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Full text of "Field book of american wild flowers; being a short description of their character and habits, a concise definition of their colors, and incidental references to the insects which assist in their fertilization, by F. Schuyler Mathews.."

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Sd^bbatia. 



Sa^bbatia. chlopoides. 



FIELD BOOK OF 
AMERICAN WILD 
FLOWERS 



BEING A SHORT DESCRIPTION OF THEIR 
CHARACTER AND HABITS, A CONCISE 
DEFINITION OF THEIR COLORS, AND IN- 
CIDENTAL REFERENCES TO THE INSECTS 
WHICH ASSIST IN THEIR FERTILIZATION 

By F. SCHUYLER MATHEWS 

MEMBER OF THE NEW ENGLAND BOTANICAL CLUB 

AND AUTHOR OF 
FAMILIAR FLOWERS OF FIELD AND GARDEN 
FAMILIAR TREES AND THEIR LEAVES, FAMILIAR 
FEATURES OF THE ROADSIDE, ETC. ^^ 

•^ "Sf -^ '^ "«f 

WITH NUMEROUS REPRODUCTIONS OF WATER 
COLORS AND PEN-AND-INK STUDIES FROM NATURE 
BY THE AUTHOR ® 3? 3? * $ * ® 




G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS 

NEW YORK J« LONDON 

27 & 29 W, Twenty-third St, '^J? 24 Bedford Street, Strand 

$ Ube mntcfscrbocficr press $ 
1902 



Copyright, igo2 

BY 

F. SCHUYLER MATHEWS 



Published, April, 1902 



Ube IRnlcfterbocfter iprcss, mew Jgorft 



To 
C. A. M. 

IN REMEMBRANCE OF 

MANY JOURNEYS AFIELD IN 

THE BEAUTIFUL VALLEY OF THE PEMIGEWASSET 

THIS BOOK IS AFFECTIONATELY 

INSCRIBED 



CONTENTS. 



List of Colored Plates . . . . . 

Technical Terms ...... 

Colors — an index to assist in the identifi- 
cation OF A flower or its FRUIT BY MEANS 

of the color ...... 

Insects which assist in the Fertilization of 

Flowers .... 
Introduction .... 
Families: 

Cat-tail {Typhacece) 

Bur Reed {SparganiacecB) 

Water Plantain {Alisynacece) 

Arum {AracecE) 

Yellow-eyed Grass {XyridacecE) 

Spiderwort {Commelinacece) 

Pickerel Weed (Pontederiacecu) 

Lily {LiliacecB) 

Amaryllis {Amaryliidacecs) 

Iris {IridacecB) 

Orchid {Or chid ace ce) 

Birth wort {Aristolochiacece) 

Buckwheat {PolygonacecB) 

Goosefoot {ChenopodiacecB) 

Amaranth {Amarantacecc) 

Purslane {PortulacacecB) 

Pink {CaryophyllacecB) 

Water- Lily {Nymphceacece) 

Crowfoot {Ranunculacece) 

Barberry {B erheridacece) 

Poppy {PapaveracecB) . 

Mustard (Cruet fercE) 

Pitcher Plant (Sarraceniacece) 

Sundew {Droseracece) . 

Orpine (Crassulacece) . 



PAGB 
IX 



xm 

XV 



4 
6 

TO 

i8 
i8 

22 
24 

6o 

62 

68 

98 

102 

no 

112 
114 
116 
126 
128 

166 
176 

178 



CONTENTS. 



Saxifrage {Saxijragacecz) 

Rose {RosacecB) 

Pulse {Leguminosce) 

Geranium {Geraniaceos) 

Sorrel (Oxaiidacece) 

Flax {LiuaccijE:) 

Milkwort {Poly gal ace a) 

Spurge (Eupliorbiacecs) 

Cashew {Anacardiacecs) 

Staff-tree {CclastracccE) 

Jewel-weed {B alsaminacecF) 

Buckthorn {RJia^JUiacecs) 

Vine {VitacecE) 

Mallow {Malvacece) 

St. John's-wort {Hypericacece) 

Rock-rose {Cistacece) 

Violet {Violacccc) 

Loosestrife {LyiJiracecs) 

Meadow-beauty {MelastomacecB) 

Evening Primrose {Onagracece) 

Ginseng {AraliacecB) 

Parsley {UmhellijercE) 

Dogwood {Cornacecs) 

Pyrola {Pyrolacece) 

Heath {EricacecB) 

Diapensia {Diapensiacccp) 

Primrose {PrimiilacccE) 

Plumbago or Leadwort (Pluiubagi 

Gentian (GentianacecB) 

Dogbane (A pocynacecE) 

Milkweed (Asclepiadacece) 

Convolvulus (ConvolvulacecE) 

Phlox (Polemoniacece) 

Borage (Boragtnaccce) . 

Vervain (VerbenacecB) . 

Mint {Labiates) 

Nightshade {Solanacece) 

Figwort {Scrophiilariacecz) 

Broom-rape {Orobanchacecz) 



nacecB) 



CONTENTS. 



Plantain {PlantaginacerB) 
Madder (Rubiacecc) 
Honeysuckle {Caprifoliacece) 
Valerian {V alerianacecB) 
Gourd {CvxurhitacecE) . 
B ellflo wer {Cam pa n ulaceco) 
Lobelia (Lobeliaceaf) 
Composite {CompositcE) 
Index .... 



438 
440 
446 
452 
454 
456 
462 
466 
537 



COLORED ILLUSTRATIONS. 

FACING PAGE 

Sabbatia Frontispiece 

Arrowhead . 6 

Large Flowering Trillium . 42 

Day Lily 58 

Hooker's Orchis 86 

Large Purple Fringed Orchis . . e . . . . 92 

Showy Orchis , . . 96 

Bouncing Bet 116 

Evening Lychnis 120 

Marsh Marigold „ . 144 

Wild Swamp Rose . . . . 204 

Fringed Polygala 240 

Bird-foot Violet , 2i'Q 

Shinleaf .324 

Fringed Gentian . . . . „ 356 

Oswego Tea 398 

Monkey Flower 422 

Twin Flower 448 

Early Golden-rod ..„....,.. 480 

New England Aster 486 

Robin's Plantain. . , , 500 

Elecampane ...,,. = 504 

Cone-flower 508 

Common Thistle . . , 520 



IX 



TECHNICAL TERMS. 

Corolla. The flower-cup composed of one or more di- 
visions called petals. 
Petal. One of the divisions of the corolla. 
Calyx. A flower-envelop, usually green, formed of 

several divisions called sepals, protecting the bud. 
Sepal. One of the divisions of the calyx. 
Stamen. Anther and filament combined. 
Anther. The pollen-bearing organ, usually yellow. 
Filament. The stalklike support of the anther. 
Pistil. Ovary, style, and stigma combined. 
Ovary. The seed-bearing organ. 
Style. The stalklike projection proceeding from the 

ovary and terminated by the stigma. 
Stigma. The generally sticky and sometimes branching 

termination of the pistil through which fertilization 

by the pollen is effected. 
Rostellum. See Orchid Family description, page 68. 
Regular Flower. Generally symmetrical and uniform 

in the number of its parts. 
Perfect Flower. A flower complete in all the common 

parts. 
Staminate. With stamens and without pistils. 
Pistillate. With pistils and without stamens. 
Polygamous. Pistillate, staminate, and perfect flowers 

on the same plant or on different plants. 
Spathe. A leaflike formation enclosing a floral growth. 
Spadix. A fleshy spike of flowers. 
Bracts. Small leaflike formations. 
Stipule. Small leaflike formations confined to the base 

of the leaf. 
Pubescent. Covered with soft short hairs. 
Cleistogamous Flower. A flower closed to all outward 

agencies and self-fertilized in the bud. 



? 



COLORS. 

AN INDEX TO ASSIST IN THE IDENTIFICATION OF A 
FLOWER OR ITS FRUIT BY MEANS OF THE COLOR. 

Black. 24, 26, 36, 258, 260, 412, 450. 

Blue, 22, 26, 152, 360, 380, 424. 

Brown, 3, 436, 530 

Coral Red, 150, 446, 448. 

Cream Color, or Cream White, or Yellowish White, 26. 38, 72. 74 

76, 78, 90, 190, 194, 212, 220, 258, 284, 320, 368, 380, 382. 442. 

446, 504, 528. 
Cream Yellow, 46, 474 

Crimson, 122, 180, 194, 210, 242, 266. 324, 366. 
Crimson-pink, 80. 96, 106, 116, 118, 164, 190, 212, 262. 334. 336, 

352. 356 366, 368, 386, 400. 448. 
Golden Yellow, 16, 54, 94. 126, 12S, 142, 144, 156, 164, 194, 212, 

214, 228, 256, 268, 270, 272, 280, 282, 308, 310, 312, 344, 348, 

472, 474, 476, 478, 480, 482, 508, 510, 512, 514, 518, 524, 528, 532. 
Green, 10, 12, 16, 24, 36, 44, 46, 68, 84, 86, 98, 100, 102. 104, 106, 

108, no, 112, 136, 138, 186, 246, 248, 252, 258, 260, 274. 292, 

318, 366, 368, 412, 430, 498, 502, 506, 512, 518. 
Green-yellow, 94, 30, 72, 82, 106, 152, 180, 214, 248, 304, 316, 362, 

412, 414. 430, 432, 498, 500, 516. 
Greenish White, 28, 48, 56, 76, 78, 84, 88, 90. 108, 128, 130, 150, 168, 

180, 182, 184, 226, 244, 250, 254, 302, 304, 316, 322, 324, 362, 

364, 370, 434. 444. 454. 456. 
Lavender, 284, 35°. 396, 414, 416, 422, 424, 426, 460, 488. 
Lilac, 148, 226, 276, 278, 294, 296, 334. 338, 358. 362, 368, 374. 400. 

406, 408, 422, 440, 486, 488, 492, 494, 498, 500. 522, 528, 534. 
Lilac-white, 134. 486, 490, 492, 494- 496. 
Madder Purple, 70. 72, 98, 182, 448, 466. 
Magenta, 28, 40, 60, 80, 82, 120, 164, 178, 200, 216, 218, 230, 232, 

234, 240, 242, 244, 264, 274, 286, 288, 290, 294, 324, 336, 342, 

352, 366, 374, 376, 386, 390, 408, 410, 418, 428, 432, 450, 486, 

488, 496, 500, 506, 508, 520, 522, 530. 
Magenta-crimson, 78, 96, 366, 454. 468. 
Magenta-pink, 80, 92, 116, 162, 166, 218, 220, 230, 244, 264, 288, 

342- 352, 388, 452. 
Maroon, 40, 224, 250. 

Orange, 10, 58, 64, 254, 338, 366, 418, 526. 
Orange-yellow, 52, 84, 88, 336, 382, 516 

Pink, 6, 20, 28, 40, 42, 56, 60, 106, 108, 114, 118, 122, 126, 136, 162, 
188, 190, 204, 206, 210, 212, 264, 266, 320, 326, 330, 332, 334, 

336, 340. 342, 348, 354. 356, 364. 370, 374. 400. 442, 448, 450. 

452, 468, 500. 



COLORS. 



Purple, 82, 92, 130, 214, 220, 222, 226, 266, 278, 2S0, 282, 284, 310, 
338. 350, 374. 382, 384, 3S6, 390, 392, 394, 398, 400, 402, 406, 
410,412,418, 422, 430, 436, 456,458,470, 484,486, 488,492. 
494, 496, 498, 534- 

Purple-black 44, 304, 446. 

Purple-brown, 10, 70, 194, 302. 

Purple-red, 14, 176, 190, "24. 

Red, 152, 176, 180, 270, 292, 326, 328, 330, 336, 400, 450, 462. 

Ruby Red, 30, 32, 192. 304. 412. 

Scarlet, 10, 42, 48, 52, 146, 196, 266, 318, 350, 398, 430, 446, 448, 
452. 

Ultramarine Blue, 20, 148, 362, 384. 

Violet, 64, 122, 148, 20S, 210, 222, 238, 276, 278, 282, 358, 374, 
376, 378, 382, 384, 386, 388, 396, 398, 400, 402, 404, 40ft, 412, 
416, 424, 454, 458, 460, 462, 464, 470, 486, 490, 494, 496, 500. 

Violet-blue, 18, 20, 22, 62, 64, 66, 148, 276, 356, 358, 360, 488, 524. 

White, 4, 6, 8, 12, 22, 26, 30, 32, 34. 4°. 42, 46, 54. 56, 60, 64, 82, 84, 
88, 90, 94, 96, IT4, 118, 120, 122, 124, 126, 132, 134, 136, 146, 
150, 152, 154, 156, 160, 162, 166, 168, 170, 174, 178, 180, 182, 
184, 186, 192, 196, 200, 222, 232, 234, 242, 246, 248, 262, 264, 
266, 276, 278, 280, 282, 284, 294, 296, 300, 302, 304, 306, 308, 
310, 312, 314, 316, 322, 324, 326, 328, 330, 332, 334. 340. 344. 
348, 350. 354. 370, 372, 374. 376, 378, 380, 384, 388, 390, 394. 
396,400,402,406, 408, 412, 414,416,420,422, 426,432, 438, 
440,442,444,446,448, 450,452, 454, 460, 462,464, 466,468, 
470,484,486,490,492,494, 496, 498, 502,504, 514,516, 518, 
520, 530, 534. 

Yellow, 18, 38, 50, 58, 60, 114. 138, 140, 142, 158. 170, 172, 174. 
186, 194, 198, 200, 202, 208, 216, 228, 236, 238, 256, 266, 268, 
274, 282, 292, 296, 298, 300, 304, 344, 346, 362, 390, 414, 416, 
418, 426, 428, 430, 432, 434. 436, 442. 450, 452, 478, 496, 506, 
510, 512, 514, 518, 520, 526, 528, 532, 5 34- 

Yellow, Deep, 140, 142, 144, 158, 268, 504. 



xn 




Junoniacoenia. 

tii-sjt^- I rapilio astepias. 

BUTTERFLIES 
CONCERNED IN THE CROSS-FERTILIZATION OF FLOWERS, 
xiii 



The Bumblebees. Various. The Syrphid Flies. 

W 





Bombus vaqans. ^'"^ '^•^"'f"^" 



The Honeybee. Eristalis flavipes. 





SyrpusLesueurii. 



Bombus tepnapius 

^ ^ Bombylius fratellus. v^'/^X 

k^f^ (These two flies much enlarged) Af 




Polydontacardus. 



Bon,bu3rHg,du. B„mb^,,„,,t,,,^p^ 





::^^6 




„ J. liegachile latimana. 

bombus Virginicus (Leaf-cutter bee) 



Helophilus similis. 




':W\ 



Bombus terricola. 



Hal ictus confusus. /.|jgj|^\ 

Tlallota posticata. 





And 



nena vicina. 



\i»/ 



<:^^C^ 



Halfc1:u5 S'AncIrena W rrri 

are ground bees. ▼ 121) 

Bombus Pennsylvanicua Syrpus diverslpes. 



BUMBLEBEES. BEES, AND FLIES CONCERNED IN THE 
CROSS-FERTILIZATION OF FLOWERS. 
xiv 



INTRODUCTION. 

Perhaps it is not too much to say that the wild flower 
of late has become popular. If such is the case I am 
presumably justified in presenting it in a new light, or, 
to speak more to the point, in the position it occu- 
pies according to the light of one who loves to draw it. 

Quite recently, in a conversation about art with Mr. 
Fosdick, the artist, he remarked to me that those who 
followed our profession were legitimately and continu- 
ally seeking after expression regardless of limitation. I 
have since thought this was a very happy truth. Per- 
haps, therefore, it is sufficient to account for the exist- 
ence of a volume on our American flora, fully one half 
of which is pictures. 

This is a field-book of wild flowers ; it originated in 
the fields and it is intended to go back there, I trust, in 
the hand of its good reader. Of course, not all of it was 
written on sunny meadow and in shady wood, nor were 
all of its illustrations made at once from specimens gath- 
ered during various botanical rambles ; but, in the truest 
sense of the word, nearly all of the book is a direct 
result of field work, ranging from New Hampshire to 
Virginia. 

Not many years ago, my highly esteemed friend, the 
late William Hamilton Gibson, in the course of an ad- 
dress he was delivering before the Society of American 
Florists, said that some day he hoped to write a botany 
in plain English. It is unnecessary to add that if he 
had lived to do so, in all probability he would have con- 
tributed as much to our happiness as the father of 
American botany. Dr. Asa Gray. Undoubtedly he felt, 
as the rest of us have felt, the great need of simple, un- 
technical English in direct connection wdth botany. 
But there are difiiculties to face in even a modest at- 
tempt to avoid bothersome technicalities. We must 
XV 



INTRODUCTION. 

necessarily retain the Latin names and surrender the 
advantage of those direct, crisp terms which express 
volumes to students who understand them and nothing at 
all to others who do not. On the other hand, we can re- 
sort to the drawing, which often expresses more at the 
glance of the eye than the best turned phrase, technical 
or otherwise ; so with plain English and the plainer 
drawing, one ought to be able to identify a plant with- 
out great difficulty. 

To be sure, one is continually running into " snags" ; 
it is not all plain sailing even for the botanist. 
Rules are all very well in their way, but unfortunately 
Nature abides by them only when it suits her conven- 
ience. There are hybrids and extreme forms galore ; 
there are puzzling groups, difficult families, and differ- 
ences of expert opinion ; in fact there are so many prob- 
lems for one to solve that the very interest in botany lies 
in their solution. The roses seem to be indifferently sep- 
arated. The genus Polygonum is simple only to one wdio 
is satisfied to know about three species. The Epilohiuma 
are not all easily distinguished apart. Sisyrlnchium, 
that beautiful little blue-eyed grass, shows signs of com- 
plications relative to species which prove that it is not 
as simple as it looks. PentsteDion occasionally puzzles 
one by taking a half-way form. Sagittaria, the genius 
of the sluggish river, tries to be everything it ought not 
to be in leaf and flower, so Mr. J. G. Smith settles the 
matter by calling the forms a, b, c, d, etc. Even the 
dandelion and the strawberry have lost their simplicity, 
and now each poses as one of two very distinct species. 
Then there is Lactuca — what a puzzler ! Anyone who 
knows Lactuca despairs about its leaves ; a third of the 
way up the plant-stem they represent one species, half- 
way up they represent another, and at the finish the 
flowers take up the disagreement where the leaves leave 
off, and declare for a third. I have known one plant, 
Lactuca Canadensis, to look like three things all at once ! 
When one reaches the mints, whatever trouble existed 
before seems child's play ; here is an order of plants 
which was apparently created for the express purpose of 
convincing the amateur that he can never master botany. 



INTRODUCTION. 

What is particularly hard, too, is the fact that the bot- 
anists have apparently shaken the names up in a bag 
and sorted them out afresh. 

Regarding that bugbear of the botanical student, no- 
menclature, it may be well to make a plain statement 
of the facts of the case. Neither the older system of 
plant arrangement according to Dr. Gray nor some of 
his names can remain as they have been. At present 
the botanists prefer the system of Engler and Prantl. It 
certainly shows more distinctly the character of devel- 
opment in plant form by placing Typhace^ first and 
COMPOSITJE last, not to speak of the satisfactory charac- 
ter of the arrangements in between. As for names, few, 
after all, of Dr. Gray's choosing are to be displaced. 
His successors are now engaged with such revision as is 
really necessary. Through the courtesy of Mr. Merritt 
L. Fernald I am able to adopt most of these names, and 
the extreme care with which the system they represent 
has been worked out inclines me to believe it will be ulti- 
mately and universally accepted. 

At the present time there is no international agreement 
regarding nomenclature by the scientists of the new 
and the old world. From what I know of the so-called 
Rochester Code, I should say it is a disturbing influence 
among already agitated conditions, and its lack of con- 
sistency does not entitle it to unreserved acceptance. 
Perhaps its instability is more clearly attested by the 
two articles from Mr. Fernald's pen which appeared in 
the Botanical Gazette, vol. 31, March, 1901, and vol. 32, 
Nov., 1901, and by the action long since of most of our 
eminent botanists, who have published a signed protest 
against it. 

In reference to the color names used in this book it 
would be advisable to concisely explain the principle 
upon which they are based. There is always one unfail- 
ing source where one may obtain color properly labeled ; 
that is at the color dealer's. Perhaps I must modify 
this statement and say most generally properly labeled. 
It is upon a purely scientific basis that the flowers are 
given their proper color names ; this is the list in simple 
form : 



INTRODUCTION. 



Pure yellow Pure pink Violet 

Deep yellow Crimson Blue-violet 

Golden yellow Crimson-pink Ultramarine 

Pure orange Magenta Pure blue 

Scarlet Magenta-pink Madder purple 

Pure red Pure purple Madder brown 

Beyond various modifications of these hues there are no 
color names of any value whatever in relation to the 
wild flower. We have in the color dealer's catalogue 
numerous conditions of these hues indicated by standard 
names : there is Naples yellow, a dilute form of golden 
yellow ; crimson lake, a subdued rendering of crimson ; 
and vermilion, which is a synonym for scarlet. These 
are standard colors which have never varied, and which 
will probably last with many others as long as painting 
does. 

In botanical and ornithological works we find such 
color names as fuscous, rufous, vinaceous, ferruginous, 
rose-purple, greenish purple, etc.; they mean nothing at 
all to one who is not a scientist, and I half suspect they 
mean but little to one who is. Purple (botanically 
speaking) is a dreadfully abused term which is made to 
stand for half the rainbow ; it means anything from 
crimson to violet. As an actual fact it is fairly repre- 
sented by Mimulus ringens, and one jot to tlie right or 
left of that hue is not purple. Pure yellow is perfectly 
represented by CEnotliera biennis, and no tint to the 
right or left of that is a true yellow. Slagenta is a 
crimson-purple ; the list of flowers which represent it 
is too long to give here. Blue in its pure form only 
exists (dilutely) in Myosotis. But I find that if I disturb 
all the botanists' color names I may complicate matters 
and add to the confusion which already exists in plant 
names, so I am content to let Ranunculus stand in plain 
yellow, although the color is not pure yellow, and it 
ranges through eight distinct deep or golden tones. In 
many other instances, also, I have refrained from mak- 
ing a change, although I am compelled to draw the 
line at rose-purple, and call it by its proper title, light 
magenta. 



INTRODUCTION. 

I have found myself indebted to many authors of 
botanical lists for the information I give regarding the 
distribution of plants, and I have had frequently to 
congratulate myself upon the possession of that excel- 
lent work, Brainerd, Jones, and Eggleston's Flora of 
Vermont. But it seems as though I am most indebted, 
for many things, to the late gifted Dr. E. Newlin Wil- 
liams, who, while this book was going to press, lost his 
life in an excursion during a bitter cold wave in Febru- 
ary among the White Hills we both loved so well. He 
would have made his mark as a botanist if he had chosen 
that profession, and he was more than well informed in 
many other departments of knowledge. Not long ago 
we trudged together on a botanical excursion over the 
slopes of Mt. Washington, and I found myself depend- 
ing upon him for the identification of many an alpine 
species ; he knew them all at a glance, and their whole 
history as well. From him I received the specimen of 
Belamcanda which is drawn here, together with much 
information regarding the flora of eastern Pennsylvania. 
I had looked forward to the time when I should place 
this book in his hands and say, " Here is one of the re- 
sults of our pleasant mountain rambles together." 

I am also indebted to others for help in the writing of 
this volume. I soon found my " wild garden " a field of 
work too narrow to enable me to record all that might 
be recorded regarding the visitations of insects ; hence I 
was glad to turn to those remarkable essays on the sub- 
ject by Prof. Charles Robertson which appeared in the 
Botanical Gazette. Then, too, by the courtesy of Dr. 
Robinson, Curator of the Gray Herbarium, practically 
the whole magnificent collection of valuable specimens 
and the splendid library have been open to me for 
reference. 

One must alwa3's ask for the indulgence of the reader 
and apologize if mistakes appear, but if they do it will 
be in spite of great vigilance. Again, much of the de- 
scriptive text may seem somewhat bald and brief through 
the effort to sustain the portable character of the book ; 
thus the brilliant and extensive Composite family suf- 
fers for want of elbow-room. But, on the whole, I con- 



INTRODUCTION. 



sidered that we all know that family best of all, and we 
would be glad to give it all the room it needed on our 
highways, if not in our book, which must fit the narrow 
limits of our pocket at all hazards. 



F. Schuyler Mathews. 



Boston, Mass., 

March, 1903. 



FIELD BOOK OF AMERICAN WILD 
FLOWERS. 



CAT»TAIL FAMILY. Typhacese. 



CAT-TAIL FAMILY. Typhacece. 

Perennial marsh herbs with stemless, ribbonUke leaves, 
and with flowers of two kinds, staminate and pistillate 
on the same plant, lacking petals or flower-cup. Natu- 
rally not dependent upon insects for fertilization. 
Cat=tail The light olive green leaves usually exceed 

Tyjiha latifoUa the flower-stem in height. The upper half 
Yellow=brown of the cylindrical flower-spike consists of 
June-July ^j^^ stamens, and the lower half of the pis- 
tils ; the abundant, yellow, powdery pollen of the 
staminate flowers scattering itself over the pistillate 
flowers below, fertilizes them. 

It is the compact down of the bractless pistillate flowers 
tipped with red-brown that forms the familiar cat-tail 
of August and September. At that time only a few 
lingering remnants of the staminate flowers remain on 
the withering tip of the stem above. The completely 
developed cat-tail measures fully 1 inch in diameter. 
In June it is important to note that the two kinds of 
flowers are not appreciably separated by a gap as in the 
next species described. The color of the staminate flow- 
ers is a variable olive yellow-brown, or brownish yellow, 
according to age. 

Typha is the Greek Tvq)?j, meaning fen or bog, and 
latifolia refers to the broader leaf of this species. The 
plant is 4-8 feet high, and is common in swamps every- 
where. 

The slenderer species known specificallj^ as 
leaved Cat=taii u^^QustifoUa, that is, narrow-leaved, is re- 
Typha angusti- markable for the distinct and considerable 
foUa separation, on the stem, of the two groups 

Yenow=brown ^^ flowers ; this is usual, but not without 
exception. The structure of the pistillate 
flowers is also different from that of the same flowers on 
Typha latifolia ; under a glass it wdll be seen that they 
possess a hairlike bractlet slightly swollen at the top. 
This cat-tail is narrow, rarely measuring over | inch in 
diameter. The plant is 4-9 feet high, and grows, not 
invariably, near the coast from Me., south; it is some- 
times found as far west as Mich, and Mo. ; it is common 




Cat-taiilJ 
Typhci Idiifolia^ 



Ndprow-leaved Cat-ta.il. 
Typha angustifolium. 



BUR REED FAMILY. Sparganiacese. 

in Nantucket, and along the N. J. coast, and is reported 
at Mt. Equinox, Yt., by Miss Mary A. Day. 

BUR REED FAMILY. Sjxtrgauiacece. 

Marsh herbs with flowers arranged like tliose of Typha 
but collected in separate spherical heads. Largely self- 
fertilizing, but assisted in the process by aquatic insects 
and flies. 

Great Bur Reed "^^^^ deep green leaves are similar to those 
Sparganium of the foregoing species and are about | 
eurycarpum inch wide. The downy flowers are in 
Brown= white ^jense round heads scattered along the top 

ay- ugus ^^^ ^j_^^ stem, and like those of the cat-tails 
consist of the two kinds, staminate and pistillate, abso- 
lutely separated. The green fruit is a burlike sphere 
composed of nutlets wedge-shaped below, and flattened 
above with an abrupt point in the centre, so that the 
general appearance of its surface is not unlike that of 
the pineapple. The name is froin 67tdpyayoy, a band, in 
allusion to the ribbonlike leaves. The plant is 3-7 feet 
high, and is common on the borders of ponds and rivers 
from Me. , south to Va. , and west. 

This is a much smaller species wdth nar- 
Smaller Bur , n • i . 

I^ggj rower leaves, and a simple stem and row 

Sparganium of flower-heads. The green fruit is about 
simplex 3 j^^}^ jj^ diameter, with a decidedly bur- 

Brown=white j^j^^ appearance, the nutlets tapering to a 
June-August • . .-i i j ^i 

point at either end, and the upper point 

being much longer than that of the fruit in the preced- 
ing species. The plant is 1-2 feet high, and is generally 
in the w^ater, erect or sometimes afloat ; it is found from 
Me. to N. J., and west to Minn. 

This familiar variety, wdiich is common 
Branching in all bogs, is larger than the foregoing 

Bur Reed in many respects, and it is distinguished 

Sparganium f^^. j^-j^ branching and somewhat angular 
androcladum „ ^ j_-i -i li_ . - - 1 

Bro n= hite nower-stem ; the latter grows out at the 

June-August point where the leaf is joined with the 
plant-stem. The plant is 1-2 feet high, 
and is distributed from Me., -south, and west to Minn. 
The sparganiums are all peculiarly decorative plants. 

4 




Great Bur Reed. Sparganium simplex. Branching BurReed 
Sp^pgainium eurycarpum. Sparganium andpocladum 



WATER PLANTAIN FAMILY. Alismacex. 



WATER PLANTAIN FAMILY. Alismacecc. 

Marsh herbs with long-stemmed leaves, and flowers of 
three orders, thus : 

1. With stamens and pistil, 2. Staminate and pistil- 
late growing on one plant, 3. Staminate and pistillate 
growing on different plants. The flowers have three 
conspicuous petals and generally six stamens ; they are 
visited by numerous insects which undoubtedly assist in 
the process of fertilization. 

The leaves, all from the root, are olive 
■ilismaPian gi'^en, strongly veined, and elliptical but 
fa go very variable in shape,' broader or longer, 

White or pale and sometimes heart-shaped at the base. 
P'"*^ The flower-stem is tall and symmetrically 

u y- ep em= branched, displaying the three-petaled, 
very small white or rarel}^ delicate pink 
flowers to great advantage. The flowers are perfect, 
with six stamens and a pistil ; they are possibly self-fer- 
tilized, but more probably cross-fertilized by the beelike 
drone-flies (Sjjr2)hidce), all pollen-eaters and honey- 
drinkers. The plant is 1-3 feet high, and is found in the 
shallow water of ponds and sluggish streams every- 
where. The name, which is of uncertain Greek origin, 
is supposed to refer to the occurrence of the species in 
salt marshes. 

This genus is remarkable for its mani- 
Arrowhead _ ,, . . , ... ,, , 

Saaittaria vari-^^^'^ variations; hence it IS called varia- 
abilis bills. Sagittaria is derived from the Latin 

White sagitta, an arrow, referring to the shape 

July-Septem= ^^ ^Y\e leaves. There are fourteen native 
species recorded by Britton and Brown, 
and over twenty by Jared G. Smith, w^iile Gray recog- 
nizes but seven. However, until botanists arrive at a 
united opinion regarding this group, it will be a safe 
and therefore preferable course to accept the fewer 
species recognized by Gray. It is an unreliable method 
of procedure to rely upon leaf character for the founda- 
tion of a species, and unfortunately this has a great deal 
to do with the separation of Sagittaria into many spe- 
cies or groups. The particular species called variabilis 
6 




Arrowhead. 5agitta.pia latifolia. 




Walter Pls^ntavin. 



AlismeiPlAnlaigo. 



WATER PLANTAIN FAMILY. Alismaces^. 

shows, according to Gray, four variations as follows : 
var. obtusa {S. latifolia, Form a, of J. G. Smith) has 
flowers mostly of the third order above described, and 
broad, blunt-pointed leaves : var. latifolia {S. latifolia 
proper of J. G. Smith) has the second, or imperfectly the 
third order of flowers above described, and varying broad 
or narrow, acute leaves : var. angustifolia (S. latifolia, 
Form d, of J. G. Smith) has flowers of the second order, 
and leaves with narrow, divergent lobes ; found in 
mountain districts : var. cliversifolia {S. latifolia, Form 
e, of J. G. Smith) has flowers of the second order, 
and lance-shaped or broader leaves, variably arrow- 
pointed. These are mere forms, not varieties. 
Sagitfaria vari- ^ ^^^iW established type with very broad 
ahiUsysiT. ini- blunt leaves, is pubescent, or woolly- 
hescens coated, especially the flower-stem. This 

is the S. latifolia pubescens of J. G. Smith. It is found 
from Me., south, usually east of the AUeghanies. 
Sagittaria En- This is also a well established type, the 
gehnanniana flowers of which are scarcely 1 inch 
J. Q. Smith across, and the leaves remarkably narrow^ 
and linear. The fruit is a narrow wedge-shaped nutlet 
tipped with a small erect beak. Somewhat rare. Mass., 
N. Y., N. J., south. The leaves of the arrowhead are 
shiny dark green, and the three-petaled flowers are pure 
white relieved by the charming bit of golden yellow 
contributed by the large anthers. The flowers grow in 
clusters of three, the staminate ones above, and the 
pistillate below. The pollen is distributed by a variety 
of agents, not least of which are the insects which fre- 
quent wet places, among them the beautiful glassy- 
winged dragon-fly. The tendency of some of the types 
to develop only staminate flowers on one plant and pistil- 
late on another, suggests the probability that Sagittaria 
is beginning to rely entirely upon insects for fertiliza- 
tion. Remarkably decorative in every part of its struc- 
ture, the arrowhead like the cat-tail is a great favorite 
among artists. Common everywhere. The three forms 
angiisti folia, latifolia (2nd order), and obtitsa (3rd order), 
are reported in Neb. by H. J. Webber. 



