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. 1977 





Presented by 

The Smithsonian Institution 

In cooperation with 
The National Park Service 

Supported by 

Department of Energy 

National Council for Traditional Arts 

Music Performance Trust Funds 

October 5 to 10, 1977 

Table of Contents 

Introduction 5. Dillon Ripley 3 

Welcome! Ralph Rinzler 4 

Man Machine Relationships James P. Leary 5 

Folklife in A Nation of Nations Robert H. Byington 1 

The Railroad Workers Exhibit Peter Seitel 9 
The Hammered Dulcimer in America Nancy Groce 1 1 

Spanish Crafts in the Southwest Richard E. Ahlborn 13 

Participants 16 

Map of Festival Activities 18 

General Information 18 
Festival Activities 

Outdoor Presentations 21 

Renwick Gallery 21 

National Museum of Natural History 21 

National Museum of History and Technology 22 

African Diaspora Street Culture 23 

Evening Concerts 23 

"In the Streets'" Bernice Reagon 25 

Grass and Wood Elaine Eff 28 

American Indian Music Thomas Vennum Jr. 31 

The Music of India Peter Row 33 

Virginia Folk Culture Charles Perdue 35 

The Folklore in Us All Steven Zeitlin 

and Amy Kotkin 37 

Contributors and Special Thanks 39 

Staff 40 

Festival of American Folklife Program Book © 1977 

Editors: Ralph Rinzler, Robert Byington, Constance Minkin, 

Nancy Wyeth, Susanne Roschwalb 

An Director: Janet Stratton 

Typesetter: Composition Systems Inc. 

Printer: French Bray Printing 

cover photo by Ken Sliaw 

The Folklife Festival- 
A Second Decade 

S. Dillon Ripley 

Ten years ago, over the Fourth of July weekend, the 
Smithsonian somewhat tentatively held its first Festival of 
American Folklife on the Mall in front of the Museum of 
History and Technology. Inside, the tools, the craft products, 
the musical instruments and other folk artifacts reposed in 
their cases, caught in beautifully petrified isolation. Out- 
doors, for the space of a few hours, they came alive in the 
hands of specialists from all over America. 

In the summer of the Bicentennial, the festival reached its 
apogee: in duration, for it went on all summer; in meaning, 
for the folk arts it celebrated have come to be an accepted part 
of life; and in understanding, for the lessons learned provide a 
key to appreciating the creative energies which everywhere 
inform the human spirit. And it now appears that this folklife 
festival concept is so important that we must continue with it. 

I am against carrying on "instant" traditions merely be- 
cause they have been started. We wished only to point the 
way to others. There is now a folklife program at the National 
Endowment for the Arts. There are folklife observances all 
over the country, sponsored by state and local organizations, 
many of them helped by the National Park Service . And there 
is a legislated American Folklife Center at the Library of 
Congress, which long ago pioneered in the recording of folk 
music. And so I had been prepared to stop, feeling that our 
museums had done their part. But no, we have been besieged 
with many thousands of requests to continue. 

It seems there is something special here. In the 1870s 
Major John Wesley Powell started the Smithsonian's Bureau 
of American Ethnology. In effect, he was a folk culturist, 
assembling the records of the changing Indian minority, so 
that their ancient traditions might live on. And that we have 
kept up, although much of it is "dry, old bones" — 
collections of cultural artifacts — whose meaning often es- 
capes us because of the lack of an oral tradition to explain 
them. Yetwe have the "bones," the magic mementos, in our 

What is folklife? First and foremost, the continuity of 
tradition. The tradition, whatever it is, has been maintained 
with closely knit groups. The importance of this continuity is 
that it has been transmitted orally, or by eye and ear, or by 

S. Dillon Ripley 

(Photo by Susanne Anderson) 

So the forms of folklife — whether ballads, pottery or 
weaving — are dependent on oral transmission, which is en- 
tirely apart from those skills learned through traditional edu- 
cation, from the mass media, or from tapes and records. 
Recently one of our curators came across a weaver still 
practicing a craft long since thought extinct, who could 
inform the curator of the right way and the wrong way to 
preserve his ancient craft. Here, from our point of view, is the 
very reason for the existence of our folk programs — proof of 
the value of keeping "old bones" and of the Smithsonian 
curators' zeal. 

There is then real meaning to our championing of the 
Folklife Festival. We are pointing up the meaning of our 
collections. We are making them live in the best sense. We 
are engaged in an applied human science of the spirit of 

S. Dillon Ripley is Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 


Ralph Rinzler 

Mr. President, I join in commending the 
Smithsonian and those who participated in the 
first of what I hope will be an annual event. In 
this day and age of constant technological ad- 
vancement and restructuring of society, it is well 
to remember the antecedents from which it is 

Likewise, our society today is the outcome 
of the different forces and different people which 
make up our past. That is why the study of history 
is so important, not just as an academic exercise, 
hut as a guide to an understanding of the present 
and as a roadmap to the future. 

Sen. E. L. Bartlett (D-Alaska) 
Congressional Record, Aug. 18, 1967 

The Senator from Alaska was one of several members of 
the 90th Congress who read statements into the Record in 
praise of the first Folklife Festival. That 1967 event presented 
58 traditional craftsmen and 32 musical and dance groups 
over the 4-day Fourth of July weekend. The National Park 
Service estimated attendance at 431,000. The two crafts- 
demonstration tents and one daytime concert stage occupied 
the grassy areas of the Mall opposite the Museum of History 
and Technology. No public events were scheduled inside the 
museums; evening concerts were held on the steps of the 
Museum of History and Technology, and a 2-day interdiscip- 
linary conference comparing folklife studies and programs in 
the United States and abroad brought together American and 
foreign scholars. 

A decade later, the Smithsonian Festival is back on a 
portion of the Mall adjacent to the museums, with the shorter 
format that preceded 4 years of expanded Bicentennial events 
near the Lincoln Memorial. But 1977 also marks several 
substantial changes. Approximately half of the events arc 
being held within the museums, many within the exhibitions 
The July Fourth weekend was exchanged for the Columbus 
Day weekend to take advantage of cooler weather and to 
permit local school groups to attend. Programing was origi- 
nated by museum staff, then reviewed by the newly estab- 

Ralph Rinzler is Director of the Folklife Program, Office of Ameri- 
can and Folklife Studies. Smithsonian Institution. 

lished Folklife Advisory Council, to broaden the base of staff 
involvement in the research, planning, and presentation of 
this and other folklife endeavors. 

These changes are reflected in the program of this year's 
Festival. Some presentations such as the Virginia, African 
Diaspora, and Family Folklore components will be familiar 
to veteran Festival-goers. In the museums, within exhibitions 
that have been highly successful — such as A Nation of 
Nations — the Festival provides a living component for the 
6-day period. Lecture-demonstrations — one dealing with 
stereotypes of Native American music, another with ham- 
merced dulcimer, a third with music of India — supplement 
concerts within the Hall of Musical Instruments. 

A new type of presentation, developed by folklorists and 
historians of technology in conjunction with the Energy Re- 
search and Development Administration, focuses on energy 
use. Traditional food production is seen in historical perspec- 
tive from early Native American methods through colonial 
and emerging 19th-century mechanization to contemporary 
practices — with a glance into future possibilities. In Sen. 
Bartlett's words, we hope this serves "as a guide to an 
understanding of the present and as a roadmap to the future. ' ' 

In keeping with our move to the harvest season, the cover 
of this program is a photograph taken in July 1977. A 
folklorist and aerospace engineer sought out the Pennsyl- 
vania Amish farmer who used his old-style, horse-drawn 
reaper to harvest the 3 acres of wheat purchased for process- 
ing at this Festival. Most farmers now use a combine that 
simultaneously reaps, threshes, separates, and bales the 
stripped stalks as straw. The very wheat pictured is being 
threshed, flailed, ground, and finally used in the hand-shaped 
loaves that are baked in a brick oven — and tasted by Festival 

We welcome you to this 1 1th annual festival, and would be 
grateful if you would send your comments and suggestions to 
the Folklife Program, Smithsonian Institution, L'Enfant 
2100, Washington, D.C. 20560. 

Threshing, 1977 (photo by Ralph Rinzler) 

A Folklorist's Perspective on 

Man-Machine Relationships in a Living Museum 

James P. Learx 

When beginning preliminary t'ieidworic for this Festival, I 
wondered; just what does a folklorist have in common with 
an historian of technology? The former's concern is with 
people and how small groups (whether joined by age, ethnic- 
ity, occupation, religion, region, or blood) traditionally con- 
front and organize the world through artistic and communica- 
tive forms (names, proverbs, riddles, games, stories, and 
songs). The latter is chiefly fascinated by machines and by 
the way in which, over time, energy has been harnessed and 
employed through technology. 

When the folklorist acknowledges the existence of me- 
chanical artifacts, his concern is socio-aesthetic: how do 
machines function in a group's symbolic system; in what 
ways are machines used as devices for organizing social 
interaction? Conversely, the historian of technology's per- 
spective on human-mechanical relationships is more practi- 
cal: how do certain mechanical devices serve man's biologi- 
cal needs, and when were they invented, manufactured, 
marketed, operated, and maintained by men? 

I learned quickly that, while both points of view are impor- 
tant, they are seldom considered simultaneously. 
Museologists characteristically present past technology 
through static exhibits. Meanwhile folklorists — especially 
those concerned with occupations — cull oral historical ac- 
counts of work situations without having a firm understand- 
ing of yesteryear's machines. 

James P. Lear> is Assisnini Professor of Folklore al the Universiry 
of Kentucky ami a consultant to the Folklife Program at the Smith- 
sonian Institution. 

From 1870 to 1 928, wheat germ was separated/ram the chaff 
when processed through a thresher powered by a wood or 
coal-fired steam engine, as illustrated in this 1908 threshing 

Through the "living museum" concept, the Smithsonian 
Institution is highlighting both men and machines. Just as 
historians of technology have sought appropriate mechanical 
devices for presentation here, folklorists have attempted to 
locate equally appropriate participants. Several problems and 
guidelines evolved through the selection process. 

First, machines, once made, are rarely altered through 
time though they may change slightly as a consequence of 
use, maintenance, and exposure to the elements. It is easy to 
locate an artifact and — with minor restoration — present it 
essentially "as it was" when first manufactured. Models of 
that machine produced in succeeding years can readily be 
found. By placing examples consecutively, continuity and 
change can be illustrated. 

People cannot be managed similarly, their transformations 
through time are not only unpredictable but also full of 
fluctuations derived from economic, social, cultural, and 
idiosyncratic factors. Thus, in choosing participants for a 
"living mu.seum" demonstration of folk technology, it was 
not simply enough to pair an enthusiastic, talkative owner 
with a chronologically "right" machine. The person also had 
to be "right." 

Folklorists have developed the basic concepts of "survi- 
val" and "revival" to distinguish the nuances of man- 
artifact relationships over time. Simply put, for a 
phenomenon — the relationship between a farmer and a steam 

traction engine, for example — to be "survivalistic," that 
farmer should have actually worked for a significant period 
of time with a steam traction engine. Accordingly, his attrac- 
tion to an historical machine has the effect of uniting past and 
present. The machine is more than an intriguing mechanical 
object: it (like a photograph or a memento) is symbolic of 
bygone days and triggers a chain of memories (which can be 
verbalized) about everyday life. 

The person who has not experienced machines in a work- 
ing context cannot similarly conjure up the past. He can say 
"back then they used to . . .'" but his knowledge (like that of 
third-generation, assimilated Polish-Americans learning 
forgotten traditional dances, or college students taking up 
ancient Scottish handweaving) is second-hand. He can re- 
peat others' stories about the past or he can speculate. From a 
folklorist's point of view, he is a "revivalist." 

