; Ore. 9, 2 
S. C. 102; S. D. 11, 1; Tex. 3, 48 
Utah 13, 2; Va. 188; Wash. 7, 1 
W. Va. 10,5; Wis. 8, 5. 

■^ Ga., La., Mich. 

'« Ark., Tex., W. Va. 

" Ark., Ga., La. 

18 Tex. 

'8 Mass., N. H. 

="» Tex. 

" La. 238. 


to supply Confederate soldiers with wooden legs and arms; ' with 
pensions.' For the enforcement of (|uurantine regulations;^ to 
preserve the public health;* to provide "such revenue as may be 
needful." ' 

Taxes can be levied for public purposes only." No tax can be 
levied for paying the interest on the bonds of any chartered com- 
pany.^ But taxes for other purposes may be enacted according 
to the provisions of § 314.^ And (see § 13) the State of Oklahoma 
is expressly authorized to impose taxes to pay for its socialistic 
experiments (see § 6); and levy such taxes separately.'* 

§ 336. Amount of State Tax. — (See also § 341.) The Consti- 
tutions of a few States limit the amount of State taxation for any one 
year/" to a proportion varying from one and a half mills to one cent 
on the dollar." 

This rate may, however, be increased for a definite rate and time, 
by majority vote at a general election,'- or an election of the property- 
tax-payers. ^^ 

§ 337. Special State Taxes. — The Constitutions of a few States 
give the Legislature authority to levy a special tax in aid of the com- 
mon schools ; thus, in Florida, not less than one tenth per cent ; ^* 
not greater than one-fifth per cent.'^ 

§ 338. Poll-Tax. — By the Constitutions of two States, poll- 
taxes are declared oppressive and prohibited.*" 

1 Ga. $200,000,000, and never over eight mills 

2 La. (Utah 13, 7). So, one and a half 

3 Tex, mills when $300,000,000, two and a half 
* La. mills when $1,000,000,000, and never 
^ Neb. 9, 1. over three mills (Mon. 12, 9). Two 
« Ky. ; Minn. ; Mo. 10, 3 ; Mon. 12, mills, always (S. D. 11, 1 ; Va. 189) until 

11; Okla. 10, 14; S. C. 8, 3; Tex. 8, 1907, with one other mill for schools, 
3 ; Wy. 13, 3. See § 330, note 1. and a half mill for persons thereafter as 
' Fla. 9, 7. by law to be provided (Va.). Three and 
8 Ark. one half mills (Tex. 8, 19, Amt. 1883 ; 
» Okla. 10, 13 & 14. Okla. 10, 9). Four mills when the State 
" Exclusive of the tax to pay in- valuation reaches $100,000,000; until 
terest on the State debt (Mo., Tex., then, six mills (Col. 10, 11). Four mills, 
N. D., Wy.), or the tax to support always (N. D. 174; Wy. 15, 4). Five 
State educational or charitable in- mills except for defence in case of in- 
stitutions (Wy.). vasion, etc. (Ga. 1903, p. 21). Six 
" Thus one and a half mills when mills (La. 232). Ten mills, or one per 
the State valuation is $300,000,000 cent (Ark. 16, 8). 
(Ida.), or $900,000,000 (Mo.), and never »= i^j^. 1995, p. 441 ; Men. 
over two mills (Mo.); three mills '^ Utah, 
where it is $100,000,000; five mills " Fla. 12, 6. 

when $50,000,000 ; and never over ten '^ ^j-k. 14, 3; Nev. Amt. 1887, 

mills (Ida. 7, 9). So, four mills p. 169. 
when $300,000,000, five mills when '" Md. Decln. of Rts. 15 ; O. 12, 1. 


But in many States, the Constitution provides that a poll-tax may 
or shall be imposed, not to exceed SI per head,^ SI. 50 per head," 
$2 per head,^ or $4 per head.^ Nor less than fifty cents per 
head,"' S2 per head," or SI per head.^ Nothing is said about the 

Poll-taxes may be imposed on all male inhabitants between the 
ages of twenty-one and sixty/ twenty-one and fifty/" over twenty 
one," or on all voters. ^^ 

Except paupers,'^ idiots," insane persons,*^ the aged or infirm,'^ 
and Indians not taxed, or uncivilized." 

Poll-taxes are, in several States, to be applied exclusively to the 
common-school fund,^^ or, in North Carolina, to purposes of educa- 
tion; and part of it, not more than one fourth, to the poor.^^ They 
must be used in the county where collected.-" One dollar may be 
authorized, additional to the State tax, for the public schools in 
any county, city, or town.^^ 

§ 339, Income and License Taxes. — The Constitutions of a few 
States specify (unnecessarily) that income taxes may be imposed ;^^ 
and they may be graduated.-^ 

But, by one, the tax is limited to such incomes as exceed S600 a 
year ; -* and, in two, it cannot be imposed on incomes derived from 
taxed property. ^^ 

License Taxes, Special, Specific, or Occupation taxes, may, by the 
Constitutions of some States be imposed. As, in detail, upon pedlers,-" 
hawkers,-^ auctioneers,^^ brokers,^® pawnbrokers,^ merchants,"^ com- 

1 Ark. 14, 3 ; Fla. 9, 5 ; Ga. 7, 2 


'» Ark., Cal., Fla., Ga., La., Miss., 

La. 231; R. I. Amt. 7; S. C. 11, 


R. L, S. C, Tex., W. Va. So SI; 

Tenn. 2, 28; W. Va. 10, 2. 

balance to the county (Va.). 

2 Ala. 194; Ky. 180; N. D. 180; 

'» N. C. 5, 2. 

Va. 173. 

2" Del. 

' Miss. 243 ; N. C. 5, 1 ; Okla. 


^' Va. 

18; Wy. 15, 5. 

22 Cal. 13, 11; Ky. 174; N. C. 5, 

* Nev. 

3; Okla. 10, 12; S. C. 10, 1; Tenn. 

' Tenn. 

2, 28; Tex. 8, 1; Utah 13, 12; Va. 

« Cal. 13, 12 ; Nev. 2, 7. 


' Tex. 7, 3. 

23 Okla., S. C. 

« Del. 8, 5; Ida. 7,2. 

2" Va. 

» Cal., La., Nev., S. C. Tex. 

25 N. C, Tenn. 

" N. C, N. D. 

28 Ark. 16, 5; III. 9, 1; Neb. 9, 1; 

» Ark., Va., W. Va. 

Tenn. 2, 28. 

12 R. L 

2^ Ark., Neb. 

" Cal., N. C, N. D. 

2« 111., Neb. 

'^ Cal., N. D. 

29 111., Neb. 

" Cal., N. D. 

30 Va. 

" N. C, Tenn., W. Va. 

3' 111., Tenn. 

" Cal., N. D., Nev. 


mission merchants,' showmen,^ jugglers,^ innkeepers,* liquor 
dealers,^ grocery keepers,® toll bridges,^ ferries," insurance busi- 
ness," telegraph business,'" express business," venders of patents.'^ 
Generally, upon all persons or corporations using franchises or 
privileges.'^ Upon corporations generally," banks, and banking 
companies,'^ railroads,'" upon destructive domestic animals.'^ 
Generally, upon all business which cannot be reached by the 
ad valorem system.'" So, upon trades, or professions."* So, gen- 
erally, upon persons or corporations doing business.^ "Gross 
revenue, franchise, stamp, registration, production, or other specific 
taxes." -' 

Such taxes must be uniform upon each class upon which they 
operate,-- but in South Carolina they may be graduated. They can- 
not be imposed on mechanical or agricultural pursuits ; '^ or upon 
persons selling their own farm products.-* In Louisiana, they may 
be imposed on all persons except clerks, laborers, clergymen, school 
teachers, those engaged in mechanical, agricultural, horticultural, 
and mining pursuits, and manufacturers of anything except li(|Uor, 
tobacco, etc., and cotton-seed oil.-^ License taxes imposed by 
cities and towns shall be graded.^® 

Collateral inheritance taxes are permitted in the Constitution, not 
to exceed 2h per cent ; " 3 per cent for direct inheritances over 
$10,000, 10 per cent on collateral.-" Unlimited, direct or col- 
lateral, and may be graded.'" 5 per cent, and graded.^" 

' 111., Neb. " Ga. 7, 2, 1 ; S. C. 

~ Ark., 111., Neb. '« Va. 170. 

3 111., Neb. '9 N. C. 

* 111., Neb. 20 Fia. 9, 5; Ida. 7, 2; Ky. 181; 

« 111., Neb. Mon. 12, 2 ; Okla. ; S. C. (Graduated) ; 

« 111. Tex. 8, 1 ; Utah 13, 12. 

' 111., Neb. 21 Okla. 

8 Ark., 111., Neb. " Neb. 

^ 111., Neb. 2' Tex. Quaere whether this is 

'° 111., Neb., "equal protection of the law." 

» 111., Neb. 2^ Minn. 1907, p. xi. 

'' 111., Neb. 25 La. 229. 

» Ark. ; 111. ; Ky. ; N. C. 5, 3 ; ^6 g q g, 6. 

Tenn. ; Va. ; W. Va. 10, 1. 27 ^la. 219. 

"Mich. 14, 10; Mo. 10, 21. See =« La. 235. 

Art. 65. 29 Okla. 

" Kan. 11, 2; Minn. 9, 4. ^o j^iinn, 1893, 1 Amt. 
'« Mo. 10, 5. 


Article 34. Municipal Finance and Taxation 

§ 340. General Principles. — By the Constitutions of many States, 
the Legislature may not impose taxes upon counties, cities, or other 
municipaUties, or upon the inhabitants or property thereof ; but may 
by law ' vest in the corporate authorities thereof the power to tax.^ 
So, counties and townships shall have such powers of local taxation 
as may be prescribed by law.^ 

The principles of taxation are generally the same in municipal as 
in State taxation.'* Taxes must be levied in pursuance of a law 
and for public purposes specified therein.^ 

So, in several, such taxes must be uniform as to persons and prop- 
erty (except as in § 342)", and must be levied according to the value 
of the property.'' 

So, taxes for municipal purposes may be levied on all property 
subject to State taxation ; ^ and the valuation of property for mu- 
nicipal purposes must be the same as for State purposes,^ or not 
greater than the valuation for State purposes.^" 

The Legislature shall provide by law such a system of county 
finance as shall cause the business of the several counties to be con- 
ducted on a cash basis. It shall also provide that whenever any 
county shall have any warrants outstanding and unpaid, for the pay- 
ment of which there are no funds in the county treasury, the County 
Commissioners, in addition to other taxes provided by law, shall 
levy a special tax, not to exceed ten (10) mills on the dollar of taxable 
property, as shown by the last preceding assessment, for the creation 
of a special fund for the redemption of said warrants.^^ 

§ 34L Amount of Municipal Tax. — (See also § 343.) The Con- 
stitutions of a few States limit the amount of municipal taxation for 
any one year. Thus the rates of county taxation, from five mills to 
two and one half per cent.'' But municipal corporations generally 

' Usually, by general laws only ; * Fla. ; La. 243 ; S. D. 10, 2 ; Tenn. ; 
see also §§ 313, 330, 395, 600. Wy. 13, 3. 

2 Cal. 11, 12; Col. 10, 7; Fla. 9, 5; ' S. B. 
Ida. 7, 6; 111. 9, 9-10; Ky. 181; La. « 111. 6, 9; N. C. 7, 9; Neb.; S. C. ; 
224; Mo. 10, 10; Mon. 12, 4; Neb. 9, S. D. ; Wash.; W. Va. 
6-7 ; Okla. 10, 20 ; S. C. 10, 5 ; S. D. ^ N. C. ; Tenn. 
11, 10; Tenn. 2, 29; Utah 13, 5; « Mo. 10, 11 ; Mon. 12, 5. 
Wash. 7, 9; W. Va. 10, 9; Wy. 11, 12. » La. 225; Mon. 

« Ark. 2, 23; Minn. 11, 5; S. C. "> Mo.; Mon. 
8, 6. " Ida. 7, 15. 

•^ Not over one half per cent on the 



[book III 

may levy a greater rate than as above limited, with a vote of the 
property tax-payers at an election ; ' or of the electors of the county 
generally ; ^ or of three-fifths vote of such electors.^ 

So, in some, the tax rate of towns or cities is limited to from not 
more than one half per cent to two per cent or even more.* 

Except, taxes to pay valid indebtedness now existing or hereafter 

The Legislature shall restrict the powers of cities and towns to 

valuation, real and personal (Ala. 215; 
Ark. 16, 91); eight mills (Okla. 10, 
9); three fourths per cent (111. 9, 8); 
ninety-five cents per $100 (W. Va. 10, 
7) ; one per cent (La. 233) ; twelve 
mills (Wy. 15, 5) ; one and one half per 
cent (Neb. 9, 5) ; two per cent in any 
city over 100,000 or county containing 
such city (N. Y. 1901, p. 1804). Not 
more than one-half the State tax, i. e., 
one fourth per cent (Tex. 8, 9, Amt. 
1883). Not more than twice the State 
tax, except for special purpose, and 
with the special approval of the Legis- 
lature (N. C. 5, 6). The rate in counties 
not exceeding $6,000,000 in valuation 
shall not in the aggregate exceed one 
half per cent ; in counties between 
$6,000,000 and $10,000,000, it must not 
exceed four tenths per cent ; in counties 
between $10,000,000 and $30,000,000, 
not greater than one half per cent ; in 
counties over $30,000,000, not more 
than thirty-five hundredths per cent 
(Mo. 10, 11). No county, city, or town 
may incur debt or loan credit to an ex- 
tent of more than ten per cent of the 
value of the real estate (N. Y. 8, 10). 
There is a complicated sUding scale 
according to population of cities, etc., 
varying from $1.50 per $100, to 50 cents 
(outside the school tax : Ky. 157). 

Except that, in some States, cer- 
tain taxes are not to be included in the 
amounts respectively above limited ; 
as, "special taxes authorized by law" 
(Ala.) ; taxes for free schools (Ark. 14, 
3 ; N. Y. ; Va.) ; for debts already in- 
curred (Ala., Ark., 111., Neb., Tex., 
W. Va., Wy.) ; for the erection of pub- 
lic buildings ; but such taxes must not 
exceed one half per cent in any one 
year ; and not over fifteen hundredths 
per cent, for roads and bridges (Tex.). 

There is a three mills county road 

tax ; a seven mills school tax ; and a 
poll-tax of $1 (Ark. 1897, p. 93 ; 1905, 
p. 833). So, a three mills school tax 
(Fla. 1903, p. 037). 

1 La. 

- 111., Neb. 

3 W. Va. 

* Thus, not more than one half per 
cent in any one year (Ala. 215; Ark. 
12, 4). Eight mills (Wy. 15, 6). No 
town not having a special charter can 
so levy a tax of more than one-fourth 
per cent (111. 11, 4), and cities having 
more than 10,000 population, not more 
than two and a half per cent (Te.x. II, 
5). Counties, cities, and towns, twenty- 
five cents per $100 for county, city, or 
town purposes, fifteen cents "for roads 
and bridges, twenty-five cents for 
public buildings, streets, sewers, water, 
etc. (Tex, 1899, p. 171). The rate 
in cities and towns having over 
30,000 inhabitants may not exceed 
in the aggregate one per cent ; 
between 10,000 and 30,000 inhabi- 
tants, not over six-tenths per cent; 
between 1,000 and 10,000, not over 
one-half per cent; under 1,000 not 
over one-quarter per cent ; and in 
school districts, for school purposes, 
not over four-tenths per cent ; but for 
school purposes these rates may be in- 
creased by a majority vote of tax- 
paying voters at a special election, 
and for the erection of public buildings, 
by a two-thirds vote of all voters at 
such an election (Mo.). Similar pro- 
visions are found in Oklahoma, and 
the rates are : townships not over one 
half per cent; cities and towns, one 
per cent ; school districts, one half 
per cent ; total thirty-one and one half 
mills (Okla. 10, 9, & 10). For New 
York, see above, note 12. 

« Ala., Ark., Mo., Wy. 


levy taxes and assessments to borrow money and contract debts.' 
And this is done, in fact, in many other States. 

§ 342. Prescribed Purposes. — In Wisconsin, the Constitution 
provides that each town and city shall raise, by tax, annually, for the 
support of the common schools, a sum not less than half the sum re- 
ceived for such purposes from the State school fund.^ In North 
Carolina, no county, town, etc., shall levy a tax, except for its neces- 
sary expenses, without a special vote of the electors.^ In Arkansas 
the Legislature may, by general law, authorize school districts to 
levy, by a vote of the qualified electors, a tax for school purposes, not 
to exceed one half per cent.* In Georgia, counties may levy taxes for 
schools under special authority of the Legislature and a two-thirds 
vote of the county.^ In Texas, counties may raise a special tax for 
common schools not exceeding one fifth per cent.^ In Florida it 
must be from three to five mills.^ 

Counties, towns, etc., may levy taxes for their current annual ex- 
penses,^ for educational purposes,^ for the interest and sinking fund 
of debts already created,*" for the building and repair of courthouses, 
gaols, bridges, and other necessary conveniences for the people of 
the county.'* The Constitution of South Carolina provides that there 
shall be an annual tax of three mills per dollar in each county for the 
support of public schools.'" 

In other States these matters are left to statutes. 

§ 343. Special Taxes for local improvements may be made 
either by general assessment,*^ or by betterment tax on contiguous 
property.** But only for sidewalks and sewers, and not in excess 
of the benefit.*^ 

But such betterment taxes must be consented to by a majority of 

property holders in the locality affected, and they must be ad valorem 

and uniform.*^ So, in Louisiana, a special tax not exceeding one half 

per cent, nor for more than ten years, may be levied in aid of railroads 

or public improvements by vote of a majority of the tax-payers.*^ 

' S. C. 8, 3. '2 S. C. 11, 6. 

^ Wis. 10, 4. " 111. 9, 9 ; Neb. 9, 6. 

3 N. C. 7, 7. " Ala. 222, 223 ; Ark. Amt. 1907, 

* Ark. 14, 3. p. ix; 19, 27; Cal. 11, 19: Col. 1891, 

« Ga. 8, 4, 1. p. 89; 1903, p. 74; 111.; Minn. 9. 1; 

« Tex. Amt. 1883. Neb.; Okla. 10, 7; S. D. 11, 10; Va. 

^ Fla. 12, 8. 170; Wash. 7, 9. 

« Tex. 11, 6. '' Ala., Va. 

» Ga. 7, 6, 2. " Ark. 

i" Tex. " La. 242. 
" Ga. 



[book III 

The betterment tax must be collected before the work is com- 
menced.* License taxes may be imposed by towns, etc., under 
legislative authority.- 

§ 344. Power to Contract Loans, etc. — The Con.stitutions of 
several States provide that the power of municipal corporations to 
tax, borrow money, contract debts, or loan credit, shall be restricted 
so as to prevent the abuse of such power.^ So, it may only be for 
schools, roads, bridges, indebtedness, current expenses, etc* 

But in Nevada, that there can be no restriction on the power of 
municipalities to tax, borrow, loan, etc , for the purpose of getting 
a water supply. 

§ 345. Loans of Credit, etc. — By the Constitutions of most States, 
no town, county, or municipality can give money or property to any 
corporation having for its object a dividend of profits ; ^ or to any in- 
dividual or corporation whatever;^ or to any railroad corporation 
specially.^ Nor can it loan its money or credit to such corporations 
respectively.^ (So, no county can loan its credit to any association 
or corporation but by special act with notice, etc., see § 346.) ® 

No county, city, or town, etc., may incur any debt above its an- 
nual revenue without a two-thirds vote at a special election; and a 
tax wdth sinking fund of twenty years must be provided.*" It may 
not become a party to, or interested in, any work of internal im- 
provement except roads.**- 

Nor, in several, can such town, etc., become security for such cor- 
poration ; *" nor become a stockholder or bondholder in such private 


» Cal. 

" Ky. 181, Amt. 1902, 50. 
3 Ala. 222, 226; Ark. 12, 3; Kan. 
12, 5 ; Mich. 15, 13 ; Miss. 80 ; N. C. 

8, 4; N. D. 130; Nev. 8, 8; N. Y. 12, 
1; O. 13, 6; Ore. 11, 5; S. C. 8, 3; 
S. D. 10, 2; Wis. 11, 3; Wy. 13, 3. 

* S. C. 

« Ida. 12, 4; N. H. 2, 5; Okla. 
10, 17. 

« Ala. 94 ; Ark. 12, 5 ; Cal. 4, 31 ; 
Col. 11, 2; Del. 8, 8; Fla. 9, 10; Ga. 
7, 6, 1 ; Ida. 8, 4 ; III. separate section ; 
Ind. 10, 6; Ky. 179; La. 58; Miss. 
183; Mo. 4, 47; 9, 6; Mon. 13, 1; 
N. D. 185; N. J. 1, Amt. 19 & 20; 
N. Y. 8, 10; O. 8, 6; Ore. 11, 9; Pa. 

9, 7; S. D. 13, 1; Tex. 3, 52 & 11, 3; 
Utah 6, 31; Wash. 8, 7; Wis. 11, 3; 
Wy. 16, 6. 

' Ct. Amt. 25 ; Neb. 14, 2 ; 
Wy. 3, 39; 10, 10 (5). 

8 Ala. ; Ark. 16, 1 ; 1903, p. 484 
Cal. ; Col. 11, 1 ; Ct. ; Del. ; Fla. ; Ga. 
Ida. ; 111. ; Ind. ; Ky. ; La. ; Miss. ; Mo. 
Mon.; N. D. ; Nev. 8, 10; N. H. 
N. J.; N. Y.; O. ; Okla.; Ore.; Pa. 
S. D. ; Tenn. 2, 29 ; Terr. U. S. 1886 
818, 2 ; Tex. ; Utah; Va. ; Wash. ; Wy 

» Md. 3, 54. 

" Ida. 8, 3. 

" Va. 

'- Cal., Col., La 

, N. H., N. J., Terr. 

'3 Ala. ; Ark. ; 

Cal.; Col. 11, 2; 

Ct. ; Del. ; Fla. 

Ga. ; Ida. ; 111. ; 

Ind.; Ky.; La.; 

Miss. ; Mo. ; Mon. ; 

N. D.; Neb. 12, 

1; Nev.; N. H. ; 

N. J. ; N. Y. ; 0. 

; Okla.; Ore.; Pa.; 

S. D. ; Tenn.; 

Terr. ; Tex. ; Va. ; 

Wash.; Wy. 


Except, it may own stock or bonds of railroad companies; ' or of 
any corporation, if the stock be paid for at the time of subscription ; ' 
or for gas, lighting, sanitary, water, or school purposes, provided it 
"own its just proportion of the property so erected and receive its 
proportionate income." ^ 

Nor can the Legislature authorize such town, etc., so to do.'' The 
same would follow from the constitutional provisions in other States. 

So, no municipality can become a stockholder, directly or in- 
directly, in any bank.^ 

In other States no municipality can become indebted or issue 
bonds to aid a railroad for more than ten per cent of its valuation ; ^ 
and five per cent additional, on a two-thirds vote.' (See § 340.) 

Except for the necessary support of the poor.^ 

§ 346. Limitations on Section 345. — But in some States a county, 
town, etc., may give or lend its property or credit, or own stock, not- 
withstanding § 345, on vote of the electors under authority of law ; ^ 
or on a three-fourths vote of the electors ; ^° or by act of the Legisla- 
ture approved also by the next Legislature after publication in the 
locality interested ; " or for constructing roads and bridges ; '^ or by 
a vote of property owners, for ten years, if the appropriation be not 
more than five mills on the valuation. ^^ 

See also § 332. 

Article 35. Collection of Taxes 

§ 350. Sworn List. — By the Constitution of California every 
tax-payer is required to make an annual statement of his taxable 
property under oath.^* 

§ 35L Sale for Taxes. — The Constitution of Louisiana provides 
that there shall be no forfeiture for the non-payment of taxes. ^^ 

But there must be a sale of so much as is necessary. ^^ Such sale of 
real estate must be after order or judgment of some court of record." 

There must, in two, be reasonable notice to the owner. ^^ And, in 

> Nev. ' Neb. 14, 2. 

2 Ind. "' Tenn. 2, 29. 

» Ida. 12, 4. " Md. 3, 54. 

* Ala., Cal., Fla., Ga., Ky., Mo., '^ Ky. 

N. H., O., Tex. But see Tex. Amt. >" La. 270. 

1903, p. 247. " Cal. 13, 8. 

s lo. 8, 4. *^ La. 233. 

8 Minn. 9, 14 ; Neb. (see § 346). >« La. ; Tex. 8, 13. 

' Neb. " 111. 9, 4. 

8 N. D. ; N. Y. " 111. 9, 5 ; La. 


two others, the occupant must always have personal notice by service 
before the time of redemption expires.' 

§ 352. Redemption. — By the Constitutions of a few States, the 
owner, tenant, etc., of real estate sold for taxes may redeem at any 
time within two years from the sale;- at any time within one year 
therefrom.^ Upon payment of twice the purchase-money ; * of the 
price plus twenty per cent and costs.* 

The right of redemption from all sales of real estate, for the non- 
payment of taxes, or special assessments, of any and every character 
whatsoever, shall exist, on conditions to be prescribed by law, in 
favor of owners and persons interested in such real estate, for a 
period of not less than two years.' 

§ 353. Tax-titles. — By the Constitution of Louisiana, all tax 
deeds are prima facie e\adence of the sale ; and no sale can be an- 
nulled for informality except on payment or tender of the price plus 
ten per cent interest.^ In Texas, the deed vests a good title in the 
purchaser, subject to be impeached only for actual fraud. ^ The 
courts are "to apply liberal principles in favor of tax titles." ^ 

§ 354. State Boards of Equalization are pro\aded for, consisting 
of the Governor, Secretary of State, Attorney-General, State Auditor, 
and State Treasurer, whose duties shall be prescribed by law. The 
Board of County Commissioners for the several counties of the State 
shall constitute Boards of Equalization for their respective counties, 
whose duty it shall be to equalize the valuation of the taxable prop- 
erty in the county under such rules and regulations as shall be pre- 
scribed by law.^'* 

The State Board for Equalization, etc., is composed of the State 
Treasurer, Auditor, and Secretary." 

Such boards exist in many States by statute. 

Article 36. State Debts 

§ 360. Temporary Loans. — By the Constitutions of most States, 
the Legislature may authorize a temporary loan, to meet casual 
deficits, etc., not exceeding with all other such debts, S50,000;'^ 

* lU. ; Neb. 9,3. « Tex. 8, 13. 

2 111. 9, 5 ; Neb. 9, 3 ; Tex. 8, 13. » Miss. 79. 

3 La. 233. " Ida. 7, 12 ; Mon. 12, 15. 

* Tex. » Wy. 15, 10. 

« La. 12 Ariz. * Bill of Rts. 25 ; Md. 3, 34 ; 

" Miss. 79. Mich. 14, 3; Ore. 11, 7; R. I. 4, 13. 

^ La. 233. 




$100,000; » S200,000;2 $250,000 1^ $300,000;* $400,000 ;'^ 
$500,000;" $750,000;^ $1,000,000; « or the amount of such loans 
is not limited.* 

But in Alabama, until such loan is paid, no new one can be nego- 
tiated. (The same follows in all States, unless the whole debt be 
less than the sum allowed.) 

And in several, every such law shall provide annual taxes suffi- 
cient to pay the debt, principal and interest, in two years; '" in five 
years ; " in ten years ; '^ thirty years ; '^ when due ; ^* annual taxes 
sufficient to pay the interest.*^ 

Such provision for taxes and appropriation to meet the debt are 
irrepealable until the debt is paid.^" See § 362. For the method of 
enacting such laws, see § 315. 