8 




Narrow-leaved 



Arpowhead. 



5dgittana. variabilis var.angustiTolia. of AsaGray 
or Sagittapia latifolia form d. of J.G.Smith. 



ARUM FAMILY. Aracew. 



ARUM FAMILY. Aracece. 

Perennial herbs possessing a sharp, peppery juice, and 
with sometimes perfect, but generally only two orders 
of flowers ; i. e., 1. Staininate and pistillate on the same 
plant, 2. Staminate and pistillate on different plants. 
The flowers crowded on a club or spadix enclosed within 
a hood or spathe. Fertilization assisted by insects. 
Indian Turnip Generally with two long-stemmed, tri- 
or Jack=in=the= parted dull green leaves without a gloss, 
P"'P'* . which overshadow the hooded flower be- 
j-,}^,.ij^f,„ low at the junction of the leaf-stems. 

Purpie=brown The flowers, on the clublike spadix within 
and green the hood, are grouped at the base of the 

April-July spadix and are generally staminate and 

pistillate on separate plants, that is to say, the stamens 
are abortive on one plant and the pistils are abortive 
on another ; thus small insects (the gnat of the genus 
Mycetophila especially) are a means of fertilization, and 
frequently they may be found imprisoned in close quar- 
ters between the bases of spathe and spadix. It is pos- 
sibly developing a dependence upon insects for fertiliza- 
tion ; but often one plant develops both staminate and 
pistillate flowers. The novel and beautiful green and 
purple-brown striped spathe is variable in depth of color ; 
exposed to sunlight it is usually quite pale, while in the 
dark woods it is exceedingly purple ; as a rule the plant 
prefers the shaded, wet w^oods. The handsome cluster- 
ing berry like fruit is at first green and finally, in late 
August, brilliant scarlet. The plant attains a height of 
1-2^ feet. It is common in the w-oods in wet situations, 
everywhere. The exceedingly peppery bulb becomes 
edible after boiling. 

Green Dragon, "^^^^^ species generally has a single com- 
Dragon-root, pound leaf with seven or more obovate- 
or Dragon lance-shaped, pointed, dull green leaflets. 

Arum rpj^g long- spadix is usually composed of 

An see in a Bra- , , . t • -,, n i 

contium both staminate and pistillate flowers, and 

Dull white- it taj^ers to a slender point, reaching far 

green beyond the rolled-up, greenish, pointed 

May-June. spathe. The berries are red-orange. The 




Dragon Arum. Jdck-in-the-pulpit. 

Arisaema^Dracontium. AHsaema triphyl lum, 



ARUM FAMILY. Arace^e. 



plant is 1-3 feet high, and grows in wet w^oods or low 

grounds from Me., south, and west to Minn. 

The rich green leaves are arrow-shaped 
Arrow Aruni . , ° . ^ 

Peltandra with one prominent vein or nerve. The 

vndvlata flowers are staminate and pistillate on the 

Gf'een same plant, covering the long tapering 

May-June spadix ; the pointed green spathe, rolling 

and wavy on the margin, is 4-7 inches long. The clus- 
ter of berries is green, and is at first enclosed in a green 
sheath, the fleshy base of the spathe. The plant grows 
1-1| feet high, in shallow water, from Me. south, and 
west to Mich. It derives its name from TtiXri], a target 
or shield, and vvrjp, stamen, from the targetlike form 
of the latter. 

Water Arum ^ little swamp flower resembling the 

CaJia palustris so-called calla-lily ; the latter is, of course, 
White not a lily, and, curiously enough, not a 

''""^ true calla, it is a Richardia. The deep 

green leaves of the water arum are long-heart-shaped 
with long stems. The open and rolling edged spathe is 
white above and greenish beneath. The yellow spadix 
is entirely covered with flowers, the lower ones perfect, 
i. e., with all the parts complete, and the upper ones 
often staminate. Fertilization is assisted by insects and 
pond-snails. The berries, red and distinct, in a head like 
those of the Jack-in-the-pulpit, are ripe in August. The 
plant grows 5-10 inches high and is at home in cold 
bogs, from Me., south to Va., and west to Minn. The 
name Calla is ancient and obscure, palustris is the Latin 
name for swamp. 



12 




Appow Arum. 
Peltandpd. undulata 



Water Arum. 

Callai padustpis. 



ARUM FAMILY. Aracese. 



Sk k C bb '^ single species, of the earliest appear- 

Symplocanms ^^^^ i" spring, having a fetid odor, which 

foetidus attracts numerous insects, and a closely 

Dark purple- coiled purple-red streaked and blotched, 

red and green g-^.^ej^ leathery spathe which entraps 

March-April , i • / , m, -,. 

them to their death. The stout spadix is 

compactly set with perfect lavender-flesh-colored flowers, 
i. e. , flowers with stamens and pistil. The conspicuous an- 
thers are a grayish straw-color. The fruit is the enlarged 
and fleshy spadix enclosing round bulletlike seeds imme- 
diately beneath its surface which ripen in September. 
The name is from 6vu7i:A.oh7^, connection, and xapTtoS, 
fruit, alluding to the connection of the ovaries forming 
compound fruit. The color of the shellike spathe is not 
"without aesthetic interest ; the madder purple, green, 
and yellow-green are blended and streaked with a pecul- 
iar charm ; inside, the red is darkest. The leaves will 
at first be found in a compactly coiled, pointed spike 
close beside the ruddy spathe. Later wlien the coarse 1- 
2 feet long, cabbagelike leaves are unfolded the origin of 
the common name becomes evident. The odor of the 
flower is imitative of decaying flesh, but it is not wholly 
bad, it reminds one of the smell of a mustard plaster, 
and raw onions : the cut stem decidedly suggests the 
latter. The plant is found in swamps, beside brooks, 
and in wet glades. Common from Me., south to Ga., 
and west to Iowa and Minn. Found at Clarendon Hills, 
Mass. 



14 




SKunK Cabbage.' 



Symplocarpus fcetidus. 



ARUM FAMILY. Araceas, 



Golden Club 

Grant iuni 
aquutlcum 
Golden yellow 
April-May 



A single species, perennial and aquatic, 
whose prominent golden yellow spadix 
(the club) scarcely larger around than its 
long, snaky stem, is thickly clustered with 
the completely developed flowers of gen- 
erally six sepals, as many golden stamens, and a pistil. 
The spathe is undeveloped and removed from the spadix, 
appearing like a mere leaflet on the flower-stem. Fruit 
green and bladderlike. The long-stemmed, oblong, dark 
green leaves float upon the water. It is a beautiful 
aquatic plant whose flowers deserve close examination 
under the glass, 1-2 feet high, common in the shallows 
of ponds, from Mass., south, and generally found near 
the coast. Name from the Syrian river Orontes. 

The stiff, swordlike, light green leaves 
give the plant a rigid character. It has 
inconspicuous flowers compactl^y covering 
a tapering cylindrical spadix which grows 
angularly from the side of a two-edged stem 
resembling the flat ribbonlike leaves. The 
individual flower has a pistil, six stamens, and as many 
sepals of a dull yellow-green color. The fruit is a small 
berry, at first gelatinous and finally dry, but the plant is 
mostly propagated by its stocky roots. Name, "^^opa 5 
of unknown meaning, from Pliny. The horizontal, pun- 
gent, and pleasantly aromatic rootstalk is a familiar com- 
modity of the apothecary. There is a striped-leaved 
variety. The plant grows 1-4 feet high, or more, and is 
found beside small streams and in wet ground, from 
Me., south, and west to Minn., Iowa, and Kan. 



Calamus or 
Sweet Flag 

Acorus 
Calamus 
Yellow=green 
June-July 



i6 




i k "1 




Golden Club. 
Opontium a.qua.ticum. 



■f 



Sweet Fla^g. 
Acopus Cd^lamus. 



YELLOW-EYED GRASS FAMILY. Xyridacese. 



YELLOW-EYED GRASS FAMILY^ Xyridacece. 

Perennial herbs with narrow, grassUke leaves, and 
perfect, regular flowers, with three spreading lobes and 
a slender tube. Fertilized largely by insects. 
VeIiow=eyed ^ little swamp plant with grasslike, or 

Grass rather slender rushlike, light green leaves 

Xyrisflexuosa which twist as they grov\' old, and flowers 
Yellow about ^ inch across, of three yellow petal- 

like divisions, three stamens, and as many 
sepals, the flowers proceeding from a conelike head com- 
posed of light green leafy scales. The fruit is an oblong 
many-seeded capsule. The name is from ^Evpii an 
unknown Greek plant with two-edged leaves. The 
plant grows 6-16 inches high, in sandy bogs or morasses, 
from Me. to Minn., and south to Ga. and Tex. There 
is a mountain variety barely 1 foot high, with very 
slender leaves, which rarely twist, known as \ar. pusilla. 
It is found in bogs from the White Mts., south to the 
Pocono Mts. of Penn., and in N. J. It blooms in the 
same season. 

.. ,, . A tall species, with a slender flower- 

Carolina Yel= , ,^ ' , . , . , . 

low=eyed Grass stem, and leaves reaching nearly an mch m 

Xyris Carolini- width. The conelike head also longer 

«"« and measuring nearly f inch. It grows 

Yellow -^_2 fpg^ high, and is found in swamps 

near the coast from Mass., south to Fla. 

and La. 

SPIDERWORT FAMILY. Commelinacece. 

Herbs with jointed and often leafy branching stems, 
the leaves sheathed at the base, and generally perfect 
flowers, i. e., flowers with stamens and pistil. Cross- 
fertilization assisted by insects. 

The grass green leaves are lance-shaped, 
ay F ower ^^^ brown-sheathed at their iunction with 
Commehnah/r- , , , . i . i i 

f^ll^i the plant-stem; the sheath is hairy-edged. 

Light violet= The flowers are three-parted and irregular, 
blue that is, unequal in size, form, and struc- 

August- tural parts ; for instance, two of the blue 

petals are larger than the third. The leaf 
i8 




Yellow-eyed GraiSs. 
Xyris Carol ini ana. 



Xyris flexuosd.. 



SPIDERWORT FAMILY. Commelinaceae, 



immediately below the flowers is heart-shaped, and 
clasping, forming a hollow from which the flower-stem 
proceeds. The flowers expand only in the morning. The 
plant is erect, stout-stemmed, and grows 2-3 feet high. 
It is named for the early Dutch botanist Kaspar Comme- 
lin. Fond of damp and shady, but warm places, it dis- 
tributes itself along river banks and streams from 
southern N. J., south, and west to Mo. 
Virffinia Day This is a much commoner species in the 
Flower northeastern section of the country, and 

Com:ndina it differs from the foregoing species in the 
'^ >^^''J^>^>'^^^'^ following particulars. The leaves and 

jjl'^g stem are slenderer, the stem taller, but 

June-Septem= branching and reclining, frequently tak- 
ber ing root at the joints, and the whole plant 

is frequently slightly rough to the touch. The third 
petal is also particularly inconspicuous and abortive. 
The plant grows U-3 feet high, and is found on river 
banks or wet shaded places, from southern N. Y., south, 
and west to Neb. and Tex. 

^ .^ This species has mucilaginous, upright 

Spiderwort ^ -it,. a\- 

Tradesca ntia stems, with light green, narrow, and linear 

Virginica leaves. The flowers are regular with three 

Light vioiet= purplish ultramarine blue petals which 

'''"^ richly relieve the golden anthers with- 

May-August . , , , - i i t /. , i 

in; the latter are widely removed from the 

prominent stigma. It is unquestionably cross-fertilized 
by the earlier queen bumblebees Bombiis pennsylvani- 
cus and B. separatus, who are attracted by the plentiful 
pollen, and evidently come in contact with the exposed 
stigma before stumbling among the yellow anthers. It 
is also a familiar, old-fashioned garden flower, common 
beside the farm-houses of the north. It is named for 
John Tradescant, gardener to Charles I. of England. 
It grows 1-1^ feet high, usually in rich or moist ground, 
from Me., south, and west to the Rocky Mts. There 
are variable forms of this species, as well as another 
slenderer southern species with smaller pink flowers, 
6-12 inches high, named Tradescantia rosea. It is dis- 
tributed from Md., south, and west to Mo. There are 
garden varieties of Tradescantia also white and purple. 




Vipginisi Day Flower. /i^^^ Spiderwort. 

Commelind.Vir9iriica. ///JTrAdesca^ntia Virgirvica. 



PICKEREL WEED FAMILY. Pontederiaceas. 



PICKEREL WEED FAMILY. Pontederiacece . 

Aquatic herbs with perfect (i. e. having stamens and pis- 
til), more or less irregular flowers issuing from a spathe or 
leaflike envelop, which are mostly fertilized by insects. 

A tall plant with one blunt arrowhead- 
Pickerel Weed 

Pontederia cor- ^^laped, dark green, thick leaf, varying to 

data a very elongated triangle shape, and a 

Light vioiet= showy flower-spike about 4 inches long, 
*''"® crowded with ephemeral, violet-blue 

ber ^~ ^^ ^ " flowers which are marked with a distinct 

yellow-green spot. Immediately below 
the spike is the small spathe. Sometimes the flowers 
are white. The flower-cup is funnel-formed and six- 
divided, the upper three divisions united, and the three 
lower ones spread apart. The six stamens are three of 
them long and protruding, and three short which are 
often abortive ; the blue anthers are so placed that it is 
impossible for an insect to enter the flower-cup without 
brushing against them and detaching the pollen. The 
fruit is a bladderlike receptacle containing one seed. The 
plant is named for Giulio Pontedera, a professor of 
botany at Padua about 1730. Pickerel weed grows 1-3 
feet high, and is commonly found in the shallows of ponds 
and sluggish streams, sometimes associated with the 
arrowhead. The deer in the Adirondack region fre- 
quent the lake shores to feed upon it. 
Mud Plantain ^ small water plant with deep green, 
Heteranthera floating, round-kidney-shaped leaves on 
reniformis long stems, and 2-5 white or pale blue per- 

WhiteorbSuish fg^^jy developed flowers, which, Hke those 

of the preceding species, are exceedingly 
short-lived. The tiny flowers proceed from a spathe or 
leafy enclosure projecting from the sheathed side of a 
leaf-stem. The flower-cup show-s six nearly equal 
divisions spread above its slender tube. The plant is 
named for its unlike anthers, irfp a: different, StXvdavBrjpa 
anther ; the specific reniformis means kidney-formed, 
in allusion to the shape of the leaf. It grows about 13 
inches high, in mud or shallow water, from Conn, to 
N. J. , and west to Kan. , Neb. , and La, 

22 




Pickerel Weed. IM Mud Planta^in. 

Pontederiei corddita.. Heterdntherd peni/brmis. 



LILY FAMILY. Llliaceae. 



LILY FAMILY. Liliacece. 



Mostly perennial herbs with a flower-cup of generally 
six parts remarkable for its simplicity and beauty. 
Flowers with six stamens each of which stands before 
one of the divisions. In the case of Allium the flowers 
spring from a spathe or leafy inclosure, like the flowers 
of most of the species already described. 
Carrion Flower The light green veiny-corrugated leaves 
Smilax are mostly round-ovate and heart-shaped 

herbacea ^^ ^^i^ base, pointed at the tip, and devoid 

Mry"july **^ o^ gloss, their stems greatly varying in 
length, measuring i-3 inches ; with a ten- 
dril at either side. The long flower-stem, proceeding 
from between the tendrils, is topped by a hemispherical 
flower-cluster with spokelike stemlets. The greenish- 
yellow flowers are insignificant and putrid-odored ; they 
are staminate and pistillate on separate plants, thus show- 
ing their dependence upon insects for fertilization, par- 
ticularly upon those flies which are attracted by carrion. 
The cluster of berries is first green and finally blue-black 
with a bloom. It is, indeed, a beautiful and decorative 
vine, most unfortunate in the repellent odor of its flow- 
ers at the time of bloom. It is very variable, grows to a 
length of 4-15 feet, and frequents river banks and thickets. 
Common from the coast west to Dak. and Neb. 
Green Brier "^^^^^ slightly zigzag stem and branches, 

Smilax the latter more or less squarish, are cov- 

rotundifoUa ered with scattered prickles, and the 
Light green broadly ovate, short-stemmed, light green 
^~ " leaves are 2-3 inches long and jDointed. 

The leaf-stalk is bent upward at a right angle ; in the 
angle are the slender tendrils. The flower-stalk bears 
fewer flowers than that of the preceding species. The 
berries are blue-black. It is common in most thickets, 
and closely connects with a western form, var. quadran- 
gularis, the branches of which are quite perceptibly 
square. Common from the coast west to Minn, and 
Tex. It is a familiar vine on Long Island, N. Y., and 
at North Easton, Mass., but it is not found in the moun- 
tain region of N. H. 

24 




Carrion Flower. 
Smildx herbdcea. 



Green Brier. 
Smilax rotund ifolia. 



LILY FAMILY. Liliaceae. 



Clintonia 

Clint on ia 

horealis 

Creatn=color, 

greenish 

June-early 

July 



A handsome woodland plant w^ith from 
two to four (usually three) shiny, light 
green, large oval-oblong leaves ; a slender 
flower-stalk, about 7 inches high, bears 
from three to six cream-colored drooping 
flowers greenish on the outside. The 
flower is formed of six distinct sepals, and 
is perfect, having six stamens and a j^istil ; its form is 
lilylike and dainty. It was named for DeWitt Clinton, 
once governor of New York. It unfortunately lacks 
odor and color to make it perfectly attractive, but it is 
not without a subtle and delicate grace. The berries, 
which are ripe about the middle of August, turn a beau- 
tiful pure blue, a color devoid of any purplish tinge, and 
therefore one which is rare and remarkable in nature. 
Prussian blue mixed with a little white will exactly 
match the unique color of the Clintonia berry. The 
plant grows 6-16 inches high, and is common in the 
northern woods, especially where they are cold and 
moist. Me., south to N. C, and west to Minn. 

A far less common species, with a woolly 
umbeUata flower-stem, and flowers half the size of 

White, spotted those of the foregoing species, borne in a 
May-June thick cluster. The flowers are also very 

difl'erent in color ; they are mostly white 
speckled with madder purple, and possess a sweet odor. 
The berries are globular and black. Height 8-22 inches. 
Rich woods of the Alleghanies from N. Y. to Ga. ; not 
in New Eng. 



86 




Clintonia^ bopea^lis. 



LILY FAMILY. Uliaceas. 



Twisted Stalk 

Streptopus 

amplexifolius 

Greenish 

white 

May-July 



The leaves, strongly clasping the zigzag 
stem, are smooth and light green, with a 
whitish bloom beneath. The curly-se- 
paled, greenish flower is about h inch 
wide, and hangs by a long, crooked, 
threadlike stem from beneath the leaves. 
The flower is perfect and regular, with six lance-shaped 
sepals, and is either solitary or (rarely) in pairs. The 
name is from the Greek, for twisted, and stalk or foot. 
The usually solitary berry is red, round, and nearly | 
inch in diameter. 2-3 feet high. Cold moist woods. 
Me., west to the Eockies, and south to N. C, in the 
mountains. 

Differs from the preceding in its dull 
purple-pink flower, its leaves which are not 
whitened with a bloom beneath, but are 
altogether green and finely hairy at the 
edge, and its earlier period of bloom. 
l-2i feet high. In the same situations, 
but extending farther south to Ga., and west to Ore. 

The genus Streptopus is dependent in part upon insects 
for cross-fertilization. Some of the most frequent visit- 
ors are the bumblebees, the beelike flies Bombylius, and 
the bees of the genus Andrenidce , still, their effect upon 
the flower is mere probability. It takes much time and 
attention to make sure of the results of such insect visita- 
tions. Certainly the delicate green-white coloring of 
one species and the magenta of the other directly indi- 
cate tlie adaptation of the flowers to insect visitors. 



Streptopus 
rosens 

Dull purple- 
pink 

May-early 
July 



28 




Twisted 5ta.lk. 



Stpeptopus roseus. 



LILY FAMILY. LiUacew. 



Asparagus 

Asparagus 
officinalis 
Green=yelIow 
June 



This beautiful perennial, so well known 
as a vegetable, is not quite as familiar to 
us in its gesthetic dress. Its leaves (or prop- 
erly, its branchlets), are threadlike ; and 
it assumes a bushy, almost larchiike figure 
as it grows older, and becomes decorated with round, 
scarlet berries. The tiny green-yellow flowers are six- 
parted, and rather inconspicuous. The name is ancient. 
Adventive from the old countr}-, and a frequent escape 
from kitchen gardens everywhere. It is a favorite among 
the farmers' wives who use it decoratively in their homes ; 
certainly it is not less decorative than the florist's famous 
Asparagus pjnmofius. 

A really beautiful woodland plant slightly 
resembling Solomon's Seal, but bearing 
its Spiryealike cluster of fine white flowers 
at the tip of the stem. The light blue- 
green leaves are oblong and ovate-lance- 
shaped, taper-pointed, and with very short 
stems — hardl}' an}', in fact. The tiny flower has six 
distinct white sepals, and is perfect, with six stamens 
and a pistil. The flower cluster is pyramidal, and the 
zigzag plant-stem gracefully inclines. The berries, 
smaller than peas, are at first greenish then yellowish 
wdiite speckled with madder brown, and finally, in late 
Sejjtember, a dull ruby-red of translucent character. 
They possess an aromatic taste. A familiar plant of the 
White Mt. region The name is a diminutive of Smilax, 
without appropriate application. Common in moist 
copses and beside woodland roads. 1-3 feet high. Me., 
south to S. C. and west to Minn, and Ark. 



False Spike 
nard 

Smilacina 
racemosa 
White 
May 



30 







fdlse SplKendPd. 



SmiUcins. pa^cemosa. 



LILY FAMILY. Liliaceas, 



A much smaller species than the fore- 
going, with a very small but pretty starry 
cluster of white flowers at the tip of the 
stem. The leaves, light blue-green and 
very firm, clasp the zigzag stem. The 
flower is \ inch w^ide. The berries, which 
are few, are at first spotted and finally 
dull ruby-red. 8-16 inclies high. Moist banks and 
meadows. Me., south to N. J., and west. 

A still smaller species, with generally 
three leaves, but sometimes two or even 
four, tapering to a sheathing base ; flowers 
smaller than those of the ]3receding spe- 
cies, and the berries red like those of 
the next species. 2-6 inches high. In 
bogs or wet woods. Me., south to Penn., 
west to Mich. 

Although the resemblance of Smilacina tn'folia to 
Maianthemum Canadense (the next species described) is 
close, the differences are easily detected by a close ob- 
server. The (usually) three leaves of Smilacina trifolia 
clasp the stem but are in no way heart-sliaped at the 
base. This species also has six sepals and as many 
stamens, and the whole plant is invariabls^ smooth, not 
fine-hairy as is sometimes the case with the next species. . 
The berries of Smilacina and Maianthemum are closely 
similar, but those of Smilacina steUata are in a measure 
harder, more opaque than any of the others, and cer- 
tainly not blackish, as described in Gray's Manual, 6tli 
Edition, but dull red. 



False Solo= 
mon's Seal 

Smilacina 

stellata 

White 

May-early 

June 



Three=leaved 
False Solo= 
mon's Seal 

Smilacina 

trifolia 

White 

May-early 

June 




False Solomon's Sea.!. 
5milAcina< stellata.. 



Smilacina trifolia. 



LILY FAMILY. LiUacese. 



Canada 
Mayflower 

Maianthemum 
Canadense 
White 
May-June 



A tiny woodland plant resembling Smila- 
cina irifolia, with small white flowers 
which differ from those of the genus Smi- 
lacina in having only four sepals and as 
many stamens. It has two to three light 
green, shiny leaves which are ovate-lance- 
shaped or broader, with a somewhat heart-shaped ba^e. 
The berries are yellow- white, spotted with madder brown, 
until early fall when they turn a dull translucent ruby- 
red. 

A familiar plant in tlie woods of the White Mts. ; gen- 
erally in moist places. 3-G inches high. The name is 
from Mains, May, and dvOs/nov, flower. Me., west to 
Minn, and Iowa, south to N. Car. 

This is the only one true species, familiar 
in cultivation. It has two oblong leaves, 
shiny and smooth, and a slender stalk 
bearing a one-sided row of tiny white 
flowers, extremely sweet-scented and 
dainty. Flower-cup bell-shaped, with six 
lobes recurved, and six stamens. It is ap- 
parently cross-fertilized by bees who collect the pollen, 
as there is little or no honey at the base of the bell ; in 
the absence of insects it is self-fertilized (Hildebrand). 
Berry red. The name is from the Latin convallis, valley, 
and the Greek for lily. Identical with the European 
flower of the gardens, it also grows on the higher 
Alleghanies, from Va. to S. Car. 



Lily of tlie 
Valley 

Convallaria 

majalis 

White 

May-early 

June 



34 




Canada Mayflowen Lily of the Valley 

Maianthemum Canadense. Convallaria majalis. 



LILY FAMILY. Liliacese, 



The pendulous position of the flowers of this genus, is 
in a great measure protective ; the wind and weather can 
not injure or uselessly scatter the pollen. The flowers, 
moreover, have short styles and long anthers, and are 
unquestionably cross-fertilized by the larger bees ; the 
bumblebees Bombiis vagans, and Bomhus peiinsylvanictis 
are common visitors, together with innumerable small 
insects. 

. ^ . The oblong-ovate, light green leaves 
Solomon's Seal . o i , • ^ , , 

Polygonatum smooth or nnely hany and paler beneath, 
biflornm arranged alternately either side of the 

Pale green slender, smooth stem ; the cylindrical and 

April-June tassellike perfect flowers (each having six 
stamens) depend in clusters of two, rarely three, below 
them. An extremely pretty and graceful plant when 
under cultivation. The fruit, at first a green berry with 
a whitish bloom, at last becomes blue-black and resembles 
a small Concord grape ; it imparts an additionally decora- 
tive appearance to the plant. 1-3 feet high. Common 
in thickets beside woodlands, and on hillsides. Me., 
south, and west to E. Kan., Neb., and Tex, 

The plant is taller and smooth, without 
Solomon's Seal ^^^® ^^® hairiness. Leaves ovate, pointed, 
Polygonatum and partly clasping the plant-stem, 3-8 
giganieum inches long, and many-ribbed. Flowers 

Pale Green jj-^ clusters of from two to eight. Stem 

ay-ear y stout and round. 2-8 feet high. Meadows 

and river banks. Me., south to Va., and 
west to the Rocky Mts. 



36 




Solomon's Seal. 



Pol^^gona^tum biflorum. 



LILY FAMILY. Liliaceas. 



Bellwort "^ graceful woodland plant, smooth 

Uvular ia per- throughout, with a forking stem (one to 
foUata three leaves below the fork), the deep 

Pale corn green ovate-lance-shaped leaves appearing 

na"-7une '^^ ^^ perforated by it. The delicately fra- 

grant flower-cup, granular-rough inside, 
is attenuated but lilylike, with six distinct pale corn 
yellow sepals. Flowers perfect, with six short stamens 
and a pistil. Sepals with a deep honey -bearing groove 
within ridged on either edge. 

Seed pod a three-parted capsule, appearing as if 
chopped off at the end, and in this respect entirely dif- 
ferent from that of the Oakesia following. Name from 
uvula, palate, referring to the way the flower hangs. 
It grows 6-18 inches high, in rich woods, from Me. to 
the Dakotas, and south. 

This is the commoner bellwort from 
Large=ilowered 
Bellwort western New Eng., west and south. 

Uvular ia gran- The deep green leaves are flue- white- 

di flora hairy beneath ; the large pale, corn yellow 

a e corn flower, inclining to green, at the summit, 

yellow ' o o 7 

April-June ^^ f'^^^y li inches long, and smooth inside. 

Stem with a single leaf or none below the 
fork. A more limited distribution, south to Ga. and west 
to Minn., Iowa, and S. Dak. 

^ , . Similar in some respects to the foregoing 

Oakesia sessili- g^^^^s, but with marked differences. Stem 
folia angled. The deep green leaves, fine-hairy 

Corn or cream beneath, conspicuously three - grooved, 
yellow sharp-pointed, and stemless, or slightly 

May-June '-. t • ■ ^ .1 4i 

clasping, I he six divisions ot the flower 

less pointed, no ridges within the flow^er-cup, the latter 
more buffish cream-colored, but still near corn yellow. 
The seed capsule three-sided, resembling a beech nut. The 
one or two flowers on slender stems, at first terminating 
the plant stem, but finally appearing opposite the leaves 
by reason of the growth of the branches. Named for 
William Oakes, an early botanist of New England. 

Stem 6-13 inches liigh. It is very common in the 
north woods. Me., south to Ga., and west to Minn, and 



38 




1 #?#n't'.''^ 



,'il: m-'^' A 








LaiPge-flowered Bellwort. 
Uvularid gpAncliflord. 



Odkesia 

sessillfoliac 



LILY FAMILY. Liliaceae. 



Ark. Uvnlaria and Oakesia are both slender drooping- 

leaved plants, early in the season at the time of bloom ; 

later they expand to a broader figure. 

^ .... The trilliums are handsome woodland 
Stemless Trilli= , , . , 

um,orWake= P'^^i^ts With stoiit stems, ruddy i^urple at 

robin the base ; their perfect flowers have three 

TrUlium sessile green sepals which remain until the plant 
Dull magenta= withers, three petals much larger, and six 
April-May stamens. T. sessile has stemless, slightly 

fragrant flowers with narrow petals and 
sepals, the former rather erect and spreading, dull ma- 
genta-red, varying to a greenish tone. Leaves stemless, 
somewhat four-sided but ovate, and often blotched with 
lighter and darker green. Red berry spherical or nearly 
so, I inch deep. The name is from triplum, triple, a 
characteristic of all parts of the plant. 5-10 inches high. 
Moist woods. Penn., south, and west to Minn, and Ark. 

„ .„. Differs from the preceding in the fol- 

TriUmm , . . , r,,, , 

recurvatum lowing particulars. The leaves are nar- 
rowed at the base into a stem, and the 
flower has reflexed sepals, and pointed petals narrowed 
at the base. 6-16 inches high. Rich woods. Ohio and 
west. 

A very common eastern species, w^th 
Birth root ' four-sided ovate leaves scarcely stemmed, 
Trillium erec- and abruptly pointed, and flowers, with a 
turn reclining stem, vaiying in color from white 

Maroon, or ^^ pink, brownish purple-red or maroon, 
white, etc. -l, r,\ ^ ,. ^ , , 

April-June with flat, ovate, spreading petals nearly 

1| inches long, the sepals a trifle shorter. 
Sometimes the flower is dull pink, of a brownish purple 
tone, and rarely it is greenish. It is ill-scented, and as a 
consequence attracts the carrion-loving green fly (Lucilia 
carnicina), commonly called the flesh-fly, who finds the 
raw-meat color of the fiower as acceptable as the odor. 
According to Clarence M. Weed this fly is the most use- 
ful pollen disseminator of Trillium erectum. Berry 
darker red, round-ovate. 7-15 inches high. Rich 
woods. New Eng. to N. C. , west to Minn, and Mo. 



40 










Xi-, 



K^kj^M- ■ \ 




Berry of 
" undulatum 



Painted Trillium. 
Trillium unduldtum. 



LILY FAMILY. Liliaceae. 



Large Flower= ^^ handsome, large - flowered species 
ing Trillium flowering later, and cultivated by the 
Trillium grandi- florists. The waxy- white petals li-2 inches 
florum long, larger than the sepals, curve grace- 

Ma '-June ^^^^^^ backward, and, as they grow older, 

turn pink. 10-18 inches high. The red 
berry fully 1 inch long. Rich woods. Vt. to N. C, west 
to Minn, and Mo. 