Holzer Till 

Beyond seeking "survivalist" participants, we also 
wanted those who could — and would — talk interestingly 
about human aspects of machine use. This was not as simple 
as one might guess. Conversations with some machine own- 
ers revealed that those presently involved with old technol- 
ogy can be placed roughly on a continuum between the 
opposite roles of "native engineer" and "native occu- 
pational folklorist." The former exchanged infonnation on 
make, design, production, performance, and maintenance; 
the latter told anecdotes about many aspects of his life: the 

routine labor of bygone days, the seasonal variation of work, 
the exemplary deeds of workers or mechanics, their acci- 
dents, pranks, and pleasures. Some meetings of old-timers 
seemed to gravitate toward opposite ends of the "engineer- 
folklorist" continuum. The focus of a recent gathering at 
Bridgewater, Va., was definitely on machinery. Here, steam 
engines were not used to recreate old-time threshing events; 
they were instead displayed along with acres of shiny antique 
cars and trucks. The crowd was enormous and heterogenous, 
united only by a common fascination for machines. But at the 
"Steam-o-rama" in Stewartstown, Md., steam tractors were 
us,ed to pull equipment, run threshers, and power sawmills. 
Adjacent to their operation were gas engines powering corn 
mills; a dog-powered treadle; an apple-butter making dem- 
onstration; a tlea market; and a display of home-made pas- 
tries. The crowd was smaller, the atmosphere localized and 
rural; men and women were clustered in groups reminiscing 
about times past. While conversation was concentrated on 
machines, it acknowledged their existence primarily in so- 
cial, not mechanical terms. 

To insure authenticity we have sought participants who 
combine qualities of the "survivalist" with those of the 
"native occupational folklorist." Through listening to them 
and asking questions, you — the festival-goer — will gain an 
appreciation of the humanistic side of man-machine relation- 
ships in American history. 


Infomiation on the history of technology may be obtained from the 
Society for Industrial Archeology, Room 5020, National Museum 
of History and Technology, Washington, D.C. 20560. 

Folklife in A Nation of Nations 

Robert H. Byington 

A Nation of Nations is the largest single exhibition ever 
mounted in the National Museum of History and Technol- 
ogy. It takes a mighty exhibit to express a mighty theme. A 
Nation of Nations, throngh three-dimensional objects, shows 
how various people the world over came to America, what 
they brought with them, how experiences in the new land 
shaped their traditional material culture, and how objects and 
machines that they made here helped them cope with their 
new environment and express their values. 

The objects, accompanying signs, and text panels of the 
exhibition convey information and evoke for the visitors 
recollections of their personal experiences in America. An- 

Robert H. Byington is Deputy Director of the Folklife Program at 
the Smithsonian Institution. 

Mrs. Lillian M. Fifield{the student with a check) was photo- 
graphed in 1913 with Dimhain School's 7th and 8th grades. 
When she posed with her graduating class, her hair was 
styled in a then-popular pompadour . Her family lived in New 
York City on 70th St., near Lexington Ave., and her father 
was a blacksmith for the Cleveland Hardware Co. Like many 
people in the neighborhood, her parents were German immi- 
grants. Lillian and her sister first learned English in school 
and taught it to their mother. 

Classroom 201 of Cleveland' s Dunham Elementary School is 
now part of A Nation of Nations in the National Museum of 
History and Technology. Here former students and staff 
share their experiences with young Washington, D.C., stu- 
dents in a "living" exhibition at the Festival. 

other effect, almost a cultural drama, is achieved when 
people participate in a "living"" exhibit which combines 
artifacts and demonstrations. In this way folklife — lore and 
behavior — can be presented side by side with physical ob- 
jects to enrich the exhibit. During the Folklife Festival partic- 
ipants giving demonstrations and narrations in several areas 
of A Nation of Nations help create this kind of living, per- 
sonalized exhibit. 

A Nation of Nations is an elaborate combination of physi- 
cal artifacts and folklife; it also demonstrates the effect of 
physical environments on social interaction. For example, 
the meticulously replicated classroom from Cleveland, Ohio, 
is brought to life again by former pupils and teachers who 
regale visitors with anecdotes of school activities — the 
games and tricks as well as serious academic achievements. 
To complement the Dunham School folk and provide an 
intergenerational exchange of public-school experiences, a 
group of contemporary Washington, D.C., schoolchildren is 
also participating in the exhibit. 

The classroom exemplifies a physical context for the pres- 
entation of folklife. But folk expression can also be presented 
in symbolic frames, as with narratives, for example. Immi- 
grants speaking of their experiences — at Ellis Island and 
beyond — will be featured in the Ellis Island comer of the 

Other objects in A Nation of Nations, by themselves self- 
sustaining and effective examples of material culture, are 
enhanced by conjunction with living culture. The aura of 
baseball surrounding the worker from Hillerich and Bradsby 
is imparted to his movements as he deftly hand-turns a 
"blank"" to fashion the famous "Louisville Slugger"® bats. 
This lends immediacy and actuality to the world evoked by 
the physical memorabilia. 

In much the same way, narratives and explanations of a 
veteran of the pencil-making industry reveal his esoteric 
work conditions while supplying a cultural context for the 
machine, and humanizing it in the process. 

Whether visitors to A Nation of Nations listen to partici- 
pants, watch traditional techniques of ethnic food preparation 
under flamboyant neon restaurant signs, or recount memories 
evoked by A Nation of Nations to family folklore interview- 
ers, they come in touch with relevant forms of folklife, 
significantly enhancing their museum experience. 

Hank Aaron, a baseball great, is shown with a ' 'Louisville 
Slugger"® baseball bat. To complement A Nation of Na- 
tions, craft demonstrations including baseball-bat turning 
are held. Experts from Hillerich and Bradsby, makers of the 
"Lousiville Slugger"® are on hand during the Festival. 


Marzio, Peter C. Ed. A Nation of Nations: The People Who Came 
to America as Seen Through Objects and Documents Exhibited at 
the Smithsonian Institution. New York; Harper and Row, 1976. 

The Railroad Workers' Demonstration in the 
Hall Of Transportation 

Peter Seitel 

The massive 1401 Southern Railways 
steam locomotive stands in the Hall of Transpor- 
tation like a metallic, fire-breathing mastodon of ages past. 
Mammoth, ponderous, yet beautifully designed and intri- 
cately crafted, the 1401 awes most visitors. It dominates the 
hall to such a degree that one finds it difficult to relate the 
engine to anything else. It stands alone. 

Try to imagine the 1401 in its workaday world. High- 
wheeled locomotives such as this one pulled fast freight and 
passenger cars. See the train roll through the American land- 
scape. Her steam whistle cracks shrilly through a pine forest, 
black smoke billows and bends low for a moment as the 
engine emerges from a mountain tunnel. A mile of cars rides 
between rounder and caboose, moving along straight as a 
lance through midwestem wheat prairies. The 1401 still 
dominates the scene. 

Try relating the 1401 to one of the legendary trains of 
American railroad lore: Orange Blossom Special, Panama 
Limited, Silver Meteor, Wabash Cannonball. Put Casey 
Jones at the throttle; Jimmie Rodgers, the yodeling brakeman, 
in the caboose. The track and tunnel they traverse was laid 
and sweated over by John Henry and his like. Perhaps "on 
that train was Hobo John/He's a good old hobo but he's dead 
and gone." 

The iron and steel of the 1401 still resist: massive, func- 
tional, obdurantly present, the engine will not easily yield its 
meaning. Perhaps even the rich folklore of the American 
railroad cannot make the 1401 into a symbol of striving for 
success, loneliness away from home, or the inevitability of 
good-byes. It is too big and too imposing for that. 

Fortunately, there is another way to grasp the human 
significance of the 1401 . Constructed by human knowledge. 

Peter Seitel is afolklorist and consultant for the Folklife Program at 
the Smithsonian Institution. 

Railroad lore, some of which Southern Railway' s super 1401 
locomotive evokes, is discussed in the Transportation Hall of 
the National Museum of History and Technology, the en- 
gine's permanent home. 

handicraft, and power, the 1401 was put through her paces, 
administered to. and repaired by railroad workers. We can 
approach her through the hands and eyes of the men who fired 
her up, held the throttle, and ran the business of the freight 
and passenger cars. 

For railroad men such as Lloyd Hardy, Glenn Lee, Roy 
Reed, and Frank Turley (Festival participants who work in 
and around Cumberland, Md.), engines like the 1401 are a 
part of everyday life. They work with her diesel-powered 
descendants as they pick up, sort out, and deliver passengers 
and freight to their proper destinations. Listen to the human 
dimensions as Lloyd Hardy describes and demonstrates what 
it is like to fire locomotives like the 1401 from the left side of 
the engine's cabin and then to stand over on the right as an 
engineer. Watch and listen to other members of the crew 
explain the complex — and occasionally humorous — hand 
signals which guided the engineer's movements. The 
trainmen will also show you the everyday routines of assem- 
bling a train and starting it on its run. 

The engineer and locomotive are a vital aspect of railroad 
operations. But the principal business of the railroad is mov- 
ing people and goods. This is done by the fine art of switch- 
ing: moving single cars, strings of cars, and whole trains 
from track to track to collect, separate, and deliver freight. 
An 0-gauge train model designed and built by John Dohanic 
(St. Louis, Mo.) will assist trainmen in demonstrating vari- 
ous kinds of switches for passenger and freight runs. It can 
also show how a freight classification yard works. 

Eiifiineers and trainmen will share recollections and use the 
model trains and freight yard to demonstrate the art of 
switching single cars, strings of cars, and whole trains from 
track to track to collect, separate, and deliver freight. 

Railroad stories are legion. Railroad workers — like most 
occupational groups — entertain one another in off-duty 
hours with reminiscences and tales of fellow workers, clever 
brakemen, unruly passengers, unscheduled stops, and other 
happenings that make up a railroader's world. 

The giant 1401 will be made understandable for museum 
visitors by the workers who performed such tasks on an 
everyday basis. Railroad workers are the interpretive link 
between museum visitors and railroad equipment, between 
past and present technologies, between the lore and the 
business of railroading. Armed with their knowledge, their 
skills, and their wit, they are an equal match for the 1401. 


Botkin. B.A. and Alvin Harlow, A Treasury of Railroad Folklore 

(Crown: New York. 195.3). 

Chappell, Loui.s, John Henrx (Kennikat Press: Port Washington. 

N.Y., 1968). 

Cottrell. William, The Railroader (Stanford University Press: Palo 

Alto. Calif., 1940). 

Federal Writers' Project, These Are Our Lives (University of North 

Carolina Press: Chapel Hill, 1939). 

Jones, Mary Harris, Aulohiographv of Mother Jones (Kerr: 

Chicago, 111., 1926, 1972). 


The Ballad Hunter, Part VIII, Work Songs for Rail Tamping and 

Track Laying (Library of Congress, L52). 

Haggard, Merle and The Strangers. Same Train. Different Time 

(Capitol Records, SWBB-223). 

Railroad Songs and Ballads (Library of Congress, L61). 

Haggard, Merle, My Love Affairs With Trains (Capitol 1 1544). 


The Hammered Dulcimer in America 

Nancv Groce 

To most Americans the hammered dulcimer is a new and 
unfamiliar musical instrument. Even people who know quite 
a bit about American folk music often confuse the hammered 
dulcimer with the three- or four-stringed "Appalachian" or 
"mountain"" dulcimer, an entirely different instrument. Yet, 
surprisingly, this ancient ancestor of the modern piano was 
once popular throughout this country. 

The hammered dulcimer probably originated at least a 
thousand years ago in the Near East. From there dulcimers 
spread throughout North Africa, Europe and Asia. Contact 
with the Moors in Spain led to introduction of the instrument 
to Western Europe in the 1 1th Century, although there is some 
evidence of its possible use in Ireland several centuries ear- 
lier. It flourished under a variety of names; in France it was 
called the tyinpanon, in Germany the hackhrett. and in Hun- 
gary the cimbalon. During the Renaissance, the hammered 
dulcimer was popular with all manner of people and was 
played both in courts and village squares. In the 1 7th century 
scholars preparing the English edition of the Bible mis- 
translated the Greek word for bagpipe as "dulcimer,"" giving 
rise to the oft-quoted mistake that the dulcimer is as old as the 
Bible. The dulcimer also spread to China and Korea in the 
18th century, where it is still known as the yang chin or the 
"foreigner's zither." 

It is not known when the first hammered dulcimer came to 
America. The earliest documented reference was made by 
Judge Samuel Sewall who wrote of hearing one in Salem, 
Mass., in 1717, but the instruments were probably popular in 
America long before that. 

Hammered dulcimers are particularly interesting because, 
unlike pianos and organs, most of them were built at home or 
in small "shops"" throughout the country. Thus they tend to 
reflect regional and personal folk styles. Several of the in- 
struments used in this Festival were built over a century ago 
by the player" s father, grandfather, or great-grandfather. A 
careful look will reveal that the instruments used by per- 
formers from West Virginia are different from those used by 
players from New York and Michigan. 

During the 19th century, small dulcimer "shops" — 

Nancy Groce, ci Smithsonian Fellow in the Division of Musical 
Instruments, is completing a doctoral program with the Uni\ersir\' 
of Michigan. 