§ 361. Other Debts may, by the Constitutions of most of the 
States, be created for the following purposes only:^'' to repel in- 
vasion or suppress insurrection,^® to pay the State debt,^^ principal 
and interest,^'' or interest only.^^ The amount of such debts is not 
limited." Also, for the erection of public buildings "^ (but not to an 
amount over $50,000); for public improvements (not over the 
limit prescribed in § 360);^* for canals;-^ for the improvement of 

And debts for purposes not above mentioned, but distinctly speci- 

1 Col. 11, 3 ; Mon. 13, 2 ; Neb. 14, 1 ; 
N. J. 4, 6, 4 ; S. D. 13, 2 ; Wis. 8, 6. 

2 Ga. 7, 3, 1 ; N. D. 182 ; Tex. 3, 49 ; 
Utah, 14, 1. 

3 111. 4, 18; lo. 7, 2; Minn. 9, 5; 
Mo. 4, 44. 

* Ala. 213 ; Cal. 16, 1 ; Me. 9, 14 ; 
Nev. 9, 3. 

« Wash. 8, 1 ; Okla. 10, 23. 

« Ky. 49. 

' O. 8, 1. 

« Kan. 11, 5; N. Y. 7, 2; Pa. 9, 4. 
9 Del. 8, 3 ; Ind. 10, 5 ; N. C. 5, 4 ; 
S. C. 10, 11; Va. 184; W. Va. 10, 4. 
So in the other States, the power to 
borrow money being inherent in their 

'» Mo. 

" Wis. 

12 Minn. 

» N. D. 

" Kan. 

15 Neb. 

" Kan., Minn., Neb., Wis. 

" I. e., exclusive of temporary loans. 

18 Ala. 213; Cal.; Col.; Del. 8, 3 
Fla. 9, 6 ; Ga. 7, 12, 1 ; Ida. 8, 1 ; 111. 
Ind.; lo. 7, 4; Kan. 11, 7; Ky. ; La, 
46 ; Md. ; Me. ; Mich. 14, 4 ; Minn 
9, 7 ; Mon. ; N. C. ; N. D. ; Neb. 14, 1 
Nev.; N. J.; N. Y. 7, 3; O. 8, 2 
Okla. 10, 24 ; Ore. ; Pa. ; R. I. ; S. D. 
Terr., U. S. 1886, 818; Tex.; Utah 
14, 2; Va. ; Wash. 8, 2; W. Va. 
Wis. 8,7; Wy. 16, 1. See § 315. 

19 Ala. ; Ark. 16, 1 ; Del. 

N. Y.; O. 


W. Va. 

Ga. ; Ky. ; Mo. ; 
Terr.; Tex.; Va. 

20 Va., W. Va. 

21 Ind. 

22 N. Y. 7, 4. 

23 Col. See § 324. 
2* Kan. 11, 5. 

25 N. Y. 7, 10. 

28 N. Y. 7, 12; Amt. 1905. Such 
debt may not exceed fifty million dol- 
lars, and counties may be required to 
pay thirty-five per cent and towns 
fifteen per cent of the cost, towards a 
sinldng fund of two per cent. 


fied in the bill, may be incurred, in many States, if the law is passed 
and ratified according to §§ 315, 303, and provision for payment 
made according to § 302;' so, of debts exceeding the amount 
limited in § 30U." But otherwise no debts can be incurred except 
as in §§ 300, 301.^ The amount of such debts is limited to one 
per cent of valuation ; * one and one-half per cent.^ 

In INIaine, the Constitution authorized a special war debt of 
$3,500,000." Tliree States are forbidden to issue any interest- 
bearing treasury warrants or scrip ; ^ except for the redemption of 
bonds previously issued, or for such debts as are expressly author- 
ized by the Constitution.^ A recent Arkansas amendment forbids 
all interest bearing "evidences of indebtedness" both to the State, 
counties, cities, and towns, except on vote of the people, in cities of 
the first and second class.^ 

§ 302. Payment of Debts. — In several States, no debt '" can be 
contracted by the Legislature unless authorized by a law which shall 
at the same time make provision by taxation, etc., for its payment; 
thus : — 

For its payment, principal and interest, when due ; " or within ten 
years ; '^ thirteen years ; '^ fifteen years ; " within twenty years ; '^ 
twenty-five years;'® thirty years; '^ thirty-five years; '^ or fifty 
years; '^ for the payment of the interest (only), when due.-" 

And this part of the law, is, by the Constitutions of these States 
declared irrepealable until the debt is paid.-' In some States there 
are also constitutional provisions for a sinking fund.^^ 

§ 303. Ratification hij the People. — An act authorizing a State 

» Cal. ; Ida. ; 111. ; lo. 7, 5 ; Kan. 9, 5 ; Mon. 13, 2 ; Neb. ; S. D. 13, 2 ; 

11, 6; Ky. 50; Md. ; Mon.; N. C. ; Va. 187. 
N. J.; N. Y.; R. I.; S. C; Wash.; ^= S. D. 11, 1. 
Wy. '^ Me. ; Minn. ; Mo. 4, 44. 

2 Cal., Mo., Mon., Nev., N. D., Okla., " Col. 11,4; Md. 3, 34 ; Mo. 4, 44. 
S. D. '= Cal. 16, 1 ; Ida. 8, 1 ; lo. 7, 5 ; 

3 Ark. ; Col. ; Minn. 9, 7 ; Mo. ; Nev. 9, 3 ; Utah, 13, 2 ; Wash. 7, 1 ; 
Neb. ; O. 8, 3 ; Wis. 8, 4. 8, 3. 

* Wy. 16, 1 ; Terr., U. S. 1886, 818, 3. '» Okla. 10, 4. 

6 Ida. '' Ky. 50 ; N. D. 182. 

« Me. 9, 15. '« N. J. 4, 6, 4. 

' Ark. 16, 1 ; S. C. 10, 7; Va. 10, 13. '« N. Y. 7, 4. 

« S. C. ; Va. ^° 111. 4, 18; N. C. 5, 4; S. C. 10, 11. 

8 Ark. 1903, p. 484. ^i Qal. ; Col.; Ida.; 111.; lo. 7, 6; 

" Except debts incurred to meet a Kan.; Md., Minn.; Mon.; N. D. ; 
casual deficit (§ 360), or except debts Nev.; N. J.; N. Y. ; S. D. The pro- 
incurred to repel invasion or suppress vision seems hardly necessary, 
insurrection (§ 361). ^- Ga. 7, 14, 1 ; Ky. 48; Mich. 14, 2; 

" lo. 7, 6; Kan. 11, 5-6; Minn. Pa. 9, 11; Va. 10, 8. 


debt, under §§ 361, 362, must in several States be ratified by the 
people at a general election ; ^ and it requires a two-thirds vote of 
the people.^ 

§ 364. Limitations on the State's Power to contract Debts. — 

Rebellion Debts. — By the Constitutions of two Southern States, 
the State shall never assume, pay, or authorize the collection of any 
debt or obligation, express or implied, incurred in aid of rebellion 
against the United States.^ See § 31, and compare U. S. C. Amt. 
XIV, 4. So, no county, city, or municipal corporation shall levy or 
collect any tax for the payment of any debt created for the purpose of 
aiding rebellion against the State or the United States.* 

All debts must be by State bonds of an amount not under $50 
each, on interest, payable in not more than forty years.^ 

§ 365. Repiidiation. — The Constitution of North Carolina pro- 
vides that all debts authorized or bonds issued by the Legislature of 
1868-1870, or under the Convention of 1868 (except such as were 
issued to fund the old debt), shall never be paid, unless the law pro- 
posing payment be ratified by the people at a special election.^ And 
the Constitution of Missouri provides that the claims audited by 
virtue of the Act of 1874 to adjust the war debt of the State or any 
similar act shall never be paid by the State until they are paid to the 
State by the United States.^ 

But in Arkansas, the Constitution prescribes that the Legislature 
shall, from time to time, provide for the payment of all just and legal 
debts of the State. ^ Compare also § 362. By an amendment, how- 
ever, the " Holford " bonds of 1869 are repudiated.^ 

Article 37. Municipal Debts 

§ 370. Purposes. — (See also § 362. ) Some Constitutions provide 
that no county, city, or village shall contract debts except for county, 
city, and village purposes ; '° for making and repairing public roads 
and bridges; " for erecting necessary public buildings; '" for school, 

' Cal.; Ida.; 111.; lo. ; Kan. 11, ^ Mo. 4, 52. 

6; Ky.; Mon. ; N. J.; N. Y. ; Okla.; « Ark. 16, 2. 

R. I. ; Wash. ; Wy. 16, 1. » Ark. 1879, p. 149. 

2 Mo.; S. C. 10, 11. »» N. Y. 8, 10; Utah 14, 4; Wash. 

' Ga. 7, 11, 1; N. C. 1, 6. 8, 6. 

* N. C. 7, 13. » Col. 11, 6; Mo. 1905, p. 39. 

« S. C. 10, 11. '2 coi^ ]^io 

« N. C. 1, 6. 


water, sanitary, and ligliting.' No comity can borrow money for the 
purpose of taking stock (§ 345) ; ^ so no county can contract debts in 
the construction of railways, canals, or works of internal improve- 
ment, except as in § 340.^ No county, city, or other nmnicipality 
can ever issue interest-bearing evidences of indebtedness, except in 
payment of debts previously (to 1S74) existing.* In Texas, counties 
and cities bordering on the Gulf may levy taxes and issue loans for 
the erection of sea-walls, breakwaters, and for sanitary purposes.* 
In Colorado, school-districts may contract a loan upon a majority 
vote of the tax-payers therein.* In Louisiana, various purposes are 
particularly specified, and in IMichigan, county roads.^ 

The Legislative Assembly shall have no power to pass any law 
authorizing the State, or any county in the State, to contract any 
debt or obligation in the construction of any railroad, nor give or 
loan its credit to or in aid of the construction of the same.^ 

§ 37L Amount. — There is an increasing tendency to limit by 
Constitution the amount of municipal debts; thus, in Virginia no 
county or city can in the aggregate be indebted or contract debts to 
an amount exceeding 18 per cent on its assessed valuation ;° in 
New York, 10 per cent on the realty; ^° in others, S per cent; " 7 per 
cent ; ^^ 5 per cent ; '^ 4 per cent ; ^* 3 per cent ; ^^ 2 per cent ; ^* 1 ^ per 
cent ; " j\ P^r cent or jq P^r cent in counties having a valuation 
under $5,000,000.^^ In Kentucky there is a sliding scale according 
to six classes of cities ranging from 10 per cent to 2 per cent of valu- 
ation;^^ in California no county, city, or town is permitted to con- 
tract any debt in excess of the annual expenditure except by vote of 
the people.'" No county in Oregon may create debts to exceed 
S5,000.-^ In South Carolina there is also a provision that there may 
be no debt upon any " territory " (of overlapping municipalities) 

> Ida. 12, 4. Mo. 10, 12 ; Mon. 13, 6 (of counties) ; 

2 Ind. 10, 6. N. D. 183; Okla. 10, 26; W. Va. 10, 8; 

3 Md. 3, 54. Wis. 11, 3. 

* Ark. 16, 1. " Utah 14, 4 (of cities and towns 

« Tex. 11, 7. only). 

' Col. 11, 7. 15 Col. 11,8; Mon. 13, 5; S. D. 13, 4 

^ La. 281; 1906, 122; Mich, 1899, (of cities and towns only in Colorado). 

p. 478. 18 Ind. 13, 1 ; Mon. 13, 6 ; Wy. 16, 3. 

^ Mon. 5, 38. Utah 14, 4 (of counties only). 

« Va. 127. 1^ Wash. 8, 6. 

" N. Y. 8, 10. >8 Col. 11, 6. 

" S. C. 8, 7. >» Ky. 158. 

'' Ga. 7, 7, 1 ; Pa. 9, 8 ; Wash. 8, 6. ^o g^e § 372. 

" 111. 9, 12; lo. 11, 3; Me. Amt. 22; ^i Qre. 11, 10. 


over 15 per cent.' All bonds in excess of this limit are usually 
declared void.^ 

Except, in Oregon, to repel invasion or suppress insurrection; or, 
in Indiana, to provide for the protection of the people in time of war 
or great public calamity, on a petition of a majority of the property- 
owners in number and value; or, in ^Missouri, to erect a court-house 
or gaol ; or, in New York, North Dakota, Wyoming, and Colorado, 
to supply water to the city or town ; or in North Dakota, sewerage 
works ; or, in Montana, of cities and towns for sewerage or water 
supply owned by the municipality, by act of Legislature, and on 
popular vote.^ Such water bonds may only run 20 years, with 
sinking-fund, etc.* 

But in Colorado, counties, in Oklahoma and North Dakota cities 
and towns, may incur debt to a greater amount than as above limited 
by a majority vote of the tax-payers in such county.^ In Oklahoma 
such debts may be created for "purchasing or constructing public 
utilities to be owned by the city," etc. So any county, town, etc., 
may incur an additional indebtedness not exceeding 10 per cent " 
upon the valuation of the year preceding (1) for the purpose of 
providing water and sewerage for irrigation, domestic uses, and other 
purposes; provided that a city where the population is 8,000 or more 
may incur an additional debt not exceeding 8 per cent for the purpose 
of constructing electric railways, electric lights, or other lighting 
plants, provided further that no county, town, etc., shall be included 
within such district without the majority vote of the electors, and no 
such debt shall be incurred for any of the purposes in this section 
pro%dded unless by a majority vote of the electors of such county, 
town, etc. ;'' (2) for water, light, and sewerage works owned by the 
municipality; ^ (3) for county roads.^ 

§ 372. Voting. — No municipality can, in a few States, con- 
tract any debt (except a temporary debt, incurred in antici- 
pation of income) without the assent of two thirds of its voters 
at a special election; ^"^ or a majority; '^ of tliree fifths, at any elec- 

' S. C. 10, 5. ^ S. D. 13, 4, as amended. 

2 Mon. ; N. D. ; N. Y. ; Okla. 10, 29. * Utah 14, 4 ; Wash. 8, 6. 
^ But not over 4 per cent on the * Three per cent (Mich. 1899, p. 

valuation (N. D., Wy.). 478). 

* N. Y. '" Ga. 7, 7, 1 ; Ida. 8, 3 ; Ky. 157 ; 
' But only to double such amount Mo. 10, 12 ; 9, 19. 

(Col.) or 8 per cent instead of 5 per '' Cal. 1891, p. 523; Mon. 14, 5; 
cent and by a two-thirds vote (N. D.). Wy. 16, 4. 

* Eight per cent (Utah). 



tion ; ' of a majority of the tax-pa i/rrs ; • botli in nninlxT and 
anionnt;^ of the electors, and under a law;^ on a petition hy a 
niajoritv of the freeholders; and they must have paid all taxes, 
State and local, for the preceding year.^ 

§ 373. Payment. — A municipality creating a debt must, by the 
Constitutions of several States, at the same time provide for its 
payment, principal or interest, and make provision for a tax or a 
sinking-fund therefor, to be fully paid, when due, or at maturity;" 
within fifteen years ; ^ twenty years ; * twenty-five years ; " thirty 
years;'" thirty-four years ; " forty years.'- The sinking-fund must 
be of two per cent annually.'^ 

§ 374. Collection of Municipal Debts. — By the Constitutions 
of several Western States, private property shall not be liable to be 
taken and sold for the payment of corporate debts of municipal 
corporations." The New England law is otherwise. 

§ 375. No bond or evidence of debt of any county, or bond of any 
township or other political subdivision shall be valid unless the same 
have indorsed thereon a certificate signed by the county auditor, or 
other officer authorized by law to sign such certificate, stating that 
said bond, or evidence of debt, is issued pursuant to law and is 
within the debt Umit.'^ 

Article 39. IMatter of Legislative Power 

§ 390. The State Legislatures during the Revolution had un- 
limited legislative power. They are now restrained, principally, 
by Articles I. 10, II. 1, and IV., and Amendments XIII., XIV., and 
XV. of the Federal Constitution (but see Appendix, Z, AZ), and by 
the State Constitutions, and in the latter we find an ever-increasing 
tendency to limit legislative power. See Book I ; Book III. § 1. 

§ 391. In General. — Some of the older States have provisions 
in the Constitution attempting to define generally the duties of the 

» Okla. 10, 26 ; Wash, (does not ap- » Ida. ; 111. 9, 12 ; Mo. 10, 12 ; 

ply to debts under the lower limit in Wis. 11, 3. 
§ 371) ; W. Va. 10, 8. » Okla. 

2 Col. 11, 8; La. 281; S. C. 2, 13; '» Ga. 7, 7, 2; Pa. 9, 10. 
Utah 14, 3. " W. Va. 10, 8. 

« La. »2 Cal. ; Ky. 159 ; La. 

* Ala. 104. " Tex. 11, 5. 

« S. C. " Cal. 11, 15; Col. 10, 14; 111. 9, 10; 

« N. D. 184; S. C. 8, 7; S. D. 13, 5. Mo. 10, 13; Mon. 12, 8; Neb. 9, 7; 

^ Col. 11, 8 (of a city or town only). Wy. 11, 13. 

'5 N. D. 187 ; Wy. 16, 8. 


Legislature and the purposes and objects of legislation ; ' as, " for 
the redress of public grievances, and for making such laws as the 
public good may require;"- or, "all manner of wholesome and 
reasonable order, laws, statutes, ordinances and directions as they 
may judge for the benefit and welfare of this State." ^ "To encourage 
private and public institutions, rewards, and immunities, for the 
promotion of agriculture, arts, sciences, commerce, trades, manu- 
factures, and natural history of the country; to countenance and 
inculcate the principles of humanity and general benevolence, 
public and private charity, industry and economy, honesty and 
punctuality, sincerity, sobriety and all social affections and generous 
sentiments, among the people." * So, in several States, the Legisla- 
ture are to pass such laws as may be necessary to carry into effect the 
provisions of the Constitution.^ The Legislature are to pass such 
laws as will foster and aid the agricultural, mining, and manufacturing 
interests of the State.*^ They shall provide, as far as practicable, by 
general laws, for all matters usually appertaining to private or local 
legislation.'^ So, for all matters specified in § 395.^ 

But no law or tax may, in jMichigan, be enacted by the State or 
any municipal corporation for any internal improvement except by 
the city of Grand Rapids to improve its river navigation."^ 

The legislative power of the Territories extends to all rightful 
subjects of legislation not inconsistent with the Constitution and 
laws of the United States. ^° 

The allowable province of legislation other than its general con- 
stitutional limitations will, however, be best defined by the limita- 
tions and restrictions on legislation contained in this chapter, 

§ 392. Suspending Laics }^ — By the Constitutions of most States, 
laws can only be suspended by the Legislature ^- or by authority 

' Ga. 3, 7, 22; Me. 4, 3, 1; Vt. Miss. 88; N. J. 4, 7, II ; N. Y. 3, 18; 

2, 9. S. C. 3, 34 ; W. Va. 6, 39 ; Wis. 4, 32. 

2 N. H. 1, 31. » Mich. 1893, p. 431. See also § 324. 

3 N. H. 2, 5; Mass. 2, 1, 1, 4. '° U. S. R S. 1851. 

* N. H. 2, 82. " This matter has been fully dis- 

* Col. Sched. 4; 111. Sched. 19; lo. cussed in Book I. The dispensing 
12, 1 ; Md. 3, 56 ; Mo. Sched. 15 ; power of the king was claimed by 
N. D. 68 ; N. J. 10, 12 ; Okla. 5, 45 ; James II. ; denied in a memorable 
Tex. 3, 42; W. Va. Sched. 22 ; Wy. 21, speech by Chief Justice Jones, who 
14. The question whether a State was thereupon dismissed ; and finally 
Constitution is self-executing is else- prohibited in the Bill of Rights a few 
where discussed; see § 2, note. years later. See § 127 for habeas cor- 

* Ark. 10, 1. pus; § 88 for stay laws. 

' Me. 4, 3, 13. '- Ala. 21; Ark. 2, 12; Del. 1, 10; 

8 Ala. 104; lo. 3, 30; Md. 3, 33; Ind. 1,26; Ky. 15; La. 188; Mass. 1, 


derived from the Legislature ; ' and not for the benefit of any private 
association, corporation or incHvidual.^ 

§ 393. Laivs Impairing Cojiirads.^ — By the Constitutions of 
nearly all, the Legislature are forbidden to pass laws impairing the ob- 
ligation of contracts,* or destroying the remedy for their enforcement, 
and cannot revive any rights or remedy barred by lapse of time, etc.* 

By that of Louisiana, vested rights may not be divested, unless 
for purposes of public utility, adequate compensation being first 
made (compare Article 9). So, in one other, no laws taxing retro- 
spectively sales, purchases, or other acts previously done, can be 
passed.^ But the Legislature may, in Ohio, by general laws, au- 
thorize courts to carry into effect, upon such terms as are just and 
equitable, the manifest intention of parties and officers, by curing 
omissions, defects, and errors in instruments and proceedings arising 
out of their want of conformity with the laws of the State. ^ In New 
Hampshire retrospective laws for the decision of civil causes are 
forbidden ; ^ so of retrospective laws taking away a cause of action, 
or destroying a defence.^ 

§ 394. Laws to be General}^ — In many States, the Constitution 
provides that there shall be no special, local, or private law in any case 
for which provision has been (or can be ") made by general law.^' 
Or, in several, in any case where the relief sought can be given by 
any State court. '^ And whether a general law can be made applicable 
or not is declared, in Missouri, Minnesota, Kansas, and Alabama, 
to be a judicial question, despite any legislative assertion to the con- 

20 ; Md. Decln. of Rts. 9 ; Me. 1, 13 ; Tex. 1, 16 ; Utah 1, 18 ; Va. 58 ; Wash. 1, 

N. C. 1, 9; N. H. 1, 29; N. M.* 1851, 23; AV. Va. 3, 4; Wis. 1, 12; Wy. 1, 35. 
July 12. § 19; O. 1, 18; Ore. 1, 22; « Ala. 95; Okla. 5, 52. See § 630. 
Pa. 1, i2; S. C. 1, 13; S. D. 6, 21; « N. C. 1, 32. 
Tex. 1, 28; Va. 7; Vt. 1, 15. ' O. 2, 28. 

1 Del., Ky., La., Mass., Md., Me., » N. H. 1, 2, 3. 

N. H., N. M.,* Ore., Pa., S. C, S. D., Vt. » Ala. ; Fla. 3, 33 ; Okla. 5, 52. 

2 Ala. 108; Va. 64. >° Compare also §§ 17, 391. 

' U. S. C. 1, 10. See § 141, note 1. " Cal. ; 111. ; Ky. ; Minn. 1891, p. 19; 

* Ala. 22; Ark. 2, 17; Ariz.* Bill of Mo.; Tex.; Wy. ; Okla. 

Rts. 19; Cal. 1, 16; Col. 2, 11; Fla. '- Ala. 105, 109; Ark. 5, 25; Cal. 

Decln. of Rts. 17; Ga. 1, 3, 2; Ida. 4,25; Col. 5,25; Ga. 1,4, 1; 111.4,22 

1, 16. ; m. 2, 14; Ind. 1, 24; lo. 1,21; Ind. 4, 23; Kan. 2, 17; 1905,543 

Ky. 19; La. 166; Me. 1, 11; Mich. Ky. 59; Md. 3, 33; Miss. 87; Mo 

4,43; Minn. 1,11; Miss. 16; Mo. 2, 15 ; 4, 53; Mon. 5, 26; N. D. 70; Neb 

Hon. 3, 11 ; N. D. 16, 5 ; Neb. 1, 16 ; 3, 15 ; Nev. 4, 21 ; Pa. 3, 7 ; S. C. 3, 34 

Nev. 1, 15; N. J. 4, 7, 3; N. M.* 1851, S. D. 3, 23; Okla. 5, 59; Terr. U. S 

July 12, § 14; O. 2, 28; Okla. 2, 15; 1886, 818; Tex. 3, 56; Utah 6, 26 

Ore. 1, 21; Pa. 1, 17; R. I. 1, 12; Va. 51; W. Va. 6, 39; Wy. 3, 27. 

S. C. 1, 8; S. D. 6, 12; Tenn. 1, 20; '^ Ala.; Ark.; Ky. 60; Miss.; Pa. 

Va. 5,20; W. Va. 


trary. In some, every statute is a public law unless otherwise de- 
clared in the statute itself.' 

Nor can the Legislature indirectly enact a special or local law by 
the partial repeal of a general law.- But laws repealing local or 
special laws may be passed.^ A general law is one which applies 
to the whole State.* 

So, in Georgia, no general law affecting private rights can be 
varied in any particular case, by special legislation, except with 
the free consent, in writing, of all persons to be affected thereby.^ 
And in Texas, no man, or set of men, shall ever, by special law, be 
exempted or relieved from any public duty imposed by general laws.* 
In New Jersey, no general law shall embrace any provision of a 
private, special, or local character.^ No special law may exempt 
any person etc., from the operation of any general law.^ 

§ 395. Local or Special Laws ^ in most States and in many 
cases are forbidden by the State Constitutions. 

Land: Thus, in detail, are forbidden, in the several States, all 
such laws laying out or opening roads or highways ; '" vacating 
streets, roads, plats, and public squares ; " authorizing or pro- 

' Ind. 4, 27 ; Ore. 4, 27 ; S. C. 6, 4. fifty different restrictions in one State 

2 Ala. ; Ky. 60 ; La. 49 ; Miss. ; alone. The most concise classification 

Mo. ; Minn. ; N. D. ; Pa. 3, 7. the author has been able to make 

* Ky. ; La. ; Mo. ; Minn. ; N. D. ; mounts up to one hundred and twenty 
Pa. ; S. D. 14 ; Utah. matters upon which special legislation 

* Ala. 1 10. is forbidden, throughout the States and 

* Ga. 1, 4, 1. Territories. The statement in the 
® Tex. 16, 43. text is beheved to be substantially 
^ N. J. 4, 7, 4. accurate, though it would be well in 

* Ala. 104. any case where a State is referred to, 

* The distrust of the people of their to consult the exact wording of the 
representatives is in nothing more constitutional provision to which 
shown than in the increasing number reference is made. 

of matters they are forbidden to meddle '" Cal. 4, 25 ; Col. 5, 25 ; Del. 2, 19 

with; these restrictions will be found Ida. 3, 19; 111. 4, 22; Ind. 4, 22; lo 

generally noted under their several 3, 30; Ky. 59; La. 48; Minn. 4, 33 

subjects. The growing adoption of the Amt. 1881, p. 22; 1891, p. 19; Miss 

initiative and referendum (see § 309) 90 ; Mo. 4, 53 ; Mon. 5, 26 ; N. D. 69 

is a more noteworthy instance still. Neb. 3, 15; N. J. 4, 7, 11 ; N. Y. 3, 18 

FinaUy, the Southern and Western Okla. 5, 46; Ore. 4, 23; Pa. 3, 7 

States have found it necessary to Terr. U. S. 1886, 818; Tex. 3, 56 

expressly forbid their Legislatures Utah 6, 26; Wash. 2, 28; W. Va. 6, 39 

from passing local or special laws in an Wis. 4, 31 ; Wy. 3, 27. 

immense variety of matters. Connec- " Ark. 5, 24 ; Cal. ; Col. ; Del. 

ticut, Massachusetts, New Hampsliire, Fla. 3,20; Ida.; 111.; Ind.; lo. ; Ky. 

and Vermont have no such restrictions. La. ; Mich. 4, 23 ; Minn. ; Mo. ; Mon. 

but otherwise they are now common N. D. ; Neb.; Nev. 4, 20; N. J. 

to every State in the Union, and in N. Y. ; Okla. ; Ore. ; Pa. ; S. D. 3, 23 

some instances extend to forty or Terr.; Tex.; Utah; W. Va. ; Wy. 


viding for the sale or conveyance of real estate; ' or of any {prop- 
erty;" and so, in others, "providing for the sale or conveyance of 
the real estate of persons under disability;""' so of their personal 
estate;' and in a few others, "providing for the sale of real estate 
of persons under disability by executors, administrators, guardians, 
or trustees;"'* or "affecting the estates of minors or persons under 
disability ; " ® or providing for the sale of church property, or property 
held for charitable use.^ 

Draining swamps:^ or for ditches;' relating to fences;'" or 
the straying of livestock ; " declaring streams navigable ; " or relat- 
ing to water-courses.'^ 

Changing the law of descent: " giving effect to informal or invalid 
deeds or wills ; '^ authorizing deeds to be made for lands sold for 

Liens: authorizing the creation, extension, or impairing of liens. '^ 

Relating to cemeteries, graveyards, or public grounds not of the 
State. '« 

Money: in relation to interest on money.'" 

