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IVl. L. 


D. 26-29 




3 1833 01072 9678 

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in 2013 

FERGUS » cy 

No. 26 - 29 



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1 ' ^:T:'^'P5. EISTOkY, li-,].:iIM, and GUSTOMS ui:,.v,; :3'«W, n 


dcgu^.:. See Inside ana i-ast Page:* o£ Co^er. 




Embracing also The History cf My Life. By John Rkyijolds, rA|r< 
Reprint of oiiginai edition of 1855, with complete Index added. Cloth boavrts 
;\it; Antiqus Paper; -Pp 4x5; 8^0. 1879. Edition of 112 copies, Pnce, $7.50 

n Times 

. r 111., etc. Portrait 

■I'.T • 


■cr .'. 
a < • 

^ -lieFergu? Pr:nt- 
: tbe -vTork 01 xe- 

vi .Iv Liie," wr: - 

-.'jid^ * * - : 

■l hi any i^nc- 'J-:ic 

: cf xbanks for tbe^'r 

" Lilivion a ineritcrK'US. 

^j^v^.'-Jjciieviiie Advocate, Dee. 

iy &T1 attraetiYe form, 

. i'uli index, «jf a hook, 

.u.~trauori of the fliffi- 

devoted theniaelv&s 

n-t ve had to encounter 

r l-.oynolds >vas one of i 

-es in ■western pabiic ! 

• T'O^ed this epitome of | 

- days of the wf.=itern | 

• ■nanded a readv ttiie. 

-■.-4, the flrst edition, 

ro T hundred copios, 

ritEellevil]e, and 

i Chicaero, at the 

- ,. ... Nearly the \vlioie 

■yA ill trie great fire of 1B57. 

i-riot, ttie present volunie is 

. . . than the reprint of au old; 

)ie ere it is. The extensive rc.n;'e 

iternfil improvement, public life 

cxT.eiiince, naturally traY<:rf^t'd in 

this bulk 
Above al] 
Of a wefit 

y volume, render even a slight analysis 
ie. Ix, is discursive and sketchy, 'Avd 
in details of purely local value/lnri r;. 
also a mass of ini'orraation vvhich ihcs 
%\onld look for ixi vain elsewherv^. 
' ii is stamped with an originality and 
iliiy v.'hieh set well upon the shodldera 
em man.— 3/ag. 0/ Am. BisL.Axkg.lB^O, 

Governr^r John Beynolds' History of rilincis;-, 
■which ii'. out of piint and exceedingly hard U> 
get, has heen republished by the Ferg\is Frint- 
ing Goniiriny. The orisrlnal title of the v.orH: 
"'My Own Tiiues: embracing a] s5o a sketch of my 
life," is preserved. Governor i>:eynoids paesv-d 
nearly half a century in most prominent public 
life. As a '"Ranger" in 1813: as Judge AdvociAto 
in 1814; 'a-s aa iliinois Suprerae Goart Judffe: as 
member of i!ie Illinois General Assembly; aa 
Governor o:.: Illinois: as Eepre>5entative in Con- 
gress for percn years, and ne^■er absent from ids 
.•seat durin.jr ^^es'-ion; as IlliMois-Canal Commis- 
sioner; a7jd linally, as Spe;ikcr of the XJlinois 
House;— and all this from the early jjart ex the 
liresent ct;n.Lury until beyo?:id its noon : his 
strong, aggressive, manly natvixe and life -were 
most poT>'erfui this period of wonder- 
ful .transition to Illinois and the "West. "My 
0^11 .Time.^^" thus became an epitome of those- 
days, of theit rexnarkabie m^^a^ares, of their 
raarveloos changes, and a record of many of 
their ftreaw wen. Iroquois County 2'fmei',Nov. 
2'j, 1873. 

ta::. . ibe Discovery in 1673 and the History of the Country to the year iSiS, 
'^?'i • , ^xz.xc GoYcnimeat was organised. By John REVNOi-O?, iate Governor of Illinois, Meaiber of 
^-^.. .Suie Senator, and Representative, etc., Belleville, III., iSc2. Rf^printed from the original editiovi, 
J »;.!... i .;.ive beeu aJdtd Notes and a complete Index. Portrai^. Pages i^: 8vo. Cloth Boai-us;,\jt^ 
Iwacd iSS;*. (In Press) i 

account of the Life, Trials, and Perils of Rev. Elijah P. Lovejoy, killed by a Vu>- 
Lvery .Mcb. at Ahon. U! , on the ni^ht of Nov. 7, 1^37. By Henuv Tanner, of Buffalo, N.Y., an Eyel- 
id; Pp. ?2^: ^yo. iZ'ix. Price, $3. 

7, 1637. By He: 
id bottom ur.cut; Illustr:-.! 

(Voi. 1 

K *■■'*- ' 



Ve.; r 
V, a I' 

r. County, iJlJnois: Founded by Morris Birl-J.tck (portrait) aiid George ' 
\ i2i7 and iZ-.Z. hy George Flowhr. With Pxeiface and Foot-Notes by Hon. E. 1 . 
-L'ipkf-. KMbject .nnd PeisoLai Inde.xJ^s. Cloth Boards; uncut. Pages 408; Svo. ^Z^2. Ft v 


inonecr '■ 

;h portrait), ty Kakvey Reid. Cloth boards; ui; 

Fa:;:es 112; Svo. 1884. 



■tion of the Coll. of the MS3. of Ninian Edv/ards, C.-J. of Ci. of . ,' 

'• aii'J g.,v. cf Jil. Ty; o:,e cf tiie fjnct two U. S. scnr.tois and third gov. of li' I'r..- 
Hi.i S.>/- , Oct. i6th, 1S83, b> hh sf.:?. N. "vV. Edwakd;,, !:j.'--A!.t'y-tJ=n '^^ i 

mvu^a. With Sie.,1 Poitrait.s cT !-,.v. K.iwards and Dar/I P. O^ok ; s- 
ry- CunjpL-:': hui^x. Cloth boaru.-; .jijcut. Pages 63/; 3i.'o. i''iiii. 


ON THE '■■.■■' 


' in which the opinions ok its 
Conquest in the Seventeenth Century 

IJV THK • .. • 


• SLVl'ORTKir f.V . ' 

Cadwai.i.ader Coldkn of New Vokk, (iov. Thomas I'owxai.i. ok 


M\, Hex. DEWrri Clixtox of New York, axo 
JFDOE Joiix Haywood oi- Tf.xxessee, 



SOME remai;ks on the study of history. 


By WiEEiAM Henry Harrison of North Bend. 

M.MOk-r'.KNHH.M. 1'. S. A., PkI^IDKN I OF THK UnIIKI) SlAn.-., I.K. 

A'^c inco^iiitn pr.y io;^!iiiis hab^'tiiiiiis. {1m:\'.\j • > ' . . 


KROM THi: ^^ " 


Vol.. [, PaKT .SfXT)ND, C'INCINN.VTI, 1839. 


C H 1 C A (; O : 

U 1: R (; U S V R I N '\ I N ( X C O M P.\ N V. 


It 1 


+11 r^,. 0,>Ai\^p \x 


XQ ff) i^ Ij**!; vi> )J 1^ Au en n c, i ; u •>+ 


O N T H E 



Xo opinion has been more generally entertained in every civil- 
ized community, than that which asserts the importance of the 
study of history, as a branch of education. And although there 
are few, if any, who would controvert this proposition, ii: will 
scarcely be denied, that there is no study at this day, so much 
neglected. We everywhere meet with men possessed of much 
intelligence, great scientific attainments, high standing in those 
professions A\hich require profound study and deep research, who 
liave neglected to inform themselves, not only of the circum- 
stances which influenced the rise and progress, the decline ai.d 
fall of the most celebrated nations of antiquity, but who are ex- 
tremely deficient in the knowledge of the history of tlieir o\v!i 
country. If wc search for the causes, which have produced this 
state of things, one, perhaps the most efficient, will be found in 

* This pamphlet discusses several important topics in the history of the 
na':»e triljes of our continent, with spirit and ability. " * ■' We 

Jiave no doubt, that they will be i;enerally interested in learning the views of 
one, whose long official connexion with the Indian tribes, in peace and in 
war, and whose familiarity with the topograpliy of the region in question, 
^ive to his opinions the authority of observation and experience, as far as they 
are a[)piicabie to the matter in hand. It i> a source of real satisfaction, and 
affurcJs relief under ihe disgust with which a well-rei^'ulated mind contemplates 
the ferocity of our y^arty contests, to find an individual, situated like the 
author of thi> essay, devoting a portion op his time and his pen to the calm 
consideration of a subject, whose interest is purely historical. There are cer- 
tainly but (c.w individuals, whose life, from early youtli, has been passed in 
the arduous active service of the field, and in maturer years amidst the labors 
and cares of higii and respon>il)!e official station, who could sustain with more 
cretiit a discussion like that contained in the pages under review. — E. EVEREir, 
in .\nrlli-.lmci ictin Rev'uii', July, 1840. 

1 '-. . 

u/ / 

n til. !. 


the great increase of works of fiction, and the fascinating charac- 
ter with which they have been clothed, by the great geniuses who 
have been employed upon them. It is the perusal of these which 
occupies the attention of the wealthy and fills the leisure moments 
of the man of business. 

I am loathe to give another reason for this decline in the taste 
for historical reading, because it indicates, also, a decline in patri- 
otism. I allude to the inordinate desire for the accumulation of 
riches, which has so rapidly increased in our country, and which, 
if not arrc;sted, will ere long effect a deplorable change in the 
character of our countrymen. This basest of passions, this 
''meanest of am.ors,"' could not exhibit itself in a way to be more 
destructive of republican principles, than by exerting an influence 
on the course of education adopted for our youth. The effects 
upon the moral condition of the nation would be like those v.hich 
would be produced upon the verdant valley of our State, if some 
quality inmiical to vegetable life, were to be imparted to the 
sources of llie magnificent river by which it is adorned and fer- 

It is in youth, and in early youth, that the seeds of that patri- 
otism must be sown, which is to continue to bloom through life. 
No one ever began to be a patriot in advanced age;* that holy 
fire must be lighted up when the mind is best suited to receive. 
with enthusiasm, generous and disinterested impressions. If it is 
not then "the ruling passion"' of the bosom, it will never be at 
an age when every action is the result of cool calculation, and 
the basis of that calculation too often the interest of the individ- 
ual. This has been the prevailing opinion with every free people 
throughout every stage oX civilization, from the roving savage 
tribe to the numerous and polished nation, from the barbarous 
Pelasgi to the glorious era of Miltiades and Cimon, or the more 
refined and luxurious age of Pericles and Xenophon. By all, the 
same means were adojjted. With all, it was the custom to pres- 
ent to their youth the examples of the heroic achievements of 
their ancestors, to inspire them with the same ardor of devotion 
to the welfare of their country. As it regards the argument, it 
matters not whether the history was written or unwritten, whether 
in verse or prose, or how communicated; whether by national 
annals, to wliich all had access; -by recitations in solemn assem- 
blies, as at the Olympic a.nd other games of Greece; in the songs 
of bardh, as amongst the Celts and Scandinavians: or in the 
speeches of the aged warriors, as was practised by the ^Vyandots, 
I)elawares, Shawanees, and other tribes of our own country. 
Much fiction was, no doubt, passed off on these occasions as 


real history; but, as it was believed to be true, that was sufficiein 
to kindle the spirit of emulation in the cause of patriotism among 
those to whom these recitations, songs, and speeches were ad- 

In the remarks I liave made, it is by no means my intention 
to deny the good effects which have been derived from some of 
the works of fiction, and that they have greatly assisted 

" To raise the genius, and to mend the heart. " 

Hut this result is better effected by authentic history. Amongst 
the former of these, the Telemachus of Fenelon stands ahnost 
unrivalled for the beauty of the narrative, the purity of the niorals 
it inculcates, the soundness of many of the principles of govern- 
ment it advances, and the masterly manner in which tJie passions 
of youth are subdued and brought under the control of wisdom 
and virtue. But I think it will not be contended that these 
lessons, excellent as they are, can have as beneficial an effect as 
many of the narratives to be found in real history. Tiie reason 
is obvious. The youth, for instance, for whose special benefit the 
book I have mentioned was written, knowing that it was a fic- 
tion, might very readily persuade himself that the task of forming 
his conduct upon that attributed to the son of Ulysses was too 
much for him or any one else to accomplish, the character being 
drawn, not from nature, but from the imagination of the author. 
On the contrary, how many thousands of youth have been encour- 
aged to pursue a career of usefulness and true glory by the exam- 
ples to be found in the history of Greece and Rome. 

The manner in which Telemachus is made to sacrifice his love 
for Eucharis, for the accomplishment of the pious object of his 
travels, forms a beautiful lesson; and his deep contrition and 
regret for having gl\en way to the violence of his passions in his 
contest with Hippias, is still a better one. But authentic history 
furnishes examples of forbearance, in matters of this kind, which 
are infinitely preferable. 

In relation to the first, the cases of Scipio Africamis and Alex- 
ander the Great, may be quoted. And as it regards the control 
of the temj^er, where its unrestrained violence might produce 
great nrischief, Grecian history furnishes us with one of more 
vnliie than all of a similar character-w^hich are to l)e found in all 
the works of fiction, from the origin of letters to the present day- 1 
refer to the well-known anecdote recorded of Themistocles in his 
difference with Kurylnades, the Spartan admiral and coniman dor- 
m-chief of the allierl tleet, immediately preceding the battle of 
Salarnis. The ima(finL)tion of no writer can conceive an effect so 


great, to be produced by dignified forbearance, under grosh; insult, 
as that of Themistocles on this occasion.'" 

Take from the anecdote the intended blow which tlie superior 
refinement of modern manners would not tolerate, and how often 
might it prove a useful example to men holding inferior stations 
in a republic, to meet the passionate violence of those in power, 
with moderation and firmness, and thus avert from their country 
an impending calamity, having its origin either in mistaken policy 
or designed usurpation of power. 

The works of fiction which have had the greatest effect in fixing 
the love of country in the youthful bosom, are unquestionably 
those in which the characters and the leading features are taken 
from real history. This is the case with most of the ancient tra- 
gedies, as well as most of those of Shakspeare; and it is doubtless 
from this circumstance that the beneficial effects upon mankind, 
attributed to them by ]\Ir. Pope, in his prologue to the tragedy 
of Cato, have been produced. That beautiful production (the 
tragedy) would itself lose the greater portion of the interest which 
is felt in its perusal, if we did not kno^v' from undoubted history, 
that the sentiments and feelings of Cato were such as he is there 
made to utter, and his actions such as are there described. All 
well calculated to 

"Make mankind in conscious virtue bold." 

The efiect, however, which ]Mr. Pope attributes to tragedy in 
changing the "savage natures" of tyrants, is not so apparent. 
Miserable indeed, would be the situation of mankind if that were 
their reliance to escape oppression. But I concei^e that the 
operation, as well of tragedy as history itself, is more direct. In- 
stead of palliating and lessening the evil when it shall have exist- 
ence, their great object is (and such is certainly their effect) to 
prevent its occurrence. Instead oi soficnhig the hearts of tyrants, 
to harden those of the people against all tyrants and usurpers, 
whatever may be the degree of usurpation or the character of the 
tyranny, and to warn them of the insiduous means by which their 
confidence is obtained, for the purpose of being betrayed. 

If J truly estimate the value of a knowledge of history, gentle- 
men, by the citizens of a republic, you will unite with me in de- 
ploring the existence of any circumstances which would have a 
tendency to supersede or lessen the attention which was once 
paid to it in our seminaries of learning, and more es[)ecially if 
one of the causes should be found in the increasing love of riches, 

* See note A, in the A}:>pendi.x. 


rendering our youth impatient of studies wiiich are not essential 
to enable them to enter upon the professional career which the}- 
have chosen, as the means of obtaining that wealth so 
universally sought after. 

As your association, gentlemen, was formed for the ])urpose of 
procuring and preserving materials for the lu'story of our own 
State, rather than to encourage attention to that of other coun- 
tries, these remarks may be considered a digression ; I shall, tfiero- 
forc, add nothing more on that subject, but proceed to present 
to you some notices and remarks more in accordance with the 
wishes expressed in your invitation to prepare this paper. 

It is somev.'hat remarkable that Ohio, admitted into the Union 
before either of the other northwestern States, so far ahead of 
either in point of population, and having its position precisei}^ 
intermediate between them and the European colonies, from 
Avhence the emigration to all of them came, should have been thsij 
last that was settled. 

Fifty-five years ago, there was not a Christian inhabitant within 
the bounds v/hich now compose the State of Ohio. And if, a 
iew years anterior to that period, a traveler had been passing 
■down the magnificent river, which forms our southern boundary, 
he might not have seen, in its whole course of eleven hundred 
miles, a single human being, — certainly not a habitation, nor rlie 
vestige of one, calculated for the residence of man. He might, 
indeed, have seen indications that it Avas not always thus. His 
eye might have rested upon some stupendous mound, or length- 
ened lines of ramparts, and traverses of earth still of considerable 
elevation, which proved that the country had once been possessed 
by a numerous and laborious people. But he would have seeri, 
also, indubitable evidences that centuries had passed away, since 
these remains had been occuj)ied by those for whose use they 
had been reared. Whilst ruminating upon the causes which had 
occasioned their removal, he would not fail to arrive at the con- 
■clusion, that their departure (if they did depart) must have been 
a matter of necessity. For no people, in any stage of civilization. 
would willingly have abandoned si/c/i a country, endeared to tliem 
-as it must have been, by long residence and tlie labor the}- had 
l)estowed upon it, unless, like the descendants of Abraham, they 
had fled from the face of a t\rant,-and the oppressions of unfeel- 
ing task-masters. If they had been made to yield to a more 
numerous or more gallant peojjle, what country had received the 
fugitives? and what has become of the conquerors? Had they, 
too, been forced to fly before a new swarm from some northern 
<^>r southern hive? Still would the question recur. What had been 


their fate? And why had so large a portion of a country, so beau- 
tiful and invnting, so abounding in all that is desirable in tht- 
rudest as well as the most advanced state of society, been left as 
ii haunt for the beasts of the forest, or as an occasional arena for 
distant tribes of savages to mingle in mortal conflicts ? To aid us 
in coming to any thing like a satisfactory conclusion in answer to 
those questions, we possess only a solitary recorded fact.'" For 
every thing else, we must search amidst the remains which are 
still before us, for all that we wish to know of the history and 
character of this ancient and nameless people. 

And although the result of such an examination may be far from 
satisfactory, it will not be entirely barren of information. We 
learn first, from the extensive country covered by their remains, 
that they were a numerous people. Secondly, that they were 
congregated in considerable cities, from the extensive works with 
which several favorite situations are covered. Thirdly, that they 
were essentially an agricultural people; because, collected as they 
were in great numbers, they could ha\'e depended upon the chase 

■^ The '•recorded fact," to which allusion is here made, is the migration of 
the Aztecs frum the North, the memory of which is preserved in the pictorial 
annals of the Mexican race; and this fact unquestionably suggests a possible 
connexion of the extraordinary works, that are found in the region northwest 
«>f the Oliio, with a known race of men, who had attain ;d a degree of civiliza- 
tion competent to the execution of such structures. All beyond this belongs 
to the region of conjecture. 

It is generally admitted, that the mounds, terraces, and other works, of 
which visible remains exist in many portions of this region, evince a degree of 
>kill, nut known to have I)een possessed by native tribes, which occupied the 
present Territory of the United States of America, at the time of its discovery 
by the Europeans.* None of the works in question bore the appearance at 
that time, of being of recent structure. None of the tribes, since their man- 
ners and customs began to be noticed by travelers or colonists, have been 
observed to be in the habit of erecting any similar works, for the purposes of 
sepulture, castrametation, or agriculture. At the present day, there is not 
known to be any tribe of the native population of the continent possessed of 
tlie numbers, to say nothing of the skill, inqilied in the construction of these 
extensive and remarkable works. Nature has borne an unequivocal testi- 
mony to their antifiuity, in the size and evident age of the forest trees, that 
are found <^rowing on the sunmiits of these mounds, and within the enclosure 
and on the sides of these ramparts or terraces. 

* Mr. Gallatin cxpre-ses himself witii rather less positiveness on this point, than most 
oihcr writei-. have thought it necessary to eniploj-: "There i? nothing in their construction," 
he rein:tr>.-i. "nor in the remnants which they contain, indicative of a iinic'i. more advanced 
state of civilization, than that of the present inhabitants. But it may be interred, from their 
number and size, that they were the v.-ori< of a more populous nation than any iiow existing; 
and, if this inference is correct, it would necessarily imply a state of society, in which greater 
progress had been made in ■j.'ix\c\\\\\i.xiz."'-'r rait sad ions of the A>>:cruan Atitiqu,xri<iu 
Socuty, \o!. II, p. 147. 

'I his brinirs us to the same conchisiori as to the diversity of the race, by which the mounds 
were erected, from that vhicli is now fast hastening to extinction. 


hut for a small portion of their subsistence; and there is no reasons 
to believe that they were in the possession of domestic animals^ 
as the onl}^ one known to the American continent before the arri- 
val of the Europeans (the lama of Peru) was unsuiled by nature 
to endure the rigors of a winter in this latitude. The impossibility 
of assigning any other purpose to which the greater number, and 
many of the largest of these remains could be applied, together 
with other appearances scarcely to be misunderstood, confirm the 
fact that they possessed a national religion; in the celebration of 
which, all tliat was pompous, gorgeous, and imposing, that a semi- 
barbarous nation could devise, was brought into occasional dis- 
play. That there vvere a numerous priesthood, and altars often 
smoking with hecatombs of victims. These same circumstances^ 
also indicate, that they had made no inconsiderable progress in 
the art of building, and that their habitations had been ample 
and convenient, if not neat or splendid. Man in every age and 
and nation has provided for his own defence against the elements^. 
before he even designates any peculiar spot for the worship of his 

There are lliree suppositions by some one of which their existence nuist be 
accounted for. They were either constructed by some race of men sufficiently 
civilized for this purpose, but of whom no historical memorial, nor any other 
trace remains, and who, by causes of whicli we ai-e entirely ignorant, have 
wholly perished; or they were the works of the Aztecs sojourning in this- 
region, before their migration southward to the elevated plains of Anahuac ; 
or, lastly, they were erected by the ancestors of some of the tribes found by 
the European colonists in this part of the continent, — in which case those 
tribes are to be regarded as the degenerate and broken-down remains of more 
improved ancient races. 

Of the first supposition nothing more can be said, than that it is a theory by 
which we give a rational explanation of existing facts ; the principal strength 
of which theory dwells in the assumed impossibilit}-, that these wor'lis couUl 
have been erected by tribes no more advanced in civilization than the Indi- 
an>, found in the continent two centuries and a-half ago, and in the suppose(J 
want of any hi^>torical indication pointing to a different origin. It is saying,. 
in other words, that they were made by the art and labor of men, but we 
know not of wliat men. Their memory is buried in the depth and silence of 
the venerable forests, which cover these works of their hands. 

1 he innate propensity of the mind to generalize its ideas has given greater 
currency to the second supposition. The universal current of the Mexicans, 
and the express testimony of their hieroglyphical annals (if the interpretation 
can be depended on, which was given in the age of the Spanish conquest, by 
those who must have been well acquainted with their symbolic characters), 
point to a descent of the Aztecs from-<he north, and ascribe to them a pro- 
gress sufficiently gradual, to aflmit of the election of permanant structures by 
the way. T}ic:-e facts have led the majority of writers to assume the second 
a> the more probable account of the origin of these works. Such is General 
ilarri.son's o[jinion. In conformity v.ith this view of the subject, the name of 
Aztalan has been appropriated to the remarkable works, which exi.-,t in the 
territory of Wisconsin. — E. Evlrktt, in A^.-^. AVv., July, 1840. 


<iou. In rigorous climates the hut will always precede the uncov- 
•cred altar of earth or stone, and the well-built city before the 
temple is made to shoot its spires to the skies. 

Thus much do these ancient remains furnish us, as to the con- 
/fitio/i and character of the people who erected them. I have 
persuaded myself that I have gleaned from them, also, some inter- 
esting facts in their history. It may, however, be proper lirst to 
remark, that the solitary recorded fact to which I have alluded, to 
-enable us to determine their ultimate fate, is that which has been 
furnished to us by the historians of Mexico. 

The pictural records of that nation, ascribe their origin to the 
Aztecs, a people who are said to have arrived first in Mexico 
about the middle of the seventh century. An American author, 
the Rt. Rev. Dishop ^ladison, of Virginia, having with much 
iabor investigated this subject, declares his conviction that these 
Aztecs are one and the same people with those who once inhab- 
ited the valley of the Ohio. The probabilities are certainly in 
favor of this opinion. Adopting it, therefore, and knowing by it 
the date of their arrival on the northwest frontier of Mexico, we 
refer again to the works they have left us, to gain what knowledge 
we can of the cause and manner of their leaving the Ohio valley. 
I' or the reasons formerly stated, I assume the fact that they were 
<:om])clled to t^y from a more numerous or more gallant people. 

No doubt the contest was long and bloody, and that the coun- 
try, so long their residence, was not abandoned to their rivals 
until their numbers were too much reduced to continue the con- 
test. Taking into consideration all the circumstances wliich can 
be collected from the works they have left on the ground, I have 
<:ornc to the conclusion that these people were assailed both from 
their northern and southern frontier; made to recede from both 
directions, and that their last effort at resistance, was made on 
the banks of the Ohio. I have adopted this opinion, from the 
<i!ffcrent character of tlieir work.s, which are there found, from 
th')>c in the interior. Cireat as some of the latter are, and labo- 
rious as was the construction, particularly those of Circleville and 
Newark. I am pursuaded they were never intended for military 
<!eJenres. On the contrary, those upon the C)hio Ri\er were 
evidently designed for that purpose. The three that I have 
-examined, those of Marietta, Cinci^inati, and the mouth of the 
(ireat Miami, particularly the latter, have a military character 
stanij.ed uj>on them which can not l)e mistaken. The latter work, 
and that at Circleville. never could have been erected by the 
same i>eoi>le, if intended for military purposes. The square, at 
the latter place, has such a number of gatev/ays, as seem intended 


to facilitate the entrance of those v.'ho would attack it. And both 
it and the circle were completely commanded by the mound, 
rendering it an easier matter to take, than defend it. The engi- 
neers, on the contrary, who directed the execution of the 
Miami works, appear to ha\e known the importance of flank 
defences. And if their bastions are not as perfect, as to form, as 
those which are in use in modern engineering, their position as 
well as that of the long lines of curtains, are precisely as the}' 
should be. I have another conjecture as to this Miami fortress. 
If the people of whom we ha^•e been speaking were really the 
Aztecs, the direct course of their journey to Mexico, and the 
facilities which that mode of retreat would afford, seems to point 
out the descent of the Ohio as the line of that retreat. 

This position, then, (the lowest which they appear to have for- 
tified on the Ohio,) strong by nature, and improved by the expen- 
diture of great labor, directed by no inconsiderable degree of skill. 
Avould be the last hold they would occupy and the scene of their 
last efforts to retain possession of the country they had so long 
inhabited. I'he interest which every one feels, who visits this 
beautiful and commanding spot, would be greatly heightened if 
he could persuade himself of the reasonableness of my deductions, 
from the facts 1 have stated. That this elevated ridge, from 
which are now to be seen flourishing villages, and plains of unri- 
valled fertilily, possessed by a people in the full enjoyment ot 
])eace and liberty, and all that peace and liberty can give, v/hose 
matrons, like those of Sparta, have never seen the smoke of an 
enemy's fire, once presented a scene of war, and war in its most 
horrid form, where blood is the object, and the deficiencies ot 
the field made up by the slaughter of innocence and imbecility. 
That it was here that a feeble band was collected "remnant o( 
mighty battles fought in vain,'" to make a last effort for the coun- 
try of their birth, the ashes of their ancestors, and the altars of 
their gods. That the crisis was met with fortitude, and sustained 
with valor, need not be doubted. The ancestors of Quitlavaca 
and Gautimosin, and their devoted followers, could not be cow- 
ards. But their efforts were vain, and flight or death were tlie 
sad alternatives. Whatever n-jight be their object in ado})ting 
the former, whether, like the Trojan remnant, to seek another 
country, "and liajjpier walls,"" tluit of Ithome, to procure 
l^rescnt safety and renovated strength, for a distant day of \-en- 
geance, we have no means of ascertaining. i>ut there is ever}- 
reason to believe, that they were the founders of a great empire, 
and that ages before they assumed the more modern and distin- 
guished name of Mexicans, the Aztecs had lost in the more mild 


and uniform climate of Anahuac, all remembrance of the banks of 
the Ohio. But whatever may have been their fate, our peculiar 
interest in them ceases after their departure from the Miami.* 
In relation to their conquerors, I have little to say, and perhaps, 
that little not very satisfactory. Although I deny the occupation 
of the banks of the Ohio, for centuries before its discovery by the 
P>uropeans, I think that there are indubitable marks of its being 
thickly inhabited by a race of men, inferior to the authors of the 
great works we have been considering, after the departure of the 
latter. Upon many places, remains of potter}-, pipes, stone 
hatchets, and other articles, are found in great abundance, which 
are evidently of inferior v/orkmanship to those of the former 
people. But I have one other fact to offer, which furnishes still 
better evidence of my opinion. I have before mentioned Cin- 
cinnati as one of the positions occupied by the more civilized 
people. When I first saw the upper plain on which that city 
stands, it was literally covered with low lines of embankments. 
I had the honor to attend C^eneral Wayne, two years afterward, 
in an excursion to examine them. \\'e were employed the 
greater part of a day, in August, 1793, in doing so. The number 
and variety of figures in which these lines were drawn was almost 
endless, and, as I have said, almost covered the plain. Many so 
fuint, indeed, as scarcely to be followed, and often for a considcr- 
al>le distance entirely obliterated, but by careful examination, 
and following the direction, they could be again found. Now, if 
these lines were ever of the height of the others made by the 
same people, (and they must have been, to have answered any 
valuable purpose,) or unless their erection was many ages anterior 
to the others, there must have been some other cause than the 
attrition of the rain (for it is a dead level) to bring them down to 
their then state. That cause I take to have been continued cul- 
tivation. And as the people who erected them, would not them- 
selves destroy works which had cost them so much labor, the 
solution of the sjucstion can only be found in the long occupancy, 
and cultivation of another j)eople, and the probability is, that 
lliai people werre the conquerors of the original possessors. 'i\> 
tlie <|uestion ot tlie fate of the former, and the cause of no recent 
vestige of settlements being found on the Ohio, I can offer only 
a conjecture; but one which aiJpear.s to me to be far from im- 
probable. Since the first settlement of the Ohio by the whites, 
they have been visited by two unsually destructive freshets, one 
in 1793, and the other in 1832. The latter was from five to seven 

* See note fi, in tlic Appendix. 


feet higlier tlian the former. The latter was produced by a simul- 
taneous fall of rain, upon an unusually extensive frozen surface. 
The learned Dr. Locke, of Cincinnati, calculated the number of 
inches of rain that fell, and as far as it could be ascertained, the 
extent of surface which was subject to it, and his conclusion was, 
that the height of the water at Cincinnati, did not account, after 
allowing for evaporation, etc., for all the water that fell. In 
other words, that with the same fall of rain, other circumstances 
concurring, the freshet might have been some feet liigher. Now 
these causes might have combined at another time to pour tlie 
waters of the tributary streams into the main trunk more nearh- 
together, and thus produce a height of water equal to that de- 
scribed by an Indian chief, ( to which he said he was an eye-wit- 
ness,) to General Wilkinson, at Cincinnati, in the fall of 1792. 
And which, if true, must have been several feet, (eight or ten,) 
at least, higher than that of 1832. The occurrence of such a 
flood, when the banks of the Ohio were occupied by numerous 
Indian towns and villages, nearly all which must have been swept 
off, was well calculated to determine them to a removal, not only 
from actual suffering, but from the suggestions of superstition ; an 
occurrence so unsual, being construed into a warning from heaven, 
to seek a residence upon the smaller streams. Before the remem- 
brance of these events had been obliterated by time, the aban- 
doned region would become an unusual resort for game, and a 
common hunting ground for the hostile tribes of the north and 
south, and, of course, an arena for battle. Thus it remained 
when it was first visited by the whites.'-' 

* A new species of evidence, of a very peculiar and satisfactory character, 
has, since the publication of Cieneral Harrison's Discourse, been brought for- 
ward, to establish the identity of the races of the mounds, with those which 
had made such advances in civilization, in the more southern portions of the 
continent. \Vc allude to the reseml)lance of the skulls, which have been 
found in the mounds in the northwestern region, to those which have been 
discovered in similar ancient works in Mexico and Peru. This important 
comparison was first instituted by Dr. J. C. Warren of IJoston. ^I'he result 
of his ol>;iervations was conmiunicated to the British Association for the ad- 
vancement of science, at their meeting in Liverpool, in 1S37. Dr. Warren 
stated thai he had for some time been a collector of crania from the mounds, 
and found them to differ from the skulls of the present races of North Amer- 
ican Indians. On returning home one day, he found some skulls upon his 
table, which had been sent to him in his alxscnce, and which he perceived at a 
glance to bear a strong re^emljlance to the mound skulls. As such, he sup- 
posed them to have been sent him, by some friend in the Western State>. 
He soon discovered, that they were ancient Peruvian skulls, which liad been 
j)rocured foi him in South America. I'urther comparisons satisiied Dr. War- 
ren, of the identity of the trii;es that reared the mounds with the Peruvian 



liavin^:^ given all the facts which 1 could collect, and some of 
the conjectures 1 have formed in relation to the most ancient 
people who have inhabited our State. I next proceed to make 
some remarks upon the tribes who were our immediate predeces- 

Frrun our long acquaintance with these tribes, extending con- 
>ii!cr.ibiv beyond the commencement of our revolutionary war, and 

Mr. Dclaf.eld, in his recent "Inquiry into the Origin of the Antiquities of 
.Kmcrioi," referring to these statements of Dr. Warren, observes, that they 
arc fully contirrned by the examinations made by himseh". * Dr. Morton, in 
his recent sjilendid work on the American skulls, concludes froni his extensive 
coa?}..-irison of crania, "that the cranial remains, discovered in the mounds 
I'rujn Tcru to Wisconsin, belong to the same race, and probably to the Tolte- 
\-2n family.'' t 

The tliird opinion above alluded to is, that the Indian tribes, found by the 
Kuri»|Kans on our continent, are to be regarded as the degenerate and broken- 
down remains of more improved races; the descendants of ancestors more 
civiii/c<l than iheniselves. 

Wc are not prepared to express a preference of this theory over the others^ 
— «;n the contrary, in the present state of our knowledge on the subject, we 
arc inclincil to hold our minds free for the adoption of any \iew of the subject, 
which a larger accumulation of lacts may render probable. We will only say, 
:hit t!ii-» !n-t supposition is in no degree inconsistent with inubability. A 
tJr-^ciitraey of this kind, even on the part of races much further advanced in 
ci»iIt/-aiion, than it is necessary to suppose the authors of the American 
•H4 und> .niul ramparts to have been, is not an uncommon occurrence in the 
h.%ti)ry I'f ilie Morld. A considerable part of Asia, including Egypt, is inb. ai)- 
itf^t by I lie degenerate descendants of liighly cultivated ancestors. Even 
« ifi-c.-c, — that country, in which physical civilization was carried hi-her than 
•t ha^. cvlt been in any other. — has been in after times occupied by a poster- 
ity, certainly as little able to c<:)nceive or execute the works of Ictinus and 
I'h.dia-, a-, the Wyandot-, or Mianiis to contrust the mounds of tlie Mu-kin- 
.^-m ft .^cioto. And yet we must suppose that, for the last eighteen ceur-.i- 
»>«-% ihe civilized population of every part of Europe has been far less exposed 
»o all ihc c.'.u-es of degeneracy, than the aboriginal population of this cMiti- 
•»^it. «5c^tl•l;^r- as it was of the art of writing, the great preserver of all other 
*»:k. We b.lhjld the descendants of that very Mexican or Peruvian popula- 
e»-«. «?ii.Ji is generally supposed to be the race by whom these works were 
•->*T^-i.-.a!jv C'ln-tructed, and who are known to have been comijetent, at the 
I rr.^ ..f \u^ c.inque.>t and for several preceding ages, to the erection of struct- 
^fr*. r-.-re j^-rnianant tlian any of which remains are found in the North- 
• rkV'i ^Mtcs and Territories of our Union, reduced at the present day to a 
' '•- I'-, n, iu which they are equally incapable to plan or execute any such 
« •'*-^; a curious s|>ecimen of a native civilization not furthered and im- 
j«--'»»-i. i-M'. tfu-.hed and destroyed, by a more advanced supervening foreign 
■■'•'■ n^ 

'. t'.t.- entire question as to the original settlement of our continent 
• '!'- I to battle the resources of human investigation. To say noth- 

.; ■ ; ;.'.<? inference fairly to be deduced from the Scriptures, that sound phi- 

" '« '-r. *hivli teaches us to prefer the simplest explanations of exi.^ting 


prefer the simplest exp 
ify. p. 1 6. t .Morion'-s Cra)iia Ain.ruuna, p. 260. 


from the intimate connection which has subsisted between them 
and ns, since the treaty of Greenville, in 1795, it may be pre- 
sumed that we are as well acquainted with their history as we 
could be, when our reliance must be placed on their statements, 
and traditions, or by comparing those with the few facts which 
could be collected from other sources. 

l"he tribes resident within the bounds of, this State, when the 

phenomena, bids us look to an emigration from northeastern Asia, as the 
source of the population of this continent; and the most judicious writers are 
disposed, with Humboldt, to date that emigration from the fifth or sixth cen- 
tury of our era; a period at which it is known, that the nations of north- 
eastern Asia were in extensive agitation and movement. ]]ut this solution of 
the great difficulty is met at the threshold by popular and pretty obvious 
objection, that although a lapse of twelve or thirteen centuries is by no means 
sufficient to destroy all affinity of language between races descended from the 
same stock, we fin.l no resemblance whatever, beyond that which may be 
ascribtd to casual coincidence, between the vocabularly of any of the native 
languages of America and that of any of the Innguages of the elder continent. 
Wherever in Europe or Asia we have the means of instituting the comparison, 
we find the tribes of men exceedingly tenacious of the radical and substantial 
parts of a language. 'Ihere is probably no instance in which a vocabulary 
has wholly disappeared, except where the race speaking it has been wholly 

We shall, however, by no means escape this diftlculty by assuming, with 
some of the French philosophers of the last century and their disciples, a 
primitive plurality of the races of man. Apart from the objections to this 
a-vumption, which arise from the cosnif gony of the Scriptures, and other 
difficulties which might be >-tatcd, this very difficulty of language exists in an 
unmitigated form. The dialects of the native tribes of North and South 
America are exceedingly numerous, but are probably capable of being reduced 
to a small number of families. Of these families, however, .Mr. (iallatin, in 
his masterly treatise on tlie Indian tribes of Xorth America, has enumerated 
twenty-nine. Altliough, in the opinion of Mr. Du Ponceau, which is adopted 
by Mr. Gallatin, there is a general pulysy)ilhetiL strnctiii-L', in all the An:ierican 
languages which have been examined, in which they resemble each other and 
differ from the ancient and mcjdern languages of the elder continent, there is 
yet a large number of families of languages on our continent, which appear to 
be utterly destitute of resemblance with each other, as far as the vocalndarly 
is concerned. This is even not unfrequently the case with tribes, who were 
found by the first settlers adjacent to each other. Jt is evident that, on the 
theory above alluded to, of an original plurality of the races of human family, 
this difficulty would yjresent itself in undiminished force; and that it is no 
more difficult, on the theory of a Common origin, to conceive of an entire 
dissimilanty betv.cen the languages respectively of the American and Asiatic 
contineiit, as produced by a non-intercourse and geographical separation of 
ten or twelve centuries, than to concci^'e of a like dissimilarity, between the 
different families of languages of the American tribes, which has disclosed 
itself on the examination ot' iljcir vocabularies, as the effect of a similar cause. 
i his difficulty, therefore, if deemed decisive against an Asiatic origin of the 
-Vnierican races, would go the length of requiring an original creation for 
every family rtf languages ; a ]jrop(isition loo extravagant to be discussed. — E.. 
EvLktTi, in X.-A. /uv., July, 1840. 


iirst white settlement commenced, were the Wyandots, Miamis, 
Shawanees, Dclawares, a remnant of the iMoheigans, (who had 
united themselves with the Delawares,) and a band of the Ottawas. 
There may also have been, at this time, some bands from the 
Seneca and Tuscaroras tribes of the Iroquois or Six Nations, 
remaining in the northern part of the State. But whether resi- 
dent or not, the country for some distance west of the Penn- 
sylvania line, certainly belonged to them. From this, their 
western boundary, (wherever it might be, but certainly east of 
the Scioto.) the claims of the Miamis "and Wyandots commenced. 
The claims of tlie latter were very limited, and can not well be 
admitted to extend further south than the dividing ridge between 
the waters of the Scioto and Sandusky Rivers, nor further west 
than the Auglaise; whilst the ]Miamis and their kindred tribes 
are conceived to be the just proprietors of all the remaining 
part of the country northwest of the Ohio, and south of the 
southerly bend of Lake Michigan and the Illinois River. I am 
aware that this is not the commonly received opinion, and that a 
contrary one was promulgated more than eighty years ago, and 
sustained by the efforts of some of the most distinguished men of 
our countr}'. A subject which has engaged the attention of our 
immortal Franklin, and into the discussion of which, we are told, 
*'the late DeWitt Clinton, of New York, entered with much 
ardor,'' will certainly not be deemed unworthy our attention on 
this occasion : even if it did not form a part of the history of the 
country which we ha\e embraced in our plan. The proposition 
against which I contend, asserts the right, at the period of whicli 
I am speaking, of all the country watered by the Ohio, to tlie 
Iroquois, or Six Nations, in consideration of their having con- 
quered the tribes which originally possessed it. This confederacy, 
it is .said, possessed "at once the ambition of the Romans for con- 
quest, and their martial talents for securing it.'' Tike that celebrated 
ancient people, too, they manifested, in the hour of victory, "a 
moderation equal to the valor which they displayed in it;' the 
conquered nations being always spared, and either incorporated 
in their confederacy, or subjected to so small a tribute as to 
amount merely to an acknowledgment of the supremacy of their 
conquerors. That under the guidance of this spirit, and this 
policy, they had extended their conquest westward to the Ali.'^sis- 
sippi; and south to the Carolinas, and the confmes of Georgia, a 
space embracing more than half of the whole territory of the 
Union, before the acquisition of Louisiana and Florida. I have 
nothing to do. at this time, with the conquests in other directions, 
hut I shall endeavor to prove that their alleged subjugation of 


the northwestern tribes, rests upon no competent autliority; and 
tliat the favored region which we now call our own, as well as 
that possessed by our immediate contiguous western sisters, has 
been for many centuries as it now is, 

"The land of the free and the home of the brave." 

I neither deny the martial spirit of the Iroquois, nor the mag- 
nanimity of their policy to some of the tribes whom they subdued ; 
both are well established. But I contend, that whilst they had a 
fair field for the exercise of all that they possessed of the former, 
in a war with an ancient tribe of Ohio, they had no opportunity 
for the display of the latter, from the indomitable valor of the 
comparatively small nation which had dared to oppose itself to 
the extension of their power. That a portion of the country was 
subdued, both parties admit; as they do, also, that if the termi- 
nation of this war enabled the Iroquois somewhat to extend the 
limits of their empire, they found it a desert, without a warrior to 
adopt into their nation, or a female to exhibit in their triumphant 
returns to their villages. 

I will now proceed to state grounds upon whicli rest the claims 
of the Iroquois, to be considered the conquerors of the country 
to the Mississippi, and between the Ohio and the lakes. 

The history of the Iroquois, or Six Nations, was written by 
<Jadwallader Golden, Elsq., of New York, who v/as a member of 
the king's council, and surveyor-general of the province, twenty- 
five or thirty years before the revolutionary war. I have never 
-seen this work, and shall be obliged to use the account of its con- 
tents, as far as relates to the claims of conquests made by the 
Iroquois, given by Mann Butler, in his recent history of Kentucky. 
According to the authorities quoted by this gentleman, the ])osi- 
tion occuj^ied by the Iroquois, when the French settlement was 
made in Canada, was "on the banks of the St. Lawrence, above 
Quebec, and that from thence they extended their conquests on 
both sides of the Lakes Ontario, Erie, and Huron. In this career 
of conquest, with a magnanimity and sagacious spirit, worthy of 
the ancient Romans, and superior to all their contemporary tribes, 
they successively incorporated the -victims of their arms with their 
own confederacy." He goes on to say, condensing the account 
given in a work printed by Dodsley, in 1755, entitled ''Present 
•"^tate of North America," as follows: — "In 1673, these tril)es are 
represented as having conquered the Ollinois, or Illinois, residing 
<jn the Illinois Ri\er, and they are, likewise, at the same time 
>>aid to have conquered and incorporated the Satanas, Chawanons 
or Shawanons, whom they had formerly driven from the lakes. 


To these conquests they are said, by the same high authorit}-, tC' 
have added the Twightwas, (Tewietewes), as they are called in 
the journal of Major "\\'ashington. About the same time, they 
carried tlieir victorious arms to the Illinois and Mississippi west- 
ward: and to Georgia, southward. About the year 171 1, they 
incorporated the Tuscaroras, when driven from Carolina."' '''T'he 
tribe in question," says Governor Pownal in his administration 
of tlic liritish colonies, "about the year 1664, carried their arms 
as (av south as Carolina, and as tar west as the Mississippi, over 
a vast country which extended twelve hundred miles in length, 
and about six hundred in breadth, when they destroyed whole 
nations, of whom there are no accounts remaining among the 
British. The rights of these tribes to the hunting lands of (3hio, 
meaning the river of that name, may be fairly proved by the 
ron^juest they made in subduing the Shawonoes, Delawares, 
'I'iwictewees, and Ollinois, as they stood possessed therof at the 
peace of Ryswick, in 1697." In support of these pretensions, he 
furllier quotes a paper from the pen of Dr. Franklin, who, upon. 
the authority of Lewis Evans, a gentleman who was said by the 
Doctor to be possessed of great American knowledge, asserting 
that "the Shawonoes, who were formerly one of the most consid- 
a!)ie nations of these parts of America ; whose seat extended from 
Kentucky southwestward to the ^lississippi, have been subdued 
by the confederate, or Six Nations, and the country since became 
their proi)erty." But it seems that, notwithstanding the bold 
a.vsertions of the above-named authors, it became necessary, at a 
council held in the year 1744, to apply to the Six Nations them- 
selves, to know the extent of their clainis. That it was favorable 
enough, may be reasonal)ly supposed. Their particular answ^er 
will be (juoted below. At another treaty with the Six Nations,. 
held at Fort Stanwix, in New York, in 1768, the Indians were 
a^Mm called upon to state the extent of their claims upon the 
< >hio. This they are said to have done in the following words, 
addressed to their agent, Sir William Johnson: — "You, who 
know ail our affair.s, must be sensible that our rights go much 
t irtiier south than the Kenhawa, and that we have a very good 
:irKl clear title, as far south as the Cherokee River, w^hich we can 
not allow to be the right of any other Indians, without doing 
v.rong Hi our posterity, and acling unworthy of those warriors 
who fougiit and conquered it.'' Upon the strength of this declara- 
iton. the_ title of the Iroqucjis to the valley of the Ohio was i)ur- 
rha-ed for /^ 10,476 13s. 6d. sterling, for the crown. "-'■ 

Ilic hrench autho;itic.s now accessi!;le to us make it quite certain thai 


It will ai once be perceived, that tlie mass of testimoin- in 
favor of the extensive conquests of the Iroquois, rests upon their 
own assertions. A fair offset to them will be found in the account 
which the northwestern Indians have given of their own history. 
But before 1 have recourse to this, I will endeavor to clear the 
way by examining the only two authorities which have been 
adduced in support of the pretensions of the Iroquois. The first 
and most important is to be found in Colden's History o^ the Six 
Nations. That author, upon the authority, he says, of certain 
ancient French authors, declares, that in 1672, the Iroquois had 
canquered the Ollinois, or Illinois, the Chowetans, or Shawanees, 
whom they had formally driven from the lakes, and in 1685, thir- 
teen years after, the Tiwictewees, or Miamis. Mr. Butler, in the 
introduction to his history, gives an account of the early voyages, 
of discovery, to the west of Lake ^Michigan, made under the 
governor of Canada. The tirst of these was made by Father 
Marquette. His principal object was to find the great river of the 
west, of which they had often heard, but by accounts so uncertain, 
that it was a matter of dispute, whether it poured its mighty 
mass of water into the Gulf of California, that of Mexico, or into 
the Atlantic Ocean, on the coast of \'irginia. This fatht-r ];ro- 
ctreded with a party, in two canoes, in the }ear 1673, to the west 
side of Lake Michigan, and coasting it southwardly to the Bay 
dos Puans, (Green Bay,) ascended to the Fox River the Portage, 
communicating with the Wisconsin, and down the latter to the 
Mississippi. Pursuing their voyage on that river as low down as 
the Arkansas, whence they returned up the river, and, by a fort- 
unate circumstance, under the (guidance of some of the natives, 
entered the Illinois River; (of the existence of which they had 
no previous knowledge,) and ascending it, reached the southerly 
bend of Lake Michigan, and returned to Green Bay by a better 
.'ind shorter route. ^It was on this voyage that the French of 
F'anada a]jpear to have first heard of the Illinois River or the 
Illinois Indians. And yet it is asserted, that previously to this 
}'-'ar, their near neighbors, with whom they had an intimate and 

••e Iroquoi.-s conquered tliei Iliiiioi.-> a.s early as 16S0; and probably made 
''•cur>ions into the territory inlial^iied by ihe latter prior to tliat date. La- 
"'^'i-, in that y.-ar, found the lu'iian.s beiueen Eakcs Michic;an and ]'>ie, 

'•^''^ in daily dread of the fierce Iroquois, who evidently had already vi>ited 
■ 'lat region. And Tonty, in September, iGSo, was among the Illinois wiien 
■^* Jro(}uois army utterly defeated them, and ravaged all their setilements 

•'^Kg the Illinois River, even to the Mississippi. See authorities cited in 
'"'irkman's EaSaile. Chaps, xiv, xv, and xvi.— Enw. G. Mason. 


every-day intercourse, had penetrated to the great river, to search 
for which, was the principal object of the voyage, and upon its 
banks had subdued a ])Owerful nation ; which, from information I 
received from a credible eye-witness many years afterward, were 
estimated to possess four thousand warriors. There were two 
other routes than that taken by jMarquette, by which the Iroquois 
might have reached the Illinois. By descending the Alleghany 
River, which flowed tlirough their own country, and then by the 
Ohio to the Mississippi. But one more direct and easier was fur- 
nished by the ascent of the Miami of the Lake, and the descent 
of the Wabash to the mouth of Tippecanoe, the head navigation 
of which is not very distant either from Lake Michigan or the 
Illinois River. If any expedition of this kind had taken place, it 
must have been knov,-n to the French of Canada, and that route 
would have been taken by Father Marquette, rather than the 
comparatively difficult and circuitous one of Lake Michigan, the 
Fox and Ouisconsin Rivers. The above account of the con-juests 
of the Iroquois, fixes that of the Tiwictewees, a tribe of the 
Miamis, in the year 1685; that is. thirteen years after the con- 
quest of the Illinois tribes of the same nation. This story would 
have been more credible if the periods of tliese conquests had 
been reversed, and that of the Tiwictewees, assigned to ihe earlier 
era, as it is well known that that tribe of the Miamis was always 
the most easterly of their nation, and hence they must Ivdve been 
/nf out of f/ic Ti'ay before their brothers of the Illinois could be 
struck." In the al:>ove quotation, the conquest of the Shawanoes 
is said to have happened simultaneously with that of the Tiwicte- 
wees. But there is nothing said of their location at that ])eriod. 
From the construction of the sentence in the narrative, it seems 
to be intended to convey the idea that it was upon ih:- same 
expedition that it was effected, and that the tribes were contigu- 
ous or rather upon the same line of operation, (one of them 
being first conquered, and then the other.) And such vras pre- 
cisely the fact as to the position of these tribes at anotlier period 
— but that period was one hundred years after that which is given 
by the supposed French writer. The other authority to which 1 
referred, as sustaining the Iroquois pretensions, is the admission 
made by the Cherokees, who attended the treaty of Stanwix, in 
1766. These chiefs are represented to have laid some skins at 

* 'Ihc Iroquois did not find it necessary to put the Miamis out of the ^\'ay 
before they attacked the Illinois, because with masterly diplomacy tliey per- 
suaded the Miamis to j(nn in their invasion of the territory of the Illinois. 
See Parkman's LaSalle, chap, xvi, paye 205. — Ya)\\\ G. Mason. 


the feet of the head men of the Iroquois, saying, "that they were 
theirs, as they had killed the animals from which they were taken, 
on this side of the big river.'' This "big river," the author who 
records the anecdote, (Judge Haywood, in his History of Ten- 
nessee,) asserts to be the Tennessee, "as that was the way in 
which the Cherokees were accustomed to designate it." Now, if 
all the statements here made be true, and I doubt not that they 
are, so far from admitting the inference to be correct, I think the 
very reverse would be the construction put upon what they said, 
by every person who is acquainted with the method of speaking 
peculiar to the Indians. It was a remarkable peculiarity of these 
people, before their manners and mode of expression were some- 
what modified by their intercourse with the whites, that they were 
always averse to refer to either men or things by their appropriate 
names, even if they were acquainted with them. They preferred 
to describe a man, or a river, or a town, by some quality or remark- 
able feature, rather than designate the object by a name. When 
alluding to one of their own nation, in his presence, they would 
say, instead of his name, "that man with a pipe in his mouth," — 
"that man v/ith a lame leg," etc., etc. If a hunter, encamped 
upon a branch of the Scioto, had killed a deer upon that river, 
he would say, upon being asked, that he had killed it upon the 
"big river." And the same phrase would be used if the question 
was asked on the Scioto, near to its mouth, if the deer had been 
killed on the banks of the Ohio. When, therefore, a big river 
was referred to, for the purpose of marking the spot where any 
particular event occurred, it must be always understood to mean 
the largest river near to them. Having crossed the Ohio on their 
route to Fort Stanwix, they never could have intended to refer to 
the Tennessee as the "big river," when they must have well 
known that it was a tributary to the former. 

I w^ill now proceed, gentlemen, to give you a condensed 
account of the information I received, in the course of a long 
intercourse v> ith the northwestern tribes, commencing at the 
treaty of Greenville, in 1795, and which constitutes one of the 
;.Tounds upon which I restrict the conquest of the Irocpiois in the 
valley of the Ohio, to a line, at any rate, east of the Scioto. No 
better opportunity could be afforded than that which I possessed, 
to obtain correct information in- relation to the ancient history, 
and the territorial claims of the several tribes and nations, because 
>t was derived from discussions in councils, where conflicting par- 
tics were represented, and encouragement given to elicit a full 
<-'Xposure of all the facts and circumstances which could have any 
sntluence in support of their respective pretensions. I will add, 


too. that there was no motive that could influence an agent of . 
the Government to countenance the unjust pretensions of anv 
tribe, and reject those which were better founded. All of them ' 

had placed themselves under the exclusive protection of tlie 
United States, and all had bound themselves to make no sale of 
any part of their lands to any other civilized power. ^ 

Rejecting, then, the accounts which have been given by the | 

pens of a few individuals, (more intent upon exalting the fame of 
a particular nation, than upon giving a true history,) who assert • ' 

the early conquest of the half-civilized nation which once inhab- 
ited Ohio, by the united efforts of the Leni Lenapes, or Dela- " t 
wares, and Mingwe or Iroquois, on their ])assage from the north- .•: 

west part of our continent, to the shores of the Atlantic; I com- " 

mence my narrative at the time when the position of all the great ■■ 

tribes or nations which have ever advanced any claim to the fair y 

and fertile country between the lakes, the Ohio, and Mississippi, V 

was as follows: — 'fhe chronology I can not precisely fix, but it was :' 

at a period, centuries after the possession of the country by the v 

authors of the ancient works which we have mentioned, or those 
who conquered them, as the then possessors had not the least 
knowledge or tradition relative to the one or the other. There are ^. 

circumstances, however, which induce me to fix the time some- 
what about the middle of the seventeenth century. At that time, 
tlien. the Mingwe, or far-famed Iroquois, remained in their origi- 
nal seats, compressed between the inhospitable region of Labrador 
and tlie great Lenape (or, as we call them, Delaware) nation, 
which confined them on the south, Westwardly, they had made 
.«iome conquest, and with the sagacity, which has caused them to 
be compared to the conquerors of the world; in the commence- 
ni'.-nt of their progress, they ado|)ted the conquered tribes into 
their confederacy. I am ignorant of the northern boundary of 
the J.enapes at this period. It is probable that it had been con- 
siderably pressed in by the Iroquois. They still, however, pos- 
scvsed the greater part of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsyl- 

Ascending the lakes and leaving the Iroquois territory, the 
Hy.mdots or Hurons, ]jresented themselves. A large ])ortion of 
thK nation were, at that time, north of Lake Erie; but the greater } 

part occu{)ied the country from-the Miami Bay eastwardly, along 
what is now denominated the Western Reserve, and extending 
across the country southwardly, to the Ohio. Westward of this 
ternrory commenced that of the Miami Nation, or rather confed- 
t^r.'irv, j)ossessing a larger number of warriors, at that period, than 
could })e furnished by any of the aboriginal nations of Norlh 


America, before or since.. "Lheir territory embraced all of Ohio, 
west of the Scioto, — all of Indiana, and that part of Illinois, south 
of the Fox River and Wisconsin, on which frontier they were 
intermingled with the Kickapoos and some other small tribes. 
Of this immense territory, the most beautiful portion was unoccu- 
pied. Numerous villages were to be found on the Scioto and the 
head waters of the two Miamis, of the Ohio. On the Miami of 
the Lake, and its southern tributaries, and throughout the whole 
course of the Wabash, at least as low as Chi])pecoke, (the town 
of Brush Wood,j now Vincennes. But the beautiful Ohio rolled 
its "amber tide" until it paid its tribute to the Father of \\'aters, 
through an unbroken solitude. At that time, before, and for a 
century after, its banks were without a town or village, or even a 
single cottage, the curling smoke of whose chimney would give 
the promise of comfort and refreshment to a weary traveler. 

If such an appearance should have presented itself to one who 
was aware of his situation, it would have been the signal of flight, 
well knowing that -it must proceed from some sequestered dell, 
and that the fire from which it proceeded had been lighted by a 
party of warriors, who, having interposed the river between them- 
-selves and those who might have commenced a pursuit on the 
line of their retreat, might consider themselves safe in indulging 
in the luxury of a cooked meal, and a dry couch, after a laborious 
and protracted march, in wliich privations of every description, 
consistent with their success and safety, were enjoined l)y the 
rigid rules of their discipline. No traveler, accpiainted with the 
Indian character, would seek the hospitalities of such a fire-side. 
AMiatever might have been the result of their expedition, the 
interview would prove fatal to him. If it had been successful, 
the appetite for blood would be inflamed, rather than satisfied, 
and if otherwise, the scalp of an unfortunate stranger might be 
substituted for the similar trophy which their bad fortune or bad 
management had not permitted them to tear from the head of 
their acknowledged enemy. 

We left the Mingwe, or Iroc[Uois, strengthened by the incorpora- 
tion, into their confederacy, of some concjucred tribes, but not 
yet able to burst through the impediments which opposed their 
progress to the west and south. Their success, however, in the 
latter direction, was soon equahto their utmost hopes. We pos- 
sess none of the details of the war waged with the Lena])es, but 
we know that it resulted in the entire submission of the latter, 
and that to prevent any further interruption from them in their ex- 
tensive schemes of conquest, they adopted a plan to humble and 
<legrade them, as novel as it was effectual. 1 o those who are 


acquainted with the general character of the American Indiansv 
and to those particularly who know the conduct of the Delawares., 
when under the command of the renowned Bocanghelas, in their 
wars against the United States, and that of the gallant Nicoming, 
who commanded a band of forty of his countrymen in our service 
in the war of 1S13, it will seem almost impossible that the fact 
whicli I am about to relate, can be supported upon good author- 
ity. But the best authority can be adduced in support of it, since 
it is acknowledged by all the parties who were concerned in it. 
Singular as it may seem, then, it is nevertheless, true, that the 
Lenapes, upon the dictation of the Iroquois, agreed to lay aside 
the character of warriors, and to assume that of women. This^ 
fact is undisputed, but nothing can be more different than the 
account which is given of the manner in which it was brought 
about, and the motives for adopting it, on the part of the Lenapes. 
The latter assert that they were cajoled into it by the artifices of 
the Iroquois, who descanted largely upon the honor which was to- 
be acquired by their assuming the part of peace-makers between- 
belligerent tribes, and which cotild never be so effectual as when 
done in the character of the sex which never make war. The- 
Lenapes consented, and agreed that their chiefs and warriors- 
from thenceforth should be considered as women. The version 
of this transaction, as given by the Iroquois, is, that they de- 
manded, and the Lenapes were made to yield to this humiliating 
concession, as the only means of averting impending destruction. 
'I'he Rev. Mr. Heckwelder, in a communication to the Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania, labored, with more zeal than success, to 
establish the Delaware account. But even if he had succeeded 
in making his readers believe that the Delawares, when they sub- 
mitted to the degradation proposed to them by their enemies, 
were influenced, not by fear, but by the benevolent desire to put 
a sioj) to the calamities of war, he has established for them the 
rci)utation of being the most egregious dupes and fools that the 
v\orld has rver seen. This is not often the case with Indian 
sachems. They are rarely cowards, but still more rarely are they 
cletjcic-nt in sagacity and discernment to detect any attempt ta 
impose upon them. I sincerely wish I could unite with the 
Worthy (ierman, in removing this stigma upon the Delawares. 
A long and intimate knowledge- of them, in peace and war, as 
enemies and friends, has left upon my mind the most fovorable 
impressions of their character for bravery, generosity, and fidelity 
to their engagements. 

The Iroquois being thus freed from any apprehension of an 
attack, irom their ancient enemies, upon their southern border^ 


prepared to force the barrier which had so long opposed their 
westward progress. This was not a barrier of mountains— not a 
rampart of eartli or stone, but one similar to that which protected 
for ages, the open streets and avenues of Sparta— a rampart of 
warriors' bosoms, equal in bravery, and in the love of their coun- 
try, to any which that far-famed State, or either of her distin- 
guished rivals, ever sent to the field. From the position which I 
have ascribed to the Hurons, or Wyandots, it will be perceived 
that I allude to that celebrated tribe. There is much difficulty 
in fixing the chronology of many of the most important events in 
the history of the Indians, at the period to which I now refer. 
There are no means by which we can ascertain when the war 
between the Iroquois and the Hurons commenced, or how long 
it lasted. W'liether it was carried on before tliey were both fur- 
nished with European arms, or after they had become acquainted 
with the use of them, and both had been supplied by the Euro- 
pean nation, to which they severally adhered, cannot be correctly 
ascertained. There are circumstances, however, which induce 
me to believe that they had long fought with weapons of their 
own manufacture; but that the great battle which terminated the 
contest, was made more bloody and disastrous from the use of 
firearms. If that was the case, it must have been after the year 
1 701, which was the epoch of the alliance between the British 
and the Iroquois. Previously to that event, the French had been 
extremely cautious in placing the destructive arms of the Euro- 
Ijean.s, in the hands of the Indians. But, as by means of the 
British, the Iroquois had, in a few years, become completely 
armed, the French authorities were obliged to change their policy 
in this respect, and it was through them that the Hurons were 
enabled to meet the Iroquois upon terms equal as to arms^ 
although the disparity of numbers was greatly in favor of the 
latter. The Wyandots assert that the last great battle was fought 
in canoes upon Lake Erie, and that all, or nearly all, the warriors 
of- both nations perished. Although the actual loss of the two 
nations, in this battle, is said to have been equal, the conse- 
quences were flxr from being so. The smaller and weaker party, 
were unable again to bring into the field a force, which in point 
of numbers, could bear any reasonable proportion to their ene- 
mies. After standing at bay for same time, they yielded to the 
storm which they had not the physical force to resist, and retired 
to the shores of Lake Michigan. The history of this remarkable 
tribe is not ended with this change of situation. They returned 
after some years, to their original seats, and in all the subsequent 
v»ars of this country, continued to manifest their superiority over 


the other tribes, who, upon every occasion, yielded to them the 
pahn of bravery. 

The display of martial courage and high patriotic feeling, on 
the part of the youth of a nation, has frequently been the result 
of fortuitous causes, which, ceasing to operate, their elTect is soon 
dissipated, and the national character again sinks to its former 
level. Such was the case with Thebes. By the example and 
precepts of Epaminondas and Pelopidas, the bosoms of the 
Theban youth were lighted with unwonted fires, which rendered 
them invincible. But with the death of these great men, the 
-spirit of the nation again sank, and the presence of the sacfcd 
band was no longer the signal of victory. With Sparta it was 
-otherwise. That unbending spirit, that proud superiority, which 
the Spartan youth displayed in every situation, and which induced 
him to seek a death in the service of his country, as the most 
-enviable distinction, was the result of impressions fixed upon the 
mind in the earHest periods of life, and continued through the 
^stages of minority. Other lessons might occasionally be taught, 
but this being always present to the mind of the youth, the 
love of country, and the obligation to die whenever her service 
required the sacrifice, suppressed or weakened every other pas- 
sion of the soul, and it reigned triumphant. This accounts for 
the uniform character of the Spartan warriors, through a long 
lapse of ages. And this, too, was the source of the bravery 
Avhich I have assigned to the Wyandots, in the commencement of 
the eighteenth century, and which I knew them to possess at its 
olose. To die for the interest or honor of his tribe, and to con- 
sider submission to an enemy the lowest degradation, were daily 
lessons impressed upon the dawning reason of the child, and 
■continued through all the stages of youth. Facts, in support of 
what is here asserted, will be given in a subsec[uent part of the 

The departure of the Wyandots gave the long-wished-for op- 
portunity to the Iroquois to advance into Ohio. And that they 
did advance as far as the Sandusky, either at that period or some 
time after, is admitted. But there is no evidence whatever, to 
show that they made a conquest of the Miamis, other than their 
own assertions, and that of the British agents, residing among 
them, who obtained their infwmation from the Indians them- 
•selves. Whilst the want of such acknowledgments on the part 
of the Miamis, a number of facts, susceptible of proof, and with 
all the inconsistencies and, indeed, ])a]pable absurdities, with 
which the Irorjuois accounts abound, form such a mass of testi- 
inony, positive, negative, and circumstantial, as should, 1 think, 



leave no reasonable doubt that the pretensions of the latter, to 
the conquest of the country from the Scioto to the Mississippi, 
are entirely groundless. In the accounts which the ^fiamis gave 
of themselves, there was never any reference to a war with the 
Iroquois, whilst they declared that they had been fighting with 
the southern Indians, (Cherokees and Chickasaws,) for so many 
ages, that they had no account of any period when there was 
peace with them. At the treaty of Greenville, and at all the sub- 
sequent treaties, made for the extinguishment of their title to the 
extensive tract which I have assigned to them above, no sugges- 
tion Avas made of any claim of the Iroquois to any part; and 
there were, upon most of those occasions, those present, who 
"svould have eagerly embraced the opportunity to disparage the 
character of the Miamis, by exhibiting these as a conquered and 
degraded people. The Iroquois were not represented at tlie 
treaty of Greenville, but previously to its being held, they took 
care to inform General Wayne, that the Delawares were their 
subjects — that they had conc^uered them and put petticoats upon 
them. But neither claimed to have conquered the Isliamis, nor 
to have any title to any part of the country in the occupancy of 
the latter.-' 

* In the Discourse of DeWitt Clinton before the New York Historical Soci- 
ety, where the extensive conquests of the Five Nations are painted in strong 
colors, after .statin;^ that the date of these conquests is uncertain, he saj^s, 
"The Illinois lleJ to the westward, after being attacked by the confederates, 
and did not return until a general peace; and were permitted, in 1760, by, 
the confederates, to settle in the country between the Wabash and tlie Scioto 
Rivers.* Pownall's "Topographical Description" is given as the authority 
for this statement; and, on turning to Pownail,t we find he asserts it on the 
authority of "Captain Gordon's Journal," who, instead of 1760, uses the ex- 
pression "sixteen years ago. " Whether Captain Gordon's Journal was writ- 
ten in 1774, we do not know. We rather suppose, that Governor Clinton 
inadvertently took the statement to be that of I'ownall himself, whose " Topo- 
J^raphical Description" was written in 1775. But it is incredible, that the 
Five Nations claimed a right to dispose of the territory between the Wabash 
and Scioto as late a.^ the niiddle of the last century, and that the tribes of the 
great western league were settled there, at so recent a period, by their per- 
'Tiis-iion. As the Indians of the Five Nations were careful to inform General 
Wayne of their ancient conquest of the Delawares, and as any claim adverse 
to the Miamis was likely to be viewed with favor by the United States at the 
treaty of Greenville, great importance is justly attached by General Harrison 
lo the circumstance, that no such claim* was then alluded to. Though the 
I'ive Nation.-, were not a party to the treaty of Greenville, there were those 
present who would gladly have revived such a tradition, to the disadvantage 
<->f th'r .Mianii^-, had any sucli tradition then existed. We regard this consid- 
<--''ation as of a decisive character. — E. Evkkkit, in X.-A. J\tv., July, 1840. 

* OcWiit Clinton's H'ntorudl Discourse, p. 28. t Il>id., p. 42. 


The French had estabhshments in the lUinois country in the 
latter part of the seventeenth century, and, upon the autliority of 
the learned and Rev. Dr. Brute, present bishop of Vincennes, Mr. 
Butler, in his recent History of Kentucky,''' asserts that Vincennes. 
was a missionary post, so early as the year 1700. At that period 
the Miami Nation is represented by all French accounts as very 
numerous, and in the undisputed possession of all the country I 
have claimed for them. I have myself seen a ver}' old and 
respectable citizen of St. Louis, who recollected when five tribes 
of the nation, who went under the appellation of Illinois tiibes, 
could bring into the field four thousand warriors; and yet they 
did not compose the strength of the nation, which was to be found 
strung along the banks of the Wabash and its tributary streams, 
and no doubt far into Ohio. In the year 1734, M. de Vincennes, 
a captain in the French army, found them in possession of the 
whole of the AVabash, and their principal town occupying thr site 
of Fort Wayne, which Avas actually the key of the country belov. . 
This ofiiccr was the first Frenchman who followed the route of 
the Miami of the Lake, and the Wabasii, in passing from Canada 
to their western settlements; and, in doing so at this time, throws 
some light upon the chronology of some of the events to which I 
have referred. Long before this period, the French must have 
known of the shorter and easier route, and no reason can be 
assigned for their never having used it, but from its being the 
seat of war, on some ])ortion of it, which rendered it unsafe. 
This war I sup]jose to be that between the Wyandots and Iro- 
([uois; and, although I would fix its termination earlier by some 
years than the expedition of Vincennes, yet, being an experi- 
ment, it is probable that it required some time to ascertain its 
entire safety; nor is it at all mipossible, that the Tiwictewees 
(always the most eastern of the Miami tribes) were not upon the 
most friendly terms with the Iroquois. Indeed, the probability 
is, that there was war between them, but not of a decisive charac- 
ter, and if any concpiests were made, or any part of the territory 
of the Miamis conquered, it must have been of trifling extent; if 
victories had been gained, their effects were evanescent, and of 
no use to the conquerors. Vincennes, in 1734, found them 
•(the Miamis) in the possession of the entire Wabash; and, in 
1751, the Tiwictewees were visiter! at their towns, on the Scioto, 
one hundred and fifty miles from the mouth, by Mr. Gist, of 
Virginia, whose Journal has been lately published by Mr. Sparks, 

* A History of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. By Mann Cutler, A.M. 
Louisville, Ky., 1834. 


amongst the Washington papers. Mr. Gist remarks, that they 
Avere there "'in amity with the Six Nations,"' and adds,, that they 
*'appeared to him to be a very superior people" to their supposed 
conquerors. Amongst tlie inconsistencies to be found in the 
declaration of those who support the pretension of the Iroquois 
on this side of the Ohio, I shall at this time mention but one. 
After broadly asserting the claim of conquest to the Mississip])i, 
it seems, that, in 1781, Colonel Croghan, who is represented to 
have been an agent with the Iroquois for the thirty years preced- 
ing, limited their right "on the southeast side of the Ohio, to the 
Cherokee (Tennessee) River, and to the Big Miami, a stony river 
on the northwest side." Even this reduced claim to the territor}- 
-within one State, will not be admitted; as it has been shown, 
that the Tiwictewees were in full possession of the Scioto, upward 
of one hundred miles above the Miami, where they were \'isited 
by Mr. (iist, and presented nothing to indicate a conquered 
people. I have no doubt that their pretensions to extensive 
conquests on the southeast side of the Ohio, are also untenable. 
Dr. Franklin asserts, that at a treaty held in 1744, the chiefs of 
the Six Nations, upon being questioned as to their title, made 
this reply, "that all the world knew that they had conquered the 
nations living on the Suscjuehanna, the Cohongoranto, (now 
Potomac,) and back of the Virginia mountains." The Doctor 
further asserts, upon the authority of Mitchell, the author of a 
work which had been jniblished at the solicitation of the British 
board of trade and plantations, "that the. Six Nations had extend- 
ed their territories ever since the year 1672, when they subdued 
and were incorporated with the vShawanoes, tJic iiatii'e propj-ictcvs 
of those countries."' Besides which "they claim a right of con- 
<]uest over the Illinois and all the Mississipi)i, as far as they 
extend.'" 1 have already disposed of the Illinois portion of these 
pretended concjuests. and I will now show that the whole account 
of the subjugation of the Shawanoes by the Iroquois, is still more 
clearly destitute of foundation. No fact, in relation to the Indian 
tribes, who have resided on our northwest frontiers for a century 
past, is better known, than that the Shawanees came from Florida 
and Georgia about the middle' of the eighteenth century. They 
passed through Kentucky /along the Cumberland River) on their 
way to the Ohio. But that their passage was rather a rapid one, 
is proved from these circuinstances. Black Hoof, their late prin- 
cipal chief, (with whom I had l)een acquainted since the treaty 
of Greenville,) was born in Florida, before the removal of his 
tribe. 1-fe died at Wapocconata, in this State, only three or four 
years ago. As T do not know his age, at the time of his leaving 

" ■ ■ ' • '' ' I 


Florida, nor at bis death, I am not able to fix with precision tlie • 
date of the emigration. But it is well known that they were at 

the town which still bears their names on the Ohio, a few miles ^ 

below the mouth of the Wabash, sometime before the commence- • i 

ment of the revoluntary war; that they remained there some t 

years before they removed to the Scioto, when they were found \ 

by Ciovernor Dunmore in the year 1774. l^iat their removal r 

from Plorida, was a matter of necessity, and their progress from f 

thence, a tlight, rather than a deliberate march, is evident from 1 

their appearance, when they presented themselves upon the Ohio, '. 

and claimed the protection of the jMiamis. They are represented !> 

by the chiefs of the latter, as well as those of the Delawares, as ^^■: 

supplicants for protection, not against the Iroquois, but against J 

the Creeks and vSeminoles, or some other southern tribe, who ?' 

had driven them fi'om Florida, and they are said to have been I 

literally s<7/^s provat ct sans culottes. As during this rapid flight, v..- 

was the first and only time that the Shawanees had ever been in |- 

Kentucky, tlie .^tory of tlieir having been conquered, and their ■ f : 

right to the country obtained by tlie Six Nations, in consequence \ . 
of that conc^uest, nearly a century before, must be considered an 

entire fabrication. This history of the Shawanees was brought | 

forward at a council held at Vincennes, in the year 18 10, to i 

resist the pretensions advanced by the far-famed Tecumthey tu | 

an interference with the Miamis in the disposal of their lands. f 

However galling to this chief, the reference to these ficts might if 

have been, he vvms unable to deny them, as will be seen by an *• 
examination of the proceedings of this council, preserved in 

McAffee's history of the western war. These facts prove most ' ^ 

clearly, that the Six Nations never did acquire a title to the \ 

country between the Kentucky River and the Tennessee, by the | 

subjugation of the Shawanees, unless it was when that tribe was |, 

passing through it nearly a century subsequent to the period in I 

which it is said to have taken place. If it should be asserted i 

that the Shawanees might have occupied the country in question ^' 

before the year 1674, and have been then driven off by the Iro- .| 

quois, and sought refuge in Florida, from whence they again | 

returned after a lapse of seventy or eighty years, the answer is, % 

that they give no such account of themselves, nor are there any ' 
traces in the country itself, to show that it had been occujjicd 
either by the Shawanees or any other tribe, for some ages at least 
before the period fixed for its conquest by the Iroquois. All the 

early voyagers on the Ohio, and all the first emigrants to Ken- ^ \ 

tucky, represent the country as being totally destitute of any | 

recent vestigages of settlement. Mr. Butler, in his History of I- 


[ Kentucky, remarks in the text, that "no Indian towns, within 

I recent times, were known to exist within this territory, either in 

Kentucky or the lower Tennessee;" but in a note he says, "there 
are vestiges of Indian towns near Harrodsburg, on Salt River, 
and at other points, but they are of no recent date." The same 
author, and all others assert, "that this interjacent country, 
between the Indians of the south, and those northwest of the 
Ohio, was kept a common hunting ground or field of battle as 
the resentments or inclinations of the adjoining tribes prompted 
to the one or the other." The total absence of all vestiges of set- 
tlement, of a date as late as the period of the alleged conquest, 
is conclusive testimony against it, the process by which nature 
restores the forest to its original state, after being once cleared,, 
is extremely slow. In our rich lands, it is, indeed, soon covered 
again with timber, but the character of growth is entirely different, 
and continues so, through many generations of men. In several 
. places on the Ohio, particularly upon the farm which I occupy, 

I clearings were made in the tirst settlement, abandoned, and sufter- 

I ing to grow up. Some of them, now to be seen, of nearly hfty 

j years' growth, have made so little progress towards attaining the 

I appearance of the immediately contiguous forest, as to induce 

5 any man of reflection, to determine, that at least ten times nfty 

^ years would be necessary before its complete assimilation could 

be effected. The sites of the ancient works on the Ohio, pre- 
sent precisely the same appearance as the circumjacent forest, 

■ You find on them, all that beautiful variety of trees, which gives 
I such unrivaled richness to our forests. This is particularly the 

■ case, on the fifteen acres included within the walls of the work, 
at the mouth of the Great Miami, and the relative proportions of 

^ the different kinds of timber, are about the same. The first 

I growth on the same kind of land, once cleared, and then aban- 

t doned to nature, on the contrary, is more homogeneous — often 

[ stinted to one, or two, or at most three kinds of timber. If the 

I ground had been cultivated, yellow locust, in many places, will 

\ spring up as thick as garden peas. If it has not been cultivated, 

I the black and white walnut will be the ]:)re vailing growth. The 

rapidity with which these trees- grow for a time, smothers the 
attempt of other kinds to vegetate and grow in their shade, llie 
more thrifty individuals soon overto[) the weaker of their own 
kind, which sicken and die. * In this \vi\y, there are soon only as 
many left as the earth will well sujjport to maturity. All this 
» time the squirrels may plant the seed of those trees which serve 
them for food, and by neglect suffer them to remain, — it will be 
»n vain; the birds may drop the kernels, the external pulp of 


Avhich have contributed to their nourishment, and divested of 
vrhich they are in the best state for germinating, still it will be of 
no avail; the winds of heaven may waft the winged seeds of the 
-sycamore, cotton-wood and maple, and a friendly sliower may 
bury them to the necessary depth in the loose and fertile soil 
but still without success. The roots below rob them of moisture, 
iind the canopy of limbs and leaves above intercepts the rays of 
the sun, and the dews of heaven: the young giants in possession, 
like another kind of aristocracy, absorb the whole means of sub- 
sistence, and leave the mass to perish at their feet. This state 
of things will not, however, always continue. If the process of 
nature is slow and circuitous, in putting down usurpation and 
-establishing the equality Avhich she loves, and which is the great 
characteristic of her principles, it is sure and effectual. The pre- 
ference of the soil for the first growth, ceases with its maturity. 
It admits of no succession, upon the principles of legitimacy. 
The long undisputed masters of the forest may be thinned by 
lightning, the tempest, or by diseases peculiar to themselves; and 
%vhenever this is the case, one of the oft-rejected of another 
family, will find between its decaying roots, shelter and appropri- 
ate food; and springing into vigorous growth, will soon push its 
green foliage to the skies, through the decayed and withering 
limbs of its blasted and dying adversary — the soil itself, yielding 
it a more li])eral support than any scion from the former occu- 
I)ant. It will easily be conceived what a length of time it will 
require for a denuded tract of land, by a. process so slow, again 
to clothe itself with the amazing variety of foliage which is the 
characteristic of the forests of this region. Of what immense age, 
then, must be those works, so often referred to, covered, as has 
been supposed by those who have the best opportunity of exam- 
ining them, with the second growth after the ancient forest state 
had been regaitiedl 

But, setting aside all that has been advanced adverse to the 
claims of the Six Nations to be the extensive conquerors that 
they have so long been considered, there are, I think, insuperable 
arguments to be found against it, drawn from the nature of man 
in every age, and from the state in which they were at that period. 
They have been compared to the Romans, — but in what did the 
resemblance consist? I>ike that celebrated people they might 
have been ambitious of extending their influence, and, like them, 
constant in adhering to a course of policy adapted to secure it. 
l>ut there tlie j)arallel must end. The ingredient in the composi- 
tion of a Roman army, to which all their conquests are justl\' 
aUributed, they did not, and in the state of society to which they 


were advanced, they could not possess. I allude to that bond 
by which an army of man)- thousands are brought to a harmony 
and unity of action, as if they were possessed of but one spirit 
^ind one mind. Without this, no distant foreign conquests ever 
have been or ever can be made. In every considerable collec- 
tion of men in arms in every sfate of society, the elements of fac- 
tion, disunion, and final dissolution are always to be found. If 
the warriors of the Iroquois did not possess this spirit. in a 
superior degree, they greatly differ from the kindred tribes of this 
countr}', with whom I have been acquainted. To have conquered 
the numerous tribes between their frontier and the Mississippi, 
in the short period assigned, an army of many thousands would 
liave been requisite. How would an army of that s\zt be sup- 
ported? The game of the forest flies before the march of an 
army, and the state in which these Indians were at that time, 
being without beasts of burden (and ha\-ing a natural horror of 
e.xercising that quality of rhe Roman soldiers themselves), they 
Avould be unable to apply the superabundance of one day to the 
wants of another. The power to move men in masses, to be 
efficient, is one of the highest evidences of civilization. The 
manner of making war amongst the North American Indians 
was totally difierent. Hiey endeavored to 7C'e(7r an'ay their 
enemy, by surprising and butchering, now a family, less frequently 
a hunting camp, but rarely a village. If the hostile parties were 
in juxtaposition, as the Sacs and Foxes and the Illinois Miamis, 
a'few years would determine the contest. But if they were sepa- 
rated by a large tract of unoccupied territory, as the northwest 
and southern Indians, ages might pass over without any thing 
decisive being effected. 

An erroneous opinion has prevailed in relation to the character 
of the Indians of North America. IJy many, they are supposed 
to be stoics, who willingly encounter deprivations. The very 
reverse is the fact; if they belong to either of the classes of phi- 
losophers which prevailed in the declining ages of Greece and 
Home, it is to that of Epicureans. For no Indian v,ill forego 
an enjoyhient or suffer an inconvenience, if he can avoid it, 
but under jjeculiar circumstances: whtn, for instance, he is stim- 
ulated by some strong passion - but even the gratification of this, 
he is ever ready to postpone, whenever its accomplishment is 
attended with unlooked for danger, or unexpected hardships. 
Hence their military ojjerations were always feeble — their expedi- 
tions few and far between, and much the greater number aban- 
doned without an efficient stroke, from whim, caprice, or an aver- 
sion to encounter difiiculties. 


But if the Indian will not, like Cato, throw from him "the 
pomps and pleasures," with which his good fortune furnishes him 
— when evils come which he cannot avoid, when '-the stings and 
arrows of outrageous fortune'"" fall thick upon him, then will he 
call up all the spirit of the man into his bosom, and meet hi< 
fate, however hard, like "the best Roman of them all." ^\[{h 
all these facts before me, 1 can not persuade myself, that the Six 
Nations ever extended their conquests in the manner that has 
been stated. Their attempts to conquer the numerous and war- 
like tribes on the Mississippi, would have been rendered abortive 
in one of the two ways mentioned in the apothegm of Henry the 
IV., in relation to Spain: — "If a small arm}' should be sent,- the}' 
would be defeated: if a larger one, it would starve." The exten- 
sive conquests made by the sJiepJicrds of Scythia, during the mid- 
dle ages, both in Asia and Europe, oppose no argument against the 
theory I have attempted to establish. There is no point of com- 
parison in the situation of a people who, to an abundance and 
variety of the domestic animals which furnish food and clotliing, 
add the possession of the horse, superior to any of them, and 
equally useful in peace as in war, and those who have none of 
these aids. 

At the general peace of Utrecht, in 17 12, the French were 
made to acknowledge the Iroquois as being under the exclusive 
}^rotection of Great Britain. As a counterpoise to the strength 
which the alliance with these tribes brought to their rival, the 
former power soon employed themselves in securing the friend- 
ship of the more western tribes. But although these great rival 
powers became parties in the war which was kindled in Europe, 
upon the death of the Emperor diaries the VI., their subjects in 
the interior of the American continent, as well as the Indian 
tribes, were suffered to remain in quiet. But in that which was 
commenced in 1755, both parties claimed the assistance of their 
respective Indian allies. The Six Nations gave their powerful 
aid to the British, whilst the northwestern Indians ranged them- 
selves on the side of the French, and contributed largely, by their 
assistance, to the defeat of General Braddock, and to procrasti- 
nate the fall of I'ort Du Quesne, and other western posts. The 
])eace of Paris, in 1763, terminated the war between France and 
l*ritain, and the entire cession.. of all the French dominions in 
North America, to the latter power, seemed to promise a lasting 
peace with the Indians. Such, however, was not the case. One 
year of bloody war, after the British had gained possession of all 
the western posts, desolated the frontiers, and the important for- 
tress of Michilliuiackinac v»-as taken, and Detroit, Fort Pitt, and 


Niagara, had nearly suftered a like flxte. In these enterprises, 
the Indians of Ohio, the AXVandots, Delawares, and Shawanees, 
acted a conspiciious part. A treaty of peace was at 'ength 
ejected, through the instrumentality of the Six Nations. 

It was not, however, kept with good faith by the Indians, who 
continued to coinmit occasional depredations upon the frontiers 
of Pennsylvania and Virginia, throughout the ten following years. 

In the year 1774, a grand expedition under the command of 
the titled Co\crnor of Virginia (Lord Dunmore) against the Indi- 
ans of Ohio, resulted in the celebrated battle of Kenhawa by the 
left wing of the army, whilst that under the immediate orders of 
the Governor penetrated to within a short distance of the Shawa- 
nees towns on the Scioto, where a precipitate treaty was con- 
cluded, and the Governor hastened to his capital, to provide 
against a storm of a different character; of the approach of which 
he had seen evidences not to be misapprehended. 

In the year 1775, Great Britain (determined to compel her 
colonies to submit to her arbitrary mandates, with that reckless- 
ness of means for which she has ever been remarkable, whenever 
a purpose of aggrandizement, or vengeance, was to be secur(;d,) 
by the influence of the traders, by large donations, and larger 
promises, engaged all the northwestern Indians in her cause, with 
a view to the devastation of the frontiers. Attempts were made 
by Congress to avert this calamity, by convincing the Indians, 
that they had no interest in the quarrel, and that tlie wiser path 
was to observe a perfect neutrality. Nothing can show tlie 
anxiety of Congress to effect this object in stronger colors, tlian 
the agreement entered into with the Delaware tribes, at a treaty 
concluded at Pittsburg, in 1778. I5y an article in that treaty, 
the United States proposed that a State should be formed, to be 
comjiosed of the Delawares and other tribes, and contracted to 
admit them, when so formed, as one of the members of the 
Union. But this, as it might i)erhaps have been afterward con- 
sidered, enviable distinction, weighed but little in the eyes of the 
Indians, compared to the ]>rcsent advantages of arms and eijuip- 
menls, clothiiig and triiikets, which were profusely distributed l;)y 
the agents of (ireat Britain.'' ^^ t~" *^ >^ *1 1" *1 

* With the l)reaking out of the Kcvolution, in 1775, commenced an Indian 
^var, whicii outlasicd that with tlie motlier country l)y twelve years, and for 
all thit period not only obstructed the settlement of tlie tenifoiy northweht of 
the Oliii;, but inOicted on the frontiers the hearl-sickenini; cruelties of a sav- 
a;.;e warfjire. .Such uas the fruit of the detenticjn of tlic western posts; and 
*>' the insidious policy of tlie Canadian Government, in preventing an accom- 
modation between the United States and the northwestern trijjes. Much 



It is not rny design to detain you with any of the details (tf 
this war, or that which immediately followed the war of the Revo- 
lution, and which continued to the peace of Greenville, in 1795, 
— the latter either belongs to the history of the adjacent States, 
or to the general history of the United Stales — but to give a gen- 
eral idea of the Indian tribes who have been once the residents 
and proprietors of our State, abstracted as much as possible from 
our own history, Xo doubt can be entertained, that, although 
constrained to acknowledge the independence of the United 
States, the Government of Great Britain still indulged the hope, 
that at some distant ])eriod it would be able again to reduce them 
to subjection. Xo other reason can be assigned for the close 
connection which they continued to keep up with the tribes 
within our territorial boundary, and their constant and liberal 
supply to them of the means of committing depredations upon 
our settlements. For the first i'ew years, the military equipments 

lii^lit his been thrown on thi.> impoftant and not well-understood chapter of 
our history, in the late valuable " Life of Tliayondanegea, " by Colonel Stone. 
The papers of this celebrated Mohawk cliieftain, placed at the disposition of 
his industrious biographer, have cleared up several doubtful points. With 
the other documents submitted to Colonel Stone's inspection, amony: the 
papers of Brant, i-. a certified copy of the celebrated answer of Lord Jjor- 
clic-^ter to a speech of the Indians of the seven villages of Lower Canada, 
assembled at Quel>ec, as de]-)uties from all the nations who attended the great 
council of the Miamis in the year 1793. This speech, at the time, was 
believed to be authentic by General Washington and by Governor Clinton of 
New \'ork, to -whom a co[;y was sent by Washington, in order to the settle- 
ment of that point. Ciiief Justice !Mar>haIl pronounced it spurious, without 
stating the grounds of his judgment; and in this opinion he is followed by 
Mr. Sparks. Its authenticity, however, was admitted at the time by tlie 
British minister, in a letter to the Secretary of State, who had made it the 
subject of a remonstrance. Colonel Stone seems to put the matter beyond 
doubt. "I have myself." says he, "transcribed the preceding extracts from a 
cei titled manuscript copy, discovered among the ])apers of Joseph Brant, in 
my possession. " * 

Few events in the histo;y of the country have exercised a more powerful 
influence on its progrc-s, than the victory of General Wayne over the com- 
bined forces of the northwestern confederacy, on the 20th of August, 1794. 
This event, follov/ed as it was by the treaty of Greenville, threw open the 
floodgates of emigrahon into the territory beyond the Ohio. The modesty 
of General 'Harrison has not only led him to suppress all mention of the fact, 
that he was himself, as an aid of the commander-in-chief, among the foremost 
in the dangers of that decisive conflict";-- -that he was even present in the 
battle could not be gathered from liis brief allusion to it. lie confines him- 
»elf cxclu-ively to a trihule of well-de.served commendation of the command- 
ing General. — E. LvKkf.iT, in .v.-//. A'e^., July, 1840, 

♦Stone's Life 0/ 'I'!iaycnihittf:;en, Vol. II. p t'q. — Marshall's Life of Wnshiii^i( n. Vol. 
V. p. 5^5- — SparK.-,' i'/nttnt;^ of iViuhingUui , Vot X. p. 394. -Wait's American State 
Paper.:, Vol. III. p. 60, yl edition. 


were more cauiiously supplied. But after the failure of the expe- 
dition under General Harmar, and the total defeat of our arrny, 
in November. 1791, under the command of General St. Glair, the 
Government o^" Great Britain believed the propitious moment had 
arrived, so ardently wished for, to wipe oft' the stain which had 
been fixed upon their military renown, in the former war with 
America, and again to replace in the diadem of tlieir sovereign, 
what was denominated by the greatest of her statesmen, "the 
brightest jewel that it had contained."" The mask was not,' how- 
ever, entirely throv>n off P^or, in the spring of 1793, Great 
Britain tendered her services as a mediator of peace with the hos- 
tile tribes. The offer was accepted, and three of our most distin- 
guished citizens were commissioned, under the guarantee of 
safety, by the British, to meet the Indians at the rapids of the 
Miami of the Lake. This conference resulted in a conviction of 
the insincerity of the British, and that there was no hope of 
eftecting a peace upon any honorable terms, but by first convinc- 
ing the Indians of our military superiority." A lesson of this 
sort was in preparation for their use, under the auspices of one of 
the heroes of the revolution. The delay of a second suminer, 
produced by the abortive negotiation, was employed by him to 
make its success more certain. On the 20th of August, 1794, 
within the bounds of our own State, and within view of the scene 
of the council, of the previous year, the eyes of the Indians were 
Oldened to the fallacies of British promises, and to their entire 
inability to resist an American army, when properly directed. 
The aid furnished them by the British, being open and palpable, 
fully sufficed to show their entire disregard of the principles of 
neutrality, but was still l)ehind their promises, and the expecta^ 
tions of the Indians. In despite of the opposition of the iiritish 
agents, the Indian chiefs applied to the commanding general for 
an armistice. I'his being granted, was followed, in the succeed- 
ing year, by a general peace. The tribes which had been united 
in the war against the United States, were the Wyandots, Dela- 
wares, Shawanees, Ghippewas, Ottawas, Botawatomies, Z^liamis, 
Kel River tribes, and "\Veas. The three last constitute, indeed, 
but one tribe, but in consideration of the country which was 
cceded by the treaty, being really their property, this division of 
their nation was admitted by General Wayne, the commissioner, 
in order to giv.j them a larger sha're of the annuities which were 
stipulated to be paid by the United States. 

The above-mentioned tribes, could not have brought into the 

* .See note C, in the Appendix. 


field more than three tiiousand warriors at any time, during the 
ten years preceding the treaty of Greenville; although^ a few 
years before, the Miamis alone could liave furnished more than 
that number. The constant war with our frontier, had deprived 
them of many of their warriors: but the ravages of the small-pox 
v/ere the principal cause of this great decrease of their numbers. 
They composed, however, a body of the finest light- troops in 
the world. And, had they been under an efficient system of dis- 
cipline, or possessed enterprise equal to their valor, the settle- 
ment of the country would have been attended with much 
greater difficulty than was encountered in accomplishing it, and 
their final subjugation delayed for some years. I'he Wyandots, 
the leading tribe of the confederacy, and that to whose custody 
the great calumet, the symbol of their union, was intrusted, had 
autliority to call a council of the chiefs of the several tribes, to 
consult upon their affairs. But there was no mode of enforcing 
their decision, and the execution of any plan of operations, that 
might have been determined on, depended entirely upon the 
good pleasure of those who were to execute it. At one time it 
was thought, indeed, that they had adopted the very judicious 
plan of cutting off the convoys of the army, by a constant suc- 
cession of detachments. This was, however, soon abandoned. 
And under the influence of the confidence which they had ac- 
quired, as well in their valor as their tactics, from their repeated 
success, they again determined to commit the fate of themselves 
and their country to the issue of a general battle. I'his was all 
that was wanted by the American commander. By this fatal 
determination, they had already j)repared the wreath of laurels 
v/hich was to adorn his brow by their complete and total discom- 
fiture. The tactics vdiich had been adopted for the American 
Legion, had been devised with a reference to all the subtilties, 
which those of the Indians were v/ell known to possess. It 
united with the ap[>arently opposite qualities of compactness 
and flexibility, and a facility of expansion under any circum- 
.stances, and in any situation, v/hich rendered utterly abortive the 
peculiar tact of the Indians in assailing the flanks of their adver- 
saries. The correctness of the tlieory, which dictated this plan, 
was proved in the trial, and confirmed the truth of the senten- 
tious motto of a military society.,, even wliere Indians are the 
enemies: — "■ Scicutia in brllo, pax:^ 

It may be proper that I should say some thing more as to the 
character of the now scattered and almost extinct trii.)cs which so 
long and so successfully resisted our arms, and who for many 
years after, stood in die relation of dependants, acknowledging 


themseUes under uur exclusive protection. Their character as 
warriors, has been already remarked upon. Their bravery has 
never been questioned, although there was certainly a consider- 
able diflerence between the several tribes, in this respect. With 
all but the Wyandots, tiight in battle, when meeting with unex- 
pected resistence, or obstacle, brought with it no disgrace. It 
was considered rather as a principle of tactics. And I think it 
may be fairly considered as having its source in that peculiar 
temperament of mind, wliich they often manifested, of not press- 
ing fortune under any sinister circumstances, but patiently wait- 
ing until the chances of a successful issue appeared to be favorable. 
With the Wyandots it was otherwise. Their youth were taught 
to consider any thing that had the appearance of an acknowledg- 
ment of the superiority of an enemy, as disgraceful. In the 
battle of the Miami Rapids, of thirteen chiefs of that tribe who 
v.'ere present, one only survived, and he badly wounded.* 

As it regards their moral and intellectual qualities, the differ- 
ence between the tribes was still greater. The Shawanees, IJela- 
wares, and Miamis, were much superior to the other members of 
the confederacy. I have known individuals among them of very 
high order of talents, but these were not generally to be relied 
upon for sincerity. The Little Turtle, of the Miami tribe, was 
one of this description, as was the Blue Jacket, a Shawanee chief. 
I think it probable that 'J'ecumthey possessed more integrity than 
any other of the chiefs, who attained to much distinction; bat he 
violated a solemn engagement, which he had freely contracted, 
and there are strong sus])icions of his having formed a treacher- 
ous design, which an accident only prevented him from accom- 
plishing. Sinister instances are, however, to be found in the 
conduct of great men, in the history of almost all civilized nations. 
But these instances are more than counterbalanced by the num- 
ber of individuals of high moral character, which were to be 
found amongst the principal, and secondary chiefs, of the four 
tribes above mentioned. This was particularly the case with 
Tarhe, or the Crane, the grand sachem of the Wyandots, and 
H-lack Hoof, the chief of the Shawanees. Many instances might 
be adduced, to show the possession on the part of these men, of 
an uncommon degree of disinterestedness and magnanimity, and 
strict performance of their enga.^^ements, under circumstances 
^v•hich would be considered by many as justifying evasion. But 
one of the brightest parts of the character of those Indians, is 
their sound regard to the obligations of friendship. A pledge of 

* See note D, in the Appendix. 


this kind, once given by an Indian of any character, becomes the 
ruling passion of his soul, to which every other was made to yield. 
He regards it as superior to every other obligation. And the life 
of his friend would be required at the hands of him, (or his tribe,) 
who had taken it, even if it had occurred in a fair field of battle, 
and in the performance of his duty as a warrior. An event might 
have occurred in the late war with Great Britain, and their alHes, 
in which a most striking exemplification of this principle would 
have been exhibited. In the autumn of 1793, the chief. Stiff 
Knee, of the Seneca tribe, who had been the friend of Cieneral 
Richard Ikitler, who had fallen on the fatal 4th of November, 
1791, joined the army of General Wayne, for the purpose of 
avenging his death. The advance upon the enemy having been 
arrested, from the lateness of the season, and the troops placed 
in cantonments tor the winter, impatient of delay, the chief ear- 
nestly solicited the General to be permitted to go with a detach- 
ment to attack one of the positions of the enemy. Tliis request 
was, of course, refused. To satisfy liim, and to prevent his going 
alone, the General informed him that an ample opportunity ot~ 
vengeance would be ottered in the spring. But the soul of the 
warrior could not brook this delay. To the officer with whom 
he lodged, he expatiated upon the unsupportable weight by 
which his mind was oppressed, at the postponement of the day 
of retribution for the death of his brother, whose spirit was con- 
stantly calling on him for vengeance. Upon one of these occa- 
sion.s, he said, that, denied an opportunity of performing this 
sacred obligation, nothing remained but to convince his friend 
how readily he would have died for him, and before his arm 
could be caught, he plunged a poignard in his bosom. 

I am satisfied that this is not the jiroper time to enquire how 
far the United States have fuh"illed the obligations imposed upon 
them by their assuming, at the treaty of Greenville, the character 
of sole protectors of the tribes who were parties to it, a stipula- 
tion often repeated in subsequent treaties. But I will take this 
opportunity of declaring, that if the duties it imposed, were not 
faithfully executed, during the administration of Mr. Jefterson, 
and Mr. .Madison, as far as the power vested by the laws in the 
Executive v.ould perniit, the immediate agents of the Government 
are responsible, as the directions dven to them were clear and 
explicit, not only to fulfill with scrupulous fidelity, all the treaty 
obligations, but upon all occasions, to promote the happiness of 
these dej^endant people, as far as attention and expenditure ot 
money could effect these objects. , 


(From the North American RevircV^ J^^b'-> 1^40.) 

We are left by our author to learn the last important chapter- 
in the history of most of the Indian tribes, once conspicuous ins 
the valley of the Ohio, from other pens than his own. Beyond a 
brief allusion, in the concluding paragraphs of the Discourse, to- 
the conduct of the celebrated chieftain Tecumthe, at the council 
of Vincennes, in 1810, there is no reference to those momentous^ 
events and struggles, in which General Harrison himself performed 
the most conspicuous part. This celebrated Indian chieftain, who- 
may with propriety be placed by the historians on the same page 
with King Philip, Pontiac, and Brant, was the son of a Shawanoe- 
father and Cherokee mother, a descent which admirably adapted 
him to achieve that project, which, to some extent, is supposed 
to have been contemplated by the other eminent Indian chief- 
tains whom we have named, that of bringing all the Indian tribes 
into one grand confederacy. This policy, as far as it extended,^ 
was the secret of the strength of the Five Nations. It is even- 
affecting to hear these poor children of nature, by their speaker 
Canassatego, at the council of Lancaster, in 1744, recommending 
Union to the American colonies. At the session of the fourth 
OF JULY of that year, the eloquent Onondago warrior used this 
remarkable language: 

"We have one thiug further to say, and that is, we heartily 
recommend union and good agreement between you and your 
brethren. Never disagree, but preserve a strict friendship for 
each other, and thereby you, as well as we, will become the 

"Our wise forefathers established union and amity between the 
Five Nations; this has made us formidable; this has given us- 
^veight and authority with our neighboring nations. 

"We are a powerful confederacy; and, by your observing the 
same methods which our wise forefathers have taken, you will 
acquire fresh strength and power;. .therefore, whatsoever befalls^ 
you, never fall out with each other. ■-■' 

If this is the language of barbarism, what is civilization ! 
Colflen's Ilislary of the Five A\itions ; in the Papers annexed, p. 1 49. 




While we write these hnes, the iiitehigence reaches us, tliat, in 
virtue, rather let us say by force, of one of those monstrous impo- 
sitions-called Indian treaties, negotiated, in the present instance, 
against the wishes of fourteen-fifteenths of those whose lands it 
cedes, the last remnant of those sagacious and formidable tribes, 
whose representative, in 1744, uttered these counsels of friend- 
ship and wisdom, are about to be driven from their last foothold 
in New York, and transported to a "new home'' west of the 
States of Arkansas and Missouri. Whatever doubts may rest on 
the question discussed in the address before us, whether the vic- 
torious arms of the Five Nations were ever pushed to the Missis- 
-sippi, no doubt, unhappily, will be left to the future historian, that 
they are now to be driven across that river, by their civilized, 
humane, and Christian neighbors; and this by force of a treaty, 
of which tlie President of the United States remarks, in commu- 
nicating it to Congress, '"that improper means have been em- 
ployed to obtain the assent of the Seneca chiefs, there is too 
-much reason to believe." That their condition will be improved 
"by the removal is an opinion, we know, entertained by persons 
of integrity and honor, and we devoutly hope that it may be real- 
ized. But this opinion, however confidently entertained, and 
however likely to be justified by the result, furnishes no apology, 
so long as their right to occupy their reservations is admitted, for 
forcing them to quit their homes, under the forms of a mock 
treaty, concluded against the wishes, however unenlighted or mis- 
guided, of a great majority of the tribe. — Edward Evereit. 



The object of Themistocles was to induce the council of war 
to adopt his opinion of fighting the l^ersians, in the narrow strait 
which separates the island of Salarais from the main, whicli would 
prevent them from being surrounded by the immensely superior 
fleet of the latter. The commander of the Spartan squadron, 
and those of the other states within the Isthmus of Corinth, were 
desirous to retreat to the shores of Peloponnesus, in the vicinity 
of which the army of the Peloponnesian Greeks had been assem- 
bled, for the purpose of guarding {he isthmus, which afforded the 
only land entrance to tliat portion of tlie country. Themistocles 
endeavored to convince the council, that if they abandoned the 
favorable position which the straits of Salamis afforded, and 
attempted a retreat to the coast of Peloponnesus, they would be 
pursued by the Persians, and obliged to fight in the open sea, 
which would enable the enemy to surround their comparatively 
small force, and that defeat would be inevitable. The Cxrecian 
ficet being destroyed, the Persians would be enabled to turn the 
position of the army, which would be deprived of all the advan- 
tages in defending it. He was, also, afraid that the fleet would 
separate, each squadron repairing to the harbor of the state to 
which it belonged, preferring (as is the case in all confederacies, 
where there is no common head in the government, with power 
to enforce obedience to its decrees,) the interest of the individual 
member to which it belonged, to the common good. The debate 
became warm; and the Spartan commander losing his self-com- 
mand, raised his staff to strike his opponent. The noble Athe- 
nian, full of confidence in the measures he had recommended, 
for the destruction of their common enemy, and of enthusiasm in 
the cause of liberty and civilization, attempted neither to avert 
the blow, or resent the indignit}'. His remark, " strike, but 
hear me," seemed rather to invite it, as the price of the attention 
^^f his enraged commander, to argunients which he knew could 
'lot be answered. 

Kurybiades, av/ed by the indomitable firmness of the Athenian, 
(aimed his passion, submitted himself to the mighty genius of his 
»'ival, and (ireece was saved. 


44 APPENDIX. ,.; . 


The circumstances which miUtate most against the supposition 
of the identity of the Aztecs, with the authors of extensive ancient 
works in Ohio, is the admitted fact, that the latter entered the 
valley of Anahuac, from the Northwest, that is, from California, 
which is much out of the direct route from the Ohio to Mexico. 
A strong argument in favor of it, is the similarity of the remains 
which are found in that region (California), as well as in Mexico 
itself, with those in the valley of the Ohio. I am not informed 
whether there are any such in the intermediate country between 
the lower Mississippi and California. But if there are none, it 
will serve rather to confirm and strengthen my opinion, that the 
fugitives from the Ohio, w^ere, like those from Troy, a mere rem- 
nant, whose numbers were too small to erect works of so much 
labor, as those they had left behind had required; but, after their 
strength had been increased, by a residence for some time in 
California, the passion for such works returned with the ability to 
erect them. 

The similarity, in point of form and mode of construction, 
between the works now to be seen in all the countries 1 have 
mentioned, (Ohio, Mexico, and California,) proves that they 
must have been erected by the same, or a kindred people, derived 
from the same stock, and if the latter, the separation took place 
^//er the custofn of such cfccfions had couiuienccd. 

If tlie opinion is ado};ted, that the Aztecs were never in Ohio, 
but had pursued the direct route from Asia (whence it is believed 
they all came) to California, along the coast of the Pacific Ocean, 
and that the authors of die Ohio erections, were from the same 
continent and stock, the question may be asked, Where did the 
separation take place? Was it before they left Asia, or after their 
arrival upon the American continent? Are there any works simi- 
lar to those in Ohio, Mexico, and California, to be found in the 
northeast of Asia, or l)et\veen the Pacific and the Rocky ?vIountains, 
or on the route which that branch of the nation would have pur- 
sued, which bent their course towards the valley of the Ohio? If 
these questions are answered in the negative, it will thus go far 
to prove that the practice of constructing such works originated 
in the latter, and that those who erected them were the same 
people who afterwards sojourned in California, and finally settled 
ill the valley of Anahuac, or Mexico. If we adopt the opinion, 
that they were totally a distinct people, or were different branches 
of the same original Asiatic stock, we must believe also that they 
each fell into the practice of erectiiig extensive works, of the same 


form, and of tlie same materials, (in a manner not known to be 
practised by any other people,) without any previous knowledge 
to guide them, and without any intercourse. This, to say the 
least of it, is very improbable. 

If the Aztecs were not the authors of the Ohio works, we can 
only account for the ultimate fate of those who were, by supposing 
that they were entirely extirpated, preferring, like the devoted 
Xumantians, to be buried under the ruins of their own walls, to 
seekins: safetv bv an ifrnominious flig^ht. 

I find no difficulty, from the facts mentioned in the text, in 
adopting the opinion, that these people were conquered by those 
who were less civilized than themselves. An enlightened nation, 
whose military institutions are founded upon scientific principles, 
and which relies upon its own citizens for protection, will never 
be subdued by .savages, nor by those who have made little progress 
in civilization. They may be beaten in a battle, indeed in many 
b'attles, as was the case with the barbarians of ( iaul and Germany, 
who first broke through the boundaries of the Roman Rei)ubiic: 
and in our day and nation, when the northwestern Indians defeated 
our armies in two successive campaigns, as they had previously 
done those of Great Britain. But their triumphs will be termi- 
nated as soon as the causes which produce them are ascertained, 
and a change is eftected in the plan of operations, or in the mode 
of forming the troops to meet the exigency, as was the case in the 
lormer under the direction of Caius Marius, and in our own under 
the direction of Anthony Wayne. But it is quite otherwise, with 
those who have made such small progress in civilization, as to be 
unable to make war upon fixed and scientific, principles. I have 
assigned to the nameless nation of our valley the character of an 
agricultural ])eopie, and this is precisely the state (without military 
institutions) in which a naticfli is most weak, and most easily con- 
quered, by those who still depend uj)on the chase for food, or 
>vho have advanced still further, and draw their subsistence from 
tiocks and herds of their own rearing. The labors of agriculture 
serve to form the body to endure the tojls and hardships incident 
to a military life. There is something, too, in that kind of employ- 
ment, which serves to kindle a spirit of independence in the 
bosom, and nurture the feelings of patriotism. Hence, it has 
li'Tl>j)ened, that agriculturabnations, ^yhich had engrafted a system 
of military instruction upon the ordinary education of youth, have 
always been the most renowned in war, and most difiicuh to be 

'TIanc olim veceres vitaiii coluere Sabiiii, 

I lane Remus et frater ; sic Kortis I'.tiuria crevit, 

46 ■' APPENDIX. •' 

Scilicet et rerum facta est pulcherrima ]\oma, 
Scptcmque xma sibi rnuro circurndcdit arces. " 

2d. Geokgics, 532. 

But v/hilst the occupation of the husbandman furnishes the best 
materials for making good soldiers, as well from the qualities it 
imparts to the mind, as the strength and activity which the body 
receives from constant exercise and nutritive aliment, it teaches 
nothing of the military art. The hunter, on the contrary, is already 
a soldier, as far, at least, as individual (lualities can make him so. 
But the pastoral life (not that which the poets have furnished, the 
pictures drawn from their own imaginations, but that which 
authentic history describes,) furnishes, not only men suited to 
war, by their personal qualities, but armies which have accjuired, 
from their congregated mode of life, a degree of discipline, and a 
knowledge of the most important operations of war. There is 
nothing in the employment of the agriculturist, or artisan, which 
bears any resemblance to military duty. The citizens employed 
in such labor (exclusively) cease to be soldiers, and the agricult- 
ural or manufacturing nation, which adopts no system of military 
instruction for its youth, must depend upon the em.[)loyment of 
mercenaries for its protection, or it will become a prey to the 
first invader. 'J'he Cierman or Scythian hordes, which obtained 
from the fears, or the weakness, of the Roman emperors, settle- 
ments within their borders, were unable, after a few years, to 
resist the new swarms from the same hives, which pressed upon 
them, and which adhered to their original mode of life and man- 
ners. But the most extraordinary instance of the superiority of 
savages, in war, to an agricultural j)eople who neglect military 
institutions, is furnished by the history of our own parent Isle, in 
the application of the Britons for assistance to a Roman emiperor, 
after the abandonment of their Island by troops of the latter. It 
is impossible for language to convey, at once, a more dastardly 
spirit, and consciousness of extreme imbecility, than that used by 
the Briti^ih deputies, on this occasion. "The Caledoni;in sav- 
ages/' say they, "drive us to the ocean, and the ocean again 
repels us back upon our enemies." 

The fate of our predecessors, in the occupancy of our fine 
country, was, no doubt, long ])rocrastinated by their ])atience of 
labor, and knowledge in the art of fortification. By similar 
means, and by the applicafion of a chemical discovery, to the 
purposes of their defence, the tottering fiibric of the lower Roman 
Empire, was for many ages sustained, and long after the'-' "naked 
and trembling legions'' had declined to meet their barbarous 

• Their defensive annoi was laid aside in the reign of the Emperor (}ratian. 


adversaries in an equal field. The Ohio fortresses were not 
erected for defence against a casual invasion. The size of their 
walls, and the solidity of their contruction. sliows tliat tlie danger 
which they were intended to avert, was of constant recurrence. 
Hut whilst their persons were safe, behind bulwarks impregnable 
to savages, they might behold, from their summits, the devastation 
cf their ripened fields. The seed time, indeed, as well as that of 
the harvest, might be marked by a crafty foe; and thus the hopes 
of reaping even a portion of the gifts of autumn, be destroyed"by 
want of opportunity to perform the indispensible labors of spring. 

It appears, however, that no exertion was omitted to avert 
their impending fate. The work to which I have referred, at the 
mouth of the Great Miami, was a citadel, more elevated tium the 
.-Vcropolis of Athens, although easier of access, as it is not like 
the latter, a solid rock, but on three sides as nearly perpendicular 
as could be, to be composed of earth. A large space of the 
lower ground, was, however, enclosed by wails, uniting it with the 
Ohio, 'i'he foundation of that, (being of stone, as well as those 
of the citadel,) that forms the western defence, is still very visible 
where it crosses the Miami, which, at the period of its erection, 
must have discharged itself into the Ohio nuich lov/er down than 
it now does. I have never been able to discover the eastern 
wall of this enclosure, but if its direction from the citadel to the 
Ohio, was such as it should have been, to embrace the largest 
space, with the least labor, there could not have been less than 
three hundred acres enclosed. The same land, at this day, will 
produce under the best cultivation, from seventy to one hundred 
bushels of corn per acre. Under such as was then, probably, 
i>estowed upon it, there would be mucii less, but still contribute 
much to the sup^port of a considerable settlement of people, 
remarkable beyond all others, for abstemiousness in tlieir diet.''' 

If we had the means of investing closely the causes which led 
to the disasters of this nation, one, not the least in eflect, would, I 
think, be found in their abominable religion, which taught the pro- 
I'itiation of the Deity, not by the sacrifice of the firstlings of flocks 
•Tnd herds, which, being the gift of God to man, he might again 
"ffer to his Maker, in gratitude for blessings received, or to 
'>l)tain others which he sought, but by the immolation by man of 
liis fellow man; that only creature of all that were created, whom 
die Creator reser\ed for himself, toTiilfill his purposes, and inin- 
5-^ter his glory. 

When the Spaniards, under Cortes, were subsisted Ijy the hospitality of 
tlse Mexicans, and other .South American Indians, they conijolained that one 
"Spaniard would consume more in one day, than would sufiice ten Indians. 


It is a little remarkable, that whilst the savages (those in the 
hunter state) throughout the American continent, should acknowl- 
■ed-re the superintendence of the world \xy one God, and that a 
<iod of mercy and love; those who were a little farther advanced 
in civilization, who congregated together in cities and villages, 
and who drew their subsistence from the fruits of the earth, pro- 
duced by their own patient labor, should clothe the god or gods 
whom they worship, with attributes and i)assions, which are only 
to be appeased by a sacrifice of blood, and that blood poured 
out from the bosoms of their fellow men. 

It would seem, then, that the first advances in civilization. 
%vere etjually unfavorable to liberty, and to the proper understand- 
ing of the obligations due from man to his Maker. In the first 
stages of society, the political institutions are few and inefficient, 
and whatever force they may possess, is applicable, rather to 
their foreign, than their domestic transaction. Each individual is 
tiie guardian of his own rights, and acquiring from it a high idea 
of his personal independence, is willing to respect the equal 
-claims of others. If the social ties are few, they are proportion- 
ally strong: and the scene of attachment to the tribe or nation to 
which he belongs, is never felt in greater force in any future stage 
of civilization. An injury oflered to any individual belonging to 
it, from one of another trilje, would be considered his own, and 
his life would be willingly risked to redress or avenge it. His 
ideas of religion are derived from the spark which Cjod has fur- 
nisiied to every bosom, and from the great book of nature, whicli 
is constantly spread before him. As these lights are in ])ossession 
of all, he is willing that all should form their opinions from them, 
to suit themselves. But these feelings and sentiments, so univer- 
•sal in the hunter state, seem soon to disappear, when men begin 
to congregate in towns, and especially when the idea of individ- 
m! projjerty is established. In such a state of society, disputes 
and collisions will constantly arise, and it becomes necessary that 
ll)e hitherto independent individual, .should surrender some por- 
tion of his rights, the more certainly to secure those which he 
reserves. liut in his inexperience, the guards with which he 
a:temi)ts to |)rotect the latter,- are too feeble to resist the assaults 
%*hich are made upon them. By one set of his former equals, 
vliom he has. contributed to elevate to i)ower, the whole of his 
|>ohii(al rights are usuri^ed, and he becomes a slave; by another, 
Jiis cons(it:nre is taken into keeping, :ind he is a monster. 
Strange, l)ut true as strange, that as men progress in the arts, 
whith '.-naljle them to live with more ease and comfort, the\- 
^hould lose tiK' dignity of character and independence which had 


distinguished them in the earlier stages of society. That they. 
who were once jealous of their liberties, should become the will- 
ing instruments for enslaving others; who had seen, in the opera- 
tion of nature s god, nothing bat love to mankind, and the grant 
of equal power to all, should admit the pretensions of men liivt 
themselves, to speak in the name of the Creator, to claim the 
right to punish supposed breaches of his will; and worse than 
all, to clothe him with the forms, the cruelty, and ferocity of the 
most savage monsters of the desert. But such was the condition 
of the Mexicans, when first visited by the Europeans, and such, 
no doubt, was that of the Aztecs in the valley of the Ohio. The 
temples of Circleville. Grave Creek, and Newark, no doubt, annu- 
ally streamed with the blood (if not of thousands, like those of 
Cholula and Mexico.) of hundreds of human beings. 