^, ^^. Leaves almost stemless and broadly 

Nodding n • 1 1 

Trillium lour-sided ovate. Flower with white or 

Trillium pinkish wavy petals f inch long, and with 

cernuum a short stem recurved so that the blossom 

White jg often hidden beneath the leaves. 8-14 

April-June . , ■, . ■, -.^ . 

inches high. Moist woods. New Eng. to 

Minn., south to Ga. and Mo. 

A very small species with ovate leaves, 

Trillium ^~^ inches long, and flowers whose white 

Trillium nivale petals, less than 1 inch long, are scarcely 

White wavy. Berry red, about | inch in diame- 

March-May ^^^.^ flattened and spherical, with three 

rounded divisions. A dwarf plant 2-5 inches high. Rich 

w^oods. Pa. and Ky. to Minn, and Iowa. 

One of the most beautiful of the genus, 
Painted . • ^i • i, ,i j 

Trillium ^^^^^ very common in the rich woodlands 

Trillium un- of the north. Leaves ovate and tapering 
duiatum to a sharp point. Green sepals quite nar- 

^,*^'*^' . row, and the gracefully recurved, wavy- 
May-June ^^^^ edged white petals strongly marked with 
a crimson V deep or pale, as the case may 
be; it is never p?/?pZe. The dark scarlet ovate berry f 
inch long, ripe in September, and falling at a touch. 
8-16 inches high. Cold damp woods and beside wood- 
land brooks. New Eng. to Ga., west to Minn, and Mo. 



43 



p 



^1 



"^m 



i 



m 



Large FlowepingTrillium. Trillium gp&ndiflorum. 




NoddingTrillium 
Trillium cernuum, 



Dwarf White Trillium. 
Trillium nivale. 



LILY FAMILY. Liliaceas. 



The only species, the thin, circUng, long- 
Cucumber ovate, light green leaves of which are 
Medeola Vir- arranged around the middle, and the three 
ginica ovate ones around the top of the thin 
Green and stem. The inconspicuous nodding, but 
terra=cotta ^^ ^ a • p • i -i 
May-June pertect flower is | inch wide, green, and 

accented by the reddish terra-cotta color 
of the six stamens, and the three long, recurved terra- 
cotta brown stigmas, i. e., the three divisions of the 
tip of the pistil ; the three petals and three sepals are 
also recurved. In September about two or three purple- 
black berries replace the flowers at the apex of the plant. 
Named for the sorceress Medea on account of its sup- 
posed medicinal virtue. The common name alludes to 
the succulent, horizontal, white tuberous root which 
tastes like cucumber, and was in all probability relished 
by the Indians. 1-3 feet high. Rich damp woods. Me., 
west to Minn. , and south . 

Medeola Virginica is a characteristic woodland plant, 
common in the White Mountain woods. It is adapted 
to subdued sunlight, and is interesting in both flower 
and fruit. The blossoms, often beneath the three uppei 
leaves, are thus protected from the dripping of the trees 
in wet weather ; their colors are aesthetic. Crawling 
insects cannot easily mount the (at first) woolly stem and 
rob the flower of its pollen, flying insects readily find 
the blossom, and in September the three crowning leaf- 
lets beneath the berries are stained with dull crimson, 
the color attracting birds to the fruit. It is therefore 
evident that the plant depends in some measure upon 
visitors. 



44 




Indian Cucumber. Medeola Virgin ica.. 



LILY FAMILY. Liliaceae. 



Blazing Star, The stem bearing light green, flat, lance- 
or Devil's Bit shaped (blunt) leaves at the base with sev- 
ChamcBlirium eral shorter, narrower ones farther up, 
CaroUnianum ^^^ terminated by a featliery spike 4-10 
June-July inches long of small, fragrant flowers, 

white with a tinting of the j^ellow stamens 
characterizing the staminate, and in conspicuous white 
the pistillate ones. It is quite dependent upon insects 
for cross-fertilization, the staminate flowers growing on 
one plant and pistillate on another ; the flower-cup has 
six narrow, spreading white sepals. The pistillate plant 
is more leafy. Fruit an oblong capsule. The name, 
which was flrst applied to a half-grown, low speci- 
men, is from j^r//a/, on the ground, and Xsiinov, lily. 
The wandlike stem 1-4 feet high. Low grounds and 
swamps, from Mass. to Ga., west to Neb. and Ark. 
Bunch Flower "^^^^ lowest leaves nearly 1 inch wide, 
Melanthium the few upper ones small, and linear or 
Virginiciun grass-shaped. Flowers polygamous, i. e., 
t^urning'broTn ^^aminate, pistillate, and perfect on 
June-August ^^^® same plant. It does not, therefore, 
rely fully upon insects for fertilization. 
Flower-cup of six separate, greenish cream yellow sepals 
turning brown witli age. Fruit, an ovoid-conical cap- 
sule, three-lobed. The name is from //f Aa:5^ black, and 
avBoi, flower, in allusion to the dark color which the 
flower assumes upon withering. The leafy, slender 
stem is 3-5 feet high. It grows in wet woods and mead- 
ows, from Conn., south to S. Car., west to Minn, and 
Tex. 

Indian Poke or A leafy perennial herb with very poison- 
American ous coarse roots, remarkable in the early 
Hellebore Stage of its development for its beautiful 
Veyatrnm P^""® yellow-green color, which becomes 
virkle darker and dull within four weeks, and 
Dull yellow- finally withers to an unsightly brown be- 
green ^^^.^ ^^^^ summer is in its prime. The 
May-June , ^ i . , 

broad ovate, claspmg leaves are scored with 

numerous ribs, and crinkled in parallel lines. The un- 
interesting large flower-spike is dull yellow-green turn- 



46 



% 

^.'>-. 



\K 




Devil's Bit. 



Chamaelirium Carol inianum. 



LILY FAMILY. Uliaceas. 



ing brownish with age ; the flowers, like those of the 
preceding genus, are jDolygamous, but small, with six 
green sepals. Capsule also like that of Melanthium. 
Name from vere, truly, and ater, dead black, in allu- 
sion to the blackening (really turning brown) of the 
plant upon withering. The plant is poisonous in all 
parts for sheep and cattle. It grows 2-7 feet high, in 
wet meadows and low grounds, everywhere. 
Stout Stem leafy, stout and erect, with grass- 

Stenanthium like leaves. Flower-spike sometimes 2 feet 
Stenanthium long; the flowers are also polygamous. 
robnstum Flower-cup whitish green or white with 

White or green t , , n , 

July-August ^^^ narrow spreadmg lance-shaped sepals, 

i inch long. Leaves grasslike. Fruit 
capsule pointed long-ovate. The name is from drsvoi, 
narrow, and avOoi, flower, alluding to the slender sepals 
and flower-cluster. 3-5 feet high. Penn. to S. C, west 
to Ohio and Tenn. 

The lily group is distinguished for its handsome bell- 
shaped flowers, of six distinct spreading sepals with a 
honey-bearing groove at the base of each. Flowers per- 
fect with six prominent stamens, and a long pistil the 
tip of which is a three-lobed stigma. Fruit an oblong 
capsule containing many flat seeds. The bulb scaly. 
The name Latinized from the Greek Xeipiov. 

The most beautifully colored wild lily 
Wood Lily or -^i k • w i ^ ^ 

Wild Orange= ^^ ^^^' ^^'^^^ bright green leafy stems, 
Red Lily flovver-cup opening upward, and the six 

Liliuia sepal divisions narrowing to a stemlike 

PhihuMphicum sienderness toward the base. The color 
Orange=8carlet • n ^ t. ^ i 4- 

jy, varynig from orange-scarlet to scarlet- 

orange or paler, and spotted with purple- 
brown on the inner part of the cup. The sepals do not 
recurve. From one to three flowers are borne at the 
branching summit of the plant-stem. A small form 
common in Nantucket bears a single lighter-colored 
flower. 1-3 feet high. Dry and sandy soil, common in 
the borders of thin woods. Me. to N. C. , west to Minn, 
and Mo. 



48 




Wood Lily. 



Lilium Philadelphicum. 



LILY FAMILY. Liliacese. 



Yellow The common lily of the north, found 

Meadow Lily most often upon low meadows. The stem 
or Canada Lily j^ slender or stout, very light green and 
Canadense smootli, and bears the light green lance- 

Buff yellow shaped leaves in circles. The stem divides 
spotted into several branches (really flower-stems) 

June'ju'i'^**'^" each of which bears a pendulous flower, 
buff yellow on the outside, and a deeper 
orange-bufi' spotted purple-brown on the inside. The 
nectar is protected from the rain by the pendulous posi- 
tion of the flower-cup ; it is gathered mostly by the 
wild honey-bee, and the leaf-cutter hee (Mega chile), who 
visit the flower to gather the brown pollen as well. 
These insects are therefore the most potent means of 
fertilizing this lil}'. It grows 2-5 feet high, and fre- 
quents moist meadows and copses, from Me., soutli to 
Ga., and west to Minn, Neb., and Mo, 

Lilium Canadense is probably the most popular wild 
lily of our range. However, it certainly does not possess 
the beauty of color that characterizes the wood lily, nor 
the subtle delicacy of the Turk's Cap ; but the graceful 
curves of its pendulous bells are unsurpassed in any wild 
or cultivated flower, and it must always command the 
greatest admiration for that matchless quality. Of the 
three wild lilies this one is also the most prodigal of its 
charms ; it is not only in the meadow, it is ever}^ where. 

As for the Carolina Lily described farther on, I am 
disposed to consider it a queMionahle variety. Until all 
botanists agree upon its right to varietal rank, it would 
be best to count it as a mere form. But as that form is 
absolutely distinct I give the lily the benefit of the doubt. 



50 




Yellow Meadow Lily. 



Li Hum Canadense. 



LILY FAMILY. Liliaceas. 



Lilium 
su2Jerbu))i 
Buff orange- 



Turk's Cap A less common, but most beautiful spe- 

Liiy cies remarkable for its completely reflexed 

petals, or rather sepals, which leave the 
handsome stamens, tipped by the brown 
yellow anthers, fully exposed to view ; the flower- 

July-early cup is thickly freckled with brown, and 

August hangs in a half-drooping position. It is 

also largely fertilized by bees, but is frequently visited 
by the monarch butterfly {Anosia pJexippus) of a tawny 
and black color, whose favorite plant is the common 
milkweed. The light green leaves of this lily hold 
alternating jDositions at the upper part of the stem, but 
are more or less in circles at the lower part. 3-7 feet 
high. It is oftenest found in wet meadows not very far 
from the coast, and it is distributed from Me. (rather rare) 
and Mass., south to N. Car. and Tenn., and west to Minn. 
A similar species the flowers of which 
j^iliiif^i have far less reflexed sepals, with perhaps 

superbum, var. fewer spots. The leaves are darker green 
CaroUnianum and broader, rather blunt-lance-shaped. 
Bufforange= g-S feet high. Commonly found in the 
August ^^^y ^'<^o^s and among the mountains. 

Va., south to Fla. and La. 
Tiger Lily "^ Japanese species escaped from gar- 

Lilium dens, and commonly found beside old farm- 

tigrinum houses. Its leaves are lance-shaped and 

Orange=scarlet scattered along a stiff, straight, cottony, 
July-August ^-|aj.]..^oioj,ed stem, with black bulblets at 
the point where they join the plant-stem. The flower 
sepals are strongly spotted and reflexed. Me. to N. Y. 



52 




Tupk5Ca.pLily. 



Lilium superbum. 



LILY FAMILY. Liliaceas. 



A small, lilylike flower distinguished 
or^Ye^row Ad=^ ^^^' ^^^ brown-purple-tiiiged (outside) gold 
der's Tongue yellow color ; sometimes the purple tinge 
Erythronium is wanting in the flower, but the two leaves 
Americauum j^^.^ almost always strongly mottled with 
. it; these are elliptical, pointed, nearly 

April-May stemless, and proceed from the root. The 

flower is perfect, with six stamens and a 
pistil, and it is especially adapted to long-tongued in- 
sects ; it is undoubtedly cross-fertilized by the early 
bees, chief among which are the queen bumblebees 
{Bomhua pennsylvanicni^) whom I have often observed 
enter the flowei'-bell and issue plentifully besprinkled 
with pollen. Other occasional visitors are the small 
butterflies Colias p/ii'Zod^'ce— yellow, and Pieris r^ajxe — 
white. It is probable, too, that many species of flies are 
attracted to this plant on account of its mottled color ; 
but the majority of flies are poor pollen disseminators. 
The name, Greek, for rcl, in allusion to the European 
species which is purple-red. The little plant, 5-10 
inches high, is common in moist woods and beside 
brooks in swampy places, from Me., south, and west to 
Minn. Found in Campton, N. H. 

A very similar species with narrower 
r- leaves mottled less distinctly or not at all, 

Erythrouinin smooth, thick, and whitish green. The 
albifh'vi flowers are white, or dull, pale violet- 

White or violet= ^^^^^^^1 outside, and yellow-tinged at the 

"^^ '*t ^1 heart, inside ; the six divisions of the 

March-May , » , , . 

flower-cup strongly recurved. As the white 

stigma in Erythronium matures in advance of the 

golden anthers, it is, generally speaking, cross-fertilized; 

its most frequent visitor is the bumblebee {Bombus vir- 

ginicus). 5-8 inches high. Common onh" in the west 

and south. N. J., south to Ga., and west to Minn. 

Found near Carlinville, southern 111. (Prof. Robertson). 



54 




Yellow 



Epythronium Amepica>.num. Erythponium albidum. 



LILY FAMILY. Liliacest. 



A slender ornamental plant of Europe, 
Star=of=BethIe= , „ ^ rp, -, i 

^^^^ escaped from gardens. The dark green 

Ornithogctlum leaves are narrow and linear, and the 
umbellatum flowers are borne in a branched cluster ; 
^*^'*® they are white inside, green-lined outside, 

^^~ " and they open only in the sunshine. Name 

from the Greek, meaning bird's milk, supposed to al- 
lude to the egg-white color of the flower. 4-12 inches 
high. Found most often in fields and meadows near 
farm-houses. Mass. to Pa. and Va. 

L k ^^ spring the wild leek develops two or 

AUium tricoc- three light green, flat, oblong-lance-shaped 
cum leaves 8-10 inches long, and about 1 inch 

Greenish white wide or more, and by summertime when 
June- u y these are withered, the white or greenish 

white flowers begin to bloom, in a spokelike cluster from 
a spathe or leaflets at the top of a naked stem. The 
perfect flowers with stamens and pistil, are six-parted, 
with six green-white sepals. The flowers are rich honey- 
bearers and undoubtedly are 7nosUy fertilized by bees. 
It is an onion-scented herb whose name is the Latin for 
garlic, and it is not remarkable for its beauty. It grows 
4-15 inches high, in rich woodlands from west N. E., 
west to Minn, and Iowa, and south among the Alle- 
ghanies to N. Car. 

„,..^ ^ .. A more commonly distributed, ex- 

Wild Garlic , , n . p , • 

Allium Cana- tremely narrow-leaved species frequenting 

dense wet meadows, the flower-cluster of which 

Pale pink or ig sparse in bloom or else is replaced by a 
^**''^ thick cluster of bulblets — a frequent oc- 

currence with Allium. The flower's sepals 
are narrow and obtuse, and quite as long as the stamens. 
8-34 inches high. Me. to Minn., and south to the Gulf. 
The Alliums are mostly assisted by flies, bees, moths, 
and butterflies in the process of fertilization. 



56 




WildQAriic. ^^ 
Allium Ga^nddense 



Wild Leek. 
Allium tricoccum. 



LILY FAMILY. Liliaceas. 



Dav Lilv ^ native of Europe and Asia, escaped 

HemerocaUisi from gardens. Leaves angled in section, 

fidva tapering to a sharp point, narrow and 

Tawny orange ligj-^^ green. The flower-stalk tall bearing 

u y- ugus ugually eight or nine blossoms which open 

one or two at a time. The flower divisions six, three 

narrow, and three wide and blunt, ver\^ fragile, and 

rusty or tawny light orange, with a veined texture. 

The name is from the Greek, and means beautiful for 

only a day. 2-5 feet high. Found usually on meadows 

and upon the borders of streams, I gathered it not far 

from the Arondack Spring, Saratoga,, where it was 

growing wild and plentiful. Mass. and N. Y., south to 

Va. and Tenn. 

,, „ ^ A beautiful but far less common species, 

Yellow Day • ,, j i- ' ^ 

Lily occasionally escaped from country gar- 

HeinerocoUis dens, with narrow leaves, and pure bright 
floi-si yellow flowers more delicate and slender 

Yellow jj^ form, having a delightfully fragrant 

u y odor. 2-3 feet high. The leaves of both 

these plants grow thickly, and are characterized by 
graceful, drooping curves. 

Hemerocallis fulva is rapidly becoming established as 
a wild flower in many parts of the countr}'. Its tenacity 
of life under apparently adverse conditions is remarkable. 
It propagates rapidly by its spreading roots, and some- 
times takes complete possession of by-waj's and spare 
corners where the environment is favorable. In various 
parts of New Y'ork State the plant is abundant. Less 
attractive in figure than the de\ic?ite yellow Hemerocall is 
flava, and odorless besides, it makes up for such dis- 
crepancies by a magnificent tawny orange matched by 
few if any members of the Lily Family. The flowers 
bloom for one day only. 



58 




Day Lily. 



hemerccalhs tulva. 




StSLP-of-Bethlehem. Opnithogalum umbelldtum. 



AMARYLLIS FAMILY. Amarytlidaceae. 



1 



AMARYLLIS FAMILY. Amaryllidaceoe. 

Perennial herbs, with generally show}-, perfect flow- 
ers — with stamens and pistil — having six generally equal 
divisions of the flower-cup. Mostly fertilized by bees, 
the beelike flies (Syrphidoe), and small butterflies {Hes- 
peria). 

Leaves somewhat thick, blunt, and 
Atamasco Lily ... , , i ^ • i i. 

Zephyranthes shmmg deep green, long and straight. 

Atamasco The flower perfect with six stamens and 

Pink or white a pistil, the former very much shorter 
Apnl-July than the flower-cup. The flower-cup is 

symmetrical and divided into six distinct lobes, crimson 
pink, white with a magenta tinge, or white ; it is rarely 
eight-lobed. Unquestionably the plant is cross-fertilized 
by insects, chiefly by bees, the honeybee {Apis mellifica) 
visiting the flower most frequently, and generally early 
in the morning. The low position of the anthers in the 
flower-tube makes it impossible for the bee to pass them 
without powdering herself with pollen. The name is 
from the Latin and Greek, Zephyrus, the west wind, 
and av<io<i, a flower. The fruit is a depressed capsule. 
6-15 inches high. In moist localities. Del. to Fla. and 
Ala. 

The leaves are deep green, linear, grass- 
Star rass ^ ^^^ covered with hairs. The perfect 
Hypoxis ' • c 

erecfa flower Is six-parted, with six stamens of 

Yellow unequal lengths ; it is deep yellow inside, 

April-July j^^^^j hairy and greenish outside. There 
are perhaps three flowers at the top of the hairy stalk, 
which, by a plentiful supply of pollen, attract both 
smaller bees (Halicfus) and smaller butterflies, notably 
the Meadow Fritillary {Brenthis bellona). Prof. Robert- 
son says the plant depends mostly upon the genus 
Halictus for fertilization, and that it is self- as well as 
cross-fertilized. Hypoxis is commonly found in the 
meadow grass, in dry situations. The name is of Greek 
origin, alluding to some unknown plant with sour 
leaves. 3-6 inches high. Me., south, west to Minn., E. 
Kan., and Tex. 



6o 




Atama^sco Lily. Std.i? Grass. 

Zephyranthes Atamasco. Hypoxis erecta. 



IRIS FAMILY. Indaceas, 



IRIS FAMILY. Iridcwece. 

Perennial herbs found in damp or moist situations, 
having straight straplike leaves and showy, perfect 
flowers of three and six parts. Commonly cross-ferti- 
lized by honeybees, bumblebees, and the beelike flies 
{Syrphidcp). 

A handsome, and decorative plant, witli 
Larger Blue light green, straight, flat leaves, and three- 
Flag or Fleur= parted perfect flowers blooming one by 
,^r '* . , one from a green bract or leaflet at 

Ins versicolor " 

Violet=blue the tip of a somewhat irregular stalk. The 
May-July stamens are hidden and inserted at the 

base of the three larger and more showy 
divisions of the flower, which are beautifully veined 
with deep violet over a whitish ground tinted at the base 
with yellow. The stamens are under eacJi of the three 
straplike divisions of the style (the middle portion of the 
pistil) which directly overlie the showy purple-veined 
petals or divisions. Thus the insect, generally a bee, in 
order to reach the honey, must alight upon the showj^ 
petal, crawl beneath tlie overhanging style-division, and 
brush past the anther hidden below it, dislodging the 
yellow pollen in its passage. At the tip of each style- 
division is the stigma, and upon this some of the pollen 
is deposited as the bee passes ; but it is really the pollen 
from some previously visited flower which possesses the 
greater fertilizing power, therefore the iris is a plant 
which has especially adapted itself to cross-fertilization. 
It is, however, robbed of its nectar by the little yellow 
butterfly {Colias phUodice), who goes straight to the base 
of the flower between the divisions, and reaches the 
honey with its long tongue, and also, according to the 
testimony of C. M. Weed, by the tiny skipper butterfly 
{Hesperia). Fruit a long three-lobed capsule. The name 
is from I pi's, the rainbow, in allusion to the prismatic 
colors of tlie species. 16-30 inches higli. On the wet 
margins of ponds, and in swamps, from Me., south, and 
west to Minn. , Ark. , and Neb. 



62 




Blue Flag. 



Iris vepsicolop. 



IRIS FAMILY. Iridaceas, 



A slender-stemmed species with very 
Blue Flag narrow grasslike leaves, and a smaller 

Iris flower with generally narrower propor- 

prismatica tions, and an extremely short tube, but a 

Violet=blue long slender stem proceeding from smaller 
bracts or leaflets. The fruit capsule nar- 
rowly three-lobed and angular. This species is mainly 
found near the coast in brackish swamps, or wet grounds. 
1-3 feet high. Me. to Penn. and N. Car. 

A usually one-flowered, small, slender- 
Iris verna stemmed species with grasslike leaves 

VioIet=bIue scarcely over seven inches long, the flower 
and yellow with the three principal divisions nar- 
April-May rowed toward the base, slightly woolly, 
and deep gold yellow at the narrowing part. Some- 
times the flowers are white. The fruit capsule is ob- 
tusely triangular and short. 4-8 inches high. On 
wooded hillsides, from south Penn. to Ga. and Ky. 

A lance-shaped leaf tapering at both 

Dwarf Iris ends distinguishes this species from all 

Iris cfistata others ; the leaf is bright green, 4-9 inches 

Light Violet long, and about | inch wide. The flowers 

'"^' ~ ^^ are very light violet with the broad outer 

divisions o'ested ; i. e., they are marked with three 

raised parallel flutings along the centre, the middle one 

of which is orange yellow. The flower is exceedingly 

delicate in color and dainty in form. The fruit capsule 

is sharply triangular and ovate in outline, hardly twice 

as long as it is wide. 3-6 inches high. It is a very 

dw^arf plant common on the hillside and along streams, 

from Md. south to Ga., and west to southern Ind. and 

Mo. 

„. . . A Chinese plant escaped from cultiva- 

Blackberry . ..,,.., 

Ljly tion, smiilar to the iris, but much more 

Belamcanda branched. The leaves flat and light green, 
Chinensis like those of the iris, the perfect flowers 

Golden orange, ^^^-^.j^ ^j^ ^^^^^ divisions of a light golden 
magenta= , , n • i t , , 

spotted orange color mottled with dull magenta 

August- spots. Three prominent stamens. Sev- 

September eral flowers in bloom at once. The fruit 

capsule is fig-shaped, 1 inch long, and when the scales or 

64 




Crested Dwaf/ Iris. Blackberry Lily. 

Iris crisUta.. BelamcandaChmensis. 



IRIS FAMILY. Iridaceae. 



divisions of the shell fall in August, the blackberrylike, 
fleshy-coated, black seeds are exposed to view. The name 
is East Indian. 2-4 feet high. The plant has escaped 
from gardens to roadsides and low hills, from south N. 
Y. and Pa. , south to Ga. , and west to Ind. and Mo. 

A stiff grasslike little plant with linear, 
Blue-eyed ^^^q blue-green leaves less than the some- 

Sityrinchium ^^^^^^t twisted and fiat flower-stem in 
angusti folium height. The flowers are perfect, with a 
Deep violet= prominent pistil, and three stamens ; the 
^''"^ six divisions are blunt and tipped with a 

thornlike point ; they are violet-blue, or 
sometimes white ; the centre of the flower is beautifully 
marked with a six-pointed white star accented with 
bright golden yellow, each one of the star-points pene- 
trating the deeper violet- blue of the petallike division. 
The flower is mostly cross-fertilized by bees, and the 
beelike flies (SyrphidcE). Seed capsule globular. The 
name is Greek in origin, and is meaningless. 6-13 in- 
ches high. In fields and moist meadows, common from 
Me., south to Va., and west. 

A similar species which has usually two 
Stout Blue= unequal branches springing from a con- 
^isirinchiiuii spicuous grasslike leaf ; the leaves a trifle 
anceps woolly and very light green ; less stiff than 

Deep violet= those of the preceding species, and some- 
^''"^ what wider. The flower j)etals are also 

ay- une sparsely woolly on the outer surface. 8-16 

inches high. In grassy places, and sometimes on the bor- 
ders of woods, from Mass., south, and southwest to La. 

A tall, bending species, similar to the 
Eastern Biue= preceding, but lighter green and somewhat 
eyed Grass ,, , i f ^ 

Sisyrinch iu)a vvoolly ; a slenderer and weaker stem , some- 
Atlanticum times nearly 2 feet long, and reclining, ter- 
VioIet=blue minating in two or three almost equal 
May-June branches. Leaves very narrow, bracts 

somewhat purplish and dry papery ; the flower a trifle 
smaller, the outside somewhat woolly. The seeds but 
slightly pitted or nearly smooth. In wet meadows or 
brackish marshes or sandy soil, from Me. to Fla., near the 
coast. (Bicknell, Torrey Bot. Club Bull. 23: 134. 1896.) 
66 



>>^J> 




11 (I Neither speciesnorS.Atlanticum are as yet absolutely delermined\ 

5isypinchium!an9U5tifbIium.i ^ '^Sis\/rinchlum ancfp^ 



ORCHID FAMILY. Orchidacex. 



ORCHID FAMILY. Orchidacece. 

Perennial herbs liaving perfect flowers, the various 
parts of which are irregular in structure but symmetri- 
cal in arrangement. There are three similar sepals 
colored like petals, two lateral petals, and below these a 
third unique petal called the lip, conspicuously colored, 
often spurred, and containing nectar for the attraction 
of insects. The latter in the effort to reach the nectar 
invariably dislodge tlie peculiarly adhesive pollen-clus- 
ters and eventually carry them to the next blossom. 
The ingenious mechanical device of the flower to insure 
cross-fertilization is simple but effective. The orchids, 
except the Ciipripedium, have but one stamen which is 
united with the style into one common column placed at 
the axil of the flower facing the lip. Tlie stigma, the 
usual termination of the style, is a gummy surface 
located directly below the so-called rostellum, the re- 
ceptacle of the anther, and the actiud termination of 
the style. In the two anther-cells above the rostellum 
there are two pollinia, or stemmed pear-shaped pollen- 
clusters, each composed of several packets of pollen 
tied together by elastic threads ; these threads running 
together form the stem terminated by a sticky disc. It 
is these discs which attach to the tongues or heads of 
insects and insure the transportation of the pollen- 
masses to the gummy stigma of another flower. The 
orchids as a general rule are incapable of self-fertiliza- 
tion, and are wholly dependent upon long-tongued 
insects for the transportation of their pollen. In Cypri- 
pedium, the stigma is not a gummy surface but is in a 
cavity between the anther-cells. 

, . . , A small species with tiny white-green 
Green Adder's ^ „ , / . -, ^ o 

Mouth flowers m a small cluster about the size of 

Microstylis mignonette. A single oval, pointed leaf 

ophiogJossoides clasps the slender stem about half-way up. 
Whitish green rpj^^" ^^p^j^ ^^,^ oblong, and the lip three- 
" ^ pointed. Fruit capsule oval. The name 

from the Greek, meaning small and column or style. 
4-9 inches high. In cold woods or bogs, from Me., 
south, and west to Minn, and Mo. Found at Jackson, 
68 




Green Adder's Mouth Micpostylis ophioglossoides. 



ORCHID FAMILY. Orchidaceae. 



Bethlehem and Campton, N. H., in the region of the 

White Mountains. 

, „ A small but showy siiecies with rather 

Large Tway= -^ ^ 

blade large shmy leaves. 2-4 inches long, light 

Lqiaris lilii- green. The flowers showy, brownish or 
f"'>'^' madder purple, with reflexed sepals and 

Madder purple ^.^j^ ^j.^^ j^^^^^. exceedingly narrow, the 
June-July 0^3 

lip I inch long and broad. Flowers nu- 
merous, the cluster sometimes 5 inches tall. The Greek 
name in allusion to the shining leaves. 4-9 inches high. 
Me., south to Ga., west to Mo. 

^ . ^ . A small species commonly found in ever- 

Early Coral I . , 1 , . 

jIqqI green woods, with a ruddy, n-regular root 

Corallorhiza resembling coral, and a straight yellowish 
inna ta brown leafless but scaly stem bearing small, 

Dull madder uninteresting madder purple flowers, with 
May-June ^"^^^ sej^als and petals and a whitish lip ; 

the seed capsule nearly | inch long. The 
name, Greek, meaning coral and 7'oot. Common in 
swamps and damp woods, from Me., south to N. J. in 
the mountains to Ga. , and west to Neb. Found in Shel- 
burne and Dublin, N. H. 

A slender but generally taller species 
ma = owere ^^,j^j^ very small, dull purple-brown flowers, 
Coral Root , '' .«.,,. 

Corallorhiza drooping on a stiff stem ; the lip whitish, 

odontorhiza spotted, and the sepals and petals marked 
Dull madder -^yith purple lines. The flower-stem pur- 
purple ,.g|^ brown. 6-12 inches high, leafless 
July- <->''■> 
September ^^^^ with one or two sheathing scales. In 

evergreen woods, especially under arbor- 
vitae. Common from Mass. to Mich., south to Fla., and 
southwest to Mo. 

A taller, large-flowered species, the stem 
Yf^QQ^ of which has several close scales. Many 

CoraUorhiza slightly fragrant flowers, with the white 
mvUiflora lip spotted and lined with purple-brown. 

Madder purple Common in spruce woods. 10-18 inches 
SeDtember high- Me., south to Fla., and west to 

Neb. and Cal. Found at Mt. Agassiz, 
Bethlehem, and Sandwich, N. H., and the White Mt. 
Notch. 

70 




La^pgeTwd^blade. " IF Early Coral Root. 
Lipans liliifolia. Corallorhiza innata. 



ORCHID FAMILY. Orchidaceas. 

Heart=Ieaved ^ delicate plant with a very slender 
Twayblade stem bearing two opposite light green, 
Listera cordata stemless leaves shaped somewhat like the 
Madder purple ^^^,g gj^ spades, and a loose cluster about 2 
inches long of iiny dull purple flowers. 
The flower is without a spur but possesses a very long 
two-cleft lip, bearing nectar in a furrow ; the slightest 
disturbance of a visiting insect causes the delicate ros- 
tellum above the lip to explode and forcibly eject a 
sticky fluid which is sure to hit the pointed tops of the 
pollen-masses lying just over the crest of the rostellum. 
Thus, the insect coming in contact with the sticky fluid 
withdraws fluid and pollen -masses. Smaller members 
of the family Hijmenoptera, the bees, etc., most fre- 
quently visit the flower, also those of the order Diptera, 
flies, notably the tiny beelike ones. 3-10 inches high. 
Named for Martin Lister an early English botanist. 
Moist woods, Me. to N. J., and west to Ore. Found in 
the woods about Mt. Washington. 

Broad=Iipped A similar species with leaves less heart- 
Twayblade shaped and flowers with a wedge-oblong 
Listera conval- ^ip^ much longer than tlie narrow sepals 
Greenish ^^^*^ petals. Sepals purplish. In damp 

yellow woods. Me., south to N. Car., in the 

June-July mountains, and west to Minn. 