Persons: legitimating any children (in Tennessee, any person) 
not born in lawful wedlock ; "" changing the name of any person ; ^* 
or of any place ; " or corporation ; -^ adopting any child; -* constitut- 

> Ala. 104 ; Ark. ; Mich. >« W. Va. 

2 Ala. »' Cal., Ida., Ky., Mo., Mon., N. D., 

^Cal.; Col.; Fla. ; Ida.; 111.; Okla., Pa., Tex., Wy. 

Ky. 63; Minn.; Miss.; Mon.; Neb.; >» Mo., Okla., Pa., Tex. 

Nev.; N.J. 4, 7, 7; Utah; Va. ; Wash. '« Ala., Cal., Col., Ida., 111., Ind., 

W. Va. ; Wis. ; Wy. Ky., La. Minn., Miss., Mo., Mon., N. D. 

^ Minn., Miss., Wash., Wis. Neb., N. Y., Ore., Pa., Tex., Utah, Va., 

« Ind. ; Md. 3, 33 ; Ore. Wash., W. Va., Wy. 

« Cal., Ida., La., Minn., Mo., Mon., ^o Ala.; Ark.; Cal.; Fla.; Ida.; 

N. D., Okla., Pa., Terr., Tex., Wash., Ky. ; La. ; Minn. ; Miss. ; Mo. ; Mon. ; 

Wy. N. C. 2, 11 ; N. D. ; Okla. ; Pa. ; S. C. 3, 

^ W. Va.; S. C. Amt. 1905, 482. 34; Tenn. 11, 6; Terr.; Tex.; Wy. 

8 N. Y. " Ala., Ark., Cal., Fla., Ida., 111., 

» Del. Ind., lo., Ky., La., Md., Minn., Miss., 

'° Del., Ky., Va. Mo., Mon., N. C, N. D., Neb., Nev., 

" Del., Ky., Va. N. Y., Okla., Ore., Pa., S. C, S. D., 

>= Ky., Va. Tenn., Tex., Terr., Utah, Va., Wash., 

" Ala. Wis., Wy. 

" Ala., Cal., Col., Ida., 111., Ky., -^ Cal., Ida., 111., Ky., Minn., Miss., 

La., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mon., N. D., Mo., Mon., Neb., Okla., Pa., S. C, 

Neb., N. J., Okla., Pa., Terr., Tex., Tex., Utah, Wy., or lake or river : Minn. 

Utah, W. Va., Wy. ==^ Ala., Mon., N. D., S. D., Va. 

•5 Ala., Cal., Col., Fla., Ida., Ky., =■• Ala., Cal., Fla., Ida., Ky., La., 

La., Md., Minn., Mo., Mon., N. D., Md., Minn., Mo., Okla., Pa., S. C, 

Okla., Tex., Wash., Wy. Tenn., Tex. 


ing one person the heir of another ; * declaring any person of age ; ^ 
"emancipating minors;" ^ reheving femes coverts.* 

Divorce: granting divorces ; '^ concerning alimony.* 

Franchises : granting to any person or corporation any exclusive 
privilege, immunity, or franchise ; ^ or any special exemption from 
a general law.^ 

Granting to any person or corporation the right to lay down rail- 
road tracks ; ® to railroads, bridges, etc., conferring power of eminent 
domain ; ^^ for granting State lands." Providing for building bridges, 
or chartering bridge companies ; '^ except bridges across streams 
forming the boundary of the State. '^ 

Chartering or licensing ferries: ^* booms, dams, or fisheries. ^^ 

Chartering, or licensing roads or turnpike companies : ^® incorpo- 
rating railroads; '^ or other works of internal improvement.^^ 

Creating corporations, generally (Ida., Minn., S. C, Wash.), or 
amending, renewing, extending, or explaining the charters thereof; ^^ 
remitting forfeiture of the charter of a private corporation except, etc.-" 
See §§ 501, 504. Authorizing the construction of street railways.-^ 

Regulating labor, trade or manufacturing,^^ mining,-^ or agri- 
culture.-* Creating banks -^ (see § 550); insurance companies;-" 
or loan and trust companies.^^ 

Debts: providing or changing methods for the collection of debts, 

' Fla., Minn., Miss., S. D., Utah, Miss., Mo., Mon., N. D., Neb., N. Y., 

Wash., Wis. Okla., Pa., Tex., W. Va., Wy. 

=^ Ala., CaL, CoL, Ida., Ky., Minn., '^ La., Mo., N. Y., Pa., Tex., or the 

Mo., Mon., N. D., Okla., Tex., Wash., Hudson or East River (N. Y.). 

Wy. '* Ala., Cal., Col., Ida., 111., Ky., 

3 La. La., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mon., N. D., 

* Ky. Neb., Okla., Pa., S. D., Tex., Utah, 

5 Ala. ; Ark. ; Cal. ; Col. ; Fla. 
Ida.; in.; Ind. ; Ky. ; La.; Md. 
Miss.; Mo.; Mon.; N. C. 2, 10 
N. D. ; Neb.; Nev. ; O. ; Okla.; Ore. 
Pa.; S. D. ; Tenn. 11, 4; Tex.; Utah 

Wash., W. Va., Wis., Wy. 
'* Ky., Miss., Va. 

'" Ala., Cal., Ida., Ky., Miss., Mon., 
N. D., Wy. 
" Okla., Tex. 
Va. ; W. Va. ; Wy. '» Okla., Tex. 

» N. C. See also § 430. '^ Ala., Ky., La., Minn., Miss., Mo., 

' Cal., Col., 111., La., Minn., Mo., Pa., S. C, Terr. U. S. R. S. 1889, Va., 
Mon., N. D., Neb., N. J., N. Y., Pa., Wis. 

S. D., Terr., Utah, Va., Wy. See 

=» Va. 

§ 16. 

21 La. 

» Va. 

=2 Ky., La., Mo., Pa., Tex., Va. 

» Col., 111., Ky., Miss., Mo., Mon., 

" Ky., Mo., Pa., Tex., Va. 

N. D., Neb., N. J., N. Y., Pa., Terr., 

=" La. 


^' Ala. 247 ; Mon. ; N. Y. 8, 4 ; S. C. ; 

•» Miss. 


" Ala., Miss. 

2« Mon., Wy. 

^ Ala., Cal., Col., Ida., 111., Ky., La., 

27 Mon., Wy. 



[book III 

enforcing judgments, or prescribing the effect of judicial sales of 
real estate.' Exempting property from execution.^ 

Ojfwrrs: legalizing the unauthorized or invalid acts of any officer 
or agent of the State or a municipality/ except as acja'uist the State.* 

Criminal: regulating the jurisdiction, fees, powers, or duties of 
aldermen, justices of the peace, constables, magistrates, etc.^ 

Juries: selecting or impanelling grand or petit jurors;" or ex- 
empting from jury duty.^ 

Any laws for the punishment of crimes and misdemeanors ; ^ 
pardoning or commuting the sentence of any criminal; " concern- 
ing li(pior or allowing local option ; '° remitting fines, penalties, or 
forfeitures ; " restoring to citizenship any person convicted of in- 
famous crime. ^^ 

For the protection of game or fish.'^ But in others, such laws may 
be enacted to apply only to localities specially designated.'* 

Municipal: laws locating or changing county seats; '^ or erecting 
new townships or counties ; '" or changing county or township 
lines; '^ or school districts.'* 

"Providing for the bonding of cities, towns, or other municipali- 
ties." '^ 

Incorporating villages and towns ; -" towns only ; -' or cities."^ Or, 
in several, amending the charters thereof. ^^ "For the organization 

» La., Mo., Pa., Tex., Va. 

2 Ala. 

3 Cal., Ida., Ky., La., Mo., N. D., 

* Cal., Ky., N. D., Wash. 

' Ala., Cal., Col., Fla., Ida., 111., 
Ind., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mon., N. D., 
Neb., Nev., Ore., Pa., Terr., Tex., Utah, 

« Cal., Col., Fla., Ida., Ind., Ky., 
Miss., Mon., N. D., Neb., Nev., N. J., 
N. Y., Okla., Ore., S. C, Tex., W. Va., 

' Ala., Terr. 

« Ala., Cal., Fla., Ida., Ind., Ky., 
Mon., N. D., Nev., Ore., Terr., Utah, 
Va., Wy. 

« Ariz.,* Bill of Rts. 28. 
'« Ky. 

" Ala., Cal., Col., Ida., 111., Ky., 
La., Minn., Mo., Mon., N. D., Neb., 
Okla., Pa., S. D., Terr., Tex., Utah, 
Wash., W. Va., Wy. 

'2 Ala., Cal., Ida., Ky., Mon., N. C, 
N. D., Terr., Wy. 

'3 Col., 111., Ky., Neb., S. C. 

" Cal. Amt. ; Tenn. 11, 13 ; Tex. 3, 56. 

'5 Ala., Cal., Col., Ida., lU., lo., 
Ky., Minn., Mo., Mon., N. D., Neb., 
N. Y., Okla., S. D., Terr., Tex., Utah, 
Va., Wash., W. Va., Wis., Wy. 

'« Ga., Mo., N. Y., Pa. 

'' Ga. 11, 1,3; Mo.; Pa.; Va. 128; 
Wash. ; Minn. 

i« Ala., Del., S. C. 

19 Ala., Neb. 

^° Ala. ; 111. ; Minn. ; Mo. ; N. D ; 
Neb. ; N. Y. ; Okla. ; Pa. ; S. C. ; S. D. 
Terr.; Tex.; Utah; Va. 117; Wash.; 
W. Va. ; Wy. 

21 111., lo.. Mo., Neb., Pa., S. D., 
Tex., W. Va., Wis., Wy. 

=2 Ala., lU., lo.. Mo., N. D., Neb., 
Okla., Pa., S. C, S. D., Terr., Tex., 
Utah, W. Va., Wy. 

"3 Ala., m.. Mo., N. D., Neb., Okla., 
Pa., S. C, S. D., Terr., Tex., Utah, 
W. Va., Wy., Wis. 


and classification of municipal corporations." * Authorizing mu- 
nicipal corporations to pass laws inconsistent with general laws." 

llegulating county and township business ; ^ or the affairs of mu- 
nicipalities generally ; * or the election of county or township offi- 
cers ; ^ or their compensation ; " in relation to the fees and salaries 
of any officer; ^ except, that compensation may be suitably graded 
in proportion to population and necessary services required.^ 

Creating or altering fees or salaries during the term for which the 
officer is appointed ; '•* regulating costs, charges, or fees ; '" author- 
izing extra compensation to any public officer, agent, or contractor 
after his service has been rendered or the contract entered into.'^ 
Creating offices, or prescribing the powers and duties of municipal 

Taxes, schools: for the assessment or collection of taxes for either 
State or municipal purposes ; '^ or for a private purpose ; " ex- 
empting property from taxation ; '^ or from levy or sale ; '^ exempt- 
ing any person from jury, road, or civil duty.'^ 

Providing: for the management of the common schools; '^ or for 
their support ; '^ or for the apportionment of the school fund."" 

For extending the time for the collection of taxes; ^^ for other- 
wise relieving any assessor or collector of taxes from due perform- 
ance of his duties, or his sureties from liability.-" 

Refunding money paid into the State treasury.-^ 

' S. C. 8, 1. Nev. ; N. J. 4, 7, 12 ; Ore. ; Terr. ; 

2 Ala. 89. Tex. 8, 3 ; Utah ; Va. ; Wash. ; Wis. ; 

3 Cal., Col., Ida., III., Ind., Mo., Wy. 
Mon., N. D., Neb., Nev., N. J., Pa., " Minn. 

S. D., Tex., Utah, W. Va., Wy. '^ Ala. ; Cal.; Ida.; La.; Minn.; 

* Mo., Okla., Tex. Miss. ; Mo. ; Mon. ; N. Y. ; N. D. ; 

5 Cal., Fla., 111., Ind., Ky., Minn., Neb. 9, 2; Okla.; Pa.; Tex.; Va. ; 

N. D., Neb., Nev., N. J., N. Y., Ore., Wy. 
Wy. '^ Miss. 

« lU. 10, 12 ; Ind. ; S. C. (county " Miss. ; S. C. Amt. 1905, 482. 
only) ; Minn. '« Cal., Col., Ida., 111., Ky., La., 

' Cal, Col., Fla., Ind., Ky., Minn., Minn., Mo., Mon., N. D., Neb., N. J., 

Mon., N. D., Okla., Wy. Okla., Pa., S. D., Terr., Utah, Wash., 

» Ind. Wy. 

'Ida.; 111. 4, 22; Neb.; N. J. ; '» Ind., La., Minn., Mo., N. J., Okla., 

N. Y.; S. D.; Terr.; Utah; Va. See Ore., Pa., Tex. 
§ 214. -» Minn., Wash., Wis. 

'» Ala. 96. -' Cal., Ida., La., Md., Minn., Mo., 

" Mich. 4, 21; Va. See also § 214. Mon., N. D., Okla., Tex., Va., Wash., 

" Cal., Fla. (except municipal), Wis., Wy. 
Ida., Minn., Mo., Mon., N. D., Okla., - Ky., La., Mo., Okla., Tex. 
Pa., Tex., Wy. "^ Cal., Ida., Ky., La., Md., Miss., 

>^ Ala. ; Cal. ; Fla. ; Ida. ; Ind. ; Mo., Mon., Nev., Okla., Pa., Tex., Va. 
lo. ; Ky. ; Minn. ; Mo. ; Mon. ; N. D. ; 


Releasing persons Ironi dehts due to the State, or to any niuniei- 
pality tlierein ; ' or to any person or corporation therein ; - unless 
such special law is recomnieiuled by the governor or treasury depart- 
ment.^ See § 323. 

Releasing taxes or title to forfeited lands."* 

Regarding elections.^ 

Procedure: regulating the practice in the courts ; " or their juris- 
diction; ' except as to municipal courts.^ Concerning any civil or 
criminal actions. ° 

Providing for the change of venue in civil/" or in criminal proceed- 

Changing the rules of evidence in judicial proceedings.^^ 

Prescribing the limitations of civil ^^ or criminal actions.^* 

Granting pensions.'^ 

§ 396. Laws to be Uniform. — All general laws, or laws of a 
public nature, must by the Constitutions of many States be uniform 
in their operation throughout the State. ^® 

Article 40. Land Laws 

§ 400. Tenure. — By the Constitutions of a few States all land 
is declared allodial.'^ And so, in four, the ultimate property in land 
is declared to vest in the people, by right of sovereignty.^^ 

And all land to which the title fails by defect of heirs reverts '® or 

> Ida.; Ky. 52; Md. ; Mon. ; Neb., Nev., N. J., N. Y., Okla., Ore., 
N. D. ; S. D. 3, 23 ; Nev. ; Utah 6, Pa., Terr., Tex., Utah, Va., Wy. 
27; Va.; Wash.; Wy. '- Col., La., Mo., Mon., N. D., Okla., 

^ Cal. Pa., Tex., Va. Wy. 

3 Md. 13 Ala., Cal., Col., Ida., Ky., Mo., 

* W. Va. Mon., N. D., Okla., Tex., Wash., Wy. 

'* Ala., Ida., Ky., Okla., Tex., 
'^ Va. 
»« Ariz.* Bill of Rts. 17; Cal. 1, 11 

Ala.; Cal.; Col.; Fla. ; Ida. 
111. ; Ind. ; Ky. ; La. ; Minn. ; Mo. 
Mon.; N. D. ; Neb.; Nev.; N. Y. 
Okla.; Ore.; Pa. 3, 7; 8, 7; Terr. 

Tex.; Va.; W. Va. Fla. 3, 21; Ga. 1, 4, 1; Ind. 4. 23 

« Cal., Col., Fla., 111., Ida., Ind., lo. 1, 6; 3, 30; Kan. 2, 17; N. D. 11 

Ky., La., Miss., Mo., Mon., N. D., Nev. 4, 21; O. 2, 26; Okla. 5, 59 

Neb., Nev., Okla., Ore., Pa., Terr., S. C. 3, 34; Utah 1, 24; Wis. Amt. 

Tex., Utah, Va., W. Va., Wy. 4, 32; Wy. 1, 34. 

' Ky., Mo., Okla. >^ Ark. 2, 28; Minn. 1, 15; N. Y. 

* Fla. 1, 12; Wis. 1, 14. 

* La. 18 N. Y. 1, 10 ; S. C. 14, 3 ; Wis. 9, 3. 
*" (As below, except in Arkansas). ^^ This word is improperly used, and 
" Ala., Ark., Cal., Fla., Ida., 111., misleading. See § 401, note 7. 

Ind., Ky., La., Miss., Mo., Mon., N. D., 




escheats to the people.* The proceeds of escheated lands (or other 
property) are, by many State Constitutions, to be applied to the 
public schools.^ 

So the property of the State liquor dispensary.'' 

§ 401. Feudal Tenures. — With all their incidents, are abolished 
by the Constitutions of a few States.* 

So, in two, all fines, quarter-sales, and like restraints upon aliena- 
tions are especially declared void.^ 

Except in one, rents and certain services heretofore lawfully 
created; " and except the liability to "escheat" ' for lack of heirs.** 

§ 402. Entails, Primogeniture, and Perpetuities. — Entails are, 
by declaration in two of the Territories, entirely abolished ; ^ so, 
in two States, the Legislature is to regulate entails so as to prevent 

By the Constitutions of several States perpetuities " are forbid- 
den ; *' except for eleemosynary purposes.*^ 

And the law of primogeniture may never be in force.** 

§ 403. Mortmain.^'" — The Constitution of Maryland declares all 

' Mich. 13, 3 ; N. Y. ; S. C. ; Wis. 
= Cal. 9, 4; Col. 9, 5; Fla. 12, 4; 

10. 9, 2, 3; Kan. 6, 3; Mich.; Mo. 

11, 6; Neb. 8, 3; Nev. 11,3; Ore. 8, 
2; S. C. 11, 11; W. Va. 12, 4. 

3 S. C. 11, 12. 

* Ark. 2, 28; Minn. 1, 15; N. Y. 
1, 11; Wis. 1, 14. 

« N. Y. 1, 14; Wis. 

« N. Y. 

^ Land being allodial (§ 400), it fol- 
lows that there can be, properly speak- 
ing, no escheat. The word is, however, 
commonly used in America, and will 
hereafter be used in this book, to mean 
both escheat proper and the vesting of 
the State's title by right of sovereignty. 

« N. Y. 1, 13. 

« Ariz.* Bill of Rts. 23 (except as in 
§ 1313); N. M.* 1851, July 12, § 17. 

'" N. C. 2, 15; Vt. 2, 36. 

'' Compare also § 580. 

>- Ark. 2, 19; Cal. 20, 9; Mon. 
19, 5 ; N. C. 1, 31 ; Nev. 15, 4 ; N. M.* ; 
Okla. 2, 32; Tenn. 1, 22; Tex. 1, 26; 
Wy. 1, 30. 

'3 Cal., Mon., Nev. 

'^ N. M.* ; Okla. 2, 32 ; Tex. 

*^ No corporation shall be created 
or licensed in this State for the purpose 
of buying, acquiring, trading, or deal- 

ing in real estate other than real estate 
located in incorporated cities and towns 
and as additions thereto ; nor shall 
any corporation doing business in this 
State buy, acquire, trade, or deal in 
real estate for any purpose except such 
as may be located in such towns and 
cities and as additions to such towns 
and cities, and further except such as 
shall be necessary and proper for 
carrying on the business for which it 
was chartered or licensed, nor shall any 
corporation be created or hcensed to do 
business in this State for the purpose 
of acting as agent in buying and selling 
land : Provided, However, That cor- 
porations shall not be precluded from 
taking mortgages on real estate to 
secure loans or debts or from acquiring 
title thereto upon foreclosure of such 
mortgages or in the collection of debts, 
conditioned that such corporation or 
corporations shall not hold such real 
estate for a longer period than seven 
years after acquiring such title : And 
Provided, Further, That this section 
shall not apply to trust companies 
taking only the naked title to real 
estate in this State as a trustee, to be 
held solely as security for indebtedness 
pursuant to such trust : And Provided, 


gifts, sales, and (Icvises ot" land or [HMsoiial projxirty to religious sects 
or for religious uses, without the prior or subsequent sanction of the 
Legislature, void ; ' so of devises and legacies oidy.- 

Except, in two States, a sale, etc., of land for a church, parsonage, 
or cemetery, and actually so used;^ but such land must not, in 
Maryland, exceed five acres in extent. 

The United States laws provide that in the Territories no religious 
or charitable association or corporation shall hold real estate of a 
greater value than $50,000.* 

§ 404. Monopolies are by the Constitutions of several States 
declared odious and forbidden; see § 580. But municipahties etc., 
may regulate slaughtering in Louisiana. 

§ 405. Long Leases. — In a few States there are constitutional 
provisions forbidding leases or grants of agricultural land reserving 
rent, for a longer period than twelve years ; ^ fifteen years ; ® or 
twenty-one years. ^ 

§ 406. Record of Conveyances. — In Vermont the Constitution 
provides that all conveyances of land shall be recorded ; ^ so, in 
Louisiana, all mortgages ; ^ all deeds and mortgages recorded are 
prima facie evidence of their proper execution.'" 

So, in Louisiana, all "privileges" on real estate; but privileges for 
expenses of last illness or taxes need not be recorded, and they lapse 
in three years. 

§ 407. Lands of the United States. — The new States have con- 
stitutional provisions to forbid the Legislature from interfering with 
the title of the United States to its lands in the State ; " or from inter- 
fering with any laws Congress may find necessary for securing the 
title of such land to bona fide purchasers.'" 

In the Territories, no law can be passed "interfering with the 
primary disposal of the soil." '^ The Indian reservations are secured 
to National Government control.'* 

Further, That no public service cor- * Wis. 1, 14. 

poration shall hold any land, or the ^ Minn. 1, 15. 

title thereof, in any way whatever in * Vt. 2, 35. 

this State, except as the same shall be ^ La. 186. 

necessary for the transaction and *" Fla. 16, 21. 

operation of its business as such public " Ida. 21, 19; Kan. Ordinance 

service corporation. Okla. 22, 2. Minn. 2, 3 ; Mo. 14, 1 ; N. D. 203 (2) 

' Md. Decln. of Rts. 38. Nev. Ordinance ; Okla. 1, 3 ; S. D. 22, 1 

^ Miss. 270. Utah 3, 2 ; Wash. 26, 25 ; Wis. 2, 2. 

3 Md. ; Mo. 2, 8. " Kan., Minn., Mo., Wis. 

* U. S. R. S. 1890. " U. S. R. S. 1851. 

« Mich. 18, 12 ; N. Y. 1, 13. " Ida., N. D., Okla., S. D., Wash. 


§ 408. Public Lands. — In four States the Constitution provides 
that no pubhc land of the State shall be sold or granted except to 
actual settlers;* and not donated to private corporations or indi- 
viduals or railroads." I^ands and public tracts are only sold at 
market value.^ The price may not be less than $10 an acre.* 

The settler must occupy the land for three years in order to per- 
fect his title.^ 

The amount granted is eighty acres to a single man, one hundred 
and sixty to the head of a family ; ^ one hundred and sixty acres to 
any individual ; ^ eighty acres to any settler ; ^ three hundred and 
twenty acres. ^ 

The right of the State to mines and minerals is, in Texas, released 
by the Constitution; *" but in Arizona "the precious metals are the 
jewels of sovereignty, and inhere in the sovereign power ; no person 
can acquire absolute title to any public domain in which such metals 
may be found without the express consent of such power." ** 

In Texas the State may grant lands to railway companies, under 
special restrictions.*^ 

No entry by warrant can now be made, and possession for ten 
years or payment of taxes for five years since 1865 gives good title 
as against the State.*^ There are similar numerous provisions in the 
newer States as to School land ; ** but practically all the State land 
is now taken up. In New York, there are constitutional provisions 
rendering invalid purchases or contracts for the sale of lands with 
Indians.*^ There are frequently Commissioners of Public Lands pro- 
vided for.*" 

No claim to any public lands by any trespasser thereon by reason 
of occupancy, cultivation, or improvement thereof, shall ever be rec- 
ognized; nor shall compensation ever be made on account of any 
improvement made by such trespasser.*^ 

1 Cal. 17,3; Fla. 16,5; Mon. 19, 7; * Ida., Mon. 

Tex. 14, 4. = Tex. 14, 6. 

= Ala. 99; Miss. 95; S. C. 3, 31. « Tex. 

Nor sold at a less price than to in- ^ Ida. 

dividuals. Tliis, however, shall not ^ Fla. 

prevent the Legislature from granting * Cal. 

a right of way, not exceeding one '" Tex. 14, 7. 

hundred feet in width, as a mere " Ariz. Bill of Rts. 21. 

easement, to railroads, across State '^ Tex. 14, 3-5. 

land, and the Legislature shall never " W. Va. 13, 2 & 3. 

dispose of the land covered by said '^ S. D. Art. 8. 

right so long as such easement exists: '* N. Y. 1, 15. 

Ala. ; Miss. 95; S. C. 3, 31. '« Wash. 3. 24. See § 201. 

3 Mon. 19, 3 ; S. D. 8, 7 ; Utah 20, 1 ; " N. D. 1G3 ; S. D. S, 10. 
Wash. 16, 1. 


§ 400. A Forest Preserve "as now fixed by law" is to be kept 
wild and never leased, sold, or timber eut, or be taken by any corpo- 
ration pnblic or private.' 

The Legislature shall enact laws to prevent the destruction of and 
to j)reserve the forests on the lands of the State, and upon any part 
of the public domain, the control of which may be conferred by 
Congress upon the State.- 

State Highways may be provided for by law ; ^ so, in Michigan 
the Constitution provides for county or town roads and for State 
wagon roads ; * and in many States for a State highway Commission.^ 

Article 41. Navigable Waters and Easements 

§ 410. Navigable Waters, by the Constitutions of a few States, 
shall forever remain public highways, free to the citizens of the States 
and the United States, without impost or toll.® 

So, the Constitution declares that no person or corporation can 
obstruct the navigation of the navigable waters of the State ; ^ and 
no navigable stream can be dammed or bridged without authority 
of law; and no law shall prejudice the right of individuals to the 
free navigation of such stream, or preclude the State from further 
improvement of it.^ 

§ 411. Special Streams. — The Constitutions of some States 
specially declare certain streams navigable, and forever free, as in 
four States the Mississippi ; ^ and in three of them, navigable waters 
leading into the Mississippi ; '" and in one, navigable waters lead- 
ing into the St. Lawrence; ^' and so, navigable waters bordering the 
State, with the rivers leading into the same.'' 

§ 412. Jurisdiction. — In several States the Constitution pro- 
vides that the State shall have concurrent jurisdiction on all rivers 
bordering on the State so far as they form the boundary of the State 
and any other State.'^ The State owns the tide and shores of natural 

' N. Y. 7, 7. ' Cal. 15, 2; Miss. 81. 

2 Col. IS, 6 ; Mon. 19, 3 ; Utah, 18, 1. » Mich. 18, 4. 

3 Cal. 1901, p. 960; Minn. 1897, 333 ; » Minn. 2, 2 ; Mo. 1, 1 ; Tenn. 1, 29 ; 
N. Y. 1903, p. 1454. Wis. 9, 1. 

* Mich. 1893, p. 434, 1899, p. 478; '» Minn., Mo., Wis. 

Mich. 1905, p. 531. " Wis. 

« See § 202. '^ Miss., N. C. 

« Ala. 24; Minn. 2, 2; S. C. 1, 28; '' Ind. 14, 2; Minn. 2, 2; Mo. 1, 1; 

14, 1 ; Wis. 9, 1. See Book I., Cliap. II. S. C. 14, 1 ; Wis. 9, 1. 


waters to high-tide line, and on natural rivers and lakes to ordinary 
high water.' 