At the period of the arrival of the Spaniards in Mexico, the 
profusion of victims demanded tor sacrifice, was supplied by pris- 
oners taken in war. Dr. Robertson objects to the account given 
by all the early Spanish historians, as to the number of these vic- 
tims, upon the ground of the eftect it would have upon popula- 
tion. He adopts the opinion of Las Casas, that if there had 
been such a waste of the human species, the country never could 
have attained that degree of populousness for which it was 
remarkable." This reasoning is not, however, sufiicient to over- 
throw the positive assertion of so many cotemporary historians. 
For many years before the arrival of the Spaniards, the Mexicans 
had been engaged in successful wars; and as it was the inviolable 
practice to sacrifice every prisoner, the number might have reached, 
tor several years preceeding the arrival of Cortes, even the highest 
number which the historians referred to, have mentioned, without 
confiicting with their assertions, as to the populousness of the 
country. For, in relation to the latter, these writers must have 
referred not to the conquered nations, but to the conquerors, or 
those, the Tlascalans for instance, who had not submitted to the 
Mexican power. It is asserted by Captain Cook, in his third 
\ oyage, that the practice of sacrificing human victims pervaded 
all the islands of the Pacific Ocean; and that it produced a very 
'lecided effect upon the population.t The want of prisoners of 
^vas, was supplied from their own people. A\'hen this distin- 
guished navigator was last at Otaheite, a civil war was raging. 
t he party attached to the head chief or king, had been unsuccess- 
ful!. After each disaster, sacrifices of this kind were offered to 
^heir god, to obtain more fixvorable results. One of the chiefs. 

Vol. iii., page 198 9. + Cook's Voyage, vol. !_., page 34K. 

4 . 




upon being questioned upon thi- subject, defended the propriety 
of the practice, because, as he said, it propitiated the deity, who 
'•fed upon the souls of the sacrificed," and repelled the charge of 
inhumanity, "because the victim was selected from the poorest of 
the people,"' the very class which forms the strength of every 
nation; which fights its battles, and protects its independence. 
But for the indisputable evidence which we have upon this sub- 
ject, it could scarcely be believed, that the rulers of any people, 
could ever adopt a practice, at once so cruel, and so destructive 
in Its consequences — producing the necessity of a double draft 
upon their population, to supply the losses of the battle field, and 
the demands of their own priesthood. Such, no doubt, was the 
practise with the Mexicans, and the nation of whose history I 
have attempted to present some gleanings, and it will serve to 
strengthen my conjecture, that the fate of the latter was hastened 
by their laboring under the double curse of an arbitrary govern- 
ment, and a cruel, bigoted, and bloody religion. 


The tilfiniaiiini of the Indians, was to make the Ohio the boun- 
dary between the United States and themselves. 


When General Wayne assumed the position of Greenville, in 
1793, he sent for Captain Wells, who commanded a company of 
scouts, and told him, that "he wished him to go to Sandusky and 
take a prisoner, for the purpose of obtaining information." Wells 
(who, having been taken from Kentucky when a boy, and brought 
up amongst the Indians, was perfectly acquainted with their char- 
acter) answered, that "he could take a prisoner, but not from 
Sandusky." "And why not from Sandusky?" said the General. 
"Because," answered the Captain, "there are only Wyandots 
there." "Well, why will not Wyandots do?" "For the i)est 
of reasons," said Wells, "because Wyandots will not be taken 


On the banks of the James River, in Charles City County, Va., 
is a plain mansion, around which is spread the beautiful estate of 
Berkeley^ the birthplace of a signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, and of one of tlie Presidents of the United States. 
The former was Benjamin Harrison, and the latter was his son, 
^ViUiam Henry Harrison, who was born on the 9th of Februar}^, 
1773. At a suitable age he was placed in Hampden Sydney 
College, where he was graduated; and then, under the supervision 
of his guardian (Robert Morris), in Philadelphia, prepared him- 
self for the practice of the medical art. At about that time, an 
army was gathering, to chastise the hostile Indians in the North- 
west. Young Harrison's military genius was stirred within him, 
and having obtained an ensign's commission from President 
"Washington, he joined the army at the age of nineteen years. 
He was promoted to a lieutenancy in 1792; and, in 1794, he fol- 
lowed Wayne to conflicts with the North-western tribes, where he 
greatly distinguished himself, He was appointed secretary of the 
North-western Territory in 1797, and resigned his military com- 
mission. Two years afterward, when only twenty-six years of 
age, he was elected the first delegate to Congress from the Terri- 
tory.*" On the erection of Indiana into a separate territorial 
government in 1801, Harrison was appointed its chief magistrate, 
and he was continued in that office, by consecutive reappoint- 
ments, until 181 3.+ when the war with Great Britain called him 
to a more important sphere of action. He had already exhibited 
his military skill in the battle with the Indians at Tippecanoe, in 
the autumn of 181 1. He was commissioned a major-general in 
the Kentucky militia, by brevet, early in 181 2. After the surren- 
der of General Hull, at Detroit, he was appointed major-general 
in the army of the United States, and intrusted with the command 
of the North-western division. He was one of the best officers 
in that war; but, after achieving the battle of the Thames, and 
other victories in the lake country, his military services were con- 
cluded. Pie resigned his commission, in 18 14, in consec[uence 
of a misunderstanding with the Secretary of War, and retired to 
his farm at North Pend, Ohio. He served as commissioner in 
negotiating Indian treaties; and thi-i voice of a grateful people 

It included the present States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michi^^an. Geu- 
tral St. Clair was then governor of the Territory. 

t He had also held the office of commissioner of Indian affairs, in that 
1 erritory, and had concluded no less than thirteen important treaties with the 
'lifferent tribes. 


aft<.'nvard called him to represent them in the legislature of Ohio, 
and of the nation. He was elected to the Senate of the United 
States, in 1824. In 1828, he was appointed minister to Colom- 
bia, one of the South American Republics. He was recalled, by 
President Jackson, on account of some differences of opinion 
respecting diplomatic events in that region, when he returned 
home, and again sought the repose of private life. There he 
remained about ten years, when he was called forth to receive 
from the American people the highest honor in their gift — the 
chief magistracy of the Republic. He was elected President of 
the United States by an immense majority, and was inaugurated 
on the 4th of March, 1841. For more than twenty days he bore 
the unceasing clamors for office, with which the ears of a new 
president are always assailed; and then his slender constitution, 
pressed by the weiglit of almost threescore and ten years, sud- 
denly gave way. The excitements of his new station increased 
a slight disease caused by a cold, and on the 4th of April, just 
one month after the inauguration pageant at the presidential 
mansion, the honored occupant was a corpse. He was succeeded 
in office by the vice-president, John Tyler. 

William Henry Hakrlson (born 9 Feb., 1773, Charles City 
County, Virginia), Ensign i. infy, 16 Aug., 1791; Lieut, i. sub- 
legion, rank from June, 1792. Aid-de-camp to Maj.-Gen. Wayne, 
and distinguished in his victory on the Miami, 20 Aug., 1794; — 
in I. infy, Nov., 1796; Capt., Ala}-, 1797; resigned i June, 1798. 
[Secretary of North-west Territory, June, 1798; Representative 
in Congress from Ohio, 1799 to 1800; Governor of Indiana Ter- 
ritory, 13 May, 1800 to 1 81 3]; commanded as Governor of Indi- 
ana Territory in battle of 'J'ippecanoe, 7 Nov., i8ti; — Brigadier 
General, 22 Aug., 181 2; Major-Gcneral, 2 March, 1813, and com- 
manded Western army; commanded in defence oi' Fort Meigs, 
April and May, 181 3, and commanded in battle of the Thames, 
U.C., 5 Oct., 1 8 13; resigned 31 May, 18 14. Recei\ed the "thanks 
of Congress," of April 4, 1818, for "gallantry and good conduct in 
defeating the combined British and Indian forces under Maj.-(ien. 
Proctor, on the Thames, in Up. Canada, on the 5 Oct., 18 13, caj)- 
turing the British army, with their baggage, camp equipage, and 
artillery," and the presentation of a gold medal "emblematical of 
this triumph."' [Repr. in Congress, 18 16 to 181 9; — U. S. Senator 
from Ohio, 1825 to 1828; Env. Extr. and Min. Plenipo. to Colum- 
bia, 24 May, 1828; President of the United States, 4 March, 1841, 
and died at Washington, D.C., 4 April, 1841. — Dictio)iary of thr 
Army of t lie United States. By Chas. K. ( jardner. New York, 1853. 

. -f< ' ■'. 



liidiaii Speeches 


Treatise on the Western huliaiis. 

Editf-d and Annotatkd 



The Fort Wayne manuscript, or rather that part of it contain- 
ing the Indian Speeches dehvered in the two Councils held Sept. 
4th and Oct. 2d, 181 1, at Ft. Wayne, Ind., and hitherto unpub- 
lished, is a missing link of much interest and value in the border 
history of the Northwest. To illustrate the place it occupies in 
the chain of events and explain the relations it sustains to them, 
it becomes necessary to recur briefly to the condition which the 
Indian affairs in the Indiana and Illinois Territories were in, 
shortly before and at the time when these Ft. Wayne conferences 
were held. 

About the year 1805, the peaceful relations, estabHshed by the 
treaty of Greenville in 1795, between the white and the red 
people became seriously disturbed through the conduct of two 
Shawnee brothers, '^Jc-cinn-t/iea'''^ and "Lo-la-wa-chi-ca" — "The 
Loud Voice", otherwise and better known as ^^ T/ic PropJiet'\ 

* It i.s stated by Gov. Harrison in his Memoirs, edited by Moses Dawson, 
that "Te-cum-the" is the Indian pronunciation of the name; while Judge 
James Hall, in his "Memoir" of Gov. Harrison, and Dr. Benjamin Drake, in 
his "Life of Tecumshe", as lie spells the name, state its meaning to be the 
"Croucliing Panther". The latter author says, "that on assuming the sacred 
office of Proi)het, 'Lau-le-was-i-kaw' changed his name to 'Lens-kwau-ta-wau,' 
meaning the open door, because he had undertaken to point out to the Indians 
the new life which they should pursue." In the text we have followed the 
orthography and the interpretation of the name as given by Gov. Harrison at 
a time when he was directly referring to it, in connection with a speech deliv- 
ered by the Prophet on the occasion of his two weeks' visit with the Governor 
at V'incennes, in August, 1808. The Prophet and Te-cum-the — for whom 
the former was merely the mouth-piece — avowed that his voice should be 
J»eard, as in lime it was, among all the tribes, from the 'gulf to the most 
northern lakes and westward to the mountains. Hence the significance of the 
riame Land Voice. 


The Prophet claimed a mission from the Great Spirit to reform 
the manners of the red people, and to revive all those customs 
that had been discontinued by their two common and frequent 
intercourse with the white peoi)le. All the innovations in dress, 
food, arms, and manners derived from the whites were to be 
discarded; in reward for v/hich they were promised a restoration 
of all tlie comfort and happiness enjoyed by their ancestors, of 
which they had so often heard their old sages speak, on condition, 
however, of an implicit obedience to the will and orders of the 
Prophet. He pretended to foretell future events, declared him- 
self invulnerable to the weapons of his enemies, and promised 
like immunity to those of his proselytes who would devote them- 
sehes wholly to his services. 

Roving for a while among the surrounding tribes, making a 
convert here and there, the brothers took quarters at Gen. Wayne's 
old cantonment at Greenville, Ohio, and soon gathered with them 
about one hundred Shawnee warriors from the several bands of 
that nation, living in scattered villages on the head-waters of the 
Au Glaize, White River, the Mississinewa, and elsev/here, together 
with a few followers recruited from other tribes. Within a few 
months the number of Shawnees were reduced by desertions to 
about forty or fifty, and the residue of the Prophet's followers 
were chiefly composed of the riff-raff of other tribes, many of 
whom had lied for their crimes. 

The Prophet's band remained at Greenville through the years 
1806 and 7, increasing, the while, in its number of excited, relig- 
ious fanatics, ready, it was feared, for any enterprise on which 
the Prophet or his brother might be Inclined to lead them, and 
great fears were entertained by the inhabitants of the border 
white settlements for their own safety. Complaints were accord- 
ingly made, in re5|)onse to which Capt. Wm. \\'ells, then Indian 
agent at Fort Wayne, sent Anthony Shane, a halfblood Shawnee, 
to Greenville with a copy the President's letter contained in a 
communication from the secretary of war; the substance of which 
was that Te-cum-tlie and his party, being upon grounds lately 
purchased by Gov. Harrison from its rightful owners, should 
remove to some point beyond the general boundaries stipulated 


in the treaty of CTreenviHe in 1795. '^'^^ council-fire being lighted, 
Shane stated the object of his mission, and invited the brothers 
to a conference at Fort Wayne. , ^Vhereupon Tecnmthe, without 
consulting the opinions of those around him, arose and said to 
the messenger: "Go back to Fort ^^'ayne, and tell Capt. Wells 
that my fire is kindled on the spot appointed by the Great Spirit 
above; and if he has any communication to make to me, he must 
<;ome here!' 

The excitement increased, and in a letter from Capt. Wells to 
Gov. Harrison, of date May 25. 1807, it was stated that, within a 
short time then past, not less than fifteen hundred Indians had 
gone or returned through Ft. Wayne in their visitations to the 
Prophet and Tecumthe at Greenville. And, in the month of 
August of that year, persons living in the north and western parts 
of the Indiana Territory, and familiar with the state of Indian 
offairs, estimated the number of Indians at Ft. Wayne and C^reen- 
ville, who were supposed to be under the influence of these 
Shawnee brothers, at seven or eight hundred men, most of whom 
were armed with new rifles, and well provided with ammunition, 
supplied from Canada. T'he governor of Ohio, being oflrcially 
advised of these facts, took measures to rid his State of such a 
dangerous assemblage. Gov. Harrison, of the Indiana Territory, 
also took an active and efhcient part in the common purpose to 
disperse the Prophet and his adherents. The result of these 

< ombined efforts Avas, that early in the year 1808 the Propliet and 
his partisans moved from Greenville, and, to the future and very 
great annoyance of Ciov. Harrison, as well as to all the inhabitants 

< laiming his protection, took up their residence in the Indiana 
IVrritory, on the west bank of the Wabash, a short distance 

below the mouth of the Tippecanoe River, where they established 
d'lC village known to fame as ^'- TJie'PropJicfs town". 

Ttrcumthe and the Prophet claimed that the new grounds upon 
»\hich they thus settled had been granted to them by the Potta- 
^vatomies and Kickapoos; these latter, however, had no title at 
•'^■11, being only sfjuattcrs themselvt-s, having years before, and by 
*^heer force of superior numbers, intruded themselves into the 
domain of the Miamies, to whom all that part of the Wabash 
^ ountry rightfully belonged. 


The Propliet had Httle influence among the immediately-adjoin- 
ing tribes such as the Miamies, Delawares, Shawnees, and some 
of tlie Pottawatomies, whose chiefs and elder men knew he was 
an inipostor, and v^^ould have nothing to do witli his plans, in ihe 
execution of which they only foresaw harm to themselves and 
their families. It was with the remote tribes that his fame was 
blazoned, and to v.hom his miracles without number were com- 
municated. The party attached to him, relying on his promises 
of food and raiment by divine interposition, neglected to hunt or 
plant, and were often starving for want of subsistence, while 
reports v.ere spread abroad that they were enjoying every luxury 
and ease. Thus were the upper-lake Indians, and those between 
Lake Michigan and the ^Mississippi, and especially the Winneba- 
goes and the Kickapoos of the Illinois Prairies, deluded by fabu- 
lous reports, industriously circulated among them by Tecumthe 
and other emissaries of the Propliet. Tecumthe combined in 
his character great subtility, cunning, and an indomitable perse- 
verance; and while his brother remained at home he was itiner- 
ating among the most distant tribes, and making proselytes to his 
and his brother's schemes. Keeping himself and his ulterior aims 
in the background, it is now known that he was the principal 
means by which the extravagant stories of his brother's super- 
natural powers were propagated. 

The general discontent among the Indians, caused by the 
scarcity of game, the rapidly -advancing skirmish line of white 
setdements — the sure forerunner of a denser population — upon 
their hunting-grounds, and, perhaps, more than all, the threatened 
war with Great Britain, were eagerly seized upon by Tecumthe, 
and hastened the time when he thought he might come out from 
under the shadow of the Prophet, and declare his long-kept pur- 
pose of foruu'ng a confederation of all the Indian tribes; abrogate 
all treaties previously made with the United States relative to the 
cession of lands; drive the whites eastward and south beyond 
the Ohio River, and ever after hold the conquested territory as 
the common property of the victors, with no right of a disposal 
of any part of it, except with the given consent of all. It was a 
revival of the plan undertaken by Pontiac at the conclusion of 


the French-Colonial War; and again espoused by the confederated 
Northwestern tribes soon after tlie'estabhshment of peace between 
the United States and Great Britain in 1784.''' 

Matters grew daily worse at the Prophet's town, which had 
now become the common refuge of all the Indian vagabonds in 
the country; horse-thieves and pilferers of other property; wild 
blades who would, every now and tlien, surprise a pioneer's cabin, 
standing remotely out beyond the well-defined lines of white 
settlements, and cowardly murder the indwelling women and chil- 
dren, found welcome shelter at the Prophet's town, and a ready 
friend and paliator for their crimes in the person of either Tecum- 
the or his brother. Gov. Ninian Edwards, of the Illinois Terri- 
tory, made frequent complaints of depredations committed upon 
his settlements along the Mississippi, incited from or by perpe- 
trators harbored at this plague-spot on the Wabash. Inhabitants 
of the lower Embarrass and in the neighborhood oi^ Vincennes 
could only go about their work with their rifles always in hand; 
and the town itself was, time and again, threatened with destruc- 
tion. Indeed, several peaceful Indians of the Delaware and 
Piankeshaw tribes warned the Governor of the great danger to 
themselves as well as to the whites, and said they intended to flee 
beyond the Mississippi to escape the storm that was threatening 
from the Prophet's town. 

In tlie meantime, Ciov. Harrison — in whom the people of the 
Indiana and Illinois Territories had unbounded confidence — con- 
tinued his unremitting efforts to secure their pjeace and safety. 
His correspondence with heads of the departments at Washing- 
ton abundantly sliows tliat during the whole period covered by 
tlie events under consideration he kept the Government fully 
advised of the movements of the Prophet and Tecumthe, and as 
often suggested the necessity of active measures to arrest the 
mischief they were doing. He labored with a zeal then little 
^inderstood, though now fully appreciated, and largely succeeded 
«n keei>ing the bulk of the surrounding tribes from the contamina- 
tions of the Shawnee brothers, and in this way did much to save 

' "He boa.sted [through his medium, tlie Prophet] that he would follow the 
'*:Kjt>tep<> of the great Pontiac;" z'/dif Gov. Harrison's Memoirs, 


the settlements intrusted to his care from the terrible consequences 

that otherwise vrould have followed. He sent frequent messen- | 

gers to the ^Liamis and Pottawatomies, demanding that they 

should drive the Prophet and his horde away from the domain | 

claimed by these two tribes; but they, in their ignorance and 

terror at the threats of the Prophet, did not dare to resort to | 

force. They could only look on silently and abide the result oi 

events. No threats or persuasions would induce the Prophet to 

leave, who, with his brother, now additionally stimulated with '; 

words of encouragement of British- Canadian agents, threatened 

open war. The Governor again sent a messenger to the Prophet's . 

town, to whom Tecumthe denied an intention of making war, t 

but most solemnly declared that it vras not possible to remain 

friends of the United States, unless they would abandon all idea /• 

of making settlements furtlier to the north and westward. "The h 

Great vSpirit," said he, "gave this great island to his red children; .'■; 

he placed the whites on the other side of the big water; they • I 

were not contented with tlieir own, but came to take ours from | 

us. They have driven us from the sea to the lakes: we can go | 

no further. They have taken upon themselves to say this tract ?' 

belongs to the Miamis, this to the Delawares. etc.; but the Ch-eat *; 

... ? 

Spirit intended it as the common property of all. Our P^ather j 

[Gov. Harrison] tells us that we have no business upon the 1 

Wabash, that the land belongs to other tribes; but the Great 

Spirit ordered us to come here, and here we will stay." | 

Seemingly the general government did not compreliend the 

situation, or was indifferent to the results that would follow from 

the course to which aftairs in the western territories were rapidly 

drifting. At last matters culminated, on the 31st of July, iSii, | 

when a public meeting was called at Vincennes, at which it was ^ 

resolved, in substance, that no security to life and property could 

be had other than by breaking up the combination of the Shawnee -; 

Prophet on the Wabash; that 'it was impolitic and injurious to j 

the inhabitants of the United States as to those of the Indiana ^ 

Territory to permit a formidable banditti, constantly increasing in r 

numbers, to occupy a position which enables them to strike the v 

border settlements without the least warning; that the combina- | 


tion headed by the Shawnee Prophet was a British scheme, and 
that the latter's agents constantly inciting the Indians to hostih- 
ties against the United States. A committee, consisting of lead- 
ing citizens, among whom was the venerable F'rancis Vigo, was 
selected to prepare an address to President James Madison, 
embodying the resolutions passed at the meeting. The address 
was forwarded. The Government, it appears, had anticipated 
the request; for the secretarv of war, in two letters addressed, 
July 17th and July 20th, 181 1, respectively, to Gov. Harrison, 
advised him that the 4th Regiment, U. S. Infantry, with a com- 
pany of riflemen, making in all five hundred men, under command 
of Col. John P. Boyd,* had been ordered forward from Pittsburg, 
and were to be at the disposal of the Governor, with the precau- 
tionary restriction, however, that the force was not to be used in 
the suppression of the banditti under the Prophet, "unless such 
a course should be rendered absolutely necessary, as circumstances 
at that juncture rendered it especially desirable to the President 
that hostilities (of any kind, or to any degree not indispensably 
required) should be avoided." 

The Governor, having his plans matured, his militia and other 
troops in hand, once more prepared a speech, addressed to the 
several Indian tribes, calling upon them to disperse the Prophet's 
band and calling upon its members to immediately return to their 
respective tribes; recjuiring from the Miamis an absolute disavowal 
of all connection with the Prophet, and, they being the owners of 
the land he occupied, to prevail upon them to express to him 
their disapproval of the Prophet and his adherents from longer 
remaining there. One of these speeches was taken to Fort 
^\'ayne by Capt. Tousant Dubois, and its explanation to the tribes 
assembled there in council called out tire speeches of September 

* John P. lioyd, born in (768; appointed from Massachusetts [was in the 
Mahratta service in the J',a^t Indies; rose to the rank of commander of 10,000 
cavahy] colonel 4th Infantry, 7 Oct., 1 80S; "commanded a brigade in Battle 
'■'f Tippecanoe and dislini^aished himself, 7 Nov., 1811; brigadier-general, 
2^J Aug., 1812; led hi. brigade in the capture of Ft. George. U. C, 27 May, 
'•"^13; disbanded, 15 June, 1815. Afterward naval officer of Tort of Boston, 
''ied at Boston, Mas-., 4 Oct., 1830.— Gakd.xkk. 



4th and October 3d, iSii, found in the Ft ^V\lyne manuscript.* 

The prelude of the war of 1812 was fairly upon us, although 
the formal declaration of it was made in the following June. 

The portion of the Ft. Wayne manuscript following the Indian 
speeches shows the author of it to have been a well-informed and 
candid writer. His statements of facts, dates, names, etc., har- 
monize in the main ^^•ith creditable works since in print— the most 
notable variance from them being his account as to the number 
of Indians engaged at the battle of Tippecanoe. He must have 
had an intimate and long acquaintance with the Indians; and the 
information preserved in his manuscript as coming to his knowl- 
edge from them as to their military engagements with the whites, 
is, for the most part, not only new, but valuable historical matter. 
Among the authorities consulted or drawn upon in the colla- 
tion of the preface and notes, as well, also, the foot-notes running 
through the printed text of the Ft. Wayne manuscript, the follow- 
ing may be named: "The American State Papers"; "U. S. 
Treaties with the Indian Tribes"; "Life of Tecumshe'"', by Dr. 
Benj. Drake; Harvey's "Shawnee Indians"; Hall & McKinney's 
"History N. A. Indians"; "History of Ohio", by Caleb Atwater; 
Howe's "Ohio Historical Collections"; "History of Indiana", 
by the late John B. r,)illon; "Historical Notes of the Northwest"^ 

* It may be added tiiat tliese missives had no more effect in arresting the 
climax than if the paper on which they were scribed had been thrown upon 
the sea. The frenzied mob at the mouth of the Tippecanoe could hardly 
await the advancing tread of Gov. Harrison's army. The Governor, althougii 
complained of by .some of his officers for not assaulting the town upon sight, 
the soldiers being eager for battle, kej^t rigidly within the letter and spirit of 
his instructions, and declined a resort to force until every effort toward a peace- 
ful solution of difficulties had been exhausted. With the power to compel an 
obedience to his orders, he again demanded the occupants of the village to 
disperse. It l)eing nearly night, a suspension of hostilities was agreed to, 
with a view to a friendly conference on the following morning. The Prophet, 
fearing tlie issue, or supposing he could effect a surprise, set his maddened 
warriors upon the Governor's encampment, under cover of darkness, made 
more dense by a drizzling rain, that fell dank and chill upon the silent though 
wakeful army, on the morning of November 7, 181 1. A terrible defeat, the 
burning of the village, and the loss of the Prophet's power, was the result of 
his rash act. 


hv the same author — both works being of the highest historical 
value for their accuracy of statement; Judge John Law's "History 
of Vincennes"'; Mann Butlers "History of Kentucky''; "History 
of the War [of 181 2], and Views of the Campaigns of the North- 
western Army'"', by Samuel R. Brown; "History of the Late War 
in the Western Country"', by Capt. Robt. M'Affe; "Memoirs of 
Oen. Harrison", by Moses Dawson; "islemoir of Gen. Harrison", 
by Judge James Hall; "Life of Gov. Ninian Edwards" [of Illi- 
nois"]; The Indian Vocabularies respectively of Col. John John- 
son; Prof Edwin James; Thos. L. jNIcKenney (of the Indian 
Department); Henry R. Schoolcraft; Capt. John Carver; Alex- 
ander McKenzie; David Zeisbergefs and Edward E. Wilson's 
several Grammars and Dictionaries of the Delaware and O'Jebway 
languages; Albert Gallatin's "Synopsis of the Indian Tribes of 
North America". All which are acknowledged as sources of 
original and reliable information. 

■ f^^The manuscript from which the following pages 
were set was received in April, 1882, from S. A. Gibson, 
superintendent of the Kalamazoo Paper Company, Kala- 
mazoo, Mich., and was written in the same hand at 
different times, on twenty-eight pages of foolscap paper, 
apparently as old as the dates thereon. Each page has 
an anchor water-mark. Mr. Gibson took these pages, 
evidently torn from a book, from a large bundle of simi- 
lar papers that had been recently received at the mills 
from Fort Wayne, Ind. — F. 

Speeches delivered in General Council, at Fort Wayne, 

on the 4th day of September, 181 1, by the different Chiefs of 
the Miamie Tribe of Indians, in Answer to a Speech from his 
Excellency, Wm. H. Harrison, Governor of Indiana Territory. 


WiLLiA^r H, Harrison, Governor of Indiana Territory, Listen to 
WHAT I have to Say: 

You now tell us that we are on a wrong road, a road that will 
lead us to destruction. You are deceived. When 1 was walking 
along, I heard you speak respecting the Shawanoe (Prophet). 
You said we were of his party. I hold you and the Shawanoe 
both by the hand; I hold him slack. You have both told me 
one thing: that if I would adhere to you, that my people (the 
women and children) would be happy. The hearts of the Mia- 
mies are good. The Cireat Spirit has placed them on the choicest 
spot of ground; and we are now anxiously waiting to see which 
of you tells the truth. 

Now, Father, for the first time your eyes are open. When you 

* LePousser [French], A-she-non-qua in the Miami dialect, signifying the 
Speech Maker, the Persuader, or Talker. At the Treaty, held October 26, 
iSc^, at Vincennes, this chief's name is signed Lapousier [the article La and 
the v/ord Pousser run together as in the Ft. Wayne manuscript], while at the 
'•Treaty of Peace and J'^iendship," between the U. S. and the Miamis and 
other hostile tribes in the war of 1812, executed at Greenville, Ohio, July 22, 
i''>i4, his name appears thus, "La-passiere or A-she-non-qua." F/V/,?" His- 
tory of the War? [of 1812], by Sam'l R. Brown; vol. ii; ^Vppendix, where 
d:e text of the Treaty is supplemented with the signers' names interpreted and 
carefully spaced so as to preserve the correct sound in their pronunciation. 

1 lie Weas, for whom A-she-non-qua was a leading orator, were a band of 
t'je Miami tribe having their principal village on the east bank of the Wabash, 
hclow Lafayette, and above Attica, Indiana, and known in early history as 
Ouitanon, or the Wea-town. The name is yet preserved, and the identity of 
the ncigliborhood retained, in its bestowal upon " Wea-Prairie" and " Wea- 
Creek." ^'?//f Chamberlain's Indiana Gazetteer, 



cast them on your children you see they are poor; some of them 
are even destitute of the necessaries of hfe. We want ammuni- 
tion to support our women and children; this has compelled us 
to undertake our present journey. 

Father, we have not let you go; we yet hold you by the hand; 
nor do we hold the hand of the Prophet with a view to injure 
you. I therefore tell you that you are not correct when you 
supposed we joined hands with the Prophet to injure you. 
Father, I listened to you a few days ago, when you pointed out 
to me the depredations of murder committed by the Indians on 
the Mississippi. I told you that I and my people had no wish 
to join in acts of that kind. I told you that we both loved our 
people, and that it gives us pleasure when we see them standing 
around us; that we should deprive ourselves of this pleasure if 
we commenced a war Avith each other, as a war would be the 
destruction of both parties. You always told me that our great 
Father, the President of the United States, has placed you here 
for good purposes; that his heart is good toward his red children I 
How then does it happen that our Father's heart is changed 
toward his red children. 

Father, you have called upon us to fulfil the Treaty of Green- 
ville.'' In that treaty it is stipulated that we should give informa- 
tion if we knew of any hostile design of a foreign power against 
each other. I now tell you that no information from any quarter 
has reached our ears to injure any of your people (except from 
yourself). You have told us that the thunder begins to roll. 

Father, your speech has overtaken us here. We have heard it, 
it has not scared us; we are not afraid of what you say. We are 
going on to that country which has been frequented by Tecumseh, 
and we shall be able to know, in the course of our journey, 

* The Treaty of Greenville, concluded August 3d, 1795, at Fort Greenville 
[upon the site of Greenville, County-seat of Darke Co., Ohio], was the finale 
of a bitter warfare waged by the Indians against the encroaching advances of 
civilized society upon their hunting-grounds. The struggle began before the 
Revolutionary War had ended, and closed with the memorable victory of 
Gen. Wayne over the confedtraLcd tribes of the [then] Northwest Territory, 
at the foot of Maumee Rapids [near South Toledo, Ohio], upon th^.- 20th of 
August, 1784. No longer able to contend, the Sachams and war-chiefs of 
the Wyanrlots, Delawares, Shav/ane<?s, Ottawas, Chippewas, Pottawaloinies, 
Miamis, Kickapoos, etc., etc., met Gen. Wayne in council at Greenville, and 
executed the Treaty; containing, among other matters, in its 9th article, the 
stipulation to which A-she-non-qua here refers in reply to Gov. Harrison's 
complaints that it had not been enforced against the malcontents assembled at,. 
or gathering from every direction to, the "Prophet's Town." 

SPEECH OF LArRUSIEUR. ' •■ v ' v ^j 

whether he has told us Hes or not: that all the Indians are of the 
same opinion that he is; but when we return, we shall be able to 
inform you whether what Tecumseh has told us be true or not. 

Now, Father, you have heard what I have to say; you will 
hear it well what comes from me. 

Father, you have told me twice you were angry with me. I 
went to see you with my warriors with me when we v\ere sitting 
face to face, and toes to toes; you told me that the Indians. on 
the Mississip}>i had struck your people, and I said nothing to you. 
Vou tell us that you sent a messenger after us; that we insulted 
your messenger, yourself, and our great Father, lliis is twice 
you have said }ou were angry with us 1 We have looked for the 
cause, but can find none. 

Father, we, the Miamies, are not a people that are passionate: 
we are not so easily made angry as it appears you are I Our 
hearts are as heavy as the earth! Our minds are not easily irri- 
tated. We don"t tell people we are angry with them for light 
causes; we are afraid if we did fly in a passion for no cause we 
should make oursehes contemptible in the eyes of others. We 
therefore hope you will no more say you are angry with us, lest 
you should make yourself contemptible to others. We have told 
you we would not get angry for light causes. \\t have our eyes 
on our lands on the Wabash, with a strong determination to 
defend our rights, let them be invaded from what quarter they 
may. When our best interests are in\aded, we will defend them 
to a man, and be angry but once. 

Father, now consider what your children, the Miamies, have 
said to you. You have offered the war-club to us ; you have laid 
at our feet and told us we might pick it up, if we chosed. We 
have refused to do so; and we hope that this circumstance will 
prove to you that we are people of good hearts. We hope, 
^alher, you will not ]>e angry any more with us, we will not be 
angry with you. ^rhis is all I have to say to you at present.* 

When considered with reference to the guarded manner in wliich the 

• iKlian is accustomed to avow hostile purposes, A-she-non-cjua's speech is a 
notable specimen of defiant oratory. Firy- and bold, it reflects the feelings 
and desperate purposes of I'e-cum-the and })is deluded followers, and is in 
angular contrast witli tlie utterances of Little Turtle and other speakers, who, 
with cooler heads, foresaw the calamity that would come upon their people in 
*ne end, if the threatened war was precipitated. Gov. Harrison, in an official 
setter dated from Vincennes, .September 17, iSii, referring to this council, 
says: "•* * * succeeded in getting the chiefs together at Fort Wayne, 

• nough he found them all preparing to go to Maiden. [Amherstburgh, Canada, 



He informed his people tliat he conceived it greatly to the 
interest of his nation that a decisive answer should be given to 
their great Father's speech; that he had asked for it, and he was 
entitled to receive it; that for himself he had always detested the 
Prophet and his party; and that the interest of their nation 
required that the ^Iiamies should have no connexion with him; 
that in case a misunderstanding should take place between the 
United States and the Prophet, it is the interest of our nation to 
remain neutral, and hold our Father by' the hand. My chiefs and 
warriors now present, I hope this will be the answer that you will 
send to our great Father, the President of the United States. 

near the mouth of Detroit River, in the upper part of which village Fort 
Maiden, under whose protecting guns most of the vessels for the British 
upper-lake service were built, and the principal depot from which supplies for 
the fur-trade and presents to the Indians were distributed.] The result of the 
council discovered that the whole tribes — including the Weas and Eel Rivers, 
for they are all Miamis — were about equally divided in favor of the Prophet 
and the United States." "La-pousier, the Wea chief, whom I before men- 
tioned to you as being seduced by the Prophet, was repeatedly asked by * * * 
[Capt. Dubois] what land it was that he determined to defend with his blood; 
whether it was that which was ceeded by the late treaty [of September 30, 
1809, whereby the Indians had yielded their claim to three several large bodies 
of land in Indiana and Eastern Illinois] or not, but he would give no answer. 
* * * reports that all the Indians of the Wabash have been, or now are, on 
a vi.-it to the British agents at Maiden. Pie has never known one-fourth as 
jnany goods given to the Indians as they are now" receiving, etc. 

* On the Miss-iss-sin-e-wa River, commencing at its mouth near Peru, 
Indiana, and extending up the stream a number of miles, were, at intervals, 
several Miami villages, over one of which Silver Heels was a presiding chief. 
On the 14th of December, 1812, a mounted expedition of 600 men, commanded 
by Col. John B. Campbell, of the 19th Regiment, L^. S. Infantry, left Day- 
ton, Ohio, to destroy these towns; three of which he burned, and destroyed 
a large amount of other property, including many horses and cattle. Eight 
warriors were killed, and forty-two prisoners, counting women and children 
taken. The emergency of the hour fully justified Gov. Harrison in ordering 
this movement. He especially requested Col. Campbell to spare the lives of 
Silver HecF, the White Loon (and other chiefs whom he name.->), "wliohad 
undeviatiiigly exerted tlu;m-.elves to keep their warriors quiet and to preserve 
their friendly relations with us." T/V/f Gov. Harrison's instructions to Col. C. 
and the latter 's official report to the former. 




I do not want what I am now going to say to be written down; 
but I think it is the interest of my nation that I should make 
some few observations. It appears to me that some of my 
younger brothers, residing on the Wabasli, have got in a wrong 
road; that our Father has told them of it, and it is not too late 
for them to return. We, the Puttawatamie chiefs, have told our 
young men not to listen to the Prophet, but, notwithstanding, 
some of them were foolish enough to believe what he said. 


Laprusieure has come forward and made a speech, without 
consulting or knowiug the opinion of the Indians, which I con- 
ceive to be very improper. 

* At the Treaty of Fort ^Vayne, concluded September 30, 1809, this chief 
i~ designated as "O^semeet, brother to Five Medals"; while his name appears 
lo the great Treaty signed at Chicago, August 29, 182 1, as "Os-see-meet. " 
The name is probably derived from, or is a corruption of, the word "Osh-e- 
may-un", ;>., younger brother, and expressive of the idea that his claims to 
consideration were because of this relationship to the "Five Medals", who 
was a noted sacham and warrior. See note to the latter's speech, p. 73. 

t A chief of that subdivision of the Miamis who were called Eel-Rivers 
'and Eel-Creeks), for the reason that their ancient and principal village — 
known by the Indians as Ke-na-pa-com-a-qua, to the early French writers as 
I-'Anguille [the Eel], and to the Americans as the "Eel-River Town " — was 
>ituated on this stream, some six miles above its confluence with the \Yabash 
at Logansport, Ind. However, it is evident, from Gov. Harrison's instruc- 
tions to Col. Campbell, already referred to, that Charley lived in one of tiie 
villages on the Miss-iss-sin-e-wa, which Col. Campbell was ordered to destroy; 
f'^r among those whose lives were to be saved is named that of " Charley, the 
principal of the Eel-River Tribe." This chief figures at several of the treaties, 
on behalf of his tribe, both before and after the war of 1812, as " Ka-Tun-ga", 
"Ke-tan-ga" (with the addition of "Charley"); and, in .some instances, as 
vniply Charley. His aboriginal name — the signification of which is nowhere 
-iven— appears distilled through uneducated P>ench or American interpreters, 
•'f written down by careless secretaries, and is neither Indian, French, or 
^-n.;li,h, but savors of the corruption of all.-.. 

His people were swept over to the British by the current of events imme- 
'liately Gen. Hull's surrender of Detroit, and which carried with it 
Nearly all the otlier Northwestern tribes. The failure of the attack upon Fort 
n.irrison, near '1 erre Haute, Ind., September 4, 1812, and upon I'ort Wayne 
'-^rly in this month, together with the energy Gov. Harrison displayed in 


Governor Harrison : 

Father, your speech by Mr. Dubois was commuiiicated to us 

organiziag the militia of Indiana, Oliio, and Kentucky, all ablate with enthu- 
siasm, to recover the prestige and territory lost by the unexplainable conduct 
of Gen. Hull at Detroit, thoroughly alarmed those of the Miamis who had 
taken sides with Te-cum-the and the British. Accordingly we learn, from an 
official letter of Gov. Harrison, dated Franklinton, O., October 13, 1812, 
that: "Before I left St. Mary's for Defiance, some Miamis had arrived, 7'ia 
Fort "Wayne, with a flag and a message from their chiefs, begging for peace. 
I had no time then to listen to their speech, and, on my return here, I found 
the Owl [a distinguished chief, who had long been a confidential friend of the 
Governor], Charley, the Eel- River chief, the Turtle's son, and several others 
who had joined theni. They came prepared to palliate or deny the liostility 
of their tribe, as one or the other might best suit their purpose. * * "' " 

Charley survived the war, and was living as late as October 6, I Si 8, when 
he, with other "chiefs and warriors of the Miami nation of Indians", executed 
the Treaty of St. Mary's; and he was dead before October 23, 1826, when, at 
the treaty held at the mouth C)f tlie Miss-iss-sin-e-wa, a reservation of "five 
sections of land, above the oLi village on the north side of Eel River," was 
made in favor of his son "Little Charley". Vuh' Indian Treaties with the 
United States. 

* Misch-e-can-o-quoh, or the Little Turtle, agreeably to the best received 
authorities, "was of mixed origin" — his mother being a Mohegan woman and 
his father a Miami chief — born about the year 1747, at the latter's village on 
the upper waters of Eel River, some twenty miles west of Ft. Wayne. He 
planned and won decisive victories in the two engagements against detachments 
of Gen. Harmer's army, near Ft. Wayne, in October, 1790; was conspicuous 
as the leader in the attack, on tlie morning of November 4, 1791, upon the 
forces of Gov. St. Clair, that resulted in the terrible di-aster known in history 
as "St, Clair's Defeat", and which was without a parallel in Indian warfare 
until the disastrous engagement of Gen. Custer, on the Little Big-Horn River 
of the Upper Missouri, He was also in the action of June 30, 1794, in the 
severe attack upon Major Mc^Lahon's escort of ninety rillemen and fifty 
dragoons, under the walls of " P'ort Recovery", a military post erected in 
December, 1793, upon the ground where St. Clair had been defeated. Satis- 
fied that the Indian confederation cojald not successfully contend with Gen. 
Wayne, he advised them to listen to the hitter's overtures for peace. Over- 
ruled in this, lead his own warriors in the battle of August 20, 1794, knov»n 
as the "Battle of the Fallen Timbers", in which Gen. Wayne achieved a 
decisive victory. From this time forward, the Little Turtle was the open ard 
of the United States. He would before this have Ijrokeii av.ay 


yesterday.* Father, your children, the Miamies of the Wabash, 
are all glad of what you say. These are the sentiments of the 

Father, you have asked us whether we are prepared to take 
part with the Prophet, or still hold you fast by the hand. This 
question causes us to believe that a misunderstanding has taken 
place between you and some of our people that have visited you 
lately; it also appears that you have made known your intentions 
to the Puttawatamies, respecting the Prophet. You have told the 
PuttaA\atamies and other Indians residing on the Wabash to 

from the malign influence operating from Canada through its agents and traders, 
but he was powerless to carry his people with him until after they had suffered 
serious reverses. 

At the Treaty of Greenville, he shone as the brightest light in the assembled 
orators, gathered at this great council-fire from the entire Northwest, to plead 
the cause of their tribes and of their starving women and children. 

After the conclusion of peace. Little Turtle resided at his village, where the 
Government had built him a comfortable house. " He took," says Gov. Har- 
rison, "great interest in everything that appertained to civilized life, and pos- 
sessed a mind capable of understanding their advantages, in a degree far 
superior to any other Indian." In his cliaracter he combined, in an eminent 
degree, the qualities of the military strategist, the wily diplomat, the orator, 
and tiie philosopher, winning distinction in all. 

He died of gout, July 14, 1812, on the side of the St. Marys River, opposite 
Ft. Wayne, in the orchard yard of his son-in-law, Capt. Wm. Wells, from 
whose house, at his own request, he had been removed to the open air. He 
was buried upon the spot with military honors, by the troops of the garrison, 
and with his remains were deposited the sword and large silver medal pre- 
sented by President Washington, and his other war implements and ornaments. 
VUe "History of the ^^'ar"; "Memoirs of Gen. Harrison"; IJrice's lort 
Wayne; etc., etc. 

* Capt. Toussant Dubois, of an ancient family of Vinccnnes, near which he 
a-Lo resided. An Indian trader, and for many years a confidential messenger 
and spy for Gov. Harrison, who reposed great confidence in his energy, fidelity, 
and intelligence. As captain of a company of spies and guides, he rendered 
conspicuous services in the Tippecanoe campaign of October and November, 
I'^ii. He became a large owner of lands on the Embarrass River, within the 
present limits of Lawrence County, Illinw^ as assignee of original claimants 
under grants reserved to the ancient inhabitants of Vincennes. Vide ll^ui- 
^n's Memoirs; Dillon'.-, Indiana; American State Papers, etc. The late Jesse 
K. I Dubois, long .State treasurer of Illinois, and well known throughout the 
^'ate for his genial and sterling qualities, was a descendant of the subject of 
Ihi-^ note. 

( "' 


leave him: you have told the ]\Iiamies the same; these are things 
that surprise us. The transactions which took place between the 
Indians and white people at Greenville are yet fresh in our minds. 
At that place, we told each other that we would in future be 
friends, doing all the good we could to each other, and raise our 
children in peace and quietness. These are yet the sentiments 
of your children, the ]Mianiies. 

Father, you have told us you would draw a line;- that your 
children should stand on one side and the Prophet on the other. 
We, the Miamies, wish, to be consideied in the same light by 
you, as we were at the treaty of Greenville, holding fast to that 
treaty which united us, Miamies and Puttawatamies, to the United 

Father, listen to what I have to say: it is our request that you 
pay particular attention to it: We pray you not to bloody our 
ground, if you can avoid it. In the first instance, let the Prophet 
be requested, in mild terms, to comply with your wishes; and 
avoid, if possible, the spilling of blood. The lands on the 
Wabash are ours. We have not placed the Prophet there; but, 
on the contrary, have endeavoured to stop his going there. He 
must be considered as settling there without our lea\ e. 

Fatlier, I must again repeat that you said you should draw a 
line between your children and the Proj^het. We are not pleased 
at this, because we think you have no reason to doubt our friend- 
ship toward you. I have not said much to you, but 1 think I 
have said enough for the present; my words are few, but my 
meaning great. I shall close by requesting you will i^ay particu- 
lar attention to what I have said. This is all. Father, I have to 
say; I have said it in the presence of your messenger, the com- 
manding officer, your people, and all mine. 


I have said that I am here alone; I have come to attend to the 
interest of my women and children ; 1 have thought it my duty 
to do so, as the other chiefs of my nation are absent. 

When I heard the words of my Father, we, the Puttawatamies, 
inhabiting the Lakes, from Chicago around to the east, are of the 
same opinion as those of the Miamies, just delivered by the 
Little Turtle; notwithstanding, some of our foolish }oung men 
have killed some of the whites. We, the chiefs of our nation, 
have told our young men not to listen to any bad birds that are 
flying in the air; but some of them have been led astray, inas- 
much as they have not followed our advice, and have imprudently 
involved themselves in difficulties. We, the chiefs of the Puita- 


watamies, are determined that their faults shall not be charged to 
our nation. We, the Puttawatamies and Miamies, have been 
friends from our infancy. We shall continue to be so; their sen- 
timents are ours, and ours theirs. 

Father, what we said to each other at the treaty of Greenville 
is fresh in our memories. We there told each other that improper 
conduct of individuals should not reinvolve us in difficulties; this 
must also be fresh in your memories, as you wrote it down, and 
I hope it will long be remembered by both of us. I have noth- 
ing further to say.* 


You have heard what my uncle, the Little Turtle, has said; 
and my opinion is the same. 

I told my people, when they were going to see the Governor, 
not to say anything respecting the land; that they had signed the 
paper closing the sales of the land, and that the treaty for that 
land was a fair and honorable one. I also told them to have 
nothing to do with the Prophet, that the Prophet was an enemy 
of Governor Harrison's, and Harrison of his; that if they formed 
any kind of connexion with the Prophet, it would make Governor 
Harrison an enemy of theirs. 

Fort Wayne, 2d October, 1811. 


Addressed to his Excel.lency, William H. Harrison, Governor of 

* Os-see-mcet here protests that he is delegated with no authority; that h« 
had only come to town to make purchases for his family; and tliat, inasmuch 
as the other chiefs having the right to represent his nation in council were 
absent, he deemed it his duty to communicate his and their views. 

t Wap-a [White] Man-gua [Loon], and by this name he signed the' Treaty 
of Greenville. His village was one of the three burned on the Miss-iss-sin-e- 
wa by Col. Campbell. 

X A celebrated war-chief of the River St. Joseph of Lake Michigan, whose 
village was upon the Elkhart Tributary of that stream, in Northern Indiana. 
He is recognized under various names, viz.: at the Treaty of Greenville as 
"Wau-gshe" — from '•'■ Wan- i^ese''\ the Odjibwa name for a favorite silver orna- 
nient in the shape of and called a "Half-Moon" — at the second Treaty of 
I'eace executed at Greenville, July 22, 1814, he is written down as "0-nox-a, 
<^r Five Medals"; while, at the Treaty of Spring Wells, near Detroit, in 
''■^15, his name is affixed to the paichrnent as "Noun-geesia, or Five Medals". 


Indiana Territory; DELIVERED in the presenxe of Topenai'a,* 
THE Head Chief of the Pfttawatamie Trihe of Indians, and 


Father and friend: We your children, the Puttawatamies and | 

Miamies, now take you by the hand as friends, and thank the 
Great Spirit above in enabUng us to do so. 

Father, you have spoke to my brothers, the Miamies, and also 
to the Puttawatamies. Your words reached my place of residence 
during my absence, consequently I was not able to understand 
what you said as well as I wished, therefore I came to Fort 

Father, on my arrival at this place, I sent for my friend, the 
Little Turtle, in order that I might know to a certainty what you 
had said ; I have seen him, and he has given me the information 
I asked for, and further states that he has himself already answered 
you; and it only remains for me now to answer you. 

Father, I now tell you the opinion of your children, the Putta- 
watamies and Miamies; we are but one people, and we speak 
with but one voice, therefore, I now request you to pay particu- 
lar attention to what I say, as I now speak the sentiments of 
them all. 

When our chiefs arise in the morning and see the clear sky : 
when they see the beautiful streams of water that are running, 
which is to be used by their women and children in peace and 
quietness; when they see the beautiful greenwoods around tliem, 
which was made for their use, and their women and children 
enjoying these blessings in peace and quietness, they thank the 
Great Spirit for his goodness toward them, and pray to him thai 
he may continue these Vjlessings forever. 

Father, the words which you are now listening to are the senti- 
ments of your children. We wish to live in peace with all the 
world; and request of you to have pity on our younger brothers 
that reside on the Wabash. 

Father, after 1 lieard your words, I looked down the Wabash, 

The two are synonomous, the first being compounded from "Noun", Five, 
and "Gee-sia", medaU or ornaments, in the Pottawatomie dialect, allowing 
for a somewhat defective spelling that fails to fully preserve the sound of the 
word as the Iiidian would pronounce i_t._ He wore upon his person medals 
presented to him by both British and American authorities, with other orna- 
ments, from wliich he came to be designated as "The Five Medals ". 

* To-pen-ne-bec, i)riiicipal chief of the Pottawatomie nation, the protector 
of Mr, Kinzie's family at the Chicago massacre, narrated in Mrs. Kinzie's 
" Wau-Iiun ". 



and saw that the Shawanoe Projihet had led some of our younger 
jjeople, Puttawatamies and ^^liamies, astray. I have understood. 
Father, that you wished to see nie; whether to beUeve or disbe- 
lieve this information I know not; yet, if it is your wish to see 
me, you should have given me information of it in writing, and 
that by the way of Fort "Wayne. 

Father, if you should want to say anything to us, speak to us 
through our old friend, Capt. ^^'illiam Wells,* in whom we all have 
entire confidence, and then your words will be attended to imnie- 

Father, I do not know that T have much more to say to you at 
l)resent, after o])serving that your knowledge of the Indians en- 
ables you to know that the Puttawatamies and Miamies are one 
l)eople, and as our brothers, the chiefs of the Miamies, are pres- 
ent, perhaps they may ha\'e something to say to you.t 

* Killed at the Chicago Massacre, August 15, 1812. In the employ of the 
Uiuted States as interpreter, scout, or agent, from July, 1792, to the time of 
his death, and for many years a resident at F't. Wayne; and well known to 
all the Indians visiting that post, to receive their annuities or for other pur- 
poses, by many of whom he was held in high esteem and by others as thor- 
oughly hated for his unswerving devotion to the United States. 

t Soon after the surrender of Detroit, Fort Wayne was besieged. With 
plenty of provisions and water, four small field-pieces, at.d seventy men, the 
fort was well prepared to resist a siege by the Indians; the latter, therefore, 
undertook to gain its possession by strategem. The Five Medals and other 
chiefs, in their conferences with the garrison under flags of truce, had observed 
that the commandant, Capt. Rhea, who was wtll advanced in years and much 
addicted to drunkenn-ss, betrayed a spirit of timidity, which justified them in 
believing they could use him in their purposes if they once had him in their 
power. Acting on this idea, it was arranged that, under pretence of holding 
a friendly conference. Five Medals, Win-ne-mac, and three other hostile chiefs 
were to gain admission into the council -room, within the fort, with their 
scalping-knives antl pistols secreted under their blankets. Then, upon an 
understood signal being given, they were to assassinate tlie two subordinate 
officers, seize Caj)t. Rhea, and with threats of instant death if he did not 
comply, and promises of personal safety if he did, compel him to order the 
gate>. of the fort to be thrown open for the admission of their warriors, lying 
in ambush without. The plan was put injejcecution, but was balked by a cir- 
cumstance, seemingly, almost miraculous. \Vm. Oliver, a young man of Ft. 
Wayne, though al)Sent at Cincinnati when the siege began, who, learning on 
his way home that the Indians had invested the fort, hurried back toward the 
settlements to give tiie alarm and secure assistance, after which he again set 
out for Port Wayne, in advance of the forces marching to its relief, for the 



Addressed to his Excellency, Willlvm H. Harrison, Governor of | 

Indiana Territory. '( 

Friend and Brotlier, you have listened to our chiefs, the Put- | 

tawatamies. You see that their sentiments and ours are the I 

same, as respects the wehare of our people. It is true that some | 

of our foolish young men have been deluded by the Shawanoe s 

Prophet, and made to follow a path that is- filled with thorns and | 

briers. We pray you to have pity on these foolish people, and 
forgive them th-e crimes they have committed. 

^ly frieiid, I could not say anything more to you than what our 
great chiet", the Five I^ledals, has said. He has told you to for- 
give those foolish people that have been led astray by the Prophet. 
Tell them the impropriety of their conduct, and request them to 
do better; and we hope they will do better. 

purpose of encouraging the garrison to persevere in its defence until their 
arrival. Luckily, the Indians had been withdrawn from the direction by 
which Oliver, ia company with two friendly Shawnees, were approaching the 
fort, and were massed upon tlje opposite side. Win-ne-mac, the Five Medals, 
and their tliree confederates, with their flag of truce, were in the act of carry- 
ing their plan into execution as Oliver and his Shawnees reached the gate. 
The attacking and the relieving party, each unknowing of the purposes or near 
presence of the other, coming by different directions, and screened by the 
angles of the fort, were not seen by each other until this moment. Win-ne- 
mac, much chagrined at the unexpected turn of affairs, uttered an ejaculation 
of disappointment, and with the others returned to their waiting warriors 
with the word that the attempted surprise of the fort had failed. The account 
of the above, jiot generally known, incident connected with the investment of 
Fort Wayne, is condensed from Dr. Drake's "Tecumthe". 

On the I2th of September, 1812, Gov, Harrison, with two thousand Ken- 
tuckians and several hundred citizen militia of Ohio, by severe and forced 
marches, arrived at Fort Wayne; the troops were broken up into several 
detachments and sent out southwest, west, and northwest on retaliative mis- 
sions. On the morning of September 16, the detachment commanded by 
Col. Samuel Wells struck the Five Medal's Town, burned it to the ground — 
the inhabitants having fled two days before — cajjtured a large quantity of corn, 
in process of rlrying upon scaffolds, and an abundance of beans, potatoes, and 
other provisions, besides which they tcJtally destroyed seventy acres of corn. 
In the village were several coarse bags, appearing to have contained shot; 
pieces of gun and ammunition boxes with London and Maiden printed upon 
them, and abundant other evidence that, since his friendly speech of the pre- 
vious October, the Five Medals, like all the rest of his nation, had gone ove' 
to the British, 


My friend, these are the sentiments of our hearts; to live in 
peace with all people, is our first wish; and we have entire con- 
fidence that the Treaty of Greenville is fresh in the mind of our 
Father, the President of the United States. I have nothing more 
to say at present. 

Father, we all now take you by the hand and request the Great 
Spirit to incline your heart to be kind to your Red brothers. 

Fort Wayne, j-j-/// Ja unary, 1S12. 


To HIS Excellency, Willlvnt H. Hakkisox, Goverxor of Ixdlvna 

My friend: I have been requested by my nation to speak to 
you, and I obey their request witli pleasure, because I believe 
their situation requires all the aid I can afford them. When your 
speech by Mr. Dubois was received by the Miamies, they answered 
it, and I made known to you their opinion at that time. Your 
letter to William Wells, of the 23d November last, has been 
explained to the Miamie and Eel-River tribes of Indians. 

My friend, altho' neither of these tribes have had anything 
to do with the late unfortunate affair which happened on the 
Wabash, still they all rejoice to hear you say thr.t if those foolish 
Indians, which were engaged in that action, would return to their 
several homes and remain quiet, that they would be pardoned and 
again received by the President as his children. We believe 
there are none of them that will be so foolish as not to accept of 
this friendly offer; while at the same time I assure you that noth- 
ing shall be wanting on my part to prevail on them to accept it. 

All the Prophet's followers have left him (with the exception of 
two camps of his own tribe). Tecumseh* has just joined him, 
with eight men only. No danger can be apprehended from them 
at present. Our eyes will be constantly kept on them, and should 
they attempt to gather strength again, we will do all in our power 

* In this "Talk" — the la-,t ever made by the Little Turtle— he here refers to 
the battle of Tippecanoe, fought on the morning of the 7th of the previous 
November. The original address will be found in Gen. Harrison's Memoirs, 
of which that in the Ft. Wayne manuscript above is a literal copy, except 
that the two words, in the closing line, '■'hurl our'''' are substituted for '^ burst 
on" in the original; v.hicii reads " * * * the storm that threatens to bwst 
on our nations." 'I'he copy above varies a little in the address and omits the 
certificate of nuthenlication, which is as follows in the original: 


to prevent it, and at the same time give you immediate informa- 
tion of their intentions. 

We are sorry that tliat peace and friendship, which has so long 
existed between the red and the white people, could not be pre- 
served without the loss of so many good men as fell on botli 
sides in the late action on the Wabash; but we are satisfied that 
it will be the means of making that peace which ought to exist 
between us more respected, both by the red and the white 

We have lately been told, by difierent IndiaJis from that quar- 
ter, that you wished the Indians from this country to visit you: 
this they will do with pleasure, when you give them information 
of it in writing. 

My friend, the clouds appear to be rising in a different quarter, 
Avhich threatens to turn our light into darkness. To prevent this, 
it may require the united efforts of us all. 

We hope that none of us will be found to shrink from the 
storm that threatens to hurt our nations. 

Your friend, ■ ■ ' 

For the Miamie and Eel-River tribes of Indians. 

"Ft. Wayne, Jj Ja unary, 1S12. 
"GovKRNoR Harrison' : — My friend : " 

here follows the Talk, ending with Little Turtle's name, as above, all which 
is verified thus : 

"Witness. Wm. Turner, S.-Mate, U. S. Army. ■ " 

"I certify that the above is a true translation. W. " 

Mr. Dawson, the compiler of the Memoirs quoted, in introducing this 
address, says, "The 'talk received from the Little Turtle, which so feelingly 
deplores the consequences of the late action, also appears to allude to the 
gathering storm that broke out in the June following [when the United States 
made a formal declaration of war against Great Britain]. This information 
the Little Turtle must have had from some communication, by himself or 
others, v/ith British agents. The speech is given as a relic of that extraordi- 
nary genius who was fated not long to survive it." 

A more extended sketch of Capt. Wells and the Little Turtle is now v/ell 
advanced for the press by the author of these notes. 


The Manners and Customs of the North- Western 

Indians. [IIisroRicAi..] 

The French were the first white people that were ever known 
among the North-Western Indians. 

When the British and French commenced a war against each 
other in North America, the North-Western Indians' joined the 
French, and- some of the Six Nations of Indians joined the British. 

After the British had gotten possession of this country from the 
French, a Tawa chief, by the name of Pontioch, renewed the war 
against the British, and took all the posts that were occupied by 
the latter, on the Lakes and their waters, in one day, (Detroit 
excepted) where Pontioch himself was. I'his wonderful achieve- 
ment of military skill was performed by stratagem. 

After this, in 1774, the first war commenced between the 
Americans and the North-Western Indians. The principal action 
that took place between the parties was at the mouth of the Big 
Canawa."^'' The Indian army consisted of about three hundred 
Shawanoes and Delewares, and a few Miamies, Mingoes, and 
Wyandotts, all of \\hom were commanded by the celebrated 
Shawanoe chief, Cornstalk. 

This was the war that ended at the Treaty of Greenville, in 
17^5, altho* at ditTerent times, individual Indians would treat or 
pretend to do so with the Americans, while at the same time, 
other Indians would be destroying some of the very people that 
their chiefs were treating with. 

The Indians that opposed General Sullivan, t in 1779, were the 
combined forces of the Six Nations. Their number, and by whom 
commanded, I do not know. 

The Indians that defeated Colonel Crawford:}: at Sandusky were 
the Wyandotts, l^elewares, Shawanoes, Cherokees, Puttawatamies, 

* Battle of Point Pleasant, October 10, 1774. 

t John Sullivan, born in Maine, February 17, 1740; was appointed in 
the Continental army from New Hampshire; promoted to major-general, 
August 9, 1776; resigned, November 30, 1779; and died in New Hampshire, 
January 23, 1795. — Gardner. 

t William Crawford, an old jiioneer, Washington's business agent in the 
West, who, under protest, commanded IHis expedition of nearly five lumdred 
men, organized to destroy the inhabitants and towns of the Moravian Dela- 
wares and Wyandots upon the Sandusky, was taken prisoner by the Indians 
and afterward, March ii, 1782, tortured to death in a most horrible manner 
near Sandusky, — Antiais of the West. 


Ottaways, and a few of the Six Nations, said to be eight hundred 
in all. I never heard who commanded them, as the Indians 
always keep the number of their killed and wounded as secret as 
possible. I shall not undertake to say what number were killed 
and wounded in either of the actions above mentioned. 

Bowman's campaign was-against the Shawanoes,-^ on the Little 
Miamie River. I am not acquainted with any of the particulars 
of the action that took place between him and the Indians. 

My knowledge of the campaign carried on by General Clarkt 

* Col. Joseph Bowman's command in July, 1779, destroyed their town, 
capturing some booty, including 160 horses. — Antials of the Wesf, 217. 

f Geo. Rogers Clark, born Albemarle Co., Va., Nov. 19, 1752; died near 
Louisville, Ky., Feb. 13, 1818. Originally a land-surveyor, he commanded 
a company in Dunmore's army in 1774. In 1775, he went to Kentucky, and 
took command of the armed settlers. In the spring of 1778, Maj, Clark was 
intrusted by Gov. Henry of Virginia with the command of an expedition 
against the British at Kaskaskia, v.-hich he surprised and captured. He suc- 
ceeded, also, in reducing other posts in this region, including that at Vincennes, 
which were organized into a county, under the jurisdiction of Virginia, and 
named Illinois. Promoted to colonel by the Virginia authorities, he applied 
himself successfully to the pacification of the Indian tribes. While thus 
engaged, he learned that Gov. Hamilton of Detroit had captured Vinct-nnes, 
and that further blows were to be struck against American posts. Anticipat- 
ing the enemy, Col. Clark commenced his march against Vincennes, February 
7, 1779, with 175 men, traversing a wilderness and the drowned lands of Illi- 
nois, suflTering every privation from wet, cold, and hunger. The place wa? 
besieged on the morning of the 19th, and was surrendered the next day. lie 
intercepted a convoy of goods worth $10,000, and built Fort Jefferson on the 
west bank of the Mississippi. In retaliation for the inroads of the British and 
Indians into Kentucky, in June, 1780, he led a force against the Shavvuecs on 
the Great Miami, defeating them with heavy loss, at Pickawa. Daring 
Arnold's invasion, Clark took temporary command under Baron Stuben. He 
afterward succ .eded in raising a considerable force for an expedition against 
Detroit, and ,vas made a brigadier; but the progress of Cornwallis, and the 
poverty of the country, restricted the frontiersmen to the defensive. In Sep- 
tember, 1782, Gen. Clark, at the head of more than looo mounted rillemcn, 
assembled at the mouth of the Licking, invaded the Indian towns on the 
Scioto, burned five of their villages, and laid waste their plantations, produc- 
ing a salutary effect, and so awing thV savages that no formidable Indian war- 
party ever after invaded Kentucky. In 17S6, Clark commanded an expedition 
of 1000 men against the Indians on the Wabash. It was a failure. His 
great services to his country were passed over, and he died in poverty and 
obscurity, "A Sketch of his Campaign in Illinois in 1778 9," by H. Pirtle, 


against the Shawanoes, on ]\Iad River and die Big Miamic, is not 
to be depended on. 

When General Harmar''^ arrived at the Miamie Town, he sent 
Col. John Hardin+ with a party of men in search of the Indians. 

was published. 8vo., Cincinnati, 1S69. — Drake. A county in Illinois and 
other western States, as well as many towns, and one of the principal streets 
of Chicago are named for him. 

* Josiah Harmar, born in Philadelphia, 1753; died there, August 20, 1S13. 
Educated chielly at Robert Proud's Quaker School, Philadelphia. Made 
captain 1st Pennsylvania regiment in October, 1776; was its lieut. -colonel in 
1777, and until the close of the Revolution. He \\as in Washington's army 
in the campaigns of 177S-S0; served under Gen. Greene, in the South, in 
1781-2; and was made brevet-colonel ist U.-S. rei^iment, September 30, 17S3. 
In 17S4, he took to Erance the ratitication of the definitive treaty. As Indian- 
agent for the Northwest Territory, he was present, January 20, 17S5, at the 
treaty at Fort Mcintosh. Lieut. -colonel of infantry under the Confederation, 
August 12, 1784; brevet-brigadier-general (by resolve of Congress, July 31, 
17S7, ) and general-in-chief of the army (September 29, 1789); commanded an 
expedition against the Miami Indians, September 30, 1790, and partially 
defeated, October 22, 1790; resigned January i, 1792; adjutant-general of 
Pennsylvania, 1793-9; and active in preparing and furnishing the Pennsylvania 
troops for Wayne's Indian campaign, 1793-4. — ./. T. Goodman^ s Metnoir. 

■!■ John Hardin, born in Fauquier Co., Va., Oct. I, 1753, died 1792. He 
early became an excellent marksman; served with distinction in the Indian 
wars of Virginia, and as a lieutenant in Morgan's Ritle Corps in the Revolu- 
tion; settled in Washington Co., Ky., in 1786. He commanded a detach- 
ment of Kentucky and Pennsylvania militia under Gen. Harmar at his defeat, 
Oct. 19 and 22, 1790; commanded Brig. -Gen. Chas. Scott's advance, and distin- 
guished in his successful expedition against the Indians on the Wabash, in May, 
179'- Murdered by the Indians while bearing a flag of truce, near Shawnee- 
town, O., for his horse and equipments, which were very fine; was the fcither of 
Martin D. Hardin, lawyer, born on the Monongahela River, Pa., June 21, 17S0; 
died Oct. S, 1823, educated at Transylyania Academy; studied law; several 
years a member of the Kentucky legislature; secretary of state 1812; a major 
nndcr Maj.-Gen. Harrisor in the X.-W. army in Lt.-Col, John Allen's Rifle 
R«ri;'t of Aug., 1812; U.-S. senator 1S16-7. He published reports of Laws in 
Kentucky Court of Appeals 1S05-8, Frankfort, 8vo., 1810. His son, John J. 
Hardin, born in Frankfort, Ky., Jan. 6, i^io; educated at Transylvania Uni- 
versity; practised law at Jacksonville, III.; was prosccuiing-attorney; member 
of the 111, legislature, 1836-42; representative in Congress from 111., 1843-5; 
'til. ist Reg't 12-month volunteers in Mexican war; June 30, 1846; killed, 
i cbruary 23, 1847, in battle of Buena Vista, while leading his regiment in a 




Coi. Hardin met three hundred ?\Iiamies at the head of Eel 
River wlio were commanded by the celebrated Miamie chief. 
Little Turtle. An action ensued, and the whites were defeated. '■■■ 
The Indians had one man killed and two wounded. The Indians 
that fought the troops under the command of Col. Harmar in 
the ^kliamie Town, were the part}- above mentioned, and com- 
manded by the same chief; also a body of five hundred more, 
consisting of Shawanoes, Delewares, Puttawatamies, Chippawa}-s. 
and Ottaways. The Shawanoes were commanded by their ovvn 
chief, Blue-Jacket; the Delewares by Buckingehelas: and the 
Ottaways and Chippeways by Agaskawak, an Ottaway chief Tlie 
Indians say they had fifteen killed and twenty-five wounded. 
General Scott'st campaign was against the Weeas' Town on the 

charge at the latest contlict. His son, Gen. Martin D. Hardin, great-grandson 
of John Hardin, born at Jacksonville, 111., June 26, 1S37; graduate of West 
Point; brevet 2d lieut. 3d Artillery, July i, 1S59; 2d lieut., January 2, 1S60; 
1st lieut., May 14, 1S61; lieut. -colonel I2lh Pennsylvania Reserve Veteran 
Corps, July 8, 1S62; brevet-captain, August 29, 1S62, for gallant and merito- 
rious service in battle of Groveton, Va. ; brevet-major, August 30, 1862, for 
gal. and mer. service in battle of Bull Run (2d), Va. ; colonel 12th Veteran 
Reserve Corps, Sept. i, 1862; brevet lieut. -colonel, ]")ec. 14, 1863, for gai. 
and mer. service in an encounter with band of guerillas; brevet-colonel. May 
2^, 1864, for gal. and mer. sefvTce in battle of N. Anna River, Va. ; mustered 
out of Volunteer service, June 11, 1864; brig.-general of Volunteers, July 2. 
1864; brevet brig.-general, March 13, i^>65, for gal. and mer. service in the 
field during the war; mustered out of Volunteer service, Jan. 15, 1866: major 
43d Infantry, July 28, 1866; transferred to ist Infantry, March 15, iS6q. 
Retired with rank of brig.-general, Dec. 15, 1870; loss of left arm and 
wounds in line of duty (under Acts of Congress, August 3, 1S61, and July 28, 
1866). — Ga)d)ier, Drake, I/a>?iersl}'. 

* 1790, Oct. 19 and 22. Battle on the Miami River, Ohio, fought by the 
U. S, Artillery, Pennsylvania and Kentucky militia, under Brig. -Gen. Josiaii 
Harmar; and who were defeated by bands of Indian warriors. Our troops 
engaged on the 19th v.ere 30 regulars and 180 militia; and on the 22d 60 reg- 
ulars and 340 militia. Our loss was. 183 killed and 31 Mfounc\ed.-~Gcirdfit;r. 

+ Charles Scott, soldier and governor of Kentucky, i8o8--Sept,, 1812, byrn 
in Curni.»crland Co., \'a., 1733; died Oct. 22, 1820. A non-com. officer of 
Virginia mditia at Braddock's defeat in 1755; raised and commanded the fir>t 
company south of the James for the Revolutionary army; was appointed 
colonel of 3d Virginia Batt., Aug. 12, 1776; was distinguished at Trenton; 
made a brig. -gen., April 2, 1777; was with Gen. Wayne at the storming of 
Stony Point in 1779; v/as made pri.soner at Charleston, S.C, in 1780, and 




Wabash, where he met with Httle or no opposition, as the warriors 
of the Weeas expected that General Scott was going against the 
Miamie Town, and had nearly all left their own village to meet 
him there. Eight men and two women were killed by the troops 
under General Scott at the Weeas' Town. The number of women 
and children that were taken prisoners, I do not recollect. 

Gen. Wilkinson's''^ campaign was against the Eel-River Town.t 
He met with no opposition, as there were but ten old men, three 
young ones, and a few women and children. Four men were 
killed, and one woman. The number of prisoners taken, I do 
not recollect. 

In 1790, an arm}- of Indians, composed of Miamies, Dele- 
wares, Shawanoes, and a few Puttawatamies, three hundred in 
number, who were commanded by the Little Turtle, attacked 
Dunlop"s Station, on the Big Miamie River. This Post was com- 
manded by Lieut. Jacob Kingsbury. :|: The hidians had ten killed 
and the same number wounded. ,.^ ,.^ , ,, •, 

was not exchanged until near the close of the war. At Monmouth, where he 
was the last to leave the field, he was particularly distinguished. In 1785, 
he settled in Woodford Co., Ky. ; as brig. -gen. of Kentucky levies, was with 
Cren. St. Clair at his defeat in 1791; commanded a successful expedition to the 
Wabash, and in actions with the Indians in May and June, 1791; maj.-gen. 
of division of I Goo Kentucky mounted volunteers under Gen. Wayne, July 2, 
1793; ^^^ distinguished in his victory Aug. 20, 1794, when he commanded a 
portion of Wayne's army at the battle of Fallen Timbers. Served from May 
II to Oct. 26, 1794. The shiretown of Powhatan Co. was named for him,, 
also a county in Kentucky. — Drake. 

* James Wilkinson, born in Maryland, 1757. Adjutant-general in Gates' 
army at Saratoga, 1777; lieut. -colonel commandant 2d Infantry, Nov. 7, 1791; 
commanded expedition on the Wabash in 1791 and Feb., 1792; brig. -general, 
-March 5, 1792; commanded right wing of Wayne's army in his victory of 
-Aug. 20, 1794, at the Maumee Rapids, and was distinguished; governor of 
Louisiana Terr'y, Dec, 1S05 7; general-in-chief of the army from Dec, 1796, 
to July, 179S; and from June, 1S05, to Jan., 1812; brevet major-general, July 
10, 1812; major-general, March 2, 1813; disbanded June 15, 1815. Died near 
Mexico, Dec. 28, 1825; buried in the parish of San Vi\<g\\Q\.. — Gardner. 

+ August 7, 1791. 

* Jacob King>bury, born in Norwich, Conn., 1755? was 42 years in the 
I'.-S. service, having risen from the ranks — which he joined at Roxbury, in 
1755 — to be an officer in the Revolutionary army. Served in Wayne's Indian 
Campaigns. Lieut, of Inf'y regiment, Sept. 29, 1789; Capt., Dec, 1791; in 
1 sub-legion Dec, 1792; in 1st Inf'y, Nov., 1796; major 2d Inf'y, May 15, 


. There was an army of Indians composed of Miamies, Putta- 
watamies, Ottaways, Chippaways, Wyandotts, Delewares, Shawa- 
noes, and a few Mingoes and Cherokees, amounting in all to 
eleven hundred and thirty-three, that attacked and defeated Gen- 
eral St. Clair on the 4th November, 1791.'' Each nation was com- 
manded by their own chiefs, all of whom were governed by the 
Little Turtle, who made the arrangement for the action and com- 
menced the attack with the Miamies, who were under his imme- 
diate command. The Indians had thirty killed and died with 
their wounds the day of the action, and fifty wounded. 

In the autumn of i792,t an army of three hundred Indians, 
composed of Miamies, Delewares, Shawanoes, and a few Putta- 
watamies, who were commanded by the Little Turtle, attacked 
Col. John Adair, J under the walls of Fort St. Clair, where they had 
two m.en killed. " a * 

1797; Lt.-Col. ist Inf'y, April 1 1, 1S03; Colonel 1st Inf'y, Aug. iS; iSoS; 
Inspector-Gen. (rank of colonel), April 28, 1813; disbaneied June, 1S15; died 
at Franklin, Mo., July i, 1S37. His son, Col. Thomas H. C. Kingsbury, 
born in New Orleans, Dec. 23, 1S07, was Col. of nth Conn, volunteers, and 
was killed at Antietam, Sept. 17, 1862. — Gardner^ Drake. 

* 1 791, Nov. 4. Battle near the sources of the Maumee of the Lakes, 
fought by a battalion of the 2d infantry and ^levies from Kentucky, North 
Carolina, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, about I4(X) effectives under Maj.- 
Gen. Arthur St. Clair; defeated by some 1500 Indian warriors. Our loss was 
632 killed and 264 wounded. — Gardner. 

+ 1792, Nov. 6. Conflict in sioht of Fort St. Clair, fought by Kentucky 
mounted men, about 50, under Maj. John Adair, against Indian warriors. 
Our loss, 6 killed, 5 wounded; the Indian loss greater. — Ibid, 

t John Adair, born Chester Co., S.C., August 16, 1759; died Ilarrisburg, 
Ky., May 19, 1S40. Received a public-school education; served in the Revo- 
lutionary army; removed to Kentucky in 1787; was a major of Kentucky 
mounted "levies" under Cen. St. Clair and Gen, Wilkinson in expeditions 
against the Northwestern Indians in 1791; was attacked by the Miami chief, 
Little Turtle, in camp near Fort .St. Clair, November 6, 1792, and forced to 
retreat; was lieut. -colonel commandant in Gen. Charles Scott's division in 
July, 1793. He was a volunteer aide to Gen. Shelby at the battle of the 
Thames, October 5, 1813; made brigadic ^"^'^ adjutant-general to Maj. -Gen. 
Thomas' division of Kentucky, 6-months' militia, November 10, 1814; and 
commanded the Kentucky Rifle-Brigade (centre of Gen. 'ackson's line, January 
8, 1815) with distinction at New Orleans in 1814-5. He was several years a 
member of the Kentucky Legislature, of which body he was also speaker; 
was a member of the Kentucky Constitutional Convention in 1799; and Regis- 


The 30th Jnne, 1794, an army of fourteen hundred and fifty 
Indians, composed of ^liamies, Puttawatamies, Delewares, Sha- 
wanoes, Ottawas, Chippaways, and Wyandotts, with a number of 
French and other white men in the British employ, attacked Fort 
Recovery.'" The Indians were commanded by the Bear chief, an 
Ottaway. The white men attached to the Indian army were com- 
manded by EUiott and McKee. both British otticers. The garri- 
son was commanded by Capt. Gibson, t of the 4 sub-legion. The 
Indians have repeatedly told me that they had between forty and 
tifty men killed, and upward of a hundred wounded, a number 
of whom died of their wounds. This was the severest blow I 
ever knew the Indians to receive from the whites. 

The Indians that fought General Wayne, J the 20th of August, 
i794,§ was an army of eight hundred men, consisting of Miamies, 
Shawanoes, Puttawatamies, Delewares, Ottaways, Chippaways, 
and Wyandotts, with a number of white men from Detroit. The 
Indians were governed by British influence, and consequently 
made but little resistance. The Indians had twenty-four killed 
and fifteen wounded. 

The Indians that fought the troops under the command of 

ter of the U.-S. Land-Office; U.-S. senator in 1805-6; governor of Kentucky, 
1820-4; and a Democratic Member of Congress, in place of John Breckin- 
ridge, resigned, in 1805, and in 183 1-3, serving on the Committee on Military 
Affairs. — Gardner, Drake. 

* 1794, June 30. Defence of Fort Recovery by its garrison of riflemen and 
voluntary cavalry, imder Maj. Wm. McMahon of the 4th sub-legion (who was 
killed), against a vastly superior force of Miami Indians. Our loss was 22 
killed and 30 wounded. — Gardner. 

+ Alexander Gibson, ^'irginia; captaia Infantry, Nov, 21, 1782; in 4 sub- 
legion, Dec, 1792; distinguished in command of garrison of Fort Recovery, 
in victorious repulse of Indians, Nov. 30, 1794; in 4th Infantry, Nov., 1706; 
resigned Nov. 15, 1800. — Ibid. 

% Anthony Wayne, born Jan. i, 1745, in Chester Co., Pennsylvania. Brig.- 
general in Revolutionary army, Feb. 21, 1877; representative in Congress from 
Georgia, 1791 -2. Major-general and general-in-chief of the army, March 5, 
1792; commanded in the victory over the Indians in the battle of the Maumee 
Hapids, Aug. 20, 1794. Died, Dec. 15, 1796, on the shore of Lake Erie in 
Pennsylvania. — Ibid. 

§ 1794, Aug. 20. Battle of the ^Laumee Rapids, at the "Fallen Timbers," 
fought by the army under Maj. -Gen. Anthony Wayne, against 2000 Indians, 
who were defeated and completely routed. Our loss was '^^t, killed and 100 
wounded. — Ibid. 



Governor Harrison,'-' on ?iic 7th of November, 181 i,t were com- 
posed of Shawanoes, Pasttawatamies, Kickapoos, Wynebagoes, 
Taways, and a few Miiscioes, amounting in all to one hundred 
and fifty, agreeable to the most correct information that could be 
procured from the IndiaDiv tliat were in the action. The Indians 
lost twenty-five men killed in the action. The number of wounded 
has not been ascertained. This is the last action that was fought 
between the Indians and the whites. 

The Indians and whites lived in peace and friendship from the 
treaty of Greenville, which was held in 1795, until the first raising 
of the Shawanoe Prophet which was in 1807, from that time 
until the 7th November. 18 11. the time that the Prophet's fol- 
lowers fought the troops under the command of Governor Harri- 
son: that treacherous and nefarious scoundrel has been fostered 
by the British Go\"ernmenr.. and caused a considerable number of 
the North-Western Indians to be unfriendly toward the United 
States, and occasionally committed depredations of murder on 
our Western frontiers. 

There appears to have been no separate cause for each cam- 
paign of the Indians against the whites. The ^var that began in 
1774, which was the first that took place between the Indians 
and the Americans, and which was caused by the repeated ill- 
treatment the Indians received from the frontier settlements oi 
the whites, was kept up by the Indians, owing to the great influ- 
ence the British had among them. This influence was kept up 
by the annual supply of arms and ammunition, which the Indians 
received from the British Government. 

From this it is evident ihat if the United States had got pos- 
session of the Military Posts on the Lakes, which the British 
Government was to deliver up to them in 1783, there would have. 
been no Indian war after that time. 


The Miamie Nation are ihe oldest inhabitants of this countr)-. 

* For record of Gen. Harrison, see page 52. 

t 181 1, Nov. 7. RaUlc of Tip'iiecanqe River, near its continence with the 
Wabash, fought by Battalion of Ehe 4th infantry, 200 strong, Kentucky and 
Indiana militia, about 450, under Gov. Wni. H. Harrison of Indiana Terri- 
tory against over 600 Indian warriors under " The Prophet," Our loss was 
62 killed, 126 wounded; the Indian loss exceeded 150 killed, — leaving from 
36 to 40 dead on the field. — Ganiewr. 


Froin. whence they emigrated is not known. The Eel Ri\-ers, 
A\'eeas, Piankeshaws, and Kaskaskees are all branches of the 
Miamie tribe, and all speak the same tongue. 

The Delewares emigrated to this country from the East, and 
are called by other Indians, Elanabah, or people from the sunrise. 

The Shawanoes emigrated to this country from West Florida. 

The Wyandotts, Chippawa}-s, Ottaways, Puttawatamies, and 
Kickapoos emigrated from the North and North ^Vest. 

The Wynebagoes and Melomenees, who at present inhabit" tlie 
west side of Lake Michigan, emigrated from tlie West. 

The Socks, Foxes, Johwees, and Nottawessies also emigrated 
from the North ^Vest. 

There is a material difterence in the language of the difterent 
nations of Indians; yet there is but little or no difference in their 
customs and manners; they are warm friends, but most inveterate 
enemies. The men are trained up to hunting and going to war, 
whilst all the laborious work is left for the women to do. 

Each nation is divided into villages, and each village has one 
or more chiefs attached to it, according to its size, who keep their 
subjects in order by persecution, as arbitrary power is never made 
use of by them (except in cases of murder). The influence of 
a chief seldom extends further than his own village. 

Both the male and female children are nurtured in such a man- 
ner as is best calculated to endure the greatest .hardships. They 
are compelled to bathe their bodies in cold water every day, and 
last for a certain length of time. The length of time a child has 
to fast is regulated by its age. A child that is eight years old 
will fast half a day, and one that is twelve or sixteen will fast a 
day. The person that is fasting has its face blacked, and is not 
permitted to wash it until the time of fasting is out. The face of 
the male is blacked all over; that of the female on the cheeks 
only. The male quits this ])ractice at the age of eighteen, it is 
then said by the parents that his education is complete, and he is 
then old enough to be a man. His face is then blacked for the 
last time, and he is taken a mile or two from any house, where he 
has a small hut built for him out of bushes or weeds. After this, 
he is addressed by his fadicr or guardian in the following words: 

My son, it has pleased all the Great Spirits that live above the 
clouds, and all those that live on the earth, that you should live 
to see this day; they have all witnessed your conduct ever since 
I first blacked your face; they know whether you have at all 
times strictly adhered to the advice I have given you; and I hope 
they will reward you accordingly. You must now remain here, 
imtil myself or some of your friends come to you. 


The man then returns home, takes his gun and goes a hunting, 
while his son is left five or six days, and sometimes eight days, 
without anything to eat or drink. When the fether or guardian 
has procured meat enough for a feast, he invites some of his 
neighbors to come and partake of what he has. They accom- 
pany him to where his son has been staying for several days; the 
boy is then taken home, where he is immersed in cold water, his 
head shaved all over except a small spot on the top; victuals are 
then given him, which have been prepared in a separate vessel 
for that purpose. After he is done eating, a looking-glass is given 
him, and a bag of vermiHon or paint; he is then told by the 
company that he is a man. After this, he is considered as such 
by the people of the village. They frequently go to war before 
being declared men in this manner, and they are respected 
according to their merit. 

Immediately after a boy"s face is blacked, which generally takes 
place at daybreak, he takes his bow and arrows and goes to the 
wood, from whence he does not return until the usual time of 
washing his face and eating comes on. I have accompanied boys 
for several years at different times, when their faces were blacked, 
and I never knew a single instance of tlieir eating or drinking 
while in this situation, or without the knowledge of their parents. 

Their minds are operated on by fears, as they are made to 
believe that if they eat or drink while their face is black, such an 
offence would be followed by immediate punishment from the 
Great vSpirit, who watclied strictly over all their actions. 

When an Indian girl arrives at the age of puberty, and her 
monthly discharges or catamenia comes on, she is separated from 
the family, and a small hut is built for her, some distance from 
the house where her parents reside. She is put in the hut pre- 
pared for that purpose, where she remains undl the menstrual 
discharge ceases ; during which time no person is allowed to visit 
or keep company v/ith her. Victuals are cooked in a separate 
kettle at a fire built out of doors for that purpose. All her cook- 
ing utensils and clothing are considered unclean until they are 
washed and purified for the purpose of using herself and being 
made use of by others. When - this disease leaves her, she ' 
directed to bathe herself in cold water; after which, a sweat-ho- 
is built, and she is taken into it by her mother, or some r 
female friend, and is scarified onlfer legs and arnis with o 
of sharp flint; after this, she is sweated and purified for 
or two, and then admitted into the family. 

'J'his practise prevails among all ages of the women, 
systems are in the condition above mentioned. It is 



ner that the systems of the Indians are prepared to bear hunger 
and all inclemencies of the different seasons. 

If a woman is pregnant when traveling, and her time of parturi- 
tion should come on, she will stop at the first convenient stream 
of water, where she will be delivered of her child. She will then 
wash the child all over in the cold water, and wrap it up in her 
blanket or any old clothing she may have along; she will then 
wash herself, and in two hours be ready to proceed on her journey. 

Polygamy is universally admitted among the Indians. A man 
may have as many wives as he pleases, and can change them as 
often as it may suit his own views. Young men are instructed 
by their parents to get as many wives as they can, but never to 
have connexion with a married woman, and by no means to 
involve himself or his friends in a quarrel with their neighbors. 

Marriages are performed in three different ways. ist. If the 
male and female agree, they may cohabit with each other without 
any further ceremony. 2d. AVhen a young man loves a girl, and 
she will not consent to have him without he first obtains the con- 
sent of her parents, which must be done with a present adequate 
to the character of the girl. If his present is received by the girl's 
friends, the marriage is fixed: if the present is returned, it is 
understood that they are not willing for the match. 3d. This is 
considered by much the most honorable and binding on the par- 
ties concerned. AVhen an Indian has a son that he wishes to be 
married to a good and a virtuous woman, he assembles his friends 
and relations, and consults with them what woman his son sha.ll 
marry. When a choice is made, the relations of the young man 
collect what presents they think are sufficient for the occasion, and 
take them to the parents of the girl or intended bride; they make 
known their business, leave the articles, and return home without 
an answer. The relations of the girl then assemble together, and 
consult each other on the subject. If they agree to the match, 
tliey collect suitable presents, dress the girl in her best clothing, 
and take her to the persons that made application for the match, 
where she and the ])resents are left. The marriage is then con- 
sidered complete, as all the ceremony for the occasion has been 
regularly gone through. But if the' friends of the girl or herself 
do not approve of the proposals, the presents that were given 
hy the young mans relations are reLujned, which is considered a 


^Vhen a warrior wnshes to go to war, he informs one or two of 
his most intimate friends of his intentions and asks them to join 


him. The war party is then formed by their inviting as many 
men as they wish the party to consist of. Their intentions are 
kept secret t'rom all the rest, as the person that is to command 
the party wishes such men only as will at all times obey his orders. 
After the party is completely organized, they lea\-e the village 
secretly in the night. When they encamp, the captain or com- 
mander places the oldest men in front of the camp, and the 
youngest in the rear; the former do all the hunting for the 
party and keeps out a strict watch for the enemy; the latter do 
all the cooking, making of fires, mending moccasins, etc. Each 
party has a small budget, which they call the war budget, which 
contains something belonging to each person in the party, that 
represents some wild animal, (that is to say,) a snake's skin, a buf- 
falo's tail, a wolfs head, a mink's skin, or the feathers of some 
extraordinary bird. This budget is considered sacred, and is 
always carried by some person chosen for that purpose, who 
always marches in front and lead> the party to the enemy. He 
is never passed on the march by any of the company while he 
has the budget on his back. AVhen the i)arty halts, the budget is 
laid on the ground in front of them, and no person is permitted 
to pass it without orders from the property authority. No person 
is allowed to sit or lay his pack on a log, neither is any one 
allowed to talk of women while they are going toward the enemy. 
AVhen a four-legged animal is killed by the party, the heart is care- 
fully preserved by a jjcrson appointed for that purpose. When 
they encamp, a fire is built alongside of the war budget, and the 
heart cut in small pieces and burned in it. The sticks or spits 
upon which they roast their meat is split half down the middle, 
and then the meat is placed in the split; the stick is to be sharp- 
ened at but one end, which is to be stuck in the ground. No 
person is allowed to step across the fire, or walk round it in any 
other way than that in which the sun traverses. 

It will readily be imagined that the order observed among the 
Indians when going to war is completely calculated to prevent 
accident or surprises, and keep up good discipline. When the 
enemy is to be attacked, the war budget is opened, and each man 
takes out his skin, or corpenyomer, or war bag, and ties it on 
that ])art of his body which he A\as directed to do by his ances- 
tors in such like cases. 

When an Indian attacks his enemy, he is generally stripped 
naked (except what is called his breech -cloth and moccasins). 
His body is painted in different colors, though generally red. 
After the action is over, each person returns his war bag to the 
commander of the party, who takes the same .skin or cloth that 


they were formerly wrapped in, and carefully wraps them up 
again, and gives the budget to the man that took the first prisoner 
or scalp, who leads the party home in triumph. This is considered 
as a record of his bravery in the nation, and consequently great 
lionor is attached to it. Should there be more than one of the 
enemy killed or taken prisoner, the person that gets the first scalp 
or takes the first prisoner is entitled to the first honor. 

\Mien the party returns home, the war budget is hung in front 
of the door of the person that carried it on the march against the 
enemy. It is sufiered to remain there thirty or forty days, and 
some one of the party goes every night and sings and dances 
where it hangs: particularly those., that have taken a prisoner or 

^^'hen the person that commanded the party thinks i:)roper, he 
assembles the party, and a feast is prepared by them for all the 
people of the village. They sing and dance all night. Those of 
the party that did the enemy most damage serves out the feast 
to the as5eml)ly. After this is over, the war budget is opened by 
the commander, and each person of the party takes out his cor- 
penyomer or war bag, and the party is dissolved. 


Every Indian family has one or more of the Sriins or images 
above mentioned, which is called in the ^vliamie language Corpe- 
nohor Corpenyomer. It is those instruments that they consider 
sacred, and accordingly worship them. They say when the Great 
•"Spirit formed them, that he placed those things in their posses- 
sion and told them if they would worship them that they would 
live to an immense age, and always remain happy; consequently, 
some one member of each respective family pays reverence to 
those divine images monthly. After singing all night such songs 
as he has been instructed to do on such occusions by his ances- 
tors, which may be called religious songs; he then ijrepares' a 
kettle of victuals and a few pipes of tobacco, and invites his 
neighbors to come and partake of what he has prepared for the 
occasion. When the compau}' has collected, he tells them the 
tause of his calling them together. The company then proceeds 
to eating, with a great deal of ceremony too tedious to mention. 
J-ach jjerson will throw a small piece of the \'ictuals in the fire 
before he j>uts any in his mouth. 

'I'here are but few Indians that will give an opinion respecting 
^ future state. They say that those things are only enquired after 
l^y fools and the white people. Some of them have told me that 


they believed there were two other worlds. One was mtended as 
the place of residence for the spirits of the good people on this 
earth; and the other for the spirits of those that w^re bad, and 
that the bad ones were always assisting the evil spirit to do ill, 
v.'hile the good ones resided with the good spirit, and remained 
in peace and quietness. 

I once asked a very distinguished chief what he supposed was 
necessary to constitute a good and a great man. He replied, 
that a good fother, a good husband, a good neighbor, a good 
warrior, and a lover of his nation, was all in his opinion that was 
necessary for a man to possess, to fulfil the expectations of the 
Great Spirit, \\ho placed us on this earth; though, the Indians 
generally appear to care but little about a future state. They are 
only anxious to live to an old age in this world. 


When an Indian dies, his relations black their faces and fast for 
a certain time, which time is regulated by the head of the family. 
When it is known that an Indian has died, the neighbors assem- 
ble and bury the dead, after which the heads of such families that 
are friendly disposed toward the deceased person and their sur- 
viving friends, take some article of clothing, and address the 
friends of the deceased in the following words: 

P'riends: We are sorry that it has pleased the Great Spirit to 
call one of your family from you, though this is not uncommon 
among us ])eople of this world. Our friend has only gone on the 
journey, a few days before us, which we shall all have to travel; 
we have therefore come to invite you to mourn no longer, and to 
cover the body of our departed friend. 

After this, they all return home. The articles of clothing are 
left and preserved for the person that may be adopted in place oi 
the deceased. 


When an Indian loses one of his relations, he believes that if 
his place is not filled by adoption, that more of his friends Avill die. 

If the deceased is a male, one of his most intimate male friends 
is chosen to fill the vacancy. If a female, one of her most inti- 
mate female friends is also chosen to fill the vacancy. If the 
deceased is a person of respectal)ility, it frequently hap[)ens that 




two persons are chosen to fill the vacancy. After everything is 
prepared, the person, or persons, to be adopted is sent for, when 
the ceremony begins. If the deceased was a warrior, the adop- 
tion is exhibited by the warriors of the village, who assemble at 
the house of the deceased. 

They commence by dancing the war-dance and singing the war- 
song in rotation. The warriors go through all the difterent ma- 
nojuvres that is customary when engaged with an enemy; after 
which, each one reports to the assembly the number of actions he 
has been in, and the number of scalps and prisoners he has taken. 

During the time the warriors are dancing, they occasionally give 
the same yells and repeat the same words they did when they 
were in battle. All the while there is a constant yelling kept up 
by the assembly. When a warrior has gone through such of his 
exploits as he thinks proper, he hands the war-club to some other 
warrior, and sits down. The other rises up and repeats as many 
of his war exploits as he thinks proper. In this way the dance 
is continued until each warrior of the villa2;e is called on to relate 
his war exploits. Some are called on two or three times during 
the dance. The assembly is then dismissed by the speaker of 
the friend of the deceased, telling them that the hearts of the 
relations of the dead are glad. 

The person or persons adopted sits among the relations of the 
deceased during the dance. After the dance is over, they are 
invited by their new relations to a private place, where they 
receive evervthincr that belongjed to the deceased, also the articles 
that were given by neighbors by way of a donation m adoption. 
They are then told that they are one of the family, and must con- 
sider themselves as such, and that they are entitled to the same 
authority and respect in the nation that the person was when 
living, whose place they fill. 

When a common man or woman or child dies, the adoption is 
exhibited by a few persons of both sexes, by playing at some 
favorite game of the deceased. If it was a man that died,- by 
shooting at a mark, running a foot-race, or some other game. If 
H woman, by playing some game she was fondest of 


When an Indian goes to the grave of his deceased friend or 
relation, he addresses himself to the grave, as though the corpse 
I'J it was living. He relates every misfortune that has happened 
• n the family since the death of the person whom he supposes he 


is speaking to; after which he leaves a piece of tobacco, some 
victuals, or spirituous Hquor. if he has any, and departs. 

The Indians are an indolent race of beings, consequently they 
are fond of any kind of amusement that will serve to pass away 
their time and make them merry. The\' are very fond of gam- 
bhng and dancing. They have a variety of games to play at, too 
tedious to mention, though the game at jNIoccasin is most gener- 
ally practised among them. They are remarkably honorable in 
their gambling debts, and will strip the shirt oft' their backs to 
pay a debt incurred by gambling. They also have a variety of 
dances. The morning dance commences in the evening and con- 
tinues until the following morning, at which time there is a feast 
prepared for the company. The outward dance is performed by 
a certain sect of Indians, which is supposed to possess super- | 

natural powers, so that they can destroy their neighbors property 
or life at any time they please, without being discovered by the 
person to whom the injury is done or any one else. All persons 
that enter this society are admitted with the" strictest ceremony. f 

It is common for each person who dances to have an otter skin. | 

The eldest members of the society place themselves in the mid- • 

die of the floor, and the dance is then opened by their singing I 

the songs of the society. A circle is instantly formed around | 

those that are singing, and each person has an otter skin in his | 

hand when he commences dancing. After a few minutes has { 

elapsed, some one of the company makes a noise hke an otter, | 

shakes his skin, and walks or dances around on the inside of the f 

circle. He then, with a sudden motion, points his skin at some ^ 

one of the comi)any, who screams out, and falls down as though ! 

he had been shot with a ball; in a few minutes he recovers, and | 

handles his skin in turn, pretending to laugh up the ball he was ; 

shot with, when it appears that the bullet is in his mouth; he 
then puts the nose of the otter skin to his mouth, when it is sup- 
posed that his peace is loaded; he then goes around the circle as 
before, and shoots at who he pleases. In this way, the dance is 
continued until the managers of the society think proper to break . 

it up. No member can quit the dance until the whole com})any | 

is dismissed. \ : ' \ 

The members of this society were formerly treated with great 
respect by their neighbors: button the contrary, they are at pres- . 

ent treated with as much disrepect as they formerly were respected. j 

The begging dance is generally performed by the young men 
and boys, who dress like warriors and go about through the vil- 
lages singing war songs. It is customary for the head of every 
family, whose house they dance at, to give them something. This 


is the dance that is generally performed when they visit a white 
person. There are a number of '■' ^^ * '^ 

the whites do, though they are not so tenacious of it as the 
whites. They are nuicli more hospitable to their friends, neigh- 
bors, and visitors than the whites. 

The Indians have little or no laws, no coercive power, nor any 
kind of government. Their most important combats are the 
internal sensation of right and wrong. When an Indian commits 
a crime which is not ]nmishable by death, he is treated with con- 
tempt and excluded from society. 

The Indians believe that thunder, lightning, and all other natu- 
ral disturbances of this world, are distinct and independent powers 
or beings, and consequently worship them accordingly. 

The Pow-wowers or Priests were formerly in high estimation 
amongst the Indians, as it was believed that they were the agents 
of the different great powers or spirits that govern the universe, 
and that they had power to kill or save, as they pleased. 

Those supposed inspired beings generally act as doctors, and 
it is not uncommon for them to extract a hair ball on the whisker 
of a bear, a wolf, or a panther, from the body or joint of their 
patients (or at least make them believe so). They go through 
the village early in the morning, preaching and telling the people 
what appears most advisable for them to employ themselves at 
during the day. Those Pow-wowers, Priests, or Doctors are not 
so much respected at present as they were formerly. 

The present mode of burying the dead among the Indians 
appears to have existed through all ages, tribes, and conditions. 
Some lay the dead body on the top of the earth and make a crib 
or pen over them with logs, and cover it with bark; others dig 
graves as white people do, they then lay the corpse in the grave, 
cover it with bark, and then all over with earth; others again will 
make a coffin out of strong boards, in which they will place the 
corpse, and hang it up in the top of a tree. It is customary for 
them to bury as much of the deceased's property with the dead 
body as can conveniently be placed in the grave or coffin with 
them. They frequently put a piece of bread or meat and a carrot 
of totjacco under the head of the person to be interred, as they 
believe they will be in need of some refreshment on their journey. 
They generally celebrate the death of a distinguished chief or 
'•varrior by drinking, feasting, dancing, and singing. 

The Indians are subject to all the different diseases that the 
^'hitcs are (the gout not excepted). 




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C H i C'A G O : 
I E R (; U S P R I N T I N G C O M P A N Y, 


//.!(!/ 1 .. 

Entered according to Act of Coni^^ress, in the year 18S4, by 

Fkrci/s ]'r!NI(.\<; Comi-anv, 
In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at ^Va.shington. 




Danville, Ija.., Nov. 5, 1883. 

My Dear Fergus: — Herewith is dte v.ind-up. The Introductory to the 
chapter on "Illinois and Indiana IndiaTis", also a foot-note on Judge Hall, to 
be put as marked. I could find no other place where I could place it with 
any propriety. It cost me more time aiid labor to chip it out than any other 
side-spur I have undertaken, I have one of the very few complete sets of his 
publications extant, which I have beea years in collecting, and they contain 
'"lots of good things." I revised and condensed the note two or three times 
and have, for brevity's sake, Sfjueezed everything out of it except dry facts. 
Yet I hope that even these may revive or keep in memory the debt Illinois 
and the West owe to Judge Hall. The statute of limitations has ran too long 
against him, John M. Peck, and a few others who might be named; while 
semi-annual dividends of praise have been regularly, often in advance, to 
much less deserving men. •■ 

The proof-sli[;s I return O. K.'d with corrections of my own and the adop- 
tion, with thanks, of tho^e queried by the proof-reader, whom I take to be 
your father. I v/ill be obli^;ed if you will lay away the proof-slips and page- 
proofs for me to have when I come up, which will be about the 21st instant, 
when 1 expect to remain two or three days. 

1 hope the work will now soon be out, and that you will get back more than 
your money and labor on the venture. I feel that the matter is as reliable 
as to facts, dates, names, places, etc., a.s painstaking research can well make 
it. Every statement has been compared and verified with all original authori- 
ties, as well as the several collators U}X>n the same subject that I could com- 
mand for reference. Nothing has been retained that would not bear these 
tests; and, as a sequence, many pleading fictions have been discarded. 
Should you ever subsoil in this field of inquiry, you will be amazed at the 
carelessness and the discrepancies, the prejudices, and the pure fancies of 
writers upon our aboriginal history that you will unearth on every hand, until, 
in the course of your investigations, you will come to doubt if much true 
hi.-:.tory is to be found for your pains at ]a.,t. Yours truly, 

H. W. Beckwith. 


The account given of the Indians, in the following chapters, is 
condensed from a volume prepared by the writer four years ago, 
with some new matter added in the revision. It is mostly the 
result of his gleanings over a wide field of antiquated books of 
travel and maps long since out of print, or copies of manuscript- 
correspondence of a private or official character, little of which 
is accessible to the general reader. 

Our knov/ledge of the aboriginal occupants of this country is 
fragmentary, at best. They kept no records and had no histori- 
ans. The little we know of them is to be found in the writings 
of persons who, if not their natural enemies, had little interest in 
doing them justice. As a rule, early travelers and observers have 
alluded to their capabilities, their manners and customs, only in 
an incidental way. We know but very little of the Indians who 
formerly occupied the territory between the Alleghanies and Mis- 
sissippi; and the litile information that has been preserved con- 
cerning them is so scattered through the volumes of authors who 
wfote from other motives, or at difterent dates, or of different 
nations, without taking thought to discriminate, that no satisfac- 
tory account of any particular tribe is now attainable. The best 
that may be done is to select such of these disjointed scraps as 
bear evidence of being the most reliable, and arrange them in 
something like chronological order. In his endeavor to do this, 
the writer has had no theories to bolster up or morbid sentiments 
to gratify. He has only quoted or condensed from authorities 
regarded as standard; and this without prejudice in favor of or 
against the people whose history he has attempted to briei^y give. 

The mental and physical training of the two races, their habits 
^nd purposes of life were so radically difterent that they could 
not peaceably occupy the sanie territory in common. Either the 
red hunter must quit the chase and give up his nomadic life, or 
the civilized white must degenenate into a savage. Hence the 
Indian, being the weaker party, gave away before the operations 
f>f an inexorable law, the severity of which could, at best, have 
been only tempered. It was but obeying a natural law, inherent 
in humanity everywhere, that he defended his country against the 
'-■licroachrnents of another race; and the strife between the two 


for its possession, funiishes material for many thrilling events con- 
nected with its history. 

In spite of whatever official injunctions to the contrary, the 
Indians were as systematically debauched with whisky, contami- 
nated with vices, and as persistently overreached by the servants 
of Count Frontenac, governor of New France, over two centu- 
ries ago, as they have been, from that time until now, by the 
agents and traders of every successive executive in charge, 
whether French or British, dictating at Quebec or New York, or 
American, directing from Washington City. And the complaints 
of the early Jesuit priests against these wrongs were as unavail- 
ing in correcting them as the protests of President Jefifersonj Gov. 
Harrison, Gen. Cass, Judge Hall.''' and other good-minded men 

■' The writer feels it a duty to recur to the obligation tlie West, and partic- 
ularly Illinois, owes to the memory of the late Judge James Hall, the pioneer 
of our early literature, who was born at Philadelphia, Penn., Aug. 19, 1793; 
served in the war of 1S12, on the Niagara frontier; was with Com. Stephen 
Decatur in the expedition against Algiers in 1815; resuming his law studies 
at Pittsburg in iSiS; and in 1S20, located at Shawneetown, 111., and began 
to practise, Ihe next year, he was made States attorney for the judicial cir- 
cuit, embracing some ten counties in Southeastern Illinois. This section \vas 
at that time overrun with horse-thieves, slave-stealers, counterfeiters, and des- 
peradoes, many of whom had fled hither from other States to escape punish- 
ment for their crimes. ]Iy their numbers and organized bold actions, they set 
all law at defiance, and terrorized over honest citizens. Mr. llall, aided by 
the lawrabiding, prosecuted these criminals with such unrelenting vigor thcit 
lie broke up their gangs, aivl restored secuiity to life and property. In 1S25, 
he was elected judge of the same circuit — hence the prefix to his name. iht 
honor was all the more creditable to his abilities and moral wortli, when it is 
remembered that the legislature (of 1824-5) conferring it, was largely "anti- 
convention", while he was classed with the "convention-party", as'those were 
designated who had favored the call of a convention to so amend the consti- 
tution as to convert Illinois into a slave-state. [F/^/f- "Ford's History ot 
Illinois."] His term was short; for' the next legislative session of 1826-7, 
repealed the law creating the office and turned out all of the judges holding 
commi-ssions under it. Within the next two or three years, he removed to 
Vandalia, then the State capital, where he early associated with Robt. JMack- 
well, State-printer, in i^ubli.ihing '/'he •lUiiiois Intellit^cnier. The legislatuie 
of 1830-I elected him State treasurer. In the meantime, he and Mr. J>Iack- 
wcU arranged to bring out "The Illinois Monthly Magazine", it being tlie 
first attempt at i)eri(jdical literature in the State. 

Judge Hall's rejnitalion as a writer was already established. Beginning in 
1820, many of his contributions, (k-,criptive of the West and its people, 


in later limes. Tlie chronic "Indian Question" is no nearer a 
settlement now than it was in colonial days, and it never will be 
until either the unfortunate subjects of it are all dead, or we shall 
have abandoned the prolonged attempt to reconcile the indul- 
gences of a remorseless greed with the ways of justice and 

The remnants of tribes, who formerly owned the country east 
of the Missouri, were sent beyond that river to live, mostly, by 
hunting in competition with other natives in regions where game 
had already become scarce. The lapse of time has neutralized 

appeared in "The Portfolio", a monthly, conducted by his brother, John E. 
Hall, at Philadelphia, from which they were copied by papers in America and 
England, and received a wide circulation. A residence, afterward, of several 
years in the country described, so enlarged his opportunities that, to a num- 
ber of the original articles was added much new matter, and the whole was 
published in 1828 in London, England, in a volume entitled " Letters from 
the West. Containing Sketches of Scenery, Manners, Customs, and Anec- 
dotes connected with the Eirst Settlements of the Western Sections of the 
United States ", etc. 

The first number of the "Illinois Magazine " appeared for October, 1830. 
It run for two years. The second volume was published in part at St. Louis 
and part at Cincinnati; owing to the difficulty of getting material and labor 
at Vandalia, which, at that time, stood on the verge of a primitive popula- 
tion, isolated from the literary world, and not possessing even the conven- 
iences of country-roads that were passable for more than a few months during 
the year. Commencing with January, 1833, Judge Hall resumed his periodi" 
cal at Cincinnati under the name of "The Western Monthly Magazine; a 
Continuation of the Illinois Monthly Magazine", remaining with it here for 
three years. In 1833, he went to Cincinnati and resided thereuntil his death, 
July 5, 1868. His other principal literary labors are as follows: "Legends 
of the West", 1832; second edition the next year; "The Soldier's Bride", 
^^33', "The Harp's Head, a Legend of Kentucky", 1833; "Tales of the 
Border", 1835; "Sketches of History, Life, and ^Lanners in the West", 1835; 
** Statistics of the West", etc., 1836. This last was reissued in 1838 (from 
the same plates, with a few pages of addenda relating to steamboat naviga- 
tion), under the better title of "Notes on the Western States. Containing 
Descriptive Sketches of their Soil, Climate, Resources, and Scenery"; sub- 
^tantially the same matter appeared in 1848; under the name of "The West; 
its Commerce and Navigation"; " Romance of Western History", 1857; re- 
published in 1871, by Rol>ert Clarke & Co., Cincinnati, O., with fine portrait 
of author; "The Wilderness and the War-Path", 1845; republi.^hed in Lon- 
don in 1846. The last two run into previous volumes, embracing much of 
f-he same matter; while the whole are largely made up of papers drawn from 


the bitterness of the conquest that ended with their final removal | 

from our midst; so that now we ought to accord tliem the even- f 

handed justice to which they are historically entitled. 

When attainable, the writer has preserved the aboriginal names 
of lakes, rivers, Indian villages, and other historical localities 
coming within range of the subjects treated. In the choice of 
material he has also endeavored to make such selections as uill 
best serve the double purpose of sketches of the several tribes 
named, and illustrate characteristics common to them all. 

H. W. Beckwith. 

Danville, III., November, 1883. . | 

"The Letters from the West", "The Illinois Monthly ^^agazine", and it> 
continuation, where many of the ori^^anals may be found, or the germs can be 
traced from which elaborations were subsequently made. The whole, aside 
from their acknowledged literary merits, possess great historical value, as they 
present while they preserve a faithful picture of the early West. 

Besides the above, in 1836, he published a life of Oov. Wm. H. Harnson, 
whicli, for perspicuity, fidelity, and elegance of diction, is the best of the 
many that have appeared. In 1848, lie prepared a ''Memoir of Thos. Poj-ey, 
Major-General and Governor of Indiana", published in "Sparks' American 
Biographical Series". He also wrote the " History of the Indian Tribes of 
North America", aided by Col. Thomas L. McKenney of the Indian Depart- 
ment; published 1S3S-44 and 1858, in three large volumes, with 120 Indian 
portraits, taken mainly from the Indian Gallery, formerly in the Department 
of War at Washington. Judge Hall early became identified with our State, and 
aided its material and intellectual progress with all the warmth of his ardent 
nature. His pen was busy in praise of its climate, its soil, and its capabili- 
ties; and prompt and trenchent in defence of the sterling traits of its pioneer 
people, by whose successors he ought to be remembered. The writer has 
collated this note, mainly from the above volumes, in his library with such 
other scraps of information as he could gather elsewhere. The biographical 
sketch in the American Cyclopedia, to which the writer is likewise indebted, 
is in error as to the date of publication of the "Letters from the West", as 
well, also, in alleging the existence of a "uniform edition of Judge Hail - 
works"; and is defective in that it omits his "Sketches of the West" (the two 
volumes possessing more historical value than any of the others), and make- 
no mention of "The Illinois Monthly Magazine" and its continuation, which, 
with the "Letters from the West", are measurably the fountains of them all. 

His writings, except, perhaps, "The Romance of Western History", and a 
reprint of "The Legends of the West", by Robert Clarke & Co. of Cincin- 
nati, in 1 87 1 and 1874, respectively, are long since out of print. Many of 
them are quite rare, and appear only at long intervals in the catalogues of 
dealers in "Americana". 







h\' HIRx\:\I \V. BECKWITH, Danville, III. 



'^PHE several Indian tribes, which from time to time occupied 
X parts of Illinois, so for as we have written accounts of them, 
were the Miamis, Illinois, Winnebagos, Sacs and Foxes, Kicka- 
poos, Pottawatomies, and, at short intervals, the Winnebagoes 
and Shawnees. They, with the exception of the Winnebagoes, 
who were of the Dakota or vSioux stock, were classed among 
the Algon(}uin-Lenape nations on account of the similarity of 
their dialects and to distinguisli them from the Iroquois tribes on 
the east, the Choctaws,- Cherokees, Chickasaws, and others south 
of the Ohio River, and the Dakotas west of the Mississippi. The 
different tribes living in Illinois will be referred to in the order of 
priority of time in which written accounts refer to their respective 

The Illinois Indians were composed of five subdivisions: Kas- 
kaskias. Cnhokias, lamaroas, Peorias, and Afetchigamis, tlie last 
being a foreign tribe residing west of the Mississippi River, who 
being reduced to small numbers by wars with their ncigiibors, 
abandoned their former hunting-grounds and became incorporated 
with the Illinois. The first historical mention of this tribe is 
found in the ''Jesuit Relations for the year i67o--i,'"' prepared by 
Father Claude Dablon, from the letters of priests stationed at 
LaPointe on the southwest of Lake Superior.t At this place, 

* A more detailed account of these tribes, together with a narration of tl'eir 
manners, customs, and implements (illustrated) will he found in Ueckwith's 
"Historic Notes ..n the Northwest." 

+ " The poiyU'''' of land extending; out into Lake Superior and beyond vvhich 
'tre the Apostle Islands, so named by the early Jesuits, because there arc or 
v.ere twelve of them in number. The construction of the mission chapel of 
the "Holy Ghost" was begun at the Pointe by Father Claudius AUouez in 
i^j65; and ihe place was afterward known by the Jesuits as "Lapoint du Saint 

^,.j4/* wfc".-,- V 


prior to 1670, the French had a trading-post, to v/liich the Indians 
came for many miles, to barter their peltries for knives, hatchets, 
kettles, guns, ammunition, clothes, ]\aints, trin.kets, and other 
articles of European manufacture; and as the Indians that first 
came to LaPointe from the south called themselves Illinois, the 
French called them ever afterward by this name. Father iJabion 
states in the "Relations for the year 1670'': "As we have given 
the name of Ottawas to all the savages of these countries, although 
of different nations, because the first who, have appeared among 
the French were Ottawas, so also it is with the name Illinois, 
very numerous, and dwelling toward tlie soutli, because the first 
who came to the Pointe of the Holy Ghost for commerce, called 
themselves Illinois." In the Jesuit Relations and in the writings 
of other French authors, ihe name Illinois is variously spelled as 
"Illi-mouek", "Ill-i-no-u-es", "Ill-i-ne-wek", "AlHni-wek", and "Lin- 
i-wek". The terminations o/^cs, wek^ ois, and oi/ck were almost 
identical in pronunciation. I^ewis Evans, the great geographer in 
colonial days, spelled the name Will-i-nis. Major Tliomas For- 
syth, for many years trader and Indian-agent in the Illinois Terri- 
tory, and stationed at the then French village of Peoria, says the 
"Illinois confederation call themselves Linni-wek, and by others 
they were called ]\Iin-ne-way." Father James Marquette, who, 
with Louis Joliet, came up the Illinois River in 1673, and Father 
Louis Llennepin, who descended the same stream in 1679, and 
both coming in direct contact with the natives dwelling upon the 
borders of its waters, giving them opportunities of knowing where- 
of they wrote, in their journals of their respective voyages spell 
the name Illinois."^ Father Marcpiette, as well as Father Mt^nne- 
pin, give in their journals the signification that the Illinois Indians 
gave to their name. The former in his narrative journal observes: 
*'To say Illinois is, in their language, to say 'the men', as if other 
Indians compared to them were mere beasts.^' "The word Illi- 
nois," says Father Hennepin, "signifies a man of full age in the 
vigor of his strength. This word Illinois comes, as has already 
been observed, from Illini, which in that language signifies a 

Esprit" [ihe point of tlie Holy G"]. I'y ilie Algonq-ain tribes ami the 
ungodly far-traclers, who seriously interfered with the j;ood father'> mission 
work, the locality was called " Che-yrii-me-gon ", or [the ])Iace ofj " 7'7ie Sa/it/v 
Point''\ which, as is usual with aborir^'inal names, is hiyhly descriprive, an^l 
characterizes its [)hysical features in contrast with prevailing rugyed shores ot 
Lake Superior. Upon this tongue of land, in modern atlases, is shown the 
City of Bayfield, county-seat of Bayfield County, Wisconsin. 
* Pronounced Ill-i-noi, the terminal s being silent. 


perfect and accomplished man/' Originally the word lUinewek, or 
Linnewek, had only a general meaning, and was a word used boast- 
ingly by other tribes of the great Algonquin family when speaking 
of themselves. The Delawares, considered the oldest branch ot 
this fomily, called themselves " 'Lenno-Lenape', which," says 
Albert Gallatin, in his synopsis of Indians tribes of North 
America, ''means original or 'unmixed men"; perhaps, originally, 
'manly men ".'" In the Delaware language Leniio means a man and 
Nape means a-male. Again, the tribes that occupiec] the country 
about the southern extrenvity of Hudson Bay, and who belonged 
to this same family of aboriginals, says Dr. Robertson: "call 
themselves, as many other Indian tribes do, 'men', ' E-ii/i-ui-yook\ 
or 'In-ir-i-wrik', prefixing occasionally the name of their especial 
tribes. Thus the true name of the 'Mon-so-nies' or Swamip 
Indians vvho inhabited isFoose. River is 'AIon-so-a-Eith-yu-yook\ 
or 'Moose-deer-men'."' Later, and, as it were, by the uniform 
concurrence of nearly all writers, when referring to the original- 
occupants of this country, the name Ilbi-mouek, 111-i-ne-wek, Len- 
i-wek, and lU-i-ni was applied only to the Illinois Confederation. 

From the earliest accounts we have, the principal stream of 
ibis State was called "The River of the Illinois"; and a wide 
region of country, lying north of the mouth of the Ohio and upon 
l)oth sides of the Mississippi, was called "The Country of the 
llhno's", and "The Illinois". These designations appear in the 
records and ofhcial letters under the administrations and owner- 
ship of this region under both the French and Spanish Govern- 
ments. For example, letters, deeds, and other official documents 
bore date at "Kaskaskia of the Illinois", "St. Louis of the Illi- 
nois'', "Chicago of the Illinois", "Vincennes of the Illinois", etc. 

