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The festal epistles of S 
Athanasius, Bishop of 





















S. A T H A N A S I U S, 










The Festal Epistles of S. Athaiiasius, as far as they are 
extant, are now, for the first time, presented to tlie English 
reader. In undertaking to superintend the publication of 
them, the Editor was, to some extent, aware of the 
difficulty of the task. In carrying it out, he has not 
hesitated to make numerous and important alterations in the 
translation as put into his hands, and not a few passages 
have been entirely re-modelled by him. He must, there- 
fore, be held responsible for the errors contained in the 
following pages. 

The translation had been prepared for the Press, and 
most of the notes written, when a German version by 
Professor Larsow made its appearance. To the general 
accuracy of this, the Editor bears his willing testimony. 
The English has been carefully compared with it, and 
several emendations have, in consequence, been introduced. 
On the other hand, a different rendering has been adopted 
in many cases, and errors have not unfrequently been 
corrected. Some of these will be found pointed out in the 

Considerable pains have been bestowed in collecting 
parallel passages from other undoubted works of S. Atha- 
nasius^; while, in more than one instance, evidence has 
been adduced bearing upon the authenticity of some 
treatises concerning which doubts have been entertained. 
The Scriptural references have, in all cases, been carefully 

* The edition used is the Bened. Patavii \771. 
A 2 


given, and any remarkable deviation from the received text 

Manifest errors of the Syriac translator have been shewn, 
and their origin sometimes detected. Any conjectural 
emendation has been scrupulously proposed as such. When- 
ever a difficulty has presented itself, the Editor has examined 
the original Ms. in the British Museum, and the result of 
this recension of tiie text will be found in the notes. It 
could not have been expected, notwithstanding the extreme 
care and the great learning displayed in the edition of the 
Syriac text, that it should be quite free from errors. 
They are, however, by no means numerous. 

Another important feature in the present translation is, 
that it includes four more pages of the Syriac than have 
hitherto appeared, they having been discovered since the 
Syriac text was printed. For these, the public are indebted 
to the Rev. W. Cureton, whose courtesy in directing the 
Editor's attention to them, as well as in occasionally afford- 
ing assistance in the progress of the work, is gratefully 

For the Translation, the Editors have to express their 
acknowledgments to the Rev. Henry Burgess, LL.D. 
and Ph. D. 

H. G. W. 

Cambridge, May, 1854. 

b Since the English translation was Latin translation, in the sixth volume 

printed, but before the preliminary of the Patrum Nova Bibliotheca by 

matter was put to press, the Festal Cardinal Mai. 
Letters have been reprinted, with a 


The learned Montfaucon, in the preface to his edition of 
S. Athanasius, speaking of his lost works, says, ' Nulla, 
opinamur, jactura major quam epistolarum lo^Tacrrixajv, aut 
Festalium. . . . Hoi, hei quam pungit dolor amissi Thesauri ! 
quantum ad historiam, ad consuetudines Ecclesiarum, ad 
morum praecepta hinc lucis accederet ! Et fortassis adhuc 
alicubi latent in Oriente.' The ardent wish and the latent 
hope thus long ago expressed, have at length received their 
accomplishment. The Festal Letters of S. Athan. after 
having escaped the fury of the Moslem, and survived the 
carelessness and ignorance of succeeding generations, have 
been brought to light by the industry and perseverance 
of our own age, rescued from tlie ravages of time, and 
transferred from a retired nook in the African desert to 
enrich the shelves of our great Library. They have not, 
indeed, reached us in the garb in which they were originally 
sent forth by their great author ; still have tliey come down 
to us in one hallowed by its almost exclusively sacred 
character. Nor have they escaped mutilation; nevertheless, 
the portion that has been preserved will be gratefully 
accepted by all to whom the name of the great champion 
of the faith is held in honour, or any accession to our store 
of ecclesiastical literature valued. 

It was in the year 1842, that Dr. Tattam, now Arch- 
deacon of Bedford, was so fortunate as to obtain from the 
monastery of S. Mary Deipara, in the valley of Scete, in the 
desert of Nitria, a valuable collection of Syriac Mss. of 


great antiquity % The valley in which this inestimable 
treasure had so long lain hid, had early become, from its 
calm and retired character, the refuge of pious penitents, 
who sought an abode in these lonely solitudes, apart from 
the tumult and cares of the world. Among the many dis- 
tinguished saints who selected this spot for their seclusion 
may be mentioned Macarius, the pupil of the great Anthony, 
who here spent the greater part of a long life, and whose 
name, from having been given to one of the monasteries, 
was afterwards applied to the whole of the desert. The 
Mss. themselves, or a large proportion of them, had been 
brought from Mesopotamia, and deposited in the monastery 
by Moses of Nisibis, who presided over tlie monastery in 
the year 932 ; a fact which is recorded in many of the 
volumes, and which is also mentioned by J. S. Asseman, in 
the Preface to his Bibliotheca Orientalis. More than one 
attempt had been made in the early part of the last century 
to procure the monastic library, but with only very partial 
success. D. Gabriel Eva, the Maronite, had ascertained 
that many Syriac, Arabic, and Egyptian Mss. were to be 
found in the monastery of the desert of Scete, and had 
acquainted the Pope Clement IX. with the fact. In con- 
sequence of this, Elias, a learned Syrian, and a near, relative 
of Asseman, was sent to endeavour to obtain them. This 
was in the year 1707. Notwithstanding the utter neglect 
with which the Mss. were treated in the monastery, Elias 
was unable, by money or entreaties, to procure more than 
forty. These were added to the Library of the Vatican, 
not, however, before other difficulties had been surmounted. 
The vessel in which Elias w^as sailing down the Nile was 
wrecked, and though the volumes were recovered, it was 
not till they had suffered considerable damage from the 

Afterwards, in the year 1715, J. S. Asseman himself 

» For a full account of Dr. Tattam's he obtained the Mss. see an article in 
visit to the monastery of S. Mary tiie Quarterly Review, No. CLIII, 
Deipara, and the manner in which Deo. 1845. 


set out from Rome on a visit to the monastery. The 
number of volumes there deposited had then, from one 
cause or another, been much diminished. He selected 
about a hundred; but even of these, with all his efforts, he 
was unable to carry away more than a small proportion. 
These, however, he speaks of as the most valuable. 

The Mss. thus acquired by Dr. Tattam were consigned 
to the Library of the British Museum. Among them, 
Mr. Cureton soon discovered a portion of the Festal Letters 
of S. Athanasius, which he committed to the press. This 
portion, however, included only about one half of that now 
made public. For the remaining part of the Ms. we are 
indebted to the exertions of M. Augustus Pacho, a native 
of Alexandria, who, three or four years later, paid a visit 
to the same monastery, and succeeded in obtaining another 
considerable collection of Syriac Mss. some of which formed 
part of the volumes already secured by Dr. Tattam. Such 
was the case with regard to the Festal Letters of S. Athan. 
The latter portion thus acquired was likewise printed by 
Mr. Cureton, and published together with that previously 
printed, the sequence of the different parts (which was 
necessarily broken) being indicated by notes ^. 

At an earlier period of the Church, Festal Letters had 
been sent by the Bishop of Alexandria, as we learn from 
Eusebius% who speaks of those sent by Dionysius, the 
thirteenth Bishop, [A.D. 247, to A.D. 265.] In them, 
according to the same authority, he had treated of the high 
character of the Paschal Festival, had argued the necessity 
for celebrating it after the time of the Vernal Equinox, 
and had moreover published a Canon to serve for eight 
years. A small fragment from the fourth of these Letters, 
consisting of exhortations to peace and good-will, is pre- 
served in Damascen. Op. tom. ii. p. 753. The names by 

'' Four more pages of the Syriac in priut, will he fourd in the presert 

text, belonging to the tenth and volume. The Syriac text is contained 

eleventh Letters, which were after- in the Appendix, 
wards found among the loose leaveti, ' Euseb. Hist. lib. vii. cap. 2<). 
and which have not hitherto appeared 


which such Letters were designated are various. They were 
denominated svia-ToXoi) sogTua-TMou, 'Festal Epistles' — not as 
treating of Christian festivals in general, but of the great 
Christian Festival of Easter in particular* So the heading 
to the chapter of Eusebius just refeiTed to is, ^sfl tmv 
kogTota-Tixwv Aiovwj-lov bttk^toXcov, * Of the Festal Epistles of 
Dionysius.' In the same way they were denominated 
ygaixfji^oirci ru(Tyu'K!iu^ * Paschal Letters/ The name Q^j^ikiM 
eo^TacTixai, * Festal Homilies,' was also applied to them. 
Such is the title prefixed to the various discourses of 
S. Cyril on the subject. One of these, the twenty -fifth, 
concludes with an epistolary salutation. Such discourses 
were probably both sent as Letters, and publicly read as 

This early custom of the Bishop of Alexandria sending 
Festal Letters is thus spoken of by Cassian''. Intra 
jEgypti regionem mos iste antiquus traditione servatur, ut 
peracto epiphaniorum die, quem provinciae illius sacerdotes 
vel Dominici baptismi, vel secundum carnem, nativitatis 
esse definiunt, et idcirco utriusque sacramenti solemnitatem, 
non bifarie, ut in occiduis provinciis, sed sub una diei hujus 
festivitate concelebrant, epistolas pontificis Alexandrini per 
universas diriguntur -^gypti ecclesias, quibus initium 
quadragesimse, et dies paschae, non solum per civitates 
omnes, sed etiam per universa monasteria designentur. 
But it was not till the time of the Council of Nice, that the 
duty of notifying to the Christian Church the time at 
which Easter was to be celebrated was formally delegated 
to the Bishop of Alexandria, Among other matters there 
discussed, was the important question respecting the Paschal 
Festival. Together with the decision that the Roman 
method should be adopted throughout Christendom, it was 
determined that the calculation of the day from year to 
year should devolve on the Bishop of Alexandria, and that 
notice should be sent by him to the other Churches^. The 
superior astronomical knowledge found in Egypt, doubtless 

<* Cassian Collat. x. cap. 1. • Bingham, Ant. book ii. ch. xvi, §. 21. 


formed one reason for the duty thus devolved on the Bishop 
of Alexandria. The words of Leo are to this effect ^ 
Sancti Patres studuerunt itaque occasionem hujus erroris 
auferre omnem hanc curam Alexandrino Episcopo delegantes 
(quoniam apud ^gyptios hujus supputationis antiquitus 
tradita esse peritia) per quern quotannis dies praedictae 
solemnitatis Sedi Apostolicae indicentur, cujus scriptis ad 
longinquiores ecclesias indicium generale percurreret. The 
fact here noted by Leo, that the Festal announcement was 
not confined to the Churches of Egypt, is also made clear 
by S. Athan. himself, who expressly speaks in the 18th 
Letter of his having sent the notice to the Romans. But 
another reason is doubtless to be sought in the important 
position the Primate of x\lexandria held in the Christian 
Church. It was in virtue of this dignity that, as sole 
Metropolitan, he possessed, from ancient time, the exclusive 
privilege of ordaining Bishops in Egypt, Syria, and Pen- 
tapolis ; a right confirmed to him by the sixth Canon of 
the same Council. 

The term ' Pope,' which we find several times applied to 
S. Athan. in the index, and in the headings to the following 
Letters, was a title usually assigned to the Bishops of 
Alexandria, at least as early as the middle of the third 
century, and is still retained by them. The name of 
Patriarch, properly belonging to the See of Antioch, was 
assumed by, or bestowed upon, S. Cyrils. We find it used 
by Socrates and the Council of Chalcedon'^. 

But we are not without evidence, that the calculation of 
the Bishop of Alexandria was not always readily acquiesced 
in. On the contrary, the index for the twenty-first Letter, 
answering to the year 349, acquaints us with a contest that 
then existed on the subject. The Letter itself is not 

Some important errors concerning dates which have 

' Leo. Epist. ad Marcian. Op. ii. 113, where the dignity of the Bishop 

367. Rom. of Alexandria is further illustrated. 

8 Vid. Neale's Hist, of the Holy ^ Binghann Ant. book ii. ch. xvii. 

Eastern Church, Gen. Intr. vol. i. p. §. 6. 


hitherto existed, are corrected by the present work. S. 
Alexander was the Bishop of Alexandria at the time of 
the Council of Nice. He had himself been present at it, 
and on his return to his diocese, in conformity with the 
decree of the Council, forwarded a Paschal Letter. This 
is not extant, though the fact of his having written one is 
placed beyond a doubt. This was for the year 8.58. The 
index to the following Letters furnishes us with this inform- 
ation, together with an exact account of the date of the 
death of Alexander, and the elevation of S. Athanasius to 
the Episcopate. According to this authority, S. Alexander 
died on the 22d of Pharmuthi, (April 17,) A.D. 328^ in 
which year Easter was celebrated on the 16th of Pharmuthi, 
(April 11.) S. Athanasius succeeded him after the Paschal 
festival on the 14th of Pauni, in the first year of the 
Indiction, when Januarius and Justus were Consuls, i. e. 
June 8th, A.D. o28. The first Paschal Letter then of 
S. Athan. is that for the following year, (A.D. 329,) and 
which is the first here presented to the reader. The 
information thus afforded, consistent as it is in all its parts, 
will doubtless correct the erroneous opinions previously 
entertained, according to which an earlier date is assigned 
to the elevation of S. Athan. to the see of Alexandria^ 

The genuineness and authenticity of the follovv ing Epistles 
are clearly established. That they are a translation, and a 
close translation, of the Festal Letters of S. Athan. v/hich 
he was known to have written, is proved by the previously 
existing fragments of the original Greek, which appear in 

i Fleury says, that S. Alexander of the death of S. Alexander — which is 

Alexandria died five months after his also the day on which he is commemo- 

return home, on Monday the twenty- rated in the yEthiopic calendar — are 

second of the Egyptian month Ber- correct: the other dates are erroneous, 

mouda (Pharmutld), which is the The mistakes on this point seem to 

seventeenth of April, in the year 326. have arisen from the incorrect length 

Again, the ordination of S. Athanasius of duration assigned to the Council of 

was not until the twenty-seventh of Nice. The year 328 for the death of 

December, in the year 326, for he hid S. Alex, is not inconsistent with the 

himself a long time; and it was neces- words of S. Athan. who says of him, 

sary to assemble all the Bishops from ovirca yap irevre yU'^j/es TraprjAOou, kuI 6 

the provinces depending upon Al^x- fxhu fiaKapiTrjs^AAe^avSposTsrsXevTrjKe'y, 

andria. The month and the day of Apol. cont. Ar. p. 140, §. 69. 
the month here given, as the date of 


their proper places in the Syriac translation ^ Other 
collateral proofs will be found among the notes that accom- 
pany the English translation. 

The question with regard to the number of Letters thus 
written by S. Athan. has also hitherto been considered 
doubtful. His care and diligence in the discharge of his 
duty is made clear by various passages in the Letters ; nor 
can we suppose he ever omitted sending the notice, unless 
compelled by necessity. Even w^ien in exile, we find him 
obtaining means for transmitting the customary Paschal 
notification. The first Letter he sent was, as we have seen, 
for the year o29. The last of which we have any know- 
ledge is the forty-fifth in order, not existing indeed in the 
Syriac version, (which is imperfect at the end,) but still 
rescued from entire oblivion, by a sliort fragment of it 
preserved in Cosmas Indicopleustes. Forty-five is also the 
number contained in the index. The order assigned to the 
various Letters is not that of the actual Letters themselves — 
at least, if any credit is to be attached to the assertion we 
more than once meet with in the following pages, that 
there were years in which no Letter was sent — but that of 
the years of the Episcopate of S. Athanasius, commencing 
with that for which the first Festal Letter was sent, viz. 
A.D. o'29. The forty -fifth must then, as it would seem, be 
the last he wrote. For this w^ould correspond with the 
year 37o, the year in which Athan. died; nor is it likely 
that he sent any Letter for the succeeding year, his death 
having taken place, according to the index, on the seventh 
of Pachon, (May 2.y The number of forty-five is the 
superior limit assigned to them by Cosmas Indicopleustes. 

The character of the Letters, as will be seen, is not often 
controversial ; though the doctrines and practices of the 

'' Another fragment has been dis- ' The date of the death of S. Athau. 
covered by Cardinal IMai in the thus supplied, agrees with that fur- 
Vatican library, belonging to the thir- nished by independent testimony, 
teenth Lettt r, (p. lot).) Oh i.v ris r^v Fleury says, ' he (Athan.) died, it is 
hiavoiav a.(TKT]dT] iv tovtois XauOdvovcrav thought, on the second of May, in the 
TTjj/ ■trpodvfj.iav Trf)u5 ry/f (TvvT]Qiiav ex^'- year 373.' 


Arian, Manichean, and other heretics are occasionally in- 
troduced to be refuted or reprobated. Nor is occasion often 
taken to refer to the passing history of the Church ; though 
the particular circumstances under which some of them 
were penned, have called forth matters connected with the 
writer individually, suggested allusions to persecutions then 
raging, or prompted expressions of thankfulness for a return 
of tranquillity. The postscript to the thirteenth Letter, as 
well as the Letter to Serapion, w^ill be valued, as furnishing 
the names of some of the Egyptian Bishops, and of some 
dioceses not previously known as such. But, in general, 
our Author confines himself in the Festal Letters to matters 
more directly connected with the subject before him. 
While, according to the authority committed to him, he 
notifies the day on which the great Christian festival is to 
be held, he takes occasion, at the same time, to stir up the 
minds of the faithful to the importance of a due and spiritual 
observance of the great and holy feast, frequently con- 
trasting its character with that of the Jewish Passover, and 
dwelling upon the superiority of the former. Anxious to build 
up in the faith those committed to his charge, he inculcates 
the necessity of a stedfast adherence thereto against all ad- 
versaries; while he earnestly urges upon them the intimate 
connexion between purity of faith and holiness of life. 
Love to God, charity to our neighbour, diligence in prayer 
and thanksgiving, distribution to the poor, a careful study 
of the holy Scriptures, are subjects upon which he often 
dilates. When an exile, through the fury or treachery of 
his enemies, he reminds his flock of the spiritual unity of 
Christians, wherever they may be: when restored to the 
Church, he invites them to join him in thanksgiving. 

The Letters before us, with the index filling up what is 
wanting, doubtless supply the correct dates at which Easter 
was observed for the time they include. The various years 
are clearly marked, not only by the names of the Consuls, 
but by the Diocletian Era, and the Indiction ; while the 
exact day on which Easter Sunday fell, is given towards 


the close of each Letter according to the Alexandrian 
reckoning. The names of the Praefects of Egypt are also 
given; though, from the vague manner in which they are 
written in the Syriac, there is occasionally a difficulty in 
verifying them. The principal part of the information thus 
furnished, will be found collected together in the accom- 
panying Table, where the manifest errors are noted, the 
Golden Number and the Dominical Letter added, and other 
remarks appended. 

The following brief notice of the Egyptian Calendar will 
suffice to elucidate the Egyptian Chronology of the Letters, 
the intercalary days presenting no difficulty, as they do not 
occur between the Easter limits "". 

After the final settlement of Egypt by Augustus as a 
province of the Roman Empire, the use of the Julian form 
of computation was established in Alexandria, the first day 
of the new Calendar being fixed to the 29th of August, the 
Thot of the year in which the innovation took place ; from 
which period, six, instead of five, supplementary days were 
added at the end of every fourth year; so that the form of 
the Alexandrian year was as follows: 


29 August 

Paophi . 

28 September 


28 October 

Choiak . 

27 November 


27 December 


26 January 


25 February 


27 March 

Pachon . 

26 April 


26 May 

Epiphi . 

25 June 

Mesori . 

25 July 

Epagomena . 

24 August 

" Vide ' A Dissertation on the Ca- by W. Mure, Esq.' Rivingtons, 8vo. 
lendar and Zodiac of Ancient Egypt, 1832, note to p. 86. 





An Index of the months of each year, and of the days, 
and of the Indictions, and of the Consulates, and of the 
Governors in Alexandria, and of all the Epacts, and of 
those [days] which are named ' of the GodS%' and the reason 
[any Lettef] was not sent, and the returns from exile"— from 
tlie Festal Letters of the Pope Athanasius. 

The Festal Letters of Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria; 
which he sent year by year, to the several cities and all the 
provinces subject to him; that is, from Pentapolis, and on 
to Libya, Ammoniaca, the greater and the less Oasis, 
Egypt, and Augustamnice, with the Heptanomus of the 
upper and middle Thebais; [commencing] from the 44th 
year of the Diocletian Era, in w^hich the Paschal Festival 
was on XVI Pharmuthi; XVIII Kal. Mai; XVIII Moon; 
when Alexander, his predecessor, having departed this life 
on XXII Pharmuthi, he [Athan.] succeeded him after the 
Pasclial festival on XIV Pauni, Indict. I., Januarius and 
Justus being Consuls, Zenius Italus being the Pr^efect of 
Egypt, Epact XXV.; Gods, I. 

Probably used to designate the translation applies in this case The 

several days of the week as named, translation given above would well cor- 

according to the heathen cu.stom, after respond with the preceding clause, the 

varions gods. . exile of S. Athan. being the reason 

f * '"'^ ! ^? MJQ2). The why Letters were not always sent, 

meaning cf these words is doubtful. There is, however, a difficulty in the 

Cureton renders them ' the answers of forn^ of the last word in the l^yriac. 
strangers.' But I cannot see how such 


A.D. 329. In this year, Easter-day was on XI Pharmuthi; VIII Id 
Ap.; XXII Moon; Coss. Constantinus Aug. VIII, Constantinus 
Cses. IV.; the same Zenius being Prsefect of Egypt; Indict. 
II; Epact VI; Gods, II. This was the first Letter he [A than.] 
sent; for he was appointed Bishop in the preceding year after 
the Paschal feast; Alexander, as is known, having despatche(|: 
one for that year, before he was removed from this world* 
This was in the 45th of the Diocletian ^ra. 


A, D. 330. In this year, Easter-day was on XXIV Pharmuthi ; XIII 
Kal. Mai.; XV Moon; Coss. Gallicanus, Symmachus; Magni-i 
nianus the Cappadocian being Prpefect of Egypt; Indict. III;| 
Epact XVII; Gods,-IIL In this year, he [Athan.] went througl^ 
the Thebais. 


A.D. 331. In this year, Easter-day was on XVI Pharmuthi; XVIII Moon 

III Id. Ap.; Coss. Annius Bassus, Ablavius; Hyginus, Prsefec 
of Egypt; Epact XXVIII; Indict. IV. He sent this Letter 
while journeying, on his return from the Comitatus. Foi 
in this year he went to the Comitatus to the Emperor Con 
stantine, having been summoned before him, on account of ai 
accusation his enemies made, that he had been consecratec 
when too young. He appeared before [Constantine], was though 
worthy of favour and honour, and returned when the [quaf 
dragesimal] fast was half finished. 

A.D. 332. In this year, Easterday was on XVII Pharmuthi; XX Moon 

IV Non. Apr.; Epact IX; Gods, VI; Coss. Pacatianus, Hilari 
anus; the same Hyginus, Prsefect of Egypt; Indict. V. In 
this year, he went through Pentapolis, and was in Ammoniaca. i 

A.D. 333. In this year, Easter-day was on XX Pharmuthi; XV Moon; 
XVII Kal. Mai.; Epact XX; Gods, VII; Coss. DalmatiuM 
Zenophilus ; Paterius ', Prsefect of Egypt ; Indict. VI. 
« Yid. note b, p. 36. 



In this year, Easter-day was on XII Pharmuthi, XYII Moon; A.D. 334. 
VII Id. Apr.; Indict. VII; Epact I; Gods, I; Coss. Optatus, 
Paulinas ; Paterius, Praefect of Egypt. In this year he [Athan.] 
went through the low country. In it, he was also summoned to 
a Synod. But his enemies had previously devised mischief 
against him in Csesarea of Palestine ; he became aware of the 
conspiracy, and excused himself from attending. 


In this year, Easter-day was on XIV Pharmuthi ; XX Moon ; A.D. 335. 
Ill Kal. Ap.; Indict. VIII; Epact XII; Gods, II; Coss. Con- 
stantius^^ Albinus; the same Paterius, Prsefect of Egypt. 


In this year, Easter-day was on XXIII Pharmuthi; XX Moon; A.D. .336. 
XIV Kal. Mai; Indict. IX; Epact XXIII; Gods, IV; Coss. 
Nepotianus, Facundus ; the governor Philagrius, the Cappadocian, 
being Praefect of Egypt. In this year, he [Athan.] went to a 
Synod of his enemies which was assembled at Tyre. He de- 
parted from this place [i. e. from Alexandria] on XVII Epiphi ; 
but when a discovery was made of the preparation against him, 
he removed thence, and fled in a vessel to Constantinople. 
Arriving there on II Athyr, after eight days he presented him- 
self before the Emperor Constantino, and spoke plainly. 
But his enemies, by various secret devices, influenced the 
Emperor, who suddenly condemned him to exile, and he set 
out on the twelfth of Athyr to Gaul, to Constans Caesar, the son 
of Augustus. On this account, he wrote no Festal Letter. 


In this year, Easter-day was on VIII Pharmuthi; XVIa.D. a'J/. 
Moon; IV Non. Ap. ; Indict. X; Epact IV; Gods, V; Coss. 
Felicianus, Titianus ; the governor Philagrius, the Cappadocian, 
being Praefect of Egypt. He [Athan.] was in Treviri of Gaul, 
and on this account was unable to write a Festal Letter. 


In this year, Easter-day was on XXX Phamenoth; VII a. D. 338. 

Kal. Ap. ; XIX Moon; Indict. XI; Epact XV; Gods, VI; 

Coss. Ursus, Polemius; the governor Theodorus, of Heli- 

opolis, Praefect of Egypt. In this year, Constantine having 

<^ The Syr. htw Constantinus, by an error, 



died on XXVII Pachon ; Athanasius, now liberated, returned 
from Gaul triumphantly, on XXVII Athyr. In this year, too, 
there were many events. Anthony, the great leader, came to 
Alexandria, and though he remained there only two days, 
shewed himself wonderful in many things, and healed many. 
He departed on the third of Messori. 


A.T).339. In this year, Easter-day was on XX Pharmuthi ; XX Moon; 
XVII Kal. Mai.; Epact XXVI; Gods, VII; Indict. XII; 
Coss. Constantius II, Constans*'; the governor Philagrius, the 
Cappadocian, Praefect of Egypt. In this year, again, there 
were many tumults. On the XXII Phamenoth, he [Athan.] 
was sought after by his persecutors in the night. On the next 
morning he fled from the Church of Theonas, after he had 
baptized many. Then, on the fourth day, Gregorius the 
Cappadocian entered the city as Bishop. 


A.D. 3-10. In this year, Easter-day was on XIV Pharmuthi; XV Moon''; 
III Kal. Ap. ; Epact VII; Gods, II; Indict. XIII; Coss. 
Acyndinus, Proclus ; the same governor Philagrius, Prasfect of 
Egypt. Gregorius continued his acts of violence, and therefore 
wrote no Eestal Letter. The Arians proclaimed [Easter] on 
XXVII Phamenoth, and were much ridiculed on account of 
this error. Then altering it in the middle of the fast, they kept 
it with us on XIV Pharmuthi, as above. He [Athanasius] gave 
notice of it to the presbyters of Alexandria in a short note, not 
being able to send a Letter as usual, on account of his flight, 
and the treachery employed. 


A.D. 34]. In this year, Easter-day was on XXIV Pharmuthi: XVI 
Moon; XIII Kal. Mai.; Epact XVIII; Gods, III; Indict. 
XIV; Coss. Marcellinus, Probinus; Longinus, of Nice, Prsefect 
of Egypt. There was a schism in Augustannice, on account of 
Gregorius continuing m the city, and exercising violence. But 
his illness commenced, nor did the Pope write a Festal Letter 
this time. 

e The Syriac has erroneously Constantius I, Constans TI. 
f Svr. ' month.' 



In this year, Easter-day was on XVI Pharmuthi; XX Moons; a.D. 342. 
Ill Id. Ap.; Epact XXIX; Gods, IV.; Indict. XV.; Coss. 
Oonstantius III, Constans II ; the governor Longinus, of Nice, 
Proefect of Egypt. Because Gregorius was severely ill in the 
city, the Pope was unable to send [any Letter]. 


In this year, Easter-day was on I Pharmuthi; XV Moon ; A.D. 3-J3. 
VI Kal. Ap. ; Epact XI; Gods, V.; Indict. I.; Coss. Placidus, 
Romulus; the same governor Longinus, of Nice, Praefect of 
Egypt. In this year, there was a Synod held at Sardica ; and 
when the Arians had arrived, they returned to Philippopolis, for 
Philagi-ius gave them this advice there. In truth, they were 
blamed every where, and were even anathematised by the 
Church of Rome, and having written a recantation to the Pope 
Athanasius, Ursacius and Valens were put to shame. There 
was an arrangement entered into *at Sardica respecting Easter, 
and a decree was issued to be binding for fifty years, which the 
Romans and Alexandrians every where announced in the usual 
manner. Again he [Athan.] wrote a Festal Letter. 


In this year, Easter-day was on XX Pharmuthi; XIX Moon ; A.D. 344 
XVII Kal. Mai.; Epact XXI; Gods, VI; Coss. Leontius, 
Sallustius; the governor Palladius Italus, Prsefect of Egypt; 
Indict. II. Being at Naissus on his return from the Synod, he 
[Athan.] there celebrated Easter. Of this Easter-day, he gave . 
notice in few words to the presbyters of Alexandria, but he was 
unable to do so to other parts. 


In this year, Easter-day was on XII Pharmuthi; XVIII A.D. 
Moon; VII Id. Ap. ; Epact II; Gods, I; Indict. Ill; Coss. 
Amantius, Albinus ; the governor Nestorius, of Gaza, Pra^fect 
of Egypt. Having travelled to Aquileia, he [Athan.] kept 
Easter' there. Of this Easter-day, he gave notice in few words 
to the presbyters of Alexandria, but not to other parts. 

! The Syriac has XVI, which is an error, 
b Q 



A.D. 346. In this year, Easter-day was on IV Pharmutlii; XXI «> Moon; 
HI Kal. Ap.; Epact XIV; Gods, II; Indict. IV; Coss. 
Constantius* IV, Constans III; the same governor Nestorius, 
of Gaza, Prsefect of Egypt. Gregorius having died on the 
second of Epiphi, he [Atlian.] returned from Rome and Italy, 
and entered the city and the Church. He was, too, thought 
worthy of a grand reception ; for on the fourth of Paophi, the 
people and those in authority met him a hundred miles distant. 
He had already sent the Festal Letter for this year, written in 
few words, to the presbyters. 


A.D. 347. In this year, Easter-day was on XVII Pharmuthi; XV Moon; 
Prid. Id. Apr.; Epact XXV; Gods, III; Indict. V; Coss. 
Eufinus, Eusebius; the same governor Nestorius, of Gaza, 
Prsefect of Egypt. He [Athan.] wrote this Letter while residing 
here in Alexandria, giving notice of some things which he had 
not been able to do before. 


AD. 348. In this year, Easter-day was on VIII Pharmuthi; XVIH 
Moon; III Non. Ap. ; Epact VI; Gods, IV; Indict. VI; 
Coss. Philippus, Saha; the same governor Nestorius, of Gaza, 
Prsefect of Egypt. This Letter also he sent while residing in 


A. D. 349. In this year, Easter-day was on XXX Phamenoth ; XIX Moon j 
VII Kal. Ap.; Epact XVII; Gods, VI; Indict. VII. But 
because the Romans refused, for they said they held a tradition 
from the Apostle Peter not to pass the twenty-sixth day of 

Pharmuthi, nor the thirtieth of Phamenoth, XXI Moon 

^ ^^H Kal. Ap.; Coss. Limenius, Catullinus ; the 

same governor Nestorius, of Gaza, Prgefect of Egypt. He also 
sent this while residing in Alexandria. 

»» The Syriac in this place has XXIV. « The Syriac has Constantinus. 
But we find XXI in the heading to ^ A few words are here wanting in 
the Letter UseU. the text. 



In this year, Easter-day was on XIII Phannuthi; XIX Moon ; A. D. 360. 
the second hour; VI Id. Ap. ; Epaet XXVIII; Gods, VII; 
Indict. VIII; Coss. Sergius, Nigrianus ; the same governor 
Xestorius, of Gaza, Prcnefect of Egypt. In this year, Constans 
was slain by Magnentius, and Constantius held the empire 
alone. He then wrote a Letter to the Pope, (Athan.) telling 
liiiii to fear nothing because of the death of Constans, but to 
( ontide in him as he had done in Constans while living. 


In this year, Easter-day was on V Phannuthi; Moon XVI 1 1 ; A.D. 361. 
Trid. Kal. Ap. ; Epact IX; Gods, I; Indict. IX; after the 
C.»nsulate of Sergius and Nigrianus; the same governor Nesto- 


of Gaza, again Preefect of Egypt. 


In this year, Easter-day was on XXIV Phannuthi; XVIII A.D. 352. 
Moon; XIII Kal. Mai; Epact XX; Gods, III; Indict. X; 
Coss. Constantius Aug. V, Constantius Caesar I ; the same 
governor Nestorius, of Gaza, Preefect of Egypt. Gallus was 
proclaimed Caesar, and his name changed into Constantius. 


In this year, Easter-day was on XVI Pharmuthi; XXI Moon; A.D. 353. 
Ill Id. Ap.; Epact I; Gods, IV; Indict. XI; Coss. Constantius 
Vug. VI, Constantius Caesar II; the governor Sebastianus, of 
Ihrace, Praefect of Egypt. In this year, Serapion, Bishop of 
rhmuis, and Triadelphus, of Nicion, and the presbyters Petrus 
ind Astricius, with others, were sent to the emperor Constantius, 
lir.)ugh fear of mischief from the Arians. They returned, 
1 'wever, without success. In this year, JNIontanus, Silentiarius 
1 the Palace, entered [Alexandria] as Bishop; but, a tumult 
been excited, he retired, frustrated in his design. 



In this year, Easter-day was on IV Pharmuthi ; XVII Moou ; A.D. 354, 
VI Kal. Ap.; Epact XII; Gods, V; Indict. XII; Coss. Con- 
tantius Aug. VII, Constantius Cresar III; the same governor 
^' i'astianus, of Thrace, Praefect of Egypt. 



A.D. 355. In this year, Easter-day was on XXI Pharmuthi ; XVIII 
Moon; XVI Kal. Mai; Epact XXIII; Gods, VI; Indict. XIII; 
Coss. Arbetion, Lollianus ; the governor Maximus, the Elder, ol 
Nice, Prefect of Egypt. In this year, Diogenes, the Secretary 
of the Emperor, came with the design of seizing the Bishop, 
[Athan.] But he, too, left without succeeding in his attempt. 


A.D. 356. In this year, Easter-day was on XII Pharmuthi; XVII 
Moon; VII Id. Ap. ; Epact IV; Gods, I; Indict. XIV; Coss. 
Constantius Aug. VIII, Julianus Caesar I ; the same governor 
Maximus, the Elder, of Nice, Prgefect of Egypt, who was suc- 
ceeded by Cataphronius Biblius. In this year, Syrianus Dux, 
having excited a tumult in the Church, on the thirteenth of 
Mechir, entered Theonas with his soldiers on the fourteenth, at 
night; but he was unable to capture [Athanasius], for he effected 
his escape in a miraculous manner. 


A.D. 357. In this year, Easter-day was on XXVII Phamenoth; XVII ^ 
Moon; XKal. Ap.; Epact XV; Gods, II; Indict. XV; Coss. 
Constantius Aug. IX, Julianus Caesar II; the same governor 
Cataphronius Biblius, Praefect of Egypt, to Avhom succeeded 
Pharnacius. Then Georgius entered on the thirtieth of Mechir, 
and acted with excessive violence. But Athanasius, the Bishop, 
had then fled, and was sought for in the city with much op- 
pression, many being in danger on this account. No Festal 
Letter was therefore written. 


A.D. 358. In this year, Easter-day was on XVII Pharmuthi; Prid. Id. 
Ap. ; XVII Moon: Epact XXVI; Gods, III; Indict. I; Coss. 
Tatianus, Cerealis ; the governor Parius, of Corinth, Prael'ect of 
Egypt. Athanasius, the Bishop, lay concealed in the city of 
Alexandria. But Georgius left on the fifth of Paophi, being 
driven away by the multitude. On this account, neither this 
year was the Pope [Athan.] able to send a Festal Letter. 



' In this year, Easter-day was on XIX Pharniuthi ; Prid. Non. A.D, 350. 
Ap.; XX Moon; Epact VII; Gods, IV; Indict. II; Coss. 
Eusebius, Hypatius ; the same governor Parius ; who was 
succeeded by Italicianus for three months ; after him Faustinus, 
of Chalcedon. Not even in this year did the Pope [Athan.] write 
[any Letter]. 


In this year, Easter-day was on XXVIII Pharniuthi ; IX KaL A.D. 360. 
Mai; XXI Moon; Epact XVIIl; Gods, VI; Indict. Ill; Coss. 
Constantius Aug. X, JuUanus Caesar III; the governor Fausti- 
nus, of Chalcedon, Prtefect of Egypt. This Pmefect and Arte- 
midorus Dux, having entered a private house and a small 
chamber, in quest of Athanasius the Bishop, bitterly tortured 
Eudsemonis, a perpetual virgin. On these accounts no Letter 
was written this year. 


In this year, Easter-day was on XI 11 Pharniuthi; VI Id. Ap.; A.D. 36L 
XVII Moon; Epact XXIX; Gods, VII; Indict. IV; Coss. 
Taurus, Florentius ; the same governor Faustinus ', Prefect of 
Egypt, who was succeeded by Gerontius, the Armenian. He 
[Athan.] was unable to send a Letter. In this year, Constantius 
died, and Julianus holding the empire alone, there was a 
cessation of the persecution against the Orthodox. For orders 
were issued every where from the emperor Julianus, that the 
Orthodox ecclesiastics who had been persecuted in the time of 
Constantius should be let alone. 


In this year, Easter-day was on XV Pharniuthi; Prid. Kal. A.D. 3G2. 
Ap. ; XXV Moon; Epact X ; Gods, I ; Indict. V ; Coss. Mamer- 
tinus, Nevitta; the same governor Gerontius, succeeded bv 
Olympus of Tarsus. In this year, Athanasius the Bishop re- 
turned to the Church, after his exile, by the decree of Julianus 
Augustus, who granted freedom to all the exiled Bishops and 
Clergy, as was before said. This year, then, he wrote [a Letter]. 

' This word is written vaguely in the Syriac, varying in all the three places 
in whieli it occurs. 


A.D.363. In this year, Easter-day was on XXV Pharmiithi ; XII Kal. 
Mai; XX Moon; Epact XXI; Gods, II; Indict. VI; Coss. 
Julianus IV, Sallustius; the same governor Olympius, Prefect 
of Egypt. Pythiodorus, of Thebes, a celebrated Philosopher, 
brought a decree of Julianus on the twenty-seventh of Paophi, 
and produced it before the Bishop, and committed many acts of 
violence. He [Athan.] therefore left the city, and proceeded to^ 
Thebes. After eight months Julianus died ; and, the news of 
his death being published, Athanasius returned secretly, by 
night, to Alexandria. Then on the eighth of Thoth, he em- 
barked at the Eastern Hierapolis, and met the emperor Jovian, 
by whom he was dismissed with honour. He sent this Festal 
Letter to all the country, while being driven by persecution 
from Memphis to Thebes, and it was delivered as usual. 


A.D.364. In this year, Easter-day was on IX Pharmuthi ; Prid. Non. 
Ap.; XVI Moon; Epact III; Gods, IV; Indict. VII; Coss. 
Jovianus Aug., Varronianus; ^rius, of Damascus, Prefect; who 
was succeeded by Maximus of Eapheotis, and he again by 
Flavianus, the Illyrian. In this year, the Pope returned again 
to Alexandria and the Church on the twenty-fifth of Mechir. 
He sent the Festal Letter, according to custom, from Antioch 
to all the Bishops in all the provinces. 


A D 365 Ii^ this year, Easter-day was on I Pharmuthi ; V Kal. Ap. ; 
' XIX Moon; Epact XIV; Gods, V; Indict. VIII; Coss. Valen- 
tinianus Aug. I, Valens Aug. ; the same Flavianus, the Illyrian, 
being governor. We took the Csesareum ; but again, the Pope 
[Aihan.] being persecuted with accusations, withdrew to the 
garden of the new river. But a few days after, Barasides, the 
notary, came to him with the Prsefect, and obtained an entrance 
for him into the Church. Then, an earthquake happening on 
the twenty-seventh of Epiphi, the sea turned from the East, and 
destroyed many persons, and much damage was caused. 


A D 366. I^ this year, Easter-day was on XXI Pharmuthi ; XVI Kal. 

' Mai; XX Moon ; Epact XXV ; Gods, VI; Indict. IX; in the first 

year of the Consulship of Gratianus, the son of Augustus, and 


Daglaiphus; the same governor Flavianus, Praefect. On the 
twenty-seventh of Epiphi, the heathen made an attack, and tlie 
Caesareum was burnt, and consequently many of the citizens 
suffered great distress, while the authors of the calamity were 
condemned and exiled. After this, Proclianus, the Macedonian, 
became chief. 


In this year, Easter-day was on XV J Pharmuthi ; Kal. Ap. ;A.D. anr. 
XVI Moon; EpactVI; Gods, VII; Indict. X; Coss. Lupicinus, 
Jovinus; the same Proclianus being governor, who was suc- 
ceeded by Tatianus Lucius. In this year, when Lucius had 
attempted an entrance on the twenty-sixth of the month Thoth, 
and lay concealed by night in a house on the side of the 
enclosure of the Church ; and when Tatianus the Prajfect and 
Trajanus Dux had him brought out, he left the city, and was 
rescued in a wonderful manner, while the multitude sought to 
kill him. In this yeai' he wrote, forming a Canon of the Holy 


In this year, Easter-day was on XXV Pharmuthi; XII Kal. A.D. ;{n8. 
Mai; XVI Moon; Epact XVII; Gods, II; Indict. XI; Coss. 
Valentinianus Aug. II, Valens Aug. II; the same governor 
Tatianus, Praefect. He [Athan.] commenced building anew the 
Caesareum, having been honoured with an imperial command 
by Trajanus Dux. The authors of the incendiarism were also 
discovered ; the rubbish of the burnt ruins was at once cleared 
away, and the building begun anew in the month Pachon. 


In this year, Easter-day was on XXVII Pharmuthi ; Prid. Id. A. D. 36y. 
Ap.; XVMoon; Epact XXVIII; Gods, HI; Indict. XH; Coss. 
Valentinianus, (son of Augustus) I, Victor; the same Tatianus 
being governor. The Pope [Athan.] began to build a church in 
Mendidius (which bore his name), on the twenty-fifth of the 
month Thoth, in the eighty-fifth year of the Diocletian Era. 


In this year, Easter-day was on II Pharmuthi; IV Kal.A.D. 370. 
Ap.; XV Moon; Epact IX; Gods, IV; Indict. XIII; Coss. 
Valentinianus Aug. Ill, Valens Aug. Ill; the same Tatianus 
being governor; who was succeeded by Olympius Palladiiis. ot 



Samosata. The Pope [Athan.] finished the Church, called after 
his name, at the close of the eighty-sixth year of the Diocletian 
Era; in which also he celebrated the dedication"", on the four- 
teenth of Mesori. 


A.D. 371. In this year, Easter-day was on XXII Pharmuthi ; XV KaL 
Mai; XVI Moon; Epact XX; Gods, V; Indict. XIV; Coss. 
Gratianus Aug. II, Probus; the same Palladius being governor; 
who was succeeded as Prsefect of Egypt by ^Elius Palladius^ 
of Palestine, who was called Cyrus. 


A.D. 372. In this year, Ea&ter-day was on XIII Pharmuthi; VI Id. Ap.; 
XIX Moon; Epact I; Gods, VII°; Indict. XV; Coss. Modestus, 
Arintheus; the same Palladius, the governor, called Cyrus, 
Prsefect of Egypt. 


A.D. 373. In this year, Easter-day was on V Pharmuthi; Prid. Kal. Ap,; 
XXI Moon; Epact XII; Gods, I; Indict. I; Coss. Valenti- 
nianus IV, Valens IV; the same governor iElius Palladius, 
Prsefect of Egypt. At the close of this year, on the seventh of 
Pachon, he [Athan.] departed this life in a wonderful manner. 

The end of the heads of the Festal Letters of holy Athanasius^ 
Bishop of Alexandria. 

™ Syr. 'EyKaiuia. 

" The Syr. has i-^» UO ' and not one,' which must be incorrect. 






TlIK rllKONuUil.ICAl IMciRJIAThiN' ■,HfS IX THE IXTBom iTl' 



"H c.'ES" 

M H.April 

I Kal. April 

XIII Kal.Md 

III Id. April 


Xll K>I.M«i 

Vlj III. April 

ilUl. April 

I n,. 


I '-^\^.\ 'T.i.'C |.;i;«h| ii I li 

..K-UnmuldUlo, April 


ltd t I'hul 





> Pi..mC- 





S. A 1' H A N A S I U S, 



^I'he first Festal Letter of Pope Athanasius, wherein the first A.D. 320. 
day of the Paschal week is on XL Pharmuthi; VIIL Id. ^^^'^^ 
April; yEr. Dioclet. 45; Coss. Constaiitinus Aug. VllL 
Constantinus Cces, IV 

Prcefect. Septiniius Zenius; Indict, 


Come, my beloved: the season calls us to keep the feast. 
Again, the Sun of Pig hteousness, CRUs'mg His divine beams Mai. 4, 2. 
to rise upon us, proclaims beforehand the time of the feast, 
in which, obeying Him, we ought to celebrate it^'; so that 
when the time has passed away, gladness likewise may not 
leave us*^. For discernment of the time is a duty strictly 
enjoined upon us, and a matter of moral obligation^; even 
as the blessed Paul, when instructing his disciple, teaches 
him to observe the time, saying, Stand {ready) in season, 2T\m. 4,2. 
and out of season — that knowing both the one and the 
other, he might do things seasonable, and avoid the 
blame for such as are unseasonable. For thus also the God 
of all distributes every thing in time and season, after the 
manner of wise Solomon «, to the end that, in due time, the 

* I have thouizht it well to give the 
title of the first Letter in the words in 
which it is found in the Syr. Ms. 
The titles of the second, third, and 
fourth are to the same effect. 

*> Conf. Theodoret. Ov yap TcavTes 
T]^Qv\r\9T\(Tav iLvdpuTroi rov (()U}Ths awo- 
Xavcrai — avrhs yap 6 ttjs hiKaioaw'ris 
T^Xios TTtto-j TTjs (TajTTjpias Tcs aKT7i/as 
Kare-rrefjixpev dX\' elcrlv ol tovs 6(p6a\- 
fjLOvs efMV(Tau, Ka\ rh (f)u>s ISilv ovk y\^ov- 
\T]Q-t](Tav, Theodoret. Interpret, in 
Psalm xcvi. vol. i. p. 1300. ed. ir69. 

c The due celebration of the fea-t is 
spoken of a.«» producing a permanent 
beneficial effect on the Christian. 
Conf. I>etter iv. 

d Conf. S. Cyril. Homil. Pasch. V. 

commencing thus ; Kaiphu iravrl irpdy- 
fiaTi, (pTqalv rj 6eia ypa(f>r]. 

^ .nVnA> ]V),nM ZoSOpO 

' after the manner of wise Solnmon. 
Not, * says typically,' as Larsow 
renders it. So, in page 13, line 3, 

{■i ,0 ZoSOfJO after the nanner 
of the saints. So, too, in various other 
places. The meaning seems to \e 
that, even as we find in the words 
of Solomon, Eccles. iii. 1. there is a 
proper time for every thing; so God, 
in His Providence, before the coming 
of Christ, ordained proper season.-' for 
all those greac events that were to 
usher in the fulnes.<? nf time. 

B 2 

4 Every thing doiie hy God in due season. 

Letter salvation of men should be every where spread abroad. 
Thus, likewise, for instance, not out of season, but in season, 

iCor. 1,24. the Wisdom of God, our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, 

"Wiei.?, 27. passed upon holy souls, fas hioniiig the friends of God and the 
prophets; so that, although very many were praying for 

Ps. 14, 7. Him, and saying, O that the salvatioyi of God ivere come out 
of S ion! the Spouse also, as it is written in the Canticles, 

Cant. 8, 1 . praying and saying, that Thou wert my sister s son, that 
sucked the breasts of my mother^! that Thou wert like to the 
children of men, and wouldest take upon Thee human 
passions for our sake! nevertheless, the God of all, the 
Franier of times and seasons^, and who knows our affairs 
better than we do, while, as a good physician. He exhorts 
to obedience in due season — the only one in which we may 
be healed — so also does He send Him not unseasonably, 

isa. 49, 8. but seasonably, saying, In an acceptable time have I heard 
Thee, and in the day of salvation I have helped Thee. And, 
on this account, the blessed Paul, urging us to note this 

2Cor. 6, 2. season, wrote, saying. Behold, noiv is the accepted time; 
behold, now is the day of salvation. 

At set seasons also He called the children of Israel to the 

Exod. 23, Levitical feasts by Moses, saying. Three times in a year ye 

^^' shall keep a feast to Me, (one of which, my beloved, is that 

now at hand,) to the celebration of which priestly'' trumpets 
call and summon; as the holy Psalmist commanded, saying, 

Ps. 81,3. Blow with the trumpet in the new moon, on the \solemn\'' day 
of your feast. Since this sentence enjoins upon us to blow 
both on the new moons, and on the solemn days, He hath 
made a solemn day of that in which the light of the moon is 
perfected in the full; which was then a type, as this of thfe 
trumpets. Sometimes then, as was before said, they were 

^ TOiv KaipCov iuTi SijfiiovpySs. Apol. that time the King Messiah shall be 

de Fugu sua, §. 14. revealed to the congregation of Israel." 

8 The Syriac here differs from the ^ Alluding to the command that 

commonly received text of the Peshito, the trumpets should be blovpn by the 

which is probably incorrect. It is a priests only. Vid. Num. x. 8. also 

literal translation of the LXX, the note pag. 9. 

words of which are also quoted by = ,p, i Iv ., » / i x u u 

c A+i, „ •« K- c a • <- c -Lhe word |-*^r^ (solemn) should 

b. Athan. in his Synops. bcript. Sacr. , i- i u • j r 

. •• ,cfj T-i • 4^ T • u be supplied here, as is proved from 

t. 11. p. 123. Ihe ancient Jewish , ^ V ,i t-I i. ^• 

, u-,../ 1^ „,. .11,, i„t ,„ t A 4.^ • vv^hat tollows. Ihe same quotation is 

writers also usually interpreted this . ,</, -a. >^i i • • rxu 

„ „ ^ ^e *u^ i\/f o ;„!, -vi T .. made trem it near the beginning of the 

passage of the Messiah, J he J argum . . - . .o & 

on the verse begins thus: "And at 

third letter. 

Various uses of the trumpets among the Jews, 5 

called to feasts ; sometimes also to fasting and to war. A.D. 32 9. 

And this was not done without solemnity, neither were 

these things like common occurrences; but this sound of 

the trumpets was solemn, so that every man might come to 

that which was proclaimedJ. And this should be learned 

not merely from me, but from the divine Scriptures, when 

God was revealed to Moses, and said, as it is written in the 

book of Numbers: And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, Numb, lo, 

Make to thee two trumpets ; of silver shalt thou make them, 

and they shall be for thee to call the congregation— very 

properly for those who here love Him. So that we may 

know that these things had reference to the time of Moses — 

yea, were to be observed so long as the shadow lasted, the 

whole being appointed as conducive thereto, till the time o/Heb.9, lo. 

reformation. For, (said He,) if ye shall go out to battle'' in, 

your land against your enemies that rise up against you, (for 

such things as these refer to the land; beyond it, in no 

wise,) then ye shall proclaim luith the trumpets, and shall be 

remembered be/ore the Lord, and be delivered from your 


Not only in wars did they blow the trumpet, but under 
the law, there was also a festal trumpet. Hear him again, 
saying in continuance, J7id in the day of your gladness. Numb. 10, 
and in your feasts, and your new moons, ye shall blow ivitk 
the trumpets. And let no man think it a light and con- 
temptible matter, if he hear the law command respecting 
trumpets : it is a wonderful and fearful thing. For because 

i There were different modes of "tZ^li^ Blow ye the trumpet in Zion, 

blowiriirwith the trumpets in use among and sound an alarm in my holy moun- 

the JeVs, which are differently ex- tain. Four several uses of the trumpet 

pressed in the Hebrew Bible. The are recorded in Num. x. 1st. Calling 

word li'pn denoting a simple blast, together the assembly ; v. 2. 2d. A 

used e. g. lo call the people together to signal tor the camp ^° '""^'^/'Y-Y;! ' 

an assembly, Num. x. 2; and r'^'-rT v. 5. 3d. Marching to v^ar : v. 9 4th. 

du a. .^euiui^, , . Proclamation of festal davs, and days 

or nr^n.-p l>f:n signifying a more ^Z^^-^^^'^ ^-^ 10- The difference be- 

warlike and continued sound, such as ,„•££„ the modes of blowing the trumpets 

was made when the camp was to be j^ alluded to by St. Paul, 1 Cor. xiv. H. 

moved; Num. x. 2 — 7. The two jf the trumpet give an uncertain sound, 

are opposed to each other in v, 7, ^^^ gj^ajl prepare himself for the 

!»r''"in i^b^ VJ\)r\r\ ye shall Wow, battle ? 

but yt. shall not make an alarm. ^ p^^. qq£j L'SiD\ 'e;-'. jio] 

Kng. vers. Thus too in Joel ii. 1. rx^^J ^ 

-in^ ^.v^-^ni p*!?4i '^p'ltz; nvpn vj^^is^ 

6 The proclamation of the Christian trumpet. 

Letter the trumpet, more than any other voice or instrument, is 

'- exciting and very terrible^, on this account, instruction was 

conveyed to Israel by such means, for he was then but a 
child. But in order that the proclamation should not be 
thought merely human, being beyond this, it was heard as 

Exod. 19, those voices which were uttered when they received a shock 
from them in the mount ; and they were reminded of the 
law that was then given them, and kept it. For the law 
was worthy of admiration, and the shadow was excellent ; 
otherwise, it would not have wrought fear, and induced 
reverence in those who heard: and [if such were the case], 
much more must it have been so with those who at that 
time saw such things as these. 