Joseph Edward Matheny. winner of the county-wide diil- 
ciiner contest at the 1895 Ritchie County, W. Va., fair. 
(Photo courtesy of H. E. Matteny) 

factories usually employing fewer than a dozen men — 
operated in several parts of the country. About the time of the 
Civil War, dulcimer shops existed in Norwich, Conn.; Sher- 
man. Irving, and Brooklyn, N.Y.; and Chicago. Later in the 
century, Americans could buy dulcimers from large mail- 
order houses such as Sears & Roebuck and Montgomery 

Why the hammered dulcimer all but disappeared during 
the first half of the 20th century remains somewhat of a 
mystery. Possibly competition from the more fashionable 
piano and lack of enthusiasm in public-school music pro- 
grams diminished Americans" attention to this traditional 
instrument. Several attempts at reviving interest were made 
early in the 20th century, especially by Henry Ford in Dear- 
bom, Mich., who hired a hammered-dulcimer player to 
perform with the Early American Dance Orchestra. But such 
efforts were of no avail. 

Participants in this year's Festival of American Folklife 
have been drawn from several regions of the United States to 
demonstrate the different playing styles of the past 300 years, 

Anglo-American hammered-dulcimer traditions from sev- 
eral regions of the United States are demonstrated in the Hall 
of Musical Instruments of the National Museum of History 
and Technology during the Festival. Exhibits, lecture- 
demonstrations, and concerts are part of this presentation. 
(Photo by Jim Pickcrcll) 

styles developed in West Virginia, Michigan, and New York. 
Similarities and differences among these styles are compared 
in a series of workshops and performances. All of the per- 
formers come from the Ango-American tradition. (Slightly 
varied types of hammered dulcimers also form an important 
part of German-, Hungarian-, Arabic-. Turkish-, and 
Chinese-American musical-instrument traditions.) 

At times during the last four decades it looked as if the 
hammered-dulcimer tradition in America might die out. 
Now, because of renewed interest, it appears that this ancient 
instrument will continue to be heard. 


Gardner. Worley. Mountain Melodies (Handy Recording Studio: 
Knoxville, Tenn.). 

Parker, Chet, Chel Parker Plays the Hammered Dulicmer (Folk- 
ways: New York, 1966). 

Fluharty. Russell. West Virginia Heritage (Page Recording: 
Johnstown. Pa., n.d.). 
Spence, Bill. The Hammered Dulcimer (Front Hall Records). 


Spanish Crafts in the 
i^erican Southwest 

Richard E. Ahlborn 

Visitors to the southwestern states are often surprised by 
the Spanish or, more recently, Mexican presence. In posh 
neighborhoods of 1910 or 1940 vintage, houses stagger 
under red tile roofs and squint from iron-grilled windows. 
Church facades have accumulations of twisted columns, mul- 
tiple cornices, and bracketed niches. Tacos are served from 
arcaded, stone portals, with a mission bell nearby. On the air, 
a brass combo slips in a little ' 'salzo. ' ' or even ap«io dohle. 
Reality outdoes Hollywood. Some visitors revel in it; others 
reject it as phony. Is there a significant Spanish presence in 
this land, or rather, where is it? 

Beneath the surface glitter of any packaged cultural object 
are sustaining, complex patterns of behavior and values. 
Promoters of cultural, preferably "folk," arts and crafts 
must, if only at the outset, rely on something real, something 
from the past that whispers in the present. Often the light that 
sparkles on the surface of craft objects comes from an inner 
source, a sense of "group" or cultural origin. That underly- 
ing cultural identity embodies traditions of creativity within 
well-respected vocabularies of fomis and functions. Even 
when changed by new materials and newer needs, the Ameri- 
can "folk artifact" deserves a fair and full viewing. 

One opportunity for viewing Spanish crafts is the October 
1977 Smithsonian Folklife Festival. This year, the artisans 
are located within the National Museum of History and 
Technology, near displays of historical artifacts to which they 
relate. The relationship between historical artifacts and con- 
temporary crafts is often obvious on the visual level: in size, 
color, material, and style. Other relationships, such as man- 
ufacture and usage, need some explanation. And so artisans 
were .selected to demonstrate their traditional crafts. 

Oscar Carvajal, a 35-year-old saddlemaker from San An- 
tonio, Tex., maintains an ancient craft employing a series of 
skills. Lightweight, short-stirrup jineta and heavy, high- 
bowed, long-stirrup estradiota saddles, the style popular in 
the mid-1 6th century, were imported from Spain and had 
already appeared with Coronado in the Southwest. By the 
1700s, mission Indians in Texas were making saddle trees. 
Then fitting and finishing of the leather and metal parts were 
completed by a master saddlemaker, usually of Spanish or 

Richard E. Ahlborn is Chairman of the Department nf Cultural 
History at the Smithsonian Institution. 

This retablo "San Juan Nepomiiceno" by Rafael Ar(ii;<in 
( I850-IH60) demonstrates the simple elegance of traditional 
Spanish folk art. 

mestizo lineage. Saddlemakers were a highly esteemed, but 
rough-and-tumble group. Some traveled widely, finding 
their work appreciated everywhere and eventually handing 
on their prized tools to favored apprentices. So says Mr. 
Carvajal, himself the offspring of a traditional Spanish- 
Mexican saddlemaker, Oscar Senior. 

In saddlemaking, the traditional — and "proper" — way is 
judged best. The shape of the saddletree — with its high and 
angled horn slick or swelled pommel, and dished and arched 
cantle — has undergone centuries of modification. Likewise, 
the leather housing, especially carved and silvered ornamen- 
tation on show saddles, has gradually changed in size, shape, 
and placement. But there is little doubt that Cortez would 
recognize and admire a Carvajal-crafted saddle, one still 
ridden by American cowboys. 

Luis Eligio and Star Rodriguez Tapia of Santa Fe, N.M., 
brothers in their mid-20s, provide another kind of historical 
continuity in their furnituremaking and straw decoration. 
Again, the origins for such crafts were Euro-American. 

In the Spanish Southwest (especially New Mexico) furni- 
ture for all but several wealthy families was almost non- 
existent before 1800. In the fashion of Moorish southern 
Spain, most people sat, worked, ate, and slept on tloors. 

protected oiil) b) a few rough textiles. Three-legged stools, 
six-plank chests, perhaps another of leather (petaca), hang- 
ing shelves (repisa), built-in cupboards, and low tables 
appeared here and there before tables, chairs, and free- 
standing cupboards (trasteros) became common. Furniture 
was crafted from local pines and cedar, then worked with 
chisel, gouge, foot-lathe, and plane. Cottonwood and aspen 
were later used by makers of crosses and religious images 
(sanios): their works were coated with blackened pitch and 
"inlaid"" in geometric patterns with bits of com husk or 
wheat straw. 

The work of the Tapias is an honest and careful revival. 
Luis and Star have studied collections at the Museum of New 
Mexico and have competed successfully in shows of tradi- 
tional crafts. The combination of carefully selected, histori- 
cally documented models and the use of fine craft skills and 
intuition produces many artifacts that are faithful not only to 
the Spanish heritage, but also to its future survival. 

Hispanic traditions of wooJcaning are demonstrated by 
Luis E. Tapia, shown with a chair he made this year. He 
carefully researches original, historical artifacts, and often 
uses a well-documented piece as a model. 
(Photo by R. Ahlborn) 


During the Festival, saddlemaking and decoration in 
the Hispanic tradition are demonstrated in A Nation of 
Nations. Oscar CarvaJalJr . , apprenticed to his father, 
became a master in five years. The Carvajal family 
maintains the Hispanic traditions although they have 
lived in San Antonio, Tex., for several generations. 
(Photos by R. Ahlborn) 


U.S. Department of Energy with Smithsonian Department of 
Science and Technology and Folklife Program 

America's Appetite (For Energy) 

Countess Stella Andrassy; Solar and Microwave 
Cool<ing — Monmouth Junction, N.J. 

Edna Bard: Apple Butter Boiling — Harrisonville. PA. 

Winifred Brendel: Baking — Denver, PA. 

Chuck Davis: Apple Butter Boiling — McConnelsburg, PA. 

Grayson Davis: Apple Butler Boiling — Harrisonville, PA. 

Mary Ann Davis: Apple Butler Boiling — Harrisonville, PA. 

Archie Decker: Apple Butter Boiling — Harrisonville, PA. 

Pat Decker: Apple Butter Boiling — Harrisonville, PA. 

Dr. C.W. England: Ice Cream Maker — Silver Spring, MD. 

Janice Ferry: Apple Butter Boiling — Bethesda, MD. 

Mildred Fix: Apple Butler Boiling — Harrisonville, PA. 

Pam Glenn: Apple Butler Boiling — McConnelsburg, PA. 

Rev. S. Douglas Greer: Threshing — Washington, D.C. 

Leander Hall: Threshing — Landover, MD. 

Lucius Hann: Cider Pressing — Fort Littleton, PA. 

Viola Hess: Apple Butter Boiling — McConnelsburg, PA. 

Izora Hollenshead: Apple Butter Boiling — Harrisonville, PA. 

Grace Howell: Apple Butler Boiling — Harrisonville, PA. 

Cora Jackson: Preserve Making — Fairfax Station, VA. 

Edward Jacobs: Sausage Stuffing — Appleton, WI. 

Margaret Johnson: Corn Milling — Harmon, WV. 

Samuel Johnson: Corn Milling — Harmon, WV. 
kLorella Keyser: Apple Butter Boiling — Harrisonville, PA. 
^Ted Keyser: Apple Butler Boiling — Harrisonville, PA. 

Raymond Leppo: Threshing — Manchester, MD. 

Lester Lind: Corn Milling — Harmon, WV. 

Mary Beth Lind: Corn Milling — Harmon WV. 

Randy Luckinbill: Baking — Denver, PA. 

iSam Mellott: Apple Butter Boiling — Harrisonville, PA. 
Virginia Mellott: Apple Butler Boiling — Harrisonville, PA. 
Susie Moore: Apple Butler Boiling — Harrisonville, PA. 
Tom Momingstar: Apple Butter Boiling — Harrisonville, PA. 
Ella Norris: Salmon Roasting — Crescent City, CA. 
Paula Peters: Clam Baking — Mashpee, MA. 
Russell Peters: Clam Baking — Mashpee, MA. 
Aggie Pilgrim: Salmon Roasting — Crescent City, CA. 
Dianne Poffenberger: Apple Butter Boiling — Needmore, PA. 
Doug Poffenberger: Apple Buller Boiling — Needmore, PA. 
Denyse Reid: Solar and Microwave Cooking — Princeton, NJ. 
Elsie Schooley: Apple Butter Boiling — McConnelsberg, PA. 
Nancy Shearer: Apple Butter Boiling — McConnelsberg, PA. 
Marie Shimer: Apple Butler Boiling — McConnelsberg, PA. 
Lena Sipes: Apple Buller Boiling — Harrisonville, PA. 
Merrill Snyder: Cider Pressing — Burnt Cabins, PA. 
Nadine Stinemetz: Baking — Denver, PA. 
Joycelene Strait: Apple Buller Boiling — Harrisonville, PA. 
Wcxidy Strait: Apple Buller Boiling — Harrisonville, PA. 
Louise Swope: Apple Butter Boiling — Harrisonville, PA. 
Henry Thomas: Threshing — Washington, D.C. 
Dennis Trout: he Cream Maker — Bowie, MD. 
1 Junior Wagner: Apple Buller Boiling — Harrisonville, PA. 
Peggy Wagner: Apple Butter Boiling — Harrisonville, PA. 
Scotty Wairehime: Threshing — Manchester, MD. 

Division of Performing Arts 
African Diaspora 

Kings of Harmony: Spiritual Band of the United House of 

Prayer — Washington, D.C. 
Kweku: Jewelry Maker /Instrument 

Maker /Sculptor — Washington, D.C. 
Gregory McKnight: Drum Maker — Washington, D.C. 
Flora Molton: Guitar Player /Street S/ng^r— Washington, D.C. 
Avery "Slim" Montgomery: Blues Singer, Harmonica /Accordion 

Player — Baltimore, MD. 
Sambistas de Rio: African Brazilian Samba Group — Washington, 

Chariie Sayles: Harmonica Player — Philadelphia, PA. 
Elizabeth Scott: Quilimaker — Baltimore, MD. 
Joyce Scott: Quilimaker /Weaver — Baltimore, MD. 
Philip Simmons: Blacksmith — Charieston, SC. 
Rev. Dan Smith: Harmonica Player — White Plains, N.Y. 
Rising Star Fife and Drum Band: Senatobia, MS. 
Trinidad Steel Band: Washington, D.C. 
George Washington: Spoon Player — Louisville, KY. 
Mrs. Veronica Wisdom: Jamaican Cook — Washington, D.C. 