^\ hile the Revolutionary war was in progress. Gen. Geo. Rogers 
Clark of A^irginia (though a resident of Kentucky, which was 
then a county of that colony) wrested the territory, now em- 
!>raced within the States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and 
"\^'isconsin, from the pjritish (iovernment. Afterward and in the 
spring of 1779, Col. John Todd, commissioned by Virginia as its 
lieutenant, went to Vincennes and Kaskaskia and organized (ren. 
<- lark's conr[uest into a county of Virginia, to which was given 
'he name of "Illinois County". Later this domain becanie the 
property, by cession of the several states claiming interest, of 
ihe United States. On tlie 4th of July, 1801, the Act of Con- 
L'rcss for the division of the Northwest Territory went into cflect, 
'»>■ the terms of which all that part lying to the westward of the 
■*^'est boundary line of the State of Ohio was constituted a sepa- 
'■"ite territory, under name of "Indiana Territory", and so rem.ained 






;> V 






until Avhen by Act of Congress, February 3, 1S09, all that part t 

of it lying west of the Wabash River, and a line drawn due nortli ' ■ 
from Vincennes to the British possessions, was organized into a 

separate territory, to be called the "Illinois Territory". Still later, ^ 

October 5, 1818, was passed an Act for the admission of the , 
lUinois Territory as a state into the Federal Union, to be desig- 
nated as the "Srate of Illinois". Such, agreeably to approved 

authorities, is the origin of the word Illinois; and such are the "^ 

various uses it has served. A great State perpetuates the name, ^ 

in memory of a populous and powerful race of redmen, once * 

living in its borders, but now utterly perished from the earth. .__ i 

From all accounts, it seems the Illinois Confederation claimed ^ 

the extensive county bounded on the east by the ridge that divides I 

the waters flowing into the Illinois from the streams that drain 1 

into the Wabash, between the headwaters of Saline Creek and a f 

point as far north on the Illinois as the Desplaines, reachmg still | 

northward to the debatable ground between themselves, the ^Vin- . '; 

nebagoes, the Sacs and Foxes, and the Kickapoos; and extending | 

westward of the Mississippi. Their favorite and most populous * 
villages were upon the Illinois and its two principal branches, the 
Desplaines and the Kankakee. 

The area of the original country of the Illinois was soon reduced % 

by continuous wars with their neighbors. The Sioux (Da-ko-ta) ^ 

pressed them from the west; the Sacs and Foxes and Kicka})oos, | 

confederates, encroached upon their territory from the north; ^ 

while war parties of the fierce Iroquois, coming from the east, | 
rapidly decimated their numbers. These destructive influences 

were doing their fatal work, and the power of the Illinois was ; 

waninsr when thev first came in contact with the French. Their ^ 

sufterings rendered them pliable to the voice of the missionar}'; v 

and, in their weakness, they hailed with delight the coming of tlie | 

Frenchmen, with his promise of protection assured with gifts of ^ 

guns and powder. The Illinois drew so kindly to the priests, tlie I 
coureiu's des bois. and soldiers that the friendship between the two 

races never abated; and when, in the order of events, the sons oi | 
France had departed from Illinois, the love of the nati\-es for the 

departed (jaul was handed down as a precious memory to their j 

children. I 

The military establishments a-t- Detroit, Mich., and at Starved | 

Rock, III.,-' for a while checked the incursions of the Irocpaois | 

* Under his letters patent, j^ranted by the king of France to the seigniory 
of "The Country of tiie Illinois," LaSalle [so called after the name of the 

landed estate, near Rouen, France, belonging to his family, but whose primal | 


and. stayed the calamity that was to befall the Illinois. We give 
a condensed account of some of these campaigns of the Iroquois 
into the Illinois country, as embraced in extracts which are 
taken from a ^Memoir on Western Indians, by JNI. DuChesneau, 
Intendent of Canada, and successor to Jean Tallon, dated at 
Quebec, September 13, 1681: "To convey a correct idea,'' says 
this French ofticer, ''of the present state of all those Indian 
nations it is necessary to explain the cause of the cruel war waged 
by the Iroquois for these three years past against the Illinois^ 
The former are great warriors, can not remain idle, and ])retend 
to subject all other nations to themselves, and never want a pre- 
text for commencing hostilities. 71ie following is tlieir assumed 
excuse for the present war: going about twenty years ago to 
attack the Foxes, they met the Illinois, and killed a considerable 
number of them. This continued during the succeeding years, 
and finally having destroyed a great many, they forced tiiem to 
abandon their country and seek refuge in very distant parts. The 
Iroquois, having got rid of the Illinois, took no more trouble with 
them, but went to war against another nation called the 'An-dos- 
tagues," [the Fries or Cats, so-called, and who were entirely des- 
troyed by the Iroquois]. Pending this war, the lUinois returned 
to their country, and the Iroquois complained that they had killed 
forty of their people while on their way to hunt beaver in the 
Illinois country. To obtain satisfaction, the Iroquois resolved 
to make war upon them. Their true motive, however, was to 
gratify the British at ' Ma-nat-te " [New York] and 'Orange' 
[Albany], of whom they are too near neighbors, and who, by 
means of presents, engaged the Iroquois in this expedition, the 
object of which was to force the Illinois to bring their beaver to 
them, so that they may go and trade it afterward to the British; 
also to intimidate the other Indians, and constrain them to do the 
same thing. 

name was Rene — Robert Cavelire] erected a fort and trading-post on the 
eminence of this rocky height, situated on the south side of, and overlooking, 
the Illinois River, some eight miles below Ottawa. The fort was called "P'ort 
St. Louis", in honor of his i)atron Lofiis Il\ and the place Le Rocker [the 
Rock]. The now generally rt:ceivcd name of "Starved Rock" is derived from 
an alleged starving to death of a party oil. Indians corraled there L>y a remorse- 
less enemy of besiegers. The occurrence is witiiout authority to support it, 
other than several vague (though charming) traditions drawn from the "won- 
der-stories" of as many diff.-rent tribes. One of the most interesting of these, 
both in matter and the manner of treating it, is preserved in a paper on "The 
Last of the Illinois," from the aljle pen of Hon. Judge Caton, and published 
in Number Three of LKRfus' HisTOKiCAL Skriks, 



••The improper conduct of Sieiir de LaSalle, governor of Ft. 
Frontenac, has contributed considerably to cause the latter to 
adopt this proceeding; for after he had obtained perrnissio]i to 
discover the great river Mississippi, and had, as he alleged, the 
grant of the [country of the] Illinois, he no longer observed any 
terms with the Iroquois, and avowed that he would convey arms 
and ammunition to the Illinois, and would die assisting them."' 
We break the thread of Chesneau's official letter to say to the 
reader that it must be remembered that LaSalle was not exempt 
from the attacks of that jealousy and envy which is inspired ii 
the souls of little men toward those who plan and execute great 
undertakings. AVe see this spirit manifested in this letter. La 
Salle could not have done otherwise than supply tire-arms to the 
Illinois Indians; they were his friends and the owners of the 
country, the trade of which he had opened up at great hardship 
and expense to himself. 

Proceeding with Chesneau's letter: "The Iroquois despatched 
in the month of April, of last year, an army consisting of between 
h\c and six hundred men, who approached an Illinois village 
[near the present site of Utica, LaSalle Co., 111.], where Sieur 
Henry de Tonty, LdSalle's principal officer, happened to be with 
some Frenchmen and two Recollect Fathers [the catholic priests, 
Fathers Gabriel Ribourde and Zenobe jNIembre, whom the Iro- 
quois left unharmed]. One of these, a most holy man [Father 
Ribourde] has since been killed by the Indians. But they would 
listen to no terms of peace pro])osed to them by I'onty, who was 
slightly wounded at the beginning of the attack; the Illinois, 
having fled a hundred leagues, were ])ursued by the Iroquois, who 
killed and captured as many as twelve hundred of them, includ- 
ing women and children, having lost only thirty men.'-' The victory 
achieved by the Iroquois rendered them so insolent that they 
have continued ever since that time to send out divers war parties. 
The success of the last is not yet known, but it is not doubted 
they have been successful, because they are very warlike, while 
the Illinois arc but indifferently so. Indeed, there is no doubt, 
and it is the universal opinion, that if the Iroquois are allowed to 
proceed, they will subdue the Illinois, and in a sliort time render 
themselves masters of all the Ottawa tribes, and direct the trade 
to the British, so that it is absolutely essential to make them our 
friends or to destroy them." 

'Lhe building of Fort St. Louis upon the heights of Starxed 
Rock by LaSalle, in 1682, gave confidence to the Illinois and 

* In this foray, the Iroquois drovi- the fugitive Illinois l)eyond the ^Mssi.ssippi. 


their scattered remnants who had again returned to their flivorite 
village. They "were followed by bands of V.'eas, Pi-an-ke-shas, 
and ^li-am-ies, near kinsmen of the Illinois, and by the ShaA-- 
nees and other tribes of remoter affinity ; and soon a cordon of 
populous towns arose about the fort. The military forces of 
these villages at the colony of LaSalle, in 16S4. was estimated 
at three thousand six hundred and eighty fighting men, the Illinois 
furnishing more than one-third of this number. Thus were the 
Iroquois barred out of the country of the Illinois, who, for a season, 
enjoyed a respite from their old enemies. The abandonment of 
Fort St. Louis as a military post, in 1702, was followed by a dis- 
persion of the tribes and fragments of tribes, except at the Illinois 
village, where a straggling population retained possession. The 
Kaskaskias learning, in the year 1700, that France was making a 
military establishment and colony near the mouth of the Missis- 
sippi, started tliither. They w-ere intercepted on the way, and 
persuaded to halt above the mouth of the Ohio, and soon there- 
after made themselves a permanent home on the banks of a stream 
which since then has borne their name, the Kaskaskia. 

The Iroquois came no more, having war enough on their hands 
nearer home; but the Illinois were constantly harrassed by other 
enemies, the Sacs and Foxes, the Kickapoos, and the Pottawato- 
mies. Their villages at Starved Rock and at Peoria Lake were 
besieged by the Foxes in 1722, and a detachment of a hundred 
men, commanded by Chevalier de Artaguiette and Sieur de Tisnc, 
was sent from Fort Chartres to their assistance. The Foxes ha\- 
ing lost more than a hundred of their men, abandoned the siege 
before the reinforcements arri\ed. "'This success [says Charle- 
voix, the great French historian] did not, however, prevent the 
Illinois, although they had lost only twenty men, with some 
women and children, from leaving the Rock and Pim-i-toey 
[Peoria Lake] where the\- were kept in constant alarm, and to 
proceeding to unite with those of their brethren [the Kaskaskias] 
who had settled upon the Mississippi. This was a stroke of 
grace for most of them, the small number of missionaries prevent- 
ing their supplying so many towns scattered far apart; but, on 
the other side, as there was nothing to check the raids of the 
Foxes along the Illinois River, communication between Louisiaria 
and New France [Canada] becamemuch less pjracticable." 

The next fifteen years show a further decline in their numbers. 
In an enumeration of the Indian tribes connected with the dov- 
ernment of Canada, prepared in the year 1736, the name, loca- 
tion, and number of fighting-men of the Illinois are set down as 
follows: "Mitchigamias, near Fort Chartres, two hundred and 


iifty ; Kaskaskies, six leagues below, one hundred ; Peorias, 
and the Rock, fifty: the Cahokias and Tamarois, two hun- 
dred:"" making a total of six hundred warriors. The kDlincr 
of Pontiac, some thirty years later, at Cahokia, whither he had 
retired after the failure of his bold efforts to rescue tlie counny 
from the British, was laid upon the Illinois, a charge which, 
whether true or false, hastened their destruction. In an ofticial 
letter to the secretary of war, of date March 22, 1814, Geu. Wni. 
H. Harrison says, "When I was first appointed go\ernor of the 
Indiana Territory [May, iSoo], tJiese once powerful tribes v/ere 
reduced to about thirty warriors, of whom twenty-fi\e were Kas- 
kaskias, four Peorias, and a single MitcJiigamian. A furious war 
between them and the Sacs and Kickapoos reduced them to that 
miserable remnant wliich had taken refuge among the white peo- 
ple in the towns of Kaskaskia and St. Genieve." Since iSoo, b\' 
successive treaties, they ceded their lands to the United States. 
and were remo\ ed to reservations, lying southwest of Kansas 
City, where, in 1S72, they had dwindled to forty persons — men, 
women, and children, all told. 

Thus have v/asted away the original occupants of the larger 
part of Illinois, and ]jortions of Iowa and \Iissouri. In their 
single village near Starved Rock, says Father Membre', who was 
there in 1680, '"there were seven or eight thousand souls;"' and, 
in 1684, their warriors were set down at twelve hundred. In the 
days of their power, they nearly exterminated the Win-ne-ba-goes. 
Their war-parties ])enetrated the towns of the Iroquois in the 
valleys of the Mohawk and the Genesee. They took the ^Nlitchi- 
gamies under their ])rotection, giving them security against ene- 
mies with v/honi the\' were unable to contend. They assisted 
the French in their wars against the Cherokees and the Chicka- 
saws; and in the bitter struggle between the American colonies 
and the mother country on the one side, and Canada and France 
on the other, the Illinois tribes gave bountifully of their braves. 
who fought heroicly and to the last in the loosing cause of their 
leather 0-ni-to [tlie king], across the great' water. 

This peoj>le who had dominated over surrounding tribes, claim- 
ing for themselves the name of lUini or LinnevNay, to distinguish. 
their superior manhood, have disappeared from the earth; another 
race, representing a higher civiiii^ation. occupy tlieir former do- 
mains; and, already, e\en the origin of their name and the places 
of their villages have become the subjects of antic piaiian research. 



THE people known to us as the Miamis formerly li\'ed beyond 
the ]\lissis5ippi. Their migration from thence eastward 
through Wisconsin, Northern Illinois, around the southern bend 
of Lake Michigan to ])etro!t, thence up the Maumee, and down 
the ^^'abash, and eastward through Indiana into Ohio, as far as 
the Great ^liami, can be followed through the writings of officers, 
missionaries, and travelers connected with the French. Referring 
to the mixed village of Mascoutins and others upon Fox River, 
near its mouth, in Wisconsin, Father Claude Dal)lon, who was 
there in 1670, says the village "is joined in the circle of the same 
barriers of another people named Ou-mi-a-mi, which is one of the 
Illinois nations, which is, as it were, dismembered from the others, 
in order to dwell in these quarters."' "It is beyond this great 
river [the ^Mississippi, of which the father had been speaking m 
the paragrajjih preceding that quoted] that are placed the Illinois 
of whom we speak, and from whom are detached tliose who dv\-ell 
here with the Five Nations [Mascoutins, or Kickapoos] to form 
here a transplanted colony."' 

From these quotations, there remains little doubt but that the 
Miamis were a branch of the great Ill-i-ni. This theory is not 
only declared by all French authorities, but is sustained by many 
British and American writers, among tJie latter of whom may be 
named Gen. Wm. EI. Harrison, whose long acqua.mtance and 
ofiicial relations with the Northwestern Indians, especially the sev- 
eral sub-divisions of the Miami and Illinois tribes, gave him 
opportunities of which he availed himself to acquire an intimate 
knowledge concerning them. He says, "Although the language, 
manners, and customs of tiie Kaskaskias make it sufficiently cer- 
tain that they derive tlieir origin from the same source witii the 
Miamis; the connection had been dissolved before the French 
had penetrated from Canada to the Mississippi."' This assertion 
of Cien. Harrison that the tribal relations between the Illinois and 
Miamis had been broken prior to the exploration of the Missis- 
sippi Valley is sustained v»ith great unanimity by all other authori- 
ties, and is illustrated in the long and disastrous wars waged upon 
the Illinois by the Iroquois, Sacs and Foxes, Kickapoos, and other 
enemies, in which there is no instance given where the Miamis 
ever offered assistance to their ancient kinsmen; on the contrary, 
they often lifted the bloody hatchet against them. 

The Miami confederation was subdivided into four principal 
l^ands, since known under the name of Miamis, Eel-Rivers, Weas, 


and Piankeshaws. French writers, and some of the colonial 
traders, have given names of two or three other subdivisions ot 
the bands named; their identity, however, can not be cleady 
traced, and they figure so little in the accounts vrhich we have of 
the Miamis that it is not necessary to specify tlieir obsolete names. 
The ]Miamis, proper, have by different writers been called '"Ou- 
mi-a-mi", '^Ou-mi-am-wek", "Mau-mees", "Au-mi-am-i"' (which 
has been contracted to Au-mi and to "O-mee"), and "Min-e- 
am-i". The "Weas, whose name more properly is "We-we-hah", 
is called "Sy-a-ta-nous"', "Oui-at-a-nons"', and "Ou-i-as" by tlie 
French, and in whose orthography the "8y" and "Ou" are equiv- 
alent in sound nearly to the letter of the English W. The British 
and colonial officers and traders spelled die word "Oui-ca-ta-non" , 
" Way-ough-ta-nies"\ " Waw i-ach-tens", and "We-hahs"'. The 
name Piankeshaws, in early accounts, figure as "Pou-an-ke-ki-as'", 
*'Pe-an-gui-chias"', ''Pi-an-gui-shaws", "Py-an-ke-shaws", and "Pi- 
an-qui-shaws". The Miami tribes were known to the Iroquois of 
New York as the Twigh-twees, a name generally used by the 
British as well as by the American colonists when referring to any 
of the Miami tribes. 

In the year 1OS4, at LaSalle's Colony, at Starved Rock, the 
Miamis had populous villages, where the Miamis, proper, counted 
thirteen hundred warriors, the Weas five hundred, and the Pian- 
keshaw band one hundred and fifty. At a later day, 1718, the 
Weas had a village '"at Chicago, but, being afraid of the canoe- 
pcople [the Chi[)peways and Pottawatomies], left it, and passing 
around the head of Lake Michigan to be nearer their brethren 
farther to the east." Father Charlevoix, writing from this vicinity, 
in 1 72 1, says: "Fifty years ago, the Miamis [/. c. the Wea band] 
were settled on the southern extremity of Lake Michigan, in a 
place called Chicago^ from the name of a small river which runs 
into the lake, the source of which is not far distant from that of 
the river of the Illinois [meaning the Desplaines, which is the 
name by which it was often called in French authorities]. Hiey 
are at present divided into three villages, one of which stands on 
River St. Joseph, the second on another river [the Maumee] which 
bears their name and runs into Lake Erie, and a third upon the 
River Ouabache, which empties its waters into the Mississij)pi. 
The last are better known by tlie^appellation of Ouyatanons.'"'" In 
1694, the governor of New France, in a conference with the 
W^estern Indians, requested the Miamis of the Pe-pe-ko-kia band 
who resided upon the Afararnek [Kalamazoo River, in Michigan] 
to remove and join their tribe located on the St. Joseph of Lake 
Michigan; the governor giving it as his reason that he wished the 


several Miami bands to unite, "so as to be able to execute with 
greater facility the commands which he might issue/"' At that 
time the Iroquois were making war upon Canada, and the French 
were trying to induce the western tribes to take up the tomahawk 
in their behalf, The Miamis promised to comply with the gov- 
ernors wishes; and "late in August, 1696, they started to join 
their brethren on the St. Joseph. On their way they were attacked 
by the Sioux, and lost several men. The Miamis of the St. Joseph 
learning this hostility, resolved to avenge their slaughter. They 
pursued the Sioux to their own country, and found them entrenched 
in a fort with some I'Venchnjen of the class known as courcurs des 
bois [bush-iopers.] They nevertheless attacked them repeatedly, 
but were repulsed and were compelled to retire after losing several 
of their braves. On their way home, meeting other Frenchmen 
carrying arms and ammunition to the Sioux, they seized all they 
had, but did them no harm.'' 

The Miamis were greatly enraged with the French for supply- 
ing the Sioux with fire-arms. It took all the address of Gov. 
Frontenac to persuade them from joining the Iroquois. Indeed, 
they seized Nicolas Perrot, the F'rench trader, who had been com- 
missioned to lead the Maramek band to the River St. Joseph, and 
would have burned him alive had it not been for the intercession 
of the Foxes in his belialf This was the beginning of an aliena- 
ti m of kindly feeling of the Miamis toward the French, which 
was never restored; and from this period, the movements of the 
tribe were observed by the French with jealous suspicion. 

The country of the Miamis extended west to the watershed 
between the Illinois and Wabash Rivers, which separated their 
possessions from those of their brethren, the Illinois. On the 
north were the Pottawatomies, who were slowly but persistently 
pushing their line southward through Wisconsin and around the 
west shore of Lake Michigan, as we shall see when coming to 
treat of them in a subsecjuent chai)ter. 

Unlike the Illinois, the Miamis held their own until ])Iaced on 
an equal footing with tribes eastward of them, by obtaining pos- 
session of fire-arms. Their superior numbers and bravery enabled 
them to extend the limits of their hunting-grounds eastward into 
r)hio, far v/ithin the territory claimed by the Iroquois; and says 
(iov, HaiTison, they "were the undoubted proprietors of all that 
beautiful country watered by the" Wabash and its tributaries, and 
there remains as little doubt that their claim extended as far east 
as the Scioto." With implements of civilized warfare in their 
hands, they maintaijied their tribal integrity and independence; 
and th.ey traded with and fought against the French, British, and 


Americans by turns, as their interests or passions inclined; and 
made ])eace with or declared war against other nations of their 
own race as policy or caprice moved them. More than once they 
compelled the arrogant Iroquois to beg from the governors of the 
American colonies that protection which they themselves had 
failed to secure b}^ their own prowess. Bold, independent, and 
flushed with success, the Miamis aftbrded a poor field for mission- 
ary work, and the Jesuit Relations and pastoral letters of the 
French priesthood have less to say of the Miamis than of any 
other westward tril^e, the Kickapoos alone excepted. Referring 
to their military powers. Gen. Harrison says of them that, "saving 
the ten years preceding the Treaty of Greenville [1705!, the 
Miamis alone could have brought more than three thousand war- 
riors in the field : that they composed a body of the finest light 
troops in the world, and had they been under an efficient system 
of discipline, or possessed enterprise equal to their valor, the 
settlement of the country would have been attended with much 
more difficulty than was encountered in accomplishing it and their 
final subjugation would have for years been delayed. But con- 
stant Avars with our frontier had deprived them of many of their 
warriors, the ravages of the small-pox, however, was the principal 
cause of the great decrease in their numbers,"' 

It was only the Piankeshaw band of the Miamis, however, that 
occupied portions of Illinois subsequent to the dispersion of La 
Salle's colony about Starved Rock. The principal villages of the 
latter were upon the Vermilion River, and at and in the vicinity 
of Vincennes, Ind. 

Their territory extended eastward to the Ohio Ri\'er and west- 
ward to the ridge that divides the waters flowing respectively into 
the Kaskaskia and the ^Vabash. They were found by French 
officers in populous towns upon the Vermilion as early as 171S; 
later, they pushed tlit degenerating Illinois bands to the vicinity 
of Kaskaskia and neighboring villages, and hunted and dominated 
over the territory to the ^lississippi, as high up, nearly, as the 
mouth of the Illinois. 

After the conquest of the Northwest Territory by the colonies 
and the mother comitry, and the subsequent overthrow of Pontiac, 
the British Government sent out Cieorge Groghan to obtain the 
consent of the Indians to the occupation of Kaskaskia and other 
forts erected by the i'rencli in thb western country. Groghan was 
captured by a war^party of Kicka[)oos, near the mouth of the 
Wabash, and taken prisoner to Vinceimes; from thence he came 
overland, following the (ireat Trail leading to Detroit, through 
the prairies, along the crest of the dividing ridge before named, 


crossing the A'ermilion River west of Danville. He describes 
that part of the hunting-ground of the Piankesliaws between Yin- 
cennes and the Vermihon of tlie Wabash. That the reader may 
know how the ilhnois country appeared to an eye-witness in 1765, 
who wrote down his observations at the time, we quote the fol- 
lowing extracts from Col. Croghan's daily journal, of June i8th to 
the 2 2d, inclusive: 

"\re traveled through a prodigious large meadow [prairie] called 
the PiankesKaw's hunting-ground. Here is no wood to be seen, 
and the country appears like an ocean. The ground is exceed- 
ingly rich and partially ove. grown with wild hemp. The land is 
well watered and full of buffalo, deer, bears, and all kinds of wild 
game. "~ " * We passed through some very large meadows, 
part of which belongs to the Piankeshaws on the Vermilion River. 
The country and soil were much the same as that we traveled o^xr 
for these three days past. Wild hemp grows here in abundance. 
Game is very plenty. At any time, in a half an hour, we could 
kill as much as we wanted.'" '^ ■'' We passed through a part 
of the same meadow mentioned yesterday; then came to a high 
woodland, and arrived at Vermilion River, so called from a fine 
7'ed earth found thereby the Indians, with which they paint them- 
selves. About a half of a mile from where we crossed this river is 
a village of Piankeshaws, distinguished by the addition of name 
of the river." 

Next to the Illinois, the Piankeshaws were the most peacefully 
inclined toward the whites. Early intermarriages of their daugli- 
ters with French traders, at Vijicennes, and elsewhere, and with 
whom this tribe lived on terms of social equality, begat a genera- 
tion that united them all in a common interest. It was, therefore, 
that General Clark, in his conquest of the Illinois country, found 
Httle trouble in transferring this friendliness of the Piankeshaws 
at Vincennes and the Vermilion towns to the American cause, 
the same as he had previously done at Kaskaskia and the. neigh- 
boring mixed French and Indian villages upon the Mississippi. 
The Piankeshaws, barring individual exceptions, took no part in 
those bloody wars against the whites that followed the Revolution- 
ary struggle. It was not they, but. war-parties of the Kickapoos, 
Pottav/atomies, and other northwestern tribes that terrorized over 

* There must have l;ecn more than oneKundred persons in this cortei:;e to 
provide food for; as the party alone Ijy whom Croghan and his associates 
were captured, numbered eighty warriors. Hence, it would require a good 
deal of meat, doubtless their only means of sustinance, to supply their daily 


the white settlements, crystalizing along the Ohio, the ^^'aL>asb, 
and their tributaries, and in southwestern Illinois. In the retalia- 
tory raids of the Americans into the Indian territory, the innocent 
Piankeshaws often suftered avenging blows that should have tallen 
upon the guilty ones. The pioneer, burning with a sense of his 
wrongs, only considered that all redskins were Indians, and, 
without stopping to inquire whether they were of a friendly tribe 
or not, remorselessly slew upon sight any one of them whom he 
discovered. This state of affairs grew so bad that the Pianke- 
shaws appealed to the Government, and General Washington 
issued his proclamation, especially forbidding the Piankeshaws 
from being harmed by the white |)eople. 

The capital of the Miami tribe, from earliest times, was at Ft. 
Wayne. As far back as the year 1700 they were there, and shortly 
before had assisted Canadians in making the "Portage"— the land 
carriage from the St. Marys across to Little River, a tributary of 
the A\'abash. The near proximity of the headwaters of the ]\Iau- 
mee, flowing eastwardly into Lake Erie, and Little River and the 
Wabash, flowing westward and south into the Mississippi, gave 
great importance to this Portage, making it the key to and giving 
it control of the communication between the vast area of country 
lying upon either side. The ]\Iiainis well knew this, and held 
possession until forced, at last, to }ield it to the United States, in 
T795, by the terms of the treaty at" Greenville. At that treaty, 
Little Turtle, the great orator of the Miamis, protesting against 
its surrender, said: "Elder brother [meaning Gen. Wayne], when 
our forefathers saw the French and the English at the Miami vil- 
lage [as Ft. Wayne was then known], that ^''/(V7^^//'j- ^^^/^ which your 
younger brothers [the Miamis] had the happiness to own, and 
through which all the good words of our chiefs had to pass [that 
is, messages between the several tribes], from north to south, and 
east to west, the French and the English never told us they wished 
to purchase our lands from us.*' "The next place you pointed 
out to us was the Little River, and said you wanted two miles 
.square at that place. This is a request that our fathers, the French 
or l>ritish, ne\er made of us; it was a/ways ours. This carrying 
place has heretofore proved, in- a great degree, the subsistence ot 
your br(jthers. I'hat place has brought us, in the course of one 
day, the amount lA t^velve hundred dollars. Let us both own 
this j/'ace, and enjoy in common *t!ie advantages it atlords." Gen. 
Wayne was inexorable; and, by the terms of the treaty, a piece 
of land six miles square, near the confluence of the Rivers St. 
Marys and St. Joseph, at Ft. Wayne, and a piece two miles square 
at the confluence of Little River with the Wabash, was ceded to 
the United States. 



The Miamis at Ft. vrere regarded as the senior band of 
the tribe, from their superior inteUigence and numbers; and to 
whom the otlier bands, except the Piankesliaws, at a later day. 
■deferred in all matters of peace or war or aftairs affecting the 
common interests of the tribe. The other branches of the great 
]\Iiami family had extensive villages and cultivated fields on the 
Mississineway, near and above Peru, Indiana; along Eel River. 
near Logansport and above; upon the Wea plains, below Laiiiy- 
ette; upon Sugar Creek; and upon the beautiful prairie strip in 
the neighborhood of Terre Haate. 

Subsequent to the Treaty of Greenville, their demoralization 
was rapid in its progress and terrible in its consequences. So 
much so, that when the Baptist missionary, tlie Rev, Isaac McCoy, 
was among them between rhe years 1817 and 1822, and drawing 
his conclusions from his own observation, he declared that the 
Miamis were not a waiiike |)eople. At the villages on Sugar 
Creek, Eel River, and the Mississineway, and particularly at Ft. 
AVayne, it was a continuous round of drunken debauchery when- 
ever whisky could be obtained, of which men, women, and chil- 
dren partook alike; and life was often sacrificed in personal broils, 
or by exposure of the debauchees to the inclemency of the 

By treaties, entered into at various times from 1795 ^^ 1845, 
the Miamis ceded their lands in Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, and 
removed west of the Mississippi; going in villages or by detach- 
ments from time to time. In 1838, at a single cession, they sold 
the U. S. Government 177,000 acres of land in Indiana, which 
was only a fragment of tiieir former possessions, still retaining 
large tracts. Thus they alienated their heritage piece by piece to 
make room for the incoming white population, while they gradu- 
ally disappeared from the valleys of the Wabash and Maumee. 
Few of them clung to their reservations, adapted themselves to 
the ways of the Americans, and their descendants are now to be 
met with in or about the cities that have sprung up in the locali- 
ties named. The money received from the sales of their lands 
jjroved a calamity, as the proceeds ^v•ere wasted for whisky. 

The last of the Miamis to go westward was the Mississineway 
band. This remnant, comprising in all about 350 persons, in 
charge of Christmas Dazney,* left their old homes, where many of 

* His name was also spelled Dz/.uey, Dashney, and Daynett, the latter 
being the French orthography. He was born Dec. 25, 1799, at the so-calied 
"Lower Wea Village", or "Old Orchard Town", or '• lVe-on-ta-no^\ [The 
Kising Sun], wiiliin the southern .-uburbs of the present City of Terre IIau»^^c. 


I 1 1 



them had form houses and had made considerable progress in 
agriculture, in the fall of 1846, going to Cincinnati. Here tiiey 
were placed on a steamboat, taken down the Ohio, up the Missis- 
sippi and Missouri, and landed, late in the season, at Westport, 
near Kansas City. Ragged men and nearly naked women and 

Ind. His father, Ambroise Dagney, was a native P^renchman, of Kaskaslda, 
and served throvighout the Tippecanoe campaign, in Capt. Scott's Company 
of Militia, raised at Vincennes. He received a severe flesh wound at the 
battle near the Prophet's Town; lived for many years with his daughter, 
Mary Cott, formerly Mary Shields, on a reservation secured to her hty the 
Treaty of St. Mary's, Oct. 2, 1S18, and situated at the ancient Indian village 
near the "Vermilion Salines", some four miles west of Danville, 111., where 
he died and was buried, in 184S. He was well known to the early citizens 
of Danville, and of the Wabash Valley from iJanville to Vincennes. Upon 
all convivial occasions, which were by no means infrequent, he indulged his 
fondness for telling over the many thrilling incidents and dangerous experi- 
ences of his wild nomadic life, as hunter, trapper, boatsman, guide, and 
soldier. He boasted the fact of a personal acquaintance with Gov. Harrison, 
whose memory he held in the highest esteem; and anathematized with volu- 
able profanity, all " bad Inguns ", as he called those who were unfriendly to 
the whites. 

Ambroise Dagney's wife — the only one he ever had, and the mother of 
Cnristmas Dagney and Mary Cott, was Me-chiu-quani-e-sha, [The lit-autiful 
Shade Tree], a sister of Jocco, or Jack-ke-kee-kah, [The Tall Oak], head 
chief of the \Yea Band of Miamis, whose old and pruicipal village was- 
the one we have named near Terre Haute. Later, this band went higher 
up the Wabash to a secondary village near the mouth of Sugar Creek. 

Under the instruction of Catholic teachers, the son, Christmas Dagnay re- 
ceived a good education. He spoke the English and French languages with 
great fluency, and was master of the dialects of the several Indiana and Illi- 
nois Indians. He served for many years at Fort Harrison [on the east bank 
of the Wabash, near and above Terre Haute], and elsewhere, as Government 
interpreter and Indian agent, filling these various ipositions of confidence and 
trust efficiently and honestly. Feb. 16, 1819, he was married to Mary Ann 
Isaacs, an educated Chrisuan woman, of the Brothertown, N.V. [Mohegan] 
Indians, whose acquaintance he had made while she was spending a few 
weeks on a visit at the Mission Hou»e of Rev. Isaac McCoy, then situated on 
Raccoon Creek, near Kosedale, Park -Co., Ind. Mr, McCoy performed the 
marriage ceremony, as he says, "in the presence of our Indian neighbors, 
who were invited to attend; and we had the happiness to have twenty-three 
of the natives partake of a m.eal prepared for the occasion. " 

Christmas Dagney died in 184S, at Cold Water Grove, Kansas, and his 
widov,' subsequently married^!>te Peoria, mentioned in a note further on. 

THE MIAMIS. ■ 115 

children, forming a motley group, were huddled upon the shore 
of a strange land, without food or friends to relieve tlveir wants 
and exposed to the bitter December winds that bl-.^w from tlvj 
chilly plains of Kansas. 

From Westport the ^lississineways were conducted to a place 
near the present village of Lewisburg, Kansas, in the county since 
named r^Iiami. They suffered greatly and nearly one-third of 
their number died the hrst year. Mrs. Mary Babtisie Peoria, tlien 
wife of Christmas Dazney. the agent having these unfortunate 
people in charge, and v\-]io accompanied her husband in this work, 
stated to the writer -'that strong men would actually cry when 
they thought about tliei*" old homes in Indiana, to \\liich many of 
them would make journeys bare-footed, begging their way and 
submitting to the imprecations hurled upon them from the door 
of the white man as they asked for a crust of bread. 1 saw 
fathers and mothers give their little children away to others of the 
tribe for adoption, and then singing their funeral songs and join- 
ing in the solemn dance of death. Afterward go calmly away 
from the assemblage, never again to be seen alive." 

In 1670, the Jesuit father, Claude Dablon, introduces to our 
notice the Miamis at the village of Maskoutench; where, as we 
have already shown, the chief was surrounded by his officers of 
state in all the routine of barbaric display, to whom the natives 
of other tribes paid the greatest deference. Advancing eastv/ard, 
in the rear line of their valorous warriors, the Miamis pushed 
their villages through Illinois into Michigan and Indiana, and as 
far into Ohio as the river still bearing their name. Coming in 
collision with the French, the British, and the Americans; reduced 
by constant wars; and decimated, more than all, b/ vices con- 
tracted by intercourse with a superior race, whose virtues they 
failed to emulate, they make a westward turn; and having in the 
progress of time described the round of a most singular journey, 
we at last behold the miserable remnant on the same side of the 
Mississippi from whence their warlike progenitors had come nearly 
two centuries before. 

The Wea and Piankeshaw band had preceded the Mississine- 
way to the westward; they too had become reduced to about two 
hundred and fifty persons. They, with the Miamis and remain- 
ing fragments of the Kaskaskias^.the latter containing under that 
name what yet remained of the several subdivisions of the old 
mini confederacy, were collected by Baptiste Peoria and consoli- 
dated under the title of Tlie Confederated Tribes.* This little 

* This remarkable man was the son of a daughter of a sub-chief of the 


confederation sold out their reservations in Miami County, Kan- | 

sas, and retired to a tract of reduced dimensions within the Indian | 

Peoria Tribe, and was born, accordinjj to the best information, in 1 793, near ■ j 

the confluence of the Kankakee and Maple, as the DesPlaines River wa-; | 

called by the Illinois Indians. His reputed father's name was Baptisie, a i 

French Canadian and trader, among the Peoria Band. Young Peoria wa.< j 

called Batticy, by his mother; later in life, he was known as Baptise "//^t' * 

Peoria", and finally, as Baptiste Peoria. The people of his tribe gave the 1 

name a liquid sound, pronouncing the name as if it w ere spelled Paola. The / 

county-seat of .Miam.i Co., Kansas, is nam.ed after him. He was a man of > 
large stature, and possessed of great strength, activity, and courage; and, like 
Keokuk, the great chief of the Sac-and-Fox Indians, a fearless and expert 

horseman. Having a ready command of the French and English languages, "' I 
and being familiar, as well, with the several dialects of the Pottav/atomies, 

Shavvnees, Delawares, Miamis, Illinois, and Kickapoos; these qualifications ;' 

as a linguist soon brought him into prominence among the Indians, while his ' J 

known integrity as readily commended his services to the United States. J 

Fromihe year 1821 to 1838, he was employed in assisting the removal of the 'I 

above tribes from Indiana and Illinois to their respective reservations west- ji. 

ward of the Missouri. His duties in these relations brought him in contact I 

with many of the early settlers on the Illinois, the Kaskaskia, and the Wa- " | 

bash Rivers and their constituent streams. He represented his tribe at the | 

Treaty of Fdwardsville, 111., September 25, t8i8. By this treaty, at which | 

there were present representatives from each of the five Tribes comprising the ^ 

Illinois or Illini nation, it appears that for a period of years anterior to that | 

time, the Peoria band had lived and were then living separate and apart from 'f 

the others. | 

Bapti.-,te Peoria was in the service of the General Government for nearly . . f 

thirty years, in the Inclian Department; and in 1S67, became head chief of ^ 

the consolidated Miami and Illinois tribes, and went with them to their newly- , t 

assigned reservation in the north-east part of the Indian Territory, where he ^. 

died at an advanced age, Sept. 13, 1873. Some years before, he married f 

Mrs. Mary Dayney, widow of Dagney, and to this lady is the author | 

indebted for copies of the "Western Spirit", and the "Fort Scott Monitor", . I 

newspapers pubii-^h.ed at Paola and Ft. Scott, Kansas, respectively, containing ts 

Vjiographical skciches and obituary notices of her late husband, from wliich | 

this note ha-, in the main, been collated. | 

It may well be said that Ba[)tiste was J'.The Last of the Peorias". By -♦ 

precept and example he spent the better portion of a l;usy life in persistent | 
efforts to save tlic fragment of the Illinois and Miamis by encouraging them 
to adopt the ways of civilized life. His widow, Mary Baptiste, f/fcf Dagney, 
si'.rvives, and is living in her elegant homestead at Paoli, Kansas, in com- 
fortable circumstances. 


Territory. Since this last change of location, in 1S67, they have 
made but Uttle progress toward a higher civihzation. Those that 
remain of the once numerous Ihini and Miami tribes ^re now 
reduced to less than two hundred persons, and for the most part 
are a listless, idle people, possessing none of the spirit that had 
inspired the breasts of their ancestors. 


The Kickapoos and ]\Iascoutins are treated here as but one 
tribe, for the difference between them was only nominal at best. 
The name is found written in French authorities as "Kic-a- 
poux'', "Kick-a-pous", ''Kik-a-poux'\ "Kik-a-bou", "Q^ick-a- 
pous", and ''Kick-a-pous". Some authors claim the name to 
have been derived from the Algonquin word N'ee-gig [the otter, 
or the spirit of an otter]. Prof. Henry R. Schoolcraft, a recog- 
nized authority on the ethnology of the northwestern tribes, 
alluding to tlie Kickapoos, says, they are "an erratic race, who, 
under various names, in connection with the Sacs and Foxes, 
have, in good keeping with one of their many names, which is 
.aid, by one interpretation, to mean 'Rabbits-Ghost' [Wah- 
boos, with little variation in dialect, being the word for rabbit], 
skipped over half the continent, to the manifest discomfort of 
both German and Americ;in philologists and ethnographers, who, 
in searching for the so-called 'Mascontens', have followed, so far 
as their results are concerned, an ignis fat uiis'\ 

This tribe has been long connected with the history of the 
Northwest, in which they acquired great notoriety, as well for 
the wars in which they were engaged with other tribes, as for 
their presistent hostility to the white race throughout a period of 
nearly one hundred and fifty years. They are first noticed by 
the French explorer, Samuel Champlain, who, in 161 2, discovered 
the "Ma.scoutins residing near the place called Sak-in-am", — or, 
rather, Sac-e-nong, meaning, in Chippeway, the country of the 
Sacs, which, at this time, con^prised that part of the State of 
Michigan, lying between the head of Lake Erie and Saginaw 
Pay, on Lake Huron. In 1669-70, as seen in an extract from 
I'ather .Vllouez, rjuoted in the chapter relating to the Mianus, 
the Kickai>oos and Mascoutins were found in connection with 
the Miamis, near the mouth of Fox River, ^Visconsin. In the 
same letter, Father Allouez says that 'Tour leagues from this 


mixed village are the Kickabou, who speak the same language | 

with the Mascoutench '*'.'•' I 

This people were not pliant material in the hands of the i.^is- | 

sionaries. In fact, they appear to have acquired early notorie.y \ 

in history by seizing Father Gabriel Ribourde as he was walking | 

near the banks of the Illinois River, absorbed in religious mecU- | 

tati9n, and whom they ''carried away, and broke his head", as i 

Henry de Tonti quaintly expresses it, in referring to this ruthless 1 

murder. Again, in 1728, as Father Ignatius Guignas, compelled | 

to abandon his mission among the Sioux, on account of a victory f 

which the Foxes had obtained over the French, was attempting | 

to reach the Illinois, he, too, fell into the hands of the Kicka- f 

poos and Mascoutens, and for five months was held a captive, | 

and constantly exposed to death. During this time he was con- |: 

demned to be burned, and was only saved through die kindly t 

intervention of an old man in the tribe, who adopted him as a | 

son. While a prisoner, his brother missionaries of the Illinois | 

relieved his necessities by sending timely supplies, which Father | 

* The Mascoutins, in the works of French authors, appear as " Mascou- I 

tench", "Mackkoutench", -'Machkouteng", "Masqutins", and •' Maskou- I' 

teins". English and American called them "Masquattimies", "Mascoutins", | 

"Musquitons", "Musquitos", a corruption used by American colonial traders, | 

and "Meaows", v.liich was the English synonym for the Frencii word prairie, | 

before the latter had become naturalized into the English language. I 

The derivation of the name was a subject of discussion among the early | 

French missionaries. Father Marquette, with some others who followed the | 

Huron Indian rendition of it, says, "Maskoutens in Algonquin may mean | 

Fire Nation", and this is the "name given them"; while Fathers Allouez | 

and Charlevoix (v/hose opportunities to know were better), together with the i 

still more recent American authors, claims that the word signifies a prairie or | 

"a land bare of trees". The Ojebway word for prairie is '■'■ Miisk-koo-da'\ | 

Bands of the same tribe on the upper Mississippi, on the authority of Dr. | 

James, call it Mjts-ko-tia. Its derivitive or root is Ish-koo-ta, skoutay, or | 

scote (ethnologists differ as to its orthography), and which is the algonquin .| 

word for Jire. The great plains westward of the Wabash and the lakes, was | 

truly "a land barren of trees", kept so by the annually recurring fires that | 

swept over through the tall grass in billows of flame and smoke; and this dis- ? 
tinguishing feature is aptly preserved in the name the Indians gave it. Major 
Forsyth, long a trader at Peoria, in his manuscript account of the Indian 
tribes of his acquaintance, quoted by Dr. Drake in his Life of Black Hawk, 
says, "The Mascos or Mascoutins were, by French traders of a more recent 

day, called gens des pmiries [men of the prairie], and lived and hunted on ^ 

the great prairies between the Wabash and Illinois Rivers". | 


viuignas used to gain over iht:: good will of his captors. Having 
induced them to make peace, he was taken to one of the Ilhnois 
missions, where he was suffered to remain or parole until Nov., 
1729, when his captors returned and took him back to their own 
countr)^; since which it seems nothing has ever been heard of 

The Kickapoos early incurred the displeasure of the PVench 
by depredations south of Detroit. In 17 12, a band of them, 
living in a village near the mouth of the Maumee River, in com- 
pany with about thirty Mascoutens, were about to make war 
upon the French Post at Detroit. They look , risoner one Lang- 
lois, a messenger, on his return from the Miami country, whither 
he was bringing many letters from the Jesuit fathers of the sev- 
eral Illinois villages, as well, also, despatches from Louisiana, 
'i'he mauraders destroyed the letters and despatches, which gave 
much uneasiness to M. Du Boisson,- commandant at Detroit, 
As a result of this act, a canoe, laden with Kickapoos on their 
way to the villages near Detroit, was captured by the Hurons 
^iiid Ottawas, residing near by, and who were allies of the French. 
Among the slain was the principal Kickapoo chief, whose head, 
with three others of the same tribe, were brought to Du Boisson, 
who informs us "that the Hurons and Ottawas committed this 
act for the alleged reason, that the previous winter the Kjcka- 
poos had taken some of the Hurons and Iroquois prisoners, and 
also because they had considered the Kickapoo chief a "true 
Outtagamis"; that is, they regarded him as one of the Fox nation. 

From the village of ^dachkouterich, on Fox River, Wis., the 
Kickapoos seemed to have passed to tne south, extending their 
right tiank in the direction of Rock River, and their left toward 
the southern trend of Lake Michigan. Prior to 17 18, they had 
villages on Rock River and in the vicinity of Chicago. Indeed, 
Rock River appears as Kickapoo River on cotemporaneous 
French maps. 

In 17 1 2, the Mascoutins entered the plot formed for the cap- 
ture of the post of Detroit; their associates repaired to the 
T^-eighborhood, and, whereas they were awaiting the arrival of the 
Kickapoos, they were attacked by a confederation of Indians, 
v.ho v/ere friendly to the French and had hastei-ied to the relief 
^jf the garrison. The destruction that followed this attempt 
-gainst Detroit, was, perhaps, onc'^of the most remorseless, in 
v.hich white men took a part, of which we ha\e an account in 
the annals of Indian warfare, l^he French and Indian foices, 
^fter protracted efibrts, compelled the eneiny to abandon their 
position and fiee to Presque Isle, opposite Hog Island, near 


Lake St.. Clair, some distance above the fort. Here they held 
out for four days; iheir women and children, in the meantime, 
actually starving, numbers of whom were dying e^-ery day from 
hunger. Messengers were sent to the French commander, beg- 
ging for quarter, and oftering to surrender at discretion, only 
craving that the remaining survivors might be spared the horrors 
of a general massacre. Perpetual servitude as the slaves of vic- 
tors; anything rather than a wholesale destruction. The Indian 
allies of the French would listen to no terms. "At the end of 
fourth day", Se^ys the French commander, "after lighting with 
much courage, and not being able to resist further the Muscotins 
surrendered at discretion to our people, who gave them no quar- 
ter. Our Indians lost sixty men, killed and wounded. The 
enemy lost a thousand souls — men, women, and children. All 
our allies returned to our fort [at Detroit] with their slaves [cap- 
tives], and their amj.isement was to shoot four or five of them 
every day. The Hurons did not spare a single one of tlieirs ". 

From references given, it is apparent that this people, like the 
Miamis and Pottawatomies, were progressing south and eastward. 
This movement was probably caused by the Sioux, whose fierce 
warriors were pressing them from the northwest. As early as 
1695, the Foxes, with the Kickapoos and Mascoutins, were 
meditating a migration toward the Wabash as a place of security. 
From an ofticial document sent from Quebec, relating to the 
occurrences in Canada during that year, the department at Paris 
is advised "that the Sioux, who have mustered some two thou- 
sand warriors for the purpose, would come in large numbers and 
seize their village. This has caused the Outagamies to quit their 
country and disperse themselves for a season, and afterward to 

• return and save their harvest. They are then to retire toward 
the Wabash and form a settlement so much the more permanent, 

■ as they will be removed from the incursions of the Sioux, and in 
a position to easily effect a junction with the Iroc[uois and Fng- 
lish, without the French being able to present it. Should this 
project be realized, it is very apparent that the Mascotins and 
the Kickapoos will be of the party, and that the three tribes, 
forming a new village of fourteen or fifteen hundred men, would 
experience no difficulty in considerably increasing it by attracting 
other nations tlnthor, which would be of most pernicious con- 
sequences '. That tlie Mascou'tins, at least, did go soon after 
this toward the lower Wabash, is shown by the fact of their 
presence about Jucliercau's trading-post, which erected near the 
mouth of the Olfio, in the year 1700. It is questionable, how- 
ever, if either the Foxes or Kickapoos followed the Muscoutins 

- .. . THE KICKAPOOS. . 12 1 

to the Wabash country, and it is evident that the Mascoiitins, who 
survived the epidemic, that broke out among them while at 
Juchereau"s post, returned to the north. The French having 
effected a concihation with the Sioux, we find that, for a number 
of years subsequent to 1705, the ]\Iascoutins were again back 
among their afiinities. the Foxes and Kickapoos upon their com- 
mon hunting grounds in northern Uhnois and southern Wisconsin. 
Later, and by ]^rogressive approaches, the Kickapoos worked 
further southward, and estabhshed themselves in the territory 
lying between the Illinois and Wabash Rivers, and soutli of tlie 
Kankakee. This migration was not accomplished without oppo- 
sition and blood shed in punishing the Piankeshaws east and 
south to the Wabash, and the Illinois tribes south and west upon 
the lower waters of the Kaskaskia. We are without authentic 
data as to the period of the time when this concpiest was con- 
sumated. At the treaty, ocncluded at Edwardsville, III., July 30^ 
1 81 9, between Augusta Chouteau and Benjamin Stephenson, 
commissioners on the part of the United States, and the prin- 
cipal chiefs and warriers of the Kickapoo tribe, the latter ceded 
the following lands, residue of their domain until then undis- 
posed of, Tiz.: "Beginning on the \\ abash, at the upper point of 
their cession made by the second Article of their Treaty at Vm- 
cennes, on the 9th day of December, 1809;'" running thence 
northwestwardly to the dividing line between the State of Illinois 
and Indiana: thence north along said line to the Kankakee; 
thence with said river to the Illinois River; thence down the 
latter to its mouth; thence with a direct line to the northwest cor- 
ner of the Vincennes tracts as recognized in the Treaty with the 
Piankashaw tribe of Indians at Vincennes, on the 30th day of 
December, 1805 :t and thence with the western and northern 

* The beginning point here referred to is "on the Wabash", at the mouth 
of the Big Vermilion River. By previous cessions it appears that t'ue 
acknov.'Iedged territory of tlie Kickapoos extended down the Wabash nearly 
as far as Vincennes. Vide 9th Article of the Treaty of September 30, 1S09, 
concluded at Ft. Wayne, between the United States and the Delewares, Pot- 
tawatomics, Miamis, and Eel River tribes; Treaty of Vincennes of Dec. 9, 
1809, between the United .Stales and the Kickapoos. 

T The boundaries of "the Vincennes tract" were settled by the terms of the 
treaty at P't. Wayne, July 7, 1803, between Gov. Harrison of the Indiana 
Territory (which, at that time, embraced all of the present Stales of Michigan, 
Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin), and the several Deleware, Shawnee, Tot- 
tawatomie, Miami, Lei River, Wea, Piankeshaw, Kickapoo, and Kaskaskia 
tribes within his jurisdiction. The first Article of this treaty also explains 




boundaries of the cessions heretofore made by the said Kick?4)oo 
tribe of Indians,''^ to the beginning. Of whicJi last described tract 
of iafid, the said Kickafoo tribe claim a large portion by descent 
from their ancestors, and the balance by conqnest from the Illinois 
nation, and uninterrupted possession for 7nore than half a century^'. 
The claim of the Kickapoos to the country referred to does not 
rest alone upon the assertion of the Kickapoos, but is supported 
by officers of the French. English, and American governments, 
when tiiey respectively asserted dominion over it. Under date 
of April 2ist, 1752, ^L de Longueil, commandant at Detroii. 
incorporates in an official report upon the condition of Indian 
affairs in his department, that he had received advices from 
*'jNL de Lingeris, commandaait at the Oy-a-ta-nons,+ who believes 
that great reliance is not to be placed on the Mascoutens, and 

the reasons that led to its consumation. It is as follows : " Whereas, it is 
declared by the 4th Article of the Treaty of Greenville, that the United 
States reserve for their use the post of Vincennes, and all the lands adjacent, 
to wliich the Indian titles have been extinguished. And, whereas, it has been 
found difficult to determine the precise limits of said tract as held by the 
French and British Governments; it is hereby agreed, that the boundaries of 
said tract shall be as follows: Beginning at Point Coupee ["cut-off" or noted 
bend in the river some eighteen miles above Vincennes], on the Wabash, and 
running thence, by a north seventy-eight degrees \ -est, twelve m.iles [into Illi- 
nois]; thence [south by west] by a line parallel to the general cpurse of the 
Wabash, until it shall be intersected by a line at right angles to the same, 
passing through the mouth of White River [about eighteen miles below Vin- 
cennes]; thence, by the last mentioned line [east by south], across the Wabash 
and toward the Ohio River, seventy-two miles; thence by a line north tvv-elve 
degrees west, until it shall be intersected by a line at right angles with the 
same, passing through I\^inf Coupee, and, by the last mentioned line, to the 
place of beginning." The boundaries of "the ^'incennes tract", as thus 
defined, appear on many of the early maps, and displays a tract of land in 
the shape of a parallelogram, some thirty-six miles wide, by seventy- two 
long, lying, for the m.ost part, on the east side of the Wabash and in Indiana, 
an average width of about ten miles, only, off of the west end of it being in 
Illinois, the northwest corner of which, referred to in the text, is about 
twenty miles north, and some ten miles west of Vincennes. 

* By previous treaties, the Kickaj)00s had ceded to the United States their 
claims to the territory from "the Vincennes tract" as high up the Wabash a^ 
the mouth of Tine Creek, Warren Co., Ind., and extending west of the same 
stream an average width of thirty miles. 

t P^ort Ouiatanon situated on the west bank of the Wabash River, a few- 
miles above Attica, Ind. . > . ■ • 


that their remaining Deutral is all that is to be expected from 
them and the Kickapoos." Later, and after the northwest terri- 
tory had been lost to France and ceded to Great Britain as the 
fruit of the French colonial war, and after the failure of the 
Indian confederation under Pontiac to reconquer the same terri- 
tory, Sir William Johnson, having in charge the Indian aftairs of 
the western nations, sent his deputy, George Croghan, to the 
Illinois to pacify the Indians "to soften their antipathy to the 
English, to expose the falsehood of the French, to distribute 
presents, and prepare a way for the passage of troops*'* who 
were preceding westward to take possession of Fort Chartes and 
other military establishments within the ceded territory. Croghan 
left Fort Pitt on May tyth, 1765, starting down the Ohio in two 
batteaux, having with him several white persons, and a number 
of Deleware, Iroquois, and Shawnee Indians, as deputies of 
tribes inhabiting the upper waters of the Ohio, with whom 
Croghan had already concluded treaties of reconciliation toward 
the British. On the evening of the 6th of June, Croghan 
reached the motith of the Wabash. They dropped down the 
river six miles, "and came to a place called the old vShawnee 
village, some of that nation having previously lived there''. He 
remained here the next day, occupying his time in preparing and 
sending despatches to Fort Chartes. We quote from his journal: 
"On the 8th, at daybreak, we were attacked by a party of Indi- 
ans, consisting of eighty warriors of the Kickapoos and Musqua- 
timies, who killed two of my men and three Indians, wounded 
myself and all the rest of my party, except two white men and 
one Indian; then made myself and all the white men prisoners, 
plundering us of everything we had. A deputy of the Shawnees, 
who was shot through the thigh, having concealed himself in the 
woods for a few minutes after he was shot — not knowing but that 
they were southern Indians, who were always at war with the 
northward Indians — after discovering what nation they were, 
came np to them and made a very bold speech, telling them that 
the whole northward Indians would join in taking revenge for 
the insult and murder of their people. This alarmed those sav- 
ages very much, who began to excuse themselves, saying, their 
fathers, the French, had spirited them up, telling them that the 
Indians were coming witli a large body of southern Indians to 
take their country from them and enslave them; that it was this 
that induced them to commit this outrage. After dividing the 
plunder (they left a great part of the heaviest eftects behind), they 
set off with us to tJicir village of Ou-at-to-no}i in a great hurry, 

* Vide Parkman's History Conspiracy of Pontiac. 


being in dread of a large part}^ of Indians, which they suspected 
were coming after me. Our course was through a thick wood\' 
country, crossing a great many swamps, morrasses, and beaver 
ponds. ''^ From the data given, taken with the well-estabUshed 
historical fact that the Kickapoos approached the Wabash from- 
the northwest, it is evident that, prior to 1752, they had driven 
the Illinois tribes from the hunting grounds lying eastward and 
south of the Illinois River. In this conquest they were assisted 

* The war party continued up the river the Qth, loth, nth, 12th, 13th, and 
14th; and on the 15th reached Vincennes. "'On my arrival there", says 
Croghan, "I found a viilac^e of eighty or ninety French families, seated on 
the east side of the river, being the one of the finest situations that can be 
found. The country is level and clear, the soil very rich, producing wheat 
and tobacco. I think tlie latter preferable to that of Maryland or Virginia. 
The French inhabitants hereabouts are an idle, lazy people, a parcel of rene- 
gades from Canada, and much worse than the Indians. They took a secret 
pleasure at our misfortunes, and the moment we arrived they came to the 
Indians, exchanging trifles for their valuable plunder. As the savages took 
from me a considerable quantity of gold and silver, the French traders ex- 
torted ten half Johnies from them for one pound of Vermilion. Here i.-; 
likewise an Indian village of the I'yan-ke-shaws [in their language calkd 
* Chip-kaw-kay', rendered the town of Ihushtvood. Dillon's History of Indi- 
ana,] who were much displeased with the party that took me, telling thera 
that 'our and your chiefs are gone to malce peace, and you have begun a war 
for which our women and children will have reason to cry. ' * * * Port 
Vincent is a place of great consequence for trade, being a tine hunting coun- 
try along the Wabash, and too far for the Indians, which reside hereabouts, 
to go enter to the Illinois, or elsewhere, to fetch their necessaries." On tlie 
17th, Croghan and his captors crossed the Wabash, and came up through tlic 
prairies referred to in the chapter on the Miamis, and on the 23d entered a 
large bottom on the Wabash, within six miles of Fort Oui-a-ta-non, Croghan 
further says: "The Kickapoos and Musquatamies, whose warriors had taken 
us live nigh the fort, on the same side of the river, where they have two vil- 
lages." Croghan's Journal continues a daily account of his movements up 
the Wabash to Ft. Wayne, down the Maumee, and up the lakes to Detroit, 
and from thence to Niagara Falls'; and gives a fair in:-,ight into the appear- 
ance and topography of the extensive country he traversed as it then appeared. 
and illustrates the tcrn[)(.-r of the .Indians who inhabited it. The original 
manuscript diary was obtained by Mr. heatherstonhougii, and iirst publisher 
in hi-, "American Journal of Geology", and in December, 1831, a reprint ot 
100 copies was issued in i)aniphlet form. It may also be found in the appen- 
dix of Mann Butler's valuable History of Kentucky, in either of the editions 
of 1S34 or 1836. 

THE KICKAFOOS. r'' !^! ,\- 125 

by the Sacs and Foxes, and Pottawatomies, who made a common 
cause of warfare upon the IlUnois tribes. "Tradition (says the 
Pioneer Historian of lUinois, the Rev. John Tvl. Peck) tells us of 
many a hard fought battle between the original owners of the 
country and these intruders. Battle Ground Creek is well-known 
on the road from Kaskaskia to Shawneetown, twenty five miles 
from the former place, where the Kaskaskias and their allies 
were dreadfully slaughtered by the united forces of the Kicka.- 
poos and Pottawatomies. ■"''' 

Within the limits of the territory defined by the treaty at 
Edwardsville in 18 19, the Kickapoos, for generations belbre that 
time, had many villages. The principal of these were Kickapo- 
go-oui. on the west bank of the Wabash, near Hudsonville, Craw- 
ford Co., Ill, and known, in the early days of the Northwest 
Territory, as Musquiton [^^lascoutine] ; another on both sides of 
the Vermilion River, at its confluence with the AV'abash. This 
last village was destroyed by Maj. John F. Flamtramck, in Oct., 
1790, whose military forces moved up the river from Vincennes 
to create a diversion in favor of Gen. Harmer, then leading the 
main attact against the Miami town at Fort ^^Xvne and other 
Indian villages in that vicinity. Higher up the Vermilion were 
other Kickapoo towns, particularly the one some four miles west 
of Danville, and near the mouth of the Middle Fork. The 
remains of one of the most extensive burial-grounds in the 
Wabash Valley, still attest the magnitude of this once populous 
Indian city; and, although the village site has been in cultivation 
for over fifty years, every recurring year the ploughshare turns up 
flint arrow-points, stone-axes, gun-flints, gun-locks, knives, silver 
brooches, or other mementoes of its former inhabitants. These 
people were greatly attached to tlie country watered by the Ver- 
milion and its tributaries; and Ciov. Harrison found a difficult 
task to reconcile them to ceding it away. In lus letter to the 
secretary of war, of Dec. 10, 1809, referring to his efforts to in- 
duce the Kickapoos to part with it, the governor says he "was 
extremely anxious that the extinguishment of title should extend 
as high up as the Vermilion River, but it was objected to because 

* "An f listorical Sketch of the early American settlements in Illinois, from 
17S0 to 1800. Read before the Illinois State. Fyceiun, at its Anniversary, 
August 16, 1832. By J. M. Peck." Published in No. 2 of Vol. i, of The 
Western Monthly Magazine for February, 1833. Other accounts fix tlie date 
of this last great battle about tlie year iSoo, and ascribe its planing and exe- 
cution to the great Pottawatomie warrior and medicine man known as Wah- 
bun-ou We-nc-ne or " The Jii;.^de7-''\ 


it would include a Kickapoo village. This small tract of about 
twenty miles square* is one of the most beautifiil that can be 
conceived, and is, moreover, believed to contain a very rich cop- 
per mine. I have myself frequently seen specimens of the cop- 
per; one of which I sent to Mr. Jetferson in 1802. The Indians 
were so extremely jealous of any search being made for this 
mine, that traders were always cautioned not to approach the 
hills which were supposed to contain the mine."t 

The Kickapoos had other villages on the Embarras, some 
miles west of Charlestown, and still others about the headwaters 
of the Kaskaskia. During the period when the territory west of 
the Mississippi belonged to Spain, her subjects residing at St. 
Louis "carried on a considerable trade among the Indians east- 
ward of the Mississippi, particularly the Kickapoos near the head- 
waters of the Kaskaskia/" t Further northward they had still 
other villages, among them one tov/ard the headwaters of Sugar 
Creek, a tribiuar}' of the Sangamon River, near the southwest 
corner of McLean County. § The Kickapoos had, besides, vil- 
lages west of Logan sport and Lafayette, in the groves upon the 
prairies, and finally, a great or capital village near what is well- 
known as '^ Old Toivn'' timber, in West Township, McLean Qo.. 
III. These last were especially obnoxious to the pioneer settlers 
of Kentucky, because the Indians living or finding a refuge in 
them, made frequent and exasperating raids across the Ohio, 
where they would murder men and women, and carry off captive 
children, to say nothing of the lesser crimes of burning houses 
and stealing horses. So annoying did these offences become, 
that several expeditions were sent out in retaliation. That, coin- 

* It extended up the Vermilion River a distance of twenty miles in a direct 
line from its mouth. 

t The specimens referred to were doubtless "drift copper", now supposed to 
have drifted in from their native beds in the neighborhood of Lake Superior. 
Since tlie settlement of the Vermilion county by the whites, many similr.; 
specimens have been found. Only within the present year, 1883, some work- 
men, while engaged in digging a cellar in Danville, unearthed, from near ti.e 
surface of the ground, a piece of pure copper, weighing eighty-seven pounds. 
It was secured by Dr. j, C. Winslow of Danville, for Prof. John Co'I-tt. 
state geologist of Indiana, who has deposited it in the State Cabinet at Inui- 

X Sketches of Louisiana, by Maj. Amos Stodard. 

§ This vilL-gc was burned in the fall of 181 2, by a part of Gov. Edwards 
forces, while on their march from Camp Russell to Peoria Lake, Vide Gov. 
Reynolds" My Own Times. 



manded by Gen. Chas. Scott, in the month of May, 1791, de- 
stroyed the Kickapoo to^\n near Oui-a-ta-non [referred to in con- 
nection with the capture of Groghan]. In the month of August of 
the same year, a second expedition, lead by Gen. Jas. Wilkinson, 
left Kentucky on a similar mission. In the instructions given by 
Gov. St. Clair (then the executive head of the military as well as 
of the civil affairs of the Northwest Territory) to Gen. Wilkinson, 
we fmd the following: "Should the success attend you at 
L'Anguile,"^ which I wish and hope, you may find yourself equal 
to the attacking ttie Kickapoo town situated in the prairie not 
far from Sangamoii River, which empties itself into the Illinois 
River. By information, that town is not distant from L'Anguile 
more than three easy days" marches. A visit to that place will 
be totally unexpected, and most probably attended with decided 
good consequences; neither will it be hazardous, for the men, at 
this season, are generally out hunting beyond the Illinois country. 
Should it seem feasible from circumstances, I recommend the 
attempt in preference to the towns higher up the Wabash, and 
success there would be followed by great eclat.'' The general 
did not reach the great Kickapoo town. His troops, jaded by 
forced marches, and the effectual destruction of the Eel River 
village, and encumbered with prisoners,t "launched westward 
through the boundless prairies'', only to become "environed on 
all sides with morasses, which forbade his advancing". They 
were compelled, toward the end of the day, to return. On their 
way back, however, they struck the Kickapoo town west of 
Lafayette, and destroyed it. 

The people of Kentucky were not the only sufferers from 
depredations of this tribe. From their towns near the Wabash,. 
the Kickapoo war parties lurked upon the skirts of the settle- 
ments on the American Bottom from Kaskaskia to Cahokia, bent 
on the murder or capture of any unprotected person that fell in 
their way, excepting alone those of French blood, who, with their 
property, were, with rare exceptions, exempt from molestation. 
So strong was the regard of the Kickapoos, in common with all 
other Algoncjuin tribes, for the 

* The Eel River town on Eel River, .some six miles above Logansport, 
Ind. , and which uas to be attacked. 

+ His prisoners consisted mostly of v/omen and children, and numbered 
thirty-four in all. His instructions, like those issued to Gen. Scott, required 
him to take all women and children they could, and turn them over to the 
officer in command at Ft. Washinr^on (now Cincinnati), in the hope that by 
thus paying,' the Indians back in kind, they would cease their cruel forays 
upon helpless and uncjffending non-combatants. 



■Sir. Peck's historical sketch of the early American settlements 
in Illinois, before quoted, is largely taken up with narrations of 
the killing and capture of white settlers in the ncighborlioods 
named, and the destruction or the plunder of their property. 
"We summarize a few paragraphs from his address, by way of 
illustration : 

"The Kickapoos v\'ere numerous and warlike, and had their 
principal towns on the Illinois and the Vermilion of the Wabash. 
They were the most formidable and dangerous neighbors to the 
whites, and, for a number of years, kept the settlements [on the 
American Bottom] in continual alarm."' The address then takes 
up a narration of yearly events from 1783 to 1795, showing the 
sufferings and dangers to which the white ]jopulation Avas ex- 
posed on account of Indian depredations, inflicted in the main 
by Kickapoos. 

Among the most notable captures was that of Wm. Biggs, in 
1788. On the morning of March 28 of that year, while he, in 
company with young John Yallis, was going from Bellefountaine 
to Kahokia, they were surprised by a war party of sixteen Kicka- 
poo Indians. Vallis was wounded in the thigh, and, being 
mounted on a fine horse, was soon beyond reach of the flying 
balls, and made his escape only to die, however, of his wounds. 
Four bullets were shot into Biggs' horse; and the animal became 
so frantic with pain, and frightened, more than all, with the yells 
of the savages, that it became unmanageable; Biggs' ''gun was 
thrown from his shoulder, and twisted out of his hands'"; in tr\- 
ing to recover his gun, and being incumbered "with a large 
bag of beaver fur, which prevented him from recovering his 
saddle, which had neither 'girth or crupper", it turned and fell 
off of the horse, and Biggs 'fell with it'." The rider held on to 
the horse's mane, and was soon upon his feet, making inettectual 
attempts to remount, as his terrified horse dragged him along for 
some "twenty or thirty yards", when his "hold broke, and he fell 
on his hands and knees, and stumbled along four or five steps 
before he could recover himself" "By the time I got fairly oii 
my feet", continues the narrator, "the Indians were about eight 
or ten yards off me. I saw there was no other way to make my 
escape but by fast running, and I was determined to try it, and 
had but little hopes at first of being able to escape, I ran about 
one hundred yards before I looked back — I thought almost every 
step I could feel the scalping-knife cutting my scalp off. I fouijd 
that I was gaining ground on them, I felt encouraged, and ran 
about three hundred yards further, and looking back, saw that 1 
had gained about one hundred yards, and considered myself 


quite out of danger."" Biggs' hopes, however, were not well 
grounded. The morning was cold, and before setting out from 
home on his journey, he had clothed liimself in a heavy irnder- 
coat, over which was a greatcoat, securely tied about the waist 
with a large, well-worn silk handkerchief, tied, in the hurry of the 
moment, in a double hard knot. Anticipating a long race, he 
endeavored to divest himself of all surplus garments; the knotted 
handkerchief would not untie; he pulled his arms out of the 
sleeves of his greatcoat, which, traiUng on the ground, would 
"wrap around his legs. and throw him down"", so that he "made 
no headway at running"'. His pursuers, seeing his predicament. 
renewed the chase wuth more vigor, and soon overtook and secured 
him. His captor, says Biggs, "took the handle of his tomahawk, 
and rubbed it on my shoulder and down my arm, which was a 
token that he would not kill me, and that I was his prisoner.'" 

At the risk of "traveling further out of the record" of the gen- 
eral scope of this chapter, we quote a few more extracts from Mr. 
Biggs' Narrative; as they admirably illustrate some of the caprices 
and traits of Indian character. At the hrst evening's encamp- 
ment, and the Indians having finished tlieir eating, one of them 
sat, "with his back against a tree, with his knife between his legs. 
I, says Biggs, was sitting facing him with my feet nearly touching 
his. He began to inquire of me what nation I belonged to. i 
was determined to pretend that I was ignorant and could not 
understand him. I did not wish them to know that I could 
speak some Indian languages, and understood them better than I 
could speak. He first asked me, in Indian, if I was Mat-to-cush 
(that is, in Indian, a Frenchman); I told him no. He then 
asked me if I was a Sag-e-nash (an iuiglishman); I told him no. 
He again asked if I was a She-mol-sca (that is, a long knife or 
Virginian); I told him no. He then asked me if 1 was a Bos- 
tonely'" (that is an American); I told him no. About a minute 
afterward, he asked me the same questions over again, and I 
answered him yes.' He then spoke Emglish, and catched up his 

knife, and said, 'You are one d — son of a b ". I really 

thought he intended stabbing me with his knife. I knew it would 
not do to show cowardice. 1, being pretty well acquainted with 
their manners and ways, jumped up on my feet, and spoke in 
Indian, and said, ' Man-e-t-wa^ Kieiiuie-pa-i^'ay' (in English it is, 
'Xo! I am very good"); and clapped my hands on my breast 

* Mr. Biggs' inteqiretation is a little too broad. Boston-e-Iywx^ an epithet 
obtained by the Indians from the Canadian I'rench, who applied it to the New 
I'^n'danders or Vankies. 


when I spoke, and looked very bold. The other Indians all set 
up such a ha 1 ha 1 and laughter, that it made him look very fool- 
ish, and he sat still and became quite sulky." 

The Kickapoos took their prisoner across the prairies of Illi- 
nois, reaching their village on the west bank of the Wabash, near 
old Fort Weaoatanon (which, at the time of this occurrence, was 
merely a trading-post), on the tenth day of his capture. Remain- 
ing several weeks with the Kickapoos and at the trading-post, 
Mr. Biggs effected his through the kindly interference of 
the traders at the latter place, prominent -among whom was an 
Englishman, Mr. ^IcCauslin, and ^Ir. Bazedone, a Spaniard, witli 
whom Biggs ''had an acquaintance in the Ilhnois country"'", and 
who paid the Indians in trade an equivalent of $260 for his ran- 
sorae, for which sum Biggs ''gave his note, payable in the Illinois 
country."' Later, he passed down the Wabash and the Ohio, 
and up the Mississippi, in a pirogue or large canoe, and safely 
reached his family. 

Mr. Biggs was greatly liked by his captors and their kinsmen, 
who complimented for his braver)-, his fleetness of foot, his 
shapely limbs, long and beautiful hair, and handsome physi'jue. 
They adopted him into their tribe, giving him the name of Moh- 
cos-se-a, after the name of a chief who had been killed by the 
whites the year before. After which he "was to be considered 
one of that Kickapoo family, in place of their [slain] father." He 
was also offered, in marriage, a handsome Indian girl, a relation 
of the same family, who, encouraged by her i:)arents, exhausted 
her arts, in a manner of becoming modesty, to win his consent; 
Mr. Biggs protesting that he was already a married man, the 
father of three children, whose mother was his wife, and that it 
was against the laws of lu's country for a man to have more than 
one wife at a tiiue. This Indian girl had prepared his first regu- 
lar meal after his arrival at the Wabash. Says Biggs, "it was 
hominy, beat in a mortar, as v/hite as snow, and handsome as I 
ever saw, and very well cooked. She fried some dried meat, 
pounded very fine in a mortar, in oil, and sprinkled it with sugar. 
She prepared a very good bed for me, with bear-skins and blank- 
ets." She brought him "hot water in a tin cup, and shaving 
soap, and more clean water in a basin"', and a cloth to wipe his 
hands and face after the pr-o<:ess of shaving was done with. 
'•She then told me to sit down on a bench. I did so. She got 
two very good combs — a coarse and a fine one. It then 
the fashion to wear long hair. Mine vvas very long anrl tiiick, 
and nuich tangled and matted — 1 traveled witiiout any hat or 
anything else on my head, and that was the tenth day it had not 



been combed. She combed out my hair very tenderly, and then 
took the fine one and combed and looked my head nearly one 
hour. She went to a trunk and got a ribbon, and greased my 
hair very nicely. The old chief [father of the girl, as we learn 
elsewhere] gave me a fme regimental blue cloth coat, faced with 
yellow bufi' cloth; the son-in-law gave me a very good beaver 
jNIackinaw hat. These they had taken from some officers they 
had killed. Then the widow squav.- took me into her cabin and 
gave me a new ruffled shirt and a very good blanket."' Ail these 
he put on, and, at the request of the donors, he walked the floor 
to their delight. 71ie girl followed him to the abode of the 
widowed and orphaned family to whom he had been given, and 
which was in another neighborhood, where she took her place at 
his cabin door, silently waiting, in the hope he would relent and 
invite her in. "She stood by my door for sometime after dark — I 
did not know when she went away. She stayed two days and 
three nights before she returned home. I never spoke to her 
while she was there. She was a very handsome girl, al)out 18 
years of age, a beautiful full figure, and handsomely featured, and 
very white for a squaw. She was almost as white as dark com- 
plexioned women generally are ; and her father and mother were 
very white skinned Indians. "■'' 

To resume. In the desperate plans of Tecumthe, tlie Kicka- 
poos took an active part. This tribe caught the infection at an 
early day of those troubles; and in 1806, Ciov. Harrison sent 
Capt. Wm. Prince to the Vermilion towns with a speech addressed 
to all the warriors and chiefs of the Kickapoo tribe; giving Capt. 
Prince further instructions to proceed to the villages of the prai- 

* ]\Ir. Biggs had been one of Gen. Clark's soldiers in the conquest of the 
Illinois, and liking the country, early after the close of the Revolutionary 
War, he returned and settled at the Bellefountaine, the name of an early set- 
tlement in Monroe Co., 111., ten miles north of Kaskaskia. He held several 
territorial and state o.Olces, and filled them with honor and ability. In 1826, 
shortly before his death, he jniblished "a narrative" of his capture by and his 
experience while with the Kickapoos. It is a pamphlet- of twenty-three 
pages, printed with p)oor type on very common paper. But few copies were 
issued, and scarcely any of these seem to have been preserved. It was only 
after a search of several years that the writer was so fortunate as to get sight 
of one. Gov. Reynolds, in his Pioneer History of Illinois, gives a fair sketch 
of Mr. Biggs. That given in the text is condensed or quoted directly from 
the "Narrative", and differs from J. M. I'eck's, as it makes no mention, 
whatever, of the Ogle Brothers being in company with Biggs and Vallis at the 
time of the capture. 

^ I 



rie bands, if, after having delivered the speech at the A^ermihon 
towns, he discovered there would be no danger to himself in pro- 
ceeding beyond. The speech, which was full of good words and 
precautionary advice, had little effect; and ''shortly after the 
mission of Capt. Prince, the Prophet found means to bring the 
whole of the Kickapoos entirely under his influence."' \^Vidc 
Memoirs of Gen. Harrison. We produce extracts of Gov. Har- 
rison's "talk", referred to, to show the style of such addresses. 
Gen. Harrison, being an adept in this kind of Hterature, could 
suit such papers to the occasion, and draft them within the range 
and to the understanding of the people for whom they Avere in- 
tended, better, perha'ps. than any other agent tlie Government 
ever ha'd in the troublesome field of Indian diplomacy. "Wm. H. 
Harrison, Gov., etc., Supt. of Indian affairs, etc., etc., to his chil- 
dren, the chiefs and warriors of the Kickapoo tribe."' My chil- 
dren : I lately sent you a message by one of 3'our warriors, but 
I have not yet received an answer. The head chief of the We-as 
has, however, been with me, and has assured me that you still 
keep hold of the chain of friendship, which has bound you to 
your father since the treaty made with Gen. AVayne [referring to 
the Treaty of Greenville, of 1795]. 

"My children, this information has given me great pleasure, 
because I had heard tliat you had suftered bad thoughts to get 
possession of your minds. 

"My children, what is it you wisii for? Have I not often told 
you that you should inform me of all your grievances, and that 
you should never appl}' to your father in vain. 

"My children: Be wise, do not follow the advise of those who 
would lead you to destruction; what is it they would persuade 
you to? — to make war upon your tathers, tlie wSeventeen ]'"ires? 
[The United States, tlien se\'enteen in number.] — What injury 
has your father done you? — If he has done any, why do you not 
complain to him and ask redress? — \\'ill he turn a deaf ear to 
your com])laints? He has always listened to you, and will listen 
to you still; you will certainly not raise your arm against him. 

"My chiildren, you have a number of young warriors, but wlieu 
comjjared to the warriors of the United States, you know the)' 
are but as a handful. My children, can you count tlie leaves 
on the trees, or the grains of saiid in the rivt-r banks? So nunier- 
ous are the warriors of the Seventeen Fires. 

"My children, it would grieve your father to let loose his war- 
riors upon his red children; nor will he do it, unless you comiicli 
him; he had rather that they would stay at home and make corn 
for tlieir women and children; but he is not afraid to make war; 
he knows that they are brave. 

THE KiCKAroos. " 133 

''My children, he has men armed with all kinds of weapons; 
those wl'io Hve on the big waters [the sea coast] and in the big 
towns, understand the use of muskets and bayonets [of which 
last the Indians had become very much afraid since their disas- 
trous encounter with Gen. A\'ayne in the engagement on the 
Maumee, in 1794, where the bayonet was used with terrible 
effect], and those who li\-e on this side the mountains [the .Vlle- 
ghanies] use the same arms that you do [long range rides]. 

''My children: The Great Spirit has taught your fathers to 
make all the arms and ammunition which they use; but you do 
not understand this art; if you should go to war with your fathers, 
who would supply you with those things? The British can not ; 
we have driven them lieyond the lakes, and they can not send a 
trader to you without our permission. 

'•]My children, open your eyes to your true interest; your fither 
wishes you to be happ}-. If you wish to ha\'e your minds set at 
ease, come and speak to him. ^ly children, the young man 
[Capt. Prince] who carries this is my friend, and he will speak to 
you in my name; listen to him as if I were to address you, and 
treat him with kindness and hospitality." 

The Kickapoos fought in great numbers and with frenzied 
courage at the battle of Tippecanoe. They early sided with the 
British in the war that was declared between that power and the 
United States the following June; and sent out many v/ar parties, 
that kept the settlements in Indiana and Jllinois in constant 
peril; while other warriors of their tribe participated in almost 
every battle fought during this war along the western frontier. 

As a military ];eople, the Kickapoos were inferior to the ?*Iia- 
mis, Delawares, and Shawnees, in movements requiring large 
bodies of men; but they were preeminent in predatory warfare. 
Small parties, consisting of from five to twenty or more, were the 
usual number com])rising their war parties. These would push 
out hundreds of miles from their villages, and swoop down upon 
a feeble settlement, or an isolated pioneer cabin, and burn the 
property, kill the cattle, steal the horses, capture the women and 
children, and be off again before an alarm could be given. 

AVhile the Tottawatomies and other tribes, in alliance with the 
British, laid siege to ¥t. AVayne, the Kickapoos, assisted by the 
Winnebagoes, were assigned to t-he capture of Ft. Harrison.'' 

* Finished Oct. 28, iSii, and situated on the ea<.i bank of the Waba-h, 
about two iniles above the lower Wea 'J ov.n of " Wa-pvi-ta-no", and a mile 
or more above the present City of Terre Haute, fnd. It was erected ]>y the 
forces under Gov. Harrison, %\!jilc on their way from Vincennes to the Proph- 


They nearly succeeded, and would have taken it but for the most- 
heroic and determined defence, tliat gave its commander, Capt. 
Zachary Taylor, a national renown. 

The plan of the attack was matured by the Kickapoo war chief, 
Pa-koi-shee-can,-'' Avho, in person, undertook the execution of the 
most difficult and dangerous part of it. First tire Indians loi- 
tered about the fort, having a few of their women and children 
with them, to induce a belief that their presence was friendly, 
while the main body of warriors were secreted at a distance wait- 
ing for favorable developments. Pretending they were in want 
of provisions, the men and women were allowed to approach 
near the fort, and were thus given opportunity to inspect the fort 
and its defences. A dark night, giving the appearance of rain, 
favored the plan whicii was at once executed. The warriors were 
brought to the front, and women and children sent to tlie rear. 
Pa-koi-shee-can, with a large butcher knife in each hand, threw 
himself at length upon the ground. He drove a knife, held in 
one hand, into the ground, and drew his body up against it; 
then reached forward with the knife in the other hand, and driv- 
ing that into the ground, again drew himself along. In this v\ay, 
like a snake in the grass, he approached the lower block-house. 
He heard the sentinels on their rounds on the inside of the pali- 
sade. As the guards advanced toward that part of the works 
where the lower block-house was situated, Pa-koi-shee-can would 
lie still; and when the guards made the turn and moved in the 
opposite direction, he again crawled nearer. In this way the 
crafty savage gained the very walls of the block-house. There 
was a crack between the logs of the block-house,+ and through 
this opening the Kickapoo placed a quantity of dry grass, bits of 
wood, and other combustibles, brought for the purpose in a 
blanket, tied pouch fashion upon his back. While the prepara- 
tion for this incendiarism was in progress, the sentinels, in their 

et's Town, during the memorable Tippecanoe campaign; and, by unanimous 
request of all the officers, christened after the name of their commander. It 
was enclosed with palisades, and officers and soldiers barracks, and defended 
at two angles with two block-hou.^es, similar to that seen in illustrations of 
old Forts Wayne and Dearborn. 

* The Bluckhury FUn.:cr, abrevia^trd by the French to La Farine [The 
Flower], the name by which he \vas generally known among the white people. 

t Gen. Harrison also menlions this fact, and adds that this building was 
used for the storage of whisky and salt; that the cattle had licked the chink- 
ing out to get at the salt, and that the opening between the logs was made in 
this way. 


rounds on the opposite side of the block-house, passed within a 
few feet of the place where the hre was about to be lighted. All 
being in readiness, and the sentinels at xht further side of the 
enclosure, Pii-koi-shee-can struck a fire with his flint, and thrust 
it within, and threw his blanket quickly over the opening, to pre- 
vent the blaze from flashing outside, alarming the garrison before 
the building was well on fire. A\'hen assured that the fire was 
well under way, he fell back and gave the signal, when the attack 
was immediately begun by the Indians at the opposite extremity 
of the fort with great fury. The lower block-house burned down 
in spite of all the efforts of the garrison to prevent it; and, for a 
while, the Indians were exultant, feeling assured of a complete 
victory. Capt. Taylor constructed a barricade with material taken 
from another building; and, by the time the block-house had 
consumed, the Indians, to their great disappointment, discovered 
a new line of defence, closing the breach through which they had 
expected to effect an entrance. [The Indian account of the 
attack on Ft. Harrison, as above given, was first published in 
1879, ^^ ths writer's "Historic Notes", etc. It is in harmony 
with offlcial reports, except that the latter, tor want of information 
on the part of those who wrote them, contain nothing as to plans 
of the Indians, nor how the block-house was fired. The account 
given in the text was narrated to the writer by Mrs. Mary A. 
Baptiste, as it was told to her by Pa-koi-shee-can himself. This 
lady, with Christmas Dagney, her first husband, were at Ft. Har- 
rison in 182 1, where the latter was assisting in the disbursement 
of annuities to the Indians then assembled there to receive them. 
The business and spree that followed, occupied two or three days. 
Pa-koi-shee-can was present with some of his people, to receive 
their share of the annuities; and the old chief, havmg leisure. 
edified ^Ir. Dagney and his wife with a minute account of his 
attempt to take the fort, pointing out the positions and move- 
ments of himself and his warriors. As he related the story, he 
warmed up, and indulged in a great deal of pantomime, whicli 
gave force to, as it heightened the effect of, the narration. The 
l)arLiculars are given substantially as Mrs. Baptiste rejjeated then! 
to tlie writer. vShe had never read an account of the engagement.] 
We find no instance in which the Kickapoos were allied \Mth 
either the French or tlie Briti^li, in anv of the intrigues or wars 
for the control of the fiir trade, or the acquisitign of disputed 
territory, in the Northwest. They di<i not mix or mingle theh" 
blood with I'Vench or other white })eo[jle; and, as compared in 
this regard with other tribes, in the voluminous treaties witii tlie 
Federal Government, there is a singular absence of land reserva 


tions in favor of half-breed Kickapoos. Unlike, tlie Illinois, the 
Miamis, and other tribes living upon the lines of the early com- 
merce of the country, or whose villages were marts of the fur 
trade, the Kickapoos kept at a distance, and escaped the demor- 
alization which this trade, and a contact with its unscriipulou?^ 
emissaries, inflicted upon the tribes coming within their baneful 
influence.'-' As compared with other Indians, the Kickapoos 
were industrious, intelligent, and cleanly in their habits, and were 
better armed and clothed. As a rule, the men were tall, sinewy, 
and active: the women litlie. and many of them by no means 
lacking in beauty.t Their dialect is soft and liquid when con- 
trasted with rough, guttural language of the Pottawatoraies. 

With the close of the war of 181 2, the Kickapoos ceased their 
hostilities toward the whites, and a few years later, disposed of 
the residue of their lands in Illinois and Indiana, and, with the 
exception of a few bands, emigrated west of the Mississippi. 
Gov. Reynolds says of them, "They disliked the United States 
so much, that they decided when they left Illinois, that they 
would not reside within the limits of our Government, but would 
settle in Texas. *"t A large body of them did go to Texas; and 
when the Lone Star Republic became a member of the Federal 
Union, these Kickapoos retired to New Mexico; and later, some 
of them went even to old Mexico. Here, on these frontier bor- 
ders, these wild bands have, for years, maintained the reputation 
of their sires, and enterprising race. Col. R. B. Marcy, in 1854, 
found one of their bands upon the Chocktaw reservation, near 
the Witchita River. He says of them, "They, like the Dela- 
wares and Shawnees, are well armed with good riiles, in the use 
of which they arc very expert, and there are no better hunters 
or warriors upon the borders. They hunt together on horseback, 
and after a party of them have passed through a section of coun- 
try, it is seldom that any game is left in their trace. They are 
intelligent, active, and brave, and frequently visit and traffic with 

* Says Maj. Stocklard, in his Sketches of Louisiana, "There is a stvikini; 
difference between those Indians who live in the neigiiborhood of the whites 
and th)se who re>icic at a distance from them. The former, especially if 
accustomed to a X^avj, intercourse, liave wonderfully degenerated. They liave 
gradually imbibed all the vices of theLivhites, and f ngotten their own virtues. 
They are drunkards and thieves, and act on all occasions with the most con- 
humate duplicity." The observations of ALaj. Stoddard are corroborated by 
Gov. Harrison, Jud:;e Jacob Burnett., and other eminent men, speaking from 
their own experience. 

t Gov. Rcync/ids' I'ioneer History of Illinois. 


the prairie Indians, and have no fear of meeting those people in 
battle, providing the odds are not more than six to one against 

The Kickapoos of the A^ermilion, comprising the bands of 
]\Iac-ca-naw, or ]Mas]i-e-na\v {TJie Elk-Honi). Ka-an-a-kuck, an.d 
Pa-koi-shee-can, were the last to emigrate. They lingered in 
Illinois upon the waters of the Embarrass, the Vermilion, and 
its northwest tributaries, until 1S32 and 1833; when they joined 
a body of their people upon a reservation set apart for their use 
west of Fort Leavenvrorth, and within the limits of Brown and 
Jackson Counties, Kansas, where the survivors and the descen- 
dants of those who have died now reside ui)on their farms. 
Their good conduct, comfortable homes, and well - cultivated 
field.s, attest their steady progress in the ways of civilized life. 
The wild bands have always been troublesome along the south- 
western borders; every now and then their depredations form 
the subject of some item of current newspaper notices. P'or 
years the Government failed in its efforts to induce these bands 
to remove to some place within the Indian Territory, where they 
might be restrained from annoying the border settlements of 1 exas 
and New Mexico. Some years ago, a part of the semi-civilized 
Kickapoos in Kansas, preferring their old, wild life, left their 
reservations, and joined the bands to the Southwest. After years' 
wanderings in quest of plunder, they were persuaded to return, 
and in 1875, settled in the Indian Territory, and sup])lied with 
the necessary implements and provisions, to enable them to go 
to work and earn an honest living. In this effort toward reform, 
they are now making commendable progress.'!" In 1875, ^^^*^ 
civilized Kickapoos in the Kansas Agency numbered 385; while 
the wild or iVIexican band numbered 420, as appears from tlie 
official report on Indian affairs for that year. Their numbers 
were never great, as compared with the ^liamis. or Pottawato- 
mies; however, they made up for this deficiency by the energy 
of their movements. In language, manners, and customs, the 
Kickapoos bear a very close resemblance to the Sac and Fox 
Indians, whose allies they generally were, and with whom they 
have, by some vvTiters, been conTounded.:}: , 

* Marcy's "Thirty Years of Army Life on the Korder. " 
t Report of Cominrs. on Indian Affairs. 

* Corroborative of tliis, Geo. Callin, in his admirable work on the North 
American Indians, says, "The Kickapoos had lonc^ lived in alliance with 
Sacs and Foxes, and their languacje was so similar, that the two seemed to be 
almost one family." \)x. Jediah Morse^ .\lt)ert Gallatin, and other American 
authorities could be cited to the same effect, were it at all necessary. 



In ''The Jesuit Relations"', for tlie years 1653 to 1670, inclu- 
sive, this tribe are alluded to luider various names, as Ouirabe- 
gouc, Ouimpegouec, and Ouinibegoutz — the French "Ou" being 
nearly synonymous in the sound of its pronunciation with the 
English letter W,— and was a name given them by the Algon- 
quins, wit'i whom the meaning was Fetid^ translated by the French 
as Puants. The Algonquin tribes called the Winnebagoes, say 
the missionary fathers, by this name because the latter came from 
the westward ocean, or salt water, which the Indians designated 
as the "Fetid AVater "."'•' The Winnebagoes called themselves 
Hochungara [0-chun-ga-ra], or Ochungarand, which is to say, 
on the authority of Dr. Schoolcraft, "the trout nation, or lioroji 
[fish eaters]." They were of the Dacota, or Sioux stock, to 
whose language their own assimilated as nearly as it differed 
radically from that of their Algonquin neighbors. Their incur- 
sion into the ancient territory of the Illinois was strenuously 
opposed by the latter; and the disputed boundary line between 
the two shifted north or south, as the fortune of war favored tlie 
one or the other. The final chances, however, were ^^ith the 
Illinois, whose greater numbers and equal bravery were more 
than a match for their adversaries, who, for the most part, v/ere 
driven well back within the present limits of AV^isconsin, and 
where, in more modern times, they have been regarded as 'a tribe 

* The Winnebagoes were first met with V)y the Jesuit fathers, near the 
moutli of I'ox River — originally called the Kan-kan-lin — at the head of Green 
Bay, Wis. Their presence here gave to the waters of Greeii Bay the first 
name, by which it was designated in the Jesuit Kelations, and the early maps, 
^'' Lac-(ies-Fuants^\ and "Z,? Daye ties Fiiants^K As early as 1647 and 164S, 
it is referred to in "The Relations" as follows: A peninsula, or strip of land, 
quite small, seperates this Superior Lake [referring to Lake Superior] from 
another third lake, called by us UJie lake of the Puanfs\ which also discharges 
itself into our fresh water sea, about- ten leagues more toward the west than 
the Sault," — /. e., the Sault de Ste. Marie, connecting Lake Superior with 
Lake Huron. "On its stiores", continues this "Relation'", "dwell a ditTerent 
people, of an unknown language; that is to say, a language that ii'. neither 
Algonquin nor Huron. These people are called Puants [stinkards], not on 
account of any unpleasant odor that is peculiar to them, but because they say 
they carne from the shores of a sea far distant toward the West, the waters of 
which being salt, they call themselves *the [)eople of the sea'." 



of that State. Still, the territorial claims of the contestants ^vas 
not finally settled until 1825, when, after a nearly continuous 
warfare of almost two centuries with the Illinois or their succes- 
sors, it was agreed at a treaty, held at Prairie du Chien, bet\\'een 
the United States, the Winnebagoes, the Sacs and Foxes, the 
Pottiwatomies, and other attending tribes, that "the Winnebago 
country should be bounded as follows: Southeasterly, by Rock 
River, from its source near the Winnebago Lake [in Central- 
eastern AVisconsin], to the Winnebasro Villaoe, about fortv miles 
above its mouth,"" etc., etc.; [near the mouth of the Peck-a-ton- 
o-kea, Jo Daviess Co., Ill] A map will indicate what portion of 
Illinois this boundary describes. 

As compared with the Algonquin tribes, history records but 
few complaints against the Winnebagoes in the predatory war- 
fare uj)on the white settlements. The bravery of their warriors 
is fully attested, however, in the several engagements with the 
forces of Gov. St. Clair and Gen. Wayne, in which they fought 
with conspicuous courage. The whole tribe were fairly carried 
by Tecumthe and his brother, the Prophet, and gave hearty sup- 
port to all the nefarious schemes of these agitators. Xaw-kaw, 
the principle chief of their jiation, and Hoo-tshoop-kaw, of lesser 
note, were two of Tecumthe's personal attendants, and followed 
him in all his extended missions of proselytism amon^:^ the nations 
of the Mississippi Valley. In the war of 181 2, these two \\'in- 
nebagoes were members of the sacred band, that guarded 
Tecumthe's person; they were near him when he fell, with mor- 
tal wounds, at the battle of the Thames, and assisted in bearing 
his dead body from the field to a place of secure interment.'" 

* At the Treaty of Prairie du Ciiieii, concluded Aug. i, 1829, at which the 
^^'innebagoe5 ceded their lands in Illinois and \Visconsin to the L'nited 
•States, Caleb Atwater, Esq., one of the commissioners acting on the part of 
the latter, there met Naw-kaw, who, he says, "complained to me that, in all 
of our accounts of Tecumthe, ue had only said of him that, 'Winnebago, vdio 
always accompanies Tecumthe', without calling the Winnebago by his name, 
Xaw-kaw Caromaine. " — "Atwater's Tour to Prairie du Chien." The same 
author, in his "History of Ohio", says, in this connection, while at Prairie 
du Chien, in 1829, " ?> aw-caw [Wood] and Hoo-tshoop-kaw [Eour legs] wevQ 
■^vith him; and that, from statements of these constant companions of Tecum- 
the, during nearly twenty years of his life, we proceed to state, that 'iecumtlie 
lay with his warriors in a thick underbrush, on the left of the American army; 
that these Indians were at no period of the battle out of their thick under- 
brush; that Naw-caw saw no officer between tliem and the American army; 
that Tecumthe fell [at] the very first fire of the Kentucky dragoons, pierced by 



At the engagement at Tippecanoe, the conduct of the Winne- 
bago braves was a matter of especial mention. We quote from 
Gen. Harrisons ^Memoirs: '-A Winnebago cliief a|)proached the 
exterior [camp] fire of Capt. Barton's company, where tlie hnes 
had been considerably drawn ni, and pushing up the brands to 
make a hght. squatted down to peck his [gun] flint, or to do 
something with his gun. He was, however, immediately fired at 
from Capt. Cook's company, which was not more than t\\enty 
yards from him, and fell dead into the fire. One of the men 
asked the captain's permission to go and scalp him; and, as no 
attack had been miade on that part of the line for some time, he 
was allowed to go. The Yankee, however, being inexperienced 
in the business, it took him some time to effect it; he was fired 
at, and returned to his company with the scalp in his hand, 
indeed, but with a ball through his body, which caused his death 
in a few hours after. In the course of the battle, the Indian was 
taken off, without being observed by Captain Cook, and conveyed 
to the [Prophets] town, where his body was found and knov\-n 
by its having been scalped and much burned. The body had 
been taken away without Capt. Cook's perceiving it, and is an 
instance of the care with which the Indians remove the dead 
bodies of tlieir friends in action. At Tippecanoe, they rushed 
up to the bayonets of our men, and in one instance, rekited b)' 
Capt. Snelhng, an Indian adroitly put the bayonet of a soldier 
aside, and clove his head with a war-club — ^an instrument on 
which there is fixed a triangular piece of iron, broad enough to 
project several inches from the wood." ''Their conduct on this 
occasion, so difi"erent from what it usually is, was attributed to a 
confidence of success, with which their Prophet had inspired 
them, and to the dist'uiguisJu'd bravery of the JJ'uiiiebago K'arriors." 

The only disturbances with which this people seem to have 
been connected, subsequent to the war of 1S12, was that of the 
so-called Winnebago War [or scare] of 1S27. Several acts of 
reciprocal hostility had been committed between individual Win- 
nebagoes and whites along the upper Mississippi, which soon 
defected the whole tribe, and, for a while, threatened the ];eace 
of the entire northwestern frontier. (]ov. Reynolds, in his ''.My 
Own Times", gives the following account of the cause that pro- 
voked the breach of the peace: "About the last of July, 

thirty Fjullets, and was carried four or five miles into the thick woods, and 
there buried by the warriors, who told the story of hi.^ fate. Ihis account 
was repeated to me three several times word for word, and neitlier of the 
relaters ever knew the fictions to which Tecumthe's death has given use." 


1S27,'" the ^\'innebago V/ar occurred in the country around aiid 
north of Galena, in this State. The cause of this sniah speck of 
of war was a great outrage committed by the Avhites on the 
Indians, which was of such brutahty, that it is painful to record. 
Two keel -boats, of the contractor to furnish provisions for the 
troops at the Falls of St. Anthony, stopped at a large camp of 
the Winnebago Indians, on the river not f.u" above Prairie du 
Chien. The boatman made tlie Indians drunk — and, no doubt, 
were so themselves — when they captured some six or seven 
squaws, who were also drunk. These squaws were Ibrcecl on the 
boat for coiTupt and brutal piirposts.'' [The ^^ords are put in 
Italics by the Governor.] "But not satisfied with this outrage on 
female -virtue, the boatmen took the squaws with them in the 
boats to Fort Snelling, and returned \\\\\\ them. ^Vhen the Indi- 
ans became sober, and knew the injury done them in this ac/icafc 
point, they mustered all their forces, amounting to several hun- 
dreds, and attacked the boats in which the squaws were confined. 
The boats were forced to approach near the shore in a narrow 
pass of the river,t and thus the infuriated savages assailed one 
boat, and permitted the other to pass down in the night. Tlie 
boatmen were not entirely prepared for the attack, although to 
some extent they were guarded against it. They had procured 
some arms, and were on the alert to some degree. The Indians 
laid down in their canoes, and tried to paddle them to the boat; 
but the whites, seeing this, fired their muskets on those in the 
canoes. It was a desperate and furious fight, for a few moments, 
between a good many Indians exposed in open canoes, and only 
a few boatmen, protected to some extent by their boats. One 
boatman, a sailor by profession on the lakes and ocean, who had 
been in many battles with the British during the war of 1012, 
saved the boat and those of the crew who were not killed. The 
man was large and strong, and possessed the courage of an 
African lion. He seized a part of the setting-pole of the boat, 
which was about four feet long, and having on the end a piece of 
iron, which made it weiglity, and a [towertul weapon in the hands 
of Saucy Jack, as this champion is called. It is stated that when 

* Gov. Reynolds errs as to il.e time. I1ie attack on the keel-boat, men- 
tioned a little further on, was on the evening ot June 26; and the grievances 
which induced the assault, occurred some days before that, /7rt!6' a valuable 
paper on the "Early Times in Wi^con-^in", contributed by Hon. James IE 
Eockwood, of P'rairie du Chien, and published in Vol. 2, Wis. Hist. Col. 

+ The place was near the mouth of Bad- Ax River; and the attack wa^ 
made near sunset. Judge Eock wood's paper, before quoted. 



the Indians attempted to board tlie boat, Jack would knock 
them back into the river as fast as they approached. The boat 
got fast on the ground, and the whites seemed doomed, but wiili 
great exertion, courage, and hard fighting, the Indians were 
repelled. The savages killed several white men and wounded 
many more, leaving barely enough to navigate the boat. It is 
said that Jack had four Indian scalps, which he took from tlie 
same number of Indians that he killed himself. In the battle 
the squaws escaped to their husbands, and, no doubt, the wlhtes 
did not try to prevent it. Thus commenced, and thus ended the 
bloodshed of the ^^'innebago ^^'ar."' 

The eftusion of blood v.-ould not have ended here, but for the 
prompt measures taken by Gen. Lewis Cass to prevent it. The 
latter, with Col. Thos. L. ^IcKenney, as commissioners on behalf 
of the United States, were at Butte des ]Morts'" on a day fixed " f 
for a treaty to be held, in part, to settle some matters as to boun- I 

daries that were "left undefined by the treaty of Aug. 19, 1825, | 

at Prairie du Chien", and to establish the boundaries of "the . | 
tract claimed by the former French and British Governments "' at J 

Green Bay. "We quote the following from an article on ''Early . I 
Times in Wisconsin'", A\ritten l)y Lion. H. A. Tenney:t "On the | 

day fixed for the council, not an Indian appeared. Alarmed at f 

this and other hostile signs. Gen. Cass rapidly descended the | 

river [\Visconsin] to Prairie du Chien, where the people had all | 

taken shelter in the garrison, ;}; and where he heard of the attack | 

on the government boat. Hastening to Galena, he notified tlie I 

citizens there of their danger, and advised them to build a block- I 

house for their protection. From Galena Gen. Cass proceeded f 

to Jefterson Barracks [a few miles below St. Louis]. A large | 

force, under Gen. [Henry] Atkinson, immediately came up the | 

* ITie 'Tjutte des Morts" — hill of the dead — near the banks of Fox River, | 
in Winnebago Co., Wis.; a large and apparently artificial mound, said to f 
contain the remains of Indian warriors, killed in ancient battles. Its notoriety | 
dates back of all written history, however early, of this part of the Northwe.-t, | 
and, gathers about it the charms of many traditions. f 

t Published in Vol. I, of the "Wisconsin Historical Collections." I 

* Fort Crawford, Wis., oii the left bank of the ?^Iississippi, just above the %' 
the mouth of the Wisconsin, and so uamed in honor of \Vm. 11. Crawford, , 
Secretary of AVar. I'revious to this, June, 1S14, during the war of 1S12, . ^ 
Prairie du Chien Vv-as cnptured, from emissaries of the I^ritish, by an expedi- '^ 
tion sent up the Mississippi by Cov. Wm. Clark of Missouri, under command ^ 
of Capt. Z. Taylor; j\nd sixty of the latter';-: men, in charge of Lieut. Perkins, | 
remained there and erected a fort, which ihcy named Fort Shelby. | 


river in boats as far as the portage at Fort Winnebago,-'' Clcnerals 
Dodge and Whitesides. with companies of volunteers, following 
•along each side on land, and scouring out the lurking savages. 
A force from Green Bay concentrated on the same spot; and the 
Indians beheld, with dismay, a formidable army in the midst of 
their country. The result ■\\-as a treaty of peace, and the giving 
up of Red Bird [a Winnebago chief], vrho had, a year previous, 
massacred a family near Prairie du Chien.'' 

While, these events were taking place on the Mississippi and 
in Wisconsin, then a part of the Territory of Michigan, matters 
were by no means quiet in northern Illinois. The inhabitants at 
Fort Dearborn, alarmed at the quite apparent unfriendly demeanor 
of the Indians frequenting that Post, and from which the United 
States military forces had been withdrawn, dispatched messengers 
to the Pottawatomie village of Big-Foot, at Geneva Lake, to learn 
the purposes of the Winnebagoes, and ascertain if BigT'oot's 
band intended joining them. The report brought back was not 
favorable, and the excited citizens, at the suggestion of Gurdon 
S. Hubbard, looked toward the Wabash for assistance. Accord- 
ingly, i^Ir. Hubbard, leaving Chicago about four o'clock in the 
evening, following an Indian trail, a distance of a hundred and 
twenty- seven ■ miles, through an uninhabited country, reaching 
the settlements two miles south of Danville in the early afternoon 
of the next day. Within the next twenty-four hours, the Vermil- 
ion-County Battalion, as the inhabitants capable of bearing arms 

* Erected r.ear the head of Eox River, at the Portage, or land carriage, 
between it and the Wi.^con.sin, which, at the time referred to, was right in 
the heart of the "Winnebago country". I'his "carrying place" is a noted 
spot in the di;icovcry and exploration of the Northwest. Here leather Mar- 
quette and Louis Joliet, on tlie loth day of June, 1673, with the assistance of 
their two friendly Miami guides, transported their canoes a distance of '• twenty- 
seven hundred paces" from the scarcely-discernible channel of Fox River, 
choked as it was with a rank and tangled growth of wild oats, to the broad 
current of the Wisconsin; down which they voyaged, says the good father, 
"alone in an unknown country, in the hands of Providence"; and we niay 
add, on a journey that immortalized him an unsuught fame, and first gave the 
Mississippi River the name it bears, and (t(j tliai part of the stream alx)vc the 
mouth of the xVrkansas) a place in geography. Mrs. John H, Kinzie, in her 
"Wau-Bun" — a volume replete with valuable historical matter entertainingly 
arranged, relating to "The I'arly I Jay in the Northwest" — gives a beautiful 
sketch of Fort Winnebago, drawn by her own pencil, as it appeared in 1831, 
while she resided there, her husband having charge of the Indian agency at 
tliat station. 


Avere called, were assembled at Butler's Point, the then connty- 
seat; and a volunteer force of lifty men organized; and on the 
next day — ha\-ing dispersed, in the meantime, to their homes to 
cook up five-days' rations — were on their way to Fort Dearborn, 
where they and Mr. Hubbard arrived on the seventh day after 
his departure. Several days later, word was received of the suc- 
cess of Gen. Cass" movements, and the termination of hostilities.'-' 

In the so-called Black-Hawk AVar, in Illinois and Wisconsin in 
1832, "it was feared"', say Judge Jas. Hall and Col. Thos. L' 
]\IcKenney, in their History of the Indian Tribes of North 
America, '"that the Winnebagoes, inhabiting the country immedi- 
ately north of the hostile Indians, would unite with them, and, 
forming a powerful combination, would devastate the defenceless 
before our Government could adopt measures for its relief The 
opportunity was a tempting one to a savage tribe naturally dis- 
posed to war, and always prepared for its most sudden exigen- 
cies; and many of the \Vinnebagoes were eager to rush into the 
contest. But the policy of Xaw-caw was decidedly pacific, and 
his conduct was consistant with his judgment and his professions. 
To keep his followers from temptation, as well as to place tliem 
under the eye of an agent of our Government, he encamped with 
them near the agency, under the charge of ]Mr. [John H.] Kinzie, 
expressing on all occasions his disapprobation of the war, and 
his determination to avoid all connection with those engaged in 
it. The Indian tribes are often divided into parties, having their 
respective leaders, who alone can control their partisans in times 
of excitement. So among the Winnebagoes; a few restless and 
unprincipled individuals, giving loose to their propensity for blood 
and j)lunder by joining the war parties, while the great body of 
the tribe remained at peace, under the iniluence of their vener- 
able chief"' 

Immediately on the close of the Black-Hawk War, by a treaty 
concluded Sept. 15, 1832, at Ft. Armstrong, at Rock Island, 111., 
the Winnebagoes ceded to the United States all of their lands 
lying south and east of the Wisconsin River and the Fox River 
of Green Bay; and, by a subsequent treaty concluded Nov. i, 
1837, they parted with the residue of their lands lying east of 
the Mississippi. By the terms of this Last treaty, they were to 
remove beyond the river :iame_d within eight months thereafter, 
an engagement they did not comply with until some three years 

* A more detailed account of the Winnebago War, as it manifested itself 
in the vicinity of Chicago, will be found in Number Ten of Fergus' Historical 
Series. / 


I after. After being unceremoniously changed about from one 

I reservation to anotiier, by the United States Government, with 

I little regard for its solemn stipulations, to suit ca])rices and avarice 

I of the ever-encroaching white immigration, we find the AA'inneba- 

I goes, in 1S65, settled (let us trust permanently) on the Omaha 
Reservation in Nebraska, where the superintendent of Indian 
affairs, in his report for that year, says of them: "This tribe is 

I characterized by frugality, thrift, and industry to an extent 

I imequaled by any other tribe of Indians in the Northwest. 

f. Loyal to the Government, and peaceful toward their neighbors, 

I they are entitled to the fostering care of the General Govern- 

S ment." It seems that the shifting of them about for a number of 

I preceding years had been their means of education and religious 

I instruction; for, in December, 1864, we find they 'addressed the 

I President as follows: 'Tt is our sincere desire to have again 

I established among us such schools as we see in operation among 

I your Omaha children. Father, as soon as you find a permanent 

I home for us, will you not do this for us? And, father, as we 

I would like our children taught the Christian religion as before, 

I we would like our schools placed under the care of the Presby- 

I. terian Board of Foreign Missions. And last, father, to show you 

I our sincerity, we desire to have set apart for its establishment, 

I erection, and support, all of our school funds, and whatever more 

I is necessary.' 

I Again; the Government agent, in his report for 1S66, says, 

I concerning the Winnebagoes: "There has returned to the tribe, 

I within the few past weeks, about one hundred soldiers, who have 

i served, with credit to themselves and to their tribe, in defence of 

* their county. I consider the Winnebagoes one of the best tribes 

I of Indians in the country, and, with pro|)er treatment, they v/ill 

» soon become a self-sustaining, prosperous people." In 1863, their 

I fighting men were estimated at three hundred and sixty. I'he 

I census report of their numbers in 1865 gave them nineteen hun- 

i dred, omitting those still remaining in Wisconsin. "They are a 

i vigorous, athletic race, and received from the Sioux the name of 

I 0-toii-ha, which is said to mean 'the large and strong people'."'^ 

I 'I'hey given a name to a lake, a fort, a town, and county in 

I ^Viscorjsin, and to a county in northern Illinois. 

% * Geo. Gale's "Upper Mississippi." 



The Foxes called themselves Mosk-wah-ha-kee, a name com- 
pounded from the two words in their language, Mosk-wali [red] 
and Ha-kee [earth], Red Earths, or, they of the Red Earth 
Their totem or armorial device was a fox,''' and it is, doubtless, 
from this circumstance that they were called Outagamies (accord- 
ing to French orthography) or Foxes by neighboring tribes, and 
the signification of which French writers have preserved in the 
translation ''Les Renards'\ Eike the Illinois, Miamis, and Kick- 
apoos, already treated of, the Foxes were, also, a subdivision of 
the great Algonquin family; and their differences in dialect, man- 
ners, and customs from those of other tribes of the same stock, 
were caused by the differences of their surroundings. t 

We first hear of the Foxes on the north shore of Lake Ontario. 
engaged in an unnatural alliance with the Iroquois in the exter- 
minating war then being waged by the latter upon the Flurons; 
and, "by attempting to keep terms with botli parties, pleased 
neither. They soon drew ui)on themselves the enmity of their 
kindred tribes, and the execrations of the French, who heapc^l 
upon them and their vacillating policy every term of reproach. 
And later they were driven from old Toronto through the strait> 
of Niagara to Detroit-^'J From Detroit they seem to have run 
the gauntlet of neighboring and hostile tribes around the shores ot 
Lake Huron to Mackinac, and from thence to the river wliich 
has ever since borne their name, where, near its debouchmer.i 
with the southern extremity of Oreen Bay, Wisconsin, they found 
a refuge from tlieir enemies that v/as only temporary at best. 
Here we leave them, for the moment, to notice their brethren. 
the Sacs, and give the brief account, which meager historical 
mention has preserved of the latter, down to the period of time 

* Official report of M. de la Chauvignerie on the " Indian Tribes conneciC'l 
with the Government of Canada, tlie Warriors and armorial bearings of each 
Nation, 1736." 

+ '"The Foxes speak a well-char;iclerized (Halect of the Algonquin; a not- 
able difference being the substitution of tiic letter I wherein the Chippewa^ 
u^e the letter n." Address (and note appended) of Hon. Henry R. School- 
craft on "The Origin and Character of the North American Indians", etc., 
etc. Delivered before the Historical .Society of Michigan. 

X Schoolcraft's same Address. 


when the two tribes again met, this time iiiion tlie waters of Fox 
River, "\\'i5Consin, and united in a bond of fellowship that was 
never after broken. 

Ousakis; Sakys; Saiiks; 0-sauk-ies; Ou-sa-ki-uek [tlie uek 
giving the plural number to the noun]; 0-sau-kee; and, by cus- 
tom of modern wTiters, abbreviated to Sacs, are the appellations 
by which this people were known. The name seems to have 
originated with the tribe, and to have been derived from tw^o 
words in their tongue, r/s. ,• Os-sa-Vv'ah [yellow] and Ha-kee 
[earth or land]; which is to say, the Yellow Earths, or they of 
the Yellow Land. French writers have very little to say of the 
Sacs — and for the matter of that, the Foxes, too — ^prior to the 
time when they eftected a lodgment in Wisconsin. 

The great chief. Black Hawk, distinguished alike as a warrior 
and a historian, well learned in the traditions of his tribe, in liis 
autobiography gives the following early account of his people:''' 

"I was"', says Black Hawk, ",born at the Sac village, on Rock 
River, in the year 1767, and am now in my 67th year. My 
great-grandfather, Xa-na-ma-kee, or Thunder (according to the 
tradition given me by my father, Py-e-oa), was born in the vici- 
nity of Montreal, where the (ireat Spirit first placed the Sac 
nation, and inspired him with a belief that, at the end of four 
years, he would see a n'hitc man [alluding to the coniing of tl^e 
French] who would be to him a father." '^ " '^ "After a 
long time, the British overpowered the French (the two nations 
being at war), drove them away from Quebec, and took posses- 
sion of it themselves.t I'he diflerent tribes of Indians around 
our nation envying our peo{)le, united their forces against tliem, 
and succeeded, by their great strength, to drive them to Mon- 
treal, and from thence to Mackinac. Here our ]jeople first met 
our British father, who furnished them with goods. :{; Their ene- 

* The contents of this little book was dictated by lUack Hawk himself, in 
1S33, to Antf)inc r>e Clair, U. S. Interpreter for the Sacs and Foxes at Jvock 
Fland, Illinois, in presence of J. 1.. Patterson of the same place, and by the 
latter written down at the time, and by whom it was, the next year, 1834, 
"^opyrii^hted and pu!)lished. 

t I'lack Hawk doubtless refers liere to the surrender of (Quebec by M. de 
<'liamplain to the IJriti.^h fleet conimandetl-by the l)rothcrs Sir David, Louis, 
ind Thomas Kertk, or Kirke, in 1629. 

•t Taken in the sense that the Fox and Sacs 7<'<7// to Mackinac for the pur- 
i'O.-^es of barter; Dlack Hawk's statement as to meeting iJritish traders there 
is confirmed by official documents, b(jth French and l.nglisli. Otherwise, and 
<'\vin^' to an infirndty common to a race havmg no written records and givinij 



mies still pursued them, and drove them to different ])laces on 
the lake, until the\' made a village near Green Bay, on what is 
now called S'Jl River, having derived its name from this circum- 
stance. Here they held a council with the Foxes, and a national 
treaty of friendship and alliance was concluded upon. The 
Foxes abandoned their village and joined the Sacs. This ar- 
rangement being mutually obligatory upon both parties, as nei- 
ther was sufficiently strong to meet their enemies with any ho})e 
of success, they soon became as one band or nation of people." 
On their way up the lakes, the Sacs remained in Northeastern 
Michigan a sufficient time to give their name to Saginaw Bay, as 
the word is now spelled : the orthography of early French writers 
being Sac-e-nong [the place of the Sacs]; Sak-i-nau; Sag-i-nau, 
in all which its derivation is more nearly preserved. They could 
not, however, have occupied that vicinity long enough to make 
it "the principal seat of their power'', as affirmed by Judge 
James Hall and Col. Thos. L. McKinney, in their "Historv of 
the Indian Tribes of North America''; elsewise French authori- 
ties would contain a niore extended mention of them in this con- 

little care to chronology, there is a confusion as to dates. Traders froiii the 
British Colony of New York M'ere at Mackinac with Indian i,u)C)ds in 16S5. 
where they made so profitable a venture as to invite a Larger expedition in iIk' 
fall of 1686. This last, the following year, paddling their canoes up the lakes 
by way of Niagara, in two detachments, one comnianded by Rosebooni, an 
Albany Dutchman, in advance, the other by McGregory, were intercepted 
and captured by the watchful French and their Indian allies; the former, on 
Lake Huron, by Durantaye, and McGregory's party by LaSalle's lienienant, 
the Chevalier Henry de Tonty, on Lake Erie, "at the distance", says Tonty, 
■"of twenty leagues from Niagara". The immediate building of a foit at tlio 
inouth of the Niagara River, and the establishment of a similar defence near 
Detroit shortly after, effectually barred British subjects out of the Western 
country'. FiW^ "Tonty's Account, etc., of LaSalle", "P'rancis Parkman's 
Frontenac", and "New France under Louis XIV.", and authorities there 
cited. It will be seen farther on that the Jesuit fathers make mention ot tlv: 
Fo.\es and Sacs as living at;out the upper extremity of (ireen Bay in 1606. 
some twenty years l>e/b;-e the breaking up of the British trade upon the upper 

* Professor Schoolcraft and Dr. E. B. O'Callyhan— the able editor of the 
Documentary, as well "The Colonial History of New York" — buJi adept.> 
in this special field of enquiry, concur with the traditions given by Black 
Hawk of his people as having formerly livefl along the north shore of Lake 
Ontario. Dr. John Gilmary ^ihea — of equal high standard authority in the 


I The years 1669-1670 bring the Fox and Sac fairly within the 

I range of rehable historical mention, although they had been 

I referred to, two years before, in definite terms in the ''Jesuit 

I Relations'' of 1666 and 1667, Father Claude Allouez, who had 

I already, early in December, 1666, established a mission at the 

I mixed village of Ottawas, Potta\vatoraies, Foxes and Sacs, near 

I the site of the present city of Green Ba}^, calling it "The Mis- 

I sion of St. Francis Xavier"', for the reason that he said his first 

I mass there on the festival day of that saint. ^ In a pastoral 

letter sent from this mission to his revd father superior, says: 
"The 16th of April [1670], I embarked to go and commence 
the mission of the Outagamis, a people well known in all these 
parts. + We were lying at the head of the bay, at the entrance 
of River of the Puants [Fox River], which we have named the 

I whole department of aboriginal history — on the contrary, dissents and says he 

I "can find nothing in early French writers to support the assertion." And 

that "the Sacs certainly were never much to the eastward of Lake St. Clair." 
Vide s. valuable paper on "The Indian Tribes of Wisconsin", contributed by 
him to and published in Vol. III., of the "Historical Collections of that 
State". This conflict of opinion niay be readily reconciled on the theory 
that the absence of mention of the Foxes and Sacs as dwelling along Lake 
Ontario, by early French writers, may be owing to the fact that they may 
have been referred to under some other name, as was the case with the Ojeb- 
ways or Chippeways about Lake vSuperior. It is notorious that the Jesuit 
fathers, whose princi[)al missions were in that quarter, in their many enumer- 
ations of the surrounding Indian nations, say the "Chippeways are never once 
mentioned by tJiat name," although they were the most numerous, and the 

I tribe with which the fathers had most to do, and in the very heart of whose 

I country tlieir sacred altars were erected. Vide Albert Gallatin's "Synopsis of 

I the Indian Tribes of North America". 