§ 413. Water Front. — By the Constitution of California, the 
right of eminent domain exists in the State to all frontages on navi- 
gable waters; and no person or corporation can exclude the right 
of way to such water, when required for a public purpose ; and all 
tide lands within two miles '" of any incorporated city or town, front- 
ing on the waters of any harbor used for navigation, shall be withheld 
from grant or sale to any person or corporation ; ^ so of water front, 
and rights beyond the harbor lines; and wharf leases may not be 
for more than 30 years.* 

§ 414. Wharves. — In two States, the Constitutions provide that 
no tax, toll, impost, or wharfage shall be imposed, demanded, or 
received from the owner of any merchandise or commodity, for the 
use of the shores, or any wharf erected on the shores, or in or over 
the waters of any navigable stream, unless the same be authorized 
by the Legislature.^ 

§ 415. Drains. — In two States the Legislature are authorized to 
pass laws permitting the owners or occupants of lands to construct 
drains and ditches for agricultural and sanitary purposes across the 
lands of others.® 

§ 416. Franchises. — (See §§ 502, 536.) The right to collect rates 
for water furnished to a municipality is declared to be a franchise, 
not to be exercised except by authority of law and in the manner by 
law prescribed.^ The county commissioners may empower reason- 
able maximum rates for the use of water, whether furnished by per- 
sons or corporations ; ^ so, in Idaho, the Legislature ; ^ and in Texas, 
the right to regulate tolls or freights, for the use of roads, bridges, 
ferries, landings, or wharves, shall always remain in the Legislature.'" 

No railway, gas, water, telephone, light, etc., company shall con- 
struct its works in, over, or under the streets without consent of the 
municipal authorities is first obtained ; " so, in California, the Legis- 
lature shall pass laws to regulate the charges of telegraph or gas com- 
panies, wharfingers, and warehousemen, where there is a public use.'' 

' Wash. 17, 1. § 92. Drainage is declared a public use 

2 So, substantially, witliin one mile (S. D., 1903, 70). 

(Wash. 15, 1-2). ■' Cal. 14, 2 ; Ida. 15, 2. 

3 Cal. 15, 3. » Col. 16, 8. 
* Wash. 15, 2. « Ida. 15, 5. 
« Ala. 24; S. C. 1, 28. '" Tex. 12, 3. 
111. 4, 3, 1 ; N. Y. 1, 7. See also " Ky. 163. 

»2 Cal. 4, 33. 


"No municipal corporation sliall ever grant, extend, or renew a 
franchise, without the approval of a majority of the (piahfied electors 
residing within its corporate limits, who shall vote thereon at a gen- 
eral or special election ; and the legislative body of any such corpora- 
tion may submit any such matter for approval or disapproval to such 
electors at any general municipal election, or call a special election 
for such purpose at any time u{)on thirty days' notice; and no fran- 
chise shall be granted, extended, or renewed for a longer term than 
twenty-five years. 

"Whenever a petition signed by a number of qualified electors of 
any municipal corporation equal to twenty-five per centum of the 
total number of votes cast at the next preceding general municipal 
election, demanding that a franchise be granted, extended, or re- 
newed, shall be filed with the chief executive officer of said corpora- 
tion, the chief executive oflScer shall, within ten days thereafter, call 
a special election, at which he shall submit the question of whether 
or not such franchise shall be granted, extended, or renewed, and if, 
at said election, a majority of the said electors voting thereon shall 
vote for the grant, extension, or renewal of such franchise, the same 
shall be granted by the proper authorities at the next succeeding 
regular meeting of the legislative body of the city. 

"Every municipal corporation within this State shall have the right 
to engage in any business or enterprise which may be engaged in by 
a person, firm, or corporation by virtue of a franchise from said 
corporation." ^ 

§ 417. Hunting and Fishing. — The Constitution of Vermont 
provides that the inhabitants shall have liberty at seasonable times 
to hunt, fish, and fowl on lands not enclosed." 

The Legislature may establish fish and game districts and laws to 
regulate the same.^ 

§ 418. Use of Water. — Several Western Constitutions declare 
that the water of every natural stream (not heretofore lawfully ap- 
propriated) within the State is the property of the public* But the 
right to divert the unappropriated waters of any such stream to bene- 
ficial uses shall never be denied ; priority of appropriation shall give 
the better right as between those using the water for the same pur- 

' Okla. 18, 5. 3 cal. 1901, p. 948. 

* Vt. 2, 40. William Rufus three * Ariz.* Bill of Rts. 22 ; Col. 16, 5 ; 
times promised his people the right of Ida. 15, 1 ; Wy. 8, 1. 
free hunting, which was claimed as an 
English liberty. 




pose; and if the water is insufficient, those using it for domestic 
purposes have the preference; and those using it for agricultural 
purposes have the preference over manufacturers.' No individual 
or corporation shall have the right to appropriate streams or ponds 
exclusively to their own private use except as may be provided by 

The use of the waters of the State for irrigation, mining, and manu- 
facturing purposes shall be deemed a public use.^ 

The use of all waters now appropriated, or that may hereafter be 
appropriated for sale, rental, or distribution ; also of all water origi- 
nally appropriated for private use, but which after such appropriation 
has heretofore been, or may hereafter be sold, rented, or distributed, 
is hereby declared to be a public use, and subject to the regulation 
and control of the State in the manner prescribed by law.* For 
Idaho, see also note.^ 

All flowing streams and natural water-courses shall forever re- 

' CoL 16, 6. 

2 Ariz.* 

3 Wash. 21, 1. 

^ Ida. 15, 1 ; Mon. 3, 15. 

^ " And in any organized mining 
district, those using the water, for 
mining purposes or milling purposes 
connected with mining, shall have 
preference over those using the same 
for manufacturing or agricultural pur- 
poses. But the usage by such subse- 
quent appropriators shall be subject 
to such provisions of law regulating 
the taking of private property for 
public and private use, as referred to 
in section fourteen of Article I., of this 
constitution." (Ida. 15, 3.) 

"Whenever any waters have been, 
or shall be, appropriated or used for 
agricultural purposes, under a sale, 
rental, or distribution thereof, such 
sale, rental or distribution shall be 
deemed an exclusive dedication to 
such use ; and whenever such waters 
so dedicated shall have once been sold, 
rented or distributed to any person 
who has settled upon or improved land 
for agricultural purposes with the 
view of receiving the benefit of such 
water under such dedication, such 
person, his heirs, executors, adminis- 
trators, successors, or assigns, shall 

not thereafter, without his consent, be 
deprived of the annual use of the same, 
when needed for domestic purposes, 
or to irrigate the land so settled upon 
or improved, upon payment therefor, 
and comphance with such equitable 
terms and conditions as to the quantity 
used and times of use, as may be 
prescribed by law." (Ida. 15, 4.) 

"Whenever more than one person 
has settled upon, or improved land 
with the view of receiving water for 
agricultural purposes, under a sale, 
rental, or distribution thereof, as in 
the last preceding section of this 
article, provided, as among such 
persons priority in time shall give 
superiority of right to the use of such 
water in the numerical order of such 
settlements or improvements; but 
whenever the supply of such water 
shall not be sufficient to meet the 
demands of all those desiring to use 
the same, such priority of right shall be 
subject to such reasonable limitations 
as to the quantity of water used and 
times of use as the Legislature, having 
due regard, both to such priority of 
right and the necessities of those sub- 
sequent in time of settlement or 
improvement, may by law prescribe." 
(Ida. 15, 5.) 



main the property of the State for mining, irrigating, and manufactur- 
ing purposes.' 

Water being essential to industrial prosperity, of limited amount, 
and easy of diversion from its natural channels, its control must be 
in the State, which, in providing for its use, shall equally guard all 
the various interests involved.- 

All existing rights to the use of any of the waters in this State for 
any useful or beneficial purpose, are hereby recognized and con- 

Municipal corporations shall have the same right as individuals to 
acquire rights, by prior appropriation and otherwise, to the use of 
water for domestic and municipal purposes, and the Legislature shall 
provide by law for the exercise upon the part of incorporated cities, 
towns, and villages of the right of eminent domain for the purpose 
of acquiring from prior appropriators, upon the payment of just 
compensation, such water as may be necessary for the well-being 
thereof and for domestic uses.* 

The Legislature shall have power and shall provide for a system 
of levees, drains, and ditches and of irrigation in this State when 
deemed expedient, and provide for a system of taxation on the lands 
affected or benefited by such levees, drains, and ditches and irriga- 
tion, or on crops produced on such land, to discharge such bonded 
indebtedness or expenses necessarily incurred in the establishment 
of such improvements; and to provide for compulsory issuance of 
bonds by the owners or lessees of the lands benefited or affected by 
such levees, drains, and ditches or irrigation.^ 

§ 419. Riparian Rights. — There are special provisions for 
levees, etc., in Louisiana.^ 

Article 42. Personal Property 

§ 420. Record. — By the Constitution of Louisiana, " privileges " 
may exist without record, except in cases where the Legislature pre- 
scribe otherwise.'' 

§ 42L Seal. — By the Constitution of Arkansas private (i. e. not 
corporate) seals are abolished, and no distinction shall exist between 

» N. D. 210. * Okla. 16, 3. 

^ Wy. 1, 31. « La. 290. 

3 Utah 17, 1. ' La. 187. 
* Wy. 13, 5. 


sealed and unsealed instruments, in contracts between individuals, 
until otherwise provided by law/ 

§ 422 Interest} — The Constitution of Tennessee provides that 
the Legislature may fix the rate of interest, and such rate shall be 
uniform throughout the State, and may also provide for a conven- 
tional {i. e., to be specially contracted for) rate of interest not to 
exceed ten per cent.^ So, in Arkansas, the Constitution fixes the 
legal rate, in contracts where no rate is specified, at six per cent; but 
shall pass a law limiting the rate for which individuals may contract 
to ten per cent/ In Texas the legal rate is, by the Constitution, 
made six per cent; the special contract rate is limited at ten per 
cent; and all over ten per cent is declared usurious, and the 
Legislature are to pass usury laws/ In Maryland the legal rate is 
six per cent until otherwise provided by the Legislature." 

§ 423. Money. — The Constitutions of New Hampshire and 
IMassachusetts provide that the money mentioned in the Constitution 
shall be computed at 6^. 8f/. to the ounce of silver.'' 

§ 424. Trust Funds. — By several State Constitutions, the Legis- 
lature is forbidden to pass laws to authorize the investment of trust 
funds in the bonds or stock of private corporations.^ 

§ 425. Stock-jobbing. — The California Constitution provides 
that the liCgislature shall pass laws to regulate or prohibit the buying or 
selling of the shares of the stock of corporations in any stock board ; * 
and that all contracts for the sale of stock on a margin or for future 
delivery are void, and the money paid therefor may be recovered. 

§ 426. Lotteries. — Are prohibited by the Constitutions of nearly 
all; and in all these States (except R. I., Wis., Neb., Md., Fla., Ida., 
S. D., and Wash.) the sale of lottery tickets is forbidden; '^ so, in 
several of "gift enterprises; " pool selling; ^^ or all other forms of 

1 Ark. Sched. 1. 3, 28; Kan. 15, 3; Ky. 226; La. 178 

2 See also § 395. Md. 3, 36; Mich. 4, 27; Minn. 4, 31 
» Tenn. 11, 7. Miss. 98; Mo. 14, 10; Mon. 19, 2 
* Ark. 19, 13. N. D. Amt. 1 ; Neb. 3, 21 ; Nev. 4, 24 
^ Tex. 16, 11; Amt. 1891, p. 196. N. J. 4, 7, 2; N. Y. 1, 9; O. 15, 6 
» Md. 3, 57. Ore. 15, 4 ; R. L 4, 12 ; S. C. 17, 7 
' Mass. 2, 6, 3; N. H. 2, 96. S. D. 3, 25; Tenn. 11, 5; Tex. 3, 47 
« ALa. 74; Col. 5, 36; Mon. 5, 37; Uta. 6, 28; Va. 60; Wasli. 2, 24 

Pa. 3, 22 ; Wy. 3, 38. See also § 519. W. Va. 6, 36 ; Wis. 4, 24. 

» Cal. 4, 26. " Ala., Cal., Col., Ill, Mo., Mon., 

>« Ala. 65; Ark. 19, 14; Ariz.* Bill Neb., S. D., Tex., W. Va. 

of Rts. 27; Cal. 4, 26; Col. 18, 2; '^ Del., N. Y. 

Del. 2, 17; Fla. 3, 23; Ga. 1, 2, 4; " Del., Neb., N. J., N. Y. 

Ida. 3, 20; 111. 4, 27; Ind. 15, 8; lo. 


Article 43. Law of Persons 

§ 430. Marriage. — By the Constitutions of many States, the 
Legislature can grant no divorce,' noi- allowance of alimony;- and 
in one all absolute divorces are forbidden.-' 

But in two, the Legislature may enact general laws regulating 
divorce and alimony;^ so, of course, in all other States. In one, 
no contract of marriage otherwise duly made shall be invalid for 
want of conformity to the requirements of any religious sect.^ In one, 
no absolute divorce can be granted except on the concurrent verdicts 
of two juries at different terms of the court; and the last jury shall 
determine the disabilities and rights of the parties." 

§ 431. Age of Consent. — "No unmarried woman shall legally 
(sic) consent to sexual intercourse who shall not have attained the 
age of 14." ' 

§ 432. Names. — In Tennessee the Legislature has no power 
to change the names of persons, or to pass acts adopting or legitimat- 
ing persons, but shall confer this power on the courts.** 

§ 433. Warehouses. By the Constitutions of two States all ele- 
vators or storehouses where grain or other property is stored for a 
compensation, whether the property stored be kept separate or not, 
are declared public warehouses.^ 

The owners or managers of public warehouses are required to 
make public statements of grain or goods stored, and the warehouse 
receipts issued ; and are not to mix grain with grain of inferior grade ; 
and the owner is to be always at liberty to examine such property 
stored, and the books of the warehouse relating thereto.^" 

§ 434. Warehouse Receipts. — The Constitution of Illinois de- 
clares that the Legislature shall pass laws to prevent the issue of 
false and fraudulent warehouse receipts; " and (in Kentucky also) 
laws for the inspection of grain, ^- and "for the protection of pro- 
ducers," etc.^^ 

» Ga. 6, 15, 1-2. 
' S. C. 3, 33. 

« Tenn. 11, 6. See § 395. 
111. 13, 1 ; Ky. 206. 

> Del. 2, 18; lo. 3, 27; Kan. 2, 18 
Mich. 4, 26 ; Minn. 4, 28 ; N. H. 2, 75 
N. J. 4, 7, 1; N. Y. 1, 9; O. 2 32 
S. C. 17, 3; Tenn. 11, 4; Wash. 2, 24 
Wis. 4, 24. See also § 395. >" 111. 13, 2 & 3 

2 Del. " 111. 13, 6. 

3 S. C. '2 III. 13, 7 ; Ky. 206 
* N. C. 2, 10 ; Tenn. " Ky. 

' Cal. 20, 7. 


§ 435. Drawbacks and Rebates. — (See also § 41G.) By the 
Constitution of Texas, all drawbacks and rebatement of insurance, 
freight transportation, carriage, wharfage, storage, compressing, bal- 
ing, repairing, or for any other kind of labor or service, of or to any 
cotton, grain, or other produce, to any carrier, shipper, merchant, 
or factor not the owner thereof, are prohibited.' 

§ 436. Carriers. — The Constitution of Illinois provides that all 
railroads and other common carriers shall weigh or measure grain at 
points where it is shipped, and receipt for the full amount, and shall 
be responsible for the delivery of such amount to the owner or con- 
signee thereof at the place of destination. - 

§ 437. Cattle and Stock. — The Legislature may pass laws for 
the regulation of live-stock and the protection of stock-raisers, having 
a local application; and also pass general and special laws for the 
inspection of cattle, stock, and hides, and the regulation of brands; 
provided that any local law thus passed shall be submitted to the 
freeholders of the section to be affected thereby and approved by 

§ 438. Physicians. — The Constitutions of three States provide 
that laws may be passed prescribing the qualifications of medical 
practitioners, and to punish for malpractice (but, in Texas, that no 
preference shall be given to any one school of medicine).* 

Article 44. Health and Morality 

§ 440. Live Stock. — The Legislature shall pass all necessary 
laws to provide for the protection of live stock against the introduc- 
tion or spread of pleuro-pneumonia, glanders, splenetic or Texas 
fever, and other infectious or contagious diseases. The Legislature 
may also establish a system of quarantine or inspection, and such 
other regulations as may be necessary for the protection of stock 
owners and most conducive to the stock interests within the State.^ 

§ 44L Board of Health (see also § 202). —There shall be es- 
tablished by law a State board of health and a bureau of vital sta- 
tistics in connection therewith, with such powers as the Legislature 
may direct.^ Boards of Health shall be created by the Legislature 
wherever they may be necessary, with power to make such regu- 

' Tex. 16. 25. See also § 524. * La. 178; Tex. 16, 31 ; Wash. 20, 2. 

- 111. 13, 4. » Ida. 16, 1 ; Wy. 19, 1. 

3 Tex. 16, 23. « Wash. 20, 1. 


latlons as shall protect the health of the community and abate 

§ 442. — Inspection Laws. — No State office sluiii l)e continued 
or created for the inspection or measuring of any merchandise, manu- 
facture or commodity ; but any county or municipality may appoint 
such officers when authorized by law.- 

§ 443. Dealing in Futures. — The pernicious practice of dealing 
or gambling in futures on agricultural products or articles of neces- 
sity, where the intention of the parties is not to make an honest and 
bona fide delivery, is declared to be against public policy; and the 
Legislature shall pass laws to suppress it."* 

§ 444. Fire Protection. — The Legislature shall enact laws to 
secure the safety of persons from fires in hotels, theatres, and other 
public places of resort.* 

§ 445, Liquor Traffic, General Regulation of, is declared to belong 
to the police jurisdiction; and the State may enact laws regulating 
their sale and use ^ or regulating and prohibiting their sale.** 

§ 446. Prohibition of the manufacture and sale (or giving away) 
of intoxicating liquors is found in several State Constitutions.^ 

Except for medical, mechanical, and scientific purposes ; ^ and ex- 
cept cider.® 

In Colorado only the sale of spurious or drugged liquors is for- 

§ 447. Local Option. — Some Constitutions provide that the 
Legislature shall enact a law whereby the qualified electors of any 
city, county, town, or precinct may, by a majority vote, prohibit the 
sale of liquors within the prescribed limits." 

In other States they may do so *^ or the dispensary system may be 

The County Commissioners, not oftener than once in two years 
upon petition of one fourth the registered voters, must call an election 
(special) to determine whether or no intoxicating liquors or beer 
shall be sold in the county.** 

* S. C. 8, 10. p. 95 (separate article applying to the 

2 Ala. 77. whole State); N. D. 217; O. 15, 9. 

3 La. 189. » Kan., Me., N. D., Okla. 

* Miss. 83. " Me. 

* La. 181. '» Col. 18, 5. 

« S. C. 8, 11; W. Va. 6, 46; Va. 62. " Ky. 61; Fla. 19, 1; Tex. 1891, 

^ lo. Amt. 1882, p. 178; Kan. Amt. p. 196. 
1881, p. 323; Me. Amt. 1885, p. 339; '- Va. 62; Del. 13, 1. 
Okla. 1, 7 (as to Indian reservations) ; " Va. 

" Fla. 19, 1. 


§ 448. Dispensary System. — This is expressly authorized under 
the Constitution of a few States, and has been carried into execution 
in South CaroUna, as to sales exceeding one half-pint, between sun- 
rise and sunset, not to be drunk on the premises.^ 

§ 449. Vagrant Laws are required to be enacted by tlie Consti- 
tution of Texas.^ 

Poor Laws. — There are in a few States constitutional provisions 
for the support of the poor by counties, and for State asylums for 
orphans, deaf, bhnd, insane, or inebriates.^ 

Article 45. Labor 

§ 450. General Principles. — The Legislature shall pass neces- 
sary laws for the protection of persons working in mines, factories, 
and other employments dangerous to life and deleterious to health ; 
and fix pains and penalties for the enforcement of same.* 

The rights of labor shall have just protection through laws calcu- 
lated to promote the industrial welfare of the State.^ 

The Legislature shall prohibit the political and commercial con- 
trol of employees.^ 

The Legislature shall provide for the protection of the employees 
of all corporations doing business in this State from interference with 
their social, civil, or political rights by said corporations, their agents 
or employees.^ 

"The Legislature, by appropriate legislation, shall provide for the 
enforcement of the provisions of this article." ^ 

§ 45L Day's Work. — A few Western Constitutions prescribe an 
eight-hour day in all public work.^ 

1 S. C. 8, 11. 1903, ch. 49; Ida. 13, 2; Mon. 1903, 

2 Tex. 3, 46. 49 ; Okla. 23, 2 ; Utah 16, 6 ; Wy. 19, 1. 

3 Ala. 88 ; Ark. 19, 9 & 19 ; Col. 8, 1 ; Statutes to this effect exist in several 
Fla. 13, 1 & 3; Ida. 10, 1; Kan. 7, 4; other States. For the general subject 
La. 174; Miss. 86; Mon. 10, 1; Okla. of labor legislation see the author's 
17, 3; Amt. 1887; Nev. 13, 1 & 3; " Handbook to the Labor Laws of the 
N. C. 11, 8-10;- S. C. 12, 1 «fe 3; Tex. United States." No American legisla- 
11, 2; 16, 8 & 42 & 54; S. D. 14, 1 ; ture has yet ventured to prescribe the 
Wash. 13, 1. hours of labor of adult males in general 

* Ida. Amt. 13 ; Okla. 23, 5 ; Wash, occupations, and it would be clearly 
2, 35. See also § 14. unconstitutional. The last English law 

* Utah 16, 1. of the sort was under Ehzabeth (see 
® Utah 16, 3. Book II). The same is true of the 
^ Miss. 191. regulation of wages by law. The labor 
® Utah 16, 7. of minors may be regulated or prohib- 

* Cal. 20, 17; Amt. 1901, 959; Col. ited in any or all occupations; and so 


§ 452. Wages. — The Louisiana Constitution prescribes that 
no hiw shall be passed fixing the price of manual lal)()r.' 

§ 453. Public Work. — But in New York, by a recent amend- 
ment, "the Legislature may regulate and fix the wages or salaries, 
the hours of work or labor, and make provision for the protection, 
safety, and welfare of persons employed by the State or by any 
county, city, town, village, or other civil subdivision of the State, or 
by any contractor or subcontractor performing work, labor, or 
services for the State or for any city, county, town, village, or other 
civil division thereof." ^ 

§ 454. Special Employments. — A few Western States provide 
in their Constitutions for an eight-hour day in mines,^ smelters,^ or 
underground employment generally ; ^ or even in mills or factories,^ 
or in dangerous employments.^ 

§ 455. Women and Children. — Children under sixteen,^ twelve," 
or fourteen,'" may not work in mines, " workshops, or factories ;^^ 
nor, if under fifteen, in places dangerous to life or health or injurious 
to morals." The Kentucky Constitution specifies (unnecessarily) 
that the Legislature may fix such age.'* 

No women or girls of any age may work in mines. '^ 

§ 456. Wage-payments. — All wage-earners in this State em- 
ployed in factories, mines, workshops, or by corporations, shall be 
paid for their labor in lawful money. The general assembly shall 
prescribe adequate penalties for violations of this section.'^ 

§ 457. Liens. — The Constitutions of tliree States provide that 
mechanics, artisans, and material men of every class shall have a 
lien upon the building and articles repaired by them for the value 
of their labor or material." And in two, also, upon personal property, 

of women ; at least as to vmhealthy or * Mon. ; Okla. 24, 4. 

immoral trades, except perhaps in the ® N. D. 209 ; Col. 16, 3. 

women-suffrage States or those whose ^° Utah 16, 1 ; Wy. 9, 3. 

Constitutions require identical laws for *' Mon., N. D., Col. 

the two sexes (see §§ 20, 23-25). '- N. D. 

1 La. 51. " Okla. 23, 3. 

2 N. Y. 12, 1 ; Amt. 1905. " Ky. 243. 
'Col. 1901, 48; Mon. 1903, 49; '^ Utah, Wy. 

Wy. 19, 1. Similar laws are constitu- "^ Ky. 244. In the absence of a 

tional when their object is to protect constitutional provision, statutes to 

the health of the public ; if only that this effect have usually been held un- 

of the men employed, quaere. constitutional ; but not so in Massa- 

* Col, Mon. chusetts; and there is old English 

* Col., Mon. precedent for the principle. See His- 

* Mon. torical Digest. 

7 Col, Mon. " Cal. 20, 15; N. C. 14, 4; Tex. 16, 


for labor done upon it; ' or, in others, upon the subject-matter of 
their labor.^ 

So, in two others, that the I>egislaturc shall pass laws to protect 
laborers on public works, railroads, and canals against failure of the 
contractors to pay their current wages when due, and to make the 
corporation or individual for whose benefit the work is done respon- 
sible for their ultimate payment.^ 

§ 458. Blacklists. — The exchange of blacklists by railroad 
companies or other corporations, associations, or persons, is 

§ 459. Strikes and Boycotts. — There is as yet no Constitutional 
provision relating to these matters. For injunctions, contempts, 
etc., see § 662. 

§ 460. Factories, Mines, etc. — The Legislature are required to 
pass laws for the protection of miners ^ (as by escapement shafts, 
ventilation, etc.), or workmen in factories," or employments danger- 
ous to life and deleterious to health,'' or on railroads.* 

§ 461. State Inspectors of mines,^ factories, etc., are in some 
States provided for in the Constitution. 

§ 462. Employers' Liability. — (See also § 535. ) The right of 
action to recover damages for injuries resulting in death, shall 
never be abrogated, and the amount recoverable shall not be sub- 
ject to any statutory limitation.''^ 

The defence of contributory negligence or of assumption of risk 
shall, in all cases whatsoever, be a question of fact, and shall, at all 
times, be left to the jury.'' 

37. Statutes to this effect are uni- hereof, a right of action shall accrue 

versal. to the party injured, for the damage 

' Cal., N. C. sustained thereby, and in all cases in 

^ Ida. 13, 6. this state, whenever the death of a 

^ La. 185 ; Tex. 16, 35. person shall be caused by wrongful act, 

* Utah 16, 4; N. D. 212; Wy. 1, neglect or default, such as would, if 
22. death had not ensued, have entitled 

^ Ark. 19, 18; Col. 16, 2; Ida. 13, the party injured to maintain an 

2; 111.4,29; Utah 16, 6; Wash. 2,35; action to recover damages in respect 

Wy. 9, 2 ; Okla. 23, 5. So, for their thereof, the person who, or the corpo- 

drainage (Col. 16, 3). ration which would have been liable, if 

^ Wash., Ida., Okla. death had not ensued, shall be liable 

' Wash., Ida. to an action for damages notwithstand- 

* Okla. ing the death of the person injured, and 
® Wy. 9, 1. See § 202. the legislature shall provide by law at 

^° N. Y. 1, 18 ; Okla. 23, 7 ; Utah 16, 5 ; its first session for the manner in which 

Wy. 10, 4. So, "for any injury to per- the right of action in respect thereto 

son or property caused by wilful failure shall be enforced." In mines only (Wy. 

to comply with the provisions of this 9, 4). 
article, or laws passed in pursuance " Okla. 23, 6. 


Any provision of a contract, express or implied, made by any 
person, by which any of the benefits of tliis Constitution is sought 
to be waived, shall be null and void; and so of any such pro- 
vision stipulating for notice or demand other than such as may be 
provided by law, as a condition precedent to establish any claim, 
demand, or liability.' 