Folklife Program, National Council for Traditional Arts 
Virginia Folk Culture 

Phipps Bourne: Blacksmith — Springvalley, VA. 

Orville Bower: Hardtack Candymaker — Rocky Mount, VA. 

Phyllis Bower: Hardtack Candymaker — Rocky Mount, VA. 

Dean Carr: String Band Musician — Galax, VA. 

Charles Carter, Jr.: Gospel Harmonizer — Front Royal, VA. 

Milton Carter III: Gospel Harmonizer — Front Royal, VA. 

Thomas Carter: Gospel Harmonizer — Front Royal, VA. 

Kyle Creed: Banjo Maker — Galax, VA. 

Albert Dowe: Gospel Harmonizer — Front Royal, VA. 

Wallace Edwards: Ham Curer — Surry, VA. 

Marvin Foddrell: Blues Musician — Stuart, VA. 

Turner Foddrell: Blues Musician — Stuart, VA. 

Rev. J. C. Freeman: Gospel Singer — Wise, VA. 

Clyd Green: Gospel Harmonizer — Front Royal, VA. 

David Green: Gospel Harmonizer — Front Royal, VA. 

Wilbert Green, Jr.: Gospel Harmonizer — Front Royal, VA. 

Albert Hash: Fiddlemaker — Mouth of Wilson, VA. 

Wayne Henderson: Instrument Maker — Sugar Grove, VA. 

John Jackson: Blues Singer — Fairfax Station, VA. 

John Judkin: Ham Curer — Surry, VA. 

Raymond Melton: Dulcimer Maker and Player — Woodlawn, VA. 

Raymond Spencer Moore: Guitar Player and Ballad Singer — 

Chilhowie, VA. 
Dale Morris: String Band Musician — Galax, VA. 
Tom Norman: Siring Band Musician — Galax, VA. 
Gregory Payne: Gospel Harmonizer — Front Royal, VA. 
Robert Pittman: Ham Curer — Surry, VA. 
Mike Sizemore: Siring Band Musician — Galax, VA. 
Whitfield Sizemore: Siring Band Musician — Galax, VA. 
Stanley Stewart: Gospel Harmonizer — Front Royal, VA. 
John Tinsley: Guilar Player and Country Blues Singer — 

Basset Forks, VA. 
Dan Williams: Siring Band Musician — Galax, VA. 
Daniel Womack: Gospel Jubilee Singer — Roanoke, VA. 
Paul Younger: Basket Maker — Naruna, VA. 

Folklife Program 

Louisiana Cajun Social Music 

Dewey Haifa: Fiddle Player and Singer — Basile, LA. 
Rodney Balfa: Guilar Ptaver and Singer — Mamou, LA. 
Will Balfa: Fiddle Player and Singer— Mamou. LA. 
Dick Richard: Fiddle Player — Mamou, LA. 
Allie Young: Accordion Player — Basile, LA. 


Museum of History and Technology, Fotklife Program 
Division of Transportation. Fotklife Program 

Lloyd P. Hardy: Engineer — Paw Paw, WV. 
William Glenn Lee: Trainman — Cumberland, MD. 
Roy J. Reed: Trainman — Cumberland, MD. 
Frank Turley: Trainman — Cumberland, MD. 

Museum of History and Technology 
Division of Musical Instruments 

Eugene Cox: Hammered Dulcimer Player — Byron Center, MI. 
Viola Cox: Hammered Dulcimer Player — Manton, MI. 
Russell Fluharty: Hammered Dulcimer Player — Mannington, WV. 
Willis Gardner: Hammered Dulcimer Player — Brilliant, OH. 
Worley Gardner: Hammered Dulcimer Player — Morgantown, WV. 
Sloan Staggs: Banjo Player — Romney, WV. 
Warren Tennant: Rhythm Guitar — Blacksville, WV. 
Paul Van Arsdale: Hammered Dulcimer Player — North 
Tonawanda, N.Y. 

Nation of Nations, Department of Cultural History 


Oscar Carvajal, Jr.: Saddlemaker — San Antonio, TX. 

Nation of Nations, Folklife Program 
Dunham School Lore Program 

Maynard Baker: Student — Cleveland, OH. 
Mrs. Michael Geraci: Teacher — University Heights, OH. 
Carl J. Klagge: Student— Cleveland, OH. 

Frances Baker Montgomery: Student and School Crossing Guard- 
Cleveland. OH. 
Jean Poplyk: Student — Willoughby, OH. 
Fred Ritz: Student — Sun City, AZ. 

Nation of Nations, Folklife Program 
Ellis Island/ Immigrant Lore 

Jacob Auerbach: Immigrant and Inspector — Long Beach, N.Y. 
Joseph Levine: Immigrant — Brooklyn, N.Y. 
Joseph Muchnick: Immigrant — Silver Spring, MD. 
Lucy Nigro: Immigrant — Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Nation of Nations, Folklife Program 

David Price: Pencilmaker — Moorestown, N.J. 

Nation of Nations, Folklife Program 
Baseball Bat Turning 

Bennett Curry: Hitterich and Bradsby Co. — Louisville, KY 
Robbie Curry: Hillerich and Bradsby Co. — Louisville, KY. 
Jess Haney: Senior Handturner. Hillerich and Bradsby 
Co. — Louisville, KY. 

Nation of Nations, Folklife Program 

Ethnic Foods 

Elli Andonyadis: Greek Cook — Washington, D.C. 
CamielaChiappinelli: Italian Cook — Washington, D.C. 
Fausto Chiappinelli: Italian Cook — Vienna, VA. 
Roberta Sabban: Jewish Cook — Bethesda, MD. 

Department of Cultural History 
Hispanic Crafts 

Luis Eligio Tapia: Furniture Maker — Santa Fe, N.M. 
Star Rodrigues Tapia: Straw Inlay Worker^Santa Fe, N.M. 

Museutn of Natural History 

Department of Anthropology, Folklife Program 

Native Americans 

William Bineshi Baker, Sr.: Singer — Couderay, WI. 
Loren Bommelyn: Singer — Areata, CA. 
George Brown, Jr.: Singer — Lac du Flambeau, WI. 
Herbert Dowdy: Singer — Steamburg, N.Y. 
Aileen Figueroa: Singer — Trinidad, CA. 
Cipriano Garcia; Singer — San Juan Pueblo, NM. 
Peter Garcia: Singer — San Juan Pueblo, NM. 
Avery Jimerson: Singer — Steamburg, N.Y. 
Robert Link: Singer — Milwaukee, WI. 
James Pipe Moustache: Singer — Hayward, WI. 
Ernest St. Germaine: Singer — Lac du Flambeau, WI. 
Dorothy Wayman: Singer — Lac du Flambeau, WI. 
Sam Yazzie, Jr.: Singer — Chinle, AZ. 
Sam Yazzie, Sr.: Singer — Chinle, AZ. 

Department of Anthropology, Folklife Program 
Music of India 

Robert Becker: Tabla Player — Toronto, Ontario, Canada 

R. Arnold Burghardt: Student /Teacher and Instrument Plaver — 

Northfield, MI. 
Pandit Gopaidas: Pakhawaj Player — Delhi, India 
Ustad Asad Ali Khan: Veena Player — Delhi, India 
Kalpana Mazumder Row: Tampura Plaver — Cambridge, MA. 
Peter Row: Sitar and Veena Player /Teacher — Cambridge, MA. 

Renwick Gallery, Folklife Program 

Paint on Wood 

Dorothy Wood Hamblett: Furniture Painter. Grainer, Stenciler- 
Millbury, MA. 

Crafting with Natural Fibers 

Alec Coker: Corn Dolly Maker — Oxford, England 
Doris Johnson: Corn Dolly Maker — Luray, KS. 

Folklife Program 

Folklore in Your Community 

Mel Amsterdain: Open Market Merchant — Bethesda, MD. 

John Barry: Congressional Aide — Wash., D.C. 

Carl Bouthillette: Bartender — Alexandria, VA. 

Chris Calomiris: Open Market Merchant — Silver Spring, MD. 

James Crosby: Cah Driver — Kensington, MD. 

Cosmo Deodani: Elevator Operator at the Capitol — 

Washington. D.C. 
Paul Drobni: Bartender — Washington, D.C. 
Arthur Elms: Cah Driver — Washington, D.C. 
N. W. Goodwyn: Cab Driver — Washington, D.C. 
Mr. Hammet: Cab Driver — Washington, D.C. 
Bertram Hays: Cab Driver — Washington, D.C. 
Lewis Jones: Cah Driver — Washington, D.C. 
The Mangialardo Family: Merchants — Washington, D.C. 
Robert McCormick: Tour Guide cU the Capitol — Fairfax, Va. 
Tom Nottingham: Tour Guide at the Capitol — Aspen Hill, MD. 
Blanche Oberg: Aide at the Capitol — Silver Spring, MD. 
Kevin O Connor: Engineer at the Capitol — Washington, DC. 
Bob Sanders: Policeman at the Capitol — Frederick, MD. 
Howard Schweizer: Open /Market Merchant — Falls Church, VA. 
Mrs. Russel Watkins: Open Market Merchant — Bethesda, MD. 
Mrs. Wren: Open Market Merchant — Bethesda, MD. 
Jean Wilson: Ca.\e Worker at the Capitol — College Park, MD. 
Willie Young: Cah Driver — Washington, D.C. 

^to To: Renwick Galley, 17th and Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. 




Madison Drive 

National Museum of 
4 History and Technology 


General Information 

The Festival hours are from 1 1 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily, with 

special evening concerts and performances from 8 to 

10 p.m. 

Craft and food demonstrations are held from 11 a.m. to 

5 p.m. daily. 

Crafts and packaged food are available for sale at the 

Outdoor Presentations Area. Additional food concessions 

will be operated over the holiday weekend on 15th Street. 


Visiting members of the press are invited to register at the 
Festival Press Tent on 15th Street near Madison Drive. 

School Groups 

Orientation sessions are conducted in the Carmichael Au- 
ditorium Museum of History and Technology, daily begin- 
ning at 10:30 a.m. 

First Aid 

The Health Unit at the South Bus Ramp of the Museum of 
History and Technology is open from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. An 
American Red Cross Mobile Unit is open on the weekends, 
on the West Side of the Festival Grounds at 15th Street. 

Rest Rooms 

Rest rooms and comfortable lounges are located throughout 
the Museums. 


Public Telephones are located at both entrances to the 
Museum of History and Technology and at each of the 

Lost and Found 

Lost items may be turned in or retrieved from the production 
end of the Administration Tent, located on 15th Street near 
Madison Drive. 

Lost Children 

Lost children may be found at the Administration Tent lo- 
cated on 15th Street near Madison Drive. 

Bicycle Racks 

Racks for bicycles may be found at the entrances to each of 
the Museums and on the Washington Monument grounds. 

Metro Stations 

The Festival is served on weekdays by two Metro Stations, 
the Smithsonian Station and the Federal Triangle. 


Admission to all evening concerts is free, but due to limited 
seating, tickets are required. They may be obtained at the 
information desk at the Constitution Avenue Entrance to the 
Museum of History and Technology, or at the door of the hall 
the night of the concert. 

Constitution Avenue 

Outdoor Presentations 

1 America's Appetite (for Energy) 

Sponsored by the Department of Energy. Demonstrations 
include steam powered threshing, grain milling, brick-oven 
bread baking, cider pressing, sausage stuffing, and ice cream 

2 Virginia Folk Culture 

Banjo pickers; fiddlers; gospel and ballad singers; candy, 
basket, and musical instrument making; and salt-and-smoke 
cured Virginia hams; from the Anglo-American and Afro- 
American traditions of the Commonwealth of Virginia. 

Renwick Gallery 

17th and Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. 

• Paint on Wood 

Demonstrations of stencilling and furniture decoration. 

• Grass 

Basket making and other uses of natural grass fibers. 

Museum of History and Technology 

3 African Diaspora Black Street Culture 

(On the south lawn) 

Street singing, steel band, crafts, cooks, fife and drum band, 
yard games, shoe-shine stands . . . what you'd find on a 
street comer or front porch. 