I * Father Claude Alloucz's Journal and Dr. Shea's Catholic Missions. 

\ \ Hall and McKinucy, in their "History of N. A. Indians", not having 

access to reliable data^ erroneously state that after their defeat and almost 
destruction near Detroit, aheady referred to in the chapter on the Kickapoos, 
"the remainder of the Foxes, with the Sauks, migrated to the country be- 
tween Green Bay and the Mississippi, and established themselves upon Fox 
River," The official report of the otU(X-r, IJuisson, who commanded the 
French and their Indian allies, shows that this attack upon Detroit took place 
in 1712; while, as is clearly seen from Fatlu.r Allouez's letter, the l-'oxcs and 
Sacs were "a people well known" about Green Uay and up Fox River nearly 
a half of a century before the time assigned by Hall and' McKinney as the 
<jate of their migration thither. ' 

M| I 


Sf. Francis: in passing we saw clouds of swans, bustards, and 
ducks; the sa\age3 take tlieni in nets at the liead of the bay, 
where they catch as many as fifty in a night: this game in the 
autumn seek the wild-rice that the wind has shaken oft' in the 
month of September. The seventeenth, we went up tlie River 
St. Francis, which is two and sometimes three arpents wide." 
x\fter having advanced four leagues, we found the village of the 
savages named Saki, who began a work that nunits well to ha\'e 
its place here. From one side of the river to the other, they have 
made a barricade, planting great stakes, two fathoms from tlie 
water, in such a manner that it is, as it were, a bridge above [the 
stream] for the fishers, who. by the aid of a little bow-net, easily 
take sturgeons and all other kinds of fish which this barricade 
stops, while it permits the water to flow between the stakes. 
They call this device. iMitch-i-can, and make use of it in the 
spring and a part of the summer. The eighteenth, we made the 
portage which they call Ke-kal-ing [the first or little rapids of 
Fox River]; our sailors drew the canoe through the rapids; while 
I walked alor.g the bank of the river, where I found appletrees 
and vine-stocks in abundance. 

"The nineteenth, our sailors ascended the [second] rapids, by 
using poles, for two leagues. I went by land as far as the other 
portage, whicli they call ()u-ko-ci-ti-ming, which is to say, tlie 
highway. Wo. observed this day the eclipse of the sun predicted 
by the astrologers, which lasted from mid-day until two o'clock. 
The third, or near it, of the body of the sun api)eared eclii)sed : 
the other two-thirds formed a crescent. ^Ve arrived in the even- 
ing at the entrance of the Lake of the Puants [Lake WinnebagOj- 
which we have called Lake Francis; it is about twelve leagues 
long and four wide; it is situated from northeast to southwest, 
and abounds in fish; but is uninhabited on account of the Nad- 
oue-cis [Sioux] v,-ho are here dreaded.t The twentieth, which 

• The arpent is, primarily, a French acre of land, the sides of which arc \\\ 
in length one hundred and eighty Paris feet, equal to one liundred and ninety- 
two feet and nearly three inches Englisli measurement. 

t This fact, stated by Father AUouez, illustrates the extent to which the 
Dak-co-tas pushed their incursions, for game and scalps, eastward. Indeed, 
they claimed as their exclusive huntin^-"grounds the territory clear up to the 
shores of Lake Superior and Clreen Bay; and the Iiistory of the Ojelnvays, 
not within the scope of this volume, and who made common cause with the 
Fox and Sac, is but the story of a continuous warfare of nearly one hundred 
and fifty years duration agninst the Siouv, which resulted finally in driving 
them permanently westward beyond the Mississip[;i. 


Avas on Sunday, 1 said mass, after having navigated five or six 
leagues in the lake; after which \\e arrived in a ri\-er that comes 
from a lake [Pahwaikan Lake] of wild-rice, into which we came, 
and at the foot of which we found the river [Fox] which leads, 
on the one side, to the Outagamis, and on the other, the stream 
[Wolf River] that leads to the Machkoutenck [Mascoutins]. ^Ve 
entered the former, which comes from a lake where we saw two 
wild turkeys perched on a tree, male and female, exactly like, 
in size, color, and cry, those of P^rance. The bustards, ducks, 
swans, and geese are of great numbers in all these lakes and 
rivers, attracted tliither by the wild-rice, which is their food. 
There is also to be found here large and small deer, bears, and 
beavers in sufficient numbers. The twenty-fourth, after many 
turns and windings in the different lakes and rivers,"^ we arrived 
at the village of the Outagamis. 

"This nation is renowned for being numerous. They have 
more than four hundred men bearing arms. The immber of 
Avomen and children is greater on account of ]5olygamy which 
exists among them — each man having commonly four wives, some 
of them six, and others as hi^h as ten. * * '" These sav- 
ages have retreated to these parts to escape the Iroquois; they 
are settled in an excellent country; the soil, which is here black, 
yields them Indian-corn in abundance. In the winter, they live 
by the chase;- about the end of it they return to thtir cabins, and 
there live on Indian-corn, which they had put in cache [the name 
of pits prepared in the ground for that purpose] in autumn, and 
which they season with fish. They have a fort in the midst ot 
their forest, where their cabins of thick bark are, to resist all 
kinds of attacks. In traveling they lodge themselves with mats. 
They are at war with the Nadiouecious, their neighbors. t They 

* For many miles below the portage to the Wisconsin, P^ox River expands 
into several little lakes; and the crooked meanders of the stream through the 
prairies well justifies the tradition of tlie Winnebagoes, related by Mrs. Kin- 
zic in her " Wau-bun ", concerning its origin. A great serpent, living in the 
v.aters of the Mississippi, took a notion to visit the lakes; he left his trail 
whc-re he crossed over the prairie, which, collecting the rains as they fell from 
licaven, in time became Fox River I And, that lady adds, "the little lakes 
along its course v.ere, probably, the places v/here he flourished about at night 
in his uneasy slumbers." 

t Nadioue-cious, or Xadous-sioux, was in general terms a woid signifying 
enemies, and was especially applied, by all the v/estvvard tribes, to the Daco- 
tas (as the latter have always called themselves); and by common custom of 
v-'riters in later times, only the terminal i)art of the word, Sioux, is used. 


do not make use of canoes; for this reason they do noi: make 
war upon the Iroquois, ahhough they are often killed by them. 
They are very much disparaged, and reputed by other nations as 
penurious, avaricious, thievish, and quarrelsome. They have a 
small idea of the French since two traders in beaver-skins have 
appeared among them. If they had conducted themselves there 
as they ought, I would have had less trouble to give these poor 
people other ideas of the French nation, whom they began to 
esteem since I explained to them the principal and only motive 
which brought me among them."'" 

The Foxes and Sacs had no more than secured a firm lodg- 
ment in their fortified villages in Wisconsin, until we find their 
marauding parties stirring up mischief in every direction. One 
of these, October 28, 1679, struck LaSalle, who, on his voyage 
of exploration of the Mississippi, had navigated the western 
shore of Lake Michigan, and, reaching its southern extremity, 
was comj)elled, by stress of weather, to land his canoes upon the 
sand-hills not a gi-eat way east of South-Chicago. LaSalle, see- 
ing a footprint, enjoined his men to be on their guard and to 
make no noise. Says Father Hennepin (who is the historian of 
this expedition — from the time of its organization at Fort Fron- 
tenac, as Toronto, Canada, was then called, in the fall of 1678^ 
until the time of its abandonment at the foot of Peoria Lake, 
Illinois, early in January, 1680): "All of our men obeyed for a 
time, but one of them, perceiving a bear, could not restrain him- 
self from firing his gun at the animal, which, being killed, rolled 
from top to bottom of the mountain [as he calls the sand-hill] to 
the very foot of our cabins. The report of the gun discovered 
to us one hundred and twenty-five Indians of the nation of tlie 
Oiitonagamies, living near the extremity of the Bay of the Puant?, 
and who were cabined in our vicinity." That LaSalle, to guard 
against surprises, placed a sentinel over his upturned canoes, 
under which he had sheltered his goods against the rain. Not- 

* It is difficult to locate, with any dei^ree of certainty, the site of the forti- 
fied village of the Foxes, visited by Fatlier Allouez. From the statement in 
his journal of his having passed through several of the lakes or expansions of 
P'ox River before reaching the town, i! may be assumed tliat it was situated 
not a great v/ay northeast of Portage.,.City, and pr()l>ab!y in Alar'juette (.■ouriLv, 
Wisconsin. It could not liave been in the near vicinity of the I'ortage; or 
else the Father's journal — so replete v/ith details of the tofjography of tlie 
country through which he traveled, as well that laying adjacent to his route — 
would have contained some reference to the Portage, and, more than all, to- 
the Wisconsin River flashmg its broad current onv^'ard to tlie Mississippi. 


withstanding these precautions, thirty of these Foxes, under the 
dark cover of a rainy night, sneaked along on their beUies, one 
behind the other, making, as it were, a chain from their comrades- 
stationed at a safe distance to the canoes, from which they passed 
their stolen plunder backward from hand to hand. The negli- 
gent sentinel linally aroused the camp to arms; which stopped 
further depletion of the canoes. The rogues, finding themselves 
discovered, their spokesman called out that " he was a friend. ''' 
In answer he was told "that it was an unseasonable hour, and 
that people did not come in that way by night except to steal or 
kill those who were not on their guard. He replied that, in truths 
the shot that had been fired had made his countrymen all think 
that it was a party of Iroquois, their enemies, as the other Indi- 
ans, their neighbors, did not use such fire-arms, and that they 
had accordingly advanced with the intent of killing them ; but 
having discovered that they were Frenchmen, whom they regarded 
as their brethren, the impatience which they felt to see them had 
prevented their waiting for daylight to visit us and to smoke in 
our calumet with us, which is the ordinary complement of these 
Indians and the greatest mark of affection." Nothing short of 
LaSalle's skilful, prompt, and daring measures would have saved 
his party from wholesale robbery and total destruction. Feign- 
ing assurance of the Foxes' friendly intentions, until morning,. 
when, with pistol in hand, he seized one of their braves, and — 
through another whom he captured and released— notified the 
band that he would kill him unless restitution of the stolen pro- 
perty was made. The Foxes would have complied on the spot^ 
but for the dilemma they found themselves in from the circum- 
stance that among the property taken was the coat of LaSalle's 
attendant, which they, in making a fair division of the spoils, had 
torn in pieces and cut off the buttons. Therefore they resolved 
to rescue their comrade at the hazard of a fight. They advanced 
in full force upon the camp of LaSalle, who boldly went out to 
meet them, his men having blankets half rolled about their left 
arms as a shield against their enemies' arrows. The savages 
wavered; and having no stomach for an encounter upon a fair 
field in the glare of daylight, a parley ensued. They agreed tO' 
give back all except the coat, and to pay for that. 

The bad name of the Foxes amoni)^ their neicrhbors clung to- 
them in later times; and Judge James Flail, drawing his conclu- 
sions from sources reviewed while preparing his volumes on the 
North American Indians, fitly characterizes them as "always [the] 
restless and discontented Ishrnaelites of the lakes; their hand 
against every man, and every man's hand against them.'' Of all 


the Western Algonquin tribes they alone (and their immediate 
kinsman, the Kickapoos) were the soHtary exception, in their 
irreconcilable enmit_v toward the French, who — barring the single 
instance during a brief interval of the French Colonial War, 
where twenty Foxes and thirty- three Sacs, influenced, probal)ly, 
out of motives of plunder, or a personal regard for the Canadian 
traders who recruited them, assisted in the capture of Forts 
George and William Henry — had no permanent peace and never 
any alliance with them. The fur- trade with tribes along the 
upper Mississippi had no more than been fairly establislied, until 
the Foxes effectually blockaded its passage through their country 
by way of the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers, by far the most feasible 
route, and compelled the coiwcurs de bois to take the more cir- 
cuitous and difficult one around the south and western shore of 
Lake Superior.* 

We have seen from official documents referred to in the chap- 
ter on the Kickapoost that, in 1694, the Foxes, f^^aring the Sioux 
would come and seize their village, meditated a migration to the 
Wabash. Three years later, Aug. 29th, 1697, M. de la Motte 
Cadillac — illustrious for eminent services other than that of being 
the layer of the foundation of Fort Ponchartrain, in 1701, in the 
present city of Detroit — arrived at Montreal, with several canoes 
of French traders, and a large delegation of Indians from the 
upper lakes, whose several tribes the intendant (as the French 
provincial governor was called) was trying to induce to cease 
their warfare upon each other, and join the French in a grand 
eftbrt to break the power of the Iroquois, the dreaded enemy of 
all. Four days later, Cadillac repaired to Quebec with the prin- 
cipal chiefs, and ai)peared with them before the intendant. Count 
Frontenac. Among the deputation was a Fox, who, on behalf of 

* In a lengthy resume of the occurrences in Canada in 1692-3 (and of 
which the whole of tiie Northwest was then a part), the crown is officially 
advised that " Le Sueur, another voyager \coureiir dc bois or trader], is to 
remain at Chagouainigon, and to endeavor to maintain the peace lately con- 
cluded between the Saulteurs [/.<?., the Ottawas and others living at the Sault 
de Sainte Marie] and the Scioux. " "This is of the greatest consequence, as it 
is now \.\\i:t sole pass by which access can be had to the latter nation, wdiose 
trade is very profitable, the country to.the south being occupied by the ]'"oxe •; 
and the Masscoutins, who have already, several times, plundered the French 
under pretence that they were carrying ammunition to the Scioux, their an- 
cient enemies. These frequent interruptions would have been punished ere 
this, had we not been occupied elsewhere." 

THE FOX AND SACS. -^ . 1 55 

his tribe, addresses the intendant thus: "What shall I say to ray 
father? I have come all naked to see him; I can give no assist- 
ance; the Sioux ties my arms; I kill him because he beqan; 
father, be not angry with me for doing so. I liave come here 
only to hear you and execute your will."' To which Count Fron- 
tenac replies: "Fox! I now speak to you. Your young men 
have no sense. You have a bad heart, and mine was beginnmg 
to be worse disposed than yours, liad you not come to hear my 
word and do my will. 1 had resolved to send M. de la r\Iotte 
[Cadillac] with a party of my young men on a visit to your vil- 
lage; and that would have been unfortunate, for, no doubt, your 
women and children \\'ould ha\'e been frightened by them. ■■' "''■ '■' 
I am not willing you should return home naked, as you would have 
probably done if you had not come to see me. '•' ''' ''" Here 
are some guns, powder, and ball that I give you. Make good 
use of them; not in killing your allies; not in killing buffalo or 
deer; but in killing the Iroquois, who is in much greater want of 
powder and iron [meaning guns, hatchets, knives, and other 
implements manufactured from this metal]. Remember, it is 
7iV7;' alone that causes true men to be distinguished; and that it 
is aiving to war that I, this da}-, Vwow you by your name. Noth- 
ing gives me greater pleasure than to see the face of a warrior. 
Here is what I give you, and you can now depart as soon as 
you please." After the presents had been distributed, Frontenac 
added: "No more ])owder and iron will be conveyed to the 
Sioux; and if my young men {i.e., subordinates, traders] carry 
any thither, I will punish them severely."'-' 

'I'he Fox and Sacs were blamed as being the principals who 
induced British traders to come up the lakes; and their hatred 
was the more inflamed toward the French because the latter, in 
1 701, erected a permanent garrison on the Detroit River in order, 

* In the diplomacy of words, uttered to disguise rather than to express, the 
true sentiments of the speakers, the honors between the Indian and the 
Frenchman were even. There was no sincerity in either. Indeed, we are 
informed, further on in the document from which these speeches are taken, 
that Frontenac, expecting no peace with them, was merely talking to gain 
time to withdraw hir. traders out of the reach of the Foxes, having already 
revolved not to send aiiy more goods-. to their country. The war with the 
Sioux was a circumstance from which the spokesman of the Foxes could 
frame a pretext for their declining to let their enemies nearer home, alone, to 
join in a war upon the Iroquois; and had there been no war at his cabin 
doors, the wiley speaker would have as readily framed some other excuse, for 
the conduct of his [)Cople, in its stead. 



among other reasons, to shut those traders out. For several 
years after, their busy marauding bands infested the coast Hne of 
northern Ohio and eastern oNIichigan, from the Maumee to I-akc 
Huron; intercepting the postal-route communication with "the 
IlHnois country;'' plundering French traders; and harassing the 
French settlement, then crystallizing about the fort at Detroit. 
Affairs ^yent on at this rate for ten or eleven years, until 17 12, 
when the Foxes and their brethren, the Kickapoos and embold- 
ened Mascoutins, by the war between England and France, 
massed their warriors for the purpose of capturing Detroit and 
driving the French out of the country. And they would have 
succeeded but for the timely arrival of Indian allies, who hastened 
to the succor of the beleaguered garrison. What terrible retribu- 
tion befell the aggressors in this attack is shown in that part of 
the French commander's report already quoted. Father Charle- 
voix, in his "History of New France",''' says: "They [the Iro- 
quois] had shortly before [1711] raised up against us a new 
enemy as brave as themselves, less politic, much fiercer, Avhom 
we have never been able to tame or subdue; and who, like those 
insects that seem to have as many lives as parts of their body, 
spring to life again, so to say, after their defeat, and reduced 
almost to a handful of brigands, appear everywhere, aroused the 
hatred of all the nations on this continent, and, for the last 
tventy-five years and more, have interrupted commerce, and ren- 
dered the roads almost impracticable for more than five hundred 
leagues around. These are the Outagamis, or commonly caheci 
the F'oxes. * '^ * They had recently confederated with Iro- 
quois, and had apparently, through thehi, just formed an alliance 
with the British. They had promised the latter to burn the tort 
of Detroit, to massacre all the French, and introduce Britisii 
troops into the fort,"' etc. Charlevoix then describes the siege 
and its results, after which he says: "However, the Outagamis 
incensed rather than subdued by the severe loss sustained ai 
Detroit in 17 12, infested with robberies and filled with murders 
not only the neighborhood of The Bay [Green Hay], their natu- 
ral territory, but almost all the routes communicating with the 
remote colonial posts, as well as those leading from Canada lo 
Louisiana. Except the Sioux, who often joined them, and the 

* We quote from this most extended anrl autlientic history of the colojiiza- 
tion of the French upon the North American coiitinen!. evt-r published, and 
only recently (in 1S71) translated into the lvnL,disli lani:,aiage by Prof. John 
Gilmary .Shea, whose addition of copious foot-notes to the text has greatly 
enhanced its value. 

THE FOX AND SACS. ' . 1 57 

Iroquois, with whom they had formed an alHance but who did 
not seem to help them, at least openly, all the nations in com- 
merce with us suffered greatly from their hostilities; and there 
was reason to fear that, unless a remedy was promptly applied, 
most of them would make terms with these Indians to our detri- 
ment. This induced the Marquis de Vaudreuil [governor-gen- 
eral of New France] to propose to the neighboring tribes that they 
should join him in exterminating the common enemy. All con- 
sented, and the general raised a party of Frenchmen, assigning 
the command to Louvigny, who was then the king's lieuten- 
ant at Quebec. ^Nlany Indians joijied this commandant on the 
route, and he soon found himself at the head of eight hundred 
men, firmly resolved not to lay down their arms as long as an 
Outagamie was left in Canada. All supposed that tribe on the 
brink of utter destruction; and the tribe itself judged so too, 
when it saw the storm gathering against it, and they only thought 
of selling their lives as dearly as possible." 

We here leave off Charlevoix's account, and quote from M. de 
Louvigny's official report of the action, which, lor the first time, 
appears printed in a late volume of the "'Wisconsin Historical 

On reaching the principal fortified town of the Foxes — a 
•Stronghold on Fox River, Wisconsin, and located, according to 
Judge Wm. H. Smitli of that State, at Butte des Morts, or hill ot 
the dead — a theory, too, that is supported by several traditions 
of the Foxes themselves; and, says Fouvigny, "after three days 
of open trenches, sustained by a continuous fire of fusileers, with 
two pieces of cannon and a grenade mortar, they were reduced 
to ask for peace, although they had five hundred warriors in the 
fort, who fired briskly, and more than three thousand women; 
they also expected shortly a reinforcement of three hundred 
men. But the promptness with which my otficers pushed for- 
ward the trenches that I had opened at only seventy yards from 
the fort, made the enemy fear, the third night, that they would 
be taken. As I was now only twenty-four yards from their fort, 
my aim was to reach their triple-oak stakes by a ditch of a foot 
and a-half in the rear. Perceiving very well that my balls had 
not the effect I anticipated, I decided to take the place at the 
first outset, and to explode two mines under their curtains. The 
boxes being in place for this purpose, I did not listen to the ene- 
mies' first proi)osition. 'J'hey having made a second one, I sub- 
mitted it to my allies, who consented to it on the conditions: that 
the Foxes and t/uir allies would make peace with all Indians 
who are submissive to the king, and with whom the French are 


engaged in trade. I'hat they would return to me all the French 
prisoners that they have, and those captured durini;- the v/ar from 
all our allies (all which was complied with immediately). That 
they would take slaves from distant nations and dehver them to 
our allies to replace their dead. That they would hunt to pay 
the expenses of this war. And, as a security for keeping their 
word, they were required to deliver me six of their chiefs, or chil- 
dren of chiefs, as hostages, until the entire execution of our 
treaty; which they did, and I took them with me to Quebec."' 

Having already occupied more s])ace than is allotted to the 
Fox and Sacs, we forbear further quotations from authorities and 
copies of official manuscripts at hand to show tlie troublesome 
relations between them and the French colonies for the following 
fifty years; but from these sources of information we summarize 
the statement that the Foxes and Sacs were far from being either 
subdued or exterminated; that, in 17 18, they had gained a lirm 
footing upon Rock River, Illinois ; and four years later, without 
yielding their hold of the territory conquered in Vv'isconsin. 
they and the Kickapoos and jNIascoutins had driven the last rem- 
nants of the Illinois tribes south beyond the Illinois, leaving 
nothing to check their raids along that river, and rendering com- 
munication between the lower-Mississippi settlements a]-)d those 
of Canada almost impracticable. Black Hawk says ihe Sacs 
and Foxes "were driven, by the combined forces of their ene- 
mies, to the Wisconsin. They remained there some time, until 
a party of their young men (who had descended Rock River to 
its mouti]) returned and made a favorable report of the country; 
when they all descended Rock Ri\'er,-' drove the Kas-kas-kias 
from the country, and commenced the erection of a village 
[shortly above Rock Island] determined never to leave it; and 
at this village I was born,"' etc. 

It may be incjuircd how the Foxes and Sacs repaired tlie in- 
ces.sant drain on th>jir numbers caused by their constant wars 
east, west, and south against neighboring tribes, who always had 
.the moral support and often the direct assistance of the French. 
Their polygamous practices would aid only in a degree; while the 
real explanation will be found in their custom — borrowed, per- 
haps, from their friends, the Iroquois — of adopting their prisoners 
of war, and incorporating them_ijito their tribe, instead of killing 

* In the Al:,'onquiii Usin-e [stony] Sce-be [river], meaning the rocky river, 
and designated on early French maps as "A'/z/ew dc la Roch ", which has the 
same sicrnification. 


or making women [slaves] of them, as was the general rule 
among other Indians." 

Having taken no hand in the border wars that began westward 
of the AUeghanys with the near close of the Revolutionary War, 
and ended with Gen. AVayne's victory over the confederated 
tribes at Maumee rapids in 1794, the Sacs and Foxes were not 
represented at the resulting treaty of Greenville the following 
year. Previous to this, they had subdued the lowas, and incor- 
porated them in their own tribe, and extended their domain up 
the Des Moines River in the present State of Iowa; thence 
northwestwardly, says Judge Hall, "beyond Council Bluffs and 
into the immense prairies periodically visited by the buffalo.'' 
They claimed the country for a distance on both sides of the 
Mississippi from Rock River up to Prairie-du-Chien, v/hich in- 
cluded all the valuable mines of lead ore in that region. The 
principal village of the Foxes was at Dubuque's mine, some 
seventy-five miles below the former place. They had another at 
Rock -River rapids; while, on the east bank of the Mississippi, 
near the foot of the island (known as Rock Island), was a village 
of "Foxes and Sacs, living promiscuously together; it being (says 
Schoolcraft, writing in 1820) one of the largest and most popu- 
lous Indian villages on the continent." 

From these villages the Foxes and Sacs warred upon the 
nadons to the west, ]\irticularly the Great and Little Osages, 
against whom they waged a contest that would have been one of 
extermination had not the United States authorities, through 
Gov. Wm. H. Harrison, interfered and put a stop to it. In 
181 1, when the Indian disturbances, egged on by Tecumthe and 
his followers, foreshadowed the war declared by the United States 
against Great Britain the following year, the Foxes and Sacs sent 
a committee of their chiefs to \Vashington City to offer the ser- 
vices of their tribe to President Madison; and wht-n the war had 
actually begun, they sent a second delegation to St. Fouis, and 
again tendered their warriors to the Government. \Vhile these 
offers were politely declined, as it was decided, at that time, not 

* Wan-e-bca Na-mo-eta (Spinning Top), a Sac, whose village, in 1823, 
was upon the Pek-tan-non (meaning, in tlie Sac dialect, muddy), as the Peek- 
a-ton-o-kee River, a tributary of Kock_ River, was called by the Foxes and 
Sacs, stated to Maj. Long that in his estimate his tribe enumerated nearly 
one thousand able-bodied and middle-aged men; that not more than two hun- 
dred of these were, in his opinion, of pure .Sac extraction; while the others 
were principally of a foreign stock obtained in the way we have stated. Vide 
"Ixjng's Expedition to the Source of the St. Peters River." 


to employ such auxiliaries, the Foxes and Sacs were sorely puz- 
zled to comprehend how a fight should be going on without their 
taking a hand in it. Divided councils ensued; a majority, mainly 
Foxes, remained neutral, while^a brigade estimated at from two 
to four hundred, mostly Sacs, easily seduced by the presents and 
promises of Robt. Dickson,''" went over to the British. They 
were commanded by the Sac chief, Ma-ka-tia-me-she Kia-kiak, — 
the Black Sparrow-Hawk, abbreviated, througli common consent, 
to Black Hawk — whom Col. Dickson commissioned as a general 
in the military services of his king. From these circumstances 
this division of the Foxes and Sacs were afterward known as the 
''British haud'\ 

The writer has neither the space or desire now or here to nar- 
rate occurrences relating to the so-called Black-Hawk War of 
1832. That war and the events that lead up to it are given by 
■several authors, whose-volumes are easily accessible to the inquir- 
ing reader.t At the conclusion of this war, the Foxes and Sacs, 

* A subject of Great Britain, and a fur-trader, whose depot of supplies was 
at Prairie du Chien. For many years before, without warrant or authority, 
he trafficked within tlie acknowledged boundaries of the United States along 
the upper Mississippi, where, it seems, lie was as industriously engaged, all 
the while, in distributing British flags and medals of King George. III. among 
the Indians as he was in collecting peltries. This pernicious practice kept 
alive in their untutored breasts their love for their "British father across the 
big water", and fanned their hatred of the "Americans who had thrown him 
on his back." The seed of liis teachings was all too ripe for the harvest 
when the war broke out. lie visited all the tribes on the Mississippi and 
Illinois rivers and tlieir tributaries, from I'rairie du Chien to Green Bay; 
and, early in June, 1813, had collected, at tlie ruins of Lort DearV)orn (now 
Chicago), a horde numbering nearly one thousand of the most cruel and 
abandoned desperadoes he could find. From Chicago he led them in separ- 
ate bodies to Detroit and Maiden, and turned them over to Gen. Proctor; 
and the latter sought in vain to find a gap in Gov. Harrison's lines through 
which lie might hurl these fiends upon our border settlements. Instead of 
finding the promised cabins to liurn, children to brain, and women to disem- 
bowel, they vsere confronted everywhere by ))ien armed with guns and bayo- 
nets. A few months' campaigning against such implements of war, and their 
thirst for the blood of defenceless victims waned; they deserted in squads of 
from three to a score in number, and started back to their several countries, 
cursing, as they journeyed, the name of Dickson, who had so wofully deceived 

t Brow^n's and Ford's "History of Illinoi,", Gale's "Upper Mississippi", 
and Dr. Benj. Drake's "Lift; of Black Hawk". The more rare, miscellane- 

THE FOX AND SACS. ,•.:-■.;"• ; l6l 

by the treaty made Sept. 21 si, 1832, at Rock Island, ceded all 
their lands along the Mississippi, covering nearly the whole east- 
ern half of Iowa and a large tract of country on the east side of 
that river not embraced in previous treaties; further agreeing to 
leave them and to quit hunting and fishing upon them after the 
June then next following. Tliis treaty opened the door to a press 
of emigration, whose daily swelling volume quickly poured itself 
-across the Mississippi into Iowa, and spread the newly-acquired 
domain with golden fields, fragrant orchards, happy cottage-homes, 
nestled amid shady groves, churches, and school-houses, and 
other evidences of the highest type of civilization. Still the 
hardy emigrant from tlie elder States '■' required more room: and 
by subsequent treaties, in 1S37 and 1842, the Foxes and Sacs, 
and other tribes that may ha\e claimed any title, the whole coun- 
try to the Missouri River was given up to him. The sounding 
axe is again heard everywhere; everywhere is seen the straining 
team turning up the tough prairie-sod; and on jiarch 3d, 1845, 
Iowa, said to mean in the Algonquin language. "■ tJie beautiful 
Jaud", became a State, the fifteenth of the sisterhood admitted 
under the federal constitution. 

After the treaty of 1842, the Mississi[)pi bands of the Foxes 
and Sacs were placed on a reservation of 435,200 acres located 
on the Osage River; while the Missouri l)and wns placed on the 
south side of Xe-ma-ha River, near the northea; t corner of Kan- 
sas. They of the Kansas agency, in 1865, raised 7500 bushels 
of corn, and owned 1700 horses; and the estimated value of 
their personal effects was $71,910. By the enumeration of their 

ous and historical writini^s of Judge Jas. Hall; the statements of Col. Thos. 
Forsyth (preserved in Mrs. Kinzie's "Wau-lnin", and who, for many years 
prior to 1830, was a trader or United States Indian agent among the f^oxes 
and Sacs) contain many interesting facts, as does Black Hawk's account of 
his own life; while the publications of the Wisconsin Historical Society of 
Wisconsin abound with crude material upon the same subject. When the 
variant biases and prejudices of the respective writers shall have been elimi- 
nated from tliese and other sources of information, and a fair average of truth 
is formed from the residuum, it will show .that the manner in which the treaty 
of 1804, f^r die cession of a large body of lands of the P\)xes and .Sacs east of 
tlie Mississippi, including Black Hawk's ancient village, was negotiated, 
reflects little credit for fair dealing on the" part of the dominant race; while 
the manner in which the war was conducted, that arose out of conllicting con- 
structions of this treaty, reflects still less upon their miliiary fame. 

* There was little of the foreign element in the early settlement of Iowa as 
compared with the native. 



numbers taken the same year, there were 364 inen and 441 
Avomen of the Mississippi band in Kansas, and only 44 men aud 
51 women of the Missouri band remaining on tlie Xemaha. ft' 
the census taker had gone further west out upon the great ]jlains 
toward the foot-liiils of the Rocky Mountains, he would, doubt- 
less, have found many more, engaged there in hunting and fight- 
ing, the employment of men, instead of hoeing corn, a drudgery, 
according to their ethics, fit only to be endured by women. 

Judge Hall, who enjoyed a long and extended personal acquaint- 
ance with this people, says: "The I'^oxes and Sacs are remark- 
able for the symmetry of their form and tine personal appearance. 
Few of the tribes resemble them in these particulars; still fewcr 
equal their intrepidity. They are, physically and morally, among 
the most striking of their race. Their history abounds with dar- 
ing and desperate adventures and romantic incidents far beyond 
the usual course of Indian exertion." 


This people was one of the three subdix'sions of the Ojibbe- 
ways, a numerous tamily of the Algonquin tribes, the other two 
members, and of whom it is not the ])resent [)urpose to write. 
being the Chippeways, or Ojibbeways, who retained the family 
name, and the Ottaways. From causes, not liere necessary to 
name, they early became separated; and, in the progress of time. 
the Chippewa) s extended themselves westward and south of Lake 
Superior to the eastward sources of the Upper Mississippi River. 
The Ottaways spread south to Grand River, in the State of Michi- 
gan, down the western extremity of Take Krie, and for quite a 
distance up the Maumee River (one of the early names by which 
that stream was known was the Ottaway): while the Pottawato- 
mies advanced by way of the islands at the entrance of ( h-een 
Bay to the south into the country along the west shore of Lake 
Michigan. That these three tribes were originally one people is 
evidenced, says Mr. Schoolcraft, in that one of his journals en- 
titled, "The CeJitral Mississippi A'alley," derives additional "weiglit 
from their general resemblance in person, manners, customs, and 
dress, but, above all, by their having one council-fire and si)eaking 
one language. Still there are obvious characteristics which will 
induce an observer, after a general acquaintance, to [jronouncc 



In the writings left by early French autb-ors. ihe word Potta- 
watomies was spelled, as is the case v.'ith the names of other 
tribes, to suit the arbitrary tastes of the various authors. Some 
of the forms are Poutouatimi, Pouotatamis, Poutouamies, PouU- 
watamis, Pautawattamies, Pouttewatamies, Pottawattamies, and 
Poux. The tribe was divided into four clans: the golden-carp, 
the frog, the crab, and the tortoise. 

Unlike the Illinois, Miamis, and several others, the Pottawa- 
tomies were not divided into separate tribes, but their different 
bands v.-ould separate and unite according to the abundarice or 
scarcity of game, or the emergencies of war. The name Potta- 
watomie, in their own language signifies 7cc are making a Jirc: 
and for the origin of which Joseph Barron, (iOv. Harrison's In 
dian interpreter, related to Prof. AV. H. Keating, at Fort Wayne, 
Ind., in 1824, this tradition: "A Miami. Iiaving wandered out 
from his cabin, met three Indians whose language Avas unintelli- 
gible to hip-;: hx signs and motions he invited them to follovr him 
to his cabin, where they v\-ere hospitably entertained, and where 
they remained until dark. During the night, tv.o of the strange 
Indians stole from the hut, while their comrade and the host nere 
asleep. They took a few embers from the cabin, and placing iliese 
near the door of the hut, they made a tire, which, being afterward 
seen by the Miami and his remaining guest, was understood to 
imply a council-fire between the two nations. From this circum- 
stance the Miami called them, in his language, Wa-ho-na-ha. or 
tire-makers, which. Ijeing translated into the other language, ]>ro- 
duced the term l)y which the Pottawatomies have ever since 
btren distinguished, and the ])ronunciation of which, as spoken b^■ 
themselves, is Po-ta-wa-to-me, in their language, //r arc naking 
a fuc.^ 

i^oUawatomies, as Massas has spoken in the name of the Three Tires, oj 
-ichich we are one. "' * * It is two years since I as.<is:;ed at the trcnty of 
^ incennes (referring to the treaty conchidcd at tliat place by Gen. Ru.^u- 
!*utnam, and the several Wabash River and Illinois tribes, Sept. 27th, 179.% 
nearly three instead of two years before the treaty at Greenville); my voice 
then represented the Three Fires:' ■ 

Majur Long's Expedition to tlie Sources of tlie St. I'eter's River ". rrof 
Keating adds a foot-note to the effect that the a!)Ove li.ault!on v.\is larvatC'l 
to liim by the Indian "agent's interpreter, Mr. Josepli I'.arron, a man v> ho-e 
long residence among the Indians, extensive acnuaintance ^vith tlicir chaiacter, 
together with liis unimpeachable veracity, confer mucli value upon all th(- 
in'ormalion obtained from him." Joseph Barron for many )'cars Avas the 
n'erpreter, friend, and constant companion of ( icn. Harrison during al! his 


The first mention we find of the Pottawatomies is in the "Jesuit 
Relations'' for the years 1639-40; where they are referred to as a 
tribe dwelnng beyond the River St. Lawrence, and to the north 
of Lake Huron. Twenty-six or seven years later, in 1666, in the 
journal of Father AUouez, as preserved in the "Jesuit Relations'', 
they are described as "a people whose country is about the lake 
of the Ill-i-mouek, a great lake that has not come to our knowl- 
edge, adjoining the lake of tlie Hurons and that of the Puants 
[Green Bay], between the east and the south."''' "They are a 
warlike people, hunters and fishers. Their country is good for 
Indian-corn, of which they plant fields, and to which they repair 
to avoid the famines that are too frequent in these quarters. Tlicy 
are in the highest degree idolaters, attached to ridiculous fables, 
and devoted to polygamy. ''^ " '■' Of all the people that I 
have associated with in these countries, tlicy are the most docile 
and affectionate toward the Frencli. Their wives and daughters 
are more reserved than those of other nations. They have a kind 
of civility among them, and make it quite apparent to strangers, 
which is very rare among our barbarians." 

The Pottawatomies formed an early attachment to the French 

official career, as Governor of the Indiana Territory and Commander of the 
military- forces of the Northwest, in the war of 1 81 2, assistinj^, as interpreter, 
at all of the treaties conducted by Gov. Harrison, and acting as spy, guide, 
and confidential n^es^enger in the many perilous movements of his principal, 
during these times of troublesome Indian difficulties. He was a native P'rench- 
man, of Detroit, and died July 31, 1S43, ^i- the home of his son, on the 
Wabash, near Logansport, Indiana. 

* In the "Relations", for tlie same year, Lake Michigan is again referred to 
as "Lake Ill-e-aouers," and "Lake lll-i-ni-oues, as yet unexplored; '■ * 
and that the Fox Indians call it Match-i-hi-gan-ing. " Father Hennepin, 
writing at a period some thirteen years later, in 1679, when its general coast- 
line had become better a-,certained, says: "The lake is called by the Indian.-* 
lU-i-nouck, and by the French Illinois, and adds in the same paragraph that 
'it is called by the Miamis Misch-i-gon-ong, that is, the Great I,ake. ' I''ather 
Marest, in his letter written from Ka^kaskia, lllinoi.^, Nov. 9, 1 7 12, and 
which has become famous on acci^unt (>f the valuable historical matter it con- 
tains, drops the 6'//^'' (the place of) and contracts the wortl to Mic/n'i^an, and is, 
perhaps, the first writer who ever s[)elled "it- in the v\ay that has become uni- 
versal. He naively says that "on the maps this lake has the name, without 
any authority, of the 'Lake of the Illinois,' since the Illinois do not dwell in 
its neighborhood," The name is derived from the two Algonquin words, Micli-i 
(Missi or Missi), which signifies great, as it does also several or many; and Sag- 
ay-i-gan, a lake. — Vide "Henry's Travels." 



that remained i!nl)rokeii througli all the vicissitudes of good and 
bad fortune attendant upon their exploration and attempted hold- 
ing of the great Northwest. This friendshij) was so uniform and 
reliable that thePottawatomies figure mucli less in official docu- 
ments than the Miamies, the Foxes, or other erratic tribes witli 
whom the French had to do. Whatever speculations might arise 
as to what these latter might do, no concern was had as to the 
Pottawatomie; he was always ready to bloody his hatchet on 
the enemies of his Father's children, the French, be they white 
P)ritishers, or red natives of his own race. While Nicholas 
Perrot was on his way from Saulte de Ste. Mary to the head of 
Green Bay, in 1671, engaged in notifying the several nations to 
meet St. Lusson, the king's deputy at the former place, and hear 
the king's will, and give their assent to the act of taking formal 
possession of the country, the Pottawatomies supplied Perott 
with an escort of tlieir braves, as he passed one of their villages 
on the east shore of Green Pay, to ensure his safety, the route 
being considered dangerous on account of a threatened war 
between the Sioux and tlie rvlascoutins. As Perott api)roached 
the village of the ^liamis. he sent forward a troop of young men 
from his escort to announce his arrival. Tlie great Miami chief, 
Te-tin-choua, wished to "give the envoy of tlie general of the 
French a reception that would attest his own power. He sent out 
a detachment to meet him, giving it orders to receive him in mili- 
tary style. The detachment advanced in battle order, all the 
braves adorned with feathers, armed at all points, uttering war-cries, 
from time to time. Tiie Pouteouataniis who escorted Perrot, 
seeing them come in this guise, prepared to receive them in the 
same manner, and l^jrrot put himself at their head. When the 
two troops were in flice of each other, they stopped as if to take 
breath, then all at once Perrot's took the right, the Miamis the 
left, all running in Indian file, as though they wished to gain 
an advantage to charge. Put the Miami.s, wheeling in the form 
of an arc, the Pouteouatamis were invested on all sides. Then 
Doth uttered loud yells, which were the signal for a kind of a 
combat. The Miamis fired a volley from their guns, which were 
loaded only with jjowder, and the Pouteouatamis returned it in 
the same way; after this they closed, tomahawk in hand, all the 
blows being received on the tomalnnvk. Peace was then made : 
the Miamis presented the calumet to Perrot, and led him with all 
his escort into the ciu'ef town, where the great chief assigned hini 
a guard of fifty men, and regaled him splendidly after the custom 
of the country."'-' 

* Charlevoix's "Nev/ Franco." 


Prior to 1670, the Pottawatomies had collected upon the 
islands in Lake ^Michigan lying westward of the Straits of iVIacki- 
nac and on those near the entrance of Green Bay; dwelling there, 
as appears from a letter written that year by Father Claude Dab- 
Ion from the mission of St. Francis Xavier, at Green Bay, "but 
as sfrafigers, the fear of the Iroquois having driven them from 
their lands, which are between the Lake of the Hurons and tJiat 
of the Illinois"; \_i.t., the Peninsula of Michigan.] 

From these islands they advanced southward between the 
shores of Green Bay and Lake Michigan, populating both v,-ith 
their villages. Father Hennepin's narrative of La Salle's voyage 
mentions the fact, that, the year prior to LaSaile's coming west- 
ward, 167S, he had sent out a party of traders in advance; who, 
having bartered successfully with the Pottawatomies at tlie islands 
named, were anxiously waiting for La Salle at the time of his 
arrival there in the Griffon. I'he same author notes the further 
fact that LaSalle's party, as they coasted southward, traded at 
another village of the same tribe, situated, probably, at She- 
boygan, AVisconsin, certainly not south of Milwaukee, AVhen 
LaSalle reached the St. Jose])hs of Lake Michigan there were 
no Pottawatomies in that vicinity. Shortly after this time, 1678, 
they seem to have swarmed from their prolific hives on the 
islands named, and advanced southward to the head of the lake, 
from which, in time, they spread out like a great fan ; their left 
extreme covering that part of the State of ^lichigan lying south 
of Grand River and a line drawn from, its source to the mouth of 
Lake Huron ; their right extending over that portion of Illinois 
lying north of the Kankakee and Illinois ri\ers, as far west as 
the territory claimed by the Winnebagoes and the Sacs and 
Foxes; while their front was pushed eastward into the country 
of the Miamis to the banks of the Wabash and the xMaumee. 
Father Charlevoix who visited the localities in 1721 says, "the 
Pottawatomies possessed only one of the small islands at the 
mouth of Green J>ay, but had two other villages, one on the 
St. Joseph -•" [of Lake Michigan] and tlie other at ' the Narrows ' '' 

Concerning the village near Detroit, and also some of the 
< iistoms of its occujjants, we have the following account, taken 

* The Pottawatomie villages were on the west side of the river, in tlie near 
vicinity of Nilcs. Old Fort St. Joseph and the Jesuite Mission from which 
the stream and the fort were named, stood on the same shore, v.hile the 
great Miami's town, for whom the river was originally called, was upon the 
opposite bank. 



from an official '• ^lemoir, prepared in 1718, on the Indians 

between Lake Erie and the Mississippi: ''The port of Detroit is | 

south [west] of the river. The village of the Pottawatomies ad- | 

joins the fort; they lodge partly under apaquois * which arc | 

made of mat-grass." | 

"The women do all the work. The men belonging to that | 

nation are well clothed, like our domiciHated Indians at Montreal. | 

Their entire occupation is hunting and dress. They make use of ! 

a great deal of vermilion, and in winter wear bufl^ilo robes richly | 

painted, and in summer either blue or red cloth. They play a | 

good deal at LaCrosse t in summer, twenty or more on a side." t 

* Uh-puh-qudy, in ^he Ojebway dialect, meaning a mat for the floor or | 

covering of a wigv/am ; made by plaiting or weaving reeds together, like a | 

carpet. -The cat-tail flag furnished a popular material for this purpose; and • \ 

they were so skilfully fastened together by the women, who made them, that I 

when new, the rain would "not penetrate them." — VideY^X\\iix Marest. The | 

frame of the wigwam was made with poles fastened in the ground, in a i 
circular form, the tops drawn together in a cone, and over these the matting* , | 

were placed. A 

+ The Indian game of ball, or cricket, known among the Algonquin tribes- v 

by the name of Bag-gat-i-'timy, called by the Canadians Ic jeic de la crossc, | 

(the game of the bat) from the bat used in the play. It was popular among | 

the aborigines as base-ball is with the whites at the present day, and is still | 

played among them substantially as described nearly two centuries ago by the | 

author quoted in the text. George Catlin, the great Indian portrait painter, | 

ia his interesting and finely illustrated " History of the Nt:irth American | 

Indians," says, "I made it an uniform rule while in the Indian country l<;> f 

attend every ball-play I could hear of, if I could do it by riding a distance t 

of twenty or thirty miles. * * * It is no uncommon occurence for six or | 

eight hundred or a thousand young men to engage in a game of ball, with | 

more than that number of spectators — men, women, and children — surround- | 

ing tlie ground and looking on. * *" * In the game every player is | 

dressed alike, that is, divested of all dress, except the girdle, etc. And in the j 

desperate struggles for tlie ball when it is up, where hundreds are running; ;£ 

together and leaping, actually over each others head, and darting between f 

their adversaries legs, tripping and throwing, and foiling each other in every ^; 

possible manner, and every voice raised -to the highest key, in shrill yelps and ^ 

barks, there are rapid successions of feats and of incidents, that astonish an-.l | 

annaze far beyond the conce])tion of any one who has not had the singular ■% 

good luck to witness them." In Pontiac's war, the capture of the Briti.h ^ 

garrison at Mackinac was assigned to the Ojebways, who effected an entrance | 

to the fort through the stratagem of a game of bag-gat-i-\vay. Notice was I 


" Their bat is a sort of a little racket,''" and the ball with which 
they play is made of very heavy wood, somewhat larger than the 
balls used at tennis. They are entirely naked except a breech- 
cloth, and moccasins on their feet. Their bodies are completely 
painted with all sorts of colors. Some, with white clay, trace 
white lace on their bodies, as if on all the seams of a coat, and, 
at a distance, it would be taken for silver lace. They play very 
deep and often the bets sometimes amounting to more than eight 
hundred livres. They set ui- two poles, and commence the game 
from the centre ; one party propels the ball from one side, and 
the others from the op})osite ; and whichever reaches the goal 
wins. It is a fine recreation well worth seeing. They often play 
village against village. The Poux [a nickname for the Potta- 
watomies] against the Ottawas, or Hurons, and at heavy stakes. 
vSometimes the PTench join in the game with them. 

"The women cultivate Indian-corn, beans, squashes, and melons, 
which come up very fine. The women and girls dance at night. 
They adorn themselves considerably ; grease their hair, paint. 
their faces with vermilion, juit on a white chemise, wear what- 
ever wampum they possess, and are very tidy in their way. 
They dance to the sound of the drum and si-si-cpioi, which is a 
sort of gourd containing some grains of shot. Four or five young 
men sing and beat time with the drum and rattle, and the women 
keep time, and do not lose a step. It is very interesting, and 
lasts almost the entire night."' 

"The old men often dance the medicine. [The medicine or 
sorcerer's dance.] They resemble a set of demons ; and all tliis 
takes place daring the night. The young men often dance in a 
circle, and strike posts. It is then they recount their achieve- 
ments, and dance, at the same time, the war-dance; and when- 
ever they act thus they are highly ornamented. It is altogether 

given that on King George's l^irthday, June 4, 1763, the Chippewas would 
play against the Sacs for a high wager. And when the excitement of the 
game was at its height, the ball, as if by chance, was tlirown over ti)c 
palisade; the players, as if only eagerly intent on the game, ru>hcd, pell- 
mell, by tlie unsuspecting suldiers, through the open gate, and, dro[)ping 
their bats, seized the knives and tomahawks concealed imder the blankets of 
their squaws, v.ho were already within the fort, and at once, says Alexander 
Henry, an eye-v.itness, "began cutting down and scalping every Englishman 
they found." — F/./V Henry's "Travels and Adventures in Canada." 

* The sticks arc bent into an oblong hoop at the end, with a sort of sleight 
web of small thongs tied across to prevent the ball from passing through. 
— Catmn. 


very curious. They often perform these tilings for tobacco. 
Wlien they go hunting, which is every fah, they carry their 
apaquois with them, to hut under at night. Everybody follows — 
men, women, and children. They winter in the forest and return 
in the spring." 

In all the broils, growing out of the bitter competition for the 
fur-trade, between French and British adventurers, and in the 
intrigues of the respective executives of New France and the 
British colonies to win over the Indian tribes, or incite them to 
acts of hostihty against the other, and in which neither the 
French nor the British ever once consulted the welfare of the 
Indians themselves, the Pottawatomies maintained an unswerving 
alliance with the French. When these troubles ni the American 
provinces, with many years of accumulated grievances, at length 
provoked a formal declaration of hostilities between France and 
Great Britian, and the French Colonial War was began, the 
Pottawatomies fought it through to the end under the flag of 
their old friends. After the Northwest, with its military estab- 
lishments, was turned over to the victor, they were ready to join 
the chief (and their own kinsman), Pontiac, in his bold attempt 
to capture these posts and drive the British from the country." 
Fort St. Joseph being in the country of the Pottawatomies, it was 
given over for them to take. Fnsign Schlosser was in command 
ai the tinie, with only fourteen soldiers to support him. He was 
confronted on the 25th of May, 1763, by a horde of Pottawato- 

* Pontiac was the great chief of the Ottawas. "His plans Avere matured, 
and late in 1762, his messengers carried black wampum belts and red toma- 
hawks" — en.-ignas of war — "to the villages of the Ottawas, Ojibwas, Potta- 
■watomies, Sacs, Foxes, Menomonies, Illinois, Miamis, Shawnees, 13elawares, 
Wayandots [llurons], Senecas," etc. On a certain day, in the next year, 
said the messengers, all the tribes were to rise, seize all the British posts and 
at once attact the whole British border. " — Fide " Western Annals. " Accord- 
ingly, the several forts were nearly simultaneously attacked. P^ort St. Joseph, 
on the river of that name in Michigan; l''ort Ouatanon, on the Wabash, near 
La Fayette, Indiana; Miamis, at Ft. Wayne, in the same State; Sandusky, 
near the city of the same name in Ohio; Presque Isle, at I'.rie, Penn. ; Fort> 
Le Krf.uf and \'enango, on the water route between Lrie and Pittsburg; and 
Fort Mackinac, as stated in a previous; tiote, were all surprised and captured. 
1 he forces at the Saulte de Sie. Mary, at the outlet of Lake Suj^erior, had 
been withdrawn and were among the massacred at Mackinac; while the gar- 
rison at Green Hay, Hirough the concilatory and brave conduct of their com- 
manding officer, Lieut. James Gorrell, escaped to a place of safety; leaving 
both these places to fall into the hands of the enemy. Only three of the 


mies from Detroit, ostensibh' on a friendly visit to their kinsman 
living on the St. Joseph. The commandant was apprised that 
the fort was surrounded by hostile Indians. At this, Schlosser 
ran out of his apartment, and crossed the parade grounds, which 
were full of Canadians and Indians. He entered the barracks, 
and these were also crowded with disorderly and insolent savages.. 
He called his sergeant to get the soldiers under arms; and, hurry- 
ing back again to the parade, endeavored to muster the unwilling 
Canadians. All at once a wild cry came from within the barracks, 
when the Indians in the fort ruslied to the gate, where they killed 
the sentinel, and op>ened the gate for ingress to their friends widi- 
out. In less than two minutes, as tire officer declares, the fort 
was plundered, eleven men were killed, and himself, with the 
three survivors, made prisoners and bound fast.-'' 

In the border troubles preceding the Revolutionary War; dur- 
ing the latter contest, and throughout the Indian difficulties that 
followed it, down to the dose of Gen. Wayne's successful cam- 
paign against the confederated Indian tribes in 1794, war-parties 
of the Pottawatomies made frequent and destructi\e raids along 
the lines of the settlements in Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Ohio, 
and Indiana. However, those of this tribe living upon the 
Wabash and in near communication with \"incennes, were much 
less annoying in this regard; and se\eral of their chiefs and 
bands manifested an early friendship for tlie Americans, whom 
they called their brother, the Big-KuifcA' 

thirteen posts were saved. Forts Detroit and Pitt, after withstanding severe 
sieges, were relieved by forces timely sent to their succor; while the remain- 
ing one, Fort Niagara, at the mouth of Niagara River, was assailed by the 
Scnecas, who shortly, after abandoned the attempt, fearing the hostility of 
the other tribes of their ov/n nation, the Iroquois, whose sympathies were 
always with the British. 

* ]'ide Parkmen's ''Ili^tory of the Conspiracy of'Pontiac," from which tlie 
foregoing details are taken: Ensign John Joseph Schlosser, a native (lerman, 
capt.-lieut. 60 Reg't Royal American^, May 12, 1756; capt. July 20, 175S; 
at the siege of Ft. Niagara in 1759; after its surrender, commanded a post on 
American side of the river about a mile above the Falls and below the mouth 
of Gill Creek, which, in honor of him, has since borne the name of "Old 
Fort Schlos.-,er. " In command of and.taken prisoner at Ft. St. Joseph, Michi- 
gan, May 25, 1763; taken to Detroit shortly after, and e.\changed; was serv- 
ing witli same regiment at Philadelphia in 1772. — "Army Eists"; " Penn. Ar- 
chives"; "Parkman's Pontiac"; Military Map of Niagara frontier in Wm. . 
James' (British) "Account of Ocojrrences of the Eate War (of 1812) between 
Great Britain and the United States." 

■f The Virginians, J-Centuckians, and other early border-men usually carried 

I " t 


They were greatly iniluenced, for a wliile, by tiie schemes of 
Tecnrathe and his brother, the Prophet, in a mucli less prolonged 
degree, however, than tlie Kickapoos and seveial of the other 
tribes; and a fair representation of their warriors took part in 
the batde of Tippecanoe.'' 

very large kni\es, and Gen. Geo. Rogers Ciark"s campaigners were notably 
equipped in this way. From this circumstance the Western hunters and fighters 
were called, in the Miami-Iilini dialect, She-iiiol-sea, meaning the big-knife. 
At a later day, the same name under the Chippewayan word CJte-mo-ko-)nou 
was extended by kindred tribes to the white people generally — always except- 
ing the Englishmen proper, v,hom they called the '•'■ Sag-e-nask''\ and the X^ew 
Englanders, whom they styled ^^ Bos-to-ne-ly-\ i. e., the Bostonians. The term 
is derived from the Miami v.ord, Mal-shca, or ^fol-sea, a knife, or the Ojeb- 
wsiy J/oo-ko-mati, which means the same thing; wliile the prefix she or c/ie 
seems to emphasize the character of the instrument as a Imge or long knife. 
Such is the origin of the expression "long-knives" and "big-knife", frequently 
met with in Indian discourses, and in books w;here Indian characters appear. 
* Wa-bun-see, The Lookitr^-g/ass, principal war-chief of the prairie band 
of Pottawatoraies, residing on the Kankakee River in Illinois, distinguished 
himself, the last of October, iSii, by leaping aboard of one of Gov. Har- 
rison's supply boats, loaded with corn, as it was ascending tlie Wabash, five 
miles above Terre Haute, and killing a man, and making his escape ashore 
without injury. — Official letter of Gov. Harrison; Reynolds' " INIy Own 
Times." This chiefs name is notably connected with the massacre at Chi- 
cago. While he approved and participated in the deed, through the stronger 
regards of personal friendship, he tried to save the wounded and heroic Capt. 
Wm. Wells from a pursuing savage of his own nation by whom the death- 
stab was given; and he was one of the five Indians who stood at the door of 
Kinzie's, at the peril of their lives, guarding its inmates from a terrible 
fate that would have surely followed but for their timely intervention, lie 
and his band were enibraced in the treaty of peace concluded at lireenvilie, 
July 22, 1814; and ever after were on terms of friendship with the people of the 
United States. In the .so-called Black-Hawk War of 1832, he and his war- 
riors volunteered their services to the whites, and campaigned and fought by 
the side of the Illinois militia. The chief bore conspicuous parts in the 
several treaties conducted at Chicago, and was well known and is still remem- 
bered by many of its early citizens. In 1836, his people, having ceded all 
their lands in Indiana and Illinois, he-went v. ith them to their reservation 
near Council Bluffs. A fine portrait of him is presei-ved in the Indian gal- 
lery at Washingtou. A copy of it would be appropriate in the collections of 
the Historical Society of the great city of the West, whose aboriginal remi- 
niscences this society, besides a wide field of other meritable labor, is engaged 
in gathering and storing for future reference. 


The official letters of the governors of the Indiana and Illi- 
nois Territories; the current news items of the day, published in 
the Vinccums Suih the Missouri Gazette at St. Louis, and Niles" 
Weekly Register at Washington, surhciently illustrate the threaten- 
ing attitude of the Pottawatomies (along with other tribes) before 
and subsequent to the collision of arms at the Prophet's Town: 
and show that subjects of Great Britain, or from its Province ot 
Canada, engaged in the Indian trade within our borders, were 
but so many busy and influential agents in supplying the Indians 
with, munitions of war, and stirring up a discontent aiiiong them 
that would burst into aggressive hostility as soon as war should 
be declared between the two powers. And when the war was 
declared, the Pottawatomies went over to the standard of Great 
Britain in a body. Their first blood was that of innocent vic- 
tims, mingled with the slaughter of a body of brave soldiers, 
whose too-confiding officer, against the admonitions of those 
better acquainted with the treacherous ways of Indians, left the 
fortress and exposed his men, and the women and children under 
his care to their savage fury. The horrors of the massacre at 
Chicago, August 15, 18 12, have been so often told and pubHshed 
in so many books, as to render tlieir repetition w^hoUy unneces- 
sary here. It was Pottawatomies (assisted probably by a few 
Winnebaoges) who did it: and their several bands from the Illi- 
nois and Kankakee rivers: from the St. Joseph of the Take, and 
the St. Josejjh of the Maumee, and those of the \A\abash and its 
tributaries were all represented in the despicable act." 

Their hostility ceased with the war of 1812, after v/hich tlieir 
relations were uniformly peaceable; and they endured the many 
impositions and grievances put upon them by not a few of their 
unprincipled and unfeeling white neighbors, with a forbearance 
that ought to have aroused public sympathy. 

* The statement in the text as to the- participants in the Chicai^o massacre, 
is given in harmony with all contemporaneous and subsequent accounts, tiie 
single exception being tlie version of Walter Jordan, who (in a letter to his 
wife, dated at Ft. Wayne, Oct. 19, icSi2, and which appeared in Xiles' Wa-l-ly 
Register for May 8, 1813) says the retreating garrison "were attacked by 600 
Kickapoo and Wynabago Indians." He is as clearly mistaken in this as he 
is in several other statements in his letter. He says Capt, Wells had with 
him one hundred confute [Miami] fndiarfs, and that \\\Qi'>Q. joined the enemy. 
Capt. Heald, the commanding officer, says Weils had about thirty Miamis, a 
part of whom were placed in front, while the remainder brought up in the 
rear as an escort; nnd tluit ihcy refused assistance when the fight came on. 
•Samuel R. P.rov/n, in his valuable history, published in 1 81 5, concurs; while 
Mrs. Jolm H. Kinzie (in "Wau-Lun"), drawing lier material from several 


After their migration from the islands near the outflow of ( jreen 
Bay southward, they seem to have muUiphed with ^vondor^ll! 
fecundity. The time of this movement is not definitely knowu. | 

Their advance line had reached the St. Joseph as early, probablw f. 

as the year 1700. The same writer whose description of the | 

Pottawatomies of the village at Detroit in 17 18 we have quoted, | 

says they from the St. Joseph River, their former residence. f 

They were the most populous tribe between the lakes and the * | 

Ohio, the Wabash and the Mississippi; they claimed Southeastern \ 

Wisconsin from long occupation, and crowded themselves into |. 

the ancient territory of the ^Miamis, "their younger brothers, "" in 
Southern ^Michigan and Northwestern Indiana, taking possession 
through sheer force of superior numbers, rather than by gage of 
battle. Always on friendly terms with the Kickapoos, with whom 
they frequently lived in mixed villages, they joined the latter and 
the Sacs and Foxes in the exterminating war upon the Illinois 
tribes, and afterward obtained their allotment of the despoiled 
domain. By other tribes the Pottawatomies were called '-scjuat- 
ters", charged with never having had any lands of their own, and 
being mere intruders upon the prior estates of others. "They 
were foremost at all treaties where lands were to be ceded, clam- 
oring for a lion's share of the presents and annuities, particularly 
where these last was the price paid for the sale of others" lands f- 

rather than their own.""' Between the years 1789 and 1837. 
they, by themselves, or in connection with other tribes, made no 
less than thirty-eight treaties with the United States, all of M-hich. | 

excepting two or three, Mhich were treaties of peace only, were | 

for alienations of lands claimed Avholly by them or in common | 

with other tribes. These cessions embraced territory extending ^ 

from Cleveland, Ohio, westward to the ^Mississippi; portion-- ('1 
Wisconsin and Michigan east of Green Bay and south of Mil- ., 

eye-witnesses, and wliose opportunities for acquiring the details in all their i 

minutid: were better, perhaps, than those of any other person \vh<j Iras ever 

written on the subject, says: Capt. Wells had only fifteen Miamis, who //rv' 

at the outset; and that their chief "rorle up to the Pottawatomies and said: 

' V'ou liave «leceived the Americans and us. Vou have done a bad action ant! 

(brandishing; his tomahawk) I will be the first to head a party of Americans 

to return aiid punish your treachery.' So saying, he galloped after compani- ^ 

ons who were now scouring across the prairies." Mr. Jordan says he went | 

from Ft. Wayne to Chicago with Capt. Wells, was taken prisoner, and made | 

his escape. His whole letter is colored with exaggeration, and those parts ol I 

it that stand contradicted by writers more competent than he to know the 

facts, are not to be relied on. 

* Schoolcrart's "Central Mississippi X'ailey. " 


waukee : the mouth of (rrand River and the south end of Lake 
Huron; and covering a large part of the valleys of the Illinois, 
the Wabash, the ]^Iaumee, and their tributary waters. Contem- 
poraneous maps and government surveys display their numerous 
villages, and indicate their many reservations throughout this 
vast area of country."" 

The Indians themselves were not blind to the ultimate result 
of the relentless demands of the white people for more and more- 
of their lands. On several occasions when they confronted the 
agents of the general government, who had invited them to coun- 
cil for the purpose of buying still another part of their jxisses- 
sions, they protested, as best they could, against making 
sales. A notable instance of this occurred at the treaty con- 
cluded Aug. 29, 1 82 1, at Chicago, 111., with the Pottawatomie, 
Ottawa, and Chippeway tribes. • By this treaty the United States 
proposed to extinguish the Indian title to, substantially, all that 
country lying south of Grand River, fiom its source to its mouth; 
and east of Lake Michigan, between its southern extremity and 
Grand River; bounded on the south by a line drawn from the 
south end of the lake east, through Northern hidiana, to the 

* Besides the villages already referred to in this volume, the Pottawatoiaies 
had others of liistorical interest, namely: a large settlement on the "Mil-Ie- 
wac-kie" (as they called the Milwaukee) River; on th? '"Schip-i-co-ten ", or 
Root River, at the confluence of which with the lake is the city of Racine; at 
'* Wah-kuli-e-gun" (the fort), or Waukegan; a scattering village upon both 
the north and south branches of the "Chicago", the name of the stream sig- 
nifying a skunk in its primary, and a wild onion in its secondary sense; others, 
on the " She-shick-ma-o-shi-ke" (the tree from which the water flows), or the 
River des Plaines, from French-Cana''ian word Plaine or Flein, meaning a 
variety of maple growing along its borders; and still other towns upon the 
' iJnPagc, so called from a Frenchman who formerly lived and died on its banks, 
and the Pottawatomie name for which was " 0-to-ka-ke-nog" (the uncovered 
breast). Westward of these was the village of "Shaw-way-ne-be-nay " (con- 
tracted to Sha!j-eh-nay and .Shau-be-nay), at " As-sim-in-eh-kon", or Pawpaw 
Grove. On the Illinois River and its northern tributaries above Peoria were 
still others; among them Conio or Gomo's town, near the head of the lake; 
" Wabunsee's", or " Wau-pon-eh-see", near the mouth of " Pish-ta-ka", or 
"Poish-tah-te--/(6'f>jZ! " (antelope), as the Natives called the Fox River of the 
Illinois; while "' Muck-e-te-po-kee's" (the t)lack partridge) town was near the 
mouth of the " Au Sable" (French for Sandy Creek), three miles below the 
junction of the des Plaines and the Kankakee. Pligher up the last-named river, 
some twenty miles, stood the tov/n of the notorious "Main-poc", "Mai-jx^ck ", 
or "Mai-po", as his name is variou.dy spelled. At the mouth of Rock Creek, 


mouth of the An Glaze River at Defiance, Ohio, and thence north 
by the west boundary-Hne of a previous cession to the source of 
Grand River in Michigan. As the proceedings of tliis treaty 
fairly ilhistrate the manner in which such affairs are conducted, a 
portion of them are given here, as taken down at the time by 
Hon. Henry R. Schoolcraft, who was officially connected with 
the commission, and preser^-ed in one of the more scarce vol- 
umes of his several narrative journals.''' 

"Aug. 14, 1 82 1. " " '■' On crossing the Desplaines, we 
found the opposite shore tlironged with Indians, whose loud and 
obtrusive salutations caused us to make a few moments' halt. 
From this point we Avere scarcely ever out of sight of straggling 
parties, all proceeding to the same place. ]\[ost commonly they 
were mounted on horses, and apparelled in their best manner, 
decorated with medals, silver bands, and feathers. The gaudy 
and showy dresses -of these troops of Indians, with the jingling 
caused by the striking of their ornaments, and their spirited inan- 
ner of riding, created a scene as novel as it was interesting. 
Proceeding from all parts of a very extensive circle of country, 

at Kankakee City, and Vellow-IIeads Point, a few miles north of Momence. 
were the respective villages of " Shavv-waw-nay-see" (the Shawnee); " She- 
mar-ger" (the soldier); and '' Min-ne-mung" (the yellow headl The latter's 
sister was the v/ife of Billy Caldwell, whose name is so intimately connected 
with early Chicago. — Vide paper by the Hon. Wni. Ilicklitig, published in 
No. 10 of the Fkkgl'S Historical Series. Reservations at the three last- 
named villages were secured to the above presiding chiefs by the Treaty of 
Camp Tippecanoe, held near Logansport, Ind., October 20, 1832; and, witli 
other reserves in those neighborhoods, were surveyed off in the presence of 
the beneficiaries and Gen. Tipton, Indian agent, by the writer's father, Major 
Dan. W. Beckwith, U. .S. Deputy Surveyor, in May, 1834. 

More numerous and populous villages of the Pottawatomies were in South 
ern Michigan and Northern Indiana, on the St. Joseph, the Kalamazoo (these 
Indians called it Kek-a-la-via-zoo, signifying a "boiling pot"), and the several 
streams flowing into the Detroit River and Maumee Bay, between Detroit and 
Toledo. Of these may be named that of "To-pen-ne-bee", their great heredi- 
tary chief, at •' Pare au:c Vaches" (the cow- pen), as the Canadian- French 
traders facitiously nick-named the vicinity of old I'\)it St. Joseph; " Chip-pe- 
outi-pc", at .South Bend; and the villages of lue Fi\e Medals and " Waj)-V)c- 
me-me" (the v.hite pigeon), higher up the river. North anrl westward of the 
Wabash were others; "Chit-cha-kos" on the Tippecanoe, and "Chi[)-poy'\ 
tvventy-fne rniles below the mouth of the latter stream. Others might be 
named, but enough have been given to illustrate the assertion of the text. 

* His "Travels, etc., in the Central I^Iississippi Valley." 


approached, the 

more compact and concentrated the body became: and we found 
our cavalcade rapidl) augmented. Consequently, the dust, con- 
fusion, and noise increased at every by-path that intersected our 
way. After crossing the south-fork of the Chicago, and emerg- 
ing from the forest that skirts it, nearly the whole number of 
those who had preceded us appeared on the extensive and level 
plain that stretches along the shore of the lake, while the refresh- 
ing and noble spectacle of the lake itself, with 'vast and sullen 
sweir, appeared beyond. We found, on reaching the post, that 
between two and three thousand Indians were assembled — chiefly 
Pottawatomies, Ottawas, and Chippeways. Many arrived on the 
following days; and provisions were daily issued by the Indian 
department, to about three thousand, daily, during the treaty. 
To accommodate the large assemblage mentioned, an open 
bower, provided with seats for the principal chiefs and headmen, 
had been put up on the green, extending along the north bank 
of Chicago Creek. [Near the old John Kinzie house.] This 
site, being at some distance from the principal encampments, 
and directly under the guns of the fort, ensured both safety and 
order for the occasion. The formalities which custom has pre- 
scribed in negotiations of this kind, occupied the first two or 
three days after our arrival, during which the nunber of Indians 
was constantly augmenting. It was not until the 17th that they 
were formally met in council, when Governor [Lewis] Cass, on 
behalf of the commissioners [Solomon Sibley was then the asso- 
ciate-commissioner], stated to them the following proposition: — 
"Your father [referring to the president of the United States] 
has o])served that you possess an extensive country about the St. 
Joseph, which you do not cultivate nor appear to want. He has 
instructed us to come here for the purpose of making a purchase 
of a part of that land, and to pay you a liberal price for it, which 
we shall agree upon. The quantity of game you now kill in that 
part of the country is very little — ^ almost nothing: and we can 
give you for it that whicli will be more valuable and serviceable 
to yoursehes. We have brought with us a large amount of goods 
to be distributed among you; and we shall also stipulate to pay 
you a certain sum of money annually. It was agreed by the 
Treaty of St. Marys to pay you an annuity of one thousand two 
hundred and fifty dollars, and by the Treaty of , one thou- 
sand dollars ; both of which sums of money are now here and ready 
to be paid to you." Should we conclude an agreement for the 

* The St. Marys referred to was a stockade erected in 1794 by Gen. Wayne 
•IS a depot for his military supplies, at the Portage of the St. Marys' River, 


purchase of the lands on the St. Joseph, vre feel willing that siicij 
reservations shall be made as may be proper. It will be many 
years before the coimtry will be settled by the Americans; dnriiiL: 
all that time you will retain possession of the lands, at the sam-j 
time that you are drawing your annuities for them, '"^ ■^ "^ 
You can take time to consider the proposition we have now- 
made. Counsel among yourselves, and deliver your answer as 
soon as you can agree. Above all, let me entreat you to refrain 
from whisky during the treat}-, that you may be able to see justice 
done to yourselves. " " '•' '' 

Each sentence, being distinctly translated, was received with a 
Ho-ah! — a term that on these occasions merely indicates atten- 
tion. The interjection (subjoins Mr. Schoolcraft in a foot-note), 
when strongly emphasized and responded by many voices, also 
denotes approbation — and is nearly equivalent to our '"hear him!"' 
and it is an easy matter to perceive by the maiuici' of its enuncia- 
tion whether the matter spoken excites pleasure, indifference, or 

A short pause ensued, during which the customary in-esents 
were issued, when Me-te-a, a Pottawatomie chief from tlie 
Wabash,'' made the following laconic reply: — 

"My Father: — We have listened to what you have said. 
AVe will now return to our camps and consult upon it. Vou will 
hear nothing more from us at present." 

The council being again convened on the 19th, the same Pot- 
Mercer Co., Ohio; and last commanded by Capt, John Whistler, who succes- 
sively commanded at Forts St. Mary, Wayne, and old Fort Dearborn at Chi- 
cago; the latter he built in 1803. 

The blank sp^ace in Gen. Cass' address before the words "one thousau'' 
dollars", should be supplied by inserting the "Treaty of Edwardsville", Hl.^ 
Aug. 24, 1816, by which the United States, for the purpose of controlling the 
■water communication^ since improved as the " Illinois and Michij^Mn CanaL", 
purchased from the united Tt^ttawatomie, Ottawa, and Chippeway tribe-, 
"residingon the Illinois and Milwaukee rivers and their waters, and the south- 
western parts of Lake Michigan", a strip of land ten miles wide on botr; 
sides o{ the saijie, and extending from the mouth of L'ox River at Ottawa, V^■^ 
easterly to the confluence of Chicago" Creek with Lake Michigan. 

* Mus-qua \Vas-e-peo-tan (the old town of Redwood or Cedar Creek), ot 
which Me-te-a was presiding war and civil chief, was situated near the con- 
fluence of that stream with the St. Joseph of the Maumee, some nine milc/^ 
northeast of Ft. Wayne, Ind. — "Long's Second Expedition"; other accounts; 
and contemporaneous maps, etc. 


awatomie was delegated by the three tribes to deliver their reply 
to Gen. Cass" speech. Me-te-a arose and said: — 

''My Father: — We meet you here today, because we had 
promised it, to tell you our mind and what we have agreed 
among ourselves. You will listen to us with a good mind, and 
believe what we say. My father, you know that we first came to 
this country a long time ago, and sat ourselves down upon it; 
we met with a great many hardships and difficulties [referring to 
their wars with its former occupants]. Our country was then 
very large; but it has dwindled away to a small spot; and you 
wish to purchase that ! This has caused us to reflect much upon 
what you have told us ; and we have, therefore, brought along all 
the chiefs and warriors, and the young men, and women, and 
children of our tribe, that one part may not do what the others 
object to: and that all may be witnesses of what is going forward. 

"My Father: — You know your children. Since you first 
came among them,''^ they have always hearkened to your coun- 
cils. Whenever you have had a proposal to make us— whenever 
you have had a favor to ask of us, we have always lent a favor- 
able ear; and our invariable answer has been 'Yes.' This you 

"My Father:— A long time has passed since we first came 
upon our lands; and our old people have all sunk into their 
graves. T/iey had sense. Wc are all young and foolish, aiid do 
not wish to do anything that they would not approve, were they 
living. \\<i are fearful we shall offend their spirits if we sell our 
lands; and we are fearful we shall offend jjw/ if we dont sell them. 
This has caused us great perplexity of thought, because we luive 
counselled among ourselves, and do not know how we can pait 
with the land. My Father: — Our country was given us by the 
Great Spirit, who gave it to us to hunt upon; to make our corn- 
fields upon; to live upon; and to make down our beds upon 
when we die. And lie would never forgive us, should we now 
bargain it away. When you first spoke to us for lands at St. 
Marys, t we said we had a little, and agreed to sell you a piece of 

* Gen. Cass had been in charge of government affairs over these tribes for 
many years, and acquired an extensive acqQaintance; had conducted a number 
of treaties vvitli them; and was highly esteemed by tlioa for his uniformly kind 
and honorable treatment in all official and social relations with them. 

t At St. Marys, Ohio, mentioned in a previous note, where, Oct. 2, 1818, 
Oen. Cass, with Jonathan Jennings and Capt. JBcnj. Park of Indiana, con- 
cluded a treaty with the Pottawatomie tribe for the purchase of a large tract 


it; but we told you we could spare no more. Now you ask 
us agaiji.' You are never satisfied! 

"My Father: — We have sold you a great tract of land'- 
already; but it is not enough! \\q sold it to you for the benefit 
of your children, to farm and to live u])on. \Ve have nov/ but 
litde left; and we shall want it for ourselves. We know not hou 
long we may live, and we wish to have some lands for our chil- 
dren to hunt upon. You are gradually taking away our hunting- 
grounds. Your children are driving us before them. We are 
growing uneas}-. What lands you have you may retain forever; 
but we shall sell no more. 

''My Father: — You think, perhaps, that I speak in anger; but 
my heart is good toward you. I speak like one of your children, 
I am an Indian — -a red-skin, and live by hunting and fishing. 
!My country is already too small; and I do not know how to 
bring up my children if 1 give it all away. We sold you a fine 
tract of land at St. Marys. t We said then to you, it was enough 
to satisfy your children, and the last we would sell; and we 
thought it would be the last you would ask for. 

"My Father: — We have now told you what we had to say. It 
was determined on in council among ourselves; and what I have 
.spoken is the voice of my nation. On this account all of our 
people have come here to listen to me; but do not think we have 
a bad opinion of you. Where should we get a bad opinion o\ 
you? We speak to you with a good heart and the feelings of a 

"My Father: — You are acquainted with this piece of iai-id — 
the country we live in.:J: Shall we give it up? Take notice, it is 

of country lying in Central-western Indiana and Eastern Illinois, frontlnj:^ on 
the Wabash from the mouth of the Tippecanoe to tlie moutli of the Ver:n'l'on, 
and extending westward to a line drawn as nearly parallel with the Wabash 
as practicable, so as to strike tlie two latter streams twenty-five miles ftoni 
/their respective confluence with the Wabash; and now embraced in })arts oi 
Tippecanoe, White, Benton, all of Warren, the north half of Vein.iilion 
counties in Indiana, and the greater portion of Vermilion County in Illinoi-: 

* Referring to the several other treaties at which extensive tracts of land 
claimed by them, had been ceded. 

+ Me-te-a participated at the Treaty'of St. Marys, and Iiis name appear-^ 
among the signers of the treaty. 

X Through the war of t8i2, and during his long relations as governor of 
Michigan Territory, and at the head of the Western Indian Department, 
there was, perhaps, no one better acquainted with this suburb country in 
question than Cren. Cass. 

Til E POTT A^^' ATO -M 1 ES. ' ' -■ ■ ' ^ 1 8 I 

a small }:>iece of land, and if we give it up, what will become of 
us? The Great Spirit, wiio has provided it for our use, allows us 
to keep it to bring up our young men and support our families. 
We shall incur his anger if we barter it away. If we had more 
land, you should get more; but our land has been wasting away 
ever since the white people became our neighbors, until now we 
have hardly enough left to cover the bones of our tribe. 

" My Father : — You are in the midst of your red children. 
What is due to us in money, v.'c wish and will receive it at this 

"My Father: — We all shake liands with yon.i" Ik'hold our 
warriors, our women and children. Take pity on us and on our 

Mr. Schoolcraft says in a note at this place: "I wish it to be 
distinctly understood, that in my reports of these speeches I have 
adhered, literally, to the spirit and form of expression of tlie 
interpreters, and have seldom ventured to change the particular 
phraseology. This will be apparent on perusal, and will account 
for the familiar cast of many of the sentences. Authenticity was 
deemed a paramount ol)ject, and to the attainment of this, I have 
sacrificed all attempt at ornament or embellishment. By this 
course, undoubtedly, great injustice is done to the sjiirit of the 
original; but it must be recollected that it is nc t the original, but 
the verbal interpretation that 1 have undertaken to preserve." 
The foot-notes of the writer to Me-te-a's speech, are supplied to 
give clearness to passages or allusions that, to the reader of 
today, might otherwise seem vague or lacking in force. Consid- 
ered as a categorical reply to Gen. Cass' address, and as a resume 
of the relations of the white people toward the red man on the 
North American Continent, particularly the tribes in question, 
involving the ultimate destruction of the latter, as the inexorable 
result of the contact; the speech of Me-te-a, mangled as it was 
and shorn of its strength and imagery in rendering it into Eng- 
lish, is logical, persuasive, pithy, and to the point; and shows that 
this uneducated savage, like many others of his race, possessed 
a capacity of mind and gifts of oratory not inferior to those of 
the white people. J 

* By the term;s of the treaty at KdwanKville, the annuity was to be paid at 
some place on the Illinois River not lower down tlian Peoria; wliile the 
moneys a^jreed to be given yearly, under tlie provisions of the Treaty of St. 
Mary->, were to be paid half at Detroit and the residue at Chicai^^o. Me-te-a 
accepts Gen. Cass' offer to receive it at Chicago, instead. 

t "A fii^urative expression", says Schoolcraft, "much used." 

X Chicago was familiar ground to Me-te-a, and his hands were stained witii 


U\f> 1 


The Pottawatomies were among the last to close out their 
reservations and retire beyond the Mississippi. They were loth 
to give up their old homes; and for years mingled on friendly 
terms with the early white settlers. The final emigration from 
the Wabash and St. Joseph was deferred until 183S. Coercive 
measures were required in the removal of the bands from the 
latter river. The Kankakee and some of the other Illinois bands. 
as stated in a former foot-note, went westward some two years 

In 1846, the scattered families of the Pottawatomies, Ottawas. 
and Chippeways were united to be thereafter known as the Potta- 
watomie Natio/i. For $850,000, to be paid them by the United 
States, they released all claims to their several reservations in 
Iowa, Missouri, or in any other place whatever. In lieu of 
$87,000 of the above sum, they took 576,000 acres of land of 
the general government, situated on both sides of the Kansas 
River, Topeka, Kansas, being very nearly in the centre of the 
tract. While Kansas was going through its territorial stages, the 
so-called "squatter sovereigns'' intruded upon these lands, sold 
the Pottawatomies whisky and spread a general demoralization 
among them. The white trespassers killed the stock of tlie 
farmer Indians, burned sonie of their habitations, and resorted 
to all the well-known methods practised on the borders, time out 
of mind, to make it unpleasant for the Indians who were her?^ 
struggling up successfully from barbarism to the ways of civilized 
society. The usual result, a dismemberment of the reservaiion, 
followed. The farmer Indians, so desiring, had their portions set 
off in severalty; the wilder members of the tribe had tlieir sliare 
allotted in common. For the most part, the squatters got the 
lands of the first, while an alleged needy railroad corporation '■' 
was subsidized with the latter. 

From the several reports of the commissioners of Indian atTairs 

the blood of the massacre there in 1812. The same autumn, liis right arn) 
was shattered, and ever after hung a withered limb at his side, from a bulict 
wound received, near Ft. Wayne, from a skirmisher in advance of Gov. Har- 
rison's forces marching to the relief of that place. The last council lie 
attended, says Gen. John Lipton of Indiana, was at Ft. Wayne in 1S27, 
where tlie dignity and propriety of his conduct was a subject of remark. '1 he 
business at an end, he remarked that he must have a frolic. He got drunk, 
and roamed the village in a frenzy, demanding more liquor. At last, as wa.s 
supposed, he took a bottle of aqjia fortis from a shop-window, and drank it. 
and died from its effects within half-an-hour afterward. 
* The Atchison, Topeka <!<: Santa Fe R. R. Co. 

i :/::... r 


for tlie year 1863, it appears that there was 2274 in the tribe, all 
told; that the farmers among them raised 3720 bushels of wheat; 
45,000 of corn; 1200 of oats; and 1000 tons of hay; and that 
they owned 1000 cattle. 1200 horses, and 2000 hogs. The same 
year, there were nniety-five boys and seventy-five girls; and in 
1866 a total of two hundred and forty scholars attending the 
Catholic school at St. Marys, a few miles north of Topeka, where 
they were making gratifying progress. 

Some seventy-fi\'e of their young warriors volunteered on the 
union side during the late civil war, and faithfully served "their 
country." There was no way of computing their numbers accu- 
rately — so many of the young and .adventurous having strayed 
away in quest a more exciting life; — still, in 1867, out of a popu- 
lation of 2400, 1400 elected to become citizens of the United 
States under an enabling act passed by Congress. Son^ie did 
well by the change; while others squandered their lands, and 
went away and joined the wild bands or mixed with other tribes 
out upon the plains. There are still a itw left in Indiana and 
Michigan, and over a hundred in Wisconsin. 

Fergus Printing Company, Chicago. 


irJ-iliSi I ilM^ K^XJ^lViV-^i^ . , \-^» 

^ Tv'iln's Famous Sermons on 1. The Church— Its "Past; li- 

rpv;^.^.T- III. The Chv;kch-Its Fi;rcRC: IV., A Sermon en The Mast ^. 

-i.' TO THE Pt.LTXT. Also, a fine Carbon Portrsit of Mv. Mi!n. The:, 
-"-■-ep- easing and a^raphle in st^ Icsustammg the rc?.t-cr's iUtenuon :■■ 
.5 -cd them lor the purpose of iearuing the pos-iDi: ot tne School to ■■ . 
• ^.'f'u---C3 res':ited in his exdusivn from the Puipii of a Uuitanaii c^-.l. 

.>f rheoloeical ]-?.a-irs:.;; 

Faftes SS; 
Pa-per, 5c 


'; ove; and V, 

hile scholir'-. 

;.ist. L-overr 

'. Oiiiiy Chvi/ci; 

Cloth, 75 ceiJtv 

Geo. C, 

jJberal Ccr.vsntloa at Vvatkin's Gles, N.Y., August 273 

s and 

t* and Footlights : Or the Churcb and the 'I neatie «s Frier. 
fere delivered by Gfio. C. Mii-N, Sept. 25!, 1^03, at Hooky's Taeatrc, Chicago, t^ 

ily Forces, A 

c. Paper. 35 ci'^ 


I regret 

to the Settlers of Ch''r?;?ro, prior to 1840. by the Calumet 
- .-,,,, riub ".' " ■' -f Reception; Record of Okl Settler? 

'' ,,ev*Siephe"' -rong. Ex. -Chiei- Justice John Der;n v 

' '■ ~- Janic:;; _. -. ..vorth, j-aage Giant Goodrica, Roc. 

■,; Tables riiowiug; pi^vjc^ ^.-^ birth, year of atrivai, and age c' • 
.lendixv'ith letters from JolmW.-^tkiiis/NoriEan S. Towner, is 
. . . -,, Tudge Ebenezer Pocic. Rev. Jeremiah Po.ter, and the nam-.: 
veie received; Extracts from CJdcui^o Tribuji^ &nd. Eveninf, Jo^rnai, -. 
viih rame, date of arrival, birthplace, age, and present address. Co.n\p-> 

Ientwokth. Pp. 90; 



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A Resident of Chicago since July i, 1839. 


N.W, Cor. Illinofs St. and Dearborn Ave. , 



J.U,7/ u 



THE cordial reception and flattering endorsements given in 
1876 to the Directory for 1S39, by many of Chicago's 
oldest, well-known, and best-informed citizens, induced the 
compiler to undertake and to complete this little volume, begun 
over twenty years since, with the hope that it may be as well 

The occupations given herein of many is no criterion as to 
their ability to follow other vocations. A graduate of Oxford, 
Eaton, Dublin, or Harvard, a lawyer without acquaintance, a 
poet, artist, and many similar professions would at that time find 
it difficult to obtain a livelihood, as all such were of \ery little 
use in our then embryo city. 

The basis for this work was Chicago's first Directory of 1844^ 
printed and published by Ellis & Fergus, from a careless and 
indifferent canvass made during 1843 — August to December, by 
James W. Norris, and issued in December of that year. 

One of the pubHshers, William Ellis who did the presswcrk 
of that volume, has been dead several years; the other is still 
here, and as he set the type, he knows how much he did for 
it and how much worse it would have been had he followed 
copy; but having been here over four years, he was somewhat 
acquainted with the business people in and about the business 
centre and in the vicinity of his home; the others — newcomers 
and those outside of the central part — he could do nothing for; 
and, as he later discovered, sailors were made tailors, and tailors 
sailors, names were spelled at and locations guessed, etc.; in 

. / 



fact, the names of many prominent men were entirely omitted, 
or as inserted might as well have been, as those for whom they 
were intended could not recognize them. 

Some of the dates of death, as herein given, have been found 
to conflict with those of interested parties and relatives; but so 
far, in every instance, on investigation they have been found to 
be correct. The identity of the dates of many of those known 
to be dead has been difficult, and several instances have occurred 
where more than one date applies to the same name, and until 
identified will not be inserted. 

That all errors are now corrected, all omitted names inserted, 
or that new errors have not been made, is not claimed; but, 
with the additions and alterations herein made, it is believed to 
be very much improved; and if those who can will assist in this 
labor of love by forwarding as early as possible for the next 
edition any correction or error they may discover or any omis- 
sion they may know of, they will no doubt tave the thanks of 
posterity, but certainly tiiose of your humble servant, 

Robert Fergus, Compiler. 
Chicago, August 4, 1896. 

(My 8i5t Birthday.) 

If YOU can supply. an omission, correct a 

name, add a date or a number, please forward same for 
insertion in a later edition, to 

Blanks furnished on application. 185 Illinois St., Chicago. 

Chicago Directory — 184 


City Officers: 
Augustus Garreti', Mayor. 

Common Council for 1843: 

1st Ward — Cyrenius Beers, 

Hugh Thompson Dickey. 
2d Ward — Jason McCord, 

Charles Sauter. 
3d Ward — Charles Taylor, 

Azel Peck. 

4tli Ward — John Murphy, 

Wm. S. Warner, 

5th Ward — Samuel Greer, 
John Cruver. 

6th V/ard — George W. Dole, 
Joseph Marback. 

Officers of the Corporation : 

James M. Lowe, Clerk. 
Walcer S. Gurnee, Treasurer. 
Henry Brov.n, Attorney. 

Health Officer. 



Wm. Wesencraft, 

Orson Smith, 

( Street Co7>imissioner. 
Asa Y . Bradley, Surveyor. 
William II. Brown, School A i^oit. 
Shubael D. Childs, Sealer of Weights 

and Measures. \ Chicai^o Democrat, Official Paper, 

Board of Health- X\xg. Garrett, Prest. 
Jeremiah Price, 
Walter 1^. Newberry, 
William Jones, 

Police Constables— Henry Khines, 

Plugh ]v. Henry, 

Inspector of Beef and Pork — 
1 Archibald Clybourn. 

Courts and Officers of Cook County: 


S. M. Salisbury, 

Francis Cornwell Sherman, 

Jason McCord, 
Georee Davis, Clerk. 

Terms — ist Mondays of March, June, September, and December. 

Frederick A. Howe, 
Henry L. Rucker, 

justicp:s of the i-eace: 

Louis C. Kercheval, 
Valentine Armand Boyer. 

Mahlon Dickerson Ogdcn, Justice. 

I { 

' OOilO. 




William Wilson, Chief Justice. 

Associate Justices: 
Samuel D. Lockwood, | John Dean Caton, 

Thomas C. Browne, Richard M. Young, v ' - ■ - 

"Walter Bennett Scates, ! James Shields, .'■.;- 

Samuel H. Treat, Jesse Burgess Thomas, (jr.), 

J. Young Scammon, Reporter-. \ Ebenezer Peck, Clerk, 


Richard M. Young, Judge. 
Samuel Hoard, Clerk. j Mark Skinner, Master in CJcuucery. 

Te:rms — 4th iMonday of March; 3d Monday of Aug.; ist ISlonday of Nov, 
County Officers : ( 

Samuel J. Lowe, Sheriff. 

Wm. H. Davis, ) y^ * ci -o- 
iT T>i-- ' Deputy Sheriffs. 

Henry Rhmes, \ ^ ^ 

Edward Murphy, Coroner. 

Wm. Bradshaw Egan, Ivecorder. 

Anton Getzler, Assessor & Treasurer. 

Asa Foster Bradley, Surveyor. 
Geo. ^Nlanierre, School Commissioner, 
Parker M. Cole, Poor Master. 
Seth Otis, Poor-House Keeper. 
Alfred W. Davisson, Physician. 
Archibald Clybourn, Inspector, ' ■ 


Henry Cunningham, I Jeremiah H. Sullivan, 

George Brady, Daniel B. Pleartt. 

State Officers: 
Thomas Ford, Governor. 

John Moore, Lieutenant-Governor. 
Thompson Campbell, Sec'y of State. 
Wm. Lee D. Ewing, Auditor. 

Milton Carpenter, Treasurer, 

Jas. Allen McDougall, Att'y-General. 

James Curtiss, District-Attorney. 

Notaries Public 

John Benjamin Franklin Russell, 
Norman Buel Judd, 

Alonzo Huntington, 
Henry Brown. 

United-States Officers: 
John McLean, Circuit-Judge. 
Nathaniel Pope, District-Judge. 
Justin Butterfiekl, District-Attorney. 
William Prentiss, Marshal. 
Jarnes F. Owings, Clerk. 
John Harris Kinzie, Register Land-Office. 
George L. Ward, Receiver of Land-Office. 

John Wentworth, Member of Congreo.^ 4th Congressional District. 
William Stuart, Postmaster. 

John McClellan, Superintendent Public Works, 
Seth Johnson, Deputy-Collector and Inspector of Port, 
Charles [>. Schlatter, ,Ag<,-nt Chicago Harbor. 
Silas Meacham, Light-house Keeper. . 

: y., /. • . ;. : vU .-10 


Religious Societies and Associations: 

First Presbyterian Church, Clark vStreet, between Washington and Madison. — 
Rev. Flavei IJascom, Pastor. Number of congregation, 500. Number of 
communicants, 340. 

Second Presbyterian Church, Randolph Street, between Clark and I^earborn. 
— Rev. Robert Wilson Patterson, Pastor. Number of congregation, 300. 
Number of communicants, 60. 

Unitarian Church, Washington Street, between Clark and Dearborn. — Rev. 
Joseph Harrington, Pastor. Number of congregation, 250. N^umber of 
communicants, 38. 

Catholic Church, n.-w. corner Michigan Avenue and Madison Street. Rt.- 
Rev. Wm. Quarters, D. P^., Rev. Maurice de St. Palais, and Rev. Francis 
Joseph Fischer, Pastors. Number of congregation, 2000. 

The new Catholic Church at the s. -w, corner of Wabash Avenue and Madison 
Street is progressing to completion. Dimensions — Length, 112 feet, in- 
cluding 12 feet portico; ^vidth, 55 feet; height of walls, 34 feet; stone foun- 
dation, 4 feet from the ground. 

First Universalist Society. — Rev, Wm. ?2. Manley, Pastor; meets in the Ilall 
of the Mechanics' Institute. Number of congregation, 175. Number of 
communicants, 43. 

Baptist Church, s.-e. corner of Washington and LaSalle Streets. — Rev, E. H. 
Hamlin, Pastor. Number of congregation, 250. Number of communi- 
cants, 140. 

Baptist Tabernacle Church, LaSalle Street, between Randolph and Washing- 
ton, Rev. Chas. B. Smith., Pastor. Number of congregation, 250. Num- 
ber of communicants, lOo. 

St, James' Church (Protestant Episcopal), Cass Street, between Michigan and 
Illinois. Church erected in 1837, at a cost of about $10,000. — Rev. Wra. 
F. Walker, Rector. Number of congregation, 300. Number of commu- 
nicants, 90. 

Methodist Episcopal Church, s.-e. comer Clark and Washington Streets; new 
church, s.-w. corner Randolph and Canal Streets, 3d ward. — Rev. Abra- 
ham Hanson and Rev. Luke Hitchcock, Pastors, Number of congrega- 
tion, 600. Number of communicants, 275. 

Bethel Society. — Building erecting on N. Dearborn Street, between Kinzie 
and N, -Water, Rev. \V, Rowiatt, Pastor. 

Evangelical Association (German), Wabash Avenue, n,-e. coiner Monroe St. 
— Rev, I'rederick Wahl, Pastor, Number of congregation, 50. Number 
of communicants, ^o. 

German I^utheran Association Church, Illinois Street, 5th ward. 

Society of the New Jerusalem — no regular ministry — meetings fo 
in the City Saloon. 

Sunday-schools are attached to most of these denominations. 

J J i'J J •-• J .'HI! /", 

>..'fi/i n99''/J^vl ,1j sl!^ 


Catholic Library Society : 

Library at tlie Catholic Church. 

Georize Brown, President. 

Alfred M. Talley, Vice-President. 
James Carney, Treasurer. 

Charles McDonnell, Secretary. 
Janie.9 Kelly, Librarian. 

Chicago Bible Society : 
William Hubbard Brown, President. 
Thomas Butler Carter, Secretary. j George W. Merrill, Treasurer. 

Chicago Sacred Music Society: 
Instituted February 13, 1S42. 

Benj. Wright Raymond, President. 
Seth Porter Warner, / 
Chas. A. Collier, \ 

Benjamin Smith, Secretary. 


Thomas Butler Carter, I'reasurer. 
Sidney Sawyer, ) 

Wrn. Hubbard Brown, . J^xec. Com. 
Elijah Smith, ) 

Washington Temperance Society 
Members, 11 00. 
Louis C. Kercheval, President. 
Theophilus W. Smith, ist \'ice-Prest. 
John Davis, 2d \'ice-President. 
Luther Nichols, 3d Vice-President. 
Henry L. Rucker, Recording Sec'y. 

John L. Smith, Assistant Secretary. 

James Curriss, Corresponding Sec'y. 

James L. Howe, Treasurer. 

Beni. Wrii-ht Raymond, / ,, 

-.T-n- t'7 ' . Managers. 

Wuliam Harman, \ ^ 

Catholic Total Abstinence Society: 
Members, 500. Under the direction of the Catholic clergy. 

Mariners' Temperance Society: 

Instituted July 10, 1842. Members, 271. 

George A. Robb, President. 

Grant Goodrich, Vice-President. 
Capt. Henry Cortney, Secretary. 
Capt. Geo. I'eterson, ) 
Ambrose B. Gould, , Floating Com. 
David Mcintosh, ) 

Samuel Geromc, 
John Prindiville, 
T. F. Hunter, 
H. Smith, 
Iver Lawson, 

Vigilance Com. 

Junior Washington Temperance Society: 

Organized March II, 1843. Members, 118. 


James A. Martling, Assistant Sec'y. 
Asa Covey, Corresponding Sec'y. 
William H. Scoville, Treasurer. 
Reuben B. Heacock, | 

Edward A. Rucker, President. 
Edward Morey, Ist \'ice- President. 
Alfred Scranton, 2d Vice-President. 
William Wayman, 3d Vice-President 
David D. Griswold, Recording Sec'y 

Richard H. Morey, \ 


Masonic Lodge : 
Corner of [6] Clark and [[45I South- Water Streets, third story. 

.V"TV-!J -.1. 

Chicago Lyceum : 

Instituted Dec. 2, 1S34. 

Mark Skinner, 
William Jones, 
Silas Meacliam, 
Geo. W. Meeker, 
John B. Weir, 


Incorporated Feb. 27, 1839. 
, President. 

George Manierre, Secretary. 

John Herbert Foster, Treasurer. 

William H. Kennicott, Librarian. 

There is a Library of 400 volumes belonging to this Lyceum. 

Young Men's Association: 

Organized 1841. Members, 206. 

Ashley Gilbert, ^j 

John M. Underwood, j 
Cyrus Mann, j 

Samuel W. Goss, { 

Laurin Palmer Hilliard, | 
Joseph £. Brown, J 

Seth T. Otis, President. 
Isaac Newton Arnold, ist Vice-Prest. 
William M. Larrabec, 2d Vice-Prest. 
Ashley Gilbert, Recording Secretary, 
David S. Lee, Corresponding Sec'y. 
Charles R. Vandercook, Treasurer. 


Reading- Room and Library of the Association, in the Saloon, second story, 
entrance 37 Clark Street. 

Public lectures are provided for by the rules of the Association, and are had 
regularly during the v^^inter months. 

From the rules of the Association: "Any member may have the privilege of 
introducing strangers to the rooms of the Association, by registering their 
names in a book to be kept for that purpose; and such strangers shall have 
free access to the rooms of the Association for two weeks after such intro- 

"Any person may have access to the rooms of the Association by paying there- 
fore fifty cents j>er month." 

Mechanics' Institute : 
Organized February 23, 1842. Incorporated 1843. 
Ira Miltinaore, President. 

Charles M. Gray 

Members, 173. 

James M. Adsit, 1st Vice-President. 
Geo. Franklin Foster, 2d Vice-Prest. 
John B. Weir, Recording .Secretary. 
John Gage, Corresponding Secretary. 
John Haight Hodgson, Treasurer. 
Horatio Cook, Librarian. 

\ssistant Librarian. 
Isaac Lawrence Milliken, ^ 
Isaac Speer, j 

E. D. Bates, J- Directors. 

Bennct Bailey, 
Elijah Smith, 

Hall of the Mechanics' Institute, Saloea Buildings, third story. Entrance, 
37 Clark Street. 

The Mechanical Department of the Prairie Far?ner, John Gage, editor, is 
under the direction of the Institute. 

The LiVjrary Room of the Institute in an adjoining room, as accession has 
recently been made to this library. 


v.! r-t^i. 

\H ,i[:n.ii.i hm:"!-'.. yn 

'.) -■ l!i','f>I Vtl f- 

: -U-iiU^^lA 

•••,.! .K- 


Chicago Repeal Association. 

William Bradshaw Egan, President. 
Lewis C. Kerclieval, Vice-President, j Charles McDonnell, Secretary. 
Henry L. Rucker, Correspond. Sec'y. [ James Carney, Treasurer. 

Young Men's Lyceum. 

Instituted September 25, 1843, ■ 

David D. Griswold, President. | Edwin C. Stowe, Vice-Piesident. 

\Yil!iara H. Scoville, Secretary. [ Edward More)'', Treasurer. 

Hydraulic Company. 
Capita], $200,000. 

Buckner Smith Morris, President. Directors — Benj. AYright Raymond, 

Lemuel Covell Paine Freer, Scc'y. Walter Smith Gurnee, 

Alexander Brand, Treasurer. Stephen Francis Gale, 

Smith Jones Sherwood, 
Applications for water to be made to Smith J. Sherwood, 144 Lake Street. 

Union Agricultural Society: 

President, Lewis Ellsworth of DuPage, 


Samuel Goodrich of DuPage, 
Robert Strong of Will, 
James McClellan of Kendall. 

Seth Washburn of Lake, 
William VanOsdel of McHenry, 
Shephard Johnston of Kane, 
Joseph Vial of Cook, 

Matthias Lane r)unlap of Cook, Recording Secretary. 

E. W. Brewster of Kane, Corresponding Secretary. 

M. If. Demmond of Will, Treasurer. 
Robert Strong, i ( William Smith, 

Chester Ingersoll, > Committee on Fairs, •, Edward Perkins, 

Jasper Augustus Gooding ) ( all of Will. 

Office of Prairie Farmer, 112 Lake Street. 

Newspaper Offices and Publication Days: 

Belter Covenant, Saturday; Randolph Street, between Wells and Franklin. 
Seth Barnes, editor and proprietor. 

Chicai^o Democrat, Wednesday; 107 Lake Street. John Wentworth, editor 
and proprietor. 

Chicago Express, daily, Tuesday, weekly; 98 I>ake Street. W^illiam W. 
Brackett, editor and proprietor. 

Northioestan Baptist, semi-monthly, Titesday; 124 Lake St. I. N. Powell, 

Prairie Farmer, monthly; 112 Lake Street. John S. WTight and J. Am- 
brose Wight, editors. Jolin S. Wright, pro})rietor. 

Western Citizen, Thursday; 124 Lake Street. Zebina Eastman and Asa B. 
Brown, editors. . 

'if ihr.iiJiV/ 



Book and Job Printing-Office : 
Ellis [Will.] & Fergus [Robert], 37 Clark St., Saloon Bldgs, s.-e. cor. Lake. 


50 Clark St., M'est side, bet. Lake and Randolph. Win. Stuart, Postmaster. 

A weekly mail from the East was received here on horseback in 1832 — 
Jonathan Nash Bailey being postmaster. The ne\t year it was received in a 
one-horse wagon, weekly — John Stephen Coates Hogan, postmaster. . In 
1833, a two-horse wagon was substituted. In 1834, a four-horse stage line 
was established semi-weekly; tri-weekly in 1835. In 1837, there was a daily 
Eastern mail — Sidney Abell, postmaster. There are now received and made 
up at this office forty-eight mails weekly, and the receipts of the office amount 
to about $10,000. The following statement will show the number of mails 
received at this time and the present post-office arrangements: 

Great Eastern — Arrives, during lake 
navi'^ation, daily, except Tuesday, 
by 4 a. m. Closes daily, except 
Monday, at 8 J. 2 a.m. During sus- 
pension of navigation arrives daily, 
except Monday, by 4 a.m. Closes j 
daily, except Sunday, at S}4 a.m. 

Michigan -City Land Mail — Arrives, 
during lake navigation, every Wed- | 
nesday by 10 a. m. Closes every ! 
Wednesday at 2 p.m. I 

Southern 7'/a Peoria— Arrives daily, : 
£\cept Monday, by 7 p.m. Closes , 
daily, except Sunday, at 8 p.m. i 

Dixon Z'ia Aurora, from April i to i 
Nov. I — Arrives Sunday, Wednes- j 
day, and I'riday by 6 a.m. Closes 

p.m. From Dec. i to April I — 
Arrives Sunday, Wednesday, and 
Friday by 5 p.m. Closes Monday, 
Wednesday, and Friday at 8 p.m. 

idihvaukee (Wis.) — Arrives Tuesday, 
Thursday, and Saturday by 5 p.m. 
Closes juiiday, Tuesday, and Thurs- 
day at 8 p.m. 

Janesville (Wis.) via McPIenry, 111. — 
Arrives Wednesday by 2 p. m. 
Closes Thursday at 9 a.m. 

Thornton 2'/a Blue Island — Arrives 

every Tuesday by 4 p.m. 
every Wednesday at 9 a.m. 

Office closed at 8 p.m. 

Office open : 


Monday, Wedne.sday, and I'riday ! ^^'^om March I to May i at yy^ 

at 8 p.m. P'rom Nov. i to April i j 
— Arrives Tuesday, Thursday, and ' 
Saturday by 6 p.m. Closes ."^unday, 
Tuesday, and Thursday at 8 p.m. 
Galena fia Rockford, from April I to 
Dec. I — Arrives Tuesday, Thursday, 
and Saturday by 8 p. m. Closes 
Sunday, Tuesday, and Friday at 8 

May I to Sept. I at 7 a.m. 
11 Sept. 1 to Nov. I at 7)< a.m. 
II Nov, I to March I at 8 a.m. 

On Sundays: 
From Oct. i to April i, 
from 8^ to 9J^ a.m. and 4 to 5 p.m. 
From April i to Oct. r, 

from 8 to 9 a.m. and 5 to 6 p.m. 

Military Companies : 
Chicago Guards: 1 Montgomery Guards: 

John Benj. Franklin Russell, Captain. ] Patrick Kelly, Captain. 
W^m. M, Larraljee, 1st Lieutenant. { \Vm, Bergen Snowhook, 1st Lieut. 
Frederick A. Howe, 2d Lieutenant. | Henry Cunningham, 2d Lieutenant, 

Michael O'Brien, 3d Lieutenant. 

Jas. Y. .Sanger, Captain. 
Samuel N. Davis, ist Lieutenant. 
Chas. E. Peck, 2d Lieutenant. 

Chicago Cavalry: 

I Charles G, 

W^icker, ^d Lieutenant. 

James L. Howe, Cornet. 

Chas. L. P. Hogan, Orderly Sergeant. 

! I 

lit T 

f..u/ ■ '! .iri.r>'' 

II 'f O 



Chicago Fire Companies : 
Alson S. Sherman, Chief-Engineer. 
Stephen Francis Gale, 1st Assistant. | Alexander Loyd, 2d Assistant. 

Engine Company No. i : 
Ashley Gilbert, Foreman. 
Geo. Franklin Foster, Ass't-Foreman. 
John Calhoun, Clerk and Treasurer. 
Alvin Calhoun,, Steward. 

Engine Company No. 2: 
Sanford Johnson, Foreman. 
Ira Coleman, Assistant-Foreman. 
Austin D. Sturtevant, 

Secretary and Treasurer. 

Chicago Fire-Bucket Co. No. 1 : 
Samuel A. Lowe, Foreman. 
Francis T. Sherman, Ass't-Foreman. 
Wm. Harrison Jones, Clerk and Treas. 

Hose Company No. i : 
This is a new company. No election 
of officers has yet been had. 

Hook-and-Ladder Co. No. i : 
Joseph \V. Hooker, Foreman. 
Seth Porter Warner, Ass't-Foreman, 
Jos. L. Hanson, vSec'y and Treasurer. 
Jeremiah Price, Assistant-Secretary. 

Chicago Fire-Guard: 
Geo. A. Robb, Foreman. 
Leroy M. Boyce, Assistant-Foreman. 
David S. Lee, Secretary. 
John C. Haines, Treasurer. 
i Ira Couch, Steward. 

Rush Medical College : 

Incorporated by the Legi 
Board of 
\Vm. B. Ogden, Esq., President. 
Theophilus W. Smith, Esq. 
James H. Collins, Esq. 
Justin Butterheld, Esq. 
Edmund S. Kimberly, M.D. 
Hon. John l)ean Caton. 
Rev. S. S. Whitman. 
John Harris Kinzie, Esq. 
Edmund Dick Taylor, Esq. 
Mark Skinner, Esq. 
John Gage, Esq. 

.lature of Illinois in 1837. 
Trustees : 

Grant Goodrich, Esq., Secretary. 

Julius Wadsworth, Esq. 

Hugh T. Dickey, Esq. 

Walter L. Newberry, Esq. 

Geo. \\\ Snow, Esq. 

Norman Buel Judd, Esq. 

£x OOlcio: 
Hon. Thomas Ford, Governor. 
Hon. John Moore, Lieut. Governor. 
Hon. Sam'l Hackleton, Speaker H.R. 

Faculty : 
Daniel Brainard, M.D., Professor of Anatomy and Surgery. 
James VanZant Blaney, M.D., Professor of Chemistry and Materia Medica. 
John McLean, M.D., Professor of the Theory and Practice of Medicine. 
M. L. Knapp, M.D., Prof, of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children. 
Alfred W. Davisson, Prosector to the Professor of Anatomy. 

The annual course of Lectures for the first session commenced on Monday, 
Dec. 4, 1S43, ^nd will continue sixteen weeks. The sui^sequent courses will 
C'>n»mence on the first .Monday of November. The fees are as follows: Anat- 
omy and Surgery, $20; Chemistry and Materia Medica, $20: Theory and 
Practice of .Medicine, $ro; Ot^stetrics and Di.-ea.>es of Women and Children, 
$10; Dissecting ticket, $5; Ciraduation fee, $20. The requirements for grad- 
u.-^tion are: three years study with a respectable physician, two courses of 



lectures, one of which must be in this institution (or two years practice will 
be received in lieu of one course). The candidate must be 21 years of age, 
of good moral character, must present a thesis on some medical subject of his 
own composition, and in his own handwriting, which shall be approved by 
the faculty; and pass a satisfactory examination on all the branches taught in 
this College. Good board and room can be obtained in Chicago at from 
$1.50 to $2 per week. This institution is now in successful operation. 

City Dispensary: 

This Institution was opened in connection with the Rush Medical College, 
for the purpose of affording relief to the indigent and practical instruction to- 
medical students. It is located in the wooden building on the east side of 
Clark Street, near the bridge. Open Mondays, Tuesdays, and Fridays, from 
8/^ to 9>^ o'clock. It is supported by voluntary contributions of benevolent 

Common Schools : 


William Jones, I Mark Skinner, 

Jonathan Young Scammon, | William Hubbard Brown, 

George W. Meeker, j Augustine Deodat Taylor. 

Anton Getzler, I 

^Vm. Hubbard Brown, Agent and Treasurer of the School Fund. 
Teachers : 

Samuel C. Bennett, - - 97 scholars. 

Miss Mary B. Bennett, - - 75 " 

Austin D. Sturtevant, - - 130 n 

Miss V, C. Freer, - - - 70 n 

Francis Field, - - - 131 it 

Alden G. Wilder, - - - 130 ,. 

Mrs. Mary E. Warner, - - no ir 

Miss M. Smith, - . •. - 75 " 

Chicago Female Seminary: 

Instituted 1843. ^s"^- ^- ^^- Henderson, A.M., Principal. 

The object of this Institution is to give young ladies a thorough, practical 
education, to develop and mould the character, cultivate the manners, and 
form correct habits. A Teachers' Department is connected with the Seminary. 

It is located on the comer of Clark and Washington streets. 
Board of Visitors: 

trie" I, 

School I. 


M 2. 

., 2, 

1. I. 

" 2, 

II 2. 

•• 3, 

M I. 

M 4, 

1. I. 

., 4, 

II 2. 

•' 4, 

•• 3. 

Rev. P'lavel Basccm, 

Rev. Robert Wilson Patterson, 

Hon. Benjamin Wright Raymond, 

Henry Brown, Esq., 

James H. Collin.s, Esq., 

William Hubbard Brown, E'sq, 
Hon. Isaac Newton Arnold, 
Hon. Samuel Hoard, 
Grant Goodrich, Esq. 






Population of the City of Chicago, 

According to the Census taken by Jas. W. Norris, August i, 1843, under 
the authority of the Common Council; together with a comparison of 
this with the census of former periods. 

Rkmarks. — The following census was taken with great care and accuracy, 
all persons not permanently residing in the City being in every instance 
excluded. The population of the place might have been made much larger 
than it appears to be by the result of this census, undoubtedly S500 by includ- 
ing a class of transitory persons, which it is customary to compute as a part 
of the population of cities; but it was thought advisable to base the present 
■census upon a pernianent foundation; the census of subsequent periods will 
then show the actual amount of increase. By transitory persons are to be 
understood persons not having a permanent residence in either of the wards 
of the City, and persons living here but absent for the time being — by natives 
of other countries, those actually born abroad, and not their descendants, who 
are included among the natives of this country. It is proper to remark that 
a great increase of population has taken place since the date of this census. 
The present population exceeds 8000. 

Males : Wards, 

10 years and under, 
Over 10 and under 21, 
Over 21 and under 45, 
Over 45 and under 60, 
Over 60, . 

Females : 
10 years and under, 
Over 10 and under 21, 
Over 21 and under 45, 
Over 45 and under 60, 
Over 60, . . . 

Colored males under 21, 
Colored males over 21, 
Colored females under 21, _ 
Colored females over 21, . 


































































































Transient })ersons, 

Population 1843, 
Population 1S40, 


87 246 50 


19 103 533 533 

1986 2231 509 414 600 1840 75S0 75S0 
1197 1467 251 179 436 1323 4853 

789 76.4 258 235 164 517 2727 

jVuniber of Iri^h, _ .170 206 29 

Germans and Norwegians, 104 217 32 

Natives of other countries, _ 134 156 80 
Americans, . _ 



175 143 
90 352 
50 163 

1578 1652 368 259 285 1182 
AYhole number of Families, 1177 









Port of Chicago: 

Capt. Seth Johnson, Deputy Collector and Inspector. 

Revenue Office, 38 Clark Street. 

The following tabular statements will exhibit, with an approach to accu- 
racy, the amount and value of the trade of Chicago to the close of the present 
year, 1S43. -^ very serious difficulty has existed heretofore in ascertaining 
the actual amount of exports and imports of the place, especially the exports, 
■owing to the fact that a great many vessels arrive and depart during the 
season of navigation without being reported at the Custom- House, or leaving 
any evidence of the character and amount of their cargoes. The existence of 
this difficulty was more particularly set forth in a memorial of the Common 
Council to Congress, in the year 1840, in which they allow a deduction of one- 
third from the amount known, to be added for the amount unknown. It has 
been thought advisable in the following statement to give only the actual 
amount, as ascertained from record in the revenue office, it being understood, 
from the above explanation, that the estimate is considerably below the true 


^ts : 








1837, - 


_ 11,065.00 

1S37, - 


- 373,667.12 







1839, - 


- 33,843-00 

1839, - 


. 630,980.26 







1841, - 


. 348,362.24 

1841, - 


. 564,347.88 







Articles Exported d 




Wheat, . 


586,907 bushels. 



2,920 bbls. 

Corn, . 


35,358 M 

Beef, . 


. . 762 .. 



53,486 M 

Pork and Hams, 

15,447 " 

Peas, . 


484 M 

Fish, . 


- 915 .- 

Barley, . 


1,090 .. 



. 367,200 lbs. 

Flax Seed, 

750 •• 



151,300 M 

Hides, No. 

of . 

- 6,947 



2,400 „ 

Brooms, N 

3. of . 




500 II 

Maple Sugar, . 

_ 4,500 lbs. 

Tobacco, - 

3,000 I. 



59,990 M 


24,200 t- 

Feathers, . 


. 2,409 ., 

Wool, . 


15,000 II 

Furs and Peltries, 

446 Packs. 

Articles Exported d 




Wheat, . 

628,967 bushels. 



74,900 pounds. 

Corn, _ 


2,443 " 

Lead, . 


. 360,000 11 


3,7^^7 " 


22,050 II 

Flax Seed, 


1,920 ,. 


4,900 „ 


11,112 barrels. 



5,300 M 

Lard, . 


2,823 .. 

Packages P 


393 •' 


10,380 11 


. 180 dozen. 


1,133 •• 

Flour, . 

. 10,786 barrels. 

Hides, No. 

of . 



'-'I ' '..iV A'i] 


Articles Imported during the Year 1843 

Merchandise, . 2,012 tons. 

II . 101,470 pl<:gs. 

Salt, - - - 27,038 barrels 

Whiskey, . 2,585 h 

Lumber, . 7,545,142 feet. 

Shingles, . _ 4,117,025 
Square timber, . 16,600 feet. 

Staves, _ _ 57,00c 

Bark, . _ _ 430 cords. 

Vessels arrived and cleared during the years 1842-3: 

Arrived. Cleared. Tot'il. Aggregate Torib. 

1842, . . . 705 705 1410 117,711 . 

1843, - . - 756 691 1447 289,852 

A number of vessels left port this year without being reported. 

During the present season, 14,856 barrels of beef have been packed at ihe 
several packing houses in the City; only a small portion of this has l^een 
exported. The quantity of hides and tallow is not known, but will bear a 
proportion to the quantity of beef. An amount of pork will be put up here 
the coming winter, greatly exceeding any former season. No statement in 
regard to this department can be made in this connection, as the business is 
but just commencing. 

M; r.;!' -r. 



BEAUMONT & SKIXNER, attorneys, counsellors, and solicitors in chan- 
cery, Chicago, III. Geo. A. O. Beaumont, Mark Skinner. 

HENRV BROWN, attorney and counsellor at law, oftice s.-w. corner of 
Lake and Dearborn streets, over the general stage-office. 

J. BUTTERFIELD, Jr., attorney and counsellor at law, and land agent, 
east side of [5] Clark .Street, first door from South- Water. 