Be it that these things were then typical, and done as in a 
shadow. Let us, having recourse to our understanding, and 
henceforth leaving the figure at a distance, come to the 
truth, and look upon the priestly trumpets of our Saviour, 
which cry out, and call us, at one time to war, as the blessed 

Eph. 6, 12. Paul saith : We tvrestle not with flesh and blood, but with 
principalities, with powers, with the rulers of this dark world, 
with wicked spirits in heaven. At another time the call is 
made to virginity, and lowliness, and conjugal unanimity, 
saying, To virgins, the things of virgins ; and to those 
bound by a course of abstinence, the things of abstinence ; 

iCor. 7,25. and to those who are married, the things of an honourable 
marriage ; thus assigning to each domestic virtues and an 
honourable recompense. Sometimes also, the call is made to 
fasting, and sometimes to a feast. Listen to the same 
[Apostle] again blowing the trumpet, and proclaiming, 
Cor. 5, Christ our Passover is sacrificed; therefore let us keep the 
feast, not with old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice 
and wickedness. 

If further, thou wouldest listen to a trumpet much greater 

1 The idea of something dreadful is the trumpet, (^fljri'^ "iQlt^S) and 

continually associated in Scripture with shall go forth with whirlwinds of the 

the sound of the trumpet. It frequently south. The seven angels blow with 

represents the thunder; e. g. Zech. ix. trumpets before the judgments of God 

]4. where the lightning, the thunder, are inflicted on the world. Apoc. ch. 

and the tempest are described together, viii. We read, 1 Cor. xv. 52. Iv rp 

And the Lord shall be seen over them, eo-xarr? (r6.\Tri-yyi\ and in 1 Thess. iv. 

and His arrow shall go forth as the IG. with the voice of the archangel Kal 

lightning, and the Lord God shall blow eV (roXitrfyi 0eoO, 


The character of a real fast. 7 

than all these, hear our Saviour saying; In that last and ^' D- 329. 
great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried, sayiny, If any john 7,37. 
man thirst, let him come unto me and drink. For it became 
the Saviour not simply to call us to a least, but to the great 
feast; only so that we should be prepared to hear, and 
should conform to the proclamation of every trumpet. For 
since, as I before said, there are divers proclamations, listen, 
as in a figure, to the prophet blowing the trumpet; and 
further, having turned to the truth, be ready for the an- 
nouncement of the trumpet, for he saith, Blow ye the trumpet Joel 2, 15. 
in Sion: sanctify a fast. This is a warning trumpet, and 
commands with great earnestness, that when we fast, we 
should hallow the fast. For not all those who call upon 
God, hallow God, since there are some who defile Him ; yet 
not Him — that is impossible — but their own conscience 
concerning Him ; for He is holy, and has pleasure in the Ps. 16, 3. 
saints. And therefore the blessed Paul assigns the reason 
for men's dishonouring God: Transgressors of the laio dis- 'Rom.2,23. 
honour God. So then, to point out those who pollute the 
fast, he saith here, sanctify a fast. For many, crowding to 
the fast, pollute themselves in the thoughts of their hearts, 
sometimes by doing evil against their brethren, sometimes 
by daring to defraud. And, to mention nothing else, there 
are many who exalt themselves above their neighbours, 
bringing about a great offence by these means. 

For also the boast of fasting did no good to the Pharisee, Luke 18, 
although he fasted twice in the week, only because he 
exalted himself against the publican. In the same manner 
also the Word found fault with the children of Israel on 
account "of such a fast as this; exhorting them by Isaiah 
the Prophet, and saying, This is not the fast and the day that I^a. 68, 6. 
I have chosen, that a man should humble his soul; not even if 
thou shouldest how down thy neck like a hook, and shouldest 
strew sackcloth and ashes under thee; neither thus shall ye 
call the fast acceptable. That we may be able to shew what 
kind of persons we should be when we fast, and of what 
character the fast should be, listen again to God command- 
ing Moses, and saying, as it is written in Leviticus, ^//c/ Levit. 23, 
the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, In the tenth day of this 
seventh month, there shall he a day of atonement; a con- 

8 The food of the soul described. 

LtixER vocation, and a holy day shall it he to you; and ye shall 

'- humble your souls, and offer whole burnt-offerings unto the 

Lord. And afterwards, that the law might be determinate 
Levit, 23, on this point, He further saith, Every soul that shall not 
^^' humble itself, shall be cut off from the people. Behold, my 

brethren, what a fast can do, and in what manner the law 
commands us to fast. It is required that not only should 
we fast with the body, but also with the soul. Now the 
soul is humbled when it is not found [occupied] with wicked 
opinions, being nourished with becoming virtues. For 
virtues and vices are the food of the soul, and it can eat 
either of these two meats, and incline to either of the two, 
according to its own will. If, on the one hand, it is bent 
toward virtue, it will be nourished by virtues ; by righteous- 
ness, by temperance, by meekness, by fortitude. Even as 
] Tim. 4, 6. Paul saith, Being nourished by the word of truth. Such 
John 4, 34. was the case with our Lord, who said, My meat is to do the 
ivill of My Father which is in heaven. But if it is not thus 
with the soul, and it inclines to that which is beneath, it is 
then nourished by nothing but sin. For thus also the 
Holy Ghost, describing sinners and their food, alluded to 
Fe. 73, 14. the devil when He said, I have given him to be meat to the 
vers.) people of jEthiopia^. For this is the food of sinners. And 

'J' S. Athan. here speaks of Leviathan lato nomine, dixerat, eundera nunc 

as a type of Satan; of the iEthiopians Leviathan appellet, (Again, torn. vii. 

as typical of sinners ; of sinners feeding p. 277-) ' Draco iste quern formasti ad 

on the devil, as the righteous feed upon illudendiim eil Iste est Draco qui de 

Christ. Paradiso ejeetus est; qui decepit 

For the first, conf. S. Cyril. Alex- Evam, et datus est in hoc mundo ad 

andr. Comment, in Esaiam cap. xxvii. illudendum nobis. Also, on Isaiah 

1. ' In that day the Lord with His xxvii. 1. reference is made to Apoc. 

sore and great and strong sword shall xii. 7. and Luke x. 19. St. Augustine 

punish Leviathan the piercing serpent, on the passage says; Tu confregisti 

even Leviathan the crooked serpent.' caput draconis. Cujus draconis P In- 

'Eirev^xdvo'eadai t^v opyrji/ to7s rja^Br]- telligimus dracones omnia dcemonia 

KSai, Koi aTr€ KTovSariu avrovSy eu /xaKa sub diabolo militantia; quem ergo sin- 

SieipTj/cws (TwavaipeaO-ffcreaOai ro7s eav- gularem draconem cujus caput con- 

Tov reKvois, Kol avrhv e^Tj rhv aaravav fractum est, nisi ipsum diabolum in- 

ov rots (TT paTrjyfj/xacriy e^KouTes Kare- telligere debemus.^ 

(Trpdrevoj/ Tuy ayicoi', oIto7s Trap' avTwv Again, Origen. Horn. xii. in Jere- 

KTipvy/xaa-iv avT^^dyovr^s. We have rniam (vol. i. p. 116. Ed. 1685.) /^eAai/es 

also in the commentary attributed to io-ficu Kara r^u eV t<j3 irKxreveiv apxhf- 

St- Jerome (torn. xi. p. 713. Ed. 1742.) 5ib iv apxfi rov da-fiaros twv atrfidroov 

at the passage of Job,' Canst thou draw Xeyerai' ixiXaivd el/bii, Koi KaXr)' Ka\ 

out Leviathan with a hook.^' Com- alOio^iu rj/x^Ts Kar apx^s t^v rpvxh*' 

mutavit figuram senigmatis, ut Diabo- iolKa/xei/, elra ^TrocTfirjxd^ida, 'Iva Kafi- 

lum, quem superius Behemoth, trans- npSTepoi yiyufxeOa, Kara r6- ris avrrj, 

Fasting a preparation for converse with God. 9 

as our Lord and Saviour Jesus Clirist, being heavenly bread, A.D. 329. 
is the food of the saints, according to this; Except ye eat 3o\iu(i,bi. 
My fleshy and drink My blood; so is the devil, the food of the 
impure, and of those who do nothing which is of the light, 
but work the deeds of darkness. Therefore, in order to 
withdraw and turn them from vices. He enjoins upon them, 
as sustenance, the food of virtue. Now this is, humbleness 
of mind; lowliness to endure humiliations; the acknowledg- 
ment of God. 

For not only does such a fast as this obtain propitiation 
for souls, but it also, being sanctified, prepares the saints, 
and raises them above the earth. And indeed that wliich 
I am about to say is wonderful, yea it is of tliose things 
which are very miraculous; yet not far from the truth, as ye 
may be able to learn from the sacred" writings. That great 
man Moses, when fasting, conversed with God, and received 
the law. The great and holy Elias, when fasting, was also 
thought wortliy of divine visions, and at last was taken up 
like Him who ascended into heaven. And Daniel also, 
when fasting, and although a very young man, was entrusted 
with the mystery, and he alone understood the secret things 
of the king, and was thought worthy of divine visions. But 
because the length of the fast of these men was wonder- 
ful, and the days prolonged, let no man lightly fall into 
unbelief on that account; but rather let him believe and 
know, that the looking to God, and the word wliich [pro- 

T] avafiaii/ovcra \c\fVKav9i(TfJi(V7]; Kal The whole of the comment of S. Aug. 

yfyw/jLeda \lvovv Xafxirphv Koi Ka6ap6y. ou the passaj^e affords a remarkable 

J>. Aug. too, ut supra; Quoniodu amplitication of the words of our 

intelligo populos vEthiopes? Quomodo Author, thoufjh reference is not directly 

nisi per hos, omnes gentesP et bene per made to the words of St. John (vi. 5:i.) 

nif^Tos ; ^Ethiopes enim nigri sunt. He alludes to the golden calf, which 

Ipsi vocantur ad fidem, qui nigri Moses made the children of Israel to 

fuerunt etc. Suicer, Thes. v. Aldlox^/ drink of, and adds; Quid est hoc, nisi 

quotes from Orat. de exitu animce qn;e qui'i adoratores diaboli corpus ipsius 

Cyrillo Alex, adscribitur, p. 405. — facti erant ? Quomodo^ agnoscenles 

daiu6vas, W5 Alelonas CofpJ)5eis. He- Christum fiunt corpus Christi, ut eis 

sychius. Cent. 1 ad Theo.lulum, num. dicatur; Vos autera estis corpus Christi 

23. dajmones vocat, i/otjtous Aldloiras ; ^^ membra, 

spirituales iEthi^pes. Larsow quotes '> The word in the Syriac is [jlJOIO 

S. Athan. torn. iv. p. l-2(). where ' priestly.' Hut in this and in otlu r 

AidioTTfS is explained by ol /utAovo)- places, it appears to be for theGriek 

QfVTis anh roof a^apTiuv. The Heb. 'UpSs. Coiif. t^ ifph ypdfxfjuiTa. 2 Tiro, 

word which the LXX. translate by jii. 15. 
Aieioms is lZ:'*'*'^ 

10 The Jews misunderstood tlie paschal type. 

Letter ceedsl from Him, suffice to nourish those who hear, and 

'- stand to them in place of all food. For the angels are no 

otherwise sustained than by beholding at all times the face 
of the Father, and of the Saviour Who is in heaven. And 
thus Moses, as long as he talked with God, fasted indeed 
bodily, but was nourished by divine words. When there- 
fore he descended among men, and God was gone up from 
him, he suffered hunger like unto men. For it is not said 
that he fasted longer than forty days — those in which he was 
conversing with God. And, generally, each one of the 
saints has been thought worthy of the food of virtues such 
as this. 

Wherefore, my beloved, having our souls nourished with 
divine food, with the word, and according to the will of 
God, and fasting bodily in things external, let us keep this 
great and saving feast as becomes us. For the foolish Jews, 
receiving indeed this divine food typically, ate a lamb in the 
passover. But not understanding the type, even to this day 
they eat the lamb, being in error; the more so in that they 
are without a city and the truth. As long as Judaea and 
the city existed, there were a type, and a lamb, and a 

Deut. 12, shadow, since the law thus commanded : These things shall 
' ' not be done in another city; but in the land of Judaea — but 
without [the land of Judaea] in no place whatever. And 
besides this, the law commanded them to offer whole burnt- 
offerings and sacrifices, when there was no other altar than 
that in Jerusalem, For on this account, in that city a.lone, 
was there an altar and temple built, and they were com- 
manded to perform these rites in that city only, to the end 
that when that city should come to an end, then also those 
things that were figurative might receive their end. Now 
observe: that city, since the coming of our Saviour, has had 
an end, and all the land of Jud^a been laid waste; so that 
from the testimony of these things, (and we need no external 
proof, being assured by our own eyes of the fact,) there must, 
of necessity, be an end of the shadow. 

And it is meet that these things should not be learned 

Nah. 1,15. from me: but the priestly voice cried before. Behold upon 
the mountains the feet of him that bring eth good tidings, and 
puhlisheth peace ; and what is the message he published, but 

The Jewish ordinances only till the time of Christ. 11 

that which he goes on to say to them, Keep thy feasts, A.D. 329. 
Judah; pay to the Lord thy votvs. For they shall no more go ^ j /lxx 
to that luhich is old; it is finished; it is taken away: he is \ers.) 
gone up who breathed upon the face, and delivered thee from 
aJfUction, Now who is he that went up? a man may say to 
the Jews, in order that even the boast of the shadow may be 
done away; neither is it an idle thing to listen to the expres- 
sion, It is finished ; He is gone up who breathed. For 
nothing also was finished before he went up who breathed. 
But as soon as he went up, it was finished. Who was he 

(then, O Jews, as I before said? If Moses, the assertion 
would be false ; for the people were not yet come to the 
land in which alone they were commanded to perform these 
rites. But if Samuel, or any other of the prophets, even in 
that case there would be a perversion of the truth ; for up 
to that time these things were done in Judasa, and the city 
was standing. For it was necessary that while that stood, 
these things should be performed. So that it was no one 
of these men, my beloved, who went up. But if thou 
wouldest hear the true matter, and be kept from Jewish 
fables, look to our Saviour who went up, and breathed upon John 20, 
the face, and said to His disciples, Receive ye the Holy ^^* 
Ghost. For as soon as these things were done, every thing 
then came to an end; for the altar was broken, and the veil 
of the temple was rent; and although the city was not yet 
laid waste, yet the abomination was ready to sit in the midst 
of the temple, and the city, and those ancient ordinances, to 

I receive their final consummation. 

I Since then we have passed the time of the shadow, and no 

t longer perform rites under it, but have turned, as it were, 
inito the Lord: for the Lord is a Spirit, and where the ^Cor.3,]7. 
Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty : as we hear from the 
priestly trumpet; no longer slaying a material lamb, but 
that true Lamb that was slain, even our Lord Jesus Christ, 
Who urns led as a sheep to the slaughter, and was dumb, as a Isa. 53, 7. 
lamb before her shearers; being purified by His precious 
blood, which speaketh better things than that of Abel ; 
having our feet shod with the preparation of the Gospel ; 
holding in our hands the rod and staff" of the Lord, by which 
tliat saint was comforted, wlio said, Thy rod and Thy staff 'Ps. 13, i. 

1^ Spiritual preparation for the feast. 

Letter they comfort me; and to speak collectively, being in all 
respects prepared and careful for nothing, because, as the 

Phil. 4, 5. blessed Paul saith, The Lord is at hand; and as our Saviour 

Luke 12, saith, Iji an hour when we think not, the Lord cometh; — 

1 Cor. 5 8. -^^^ ^* ^^^P ^^^^ Feast, not with old leaven, neither with the 

leaven of malice and wickedness; hut with the unleavened 

^2-1*4 ^' ^^^^^ ^-f ^^^^(^^riiy ^nd truth. Putting off the old man and 

his deeds, let us put on the new man, w^hich is created in God, 

in humbleness of mind, and a pure conscience; in meditation 

of the law by night and by day. And casting away all 

hypocrisy and fraud, putting far from us all haughtiness and 

guile, let us take upon us love towards God and towards 

our neighbour; that being new [creatures], and receiving 

the new wine, even the Holy Spirit, we may properly keep 

the feast, even the month of these new [fruits]". 

PWe begin the holy fast on the fifth day of Pharmuthi, 
(March 31,) and joining to it according to the number of 
those six holy and great days, which are the symbol of the 
creation of this world, let us rest and cease (from fasting) on 
the tenth day of the same Pharmuthi, (April 5,) on the holy 
sabbath of the week. And when the first day of the holy 
week dawns and rises upon us, on the eleventh day of the 
same month, (April 6,) numbering from it all the seven 
weeks, one by one, let us keep feast on the holy day of 
Pentecost — that which was at one time to the Jews, typically, 
the feast of weeks, in which they granted forgiveness and 
settlement of debts; and indeed that day was one of deliver- 
ance in every respect. Let us keep the feast on the first 
day of the great week, as a symbol of the world to come, 
in which we here receive a pledge that we shall have ever^ 

o Alluding to Deut. xvi. J. ^ixa^ai the close of his Ej istles, by referring to 

rrhv fxwa rwv vecou (scil. Kapncov) LXX. the concluding sentences in the Paschal 

Observa mensem novarum frugum. Letters of S. Cyril, who seems herein 

Vulg. 1 e. the month of Abib. Heb. to have closely imitated his illustrious 

a-'ZltS in Chaldee, we have nSW predecessor in the Patriarchate. The 

fructum protulit, imprimis de fructu Syriac translator must frequently have 

primo et prsecoce, (Hos. ix. 10. liad before him the following expres- 

rr X c #-^ Arn a 2 ■ ^'°°'' ' W'^f^^voi TTjy aylas reaaapa- 

rarg.) Syr. ^P^O* Aores produxit. HO(rrvs~iTn(rvpdTrropTes—avydTrro/re, 

PWeshould not have much difficulty naiourjrhs .r,<rrda,-^a.^pa ^aoL 

in fixing upon many of the phrases and aa^^drov-ri] i-^ccpcaKoiav LLi}. ' 
expressions used by St. Athan. towards ' ^ ' ^"*'*''- 

The blessings of the heavenly feast, 13 

lasting life hereafter. Then having passed from hence, we A. D. 329. 
shall keep a perfect feast with Christ, while we cry out and 
say, like the saints, / will pass to the place of the wondrous ?s. 42, 4. 
tabernacle; to the house of God; with the voice of gladness 
and thanksgiving ; the shouting of those who rejoice; so that 
sorrow and affliction and sighing shall flee away, and glad- 
ness and joy be upon our heads ! 

May we be adjudged worthy to accomplish these things 
when we remember the poor, and do not forget kindness to 
strangers ! But above all, when we love God with all our 
soul, and might, and strength, and our neighbour as our- 
selves; receiving those things which the eye hath not seen, 
nor the ear heard, and which have not entered into the heart 
of man; which God hath prepared for those that love Himi, 
through His only Son, our Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ ; 
through Whom, to the Father alone, by the Holy Ghost, 
be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen. 

Salute one another with a kiss. All the brethren who are 
with me salute you. 

Here endeth the first Festal Letter of holy Athanasius. 

<i 1 Cor. ii. 9. Is. Ixiv. 4. Conf. Cic. auribus, neque ullo sensu percipi po- 
Orat. II. ♦ quod neque oculis, neque test.' L. 


A. D. 330 . Easter-day XXIV. Pharmuthi; XIII. Kal. Mai.; Mr a 
Easter-day Bioclet. 46 ; Coss. GaUlcianus^ Valerius Symmachus ; 

onAprill9. t^ ^ -./, . . t t ttt 

PrcEject. Magmmanus ; Indict. 111. 

Again, my brethren, is Easter come, and gladness; for 
again the Lord hath brought as to this season ; so that 
when, according to custom, we have been nourished with 
His words, we may duly keep the feast. Let us celebrate it 
then, even heavenly joy, together with those saints who also 
formerly proclaimed such a feast as this, and were ensamples 
to us of conversation in Christ. For not only were they en- 
trusted with the charge of preaching the Gospel, but, upon 
examination, we shall see, as it is written, that its power was 

iCor.4,16. also displayed in them. Be ye therefore followers of me, he 
(St. Paul) wrote to the Corinthians. Now the apostolic ex- 
pression is instructive to all of us ; for those precepts which 
he forwarded to individuals, he, at the same time, enjoined 

1 Tim- 2, 7. upon every man in every place % inasmuch as he was a teacher 
of all nations in faith and truth. And, generally, the precepts 
of all the saints have an equally extended application by way 
of exhortation; as Solomon, too, makes use of proverbs, say- 

Piov. 4, 1. ing, Hear, my children, the instruction of a father, and attend 
to know understanding ; for I give you a good gift; forsake ye 
7iot my word; for I was an obedient son to my father, and 
beloved in the sight of my mother. For a worthy father 
employs the right method of instruction, v/hen he exhibits 
zeal in teaching others those things that had been properly 
imparted to himself; so that when he meets with opposition, 

Rom. 2, 21. he may not be ashamed on hearing it said, Thou therefore 
that teachest others, teacJiest thou not thyself 'i but rather, 
like the good servant, may both save himself and gain 

* Conf. Letter iii. 

The degraded condition of the wicked. 15 

others ; and thus, when the grace committed to him lias A.D. 33 0. 
been doubled, he may hear, Thou good and faithful servant, Mat.25,21. 
thou hast been faithful in a little, I ivill set thee over much: 
enter into the joy of thy Lord. 

*'Be it then, on our parts, a becoming duty, if at all times, 
so especially in the days of the feast, to be, not hearers only, 
but also doers of the commandments of our Saviour ; that 
also, having imitated the conversation of the saints, we may 
enter together into the joy of our Lord which is in heaven, 
which is not transitory, but truly abideth ; of which evil 
doers having deprived themselves, there remaineth to them 
as the fruit of their ways, sorrow and anguish, and groaning, 
the result of torments. Let a man look on such as these, 
how thus they bear not the image •= of the conversation of 
the saints, nor of that right understanding, by which man 
at the beginning was rational, and in the form of God. But 
being barely on a level with the beast without understand- 
ing, and like it in unlicensed pleasures, they are described 
by comparison with lustful horses ; also, for their craftiness, Jer. 5, 8. 
and errors, and sin laden with death, they are called a 
generation of vipers, as Luke saith'^. Now having thus fallen, Luke 3, r. 
and grovelling in the dust like the serpent % they thought of 
nothing but things which are seen, esteeming them to be 
good; and rejoicing in these things, but not serving God, 
they ministered to their own desires. Yet even in this 
state, the man -loving^ Word, who came for this purpose, 
that He might seek that which was lost and find it, 
sought to restrain them from folly like this, crying and 
saying. Be ye not as the horse and the mule ichich have Ps- 32, 9. 

b We have here the first fragment translated) may serve to give us a cor- 

extant of the original Greek text, rect opinion of the fidelity and accuracy 

It is to be found in Commas Indico- with which the Syriac translator per- 

pleustes, p. 31(i. with the tirle, formed his part. The same may be 

Tov aylov 'Adauaaiov e/c rrjs Sevrepas said of the few other remaining lines 

€OpTo<rTi/c77S. extant in the Greek. 

TeVotTo y h.v Koi Trap' r}(.LUiv irpsirSuTus ^ Syr. eiKU)U. 

kKiffTore tiev, fiaKiaTa Se eV toTs ^W€- '^ The Ms. reads John incorrectly— 

pais TTis koprris, ^^ ixdvo^ aKpoaral, for Matthew (iii 7.) or Luke (iii. 7.) 
dAAa Ka\ TTOirjTal rCov tov Scor^pos Trpocr- ^ Salfioues—KaXol^ ^llv y€y6vafTL Kal 

rayfxdrwv ycuwiuLcda 'Iva Ka\ t},v tS>u avrol, iKir^adi^Tis Se anh t^s ovpayiov 

'Ayiwi- TpSwow ixifj-ncrdfieuot, avveiaeK- (ppovh(Tews Kal Koiirhv Trepl r)]v yriv 

eoifxiv els rr]v rov Kvplov &irav(TT6v re Kv\iu5ouixevoi. Athan. Vit. Anton, t. i. 

Koi ovrws (xevovcrav iv ovpavois x"pctj/. p. 0-J8. L.. 

A comparison of this with the Syriac f Syr, \Ol1\ ^CL»a). ^iKavSpctiiros. 

text (from which the above is literally 


The sad effects of necjhctiny God. 


Is. 23, 2. 


P«. 73, 20 

Rom. 1,22. 


no understanding, whose cheeks ye hold in ivith hit and 
bridle^. Because they were careless and like the wicked, 
the prophet also prays in spirit and says. Ye are to me like 
merchant-men of Phoenicia. And the avenging Spirit protests 
. against them in these words, Lord, in Thy city Thou wilt 
despise their image. Thus then, being changed into the 
likeness of fools, they so far fell away in their understand- 
ing, that, by their excessive reasoning^, they even likened 
the Divine Wisdom to themselves, thinking it to be like 
their own works'. Therefore, professing themselves to be wise, 
they became fools, and changed the glory of the incorruptible 
God into the likeness of the corruptible image of man, and 
birds, and four-footed beasts, and creeping things. Wherefore 

s Conf. Athan. Orat. iii. contra 
Arianos, tom.i. p. 450. In both places, 
the idea of comparing naankind with 
different brute animala in illustration 
of their corrupt propensities is enlarged 
upon, and in both places reference is 
made to Jer, v. 8. and Ps. xxxii. 9. 
among other passages. "E^os t^ O^la. 
ypa<f>rj rh Karh (pvaiv ^vra irpdy^iara, 
Tavra rots avdpwirois els €lK6vas koI 
irapaSdyfjLaTa Xafi^avciv rovro 5e TTOte?, 
?»/' cK r&v Kara cpixny iKehwy, rh ^« 
npoaipecreccs (paiyrjrai tSov audpwiroop 
KivTifiara' Kol ovrus, f) (pavXos, fj SiKaios 
6 Tovrcci' SeiKwrai rpSwos. 'Ewl fxkv 
ovif ru>y (pa{i\up ws iav rrapayyeKXr), /xt) 
yipearde ws t-mros Kal tju'lovos, oTs ovk 
kari GvvecTLS. (Ps. xxxi. 9.) ^ koX ^rav 
fj.cfKpSfiei'os Tovs ovTCfj y€uofieuovSy Xeyr), 
6,u9p(oTros iu ri/xp Sbu, ov cryf/TJ/ce' napa 
a-vvefiK-fjdr] to7s KT-fiveari to7s aj/oi)TOis, 
Ka] w/iioiccBr] avrols' (Ps. xlviii. IH.) 
Kal Trakiv Yttttol 6r}Kvfj.ave7s iyeyfjdrjcrau. 
(Jer. V. 8.) Athan. then proceeds to 
produce and comment upon passages of 
Scripture, in which the characteristics 
of inferior animals are proposed for our 
imitation, e. g. the simplicity of the 
sheep; the harmlessness of the dove. 

h For tOai2o\ I \V> read 




difference in the meaning. Larsow ren- 


12Vk^ .oaiZo\i\v>] ^ 

by * ob ihrer eitlen Geschwatzigkeit,' 
' by their idle talk,' explaining 
it in a note by iroKvkoyla. But 

this would rather require 



as in Matt. vi. 7. or 



y as in Prov. x. 19. The usage 

of the word, as well as the context and 
reference, seem to require the idea of 
reasoning carried to excess, rather than 

of idle talking. P » \ V> U 1*^] 
is ' an irrational lamb,' in Letter iv. 
They became so absurd and sophistical 
in their reasoning {ifiaraiwd-qirav ii/ 
ro7s Sia\oyi(T/j.o7s avruiv) ; so entangled 
themselves with subtleties on the divine 
nature, as to lose all right perception 
of God, and all appreciation of His 
character; ( etr/coTiVerj r] kcrvv^Tos av- 
rSov Kapdia — iiibipauQricrav.) 

'■ Conf. Athan. Orat. contra Gentes, 
tom. i. p. 15, ils yap tV tuv iraOciv 
Kal i]Bova}y aXo-yiav ne(T6vTes ol Hudpu- 
rroi, Kal tt\4ov ovSei/ dpui/res ^ Tjdovas 
Kal (TapKhs incOufxlas, ws iy rovrois to7s 
hx6yoi.s T7> Siduoiay exoyres, iy a\6yoii 
Kal rh 6e7oy ayeKdaayro Kara r^y iroi- 
KiK'iav rwy va6wy kavTooy, Kal deovs 
TocrovTOvs y\v\pauTes. — npQTra96vTes 
yap rrjy ^vxw tois rwy r]doya>y aXo- 
ylais — , iirl tt/j/ roiavrriv eeorcXaariav 
KaTeirecrov Kal Trea-dyres, Xoiirhy cos 
vapaSodeyres iv ra lnco(TTpa(privaL rl-y 
6ehy avrovs ovtws iy avTo7s KvXioyTai, 
Kal iy aX6yois rhy rov A6yov irarepa 
6ehy aireiKd^ovai. The idea formed of 
the Deity was too often but the reflex 
of the corrupt and degraded mind of 
the man. 

Character of I he feasts (f the wicked. 17 

God gave them over to a reprobate windy to do those things A.D. 330. 
which are not convenient. For tliey did not listen to tlie 
l^rophetic voice that reproved them, (saying,) To what have Is. 40, 18. 
ye likened the Lord, and with what have ye compared Him ? 
neither to David, who prayed concerning such as these, and 
sang, All those that make them are like mito them, and all^^-nb.s, 
those ivho put their trust in them. For, being blind to the 
truth, they looked upon a stone as God: and further, like 
senseless creatures, they went on in darkness ; and, as the 
])rophet cried, They hear indeed, hut they do twt under- I?. G, 9. 
stand; they see indeed, hut they do not perceive; for their 
heart is waxen fat, and with their ears they hear heavily. 

Now those who do not observe the feast^ continue such 
persons even to the present day; pretending indeed and i Kings 12, 
devising names of feasts^, but rather introducing days of^^'^^' 
mourning than of gladness ; For there is no peace to the Is. 48, 22. 
wicked, saith the Lord, And as Wisdom saith. Gladness 
and joy are taken from their mouth"". Such then are the 
feasts of the wicked. But the wise servants of the Lord, 
who have truly put on the man which is created in God, Eph. 4,24. 
have received gospel words, and account, as of general ap- 
plication, the commandment given to Timothy, which saith, 
Be thou an example to the believers in word, in conversation, iTira.4,12. 
in love, in faith, in purity. They keep the Feast with such 
propriety, that even the unbelievers, seeing their order", 
may say, God is ivith them of a truth. For as he who l Cor. 14, 
receives an apostle receives Him who sent him, so he who ^°* 
is a follower of the saints, makes the Lord in every respect 
liis end and aim ; even as Paul, being a follower of Him, 
says. As I also of Christ. For there is first the precedent,i. 
of our Saviour, and hertuji is the height of His divinity, 
in that when He conversed with His disciples, He said. 
Learn of Me, for I am meek and loivly in heart, flw^Mat.n,29. 

^ Pjlr^LlO U olaveoproi. of the Syr. version in v. 33. ^1D 1,^5 

' Syr. axVl^aTLcrdiJ.evos. The allusion Ol^^ Heb. ")2l y^ STS (Keri.) 

in this sentence is evidently to the con- LXX. inKdaaTo a7rh KaplLs avjov 

duct of Jeroboam, as recorded 1 Kinp:s Eng. vers, devised othis own heart, 

xii. 32, 33. The phraseology of the '" Vid. note f. Letter iii. page 23. 

Svriac "|>U> loiSb* _a^ (de- - ! "'^'^' ^J'" C^'^*' ^-i- "• 5- ^A.Vc. 
vising names of feasts) resembles that 

18 Christ our example. 

Letter ye shall find rest to your souls. For also when He put 

— water into a basin, and girded himself wdth a towel, and 

Johni3,i2. washed His disciples' feet, He said to them, Knoiv what 
I have done. Ye call Me Master and Lord, and ye say 
well, for so I am. If therefore I, your Lord and Master, 
have washed your feet, ye also ought to wash one another's 
feet: for I have given you an example, that as I have done 
to you, ye also should do. 

Oh ! my brethren, how shall we admire the loving-kind- 
ness ° of our Saviour ? With what power, and what kind 
of trumpet should a man cry out, when exalting such helps 
as these which He gives ? That not only should we bear 
His image, but should also receive from Him an example as 
a pattern of heavenly conversation ; that we should go on 
as He hath begun ; that suffering, we should not threaten ; 
being reviled, we should not revile again ; but should bless 
J Pet. 2, them that curse ; and in every thing commit ourselves to 
'"~ ""■ God who judgeth righteously. For those who are thus 
disposed, and fashion themselves according to the Gospel, 
will be partakers of Christ, and imitators of apostolic con- 
versation ; on account of which they shall be deemed worthy 
of that praise from him, with which he praised the Co- 
iCor. 11,2. rinthians, when he said, I jrraise you that in every thing ye 
are mindful of me. Afterwards, because there were men 
using indeed his words, but wishing to obey them according 
to their lusts, and daring to pervert them, as the followers 
of Hymeneus and Alexander, and before thep the Sad- 
1 Tim. 1, ducees, who, as he said, having made shipwreck of faith, 
2^Tim. 2 were entangled? in the -mystery of the resurrection ; on this 
i*^'- account he immediately proceeded to say. And as I have 

' ' delivered to you traditions, hold them fast. That is, in truth, 
that we should think no otherwise than the teacher hath 
delivered. For not only in outward form did those wicked 

o Syr. UOAJ] ASa»^5 Menschen- ^^'^ Pjf ^ ^V" ^^^, allow of such mean- 

\iehe.\i^auepc.7rla. This expression ^ng. I have httle doubt that ' entangled 

will generally be found rendered by ^« ^^e correct rendering, and that it 

loving-kindness in the following pages, should be <^ 'i ' Ct ^y^' ^^'^"^ ?^ ^' S' 

p Lars. ' verspotteten'— made' sport ^his, too, agrees better with 2 Tim. ii. 

f , ,. 1. ^, i <• .*/ V^- 18. ' who concerning the truth have 

of; taking |>^ as the root of ^r^^^. ^,,,,/^ s^yj^g th^t tfe resurrection is 

but I think the Syriac expression in past already.' 

Heresies are perversions of the truth. 19 

men disguise themselves, who, as the Lord says, put on ^•'^■^'^^- 
sheep's clothing, and appeared like unto whited sepulchres ; 
but they took those divine words in their mouth, while 
having within an evil conscience. And the first, forsooth, 
who appeared thus, was the serpent, the inventor of wicked- 
ness from the beginning, — the devil, — who, under a dis- 
guised form, conversed with Eve, and forthwith deceived 
her. But after him and with him are all inventors of 
unlawful heresies 'J, who indeed, refer to the Scriptures, but 
do not hold such opinions as the saints have handed down, 
receiving them as the traditions of men ; erring, because 
they do not rightly know them, nor their power. There- Mat.22,29. 
fore Paul deservedly praises the Corinthians, because their 
opinions were in accordance with his traditions. And the 
Lord most righteously reproved the Jews, saying, JVherefore ^^^^' i^» ^ 
do ye also transgress the commandments of God on account of 
your traditions. For they changed the commandments they 
received from God to suit their own follies, and adhered 
rather to the traditions of men. Respecting these, a little 
after, the blessed Paul again gave directions to the Galatians 
who were in danger thereof "■, writing to them, If any man <^al. 1,9. 
preach to you aught else than that ye have received, let him 

q Conf. S. Atban. Orat. i. contra from them. Orat. ii. §. 18. conf. Epiph. 

Arian. torn. i. p. 323. Tis oh O^wpel Ha^r. 69. 15. Or rather they took 

TovTov ("Apetov) 5ia rod SoKeTv ovofjid(iiu some words of Scripture, and made 

©ebf Koi Trepl Q^ov \eyeii/, cos rhu ocpiv their own deductions from them, viz. 

(Tvix$ov\evouTa tt} yvvaiKi ; Again, ' Son,' 'made,' * exalted,' &c. 'Making 

p. 324. Mad^Twa-au dnh tS>v ypacpuiu, their private irreligiousness as if a rule, 

Sti Kal 6 ras aipccreis iTrivorjaas 5ia- t^^y misinterpret all the divine oracles 

fio\os, Sik Ti)v iSiai/ TTjs KUKias Svau- ^y it.' Vid. note to p. 178. of ' Select 

Siai^, KLxparat ras Ae'^ets twi/ ypacpciu, Treatises of S. Athanasius,' published 

Iva avras ex^v i-rriKaXv^jLixa, rhu Xhiov ^^ '^his series. Vide also Athan. Epistola 

ihv dTnair^lpas, airarr](Tr] tovs aKepaiovs. ^'j, Episc. ^Egypti ot Libyse, p. 214. 

ouTO) TTjj/ Evau TjTraTTjo-ej/- ovtw kuI ras Oi'Tws koI tV EiW r/TroxTjae;/, ov rb. 

HWas alpe(T€is eirXaae- ovtu kuI vZv ^^'? KaKuiu,^ oAA' viroKpiudix^vos fihu to, 

"Apeiow cTreio-ej/ k. t. A. L. Again, '^'^^ ®^"^ ^Vfxara, tt;*/ 5e Sidvoiav avTwu 

p. 322. Oi/'tw Ka\ 6 ki'/SStjAos kuI ^ord- T^o-pairomv. Athan. frequently speaks 

h^ios "ApeLos, vTvoKpiverai fx\v ws ir^pl ^^ heresies as having their origin in 

Q^ov Ae^coj/, Trap^vTiOiU -ras tojv ypacpwu t"""^^' ^^ which, however, only a partial 

Ae'lets. The same comparison of the ^^}^ imperfect view is taken : one doc- 

Arian heresy perverting Scripture, with *""^ '^ ^"e" unduly dwelt upon to the 

the conduct of the serpent when he suppression of others, or enforced with 

beguiled Eve, is made immediatelv at ^"^" subtlety of reasoning as to unfit 

the commencement of the first dis- 'he mind for the reception of others 

course against the Arians. The Arians equally important. 

availed themselves of certain texts as ' «^ kiuSwou (Syr.) avrod -ftcrav Trot- 
objections, argued keenly and plausibly ovvres. The Syriac is apparently a 
from them, and would not be driven literal translation of these words. 


20 The doctrine of Scrqyture contrasted 

Letter he accursed. For there is ik) fellowship whatever between 

'- — the words of the saints, and the fancies'* of human invention; 

for the saints are the ministers of the truth, preaching the 
kingdom of heaven ; but those who are borne in an opposite 
direction, have nothing better than to eat, and think their 
Is. 22, 13. end is that they shall cease to exist, while they say. Let us 
eat and drink, for to-morrow we die. Therefore also the 
blessed Luke reproves the inventions of men, and hands 
down the relations* of the saints, saying in the beginning 
Luke 1,1. of the Gospel, Since many have taken in hand to write 
narrations of those events of tvhich tve are assured, as 
those who from the beginning were witnesses and m misters 
of the Word have deliver ed^^ to us; it hath seemed good 
to me also, who have adhered to them all from the first'', 
to ivrite correctly in order to thee, O excellent Theophilus, 
that thou mayest know the truth concerning the things in 
ivhich thou hast been instructed. For what the saints respec- 
tively received, they give without alteration, for correctness 
of doctrine concerning mysteries. Of them the (divine) 
word would have us disciples, and right is it that they 
should be our teachers, and necessary is it that we should 

1 Tim. 1, submit to them alone; for of them only is the word 

faithful and ivorthy of all accejjtation, inasmuch as they did 
not become disciples because they heard from others ; but 
being eye-witnesses and ministers of the Word, they handed 
down what they had heard from Him. 

Some, indeed, related the great miracles performed by 
our Saviour, and preached His eternal Godhead. Others, 
again, wrote of His being born in the flesh of the Virgin, 
and proclaimed the festival of the holy passover, saying, 
iCor. 5, 7. Christ our Passover is sacrificed; so that each one of us, 
and all of us together in common, and all the churches 

2 Tim. 2, 8. in the world may remember, as it is written. That Christ 

rose from the dead, of the seed of David, according to the 
Gospel. And let not that escape our observation which 

^ (pavraaia Sjt. quire the above translation. The 

^ Literally ' those of the naint^.' Feshito version is to the same effect, 

" For OVo\ft > leg. qSq1»1> ZL.]au^ ZuOOl J^L^fiJ ^\^ 

^ The Syriac text here AsiQJJ r>mV«->V 

.001^^ \>.l^ ^!iD seems to re- ^ 

with the vain traditions of men. 21 

Paul delivered, declaring it to the Corinthians ; that, I A.D.330 . 
mean, concerning His resurrection, whereby he destroi/ed Heh. 2, 14. 
him that had the j^ower of death; that is, the devil, and 
raised us up together with Him ; having loosed the bands of 
death, and vouchsafed a blessing instead of a curse ; joy instead 
of grief; a feast in the place of mourning, in this holy joy 
of Easter; which being continually in our hearts, we always 
rejoice, as Paul commanded; Praying ivithout ceasing; zw iJThess. 6, 
every thing giving thanks. We therefore do not neglect to 
publish its seasons, as we have received from the Fathers. 

Again we write. Again, holding the apostolic traditions, 
we put one another in remembrance in our meetings for 
prayer ; and keeping the feast in common, with one mouth 
we truly give thanks to the Lord. For thus receiving the 
grace, and being followers of the saints, ice shall make o?<r Ps. 35, 28. 
praise in the Lord all the day, as the Psalmist says. In 
this way, when we properly keep the feast, we shall be 
counted worthy of that joy which is in heaven >'. We begin 
the fast of forty days on the 13th of the month Pliamenoth, 
(Mar. 9.) After we have given ourselves to fasting in con- 
tinued succession, let us begin the week of the holy Easter* 
on the 18th of the month Pharmuthi, (April 13.) Then 
ceasing on the 23d of the same month Pharmuthi, (April 18,) 
and keeping the feast afterwards on the first of the week, 
on the 24th, (April 19,) let us add to these the seven weeks 
of the great Pentecost, altogether rejoicing and exulting in 
Christ Jesus our Lord, through Whom to the Father be 
glory and dominion by the Holy Ghost, for ever and ever. 

The brethren which are with me salute you. Salute one 
another with a holy kiss^. 

Here endeth the second Festal Letter of the holy my Lord 
Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria. 

1 Compare the fragment of the ori- of S. Cyril ends with the same words. . 

ginal Greek, given in page 15. 'Actt cicrucrSe aW-fjXovs iv (piArj/xaTi ayicf. 

^, ,1 «^ ,TT , ».^.. 'AfTirdCouTaL vuus ol crvu ifiol aSf\(pol. 

z The word U^^ (Heb. HD? j^ ^.^i ^^ observed, that this is the 
Gr. trda-xa) is sometimes rendered usual form in wliich our author con- 
Easter, and sometimes Pagsuver, in eludes his Paschal Letters. S. Cyril 
the following pagen. employs it but once, as above. 

* The twenty- lifth Paschal Letter 


A. p. 331. Easter-day XVI Pharmuthi ; III Id. April; jEra Dioclet, 
Easter-day ^y Coss. Aniiius Bassus, Ahlahius ; Prcefect. Florentius ; 

on April 11. ' ' > J > 

Indict, IK 

Again, my beloved brethren, the day of the feast draws 
near to us, which, above all others, should be devoted to 
prayer; which the law commands to be observed, and which 
it would be inconsistent with our episcopal duties* to pass 
over in silence. For although we have been held under 
restraint by those who affllict us, that, on account of them, 
we should not announce to you this season ; yet thanks be 

2 Cor. 7, 6. to God, tvho comforteth the afficted, that we have not been 
put to silence, as though overcome by the wickedness of 
our accusers ;v but obeying the voice of truth, together with 
you shout in the day of the feast. For the God of all hath 

Numb.9,2. commanded, saying, Speak^, and the children of Israel shall 
keep the Passover. And the Spirit exhorts in the Psalm ; 

Ps. 81,3. Blow the trumpet in the neiv moons ^, in the solemn day of 

^2ih.\,\5. your feast. And the prophet cries; Keep thy feasts, O 
Judah, I do not send this to you as though you were not 
aware of it ; but I publish it to those who know it, that ye 
may perceive that although men have separated us, yet God 

a 1 think the translation here given referring to Athan. himself — rnuv 5e 

of the Syriac IAaXQaa cA — i5 «2^ ''"'^ lT:iaKo-KiK6v iari, (?) 

CnuA^I IS the correct one. I have found here, though it does not appear 

taken lA^^XU. in its more restricted ^ the Peshito version. ^ 

ecclesiastical sense ' episcopal.' Vid. , No.^ry^m,.^ Se J^aaju e. royro^srhu 

Mich, note in Lex.^ Syr. in v. ^s^njo. .^^^^ i^nSv/xlas Kaiphu, KaO'- tu rh icpxaTa 

This seems to suit better with the ivduTa Trape\r}\aice, yeyove Se t^ ndura 

expression 'pass over in silence,' as Kaii^d. S. Cvril. Horn. Pasch. xxx. 

well as the follovi^ing sentence, both near the beginning. 

Christ the great object of the Feast. 23 

having joined us again, we approach the same feast, and A. P. 331. 
always worship the same Lord. 

And we do not keep the festival as observers of days, 
knowing that the Apostle reproves those who do so, in those 
words which he spake ; Ye observe dags, and months, and Gal. 4, lo. 
times, and years. But rather do we look upon the day as a 
solemn one because of the feast; so that all of us, who 
serve God in every place, may be well-pleasing to God by 
prayers'^. For the blessed Paul, when announcing the near- 
ness of gladness like this, did not announce days, but the 
Lord, on whose account also we keep the feast, saying, 
Chrilt, our Passover, is sacrificed; so that all of us, con- l Cor. 5, 7. 
templating the eternity of the Word, may have nearness of 
access to Him. For what else is the feast, but the service 
of the soul? And what is that service, but prolonged 
prayer to God, and unceasing thanksgiving^? The un- 
thankful having put these far from them, consequently also 
rightly deprive themselves of the joy springing therefrom: 
for joy and gladness are taken from their mouth'. There- 
fore, the (divine) word doth not allow them to have peace ; 
For there is no peace to the wicked, saith the Lord, working Ts. 48, 2?. 
the work of anguish and sorrow. So, not even to him who 
owed ten thousand talents did the Gospel grant forgiveness,24. 
in the sight of the Lord. For even he, having received 
forgiveness of great things, was forgetful of kindness in 
little ones, so that he paid the penalty also of those former 
things 8. And very properly so ; for it was incumbent on 

<J The time of the Jewish types and ' voluntary,' as Larsow renders it. Vid 

shadows having passed away, the ob- ^^^ g^.^_ .^ ^_ VJ^|^ . V},]A»1 

servanoe of the ar days ce e- ^ ^^ .^^-^ , -^^ ^^,;^ .^nse, the word is 

brated among them is likewise abro- •* :. , , , 

gated. Theif think principally of the cognate with Vl*- ^vxa.pi(TTia aS/a- 

s?rt.w;j«; 7re" are to direct our attention AetTrros (?) Conf. Clemens Alex, 

chiefly to the A7/i6Va;zee of the festival — Strom. 7. 1. aZiaMnrros aydnr]. Also 

Christ. When directions for keeping i Thess. v. 16, 17. both in the Greek 

the Jewish feasts were given in the and in the Syriac vers, and Letter xi. 

O. T. especial stress was laid on the f This is apparently a quotation from 

particular day. In the N. T. on the Scripture, though 1 cannot find the 

contrary, our* Saviour is the one great exact words. Perhaps it is from Jer. 

subject introduced to our notice — yji. the phraseology of v. 28. being 

Christ, our Passover, is sacrificed. transferred to the sentiment of v. 34. 

e cAlAaSO^ ZuLj lAujoZ The expression has already occurred, 

p. 17. 

OUSD ' unceasing thanksgiving'— a u As, in the parable, the servant 

.imilarexpression to 'prolonged prayer' was held accouutable for the debt, 

intheprccedinglineJnot'freiwilligen,' (which had otherwise beeu forgiven 

24 The grace of God to he hnproved hy us. 

Letter him, having himself experienced kindness, to be merciful to 
'- — his fellow servant. Also, he that received the one talent, 

and bound it up in a napkin, and hid it in the earth, was- 
consequently cast out as an unthankful person, hearing the 

Mat.25,2G. words, Tkou tvickcd and slothful servant, thou kneivest that 
I reap ivhere I sowed, not, and gathered ivhere I have not 
strawed ; thou oughtest therefore to have put my money into 
the hank, and on my return, I should have received mine 
own. Take therefore the talent from him, and give^ it ta 
hirn that hath ten talents. For, as a matter of course, 
when he was required to deliver up to his lord that which 
belonged to him, he should have acknowledged the kindness 
of him who gave it, and the value of that which was given. 
For he who gave was not a hard man ; had he been so, he 
would not have given even in the first instance ; neither 
was that which was given unprofitable and vain ; for then 
he had not found fault. But both he who gave was good, 
and that which was given was capable of bearing fruit. 

Piov. 11, As therefore he ivho withholdeth corn in seed-time is 


cursed, according to the divine proverb ; so he who is 
careless about grace, and hides it without culture, is pro- 
perly cast out as a wicked and unthankful person. On this 
account, he praises those who increased [their talents], say- 

Mat.25,23. ing. Well done, good and faithful servant ; thou hast heen 
faithful iti a little, I will place thee over much; enter into 
the joy of thy Lord. This was fit and reasonable ; for, as 
the Scripture declares, they had gained as much as they 
had received. Now it is right, my beloved, that our will 
should keep pace with the grace of God, and not fall short; 
lest when our will remains idle, the grace given us^ should 
begin to depart, and the enemy finding us empty and naked, 
should enter [into us], as was the case with him spoken of 

Mat.12,24. in the Gospel, from whom the devil went out ; for having 
gone through dry places, he took seven other spirits more 
wicked than himself; and returniiig and finding the house 
empty, he dwelt there, and the last state of that man was 

him,) on account of his cruelty to his h Por QSCJIO leg. OlOOOTO 
fellow-servant ; ,«o sinners, who un- 
gratefully withhold praise and thanks- > For AoOTul) 't'g. A^01jiZ|> 
giving from God, are deprived of the ' •• * 

blessings they before enjoyed, 

Spiritual zeal compared with Ji re. 25 

worse than the first. For the withdrawal from virtue gives A.D. 33i, 
place for the entrance of the unclean spirit. There is, 
moreover, the apostolic injunction, that the grace given us 
should not be unprofitable; for those things which he (Paul) 
wrote to his disciple as of private application, he enforces 
on us through him'', saying, Neglect not the gift that is in iTim.4,14. 
thee. For he who tilleth his land shall he satisfied ivith Prov. 12, 
bread ; hut the paths of the slothful are streivn with thorns ; ^^^^^ j^ 
so that the Spirit forewarns a man not to fall into them, 19« 
saying, Break up your fallow ground, sow not among thorns. Jer. 4, 3. 
For when a man despises the grace given him, and forthwith 
falls into the cares of the world, he delivers himself over to 
his lusts; and thus in the time of persecution he is offended', ' TKw^a- 
and becomes altogether unfruitful. l\!aU3 21. 

Now the prophet points out the end of negligence like 
this, saying, Cursed is he who doeth the work of the Lord Jer. 48, 10. 
carelessly ^ For he who is enlisted in the service of the 
Lord should be zealous and careful, yea, moreover, burning 
like a flame ; so that wdien, by an ardent spirit, he has 
destroyed all earthly" sin, he may be able to draw near to • 
God, Who, according to the expression of the saints, is Deut.4,24; 
called a consuming fire. Therefore, the God of all. Who fieb! 12^29. 
maketh His angels [spirits'], is a spirit, and His ministers a Ps. 104,4. 
fiame of fire. Wherefore, in the departure from Egypt, He 
forbade the multitude to touch the mountain, where God 
was appointing them the law, because they were not of this 
character. But He called blessed Moses to it, as being 
fervent in spirit, and possessing unquenchable grace, saying, 
Let Moses alone draw near. On this account he also entered Exod.24,2. 
into the cloud, and when the mountain w^as smoking, he was 
not injured; but rather, through the words of the Lord, Fa. \2, 6. 
which are choice silver tried in the earth, he descended more 

Therefore the blessed Paul, when desirous that the grace 
of the Spirit given to us should not grow cold, exhorts, 

•' Conf. Letter ii. p. 14. line 14. ■npoffepxofj-ffois Tavrr) rp iirayyiKia. 

' Conf. Episi. Castor. Athan.op. Vid. also S. Atlian. Epint. i. ad Strap, 

torn. ii. p. 314. a>$ "yap toTs ttkttws Soi»- t. i. p. 620, 

XfvovcTi T(j5 Seo-TTOTj;, 5J|a, Ti/xr] irphs m c^y^. (AaX^OGI ' materinl,' 

rb fufWov (nr)yye\Tai- ovrws Tifiupiai >■ earthly,' an adjective formed from 

fiapinarai to7s x^'*P'^s, Koi ^adv/jLtus the GrvKv. 

26 In what sense the Holy Spirit is said to be quenched. 

Letter saying, " Quench not the Spirit. For thus shall we also 

--Hli_. remain partakers of Christ °, that is, if we hold fast unto 

19. * ' the end the Spirit given at the heglnning. For he said. 