4 Musical Instruments 

Anglo-American hammered dulcimer traditions; exhibit, lec- 
ture demonstrations and concerts 

5 Musical IVaditions of India 

(Hall of Musical Instruments) 

Unusual instruments from the Smithsonian collection will be 

played by master musicians from India. 

6 Transportation 

Engineers and trainmen will share recollections of the Age of 
Steam, and use model trains on model freight yard to demon- 
strate the art of switching, moving single cars, strings of cars, 
and whole trains from track to track to pick up, sort out, and 
deliver freight. 

7 Nation of Nations 

Saddle making and decoration; pencil making; baseball bat 
turning; traditional schoolroom lore as shared by former 
faculty and students from Cleveland's Dunham School with 
D.C. school children; immigrant narratives about Ellis 
Island, ethnic food preparation. 

8 Family Folklore 

Interviewing visitors to Nation of Nations exhibit about their 
recollections; stories from cab drivers, elevator operators and 
other Washington workers; workshops on collecting folklore. 

Museum of Natural History 

9 American Indian Musical Styles 

(Baird Auditorium) 

A cross-tribal comparison of .several of the diverse and varied 

Native American song traditions. 

Outdoor Presentations 



14th to 15th Streets on Constitution Avenue, N.W. 

America's Appetite (for Energy) 

• Native American Cooking: Salmon Roast, 1 1:00 a.m. 
daily; Clam Bake, 2:30 p.m. daily 

• Wheat Threshing: 12:00 noon and 3:00 p.m. daily 

• Sausage Stuffing: 11:00 a.m., 1:00 p.m., and 3:00 p.m. 

• Ice Cream Making: 11:30 a.m., 1:30 p.m., and 
3:30 p.m. daily 

• Corn Milling, Brick Oven Baking, Preserve Making, 
and Apple Butter Boiling: 11:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. daily 

Renwick Gallery 

17th and Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. 


America's Appetite (for Energy) includes a demonstration of 
baking with solar energy. 

Virginia Folk Culture 

• Candy Making, Musical Instrument Making, Black- 
smithing, and Ham Curing: 1 1:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. 

• A Sampler of Virginia Folk Music 

On the Virginia Stage: 

• Ballads, Stories, and Songs: 1 1:00 a.m. daily 

• Gospel Harmonizers: 12:00 noon daily 

• Old Time Instrumental Styles: 1:00 p.m. daily 

• Hillbilly Blues— Black and White: 2:00 p.m. daily 

• Sacred Offering: 3:00 p.m. daily 

• Old Time String Bands: 4:00 p.m. daily 

Wheat weaving, basket making and other uses of natural 
grass fibers are part of the Grass exhibit at the Renwick 
Gallery. Above a sample of work done by a 1976 Festival 


• Demonstrations of harvest figures, spirals, and grass 
weaving: 1 1:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. daily 


• Demonstrations of stenciling and roiema/zVig; 11:00 a.m. 
to 5:00 p.m. daily 

• Lecture/discussion on painted wood: 3:00 p.m. Thurs- 
day, October 6 

• Illustrated lecture on painted wood: 8:00 p.m. Thursday, 
October 6 

National Museum of 

Natural History 

lOth and Constitution Avenue, N.W. 

Native American Musical Styles 

Baird Auditorium 

• Lecture/demonstrations with slides and performances by 
singers from several different tribes for a side by side comparison 
of repertoires and styles: 8:00 p.m. October 5; 1 :00 p.m. 
October 6; 2:00 p.m. October 7; 1:00 p.m. October 8-10 
(Free tickets for the Evening Concert October 5-) 


National Museum 
of History and 

12th and Constitution Avenue, N.W. 

A Nation of Nations 

• Ethnic Foodways 

Continuous demonstrations of bread, pastry, and pasta: 
11:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. 

• Jewish: October 5 and 6 

• Greek: October 7 and 8 

• Italian: October 9 and 10 

• Ellis Island 

Workshops on oral history: life in the Old Country, the 
journey to America, experiences at Ellis Island, and the 
immigrants" life in America: 12:00 noon and 3:00 p.m. 

• Dunham School 

Workshops on oral history of Dunham School and neigh- 
borhood: 11:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. daily. 
Workshops with Dunham and Washington area students 
and teachers on school lore and children's lore including 
games and classroom activities: 1:00-3:00 p.m. daily 

• Baseball Bat Turning 

Hand-turning of the Johnny Bench personal model Louis- 
ville Slugger®: 11:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. daily 

• Pencil Making 

Demonstrations every hour on the hour, daily 

• Your Family in a Nation of Nations 

Festival visitors are in vited to share their stories and recol- 
lections evoked by the objects on display: 1 1:00 a.m. to 
5:00 p.m. 

Hammered Dulcimers 

In the Hall of Musical Instruments 

• Performances: 12:00 noon and 2:00 p.m. daily 

• Lecture/demonstration: 1:00 p.m. daily 

• Evening Concerts: 8:00 p.m. Wednesday, October 5 — 
Cannichael Auditorium: 

8:00 p.m. Saturday, October 8 — Hall of Musical 

Free tickets for the Evening Concerts can be obtained at the 
information desk. Museum of History and Technology 

Musical Traditions of India 

In the Hall of Musical Instruments 

• Lecture/demonstrations: 1 1:00 a.m. October 5, 6, 8, 
and 10 

• Evening Concerts: 8:00 p.m. October 5, 6, 7, and 
9 — Hall of Musical Instruments 

Free tickets for the Evening Concerts can be obtained at the 
information desk. Museum of History and Technology 


In the Railroad Hall 

• Demonstrations of freight switching and railroad work 
traditions will take place continuously in the model train 
exhibit and on the 1401 steam locomotive: 1 1:00 a.m. to 
5:00 p.m. daily 

How to Collect Family Folklore 

In the Reception Suite 

• Workshops on interviewing techniques, and how to rec- 
ognize and preserve the stories, expressions, and traditions 
that make every family unique: 1 1 :00 a.m. and 3:00 p.m. 
October 8-10 

Free tickets to take part in these workshops can be obtained at the 
information desk. Museum of History and Technology 

Folklore in Your Community 

On the South Lawn 

• Workshops featuring occupational groups from Washing- 
ton: cab drivers, bartenders, open market merchants, and 
workers in the Capitol building: 1 1:00a.m. and 2:00p.m. 
daily (check signs for topics) 

Hispanic Crafts 

In the Nation of Nations 

• Saddlemaking: 1 1:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. daily 

• Furniture crafting and straw inlay: 1 1:00 a.m. to 
5:00 p.m. daily 

Museum Tours and Demonstrations 

• Spinning and Weaving — In the Textiles Hall 
Demonstrations: 10:00 a.m. October 5 and 6 

• Machine Tools — In the Power Machinery Hall 
Demonstrations: 12:00 noon daily 

• Steam Locomotives — In the Railroad Hall 
12:00 noon October 5, 6 and 7 

• Discovery Corners 

Spiritof 1776— Third Floor: 1 1:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. daily 
Electricity Hall: inquire to 381-4141 

• Pre-Scheduled tours for adults and school groups may be 
arranged by calling 381-4141. 


Evening Concerts: 

African Diaspora Black Street Culture 

On the South Lawn 

• Rising Star Fife and Drum: 1 2:00 noon October 5-8; 
5:30 p.m. October 5-7; 4:00 p.m. October 8 

• Rev. Flora Molton: 12:30 p.m. and 3:00 p.m. October 
5-8; 12:00 noon and 2:30 p.m. October 9 and 10 

• Rev. Dan Smith: 1:00 p.m. and 3:30 p.m. October 5-8; 
12:30 and 3:00 p.m. October 9 and 10 

• George Washington: 1:30 p.m. and 5:00 p.m. October 
5-7; 1:30 p.m. Octobers; 1:00 p.m. October 9 and 10 

• Avery "Slim" Montgomery: 2:00 p.m. and 4:00 p.m. 
October 5-8; 1:30 p.m. and 3:30 p.m. October 9 and 10 

• Charlie Sayles: 2:30 p.m. and 4:30 p.m. October 5-7; 
2:30 p.m. October 8; 2:00 p.m. October 9 and 10 

• UnitedHouseofPrayer: 4:30p.m. October8;4:00p.m. 
October 9 and 10 

• Trinidad Steel Band: 5:00 p.m. October 8; 4:30 p.m. 
October 9 and 10 

• Sambistas de Rio: 5:30 p.m. October 8; 5:00 p.m. 
October 9 and 10 

October 5 — Native American Musical Styles 

Baird Auditorium . Museum of Natural History 

October 5 — Musical Traditions of India 

Hall of Musical Instruments, Museum of History and Technology 

October 5 — Hammered Dulcimer Traditions 

Carmichael Auditorium. Museum of History and Technology 

October 6 — Musical Traditions of India 

Hall of Musical Instruments. Museum of History and Technology 

October 7 — African Diaspora Concert 

Baird Auditorium. Museum of Natural History 

October 7 — Musical Traditions of India 

Hall of Musical Instruments. Museum of History and Technology 

October 8 — Louisiana Cajun Social Dancing and 
Virginia Reels 

Outdoor Virginia Stage 

October 8 — Hammered Dulcimer Traditions 

Hall of Musical Instruments, Museum ofHistoiy and Technology 

October 9 — A Sampler of Virginia Folk Music 

Outdoor Virginia Stage 

October 9 — Musical Traditions of India 

Hall of Musical Instruments, Museum of History and Technology 

(Free tickets for all of the indoor Evening Concerts can be obtained 
at the information desk of the Museum of History and Technology, 
or at the door of the hall if there are seats available the night of the 




St reel miisicuin Charlie Saxle: 

C 4 

In the Streets 

Bernice Reagon 

f r> 

In Black communities throughout the African Diaspora, 
streets form the link between "home"" and the "rest of the 
world."" Being "in the streets" connotes a state of living in 
the open, the place where anything can happen. Successfully 
maneuvering the streets of one"s environment requires spe- 
cial tenacity and skill. Here one's personality and "home- 
training" make one alert and ready. 

In the United States, streets in Black communities often 
carry powerful and graphic cultural statements revealing 
basic methods of human survival and creativity — in the midst 
of economic and political depression. 

Much has been said about the pathology of the streets, and 
its social degradation of the human spirit. This project on 
Street Culture focuses on cultural forms and the carriers of 
those forms who use the streets for a way to the rest of the 

Bernice Reagon is a culture historian with the African Diaspora 
Program, Division of Performing Arts, at the Smithsonian Institu- 

world, for their living and for the celebration of life. A 
powerful dynamic exists as individuals move into a space 
within their community, which by definition is of and within 
the outside world. Streets lead to and from home and com- 
munity. They are also the place where many people spend a 
great deal of their working time creating a cultural and life 
force . 

Home is the training ground, the nurturing unit, the place 
and environment charged with preparing individuals for the 
not-so-protected outside world. Porches, stoops, or yards 
are extensions of the home and provide a transition to the 
street and the world beyond. Taking the children "outside" is 
a conscious stage of training, a change of atmosphere — to 
where one can see and feel the streets within the range of 
one"s home. The activities of the porch and yard can range 
from just sitting and funning to talking with neighbors, sew- 

14th and T Streets. N.W.. Washington, D.C. 
(Photo by Rosie Lee Hooks.) 


Linda Goss of Philadelphia leads a group of children in 

yard games. 

ing, quilting, patching, playing checkers, games and ring 


One dynamic of the streets is moving, leaving, a way to 
another place — other than home. It can be a few doors away 
within the confines of the community or the way to the other 
side of town or the other side of the world (in many instances 
equivalent to the same thing). Traditional blues lyrics are full 
of references to roads, highways, and streets that open a way 
out and onward . . . 

I'm going down the road, hahy 

Don't you wanna go 

I'm going down the road, hahy 

Don ' t you wanna go 

I'm going somewhere' s I never 

heen hefore 

— Little Hat Jones, (Texas Blues Singer) 

Waiting for the hus, Washington 
(Photo by Rosie Lee Hooks.) 


Washington, D.C, fruit vendor 
(Photo by Rosie Lee Hooks.) 

The most consistent presence is evidence by those who 
provide services: the vendors of food, crafts, newspapers, or 
music. As long as the streets themselves have existed vendors 
have been selling foods. In Africa, plantains, peanuts, 
oranges, rice, and stew dishes are sold; in the Caribbean, 
these as well as meat pies. In the United States, peanuts, 
sweet potatoes, and fruits — and in the South, honey-dippers 
(homemade popsicles). Vendors have traditionally supplied 
brooms and mops; more recently in the Washington- 
Baltimore area they have expanded to jewelry and imported 
artifacts from Africa sold at small portable street stands. 