HENRY W. CLARKE, attorney, counsellor at law, solicitor in chancery, 
conveyancer and general land-agent, office, 38 Clark St., opp. City Saloon. 

JAMES CURTIS.S, attorney and counsellor at law, office 136 Lake Street. 

HUGH T. DICKEY, attorney and counsellor at law, 103^ Lake St., Chicago. 

FREER & DeWOLF, attorneys and counsellors, Chicago, 111., office on 
Clark St., opp. City Hotel. Lemuel Covell Paine Freer, Calvin DeWolf. 

HAMILTON & CHAMBERLAINE'S law office, Clark St., opp. Fost-Office. 

A. HUNTINGTON, attorney and counsellor at law, 98 Lake St., Chicago. 
ALBERT G. LEARY, advokat und Rechts-Rathgeber, Chicago, Cook Co., 

Illinois, office and house, 53 Clark St., opposite the City Hotel. 
MaNIERR12 & MEEKER, attorneys and counsellors at law and solicitors 
in chancer)', 118 Lake St., Chicago. Geo. Manierre, Geo. W. Meeker. 

B. S. MORRIS, attorney and counsellor at law, office Clark Street, opposite 

City Hotel. 

J. W, NORRIS, law office, Clark Street, opposite City Saloon. 

P. PHELPS, law and chancery office. Dearborn Street, Chicago. 

SCAMMON Si JUDD, attorneys and counsellors at law, office 123 Lake St., 
City Saloon. Jonathan Young Scammon, Norman Buel Judd. 

SMITH & BALLING ALL, counsellors atTaw, Harmon & Loomis' Build- 
ing, Clark St., Chicago, 111. Theophilus W. Smitli, Patrick Ballingall. 

SPRING & GOODRICH, attorneys and counsellors at law, 124 Lake St., 
Chicago, III. Giles Spring, Grant Goodrich, 


JOHN BATES, Jr., auction and commission merchant, 174 Lake St., Chicago. 
GEORGE W. GRIDLI" Y, auction and commission merchant, 85 Lake St. 
Parkier & dodge, auctioneers and icommission merchants, Clark Street, 
Chicago, III. John Parker, John C. Dodge. 

J. COE CLARK, exchange broker, Clark St., 2 doors north of Lake, e, side. 

{ .. 

■•■ ; i.i*-;.! 


MURRAY & BRAND, private bankers and exchange broker?, 127 Lake 
Street. Deposit accounts kept, interest: allowed on special deposits, 
drafts granted and money collected on New York, Buffalo, Cincinnati,. 
St. Louis, and Detroit, and Great Britain and Ireland, advances on pro- 
duce, etc., etc. James Murray, Alex. Brand. 

GEORGE SMITH & CO., bankers and insurance brokers, (bank building)^ 
LaSalle Street, Chicago, 111. 

RICHARD K. SWIFT will loan money on bonds and mortgages and other 
undoubted securities, office in the "Tremont Buildings," 2d story, over 
Clarke's drug store, 102 Lake Street, Chicago. 


HATCH &: SHUR, new ball alley and saloon, choice liquors and fresh oys- 
ters, superior to any in the City. Heman Hatch, W. Shur. 

BILLIARD SALOON, west side of Clark Street, over J. Johnson's barber 
shop. [James L. Dole.] 

JOHN F. LESSEY & SAMUEL WINEGAR, new billiard saloon, corner 
of Dearborn and South-Water streets, Chicago, 111. 


J. A. HOISINGTON, Chicago bookbindery, (late Bowman [Ariel] & Ross 
[Hugh]), Saloon Building, corner of Lake and Clark streets; having 
taken the above establishment, is prepared to execute binding in all its 
branches with neatness and dispatch. N. B. — All orders in the above 
business thankfully received and promptly attended to. 


W. H. ADAMS (5c CO., manufacturers and wholesale and retail dealers in 
boots, shoes, leather, findings, etc., 138 Lake Street, Chicago, III. 

S. B. COLLINS & CO., boot, shoe, and leather dealers, 140 Lake Street. 

JOHONNOTT, WELLS & CO., general dealers in leather, hides, findings, 
oils, etc., etc., 159 Lake Street, new buildings, Chicago, 111.; cash paid 
for hides. E. S. Johonnott, A. Wells, Alson S, Sherman. 

J. B. MITCHELL, custom boot and shoe maker, east side Clark Street, 
I)et\vecn Lake and Water streets, Chicago. 

C. & J. SAUTER, manufacturers and general dealers in boots and shoes, 212 
Lake Street, Chicago; cash paid for hides. 

SOLOMON TAYLOR, boot and shoe manufacturer, gentlemen's boots and 
shoes; ladies' gaiters, kid slippers, and buskins; misses', boys', and chil- 
dren's boots and shoes constantly (;n hand; all orders punctually attended 
to at No. 152K Lake Street, Chicago, 111, 

JOSFT'H E. WARE, fashionable boot and shoe manufactory, Clark Street, 
opposite City Saloon. Having been liberally patroni/.ed by the citizens of 
Chicago and vicinity, still continues to make work that is deserving of 
comparison with anything in the line that is made in Chicago; the utmost 
attention will be paid to all orders and the best of stock used; a good fit 
may be depended on; easy shoes and opera bocAs made of the best quality 
of buckskin; persons having tenderer difficult feet to fit will hnd it to 
their advantage to give him their custom. N. B. — Repairing done in 
the neatest manner. 



D. A. & E. M. JONES, cabinet and chair manufacturers, Dearborn Street, 

three doors north of Tremont Buildings, Chicago, 111. 
MANAHAX. & JACOBUS, manufacturers of cabinet furniture, chairs, sofas, 

bedsteads, etc.; furniture made to order in the neatest style; 10 Clark 

Street, Chicago, 111. 
C. MORGAN, manufacturer of all kinds of cabinet ware and chairs, cheap 

for cash, 199 Lake Street, Chicago, 111. 
JOHN B. WEIR, manufacturer and dealer in furniture of all kinds, iSS 

Lake Street, Chica'^o. 


L. M. BOVCE, wholesale and retail druggist, 119 Lake Street, Chicago. 

CLARKE; & CO., 102 Lake Street, Chicago, drugs and medicines, manu- 
facturers of lard-oil and candles. 

S. SAWYER, wholesale and retail dealer in drugs, paints, oils, dyestuffs,. 
glass, medicines, chemicals, perfumery, and groceries, 124 Lake Street,, 
two doors from Clark Street, Chicago, 111. 


BALLENTINE & SHERMAN, wholesale and retail dealers in staple and 
fancy dry goods, groceries, etc., 122 Lake Street, Chicago, 111.; cash 
paid for wheat and other country produce. 

JAMES E. BISHOP, general dealer in dry goods, groceries, hardware, etc., 
131 Lake Street, Chicago. N. B. — All kinds of country produce taken 
in exchange for goods; cash paid for wheat and pork. 

A. G. BURLEY & CO., importers and wholesale and retail dealers in china,, 
glass, earthen, stone-ware, and looking-glasses, 105 Lake Street. 

BRACKEN &■ TULLER, 161 Lake Street, Chicago, 111., wholesale and 
retail dealers in dry goods, groceries, hardware, leather, boots, shoes, 
powder, etc. 

COMSTOCK ik ACKLEY, wholesale and retail dealers in dry goods, gro- 
ceries, and provisions, 82 Lake Street, Chicago, 111. 

DYER & CHAPIN, wholesale and retail dealers in staple and fancy dry- 
goods, groceries, nails, glass, etc., etc.; cash paid for wheat; 103 Lake 
Street, Chicago. Thomas Dyer, John P. Chapin. 

JOHN FENNERTY, wholesale and retail dealer in dry goods, groceries, 
ready-m.ade clothing, etc., 100 Lake Street, Chicago, III.; cheap for 
cash; also on hand, nails, glass, indigo, rnadder, alum, cotton yarn, etc. 

JOHN L. GRAY, dealer in dry goods and groceries, n.-e. cor. of Clark and 
North- Water streets, at the bridge, Chicago, 111. 

JAMES HERYEY, dealer in dry goods,_ groceries, produce, etc., South- 
Water Street, Chicago, 111. 

C. N. HOLDEN &. CO., wholesale and retail dealers in dry goods, grocer- 
ies, nails, glass, hoof.';, shoes, hats, caps, shovels, spades, forks, ropes, 
paih, and cords; choice tea and cotfee always on hand; corner Clark and 
South- Water streets, near the bridi/e. 


20 . CHICAGO DIRECTORY, 1S43. ■' i 

J. B. IRVIN & CO., wholesale and retail dealers in dry goods, groceries, 
hardware, crockery, boots, shoes, etc.. Dearborn Street, 2d door from 
Lake Street, Chicago, III. N. B. — Cash and the highest price paid for 
all kinds of country produce. 

B. JOXES 6c CO., general dealers in dry goods, groceries, lumber, and pro- 
duce, South-Water Street, between Clark and Dearborn streets, Chicago; 
cash paid for wheat. 

LOYD, BLAKESLEY & CO., wholesale and retail dealers in groceries, 
nails, glass, shoes, leather, etc.; cash paid for wheat; loi Lake .Street, 
Chicago, III. Alex. Loyd, H. A. Blakesley, Henry Norton. 

II. NORTON & CO., wholesale and retail dealers in groceries, liquors, 
paints, oils, nails, glass, crockery, staple dry goods, South- Water Street, 
Chicago, 111. Horace Norton, Joel C. Walter. 

THERON NORTON, wholesale and retail dealer in staple and fancy dry 
goods, wet and dry groceries, hardware, crockery, ready-made clothing, 
hats, caps, salt, nails, glass, etc., 117 Lake Street, Chicago, 111. 

B. F. SHERMAN, general dealer in staple and fancy dry goods, groceries, 

boots, shoes, and leather, 126 Lake Street, corner of Clark. 

N. .SHERMAN, Jr., wholesale and retail dealer in dry goods, groceries, 
nails, glass, sash, etc., etc , 158 Lake Street, n.-e. cor. Lake and LaSaile 
streets, Chicago, 111. 

H, (S: E. SMITPI, Avholesale and retail dealers in merchant tailors' goods, 
clothing, dry goods, groceries, and hardware, 146 Lake Street, Chicago. 
N. B. — Clothing made in the newest style and at reduced prices. 

■STEYENS S: CARPENTER, wholesale and retail dealers in staple dry 
goods, groceries, hardware, boots, shoes, crockery, etc., 166 Lake St., 
Chicago, 111. Henry Stevens, Jas. H. Carpenter, 

H. O. vSTONP2, wholesale and retail dealer in dry goods, groceries, hardware, 
etc., 114 Lake Street, Chicago, III.; storage and forwarding, South- 
Water Street; cash paid for wheat, flour, corn, oats, etc. 

N. (Sc Y. TUTTLE, wholesale and retail dealers in dry goods, groceries, nails, 
glass, boots, leather, etc., 68 Lake St., Chicago, 111., a few doors east of 
i'remont House; cash paid for wheat. Nelson Tuttle, Frederick Tuttlc. 

C. WALKER & CO., wholesale and retail dealers in leather, boots, shoes, 

and findings, dry goods, groceries, hardware, nails, oils, paints, glass, etc., 
South-Water Street, Chicago; cash paid for wheat and hides. 

S. B. WALKER, 148 Lake Street, Chicago, 111., general dealer in dry goods, 
groceries, glass, crockery, hardware, cutlery, boots, shoes, etc. 

PI. S. & J. WAL>SWORTH, dealers in dry goods and groceries at wholesale 
and retail, 113 Lake Street, Chicago, III. 

C. G. WICKER & CO., cheap cash store, 94 Lake Street, wholesale and 
retail dealers in dry goods, groceries, leather, glass, nails, j^roduce, etc. 

M. & M. A. WURT.S, wholesale and retail dealers in dry goods, groceries, 
boots, shoes, leather, etc., 99 Lake Street, Chicago, 111. 


BRISTOL & rORTER, storage, forwarding, and commission merchants, 
Chicago, 111. Robert C. Bristol, Hibbard Porter. 


HORACE BUTLEK, general agent ia the forwarding and commission busi- 
ness, also for the purchase of wheat and other produce; dealer in staple 
dry goods, groceries, and hardware, also tlour, salt, pork, gla»s, fish, 
shingles, plaster, etc., etc.; all orders for purchasing of produce or for- 
warding of goods and property attended to with promptness; Chicago. 

JOHN P. CHAPIX & CO., forwarding and commission merchants, Chicago; 
references: Geo. Smith & Co., E. S. & J. Wadsworth, Chicago; Sleight 
& Gould, Michigan City, Ind. ; James Murray & Co., Kinnie & Davies, 
Buffalo; Strachan l\: Scott, Wilson, Butler «5c Baldwin, Geo. H. llutchins, 
Varnam, Graham & Bebb, New York. 

C L, HARMON, commission merchant and wholesale grocer, corner Soutli- 
^Vater and Clark streets, Chicago. 111. 

G. S. HUBBARD, forwarding merchant and dealer in produce and provi- 
sions, South- Water Street, between Clark and LaSalle streets, Chicago. 

HUMPHREYS & YVINSLOW, forwarding commission merchants and pro- 
duce dealers, Chicago, 111. 

ORRINGTON LUNT, forwarding and commission merchant, Chicago, 111. ; 
produce of all kinds purchased and sold on commission; references: 
Bigelow & Gibson, Joseph Balistere & Co., Boston; E. T. H. Gibson & 
Co., Allen & Pa.xson, New York; Geo. W. Tift & Co., Buffalo. 

J. D. MERRITT, forwarder, commission merchant, and dealer in produce 
and staple goods, Chicago, 111. 

HORACE NORTON & CO., storage, forwarding, and commission mer- 
chants, dealers in produce, iron, coal, etc., Chicago, 111.; liberal advances 
made on produce. Horace Norton, Joel C. Walter, Edward Kendall 

NEWBERRY & DOLE, storage, forwarding, and commission merchants, 
foot of Clark Street, at the bridge, Chicago, 111. ; agents for the following 
lines: Merchants' Transportation Company, R. Hunter & Co., Hunter, 
Palmer & Co., proprietors; F. Wilkie, New York, Otis Clapp, Boston, 
R. Hunter & Co., Albany, Hunter, Palmer & Co., Buffalo, O. Newberry, 
Detroit, agents. Troy and Ohio and Detroit lines, J. H, Hooker, David 
Camp, proprietors; A. Rindge, New York, J. H. Wilgus, New York, 
Camp & Hooker, Buffalo, Dorr, Webb & Co., Detroit, Gray (lie Lewis, 
Detroit, agents. Liberal advances made on produce. 

THERON PARDE?^, commission merchant and forwarder, North-Water 
Street, Chicago, 111., is agent for the New York, Oswego, and Chicago 
line of steam propellers, which connects with the Troy and Oswego line 
(passage and freight boats). Bronson & Crocker, Oswego, H. C. Rossiter, 
Troy, prof)rietors; J. S. Wychoff, 33 Ca-nties Slip, N. Y., J. K. Hall, 
Boston, agents. Saw York, Utica, and Oswego line (lake boats exclu- 
sively), Bronson &: Crocker, Oswego, N.Y., H. C. Rossiter, Troy, N.Y., 
Farewell 6c Harrington, Utica, N. Y., proprietors; W. S. Rossiter, 23 
Ca-nties Slip, N.Y., J. R. Hall, Boston, agents. 

WHrriNG, MAGILL c'v CO., produce dealers, North-Water St., Chicago, 
lib; storage, forwarding, and commission. 


CHARLES CLEAVER, dealer in groceries, 177 Lake Street; lard-oil, soap 
and candle factory. Canal St., between Madison and Monroe, Chicago. 



22 CHICAGO DIRECTORY, 1 843. :: ; 

HAMILTON & WHITE, dealers in groceries, provisions, and produce, lard- 
oil, stearine candles, dried fruit, sash, nails, glass, powder, shot, lead, 
wooden-ware, clothing, etc., etc., 139 Lake Street, (first door west of 
Lake-Street House), Chicago, 111. 

C. McDOXXELL, grocery store and boarding-house attached, and stabling 
in the rear, corner of ^larket and Randolph streets, between the South- 
Branch bridge and the Sauganash Hotel, Chicago, 111. 

H. NEWHALL, wholesale and retail dealer in fruit, 123 Lake St., Chicago. 

WARD .RATHBONE, -wholesale and retail dealer in fruit, groceries, dry 
goods, choice liquors, 141 Lake Street, Chicago. 

PHILO C. SHELDON, 254, corner of Lake and Water streets, opposite the 
Sauganash; groceries, provisions, and liquors; Chicago, 111. 


OLIVER C. HENSON, barber and fashionable hair-dresser, 1S3 Lake St., 
Chicago, 111.; perfumery for sale. 

A. J. MILLER, barber and fashionable hair-dresser. Market Street, near the 
Sauganash, Chicago, III. ; P'rench pomatum, an article superior to every 
other kind of hair-oil, for beautifying and preserving the hair; cigars of 
the best quality constantly on hand. 


BOTSEORD & BEERS, wholesale and retail dealers in stoves, Junietta, 
Swedes, and English iron, tin plate, sheet iron and copper, hollow and 
hard ware, cutlery, nails, spikes, sash, glass, blacksmiths', carpenters', 
joiners', and coopers' tools; 109 Lake Street, Chicago, 111. Jabez Kent 
Botsford, Cyrenius Beers. 

L. W. CLARK, 128 Lake, corner of Clark Street, Chicago, wholesale and 
retail dealer in hardware, saddlery, and cutlery, iron, steel, nails, spikes, 
and glass, stoves, tin, sheet iron, and copper ware. 

J. B. DOGGETT, agent for the Brownsville Juniata iron works, warehouse 
corner of Lake and State streets, Chicago, 111. 

GURNEE & MATTESON, wholesale and retail dealers in hardware, sad- 
dlery, and cutlery, iron, steel, nails, spikes, glass, stoves, tin, sheet-iron, 
and copper ware, leather, shoe findings, etc.; 116 Lake Street, Chicago, 
111.; cash and the highest market price paid for hides. 

DAVID HATCH, dealer in hardware, 98 Lake Street, Chicago, 111. (store 
■with Sylvester Marsh). 

RYERSON Sc BLAIKIE, 90 Lake- Street, opposite the Tremont House, 
Pittsburg iron-store (Hecia works), flat bar, tire, round, square, hoop, 
band, saddle tree, horseshoe, boiler, sheet-iron, etc., plough, spring, blis- 
ter, English and German steel. l>uggy springs, axles, wagon and dearborn 
boxes, also nails, brads, cut and wrought spikes, white lead, glass, etc.; 
Chicago, 111., 1844. Joseph Turner Ryerson, Andrew Blaikie. 

i;- Ufif'nr, x .- ^^^^^ }^ »;o 


H. M. STOW, the Chicago Steam Iron- works; the subscriber would most 
respectfully inform the public ihat he is carrying on the iron and brass 
casting business at his new establishment, on the corner of Randolph and 
Canal streets, opposite the Western Hotel, where he can make work in. 
the above line, both great and small, and of the best workmanship and 
cheaper than the cheapest. N. !>. — Orders taken at the furnace store oa^ 
Clark Street, beiweeu Lake and Water streets, and promptly attended to, 


CHARLES BUHL, manufacturer of hats and caps, and dealer in furs, buf- 
falo robes, hatters' stock, trimmings, etc.; 129 Lake Street, Chicago. 

A. GETZLER, cap and umbrella manufacturer, and general dealer in hats, 
caps, and furs, 151 Lake Street, Chicago, 111. 


JOHN ANDERSON, Washington Hall, temperance house, North-Water 
Street, near the Clark-Sc. bridge; this well-known hotel has recently 
undergone extensive additions and improvements, and is now capable of 
accommodating a large number of boarders and travelers; its location, at 
the Clark-St. bridge, gives to this house advantages equal to any other; 
country people will hnd this the most comfortable and the cheapest 
house in the city. 

J. RL^'SSELL, City Hotel, Chicago, 111. ; this establishment is located on the 
corner of Clark and Randolph streets, in the centre of the most business 
part of the city, convenient to all the principal steamboat warehouses 
and within a few rods of the northern, southern, eastern, and western 
stage offices, the post-office and reading room; the sitting and lodging 
rooms are large and airy, furnished with bells, and well arranged for the 
accommodation of families and single gentlemen; the prices of board are 
such as can not fail to be satisfactory; a convenient hair-dressing room 
adjoining; warm, cold, and shower baths always in readiness. 

JOHN BATES, Jr., Illinois Exchange, corner Lake and Wells sts., Chicago. 

P. A. BARKER, Farmers' Exchange, corner of Lake St. and Wabash Ave. ; 
the Farmers' Exchange has been removed to the corner of Lake Street 
and Wabash Ave., opposite the American Temperance House, where the 
proprietor hopes to liave the pleasure of seeing his old friends and cus- 
tou'iers; excellent accommodations for the traveling public; good stabling; 
dry yards, etc. ; boarders accommodated at prices to suit the times. 

C. W. COOK, American Temperance House, corner of Lake Street and 
Wabash Ave., near the steamboat landing, Chicago, 111. N. B. — Pas- 
sengers and baggage carried to and from the steamboats free of charge. 

DENNIS S. CADV, Lake-Street House (late Farmers' Exchange), 135-7 
Lake Street; this establishment, having undergone extensive repairs and 
additions, is now opened for the~reception of the public; being located 
in the centre of business, the Lake-Street House affords peculiar facilities 
for the accommodation of boarders and travelers especially, and of per- 
sons from the country having business to transact in the city; excellent 
stabling, sheds, and yard, etc., ia the rear of the house, for the accom- 
modation of teams, etc. 



JOHX MURPHY, United States Hotel; the subscriber would respectfully 
announce to his old friends and the public generally, that he has returned 
to his old and popular stand, where he hopes, by unremitted attention to 
the comfort and vrelfare of his guests, to receive that share of their 
patronage that his exertions may merit. The house has been thoroughly 
renovated, cleansed, and painted, with a good yard and barn attached, 
the rooms are airy, pleasant, and ay;reeable; his bar will be supplied with 
the choicest wines and liquors, his table with all the substantial and 
delicacies of tlie season, his servants attentive and obedient, and he 
pledges himself that nothing shall be wanting to render their stay pleasant 
and comfortable. Chicago, Jan. i, 1S44. 

L. M. OSTERHOUDT, Sauganash Hotel, corner of Lake and Market sts., 
Chicago, III. ; farmers will find the best accommodation for their teams, 

D. L. ROBERTvS, Chicago Temperance House, LaSalle Street, nearly oppo- 
site the [State] bank building, Chicago, 111. 

SKIXXER & SMITH, Mansion House, 84 and 86 Lake Street, Chicago, 
111. ; baggage taken to and from steamboats free of charge. 

THOMAS & WHEELOCK, the \Yashington Coffee- House, Lake Street, 
third door east of the Tremont Elouse; this entirely new and splendid 
house has been titted up by the proprietors in the most modern and 
approved style; tlie bill of fare will embrace every variety to be procured 
in this and eastern markets; hot meals can be had at all hours; fresh oys- 
ters kept constantly on hand. The proprietors pledge themselves that 
nothing shall be wanting on their part to give their customers entire 


A. GARRETT, agent, Marine and Inland Insurance, agency of the Atlantic 
Mutual Insurance Company of the city of New York in the City of Chi- 
cago; cash capital, $100,000; with notes subscribed on the Mutual pkan 
for $350,000; total, $450,000. I'ersons wishing to participate in the 
profits of this company, are informed that the company is now prepared 
to make insurance on marine and inland risks, on terms favorable to the 
applicants, who are assured that the company will be disposed to settle 
claims with such promptness and liberality as to warrant a large share 
of the public patronage; the board of trustees have endeavored to furnish 
the insured the means both of safety and profit, and they trust that when 
the plan for accomplishing this is investigated it will be found satisfactory. 
Under the charter of the company the excess of certificates of earnings 
over $500,000 can l^e paid off successively, which is a result that uill be 
looked for in a reasonable time. Trustees: Walter R. Jones, Josiah L. 
Hale, George Gri.^wold, Jonathan Goodhue, Elisha Riggs, Elenry Parish, 
Thomas Tileston, Henry Coit, Charles H; Russell, E. D. Hurlbut, Jos. 
\Y. Alsop, jr., John C. Circen, William. S. Wetmore, Augustin Avcril, 
Samuel T. Jone>, Lowell Holbrook, P. A. Hargous, Edward H. Gillilan, 
Meyer Gana, Wm. C. Pickersgill, Geo. T, Elliot, James McCall, Ram- 
say Crooks, Edwin Bartlett, Caleb Barstow, A. P. Pillot, A. LeMoync, 
Leonardo .S. Snare/,, Christopher R. Robert, Richard T. Haines, Leory 
M. Wiley, Edmund La^fan, Daniel S. Miller, S. T. Nicoll, W illiam F. 
Havemeyer, Josiah Lane, Joshua J. Henry, William Sturgis, jr., Rcuel 
Smith, A. A. Low; Yv^alter R. Jones, president; Joshua L. Hale, vice- 
president. December, 1843. 


A. GARRETT, agent, Fire and Marine Insurance, agency of the National 
Insurance Company of the City of Xew York in the City of Chicago. 
The above-named company have established an agency in the City of 
Chicago where they are prepared to insure against loss or damage by tire, 
and also against loss or damage on goods and merchandize in the course 
of transportation on the lakes, canal, or railroad. Directors : William 
G. Ward, John Bower, Stephen Uolt, Philip W. Engs, Wm. S. Slocum, 
Wm. W. Campbell, John F. Mackie, Marcus Spring, Jacob Miller, John 
Nev.'house, Samuel S. Doughty, John F. Butterworth; John Brouvver, 
president; James W. Savage, Secretary. December, 1S43. 

GARRETT & SEAMAN, general agency and commission store, in the four- 
story brick building on South- Water Street, 2d door from Clark Street. 
The undersigned give notice that they have formed a partnership, to 
commence on the ist of May, 1S44, under the name and style of (,iarrett 
& Seaman, for the transaction of a general agency and commission busi- 
ness, both in Chicago and New York. They will attend to the purchase 
and sale of merchandise and the sale of wheat, and all kinds of produce 
in the city of New York; Mr. Seaman is a resident of the city of New 
York, and well acquainted with the business of purchasing and selling 
merchandise and produce, and will at all times give his personal attention 
to any and all kinds of business entru>ted to his care; the house in Chi- 
cago will be ready to supply country merchants with all kinds of mer- 
chandise at New- York prices, adding transportation only. N. B. — Con- 
stantly on hand, marble mantels, tombs, monuments, head-stonts, table 
tops, etc. ; they will on application furnish articles in the above line at 
short notice. December, 1S43. 

G. S. IIU15BARD, agent, .Etna Insurance Company of Hartford, Conn.; 
th's well-known company is now prepared to take risks against fire in the 
City of Chicago and its vicinity at low premiums. 

GEORGE SMITH & CO., bankers and insurance brokers, (bank building), 
LaSalle .Street, Chicago, III. 

E. S. & J. WADSWORTH, agents, Hartford Fire-Insurance Company, 1 13 
Lake Street, Chicago. 


V. FAELER, clock and watch maker, Dearborn Street, near the Tremont 
House, Chicago, 111. 

S. J. SHERWOOD, 144 Lake Street, Chicago, 111., general dealer in gold 
and silver watches, clocks, jewelry, gold safety-chains, gold fob-chains, 
gold spectacles, thimbles, pencil cases, breast pins, finger rings, silver 
spoons, muhic boxes, card cases, pocket brushes, needles; watches and 
clocks repaired and warranted; ca>h paid for old silver. 


HENRY W. CLARKE, general land-agent, office on Clark Street, opposite 
City Saloon, Chicago, 111. "^'ill promptly attend to the payment of taxes 
in Illinois and Wisconsin; redemption of land sold for taxes, etc., etc. 

OGDF^N & JONES, northwestern land-agency, general land-agents for the 
northwestern states and territories, office on Kinzie Street, east of North 
Dearborn, Chicago, ill. William B. Ogden, William E. Jones. 



J. B. F. RUSSELL has established an office for the transaction of general 
land-agency at Chicago, for the payment of taxes, purchase, or sale of 
lands. lots, etc., etc. 


D. tS: A. L. JACOBLi'S, wholesale and retail dealers in looking-glasses, clocks, 
Britannia ware, cutlery, etc. ; 10 Clark Street, Chicago, 111. ; pictures 
and picture-frames of all sizes constantly on hand. 

R. LYOXS, S3 Lake Street, opposite the Mansion House, Chicago; whole- 
sale and retail dealer in gilt and mahogany framed looking-glasses, and 
looking-glass plates, clocks, and engravings; also manufacturer of portrait 
and picture frames of every description. N. B, — Gilding of every des- 
cription neatly executed at the sliortest notice. 


TARLETOX JOXES, dealer in Green-Bay lumber, foot of Clark Street, at 
the bridge, Chicago, 111. 

/. M. UXDER\VOOD, lumber dealer, cor. of Lake and West-\Vater streets, 
a few rods north of the U. S. Hotel; a full assortment of lumber, shingles, 
doors, sash, etc., constantly on hand. 


CLYBOURX c^: IIOYEY, butchers, Clark Street, State Street, and Western 
Markets, Chicago, 111. 

A. FUXK, butcher, Fulton and Ijoston Markets, on Dearborn and Randolph 

ERI REYXOLDS, butcher and packer, Chicago, 111., ]>acking-house on the 
South-Ilranch, oflice at his residence on I)earborn St. X".B. — Butchci- 
ing and packing will be done at the shortest notice, and on as reasonable 
terms as at any other establishment. 


JOHX I. DOW & CO., ornamental, sign, house, and ship painters and 
glaziers, Clark .Street, three doors south of Lake, Chicago, 111. 

ALEXAXDER WHITE, painter, and dealer in paints, oils, varnishes, glass, 
brushes, sa^h, etc., artists' bruslies and colors of every description; i(^S 
Lake Street, Chicago; house, sign, ship, coach, and ornamental painting 
done with neatness and despatch. 

PECK & BOYCE, manufacturers of linseed oil, will at ail times exchange 
oil or pay cash for flax seed at thek-oil-mill on Madison Street, Chicago. 
Sheldon W. Peck, Leroy ^L Boyce. 


R. E. W. ADAMS, homaopathic physician, office corner of Clark and Lake 
streets; residence, Clark Street, opposite the public square. 

.'^.Lr.;:;! n; . >:' 'tko' 


DOCTOR BLANEY, professor of chemistry and materia medica in Rush 
Medical College, may be consulted professionally at his office, on Clark 
Street near South-Water Street; Dr. B. will also attend to chemical 
analysis in all its branches. 

V. A. BOYER, physician and surgeon, justice-of-the-peace; office, Clark St., 
nearly opposite the City Hotel. 

DANIEL ERAIXARD, M.D., professor of anatomy and surgery in. Rush 
Medical College; office on Clark Street, opposite the post-office. 

DOCTOR H. H. BRAYTOX having established his residence permanently 
at Chicago, respectfully tenders his professional services to the inhabitants 
of the city; twenty-five years study and practice, and constant applica- 
tion to professional duties, he hopes will entitle him to the confidence of 
those who may demand his services. Fresh vaccine virus now and always 
on hand; office and residence, on the east side of Clark Street, first door 
south of the Methodist church. 

DOCTOR J. BRINKERHOFF, office, Clark Street, public square; 
drug-store, 143 Lake Street. 

DOCTOR EG AX can be consulted in private cases at his residence or office, 
but can not attend to out-door practice. 

DOCTOR JOHX W. ELDRIDGE, office and residence on Randolph St., 
first door west of City Hotel. 

DOCTOR BEXJAMIX F. HALE, office, 185 Lake Street; residence, east 
side of Wells Street, one door south of Lake Street. 

M. L. KXAPP, M.D., professor of obstetrics, etc., in Rush I^ledical College, 
Chicago; may be consulted professionally at the Mansion House, 82 Lake 

DOCTOR D. S, SMITH, office on Clark Street, two doors south of Lake, 
over J. B. F. Russell's land-agency office; residence, LaSalle Street, 
opposite tlie First Baptibt Church. 


SILAS B. COBB, general dealer in saddles, harnesses, trunks, valises, collars, 
whips, carpet bags, etc., etc.; 171 Lake Street, Chicago, III. 

D. HORTOX, saddle and harness manufacturer, and city carriage trimmer; 
saddles, harness, trunks, valises, carpet bags, bridles, whips, etc., con- 
stantly on hand; all kinds of repairing done in the neatest manner and 
on the shortest notice; Dearborn St., two doors north of Tremont House. 

JAMES S. PAIX'E, saddle, harness, trunk, valise, and carpet-bag manu- 
facturer; Dearborn Street, between Lake and South-Water, Chicago; 
all kinds of jobbing in fits line solicited; repairing done on the most 
reasonable terms and at the shortest notice. 

C. 11. PECK, dealer in saddles, harness, trunks, valises, carpet-bags, bridles, 
martingales, whips, etc.; 164 Lake Street, Chicago, III.; repairing done 
at short notice. 


S. BEXEDIK, merchant tailor, 187 Lake Street, Chicago, III.; a full assort- 
ment of dry goods, clothing, etc., constantly kept on hand, warranted of 
the best material and latest style. 


,y'. ;.' J-.^ t)'Jl 

l^'.-.I . •r.i- 


ANDREW T. COX .^- CO., tailors, Clark Street, between Lake and South- 
Water streets. 

HETTINGER & PETERMAN, tailors and drapers, South- Water Street, 
Chicago, 111. ; ready-made clothing of every description constantly on 
hand; all orders punctually attended to; cutting and repairing done at 
short notice, and on reasonable terms. 

J. H. HODGSON, draper and tailor, Clark Street, opposite City Hotel. 

H. H. HUSTED, draper and tailor, 97 j-^ Lake Street, Chicago, III; a large 
assortment of ready-made clothing constantly on hand, 

W. LOCK & CO., cheap clothing store, 125 Lake Street, corner of Lake 
and Clark streets, Chicago, 111. 

P. NEWRL'RGH, draper and tailor, 153 Lake Street; orders promptly 
attended to. 

CHAS. TAYLOR, fashionable tailor, Clark Street, between Lake St. and 
post-office, Chicago, 111.; would most respectfully solicit a continuance 
of the liberal patronage hitiierto extended to him, assuring his cUstomer.<> 
and the public that he uses Francis H. Taylor's "mathematical principle 
of cutting garments," which is true in theory and application, and pro- 
ducer better-fitting garments than can by any possibility be cut by any 
other system. N.B. — The French and New York fashions will be re- 
ceived monthly. 


NORTON & TUCKERMAN, wholesale and retail dealers in dry goods, 
groceries, hardware, lumber, and salt; 134 Lake Street; warehouse and 
lumber-yard. North- Water Street, north end of Clark -Street bridge; 
storage and commission. 

DR. TEW, phrenological and magnetic examiner, at his residence, second 
bouse north of the E{nscopal Church; may be consulted in all cases of 
nervous or mental difTiculty; the application of his remedies will enable 
him to relieve or cure any case of monomania, insanity, or recent mad- 
ness, where there is no inflammation or destruction of the mental organs; 
his attention to the diseases of the nervous system, such as the St. Vitus' 
dance, spinal affections, has resulted in some remarkable cures. Having 
been engaged for the last five years in teaching mental philosophy, as 
taught by phrenology, together v/ith his numerous phreno-magnetic ex- 
periments, enable him to give correct and true delineations of mental 
dispositions of different persons; which will be every way profitable to 
all who wish to understand the mysteries of their own natures, and how 
they may use their talents to the best advantage. 

MRS. ATKINSON, milliner and dressmaker, ladies' own materials made up; 
Clark Street, opposite the post-office, Chicago, 111. 

D. A. P>ARROWS & CO., manufacturers of and wholesale and retail dealers 
in confectionary, syrups, cakes, and ice creams; 147 Lake St., Chicago. 

J. B. RUSCH, blacksmith, corner of Randolph and Market streets; alscv 
general dealer in groceries, provisions, liquors, and fruit, Clark Street, 
Chicago, III. 

■.J;T ;)T. 

.,.„^i.:..-. ut- 1 


JOHN BURGESS, carriage and wagon maker, Randolph St., Chicago, III.; 
orders in the above line promptly executed on the most reasonable terms. 

GEORGE F. FOSTER, sail-maker and general dealer in ship chandlery, 
groceries, paints, oils, nails, etc., South-Water Street, Chicago, 111.; 
bags and bagging, ropes, tar, pitch, oakum, sail-cloth, etc., constantly on 

THOMAS GEORGE, new tin, copper, and sheet -iron manufactory, 197 
Lake Street, opposite the Illinois Exchange, 

JEFFREY & BEXTLY, shoeing smiths and horse farriers; shop on West- 
^Yater Street, between the United States Hot;l and J, M. Underwood's 
lumber yard. George Jeffrey, John Bently. 

KILER K, JONES, periodical and agency office; kept constantly on hand, 
at the periodical depot on Clark Street, three doors north of the post- 
ofhce, all the new and cheap works of the day, such as periodicals, maga- 
zines, newspapers, etc. ; also agent for the New Mirror, and all the lead- 
ing periodicals in this country; all orders promptly attended to. 

P. NICKALLS, livery, commission, and bait stable, corner of \Yolcott and 
Kinzie streets, Chicago. N. B. — Job horses and M'agons furnished on 
reasonable terms. 

PERKINvS &. FENTOX, carriage and wagon making, inform the public 
that they are prepared to execute any orders in the business above-men- 
tioned on the most reasonable terms and on short notice; they are also- 
prepared to accommodate the public with blacksmithing, and house, sign, 
and carriage painting. Their shops may be found on Randolph Street^ 
opposite the public square. Chicago, Jan. i, 1844. 

PFUND & CO., Clark- Street bakery, between S. -Water and Lake streets. 

L. P. SANGER & CO., 123 Lake Street, Chicago, 111., manufacturers and 
wholesale and retail dealers in hats, caps, muffs, boas, buffalo coats, buffalo 
robes, buffalo overshoes, buckskin mitts; cash paid for all kinds of furs. 

CHRISTOPHER SEERE, agent for Kelly's improved pumps, at the ware- 
house of Theron Pardee. 

I. C. STEVENS, (sign of tlie three hats), hat, cap, and fur manufacturer, loS 
Lake Street, Chicago; hats and caps of all qualities and of the latest 
fashions to suit customers; also every variety of articles belonging to his 
line of busine-s, such as buckskin mittens, gloves, overshoes, umbrellas, 
gentlemen's neck stocks, life preservers, and money and riding belts. 
N.B. — Hatters' stock and trimmings always on hand; buffalo robes for 
sale, wholesale and retail; cash paid for furs and deer-skins. 

J- W. XORRIS, generrd itjldligence and agency office, Clark Street, opposite 
the Saloon (over Ku.-seU's land-office); where situations will be procured 
for persons seeking dii'ferent kinds of employment; clerks, book-keepers, 
overseers, school teachers, mechanics, awd laborers, cooks, waiters, porters,, servant girls, etc., etc., promjlly supplied with places. Also, in- 
formation given of [)roperty to be rented, and tenants obtained for the- 
same; agencies of all kinds promptly and faithfully attended to. Cor- 
rected register of the inhabitants of the city, in connection with the 
general directory, at all times accessii;le to the public. New names en- 
rolled and changes of business or residence inserted without any charge. 


Ti ,7T. I-"""!'-''!'''' 


"NVM. WHEELER & CO., dealers in stoves, hardware, cutlery, tin, sheet- 
iron, and copper ware; agents for the Hazard Company's various sorts of 
powder; 145 Lake Street, Chicago, 111. ; cash paid for furs and deer-skins, 
beeswax, genshang, lead, and timothy seed. 

11. O. STONE, 114 Lake Street, Chicago, III, wholesale and retail dealer 
in dry goods and groceries; 100 pes fulled cloth, ass'd colors; 50 bales 
sheeting, wicks and twine; 30 pes broadcloths, ass'd colors; 3 cases hard 
times; 20 pes cassimeres; 10 cases prints; looo lbs cotton yarn; 40 pes 
flannel, ass'd colors; 60 pes Ky. Jeans; 30 cases boots and shoes; 30 
pes muslin de lanes and chusans; 40 pes colored and lustring silks; 600 
pes seasonable ribbons and artificial tlowers; Tuscan silk and velvet 
bonnets; 100 kegs nails, sash, glass, and putty; 50 bbls dried peaches and 
apples; a full cargo of wooden-ware; 100 chests, ^-chests, and caddies 
of tea; 100 bags coffee; 10 hhds and 30 bbls sugar and molasses; a 
full assortment of family groceries. "He that would thrive, must either 
hold or drive." Call and see. No charge for showing goods at 114 
Lake Street; storage on South- Water Street; cash advances made on 
produce left in store; cash paid at all times for wheat and flour. 

XGAN'S sarsaparilla panacea, sold at Francis Stead's city drug store, 76 
Lake Street. There are in the hands of Dr. Egan private letters from 
our most respectable citizens containing accounts of some astonishing 
cures from the use of this article, which can be seen at his office. 

We call the attention of the public to the advertisement, which we 
commence this week, of Dr. Egan's Sarsaparilla Panacea. Being our^elf 
a medical man, we may be permitted to say that we are acquainted v.ith 
Dr. Egan, and know him to be a man of science and of high standing in 
his profession. We take him to be above quackery, and are confident he 
would not, if he could, palm a useless nostrum upon the public for the 
sake of paltry gain. The Sarsaparilla has long been celebrated for its 
restorative and renovating effects in chronic disease, and there is no doubt 
that Dr. Egan has succeeded in giving a more effective and successful 
combination than it has before received. We believe it worthy of conh- 
dence, and recommend its trial by the aftlicted. — 5/. Charles Patriot. 

ELLIS & FERGUS, general book and job printers. Saloon Buildings, Clark 
Street, Chicago; every variety of book and job printing done in the best 
style and on the most moderate terms; blanks printed to order and kept 
constantly on hand. William Ellis, Robert Fergus. 

JOHN WENl"WOr<TH, editor, publisher, and proprietor Chicago Democrat, 
office, 107 Lake Street, third story; printing, job, fancy, and book work 
of all kinds executed with neatnes:> and despatch; blanks of all kind con- 
stantly on hand. 

If YOU can supply an omission, correct a 

name, add a date or a number, please forward same for 
insertion in a later edition, to 

Blanks furnished on application. 185 Illinois St., Chicago. 






City Limits: — Xorth of Twenty-second vStreet; east of Wood; and south 
of North Avenue. 

Ward Bijundaries: ist — South-Side east of Clark Street and north of 
Twenty-second Street; 2d — South- Side of Clark Street to the River and 
north of Twenty-second Street; 3d — South of W. -Randolph Street to Twen- 
ty-second Street, west of the River to Wood Street; 4th — West of the River 
to Xorth- Wood Street, north of West-Randolph Street to West-North Ave.; 
5th — North-Side, north of the River to North Avenue, west of North-Clark 
Street; 6th — Nortii-Side, north of the River to North Avenue, east of North- 
Clark Street. 

Remarks. — It has been the design to include in this Directory the names 
of all persons and all firms in the City; to arrange them alphabetically; and, 
in every instance to give the correct spelling. There may be cases, however, 
where names may have been accidentially inserted in the wrong connection, 
and cases also of incorrect orthography. Abbreviations, which occur only in 
a very few words, will readily be understood: bet stands for between; res 
for residence; bds for boards; Rand for Randolph; Mad for Madison; Wash 
for Washington; etc. The word street in most instances is omitted. The 
place of business uniformly precedes the residence. 

Very few of the buildings v/ere numbered, except Lake Street; the num- 
bers now given are those of tlie present, (1896). 

The deaths in most cases, except as otherwise stated, occurred in Chicago. 

Abell, Sidney, attorney at law, bds Lake IIoiisc 

[died, San Francisco, CaL 
Abbott, Thomas L., clerk at Cyrus Mann's. 47 Clark, res same 
Abbott, Windsor, clerk at Ward liatbbone's, 141 Lake, res same 



•J p. i- .1 

■ tnua 'ju: :J3 


Ackley, Benjamin, sailor. [died June 30, 1895, ;iL;fd TO. 

Ackley, Benj. F.. (Comstock & A.,) bds City Refectory, 17 Dcail.xn-n 

- * [died, SauFrancisco, Cal,, ]May i, 1853, aiif-l — . 

Adams, Bc-njamin F. [died July 25, 188G, aged niU^. 

Adams, Geo., laborer, John L. Gray's, u.-e. cor X. Clark and X. Water 
Adams, George, tailor, at Charles Taylor's, 42 Clark 
Adams. Mrs. Maria, laundress [widow of George, butcher], X. Clark, 

bet Water and Kinzie [died 3[arch 11, 1884, aged <Ji>}x, 

Adams, 11. E. ^V., jjhysician, s.-w. cor Clark and Lake, res Chirk, op. 

Adams, Wrn. Hanford, (W. H. A. & Co.) res 121 LaSalle, bet Wash- 
ington and 3Iadison [died June 6, 1882, aged CT. 
Adams *fc Co., W. H. (Edward Bradley of Xew Canaan, Conn.), boot 

and shoe dealers, 138 Lake 
Adsit, James M, carj^euter, shop and res 108 Monroe near Dearborn 

[died Sepiem])er 4. 1894, aged So-G 29. 
Aiken, Samuel, shoemaker, at Wm. Wheeler's. Clark near Lake 
Albee, Cyras P., butcher, at Fulton Market, s.-w. cor Lake & Dearb. 

[died 3[arch 25, 1871, aavd 58. 
Alderman, Henry, shoemaker, at Wm. David's, 172 Lake, [moved to 

LockiKMt, lil.' 
Allen. Alfred, tailor 

Allen, Edward Kichards, druggist, Leroy M. Boyce, [now at Aurora. 111. 
Allen, Geo. P., shipcarpenter, bds Xelson C. Walton 
Allen, James F., carpenter, res Illinois bet Pine and Sand 
Allen, James Pierce (J. P. A. & Co.) res 9 liiver 

[died, Allen's Grove, McIIenry Co., IlL 
Allen, Jas. P., & Co. [Yiri,dl P. AValter], lumber merchants, n.-vv. cor 

Canal and Fulton, 3d AVard 
Allen, Thomas, at Joliet [tirst conductor of tlie Galena R. R., opened 

July 4, 1848 
Allen, Wm., shipcarpenter, res Wolcott, bet X. Water and Kinzie 

[died May 26, 1855, ag( d — . 
Almenflinger, George, laljorer, res Cass bet Chicaao ave and Pear-ons 

[died August 28, 1852, aged 50. 
Almendinger, John, laborer, res Cass bet Chicago ave and Peai>ons 

[died June 9, 1875, aged 50. 
Alverson, Wm., mason, bds Washington Hall 
Ambrose, liobcrt L., clerk, at Horatio Buell. 121 Lake 
Ambrose, Ruel, dry goods and groceries, 15G Lake, res W^ells bet 

Lake and Randol]>h 
American Temperance House, n.-w. cor Lake and Wabash ave. Cook <k 

Surdam, props 
Anderson, Andrew, res X. Water near X. Franklin i 

Anderson, Cyrus K., clerk, bds Wasliington Hall ' 

Anderson, George, wigmaker, 44 Clark [died Oct. 30, 1887, aged 74)'2- 
Anderson, Mrs. Geo., millinery and straw goods, 44 Clark, res same 
Anderson, Isaac, clerk, ' [died August 20, 1872, aged 47. 

Anderson, John, prop Washington Hall, s.-e. cor X. Clark and X. Water 


.1^1 I M.iuA 

1 1 .. 


Anderson. ^V. H. blacksmith, at Itbream Taylor's, 141 Randolph 

Anderton, John F., bds Illinois Exchange, 192 Lake 

Andrews, Collins, laborer, res Xorth Branch, west side 

Andrns, Loomis, (A. & Doyle,) bds City Refectory, 17 Dearborn 

Andrus it Dovle, drv o;oods, groceries, and jirovisions, 121 S. Water 

Apfel, Henry; 

Apfel. Philip, cutlery 

Apley. C. F., mason, at Alson S. Sherman's 

Arbuckle, Abner, waiter, at Tremont House 

Arentz, Samuel, tinsmith. Botsford & Beers, res Franklin, nr Lake 

Armstrong, 3[rs. Elizal)etli, milliner and maniua maker, 153 Lake 

Armstronir? Thomas, laborer, Kinzie, east of AVolcott 

[died, Starke, Fla., July 9, 1892, aged 81-5. 
Arnold. Isaac ]S^ewton, (X. <fc Ogden,) res Ontario n.-w. cor N. Dearb. 

[died April 24, 1884, aged TO. 
Arnold S: Ogden, attorneys and counsellors at law, 120 Lake 
Arnold, J., carpenter, res Fort Dearborn 

Arnold. John M., carpenter, res Madison [died before May 5, 1855. 
Artes, Isaac, laborer, 2d Ward, north of Jackson 
Ashton, Samuel, law-student, 38 Clark, bds Dennis S. Cady 
Ashton, William, clerk, at ]N[anahan & Jacobus", 10 Clark 
Atherton, Richard, tailor, at Edward Burton's, res 0th Ward 
Athy, Stephen, laborer, Washington bet Wells and Franklin 
Atkinson, Henry, painter, [died February 1, 1871, aged 02. 

Atkinson, ]Mrs. Joseph, milliner and dressmaker, 53 Clark, res same 
Atkinson, Jose])h, hatter, at I. C. Stephens'. 108 Lake, res 53 Clark 
Atz"l. George, bds Tobias Atzel rharness-maker, died April 10, 1891, 

aged 02-10 26. 
Atzel, Tobias, carpeiiter. res Jefferson, l)et AV. Washington and ]\ladl- 

son. west side street [died. Downer's Grove, 111., Nov. 25. 1803, a. 80. 
Austin, Chamberlin. farmer [carpenter], res Illinois bet N. Clark and 

N. La Salle 
Averell. Albert J., sailor, bds James Averell's, X. Water east of Rush 
Averell. Andrew, s]ii[)carj)enter, bds James Averell's 
Averell. James, shipcarpenter, res N. Water bet Rush and Sand 

[died June 10, 1803, aged 71. 
Ayres, Silas, machinist, bds George Chackstield's, 18 Clark 

If YOU can supply an omission, correct a 

name, add a date or a number"^ please forward same for 
insertion in a later edition, to 

Blanks furnished on application. 185 Illinois St., Chicago. 



Bacr, Adam, slioemaker. John B. Mitchell [died Dec. 27, 187T, a. — . 
Baer, Lorenz, shoemaker, cor ^Michigan and Wolcott 

[died January 11. 1893, aged — . 
Bailey. Bennet, car2)eDter. Dearborn, bds John Gray 

[died Xovember 7, i8<Sl, aged 70-11-T. 
Bailey, Harlow, laborer, re^ ^V. Randolph, 8d ward 
Bailey, Henry, drayman and house-mover, Wabash are, near S. Water 

[died December 15, 1886, aged 73i^. 
Bailey, Justice, shipcarpenter, X. AVater, bet Rush and Pine 
Baillett, Richard, soap and candle maker, Charles Cleaver 
Baker, Franklin, clerk, Alanson Follansbee, bds Tremont House 

[died October 24, 1882, aged G6. 
Baker, James, clerk 

Baldwin, J., painter, Dimmock & Stow, bds Western Hotel 
Baldwin, Wm. Anson, contractor, bds American Teinperance House 

[died December 5, 1890. aged 82-10-15. 
Ball, Lebbeus, steamboat-runner, bds Farmers' Exchange 
Ball, Silas Rozier, with Josepli Johnston, res North Branch, west side 
[died, Hyde Park. 111., Deceml)er 31, 1891, aged 84-6. 
Ballantine, David (B. & Sherman)^ N- Dearborn, bet Kinzie <k, 3Iich. 

[died, AVaukegan,Ill., :\[ay 10, 187.8, aged 70, 
Ballantine. RoI)ert. sailor. 

Ballantine iSj Slierman. dry goods and groceries, 122 Lake 
Ballard, Addison, carpenter, 
Ballingall, Patrick, attorney (Smith 6c B.), bds Illinois Exchange 

[died November 21, 1858, aged — . 
Baislev, John, cigar maker. Dearborn near Lake bds Western Hotel 

[died :yiarch 15, 1883, aged 73. 
Baltz, Abram, cooper. Th!)mas E. Tucker, res Piando]])h 
Banchalf, John, clerk 

Bandle. Willis, blacksmith, Stow"s Foundry, res North Branch, w.<i(le 
Bannister, T., overseer Wood 6c Ogden's brickyard, N. Water 
Bannon, Andrew, teamster, res Randolph, near Franklin 
Barber, Jabez, lumber merchant. South Water, n.-w. cor Wells 

[lost on Atlantic-Steamer Pacific, February, l85f). 
Barkenbile, Christian [Uncle Chris j, car])enter [d. Sept. 11, 185(5, a. — . 
Barker, Peleg A., Farmers" Exchange, 35 Lake, s.-w. cor Wabash avo 

[died, Morris, III., September 13, 1871, aged tM. 
Barker, William, carpenter 

Barmm, Charles H., sailor [died August 23, 1805, aged CS-4-19. 

Barnard. Frederick S., teacher and daguerrotypist, cor Clark and Lake 
Barnes, Allan Tate, tailor. J. H. Hodgson, bds [res Warren, III. 

Barnes, Narcissa A., teacher, LaSalle, bet AVashington and Miidi- 
son [dit'd, Arlington Heights, III., January 8, 1878, aged 7s. 

Barnes, Hamilton, car[)enter. Randol|)h, bet Clark and LaSalle, res 72 
W. Madison [d. at hospital. Na.diviUe, Tenn., Feb. 22, 1862, a. 50-2-4 
Barnes. Seth, editor i>Vi//<?r Co re/K^//7. Randoljdi, bet Wells and Franklin 
Burnet. George, mason. Wm. Worth inghanfs, bds Alanaion House 
Barnum, Truman, laborer, res N. Dearborn, bet Micldgan and Illinois 

[died July 25, 1819. 


B.irr, James, shingle maker. Aladison, South Branch 
Barrows &; Co., D. A., confectionery, etc., 147 Lake, res same 

[went to Galena, 111., and died there. 
Barrows, A[rs. Phila A., 147 Lake. 

Barrows, James, agent railroad line, bds Tremont House 
BarrN', Andrew, waiter. City Hotel, Clark 

Barry, Edward, laborer, res near Xorth -Branch Bridge. Chicago ave 
Barry, Samuel Stednian. painter. X. S. Cushing, res ]Monroe near Clark 

[B. ik Gushing] 
Barry tt Gushing, painters. [])aitnershi2) formed December, 1843. • ^ 
Bartlett, , res 4th Ward 

Bascom, Kev. Flavel, 1st Presbyterian Church, res n.-e. cor Clark and 
Washington [died, Princeton, III., August 6, 1890, aged S6. 

Bascom, Franklin, res 3d Ward 
Bassett. George, hostler. City Hotel 
Batcheller, Ezra, clerk Xathaniel Sherman, jr., res LaSalle near Lake 

[died. Grand Haven, Mich., Augast 18. I8OO, aged G9. 
Bates. Augustine Seymour, cabinet-maker (Morgan & B.), res 190 Lake 
[killed earouieto California by Indians, near HnmI)oldt, Nov., *51. 
Bates, E. D., carpenter, Randolph cor AVells 
Bates, jr.. John, auctioneer. 174 Lake, prop Illinois Exchange, res 

South Water [killed Ijy locomotive, July 14. 1888, ao-ed 84-6 10. 
Bates, Jacob 11., sni)erintcn'1cnt Lake-Street House [died unmarried. 
Baumgarten, Charles, cari)entcr. res Randolph near LaSalle 

[died. Freeport. 111., October 16. 1883. 
Baumgarten, Maurice. Illinois, bet X. Dearborn and Wolcott 

[died Xoveml>er 1, 1858, aged 77. 
Baumgarten, John, clerk. Arthur G. Burlev ct Co., bds 'M. Baumgarten 

[died * Mich., about 1881. 

Baxter. Patrick, laborer, res Lake 

Bay, Henry B., carpenter, bds Patrick Kelley [died March 10, 1860. 
Beach, Cliarles, bds John Beach [died 1893, aged — . 

Beach, [Dr.] James Sterling, printer, bds John Beach 

[died May 16, 1885, aged 61. 
Beach, John, contractor, res 80 Randol})h near State 

[died September 9. 1850, aged 54.. 
Beach, John Daly, stage-driver, Frink, \A'alker 6c Co., bds JolufBeach 

[died Auo;iist, 1876, aged 54. 
Beach, Oscar L., clerk, County Clerk's otHce. bds (xeorgc Davis 
Beach, Samuel Stewart, a})prentice printer, bds John Beach 

[died March 25, 1884, aged 5532^. 
Bcaman, Abraliam, shoemaker, Solomon Taylor 

Beard>ley, Hiram Hoyt, physician, 136 Lake, res Dearb. nr Randolph 

[died September *28, 1867, ag(.'d — . 
liearup, John I., teacher, res Xorth ^V'-iaer 
Beaubien, Gen. Jean Bajjtiste, 

[died. Xaj)erville, DuPage Co., 111., Jan. 25, 1873, aged al>out SO. 
li'-aubien, Mark, U.-S. light-house k(;e})(;r. res River street 

[died, Kankakee, 111., April 11, 1881, aged 81. 

.'■•■•' I 


Beaiiljien, Henry, [died June 13, 1893, aged 08. 

Beaubicn. William, 

Jjeaiimout, George Anson Oliver (B. & Skinner), res State, bet Han- 
dolpli and AVasliin«;ton [died, Columbia, Conn., Dec. 18, 184o, a. — . 
Beaumont <Sc Skinner, attorneys at law, 02 Lake 
Bebb, Maurice, laborer, bds John L. Gray 
Becker, Alexander C, merchant, res xN. Clark, cor 
Beccher, George Mather, clerk, Jerome Beecher 

[died, Marysville, Cal., 18(51, aged 38. 

Beecher, Jerome, boot, shoe, and leather store. 100 Lake, res 13 Lake 

[died March 17, 181)1. aged 73. 
Beecher, Louis, res Franklin, bet Lake and Randolph 
Beers. Cyrenius (Botsford & B.), res 73 AVabash av. alderman 1st ward 

[died February 35, 1878, aged ()4~.^. 
Belden, AYilliam E., carpenter, ~\Y. AVater, res Desplaincs, bet AY. Yan 
Buren and Harrison [died, August 10, 1849, aged 35-7-11. 

Belkley, , bds Sauganash Hotel 

Bell, James, landscape gardener, 4th AYard 
Bell, John, Stow's Foundry, bds Western Hotel 
Bending, James, carpenter, res Wolcott, bet Kinzie and Michigan 
Bennett, Abel, saddler and harness maker, James S. Paine 
Bennett, Miss Marv Brownell. teacher pul)lic school 2, district 1. bds 
S. C. Bennett "" [died, LaSalle, 111.. August 26, 1889, aged — . 

Bennett, Henry, whitewasher, alley bet ]\Ionroe and Adams 
Bennett, Samuel Curtis, teacher, res and school, 132 State 

[died, LaSalle, HI.. 1857, aged —. 

Bent, Alphonso, 2)ainter, Dearborn 

[died, Waynesville, Mo., June 11, 1803, aged 53. 
Bently, John (Jeffrey <k B.), shoeinir smith and iarrier 
Bently, John, laborer. Gurdon S. Hubbard 
BerdelL Charles, cabinet maker, Daniel A. cl-^ Elisha M. Jones 

[died June 10, 1090, aged 71 12^. 

Berdell, Nicholas, musician, res AYashington. n.-w. and near Franklin 

[died, Englewood, 111., Feljruary 22, 1883, aged ^1. 

Berg, Adam, tavern and grocery, 42 LaSalle [died October 12, 1849. 

Berg, Anton, saddler and harness maker, Charles E. Peck 

[died May 5, 1895, aged 70. 
Berg, John, drayman, res W. Monroe, l)et Clinton and Jeilerson 
Berg, Joseph, saddler and harness maker, Charles E. Peck 
Bernard, Jacob, teamster 
Berry. Jo<e])h, laborer, Gurdon S. Hubbard 
Best, Henrv. teamster, N. Canal, bet W. Water and W. Lake 

[died February 21, 1892, aged 88. 
Best, Mathias, vinegar manufacturer, lake shore nr 14tli st 

... [died October 24. 1874. aged — . 
Better Covenant, Bandol])h, bet AYells and Franklin, Seth Barnes, editor 
Bewsc}-, George, mason, bds Jolin L. Gray 
Bevgeii, Peter, sausage maker, X. Water, bet Clark and LaSalle 

[died December 27, 1875, aged 02. 


Bickerdike. George, carpenter, res CanaL bet xVdams and Jackson 

[died. Knaresboroug-h, Eug.. Xoyember 24, 1880. aged 74. 
Eidwcll. George W., tin and coppersmith. S. J. Surdam, res Dearborn 
Biffclow, Arnold, clerk, II. O. Stone, res State, bet AVa>hington and 
iMadison [died February 10, lS»j8.' aged 58. 

Bigelow, Henry Winans, dry goods, 1:52 Lake, res Clark, bet AYasli- 
ington and INI adison [died (suicide) February 8. 187o, aged 04. 

Biggs, John, sailor, res Market, bet Washington and ^Madison 

[died April 15. 1875, sged — . 
Bills. George Ralph, clerk. Horace Norton & Co., bds Treniont House 
Bird, John Herman, medical studerit. Dr. D. Brainard, bds City Hotel 
Bishop. Dardanus. farmer, res cor ^Y. Lake and Jeflerson 
Bishop, George, res Dearborn 

Bishop, Jas. E., drv goods and groceries. 181 Lake, bds T. Greenwood 
[died. Omaha, Xeb., February 27. 18.95, aged 86. 
Blackman. Edwin, clerk. II. II 3Iagie & Co., bds ^Mansion House 

[died April 12, 1886, aged 70%. 
Blaesy, Bernhard, baker, 191 Lake, res same [d. May 10, 1883, a. 72. 
Blaikie, Andrew (Ryer>on eV: B..) bds American Temperance House 
Blair. Airs. Xancy Ann Xewl)crry [wid. of George, tailor, died Fcl). 
13, 1842, aged 41], res 200 State [died March 21i, 1873, aged 70. 

Blair, George AVashingtou, apprentice. Democrat, bds Mrs. X'ancy 

Ann Blair [died December 23. 1888, aged'55. 

Blair, ^Villiam. hardware, etc., Ill S. Water, s.-e. cor Dearborn, bds 

Tremont Hou>e 
Blakesley, Harvey A. (Loyd. B. & Co.), bds Mrs. John K. Boyer 
Blakely, John, carpenter, alley bet Clark and LaSalle 
Blanchard. Francis Gurtrev, ca])italist, res 45 WelL 

'[died, Brooklyn, X.Y., , 1872. 

Blanrhard. Jose])h. blacksmith, bds Charles FoUansbee 
]>hindly, Christopher, clerk, John H. Foster, bds same 
Blariey, James YanZant, M.I)., prof, chemistry Hush Medical College 

[died December 12, 18"; 4, aged 543^. 
Blank. AYilliam, currier, cor Griswold and Taylor 

Bliss, Charles Frcderi(;k, carpenter, A. P<ck, State, south of Congress 
[died, St. Joseph. .Alich., INSO. aged 80. 

B'.i-<, Chas. Frederick, jr., compositor, Ejpress, bds C. F. Bliss 

[resides at Kacine, Wis. 
Bliss. Seneca Carpenter, clerk. Charles E. Peck, [now at Morris, 111, 
Blodgett, Henry Williams, law student, Scammon 6c Judd 
Boice, John, machinist. Buffalo 

Hoggs. Charles T.. carpenter, res and shop, east side State, ^outh of 

Bolles, Xatlian Howard, land agent, res Lake, east of Dearliorn 

[died,' Philadelphia, Pa., February 14, 1801. 
Bond, Harvey, laborer, le- Clark 
Bond, Heman S., clerk. Lovd. Blakeslev 6^ Co., res 71 Adams 

[died August 1, 1851. 
Bond, Hiram, laborer, east of Clark 


: -1 


Bond. Jamc>. house painter, bds City Refectory, 17 Dearborn - I 

Boone. Levi Day, pliysician. Oo Clark, res lOG State |t 

['Uth mayor, died January 24, 1882, aq;ed 74-1-K;.. | 

Boorman. John, wagon maker, Franklin I 

[died, Dc'Iavan, O., August 12, 1884, aged — . ' 

Booth, Daniel, carpenter, cor Jerterson and AY. Washington ; 

[died, Jefferson. 111., August 22, 1894. aged — . t 

Boston Market, cor Lake and AYells. Cly bourn Sz llovey. props .;' 

Bostwick, George ]\[., bartender, Illinois Exchange ^ I 

Botsford, I., tailor, AYells. bet Randolph and AYashington 

Botsford, Jabcz Kent (B. .fc Beers). 109 Lake, res 171 AYabash ave I 

[died June 8, 1887, aged 75. j; 

Botsford <k Beers, stoves, hardware, etc., 109 Lake I 

Bowas. John, drayman, res South AA'ater. bet State and AA^abash 

Bowen, Charles Henry, apprentice. Democrat, res Henry B.)wen } 

[resides Crawfordsvilk-. Ind. J 

Bowen, Erastus (B. & Cole), res 40 Alichigan ave i 

[died. Aurora. Kane Co.. 111. 

Bowen. Erastus Sclden [veterinary surgeon] [died Oct. 19, 188:>, a. (»9. 

Bowen. Henrv. carriage maker, res State 5: 

' [died, Fulton Co., O.. 1883, aged 70. 

Bowen & Cole, drv goods and groceries, 80 Lake " ■ 

Bowes, John P.. John Gage's mill, res Clinton, bet Adams & Jackson 

Bowman, Ariel, bookseller and i)Liblisher, res 129 Dearborn, n.-c. cor 

Madison [died July 8, 1844, ai^cd 08. \ 

Bowman. Henrv. druggist, bds Ariel Bowman f 

[now living in Oakland, California. % 

Bowma>ter. AYilliam, cabinet maker. John B. Weir i 

Boyce. Augu-tn< D.. druggist. Leroy M. Boyce. bds Daniel B. lleartt : 

Bovce. Lerov AFrrrick, wholesale aiid retail druggist and a|»othecarv. 1; 

119 Lake (Peck i^ B.). bd< E. AY. AVillard [d. Julv 23, 1849. a. 3;:i;. 
Boyer jSnowhook :. Mrs. Elizal-cth. [wid. of John K.. d. Alch. 12. 1^43. 

H. •■)234|, boarding house, L"):] South AYater. 4 doors west of Clark 

[died Jun(> 29, 1870. aged 7S. 
Boyer, James A.. sliii)-caulkcr. bds Airs. Boyer jd. Oct. 9, 18<ifi. a. 41. : 

Bover, Dr. A'alentine Auiand, ju^tice-of-thc-])cace, ."),■) Clark, bds Mrs. 

J. Iv. Boyer ■ [died Alay 11, 1890, aged 7'ii.;. ;; 

I3oyington, Ciiarles H.. <a])tain schooner CIkliIoUc^ res Indiana. Ijet 

Pine and Saiul 
Boyland, "William. car[)entei'. Yan Buren, bet Clark and AVells 
Boynton, Samuel, carpenter, rc< 147 \V. Kinzie (d. Aug. 1882, a. — . 
lioyrs. Jolin. land-othce. AV. \Va-hington 

Bracken, John (B. A: Tuller). ie< Wai>ash ave | 

Jiracken A: Tiiller. dry goods and gioceries, 101 Lake 1 

Brackett, AVilliani AV., editor and )>roprietor (jhicnfjo J'Jxpress, 92 f 

Lake, bds American Tempeiance House 
Bradlov, Asa Foster, citv and countv survevor, res cor Dearljoin and 

AVa>hington :<li('d.*AIaplcwoo(b HI., Feb. 20. 1892. aged SO-1-17. j 

JJradley, iii'istol. dentist, s.-w. cor (.'lark and Lake, bds Mrs .Merriam | 

>^;i, ) .\'n:.[ 


Bradley, Cyrus Parker, clci-k. Horace Xorton & Co.. res 218 ]\Iadisoiu 
bet iVells and Franklin [died March 0. 1SG5, aaed ^^o. 

Bradley. Da^dd, plow maker. Asahel Pierce, blacksmitli 
Bradley. David ^Morrill, printer. iJeruocrat office, res 10 Qiiincy 

[died September C. l^ioT. aoed 40. 
Ijradley. Joseph, clerk. William H. xVdams & Co. 
Bradlev. Timothv ^Vlathew. check-clerk. Horace Xorton ct Co.. bds 

[died September 30, 1890. aged 04 1^. 
Brady, George, constable, res near N. Ciark and N. AVater ; d. 1800. 
Brady. Alichael, blacksmith. X. Water, res s.-e. cor Indiana and X. 

LaSalle [murdered. May 29, 1852. a. — . 

Brainard. Daniel, physician. j)rof. Rush ^Medical College, 51 Clark, 

bds City Hotel ' [died October 10, 1800. aged 0^.. 

Braise, Mrs., dressmaker and tailoress. X. Water near Wolcott 
Brand. Alexander (^Murray vfc B.), res 35-7 Cass, s.-e. cor Hlinois 

[died, Aberdeen. Scotland, 3[arch 24, 1870. aged 05. 
Brayton, H. H.. physician, res and othce. 119 Clark 
Breen, John. ])ackcr, Arthur G. Burley cV: Co. 

Breesc, Robert Bush, clerk, James Hervey. res X. Clark near Kinzie 
Brewster. Elijah, carpenter. Jefferson 
Bridges, Thomas Ball, carpenter. W. Lake. 4th Ward 

[died, Oak Park. Cook Co., 111..- February 17. 1887. aged 75. 
Briggs. Benjamin, wagon maker, Adams west of LaSalle 
Briggs, Jeremiah, mason, res south of Adams, west of Clark 
Brinckerhotf, John, jJiysician, 49 Clark, chequered drug-store. 148 

Lake ' Idled, Xew-York City, April 3, 1807, aged 03. 

Bristol &i Porter, forwarding and commission merchants. South Water 
n.-e. cor State [first warehouse on South Side, erected fall of 1839] 
Bristol, Richard Clark (_B- ^ Porter), res 5 Dearborn ])i 

[died. Brooklyn. X.Y., July 10, 1800. aged — . 
Bri-tol, Calvin D.. saik)r. re^ ^Michigan ave 
lirock. John A., clerk. James E. Bishop, bds James T. Durant 

jdicd. Livcrmore, Cal., 1887. 

Brock, 3Iichael. carpenter, res 211 Lake 

Hrock. ]\[rs. AFary. straw and tuscan hat milliner. 211 Lake : 

Brock, Thomas, ex-justice of ])eace, res s.-e. cor >ra<Uson and Clark 
Brocksmidt. J. W., coo[)er. J. \l. Tucker, res Michigan, bet LaSalle 

and AVelis 
Mrookes, Fredeiick AVm.. thirist, bds Samuel Brookes 
Ihookes, George, clerk, Ixls Samuel 13rookes 

' [died, Cleaverville, 111., Se[)teml)er 27. 1S54. aged 37, 
iirookes, Henry, clerk, [died March 3, 1^S2. aged 01. 

i'rookes, Josluia, de])Utv countv-clerk. Ixls Geo. Davis 

[left for' Galena, 111.. March 23. 1«43, returned in 1S83. 
Lr<)()-kes, Samuel, flojist. res Clark, bet 3Iadison and Monroe 

[died September 2, 1>575. aged 81;-{. 
iir()(>kes, Samuel Marsden, j.ortr. S:. landsca. artist, bds Sani'l Brookes 
[died. SaiiFraiicisco, Cal., January 31, b*^92, aged 70. 
J>rof»k<, Hoiry E., ship car[)enter, res Kinzie, bet and Rush 

'■^>^^ I 


Brooks. Thos., tailor, 10 Chirk, res Illinois, bet N. Clark and Dearborn 
Brown. Andrew Jesse, attorney at law, l)ds Henry Brown 
Brown. Asa B., assistant-editor IFestern C/ft'zctiy 124 Lake 
Brown, Charles E., laborer on harbor, l)ds Samuel Jackson 
Brown, Clement, bds Sauganash Hotel 

[died, Crown Point, Ind., Octol)er 30, 1881, agud 70. 
Brown. Francis O., shoemaker, John B. ]\ytcliell, res Dearborn, bet 

Washington and Kandol})h 
Brown, George, chairmaker. Wells, bet Bandolpli and AVashington 
Brown, George Elijah, ]>rinter. Express office, bds New-York House 
Brown. Henry, city attorney, notary, s.-w. cor Lake and Dearborn, res 
112-14 Wolcott. near Ontario [author "History of Illinois"! 

[died May IG, 1849, aged (30. 
Brown. Jeduthan, attorney, res Sauganash Hotel 
Brown. Joseph, laborer, res W. Madison, bet 'Yater and Canal 

[died before December 24, I80O. 
Brown. Joseph E., carpenter, sho}) and res, 254 Clark 

[died March 8, l»Tli, aged Oo. 
Brown. Lemuel, blacksmith, boarding house, 142 Lake 

[died December 29, 1883, iiged 90. 
Bnnvn, liufus B., warehouse man. John P. Chapin ^ Co., res 180 Lake 
[died, Burlington, AYis., September 2, 1872, aged 00. 
Brown, Mrs. Rufus B.. dress and cloak maker, 180 Lake, up stairs 

[died Pel)ruary 2, 1890, aged 7:3. 
Brown, Samuel. 1)lacksmith. Dearl)orn 

Brown. Sam'l Lockwood, clerk, A. G. Burley c^ Co., bds Wm. H. ]3rown 
Brown. Simon B., res Ohio, bet Cass and Rush [d. Mar. 19, 1880, a.— . 
Brown, S. C, clerk, Edwiji P. Clark, bds Ruel Ambrose 
Brown, Tliomas, ca])tain schooner Warren, IkIs John J. Jackson 
Brown, Thomas, drayman, res N. LaSalle, bet Ohio and Illinois 
Brown, William, grocer, res X. AYater, bet Clark and Dearborji 
Brown, AYm., bds Sauganash [died, Xeva<la City, Cal., Dec. 3, 18.")0. 
Brown. AYilliam Ilubl^ard, [cashier], S LaSalle, (A. G. Burley A: Co.;, 
res 301 Illinois, n.-w. cor l*iiie. school agent 

[died, Amsterdam, Holland, June 10, 18G7. aged 72. 

Browne, Charles Evarts [school-teacher, 183r»-8; a resident of Alil- 

waiikec Co.. Wis., until 18G8; later a real-estate dealer at 41 C4ark -t; 

residing at Glencoe, III., died 180-. 

Bryan. Alex. Brodie, druggist [died, Lawtey, Fia., PYb. 1801, aged— . 

Bryan. Archil;:i!d, teamster, bds 

Bryan. Fred"k Auu'ustus, clerk, Clarke A: Co., I»ds Wa.sirton Collee Ho. 

[died Deconbt-r 17. 188G, aged <i7. 
Buchanan, Nelson, saddle and harness maker, Charles E. Peck 

[died October 1, 1858, aged '.)>^\^- 
Bucklev, Xoidi. pawnbroker. corilandol})h and AYells 

[died befbre June 22, 1^52. 
Bucklev, Timothv, butcher. Fulton .Market, bds City Restaurant 

idled July 11, ISYb 
Buddington, John, res Randolj>h, east of Clark 


Bnell, Horatio, auction and commission, dry goods and groceries, 
stoves, 121 Lake 

Buell, Xormau, printer. Democrat office, bds David M. Bradlev 

Biilil, Charles, liat and ca]) st.)re, 129 Lake 

Bumi)stead, Thomas, jr.. res AVells, bet Lake and Randolph 

Bunch, Clybonrn (col'd), drayman, res Wells, bet Madison and 

Burcli, Isaac Howe, banker (Xew berry <fc B.), bds City Hotel 

[died, ^N'ice, France, April 9, 1884, aged (>8. 

Biircky, Frederick, baker, LaSalle, bet Lake and Randolph 

Burdick, Amos AV.. carpenter, res Randolph near Franklin 

Burdick, E., porter, 3Iansion Llouse 

Burgess, John, wagon maker, 184 Randolph, res ^Michigan ave ' 

Burhans, Henry J., livery stabde keeper. Market 

Burke, John, laborer, south of W. Jackson, od Ward 

Burke, Lewis, south of ^[adison, east of LaSalle 

Burke, Patrick, tobacconist. Henry Chapman, 40 Clark 

Burley, Arthur Oilman (A. G. B. & Co.), bds Tremont House 

Burlev & Co. (Wm. H. Brown), Arthur G., china, glassware, crockery, 
105 Lake 

Burlev, Augustus Harris (S. F. Gale & Co.), bds :\Irs. Haight 

Burley, Charles, clerk, S. F. Gale & Co., bds S. F. Gale 

Burling, Edward. carj)enter, l)ds Wm. E. ]VLinlev 

[died February 24, 1892, a-ed 78. 

Burnam, Ambrose, contractor, res AVabash ave near Washington 

[died October 21, 1870, aged 59. 

Burnet, John, drayman, res Kinzie, bet Wolcott and IN". Dearborn 

Burton, Edward, merchant tailor, 102 Lake, res same 

[died, Woodstock, 111. 

Burton. George, sailor 

Burton, Henry, tailor, Edward Burton, bds same 

Burton, Horace, clerk. ^S'orton cV: Tuckerman 

Burton, John, vegetable gardener, N. Clark, s.-e. cor North ave 

[died iMay 1(5, 1852, aged 58. 

Burton, Stiles, retired merchant, bds American Temperance Huuse 

[died January 12, 1875, aged <U)-9-6. 

Busch, Franz, wagon maker, John Bnrgess 

Busch, John B., blacksmith. 29 Alarket, res Randolph, bet Wells and 

Bushncll, Wm. IT., draughtsman. Ogden tfc Jones [story-writer for East- 
ern ])a])ers, '•Sea-Foam," died. Washington, D.C., ^lar. 1, 1890, a. (K)^^. 

Butlci". Ilorar-e. dry goods and groceries, forwarding and commission, 
South AVater. bds Mrs. Scth Johnson [died, New York State. 

Butler, John JL, carpenter. Alex. Loyd, bds Clark, bet .Madison and 

lintler. Lorin G. (Gray & B.), res Clark, bet Adams and Jackson 

I'ntler, Nathaniel F.. clothier, res Alonroe 

liutler, Pdcli;ird. laborer, res Ohio, east of Rush [d. before Feb. 3. 1851. 

Butler, William Harrison, ckrk, Horace Butler, bds Airs. Seth Johnson 

[died xVugust 10, 1878, ^iged 01-9-14. 

i(- < 

,iH .A'-^i' 

42 CHICAGO DIRECTORY, 1843. . ^. 

Butler. William ^roulton, clerk, Clias. Walker & Co., bds X. F. Butler 
[died, llobart, Ind., December 2, 1895, a^ed 7."}. 

Butterrleld. George, bds Tremont House jdied September 2'-?, 1854. f 

Buttertield. Jonas, captain, res Franklin ^ 

Buttertield, .Jonathan Carver, printer, Fralrie Farmer, 112 Lake, f 

bds same [died July 7, 1854. aged 4:i \ 

Buttertield. Justin (B. & Collins), U.-S. attorney, res 207 Michigan, 5 

n.-w. cor Rush [died October 23, 1855, aged 05. 

Buttertield, Justin, jr., attorney. 5 Clark near South Water ' | 

[died. Washington, D.C., ^larch 5, 1852, aged o;j, « 

Butterfield k> Collins, attorneys at law, 105 Lakc; | 

Buttertield. Lewis, attorney [died Octol)er 27, 1845, aged 28. | 

Buttertield. William, medical student. Dr. Daniel Bi-ainard * 

[First graduate Rush Medical College, died Jan. 13, 1878, aged 57. | 

Buttertield, William, carpenter, Clark I 

Butterworth, ^NLrs. Mary Ann, widow, Xorth AVater near Wolcott | 

Buxton, O. S., wagon maker, James O. Humphrey | 

Buzzard. Si)l(nnon, harbor laborer, Samuel Jackson • I 

Byrnes, Michael, porter, Tremont House, res 91 Dearborn | 

[died December 18, 1809, aged — . | 

Cady, Dennis Spencer, proprietor Lake-Street House, 135-7 Lake 
Calhoun, Alvin, carpenter, res 74 Randol])h [d. June 28, 1849, a. 4530. 
Calhoun. John, retired printer, res 110 State 

[the tirst ]n-inter here, died Februrry 20, 1859, aged 51- 
Calighan. ]\Iathcw, carpenter, bds Edward Gavin | 

Callahan, Cornelius, res Wells, bet Washington and Madison | 

Calson, Charles, house painter. Alexander White I 

Cameron. David, waiter, Tremont House | 

Campljell, Abel, carpenter, bds Illinois Exchange ^ 

Campbell, Jame-^, carpenter, res Madison, bet Clark and Dearborn 

[died August 4, 1887, aged 78;3. 
Cam})bell. James, printer, res X. Clark, bet N. Water and Kinzie . | 

[died, St. Louis, ]Mo.. Xovember 8. 1875, aged 05. f 

Cam])bell. John, laborer, Alonzo C. Wood, res 5th AVard, w. of Clark 

[died January 28. 1879, aged 75. 
Canada House, north side of X, Water, west of Dearborn ave 
Canal-agent's othce, 173 Lake, Eli S. Prescott, agent 
Cauda, Louis Joseph Florimond, florist, Xorth Wells, near Xorth ave 

[died, Ravenswx^od, 111., February 9, 1880, aged 03. 
Cantleld. C. A., merchant tailor, bds Mrs. Post I 

Carney, Arthur, laborer, res Canal, bet Randolph and Lake 
Carney, James, brewer, 07 S. A\^tter,"res same [died .March 29, 1850. 
Carney. AVilliam, sailor, res Alichigan, bet Rush and Pine 
Car])enter, George, groeer. South Water 
Carpenter, James JI. (Stevens ^ C.), bds Mrs. (treen 

[died suieide. Dearborn ave, 187-. 

Carpenter, Jalnes IL, bd.^ Philo Carpenter 

.';o'>i»>7/ fjt 


Carpenter. Job, market gardener, 554 W. Lake [d. Dec. 5, 187G, a. 63. 

Carpenter. John D., laborer, res State 

Carpenter, Josejjh. milkman. 5T0 W. Lake [died Feb. 24, 1875, a. — . 

Carpenter, Pliilo, res ^y. Randolph, Carpenter's Addition, ])et Sanga- 
mon and ^rorgan [died August 0, ISSO, aged 813^. 

Carpenter, Samuel, laborer, res Xortli Water near Wolcott 

[died January 24, 1850, aged — . 

Carpenter, AVilliam, grocer, 578 AVest Lake 

Carr. AVilliam, sailor, res Canal, od Ward 

Carroll, Owen, laborer, res cor W. Washington and Jefferson 

Carson, James, carjjenter. res State 

Carson. "VA'illiam, \vagOii maker, Pamdolpb, between Wells & Franklin 

Carter, Thomas Butler (T. B. C. & Co.), res 12(i State 

Carter, Tlios. B. & Co. (Job ]\[;igie, Elizal)eth, X. J.), dry goods and 
groceries. 118 Lake 

Carthew, Bichard, laborer, bds Water, bet Randolph and Washington 
[shot, December 0, 1850; died January 18, 1804, agt'd 71. 

Cary, John Marshall, teamster [died May 17, 1895, aged 70. 

Ca^^e. Elan, carjtenter, Scoville & Gates 

Case, John Roman (Norton vt C), bds City Refectory, 17 Dearborn 

[died, Ehnhurst, 111., Septend)er 4, 1'877, aged 74. 

Casey. Edward (E. & Peter C), bds John C.-isev 

[died January 27, 1894, aged 81. 

Casey, E. <k P., dry goods, uroceries, and auction store, 85 I^ake 

Casey, Hugh, tailor, Scott Bcnedik 

Ca>ev, John, milkman, res ^Market, bet Randolph and Washington 

[died December 8, 1881, aged 91. 

Casey. Patrick, waiter, ^Mansion House [died June 15, 1802, aged 73. 

Casey, Peter (E. <k P. Ca>ey), clerk, Isaac Strail, bds John Casey 

Casey, Stejihen, driver, Eli S. Prescott's, 35-7 Cass, cor Illinois 

Ca>ey. Tlicnnas, laborer, bds John Casey 

Ca-han, Stephen, res Michigan, bet Rush and Pine 

Caspar, W. G., black-^mith. LaSalle, res Wells, bet Washington & 3Iad 

Cassiday. James Hugh, shi]) carpenter, N. I)ear]>orn 

Cassidy. P. E., clerk, Horatio O. Stone, bds same 

Ca>ter, Wm. Harvey. milhvri'_iht 

[<lied, Xile>, Mich., :\Lirch 7, 1891, aged 77-10-15. 

Ca^tler. IVIatthias, laljorer, Dutch Settlement 

Ca-swell, Sidney, cabinet-maker, John ii. Weir |d. Mar. 1, 1889, a. 80. 

Catou, John, laborer, res Lake 

Caton, John Dean, attorney, [died July 30, 1895, aged 88-4-11. 

Cavanagh, ]\lartin, laborer, res Xorth Water, near North Franklin 

<^'avunaLih, Jerry, waiter, Illinois Exchange 

Cavanaugh, ^lichael, c-arpenter, res St^Ue 

Cawker. Mathew, projirietor CJintou Lunch. 11 Clark 

<'hacksrield. (Jeorge. grocer, etc., 18 Clark [died Oct. 8, 1885, aged 73. 

Chalmers. Thomas, machinist, Scoville S: Gates [arrived Dec, 2, 1843, 

<^hamberlin, [Rev.) Jacob Sherril (Hamilton <S^ C), bds Starr Foot 

Chandler, Joseph, res Fort J)earboru 


li'U. -M 


Chapin, John P. & Co. (Thomas Dyer), forwarding and commission 

merchaiits. South Water 
Chapin, John Putnam (J. P. C. <k Co. and Dyer & C), res Lake, bet 
State and Wabash are [Sth mayor, died June 3T, 1864. aged 54, 

Chapin, Pascal Paoli, clerk. J. P. Chapin &: Co., bds xi.merican Temper- 
ance Hou-^e 
Chapin. Pichard, laborer, res Kinzie near Cass 
Chapman. Charles TL, res Wells, bet Randolph and Washington 
Chapman. Henry, tobacconist, 88 Clark, bds Charles II. Chapman 

[died Auo-ust 0, 1851, aged 48. 
Chapman. Thomas, res AVolcott, bet Illinois and Indiana 
Chappel, ]\Iarvin. carpenter, bds Amer. Temp. House [d. Jan. 27, 1849, 
Cha})ronne. Augustin, gardener, res Xorth ]3ranch, north end 
Chapronne. Francis, gardener, res ]S[orth Pranch, north end 
Charleston. Charles, carpenter. Fort Dearborn, res Wolcott [d. 187-. 
Chevill, ]\[athe\Y, shoemaker, res AY.AYater, bet Randol])h and Lake 

[died :\[arch 10. 1802, aged 01. 
Chicago Hotel, n.-e. cor AV. Lake and N. Canal, Geo. W. Rogers, pro]> 
Chicago Temperance House, 17 and 19 LaSalle, David L. Roberts. pro}> 
Childs, Shubal Duvis, city sealer, wood and metal engraver, Clark, res 
3d AVard [died, Evanston, 111., January iK 1870, aged 71. 

Clioulet, 3Iichel Alexandre, carpenter, res Dearborn [died 1854, a. 47. 
Chovin, Charles, clerk, Tuthill King, bds same [resides St. Charle<. 111. 
Christian. David William, carpenter, bds American Exchange 
Christian. John, shoemaker, P. P. Robinson 
Christie, James, laborer, bds Richard Butler 
Christv, Nathan, laborer, res Canal, bet Lake and X. Water 

[died July 10, 1855, aged 50. 
Christy & Dunham, car])enters, N. Water near Kinzie 
Christy, Rumsey (C. 6z Dunham), cor ^Michigan and Wolcott 
Church. John Coleman, harness-maker, C. E. Peck, Ixls Chicago Tem- 
perance IbuHe 
Church. 'J'homas, drv goods and groceries, 111 Lake, res 55 Lake 

[died June 25, 1871, aged 70} o. 
Church, William Linnreus. clerk, Dver & Chapin, res 127 State 

[died, Hyde Park, October 22, 1880, aged 04. 
Churchill. Jesse, cow herd, res 175 Lake 

[died. Riverside, Cook Co., 111., A])ril 5. 1887. aged !)0. 
Cinfal, Dennis, laborer, res X. Dearborn, bet X. Water and Kinzie 
City Hotel, n.-w. cor Clark and RandoljJi, Jacol) Russell, prop 
City Refectory, 17 Dearborn, J. W. Steele, ])rop 

Clancy, Mark ]>ailey, house painter, Alex. White. Ixls James Rockwell 
Clark, Agi'ilus P., medicine- manufacture. X. Ilalsted 
Clark, C. P., clerk, Edwin P. CIark,-bds Humphrey Clark 
Clark, DeManiis, clerk, V. S. Lovell. bds Chicago Temperance Hou-e 
Clark, Edwin, gror-er, W. Lake 

^'lark, PMwin P., dry goods and groceries, 154 Lake, bds Hump. Clark 
Clark, Elislia, carpenter, res W. AVater, bet Washington and Aladison 

[died July 28, 1853, aged 5.;. 

<i»;.>i '•■•*« -js.-i 


Clark, Francis (C, Haines & Co.). bds American Temperance House 

[died, Cleavervillc (now Oakland), June 12, 18G0. aged — . 
Clark, Haines 6: Co., (Francis C, John C. Haines and Edward Parsons.) 

dry goods and groceries. KiS Lake 
Clark, Horace, baker, LaSalle 

Clark, Humphrey, boarding house, Indiana, bet Cass and AVolcott 
Clark, John D., clerk. A. G. H(JJjie ["printer, went to AYashington, D.C. 
Clark, Jonas Coe, exchange broker, 21 Clark [died by poison in AYis. 
Clark, Lewis AY., hardware, iron, nails, etc., 128 Lake 

[died March 31, 1855, aged -lo* 
Clark. O. J., ]>ainter, res Hastings 
Clark-Street ALarket. 
Clarke, Abraham Fuller, druggist, (C. ct Co.), 

[removed to and a resident of Milwaukee during 1841 to 1870: 
thence to Marietta, Ga., where he died. March 2. 188(1. aged 71-4-7. 
Clarke &; Co., druggists, manufacturers of lard oil and candles, 102 

Lake, factory, Indiana, bet AYolcott and Cass 
Clarke, George P.. druggist. Clarke d: Co 
Clarke. Henrv B.. farmer, Michigan ave, n.-c. cor 16th Street 

[died July 28, 1840, aged 48. 
Clarke, Henry \Yilcox, attorney at law, 30 Clark, bds Airs. Post 

[died January 25, 1892, aged 77. 
Clarke, Samuel Clarke (C. «& Co.), bds Trcraont House 

[at -Marietta, Ga., since Sept., 1871. 
Clarke, AYilliam Hull (C. & Co.), bds AA'ashington Coffee House 

[died August 5, 1878, aged ()5-10-l0. 
Clarkson, Jame^ J., printi-rs' apprentice, bds Robert K. Clarkson 
Clarkson, Robert R., bootmaker, AYilliam H. Adams & Co., res alley 

bet LaSalle and AVells 
Clary, Steph<'n X., clerk, Illinois Exchange 
Clans. Joseph, engineer harbor machine, res Illinois, bet Dearborn and 

Cleaver, Charles, grocer, soap an<i candle maker, 177 Lake 

[died Octo]>er 27, 1893, aged 78. 
Cleaver, Jose]jh AA'raigh, cabinet maker, J. B. AYeir [at Portland. Ore. 
Cleaver, Thomas Barker, soap and oil maker, bds Charles Cleaver 

[died, Dubuque, la., 
^'lenient, Stei)hen. caj)tain steamljoat ClKtmivon 

[died. Oconomowoc, AVis., August 7. 1S04, aged 81. 
Cleveland. Alva, ornamental jiainter, alley bet State and AYabash ave. 
res Madison, bet Clark and LaSalle ■ " 

[died, Dcprlield, Kan., Felnaiary 13, 1891, aged 86. 
CiifTord, E. AL, portrait ])ainter. 6 Clark 
Clifford. Jame-. wagonmakcr, Scoville <fc- Gates, res Randolph, bet 

Franklin and Madison 
^'Hllbrd, John, carpenter, X. Water, west of Clark Street bridge 
< linton, James, laborer, (rurdon S. Hubbard 

<^'ly}ionrn, Archibald ((;. ct Hovey), res North Branch, city and county 
''cef and pork inspector [612 Elston ave, died Aug. 23, 1872, a. 70. 


i'nu {iT»%ui 


Clybourn & IToveY, butchers. Clark and AVestorn Markets | 

Cobb, Geo. W.. clerk, Marcvi-; C. Stearn>. bd> Treniont House [died | 

Cobb. Silas Bowman, saddler and harness maker, 171 Lake, res 75 | 

Michiuan ave. s.-w. cor Lake \ 

Cobiirn, Isaac, carpenter, res Dearborn | 
Cochrane, John, waiter. City Hotel [died January 12, ISSG, aued 03. 
Coe. John S., blacksmith, Asahel- Pierce, bds \\ . Lake, near X. Canal 
Cee, Thomas, cabinet maker, cor Lake and Franklin, bds Sauganash 

Coe. , cabinet maker, ]Manahan A:- Jacobus, bds Thos. Manahan ^ 

CofHn, 3rrs. ^Hariiet Delia Dole (Ilichards). widow of Joseph AVarren \ 

Ciiasc], boarding, res Illinois, bet Pine and Sand i 
[died. Crystal Lake, 111., April 12, 1888, a-ed 90. ' | 

Cohen, Peter, ready-made clothing, Lake \ 

[suicide, Algiers, opposite New Orleans, La. ■; 

Coil. Patrick, laborer, cor Kinzie and LaSalle .= 

Coll.y H.UHe ^ ■ , .. : | 

Colby, William, bds Coll)y House, Wells, (alderman 4th Ward.) I 

[died, Norfolk, Va., summer of 18G4. ;^ 
Cole. Parker >[. (Bowen vfc C), county poor master, bds Erastus Bowen , J 

[died June 30, 1877, aged --. | 

Coleman, Ira, foreman, Daniel Taylor, res 215 Lake "\ 

Collier, Charles A., clerk, land otlice, res X. Clark, s.-e. cor Kinzie { 

Collins, Ezra. 140 Lake, res S. B. Collins [died 1849, agx-d 70. f 

Collins, George (Samuel B. Collins & Co.), res Samuel B. Collins I 

[died, Evanston. Cook County, III, Octoljer 22, 185G. aged — . | 

Collins, Isaac, clerk, S. B. Collins ^ Co., res S. B. Collins " | 

[died 1843, aged — . | 

Collins, James 11., attorney (P>utterfield *fc C), res 15 Lake | 

' [died, Ottawa, 111., July 14, 1854, aged 50. | 

Collins, Patrick, waiter. Farmers' Exchani:{e | 

Collins, Samuel B. vfc Co., boots, shoes, and leather, 140 Lake | 

Collins, Samuel Bassett (Samuel B. C. & Co.), res 07 Washimrton I 

[died Ai)ril 5, 1855; aged 49. > 

Columbian House, 11 ;ind 13 Wells, Sweet A: Doolittle, pro})s I 

Comstock *fc Ackley, dry goods and groceries. 82 Lake | 

<'omstock, .]. D., clerk and law student, Arnold ifc Ogdeu | 

Comstock. J. S. (C. & Ackley). bds City Refectory, 17 Dearborn | 

[died, SanFrancisco, Cal., November 2, 1850. | 

Comstock, Luke, laborer. Frink. Walker ^ Go's stable, res Wabash ave | 

Congrave, John, shoemaker, Joseph E. Ware | 

Conley, Mathew, steward . ■ | 

Conley, Peter, boardin^i-house. North Water ' ' ■ I 

Conley, Phili]), sailor " I 

Connolly, John, laborer, res Kinzie,- bet N. Clark and N, LaSalle f 

Connor, James, laborer, Sylvester Marsh | 

Connor, I'atrick, laborer, res W. Lake, near N. Canal | 

Connor, Thoniiis. cabinet maker, cor Lake and Franklin, bds Saugi'.nash | 

<'onstantine. Patrick, laborer, res bet Michigan and Illinois. 5th Ward | 
Cook, Charles W. (C. im SurdamJ, bds American Temperance House 

[(iie<l 1845. aged 41. 

■'r' ■■■■>'. i{) .%•*/ "0 


Cook. George, bartender, hds xVnierican Temperance House 

Cook, George Cliurcliill, assistant. T. Cliiirch [d. A])ril 18, 1884, a. 73. 

Cook. Isaac, canal- land agent, res cor Franklin and Kaudolpli 

[died, Eureka Springs. Ark., June 2o, 188(1, aged To. 
Cook. John, tailor, res Jefferson, bet W. Kandolpli and Washington 
Cook. Josiah P.. baker, res ^Michigan ave 

Cook (fc Surdain, proprietors American Temperance House, oG Lake 
Cook. Thomas, teamster. Desplaines. south of Kandolpli 

.[died. AVestern Springs. C(>ok Co.. 111.. Feb. 1. 1885, ao-ed 80. 
Cooke, Adreon, grocer, North Water, bet Dearborn and North State 
Cooke, Horatio Nelson, turner, Franklin, bet Lake and South Water 
Cooler, James, mason, bds Washington Hall 
Cooley. Miss, dress and cloak maker. 17.j Lake 
Cooper. John W( llingt(Hi, teamster, foreman canal, res — Kinzie 

[died :\tarch 15, 1893, aged 67-8-21. 
Corbidge. John, cutler and grinder. 11)7 Randolph, bet Wells and 

Franklin [died June 1, 1887, aged (>^}^. 

Corbin, D. H., shipcarpenter, res bet State and Clark, south of Jackson 
Corev, John, })roeurer, 4th Ward [died April 12, 1849. 

Corriiran. Michael, blacksmith [died October 3, 1878, aged 68. 

Corrigan, William, drayman, bds S. Water [died July 15, 1879, a. 75. 
Couch. Ira Howes, [1812 veteran], bds Tremont House 

[died July 25, 1845, aged 82. 
Couch. Ira, proprietor Tremont House, s.-e. cor Lake and Dearborn 

[died, Cuba, February 28, 1857, aged 50}^. 
Couch. James, superintendent Tremont House, bds same 

[died February 10, 1892, aged 92. 
Codghlin. Bryan, blacksmith, res Randolph, bet Franklin and Market 
Counihan, C<n-nelius, currier, Gurnee Sc Matteson, ])ds G. Counihan 

[died March 16, 1890, aged 60. 
Counihan, Gerald, mason, res s.-w. cor L'nion and W. Washington 

[died June 1849. 
Courmayer, Braus. laboier. bds Canada Home 
Court-House, s.-w. cor Clark and Kandol))h 
Courtin. Henry, sailor, res N. Water, bet Dearborn and Wolcott 
Courtney, Capt. Henry, sec'y Mariner's Temperance Society 
Covey, Asa, 
Covey. John, carjjenter 

Cowan. George W.. blacksmith, Ilandolph, bet Clark and LaSalle 
C'owens. Thomas, laljorer, res W. AN'ater, l^et Canal and Clinton 
Cowper. Edward, intelligence-agent [died June 26, 1854, aged 50. 

Cox. Andrew Jackson (.Jack), tailor. 21 Clark, bds 3Iansion House 
Cox. A. J. it Co.. tailors. 21 Clark 
C'raft. Geopge W., shoemaker, John B. Mitchell 
Cramer, II., professor of music. Clark, bet AVashington and Madison 
Crane, Orson, teamster, bds Washington Hall 
C'rarv, Oliver .V., teamster, res Wolcott. bet Kinzie and Michigan 
Crawford, William, drayman, alley bet N. Clark and LaSalle, 5th Ward, 

now North Water street [died August 7, 1872, aged 61. 

l-n- f' li, 

\.: ( >^' I 

h. U 


Crissmau. John ^L, laborer ^ • -r 

Crocker, Josiah Dunton, whitewasber, res 171 Clark 

[tiled December 28, 1888, aged 82. 
Crosjhan. B. W., bartender. Eagle Saloon, 10 Dearborn 
Crone. Adams, tailor, res Xortli "Water, near ^Y()lcott '""'■ 

Crosbie, John, sailor, res near Franklin, bet K. Water and Kinzie 
Cross. Antoune, sailor, res Indiana, bet Dearborn and Wolcott 
Crouse. Anton, tailor. Elijah Smith ' ■ 

Crow, William E., car-driver, res State 

Crowly, Cornelius, laborer, res X. Water, bet Clark and I^aSalle 
Cniver, John (C. & Seuser), car2ienter, res N. Clark, s.-w. cor jNIichigan 

alderman 5th ward [died. California. 1851. 

Cruver &; Senser, builders. N. Clark, bet Kinzie and .Michioan 
Cumberland. Charles, operator, Clarke & Co.'s oil factory, Indiana i | 

Cumberland, William, operator, Clarke & Co.'s oil factory, Indiana I 

Cunniniihara, Ilenrv, constable, X. Water, bet Clark and Dearborn * 

[died Mv.y 2, 1879, aged 73. 
Cunningham. AV. M.. clerk. Leroy ^I. Boyce 

Cure, John, laborer, res 3louroe : ■': 

Cure, Peter, grocer. li)o Lake, res same 
Curran, Bernard, tailor. Scott Bcnedik 

Curtis, Charles II., butcher. [died January 3, 1886, aged 74. 

Curtis, .Jacob S.. water borer, bds ^lichael ^IcDonald 
Curtiss, James, State's attorney, 13tj Lake, res W. Randolph, bet May 

and Ann [!)th mayor, died', Joliet, III, November 2, 1859, aged 5t). 
Curtiss. J. W., gunsmith, res cor North Water and Wolcott 
Cushing, Nathaniel Sawver, house ])ainter, 41 State near Lake, res same 
I died, Lombard. 111., May 13. 1889. aged 84-5-0. 
Cutraore, Henry, grocer. West liandolph, bet W Water and Canal 
Cutter, Amos F., harness and trunk maker, Lake, bet Wells & Franklin 

Daggitt. .Joseph, cabinet-maker and joiner, bds Farmer's Exchange 

[now at Glencoe. III. 
Daily, Barry, drayman 

Daily, John l*., carpenter, bds Temperance House, North Water 
Dalton, .Alichael, laborer, res ^^'olcott. l)et N. Water and Kinzie 
Daly, Charles, slioemaker. Thomas 3Ielvin. bds Ifeury Cunningham 
Daly, .John, pedler. S. Water, l)et Wabash and Mich.ave [d. 3Iar. IsfO. 
I^aly, John, carpenter, n.-w. cor North Water and North Dearborn 

[died April 9, 1807, aged 5(.'. 
Dana, Lorenza. cleric. Johonnett. Wells cV- Co. 
Dana, Patrick, teamster, Alson S. Shwman 

Daniels. Horace, coacli driver, res AV'clls, alley south of Randolph 
Daniels, James, driver. Dexter Graves' livery stable 
Darling, William, blacksmith, "William B. Stevens 
Darrow. Sidney L., milkman, Michigan ave 
Daus, D., clerk, Horatio (). Stone, bds Michigan 

;.. ii 


David, William, boot and shoemaker, 172 Lake 

Davidson, Daniel, clerk. Horace Norton & Co., bds Am. Temp. House 
[died, insane, Jacksonville, 111., December 30, 1808, aged 46. 
Davidson, Douglas X (.J. Johnson ct Co.), bds J. Johnson 
Davis, David ]M. Parker, agent, Frink, Walker & Co.'s stage-office 

[died Octol)er (>, 18T8. a.u-ed G7. 
Davis, Elisha Webster, clerk, Norton «fc Tackerman 

[died, Memphis. :Mo„ March 10, 1882, aged OO^^. 

Davis, George, clerk, county commiss'rs' court, county-clerk, 107 Lake, 

res Canal near AV. Washington [died January 4, 1858, aged 50. 

Davis, John, tailor. North Water, near Kinzie [d. A])r. 2S, I880, a. 08. 

Davis, Samuel N., lime manufacturer, bds Alson S. Sherman 

[died October 7, 1848, aged 34. 
Davis, William H., deputy sheriff, Samuel J. Lowe's office 

[died .January 21, 1801, aged — . 
Davisson. Alfred W., count v physician, 77 Clark, res same 

[died, Atlanta, Ga., July 17, 1895. aged 80. 
Davlin, John, auctioneer, State, s.-e. cor Lake 

[died, Waukegan, January 10, 1883, aged about 90. 
Day. AVilliam, proprietor LaSalle House, 50 LaSalle, n.-w. cor Randolph 
Dean, James, saddler and harness maker, James S. Paine 
Dean, Philip, teamster, 230 Madison, s.-e. cor Franklin 

[died Novem])er 15, 1801, aged 57. 
Deiden, .Jacob, grocer, North Water, bet Clark and Dearborn 
Deinback, Francis, carpenter, res Dutch Settlement 
Delamey. Michael, laborer. Market, bet Wasiiington and Madison 
I>elap, Miss Maria, milliner, 142 Lake, bds E. Brown 
Delingan, John, laborer, 3Iarket. Ijct Randolph and AVashington 
Dellicker, George, grocer, Lake, bds Trcmont House 

[died (suicide?) in Lake ^Michigan, July — , 1849. 
Democrat, Ch^'cfff^/o, 107 Lake, John Wentworth, editor and pro]). 
official paper, first number issued Nov. 20. 1833, by John Calhoun 
DeAIout, Cornelius, shoemaker, Sanmel J, Grannis 
Dempsey, John, boarding house, 5th Ward [died January 14, 1859. 
Dennis, l-^dward M., bds Dr. David S. Smith 
Dennis, John 

Dennis, Airs., bds Dr. David S. Smith 
Dennison, Daniel, butcher. Kidgely Place, nr Lake 
Dennison, AVilliam H., l)Utchei-, IJidgely Place, nr Lake 
Densmore, Eleazer "Woodworth, clerk. Klisha S. & Julius AVadsworth 

[died Noveml)er 5. 1888, aged 08. 
Deperling, Jol)n G., basket maker, res N, Water near A\^olcott 
Deuel, AVilliam C. bartender, Tremont House, l)ds same 
DeAVolf. Calvin (Freer A: DeW.). res Ihijfalo. s. of Jackson, c. of Clark 
DeAVolf, Charles, shoemaker, bds Calvin DeAVolf 

[died. Pock Island, 111.. Alay, 1852, aged 31. 
He Wolf, Krastus, bds American Temperance House 
Dexter, Albert Ai);.'ustns. clerk, K. S. tV; J. AN'adsworth, res Dearborn 
Diamond, Martin, laborer, res alley near North AVater 



.C<'>*' r,} ! ,■•;.(( ft 1 

50 CHICAGO DIRECTORY, 1843. \ ' 

Dickersoii, . farming-mill maker, James V. Dickey 

Dickey. Hugh Tliompson, attoniey, 10;]i^ Lake, bds City Hotel. ;;!(;(i-- 
man 1st ward [died, New-York City. June 18!)2, ai^vl — . 

Dickey, James Yaruiim, fanning-mill maker, etc., K. Caiml m W. Lake 

[died Octol»er 12, 1873, ao-iMJ TO, 
Dickey, John Butler, son of Jas. Y.. killed at tire of Oct. U), l^.-,7. hv 

fiilling wall at 110 Lake st, aged 24-0-1 
Dickinson, Augustus, City Eating House, Dearb'n. bet Lake <N: S. A\ ater 

[died January 18, 1891, ag. d 74. 
Dietrich, Lawrence, laborer, res Dutch Settlement 
Dietrich, Yeit, match maker, res Dutch Settlement 
Dike, Henry Butler (^lorey & Dike), bds Isaac Dike 

[died June 26, 1880. ag«nl 57. 
Dike, Isaac, boot and shoemaker. 9 Dearborn [d. Sept. 8, 1860, a. 55. 
Dike, James, groceries and provisions, 11 Dearborn 
Dimmock tt Stow, house and sign painters. 202 Lake 
Dimmock, Edward (D. & Stow), south of ^Monroe, west of Clark 

[died 1800, aged 48. 

Dinet, Jose[)h, restaurant, 48 Clark [died February 2. 1884. aiii'd — . 
Diversey, 31ichacl (Lill ct D.), res near St. Clair and Chicago ave 

[died December 12, 1809, ;iged — . 
Dixon, John, barber, Clark, res Lake, 1st "Ward 
Dixon, AYilliam. carpenter, X. Dearborn, bet X. Water and Kinzic 

[died July 24, 1807, aged 02. 
Dobson. B. E., drover, bds Sauganash Hotel 
Dodge, Darwin D.. teamster, res Franklin 
Dodge, Harry (Dupley). 
Dodge, John Cabot (Parker & D.), res AVolcott. n.-w. cor Ontario 

[died, insane, near Boston, Mass.. Fel)ruary 11, 1889. ag -d — . 
Dodge, Martin (Goold A: D.), bds X^athaniel Goold 

[died, Montague, ]Mieh., Deceml)er IJl. 1882. agrd — . 
Dodge. L'sel Stillman, carpenter, bds .Morrison's Row, Clark 

[now at Xiles. .Miclj. 
Dodson, Christian Bowman, [died. Ccneva. III., Jan. :!. bs91, a. M-G-iS. 
Dodson, Henry, mason. Alonzo C. \Yood [died May 15, 1885, aae<l '»(>. 
Doggett, Joseph Barker, iron, nails, etc., 02 Lake 

[died July 20, 1898, a-v,] TO. 
Dole, George Wasliington (X^ewbcrry tV: D.). .Michigan, bet Bush aii'l 

Pine, alderman Olh ward [died April 18. 1800, aued — - 

Dole, J. L., billiard saloon, 20 Clark, bds Isaac L. Milliken 
Dole, Lewis G.. clerk, lottery office. Dearborn, res State 
Dolese, John [left in 1841 for Loraine. France; tlied then- in ]>02. 
Dolese, Peter [in Peru, 111., died February 14, 1802, aged 02-1-14. 

Done, J., laborer on harbor, res Fort Dearborn 
Donivan. Dennis, saddler and harness maker. Silas P>. Cobb 
Donlin, James, blacksmith. X^. Wad r. hct Dearborn and Clark, n s 

Kinzie, bet Dearhorn and Clark (died 1852. a^vd 58. 

Donlin. John, grocer, cor Xorth Water and Clark, near bridge 
Donnelly. James Moi-ris, livery, 91 Randolidi [d. July 8, 1858, a. 00. 

CHICAGO DIRECTORY, 1 843. _~ 5 1 

Donoliue, Daniel, laljorer. Xortli Water ucar Franklin . . 

Donohue, James, laborer on harbor 

Dony, Jacob, cabinet maker. ^Vlichigan. bet AVolcott and Dearborn 

[died January 15. 1S79, aged Goio.. 
Doolittle, Lonis A. (Sweet vt D.), res Columbian House 
Doty. Theodorus. hotel. a1>out 12 miles west [d. June 11. 1S85, a. 83.^^. 
Dougherty. 3Iartin. hostler, ^lansion House 

Dougherty. Owen, laborer. X. AVater near Wells [d. Aug. 9, 1872, a. .51. 
Doun. William. Stow's foundry 

Dow. John I. (John I. Dow vS: Co.). res Randolph, bet LaSalle & AVcUs 
Dow. John I. ik Co.. house and sign painters. 40 Clark 
Downing. Thonias. butcher. Archibald Clybourn 

Do^Tis. Abel Sidney, clerk, H. & E. Smith [d. June :'0. 1883, a. Gl. 
Downs, Augustus Gay, clerk, Tlios. B. Carter, bds ]\[rs. Seth Johnson 

[died October 2.-), 1878. aged GO. 
Downs. Myron Day. grocer. 12 Dearborn [died July 30. 1801. a. 70 6. 
Doyle, Michael (Andrus & D.), bds City Refectory, 17 Dearborn 

[died November 1851. aged — . 
Doyle, Simon, merchant tailor. 2'^9 Kinzie [d. Sept. 28. 1881, a. 7532- 
Doyle, William K . carpenter, res Indiana, bet X. Clark and Dearborn 
Drake. Jerome D.. laborer, south of .Jackson, 3d AVard 
Drew. Gectrge C. l'0()kkee]»er. .James Peck & Co., [died 
Drew, jr., John, bds Sauganash Hotel 
Drury, Benjamin C.. teamster, .John Gage 
Dubois. . pattern maker, Scoville ik Gates, res Lake, bet West 

Water and Canal 
Dufhe, .John, carpenter. ^Market, south of AVashington 
Dady. Mrs. -Margaret, laundress, res X. AVater, bet X. Clark and X. 

Dearborn [died February 23. 1887, aged 7G. 

Diitfy, Michael, la'oorer, Kinzie, bet Clark and LaSalle 
DuftV, Patrick, laborer, Kinzie, bet Clark and Dearborn 

[died Auo-ust 2G. 1853. 
DiiLian. 'I'liomas. [died January 3, 188G, aged 72. 

Dunham. .Julius f Christy 6z D.) 

D'mlap. AVm.. clerk, Tarleton Jones' lum!)eryard, bds City Kcfectory 
i>unlop. Hugli. carpenter, .Alarket. south of Washington 

[died, unmanied, February 3, 1873. aged G4-7-9. 
D'jun. AVilliam. res Canal 

Darand. Charles, attorney at law. 131 Lake, res same 
Durant. James T.. res Clark ,' ' 

Durrell. AVilliam. tin and coppersmith. Samuel .J. Surdam 
f>ntch Settlement, north of Chicago ave and east of X. Clark 
Dwiglit, Alanson, currier, <4urnce ik Matteson 

[died, Clcv<-land. O.. August 5, 1895. aged 83-4-10. 
I>wyer. Cornelius, laborer. .N'orth Walter, iMjt Clark and Dearborn 
Dyer, Charles Volnev. physician. 9.^ Lake, res 47 State 

[died April 24, l.s7s. aged 09/.^ 
f'yer 6c Chapin. dry goods and groceries, 103 Lake 
Dyer, Thomas CD. 'Sc Chapin). bds City Hotel 

[15th mayor, died, .Mid'tN'town, Conn., June G, 1S(;2, aged 57. 

\ } 

If i...{ .'>;{in.! ;•:■ 

' ■ ■ • t 

CHICAGO DIRECTORY, 1 843. - . . | 

Eaclius. Virgil II., tailor. Jack Cox, bds ]\ransion House 

[died August 18, 1864, aged -l.;. 
Eagle Tavern, 10 Dearborn. E. Vandreuser, prop. 
Earhart, C., tailor, res Washington, bet Wells and Franklin 
Eastman, Zebiua, editor JFestern Citizen, l'J4 Lake, res Kandolpb. bet 
LaSalle and AVells [d.. MayvN'ood, Cook Co., 111., June 14, IS^;}, a. (J7;^. 
Eaton, li. E.. clerk, Xorton v.\: Tuckerman 
Ebert, Georiiv Francis, land<ca]>e Gardner, Clark, south of A'anlluren 

[died July iyt>l. ag^'d r,;. 
Ebert. John, erecting engineer, prop. Independence, building .;!t toot 
of Pine. l»ds Tremont, [tirst engineer of the Galena R.R., driving the 
Pioneer — the first engine — and its first uiaster-niechanic 
Eckhoff, John, laborer, res Jefferson, bet Washington and 3Iadison 

[died, Cerro Gordo. la.. June 50, 1874, aged 47. 
Eckhoft*. Xicholas, teamster, res X. Canal, bet W. Lake and Kandolph 
: died, Nile-. Cook Co., 111.. February 17, 1873, aged '^'». 
Eddy & Co.. hardware, iron, and stoves, DO Lake 
Eddy, Devotion C. (E. *fc Co.), res ^[ichigau ave near Lake 
Eddy, Ira Batton (E. & Co.). les 4o Michigan ave [d. Aug. 10, T)l. a, n'». 
Edwards, JZdwin. grain buyer. l)ds F. ]M. Edwards [d. Jan. 1, 18iM). a. 7 1 . 
Edwards, Francis ^Nlvers. carpenter, W. Adams, bet Canal and Clinton 
[died. De.splaines, 111., May 13, 1893, aged 7:. 
Edwards, John, carpenter. Francis AL Edwards 
Edwards, Thomas, slioemaker, Thomas AVhitlock 

Eells, , bricklayer, south of Madison, east of Clark _ 

Egan, Wiley ^l, sailor, schooner CharloUe, bds City Refectory 
Egan, A\'m. Bradshaw, phvsician, recorder, etc., 68 Clark, res Clark 

[died October 27, 1800, aged -v^. 
Elderkin. St( phen W., bds Chicago Temperance House 
Eldridge. John Woodworth, phvsician. res Kandolph, first door we-t 

of City Hotel ' [died January 1, 1884, aged T"'. 

Elliott. Joseph, tailor, 185 Lake, res same 

Ellis, James, laborer, Gurdon S. Hubbard [died March 4, 1884, a. T."i. 
Ellis, Joel, butcher, Clark Street ^Market, bds Farmers' Hotel 

[died, Jerterson, Cook Co,, III.. Oct. 30, 18^6, aged G;'. 
Ellis, Peter, shoemaker, William David 

Ellis, Samuel, farmer, .south of Cottage Crovc [died Oct. 9, 1803, a, — 
Ellis, Stephen, butcher, res of Clark, north of Jackson 
Ellis, William (E. ^ Fergu.s), printer, res 109 Kandolph 

[died .May 10, 1873, aoed 0!. 
Ellis & Fergus, book. direct(jry, and Job printers, 37 Clark, 3d fioor 
EUithorj)", Albert Chapman, wagon-makei-, 
Elston, Daniel, patent press Jjrick hiaker, res Xortli J3ranch 

[died Sej)tember 13. 18or>, aged ^^■'• 
El)^, Thomas, book-keeper, res 3Iichi_gan, bet Cass and Wolcott 
Emmonds. J. AV., carpenter. Kobin.soii Tripp 
Enos, jr.. A\'iUiam C. Archil)ald Clybourn 

Espert, Gecu-ge C. [•■l>utcher George"], butcher, Archibald C]yb.)nrn 

[died Januarv 2, 1880, :ig<-d T"- 




Evaas, Enoch Webster, attoi-ney [died JSopt. 2, 1879, aged G2. 

Ji.ypress, Chicago, 92 Lake. \\\\\. AY. Braekett. editor; ["discontinued 
April 20, 1844; continued April 22 as the Chicago Journal 

Fairbanks, Peter, shipcarpcnter. Lake near Franklin 
Falch. Leonard, soap and caudle maker, 3[i<:'h., bet LaSalle and Wells 

[died October 31, 1889, aged 81-lU. 
Falier, v., Avatchniaker. Dearborn, near Treuuint House 
Falley, R. S., carpenter. South Canal, od Ward 
Farewell. James, cigar maker. A. B. Wheeler 

Faris. James, sailor, Xorth Water, bet Franklin and X. Branch bridge 
Farmers' Exchange, s.-w. cor Lake and Wabash. Peleg A. Barker, prop 
Farnsworth. George, lumber inerchant 

Farrell, laborer, 3Iicliioan ave [died June IT. 1870. aiied 67. 
Farwcll. Chas. Benjamin [arrived Jan. 10, 1844. clerk, J. B. F. Russell 
Fearing. George B., captain Jlaria lliiHard. bds AYashington Hall 
Felker. Samuel R., merchant tailor. 143 Lake, res same 

[died Octol)er 1, 1879. aged 72. 
Fellman. J. Francis, chairmaker, John B. AYeir, res Xortli Water 
Fennerty. James, dry goods and groceries, 100 Lake, res Dearborn 
Fennerty, James, res Lake, bet State and Wabash ave 
Fennerty, John, dry goods and groceries, 100 Lake 
Fennerty, Peter, auctioneer, h Ikt Lake and AYabash 
Fennimore, Richard, wheelwright, X. Water, bet Clark and LaSalle 
Fenton. AYilliam (Perkins ^ F.), bds Chicago Temperance House 
Fergus. Roijert (Ellis ^ F.j. printer, res 179 State, Lot 0, Block o. Sec. 

lo; ^born, Glasgow, Scotland, Aug. 4. 181."); ai'rived July 1, 1839. 
Ferguson, Andrew, drayman, Luther Xichols, boards same 

[died, Geneva Lake. Wis., 3Iay 14, 1884, aged 84. 
Ferguson, AYilliara, laborer. Xorth Water, bet Dearborn and Wolcott 
Ferns, John Porter, sailor, ivusli. bet Indiana and Ohio 

[died 3Iarch 5, 1884. aged 08-10-5. 
Feiras. , laborer, res bet X". AYater and Kinzie. near Franklin 

Ferris, Arthur, tailor, res Washington, bet LaSalle and Wells 
Fetter. John, blacksmith. Ithream Taylor 
Field, Francis, teacher pul)lic school 1, district 3 
Field. John An<lerson. carpenter, res cor AY. Aladison and Halstcd 
Field. Jo-eph B"nj.. car|)enter. res s.-w. cor AY. ^ladison and Halste*! 