Quench not; not because the Spirit is placed in the power 

of men, and is able to suffer any thing from them ; but 

because bad and unthankful men are such as manifestly 

wish to quench it ; since they, like the impure, persecute 

"Wisd. 1,4. the Spirit with unholy deeds. For the holy Spirit of 

admonition flees from guile, and divells not in a body 

under the influence of sin; but even removes'^ far from 

imaginatiojis void of understanding. But they being void 

of understanding, and guileful, and lovers of sin, walk still 

John 1,9. as in darkness, not having that Light which lighteth every 

man that cometh into the ivorld. Now a fire such as this 

laid hold of Jeremiah the prophet, when the word was in 

Jer. 20, 9. him as a fire, and he said, '^ I pass away from every place, 

and am not able to endure it. And our Lord Jesus Christ, 

in that He was good and man-loving, came that He might 

Lu^e 12, cast this upon earth, and said, And ivhat? ivould that it 

49 • 

•were already kindled^! For He desired, as He testified in 

Ezek. 18, Ezekiel, the repentance of a man rather than his death ; so 

that evil should be consumed in all men, to the end that 

the soul, being purified, might be able to bring forth fruit ; 

" The commentary of Theopbylact ' God appeared on mount Sinai as a 

on this passage is to the following devouring lire. Christ declares that 

effect. 'ETretS?; vvi, iffTiu o irapoov filos, He came to send a fire on the earth. 

^ScoK^u rj/MU 6 Qehs AaftTraSa, rh Uuev/uLa The descent of the Holy Ghost on the 

rh ayiov aWa ravT-qu oi fj-ev Kaixtrpo- day of Pentecost was connected with 

Tepau elpyda-avTO, ws irduTes ol ayioC fire. He is a fire that may be 

ol 5e eo-/3eo-aj/, cbs at ireyTc 7rap0eVoi, 'quenched.' The gifts of the Holy 

aviXaiov ravTTju acp€7aai. Again his Ghost in Christians are a fire that is 

words on 2 Tim. i. 6. {auaCaTrvpeTy rh *» ^e carefully watched. S. Athan. 

X^picr/jia rod Qeov) ave/Tlairep yap rh ^e Communi Ess. Patr. &c. t._2. p. 17. 

irdp Selrai ^vXcof, ovrco Ka\ r] x^p'S toG MopTuper Muaris Keytvv^ Koi ^u v dS^a 

Uueviaaros Selrci TTpoQvfx'ias, koL irpoor- '^^^ ^^^^^ 'lo-pa^A iu rca opei 'S.iva, ws 

oxris, Ka\ u-nxpeoos, 'Iva ciei avaC^v. "V^P KUiSfieuoV 'iua ivA-npwdfj t6- irdp 

° Conf.S. Athan. Expos, in PsalUiOS, 'l^^oj/ Pa\e7v iirl^ tt]v yrjv, ivvp ovk 

t. i. p. 863. TTvp uxrirep vo7)rhu, ttjv tou acpamariKhv, a\Xa KadapriKov. — ovtw 

ayiov Uv(:v^xaTos jx^Be^iv ijx^aXav. '^^'^^ icpduri rh irvevfxa rh ayiov iv rrj 

« ,.- ^ ..^ Tret^rrjKoa-rfj, iv e'/Set irvpSs. Conf. also 

P For fVaVQ JJj leg. ^LftidDO |J (. Vita Sancta? Syndetic^ apiid Athan. 

•\% ^ aV ■■ t. ii. p. 628. 6 0ebs ■^^uoSi/ trvp Karava- 

The H after pZ\^QiOC10 should pro- K'ktkov ovrui Se? koL rijxas rh 6e7ou -nvp 

bably be omitted, the error having els kavrov^ i^d^pai fiera daKpvccu Kol 

arisen from the word occurring just kSttov. avrhs ydp (prjaiv 6 Kvpios' -nvp 

before. ijXQou I3a\e7i/ iirl r))v yw Vid. also 

1 Conf. S. Athan. Epist. ad Dracont. Chrysost. Horn. vi. in Matth. vol, vii. 

torn. i. p. 209. p. 109. Ed. Paris, 1839. 

The ingratitude of the zvicked. 21 

for the word which is sown by Him will be productive, A.D.831. 
some thirty, some sixty, some an hundred. Maik4,2o. 

Thus, for instance, those who were with Cleopas, although l^ute 24. 
infirm at first from lack of knowledge, yet afterwards were 
inflamed with the words of our Saviour, and brought forth 
the fruits of the knowledge of Him. The blessed Paul 
also, when seized by this fire, revealed it not to flesh and 
blood ; but having experienced the grace, he became a 
preacher of the Word. But not such were those nine lepers 
who were cleansed from their leprosy, and yet were un- 
thankful to the Lord Who healed them ; nor Judas, who 
obtained the lot of an apostle % and was named a disciple of 
the Lord, but at last, while eating bread with our Saviour, ?••*. 40, lo. 
lifted up his heel against Him, and became a traitor. But ig. ' 
such men have the due reward of their folly, since their 
hope will be vain through their ingratitude ; for there is no 
hope whatever to the ungrateful ; the last fire, prepared for 
the devil and his angels, awaiting those who disregard divine 
lio-ht. Such then is the end of the unthankful. 

But the faithful and true servants of the Lord, knowing 
that the Lord loves the thankful, never cease to praise Him, 
ever giving thanks unto the Lord. And whether the time is 
one of case or of affliction, they offer up praise to God with 
thanksgiving, regarding not these things of time, but wor- 
shipping the Lord, the God of times*. Thus of old time, 
Job, who possessed fortitude above all men, thought of 
these things when in prosperity; and when in adversity, lie 
patiently endured, and when he suffered, gave thanks. As 
also the humble David, in the very time of aflliction sang 
praises and said, / icill bless the Lord at all times. And P.-^.34, 1. 
the blessed Paul, in all his Epistles, so to say, ceased not to 
thank God. In times of ease, he failed not; but in aflliction 
he gloried, knowing that tribulation ivorketh patience, and '^om.d, 3. 
patience experience, and experience hope, and that hope 
maketh not ashamed. Let us, being followers of such men, 

• Larsow erroneously translates this, KKrjpov ttjs aToo-roXT/s (P) KKiipos, 

'obtained the apoetleship by lot.' Judas denoting ' oinne, quod alicui rontingit, 

did not obtain the apostle'ship by lot, sive sorte hoc fiat, sive hajieditate, 

though S, INlatthiaH, who succeeded ?ive alio niodo.' 
hiw, riirL The Syriac is ^oLm] ^ Conf. Letter i. p. 4. note f. 

f I »» i\» trn*=^\ Gr. ri^iovro tov 

S8 Praise and thanksgiving to he ojfered to God 

Letter pass no season without thanksgiving; but especially now, 

* — when the time is one of tribulation, which the heretics 

excite against us, will we praise the Lord ; uttering the 

Ps 144,17. words of the saints ; All these things have come ufon us, yet 
have we not forgotten Thee, For as the Jews at that time, 
although suffering an assault from the tabernacles" of tlie 
Edomites, and oppressed by the enemies of Jerusalem, did 
not give themselves up'^, but all the more sang praises to 
God; so we, my beloved brethren, though hindered that we ; 
should not speak the word of the Lord, will the more pro- 
claim it; and being afflicted, we will sing Psalms", that 
we are accounted worthy to be despised, and to labour 
anxiously for the truth. Yea, moreover, being grievously 
vexed, we will give thanks. 

For also the blessed Apostle, who gave thanks at all times, 
urges us in the same mnnner to draw near to God, saying 

Phil. 4, 6. Let your requests, with thanksgiving, he made known unto 
God. And being desirous that we should never desist from 

1 Thess. 5, such a purpose as this, he says. At all times give thanks ; 
pray without ceasing. For he knew that believers are strong 
while employed in thanksgiving; and that rejoicing they 
pass over the walls of the enemy, like those saints who said, 

Ps. 18, 29. Through Thee will we fierce through our enemies, and hy my 
God I will leap over a wall. At all times let us stand firm, 
but especially now, although many afflictions overtake us, 
and many heretics are furious against us. Let us then, my 
beloved brethren, celebrate with thanksgiving the holy feast 

1 Pet. 1,13. which now draws near to us, girding up the loins of our 
minds, like our Saviour Jesus Christ, of Whom it is written, . 

Is. 11, 5. Righteousness shall he the helt of His loins, and faithfulness 
the girdle^ of His reins. Each one of us having in his hand 

Is, 11, 1. the staff which came out of the root of Jesse, and our feet 
P • ^' ^^' shod with the preparation of the Gospel, let us keep the 

1 Cor. 6, r. feast as Paul saith, Not with the old leaven, hut ivith the 
imleavened hread of sincerity and truth; assured that we 
thus reverently think of Christ, and depart not from faith 

" The Syr. li^ltV^ must be an ' '^"'" ^'^ '^^' ^f*' 

^ .. ^ Conf. James v. 13. 

error of the copjist for |ia*k). , ^^^ l^jv^ \^y^ 

Compare Ps. Ixxxiii. 6. ' ^"^ ^^^- ^^ 

in seasons of tribulation. 29 

ill Him, nor defile ourselves together with licretics, and A.D.331. 
strangers to the truth, whose conversation and whose will 
bring them down. But rejoicing in afflictions, we break 
through the furnace of iron and darkness, and pass, un- 
harmed, over that terrible Red Sea. 

Thus also, when we look upon the confusion of heretics, 
we shall, with Moses, sing that great song of praise, and 
say. We will sing unto the Lord, for He is to be gloriously Exod.15,1. 
praised. Thus, singing praises, and looking upon sinners 
against us, who have been submerged^, we pass over to the 
wilderness. And being first purified by the fast of forty 
days, by prayers, and fastings, and discipline, and good 
works, we shall be able also to eat the holy Passover in 

I The beginning of the fast of forty days is on the fifth of 
I Phamenoth (Mar. 1.); and when, as I have said, we have 
first been purified and prepared by those days, we also begin 
I the holy week of the great Easter on the tenth of Pharmuthi 
\ (Apr. 5.), in which, my beloved brethren, we should observe 
more prolonged prayers, and fastings, and watchings, that 
we may be enabled to anoint our lintels* with precious Exod. 12, 
blood, and to escape the destroyer. We cease (fasting) 
then, on the fifteenth of the month Pharmuthi (Apr. 10.), 
when we hear from the angels in the evening of the seventh 
day of the week, Why seek ye the living among the dead? Luke 24, 5. 
for He hath risen. Immediately afterwards the first day 
of the great week receives us, i mean on the sixteenth 
of the same month Pharmuthi (April 11.), on which our 
Lord having risen, vouchsafed to us peace towards our 
neighbours. When then we have thus kept the feast ac- 
cording to His will, let us add from that first day in the 
holy week, also the seven weeks of Pentecost, in wliicli we, 
receiving the grace of the Spirit, shall be giving thanks 
to the Lord at all times; through Whom to the Father be 

' Syr. O ^ "j A > ^\vx\ ^jPk»0 Jfad upon the sea-sliorc' l.arsow 

1. *-% / AVri* *' - V ' ' - renders it ' und die Siinde iti uns un- 

P^Z.\VD> e.aopcur.s rr,u ejs tj^us ^^ ,^^^^ .ehn'-a translation the 

• struct being used for ihe concrete. '^ ,_ ^■^ 

j There is an evideiit al'usiun to Exod. vpoara es, } 
t xiv.:;0. ' And Israel saw the Egyptians 

^ Conclusion. 

Letter glorj and dominion, by the Holy Ghost, for ever and ever. 

'- — Amen. 

Salute one another with a holy kiss. The brethren who are 
with me salute you. I pray, brethren beloved and longed 
for, that ye may have health, and that ye may be mindful of 
us in the Lord. 

Here endeth the third Festal Letter of holy Athanasius. 



on April 2. 

Easter-day VII Pharmuthi^; IV Non. Apr.; jEra Bioclet. A.D. 332. 
48; Coss. Fahius Pacatianus, Mtsciliu^ Hilarianus; Prcc- 
fect. Hyginus^; Indict. V. 

He sent this Letter from the Comitatus by a soldier^. 

I SEND unto you, my beloved, late and beyond the accus- 
tomed time*^; yet I trust you will forgive the delay, on 
account of my far travelling, and because I have been tried 
with protracted illness. Being then hindered by these two 
causes, and unusually severe storms having occurred, I have 
deferred writing to you. But notwithstanding my far 
travelling, and my grievous sickness, I have not forgotten 
to give you the festal notification, and, in discharge of my 

* The Syriac text has l7th instead 
of 7th. There is the same error in the 
index. The correct day is given to- 
wards the end of the Letter. The first 
day of Pharmuthi coincided with the 
27th of March. Vid. remarks on the 
Egyptian Chronology, contained in the 

^ There is sometimes a difficulty, in 
the absence of independent testimony, 
in ascertaining the exact orthography 
of the proper names, from the loose 
manner in which they are written in 
the Syriac. Here, however, it is clearly 
Hyginus, as in Sozomen, lib. ii. ch.xxv. 
Larsow writes it Eugenius. He has 
also the 46th instead of the 48th of the 
Diocletian iEra. The word ' Fabius' 
is not clear. It is ,£DQ12)|2) in 
Syriac, the Nun, perhaps, should be 
Yud. In Baronii Annal. Eccles. how- 
ever, we find it Ovinius. . 

<= The word in the Syriac is |fck\^ 
Towards the end of the letter, the word 
employed is ^nnol > \ » o > g^g^n | 
* Officilius/ Cureton considers this 

latter word may be an error for the 
Latin Officialis. This opinion receives 
weight from the word used in this 
place. It sometimes answers to the 
Gr. (TrpaTib)TT]Sy e. g. Acts x. 7. 

^ In the index an error is made, it 
being there stated that the third, not 
the fourth, Letter was sent late. It is 
there also said, that the charge, con- 
cerning which Athanasius was sum- 
moned before Constantine, was that of 
having been consecrated when under 
the canonical age. But this does not 
appear to have formed the specific 
charge against him a^ that time. The 
names of his accusers given at the end 
of the Letter determine the case. Three 
of them, Ision, Eudaemon, and Calli- 
nicus, are mentioned by S. Athan. in 
his Apol. contra Arian. p. 141. The 
emperor was at Psammathia, a suburb 
ofNicomedia,and Athanasius was sum- 
moned before him, to answer charges 
of high treason, and also of breaking a 
communion chalice, and of imposing a 
tribute of linen on the people for the 
service of the Church. 

32 Feasts established by the Jews on special occasions. 

Letter duty, 1 now announce to you the feast. For although the 

^^: letter has been delayed beyond the accustomed period of 

the proclamation, yet it should not be considered ill-timed, 
inasmuch as, since the enemies have been put to shame and 
reproved by the Church, because they persecuted us without 
a cause % we may now sing a festal song of praise, uttering 

Exod.16,1. the triumphant hymn against Pharaoh ; TVe ivill sing unto 
the Lord, for He is to be gloriously irraised ; the horse arid his 
rider He hath cast into the sea. For we proceed duly, my 
beloved, from feast to feast; again festal meetings, again 
holy watchings stir up our minds, and keep our consciences 
on the guard to spiritual contemplation' of good things. 

We do not celebrate ^ these days in the character of 
mourners ; but, as refreshing ourselves with spiritual food, 
we impose silence on our fleshly lusts \ For by these means 
we shall have strength to overcome our adversaries, like 

Judith 13, blessed Judith', when, first having occupied herself with 

^* fastings and prayers, she overcame the enemies, and killed 

Olophernes. And blessed Esther, when destruction was 
about to come on all her race, and the nation of Israel was 
ready to perish, defeated the fury of the tyrant by no other 
means than by fasting and prayer to God, and changed the 
ruin of her people into safety. Now as those days are con- 
sidered feasts for Israel, so also in old time they were called 
feasts when an enemy was slain, or a conspiracy against the 
people broken up, and Israel delivered. On this account 
it was that blessed Moses of old time ordained the great 
feast of the Passover, and our celebration of it, because, 
namely, Pharaoh was killed, and the people were delivered 
But then, when those who tyrannized "^ over 

Esther 4, 

Esther 9, 
Judith 9. 

from bondage. 

^ Constantine. in his letter to the 
Church of Alexandria, written on this 
occasion, speaks of the envy of the 
accusers of A than, and of their un- 
successful efforts to criminate him. 
Apol. contra Arian. p. 142. ol yap 
fiwpoi eVl rris yKwTTris Keijx^vriv ^xovai 
TTjv KUKiav. — ovSev '{(Txvaay oi iTovr}po\ 
Kara tov ^ttktkottov vjxCbv. Speaking of 
Athanasius himself, he declares his 
approbation of the Bishop's conduct, 
and calls him ' a man of God.' 6 ^xkv 
icaXws SiSd^as, TroXeixLos Kpiverai — 4yoo 
yap rhu v/nerepou iivicrKonov 'AOavdcriou 
aa/j.euws irpoarjKafXTjv, ovrws re irptxT- 

€(p6€y^diJ.r}u, us duOpuKOu avrhv @^ov 
ovra TreTreifr/xeVos. 

f 06ap/a, Syr. Vid. Suicer. in verb. 

e For 1 y<^V«>Vn1 s Avo^Vn 

^ rdls TAjs aapKhs eTriTifiwpTes irdde- 
aiu. S. Cyrill. Horn, l-'asch. xx. 

' Neither Judith nor Esther is rec- 
koned among the canonical books of the 
O. T. by S, Athan. He mentions, 
however, that some regarded the book 
of Esther as canonical. Vid.Syn. Script. 
Sacr. p. 98. 

^ Tvpayuoi, Syr. 

T%e extent and glory of the Christian festioal. 33 

the people were slain, feasts and holidays were observed A.D. 332. 
partially — in JudaBa — with reference to time. Now, how- 
ever, that the devil is slain, that tyrant^ against the 
whole world, we do not approach the feast, my beloved, 
as a temporal one, but as being eternal and heavenly. For 
we proclaim it not as it were in shadows, but we come to 
it in the truth. They indeed, when filled with the flesh of 
an irrational lamb"', accomplished the feast, and having 
anointed their door-posts with the blood, deprecated the 
destroyer". But now we, eating of the Word of the Father, 
and having the lintels of our hearts sealed with the blood Matt. 26, 
of the New Testament, acknowledge the grace given us 
from the Saviour, who said. Behold, I have given unto you Luke lo, 
to tread upon serpents and scorpions^ and over all the poiver 
of the enemy''. For no more does death reign; but instead 
of death henceforth there is life, since our Lord said, / am John 14, 6. 
tlie life; so that every thing is filled with gladness and 
rejoicing; as it is written. The Lord reigneth, let the earth Ps. 97, i. 
rejoice. For when death reigned, sitting doivn by the rivers ps. 137, 1. 
of Babylon, we wept, and mourned, because we had ex- 
perienced the bitterness of captivity; but now that death and 
the kingdom of the devil is abolished, every thing is entirely 
filled with joy and gladness. And God is no longer known Ps. 76 1. 
in Judcjea only, but in rfll the earth, their voice hath gone pg. jg 4. 
forth, and the knowledge of Him hath filled all the earth. 
What remains, my beloved, is obvious; that, as the result, 
we approach such a feast, not with filthy raiment, but with 
our consciences covered with pure garments. For we need 
in this to put on our Lord Jesus p, that we may be able to 
celebrate the feast with Him. Now we are clothed with 
Him when we love virtue; when we are enemies to wicked- 
ness; when we exercise ourselves with temperance; when 
we mortify lasciviousness; when we love righteousness, in 

' 'Yvpavvo% Syr. o Conf. Athan. Vita S. Ant. p. 654. 

"' (nxvoi) aKSyou (L.) "laacn yap tjju Kar avTutu doOelaau 

° Conf. S. Cyril. Horn. Paseh. xxiv, x"/^'" '''ot's ttl(tto1s -napa rov 2wT7}yos, 

p. 293. Ed. Lutet. 1638. Te0wacrt yap Keyoi^Tos avrov, l8ov SfSwKa {ifxlu e^ov- 

4u AlyviTTCf) rlv a/j.w6v eha ruiv Koeuu aiav irareTi/ iirduu) ucpewv Kal (TKOpiriwu, 

avrov ^ /careSTjSoKcJlTes, Karaxpiovr^s Se Ka\ i-rrl -naaav t^v Svua/xiu tov ix^pov. 
Kal TCf aiuari rcov Saj/u-arioiv ras eicr/3o- V Cent'. Rom. xiii. 14. 'put ye on 

Xas, ¥iTOL Tas (pXias, ou crvvSioKuKacri the Lord Jesus Chriet.' 
To7s AlyvirrioiS, 

34 Christ changed the typical for the spiritual. 

Letter preference to iniquity; when we esteem sufficiency; when 
'■ — we have fortitude of mind; when we forget not the poor, 

but open our door to all men ; when we assist humble- 
mindedness, but hate pride. By these things Israel of old, 
after having first fought the battle, as in a figure, came to 
the feast. Such things were then set forth, as in the 
shadow. But we, my beloved, the shadow having received 
its fulfilment, and the types being accomplished, should no 
longer consider the feast a figurative one ; neither should 
we go up to Jerusalem w^hich is beneath, to sacrifice the 
Passover, according to the unseasonable observance of the 
Jews, lest, while the season passes away, we should be 
regarded as acting unseasonably i; but, in accordance with 
the inj unction "^ of the Apostles, let us go beyond the types, 
and sing the new song of praise'. For this they also 
observed ; and as being assembled together with the Truth*, 

Matt. 26, they drew near, and said unto our Saviour, Where wilt Thou 
that ive should make ready for Thee the Passover? For no 
longer w^ere these things done at Jerusalem which is beneath; 
neither was it considered that the feast should be celebrated 
there alone; but wherever God willed it to be. Now He 

Mai. 1,11. willed it to be in every place, so that in every place inceiise 
and a sacrifice might he offered to Him. For although, as in 
the historical account, they were commanded not to in- 
troduce the feast of the Passover any where, but only in 
Jerusalem; yet when the things pertaining to that time 
were fulfilled, and those w^hich belonged to shadows had 
passed away, and the preaching of the Gospel was to be 
extended every w^here; when, indeed, the disciples were 
spreading the feast in all places, they asked our Saviour, 

Matt. 20, Where wilt Thou that we shall make ready? Our Saviour 
also, since He was changing the typical for the spiritual, 
promised them that they should no longer eat the flesh of 

Matt^26, a lamb, but His own, saying. Take, eat and drink; this 
is My body, and My hlood. When w^e are then nourished 

q Conf. Letter i. p. 3. xiv. 3. 

«■ Ta|is Svr. !*•• VoV x 

s Such a "song as is in accordance , ' ^7 ^^ (^vu rf, aX-qeda. I un- 

with the superior blessings of the Chris- 'irf^', ^^'? ^^ referring to Christ. 

tian dispensation. Ps. xeviii. 1. Eev. ^''^' '^^^'^ •^'^- ^• 


Notification of the time for observing Easter. 35 

by these things, we shall also, my beloved, properly keep AD- 332 . 
the feast of the Passover. 

We commence on the first of Pharmuthi (Mar. 27.); and 
havmg ceased on the sixth of the same month (Apr. 1.), on 
the evening of the seventh day, and the holy first day of the 
week having risen upon us on the seventh of the same 
Pharmuthi (Apr. 2.), celebrate we too the days of the holy 
Pentecost following thereon, by them introducing a symbol 
of the world to come". But that henceforth we may be 
with Christ for ever, let us give praise to God over all in 
Christ Jesus, and through Him, with all saints, say unto the 
Lord, Amen. 

Salute one another with a holy kiss. All the brethren 
who are with me salute you. 

We have sent this letter from the Comitatus, by the hand 
of an attendant officer ^ to whom it was given by Ablabius^ 
the Prgefect of the Praetorium, who fears God in truth. 

" The whole interval of fifty days 
between Easter-day and Whitsunday 
(all which time was sometimes denomi- 
nated Pentecost) was looked upon by 
the early Church as a time of rejoicing. 
During the continuance of it, the 
ordinary fasts, as on Wednesdays and 
Fridays, were generally suspended, 
though not alike hy all the Churches of 
Christendom. Cassian CoUat. xxi. e. 
xi. (Lips. ^733. p. 461.) speaks of 
the monasteries , of Syria paying 
little regard to the rule which for- 
bade kneeling at prayers, or fasting in 
Pentecost, while the Egyptians care- 
fully observed it : — 

Ca'pimusdiligentius percunctari, cur 
apud iEgyptios tanta ohservantia cave- 
retur, ue quis penitus totis Quinqua- 
gesimee diebus vel genua in oratione 
curvaret, vel usque ad horam nonaui 
jejunare prsesumerit; eoque id diiigen- 
tius scrutahamur, quod nequaquam hoc 
tanta cautione servari in Syrise monas- 
teriis videramus. Bingham's Christian 
Ant. book xx. ch. 6. 

Tt was due to this custom of re- 
garding the whole season of Pente- 
cost as one of rejoicing, during which 
fasts were suspended, that it is men- 
tioned as a symbol of the world to 
com.e. S. Cyril uses the same com- 
parison towards the end of his 26th 
Paschal discourse, (xvvaTrrovTes e|7js 
KoX Tcls eTTTtt e/35o/ua5a$ rfjs ayias U^v- 


r7]Koarris' 'Iva Koi rhv Kaiphurris apeaeccs, 
Kaddirep ei/cdva riva rrjs twu ayiwu eV 
ovpapols avatravXr^s XoyiC^fxeuoi. The 
same idea is expressed in each of his 
last five discourses. 

^ Vid. note to the title of this Letter. 
I am inclined to think that the person 
here mentioned belonged to the class 
termed palatini. These were employed 
about the palace of the emperor, and 
though not actually of the number of 
the army, or accustomed to bear arms, 
were nevertheless included in the term 
' military,' whatever service might be 
assigned them. This may account for 
the word used with reference to him in 
the title of the Letter. Among the 
number of these palatini, was one who 
was specially engaged as the bearer of 
the ordinary communications to and 
from the Emperor and the Patriarch. 
There was an officer to whom the 
general superintendence of the palace 
and the command of the palatini was 
committed. Ablabius probably now 
filled that post. Vid. Suicer. Thes. in 
V. EaAaTij/os. 

y Ab'avius (hie, Ablabius) Prajfect 
of the city, the minister and favou/ite 
of Constantine the Great, was mur- 
dered after the death of the latter. He 
was consul in the preceding year. 
Zosimus ii. 40. (Smith's Diet, of Gr. 
and Rom. Biography.) 

36 The accusers of Athanasius confuted. 

Letter For I am at the Comitatus, having been summoned by the 
— —^— emperor Constantine to see him. But the Meletians, who 
were present there, being envious, sought our ruin before 
the Emperor. But they were put to shame and driven away 
thence as calumniators, being confuted by many things. 
Those who were thus driven away were Callinicus, Ision, 
Eudsemon, and Gelous Hieracammon, who, on account of 
the shame of his name, calls himself Eulogius. 

Here endeth the fourth Festal Letter of holy Athanasius. 


Easter-day^, Coss. Dalmatius and Zenophilus; Prcsfect. A. D. 333 . 
Paterius^; VI. Indict. XVIL Kal. Mali; XX. Pharmuthi; ^a^ter^da^y 
XF. Moon; VII. Gods; Mr a Dioclet. 49. °° ^ 

We duly proceed, my brethren, from feasts to feasts, duly 
from prayers to prayers ; we advance from fasts ^ to fasts, and 
join holy-days to holy-days. Again the time has arrived 
which brings to us a new beginning "i, even the announce- 
ment of the blessed Passover, in which our Lord was 
sacrificed. We eat, as it were, the food of life ; and, thirst- 
ing continually, are at all times delighted, as it were, from 
a fountain, by His precious blood. For we, on the one 
hand, are always eagerly desirous ; He, on the other, stands 
ready for those who thirst; and for those who thirst, there is 
the word^ of our Saviour, which, according to His loving- 
kindness. He vouchsafed in the day of the feast ; If any man John 7, 37. 
thirst, let him come to Me and drink. Nor was it then alone 

a Pagius makes Easter-day on this 
year to have fallen on Ap. 22. (Vid. 
Baron. Annal. Eccles. torn. 4. p. 248.) 
This is a mistake. The Chron. Pasch. 
(tom. ii. p. 202.) agrees with the title 
to this letter. 

b The Syriae must be for ' Paterius' 
not ' Paternus,' as Larsow writes it. 
The Nun and the Yud are often con- 
founded in the Ms. Moreover, the 
letter Olaph woiild not be written in 
Syriae as part of the final syllable 
' nus,' though it does frequently appear 
in the Ms. in the termination 'ius:' 
e. g. Patricius, Anicius, Septimius, 
Florentius. We know that the preefect 
in the year 319 bore the name of 
Paterius'. Vid. Baion. Ann. Eccles. 
tom. 4. p. 8. §. xxi. 

c Read "jlCO • with the Rebui. 

^ The allusion here is to the time of 
the year at which Easter is celebrated, 
viz. the Spring, and in particular to 
the passage in Deut. chap. xxvi. J. 
which is more than once quoted in 
these letters : *vAa|at rhv firiva ruv 
uecoy. Vid. note o to Letter i. p. 12.; 
also note to Letler xix, sub init. In 
the expression 'new beginning' refer- 
ence is also made to our Saviour, (^ 
apx^l TTjs KTiVeajs tov Qeov. Apocal. 
iii. 14.) to whom we are brought near 
in the feast, according to what follows. 
Conf. Athan. cuntia ApoUinarium, 
lib. i. §. 20. p. 748-9. 

e The Syriae is rather obscure here. 
I suspect an error in the word OllSO. 
Conf. Expos, in Psalmos(P.s. 1 is, 171.) 
oldiu ovv b di'ios \6yos iri'eufj.aTiKTiV 
Tpo(p-nu- avTos ovv 6 \6yos <pv<Tly &pTOS 

38 Christians in all parts united in spirit. 

Letter when any one drew near to Him, that He cured his thirst ; 

'■ but, moreover, whenever it is sought, is there access freely 

for any man to the Saviour. For the grace of the feast is not 
limited to one time, nor does its splendid brilliancy suffer 
an eclipse ; but it is always near, enlightening the con- 
science of those who earnestly desire it^. For, there is con- 
stant virtue in this, to those who are illuminated in their 
minds, and meditate on the divine Scriptures day and night, 
like the man to whom a blessing is given, as it is written in 

Ps. ij 1. the sacred Psalms ; Blessed is the man who hath not walked 
in the counsel of the ungodly, nor stood- in the ivay of sinners, 
nor sat in the seat of corrupters. But his delight is in 
the law of the Lord, and in His law doth he meditate day 
and night. For it is not the sun", or the moon, or the host 
of those other stars which illumines him ; but he glitters 
with the high effulgence of God over all. For it is God, 
my beloved, even the God Who at first established the 
feast for us. Who vouchsafes the celebration of it year by 
year. He also brought about the slaying of His Son for 
salvation, and gave us this reason for the holy feast ; to 
which every year is a witness, the feast being proclaimed 
annually at a season corresponding with the present. This 
also leads us on from the cross by means of this world to 
that which is before us, and God produces even now from 
it the joy of glorious^ salvation, bringing us to the same 
assembly, and in every place uniting all of us in spirit ; 
appointing us common prayers, and a common grace pro- 
ceeding from the feast. For this is the marvel of his loving- 
kindness, that He should gather together in the same place 
those who are at a distance ; and make those who appear 
to be far off in the body, to be near together in unity of 
spirit. Wherefore then, my beloved, do we not acknow- 
ledge the grace as becometh the feast ? Wherefore do we 
not make a return to our Benefactor ? It is indeed impos- 
sible to make an adequate return to God; still, it is a 

^ Vide note c to Letter i. p. 3. Shemitic languages. There is, I 

g In the Ms. Hqs i^* written by <3oubt not, an error in the teiit, and 

If-.' that the word should be some form of 

mistake tor ^A^. tbe ^oot j(j\\ which, in Heb. Chald. 

h Syr. |j-»01>. This root is unknown Syr. ^thiop. and Arabic^ conveys the 
in Syriac, and I believe in all the idea of splendor. 

Human nature inadequate to make a proper return to God. 39 

wicked thing for us who receive the gracious gift, not to A.D. 33.3 . 
acknowledge it. Nature itself manifests our inability; 
but our own will reproves our unthankfulness. Therefore 
the blessed Paul, when admiring the greatness of the gift 
of God, said, And who is sufficient for these things? For 2Cor.2,i7. 
He made the world free by the blood of our Saviour ; then, 
again, He caused the grave to be trodden down by the 
death of our Saviour, and opened the gates of heaven, 
granting through our Saviour an uninterrupted way to 
those who ascend (thereto) ^ On this account, one of the 
saints^^, while he acknowledged the grace, but was insuf- 
ficient to repay 1 it, said, What shall I render unto the Lord P^^^(J,12. 
for all He has done unto me ? For instead of death he had 
received life; freedom instead of bondage-"; and the king- 
dom of heaven instead of the grave. For of old time, 
death reigned from Adam to Moses; but now the divine Rum. 5, 14. 
voice hath said, To-day shalt thou he with Me in Paradise. Luke 23, 
And the saints, being sensible of this, said. Except the p^Q^i-^^ 
Lord had helped me, my soul had almost dwelt in hell. 
Besides all this, being compelled to make a return, while 
he acknowledged the gift, he wrote finally, saying, 7 w;i^^ Ps. 116,13. 
take the cup of salvation, and call on the name of the Lord; 
precious in His sight is the death of His saints. 

With regard to the cup, our Lord also said. Are ye able Mat.20,22. 
to drink of that cup ichich I am about to drink ofi And 
when the disciples assented, the Lord said, Ye shall indeed 
drink of My cup; but that ye should sit on My right hand, 
and on My left, is not Mine to give; but to those for whom 
it is prepared. Therefore, my beloved, let us be sensible 
of the gift, though we are found incompetent to repay it. 

> This sentence is preserved in the rohs a-yi6vs dSf^ai k. t. A. It has 

original Greek in Cosmas Indicopleu- already occurred in this usage. Vid. 

ste°. Kai irpbj raOra t'is Uavds ; rhv Letter iii. p. 25. -^ 

fi'iu -yap k6(TPlou t^ a'lfxari rod ^wjvpos^ 1 lu the .Ms. ^'^^ appears to be 
tiXevdepuae, rhv oEStji/ Tvd\iu rcf tov ^t^K 

^wTTipos da^drcf iraTelcrea. SeSci/ce, Kal an error for V^ '^^ Q >,. 
els ras ovpau'iovs irvKas av(iJ.ir65iarov m Conf. Homil. in Matt. xxi. 2. 

Tots a;/ef>xoMf*'o's ttjj/ oShi/ irapaax^t^- Athan. Opera, torn. 2. p. 374. After 

Topogr. Christ, pag. 316. quoting the same passage from the 

'' The word dyios is sometimes used Epistle to the Romans, he says, oAA' 

alone by Athan. when speaking of the eVeSTjiiiTjo'ei' d Kvpios f]iJLwu'lv<Tods Xpicr- 

sacred writers. Vid. Apol. de Fuga ^^^ wrpoviJiiyos tovs alxt^a^<^Tovs, Kal 

sua, p. 260. §. 15. init. "n<nrep Se ^(^ottoluv tovs TeeauaTufxevovs. 
TouTO yeypairrai, SeiKKuertj/ 6 \6yos, 

40 Tht achnowkflyment God require!, ofitsfvr Hh hemfits bednivcd. 

^"v!"" "^^ ^"^ "ja-^e ability, let us meet the occasion. For although 
nature is not able, with things unworthy of the Word, to 
return a recompense for such benefits, yet let us render 
Hira thanks while we persevere in piety. And how can 
we be more regardful of piety, than when we acknowledge 
God, Who, in His love to mankind, has bestowed on us 
such thmgs ? (For thus we shall obediently keep the law, 
and observe the commandments thereof. Further, we shall 
not, as unthankful persons", be accounted transgressors of 
the law, or do those things which ought to be hated; for 
the Lord loveth the thankful;) when too we offer ourselves 
to the Lord, like the saints; when, finally, we subscribe 
r»> 9 on ""rselves, l.vnig not to ourselves, but to the Lord, Who 
ai.2,20. died. for us, as also the blessed Paul did, when he said / 
am crucified with Christ, yet I live; yet not I, but Christ 
hveth m me. Now our life, my brethren, truly consists in our 
denying all bodily things, and continuing stedfast in those 
only of our Saviour. Therefore the season now requires 
tins of us, that we should not only utter such words, but 
also imitate the deeds of the saints. But we imitate them, 
when we acknowledge Him Who died; and no longer live 
unto ourselves, but Christ henceforth lives in us; when we 
render a recompense to the Lord to the utmost of our 
power; when, I say, we make a return, not by givino- any 
thing of our own, but those things which we have before 
received fi-om Him ; this being especially of His grace, that 
He should require, as from us. His own gifts. He bears 
witness of this when He says. My offerings are My gifts". 
That IS, those things which ye give Me are your/, as 
havmg received them from Me; but they are the gifts 
of God. A„d let us offer to the Lord every virtue, and 
h true holniess He requires; and in piety let us keep 
the feast to Him with those things which He has hallowed 

Let us thus engage in the holy fasts, as having been 

" For . .VooSji 1 leg. 1] 1 mind here the wordsof David, (1 Chron. 

\^A<.« "i^- 14.) "All things come of Thee, 

.j . \On^.D . and of Thine own have we given 

<■ Perhaps S. Atlianasius had in ""■" 

The errors of the Jews and the Schismatics reproved. 41 

prescribed P by Him^ and by means of which we attain the A. P. 33.s. 
way to God. But let us not be like the heathen, or the 
ignorant Jews, or as the heretics and schismatics of the pre- 
sent time. For the heathen think the accomplishment of 
the feast is in the abundance of food ; the Jews, erring in 
the type and shadow, think it still such ; the schismatics 
keep it in separate places, and with vain imaginations. But 
let us, my brethren, be superior to the heathen, in keeping 
the feast with sincerity of soul, and purity of body; to the 
Jew^s, in no longer receiving the type and the shadow, 
but as having been gloriously illumined with the light of 
truth, and as looking upon the Sun of Righteousness ; to Mai. 4, 2. 
the schismatics, in not rending the coaf^ of Christy but in 
one house, even in the Catholic Church, eating the Passover Exod. 12, 
of the Lord, Who, in giving us His holy laws, instructed us 
to virtue, and for the exercise thereof, promised the feast. 
For the Passover is in truth a turning from vice to virtue, 
and a conversion from death unto life. This may be 
gathered even from the type of old time. For then they 
were solicitous to pass from Egypt to Jerusalem ; but now 
we remove from death to life. They also at that time 
passed from Pharaoh to Moses, but now we go up from the 
devil to the Saviour. And as, at that time, an emblem of 
their deliverance was every year established as a witness ; 

P Syr. tvk6w. Conf. S. Chrvsostom sntilts, (John xix. 23.) as applied to 

Horn, els Tovs ra irpcoTa Ud'axa v-q- the indivisible Church, owes its origin 

JT6^^o^Tas, \6y. 7 . torn. i. p. 611. ed. and frequent use to the Anan dispute. 

Par. 1718—38. olTvaripes—(JvveKe6vTes Tt is mischievously to tear the body of 

iriivc^crav vf^^pas recaapdKouTa V7). the Church, to sever and to rend its 

jj.^^j'^5 whole garment {Ziacnvav rb awfia r-qs 

q S.' Cyril, towards the end of his iKK\v<rias Ka\ fieplC^iu rhu&Kvrou ahrris 

homilies de Festis Pasc/ialibus, fre- x'T'iva.) Vide Germani I. Patriarchae 

quently speaks of the quadragesimal Constantin. de ha^resibus et synod, 

fast, as of Apostolic or Evangelical apud A. Mai Spicil. t. vii. p. 44 bo 

origin: Kurk 4s ^LiroaroXiKhs -rrapadS- also, §. 15. " Peter, Bishop of Alex- 

a^is are the terms he emplovs in his andria, who was against receiving 

seventh, fifteenth, and twentieth homi- Arius back again into communion with 

lies, when declaring the periods at the Church, relates that the Lord ap- 

which Lent was to begin and end. peared to him clad in torn garments 

The words Kurh rks ,i>ayye\iKhs Sea- {e^p-riyi^^vovs x^'^'^^s afx-jr^xff^euou). 

rdius-Karic tV elayy^KiKhu ^rapci- On his asking, O Lord ! who has rent 

5oL-is rh .hayy.KiKhv h.aKaK.I Thee ? (r.s ere Trepecrx^cre. K.p.e; the 

K-hpvyiia, are similar terms found in answer was, Anus has rent Me re- 

Xrofhis paschal discourses. ceive him not, for he is condemned 

The figure of the tunica 

now and for ever. L. 

4-2 The noble acts of God to he always in our remembrance. 

Letter so now, introducing the memorial of our salvation, we fast, 

Z: meditating on death, that we may be able to live. And we 

watch, not as mourning, but as waiting for the Lord, when 
He shall have returned from the wedding ; so that we may 
vie with each other in the triumph, hastening to announce 
the result of victory over death. Would therefore, O my 
2 Tim. 2, 8. beloved, (for the word requires this,) that we here so 
governed ourselves at all times and entirely, and so lived, 
as never to forget the noble acts of God, nor to depart from 
the practice of virtue ! As also the Apostolic voice exhorts; 
Remember Jesus Christ, that He rose from the dead. Not 
that there was a limited season of remembrance appointed ; 
but that at all times He should be in our thoughts. Yet, 
on account of general supineness, we delay from day to day. 
Let us then begin in these days. To this end a time of 
remembrance was appointed, which should set before the 
saints the recompense of the reward of their calling, while 
- to the careless it should be a reproving monitor*. 

Therefore in all the remaining days, let us persevere in 
virtuous conversation, repenting, as is our duty, of our neg- 
lect in various things, of whatever kind it may be ; for there 
is no one free from defilement, though his course may have 
been but one hour on the earth, as that man of surpass- 
Job 14,4. ing fortitude^. Job, testifies. But, stretching forth to those 
vers.) * things that are to come, let us pray that we eat not the 
Phil. 3, 13. Passover unworthily, lest we be exposed to dangers''. For 
to those who keep the feast in purity, the Passover is 
heavenly food ; but to those who observe it profanely and 
contemptuously, it is harmy and loss. For it is written, 
1 Cor. 11, Whosoever shall eat and drink unworthily, is guilty of the 
death of our Lord. Wherefore, let us not proceed, as merely 

* The reasoning of Athan. is to this reasoning might be applied to all the 

effect. The resurrection of our blessed other Christian festivals. Conf. note 

Lord is to be always in our thoughts, c to Letter i. p. 3. 

From carelessness and indifference, u The word li^. as applied to 

men are apt to forget it. To stir them ' "^^^ 

up to the remembrance of it, the festival job, most likely is used to expres.. the 

of Easter IS held, which also is designed Greek dvSpe/a. Conf. Athan. Apol.'de 

to direct our minds particularly to our f^g^ sua, p. 261. §. 17. o 'I<i>^ kv Lspda 

own resurrection. 1 he due observance - The same expression is em^ 

of such festival will have its effect in , j j^ Letter iii. p. 27. 

quickening our habitual meditation on x gyr klv5woi 

the resurrection. The same mode of y g^/ ^ij^Svuos 


Conclusion. 43 

regarding the performance of the act of the feast, but as A . D. 338. 
being about to approach the divine Lamb, and to touch 
heavenly food. Let us cleanse our hands ; let us purify 
the body. Let us keep our whole spirit from guile; not 
giving up ourselves to excess, and to lusts, but occupying 
ourselves entirely with our Lord, and with divine doctrines ; 
so that, being altogether pure, we may be able to partake of 
the Word^ 

We begin the holy fast on the fourteenth of Pharmuthi 
(Apr. 9.), on the evening of the Sabbath; and having ceased 
on the nineteenth of the same month Pharmuthi (Apr, 14.), 
the first day of the holy week dawns upon us on the tw^en- 
tieth of the same month Pharmuthi (Apr. 15.), to which we 
join the seven weeks of Pentecost; with prayers, and dis- 
tribution towards our neighbour, and love towards one 
another, and, which is above all, a conciliatory disposition. 
For in this manner also shall we be heirs of the kingdom 
of heaven, through our Lord Jesus Christ, through Whom 
to the Father be glory and dominion for ever and ever. 

All the brethren who are with me salute you. Salute 
one another with a holy kiss. 

Here endeth the fifth Festal Letter of holy Athanasius. 

^ Conf. 2 Pet. i. 4. 'iua — yiurjijOe iu K6crix(^ iv iindvixlq, (pdopas. 
deias Kuivoivol (pvaews, aTro(pvy6uT^s ttjs 


A.D. 334. Easter-daij, XII. Pharmuthi; VII. Id. April: XVII. Moo7i; 
S? April y. ^''"^ Dioclet. 50; Coss. Optatus- Patricius, Anicius 

Paulinus; PrcEfect; Philagrius'', the Cappadocian ; VII. 


Now again, my beloved, has God also brought us to the 
season of the feast, and through His loving-kindness we have 
reached the period of assembly for it. For that God who 
brought Israel out of Egypt, even He also at this time calls 
Deut. 16, us to the feast, saying by Moses, Observe the month of new 
^- fruits'^, and keep the Passover to the Lord thy God: and by 

Nahum ], the prophet. Keep thy feasts, O Judah ; pay to the Lord thy 
^^' '^ows. If then God Himself loves the feast, and calls us to 

it, it is not right, my brethren, that it should be delayed, or 
observed carelessly; but that with alacrity and zeal we 
should come to it; so that, having begun joyfully here, we 
may also receive an earnest'^ of that heavenly feast. For if 
we diligently keep the feast which is celebrated here, doubt- 
less we shall receive the perfect joy which is in heaven ; as 
Luke^22, the Lord says ; With desire I have desired to eat this Passover 
tvith you before I suffer. For I say unto you, that I will not 

- There appears to be an error d gyr. 'A^^a^Sd-v, i. e. ' the Holy 

in the Syriac text: we must Spirit.' Vid. note to Letter xiv. in voc! 

read J»a4{42)0(j in place of Also eonf.S. Cyril. Horn. Pasch. I. 

^fflOZlaol) ^"^ ^"' W^Q^"" 5e wairep tj/ulTu rrjs 

bTr- r»uM* • , H-^/^^ovo-ris iXniSosThirued/jLaxapiC^Tai, 

ihisFhilagnus was a violent per- Aeycoi/- Ac^/Sere Tri/eC^a ciyiou. The 

seeutor of the Church, taking part with Easter festival is called 'H iopri) nap' 

the A nans. He was an apostate ijs r^s 6.9avaaias d^^a^.u ixnviZa. 

(7rapa^aT7?s) from tne true faith. Conf. Euseb. Vita Const. lib. iii:$.J8. Again 

fnf ; 9^7"' ^. f,°"^^hos p. 276. §. 9. in the imperial letter of Constanfine 

and p. 277. §. 12 An elegant com- sent to the Churches after the Council 

parison between Athan. and Philagrius of Nice, as found in Socrates lib i 

IS however drawn out by Greg. N azi- c. 1 0. we read rV rod Udaxa ay\cordrr,u 

The ' Passover of the Jews explained. 45 

eat it, until it is fiilfiUed ivith you in the kingdom of God. A. P. 334. 
Now we eat it when, having entertained in our minds the 
occasion of the feast, and acknowledging the Deliverer, we 
are properly attracted to His grace, as Paul saith; So that i Cor. 5,8. 
we may keep the feast, not with old leaven, neither with the 
leaven of tvickedness; but with the unleavened bread of 
sincerity and truth. For the Lord died in those days, that 
we should no longer do the deeds of death. He gave His 
life, that we might preserve our own from the snares of the 
devi^. And, what is most wonderful, the Word became 
incarnate, that we should no longer live in the flesh, but in 
spirit should worship God, who is a Spirit ^ 

He who is not so disposed, though employing the days, 
does not keep the feast, but, like an unthankful person, finds 
fault with the grace ; and though he may esteem the days 
before others, he does not supplicate the Lord who in those 
days redeemed him. Let him by all means hear, though 
fancying that he keeps the feast, the Apostolic voice re- 
proving him; Ye observe days, and months, and times, and G^i 4, lo, 
years: I fear lest I have laboured among you in vain. For ^^' 
the feast is not on account of the days ; but we observe it, 
because in them the Lord suffered in our stead, for our i Cor. 6, 7. 
Passover, Christ, is sacrificed. Even as Moses, when teach- 
ing Israel not to consider the feast as pertaiuing to the days, 
but to the Lord, said. It is the Lord's Passover. To the Exod. 12, 
Jews forsooth when they thought they celebrated the Pass- **' 
over, because they persecuted the Lord, the feast was useless ; 
since it no longer bore the name of the Lord, even according 
to their own testimony. It was not the Passover of the 
Lord, but that of the Jews p. The Passover was named after 

e For 1 tr^^^l leg. 1 f r^^^^l? ^''^«'"''" ''"^ ^^ ^'TX^J "^^ -naaxa- M^? t^ot^ 

1 Conf Kom. v,n 9- 13. ^ ^^^^ ^ohK-r^aiv t^s ypacp?,s im- 

8 Conf. John vi.4. 'Ana the pass- 'v ' , . \ ,., n- s. 

over,a/.«.Y of the Jews, was nigh.' Y>ov.r.u avr6. rh 5e r. 0e.o., rb 

Other fathers take the same view of ^^^^^\ Y''"^"^' ' "^ ^ '"71T 

this, and similar expressions. (John M^^^" ^^^ -"^^ ^'7^' ""' . '^ « ' 

ii. 13. andxi.55.) Origenis Comment. i^pocxKvuovuru^u rhp O.^hv k. r. K. He 

inloannem, turn. x. § U. p. 172. ed. also refers to the pas.a^^e m Lxodus. 

1759. TV ToC <ro<pon6.rov ^lo>dvpov Conf. also Iheophylact ,n loannem. 

4l.T6.Cu>ukKpi^..auKaT^i^avThvK-hrovu Comment, torn. ,. p. o81. Lcl. l/o4. 

•lovSaiW- iro.'o. yap &\\ov ^dvovs 4<rr\u «^ 7^P rov Xpicrrov i^v .oprr,. 
fopri) rh irda-xa] Si6n€p aUrapKiS ^v 

46 The connexion between praise and thanksgiving. 

Letter the Jews, my brethren, because they denied the Lord of the 
— Passover. On this account, the Lord, turning away His 

Is. 1, 14. face from such a doctrine of theirs, saith. Your new moons 
and your sabbaths My soul hateth. So now, those who keep 
the Passover in like manner, the Lord again reproves, as He 
did those lepers who were cleansed, when He loved the one 
as thankful, but was angry with the others as ungrateful, 
because they did not acknowledge their Deliverer, but pre- 
ferred the cure of the leprosy to Him Who had healed them. 
Luke 17, But one of them when he saw that he tvas healed, turned back, 
^' ^* and with a loud voice glorified God, and fell on his face at the 
feet of Jesus giving Him thanks ; and he was a Samaritan. 
And Jesus answering said. Were there not ten cleansed 'i but 
those nine — whence are there none found who returned to give 
glory to God, but this stranger"^? And there was more given 
to this one than to the rest; for being cleansed from his 
Luke 17, leprosy, he heard from the Lord, Arise, go thy way; thy 
' * faith hath saved thee. For he who giveth thanks, and he 

who glorifies, have kindred feelings, in that they bless their 
Helper for the benefits they have received. So the Apostle 
I Cor. 6, exhorts all men to this, saying, Glorify God with your body; 
Is 42 12 ^^^ ^^ prophet commands, saying, Give glory to God\ 
Matt. 26, Although testimony was borne by Caiaphas against our 
Redeemer, and He was set at nought by the Jews, and was 
condemned by Pilate in those days, yet very exalted and 
most mighty was the voice of the Father which came to 
John 12, Him; I have glorified, and will glorify again. For those 
things which He suffered on our account have passed away; 
but those concerning Him as our Saviour remain for ever''. 

h The Syriac would seem to remove Ps. 1. 23. Whoso ofFereth praise glo- 
the note of interrogation from ttoD, and rifieth Me. Suicer in voc. 'Oixo\oye7u 
to give the meaning ' how is it that says, 'OixoXoyelv significat laudare^ 
those nine did not return to give glory celebrare, glorijicare^ gratias agere ; 
to God, v^rhile this stranger did ?' €t /x^ idque — per synecdochen generis He- 
is thus to be taken as in Luke iv. braicam : nam qui aliquem celebrant, 
26. et jU')/ ets 2<£pe7rTa. illi confiteutur, vel potius prolitentur 

1 Conf. Athan. Expos, in Psalraos. res prseclare ab eo gestas, vel beneficia 

(Ps. Ixvii. 35.) AJre h6^av rd) 0e^ — ab eo accepta. 

oiira) Koi nav\os' So^dcraTe, (pT](Ti, rhv ^ Christ, while on earth, suffered as 

@ihv iu T^ crio/xari v/xcov, Koi iu rq} man, but was glorified as God, the 

iri/ev/iiaTL vfxwv. The ideas of '■praising' Father bearing testimony of Him. 

or 'glorifying,' and 'giving thanks,' His sufferings for us have ceased, but 

are closely connected, and are some- the glory of them shall endure eternally, 

times expressed by the same word, e. g. Conf. Phil. ii. 7 — 1 1 . 
Heb. niin Gr. 'OjxoXoyeiv. Conf. 


The extent of the benefits of Christ's death. 47 

On this account, my brethren, when we remember these A. D. 334. 
things, let us not be occupied with meats, but let us glorify 
the Lord; let us become fools for Him Who died for us, 
even as Paul said ; For if we are foolish, it is to God ; or if "2. Cor. 5, 
tve are soher-minded, it is to you; since because one died for 
all men, therefore all were dead to Him ; and lie died for all, 
that we who live should not henceforth live to ourselves, but to 
Him Who died for us, and rose again. No longer then ought 
we to live to ourselves, but, as servants, to the Lord. And 
not in vain should we receive the grace, as the time is 2 Cor. G, 
especially an acceptable one, and the day of salvation hath 
dawned, even the death of our Redeemer'. For even for 
our sakes the Word came down, and being incorruptible, 
put on a corruptible body for the salvation of all of us. On 
this subject Paul speaks plainly™, saying. This corruptible i Cor. 15, 
must put on incorruption. The Lord too was sacrificed, that 
by His blood He might abolish death. Full well did He 
once, in a certain place, blame those who participated vainly 
in the shedding of His blood, while they did not delight 
themselves in the flesh of the Word, saying. What profit is Ps. 30, 9. 
there in My blood, that I go down to corruption? This does 
not mean that the descent of the Lord was of no advantage ; 
for it gained the wdiole world; but rather that after He had 
thus suffered, sinners would prefer to be without it, to pro- 
fiting by it. For He regarded our salvation as a delight 
and a peculiar gain ; while, on the contrary. He looked upon 
our destruction as loss. Also in the Gospel, He praises 
those who increased the grace twofold, both him who made 
ten talents of five, and him who made four talents of two, 
as those who had profited, and turned thom to good account; 
but him who hid the talent He cast out as wanting, saying 
to him. Thou icicked servant! oughtest thou not to have put Matt. -Jfj, 
my money into the bank ? then on my return, I should have 
received mine oivn with interest. Take, therefore, from him 
the talent, and give it to him that hath ten talents. For to 
every one that hath shall be given, and he shall have more 
abundantly ; but from him that hath not, shall be taken away 

' Conf. S. Cyril. Horn. Pasch. xxiv. Kaiphs evnp6<r5fKT09, iSov vv¥ riii-fpa 
sub init. avtVxf yo-p TfA''*' tjjs rov 2w- (TWTrjplas. 
TTJpos T)fJLU}v eopTTjs 6 Kaip6s — ISov viiu *" ira^^rjaia Syr. 