The Baltimore, Maryland Arabber community has one of 
the strongest and oldest traditions of street vending, as de- 
scribed by Roland Freeman: 

My earliest clear memories of childhood are of the 

Shoeshine stand and operator, Washington, D.C. 
(Photo by Fred Lee.) 


Flora Molton. for 40 years a singer on the streets of 

Washington. D.C. 

(Photo by Rosie Lee Hooks.) 

summer of 1941 . This was the summer ofregisteringfor 
kindergarten, Saturday afternoon cowboy movies, play- 
ing cowboys and Indians, and a growing infatuation 
with the men who sold things from horse-tirawn 
wagons. These were the iceman, the woodman, the 
coalman, the junkman, the fishman, and the Arabbers 
who sold produce. 

I began to notice that as the men went about hawking 
their goods, they had different songs, cries, or hollers 
that went about along with what they were selling. 
Being fascinated, like many of the kids in the neighbor- 
hood. I would tag alongside them for a block or two and 

The Scene Boosters, a marching ' 'Second Line Club' ' from 
New Orleans, adds the Mardi Gras spirit to the 1976 Bicen- 
tennial Festival. 
(Photo by Debbie Chavis.) 

try to mimic their cries. (One could never really under- 
stand all of what they were saying). The iceman had a 
song about his ice and the prices of the different size 
pieces he was selling: the Arabbers sang songs about 
the different fruits and vegetables on his wagon; each 
hawker had his own distinctive cries. 

— "Arabbing in Baltimore" — Roland Freeman 

The vendors are joined by street cleaners, newspaper 
sellers, shoeshine stands, the police, and street singers. 
Street singers are a special breed of Black musician, who by 
personal preference or physical handicap choose the street for 
their stage. Singers such as Flora Molton and harmonica- 
playing Charlie Sayles fill the air with religious songs and 
blues. The street is also a business place for those whose 
activities go against community morals: dope pushers, 
pimps, and prostitutes, to name a few. There are people who 
live in the street — the bowery bums and rag women. The 
street gives them whatever they have for survival. 

There are times when the community moves into the street 
for a major statement of cultural identity and history, for 
example, drill teams, carnivals in the Caribbean, block par- 
ties, or New Orleans Mardi Gras. 

Rather than focus on a prototype of a specific street we 
capture a blend of secular and sacred activities in Black street 
culture. We invite you to smell and eat the foods, hear the 
street calls of the children and musicians. Listen to the sounds 
of everyday activity, punctuated by old men playing chess 
and children skipping rope. 

Smells of foods are an integral part of Black street culture. 
(Photo by Rosie Lee Hooks.) 


Grass and Wood: 
Folk Arts from 
Nature's Harvest 

Elaine Ejf 

For centuries, American folk craftspersons and artists have 
recognized and utilized the aesthetic properties of materials 
found in nature. Grass and wood abound, their colors and 
textures providing ample inspiration for creative and not- 
so-creative minds alike. 


Grass is almost everywhere. Consider the vegetation of 
front lawns, creeks, swamps, and highlands, as well as fields 
of grain for feeding humans and cattle. Types of grasses are 
almost as varied as the places they grow and the products 
made from them. In this age of technology , it is easy to ignore 
the historical role of grasses in American life. 

In many traditional cultures, survival — particularly food 
and shelter — depended upon local vegetation. Grasses per- 
sist as a useful and beautiful reminder of the relationship 
between man and nature. 

Ancient cultures celebrated the harvest through the pres- 
entation of gifts to the spirits responsible for the next season's 
feast or famine. Today, wheat weavers of the Great Plains 
perpetuate the spirit of this rite in their fabrication of "corn 
dollies." "Corn" is the English term for all food grains; 
"dolly" is a corruption of the word "idol." Through artistic 
manipulation of the grain stalks (the part that would ordinar- 
ily be wasted), spirals, cages, braids, and representations of 
human forms are created. 

In other sections of the country, basketmakers continue to 
use traditional materials and methods. The Gullah of South 
Carolina seek sweet coastal marsh grasses to make forms that 
survive from West African heritage. The Aleuts of Alaska 
draw from a dwindling supply of native grasses to handcraft 
their unique containers. 

Several qualities make grass a desirable medium. It is 
extremely flexible: it can be braided, coiled, tied, woven, or 
sewn. It is durable: it can be cut, colored, incised, immersed. 

Elaine Eff is afolklurisi who has worked with several museums and 
arts councils. She is currently an NEH intern at the Winierthur 
Museum in Delaware and coordinated its first exhibition of folk 

This Czech polka band was woven in wheat by Doris Johnson 
ofLuray. Kan. 

It is abundant and can be employed in projects of major scale. 
Grass protects, repels water, floats and cushions. And it 
exists in all but the most arid climates. It is no wonder that 
agile hands have discovered and perpetuated its products 
from generation to generation. 


Objects fashioned from wood — particularily furniture, 
containers, and items of household interior architecture — 
have little resemblance to their original form (trees). Al- 
though the natural colors and grains of many woods might be 
works of art in themselves, it has become an accepted prac- 
tice to individualize a finished product by embellishing it 
with carving or paint. 

Some traditional motifs on wood have been associated 
with certain ethnic or regional groups. Pennsylvania Ger- 
mans profusely decorated storage chests and boxes with 
hearts, tulips, and unicorns. Shakers used particular shades 
of yellow and blue on their meticulously crafted chairs and 
containers. Norwegians practice roseinaling (rose painting), 
a floral adaptation of simple C and S strokes; the Dutch 
painted their case furnishings with grisaille, or gray shadow 
designs. New England has long been known for a profusion 
of embellishments on wood, ones that were employed by 
country furnituremakers and artists who travelled from house 
to house decorating walls, woodwork, or household items. 

These same techniques are carried on today by inheritors 
of the painted-wood tradition. Paint not only embellishes 
what might otherwise be a nondescript surface; it also pre- 
serves the wood beneath. Soft woods such as pine, more 
economical to purchase and maintain than finer woods, are 
often stained in imitation of rosewood or mahogany. 


The three categories of painted decoration are the plain, 
such as the Shatcer one-color covering; the imitative, or 
counterfeit curly maple, rosewood, or marble; and the imagi- 
native, such as stenciled or free-hand drawing. 

The tools of the furniture painter are easily acquired and 
portable. They include feathers, corncobs, putty, sponges, 
powders, vinegar, or any other suitable material that yields 
the desired effects. Traditional methods and designs have 
continuing relevance and appeal despite the widening range 
of synthetics. 

Grass — roots, soil, and all — forms the sod house for the J . 
C. Cram family of Loup County, Neb., 1886. Other uses of 
grass are shown at the Renwick Gallery during the Festival. 
(Photo from the Solomon D. Butcher Collection. Nebraska Histori- 
cal Society) 


The Dutch who settled the Hudson River Valley of New York 
State painted some of their furniture in imitation of wood 
carving. This grisaille kas was exceptional even when it was 
made in the early 1 8th century. 
(Courtesy Henry Francis du Pont Winterlhur Museum) 


Paint on Wood 

Brazer, Esther Stevens, Earlv American Decoration. Springfield. 

Mass: The Pond-Ekberg Co.; 1940. 

Fales. Dean A. Jr.. American Painted Furniture 1660-1880. New 

York: E.P. Dutton and Co., Inc., 1972. 

Kenney. John Tarrant, The Hitchcock Chair. New York: Clarkson 

N. Potter, Inc., 1971. 

Lea, Zilla Rider, The Ornamented Chair. Rutland, Vt: Charles E. 

TuttleCo., 1960. 

Miller, Margaret M. and Aarseth, Sigmund, Norwegian Rosemal- 

ing. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1974. 

Porter, Rufus, A Select Collection of Valuable and Curious Arts 

and Interesting Experiments. Concord, New Hampshire: Rufus 

Porter, 1825. 

Ritz, Gislind M., The Art of Painted Furniture, New York: Van 

Nostrand Reinhold, 1975. 

Waring, Janet, Earlx American Stencils on Walls and Furniture. 

WatkinsGlen, New' York: Century House, 1947, 1968. 


Coker. Alec, The Craft of Straw Decoration. Woodridge, N.J.: 

Dryad Press, 1971. 

Lambeth, M., A Golden Dolly, the Art, Mystery and History of 

Corn Dollies, London: John Baker, 1969. 

Mason, Otis Tufton, "American Basketry: Studies in a Textile Art 

w ithout Machinery," Annual Report of the Smithsonian Instnution, 

Report of the National Museum, Washington, DC: Smithsonian 

Institution, 1902. 

Rossbaeh, Ed, Baskets as Textile Art, New York: Van Nostrand 

Reinhold Co., 1973. 

Sandford, Lettice, 5/raiv WorkandCorn Dollies. New York: Viking 

Press, 1974. 


Crass, from the exhibit by Mary Hunt Kahlenburg; Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, 1976 


American Indian Music: 
Stereotypes and Misconceptions 

Thomas Vennum Jr. 

Increased interest in Native American culture has 
caused non-Indians to correct many stereotypes of 
American Indians; non-Indians have learned to ap- 
preciate distinctions between the material cultures 
and beliefs of different tribes. Most people today 
recognize, for instance, that only a few nations of 
Native Americans lived in tipis or wore feathered 
war bonnets. Nevertheless, a general misconcep- 
tion persists that the musical culture of each tribe is 
the same. 

Stereotypes of Indian music began to develop as 
soon as white settlers arrived in the New World. 
Most Native American music is sung, and the 
newcomers naturally compared it to their own vocal 
traditions of church, concert hall, and salon. For 
most Europeans, religious music was meant to be 
dignified, song melodies "pretty," and a singer's voice 
"beautiful" — meaning rich in vibrato and controlled in vol- 
ume. It is little wonder, then, that they would find an Indian 
sacred song — typically rendered at full volume and inter- 
spersed with shouts and animal cries — to violate all rules of 
proper musical performance. Indian music was consequently 
distasteful to them and just one more indication of the "bar- 
baric nature" of its performers. The following opinion, ex- 
pressed by Henry Schoolcraft in his Narrative Journal of 
Travels from Detroit . . . (1821), is typical of early com- 
ments on Native American music: 

There is something animating in the Indian 
chorus, and at the same time it has an air of 
melancholy, but certainly nothing can he 
more monotonous, or further from our 
ideas of music. . . . It is perhaps all we 
could expect from untutored savages, but 
there is nothing about it which has ever 
struck me as either interesting or amusing 
. . . and it is a severe tax upon one's pa- 
tience to sit and be compelled, in order to 
keep their good opinion, to appear pleased 
with it. 
Not until the end of the 19th century did a few musicians 
begin to recognize some beauty in Native American song. 

Thomas Vennum Jr. is staff ethnomusicologist in the Folklife Pro- 
gram at the Smith.sonian Institution and specializes in Native Amer- 
ican music. 

Chippewa rattle of deer hooves with bird effigy 

But even these few were intent upon "improving" 
the music by adapting it to European styles. In 
1903 Frederick Burton, for example, arranged 
Ojibwa melodies that he collected into 4-part 
harmonic settings for chorus and orchestral 
accompaniment, to be performed as incidental 
music for the play Hiawatha. 
Recently there has been richer appreciation of 
American Indian music for its own merits. Still, 
common misconceptions about Indian musical prac- 
tices continue. For instance, although Native Amer- 
icans use numerous musical instruments, the gen- 
eral impression is that there is but one: the tom-tom. 
The word itself is not derived from a native North American 
language, as many assume, but is probably of Hindustani 
origin. It has been used by English speakers worldwide to 
describe drums of any "uncivilized" people which produce a 
montonous sound. The stereotypical tom-tom is usually a 
child's toy with two rubber heads laced together. While 
drums resembling these are used by some tribes, a great 
number of other drums exist. They vary from tribe to tribe 
and even within a single tribe, depending upon their use. The 
Ojibwa, for example, use a single-headed water drum for 
religious ceremonies, a large double-headed dance drum for 
social occasions, a variety of small hand drums for doctoring, 
and a large tambourine-like drum for the moccasin game. 