[died June 1, 1848, aged 20. 
Fillmore, V. P., engjneei-. res cor X. Clark and Illinois 
Finey, Uriah, res South Water 
Finley. Edward, laborer, res 4th AYard 
Fijclibene. Joseph, merchant, bds Washinuton Hall 
Fischer, C".. wood turner, Franklin bet Lake and Randolph, ])ds same 
Fi-cher, Francis Josej)h. Catholic ])riest. res AYabash ave 
Fi-cher. Peter H., turner, Franklin, bet Lake and Randolph 
Pish, James, carpenter [died August 18, 18>^1. 

; > 

I •; i- 


Fish. James P., carpenter, res. Kinzie, east of Rush 

Fislj. John P.. teamster, AVest Lake, bet W. Water and Canal 

Fitch, Patrick, hrborer, Gurdon S. Hubbard 

Fittz, Caleb Draper, upholsterer. [died Dec. 80. 18!)0. agi'd .S2. 

Fitzgerakl. Tiiomas, hi borer, res West Water near Lake 

Fitzgibbons, John, res ^iichigan ave 

Fitzgibbons. Patrick, drayman, res 40 South Water [d. 184.'). a. 4."). 

Fitzsimmons, James, clerk, recorder's office, bds Dr. William B. Egan 

[died. Wisconsin, 

Fitzsimmons. ^iichael, drayman, res Adams, west of Clark 

Fitzsimmons. John, teamster, res ^Nlicliigan ave cor VanBuren 

Flaliaven. John, brickmakcr, Wood & Ogden 

Fleming. AVilliam. merchant tailor, n.-e. cor X. Water and Dearborii 

[died 1850. 

Fletcher, Archibald, auctioneer. Horatio Buell ( 

Fletcher. George, carpenter, bds New York House 

Flint. ]Mr8.. res West Adams, bet Clinton and Jefferson 

Flood, John, teamster, res Wabash ave 

Flood, Pet('i- Findley. r^ailor. [died January 7, 1888, agerl 73, 

Florida, Hughes, brickmaker. A\'ood & Ogden 

Fogal. ^Michael, butcher. Absalom Funk 

FoUansbee. Alanson, dry goods and groceries. 112 Lake, res l':)0 State 
[died. 31il\vaukee, Wis.. April L"). 18()0, aged -u^.^. 

Folhmsbee. Charles, dry goods and groceries, 8S Lake, res 1B5 State 

[died June 14, 1887, aged 70 ".j. 

Foot. Starr, teamster. 180 Clark, cor Monroe [died June, 18(i2. a. 02. 

Foot, David P., blacksmith, res Wabash ave 

Foote. Lucius H^. clerk. Tuthill King, bds same 

Forbes. John, drayman, res State 

Forbes. William, bds ( hicago Temperance House 

Ford, Alexander, blacksmith, Solomon Govvcy, bds AVells 

Ford. Ciiristoplier. carpenter, bds Citv Kefectorv, 17 Dearborn 

Ford. David M.. ; foundrynian. d.. NhiK-ming. Mich.. Jan. 21, 18t)La.r,r. 

Ford. Maitin Miin-oii. tanner and currier, Gurnee ^V' .Matteson 

[died 18:)7. 

Fordliam, Jared, tanner and curriei-. res Itandolj)!! 

F()rre>t. Joseph Kini^- Cummins, law student. Scanimon i.^ Jud<i. 
"reader" of the New Jerusalem Societv. IhIs City Hotel 
[the "Old Tinier" of the Da//^ Xars; died June 2J. 1890, a. 7.-} 0-27. 

Forre>t. Philip Pvdei-, clerk 

I died.' Orange. Lo< Ancreles. Cal.. March 24. ISMM. agi d 02. 

P^orrest.Tlios. Lawn iiee. clerk. H.Xorton k Co., bds City Eating House 

Fort Dearboin. at junction of Michigan ave and Jiiver st, vacated i»y 
troops — Cos. A and B. ."ith I'.-S. Inl'ty. Capt. St. Clair Denny, comdg 
— Dec. 21>, t8-}0; now occupied by government employes at woi"k on 
the harbor 

^^)ss <fc Brothcr>, |)lanin:a'-mill, Market street, b<'t 'Washington an/! 
^[adison. On the Riv(.r. 

Foss, John Peaslee. F<jss ^fc Brothers" planing-mill 

•ji\ ll-J 


Foss. Ivol)ert Harris. Fo^s e^^ Brothois* planinu-mill 

[died, Dover, X.JI., July 2>^, 1803, ai^ed 70. 

Foss Sam"l Titcoinl*, Foss 6z Bros." planing-iuill [d.^^Iar. ,'^8. 187u, a. .">!). 

Fo>s. "William Ilain, Foss vfc Brothers* plaiiinii-inill 

[died, Portsmouth. X.II., September — , 1858. aj^ed 50. 

Foster, A. H. (Jenniui^s cV F.). bds American Tempcrancn Iloii^e 

Foster, Edward. lal)orer. s.-e. eor Pine and Tllini)is 

[died. 1458 Xorth Clark St.. Lake View. Fel^ruary '^^8. 1888. aged 80. 

Foster. George Franklin (F. A: Pobb). bds John B. ^Mitchell 

[died Anaiist 10, 18T7. ai^ed 00. 

Foster. Dr. John IIer])ert. capitalist, 207 Lake, res same 

[died 3ray 18. 1874. aoed 78. 

Foster S: Robb. ship chandlers and sail makers. 100 South AVater 

Foster, , Frink. Walker i.\: Co., bds American Temperance House 

Fournmer, Bazil. grocery. Xorth "Water, bet Dearljorn and Wolcott 

Fox, Alvin, wagon maker. E. Grans^cer, res Illinois. l)et Clark and LaSalle 

Fox. George, laborer, res JelTerson. bet Washington and ]Madison 

Foyce, William, sailor, bds Henry Howard 

Frank. John, cabinet maker. John B. Weir 

Frank. Henry, mason, res W. 3Ionroe. bet Canal and Clinton 

Frank. A., house painter, Xathauiel S. Gushing, bds same 

Franks. Josepli Wilson, tailor. 21f>i,.2 Lake. s. e. cor Franklin 

[died, on farm, Centralia. Xemaha Co. Kas.. ]\[ay 8. 1870, aged 73. 

Franks, jr.. Joseph Wilson, [trinter. Ellis A: Fergus, bds J. W. Franks 

[now at Peoriti, IlL 

Frazier. Alfred B.. tailoi-, res l)et Clark and State 

Frazier, Andrew, tailor. Elmer Tyler, bds same 

Free, G. W., draper and tailor. 13!> Lake 

Freeman. Vincent H.. brick maker. Xorth Branch 

Freer vt De\\'olf. attorneys at lav.', 53 Clark 

Freer, Lemuel Covell F*aine (F. it DeWolf ), res Monroe, bet Clark and 
LaSalle " [died April 14. 18!I2, aged 7s.(;-20. 

Freer, Aliss V. C., teacher public school 2, district 2. 

Freestone, Thomas. lal)orer. near Chicago ave. 5th AV'ard 

Frey, Philip, drug clerk, I^eroy AL Boyce, ])ds Daniel B. Heartt 

Frink, John (F., Walker S: Co.), stage proprietor, res 117 Randolph 

[died Sunday |>.m., May 23. 1858, aged 03. 

Frink, John S., clerk, bds John Fiink 

Fririk, Harvey B.. clerk, bds John Frink [died, Califoinia. Jan. 'l^^. 1S50. 

Frink, AValker 6: Co., stan-e proprietors, office 1)5 Lake, s,-w. cor Dear- 
born, stables and repair-sho])S, 45-55 Wabash ave 

Frisbie. Augu>tus • |dicd 3larch 7. 1890. aged 78. 

Frost, George, bds Michigan ave 

Fulleger, Samuel, butcher. Fulton Alarket 

Fuller. Andrew E. clerk. William Lo<^k S: Co., bds \\'illiam Lock 

Fuller, Asa (F. A: Squires;, res X. AVater. bet Dearborn and A\'olcott 

Fuller, [Judge} Henry, res Dearborn, bet Randolph and Washington 

[died June 22, 1870, agvd 70. 

Fuller, Xelson W., printer, Ellis A: Fergus 


Fuller ct Squires, coopers. South Branch, west side 

Fu'lertou, Alexander Xathaniel. attorney at hiw, res 90 Dearborn 

[died, Chester, \t, Septeni])er 28, 1880, aged TO. 
Fultori. Henry L., carpenter and millwright, res State 
Fulton Market, s.-w. C(^r Lake and Dcarl)orn. C. P. Albee, prop. 
Funk. Absalom, butcher, Fulton ami Boston 3[arkets, res Wells, bet 

"Washington and Randolph [died September 1, 1851, aged (>■>. 

Furlong, ^Michael, bootmaker, Solomon Taylor, res Kaudolph, bet 

Franklin and Market 
Fussey. John, sawyer, res near North Branch bridge, oth "\\'ard 
Gaffney. Bernard, leather dresser, Gurnee ct 3Iatteson, res od Ward, 

bet W. Eandolph antl "Washington 
Ga^-e. E. D., daguerrotype artist, 90 Lake 
Gage, .Tared, flour dealer, Jolm Gage, res Madison, bet Clark and La- 

Salle [died March 81, 1880, aged To. 

Gage, John, prop, steam flour-mill. South Brand 1. west side, res cor 

CoivaI and Second [died, Vineland, X.J.. Dec. 29, 1890, aged yO. 

Gale, Abram, butcher, 22 Clark, bds l(>o Lake 

[died, Oak Park, 111., Ai)ril 4. 1889, aged 02. 
Gale. 3rrs. Abram. milliner, etc., 108 Lake, res same 
Gale. >tephen F. S: Co. (A. H. Burleyy, books and stationery, 100 Lake 
Gale. Stephen Francis (S. F. Gale S: Co.), 108 Dearborn 
Gallaifher, Francis, laborer, res ]\Iadison, w^est of Franklin 
Gallagher, AVm. (Hood S: G.), res X. AVater, bet Clark and Dearborn 
Galvin. ^Michael, sailor, res 18.j Washington 
Galvin, Mrs., res Washinglon, bet Franklin and ^Market 
Galvin. AVilliam, sailor, res AVells, bet Madison and ^lonroe 
Ganar, Austin, gardener, res Dutch Settlement 
Garkin. Henrv [-Dutch Henrv'"!, laborer, res Kinzie, bet Cass and 

Rush ' ^ ' '' [died July 14, 18T8, aged 90. 

Garrett, Augustus (G. A: Seaman), bds Sauganash llotel, mayor (0th'. 

president of Board of Health 

[died, Sherman House, Noveml)er 80, 1848, aged 4T. 
Garrett cV Seaman, merchants and insurance at>-ents, 14T South A\';iter 
Garritv. Patrick, shoemaker, X. AVater, bet N. Clark and Dearborn 
Gart, Peter, brewer, Lill A: Diversev's, bds same 

[died, Bowmanville, HI., March 80. 1892, age.l T-k 
Garvey. Tim., brickmaker. Wood <S: Ogden, res X. Water, near Norrli 

Branch bridge 
Gates, Ldwin L., blacksmith, Frink, Walker Sc Co., res Randolph. Ix. t 

State S: Dearborn [died 

Gates, John, carpenter, bds City Jiefectory, IT Dear])orn 
Gates. Philetus Woodworth (Scoville k G.), res W. Randol])h nr Canal 

[died December 1, 1888, aged Tl. 
Gates. Ralph, iron founder, ScovlRe tSc Gates 
Gaueh. Jacob P., brewer, Indiana, bet Pine and Sand, res same 

(died September 9, 1898, aged (i^. 
Gauuler. Morris, cabinet maker, res Dutch Settlement 
Gavin, Edward W., carpenter, res Cass near Kinzie 

■/ ; ;. -- 


Gay, John, sailor, res South Wtiter, bet State and "Wabash ave 
Gebel, Peter, laborer, re.^. cor. Cass and Pearson 

[died June 18. 1887, nf^^A 7;U, 
Gekler, Henry, blacksmitli. res LaSalle, bet Lake and South "Water 
George, Thomas, tin and copi3ersmith, lOT Lake 
Geronie, Sanuiel. sailor. 
Getzler, Anton, liats, caps, and furs, lol Lake, res sarae, county assessor 

and treasurer [died, Wyandotte. Kas.. A])rii 2, 1859, a-cd ."Jo. 

Getzler, Frederick, clerk, Bracken Jc Tuller, 1)ds Saugauash Hotel 
Gherkin. Henry [Dutch Henry, lirst grave-digger of Chicago, died 

July, 1877, aged 90. 
Gil)bs, George Augustin [died Deeem1>er 8, 18r55. aged •■)4. 

Gilbert S: Co., Ashlev, dry goods and groceries. South AVater 
Gilbert, Ashley (A. G. ^t Co.), bds City Hotel [died 

Gilbert, Edw'd" A., med. stud't, Dr. Dan'l Brainard, bds Sam. H. Gilbert 
Gilbert, Sam. H., clerk. Dver A: Chapin. res Mich., bet Clark and Dearly. 

[died Deeeml)er 20, 1879, a-ed 75. 
Gilbert, Sherod, drayman, res Ohio, bet Dearborn and W^olcott 

[died September 25, 18G8, n^ed 78. 
Giles, William, gardener. West Lake, 4th Ward 

[died l)efore May 24. 1850. 
Gill. Charles, harness-maker. l)ds Ed. Gill 
Gill, Edmund, tailor, 212 Indiana, res same [Chicaao's lirst ice-man, 

died. liowmanville. 111., August 17, 1867, aged 023^. 
Gill, Henry P., teamster, bds Edmund Gill 

Gillen, Jacob, tailor, res Dutch Settlement ,y . 

Gillis, Alexand'-r. carpenter. Alex. Loyd, res 251 Clark / , . 

Gilniorc, "William, laborer, res Xorth Branch near river 
Gilsou, Hiram L. (Kent S: G.), bds City Hotel 

Gilson, P., clerk, Ihistol 6: Porter, bds City Refectory, 17 Dearborn 
Gilscm, Stephen If., lumberman. George AV. Snow 
Gilson, William, laborer, res Dutch Settlement 
Clansman, .lohn. butcher, AW-stern .Market, cor X. AVater and Clark 
Trleason, Alichaol. cooper, alley bet Dearborn and AVater 
Godard, H. !>., clerk, lluel Ambrose, bds same 
Goldan. John, stone mason. North AVater. bet Clark and LaSalle 
Goodman, Fred, tailor, res alley bet LaSalle and AVells 
Goodman. Leon;ird. shoemaker, Dan. Tavlor, res alley bet LaSalle ;rnd 

AVells ■ , . , ^ 

Goodrich, Crrant (Spring vfc G.). res 200 Illinois near Rush 

[died .Alarch 15, 1880, agcl 771.C. 
Goodrich, Timothy AVat.son, clerk, T. B. Carter, bds Mrs. Seth J/lmson 
<'Oodrici, AVillard"". tinsmith, AVilliam AVheeler 
<|oodsell, L. B., dry goods, etc., 21 Deajborn, res 42 Randolph 
<Jood\vin, Francis \\. planemaker. res VV"^ Lake, bet AVater and T'aual 
<'Or)ld, Nathaniel (G. S: Dodgej, res n.-e. cor X. Dearborn and .Michigan 

[died February 0, 1887, aged' 73. 
Goold 6c Do'lge. saloon, South Water, bet Clark and Dearborn 
<-'Oss. John (S. W. G. tic Co.), Svlvcstcr Marsh, bds City Refectory 



Goss, Samuel AV. i^c Co.. dry uoods aud cfroceries, 98 Lake 
'Goss, Samuel AA'. (Sam. AV. G. ».V Co.). bds City Refectory. 17 Dearborn 
Gould, Ambrose B.. sailor, res Indiana, bet Pine aud St. Clair 
Goulet. Gabriel, boarding-house aud grocery. Canada Home, X. AVater 
Govro, John, cooper. Xorth AVater, bet AVolcott and Kinzie 
Gowey. Solomou. blacksmith, res State 

[died. Gardner, 111., February :], 1893. aged 8:3. 
Gratf. Jacob, farmer, res Kinzie. bet Cass aud Rush 
Graflf, Peter, carpenter, res 3Ionroe. bet Clark and State 

[died March 5, 1884, aged (59 
Graham. Hugh, teamster, Xorth AVater. bet Franklin aud AVells 
Graham. A^'.. hostler, AVestern Hotel 
Granger. Elihu. iron founder (G. A: A'anOsdel), res North AVater, bet 

LaSalle and AVells 
Granger v.t A'anOsdel. iron foundry, N. AVater, bet LaSalle and AVells 
Granni>, Amos, cai'penter. Edim^ place 

Grannis. Samuel .Johnson, boot and shoemaker. 1503/2 I-'^ke, bds Amer- 
ican Temperance House [died December 14, 18G4, aged 79^4'. 
Grannis. Samuel AVillis. hatter, Luciau P. Sanger 
Graves, Dexter, livery stable, alley 46 State, res 42 State 

[died April 29, 1845, aged 55. 
Graves. Henry, livery stable, alley 40 State, bds Dexter Graves 
Graves, Lorin, horse dealer, res ** The Cottage," 8 miles south shore 

[died September 11, 185.2, aged 89. 
Graves. Peter, butcher, res Cth AVard 
Graves. Sheldon, woodenware, at H. Norton it Co., l^ds Tremont 

[died February VS. 1895, aged 81. 
Gray &: ]5utler. livery stable, n.-e. cor Dearborn and Randolph 
Gray, Chas. McNeill, grain-cradle maker. 80 Dearborn, res 82 Dearborn 
[12th mayor, died October 17, 1885, aged 78>|^. 
Gray. Franklin D., clerk, Horace Norton it Co.. bds Ethan AValter 
Gray. George Morris, with Chas. 31. Grav. bds 82 Dearborn, [a resident 
of Milwaukee from Se})t.. 1840. to Sr-pt.. 1840 [d. June 1. 1895, a. 77. 
Grav, John (G. S: Butlerj, res 80 Randolph 

[died. Grayland. III.. July 0, 1889. aged 78-7-27. 
Gray, John L.. grocer, n.-e. cor N. AVater and N. Clark 

[died December 28. 185G. 
Gray, Jos. Henry, groceries A: provisions, 88 S. AVater, bds E. Alanierre 
Gray, AVilliaui B. H.. clerk. Joseph H. Grav, bds Columbian House 

[died August 18, 18>>5, agc-.l 04)^. 
Gregg. David R. carpenter. N. AVater, bet AN'olcott and Kinzie 
Gregory. E<l\vard M.. prop. AVestern Hotel. AV. Randolph, s.e.cor Canal 
Gregory. AVilliani F.. printer. ])ds Western Hotel 
Green. Mark T., clerk, Stev«ns c^: -Carpenter, bds Airs. Cireen 
Green, Airs. Alargarct, boarding-house, n.-e. cor Clark and AVashington 
Green, Russell, clerk, John AI. Underwood 

(died. Geneva Lake. Wis.. Alay 15, 1880, aged 71^/. 
Green, AVilliani, clerk. Charlfs Buhl, bds aAIrs. Green 
Greenwood, John, teamster, William Lill, res 284 Kinzie, cast of Rusli 

■i; /' if no /I -'.»'» ,• i 

;/ t 

m; i*Vr :'l«f,. 


iTreeuwood, Theopliilus, clerk. James E. Bishop, res Ontario, bet 

Wolcott and Dearborn 
Oner, Samuel, carpenter, res Xortli Water, bet Clark and Franklin, 

alderman -Irli ward 
Oreuel. Geo., blacksmith. W. X. Humphrey [died before Feb. 20, 18.")(). 
Grey. Charles, lal^orer, 2d "Ward 

Gridley. George "W., auction and commission, 85 Lake 
Griffin, Charles, laborer, Gurdon S. Hubbard 
Griffin vS: A'incent. brokers. South "Water, bet Dearborn and State 
Griswold. Charles E.. clerk, Gurdon S. Hubbard, bds Dan. S. Griswold 
Grisvvold. Daniel S., attorney, res 240 Kinzie, near Wolcott 
Griswold, David Dunham, writer, bds Daniel S. Griswold 
Griswold, Henry A., clerk, Augustus Garrett, bds Sauganash Hotel 
<Trose. Jacob, teamster, alley bet W. Washington and \Y. Madison and 

JerTerson and Clinton 
Grose. John, miller, John Gage, res Jackson, 2d Ward 
C4ross, ^richael, tanner [died A])ril (J, 1882, aged G9^. 

Gross. Sarah, res Madison 
Gruel. George, blacksmith. LaSaile, res Randolph, bet LaSalle and 

Wells [died before February 11, 1851. 

Guenther, Heinrich Christin Diederich, sailor, res cor 3Hchigan and 

Cass [died March 17. 1884, aged 84-11-10. 

Guild. Albert H., (went to St. Louis in 1840) 

Gumperston, John, waiter. City Hotel 

Gurley, Jason, hatter. Lorenzo P. Sanger [died April 19, 1865, a. 58. 
CTurnee, Walter Smith (G. & Matteson), city treas'r, res 47-9 Dearborn 

11th mayor 
Ourn* e ik> ^latteson, groceries, hardware, and leather, 110 Lake 

Haas, Louis, blacksmith, John B. Busch [died July 23, 1888, a. 07. 

Haa-. William, brewer, sold out to Lill «fc Diversey and went to Texas 

[died, Boonville, 3[o., Septeml>er 21, 1802, aged — . 

Hadduck. Beniamin F. (Tillotson, Humphrev Sc Co.), res ^lichigan ave, 

south of Lake [died December 23, 1871, ;iged 02. 

Hadduck, Edward Hiram, capitalist, res 70 ^Michigan ave 

[died :May 30, 1881, aged 70. 
Hadley, ]Mrs. T. G. (Beedi, dress and cloak maker, 1471^^ Lake 
Hadley, [Maj.l Elijah \V.. dentist. [died March 4, 18(i5, a<i:ed 51. 

Hadley, Timothv Gibson (Howard <k H.), res alley bet X. Dearborn and 

Ilaeni, Henry, tailor, HettinLrer <S: Peterman 

Haliy, Michael, carpenter, bds H, Cunningham [d. A])r. 20, 1884, a. 70. 
Hageman, ChristO})ii, grocer, Xorth "Water, bet Clark and Dearborn 
HaL^eman, Christo|)h, {physician, X. Water, bet Dearb. and Wolcott 
Hagernan, Fred. Ciiarh-s, barljer. steamer j\/'i>lisoii, bds C. Hageman 

•died, Wiiitield. Dui'age Co.,. 111., Septem!>ei- 3, 1809, aged 51-0-7. 
Hageman, Joseph, tinsmith, William Blair 



Haggard. Samuel B., carpenter, Scoville tt Gate^:. ■ " ■ 

Halin. Adam, teamster, res Dutch Settlement 

Haight, Egbert Hand, carpenter. Cruver S: Senser, bds ]\[rs. TTaiglir 

rdied, Elgin. 111., August 16. 18Ts, aged 57. 
Haigbt, Mrs. Eliza, boarding-house, Clark, south of Randolph 

[died April 7. 187(5. aged 80. 
Haight, Isaac, tanner. Gurnee & ^latteson 
Haines, John Charles (Clark, H. &: Co.). bds Sauganash Hotel 

riTth mayor, died. Waukegan. HI.. July 4, 189<). aged 78. 
Hale. Benjamin F., botanic physician, I80 Lake, res Wells, east side, 

first door south of Lake 
Hall, Edward, saddler and haraess maker, Silas B. Cobb 
Hall, Elbridge Gerrv, clerk, Samuel B. AValker, res same 

[died A])ril 18, 1877, aged 02, 
Hall, J. B.. irrocer. X. AVater. bet Clark and Dearborn 
Hall, Philip" A., merchant. [died June 9, 1892. aged 74. 

Hall, William Alosley, lumber merchant, bds City Hotel 

[died. Xew-York City. Xov. 8, 1894, aued 83: the origina':«n' of 
the Chicago Biver-and-Harbor Convention. July 5-7. 1847. 
Hallam. Bev. Isaac Williams, rector St. James Parish, res. 38 Cass. 
Hal lock, Isaac P.. res West Lake 

Hamilton. Polemus Draper, carpenter, res 120 Clark, bet Madis-^i and 

Washington died. Fort AVorth. Tex.. Alarch 3, 1891. aged 7:-9-3. 
Hamilton, Richard Jones (H. <t Chamberlin). res 264 ]\[ichioan 

rdied December 26, 1860,7iged OII4. 
Hamilton, Robert Peri-y (H. Sz AVhite). bds Thomas E. Hamilton 

[died. Saratoga. X.Y.. October T). 1894. aged 7~). 
Hamilton, Thomas, bds AVashincrton Hall 
IhuTiilton, Thomas E.. carpenter, res 104 Aladison 
Hamilton, ^V. J., drug clerk. Sidney Sawyer, bds C'harles H. Chapman 
Hamilton t^- Chamberlin. attorneys at law. .■)7 Clark 
Hamilton S: AVhite. dry goods and groceries. 139 Lake < 
Hamlin. E. II., Baptist clergyman, res LaSalle. bet AYashington S: ^Nlad. 
Hanchett, John L.. surveyor^ [died July 6, 1887, aged SO. 

Hanks, J. Demming, drug clerk. Sidney Sawyer 
Hanlou. Edward, blacksmith. Frink. AYalker ,S: Co.. res North YCater. 

l>et X. Clark and LaSalle [died July 24. 1891. aged 74. 

Hannahs, James Alonroe. moulder, Stow's Foundry, bds AYestern Hotel 
Hanson. Abraham. Alethodist clergyman, res Clark, bet AYa.sliington 

and Aladison 
Hanson. Josepdi L., teamster, res Alonroe, bet State and Clark 
Hanson, Knus. laborer, res near Xorth Branch bridge 
Harbarn. Alathias, shoemaker, res Dutch Settlemeiit 
Harding, Charles, captaio schooncu Ge7i. Thornton, bds Tremont 

House [died July 15, 1883, aL-^ed (;7. 

Harrnan, William, blacksmith, X'orth AYater near Wolcott, res same 

[.lied, The Dalles. Or( gon. Alay 15. 1890. a-e.l >^4. 
Harmon, Charles Loomis. dry goods and liroceries. 145 South Water. 

s.-w. cor Clark, res Dearborn, bet Washington and Aladison 

[died Xovember 2, 1868, aged 5!t-4. 

ti;ii 1 .H ^-^^ 


Harmon, Edwiii Rutliven. elk. Elisha S. i.t Julius Wadsvfortb, bds same 
[died, Roo-crs Park. 111., 3Iny .20. 1800. aged 77-S. 
Harmon, Eliiah Dcwev. physician, bds C. L. Harmon 

[died January 3. 1869, aged 80V;. 
Harmon. Isaac Xewton, -uitli C. L. Harmon [died Xov. 8, 1891, a.. — . 
Harmon. Justus (Wooster 6c H.), bds Jolm Gray 
Harper, AVilliam. carpenter, res ?>Iadison 
Harrington, Daniel, saloon. 10 Dearborn, near South Water 
Harrington, -James, res X. Clark, bet X. Water and Kinzie 
Harrington. Joseph, Unitarian clergyman, res 3[ichigan. u.-w. cor X. 

Dearborn [died. SanFruncisco, Cab, Xovcmber 3. 1^52, aged SO?-'. 
Harris, Jacob, carpenter, res First, bet Clark and State 

[died September 11, 18T7. aged (50. 
Harrison, Henry, grocer, Soutli Water, east of Dearborn, res same 
Harrison, Hiram H.. drover, res South Water 
Harrison. Piobert. laborer. John Gage, res "West Jackson, Sd Ward 
Harroun, O. A., saddler. Doliver Walker. T9 Lake 
Hart, George W.. commission merchant. South Water, res Wabash ave 
Hart. Lewis, laborer, res alley xiear Lake and Franklin 
Harvey, Edward, laborer, X. Clark, bet Xorth Water and Kinzie 
Haslett, I^eter. laborer, res West Water, bet Randolph and Lake 
Haslett, AN'illiam, shoemaker, res West Water 
Haslett, , laborer, Gurdon S. Hubbard 

Ha>tie. Thomas, shoemaker {died July 14, 1^70, aged Oo. 

Hastinii'S. Hiram, drover, res Washini^'-ton. bet LaSalle and AVells 

[died. Riverside, III., July U, 1880. aged 75 1^ - 
Hastings. Thos., shoemaker, Dan. Taylor, res W. Madison, w\ of Clinton 
Hastings, AVilliam. nurseiy. Aixhcr ave. south of 2.")th 
Hatch. David, hardware, etc.. 08 Lake, res Adams nr Dearborn [d., near 
Parksvilte. on Missouri Pdver, en route to Cal.. before May 7, I80O, 
Hatch, Heman (H. A: Shurr), res South "Water near Dearborn 

[died September 8. 1858, aged 5'.». 
Hatch 6z Shurr. saloon. 
Hatfield, Isaac P., collecting agent, bds ]\[rs. Green 

[died :\Larch 10, 1879. aged 7;ji4^ 
Hathaw\ay, L. W., clerk, Samuel B. Collins S: Co., res AV'abash ave 
Hathaway, IVFrs.. dressmaker. 175 Luke 

Hawkins, William, clerk. Charles G. Wicker, bds David Jay 
Hawdey, John S., clerk. Sherman Si Pitkin, bds Sauganash Hotel 
Hayden, Chamberlaine. bds American Temperance House 
Hayden. James, diayman. 84 AVabash ave [died 
Haves, Benjamin F., family grocer, 170 Lake, res Clark 

[died .Alarch 7, 1858. 
Hayward, Alvin. fanuing-mill maker. Lake, near Sauganash Hotel 
Heacock, Pvouben li., medical student, bds Russel E. Heacock 
Heacock, Russel Easton ,(Jld Shallow-Cut, Chicago's tirst attorney at 

law), res 129 Adams [died, Summit, III., June 20, 1849, aged" 7U. 
Heacock. Ru.ssel E., jr.. clerk, Charles AValker ik Co., bds Russel E. 

Heacock, Pi. E., mason, Alson S. Sherman 


Heaf(H-k, Wm. Osl>nni. ivs l\. E. Hcucock [died Dec. 7, 1881. a. 02. 
llcald. Alexander Hamilton, masoji. 1)ds Daniel Heald, ir. 

[died. Oak Park. Cook Co., Ilk, Xovember 11, 188."), aged :2}.<. 
Ileald. jr., Daniel, mason. Jackson, bet Clark and Pacitic ave 

[died. Trenton, N.J., July 1:3. 1874. a.o-ed 06 9-2S. 
Heald, Horatio Xelson, bds Daniel Heald, jr. ; d. Nov. 23, 188;]. a. 74i<. 
Heartt, Dan"l Brewster i Pop-Cornj. constable, boarding house, 82 Yv'ells 

[died July 81. -iSij^^. aged 81. 
Heartt, Robert, teamster. ])ds D. B. Heartt [d. June 10, 1888.-a. 722^. 
Henderson, Rev. Ak'uer '\ Veils, principal Chicauo Female Seminary, 

bds Mrs. Green [died Oeto])er 18, 1872, aged 60-3-10. 

Hennings, Thomas, la1>orer, res W. Randolph. Hd Ward 
Henry, Hugh K., police constable and joiner, res N. Water nr Dearborn 
Henson, Oliver Cromwell, (cokd) phrenologist, barber, etc., 183 Lake, 
res same [died. Xew Orleans. La., December 10, 1877. 

Hequenbourg. G W.. clerk, Benjamin F, Sherman, res same 
Herrick, Elijah AVard, contractor, bds 31rs. Haight 

[died October 12, 1800, aged 53^^. 
Herrick. Ira X.. contractor, [d.. Park Manor, HI., Jan. 17, 1890, a. 08. 
Hervey, [Sir] James, dry goods and groceries, 110 S. Water, res Indiana, 
bet Cass and Rush [died 1845, aged 30. 

Hervey, Robert, currier, Gurnee ct Matteson 
Hessey, AMUiam, ready-made clothing, 250 Randolpli 
Hettinger (John) & Peterman, tailors, South Water near Clark 

[died July 7, 1802, aged 81. 
Hibbard. Piev. John RandoljJi. occasional preacher in the Xew Jeru- 
salem Chui'ch. resides at Canton. 111. 

ri>ecamf a resident Jan. 1. 1850: died June 20, 1S04, aged 84-11-3. 
Hickey, Patrick, drayman, bds Charles McDonnell 
Hickox, Charles D., teamster, res l^vandolph near 3Iarket 
Hickox, Philander, clerk. S. S. Robinson, bds same 
Hig!4-ins, F]dward, milk dealer. Canal, 3d Ward ,- '>'' ■ 

Higains, Floyd, milk dealer. Canal, 3d AVard 

Higgins, John, tanner, Gurnee S: ^[atteson, res X. Water near Franklin 
Hig^iinson. George ]\I. (Tuckerman tt Co.). Ixls American Temperance 

High, Jr., John (U. H Magie Sz Co.), 13 Dearborn place 

[killed by falh'ng wall at tire at 110 Lake. Oct. 10, 1857, aged 50. 
Higley, George, house of entertainment. South Water near LaSalle 
Hildebrtind, AVilliam, glove and mitten maker, 221 J^ake, res .same 

[suicided, Xew-York City, X"ov. 4, 1870, aged 70. 
Hill, J. W., tinsmith, Bowen <S: Cole, bds .Mansion House 
Hill, kewis P. (.Marshall 6c H.), res Xew York House 
inn, William, jeweler. Smith J. Sltf;rw^ood, bds Daniel B. Heartt 
Hilliard, Lauria Palmer (Charles Walker c<c Co.), bds Mrs. J. K. Boyer 
1 killed bv cars. Xovember 2, 1805, aged 81. 
Iliii-, WiUirtm H., clerk, Horace-Xorton >k Co., bds Eli S. Prescott 
Ilind<-«}, li. F., saddler and harness maker, Dennison Horton 
Hinkley, Samuel Taylor, fireman, U.-S. dredge 

[died Sei>tember 5. 1804, aged 70-2-13. 


Hitchcock, EpLraim, farmer, res State [died l<s-i!)- 

Hitchcock, Luke. 3Ietliodist clergyman, res Parsonage, 115. Clark 
HixoD, Jeremiali, captain schooner Martin VanBuren, res AV. \Vntet, 

bet Canal and Clinton 
Hoard, Louis do Yillicrs, cleputy-elerk. Cix^k-Coiinty Court 

[died, Ogdenslmrg, X.Y., March 4. is9o\ aged (;8-b-25. 
Hoard, Samuel, clerk. Circuit Court, olhce, G8 Clark, res West Adams, 

bet Canal and Clinton [died November 25, 1881, aged 81 1<. 

Hobbie, Albert G., dry goods, groceries, and hardware, 142 Clark, res 

Wabash ave. bet Randolpli and \Yashington 
Hobbs, James, sailor, res Kinzie, bet Cass and Rush 
Hobson. Kobert 31., printer, IJxprcss office, bds City Refectory 
Hodge, Job, laborer, res Xorth A\'ater near Franklin 
Hodgson, Charles Hvatt, tinsmith, bds John H. Hodgson 

[died OctoI)er"5, 186(3, aged 40. 
Hodgson. Henry Hyatt. l)ds John H. Hodgson, [now at Detroit. ]\[ieh. 
Hodgson, John Hyatt, merchant tailor, (31 Clark, res same [died 1854. 
Hoff. 3Iathias, laborer, res Dutch Settlement 
Hoifman, Francis A.. l)Ookbinder. 
Hoffman, Michael, laborer, res William L. AYliitiug 

[died September 5, 1891, aged 78-8. 
Hogan, Charles L. P., dry goods and groceries, 252 Lake, res Franklin 

near Lake [died, Morris, HI., about 1855. 

Hogan, John Stephen Coates. ex postmaster, bds Charles L. P. Hogan 
[died, Boonville, Mo., Deeeml)er 2, 18(38, aged (j'd~:^. 
Hogan. ^Michael, res Michigan ave 

Ho:,'-an, Thomas, laborer, res North Water, bet Wolcott and Kinzie 
Hoisingtou, Jasper A., bookbinder. o5 Clark, bds Ariel Bowman 

[died, Oakland. Cal., :March 25. 1805, aged 94. 
Hoisington, Jasper A. M., book])inder, Jasj^er A. Hoisington, l)ds same, 

[now at Denvei-. Col. 
Holbrooke, John, cooper, Xorth Water, bet Dearborn and AYolcott 
Holden. Albon Hatch, clerk, Charles X"". llolden ^ Co. 

[died May 21. 1893, aged 71-8. 
Holden cV Co., (has. X"., dry goods and groceries, 143 S.AYater, cor Clark 
Holden, Chas. Xewton (C. X". H. c'c Co.), res AYashington, bet Clark and 

Dearborn [died Septemljer 2I>, 1887, aged 71 1^. 

Holden, Charles Cotesworth T^incknev, clerk, Charles Sweet 
Holden. AYilliam P. (Chas. X. Holden it Co.), bds Chas. N. Holden 
Holland, Carlton (Lawrence ct H.), bds 3Irs. Green 
Holmes, C. E., wagon maker, John Burgess 
Holmes, Isaac, machinist, J. B. Xickerson 

[died Se]>tember 14. 1874, aged 52. 
Holm^'S. John D.. clerk, res A\'ells and Franklin 
Holiiies. .Afrs., res LaSalle, bet AYashington and ]\Iadison 
Holt, Mrs, Elizabeth, widow of i^cter, res Kinzie, bet Cass and liush 
Hoit, Thomas, carpenter, bds :vrrs. E. Holt [dic^l 1881, aged (30. 

Honeywell, David, teamster, AYest AYater, bet Canal and Clinton 
Hood, Andrew, butcher, Fulton 3Iarket 


Hood. David (H. ^t Gallaq-lier), res allev bet AVolcott and Dearborn 

[died. Gro>s Point, Cook Co., 111., April 10, 1S33, age.l 42. 
Hood Jc Ga.llagher, butchers, Buffalo ^Market, X. Water, n.-e. cor Wolcott 
Hooker. James Louis, clerk, 

fdied, Boston, INIass., Septeml)er 20, 1803. aged 72-7-5. 
Hooker, -Jolm AV., drv goods and o-rocerics, 1-j2 Lake, res S4 Dearborn 

[died May 14, 18GG, aged 04. 
Hoover, John, batcher, res AVolcott. bet Xortli Water and Kinzie 
Hopper, George, mechanic. 1st Ward 
Horn, Jolm, res 1st AVard 
Horner, Henrv. grocers, etc., cor. AVest Randolph and Canal 

[died February 12. 1878, aged 01. 
Hortley. Samuel, farmer, res AA'est AYater. bet Canal and Clinton 
Horton, I>ernard, bartender, bds Airs. John K. Boyer 
Horton. Deunison, saddler and harness maker, 15 Dearborn, res AYells. 
bet Lake and Randolph [died January 4, 1880, aged 70. 

Hotchkiss, Orrin, tinsmith. William AYheeler it Co.. res AYashington 

[moved to Ottawa. 111. 
Houfc, Thomas, teamster, AA'm. Lill, bds .John Greenwood 

[died before July 10, 1851. 
Houfe, A^'illiam. plasterer, res 5th AYard. 210 Chicau'o ave 

[died ^ 1849. aged — . 

Hough, Oramel Smith, laborer, bds Pat. Kelsey [d. Dec. 7, 1876. a. 53.L 
Hough, PiOselle Alarvin. laborer, bds Pat. Kelsey [d. Alar. 8, 18!)2, a. — . 
Houghton, David, slioeraaker, Dan. Taylor 
Hovev, Samuel S. (Clvbourn vt IL), res X. Clark, bet 111. and Indiana 

[died Alarcli 2, 1872. agc.l 70. 
Howard. Henry, grocer. Dearborn, bet South AYater and Lake 
Howard, John At., druggist. Dr. John Brinkerholf, 143 Lake 
Hovv'ard. AYilliam, shingle maker, bds David Honeywell 
Hov.-ard,AYm. II. (IL S: lladley), res AY. AYashington. bet Canal Jc Clinton 
Howard. A\'illiam H., wagon maker 
Howard cl' lladley, livery stable. Lake 
Howe, C harles F., clerk, bds Frederick A. Howe 

Howe, Francis, book-kce])er. Dyer ik Chapin [d. Aug. 23. 1850. a. 40. 
Howe. Fred'k Augu>tu-. justice of the peace, 22 Dearborn, res AYasli- 
ington, s.-w. cor Dcarl)()rn [d., Englewood, 111.. Oct. 27. 1870, a. 75. 
Howe. Fred. A., jr., clerk, bds Frederick A. Howe 
Howe. Isaac, bricklayer, res Clark [<lied A])ril 5. 1870, aged 7!). 

Howe. Jaiiics L., City bakery, 285 Kinzie near liush 

[died February 27, b^03, agcl 4.'^. 
Howe, Samuel, bricklayer, res Clark- 
Howe, Samuel, clerk, IL II Alagie iS: Co., res State, bet. Aladison ami 


Hoync. Philip Augu^tu^-. clerk, at Gahnj. [d. Nov. .3. 1804, a. 08-11-13. 

Hoyne. Thomas, attorney and counsellor at law, 218 Lake [23d rn.iyor 

[killed, ndlroad accident near Carlyon, X.Y.. July 27, 18^3, a^cd *'>'-'f^y- 

liubbard, Ahira, book-keeper, Gurdon S, Hubbard, res Indiana, bet and Rush [died August 15, 1840, aged 70. 


llulibard, Gurdou Saltonstall. forwarding and commission, South 

^A'ater, near Clark, res 300 Indiana, near Kasli 

[died Se])tember 14. 1886. as^ed 84. 
}Iabbard, Henry George, clerk, Circuit Court, res I.aSalle, bet AVasb- 

ington and ^vfadison [died, Sandusky, O., Aug 28, 185.2. aged 43}^. 
Hubbard. Closes, drv goods and groceries. South Water near Dearborn 
Hughs. AVilliam F.. res Robert jr^Voodworth 

Hugunin. James Robert, bike-captain [died Jan. 19, 1892. aged 74. 
ilugunin, Leonard Chirk, bds United States Hotel 

[died Xovenilier G, 1883, aged 791^. 
Humphrey. James Oscar, wacrou maker, 182 Randolph 

[died Juno 14. 1893, aged b3. 
Humphrey, AVm. H.. ^vagon maker, Raudolj)!!, res AVells, bet Randoi^^h 

and AVashiiigton 
Humphreys, David (H. >k AVinslow). bds City Hotel 
Humphreys vi' AVinslow, forwarding and commission, 130-30 S. Water 
Hunt, 3Irs., res AVcst AVater, bet Raudol})!! and Lake 
Hunter. T. F.. sailor. 
Huntington, Alonzo, attorney at law, notary, 98 Lake, bds Dr. 0. Y. 

Dyer - [died November 17, 1881, aged 76. 

Huribert, Eri Baker, dry goods and groceries, 109 S. AVater, res 73 State 

[died February 3, 1852. aged — . 
Husted, Harrison Hoyt. ready-made clothing, 97i^ Lake, bds Fiancis 

C. Sherman ' ' [died August 29, 1890, aged 77. 

Hvde, Z. ^y., mason, res Illinois, bet Pine and St. Clair 

Illinois Exclianue. n.-w. cor Lake and AYells, John B;Ues. jr.. pr(^p. 
Ingallc, AVilliam A., sailor, res Xorth AVater, bet AVolcott and Kinzie 
Ir.telligence office. 3s Clark, James AV. Xorris 
Irvin. George, shoemaker, John B. ^Mitchell 

Irvin 6c Co., J. B., dry goods and groceries. Dearborn, bet South AVater 
and Lake 

Jiickson, Carding, police constable, res State 

Jackson, Gideon ]\Lithew, prop. Southern Hotel, State n.-w. cor 12th 

[died January 23, 1850. ■A<^(-d 34. 
'Jackson ILdl. 45 LaSalle. erected 1847. ofiice of Chicago Democrat] 
J>ick=-on. John J., sailor, res Indiana, bet Pine and St. Clair 
Jackson, John AVm., teamster, res ^Morgan, bet Aladison and ^Monroe 

[died March 8, 1892, aged 82-5-13. 
•Jatkson, Samuel Thomas, overseer Clricago harbor, res Fort Dearborn 

[died June 17. 1849, aged 49-0-5. 
Jackson, Samuel E/ra, bds Sanuiel Jackson 

[died. Bowmanville, 111., Man h 18. 1870, aged 52-0-25. 
J.ick-,on, AV'illiam, bds Carding Jackson 



uyii ihf 


Jacobus, Augustus Larue (]Manaliatii it J.), res lOo ^Micliigan ave. near 
Madison [died July 54, l.SoO. ;i,m <l a:.\ 

Jacobus, D. L. vt A. L., looking-glasses. 10 Clark 

Jacobus, David Lawrence (D. L. <k A. L. J.), res 111) LaSalle 

[died October l;3, 1884, aged (i8i^, 

Jagger. Oliver, painter. Xath. S. Cushing, res Clark, 4 Morrison'.-, li'uv 

Jail (County), ->.-e. cor Randolph and LaSalle, AVm. Perrior. jailei- 

James, Thos. Christmas, cal)inet maker, res cor .AEather and Clinton sts 

[died August 20. 1805, jiiic.l ru. 

Jay. David, ladies' boot and shoemaker, Clark near Lake 

Jeffrey, . carpenter, res Clinton, bet ^Vashington and ^^ladison 

Jettrey. George (J. A: Bentley), shoeing smith and farrier 

Jeffrey So Bently, shoeing smiths and horse farriers, "West Water, bet 
United States Hotel and John ^I. Underwood's lumber yard 

Jeffries. George, warehouseman, res Indiana, bet Cass and I^ush 

Jefts, Amasa, water borer, bds Alichael McDonald 

Jellerson, Oliver, blacksmith, res IAS Illinois, bet Clark and LaS.ille 
[went to California in I80O, and supposed to have died at San Fran- 
cisco in the fall of 1851. 

Jennings. John Drake, clerk, Asher Rossetter. res ^Michigan ave. near 
S. Water [died April 14, 1881), :\ixi^d :n. 

Jennings. S. H. (J. Sz Foster), res ^Michigan ave, near S. AVater 

Jennings tt Foster, dry goods and groceries. S. Water near Dearborn 

Jocelyn. J. II.. bartender, AVestern Hotel, bds same 

Johnson, A. (J. *t A. Johnson) 

.Johnson, Abram. clerk, Charles Cleaver 

Johnson. Andrew 15., laborer. [died July 11, 1890. aiicd (u. 

Johnson, Benj. G.. liarness maker. Dennison Iforton, res AVabasli ave; 

Johnson, H. W.. bds Mrs. Seth Johnson 

Johnson, J. A: A., grocers. Dearborn, bet Lake and Soutli AVater 

Johnson, Jacob, waiter, Illinois Exchange 

Johnson, Jacob B.. ship painter, res cor Indiana and 

Johnson, James, drayman, res east side of AVabash ave, near and south 
of Adams 

.Johnson <Sc Co. (I). X. Davidson). John, barbers and hair dressers. 20 

Johnson, John, carpenter, res near Jackson and State 

[died, Thornton, 111., September 4. LSJK). ag( d 82-0. 

Johnson. John (.1. Si A. Johnson), 

Johnson. John (J.J. Sc Co.), res Dearborn, bet Washington an<l Al idison 

Johns(m, John iJ., laborer, Gurdon S. Hubbard 

[died, Leland, HI., Octo])er 18, 18f>7, aged iJU-7 7. 

Johnson, Jolin Al , clerk. Bracken S: Tuller 

Johnson, Lathrop, cigar maker, X. B. Wheeler 

[died, Onf(Tn;igon, Alieh., .July 2, 1881, aged 71). 

Johnson.. Heter .M., millwright and carpenter 

[die<l December 28, 1884. aged To. 

Johnson, Sanford., carpenter. Dearborn, bds John Grav 

[died Ai)ril 10, 187:;. aged 05. 

A'll'.z l,uv.. ^ 

,. u..ii ^. 


Johnson. Capt. Setb. deputy-collector and inspector Port of Chicago, 

res s.-w. cor Washington and LaSalle fdied 

Johnson, Mrs. Seth, 1)oardinLi--h<)usf. s.w. cor Washhiiiton and^. 
Johnson it Co., builders. Dearborn, bet Randolph and \Vasliington 
Johnson, William, mason, i?'^0 Lake 
Johnson, William, tanner. Gurnee vfc ^latteson • 

Johnston. Anthony, steward. City Hotel [died before ^fay IT. ] Sol- 
Johnston. Joseph, soap and candle maker, oT-O Lake 

, died April ir,. 1864, oS. 
Johounett, E. S. (.L. AVells k Co.). res Kinzie, bet LaSalle and 'Wells 
Johonnett. AVells ^t Co., (E. S. Johonnett. A. S. Well-, and Al.-on S. 

Sherman), leatlier dealers, los Lake, cor LaSalle 
Jones, Benj. (B. .1. k. Co.), res 109 Randolph, bet Clark and Dearborn 

[died. Alanitowoc. Wis., August 11. 1S81, aged sT. 
-Jones &: Co. (Wm. Jones), Benjamin, dry goods and groceries, S. AVater 

east of Clark 
Jones, D. A. ^ E. M.. chair and cabinet makers, 18 Dearborn 
Jones, Daniel Andrus (D. A. k, E. 31. .].). res 18 Dearborn 

[died Fel^ruary 2'-2. 1848, aged oT. 
Jones, David, cooper. John Govro 

Jones. Elisha Morris (D. A. ct E. 31. J.), res 3Lidison. centre Dearborn 

[died before Se]»tember 28. ls.-)0.. 
Jones. Fernando, clerk, bds AVilliam .Tones 
Jones, Hiram, clerk, Lewis AV. Clark, bds William .Tones 

[died Fel»ruary ."). 184!>. aged '27.. 
Jones, John, carpenter, res south of Jackson, east of Clark 
Jones, Ivilcr Kent, periodical depot, 42 Clark, bds William Jones 

[died, Qnincy. 111., August 20. 188<i. aged r,->. 
Jones. Xathaniel A., clerk. .John W. Hooker, bds same 

[died 3[arch 2i), 188.S. ai^ed 82 

Jones, Tarleton. lumber, shingles, w.-w. cor South Water and Clark at 

bridge, bds .Mrs. Green [died St'[)tember 10. 1><T8, aged (>."). 

Jones, William [Golden!. (I>. J. »t Co.), res ^'4 Randolpli. s.-e. cor Dear- 

Iwrn. memlx-r of Roaid of Health [died .bin. IS. isiis. :io-(m1 ^714. 

Jones, AN'iliiam Edwin (Ogden tV J.), bds William B. Ogden 

[died March !). \><rA, age.l :-i4. 
Jones. William Harrison, clerk, H. W. Biuelow, bds William Jones 

[died, Aiken. S.C.. A])ril 2.-). ISoO. aged 2.;. 
Jordan. James, sailor, res Washington, bet Franklin and Market 
Joyce, Thomas, butcher, res Kinzie. bet baSalle and Wells 
Judd, Norman Buel (Scammon k. J.), notary, bds City Hotel 

[died Novemlier fl.'lsTS. aued (54. 
Judson, Edwin, dentist, (;s Lake, res State, bet .Madison and Wash. 

idled March 3. issu, aged ^0. 

6S CHICAGO DIRfXTORY, 1843. •>, 

Kiinc, Patrick, draymaE. res Kinzie, bet Clark and LaSalle 

[died August — , 1885, aged — . 
Kapahu, Godfrey, laborer, res Dutch Settlemeul 
Karle, Carl, laborer, res Xorth AVater near Franklin 
Raster, Jolin, laborer, res Dutch Settlement 
Kastler, Nicholas, shoemaker, res Dutch Settlement 

[died January 4, 1888. aged 70. 
Kautenburger, Peter, laborer, res Dutch Settlement 
Kay, Abel, farmer, res cor Franklin and Madison 
Keating, Owen, blacksmith, bds Charles 31cDonnell 
Keef, James, laborer, res Chicago ave, 5th Ward 

Keef, 3Iichael, carpenter, Cruver tt Sensor [died before Sept. 5, 1850. 
Keef, Owen, res Chicago ave^ 5th Ward 

Kehoe. Michael, laborer. [died May 5, 1890. aged 83 ig- / 

Keilman, Henry, draper and tailor, Clark near South Water 
Kelley, Edward, apprentice. Ellis <Sz Fergus, bds Thomas Kelley 
Kelley, John, bhacksmith, North AVater, bet Wolcott and Kinzie 
Kelley, Patrick, provisions. Lake, near Sauganash Hotel 
Kelley, Thomas, gardener, res Xorth Branch, 4tli Ward 

[died July 1807, aged — . 

Kellogg,. B. C, cooper, Xorton & Tuckerman, res Xorth "Water 
Kellogg, Chauncy P., stage-coach agent, Tillotson, Humphrey & Co., 

bds Tremont House 
Kelly, Jas., printer, ITcstern C'ffizen. res State, bet Lake and S. Water 
[died, Winnetka, 111., May 5, 1805, aged 80. 
Kelly, John, laborer, Gurdon S. Hubbard 

Kelsey, Patrick, boarding-liouse, AVolcott, bet Kinzie and ^Michigan 
Kem])er, Wm., lal)orer, AVolcott. w. s.. bet Oak and l>ellevue, till 185:3. 
Kennedy, James, millwright and engineer, Stow's foundry 
Keimcdy, John, saddler, Dennison Horton, res X. >Yater, bet Clark and 

Kennedy, ^lichael. la])orer, res North Water, bet AYells and Franklin 
Kennicott, William Henry [the pioneer], dentist, 138 Lake, res same 

I died at -The Grove,'' Cook Co., 111., Oct. 22, 1802, agvd 54-H-f;. 
Kernikerbacker, Samuel K., shoemaker, res south of First 
Kernikerbacker, ]\lrs. S. P.. dressmaker, res south of First 
Kenny, Patrick, laborer, res AVolcott, l)et North Water and Kinzie 
Kent, Ji. H. (K. k Gilson), bds Tremont House 
Kent, Daniel AV., turner. Trundjull Kent 

Kent, Lawrence, cabinet maker. Lake, near Tremont House, res Lake 
Kent, 'I'rumbull, turner, Pvandolpli, bet LaSalle and Wells 
Kent Jc Gilson, livery stable. Lake 
Keougli, Michael, laborer, res W. \^'ater, bet Washington and ^ladisoii 

[died , 1880, aged 

Kcrcheval, OJholson. real estate dcider, ])ds Mrs. Post [died Californin. 
Kercheval, Lewis Ca>s, justice of the peace, 5 Clark, bds City Hotel 

[died Deceml)er 8, 1852, aged (!4. 
Kesson, A., bds Mahlon I). Ogden 

Kettlestring, Joseph, teamster, res ^Morgan, bet Randolph and Lake^ 

[died November 17, I880, aged T5. 

r. 1 


Kiest, Hem'Y. laborer, res cor North Wells and Chicago ave 

I died, Xorthtield. 111.. 1882. aged 7o. 

Kiliey, 3Iicliael, laborer, les Xorth Chirk, bet AVater and Kiuzie 
Killick, James Evans, soap and caudle maker, res ]\richigan ave 

[died January 27, 18^7, aged S3. 
Kimball. Harlow, res 71 Monroe near State 

[died. Oakhuid, Cal.. August 25, 1881, aged 78. 
Kiuiball, 3Iark. l)Ookke"ei)er. Botsford & Beers, bds Jabez K. Botsford 

[died Mav 29, 1801, aged 70. 
Kiml)all. Walter. [died Auuust 17, 1882. age'd 72. 

Kind.ell. IMartin Xelson. farmer [died Feb. 13, l89o. aged 83-0-20. 
Kimberly, Edmund Stoughten, physician. l(il J^ake, res 77 State 

[died. Biirrington, Ilk. (October 2o, 1874, aged 72. 
King. J., carpenter, bds Samuel Jackson, Fort Dearborn 
King. .John, jr., fancv drv uoods, 28 Dearl)orn, i)ds Mrs. Haii^ht 

[died January 18, 1891. aged 85-9-13. 
King, Xathaniel. clerk, Tuthill King, res 12 Lake 

[died, St. Charles, HI., Fel)ruary 21, 189-1, aged 88. 
King, Solomon, hostler, Illinois Exchange, b<ls same 
King. Thomas, shipcarpenrer. res bet State and Clark 

King. Tuthill, ready-made clothing, dry goods, etc., 115 Lake, res 198 
Clark ' [died. Thomasville. Ga.. 31arch Ki, 188G, aged 82. 

King, Wendell IL. clerk, Gurnce ik Matteson, bds Tremont House 

[died March 30, 1884, aged 60. 
King. Willis, lumber salesman, Geo. W. Snow, res Clark [d. Dee. 4, '53. 
Kingswell, William, team:-ter. res Wabash ave. bet Jackson and Fifth 
Kinnev, Joel, tanner, Gurnee S: 3[atteson, res 43 Franklin near Lake 

[died. Wilmette. 111.. April 8, 1888, aged 8G. 
Kinyon, Anson, harness maker, Dennison Horton 

Kiuzie, John Han-is, register CS. land office, 82 Lake, res 243 Michi- 
gan [died, on car.s near Pittsburg. Pa., June 19, 18()5. aged 62. 
Kiuzie, Jolm llan-i<, jr.. kilhd. Ft. St. Charles. Ark., June 18, 1862. a. 33 
Kinzie, Itobert Allen. [died I)eceml)er 13, 1873. aged 63. 
Kirk. George, foundrynian. bds LaSalle House 
Kirk, William, laborer, res cor Dearborn and Xorth Water 
Kisling, John, furrier, Anton Getzler, bds same 
Kittel, Michael, cooper, Clark, res Franklin 
Kiaffy, Thomas, laborer, res X. Clark, bet X. AVater and Kinzie 
Klear, Franci.s A., res State 
Klien, ]\[atrhias. baker. Xorth Water, res same 
Kna]>p, .M. L., physician, professor Push ^Medical College, bds Dr. 

Daniel lirainard 
Knapp, Xichohis. v.dieehvright, Perkins it Fenton 

Kairkerbocker, Abraham Velie, groceries and provisions, South Water, 
^ bet State and Oearborn _. [died Aug. 20, 1847, aged 33. 

Knight, Henry, 'col'd) barber, hairdresser, baths, 54 Clark 
Kuight3. Darius, carpenter, Ale.x. Loyd [died Oct. 22, 1882. aged 68. 
Kji«)])p, Ilenrv, laborer, res Dutch Settlement (Wolcott, e.s., bet Oak 
and Bellevue pi] [di( d. Oak Park, 111., 1890, aged 94. 


Knox, James H., tanner. "Wells, cor Polk [died July 31. 184f>. 

Knutson, Xelson, laborer, res X. AVells. bet X. Water and Kinzie 
Kniitson. 011a, lal>orer. res Xorth Water near Xorth Branch bridge 
Kober. Charles. l)Utcher. south side Randolph, near Franklin, res >anic 

[died May 1;^. 1S52, ao-ed 4T-4-20. 
Kommcyer, Bernhard. tailor. Clark, bet Lake and South Water 

[resides at Lockport. IIL 
Krafft. Joseph W.. shoemaker, Dan. Taylor, res Clark near Randolph 
Kreinbill. John, cabinet maker, res rear 324 Randolph 
Krcyenbeihl. Jolin. cabinet maker, Caleb Morgan 
Krinbill, Martin, clerk, Albert G. Ilobbie 
Kroger. Arnold, cabinet maker, res Lake [died Xov. 18, 1878, aged 74. 

LabinbridiiC, Xicholas, laborer, re-^ Dutch Settlement 

Lacey. John, baker, res Xorth AVater, bet Dearborn and AYolcott 

LaCroix. Joseph, cook. Canada Home, bds same 

Ladd, Timotliy H., auction^ er, res Clark 

Ladtshaw, Joseph, clerk, Xewberry k, Dole, bds Tremont House 

Laflin, George IT., clerk. Dyer tt Chapin, bds ]\[athew Lafiin 

Latiin. Lycurgus, clerk, bds .Mathew Laflin 

Laflin, Mathew, cn])italist. res 7 A^ashington 

LaForrest, A., bds Sauganash Hotel 

Lahy, Sylvester, laborer, Xortli Water near Franklin 

Laister. Henry, clerk. George Chacksfield 

Lake House, tlie largest in the city, occupying w. half of block front- 
ing on Rush, Micliigan.' ami Kinzie; erected in ISofJ 

Lake-Street House (late Farmers' Exchange), lo5-7 Lake, Dennis 
Spencer Cady. pro]). 

Lamb. Artemus, shipcarpenter. res OO ]\[jchigan ave 

Lamb. E. S.. laborer, bds Samuel Jackson 

I^mb, Larkin. clerk. Sherman A; JMtkin, bds City Refectory 

Lambert, ]\Irs. (PI) Luke, res Soutli AVater, l)et LaSalle and Well?* 

I^ncaster, Dennis, brickmaker, res ."jtli Ward 

Landrakin, Cornelius, laborer, res X. Water, bet Wolcott and Kinzie 

I>ane, Elisha Bafhelloi-. carpenter, res Clark (died Feb. 0., 1884. a. '18^4. 

Lane, George W.. clerk, bds Tremont House 

{died. :Monis. III., July 20. 1SS7, aged Td. 

Lane, James, boarding-house, X. Dearborn, bet X. AVater and Kinzie 

J-ang, John L., carriage maker, cor X. LaSalle and ^Michigan 

I died A] nil 12. ls77, aged 7';io. 

Lange, Oscar Godfrev, dnig-( h-rk. 40 Clark street 

[died July l:{. ISU;}. aged 82 !». 

r^ansing, Cornelius, dry goods and ^^xoceries, Clark, res ^Michigan ave 

Lansing. Samuel, clerk. Cornelius Lansing 

Lant'ry, Miciiael, drayman, res Wolcott, l>et Xorth A\'ater and Kinzie 

J^ppin, Richard, teamster, res cor Wolcott and Cliicago ave 

[died, Morrison, HI., October :if), 1«84, aged 70- 

5 .J-'.i .V<: 

l-.-^/ , 


Lardin, Dennis, laborer, res 2d Ward 

Larduer, Bostwick, straw milliner, Clark 

Larkin, Tiniotby, mason, res Kinzie, bet X. Franklin and AVells 

Larrabee. Charles RoUin. librarian Young ]Men*s Association, res Wni. 

M. Larrabee 
Larrabee. AVm. ^lorse. book-keeper. Ogden A: Jones, res 239 Indiana. 

bet Wolcott and Dearborn [died. Geneva. 111.. Sei)t. 28, 1879. a. TO. 
Larson, Andrew, teamster, res Dutch Settlement \d. A])r. 2, 187:3. a. 83. 
LaSalle House, n.-w. cor Randolph and LaSalle. Wm. Day, prop. 
Lathrop. Isaac, shoemaker. John B. 3[itchell 
Latwick. Simon, cooper, res Dutch Settlement 
Launder, James, wagon maker, south of ]\[onroe, west of Clark 

[died Auo-ust 8, 1880. acred 66. 
Laux. :>ratthia>, laborer, res Dutch Settlement [d^Feb. 25, 1893,li. 07-9. 
Laux. Peter, blacksmith, res Dutt h Settlement 
Law. Rol)ert. tailor. J. H. Hodgson, bds ]Mrs. Susan AYagner 

[died December 12, 1895, aoed 73. 
Lawler. Patrick, laborer, res bet LaSalle and Wells, north of Michigan 
Lawless. F. H., Stow's foundry, bds Western Hotel 
Lawrence, Edward, waiter. Farmers' E.xchange 
Lawrence. G. W. 
Lawrence. J. L. mason 
Lawrence, Leander (L, ^^ Holland) 
Lawrence. Patrick, waiter. Farmers' Exchange 

Lawrence, AVilliain L.. carpenter, res LaSalle. bet Randolph and Wash. 
Lawrence 6: Holland, managers Illinois State Lottery, 19 Clark 
Lawson, Canute. lal)orer, res 210 Superior [died Oct. 29. 1869, a. 50^^. 
Lawson. Iver. laborer, ])ds 240 Su})erior [died Oct. 3, 1872, aged 51^.. 
Leach. Patrick, lai»orer. res North Water, bet Dearborn and AYolcott 
Leach, Robert, butcher. Archibald Cly bourn 
Leary. Albert Greene, attorney. 53 Clark, res same 

[died. New Orleans;, La., August. 1853. aged — ^ 
Leavett. C. B., carpenter, res Kinzie. bet \Yolcott and Cass 
Lee, P,euj. Tyler, clerk. Illinois ExchaniiC [d. A]n-. 25, 1879, a. 08-1-5.. 
Lee, Daniel, farmer, res Randolph, bet State and Dearborn 
bee. David Stewart, attorney. Lake, bds Mrs. Haiglit 

[ilied, Northampton. ^Nlass.. November 15. bSOO. 
I-ee, John, tobacconist. Henry Chapman [died Ik- fore Oct. 27. 1858. 
bee. Thomas, laborer, res near North Branch bridge, 5th Ward 
bees. James, res 0th AV'ard 

Legg. Mathew. tailor. Edward ^lanierre. bds same 
Leonard, Hugh, waiter. Chicago Temperance House 
Leonard, J. W., clerk, Clark. Haines vk Co. 
Leslie, John, painter, res Kinzie, bet ^^^olcott and Cass 
i^eslie, Mrs., res North Water 
Lesser, John, res 2d Ward, south of First 
Lessey Sc Co. (Samu-l Winegar), Jolm F., billiard saloon, s.-w. cor S. 

Water and Dearborn 
Lctz. Frederick, locksmith, 53 LaSalle [died Se])t. 22, 1880, aged 70. 

,^a f 


^2 CHICAGO DIRECTORY, 1 843. ' ■ ,- 

Letz, Jacob, sboemaker, ^licliigan, bet "Wolcott and Dearborn 

[died February 18, 1857, aged 42. 
Liendeivener, Joseph, tailor, Scott Benedik 
Liffio2:\vc'll, A., carpenter, bds Illinois Exchange 
Lilh William (L. & Diversey), res Chicago ave near St. Clair 

[died, Denver, Colo., August 11, 187.J, aged 0714. 
Lind, Sylvester, lumber merchant, :2.").") Randolph, bds Sauganash 

[died. Lake Forest, 111., February (J, 1892, aged 84. 
Lindebner, Joseph, tailor, Edward Manierre. bds same 
Littlefield, J. C, carriage and sleigh maker, Randolph near Wells 
Lobeke. ^'\'illiam, h^borer, res 5th Waid 
Lock, William (Williar^ L. & Co.), res Washington near State 

[died August 10, 18S;3, aged 70^4;. 
Lock Jc Co., William, ready-made clothing, 125 Lake, s.-e. cor Clark 
Lockhart, 31., carpenter, res Franklin, bet Lake and Randolpli 
Lockwood, John 13., tailor, res Xorth Water, bet Wolcott and Kinzie 
Lohn. Christopher, tailor, Scott Benedik 
Long. James, proprietor hydraulic mill, n.-e. cor Lake and 3[ich. ave 

[died, Paris, France, April 10, 1870, aged 74. 
Loomis. Henry, lumber merchant, cor West Water and I^andolph 

[died, Burlington, Yt., December 18, 1880, aged 08. 
Loomis, Horatio Gates, at C. L. Harmon s, res s.-w. cor State and Wash 
Loring. L. D., clerk. Ward Rathbone 

Love. James, carpenter, res Randolph, bet Franklin and ]\[arket 
Lovell, Vincent S., leather, etc., Clark near Lake, bds Chicago Temp. 
Lovett. 3Iichael (3Ielvin ct L.), res X. Clark, bet X. Water and Kinzie 
Lowe, James 3L, city clerk, office s.-w. cor Clark and Randolph, bds 

Sam. J. Lowe 
Lowe, <'>scar, clerk, Elislia S. ^ Julius AVadsworth, bds SaniT J. Lowe 
Lowe, Samuel A., clerk, Scammon ct Juihl, bds Sainuel J. Lowe 

[died, Alaska Territory, ISS-. 

Lowe, Samuel James, sheriff Cook County, res Jail, s.-e. cor Randolph 

and LaSalle [died Septeml)er 10, 1851, aged ~)^l^ >■ 

Lower. Jolin, laborer, Gurdon S. Hubbard 

[Jacol), died, St. Louis, Mo., :May 8, 184!). 
Lowry, James, laborer, Crurdon S. Hubbard 
Lov.Ty, John, laborer, res Fort Dearborn 
Lovd, Alexander, carpenter and builder, (L., Blakcslev k Co.), res 52 

Wells [4th mayor, died, Lyons, Cook Co , 111., Ai)ril 11. 1871, a. 00^ 3. 
Loyd, ]31akesley k Co. (A. Loyd, H. A. Blakesley, and Henry Norton 1. 

dry goods and groceries, 101 Lake 
Lubke, Ferdinand, mason, res south of Jackson and west of Clark 
Ludbv, John, soa[) and candle maker, Soutli Branch, ?j miles south 

[died January 24, 1872, aged 7^. 
Lunt, r)irington. commission merrfiant. S. AVater, bds John B, Mitchell 
Luther, John, cliairmaker. I). A. k. K. 3L Jones 
Lyman, lienjamin, cook, Illinois Excliangc 

Lyman. Daniel, miller, [died at Hyde I'ark, Aj^ril 10, 1882, agvd 02. 
Lynch, Patrick, laborer, Gurdon S. Hubbard 

'i Inu^-rU^i'-. 

'•! . /r): . 


Lyons. Robert, looking-glasses, frames, etc.. S3 Lake, bds Treniont 

Lytle, William J., clerk. ILimilton it AVhite 

]\icAuleY, Patrick, laborer. Gurdon S. Hubbard . .: 

;>[cBean. , laborer, res Dearborn 

AIcBride, Thomas, teamster, cor Franklin and Aladison 

^[••Cabe. John, tanner. Gurnee ct 3Iatteson 

McCade, Patrick, porter. Tremont House - . ". 

McCann, Francis, cooper, res A'anBuren near 3Iarket 

McCaun. Patrick, laborer, res Xorth Water, bet Clark and Wells ' 

McCanner, ]Mrs., res west of ^Lirket, south of AVasliington 

]N[cCanny. clerk. Henry M. Stow 

McCarthy, Owen, grocery and boarding, Xortli Water near Wolcott 

McCarthy. Patrick, laborer, n.-e. cor Dearborn and Washington 

[died March 15. 18.18. aged — . 
McCarty, Timothy, laborer, res near Xorth Branch bridge, 5th ^Vard 
3fcCarty, AVilliam, Stow's foundry, bds Western Hotel 
]McCauly, Patrick, laborer, res Dutch Settlement 
McClellau, John, general supt. of public works, on Lake ^Michigan 
^IcClelland. Hugh, wagonmaker. James Clifford, res 5th AVard 

[<licd. Lake Forest. Lake Co.. HI., January 1, 1885. aged 79. 
McClure, A. AL, baker, James L. flowe 

McClure, Sam'l, lotterv ag't. Carlton Holland, bds Farmers' Exchange 

[died 184;3. 

McClusker. Patrick, mason, res near Xorth Branch bridge 
McComas. Samrel, tailor, res West Water, bet Randolph and Lake 
McComas. Samuel J., teacher, school and res near Sauganash Hotel 
McComas, S. H., tailor, res LaSalle. bet Lake and South Water 
McComber, Miss, milliner, etc.. 155 Lake, up stairs, res same 
AfcConnell. Edward, gardener, res S. Branch. 2 miles south, west side 

[died Atay 11, 1878,' aged 72i^. 
McConnell, John, book-keeper. Seth T. Otis, bds City Refectorv 

[died August 18. 1855. aWd 55. 
>[cCord, Jason (AFoseley Sc ^IcC.j, bds D. B. Heartt. alderman 2d ward, 
county conimissioner [died Xovem])er 28, 1870. a^ed 01. 

McConnack, 3Irs.. res Xorth Water, bet Wells and Franklin 
McCorristen, Wm., prop. American Hotel. Xorth Water 

fdicd. St. Louis, :Mo.. Octolior 25, 1802. aged 07. 
McCowan. James, res bet Alarkct and South liranch 
McCue. Patrick, laborer, res Randolph [died before Jan. I'd. 1852. 

-^IcCuen. Michael, warehousciiuin. Xewberry c^- Dole 
McTAil lough, David, mason, bds Illinois Exchange 
McDermott. , hatter, f.orcnzo P. Sanger, bds ^lansion House 

McDonald, Dennis, sailor, res Dutch Settlement 
M^-Donald, Michael, grocer. Xorth Water near AN'olcott 

[died April 4. 1857. 
McDonnell, Charles, grocery and boarding house, 33 Market 

[died April 10, 1HM5, aged 81. 
>b Donnell. James [died 1870. 

^IclJonnough, Matthias, laborer, alley near X. Clark and X. Water 

i ': 7 

If!! '073. ''!• 

74 CHICAGO DIRECTORY, 1843. ' ' 

3IcDonnongli, Michael, car})euter, alley near X. Clark and N. "Water 

McDonnongh, I*. H., captain scliooner Charlotte 

]McDonnough, Thos., dravnian. res AV. Water, bet Randolpli and Lake 

iMcGilorev, John, cabinet maker, Manahau vfc Jacobus 

McGlashau, John, gardener, res Archer ave, 2 miles south 

[died August 11, 1873, aged 58. 
McGlin. Micliael. laborer 
McGovern, John, laborer, res Franklin, bet Wasliington and Madison 

[died July 21, 1883, aged 82. 
McGraw. Edward, laborer, res Xorth Water, bet Clark and Dearborn 

[died, Pecatonica. 111., July 14, 1890, aged — . 
McGraw. James, mason, A. S. Sherman 

McGraw. IMrs., res S. Clinton, bet Randolph and Washington 
McGraw, Patrick, clerk, James Ilervey, bds Canada House 
McGraw, Volney. laborer. Sylvester 3[arsh 
3IcGuire, Michael, laborer, res Xorth Water, bet Clark and Dearborn 

[died, Pecatonica, 111.. July 14, 1890, aged — . 
McHale. John, laborer, res Xorth Water, bet Clark and Dearborn 

[died :\hirch 17, 18.j4, aged — . 
McHenry, Peter (col'd), [Black Pete], cook, City Hotel, res Clark near 

Mcllwaine, Miithcw, physician, bds Sauganash Hotel 
]\IcIntosh, David, sailor, res Ohio, bet Pine and St. Clair 
Mcintosh, Wm., capt. schooner Victory, res Michigan, bet Dearborn 

and Wolcott [lost on Schr. Victory^ 31arch, 1844. on Lake 3Iichigan 
Mclntyre, Francis A., clerk, Asher Rossetter, bds same 
Mclntyre, John, grocer, cor AVest Water and Randolph 
Mclntyre, 3Iorgan, res south of Jackson, 3d AVard , . . , 

Mclntyre. William, Scoville it Gates ' '" ' ' ■ . : 

3IcKay. Patrick, saloon, res Xorth Water near Kinzie 
McKay. Samuel, groceries and provisions, junction Xorth Water and 

Kinzie, res same [died Fcl»ruary 5, 1871, aged 58. 

McKinney, Joseph, pedler. bds American Temperance House 
McKniglit, John, hatter, Lorenzo P. Sanger is: Co., bds Jas. A. Smith 
McLaren. Henry, laI>orer. res 3Iarket 
3IcLean, Thomas, laborer, res Dutch Settlement 
McLeoud. R., Stow's foundry, bds AVestern Hotel 
]McM^ilion. Patrick, porter. City Hotel '••■ 

Mc>[alion, Patrick T., tailor. Lake 

McManniman, Jacolj, laborer, res ^ladison near Franklin 
INIcMiilen, A., carpenter, bds Illinois Exchange 
McMulIen, William, drayman, res Canal, bet ivandolph and Lake 
]McXeil, James, laborer, Gurdou S, Hul^bard 

^IcXeil, Joseph, laborer, res Xortii'Water near Xorth Branch bridge 
McXeii. ,Malcohn. shipcarpentcr, Xorth Branch near Chicago ave 
McXeil. ^Hchael, laborer, '^urdon S. Hubbard 
McQuin. John, laborer, res Washington, bet AV'ells and Franklin 

[died October 2(), 1855, 
McQuia, .Alichael, laborer, res Xorth Water, bet Clark and Dearborn 


3[cShea. ]Miclidel, lal)orer, res Xortli Watei' near Franklin 
3IcAVilliams, James, chair maker. 40 Franklin, res same 

[died, Oak Park, 111., 1890, a^cd 75. 

]Mack. Firman, clerk, Wm. H. Adams Sz Co., res LaSalle, bet ]Madison 

and AVasliincrton [drowned in Chicago River, 

Gladden. AMUiam, grocer. South Water 

3Iagce. Henry, lawyer [died June 21, 185o, aged rtl%. 

^lagee, William J., laborer, res ^V. Lake, liet AVater and Canal 
Magie, Haines II (H. H 31. ct Co.), res 279 Ohio 

[died, AVashington, D.C., January 1(5, 1879, aged 75. 
Magie ct Co.. H. H, dry goods and groceries, loO Lake 
3[agill. Alexander AV., clerk. Theron Pardee, bds Arthur AY. ]N[agill 
3Iagill. Arthur AY., clerk, U. S. land office, res ALich., bet Push and Pine 
Magili. Julian (AYhitins-, 31. & Co.), bds Arthur AY. ^lagill 
Maguire, Bernard, cooper, Charles AYalker it Co. 
IMahan. Owen, laborer, res Kinzie, bet Franklin and AYells 
3[ahau, Thomas, sailor, steamer Chamj^hii 
3Iaher. Hugh, cooper, Eri Reynolds' packing-house, South Branch 

[died, Hyde Park, Jaiuiary 22, 1884, :igcd 66. 
^lahoney, Jeremiah, laborer, res X. Dearborn, bet AA^ater and Kinzie 
Malcolm. Robert, mason builder, res Clark hear AYasliington 

[died October 9, 1871, aged 68. 
Mallady. John, laborer, res North AA^ater, bet Clark and Dearborn 
Malzicher, Louis, groceries and provisions, 167 Lake, res same 

[died April 24, 1868, aged 68. 
Mimuhan, Owen, carpenter, bds John Ryan 

[died. Highland Park, 111., (October 11, 1888, aged — . 
!Maaahan, Thomas Q>i. 6c Jacobus), res Clark 

[died, Norwood Park, Cook Co., Ill,, .Alarch 81, 1884, aged 713.^. 
Manalian A: Jacobus, cabinet makers, 10 Clark 
Manierre, Edward, tailor, 48 Clark, bds Elisha Clark, 1st AA^ard 

[died. New London, Conn., July 26, 1890, aged 78. 
Manierre, George (>I. Sc Ateeker), res 49 State, school commissioner 

[died Alay 21, 1863, aged 46. 
Manierre >k Sleeker, attorneys, 118 Lake 
3Ianley, AVilliam E.. Universalist clergyman, res Clark 
3Iann. Cyrus, family groceries, 47 Clark, res same 

[died in California, 1851. 
Mann. J., hatter, Israel Cyrus Stepliens 
Mann. Tie! man, laborer, res Dutch Settlement 

Mansion House, 84-6 Lake, Skinner (Chas.) *.V Smith (Jos. Flint) j)rops 
Marback, Joseph, farmer, cor Chicago av and Rush, ahlerman 6th ward 
3[ariam, James, cooper, Charles Walker 6:, Co. 
^larkesen. Ole, carpenter, res Dutck. Settlement 
Markle, Abram A., laborer. North Branch, 4th AVard 

[died Novemher 80, 1845, ai^ed 48. 
Mars. Samuel, pump pedler, res f.aSalle, bet Wasliington and .Madison 
^larsallani, Louis, stone <juarrier, bds Charles .McDonnell 
Mar^h, Alexander, with Luther Marsh, bds same [d. Oct. 9, 1874, a, 58- 

c \ 

'•; 1 »■>•/;. 


.>■! /.If. 


3[arsli. Elislia Azro, with Luther ^Nlarsh, l)ds same 

[dicfi Sitka, Ahiska. April 10, 1880, aged G:3. 
Marsh. Joshua Leonard, law student, Spring A: Goodrich, bds L.^Iarsh 

[died July 23, 1890, aged 64. 
Marsh, Luther, hmiber merchant, res ]Madison. bet AVells and Franklin 

[died Xovember 14, 1859. aged 77. 
Marsh, Svlvester, 98 Lake, packing-house, 304-6 Xorth Water 

[died. Concord, X, H., December 30, 1884, aged 81. 
Marshall,, Francis, auctioneer, bds Xew York House 
^larshall, Henry, Sco\ille <t Gates' foundry 
Marshall [M.D.], James Augustus, aactioneer, Parker & Dodge 

[died 3Iarch 31, 1891, aged 81-9-22. 
3Iartel, Thomas, carpenter, bds AYashington Hall 
Martin, John, laborer, res West Water 
Martin, Joseph Hopkins, manager, Western Hotel. West Randolph 

[died March, 1895. aged S3. 
!Martindale, John, clerk, Bristol k. Porter, bds City Refectory 
Martling, Jan\es A., printer, Ellis A: Fergus, bds William Ellis 
Mathews, James, shijvcarpenter. [arrived Septeml)er 6. 1843. 

^lathewson, Artemas J., draughtsman, Ogdcn tt Jones, 
^lattes, Mathias, laborer, res east side ot State south of YanBureu 

[died April 4, 1877, agcl — . 
Slattern, Frederick, tailor 

Matteson, Jos. (Gurnee & M.), res State, bet Washington and Randolph 

[died January 8, 1852, ag-d 36. 
Mattson. D., clerk, Sylvester ^Nlarsh 

Maurer, David, teamster, res cor Madison and Desplaines 
Maurer, Jacol) [AYuter Jake], waterman, [died Dec. 22, 1885, aged 80. 
Maxson. David, tin and coppersmitli. Samuel J. Surdam 
Maxwell, Philip, physician, s.-w. cor Clark and Lake, res 79 Clark 

[died. Geneva, AVis,. November 5, 1859, aged '■-'>i<- 
3Iaxwell, Thomas, lal^orer, res Illinois, bet LaSalle and Wells 

[died 1872, aged 54. 

^Maynard, H. E., lawyer, Smith k. Ballingall 
]\rayo, Samuel, carpenter, bds New York House 
!Meacham. H. T., hostler. New York House 
^leacham, Silas, lighthouse keeper, res 2 River 

[died. Araine. Cook Co., 111.. July 21, 1852, a-ed 6:; 
Mead, Enos L.. carpenter, res N. AN'ater, bet Dearborn and Wolcott 
LMedcweller, Henry, shoemaker. North AYater, bet Clark and Dcarljorn 
]\Ieeker, George W. (Manierre cSc.M.), bds 165 Clark 

[died A])ril 2, 1856, aged 37. 
Meeker, Joseph, carpenter and builder, res 165 Clark 

... [died January 4, 1872, aged O6I4. 
Melody, Michael, res Washington, bet Franklin and Market 
Melvin, Thomas, shoemaker, South Water, bet Clark and Dearborn 

[died July 31, 1883, ai'-ed 73.. 
>Ielvin vt Levett. boot and shoe makers, South Water east of Clark 
3Ielvin, Thomas J., res State 


3reiTiam, ^[rs. Mary, boarding-liouse Lake, bet State and Wabash a^ e 
Merrifield, Edward, clerk, Ballcntine it Sherman 

[died Jainiary 27. 1889. aged Id}.,- 
Merrill, George AV., provisions, etc., 157 Lake, s.-e. cor LaSalle 
3[errill, Winthrop 

3[erritt, Jacob DeWitt, commission merchant, 110 So. Water, res State 
[died, Winona. :\Iinn.. July 24. 1881, aged 70. 
3[ess. George, canal contractor, res 40 ]\Iichigan ave 

[died near Lockport, IIL 
^letz, Christopher, tinsmith, William Wheeler Sz Co. 

[died December 10, 1880, aged 64. 
Meville, Peter Dominique, carpenter, bds Canada House 

[died March 8, 1884, aged 08-5. 
3feyer, Ferdinand, butcher, bds 3Iorris 3[eyer 
Clever, ^Matthias, res ^Michigan, bet X. Clark and LaSalle 
^Nfeyer, ^[orris, baker, ^Michigan, east of Clark 
Migely, Rudolph, grocer, 182 Randolph, res same 

[died December 30, 1885, aged 74. 
Allies, , carpenter, bds City Refectory, 17 Dearborn 

>Iillar, Robert ]M., ship carpenter. Fort Dearborn 

[died Morc-h 13, 1881, aged 05}^. 
Miller, Chas. [Andrew J.], barljerand hairdresser. 19 ^Market, res Canal 

[died, Memphis, Tenn., Sept. 2, 1804. 
Miller, David, machinist. Elihu Granger's foundry 
^liller, H., tobacconist, S^) Lake 

3liller, Henry, mason, res s. e. cor Wells and ]\[adison 
Miller, Jacob, blacksmith, res Lidiana, bet Wolcott and X. Dearborn 

' [died March 10, 1890, aged 79. 
Miller, Peter, shoemaker, Thomas Whitlock 

Milliken, Isaac Lawrence, foreman blacksmith, Frink, Walker tt Co.. 
res ri3th mayor, died December 2, 1889, aged 70. 

Mills, John Rodnev, produce dealer, bds Amei-ican Temperance House 
Mills, Royal Alex. Blaine, bds [died Ja.n. 25, 1882. aged OOI4. 

Mills, Samuel, grocer, res Clark 
Miltimore, Ira, millwright and machinist, res S. Canal, 3d Ward 

[died, .lanesville, A\'is., June 8, 1879, aged 00. 
Misener, Henry, ])!acksmith, hvdraulic works, res Franklin 

[died AuuiLst 9, 1851, aged 52. 
Misener, ^Mortimer C, printer, Ellis >k Fergus. l)ds H. IMisener 

[died Fe1)ruary 5, 1891, aged 05. 
Mitchell, George, Stow's foundry, bds ^Vestern Hotel 
-'^fitchell, George, cooper, Gurdon S. Hubbard 

Mitcliell, John Berry, boots and shoes, 22 (Jlark, res cor (Mark and Kin- 
zie " Idied ^larch 17, 1878, aged OD^^. 

Mitcliell, Joseph, car])enter, res North Rrancli 

-died Se])tem]>cr 13, 1850, aged — . 
^fitcheil, Mark, carpenter, res Xortli W^ater near North liranch 
Mitcliell, ^Villiam, carpenter, res W. .Madison, Ijet Canal and Clinton 
'^iitcheli, , carpenter, bds Chicago Temperance House 

![ .i 

I; .--• ,y 

I) .> ■/. 


]VI(^eng, Dicderic, cabinet maker, Caleb Moriian 

[died April 18, 1894. aged S3. 
3Ioffet. James, Scoville A: Gates 
3[olloy, Joliii, carpenter, bds Charles 3[cDonnell 

3Ionaghaii. lliigli. blacksmith. [died Jan. 1, 1884, aged G4. 

]VIongeon. Feli\', grocer, cor Xorth AVater and Wolcott 
>[ontgomery, G. B. S.. shoemaker, Samuel J. Grannis 
^routgomery, J. H., shipcarpenter. Fort Dearborn 
31outgomery. Loton W.. shoemaker, Jerome Beecher, res ]\rttrket 

[died September 30, 18GG, aged QO}i. 
Moody, Daniel, sailor, res North Water near Rush 
bloody. Grin C. hatter. Israel C. Stephens [died Oct. 15, 1881, a. 05}^^. 
^looney, 3Iichael, blacksmith, res Michigan ave 

]V[()oney, Peter, ])lacksmith, bds M. ]\[ooncy [d. Jan. 22, 1893, a. TT). 
INIoore, Bichard, tailor. South Water, bet State and Wabash ave 
]V[orey, Daven])ort, lard-(Ml factory, 51-8 South AYater 
3Iorey, Davenport, jr., warehouseman, Horace Butler 
Morev. Edward, treasurer Y'oung Men's Lvceum 

3Iorev, Georue (M. &: Dike), ])ds Isaac Dike [died Oct. 3, 1893, a. 74. 
Morey, Henry C, [died March 14, 1889, aged 57. 

Morey, Richard H., law student, Spring & Goodrich 
storey v?c Dike, familv j^-rocers, 8 Dearltorn 

3[organ, Caleb, cabinet maker, 199 Lake [died Xov. 23, 1871, a. 75. 
Morgan, Hector X., painter, Xathan. S. Gushing [died Aug. 30, 1852. 
3Iorgan, Patrick Richard [veterinary surgeon], carriage-driver 

[died September 5^ 1891, aged G8-0. 
]Morris, Buckner Smith, attorney, 59 Clark, res Indiana, bet Cass and 

Rush [Chicago's 2d mayor, died December IG, 1879, aged 79 1^. 

Morris, Mrs., res X. Dearl)orn, bet Xorth Water and Kinzie 
Morrison. Daniel, teamster, [died November 8, 1880, aged GO. 

^lorrison, f^[)]iraim, hat-and-cap factory, Dearborn, bet Lake and 

South Water " [died Sept. 22, 1851, aged 70. 

!>[<)rrison, E])hraim, jr., teamster, res 111 Madison 

[died June IG, 1880, aged G5. 
^lorrison, Ezekiel, carpenter, res 123 Clark [died Feb. 2G, 1895, a. 84. 
Morrison, James M., carpenter, res 131 Clark jdied Dec. 28, 18G8, a. G2. 
Morrison, ^lichael, laljorer, res near West AYater and Lake 
3Iorrison, ]\Irs., res AYells. bet AYashington and Randolph 
^Morrison. Or.>emus, carijcnter, res 153 Clark [died Jan. 4, 18G4, a. SS^^- 
Morrison's Jlow. 139-57 Clark 
Moselev, Flavel (A[. A: McCord), ]>ds Daniel B. Heartt 

[died, AYilliamsburg, X.Y'., Sei)tem1>er 29, 18G5, aged G7. 
Moseley iSc McCord, dry goods and groceric'^, 130 Lake 
Closes, Hiram P., maehinist, bds-Sabin AYight 

Slower, Geo. AY., wheat buyer, Jno. P. Chai)in <k Co., bds City Refectory 
kludge, Colby, blacksmith, Asahel Pierce 

Mueller, Jacob, blacksmith, res Indiana, bet Dearborn and AA'olcott 
3Iukant, P., clerk, Jolin B. Busch 
Mullen, John, farmer, res near AV. AYashinuton, 3d AYard 

(I i.o. . 



' '-"X. 


Mailer. Matthias, ]al:>()ver, res Dutch Settlement 

Mimson. F. A., res Illinois Exchange, 192 Lake 

3Iiinzer, David, lal)orer, res AV. Monroe, het Clinton and Jefferson 

Mur])hY. Edward, coroner, teacher in 1887 

[died. Rouers P:irk. TIL. January 25, 187.5. aged 70. 
3Iurphy, James K., tinsmith, l)ds Peter Fennerty 
3Iurj)hy. John, pro]). United States Hotel, n.-\v. cor ^\. Water and W, 

Ivandol})h, alderman 4th ward [died Augu-st 14, 1850, aged 47. 

3Iurj>hy, John, laborer, res North AVater near Pine 
Murphy, 3Irs., res ]\[ichiuan ave, l)et Adams and Jackson 
Mur})hy, Timothy, res AVashinoton, s.-w. cor iVItirket 
^lurray. George, tailor. 204 Lake, res same 
3[urray, James (M. Jc Brand), hds City Hotel 
Murray, Jolm, hiborer. res AV'est Water, bet Cnnal and Clinton 
Murray *fc Brand, bankers and exchanue l)rokers, 125 Lake, s.-w, cor 

3Iu>ham, AVilliam, dravman, res Indianii, l)et Dearborn and AVolcott 

[died August, 1844, aged 44. 
Alyers. Frederick F., laborer, res North Water, bet Clark and Wells 
Myers, AEatthias, res Michigan st 

Myers, Owen, drayman, res Kinzie, bet LaSalle and Wells 
Myers, Peter, laborer, res Chicago ave, Dutch Settlement 
3Ivrick. Willard Franklin, hotel-keeper. Cottage Grove ave, bet 20th 

and :30th [died January 27, 1889, aged 79. 

Xauljerger, Hugh, baker, Pfund <k Co. 

Xelson, Andrew. ])(M-tcr, Tremont House [suicide, March 15, 185G. 

Nelson. Andrew, lal^orer, res North AVater near Market 

[died July 29, 1887, aged GO.]. 
Nelson, Claudius B., book-keeper, AVilliam Blair S: Co. 

[died, Hyde Park, Cook Co., HI., Alarch 29, 1885, aged 05.^^. 
Nelson, Peter, sashmaker, res North AVater near Dearborn 

[died l^efore July 10, 1850. 
Neudorf, Nicholas, laborer, res Dutch Settlement 
Newberry, AV'alter Loomis (N. 6c Burch), res Illinois, bet Hush and 

Pine, member board of health [died on French steamer Feriere, 

en route to France, Nov. G, 18G8, aged G4. 
New]>erry tt Burch, bankers and exchange brokers, 97 Lake 
Newberry (Oliver, of Detroit) vfc Dole, forwarding and commission 

merc])ants, 14G-52 S. AVater and N. AVater, s. e. cor l^ish 
Newburg, Phili[), tailor and ready-made clothing, 15;i Lake 

[res Cincinnati, C). 
N»/\v ButTalo, north of Cliicago ave and oast of North Clark— synono- 

mous with Dutch Settlement. 
^>Wcom]), , tailor, J. Elliott 

Newcome, J. C., timb<'i- sawyer, and grocery. North AVater near Clark 
^'••w]lall, Harrison, fruit and groceries, 12o Lake, l)ds J. D. Jennings 



Nw-York IToiise. ITS -SO Lake 

Niblo, Alex. Kaiiisey, ])niiter, res State [killed l>y railroad accident, 
]\[ount AYa^hing'ton, Ohio, June 2."), 1858, awd 50. 
Xichols, D, M. C, l)ds D. T. Xieliols 

Xicliols. Luther, drayman, 48 Dearborn [died May 2, 1881, aged T53^. 
Nichols, D. T., saddler, res cor Randolph and Wells 
Nicholsou, Edward, merchant, S. ^Vatei-, res OT Hush near Ontario 

[died September 15, 1849. 
Nickalls, Patteson, livery-stable kee})er, 230 Kinzie near Wolcott 

[returned to England and died there. 
Xickerson, J B., machinist, Randolph, res South Water 
Xickersou, John, cai^tain schooner Wave, res Dutch Settlement 
Xoble, Aaron, grocer, res Xorth T\'ater, bet Dearborn and AYolcott 
Noble, George Alexander, M.D.. school-teacher, Lake, res s.-e. cor 

Washington and Franklin 
Xoble, GL^rge W., carpenter, Clinton bet. Randolph and Washington 

[died November 1, 1885, aged 60. 
Xoble, Samuel .John, res George A. Xoble 
Xorris, Henry, bds ALmsion Ilouse 
Xonis, James, cari)enter, l)ds A. H. Palmer 
Xorris, James Wellini:-t<)n. attornev. directorv canvasser, 38 Clark 

[died Ottumwa. Iowa, March 3, 1882, aged 07. 
Xortham, Robert Rob])in3, clerk, John ^V. Hooker, bds same 

[died January 20, 1803. a^ed 73. 
Xorton, Cyi)rian Collins (X. & Case), res State. l)et Alad. and Monroe 
Xorton, George AY., botanic physician, bds Illinois Exchange 
Xorton, Henry (Loyd, I'lakesley ct Co.), res 81 State, Ijet Randoljdi 

and AVashinuton [died on the Isthmus of Panama, en route to 

California, 1840. 
Xorton, Hiram (X. v.^' Tuckerman), bds Seth Johnson 
Xorton, .John, gujismith. Peacock S: Thatcher 
Xorton, Theron, drv goods and groceries, 117 Lake 

[died April 24, 1844, aged 40-4-3. 
Xorton & Case, dry goods and groceries, 80 Lake 
Xorton tfc Co., Horace (H. Xorton and J. C. AV'alterj, dry goods and 

groceries, 137 South AYater 
Xorton <fc Co., Horace (H. Xorton. J. C. AValter. and E. K. l-Jogir^), 

forwarding and commission merchants, n.-e. coi" River and Dock 
Xorton <t Tuckermaii, dry goods and groceries, 134 Lake, warehouse. 

Xorth AVater, wc.-t of north end of Clark -street bridge 

O'Brien, Dennis, tailor, res Xortli. W^der, bet Dearborn and AVok-ott 
O'Brien, Alichael, blacksmith, Frink, AV'idker 6c Co., res South AV.itcr 

[died August 14, 1852, a-' d — • 
OTirvaii, George, grocer, Xorth AVater, bet AVoicott and Kinzit- 

[died August —, 1840, ag.-d —. 
0'Conn<;r, Jeremiah, blacksmith, X. Water, bet Clark and LaSalle 


O'DoiiOglme, Peter, auctioneer. 170 Lake, res LaSalle 

[died Aiio:ust 1, 1851, aged — . 
O'Leary, Br, J. E., i)ds Dr. ^Villiam B. E<iaii [died 184!*, a. — . 

0"M:dlev, Charles, cobbler, shoemaker, constable, J. -P., lawyer, Xortli 
Water near Dearborn ' [died March 11, 1887, aged 75. 

0'3[eara. Timothy, ex-Catholic priest, l)ds James Carney, S. W.iter 
O'Xeil. Michael, carj)enter. res Dearborn, bet X. Water and Kinzie 

[died December 9, lS(ib\ a-ed 48. 
O'Siillivan, David, res Kinzie, 1.)et X. Franklin and Wells 
Oakts. X'oves, house-mover, les State, bet Adams and Jackson 

[died September 13, 1854, aged 40. 
Oaden, Mahlon Dickerson (Arnold &: O.), res Ontario, bet Dearborn 
^and Wolcott, jnobate judge [died, Elmhurst. Feb. 13, 1880, a. 68i^. 
Ogden, William Butler (O. A: Jones), res Ontario, bet Cass and Bush 
[died, Aug. 3, 1877, aged 72, at Boscobel — his residence, near High 
Bridge, on the Harlem Biver, X'ew York.; Chicago's 1st mayor. 
Ogden Jc Jones, land-agents, Kinzie, ])et Wolcott and Dearborn ave 
Oiin, Henry W., boarding-house, Xorth Water, bet Bush and Pine 
Oliver, John Alfred, h()U^e i)ainter, Xorth Water, res Michigan 

[died January 16, 1887, aged 72. 
Olliver. Bev. AYarren, pastor Canal-st Methodist Church 
Osborn, William, shoe dealer, Jerome Beeclier, res 145 ^Madison 

[died Januarv 2, 1884, a^ed 71. 
Ost, William, tailor, Band>)l]ai, bet La^'Salle and Wells 
Otis, Edwin, clerk, Seth T. Otis, and librarian Young Glen's Assoc. 
Otis, Seth T., hardware, stoves, etc., 120 Lake, res 100 State 

[died, Ann Arbor, Mich., January 23, 1S82, aged 71. 
r^tis, Seth, county ])Oor-house keeper [died April 27, 1847, aged 70. 
Ottuway, Charles, family grocer, 175 Lake, res same 
Otto, August F., watchmaker and jeweler, 173 Lake, res Wells 

[died January 4, 1890. aged 80. 
Ou.^terhoudt, Levi ]\[., jnop. Sauganasli, ^Market, 100 ft south of s.-e, 
cor Lake [died, X'orwood Park, Xovcmber 15, 1881, aged 7314. 

Outhet, J«din C, wagon maker, 191 Bandolph, res 244 ]\radison 

[died X^ovcmljcr 27, 1800, aged 55. 

Packard, Bobert, teamster, res Bandolph, I)et State and Deari)orn 
Paiie, F'ranci>. earpenter, Stuj'Ljes >k Stu1;l)s, bds City Befectory 
Page. Peter, mason builder, bd-^ William L. Cliurcli 

• [died August 1, 1880, aged 00. 
Page, Thomas, clerk, Chifago Post-Ofhce 
Paine. James Sparks, sad'llei' and harness maker, 13 Dearborn 

[died, Linn Co.. Kan.T-Octobcr 22, 1800, ag( d 05-8-23, 
Pairic. Seth, dry goods mereliant [died June 0, 1872, aged 50. 

Paintor, Jos., tailor, Scott lienedik, res Chapman's bldg, s.-w. cor AVells 
Paintor,, laborer, res Duteli Settlement 
Palm, John, lal>orer, re.s Dutch Settlement 

82 ' CHICAGO DIRECTORY, 1 843. ' . . ;;:^ 

Palmer, A. H., ]iainter, Xortli Clark, cor Illinois, res same ' ,;'( 

Palmeter, David, res Strath Water 

Pardee, Tlieron, commission merchant, North Watei" s.-e. cor Kiiizie 

[died August 19, 1888, aged ;-n.,. 
Parker, John (P. <fc Dodge), res 113 Dearborn [died " ]^'.H). 
Parker & Dodge, auctioneers and commission merchants, 6 Clark 
Parry, Samuel (Johnscui ik P.), res cor Ohio and Cass 
Parsons, Edward (Clark, Haines it Co.),Lds Daniel B. Heartt 

[ [died January 18, 1875, aged Oo. 

Parsons, Samuel ^[., book-keeper, John B. F. Russell, bds Farmers' 

Pattee, David, j)rovisii)n packer, Sylvester ]\[arsh 
Patten, James, carpenter, res alley bet AVells and Franklin 
Pattent, , l^ds ^Irs. Green 

Patterson. John, porter, ^[ansion House 
Patterson, John Gil)Son, clerk, Horace Butler 

[died, Liberty villc. 111., October 8, 1887, au(Ml 70. 
Patterson, Robert Wilson, Presl)y. minister, res State near Randolph 

[died, Evanston, 111., ]March 28, 1894, ag-;d 7-. 
Peacoard, Josei)h, cooper, res X. AVater, l)et AVolcott and Dearborn 
Peacock, Elijah, wat^-hmaker and jeweler, 195 Lake, res ]\Iadison ne;ir 
Wells ' [died August 25, 1889, aged 71. 

Peacock, Joseph (P. vt Thatcher), res Madison,"] >et Clark and AVt lis 

[died May 13, 1880, aged 72,>.^. 
Peacock & Thatcher, gunsmiths, 1551^ Lake 

Pearson, George TilVany, [died. S]ningtield. 111., June 21, 1802, -a. 33. 
Pearson, Parker IL, clerk, Ruel Aml)rose, bds same 
Pearsons, Hiram, speculator, l)ds Trejnont House 

[died, Almeda, Cal., August 11, 1868. aged 57, 
Pease, Simeon, butcher, Fulton ALarket 

Peck. Azel, cari)entcr and l)uilder, res S. Clinton, bet Washington and 

:Madison, alderman 3d ward [died, Delavan, Wis., (^)ct. 1, 1849, ,1. 51. 

Peck, Charles Edwin, -addlcr vt harness maker, 104 Lake, res LaS.tlle. 

n.-w. cor Wa->hinuton 
Peck, David, inedi^-d student. Dr. Daniel Brainard. Itds Mrs. Post 
Peck, David, bd< AIr>. Waggoner, Lake, west r)f AV^ells 
Peck, Philii) Feidinand AVIieeler, caiiitalist, res 24S Clark, n.-w. rny 

Jackson [died Octol>cr 23. 1871, aged 02 "4.'. 

Peck, Sheldon AVliittlcscv (P. S: Bovce), l)ds Cvrenius lieers 

' [resides at Bcloit. !!!. 
Perk S: Bovce, linseed-oil factoiy, 2^0-8 ^NTadison 
i'elton, Elias S., mason, bds Washington Hall, Noitli Clark 
lY-nny, Arthur John. I nick maker, lids .bJm Penny 

[died, unmai-ricd, August 12, 1819, aged 20-(^8. 
Pennv, George AVilliam, brick mal«M-. l)ds John Penny 

[died September 11. IMOS. aged 43-1 1-7. 
J-'ennv, John, biick mak'er, near Xortli Branch, 5th AVard 

[died Auo-nst 11. 1H51, aged 5S- 10-29. 
Penton, David Ru>m1, clerk. Dr. John Brinckeihotl". bds same 

[died, Melbourne, Australia, 1854, age<l 29. 

;> !<■ 



Penton, Thomas B.. clerk, Clarke & Co., bds Dr. John Brinckerlioft' 
Perioh^t, Clemens, gTocer, 22o Lake, res same 

Periohit, F. A., soap and candle maker, X. Franklin near Indiana 
Perkins, A., clerk, Sherman A: Pitkin, bds Grin Sherman 
Perkins, Daniel (P. ct Fenton), bds Chicago Temperance House 
Perkins tfc Fenton, blacksmiths and waoon makers, 141 Randolph 
Perrior, |Villiam, jailer. Jail. Randoljih, s.-e. cor LaSalle 

1 ' [died before May 4, 1S.V2„ 

Perry, Abijah S., barber, ex-jnstice of peace, res Governm't Reservation 

[died Se])teml)er 9, 1S49- 
Peteiinan, John (John Hettinger tt Co.), res Xorth Water 
Peterson, George, ca]>tain schooner S'f. 'Josejyh, res Canal, bet W. 

AVashington and Madison 
Petitt, AVilliam. harness maker. C. E. Peck i^died 
Petrie, Phili]), blacksmith, Ithiaem Taylor, res X. Dearborn, Oth AVard 

[died Xoveml)er 80. 181)0. aged 7<k 
Pfeifer, Kasper, shoemaker. Thomas Melvin. bds same 
Pfund, John (Pfund ct Co.), res 14 Chirk [died Feb. 14, 1872, a. f;.~,. 
Pfund it Co. (Frederick AVeiss), Ijread and cracker bakers, 14 Claik 
Phelps. Pallas, attorney. Dearborn, res cor Dearl)orn and Wa^hinijion 
Philiji}), Solomon, mercliant. I)d< AVashington Hall 
Phillips, John, wood turner. 27 Franklin, n.-e. cor Lake, les same 

[died December 11, ISOJJ. aged 7."',. 
PhiHii»s, John, jr., wood turner, bds John Phillips 

[died Xovcml)er 10, 1880, aged ."i:;. 
Phillips, "William, wood turner, bds John Philli])s 

[died 3Iay 20, 187(). aged ."34-^. 
Pierce, Asahel. blacksmith. 20 Market, bet Lake and Randoi])h. res 

AVest Lake [died December l:j, 1887. aged 7.V.. 

Pierce (Asahel t 6c ^Vitbeck (Henry), blacksmiths, Alarket. bet Luke 

an<l Randolph 
Pierce, Jolm, sailor, res Dearl)orn, 1st Ward 
Pierce, Royal. coo})er 
Pierce. Smith Dyer. 

Pike. Daniel, laborer, res Xorth Water near Franklin 
Pike, jr., Thomas, clerk, Sherman A: Pitkin, bds ^Villiam L. Church 
Pinkerton, Allan, cooj)er, res Jackson near Pacific ave 

[died July 1, 1884. aged r,:,. 
Pitkin. Xathaniel (Sherman iV- P.). res 7 7 Clark near Randolph 
Pitney. Aaron, liomo-opathic [iliysician, 100 Lake, res Kinzie near Clark 

[died January 7, 18()."), aged 72. 
Pitt, William, sawyer. West Water, bet Lake and Jiandol])}) 
IMagL^e. (jleorne, shoemaker, Xorth Water, res same 

[died December 28. 1872. aged —. 
Poole. Ja3])cr AV.. saiU.i |jdjed January 24, 1888, aged 7>>i2- 

Pomeroy, T. S.. l»ds City Hotel 
Pope, John, butcher. Kii Reynolds, res State 

Porter, Au^rustine. lumber j d., Oak Park, 111., A|)r. 10, 1880, a. 82 7-20. 
P<Mter, llibl)ard (Bristol cVi P.), res 208 CUark, n.-w. cor Adams 

[died Mav 80, 1870, aycd 72.. 

77 t'xi 

f •11.7/ I: 

84 CHICAGO DIRECTORY, 1S43. .' -- 

Post, E. J., clerk. B..wen .1^ Cole, l^ds Mrs. Post ' -'. ' • 

Post. Frederick L., l)ds 3Irs. Post 

Post. Mrs., botirdiiiu-house, 79 Clark, l)et Randolph and Wasliiiifi:ton 

Post-office, oT Clark, near Lake, William Stuart, postmaster 

Pottgieser. Giesbert. [died August 17, 1^^S7. aged 73. 

Poussard. Jose])li. shipcari. enter, res North Branch, 4th Ward 

Powell, I. X., editor and publisher JS^ortli western Baptist, 124 Lake 

Powell, John P.. cal)inet maker, John B. AVeir 

Power. Richard, stonemason, hds Charles ^McDonnell 

Powless. John, shoemakei-, Joseph E. Ware 

Prairie Farmer, John S.Wright, prop.. John S. Wright. J. A. Wight, 

and Jolm Gage, editors. 112 Lake 
Pniler, Adam, lal^orer. res Dutch Settlement 
Pratt, John, ass't-foreman, Foss Bros., })laning-mill, res Market 
Pratt, Menses Griswold, car2)enter, res \\. Water, cor Kinzie, 4th Ward 

[died Octol)er 20, 1887, aged 83-4. 
Pratt, Wm.. foreman Foss Bros., planing-mill, res Market near Rand. 
Prescott, Eli Sherljurne, camil-agent, 33-7 Cass, n.-e. cor Illinois 

[died,"Waukegan. January 3, 1879, aged 69. 
Preston, J(jhn B., clerk, Ogden ct Jones 
Price, Abner, bricklayer. l)ds Cornelius Price 
Price, Cornelius, bricklayer. [died, Lilxuiyvillc, 111. 

Price, Cornelius, jr., brick layer, Alson S. Sherman 
Price, Jeremiah, res South Water, bet LaSalle and Wells, member 

board of health [died July 12, 1854, aged — . 

Price, John Malov, brickl.wer 

[died, Libertyvillc, 111.. January 4, 1879, aged 64. 
Price. William, bricklayer. "[died December 31, 1884, aged 63-2. 

Price, William, sash factory. South A\'ater, west of Clark 

[died. Isthmus of Panama, en route to California, 1849, aged 4-3. 
Prindiville, Jolm, sailor, bds 3Iaurice Prindiville 
Prindiville. ^Maurice. lal)orer, res Chicago ave, n.-w. cor. Wolcott 
Prindiville, Redmond, sailor, bds Maurice Prindiville 
Prindiville, Thos. J., IkIs ^laurice Prindiville [died Jan. 18, 1870, a. 38. 
Protine, Francis, coo])er, res X. Clark, 1)et Xorth Water and Kinzie 

Quarters, W;dter, Catholic priest, bds 114 ^lichigan ave 
Quarters. "William, tir>t CatlK^lic l>isho|) of Chicago, 114 Michigan ave. 
n.-w. C(;r Madison [died A|)ril 10, 1848, aged 42. 

Quick. Jolin, sh(;emaker, Samuel. J. Grannis 

Raber, Jolm, harness maker, S. B. Cobl), bds same 
Kaber, Philij), laborer, 338 State, 0])p. Congress 

[died January 27, 1865, aged 71. 
Ransom, J. W., dry goods merchant, res 179 Clark, s.-e. cor Monroe 

'.I- b'H 


Ihxmz, H envy. Idhovev. res ^UclugiVii.het LaSalic and Wells 

Iia})pee, P., laborer, res Lake Shore. 1st Ward 

Kaskupp, John, lalx-rer. Silas B. Col)b 

Kathltone, Ward, groceries, fruits, etc.. 141 Lake [died, Geneva, 111. 

Piiittle vt Co. (Sam. Rattle). Francis, boots, shoes, and leather, 133 Lake 

Ratiie, Francis (JX- & Co.), [died Aiii-ust 19, 1859. 

Rattle, Samuel (I'. R. ^fc Co. ). bds Tremont 

Kavencraft, William, bds Henry Howard 

liay, Thomas, mason, res South Branch near Washington 

Raymond ^t Co., Benjamin W., staple dry goods and groceries, 81 

South Water, s.-w. cor State, office, 1::?2 Lake, upstairs 
Raymond, Benjamin "Wright (B. W. R. 6z Co.), res 120 Washington 

[Chicago s 3d mavor. died A})ril 5, 1883, aged 82. 
Raymond, George AVright, ^clerk, B. AV. R. it Co., 122 Lake 

[died, Barlield. Ark., November 1, 1871, aged 54. 
Reading-Room (Y. M. A.), 37 Clark, 2d story, C. R. Larrabee, librarian 
Receiver's office, U.-S., 08 Lake, upstairs, Geo. L. Ward, receiver 
Recorder's office, Court-IIouse, s.-w. cor Clark and Randolph 
Reed, Frederick, porter, City Hotel 

Reed. Roljert, mason, res Wells, bet Lake and Randolph 
Reed, Stilman O.. laborer, bds John Davlin 
Reed. AYilliam, carpenter, res W. Monroe, l)et Clinton and Jefferson 

[died January 0, 1801, aged 83-8-15. 
Recs, James HoUim^shead, survevor, Oii'den tt Jones, bds ]Mrs.Haight 

*[died Se])tcmber 20,' 1880, aged 67 1(. 
R'-es. Thomas, house |)ainter, Alex. White 

liegister's office, U.-S., 92 Lake, upstairs. John H. Kinzie, regnster 
Rehm, Jacob, laborer, res r.-e. cor Hiiisdale and Rush 

[died January 28, 1870, aged G9. 
Rehm, Jacol), jr., teamster, res Jacob Rehm 
Reis, Jacob Nichola.-;, harness maker. i>ds 175 State 

rdied, Frankfort, Tenn., April 3, 1890, aged 70. 
John Mathias. shoemaker, 1k3s 175 State [d. 3Iay 8, 1884, a. 62. 
John Peter, retired. 175 State 
John Peter, jr., shoemaker, Samuel .). Grannis, bds 175 State 

[died January 2, 1881, aged 50. 
Xicholas. water ( arrier, bds 175 State [died A]n-il 13, 1874, a. — . 
Peter, water carrier, res 171 State [d. ]\Iarcli 2, 1870, aged 54. 
RfT.d T, Daniel, tailor, res Ohio, bet Cass and Rush 
ilevenuc office, 38 Clark, Seth Johnson, de])Uty-collector 
P^e-.v, Xoniian (R. S: liussell), res State 
Rew i'v Russell, grocery and ball-alley, 77 South Water 
Reynolds, Eri. butcher and packer. South Branch, res Dearborn 

Xdied April 15, 1851, aged — . 
iieynolds, E. G., clerk, l^ds 145 Clark 
Ii»^.ynolds, George W., clerk, ?>i Reynolds 

Jiiiines, Henry. car])ent(r, deputy sheriff, police consta])le, res 46 LaSalle 

[died August 20, 1852, aged 45. 
^'i« ^-, Jo£e]>h, Stow's foundry, bds Western Hotel 






S6 CHICAGO DIRECrORV, 1843. \ ^ 

Ricli. Michael, nmson. west of Clark and south of First 
Richards, John James, clerk. Asliiey Gilbert, res Mrs. Cothn 

[died. Kankakee, 111.. January 29, 1891. aged (j-x 
Rider, Eli A., clerk, Charles L. P. Hooan [went to Aurora. 111. 

Rilev, John, laborer, Michiuan. ])ct Rush and Pine 
Ritchie. Alexander, i)lacksmith. Asahel Pierce 
Rohb, Georgf: Augustus (Foster & R.), hds John B. :Mitehell 

[died. Havana. Cuba. 1857. aged — . 

Robb. Thomas Pattrn, clerk, 1)ds John B. Mitchell 

[died near Glenwood, Cal.. April 19. 1895. aged G7. 
Roberts. Alexander, butcher, res X. AVater. bet Dearborn and AVolcott 

[died September 3, 1876, agtd 70. 
Roberts. David Lewis. Chicago Temperance House, 17-19 LaSalle 

[died. Jctlerson, 111.. December 130, 1864, aged 63. 
Roberts. Henry Lewis, shoemaker, South Water, res North Water 
Roberts, James S., chair painter. John B. AVeir 
Roberts. Jolin T.. drover, res Clark, bet AVashington and Aladison 
Robertson, Cyrus C, clerk, ILu'ace II. Yates 
Robertson, David. Sauganash Hotel 

l^)bertson, James, shipcarpenter, res cor Xorth AVater and Rush 
Robinson. Alexander, farmer, res South Branch. 3d AVard 

[died April 23, 1872, aged —. 
Robinson. George, printer, Ellis <k Fergus 
Robinson. James, car|jenter. res AVest Monroe. 3d ward 
Rolnnson, John, housemover. res xAdams, l)et Clark and State 
Rcl>inson, P. P., bootmakei'. 139 Lake 
Rol)inson, S. S., grocer. 184 L:ike, res same 
Rochester. James IL. commission merchant 

Rockwell, James, boardinir-housc, Clark, l)et ^Vashington and M-idison 
Roden. James, lal)orer. bds Charles AIcDonnell 
Ivoder, John, James O. num])hrey 

Rodgers, John, forwaiding and storage, Xorth Water, east of N. State 
liofinot. Peter Francois 
Jiogers. Edward Kendall (Horace Norton S: Co.), res Indiana, bet 

Cass and Rush [died. Eastman. Ga., 3Iay 2, 1883, aged 70. 

Rogers. George A., book-keeper, Horace Norton S: Co. 
Rogers. George AV.. prop. Chicauo Hotel, West Lake, n.-e. cor Canal 

[died February 4, 1867, ag'-d 03. 
Rogers, John, lard-oil maker, res North AVater [died April 3. 1849. 
Rooncv, ().. laljorer. res South Canal, I)et Lake and Randolph 
P.ooney, William, blacksmith. [.'lied Alay 5, 1885, aged 71 ig. 

Root, .losiah Sackett, carjienter, res Dearborn. l>et Madison and Alonroe 
(died. Butlalo, N.Y., April 28, 1884, a-. (1 — . 
Rose, Freeman, wa^ron-maker. res AV'^jJls, het Randolph and Washin-ton 
Rose, John, clerk, Alurrav S: Brand 
Rose, lin<sell 

Ross. George. l)lack-ndth. William Otis Snell 

Rossetter, A-her. drv go(.d< and groceries. 92 Lake, bds Cyprian C. 
■ Norton ' [died before May 14, 1858, aged ~. 