It shall be unlawful for any person, company, cr corporation to 
require of its servants or employees, as a condition of their employ- 
ment or otherwise, any contract or agreement whereby such persons, 
company, or corporation, shall be released or discharged from lia- 
bility or responsibility on account of personal injuries received by 
such servants or employees while in the service of such person, com- 
pany, or corporation, by reason of the negligence of such person, 
company, or corporation, or the agents or employees thereof; and 
such contracts shall be absolutely null and void.- 

§ 463. Prison Labor. — All labor of convicts confined in the 
State's prison, shall be done within the prison grounds, except 
where the work is done on public works under the direct control of 
the State.^ So the contracting out of prison labor is prohibited.* 

§ 464. Alien Labor. — No person, not a citizen of the United 
States, or who has not declared his intention to become such, shall be 
employed upon, or in connection with, any State or municipal works.^ 

§ 465. Arbitration. — The Legislature may establish boards of 
arbitration, whose duty it shall be to hear and determine all differ- 
ences and controversies between laborers and their employers which 
may be submitted to them in writing by all the parties.'' Such 
boards of arbitration shall possess all the powers and authority in 
respect to administering oaths, subpoenaing witnesses, and com- 
pelling their attendance, preserving order during the sittings of the 
board, punishing for contempt, and requiring the production of 
papers and writings, and all other powers and privileges, in their 
nature applicable, conferred by law on justices of the peace.' 

» Okla. 23, 8-9. * Miss. 223 ; Okla. 23, 2 ; Utah 16, 

2 Mon. 15, 16; Wy. 10, 4; 19, 1. 3. 

3 Ida. 13, 3; Ky. 253; Utah 16, 3. ' Ida. 13, 5; Wy. 19, 1. Such pro- 
The Legislature shall provide by gen- visions may, if a treaty exists, contra- 
eral law for the working of public roads vene the Federal Constitution. 

by contract or by county prisoners, or * Ida. 13, 7 ; Wy. 19, 1. 

both. Such law may be put in opera- ^ Ida. So, the Legislature shall pro- 

tion only by a vote of the board of su- vide by law for a Board of Labor, Con- 

per\asors in those counties where it may ciliation and Arbitration, which shall 

be desirable (Miss. 85). fairly represent the interests of both 


Article 50. Private Corporations 

§ 500. Definition. — The word corporation , as here used, is de- 
clared by the Constitutions of many States to mean all associations 
or joint stock companies having any of the powers or privileges of 
corporations not possessed by individuals or partnerships.' 

§ 501. General Principles. — All powers and franchises of cor- 
porations are derived from the people and are granted by their 
agent, the government, for the public good and general welfare, and 
the right and duty of the State to control and regulate them for these 
purposes is hereby declared. The power, rights, and privileges of 
any and all corporations may be forfeited by wilful neglect or abuse 
thereof. The police power of the State is supreme over all corpora- 
tions as well as individuals.- (See § 506, also.) "Being creatures 
of the State endowed for the public good with a portion of its sov- 
ereign powers, they must be subject to its control." ^ The size and 
functions of all corporations should be so limited and regulated as 
to prevent fictitious capitalization, and provision should be made 
for the supervision and government thereof.* No exclusive privi- 
leges can be granted to a corporation.^ 

§ .502. Creation. — By the Constitutions of most States, the 
Legislature is forbidden, generally, to create corporations ^ or to 

capital and labor. The Board shall per- * lo. 8, 12 ; Territories. See also 

form duties, and receive compensation § 16. 

as prescribed by law (Utah 16, 2). By « Ala. 229; Ark. 12, 2; Cal. 12, 1 

statute, such boards exist in many & 7 ; Col. 15, 2 ; Del. 9, 1 ; Fla. 

States. 1S99, p. 1357; Ida. 11, 2; 3, 19; Ind. 

' Ala. 241; Cal. 12, 4; Ida. 11, 16; 11, 13; 111. 11, 1; lo. 8, 1 ; Kan. 12, 

Kan. 12, 6 ; Ky. 208 ; La. 268 ; Mich. 1 ; La. 275 ; Me. 4, 3 ; Md. 3, 48 ; 1890, 

15, 11; Minn. 10, 1; Miss. 199; Mo. 12 195; Mich. 15, 1 & 8; Minn. 10, 2; 

11; Mon. 15, 18; N. Y. 8, 3 ; N. C. 8, Miss. 178, 179; Mo. 12, 2; Mon. 15, 2; 

3; N. D. 144; Okla. 9, 1; Pa. 16, 13; Neb. 13, 1; Nev. 8, 1 ; N. J. 4, 7, 11; 

S. C. 9, 1; S. D. 17, 19; Utah 12, 4; N. Y. 8, 1 ; N. C. 8, 1; N. D. 131; 

Va. 153; Wash. 12, 5. In Delaware O. 13, I; Okla. 9, 38; Ore. 11, 2; 

(9, 4) nothing in the Constitution ap- R. L Amt. 9; S. C. 9, 2; S. D. 17, 1; 

phes to rehgious corporations, whose Tex. 12, 1; Tenn. 11, 8; Utah 12, 1; 

rights remain unaltered except where Va. 154, 167; W. Va. II, I; Wash. 

therein otherwise provided. Okla- 12, 1; 2,28; Wis. 11, 1; Wy. 10, 1; 

homa and Virginia except municipal Territories U. S. R. S. 1889; 1886, 

corporations from this article and de- 818. In Rhode Island an exception 

fine the term charter and license — the is made of corporations created with 

latter term, in Virginia, referring to the power to exercise the right of emi- 

foreign corporations (§ 505). nent domain or acquire franchises in 

- Wy. 10, 2. the streets and highways, which must 

^ Wy. 1, 30. be created by special Act upon peti- 

* N. H. 2, 82. tion and notice according to law (§ 302). 


license foreign corporations' by special act. (See also § 395.) 
1 >; I II kiii<^ corporations may, however, in three States still he created 
by special act.* 

So, the Legislature "shall provide by general laws" for the crea- 
tion of municipal,^ educational/ charitable, religious, and literary * 
corporations, or for manufacturing," mechanical,' industrial,^ min- 
ing,® agricultural,'" draining," "other useful companies," '- or for the 
creation of corporations generally '^ (this last would follow from the 
principal provision above), or for conducting the business of in- 
surance, banks of discount and deposits (but not of issue), loan, 
trust, and guaranty associations, railroads, wagon roads, irrigating 
ditches, the colonization and improvement of lands in connection 
therewith.'* Nor can the Legislature by special act change or 
amend any franchise or charter (save as to corporations above 
excepted),'^ or remit the forfeiture of a charter now existing.'" 

The Legislature shall pass no law for the benefit of a railroad or 
other corporation (or any individual or association of individuals) 
retrospective in its operation, or which imposes on the people of any 
municipality a new liability in respect to transactions or consider- 
ations already past.'' 

In Delaware a general or special incorporation act must have a 

two-thirds vote of all the members elected in each house; in Rhode 

Island it must be continued to the next Legislature, and public 

And in other States an exception is ^ Del., Ind., Md. 
made of municipal corporations (Col., ^ Cal. 11, 6. 
Del., Ida., La., Md., Me., Mich., Mon., * Fla. 3, 25; Territories. 
Minn., N. C, N. D., Nev., N. Y., Ore., « Territories. 
S. C, Tex., Wis., Territories U. S. 1878, « Territories. 
168) "which are under the control ' Fla. 
of the State" (Col., Ida., Mon., N. D.) ; » Territories, 
of cases where there is no general act * Fla., Territories. 
(Me., Md., N. C, N. Y., Wis.); of " Fla. 
educational, charitable, penal, or re- " Territories, 
formatory corporations (Ark., Col., '- Fla. 

Del., Ida., 111., Mo., Mon., Neb., N. D., '^ Ala., Miss., N. D., S. C, S. D., 
S. C, S. D.) ; but such corporations Va. 
if specially chartered must, except in '* Territories. 

Montana, be under State control. It '^ Ala., Cal., Col., Del., Ida., 111., 
will be noted that in the northern and La., Mich., Miss., Mo., Mon., Neb., 
eastern States the whole matter of Nev., S. C, S. D., Utah, Va., Wash, 
corporations is left to the Legislature And see §§ 503, 395. 
to determine by law; while the follow- "^ Ala.; Cal.; La. 262; Miss.; Mo. 
ing States endeavor to cover the subject 12,3; Mon.; N. D. 13,3; S. C. 9, 17; 
substantially in their Constitutions: S. D. 17, 3; Utah; Wash. See, how- 
Del., La., Ky.. Ida., Mon., Okla., N. D., ever, § 503. 

S. C, S. D., Utah, Wash., Va., Wy. '^ Col. 15, 12; Ida. 11, 12; Mo. 12, 

' Okla. 19 ; Mon. 15, 13. 


notice given of its pendency.' No law can create, renew, or expend 
the charter of more than one corporation.^ In Georgia the Legis- 
lature has no power to create private corporations, but shall pre- 
scribe the manner in which such powers shall be exercised by the 
Secretary of State.^ So in ^^irginia, charters are granted by the 
Corporation Commission (see § 532, note 6).* 

§ 503. Repeal. — And all general ^ or even special ^ laws for the 
creation of corporations may be altered or repealed. So (see also 
§ 16), no law shall be passed granting irrevocably any franchise, 
privilege, or immunity.^ But in Arizona no corporation can be dis- 
solved or its rights impaired except by judicial proceedings.^ In 
others, the Legislature shall by general law provide for the revo- 
cation or forfeiture of the charters of all corporations for the abuse, 
misuse, or nonuser of their corporate powers, privileges, or fran- 
chises, any procedure for such forfeiture, etc., to be taken by the 
attorney-general.'* All privileges or franchises, and rights to collect 
freights, fares, tolls, or wharfage are subject to control.^'* But they 
are not to be repealed, etc., so as to impair or destroy vested cor- 
porate rights,^' or work injustice to the corporators or the corpora- 
tion's creditors.'" In Iowa and Michigan such repeal, etc., must 
have a vote of two-thirds present '^ or elected" in each house of the 
Legislature. All corporations must organize and commence busi- 
ness within two years of the charter, etc., or it becomes void.'^ 

§ 504. Existing Corporations. — Some newer State Constitutions 
specifically provide that no general or special law,'^ or no exemption 

» Del. 9, 1 ; R. I. 4, 17. S. D., Utah, Wash., Wis., Wy. And so 

' S. D. 17, 9. doubtless in the others. 
3 Ga. 3, 7, 18; Amt. 1891, p. 59. ' Ala. 22; Ky. 3; S. D. 6, 12; 

* Va. 156. Utah 1, 23; Wash. 1, 8. For other 

5 Ala. 229, 238; Ark. 12, 6; Cal. States see § 16, notes 1 & 2. 

11, 6; 12, 1; Col. 15, 3; Ga. 1, 3, 3; » Ariz.* B. Rts. 29. 

12, 1,5; Ida. 11,2 &3; 12, 1; lo. 8, 12; » Del. 9, 1 ; Ky. 205; Va. 154. 
Kan. 12, 1; Me. 4, 3, 14; Md. 3, 48 "> Tex. 1, 17; 12,5. See also §§ 416, 
(except banks) ; Miss. 88, 178; Mon. 501,506. 

15, 3; Mich. 15, 1; N. J. 4, 7, 11; N. " Ga., Ore., Tenn. 

Y. 8, 1 ; Nev. 8, 1; Neb. 13, 1; N. C. '- Ala., Ark., Col., Ga., Ida., Miss., 

8, 1; N. D. 131; O. 13, 2; Okla. 9, Okla., Pa., S. D. (as to corporations 

47; Ore. 112; Pa. 16, 10; S. C. 9, existing when the Constitution was 

2; S. D. 17, 9; Tenn. 11, 8; Utah adopted). These provisions would 

12, 1 ; Va. 154 ; Wash. 12, 1 ; Wy. seem meaningless. 

10, 1 ; Wis. 11, 1. See also § 394. But '^ lo. 8, 12. 

only by general law: Del., Me., N. D., '* Mich. 15, 8. 

S. C. Compare § 502. '^ Miss. 180. 

« Ark., Del., Md., Me., Miss., Mon., '« Ala. 231 ; Ark. 17, 8; Ga. 4, 2, 3; 

Nev., N. Y., N. C, Okla., Ore., Pa., Ida. 11,7; Ky. 190; La. 262 ; Md. 1890, 


or remission of forfeiture,' or renewal or extension,^ or alteration or 
amendment ^ of a charter shall be enacted except on condition that 
any corporation availing itself of it shall thereafter hold its charter 
subject to the provisions of the Constitution. So, no corporation 
can do business until it accepts the Constitution.' The acceptance of 
any amendment usually brings the corporation under the general 
law,^ These restrictions do not of course apply to municipal 

Existing charters or grants of special or exclusive privileges under 
which a bona fide organization had not taken place at the time of the 
adoption of the Constitution, or twelve months thereafter,'' are 
declared void.^ The property and franchises of corporations are 
subject to eminent domain like that of individuals.* 

§ 505. Foreign Corporations. — Several States provide that no 
corporation organized out of the State shall be allowed to transact 
business within the State which is forbidden to domestic corpora- 
tions,'" or, on more favorable conditions than are prescribed by law 
to similar corporations organized in the State." But such companies 
may be licensed, or taxed, on a different principle from home corpora- 
tions,'- so it be uniform, or other conditions may be imposed.'^ No 
foreign corporation can condemn land,'* or conduct the business of a 
public service corporation within the State. '^ They must usually 

p. 195; Miss. 179; N. D. 133 ; Okla. 9, » Va. 159. For other States see 

11 ; Pa. 16, 2 ; S. C. 9, 17 ; S. D. 17, 3 ; § 97. 

Utah 12, 2. This is applied specifically " Okla. 9, 44 ; Va. 163. 

also to railroads: Ala. 246; Col. 15, 7; " Ark. 12, 11; Cal. 12, 15; Ida. 11, 

Mo. 12, 21; Mon. 15, 8; Tex. 10, 8; 10; Ky. 202; Mon. 15, 11; Okla.; 

Wy. 10, 6; or express or transports^ Va. ; Utah 12, 6; Wash. 12, 7. No 

tion companies : Mon., Wy. Or tele- point of constitutional law is more 

graph : Wy. vexed than this. Does a foreign cor- 

' Ala., La., Md., Miss., N. D., S. C, poration come into a State with all 

S. D. its charter powers, or only such as the 

^ Del. 9, 2 ; La. ; Mich. 15, 8 ; Va. State law permits its own corpora- 

158. tions? It is clear that a State may 

^ Ala., Del., La., Miss., N. D., S. C, by express statute exclude such cor- 

S. D., Va. poration entirely. Otherwise, the better 

* Wy. 10, 5; 10, 10(6). opinion is that a definite prohibition 

* Md., Miss., Okla., S. C. of such powers, or a clear line of poUcy 

* Ida., Mich. forbidding such corporations of its 
^ Ala. 230 ; Miss. 180. own creation, will also suffice so to 
® Ark. 12, 1 ; Col. 15, 1 ; Ida. 11,1; limit or exclude foreign companies. 

111. 11, 2; Ky. 191; Mo. 12, 1; Mon. ^-^ Ark. 12, 11; La. 242. 

15, 1 ; N. D. 132 ; Neb. 13, 6 ; Okla. '^ Okla. 9, 44 ; Va. 

9, 46; Pa. 16, 1; S. D. 17, 2; S. C. '* Ark. 

9, 16; Utah 12, 2; Wash. 12, 2; Wy. '^ Va. 
10,3; W. Va. 11, 3. 


file a copy of their charter, etc., with the Secretary of State,' or 
other official. In Virginia no foreign corporation can do business 
in the State until it has obtained a license from the corporation 
comnrission.' In Texas no such corporation except a national bank 
can do banking or discounting business in the State,^ 

§ 506. Business, Ultra Vires, etc. — All corporations doing 
business in a State may as to such business be regulated, limited, or 
restrained by law* (see also § 503); so, the police power of the 
State shall never be so abridged or construed as to permit corpora- 
tions to conduct their business in such manner as to infrino-e the 
equal rights of individuals or the general well-being of the State.^ 
No corporation can engage in any business other than that expressly 
authorized by its charter or the law under which it was formed : ® 
and not in more than one line of business.^ 

"The Legislature shall provide for the protection of the employees 
of all corporations doing business in the State from interference with 
their social, civil or political rights by said corporations or their 
agents or employees." ^ 

§ 507. Office in the State, Reports, etc. — A few State Constitu- 
tions provide that railroads," or all business corporations '° doing 
business in the State must have an office in the State for the trans- 
action of business, where transfers of stock may be made and the 
stock books shall be kept open. They must file a list of officers and 
stockholders with the Corporation Commission showing addresses 
and amount of stock held by each." 

And foreign corporations in particular must have an author- 
ized office and agent in the State upon whom process may be 

Failure to pay franchise taxes or make reports for two successive 

» Ala. 232 ; Utah 12, 9. See § 507. ' Wy. 

2 Va. 157. « Miss. 191. 

3 Tex. 190.3, p. 249. » Ark. 17, 2; 111. 11, 9; La. 273; 
* Utah, 12, 1; Wash. 12, 1; Wy. Mo. 12, 15; Neb. 11, 1; N. D. 140; 

10, 1. Pa. 17, 2 ; S. D. 17, 12 ; Tex. 10, 3. 

' CaL 12,8; Col. 15, 8; Ga. 4, 2, " Cal. 12, 14; Ky. 194; La. 264; 

2; Ida. 11, 8; Ky. 195; La. 263; Mon. 15, 11; S. C. 9, 4 ; Utah 12, 9. 

Miss. 190; Mo. 12, 5; Mon. 15, 9; N. (£^xcepf mercantile corporations: S. C.) 

D. 134 ; Pa. 16, 3 ; S. D. 17, 4 ; Va. And so of canals (Ark. Pa.) ; turnpikes 

159. (Ark.) ; banks (Kan. 13, 6.) 

« Ala. 233 ; Cal. 12, 9 ; Ky. 192 ; '^ Okla. 9, 43. 

La. 265; Mo. 12, 7; N. D. 137; Pa. '- Ark. 12, 11; Ala. 232; Col. 15,10; 

16, 6; S. C. 9. 12; S. D. 17, 7; Utah, Del 9, 5; Ida. 11, 10; 111.; Ky. ; La.; 

12, 10; Wy. 10, 6. This is but the Mon.; N. D. 136; Okla.; S. C. ; S. D. 

common law. 17, 6; Utah. 


years operates a revocation or annulment of its cliarter, or, if a 
foreign corporation, its license (§ 50')).' 

§ 508. Suits. — All corporations may sue and be sued in the 
courts like natural persons." Suits may be brought against a foreign 
corporation in any county where it does business,^ and service be 
made on an agent anywhere within the State.' Every license or 
charter granted to a mining or pul)lic service corporation, foreign or 
domestic, shall stipulate that it will submit any difference with its 
employees to arbitration as shall be provided by law.'' 

§ 509. Liabilities of Stockholders. — (For banks, see § 555.) 
The Constitutions of several States provide that stockholders shall 
in no case be liable otherwise than for unpaid stock ow'ned by them ; " 
so, each stockholder is liable for the amount of stock held or owned 
by him.^ In Nevada no stockholder is individually liable for the 
debts of the corporation.^ 

But in a few he is liable over and above his stock to a further sum 
equal in amount to such stock ; ^ in California, for his aliquot share 
for all the debts and liabilities of the corporation ; '" and in Michigan 
he is individually liable for all labor performed for the corporation or 

In others, dues from corporations or their stockholders are to be 
secured in a manner provided by law.'" 

Trust Funds. — No act of the Legislative Assembly shall authorize 
the investment of trust funds by executors, administrators, guardians, 
or trustees in the bonds or stock of any private corporation.'^ 

§ 510. Voting. — Stockholders have one vote for each share, 
for each person to be elected, by person or by proxy," and may cumu- 
late their votes on one candidate or distribute them as they see 

» Va. 157. « Nev. 8, 3. 

2 Ala. 240; Cal. 12, 4; Kan. 12, 6, » Kan. Amt. 1905, 542; Utah 12, 
Mich. 15, 11; Minn. 10, 1; Mon. 15, 18; Wash. 12, 11 (of banks, insurance, 
18 ; Neb. 13, 3 ; Nev. 8, 5 ; N. Y. 8, 3 ; and joint stock companies) ; S. C. 9, 
N. C. 8, 3; Utah 12, 4; Wash. 12, 5. 18 (of banks). Except in railway cor- 

3 Ala. 232 ; Cal. 12, 16. porations (Kan.). 
* Ala., Okla. Or in the county of '" Cal. 12, 3. 

the plaintiff's residence or where the " Mich. 15, 7. 

cause of action arose (Okla.). ^^ Ala.; Cal. 12, 2; Ida. 11, 17; 

^ Okla. 9, 42. A striking clause. Ind. 11, 14; Kan.; Mon. 15, 19; Mo.; 

« Ala. 236; Ida. 11, 17; O. Amt. Nev.; N. C. 8, 2; Tex. 12, 2. 

1902, p. 961 ; S. C. 9, 18 ; Wash. 12, 4. " Ala. 74 ; Mon. 5, 37 ; Wy. 3, 38. 

Except banking, or insurance com- " Cal.; Ida. 11, 4; 111. 11, 3; Ky. 

panies (Wash.). 207; Miss. 194; Mon. 15, 4; Mo. 12, 

' Minn. 10, 3 (except in mechanical 6; N. D. 135; Neb. 13, 5; S. C. 9, 11; 

or manufacturing companies). S. D. 17, 5; W. Va. 11, 4. 




fit.* But no person engaged or interested in a competing business, 
either as director, stockholder, or individually, may so be elected 
without a majority stock vote." 

§ 511. Directors are liable jointly and severally to creditors and 
stockholders for moneys embezzled or misappropriated by officers 
of the corporation during their term of office.^ 

§ 512. Issue of Stock. — The usual constitutional provision is 
that no corporation may issue stock or bonds except for money, 
labor done, or money or property actually received ; * and all fictitious 
increase of stock or indebtedness shall be void.^ In a few States 
stock can only be issued to actual subscribers therefor.*' Whenever 
any issue of stock or bands is made the corporation must file a 
detailed statement of the plans, payments, etc., of such issue with 
the Corporation Commission.^ 

§ 513. Increases of Stock may only be made under general laws 
with the consent of a majority of the stock,^ given at a special meet- 
ing after due notice " (usually thirty '" or sixty " days). 

And the same law applies in a few State Constitutions to an 
increase of bonded indebtedness.'' 

1 Cal. ; Ida. ; 111. ; Ky. ; Miss. ; Mon. ; 
Mo.; N.D. ; Neb.; Pa. 16, 4; S. C. ; 
S. D. ; W. Va. 

2 Miss. 

8 Cal. 12, 3. 

* Ala. 234; Ark. 12, 8; Cal. 12, 11; 
Col. 15, 9; Del. 9, 3; 1901,1; Ida. 11, 
9; Ky. 193; La. 266; Mo. 12, 8; 
Mon. 15, 10 ; N. D. 138 ; Okla. 9, 39 ; 
Pa. 16, 7; S. D. 17, 8; Tex. 12, 6; 
Utah 12, 5. So in others, of railroads 
only: 111. 11, 13; Neb. 11, 5; S. C. 
9, 10; Miss. 196; Wash. 12, 6; or 
" transportation companies " (Miss.). 
Such money or property must further 
be applied to the purposes for which 
the corporation was created, and not 
be received at greater value than the 
market price (Ky.). 

' Ark., Ala., Cal., Col., Ida., 111., 
Ky., La., Miss., Mo., Mon., Neb., N. 
D., Okla., Pa., S. C, S. D., Tex., 
Utah, Wash. And the corporation 
issuing it forfeits its charter (La.). 

« Utah, Wash. 

^ "The Legislature shall enact gen- 
eral laws regulating and controlling all 
issues of stock and bonds by corpora- 

tions. Whenever stock or bonds are 
to be issued by a corporation, it must 
file with the State Corporation Com- 
mission a sworn statement setting forth 
fully and accurately the basis, or finan- 
cial plan upon which such stock or 
bonds are to be issued ; and where such 
plan includes services or property 
(other than money), received or to be 
received, it must accurately specify and 
describe, in the manner prescribed by 
the Commission, the services and prop- 
erty, together with the valuation at 
which the same are to be received " 
(Va. 167). 

» Ala. 234; Ark. 12, 8; Cal. 12, 11; 
Col 15, 9; Ida. 11, 10; La. 267; 
Mon.; Mo. 12, 8; Okla. 9, 38; Pa. 
16,7; S. D. 17, 8; Utah; Wash.; Va. 
167. In others the restriction only ap- 
plies to railroads (111. 11, 13; Neb. 
11, 5). 

« Okla., Utah, Wash. 

•" Ala., Col., La. 

» Ark., Cal., Ida., 111., Mo., Mon., 
Neb., N. D., Pa., S. D. 

12 Ala., N. D., Okla., S. D. 



§ 514. Preferred i<focIc cannot he issucil without the consent of 
two thirds/ or even iill,^ of the stockholders. 

§ 515. Time. — A few State Constitutions hmit the duration of 
corporations to tliirty,^ or ninety-nine * years. 

§ 51G. Real Estate may be held hy any corporation, usually such 
as it actually occupies in the exercise of its franchises,^ or as is 
necessary and proper for the carrying on of its legitimate business." 
Otherwise no corporation may hold land for more than a limited 
period of time.^ The Mississippi Constitution simply provides that 
the Legislature may limit or restrict the acquiring or holding of land 
by corporations.^ 

§ 517. Assignment of Franchise. — "Western States provide that 
the Legislature shall pass no law permitting the leasing or alienation 
of any franchise so as to relieve it or the property held thereunder 
from the liabilities of the lessor or grantor, lessee or grantee, con- 
tracted or incurred in the operation and use of such franchise or any 
of its privileges.® 

§ 518. Consolidation, Combination, etc. (see also Article 58). — 
In Georgia the strict principle is laid down that the Legislature may 
not authorize any corporation to buy shares or stock in any other 
corporation in the States or elsewhere, or to make any contract or 
agreement with such corporation with the effect or purpose of 
lessening competition or encouraging monopoly, and all such con- 
tracts etc., are void." In Oklahoma, it may not o\\ti stock in any 
corporation engaged in the same line of business, or competitive, 
unless pledged, etc., and then it may not be voted and must be sold 
within a year." 

So, no incorporated company, or any association of persons or 
stock company in the State shall directly or indirectly combine or 
make any contract with any other incorporated company, foreign 
or domestic, through their stockholders or the trustees or assignees 
of such stockholders, or in any manner whatsoever for the purpose of 
fixing the price or regulating the production of any article of com- 
merce or of produce of the soil, or of consumption by the people, 

» Ala. 237. ' Thus, five years (Cal., Ky.), six 

^ Mo. 12, 10. years (Mo.), or ten years (La., Mich.). 

^ Mich. 15, 10 (except railroads, * Miss. 84. 

plankroads, and canals). » Cal. 12, 10; Ida. 11, 15; Ky. 203; 

* Miss. 178. Hon. 15, 17; Utah 12, 7; Wash. 12, 8. 

« Mich. 15, 12. " Ga. 4, 2, 4. 

« Cal. 12, 9 ; Ky. 192 ; La. 265 ; " Okla. 9, 41. 
Mo. 12, 7; S. D. 17, 7. 


and the Legislature are required to pass laws for the enforcement 
thereof, by adequate penalties, to the extent, if necessary for that 
purpose, of the forfeiture of their property and franchise,' and, if 
foreign corporations, prohibiting them from carrying on business 
in the State.^ (See § 581.) 

"No corporation, company, person, or association of persons in 
the State shall directly combine or form what is known as a trust." ^ 

"^Monopolies and trusts shall never be allowed in this State."'* 
So, "the Legislature shall enact laws preventing" such combina- 
tions, etc' (See § 581.) 

"There shall be no consolidation or combination of corporations 
of any kinds whatever to prevent competition, to control or influence 
productions or prices thereof, or in any manner to interfere with the 
public good and general welfare." ® 

"No person, corporation, etc., engaged in the production, manu- 
facture, distribution, or sale of any commodity in general use shall 
for the purpose of creating a monopoly or destroying competition 
discriminate between different persons or corporations, or different 
sections, communities, or cities, by selling at a lower rate in one 
than in another, allowance made for the difference if any in the 
grade, quantity, or quality, and in the actual cost of transportation 
from the point of production or manufacture."'' 