Ladles' Tresses A marsh orchid, with a peculiarly twisted 
Spiranthes or spiral flower-spike and very light green 

cernua ^ linear leaves not nearly as tall as the 

^l^.^g flower-stem. The flowers translucent yel- 

August- lowish white, or variably cream white, 

September odorless or fragrant, the whiter ones gen- 
erally most fragrant, the lower sepals not upturned or 
joining with the upper, the latter arching and joined to 
the petals; all these parts with the curly-edged broader 
lip forming the bugle-horn-shaped tiny flower. It is 
fertilized by some of the smaller bees, moths, and but- 
terflies. In Spiranthes the rostellum holds in its centre 
a narrow boat-shaped disc containing a sticky fluid ; it 
is covered by a membrane easily ruptured by an insect. 
After the rupture the exposed sticky fluid glues itself to 
the tongue of the insect and the boatlike disc is with- 
73 




HeaiPt-leaved Twaybkde. 



Listera cordata, 



ORCHID FAMILY. Orchidaceas. 



drawn together with the polUnia which are ah-eady 
attached to it at the back. Wlien the flower first opens 
the tube or passage between the rostellum and the lip is 
exceedingly narrow, hence, the former is easily ruptured 
by visitors. Later the space widens as the column 
topped by the rostellum moves upward in tlie maturer 
development of the flower. As a consequence, only 
those flowers which are mature are sufficiently open for 
the insect to reach the stigma and thSreon leave the 
pollen of a younger flower. The name is from the 
Greek, for coil Sindjloii'er, alluding to the spiral growth 
of the flowers. 6-24 inches high ; not more than 9 
inches in northern N. H. In wet meadows and grassy 
swamps. Me. , south, and west to Minn, and Neb. 

A slender and tall species wuth grassUke 
Lldtes''^Tr7stes ^^^^^^ ^^'^^^ leaves, and a leafy stem bear- 
Spiranthes hig a much twisted flower-spike of yellow- 

proecox white spreading blossoms. The lateral 

Yellowish sepals free, the upper one closely con- 

^ **^ nected with the two petals, the lip often 

dark-striped. 10-30 inches high. In moist 
grassy places. Mass. and southern N. Y., south and 
southwest to La. 

An exceedingly slender and tall species, 
Slender Ladies' ^, *'/ n u i • 

Tresses smooth or rarely woolly above, bearing 

Spiranthes small withering bracts or leaflets along the 
gracilis flower-stem w^hich is terminated by a very- 

Cream white j^-i^icii twisted cluster of very many slender 
October" flowers, translucent cream white, and very 

fragrant. The odor of Spiranthes is pe- 
culiarly aromatic, reminiscent of the horse-chestnut, but 
remarkably sweet. The sepals of the flower are a little 
longer than the lip, which is greenish above w4th white 
margins. The ovate leaves at the root, wither before the 
flowers bloom. Visited by the bumblebee (Bombus 
Americanorum) and the small bee, Calliopsis andreni- 
formis (Prof. Robertson). 10-22 inclies high. Common 
in dry situations, in pastures, fields, and half- wooded 
hillsides. Me., south, and west to Minn, and Kan. It 
is rare in central N. H., where S. cernua is plentiful. 

74 




Ladies' Tresses. \%W/'! 5piranthes gPdcili^. 
SpiPdnthes cernua. Spipanthes RomanzofTi^^nd. 



ORCHID FAMILY. Orchidaceae. 



Spiranthes Spirauthes Romanzoffiana replaces it in 
Romanzoffiana northern regions. This shorter species has 
White, creamy a thick and short flower-spike, with very 
or greenish fragrant greenish cream white flowers 
somewhat hooded by the combined sepals 
and petals. Leaves linear. 6-13 inches high. Me., N. 
Y. , and Pa. , west to Minn, and Cal. 



A remarkably odd and attractive little 
Ike ^^ 
Plantain 



Rattlesnake orchid, with the very dark blue-ohve green 



Goodijera re- l^^^es marked with darker cross- veins. It 
pens war. ophioi- has ascaly, slender, slightly woolly flower- 
des (Fernold) stem, set on one side only with translucent 
White, creamy gj.gpjj^gj-^ ^j. creamy white small flowers; 
July-ea"ly ^^^^ sacHke lip of the flower has a recurved 
August wavy margin. The pollen-masses, called 

pollinia, are made up of numerous packets 
connected by threads which run together and form a 
single flattened brown ribbon the end of which is fas- 
tened to the rostellum. The rostellum when rubbed is 
removed and carries with it a bit of membrane to which 
the pollinia are attached^ this clings to the tongue of the 
bee, and all is properly withdrawn, and carried to 
another probably more mature flower, whose stigma is 
easily accessible, as in the case of Spiranthes. Named 
for John Goodyear an early English botanist. 5-8 inches 
high, rarely higher. Under hemlocks and spruces, in 
the northern woods. Me., N. H. (frequent in the White 
Mts.), south to the Great Smoky Mts. of N. Car., west 
to Mich. The original species G. re^jens is definitely 
known only in the extreme north and in the Rocky Mts. 
Goodyera tesse- '^^^® commonest specics in northern New 
lata England, with a stouter stem than that of 

White, creamy the preceding species, and a little taller. 
Au^uTt"'**" Leaves 5-9 ribbed, the veins bordered by 

pale green pencilings, the whole leaf irregu- 
larly mottled with light and dark green, rarely with- 
out the markings. The lip of the flower is less sac-shaped, 
with a less recurved margin. In hillside woods. Me., 
northern N. Y., south to the Catskills and Hartford, 
Conn. (M. L. Fernald, Rhodora, vol. i., No. 1, p. 6.) 

76 





Goodyerarepensvap.opphioicles. GoodyepdtesseHata. 



ORCHID FAMILY. Orchidacew. 



^ , Stem stout, leaves stiff, plain green or 

Menzieii indistinctly marked, often with broad 

White, creamy white ribs, or rarely mottled as in the fore- 
or greenish going species. The flower-spike thick and 

"^"^ one-sided ; the lip of the flower is large at 

the base and tapers to the point with the edges curved 
inward. 8-20 inches high. In dry woods, generally 
among evergreens. Aroostook Co., Me., Que., N. B., 
and along the Great Lakes from Lake Huron westward. 
(M. L. Fernald, Rhodora, vol. i. No. 1., p. 7). This is the 
largest of all the species. 

.,^ ^j ^. This is the commoner rattlesnake plan- 

2jubescens tain of southern New England ; its flower- 

White, creamy spike is thick, blooms upward, and is not 
or greenish one-sided. The flower-stem is stout, 

u y- ugust (jgj-,sgiy woolly, and bears several lance- 
shaped scales. The flower has a pronounced sac- 
shaped blunt lip the margin of which is not recurved. 
Leaves dark blue-olive green, white- veined, the middle 
vein broad. 6-18 inches high. In dry evergreen woods, 
southern Me., and central N. H., south and west to Minn. 
Arethusa A large single-flowered and delicate 

Arethiisa bid- scented orchid, the light magenta-crimson 

t«*^^ * . petals and sepals of which point upward 
Magenta=crim= ^ „ ■, -.n ^ n • ^ 

son like the fingers of a half-open hand viewed 

May-June in profile. The lip of the flower is recurved 

and spreading, with tlie broad apex often fringed, 
magenta blotched, and crested in three white hairy 
ridges ; this forms a conspicuously colored landing plat- 
form for the visiting insect, usually a bumblebee, who, 
after pressing beneath the column and sipping the nec- 
tar, backs out brushing against the edge or lid of the an- 
ther, opening it and emptying the enclosed pollen upon 
his head, as is also the case with Pogonia opliioglossoides. 
The column is topped by the lid-like anther instead of 
the usual rostellum, and the pollen-masses are not pear- 
like and stemmed. The solitary leaf is linear, and hidden 
in the sheathed scape; it appears after the flowering 
season. Rarely a plant produces two flowers ; these vary 
from 1-2 inches in length. Fruit capsule elliptical, 

78 




RattlesnaKe fjf/ Plantain. 
Qood^era m pubescens. 



Arethusa bulbosa. 



ORCHID FAMILY. Orchidacea^. 



about 1 inch long. 5-10 inches high. Common in bogs, 

from Me., south to N. Car., west to Minn, and Ind. 

Named for the fountain nymph Arethusa. 

Grass Pink ^ smaller-flowered, but very beautiful 

Calopogon orchid, slender-stemmed, and with one 

pulchellus linear bright green leaf. Flower-stem 

Magenta^pink bearing 3-9 magenta-pink sweet-scented 

" "^ flowers with a long spreading lip crested . 

with yellow, orange, and magenta hairs ; the anther 

and pollen are as in Arethusa. Name from the Gi-eek, 

beautiful and heard, referring to the handsome bearded 

lip. 10-16 inches high. In bogs, from Me., south, and 

west to Minn, and Mo. Often found in company with 

the next. 

A most delicate little orchid bearing 
Snake Mouth „ ,. , ^ t • 

Pogonia generally solitary, raspberry-scented crim- 

ophioglossoides son-pink flowers with a small light green 
Crimson-pink lance-shaped leaf half-way up the stem, 
June-July ^^^ ^ ^^^-^y ^j-^^ j^^g^ below the blossom ; 

sometimes a long-stemmed leaf proceeds from the root. 
The flower has sepals and petals of equal length over- 
hanging a beautifully crested and fringed lip, curved 
like the hollow of one's hand, which furnishes an alight- 
ing platform for the visiting insect, who pushes forward 
in the narrow space between the stigma and the lip, 
scraping pollen off its back in its jDrogress. The pollen 
attaches to the gummy stigma. In retreating, the lid of 
the anther catches on the back of the visitor, swings 
open, and fresh pollen is deposited for the benefit of the 
next flower. This orchid has no rostellum and its pol- 
len is not in stemmed pearlike masses. The name, 
Greek, bearded, from the bearded lip of some of the spe- 
cies. 8-13 inches high. In wet meadows and swamps. 
Me., south, and west to Kan; also in Japan. Fre- 
quently found in company with Calopogon. 
Nodding A local species less showy than the fore- 

Pogonia going, but remarkable for its dainty pen- 

Pogonia dulous flowers, which are considerably 

Ught magenta smaller. With 2-8 tiny leaves, alternat- 
August- ing, and clasping the stem. There are 1-6 

September long-stemmed flowers which proceed from 

8o 



'^'- 1 1 ''' 




^ 



Grass Pink. Snd^ke Mouth. 

Calopogon pulchellus. Pogonia. ophioglossoides. 



ORCHID FAMILY. Orchidacese. 



between the stem and leaf. 8-8 inches high. In rich 
woods, from R. I. to Fla., Wis., and Kan. 

Distinguished by its circle of five light 
verticiUaia gi'Pen leaves at the summit of the stem. 

Purple and Flower dull jjurplc with long stem and 
green=yellow long narrow greenish sepals, erect or in- 
May-June clining above the circle of leaves. 8-12 

inches high. i\Ioist woods. Me., south, west to Ind. 
and Wis. Rare in the east. Found in Middlesex Co., 
Mass. (:Miss M. P. Cook.) 

Showy Orchis This, witli another more northern spe- 
Orchis cies, is our only true orchis. Tliere are 

spec a >i IS ^^^.^ light shinv leaves proceeding from 

and white ^'^^ '^'^*® ^^ ^^^^ stem ; the latter is thick 

May -June and angular in section, bearing at its sum- 

mit a few showy flowers witli juagenta sepals and petals 
united in a hood, and beneath them the consi)icuous, al- 
most white lip ; behind tiie lij) is the rather long spur, 
in which is secreted an abundant supply or nectar for 
the thirsty, visiting insect ; the latter, generally a queen 
bumblebee {Bombus A)iu>nc((nornm is a common visi- 
tor), thrusts its head into the spur, brushing carelessly 
past the rostellum at the top of the column, and, ruptur- 
ing its thin membrane, exposes the two sticky round 
discs attached to the pear-shaped pollen-clusters. These 
discs immediately fasten upon the bee's face or forehead, 
and wlien the creature retires it carries with it discs and 
pollen-clusters. Finally wlien the next flower is visited 
the pollen is scraped off upon its sticky stigma. Orchis 
spectabilis is 5-10 inches high, and frequents rich moist 
woods, especially hemlock groves, from Me., south to 
Ga., and west to IMinn. and Neb. It is found in the val- 
ley of the Connecticut west of the White Mts. The name 
is Latin, meaning a plant with oblong roots. (Pliny.) 

OrcJiis rotundifolia is a less connnon 
Orch is . -.11. 1 /. 1 1 

. ,.^ ,• species witii but one leai, oval or neariy 

Magenta round, and smaller flowers about the same 
and white color but deeper than those of O. spec- 
June-July tabilis. From northern Me. and Vt., 
westward. 



82 




Showy Orchis. 
i 



Orchis spectd^bilis. 



ORCHID FAMILY. Orchidaceae. 



A slender species with a single obtuse 
Green Wood lanceolate leaf less than \ of the way up 

lJabcu<iri,i ^'^^ ^^^"^' ^"'^ ^^'^'^ °^ *^^^® *^"^ scalelike 

triiUntatn ones above it. The insignificant very 

Greenish small greenish 5-12 white flowers with 

^^'I't'-' tiny sepals and petals, a wedge-shaped 

June July j.^^^ ^^_^^^ ^ characteristic long slender spur 

curved i(j)ir((ril, and around to one side. The pollen- 
clusters of the Ilabenarias are short-stemmed and ter- 
minated with a sticky gland which is so arranged that 
it easily fastens upon the heads or faces of visiting in- 
sects. The plant is 6-18 inches high. Name from the 
Latin, //a^^'Jirt a bridle or rein, alluding to the narrow 
lip of some species, ]\Ie., west to Minn., and south in 
the mountains to N. Car. Found in Campton and Jaff- 
rey. N. IL, and in the White Mts. 

... This southern species has several leaves 

t^.,,r,, upon its slender stem, and a dense flower- 

Orange-yeiiow cluster, orange-yellow. 10-20 inches high. 
*•"'>' Wet pine-barrens. N. J., south. 

Iiai),n<iri,t ^^ another southern species, with several 

nin-,1 very narrow leaves low on the stem, and 

^'hite a loose many-flowered spike of small, 

July August fragrant, slightly greenish white flowers, 
each with an exceedingly slender curving spur. Wet 
pine-l)arrens. Del., south to Ala. and Fla. 
Ilabenaria ^ '^'^^*>' common yellow-green-flowered 

virrsnnts species, witli a stout stem, several lance- 

Yellow- green sliaped leaves, and small flowers with 
June July ycllow-green sepals and petals, the blunt 

lip t()t)tlicd on either side and slightly protuberant in the 
centre at the base, the slender spur twice its length, 
10-24 inclies high. Common in all wet places, from 
^le., south, and west to Minn. 

Ihihrnarin Characterized by the numerous bracts 

bract, it t, I or leaflets from the bases of which the tiny 

Light green flowers Spring. The lower leaves broadly 
une August (,yatc, the upper ones mere long bracts 
scarcely tlirec times the length of the pale green flowers. 
The lip of the flower toothed at the tip and oblong, twice 
as long as the white spur. 6-20 inches high. Damp 
84 




Green Wood Orchis, 
tidbendpid tnidentata 



liabenaiPid virescens. 



ORCHID FAMILY. Orchidaceas. 



woods and meadows, from ]\le., soutli in the moujitains 
of N. Car., west to INIinn., and reported in Neb. (Webber). 

xV tall and leafy northern species, with 
Hnhenana ,,' " , ^ 

hyperhnrcd green, or vellow-green flowers, erect lance- 

Green, yelIow= shaped leaves, and a dense narrow flower- 
green spike sometimes 12 inches long, or longer. 
June July Flower-spur short and incurved, petals, 
sei)als. and lij) much sliorter tlian the ovary. 8-30 inches 
high. Cold, wet woods. ]Me., to N. J. and Iowa. 
Jlahen<iri<i '^ ^'^^T ^J'^^il:"' species with nuich nar- 
dildtiita i-owtM- leaves and greenish white flowers 
Greenish white with small obtuse sepals. Flower-lip 
June July lance-shaped from a lozenge-shaped base. 
Cold, wrt bogs. Conn., to Mich, and ]\Iinn. 

Tlie two large, shining, nearly round, or 
Orchis ^ broadly oval light green leaves usually lie 

llahenaria upon the ground, but are sometimes raised 

Unnh-rintm above it. The somewhat twisted and bare 
Whitish ^^^,„^ l,^..^j.^ 1Q_.),) upright flowers, with 

veIlow=c:reen i ^ i i • i i i 

- . . -rrrcn lateral sepals curving backward, 

June August '^ i o ' 

narrow yellow-green petals, and the throat 
accented liy two lateral sjtots of yellow-ochre. The lip 
is lance-shai»ed. incurved, and j)ointed ; the slender white- 
green spur nearly 1 inch deep is especially adapted to 
the long tongues of the moths, S-b") inches high. 
Woods anil borders of wooded swamps from ]\Ie., south 
to N. J., w.'>t to Minn, and Iowa. 

A larger species, the two nearly round 
Green Round- , r ^ ■ ^ .• r^ ■ ^ 

^ ^ u- eaves of which are sometimes i inches 
Leaved Orchis 

Ifahrnariii across, and lie flat upon the ground ; they 

,,rhir„i,ita are light green and shining above, and 

Whitish silvery white beneath. The stem is not 

yellow^green ^are, but bracted ; the whitish yellow- 
July August ' . . , 1 
green flowers in a loose cluster, wqth the 

upper sepal nearly round, the lateral ones ovate, and 
the narrcnv lip obtuse and drooping, almost three times 
the length of the small lance-shaped petals ; the slender, 
curved, whitish spur nearly 2 inches long thickened 
toward the blunt point is peculiarly adapted to the long 
tongue of one of the lesser spliinx-moths. " A larger in- 



86 



Hooker's Orchis. Habenaria Hookeridna.. 




Habenaria liyperbopea 



ORCHID FAMILY. Orchidaceae. 



dividual might sip the nectar it is true, but its longer 
tongue woufd reach the base of the tube without effect- 
ing'' the shghtost contact with the pollen" (Wm. 
Hamilton Gibson). The pollen is usually withdrawn 
fastened upon the moth's eyes. 1-2 feet high. Rich 
evergreen woods. Me., south to N. Car., in the moun- 
tains, west to :\Iinn. 

This is a southern species among a group 
Yellow Crested ^^^ ^^..^^^^,^^ Q^.^j^i^es, with narrow lance- 
%^benaria shaped leaves below diminishing to the 
cristatn size of bracts above, and orange-yellow 

Orange=yellow flowers with narrow fringed petals, and a 
July -early ^,^^,^^ deeply fringed lip. Spur about { inch 
August ^^^^^ ^j^^ anther cells widely separated 

at the base. 8-20 inches high. In bogs, from N. J., 
south. Rather rare in N. J. 

An exceedingly handsome slender spe- 
OrchiT ^'"'"^^'^ cies, with lance-shaped leaves, and a large 
Habenarid many-flowered spike of showy golden or 

ciiiaris orangc-ycllow flowers with ovate sepals, 

Orange^yellow narrow"^fringed petals, and a deeply fringed 
A^ugusr'^ lip. The spur long and slender, and the 
anther cells as in the preceding species. 
12-24 inches high. In meadows and wet sandy barrens, 
from Mass., south, and west to Mich. 

A similar species. The white fringed 
flowers a trifle smaller, with a less deeply 
llahriKirid fringed lip : the latter \ the length of the 

hiephariglotfis spur. 12-21 inches high. In swamps and 
^Vhite |,^^^.g £j.^^,j^ j^j^.^ gQ^,^|^ ^Q j;^ j^ ^^,pgt to 

A^ugust"^ ^ ]\Iinn. Blooms a few days earlier than H. 

ciliaris where the two grow together. 
(Britton.) 

Ifahcnarin '"^ western specics with fragrant large 

Iciiropha'a grecnisii white or white flowers, the fan- 

White, shai)ed lip three-parted, broad, and fringed. 

greenish Spur H inches long, so it is especially 

adai)ted to the long-tongued sphinx-moths 
{SjjhiiKjida'). 18-30 inches high. Western N, Y., south 
to Ky., west to Minn, and Ark. 



White Fringed 
Orchis 



?M~ 



/5\ 



Yellow Fringed Ofchis H&bena.pia cifiapis. 



ORCHID FAMILY. Orchidaceas. 



A common species remarkable for its 
Fringed lacerated three-parted flower-lip, and un- 

Orchis substantial translucent white which is 

Hdhrnaria sometimes greenish and sometimes yel- 
^y^/'' lowish. Leaves lance-shaped, smaller 

greenish above. The long flower-spike crowded 

June-July with the in conspicuous deep-spurred flow- 

ers. The pollen-cells are not widely sepa- 
rated, AVm. Hamilton Gibson describes the structure of 
the flower thus, after remarking that no botanist has men- 
tioned its distinct peculiarity. " The nectary instead of 
being freely open is abruptly closed at the central portion 
by a firm protuberance or palate which projects down- 
ward from the base of the stigma, and closely meets the 
lip below." The opening is thus divided into two lateral 
ones, each lying directly beneath a sticky elongated 
pollen-disc. Thus the insect, generally a butterfly, in- 
serts its tongue exactly where the latter will touch the 
disc which is sure to clasp it and be withdrawn together 
with the pollen. H. kicera is 10-22 inches high, and is 
found in bogs and wet woods from Me., south to Ga., 
and west to Minn, and Mo. 

In appearance this wliite orchis is distinctly different 
from all others. Although its similarity to the next 
species is marked, it is structural and therefore not so 
evident to a casual observer. The flower is well named ; 
its lacerated flower-lip is literally torn to divisions of 
tlireadhke fineness, and the general effect is accordingly 
unique. No other orchis is like it; the flower of H. 
7).s-//rr;f/r.s has a compact settled figure ; that of H. triden- 
t<i(,i is distinct and has a swirling appearance due to the 
curving spur, while tlmt of H. hlephariglottis is a char- 
acteristically fringed affair of orderly appearance. But 
this orchis is a thing of " shreds and tatters." 



90 




Ragged 

Fnngedl 
tiabendPia: kucophaea. Ha^benarie. lacePd.. 



f Orchis. 



ORCHID FAMILY. Orchidaceas. 



A similar species but of more imposing 
Smaller Pur= proportions, with elliptical and lance- 
Q I- shaped leaves, and fragrant magenta-pink 

Habenaria or lilac-pink flowers variably pale or deep, 

psycodes with the fringed lip three-parted, and a 

Magenta-pink ^^^^^^, | jj-^^^ i^^g. 1-3 feet high. Com- 
u y-ear y n^only found in swamps and wet woods 

from Me., south to N. Car. ; west to Minn, 

A similar but much larger species with 

P^*^^^ ^r^ j^Tg flowers twice the size of those of H. 

Habenaria psycocles, fragrant, and variable in ma- 

fimbriata genta-pink from a deep tone even to 

Magenta=pink ^yhite. The uj^per sepal and petals close 

une-ear y together, the lateral sepals small, ovate 
August o ' 1 ' 

and acute. The three divisions of the 

broad lip more deeply fringed. Flower-spike sometimes 
12 inches long and 2| inches across. Anther cells sepa- 
rated at the base. In both flowers, H. psycocles and H. 
fimhi'iata, fertilization is generally effected by moths 
and butterflies whose heads and eyes are often decorated 
by the pear-shaped pollen-masses. The crowded flower- 
spike allows the butterfly to land indiscriminately here 
or there among the spreading fringed lips, and inserting 
its tongue obliquely in the nectary it brushes the pollen- 
disc on the side approached and the pollen-mass is with- 
drawn (Wm. Hamilton Gibson). 

The difference between H. j^sycodcs and H. Jimbriata 
is distinct and absolute ; there is no need for confusion 
in the identification of the two species, although it must 
be evident to a close observer that intergrading types are 
not infrequent. H. psycocles has more conventional, 
compact flowers with an even (not ragged) very short 
fringe, and they are about half the size of those of H. 
jiinbricda. They are also distinctly nuiscat-scented. 

This is a truly pnirple floicered species, 

UK , -.V, found in the south and southwest. The 

Maoenui la 

peramoena fan-shaped lip is toothed but not fringed^ 

Purple and the leaves are somewhat narrower. 

July-August r^Y\e long spur curved. 12-30 inches high. 
Wet meadows, N. J., south to Va., west to lU. and Ky. 

92 




La^rge Purple-Fringed Orchis, liabenaria fimbriaktc 













Smaller Purple Fringed Orchis. Habenaria psycodes. 



ORCHID FAMILY. Orchidaceee. 



A luiiidsonie but rather small-flowered 
White Lady's ^^^.^.j^-^ ^^.-^j^ o_4 j- j^^ .^^^^ narrow ellipti- 
Slipper ' o o .1 

Cijpript'diuiii t"d leaves ; the flower with two wavy and 
candidum twisted narrow green petals, three broader, 

White green, purple-blotched sepals, and a pouch 

May-early July ^^. hp open at tlie top b5^ a fissure, white 
outside, purple-streaked inside, containing nectar at its 
base. Two of the sepals are joined together under the 
lip. The cohiinn of Cijpripedium is flanked on either 
side by a fertile stamen bearing a two-celled antlier, 
opening lidlike, the pollen loose and sticky-powdery 
witliin— in this respect the genus is distinctly different 
from those already described. The stigma is hidden be- 
neath the third sterile stamen crowning the column, 
exactly between the anthers ; it is moist and roughish. 
In the process of fertilization by the insect, generally a 
bee, the latter enters the pouch b}- the fissure, sucks the 
nectar from its bases and escapes by crowding through 
the small opening innnediately beneath one of the an- 
thers, receiving upon its back the sticky pollen in the 
exit. In the next flower the insect brushes first against 
the stigma, leaving some of the pollen, as it takes its 
departure in the manner described. The rather rare C. 
ccuidldton is 6-10 inches high, and is found in bogs and 
wet meadows from N. Y. and N. J., west to Minn, and 
]\Io. The name is from KvTtpiS, Venus, and Ttodiov, 
buskin, — ^Venus's buskin. 

This is a taller species, with a slender 
Yellow 

Lady's Slipper ^^^»^>' ^t*^'"^' '^^^^^ showy fragrant yellow 
CypripcdiHiii flowers the petals and sepals of which are 
pi(?>e.s(r/<.s madder purple streaked ; the narrow pet- 

^^"**^ als are usually twisted, and the bright 

golden yellow lip as well as the summit of 
the column is more or less blotched and strijjed with 
madder i)uri)le. 12-24 inches high. Woods and wood- 
land bogs. Me., south among the mountains to Ala., and 
west. C parviUoram is a mere form of this species, 
characterized by its smaller size and stronger color. (See 
Gray's Manual, pg. 511, 6tli edition.) 



94 




Yellow La.dys Slipper Cypripedium pubescent. 



ORCHID FAMILY. Orchidacew. 



This is perhaps the most beautiful plant 
Sli''''er^"''^'^ of the whole genus. The stem is stout 
t'//p/w>(//»//< 'ind leafy to the top, the flower fragrant ; 
spccfabilc its pouch is white more or less blotched or 

White, crini= stained with velvety light crimson-ma- 
son=magenta ^,^^ ^^ j^ ^^^^ .^jg ^^^^^^ broad 

June-July *=> , ,, ,^ ^ ^ i 

and not longer than the rotund pouch. 

The sterile stamen long-heart-shaped, stained yellow at 
the tip and spotted crimson, crowns the column (see 
C. acaule). 1-2 feet high. Swamps and wet woods 
Me., south to Ga., west to Minn. 

The commoner and more familiar lady's 
Moccasin sUpper, with two large leaves from the 

Flower or ^.^^_^^ without a plant-stem, the slightly 

Stemless ' . . i i i 

Lady's Slipper fragrant flowgr termmatmg a long slender 
CyprijM'diion stem with a green leaflet or bract at the 
acaule point of junction ; the pouch crimson-pink 

Crinison=pink . . j ^yhite) veined with a deeper pink, 
May early July ^ -^ ' T , 

sepals and petals greenish and brown, 

more or less curved and wavy. The third, or sterile 
stamen of Cijprxpedium crowning the column and over- 
hanging the stigma is variable according to the species ; 
in C. acaule it is angularly six-sided, in C. cancUdum 
lance-shaped, in C. j^^hescens long-triangular, and in C. 
spectahile heart-shaped; beneath these is the hidden 
stigma which receives pollen from the backs of visiting 
bumblebees or honeybees, or most frequently from the 
smaller bees, members of the tribes Andrena and Hal- 
id ns (C. M. Weed). In 31y Studio Neighbors Wm. 
Hamilton Gibson describes at length the fertilization of 
C. acaideh}'^ the bumblebee. 8-12 inches high. Me. to 
N. Car. and Ky., west to Minn. 



96 



X 




Showy Orchis. 




Cypnpedium spectaibile. 




Moccasin flower 



Cypripedium acaule. 



BIRTHWORT FAMILY. Aristolocbiaceas. 



BIRTHWORT FAMILY. Aristolochiacece. 

A small family of twining or low herbs, having per- 
fect flowers— with six or more stamens and a pistil. The 
leaves stemmed, and either alternate or proceeding from 
the root. The flower-cup or calyx, without petals, 
united with the ovary or fruit receptacle, and lobed or 
irregular. Assisted in the process of fertilization by 
various smaller insects. 

The two long-stemmed deep green veiny 
Wild Ginger ^esi^^s soft woolly, and heart-shaped, their 
Canadense stems hauy ; the flower with three dis- 

Brown=purpie tinct pointed brownish or madder purple 
April-May divisions to the calyx which is closely 
united to the solid seed receptacle or ovary, green out- 
side ; the cup white below marked by a hexagon in pur- 
ple-brown. A curious woodland plant whose odd flower 
is half concealed by its low position and its sober color 
which not infrequently resembles the leaf-mould just 
beneath it. Its proximity to the ground and the fre- 
quent visits of the fungus gnats and the early flesh-flies 
suggest that these have most to do with the fertilization 
of the plant. 6-12 inches high. Common in rich w^oods 
from Me., south to N. Car., west to Mo. and Kan. 
,^^^^^.J^ ,,, A southern species with evergreen leaves 

arifolium arrow-heart-shaped, and urn-shaped flow- 

Qreen-purple ers dull green outside, dull purple-brown 
April-June inside, with three short blunt lobes. One 
leaf only put forth each year. In woods from Va., south 
to Teim., Ala., and Fla. 




Wild Ginger. 



Asa^pum Canadense. 



BIRTHWORT FAMILY. Aristolochiaceas. 



„. . . A woolly stemmed and familiar medici- 

Virginia •' i i i • 

Snakeroot nal herb, the long heart-shaped leaves thin 

Arist.dorhid. and green on both sides, and the dull 
Serpcnturia greenisli flowers with curving crooked 
Dull green stems, near the root, as in Asarum, 

June-July ^ ' o. r^ 

tlie calyx curved like the letter S. Some- 
times the flowers are fertilized in the bud without open- 
ing (Britton), but often they trap many of the smaller 
insects— notably gnats who possibly assist fertilization. 
Fruit an ovoid ribbed capsule. 8-20 inches high. Conn. 
and X. Y., south to Fla., west to Mich, and Mo. 

A familiar tall vine in cultivation from 

u c man s ]^g^y York south, trailing most frequently 
Pipe ^ . 1 

Aristoiochia over arbors, porches, and piazzas. Smooth 
Sipho heart-shaped light green leaves, and hook- 

Dull green, shaped flowers, the yellow-green veiny 
purpie=brown ^ tliree-lobed purple-brown 

May-June ' ^ ^ 

throat, resembling a Dutch pipe ; it en- 
traps early small insects — gnats and flies. 10-25 feet 
higli. In rich woods southern Pa., south to Ga., west 
to ]\Iinn. 

The Dutchman's pipe is one of those vigorous, stolid, 
and satisfactory vines, big leaved and curiously flowered, 
which connnends itself to the horticulturist. It re- 
si)onds readily to cultivation. 

Aristoiochia ^ similar vine, but characterized by an 

t(>i)ifnti>m extreme woolliness ; leaves round-heart- 

Duli green, sliaped, veiny, and smaller than those of 
purpie=br«wn ^^ ^.. ^^^^ rp^j ^^^^^^.^ ^ yellower green. 
May June . ^ j & ' 

witli calyx exceedingly woolly, the deep 

pur[)k'-bro\vn throat nearly closed and oblique. N. Car., 
soutli, and west to Mo. 




VirginiacSnaKepoot. Aristolochia seppentana. 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY. Polygonaceae. 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY. PoUjgonacecE. 

Herbs with alternate toothless leaves and swollen- 
jointed stems, usually a stipule or leaflet above each 
joint, and small, generally perfect flowers (or sometimes 
dioecious, monoecious, or polygamous ones) without 
petals, the calyx 2-6 parted. 