48 The termination of the Jeivish polity foretold. 

Letter even that ivhich he hath. And cast ye the unprqfitahle servant 

'- — into outer darkness, where there is weeping and gnashing of 

teeth. For it is not His will that the grace we have received 
should be unprofitable; but He requires us, as a duty, to 
Gal. 5, 22. render Him of His fruits, as the blessed Paul saith; The 
fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, and peace. 

Therefore, being right-minded, and owing no man any 
thing, but rather giving every thing to every man, he was 
Rom. 13, 7. a teacher of the like propriety of purpose, saying, Render 
to all their dues. He was like those sent by the house- 
Matt 21, holder to receive the fruits of the vineyard from the hus- 
bandmen; for he also exhorted all men to render a return"; 
but Israel despised, and rendered not. Their inclinations 
were not good ; nay, moreover, they killed those that were 
sent ; so that there was no reverence shewn the Lord of 
the vineyard «, but He was even slain by them. Notwith- 
standing, when He came and found no fruit in them, He 
Matt. 21, cursed them through the iig-tree, saying, Let there he 
henceforth no fruit from thee; and the fig-tree died fruitless, 
so that even the disciples wondered when it withered away. 
Then was fulfilled that which was also spoken by the pro- 
Jer.25,10. phet ; / ivill take aivay from them the voice of joy and the 
voice of gladness, the voice of the hridegroom and the voice of 
the hride, the scent of myrrh, and the light of a lamp, and the 
whole land shall he destroyed. For the whole service of the 
law has been removed from them, and henceforth and for 
ever they remain without a feast. And they observe not 
the Passover; for how can they? They have no abiding 
place, but they wander every where. And they eat unlea- 

» The comparison here made, as anee of their Christian duties. The 

well as the order of the words in the same word is employed before in this 

feynac text, requires the translation letter; 'The apostle ewhorts all men 

here given. Larsow renders the to this ' n 59lom l\^ 1<n • *i 

passage, 'he was studious to render ^^ ^'^'«' P' ^2. fOOl .^SLmS^D is the 

a return to all men.' But though ^^P^ession in p. 4. where we read 

loo. ^son,i„..ta..tb.sig„i. -ti^z:s:L^r:: '^t iz 

hcation, ,t woulJ nol smt here. Those quoting the verse of Scripture ' Ee" 

horted X^';" „";."1° '■■""'-'i"- - -i- to all their dues, &c.' tLre follows; 

^in^ereVo^-pitiro-n-r :z 41:7^5-" -^*-- ^'' 

world, exhorted all men to a perform- „ -^^ a , J 

^ " For AOCTL] leg. Zc7l£iJ. 

The cursing of the barren fig-tree. 40 

vened bread without fulfilling the law, since they are unable A.D. 33 4. 
first to sacrifice the lamb, as they were commanded to do 
when eating unleavened bread. But in every place they 
transgress the law, and judgments are inflicted on them by 
God; so that they introduce days of grief and not of glad- 
ness. Now the cause of this to them was their slaying of 
the Lord, and their not reverencing the Only-Begotten. At 
this time also, the altogether wicked heretics and ignorant 
schismatics are in the same case; tbt? one, in that they slay 
the Word; the other, in that they rend the coati'. They 
also remain expelled from the feast, because they live with- 
out godliness and knowledge, and emulate the cond-uct 
shewn in the matter of Bar Abbas the robber, whom the 
Jews desired instead of the Saviour. Therefore the Lord 
cursed them under the figure of the fig-tree "'. Matt. 21, 

Yet also even thus He spared them in His loving-kindness, ^-^^'^^^ jj 
not destroying them, root and all. For He did not curse 14. 
the root, but [said], that no man should eat fruit of it thence- 
forth. When He did this, He brought the shadow to nought, 
causing it to wither ; but preserving the root, so that we 
might [not]' be grafted upon it; fheg too, if t keg remain not Hom. II, 
in unbelief, mag attain to be grafted into their own olive 
tree. When therefore the Lord had cursed these because of 
their negligence % He removed from them ihe new moons, 
the true lamb, and that which is truly the Passover. But 
to us it came: there came too the solemn day, in which 
it is incumbent upon us to call to the feast' with a 
trumpet^, and separate ourselves to the Lord with thanks- 

P Syr. x'ToJj'. Conf. note t() Letter v. " The similarity between the Syriac 

p. 47. words IZqIaIDOISD C carelessness,' 

1 Larsow states, erroneously, that , ,. , ,*i7^.f-. :..*• -.i-v 

there is a hiatus in the text here. It ' negligence ) an 1 (ZQJSD^OTC fa'th ) 

is, however, tontinuous as he gives it. might lead us to su'^pect an error in 

Only a portion of the Syriac text was ji,g gyr^ ]\I^. tjje context seeming to 

printed at first. Afterwards, more require ' unbelief rather than ' negli- 

leaves of the work were brought, along gence' here. 

with other AIss. from Eg^^t, and im- , ,^^ ^ V ^^ ^^ ^ 

mediately recognised by Mr. Cureton. ^ •» l 

The whole icas then published together, mistake for pjiJik. 

reference being made in the first part, ' , ; . , « a c r,.,\\ 

when any hiatus was to be supplied ^ " ^°"tS F h; 'p.tT vol v ^9' 

from the second. ' ("""J- ^-^^ *f *'! ^^.^^^-'h^vol. v pt. 2. 

r The negative (which is here placed P- «;•) '^aX"^' 7"" '^P"" "^^^^ ^KKX7,<r.« 

within brackets) is found in ihe Syriac k*»'W^»' (raX^r.-y^a k. r K. hK\..d 

text; but f hare litfe doubt that it is '" this part ol his I a.chal d j,- 

course, Cyril appears to have had in imnd 

Ps 35, 9. 

50 The instruction conveyed by the sacrifice of Isaac. 

Letter giving, considering it as our own festival^. For we are 

'- — bound to celebrate it, not to ourselves, but to the Lord ; 

and to rejoice, not in ourselves, but in the Lord, Who bore 

Matt. 20, Q^j, afflictions, and said, My soul is sorrowful unto death. For 
the heathen, and all those men who are destitute of our faith, 
keep feasts according to their own wills', and have no peace, 
since they sin against God. But the saints, as those who 
hve to the Lord, also keep the feast to Him, saying, I will 
rejoice in Thy salvation, and, 7ny soul shall he joyful in the 

Ps. 33, I. Lord. The commandment also is common to them. Rejoice, 
ye righteous, in the Lord — so that they also may be gathered 

Prf. 95, 1 . together, to sing that common and festal Psalm, Come, let 
us rejoice, not in ourselves, but, in the Lord^. 

For thus, the patriarch Abraham rejoiced not to see his 
own day, but that of the Lord; and when he thus longed for 

John 8, 06. -^^ j^^ ^^^^ ^Y, ayid was glad. And when he was tried, by faith 

Heb. II, j^g sacrificed Isaac, and offered up his only-begotten son — he 
who had received the promises ^ And, in offering his son^ 
he worshipped the Son of God. And, being restrained from 
sacrificing Isaac, he saw the Messiah in the ram^ which was 

13!"' ' offered up instead as a sacrifice to God. The patriarch was 
tried then, through Isaac ; not however that he was sacrificed, 

^'- ^^'' ''■ but He who was pointed out in Isaiah; Be shall be led as a 
lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers he 
shall be speechless; but He took away the sin of the world. 

especially the tirst Letter of this series, of this verse is worthy of note The 
In both, allusion is made to Eccles. original Greek is koL rhu f^ouoyeuri 
chap n,. where it is stated that there 7rpoa-e>ep.;. 6 rhs i^ayyeAlas hvalu- 

S;l ?'m ^""""^M 'f' the command /.^ros. The printed text of the Peshito 

given to Moses, Numb. x. 1. is quoted .jop . -x p %% -^ y 

in both; and the figure of the Christian is ^l^-^kOSOS jOOl ^\s,OJ 001 

trumpet is also contained equally in , ,,^, 

both. Whom (1, e. Isaac) he had received 

"" The Passover is no longer to be a ^^ ^ promise.' The Syriac here is 
feast of the Jews : it is to be celebrated 

by Christians as a festival of the Lord. '"'"■^ ^^^""^ ^^ *^^ ^'"eet, OCT 

Vid. page 45 and note g. 1-.._ W ^ _ 1 \-. K 

y See note to Letter ii. p. 18. where '°^ ^^^^^ tia^OV )\> * He 

add that Jeroboam is called (Txia-fMaTo- 0- e. Abraham) who had received the 

TToios by Athan.: Synopsis Sac. Script, promises.' 

P- ^35. b The Syriac, here rendered by 

" Conf. Athan. Expos, in Psalmos ' ram,' is Vj'A though we might have 

(Ps. xciv. 1.) Aeure, ayaWiaa-dofieea 1 & & '^ 

T<S Kvpicp—a>s inl koprT]u iKQelv rovs expected f JOJ. It is the same word 

aTreieels Trapa/ceAeiioj/rai, ets ay aKKiaciv that is used directly after, in the 

o.vTovsKaXov,T,s. quotation from Isaiah, and rendered 

2 1 he latter part of the translation ' lamb.' 

Difference between the sacrifice of Christ, and that of Isaac. 51 

And ou this account [Abraham] was restrained from Uiying A.D. 3H4. 
his hand on the kd, lest the Jews, taking occasion from the 
sacrifice of Isaac, should reject the prophetic declarations 
concerning our Saviour, even all of them; but more espe- 
cially those uttered by the Psalmist; Sacrifice and offering Ps. 40, 6. 
Thoa wouldest not; a J)ody Thou hast prepared Me; and 
should refer all such things as these to the son of Abraham. 
For the sacrifice was not properly the establishment' of 
Isaac, but of Abraham who also offered, and by that he was 
tried. Thus God accepted the will of the ofi'erer, but 
prevented that which was oftered from being sacrificed. 
For the death of Isaac did not procure freedom to the world, 
but that of our Saviour alone, by whose stripes we all are Is. 53, 5. 
healed. For He raised up the falling, healed the sick, 
satisfied those wdio were hungry, and filled the poor ; and, 
what is more wonderful, raised us all from the dead : having 
abolished death. He hath brought us from afiliction and 
sighing to the rest and gladness of this feast, a joy which 
reacheth even to heaven. 

For not we alone are affected by this, but because of it, 
even the heavens rejoice with us, and the whole church Hch. 12, 
together of the first-born, written in heaven, is made glad, 
as the prophet proclaims, saying, Rejoice, ye heavens, for the Is- 44, 23. 
Lord hath comforted Israel. Shout, ye foundations of the 
earth. Cry out with joy, ye mountains, ye high places, and 
all the trees ivhich are in them, because the Lord hath re- 
deemed Jacob, and Israel hath been glorified. And a; 


c I use the word ' establishment' for hs koX irpoacp^put^ ^J/. S. Cyril, in his 

want of one that would better express fifth Paschal discourse, treats the sub- 

T,, ^ ■„:, \ ;rt7 jeer of ti;e sacntice of Isaac at length. 

the meaning. The .^ynac i> \^yOl J^^^^g.^^^ ,>^ 1^,'^^, ^, r^ M ^^ 

which is the rendering of the Greek 'i^aaK hoO^laav vtt6(tx^(^\^ aTroir\rjpov. 

Si6pea}(Ti5 in Heb. ix. 10, /uf'xpi Katpov ^-Qai irapa &eod, el nv Sia rov oravpov 

SiopOucrews. The sacrifice of Isaac tqQ Xpicrrov ttc/xttoi/tos tV evKoyiav 

was not only to serve as a type of the ^,^1 rravTa to. I'Ovtj, aifayKaius QeKr^aas 

deiith of Christ; but the particular i-^^Zf-^^al 0ebs, 0(Tr]v avr^ Ka.\ ttt)\'ikii)v 

circumstances attending it, were de- ^Trovefxei tj]u x^P'*'. "^^^P "^^^ '^"^ crirep- 

signed for the instruction of Abraham, ^^aTos avrou awrr^pias, eavdrcp irapaSi- 

and his establishment in the Christian g^j^^ ^^^ tdiouvlhu, (piial irphs avrhu, Kal 

faith. Conf. Theophylact on the pas- ^,^^ ifi^pai^TiKunara' \d8e rhu vl6u <tov. 

sage in Heb. — ^xpt ttjs rov XpiaTou ^^^^ ^.j^^j^ explains the ditVerent parts of 

vapovaias, rod iJ.e\>^ovTos Siwp6ui(Ta(Tdai ^^^ history in order, shewing h<>w tiiey 

ravTa,Kal T7]v aK-rjOiu^v KalnvtvixaTLKliv ^.^.^^ desigiit-d for the insi ruction ol 

Kaipeiau iiTfiaayayeiy. The origiiiiil Abraham in the first place, and through 

Greek was probably oi) yap -i] biSpdwais i,i,n^ for the instruction of all the 

Tov 'lo-aoK -fivv 6uTia,iL\\arov'\^paa^i, faithful. 

E -2 

52 The Church in heaven keeps festival tvith the Church on earth. 

Letter Rejoice, and he glad, ye heave^is; let the hills melt into glad- 
Is7i97l37 '^^**» f^^ ^^^^ Lord hath had mercy on His people, and com- 
forted the oppressed of the people. The whole creation keeps 
Ps. 150, 6. a feast, my brethren, and every thing that hath breath 
praises the Lord, as the Psalmist [says], both on account of 
the destruction of the enemies, and our salvation. And very 
L.ike 15,7. right is it; for if there is joy in heaven over one sinner that 
repenteth, what should there not be over the abolition of 
sin, and the resurrection of the dead? Or what kind of a 
feast and gladness must there be in heaven ; how must all its 
hosts joy and exult, as they rejoice and watch in our assem- 
blies, both those held from time to time, and especially those 
at Easter ? For they look on sinners while they repent ; on 
those who have turned away their faces, when they become 
converted; on those who formerly persisted in lusts and 
excess, but who now humble themselves by fastings and 
temperance ; and, finally, on the enemy who lies weakened, 
no longer possessed of hfe, being bound hand and foot, so 

1 Cor. 1 

that we may mock at him ; Where is thy victory, O Death ? 
where is thy sting, O Grave^? Let us then sing unto the 
Lord a victorious song of praise. 

Who then will conduct us to such a company of angels as 
this ? Who, coming with a desire for the heavenly feast, 

Ps. 42,4. and tlie angelic holiday, will say like the prophet, / will 
pass to the place of the tvondrous tabernacle, unto the house 
of God; with the voice of joy and praise, with the shouting 
of those ivho keep festival? To such a state, the saints « also 

Is. 2, 3. encourage us, saying. Come, let us go up to the mountain of 
the Lord, and to the house of the God of Jacob. But such a 
feast as this is not for an impure person, neither is the 
approach to it for sinners; but it is for the virtuous and 
diligent; and such as have the same end in view as the 

Ps. 24, 3. saints ; for. Who shall ascend to the hill of the Lord? or who 
shall stand in His holy place, but he that hath clean hands, 
and a pure heart; who hath not devoted his soul to vanity, nor 

d Conf. Athan. de Incarn. Verbi rvpovur.s tc5 XpiarS vAemTo^re. rhv 

ros Kul arr,Xrr.vee.ros 6nh rov ^crvpos ^..coO.u Kar' ahrov y.ypa^^dua Xiyourls 

/.al Ta9 WSas, Tra^res ol eV XpitrroJ hia- rh K€urpov • 

^aipour.s avrhu Karairarodcn, Ka\ f,ap. e yjd. note k, to Letter v. p. 39. 

The examples of Moses, David, and Daniel 53 

sworn deceitfully to his neighbour. For he, as the Psalmist A,D^334. 
adds, when he goes up, shall receive a blessing from the 
Lord. Now this clearly also refers to what the Lord gives 
to them at the right hand, saying. Come, ije blessed, inherit ^^-^t.^o, 
the kingdom prepared for you. But the deceitful, and he 
that is not pure of heart, and possesses nothing that is pure, 
(as the Proverb saith, To a deceitful man there is nothing Prov. 13, 
good,) shall assuredly, being a stranger, and of a different ^• 
race from the saints, be accounted unworthy to eat the 
Passover, for a foreigner shall not eat of it. Thus Judas ^^-a. 12, 
when he thought he kept the Passover, because he plotted 
deceit against the Saviour, was estranged from the city 
which is above, and from the apostolic company. For the 
law commanded the Passover to be eaten with due ob- 
servance; but he, while eating it, was sifted of the deviK, 
who had entered his soul. 

Wherefore let us not be affected as those who keep the 
feast on earth, but as celebrating it in heaven witli the 
ancrels. Let us glorify the Lord, by temperance, by righ- 
teousness, and those other virtues. And let us rejoice, not 
in ourselves, but in the Lord, that sve also may be inheritors 
with the saints. Let us keep the feast then, as Moses. Let 
us watch like David, who rose seven times, and m the 
middle of the night gave thanks for the righteous judgments 
of God. Let us be early, as he said. In the morning I will ^- ^. •^• 
stand before Thee, and Thou wilt look upon me: in the morn- 
ing Thou tvilt hear my voice. Let us fast hke Daniel; let 
us pray without ceasing, as Paul commanded; all of us re- 
coo-nisiug the season of prayer, but especially those who 
are" honourably married; so that when a testimony is borne« 
to us by these things, and we keep the feast ^^ by them, we 
may be able to enter into the joy of our Lord m the 
kingdom of heaven \ But as Israel, wlven gomg up to 
Jerusalem, was first purified in the wilderness, being trained 
to forget the customs of Egypt; as the [divine] word has 

. r. f T 1 ^^;; -^1 ^ A line or two is preserved here in 

f Conf. Luke xxn. 31 ^^^ A ^,^^^ ^^^^^ in" Cosmas Tndico- 

g _ji>aiACDf and ^Ar^ are mis- .^^^^^3. ^aJ oDtws eopTao-aj/res Suvnew- 

respectively, a. remarked »>) Mr. ^.^J^ .^^^^^ 
Cureton in the preface. 

54 The Lenten fast a preparatory purification. 

Letter graciously prescribed^ to us the holy fast of forty days; let 

'- — us first be purified and pu^ged^ so that when we depart hence, 

having been careful of fasting, we may be able to ascend to 
the upper chamber i with the Lord, to sup with Him; and 
may be partakers of the joy which is in heaven. In no 
other manner shall we be able to go up to Jerusalem, and to 
eat the Passover, but as we apply ourselves to the fast of 
forty days. 

We begin the fast of forty days on the first day of the 
month Phamenoth (Feb. 2b.) ; and having prolonged it till the 
fifth of Pharmuthi (Mar. 31.), suspending it upon the previous 
first days of the week, and the Saturdays "% then we begin 
again on the holy days of Easter, on the sixth of Phar- 
muthi (Apr. 1.), and cease on the eleventh of the same 
month (Apr. 6.), late in the evening" of the Saturday, 
immediately after which there rises upon us the first day 
of the holy week, on the twelfth of Pharmuthi (Apr. 7.), 
which extends its beams, with unobscured grace, to all 
the seven weeks of the holy Pentecost. Resting on that 
day, we shall have fulfilled, through all the season, the feast 
of Easter, by Jesus Christ our Lord, through Whom, to the 
Father, be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen. 

All the brethren who are with me salute you. Salute 
one another with a holy kiss. 

Here endeth the sixth Festal Letter of the holy and 
God-clad " Athanasius. 

'^Syr. rv^6cc. Vid. note to Letter v. courses. The Lenten fast was usually 

1^ arpo-o.v^ Ma-,;or,^ 1 c , terminated shortly before midnight, on 

LententastasKa0ap<rr.7rpoe^pr.os vol.1, ^e'^a, in the epistle of the Church of 

' Co'nt iuke ;i^ "■'^ ^'- ' ^^^' ^"^y^"^"' ^^ "^^•^■^'«" «f ^he martyrdom 

n. Th ^t / ^.'o . Of Polycarp.(Vid. Euseb. H.E. lib iv. 

-rhe Saturdays and Sundays during cap. 15.) Dionysius, bishop of Alex 

Lent were not observed as fasts, with andria, the successor of S Vark re 

ry''rCb;of^'^n''T''^^^^" proves' those who cea.^' from'^ting 

jejun.tur diebus. vd i. p. 545 ^34 ^--«>^---^/«^ -P\ ---c-b^ iyyhs ^8v 

ed. Par. 1086-90 ff^<rov(rvs avi^uras, i>s oXiydopovs koX 

i^ i«. 1 . aKpareis ^e^0o>e0a. Dionys. op. fol. 

" The Syr. ^OaIQ^ jAiD'p^ Kom. 1696, p. 108. vid. also Greg. 

|Aai*J is doubtless translated from ^'>f.^^"- f^o"^ oration on the Kesur- 

words several times used by S. Cyril o e.^tt,, 
towards the end of his paschal Ais- ^'''^<^?'->^- 


Easter-day IV. Pharmuthi ; III. Kal Jjiril; XX. Moon; A.p^sso^ 
jEr. Dioclet. 51; Coss. Julius Constantius, the brother of ^'^^^^J^^^^'^ 
Augustus, Rufinus Alhinus; Prccfect, the same Philagrius; so. 
Vill. Indict. 

^TnE blessed Paul wrote to the Corinthians that he always 2Cor.4,io. 
bore in his body the death of Jesus; not as though he alone 
should make that boast, but also they and we too ; and in 
this let us be followers of him, my brethren. And let this be 
the customary boast of all of us at all times. In this also 
David participated, saying in the Psalms, For thy sake we P^.44,22. 
die all the day; we are accounted as sheep for the slaughter. 
Now this is becoming in us, especially in the days of the 
feast, when a commemoration of the death of our Saviour is 
held. For he who is made like Him in His death, is also care- 
ful in the practice of virtue, having mortified his members Col. 3, 5. 
which are upon the earth, and crucifying the flesh with the 
affections and lusts : but he lives in the Spirit, and is con- Gal. 5, 25. 
formed to the Spirit. He is always mindful of God, and 
forgets Him not, and never does the deeds of death. On 
this account, in order that we may bear in our body the 
death of Jesus, he immediately adds, when describing 
such fellowship, zve having the same spirit of faith, as it 2Cor.i,u. 
is written, I believed, and therefore have I spoken; ive also 
believe, and therefore speak. He adds also, speaking of the 
grace that arises from knowledge; For He that raised'2Cnr.4,}4. 

• The twentieth Letter, as far as it is tions are adduced in them, to illustrate 

extant, bears a great resemblance with the character of sinners an.l their lood 

this In both, the comparison between as contrasted with the righteous and 

natural and spiritual rood is enlarged the nourishment they derive from 

upon, and several of the same quota- God. 

50 The present condition, and the future misery, of the wicked, 

LETTER up Jesus, will also raise us up with Jesus\ and will present us 

before Him with you. 

When, by such faith and knowledge, the saints have 
attained to this true life, they also receive, doubtless, the 
joy wliich is in heaven; for which the wicked not caiino-, 
Is 26 ''''' ^^eservedly deprived of the blessedness arising from it' 
(LXX.^^* ^°''' ^^^ ^^'^ wicked he taken away, so that he shall not see 
ver..) the glory of the Lord. For although, when they shall hear 
Ep^.5,H. the universal publication of the promise, Aioake, thou that 
steepest, and arise from the dead, they shall rise and shall 
Mat.25,i].reach even to heaven, knocking and saying. Open to us- 
nevertheless the Lord will reprove them, as those who put 
Lote 13, the knowledge of Himself far from them, saying, / know you 
P.. 9, 17. '^ot. But the holy Spirit cries against them. The wicked 
shall he turned into hell, even all the nations that forget God. 
They indeed humble themselves, (we may say of the wicked,) 
but not by a discipline opposed to sin; for they do not, like 
the saints, bear death in their body. They rather bury the 
. soul m sms and follies, drawing near to the dead, and sati- 
fymg It with dead nourishment; like^ young eagles which 
T n *'';;"V'f' i'^^'^^^' % ^P^^^ the carcases of the dead, and 
^-v.ii, which the law prohibited, commanding figuratively. Thou 
Shalt not eat the eagle, nor any other bird that feedeth on a 
dead carcase; and it pronounced unclean whatsoever eateth 

I. 2. 13 !i ""\ ^? "^^'^ ^'^^ '^'^ -"^ -ith lusts, and say 
^- ->13. thing but let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we die. 

Is 22 14 " v" ^;^^;^^^'^^^ '^^'^ ^^^-' -^^o thus love pleasure, he 
13.22, 14. nnmediately describes, adding, And tke.e things are revealed 
'm the ears of the Lord of Hosts, that this srn shall not be 
forgiven you until ye die. Yea, even while they live, they 
shall be ashamed, because they consider their belly their 
Lord; and, when dead, they shall be tormented, as those 

iCor G 13 p 1 r' " ' ^'"' '^' ""^^ ^ '''''^'' ^^^ ^l-« -ff-t also 
•M.. Paul bears witness, saying. Meats for the belly ^ and the belly 

IN 24 21 ^;;^^''''^''^' ^f ^^-f d^^troy both U and them. And the 
ls.24,2l.divine saymg declared before respecting them; The death 

with which the PesL-to version aXi roi^Eph";: T'"" '^ '"" "'^^'^^• 
\^(^. ,^. Sorre Ms., however^ ^ For U^iiD^ ,,„. Zok)^. 

contrasted with the state of the good here and hereafter. 57 

of s'mners is evil, and those who hate the righteous commit A. D 335 , 
sin. For bitter is the worm, and grievous the darkness, 
which wicked men inherit. But the saints, and the real 
followers of virtue, mortify their members tvhich are ujwn Cu\.3, a. 
the earth, fornication, uncleanness, ivicked imssio7is, evil con- 
cupiscence; and, as the result of this, are pure and without 
spot, confiding in the promise of our Saviour, who said. 
Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God. ^^'^^^^-^j^- 
These, having become dead to the world, and renounced the 
merchandise of the world, meet with an honourable death 
such as this; for, precious in the sight of the Lord is the I'^- 'Hsi';. 
death of His saints. They are also able, preserving the 
Apostolic likeness'', to say, / am crucified with Christ, never- GhI. -2, 20. 
theless I live; yet not I, hut Christ liveth in me. For that 
is the true life, which a man lives in Christ; for although 
they are dead to the world, yet they dwell, as it were, in 
heaven, meditating on those things which are above, as he 
who was a lover of such a habitation said. While ive era//c T'hil.3,20. 
on earth, our dwelling is in heaven^. 

Those, therefore, who thus live, and participate in such 
virtue, are alone able to give glory to God, which may be set 
down as the peculiar duty of a feast and a holiday ^ For 
the feast is not an indulgence in food, nor splendor''' of 
clothing, nor days of leisure, but it is an understanding 
directed to God, and the offering of thanksgiving by a song 

«> Syr. eiKwv. quoted we also find virapx^'^'^ f"^^ v-ndp 

This quotation does not quite agree x^'" 


th the reference given (Phil. iii. 20 ) ^ Conf. Letter iii. p. 23. ' What else 

The idea of walking appears to have is the feast, but the service of God ? 

been transferred by Athan. from the And what is that service, but prolonged 

preceding verses (17, 18.) to the senti- prayer to God and nnceasiug thanka- 

ment conveyed in the verse referred to. giving ? 

It is rather singular that the sentence B (pavraaia {^yr.) ruiv ItiariaiV. Cont 

found here occurs elsewhere in conjunc- 1 Tim. ii. 9. Suicer. Thess. ii. p. J 41 4. 

tion with the phrase of Scripture, and Athan. Op. t. ii. p. 406. ixia-qaov Se /cat 

that both are there assigned to the tos oluonocrias koI iroXvcpaylas — rhv 

Apostle. They are found in a treatise KaKKwirKTfibvTwvlixariuv jJicr-qaov. Lars, 

contained among those of doubtful au- The short treatise from which this is 

thenticity; ' S. Athan. in lllud, Pro- (juoted is getierally considered spurious, 

fecti in P.igiun," torn. ii. p. 57.^Koi^e 7ap and it may he doubted whether the 

ToG airoarSKov \4youros- inl Trjs yris sitnilarity between it, and the Syriac in 

wepiirarovvres, iv ovpavols rh TToK'nevp.a this plare, is sufficiently close to warrant 

^X^Mf' «a^ Vh^^v 5e ^h iru\iT(vixa iv an argumt-nt for its authenticity to be 

ovpavcf virapxfrw. There is this differ- drawn from it. The same remark may 

V A 1 apply to the short quotation from the 

ence: the Syr. ^ L\^\ answers to ^^^^ trt-ntise, given in a note in this 

^Xo/xiv, not fx'^f-'-^''- ^" ^h^ treatise L, tter, p. <J4. 

58 Sin)iers inccqmhle of observing the festival, 

Letter of praise to Himh. Now this appertains to the saints alone, 

p^^jg who live in Christ ; for it is written, The dead shall not 

17.18. ' praise Thee, O Lord, neither all those loho go down to hell; 

but we who live ivill bless the Lord, from henceforth even for 

ever. As also it was with Hezekiah, who was delivered from 

18.38, 18. death, and therefore praised God, saying. Those who are in 
hell cannot praise Thee; the dead cannot bless Thee; but the 
living shall bless Thee, as T also do. For to praise and bless 
God belongs to those only who live in Christ, and by such 
means they go up to the feast; for the Passover is not of 
the Gentiles, nor of those who are yet Jews in the ilesh ; 
but of those who acknowledge the truth in Christy accord- 
ing to the declaration of him who was sent to proclaim such 

ir:or.5, 7. a feast; Our Passover, Christ, is sacrificed. Therefore, 
although wicked men press forward to keep the feast, and, 
as at a feast^, praise God, and intrude into the Church of 
the saints, yet God expostulates, saying to the sinner, 

Ps. 50, 16. Wherefore dost thou talk of My lawsi And the gentle Spirit 

Ecclusje, rebukes them, saying. Praise is not comely in the mouth of a 
sinner^. Neither hath sin any place in common with the 
praise of God; but the sinner has a mouth speaking perverse 

Prov. 15, things, as the Proverb saith, The mouth of the wicked 
answereth evil things. For how is it possible for us to 
praise God with an im.pure mouth? since things which are 
contrary to each other cannot exist in the same person. 
For what communion is tliere of righteousness with iniquity? 
or, what fellowship is there between light and darkness? 

2 Cor 6,35. go exclaims Paul, a minister of the Gospel. 

Thus it is that sinners, and all those who are aliens from 

the Catholic Church, heretics, and schismatics, since they 

are excluded from the praise of the saints, cannot properly 

even continue observers of the feast. But the righteous 

^ man, although he appears dying to the world, uses plainness 

^ >^ 118,17. of speech-, saying, I shall not die, but live, and narrate all 
Thy marvellous deeds. For even God is not ashamed to be 
called the God" of those who truly mortify their members 

i Cofif. Letter vi. p. 46, nute i. juxta-position in the Ep. ad Episecp. 

V,(le Letter v,. p 40. note g. ^.ypti et Libyan, torn. i. p. 214: 
^ For |j|l*Dj lea. |^|Vn "' T^a-pprjaia (Syr.) xp^rai. 

^ These two tJxts' are* also quottd in " ^'""^' ^''^' ^'- ^^' 

because they seek not the true bread. 59 

wliich are upon the earth ", but live in Christ ; for He is the A.D.335. 

God of the living, not of the dead. And He, by His 

living Word, quickeneth all men, and gives Him to be food 

and life to the saintsr; as also the Lord exclaims, / am the Johiw;,-JH. 

bread of life. The Jews, being unsound in their perception, 

and having the senses of the mind unexercised to virtue, 

and not alive to seek after such bread, murmured against 

Him, because He said, / am the bread which came dow7i ^ohuG^ai. 

from heaven, and giveth life unto men. For sin has her own 

peculiar bread, [bread] of her death ; wherefore, calling to 

those who are lovers of pleasure and lack understanding, 

she saith. Touch with delight secret bread, and sweet waters Prov.9,18. 

ivhich are stolen; for he who merely touches them knows 

not that the earth-born perish with her. For even when 

the sinner looks for gratification, he finds not the result of 

its meat pleasant, as the Wisdom of God saith again. Bread ^i^^- 20, 

of deceit is j^leasant to a man; but afterwards his mouth shall 

be filled tvith gravel. And, Honey droppeth from the lips o/prov. 5, 3. 

a whorish woman, which, for a time, is sweet to thy palate; 

but at the last thou shall find it more bitter than gall, and 

sharper than a two-edged sword. Thus, then, he eats and is 

delighted for a little time; afterwards he spurneth it w^hen 

he hath removed his soul afar. For the fool knoweth not 

that those who are far from God shall perish. 

Moreover, in accordance with this, the prophetic admo- 
nition says, by way of restraint, What hast thou to do in the Jer. 2, 18. 
way oj Egypt, to drink the loaters of Gihon? And what hast 
thou to do in the way of Asshur, to drink the waters of the 
rivers? But the wisdom of God, which loves mankind, 
forbids these things, crying, But depart quickly, tarry not 
in the place, neither fix thine eye upon it; for thus thou 
shalt pass ocer strange waters, and depart quickly from the 
strange river"^. She also calls them to herself. For wisdom Prov. 9, 1. 
hath builded her house, and supported it on seven pillars; 

o Conf. Col. iii. 5. to require that Christ should be here 

P Larsow renders this passage erro- set forth as tood and life, or, the food oJ 

ntnu<5lv, as I conceive. 'Hequickens lite — 'the bread of life.' 

through His living word every one, i T his quotation is from Frov. ix. 18. 

gives to him fooc, and to the 'saintss, The words are lound in the LXX. 

life. The Syriac IS iiteiall) translated, version, though not in the original 

as given above, auil liie context seems Hebrew. 

()0 The craving of the nalural man never satisfied, 

Lettepv she hath killed her sacrifices, and minyled her wine in the 
— ■ — — gohlets, and prepared her table,- she hath sent forth her 

servants, inviting to the goblet with a loud proclamation, and 
saying, Whoso is foolish, let him turn in to me; and to 
them that lack understanding she saith. Come, eat of my 
bread, and drink of the ivine I have mingled for you. And 

Prov. 9, 6. what expectation is there in return for these things ? For- 
sake folly that ye may live, and seek understanding that ye 
may abide. For the bread of Wisdom is also living fruit, 

John G, 51. as the Lord said; / am the living bread which came down 
from heaven: if any man eat of this bread, he shall live for 
ever. For when Israel ate of the manna, which was truly 
pleasant and wonderful, lie died; and it was not the case 
that he who ate of that lived for ever, but all that multitude 

4s^V!' ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ wilderness. The Lord thus teaches, saying, / 
am the bread of life: your fathers did eat manna in the 
wilderness, and are dead. This is the bread which came 
down from heaven, that a man should eat thereof, a7id not die. 
"^ Now wicked men hunger for bread like this, for sickly 
souls will hunger; but the righteous alone, being prepared, 

Prov. \7, shall be satisfied, saying, / shall behold Thy face in righ- 
teousness; I shall be satisfied when Thy glory is seen by me. 
For he who partakes of divine bread always hungers with 
desire; and he who thus hungers has a never-failing gifts 

Prov. 10,3. as Wisdom promises, saying. The Lord will not slay the 
righteous soul with famine. It is also promised in the 

Ps. 132,15. Psalms, / will abundantly bless her provision^ ; I will satisfy 
her poor ivi h bread. We may also hear our Saviour saying, 

Matt. 5, 6. Blessed are they who hunger and thirst after righteousness, 
for they shall be filled. Well then do the saints and those 
who love the life which is in Christ raise themselves to a 
longing after such food as this. And one earnestly implores, 

•■ As men, we must always be subject to be an error. 
to desires — we mu^t /iimger and thirst. * adopts the more correct 

As Chrhtians^ we are to seek to have reading of the LXX. dr\pav in opposi- 

these desires sanctijied — we are to hun- tion to the word xvp^v ( Vulg. Viduam ). 

ger and thirst after righteousness. The He tells us, however, that both readings 

natural craving is never satiated ; the were found even in his time. Expos, in 

righteous man, on the contrary, has the Psalmos, p 9/4. Htjv Orjpai/ avTTJs euAo- 

promises of i?crij)tnre that he '• shaft l/e ywy ^vAoyfiaca — yf/dcpeTai Se koI t^v 

JUled,'' not slnijt irith famine,'^ satisfied xvpai" avrris, koa S-nXoyori rrju airpo- 

ivith Oread ^^ ikv. (TTaaiaarov. 

^ The Lomad htfoie this word appears 

wJiile the want of the true believer is supplied hy Christ. 61 

saying, As the hart j)(t,nt(ith after the fountains of waters, so A.D. 335. 

jmnteth my soul after Thee, God! My soul thirstethfor^^-^^'^- 

the living God, when shall I come and see the face of God? 

And another; My God, my God, I seek Thee early; my soul ?s. 63, i. 2. 

thirstethfor Thee; often does my flesh, in a dry and pathless 

land, and ivithout ivater. So did I appear before Thee in 

holiness to see Thy power and Thy glory. 

Since these things are so, my brethren, let us mortify our Col. 3, 5. 
members which are on the earth, and be nourished with 
living bread — by faith and love to God — knowing that with- 
out faith it is impossible to be partakers of such bread as 
this. For our Saviour, when He called all men to Him, and 
said, If any man thirst, let him [come'''] to Me and drink, John 7,37. 
immediately added the faith without which a man cannot 
receive such food; He that believeth on Me, as the Scripture John 7,38. 
saith, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living ivater. And 
further, He always nourished His believing disciples with 
His words, and gave them life by the nearness of His 
divinity; but to the Canaanitish woman, because she was 
not yet a believer. He deigned not even a reply, although 
she stood greatly in need of food from Him. He did this 
not from scorn, far from it; (for the Lord is loving to men 
and good, and on that account He went into the coasts of 
Tyre and Sidon;) but because of her unbelief, and because 
she was a profane woman, destitute of the word. And He 
did it righteously, my brethren; for it was not of advantage 
that she should prefer her supplication before faith, but 
that she should corroborate her prayer by her faith ; For he Htb. ii,g. 
that Cometh to God, must flrst believe that He is, and that He 
is a reivarder of them that seek Him; and that without faith 
it is impossible for a man to phase Him. This Paul teaches. 
Now that she was up to that time an unbeliever, one of the 
profane, He shews, saying. It is not meet to take the children s lviat.i5,2G. 
bread, and to cast it to dogs. She then, being convinced by 
the power of the word, and having changed her profane state, 
also acquired faith; for the Lord no longer treated her as a 
dog, but conversed with her as with a human being, saying, 
O ivoman, great is thy faith/ As therefore she believed. He 
forthwith granted to her the fruit of faith, and said, Be it >:at. 15,25. 

" The word j^P ought probably to l>e supplied iu the Ms. 

62 Christ the food even of arigeh* 

Letter to thee as thou deslrest. And- her dauqhter was healed in the 

'- — self-same hour 

For the righteous man, when fed by faith and knowledge, 
and performance of divine words, has his soul always in 

Rom.14,1. health. Wherefore it is commanded to receive to ourselves 
him ivho is weak in the faith ^ and to nourish him, even if he 
is not yet able to eat bread, but herbs, (/or he that is iveak 
eateth herbs.) For even the Corinthians were not able to 
partake of such bread, being yet babes, and like babes they 

Heb.5, 13. drank milk. For every one that partaketh of milk is un- 
skilful in the word of righteousness, according to the words 
of that godlike man^. The Apostle also enjoins his beloved 

1 Tim. 4, 6. son Timothy, in his first Epistle, to he nourished ivith the 

word of faith, and the good doctrine whereto he had attained^, 

2 Tim. 1, And in the second, Preserve thou the form of sound words 

which thou hast heard of me, in faith and love which are in 
Christ Jesus. And not only here, my brethren, is this bread 
the food of the righteous; neither are the saints on the 
earth alone nourished by such bread and such blood; but 
we also eat them in heaven, for the Lord is the food even of 
the exalted spirits, and the angels, and He is the joy of all 
the heavenly host^ And to all He is every thing, and He 
spareth all according to His lovingkindness. Already hath 
the Lord given us angels' food a, and He promises to those 
Lul;e 22, who Continue w\ith Him in His trials, saying, Arid I promise 
to you a kingdom, as My Father hath promised to Me; that 
ye shall eat arid drink at My table in My kingdom, and sit on 
twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. 

What kind of a banquet is it, my brethren, and how great 

^ St. Paul. 'O airo(TT6Kos n.avKos 5i- holding at all times the face of the 

^acTKaXos iduwv yevSfxeuos, Koi els to. Father, and of the Saviour Who is in 

eOvTf a-nrocTTaXels KrjpvTreLU rh evayye- heaven.' 

Xlov, ypd\pas re iraairoh eOveai, ypd<pei ** Conf. Ps.lxx-viii.25. 26. ' And gave 

Aoiirhv Kol Tois iKTr€pLTOjj.?]s iricTT evaacnv them food from heaven. So man did eat 

'E^paiois airo^eiKTiKT^v TavTfiv iin(TroX-r]v. angels' food.' S. Athan. on the passage 

Synopsis Script. Sacr. p. ]51. apud ( Expos, in Psalmos, p. 908.) says, that 

Athanasium. Again, "On avrov (sc. God not only fed the bodies of the 

rov UavKov) iffriv t] iincrroXTj, (pavepdv Israelites with manna, but also their 

e(TTL KoL airh tov reXovs rris iiriaToXris. souls with a certain reasonable and 

De Sancta Trinitate, p. 41 1. heavenly virtue, &(T7rep afxeXel Siarpecpei 

y For *02L3J leg. «<^ni> 

Ka\ rohs ayyeXovs. Referring to 1 Cor. 
X. 3. he says, cos Trvev/xar iKhu ecpayov 
'^ Conf. Letter i. p. 8. ' For the angels ^P^l^^^ tovto Se ^u 6 vvv &pros ayyeXwu 
are no otherwise sustained than by be- ovof/.a(6fMeuos. 

The treatment the prodigal son receives on his return home. 03 

is the harmony and gladness of those who eat at this heavenly AD. 335. 
table ! For they delight themselves not with that food which 
is cast out, but with that which produces life everlasting. 
Who then shall be deemed worthy of that assembly ? Who 
is so blessed as to be called, and accounted worthy of that 
divine feast? For, blessed is he tvho shall eat bread in Thy Luke 14, 
kingdom. For he who has been adjudged worthy of this '"'' 
heavenly calling, and by this calling has been sanctified, if 
lie grow negligent in it, although washed, becomes defiled : 
counting the blood of the covenant by ichich he was sanctified,29. 
a profane thing, and despising the Spirit of grace, he hears 
the words, Friend, how earnest thou in hither, not having Mat.22,12. 
tcedding garments? For the banquet of the saints is spotless 
and pure; for many are called, but few chosen. Judas, to ^^^*-^^'^'** 
wit, though he came to the supper, inasmuch as he thought 
lightly of it, went out from the presence of the Lord, and 
having abandoned his I.ife^, hanged himself. But the dis- 
ciples who continued with the Redeemer, partook also of the 
happiness of the feast. And that young man who went into 
a far country, and there wasted his substance, living in dis- 
sipation, if he contract a desire for this divine feast, and, 
coming to himself, shall say. Hew many hired servants of my Luke 15, 
father have bread to sjmre, while I perish here with hunger ! 
and shall then arise and come to his father, and confess to 
him, saying, I have sinned against heaven and before thee, and 
am not zvorthy to be called thy son; make me as one of thy 
hired servants; — when he shall thus confess, then he shall be 
counted worthy of more than he prayed for. For the fcither 
does not receive him as a hired servant, neither does he look 
upon him as a stranger ; but he kisses him as a son ; he receives 
him as a dead man alive again ; and deems him worthy of the 
divine feast, and gives him his former and precious garment'. 
So that, on this account, there is singing and gladness in the 
paternal home. For this is the work of the lovingkindness 
and grace of the father, that not only should he make him 
alive from the dead, but that he should also render his grace 
illustrious through the Spirit. Therefore, instead of cor- 

^ Conf. Col. iii. 4. b Xpiarhs—v C^h *= Syr. (TtoAtj. 

04 Exhortation to sinners to return and abide with Christ. 

Letteh ruption"^, he clothes him with an incorruptible garment^; 

'■ — instead of hunger, he kills the fatted calf; that he should 

not henceforth travel afar off, [the father] busies himself on 
his return, providing shoes for his feet; and, what is most 
wonderful, putting a divine signet-ring upon his hand ; 
whilst by all these things He begets him afresh ^ in the 
image of the glory of Christ. 

These are the gracious gifts of the Father, by which the 
Lord honours and nourishes those who abide with Him, and 
also those who return to Him and repent. For He promises, 

John 6, 35. saying, I am the bread of life; he that cometh unto Me shall 
not hunger, and he that believeth on Me shall never thirst. 
We, too, shall be counted worthy of these things, if, at all 
times, we cleave to our Saviour, and if we are pure, not 
only in these six days of Easter^', but consider our whole 
course as a feast ^, and continue near and not far off, saying 

John 6, GS. to Him, Thou hast the words of eternal life, and whither 
shall we go? Let those of us who are far off return, confess- 
ing our iniquities and possessing nothing before men, but 

Rom. 8, 13. by the spirit mortifying the deeds of the body. For thus, 
having beforehand nourished the soul here, we shall partake, 

Matt. 25, with angels, at that heavenly and spiritual table ; not knock- 
ing, and being repulsed, like those five foolish virgins, but 

In the Syr. Ms. there is an error gesimse), those days that follow im- 

throDgh the transposition of letters, mediately, viz. the second, third, fourth 

U^i^ bein^ written instead of f^'-f. &c. were by the Greeks 'termed 

^1^_ " V oevT€pa TTjs aTro/cpew, t] rpirT), &c. 

^^^^^- until the following Sunday, which was 

e Conf. Athan. op. torn. ii. p. 406. termed /cuptaKr? rris aTroKpeco (l.atinis, 

'iva iK€76€y iuSixrr) ere 6 Xpiarhs Kal Dominica Sexagesiraee), while the 

&€hs vfiwu (TToKr)v 8(i|7js, euSvfxa acpOap- whole week was called i^^o/xas rrjs 

(Tias. But vid. note g, p. 57. airoKp^co. Vid. Suicer. Thes. in voc. 

f Syr. ^>ri^-So we find quoted i'^^T^A" '*"'^- ^V V^ ""^ Valesius on 

•^ • . . Euseb. Orat. m laud. Constant, ch. ix. 

inCa^tell s.v.».fi-»J Ablutio t^JflLDj With us, Easter-week includes the six 

qua^ denuo fit. * days/ti/Zoi^-/?/^ Easter-Sunday ; with the 

s The woid irdaxa appears to be Greeks, the 4^Sofj.a,-s rSiv -naaxoiv was 

applied in this place Kar i^oxvi^, to app'Jed to the preceding six days, as 

the Passion week, (^ hyia koL ueyaKr] ^*^^^' 

i^dofxas—i^SofihsTwuTraaxcou). So we ^, Athan. frequently speaks in these 

read (Athan. op. tom. i. p. 256.) ^era ^pi^tles of the Easter- festival as de- 

yap TO. e^dofxa tov -iTaa-xa k. t- A. The ^ig^^^ to bring us nearer to Christ. 

Greeks usually designated' the days of ^'!K ^^^^^^ ^'^e is to be a continual 

the week, not 'after the ;;rerc<//;2^, but *pii;Jtual feast of praise and thanks. 

ihe follow hiy Sunday. Thus after the S'^ing to God, whereby we are to be 

Sunday ot ^the Prodigal Son, KvpiaKT] Ffpared forChrisfspres -nee in heaven. 

ri;G ao-wToy (Latinis Dominica Septua- . '^- ''^"P'"^) P- ^7. and Letter v. sub 

^ init. 



entering with the Lord, like those who were wise and k)ved A.l).335. 
the bridegroom; and, sliewing the death of Jesus in our -Cot.4,l0. 
bodies, we shall receive life and the kingdom from Him. 

We begin the fast of forty days on the twenty-third of 
Mecheir (Feb. IT.), and the holy fast of the blessed feast 
on the twenty^eighth of Pliamenoth (Mar. 2i.) ; and having 
joined to these, six days after them, in fastings and watclf- 
ings, as each one is able, let us cease on the tliird of the 
month Pharmuthi (Mar. 19.), on the evening of the seventh 
day. Also that day which is holy and blessed in every 
thing, which possesses the name of Christ, the Lord's day'', 
having risen upon us, (on the fourth of Pharmuthi, Mar. 80.), 
let us afterwards keep the holy feast of Pentecost. Let us 
at all times worship the Father through Christ, by Whom to 
Him and with Him be glory and dominion by the Holy 
Ghost for ever and ever. Amen. 

All the brethren who are with me salute you: salute one 
another with a holy kiss. 

Here endeth the seventh Festal Letter of holy Athanasius 
the Patriarch. 

There is no eighth or ninth, for he did not send them, for 
the reason I have before mentioned '. 

^ Kvpiwuvfjios — KvpiaKi] L.Vid.Suicer 
Thes. sul) vof. Kvpiax'}], torn. ii. p. 18-4. 
S. A than, on the pa^sajje in the Psalms, 
' This is the di'.y which the Lord hath 
made,' t-nys, (Tr,ixaiuii 5e o K6yos tijv 
UvatTTa/rifj.oi' rov ^wrvpos T)iJ.SiVy ttju ye 
iiruyv/iof avTov yevupAvr]V, SrjXa^ri, Kv- 
pLaKrjr. Expos, in Psalmos, p. 957. 

' See the Index. A than, left Egypt 

in this year to attend the synod at 
Tyre ; theace repaired to the Emperor 
Constantine to plead liis cause l)efore 
him. Failing of success in this, he 
retired, hh an exile, to Treviri, in 
Gaul. I have changed the order of 
the last two sentences from that in 
which they are written in the Syr. 


A^p^8^ Coss. [Irs US aiid Polemius; Prcef. the same Theodorus, of 
Easter-da}' Helioi^oUs ; and after him, of the Catholics, for the second 

on Mar. 2b. ^ ^ -^ ' -^ 

year, Philagrius\- Indict. XI,; Easter-day, VII. Kal. Ap.^' 
XXX. Phamenoth; Moon \^,' Mra Dioclet. 54. 

'Although I have been all this distance from you, my 
brethren, I have not forgotten the custom which obtains 

^ The Syriac seems to admit of no 
other translation, though the passage 
is not without difficulty. The mention 
of 'the same' Theodorus would imply 
that Theodorus had been Prsefect in 
the pieceding year, (for which there 
is no Paschal Letter extant, vid. note 
m. p. 68.) The manner in which the 
name of Philagrius is introduced — 'for 
the second year,' — must refer to his 
having held the office of Prgefect once 
before^ though not in the year imme- 
diately preceding. His name has 
already appeared in the title to Letter 
vi. (where vid. note) and that fo 
Letter vii. The words, ' of the 
Catholics,' used in connexion with the 
name of Philagrius, imply that the term 
' Arian' is to be understood of Theo- 
dorus. This we might reasonably 
expect, if he were governor in the 
preceding year. But that Philagrius 
should be reckoned among the Catholics 
is less clear, seeing he is styled by 
S. Athan. an apostate; and was a close 
adherent of his fellow-countryman, 
Gregory, the Arian, towaids whose 
intrusion imo the see of Alexandria he 
was afterwards instrumental. He and 
Gregory are compared by S. Athan. to 
Pilate and Caiaplias respectively. Vid. 
S. Athan. Encye. ad Episcopos' Epist. 
p. 89— 9L and p. 93. §. 7. To re- 
concile the manner in which S. Athan. 
and S. Greg. Naz. speak of Philagrius, 

Pagius Valerius and others have sup- 
posed that there were two Praefects of 
that name, father and son. Vid. His- 
torical Tracts of S. Athan. published 
in this series, p. 224, note; and pref. 
p xiii. Such an opinion is borne out 
by the headings of these Epistles, which, 
indeed, can be reconciled in no other 
way. Philagrius is first mentioned 
(Letter vi.) as Prefect in 334. ' The 
same' Philagrius is mentioned (Letter 
vii.) as Prsefect in 335. In the present 
instance, we have Philagrius Prsefect 
' ior the second year.^ Again in the 
heading to Letter xi. ( A. D. 339,) we 
read of Philagrius the Cappadocian 
being Praefect'' for his second time.' 
There may have been, and there pro- 
bably was, a confusion in the mind of 
the writer of these ; but there seems to 
be no reasonable doubt from his words, 
that two persons of the name of Phila- 
grius filled the office of Prsefect at 
different times. 

*» In the Chron. Pasch. torn. ii. p..202. 
we find Easter-day given as falling on 
viii. Kal. A p. This is probably an 
error, and should be corrected to vii. 
Kal. Ap. as here given, and which 
coincides with the 30th of Phamenoth. 