§ 519. Taxation of Corporations. — (See § 330.) By the Vir- 
ginia Constitution,^ provision shall be made by general laws for the 
payment of a fee by every domestic corporation, upon the granting, 
amendment, or extension of its charter, and by every foreign cor- 
poration upon obtaining a license to do business; and also for an 
annual registration fee of from $5 to $25, irrespective of other taxes, 
upon every corporation for the privilege of carrying on its business 
in the State (and this seems to apply to foreign corporations as well), 
and upon failure to pay the tax for two years the license to do busi- 
ness is revoked or the charter annulled. 

"The Legislature shall, by general law, provide for the payment 
to the State of a franchise tax by corporations organized under the 

• Ida. 11, 18; Mon. 15,20; S. D. ' Ala. 103; Ky. 198; La. 190; 
17,20; Wash. 12, 22. Or "regulating Miss. 198; N. H. 2, 82; Okla. 5, 44; 
the transportation thereof" (Mon., S. C. 9, 13: Va. 1G5. See Art. 58. 

S. D., Wash.). 6 Wy. 10, 8. 

' Mon. 7 Okla. 9, 45. 

3 Mon. 8 Va. 157. 

* S. D., Wash. 


laws of this State, wliicli sliall Ix- in ])r()portion to tlie amount of 
capital stock; and lor the payment of a franchise tax by foreign cor- 
porations, but such franchise tax sliall be based on the actual ainoimt 
of capital employed by this State. Strictly benevolent, educational 
or religious corporations shall not be required to pay such a tax.^ 
In other States corporations are taxed on their property in like man- 
ner as individuals.^ 

"The word property as used in this article is hereby declared to 
include moneys, credits, bonds, stocks, franchises, and all matters 
and things (real, personal, and mixed), capable of private owner- 
ship, but this sliall not be construed so as to authorize the taxation 
of the stocks of any company or corporation when the property of 
such company or corporation represented by such stocks is within 
the State and has been taxed." ^ (See § 331.) 

Shares of stock of Delaware corporations "owned by persons or 
corporations without the State shall not be subject to taxation by 
any law now existing or hereafter to be made." ^ 

Article 52. Railroads 
(See, for General Provisions, Article 50.) 

§ 520. Highways. — The Constitutions of many States declare 
all railroads to be public highways ; ^ and so, in a few, canals ^ or 
turnpikes; ^ and "free to all persons for the transportation of their 
persons or property thereon under the regulations prescribed by law."^ 

§ 521. Carriers. — - And these State Constitutions usually, with 
others, declare railroads to be common carriers," and so also of 
canal,'" pipe line," express,'- telegraph and telephone,'^ or other 
transportation companies," or sleeping cars.'^ 

1 Ala. 232. 'Ala.; Ark. 17, 1; Cal. 12, 17; 

2 Miss. 181; Fla. 16, 16. See also Col. 15,4; Ida. 11,5; La.; Miss. 184, 
§ 330. 195 ; Mo. ; Mon. ; N. D. 142 ; Pa. ; 

3 Mon. 12, 17; Utah 13, 2. S. C. 9, 3; S. D. ; Tex.; Utah 12, 12; 
^ Del. 9, 6. Wash. 12, 13, and 19; Wy. 10, 7. 

s Ala. 242 ; Ark. 17, 1 ; Col. 15, 4 
111. 11, 12; Ida. 11, 15; La. 272 
Miss. 184; Mo. 12, 14; Mon. 15, 5 
Neb. 11, 4; N. D. 142; Okla. 9, 6 
Pa. 17, 1 ; S. D. 17, 15 ; Tex. 10, 2 ; W 

Ala., Ark., Cal., Ida., Mon., Pa. 
S. C, Wash. 

" Okla., Wy. 

'- Ala., Ida., Mon., Miss., N. D. 
S. C, Wy. 

Va. 11, 9; Wy. 10, 10 (2). '» Ala. ; Ky. 199; Miss.; Mon.: 

6 Ala., Ark., Pa. S. C. ; Wash. ; Wy. 

' Ark. '* Ala., Cal., Ida., Miss., Mon., N. D. 

« Ark. 17, 3; Col. 15, 6; 111.; Neb.; S. C, S. D., Utah, Wash., Wy. 

W. Va. " Ida., Miss. 


And as such they are subject to legislative control,' taxation," and 
liability,^ which last can never be limited by law, nor shall a carrier 
be permitted to contract himself out of it.* 

In Oklahoma and Virginia this applies to all public service cor- 
porations; and the terms "transmission" and "transportation" 
company are defined. 

§ 522. Legislative Control. — The newer State Constitutions 
give the legislature express power to make laws establishing reason- 
able maximum rates of fare and freight,^ or generally to control 
or regulate the rates within the State.^ In other States, to correct 
abuses and prevent unjust discrimination or extortion.^ This power 
may never be surrendered nor abridged.'^ In a few, this power is 
or may be given to the railroad ^ or corporation commission.^" And 
it extends also to transportation," steamboat,'- express,'^ or " trans- 
mission" (telegraph and telephone) companies,'* canals,'" or pipe 
lines. '^ But always with appeal to the courts; '^ and the rate fixed 
stands, pending appeal.'^ In Oklahoma the Constitution requires 
a two-cent rate for passengers, unless the corporation commission 
exempt a railroad because unable at that rate to earn a "just 
compensation." '* 

In California, a railroad, having once lowered its rates to com- 
pete with another carrier, cannot put them up again without the 
consent of the railroad commissioners.^" 

§ 52.3. Short-Haul Clause. — By a few State Constitutions no 

railroad may charge, for freight or passengers, a greater amount 

for a less distance than a greater, in the same direction,^' of which 

' Cal. ; Ida.; Ky. ; Miss. 186; Mon. ; « Cal. 12, 22; Ky. 209; Tex. 1889, 

N. D.; S. D.; Utah; Va. 1G4; Wash. p. 171. See § 532. 

2 S. C. '0 Neb. 1905, 233; Okla. 9, 4 ; S. C, 

* S. C. 9, 13 ; Va. (subject to the paramount 

* Ky. 196 ; Neb. ; S. C. authority of the Legislature). 
^ Ala. 243; lU. 11, 12; Ida. 11, 5; '"■ Ida., IVIiss. 

Mich. 19 A, 1; Mo. 12, 14; Neb. 11, 4; ^- Ky. 

Tex. 10, 2; Wash. 12, 18; Utah 12, ^^ Ida., Miss. 

15; W. Va. 11, 9; Va. 158. " Okla., Va. 

» Mon. 15, 5; N. D. 142; S. D. 17, '^ Ala., Ark. 

15 ; Va. 164 ; S. C. 9, 13. '« Okla. So, all public service com- 

^ Ark. 17, 10, 1897, p. 92; Ala. 243; panics: Fla., Okla., Va. 

Fla. 16, 30; 111. 11, 15; Ky. 196; Ga. '' N. D., Okla., Va. 

4, 2, 1; Miss. 186; Mo. 12, 14; Neb. >« N. D., Okla., Va. See § 532. 
11, 7; N. D. ; Tex. 10, 2; Utah; i» Okla. 9, 37. 

Wash.; W. Va. 11, 9; S. C. 9, 13; '" Cal. 12,20. 

5. D. 17, 17. 21 Ark. 17, 3; Cal. 12, 21; Ida. 11, 
8 Va. It may be enforced if neces- 6; Ky. 218; Mo. 12, 12; Mon. 15, 7; 

sary by forfeiture of the franchise Okla. 9, 30; Pa. 17, 3; S. C. 9, 5; 
(S. C). Wash. 12, 15; Va. 160. 


the lesser is part; and as to freight, etc., of the same class.* But 
the railroad commission may make order exempting from this 
condition,- as at competitive points,^ etc. In Oklalioma and 
Virginia this principle a})plies to both transportation or "transmis- 
sion " companies. 

§ 524. Discrimination. — Besides the general prohil)ition of 
§ 522, we find a usual constitutional provision that no (undue or 
unreasonable *) discrimination in charges or facilities for trans- 
portation shall be made by any railroad '^ between places or persons, 
or in the facilities for the transportation of the same classes of freight 
or passengers," or by abatement, drawback, rebate,'' etc. 

All individuals, associations, and corporations similarly situated, 
shall have equal rights to have persons or property transported on 
and over any railroad, transportation, or express route in this State ^ 
(except that preference may be given to perishable property "), and 
to employees and ministers.'" 

No railroad, express, or transportation company, nor any lessee, 
manager, or other employee thereof, shall give any preference to 
any individual, association, or corporation, in furnishing cars or 
motive power," or for the transportation of money or other express 

All railway lines shall receive, load, unload, transport, haul, de- 
liver, and handle freight of the same class for all persons, associa- 
tions, or corporations from and to the same points and upon the same 
conditions, in the same manner and for the same charges, and for 
the same method of payment.'^ 

No railway, transfer, belt line, or railway bridge company 

* Expressed in a few, but doubtless * Ark.; Cal. ; Col.; Ida. 11, 6. 
implied in all. "This section shall not ^ Or transportation (Ida. ; La. 286; 
prevent the Railroad Commission from Mon. 15, 7; S. C. 9, 5; Wash. 12, 15; 
making such competitive rates as shall, canal (Pa.) ; express (Ida., Mon.) ; turn- 
in their judgment, be just and equita- pike (Ark.) ; or transmission (telegraph, 
ble between the railroads and the pub- etc.) company (S. C. ; Va.). 
lie, at all junctional and competitive "^ Ark.; Cal. 12,21; Col.; Ida.; La.; 
points or at points where water com- Mon. ; Pa. 17, 3 ; S. C. ; Wash, 
petition controls the traffic, or at points '' Ala. 245; Cal.; Ida.; Mon.; Pa.; 
where the competition of points located S. C. ; Wash. 
in other States may make necessary * Ida. 11,6; Mon. 15,7. 
the prescribing of different rates for ® Ida. 
the protection of the commerce of this " Wy. 10, 2. 

State.': (S. C.) So, substantially, in '^ Ark. 17, 6; Col. 15, 6; Ida.; 

Oklahoma. Mo. 12, 23 ; Mon. ; Pa. 17, 7. 

2 Okla., Ky., S. C, Va. '- Ida., Mon. 

3 Okla., Va. " Ky. 215. 


shall make any exclusive or preferential contract or arrangement 
with any individual, association, or corporation for the receipt, 
/ transfer, . delivery, transportation, handling, care, or custody of 
any freight, or for the conduct of any business as a common 

The Legislature shall pass laws against abuses, discrimination, 
and excessive charges by railroads, canals, and turnpike companies 
for freight or passengers.^ 

"No rebate or bonus shall be paid, directly or indirectly, or any 
act done which shall mislead the public as to the real rates charged 
or received for freight or passage."^ (See also § 435.) 

Common carrier corporations, enjoying a right of way, shall 
carry the productions of the country on equal terms.* 

§ 525. Passes, Commutations, etc. — But excursion or commu- 
tation tickets may be issued at reduced rates ^ and charitable service 
rendered free of cost.® 

Free passes, or reduced rates, to State officials or members of the 
Legislature are in a few States forbidden by the Constitution ; ' 
and so to anybody, except officers or employees,^ or ministers.^ 
Acceptance of such a pass causes forfeiture of the office.'" 

§ 526. Connections. — Li many States railroad companies are 
given a constitutional right to connect with or cross any other; " to 
construct and operate its railroad between any designated points 

» Ky. 214. So in Washington (12, « La., Okla. 

21): "Railroad companies now or ^ Ala. 244; Ark. 17, 7; Cal. 12, 19; 

hereafter organized or doing business Mo. 12, 24; Ky. 197; La. 191; 

in this State, shall allow all express Fla. 16, 31; Miss. 188; Okla. 9, 2; 

companies organized or doing business Wash. 2, 39; 12, 20; N. Y. 13, 5; Va. 

in tliis State, transportation over all 161. And so as to steamboats (La., 

lines of railroad owned or operated by Ky.) ; telegraph or telephone (La., 

such railroad companies upon equal N. Y.', Va.) ; or any public service 

terms with any other express com- corporation or common carrier (Ky., 

pany, and no railroad corporation or- La.). 

ganized or doing business in this * Okla. 9, 13 ; Pa. 17, 8 ; La. 287. 

State shall allow any express corpora- ' La., Okla. 

tion or company any facihties, privi- '" Ala., Cal., Ky., La., Mo., N. Y., 

leges, or rates for transportation of men Va. ; Wis. 1901, 437. It is made a 

or materials or property carried by crime (Okla.). 

them, or for doing the business of such '' Ala. 242 ; Ark. 17, 1 ; Cal. 12, 17; 

express companies, not allowed to all Col. 15, 4; Ida. 11, 5; Ky. 216; La. 

express companies." 271; Miss. 184; Mo. 12, 13; Mon. 15, 

2 Ark. 1897, p. 92 ; Ky. 196 ; Utah 5 ; N. D. 143 ; Okla. 9, 2 ; Pa. 16, 12 ; 

12, 15; Wash. 12, 18. Compare § 522. S. C. 9, 6; S. D. 17, 16; Tex. 10, 1 ; Va. 

' Ga. 4, 2, 5. 166; Wash. 12, 13; Wy. 10, 10 (1). 

* Minn. 10, 4. "In such a manner as to transfer cars" 

^Ark. ; Cal.; Ida.; La. 287 ; Mo.; (Ky., Wash.). 
Mon. ; Okla. 9, 30 ; Pa. ; S. C. ; Wash. 


within the State' and to connect with railroads of other States at 
the State Hnc.' 

And in several States this principle is extended to telegraph or 
telephone ^ companies and canals.'' Any such company must receive 
and transport the passengers and freight ° (or even the cars, loaded 
or empty"), of such other company without delay or discrimination. 

A railway must deliver grain at any elevator or warehouse which 
can be reached by its tracks and allow other warehouses or coal- 
banks to make connection.' 

§ 527. Consolidations and Combinations. — Most State Consti- 
tutions provide that no railroad may consolidate with a competing 
or parallel line,^ or acquire it by purchase, lease, or otherwise," or 
own or control its stock,'" or pool its earnings with it," or operate 
it; '^ nor may the officers of one act as the officers of the otlier.'^ 

In two States no railroad may consolidate with another organ- 
ized in another State." In other States it may do so, but will still 
be liable to the home jurisdiction.'^ 

Nor shall any railroad company or other common carrier com- 
bine or make any contract with the owners of any vessel that leaves 
or makes port in this State, or with any common carrier, by which 
combination or contract the earnings of one doing the carrying are 
to be shared by the other not doing the carrying.'" 

Notice of a proposed consolidation must be given to all the stock- 
holders of both roads, '^ usually sixty days.'^ An attempt to evade 

' Ida., Miss., Mon., N. D., Okla., transportation (Mon., S. C.) ; or "any 

S. D., Wash., Wy. other corporation" (Mon.). Any public 

' Ida., Miss., Mon., N. D., Okla., service company (Okla.). And it ap- 

S. D., S. C, Wash., Wy. plies also to corporations of other 

' Ala., Col., Pa., Okla., S. C. States, or of the United States, having 

* Ala. lines in the State (Okla.). 

« Ark.; Ala.; Cal. ; Ky. 213; La.; » Ark., Mo., Okla., Pa., S. C, Tex., 

Mich. 19 A, 1 ; Miss. ; Mo. ; N. D. ; W. Va. 

Okla.; Pa.; S. C. ; S. D. ; Tex.; Utah '» Okla., S. C. 9, 19. 

12, 12 ; Va. ; Wash. ; Wy. '' Ky., Mon. 

" Okla., S. C, Va. '^ i^y^ ^gn. 

' 111. 13, 5. " Ark., Mo., Mon., Okla., Pa., Tex. 

« Ark. 17, 4; Col. 15, 5 and 13; 111. '* Okla. 9, 9; Tex. 10, 6; S. C. 9, 8. 

11, 11; Ky. 201; Mich. 19 A, 2 ; Mo. >= Col. 15, 14; Ida. 11, 14; Ky. 200; 
12,17; Mon. 15, 6 & 7 & 14; Neb. 11, La. 274; Mo. 12, 18; Mon. 15, 11. 
3; N. D. 141; Okla. 9, 8; Pa. 16, 12; And so of telegraph (Col., Ky., Ida., 
S. C. 9, 7 ; S. D. 17, 14 ; Tex. 10, 5 ; Utah Mon.) ; telephone (La.) ; express (Ky., 

12, 13; Wash. 12, 16; W. Va. 11, 11. Ida., Mon.); transportation (Mon.) ; or 
And so of telegraph companies (Ala. any other corporation (Ky., Ida.). 
239 ; Col. ; Ky. ; Neb. ; Pa. ; S. C. ; S. D. '" Cal. 12, 20 ; Ky. 201 ; Wash. 12, 14. 
17, 11); telephone (Ala., Ky., Mon.); " 111., Mich., Neb., N. D., Mo., S. D. 
canals (Ark., Pa.) ; bridges (Ky.) ; ex- '^ La., N. D., S. D. 

press (Mon.) ; common carrier (Ky.) ; or 


the provisions of this section, by lease or otherwise, forfeits the 
charter.^ The question whether the roads are parallel or compet- 
ing is one of fact, to be determined by a jury.^ The provisions 
of this article may not be evaded by holding companies, control of 
stock, etc.^ 

§ 528. The Rolling Stock and movable property of railroads are 
declared to be personal property; and the Legislature may pass no 
law exempting it from execution,^ or ordinary direct taxation.^ 
And so its earnings are subject to ordinary attachment or trustee 

§ 529. Location. — No railroad, etc., organized in another State 
can exercise the right of eminent domain or acquire land or right of 
way until duly incorporated in the State.'' (See also §§ 505, 538.) 

No railroad company shall construct or operate a railroad within 
four miles of any existing town or city without providing a suitable 
depot or stopping place at the nearest practical point for the con- 
venience of said town or city, and stopping all trains doing local 
business at said stopping place. No railroad company shall deviate 
from the most direct practical line in constructing a railroad for the 
purpose of avoiding the provisions of this section.^ Proper depots 
must be maintained for freight and passengers; and protecting 
devices at grade crossings.^ 

The exclusive right to build or operate railroads parallel to its own 
or any other line of railroad shall not be granted to any company.^" 

§ 530. O^ce and Oncers, Reports, etc. — "Every railroad 
corporation organized or doing business in this State under the laws 
or authority thereof shall have and maintain a public office or place 

1 N. D., S. D. Miss. 185 ; Mo. 2, 16 ; Neb. 11, 2 ; Okla. 

2 Ark., Mo., Pa., S. C. 9, 7 ; S. D. 17, 13; Tex. 10, 4; W. Va. 

3 Notliing prohibited in this Article 11, 8; Utah 12, 14; Wash. 12, 17. 
shall be permitted to be done by any * Utah, Wash. 

corporation or company, persons or ' Ky. 

person, either for its or their own ' Ky. 211; Neb. 11, 8; Okla. 9, 31. 

benefit or otherwise, by its or their ^ Wy. 10, 10 (9). So, not within 

holding or controlling in its or their half a mile of a town of three hundred 

own name or other\vise, or in the name people (W. Va. 11, 10); and "it may 

of any other person or persons, or not pass within three miles of a county 

other corporation or company whatso- seat, without passing through the 

ever, a majority of the capital stock, same" if the town will give right of 

or of bonds having voting power, of any way, etc., unless prevented by natural 

railroad or transportation company, or obstacles (Miss. 187 ; Okla. 9, 14 ; Tex. 

corporation created by or existing 10, 9). 

under the laws of this State, or doing » Okla. 9, 26 & 27. 

business within this State (S. C. 9, 19). i" Va. 166. 
* Ark. 17, 11; 111. 11, 10; Ky. 212 ; 


in tills State for the transaction of its business, where transfers of its 
stock shall he made, and in which shall be kept for public inspection 
books in which shall be recorded the amount of capital stock sub- 
scribed, and by whom ; the names of the owners of its stock, and the 
amount owned by them respectively; the amount of stock paid in, 
and by whom; the transfers of said stock; the amount of its assets 
and liabilities ; and the names and place of residence of its officers. 
The directors of every such railroad corporation shall annually make 
a report, under oath, to the auditor of public accounts or some 
officer or officers to be designated by law, of all their acts and doings, 
which report shall include such matters relating to railroads as may 
be prescribed by law, and the Legislature shall pass laws enforcing 
by suitable penalties the provisions of this section." ^ 

"Every railroad corporation or association operating a line of 
railroad within this State shall annually make a report to the auditor 
of State of its business within this State, in such form as the Legisla- 
ture may prescribe." ^ 

A majority of the directors must be resident in the State.^ 

No president, officer, director, agent, or employee of a railroad or 
canal shall be interested, directly or indirectly, in furnishing it 
material or supplies, or in the business of transportation of freight or 
passengers as a common carrier over the company's works.* 

§ 53L Ultra Vires. — No company doing the business of a 
common carrier can engage in mining or manufacturing articles for 
transportation over its works; nor directly or indirectly engage in 
any other business ; nor hold land except such as is necessary to its 

§ 532. Railroad Commissioners are established by the Constitu- 
tions of several States^ (see also § 202). In Oklahoma, Virginia, 
and South Carolina the " Corporation Commission " have charge of 
all "transporting and transmitting companies."^ But in Oklahoma, 

^ N. D. 140 ; Okla. 9, 6 (report to be fe?5r own railways or canals not ex- 
made to the Corporation Commission) ; ceeding fifty miles in length (Pa.). 
S. D. 17, 12. And so of all public ser- « Cal. 12, 22 ; Ky. 209 ; La. 283 ; 
vice corporations (Okla.). Neb. 1905, 233 ; S. C. 9, 14. So, "they 

2 Ark. 17, 13; W. Va. 11, 7; Wy. may be estabhshed by the Legisla- 

10, 10 (3). ture," N. D. 142; Tex., 1889, p. 171, 

' 111. 11. 11. 1893, p. 213; Wash. 12, 18. 

* Ark. 17, 5 ; Cal. 12, 18 ; Mo. 12, 22 ; ' The Virginia and Oklalioma Con- 
Pa. 17, 6. stitutional provisions concerning the 

^ Ky. 210; Okla. 9, 12; Pa. 17, 5. Corporation Commission are so prolix 

But mining or manufacturing com- that it is impossible to give more than 

panies may carry their product over an abstract in the note. Briefly stated 




the legislature may repeal Art. 9 §§ 18-34, being practically all 
constitutional provisions relating to railroads, after January, 1909 
(9, 35). 

they are as follows: The State Cor- 
poration Commission consists of three 
members appointed by the Governor 
(Va.) , elected by the people (Okla.), for 
six years respectively, one going out 
each two years. No person can hold 
office as a member of such Commission 
while employed by or holding any office 
in any transportation or transmis- 
sion company or financially interested 
therein (Okla., Va.), or engaged in 
practising law (Va.), or in any other 
business (Okla.), although at least one 
of the Commission must have the cjuali- 
fications prescribed for a judge of the 
Circuit Court of Appeals (Va.). Then 
there are provisions much like the 
Massachusetts statutes concerning the 
Railroad Commission as to their rules, 
sittings, officers, etc. : Okla. 9, 16-19 ; 
Va. 155. After 1908 the Legislature 
may provide for the election, instead of 
the appointment, of the members of 
such Commission (Va.). 

The Corporation Commission issues 
all charters and amendments or exten- 
sions thereof for domestic corpora- 
tions and all licenses to do business for 
foreign corporations (Va.) and has 
general supervision and control, with 
power to require evidence and reports, 
etc. (Okla., Va.). They may prescribe 
rates, charges, classifications of traffic, 
and rules and regulations, and may 
require railroads, etc., to estabhsh such 
pulalic services as may be reasonable, 
and all other rates or charges shall be 
void, and may inspect books and papers, 
require evidence under oath, etc. (Okla. 
9, 28; Va.). Before fixing any rate or 
making any order directed against one 
or more companies by name, such com- 
pany shall be given ten days' notice 
with an opportunity to be heard ; and of 
general orders directed not against any 
specific company, there must be four 
weeks' publication in a capital news- 
paper with notice of hearing (Okla., 
Va.). Notliing in this section is to 
interfere with the paramount authority 
of the Legislature (Va.). But the 
authority of the Commission to make 
rates, subject to appeal to the courts, 

is paramount (Okla.). Nor to impair 
any right heretofore or hereafter con- 
ferred by law upon the authorities of 
any city, town, or county to fix rates 
or prescribe regulations, etc., as to rates 
of public service corporations therein 
(Okla., Va.). The Commission has the 
general powers of a court of record, 
may administer oaths, compel the at- 
tendance of witnesses and the produc- 
tion of papers, and punish for contempt, 
etc. (Okla. 9, 19; Va.). From any 
action of the Commission prescribing 
rates, charges, or other ortlers an appeal 
may be taken by the corporation or by 
the Commonwealth to the Supreme 
Court but prior to the reversal of 
such order by the Court no action 
of the Commission is delayed or sus- 
pended until a suspending bond shall 
first have been executed and filed with 
and approved by the Commission, pay- 
able to the Commonwealth to secure 
all charges which such company may 
collect or receive pending the appeal 
in excess of those fixed by the final 
decision. All such appeals have prece- 
dence in the Court of Appeals. No 
new evidence may be introduced upon 
the appeal. If the Court reverse the 
order of the Commission affecting rates, 
etc., it shall substitute therefor such 
order as it deem reasonable, which 
substituted order has the same force 
and effect as if entered by the Com- 
mission originally. The right of any 
person to institute in the ordinary 
courts any action or suit against any 
transportation or transmission com- 
pany for any claim or cause of action 
is not extinguished or impaired by 
reason of any fine or other penalty 
wliich the Commission may impose 
upon such company, but in no such 
proceeding shall the reasonableness or 
justness of any rate or order, etc., made 
by the Commission within the scope 
of its authority and then in force, be 
questioned. The Commission makes 
annual reports to the Governor, etc. 
(Va. 156-157; Okla. 9, 20-25). And 
in Oklahoma they must report the 
cost of road, rebuilding cost or "re- 


The ronstitutioii of TiOuIsiaiiii providers for a Railroad, Express, 
Telcplioiie, Tclograpli, Stcainhoat, and Sk'cpin<;^ Car Coinini.s.sion to 
be composed of three iiu-iiiht'rs to be elected IVoiii the State Districts, 
which Commission has power to adopt or change reasonable and 
just rates, charges, and regulations, to govern the tariffs and service 
of such several companies, to prevent them from charging any 
greater compensation in the aggregate for the like kind of property 
or passengers for a sliorter than a longer distance over the same line 
unless specially authorized by the Commission; to require suitable 
depots, switches, and appurtenances, to inspect railroads and require 
them to keep their tracks, etc., in a safe condition, and to fix and 
adjust rates between branch or short lines and the great trunk lines 
with which they connect. The Commission may further adopt 
reasonable rules, regulations, etc., may hear and determine com- 
plaints, and regulate investigations, and compel the attendance of 
witnesses and compel the production of testimony, etc., and punish 
for contempt as fully as is provided by law for the district courts. 
Railroads and other companies dissatisfied with the decision or 
rate may appeal to the Supreme Court of the State. The powers of 
the Commission go only to matters within the State lines. ^ 

The Legislature is empowered to add to or enlarge the powers of 
such Commission; and no person in the service of any such rail- 
way or other company can be a Commissioner.^ 

§ 534. Liabilities. — The fellow-servant doctrine as to em- 
ployees of railroads is done away with by some new State Constitu- 
tions ; ^ and railroads are responsible for all damages to persons or 
property to their employees as to others.* 

The Constitution of Arkansas provides that all railroads shall be 
responsible for all damages to person or property, under such regula- 
tions as are prescribed by the Legislature ; and that the Legislature 
shall require, by suitable laws, the necessary means and appliances 
to secure the safety of passengers on railroads and other public 

valuation," debt, stock, bonds, prices * La. 283-285. 

received therefor, salaries and wages ^ La. 287, 288. 

paid, etc., at once to the Attorney ^ Okla. 9, 36; S. C. 9, 15; Va. 162; 
General, and in their annual reports Miss. 193. And also of mines (Okla.). 