^ ^. ^ . The docks are mostly uninteresting: 

Patience Dock , . , , „ ., 

Rumex northern weeds that cumber fertile ground , 

Pntientia and decorate waste places ; many of them 

Green like the patience dock come from the old 

May-June country. This species has smooth broad 

lance-shaped leaves, broadest just above the base, and 

the flowers are green, tiny, inconspicuous and drooping, 

replaced by seed-wings or heart-shaped discs, resembling 

miniature palm-leaf fans. 2-5 feet high. Vt., N. Y., 

and Pa., west to Wis. and Kan. 

n *«r * Dark green smooth leaves, the lowest 

Great Water ° 

Dock very long, a branching, stout stem, and 

Rumex densely flowering, circling clusters ; the 

Briton nica tiny flowers nodding, replaced by seed- 
Jur"A t "^^'^"^^ similar to those of the preceding 
species. 3-6 feet high. In wet situations, 
Me., Pa., west to Minn., Iowa, and Neb. 
Swam Do k ^ smooth deep green species, similar to 
Eumcx *^^® above, with a grooved stem, and long- 

vertirniafitF; stemmed lance-shaped leaves. Flowers in 
Green dense circles, the outline of the seed- wing 

May July top-shaped. 2-5 feet high. Swamps. 

Common fi-om Me., south, and west to Iowa. 
Curled Dock ^his is the very common curled leaf 

Rinn,xrrisi)iiH dock throughout the U. S., a troublesome 
^'■^^" weed from the old country. Leaves wavy 

ugus ^.jj^ ^j^^^ margin, flowers replaced by heart- 
shaped pointed seed-wings 1-4 feet high. 




w 

1 

Winged seed K cnspus 



Winged seed R.Patientia. 



Curled Dock 



Rumex cpispus. 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY. Polygonaceas. 



„.,, ^ , Another weed from the old countr3\ 

Bitter Dock . ^ , n , ^^ i * 

Rnmexohtn^i- commoii 111 fields and waste places. A 

fniivs loose and thinly flowered spike ; the stem 

Oreen rough and stout and the somewhat wavy 

June August ^^^^^^^ oblong and wider than those of 
the otlier species. The seed-wings with a few spines on 
cither side. 2-4 feet high. Me., south, and west to 
Ore. 

^ ,^ r^ , A sea-shore species, an annual ; with 

Golden Dock ^ ' 

Bnmex pert^i- lig^^t green, narrow, lance-shaped leaves, 
cnrioide.'i the plant more or less woolly, and greatly 

Green branched, the circles of the flowers 

July-October ^.^.Q^^.^^g^-i together into a compact spike, 
the seed- wings narrow and pointed, golden yellow in 
autumn, bearing 2-3 long spines on eitlier side. In the 
sand along the shores. Me., south to Va., and from 
Kan. and I\Iinn., west and north. It has been confused 
with R. maritinius of the old countr}'. 

A most troublesome small weed from 
Field or Sheep ^j^^ ^^^^ world, with long-arrowhead- 
J*"^ . . shaped leaves, acid to the taste, and in- 
sella conspicuous flowers in branching spikes, 

Green, Brov/n= green, or later brown-red; the whole plant 
^^^ sometimes turning ruddy in dr}^ sterile 

s""t^ ber fields. It will generally flourish in one 
l^lace for two or three years and then die 
out. The flowers are dioecious, that is, the staminate 
and pistillate ones are found upon separate plants, and 
are therefore fertilized by insects ; bumblebees, honey- 
bees, and the smaller butterflies are the commonest 
visitors. 6-12 inches high. Growing everywhere. 

The genus Polygonum, the name from 7ro/li;5, many, 
and yori>, knee, alluding to the many joints of the 
plants, comprises about twenty-five distinct species, all 
of M-hicli may bo characterized by the term iceed ! They 
are aesthetically uninteresting and many are extremely 
troublesome in the farmer's vegetable garden. They 
mostly bear pink perfect flowers grouped in a slender 
grasslike spike. 



104 




Sheep 5orrel 



Kumex Acetosella. 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY. Polygonaceae. 



A slender species with a weak stem, 
bluish green, small lance-shaped leaves, 
scaly joints, and greenish pink-tipped 
flowers. Common everywhere in culti- 
vated and waste ground. The blue-green 
leaves, alternate, or are in appearance 
clustered, and issue from tiny brown 

A stouter and a yellowish green stem, 
leafy ; the leaves nearly oval, and the 
flowers greenish yellow. A common way- 
side weed north of Tenn. and Ark., east 
and west. The stem of this species is 
noticeably erect with no tendency to 
sprawl. 

A somewhat red-jointed species, at home 
in wet waste places, with shiny lance- 
shaped leaves, and pink or white-green 

Pink or white= Aower-clusters; the upper branchmg stems 

green 



Knotgrass 
Polycfonum 
aviculare 
Greenish 
yellow 
June- 
September 

sheaths. 

Erect Knot- 
weed 

PoUitjonum 

erect urn. 

Greenish 

yellow 

July 

September 

Pennsylvania 
Persicaria 

Polycjonum 



July 
September 

Lady's Thumb 

Polygonum 
Persica via 
Crimson=pink 
June- 
September 



Smartweed 
Water Pepper 

Pnlygduyni. 
Hydropiper 
Green 
July- 
September 



liigli. TiK 
an equally 
greenish flowers 
leaves, not acrid. 
(Webber). 



and flower-stems beset with tiny hairlike 
glands. Common everywhere. It has a 
branching, sprawling habit. 

A smooth-stemmed species, from the old 
world, with similar leaves and crimson- 
pink or deep magenta flowers, the leaves 
rough and generally marked wath a darker 
green triangle in the middle. Very com- 
mon in waste damp places. 

A common weed in all wet waste places, 

indigenous in the far northwest, but 

naturalized from Europe in the east. 

Leaves narrov.^ lance-shaped, very acrid 

and pungent, and fringed with tiny 

bristles. Flowers mostly green in a slim 

long cluster, nodding. An annual 1-2 feet 

indigenous species P. hydropipcroides with 

wide distribution has pink or flesh-colored or 

branching stems, and very narrow 

Common south, and reported in Neb. 



io6 




Smairtweed. 
Polygonum 
hydpopiperoides 



Laidjs Thumb. 
Polygonum Periicapia, 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY. Polygonaceae. 



„ .^ ^ , ^ A perennial si)ecies witli broad-arrow- 
Halberd=Ieaved i , ,. . 

Tearthumb nead-sliaped leaves, and a ridged reclining 

Polygonnm stciii beset wltli fine teeth curved back- 

arifoUnm ward. Leaves long-stemmed, and prickle 

P^nk. greenish ,^erved. Insignificant pink or greenish 

September flower-clusters. In puUing up the weed 

the thumb and fingers are apt to be torn 

witli the saw-edged stems, hence the common name. 

2-G feet high. Common everywhere in wet soil. 

An annual species climbing over other 
Arrow'Ieaved , , • , , -. 

Tearthumb plants, with a weak four-angled reclining 

Polygoniiin stem beset with prickles only at the 

sopittatum angles ; the narrow-arrowhead-shaped 

Ju"**- leaves, far apart, sometimes blunt-pointed, 

September short stemmed, or the smaller leaves with- 
out stems. Flowers five-parted, pink, in 

small dense clusters. Common in low, wet ground, 
everywhere. 

A perfectly smooth species, with slender 
Climbine False i- i • -i t- ^ , , -, , 

Buckwheat <-*l""l^J"g» reddish stem, arrowhead-shaped 
Poimionum du. leaves, and leafy flower-spikes, the tiny 
mctorum var. ilowers grcen-white or pink, the calyx 
scandens five-parted. Climbing over rocks and 

Qr^een=whlte. ^^^^^^^^ g.^^ ^^^^ j^.^j^^ j^ ^^^^.^^ ^^^^^^^^ 

July- common everywhere. A rather decorative 

September vine but often troublesome in the vege- 
table garden. 
Buckwheat '^^^^ familiar buckwheat in cultivation 

Fagopyrum escaped to waysides. From the old world; 
escuientum with aiTowhead-shaped leaves, and green- 
Oreenish igh white flowers sometimes pinkish, the 

June^ ^^^^'^ five-divided, and with eight honey- 

September glands alternating with the stamens ; the 
flowers fertilized mostly by honeybees; 
the honey of a peculiarly fragrant character but dark in 
color. Seed beechnut-shaped. Common everywhere. 
The name iromfagus, beech, and nvftdi, wheat. 



io8 




\W^^^' ^ -"^-=***^ Leaf of Pol^ganumarifolium. 

Arrow-leaved Tearthumb. Polygonum sagitta.tum. 



GOOSE FOOT FAMILY. Chenopodiaceae. 



GOOSEFOOT FAMILY. Chenojjodiacece. 



weed 

ClieiioixxUiim 

(dbion 

Oreen 

June-Septein= 

ber 

or narrower 



Uninteresting lierbs — weeds, many of which are from 
the old country ; with minute, green, perfect flowers 
with a ])ersisting calyx. The spinach and beet are mem- 
bers of this family. 

Lamb's=quar= The family is divided into nine tribes, 
ters, or Pig= chief among which is Chenopodiiim. Some 
of these are quite western, others are of 
the old world and have been introduced in 
the east. Lamb's-quarters is common east 
and west. Leaves mealy- white beneath, 
varying from rhombic-oval to lance-shaped 
the lower ones coarse-toothed. The green 
flower-clusters dense, and dull green. Var. virkle, 
commoner eastward, is less mealy, and has a less dense 
flower-spike (Gray's Manual). 1-4 feet high. Waste 
places. The name from the Greek meaning goose and 
foot, in allusion to the shape of the leaves of some 
species. 

An annual species, from the old country, 
not mealy, but with an aromatic odor. 
Leaves smaller, slender stemmed, and 
deeply subdivided. The flowers green in 
dense heads, the spike leafless, the calyx 
three-parted. 1-2 feet high. In autumn 
the leaves fall off and leave the stem and 
seed-spike naked. C. amlwosioides, or Mexican Tea, is a 
similar introduced species, with a densely flowered leafy 
spike ; the leaves lanceolate. Both are common in waste 
places. C. Botrys found in empty lots, Norfolk Ave., 
Roxbury, Mass. 



Jerusalem Oak 
or Feather 
Geranium 



Vlu 



ixit 



Oreen 

July-Septem=. 

ber 




Jerusalem Oak. 



Chenopodium Botrys. 



AMARANTH FAMILY. Amarantaceas, 



AIMARANTH FAMILY. Amarantacecp. 



Weeds ; some of tliose of a ruddy color, mostly foreign, 
are widelj^ cultivated. The perfect flowers with lapping 
scales or leaflets (generally three) which retain their color 
when dry ; hence the name ^Ajiuxpai^ro<^, meaning un- 
fading. 

An annoying weed, common in culti- 
vated ground and in gardens, with light 
green roughish leaves and stem ; leaves 
long-stemmed and angularly ovate. The 
dull green flowers in a stiff bristly spike. 
1-8 feet high. Common east and west, in- 
troduced from the old world. 

A similar species, but smoother and a 
darker green, with slenderer linear-cylin- 
drical, bending spikes, branching. The 
flowers also similar, but with more acute 
sepals. 2-6 feet high. Apparently indi- 
genous in the southwest, but introduced eastward 
(Gray's Mdnual). Troublesome in gardens. 
Tumble Weed 
Ainaraatiifi <il- 



Pigweed 

Anumintus re- 

troflc.cus 

Green 

August-Octo= 

ber 



Amarantiis 

ddoroHtadiijH 

Green 

August-Octo 

ber 



Alow, smooth, greenish white-stemmed 
species with light green, small obovate 
leaves, obtuse at the point, and with many 
branches. The flowers green, and crowded 
in close small clusters, at the stem of each 
leaf. G-20 inches high. In the west, late in autumn, 
the witliered plant is uprooted and tumbles about in the 
wind, hence the popular name. Common in waste 
places. 



Green 

July-Septem 

ber 







,4 
w 




Pigweed. TumbleWeed.Amairantusaibus.GRAY 

Am2.pa.ntus retpoflexus. op Amarantus graecizans. 



PURSLANE FAMILY. Portulacaceas. 



PURSLANE FAMILY. Portulacacece. 

A small group of low herbs with thick juicy leaves, 
and perfect but unbalanced flowers— that is, with two 
sepals and five petals and as many stamens as petals, 
or more sepals, or an indefinite number of stamens, or 
sometimes the petals altogether lacking. Cross-ferti- 
lization is largely effected by bees and butterflies. Fruit 
a capsule filled with several or many shell-shaped or 
kidney-shaped seeds. 

An annual ; a fleshy-leaved prostrate 
Purslane or ^^^^^^ naturalized from the old world, and 
P^)rtuhtca commonly found in gardens and door- 

oleracea yards. Stems thick and often a terra- 

Yellow cotta pink, leaves dark green, thick, and 

*'""^" round-end wedge-shaped. The tiny, soli- 

September ,, n -^^ rt i. i 

tary yellow flowers with five petals open 

only in the morning sunshine, 7-12 stamens. The 
branches hug the ground and spread or radiate in an 
ornamental circle ; they are 3-10 inches long. In early 
days the plant was used as a pot herb. It is indigenous 
in the southwest, but is firmly established in the north 
where it flourishes under any and all conditions, and has 
become a very troublesome weed. 

A charmingly delicate flower (rarely 
tZl"o,^aTh^ quite white) of early spring, distinguished 
gltilca for its flush of pale crimson-pink, and its 

Pale pink or veins of deeper pink starting from a yel- 
white low base. The deep green leaves are linear 

Marc - ay ^^, broader, the two upper ones located 
at about the middle of the plant-stem. The flower has 
five petals and but two sepals. Its golden stamens de- 
velop before the stigma is mature, making cross-ferti- 
lization a certainty. Its visitors in search of pollen and 
nectar are mostly the bumblebees Bombus vagans and 
B. pennsylvanicus, the beelike flies called Bombylidce, 
and the bees of the genus Halictus and Andrenidce \ 
also among the butterflies are Colias pliUodice, yellow, 
and Papilio ajax, buff and black. Stem 6-13 inches 
high. In open moist woods, from Me., south to Ga., 
and southw^est to Tex. 

114 




Purslane. 1^^ 
Poptulaca oleracea. 



Spring Beauty. 
ClaytoniaVirginicaL 



PINK FAMILY. Caryophyllaceas. 



A species similar in all respects except 
Claytonia ^^^^^ ^^^^ leaves are broader, lance-shaped, 

CarulniHina . i 

and the basal ones are quite obtuse ; the 

flowers are also fewer and smaller. Me., south to N. 
Car., among the mountains, and west to Minn, and Mo. 
Named for John Clayton, an early American botanist. 



PINK FA:\IILY. CaryoplujUacece. 

Annual or perennial herbs generally characterized by 

smooth stems and swollen joints, opposite-growing leaves 

without teeth, and regular, perfect flowers, with five 

(rarely four) sepals, the same number of petals, and 

twice as many stamens. Fertilized by bees and moths. 

An annual escaped from gardens, nat- 
Deptford Pink ,. ^ „ ^ ^ -^i i- ,^ 

Dianthus uralized from Europe, with light green 

Armeria narrow, erect leaves, hairy and small ; 

Crimson.pink and clustered crimson-pink, white-dotted 

*'""^~ flowers whose five petals are toothed or 

jagged-edged, resembling Sweet-William. 

6-18 inches high. Fields and waysides Me. to Md., west 

to ^lich. Common eastward ; found in Lexington, Mass. 

-, . . „. , A perennial (growing from a matlike 

Maiden Pink ^ v& o 

Dianthus base) smooth or somewhat hoary, escaped 

deltoidi'.-i from gardens, naturalized from Europe. 

Crimson=pink Leaves small and narrow lance-shaped, 
June-August ^^.^^^ j^^^ j.^^^^ crimson-pink or white- 
pink flowers bloom singly, and have .broader petals 
which are i)inked at the edge. 6-12 inches high. The 
face of the flower more nearlj' resembling Sweet- 
William. In fields and waste places. N. H., Mass., and 
nortliern N. Y. to Mich. Found in Campton, N. H. 

A very common perennial species, natu- 
Bouncing Bet ^..^jj^ed from Europe, the flowers of which 
or Soapwort , ^ -, n , ■ \ . 

Saponaria '^^^'^ ^^^ old-fasluoned spicy odor ; they are 

offirinalis delicate magenta-pink and white, scallop- 

Pale magenta= ti})ped, and grow in clusters, the single 
J'"'^_ blossom remotely resembling a pink. 

September I^'^'^ives ovate, 3-5 ribbed, and smooth. 

Stem, thick jointed, 1-2 feet high. Com- 
mon in waste places Found in Nantucket. 
1x6 




Bouncing Bet. 



Sd-pondna. ofhcinali^ 







Deptfopd Pink. 
Di^nthus Apmepja^. 



Maiden Pink. 
Dis.nthusdeltoide3., 



PINK FAMILY. Caryophyl/aceas. 



Tlic lancc-sliaped leaves and the stem 
Campion '^^'^ fine-hairy ; the former in distinct 

Sih'iir sfeiiafa clusters of four. The flowers are white, 
^^'hite arran<^ed in a loose terminal spike, star- 

June-Aujrust ^ij.^p^.^i j^^^^ fdnged-edged, the stamens 
very long. A beaiitifnl and delicate wild flower fre- 
quently visited by CoU((s philodice, the small yellow 
butterfly , and many moths. 2-3 feet high. Common in 
wooded slopes, from K. I,, south to S. Car., and west to 
Minn. 

„,.,^^. , A very low species with a somewhat 

Wild Pink . , , . , . T , , 

Silcnr Ponisyi- sticky-hany character immediately be- 

vauini neatli the flowers, most of the blunt 

Crimson=pink lance-shaped leaves clustered at the base ; 

ay une ^j^^^ upper leaves small. The crimson-pink 

flowers witli somewhat wedge-shaped petals. The calyx 

tubular and adapted to the tongues of butterflies and 

moths, by which the flower is cross-fertilized. 4-9 

inches high. Me., south to Ga., west to southern N. Y., 

Penn., and Ky. 

^ Adelicatelv beautiful, foreign, perennial 

Bladder . , . \ , , ,. , . 

Campion species which has become naturalized in 

Silene Cum- this country. The deep green leaves are 

bahi^ smooth and ovate-lance-shaped. Theflow- 

^*''*^ ers are white with the five petals deeply 

June August .111,1 1 rj . 

two-lobed ; the pale green flower-cup is 

greatly inflated, almost globular in shape, and beauti- 
fully veined with green markings not unlike those of a 
citron melon. The ten anthers (on long stamens) are 
sepia l)n)wn A\hen mature. 8-18 inches high. In mead- 
ows and moist hollows beside the road. Me., south to 
N. J., west to 111. 

_, -^ homely but curious annual species 

Sleep V 1 11 rt 

Catchfiy wliose small flowers open only for a short 

Silvnr Antir- time in sunshiiie. The joints of the stem 

'■'"■"" ai-e glutinous (hence the common name), 

P'"'^ and evidently prevent anv stealing of the 

June- , , . " ^ 

September "ectar by creeping insects (such as ants) 

which are useless as pollen carriers. The 

flower-calyx is ovoid with the pink petals above insigni- 




Bladde^^;^^ T Camoion. SUrp^ Campion. 
Silene Cucubalus. Silene 5teUata>, 



PINK FAMILY. Caryophyllaceae, 



ficant. 10-25 inches high. Common in waste places 

everywhere. 

Like the hladder campion ; a foreign 
Night=flower= .,, , x-r n i i i 

in Cat'hfi ' ^pt^t^ies with a beautifully marked calyx 

Siicw Hurt I- resembling spun glass, but smaller, the 

flora jietals similar. The plant is hairy-sticky, 

^•^■^^ the leaves blunt lance-shaped. The white 

g" ^" . flowers are delicately fragrant, and open 

only at dusk, closing on the following 

morning. Probably it is exclusively fertilized by moths, 

as many such visitors may be seen sipping at the newly 

opened blossoms in the early evening. 1-3 feet high. 

Common in waste places ever3^where. Found in Camp- 

ton, N. H. 

„ . , ^ A charming plant naturalized from the 
Evening Lvch= . , 

nis or White "^*^ country, with densely fine-hairy, 
Campion ovate-lance-shaped leaves and stem, both 

Lyciuiisaiha dark green; the leaves opposite. The 

^I"*?. . .. sweet-scented flowers are white, closely 

July-October , i- , ' j 

resembling those of Silene noctiflora; in 

fact the habit and form of these two species are almost 
identical. Both open their blossoms toward evening 
and close tiiem during the following morning. The 
white petals are deeply cleft and crowned at the base 
with miniature petallike divisions. The calyx is in- 
flated, and often stained maroon-crimson along the ribs, 
which are sticky-hairy ; after becoming still more in- 
flated it withers and leaves exposed the vase-shaped 
light brown seed-vessel, pinked at the small opening 
above. 1-2 ftn^t high. In waste places and borders of 
fields, from M(>. to N. J. and N. Y. Probably farther 
west. Found at Phillip's Beach, Marblehead, Mass. 
Corncockle '^ densely hairy straight-branched an- 

Agrosicmmd nual, adventive from Europe, and found 
(!ith,i<in mostly in grain fields. The magenta flow^- 

July^"*"" ers, not brilliant, but broad and showy, 

September ^^'^^^^ ^'^'^T ^^"g linear sepals much ex- 
ceeding the petals in length. Fertilized 
by butterflies and moths. 1-3 feet high. Common or 
occasional throughout the country. Reported in Neb. 
(Webber). 

120 




u r 

FveninQ Lychnis. Lychnis alba.. 




CbrnCocKle 



Agpostemma Oithago. 



PINK FAMILY. Caryophyllaceds. 



Ragged Robin 
or Cuckoo 
Flower 

Lychnis Flos- 
cnculi 
Pink or 
crimson 
June- 
September 



A slender perennial, also adventive 
from Europe, found in old gardens. The 
plant is downy below, and slightly sticky 
above, the leaves slender lance-shaped 
above, and few, but blunt lance-shaped be- 
low. The pink, or crimson, or light violet 
petals of the ragged-looking flowers are 
deeply cut into four lobes each, the two 
lateral lobes very small. Fertilized in 
great measure by bees and butterflies, the bumblebee, 
perhaps, the most frequent visitor. 1-2 feet high. Com- 
mon in wet and waste ground, from Me., south to N. J., 
and southwest to Penn. 

A tiny annual widely branched and 
rough-downy, naturalized from Europe ; 
with small ovate leaves and miniature 
white flowers, the sepals of which are 
rather long, and rough. 2-8 inches high. 
Common in dry sandy places everywhere. 
Another similar tiny, dainty plant, but 
with arctic proclivities, having much 
larger flowers with translucent white 
petals notched at the tip. The crowding 
leaves are linear and threadlike, the plant 
grows in a dense tuft from the root, in 
crevices of rocks. 2-5 inches high. On 
Mt. Washington and the higher peaks of 
N. Y., Penn., Va., and N. Car. Also on river banks at 
Bath, Me., and on I\It. Desert Island, and near Middle^ 
town. Conn. On Mt. Washington, where it is called 
the " Mountain Daisy," it snuggles close to the rocks in 
sheltered situations, but holds its own, almost, if not 
quite alone, on the highest points of the bleak Presi- 
dential range, from 5000 to 6290 feet above tide- water, 
where snow lasts during eight months of the year. 



Thyme=leaved 
Sandwort 

Arenarid 
serphyllifolia 
White 
May-August 



Mountain 
Sandwort or 
Mountain 
Daisy 

Arenaria 
Grcrnlnndica 
White 
June-August 



? 



122 




Fieldfl i^lflChickweed. 

Ra^gged Robin. 
CeralVfium a^pvenae. Lychnis Flos-cuculi. 



PINK FAMILY. Caryophyllaceas. 



The commonest weed of Europe, most 
Chickweed ,,.i(|eiy distributed through North Amer- 

Sti'lhirid 1111(11(1 "^ ° 

White ica, but possibly indigenous in the farther 

April October north. A weak-stemmed low-lying an- 
nual, with small ovate pointed light green leaves, slightly 
woolly stems, and minute white flowers with five i^etals 
almost cleft in twain, and five larger green sepals much 
longer than the petals. 2-4 inches high. On damp 
ground everywhere. An especial favorite of birds and 
chickens. 

A tall very slender species with many 
stitch wort branches, the stem with rough angles, 
Stella rid and the light green leaves small and lance- 

longifoiid shaped. The tiny flowers like white stars. 

White ^yj^i;^ flye white petals so deeply cleft that 

^^' " ^ they appear as ten, sepals nearly equalling 

the petals in length. 10-20 inches high. In wet grassy 
places everywhere. Reported in Neb. (Webber). 

A similar species with smaller lance- 
Stitchwort shaped leaves widest just above their base, 
Stella rid a four-anglcd stem, and white flowers 

graminea with deeply cleft petals. 12-18 inches 

^*^'*^ high. In fields and grassy waysides from 

^^' " ^ Me. to western N. Y. and N. J. Intro- 

duced from Europe, but said to be indigenous in Canada. 

A bothersome weed common in culti- 
Larger Mouse= ^..^^^^^ f^^^^^g^ naturafized from Europe, but 
ceraxtium probably indigcuous in the farther north. 

vuitiatiDH Stem hairy and clammy, leaves oblong. 

White The somewhat loosely clustered white 

^^^* .«u flowers with two-cleft petals, but with 

slioi't sepals. 6-15 inches high. 

A low, rather large-flov\^ered, handsome 



September 



Field 



Cerastinm 



Chickweed «pecies, the broad petals also deeply cleft, 
the sepals very short, the stems downy or 
smooth, and the leaves rather broad lin- 

^^*^'/^ ear. 4-10 inches high. In dry or rocky 

^'^' " " -^ situations, Me., south to Ga., and west to 

]\Io., Nob., and Cal. 



124 




ChicKweed. 
Stelldria. media.. 



' ^^"V-^ Long-leaved 

^ ^ Stitchwort. 

Mounta^in Sandwort. ^^^'^^f*^. 

ArenariaQrcenlandiea longifolid. 



WATER=LILY FAMILY. Nymphaeceae. 



A eoininoii little low plant in sandy 
Sand Spurry ^ , ^. ^i i. 

Buda rubru D '^^'^^^e places soiiietimes near the coast 

Thsa rubra L. but not Oil the sliore. Leaves linear and 

Pink flat, in clusters about the frail stem. Tiny 

June-August flowers, crimson-pink, sepals glandular- 

hairv. The plants grow in dense company. 2-G inches 

high. Roadsides and waste places. Me. to Va., west to 

western N. Y. 



WATER-LILY FAMILY. Nymphceacpcp.. 

Aquatic perennial herbs, with floating leaves, and soli- 
tary flowers with 3-5 sepals, numerous petals, and dis- 
tinct stigmas or these united in a radiate disc. Fertilized 
by bees, beetles, and aquatic insects. 

The common and beautiful white pond- 
Water=Lily 

Numrihiva ^^^^ found in still waters everywhere. 

odoratd Leaves dark green, pinkish beneath, ovate- 

White round, cleft at the base up to the long 

''""^' stem. The white flowers, often 5 inches 

in diameter when fully developed, open in 
the morning and close at noon or later ; they are fre- 
quently pink-tinged ; the golden stamens and anthers 
are concentric, and are luminous in quality of color. 
They mature after the stigma does, and cross-fertiliza- 
tion occurs by the agency of bees and beetles in general. 
The flower yields pollen only. The var. rosea, in south- 
eastern Mass., and Nantucket, is deeply pink-tinged. 
The var. iiihior is small, with flowers less than three 
inches broad. 

A common odorless yellow pond-lily 
Yellow Pond= c -, .^ ■ ^, ^ •., ^, 

Lj, ^^ louiid often in the same water with the 

Spatter=dock preceding species. With ovate leaves or 
Xujjhdr (((irt-na broader, and small, green and j^ellow cup- 
Golden yellow shaped flowers, with 6 green sepals, some- 
May- 
September times purple-tinged, yellowish inside ; the 

petals yield nectar ; they are small, nar- 
row, thick, and yellow— stamenlike. The stigma is a pale 
ruddy or deep golden yellow-rayed disc, beneath which 
the undeveloped anthers are crowded. On the first 
opening of the flower there is a triangular orifice over 

126 




Water-Lily. 
Nymphaea odorata. 



Yellow Pond-Lily. 
Nuphap advena. 



CROWFOOT FAMILY. Ranunculaceas. 



the stigma so small that an entering insect must touch 
the stigma. On the following day the flower expands 
fully and the anthers beneath the stigma unfold, spread 
outward, and expose their pollen. Cross-fertilization is 
thus insured, and is generally effected by means of the 
bees of the genus Halictus, and (so says Prof. Robertson) 
the beetle named Donacia piscatrix. A very common 
and familiar plant in stagnant water, with stouter stem 
and coarser leaves than those of the preceding species. 
Var. minus is a slenderer form tlie smaller flower of 
which has a crimson stigma. Northern Vt. to Mich, 
and Penn. 

This is a very slender species, with flow- 
Small Yellow ^j.g scarcely 1 inch wide. Sepals only 
Nuphar three. The stigma disc, dark red. In 

Kalmiunutn pouds and sluggisli streams, Me. to south- 
Golden yellow ern N. Y., Penn., and west to Minn. 
June- 
September 



CROWFOOT FAMILY. Ranunculacece. 

A large family of perennial or annual herbs, witli gen- 
erally regular but sometimes irregular flowers ; with 
stamens and pistil, or with staminate and pistillate flow- 
ers on different plants ; 3-15 petals, or none at all ; in the 
last case the sepals petallike and colored. Generally fer- 
tilized by the smaller bees, butterflies, and the beelike 
flies. 

A most beautiful trailing vine commonly 
Bower ^ found draped over the bushes in copses 

Clematis ^"^ '^^ moist roadsides. The leaves dark 

Virginiana green, veiny, with three coarsely toothed 
Greenish leaflets ; the flat clusters of small flowers 

July-AuKust ^^^^'^ ^°^^* greenish white sepals and no 
petals, polygamously staminate and pistil- 
late on different plants ; cross-fertilized by bees, the bee- 
like flies {BomhjjUus), and the beautiful and brilliantly 
colored flies of the tribe SyrjJhkke. In October the 
flowers are succeeded by the gray plumy clusters of the 
withered styles (still adherent to the seed-vessels), which 
128 




>owen \Purple Virgins Bower*. 

Clematis Virginiana.. Clemdtis verticillaris. 



CROWFOOT FAMILY. Ranuncalaceae, 



appear under the glass like many tiny twisted tails. 

The plants presenting this hoary appearance gave rise to 

the j)opular name, Old Man's Beard. The vine supports 

itself by a twist in the leaf-stem, the latter revolving a 

number of times in the course of growth. Stem about 

12 feet long. Waysides and river-banks. Me., south to 

Ga., and west to Kan., Neb., and S. Dak. 

^ ^, A southern species with solitarv, thick. 

Leather Flower , ^, , ,, , -. ^ „ ,^\ 

citiimtis leathery, bell-shaped, dull jDurple flowers 

Vior)ia without petals, the jnu-ple sepals about 1 

Dull purple inch long. Tlie three or more leaflets with 
May-July unbroken edges or lobed. In early autumn 

the hoary ])lume is brownish. Southern Pa., south to 
(xa. and Tenn., and west to Ohio. 

Purple Virgin's ^ ^'ather rare species found in rocky 
Bower places among the northern hills, with 

Cltmatis leaves similar to those of C. Virginiana, 

verticiUaris and sliowy light purple flowers, downy in- 
Light purple g-jg ^^^^^ outside, sometimes over 3 inches 

Aiay June 

broad : tlie four purple, finely veined se- 
pals expanding only to a cup-shape. The plumes brown- 
gray. Me, and Vt., south to Va., and west to Minn. 
Long=fruited ^ slender tall species the leaves and 
Anemone ^t^m of which are silky haired, leaves dark 

Aiwmane green and veiny, ornamentally cut (or lobed) 

cyiindrira into 3-5 parts. The solitary flowers without 

June"AugusT'^*^^^^^^' ^^^* ^^'^^^^ ^"^ gveeni^X^ white sepals, 
are. set on a tall stem. The fruit a nar- 
row, cvliudrical, burrlike head 1 inch or more in length. 
2-6 flowers are borne on each plant. 18-24 inches liigh. 
Common in dry woods and by wooded roadsides, from 
the lower Androscoggin Valley, Me., Vt., N. Y., and 
northern N. J., west to Kan., Neb., and S. Dak. The 
name, Greek, meaning a flower shaken by the wind. 
Thimble=weed ^^^^^ ^^ *^^^ common tall anemone of 
or Tall ^^ooded roadsides and banks. The leaves 

Anemone and stem are more or less hairy and deep 

1'iZ'niana ^'^'-'^ ^''^^'^' ^''^ ^^^''^^ COUSpicUOUsly 

Greenish" white ^'^"^^^J" ^he flowers generally have five in- 
July-August conspicuous sepals white or greenish white 
inside and greener outside; the flower- 
130 




Thimble-weed. Large White-floweped Anemone. 
Anemone Virginidna. Anemone piparia. 