^ Athanasius had been in exile in 
Gaul for two years previous. The 
devices of his enemies had, for a time, 
been successful with the Emperor, and 
a constant watch was kept over his 

S. Aihanasius ivatched by his enemies. ()7 

among you, which has been delivered to us by the fathers '^ A. D. 388. 
so as to be silent without notifying to you the time of the 
annual holy feast, and the day for its celebration. P'or 
although I have been kept in restraint by those afflictions 
of which you have doubtless heard, and severe trials have 
been laid upon me, and a great distance has separated us ; 
while the enemies of the truth have also been on the watch 
ao-ainst us, laying snares to discover a letter from us, so 
that, by their accusations, they might add to the pain of our 
wounds; yet the Lord, strengthening and comforting us in 
our afflictions, we have not feared, even when kept in the 
midst of such machinations and conspiracies, to indicate and 
make known to you our saving Easter-feast «, even from the 
ends of the earth. Also when I wrote to the presbyters of 
Alexandria, I urged that these letters might be sent to you 
through their instrumentality, knowing the fear imposed on 
them by the adversaries. Still, I exhorted them to be 
mindful of the apostolic boldness of speech S and to say. 
Nothing separates us from the love of Christ; neither ajflic- Rom.8,36. 
tion, nor distress, nor persecution, nor famine, nor naked- 
ness, 7ior i^eril, nor stvord. Thus, keeping the feast myself, 
I was desirous that you also, my beloved, should keep it ; 
and being conscious that an announcement like this is 
incumbent on me, I have not kept back from discharging 
the duty, since I w^as jealous of incurring the imputation 
implied in the Apostolic counsel; Render to every man his Rom.i3,r. 


While 1 then committed all my affliirs to God, 1 con- 
sidered it as a duty to celebrate the feast with you, not 
taking into account the distance between us. For although 
place divides us, yet the Lord, the Giver of the feast, and 

actions. ThedeathofConstantine,in on the twenty-seventh of tl.e month 

the year 337, changed the aspect of the Athyr, answering to the twenty-hfth 

aftairs of the Church. Athanasius was ofNovemher. The Egyptian year (he 

again taken into favour, and permitted it remembered) commenced on the 

to return to Alexandria, Constantine twenty-ninth of Augu*»t. 

the younger, who succeeded to the '^ Assembled at the Counci of Nice, 

government of Gaul, furnishing a letter - We frequently meet with the ex- 

to the people of Alexandria, and de- Y,res^\onk^hofxitsTov <TwTt]piu>hovs'iri(Txa 

daring that it had been the intention towards tlie end of the 1 aschal dis- 

of his father, had he lived, to act in course^ of S. Cyril, 

the same manner. According to the ^ Tra^/irja-ia Syr. 

Index, S. returned from Gnul B Conf. Letter iii.p 22. and note a. 


Christ the Besfower of the Spirit. 


Letter Who is Himself our feast ^, Who is also the Bestower of the 

'- — Spirit', brings us together in mind, in harmony, and in the 

bond of peace''. For when we mind and think the same 
things, and oiFer up the same prayers on behalf of each 
other, no place can divide us; but the Lord gathers and 
Matt. 18, unites us together. For if He has promised, that ivhen two 
or three are gathered together in His name, He is in the 
midst of thenij it is plain that being in the midst of those 
who in every place are gathered together, He unites them, 
and receives the prayers of all of them, as if they were 
near, and listens to all of them, as they cry out the same 

"^ I have thus borne affliction like this, and all those trials 
which I mentioned, my brethren, when I wrote to you. 
And that we may give you pain in nothing, I would now 

h ]0C71 ^Xa5 Ij'l^jO 

' and who 

is our feast' %s koI rj koprr) (or, rh 
TTcttrxa) Tiixoov icm. ' Christ our Pass- 
over.' Larsow has missed the point of 
these words. 

' The Holy Ghost is especially called 
the gift of God. Conf. Luke xi, 13. If 
ye then, being evil, know how to give 
good gifts unto your children, how 
much more shall your heavenly Father 
give the Holy Spirit to them that ask 
Him.^ In Oral. ii. contra Arianos 
p. o83. He is called Qeov doipov. 
S. Athan. speaks of Him as being in 
the hands of the Fnther Who sends, and 
of the Son Who brings Him. Expositio 
Fidei, p. 81. rh Se dyiov Truev/xa iKv6- 
p^vjxa 01/ Tov Tvarphs, ael icmy eV Ta7s 
Xepcl TOV irijxiTOVTOS irarphs Kol rod 
<j)epouTos vlov. S. Basil declares of 
Him (de Sp. s. 57.) Scopou tov Qeov rb 

The Syriae here is luaaLO < be- 
stower,' ' giver,' from ^^^ concessit, 

donavit. The same expression is again 
employed in this Letter. W'efind eise- 
wherein S. Athan. thesame titleapplied 
to C'hrist ; t . g. Orat. i. contra Arimos, 

P 3o9. O TOV TTVeVfiaTOS dOTTJp avTbs 6 


k Conf. Eph. iv. 3. < The unity of the 
Spirit in the bond of peace.' 

' Conf. Athan. ad Imperatorem Con- 
stantinum Ap^d. j). 242. Et yap kuto, 

tV avTov TOV 2coT?jpo5 eTrayyeXiau, iau 
5vo avfj-cpuuTjO-aieu ircpl iravThs, ou au 
atTTjcrcovTaj, yevrjcreTai avTols, ri iau 
TOo-ovTCDU \auv a-vj/eXOSuTocu fxia y4vr]Tai 
(pcour], KeySuTcov to} ©eoS t5 a/jLTju ; tis 
yovv ovK idavfxacTe; tis ovk i/j-aKoipKre 
ce, jSAeTrojj/ tou ToaovTov \ahv eV kv\ 
(TvueXOSi/Ta T^TTcp; A somewhat similar 
passage occurs in Letter xi. where vide 

ni Thus far in this Letter, S. Athan - 
has been referring to the circumstances 
attending his exile for the last two years. 
The principal subject of the remaining 
part consists of the duty incumbent on 
us to praise and thank God for deliver- 
ance from affliction, and to exercise 
forgiveness towards our enemies- both 
which points are illustrated by Scrip- 
tural examples. He several time.s 
speaks of his restoration to the Church 
of Alexandria. For instance, in p. 75, 
he says; 'Those things which could 
not be accomplished bv man, God hath 
shewn to be easy of accomplishment by 
bringing us to you.' It is very observ- 
able, that more than once already (not- 
withsfanding what was said at the end 
of Letter vii. — probably by the person 
who collected the Epistles) Athanasius 
speaks clearly of his not having neg- 
lected to send the usual announcement 
of the time for observing Easter, even 
when in exile in Gaul. The Lefters 
at this time may have been, and pro- 
bahly were, rery brief; but that they 
were sent, theie can be no doubt. 

Tliank.syiv'my ajter deliverance from ajjliction. ()9 

also (only) briefly remind" you of these things^, because it A. D 3:w. 
is not becoming in a man to forget, when more at ease, the 
pains he experienced in tribulation ; lest, like an unthcuikf ul 
and forgetful person, he should be excluded from the divine 
assembly. For at no time should a man inwardly praise 
God, more than when he has passed through afflictions; nor, 
again, should he at any tinie give thanks more than when 
he finds rest from toil and temptations. As Hezekiah, 
when the Assyrians perished, praised the Lord, and gave 
thanks, saying. The Lord is mi/ salvatio7i^, and I will not ^e.3s, 20. 
cease to bless Thee with harp all the days of my Hfe, before 
the house of the Lord. And those three blessed men who 
were tried in Babylon, Hanaiiiah, Misliae], and Azariali, Song of the 
when they were in safety and the lire became to them as chiMren 
dew, praised and gave thanks, singing a song unto God'^. '^^—-^' 
I, too, like them, have written, my brethren, having these 
things in mind; for even in our time, God hath made 
possible those things which are impossible to men. And 
those things which could not be accomplished by man, God 
hath shewn to be easy of accomplishment, by bringing us to 
you. For God does not give us as a prey to those who seek 

1A ■:«!• , , '*3^'^tr''in"^ mn:* either in the form 

n Perhaps for TtUJQil we ehoukl „ .u ' \7 1 r% • 1 

' of a prayer, as the Vulg. Domine, sal- 

lA *oM*-^ vum me fac; or of a declaration, as the 

read f^UJO^V-). ^ Peschito does; e. g. The Targiim of 

o There i>» nothing wanting in the u v -i. nr>S5 SJiP-^J^nS ^^ 

text here, as Larsow^ erroneously sup- J^^^^^an has ,t, "^^^^ S3,. ^^^7 . 

poses. Vid. note to p. 55. Dominus dixit se liberaturum nos. 

P 1 differ from Prof. Larsow, who (Eng. vers. The Lord was read// to 

states unhesitatingly that there is an save me.) What is far more worthy of 

• 4.\,^ c,.^;„« +«^f on/1 tli-if 1 note is, that the Syriac translator nnist 
error in the ovnac text, and tnat ; r i • ..u r- i *u j 

' ^ ,' have found in the Greek ropy the read- 

(of) should be supplied after HH^ ing of the Codex Alex. Kupie— the cor- 

(Lord), rendering it; * Lord of my sal- rect rendering of (1171^ not that of the 

vation !' The translation of the words Vatican text, 0ee. '' 

»^OJQ£) l-*r^' as they stand in ^ Conf. l?ermo contra omnes hiereses 

. . rni T J r- 1 , ^oWo apud Athan. t. ii. p. 1H4. ia^aXwu els 

t>ip <>vr ac i".' The Lord |is my salva- ' , - v >* ' \ 

tne ^yriat, I. , i n^ L ^ ^j^^^ „.^I, t^j/ Kafiivov tov -nvphs Avaviav, koL 

tion a trans ation which agrees well ' ,^ ,r _ > 

lion, ^ iiuiio 1 .« A(,aptai', Koi Mi(Xa;]\- koL tov dpoao- 

with the text of the Peschito Mr^^ iroiov \6yov eV fxeaw ahrwv yii/o/j.fvuv, 

^£)-,2LJ 'The Lord will deliver us.' ««! e^Ac{<7avTos r5 TrGp, «al aur^. if,. 

TJI^"^^ i/ovvTwy. Ihe hist 'ry is also referred 

The fact of the LXX. version being j^ |,y Athan. Orat. ii. contra Arian. 

exclamatory— 0ee rijs (Toynf)pias fiou^ ^_ 7l\ and Epist. ii. ad Serapionem, §. 6. 

will ijot warrant a conjectural emend- i„ the latter place, the miraculous 

ation of the Syriac text here in op- effect is attrihi^ted to the presence of 

position to the sense of the Peschito. Chn<^t—Toi' ^itwlbv tlSe (/^ayih\) Spoor- 

The other versions render the lief, l^oyra t7> kol^jlivov. 

70 The manifold character of the Divine dealings. 

Letter to swallow up not so much us, as the Church, and by 

'-— wickedness to overwhelm faith and"" godliness. They indeed 

imagined such things; but God, who is good, multiplied 
His loving-kindness towards us, not only when He vouch- 
safed to us by His Word the common salvation of us all ; 
but also now, when enemies have persecuted us, and have 
sought to seize upon us. As the blessed Paul saith in a 
certain place, when describing the incomprehensible riches 

Eph.2,4.5. of Christ: But God, being rich in mercy, for the great love 
whereivith He loved us, even ivhen we were dead in follies and 
sins, quichened us through"^ Christ. For the might of man 
and of all creatures, is weak and poor ; but the Might which 
is above man, and uncreated, is rich and incomprehensible, 
and hath no beginning, but is eternal. It does not, then, 
possess one method only of healing ; but, being rich, it 
works in divers manners for our salvation by means of His 
Word, Who is not restricted or hindered in His dealings 
towards us ; but since He is rich and manifold. He varies 
Himself according to the individual capacity of each soul *. 
For He is the Word, and the Power, and the Wisdom of 

Wistl.;,27. God, as Solomon testifies concerning Wisdom, that hei7ig 
one, it can do all things, and remaining in itself, it maketh 
all things neiv; and passing upon holy souls, fashioneth the 
friends of God and the prophets'^. To those then who have 
not yet attained to the perfect way — as a lamb — there is 

1 Cor. 3, 2. milk, and this was administered by Paul : / have fed you 
ivitk milk, not with meat. To those who have advanced 
from the full stature of childhood, but still are weak as 
regards perfection, the food is according to their capacity, 

Roin. 14,2. being again administered by Paul^; Let him that is weak 
eat herbs. But as soon as ever a man begins to walk in the 

'■ The conjunctionj Q, seems wanting upholds and strengthens them ; and by 

in the Syriac. His wisdom, He guides them. 

8 The Syriac seems to require this " ^^nf. Letter i. p. 3. 

rendering. Or it may be, ' quickened " ^^*^ sense in the last few lines, 

us in Christ.' The Peschito ( Snv and in those that follow, is clear, though 

] >^>^^ ) agrees better with the ori- ^^' construction appears somewhat ob- 

'. /■ ( scure. Milk, herbs, and meat, are 

ginal ; o-v;/eC<^07rr)[7j(re rcf, XpiaT^. severally mentioned in connection with 

t All the various attributes and per. the different advances made in the 

fections ot the Deity, as exhibited in Chiistian course. The translation of 

the person of Christ, work together for p^of. Larsow is unsatisfactory, and, as 

the salvation ut man. By His gospel, i think, erroneous. 
He instructs them ; by His power, He 

The Divine grace variously distributed. 7 1 

perfect way, he is no longer fed with the thingsj before A. P. 838. 
mentioned; but he has the Word for bread, and liesli for 
food, for it is written, Strong meat is for those who are o/Heb.5, 14. 
J'ull age, for those who, by reason of their capacity, have their 
senses exercised. 

Further also, when the word is sown, it does not yield a 
uniform produce of fruit in this human life, but one various 
and rich; for it bringeth forth, some an hundred, and some Matt.13,8. 
sixty, and some thirty y, as the Saviour teaclies — that Sower 
of grace, and Bestower of the Spirit ^ And this is no 
doubtful matter, nor one that receives no coniirmation ; but 
it is in our power to behold the field which is sown by 
Him ; for in the Church the word is manifold and the 
produce" rich. Nor are virgins alone signified by such a 
field; nor monks'* alone, but also honourable matrimony 
and the abstinence of each one. For in sowing, He did 
not compel the will beyond the power. Nor is the grace 
confined to the perfect alone ; but it is sent dov/n also 
among those who occupy the middle and the third ranks, 
so that He might rescue all men generally to salvation. 

Therefore also He hath prepared many mansions with the John 14,2. 
Father, so that although the dwelling-place is various in 
proportion to the advance in moral attainment, yet all of 
us are within the wall, and all of us enter within the same 
fence, the devil being cast out, and all his host expelled 
thence. For apart from light there is darkness, and apart 
from blessing there is a curse. The devil also is apart from 
the saints, and sin far from virtue. Therefore also the 
Gospel rebukes Satan, saying. Get thee behind Me, Satan. Matt.4,io. 
But us it calls to itself, saying. Enter ye in at the strait M^tt.7,13. 
gate. And again, Come, blessed of My Father, inherit the Matt. 25, 
kingdom which is prepared for you. So also the Spirit 

y In the Syriac text, as published by other to the eleventh Letter. TheSyriac 

Mr. Cureton, as well as in the German text of both of them will be found in 

translation by Prof. Larsow, there is a the Appendix, 

hiatus here, the next two or three pages, ^ Vide note i to pape (;8. 

as far as the words ' He wept,' being « In the Ms. "j/n^ A.^n (virtue) 

wantinL'. Two more leaves were after- . . i r IJ^K i^ 

wards discovered among the fragments i« «T«tten by mistake for lIO^uJ^ 

in the British Museum by the learned (produce). 

Editor, and tohis courtesy I am indebted -j ^iWidfa^t I ex. Svr. n.nGO. 

for the knowledge of their existence. ^Qll\ ul.i ast. l.ex.. v r. j . 

One of them belongs to this part; the n<.t. Mieh. 

^~ Characteristics of virtue and, of sin. 

Letter before cried in the Psalms, saying, Enter into His gates 
vZ)M^. ^'^^^^ psahns. For by means of virtue a man enters in unto 
Exod. 19, God, as Moses did into the thick cloud where God was. 
Eut through vice a man goes out from the presence of the 
Gen.4,iG. Lord; as Cain, when he had slain his brother, went out, as 
far as his will was concerned, from the face of God ; while 
Ts. 43, 4. the Psalmist enters, saying, And I ivill go in to the altar of 
God, even to the God that delighteih my youth. But of the 
Devil the Scripture beareth witness, that the Devil went 
Job 2, 7. out from before God, and smote Job« with sore boils. For 
this is the characteristic of those w^ho go out from before 
God — to smite and to enter among the men of God. And 
this is the Ci.aracteristip of those who fall away from the 
faith— to injure and persecute the faithful. The saints, on 
the other hand, take such to themselves, and look upon 
them as friends ; as also the blessed David, using plainness 
Fs. lOh 6. of speech d, says, Mijie eyes are on the faithful of the earth, 
that they may dwell with me. But those that are weak in 
Rom. 14,1. the faith, Paul urges that we should the rather take to our- 
selves. For virtue is philanthropic % just as in men of an 
opposite character, sin is misanthropic. In this manner 
Saul, in that he was a sinner, persecuted David ; whereas 
David, though he altogether possessed the opportunity, did 
not kill Saul. Esau too persecuted Jacob, while Jacob 
sought to overcome his wickedness by meekness. And 
those eleven sold Joseph ; but Joseph, in his loving-kind- 
ness, had pity on them. 

But what need we many words ? Our Lord and Saviour, 
when He was persecuted by the Pharisees, wept for their 
destruction. He was treated injuriously, but He threat- 
ened ^ not; not when He was afflicted, not even when He 
was killed. But He suffered anguish for the sake of those 
who presumptuously did such things. They, however, 
contemptuously cast from them life, and light, and grace! 
All these were theirs through that Saviour Who suffered in 

«= Tn the Ms. ^Ofta (Jesus) is secuted'—which supplies no good sense. 

written by mistake for ^Qji] (Job) V^'^ '^ """f'"'" ^^ ^^^ ^°W'ist, caused 

H ^> / /c N -^ IV''";. by the word occurring immediately 

, '^«PP^'J'?(^yr.)xP«Ta.. before. My own emendation is quite 

^ Lent. Letter XI. sub inif. conjectural, 
f The Syriac is *2i?5Ak5 ^ was per- 

Perverse ness of the Jews. 73 

our stead. Tt was in truth for such their darkness and A. P. .s.m 
blindness, He wept. For if they had understood the things 
which are written in the Psahns, they would not have been 
so vainly daring against the Saviour, the Spirit having said, 
Why do the heathen rage, and the people imagine a vain^^-^y^- 
things And if they had thouglit upon the prophecy o^ {V'^^g'lJ;.^ 
Moses, they would not have hanged Him Who was their 
life. And if they had examined with their understanding 
the things which were written, they would not studiously 
have fulfilled s the prophecies which were against them- 
selves, so as for their city to be now desolate, grace taken 
from them, and they also themselves without the law, being 
no longer called children, but strangers. For thus in the 
Psalms was it before declared, saying, The strange children Ps- 18, 4G 
have acted falsely by Me. Also by Isaiah the prophet ; 
I have begotten and brought up children, and they have re-^^'^^'^' 
jected Me. And, further, they are no longer called the 
people of God, and a holy nation, but rulers of Sodom, and 
people of Gomorrah; having exceeded in this even the 
iniquity of the Sodomites, as the prophet also saith, Sodom Lam. 4,6. 
is justified before thee. For the Sodomites acted injuriously 
against angels, but these against the Lord, and God, and 
King of all, and dared to slay the Lord of angels ; not 
knowing that Christ, VvHio was slain by them, is living, 
while those Jews who had conspired against the Lord died, 
having rejoiced a very little in these temporal things, and 
falling away from those which are eternal. They were 
ignorant of this — that the immortal promise has not respect 
to temporal enjoyment, but to the hope of those things 
which are everlasting. For through many tribulations, and 
labours, and sorrows, the righteous man enters into the 
kingdom of heaven ; but when he arrives where sorrow, and 
distress, and sighing, shall flee away, he shall thenceforward 
enjoy rest; as Job, who, when tried here, was afterwards 
the familiar friend of the Lord. But the lover of pleasures, 

KSvr AVvnVn The ^=eDse ' ful- confoon.led together, and that pot 

) . ^» ^-- ■ ^^, by jlje Syriac copyists. Vid. 

filled' not 'spoken is required here, (-J^^t^.l|, Lex. Syriac. p. 500. not. 

Larsou- gives the latter. Tbfi two j^jj^jj^ 
words ^IVn and VvV^ were anciently 

74 No place desert to the faithful. 

Leister rejoicing for a little while, afterwards passes a sorrowful 

'- — life ; like Esau, who had temporal food, but afterwards was 

there condemned. 

One may say that a distinction like this may be compared 
to the departure of the children of Israel and the Egyptians 
from Egypt. For the Egyptians, rejoicing a little while in 
their injustice against Israel, when they went forth, were all 
drowned in the deep ; but the people of God, being for a 
time smitten and injured, by the conduct of the task- 
masters h, when they came out of Egypt, passed through 
the sea unharmed, and walked in the wilderness as an in- 
habited place. For although, according to the mode of 
living customary among men, the place was desert; yet, 
through the gracious gift of the law, and also through their 
intercourse with angels, it was no longer desolate, but in- 
habited, yea, and more than inhabited. As also Elisha', 
when he thought he was alone in the wilderness, was with 
companies of angels; so, in this case, though the people 
were first afflicted, and in the wilderness, yet those who 
remained faithful'^- afterwards entered the land of promise. 
In the same manner those also who suffer temporal afflic- 
tions here, after having remained stedfast, go forth to a 
place of comfort; while those who here persecute are 
Luke 16, trodden under foot, and have no good end. For even the 
rich man, according to the accurate description of the 
Gospel, having lived in pleasure here for a little while, 
suffered hunger there ; and having drunk largely here, he 
was there parched with thirst. But Lazarus, after being 
afflicted in worldly things, found rest in heaven; and 
having hungered for bread ground from corn, he was there 
satisfied with that which is better than manna, even the 

|> 6>7oSic^«Tat. gives the sense of hoping' to OiQO. 

* Ihe reference is apparently to the t • i, . 

history of Eli«ha as recorded in 2 Kings ^^ ^^ parallel to Q^nnflD, ' remained 

^l' ^^T}'^' though the mention of stedfast' which occurs directly after- 

the wilderness agrees better with the wards. In Letter vi. p. 55. we have 
history of Elijah, as found in 1 Kings 1 1 11 

xix. 4— 8. 1 cannot, however, agree ^-t OOV) fj^l |J>. 'They con- 

with Prof. Larsow, who states that for tinue without a feast.' In Rom. 
Llisha we ought to read Lliiah. 7 

xi. 23. ^o;-4jxiMw£i .oonj 

k Syr. USOjIcJISD CUQO ' ,e- .OOlZoiVo^m . .u • • 

. ; ^ . 7". 1 , T lOOl^QliCLiai is, 'they remain in 

mained faithful. Larsow erroneously {^^^-^^ unbelief ' 

Temporal ills no just cause of trouble. 75 

Lord who came down and said, / am the bread which came A.D. S36. 
down from heaven, and giveth life to mankind, John 6, 51. 

Oh! my dearly beloved, if we shall gain comfort from 
afilictions ; if rest from labours ; if health after sickness ; 
if after death there is immortality ; it does not become us 
to be much distressed by the temporal ills that afflict man- 
kind. It is not right to be greatly moved because of the 
trials which befall us. It is not right to fear if the host ^ 
that contended with Christ, should conspire against godli- 
ness ; but we should the more please God through these 
things, and should consider such matters as the probation 
and exercise of a virtuous life. For how shall patience be 
looked for, if there have not previously been labours and 
sorrows ? Or how can experience be afforded of fortitude, 
when there has not first been an assault from enemies ? Or 
how can a spectacle of fortitude'" be exhibited, when con- 
tumely and injustice have not preceded ? Or how can long- 
suffering be expected, when opposition on the part of 
Antichrists" has not first existed? And, finally, how can 
a man hope to witness virtue, when the iniquity of the 
very wicked has not previously displayed itself? Thus 
even our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ comes before us 
[as an example], when He would shew men how to suffer ; 
Who, when He was smitten, bore it patiently; being re- 
viled, He reviled not again ; when He suffered. He threat- 
ened not ; but He gave His back to the smiters, and His 
cheeks to buffetings, and turned not His face from spitting; 
and, at last, was willingly led to death, that we might 
behold^ in Him the image of all that is virtuous and im- 

) TheSyr.UoJ-M is to be trans- XP''^'^«MaX«''«S^°'''««^'^«^'A^^'XP'V7^ 

xne^yr. i ., ^, ^ ,, , TTodSpofiou. Daniascenus lib. iv. Or- 

lated 'host,' as above, vid.Castell. Lex. jf^^/^j^i c. xxvii. p. 389. as quoted 

Syr. p. 308. cum nota Mich. Larsow g^^j^^^'^ ^ ^-^ ^ ^^ dixoKoywu 

translates it differently, stating that ^J^ ^.^^^ ^^^ ^^^-^ ^^j q^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ 

there is an error in the text. J think ^^^^,04^^,^ ^^l duai Q^hv reKuou, nal 

it, however, correct as it stands. ^eveV^ot &udpconou reAe^ov, M^ra rov 

". 1 suspect an error in this word in 7 ^,,,;,p,^,^s iar.u. Vid. 

the Syriac, the mistake having ansen M^-« ' XP ^ ^^^ 

from the same word having occurred ^^ ^^^ ^^ et intra p. 78. note z. 

just before. ' ' •% , 

n The term ' Antichrists' is applied o xhe Syr. Ir*^ 'rejoice ought 

Conf. Apcl. contra Atian. t. i. p. 102. here rendered, 
aTroaTp4(pfa9ai Se tV 'Apiiayrjv a'lp((Tiy, 

76 The trials and sufferings of Christ our gain, 

Lettkr mortal; and all of us, conducting ourselves after these 

^-^— examples, might truly tread on serpents and scorpions, and 

on all the power of the enemy?. 

Thus, too, Paul, while he conducted himself after the 
] Cor. II, example of the Lord, also exhorted us, saying, Be ye 
followers of me, as I also am of Christ. In this way, he 
Eom. 8, prevailed against all the host of the devil, writing, / am 
persuaded that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor prin- 
cipalities, nor things present, nor things to come, nor powers\ 
nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature, shall he able 
to separate us from the love of God which is in Jesus Christ, 
For the enemy presents himself to us in afflictions, and 
trials, and labours, doing every thing, and striving eagerly 
to cast us dow^n. But the man who is in Christ, setting 
himself against those that oppose, and revisiting wrath by 
long-suffering, contumely by meekness, and vice by virtue, 
Phi!. 4, 13. obtains the victory, and exclaims, / can do all things 
R^om.8. through Christ, Who strengtheneth me; and. In all these 
^'' things we are conquerors through Christ Who loved us. 

This is the grace of the Lord, and these are the Lord's cor- 
rective measures towards the children of men. For He 
suffered to procure freedom from suffering for those who 
suffer in Him; and He descended' that He might raise us 
up ; He took on Him the trial of being born, that we might 
love Him Who is unbegotten ; He w^ent down to corrup- 
tion, that corruption might put on immortality; He became 
weak for us, that we might rise with power ; He descended 
to death, that He might bestow on us immortality, and give 
life to the dead. Lastly, He became man, that we who die 
as men might live again, and that death should no more reign 
Rom. 6, 9. over us ; for the Apostolic word proclaims. Death shall not 
have the dominion over us*, 

P A pas..age very similar to the s We have here a long passage 

above, in Chn,.t .s proposed as which occurs, wirh only sllhT W 

an examp e to u.,n His sufferings, alions, in the 'treatise ' de Pa^ss one et 

Cru": Dom n'i '7^3% Q "^^""^^ '' ^'^^'^ ^°'-"V ^P"^ ^^han. torn, tu 

q ThPoTZ'J'.h ^ iV • . P- ^^' As it exceeds in length any 

f.nn7,n M V'^^'^'^^^'V^^* '''^^' '"^ ^^'^'^ Letters which 1 have 

found in some Mss of the Greek Text, been able to di.scover else. here, and 

ovre euearwra, ov,e t^.KXopra, oijr, as it i.. itself of so interesting a cha- 

ovpafieis. racter, I shall not hesitate to quote it 

>• For t\**J leg. i\j^JO. at length. Taay0p(i^muaTrepifia\A6fj.€i^oi 

The erroneous opinions of the Arians. 


Now Because they did not thus consider these matters, A . D. 338 . 
the Ario-maniacs*, being opposers of Christ, and heretics, 
smite Him who is their Helper, with their tongue, and 
blaspheme" Him who set [them] free; and, referring all 
things to their wrong source, have become heterodox con- 
cerning the Redeemer. * Because of His coming down, 
which was on behalf of man, they have denied His essential 

Koi ajui(piaadixevos, 5i' eauToQ ra rjfxCii' 
Trpoariyayc rcf irarpi, 'iva ws avThs 
Traffx^^Vy a^Aa^rj rhv 6,vQp(>}iT0V irdaxouTa 
KaraaKevdcrr), koI /j-iKpa /uLcyaXois avri- 
KaTaWd^rjTai. Karate BriKeyhp, 'Iva r]jxS)V 
r^u S.i'oBot/ KaTaanevda-p' kuI mndpaTai 
yeveaecos, 'lua itix^ls Si' avrov rco ayeu- 
vffTcp (piKid(TU}/, ^)adevT\(Te 5t' Vfjus, 'lua 
rjjxels iyepdwixeu iu Swdp-n, Ka\ eJfTrcojUev, 
ws (5 YlavXos' -nduTa lax^^ ^^ '''V ^vSvva- 
^ovvri fie 'lr\aov XpiaTo:, eAcc.Se (TU),aa 
(pOapThu, '(pa rh (pdaprhu ivSva-qrai rrju 
acpOapaiav' eueSvaaro rh Qurjrhu, 'Iva rh 
dvrjThv ivSvffriTai Tr)V aSavaaiau. Kal 
TeAos, yeyovev &v6pcciro5 Kal aveOavev, 
Xva r]iJ.i7s oi ws 6.v6pcc7roL aTro6vT](TK0VTes, 
deoTTOirjOcJi'ixev, Kal fX7)KfTi rhv Odvaiov 
exw/Liej/ /SacrtAeuovTa, Qdvaros yap rj/xuv 
oh KaraKvpLeuei, Kal 6 aTTOCroKLichs Z^ 
KtjpvTTii \6yos. 

It may be remarked here, 1st, The 
treaiipe from which this is quoted is 
placed amongst the a^cpi^aWSfx^va. 
Indeed, the learned editor of Atha- 
nasius hesitated whether to itjclude it 
among the spurious works. In his 
prefixed remarks he says, 'animus 
fuerat earn inter spuria ab'egare: quia 
tamen in antiquioribus codicibus, et in 
Athanasiunis collectionibus reperitur, 
eo nomine inter dubia earn recensemus.' 
We have had rrore than one oppor- 
tunity, beside the present, of adducing 
parallel passages from the same treatise 
in illustration. These observations will 
lead us to the conclusion, (the authen- 
ticity of the Festal Letters being placed 
beyond a doubt,) either that one of the 
writers transftrred, not only the ideas, 
but the very words of the other into 
his writings; or else, that the treatise 
'de Passione, &c.' emanated from the 
same mind which indicted the Letters. 
Perhaps an accurate consideration of 
the question will decide us in favour of 
the latter opinion. 2dly, We may re- 
mark, that the Syriac ^, >\i ]j ' un- 
begotten' fixes, if need w'ere, the Bene- 
dictine reading d.yevvT}Tcf in opposition 

to that of some Mss. a.yev{]Tci}. (For 
the distinction, between ayevrjrov, ayiv- 
VT]Tov, Sec. see the remarks of the 
Benedictine editors. Athan. op. tom. i. 
p. 1G3.) 3dly, The connexion of the 
sentence in the Syriac, as well as the 
text of the Greek, would suggest a 
suspicion that a line has been omitted 
after the words, ' He went down to 
corruption, that corruption,' and that 
we should read, ' He went down to 
corruption, that corruption might put 
on incorruption ; He clothed Himself 
with mortality, that mortality might 
put on immortality.' Compare with 
the whole passage, S. Cyril. Hom. 
Pa<ch. XX. p. 259. TrpoaeiATjcpcbs Se 
IJ.a\\ov bVep ovk ^v, 'iva Kal ijfxas fxera 
(TTOLx^iaxTT) TTphs Ti]v aix^'ivw re Kal cv- 
KXeecTTipav C^r]V. The same ideas are 
also expressed in S. de Tncarn. 
t. i. p. G98, without, however, the snme 
correspondence of words and phrases. 

' The Syriac here is OlgufcjIliDO Ijii] 
' Ariug and Manetes.' The sanie 
words are found twice in the next 
Letter, There seems little doubt that 
the translator mistook the Greek word 
'Apeiofxavlrai, a term applied to the 
Arians in other places by Athan. used 
also bv Epiphanius, 

" Conf. S. Fasil. Op. tom. ii. p. IS9. 
ed. Par. 1839. Uov 6 fi\da(pr]iJ.os ; irov 
T] Xpiaru/xdxos yXwrra ; ■)] Xeyovaa, 9ii^ 
■jrore, 'ore ovk "fiv ; For the Syriac 

» ^, Lt ^ Prof. Larsow has ' schwa- 

chen,' 'enfeeble'. Qu ? Ought we to 
read ' sclimahen,' ' revile.' 

"In the followinglines we meet with 
what we fiixl eNewhere in Atnan. re- 
garding the Arian and other heresies, 
viz. that they have their origin in 
truth, though a partial arid circum- 
scribed view of it, one doctrine of Scrip- 
ture beins? (lw»rlt upon, while other.^, 
equally important, are denied, as being 
incompatible with it. Vid. Letter ii. 
p. 19. note q. 

7'8 The Avians misunderstood the Scriptures. 

Letter Godhead; and seeing that He came from the Virgin, they 
have questioned His being truly the Son of God; and, con- 

sidering Him as become incarnate in time, they have denied 
His eternity; and, looking upon Him as having suffered for 
us, they have renounced their faith in Him as the incor- 
ruptible Son from the incorruptible Father. And, finally, 
because He was burdened for our sakes, they deny the 
things which concern His essential eternity; partaking of 
the deed of the unthankful, who rejected the Saviour, and 
oifering Him insult instead of acknowledging His grace. 
To them may tliese words properly be addressed; Oh! un- 
thankful opponent of Christ, altogether wicked, and the 
slayer of his Lord, mentally blind y, and a Jew in his con- 
science', hadst thou understood the Scriptures, and listened 
Ps. 80, 7. to the saints, who said. Cause Thy face to shine, and we shall 
he saved; or again, Send out Thy light and Thy truth; — then 
wouldest thou have known that the Lord did not descend 
on His own account, but for us ; and, for this reason, thou 
w^ouldest the more have admired His loving-kindness. And 
hadst thou considered what the Father is, and what the Son, 
thou w^ouldest not have blasphemed the Son, as [being 
come] of a mutable nature'"^. And hadst thou understood 
His work of loving-kindness towards us, thou wouldest not 

y Conf. Sermocontra omnes Hserepes, /caXeVetej/ again, ets t)]v aX(Txi(r'Ti\v 

p. 183. TvcpAohs ix''^^'^^^ """^^^ '''^^ ^'"' TavTr}u Koi xp^'^'^ofxaxov a[pe<nu. Vid. 

volas ocpOaKfjLOvs. Athan. op. torn. i. p. 314, 315. A cor- 

* S. Athan. frequently designates the responding term to xpio'To/iaxoi, as ap- 

Arians as Jews; e. g. Orat. iii. contra plied to the Arians, is that by which 

Ar. p 478.5 xp'0''''<^/"«X<'"^"^ "X"/"'''''^''' the Macedonian heretics were desig- 

^lovda7oi, where the other epithets also nated — Truev/iaTo/xdxoi. Vid. supra 

agree with those here employed — 'op- p. 75. note n. 

ponent of Christ,' ' unthankful.' Vid. * The Arians affirm the Son to be Ik 

also p. 458. ofthe same discourse, where rpex^/ias, TpeTrrc^TTjTos — that He is ctA.- 

the parallel between the Arians and Aotwroy and rpeirros : Athan. on the 

the Jews is fully drawn out. The contrary (Ep. de Dec. Nic. Syn. t. i. 

words 6e6iJ.axoi and xP''''''"<^Maxot are p. 168-9; Orat. i. contra Ar. t. 1. pp. 

often applied to the Arians by Athan. 359, 360.) maintains that 6 vths ixTpeir- 

(conf. Acts xxiii. 9. fir] 06O;aaxd;/A6j'. ) r6s icrri koI apaWoicoros us 6 iraT-r^p. 

In Ep ad Episcop. Encycl. torn. i. Again, Orat. i. contra Ar. i. 359. he 

p. 91. he speaks of them as avTifiax^ ^ays, 6 Kvpios 6 ad koI (pvcrei drpeirTos' 

ixevoi Tw (TcoTTipi. Tiie comparison be- while of the Arians he says, (p. 360.) 

tween the Arians and the Jews occurs rpeirrhv Koi rhv iraripa iiriyoeiTiacrav' 

several times in these Letters. S. Alex- (L.) Vide S. Athan. Treatises against 

ander, the predecessor of S. Athan. in Arianism, published in this series, p.230. 

his Encyclic E[ istle, speaks of the note a. p. 289. note h. and Suicer. Thes. 
Arians as iyyvrepoi rod avTixpicrrov . ^, rr,, o • 1«9nV ^.m, K^ 

yeuSfievoi. When describing the Arian t.i.p.5/ l.The Syriac \Si^^Q^ ^ 

heresy, he says, 6«'/c(^tcos &u ris irp65po- (the words here used) would be the 

^.oy Tov h'Tixpicrrov vnovoTjffeiey Kal translation of eV rpcTrrSrvros. 

The Arians and the Schismatic's connected together. 79 

have alienated the Son from the Father, nor have looked A. D. 3:^8. 
upon Him as a stranger^', Who reconciled us to His Father. 
I know these are hard sayings, not truly to those who 
oppose Christ", but also to the Schismatics; for they are 
united together, as men of kindred feelings. For they have 
learned to rend the seamless coat^ of God : they think it 
not strange to divide the indivisible Son from the Father «. 

I know, indeed, that when these things are spoken, they 
will gnash their teeth upon us, with the devil who stirs them 
up, since they are troubled by the declaration of the true 
glory concerning the Redeemer. But the Lord, who always 
has scoffed at the devil, does the same even now, saying, 
/ am in the Father, and the Father in Me. This is the John H, 
Lord, Who is manifested in the Father, and in Him also the 
Father is manifested; Who, being truly the Son of the 
Father, at last became incarnate for our sakes, that He 
might offer Himself to the Father in our stead, and redeem 
us through His offering and sacrifice. This is He Who once, 
in old time, brought the people out of Egypt ; but Who 
afterwards redeemed all of us, or rather the whole race of 
men, from death, and brought them up from the grave. 
This is He Who, in old time, was sacrificed as a lamb, having 
been typified in the lamb ; but Wlio afterwards was slain 
for us,^ for Christ, our Passover, is sacrificed. This is He I Cor. 5, 7. 
Who delivered us from the snare of the hunters;— I mean, 
that He cast out the opposers of Christ \ and the Schismatics, 
— and again rescued us His Church. And because we were 
then victims of deceit S He hath now delivered us by His 
own self. 

What then is our duty, my brethren, on account of these 

b Svr. Uvos. One of the erroneous apud Cotcl. ecclcs. gr. immnm. p. 298. 
assertions of the Arians, as given Ly (L.) Conf. also,^ rh aSialp^roy rov 
S. Alexander in his Eni-vclic Epistle, vloD irphs rhv Trarepa, Orat iii. contra 
(Athan. op. torn. i. p. 385.) i.<' the fo!- .\r. p. AAb.-ZuKvxjfn rhv vihv ei^ tj5 
lowing: i,ivos re koX a\\6Tpios koI irarpl, Kai rh ael aSiaip^rov avrov, id. 
an^axoiviafxiyos iarlu 6 \6yos rrjs toO p. 431).- vlbs yap &u, ax(^pi(n6s icttitoD 
0€oD olaias. TroT^dy, id. p. 458.— a/i6>t(TT(^s eVrii/ 6 

\6yos u Tou iraTpos. De Passione et 
Cruce Domini apud Athan. t. ii. p. 74. 

^ i. e. the Arians. Vid. note z. p. /i 

'1 Syr. x'Twt'- The words translated Cruce Domini apud Athan. t. ii. p. 

' rend' and ' seamless' are cognate in f i. e. the Arians. 

the Syriac, and answer to (TxiC^iy and s The connexion scenris to require 

its derivatives. that a passive seose should be given to 

^ The Arians are thence called Aio- A^^jASD as ia here done. 

TOfx^rai. \\i\. I. hceresib. ^ 

so The efforts of the enemies of tJie Church unsuccessful 
LET^rER things, but to praise and give thanks to God, the King of 
all ? And let us first exclaim in the words of the Psalms, 

Ps. 124,26. Blessed be the Lord, Who hath not given us over as a prey to 
their teeth. Let us keep the feast in that way which He 
hath consecrated*^ to us for salvation— the holy day of 
Easter—so that we may celebrate the feast which is in 
heaven with the angels. Thus, anciently, the people of the 
Jews, when they came out of affliction into a state of ease, 
kept the feast, singing a song of praise for their victory. 

Esther3,9. So also the people in the time of Esther, because they were 
delivered from a deadly decree, kept a feast to the Lord'; 
reckoning it a feast, returning thanks to the Lord, and 
praising Him for having changed their condition. Tliere- 
fore let us also, performing our vows to the Lord, and con- 
fessing our sins, keep the feast to the Lord, in conversation, 
moral conduct, and manner of life*^; praising our Lord, Y/ho 
hath chastened us a little, but hath not utterly failed and 
forsaken us, nor altogether kept silence from us. For if, 
having also brought us out of the crafty and famous Egypt 
of the opposers of Christ', He hath caused us to pass through 
many trials and afflictions, as it were in the wilderness, "to 
His holy Church, so that from hence, according to custom, 
we can send to you, as well as receive letters from you; on 
this account especially I both give thanks to God myself, 
and exhort you to thank Him with me and on my behalf, 
this^ being the Apostolic custom, which these opposers of 
Christ, and the Schismatics, wished to put an end to, and to 
break off. The Lord did not permit it ; but both renewed 
and preserved that which was ordained by Him through the 
Apostle, so that we may keep the feast together, and together 
keep holy-day, the one with the other, according to the - 
tradition and commandment of the fathers. 

We begin the fast of forty days, on the nineteenth of the 
month Mecheir (Feb. 13.); and the holy Easter-fast on the 
twenty-fourth of the month Phamenoth (Mar. 20.) We cease 

^ Syr. L^ iu.Kuiuta.u, as in Heb. towards the Christians is here compared 

X. 20. ivsKatviaey ^jfTiv blou 7rp6(T(paTou ^'^^^^ *^® subtlety of Pharaoh and the 

Ka\ Caxrau, Egyptians towards the children of 

' Conf. Letteriv'. p. 32. Israel; while their deliverance from 

'' Syr. TToXireia. ^^^^ machinations is represented by 

* The crafty conduct of the Arians \^^ f^eparture of the Israelites from 


Conclusion. 81 

from tlie fast on the twenty-ninth of tlie month Phanienoth A. D. 338. 
(Mar. 25.) late in the evening of the seventh day. And we thus 
keep the feast on the first day of the week which dawns on the 
thirtieth of the month Phanienoth (Mar. 26.) ; from which, 
to Pentecost, we keep holy-day, through seven weeks, one 
after the other. For when we have first meditated properly 
on these things, we shall attain to be counted worthy of 
those which are eternal, through Christ Jesus our Lord, 
through Whom to the Father be glory and dominion for 
ever and ever. Amen. 

Greet one another with a holy kiss, remembering us in 
your holy prayers. All the brethren who are with me 
salute you, at all times being mindful of you. And I pray 
that ye may have health in the Lord, my beloved brethren, 
whom we love above all"^. 

Here endeth the tenth Letter of holy Athanasius. 

>" Conf. Epist. ii. ad Orsisium torn. i. also Phil. iv. 1. — my brethren, dearly 
p. 694. ippwadai vjxas iv Kvplcp ^vxajxai, beloved and longed for — stand fast in 
ayair-qToi Koi iroOavoTaToi adeXcpoi (,L ) the Lord, my dearly beloved. 


A.D. 339. Coss. Constantius Augustus II., Conslans I.; Prcefect, 
Easter-daj PMlagrius, the Cappadocian, for the second time; Indict. 
pr. 10. j^jj . Easter-day XVII. Kal. MaL; XX. Pharmuthi; 
jEra Dioclet. 55. 

The blessed Paul, being girt about with every virtue a, 
and called faithful of the Lord — for he was conscious to 
himself of nothing but what was a virtue and a praise^, or 
what was in harmony with love and godliness — familiarized 

2 Cor. 12,4. these things to himself the more, and w^as carried up even 
to heavenly places, and was borne to Paradise ; to the end 
that, as he surpassed the conversation of men, he should be 
exalted above men. And when he descended, he preached 

1 Cor. 13, to every man; We know in part, and we prophesy ifi part ; 
' ' here I know" in part; hut then shall I know even as also I 
am known. For, in truth, he was known to those saints 
who are in heaven, as their fellow-citizen'^. And in re- 
lation to all that is future and perfect, the things known by 
'him here were in part; but with respect to those things 
which were committed^ and entrusted to him by the Lord, 

Phil.3, 16. he was perfect; as he said, We ivho are perfect, should he 
thus minded. For as the Gospel of Christ is the fulfilment 
and accomplishment of the ministration which was supplied 
by the law of Israel, so future things will be the accomplish- 
ment of such as now exist, the Gospel being then fulfilled, 
and the faithful receiving those things which, not seeing 

Rom. 8, now, they yet hope for, as Paul saith ; For ivhat a man 

24. 25. ^ ^ x- 

» Conf. Eph. vi. 14. e j have no doubt that the Syriac 

b Conf. 1 Cor. iv. 4. Ms. is again fauky here, and that for 

<• The reading of the Ms. ^H^f V'Vi V** ?1 

,, f W-»l * TT^-^^l we should read t-a-^»»^ I 

niu^tbe an error for M.Jf. ^^ , , v \\ ' 

„ r 17 u •• in as here rendered. ^ 

Conf. Eph. 11. 19. 

The happiness to he enjoyed after affiiction. 83 

seeth^ ichy doth he also hope for ? But if ive hope for those A. P. 339. 
things ive see [_)iot^'], we then by patience wait for them'^. 

Since then that blessed man was of sucli a character, and 
an apostolic grace was committed to him, he wrote, wishing 
that all men should be as he teas. For virtue is philan- i Cor. 7, 7. 
thropic^', and the company of the kingdom of heaven is a 
large one ; for thousands of thousands and myriads of 
myriads there serve the Lord. And though a man enters it 
through a strait and narrow way, yet, having entered, he 
beholds an immeasurable space, and a place greater* than 
any other, as they declare, who were eye-witnesses and heirs 
of these things. Thou didst place afflictions before us. But Ps. QQ, 
afterwards, having related their afflictions, they say, Thou^^'^'^' 
broughtest us forth into a tvide place^; and again, In afflictivn Ps. 4, l. 
Thou hast enlarged us\ For truly, my brethren, the course 
of the saints here is a troubled one; since they either endure 
painfulness through longing for those things which are to come, 
as he who said, fVoe is me that my pilgrimage is prolonged,- Ps. 120,6. 
or they are afflicted and wearied for the salvation of other ^^^^• 
men, as Paul wrote to the Corinthians, saying, Lest^ when 1 2 Cor. 12, 
come to you, God shou'd humble me, and I should bewail on ^^' 
account of many of those who have before sinned, and not 
repented for the uncleanness, and fornication , and lascivious- 
ness which they have committed. As Samuel bewailed for 
the destruction of Saul, and Jeremiah wept for the captivity 
of the people. But after this affliction, and sorrow, and 
sighing, when they depart from this world, a certain divine 
gladness, and pleasure, and exultation receives them, from 
which pain, and sorrow, and sighing, flee away. 

^ The negative is omitted in the icpJ^ivos' ^ib koX iirt(p4p€i' "Oaoi oZv 

IMs. T€\sioi, TovTo <ffpoyov/j.ev. TiKeicaaiv 

8 S. A than, has been distinguishing StjAovSti \4ycuv rh aTroTerox^ai rah 

between tiie earthly and the htavenly a/j-apTiais, koI els -klcttiv tov ii6i/ou 

perfect-on of a Chrisnan. The Gospel, TtAeiou avayeyevvriadai, eKKadofxevovs 

though the completion and fulfilment ^^5^ KaT6Tri(T6su aixapriwy. Piedagcg. 

ot the Jewish law, is not itself at )ih_ j^ , ;,p vi. ad fin. 

presvnt complete: this consummation h The. same comprehensive character 

is to take place hereafter, and with it ^jf Christian virtue is enlarged upon in 

the full ptrfec'ion of the (Jh.i.stian. Letter x. p. 72. 

The words of Clemens Alexand. on , j:)^ '' great,' 'extended,' as the 

Phil. 111. lo. are, Tckeiov nev eavrhi/ ^^' ^ ' . . j . 

7]yelTai, oTt dvn'jAAaKTat toZ -jvporepov context requires,— not elevated, aa 

^iov, %x^rai 56 ToC Kpelrrovos, ohx I-^sow renc ers it 

is ivyvd:cre. riX.^os, aA?C is rod reXelou ^ Ov a place of refreshment. 

' Or ' relreshed.' 

84 The universality of S. PauVs teaching. 

Letter Since we are thus circumstanced, my brethren, let us 

'- — never depart from the way of virtue ; but also that we 

1 Cor.iiji. should be such persons, he (St. Paul) exhorted, saying, Be 
ye followers of me, as I also am of Christ. For he not only 
gave this advice to the Corinthians — since he was not their 
1 Tim. 2, 7. Apostle alone — but also, since he was a teacher of the Gen^ 
tiles in faith and verity, us also, even all of us, he admo- 
nished by them ; and, in short, the things he wrote to each 
particular person are commandments common to all men"^. 
On this account, when he wrote to others, some he exhorted, 
as, for instance, in the Epistles to the Romans, and the 
Ephesians, and Philemon. Some he reproved, and was 
indignant with them, as in the case of the Corinthians and 
Galatians. But to some he gave advice, as to the Colossians 
and Thessalonians. The Philippians he approved of, and 
was made glad by them. The tiebrews he taught that the 
law was a shadow to them". But to his elect sons, Timothy 
and Titus, when they were near, he gave instruction ; when 
far away, he put them in remembrance. For he was all 
things to all men ; and being himself a perfect man, he 
adapted his teaching to the need of every one, so that by 
all means he might rescue some of them. Therefore his 
word was not without fruit; but, in every place, it is 
planted and productive even to this day. And wherefore, 
my beloved ? For it is necessary that we should search 
into the apostolic mind. Not oidy in the beginning of the 
Epistles, but also at their close, and in the middle of them, 
he used persuasions and admonitions. T hope, therefore, 
that by your prayers, I shall, in no respect, give a false 
representation of the plan of that holy man. As he was 
well skilled in these divine matters, and knew the power of 
the divine teaching, he deemed it necessary, in the first 
place, to make known the word concerning Christ, and the 
mystery regarding Him; and then afterwards to point to 
the correction of habits, so that when they had learned to 
know the Lord, they might readily acquiesce in the observ- 
ance of those things which He commanded. For when the 

"> Conf. Letter ii. p. 15. and Letter « Vid. note x to Letter vii. p. 62. 
iii. p. 28. 

The order to he observed in imparting religious instruction. 85 

Guide to the la\vs° is unknown, one does not readily pass A.D. 339. 
on to the observance of them. 

The faithful Moses, the minister of God, adopted this 
method ; for when he promulgated the words of the divine 
dispensation of laws, he first proclaimed the matters relating 
to the knowledge of God : Hear, Israel, the Lord thy Deut. 6, 4. 
God is one Lord. Afterw^ards, having shadowed Him forth 
to the people, and taught of Him in Whom they ought to 
believe, and informed their minds of Him Who is truly 
God ; then he further lays down the law relating to those 
things whereby a man may be well-pleasing to Him, saying, 
Thou shalf not commit adultery ; thou shall not steal; together 
with the other commandments. For also, according to the 
Apostolic teaching, ^(6 that draweth near to God must 6e-Heb. ii,6. 
Ueve that He is, and that He is a rewarder of them that seek 
Him. Now He is sought by means of virtuous deeds, as 
the prophet saith ; Seek ye the Lord, and when ye have Is. 55,6. 7, 
found Him, call upon Him; when He is near to you, let the 
ivicked forsake his ways, and the lawless man his thoughts. 
Tt will also be well if a man is not offended at the testimony 
of the Shepherd, saying in the beginning of his book. Before 
all things believe that there is one God, Who created and 
established all these things, and from non-existence called 
them into being^. And, further, the blessed Evangelists^ 

o Tlie Syr. here is .OOll-iJOllD ^'o'- i' ^^- 1724. The manner in which 

^ .. \ * tlie quotatTon is here introduced alludes 

|rr>oVf>1^ — o^riyhs twu v6ix(i}v — Conf. to wliat our Author sa}'^ more distinctly 

Sap. c. vi'i.v. 15. where it is said of elsewhere-that the book is not included 

n A " ' V - ^' 't ' ' in the Canon or Scripture. In the nrst 

J,. A- i.u ^ % • r- J 1 I J 4.U place referred to, it is styled 'a most 

denoting that it is Ood who leads the ' r i v i , ,> v ^x - /^ ^ / 

,.,„„ *-j c \ ■ \. u ii userul boos — oia oe tiis wAeAtacoTaTTjs 

wav to wisdom, of which He is the _,_, ^ „ , ' , ^,, ^ ', 

A.Ai „ „ J- , L .. i- 11 piB\ou rov Woia^ros. In the second 

uthor, according to what lollows — ^ ^ o » u • i • r ..i- 

..«! -- ^-^ 1! a I «„ fk ^. passage, S. Athan. is speaking ot the 

KOi Tuiv crocbujv Sino6ci3T7is. So. the ex- t, ,". ' ^ , ° , 

Kal ruiv (Tocpwv diopQwTjjs. So, the ex 
pression in this place is not only applied 

Eu>;ebiaps quoting the work, and says, 

to God as the Kramer of the laws, but '\^' ''^ n^'^^"' y^ypanra^' enuSoKal 

also as the directing Guide to the ob- -^"^^^ ««^ -"^^f"^ ,'»' IT .'^^'^ f*"^;?^ 

servanceofthem. npo<p.povcrL In the Epistle to the 

1' This passage from the Shepherd African bishops, the sentence in ques- 

of Hermas is quoted three other times ^.on is again introduced as quoted by 

by S. Athan. ^De Incarn. Verbi Dei the Eusebians. l^e Greek text the 

torn. i. p. 39. De Decret. Nic. Synod, ^^'^c translator had before h.m, as 

tom.i.p.lTG. AdAfrosEpiscop.Epist. ^VV^^'' '"! ^'^^^ ^,^°^'^ passages, runs 

torn. i. p. 715.) It occurs in Lib. ii. ^l'"^/ npcroz/ ^raurwu nlcrrevaou, on 

Mandat. i. ' Primum omnium, credere '^' ^^-"'^ ^ ®'^'' " 7 '^"r" «7"^«!,' '^"^ 

quod unus est Deus, qui omnia creavit Karapriaas, Ka\ woiV(Tas eKjov fiv outos 

et consummavit, et ex uihilo omnia "^ ^^ ^^^a* t« ^a""^"- 1 he same sen- 

fecit.' Vid.Cotel.Patt. Apostol.p. 85. tence is quoted by other fathers, as 

86 *S'. PauVs instructions to Timothy. 