(Okla. 9, 29). And they must in- ^ S. C, Miss, 

vestigate and report, when necessary, ^ Ark. 17, 12 ; 19, 18. 
to the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion (Okla. 9, 32). 


And it is unlawful for any person or corporation to require of its 
employees, as a condition of their employment or otherwise, any 
contract or agreement whereby the company is released from lia- 
bility on account of personal injuries received by such employees 
while in its service, by reason of the negligence of the company or 
its servants; and such contracts are void.' 

§ 535. Damages for Death. — (See also § 462.) Four new 
Constitutions provide for damages for death whether instantaneous 
or not, in cases where damages would be liable had death not 
occurred ; and contracts to waive the benefit of this section are made 

The Constitutions of other States provide that every person or 
corporation that may commit a homicide, tlirough wilful act or 
omission or gross neglect, shall be responsible in exemplary dam- 
ages to the surviving husband, widow, or heirs, notwithstanding any 
criminal proceedings that may or may not be had.^ 

And in others, that no act of the Legislature shall limit the amount 
to be recovered for injuries resulting in death, or for injuries to person 
or property; and in case of death resulting therefrom, the right of 
action shall survive for the benefit of such persons as the Legislature 
may prescribe (see § 402) .* And also, that no act shall prescribe 

* Col. 15, 15 ; Wy. 10, 4. gerous or unsafe cars or engines volun- 

- Okla. ; S. C. 9, 15; Va. 161 ; Miss, tarily operated by them. When death 

193. Thus: "Every employee of any ensues from any injury to employees, 

railroad corporation shall have the the legal or personal representatives 

same rights and remedies for any in- of the person injured shall have the 

jury suffered by Mm from the acts or same right and remedies as are allowed 

omissions of said corporations or its by law to such representatives of other 

employees as are allowed by law to persons. Any contract or agreement, 

other persons not employees, when the expressed or imphed, made by any 

injury results from the negUgence of a employee to waive the benefit of tliis 

superior agent or officer, or of a person section, shall be null and void ; and 

having a right to control or direct tliis section shall not be construed 

the services of a party injured, and to deprive any employee of a corpora- 

also when the injury results from the tion, or liis legal or personal repre- 

negligence of a fellow servant engaged sentative, of any remedy or right that 

in another department of labor from he now has by the law of the land, 

that of the party injured, or of a fellow The General Assembly may extend 

servant on another train of cars, or the remedies herein provided for to 

one engaged about a different piece any other class of employees." (Miss. 

of work. Knowledge by any employee 193 ; S. C. 9, 19.) Other provisions 

injured of the defective or unsafe are substantially similar (Okla. 9, 36; 

character or condition of any ma- Va. 162). 

chinery, ways, or appliances shall be ^ Ky. 241 ; Tex. 16, 26 ; Wy. 10, 4. 

no defence to an action for injury * Ark. 5, 32; Ky. 54; Pa. 3, 21. 

caused thereby, except as to con- The Legislature are to prescribe to 

ductors or engineers in charge of dan- whom the damages belong (Ky.). 


any limitation of time within wliicii such suits shall be brought 
against corporations, different from those fixed by general laws for 
actions against natural persons.' 

Whenever the death of a person sliall result from an injury in- 
flicted by negligence or wrongful act, then, in every such case, 
damages may be recovered for such death, from the corporations and 
persons so causing the same. Until otherwise provided by law, the 
action to recover such damages shall in all cases be prosecuted by 
the personal representative. The same shall form part of the 
personal estate of the deceased person. - 

§ 53G. Street Railways. — The Constitutions of several States 
provide that no law shall be passed authorizing the construction of a 
street railroad ^ in a town or city without the consent of one-half in 
value of the abutting property owners,^ or the consent of the 
local authorities^ or of the electors,^ and this consent is also re- 
quired for gas, water, telephone, light companies, etc.,'' or any 
public service. Except, however, a petition may be brought, in 
New York, in the Supreme Court, in case the consent of property 
owners cannot be obtained. 

§ 537. Telegraph Companies. — Any association or corporation 
organized for the purpose, or any individual, shall have the right to 
construct and maintain lines of telegraph and telephone within this 
State, and connect the same with other lines; and the Legislature 
shall, by general law of uniform operation, provide reasonable 
regulations to give full effect to this section.^ No telegraph or tele- 
phone company shall consolidate with any other, etc. (See § 527.) 

Cities and towns may, however, control the location of such 

Said companies shall receive and transmit each other's messages 
without delay or discrimination. ^° 

Railroad corporations organized or doing business in this State 
shall allow telegraph and telephone corporations and companies to 

' Pa. 8 Neb. 13, 2. 

^ Ky. 241. 7 Ala., Ky. See note 5. 

3 And so of telegraph or telephone » Ala. 239; Ida. 11, 13; Ky. 199; 
(N. D., S. C, Utah, Wy.), electric Men. 15, 14; S. D. 17, 11; Wash. 12, 
(S. C, Wy.), gas (S. C), or water com- 19; Wy. 10, 10 (7). 
panies (S. C). » Ky. 

* N.Y. 3,18;Tex.lO,7; W.Va. 11,5. '° Ky. ; N. D. 142 ; Okla.9,5; S. D. ; 

« Ala. 220; Col. 15, 11; Ga. 3, 7, Wash. 12, 19. See also § 526. 
20; 111. 11, 4; Ky. 163; Mo. 12,20; 
Okla. 9, 10; Pa. 17, 9; S. C. S, 4. 


construct and maintain telegraph lines on and along the rights-of- 
way of such railroads and railroad companies, and no railroad 
corporation organized or doing business in this State shall allow any 
telegraph corporation or company any facilities, privileges, or rates 
for transportation of men or material, or for repairing their lines, not 
allowed to all telegraph companies. The right of eminent domain 
is hereby extended to all telegraph and telephone companies. The 
Legislature shall, by general law of uniform operation, provide 
reasonable regulations to give effect to this section.^ 

§ 538. Foreign railroads (see also §§ 505, 529) or teiegraph lines 
shall do no business within this State without having an agent 
or agents within each county through which such railroad or 
telegraph line shall be constructed upon whom process may be 

In South Carolina and Mississippi no foreign road can operate in 
the State. (See also § 529.) ^ 

§ 539. Local Aid. — Neither the State, nor any county, town- 
ship, school district, or municipality shall loan or give its credit or 
make donations to or in aid of any railroad * or telegraph line.'^ 
Provided, that this section shall not apply to obligations of any 
county, city, township, or school district, contracted prior to the 
adoption of this Constitution." (See also §§ 326, 335, 345, 370.) 

§ 540. Taxation. — (See § 528.) State franchise taxes may be 
imposed, and the Legislature in its discretion may make the same in 

' Wash. 12, 19. become a domestic corporation of this 

^ Wy. 10, 10 (8). State. No general or special law shall 

^ "The General Assembly shall not ever be passed for the benefit of any 
grant to any foreign corporation or foreign corporation operating a rail- 
association a license to build, operate, road under any existing license of this 
or lease any railroad in this State ; but State or under any existing lease, and 
in all cases where a railroad is to be no grant of any right or privilege and 
built or operated, or is now being no exemption from any burden shall 
operated, in this State, and the same be made to any such foreign corpora- 
shall be partly in this State and partly tion, except upon the condition that 
in another State, or in other States, the owners or stockholders thereof 
the owners or projectors thereof shall shall first organize a corporation in 
first become incorporated under the this State under the laws thereof, and 
laws of this State ; nor shall any foreign shall thereafter operate and manage 
corporation or association lease or the same and the business thereof 
operate any railroad in this State, or under said domestic charter." (Miss, 
purchase the same or any interest 197; S. C. 9, 8.) 
therein. Consolidation of any railroad * Mon. 5, 37 ; Wy. 3, 39 ; 10, 5. 
lines and corporations in this State ^ Wy. 
with others shall be allowed only ^ Wy. 
where the consolidated company shall 


lieu of taxes upon otluT j)rop(Tty of a transportation, industrial, or 
commercial corporatioii ; hut wlini such franchise tax is inijxiscd 
upon a corporation doini^ husiness in the State, or whenever all the 
capital, however invested, of a State cor{)oration is taxed, tlie shares 
of stock shall not be further taxed.' 

"The franchise, roadway, roadbed, rails, and rolling stock of all 
railroads oj^erated in this State shall be assessetl by the State Board 
of Equalization at their actual value, and such assessed valuation 
shall be apportioned to the counties, cities, towns, townships, and 
districts in which said roads are located, as a basis for taxation of 
such property, in proportion to the number of miles of railway laid 
in such counties, cities, towns, townships, and districts." - 

"The Legislative Assembly may, by law, provide for the payment 
of a per centum of gross earnings of railroad companies to be paid 
in lieu of all State, county, township, and school taxes on property 
exclusively used in and about the prosecution of the business of such 
companies as common carriers, but no real estate of said corporations 
shall be exempted from taxation in the same manner and on the 
same basis as other real estate is taxed, except roadbed, right of way, 
shops, and buildings used exclusively in their business as common 
carriers; and whenever and so long as such law^ providing for the 
payment of a per centum on earnings shall be in force, that part of 
§ 179 of this article relating to assessments of raih'oad property shall 
cease to be in force. " ^ 

In Virginia the State Corporation Commission are to assess the 
real estate, rolling stock, and personal property of railroads, the 
canal bed, real estate, and boats of canals, and such property shall 
be taxed for State, county, city, town, and district purposes as 
authorized by law at such rates of taxation as may be imposed by 
them respectively on the real estate and personal property of natural 
citizens, provided that no tax shall be laid upon the net income; 
but such railway or canal shall also pay an annual State franchise 
tax equal to one per centum upon its gross receipts, which tax shall 
be in lieu of all other taxes or charges upon the franchises or shares 
of stock or property except the annual fee, etc. When the road or 
canal does not lie wholly within the State, the tax shall be equal to 
one per cent of the gross transportation receipts earned wathin the 
State, ascertained by determining the average gross per mile over its 

» Va. 170. See O. 1904, p. 652. ^ n. D. 176. 

2 Mon. 12, 16; N. D. 179. 


whole extent and multiplying the result by the number of miles 
operated in the State, with a reasonable deduction for excess of 
value for terminal facilities, etc., in other States.^ 

§ 541. Switches etc. — The Oklahoma Constitution provides that 
any person or corporation may construct spur tracks to its mine, 
mill, etc., and compel the railway to maintain the switch.^ 

Article 55. Banks 

§ 550. State Baiiks Forbidden. — The Constitutions of a few 
States forbid the creation or renewal of corporations with banking or 
discounting privileges.^ And in several, any act establishing banks 
must first be approved by a majority of the people, at a general 
election.* State banks are forbidden in Illinois; and, in other 
States, the State may not hold stock in any bank.^ See also § 326. 
Any banking law may be amended or repealed.^ But in others, 
such corporations may be formed under general laws,^ though 
such banking law must receive a two-thirds vote of the Legislature.^ 

So, in a few, no special charter can be granted for banking pur- 
poses.® (See also § 395 and § 502.) 

§ 551. Money and Banknotes. — In several, no corporation or 
individual can circulate as money anything but the lawful money of 
the United States.^" So, all banknotes must be redeemable in the 
lawful money of the United States," or in gold and silver.'- No note 
can be issued of less than one dollar.'^ Banknotes are allowed, 
secured by State or United States bonds.'* 

§ 552. Specie Payments. — In several, the Legislature can pass 
no law sanctioning the suspension of specie payments by 
banks. '^ 

» Va. 176-179. * Minn. 

^ Okla. 9, 33. » Ind. 11, 2; Kan. 13, 1; N. Y. 

3 Ore. 11, 1; Wis. 11, 4. 3, 4; S. C. 

* lo. 8, 5; 111. 11, 5; Kan. 13, 8; '° Ark. 12, 10; Cal.; Nev. 8, 6; 

Mich. 15, 2; Mo. 12, 26; O. 13, 7; Ore.; Wash. 12, 11. 

Wis. 11. 5. " Kan. 13, 4. 

« Ala. 253; Ind. 11; 111.; Kan. 13, '- Ala. 249. 

5; Mo. 12, 25. '^ Kan. 13, 7. 

« Kan. 13, 9. '* Ala. 248; S. D. 18, 1. 

' Ala. 248; Cal. 12, 5; Minn. 9, »' Ala. 249; Ind. 11, 7; 111. 11, 7; 

13; Miss. 181; Okla. 14, 1; S. C. 9, 9; lo. 8, 11; Mich. 15, 6; Minn. 9, 13; 

Tex. 1904, p. 249; W. Va. 11, 6; Wy. N. Y. 8, 5. 



§ 553. Security of Nofcs. — (See also § 551.) In many, the 
Legislature are to provide by law for the rej^istry of all bills or notes 
issued as money, and shall recjuiie ample .security for their redemption 
in specie.' 

§ 554. Insolvencij of Banks. — The Constitution makes it a crime 
for any officer or owner of a private or public bank to assent to the 
reception of deposits or the creation of debts by such bank after he 
has knowledge that it is in insolvent or failing circumstances, and 
he is individually responsible for such debts or deposits.' The bill- 
holders have preference over all other creditors of an insolvent 

§ 555. Stockholders of a bank are, in a few States, individually 
liable for its debts, over and above their stock, to the amount of the 
stock held by them."* But in others, they are liable only to the 
amount of their unpaid stock.^ In one, to double such amount of 
stock." And in one, they are liable for all debts of the bank con- 
tracted while they are officers or such stockholders, each for his 
proportion, according to the amount of stock owned by him.'' 

§ 556. Interest. — The Constitution of Indiana provides that no 
bank shall receive, directly or indirectly, a greater rate of interest 
than is allowed to individuals loaning money.*^ In Oklahoma, the 
article on banking provides that it shall be six per cent, or by 
contract, ten per cent.* 

§ 557. Limitation of Charter. — By the Constitutions of two, 
every bank shall be required to cease all banking operations within 
twenty years from the time of its organization and promptly close its 

§ 558. Trust Companies and individuals are included in the 
provisions of the banking law.'' No trust company or bank may own 
or hold stock in another such company except by bona fide pledge, 
and then must dispose of the same within one year as in § 518.'^ 

1 Ind. 11, 3; 111. 11, 8; lo. 8, 8; p. 249; Utah 12, 18; Wash. 12, 11. 

Kan. 13, 2 ; Mich. 15, 4 ; Minn. 9, 13 ; For a year after they sell their stock. 

N. Y. 8, 6; N. D. 145; Pa. 16, 9; S. D. (S. D., Tex.) Stock must be paid up 

18, 20. in cash (Tex.). (See also § 512.) 

» Ky. 204 ; La. 269 ; Mo. 12, 27 ; « Kan. ; Md. 3, 39. 

Wash. 12, 12. " Minn. 9, 13. 

3 Ala. 250; To. 8, 10; Ind. 11, 8; ' Mich. 15, 3. 

Mich. 15, 5; Minn. 9, 13; Kan. 13, 4; « Ind. 11, 9. 

N. Y. 8, 8. ' Okla. 14. 2. 

* (See also § 509.) Ind. 11, 6; 111. 11, " Ind. 11, 10; S. D. 18, 2. 

6 ; lo. 8, 9 ; Neb. 13, 7 ; N. Y. 8, 7 ; " Ala. 255. 

S. C. 9, IS; S. D. 18, 3; Tex. 1904, '= Okla. 9, 41. 


§ 559. Reports (semi-annual) must be made to the State banking 

Article 56. Insurance Companies 

§ 560. Deposit. — The Georgia Constitution provides that all 
foreign or domestic Hfe-insurance companies doing business in the 
State shall deposit $100,000 in good securities with the comptroller 
of the insurance commissioners of this State or the State where 
they are chartered; and all companies must make semi-annual 

Article 57. Miscellaneous Corporations 

§ 570. Religious. — In one State, no religious corporation can 
be established in the State except such as may be formed under a 
general law for the purpose of holding title to such real estate as may 
be allowed them by law.^ In one other, the title to all property of 
religious corporations vests in trustees, elected by their members.* 
The Legislature shall not grant a charter of incorporation to any 
church or religious denomination, but may secure the title to church 
property to an extent to be limited by law.^ 

§ 571. Co-operative. — The Legislature shall provide by suitable 
legislation for the organization of mutual co-operative associations 
or corporations.® 

Article 58. Trusts, Monopoly, etc. 

§ 580. General Principles. — (See also §§ 518, 526.) "It shall 
be the duty of the General Assembly from time to time, as necessitv 
may require, to enact such laws as may be necessary to prevent all 
trusts, pools, combinations, or other organizations, from combining 
to depreciate below its real value any article, or to enhance the 
cost of any article above its real value." ^ 

"The General Assembly shall enact laws to prevent all trusts, 
combinations, contracts, and agreements against the public welfare."^ 

1 Ala. 254. " Va. 6, 47. 

2 Ga. 3, 12, 1 & 3 & 5. « Wy. 10, 10. 
' Mo. 2, 8. 7 xy. 198. 

* Kan. 12, 3. « S. C. 9, 8; Miss. 198; Va. 165. 


"Full and fair competition in the trades and industries is an 
inherent and essential right of the people, and should he protected 
against all monopolies and conspiracies which tend to hinder or 
destroy." ' 

The Legislature shall define what is an unlawful combination, 
monopoly, trust, act, or agreement, in restraint of trade, and enact 
laws to punish persons engaged in any unlawful combination, mo- 
nopoly, trust, act, or agreement, in restraint of trade, or composing 
any such monopoly, trust, or combination. ~ 

§ 581. Monopolies and Perpetuities are "contrary to the genius 
of a free State and should not be allowed." ^ And so, in others, of 
"monopolies and trusts," * or monopolies simply.^ 

In California, the Constitution declares that the holding of large 
tracts of land, uncultivated and unimproved, by individuals or 
corporations, is against the public interest, and should be discouraged 
by all means not inconsistent with the rights of private property.® 

Any combination between individuals, corporations, associations, 
or either, having for its object or effect the controlling of the price 
of any product of the soil or any article of manufacture or commerce, 
or the cost of exchange or transportation, is prohibited and hereby 
declared unlawful and against public policy,^ and any and all 
franchises heretofore granted or extended, or that may hereafter be 
granted or extended in this State, whenever the owner or owners 
thereof violate this article, shall be deemed annulled and become 

All just power possessed by the State is hereby granted to the 
General Court to enact laws to prevent the operations within the 
State of all persons and associations, and all trusts and corporations, 
foreign or domestic, and the officers thereof, who endeavor to raise 
the price of any article of commerce or to destroy free and fair com- 
petition in the trades and industries tlirough combination, con- 
spiracy, monopoly, or any other unfair means; to control and 
regulate the acts of all such persons, associations, corporations, 
trusts, and officials doing business within the State; to prevent 

» N. H. 2, 82. Decl. Rts. 41; Okla. 2, 32; Tenn. 1, 

» Okla. 5, 44. 22; Tex. 1, 26; Wy. 1, 30. 

3 Wy. 1, 30. (See also § 518.) « Cal. 17, 2. 

* S. D. 17, 20; Wash. 12, 32. ^ N. D. 146; Utah 12, 20. So in 

^ Ark. 2, 19 ; Ida. 2, 32 ; N. M. Minnesota, but as to food products 

*1851, July 12, § 17; La. 276 (except only (Minn. 1889, 1). 

slaughtering businesses which may be * N. D. So the legislature shall 

regulated by cities); N. C. 1, 31; Md. pass laws to forfeit, etc. (Utah.) 


fictitious capitalization; and to authorize civil and criminal pro- 
ceedings in respect to all the wrongs herein declared against.' 

The Legislature shall provide by law for the regulation, prohi- 
bition, or reasonable restraint of common carriers, partnerships^ 
associations, trusts, monopolies, and combinations of capital, so as 
to prevent them or any of them from making scarce articles of neces- 
sity, trade, or commerce, or from increasing unreasonably the cost 
thereof to the consumer, or preventing reasonable competition in 
the calling, trade, or business.- 

It shall be unlawful for persons or corporations, or their legal 
representatives, to combine or conspire together, or to unite or pool 
their interests for the purpose of forcing up or down the price of any 
agricultural product or article of necessity, for speculative purposes; 
and the Legislature shall pass laws to suppress it.^ 

Article 60. Municipal Corporations * 

§ 600. Local Government. — It is in many States provided that 
the Legislature shall provide by general law for the organization of 
cities, towns, and municipalities, their powers and duties.^ The 
same would follow in other States from § 395 and § 502. 

And so, in several, that the Legislature shall create a uniform 
system of county, town, and municipal government;® not dividing 
cities into more than four classes,^ or three classes,* or six.^ 

So, in others, the Legislature may confer upon organized town- 
ships, incorporated cities and villages,'" and upon the board of super- 
visors of the several counties," such powers of a local, legislative, 
and administrative character as they deem proper. 

"The Legislature shall not delegate to any special commission, 
private corporation or association any power to make, supervise, or 
interfere with any municipal improvement, money, property, or 

1 N. H. 2, 82. 18, 1, 9; Utah 11, 4; Va. 117; Wash. 

^ Ala. 103. 11, 10 ; Wis. 1891, p. 731 ; Wy. 11, 2 & 4. 

» La. 190. 8 Cal. 11, 4 ; Fla. 3, 24 ; Ga. 11, 3, 1 ; 

* For financial provisions, see Arts. Ida. ; Ky. 156 ; Mo. 9, 7 ; Nev. 4, 25 ; 

34, 37. Okla. 18. 1; S. D. ; Utah 11, 5; Wis. 

« Ark. 12, 3; Cal. 11, 6; 1895, p. 4, 23; Wy. 

450 ; Ida. 12, 1 ; 18, 5 ; 1895, p. 257 ; ' S. D. 10, 1. 

lU. 10, 5 ; Kan. 12, 5 ; Ky. 156 ; Mich. » N. Y. 12, 1. 

15, 13; Miss. 88;»Mo. 9, 7; Neb. 10, « Ky. 

4 and 5 ; N. D. 167, 170 ; N. C. 8, 4 ; '» Kan. 2, 21 ; Mich. 4, 38 ; Wis. 4, 22. 

Nev. 8, 8; 0.13,6; Okla. 10, 4; S. D. " Kan.; Mich.; N. Y. 3, 27; Wis. 


efTccts, whether held in trust or otherwise, to le\'}' taxes, to select 
a capitol site, or to perform any municipal functions." ' 

In a few States the Constitution provides that any county may by 
vote adopt the township form of governmcnt.- 

Counties are usually to be governed by a board of county com- 
missioners; ^ called, in INIicliigan, the "board of supervisors." 

Townships are, in one, governed by a board of trustees, consisting 
of a clerk and two justices of the peace, elected by the voters thereof.* 

In a few, the Constitution provides that the Legislature may 
charter cities in towns having more than 10,000,^ 12,000," or 20,000' 

In two, any city having a population of more than 20,000 * or 
100,000 ° may frame a charter for itself (by a special process, sub- 
ject to certain restrictions). And the States are rapidly adopting 
constitutional provisions permitting all cities and towns to frame 
their own charters.'" 

§ COl. Municipalities. — The Constitutions of a few States 
provide that each organized county shall be a body corporate, with 
such powers and immunities as shall be established by law; " and 
so each organized township.'" 

All suits and proceedings by or against a county or township shall 
be in the name thereof.'^ 

* Utah 6, 29 ; Wy. 3, 37 ; Mon. 5, class are contained in a Constitutional 
36; S. D. 3, 28. Amendment which provides further 

- Cal. ; 111. ; Mo. 9, S ; Neb. 10, 5 ; that it may at any time be amended 

N. D. 170; Wash. 11, 4. [or abohshed?] by the voters of the 

* Ida. 18, 10 ; Ind. 6, 10 ; 111. 10, respective cities. It also provides for 
6; Miss. 170; Mon. 16, 4; Nev. 4, 26; the ov/nership and operation of public 
N. Y. 3, 26; N. D. 172; Mich. 10, 6; utilities. (Col. 1901, p. 46.) 

Pa. 14, 7; Wash. 11, 5. In Minnesota (1895, p. 4), a charter 

^ N. C. 11, 5. may be adopted by a board of fifteen 

® Mass. C. Amt. 2. freeholders and a four-sevenths vote. 
« Pa. 15, 1; Tex. 11, 4. In Missouri (1901, p. 263), by thir- 

' Minn. 11, 2. teen, with a three-fifths vote. 

* Wash. 12, 10. In Oregon, on initiative petition, 
» Cal. 11, 8; Mo. 9, 16. June 4, 1906, Art. 11, § 2 of the Con- 

'° Thus, California has a novel pro- stitution was amended so that any 

vision, followed in Oklahoma, whereby municipality is given the exclusive 

any city or town may, through a board right to enact and amend its charter, 

of fifteen chosen freeholders, frame its subject only to the Constitution and 

own charter, which, if approved by the criminal laws. 

the Governor as constitutional, is then Town Organization (Mo. 1901, p. 

submitted to the electors and adopted 267) is elaborately provided for. 

by a majority vote. (Cal. 1889, p. 231; " Ga. 11, 1, 1; Mich. 10, 1; Okla. 

1891, p. 533; 1901, p. 950; Okla.) 17, 1 ; S. C. 7, 9. 

In Colorado the charters of the '^ i\iici-,_ n, 2 ; N. C. 7, 4. 

city of Denver and all cities of the first '^ Ga., Mich. 


Any county, city, town, or township may make and enforce within 
its limits all local, police, sanitary, and other regulations not in con- 
flict with general laws.^ 

No municipal corporation can be authorized by the Legislature 
to pass laws inconsistent with the general laws of the State." 