Nor is the drum the only instrument that provides rhythmic 
background for Indian songs and dances. Most people know 
little about the many rattles fashioned from gourds, deer 
hooves, or turtle shells — or the special percussion instru- 
ments, such as the rasp, a notched stick scraped rhythmically 
by the Utes in a spring dance to imitate the sound of the bear. 
(During the Festival, an exhibit of Native American musical 
instruments is displayed in the Hall of Musical Instruments, 
National Museum of History and Technology. Other exam- 
ples are in the Native Peoples of the Americas exhibition. 
National Museum of Natural History.) 

Another almost universal misconception is that the stand- 
ard Native American drum accompaniment for song and 
dance consists of a pattern of four beats of equal duration, 
with the first heavily accented: BOOM-boom-boom-boom, 
BOOM-boom-boom-boom, etc. This pattern has been so 

thoroughly exploited by the media that it has become a 
cliche. The mere introduction of it in the musical score of a 
Western film signals that an Indian ambush is imminent. The 
pattern has also been used to impart an " Indian" " flavor to 
radio and television commercials. The rhythm appears in 
children's piano pieces wherever the word "Indian" is found 
in the title. 

While this particular rhythmic pattern is not totally absent 
from Native American music, it is one of the least typical. 
Even where it can be found — in the accompaniment for the 
San Juan Pueblo Buffalo Dance, for example, it occurs only 
momentarily as part of an eleaborate chain of different 
rhythmic patterns. Native Americans even joke about this 
stereotypical beat: it is said that the pattern was used by 
Indians as a sort of "drum talk" to signal the arrival of the 
white man, the drum warning, "WHITE-man-com-ing, 
WHITE-man-com-ing. ■ " 

The intention of the Native American presentation in this 
year's Festival of American Folklife is to try to correct the 
stereotypical image that most Americans have of Amerindian 
music. Singers representing five different tribal groups — 
Pueblo, Navaho, Tolowa, Iroquois, and Sioux — will demon- 
strate the differences between their musical styles in live 
performances of songs. By observing the differences be- 
tween such stylistic elements of the music as song forms, 
melodic range and direction, vocal techniques, and drum 
patterns, the visitor to the Festival should be convinced of the 
enormously rich variety in Native American music. 


Nettl, Bruno, Fvik Music in the United States: an introduction. 3rd 
rev. ed., Wayne State University Press, 1976. Chapter IV, "Indian 
Music of the United Slates," pp. 46-63. (A good general introduc- 

Nettl, Bruno, North American Indian Musical Styles. Memoirs of 
the American Folklore Society, Vol. 45. (Fairly technical). 

Catalogs of American Indian recorded music may be obtained 
from; Canyon Records, 4143 N. 16th St.. Phoenix, Ariz. 85016: 
Indian House Records. Box 472. Taos. N.M., 87571; and the 
Recorded Sound Section. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., 

Menominee and Ojibwa Indians together in a Chief Dance . 
(Photo by Frances Densmore, 1928) 

Native American musical styles from several tribal groups 
can be heard in the Baird Auditorium. National Museum of 
Natural History, during the Festival. Above. Loren Bomme- 
lyn, a participate from Areata, Calif., sings traditional 
Tolowa songs. 
(Photo by Paul Framer) 


The Music of India 

Peter Row 

Drums from the collection of the National Museum of Natural 
History are on display in the Hall of Musical Instruments 
during the Festival. 
(Photo by Victor Krantz) 

The Indian subcontinent harbors an extraordinarily rich 
and multifaceted musical culture comprising a variety of 
regional, folk, popular, and religious themes as well as two 
systems of tones. These different genres vary considerably in 
form and style, yet they are strikingly similar. 

With few exceptions, the different types of Indian music 
are performed by small ensembles that include a lead vocalist 
or instrumentalist, at least one percussionist, and often one or 
more instrumentalists providing imitative melodic accom- 

Peter Row is a faculty member at (he New England Conservatory of 
Music and an adjunct professor at Harvard University. 

paniment. (There is no harmony in Indian music.) The en- 
sembles also use a drone instrument, usually a tampura (a 
four-to-six-stringed, long-necked lute), which plays only 
the tonic and one or two other important pitches of the mode 
being performed. Within the basic ensemble frame-work, 
musical texture may vary from a single voice or instrument 
performing over a drone to a complex performance in which 
all instruments and the voice simultaneously play variations 
of the same melody. Underlying the melodic component are 
tuned drums and often other percussion instruments, each 
elaborating on the rhythmic framework of a piece. 

The basic elements of Indian musical language are melody 
and rhythm (known as raga and tola respectively in classical 
terminology). The melody types and rhythm structures of 
folk, popular, religious, and art music are closely related, but 
they overlap so that clear categorization by genre is virtually 

A raga is a set of musical materials forming a unique 
modal identity on which composition and improvisation are 
based. These materials include: 1) pitch, 2) ascending and 
descending patterns, 3) pitch functions such as tonal centers, 
weak and ornamented tones, 4) a set of basic moti vie patterns 
capturing the essence oi draga. 5) a definite ethos, and 6) in 
the northern system, a particular time of day (or night) 
designated as its performance time. A raga therefore is not a 
piece of music but the melodic vocabulary employed in 
making a piece of music. A characteristic feature of a raga 
performance is the rich and colorful use of ornamentation in 
the fomi of shakes, glides, and various kinds of vibrato. In 
fact, the space between the pitches is nearly as important as 
the pitches themselves. 

A tala is a specific rhythm structure repeated cyclically 
throughout a piece, providing the basic rhythmic framework 
for that piece. The prescribed elements of tala are: 1) the 
number of beats, 2) the pattern of accents, 3) the grouping of 
beats into '"measures," and 4) the specific drum strokes 
associated with the tala's beats. Theoretically any raga can 
be combined with any tala though certain combinations are 
traditionally considered aesthetically better than others. 

Myriad instruments are employed in Indian ensembles, but 
more important is the voice, which represents the ideal. 
Thus, most Indian instruments are designed to imitate the 
voice's ability to produce all the subtle intra-tonal ornaments 
so crucial to Indian melody. The most common melody 


instruments are plucked-string instruments such as the sitar, 
sarod, and veenas. Bowed instruments like the sarengi, 
esraj, and violin usually serve to accompany vocalists. 

The role of the drummer varies from simple "timekeeper" 
to active and equal participant, performing an improvised 
dialogue with the melody line. Drummers play either the 
barrel drum (known as mhdangum in the south andpakhawaj 
in the north) or a two-drum set (used only in the north). The 
latter, called tabla, consists of a wooden drum with a small 
head and a larger kettle drum. All of these drums are played 
with the hands and tuned to the tonic of the drone. 

In this year's Festival, most of the principal instruments of 
India are presented in a series of concerts and lecture- 
demonstrations. The informal lectures explore such topics as 
the structure of the music, procedure in the use of ragas, the 
interrelationships between melody and rhythmic accompan- 
iment, and the relationships of folk and classical traditions in 
Indian music. 


Danielou, Alain, Northern Indian Music (Frederick A. Praeger: 

New York, 1969) 

Jairazbhoy, Nazir, The Ragas of North India: Their Structure and 

Evohition (Faber and Faber: London, 1971). 

Kaufman, Walter, The Ragas of North India (Indiana University 

Press: Bloomington. 1968). 

, The Ragas of South India (n. p., n. d.) 

Prajnananda. Swami, Historical Development of Indian Music 
(Firma K. L. Mukhapadhyay: Calcutta, 1960). 


Indian Street Music — The Bauls of Bengal (Nonesuch Explorer 
Series, H 72035). 

Dhxaixam I Meditation. K. V. Narayanaswamy (Nonesuch Phono- 
disc, H 72018). 

The Music of India, S. Balachander, Veena. Siveraman, AfnWa/i- 
gam (Nonesuch Explorer Series, H 72003). 

The HO Minute Raga-Rag Kanara Prakaar. Ali Akbar Khan, 
Sarod, Mahapurush Misra, Tahia (Connoisseur Society, CS 2012). 
A Musical Anthology of the Orient, Vol. 18, India 3, Moinuddin 
Dagar and Aminuddin Dagar (Barenreiier Musicophone UNESCO 
Collection, DM 30 L 2018). 

U stad Asad Ali Khan and Pandit Gopaldas, performers pre- 
serving the art of the veena and the pakhawaj appear in 
concerts and lecture-demonstrations . Arnold Burghardt and 
Peter Row are the lecturers. 
(Photos by Arnold Burghardt) 

A veena 
from the collection of the 
National Museum of Natural History 
is on display in the Hall of Musical 
Instruments during the Festival. 
(Photo by Victor Krantz) 


Virginia Folk Culture 

Charles L. Perdue 

The Commonwealth of Virginia — the "Old 
Dominion" — was not only the birthplace of several presi- 
dents of the United States but also the wellspring of much of 
American culture. Eight presidents were natives of the 
Commonwealth and eight states (or parts of states) were 
formed from the original Virginia territory. After the Ameri- 
can Revolution, Virginians by the thousands went forth to 
settle much of the Southeast, Midwest, and Northwest, carry- 
ing their traditions with them. 

The folk culture of Virginia is a synthesis of elements 
taken from the several cultures transplanted to the New 
World and from native American cultures. When Jamestown 
was settled by whites in 1607 numerous Indian tribes (with a 
total population of about 25,000) occupied Virginia. Most 
Virginia Indians were either pushed west, wiped out by the 
white man's guns or disease, or absorbed through intermar- 
riage with whites and blacks. A few Indian groups remain in 
Virginia today, but they have retained very little of their 
traditional culture. The dominant group of settlers was Eng- 
lish; there were also thousands of Germans, French 
Huguenots, Scots, and Irish settlers. Large numbers of Afri- 
cans from many tribal groups were brought as slaves to 
Virginia between 1619 and the early 1800s. Other ethnic 
groups came later, but in considerably smaller numbers. 

It is difficult to say with any precision just what the cultural 
contribution from any one group was, but it is clear, how- 
ever, that there was considerable borrowing among local 
black, red, and white cultures. Today, Virginians may be of 
European descent and play in a string band which uses 
African (banjo) and European (fiddle, guitar, mandolin) in- 
struments, and includes both black and white material in its 
repertoire. They inay eat food with Indian, African, and 
European antecedents and live in a town with an African 
(Areola) or European (Culpeper) name or by a river with an 
Indian (Rappahannock) name. They may even speak English 

Charles L. Perdue is Associate Professor of Folklore al the Univer- 
sity of Virginia and President of the National Council for the 
Traditional Arts. 

Kyle Creed demonstrates both his banjo-playing and his 
banjo-making in the Virginia area of the 1977 Festival of 
American Folklife. 


with an accent that is African-influenced and use African 
terms (biddy, jiffy, lollygag, moolah). Whether Virginians 
are black, white, or red, their culture will be some combina- 
tion of African, European, and Indian — modified by the 
particular Virginia variety of the American experience. 

The Virginia component of this Festival can exhibit only a 
small portion of the range of Virginia folk cultures — 
primarily black and white and primarily in the area of musical 
performance and crafts. 

Turner and Marvin Foddrell, JohnTinsley, and John Jack- 
son play banjoes and guitars in the black secular music 
tradition, and sing the blues and country songs. They play 
tunes for flatfoot, buck dances, and square dancing. Most of 
the music they perform has a long history and development in 
Virginia, and has extensive traditions in African and Euro- 
pean tradition as well as some local influences. One account 
from an ex-slave refers to an 1857 black band consisting of 
guitar, banjo, fiddle, and harmonica. The blues seem to be a 
relative late-comer to Virginia's musical scene, having come 
from the Mississippi Delta with travelling musicians and 
phonograph records. Yet, large numbers of Delta slaves 
originated from Virginia and one wonders whether the roots 
of the blues may not run deep there when one sees verses like: 

Keep yo' eye on de sun. 

See how she run, 

Don't let her catch you with your work 

I'm a trouble, I'm a trouble. 

Trouble don' las' always 

{sung by a slave in Buckingham 
County in about 1860: from Weevils in 
the Wheat by Charles Perdue et al) 
Black religious music is performed by Daniel Womack and 
by the Gospel Harmonizers. Mr. Womack's music dates 
from an earlier period of hymn and spiritual signing, and the 
Gospel Harmonizers sing more recent songs; the musical 
tradition from which each of them sings dates from about 

Whit Sizemore, Kyle Creed, Albert Hash, Spence Moore, 
Raymond Melton, and Wayne Henderson represent northern 
Virginia and southwestern Virginia fiddle, string-band, and 
singing styles. Kyle Creed, Albert Hash, Raymond Melton, 
and Wayne Henderson — who are also instrumentmakers — 
demonstrate their craft skills. Rev. Joe Freeman plays and 

The Foddrell Brothers, blues musicians from Stuart, Va., are 
featured in the Virginia presentation on the Washington 
Monument grounds. 
(Photo by Pete Hartman) 

sings white gospel songs, spiritual, and hymns. 