Letter those who brought to remembrance the words of the Lord — 
'- — in the beginning of the Gospels, wrote the things concerning 

our Saviour ; so that, having first made known the Lord, 
the Creator, they might command belief, when narrating the 
events that took place. For how could they have been 
credited, when writing respecting him who [was blind] from 
his mother's vvomb, and those other blind men who recovered 
their sight, and those persons who rose from the dead, and 
the changing of water into wine, and those lepers who were 
cleansed; if they had not taught of Him as the Creator, 

John 1,1. writing. In the beginning was the Word^ Or, according to 
Matthew, that He Who was born of the seed of David, was 
Emmanuel, and the Son of the living God? He from Whom 
the Jews, with the Arians, turn away their faces, but Whom 
we acknowledge and worship. 

The Apostle, therefore, also, as was meet, sent to others; 

2 Tim. 3, but his own son he plainly reminded, that he should not 
des])ise the things in which he had been instructed by him. 

2 Tim. 2, 8. He also enjoined him: Remember Jesus Christ, who rose 
from the dead, of the seed of David, accordifig to my Gospel, 
But as he speaks of these things being delivered to him, to 
be always had in remembrance, so he immediately writes to 

1 Tim. 4, 5. him, saying, Meditate on these things: be engaged in them. 
For constant meditation, and the remembrance of divine 
words, strengthens piety towards God, and produces a love 
to Him inseparable and not merely formal i; as he (S. Paul) 
entertaining such feelings, speaks in behalf of himself and 

Rom. 8, 35. others like-minded, saying boldly. What shall separate us 
from the love of God? For they"" who are such, being con- 
firmed in the Lord, and possessing an unshaken disposition 

1 Cor.6,17. towards Him, and being one in spirit, (for he ivho is joined' 

well as by the Arians, who, however, was probably 07077^^ Trpbs a\n))v ax^}- 

perverted its meaning. In the frag- piarov koL ovk acpoaiov/j.euriv. Thig 

ment of the thirty-ninth epistle, the supposition would account for the 

' Shepherd' is also excluded from the Syriac misapprehension of the word. 
Canon. ^ r Xhe Syriac text from here to the 

1 The Syriac here rendered ' not words, ' There is also such a proverb 

merely formal' is ?l.rr>.> AVn "Q ^p ^^'h'j' ^^- ^^^^ ^^^" discovered 

^ ■■"'"• «-^ f, since Mr. Ciireton s edition of the 

which seems to take no other meaning Syriac. Vid. note y. Letter x. p. 71. 

than 'inexpiable' — a sense scarcely The Syriac will be found in the 

admissible in this place. The Greek Appendix. 

The unstable character of the wicked. 87 

to the Spirit is one spirit^,) are sure as the moutit Sion; and A. P. 339. 
although ten thousand trials may rage against them, they J'^- ^^^' }• 
are founded upon a rock, which is Christ*. In Him the Matt. 7, 26. 
careless take no delight ; and while they entertain no ima- 
ginations of good thoughts, they are sullied by temporal 
attacks, and esteem nothing more than the unstable things 
here, being reproachable as regards the faith. For either w.^\.tA:i, 
the care of this world, or the deceitfulness of riches, chokes ^^* 
them; or, as Jesus said in that parable which had reference 
to them, since they have not established the faith that has 
been preached to them, but are only for a time, immediately, 
in time of persecution, or when affliction arise th through 
the word, they are offended. Now of men of evil imagin- 
ations we say, [they regard] not truth, but falsehood; and 
not righteousness, but iniquity, for their tongue learneth to 
speak lies. They have done evil and have not ceased, that 
they might repent. For, persevering with delight in wicked 
actions, they hasten thereto without turning back, even 
treading underfoot the commandment with regard to neigh- 
bours, and, instead of loving them, devise evil against them, 
as the saint* testifies, saying. And those who seek me evil Vs. 33, 12. 
have sjjoken vanity, and imagined deceit all the day. But 
that the cause of such meditation is none other than the 
want of instruction, the divine proverb has already declared ; 
The son that for saketh the commandment of his father medi- 
tateth evil ivords^. But for such meditation as this, inasmuch 
as it is evil, the Holy Spirit chides in these, and reproves 
too in other terms, saying. Your hands are polluted with U. 59, 3. 4. 
blood, your fingers with sins ; your lips have spoken lawless- 
ness, and your tongue imagineth iniquity: no man speaketh 
right things, nor is there true judgment. But what the end 
is of such perverse imagining. He immediately declares, 
saying. They trust in vanities and speak falsehood; for they T.s,59,4. 5. 
conceive mischief, and bring forth lawlessness. They have 

» The proper reading of the text is, adversity can overttirow, according to 

He that is joined uato the Lord is that, Who shall separate its from the 

one Spirit.' The Peschi to version adds love of Christ .^ Catena Aurea, vol. i. 

' with Him' — is one spirit with Him. p. 292. ed. Oxford, 1841. 

' Conf. Pseudo-Chrys. 'As the " Vid. note k. Letter v. p. 39. 

Church built by Christ cannot be * The exact words do not occur in 

thrown down, so any such Christian Scripture. The quotation is probably 

who has built himself upon Christ no made up of more than one provtrb. 

88 The den'ujm of .sinners recoil upon themselves; 

Le^teu hatched the eggs of an asp, and woven a spider's iveh; and he 
'— who is prepared to eat of their eggs, when he breaks them 
finds gall, and a basilisk therein, but, again, what the hope 
Isaiah 59, of such is, He has already announced. Because righteous- 
ness does not overtake them, ivhen they ivaited for light, they 
had darkness; when they waited for brightness, they ivalked 
in a thick cloud. They shall grope for the wall like the blind, 
and as those who have no eyes shall they grope; they shall 
fall at noon-day as at midnight; ivhen dead, they shall groan. 
They shall roar together as a bear, or [mourn'] as a dove. 

This is the fruit of wickedness ; these rewards are given 

to those that employ it; for perverseness does not deliver 

those who regard it. But, in truth, against them it opposes 

Itself, and before them it tears, and rather prepares for 

them harm. Woe to them against whom these are borne ! 

Heb.4, 12. for it is sharper than a two-edged sword, slaying beforehand 

those who will lay hold of it. For their tongue, according 

P- w,5. to the testimony of the Psalmist, is a sharp sword, and their 

teeth spears and arrowsy. But the wonderful part is that 

while often he against whom men imagine [harm] suffers 

nothing, they are pierced by their own spears: for they 

possess, even in themselves, before they reach others, anger, 

wrath, malice, guile, hatred, bitterness. Although they 

may not be able to bring these upon others, they forthwith 

return upon and against themselves, as the Psalmist prays, 

Ps.37, 10. saying. Let their sword enter into their own heart\ There 

Prov.5.22. is also such a proverb as this: The icicked is encircled by the 

chain of his sins. 

The Jews in their imaginings, and in their agreeing to 
act unjustly against the Lord, forgat that they were 
brmgmg wrath upon themselves. Therefore also does the 
P^«. 2, 1. [divine] word lament for them, saying. Why do the people 
exalt themselves, and the nations imagine vain things? For 
vam indeed was the imagination of the Jews, meditating 
death against the Life% and devising unreasonable things 

these words to the conduct of ttjt r.^/r^o Z^' ' ""^"^"' ^"'^ 

against our Lord in puitins Him to "^^^''^..^^^^^'^^f^,^""- 
d?arh, as he also does here^ J^'" P^'"^'^,"^ clause of this senteDc-e 

- Conf. S. Athan. Expos.'in Psalmo. T '""'" '° determine, that by ' Life' 

Ti Sd4 ' ' w. ' /^l^^--'" ys^^imos, here we must understand Christ 
p. 644. n) po,u(paia avrwv ela4\doi eis '■-anst. 

instanced in the case of the Jews. 89 

against the Word of the Father^. For who that looks A,D.339. 
upon their dispersion, and the desolation of their city, may 
not aptly say, TVoe unto them, for they have imagined a/2 Is. 3, 9.10. 
evil imagination, saying against their oivn soul, let us hind 
the righteous man, because he is not pleasing to us\ And 
full well is it so, my brethren ; for when they erred con- 
cerning the Scriptures, they knew not that he who diggeth ^cc].lO,s. 
a pit for his neighbour falleth therein; and he who destroy eth 
a hedge, a serpent shall bite him. And if they had not 
turned their faces from the L.ord, they would have feared 
what was before written in the divine Psalms : The heathen Ps. 9, 15. 
are caught in the pit which they made ; in the snare which ^ 
they hid is their own foot taken. The Lord is knoivn when 
executing judgments: by the works of his hands is the sinner 
taken. Let them observe this, and bow that the snare they Ps. 35, 8. 
know not shall come upon them, and the net they hid take 
them. But they understood not tbese things, for had they 
done so, they ivould not have crucified the Lord of glory. iCot.2,S. 
Therefore the righteous and faithful servants of the Lord, 
who are made disciples for the kingdom of heaven, and bring Mat.13,52. 
forth from it things new and old; and who meditate on the Bent. 6, 7. 
ivords of the Lord, when sitting in the house, when lying down 
or rising up, and when walking by the way ; — since they are 
of good hope because of the promise of the Spirit which 
said, Blessed is the man that hath not ivalked in the counsel Ps. l, l. 
of the ungodly, nor stood in the way of sinners, nor sat in the 
seat of corrupters ; but his delight is in the law of the Lord, 
and in His law doth he meditate day arid night; — being 
grounded in faith, rejoicing in hope, fervent in spirit ^ they 

.. V "JaV V •' W quoted again in the 19th Letter. The 

b Syr. X^^SIIDQ^ (A\a.^^. |J latter part occurs also in Wisd. ii. 12. 

lol-s'rflAVvn ". V - A^ where, however, we find 'E^eSpeufraAiej/ 

J-if5 C\L\^^ aKoya Kara rov A6yov .^ ^^^^^ of AVc^e*'. Conf. Qasstiones 

Tov UarpSs. Conf. Suicer. Thes. s. v. g^j Antiochum apud Athan. torn. ii. 

"AAo'/os torn. i. p. 199. The term p 250. §. 8. Uepl 8e t-^u dea-jj-wy, oov 

aKoyoL is appl'ed by Epiphanius to one ^Sr^aau rhu XpiJ-Thv, Aeyet TaKaviCav 

class of heretics. ^acxKovcn ro'ivvv oi rj-ovs 'lovSaiovs 'Haaias oirpocpriTTis' oval 

&\oyoL' ravrr\v yap avrots riOTjfxi rT]v ^^ \pvxv avrciu, Siort i^ovX^vaavro 

i-Kcai^vi-dau — iirel ovv rhu Xoyou oh 8e- ^o^x^p ivovripav KaO' kavTu^v, Aeyoi/res. 

XovTai rhu irapa 'Ic^avvov KeKT]pvy^hov ^ff^/j^^y rhu SUaiou. 
^Ao7o:K:Ar,9-Vo«'Taz.Epiph op.(H£eres. _^^lk h^Q'^ 'in spirit 

Ii.) Par. 1022. torn. i. p. 423. ^J"^' ^-fc-^*^' Jj^Ur-J i' 

^ This passage is fouad in the L XX. fervent,' as in Bom. xii. J 1.— not * ex- 
version of Isaiah, c. iii. v. 9, 10. It is uiting,' as Prof. Larsow renders it. 


00 God the comfort of the fious in time of affliction. 

Letter have boldness « to say, Mij mouth shall speak of ivisdom, and 
Vl.\i\-s~ ^^^^ meditation of my heart shall he of understanding. And 
Ps. 143, 5. again, / have meditated on all Thy works, and on the work 
Ps. Q'd, 6. of Thy hands has been my meditation. And, If I have re- 
membered Thee on my bed, and in the morning have meditated 
on Thee. Afterwards, advancing in boldness^, they say, 
Ps. 19, 5. 2%^ meditation of my heart is before Thee at all times. And 
he immediately after introduces us to the end of such an 
Psi9, 15. one, saying. The Lord is my Helper and my Redeemer. 
For to those who thus examine themselves, and conform 
their hearts to the Lord, nothing adverse shall happen ; for, 
indeed, their heart is strengthened by confidence in the 
axx ' ^* "^^^^' ^^ ^^ ^^ written. They who trust in the Lord [shall be] 
vers.) as the mount Sion: he who dwelleth in Jerusalem shall not be 
moved for ever. For if, at any time, the crafty one shall be 
presumptuously bold against them, chiefly that he may 
break the rank of the saints, and cause a division among 
brethren ; even in this they look to the Lord, not only as 
an avenger on their behalf, but also, when they have al- 
ready been beaten, as a deliverer for them. For this is the 
Exod. 14, divine promise; The Lord shall fight for you. 

And further, although afflictions and trials from without 

overtake them, yet, being fashioned after the apostolic 

Rom. 12, words, and being stedfast in tribulations, and perseveriiig in 

prayers; by meditation, moreover, on the law; they stand 

against those things which befall them, are well-pleasing to 

God, and give utterance to the words which areWritten, 

Ps^1j9, Afflictions and distresses are come upon us; hut Thy com- 

7nandments are my meditation. And whereas, not only in 

action, but also in the thoughts of the mind, do men attend 

Ps^n9, to deeds of virtue, he afterwards adds, saying. Mine eyes 

prevent the daivn, that I might meditate on Thy words. For 

it is meet that the spiritual meditations of those who are 

whole should precede their bodily actions. And does not 

our Saviour, when intending to convey similar instruction, 

Matt.5,28. begin with the thoughts of the mind? saying. Whosoever 

looketh on a woman to lust after her, hath already committed 

' Syr. Tva^p-naia. f Syr. ira^'p-qaia. 

The wicked perverse in thouyht and deed. 91 

adultery : and, Whosoever shall be angry ivith his brother^, A. P. 839. 
lis guilty of murder. For where there is no wrath, murder is ^^^".5,22. 
j prevented ; and where lust is first removed, there can be no 
I crime connected with adultery. 

I Necessary then is meditation on the law, and uninter- 
rupted converse with virtue, that the saint may lack nothing, iTim.3,17. 
but be perfect to every good ivork. For by these things is 
the promise of eternal life, as Paul wrote to Timothy, 
calling constant meditation exercise, and saying, Exercise \^T\m.i, 
[thyself unto godliness; for bodily exercise projlteth little;^- 
\but godliness is profitable for all things, since it has the 
\promise of the 2^resent life, and of that which is eternal. 
i Worthy, indeed, of admiration is the virtue of that man, 
my brethren! for, through Timothy, he also enjoins upon 
all^ the necessity of devoting the mind to nothing in pre- 
ference to godliness ; yet, above every thing, to determine 
upon faith in God. For what favour has the perverse man 
to expect, though he may fancy he keeps the commandments? 
Nay, rather, the perverse man is unable even to keep a 
portion of the law; for, as is his conscience, such, of 
necessity, must be his actions ; as also the Spirit reproves 
such, saying. The fool hath said in his heart, there is no God. Ps. 14, 1. 
After this, the Word, shewing that actions correspond with 
the thoughts, says, They are corrupt ; they are profane mPs. 14,2. 
their machinations. The perverse man, then, is in every 
respect corrupt in his body ; stealing, committing adultery, 
cursing, being drunken, and doing such like things. Even 
as Jeremiah, the prophet, convicteth Israel of these things, 
crying out and saying, Oh, that I had a lodge far off in the jer. 9, 2. 
wilderness! then would I leave my people and depart from 
them: for they are all adulterers, an assembly of oppressors, 
icho draw out their tongue as a bow; lying and not truth has 
prevailed upon the earth, and they proceed from iniquities to 
iniquities; but Me they have not known. Thus, on account 

? The word ^ikt^ is omitted here, Christians, to the end of time. Conf. 

as in the Vdgate, ^thiopic. and Letter ii. p. 14 and Letter in p. 2o. 

Arabic. S. Jerome among the Fa- al.o Athan. ad Imp. Const. Apol. torn ». 

thers, also rejects it. The Mss. for p. 247. 'O fxaKapios aiz6aToXos UavXos 

the m'ost part, contain it. e/ccicrT^ ^M^" ^I'a jov t^aOvrod Trap-fjy- 

h Any command given to a Christian, yeiAe, Ae7c.;f fiv a/xcAet k. t. » 
as such, is equally applicable to all 



92 The close connexion between faith and godliness. 

of their wickedness and falsehood, and their deeds, in that 
^lL_they proceed from iniquity to iniquity, he reproves their 
machinations ; but, because they knew not the Lord, and 
were faithless, he charges them with perverseness. For 
faith and godliness are allied to each other, and sisters ; and 
he who believes in Him is godly, and he also who is godly, 
believes the more^ He therefore who is in a state of 
wickedness, undoubtedly also erreth from the faith ; and he 
who falleth from godliness, falleth from the true faith. 
Paul, for instance, bearing testimony to the same point, 

2 Tim. 2, advises his disciple, saying, Avoid profane conversations ; for 

' ^' tliey rather advance in ungodliness^ and their tvord doth eat 

as doth a canker, of whom are Hijmenceus and Philetus, 

In what their perverseness consisted he declares, saying, 

2 Tim. 2, Who have erred from the faith, saying that the resurrection 
is already pastK But again, desirous of shewing that faith 

2 Tim. 3, is yoked with godliness, the Apostle says. And all those 

^^* ivho will live godly in Jesus Christ shall suffer persecution. 

Afterwards, that no man should renounce godliness through 
persecution, he counsels them to preserve the faith, adding, 

2 Tim. 3, Thou, therefore, contimie in the things thou hast learned, and 
hast been assured of. And as when brother is helped by 
brother, they become as a wall to each other ; so faith and 
godliness, being of kindred growth, hang together ; and he 
who is occupied in the one, of necessity is strengthened by 
the other. Therefore, wishing the disciple to be exercised 
in godliness unto the end, and to contend in faith, he 

1 Tim. 4, 7. counsels them, saying. Fight the good fight of faith, and lay 
hold on eternal life. For if a man first put away the 
perverseness of idols, and properly confesses Him Who is 
truly God, he also then fights by faith with those who war 
against him. For of these two things we speak of — faith 
and godliness — the hope is the same, even everlasting life; 

1 Tim. 4, for he saith. Fight the goodfght of faith; lay hold on eternal 
life. And, exercise thyself unto godliness, for it hath the 
promise of the life that now is, and of that which is to 

* Conf. John vii. 17. ' If any man doctrine. 
will do Hi8 will, he shall know of the k Conf. Letter ii. p. 18, &c. note p. 


The erroneous doctrines of the Avians. 93 

For this cause, the Avio-maniacs', who now have gone A.D.339. 
out from the Church, being opposers of Christ, have digged 
a pit of unbelief, into which they themselves have been 
thrust; and, since they have advanced in ungodliness, they 
overthrow the faith of the simple; blaspheming the Son of Rom. 16, 
God, and saying that He is a creature, and has His being 
from things which are not'\ But as then against the ad- 
herents of Philetus and Hymena[?us", so now the Apostle 
forewarns all men against ungodliness like to theirs, saymg, 
The foundation of God standeth sure, having this seal, The 2 Tim. 2, 
Lord knoiveth them that are His; and. Let every one that 
nameth the name of the Lord depart from, iniquitij. For it 
is well that a man should depart from wickedness and deeds 
of iniquity, that he may be able properly to celebrate the 
feast; for he who is defiled with the pollutions of the wicked 
is not able to sacrifice the Passover to the Lord our God. 
Thence, also, the people who were then in Egypt said. We Exod. 8, 
cannot sacrifice the Passover in Egypt to the Lord our God. 
For God, Who is over all, willed that they should go far 
away from the servants of Pharaoh, and from the furnace of 
iron; so that being set free from wickedness, and having 
carefully put away from them all strange notions, they 
might be recipients of the knowledge of God and virtuous 
deeds. For He saith. Go far from them: depart from the 2Cor.6,\ 
midst of them, and touch not the unclean things. For a man 
will not otherwise depart from sin, and lay hold on virtuous 
deeds, than by meditation on his acts; and when he has 
been practised by exercise in godliness, he will lay hold on 
the reward of the confession of faith"; which also Paul, 

1 Vid. note t, to Letter x. p. 77- been previously made by §• Alexander 

m KT.Va, KoX e| ovK iuTo^v flua^ rhu in his Encyclic Epistle. Vu\. Socrates 

vlhu ToG 0€oG (L.) In Orat. ii. contra H. E. lib. i. cap. 0. 

Ar. p. 384. §. 19. we find the Arians o The Syriac jAujOA.^ >Q>*P 

paying to S. Alexander, of the Son, n ; ^^-, .^.^p-,, *to require this 

KTia/ia e(rr\v, a\\' ovx i>s ej/ -raiv aria- ^^tu:a-u»wi; 

naTU}v. In other places, the words ,j,jj.^,iing_']j^5QjiD is ' a confessor.' 

they use respecting Him are i^ovK " • ^ ^^^ translation of 

S::;;t.^5?r^yn:p"io7!t-6.^ ^^^ ^i^^:r^^;z:^^ 

Dire 5 18. Aaius afterwards as- (conl. Heb iv. 140, »n'l ''"' »« "'" ' 

VxetL ,l„c.rir,eof .be creation of understand te P--;-<„ -'f^„„t 

the Son ' out of nothing' more boldly ; tachcd to taith. '^•^^^^"V^'"*' . . 

Itnce his followers were denon,ina,ed ^^^^^ ^X^^^^^X 

'^i"T\^::4l';toTpaH::;;-f.beAria., ^%::L.. y^'. 'tex. i„ no. 

with HymeoKus and Philetua bad Teit. 8. v. OfcoAo7f«- 

04 Christians in all parts united in spirit. 

Letter after he had fought the fight, possessed, namely, the crown 
— ^—^ — of righteousness which was laid up; which the righteous 
Judge will give, not to him alone, but to all who are like 

For meditation like this, and exercise in godliness, since 
it was always familiar to the saints, should be familiar to 
us also, at such a time as the present, when the divine 
word requires us to keep the feast with them. For what 
is the feast, but the constant w^orship of God, and the 
recognition of godliness, and unceasing? prayers, with con- 
cord, from the whole heart ? In this manner, Paul, wishing 
iThess. 5, us to be thus disposed, enjoins, ^siying, Rejoice evermore; 
pray unthout ceasing; in every thing give thanks. Not, 
therefore, in a divided manner, but unitedly and collectively, 
let us all keep the feast together, as the prophet exhorts, 
Ps. 95, 1. saying, O come, let us rejoice in the Lord; let us make a 
joyful noise unto God our Saviour. Who then is so negligent, 
or who so disobedient to the divine command, as not to 
forsake every thing, and run to the general and common 
assembly of the feast ? w^hich is not in one place only, for 
Ps. 19, 4. not one place alone keeps the feast ; but- into all the earth 
their song has gone forth, and to the ends of the world their 
Mai. 1, 11. words. And the sacrifice is not oflfered in one place, but in 
every nation, incense and a pure sacrifice is offered unto 
God. When in this united manner from all those who are 
in every place, praise and prayer shall ascend to the gracious 
and good Father; when the Catholic Church, which is in 
every place, with gladness and rejoicing, celebrates together 
the same worship to God ; when all men in common send 
up a song of praise and say, Amen^; how blessed will it not 
be, my brethren ! who will not, at that time, be engaged, 
praying devoutly ? For even the walls of every adverse 
power, yea even of Jericho especially, falling down, and the 
giff of the Holy Spirit being then richly poured upon all 

P Vid. note e, to Letter iii. p. 23. r Conf. Letter x. p. G8. and note i. 

also Letter vn. p. 57. Vid. also John vii. 39. Rom. v. 9. 

q tor a parallel passage to this in John .xx. 22. S. Chrysostom (Horn li 

b. Atnan vid. Letter x. p. 68. and 2.) says that the enmity of the flesh 

note 1. The correspondence is there must be first removed, and v^^e must be 

more marked by reference to the same made the friends of God, in order that 

feenpture: ^cre by the general mode of we may be capable of'receiv'no the 

expression. gift of the Holy Spirit. 

The party of Eusehlus contend agahiat S. Athan. 95 

men, every man perceiving the coming of the Spirit sliall A.D. 3:i<) 
say, We are all filled in the morning ivith Thy favour, a)id Ps. 9o, 14". 
we rejoice and are made glad in our days. 

Since then these things are so, let us make a joyful noise 
with the saints, and let no one of us fail of his duty in these 
things; thinking nothing of the affliction or the trials wliicli, 
especially at this time, have been enviously directed against 
us by the party of Eusebius. They even now wish to 
injure us, and, by their accusations, to compass our death, 
on account of godliness, whose defender is the Lord. But, 
as faithful servants of the Lord, (since ye know that there is 
salvation for us in the time of trouble ; for our Lord also 
promised, saying. Blessed are ye when men revile you and Matt. 5, 
persecute you, and say all manner of evil against you falsely, ^'" ^^' 
for My sake. Rejoice, and he exceeding glad, for your 
reivard is great in heaven. Again, it is the word of the 
Redeemer, that affliction shall not befall every man in this 
world, but only those who have a holy fear of Him,) — on 
this account, the more the enemies afflict us, the more 
should we be enlarged*; although they revile us, we should 
still contend'; and in proportion as they would turn us 
aside from godliness, we shovdd boldly" preach it, saying, 
All these thinys are come upon us, yet have we not forgotten Ph. 44, 17. 
Thee. And we have not acted perversely with the Ario- 
maniacs'', who say that Tliou hast existence from those 
things that exist not. The Word, which is eternally with 
the Father, is also from Him. 

Let us therefore keep the feast, my brethren, celebrating 
it not as worthy of grief and mourning ; neither let us be 
confounded with heretics through temporal troubles brought 
upon us by godliness. But if any thing that would promote 
joy and gladness should offer, let us attend to it; so that 
our heart may not be sad, like that of Cain; but that, like 
faithful and good servants of the Lord, we may hear the 
words, Enter into the joy of thy Lord. For we do not .Mat.2.'>,2l. 

' Vid. supra, note d, p. 87. tempted, to renounce our profession, 

t For .AIOAJ ' collect ourselves boldly to propose its acceptance by 

A A others. 

together,' I read ^L\OLJ ' contend.' u ^^i-i ira^fi-nffias. 

In afflictions, we are to rejoice; when * Conf. supra, p. 06. and note a ; also 

reviled, to contend for the faith; when Letter x. p. 77. note t. 

96 The Avians and the Jews equally opposed to Christ. 

Letter introduce days of mourning and sorrow, as a man may con- 

— '- — sider those of the Passover to be ; but we keep the feast, 

being filled with joy and gladness. We keep it then, not 
regarding it after the deceitful error of the Jews ; nor 
according to the teaching of the Arians, which takes away 
the Son from the Godhead, and numbers Him among crea- 
tures ; but as viewing it according to the correct doctrine 
we derive from the Lord. For the deceitful error of the 
Jews, and the unbounded impiety of the Arians, involve 
nothing but sad reflections. The former, indeed, commenced 
with killing the Lord ; the latter remove the occasion 
of His conquering that death which was brought upon Him 
by the Jews, in that they say He is not the Creator, but a 
creature. For if He were a creature. He would have been 
holden by death ; but if He was not holden by death, as 
the Scriptures aver, He is not a creature, but the Lord of 
the creatures, and the substance ^ of this immortal feast. 
For the Lord of death w^ould abolish death ; and being 
Lord, what He would was accomplished; for we have all 
passed from death unto life. But the imagination of the 
Jews, and of those who are like them, was vain in regard to 
Him, since the result was not such as they contemplated, 
Ps. 2, 4. but turned out adverse to themselves ; and at them He that 
sitteth i7i the heave?! shall laugh: the Lord shall have them 
m derision. Farther, when our Saviour was led to death, 
He restrained the women who followed Him weeping, 
Luke 23, saying unto them. Weep not for Me ; meaning to shew that 
^^* the Lord's death is an event, not of sorrow, but of joy, and 

that He Who dies for us, is alive. For He does not derive 
His being from those things which are not, but from the 

It truly is a subject of joy, that we can see the signs of 
victory against death, even our own incorruptibility, through 
the body of the Lord. For since He rose gloriously, it is 
clear that the resurrection of all of us will take place ; and 
since His body remained without corruption, there can be 
Rom. 5, no doubt regarding our incorruption^ For as by one man, 

12. 18. 

y Syr. vTr6Qi<ns. 'Christ our Pass- Dei,p. 73. §. 50.tis SeiiAAosTrepl a^aj/a- 

over.' Cont. Letter x. p. 68. note h. cias ovrios iiria-TwaaTo rohs avOpccirovs, 

2 Conf. S. Athan. de Incam. Verbi us r} rov Xpia-rov (Travphs, Kal rj toO 

Christ to he eagerly received as sustenance. 97 

as saith Paul, (and it is the truth,) sin passed upon all men, A .P. 339. 

so by the resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ, we shall 

all rise. For, he says, this corruptible must put on incor- i Ccr. 15, 

ruption, and this mortal must put on immortality. But this 

took place in the time of the Passion, in which also our 

Lord died for us, for our Passover, Christ, is sacrificed, i Cot. 5,7. 

Therefore, because He was sacrificed, let each of us feed 

upon Him, and with alacrity and diligence partake of His 

sustenance ; since He is given to all without grudging, and 

is in every one a well of water flowing to everlasting life, John 4, 14. 

We begin the fast of forty days on the ninth of the month 
Phamenoth (Mar. 5.); and having, in these days, served the 
Lord with abstinence, and first purified ourselvcs% we also 
commence the holy Easter on the fourteenth of the month 
Pharmuthi (April 9.) Afterwards, extending the fast to 
the seventh day, on the seventeenth of the month, let us 
rest late in the evening. And the light of the Lord having 
before dawned upon us, the first day of the week will 
illumine us, on which our Lord arose. It behoves us, then, 
to rejoice and be glad with the joy which arises from good 
works, during the seven weeks which remain— to Pentecost 
—giving glory to the Father, and saying. This is the day P^.u?,2i. 
which the Lord hath made: tee will rejoice and be glad in it, 
through our Lor.l and Saviour Jesus Christ, through Whom 

(Tw^iaTOS audaraais avrou; Ag^\n,Tp. 53. ^f ^j^.j^ .' is 12qD1> ! • » V w^i'c'i 
§. •22. TovTo yap ^ju Kcna rov davarov -' ' '• ' 

Tp6TTaiQV Ta6rw iinSei^aaeai iraai, Koi is most liktlv the translation o{ Tp6naia 

■KdvrasTnaTd'aaaeaiT^uTvapahTodyevo- n'/CTjs- By faith, we look u^on Christ 

ufwnu T?,s (bBopds aTTdXei^^ii', Kul Aonrhu crufitied, and see in His cross the 

r^u rwv a<.ixdTcc. iL<peap<Tiau, h -^ucnu trophy He has erected against the 

&a^.p i.4xvpou Ka\ t^'-P^^M" rf,. inl great enemy whom he has suhdued. 

■.duras iao^^U a.aardaem rer^pvKeu \Ne see further in t he g or.ous 

&cpeapro. rh lavroD .d-^«. The word results of that victory, ^-^ ^^ °"". 

rp6.L. is used by S. Athan. in other deliv> ^ance from death and our re u 

passaues of this treatise with reference rection to eternal ''J*^' f^^"*;,f 4' •',-.• 

I the crucihxion of Christ, and is ^heophdus, the predecessor .f ^C>H^ 

applied^by him to the crc.s itsel. Yid. einjd,^ '^:,;::!V^ZZ^Z 'h^ 

l^t^-^^loT^^ifst^^ [:;:;l'tl.;:^^oUfS^Jerome. Igi.ur 

?^;ce ;^ tht reilii/rection of Christ, dominicum l>ascha^eUbrantes,_sancn8 

1 — rb Tp6t - 
;.dfiea>s. Coteh tom. ii. p. 113. ed. Amst. 1646. 
1724. The Syriac here rendered ' signs > ^ ul note k, Letter m. p. o. 

98 Conclusion. 

Letter to the same, and to His Father, be glory and dominion for 
— ^ — ever and ever. Amen. 

Salute one another with a holy kiss. All the brethren 

who are with me salute you. That ye may have health in 

the Lord, I pray, brethren beloved. 

Here endeth the eleventh Letter of holy Athanasius. 

To the Beloved Brother , and our fellow-labourer in the 
Ministry y Serapion^. 

Thanks be to Divine Providence for those things which, 
at all times, it vouchsafes to us; for it has vouchsafed to us 
now also to come to the season of the festival. Having, 
therefore, according to custom, written the Letter respecting 
the festival, 1 have sent it to thee, our beloved; that through 
thee all the brethren also may be able to know the day of 
rejoicing. But because some Meletians, being come from 
Syria, have boasted that they had received what does not 
belong to them ; I mean, that even they were reckoned in 
the Catholic Church; on this account, I have sent unto 
thee a copy of one letter of our fellow-labourers in the 
ministry^ w^ho are of Palestine, that when it reaches thee, 
thou mayest know the fraud of the pretenders in this matter. 
For because they boasted, as I have said before, it was 
necessary for me to write to the Bishops who are in Syria; 
and immediately those of Palestine sent us a reply, having 
coincided in^ the judgment against them in the manner you 
may learn from the copy. That thou mayest not have 
occasion to peruse the letters of all the Bishops one after 
the other, I have sent thee [only] one, which is of like 
character with the rest, in order that from it, thou mayest 

• This Letter being introduced, (a. there are ^^^ ^l^/ ^^"^^V^jf^"* ^" 

it is in the Ms.) after the eleventh, with the works of S. ^than as well a^ one 

the remark at the end of it, that there on the subjec of the death of Ar>us^ 

is no twelfth; together with the ex- This last is add. essed,2.pcx7r.c...a5eX^V 

hortations concerning fasting contained koX crvKK^irovpyv ^^ Ki/piy. he ex- 

in it; we can have little doubt that it pression rendered in the ext tellow- 

bears the same date as the eleventh, labourer in the ministry Cl.t. ^on of 

and may suppose that it was sent ou'" "^i'"^^^^;> ^:?:! P^^^^,*^^ ^^^^^^^^ 

together with it. This point regarding cvKK.novn'is. ^^^^--^"^ f °° f,f ''r 

the date is of importance in the identi- Letter is given nearly ,n the words of 

fication of the names of the Bishops Mr. Cureton, in his preface to the 

mentioned at the close of it. Serapion, Syriac text. 

to whom it is addressed, we may con- ^ trvWenovpyo , j„^^nt » 

elude to be the same of that name, who c Qr, 'fulfilled the judgment, 

was Bishop of Thmuis, and to whom Cureton. 

H 2 

100 Neglect of the Lenten Fast a disgrace to Christians, 

know the purport of all of them. I know also that when 
they are convicted in this matter, they will incur perfect 
odium at the hands of all men. And thus far concerning 
the pretenders. 

But I have farther deemed it highly necessary and very 
urgent, to make known to your modesty — for I have written 
this to each one — that thou shouldest proclaim the fast of forty 
days to the brethren, and persuade them to fast; to the end 
that, while all the world is fasting, w^e who are in Egypt 
should not become a laughing-stock, as the only people who 
do not fast, but take our pleasure in these days. For if w^e 
do not fast, because the Letter is [only] then read, it is 
right that we should take away this pretext also, and that 
it be read before the fast of forty daj^s, so that they may 
not make this an excuse for neglect of fasting. Also, when 
it is read, they may be able to learn respecting the fast. 
But, O, our beloved, whether in this way or any other, 
exhort and teach them to fast forty days. For it is even a 
disgrace that when all the world does this, those alone who 
are in Egypt, instead of fasting, should find their pleasure. 
For even I also, being grieved because men make a laugh- 
ing-stock of us for this, have been constrained thus to write 
to thee. When thou, therefore, receivest the letters, and 
hast read them and given the exhortation, write to me in 
return, our beloved, that I also may rejoice upon learning 



But I have also thought it necessary to inform you of 

d There is a similar notification of similar ending to his third Paschal 

the appointment of fresh Bishops, ap- Letter. Indeed, some such form ap- 

pended to the nineteenth Letter. Theo- pears to have becomecustomary, where- 

philus, the predecessor of S. Cyril in by the ordaining Bishops notified to the 

the see of Alexandria, at the close of different districts the appointment of 

his first Paschal Letter, as translated those whom they ordained to any 

by b Jerome, imitates ». Athanasius diocese. The Primate of Alexandria, 

in this respect adopting almost his as we know, had the sole privilege of 

viry words. 5^alutate invicem in os- ordaining all the suffragan Bishops, 

cu o sancvo fealutant vos omnes qui Probably the Paschal Letters, being 

s^r hin^, /r '•';• ^' ^'' "^^-^-^ario sent annually, became, by degrees, th! 

beaH FH^^ .sciatis pro Sanctis et ordinary channel of such communica- 

mi. nt 'nT/T ^"' '° ^"°;'"" ^"^- *^^^- ^"^'l^ ^^« the case, as we have 

mo H^ L . 1^ "' '''"' o- Lemnado «een, with two out of the three Letters 

b te et ^^ T-;-' •"r'^^^'"- «fTheophilus, which are extant. Va- 

Ecc'e n ll n '^ ' ^7'^'^' J"^''^ '^^'"^ '^y'^ (Observat. in Socrat. H. E. 

bl oth : Vett Pat't'^a p''"" , ^^- ^'''' ""• ^^ ^^'^ ^otanda est diligens 

n < 4 ed P ;J^ ;w^ 'fu" '■°': '"• ^^"^^^^^ sanctorum patrum, qui depositd 

p. Ji. ed. Pan., 10.0. 1 here is a ha^retico sacerdote, nomeii cath.lici 

Names of recenlly appointed Bishops with their dioceses. 101 

the fact, that Bishops have succeeded those wlio have fallen 
asleep. In Tanis, in the stead of Elias, is Theodoruse. 
In Arsenoitis, Silvanus^ instead of Calosiris. In Paralus, 
Nemesion is instead of Nonnus '. In Bucolia'' is Ileraclius. 
In Tentyra, Andronicus is instead of Saprion^ his father. 

episcopi qui in ejus locum substitutus 
fuerat, cunctis episcopis significant, ut 
scilicet sciant, a quo ecclesiasticas 
litteras accipere, et ad quem scribere 
debeant. — Sed et quoties mortuis epis- 
copis alii in eoruni locum t'ueiant ordi- 
nati, eorum nomina reliquis episcopis 
indicare consueverat ordinator, ut 
scirent ad quo? scribere, et a quibus 
pacificas literas accipere deberent, 
ut discimus ex Theopbili epistolis 
paschalibus. The Greek of what is 
rendered in the text, ' so that to these 
you may write, and from these receive 
the canonical Letters,' is, according to 
what we find in the passage of Socrates 
referred to above ; (which passage is an 
extract of a Letter of the Council of 
Antioch, on the subject of the deposi- 
tion of Paul of Samosata, and the ap- 
pointment of Domnus in his stead;) 
0TV03S rovTOis ypdcpTjTf, Kal to. Trapa 
TovTCjv KavoviKO. Sex^JcT^e ypa.jjifx.aT a (or, 
Tas KavoviKas iTnaroXas. Can. viii. 
Concil. Antioch.) Such Letters were 
called by the Latins, commiinicatorice 
litterce. The epithet dp-qviKaX was also 
applied to them. Vid. Zonar. Observat. 
apud Bever. Synod, torn. i. p. 438. So 
in the quotation from Theophilus, given 
iibove, we find pacificas— litteras. 
Tertullian makes mention of such 
Letters. De Prspscript. adv. Hseret. 
cap. 20. Communicatio pacis et ap- 
pellatio fraternitatis et contesseratio 
hospita'.itatis, quse jura non alia ratio 
regit, quam ejusdem sacramenti una 

e In the Apologia contra Ar. Athan. 
Op. torn. i. p. 133. we have a list of 
ninety-four Egyptian Bishops, among 
others, who were present at the Coun. il 
of Sardica. As this was held A. D. 
347. we might naturally expect to find 
among them some of the names of those 
mentioned above as recently appointed. 
A reference to this list has enabled me 
to give, with a degree of certainty, some 
names which otherwi>e would have been 
more obscure, and which have been 
mistaken by Prof. Larsow. For a list 
of the Egyptian Bishoprics, the reader 
is referred to Neale's Hist, of the 

Holy Eastern Church. Gen. Introd. 
vol. i. p. 115, 116. To the list there 
given must be added the names of 
Bucolia, Stathma, the Eastern Gary- 
athis, the Southern Garyathis. The 
mention of the last two would favour 
the supposition that there were also 
Bishoprics in the Western and the 
Northern Garyathis. The Synac of 
the word given in the text * Elias' is 

*SP | ■■ N ^|. This name is doubtless 
to be taken thus. There were two 
Egyptian Bishops of that name who 
subscribed their names at the Council 
of Sardica. Prof. Larsow writes it 
' Ilius,' Tanis is situate in Augus- 
tamnica Prima. Vid. Quatremere Me- 
moires geogr. et histor. sur I'Egypte, 
torn. i. p. 284. &c. (L.) The word 

'la.vis is the LXX. rendering of ]r!i 
in the various places where it is found. 

' Silvanus was succeeded by Andreas, 
as we learn from the postscript to the 
nineteenth Letter. 

g The Syiiac is *flOQJQJ, which 
Prof. Larsow writes Nunos. I tliink it is 
meant for Nonnus, w hich was the name 
of an Egyptian Bishop who was present 
at the Synod of Tyre. Apol. contra 
Ar. torn- i. p. 154. §. 79. 

^ Bucolia. For a diss'^rtation on 
the situation of Bucolia, see the treatise 
by Quatremere, already referred to, 
(torn. i. p. 224—233.) In p. 2.33, he 
writes; La contree de I'Elearchie ou 
des Bucolies, telle qu'elle nous a ete 
decrite les auteurs ancient, est, si 
je ne me ti ompe, parlaitement identique 

avec la province de Baschmour 

peut etre le Baschmour s'etendoit h 
I'occident du bras de Damielte, le lontr 
des cotes de la mer, jusqu'au lac de 
Bourlos. Fabricius, in his Index Gto- 
graphicus Episcopatuum orhis Cliris- 
tiani, mentions among the Egyptian 
Bishoprics, ' ElearchiaJ, in pruviticia 
.-Egvpti secunda.' 

'An Egyptian Bishop of the name 
of Saprion was amonja; tho-e as.sembled 
at the Synod of Tyre. Apol. contra 
Ar. tom. 1. p- lo4. §. 70. 

102 Names of recently appointed Bishops tvith their dioceses. 

In Thebais, Philon instead of Philon. In Maximianopolis, 
Herminus instead of Atras. In the lower Apollon is 
Sarapion instead of Plution^. In Aphroditon, Serenus is 
in the place of Theodorus. In Rhinocoruron ', Salomon. 
In Stathma, Arabion, and in Marmarica. In the eastern 
Garyathis, Andragathius "^ in the place of Hierax. In the 
southern Garyathis, Quintus" instead of Nicon". So that 
to these you may write, and from these receive the canonical 

Salute one another with a holy kiss. All the brethren 
who are with me salute you. 

He (Athan.) wrote this from Rome. There is no twelfth 

*> Syr. lO i ^<^ \<^g^ " Syr. ^CDQ^^J JQD. Larsow writes 

1 In this word a Dolath is written in this word Kyanitos. There can \re 

the Ms. instead of a Risch. little doubt that it is Quintus, probably 

"' Syr. .cddA .1^ ll I have little the same of that name who is enurae- 

\<, • ' rated among those present at the Coun- 

douht, that this is Jor Andragathius, as cil of Sardica. 

given in the test. One of the Egyptian ° An Egyptian Bishop of that name 

Bishops at the Council of Sardica bore had been present at the Synod of 

this name. Larsow writes it Andrag- Tyre. 



Coss. Marcellinus, Prohinus; Frcef. Longinus; Indict. XIV.; A .D. 341. 
Easter-day, XIIL Kal. Mali; XXIV. Pharmuthi; ^ra J'X^Vm. 
Dioclet. 57. 

Even now, my beloved brethren, I do not shrink from 
notifying to you the saving feast % which occurs according 
to annual custom. For although, with afflictions and 
sorrows, the opposers of Christ^ have oppressed you also 
together with us; yet, God having comforted us by our 
mutual faith '^j behold, I even write to you from Rome*^. 
Keeping the feast here with the brethren, still I also keep 
it with you in will and in spirit; for we send up prayers in 
common to God, Who hath granted lis not only to believe in Phil. 1,29. 
Him, but also now to suffer for His sake. For, troubled as 

* Vid. Letter x. p. 67. note e. 

'' The Arians (ot XP'■^'^^^^°'^X'^'■)' ^^^* 
Letter x. p. 75. note n. and p. I'd. 
note z. 

« By that faith which we hold in 
common. Conf. Rom. i. 12. 

d S. Athan. had been obliged to 
leave Alexandria some time before, 
(A.D. 339.) havina: fled from the 
violence of Gregory the Cappadocian, 
on which occasion he left the city 
(according to the Index ) on the twenty- 
third of Phamenoth (Mar. 19.). Gregory, 
immediately upon being constituted 
Bishop of Alexandria, became con- 
spicuous by his acts of violence. 
S. Athan. after his withdrawal from 
Alexandria, remained for a short time 
at no great distance from the city, 
though it is uncertain where. It was 
during this period that he wrote the 
Encyclical Letter to the Bishops, 
against the illegal intrusion of Gregory 
into his see. He afterwards took ship 

to Italy, and came to Eome. In the 
life of Athanasius, prefixed to the 
Benedictine edition, we read, (p. xxxix.) 
Eo anno (341.) incidit Paschatis so- 
lemnitas in diem decimam nonam 
Aprilis ; arbitramurque profectum 
Athanasium postremis hujus mensis 
diebus, mense JNIaio ad Italiae orae 
appuli.^se. This Letter would, how- 
ever, favour the opinion tliat he reached 
Rome earlier than May. Tn the Index 
it is stated expressly tliat Gregory sent 
no Paschal Letter either for this year, 
or for those immediately preceding and 
following. In 340, his acts of tyranny 
and oppression left him no leisure. In 
this, and the following year, his illness 
is there stated as the preventing cause. 
' Nor did this Pope write any Festal 
Letter even this year, (341,) the com- 
mencement of his illness taking place 

in it.' ' Because Gregory was severely 

ill in t'le city, (A.D. 342,) the Pope 
was unable to send [any Letter].' 

104 Heretical persecufio?is of the Church. 

Letter we are, because we are so far from you, He moves us to 
^^^^• - write, that by a letter we might comfort ourselves, and 
provoke one another to good^. For, indeed, numerous 
afflictions and bitter persecutions directed against the 
Church have been against us. For heretics, depraved in 
their mind, untried in the faith, rising against the truth, 
violently persecute the Cliurch ; and of the brethren, some 
are scourged, and others torn asunder by the rack ; and, 
what is still more hard, the ill-treatment reaches even to 
the Bishops. Nevertheless, it is not becoming, on this 
account, that we should neglect the feast. So far from 
neglecting the commemoration of it, even for a time, we 
should the rather bear it in remembrance. 

Now such things as seasons for feasts are not thought of by 
the unbelievers, because they spend all their lives in revelling 
and follies; and the feasts that obtain among them are an 
occasion of grief rather than of joy. But to us in this 
present life they are especially an uninterrupted^ passage 
[to heaven] — it is indeed our season. For such things as 
these serve for exercise and trial, so that, having approved 
ourselves zealous and chosen servants of Christ, we may be 
Job 7,1. fellow-heirs with the saints. For thus Job: The whole 
world is a trial to men upon the earth. Nevertheless, they 
are proved in this world by afflictions, labours, and sorrows, 
to the end that each one also may receive of God such 
Jer. 17, 10. reward as is meet for him; as He saith by the prophet, / 
am the Lord, Who trieth the hearts, and searcheth the reins, 
to give to every one according to his ways. But he does not 
first know the things of a man on his being tried ; for He 
knows them all before they come to pass : but because He 
is good and philanthropic, He distributes to each a due 
reward according to his works, so that every man may 
exclaim, Righteous is the judgment of God ! As the prophet 
Jer.20, 12. saith again. The Lord trieth justice, and understandeth the 
reins. And further, for this cause He trieth each one of us, 

' Conf Heb.x. 24 'Provoke unto is the rendering of ei's 7rapo|u(r/.br in the 

love and to good works.' Prof. Lar- verse quoted, 

sow has translated this passage erro- r\ 

neously, through an oversight with ^ Syr. ^OOl JJ?— the rendering of 

'resnect to the word vlr^l — lo'CLt^lD K^eM^c^SterTos in Lttter v. Vid. note i, 
V;^ >\ ~ p. 39. 

Chrhtians Ir'ied for their onn good. 10-3 

either that to those who know it not, our virtue ir.ay be A.D. 341. 
discovered by means of the trials hud upon us : as was said 
respecting Job; Thwkest thou that I ivas revealed to ^^^^^ 'I'l^^^^-"^' 

for any other cause, than that thou shouldest be seen righ- vers.) 
teous ? Or that, when men come to a sense of their deeds, 
they may know the temper of them, and may therefore 
either repent of their wickedness, or remain stedfast in the 
faith. Now the blessed Paul, when troubled by afflictions, 
and persecutions, and hunger and thirst, in every thing ivas li.m.s.a?. 
a conqueror, through Jesus Christ, Who loved us. Through 
suffering, he was weak indeed in body; yet, believing and 
hoping, he was strong in spirit, and his strength was made 

I perfect in weakness. 

i But the other saints also, who had a like confidence in 

; God, accepted a probation^ such as this with gladness; as 

. Job said. Blessed be the name of the Lord. But the Psalmist, J-^- 1,21. 

i Search me, Lord, and try me: 'prove my reins and my rrov.-26,2. 

i heart. For since, when the strength is proved, it convinceth 
the foolish ; therefore they, perceiving the purity and the 
advantage resulting from the divine fire, did not draw back 
in trials^'like these. But they rather received a character •> 
from them, suffering no injury at all from the things which 
luippened, but appearing more bright, like gold from the 
firei; as he said, who was tried by such exercise as this; 

I Thou hast tried my heart; Thou hast visited me in the night- V. ir, 3. 
season; Thou hast proved me, and hast not found iniquity in 
me so that my mouth shall not speak of the works of men. 
But, on the other hand, those who are lawless m their 
actions, so that they know nothing more than eating and 
chinking and dying, account trials as danger''. They soon 

I. The words here, and in the follow- Xa.>, Kai ,. ^iH<r^v iXa^por^.v^ 

„.g lines, rendered ' P-h^4]-l 'P--' .^^ ;" JJ' ^^.o... .aea.p6,..o. 

6:c. are all from the root JOS tenta- "^ ^,'^s^,ra 

vit ' ' p-obavit,' and convey the idea ot ^ There appears to he an error in the 



The martyrs perfected hy their sufferings. 


2 Cor. 12, 



Ps. 49, 11 

Rom. 5, 3 

1 Cor. 9, 

stumble at them J, so that, being untried in the faith, they 
are given over to a reprobate mind, and do those things 
which are not seemly. Therefore the blessed Paul, when 
urging us to such exercises as these, and having before 
measured himself by them, says, Therefore I take pleasure 
in afflictions^ in infirmities. And again. Exercise thyself 
unto godliness. For since he knew the persecutions that 
accompanied those who chose to live in godliness, he wished 
his disciples to meditate beforehand on the difficulties con- 
nected with godliness ; that when trials should come, and 
affliction arise, they might be able to bear them easily, as 
having been exercised in these things. For in those things 
wherewith a man has been conversant in mind, there is a 
hidden joy which he ordinarily experiences. In this way, 
the blessed martyrs, since they were first conversant w^ith 
trials, were quickly perfected in Christ '^, not at all regard- 
ing the injury of the body, while they contemplated the 
expected rest. But all those who call their lands hy their 
own names, and have wood, and hay, and stubble ^ in their 
thoughts; such as these, since they are strangers to troubles, 
are aliens from the kingdom of heaven «. Had they, however,j 
known that tribulation worketh patience, and patience expe- 
rience, and experience hope, and hope maketh not ashamed, 
they would have exercised themselves, after the example o] 
Paul, who said, I keep under my body and bring it inti 

I Syr. ^-»A;*— ^OOlTi « stumble 
at them.' 1 thiuk the woid here used 
is the translation of the Greek Trra^cu, 
wliich it represents in James ii, 10.' 
and iii. 2. Trials are looked upon by 
the righteous, as sent upon them by 
God, to refine and purity them. By 
the wicked, on the contrary, they are 
regarded as dangerous; as obstacles 
in the way. They stumble against 
them for a time; then emerge from 
them worse than they were before. 

"' The previous trials of the martyrs 
had advanced them to Christian per. 
fection. ^ Conf. Col. i. 28. rdx^iop eV 
XpicTTCf 'ItjctoC. 