"'\l>lV. Ij.u. iiivljjn 



Ro-siter, Gilljeil. clerk. Xortoii it Case, bcls Cyprinn C. Norton 
Ro--iter, Luther, lumber merchant, res Kewton Rossiter 

[died. Forest. 111., October 3, 1888, aged 74-8-14. 
Ro>siter. Xewton, lunil'er merchant, otRce S. Water, res 15 Franklin, 
vard. west side of Franklin, bet Lake and South Water 

[died May 24, 1850, aged G2?l-5. 
Row. Jonathan, sawyer, res near Nortli Branch ])ridge, 5th Ward 
Rowlatt, William. I'.ethel clergyman, l)ds Plenry Smith 
Rowlatt, Mrs. William A., teaclier of French, bds Henry Smith 
Rowley, Aldrich. shoemaker, res ^larket 
Rowley, Thomas E., teamster, Absolom Funk 

Rucker, Edward A., law student, H. L. Rucker [d. June 19, 1872, a. 61. 
Rucker, Henrv L.. justice of the ])eace, 41 Clark, res same 

[died January 7, 18G7, aged 57-0-28. 
Rue, John Campbell, c:irp,enter, 156 Clark, res same 

[died, Elgin, HI., June 11, 1892, aged 88. 
Rum-ev, Geo. Frederick, clerk, Newberry A: Dole, bds Geo. W, Dole 

[died June 17, 1881, aged G03^. 
Rum>cy. Julian Sidney, clerk. Newberry S: Dole, rfs Geo. W. Dole 

' 1 18th mayor, died April 20, 188G, aged G3-0-17. 
Ru<s. John, teamster and vet. surgeon, res cor S. Clinton and Madison 
Ru-sell. Chester G. (Rew it R.), bds City Refectory, 17 Dearborn 
Russell. Francis C. bds ^Irs. Green 

Russell, Jacol>, })ropnetor City Hotel. 58-GG Clark, n.-w. cor Randolph 

[died April 4, 18G0, aged GOi^. 
Ru-selb Col. John Bcnj. Frazicr, land and insurance agent, notary, 38 
Clark, res 2G1 Indiana, near Wolcolt [died Jan. 3, 18G1, aged — . 
Russell, Mailin, sailor, res Wolcott, bet North Wa*:er and Kinzic 

[lost in Lake Michigan, November. 1845. 
Rutledge. Thomas, laborer, res West Lake, l»et Water and Canal 
Ryan. Edward, labr)rcr. rc> Franklin, bet Randolph and Washington 
Ryan. John, boarding-h >use, 42 South Water 
Ryer. George (Geoigc R. 6c Co.), l)ds City Hotel 
Kyer it Co., George, merchant tailors, 48 Clark 
Rver-on, Josepli Turner (R. it Blaikie), bds Tremont House 

[died March 0, 1883. aged 70. 
Ryer-on c^- Blaikie, iron, nails, etc., diy goods and groceries, 74 Lake 

■•allsbury, T. W., dry goods and groceries. South Water near Clark 
'"^alton^tall, Francis *g!. clerk, Parker it Dodge, res Wm.W. Saltonstall 
Salt')!!. tall, Wni., lish dealer, res \V., bet Clinton and Jellerson 

[died August 13, 188G, aged 773(. 
Saltoji^tall, Wm. Wanton, assignee in bankruptcy, res 238 IVladison 

[died March 18, 18G2, aged GO. 
SainjiKMis, Benjamin, cooper, bds Frederick Sammons 
Siuniuons, £. VV., cooper, res Adams 


SS CHICAGO DIRECTORY, 1843. , • ■ •' k ^ . 

Sammons. Frederick, cooper, res Canal, bet xVdanis and Jackson 

[frozen to death at Calumet, Decemljer, 1848. 
Sammons, Joel, cooppr. Adams near Clark 

Gammons, Jo>^epli II., cooper, res Canal, bet Adams and Jackson 
Samuel, Willia.m, laborer, res near North Branch bridi^-e, 5tli AVavd 
Sandusky, Michael, chairmaker. res AVashiugt'n, bet AVells and Franklin 
Sanger, James Y(umg (L. P. Sanger ^fc Co.), bds ]Mrs. Green 

[died July S, 18GT, ao-ed ."):Ji4^ 
Sanger, Loreizo P. (L. P. S. & Co.). [died ]\rarch 23, 1875,^agod — . 
Sanger, Lucian P., contractor, [died, Ottawa. 111. 

Sanger it Co. CJ. Y. Sanger), Lorenzo P., hats, caps, and furs, 110 Lake 
Satterlee. ]N[errit Lawrence, dry goods and groceries. South Water, bds 
Tremont House [died January 27, 1894, aged "9. 

Sauganash Hotel, east side Market, north of alley, s.-e. cor Lake, Levi 
31. Ousterhou'lt. prop. [Th • Republican Wigwam, where Lincoln 
was nominated in 1860, occupied its site. 
Santer, Charles (Charles & Jacol) S.), res 212 Lake, alderman 2d ward 
[died. Blue Island, 111., May 18, 1877, aged CGi^. 
Sauter, Jacob (Charles & Jacob S.), res 212 Lake 

[died March 10, 1865, aged 48. 
Sauter, Charles A: Jacob, boot and shoenuikers, 212 Lake 
Savage, ^Maurice 
Sawver, Nathaniel, clerk, Sidney Sawyer 

[died. Lake Forest, 111., November 18, 1800, aged 67. 
Sawyer. Sidnev, drugs, medicines, groceries, etc., 124 Lake, bds City 

Hotel ' " [died July 12, 1894, aoT'd 8:3. 

lawyer. Wm. Henry, butcher, [died May 7, 1888, aged 06-10. 

Scales, Charles Pich, clerk, Ward R;ithbone, bds same 
Scammon, Jonathan Young (S. & Judd), reporter su])reme court, res 
{»1 Michigan ave " [died March 17, 1890, aged 771.3. 

Scammon &, Judd, attorneys, 128 Lake 
Schall, Andre, boarding-house and saloon, 207-9 Randol])h 

[died May 5, 1872, aged — . 
Schaller, Andrew, family grocery, 209 Lake, res same 

[died, Elgin, 111., September 7, 1803, aged 40 8-1. 
Schank, Lewis G., currier, Johonnett, Wells S: Co. 
Schenk. Henry, lal)orer, res Dutch Settlement 
Schernerman, Michael, baker, Pfund 6c Co. 

Schlatter. Chnrles L., U.-S. government agent, res Fort Dearborn 
Schmidt. 3I;ithlHS. car])enter, res Dutch Settlement 
Schular, M dhias IJacksmitli, Ithraem Taylor 
Schiittier, Christian, la]>orer. res Illinois, bet Pine and St. Clair 
Schnttler, Peter, wagonmaker. 224 Randol}>h, s.-e. cor Franklin, res 

Illinois, bf't Pine and St. Clair [died January 16, 1865, aued 53. 

Scorgio. William, lumber merchaFif, 204 Lake 
Scott, James Howie, sashmaker, s.-e. cor W. ^Madison and Canal, res 

Jeflferson, nr 12t]i [died, Grand Rapids, Mich., Nov. 23, 1880, a. 7G. 
Scott, John, carj)enter, res South Canal, 3d AVard 

[died, Oswego, N.Y^, 1870, agt d 68. 


! > OJ. 


Scott, Dr. Robert, [died, Oswego, N.Y., April 0, 18S2, aged 67-9-2:?. 
Scott, Stephen J. [died en route to California, Sept., 1852. aged — ; 

buried on the Peninsula; his wid. died, Xaperville, 111., Sej^t., IS.")!). 
Scott, William, shoemaker, l)ds Jacob S. Curtis 
Scougale, A., wagonmaker, near cor State and Lake 
Scorille, Charles Foot, 

Scoville, Hiram Henry, apprentice, Scoville & Gates, bds H. H. Scoville 
Scoville, Hiram Huff (S. & Gates), res s. w. cor Randolph and "West 

Water [died March 26, 1870. aged 84. 

Scoville, Ives, blacksmith. Scoville & Gates, bds H. H. Scoville 
Scoville. Jas. Addison, bookkeeper, Scoville & Gates, bds H. H. Scoville 
Scoville, William H., machinist [died 3Iay 24, 1884, aged (>1. 

Scoville & Gates, machinists, millwrights, blacksmiths, and founders, 

s.-w. cor AVest Washington and AVest AYatcr 
Scranton. Abner R., with X. Scranton 

[died. Lake Bluff, 111., August 5, 1885, aged oC 
Scranton, Xoah, block, pump, and spar maker, Wolcott, s.-e. cor 

Xorth AYater [died April, 1860. 

Scranton, Xoah, jr., with X. Scranton [died July 8, 1875, aged oS. 

Scruder. Alarcus, tanner, Gurnee ct A[atteson 
Sealey, George, irrocer, South AVater, west of State 
Seaman, jr., AYillett, clerk, Bracken <^c TuUer, bds Sauganash Hotel 
Searles, Samuel V., machinist 

Seatoii, Israel, carpenter, AA'ashington, bet AA'ells and Franklin 
Secbor, Christo])her, agent Kelley's patent pump, Theron Pardee's 

Seeley, Rufus R., hats and caps, 225 Lake 
Seger, Jose])h, water carrier, res Dutch Settlement 
Sensor, Jolin AYashington (Cruver S: S.), res s.-w. cor Xorth Clark and 

Michigan [died, Hawkeye, la., Xovember 27, 1885, aged 78. 

Sergeant, S. H., bartender, Xew York House 
Serry, Edward P., blacksmith, AYilliam Otis Snell, res Kinzie, bet 

Cass and Rusli 
Sexton, Stephen, carpenter, res Kinzie, het Cass and Rush 

[died April 7, 18C1, aged 51. 
Seybold, F. E., Ijlacksrnith. Randol])h near AVells 
Shaddle, Miss Ellen, teacher, 120 Clark 
Shaddle. Peter, upholsterer, 45 Clark, res south of First 

[died, Evaiiston, 111., P'ebruary 1, 1883, aged 84. 
^h:ii)ley, AForgan L., ship-carpenter, res Governmoit Reservation 
Sharer, George, t.ailor, John 11. llodgsrm, res A\"ells, bet AYashington 

and Madison 
Shaw, Isaiah, clerk. Charles Follansbce 
Shaw, Jnh-'i O. (Chirkc >k Co.), bds City Hotel 
Shaw, Joseph, carpenter, res cor Jeffer^5n and West Washington 
Shay, Ji.lm. lal^orer, John Dennis 
Shay, Michael, res X. AYells, bet Xorth AYater and Kinzie 

[died -from neglect," August 23, 1850. 
Shelby, D.miel, sailor captain, res 47 Adams [died Dec. '3, 1852, a. 40. 


Sheldou, C. P.. clerk, Philo C. Slieldou 

Sheldon, Philo C, groceries and provision-, 254 Lake, junction of S. 
Water and Lake, res Franklin 

Shepherd, Hiram, mason, res ^larket, Ijet Randolph and Washini^ton 

Shepherd, Rob't. carpenter and Ijiiilder, res Cass, Ijet Indiana and Ohio 

[died Fei)ruary 4. 1872, aged 04,2^. 

Shc])herd, Thomas J., mason, res 3Iarket 

Sheru'old, Thon as, house and sign painter, hds H. H. Hiisted 

[died May o, 1870, aged 50. 

Sheriif, John, hook-keeper, J:is. P. AUeji. cor "\Y. Canal and W. AVater 

Sherman, Alson Smith, builder, (Johonnett, Wells & Co.), res AV.Wash- 
iugton near Clinton [7th mayor 

Sherman, Beni. F., drv goods and uToceries, cor Lake and Clark 

[died, Butlalo, X.Y., April 19, 1885, aged 70. 

Sherman, Ezra Lewis (Ballentine it S.), bds Citv Hotel 

[died Riverside, Cook Co., 111., Feb. 14, 1881, aged 63. 

Sherman, Francis Cornwall, brickmaker and l)iulder, res Michigan ave, 
county commissioner [5th mayor, died November 7, 1870, aged 6^). 

Sherman, 1^'rancis Trowbridge, clerk, H. H. Husted, bds F. 0. Sherman 

Sherman, jr., Nathaniel, dry goods and groceries, 158 Lake, res 

LaSalle near Lake [died September 25, 1852, aged c!4i.^. 

Sherman, Oren (S. it Pitkin), res 79 Clark 

Sherman, Robert D., agent, Benj. F. Sherman, res Clark, bet Madison 
and 3Ionroe « 

Sherman, Silas Wooster, [elected sheriff Cook County in 1834 and 1S3G 
died, Chocolate Bayou, Texas, August 15, 1852, aged Gl. 

Sherman, Wm. George, clerk, Sherman S: Pitkin, bds Oren Sherman 

[died September 7, 1867, aged 411.. 

Sherman [Oren"] 6: Pitkin [Nath'l], dry goods and groceries, 107 Lake 

Sherry, Thomas, clerk, Ira B. Eddy <k Bro. 

[died, bloomington. 111., October 17, 18G0. 

Sherwood, R. W., teacher of penmanship, ixls 3Irs. Post 

Sherwood, Smith Jones, jeweler and watchmaker, 144 Lake, res La- 
Salle, 1.)et Washington and Madi<ou 

Shenvood, jr., William, jeweler. Smith J. Sherwood, bds same 

Sbinnatj^er, Joseijh, res cor N. LaSalle and Ohio 

Shitz, Peter, wagonmaker 

Shoemaker, Conrad, .sailor, res near N. Water, bet Dearb. and AYolcott 

Shoemaker, Josejdi, mason, res 5th W^ard 

Short, Jacob, farmer, res near Franklin and South Water 

Short, ]\[r^,, res Washingtoii, bet LaSalle and Wells 

Shrlgley, John 

Shubart (Scott), Benedict, mercliant tailor, 183 Lake, res same 

[died April 1, 1854, agcl 40. 

Shurr. AVilliam (Ilatcli <Sc S.), res- South Water near Dearborn 

Sicar 6c Co., groceries and boarding-house, N. Water near DearbrMTi 

Sini'.ns. Edwar:!, l>utcher, res Jefferson [died Aug. 30, 1876, a. OOV;. 

Siu)j)Son, Andrew, mason, res W. Monroe, bet Clinton and Jeffer.-un 

Simpson, John, mason, res S. Canal, bet Adams and Jackson 

[died before May 12, 1851- 

*;.l -M 

ilA .1 

t., .1,. .''• 

CniCAGO DIRECTORY, 1 843. 9 1 

Sinclair, Lewis George, pniuter, 47 LaSalle 

[died, St. Charles, 111., Septeml)er 26, 18G(). aged GO. 
Skinner, Charles (S. ifc Smith), 3[ausion House 
Skinner. ^lark (Beaumont ct S.), master-in-chancery, res Illinois, l)et 

Dearborn and Wolcott [died. Manchester. X.H., Se])t. 10, 1S8T, a. 74. 
Skinner & Smith. ])roprietors 3taiision House, SG-S Lake 
Slater, J. E.. warehouseman, Xewl>crry & Dole 

[murdered by Indians, Hogue Pdver. Cal., August 37, 1851. 
Slat on, Johu L., f.irmer. res , bet AVells and Franklin 

Sieunian. AV. H.. shoemaker, Charles S: Jacob Sauter 
Sloan, Edward, so:p-maker, at J. Johnston's [died Oct. 81. 1889. a. 85. 
Slocum. Edward L., druggist, bds Henry B. Clarke 
Smaie, William, carpenter, res W. 3tonroe, 3d Ward 
Small, William, blacksmith, Xortli Water 
Smith. Abial, printer, Democrat office, bds Lake Street House 

[died. Lockport, 111., January 25, 1889, aged 80. 
Smith. Andrew, luml)er merchant, Market near Lake, res Clark, bet 

Monroe and Adams [died October 28, 1851. 

Smith. Barnev, butcher, res Michigan ave, rear n.-w. cor of Madison 

[died at sea off Ireland before 1860. 
Smith, Benjamin, tailor, cor Chtrk and Lake, res 145 Clark 

[died January 10, 1891, aged 76. 
Smith, Charles A., clerk, Benjamin F. Sherman 
Smith, Charles Billings, Ba])tist clergyman, Ijds Mrs. Merriam 

[died, Grand Rapids, Mich., September 17, 1890. aged 76. 
Smith, Christie, teamster, cowherd, res Adams, west of Clark 

[died October 14, 1893, aged 85. 
Smi^^, C. D., clerk, Gurdcm S. IIubl)ard, res Dearborn 
Smith, David Sheppard, homcEOpathist, office Clark, res 118 LaSalle 

[died April 29, 1891, aged 75-0-9. 
Smith. Elijah (Henry ^fc Elijah S.), res Ohio, bet Dearb. and Wolcott 

[died July 15, 1879, aged 70. 
Smith, George (George Smith ^t Co.), bds City Hotel 
Smith 6: Co., George, bankers and exchange brokers, 1 LaSalle 
Smith, Henry (Henry & Elijah S.), res Ohio, bet Dearb. and Wolcott 

[died December 26, 1866, aged 69. 
Smith, Henry Sz Eh'jah. dry iioods and groceries, 146 Lake 
Smith, Hiram B., tinsmith, Wm. Wheeler &: Co., res cor Lake and Wells 
Smith. James, slioemaker, David Jay 
Smith, James A yer, clerk, L, P. Sanger S: Co., res Lake 

[died July 22, 1875, aged 68. 
Smith. John E., clerk, Benjamin F. Sherman 
Smith, John L., clerk, Hum[)hreys 6z Wiu.^low 
Smith. John M., hatter, L, P. Sanger & Co., res Clark 
Smith, Johu T„ auctioneer, John Bajtes, jr., bds same 
Smith, Joseph Flint (Skinner S^ S,), 5[ansion House 
'^mith, , shoemaker. .John B. :Mitchell 

vSndth, Michael, laborer, we^t of Clark, south of VanBureu 
Suiitb, Michael, harness maker, Silas B, Cobb 

92 CHICAGO DIRECTORY, 1843. ,S. - .. 

-Smith, ]Mis3 M., teaclier pul)lir. school 3, district 4 
Smith, Xichoias, laborer, res 2d. Ward 

Smith, Orson, city collector, marshal, street commissioner, and health 
officer, res ISI Waba.^h ave [died January 29, 1863. aged Gl:?| 

Smith, Samuel Lisle, attorney at lav/, 2GS 3Iichiiran, s.-w. coi Kii-h 

[died July 30, 1854. a.oec) 3T 
Smith, Samuel P,, clerk, Guraee ^t Matteson, bds Mrs, Hai'kdit " 

[died. Bureau Co,. 111., October 2, 1862. a.o-ed 46 
Smith, Theophilus AVa'sbington, attorney (S. ct Ballingall), 6 Clark 

[died May 6, 1846. nge.l 60 
Smith, Tlionias, teamster, res Wells, l)et Randolph and \Yasliiiv_;ton 

[died before August 27, 1856, ifged — 
Smith, Waldo Wait, clerk, Samuel J, Surdam 

[died. Jefferson, 111.. :\[ay 25, 18S2. aged 63 
Smith, William, carpenter, bds Mrs, Post [died 1853 

Smith & Bailino-all, attorneys at law, 6 Clark 
Saell, William Otis, i^lacksmith, North Water near Wolcott 

[died September 3, 1865, agv-1 53 
Snider, Jaco]>. currier, Gurnee Sc Matteson 
Snook, Sarauel, carpenter, res Dearl)orn, 1st Ward 
Snow, George AYashington, lumber merchant, S. Water, res 344-6 State 
. s.-w. cor Jackson [died, en route to Philadeldhia, at Altoona 

Pa., July 20, 1870, aged 72-10-13. 
Snow, Ira, teamster 
Snowhook, A\'illiam Bergen [Snow's O'Hook], irrocer, 10 Clark, res 

Kinzie, 6th Ward ^ [died 3Iay 5, 1882, aged 80, 

Soden, Dr. Wm. Hill, res s.-v,'. cor LaSalle and Ontario 

[died July 12, 1850, aged 41 
Sofftje, Cliarle-, music teacher, bds John H. Kinzie 
Sollitt, John, carpenter and Iniilder, res W. Adams near Jeffen-on 

[died April 5, 1895, aotd Si -4-1';. 
Soper, Palmer, sawyer, res Wells, bet Randolph and Washington 
Soraghan, John, teamster, res ^lichigan, bet X, Clark and LaSalle 
Southern Hotel, n.-w. cor State and 12th. G. M. Jackson, prop. 
Spahn. William, shoemaker, [died April — , 1890. aged — , 

Spar, Andrew, stonemason, res near Rush and Chicago ave 
Spaulding, C., carjjcnter, res AYells, bet Washington and Madir-on 
Spear, Hugh S., caterer, Wasliington Coffee House, 89 Lake 

[died, Kenosha, Wis., January 22, 1886. agLMl 74. 
Speer, Isaac, watcli and clockmakei', 36 Deaiborn, res Monroe, 0]'i'. 

Dearl>orn [died Se]jtember 20, 1879, aged 6!(:l{. 

Speer, Thonia^, tailor, Elijah Smith, res AYelb-, bet Yv^ashinLrton and 

Madison [die.l June 6, 1887, aged 72. 

Spence, John C, hatter, Israel Cvrns Stephens 
Spencer, A. P., jnintej", lieJlcr Covenard office, Randolph 
Sperry, Anson, law student, Beaumont & Skinner 

[died, Marengo, 111., August 24, 183!). ag:'.! 65. 
Spring, Giles (S, <k Goodrich), res 62 Adams near State 

[died May 14, 1851, aged AV;i^ 

r'.;« i'; 


Spring ik Goodriclj, attorneys, 124 L.ike 

Spry, "John, laborer, ' [died February 5, 1801, aged G-2-0-22. 

Squires. [Nathan (Fuller <fe S^), res N, Water, Ijet Dearbojii and Wolcott 
St. Palais, James Mary Maurice d'Hassac, Catholic priest, res ll-i Michi- 
gan ave, n.-w. cor Madison 

[died, St. Mary's, near Tcrre Hauie, Ind., June 28, 187T, aged 06. 
Staften, Nichohis, laborer, res Dutch Settlement 

Stai:^e-Office, 05 Lake. s.-w. cor Dearl)orn, Ephraim C, Stowell, au'ent 
Stams, TVilliain F., barber. Henry Knight 
Stanton, Charles T,, auctioneer, bds United States Hotel 

;^killed and eaten by his companions, en route ta California, 1849. 
Stanton, Daniel D., merchant, Ashley Gilbert, bds Mrs, John K. Boyer 
[dicil. 3[Ystic. Conn.. Ai)ril 23, 1887, aged 71, 
Starkweather, Charles Robert, assistant postma-ter, res 120 State 

[died August 27, 18G7, aged 51 14. 
Stead, Francis, city diTig store. 7G Lake [absconded 
Stearns, L,, clerk, L. B, Goodsell 
Stearns, Marcu-^ '^Tuliius] Cicero, dry goods and groceries. 136 Lake 

'[suicide, April 8, 1890, aged 7354. 
Stearns, VnUiam, mate, propeller Independence 
Steel, J. H., res We>t Lake, l^et West Water and Canal 
Steele, Jonathan William, proprietor City Refectory, 17 Dearborn 

[died Xovern])er 13, 1881, aged 74. 
Stein, Charles (Strau-el ct S.), res LaSalle near Lake 

[died, Blue Island, 111., May 9, 1882, aged — . 
Stephen*, Israel Cyrus, hats, caps, and furs, 108 Lake, bds 

[died, Henry, 111., September G, 1854, aged — » 
Steth, Joseph, l>lacksmith, Itliraem Taylor, bds same 
Steven, Christian S , tailor, Clark, north of Lake 
Stevens, E, C. 

Stevens, Geo. E.. clerk. A. Garrett, bds Sauganash [res Rushford. ]Minn. 
Stevens, Geo, F., warehouseman, Bristol >Sc Porter, bds Wm. Stevens 
Stevens, George G,, clerk, Stevens &: Carpenter 

Steven=!, Henry (S, &: Carpenter), bds Sauganash [res Winona, 3Iinn. 
Steven-, S„ tailor, Clark, 4 doors north of Lake 

Stevens, William, late lighthouse keeper, res 2 River, U.S. lightdiouse 
Stevens, William B.. blacksmith, Randolph near Clark, res same 
Stevens ct Car])enter, dry goods and groceries, IGG Lake 
Stewart, E, A., watchmaker. South "Water, l)et Clark and Dearborn 
Stewart, P^phraim T., dry ijoods and i^roceries. 85 Lake 

[died Decatur, 111., February 22, 1855. ao-ed — . 
Stewart, Hart L., dry goods, rev State, Ix't Randolph and Washinoton 

[died .May 23, 1883, aged 79 2,j\ 
Stoce, Clemen?, family grocer. 14!) Lake, res same 

[died", San Francisco, Cal., October 18, 1881, 83d year. 
Stockton. John, far{;enter, I'cs Illinois, bet Pine and St. Clair 
Stone, Horatio Odei, dry iroods and groceries. 114 Lake, res Michigan, 
bet Dearborn and Wolcott fdied July 20, 1877, aged GG)^. 

StonCj Ira (S. ic Doollttlc), res Columbian House 

94 CHICAGO DIRECTORY, 1 843. - "^ '-o:- 

S'-ow, Alfred (Dimmock ifc S.) res Riindolpli, 2d ward 
Stov>-, Ilcnvy ^I,. iron foundry, North Canal, store 11 Clark 
Stow, "\Viili;un H., iron foundry. North Canal, bds Western Hotel 

[died August 18, 1881, aged 72. 
Stowell, Ephraim C, clerk, stage-coach otMce, 05 Lake, res Adams 

near State 
Strail, Isaac, dry goods and groceries, Clark, bet S. Water and Lake 
Strang, G„ shoemaker, res West Lake, 4th AVard 

Strausel, Martin (S. ct Stein), res 40 LaSalle [d., Elgin, III., Jan. G, 1880 
Struusel S: Stein, bootmakers. 40 LaSalle, l»et Lake and Randolph 
Strode, James M,, attorney, 37 Clark, res 84 Randolph 

[died. Crystal Lake, 111., 
Suuirt. Alexander, clerk, j^ost-ofiice, bds William Stuart 

[died, Binghamton, N.Y., November 1, 1884, aged QS. 
Stu;trt, John Jav, })hYsician, oO Clark, res Indiana near Wolcott 

[died August 15, 1850, aged 40. 
Stuart. "^Villiam, postmaster, res Ontario, bet Cass and Wolcott 

[died, Binghamton, N.Y., June 30, 1878, aged 07.}. 
Stubbs, T. R., carpenter 
Sturges, B, R., car})enter. ]>ds "Western Hotel 

Sturtevant, Austin Dwight, school teacher, dist. 2, bds J. M, Underwood 
Sturtevant, Noah, painter, John I. Dow, res ]Market 

[died July 20, 1802, aged 42. 
Sullivan, Anthony, laborer, res North Water, bet Wolcott and Kinzie 
Sullivan, Eagene, sailor, [died ]\Iay 10, 1885, aged 73. 

Sullivan, Jeremiah H., con:>table, res N. Water, bet Clark and Dearb, 

[died January 19, 1855, aged 71. 
Sullivan, Martin, laborer. Gurdon S. Hubbard 

Sullivan, Michael, laborer. Gurdon S. Hub])ard [d. Oct. 7, 1871, a. 82. 
Sullivan. Patrick, laborer. North AVater near Franklin 
Sulzer. Conrad, brewer [died December 24, 1873, aged — . 

Summers, James, laborer, res Kinzie, Ijct Clark and Dearborn 
Sunriker. Peter, tailor, P, Ncwburgh 

Surdam, Diiane (Cook 6c S.), res American Temperance 
Surdam, Samuel John.son. tinware, stoves, etc., 132 Lake 

[died September 10, 1893, aged 70. 
Swain. Philip, tinsmith, AVilliam AVheeler 
Sweet, Cliarles, family arocer. North Water near Wolcott 
Sweet, (S. 'ct'D(jolittle), 

Sweet 6c Doolittle. })rops. Columbian House, 11-3 Wells, near s.-e. cor 

South AVater 
Swenser, I-^yen, lal)orer, John B.AVeir 

Swift. Elijah, })awnbroker, 102 Lake, res ]:)carborn near Lake 
Swift, Richiud IvelloL^i.:", i)awnbroker, 102 Lake, res 195 AVabash ave 

[died, Lawrence County, ]Mo., Se])tember 28, 1883, aged 70. 
Svvinson, Edwin, laborer, re-^ North Water near Franklin 

■M V. .IT)^! 

T \y-J 

CHICAGO DIRECTORY, 1 843. .:"^ 95 

Tafr^i-^e. Edward, laborer, lirst st, near Michigan uve 

Tallev. Alfred Maurice, ])rinter. Democrat otYiQQ, res 224 State, s.w. cor 

QumcY [died. South Bend, Ind., Nov. 28, 1870, aged 64j^^. 

Tallmadge, Samuel Wires, slioenuiker, AV. 11. Adams & Co., res Clark 

[died Auuust 18, 18io. aii'ed 82 2. 
Ta7)lin, Michael L, [died March 25, 1801, aged 83. 

Tarbox, C. F., clerk, Orriligton Lunt, hds John B. iMitchcll 
Tavlor. Au^■u^tine Deodat. carpenter and builder, res Michigan ave, 

bet Lakeland Randolph (died March 31, 1891, aged 04-11-8. 

Taylor, Charles, merchant tailor, 42 Clark, res Canal, bet AYasli. and 

5lad., alderman 8d ward Td., Indianola, Tex., Sept. 28, 18GT. a. oof. 
Tav^or, Charles H., currier, Johonnett, Wells & Co. 
Taylor, Daniel. l)Oots ;md shoes, 120 Lake 
Taylor, [Col.] Ezra, colfee-house, South Water, west of Clark 
■ * [died Oct. 2o, 1885, aged 71. 

Tavlor. Francis Horace, tailor, res South Canal, 8d Ward 

[died, Xiles, Mich., March 5, 1880, aged 92. 
Taylor, jr., Francis H., tailor, bds Francis H. Taylor 
Taylor, H., sad<lkr and harness maker, Silas B. Cobb 
Taylor. Ithraem, blacksmith, 141 Randolph, res Wells, bet Lake and 

Randolph [died Jime 7, 18G8, aged 55. 

Taylor, John O., clerk, Gurnee k Matteson, res Mom'oe near Clark 
Taylor, Matthias, tailor. 181 Lake, res cor Lake and Dearborn 
Tavlor. Reuben, teamster, West Lake near Randolph 

[died May 7, 1884, aged 86. 
Taylor. Solomon, boot and shoemaker, 152^^ Lake, res West Water, 

bet Randol])h and AVashiugton 
Taylor, William Hartt, agent, Dan. Taylor, 120 Lake 
Te]n})le. John Tavlor, ])hvsician, 218 Lake 

[died, St. Louis, :\[o., February 24, 1877, aged 78, 
Teshner, Charles, saddler and harness maker, Charles E. Peck 
Tew, George C, prof, jihrenology, res rear of n.-w. cor Cass and Illinois 
Thatcher, David Cuiinini,diam (Peacock >S^ T.), res cor Lake and 

Franklin [died. Thatcher, Cook Co., HI., r^Iarch 22, ISGO, aaed 55. 
Thirds, Wm., cari)enter and builder, S. Water [died Jan. 12, 1870. a. 60. 
Thomas, Benj. AValden, clerk, Loyd, Blakesley & Co., bds Alex. Loyd 
Thomas, Elihu B., pi'inter, Ellis k Fergus 

[now at St. Louis, Mo., an ]\LD. 
TLomas, Gerhard Henri (H. k G. H.), res X. Dejtrborn and Division 

[died, Palatine, HI., April 17, 1888, aged 83f^. 
Thomas, Henry (H. *.t G. H.), les X. Dearix^rn and Division 

[died aged 50. 

ThomrtS, Henry Jc Gerhard Henri, botanical and vegeta])le gardeners, 

n.-e. cor Xorth Dearborn and Division 
Thouias, Hiram J., printer, IFes-fern- Cif ize/> ofhce 
Thorn a.s, Jerry (T. S: AN'-heelock), "Washington Cotiee House 
Thouias & Wheelock, pro{)rietors Washington Coffee House, 87 Lake 
Tlif)n;p.>OD, George C, Stow's foundry, bds Western Hotel 
TiiOHipson, Joseph, caulker, res Adams, bet Clark and LaSalle 

:&'^. !: 

g6 CHICAGO DIRECTORY, 1843. ■ ■' " -"* 

Thompson, Leoii;ir«.l W., carpenter, res 3d Ward, south of Jackson 
Thompson, Thos. C, shipcarpenter. res 3IonroG, I^et Clark and LaSalle 
Thompson, W. G.. clerk, Nelson 6c Fred'k Tuttlc, bds Tremout House 
Thompson, William, laborer, res Xorth Water, west of N. Clark 
Thrall, E, L,, clerk, Charles Walker & Co. 
Throop, Amos Gager, lumber merchant, cor Washington and Market 

[died, Pasadena, Cal., March 22, 1894, aged 82. 
Tiernan. Hugh, waiter, Mansion House 
Tilden, Joel, bds 3Irs. Luke Lambert 
Tillotson, Humphrey A; Co. (B, F. Hadduck. agent), stage-coacli ])ro- 

prietors, 43 Deorl)orn 
Timonev, Patrick, brewer, James Carney £^ 

Tingley, Michael, teamster, Alson S. !Sherman 

Tiukham, Edward Hslay, teller, George Smith i.'e Co., bds City Hotel 

[died December 2. 1873. 
Tinkham, Richard H., salesman, Willis King, bds Washington Ij'all 
Tisdel, Guttorm Rolandson, laborer 

[died, Lincoln, Winneshiek Co., Iowa, Fe]>. 24, 1885, aged 78. 
Todd, Lewis H.', carpenter. Cruver & Senser 

Toner, John, [died July 18, 1885, aged 80. 

Toohy, Dennis, laborer, 'res Xorth Water, bet Dearborn and Wokott 
Towner, Xorman Kellogg', clerk, Lallentine <t Sherman. 
Townsend, E. H., clerk, Benjamin F. Sherman 
Tracy, Elisha Winsiow, attorney, 123 Lake, bds Lake House 

[died, Hampshire, Kane Co., February 6. 1800. 
Tremont House, s.-e. cor Lake and Dearborn. Iru Couch, prop. 
Trii^p, [Dr.] Robinson, carpenter, res 119 Clark 
Trucsdell, Georire W., clothier, res Cass, bet Illinois and Indiana 
Tucker, Henry, book-keeper [died Septem1)er 21, 1871, aged 5(3, 

Tucker, Philo, stage driver, Frink, Walker 6: Co. 

Tucker, Thomas E., coo])er, 149 S. Water, res 3Iadison, end of Franl^lin 
Tuckerman, Lucius f Norton S: T.), 
Tuckerman tV Co. (Geo. M. Iliggiiison), lumlier. successors to Noj'ton 

ct Tuckerman 
Tuley, .Alurrav ITovd, law-student, bds Rich. J. Hamilton 
Tuller, AVilliiun G."" (Bracken 6: T.), l^ds Sauganash Hotel 
Tupper, Chester, housemover, res 88 Washiniiton 

[died, Brooklin, Almeda Co., Cab, Jan. 4, 1801, aged 04. 
Turner. Charles (R. L. 6c C. turner), res Wolcott 
Turner, John (J. 6c L. T.), res Wolcott, n.-w. cor Kinzie 

[die<l February 17, 1892, aged :'^-l-l. 
Turner, Jolin Bice, contractor, b'ds Tremont House 

[died Fcl)ruary 20, 1871, ag^-^i 72. 
Turner, Joljn 6c LeiLditon, livery stable, 10 Wolcott near Xorth ^Vater 
Turner, John -AIcLeod, capt. pro[;eirer Indejjendence, res Franklin 

[died Xoyem]>er 27, 1884, a-ed 77. 
Turner, Leighton (J. 6c L. Turner), res Vv'olcott near Kinzie 

[died, Evanston, 111., Febiuary 11, 1895, a^cd 80. 
Turner, Robert Leigh (R. L. 6c C), res 3 2 Xorth State, near Kinzie 



Tuniev. Pv. L. i.'v: C, wheelwrights, 4 and G "Wolcott near Isorth AVater 

Turner, Vohititine C, bcls J. B. Turner 

Turner. William, butcher, Sylvester ]Marsb, res 28 Xorth State 

[died suddenly, en route to ^IcIIenry Co., 111., May 4, 1875, age 68. 
Tuttie, Frederick (X. ^ F. T.), bds Amer. Temp. House 

[died Xoveniber 10, 1800, aged 82. 
Tuttie. Lucius Griswold, clerk, post-office, bds Mrs. Green 

[died July 5, 1879, aged 56. 
Tuttie. Nelson (X. d' F.). bds Tremont House 

[died April 21, 1877, aged 63. 
Tuttie. X. ct F., dry goods and groceries, 68 Lake 
Tvlei-* Elmer, drajDcr aud tailor, s.-w. cor Lake and State 

[died Fel»ruary 11, 1877, aged 63 1.^'- 

Underhilb E. K.. wagon maker, Perkins &: Fcuton 

Underwood, John ^Milton, luml^er, cor Lake and W. Water, res Canal, 
bet Wash, and Madison [died, Danvers, :\Iass., Feb. 16, 1888, a. 76. 

United-States Hotel, n.-w. corner W. Water and W. Randolph, John 
Murphy, prop. 

Updike, Peter Lewis, car|)enter and builder, res and shop, 104 Ran- 
dolph [died, Philadelphia, Pa., December 19, 1850, aged 45 >2. 

Yandercook, Charles Rauey. clerk, Botsford 6c Beers, bds City Hotel 
Vaudreuzer, E., Eagle Saloon. 10 Dearborn 
Vaugaasbeck, T. L., clerk, Horatio O. Stone 
Vanosdel, Jesse Redifer, carpenter, John M. Vanosdel 

[died 3Iay 20; 1887, aged 60. 
Vanosdel, John Mills, carpenter (Granger 6c V.), res Indiana, bet X. 

Dearborn and Wolcott [died Dcc<-mber 21, 1801, aged 80>;<. 

Vanosdel, AMlliam C, car]>euter, reS X''. Water, bet Wolcott and Kinzie 

[died December 17, 1867, aged 53. 
Vansickle, James IL, tailor, Scott Bencdik 

Vanvlack, Ei^bert B., carjjentcr, res Wells, bet Randolph and Wash'gton 
Vanwattenwylle, C. A. F., ]>hysician, 210 Lake, res same 
Vaughn. Edward, laborer, Gurdon S. HulJxird 
Velvershet, Irton, cabinet maker, Ist.AVard 
Vette, John Diedrich, blacksmith, M. Mooney, bds same 

[resides Ottawa, 111. 
Vial, Samuel, laborer, Sylvester ^Nlarsh-, 

Vincent, Aiken (Grilhn cc V.), res Randol})li, bet Dearborn and State 

[died Octoljer 11, 1881, aged 63. 



Waddingtou. John, laborer. Gurnee 6c ^Matteson 

Wadhams. Scth, elcrk. Hyerson vfc Blaikie, bds Tremont House 

[died. San Diego, Cal., Fe])ruary (3, 1888. To. 
Wadsworth, Elisba Strong (E. S. & J.), res 80 AVashington 

[died. Clifton Springs, X.Y., Novcm])er 25, 1890, aged <7i^' 
Wadswortb, Julius (E. S. & J^), bds City Hotel 

[died, :Middletown, Conn., May 28, 1887. ag'.-d 74. 
Wadswortlj, Elisha S. it Julius, dry goods and groceries, 103 Lake 
"Wago-oncr, Harmon, carriage painter, res ]\[icliigan, l)et Dearljorn and 

AVagner, ^[rs. Susan, res cor AVells and Randolph 

Walil, Frederick, clergyman, German Evangelical Cliurch, "Wabash are 
AVait, John, blacksmith, H. Chapman, I)ds Xew York House 
Wait. George Washington, laborer, Ephraim A. Stewart 
Waldie, William, carpenter. Xorth Water near Franklin 
AValdron, Hiram, wa^on maker. William H. Howard 
Walker, Almon (Charles Walker ct. Co.) [died Feb. 23, 1854, a. 4G. 
Walker, Amos E., watchmaker [died Aug. 7, 18SG, ai;ed (17 4. 

AValker, Charles ( C. W. & Co.), [died June 28, 18G0, aged {)1}<^. 

Walker. Curran (Friuk, Walker ct Co.), [died Nov. 21, 1802, a. .11 14. 
AValker, Doliver, saddler and harness maker, 70 Lake, res State nr L;ike 

[died May 12,, 1802, agod _. 
Walker S: Co., Charles, dry goods, groceries, leather, etc., 00 S. Water 
Walker, Martin Otis (Frink, W. ScCo.), res 07 State, n.-e. cor Wasli- 

iugton [died May 2S, 1874, aged 65. 

Walker, Samuel Bent, dry itoods and groceries. 148 Lake, res west side 

Wabash ave, l)et Madison and Alonroe [died Feb, 26, 1887. aged 80. 
Vv'alker, William Frederick, rector St. James" Ciiurch, l^ds City Hotel 
Wallace, Edward Q., carpenter. I)ds Horatio X. Cooke 
Walter, Ethan, merchant, res 41 ^lonroe, east of State 

[d. July 13, 1854, a. 51 ; d., W. Xorthticld. Ilk, Aug. 8, 1807. ;<. 04. 
Walter, Casper, urocer, Clark, bet Lake and South Watej-, res same 
Walter, Joel Clarke (Horace Norton S: Co.). l)ds Ethan AV^idter 

[died March 14, 1801. agrd 80. 
AValter it Keilmm. tailoi's, Clark 
Walters, . clerk, Thomas Church 

Walton, Xelson C, merchant, Soutli Water, res Kinzie, bet Dcarhorn 

and Wolcott [died, California, 

Walton, J. W.. dry goods and groceries, South \S''ater 
Wandall, Jolm, baker, res State 
Ward, B. C, clerk, Aloseley .t McCord 
Ward, 'Sirs. Bernard [nee Bath H. Marshall!, Chicago ave, n. of and 

near North-Branch bridge 
Ward, Ctco. L.. receiver U. S. land-<4Kce, 08i< Lake, bds City Hotel 

(died' 188S, aged — . 

\N'ar.l, Hugli, mason [died January 30, 1850. aged — . 

AVard, James, mi'son, res West Uandol[)h, bet Peoria and Saniiamoii 

[died July 0, bSSl, aged 07. 
Ward, James 31., harness maker, Denuison Horton 



Ware, Joseph E., l)oot and slioemnker, 40 Clark 

AVariner, Wells, clevk, John Gage, rlour store 

Warner, George, blacksmith, res Wolcott, bet N. Water and Kinzie 

Warner, Herman, dry goods and oroceries, cor Lake and Wells 

Warner, Mrs. 3Iarv E., teacher piilJic school 2, district 4, Ixisement 

St. James' Episf:'Opal Church. o'2 Cass 
Warner, Samuel 3[., carpenter, res Kinzie, bet Cass and Rush 
Warner, Seth Porter, blacksmith. 42 Randolph near State 

[died June 12, 1892, aged si.., 
Warner. Spencer, car2)enter, s.-vr. cor AVabash avc and A<lams 

[died January 1, 1882, aged ^,0. 
Warner, Wm. S., fanning-mill maker, N. Canal, bet W. Lake and Water 
Warren, , shoemaker, bds Henry Howard 

AVarring, Elias, teamster, res bet AVeils and Franklin 
AVarrington, Henry, machinist, Scoville & Gates, res cor Jelfer. & 3[ad. 
AVashington Coffee-Hoiise. 87 Lake. Thomas & AA'hcelock ( Chas. ). prt^ps. 
AVashington Hall, s.-e.cor X. Clark and X. AA'atcr, John Anderson, prep. 
AVaters, Benjamin, carpenter, 179 AVabash ave 

[died. Palatine, 111.. ALiy 27, 1881, aged 07. 
AA'atson, Alanson, carpenter and builder, rts AV. Adams, l^et Canal and 

Clinton [died April 29, 1879, aged Hi'il. 

AVatson. Elias Doughty, teamster. [died April 1, 1883, aged GJ/^- 

AVatson, Nathan AVliitney, mason i)uilder, .j4th and East-End ave 

[died September 17, 1^49, aged 58-0- j 2. 
AVayman, James B., jiainter, res 5G Franklin, south of Lake 
AVayman, Samuel, ])ainter, ;died Alarch 2o, 1891, Jigcd 79-7-24. 

AVavman AVilliam, wa^on maker, 2-)o K;mdol])h 

[died April 28, 1892. aged 74-1 •)-»>. 
AVaughoj), John AVcsley, tailor, Benjamin Smith, bds James Rockwell 
AVeber, Henry, teamster, res Dutcli Settlement 
AVeber, Ignace, clerk, John B, Busch, 18 Clark 
AVelibter, Hugh. car])enter, res Clark, 1st ward 

Webster, [Gen.; Jose])h Dana, ca{jt:(in U.-S. armv, bds Airs. S. Joh;ison 

[died AFareh 12, 187fi, aged <;4V>. 
AVebstcr, Thomas. carj)enter, res State near Jackson 
Weeks. John, chemist, res 20732 Lake 
AVeeks. John S., brickma.kcr, ^\^K)d 6c Ogden 

AVehrli, Rudolph, butcher jdied Sept. 1.'}, 1889, aged 7(i:'4. 

AVcir, John Brinklev, cabinet maker, 18G Lake, res same 

[died. Xew York, Ala.v 11. 1874, aged n:J. 
AVeiss, Fred'k (John Pfund iSc Co.), res Kinzie, l^et LaSalle and^AVells 
AVcich, John, res south of Jackson, 1st ward 

AYelch, TliOJn.i.s, laborer [died February 11. 1891, aged Tt). 

AVelch, William, laborer, res N, Clark,J)Ct Xorth Water and Kinzie 
AVeller, George, butclicr, res north of Dutch Settlement 
Weller, George, teamster, res Dutch Settlement 
\Veller, John, teamster, res Dutch Settlement 

[died September, 1890, aged 7tJ-ll. 
Weller, John J., res north of Dutch Settlement, Hiram Pearsons' house 

ICO CHICAGO DIRFXTORV, 1843. - ; •' , 

Welles, Henrv AVoolscv, aa't, Farmers" S: Mechanics' Bank of Detroit, 
122 Lake, Ms City Hotel [d.. Aim Arbor, Mich., Sept. 21, 1.8(30, a. 42. 

AVells, Andrew S. (johonnett, W. <t Co.), res Randolph, bet LaSallc 

- andAVells 

Wells, Elisha, carpenter, cor AYolcott and Kinzie, res Illinois 

"Wells, Henry GouM, clerk, Wm. Wheeler ^t Co., res Lake, bet Frank- 
lin and Market [died Decenil)er 2, 1876, agt^i 05. 

Wentworth, Geo. "^Vallinorord, M.D., ;issist. editor Chicago Democrai, 
bds United States Hotel [died Au^-ust 14. 1850. aged 30. 

Wentworth; John, editor, prop., and publisher Chicago Democrat, 
nicinber of congress, 107 Lake, od floor, ])ds City Hotel 

fieth mayor, died. Sherman House, October 16. 1888, aged 7?.i.<. 

Wescott, ^ OV". tt Steele), bds Western Colfte House 

Wescott d: Steele, Western Cotiee House, s.-w. cor Dear})orn and 113 
Soutli ^^'ate^ 

Wesencraft, Charles, carpenter and wagon maker, cor S. Clinton and 
W. Monroe "[died March 28, 1855, agud 63. 

Wesencraft, William, painter, police constable, cor S. Clinton and AY. 
Monroe [died xVpril 22, 1862, aged 47. 

Western Hotel, s.-e. cor W. Randolph and Canal, Edward M. Gregory, 

})rop. : [torn down, ]V!ay, 1889 
Western Citizen, 124 Lake, Z. Eastman and Asa B. Brown, editors 

AVestern Coftee-House, s.-w. cor S. Water and Dearborn, Wescott <fe 
Steele, props. 

Wheeler, Andrew Beach, tobacconist and cigrirmaker, Dearborn nr Lake 

[died July 2, 1874, aged 68. 

A\ heeler, John E., ]>rinter, Ellis k Feri^us 

Wheeler, William (William Wheeler A: Co.), res 147 Lake 

[died November 10, 1878, agvd 69. 

Wiieelcr, William, boot and shoemaker, Clark near n.-w. cor Lake 

Wheeler ^ Co. [Edward Jackson, Toronto, Canada], William, hard- 
ware, tinsmith, stoves, 145 Lake 

"Wheelock, Charles (Thomas ^ W.), Washington CotY. Ho., res 77 Lake 

White, Alex., house and sign j)ainler, 165 Lake, res 83 Wells 

[died. Lake Forest, EL, March 18, 1872, aged 57. 

White, "Black Georire,*" city-cryer 

White, Cliristo}>her, hostler, Turners' livery stable 

Wliite, Isaac, butcher,- Eri Reynolds 

Wliite, Marcus L.. grocery. (Hamilton <Sc W.) ; 

White. >Hchacl. coachman. J. B. F. Russell 

"^N'hite, Patrick, laborer, res Randol})h 

Whitimr, J. Tallman f Whitinir, ^iaoill k Co.), ],ds Wm. L. Whiting 

[died, Detroit, Mich.. February 22, 1893, aged 73. 

WhitinL^ William L. (Whiting, Magill Sz, Co.), res Ontario, bet Cass 
and Rusli " " [died August 17, 1850, aged 55. 

Whiting, Magill k Co., forwarding and commission merchants, Xorth 
Water, cor Kinzie 

Whitlork, Thomas, i>oots and shoes, 104 Lake, res n.-e. cor Wells and 
Madison [died October 13, 1853, aged 53. 


TTlutmarsh. Thomas CraDiner, compositor, Western Citizen^ 124 Lake 
- [died, Hyde Park, Octo].)er 10, 1885, aged 03. 
Whitmore, Jacob, printer, Western Citizen, res State 
TTicker, Charles Giistavus, (Charles G. Wicker & Co.), l)ds Tremont 

[died. Tallahassee, Fla., December m, I88D, aged m%, 
Wicker, Joel Hoxie (Charles G. Wicker & Co.), res Dearborn, l»et 
Washinuton and ^ladison 

died, St. Joseph, ^dich., April 21, 1888, aged 78. 
Wicker & Co., C. G., dry goods and groceries, 94 Lake 
Wiggins, William, car])ent'er, res Xorth Water, bet Wolcott and Kinzie 
Wiffht, (Rev.) Jav Ambrose, assistant-editor Prairie Farmer, Ijds 

Mrs. John Wright [died, Bay City, Tdich., Isov. 12, 1889. a. 78. 

Wight, Sainn, shoemaker, res Kinzie, bet Cass and Rush 
Wilcox, Aaron S., dentist, 

Wilcox. Cvrus S., carpenter, P. L. Updike, [j. Apr. 22, 1890. a. 732^. 
Wilcox. Erastns, caqienter, [d.. Highland Park, 111., Apr. 24, 1890, a. 91. 
Wilcox, Franklin, res E. Wilcox [d., Jetlerson Barracks, 3Io., 1849, a. — . 
Wilcox, Sextus X., luml)er nicrchant, res E. A\'ilcox 

[drowned in Lake Su])erior, June 15, 1881, aged 55. 
Wilcox, Theodore B., book-kee})er. res E. Wilcox 
Wild, Josc])h. carf)euter, res cor ^\'est Monroe and Desjdaines 
Wilder, Alden G., teacher public school 1, dis'trict 4 

[died December 13, 1871, aged — . 
Vrilder, Benjamin, contractor, Clark near and south of Twelfth 

[died, Rockford. 111., March 13, 1877, aged 82. 
Wilder, .John, clerk, res State 

AVilder, Nathaniel Patten, clerk, John KinL^ jr., bds Mrs. Green 
Wiliard, Aloiizo Joseph, general utility, City Refectory, 17 Dear])orn 
AVillard, Elisha Wheeler, clerkU.-S. receiver's oliice, res 90 Michigan ave 
Wiliard. Dr. Silvester, [died, Auburn, N.Y., :Mch. 12, 1886, aged 88. 
"W'illcmin, Josei)h, teamster, res n.-w. cor Green Bay and Hinsdale 

[died. Alina])ee, Wis.. February 8, 1885, aged 84, 
Williams, Charles, cooper, Xortli ^Vater, bet Dearborn and Wolcott 
"Williams, Charles, laborer, res West Water, bet Canal and Clinton 
AVilliams, Eli B., jnerchant, res Washington, net State and Dear1)orn 

[died. Paris, France, .Alarch 24, 1881, 83d year: 
Williams, [Judur'l Erastus Smith, law-student, Butterlleld & Collins 

[died February 24, 1884, aged (yd. 
Williams, John C., clerk, Benjamin W. Raymond, South Water 

[died December 12, 18G5, aged — . 
Willis, .Tase])h, blacksmith, Vrilliam Otis Snell 
Willis, Samnol, hatter, res Clark, 1st ward 
'Wills, Solomon, Circuit Court clerk's office, res 187 State 
Wilson, jr., Adam, blacksmith. South Branch. W. Jackson, 3d ward 
"Wilson, ]^>enjandn, laborer, Gurdon S. Hubbard 
Wilson, l)ani('l T.. cook, Samuel Jackson, res Fort T)earl)orn 
Wilson, John Lii.-,h, merchant, 171 Lake, bds Tremont Ibmse 

[died April 13, 1888, aged 75i. 
Wilson, John C, carpenter, res Xorth AV'ater near Franklin 

102 CHICAGO DIRECTORY, 1843. . . ,' - 

"Wilson, Joseph, milk dealer, res "West Lake near Union Park 

[died March 10, 1893, aged SS. 
"Wilson, James D., bds Mrs. Seth Johnson [died June 8, ISGo, a. 60. 
"Wilson, ]Matthew, shipcarpenter, res Washing t'n, bet Wells and Franklin 
"Wilson, Thomas, niill\vri<>ht, S. Branch, soutli of Jackson, Sd ward 
"Wineoar, Samuel (John F. Lessey & Co.). "bds City Refectory 
"VMnship, James, liaker, bds Joseph Wlnsliip 

[died. Englewood. 111., Xoveniber 28. 1888, aged 03-T-3. 
TVinship, Joseph, liread and cracker baker, 71 Soutli Water 

[died, Norwood Park, Cook Co.. 111., January 18, 1871, aged 7Gi^. 
"Winshi]). 3Ioses Day, clerk. Sidney Sawyer, bds JosejJj W'inshij) 
"Winslow, Ilezekiah J. (Humphreys & W.), bds City Hotel 
W'ischemeyer, Henry, luml)crman, John M. Underwood 
"Wischemoyer, William, luml)ermau, John 31. Underwood 
"Witbeck, Henry, (Pierce ik ^\\), res West W^ater 

[died April 13, 1801, aged 7:-r>.l^. 
W^olcott, Alex., surveyor, bds H. AYolcott [died Aug. Il,"l884. a. 69. 
W'olcott, Edward, clerk, Lerov M. Bovce, bds Heury'Wolcott 

[died, Xice, France, February'lS, 1884. aged 02. 
Wolcott, Henry, clerk, post-oflice, res n.-e. cor Wolcott and Kinzie 

[died Aprih 5, 1840, aged 08. 
Wolcott, Henry Huntington, clerk, TIum])hreys & W^inslow, bds 

City Hotel ' [died. Brooklyn, X.Y.^. Sept. 28. 1800, aged 74. 

Wollinger, Thomas [one of the John Stone jury 

Wood, Alonzo Church, mason builder, res Cass, bet Indiana and Ohio 

[died :\Iarch 18, 1802, aged 80-8-14. 
Wood (Alonzo C.) tfc OgdCn's OYni. B.) brickyard 

Wood, Daniel T., lumber salesman [died May 28, 1883, aged 73 i£. 

Wood, James, carpenter, res S. Clinton, bet Washington and Madison 
Wood, James L., cabinet maker, Caleb Morgan 
Wood, Lawrence D., cal»inet maker, Lake 
Woods, Charles, groceries, 81 South AYater 

AA'oodbury, Adoniram Jud.son, clerk, Bristol S: Porter, bds ^Monroe 
AV'oodljury, Hiram, clerk, T. AY. Sa]isl)ury, bds ^Irs. C. AYoodl.iiry 

[died. Kimball, Dak., April 2, 1887, agvd ylA 
AYoodbury, ^frs. C, res Clark, bet Harrison and Polk 
AYoodruff, Jose])h, shingle maker, .5th ward 
AYoodyille, Nelson Delevan, ])rinter, bds AYcstern Hotel 
AYoodworth. Hiram P., contractor [d. Hennepin, 111., 1851. a. 57. 
AVoodworth, Janvs Hutchinson, merchant 

[10th mayor, died, Highland Park, 111., March 20, 1^00, aged Ol}^. 
AVoodworth, Roliert J., mercliant, res Clark near Randolph 
AV'ooster, David N. (W. 6c llarmim), res 185 Waixish ave 

[died, Avon, 31 o., 1854, agvd 4?>, 

AVooster S: Harmon, dry goods and-groceries, 111 South AA'ater 
AVorccsler. D. L.. clerk, Horace Norton 6c Co., res Wal)ash ave 
AVorthinghi'iu. AViliiam, mason, res 99 Adams, near Clark 

[removed about Pi50 to St, J^aul, Alinn., and die<l Ihere. 
Wruight, Thomas, gardener, near AV'est AYashington, 3d wai'd 


AYriglit, EJ^vard, liiw-student, bds ^Trs. Hulda Wriglit, ]\ricbigan are 

[suicide, December 24, 1873, aged 47. 
"Wriabt, Jobn Stepbeiiv editor and ])voprietor Frai7^ie Farmer 

[died, Pbiladelpbia, Pa.. Se])t. 2G, 1874, aged 51). 
■\Vrigbt, ^Irs. Hulda, M'id. of .Jobn, IIG 3Iicbigan ave, s.-w. cor Madison 

[died April 13, 18o4, aged G7. 
Wrigbt, P. R.. carpenter, res "W. "^Yater, ])et liandolpb and Wasbingtou 
"\Yrigbt, Timotby. luls 3rrs. .Jobn "^Yriglit [lives New York City. 

AYriiht, Walter,' attorney at law, 112 Lake, 1:)ds ^Irs. Jobn Y^^-iobt 

[died October 25, 187G. aged 57. 
Wurts, Alfred Pettit, res Micbigan ave 

[died. Jk'loit, Wis.. xVngiist 5, 1879, aged 681^. 
Wurts, :Maurice (M. ^ M. A. W.), l)ds A. P. \Yurts 
AYiirts, ^lanrice A. (:\I. .t 31. A. \Y.). bds A. P. Wurts 
Wiirts, ]M. 6z ^l. A., dry goods and groceries, 99 Lake 

Y'ard, Arcbilntld Pierson, tailor, Cbas. Taylor, bds Samuel IT. Gilbert 

[resides Waukegan, III. 
Yarno, Jolm, sbipcar])enter, res Dearborn, soutb of ]\[adisou 

[died. Sauk City, Minn., Decenil)er 24, 1881, aged 70. 
Yates, Horace Harris, family grocer, 39 Clark, res Clark, bet Aladison 

and ]Monroc 
Yoe, Peter Lynch, l)Ook-kee])er, Gurnee it ]\iatteson 
Y'ook, Peter, laborer, res soutb of Jackson 
Young, A. AY., medical student. Dr. Daniel Brainard 
Young, Elislia (William *.t Elisba Y''.), res Soutb Water 
Younir,' Hugh, cari)enter, res "NYasliington, bet Wells and Franklin 
Young Alen's Association, library and reading-room, 37 Clark, 2d tloor 

C. R. Larralicc, librarian 
Y'oung, William (\Yilliam e'c Elisba Y.) 
Young, William ^ Elisba, South Water 

Zieglcr, Isaac, pedlcr, bds Wa>hingtqn Hall [died Oct. 10, 1893, a. 85. 

If YOU can supply an omission, correct a 

name, add a date or a number, please forward same for 
insertion in a later edition, to 

Blanks furnished on application. 185 Illinois St., Chicago. 

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Names, places,* dates, and ages at death of some of 
Chicago's Old Settlers, prior to 184.3, and other 
well - knov/n citizens who arrived after 1843, 
together \vith others prominently connected 
with Illinois history : 

Adams, E. F., died xV^ril 13, 1885, a^cd 72. 

Adams, Soro-t. Jo?eph,\lied, S. Evaiistoii, 111., June 9, 1885, a. S9i^. 
Adams, William Ilejiry, died jNlay 12, 1877, a.Hcd 6i. 

Aldrich, William, grocer, ex.-M. C, died, FoiKl-dn-Lac, Wis., 

December 3, 1885, aued Go. 
Allen, Archibald, lake'-captaiii, died. Bull'alo, N.Y., Dec. 1, 1818. 
Allen, Col. James, U. S. Army, died. Fort Leavemvorlh, Kansas, 

August 2o, 1810. acred 40. 
Allport, Dr. AYalier' Webb, dentist, died March 21, 1893, a. 09-9. 
Amberg, Adam Louis, died January 4, 1890, aged 491:2. 
Anderson, ^.lajor Robert, died, Nice, France, Oct. 20, 1871, a. 65. 
Andrews, David, died, Kensington, 111, May 29, 1885, aged 77. 
Archer, Col. AVillijim ]»., died 

Armour, George, died, Brighton, Eng., June 13, 1881, aged 09. 
Armstrong, Geo. Buchanan, postal service, d. May 25, 1871, a. 48-6. 
Ayrcs, Enos. real-estnce, died eJuly 10, 1890, aged 82-2-15. 
Eailly, Jo=e])h, died, Baillytown,'lnd., December 21, 1835, aged 61. 
Baker, William D.. •'ii-iraver, died August 23, 1871, aged 45. 
Balcom, UrI, lumber, died November 1, 1893, aged 78-5-15. 
Balestier, Joseph Xcree, lawyer, died. Brattleboro, Vt., iSeptembcr 

15, 1888. ai«-ed 74^. 
Ballentyne, Jas. F.. printer, d., San Diego, Cab, July 12, 1870, a. 49. 
Baragw-auath. William, machinist, died Sept. 20, 1888, nged 08;l<. 
I>arber, Er-niuel, died February 4, 1883, aged 72^^. 
Barnett, Geori!-e. died, Lockport, Will C^o., 111., Jan. 5, 18G1, a. — . 
Bai-ry, Bev. NVilliam, died January 17, 1885, aged 893^. 
Bates, Edward, lawyer, president River-an<l-lIarbor (Convention, 

Chicago. Julv^ 5-7. 1817: Lincoln's attorney-general; died, St. 

Louis". >[o., March 25, 1809, aged 75-0-21. 
Bates, Eii, lumber merchant, philanthropist, d. Jan. 28, 1880, a. 71. 
Bates, George C., lawyer, died, Denver, Col.', Feb, 11, 1880, a. 71. 
Bates, Ivinzie, U.S.xV.' 


* In most cases, except as otherwise stated, the deaths occurred in Chicago. 


I06 ' OBITUAKY. - 

B:iv, Henry B., died, Bloonniiotoii, 11].. Mareh 10, 18G0, aged — . 
Beaubien, Cliarles Henry, died. Gross Point, 111., 1858, ii^Jcd 51. 
Beaubien. "Medore Benj., d., Silver Lake, Kas., Dec. 26. 1883, a. 713^ 
Beckw'iili, Corydon, lawyer, died Auuust — , 1890, aued — . 
Beeclier, Rev. Ilenry Ward, died, Brooklyn, KY., March 8, 1887, 

aged 71. 
Bell, Hon. Diubv V., educator, died, Battle Creek, Micli, Oct. 28. 

1871,aoed 68. 
Benlk'V, Cyrus, lawyer, died, Bochester, N.Y., June 21, 1888, a. GS. 
Betts. L)r. Josiah P.,' died, Kaskaskia, 111., after 1811. 
BiLiclow, Capt. Abraham, U. S. X., died April 3, 18C1, aged 03. 
Biiiclow, George A., died !M.arcli 28, 1872, aged 35. 
Bigelow! Liberty, died, Melrose, Boston, Mass., May 1, 1800, a. 75. 
Birkbeck, ]Morris, first settler Edwards County, drowned in Fox 

Eivcr. between Albion, 111. and Xew Ilarnionv, Ind., June 4, 
. 1825, aged 62: .secretary of state, 1821-5. 
Bishop. Albro E., died Xoveniber 15. 1880, aged 66. 
Bissell, Gov. ATm. IL, doctor, lawver, soldier, died, Springtleld, 

111., March 18, 1860, aged 18-9-21. 
Blackvv-ell, Robert S., lawyer, died Mai'cli 16, 1860, aged 51. 
Blair, Chauncey Bulkley, banker, died Jan. 30, 1891, aged 80-7-12. 
Blair, George, tailor, died February 13, 1812, aged 10. 
Blair, Lyman, died (suicide) September 25, 1883, aged 68. 
Blake, Capt. Cheslev, soldier and lake-captain, died, Milwaukee, 

Wis., October 3, 1819. aged 60. 
Blanke, Judge Geo. Frederick, lawyer, d. July 28, 1895, a. 62-9-26. 
Blatchford, Rev. John. died. St. Louis, Mo., Apr. 8, 1855, aged 59. 
Bogart, Dr. llenrx' Xau dei", died, Xaperville, 111., April 8, 1835, 

aged 25. 
Bolles, Peter, died, Xew-York Citv, August 19, 1839, au-ed 15. 
Bond. Ezra, died before :Nrarch 9, 1852. 
Bontiehl, Joseph, lawver, died Februarv 19, 1881, aged 10. 
Borein, Rev. Peter Rubel. died August'l5, 1839, aged 29. 
Bowen, Chauiicev Thomas, mercJiant, died, Ciiester, Mass., Mar. 5, 

1896. aged 63-6-20. 
Bowon, James Harvcv, died Mav 1, 1881, aged 59. 
Bradley, MaJ. Ilezekiah, U. S. A"!, died May 18, bS26, aged 10. 
Bradweil, Myra Colby, lawyer, editor Chicago Legal JS^etcs, died 

Fein-uary 21. I>s91, aged 63.. 
Bi-ngg, ;Maj. Frederii-k Au«jiistus, died April 5, 1887, aged 57;'(. 
Branigaii, James. dic«l b<d'ore January 2, 1819. 
Braiiniioh!. (;;u>tav, bookbinder, died, St. Charles, Ilk, Februarv 

18, 1890, aged 75 'p 
Breese, J'.»iah S., died, 
Breese, Ju(lg<; and Senator Sidney, d., Pinckiic}'villo, Ilk, JuriC 27, 

1878, aire <i 78. 
Bro]isun, Arthur, capitalist, died. New York, Nov. 19, 1811, a. — . 
liros-, Gen. John Armstrong, killed, Petersburgjj, Ya., July 30, 

1861, aged 38 1.^. 

' ■'. } 

•i:> >! I. , !,'• \ 

i" -'.)!: 


OBITUARY. ; '^07 

Bross, Phiiieus Camp, died July 22. 1S59, :\ged oi}4 ' ' ■ ' 

Bross, Gov. Wiiliam, died January 27, 1800. aized 7G. 
BroT\'u. Joliu J., died Aug-ust 13, iS50, aged 10. 
Brown, Wiliiaiu. died Suiiimit. Coolc Co.. June 28, 1819. aged 08. 
Browning. Orville Hickman, lawyer, died August 10, 1881, a. 71. 
Buck, George, druggist, died October 3. 1889, aged 62. 
Buckingliam. Gen. Cathrinus Putnam, died Aug. 20, 1888, a. 80. 
Buckley, John, found frozen, January 1(5. 1849, aged — . 
Bucklin, James ]N[., civil-engineer, died GreeJicastle, Ind., April 

12, 1S9U. .iged >7. 
Burgess, AVm. Tlieobold, lawyer, died Oct. 31. 1895, aged 78-11-26. 
Burling-amo, Anson, died, St. Petersburg, llusbia, Feb'y 23, 1873, 

aged ol^-i- 
Burlingame, Rev. Joel, died, Arlington Heights, Cook Co., TIL, 

Januarv 6, 1883, aged 83. 
Burnet. G^en. Ward B., died, AVashington, D.C., June 24, 1881, 

aged 73. 
Burnside. Gen. Ambrose Everett, died, Bristol, R.T., Septend)er 1 3, 

.1881, aged 57. 
Burr, Jonathan, philanthropist, died February 4, 1869, aged 75. 
Butler, Walter, capitalist, died August 8, 1851. aged — . 
Byfoi-d. Dr. Arilliam Heath, died May 21. 1890, aged 73. 
Caldwell, Billy (Indian chief " Sauganash"), died, Cotmcil Blulfs, 

Iowa, September '26, 1841 , aged 60. 
Campbell, Benj. II., capitalist, drovrned Nov. 26, 1890, aged — . 
Campbell, Georiie L. i Good-ell & C.),died, Cleveland, O., Sept. 

28, 1842, aged "'28. 
Campbell, AlaJ. James B., died, St. Charles, Mo., Jaimary 3, 1873. 
Carpenter, xVlxd E., died, Aurora, HI., December 8, 1882, aged 69. 
Cari)enter, j><'n)amin, packer, died April 9, 1881, aged 71-4-5. 
Carter, Aricmns. died ^lay 13. 1877. aged 64. 
Caiwer, lienjamin F., banker, died May 23, 1893, aged 61. 
Casey, Edward W., lawyer, died, Xew Ham]>shire, after 1842. 
Cass. Gen. aii'l Gov. Lewis, died, Detroit, Mich., June 17, 186G, 

aged 84. 
Catiin, Seth, diec] January 18, 1863, aged 50. 
Canlfield. ]i.,-riiai-d G., lawver, died, Deadwood, D. T., December 

19. 1887, a2-.'d 59. 
Chadwick, William Peach, died December 12, 1892, aged 67-1-27. 
Chapin, Ebf-r J., died Februarv 5, 1883, aged 67. , 
Ciiapin, Orson, died August 28. 183!), age<i 22. 
Chapman, I[arv(;v H., died. Warehouse Point, Conn., February 

19, 1882, aged 33. 
<'iiase, Cliarles Carroll, abstracts, dh^l December 4. 1895, aged 66. 
Chase, Sannicj Blanchard. abstracts, died Mar. 27, 1896, a: 72-5-1. 
Chickering'-, John W., lawyer, died March 3. 1877, aged — . 
C]iu)na.«;ero, John 'J\vron, nicrchant, died A])ril 15, 1896, aged 56. 
C lark, Gen. George Rogers, died, near Louisville, Kv., January 13, 

iS18, aged 65. 


lOS OBITUARY. ': ■ ' _■ -.■- 

Clark, Gen. and Gov. \Viii.. died, St. Louis. :Mo., Sept. 1. 1838, a. 68. 
Clarke. Charles Frederick, banker, died Oct. 8, 1893. aged 37-1-11. 
Clarke. John Vaiiuhan, gTocer, banker, died Aug. 8, 1892, aged G7. 
Clarke, Geo. C, in?, art. d.. Thomasville, Ga.. Apr. 5. 1887. a. 49. 
Clarke, Dr. Henry, died, AVahvorth. Wis., before April 23, 1853, ■ 

aged 60. 
Clarke. Xormi.n, died. Racine,' Wis, Febrnary 28, 1S85. aged 80. 
Clvboiirn, Henlev. died, Westville. Ind., 1S7G. a^ed 72. 

Clybourn. Capt. John Henry. 19th 111. Vols., d. Sept. 20, 187o, a. 38. 
Clvl)ourn. Jonas, fttrier of Archibald and Henlev, died, Westville^ 

ind.. July 21, 1S12. aged — . 
Cobb. Edwin, died. West Xorthlield, Cook Co., 111., April 21, 1885^ 

aged 81. 
Cobb. George W.. died July 11. 1885, aged 65. 
Cobb, George Warriniiton. merchant, died Jan. 21, 1894, a. 89-4-13. 
Cobb. James W.. machinist, died July 6, 1890, aged 75. 
Cobb, Zenas, jr., first inventor of sleepuig-car, died. LosAngeles^ 

Cab. Januarv 15, 1886. aged 681^^. 
Coffey. Patrick, died Mayl8, 1858, aged — . 
CofliM. Frederick, died. CJswego, 111.. January 22, 1884, aged 67. 
Coffin. Joseph Warren Chase, died 
Colbv. Eben Franklin, died AultusI 10, 1884. aired 68-^. 
Cole^, Gov. Edward, died. Phila'., Pa., July 7, i'868. aged 81i^. 
Collier, Rev. Roijert Laird, died, "The Everglades,'' N. J., July 

26, 1890, aged 52-10-19. 
Collins, George C. died 
Colvin, Ilarvev Doolittle, airent U.-S. Express, 22d mavor, died 

April 16, 1892, aged 76-3-26. 
Conant. Rev. Augustus JL. died February 8, 1863, aged — .• 
Cook, Ihirton C. lawyer, d., Evanston, 111., Aug. 18. 1894. a. 75-3-7. 
Cook. Daniel Pope, lawyer, died, Kentucky, Oct. 16, 1827, aged 33. 
Cooke, Daniel Brainanl, bookseller, died October 21, 1^84, aged 59. 
Cooke, Richard E.. died April 15, 1885, aged 63. 
Cool1>a!igh, William Findlay, suicide, Xov. 14, 1877, aged 5Gi<. 
Cor^e, Gen. John M.. died, Winchester,. Mass., Apr. 27, 1893, ;i. rS. 
Corwith, Heiu-y, died, Gibson's Lake. Wis., Sept. 15, 1888, a. 75}^. 
Corwith, Xathan. died 1889, aged 73. 

Coventrv, Alex. C, lawver, died, Xcw-York Citv, ^March 6, 1872. 
CovN-lf-s, Alfred, lawyer, d., San Diego, Cab, Xov. 16, is87. a. 100-4-5. 
Cowles. Alfred; man:iiier Chicago Tribune^ d. Dec. 20, 1889, a. bl^i,. 
Craft-'. John, died ' , 1825. 

Crawford, Petei-. died November 2, 1876, aged 81i{. 
Crertr, John, merchant, capitalist, philantliropist, died October 

19. 1889. aged 65. 
Crocker. Hans, lawyer, died, Milwaukee, Wis., Mar. 17, 1889, a. 73. 
Cronin, Dr. Patrick Henry, murdered May 4, 1889, aged — . 
Cro.ok=. Ram«:ay, dir-d, Xe'w-York City, June 6, 1859, aged 72i^. 
Cullertoii, Edwiird. died July 13, 18^5, aged 93. 
Curtis, Rev. Harvey, died, Galcsburg, 111., Sept. 18, 1862. 





D:i9'2v, Peter, Ifiwver. land coiamissioner Illinois Centnil Railway, 

died July 14, 1S\'6. a^-ed 76-S-19. 
Dale, AVilliam McI\Iillan, drno'uist, died, Charlevoix, Mich., Julv 

31, 1888, ao-ed 45. ' ^^ 

Dalliba, James E., died, Marquette. :\[ich., ^[ar. 23, 1894, aged 72. 
Day, Lieut. Hannibal, died, Morristown, N.J., Mar. 26. ISOi, a. 86. 
Dean. Siias TisdelJ, musician, died Jaiuiarv 12, 1889. aged 71. 
Dearborn, Gen. Henry G. R., died, Roxbury, Mass., Nov. 21, 1884, 

aged 75. 
Dearl>orn. Gen. Henrv, died June 6, 1829, aged 78. 
DeCamp, Surg. Sam'l' G. T., died, Saratoga, N.Y., Sept. 8, 1871, a. — . 
Derby, William M.. died December 6, 1892, aged 67-11. 
Devine, Peter, boiler-mai:er, died January 7, 1890, aged 57. 
Dewev, Dr. Erasius. died 

DeWolf, Henrv, treasurer 111. Cent. Rv, died Oct. 10, 1893, a. 49. 
DeWolf, Lieut. William, died, Washington, D.C., June 2, 1862, 

a^ed 20. 
DeWolf, AVilliam Frederick, died July 25, 1896, aged 85. 
Dexter, Wirt, Inv/ver, died Mav 17, 1890, aii-ed 57. 
Dickens, Augustus X., "Boz.'' died October 4, 1866. aged 40. 
Dickey, Judge Theophilus Lyle. died, Atlantic City, N. J., July 

23, 1885. aged 743^. 
Dit'tzsch, Emil, ex-coroner, died September — , 1890. aged — . 
Dogsrett, Mrs. Kate Xewell, wid. of Wm. E., died, Havana. Cuba. 

:Marcli 13, 1884. a. — : founder of "Tlie Fortnightly of Chicago."' 
Doggett, AVilliam Elkanah. died April 3, 1876, {rged'55>.^. 
Dooiittlc, Elijah, died, Joliet, III. 

Duolittle. James R.. jr., lawyer, died August 8, 1889, aged 44. 
Doty, Tlie<jdoru-, died June 11, 1885, aged 83xi. 
Douglas, Capt. Beiijaniin, died, Bloomlield, X.J., Decendjer, 1882. 
Douglas, Judge John M., died Mai-cli 26, 1891, aged 70-7-4. 
Douglas, Senator St*'])hen Arnold, died July 3, 1861, aged 48. 
Douglass, Lieut. William M., died by poison, Aug. 8, 1875, a. 57. 
Douglass, Charles, died. 

Downinir, Daniel, •' Siinnysido." died October 8, 1892, aged 77. 
Doyle, Simou, cattle dealer, died November, 1851. 
Drake, John Burroughs, hotel, died Xoveraber 12, 1895, aged 70. 
Driscoll, D'.unrA I)., iawver, shot De«-ember 21, 1871, aged 45. 
Drummond, Jiulge Thoiiia^, d., Wheaton, III., May 15, 1890, a. 80-7. 
Dnuiimond, Judi^e Wm. W. (Utah), 'lied Xov. 20, 1888, aged — . 
Dubois, Jesse K.^died, Springtield, 111., Nov. 24. 1876, aged — . 
L>ucat, Gen. Arthui- Charles, insurance, died, Downei-'s Grove, 111., 

Januarv 29, 1.^06. M^-'-d 65-11-5. 
Diick, Dr. (;ii:is. Hill. died. Philadefphia, Pa., Nov. 12, 1880, a. 62. 
i>nrjham, John JFi^h, 'jrocer, died April 28, 1893, aged 75-9. 
l>urilop, Gf'orge, died Aprils, ISGO. 
L>^nil;ip, Matthias Lano, '• Rural," died on his ftirm, Champaigi> 

County. III., about Februarv 14, 1875, aged 60i^. 
I^iitch, Alfred, editor, died November 7, 1878, aged 78. 


J)yclie. Dr. David IJiper. died. Evansloii. 111., Au_o'. 4, 1893, a. — . 
Dyer Clarence IL. coal. died. AVoodstock, Yr.. Aug-. 10, 1894. a. 51. 
Earlev, Georue \V., died April 7. 1885. aged 7:3. 
Eckhart. Tlioma>. caterer, died March i2. 1891. ai^-ed 65-3-19. 
Eddy, AVilliam H., •• Horse Eddy,'' died Feb. 21,1896. aged 75. 
Edoell. Stephen M.. died. St. Louis. Mo,. Oct. 19, 1883, naed 73. 
Eaan, Dr. Clia?. Bradshaw. d.. Blue Island, 111., Feb. 3, 1878, a. 72, 
Etliott, Franklin P.. paper, d.. Oak Fark, 11!., Jan. 10. 1893, a. 58-6. 
Ellis, Dr. J. Vrard. dentist, died December 20. 1890. aged 62. 
Ellison, Col. John A., anctioneer, died Sept. 26, 1893, aged 67, 
Ells^^orth, Col. Ephraim Elmer, killed, Alexandria, Va,, May 24, 

1861, aged 24; organized, March, 1869, and commanded U.-S. 

Zouave Cadet-;, military champions of America, 1860. 
Ellsworth. Lewis, died. Xaperville. Dupage Co., 111., January 15, 

1885, ao-ed 80. 
Evans, ^iichael. -By Dang," died July 31, 1894, aged Go. 
Fake, Henry, died becember — , 1884. aged — . 
Farnum. Henry, died, Mew Haven, Conn., Oct. 4, 1883, a. 80-6-25. 
Ferry, M^illiarn Henry, died ]March 26, 1880, aged — . 
Field, Bciijaniin. sieeping-car promoter, d. Xew-York State, 18 — . 
Field, Ilenrv, drv-aoods merchant, died Dec. 22, 1890, aged 49. 
Filkins, Jolin. d'ied, Morris, III, April, 1854, aged 44. 
Filkins, Joseph, died November 12. 1857, aged 52. 
FHnt, Dr. Au-tiu. died. New York City, March 13, 1886, aged 73)^. 
Flolo, William, died December 14, 1885, aged 57-4-21. 
Flower, George, first settler of Edwards Co., died, Grayville, 111., 

Januarv 15, 18G2. aued 74. 
Foley, lii'shop Thumas. dird February 10, 1879, aged 56. 
Foltz, Conrad, jailor, died October 16, 1890, aged 64. 
I'oot, Dii.vid A., died, Ivavenswood, Cook Co., 11., December 27, 

1881, ao-ed 59. 
Forbes, Stephen Yanllensselaer, died February 11, 1879, aged 81^^. 
Ford, Thomas, lawyer, judge, and governor, died, Peoria, 111., 

Noveud)er 3, 1850, aged 5<,>. 
Forrest, Hem-y Lawrence, banker, died Oct. 24. 1860, aged 42^^. 
Forsyth. Thomis. Iiulian agent, died, St. Louis, ;Mo.,'Oct. 20, 1833, 

aged 62; half-brother of Ji^hn Kinzie. 
Forsythe. John, died September 22. 1885, aged oo. 
ForsVth, Ptobert, died. Savannah, Ga., April 15. 1885, aged 60i<. 
Forsyth, KobertA., died, D<'troit, Mich., Oct. -21, 1849, aged 53. 
Fostei-, Lieut. Amos Bancroft, shot by a private, at 

Fort Hov,'ard. Green P.av, Wi-.. Februaiy 7, 1832. aged 30. 
Fox, IL.rry, died. Salt Lake City. Utah, Sept. 4, 1883, aged 57. 
Frank, Arncdd, uicrchant, dien*Sei)tember 20, 1893, ai^-ed 78. 
Freeman, Ptcv. Allen B.. died Df'cendx>r 17, 1834, aged 27. 
Freei', Dr. Joseph Warren, died April 12, 1877, aged 61. 
French, George ira-kel, hotel-keeper, died Nov. 1, 1870, aged 54. 
Fry, Gen. Jacob, dir-d, 
Fuller, Sanmel Worcester, lawyer, died October 25, 1873, a. 51i.2. 

I -J J, 

[J .Mil 


Funnaii, Licnt. John G., died August 29, 1830, aged 20. 

Gage, David A., hotel-keeper, died, Charlcstowii, N.H., April 12, 

1889. aged — . 
Gage, George ^Y., hotel-keeper, died Sept. 24-, 1875, aged 63 ^,. 
Gage, Thoinis Q., died, MeiVHiiinee, Midi., May 18, ISSl, au^xl 73. 
Gale, Daniel AVarreii, merchant, died April 13. lS9fi, aged 73. 
Gallup, Benjamin Elo., kawyer, died Dec. 1, 1895, aged 69-4-19. 
Garrison, Andrew, lawyer, died June 17, 1888, aged 6S. 
Gassetto, Xornian T.. real estate, died March 26, 1891, a. 51-11-5. 
Gates, Caleb F., merchant, died June 9. 1890. aged 66. 
Gaubert, Charles 11., died :March 21. 1884, aged 60. 
Gavin, Isaac 11,. ex-slieriti", d., Wankegan, Lake Co., III.. 1818, n. — . 
Germain, George 11.. died, Eseanaba, Mich.. Dec. 6. 1882, aged QQ. 
Gibbs, Dr. Aaron, dentist, died August 3, 1890, aged 83. ' 
Gillespie, Judge Joseph, died. Ed wardsville.llL, Jan. 7, 1885. a. 76'^.< 
Gillmore. llol)ert A., drowned August 9. 1867, aged — . 
Gilmaii, Mai*cus D., grocer, died, Montpclier. Yt.."jau. 5. 1889. a. — . 
Gilpin, Henry D.. lawver, phihinthropist, died. Philadelphia. Pa., 

January 29, 1860, aged 58-9-15. 
C'indele, John George, died Jaiuiarv 20, 1872. aged 58. 
Gowlell, J. ^Y.. dici'l." Somonauk, III., Febrnarv 23, 1885, aired 72. 
Goodhue, Dr. Josiah C, died, Pockford, Ilk, Dec. 31, 1847,' a. — . 
Gooding-, Jas])cr Augustus, died, Gooding-'s Grove, 111. Dec. 6, 

1855, aged A[\i. 
Gooding, Will iani E., died Mnrch 4, 1878. aged 75. 
Goodrich, Lakr-capt. Albert E., died September 14, 1885. agpd 59, 
Goodwin, John, horseslioer. died September 16, 1885, aged 8b. 
Goodwin, S. A., died 2klay 14. 1879, aged 73. 
(iossage, Charles, died January 5, 1883. aged 53. 
Goudy, AVilliam Calvin, lawyei-, died xVpril 27, 1893. aged 69. 
Graham. Gen. James Duncan, died Decembcn- 2S, 1865, aged 73. 
Grant, elames. lawyer, died. (Jaklaml, Cak, Mar. 14, 1891', aged 78. 
Gi-ant, Gen. Ulysses Simpson, died. ^It. MacGregor, N.Y.. Julv 

23, 1885, aired 63i_|. 
Green, Georiie Wills, suicided in Cook-Co. jail. Feb. 24, 1855. a. — . 
Grimwood, Xeuion S., reporter, lost in Lake Michigan, July 15, 

1875, with Prof. Donaldson's balloon, aged — . 
Grubb, Georgf' (L. died. Cliesterto]i, Ind., Decem1)er 7, 1886, a. — . 
Gurney, Theodor." Tnthill, lawyer, died Xov. 9, 1886, aged 66. 
Guthrie, Alfred, died August 17, 1882, aijed 77. 
Cuthrie, Jamr s. died, Suinniif. HI.. Julv 3, 1810, aged 89. 
Guthrie, Peter, died. St. Charles, 111., October 21, 1861, a^'ed 54. 
1 fa ^cr, 1 ' rof. A I ! )ert Da v id . d i ( -d .1 u I y 29. 1 888, aged 71.^^ 
Hahn, Jairios Au'justus, }>hysici:nT, died Oct. 25, 1875, aged 71^3. 
Haines, Elijali ^.1 iddlebj-ook. tailor, lawyer, politician, died, Liber- 

tyville. 111., April 25, ]88i>, aged 68. 
l^^'JUlIn, Clark Kates, treasurer, died Sept. 2. 1883, ao-ed 41. 
Ihninuond. Col. Charles Goodricli, died April 15, 1884, a^ed SO. 
Huicock, Col. John L., di'.-d Fel)ruarv 17, 1890, aged 77. ^ 


FTandr. Maj. Henrv S., contractor^ died, Baviield, Mich., 18-i6, a. 42. 

Hansen. Gcoroe F.', died May 21, 1883, ao'cd 71. 

Hardy, Isaac. ^:lied, LaSalle, 111., September 14, 1864, a-cd 61. 

Harmon. Isaac Dewey, died April 9, 1880, a,ii-ed 72. 

Harmon. Martin, flitlier of I. X. and E. E.. died 

Harris. Uriah Peter, clothier, C. E. fire dep't, d. June 2, '71, a. 53)^. 

Harrison, Carter Henry, 25th mayor of Chicago, assassinated at his 

home, Oct. 28, 1893, 8 p.m., by Engene Patriclv Joseph Prender- 

gast,.aged 6S-8-13. 
Harvie, Andrew, attorney-at-hiw. died January 14, 18G3, aged 56. 
Hatfield. Key. Kobert M.\ died, Eyanston. [IL.'Apr. 1. 1891, a. 73. 
Hathaway, Dr. Otis P., died January 20, 1896, aged 74. 
Hatliayray, "Wm. G., sahool-teachcr, died Courtland, N.Y., Jan. 8, 

1891, aged — . 
Hayen, Cai-los, died May 3. 1862, aged 383><. 
HaA'cn, Luther, died Man^h 9. 1806, a^'cd 59, 

Hayen. Dr. Samuel Rush, d.. New Lenox, IlL, May 4, 1890, a. 63i^. 
Hayden, Peter, sadlery, died, Xew-York City, April 6, 1888, a. 82. 
Hayes, Saiauel Snowdon. died Jannarv 23, 1880, aged 59. 
Heahl. Capt. Xathan, died, St. Charles.^ Mo., Apr. 27, 1832, aged 57. 
Heath, Monroe, paints. 24th mayor, died, xVshyille, N. C, October 

21, 1894, aged 67. ' 
Hempslead, Edward, lumber, d., Eyanston, 111., May 2, 1895, a. 75, 
Henderson, Charles Mather, merchant, d. Jan. 23, 1896, a. 01-10-2. 
Herrick, Dr. Wm. B., died. Durham, Maine, Dec. 31, 1865, a. 521;^. 
Herrington, Augustus, died, Geneya, 111,, August 14, 1884, aged 64. 
Hesler, Alex., photographer, died July 1895, aged 72. 
Heyyvood, I'orter P.] insurance, died April 28, 1896, aged 67. 
Hicklino-, William, died August 25, 1881, aired 66;!^. 
Higgins; Judge VanlloUis, d.,Darien, AYis.rApr. 17, '93, a. 72-1-19. 
Hine-, Austin, died February 27, I860, aged — . 
Hinton, liev. Isaac Taylor, died, New Orleans, La., August 28, 

1817, nged48. 
Hoard, Samuel, died Noyember 25, 1881, aged 81 years, 6 months. 
Iloll'rnan, Charles Feimo, author, died, Hurrisburg, Pa., June 7, 

1884, aged 78. 
Hoflnian, Johu, ex-sheriff, died January 30, 1889, aued 51. 
Hogan, John Steplien Coates, early postmaster, died, Memphis, 

Tenn., 1866. 
Hoge, Al>ram IL, merchant, died January 19, 1890, aged 90. 
Hoit, Chnrles, died 

Hooley, Ilichard M., theatrical manager, died Sept. 8, 1893, a. 71. 
How, Ceo. ^Murdoch, com. mer.. died dul v 10, 1893, aii'ed 67-7-10. 
Howland. fieorge, teacher, di^^d October 22, 1892, aged 67-6-20. 
Hovne. Michael A., bookbinder, died Marcli 25, 1891, aged 73. 
Hubbard. Elijah Kent, died May 26, 1X3'J, aged 26. 
Hugunin. Daniel, died. Kenosha, Wis., June 26, 1850, aged 60>;^. 
Hugunin, Kdward, died. O ikland, Cal., :March 17, 187s., aged 64. 
Hugunin, Hiram, burned, Waukegan, 111., Dec. 12, 1866, aged 08. 

.•;:• f 

OBITUARY. .■ ^ "113 

IIiigTiniii, Johu Clark, died, Mihyaiikee, Wis., July 4, 1865, a. 5-i'^{. 
Hngau'mi Judge Peter Daniel, died April 22, 18G5, aged 82-.^. 
Hnguiiiu, Gapt. Robert, died, Lyons, IlL, June, 1862, aged 70, 
Humphrey, liev. Zephauiiah Moore, died, Cincinnati, 6.,, Novem- 
ber 17, iSSl. aiied 57. 
flunt, Chas. Cotesworth Piiickney, died April 21, 1892. aged 90. 
Hunt, Edwin, died October 14, 1874, aged 659^. 
Hunt, Dr. \Vm. Carlton, died February — , 1891, aged G^. 
Hunter, Gen. David, died, Washington. D.C., February 2, 1886, 

aged 83-6-11. 
Hunter Edward E., justice of peace, died 
Huntoon, Bejigslev, died 

Hun toon, Geo. :M.', died. Grand Ledge, Mich., Aug. 6, 1884, a. 93. 
Huntoon, jr.. Geo. M.. died. So. Evanston, Dec. 21, 1879. aged — . 
Hurlbut. Henry H.. autlior, died April 21, 1890, aged 77. 
Hurlburt, Gen. SleDhen Auuustus, died, Lima, Peru, S. A., while 

U.-S. Minister, starch 27, 1882, aged m. 
Hussander, Peter John, clothier, died December 19, 1SS6, aged 62. 
Ingalls, Albert ^Y.. prin. Dearborn School, died, April, 1850, a. — . 
Jngham, Geo. Collins, lawyei-, died Feb. 26. 1891, aged 39-11-16. 
Ingraham. Granville S., grocer, died. Pass Christian, Miss.. -Dec, 

20, 1892', aged 68. 
Irwin, Matthew, U.-S. factor and Lidian agent, died, Uniontown, 

la., about 1845, aged 75. 
Jackson, Francis, died May 7, 1890, aged 51. 
Jackson, Obaliah, jr., lawyer, died March 13, 1878, aged — . 
Jackson, Obadiah, sr., grocei-, died October 18, 1865, aged 61. 
James, Benj. F., lawyer, died, AVashington, D.C., 1>>—.. a. — . 

Jarnieson, Judge Jobn Alex., died June 16, 1890, aged 65 ig. 
Jamieson, Lemuel B., printer, died February 2, 1888, aged 63. 
Jamieson, Ca^it. Louis Titus, died, Rio Grande, Tex., Oct. 1856, a. 51, 
Janseu, Egbert L.. booivseller. d., Detroit. Mich., Nov. 13. '92, a. — . 
Jeniiings. l>enjamin, ty])e-caster, clown, died Jan. 23, 187'i, a. 66. 
Jev.'cll, Dr. James Stewart, died April 17, 1887, aged 49 H, 
Johnson, Dr. Hosmer Allen, died Februarv 26, 1891, a2"<"'d <c')>>. 
Johnson, ^Vm. S., died, Jacksonville, Fla.,*March 21, 1S82, a. 5S%. 
Jones, Daniel Ama^a, packer, capitalist, and i)hilantlir()pist, died 

January 11. 18sG, aged 78. 
Jones, Geo. Wallace, ex-scnator, died, Dubuque, la., julv 22, 1896, 

aged 92-3-10. 
Jones (Kromfield) John, (octoroon), died May 21, 1879. aged 62i^. 
Jones, Jud^^a Stevens S., murdered March 15. 1877, aged 54i/o. 
Jouett, Charles (tirst Indian agent at Fort Dearborn), died, Trigg 

Co., Kentucky, May 28, 1834, aged 62. 
Ju'-sen, Edmund, lawj'er, died, Frahkfn-t-on-the-Main, Germanv, 

Felmiary 17, 1891, aged 60-10. 
Keeley, Michael, brewer, dic'd December 20. 1888, aged — . 
Keen,'Jose[)h, jr., died, Philadelphia, P;i,, March 5,1851, aged 32, 
Keith, Col. Abijah, merciiant, died June 29, 1890, aged 691-2- 

114 • OBITUARY. 

Keith, Morgan L., ex-nldcrman, died Scpv. 30, 1890, aged 82. 
Keiinicott, T)i'. Jonatliaii xVsa. died May 12, 1893, aged 69. 
Keimicoti. Joseph E., died. Arling'ton Heights, Cook Co., 111., 

January 14, 1881:, aged 70. 
Kenni:ott, Maj. Ivobert. natiimlist. died, near Nuhito, Alaska. ^lav 

13, 18 G 6. aged 301 o^ 
Kennison, David, last snrvivor of the Boston Tea-Party, died Feb. 

21. 1852, aged 115-3-17 ; interi-ed in Lincoln Park about 320 feet 

n.-w. froia the Couch tomb, and about 30 feet east of the east 

line of North Clark street. 
ICercheval. Louis Cass, d.. Hickory Creek, 111., Sept. 14. 184G, a. 52. 
Kimball, James B.. U.S.N., died, Pensacota Navy Yard, Fla., Mav 

18, 1879'. aged 43fs^'. 
Kimball, Henry R., died. Cairo. 111.. November 4, 1854. aued 45. 
Kimberly, Col. John Ellis, died December 23, 1893, aged 5-. 
King, By ram, died 

King, John Lyie, hiwyer, died April 17, 1892, aged — . 
Kingsbury, Henry W., killed at Antietnm, Sept. 17, 1892. aged — . 
KiD2Sburv, Julius Jq:^>q Brouson. L^.S.A., died June 26. 1856, a. 59. 
Kinsley. Hubert M., caterer, died, New-York City, Sept. 22, 1894, 

aged 63-0-3. 
Kinzie, Ellen Marion, dau. of John Kinzie, and lirst white child 

born in Chicago, Dec. 20. 1804; nru-ried to Dr. Alex. W^olcott, 

July 20, 1823, by John Hamlin. J. -P., of Peoria; laier wife of 

Geo'. C. Bates; died, Detroit, Mich. Aug. 1, 1860, aged 55-7-lL 
Kinzie. Lieut. Geo. XL, died, Mt. Vernon barracks, Ala., August 

26, IS'JO. aged — . 
Kinzie, James, died, Clyde. Iowa Co.. Wis., Jan. 13, 1866, a. 62^4'. 
Kinzie, Jolm iSha-ne-au-kei, Indian agent and trader, ilrst white 

American settler at Ciiicago, 1803; died Jan. 6, 1828, a. 65-U-14. 
Kinzie. John Harris, jr., died. Ft. vSt. Charles, Ark., June 17, 1863, 

Kirk, James Smith, soap manufa2turer, died, So. Evaiiston, 111., 

June 16, 1886, aged 68. 
Kirkland, Eliztibeth Stansburv, author and educator, died Julv 

30, I89(i, aged 60. 
Kirkhmd. Joseph, lawyer, di(,'d April 20, 1894, aged 64. 
Ivnickerbocker. Judge Joshua C, died January 5, 1890. aged 537:5. 
Knox, Col. Edward Bui-gen. die<l April 9, 1890, aged 52; 2d ser- 
geant U.-S. Zouave Ciulets, 1860. 
LaframlKHse, Alexis, died 
Laframijxi-e. Francis, died 
Landj, l*atrick, died before April 9, 1857. 
Larneil, Edwin Channing, lawyer,, died. Lake Forest, 111., Sept. 

IH, 1884, aged 64. 
Lfirra])ee, Lieut. Lucius, killed at Gettysburg, July 2, 

1863, aL'-^d 26. . " ' 

LaSalle. Robert Bene Cavelierde, killed. Te\a^, Mar. is, 16.s7,a. 13.. 
Latrobe, Charles Joseph, died December 4, 1875, aged 73-'J-14. 


OBITUARY. . ' 115 

Launder. Jame?, died August 11, 1880, aged 67. 

Laviuia. AYni. T. S.. la\vvcr, pawubroker, died, intestate, Januaiy 

9, 1861, aged — . 
Lfiwreuce. Judge Charles Burral!, 
Leareiiworth, Jesse U., died, Milwaukee, TYis., March 12, 1885^ 

aged "^7 7. 
LeBar, Edwiu R.. died January 2. I80I. aged — . 
Lebel, Kev. Is;idore A., died. Kalamazoo, Mieli,, 1878, nged — . 
LeBrun. Thomas Francis. YioHnist, died October 8, 1884, nged 7P. 
Lester, John Threadgold. merchant, died March llj 1800. aged 43. 
Lewis, Allen Cleveland, capitalist, philanthropist, died Oct. 15, 

1877, aged. 57-8-27. 
Lewis, Joseph, meehanical engineer, inventor, died, Kansas City^ 

Mo., Xoveniber 17, 1894. aged 71. 
Libby, Charles Perley, packer, died June 24, 189p, aged 57. 
Lincoln, Abraliam. assjissinated, AYashington, D.C., February 14. 

1865. aii'cd d5. 
Little Turtle. (Indian chief), died Jnly 14, 1812, aged — . 
Lloyd, Bartholomew F., died December 7, 1886, aged 77. 
Lockwood, Judie Samuel Drake, died, Batavia, IlL, Apr. 23. 1874. 

aired 84-8-21.^ 
Logan, Gen. Joh]i Alex., died. AYashiuLi-tou, D.C.. Dec. 26, '86, a. 6L 
Logan, Judge Steplion Trigg, died July 18, 18b0, aged 80^. 
Loop, Jamr-s L.. died, Belviilore, 111., February 8, i'865, aged 49. 
Long, Stephen llarriman, died, xVlton, 111.. Sept. 4, 1864. a. 79-8-4. 
Lovedav, Julius Leopold, died, Tsvin Lakes, AYis., June 19, 1889, 

aged 54-10-13. 
Loveday, AYm. Lockyer. died. Geneva. 111., Apr. 24, 1884, aged 80. 
Lovcjov. Rev. Elijah Parish, murdered at Alton, 111., Xovember 7, 

1837,' aged 35. 
Luddin2'tou. Xelson. died Januarv 15. 1883, aged (ji). 
Lumbard, I'ranklin C. "Old Shady'', died Apr. 14, 1x83, aged 57. 
Luse, Ananias Pugh, pri nter, type-founder, died, LosAngeles, Cab, 

Januarv IG, 1891. aged 60. 
Lynch, Thomas, distiller, died September 22. 1893, aged 67. 
McAllister, Judi'-e AYm. K.. d.. Ravenswood. 111., Oct. 29, 1888, a. 70. 
McAvoy, John 1I .. brewer, ex-alderman, d. July 24, 1893, a. 62-8-22. 
^[c(;abe, Thomas, died Decetid)er 23, 1883. a2'ed 89. 
^b-Chesiicy, Robert, difd Feln-uary 9. 1886. iig-ed 76. 
^IcClellaii, GcJi. Geo. Brinton, died, St. Cloud, Orange Mountain, 

X. J., October 2.^, 1885, aged 59. 
McClure, Andrew, died, Philadelphia. Pa.. Oct. 20, 1860, aged — -. 
^b:Cluie, Josiah E., suicide. :\[ilwaukee, AYi«., Oct. 12, 1888, a. — . 
McConnick, Cvrus Hall, died Mav 13. 1884, aged 75. 
M<Coy, Jif-v. \>tuu\ died, LouisvilierKy., June 21, 1846, aged 62. 
■"•f^-^'rea, Samuel llarkness, ex-citv treasurer, died March 11, 1891, 

:iired 64-6-26. 
^'Cumber, Capt. Francis, sailor, died, Burlington, AVis., April 8^ 

1888, aged 821^. . 



Il6 ■: ■ . _ ■ OBITUARY. J , ' .r ■'. 

McDermott, Michael, siu'voyor, died October 10, 1888, a,o-ed 78. 

McDoiiu-all, C4eii. James Allen, died. Albany, N.Y., Sept. o, 18G7, 
aged 49-^9- U. 

McFall, John, died Xovemher 7, 1853, aged — . 

McFarren, John IT,, died Jnne 6,. 1882, aged G9. 

McFayden. Capt. Jolin, drowned oti' Death's Door, Lake Mlchi- 
gan. July — , 1852, aged — . 

Mrllroy. Daniel, died August 22, 1SG2, aged -^. 

McKee. David, died near z^urora. 111., April 9, 1881, ag'cd SO}^. 

ZMcKindiCy, James, grocer, died Marcli 31, 1896, aged 71-1-9. 

McKiudlev, John G., died. Kenosha, Wis., January 16, 1S81, n. C2. 

:McKindley, Aniliam, died March 29, ISSO, aged oh. 

McKiiiiia, Bernard, died June 25, 1880, aged 63i^. 

McLfiUghlin, Francis, carpenter, iirst superintendent of Calvary 
CeuK'tery, arrived in 1844, died ^[ay 8, 1873, aged. 5±. . • ,' 

McMullcn, James, died December Kl, 1871, aaed 75. 

McMiillen, Kev. John, died, nayeu})ort, la., July 4, 1883, a. 54-3. 

Mc[loberts, Judge Josi:di, died. JoJiet, 111., June 2, 1885. a-rred 7-. 

McEoberts, Senator Samuel, d., Cincinnati, O., Mar. 27. 1843, n. 44. 

McVickar, Dr. Brockholst, died, Bntlalo, N. Y., October 13, 1883, 
.aged 74. 

jSIcViclcar, James Hubert, actor, n^ianager, d. Mar. 8. 1896, n. 74-0-24. 

McVicl:er, Brockholst L. (Wild Edgerton), d. Dec. 24, 1888, a. ~. 

Mack, \Villiaiu Champion, merchant, died May G, 1884, a. 78; with 
whom Da\id Kennison, the last survivo)- of the Boston tea-])aity, 
came to Chicago from New York State and lived until his death. 

Mackin, Thom.'is. contractor, died November 16, 1893, nged 65. 

Marlde, il'tErs. Anna \V;irren, widow of Danford, actress, died, Cin- 
cinnati, O., March 11, 1872, aged 56-3-10. 

Marble, Dantbrd, " Yankee," comedian, died of cholera, Louisville, 
Ky., Mny 13. 1849, aged 39-1-3. 

Markoe, Ilartman, died. New York, 18 — , (\^rd — . 

JMarquette, James, died, Lake Michigan, Mny 18, 1675, aged 38, 

Marsljall, Jnmes 3I(>m"oe, real estate,' died July 1, 1880, a.':!.'ed 45-9. 

Martin, Edward, died. Ited ITook, X.Y., Dec. 3, 1893, aged 82. 

Ma?on, ]\Iathias, died, Sutherland. la., about December 2i), 18S2, 
a-^ed ^3. 

Ma"«on, Roswell B, C. E., 20th mayor, died Jan. 1. 1892, agfd 86I4'. 

Matte>on, Gov. Joel Aldrich, died January 31. bs73, oged 64-5-1. 

Mattock.s, John, lawver, died Febru.irv 12". issi. ji^ed 49i.;. 

Meacham, Dr. Silas, dird, Maine, Cook Co., Ill, July 21, 1852, 
aged C3. 

Meadowcroft, Kobert. died February 13, 1893, aized 79. 

Meadowcroft, Thoma-^. died A]))-il -Jl, 1863. aged 73. 

Meadovrcroft,jr.. Tlmma'^. dicfl-July 28, 1852, aged 38. 

Meoduwcnjft, Rich.srd, died February 4, 1877. Mged 57. 

Clears, Jharles, lumber, died May 2;>, 1895, aged 81.' 

Mediil. James Corbett, writer, died Nov. 3, 1864, nged 3i;-G-2. 

MedilJ, Sam. Jones, printer, d., Quijjcy, 111., Feb. 20, 1883, a. 42-3. 

OBITUARY. - 117 

Mcdill, Maj. "Wm. TTeuiy, printer, died of wounds, July 16, 1863 

aii-ed 2734;. 
Meiidel, Edward, died April 4, 18S1, aaed 56-9-11. 
Messer. C M , died, Beloit. Wis.. Juue 1, 1885. nged 77. 

iMichie, James, died, LaGrauge, 111., April 21, 1876, aged 68. 
Mihalotzy, Col. Geza,d. of wounds. Chattauooga, Mar. 11, 1861, a. — 
Miller, Jacob, tavern-keeper, died, Lona's Bar, Feather Iii\ er, 

Cal., January 1, 1850. 
Mills. Luther Laliin, sv.. merchant, died Jan. 11, 1889. aofcd 70. 
Mitchell. Henry. wao-oiim;iker, d., Eacine. Wis., Oct. 20, 1893, a. 83. 
Moore, Henry, died. Concord, Mass., after 1841, aged — . 
Morgan, James J., died August 12, 1852, aged — . 
Morgan, John Eobcrt. died. ., 1872, aged 29. 

Morgan, Richard Price, died, Dwight. 111.. Jan. 19, 1882. aoed 92. 
Morgan, Thomas, died. Blue Island"; 111., 3Iarch 19, 1851, agod 74. 
^lorrisoii, Daniel, died Xovember 9, 1880. aued 61. 
3Iulf<:rd, Edward A., died, Casevville. ]s.v.,"Apr. 19, 1852, ao-od 42. 
Mulford, E<hvard II., died, Evanston.'lll". March 5,' 1878. aged 84. 
Mulllioliand, Mother Mary de Sales (Mother Frances), died, Dav- 

euport, Iowa. January — , 188'J, aged 78. ' • 

Mulligan, Col. James A., died July"26. 1864, aged 34. 
Mulvey, Junius, attorney, died Xavember, 1892, aged — . 
Murphy, Edward, died, liogers' Park, January 25, 1875, aged 70. 
Murphy, Hun. Jiicliard. died, 

Myers, .Samuel, distiller, died Xovember 5, 1882. aged 81-10. 
Myers, Samuel, actor, died June 22, 1874, aged 43. 
Mvers. Simon Groot, died. Baltimore. Md.. April 9, 1893, aized — . 
Xasli, Ilenrv IP. banker, died. Xew-York City, Nov. 10, '92'. 0. 72. 
Xealley, Ezra P., died. Oak Glen, 111., July 3, 1885, aged 74. 
Xelson, John A., ex-slieriiP died fall 1878, nged — . 
Xevins, ]^rum-maj. William, died March 27, 1894, aged 61. , 
X'ewhouse, John S., died May 8, I881', nged 70. 
Xewion, Hoi lis. hotel-keeper, died August 25, 1835, aged — . 
Xichols, KellogL;-. imirdered on P.I. P.P.. March 13, 1886, aged 48. 
Xickerson, Solon, merchant, died December 19, 1887, aged 69. 
Xoble, George \V'.. died Xovember 11, 18.s5, aged G(3. 
Xoble, John, die* I January 13, 1885, aged 82. 
Xoble, ]\raior, dii'd 
Xoblo; Mark, died 
Xoble, ]\rark, jr., died 
Xurris, lienj. F.. alias Josepli Thomason, executed in Concord, 

lro(juois Co.. 111., the first n)urder in Cook Co., June 10, 1836. 
Xugent, ]\Iich;H'l. died Mav 2. 1856. aged — . 
0_-(lcji, Wm. L.. ]m<. nv^v.' Tribmtr, died Dec. 22, 1893, aged 52. 
0"H;ira, l^aniel, selujolmaster, ediior, civil-service clei-k, politician, 

born Ayr, Scotland, Sept. 1, 1822, died Oct. 12, 1877, a. 55-1-11. 
Olcott, O'rville, ship-carpenter, died June 5. 1890, nged 76. 
O'licgan, Kt.-P(;v. Antlionv, d.. London, Lug., X'ov. 13, 1865, a.—. 
Ouiljuctte, Antoinc (Ijidiau chief), died 


.07 r 


Ousterhoudt. M. G., died March 27, 1884, aged 74. 
Owen, Thomas J. Y. (Iiiaian ag-ent), died Oct. 15, 1835, aged 34i^. 
Pardee. 3Iyroii, died, Oswego, N.Y., January 9, 1889, aged 69. 
Pardridge. Edward, merchant, died April 17, 1896. aged 59. 
Parker, Samuel, died, Davenport, la., August ^0, 1881. 
Parker, Warren, hotel, omnibus-line pioneer of Chicago, died. 

Barre, Orleans County, X.Y., August 11, 1851, aged 45-10-10.' 
Parks, Calvin C, died, Nfaukegau. October 20, 1860. aged — . 
Patterson. Wm. Jellery, died. Montreal, Can., June 12, 1886, a. 70^^. 
Pearce, AVra. Larned, hotel, died Aug. 18. 1874, aged 58-6-10. 
Pearson, Jud2e John, died, Danville, 111., Ma\^ 30, 1875, aged 73. 
Peck. Hon. Ebenezer, died Mnv 25, 1881. aii-ed'76. 
Peck; Jolm Mason, d.. Rock Spring, O'Fallon, 111., Mch. 15, 1858. 

aged 68^-. 
Pestana, John A., died February 14, 1854, aged 48. 
Phillip, Geo. S. (January Searle), died, Morristown (N.J.) insane 

asylum, January 15, 1889. 
Phillips, John, portrait painter, born Paisley, Scotland, May 8, 

1822; died, Helena. Mont.. Julv '2Q, 1890, a«-ed 68. 
Phillips. Dr. John, oculist, died July 26, 1893, aged 75-2-20. 
Pitkin, We-'.ev, died April 11, 1880, aaed 73. 
Pitney, F. Y., died June 16, 1879, aged 65. 
Plyraton. Maj. Joseph, died, Staten Island, N.Y., June 5, 1860, 

aged 73. 
Poole, AVilllam Frederick, librarian, died ^Marcli 1, 1894, aged — . 
Pope, Gen. John, died, Sandusky, 0., Sept. 22, 1892, aged '69-6-11. 
Pope, Xathaniel, judge, died, Springfield, 111., Jan. 14, 1850, a. 66. 
Porter, Pev. Jereiniah, died. Buloit,^ Wis., July 25, 1893, aged 89. 
Porter, Rev. Jonathan G., died, Naperville, 111., February, 1883, 

aged 80. 
Powell, George X., died before January 21, 1851, aged — . 
Power, John, died before A[)ril 14, 1851, aged — . 
Powell, ^l. A., died. Palo, 111., February 21, 1885, aged 833^. 
Priestly, Howard, died September 8, 1877, aged 47. 
Prussing, Ernst, real estate, died November 28, 1889, aged Z^i). 
Pruyne, I'cter, died November, 1839, aged — . 
Pullman, Albert Benton, sleeping-car inventor, died December 18, 

1893, aged 69. 
Rand. Socrates, farmer, died. Desplaines, 111., Feb. 20, 1890. a. 86. 
liay, Dr. Charles Henry, editor, died Sept. 23, 1870, aged 49}4. 
Raymond, R<^v. Lewis, died December 10, 18«7, aged 80. 
Read, Leundci-, liquors, died April 26, 18^8, aged 67. 
]led-Bird (Indian chief), d., Prairie-dn-Chicn, Feb. 16, 1828, a. — . 
Reed. Alanson, music, diod February 25, 1893. a^-ed 78. 
Reed, Col. Cbarles :Manninu-, died, Erie, I'cnn., Dec. 16, 1871, m. ^^^. 
Reid, Robert, banker, died.' Cincinnati, O.. Oct. 11, 1892, air^d 62. 
Rexfurd, llcber S., di<'d. Blue Island, III., :\[arch 6, 1<^85, aijcd 76. 
Rcxford, Norman, dii;d. Blue [.-land, ill., :\l;trch 28, 1883, aged 81. 
Rexford, Stephen, died, Blue Island, 111., October, 1880, aged 76. 

Kl-^f .0 i>n 


ReyiioLl^, Gov. John, died May 8, 1865. aged 77-2-12. ' 
Khines. Georso. died ]May 12. 185-1. aged 19K. 

Eice,. Joliii A., prop. Tremont Honse.'died ^Larcli 21, 1888. aged 59. 
KiceJ Jo]in Ijlake, actor. 19tli niayoi-j died, Norfolk, Va., 2sov. 18, 

ISH. aged G5I0'. 
Rice, Marv Ann Warren, ^y\d. of John B.. died, Coronado Beach, 

Ca)., March 29, 18'J3. aiied 74. 
Richmond. Holland, died June 17. 1893, aged Qo. 
Richmond, Thomas,' d., AVoodstock, Yt., Apr. 20, 1892, a. 9i-l-12. 
Robbins. Alleji. died October 3, 1864, aged 70. 
Robertson, John, died before January i, 1852, aged — . 
Robinson, Alex. (Indian chief), died, on his Reservation, April 22, 

1872, aged S3. 
Roo-ers, Dr. Edward Carter, died, Quincv, Mich., Feb. 19, 1887, 

Rogers. Judge John Gorin. died January 10, 1887, aged — . 
Roles, Rev. Jos-^ph P., died September 25, 1889, aged 59. 
Root, Geo. Frederick, musical composer, died Aug. 6. 1895. a. 75. 
Root, John Wellborn, architect, died Jaiiuary 15. 1891, aged 41. 
RootJ Josiali Sackett. died. Builalo, X.Y., April 28. 1884, aged — . 
]iose, Orrin J., died. Xew York, May 14, 1873, aged — . 
Rosenfeld. Levi, mercliant. died August 17. 1887, aged 72. 
Rounds. Sterling P., printer, d., Omaha, Xeb., Dec. 17, 1887, a. 591^- 
Runnion. David, died July 17, 1880, aged 75. 
Rutter, Jo-eph Orms])y. banker, died. October 4, 1888, aged — , 
Ryan, Judiie Edward 'Geor2e, died, Madison, ^Yis., October 19, 

1880. agf'd GP-11-6. 
Ryder, Itev. AVilliam Henry, died March 7, 1888, aged 66,1,;. 
Ryerson, Martin, capital ist. died, Boston, Mass., Sept. 6, 1887, a. 692^ 
Saint Cvr. Rev. John Marv Ireneus, died, Caronclalet, Mo.. Feb. 

21, I8S3; aued 80 1^. 
Sands, Josiali J., brewer, died, Hartland. AYis., Apr. 24, 1890. a. 60. 
Sard, Grange, sen., clothici-. died February 25, 1884, aged 73. 
Scates, Ex-Cliief Justice Walter Bennett, died Evanston, 111.. Oct. 

26,1.^86, aged 7S-f. 
Scammon, Charles T., diod. Eluin, 111., August 23, 1876, aged 36. 
Scammon, Dr. Franklin, died February 10, 1861, aged 53-4-13. 
Schafrner, Herman, banker, suicide, June 3, 1893, aged — . 
Schnideau, I'olycarpus von, died Dccendjoi' 27, 1859, aged 47. 
Schoemakei-, Josepii. died before May 18, 1850. aged — . 
Schreiner. John T., died January 16. 1849, aged — . 
Scott, James W.. publisher Thncs-irerahL died. New- York City, 
^ April 4, 1895, ;iged 45-10. 
Scott, Col. Joseph Rolx'rt, r.ith llHnoi-^ \^tls.. wounded at Stone's 

River, died Julv ^, 1?56;), a. 25-5-6; 1st lieutenant U.-S. Zouave 

Cadets. lS6't. 
Scott, Maj. :\Iartin. U.S.A.. died near Mollno del Rev, Mex.. Sept. 

8, 1847. ao-ed 52. ' 
Scott. Willai-d, died, Napcrville, 111., SepL 13, 1892, aged 81. 

pi I 



Scott, Gen. Winfield, died. West Point, X.Y.. 18G6, a. 79-11-16. 
Scribner. Col. Wiley S., recorder, died Sept. 28, 1889, a^ed 40. 
Scripps, John Locke, printer and editor, died, Minneapolis, Minn., 

September 21, I860, aiiod -481.2. 
Sear>. Jr.. John, drniioist. died. Lockport. 111., Jan. 25, 1867, a. 54. 
See. Rev. Win., died,^ Pulaski, Iowa Co.. Wi>;., Aug. 20, 1858, a.—. 
Seifert. Charles, killed at tlie 7tli ward ]iolls, March o. 1857, a. — . 
Scipp. Conrad, brewer, died January 28. 1890. aged 64^.<'. 
Shiibonee, (Indian chief), died, Morris, 111., July 17, 1859, aged 83. 
Shaw: Peter, died, Fisli Creek, AVis., 3Iar. 3, 188 1, aged 68-11-11. 
Sheahan. James Washington, editorial writer, Chicago Tribune, 

died June 17, I880, aged 59 1^. 
Sheldon. Edward Holmes, real estate, died. New- York Citv, Dec. 