Other crafts demonstrated are candymaking by Orville and 
Phyllis Bowers; split-oak basketmaking by Paul Younger; 
blacksmithing by Phipps Bourne; and the ancient art of ham 
curing and smoking by Wallace Edwards and his assistants. 


Davis, Arthur Kyle Jr.. Traditional Ballads of Virginia (The Uni- 
versity Press of Virginia: Charlottesville, 1929, 1969). 
. , Folk-Songs of Virginia: A Descriptive Inde.x and Clas- 
sification of Material Collected under the Auspices of the Virginia 
Folklore Society' (AMS Press, Inc.: New York, 1949). 
Horwitz, Elinor Lander, I\iountain People, Mountain Crafts (J. P. 
Lippincott: Philadelphia, 1974). 

..Contemporary American Folk ArlLtls (J. P. Lippincott: 

Philadelphia, 1975). 

Perdue. Charles L., Jr., Thomas E. Barden, and Robert K. Phillips. 
Weevils in the Wheal: Interviews with Virginia Ex-Slaves (The 
University Press of Virginia: Charlottesville, 1976). 


The Folklore in Us All 

Steven Zeitlin and Amy Kotkin 

For the Washington bartender life is an endless round of 
stories. Each night he listens to the hard-luck tales of his 
customers. Travelling the length of the bar, he tells them 
stories of famous customers and infamous drinks. At home, 
storytelling is a ritual too. His children beg him for the fairy 
tales he spins off the top of his head. Then his wife repeats the 
saga of her grandmother's journey from the old country. 
Each year, the family settles on a log at the Festival of 
American Folklife and listens, simply listens to an Appa- 
lachian fiddler play. 

In the past few years, the Smithsonian has begun to reas- 
sess the role of folk festivals in our society. By bringing the 
Appalachian fiddler to the Mall, the Folklife Festival edu- 
cates the public and helps to keep the folk arts alive in 
America. But the bartender too has his folklore, and his 
endless round of stories is worth celebrating. By featuring the 
storytelling traditions of persons like the bartender and his 
family, the Festival sensitizes visitors to the artistic expres- 
sion in their own lives — in their families, their jobs and their 
local communities. This year, three formats celebrate the 
unsung folklore in our lives. 

First, interviews. The exhibition, A Nation of Nations in 
the National Museum of History and Technology was so 
named because it celebrates the creation of America from her 
immigrant peoples. During the Festival week, Smithsonian 
staff members invite visitors to participate by recording their 
stories and reminiscences evoked by objects in the exhibit. 
The World War 11 barracks, the family Bibles, the Ellis Island 
bench and the tintype photographs have touched us all. Be- 
fore you leave the hall please join us and share some of your 
experiences in this nation of nations. 

Second, workshops on how to collect family folklore. 
Does your refrigerator have a nickname? Does your grand- 
father delight in unravelling escapades of his youth? If so, 
what you have is folklore. In a series of workshops in the 
Reception Suite of the Museum of History and Technology, 

Steven Zeitlin is a Smithsonian Fellow in the Folklife Program: and 
Amy Kotkin. a doctoral candidate in American Studies at the 
University of Pennsylvania, is currently a Smithsonian National 
Associations Program staff member. 


Washington cab drivers are featured in workshops on local 

' 'Baseball' ' Bill Holdforth is a bartender at the Hawk and 
Dove tavern. 


//; workshops with festival visitors, merchants from open 
markets in Washington talk about their occupations. 

members of the Family Folklore Project will explore the 
different forms of family folklore — the stories, photos and 
food customs that decorate family life and create the ties that 
bind. Some techniques for collecting the folklore of your 
family are discussed and a free guide is distributed; and you 
may wish to describe the stories and traditions in your own 

Third, small-scale presentations on the folklore in your 
community. After closing time at the swank Georgetown 
clubs or during recess on Capitol Hill; and long before the 
realtors, diplomats and trinket-vendors flourished, there is 
and long has been a living, breathing city here at the conflu- 
ence of the Potomac and Anacostia rivers. It is comprised of 
persons who have lived here all theirlivesand to whom many 
of us are simply tourists even if we do stay a few years. Under 
a canopy on the south lawn of the Museum of History and 
Technology, workshops will be held daily with Washington 
cab drivers, bartenders, open market merchants and workers 
in the Capitol building. They'll tell us how we look to them 
and answer our questions about their lives and experiences. 

And so the bartender leaves his work for a few hours to tell 
stories to a more sober audience. His children learn how to 
collect family folklore, and recount some of the tales their 
father spun for them. His wife, interviewed at A Nation of 
Nations, compares her grandmother's home to the recreated 
houses on display. And from a stage the Appalachian fiddler 


Baker, Holly, Sandra Gross, Amy Kotkin, and Steven Zeitlin, 

Family Folklore (Smithsonian Institution: Washington, D.C., 


Baldwin, Karen, Down on Bugger Run: Family Group and the 

Social Base of Folklore, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation (University 

of Pennsylvania: Philadelphia, 1975). 

Marzio. Peter, ed., A Nation of Nations (Smithsonian Institution: 

Washington, D.C., 1976). 

Weitzman, David, Underfoot: An Everyday Guide to Exploring and 

Preserving America's Past (Scribner's: New York, 1976). 

Yocuni, Margaret, Holly Baker, and Amy Kotkin. Family Folklore 

Interviewing Guide and Questionnaire (Smithsonian Institution: 

Washington. D.C., 1977). 

A Nation of Nations celebrates the contributions that genera- 
tions of immigrants have made to America. No matter when 
your family came to this country', portions of this exhibition 
are likely to reflect their part in America's growth and 
development. During the Festival week, visitors are invited 
to participate by sharing stories or memories that might be 
brought to tnind by the objects in the exhibition . 
(Photo courtesy Smithsonian Institution) 


Contributors and Special Thanks 

Baum's Bologna 

Brick Institute of America 

Capitol Milk Producers Cooperative Inc. 

B.A. Coe&Co. 

DASI Industries Inc. 

East Coast Ice Cream Novelties Coop Inc. 

Job Corps Members of Woodstock Job Corps 

Microwave Cooking Specialties Inc. 

Motor Freight Express Inc. 

National Association of Home Builders 

Oklahoma State University 

Oxon Hill Children's Farm 

Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

University of Maryland 

Charles Brill 

Dell Upton 

Inam Rahman 

Embassy of India 

Dr. Paul Weinbaum 

Mr. Ebaugh 

Anthony Galletta 

August Bolino 

Pauline and Sam Bocher 

Saul Kurzweil 

Sylvia Jaffe 

Max Steinberg 

Joseph Levine 

Dr. Elizabeth Mathias 

Alixia Naff 

Dr. Margaret Fleming 

Ann and Paul Kalcik 

Sylvia Mocnik 

Lawrence Janka 

Ronald Brown 

Mark Talisman 

June and Larry Scherrer 

Raymond Sepeta 

Dan Jackson 

Treemasters, Inc. 

Red Cross First Aid Corps 

William Sprague 

Lincoln Kaye 

Fred A. Boddie 

Hawk and Dove Tavern 

"Baseball" Bill Holdforth 

Gerri and Jim Johnson 

Allen Kraut 

Kay Mussell 

Hardy Nathan 

Virginia Nathan 

Joan Radnor 

Ron Richardson 

Brett Williams 

William Wright 

George Berklacy 

Mary Krug 

Sgt. Swerda 

Local 25, Hotel & Restaurant Employees Union 



A ven' special thank you is extended to all of the National Park 
Service and Smithsonian staff and volunteers who help in so many 
waxs. Their spirit of cooperation and good humor contribute ines- 
timably to the success of the Festival. Without their generous 
assistance, patience, interest, and encouragement, the Festival 
woidd not be possible. Many, many thanks for your support. 

Smithsonian Institution 

Secretary: S. Dillon Ripley 

Assistant Secretary for History and Art: Charles Blitzer 
Assistant Secretary for Administration: John Jameson 
Assistant Secretary for Public Service: Julian Euell 
Assistant Secretary for Museum Programs: Paul Perrot 
Assistant Secretary for Science: David Challinor 

African Diaspora Program Coordinator: Rosie Lee Hooks 

Cultural Historian: Bemice Reagon 
Production Coordinator: Shirley Cherkasky 
Assistant Production Coordinator: Constance Lee 
Participant Services Coordinator: Elizabeth Dahlin 

Staff: Anne Mercer, Michael Gehron 
Volunteer Coordinator: Irene Hoiloway 
Technical Coordinator: Harold Closter 
Supply Coordinator: Sarah Seaver 
Clerk /Typist: Paula Smith 
Production Staff: William Trossen, NinaBohlen, LouisaHull, Ken 

Kelleher, A. Clayton Schofield, Robert McNeil, Michael 

Burless, Thomas Nelson 

Fieldworkers, Presenters, and Curators: 

Carl Scheele. William Sturtevant, Scott Odell, Eugene Knez, 
Nancy Groce, Holly Baker. Amy Kotkin, Karen Peiffer, Paul 
Wagner, William Foshag, James Leary, Diane Hamilton, 
Winifred Brendel. Robert Vogel, Richard Ahlbom, Roddy 
Moore, Chuck Perdue, Peter Row, Arnold Burghardt, Charlotte 
Heth, William Powers, Elaine Eff, Robert McCarl, Peter Seitel 


Folklife Advisory Council: 

Wilcomb E. Washburn, Chairman 

Roger Abrahams 

Richard Ahlbom 

Robert H. Byington 

Richard Dorson 

William Fitzhugh 

Lloyd Herman 

Robert Laughlin 

James Morris 

Scott O'Dell 

Bemice Reagon 

Ralph Rinzler 

E. Richard Sorenson 

Festival Program / Production Coordinator: Susan Hamilton 

National Park Service 

Secretary of Interior: Cecil Andrus 

Director: William Whelan 

Regional Director. National Capital Region: ManusJ. Fish 

Officials and Staffs 

Abner Bradley 
James Dunning 
Jerry Wells 
Hugh Bell Muller 
Arthur Lamb 
Douglas Lindsay 
Denny Sorah 
Roger Sulcer 
James Rubin 

OfTice of American and Folklife Studies 
Folklife Program: 

Director: Ralph Rinzler 

Deputy Director: Robert H. Byington 

Secretary: Sarah Lewis 

Ethnomusicologist : Thomas Vennum, Jr. 

Ethnic Folklore Specialist: Susan Kalcik 

Archivist: Frank Proschan 

Family Folklore Specialist: Steve Zeitlin 

Occupational Folklore Specialist: Jack Santino 

Documenlalian Coordinator: Mike Herter 

Energy Program Coordinator: Jeffrey LaRiche 

Clerk/Typist: Barbara Strickland 

Program Aide: Nick Hawes 

Sound and Documentation Crew: Bill Pearson, Gregg Lamping. 

Zack Krieger, Tony Smith. Richard Derbyshire, Nick Hawes, 

Welby Smith, Kate Rinzler, Mike Sassani 

Division of Performing Arts: 

Director: James R. Morris 

PtdAic Information Director: Susanne Roschwalb 

Intern: Nancy Hoerner 
Press Officer: Manuel Melendez 
Art Director: Janet Stratton 
Administrative Officer: Ernestine Potter 

Staff: Susan Barton 

Department of Energy: 

Chief Exhibits Branch: John Bradbume 
Chief. Exhibits Operations: Chester Gray 
Exhibit Development Coordinator: Herb Beard 
Consultant for Conceptual Planning and Script: Joseph Dukert 
Design Consultant: John Schmid 
Senior Program Analyst: Jay Holmes 
Public Information Specialist: Robert Griffin 
Director of Industrial Energy Conservation: Douglas Harvey 
Director of Transportation Energy Conservation: Vincent Esposito 
Communication Specialist: Jan Nugent 

Program Manager, Division of Industrial Energy Conservation: 
Stanley Clark 

National Council for the IVaditional Arts: 

Joseph T. Wilson. Lee Udall, Nan Goland, Nancy Dolliver, Chuck 
Perdue, Roddy Moore, Cynthia Rushefsky 

Music Performance TVust Funds: 

Trustee: Martin A. Paulson 
Administrative Assistant: Frank Olin 


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