CROWFOOT FAMILY. Ranuncutaceas. 



bead usually 1 inch or less across, is succeeded by the 
enlarged fruit-head similar in shape to, and about as 
large as, a good-sized thimble. Fertilized by the bum- 
blebees, the smaller bees (among them the honeybee), 
and the brilliant little flies of the genus Sijrpliidce. 2-3 
feet high. Me. , south to S. Car. , west to Kan. , Neb. , and 
S. Dak. Found in Campton, N. H. 

A slender, tall, and handsome plant in- 
flowered ' ^'^ termediate between the two preceding 
Anemone species, with large white flowers maturing 

Anemone earlier than those of the foregoing, and 

riparia with smoother stem and leaves ; the latter 

VVh'"t" thin, and unequally cleft into coarsely and 

June-July sharply toothed segments. The five thin 

sepals generally obtuse and a strong white. 
The short cylindrical fruit-head slenderer than that of 
A. Virginiana. 12-35 inches high. Banks of rivers and 
streams, and on rocky banks, from the St. John River, 
Fort Kent, Me., Willoughby Lake and western Vt., 
Uxbridge, Mass., to western N. Y. and Sullivan Co., 
N. Y. (M. L. Fernald, Rhodora, vol. i., p. 51). Found 
on the borders of the pond near the Arondack Spring, 
Saratoga, N. Y. 

A northern, rather coarse stemmed spe- 
Canada . ' , , , . , , i 

Anemone ^^^®' ^'^^'J much branched, with broad. 

Anemone sharply toothed, three-cleft leaves; their 

Canadensis under surfaces rather hairy. The five 
White white sepals quite blunt, and the flower 1- 

ay- ugus ^j inches broad. The fruit-head globular. 
1-2 feet high. Low moist grounds, from western N. 
Eng., south to Pa., and west to Kan. and S. Dak. 
Common in western Yt., along the slopes of Lake 
Champlain. 



132 




Ca.na.diajT'Anemone. 
Anemone CAnAdfensis, 



CROWFOOT FAMILY. Raaunculaceas. 



A beautiful, delicate, and low little plant 
common in the early spring in woodlands, 
with deep green leaves of five divisions, 
and frail white, or magenta-tinged blos- 
soms of from 4-9 petallike sepals ; the 
solitary flower frequently 1 inch across. 
Cross-fertilized by the early bees and bee- 
like flies (Bomhylius). Common on the 
borders of the woods. 4-8 inches high. Me., south to 
Ga. , and west to the Rocky Mts. 

The earliest flower of spring, appearing 
before its leaves, and generally found half 
hidden among the decaying leaves of au- 
tumn that cover the woodland floor. The 
blossom about | inch broad, w^th 6-12 
lustrous sepals varying in color from lilac 
white to pale purple and light violet, be- 
neath which are three leaflets closely resembling a calyx, 
or the outer floral envelop. The three-lobed olive green 
leaves last throughout the winter, the newer ones to- 
gether with stems and flower-stems are extremely hairy. 
About 3 inches high. Common from the seaboard west 
to Minn, and Mo. 

This is a species close to the preceding 
acutiloba ^^® ^^^ often passing into it. The leaves 

are three- or sometimes five-lobed, with 
acute tips, and the three little leaflets beneath the 
flower are also pointed. Range the same as H. triloba, 
in fact, both species are often found together in the same 
woods. 



Wood 
Anemone 
or Wind 
Flower 

Anemone 
qninquefoJia 
White 
April-June 



Liverwort or 

Hepatica 

Hepatica 

triloba 

Lilac white, 

pale purple 

March-May 



1 34 



Wood Anemone 

Anemone quinquefoliaL r 




Livepwopt 
Hepatica triloba. \ii 



CROWFOOT FAMILY. Ranunculaceas. 



A frail and delicate spring flower, 
^Zmmid^la"^ usually white but rarely magenta-pink- 
thalictroides tinged, which often blooms in company 
White, or with Anemone quinquifolia, but readily 

pink=tinged distinguished from it by the 2-3 flowers 
March-May .^_^ ^ cluster, the other bearing a solitary 
blossom. The deep olive green leaves in groups of 
three closely resemble those of the meadow rue ; they 
are long-stemmed. The flower with usually six delicate 
white petallike sepals, but there are variations of from 
5-10. The flowers are perfect (with orange-yellow 
anthers), and are probably cross-fertilized largely by the 
early bees and beelike flies. 5-9 inches high. Common 
everywhere in thin woodlands. 

Early Meadow A beautiful but not showy, slender 
Rue meadow rue wdth the staminate and pistil- 

Thaiirtrum j^^^ flowers on separate plants. The 
Green terra- bluish olive green leaves lustreless, com- 
cotta pound, and thinly spreading ; the droop- 

April May ing staminate flowers with generally four 
small green sepals, and long stamens tipped with terra- 
cotta, and finally madder purple. The pistillate flowers 
inconspicuously pale green. An airy and graceful 
species, common in thin woodlands. 1-2 feet high. 
Me., south to Ala., and west to Mo., S. Dak., and Kan. 

The commonest species, remarkable for 

l^yg its starry plumy clusters of white flowers, 

Thalicfrum lacking petals, but with many conspicuous 

polygamum threadlike stamens. The flowers are 

. . '*^ i)olvgamous, that is, with staminate, 

July-Septem- . T-f^ , j ^ 4. -, 

l,gr pistulate, and perfect ones on the same or 

different plants. The leaves are com- 
pound, with lustreless blue-olive green leaflets ; the 
stout stem light green or magenta-tinged at the branches. 
The decorative, misty white flower-clusters are often a 
foot long ; the delicate-scented staminate flowers are a 
decided tone of green- white. This species is an especial 
favorite of many bees, moths, and smaller butterflies, by 
which it is cross-fertilized. 3-10 feet high. Common 
in wet meadows from Me., west to Ohio, and south. 

136 



:>^' 



.vV 






m^'X 



,AiL 






-i^.. 






s 




Tall Meadow Rue. Thalictrum pol^gamun\ 



CROWFOOT FAMILY. Ranunculaceae. 



The stem of this species is generally 

Purplish stained with madder purple, but some- 

Meadow Rue '^ ^ 

Thalictrnm times it is green with only a slight ma- 
purjiurascens genta tinge in parts. The leaves are thick, 
Green=purple Jeep blue-olive green and similar in shape 
June-August ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ preceding species. The 
flowers are green, with a brown-purple tinge, and are 
also polygamous. 3-6 feet high. On the borders of 
wooded hills, and copses, in dry situations. Middle N. 
Eng.. south, and west to S. Dak., Neb., and Ariz. 

An insignificant marsh species closely 
g ^ ^'^ . allied to the buttercup, with yellow flowers 

Ranuncvhis | inch broad, the 5-7 petals rather narrow. 
ambigens The lancc-shaped leaves almost if not quite 

Yellow toothless, and clasping the jointed stem, 

ugus ^^.j^j(^]^ often sends out roots from the 
joints ; the lower leaves contracted into a broad stem 
clasping the plant stem. 1-2^ feet high. Common in 
wet places, from Me., south to Ga., and west to Minn, 
and Mo. Name from the classic Rana, a frog, referring 
to the marshy home of the genus. 

Rather an attractive biennial species, 
SmalUflowered , o i , • i - 1 ji j 

Crowfoot commonly found beside the woodland 

RannncniHs brook, the lower leaves of which are some- 

aborthms what kidney-shaped, and the upper ones 

Yellow slashed like those of the buttercup, but 

very moderately so ; the leaves bright 

green and smooth. The small flowers with globular 

heads, and reflexed or drooping yellow petals ; the head 

about \ inch broad. 6-24 inches high. In shady and 

moist ground, everywhere. The var. eucydus (Fernald) 

is a common form in Me., N. H., and Mass., with slender 

and zigzagged stem, and thin leaves, the lower, rounded 

ones with narrowed cleft ; the flowers are smaller. 

Found at Ammonoosuc Lake, Crawford Notch, by J. 

]\L Greenman, and at Orono, Waterville, and Dover, 

Me., by M. L. Fernald. (See Rhodora, vol. i., p. 52.) 



138 




Water Plantain. ^Small-flowerecl Crowfoot 

Ranunculus ambisens. Raffunculus aboptivusvdr.eucyclus. 



CROWFOOT FAMILY. Ranunculaceae. 



A woodland crowfoot distinguished by 
Crowfoot ^^^ remarkably hooked seed-vessels which 

Ranunculus are gathered in a cluster about | inch 
recurvafux broad. The light yellow flowers with the 

Light yellow calyx (flower-envelop) curved backward, 

pri une ^^^^ ^^ .^^^ usually five small petals, are 
rather inconspicuous. The stem and olive green leaves 
are hairy, the latter generally three-lobed, veiny, and 
toothed, but the root leaves are seldom divided. 10-20 
inches high. CorAmon in woods everywhere. 

Another woodland or hillside species, 

ar y u er- ^yj^h ^gep yellow flowers almost an inch 
Rajiunculus broad. The plant rather low, with fine 
fascicnkiris silky hairs on stem and leaf, the latter 
Deep yellow ^^^^.^ green, and deeply lobed, with 3-5 

P" - ay divisions. The flower with often more 
than five petals which are rather narrow ; the fruit-head 
about ^ inch in diameter, wdth a slender curved spine to 
each seed-vessel. 6-13 inches high. Common on the 
borders of wooded hills, in the spring, from Me., south to 
S, Car., and west. The first buttercup of the year ; all 
are fertilized mostly by early bees, flies, and the smaller 
butterflies, notably Colias philodicey but the commoner 
visitors are the small bees of the genus Halichis. 

This is the next buttercup of the spring, 
Buttercup ^^^^ ^^^ confined to swamps and low wet 

Ranunculus grounds. The flowers are deep yellow and 
septentrionaiis fully 1 inch broad. The hollow stem is 
Deep yellow generally smooth, but sometimes fine- 
Late April July ? • /, 1 , J- J J 
hany ; the deep green leaves are divided 

into three leaflets, each distinctly stemmed, and three- 
lobed, or only the terminal one stemmed ; the uppermost 
leaves are long, narrow, and toothless. This buttercup 
is very variable in both size and foliage, its branches are 
upright or reclining, and its leaves coarsely cleft and 
divided. 1-3 feet high, or more. Common in moist 
rich ground everywhere. Like most of the other but- 
tercups, this one depends mainly upon the beelike flies 
{Bombijliu.s) and the Httle bees of the family Andrenidc^ 
for fertilization. 



140 




Swamp Buttercup. Ranunculus septentrionalis. 



CROWFOOT FAMILY. Ranunculaceas, 



A species of a similar character, the leaves 

tercuD frequently white-spotted or blotched ; the 

Ranunculus deep yellow flowers nearly 1 inch broad, 

repeals blooming a little later. The seed-vessel 

Deep yellow tipped with a short stout spine, thus differ- 

"^ " ^ ing from the rather deciduous long 

straight spine of R. septentrionalis. This buttercup 

creeps or spreads over the ground by runners. Roadsides 

and waste places or low grounds, generally near the 

coast, and mainly introduced from Europe, but also 

indigenous. 

„ . . ^ Often, and improperly, called a butter- 

Bristly Crow= ' ^ , , . 1, , 

jjjjj^ cup ; the flower has a thimble-shaped. 

Ranunculus green head formed of the pistils, and in- 

Pennsylvanicus significant, round yellow petals surround 

^^"^'^ it. It is small, scarcely 4 inch across, and 

June-August . ^ • ^i "1 ^ ^ 4. 

does not in the remotest degree suggest 

the cup-shape of the buttercup. The stem is remarkably 

stiff-hairy, and irritating to the touch ; it is hollow, 

coarse, light green, and leafy to the top. Leaves light 

green, three-divided, with each division three-lobed, 

cut and slashed like E. acris, and hairy above and 

beneath. 1-2 feet high. Common in w^et situations, 

from Me., south to Ga., and west. 

„ .. „ ^ A small erect plant proceeding from a 

Bulbous But=. , ,, , ^ . , , . 

tercup bulbous base or root, with hairy stem and 

RaniDicnlns leaf, and large bright, 1 inch wide, deep 

^"""'•^■"■^' or golden yellow flowers, the green sepals 

Golden or deep ^f ^^.^^^^^^ ^^,^ strongly reflexed. The leaves 

yellow T n . , 

May-July ^^'^ "^*^P green, decoratively cut and 

slashed, three-divided, each division three- 
lobed, with only the terminal one stemmed, the lateral 
ones nearly if not absolutely stemless. 8-16 inches high. 
Roadsides and fields ; abundant in N. Eng., and natural- 
ized from Europe. Miiller records the fact that over 60 
different species of insects visit these old world-butter- 
cups, i. e., R. repens, R. bidhosus, and R. acris. 



142 




Leaf and flower show ingreflexed 
sepals of_ Ranunculus bulbosus; 



Bristly Crowfoot. RaLnunculusPennsylvanicus. 



CROWFOOT FAMILY. Ranunculaceas. 



This is the common buttercup of fields 

Eanuncuha; ^^^ meadows, which has become natural- 

acris ized from the old country. The stem is 

Golden or deep hairy, branched and less hairy above, and 

yellow deep ffreen. The leaves deep ^reen with 

May-August ^ ^^^^ , ,. .. ^ ^i 

3-7 stemless divisions, and these are again 

correspondingly divided into linear segments ; they are 
cut and slashed in a most decorative and complicated 
fashion, only the upper ones showing the simple three- 
parted figure. The flowers, nearly 1 inch broad, are 
lustrous light golden yellow within, and light yellow 
without, the 5 broad petals overlapping. The flowers 
are set on long slender stems, and sometimes continue 
to bloom until frost. 2-3 feet high. Common every- 
where, especially upon moist meadows. The variety 
named R. acris, var. Steveni (Lange), is similar except in 
the shape of its leaf, which has very broad instead of 
linear segments, which impart to the plant a thicker 
and heavier appearance in the field. This variety is the 
common form in northern N. Eng. Found at Alstead 
Centre, and Jefferson, N. H. (M. L. Fernald in Rhodora, 
vol. i, p. 227). 

Marsh Mari= -^ thick and hollow-stemmed stocky 

gold plant common in marshes in spring, with 

Ccdtha palustris YQ-and or kidney -shaped deep green leaves 

Golden yellow obscurely blunt-toothed, and brilliant 
April-May , , „ ^ , ,. , 

golden yellow flowers resembling butter- 
cups. Often wrongly called cowslips. The flowers are 
perfect with 5-9 petallike sepals, and numerous stamens ; 
they are honey-bearing, and although the anthers and 
stigmas mature simultaneously, cross-fertilization is 
favored by the anthers opening outwardly, and the 
outermost ones farthest from the stigmas opening first 
(MiiUer). The flowers are chiefly fertilized by the 
beautiful yellow flies belonging to the family Syrphidce. 
The classical name Caltha means cup, and pains a 
marsh— marsh-cup. 8-24 inches high. Common in wet 
meadows, from Me., south to S. Car., and west. 



144 



*^^ 




h 



Marsh Mangold. 



Caltha palustris. 




^Jall Buttercup. 
Ranunculus acpis. 



CROWFOOT FAMILY. Ranunculaceae. 



A tiny woodland plant whose bitter 
Goldthread goklen yellow threadlike roots contribute 
Coptic trifoiia ^^ ^j^^ medicinal stock of the old-fashioned 
White 
May-July country housewife. The evergreen leaves 

are lustrous dark green, three-lobed, scal- 
loped, finely toothed, and long-stemmed. The solitary 
flower terminating a long slender stem has 5-7 white 
sepals, and has many obscure little club-shaped petals, 
15-25 white stamens with golden anthers, and 3-7 pistils 
on slender stalks. The strange petals terminating the 
minute cuplike discs are really nectaries intended to 
minister to thirsty insects. According to C. M. Weed 
the flower is cross-fertilized mostly by a fungus gnat — 
a little two-winged fly, and occasionally by a small 
elongated beetle called Anaspis flavipennis. 3-6 inches 
high. In bogs of woodlands or shad}^ pastures, from 
Me., south to Md., and west to Minn, The name from 
the Greek io cut, in reference to the cut-leaf. 
Columbine ^^ most delicate but hardy plant com- 

Aqniii'ijia mon on rocky hillsides and the borders of 

Caiiadeusis wooded glens. The long-stemmed com- 
Scarlet, yellow pQ^nd leaves are light olive green, with 
j^,, three-lobed leaflets. The flowers are 

graded from j'ellow through scarlet to red 
at the tip of the spurs. The petals are the 5 tubes cul- 
minating in the spurs, and the 5 sepals are the spreading 
ruddy yellow leaflets grading into a greenish j'ellow, 
situated between the tubes. Stamens yellow. Fertilized 
by moths and butterflies. 1-2 feet high. Common 
everywhere. Rarely the flowers are altogether golden 
yellow. The long spurs indicate the adaptation of the 
flower to long-tongued insects. 



? 



146 




Columbine. 



Aquilegis. Caina.densi& 



CROWFOOT FAMILY. Ranuncutaceae, 



A slender and smooth species of larkspur 
rf 7 7 ^^ ^^^^ found in the woods from Pennsylvania 
exaltatum southward. The deep green leaves have 

Light violet generally five divergent, lance-shaped or 
July-August wedge-shaped lobes, and the light purple 
or blue-violet flowers are borne in a slim spike some- 
times 10 inches long. 2-6 feet high. In woods, from 
Allegheny and Huntington Cos., Pa., south to N. Car., 
and west to Minn, and Neb. The Delphiniums are 
mostly fertilized by the beelike flies, honeybees, and 
bumblebees. 

A European species, in cultivation and 
Deiuhinima escaped to roadsides and fields, with dis- 
Consoiida sected deep green leaves having very 

Lilac to ultra= narrow linear lobes, and a scattered 
marine blue flower-spike of showy flowers 1 inch 

broad, long-spurred, and varying in color 
from pale magenta, lilac, and purple to ultramarine 
blue. The commoner species in cultivation is D, Ajacis, 
with larger flower-clusters and with woolly pods ; this 
has also sparingly escaped. 13-30 inches high. South- 
ern N. J., Pa., and south. 

A handsome wild flower, slender- 
Monkshood ytemmed, weak, and disposed to seek sup- 
vncinatum port. The delicate character of the plant 
Vioiet= is not unlike that of the columbine. The 

ultramarine deep green leaves are toothed, have 3-5 
^""^" lobes, and are rather thick. The purple 

or violet-ultramarine flowers are composed 
of 5 sepals, tlie upper one enlarged, forming the hood, 
and 2 petals (three more are stamenlike, abortive, and 
inconspicuous) concealed beneath the hood ; the stamens 
are numerous. Undoubtedly the flower is largely ferti- 
lized by the bumblebee who is its constant visitor ; the 
stamens ripen before the pistils, and cross-fertilization is 
thus insured. 2-4 feet higli. In woods, southern N. J. 
and Pa., and south along the AUeghanies to Ga. 



148 




Goldthred^d. 

Coptis tpifolia.„.+ •'"'"'' '' Aeon itum unci natum. 



CROWFOOT FAMILY. Ranunculaceas. 



A tall spreading, slender-stemmed wood- 
Snakeroot ^''^^'^ plant, with fuzzy, feathery white 

Cimicifuga flowers borne in a 6-20 inches long, wand- 
racemosa like cluster, having a disagreeable foetid 

^*^'*^ odor, and compound, sharply toothed, 

u y light green leaves. The 4-8 petals are 

stamenlike, and the stamens are numerous. The flower 
is assisted in fertilization by the green flesh-flies. Fruit 
berry like and purplish. 3-8 feet high. Woods, Me., 
south to Ga.. and west to Minn, and Mo. 

A bushy woodland plant with compound 
Actcea spicata ^~^ parted leaves, the leaflets toothed and 
var. rubra lobed, the lower end-leaflets sometimes 

^^'hite again compound. The tiny white, perfect 

April-June flowers with 4-10 exceedingly narrow pet- 
als and numerous stamens ; the 4-5 sepals petallike and 
falling when the flower blooms. Cross-fertilized by the 
small bees, especially of the species Halictus. The stig- 
mas mature before the anthers are open, thus securing 
cross-fertilization. Fruit a thick cluster of coral red, 
oval berries borne upon slender stems. 1-2 feet high. 
Woods, from Me., southwest to N. J. and Pa., and west. 

A similar species with the same distribu- 
White ^ r, -, 1 

Baneberry tion. The leaflets are more deeply cut, 

Arfa'ct alba the teeth are sharper, and the lobes are 
'^hite acute. The narrow, stamenlike petals are 

Late April- y^^^^^^ ^^ ^j^^ ^- ^^^^ shorter than the sta- 
June 

mens. Fruit a china white berry wdth 

a conspicuous purple-black eye ; the stems are thick and 
fleshy, and usually ircl. Forms with slender-stemmed 
white berries, and fleshy-stemmed red berries occasion- 
ally occur, but these are considered hybrids (Gray's 
Manual, 6th edition). The Actceas are not honey flow- 
ers and tlie smaller bees (Halictus) visit them for pollen. 

_ ^ A stocky yellow-rooted perennial, send- 

Orangeroot - '' r- ' 

Jf!/(h-(istis ^"S up in spring a single clear green, 

Caimdpusis round, veiny root-leaf, lobed and toothed, 
Greenish and a hairy stem terminated by two small 

^ '.^ leaves, from the uppermost one of which 

springs an insignificant green-white 
flower scarcely ^ inch broad, with numerous stamens, 

150 




.•;-t^ 



JictdEd rubra *^'^'vr^"'>^';^£^/-'vv" 



^#». mM^ 







Red Ba^neberry Fruit of 

Acteed spicata VAP. pubi^a. Actaea. a^lba. 



BARBERRY FAMILY. Berberidaceae. 



about a dozen pistils, and no petals. Visited by the 
smaller bees and the beelike flies. The fruit a small head 
of tiny red berries clustered like the lobes of a raspberry. 
1 foot high. In woods, southern N. Y., south to Ga., 
and west to Minn, and Mo. 

BARBERRY FAMILY. Berberidacece. 

A family of shrubs and herbs witli perfect flowers 
having one pistil, and as many stamens as petals (except , 
Podophyllum) arranged opposite each other. The flow- 
ers of the barberry are especially adapted to cross-fertili- 
zation; but other members of the family are self -fertilized, 
or cross-fertilized by the agency of insects, chiefly bees. 
Blue Cohosh ^^ early woodland plant common in the 

or Papoose west, with generally but one compound 
Root leaf (at the top of the long stem) three 

Caulophylhnn ^-^^^g parted, the leaflets having 2-3 lobes ; 
Greenish or ^ smaller similar leaf accompanies the 
yellowish flower-stalk. The whole plant is covered 

April-May with a white bloom when young. The 
simple stem is terminated by a small cluster of yellow- 
green, or yellowish flowers | inch broad, with 6 petallike 
sepals, and 6 insignificant hood-shaped petals grouped 
closely about the central pistil. The stigma is receptive 
before the anthers are ripe, thus assuring cross-fertiliza- 
tion. Frequently visited by the early bumblebees, and 
bees of the family Andrenidce. The seeds berrylike and 
blue, in a loose cluster. 1-8 feet high. Rich woodlands 
from Me., south to S. Car., west to S. Dak. and Neb. 

A little plant when in flower, scarcely 8 
Jeffersonia inches tall, but attaining double that 
diphylla height later in the season when in fruit. 

White The single white flower, about an inch 

April-May ^^^.^^^^j^ ^^.-^j^ g oblong flat petals, and half 
as many early-falling sepals, is a trifle like the bloodroot 
blossom, but lacks the latter's delicacy and purity of 
color. The long-stemmed leaf is parted almost com- 
pletely into two angularly ovate lobes, whitish beneath. 
Finally (when fruiting) 15-18 inches high. Woods, west- 
ern N. Y., south to Tenn., and west to Wis, 

152 







The (lesh)<overed cadet blue seeds 

showing groups in pairs 

after bursting of the 

ovary. 



Blue Cohoah. Cd.uloph>/llurn thdUdroides. 



BARBERRY FAMILY. Berberidaceae. 



May Apple, or 



White 

Late April-May 



A common, handsome woodland plant 
Mandrake ' remarkable for its large leaves which fre- 
Podopiiyiinm quently measure a foot in diameter ; the 
peltatnm floicerless stem of the plant bears a leaf 

with 7-9 lobes, peltate in character ; i. e., 
supported by the stem in the centre, as an 
umbrella. 

The May Apple has also been called Umbrella Leaf , and, 
in allusion to its peculiar lemonlike fruit, Wild Lemon. 
The jloicering stalks bear two less symmetrical leaves, 
from between the stems of which droops the ill-smelling 
but handsome white flower nearly 2 inches broad ; it 
usually has 6 petals and twice as many stamens ; it is 
without nectar, but is nevertheless cross-fertilized by the 
early bees and the bumblebees ; these collect the pollen. 
Prof. Robertson believes that the plant may be occa- 
sionally self-fertilized ; although the anthers do not 
reach out as far as the stigmas, they sometimes do touch 
the tip edge of the stigma. Fruit a large, fleshy, edible, 
lemon-shaped berry. Leaves and root poisonous, and 
medicinal. The plant is 12-18 inches high, and is com- 
mon in damp rich woods, from N. Y., west to Minn, 
and Neb., and south. Not in northern New England. 

A plant of the woodlands so common in spring about 
the neighborhood of Greater New York, seems con- 
spicuously and strangely absent in the vicinity of Bos- 
ton, where the Skunk Cabbage apparently takes its 
place. Mrs. Dana remarks that Podophyllum "attracts 
one's attention by the railways," which is perfectly true 
of southern New York and New Jersey, but it does not 
apply to New England. The plant is found at Concord, 
Mass. , but it was transplanted there ; in Vermont it is 
known only at a few stations, in New Hampshire it is 
rare if not absent, and in Maine, so far as my knowledge 
goes, it is quite unknown. 



154 










May Apple. 



Podophyllum peltd^tum. 



POPPY FAMILY. Papaveraceas, 



POPPY FAMILY. Papaveracece. 

Herbs with a milky or yellow sap, and regular or ir- 
regular perfect flowers with 4-13 petals, generall}- two 
early-falling sepals, and many stamens. The irregular 
flowers spurred at the base of the petals. Fertilized 
mostly by bees. Fruit a dry capsule usually one-celled. 
Not honey-bearing flowers. 

Bloodroot ^ most beautiful but fragile flower of 

Sanguinaria early spring, 1^ inches broad, with gen- 
Canadensis erally 8 (rarely 12) brilliant white petals 
^*^'*^ four of which alternating with the others 

are a trifle narrow, and impart a four- 
sided aspect to the full-blown blossom. The petals ex- 
pand flatly in the morning, and become erect toward late 
afternoon, and close by evening. The two sepals fall 
when the flower opens. The golden orange anthers 
mature after the two-lobed stigma, which is shrivelled 
when the pollen is ripe ; the outer stamens are somewhat 
shorter than the inner ones in the advanced flower, and 
the stigma is prominent in the new flower, so cross-fer- 
tilization is practically assured. The blossom attracts 
insects which gather pollen but find no honey, and its 
chief visitors are honeybees, bumblebees, the smaller 
bees of the genus Halictus, and the beelike flies 
(Bonibylms). As the plant breaks through the ground 
in early April, the leaf is curled into a cylinder which 
encloses the budding flower ; afterw^ard the blossom 
pushes upward beyond the leaf. Eventually the light 
blue-olive green leaf, generally with seven irregular shal- 
low lobes, is 6-10 inches broad. The dull orange-colored 
sap is acrid, astringent, and medicinal in quality. Fruit- 
capsule elliptical-oblong with many light yellow-brown 
seeds. Plant finally about 10 inches high. Common 
everywhere on the borders of rich woods shaded road- 
sides, and copses. 

Celandine X western woodland species with yellow 

S?'',*'^!. juice, deeply lobed light green leaves slen- 

Stylophorum -, *= t> 

diphylium. der-stemmed and smooth, and wuth small 

Golden yellow four-petaled poppylike golden yellow 

April-May flowers one inch broad, solitary, or 2-3 in 




Bloodroot, Celandine Poppy. 

Sanguinarid Cajiadensis. 5tylophopum diphylluai.. 



POPPY FAMILY. Papaveraceae. 



a terminal cluster. Fertilized mainly by the smaller 

bees. The ovoid seed-pod hairy. The two sepals falling 

early. 12-16 inches high. In low damp woods, from 

western Pa., west to Tenn., Mo., and Wis. Found near 

St. Libory, St. Clair Co., 111. 

_ , .. A common weed naturalized from 

Celandine 

Cheiidonium Europe, and found usually in or about the 
majus eastern towns. The leaves are somewhat 

Deep yellow similar to those of the preceding species, 
ay- ugus ijgi;^(; lustreless green, smooth, and orna- 
mentally small-lobed. The small deep yellow flower 
(with four petals), | inch broad or less, has a prominent 
green style, and many yellow stamens. The plant has a 
strong yellow sap. 1-2 feet high. Common in waste 
places eastward. Found in Cambridge, Mass., and Ply- 
mouth, N. H. 

A yellow poppy with prickly thistlelike 
Prickly Poppy x- x x ./ x j 

leaves, very light green and smooth with 

Mexicana a slight whitish bloom, commonly culti- 

Yellow vated, and escaped to roadsides and waste 

June Septem= places ; a native of Mexico. Flowers 
usually two inches broad or more, with 
four bright yellow petals, and numerous golden stamens. 
This poppy like all others is sought by the honeybee for 
its pollen ; it does not yield honey. The broad surface 
of the stigmas of poppies in general being a convenient 
alighting platform for insects, the flowers are surely 
adapted to cross-fertilization ; although the anthers ripen 
in the bud, and are directly over the stigma, Miiller is of 
the opinion that cross-fertilization prevails. Self-fertili- 
zation in the case of Argemone is even less likely, as the 
stigmatic surface is small and far less exposed to the 
overhanging anthers. The fruit-capsule nearly an inch 
long, and armed with prickles. Rarely the flowers are 
white. Stem stout, bristly, and 1-2 feet high. Usually 
found near dwellings and on the neglected borders of 
old highways, from N. Eng. south, and west to Ohio. 

The irregular-flowered group of Papaveraceae, formerly 
called FumariacecB, has finely cut compound leaves, and 
somewhat sack-shaped flowers with spurred petals. 



158 




"^i^ 



Celandine. 
Chelidonium majus. 



PricKly Poppy 



Araemone 
Hexicanai. 



POPPY FAMILY. Papaveraceae. 



Climbing A beautiful and delicate vine climbing 

Fumitory, or and trailing over thickets or shrubbery, 
Mountain ^yji;!^ an attenuate, sack-shaped white 

Fringe flower tinted greenish and magenta-pink, 

cirrhom ^r very pale pmk, m droopmg clusters. 

White, tinted The leaves are compound, smooth, prettily 
magenta=pink subdivided, mostly three-lobed, and the 
June-October ^{^^q climbs by means of their slender 
stems. The weak and slender stem 8-12 feet long. In 
moist situations, woods and thickets, from N. Eng., west 
to Wis. and eastern Kan., and south to N. Car., among 
the mountains. Named for John Adlum, of Washington, 
a horticulturist, first interested in the cultivation of 
grapes in this country. 

This is one of the daintiest wild flowers 
Dutchman's ^^ ^^^^ spring, common in southern New 
Breeches i o , , . 