" Couf. 1 Cor. iii. 12. 

o Prof. Larsow has entirely mistaken 
this passage. It does not contain the 
slightest allusion to the i/ivocafion of 

Saints, which he finds in it, and tc, 
which he draws attention in a notel 
The translation, as given above, is' 
obvious, and the sense consecutive. 
Two difff rent characters are described ; 
the martyrs and others, who sufi'er tri- 
bulation for the kingdom of heaven, are 
contrasted with those who seek all 
their enjoyment in this life, occupying 
their thoughts with nothing better than 
wood, and hay, and stubble, and ' call- 
ing their lands after their own names.' 

The plural form lAlj] < lands,' is 
worthy of notice. It is the Peschito 
translation of xcipas in John iv. 35. 

Lift up your eyes, and look upon the 
V^, '"' ^"^ again, in Jame^' v. 14. 

Ihe hire of the labourers, who have 
reaped down yoxxv fields: 

Temporal afflictions and eternal glory. 107 

subjection, lest when I have preached to others, I myself should ^^-p^^ 
he a castaivay. But they would easily have borne the ^"'••^>''^'- 
afflictions which were brought upon them from time to 
time, if the prophetic admonition had been listened to by 
them, It is good for a man to take up Thy yoke in his 
youth; he shall sit alone and shall be silent, because he hath 
taken Thy yoke upon him. He will give his cheek to him 
who smiteth him ; he ivill be filed with reproaches. Because 
the Lord does not cast a>cay for ever; for when lie afflicteth, 
He is gracious, according to the multitude of His tender 


For if all these things should proceed from the enemies, 
stripes, insults, reproaches, yet they shall avail nothing 
a-ainst the tender mercies of God; since from them we 
shall quickly recover, they being temporal things, but God 
being always gracious, pouring out His tender mercies 
on those who please [Him]. Therefore, my beloved 
brethren, we should not look at temporal thmgs, but fix 
our attention on those which are eternal. Though affliction 
may come, it will have an end; though insult and per- 
s-ecution, yet are they nothing to the hope which is in 
reserve For all present matters are trifling compared with 
those which are future; the sufferings of this present 
time not being worthy to be compared with the hope that 
is to come^ For what can be compared with the kingdom? 
or what is like to everlasting life ? Or what is all we could 
give here, compared with what we shall inherit yonder. 
For we are heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ. ^ ihere- Ro- 8. 
fore it is not right, n.y beloved, to consider afflictions and 
persecutions, but the hopes which are laid up for us because 
of persecutions. . . 

Now to this even the example of Tssachar, the patriarch 
may persuade, as the Scripture saith, Lssachar desires that g.,. .., 
widchis good, resting between the heritages; and when he 

V Serapion quote, the first part of '''^•^'J'^'^}^\y,;, h. 2 Cor. i. 

thi. passage of Scripture in hK./s/>..^o/a "Cent. Kom. 

aU Monadw.s, in praise of the asce .c 17. 
Hfe Via. A. Mai. Spicileg. Rom. 

108 The example of Tssacliar proposed for imitation. 

Letter satv that the rest was good, and the land fertile', he bowed his 
^^"- shoulder to laboiir, and became a husbandman. Being con- 
sumed by divine love, like the spouse in the Canticles, he 
collected from the holy Scriptures that which is profitable; 
for his mind was captivated not by the old alone, but by 
both the heritages. And further, like one expanding his 
win2-s% he beheld the rest which is in heaven, w^hile [he 
looked upon] the earth as full of good deeds — rather, in 
truth, the heavenly — since that is always new, and never 
grows old. For this earth passes away, as the Lord said ; 
but that which is ready to receive the saints is immortal. 
Now when Issachar, the patriarch, saw these things, he joy- 
fully made his boast of afflictions and toils, bowing his 
shoulders that he might labour. And he did not contend 
with those who smote him, neither was he disturbed by 
insults; but like a man triumphing the more by these things, 
and the more earnestly tilling his land, he received profit 
from it. The Word, indeed, scattered the seed, but he 
watchfully cultivated it, so that it brought forth fruit, even 
a hundred-fold. 

Now what is this, my beloved, but that we also, when the 
enemies are set against us, should glory in afflictions ; and 
that when we are persecuted, w^e should not be discouraged, 
but should the rather press after the crown of the high 

V ^ 1«*1 *" '^® comment of S. Athan. on the 

'' » ^<* ? P^>I Larsow trans- passage. The patriarch looked upon 

lates the last of these words by ' hea- th's world as the present portion as- 

venly,' stating in a nore that the context signed him by God; he duly estimated 

requires it. But I think it better to the blessings connected with it, not- 

. , ,, ^ Kr\^ J . -1 withstanding its trials and afflictions; 

take the root as^», and to consider ^^^ he therefore willingly and cheer' 

It an exact translation of the iriW of fuUy acquiesced in his lot. Bui he 

the LXX. vers. This will not be looked forward to another and better 

opposed to the context. The primary heritage to be enjoyed hereafter, and 

and literal translation may be adhered it was the prospect of this especially, 

to, without affecting the more hidden that was his stay and support. The 

and spiritual explanation. Jarchi literal explanation of resting between 

translates the passage figuratively of the heritages must be sought in the 

Issachar being strong to bear the yoke particular tract of land in which the 

of the law. The Jerusalem Targum tribe was situated. 

thus paraphrases the verse. ' And he s Conf. S. Au^. Enarratio in Psal- 

saw the rest of the world to come, that mum ciii. 13. (tom. iv. p. 1139. ed. 

It was good, and the portion of the land Ben.) Pennte ergo animarum virtutes, 

of Israel, that it was pleasant; there- bona opera, recte facta. Quisquis 

fore he inclined his shoulders to work dilexerit Deum et proxiraum, animam 

in the law and hi^s brethren brought habet pennatam, liberis alls, sancto 

gitts unto him. xhis paraphrase ap- amore volantem ad Dominum. 
pears to me in substance very similar 

Sufferings for the truth should unite us more closely to God. lOi) 

calling' in Christ Jesus our Lord? and that being insulted, A.l). 34i. 
we should not be disturbed, but should give our check to 
the sniiter, and even bow the shoulder ? For the lovers of 
pleasure and the lovers of enmity are tried, as saith the 
I blessed Apostle James, ivhen they are draivii away by their J mnvs ], 
own lusts and enticed. But let us, knowing that we suller * 
I for the truth, and that those who deny the Lord smile and 
1 persecute us, count it all joy, my brethren, according to the J:ime8l,2. 
words of James, when we fall into trials of various tempt- 
qtians, knowing that the trial of our faith world th patience. 
Let us even keep the feast with rejoicing, my brethren, 
knowing that our salvation is reserved in the time of afflic- 
tion. For our Saviour did not redeem us by ease; but He 
abolished death by suffering for us. And respecting this, 
He intimated to us before, saying. In the world ye shall have Jo''» JG, 
tribulation. But He did not say this to every man, but to ' 
those who diligently and faithfully perform good service to 
Him, knowing beforehand, that they should be persecuted 
^ho would live godly to Him. But evil-doers and deceivers 2 Tim. :;, 
will wax ivorse and tcorse, deceiving and being deceived. If 
therefore, like the expounders of dreams and false prophets, 
who professed to give signs, these ignorant men, in the same 
manner, being drunk, not with wine, but with their own 
wickedness, make a profession of priesthood, and glory in 
their threats, believe them not ; but since we are tried, let 
us humble ourselves, not being drawn away by them. For 
so God warned His people by Closes, saying. If there shall De.itJ.i.i. 
rise np among you a prophet, or a dreamer of dreams, and 
shall give signs and tokens, and the sign or the token shall 
come to pass irhich he spake to thee, saying. Let us go and 
serve strange gods, which ye have not known; ye shall not 
hearken unto the ivords of that prophet or that dreamer of 
dreams. For the Lord your God trieth you, that Jle may 
know whether you will love the Lord your God with all yrur 
heart. So we, when we are tried by these things, will not 
separate ourselves from the love of God. But let us also 
now keep the feast, my beloved, not as introducing a day of 

tSvr.lAa-r^'callin./ not 'city,- P'-j'- -' '^- "^^ ^^"^^'''^ ^''^ ""^ 
as Prof. Larsow translates it. Lout. 

110 Conclusion, 

Letter suffering, but of joy in Christ, by Whom we are fed every 
XTII. ^jay. Let us be mindful of Him Who was sacrificed in the 
days of the Passover ; for we celebrate this, because Christ 
the Passover was sacrificed. He Who once brought His 
people out of Egypt, and hath now abolished death, and 
him that had the power of death, that is, the devil, will also 
now turn him to shame, and again grant aid to those who 
are troubled, and cry unto God day and night. 

We begin the fast of forty days on the thirteenth of 
Phamenoth (9 Mar.), and the holy week of Easter on the 
eighteenth of Pharmuthi (Apr. 13.); and having ceased on 
the seventh day, being the twenty-third (Apr. 18.), and the 
first of the great week having dawned on the twenty -fourth 
of the same month Pharmuthi (Apr. 19.), let us reckon from 
it till Pentecost. And at all times let us sing praises, call- 
ing on Christ, being delivered from our enemies by Christ 
Jesus our Lord, through Whom to the Father be glory and 
dominion for ever and ever. Amen. 

Greet one another with a holy kiss. All those who are 
here with me salute you. I pray, my beloved brethren, 
that ye may have health in the Lord. 

He (Athanasius) wrote this also from Rome. Here 
endeth the thirteenth Letter. 


Coss. Augustus Constantius III., Const ans II.; Prcef. fhe A.. D. 342. 
same Longinus ; Indict. XV.; Easter-day III. Id. Apr.; faster-day 
XVI. Pharmuthi; jEra Dioclet. 58. ' onApr.ii. 

The gladness of our feast, my brethren, is always near at 
hand, and never fails those who wish to celebrate it^ For 
the Word is near, Who is all things on our behalf; even 
our Lord Jesus Christ, Who, having promised that His 
habitation with us should be perpetual, in virtue thereof 
cried, saying, Lo, I am with you all the days, [even to the ^^^att. 28, 
end'\ of the world. For as He is the Shepherd, and the ^^* 
High Priest, and the Way and the Door, and every thing 
at once to us, so further, He has been revealed to us as the 
feast, and the holyday, according to the blessed Apostle; 
Our Passover, Christ, is sacrifced. He also was waited for; J Cor. 6, 7. 
He, too, caused a light to shine at the prayer of the Psalmist, 
who said, [Thou arf] my joy ; deliver me from those who P^-Si, 7. 
surround me; this being indeed true rejoicing, this being a 
true feast, even deliverance from wickedness, whereto a 
man attains by altogether adopting an upright conversation, 
and by his mind being bent on pious obedience towards 
God^. For thus also the saints all their lives long, were 
like men rejoicing at a feast. One found rest in praying to 
God, as blessed David, who rose in the night, not once but ^r* ^^^' 
seven times. Another was celebrated for songs of praise, 

* Conf. Letter v. p. 38. <■ For the »» Conf. Letter iii. p. 23. * For what 

grace of the feast is not limited to one else is the feast, but the service of tlie 

time, nor does its splendid brilliancy soul ? And what is that service, but 

suffer an eclipse ; but it is always near, prolonged prayer to God, and unceasing 

enlightening the conscience of those thanksgiving?' 
who earnestly desire it.' 

112 Christ our guide to the Feast. 

Letter as the great Moses, who sang a song of praise for the victory 

E^^d 1T~ °^^^' Pharaoh, and those task-masters. Others performed 
worship with unceasing cheerfuhiess, like the great Samuel 
and the blessed Elijah ; who have ceased from their perfect 
conversation, and now keep the feast in heaven, and rejoice 
in their former instruction, which was by emblems, and out 
of types understand the truth. 

But what sprinklings shall we now emj^loy, while we 
celebrate the feast ? Who then will thus be our guide, as 
we haste to this festival ? None can do this, my beloved, 
but Him Whom ye will name with me, even our Lord 

John 14,6. Jesus Christ, Who said, / am the Way. For it is He Who, 

John 1,29. according to the blessed John, taketh away the sin of the 
world. He also purifies our souls, as Jeremiah the prophet 

Jer. G, 16. says in a certain place. Stand in the ways and see, and en- 
quire, and look which is the good path, and ye shall find in 
it cleansing for your souls. Of old time, the blood of the 
he-goats and the ashes of a heifer, sprinkled upon those 
who were unclean, were adapted only to purify the flesh ; 
but now, through the grace of God the Word, every man 
is thoroughly cleansed. Following Him, we may, even 
here, as on the threshold of the Jerusalem which is above, 
meditate beforehand on the feast which is eternal ; as also,' 
the blessed Apostles, when they together followed the 
Saviour, Who was their Leader, have now become teachers 

^^la.k 10, of a like readiness of disposition, saying, Behold, we have 
left all, and followed Thee. For the following of the Lord, 
and the feast which is of the Lord, is not accomplished by 
words only, but by deeds, every enactment of laws and 
commands involving a distinct performance. For as the 
great Moses, when administering the holy laws, exacted a 

Exod. 19, promise from the people, respecting the practice of them ; 
so that having promised, they might not neglect them, and 
be accused as liars : thus also, the celebration of the feast 
of the Passoverc moves no question, and demands no reply 
but when the word is given, the obedience of it follows for 

Exod. 12, He saith. And the children of Israel shall keep the Passover • 
mtendmg that there should be a ready peribrmance of the 

The O in ]ja^2))0 should probablj be omitted. 

The typical character of the Jewish Passover. 113 

commandment, while the thing itself, at the same time, A^ D 842. 
should be rendered more easy'^ But respecting these 
matters, I have confidence in your wisdom, and your doc- 
trinal care. Such points as these have been touched upon 
by us often and in various Letters. 

But now, which is above all things most necessary, I wisli 
to remind you, and myself with you, how that the command 
would have us not come to the Paschal feast profimely and 
without preparation ; but with sacramental and doctrinal 
rites, and prescribed observances ; as indeed we learn from 
the historical account, A man tvho is of another nation, or Exo.L 12, 
Jiought ivith money, or uncircumcised, shall not eat the Pass- 
over. Neither should it be eaten in any house^; but He 
commands it to be done in haste ; inasmuch as before we 
groaned and were made sad by the bondage to Pharaoh, 
and the commands of the task-masters. For when, in former 
time, the children of Israel acted in this way, they were 
counted worthy to receive the type. For tliat (the type) 
had respect to this feast, nor was the feast now introduced 
on account of the type. As also the Word of God, when 
desirous of this, said to His disciples, With desire I have Luke 32, 
desired to eat this Passover with you. The account, given us 
as it is, is a wonderful one; for a man might have seen^ 
them equipped as for a show or a dance, and going out with 
staves, and sandals, and unleavened bread. These tlungs 
took place before, as it were, in shadows, and were typical. 
But now, the Truth is nigh unto us, the Image of the invi- Col. 1, la. 
sihle God^, our Lord Jesus Christ, the true Light; Who, 

d The argument appears to be this, lated ' in any part of the house.' But 

Moses, as we read in Exodus, ch. xix. what is g.ven above appears to be re- 

V. 3-7. heard from God the terms of quired by the reference. Conf. Letter v. 

tie covenant He would make with the p. 47 'In one house f^^" - .^e 

children of Israel, obedience to all that Catholic Church, eating the PassoNer 

God should command being imposed of the Lord. ,, ■ ,, ,u^ *,^n^l„tion 

on them. Moses repeated these words ' I have g.ven this as the translation 

to the Israelites, who promised obe- of ll>-» not |J>*- The word is rather 

dience: ' All that the Lord hath spoken • ,. ^j^^^^ in tlie Ms. but it may be 

will we do.' (V. 8.) ,-^A; that the ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ 

promulgation ot the law takes place. ^ ^^^^ Larsow translates this pas- 

The command to keep the Passover is ^ -^^ invisible imnge of God.' 

renewed. (Levit.iv. 9.) The Israelites ' ^ ' j^ -^ ^^^^,x^ the translation of 

were therefore bound to keep it, as well ^^„ q^^- ^^5 a^^^^oty, (Col. i. »6.) 

in virtue of their promise, as by their ^^^^^ ^^^ ^,^^^_^^^ ^^^^^^ be seen, but 

duty of obedience to God. Christ His Onlv-begotten Son, bath 

e The Syriac is herelA^^ OC^li^ manifested Him.' Conf. John i. 18. 
which would be more correctly trans- 

114 Christ's sufferings the source of our blessings. 

Letter instead of a stafF, is our sceptre; instead of unleavened 

'— bread, is the bread which came down from heaven ; Who 

instead of sandals, hath furnished us with the preparation 
of the Gospel; and Who, to speak briefly, by all these 
hath guided us to His Father. And if enemies afflict us, 
through persecution. He again, in the place of Moses, will 
encourage with more than the words of that man, sayino- 
J^ohn ic,, Be of good cheer; I have overcome the wicked one^. And If 
also, after we have passed over the Red sea, heat should 
again vex us, or some bitterness of the waters befall us 
again even there the Lord will appear to us, imparting to 
us of His sweetness, and His life-giving fountain, saying, 
John 7, 3, . // any man thirst, let him come to Me, and drink. 

Why therefore do we tarry, and why do we delay, and 
come not with all eagerness and diligence to the feast 
trustu.g that it is Jesus who calleth us ? Who is all things 
fo us, and vvas laden in ten thousand ways for our salvation ; 
^ ho indeed hungered and thirsted for us, though He 
nourishes and gives us to drink of His saving giftst For 
this is His gloiy, this the miracle of His divinify, that He 
changed our suiFerings for His happiness. For,'^ein. liTe 
He died that He might make us alive; beinc the Word H^ 

Loid, Who ca,„e down i„ the end of the ages', pro- 

« .^« X«M«x<.,, and in oh. ,7, 9 „ -A.fa ri. „i^..„., Heb Z 7^ C '< 

cl>.He .he ,n„,ati„'„ ,„ have 'be? „ a","; V^J' L^^.^t^r ' ™^- """IT 
trom memory. Qal • '^"■^^'^-^ j^fxiu eu via,. Also 

' Conf. S. Athan. in Illur^ OmnJ. yp6uor,^ % '^' '^^^' ''^ ^^vpccfia rov 

^>hi .a..a.n.. e„„. . ..^^'^Z '^' ^T^Z fhftLt t 

Christ tJiesum and substance of the Old Testament prophecies. 1 15 

claimed a different day,— not as though He woiikl abolish A.D. :m2. 

the law, far from it— but that He should establish the law, 

and be the end of the law. For Christ is the end of the law Kom. 10,1. 

to every one that helieveih in righteousness ; as the blessed Rom. 3, 31. 

Paul saith, Do ive make void the law by faith ? by no means : 

we rather establish the law. 

Now these things astonished even the officers who were 
sent by the Jews, so that wondering they said to tlie 
Pharisees, No man ever thus spake. What was it then tliat Jolm 7, 46. 
astonished those officers, or what was it whicli so ailected 
the men as to make them marvel ? It was nothing but tlie 
boldness and authority' of our Saviour. For on former 
occasions of their applying to the prophetical writings, and 
those skilled in the law, they perceived that they referred 
those who applied, not to themselves, but elsewhere. Moses, 
for instance, A prophet will the Lord raise up unto you o/Deut. IH, 
your brethren, like unto me; to him hearken in all that he 
commands you. Isaiah again, Behold, a virgin shall conceive !>•• 7, u. 
and bear a Son, and ye shall call his name Emmanuel ^^\ By 
others also, prophecies were uttered diffi^rently, and in 
various ways, concerning the Lord. But by the Lord, of 
Himself, and of no other, were these things prophesied ; to 
Himself He limited them all, saying, If any man thirst, let Jolmr,:??. 
him come to Me — not to any other person, but to Me. A 
man may indeed hear of those concerning My coming; l)ut 
he must not henceforth drink from others, but from Me. 
Therefore let us also, when we come to the feast, no hunger 
come as to old shadows, for they are accomplished ; neither as 
to common feasts ; but let us hasten as to the Lord, Who is 
Himself the feast", not looking upon it as an indulgence and 
delight of the belly, but as a manifestation of virtue. For 
the feasts of the heathen are full of greediness, and utter 
indolence, since they consider they celebrate a feast when 

pensation came to an end wben Christ ■" These two texts are also quoted 

appeared. The Christian religion was together in Orat. i. contra Ar. tom. i. 

the closing of the Jewish ceconomv, and p. 3<3.i. §. 64. 

therefore S. Paul speaks of Christians " 'Christ our passover.' The Svr. 

as those i(p' oU to t€Atj rwv alwvwv ,^A-»Z"| is apparently an error for 

KUTrivT-nae. 1 Cor. x. II. A 1 • \ 

J Tra/Jpjcrj'a koI avdeyTla Syr. -iCJlOA^f O-^)- 

I -2 

116 Christians to vie with each other in holiness, 

Lftter they are idle"; and they then work the works of perdition 

— when they feast. Our feasts, on the contrary, are the 

scenes of virtuous exercises, and the practice of temperance ; 
as also the prophetic word testifies in a certain place, saying, 
Zeeh. 8, The fast of the fourth, and the fast of the ffth, and the fast 
of the seventh, and the fast of the tenth \mont}i\, shall he to 
the house of Judah for gladness, and rejoicing, and for pleasant 

Since therefore this occasion for exercise is before ap- 
pointed, and such a day as this is come, and the prophetic 
voice gone forth to celebrate the feast, let us give all 
diligence to this good proclamation, and like those who are 
opposed to each other in the race course, vie with each 
other in observing the purity of the fast? ; by watchfulness 
in prayers ; by practice in the Scriptures ; by distributing 
to the poor, and by reconciliation with our enemies. Let 
us bind up those who are scattered abroad ; banish pride ; 
and instead thereof put on lowliness of mind, being at peace 
with all men, and urging the brethren to love. Thus also 
the blessed Paul was often engaged in fastings and watchings, 
and was willing to be accursed for his brethren. Also, 
again, the blessed David, having humbled himself by fastings, 
7,-'. used boldness, saying, O Lord my God, if I have done this, 
if there is any iniquity in my hands, if I have repaid those 
who dealt evil with me, then may I fall from my enemies as a 
vain man. Acting thus, we shall conquer death; and re- 
ceive an earnest ^ of the kingdom of heaven. 

« Conf. Letter vii. p. 57- ' The N. T. where the word occurs, viz. 

feast IS not an indulgence in food, nor 2 Corinth, i. 22. and 2 Corinth v 5 

splendour of clothing, nor days of the word is applied to the Holy Ghost! 

Tn'c^r^ ■ v . ThewordsofTheodoreton 2 Corinth, i. 

, P Conf. J Connth. ix. 24-27. Syr. 22. are these. 'O ©ebs ^Ss ^ypi<rc, 

^v (TTaSi^. J he exhortation is, to be koX rr,s rov irava-yiov Tr^e^aTos <T<bpa. 

as ready to celebrate the feast, when yl^os ^|/cocr6v, oUv riva koba^chi^aTciu 

the d.Tuie command is given, as were ^,,xx6vtwu ayadiiu Scpwd^euo, rairvu 

he runners in the races to start when ^^7, ^^, / 5,^ 7^ ^'^^ ^^. " .^^ 

with each other in proper y keeping: t, ->,.fl„o. ' ^ ''« ov ''" "/^y "'*' ^'^ /*^ 
as the runners strove to surpass each Vj'' Z ^^^ ^Ppo-^^Jf ^^^Kp6u r. ^^pos 
other in ^peed ^^'^^ '^'"^ TrauT6s. Vide Suicer. Thes. 

q Syr.'ApPafi^u. Vid. note to Let- 'Ll't^"'^-.' 't' \.^,' .^^^' ' ^^^« 

ter vi. p. .50. Conf. Eph. i. 13, 14— ^rrham Spiritus Sancti.' 1. e. prsesen- 

' that holy Spirit of promise, which is ?T^ felicitatis animum his in terris 

the earnest i^^f>aficou) of oir inherit- ""buere tanquam arrha futura^ felici- 

ance. In both the other places in the *^^''* ^retschneider. 


Conclusion. 117 

We begin the holy Easter feast on the tenth of Phar- A. P. 342. 
muthi (April 5.), desisting from the holy fasts on the 
fifteenth of the same month Pharmuthi (April 10.), on the 
evening of the seventh day. And let us keep the holy feast 
on the sixteenth of the same month Pharmuthi (April 11.) ; 
adding one by one [the days] till the holy Pentecost, passing 
on to which, as through a succession of feasts, let us keep 
the festival to the Spirit, Who is always near us, in Jesus 
Christ, through Whom and with Whom to the Father be 
glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen. 

The fifteenth and sixteenth are wanting. 

on Apiil 7 


i^^J!i^ Coss. Amantius, Alhinus; Prcef, Nestorius of Gaza; IndicL 
- — 1\ III, ; Easter-day, VII. Id. Apr, ; XII PharmutU; Moon 
19; jEra Dioclet, 61. 

Athanasius, to the Presbyters and Deacons of Alex- 
andria, and the beloved brethren in Christ, greeting. 

According to custom, I give you notice respecting Easter, 
my beloved; that you also may notify the same to the dis- 
tricts of those who are at a distance, as is usual. Therefore 
after this present festival, I ,„ean this which is on the 
twentieth of the month Pharmuthi, the first of the Paschal 
week ensuing will be on the vii Id. April; or, according 
to the Alexandrians, on the twelfth of Pharmuthi. Give 
therefore notice in all those districts, that the first day of 
the Paschal week is on the vii Id. April, on the twelfth of 
Pharmuthi according to the Alexandrian reckoning. That 
ye may be in health in Christ, I pray, my beloved brethren. 

i^^o'^::'l':r^^^^^ -— 'Agam,.,- beloved, is Easter 

this Letter), thltS.Atbargat^^^^^ ^Z'' '°^^- ^^'^"T*; ^^' ^^'^^^^ : 

at Easter A. V>. 344, upon ST! ,^°T ^^T"' "^^ he\o^e^, has God 

Easter was to be obse vedTn l^ 3^5 tl ^T^l "' '" *^^ .^^"^«" ^^ '^^ 

and not immediately after the .up^ph' ' .^^'^^V^ ^^ ^^hould not be 

ing Epiphany, as ^CaSan aierts In" 7°"? ^° «"PPO^^ing that some of the 

have been the custom of the PatHarch f P!^^^^^, ^^^^' '" the first instance, 

of Alexandria. (Cass an (^.1 iTl delivered as homilies, at the places 

cap. i. Edit. Lugdun 1606 n 3fi4 ^ ""^T '^'l Tl' ^""^"' ^"^^ ^^'^'■ 

The same period for forwa'rd^n. tV "71-^'' '^''} '''^^^ alterations, and the 

Paschal notice was l^rvedVith !f ^^ f .^^^^'^'"^'"^ P^^*^-^^"' 

regard to the next Letter In nrl d '^t ^'''''' *^ *^^ ^^"«"« 

vious Epistles, we not unfrpn^.p^H ''^'^'' Ho^'e^'e'-, we know that, in 

find reference'made to Easter^" fn pT'T'T °^ *^^ ^''^^^les of the 

course of celebration, at the tImeThev ,wTh V*^f "'""^ P'""^ f^-" ^'''^^'^- 

were written. Thus' the secon'f com! o' ^V^Lrttlrlv^' ^7' '''"'' 


Coss. Constantias IK, Constans III.,- Pr<^f- Nestorius ,■ K.r>3i^,^ 
Indict. IV.; Easter-day HI. Kal. Apr.; IF. PharmutM; E-'-^lfy 
3Ioon 21; ^ra Dioclet. 62. 

Athanasius, to the Presbyters and Deacons of Alex- 
andria, brethren beloved in the Lord, greeting. 

Ye have done well, dearly beloved brethren, that ye have 
given the customary notice of the holy Easter m those 
districts; for I have seen and acknowledged your exactness. 
By other letters I have also given you notice, that, when 
this year is finished, ye may know concerning the next. 
Yet now I have thought it necessary to write the same 
things that, since ye are exact, ye may also write with 
care Therefore, after the conclusion of this feast, which 
is now at its termination, on the twelfth of the month 
Pharmuthi, which is on the vii Id. Apr.a, Eastei-day is on 
the iii Kal. April; the fourth of Pharmuthi, according t^ 
the Alexandrians. When therefore the feast is finished, 
.ive notice again in these districts, according to the e^rly 
custom, thus: The first of the Paschal week is on the in Kal. 
April, which is the fourth of Pharmuthi, according to the 
Jexandrian reckoning. And let no man hesitate concern- 
in.^ the day; neither let any one contend, saying. It is 
requisite that Easter should be held on the twenty-seventh 
of the month Phamenoth; for it was discussed in the holy 

• The number vii is omitted in the Ms- 

LErTF, It 


1^0 Dispute ivltk 7\'spect to the time for observiny Eaafer. 

Synod '', and all there settled^ it to be on the iii Kal. April. 
I say then that it is on the fourth of the month Pharmuthi; 
for the week before this is much too early '^. Therefore let 
there be no dispute, but let us act as becometh us. For I 
have thus written to the Romans also. Give notice then as 
it has been notified to you, that it is on the iii Kal. April ; 
the fourth of Pharmuthi, according to the Alexandrian 

That ye may have health in the Lord, I pray, my dearly 
beloved brethren. 

*• This could not have been the 
Synod of Sardica, as Larsow states in 
a note, misled by an error in the index 
prefixed to the Letters. The Synod of 
Sardica was not held till the following 
year, (A.D. 347.) In the index (Let- 
ter XV.) it is said, that the Council of 
Sardica was held in that year, (A.D. 
343.) and published directions with 
respect to the time of Easter. The 
translator of the Letters appears to 
have confused between the Synod of 
Antioch and that of Sardica. At a 
Synod held at Antioch in A.D. 341, 
the Paschal question was discussed, 
(vid. Bever. Synod, torn. i. p. 430.), 
and this I conclude to be the Synod to 
which S. Athau. refers. 

•^ I think the Syr. Jp* ' misit' is an 
error for V^ <■ confirmavit.' In Let- 
ter xix. p. 126. we find \iD yui^ 

.CDolola V^AiDj ^As Paul 


«* I am indebted to the kindness of 
J. C. Adams, Esq. M.A. Fellow of 
Pembroke College, for the following 

The 14th day of the Moon, reckon- 
ing from the time of mean New Moon, 
took place on Sunday the 23d. Accord- 
ing to the rule which obtained in later 
times, and continued in use until the 
Gregorian reformation of the Calendar, 
the 14th day of the Ecclesiastical Moon 
took place on Saturday the 22d, which 
would make Easter-day happen on the 
23d. It would seem, therefore, that 
the decision of the Synod referred to, 
brought the Ecclesiastical Moon into 
closer accordance with thai of the 
heavens, than the later Calendar would 
have done. 


Coss. Rnjtnus, Eusehius ; Prcsf, the same Nestcrius ; Indict. ^^^^ 
v.; Easter-day, Prid. Id. Apr.; Pharmuthi XVIE; ^^« onVpr. 12. 
Dioclet. (>:3; Moon lb.'' 

Blessed is God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, for Eph. 1, 3. 
such an introduction is fitting for an Epistle; and now more 
especially, when accompanied with thanksgiving to the 
Lord, in the Apostle's words^ because He hath brought us 
from a distance, and granted us again to send openly^ to 
you, as usual, the Festal Letters. For this is the season of 
the feast, my brethren, and it is near; being not now pro- 
claimed by trumpets, as the history records % but made 
known and brought near« to us by the Saviour, Who suffered 
on our behalf and rose again; even as Paul preached, say- 
ing, Our Passover, Christ, is sacrificed. The feast of the 1 Cor. 5, 7. 
plssover then is ours, not that of a stranger, nor of the 
Jews any longer f. For the time of shadows is abohshed, 
and these old things have ceased; and now the month of 
new things is at hand, in which every man should keep the 
feast, in obedience to Him who said, Observe the month q/D..ut.l6,i. 
new things, and keep the Passover to the Lord thy God^. 

a THs .as the ,ear in which the -^^.^^^^ V^^^^jLeftS^- 

Rome nearly thit-e ) ears. ^ ^ ^ \,^r,.. ,-, i\i^ e. 1718 — 

: ^;:f-„;a"rkn';,»^o\7d -offered up.' .he ua^e ,o .he fas.. '".S"-- ''"^ 
f Vid. note s, to Letter vi. p. 45. Lencten, ' the si.rinK, i-enctcu- 

g Vid. note o, to Letter i. p. 12, and j^pgn, ' the spring-fast,' ' L"'t.' 

122 The blindness of the Jews iinth regard to their law. 
L^rr.. Even the heathen fancy they keep festival, and the Jews 

hypocritically feign llierein. But the feast of the heathen 

He reproves, as the breads of mourners; and He turns His 
face from that of the Jews, inasmuch as they are outcasts, 
Is- 1, iJ. saying, Your new moons and yuw sabbaths My soul hateth 
For actions not done lawfully and piously, are not of 
advantage, though they may be reputed to be so, but they 
rather argue hypocrisy in those who venture upon them 
Therefore, although such persons as these fancy to them- 

, c on t^^T "'.^' ''''^ °*' ^^"'fi=^^. yet they hear from the 
Jer.c,.o iather. Your whole bumt-offerings are not acceptable, and 
your sacrifices do not please Me,- and although ye bring fine 
fiour,it ts vanity; incense also is an abomination unto Me 
i or God does not need any thing^; and, since there is 
nothing which can defile Him, He is full in regard to them, 

,11. as He testifies, saying by Isaiah, I am full. 

INow there was a law given respecting these things, for 
the instruction of the people, and to prefigure things to 

3,23. come; for Paul saith to the Galatians, Before faith came, 
we were kept guarded under the law, being shut up in the 
faith which should afterwards be revealed unto us; wherefore 
the law roasour instructor in Christ, that we might be justified 
^/fi But the Jews knew not, neither did they under- 
stand ; therefore they walked in the day-time as in dark- 
ness; feeling loi^ but not touching, the truth we possess, 
«h ch [was contained] m the law'; conforming to the letter 
bu not attending to the spirit. And when Moses wa.s 
veiled they looked on him, but turned away their faces 
from him when he was uncovered. For they knew not 
what they read, but erroneously substituted- one thing for 
another. The prophet, therefore, cried against them, say- 

^ ^yr. apTos. Conf. Letter ii n I 7 ^/ 

and Letter iv. p. 32. The fe.ti'vais of ''^' '"'^'''' ''"^ ^'^ "^^^^ -"^ '^«^^« 

the heathen are productive of mourninl tZTTo"; "' ^' ^''''- ^^'^'^^ ^^'^''' 

and sorrow : their food is &pros duKoiJ. k ' Thl' S • . ^. 

(Ps. cii. 10.) Those of the Christian n1 • ^'"'^"^ ""^ *^^ *^^* '" this 

on the contrary, attended with real and Sr'iwi!^ '""^•^ ^^^^ ^'^^"^' compared 

substantial joy: their food isl.os ^J^^.f^^ «^.'?-.-l Greek, than the Pe- 

ayy4\c,u, '6.puos ovpauov ^ . '*" ^^'':''>°" '«• The word ds before 

• AAA' ovS.i^Ss icxTLu iv^^hs 6 @a, '[j'^'""' ^^^ XptarJ),/ is rendered in both 

Orat. ii. contra Arian. tom?i. p 392 ^V-" \'t- ^^'''''^^ ^^^^ering to eV. 

(L) 6* yhp ^epl Qeov \6yos iarl, f^nSei^h's '' ^' ' 

avrhv iniSm ehat, ^AA' avrdpKv Kal ^f^ as in Letter ii. p. 17. 

where vid. note 1. 



Scriptural reproofs of the Jews. 123 

ing, Falsehood and faithlessness have prevailed among them. a.D. 347. 
The Lord also therefore said concerning them, The strange rs. I8, 
childre?i have dealt falsely with me; the strange children have (l;^^x.) 
waxe7i old. But how gently now does He reprove them, 
saying, Had ye believed Moses, ye tvould have believed Me, John 5, 46. 
for he wrote of Me. But being faithless, they further also 
dealt falsely respecting the law, affirming things after their 
own pleasure, but not understanding them according to the 
Scripture; and, further, having as with hypocrisies distorted 
the plain text of Scripture, and this being their confidence. 
He is angry with them, saying by Isaiah, Who hath required U. i, 12. 
these of your hands? And by Jeremiah, since they were 
very bold, he threatens, Gather together your whole burnt- Jer. 7, 21. 
offerings with your sacrifices, and eat flesh; for I spake not^^' 
nnto your fathers, nor commanded them in the day that 1 
brought them out of the land of Egypt, concerning whole 
burnt-offerings and sacrifices. For they did not act as was 
right, neither was their zeal according to law; but they 
rather sought their own pleasure in such days, as the 
prophet accuses them; thrusting their bondsmen, and 
gathering? themselves together for strifes and quarrels. 
They also smote the lowly with the fist, and did all things 
that tended to their own gratification. 

For this cause, they continue without a feasf^ until the 
end, although they make a display now of eating flesh, out 
of place and out of season. For, instead of the legally- 
appointed lamb, they have learned to sacrifice to Baal; 
instead of the true unleavened bread, they collect the wood, Jcr. 7, 18. 
and their fathers kindle the fire, and their ivives prepare the 
dough, that they may make cakes to the host of heaven, and 
pour out libations to strange gods, that they may provoke Me 
to anger, saith the Lord. They have the just reward of 
such devices; since, although they pretend to keep the 
Passover, yet joy and gladness is taken from their mouth, 
as saith Jeremiah, There hath been taken away from the cities Jerw, ^4 
ofJudah, and the streets of Jerusalem, the voice of those who 
are glad, and the voice of those who rejoice; the voice of the 
bridegroom, and the voice of the bride. Therefore now /.. Is. .6, 3. 
tvho among them sacrificeth an ox, is as he who smiteth a 

n avioproi' 

1-24 Explanation of the time and circumstances under which 

Lkttek man: and he who sacrificeth a lamb is as he who killeth a 

^-^- dog; he that offer eth fine flour, is as \if he offered^ swine's 

blood; he that giveth frankincense for a memorial, is as a 
blasphemer". Now these things will never please God, 
neither hath the [divine] word required them of them. 
Is, 66, 3. But He saith, These have chosen their own ways; and their 
abominations are lohat their soul delighteth in. And what is 
this, my brethren ? For it is right for us to investigate the 
saying of the prophet, and especially with regard to those 
who heretically devise imaginations contrary to the law* 
By Moses then, God gave commandment respecting sacri- 
fices; and all the book called Leviticus, is entirely taken up 
with the arrangement P of these matters, so that He might 
accept the offerer. He therefore, by the Prophets, finds 
fault with him who despised these things, as disobedient to 
Is. 1,12. the commandment, saying, / have not required these at your 
Jer. 7, 22. hands. Neither did I speak to your fathers respecting sacri- 
fices, nor command them concerning whole bur nt-off'e rings. 

Now it has been ventured as an opinion, that the Scrip- 
tures do not agree together, or that God, Who gave the 
commandment, is false. But there is no disagreement what- 
ever; far from it; neither can the Father, Who is truth, lie ; 
Heb.6, 18. /or it is impossible that God should lie, as Paul aflirms. But 
these things are plain to those who riglitly consider them, 
and to those who receive with faith the writings of the law. 
Now it appears to me— may God vouchsafe, by your prayers, 
that the remarks I presume to make may not be far from 
the truth— that not at first were the commandment and the 
law concerning sacrifices, neither did the mind of God, Who 
gave the law, regard whole burnt-offerings, but those things 
Heb. 10,1. which were pointed out and prefigured by them. For the 
Htb 9, 10. latv contained a shadow of good things to come. And, Those 
things were appointed until the time of reformation. There- 
fore, the whole law did not treat of sacrifices, though there 
was m the law a commandment concerning sacrifices, by 
their means imparting instruction beforehand, withdrawing 
men from idols, and bringing them near to God, teaching 
them to understand the true character of the time then 
present. Therefore neither at the beginning, when God 

" ws ^AdcTcfy-nfios (LXX. vers.) p Syr. rd^is. 

the laio concerning sacrifices was delivered to the Jews. 123 

brought the people out of Egypt, did He command them A. P. 347. 
concerning sacrifices or whole burnt-offerings, nor even till 
they came to mount Sinai. For God is not as man, that 
He should have a care of these things beforehand ; but His 
commandment was given, that they might know Him Who is 
truly God, and also His Word ; and might disregard those 
which are falsely called godsi, which exist not, but only 
attain to the outward show-^. Thus He would be known to 
them by those [signs] whereby He brought them out of the 
land of Egypt, causing them to pass through the Red Sea. 
But when they would serve Baal, and dared to offer sacri- 
fices to those that have no existence, andforgat the miracles 
which were wrought in their behalf in Egypt, and thought 
of returning thither again; then indeed, after the law, a 
commandment also was given to serve as a law concerning 
sacrifices; so that with their mind, which at one tune had 
meditated on those [gods] which did not exist, they might 
turn to Him Who is truly God; and learn not, m the first 
place, to sacrifice, but to turn away their faces from idols, 
and o-ive heed to what God commanded. For when He 
saith, / have not spoken concerning sacrifices, neither given Jer.7,-22. 
commandment concerning whole burnt-offerings, He imme- 
diately adds, But this is the thing which I commanded them, Jer. 7, 23. 
saying, Obey My voice, and I will be to you a God, and ye 
shall be to Me a people, and ye shall walk in all the ways 
that I command you. Thus then, being before instructed 
and taught, they learned not to give their service to any one 
but the Lord. They attained to know what time the shadow 
should last, and not to forget the time that w;as at hand m 
which no longer should the bullock of the herd be a sacnfice 
to God, nor the ram of the flock, nor the he-goat, bu all E.od.n,a. 
these things fulfilled in a purely spiritual manner, and by 
constant pniyer, and upright conversation, with godj. words; 
as David sings, May my meditation be pleasing toJi'ni.Let P. .04, 
my prayer be set forth before Thee as incense, and the luting p.. u^,.. 
4 of ny hands as the evening sacrifice. The Spint also, 
viLo is in him, commands, saying. Offer unto God <^^^'^2^-''*- 
fice of praise, and pay to the Lord thy vows Off. th. v...... 

sacrifice of righteousness, and put your trust in the Uid. 

, ee»! ^.Mv.v.0.. ( 1 Tim. 6, 20.) ' Svr. 4>a.Ta,r.'.. 

126 The wilful obstinacy of the Jews. 

Letter The great Samuel also not the less poiiiteclly reproved 
—^ — ^-^— Saul, saying, 7* not the word better than a gift^f For by 
these things a man fulfils the law, and pleases God, as He 
Ps. 50, 23. saith. The sacrifice of praise shall glorify Me. Let a man 
Hose?. 6, 6. learn what this is, I ivill have mercy, and not sacrifice, and 
' * not condemn the adversaries. But this displeased them. 
1 Ccr.2, 8. They were not anxious to understand, for had they known, 
they would not have crucified the Lord of glory. And what 
is the end of these, the prophet before pronounced, say- 
Is. 3, 9.1 o. ing. Woe unto their souls, for they have devised an evil 
' "' thought, saying, let us bind the just man, because he is not 
pleasing to us^. The end of such abandonment as this is 
nothing but error, as the Lord, when reproving them, saith, 
Mat.22,29. Ye do err, not knowing the Scriptures. Afterwards when, 
through reproof, they should have come to their senses, they 
John 9,28. rather waxed bold, saying. We are Moses"* disciples; and we 
knoiv that God spake to Moses ; dealing the more falsely by 
that very expression, and accusing themselves. For had they 
believed him who heard, they w^ould not have denied the 
Lord, Who spake by Moses, at a time when He was near". 
But such was not the eunuch in the Acts ; for when he 
Acts 8, 30. heard, Understandest thou wJiat thou readest ? he was not 
ashamed to confess his ignorance, and implored to be 
taught. Therefore, because he was like a learner, the grace 
of the Spirit was given. But as for them [the Jews], because 
they persisted in their ignorance, as the proverb saith, 
Prov.5,22. Death came upon them. For the fool dies in his sins. Like 

Ps. 55 15. . 

' * these too, are the heretics, who, having fallen from a true 
Ps. 14, 1. conscience, dare to imagine to themselves atheism. For the 
fool saith in his heart. There is no God. They are corrupt, 
and become abominable in their doings. Of such as are fools 
Mat.12,34. in their thoughts, the actions are wicked. For, as He 
saith, can ye, being evil, speak good things? They w*ere 
evil, because they thouglit wickedness. Or how can those 

s Apparently a loose quotation from was their knowledge that God had 

1 Sam. XV. 32. loov d/co7? uTrep dvcrlau spoken to him. Therefore, using their 

ayaOrjv, Koi r] iiraKpSacris virep (xreap own argument, they ought the more to 

Koiuv. have believed Christ, Who spake to 

t Yid. note to Letter xi. p. 91. them directly in His own person. Com- 

» The Jews professed to be Moses' pare the fragment of the twenty-seventh 

disciples. The reason they assigned Letter in the Appendix. 

The disciples continued stedfast with the Lord. 127 

do just acts, wliose minds are set upon fraud ? Or how shall A. D. 347, 
he love, who is prepared beforehand to hate ? How shall he be 
kind, who is bent upon the love of money ? How shall he 
be chaste, who looks upon a woman to lust after her? For Mat.15 19. 
from the heart proceed evil thoughts^ fornications, adulteries^ 
murders. By them the fool is wrecked, as by the waves of 
the sea, being led away and enticed by these fleshly plea- 
sures'"; for this also stands written, The whole body of 
fools is entirely shipivrecked\ Having then associated with 
folly, he is afterwards caught by a tempest, and perishes ; 
as Solomon says in the Proverbs, The fool and he wAo Ps. -19, lo. 
lacketh understanding shall perish together, and shall leave 
their wealth to strangers'^. Now they suffer such things, 
because there is not among them' one sound of mind to 
guide them. For where there is sagacity, there the Word, 
which is the pilot of souls, accompanies the vessel; for he Prov, i,.-). 
that hath understanding shall p^ossess government ; they who 
are without government falling like the leaves. 

Who then is it that altogether falls away, as Hymenasus 
and Philetus, because they entertained evil conceits respect- 
ing the resurrection, and suffered shipwreck in regard to 
the faith of it^? Judas also, being a betrayer, fell away 
from the Pilot, and perished with the Jews^. But the IMatt. i, 
[other] disciples since they were wise, and therefore re- ^ ' 
mained with the Lord, although the sea was agitated, and 
the ship covered with the waves, there being a storm'', and 
the wind contrary, yet fell not away. For they awoke the Mark 4, 
Word, Who was sailing with them, and immediately the ^^ 
sea became smooth at the command of its Lord, and they 
were saved. They then together became preachers and 
teachers ; relating the miracles of our Saviour, and also 
teaching us to imitate their example. These things were 
written on our account and for our profit, in order that by 
these tokens, we may acknowledge the Lord Who wrought 

01^0 ^bJGI appears to be an as referred to. 

error for UoUjOT . ' ^■"'^ """^ V°°^ "PF'"" '° "" 

X I know not what passage is in- wrongly inserted in the Isls. 

tended here. The word translated * Conf. Letter li. p. 18. 

•J.„ _ , „ ,_ ,, b Conf. Letter vii. p. 63. 'Judas— 

'body' is IrDaa literally 'lesh. having abandoned his Life, hanged 

y This passage is not to be found in himself.' 

the Proverbs. It occur? in the Psalms, '^ Syr. x^^l^^^- 

128 The luorld compared with the sea. 

Lettfr them. Let us therefore, in the faith of the disciples, hold 

_?J2^ converse with our Master d. For the world is like the sea 

Ps. 104, to us, my brethren, of which it is written, This is the great 
^" ' and ivide sea; there go the ships; the Leviathan, which Thou 
hast created to play in it. We are carried along then in 
this, as by the wind, through our own free-will^; for every 
one directs his course according to his will, and either, 
under the pilotage of the Word, he enters into rest; or, 
laid hold on by pleasure, he suffers shipwreck, and is in 
periF by storm. For, as in the ocean, there are tempests and 
waves, so in the world there are many afflictions and trials. 

Mark4, 17. The unbelieving, therefore, ivhen affliction or persecution 
ariseth, is offended, as the Lord said. For being uncon- 
firmed in the faith, and regarding temporal things, he cannot 
resist the difficulties which arise from afflictions. But as 
the house, built on the sand by the foolish man, so he, since 

Luke 6, 49. he is without understanding, falls before the assault of 
temptations, as it were by the winds. But the saints, 

Heb. 5, 14. having their senses exercised by reason of practice, and 
being strong in faith, and understanding the word, do not 
become faint in trials ; but although, from time to time, 
circumstances of greater trial arise against them, yet they 
continue faithful ; and, awaking the Lord, Who is with 
them, they are delivered. So, passing through water and 
fire, to a place where they can breathe freely, they duly 
keep the feast, offering up prayers, with thanksgiving, to 
God Who hath redeemed them. For either, being tempted, 
they are known, as Abraham ; or, suffering, they are approved, 
as Job; or, being oppressed and guilefully treated, as Joseph, 
they patiently endure it ; or, being persecuted, they are not 

Ps. 18, 29. overtaken ; but, as it is written, through God they leap) over 
the wall of wickedness, which divideth and separateth be- 
tween brethren, and turns them from the truth. After this 
example, the blessed Paul, when he took pleasure in infir- 
mities, in reproach, in necessities, in persecutions, and in 
distresses for Christ, rejoiced, and wished all of us to rejoice, 

1 Thess. 5, saying. Rejoice always ; in every thing give thanks, 


'^ .^JwAj^Aj ^> ]ig^\Vn*-> faulty. 

' But hold converse with [our] Master.' *" ^:^? l^^-»^ Zq^^A* v 

Prof. Larsow translates these words avrovofxia rj/iui^ (?) 

differently, considering the text as f kivSwov (Syr.) iroie7. 

The due observance of the FeasL ]i^) 

For what is there so consonant with the feast, as turnina- A.D. 347. 

' t^ — — — . — 

from wickedness, and a pure conversation, and ])rayer 
offered without ceasing to God, with thanksgiving i There- 
fore let us, my brethren, looking forward to celebrate the 
eternal joy in heaven, keep the feast here also ; rejoicing at 
all times, praying incessantly, and in every thing giving 
thanks to the Lord. I also give thanks to God, as well for 
those other wonders He has done, as for the various helps 
that have now been afforded us, in that though He hath 
chastened us sore, He did not deliver us over to death, but 
brought us from a distance, even as from the ends of the 
earth, and hath united us again with you. I then, while 
I keep the fast myself, have been anxious to give you also 
notice of the great feast of th^ Passover, so that we may go 
up together, as it were, to Jerusalem, and eat the Passover, 
not in a divided manner, but as in one houses not sodden as ^^°^- |2, 
in water, let us divide the word of God ; nor having, as it ' 
were, broken its bones, let us make void the commands of 
the Gospel. But, as it were, roasted with fire, with bitter 
herbs, being fervent in spirit, in fastings and watchings, 
with lying on the ground, let us keep it with penitence and 
thanksgiving ^. 

We begin the fast of forty days on the sixth day of 
Phamenoth (Mar. 2.) ; and having passed through that pro- 
perly, with fasting and prayers, we may be able to attain to 
the holy day. For he who regards lightly the fast of 
forty days, as one who rashly and impurely treadeth on 
holy things, cannot celebrate the Easter festival. Further, 
let us put one ai^other in remembrance, and stimulate one 

s When the flesh is sodden, the The Passover was to be eaten in one 
water becomes mixed with it. This house. We are to celebrate our Chris- 
was forbidden to the Jews. The sim- tian festival with unity of spirit; not 
plicity which is in Christ is to t>e ob- in a divided manner, as the Schis- 
served by us: we are to know nothing matics, but in one house, * even in the 
save Jesus Christ, and Him crucified. Catholic Church.' Vid. Letter v. p. 
(1 Cor. 2, -2 ) The bones of the Paschal 41. As the Paschal lamb was to be 
lamb were not to be broken. The com- roasted with fire, so we are to be fervent 
mands of God are not to be frustrated in spirit, * burning like a flame.' Vid. 
by us. Ta octtS ttjs (TO(pias ra ayia Letter iii. p. 23. As it was to be cateti 
56y/xaTa ttjs (KKX-naias iarlv^ airep iv with bitter herbs, so we are to observe 
T^ iracTxa- M^? <rvyTpi$€iv to7s "lovSai- our feast with watchirgs and fastings, 
ois v(:uoiModeTf)Tai. Athan. expos, in 'bringing forth worthy fruits of j^- 
Psahnos, ( Ps. xxi. 15.) torn. i. p. 82;. nance.' 

130 Names of recently appointed Bishops, 

Lettek another not to be negligent, and especiiilly that we should 

'— fast those days ; so that fasts may receive us in succession, 

and we may duly bring the feast to a close. The fast of 
forty days begins then, as was before said, on the sixth of 
Phamenoth (Mar. 2) ; and the great week of the Passion on 
the eleventh of Pharmuthi (Apr. 6.). And let us rest from 
the fast on the sixteenth of it (Apr. 11.), on the seventh 
day, late in the evening. Let us keep the feast when the 
first of the week rises upon us, on the seventeenth of the 
month Pharmuthi (Apr. 12.). Let us then add, one after 
the other, the seven holy weeks of Pentecost, rejoicing and 
praising God, that He hath by these things made known to 
us beforehand, joy and rest everlasting, prepared in heaven 
for those of us, who truly believe in Christ Jesus our Lord; 
through Whom, and with Whom, be glory and dominion 
to the Father, with the Holy Ghost, for ever and ever. 

Salute one another with a holy kiss. The brethren who 
are with me salute you. 

^T have also thought it necessary to give you accurate 
information respecting the appointment ^ of Bishops, which 
has taken place in the stead of our blessed fellow-labourers 
in the ministry ; that ye may know to whom to write, and 
from whom ye should receive letters. In Syene therefore, 
Nilammon, instead of Nilammon of the same name. In 
Laton, Masis, instead of Ammonius. In Coptos, Psenosiris'', 
instead of Theodorus^ In Panos, because Artemidorus "> 
desired it, on account of his old age, and weakness of body, 
Arius" is appointed in conjunction with him. In Hypsele, 
Arseniuso, having become reconciled to the Church. In 

b Vid. Letter to Serapion, p. 98. rectly written in the other places in 

note. which it occurs in this Letter. 