19, 1890, iigL'd 71. 
Shepley, Capt. Charles II., died, Murfeesboro, Tenn., March 23, 
' 1862,' aged 21. 
Sheridan, Gen. Philip Henry, died, Nouquit, Mass., Aug. 5, 1888, 

aged 57.5. 
Shields. Gen. and Senator James, died, Ottumwa, la., Jane 1, 

1879, aged 73. 
Shipman, r)r. Georire E.. died Januarv 20, 1893. a^ed 73. 
Shirley, Thos. OV. Z. O. Fleshmau), lawyer, d. Mar. 10, 1889, a. 68. 
Shirup. M., died, Crvstal Lake. 111., Anizust 31, 1882. aged 72. 
Shover, Cyrus, died, Ottawa, 111., Febritary 21, 1883,'agx3d 70. 
Shuinan, ex-G<n^. Anvlrew, editor, died May 5, 1890, aged 60. 
-Shumu'ay, Edward S., lawyer, died, Essex, N.Y., Sex)t. 21, 1853, 

aged 35. 
Shumway, Horatio G., died about December 16, 1862, ag<'d — . 
^Sibley, liiram. seedsman, d., Rochesler, N.Y., Jul^"^ 12, 1>588, a. 81-5. 
Sinclair, James, tinsn)ith, died August 13, 1871, aued 70, 
Slater, Ifichard, died August 1, 1890, aged 69. 
Smailes, Samuel, di<'d Xovember 1'9. 1882, aged — . 
Smith, Albert Paul. manaLivr clcaring-iiouse, d. Jan. 22, 1890, a. 50. 
Smith. Lieut. Ephraim Ivirbv, U.S.A., died near Citv of Mexico, 

September 11, 1847. aged 41. 
Smith, r.eorge Clinton idit Ciias. G.), tailor, d. Sept., 1888, a. 67I4. 
Smith, John liradner, naper, died March 6, 1893, aged 75. 
Smith, Perry Ilonry, la\v'y<'i', died March 29, 1885. aged 57. 
Smith, Solomon Albert, baid^er, dl(>d Xov. 'lb, 1879, aged 64. 
Smith. William I>un-, Ijardware, -Powhattan,'' died Xov. 28, 1894, 

aged 59-9-25. 
Snell, Amos Jerome, cipitalist, munlcred Eeb. 2, 1838, aged 64. 
Soules. liufus, died, Waukcuan, 111.. 
SpaldiJiL!'. Joel Johnson. ])rinte;r, killed on railroad at Evanston, 

III., :Jarch 7, ls89, ivx^'d 52. 
Spencer, Albert Tuttle, lake-captain, died, Waukegan, 111., Sept. 

11, 1895, aged 74-4-5. 
Speu'-er, Emnklin E;i,yetfe, hardware, died Nov. 1, 1890, a. 73-19. 
Spring, Dr., died November 10, 1835, aged — . 

i • • 


■ •<:( .c. .rnA 

! Mil' 

j>. n 

OBITUARY. , 121 

Sproat, Granville Tomple, school-teacher, died, Mt. Lebanon, X.Y., 

February 6, 1887, aged 79. 
Squires, Collins S., a>s-t-p.m., died October 10, 1888, aged 59. . 
Stager. Gen. An<on. died March 2i'). 1885, aged GO. 
Starr, Dr. John V., died, Glencoe, 111., March 12, 1373, aged — . 
Steel, George, died March 22, 1865. aged 68. 
Steele, Ashbel. died 1861, aged — . 

Steele, Chas. lUehards, banker, d.. Waukegan, 111., Nov. 11, '88. a. — . 
Stein, Martin, died before September 21, 1850, aged — . 
Stewart, Thomas Alexander, attorney, editor and prop. Clu'cago 

Tribune, died, LaPorte, Ind., September 15, 1868, aged — . 
Stickney, Edward S., died March 20, 1880. aged — . 
Stiles, Gen. Israel Xewton, lawyer, died Jan. 17, 1895, aged Gl-6-1. 
Stinison, William E., died, ^lichioan Citv, Ind., December 2o. 

1850, aged 26. 
Stone, John, the first man Imn^' in Chicago for nuirder, near ^.-w. 

cor.' South Park av(\ and 31st st., July 10, 1810, aged about 50. 
Stone, Leander, editor. <lied April 3, 1888, aued bb. 
Stone, Pev. Luther, died July 0. 1890, aged 71^^. 
Stone. Dr. Sanmel. died May 4. 1876, ag-ed — . 
Stoneham, John, died ]\[arch 17. 1887, aged 73. 
Storkev, George, died September -1. 1877, aged 74. 
Storey', AMI ber F.. editor Chimrio Timcs.d^Ooi. 27, 1884, a. 64-10-8. 
Storrs. Emery Alex., Inwyer, d., Ottawa. III., Sept. 12, 1885. a. 50. 
Stroni:-. Gen. William Emerson, lawver, lumberman,. died, Firezze, 

Italy, April 10, 1891, aged 50-8. 
Strother, Bolton F.. lawvei", died June 17, 1862, aged — . 
Stuart, Gen. David, died. Detroit, Mich., Sept. 11, 1868, aged 48-6. 
Stuart. John Todd, died, Spriniztleld, 111., Nov. 2S, 1885, aized 78. 
Stuarl, Pobert, explorer, died Oct. 2S, 1848, aged 63-8-9. 
Sturges, Geo., btinker, d., Geneva Lake, AVis., Aug. 12, 1890. a. 52i^. 
Sturges, Solomon, banker, patriot, died, Zanesvillc, O., October 14, 

1864, aged 6b-5-23. 
Sturges, Wm.. banker, d., Oweo-o, N.Y., Nov. 12, 1894, a. 70-5-16. 
Sundell, Chas. J., ag't Allan Line, died Julv 26, 1892, aged 70. 
Sutherland, St. Clair, died December 8, 1892, aged 76-3. 
Svanoc, Peter, Noi-wegian consul, died ^Marcli 2'), 1893, aged 53. 
Swearing-en, Col. James S., died, Chillicothe. O., February, 1864, 

aged 82. 
Sweet Plchard ^I.. 

Swett, Leonard, lawver, died June , 1889, 
Talcott, Edward Benton, died February B, 1886, aged 74. 
Talcott, Mancfl, died June 5, 1878, aged 60^:^. 
Tjivlor, An-^on If., died. Lakeside, May 9, 1878, aged — . 
Taylor, f'.enj. F.. dird. Cleveland", Ohio, Feb. 21, 1887, aged i\^: 
Tavlor, Charles A., trunks, died August 3, 1892, aged 56. 
Taylor, Col. Edmund Dick, died December 4. 1891, aged 89-1-26. 
Taylor, Jame>, lumber agent, died Mav 7, 1867. ag(Ml 39. 
Temple, Dr. Peter, died, Lexington, Mo., March 18, 1889, aged — . 

:<) '!• 


Thielcke. Henry Daniel, artist, died November 25, 1874, aged 87. 
Tliomns, Judge Jesse Burgess, jr., died February 21, 1850. aged 44] 
Tho^iias, Jesse Burgess, judge and senator, died, Mt. Vernon, O., 

1853, aged 76. 
Thompson, Lieut. Setli,"died. Ft. Dearborn. Mar. 4, 1811, aged — . 
Thompson. Gen. John Leverett, lawyer, died Jan. 31, 18SS, a. 53. 
Thom-on, James, painter, died Jauuarv 16, 1888, aged 74i;<. 
Titsworth. Abraham D..'died October' 10, 1882, aged 62. 
Tobey. Orville Ilurd, packer, died April 25, 1893, aged 70. 
Tontv. Henri de, died. Fort St. Louis, Mobile Bav, 1704, aaed 54. 
Trowbridge. Alva, died February 20, 18S4. aged 80. 
Trumbull, George, lawyer, died October 23, 1888, aged 70. 
Trumbull, Lvman, lawver, ex-seiiator, d. June 25, 1896. a. 82-8-13. 
Tucker, Col. Joseuh Ilenrv. d., New- York Citv, Oct. 22, 1804. a. 75. 
Turner, Surg. Geo. F.. d. Corpus Christie, Tex., Oct. 17, 1854, a.—. 
Tyler, Orson, tailor, died Februarv 2. 1856, aired 43)^. 
Uhlich, Carl Gottfried, gardner, died Nov. 19, 1867, aged 86. 
Vail, "\Valter, merchant, died, Newberg, N.Y., Feb. , 1889, a. 74. 
Valentine, John Ross, died October 1, 1892, aged 70. 
VanAllen, Capt. Henry, sailor, died, St. Ignace, Mich., Jan. 25, 

1883, ag-ed 80. 
VanArman, Col. John, lawyer, died, San Diego, Cal., April 6, 

1890, aged 70. 
VanBuren, Judge Evert, died February 12, 1885, aged 8II4. 
Van der Bogart, Dr. Henry, died, Naperville, 111., April 8, 1835, 

aged 25. "^ 
Vanetta, James, tobacconist, d. Jancsville, Wis., May 19, 1890, a. — . 
VanXortwick, John, contractor, d., Batavia, 111., Apr. 12, 1890, a. 81. 
VanVoorhi>, Dr. Isaac, massa''red, August 15, 1812, aged 22i<. 
Van de Velde, Rt.-Uev. Jas. Oliver, d.' Natchez, Miss.', 1855, a^. — . 
Vauslian, Jolm C, editor Tr/hime, died, ^ya\u.ut Hills, Cincinnati, 

0.7 September 27, 1892, aged 66. 
Vernon. AVm., auditor 111. Cent. Ky, died Feb. 5, 1884, aged 81. 
Volk. Leonard, sculptor, died, Oceola, Wis., Aug. 19, 1895, aged — . 
AVabansee, (Indian chiel"), died, Boonvilie, Mo., fall 1846, aged 80. 
Wait, John Frederick, died, Fargo, Dak., June 20, 1883, aged 80. 
Wait. Solomon, died, York. Mo..\\[arch 21, 1883, aged 81. 
AVait, Timothy Robinson, died, Racine, Wi^., April 9, 1857, ag. 49. 
AYalkei', George E., died November 9, 1874, aged — . 
AValker, Senator George H., died, Milwaukee, A\^is., September 20, 

1866, a'i-ed r)r>. 
Walk.-r, Rev. Jas. B., died. Wheaton, III, March 6, 1887, ngod 82. 
AYalker, Ilev. Jesse, died, 12 m. w. of Chicago, Oct 5, 1835, aged 69. 
AYalkor. Saniuol J., died April_15, 1884, aged 57-3. 
AYallac-e, John Seelev, died D(>rember 21. 1878, ai>cd 67. 
AVallin, Charles C, leather, died June 9,' 1896, aged 92. 
Ward. Capt. Eber B., died. Detroit, Aricli., Jan. 2, 1871, aged 62. 
Ward. Sister Mary Francis (MiMher Francis), died 
AVarreii, Harry, actor, son of Henry, died May 2, 1896, aged 41. 


Warren, Hciii'v, theatrical manag-er. died Feb. 21, 1894, aged 80. 
Warren, Hooper, printer, died, Mendota, III., Au2r. 22, 1864, a. 74. 
AYarren, Col. Julins M., died. Xaperville, 111., May 1, 1893, a. 83. 
Warren. AYm.. actor, died. Boston, Mass.. Sept. 21. 188S, agx'd 75^. 
Washbnrue. Elihu Benjamin, died October 22. 1887, a;>*ed 71. 
Watkins, John, died, Joliet, Will Co.. 111.. March 1, 1887, a.aed 85. 
Watson, ReY. James V.. editor y.-W. Christian Advocate, died 

October 27, 1856. a2"ed 42. 
Webb, Gen. James Watson, died. X.-Y. City, June 7, 1884, a. 82)^. 
Weber, Rudolph, caterer, died March 24, 1891, aged 55. 
Weir, George Edwin, died February 11, 1886, aged 50,^;:^. 
Welch, Benjamin C died. England. December lo, 1857, aged — . 
Welch, llem-y. died December 26. 1882. aged 65. 
Wellmaker, John, died, Hickory Creek, 111., first German in Chi- 
cago, (baker). 
Wells, Joseph B.. ex-lieut.-gov.. d.. N. Y. City, Dec. 26, 1855, a. — . 
Wells, Capt. Willinm, killed August 15, lsl2, at the massacre of 

Chicngo. aged about 43. 
Wells, Prof. William Harvey, died January 21, 1885, aged 73. 
Wentworth, Elijah, died, St. Jo., Mich., Xov.. 1863, aged 87. 
AYentM'orth, jr., Elijah, died, Galesburg, 111., November 18, 1875, 

aged 72. 
Wheeler. Hiram, elevators, died November 22, 1892, aged 83. 
Wheeler, KusscU. died, Milwaukee. Wis. 
AYheeler, Dr. Tolman, philanthropist, capitalist, died November 

20, 1889, aged 88. 
AYheelock, Otis Leonard, architect, died, San Jose, Cal., January 

23. 1893, ao-ed 77. 
Whistler, Major John, died, Bellefontaine, Mo., Sept. 3, 1827, a. 73. 
Whistler, John Harrison, born in Fort Dearborn, October 7, 1807, 

died. Burliniiton. Kansas. October 23, 1873. aged 66. 
Whistler, Col.^Yilliam, died, Newport, Ky.,'Dec. 21, 1863, a. 79. 
White, Gen. Julius, dic<l. So. Evanston, 111'., May 12, 1890, a. 73i^. 
^Yhitehead, Rev. Henry, died April 1<>, 1885, aged 75. 
Whitehouse, Bi-hop Henry John, died August 10, 1874, aged 61. 
AVillson, James Lawrence, murdered at \Yiimetka, 111., February 

12, 1884. aged 72. 
AYillson, Solomon McNeil, died South, Februarv 11, 1867, aged 48. 
Wilson, Chas. Lush, died, San Antonio. Tex., March 9. 1878. a. 60. 
AYilson, Geo. F.. died. East Providence, R.L. Jan. 19, 1883, aged 64. 
AYiJson, Henry Lush, died September 2, 1861, aged 33. 
Wilson, Jolm M<:Ncil, died at Eniilewood. Dec.^7, 1883, aged 81. 
AYilson, John Quintard, died May 11, 1863, aocd 82i^. 
AYilson, Richar<l Lush, died, Albany, N.Y., Dec. 17. 1856, aged 42. 
Wilson, Judge Robert Stacy, died December 23, 1882, aged 71. 
AYolcott, Dr. Alexander, Indian agent, died Oct. 25, 1830, aged 40; 

his will was the first probated in Cook County. 
AYood. Col. Ja.>. Honrv, museum manager, died, Adrian, Mich., 

October 21, 1892, aged 71. 




^Vood, Peter Preston, died 186C, aged — . 

"\Voodard, Willntd, teacher, died March 19. 1891. aged 66-3-7. 
"Woodbury (Perriiii; Sarah Steele, actress, died Feb. 19. I<s88, a. 52. 
AVork, Henry Clay, printer, composer, died, Hartford, Conn., June 

8. 1881, aijed 51-8-7. 
AVright, Abner Mills, com. mer.. died Oct. 19, 1890, aged 62-8-26. 
"Wright, James, undertaker, died February 16, 1880, aged 61. 
Wright, John, died September 20. 1810, aged 57. 
Wrighti Dea. John, died September 20, 1810, aged 57. 
"Wright. Robert C, real estate, died December oO, 1879, aged 6fj. 
AYriS-hti Sanuiel F., livery, d. Dunstable, Mass., Oct. 27, 1892, a.— .- 
Wright. Truman G.. died, 1855. 

Wyman, Col. John Baker, killed Chickasaw Bayou, Dec. 28, 1862, 

aged 45-5-16. 
Wyncuop, Henry A., died January 26, 1385, aged 75. 
Yates. Gov. Richard, died, Barnum's, St. Lous, Mo., November 27, 

1873, aged 5S-10-9. 

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name, add a date or a number, please forward same for 
insertion in a later edition, to 

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t& it0 '^•iiitM«^rtni<ii<-,-Mfittii^^ * ^ '• 

Cliioijjo I'liotoCrivurc Co, 

^:^ .^ 






Fifth Governor of Illinois. 

Read before the Historical Society of Jacksonville, Ilt,. 
May 7, 1885. 






:.. J 


,..l.ll- ,.'-^«-ti 



TF the reader should find mentioned in the following 
^ sketch many trivial incidents and numerous items of 
only local interest, and but slightly connected with the 
subject, let him bear in mind the fact that this paper 
was prepared for, and read to, a small audience of friends, 
most of whom were personally acquainted with Gov. 
Duncan and his family, and had lived for years as their 
neighbors, and by whom every local allusion was under- 

Although the paper was not prepared for publication, 
and has been committed to print only at the request of 
relatives and too partial friends, yet it is thought that 
the student of Illinois history may be pleased to learn 
Gov. Duncan's views in regard to State Banks, Internal 
Improvements, the Illinois-and-Michigan Canal, and other 
questions of great importance in the early history of the 
State; and that his opinions in regard to Slavery, the 
suspension of the United -States Bank, Civil Service, and 
Temperance will be found worthy of consideration by 
those interested in the history of the Nation. 

Jacksonvillk, III., Feb. lo, 1888. 




Ladies and Gentlemen of the Historical .Society of 
Jacksonville : 


GYRE'S requested by you to prepare a sketch of the ''Life 
and Labors of Joseph Duncan," I felt that I could not 
undertake it. 

History and all sketches, historical or biographical, should be 
both accurate and impartial, and there are others in this Society 
who have stood nearer the times in which he lived, and are free 
from any bias or prejudice, besides possessing high literary taste 
and a ready pen, to whom more apj^ropriately might have been 
committed the task. 

It might be supposed that the daughter of the subject of 
this sketch, would have peculiar facilities for obtaining the facts 
necessary for such an article, but to a very limited extent only, 
is this the case. L^nfortunately, some years ago, all. the political 
papers, pamphlets, and most of the letters which were in the 
possession of his family, and were supposed to contain valuable 
information in regard to either his i)ublic or private life, were 
sent to the Chicago Historical Society at the request of friends 
and contemporaries of his, who proposed to pre|)are and publish 
a sketch of his life for that Society. All these papers were des- 
troyed before the work proposed had been accomplished, in the 
great fire of Chicago, Oct. 8-9,. 1871. 

Notwitlistanding a feeling of delicacy in the matter, I have 
* undertaken to comply with your request, and, though deeply 

i conscious of the im[;erfections and incompleteness of my sketch, 

I I yet hope I shall be able to present to you a few facts in the 

I 5 

•/ /. J V, 


life of one who has not been an unimportant actor in the early 
history of IlHnois, the State of his adoption, the State that did so 
much for him, and of which he was so justly proud. 

Joseph Duncan's native State was Kentucky, and, as the char- 
acter and tastes of nian are largely moulded and directed by the 
environments and influences surrounding his youth, the following 
description of life in Kentucky at that day, from the pen of one 
of our honored citizens, may not be inappropriate: 

" For ages before the white man descended the western slope 
of the Alleghanies, what is now known as the State of Kentucky 
constituted the favorite hunting-ground of different Indian tribes. 
Then, through forest and canebrake, over hills, mounta,ins and 
valleys, and across rapid rivers, they chased the elk and the 
buffalo, and hunted the fierce bear and the stealthy, crouching 
panther. There the war-dance was often celebrated, and the 
deep forest reechoed the startling war-whoops, as infuriated tribes 
met in the fierce conflict of savage warfare. 

"These hills and mountains, the Indians felt they owned, and 
when the paleface essayed to occupy them, the red man disputed 
every inch of ground, and the adventurous prisoner met his death 
by tomahawk or scalping-knife. The first settlers, as a matter of 
self-preservation, lived in fortified stations, and relied for support 
upon the chase and the stream and such patches of corn as they 
could cultivate under the immediate protection of the forts. 
Every adventurer to tliese wild and fascinating scenes was wel- 
comed as a brother by those who had preceded him. His 
presence added additional strength to the fort, and so he was 
admitted to full and equal enjoyment of their scanty means of 

"Suh^ject at any time to savage incursions, the inhabitants ot 
the different stations held themselves always ready to fly to the 
relief of any one upon whom the fury of the red man was about 
to descend. As the immigrants multiplied, log-cabins were built 
by the more daring near the fortified stations. The plowman 
went to the field with his butcher-knife in his belt and his rifle 
on his shoulder. If the approach of the foe was discovered in 

!.> \o n'jq vfi 



time, the families fled to the fort for protection and common 
defence; but too often the first notice that the stealthy enemy 
was in the settlement was the light blazing up from the cabin of 
some murdered family." 

Distinguished among the early settlers of Kentucky for intelli- 
gence and wisdom in counsel and for bravery in repelling the 
incursion^ of the Indians was Maj. Joseph Duncan, of Scotch 
ancestry; who, when at length the settlement enjoyed peace and 
safety, returned to his native state, Virginia, and soon after mar- 
ried a lady of culture and refinement from Pennsylvania. In 1790, 
he removed with his family from Virginia to Kentucky, and on 
Feb. 22, 1794, his son, Joseph Duncan, the subject of this sketch, 
was born, in Paris, Bourbon County, Kentucky. The large, old- 
fashioned stone-house, which was the family residence and place 
of his birth, still stands in that city. 

The thrilling narratives of Indian warfare to which, as a child, 
he listened as they fell from the lips of his father and his father's 
friends while gathered around the family fireside, and the warm 
friendships and generous hospitality daily witnessed in his home, 
doubdess contributed much to the formation of his character as 
a man, which was distinguished for the courage, heartiness, and 
generosity, characteristics of the better elements of pioneer life. 

Maj, Duncan died in 1806, when Joseph was but twelve years 
of age. There were six children in the family, Mathew and 
James being older, Polly Ann, Thomas, and John being younger 
than Joseph. 

In 1809, three years after his father's death, his mother married 
Capt. Benjamin Moore of tliC regular army, who died in 181 1. 
One son, Benjamin Duncan Moore, was the fruit of their mar- 
riage, who entered the navy, where he served four years, and in 
1833, entered the army and was killed in the Mexican A\'ar, Dec. 
6, 1846, at San Pascual, Cal, holding at the time the rank of 
captain of First Dragoons, U.S.A. He left one son, Mathew 
Moore, nov/ in the western army. 

In September, 1815, shortly after attaining the age of twenty- 
one, Joseph Duncan was appointed guardian of his sister and his 


two younger brothers. Capt. Mathew Duncan, the eldest son^ 
was educated at Yale College, and after completing his education 
and returning to his native State, he, for a time, edited a paper in 
Russellville, Ky., called TJie Mirror. On removing to Illinois,, 
in 1814, he edited and published at Kaskaskia The Illinois 
Herald^ the first newspaper published in Illinois. In December, 
18 14, he published the first book or pamphlet that was published 
in the State. In June, 1815, he published the first volume of 
what is known as 'Pope's Digest.'' In 181 7, Mathew Duncan, 
sold his paper to Daniel P. Cook and Robert Blackwell. Pie 
abandoned journalism and entered the army, was made captain 
of Rangers, Oct. 4, 1832; in 1833, was made captain of the First 
Dragoons. He resigned after four years' service and engaged in 
business in Shelby ville. III., where he died Jan. 16, 1844, only 
a few hours after Gov. Duncan, neither knowing of the illness of 
the other. His wife died Jan. 11. This double affliction proved 
too great a shock to his aged mother, and in a few months she, 
too, passed away. 

Mathew Duncan left one son. Gen. Thomas E>uncan of the 
regular army, who died at Washington, D.C., Jan. 7, 1887. His 
son, Wilson Duncan, represents the family in the army as a lieu- 
tenant of infantry, married and stationed at Fort Sidney, Neb. 

Gen. James M. Duncan, second brother of Joseph Duncan? 
graduated at Transylvania College, in Lexington, now merged in 
the State University. He was made captain of the Seventeenth 
Infantry, March 12, 1812. He returned home when the army 
was disbanded. May, 1814. On moving to Illinois, he settled in 
Vandalia, held the office of clerk of the supreme court while it 
held its sessions there, and, when the capital was removed to 
Springfield, Dec. 9, 1839, he removed with it. He afterward 
removed to Jacksonville, and engaged in business as a merchant. 
While residing there he was elected an elder in what was then 
known as the Old- School Presbyterian Church of Jacksonville. 
He died in Berlin, Sangamon County, in 1856. He had five 
daughters, but only one, xMrs. Jane Snow, sdll survives. 

Thomas Duncan, the third brother, was also a graduate of 




Transylvania University. He studied law, settled and practised 
his profession at Nashville, Tenn., with success. He married 
Miss Jane Stoddard, sister of Mrs. James Bell. He had two 
children, a son and a daughter. He was accidentally killed at 
Iberville, La., while still a young man — 1831. 

John, the youngest brother, was a promising graduate of Rush 
Medical College of Philadelphia, but lost his life during the lirst 
year of his practice. A class-mate, writing of him, says : "John 
always stood at the head of his class, and was the handsomest 
man in the College." 

Polly Ann, the only sister, was married when quite young to 
WiUiam Linn, a lawyer by profession, who was afterward ap- 
pointed Receiver of Public Moneys at Vandalia. Judge William 
Thomas says : "He was a man of fine address, polished manners, 
and much culture, but of little principle. He became intemper- 
ate, neglected the duties of his office, and became a defaulter."' 
Mrs. Linn was a brilliant woman, whose poems and drawings are 
family treasures. 

In 1 81 2, when the tocsin of war again sounded, and the stir- 
ring appeals of Henry Clay swept over the land and reverberated 
through the mountains, hills, and valleys of Kentucky, and kin- 
dled afresh the glowing patriotism of her young men, regiments 
of volunteers sprang forth, ready for the battle. Among these 
volunteers was Joseph Duncan, who, though only seventeen years 
of age, enlisted as a private in the Seventeenth regiment of the 
United-States Infantry, and, before he left Lexington, was pro- 
moted to the rank of ensign. 

That he did not enlist without a knowledge of the hardships 
and j)rivations which he would be called upon to endure is shown 
by a letter from a friend and neighbor, then on duty near the 
seat of war, received at his home in Paris, Ky. We quote the 
roost of the letter, as giving an excellent picture of what "soldier- 
ing" was in those days: 

"Camp Miami, Dec. 21, 181 2. 

"Dear Dunxan: We shall leave this place on Thursday for the 
Rajjids, notwithstanding our only means of transportation is cer- 




tainly bad. We shall be compelled to carry our baggage on sleds 
drawn by ourselves, or wait until the river thaws out, and of that 
there is small probabihty. We have been without flour for twelve 
days and have subsisted on beef and pork. 

*'It has been a trying time for us. The Spartans never could 
have undergone more hardships and apparently with as much 
fortitude as the tender striplings from Kentucky, men that before 
this have never been out of the precincts of a mother's care. 
The Seventeenth is still without sufficient clothing to resist the 
northern blasts of Caiiada, but in this condition they seem re- 
joiced at the idea of going on to avenge our country's wrongs. 
We expect to meet with clothing and tlour at the Rapids, and 
from there we shall march on to Detroit. In my opinion, I am 
sorry to inform you, that we shall be compelled to leave about 
two hundred sick at Fort Miami. I am aware of the impropriety 
of writing such letters from the army, but I know^ that you feel 
the same interest in the welfare of our country as myself I 
therefore hope you will not divulge the contents of this letter 
where it may do harm, for although our sufferings are great, they 
are nothing in comparison to our forefathers'. Yet, should it be 
known, it might be difficult to obtain the force that we may need 
to accomplish our ends. Yours truly, 

Philip Shrover." 

Being a man of vigorous constitution, and stature above the 
average, of great muscular power. Ensign Duncan performed 
much hard service during the war, and was often in perils which 
severely tested his energy, tact, and courage, as well as his bodily 
powers. At one time he was the bearer of despatches from the 
interior to the Army of the Northwest. His route lay either 
through the pathless forests of the Black Swamp, or else along 
the trail of the army, which was infested by marauding parties of 
hostile savages, and in his way lay the river upon whose banks 
Col. William Crawford was burned at the stake by the ijifarnous 
Simon Girty and his Indian associates in 1782. 

Duncan, with an Indian guide, struck into the forest. Across 

« ; 1 1; 


his course ran a small river, swollen by the freshets to a deep 
and rapid stream. His guide refused to cross. Ensign Duncan 
handed his papers to him and dashed into the flood and swam to 
the opposite shore. He called to his guide to follow, who still 
refused. Recrossing the stream, he again urged him to cross 
with him. Though well mounted, the guide had not the courage 
to enter the dangerous current. Taking his papers from him, 
Duncan for the third time crossed the torrent in safety. Alone 
and ignorant of the woods, he at once sought the trail of the 
army. Reaching it before nightfall, he followed it until about 
midnight, when, coming upon one of the block-houses buJt by 
the army on its march out, and being much fatigued, he deter- 
mined to rest till morning. 

He dismounted, fastened his horse, and entered the house, 
when he almost stumbled over the body of a man, stretched upon 
the floor. At once a savage yell rose from the prostrate man, 
which aroused a party of hostile Indians, who had taken posses- 
sion of the block-house. Duncan, with ready presence of mind, 
at once threw a handful of small coin upon the hearth, and in a 
second the Indians had lighted with flint the dry grass which 
filled the rough fire-place and were scrambling over the floor, 
each striving to obtain the greatest share of the unexpected treas- 
ure. He thus gained a few moments of time, withdrew from the 
house, leaped into his saddle, and putting spurs to his horse, in 
the darkness eluded pursuit. 

Probably the most noted achievement during the war was the 
part taken in the defence of Fort Stephenson. A detailed account 
of this action, taken from oflicial reports, may perhaps be per- 
mitted here, not merely because of its influence upon the life and 
military reputation (;f Duncan, but also because of its decisive 
importance in the war. The course of the campaign on the 
Xorthwest frontier up to August i, 1813, had thrown the main 
body of the Aivierican army under the immediate command of 
Gen. WilHam Henry Harrison, in the rear of Fort Stephenson. 
The commanding gt-neral, upon assuming his position at Seneca- 
town, placed Fort Stephenson under the command of Col. George 

I ( 

i> \.:!W .V 

:\ u\K)i\ 

■Ji ii 



Croghan \vith orders that if the enemy approached with cannon, 
he should abandon the fort and fall back upon the main army at 
Senecatown. Fort Stephenson was at that time in an entirely 
defenceless state. It was a light stockade, Hanked with block- 
houses, without a ditch or any other exterior defence, defended 
by between one hundred and thirty and one hundred and forty 
effective men, provided with one six -pounder, having seven 
charges of powder and a keg of lead, and the ammunition amount- 
ing to only forty rounds of musket-cartridges. 

Upon receiving the conuriand, Col. Croghan addressed himself 
with great assiduity to such preparations as would enable him to 
withstand an attack. With an insuflicient supply of tools and 
implements, he surrounded the fort by a ditch, cut down and 
removed trees to musket-shot distance from the fort, and made 
such repairs as were absolutely necessary upon the stockade. 
These improvements, pushed on with increasing diligence and 
labor, were just completed, when intelligence was received at 
headquarters that the seige of Foit Meigs had been raised, and 
that Gen. Preston, at the head of five thousand British and Indian 
troops, and provided with cannon and gunboats, was approaching 
the American static-ns on the Sandusky. This state of things 
seemed to make the contingency upon which Fort Stephenson 
was to be abandoned. Accordingly, an order from the com- 
mander-in-chief was sent to Col. Croghan, directing him "to fall 
back upon Senecatown." 

Upon the receipt of this order. Col. Croghan called a council 
of war and asked advice of his officers, whether he should aban- 
don it or defend the fort. According to military usage, Ensign 
Duncan, being the youngest officer, was first called upon to ex- 
press his opinion. He was decidedly "in favor of defending the 
fort, the order to the contrary notwithstanding," and of the same 
mind were a majority of the officers. Col. Croghan expressed 
great satisfaction at this result, as he said he had determined to 
defend the fort at all hazards. 

Thereu])on, he was suspended and ordered to head-quarters, 
and Fort Stephenson placed under the command of Col. Samuel 

L- fi>.. ;>:>/.. iibfiJ: ill 

■dr jU > ,<i)lih'3: 


While at headquarters, Col. Croghan so far satisfied the com- 
manding general (Harrison) of the propriety of his course that he 
was permitted to resume his command at the fort. Soon after 
his return, the enemy, composed of five hundred British regulars 
and about as many Indians, under the command of Gen. Preston, 
appeared before the fort and gave the usual formal summons to 
surrender. The demand vras met with the usual defiance, and 
forthwith commenced a cannonade upon the fort from the gun- 
boats and from a cannon stationed on the shore. The firing was 
continued with but little cessation for nearly forty hours. The 
smallness of the force in the fort rendered a sortie impracticable, 
and the scarcity of ammunition prevented a return of the enemy's 
fire during this period. At length, about six o'clock on the 
morning of August 2, 1813, the welcome sound of a bugle gave 
notice to the beseiged that the British were preparing for the 
assault. They were seen advancing in several columns under 
cover of a fire from their artillery. The first attempt was made 
upon the northeast front of the fort, defended by Lieut. Benj. 
Johnson, to whose assistance Ensign Duncan promptly hastened, 
and by their united eftbrts the enemy's column, led by Lieut. - 
Col. Street, was repulsed with loss. He, however, renewed the 
assault, on the northwest angle, defended by Lieut. John Meek 
and Ensign Edmund Shipp, Jr. 

These oflicers, in obedience to the earnest injunction of Col. 
Croghan, reserved their fire until the enemy approached within 
thirty feet, and then poured it upon him with deadly aim. Eor a 
moment he recoiled, but recovering himself with a gallant effort, 
he threw himself into the ditch. The six- pounder had been 
placed in position to rake the ditch, masked and heavily charged 
with slugs beaten out of pig-lead. 

At the m slant that the ditch was filled with the enemy, this 
piece was discharged upon them,.. and raking its whole extent 
with leaden slugs, effected the most fatal slaughter. A second 
discharge of this piece, accomi)anied with a fire of musketry, 
crowded the ditch with killed and wounded, and rendered further 
contest hopeless. 

;■ I 



In the meantime. Col. Warbiirton, at the head of a large party 
of about two hundred, made an attack with great spirit at the 
southeast face of the works, but it shared the fate of the other 
columns. Lieut. Cyrus A. Baylor, who had charge of that part 
of the line, being aided by the reserve under Ensign Duncan who 
had been previously ordered to afford relief wherever it was 
wanted; soon compelled it to retreat precipitately and in con- 
fusion. The British general drew off his force, leaving behind 
him one hundred white men killed and wounded, to say nothing 
of Indians. 

By the successful defence of Fort Stephenson, the plan and 
purpose of the British campaign were wholly frustrated. His 
main objects were the possession of the supplies at Cleveland, O., 
and the destruction of the naval preparations at Erie. The 
successful accomplishment of which would have given him the 
command of the lakes, and lost to our country the glory and 
advantage of Com. Perry's victory on Lake Erie. The posses- 
sion, too, by the enemy of the southern shore of the lake would 
have exposed our northwestern frontier to the usual calamities of 
Indian incursions. 

The following account, published in a paper of the time, illus- 
trates the modesty with which Ensign Duncan bore the praises 
which he, with his brave comrades, had so gallantly earned: 

" The tollowing incident was related by Capt. Wm. Garrard ot 
the Kentucky Volunteers, which occurred in his presence the 
morning after Croghan's victory over the British and Indians at 
Fort Stephenson or Lovv'er Sandusky, on Aug. 2, 1813. 

"When Gen. Harrison, with his army, arrived at Fort Stephen- 
son the morning after the battle, the dead bodies of tlie enemy 
were still scattered around the place in every direction. On his 
arrival, one of the officers in the fort gave the general a glowing 
account of the battle, and particularly of the part he had himselt 
taken in it, after which the general turned to Ensign Duncan, 
who had been selected by Maj. Croghan to command the reserve- 
corps, which is always a post of honor and of great danger and 
responsibility, and said to him: 'Well, my young friend, what did 

>.. }. 


you do in this gallant defence? ' 'Nothing more than my duty, 
sir,' was the modest reply of the young soldier who, though he 
had fought side by side with the gallant Croghan, meeting the 
enemy with his command and assisting to repulse them at every 
point of attack, appeared unconscious that he was entitled to any 
credit, himself, for a victory for its brilliancy never before sur- 
passed, and which was at that very moment filling the general 
and his whole army with astonishment and the most profound 
admiration for the gallantry of every ofticer and soldier engaged 
in it." 

Important in its results, the defence of Fort Stephenson was 
one of the most brilliant achievements of the war, and won for 
Col. Croghan, his officers, and men well -merited renown on 
account of their distinguished services rendered on that occasion. 
The Congress of the United States caused to be presented to 
Col. Croghan a gold medal, and to each of the other officers a 
gold-mounted sword. The resolution adopted by the senate, 
and the official correspondence with Gov. Duncan are as follows: 

" Twenty-third Congress, First Session, 

In tbe Senate of the United States, 
June i8, 1834. 

Mr. Preston from the Committee on Military Affairs, reported 
the following resolution, v/hich was read and passed to a second 

Resolution, Presenting a gold medal to George Croghan, and 
a sword to eacli of the officers under his command, for their 
gallantry and good conduct in the defence of Fort Stephenson in 
eighteen hundred and thirteen. 

Resolved, By the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America, in Congress assembled, that the presi- 
dent of the United States be requested to cause a gold medal to 
be struck with suitable emblems and devices and presented to 
Col. Croghan in testimony of the high sense entertained by 
Congress of his gallantry and good conduct in the defence of 
Fort Stephenson; and that he present a sword to each of the 



following officers engaged in that affair, to Capt. Jas. Hunter, 
Lieuts. Benj. Johnson, Cyrus A. Baylor, John Meeks, Ensigns 
Edmund Shipp [Jr.] and Joseph Duncan. j 

< • "War Department, March ii, 1837. |- 

"I^is Excellency Joseph Duncan, ■ . f 

^ Governor of Illinois, Vandalia, 111., • | 

"kS"/;-; By a joint resolution of Congress, approved on the 13th ^, 

of February, 1835, ^^^^ President of the United States was re- | 

quested among other things to present you a sword in testimony | 

of the high sense entertained by Congress of the gallantry and | 

good conduct displayed by you in the capacity of ensirin, as one | 

of the officers engaged in the brilliant and memorable defence of 
Fort Stephenson, in the month of August, 1813. Pursuant to 
this resolution, the President has caused a sword to be prepared 
in a style of execution corresponding in some measure with the 
distinguished character of the services it is intended to commem- 
orate, and has directed me to place it in your possession. It I 
gives me great pleasure to perform this duty, for whilst I regard 
the offering which I herewith deliver to you by the hands of Mr. ^ 
William Linn, as a just tribute from the representatives of a grate- 
ful people, I feel persuaded you will be ready to employ it with 
alacrity and vigor should it again be necessary to require you to 
risk your life in the public cause. I 

" Be pleased, at your earHest convenience, to acknowledge the 
reception of this communication, and also the sword. ^ 

Very respectfully, your most obedient | 

B. F. Butler, f 

Secretary of War, ^</////Vr/w." *^ 



"Elm Grove, Jacksonville, III., loth May, 1837. | 

" Hon. B. F. Butler, Secretary of War, 

Sir: Your letter of the nth March last, together witU the 

sword which has been presented me by the President of the 

United States in obedience to a resolution of Congress, has just 

been received, and, sir, if anything could add to the pleasure I 






feel at the receipt of this splendid present, it would be the very 
handsome manner in which you have been pleased to deliver it. 

"Every citizen of our beloved country should at all times feel 
willing to 'risk his life' in defense of her rights or of that liberty 
which was secured for us by the patriotism, wisdom, and virtue 
of our forefathers in that great and glorious struggle by which 
they broke the shackles both of body and mind from their 
countrymen and left them in the full enjoyment of equal rights 
and rational liberty. We have an example of public virtue and 
heroic fortitude that no son of theirs who loves the peace, honor, 
and safety of his country can ever disregard. It was from their 
hands, which a])pear to have been guided by wisdom from above, 
we received a constitution and plan of government eminently 
calculated not only to suit the present condition and wants of 
society, but to give full scope and energy to all the noble facul- 
ties of man which we are bound by every consideration, personal 
and national, to preserve and transmit to posterity unimpaired, 
or perish in the attempt. 

" Having acted but a subordinate part in the affair at [Lower] 
Sandusky [now Fremont], whicli Jias thus excited the Nation's 
gratitude, I did not expect nor do I feel that 1 had any claim to 
the distinguished honor that Congress has been pleased to confer 
upon me. To have done my duty on such an occasion, and to 
know that my conduct met the approbation of my companions 
in arms and my countrymen was all the compensation I ever 
expected and is the highest reward that could have been con- 
ferred upon me. Regarding the sword as a substantial pledge of 
approbation, I accept it with gratitude, and hope, with the fivor 
of divine Providence, if ever again called into the service of my 
country to wear it with honor. 

With great respect, your obedient servant, 

Joseph Duncax, 
Late Ensign in the 17th Regt. U.-S. Inf" 

In the fall of 1014, Lieut. Joseph Duncan was. selected by the 
commanding officer at Detroit to command a company of one 


hundred and thirty infantry and rangers to watch tJie movements 
of the British army. On November 5, lie crossed the Detroit 
River and marched one hundred and fifty miles north-east of 
Maiden beyond the head of the Thames River, in Canada, and 
pitched his camp within twenty miles of the British army, where 
he remained exposed to the enemy's attacks throughout the most 
inclem.ent winter, during which time he captured several of their 
scouting or foraging parties, and sent them prisoners to head- 
quarters. Many instances occurred through the war to test his 
fortitude and patience. 

On one occasion, in company w^ith ]_-ieut. Philips, he crossed 
Lake Erie from Maiden to Sandusky in an open yawl in the 
month of April, when, in that climate, storms blow with frequent 
and relentless fury. On nearing the shore, they found it impos- 
sible to land for three days, the waves being so high as to break 
over the boat every time they attempted it. 

At the close of the war, Lieut. Duncan returned to Kentucky 
and engaged in agricultural pursuits. But while in the army he 
had seen the broad and fertile prairies of Illinois, and ever and 
anon Fancy, as might be her mood by day or night, would spread 
them out before hirn in all tlieir magnificence, covered with their 
rich wild - flowers. But not until 1818 did the Jllinois of his 
dream become his home. 

In 1 81 8, when Illinois was admitted to the Union as a state, 
and Kaskaskia became her capital, Robert McLaughlin, an uncle 
of Joseph Duncan, was appointed state treasurer. He induced 
the family to move to that part of the State, to Fountain Bluff 
upon the Mississippi, in Jackson County. 

Preceded by the history of his gallant conduct in the war, 
Duncan's sound judgment, strong common-sense, and lionorable 
bearing soon commanded the respect and esteem of his fellow- 
citizens. He was rapidly promoted to the high rank of major- 
general of the militia, and in 1823 was elected a member of the 
State senate, ^\'hile a member of the senate in 1824, lie intro- 
duced a bill for the establishment of common-schools in Illinois, 
which became a law. It was a wise law, carefully framed, and 

to vocjJIl. :ii\] 



substantially the same as that now in force in this State, but it 
v/as in advance of the age and the circumstances of the 
people, and was soon afterward repealed. An old citizen of 
Jacksonville, speaking of this law, says: " I well remember the 
opposition there was to this school -law on the part of the poor 
people, who feared that their children would be educated and 
wholly unfitted tor work on the farm; the very class which the 
law was intended to benefit opposed it most bitterly." 

Joseph Duncan and Daniel Pope Cook became candidates in 
the year 1826 for the Twentieth Congress, and Mr. Duncan was 
elected. Mr. Cook was one of the most brilliant men of his 
day — had been a member of Congress since the admission of the 
State, which was constituted a congressional district, and ranked 
among the leading men in that body, holding the position of 
chairman of the Committee of Ways and Means; of unbounded 
popularity in the State until somewhat affected by his vote in 
Congress for Mr. Adams in 1824. It surely was a triumph of 
which any man might be proud, to succeed over such an oppon- 
ent. Mr. Duncan was successively elected to. and continued to 
be a member of the Twentieth, Twenty-first, and Twenty-second 
Congresses, and served from 1827 to 1833. 

That a congressman's life was then as now too much occupied 
with the question of appointments is shown by numerous pas- 
sages in a diary which he kept at the time, from which are tran- 
scribed a few passages, omitting some names: 

"1829, Feb. 19. Various applications for me to support Duff 
(jreen for public j)rinter; could not consent to do so; knew too 
much of him; believed and told his friends that they would soon 
get tired of him, as he was arrogant, dictatorial, and possessed 
no fixed principles;" "^ * 

"Feb. 20th. Gen. Jackson arrived in A\'ashington City; Mai. 
[John H.] Eaton met him on thje.road and escorted him in. I 
called to see him on the 17th and again today. I found l"iin> 
engaged in another room with a corps of editors." ^ '^ 

"Feb. 2ist. Called again on Gen. Jackson to introduce a 
friend; saw Mr. Tazewell with the general the only suitable com- 



panion I had met. "' ■•'" Saw Capt. [Zac] Taylor of the U.-S. | 

army; he says he heard that Gcii. Jackson was going to call that ^ 

day upon President [J. Q.] Adams; that he met Duff Green and 

told him that he understood that Gen. [Andrew] Jackson was to 

call upon Mr. Adams that day. Gen, Duff Green said that he did 

not believe the report, but that he would go and see, and if it was 

so, he would very soon put a stop to it. Arrogance ctiough'^ "' ^^ 4 

"Feb. 23d. From the persons who surround the general, I I 

Tear he is to be improperly influenced in his first appointments. 
The central committee appear to consider him as their own game. | 

Some of them are constantly with him, or about the door as I I 

am informed, for I do not know them all by sight. I called to | 

see Gen. Jackson at 7 o'clock in the evening with two friends, Mat- 
thew St. Clair Clarke and Lieut. Johnson. The general expressed 
'much pjleasure in seeing us; said he was more gratified to see us 
at that hour, as ' Duff,' as he called him, had presumed to set his 
hours for him to receive his visitors; but he said that would all 
be right, as he had ordered Green to correct the statement regu- 
lating his hours for receiving visitors, in his paper. 

"What excessive presumption, was the first feeling I liad, but 
it is all right, as it must very soon place this character hi his 
proper hole. Various rumors are current about the appointment 
of the cabinet, Tazewell to be secretary of state; Hayne, navy; 
McLean, war; Baldwin, treasury; Ingham, P.-M. (}. All agree 
that the cabinet will be composed of five of the following per- 
sons: Ta/ewell, VanP'uren, McLean, Baldwin, Hamilton, Hayne, 
Ingham, and Cheves. Gen. Ogle arrived in the city; came into 
'the House of Representatives; his red vest attracts great notice; 
'■every one whispers to his neighbor to know who he is. Several 
-new senators have arrived. McLean of Illinois. Letters have 
been received that he obtained his election by union with the 
E.-and-A. party; hope it isn'; have a better opinion of the 
'man. Called to see the President; he says he will remove no 
officer on account of ])olitical opinions unless he has used his 
'office for electioneering. He appears liberal, and I agree per- 
fectly with his views." 


'' March 4th. Attended tlie President's inauguration. He 
walked from Gadsbies' hotel with his hat ofif in a great crowd. 
Having a tine view from the west room of the clerk's office in the 
capitol, I could see him and the vast crowd at every point until 
they ascended the great steps which enter the capitol. Saw 
nothing that I disliked but the conspicuous station and part 
acted by the central committee. Stood near the president when 
he read his address; was struck by the profound attention of the 
multitude while he read, especially as I am convinced that three- 
fourths of all present could not have heard the sound of his voice, 
at least so as to distinguish one word. The expression of the 
people on his first appearance was very fine, and showed that he, 
had a strong hold on their affection. The number present is 
variously estimated, the opinions of intelligent persons vary from 
fifteen to thirty thousand. No parade of the military present, 
except one or two companies, and they were very far off. I 
think they were from Alexandria, as I saw one of them coming 
from that direction. With this 1 was much pleased. I am op-, 
posed to great parades, and especially military parades, on such 
an occasion; had rather see the honors done after the service is 
performed; but in this District, where most of the people are 
servants of or connected with the government, it is natural they 
should worship the rising sun. I was forcibly struck with the 
contrast between Mr. Adams entering on and closing his official 
duties as president. I was present in 1825, when his inaugura- 
tion took place. It was a fine day, and from the moment 1 first 
looked into the street on the morning of the 4th of March until 
dark I saw nothing but a bustle, people moving in all directions^ 
and -many of them by sunrise in full military dress, and by 10 
o'clock the Avenue was crowded with armed soldiers, whom I. 
took to be a mixture of marines, infantry, and artillery of the 
United States, and militia of the District. It was certainly the 
Hnest display I ever witnessed. Was informed that many of the 
fine coats had been bought in lionor of Gen. La Fayette. I was 
glad to hear it, for the idea of their having been bought for this 
occasion was too ridiculous. In 1829, Mr. Adams was not seen. 


on the 4th of ]\Iarch, and I suppose would not liave been thought 
of but for a coffin handbill that was circulated in the crowd in 
the most disgusting manner, that produced general disgust. Did 
not go to the White House to see the President receive his 
friends after the inauguration. I understood that the crowd was 
very great; all sorts of folks there, some with their feet on the 
satin chairs and sofas and mahogany tables. A report was circu- 
lated that the gold and silver spoons were stolen on this occa- 
sion, but believe that it was not true." 

"March 5th. The city is said to be filled with office-hunters. 
There is general disappointment in the appointment of the cab- 
inet. Clay says that they charged Mr. Adams with making a 
bargain; that he thinks Gen. Jackson had better have made one." 

*' March 6th, 1829. Gov. Kinney and E. J. W. wish me to 
request the removal of certain officers from office, which I de- 
clined, as I am opposed to removing competent and worthy men 
on account of a mere difference of opinion. They appeared to 
be dissatisfied, but that will make no difterence in my conduct, 
as such a course would be adverse to all my notions of propriet}'". 
Went with Gov. Kinney to see the President, recommended West 
for secretary of legation to the minister to Columbia. Gen. 
Jackson says he will try and provide for him. Went to see sec- 
retary of the treasury in favor of G. T. Pell. The senators join 
in the recommendation, and he is recommended by many of the 
members of the legislature of Illinois." 

"March 7th, 1829. Kane, McLean, and myself went in Mc- 
Lean's room to consult about appointments in the event of any 
removals or vacancies. McLean and myself opposed removals 
except for some good cause other than political. Kane rather 
differed in opinion aliout removals. We agreed to recommend 
C. Slade for marshal in tlie event of Conner's removal, as charges 
have been made against him. We didn't all agree upon any one 
else, nor can I say that we disagreed very much, although several 
were named." 

"March ^oth, 1829. Still in Washington waiting on my wife's 
health. Went to see the President and secretary of war about 

■ji.' -."; r 


(,} uvy^t 


getting the Illinois-and-Lake-r\Iichigan canal located and the 
route from the Illinois River to Lake Erie examined. .Saw Gen. 
Gratiot; got him to go with me to the war department; found 
him very friendly to my views and to the West. The secretary 
thinks the law does not authorize him to send engineers to locate. 
Referred him to the case in Indiana under the same law. He 
appears disposed to do right, and says if the favor has been done 
to Indiana it should also be extended to Illinois; promises it 
shall be ordered."' 

"March nth, 1S29. Met Maj. Campbell of Tennessee near 
the treasury department; he told me that the president and sec- 
retary of war had given him the appointment of superintendent 
of the lead mines on the upper Mississippi River in Illinois and 
Micliigan. I resolved to remonstrate against the appointment 
and told ^Ir. Campbell of my intention. I went immediately to 
the president and told him tluit the aj^pointment of a man from 
Tennessee to hold an office in Illinois would be treating his 
friends in that State very badly, and that it could not help excit- 
ing much displeasure. He assured me that he would do nothing 
that would displease his friends anywhere if he knew it; that Mr. 
Campbell was the only applicant; that he was not acquainted 
with tlie fact that so large a portion of these mines was in Illi- 
nois. He wrote a note to the secretary of war upon the subject, 
and assured me that it should be satisfactorily arranged. I called 
the same day to see Mr. Eaton ; he appeared anxious to appoint 
Campbell. I assured him that it would be resented by every 
citizen of Illinois if he was appointed. * *" I urged 

the necessity, if the change was made, of their compelling the 
superintendent to give bond and security, as contemplated by 
my bill upon the subject of governing the mines. Left the sec- 
retary without much satisfaction, but convinced that he would 
insist upon Campbell's appointment.^ '" * I immediately wrote 
a remonstrance to the president, as I was determined that I 
would clear myself of the responsibility of transferring a man 
from another State into Illinois to hold an office which placed in 
his hands fifty thousand dollars per annum of public property. 



without check or security to protect the interests of the govern- 
ment. Got a letter from James M. Duncan; he wants to be 
appointed Indian agent in place of Graham or Hamtramck, who, 
Gen. Smith of Missouri informs me, are to be removed, and he 
requests me to use my influence. This I can not do consistently, 
as I am unwilling to ask or receive a favor which would place ) 

me under obligations to th*e executive power of the government ! 

while I am the representative of the people, as the appointment | 

of my brother upon my request would have that tendency, and I | 

think every person applying for an office should have the recom- | 

mendation of the people with whom he resides or with whom he-" I 

is to serve. This, I do not doubt, my brother could obtain if I 

he pleases." * '" I 

"March — , 1S29. Dined at the president's; splendid enter- | 

tainment. All the secretaries, W. R. Davis, John A^arnum, and | 

myself of Congress, Gen. Macomb, Jessup, Gibson, and Gratiot,. | 

Col. Towson, and all the foreign ministers in full dress were pres- | 

ent, with several other senators. Maj. Eaton informed me that | 

be had concluded not to change the nature of the agency at the I 

mines, but he had or would detail another of the officers of the 
United-States army to succeed Lieut. Thomas, and that he would 
have several assistants to appoint and invited me to recommend 
some persons to fill them. I agreed to see him tomorrow." 

" March — , 1829. Went to war office; met Duff Green com- 
ing out; wondered if he had any person for one of those places 
and was told that he wanted Dr. Green of St. Louis appointed. 
I recommended the retention of McKnight; also recommended 
Col. Wight, R. W. C, Col. S. A., and R. B. T., but received no 
answer. The secretary spoke of others out of the State for some 
of the places, to which 1 objected." 

"April — , 1829. H J. W. returned to the city; left Kinney 
in Baltimore. He has a strong- reconmicndation from merchants 
and other persons of distinction in the city of New York, recom- 
mending him for c/iargc iV affaires to . I called with him 

to see the president; he said he would appoint him, but the 
appropriation for that purpose was exhausted. Gov. Kinney 


appears very anxious for West's appointment; delighted with his 
trip to the North; says he left ray brother James in Boston, get- 
ting better, to come on with Capt. S. B. Richardson. Went with 
Kinney to see the president; he told the president that his 
appointments in Boston gave general satisfaction; said the peo- 
ple expected the Adams men to be turned out. The president 
expressed pleasure at hearing his appointments gave such satis- 
faction. Kinney urges the necessity of removals; says the Re- 
publicans had fought hard and had gained a great victory, but if 
the old Federalists were left in office the battle would have to be 
fought over again; says if it was left to him he would turn them 
all out as he would a parcel of dogs from a meat-house. The 
president laughed heartily at this remark, but made no reply. 
Returning, we met Handy of Indiana, at Williamson's; Kinney 
asked him if he had been here ever since he saw him. He re- 
plied he had. Kinney advised him to go home, or some one 
would administer on his estate. The little fellow bore the joke 
very well and replied they would be poorly paid for their trouble 
if they did. There are many others in the city who are running 
the same risk." 

"April, 1829. Kinney came to see me; said that Eaton would 
appoint a citizen of Illinois to one of the offices of Galena if I 
would recomniend some one, which I rather declined, as 1 felt 
indignant at the appointment of citizens in Tennessee and Vir- 
ginia to hold offices in Illinois." 

"April — , 1829. Went with Kinney to the war department 
and recommended A. G. S. W. Never did anything with more re- 
luctance, as I feared that it might be considered as a surrender 
of the ground I had taken against the other appointments. Eaton 
asked me if I had heard from my brother, who was sick in Bos- 
ton, and ex[)ressed a wish to see him. Kinney said something 
about his appointment. Eaton- «aid that he had come to no 
conclusion, but thought that he would a])point him, and requested 
rne to recommend him, which I declined, saying that my brothers 
must rely upon others to recommend them. Do n't like the 
proposition; believe it was intended to get me so committed that 

'J.l i, 

1 1 1. "^ •■ ■ 



if I complained of the other appointments it might be attributed 
to disappointment in this." 

While still a member of Congress, he was appointed, in 1831, 
by Gov. Reynolds, brigadier -general of volunteers in the expedi- 
tion against the Indians in what is known as the Black-Hawk 
War. That expedition marched to Rock Island, and at its 
approach- the Indians crossed the Mississippi and concluded a 
treaty of peace. Gen. Duncan had no opportunity to distinguish 
himself in his military service otherwise than by his dignified and 
soldierly conduct to acquire the respect and good-will of his 
command, and add to Ins very great popularity. 

He was elected governor of Illinois in 1834, over his competi- 
tor, William Kinney, who had been lieutenant-governor of the 
State and was a man of great popularity. Duncan's majority was 
about seven thousand over Kinney. 

It was during his time, though attaching more to Gov. Reyn- 
olds' period, that some singular changes in official positions 
occurred, which are thus stated: "Reynolds was elected governor 
of Illinois in 1S30. Zadoc Casey at the same time elected lieu- 
tenant-governor. In 1832, when three congressmen were appor- 
tioned to Illinois, Joseph Duncan, the previous sole member 
from the State, was elected from the northern district, and Chas. 
Slade and Zadoc Casey from the two southern districts. Casey 
was lieutenant-governor and his election to congress made AV. L. 
D. Ewing, president of the senate, acting lieutenant-governor. 
In 1834, Slade died and Gov. Reynolds was elected to fill this 
vacancy, and also for the full term following. Hence Ewing, 
who had become lieutenant-governor when Casey went to con- 
gress, became governor when Reynolds went there also, and 
occupied the executive chair for half a month. And another 
queer transposition was that Duncan, sitting congressman for 
seven years past while he was East, was elected governor to suc- 
ceed Reynolds, and Reynolds, the State governor, was sent to 
congress to succeed Duncan. Duncan, on' his return home in 
the fall, met Reynolds somewhere at a relay station on the Na- 
tional road, and, after tlieir cordial greeting, Duncan said: "Well, 

'{7 "J A 


Governor, we are changing horses here, aint we ? You are going 
from governor to congress, and I am going from congress to 
governor." ''Yes,"" said the old ranger, "and we are changing 
horses poUticahy, too. You are riding the Yankee mule and I 
am going to keep astraddle of Old Hickory.'' 

The pith of this story, which Gov. Reynolds related, was that 
Duncan had been counted until the time of his election as gov- 
ernor as a Jackson man, and now had become an Adamsand- 
Clay Whig, while Reynolds was now a Jackson Democrat, when 
he had previously been counted as a sort of out-rider by the 
decided Jackson men. 

In this political contest, parties first began to be formed on 
national issues. Prior to 1832, elections were decided more 
upon the popularity of the men who were the candidates and 
upon local questions rather than national. 

Joseph Duncan had been the ardent supporter of Gen. Jackson 
in the contest for the presidency in 1824-182 8, and, in 1832, 
Jackson arbitrarily, as he thought, had suspended the functions 
of the United-States I3ank as the financial agent of the govern- 
ment; he had vetoed bills appropriating money for improvement 
of the great rivers, Mississippi, Illinois, and Wabash, and for the 
harbor at Chicago. Duncan, having the interests of his constit- 
uents at heart, felt obliged to break with the administration, and 
in manly addresses sent through circulars to the people of Illi- 
nois, advised them of the reasons why he could not support the 
administration. He did not canvas the State in person, when a 
candidate for governor. The public interest demanded that he 
should remain at his post as member of Congress. The medium 
he employed to reach the people was the press. 

After the election of Gen. Jackson in 1832, Martin Van Buren 
was presented, with tlie sanction of Gen. Jackson, as his suc- 
cessor. PVjm 1832 onward, until his election in 1836, members 
of the Democratic parly in Illinois began to take sides for or 
against Mr. Van Buren, the larger portion in his favor. At that 
time was first introduced into Illinois politics the convention 
system, and which, by its opponents, was charged to be the 
introduction of the machine politics of New York. 


Many prominent Democrats, while claiming to support the | 

administration of Gen. Jackson, refused to support Mr. VanBuren | 

as his successor. Their loss, however, was made up to the Dem- 
ocratic party by the adhesion of many heretofore supporters of 
Mr. Clay. The Democrats who refused to support Mr. VanBuren 
and the large party of those who had been Adams-and-Clay men 
united upon Judge White of Tennessee as the opponent of Mr> 
VanBuren at the election of 1836. ^ 

Judge AVhite had always been a warm supporter of Gen. Jack- | 

son. Since that time, parties in Illinois have been based on | 

national issues, and the convention system, when first introduced | 

by the friends of ]Mr. Van Buren, was bitterly attacked by his | 

opponents, but has since become commonly used by all parties. | 

Joseph Duncan was one of those hostile to Mr. Van Buren, | 

and in his race for governor in 1834, was supported by all the I 

opponents of Van Buren from the Democratic party, and by the j 

opponents of Gen. Jackson generally, and by a sufficiency of the | 

regular Jackson men to elect him governor of Illinois over Mr. 
Kinney, who was supported by the friends of Mr. VanBuren. It 
was stated that Joseph Duncan's opposition to Gen. Jackson's | 

administration must have been caused by disappointment or I 

prejudice, or he would not have left his old friends. Replying to f 

this charge in a public address, he said such was not the fact; 
that he never asked a favor of the administration of Gen. Jackson 
or Mr. VanBuren; that he had ever been on good terms with 
Gen. Jackson, and he had no personal difference with Mr. Van 
Buren; that Gen. Jackson had offered him, through a friend, any ;, 

office he would choose to accept; and that he had appointed I 

several of his relations to important offices without his solicita- | 

tion. So far, therefore, from his ever having any personal cause | 

of dissatisfaction, he had ever enjoyed the friendship and kept up I 

the most friendly intercourse with Gen. Jackson, and he would 
now say what he had said a tliousand times before, that he never 
doubted Gen. Jackson's intentions to do right and to carry out 
the pledges of himself and jjarty. He believed a better patriot ^ 

or a man who more sincerely loved his country never lived; but, | 

;/. '1. 

j; ;n i>}i^; 



unfortunately for his fame and the welfare of his country, he came 
into office at too advanced an age to give his personal attention 
to those vast reforms he had pledged himself to carry out, and 
from his advanced age there resulted a loss of intellect but too 
perceptible to all who knew him. The glories of his military 
character, the sauvity of his manners, his fame, and his power 
brought around him, from curiosity to see the hero, from admir- 
ation of his noble, frank, and chivalrous bearing, or from interest, 
thousands and thousands of individuals from the old and new 
world, and none were ever turned away, but all were admitted to 
his presence, and went away delighted with his kind and hospit- 
able treatment. Very soon after Gen. Jackson came into office, 
from incidents and intrigue well known, Mr. Van Buren became a 
favorite of the general, and kindly relieved him from the burdens 
of his official station, leaving the venerable old president to do 
the more delightful offices of the parlor, for which no man living 
was ever better qualified. 

Mr. Van liuren, having thus obtained the general's confidence, 
had no difficulty in introducing his own principles into the action 
of the administration, "and it was in this way,"' said he, ''that all 
Cien. Jackson's pledges to reduce the expenses and reform the 
abuses of the government have been abandoned, and the extrav- 
agant and ambitious policy of Mr. Van Buren had obtained 

Gov. Duncan said: "he had weighed well the course he had 
pursued; he knew to oppose the administration would disappoint 
and perhaps displease many of his oldest and best friends: he 
anticipated the abuse of the pensioned press and the ambitious 
office-seekers, but he considered his duty to a generous people 
and to his country above every personal consideration, and, 
therefore did not hesitate to oppose every measure which was 
calculated to increase im{)ro[)erly.and unnecessarily the public 
expenditure, or to clothe the government witli improper power, 
or to lead to prescription or threaten the safety of our free insti- 
tutions." He asked: "Was it not a fact that he was the favorite 
of the Jackson party at home, having been elected to Congress 


over a talented Adams man by a majority of one thousand votes? 
And that he was tlie intimate personal friend of Gen. Jackson 
and every member of his party at Washington at the time he 
commenced opposing the administration. Where, then, was the 
motive for him to abandon them, unless it was from a sense of 
duty to a people who had often honored him with their confi- 
dence and placed him as their sentinel on the watch-tower of 
their liberties? '' 

Gov. Duncan quoted from Jackson's letter to the legislature of 
Tennessee, Oct. 14, 1825, where he pledges himself "to serve but 
one term." This, as well as his oft-repeated pledges of reform 
and retrenchment had been wholly neglected, nay, had been 
treated with contempt. Here it will be perceived that under the 
administration of Mr. Van Buren the expenditures of the govern- 
ment amounted to $26,664,745 annually, more than under the 
administration of Mr. Adams, and yet Mr. Adams was turned out 
for the extravagance of his administration. 

In June, 1828, the retrenchment committee reported that at 
least one -third of the clerks in the department in Washington 
might be reduced with safety to the public interest, yet nothing 
was done. Gen. Jackson had promised to hold public officers to 
a strict accountability, yet it was notorious that millions had been 
plundered from the treasury without an effort on the part of Mr. 
A^an Buren to prevent it. He had even appointed defaulters to 
office, knowing the fact, concealing it from the public. I'he 
Democrats need not count Van Buren as one; he was no Demo- 
crat. He voted, Xov. 9, 181 2, in the city of Albany, N.Y., for 
DeWitt Glinton as a candidate for the presidency. He was 
found in opposition to his country at a moment when it was 
bleeding at every pore. But tlie most serious thing in the con- 
duct of Gen. Jackson was this: that in September, 1833, ^^^ 
ordered the public deposits-in the bank to be transferred to 
selected local banks and entered upon the "experiment" whether 
these could not act as fiscal agents for the government, and 
whether the desire to get the deposits would not induce them to 
adopt sound rules of currency. During the next session, the 


senate passed a resolution condemning his conduct. Jackson 
protested, and, after a hard struggle, the resokition was ordered 
expunged from the record, Jan. i6, 1837. To show how Joseph 
Duncan regarded party, I quote agam : 

" Many compkiin tliat I have not sufficiently supported the 
party in my votes in Congress. To such I would say 1 have 
investigated every subject upon which I have been called upon 
to act, wiih a sincere desire of obtaining correct information. 
My votes have been governed by my best judgment and an 
ardent wish to promote the interest and honor of the country, 
without regard to what either party supported or opposed. 

" Having been led to observe early in hfe that a man who has 
firmness and independence enough to do right in high party 
times, though condemned by the ambitious and selfish dema- 
gogues, is certain to be sustained by the patriotic and honorable 
men of all parties, I was at no loss what course to pursue when I 
entered Congress. That man who is so weak or so wicked as to 
vote under the influence of party feeling or party discipline will 
be compelled, almost every day, to abandon his principles, if he 
has ever advanced any, the interest of his constituents, his own 
honor, and his independence, and I envy them not the praise 
they receive from any party." 

An old and tried friend said of Gov. Duncan: " Few men in 
our country have evinced more independence. Party discipline 
nor popular excitement ever shook the firmness of his purpose or 
swerved him from the path of duty. 

" When most of the legislatures and governors of the different 
States raised the popular claim to the public lands within their 
limits, altliough then their sole representative, he promptly pro- 
nounced their claim illegal, and. refused to give it his counten- 
ance, for which he was opposed by many of the leading men of 
the State, but he manfully breas.t.ed the opposition and main- 
tained and defended his opinions before the people, who sus- 
tained him by a large majority — which has ever put to rest a 
subject that swept over the West and South like a tornado." 

In one of his published letters Gov. Duncan says: "It is my 

I .1- i\i l>< HW. 

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deliberate opinion, formed by long observation of the spirit of 
the Van Buren party, that if the Whigs shall now consent to or- 
ganize and act upon the same principles, elections in this coun- 
try will become as corrupt as they are in the rotten boroughs of 
England, and then the government will soon end in angry contest, 
civil v/ar, and perhaps despotism. 

'• Let all parties throv; off the shackles which party machinery 
has imposed upon them. Then they will, as before 1830 when 
the republic was pure, march to the polls like freemen and 
vote for men and measures on their own judgment. The three 
issues of the party now are the bank, tariff, and distribution. We 
are for a well-guarded bank, chartered by the United States to 
act as a fiscal agent of the government, to regulate our currency 
-and assist commerce, to be owned and directed chiefly by private 
stockholders who shall be responsible to Congress or its special 
.agent for their strict observance of the law and their fidelity to 
the government. We are in favor of a tariff or tax to support 
the governmcTit being levied, first upon such articles of necessity 
as are required by every family. We are opposed to proscription 
and removals of competent public agents for their political opin- 
ions by the executive government, because it degrades and en- 
slaves the public officer and takes away his responsibility to the 
law and the people and makes him the servile tool of men in 

Gov. Duncan, in his first messao^e at the session of the le^risla- 
ture of 1834, forcibly called the attention of that body to the 
subject of education and common -schools, by saying : "As every 
country is })rosperous and respected in proportion to the \'irtue 
and intelligence of its inhabitants, the subject of education will 
doubtless again form an important part of your deliberations. ^ 
It becomes us to use every exertion in our power to instruct 
those who are immediately dependent upon us, and leave to 
those who come after us the rich revenues to be derived from 
the land, canals, and other improvements; to form a permanenl 
fund to carry out any plan you may now adopt for tlie purposes 
of education. '' * A government like ours, controlled and 


carried on by the will of the people, should be careful to use all 
the means in its power to enlighten the minds of those who are 
destined to exercise so important a trust. This and every con- 
sideration connected with the virtue, elevation, and happiness of 
man, and the character and prosperity of our State, and of our 
common country, calls upon you to establish some permanent 
system of common-schools by which an education may be placed 
within the power, nay, if possible, secured to every child in the 
■State. As the first establishment may, from want of experience, 
be attended with difficulty and loss, it may be found most exped- 
ient to commence the system while the funds are small, so that 
w^hen they increase we may have acquired experience, by which 
they may be employed more judiciously." 

In the same message he urges with great force the necessity of 
the completion of the canal from the Illinois River to Lake 
Michigan, wide enough for steamboats to pass. What he said in 
that message of the future of Illinois was then a prediction, but 
is today more than realized. 

"The slightest reflection upon the ease with which our prairies 
may be brought under cultivation, compared with the labor, ex- 
pense, and delay which attend the clearing and cultivating a 
heavy-timbered forest, must convince the most skeptical of the 
splendid results which will follow from the completion of a work 
that will enable us to sell at an increased value our agricultural, 
mineral, and other i)roductions. 

" It is not merely in the ease with which farms are opened that 
I the superiority of the agricultural prospects of this State consist. 

I The fertility of the soil yields a rich product, its lightness renders 

( it easy of cultivation, while its depth almost certainly secures the 

I prudent and industrious farmer against those vicissitudes of the 

I season which so frequently destroy the crops in other countries. 

"Judging of the future by the past and present rapid improve- 
ment, which is everywhere in progress in our State, and estimat- 
ing its future population by the inexhaustible resources of the 
country and by. the flood of enterprising citizens pouring into it 
from every quarter of the civilized world, the imagination is lost 



,.h' ^ WW. -^1 

{I'll .n«/!i .ii7jii{ £ {i-'(\: 'tf/i 


in contemplating the millions of happy and independent people 
which it is destined to sustain, and whose surplus will scarcely 
find room to flont upon the majestic rivers, the Mississippi and 
St. Lawrence, flowing to the north and to the south, which Provi- 
dence, in the fullness of its beneficence, has provided on a scale 
equaled only by the vast country they are destined to accom- 

The public mind was not then ready to adopt the views of 
Gov. Duncan in relation to common -schools, but his views then 
advanced had their influence on public opinion, and led, in 1854- 
^55, to the adoption into a law of a bill prepared by Ninan W. 
Edwards for a system of common-schools, now in force, and the 
provisions of which are very similar to those of the law adopted 
in 1824, of which Gov. Duncan was the author. 

Gov. Duncan did not recommend the charter of the State Bank 
adopted at that session, but expressed an opinion against it, 
saying : " Should it be considered expedient to establish a bank, 
a measure I can not at present advise, I would suggest the pro- 
priety of providing that, in no event, should more than six per 
cent per annum be divided to the stockholders, and that the 
stock be sold at public auction to the highest bidder and the 
advance on it put into the State treasury. Banks may be made 
exceedingly useful in society, not only affording an opportunity 
to the widow, the orphan, and the aged who possess capital with- 
out the capacity of employing it in ordinary business to invest it 
in such stock, but by its use the young and enterprising me- 
chanic, merchant, and tradesman may be enabled more success- 
fully to carry on his business and improve the country. 

"But, unfortunately, banks are too often established to benefit 
the rich speculator, with no reference to the interest and conven- 
ience of the industrious poor, which has justly excited a jealousy 
among the people against all banks, and should admonish us to 
be exceedingly careful in the first permanent introduction of them 
into our, State."' 

The message also recommended the subject of colleges in the 
following terms : " The State has also at its disposal a consider- 

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f'.vf-:- Hi., 


able fund for the establishment and support of colleges, institu- 
tions of learning of a more liberal character, although of less vital 
importance than a system of common -schools, and are second 
only to them in importance. Nor can the inestimable value of 
education be properly appreciated until provision is made for 
instruction in the higher branches of literature. The subject is 
one whose importance will doubtless recommend itself to )'our 
serious consideration.'' 

The legislature of 1834-35 adjourned without taking any effi- 
cient action upon the recommendations of Gov. Duncan on the 
subject of education and the canal. A call of the legislature was 
made for a special session to assemble on the first Monday of 
December, 1835, i^i^iii^ly for an apportionment of representation 
under the census of that year. Gov. Duncan addressed a written 
message to this legislature, and, after advising them that all efforts 
to obtain a loan to complete the canal under the act of the last 
session had failed, he recommended them to authorize a loan on 
a pledge of the fiith of the State for such a sum as, in their dis- 
cretion, they may consider necessary for a vigorous prosecution 
of the work. 

The loan had failed to be made under the law of the previous 
session because the faith of the State was not pledged for its 
repayment, therefore, the recommendation of the governor for a 
pledge of the faith of the State, to ])revent a failure of the prose- 
cution of the work. That legislature did pass a law authorizing a 
loan to be made and a pledge of the faith of the State given for 
its repayment. Under this law a loan was made and was the 
efificient means of completing the building of the Illinois -and- 
Michigan Canal. 

Gov. Duncan, in his message, urged the importance of other 
works of intersial improvement, but opposed the making of them 
by the State^ and recommended them to be built by private indi- 
vidual enterprise. He said: "Several other important works of 
internal improvement have been authorized by law, and many 
others are spoken of, which the commerce and rapid growth of 
the State must very soon require to be put into operation, and, 


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while I would urge the most Hberal support of all such measures, 
as tending with perfect certainty to increase the wealth' resources, 
and prosperity of the State, I would at the same time most res- 
pectfully suggest the propriety of leaving the construction of all 
such works, whenever it can be done consistently with the gen- 
eral interest, chiefly to individual enterprise. Experience has 
shown that capitalists, merchants, and the farmers of the country 
soonest discern the necessity and importance of such improve- 
ments; and while the State can, by a liberal subscription to the 
stock, which I would advise in all cases, give impulse to work 
undertaken by individuals, it may make a safe investment of its 
funds such as will pay the interest upon any loan which may be 
required and render as much, and often more, service to the 
country than by undertaking the whole work. When we look 
abroad and see the extensive lines of internal communication 
penetrating almost every section of our sister states; when we 
see the canalboat and the locomotive bearing, with seeming 
triumph, the rich productions of the interior to the rivers, lakes, 
and ocean, almost annihilating time, burden, and space, what 
patriot bosom does not beat high with a laudable ambition to 
give to Illinois her full share of these advantages which are 
adorning and enriching her sister states, and which a munificent 
Providence seems to invite by the wonderful adaptation of our 
whole country to such improvements." 

In the same message he recommended an increase of the 
capital stock of the State l^ank, which had been chartered at the 
pre\'ious session of the legislature. 

At the regular session of the legislature of 1836-37, Gow 
Duncan again addressed them in a written message, which, how- 
ever, was nearly a reiteration of his views on state affairs ex- 
pressed in his message at the previous called session. He again 
pressed the estabHshment of common -schools and repeats what 
he said in the preamble to his bill of 1824-25 as follows : "To 
enjoy our rights and liberties we must understand them; their 
security and protection ought to be the first object of a free 
people; and it is a well-established fact that no nation has ever 


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continued long in the enjoyment of civil and political freedom 
which was not both virtuous and enlightened, and believing that 
the advancement of literature always has been and ever will be 
the means of developing more fully the rights of men; that the 
mind of every citizen in a republic constitutes the basis of its 
strength and happiness, it is, therefore considered the peculiar 
duty of a free government like ours to encourage and extend the 
improvement of the intellectual energies of the whole." 

On the subject of internal improvements he says his mind had 
undergone no change, but urged again the propriety of the State 
taking stock to aid in constructing public works. This message 
is mainly confined to views on national politics and arguing 
against the danger of the great increase of the power and patron- 
age of the executive of the United States. 

The legislature at this session passed the famous bill " to 
establish and maintain a general system of internal improve- 
ments, '" which provided for the work being done by the State 
and on its faith and credit. This bill, when passed, was laid 
before the council of revision, then composed of the governor 
and judges of the supreme court, for its approval. The bill was 
not approved by the council, but was returned with the objection 
"that such works can only be made safely and economically in a 
free government by citizens or by independent corporations, 
aided or authorized by government." 

The bill, when returned with the objections of the council, was 
again passed, the objections of the council notwithstanding, and 
became a law. The objection of the council was in conformity 
with the views of Gov. Duncan, as expressed in his message at 
the called session, and the objection had his concurrence. 

In reviewing the recommendations of CtOv. Duncan, it is mani- 
fest they were wise and statesman-like, and their wisdom has been 
manifested by the subsequent experience of the State. 

The following message to the legislature of 1837 gives -more 
fully his views in relation to the banks of the State, the internal 
improvement act, and the Illinois-and-Michigan Canal, the three 
subjects which then engrossed the attention of the people and 



the politicians of the State. Had his counsels prevailed, Illinois 
would have escaped the losses entaileci by the failure of the 
banking system and the system of internal improvements, and 
the Illinois-and-xSlichigan Canal would have been constructed at 
first as a ship-canal, and from the date of its opening been a 
great national highway. 

July II, 1837, Vandalia. Gov. Duncan says: "In my message 
at the opening of the last session it was my happiness to congrat- 
ulate you on the prosperity then so eminently enjoyed by every 
portion of our beloved country, and from my inmost heart did I 
rejoice to see the industrious citizen everywhere reap the rich 
rewards of his labor; and although even then I was not without 
strong apprehensions of an early reverse, I am confident no 
human forecast could have anticipated so sudden a calamity as 
has been brought upon the country by the action of the Federal 
government upon its currency. 

"At the time the president of the United States assunied the 
responsibility of ordering the public moneys to be removed from 
their legal deposit in the Bank of the United States, for the pur- 
pose, as he avowed, of preventing the recharter of the institution 
by Congress, there never was a sounder currency or a more 
healthy state of things in the world. To effect this great object, 
namely, that of destroying the United -States Bank, rival institu- 
tions were to be created; and it will be remembered that im- 
mediately after the removal of the deposits by the government, 
parties commenced establishing state banks, whilst state legislat- 
ures, deluded by the fallacious promises of advantages to be de- 
rived from the deposits to be made in their institutions, which 
were to be fiscal agents of the government, readily fell into the 
measure. As m.ight have been expected, hundreds of new banks 
instantly sprang up. Their enormous issues of irredeemable paper 
afforded the inducement of univer.sal extravagant speculation, and 
gave us what all must now regard as vv'orthless and depraved 

" Before the public were aware of the ruin which this wild 
sclieme portended, the executive and a portion of its party, see- 

ril b I ;■;.■•■'>;: r:;j::3f:^ h':*-'! 


ing their error, it would seem, endeavored to escape its conse- 
quences by amusing the people with the absurd, impracticable 
project of an exclusive hard -money currency. I say absurd, for 
as well might the executive of the United States expect to compel 
the citizens of the great valley to abandon the use of steamboats 
and resume the flat-bottomed barge in the navigation of its thou- 
-sand streams and rivers, as to force them again to give up a 
isound paper currency, at all times convertible into specie with all 
its adaptedness to the purposes of the commerce and business of 
the country. * * 

" It was in view of the motives which dictated this measure 
and in the anticipation of some of these results that I opposed at 
first the establishment of the State Bank of Illinois, as I did also 
last winter both the increase of its capital and that of the bank at 
Shawneetown. But it is easier sometimes to trace the causes of 
evil than to find out a remedy for them. 

"The enquir}', however, is important and useful, as the dis- 
covery of the cause not unfrequently suggests the remedy. *^ * 
Probably as much as can at present be effected will be to place 
our own State in such an attitude as to parry off the blow and 
stay as far as possible the eft'^ect of the crisis upon our interests, 
until Congress, the only legitimate power under our constitution, 
shall regulate the currency and restore it to its former sound con- 
dition and beneficent action. '" '^ 

"In the midst of the disasters which have already fallen on 
the commercial world and which are threatening us on all sides, 
a favorable opportunity occurs to escape from the perils of that 
system of internal improvement adopted last winter, which to my 
apprehension is fraught with evil; and for the reason assigned 
when I refused my assent to the enactment passed in its favor, as 
well as for existing pecuniary troubles and derangements, / ;/^7£' 
recoifi7nc)id its repeal. 

"Aware that it is always difficult and sometimes grevious at 
least partially to abandon even a bad system after all the interests 
of society have become identified with it, it is with reluctance, 
much more in regard to this fact than hesitation as to the pro- 

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priety of the step, that I urge the recommendation; especially, 
too, as my conviction is deep and firm that such undertakings 
belong rather to arbitrary and despotic governments than to the 
republican institution of a free people, as by the power of patron- 
age and official influence they tend to corrupt the many and exalt 
the few. In all the melancholy histories of departed liberty, the 
process of decay commenced in the people's neglect or disuse of 
their own rights and privileges, and progressed in the ignorant 
and fatuous transfer of them to their rules. And of all the dark 
symptoms which indicate the evil at work in our system, none 
seems so fearful, so alarming as the. steady, nay, rapid departure 
of power from the hands of the people to the hands of the gov- 
ernment, a fact sufficiently obvious to all who have observed the 
political movements of the last eight days. 

" If to the power and influence which necessarily belong to 
political station there be added the immense patronage no 
less involved in extended public works, there may come a 
struggle between the people and their rulers, but too late for the 
former to regain what the latter have stolen. Let the present 
pernicious system be rescinded, and in its stead adopt the safer, 
the more generous, more economical, more expeditious, and in 
every respect the preferable plan of encouraging private individ- 
uals and corporations by suitable aid from the State, and thus 
escape the intrigue, venality, waste, and corruption inherent in 
that patronage which must grow out of such a system as the 
present. * * 

"A report and correspondence of the canal commissioners are 
also transmitted. By the correspondence it will be seen that the 
calling of the legislature together has been urged upon the execu- 
tive by them as necessary for the carrying on of that favorite 
work and because of the probable difticulty of collecting the 
second instalment on the lots sold in Chicago, which fell due on 
the 2oth of June last. 

" Having received a letter from the board informing me they 
would make a full report to the legislature of all their operations, 
present and plans for the future, I will leave this subject, with an 


earnest recommendation of it to your fostering care, hoping this 
great Avork will be carried forward with all expedition consistent 
with a just economy. 

"As I consider it a national work and ourselves as managers 
of the fund appropriated by Congress for its accomplishment, it 
would seem to be our duty faithfully to apply these means; and 
upon its completion, after a suitable reservation for repair's and 
improvements, and with due consideration for the rights of the 
State, it will be equally our duty and interest to make this canal 
free as the waters of the lakes. 

"Unpleasant as the subject is to myself and maybe to others, 
I feel bound again to call your attention, and, through you, that 
of your constituents, to the aftairs of our national government, 
especially of its executive branch, to the action of which I confi- 
dently believe many of the evils we are now sutfering and with 
which we are threatened are fairly to be attributed. There must 
be a change; there must be reform. The public treasury must be 
again firmly placed in the custody of law, and all power and 
control over it by the executive of the United States must be 

"The executive should be prohibited, under severe penalties, 
from establishing a rule in violation of law to collect this revenue 
in one quarter of the country in specie only, and in another to 
collect in bank paper; or from using any other means for divert- 
ing the specie, which is the only safe basis of exchange, from the 
ordinary channels of business. Congress must regulate the cur- 
rency by law and place it out of executive or oft^icial power, 
either to try experiments or make speculations upon it. 

"The patronage of the executive must be reduced and his 
power to remove public officers so modified as to prevent his 
displacing a faithful and competent man, either to gratify party 
malice or to intimidate the exercise of the elective franchise; so, 
also, as will secure him against executive tyranny and all control 
over his official acts, except such as the law imposes; that his 
qualifications, fidelity, and ability may be his only hope of retain- 
ing office. This control over the public press and Congress, 


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which has been so powerfully exercised by the appointment of 
newspaper editors and members of the senate and house of rep- 
resentatives to high and lucrative offices by the executive, should 
as far as possible be obviated. 

" The constitutional and legal right of each or both houses of 
Congress to examine into the official conduct of every officer in 
the government should be clearly established, as it is the only 
efficient check the people have upon their public servants, whilst 
public expenditures must be reduced and more economy and 
simplicity in the administration of government be observed be- 
fore we can ever be secure of those inestimable blessings hitherto 
enjoyed under our constitution and excellent form of government. 
I pray, gentlemen, that the State may experience the full measure 
of your patriotism. 

"Never was wisdom from above to direct your counsels more 
to be implored than at this moment. Party spirit in its mildest 
form has ever been found an enemy to liberty and sound legisla- 
tion, but when it is the offspring of ambition and avarice directed 
by designing bad men in high places, it begets a blind devotion 
and infuriated zeal, which shuts the door against all reason, jus- 
tice, and patriotism. 

" May Ood, in his infinite wisdom and mercy, avert such an 
evil from this country and grant that justice and the laws may 
prevail, and every man in this broad land may sit down again 
with confidence under the shadow of the constitution in the 
peaceable and quiet enjoyment of his rights and privileges. No 
power must be allowed to exist in this country superior to that 
of the people, or that docs not acknowledge the supreme and 
inflexible authority of the law as the rule and action both for the 
president and every other functionary of the government. 

AV^ith great respect, your obedient servant, 

Joseph Duncan." 

Dec. 4, 1838, Joseph Duncan, on retiring from office as gov- 
ernor, sent a message to the senate and house of representatives, 
a part of which I shall give, although it may seem a repetition of 
what has already been said of his political views, etc., etc. 


u:I, 'Mil 


He says: "In relation to the impolicy of our system of internal 
improvements my mind has undergone no change as expressed 
in my recommendation of its repeal at the called session in July, 
1837. How to get rid of the evil with which we are threatened 
by this improvident act without too great a sacrifice of public and 
private interests is a subject which should occupy your serious 
and patriotic deliberation. 

" 1 again recommend that tlie works of improvement be left in 
the hands of the citizens of the State or to corporations created 
by law, and that the government have as little to do with them 
as possible, except to encourage all such undertakings by an 
equal and liberal subscription for their stock.'' * *' 

Speaking of men appointed to office by the executive of the 
United States, he says: "They were for7?ierly appointed for their 
qualifications to serve the public. They are now appointed to 
obey and serve their party-leaders. Foniierly^ the public oflicers 
were not permitted to become active politicians for the purpose 
of influencing elections in the State, and were left to vote and 
speak like free men; now^ from the president down, they are all 
active politicians, weilding the influence of office, the power of 
money, and the press to sustain themselves. Under the pro- 
scriptive and arbitrary policy of the executive, the public officer 
loses his independence of action and speech, the most essential 
attribute of liberty. It is a maxim that "he who enslaves a citi- 
zen is a tyrant," and if so, those who permit it can not long 
expect to retain the name of free men. 

"How to remedy these evils should be a serious subject of 
enquiry with you and every reflecting citizen in our country, 
without distinction of party, for when the ocean heaves there is 
no certainty whose bark will be able successfully to ride upon its 
troubled waves. I can see no hope of reform but for the legis- 
latures of the different states to inJitruct their senators, and the 
people their representatives in Congress to vote for all measures 
to reduce the executive patronage, the receipts and expenditures 
of government, and to prohibit the removal of public oflicers on 
party grounds or for any cause without assigning a reason to the 

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senate for such removal; to prohibit members of Congress from 
receiving appointments from the executive of the United States 
for at least two years after the expiration of the time for whicli 
they may have been elected, and to prohibit, under severe penal- 
ties, any officers of the United -States government from persuad- 
ing, bribing, or otherwise influencing votes or elections, from 
conducting a newspaper press, from bribing or influencing any 
editor of a paper to support any political party, or contributing 
money for either of the before -named purposes. Those powers 
form the great lever with which the executive is now controlling 
the politics and election of the whole country. Correct them 
and all other abuses, great as they are, will become comparatively 
harmless, and the government, which now, like a mighty river, 
has overflowed the whole land, will sink quietly within its limits, 
and aspiring men will once more rely upon patriotism, virtue, and 
talents to secure those places of honor which every citizen of our 
country should, and under such circumstances would, become 
ambitious to receive. 

"The work on the Illinois-and-Michigan Canal has progressed 
as rapidly as could be expected. $444,292 has been received 
by the canal commissioners on account of lots and lands sold. 
$500,000 of State bonds were sold in 1836 and 1837 in New 
York at five per cent premium.* This and other sums [naming 
them] have been paid to the canal commissioners. 'I'he balan.e 
remains on deposit in the State Bank of Illinois, subject to the 
order of my successor. Considering the canal now, as I have 
ever considered it, a national highway to be kept as free as the 
waters of the Mississippi or the St. Lawrence and that the Nation 
stands pledged to furnish the entire means for its completion, I 
would further recommend that application be made for further 
aid to enable the State oi" Illinois to construct a steamboat canal 

* This Gov. J3uncan did for the State. Going to New -York City at hi> 
own expense, he made for the State $50,000. He did not receive one farth- 
ing of the money into his own hands, but required that the whole sum, princi- 
pal and premium, should be placed in the bank to the credit of the Slate. — 
A/ion [111.] Telegraph, May, 1842. 


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from Lake Michigan to the Illinois River, and by the article of 

cession and Ordinance of 1787, Congress and the Nation stand 
I committed to furnish the entire means of completing this canal. 

'- That our public highway may be made permanent and straight is 

greatly to be desired as a measure of general utility. 

"A mineralogical and agricultural survey of the State could 
not but be attended -.vitb. the most favorable results. 

"A well -arranged and properly -disciplined militia gives to a 
I free people the confidence of a strong man. 

" Every possible encouragement should be given to institutions 

of learning, whether the common -school or the college; they are 

the corner-stones of our free government. Education is the 

. foundation of every enjoyment of man in this world and of bless- 

Iings in the world to come. * '^ 

"'In taking leave of you. gentlemen, allow me to offer the 
' assurance of my sincere good wishes and friendly feeling for every 

one of you. The violence with which I have been assailed by 
my political opponents during the whole time I have been in 
r office has caused no rankling in my bosom. The plain manner 

I in which I have felt it my duty to speak of what I sincerely be- 

f lieved to be errors and abuses of the party now in power I knew 

I well would bring their vengeance with all its force upon me, 

I and had I loved ease and office more than my duty, I should 

have chosen a different course. But I owe too strong a debt of 
gratitude to the people of Illinois and hold the constitution and 
freedom of our country in too much esteem ever to shrink from 
I the discharge of my duty.'' 

In the same message he thus discusses the subject of intem- 
perance: "The dreadful ravages and baneful effects of intemper- 
ance are felt and acknowledged in our whole country. Christian 
philanthropists and statesmen, not only of this, but of every part 
of the civilized world, are now engaged in exposing the extent 
and evils of this degrading and most alarming vice, and some of 
our sister states have undertaken, by legislative provision, to 
eradicate the evil from among them, and I would most respect- 
fully and earnestly commend the subject as one worthy of your 


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serious consideration. In conclusion, allow me, gentlerac]], to 
remind you of our obligations to divine Providence for the un- 
usual share of health, and for the abundant crops and im[)rove- 
ments with which our State has been blessed during the'last }ear. 
To secure a continuance of these blessings and success to your 
labors as legislators we must look to and invoke the blessings of 
God, who holds the destiny of the world in His almighty hand, 
and who has said that nothing shall prosper that does not ac- 
knowledge Him as its author. " 

In 1842, Joseph Duncan was again nominated as a candidate 
for the office of governor, at the ensuing election in August, this 
time by the Whig party. The Democrats had already, in Decem- 
ber, 1841, nominated Adam "Wilson Snyder of St. Clair County as 
their candidate for the same office. 

In this contest, a new element appeared, which for several 
years v/as a disturbing element of no small magnitude in the 
politics of the State. In 1839 and 1840, the Latter- Day Saints 
or Mormons, driven from the State of Missouri, had arrived in 
Illinois and settled in Hancock County, and commenced build- 
ing the City of Xauvoo, \\'hich they intended to make the spirit- 
ual, if not the temporal capital of their religious sect. 

In the spring of 1840, a bill for an act for the incorporation of 
the City of Nauvoo was introduced. The Whig and Democratic 
members of the legislature vied with one another in subscribing 
to the new sect, each party hoping to gain their political support. 
As a result of such a time-serving policy, the Mormons obtained 
for their city a charter conferring the most extraordinary powers 
upon the corporation, making the city a petty sovereignty above 
and superior to the laws of the State. 

In 1840, the Mormons had given their support to the Whigs, 
having been exi)elled from Missouri by Gov. Luburn W. Boggs, 
a Democrat. Adam W. Snyder had been State senator in 1840, 
and with Stephen A. Douglas,' Chen secretary of State, had been 
active in procuring the passage of the act incorporating the City 
of Nauvoo. Accordingly, Joseph Smith issued his proclamation 
directing his followers to support Snyder. The Mormon popula- 
tion of Hancock County was estimated at 16,000. 

.l-.j .jr- 


The support of tlie ^lormons was, however, a two-edged sword, 
and the anti-Mormon feeHng, fostered by Duncan and his friends, 
was rising rapidly and threatened to overwhehn Snyder at the 
approaching election, when he suddenly died. The Democrats 
then placed in nomination Judge Thomas Ford, who, though 
well known, was not prominently connected with any recent po- 
litical movement, and his views on the political issues of the day 
were unknown. He thus received the support of the whole party, 
Mormons and all, and was elected governor, receiving 46,901 
votes, Avhile Duncan received 38,584. 

With this defeat of his candidacy for the office of governor 
ended Joseph Duncan's political career and public life. One 
writer speaking of his public life, says: "In these civic offices, 
no less than those of war, Gov. Duncan built up a reputation of 
which his family, his friends, the State, and the Nation may be 
justly proud. As a statesman, he had a well-balanced mind, 
strict integrity, large and liberal views, ardent love of country, 
which knew no geographical lines, and great independence in the 
formation and expression of his opinions, were his prominent 
characteristics. Had he been ambitious of ofhce rather than 
true to his principles and his country, he could easily have sailed 
upon the crest of the popular wave and enjoyed to the end of his 
life, high political stations. But Joseph Duncan was no time- 
serving demagogue, and when the Jackson party, with which he 
was connected and which was then in triumphant majority, de- 
parted as he believed, from the principles upon which the gallant 
chief at its head and his friends had conducted the presidential 
campaign, he did not hesitate to enter his solemn protest against 
such departure, and to place himself in the ranks of the opposing 
minority. This movement alone achieved for him more true 
renown than any office in the gift of the president or the people 
could have confeiTed.'' 

It is for the hearer rather than the writer to say how just is the 
foregoing panegyric. Here in Jacksonville, where he lived and 
died, it is proper that I should also .say something of his charac- 
ter as a man, a citizen, and also detail some of the incidents of 
his private life. 

..til J :i >f 


During the four years in which Joseph Duncan was acting as 
governor of IlHnois, the principal questions relating to national 
politics discussed and considered by the people of the State were 
those growing out of the changes introduced by the Jackson- 
Van Buren Democracy, and the principal questions in domestic 
politics were those relating to the canal and other internal im- 
provements, the banks, and the remedy for the stringency of tiie 
times following the crash of 1837. Yet in his own State and 
during his administration, in the year 1837, there occurred an 
event of momentous importance in our national history. 1 refer 
to what vras called the Alton riots, and which resulted in the 
death of Rev. Elijah Parish Lovejoy, Nov. 7. You are all, no 
doubt, familiar with the general features of that affair, and I will 
not attempt to portray them here. 

\Vbile it may be a question whether Mr. Lovejoy's death was 
not induced by his own recklessness, and while it may be doubted 
whether Mr. Lovejoy's course was in all respects judicious or the 
best calculated to accomplish the purpose he had in view, it can 
not be doubted that the pro-slavery mob at whose hands he met 
his death were assembled to destroy his (fourth) press, as more 
than once had already been done, and if possible, to compel him 
to suppress his anti-slavery views.'-' 

There i-, no task more difficult than to attempt to set forth 
accurately in the present the true character of those who have 
influenced their generation in the past, or fully to understand the 
influences shaping and controlling their conduct. 

We must remember that in those days the daily newspaper did 
not lay before the j)eople the principal transactions of the whole 
world, or even of the whole Nation. Local questions seemed of 
more vital importance ; local contests were more heated ana 
enlisted more zeal and earnestness from the partisans on either 
side. Society in Illinois was still in an unformed state. State 
and national questions of highTrnportance were still unsettled in 
a period of turmoil and strife. As has been well said, ''In all 

* See "Tlie Martyrdom of Lovejoy. By Henry Tanner, an eye- v/itness. 
Chicago: Fergus Printing Co., 1881." 




periods of political and social excitement, human nature will 
manifest itself in its brightest and darkest contrasts. The vices 
and virtues of men will stand out in bold relief, their peculiarities 
of character displaying themselves with remarkable distinctness.'"' 
Although the Alton riots called for no official action or expres- 
sion of opinion on the part of Gov. Duncan, yet he felt deeply 
the disgrace brought upon the State by the illegal and unlawful 
conduct of the rioters, although at the same time deprecating, at 
that time, as unwise the course pursued by Lovejoy and his 
friends. Probably no clearer statement of his views in regard to 
these matters can be found than those contained in a letter writ- 
ten by him to Rev. Gideon Blackburn in reply to one from the 
latter. This letter is as follows: ■ • 

"Elm Grove, Jacksonville, III., Dec. 12, 1837. 

"Dear Sir: Your fa^'or of the nth inst. has just been received, 
in which you say you consider it, in reference to the Alton mob 
and the death of the Rev. E. P. Lovejoy, a duty to inquire of me, 
'as executive organ of the State, whether the s'')irit of mobs must 
triumph in the State? Shall the blood of martyred citizens 
remain unexpiated? Shall the property, liberty, and life of our 
citizens be at the mercy of a lawless and infuriated mob? Shall 
they be permitted to tread down all law?' etc., etc., and, as an 
individual, you invoke my intluence as the head of the State as 
far as my authority may go 'to save the State from lawless rebel- 
lion, blood-guiltiness,' etc, etc. 

"The outrage at Alton. must be disapproved and regretted by 
all good citizens, and nothing has happened within our peaceful 
State that has filled me with so much regret as that event. The 
restless spirit of the people of the United States, so frequently 
developed of late in mobs, has made a deep impression on my 
mind and is evidence that all is nat. right with us. 

"I hold that no power in this country is superior to the law, 
and that a violation of it with impunity is impossible without 
giving a serious wound to the liberties of the people and impair- 
ing the strength and value of our free institutions ; but little, 

T' H F* 



50 GOV. JOSEPH DUNCAN. ^' . -V ., -. 

however, you must know, is left to the executive branch oi . 
State government in such cases, as all offenders are to be tried 
by the courts and juries of the county, which is the only safe 
tribunal to entrust with such power, and I doubt not they will do I 

their duty in the case alluded to. Should it so happen that the | 

executive authority shall be found necessary to carry into effect 
a sentence of the court in this or any case, you may be assured it 
shall be executed witli all the energy of which I am capable. 

"While thus condemning mobs and all sorts of lawless vio- 
lence, which I do from the bottom of my soul, for I believe they 
are never necessary and generally judge and execute their judg- 
ments improperly, to say nothing of the violence done the law 
and constitution, which is an attack on the rights and liberties of 
every citizen, and especially the poor and weak part of them, yet 
I must at the same time express my decided disapprobation of 
any attempt, while the public mind is in such a state of excite- 
ment, to agitate the question of abolishing slavery in this country, 
for it can never be broached without producing violence and 
discord, whether it be in a free or slave State. Therefore, if I 
have read my Bible right, which enjoins peace and good-will as 
the first Christian duties, it must be wicked and sinful to agitate 
this subject in the manner it has been done by some Abolitionists, 
especially after our Southern neighbors have repeatedly and ear- 
nestly appealed to us not to meddle with it, and assured us their 
having done so has not only jeopardised their own safety and 
domestic peace, but in many cases has caused bloodshed and 
rebellion, which has compelled them, as a measure of prudence 
and protection, to use more rigidity and severity with their slaves. 
Thus it would appear that the slaves and master suffer alike by | 

this interference, which all must regard as an infringement on | 

their political rights. i 

" In addition to these reasons why many of my countrymen, ' 

and myself among the rest, think tlie discussion of the cjuestion 
of abolition improper, is this: because it is believed it can not be 
effected, except by consent of slave-holders, without violating the { 

constitution of the United States and disregarding the sacred ^ 




obligations of the compact or compromise on which the Union of 
the States was formed. Many also there are, and I confess I am 
one of them, who beHeve it will neither be consistent with sound 
policy or humanity by a single effort to free all the slaves in the 
Union, ignorant, vicious, and degraded as they are known to be, 
and then turn them loose upon the world without their possessing 
the least qualification for civil government, or knowledge of the 
value of properly, or the use of liberty. I say at a single blow 
because I am confident that such an event can never take place 
without violence, civil war, and disunion, so long as the Aboli- 
tionists use the means they are using, and the Southern slave- 
holders continue to regard all their efforts and arguments as in- 
cendiary, tmjust, illegal, and ofticious. 

"As to the precise character of this affair at Alton, I do not 
profess to be informed. All agree, however, Mr. Lovejoy's death 
was caused by a lawless mob, and whether he killed the first man 
or not, they were aggressors and must stand condemned in tlie 
eyes of every virtuous and peaceful citizen. Yet I am bound in 
candor to say that I disapprove of Lovejoy'"s determination to 
persist in the publication of sentiments that had driven him from 
St. l.ouis and twice before caused the destruction of his own press 
in Alton, and which had scarcely ever been broached anywhere 
without producing the deepest feeling and often very great excite- 
ment. I can not, however, from my knowledge of the man> 
for a moment doubt the purity of his motives, but believe his 
conduct was actuated by a perverted judgment, and was n'.>t 
sanctioned by any precepts found in the ^Vord of God, or the 
practice of our Saviour, or any of his disciples while on earth. 

"Yet, sir, 1 beg you will not consider that I am one of those 
you named, who believe ' he deserved his fate,' or that I hold 
those that destroyed him guiltless — far otherwise I assure you. 
Yet I do think his zeal and intrepidity were worthy of a better 

" You call Mr. Lovejoy a martyr, and I perceive that he is so 
called by many others, and the good city of Alton and the State 
of Illinois are anathematized and charged with blood-guiltiness. 


etc., etc.. by several prints from abroad that have met my eye 
since the fatal aftair. Now, sir, I can not see the propriety of all 
this. In the first place, I consider no man entitled to the dis- 
tinction of martyrdom who is the first to shed blood and who 
dies with arms in his hands, and whatever may be said or done 
in defence of the liberty of personal rights and the freedom of the 
press, which should be held sacred in our country, the Bible tells 
us that the seed of discord is an abomination to the Lord. I 
was born and lived more than half my life in a slave State, long 
enough to be convinced that the degraded condition of the slave 
and slavery itself is a great moral and political evil, and we 
should earnestly implore God to open \\\) the way by which they 
may be enlightened and improved in their condition, and, when 
prepared to enjoy it, and it can be done without violating the 
constitution, the peace and union of the States, v/e should pray 
to see them all set at liberty. Why should Mr. Lovejoy be styled 
a martyr? Was it for his zeal as a captain in the service of our 
Saviour? If so, we should have seen his valor shown, not in the 
exercise of any passion, but in the maintrining that humility, 
meekness, and dove-like spirit always evinced and advised by 
our Redeemer. 

" It would be profitable, in my opinion, for those who approve 
of building up God's kingdom in the world of violence to remem- 
ber the rebuke Christ gave one of his disciples who made a for- 
ward movement of in his service by using his sword 
upon one of his enemies and persecutors, and the love, forbear- 
ance, charity, and meekness he showed in healing the wound. 

" I know it is the popular doctrine among some Christians that 
their own conscience is to be the rule or guide of their actions, 
and what they think to be God's service must be done, let what 
may follow. Under such feelings we see men courting the dislike 
of the world, and even provoking their vengeance. Before we 
saint such as may fall victims to such madness it may be well to 
look into the motives whicli probably influenced their course — 
whether it may not have s[)rung from spiritual pride, seeking 
distinction, or to be more exalted with their party. There is 


'■!u;J j;.:^ 


something in true holiness which exalteth the meek and humble 
Christian above him that taketh a city. Very truly yours, 

Joseph Duncan." 

Although Gov. Duncan, in leaving the state of his birth and 
the home of his childhood, v\-as very largely moved by a desire to 
avoid what he considered the blighting influence of slavery,* had 
freed his own slaves and had joined heartily in opposing the 
introduction of slavery into Illinois, yet the sentiments of the 
Abolitionists were exceedingly distasteful to him. Under the 
term Abolitionists were included, not those who thought slavery 
a moral evil or an economical blunder, but those who insisted 
upon the abolition of slavery throughout the Union by the gov- 
ernment, and discussed the question with that end in view. As 
may be gathered from the foregoing letter, he had a profound 
respect for law and lawful methods. He reverenced the founders 
of the Nation, and looked upon the constitution of the United 
States as the highest manifestation of political wisdom known to 
the world, and regarded its authors as almost inspired. Hence, 
when he heard the ultra Anti -slavery men or Abolitionists de- 
nounce the constitution and declare its restrictions were not 
binding upon their conscience or conduct, he felt as the judge or 
lawyer feels when he hears the law reviled for its delay, and the 
more summary methods of Judge Lynch advocated as the remedy 
for lawlessness. He sympathized with Henry Clay in his plans 
for gradual emancipation and believed that some such plan should 
be adopted with compensation to the owners. His views of 
Abolitionists may be illustrated by the following letter, found 
among his papers: 

"Elm Grove, Oct. lo, 1838. 
"To Hon. S. D. Lockwood, 

President of the Board of Trustees of Illinois College: 

Dear Sir: You will please accept my resignation as one of the 

trustees of Illinois College, and to prevent all misunderstanding 

about the cause of my resignation, I beg leave to say that it is 

exclusively on account of a conviction on my mind that the pres- 


ident and mosl, if not all, the professors of this institution are 
AboUtionists, and are engaged in disseminating those danger- 
ous and exciting principles in the State, and from recent evi- 
dences, I ha\'e reason to believe hnvQ infused them extensively in 
the minds of the students. Believing that it is wrong, morally 
and politically, for any citizen or public institution to teach or 
advocate doctrines or principles in this country which can not be 
carried into practice peaceably without violating the constitution 
of the United States, or forcibly, without civil war, the risk of 
disunion, and the destruction of our free and happy government, 
I can not with my present convictions of the course pursued by 
its faculty, consistently hold any connection with this institution. 
With great respect, your obedient servant, 

Joseph Duncan." 

On the back of this letter he writes: "Did not deliver this 
letter, as Judge Lockwood assures me that I was mistaken about 
abolition principles having been taught in the college, and I 
agreed not to resign for the present, but stated my determination 
not to remain connected with the college one moment after the 
president or any professor shall hereafter preach, teach, or lecture 
on that subject. Joseph Duncan." 

P^ducation and temperance were two subjects in which Gov. 
Duncan always felt a deep interest. Some of his public acts and 
utterances relative to these questions I have already read to you. 
During the whole term of his office as governor he annually gave 
($500) one-half of his salary for the establishment and support of 
an Illinois temperance paper. I have recently seen the constitu- 
tion, list of charter members, and subscription list of an early, 
perhajjs the first, temperance society organized in Jacksonville, 
July 24, 1837. The largest amount subscribed by any other 
member was three dollars. The subscription of Mr. Duncan was 
twenty dollars, to be deducted from eight hundred dollars already 

In the report of Nathaniel Coffin as treasurer of Illinois Col- 
lege, March 14, 1834, I find an acknowledgment of a donation of 

/. ,f ( K l.^-'Mf 

A.:.' lU 'Vi-:^0{ 


f $500 from Joseph Duncan, and in his treasurer's report of 1836, 

I he says: "Gov. Duncan added to his subscription $10,000 in 

I land."'" He loved IlHnois College and served many years as 

I trustee. 

I He was also the first president of the board of trustees of the 

j IlHnois Institution for the Education of Deaf Mutes, and ]ield 

I that honorable position until the day of his death. When this 

I institution was chartered, one of the conditions of its location at 

I Jacksonville was that the citizens of Jacksonville should donate 

; the neccessary ground. Gov. Duncan prepared a paper and 

\ headed it with a subscription of fifty dollars, and. secured from 

others enough to make the sum of one thousand dollars. With 
six hundred and eighty -six dollars of the fund so subscribed, 
about six acres, the present site of the institution, was purchased 
from Judge S. D. Lockwood and David A. Smith, and the re- 
mainder of the funds was expended in making improvements. 

In 1828, while in Washington, D.C., serving as sole represent- 
ative in Congress from the State of Illinois, he was invited by 
President Adams to an informal dinner with a few friends, among 
them Mathew St. Clair Clarke, clerk of the house of representa- 
tives, his wife, and her sister, Miss Elizabeth Caldwell Smith, 
daughters of James R. Smith, a retired banker and shipping -mer- 
chant of New-York City. Miss Smith, subsequently Mrs. Joseph 
Duncan, kept a diary for many years and from them, prepared 
for the perusal of her children, some reminiscences of her early 
life, condensed from these, are quoted: 

"Dined at President John Q.Adams'. Was introduced by 
I William T. Carroll of Carrollton, to Gen. Joseph Duncan, mem- 

? ber of Congress from Illinois. Henry Clay of Kentucky, who 

\ sat next to me at dinner, whispered to me that * Duncan was not 

i only a good-looking fellow, but what was better, he was a good 

I son, having taken care of his widowed mother and educated his 

'\ " sister and two younger brothers.'" 

I To show the style of dress in that day, I will quote further. 

She says : " I wore to the dinner a crimson-silk dress, thread-lace 
ruffle at my throat, no ornaments, embroidered-silk stockings, and 


satin slippers the color of my dress. My hair I wore in three 
puffs on the top of my head, three puffs on each side; a high 
carved tortoise-shell comb." 

The acquaintance thus formed proved mutually agreeable, and 
after a short acquaintance and shorter engagement, Joseph Dun- 
can and Elizabeth C. Smith were married, May 13, 1828, by 
Rev. Ruben Post. Condensed from Mrs. Duncan's reminiscence 
is a brief account of their wedding journey and early-married life 
in Jacksonville, illustrating the condition of society in the West 
at that time: "' ^[y sister, Mrs. Clarke, gave us an elegant wedding. 
She entertained with ease and grace, as few women could. Her 
house was well arranged for such entertainments. 

"It was an elegant but select wedding. Many army-and-navy 
friends of Mr. Duncan were present. I had three bridesmaids; 
they were Miss Mary B. Smith of New York, Cornelia Barber, 
whose father was secretary of war, Isabella Smith, granddaughter 
of Mrs. Isabella Graham. The groomsmen were Wm. T. Carroll, 
Lieut. Vinton, U.S.A., and William Blake from Indiana. 

"We left for Illinois in two weeks. We crossed the mountains 
in a stage to Wheeling, Va., there took a steamboat to Cairo, 
another to St. Louis, in company with James K. Polk, a very 
commonplace man. At St. Louis we spent a week, by previous 
invitation, with Mrs. Gen. Ashley; met Mr. and Mrs. OTallon,. 
Mr. and Mrs. Allen, and Dr. Farrar, old friends of Mr. Duncan's. 
There was not a Protestant church in the city. Rev. Salmon 
Giddings, a graduate of Williams College, afterward Presbyterian 
minister in Quincy, preached in a parlor. It went by that name, 
although it had a bed in it. This seemed a strange fashion, but 
they considered a bed a very ornamental as well as essential 
piece of furniture, with its high posts, often of carved mahogany, 
which supported the tester hung with curtains of lace or dimity 
or chintz, according to the wealth of the family, while a valance 
of the same material hid the three -step ladder which was regu- 
larly drawn out at night to enable one to mount up into it. But 
once you were in, you sank out of sight, and in the soft feather- 
bed became oblivious to the sound of voices which could be 

■ [ J)iii.n n-r 


heard through the slender partition between you and your neigh- 
bor, and you considered yourself fortunate if you had more than 
a curtain between you. 

'•St. Louis was settled by the French. The streets were nar- 
row and dirty and the weatlier at that season so warm we were 
glad to take the little steamboat for Kaskaskia, where Mr. Dun- 
can's mother, ^^Irs. Capt. Benj. Moore, met us; also his sister, 
Mrs. Wm. Linn, who lived at Fountain Bluft', and had come up 
on horseback with a colored servant. .As we were devoted to 
horseback riding, we took the horses and let her return by boat. 
When we arrived at the Bluft's at sunset, Mr. Duncan left me at 
the door and hurried down to the river, a mile or more distant, 
expecting to find his sister waiting, but the boat was detained till 
ten o'clock. When it grew dark I called for a light. The old 
negro who answered said: 'When missus comes she is to bring 
some tallow, aud then I will soon dip a candle.' I begged him 
to do something. I could not stay alone in the dark, so he built 
a big fire on the hearth. From that day, or night, I was never 
caught without a candle and matches, and, although a trouble- 
some thing to always think of, it once saved the lives of a whole 
party. We were crossing the mountains (which, by the way, I 
did eight times by stage or private carriage). The driver got off 
the road, when he called out 'he wished that little nervous wo- 
man who he had scolded for carrying a lighted candle would 
hand it out that he might see where he was.' When I did so he 
found the front wheel within an inch of a frightful precipice. 
Another step of the horses would have plunged us hundreds of 
feet below. 

"Late in July, 1828, we turned our faces eastward. Col. Thos. 
S. Mather ajid his wife took us in their carriage to Carlyle, where 
they were going to visit. From Carlyle we took a stage to Van- 
dalia, and from there we came to Jacksonville and spent a few 
days. After I had rested and slipped into a white-mull dress, as 
I was standing on the door-steps, an old man said to me: 'Sis, 
what brought you to this rough country?' f replied: ' I followed 
my husband.' ' Men change their place of abode from ambition 

M. yjo' 


and interest, women from attection.' They all seemed surprised, 
for they had supposed the girlish figure before them was Mr. 
Duncan's daughter. He was fourteen years older, tliough he 
never looked old, for he had a fine complexion and a mouth full 
of sound white teeth. He had brown eyes and hair which in- 
clined to curl. He was tall, had broad shoulders, and a com- 
manding person. As Hon. John Todd Stuart remarked, 'A 
man you would call handsome.' He had dimples in each cheek, 
which, as he did not wear a beard, added much to the sweet ex- 
pression of his mouth and made his smile a very winning one. 

" From Jacksonville we took a stage through this State and 
Indiana over a rough corduroy road, through Michigan and Ohio 
to Cleveland. The lake was so rough and the boat so poor we 
hired a wagon and coasted the lake to Buffalo: from there in a 
stage to Albany, and from there to New York by boat, and from 
New York to AVashington, D.C., by stage. We were weeks in 
reaching home. I was delighted to get back to civilization. We 
met while in the West as refined, well-educated people as we 
would meet in any society in the world, but the country was so 
very rough and the uneducated people were so coarse and unre- 
fined to one who judged people by their dress and their manner. 
It took me years to learn to love and appreciate them as I did 
afterward when living among them. Many of the people I met 
on my journeys were very rude and ignorant, turning my trunks 
inside out, trying on my clothes, and cutting patterns of them, 
often injuring them past use." 

Mr. and Mrs. Duncan remained in Washington, D. C, until 
Aug. I, 1830, when they returned to Jacksonville. Quoting again 
from Mrs. Duncan's reminiscences: "We drove up to the house 
of John Deeper, southeast of town. In two days we came into 
town. Murray McConnel, Esq., had said we could sleep in his 
office and take our meals at the inn. The next day, court being 
in session, the ofiice was filled with men before I was up. That 
day we moved to Mathew Stacy's attic, as there was no room in 
the inn. The ceiling was so low I could not stand up in it to 
dress. I am only four feet five inches in height, so one can im- 

Tif lA.i. ':k 


agine what Mr. Duncan, m-'.io is six feet tall, could do in such a 
room. After one day here, and thanking Mr. Stacy, whose kind- 
ness we never forgot, we moved three miles east of town to Mr. 
James Kerr's. Four weeks from the day we arrived 'here, Mr. 
Duncan had our cottage ready for us. It stood at the edge of 
the grove, just west of the present home, surrounded by elm 
trees, from v.'bich we gave it the name of ' Elm Grove.' This 
cottage was the first frame-house in the village. Though rude in 
exterior, it often afforded shelter to the weary traveler. It was 
in truth 'wedded love's first home.' 

" The house had three rooms and a square entry with a win- 
dow in it. Each room had a large open fireplace, which added 
much to the cheeriness of the house. Our table never lacked 
for wild game. Mr. Duncan often went out before breakfast and 
brought in enough to last for several days. Game was not only 
plenty, but the wild -cats and the wolves prowled through the 
woods. Cake, iced and set out back of the house, more than 
once had the icing licked off by the wolves, though they did not 
eat the cake. The cry of the wild- cat so resembles that of a 
child that more than once my husband rose and listened in tlie 
night, fearing some one was in distress. 

"Indians were frequent visitors as they passed through the 
country from one point to another. A few trinkets and some 
food would generally satisfy them, though sometimes they were 
troublesome, coming just as a meal was prepared, when they 
would eat it all. 

"The country was wild. We never rode out without seeing 
snakes, most of them harmless. There was a great number of 
nuts and wild fruit in the grove north of our cottage, among them 
the wild crab-apple, black and red haws, wild cherry and mul- 
berry, gooseberry, strawberry, pawpaw, and wild grape. I'here 
were also hickory trees, walnut trees, and hazel-nuts. We had a 
fine bed of strawberries which we transi)lanted from the woods 
and which, by cultivation, grew very large. The woods in the 
spring, with the red bud and apple-blossoms, were like fairyland, 
and in the fall the trees hung with the bitter-sweet and wild-grape 
vines loaded with fruit. 


r. 1- 

•;fU ifliL/Oi;:; >>>*i';v'i ;.;.'[ 


"The wild flowers were abundant, from the blue-and-yellow 
violet, spring beauty, and blue bells to the rich fall flowers wliicli 
waved in the winds across the praires like gay plumes of yellow, 
crimson, and blue. The streams around here were muddy most 
of the year, but Nature, as if ashamed of such dirty watei, bor- 
dered them with flags and liilies of the richest tints, white, yellow, 
purple, dark -blue, and crimson. The prairie -grass was so tall 
that often in crossing a prairie you could not discover you were 
going to meet any one until they were right upon you. In travel- 
ing with Mr. Duncan in early times, more than once when he 
discovered fire in the distance, he burned a large place around 
the carriage, for fear the fire would sweep over us and we be 

In Joseph lOuncan's diary of August, 1830, he says: "In Jack- 
sonville attended church ; gave a donation to a Presbyterian 
church which was started March 15, 1830, by Rev. J. M. Ellis." 
I have here the original subscription list, and for members of that 
church who are present it may not be without interest to them to 
know that the building -committee were John P. Wilkinson^ 
W. C. Posey, S. D. I>ockwood, John Leeper, James Kerr, and 
Bedford Prown. The ground was donated by Dennis Rockwell, 
Esq. Some paid their subscriptions in material and labor, or 
both. In that way John Leeper subscribed seventy-five dollars; 
Thomas Prentiss, twenty dollars; Bedford Brown, thirty dollars; 
Edwin A. Mears, twenty dollars; James Kerr, forty dollars; Elliot 
Stevenson, ten dollars; J. Clark, five dollars or labor; the others 
paid cash. In all, three hundred dollars was raised, a good be-