Diceutra York, but rare or entirely absent m north- 

Cucullaria eastern New England. It occurs fre- 

^hite, quentlv in Vermont, but is quite unknown 

yeiiow^tipped in the^plands of New Hampshire. The 
April-May , . ^ . ^ , n ^ 

plant IS characterized by a feathery com- 
pound leaf, long-stemmed and proceeding from the root, 
thin, grayish (almost sage) green in tint, blue and paler 
beneath ; the leaflets are finely slashed and are distrib- 
uted trifoliately, i. e., in three parts. The flowering 
stalk also proceeds from the root, and bears 4-8, rarely 
more, nodding white flowers, of four petals joined in 
pairs and forming, two of them, a double, two-spurred, 
somewhat heart-shaped sack, the other two, within the 
sack, very small, narrow, and protectingly adjusted over 
the slightly protruding stamens. The spurs are stained 
with light yellow. The flower is cross-fertilized mostly 
by the agency of tlie early bumblebees {Bombus separa- 
his, B. virginicus, B. vagans, and B. pennsylvanicus). 
Prof. Robertson (see Botanical Gazette, vol. 14, p. 120) 
explains in detail the character of the flower and its vis- 
iting insects. Honeybees collect only pollen ; their 
tongues are too short to reach the nectar wdiich is se- 
creted in two long processes of the middle stamens ; the 
proboscis of the bumblebee, 8 mm. long, reaches it, that 
of the honeybee, 6 mm., can not. The honeybee 
I bo 




Dutchmajis Breeches. Di centra, cu cull aria.. 



POPPY FAMILY. Papaveraceae, 



alights on the flower, forces its head between tlie inner 
petals, and gathers only the pollen with its front feet ! 
Such a pendulous position as the flower compels is ex- 
tremely difficult for insects other than bees to maintain. 
Butterflies therefore visit the flower with less success 
than bumblebees. Pier is rapce (Cabbage butterfly, white), 
Papilio ajax (buff and black, crimson spots), and Danais 
archippus (the Monarch, black-and-tan) are common 
visitors ; so are the little long-tongued flies of the tribe 
Bombylius (the beelike flies). Flowering stem 5-9 inches 
high. In thin woodlands and on rocky slopes from N. 
Eng., south to N. Car., and west to Neb., S. Dak., and 
Mo. The name from the Greek, meaning twice-spurred. 

c . , ^ A similar species with more attenuate 

Squirrel Corn ^ 

Diet, it ni flowers, white or greenish white tinted 

Canadensis with magenta-pink, 4-8 on the stalk, all 
^'^'*^' very short-stemmed, and narrow at the 

Ma^^in?'"'' ^^^^' slightly fragrant 6-12 inches high, 
the roots bearing many little tubers re- 
sembling yellow peas, hence the common name. Rich 
woodlands, from Me., south along the mountains to Va., 
and west to Minn., Neb., and Mo. 

Dicentra e.vima is a tall rare species, with less finely 
cut leaves, large and smooth, and with narrow magenta- 
pink flowers. Sometimes cultivated. 1-2 feet high. 
Rocky slopes. Western N. Y., south to Ga. and Tenn., 
along the mountains. 

Pale Corydaiis "^^^^^ ^^ another conspicuously delicate 
Corydaiis ^^'ilfl flower of spring. Its relationship 

ghnica with Dicentra is manifested by the pale 

Pale pink foliage and the attenuated sacklike bios- 

May-August • TVT n 1 n •, 

soni ; m New England it seems almost to 
supplant Dutchman's Breeches. The pale or whitish 
green leaves are compound, and cut into ornamental 
segments which are generally three-lobed. The pale 
crimson-pink, or sometimes magenta-pink, slightly 
curved corolla is half an inch or more long, somewhat 
round at the top (which is really the bottom), and two- 
flanged at the bottom or mouth, which is golden yellow. 
The leaves are scattered alternately on the plant-stem at 
the branching summit of which are groups of rarely 
162 




Pale Coryda^lis. 
Corydalis gld^iica. 



Squirrel Com. 
Dicentpa. Cd^nadensis. 



POPPY FAMILY. Papaveraceas. 



more than four flowers. The slender and erect stem 
whitened with a slight bloom and often stained pinkish, 
is 8-22 inches high. The seed-pods are erect and slen- 
der, 1^ inches long. In rocky situations, from Me., 
south to N. Car., and west to Minn. Found in the 
Middlesex Fells, near Boston. 

A golden yellow-flowered species com- 
Golden • ^i ' .. rp, i , 

Corydalis "^^^^ "^ ^'^® west. The compound pale 

Corydaiis green leaves are beautifully cut into three- 

aured lobed segments, and the bright deep yel- 

Golden yellow ^^^^, corolla is about i an inch long. The 
seed-pod is beady in outline, slightly 
curved, and stands at an angle relatively with its neigh- 
bors. The slender stem 6-14 inches high. In woodlands 
from Me., south to Pa., and west to Wis. and Neb. 

A small delicate weed adventive from 

umi ory Europe, found mostly within the seaboard 

offlcinalis States. The light green leaves are finely 

Crimson=pink cut, and the small crimson-pink or ma- 

or magenta genta-pink flowers with crimson tips are 

une- borne in a dense, long, narrow spike. The 

September . 1 . , , 

reclmmg stem 6-20 inches long. Waste 

places and near or in old gardens, from Me. to Fla. 

Local in the interior. The name from the Latin finmifi, 

smoke, in allusion to the smokelike odor of some of the 

species. 



164 




(Sometimes climbing to a height of 4 feet.) 

fumitory Fumaria officinalis. 



MUSTARD FAMILY. Cruciferas, 



MUSTARD FAMILY. Cruciferce. 

The Latin name of this family, from Crux, a cross, 
arose from the resemblance of the four opposing petals 
of its flowers to the form of a cross. There are also four 
deciduous sepals, one pistil, and six stamens, two of 
which are short ; rarely there are less than six. The 
flowers are generally small and not showy, but they 
produce honey, and are accordingly frequently visited 
by the honeybees, the smaller bees, and the brilliantly 
colored flies of the family SijrpliidcB. 

A low woodland plant with inconspicu- 
Toothwort or „ 2 • i • i i • r j. 

Crinkleroot ^^^^ flowers f inch wide, having four pet- 
Denfnria als and many yellow stamens. The basal 

diphylla leaves long-stemmed, three-lobed, and 

White toothed, the two upper stem-leaves similar 

*^ and opposite ; all smooth. The flowers 

borne in a small terminal cluster. The slender seed- 
pods one inch long. The long root is w^rinkled, toothed, 
and is edible, possessing a pleasant pungent flavor, like 
watercress. 8-13 inches high. In rich woodlands and 
damp meadows, from Me., south to S. Car., west to Minn. 

A similar species, but with the leaves 
Toothwort deeply cut into narrow lobes, sharply and 
Dentaria Coarsely toothed ; three are borne upon 

laciniata the smooth, or sparingly woolly stem not 

White or far below the flower-cluster. The basal 

April-May leaves are developed after the flowering 
time. The flowers are often faintly tinged 
with magenta-pink. Root also peppery. Common every- 
where in moist woods or on the borders of tliickets. 
Spring Cress ^ smooth and less conspicuous, slender 
Card a mine plant found beside springs, or in wet 
rhoynboidea meadows, with somewhat angularly round 
r Hi-M 1-oot-leaves, and sparingly coarse-toothed, 

^''' ^^ ovate stem-leaves. The flowers, like tooth- 
wort, I inch broad, succeeded by a long beanlike pod. 
6-16 inches high. Common every where. Thevar.pwr- 
piirea, with magenta-purple flowers, has a slightly 
woolly stem , and blooms a little earlier. Western N. Y. , 
south to Md., and west to Wis. and S. Dak. 
166 




Toothwort, 



Dents^na dipbylld.. 



MUSTARD FAMILY. Cruciferas, 



A bitter-tastinpr little herb easily dis- 
Small Bitter • , j i „ j- i i ^i • 

^j.ggg tinguished by its exceedingly long thin 

Cardamine seed-pods which are an inch long and 

hirsuta erect. The tiny flowers with four narrow 

^*''*^ petals are white, and are frequently visited 

*"^' " by the brilliant flies of the family Syrphi- 

dce. The little compound leaves mostly at the base of 

the plant form a rather pretty rosette ; the few upper 

leaflets are exceedingly narrow. 3-12 inches high. 

Common everywhere in wet places. 

This is a generallv hairy little plant 
Hairy Rock , ,. ... , , , , ., , ,, 

^ g (sometimes it is nearly smooth) with a tall 

Arabis hirsuta slim stem, terminated by a small cluster 
Greenish white of tiny white or greenish white flowers 
May-July beneath which in the later season of its 

bloom appears a succession of slim seed-pods. The clus- 
tered basal leaves are hairy, toothed, and lance-shaped, 
but blunt at the tip ; the stem-leaves clasp the stem, and 
are widely toothed and small. 12-20 inches high. 
Common on rocky banks, and in stony pastures from 
Me., south along the mountains to Ga., and west. 
Arabis laevigata -^ perfectly smooth species with a shght 
Greenish white bloom, taller than the preceding, and with 
April-May stem-leaves which clasp the stem and are 
almost pointed either side of it — what is sometimes called 
a sagittate (arrow-shaped) base. Resembling in other 
respects the species above described. 1-3 feet high. 
Similarly distributed but not farther west than Minn. 
Carolina Whit= ^^^^ native whitlow-grass distinguished 
low=grass '^^ once by its slender or linear seed-pods, 

Draba Carolini- which are longer than their stems. The 
^'^", tiny flowers and the pods below them 

March-Ma - terminate a long smooth stem ; the little 
obtuse-ovate leaves nearly at the base of 
the plant. An annual of miniature proportions. 1-5 
inches high. In sandy and barren fields from eastern 
Mass., south to Ga., and west to S. Dak., Neb., and Ark, 



i68 




Hairy KocK?res^ Small BitterCress. Cardamine hirsute 
Arabis hi rsula. The form often separated as CartainePennsylvdnia. 



MUSTARD FAMILY. Cruclferas. 



A species naturalized from Europe, and 
Common Whit= ^ . , , . \' 

lo =2rass common throughout our range m barren 

Draba verna fields and beside the road. The four white 
White petals are deeply notched ; the small hairy 

March-May lance-shaped and toothed leaves are clus- 
tered at the base of the flowering-stems. The pods are 
shorter than their stems, and elliptical. Flower-stems 
leafless, and smooth above but a trifle hairy below. 
1-5 inches high. 

A common aquatic plant, much prized 
Watercress ^ . ,. , ,., 

Nastu rtm m of- ^^^ ^^^ pungent-tastmg young leaves, which 
ficinaie are smooth, dark green, or brownish green 

White in spring, and lighter green in summer. 

April-August r^YxQ insignificant white flowers terminate 
the branching stems. Leaves compound with 3-9 
roundish leaflets. The scientific name is from nasus, 
nose, and tortus, twisted, in reference to its stinging 
effect upon the nose. Naturalized from Europe. 4-10 
inches high. In brooks and small streams everywhere, 
except in the northernmost parts of our range. 

. „, ^ A yellow-flowered species common 

Marsh Water= '' ^ 

cress everywhere, but naturalized from Europe 

yashirtiuyn ter- in the seaboard States ; indigenous in the 

restre west. The leaves ornamentally cut, of 

,.^ ^^ usualh^ seven segments. Pods oblong, 

May-August , ,. , , , „ , 

about equalmg the length of the stems. 

1-3 feet high. In wet situations. Found at Lincoln, 

Neb. 

„ ... A coarse species well known for the im- 

Horseradish , ^ ,. . , 

Nasturtium niensely strong peppery quality of its large 
Armo7-acia white roots which furnish a favorite spring 

White table relish. The oblong leaves toothed, 

June- August ^j^^ roughly veined, the basal ones large. 
The small white flowers rather conspicuous. Pods nearly 
round. Escaped from cultivation, into moist ground 
everywhere ; naturalized from Europe. 20-30 inches 
high. 



170 



I 




^.^ Whitlow-gpass. 
Drd^averna. 



l^'^Sisymbrium officinale. 



MUSTARD FAMILY. Cruciferas. 



A brio;ht yellow-flowered species with a 
Yellow Rocket , ^ ^ ■ ^ t u 

or Winter Cress ^""P^® ^^^""^ teniiinated by one or more 
Barbarea vnl- showy spikes of flowers beneath which the 
garis long curved seed-pods later appear in a 

Yellow loose cluster. Upper leaves stemless, 

^" ~ ^^ lower ones cut in usually five divisions, the 
terminal one very large ; all deep shining green. The 
pretty four-petaled flowers w4th six stamens four of 
which are quite prominent, are frequently visited by the 
early bees and handsome flies of the genus SyrphidcB. 
They yield hone-y and pollen. 1-2 feet high. In moist 
places along the road, and in meadows. Me., south to 
Va. , and west. Naturahzed from Europe, but indigenous 
in the west. 

u ^ n, .. J A homely straggling weed with tiny 
HedgeMustard i, ^ j i- u.. 

Sisymhrium li^l^t yellow flowers, and light green, 

officinale smooth leaves, with 3-6 lobes, irregularly 

Light yellow blunt-toothed. The generally smooth stem 
May-Septem- with tall widely spreading, w4ry branches, 
tipped wath a few flowers and curiously 
set with the close-pressing pods. 1-3 feet high. In 
waste places throughout our range. Naturalized from 
Europe. 

Charlock or A coarse and vexatious weed in culti- 

Field Mustard vated fields and waste places, adventive 
^,]str7m '^'"" ^^'^^^^ *^'® °^^^ country, and widely distrib- 
Yellow uted through the northern States. The 

May-Septem=. light yellow flowers over ^ inch broad, in 
*>er small terminal clusters. The leaves ovate 

with few if any lobes, indistinctly or sparsely toothed, 
with short stems or none at all. The seed-pods f-inch 
long, contracted between the seeds, and lumpy in con- 
tour. 1-2 feet high. Me., west to Neb. and S. Dak., 
and south. 

„. . „ ^ ^ Anotlier common weed in grain fields. 
Black Mustard i i • , , , . , , 

BrasRica niqra ^^^^^ oeside the road. A more widely 
Yellow branched plant than the preceding, and 

June-Septem= with far more deeply lobed leaves ; one 
^'* terminal large division, and generally four 

lateral ones, all finely toothed. The small pure light 
yellow flowers less than ^ inch broad are frequently 

17? 




liustapd 






MUSTARD FAMILY. Cruciferas. 



visited by the smaller bees, and Sijrpliid flies ; the pistil 
much exceeding the stamens in length, adapts the 
flower to cross-fertilization. The pod is h inch long, 
four-sided, and lies close to the stem ; the seeds are 
black-brown. 2-5 feet high. Naturalized from Europe, 
and extending throughout our range. 
White Mustard "^ similar but rarer species, more or less 
Brassica alba hairy, with bristly pods, contracted be- 
Yellow tween the seeds ; these are light yellow- 

June-August brown. The flowers are a little larger. 
1-2 feet high. In fields and on roadsides, escaped from 
gardens ; naturalized from Europe. Both of these last 
species introduced into Neb. 

Shepherd's A very common weed on roadsides near 

Purse dwellings, and on waste ground, with 

CapseUa Bursa- ^-^^^ ^.j^-^^ flowers. The Latin name is 
yyi^.^g literally a shepherd's little purse, in alhi- 

April-Septem= sion to the shape of the tiny- seed-pods. 
ber The root-leaves are deeply cut, and form a 

rosette, the stem-leaves are small, lance-shaped, and 
indistinctly toothed. 8-18 inches high. Naturalized 
from Europe, and distributed throughout our range. 
Wild Pepper= A somewhat similar species, but more 
grass branched, remarkable for its peppery- 

Lepidium Vir. testing seed-pods which cluster thickly 
yyi^j^g about the flowering stems in a cylindrical 

May-Septem= curving column beneath the few terminat- 
ber ing white flowers. Basal leaves obovate 

(tapering to a stemlike base) with a few small lateral 
divisions, stem-leaves small and lance-shaped ; all 
toothed, 6-15 inches high. Common on roadsides 
everywhere. 



174 







Peppengpass. 
Lepidium Virginicum 



Shepherd's Purse. 
Capse 1 la-Bu rsa-pastopis. 



PITCHER PLANT FAMILY. Sarraceniacew. 



PITCHER PLANT FAMILY. Sarraceniacece. 

Swamp plants with pitcherlike leaves, and nodding 
flowers with 4-5 sepals, five petals, numerous stamens, 
and one pistil ; represented by only one species in the 
northern United States. 

Pitcher Plant ^ curious and interesting plant found 
Sarracenia in peat-bogs throughout the north. The 
purpurea strange hollow leaves, keeled on the inner 

Dull dark red gj^^g toward the flower-stem, are usually 
partly filled with water and the fragments 
of insects ; the latter are apparently drowned, and no 
doubt contribute to the physical sustenance of the plant; 
but the raw-meat coloring, the red veining, and the gen- 
eral form of the flower are conducive to the attraction 
of carrion flies, which are especially fitted for the cross- 
fertilization of the flower. The style within the blossom 
is strangely like an umbrella with five ribs, the stigmatic 
surface on the inside. The folding petals and the flow- 
er's drooping position certainly protect the ripening pol- 
len from any disturbance by the elements, but the 
inquisitive insect finds easy access to it. The general 
coloring of the whole plant is green with red-purple 
veining ; the sepals are madder purple, and greenish on 
the inside, the petals are dull pink, and the umbrellalike 
style green. The outer surface of the pitchers is smooth, 
but the inner surface is covered with fine bristles point- 
ing downward, which manifestly interfere with the es- 
cape of trapped insects. The pitchers are circled about 
the root in radiating lines, and they measure 4-10 inches 
in length ; the flower-stem is frequently a foot high. 
The plant is commonly found in the black peat-bogs of 
wooded hills or in mountain tarns where there is scant 
sunshine. When the plant is more exposed to the sun 
its green coloring predominates. It is common north 
and south, and extends as far west as Minn. 



176 




Pitcher Plant. 5a.ppacenla puppurea.. 



SUNDEW FAMILY. Droseraceas, 



SUNDEW FAMILY. Droseracece. 

Bog plants witli sticky-hairy leaves which are coated 
with a fluid designed to attract and retain insects — they 
are, in fact, carnivorous. The small flowers are perfect, 
with five petals, and few or many stamens, with the an- 
thers turned outward. Fruit a 1-5-celled capsule. The 
tiny red filaments of the leaves curl and clasp about a 
captured insect, and ultimately its juices are absorbed. 

A I'ery small plant with long-stemmed 
Round=Ieaved , , i • i ^ ^i 

s ndew round leaves lymg close to or upon the 

Drosera ground, both leaf and stem covered with 

rotundifoUa long, fine, red hairs. The red flower-stem 
^•^'^^ is erect and smooth, and bears about four 

u y- ugus ^^. ^^_^ small white flowers, which are fre- 
quently visited by the fungous gnats and other small 
woodland insects. The flower-cluster is one-sided, bends 
over, and the blossoms open one at a time only in the 
sunshine. The glands of the leaves exude clear drops of 
fluid, which appear like small dewdrops ; hence the 
popular name, also the Greek dfjodspoS, meaning dewy. 
The whole plant is so saturated with color that its sap 
stains paper a rudd}- madder purple. 4-9 inches high. 
In bogs, from Me., south, and west to the Daks. 
Long=leaved "^ very similar species, but with elon- 

Sundew gated blunt-tipped leaves whose stems are 

Drosera inter- long and rather erect. Differing further 
media, var. from the preceding species by the naked 
Americana i -? - ^i n i • • i 

leat-stems, the red hau's appearing only 

upon the little leaves. It is not so common as the other 
species, but occupies about the same territory. 
Slender ^ western species with 3-inch long, slen- 

Sundew der or linear leaves, also with naked, erect 

Drosera stems. The white flowers are few. Shores 

linearis ^^^ j^^^^^ Superior and Huron. 

Thread=leaved ^^^^ leaves of this larger species are re- 
Sundew duced to a mere threadlike shape with no 

Drosera distinct stem ; they are glandular, red 

jdtfonnis hairy throughout, the hairs terminated by 

magenta '^ ^^^ '^^^^ ^^' ^^^- ^^^^ flowers are fully ^ 

inch broad, and dull purple - magenta. 

178 




Round- ^-. 
leayed jg^^ 
Sundew. ^'^"-" 



.,ff^ Drosensi 
^Vjv^"^ rotund ifolia. 



ORPINE FAMILY. Crassulaceas. 



There are many in the cluster. 8-18 inclies liigh. In 
wet sand near the seacoast, from Mass., south. Found 
in the pine barrens of New Jersey. Nothing is more 
dainty and beautiful under the magnifying-glass than 
the spun-glasslike, glandular, ruby hairs of the Drose /'as. 

ORPINE FAMILY. Crassulaeeoe. 

Rather fleshy or succulent herbs, with absolutely sym- 
metrical small flowers ; the petals, sepals, pistils, and 
stamens equal in number, or the last double in number, 
differing only in this respect from Saxifragacece. 

A familiar weed of ditches and swamps 
Stonecrop ^^'^^^^ insignificant greenish yellow, or yel- 

Penthorum lo\v-green flowers, in slender bending 
sedoides clusters of 2-3 branches, at the top of the 

jui"''-^^^'^^^" ^^'^^* ^^^"^- ^^^^ ^^^^®^' ^^ smooth, usually 
September branched, and bears lance-shaped, or ellip- 
tical, pointed, light green leaves, finely 
toothed. The flower has five sepals, but rarely any pet- 
als, ten stamens, and five pistils united below, finally 
forming a five-angled seed-vessel. Not fieshy-leaved. 
8-20 inches high. Me., west to S. Dak. and Neb. 
y^jij A small species at home on rocky ledges 

stonecrop ^^^^ i^^ stony \voodlands. It has little five- 

Sedxun petaled white flowers growing on horizon- 

ternatum tally spreading branches. The leaves are 

AprU-June ^mall, toothless, fleshy, and rather wedge- 
shaped ; the lower ones are generally in 
groups of three. The flower-cluster is three-spiked and 
leafy. 3-8 inches high. The name is from sedeo, to sit. 
Llve=forever -^ common perennial, with a stout light 

or Garden green stem and very smooth, fleshy, dull- 

Orpine toothed leaves, which children are fond of 

^Tdephium splitting by lateral pressure with the fin- 

Dull garnet ^^^'^' ^"'^ forming into green "purses." 
red It is adventive from Europe, and is gener- 

June- ally an escape from gardens, establishing 

September j^-g^jf -^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ roadsides. The light 
green leaves, particularly wlien young, are covered with 
a whitish bloom. The small flowers in thick clusters are 
opaque crimson. 10-18 inches high. Common. 
I So 




r^^rm^ 







Live-forever. 



5cdum Telephium. 



SAXIFRAGE FAMILY. Saxifragaceae. 



SAXIFRAGE FAMILY. Saxifragacece. 

A large family of herbs or shrubs related to the family 
Rosaccce, but differing from it by having albumen in the 
seeds, and opposite as well as alternate leaves. The 
flowers are mostly perfect with usually five petals, 
fertilized by the aid of the smaller bees, and the flies 
(Si/iphidcc), or in some instances butterflies. 

A little plant hugging the rocks on dry 
j^g hillsides and blooming along with the 

Saxi/raga fii'st flowers of spring; the buds are formed 

Virginiensis early, and appear like little (fine-haired) 
^'^I*® balls in the centre of the rosettelike 

clusters of obovate leaves close to the 
ground. Eventually a cluster expands to a branching 
downy stem bearing many little white, five-petaled, 
perfect flowers with ten yellow stamens. The flowers 
are succeeded by rather odd and pretty madder purple 
seed-vessels which are two-beaked ; often the color is 
madder brown. Besides some of the earlier bees, the 
Antiopa butterfly (rusty black with a corn color bor- 
der) and the tortoise-shell butterfly (brown and tan) 
may be included as among the frequent visitors of the 
flower ; but whether they play any important part in 
the process of fertilization, it is difficult to say. 4-10 
inches high. Me., south to Ga., and west to Minn. 
Swamp Saxl= ^ much larger plant with less attractive, 
frage greenish white flowers with very narrow 

Saxifrag<t (linear) petals. The stem is somewhat 

PennsyJvauicn stickv-hairv and stout. The larger blunt 
Greenish white i * i , i i ^ ^i j 

^g lance-shaped leaves are scarcely toothed, 

and are narrowed to a rather broad stem. 
12-30 inches high. In bogs and on wet banks from 
Me., south to Va., and west to Minn, and Iowa. The 
name saxifrage is from Saxifragus, meaning a rock or 
stone breaker! but it is far from evident that the plant's 
roots, in spreading between the crevices of rocks, succeed 
in breaking stone by vigorous growing ; the name may 
as well be referred to reputed medicinal virtues of the 
roots. 



183 




Ea^rly Saxifrage. 



Sa^xifraga Vipginiensis. 



SAXIFRAGE FAMILY. Saxifragaceas. 



,,., An attractive little plant that decorates 

False Mitre= \ .,, .. 

wort, Foam= the moist woodland floor with its orna- 
flower, or mental leaves all through the summer. 

Coolwort Tj^g feathery spike of fine white flowers 

Tictrellacor i- ^^.^^^ ^^^ petals appears conspicuously 
White above the leaves in late spring or early 

Late April- summer ; the ten prominent stamens have 
early June orange anthers, and the long pistil in the 

centre is white. The leaves remotely resemble those of 
the mountain maple, but they are small, rough hairy 
over the upper surface, and dark green, sometimes 
mottled with a brownish tone. The little seed-capsule 
is characteristically cloven like a tiara, hence the name ; 
the heart-shaped form of the leaf accounts for the 
specific cordifolia. 6-12 inches high. In rich woods, 
from Me., south along the mountains to Ga., and west 
to Minn. Common in the woods of the White Moun- 
tains. 

Mitrewortor ^^^® ^^'"^ mitrewort is very easily dis- 
Bishop's Cap tinguished from the false, by several 
Mitella diphylla marked differences; half-way up the stem 
^*^'.*® are two opposite leaves nearly if not quite 

^'^' ' ^^ stemless. The flowers instead of being 

borne on rather long individual stems in a thin feathery 
cluster, are short-stemmed and distinctly separated; the 
tiny white blossom has five petals beautifully fringed, 
which remind one of a highly ornamental snow crys- 
tal. This plant is also hairy throughout. The name 
means a little mitre, alluding to the mitre-shape of the 
seed-pod. 8-16 inches high. Rich woods. Me., south to 
N. Car., and west to Minn. 

Naked Mitre=- ^ much smaller and daintier species dis- 
wortor tinguished by its naked stem, which is 

Bishop's Cap without the two leaflets, and is slightly 
.Vitciia nuda j^r^jj-y^ r^i^Q leaves approach a somewhat 
Greenish white \ . it, i^ ni 

Aoril-June round lorm, and the snow-crystainKe 

flowers are greenish white, and few. 
They have ten yellow stamens. 4-7 inches high. In 
cool woods and mossy bogs, from N. Eng., south to Pa., 
and west. The MiteJlas are common in Vermont, but 
rare or absent in central New Hampshire, 
184 



, 4^- 









False W/ liitrewort 
Tia^rella copdi/blid.. 



Narked Mitrewort 
Mitella nuda. 



SAXIFRAGE FAMILY. Saxifragacex. 



. , A stout and tall plant bearing some re- 

Heuchera semblance to Mitella nuda on a large 

Americana scale; but the flowers are distinctly differ- 
Whitish green ^j^^. they are borne in along loose cluster, 
May- u y usually 4-5 on one of the small brandling 

stems, small, bell-shaped, with inconspicuous green 
petals, very prominent stamens tipped with orange 
anthers, of which there are but five. The leaves are 
heart-shaped and scalloped ; the teeth blunt. The stem 
is more or less hairy, and is 2-3 feet high. Named for 
Johann Heinrich von Heucher, a German botanist of the 
early eighteenth century. Rocky woodlands N. Y. and 
Conn., west to Minn., southwest to Ala. and La. 

An insignificant plant of cold bogs or 

Qolden Saxi= , , •i.^ \ ^ ^ 

j^^ wet places, with a slender low-growing, 

Chrysosplenium forking stem, with roundish fine-scalloped 
Americanum generally opposite-growing leaves, and 
Yellow or pur= ^j^g yellowish or purplish green flowers 
A^M-j^" with orange anthers, growing close be- 

tween the points where the leaves join 
the plant stem. In wet shady places. Me., south along 
the mountains to Ga., and west to Mich, and Minn. 
Stems 3-7 inches long. The name means golden spleen, 
from reputed medicinal qualities. 

An interesting perennial herb with sin- 
nassus ^^^ cream white flowers delicately veined 

Parnassia with green, about 1 inch broad. A single 

Caroliniana ovate olive green leaf clasps the flowering 
White green= gtem; the others are long, slender-stemmed 
j^j^g_ and heart-shaped, and spring from the 

September root. The flower has five petals and five 

straw yellow anthers terminating the fer- 
tile stamens and alternating with the petals ; a number 
(perhaps 15) of abortive stamens encircle the green 
pistil. The blossom is visited by bees and the smallest 
butterflies (skippers); chief among the visitors are the 
larger ones named Colias ])liiloclice (yellow), and Pieris 
rapce (white). 8-20 inches high. In swamps and wet 
meadows, Me., south to Va., west to S, Dak. and Iowa. 



m 



^£^1 




Orass-of-Papna55U5. Parnassia Caroliniana. 



ROSE FAMILY. Rosacea. 



ROSE FAMILY. Eosacece. 

An extensive family highly esteemed for its luscious 
fruits, and for its most beautiful flowers, which are de- 
pendent in a great measure upon the bees for cross- 
fertilization. The flowers are extraordinarily rich in 
pollen and honey ; the raspberry yielding the finest 
flavored honey which is known. The leaves are alter- 
nate-growing, and accompanied by stipules, or small 
leafy formations at the base of the leaf-stalk. The 
flowers are regular and generally perfect, with usually 
five sepals and as many petals (seldom more or less), 
numerous stamens, and one or many pistils. Rarely 
the petals are absent. The family is very closely allied 
to SaxifragacecB and Legiimijiosce. It is mostly com- 
posed of trees and shrubs, although the herbaceous 
members are many. 

A common flower on the borders of the 
Spircea salici- ^'^^^ "^ bloom throughout the early sum- 
foliavar.lati- mer. A shrub with light green, nearly 
/"''>' smooth, ovate, sharply toothed leaves, 

Flesh pink .^^^^ ^ usually yellowish buff stem of a 
June-August . . / "" , . . j, i . 

wny character, upon which are freely set 

the alternate leaves. The beautiful flower-spike is pyram- 
idal but blunt and branching, and is closely crowded 
with flesh pink and white flowers, resembling miniature 
apple-blossoms, with prominent pink-red stamens. It 
is frequently visited by the smaller butterflies and the 
bees, and possesses a slight fragrance. The name is 
from the Greek, and means twisting, alluding to the 
twist in the pods of some species. 2-4 feet high. Me., 
south to Ga., and west to Mo. and S. Dak. 

.... A similar species, but readly distin- 

Hardhackor • , , , -^ , ^ ■ ,. 

steeplebush guished by its w^oolly stem (terra-cotta 

Sjjircea tomeii- red) and leaves ; the latter are olive green 
'o«« of a dark tone above, and very whitish 

Deep pink ^^^ woolly beneath. The slender steeple- 

September ^^^® flower-spike is crowded with tiny, 
deep rosy pink flowers, smaller than those 
of tlio preceding species ; the succession of bloom is 
unfortunately slow, and doivnicard, so the top of the 

i88 




nea00W5weet 
Spiraea sal icifo- 
lia^v^nlaiifolia. 



Hard hack. 
Spir^atomentosa.. 



ROSE FAMILY. Rosacea^. 



spike is often in a half-withered condition. 2-4 feet 
high. In dry or wet ground, same range as the pre- 
ceding species. 

Queen-of-the- "^ *^^^ western species, also in cultiva- 
Prairle tion, with handsome, fragrant, deep pink, 

Spira'd lubata or peach-blossom-colored flowers, and cut- 
Deep pink lobed, deep green, smooth, large leaves 
u y ^^ sometimes seven divisions. It grows 
in moist situations or on the prairies. The terminal leaf- 
let is larger tlian the others. The large compound 
flower-cluster of perfect fine-petaled flowers, is feathery 
in character. 2-8 feet high. Western Pa., south to 
Ga. and Ky., west to Wis. and Iowa. An escape to 
roadsides in Peacham, Randolph, and Lower Cabot, Vt. 
(Brainerd, Jones, and Eggleston). 

Goat's Beard Another tall and handsome species with 
Spircea a compound flower-spike formed of many 

Aruncns little spikes about as large around as one's 

Yellowish j-j.^jg finger. The tiny narrow-petaled 

May-July flowers are yellowish white, and are an 

exception to the general rule of the 
family, as they are staminate on one plant and pistillate 
upon another. The stem is smooth and the deep green 
leaves are compound, with sometimes eleven small leaf- 
lets. The pistillate flower has usually three distinct 
pistils. 3-6 feet high. In rich woods, N. Y., south to 
Ga., and west to Mo. 