' Syr. KaTaa-Taais, a word notuncom- "> A Bishop of this name was present 

mon with S. A than., to denote the or- at the Council of Tyre, A.D. 334. 

•lination of Bishops. Vid. du Fresne, Athan. op. torn. i. p. 155. 

Glossar. Grsec. s. v. n Several Bishops of this name were 

^ Probably the same of that name present at the Council of Sardica. 

mentioned as having been present at <> There is a Letter extant of this 

the Council of Sardica, Athan. op. torn. Arsenius to S. Athan. wherein he re- 

1. p. 133. tracts his schismatical errors, and seeka 

' In the Syr. Ms. this word is erro- re-admission into the Catholic Church, 

neously written 'Theorodus.' It is cor- Athan. op. tom. i. p. 14G. 

together with their Sees. lol 

Lycos, EudaemonP, in the stead of Plusianus''. In Anti- A. P. 34; 
nous, Arion', instead of Ammonius and Tyrannus*. In 
Oxyrynchus, Theodorus, instead of Pelagius. In Nilopolis, 
instead of Theon, Amatus*, and Isaac, having been recon- 
ciled to each other. In Arsenoitis, Andreas, instead of 
Silvanus". In Prosopoiitis% Triadelphus, instead of Sera- 
pammon. In Diosphacusy, on the river side, Theodorus, 
instead of Serapammon. In Saiton [Sais], Paphnutius, 
instead of Nemesion. In Xois, Theodorus, instead of . 
Anubion; and there is also with him Isidorus, being recon- 
ciled to the Church. In Sethroitis% Orion, instead of 
Potammon^ In Clysma, Tithonas, instead of Jacob ^; and 
there is with him Paulus, having been reconciled to the 

P Probably the same of that name 
who wa3 present at the Council of 

1 This name occurs in the Letter of 
Arsenius referred to in note o. 

•■ This name is also found among 
the Bishops present at the Council of 
Sardica. -^ 

« Syr. ^CDQl-ipQ^ (Tyrianus.) 
This is most probably meant for Ty- 
rannus, the Bishop of that name who 
was present at the Council of Tyre. 
Athan. op. torn. i. p. 154. There were 
several Egyptian Bishcps of the name 
of Ammonius. A reference to the 
other writings of S. Athan. mentioned 
in the preceding notes will serve to 
verify several of the succeeding names. 

t Svr. ^CdI^P^I an error for 
Amantius. (Qu) Vid. torn. i. p. 133. 

" Silvanus is mentioned in the post- 
script to the Letter to Serapion, p. 101. 
His successor Andreas, here men- 
tioned, was present at the Synod held 
at Alexandria A.D. 362. Athan. op. 

tom. i. p. 6 9. §. 10. 

* Prosopitis, (Qu.) Neither of the 
names is known from otlier sources as 
that of one of the Egyptian bishoprics. 

y Probably an error for Diospolis. 

^ In the three words Triadelphus, 
Xois, and Sethroitis, a Nun is printed 
instead of a Yud. The Ms. often 
makes little or no distinction between 
the two letters; but independent testi- 
mony fixes it in these particular cases. 

» Syr. ,XJQ,j1oAju4. An error for 

^rf\ » 1oA> / {?) TiOS-qs was one of the 

Egyptian Bishops at the Council of 
Sardica. tom. i. p. 133. 

•» Probably the Hishop of th-t name, 
whose death was caused by the injuries 
inflicted on him during a persecution 
of the Church, as recorded bv Athan. 
in his Hist. Ar. ad Monachos, tom. i. 
p. 277. His successor, Orion, we may 
suppose to have been the same who 
was among those assembled at Sar- 


A.T).34S. Coss. PhUippus, Salia; Prcefect. the same Ne storms ,- Indict. 
lT%tt VI.; Easter-day III. Non. Apr.; VIII. FharmutU; 
jEra Dioclet. 64; M0071 18. 

Let us now keep the feast, my brethren; for as our 
Lord then gave notice to His disciples, so does He now 

Matt. 26, beforehand to us ; that after some days is the Passover, 
Therein the Jews indeed betrayed the Lord, but ive cele- 
brate His death as a feast, while we rejoice that then we 
obtained rest from our afflictions, and eagerly assemble 
ourselves together, whereas we formerly were dispersed. 
And whereas we were lost, we have been found ; from 
having been far off, we are brought nigh; and from having 
been strangers, we have become His, Who suffered for us. 

Is. 53, 4. and was nailed on the cross ; Who bore our sins, as the 

prophet saith, and was afflicted for us, that He might 

* remove from all of us grief, and sorrow, and sighing. 

When we thirst, He too satisfies us with the feast, standing 

John 7, 37. and crying, If any man thirst, let him come to Me, and drink. 
For such is the love of the saints at all times, that they 
never once leave off, but offer the uninterrupted, constant 
sacrifice to the Lord, and continually thirst, and ask of 

Ps. 63, I. Him to drink^; as David sang. My God, my God, early 
will I seek Thee; my soul tliirsteth for Thee ; many times 
my heart and flesh long eth for Thee in a barren land, without 
a path, and without water. Thus was I seen by Thee in the 

Is. 26, 9. sanctuary. Isaiah the prophet also says. From the night 
my spirit seeketh Thee early, O God, because Thy command- 

a Conf. Letter vii. p. 60, 6L The and the twentieth Letters has been 
striking similarity between the seventh already noticed. 

Spiritual thirst of the righteous. 133 

ments are light. And another says, My soul faint etk for the A.D. S48. 
longing it hath for Thy judgments at all times. And again P'^r9,2o: 
he says, For Thy judgments I have hoped, and Thy law ivill Ps- 119, 
/ keep at all times. Another boldly cries out, saying, ^^' ^^' 
Mine eye is ever towards the Lord. And with him one Ps. 2.7, 15. 
says, The meditation of my heart is before Thee at all times. Ps. 19, I6. 
And Paul further advises. At all times give thanks; pray 1 Thess. 5, 
without ceasing. Those then who are thus continually 
engaged, are altogether waiting for the Lord, while they 
say. Let us follow on to know the Lord: we shall find Ilim Hos. 6, 3. 
ready as the morning, and He tvill come to us as the early and 
the latter rain for the earth. For not only does He satisfy 
them in the morning; neither alone does lie give them to 
drink as often as they ask; but He gives them abundantly 
according to His loving-kindness, vouchsafing to them, at 
all times, the grace of the Spirit. And what it is they 
thirst for He immediately adds, saying, He that believeth on John 7, 38. 
Me. For, as cold luaters are pleasant to those who are thirsty, Prov. 25, 
according to the proverb, so to those who believe in the ^' 
Lord, the coming of the Spirit is better than all refresh- 
ment and delight. 

It becomes us also then in these days of the Passover, to 
rise early with the saints, and approach the Lord with all 
our soul ; with purity of body, with confession and godly 
faith in Him ; so that when we have here first drunk, and 
been filled with these divine waters which [flow] from Him, 
we may also be able to sit at table with the saints in 
heaven, and may share in the one voice of gladness which is 
there. For this, skinners having evinced no inclination, are 
properly cast out, with the words sounding in their cars, 
Friend, how camest thou in hither, not having a wedding Matt. 22, 
garment;' It is true that sinners also thirst, but not for 
the grace of the Spirit; but, being inflamed witli wicked- 
ness, they are altogether set on fire by pleasures, as saith 
the Proverb, All day^ long he desires evil desires. But the Prov. 21, 
Prophet cries against them, saying, Wo unto those who rise\^\^ ^^^ 
up early, and follow strong drink; who continue until the 
evening, for wine inflameth them. And since they run wild 

134 The deceitful nefis of the wicked. 

Letter in wantonness, they dare to thirst for the destruction of 

— ^ others. Having first drunk deceitful waters, which cannot 

be trusted, those things come upon them, which are stated 

Jer. 15,18, ]jy i\-^q Prophet; My wound, saith he, is grievous; how shall 

I he healed; it hath surely/ been to me like deceitful waters, 

in ivhich there is no trust. The second, again, while they 

drink with those who are with them, lead astray and throw 

into coiifusion the mind [which was desirous] of truth, and 

turn away the simple from it. And wliat does he [the 

Hab. 2, 15. prophet] cry? JVo unto him who causeth his neighbour to 

vers.) ' driiik turbid destruction, and maketh him drunk, that he may 

look upo7i his caverns'^. But those who dissemble, and steal 

away the truth, quiet their hearts. Having first drunk 

thereof, they go on to say those things which the whorish 

Prov. 9, 1 7. woman saith in the Proverbs, Lay hold ivith delight on 

hidden bread, and sweet stolen waters. They lay snares 

secretly, because they have not the freedom of virtue, nor 

Prov. 8, 2. the boldness of V/isdom, who praiseth herself in the streets, 

and employeih freedom of speech in the broad ways*^, 

preaching on high walls. For this reason, they are bidden 

to lay hold with delight^, because, having chosen careless- 

ness^ and pleasure, they steal the sweetness of truth, and 

with it disguise their own bitter waters [to escape] from the 

blame of their wickedness, which would be speedy and 

Mau.7, 15. public. On this account, the wolf puts on the skin of the 

Matt. 23, sheep, sepulchres deceive by their whitened exteriors «. 

Satan, that is*', 

^- The Syriae translator appears to S Conf. Letter ii. p. 19. The same 

have had before him the words ava- method of disjuising vrickedness liy an 

t^ottV 6o\epav, as some Mss. read, and admixture of truth is there reprobated; 

as the passage is quoted in the Tomus the same scriptural iUnstrations of the 

ad Antiochenses, Athan. op. tom. i. woif with the sheep's clothing, and the 

p. 619 not avarpoTrfj 0oX€pa. The last whitened sepulchres, are there adopted ; 

word in the verse 'caverns' {(nr-}\\aia) while in both places, immediately after 

arises from the similarity betweeen the these, Satan himself is introduced. 

J ^s-^;,»;^ , 1 1 .1 fc-v-^T'.vs There is this difference: there S. Atha- 

words Dni7^ (nakedness)and nini^O ,,asius treats of errors of doctrine ; here, 

(caves). of immorality of life, 

^ iv ralsTrXaTeiais Syr. h -phe Syriac Ms. (which is imper- 

« Cont. Letter vii. p. 69. fgct) ends here. The fragments that 

' For IZoiLQaClO) IpR- follow are derived from different 

.. ' • sources, mention whereof is made in 

IZai^iDOliQ^) the notes. 



From the twenty-seventh Festal Letter of Athanasius, 
Bishop of Alexandria and Confessor; of which the 
commencement is, '^ Again the season of the day of the 
livmg Passover ^" 

For who is our joy and boast, but our Lord and Saviour 
Jesus Christ, Who suffered for us, and by Himself made 
known to us the Father? For He is no otlier than He 
Who of old time spake by the Prophets ; but now He saith 
to every man, / iVho speak am near\ Right well is this word John 4, 
spoken; for He does not at one time speak, at another 
being silent; but continually and at all times, from the 
beginning without cessation, He stirs up every man, and 
speaks to every man in his heart. 

• The fragment here giveri of The 'ETci 6.V., .5 ^a^a5,/ <toi. There can be 
twenty-seventh Letter, as well as the as little doubt that they are the trans- 
succeeding fragments of the twenty- lation of ahrhs 6 \a\wu irdpuf^t, Kp.s- 
S and forty fourth, are from Syriac tola i. ad Serapionem, torn. i. p 626. 
tr^slations, discovered by Mr. Cureton §. 10. The context shows that b A than 
jHuotedb-Severus Patriarch of An- understood the words <5 AaXcvas 
tToch in hs work agaiost Johannes denoting the person of probably 
Grammaticus, contained in the Syriac by connexion with the preceding verse 
colleTon of the British Museum, (Cod where the woman of famana sajs of 
Add 12 157. fol. 202.) and published the expected, i,yayy^\^i ^M'" 
bv him 'with the prec'eding' Letters. .d.ra. Conf. Heb. .. 1. 6 f^^^^J' 
Their style would argue them to be eras ro.s Trarpci^../ .... ' P^<^!^'^^'^ 
nart of the same translation. V'"- Vid. al.o Letter xx. p. 1 26. 
part 01 tnc same ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^ ^.^^^^. ^^^^j^^ ^^^^^ 

b \i\ *^» ;Q ^^*^kSCSDJ OOl PI referring to Christ, Who is at one time 

These words are observable. There can represented as speaking to Moses, at 

be little doubt that they are meant for another, as being mar. 
the passage referred to, (John iv. 26.) 




And again, from the tic enttj -ninth Letter, of which the 
heginning is, " Sufficient for this present time are the 
things which were before written by us." 

s-^'^^f' And the Lord proved the disciples, when He was asleep 

on the pillow, at which time a miracle was wrought, which 
is especially calculated to put even the wicked to shame. 
For when He arose, and rebuked the sea, and silenced the 
storm. He plainly shewed two things; that the storm of 
the sea was not from the winds, but from fear of its Lord, 
Who walked upon it; and that the Lord, Who rebuked it, 
was not a creature, but rather its Creator, since a creature 
is not obedient to a creature. For although the Red Sea 

Exod. 14, was divided before Moses, yet it was not Moses who did it; 
for it took place, not because he spake, but because God 

Joshua 10, commanded. And also if the sun stood still in Gibeon, 


and the moon in the valley of Ajalon, yet this was the work, 
not of the son of Nun, but of the Lord, Who heard his 
Matt. 27, prayer. He it was, Who both rebuked the sea, and on the 
cross caused the sun to be darkened. 

ATPENDIX. . 137 


Of the particular hooks and their niDnher, ivhick are received 
by the Church. From the thirty -ninth Letter of Athana- 
sius, Bishop of Alexandria, ivhich treats of the Paschal 
festival; wherein he defines canonically which are the 
divine hooks ichich are received by the Church''. 

. . . . But since we have made mention of heretics as 

dead, but of ourselves as possessing the Divine Scriptures 

for salvation; and since I fear lest, as Paul wrote to the 2Cor. 11,3. 

Corinthians, some few of the simple should be beguiled 

from their simplicity and purity'', by the subtilty of certain 

men, and should afterwards read other books — those called 

apocryphal — led astray by the similarity of their names 

with the true books ; I beseech you to bear patiently, if I 

also write, by way of remembrance, of matters with which 

you are acquainted, influenced by the need and advantage 

of the Church. 

In proceeding to make mention of these things, I shall 
adoj^t, to commend my undertaking, the pattern of Luke 
the Evangelist, saying. Forasmuch as some have taken in Lute 1,1. 
hand, to reduce into order for themselves the books termed 

a Tlie above fragment of the thirty- me to consider it as the work of a 

ninth Letter has long been before the different translator. It adherea less 

world, having been preserved in the closely to the Greek, than is the case 

original Greek, by Theodorus Balsa- in the other Letters with the few frap^- 

mon. It may be found in the tirst ments that are extant ; more than once 

volume of the Benedictine edition of introducing explanations of the word 

ihe works of S. Athan. tom. i. p. 767. Apovrifp/inl. The quotation from St. 

ed. 1777. A Syriac translation of it Luke differs widely in the choice of 

has been discovered by Mr. Cureton words fiom the same quotation, as 

in an anonymous Commentary on the found in Letter ii. p. 20. Lastly, the 

Scriptures in the collection of the word 'heretics' is written very differ- 

British Museum, (Cod. 12, 1(J8.) and ently in this fragment from the mode 

appended to his volume. This trans- uniformly adopted in the other Letters. 

lation does not contain quite so inuch i„this we find it written, UcL^j'oi : 

as the fragment of the original, com- '^ 

mencing ouly at the quotation from eigg^here, n mo > / mi'm 

S. Luke. The heading above given is ' \ , . . 

^* , 1 ,. ^, c,.i^;o« \ r.urof.,1 The Greek has the word.« koI ttjs 

tran« ated from the Syriac. A caretul r j • m r .u 

iraii-utifu ,K^ ctvl^ r>ninnarfd ayj/^TTjToj, fouud in somc Mss. of the 

consideration ot the stjle, compared ' . ' ' 


th that of the other Letters, has led Scriptures 


apocryphal, and to mix them up with the divinely in- 
spired Scripture, concerning which we have been fully 
persuaded, as they who from the beginning were eye- 
witnesses and ministers of the Word, delivered to the 
fathers ; it hath seemed good to me also, having been urged 
thereto by the brethren, and having learned from the 
beginning, to bring before you the books included in the 
Canon, and handed down, and accredited as Divine ; to the 
end that any one who has fallen into error may correct 
those who have led him astray; and that he who continues 
stedfast in purity, may again rejoice, having these things 
brought to his remembrance. 

There are, then, of the Old Testament, in all twenty-tv/o 
books in number: for, as I have heard, they are handed 
down the same in number as the letters among the Hebrews, 
their respective order and names being as follows. The 
first is Genesis, then Exodus, next Leviticus, after that 
Numbers, and then Deuteronomy. Following them, we 
have Joshua, the son of Nun, and Judges, then Ruth. 
And again next, four books of Kings, and of them the first 
and second are reckoned one book, and so likewise the 
third and fourth, one. And again, after these, the first and 
second of the Chronicles are similarly reckoned as one book. 
Esdra again, the first and second as one. After these there 
is the book of Psalms, then Proverbs, next Ecclesiastes, 
and the Song of Songs. Job follows, then the Prophets, 
the twelve being reckoned as one book. Then Isaias, 
Jeremias, and with him Baruch, Lamentations, and^ the 
epistle; afterwards, Ezekiel and Daniel. Thus far con- 
stitutes the Old Testament. 

But we must not look upon it as a task to speak of the 
books of the New Testament. These then are, the four 
Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. 
Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles, and the Catholic 
Epistles, called of the Apostles, seven in number '^j viz. of 
James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; and then, one 
of Jude. Besides these, there are fourteen Epistles of the 

^ The Syriac has the conjunction, t'Jitors. 
which is rejected by the Henedictine ^ Syr. ' And the S( ven Epistles.' 


Apostle Paule, written in this order. The first, to the 
Romans; then two to the Corinthians ; after these, to the 
Gakitians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians 
and to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, 
and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one 
to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. To these, the 
Revelation of John. 

These are the fountains of salvation, that he who thirsteth 
may be satisfied with the words' they contain. In these 
alone is proclaimed the doctrine of godliness. Let no man 
add to them, neither let him take ought from them. For 
on this point the Lord put to shame the Sadducees, saying. 
Ye do err, not knowing the Scrijjtures. And He reproved Matt. 22, 
the Jev.s, saying. Search the ScrijHures, for they testify of'jl^^^^ 33 
Me, ^^^ , ' 

But for greater exactness, I add this also, considering it 
necessary so to write ; that there are other books besides 
these, not indeed included in the Canon, but appointed by 
the Fathers to be read by those who are come of late, 
wishing^ for admonition and instruction in godliness. The 
Wisdom of Solomon, and the Wisdom of Sirach^, and 
Esther, and Judith, and Tobit, and that which is called the 
Doctrine of the Apostles, and the Shepherd. But the 
former, my brethren, are included in the Canon, the latter 
being [merely] read; nor is there any mention of apocryphal 
writings. But this is an invention of heretics, writing them 
to favour their own views, bestowing upon them their 
approbation, and assigning to them a date, and producing 
them as ancient writings, that thereby they might find 
occasion to lead astray the simple. 

« Syr. 'Of Paul.' have had before him the Benedictine 

^ Syr. ' living words.* reading, koI fiovKo/xfuois- 

s The Syriac translator appears to ^ Syr. ' I'he Snu of Sirach.' 

140 ' APPENDIX. 


And again, from the forty-fourth Letter, of tvhich the com- 
7nenceme7it is, *' All that our Lord and Saviour Jesus 
Christ did in our stead and for us." 

When, therefore, the servants of the Chief Priests and the 

John 7,37. Scribes saw these things, and heard from Jesus, Whosoever 

is athirst, let him come to Me and drink; they perceived 

that this was not a mere man like themselves, but that this 

was He Who also gave water to the saints, and that it was 

He Who was acknowledged by the prophet Isaiah. For He 

was truly, as it were, the splendour of the light% and the 

Word of God ; thus too He w^as the river from the fountain 

which gives drink. And then to Paradise, and now to all 

John 7 37. iTien, He gives the same gift of the Spirit, and says. If any 

^^' man thirst, let him come to Me and drink. Whosoever 

helieveth on Me, as saith the Scripture, rivers of living water 

shall floio out of his belly. This was not for man to say, but 

for the living God, Who truly vouchsafes life, and gives 

the Holy Spirit. 

* Conf. Heb. i. 3. airavyacriia rrji Sc^^tjs — auToO, 




La] ]]j .QJOl y^]o )jlSQQD ^1 lA*]* .QAQSm 

2cLw!:^2i!D> 5^1 l>ai^ .q\'^i .ci»q1qj |llA .oai!^ 

1«i1 ^^oi . IZoain? li'la oicri . .qSdoij Ir^wol 

ai^oalo ^^u^ooi ^ Ul ♦ oii1d> ^qjoi^ "liaoi 

^jJLLiAk) .QJCfi .OQiSnool? ^^01^ o1 ♦ il^^QCO 
^>Zj I^aID ^ 'r^Zu ^oioA^l ^> OOl ^ *«-»4^ 

]j^} ^oailiao \zu*r^ IsLtSD ♦ jj-^k^^j IZojOlCD 
: ^^^^CD ^d] p> ♦ IcjliIdZj ^oi ill . bl^^o 

♦ lUyOJ lASQx. Ur^l ^ ^OA^J 5>O,Q0 : ^OOlAiLSn^iJO 

^201 .ooilnooLo .ocTiaJLi. .QJai ^1 ^1 .oAjlJ? 
^1 . ^q:j 


ftOJ^Aj ^Qj] .Q£i«^3j od« f^L^sO \p^^r^ I^Ujb 

]Aiib, ♦ t^r^D ^s^^ .onLft? l^'^] ♦ -^l 
IZqjlQpqjqj U ^^Lsd .qsZo^ « loi^iljs .oaLij 

ooio ♦ O'rO] •J-^cuj |]qjo . cuir:) ^m^col? jib 
IZjjio '^Z p •• .oaili^ ^ ^Qs]j5 looi p^Asj 

y-»1j> ^^-fti^CJlJ V,^i£D ^3 OCn ]1a]} . G1£D ]l4D>iO « ^w^^l 


: ^001 0^0*^2 pMO : giZqL) octi |ijuO^ ^'^ 

•^Ij ^1 ol ♦ .ooil ^-jubijs* liZoij IZo-L^o •. Vioi 
aV.0 Ua\? U1 Ivr* cil : ^'A^] W^ ^,^ 

« The hitherto unpublished text of part of the eleventh Letter. Vid. 

note r, p. 86. 


♦ ^0|al ai^a U ♦ loai ]^ ^4 PO ^? r^®? ♦ r*Or^ 


looi .jspAk) pD •. ^La5 1^)0 -^o }j^]^ cai ♦ ]ZUv^^ 
*2i..A2Qk) .001^5 l^r^l ^-^ looi jas . 1^^-^ ^ 

♦ tool J^ALD pS l]o . "JOOS ^IjALO^ "Po 001 ^ii> led 

.0301 ^ . ^5 looi ^.^iJ^ZALD ♦ looi ^oAld p |] ^©"Io 

"jZa^l »^^ Ir^O'rS ^lO 0010 ♦ OOOI ^j,^'^^^ ^£^G1| 

]>oiajo \L^\ ♦ .boukj 0001 ^^^m^ ^j>5 .a.icn ♦ ,.2^ 
^ ♦ .ooiL ]oai Aa] ^^^D A^^D ^A,^'7s ♦ 1 Zoo ^40 
IZo'^Gi* ^1 : Aja'I'H'r*^ ♦ ^-^-sjX^j «.s,?v»5 001 |^o;.s 

♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦«♦ "^200 ^OOl^aJ 

« Apparently an error. Vide note f, p. 72. 


^^^ ^? ^ ♦ li^CD >ii>Am*->\ »^1 ^v ]^] p lb ^ 
o2 •. ^oZo ♦ 1^^ U>As alai ♦ -^lo looi 1-^ 

: \^] p jzii^iiD io,o ]Lj^ciil^ |j^oj ^1j liiLiI 

: Ufrim^ UoSd> ]i^1 ♦ lailL ^^ uftj] ^|i •^. 

Vv^ jD ^"U^j "Uri^l ♦ 1-»;lo Zq^ ^ IZqajlTd 

♦ lail^) 012)0. '^ U>pD ^ cni^df^ ^su : w»aiaK.lJ 

♦ lorlLj oiw^jio Zal ^oilo ♦ \:^] p ^|i ^ Ij^IdiIdo 
jdicD ^> l.'r^Aol ^^>4!iD ♦ ^Z'qA^ 1r>A^? loilix ZqIo 

^p£5 ^ ^j^nsLij ,-Acnj 'ro™. ^jOi 1AjX»j . ]a>n ]iMnan 
^01 IaAujo . loilLj jmi tinn o\os^\o ]k>V.V<\ : ]aOL 

p ♦ pjoj ^A^a4 .^1j \^^^] * ^-»^i»-w ]LDja>o ^-Aoilik 

^Zol wocajj ♦ IZoiSOiOio ^k\ i»> V) > ^? ^-AoA . ^io:. 

♦ IZojA^i^ 'r^^ uioi UjI Ai/i.^> . ^q1.Q2) U'r^ A^Vr-iA-. 

= The xM.s. reads loOl] '"cor- d The word ^Q*^ ( I.-^in . is an 
ectly. error for *SQ^f ( Joli). 



ouA^I ^X»5 ^ ]J"1 ♦ *|J3Qa liiimj '^r:)! ^ ]lal : ouZu] 
•r^.. Ur^^ ♦ Ai>?ll onSoj 1jC3i ]ln>A ♦ 1v^»Sq1 
olo ♦ *jcn 1Z'r»Ai IZojAAlDob , lAlio ouA^l lAoAaSo 
Us)]© : Ijoi »^1j IIom li^iA ?a*Ao lAloAi ^ 

h^^ 2x110 ]]] : tcLwJ ^oioAa] jOtAiii |,'iV)..> 

♦ ^J^ll lyv-i^? CTUSD P 0Uk3 Q.A ^Ido '. ^JOOT 

C7iLk> IZow^La diloo ♦ ]k)iALD jn^ ]^*-^ Vv*^ p 
^slo ♦ lA^oii^ cuLk] IAdjotd ^ 'r^^O ♦ ]SQA** 

a The hitherto unpublished Syriac b "JZojA-eID (virtue) is doubtless 

text corresponding to p. 71 — /3<,ofthe "i > a 

translation. Vide note y, p. 71- an error for I^O A ai V) (produce). 



xii. 11, 13, 14. 
xiii. 1 . 


iv. 10. 


xvi. 1. 



xxii. 13. 


xvdii. 15. 



xlix. U. 

J 07 



X. 12. 


^iii. 26. 


xii. 2. 









xii. 32, 33. 






43, 48. 







iii. 9. 


xiv. 14. 


iv. 16. 




ix. 20—28. 


XV. 1. 20, 

32, 112 



xix. 8. 







xxiii. ]4. 


xxiv. 2. 


1. 21. 

ii. 7. 
^•ii. 1. 





xiv. 4. ( LXX vers.) 
xl. 3, 1, (LXX vers.) 



xi. 13. 


xxiii. 20. 






i. 1. 


ix 2. 


ii. 1. 



x. 1. 






iv. 1 . 





V. 3. 

vii. :{. 





ix. 15. 

xii. (i. 


iv. 24. 



vi. 4. 


xiv. 1. 






ix. 3! 






x^d. 3. 


cxix. 43, 44. 


xvii. 3. 




x^dii. 29. 

28, 128 



45,46. (LXXvers 

.) 123 





cxx. 5. (LXX vers.) 




cxxiv. 26. 




exxv. 1 . (LXX vers.) 



90, 133 

cxxxii. 15. 


xxiii. 4. 


cxxxvii. 1. 


xxiv. 3. 


cxli. 2. 

J 25 



cxliii. 5. 


XXV. 15. 


cxliv. 1 7. 


XXX. 9. 


cl. 6. 


xxxi. 7. 


xxxii. 9. 


xxxiii. 1. 



xxxiv. 1 . 


XXXV. 8. 


i. 5. 




iv. 1. 




V. 3. 


xxxvii. 15. 



88, 126 

xxx\1ii. 12. 


^iii. 2. 




ix. 1. 






xlii. 1. 








xliii. 4. 


X. 3. 


xliv. 17. 


xi. 26. 




xii. 12. 


xlix. 3. 


xiii. 13. 




XV. 19. 








xvii. 15. 




XX. 17. 




xxi. 26. 


Iv. 15. 


XXV. 25. 


hii. 5. 


xxvi. 2. 


Ixiii. } . 




Ixvi. 11,]2. 




Ixxiii. 14. (LXXvei-s.) 


X. 8. 


Ixxvi. I. 


Ixxx. 7. 


Ixxxi. 3. 



xc. 14. 


xciv. 17. 


viii. 1. 


xcv. I. 


xcvii. 1. 


c. 4. 



ci. 6. 


civ. 4. 


i. 2. 


25, 26. 







123, 124 

cxv. 8. 



46, 122 



ii. 3. 


cxvi. 12. 


iii. 9, 10. 

89, 126 



V. 11. 






cxviii. 17. 


vii. 14. 




xi. 1. 


cxix. 20. 






xxii. 13. 






xxiii. 2. (LXXvers.) 


ii. 15. 


xx\i. 9. 


10. (LXX vers.) 


-xxviii. 18. 





xl. 18. 


i. 15. (LXXvors.) 

10, 11, 

xlii. 12. 


22, 44 

xliv. 23. 


ii. 1. (LXXvers.) 


xl\iii. 22. 



xlix. 8. 





liii. 4. 







ii. 15. (LXXvers.) 


Iv. 0, 7. 


Iviii. T). 
Hx. 3, 4. 







viii. 19. 


Ixvi. 3. 





i. 11. 
iv. 2. 

34, 94. 

ii. 18. 


iv. 3. 

V. 8. 



vi. 16. 






^-ii. 18. 


xiii. 8. 


21, 22. 








ix. 2. 

XV. 18. 


i. 4. 
ii. 12. 


x\u. 10. 


vii. 27. 

4, 70 

XX. 9. 




XXV. 10. 



xl\-iii. JO. 


XV. 9. 













25—28. 60 


iv. JO. 
V. 6. 


Jl, 12. 


vii. 13. 












ix. 13, 


xxii. 28. 


xi. 29. 


xxiii. 28. 


xii. 24. 








xiii. 8. 






xxxii. 15. 






XV. 3. 










i. 1. 


xviii, 20. 








XX. 22. 


iv. 14. 


xxi. ]9. 








xxii. 12. 

63, 133 

V. 39. 







19, 126, 139 

\i. 85. 



xxiii. 27. 



XXV. 1— ]2. ' 







59, 60, 75 


15, 95 









vii. 37. 








xxvi. 2. 


37, 38. 



34, twice 










viii. 56. 




ix. 28, 29. 




xii. 28. 


xxvii, 45. 


xiii. 12. 


Kxviii. 20. 


xiv. 2. 








xvi 33. 



iv. 17. 


XX. 22. 





127, 186 

X. 28. 



xi. 14. 


viii. 30. 




i. 1. 

20, 137 

iii. 7. 


i. 22, 28. 


Ai. 49. 


ii. 21- 


X. 19. 




xii. 40. 


iii. 31. 




v. 3. 



xiii. 25. 




xiv. 1 5. 




XV. 7. 


vi. 9. 




viii. 13. 


xvi. 19. 




xvii. 15, &c. 


24, 25. 







xviii. 10. 





xxii. 15, 16. 


88, 39. 




X. 4. 

xi. 23. 
xii. 12. 
xiij. 7. 
xiv. 1. 
x\i. 18. 



i. 24. 



89, 126 

iii. 2. 




iv. 16. 


V. 7. 20, 23, 

28, 45, 58, 79, 






vi. 13. 






\ii. 7. 




ix. 27. 


X. 4. 


xi. 1. 

17, 76, 84 


18, twice 



xiii. 9, 12. 


xiv. 25, 


XV. 53. 





ii. 17. 
iii. 17. 
iv. 10. 
V. 13. 
vi. 1, 2. 
\ii. 6. 
xi. 3. 
xii. 4. 


ii. 20. 
iii. 23, 24. 
iv. 10. 

V. 22. 


55, 65 



40, 57 




































. 15. 







v. 10. 



21,28, 133 






i. 15. 




ii. 7. 


iii. 17. 


iv. 5. 



8, 02 


02, 100 








i. 13. 


ii. B. 

20, 42, 80 

10, 17. 



18 02 



iii. 1-'. 






iv. y. 





ii. 14. 


iv. 12. 


V. 13. 



71, 128 

vi. 18. 


ix. 10. 

5, 124 

X. 1. 




xi. 6. 




xii. 22. 





i. 2. 



i, 13. 
ii, 21—23. 




Ablahius, Pra?fect of the Prffitorimu, 

Abraham, his trial through Isaac, 50. 

AJfiictlon, a season for thanksgiving 
and praise, 28, 109. to be followed 
by happiness, 83, 107. God oui- 
comfort in it, 90. 

Amaton, Bishop of Nilopolis, 131. 

Ammonius, Bishop of Laton, 130. 

Ammonius, Bishop of Antinous, 131. 

Andragathius, Bishop of the Eastern 
Garyatliis, 102. 

Andreas, Bishop of Arsenoitis, 131. 

Andronicus, Bishop of Tentyra, 101. 

Angels, sustained by the divine vision, 
10. their festive rejoicing, 52. 
Christ their food, 62. 

Antinous, 131. 

Anubion, Bishop of Xois, 131. 

Aphroditon, 102. 

Apocryphal books, mixed up by some 
Avith Holy Scripture, 138, 139. 

ApoUon, 101. 

Apostles, doctrine of, apocr}-phal, 139. 

Arabian, Bishop of Stathma, 102. 

Arians, their erroneous opinions, 77, 
78, 9i5. compared witli Jews, 78, 9(). 
misunderstand the Scriptures, 78. 
classed with Schismatics, 79. op- 
posers of Christ, 79, 80, 93, 104. 

Ario-maniacs, 77, 93, 95. 

Arion, Bishop of Antinous, 131. 

Arius, appointed Bishop of Panes in 
conjunction with Artemidorus, 130. 

Arseniiis, reconciled to the Church, 
130. Bishop of Hypselc, 130. 

Arsenoitis, 101, 130. 

Arte77iidorus, Bishop of Panos, 130. 

Athanasius, S. zeal of, in discharge of 
duty, 22, 31,67. his sickness, 31. 
summoned by Constantine, 36. ac- 
cused by tlie Melctians, 36. watched 
by his enemies, 67. writes from 
Rome, 104. again at Alexandria, 
121. returns tf> Alexandria, 129. 

Atras, Bishop of Maximiauopohs, 101. 


Beasts, brute, comparison of sinners 
with them, 15. 

Benefits, God's, the return He re- 
quires, 39, 40. 

Bread, of sin, 59. of wisdom, 60. 

Bucolia, 101. 


Cain, goes out from the presence of 
God, 72. 

Callinicus, 86. 

Calosiris, Bishop of Arsenoitis, 101. 

Canon of Scripture, 138, 139. 

Christ, efficacy of His deatli, 47. the 
Bestower of the Spirit, 68, 71. 
looked for in old time, 4. our 
example, 18, 15. His death to be 
borne in our bodies, 55. the food 
of the Saints, 59, 61. His deahngs 
manifold, 70. His patience under 
sufferings, 72, 75. His sulfcrings 
our gain, 76, 114. tlie Shepherd, 111. 
the High Priest, 111. tlie Way, 111. 
the Door, 111. our Guide to tlie 
Feast, 112. the substance of the 
Old Testament prophecies, 115. tlio 
Pilot of souls, 127. always speaking 
to man, 135. the Old Ttstament 
miracles wrouglit by Him, 136. 

Clysma, 131. 

Coat of Christ, Schismatics rend it, 

Coat of God, Arians rend it, 79. 

Coptos, 130. 

Danitl, liis fasting, 9, 't'S. 
David, his watchfuin* s*^, 

vent prayers, 111. 
Diosphacus, 131. 




Easter, dispute respecting the time 
for its celebration, 119, 1-20. Vide 
Feast, Passover, Paschal Feast. 

EUas, bis fasting, 9. 

Elias, Bishop of Tanis, 101. 

Elisha, Angels with him, 74. 

Esau, persecutes Jacob, 72. 

Esther, her prayers and fasting, 32. 
the Je-\\ish festival in her time, 80. 

Esther, book of, apocryphal, 139. 

Eudcemon, 36. 

Eudcemon, Bishop of Lycos, 181. 

Eulogius, SG. 

Eusebius, his opposition to S. Athan. 


Faith and godliness, their intimate 
connexion, 92. 

Fast, to he sanctified, 7. character of 
a real, 7. \irtue of, 9. examples of, 
in Moses, Elias, and Daniel, 9. 

Feast, heavenly, blessings of, 13. 

Feasts, spiritual preparation for, 12. 
of the wicked, occasions of mourn- 
ing, 17. established by the Jews on 
special occasions, 32. duty of Chris- 
tians during them, 23, 33, 57, 110, 
129. Christian, kept in order, J 7. 
of the heathen, 41, 115. of the 
Schismatics, 41. Jewish and Chris- 
tian compared, 41. of the heathen 
' bread of mom-ners,' 122. 

Fig-tree, cursing of the barren, 49. 

Food of the soul described, 8. the 
de^il the food of sinners, 8. 


Garyathis, (Eastern,) 102. 
Garyathis, (Southern,) 102. 
Gelous Hieracammon, 30. 
Gospel, the accomplishment of the 

Jewish administration, 82. itself to 

be fulfilled hereafter, 82. 
Grace of God, to be improved by us, 

24, 47, 48. how acknowledged by 

the saints, 39. variously distributed, 



Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, 69. 
HeracUus, Bishop of Bucolia, 101. 
Heresies, perversions of the truth, 19. 
Heretics, compared witli the Jews, 49. 
Hernias, Shepherd of, quoted, 85. 

Herminus, Bishop of Maximianopolis, 

Hezekiah, praises God, 58, 69. 

Hierax, Bishop of the Eastern Gary- 
athis, 102. 

Hunger, spiritual, satisfied by Christ, 

Hypsele, 130. 

Instruction, order to be observed in 
impaxling, 85. 

Isaac, sacrifice of, explained, 50, 51. 

Isaac, Bishop of Nilopolis, 131. 

Isidorus, Bishop of Xois, 131. 

Ision, 36. 

Israelites, their departure from Egypt, 
74. supported in the wilderness, 74. 

Issachar, his example, 107. the scrip- 
tural account of him explained, 108. 


Jeroboam, allusion to, 17. 

Jews, misunderstood the paschal type, 
10. consequence of their eiTor, 10. 
the termination of their polity fore- 
told by the prophets, 48, 123. pmi- 
fied in the wilderness, 53. their 
perverseness, 73, 126. their punish- 
ment, 89. their misconception of 
the law, 122. scriptural reproofs of 
them, 123. 

Job, his fortitude, 27, 42. 

Joseph, his pity towards his brethren, 

Judas, his sin and punishment, 53. 
his end, 63. 

Judith, her fasting and prayers, 32. 

Judith, book of, apocryphal, 139. 


Laton, 130. 

Lazarus, hungered on earth, is satis- 
fied in heaven, 74. 

Lent, a time of purification, 54. neg- 
lect of, a disgrace to Christians, 100. 

Life, Christian, in what it consists, 57. 

Lyeos, 131. 


Marmarica, 102. 

Martyrs, perfected by sufierings, 106. 
Masis, Bishop of Laton, 130. 
Maximianopolis, 101. 
Meletians, falsely and unsuccessfully 
accuse S. Athan., 36. their false 



statements concerning themselves, 

Might, divine, 70. 

Moses, his fasting, 9. sustained dm-ing 
it by converse with God, 10. why 
permitted to approach the mount, 
25, 72. his example in fasting, 53. 
the order of his teachiug, 85, 102. 


Nemesion, Bishop of Paralus, 101. 
Nemesion, Bishop of Saiton, 131. 
Nicofi, Bishop of the Southern Gai-y 

athis, 102. 
Nilammon, Bishop of Syene, 180. 
Nilopolis, 131. 
Nonnus, Bishop of Paralus, 101. 

Ord'mances, Jewish, only till the time 

of Christ, 11. 
Orion, Bishop of Sethroitis, 131. 
Oxyrynchus, 131. 


Panos, 130. 

Paphnutius, Bishop of Saiton, 131. 

Paralus, 101. 

Paschal feast, Christ the object of it, 
23. glory and extent of it, 3-'^. to 
be kept to the Lord, 50. 

Passover, Jewish, only till Christ, 34. 
its typical chai'acter, 113, 12!). 

' Passover of the Jews' explained, ■45. 

Paul, S. carried to Paradise, 82. the 
universality of his teaching, 84. 

Paulus, Bishop of Clysma, 131. 

Pelagius, Bishop of Oxyrynchus, 131. 

Philoti, Bishop of Thebais, 101. 

Plusianus, Bishop of Lycos, 131. 

Pint ion, Bishop of the lower Apollon, 

Potammon, Bishop of Sethroitis, 131. 

Praise and thanksgi\ing, their con- 
nection, 46. 

Prodigal son, his return, 03. 

Prosnpontis, 131. 

Psenosiris, Bishop of Coptos, 130. 

Qiiintus, Bishop of the Southern 
Garyathis, 102. 

Rhiuncornrou, 102. 

Sacrifices, Jewish, explanation of their 

time and cii-cumstances, 124, 125. 
Saints, to be imitated, 40. tlieir true 

Ufe, 57. 
Saiton, 131. 

Salomon, Bishop of Rhinocoruron, 1()2. 
Saprion, Bishop of Tentyra, 101. 
Sarapion, Bishop of the lower Apollon, 

Saul persecutes Da\id, 72. 
Schismatics, rend the coat of Christ, 

41, 49. their feasts, 41. compared 

with the Jews, 49. 
Scripture, Holy, contrasted with the 

traditions of men, 20. 
Sea, the, in what respects it represents 

the world, 128. 
Serapammon, Bishop of Prosopontis, 

Serapammon, Bishop of Diosphacus, 

Serapion, letter to him, 99. 
Serenas, Bishop of Aphroditon, 102. 
Servant, unthankful, parable of, 23. 
Sethroitis, 131. 
Shadow, Jemsh, brought to an end, 

10, 11. 
Shepherd of Hermas apocrj'phal, 139. 
Shipwreck, Christian, 129. 
Silvan us. Bishop of Arsenoitis, 101, 

Sinners, their degraded condition, 15. 

their ingratitude, 27. like eagles, 

they feed on dead carcases, 50. 

their unstable character, 87. their 

designs recoil upon themselves, 88. 

their deceitfulness, 134. 
Spit it. Holy, in what sense said to be 

quenched, 20. an earnest of heaven, 

Spirit, unity of, among Christians, 38. 

08, 94. 
Stathma, 102. 
Syene, 130. 

Talents, parable of, 47. 
Tanis, 101. 
Tentyra, 101. 
Thchais, 101. 

Theodoras, nisliof* of Tunis. KH. 
Theodoras, Bisliop of Aphroditon, 102. 
Thcodnrus, Bisliop .)f C'opU.s, 13(». 
Thendnrus, Bisliop of Diosphacus, 131. 
Theodnrus, Bisliop of Oxyrynchus, 181. 
T/uodnrus, Bishop of Xnis, 131. 
The,.,,, l{i>liop of Nilopolis, 131. 
Tiwis, dis<»rnnK'nt of, neces.sarj-, .H. 

Ood the Kianior of, 4. 
Tilhnvns, .{I ..f Cly^nin. I.3I. 



ToUt, book of, apocryphal, 139. 
Triadelphus, Bishop of Prosopontis, 


Wisdom of Sirach, apocryphal, 139. 

Trumpets, various uses of, among the Wisdom of Solomon, apocryphal, 139. 
Jews, 4, 5. sound of, very terrible, Woman, Canaanitish, our Lord's treat 
6. proclamation of Christian, 6, 49. ment of her, 61. 
Tyjiical, changed by Christ for the TFor/rf, compared with the sea, 128. 

spiritual, 34. 
Tyrannus, Bishop of Antinous, 131. 

Xois, 131. 



Virtue, pliilanthropic, 72, 83. 

Zeal, spiritual, compared with fire, 25. 


Ablabius, the office he probably held, 
35, y. 

Aeciu.t, his erroneous doctrine, 93, ni. 

Antichrists, the term api^Ued to the 
Ai'iaus, 75, n. 

Arians, penei't Scripture, 19, q. 77, x. 
called Antichrists, 75, n. called Jews, 
78, z. opposers of Christ, 78, z. 
Siarofilrai, 79, e. compared with 
Hymeneus and Philetus, 93, n. 

Arius, tlie \ision of Peter, Bishop of 
Alexandi'ia, concerning him, -11, s. 

Athanaaius, 8. date of his retm-n from 
Gaul, 60, c. sends Paschal Letters 
even when in exile, 08, m. 


Bucolia, its situation, 101, h. 

Easter-weck, meaning attached to tlio 

term, 04, g. 
Esther, the book of, not canonical, 

32, i. 
Eudcemon, 31, d. 


Fast, quadragesimal, declared by S. 
Cyril to be of Apostolic or Evangelic 
origin, 41, q. a time of purification 
for Easter, 54, k. 

Gospel, the fulfilment of the Jewish 
law, 83, g. 

Gregory, the Cappadocian, his intru- 
sion into the see of Alexandria, 
103, d. 



Callinicus, 31, d. 

Christ, called emphatically, 6 \a\wv, 

135, b. 
Chronicon Paschale, corrected, 00, b. 
Constantinc, his approval of S. Atha- 

nasius, 32, e. 
Cosmos Indicopleustes, fragments of 

the Paschal Letters presel•^ed by 

him, 15, b. 39, i. 63, h. 

Hermas, Shepherd of, quoted several 
times by S. Athan. 85, p. Arians 
perverted its meaning, 85, p. 

Ilyyinus, 31, b. 

I, J. 

Jcrohoitm, his feasts, 17, 1. crxicrfia- 

roiroihs, 50, y. 
Judith, the book of, nut oanuuical, 

32. i. 

Deity, notions of, tht 
human mind, 10, i. 

reflex of tbe 

Leviathan, a type of Satan, ft, m. 
Literee connnunicntivji', 101, d. 
Lit tree pacifica', litl, A. 

Easter, celebrated in tbe spring, 37, d. 
R21, g. the observance of it to 
remind us continually of the resur- 
rection, 42, t. notice for it, when 
given, 11*^, a. 


yfaredonian heretics, called wytvfiaro- 

fjidxoi, 78, z. 
Moan, KiTlrsinstic-nl, time of it, 120, d. 



OJiciUus, SI, c. 
Ovinius, 81, d. 


Scverus of Antioch, quotations made 
by him of the Festal Letters, 
135, a. 

Spirit, Holy, the gift of God, 68, i. 
a^pafichy, 44, d. 116, q. 

Pagius, corrected, 37, a. 

Palatini, their duties, 35, x. 

Passover, Jewish, stress laid on the 
particular season for its celebration, 
23, d. the typical character of its 
different observances, 129, g. 

' Passover of the Jews" illustrated, 
45, g. 

Paterius, Prefect of Egypt, 37, b. 

Pentecost, the whole interval between 
Easter-day and TVhit-sunday, 35, u. 
a time of rejoicing, 35, u. a symbol 
of the world to come, 35, u. 

Philagrius, two prsefects of this name, 
66, a. an apostate, 44, b. 

Theophilus, the form in which he 

concludes his Paschal Letters, 

100, d. 
Theodorus, Prsefect of Egypt, QQ, a. 
Trumpets, several uses of them, as 

mentioned in Holy Scripture, 5,j. 

sound of them, associated in Holy 

Scriptm*e with something terrible, 

Tunica inconsutilis, the figure of it 

began with the Arian dispute, 41, s. 


Saturdays and Sundays, not observed 
as fasts, 54, m. 

Writers, Sacred, denoted by the word 
&yios, 39, k. 





nas, 12. 

dyios, 39, 
Aldloires, 9. 
d-Woiarhs, 78. 
&\oyos, 89. 

IAIjI, 106. 
appadwu, 41, 116. 
&PTOS, 122. 
&Tpeirros, 78. 


ypdixjjLara KavoviKb., 101, 

Si6p9uais, ol, 

>011, 38. 

de(^^oxoi, 78. 
6eo(p6pos, -54. 
Oeupia, 32. 


KadapcTis TTpofSpTios, .54. 
Karda-Tacris, 130. 

KVpiUSVVfJLOS KVpiUK^, ()''}. 


V\Vv> _ "jljiD, 73. 

fi/co)*/, 15, 57- 
i^ovK6vTioi, 93. 
eTTJff-ToAal elpriViKoiy 101. 

.*^«~>m 12. 


^fVoj, 79. 


68777^ J Twy y6fiu>y, 85. 
6/u^oAo7tri', 4(J. 


n. T. 

Traff^a, 64'. 
TTVcvfiaTOfxaxoi, 78. 
iroA-iTeta, 80. 
Trpoa-rdScs, 29. 
trvpSw, 105. 


adfi^arov fxiya, 54. 

(TTOA^, 63. 

(rvWeiTovpyol, 99. 
cp^TjyuaTiO'ajUej/oy, 17. 

Tarn, 101. 

rd^is, 17, 34, 124. 

]^yol, 51. 

rpSiraiov, 97. 
Ti;7r(^Gj, 41, 54. 
Tvpavvos, 32, 33. 

V7r(^0eo-i5, 96. 

(pavraa-ia, 20, 57, 125. 

VAa, 31. 


XiTwi/, 41, 49, 79. 
Xpio'Td/J.axoi, 78. 

l^iffiM. 22. 
iiQlL, 71. 

C:^-:>!|, 9. 

?^X 101. 

Tir?, 105. 

^1« - U*, 23. 



Ye are they that have continued with Me in My tempt- Lute 22, 
ations; and I appoint to you a kingdom, as My Father hath ^^ ^*'' 
appointed unto Me, that ye may eat and drink at My table 
in My kingdom. Being called, then, to the great and 
heavenly Supper, in that upper room which has been swept, 
let us cleanse ourselves, as the Apostle exhorted, /row all 2 Cor. 7, \. 
JiUhiness of the flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the 
fear of God; that so, being spotless within and without, — 
without, clothing ourselves with temperance and justice; 
within, by the Spirit, rightly dividing the word of trutli — 
we may hear, Enter into the jov of thy Lord. 21. * ' 


For we have been called, brethren, and are now called 
together, by Wisdom, and according to the Evangelical 
parable, to that great and heavenly Supper, and sufficient 
for every creature ; I mean, to the Passover, — to Christ, 
Who is sacrificed. Again, a little afterwards: They, there- 
fore, that are thus prepared shall hear, Enter into the joy Matt. 25, 
of thy Lord. 

* The following fragments are ap- preserved in the original Greek, bj 
pended, though not existing in the Cosmas Indicopleustes. Christiana Opi- 
Syriac version. They are, however, nio de Mundo, lib. x. p. 317—319. 




Of us, then, whose also is the Passover, the calling is 

Phil. 3,20. from above, and our conversation is in heaven, as Paul says; 

Heb.13,14. For we have here no abiding city, hut we seek that which is to 
come, v^hereto, also, looking forward, we properly keep the 
feast. And again, a little afterwards : heaven truly is high, 

Ps. 115, 16. and its distance from us infinite; for the heaven of heavens, 
says he, is the Lord's. But not, on that account, are we to 
be negligent or fearful, as though the way thereto were 
impossible ; but rather should we be zealous. Yet not, as 
in the case of those w^ho formerly, removing from the east 
and finding a plain in Senaar, began [to build a tower], is 
there need for us to bake bricks with fire, and to seek slime 
for mortar; for their tongues w^ere confounded, and their 
work was brought to nought. But for us the Lord has 
consecrated a way through His blood, and hath made it 
easy. And again. For not only has He afforded us con- 
solation respecting the distance, but also in that He hath 
come and opened the door for us which was once shut. 
For, indeed, it was shut from the time He cast out Adam 
from the delight of Paradise, and set the Cherubim and the 
flaming sword, that turned every way, to keep the way of 
the tree of life — now, however, opened wide. And He that 
sitteth upon the Cherubim having appeared with greater 
grace and loving-kindness, led into Paradise with himself 
the confessing thief, and having entered heaven as our fore- 
runner, opened the gates to all. And again. Paul also, 

Phil..i, \'^' pressing toward the mark for the prize of the high calling, 
by it was taken up to the third heaven, and having seen 
those things which are above, and then descended, he 
teaches us, announcing what is written to the Hebrews, and 

Heb. 12, saying. For ye are not come unto the mtunt that might he 
touched, and that hurned with fire, and clouds, and darkness, 
and a tempest, and to the voice of words. But ye are come 
tmto Mount Sion, and unto the city of the living God, the 
heavenly Jerusalem, and to an innumerahle company of angels, 
and to the general assembly and Church of the first-horn, 
which are written in heaven. Who would not wish to enjoy 
the high companionship with these ! Who not desire to be 


enrolled with these, that he may hear with them, Come, ye Matt. 25, 
blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you ''^^' 
from the foundation of the world. 


Let us all take up our sacrifices, observing distribution to 
the poor, and we enter into the holy place, as it is written ; 
ivhither also our forerunner Jesus is entered for us, having '^^^•^t'^^' 

obtained eternal redemption From the same And ' ' 

this is a great proof that, whereas we were strangers, we 
are called friends ; from being formerly aliens, we are 
become fellow-citizens with the saints, and made children 
of the Jerusalem which is above, whereof that which 
Solomon built was a type. For if Moses made all things 
according to the pattern shewed him in the mount, it is 
clear that the service performed in the tabernacle was a 
type of the heavenly mysteries, whereto the Lord, desirous 
that we should enter, prepared for us the new and abiding 
way. And as all the old things were a type of the new, so 
the festival that now is, is a type of the joy which is above, 
to which coming with psalms and spiritual songs, let us 
begin the fasts. 



»!;ST2 01128 4611 


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