§ 602. Officers. — The following persons are, by the Constitu- 
tion, declared ineligible to hold municipal offices: persons in de- 
fault as collectors or custodians of money or property of such 
municipality.^ In cities or counties having more than 200,000 in- 
habitants, no person can at the same time have a State office and 
a municipal office, or two municipal offices together in any muni- 
cipality.* The fees or salaries of municipal officers cannot, in two 
States, be increased or diminished during their terms.^ They must 
reside in their respective counties or towns.^ In one, they must have 
so resided one year.^ They must be qualified electors.^ 

§ 603. Citizens' Rights. — By the Constitution of Arkansas, any 
citizen of any county, city, or town may institute suits in behalf of 
himself and all others interested to resist an illegal exaction.^ 

§ 604. Specified Systems of City, County, or Town Government 
exist in the Constitutions of a few States. ^"^ 

§ 605. Franchises.^^ — The right to collect rates for water fur- 
nished to a municipality is, in California, declared to be a franchise, 
not to be exercised except by authority of law and in the manner by 

' Cal. 11, 11; Ida. 12, 2; Wash, after the Mayor returns such bill to 
11, 11. the House, passing it on to the Gov- 
- Ala. 89. ernor with his certificate stating 
^ 111. 9, 11. whether the city has or has not ac- 
* Mo. 9, 18. cepted the same. The Legislature may 
® Cal. 11, 19; III. provide for the concurrence of the 
^ Ore. 6, 8. legislative body in cities of the first 
^ Col. 14, 10. class. In both the other classes the 
^ Col. Mayor and legislative body must act 
^ Ark. 16, 13. concurrently. If a bill relate to more 
*" Thus, the New York Constitution than one city, it must be sent to all. 
divides cities into three classes : the If it be not accepted or returned with- 
first class above 250,000, the second out acceptance, it may, nevertheless, 
class above 50,000, and the third class again be passed by both branches of 
below 50,000. All laws relating to the Legislature, and shall then be sub- 
cities are divided into general and ject only to the action of the Governor, 
special city laws; general city laws (N. Y. 12,2.) 

being those which relate to all the Municipal elections must be held 

cities of one or more classes, and special on the Tuesday succeeding the first 

city laws those which relate to a single Monday in November in the odd year, 

city or to less than all the cities of a but this does not apply to cities of the 

class. No special city law can be third class nor to elections of judicial 

passed except a certified copy be sent officers. (N. Y. 12, 3.) 

to the Mayor, and fifteen days there- " See also §§ 435, 536. 


law prescribed.* So, in Colorado the county commissioners, and in 
Idaho the Legislature, may empower reasonable maximum rates for 
the use of water, whether furnished by persons or corporations.* 
And in Texas the right to regulate tolls or freights, for the use of 
roads, bridges, ferries, landings, or wharves, shall always remain in 
the Legislature.^ So, in California the Legislature shall pass laws 
to regulate the charges of telegraph or gas companies, wharfingers, 
and warehousemen, where there is a public use.* 

"The rights of no city or town in and to its water front, wharf 
property, public landings, wharves, docks, streets, avenues, parks, 
bridges, and other public places, and its gas, water, and electric 
works shall be sold except by an ordinance or resolution passed by a 
recorded affirmative vote of three-fourths of all the members elected 
to the council, or to each branch thereof where there are two, and 
under such other restrictions as may be imposed by law ; and in case 
of the veto by the mayor of such an ordinance or resolution, it shall 
require a recorded affirmative vote of three-fourths of all the mem- 
bers elected to the council, or to each branch thereof where there are 
two, had in the manner heretofore provided for in tliis article, to 
pass the same over the veto. No franchise, lease, or right of any 
kind to use any such public property or any other public property or 
easement of any description, in a manner not permitted to the gen- 
eral public, shall be granted for a longer period than thirty years. 
Before granting any such franchise or privilege for a term of years, 
except for a trunk railway, the municipality shall first, after due 
advertisement, receive bids therefor publicly, in such manner as 
may be provided by law, and shall then act as may be required by 
law. Such grant, and any contract in pursuance thereof, may pro- 
vide that upon the termination of the grant the plant as well as the 
property, if any, of the grantee in the streets, avenues, and other 

1 Cal. 14, 2; Ida. 15, 2. So, "No Provided, That nothing herein con- 
municipal corporation sliall, directly tained shall be construed to prevent 
or indirectly, lease, sell, alien, or dis- any such municipal corporation from 
pose of any water-works, water-rights, exchanging water-rights, or sources 
or sources of water supply now or of water supply, for other water-rights 
hereafter to be owned or controlled or sources of water supply of equal 
by it ; but all such water-works, water- value, and to be devoted in like manner 
rights, and sources of water supply now to the public supply of its inhabitants." 
owned or hereafter to be acquired by (Utah 11, 6.) 
any municipal corporation, shall be ^ Col. 16, 8; Ida. 15, 6. 
preserved, maintained, and operated ^ Tex. 12, .3. The common law; 
by it for suppljang its inhabitants see Book I. 
with water at reasonable charges : * Cal. 4, 33. 


public places shall thereupon, without compensation to the grantee, 
or upon the payment of a fair valuation therefor, be and become the 
property of the said city or town ; but the grantee shall be entitled to 
no payment by reason of the value of the franchise; and any such 
plant or property acquired by a city or town may be sold or leased, 
or, if authorized by law, maintained, controlled, and operated by 
such city or town. Every such grant shall specify the mode of de- 
termining any valuation therein provided for, and shall make ade- 
quate provision by way of forfeiture of the grant, or otherwise, to 
secure efficiency of public service at reasonable rates, and the 
maintenance of the property in good order throughout the term of 
the grant. Nothing herein contained shall be construed as pre- 
venting the General Assembly from prescribing additional restric- 
tion on the powers of cities and towns in granting franchises or in 
selling or leasing any of their property, or as repealing any addi- 
tional restriction now required in relation thereto in any existing 
municipal charter." ^ 

No franchises may be granted for more than a fixed period of 
time, twenty - or thirty ^ years, and there must always be due adver- 
tisement and a public bidding.* 

§ 606. Police Power. — Any county or incorporated city or town 
may make and enforce, within its limits, all such local, police, sani- 
tary, and other regulations as are not in conflict with its charter or 
with the general laws.^ 

* Va. 125. 6000 population, and except railroads 
2 Ky. 164. other than street (Ala.). 

* Ala. 228; Va. Of cities, etc., over * Ky. 

' Cal. 11, 11; Ida. 12,2. 


Tart IV 


Article G5 

§ 650. General Principles. — Nearly all States provide in their 
Constitutions for the separation into three departments, and all in 
fact apply the common law, though Louisiana preserves its French 
Code ^ and New Mexico some Spanish law. 

§ 651. Courts. — The system of all the States is substantially 
the same, except that the older States are more apt to leave the 
establishment of courts to the Legislature than to prescribe it in the 
Constitution. Only seven States apparently still have a separate 
Court of Chancery.^ In many States, however, like Massachusetts, 
equity jurisdiction, though administered in the Supreme Court or 
Superior Courts, is kept separate from the common law^; and 
different sittings are held. In other States ^ common law and chan- 
cery are declared to be fused. Nearly all the States have a Supreme 
Court and Superior, Circuit, or District Courts. Some States * 
interpose a Court of Appeals between the Superior Courts and 
the Supreme Court, while in New York there is a Court of 
Appeals above the Supreme Court. The words "Circuit" or 
"District" are in some States used for the courts correspond- 
ing to the County Courts in other States, which are below the 
Superior Court. INIost States have a separate Probate, Orphans' or 
Surrogate's Court, but in the West probate jurisdiction is com- 
monly given to the superior courts or the county courts. There 
are furthermore many city, municipal, police, or corporation courts, 
frequently, in the large cities, created by special law; while in the 
country there are justices of the peace or magistrates with, in the 
West, minor jurisdiction in civil cases not involving the title to real 

» See §§ 76, 200. ' Cal., Ct., Ga., Ida., Mich., N. C, 

=> Ala. 139; Del. 4, 1; Mich. 6, 1; N. Y., O., S. C. See § 671. 

Miss. 152; N. J. 6, 1; Tenn. 6, 1; Vt. ■* Cal., Ga., 111., La. 

2, 4. See, however, § 671. 


estate, or in criminal cases not amounting to felony, but always with 
appeal to a higher court. 

It might be wished that the States could adopt a more uniform 
system or at least adopt the same names; in this book the terms 
"Supreme Court," "Superior Court," "County Court," "Probate 
Court," "Chancery Court," or "Justices of the Peace" have been 
used as typical names for the system above described; when there 
is a Court of Appeals above the Supreme Court that term is used. 
In New Hampshire alone there are no constitutional pro\isions 
affecting the establishment of courts, the whole matter being left 
to the Legislature ; ' while in Kentucky, and presumably others, the 
Legislature may establish no courts except those provided in the 
Constitution.^ A few State Constitutions provide that land registra- 
tion courts may be established by the Legislature.^ In the absence 
of such a provision it may be questioned whether such courts, which 
purport to deprive a land owner of his title without notice and 
hearing, are constitutional in States, or in any case consistent with 
the Fourteenth Amendment.* 

§ 652. Jurisdiction. — The general division of jurisdiction has 
been indicated above. When there is a Court of Appeals above the 
Supreme Court, it has only appellate jurisdiction, and in most States 
the Supreme Court has no original jurisdiction except to issue 
habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, certiorari, procedendo, quo 
warranto, injunction, supersedeas, and other prerogative or rem- 
edial writs; and in some States it has jurisdiction of suits against 
the State.^ 

In a few States the opinion of the Supreme Court may be required 
upon important questions of law and upon solemn occasions by 
either branch of the Legislature or by the governor and council.® 
This practice of requiring opinions from the Supreme Court was 
copied from the English Parliament; but it may be questioned 
whether it is advisable or, when required by statute, even constitu- 
tional. At all events such opinions are not regarded as a binding 
precedent, and being given without the argument of counsel and 

» N. H. 2, 4. « Col. (Amt.) 6, 3 ; N. H. 2, 73; 

2 Ky. 135. Mass. 2, 3, 2; Me. 6, 3; R. I. Amt. 12. 

' Fla. 5, 17; S. D. 5, 21; Va. 100. By the Governor, upon questions con- 

* Tyler v. Judges, 175 Mass. 71; s. c. cerning the State Constitution: Fla. 

179 U. S. 405. 4, 13 ; or concerning important ques- 

5 Ida. 5, 10 ; Neb. 6, 2 ; N. C. 4, 9. tions of law : S. D. 5, 13. 
So, often, by statute ; and see § 75. 


the light that comes from a real issue between the litigant parties are 
entitled to little more respect than if given by the judges in their 
private capacities; indeed they have given rise to a singular amount 
of doubtful law, notably that in Massachusetts upon a compulsory 
weekly payment law, and that in Colorado against the eight-hour 
law in mines. ^ 

§ 653. Opinions on Appeal. — When a judgment or decree is 
reversed or confirmed by the Supreme Court, every point fairly aris- 
ing upon the record of the case shall be considered and decided, and 
the reasons therefor shall be concisely stated in writing, signed by 
the judges concurring, filed in the office of the clerk of the Supreme 
Court, and preserved with a record of the case. Any judge dis- 
senting therefrom may give the reasons of his dissent in wTiting over 
his signature.^ 

It shall be the duty of the court to prepare a syllabus of the points 
adjudicated in each case, which shall be concurred in by a majority 
of the judges thereof, and it shall be prefixed to the published reports 
of the case.^ 

§ 654. Judges. — Generally speaking, the States have not 
followed the example of Massachusetts and of both the English and 
the United States Constitution, in making all judges independent 
of popular election and irremovable during good behavior. Four 
States only still provide that all judges shall be appointed by the 
governor * or by the governor and council ; ^ but a few other States 
require this specially of the judges of the Supreme Court,^ though 
they must be confirmed by the Senate or, in Connecticut, the 
Legislature. In tliree other States Supreme Court judges are 
elected by the two Houses of the Legislature in joint conven- 
tion,' and in the Territories and District of Columbia appointed 
by the President and confirmed by the Senate. In all the other 
States the judges of the Supreme Court are elected by the people 
of the entire State. Yet, in 1798, none of the States chose their 
judges by popular election, and in most States their tenure was 
for life (Smith, View of Constitutions, p. 33). 

1 Re Eight-Hour Law, 39 Pac. 328; * Del. 4, 3. 

Op. Justices, 163 Mass. 589. See James * Mass. 2, 2, 1, 9; Me. 5, 1, 8; N. H. 

B. Thayer's Legal Essays, Chapter 2. 2, 45. 

2N. D. 101; S. C. 5, 8; Utah 8, 25; « Ct. Amt. 26; Miss. 145; N. J. 

W. Va. Amt. 1, 5. See § 666. 7, 2, 1. 

3 N. D. 102. These provisions, if ^ R. L 10, 4; S. C. 5, 2; Va. 91; 

statutes, would hardly be constitu- Vt. 2, 9; Amt. 10. 


Judges of the Superior Courts are in all the States except the 
four above mentioned elected by the people, though in several 
they are elected by the Legislature in joint convention/ and in 
others appointed by the Governor and confirmed b''^ the Senate.^ 
And so generally of the minor judges. 

The terms of office of judges vary from a life tenure as in Massachu- 
setts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island, through definite periods 
ranging from twenty-one years in Pennsylvania to two years in 
Vermont; but the usual term seems to be six years in the case 
of judges of the Supreme Court, and four years for judges of the 
Superior Court, and two years for justices of the peace. 

The Constitutions usually provide that a judge of the Supreme 
Court shall be of a certain age, varying from twenty-five to thirty-six, 
and that he must be a citizen of the United States or the State. A 
few State Constitutions provide that he shall be learned in the law ; ^ 
others that he shall have practised a certain number of years. By 
the Constitutions of nearly all the States, judges must receive a reg- 
ular fixed compensation, but no other fees or perquisites; and this 
may not be increased nor diminished during their term of office. 
Four States provide for the retirement of judges after they have at- 
tained the age of seventy years.* Some State Constitutions prescribe 
that no judge can sit in a case where he is interested or related to the 
parties.^ In like manner a few State Constitutions provide that no 
judge shall practise law or act as attorney ; ® and that he shall not 
sit in appeal upon any decision made by him or by any Court of 
which he was at the time a member,'' or in which he acted as 
counsel.^ If a judge absent himself from the State for sixty days, 
he forfeits his office.* For appeals, see § 78. 

' Ga. 6, 3, 2 ; N. J. 7, 2, 2 ; S. C. 5, able his judgment would be reversed 

13 ; Va. 96. upon appeal. 

2 Fla. 5, 8, 1901, p. 360; Miss. 153; « Ark. 7, 25; Cal. 6, 22; Col. 6, 18; 
N. J. 7, 2, 1. Ala. 162; Kan. 3, 13; Neb. 6, 14; N. Y. 

3 This principle was early estab- 6, 20; N. D. 117; S. D. 5, 31; Va. 
lished in England. See Historical 105; Wash. 5, 19; W. Va. 8, 16; Wy. 
Digest, Book II. 5, 25. 

* Ct. Amt. 12; Md. 4, 3; N. H. 2, ' Ark.; 111. 6, 11; Md. 4, 15; N. J. 

77; N. Y. 6, 12. 6, 2, 5; N. Y. 6, 3; Ore. 7, 6; S. C. 5, 

5 Ark. 7, 20; Del. 4, 16; Md. 4, 7; 6; W. Va. 8, 29; Utah 8, 13. 
Miss. 165; N. D. 100; Tenn. 6, 11; « Ark.; Md. 4, 7; S. C; Tenn. 6, 

S. C. 5, 6; Tex. 5, 11; Utah 8, 15. This 11; Tex. 5, 11; Utah 8, 13. 
constitutional provision seems hardly ^ Cal. 6, 9; Mon. 8, 37. So ninety 

necessary, it being the judicial duty of days, but the governor may give him 

a judge in any such case to recuse him- leave of absence " in case of extreme 

self; if he were not to do so, it is prob- necessity " (Utah 8, 27; Wash. 4, 8). 


Article GG. Remedial Laws 

§ 6C0. Laws General. — All laws relating to courts must, by a 
few of the Constitutions, be general and of uniform operation.* 
So, in several, the jurisdiction of all courts of the same grade or 
class, so far as regulated by law.^ So, also, the practice of such 
courts.^ And the effect of their judgments, decrees, or process, 
sliall be uniform.* 

§ CGI. Arbitration. — The Constitutions of several States provide 
that the Legislature shall pass laws allowing parties to determine 
suits by arbitration.^ So, in others, that the Legislature may estab- 
hsh "courts of conciliation." * So, in one, that they may refer suits 
to a practising lawyer as referee.'' But such arbitrators, referees, or 
courts may not render final judgment obligatory on the parties, 
except upon submission by the parties and their agreement to abide 
such judgment.^ So there must always be an appeal to the Supreme 
Court from boards of compulsory arbitration.^ 

§ 662. Contempts. ^° — The Legislature may regulate the exercise 
by the courts of the right to punish for contempt ; " in Oklahoma, it 
shall do so.^" In one it is provided that the Legislature shall have 
power to regulate by law the punishment of contempts not committed 
in the presence or hearing of the courts, or in disobedience of 
process.*^ Punishment may not extend to imprisonment in peni- 

"The Legislature shall pass laws defining contempts and regulat- 
ing the proceedings and punishment in matters of contempt: Pro- 
vided, That any person accused of violating or disobeying, when not 
in the presence or hearing of the court, or judge sitting as such, any 
order of injunction, or estaint (sic), made or entered by any court 

» Col. 6, 28; Ga. 6, 9, 1; Ida. 5, 26; « Ind., N. D., O., Wis., Wy. 

111. 6, 29; Mon. 8, 26; Neb. 6, 19; Pa. » Mon. 8, 36; Wy. 5, 28. 

5, 26; S. D. 5, 34. See § 395. " The origin of the Chancellor's 

^ Col., Ga., 111., Neb., Pa. power to enforce the writ of injunction 

^ Col., Ga., 111., Neb., S. D. has been fully discussed in Book I. A 

* Col., Ga., 111., Neb., Pa., S. D. bill similar to the Oklahoma statute 

® Ala. 84; Col. 18, 3; Ky. 250; La. has for many years been before Con- 

176; S. C. 6, 1; Tex. 16, 13. gress. 

« Ida. 13, 72; Ind. 7, 19; Mich. 6, " Va. 63. 

23; N. D. 120; O. 4, 19; Utah 16, '- Ga. 1, 1,20; La. 177; Okla. 2, 25. 

2; Wis. 7, 16; Wy. 5, 1; 19, 1. '^ Ark. 7, 26. 

' Fla. 5, 20. " S. C. 1, 19. 


or judge of the State shall, before penalty or punishment is im- 
posed, be entitled to a trial by jury as to the guilt or innocence of 
the accused. In no case shall a penalty or punishment be imposed 
for contempt until an opportunity to be heard is given." ^ 

§ 663. Attorneys. — By the Constitution of Indiana, every 
person of good moral character, being a voter, shall be entitled to 
admission to practise in the courts." But in most States they must 
have some education in the law, or pass an examination. 

§ 664. Codes. — (See also § 308.) The Constitutions of a few 
States provide for codes of civil and criminal practice.^ So, in three, 
for codes of the general laws.* The Constitution of one State pro- 
vides that no general revision of the laws shall hereafter (1850) be 
made, and that, when a reprint is necessary, the Legislature shall 
appoint a suitable person to collect such acts as are in force and 
arrange them without alteration.^ But in several, the Constitution 
provides that there shall be a revision and digest every ten years ; ® 
every twelve years, beginning with 1902.^ 

§ 665. Speedy Decisions. — The Constitution of California pro- 
vides that no judge of the Supreme or Superior Courts shall receive 
his salary until he make affidavit that no cause in his court remains 
undecided that has been submitted for decision for the period of 
ninety days.^ So he must decide all cases within ninety days "after 
submission." ^ So, in one other, such judges must file their decisions 
within sixty days after the end of the term at which the causes were 
heard,'" so, thirty days," or six months.'^ And in Georgia, the 
Supreme Court must dispose of every case at the first or second 
term after the writ of error is brought.'^ Every point in the record 
must be decided, and the reason concisely stated in writing." 

§ 666. Opinions. — All judges must state the law and reasons 
of their decisions.'^ Concurring and dissenting opinions must not be 
published ; '^ in other States, they may be.'^ Reports are provided 

» Okla. 2, 25. " S. C. 4, 17. 

2 Ind. 7, 21. " Ida. 5, 17. 

3 Ind. 7, 20; O. 14, 2; S. C. 6, 5; ''- Okla. 7, 5. 
Wis. 7, 22. '^ Ga. 6, 2, 6. 

* Ala. 85; Ind.; S. C. " Okla. 7, 5; Wash. 4, 2. See also 

^ Mich. 18, 15. § 653. Such provisions have been held 
^ Mo. 4, 41 (1875) ; S. C. ; Tex. 3, 43 unconstitutional when made by statute. 

(1879). 1^ Cal. Nov. 8, 1904; La. 91; N. D. 

■' Ala. 85. " La. 92. See also § 653. 

« Cal. 6, 24. " N. D., Utah. 
» Wash. 4, 20. 


for by the Constitution.' Judges must prepare a "syllabus."- A 
majority or quorum is necessary to any decision.' Upon a constitu- 
tional question or one involving State or Federal rights, the Supreme 
Court may call for the advice of the judges of the Circuit Court.* 

Article C7. Procedure* 

§ 670. Forms of Action. — In several States, the Constitution 
provides that there shall be but one form of civil action." 

§ 671. Equity. — (See also § 651.) In several States, the 
Constitution provides that the Legislature shall abolish tlie distinc- 
tion betv^een law and equity proceedings.' So, in two others, law 
and equity may be administered in the same action.^ And in 
Georgia, the Legislature may confer (and has conferred) upon the 
common-law courts all the powers of courts of equity.^ But in 
Iowa, the Constitution provides that the law and equity jurisdiction 
(though often vested in the same courts) shall be kept distinct.'" 
In two States, the testimony in equity is to be taken in the same 
manner as at law." 

§ 672. Feigned Issues are abolished by two State Constitutions.'^ 

§ 673. Juries: Qualifications. — (For religious qualifications, 
see § 45.) The Constitution of Tennessee provides that no politi- 
cal test can be required for jurors;'^ in New Hampshire, that great 
care should be taken that none but qualified persons should serve 
on juries, and that they should be fully compensated; '' so, in Ver- 
mont, that great care should be taken to prevent corruption or 
partiality in the choice of juries.'^ 

§ 674. Disqualifications. — By the Constitution of one State, no 
person can serve on a jury who is not a qualified elector of the State, 
or cannot read and write. '^ And so, in others, the Legislature are 

' La.; Mon. 8, 32; N. Y. 6, 21; ' Ida. 5, 1; Mich. 6, 5; N. C. 4, 1; 

S. D. 5, 12; Utah 8, 23; Wash. 4, 21. O. 14, 2; S. C. 6, 3. 

- N. D. 102; Utah 8, 26. See p. 233, « Mon. 8, 28; Nev. 6, 14. 

n. 14. » Ga. 6, 4, 2. 

3 Cal. 6, 2; Ida. 5, 3; Mon. 8, 5. »" lo. 5, 6. 

N. D.; R. I. Amt. 12; Okla. 7, 3; S. D. " N. Y. 6, 3; Wis. 7, 19. 

7, 5; Utah; Wy. 5, 5; Wash. 4, 2. '^ jja. 5, 1; N. C. 4, 1. 

* S. C. 5, 12. " Tenn. 1, 6. 

= See also §§ 137, 535, and Arts. 12, " N. H. 1, 21. 

13, 14, 15, generally. '* y^ o, 31. 

« Ida. 5, 1; Mon. 8, 28; N. C. 4, 1; '^ ^ligg. 264. 
Nev. 6, 14; O. 14, 2; Utah 8, 19. 


to pass laws excluding persons from serving on juries in the same 
cases in which they are excluded from voting.' 

In detail, all persons convicted of bribery are excluded from 
serving on juries." All persons convicted of treason; ^ of perjury; * 
of forgery ; ^ of larceny ; * generally, all persons convicted of in- 
famous crimes; ^ of "other high crimes "; ^ all persons "under inter- 
diction." ' Unless they are restored to civil rights.^*' 

§ 675. Charging the Jury. — Several State Constitutions pro- 
vide that the judge shall not charge juries as to matter of fact," nor 
comment thereon,'- but they may state the testimony and declare the 
law.'^ So, they shall declare the law.'* So, the judges of the Supreme 
Courts shall instruct the jury in the law.'^ 

§ 676. Amendments are, by the Constitution of Delaware, to be 
allowed by the courts on such terms as they deem reasonable, in 
civil cases.'* 

§ 677. Witnesses : Parties. — The Constitutions of two States 
provide that parties may be witnesses.'^ And in one, that parties 
may be compelled to testify by the opposing party.'^ 

Criminating evidence may be required in bribery cases, the 
witness being immune.'* 

§ 678. Parties Deceased. — But in one State, in actions by 
executors, administrators, and guardians in which judgment may 
be rendered either for or against them, neither party shall be allowed 
to testify against the other as to any transactions with, or statements 
to, the intestate, testator, or ward, unless called to testify thereto 
by the opposite party or required by the Court.'" 

§ 679. Depositions. — The Constitution of Delaware provides 
that evidence of witnesses aged or infirm, or about to leave the State, 
may be taken on interrogatories; and, that the courts shall have 
power to obtain evidence from without the State."' 

' Cal. 20, 11; Nev. 4, 27; Tex. '' Wash. 

16, 2. » Cal., Nev., S. C, Tenn. 

=* La. 159; Nev.; Tex. '* Ark. Wash. 

^ La. >5 R. I. 10, 3. 

* La., Nev., Tex. '« Del. 4, 24. A provision of this 

* La., Nev., Tex. sort appears first in the Mass. Body of 
' Nev. Liberties, 1641. 

' La. '7 Ark. Sched. 2; lo. 1,4. 

« Nev., Tex. " lo. 

» La. >» La. 184. 

"> Nev. 20 Ark. Sched. 2. 

" Ark. 7, 23; Cal. 6, 19; Del. 4, 22; ^i Del. 4, 24. See also § 124. 
La. 179; Nev. 6, 12; S. C. 5, 26; Tenn. 
6, 9; Wash. 4, 16. See also § 132. 



§ CSO. Limitations. — The I^egislature has no power to revive 
any right or remody wliich may have become Ijarred hy lapse of 
time or any statute.' In Wisconsin, no appropriation can be 
made for any cUiim against the State, except judgments, unless 
filed within six years after the claim accrued.'-' In Tennessee, 
the time between May G, 1861, and Jan. 1, 1SC7, shall not be com- 
puted in any case affected by the Statutes of Limitation, nor shall 
any writ of error be affected by such of time.-' So, in Florida, 
as to civil .suits, the time between Jan. 10, ISGl, and Oct. 25, 18C5.'' 
There is no prescription against the State, in civil matters.^' 

§ 681. Payment into Court may, by the Constitution of Delaware, 
be made by the defendant at any time pending an action for debt or 
damages; and the plaintiff not accepting it shall recover no costs, 
if he recover no greater sum on the final decision." 

§ 682. Abatement. — The Constitution of Delaware provides 
that no action of which the cause survives shall abate by the death 
of a party.' 

« Miss. 97. See also § 395. » La. 193; Miss. 104. 

=» Wis. Amt. 8, 2. « Del. 4, 25. 

» Tenn. Sched. 4. ^ Del. 4, 26. 

* Fla. 15, 3. 


Pakt V 


Article 99. Process of Amendment 

§ 990. How Proposed in the Legislature. — Amendments to the 
Constitution may, in most States, be proposed in either house.^ 
But in one, they can only be proposed in the senate, and only on 
every tenth year, beginning with 1880.^ In one other, they can only 
be proposed in the house.^ They must be ratified by a majority 
of the members present in each house,* or elected ; ^ by three fifths 
of the elected members of each house ; ® by two thirds of a quorum of 
each house ; ^ by two thirds of the elected members of each house ; ^ 
by a majority of the elected members of each house of two successive 
Legislatures ; '^ by a majority of the senators and two thirds of the 
representatives, present and voting thereon, of two successive 
Legislatures; ^'^ by a majority of the elected members of each house 
and two thirds of the members of each house of the next succeeding 
Legislature ; " by three fifths of the first Legislature and two thirds 
of the next, as in Tennessee ; ^^ by two thirds of the elected members 
of the first Legislature, and also of the next ; ^^ by two thirds of the 
elected senators and a majority of the elected members of the house, 
in the Legislature proposing them, and by a majority of the elected 

» Ala. 284; Ark. 19, 22; Cal. 18, 1; » Ark.; Mo. 15, 1-2; Okla. 
Col. 19, 2; Del. 16, 1; Fla. 17, 1; Ga. « Ala.; Fla.; Ky.; Md. 14, 1; Neb. 

13, 1, 1; Ida. 20, 2; 111. 14, 2; Ind. 15, 1; O.; S. D. 

16, 1; lo. 10, 1; Kan. 14, 1; Ky. 256; ' Me. 10, 2; Miss. 273. 

La. 321; Mass. Amt. 9; Md. 14, 1; » Cal. 18, 1; Col.; Ga.; Ida.; 111.; 

Mich. 20, 1; Minn. 1897, 185; Mon. Kan.; La.; Mich.; Mon.; Nev.; 

19, 9; N. D. 202; Nev. 16, 1; N. J. Amt. 1887, p. 170; S. C; Tex. 17, 1; 

Art. 9; N. Y. 14, 1; O. 16, 1; Okla. Utah; W. Va.; Wash.; Wy. 

24, 1; Ore. 17, 1; Pa. 18, 1; S. C. 16, » Ind.; lo.; N. D.; Ore. 17, 1; 

1; S. D. 23, 1; Tenn. 11, 3; Utah N. J.; N. Y.; R. I. 13, 1; Va.; Wis. 

23, 1; Va. 196; Wash. 23, 1; W. Va. '° Mass. Amt. 9. 

14, 2; Wis. 12, 1; Wy. 20, 1. " Tenn. 11, 3. 

2 Vt. Amt. 25, 1. " N. C. 13, 2. 

3 Ct. Art.