A shrubby roadside species which suffers 
Purple Flower- .^, • , ,• ^i t^ t-. i 

Ine-Raspberry '^'^^^th a misleadmg name; the Rose Family 

Rubus odoratus is quite incapable of producing a true 
Crimson-pink purple flower. This big-leaved plant ex- 
or magenta^ j^ji^i^g ^ ^ild-roselike flower of five broad 
June-AuKust Petals whose color is at first deep crimson- 
pink, and at last a faded magenta-pink. 
The large maplelike leaves are 3-5 lobed and a trifle 
hairy. The stem is covered with short red or brown 
bristly hairs ; the flower-stems are particularly red, as 
well as the calyx, or flower-envelop. The fruit is in- 
sipid and resembles a flat, red raspberry ; it is often 
called Thimble-berry. 3-5 feet high. Common in stony 
woodlands, beside the shaded road, and in copses. Me., 
I go 




Purple Flowering-Ra^spberpy Rubus odoratus. 



ROSE FAMILY. Rosacew. 



south to Ga., and west to Mich. The name riibus is an 
ancient one for bramble, from ruber, red. 
Cloudberry, or ^"® ^^ *^^^ interesting relatives of the 
Mountain common raspberry which finds its home 

Raspberry among the clouds of high mountain-tops, 

Ruhus Chamce- j^ -g f^^^^^j -^^ ^^iQ peat bogs of the White 
^j^.^g Mountains and on the coast of eastern 

June-July Maine. The cloudberry is another in- 

stance of a break in the family rule : the 
flowers are staminate on one plant and pistillate on 
another. The solitary white flower is about an inch 
broad. The plant-stem is herbaceous, not shrubby, and 
the leaves are rather roundish with 5-9 lobes ; the stem 
is unbranched and with only 2-3 leaves. The fruit is a 
pale wine red, or when nearly ripe, amber color, and 
possesses a delicate flavor ; the lobes are few. 3-10 
inches high. Me. to N. Y., north to the Arctic regions. 
A delicate woodland plant with a white 
repens blossom like that of the wild straw^berry, 

White and densely woolly or fine-hairy stems 

June- and leaves ; the latter are dark green, 

September heart-shaped, and wavy or scallop-toothed. 
In form they closely resemble those of the common blue 
violet. The 1-2 white flowers about | inch in diameter 
are borne on long fuzzy, sometimes ruddy stems ; it is 
said that they fertilize in the bud before opening. 2-4 
inches high. In the northern woods, from Me. , south to 
southern N. J., and west to Ohio and Mich. Found in 
Langdon Park, Plymouth, N. H. 

A rather tall, fine-hairy plant with an- 
WhiteAvens gular, branching stem, insignificant five- 
GeMin album p^^aled white flowers, and three-divided 
White , , . , 

June-August leaves, except the simple uppermost ones ; 
the root-leaves of 3-5 leaflets, all toothed. 
The flowers succeeded by a burlike densely bristly seed- 
receptacle. 18-24 inches high. On the borders of woods 
and shaded roads. Common in the north, but south 
only to Ga. 



192 




Da>.libacPda repens. 



ROSE FAMILY. Rosaceee. 



A bristly hairy-stemmed plant common 
oug ven ^^^ ^^^^ p-rounds and on the borders of low 
Virginianum damp woods, with flowers and leaves simi- 
Cream white lar to those of the preceding species. The 
May-July stem very stout. The flower has incon- 

spicuous cream white petals which roll backward. 
Common over the same territory. 

A slightly hairy species with compound 
Geum strictum jQ^^g^ leaves, the leaflets wedge-shaped 

Golden yellow .., i a.- j.i i -j-u 

July- August ^^'^^^^ round tips, the upper leaves with 
3-5 leaflets irregular, oblong, and acute. 
Flowers golden yellow. Fruit-receptacle downy. Moist 
meadows Me., south to N. J., west to Kan., Neb., and 
S. Dak. 

An aquatic or marsh species, with lyre- 
Purple Avens ,1^.1 -1 • 1 
Oeum rivaie Shaped root-leaves, and irregular com- 

Brownish pound upper leaves ; the stem-leaves few, 

purple and three-lobed. The nodding flowers 

July-August brownish or rusty purple, with obovate 

petals terminating with a claw. 2 feet high. Bogs and 

wet meadows. Me., south to N. J., west to Minn. 

and Mo. 

An exceedingly pretty and graceful but 
Long-plumed f/ 1 ^ j 1 

Avens ^'^^® avens, with a decorative, deeply cut 

Geum triflorum leaf, and a ruddy flower-stalk generally 
Dull crimson- bearing three ruddy flowers with scarcely 
'■^'* opened acute, erect calyx-lobes. The 

fruit is daintily plumed with gray feathery 
hairs, about an inch long. 6-12 inches high. Dry or 
rocky soil. Me., west to Minn., south to Mo. 

This is a dwarf species with smooth 
var Peckn stem and showy pure yellow flowers quite 

Yellow an inch broad, which is found on Mt. 

July-early Washington, and other high peaks in the 

September ^^^.^^^ ^j^^ ornamental roundish leaves 
are nearly smooth — except the veins. Also on the high 
mountains of N. Car. 



194 




Avens. 
Geum triflopum. GeumradiatumvarPeckii. 



ROSE FAMILY. Rosaceas. 



Our commonest wild strawberry, at 
be^'"'^ home in the rough dry pasture lands of 
Frayuria the north and south. Rather broad, 

Virginiana coarsely toothed leaflets, blunt- tipped, and 
^•^'t^ hairy. The flower-stalk not longer than 

April-June ^^^^ leaves, and with spreading hairs. The 
flower has many orange-yellow stamens offset by the 
Ave round white petals. The scarlet fruit is ovoid, and 
the tiny seeds are imbedded in pits over the surface. 
3-6 inches high. Common throughout our range ; gen- 
erally in fields. The name from the Latin fraga, 
fragrant. 

A slender species with thin leaflets which 
American ^^.^ more ovate and less wedge-shaped 

Strawberry than those of the other species, and have 
Fragaria silk-silvery hairs on the under side. The 

Americana scarlet fruit is more conical, and the seeds 

^*^'*^ are borne, not in pits, but upon the shining, 

May July , ^ _, , r. i 

smooth surface. The sepals are reflexed or 
turned backward from the fruit. This species is remark- 
able for its very long, delicate runners. 3-6 inches high. 
In rocky woodlands and pastures. From N. Eng., N. J., 
and Pa. , west. 

Until recently both these very distinct species were in- 
cluded under one title; but the tj^pes are easily distin- 
guisluMl apart, even by the leaves, and the fruit is 
certainly conspicuously different. Of the two species 
Fragaria Virginiana is certainly the commoner, at least 
in central New Hampshire ; both are deserving of the 
name Fragaria, for nothing is more deliciously fragrant 
than a basketful of the wild berries. 



196 




ex^ fr ^ 




' American 

WildVipginidStPAwberry Wood Strawberry. 
fragariaVirginlca. FraganaAmericaina 



ROSE FAMILY. Rosacea. 



Norway 
Cinquefoil 

Potenfilla 
jVorver/int 
Yellow 
June- 
September 



June- 
September 



A weedy plant differing from the com- 
mon cinquefoil by an extremely hairy stem 
and leaf ; the latter is composed also of 
three leaflets instead of five, and it slightly 
suggests the strawberry leaf. The five 
not very conspicuous petals are somewhat 
isolated in the green setting of the flower, 
which is very leafy in character. There are 15-20 sta- 
mens. 12-30 inches high. In dry or waste ground, 
from Me., south to S. Car., and west. The name is 
from potent for the plant's reputed medicinal powers. 

A similar stout plant, with a character- 
C^nauliln ^ istically rough, horned seed-vessel. The 
Potentuia recta five rather narrow leaflets are deep green. 
Yellow very hairy beneath, and slightly so above. 

The flowers are pure yellow, and f inch 
broad ; the petals are much larger than the 
lobes of the calyx (flower-envelop), which is the reverse 
of the case with the Norway cinquefoil. Erect, 1-2 feet 
high. Adventive from Europe, and in the vicinity of 
old gardens and waste grounds. Me., south to Va., and 
west to Mich. Found at Exeter, Penobscot Co., Me. 

A small species remarkable for its sil- 
very character. The leaflets are dark 
green above and silver white beneath. 
The stem is also covered with the silky 
white wool, beneath which appears the 
pale terra-cotta tint of its surface. The 
five wedge-shaped, narrow leaflets are 
rolled back at the edge, and quite deeply cut. The pure 
yellow flowers are rather small, and loosely clustered at 
the ends of the branches. 5-12 inches long. In dry and 
sterile fields, or sandy soil, Me., south to N. J., and west 
to the Daks. 



Silvery 
Cinquefoil 

Potentilhi 
argentm 
Yellow 
May- 
September 



■98 




^^%v.:::-r- 







.X 







Nppway Cinque/c 



PotentillA NorvegicA. 



ROSE FAMILY. Rosaceae. 



A dwarf Alpine species found on the 
summits of the White Mountains, rather 
soft-hairy when young, but smooth later, 
and with three coarsely toothed leaflets, 
deep green and somewhat broad. The 
small yellow flowers are slender-stemmed and generally 
solitary. 1-3 inches high. Found about the Lake of 
the Clouds and elsewhere on Mt. Washington. Poten- 
tilla tridentata, also found on Mt. Wash- 
ington and Mt. Wachusett, is less dwarfed, 
but low-growing. The three leaflets are 
coarsely three-toothed at the tip, smooth 
and thick. The flowers are white. 1-10 
Coast of Mass., north w^ard, and shores of 
the upper Great Lakes. 

This is the only purple-flowered five- 
flnger and it is therefore readily distin- 
guished from the others. The reddish 
stem is stout, mostly smooth, and a trifle 
woody at the base. The leaves have from 
5-7 leaflets which are blunt-tipped, and 
sharp-toothed. The rather pretty flowers 
are magenta-purple within and pale or 
greenish without, through the influence of the some- 
what longer green sepals ; the blossom is nearly one inch 
broad, and its petals are pointed. 6-20 inches long. In 
swamps and cold bogs, from Me., south to N. J., and 
west to Cal. 

This is indeed a shrubby species with 
nearly erect stems, tan brown in color, 
and quite leafy : the bark is inclined to 
peel off in shreds. The leaves are entirely 
different from those of the other species ; 
they are toothless, olive yellow-green, with 
5-7 lance-shaped leaflets %vhose edges 
curve backward. They are silky hairy. The deep yel- 
low flowers, witli rounded petals are generally an inch 
broad. 1-2 feet high. It is a troublesome weed in N. 
Y., western Vt., Mass., and parts of the west. Sw^amps 
and wet places, Me., south to N. J., and west. 



PotentiUa 
frig ida 
Yellow 
June August 



PotentiUa 
tridentata 
White 
June-August 

inches high. 



Marsh Five= 
finger or Pur= 
pleCinquefoil 

PotentiUa 
palustris. 
Magenta- 
purple. 
June-August 



Shrubby 
Cinquefuil 

PotentiUa 
fruticosa 
Yellow 
June- 
September 




Pupple Cinquefoil, Potentillapalustris, 



ROSE FAMILY. Rosaceas 



The silverweed is decoratively beautiful, 
and is remarkable for its very silky hairs 
which cover the under side of the leaves ; 
the latter are tansylike with about 7-23 
sharp-toothed leaflets. The yellow flowers 
are solitary. Stem 1-3 feet long. In salt 
marshes and on wet meadows, from Me., south to N. J., 



Silverweed 

Potent ilia 
An^eri7ia 
Yellow 
May- 
September 



and west to 
Champlain. 



Neb. Common on the beaches of Lake 



Five=finger or 
Cinquefuil 

Potent i I In 
simplex 
Yellow 
April-August 



The com]nonest of all the five-fingers, 
often wrongly called wild strawberry, 
with pure yellow flowers about ^ inch 
broad. It decorates meadow and pasture, 
fertile and sterile grounds, and weaves its 
embroidery over the stony and barren 
roadside. Its five deep green, shiny, long-stalked leaf- 
lets are sharply toothed, firm, and smooth, altogether 
harder in character than the three strawberry leaflets. 
The whole plant is generally smooth, but sometimes 
thinly hairy. Flowers solitary, fertilized mostly by the 
flies of the genus Syrphidce. Runners 6-20 inches long. 
Common everywhere in the north. From southern 
Me. , N. H. , Vt. , and N. Y. , west to Minn. The common 
similar form (or species) is Potentilla Canadensis, which 
is fine-woolly over the stems, and does not creep over 
the ground so characteristically as P. simplex. 

A most common weed with a glandular- 
hairy simple stem, and compound leaves 
with a hairy stalk ; spicy odored when 
crushed. The usually seven bright green, 
many - ribbed ovate leaflets coarsely 
toothed ; the interposed tiny leaflets are 
ovate and toothed ; there are generally three pairs 
occupying the spaces between the larger lateral leaflets. 
The slender spikes of five-petaled yellow flowers with 
orange anthers are not sliowy. The seeds are sticky and 
adhere to one's clothing. 2-4 feet or more high. Com- 
mon on the borders of woods and in thickets. Me., 
south to N. Car., and west. Found on the roadside near 
the Profile House, Franconia Notch, N. H. 



Agrimony 

Agrimonia 
Eupatoria 
var. hirsntn 
Yellow 
June-August 



202 




Agrimone. '"'/' ''^ Linque/oil 

AgrimoniaEupatoriavarhipsuU. Potentilla simplex. 



ROSE FAMILY; Rosaceas. 



A comparativeh^ thornless wild rose, 
Smooth Rose ^vitli usually 5-7 blunt or round-tipped 
R,^^^a>landa i^.^flyt^ rather short-stalked, and pale be- 
June-July neath ; simply toothed. Rarely there are 

a few straight slender prickles upon the 
smooth stem which is usually covered with a slight 
bloom. The pale crimson-pink flowers are nearly 3 in- 
ches broad and are solitary or in small clusters. The 
fruit is either globular or pear-shaped with persisting 
sepals. 2-4 feet high. On rocky, moist ground, New- 
foundland to Vt. and northern N. J., and west to 111., 
S, Dak., and the region of the Great Lakes. Rosa is the 
ancient name of the rose. 

Swamp Rose ^^ ^^^^'^^ bushy species, extremely decora- 

A'o.w Carolina tive in character, armed rather sparingly 
Pink with stout hooked spines. The 5-9 olive 

June-August gj.^gj^ leaflets sharp-toothed, long-stalked, 
and the stalk bordered with very narrow somewhat 
toothed stipules (leafy formations) ; the leaflets either 
blunt or sharp-tipped. The small clusters of flowers 
succeeded by showy, globular, red fruit which some- 
times sheds its withered sepals. The pale crimson-pink 
flowers 2-3 inches broad. Largely fertilized by bees. 
2-7 feet high. Common in swamps and low ground 
everywhere. Found at Sankaty Head, Nantucket. 
D arf Wid ^ ^^^^ species with g(merally lustrous 

Rose green leaves of from 3-7 oval leaflets 

Eosa Incida Coarsely and simply toothed ; the stipules 
^'"•^ (compare with species above) are narrow 

June-July ^^^^^ flaring. A marked characteristic of 

this rose is the glandular-hairy globose fruit, stem, and 
lobed sepals ; before maturity this condition is quite 
marked. The spines are wide at the base and rather 
straight or very slightly curved ; the stems are mostly a 
ruddy madder brown. Flowers a pale or deeper crim- 
son-pink, in small clusters, generally very few together. 
The commoner rose of N. J. and Pa. 1-5 feet high. 
In moist situations. Me., south to Ga.. and west to 
Wis. 



204 




Wild 5wdmpRose. 



Rosa Carolina, 




Spines of Rosa lucida, 



Smooth Rose. 



Rosa, blanda. 



ROSE FAMILY. Rosaceee. 



A questionable species so closely con- 
asture Rose j^^j^^gj ^^j^j^ Eosa lucidci, that intergracUnor 

Kutiu km ml IS ° o 

types prevent a satisfactory separation of 
the two. Under the name Rosa humilis lucida (Rosa 
lucida of Gray's Manual, sixth ed.), the rose of New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania, and the west is described by Brit- 
ton and Brown as having thick shining leaves with 
broad stipules, and numerous flowers. Under Rosa 
humilis, the description embraces a narrow, toothless 
stipule, usually five leaflets, thin and somewhat shining, 
few or solitary flowers, a glandular-hairy calyx and 
stem, and sepals commonly lobed. 

Northeastern "^^^^^ ^^ ^ ^^'^^^ ^'^^® ^^ ^^^® northeast, 

Rose limited to that section lying between Mas- 

Rosa nitida sacliusetts and Newfoundland. It is char- 
*^'"** acterized by a stem thickly croicded with 

" ^ hristly prickles, and spines scarcely stouter. 

The 5-9 leaflets are ovate pointed, shining green, and 
sharply tootlied ; the stipules are broad. Flowers pale 
pink, solitary, or very few in a cluster ; the fruit is globu- 
lar, and the sepals are not lobed. A low species rarely 
over 20 inches high. On the borders of swamps. 
Sweetbrier "^'^^ ^^H^ rose or eglantine of the poets, 

Rosa r lib iginosa adventive from Europe. It is remarkable 
P'nk for its sweet-scented foliage which is rem- 

June-July iniscent of the fragrance of green apples, 

and for its long, arching stems, which are beautiful 
with compactly set clusters of pure pink bloom. The 
very small 5-7 leaflets are double-toothed, roundish, deep 
green above, and lighter colored beneath, where they 
are resinous, and aromatic when crushed ; the leaves are 
also characteristically glandular-hairy. The somewhat 
small flowers are pink, or pale creamy pink, and clus- 
tered along the main stem upon short stalks. The de- 
cidedly recurved spines and the stem are madder brown 
when old. 4-6 feet high. Common everywhere from 
Tenn. and Va., northward. Another foreign species, 
Rosa canina, but slightly separated from Rosa ruhigi- 
nosa, has usually simply toothed leaves which are not 
so odorous. Common in the valley of the Delaware. 

2o6 




Sweetbrien 



Rosa rubiginosa. 



PULSE FAMILY. Leguminosas. 



PULSE FAMILY. Leguminosce. 

A very large family of food-producing plants, with 

butterflylike flowers, and alternate, usually compound 

leaves, generally without teeth. The flowers are perfect 

and are borne singly or in spikes ; they are fertilized 

largely by bees and butterflies. 

A smooth and slender plant with deep 
Wild Indigo ^11 p 1 1 K 

Bautisia gray-green, triple leaves of wedge-shaped 

tinctoria leaflets covered with a slight bloom ; they 

Yellow are almost stemless. The small pealike 

June-August blossoms are pure yellow, and terminate 
the many branches of the upright stem. The flowers 
are visited by the butterflies and the Syrphid flies, but 
the honeybee, the leaf -cutter bee Megacliile, and the 
bees of the genus Halictus are probably the most effi- 
cient agents of cross-fertilization. The plant grows 
with a bushy luxuriance in favorable situations, and has 
a most remarkable habit of turning black upon wither- 
ing. 18-28 inches high. In dry sandy soil everywhere. 
Not in central N. H., but common at Nantucket. Found 
at Pownal, Vt. 

^. ^ . A beautiful, tall, western species, with 

Blue False , . ,. , ' 

Indigo P^^® green smooth stem, light green 

Bdpti.sia wedge-shaped, short-stalked triple leaves, 

ausfraiis and loose flower-clusters, sometimes 10 

Light violet inches long, of light, dull violet blossoms 
quite 1 inch long, of a soft, sesthetic hue. 
The peapodhke fruit is tipped with a spur. Plant 3-6 
feet high. On rich alluvial soil, western Pa., south to 
Ga., and west to Mo. Quite handsome in cultivation. 
Rattleb '^^^^ rattlebox, so named because the 

Crotaiaria seeds rattle about in the boxlike, inflated, 

.^(ujittaiis sepia-black pods, has oval pointed leaves. 

Yellow toothless, and nearly stemless, growing 

June-August alternately along the bending stem. The 
yellow flowers are scarcely | inch long. The stems and 
edges of the leaves are soft-hairy. 4-12 inches high. 
In dry sandy soil everywhere, but not very common. 



208 




1 

Blue 

False Indigo 
Baptisia s^ustPdlis, 



PULSE FAMILY. Leguminosae, 



This is one of our most charming so- 
J^^^,,^,^^^^ called blue wild flowers; but it rings all 

percnnis the changes on violet and purple, and 

Violet scarcel}^ touches blue. The pealike bios- 

May-June gQj^-^ jjg^g YJolet or deep purple wings and 

a light violet hood veined with blue-violet. Rarely the 
sweet-scented flowers are magenta-pink or even white. 
The horse-chestnutlike leaf has generally eight narrow, 
light green leaflets. Stem and long-stalked leaves are 
generally flne-hairy, and frequently show a few touches 
of purple-red through the green. The flower-spike is 
quite showy, and pinkish early in the bud. Fertilized 
by bees. 1-2 feet high. In sandy fields everywhere. 

A naturalized species of clover, origi- 
Rabbit=foot or t^ tit-?.. 

Stone Clover ^ally from Europe, remarkable for its 

Trifuiinin oblong fuzzy flower-heads, the corolla of 

arvensi' which is green- white and the calyx green 

Qray=pink ^^.^^^x pink tips, all in effect rather gray- 

Se"p^ember l'^^^^'' ^^^^ ^^^l^t green triple leaves have 
narrow, long leaflets with blunt tips. The 
flowers are sweet-scented. 4-10 inches high. Common 
in poor soil, old fields, and pastures, everywhere. 

P, . ^, This is our commonest field clover and a 

Red Clover 

Trifolium special favorite of the bumblebee upon 

pratense whom it is almost wholly dependent for 

Crimson or fertilization. The plant was introduced 
May-Septem- "^^^ Australia some years ago and failed 
ber to i)roduce seed the first year through its 

separation from the American bumblebee. 
Later when the insect was transported the plants flour- 
ished from season to season. The three (rarely 4-5) 
rather soft, dull bluish green leaflets are conspicuously 
marked by a whitish or yellow-green triangle. There 
are two hairy white and green stipules or leafy wings at 
the base of the leaf-stalk. Stem and leaves are soft- 
hairy. The somewhat pyramidal globular flow^er-head 
ranges through crimson or magenta to paler tints of the 
same colors, and even white ; it yields a plentiful supply 
of nectar, which is scarcely reached by the short tongues 
of honeybees ; also, the butterflies are not sufficiently 
heavy to depress the keel of the floret and thus expose 




[\akbbit-foot Clove p. 



Tnifolium anvense. 



PULSE FAMILY. Leguminosas. 



the tmtliers. The burly bumblebee is tlierefore the best 

pollen disseminator of this particular clover. 8-24 inches 

liigh. Common in fields and on roadsides, everywhere. 

„,. . ^ This is also one of our most common 

White Clover , , . • , , „ , 

Trifoiiuin Clovers, and a permanent resident of the 

repens grassy roadside. It is generally smooth, 

Cream white witli roundish or heart-shaped leaflets 
May-October y^^y]^^.^{ less distinctly with a triangle, 
and frequently 4-5 leaflets are found on a single 
stalk. The globular flower-heads are a translucent 
cream white, and the florets are sometimes more or less 
tinted with flesh pink. Eventually the florets are re- 
flexed. Fertilized by bees, and rich in honey. It is sup- 
posed to be identical with the Shamrock of Ireland, but 
it is native in the extreme north. 4-10 inches long. 
Creeping by runners. Common everywhere. 

^ , ., ^ . A species somewhat similar to our white 

Alsike or Alsa= ,,,.,, , . 

tian Clover Clover, but with a branchmg, stout, and 

Trifoiiuin rather juicy stem. The leaflets are gen- 

hybvidnin erally obovate but not reverse heart- 

^\l^^ '■''*^ shaped ; i. e., with the lobed tip; the edges 

May October ^^"^ finely toothed, and the surface is not 

marked with the triangle ; a pair of flar- 
ing stipules or leafy wings are at the base of the leaf- 
stalk. Flower-heads similar to those of white clover but 
varying from jjinkish cream to crimson-pink ; the 
withered florets brownish and turning downward, ex- 
tremely sweet-scented, and rich in honey. Fertilized 
mostly by bees. 1-2 feet high. On roadsides, in mead- 
ows, and in waste places, from Me. to Idaho, and south 
to (la. 

Yellow or ^^ small annual species, with a smooth 

Hop Clover ^^^'^'^ ^nd light green, narrow and long 
Trifuinnu leaflets, scarcely suggesting the clover- 

<i(inniinu leaf. The stem is branched and stands 

yeik)^''*^" ^"''''■^^' upright, or reclines ; the leaflets 
June-Septem= '^'■^' "^'^'O' finely but rather imperceptibly 
ber toothed. The small, dull golden yellow 

florets bloom from the base of the flower- 
liead upward, and the withered florets, turning down- 
waid and becoming l)rownish, resemble dried hops. 

212 




Hop CI over. 
Trifolium agra^pium. 



Alsike Cloven 
Trifolium hybridura 



PULSE FAMILY. Leguminosae. 



6-15 inches high. Common on roadsides and in sandy 
fields. Me., south to Va., and west to Iowa, 

Similar in many respects to the forego- 
ow Hop jj^g^ ^^^^ lower, more spreading, and the 

T)-ifolium stems and leaves fine-hairy. The leaflets 

procumhens are shorter and blunt- tipped, the middle 
Pale golden one sfightly stemmed and the lateral ones 
yellow stemless. The stipules (leafy formations 

June-Septem= <. , , p ,, 

,,gr at the base of the leaf-stalks) are broader 

than those of the preceding species ; they 

are pointed ovate. The tiny standard of the floret is 

wide-spread, and not curled up at the edges as in T. 

agrariinn. 3-6 inches high. Occasional or common 

everywhere, especially on roadsides. 

V, .. »,..... This is sometimes called yellow sweet 
Yellow Melilot , , . , , '' 

Melilntns offi- (^^over, but its resemblance to clover is in 
cinnlis its character rather than its aspect. It is 

Light golden a foreign flower which has established 
^^ ^'^ ^ itself in all waste places especially in our 

June-August ^ rr^, , , r. 

seaport towns. The three leaflets are long, 
blunt-tipped, and toothed. The light golden yellow 
flowers are strung along in a delicate spike. The stem is 
smooth and 2-4 feet high . Melilotus alba is a similar, tall- 
er, white-flowered species. Both common everywhere. 
Alfalfa or ^ perennial much cultivated for fodder 

Lucerne in the west and south ; naturalized from 

^fr<lirn(|o .•^ntiva Europe. Fouud in dry fields and sandy 

Purple wastes in the East. The three leaflets are 

June-August 

long and narrow, toothed toward the tip 

which is obtuse, and furnished with a tiny sharp bristle; 

each leaflet has a distinct stalk, and that of the middle 

leaflet is bent upward. The purple florets in short clusters. 

12-25 inches higli. Me., south to Va., and west. 

Milk Vetch ^^ generally smooth, tall beautiful peren- 

AstnifKtiiis Jii'il with a branching stem, and compound 

r<,,i,n},'),sis leaves of 13-25 or more bluish green, ellip- 

(ireenish tj^.^l leaflets set oppositely upon the 

cream vellow i j ^ £ . • 

July-August ^^snder leaf-stem, m general appearance 
like those of the locust tree. The cream 



314 




Alfalfa, 
liedicaqo satlva 



Yellow lielilot. 
Helilotus officindlia 



PULSE FAMILY. Leguminosae, 



vol low slender blossoms are green-tinged especially at the 
i)ase, and are thickly set in a dense spike springing from 
the junction of the leaf-stalk with the plant stem. They 
are cross-fertilized mostly by the long-tongued bees; 
the bumblebees, Bombus separaius, B. americanorum, 
and B. ]}enn^ylvaniciis are frequent visitors, as are the 
butterflies,— Co/ms philodice, the clouded sulphur, and 
Papilio asterias, the black swallowtail. The flowers 
are succeeded by short, broad, leathery, straight, and 
pointed pods. 1-4 feet high. Along streams and river- 
banks, from western New York, and on the shores and 
islands of Lake Champlain, N. Y. and Vt., south to Ga. 
and La., and west to Col. 

An annual (adventive from Europe), 
rnaTk Medick ^^"'^^^ ^^ somewhat twisted stem partly lying 
Medicat/o <^Ji the ground, slightly downy or rough ; 

inpidinn the three leaflets obovate or wedge-shaped 

Yellow ^^.jj-j^ ^ bristle tip. The yellow flowers in 

g" ^~ . ^ small, short spikes. About 6 inches high. 

Pods almost black, kidney-formed, con- 
taining but one seed. Common in waste places ever^'- 
where. 

Tick Trefoil ^ connnon weed which flourishes in 

Desmodiion dry woods. The generally leafless flower- 
nudiflonuii stem rises from the root, and bears a 
Pale magenta scattered cluster of very small magenta- 
July-August P^"^ '^^' ^^^''^^ flowers, the broad upper 

petals of which are notched at the apex 
and turned backward, the lower narrow ones are lilac 
and white ; the stamens are prominent. The flower is 
fertilized by honeybees and many other smaller bees, 
especially those of the genus Halictus. The stout, 
shorter leaf-stalk is terminated by the leaf-clusters, of 
tliree ovate, toothless leaflets. The hairy two-jointed 
pods or seed-vessels stick to one's clothing. or are dis- 
tributed by some similar means of transportation. 18- 
23 inches high. In woodlands from Me., south, and 
west to Minn. 



2i6 




Tick Trefoil 



Desmodium nudiflopum. 



PULSE FAMILY. Leguminosas. 



Dfsmodium 
<(ri(inin(ituw 
Pale magenta 
June- 
September 

trifle hairv. 



This species has similar flowers, but 
they are considerably larger and borne 
on a slender stalk which rises from the 
plant-stem at the point where the leaf- 
stalks spring outward. The broad, 
pointed leaflets are much larger and a 
The strange seed-pod like that of the fore- 



going species is 2-3 jointed. The name is from dsd^oi 
a chain, alluding to the connecting joints of the pod. 
By means of these joints the pods attach to the furry 
coats of animals. 1-4 feet high. The same distribution. 
The stem of this silky hairy tick trefoil 
bends or lies near the ground. The leaflets 
are quite round, comparatively speaking, 
soft-hairy, and not pointed. The flowers 
are light purple-magenta, and the pod 
3-5 jointed, constricted nearly equally at 
2-5 feet long. About the same distribution. 
This species has oblong lance-shaped 
leaflets, or quite ovate ones, nearly if not 
quite smooth above, an erect and nearly 
smooth stem, and branching flower-stalks 
bearing very small pale magenta flowers. 
Pod 2-4 jointed, the sections nearly triangular. 2-3 feet 
high. Not farther south than Va. and Ky., west to Neb. 
A still narrower-leaved species, the deep 
green leaflets scarcely 2 inches long, and 
linear lance-shaped, resembling willow 
leaves. The flower-spikes are rather hori- 
zontally branched ; Pale magenta flow^ers 
Pod 4-6 jointed. The slender stem 2-3 feet 
high. Common. 

The most showy species of the genus, 
with crowded flower-clusters terminating 
a tall, stout, and hairy stem. The leaves 
are nearly without stalks, or witli short 
ones, and the three leaflets (longer-stalked) 
are oblong lance-shaped. The flowers 
(larger than those of the other species) are 
nearly ^ inch long, and vary in color from 
magenta to magenta-pink. Pods 3-5 jointed and quite 
2i8 



Desmodinm 
rotundifolium 
Purple=- 
magenta 
July- 
September 

both edges. 

Desmodmm 
DiUenii 
Pale magenta 
June- 
September 



Desmodinm 
p(ti\irnJfitrtm 
Pale magenta 
July- 
September 

very small. 



Canadian Tick 
Trefoil 

Di'suK^diuDi 
Ciniddoise 
Dull magenta= 
pink 
July- 
September 




Cdna^dian Tick Trefoil. ' Deamodium C^na^dense. 



PULSE FAMILY. Leguminosse. 



hairy. 2-6 feet high. Common on the borders of 
copses and on river banks, from Me., south to S. Car., 
and west to IMo. and Neb. 

Tralline Bush -'^" interesting Httle plant with a trailing 
Clover habit, its perpendicular branches rising 

Lespedrzn from a stout horizontal stem. The little 

pronnnbcns jeaves are cloverlike. The whole plant 
ta"or maeenta= '^^^oolly hairy. The tiny pealike blossoms 
pink magenta-pink or a light purple-magenta. 

August 12-25 inches long. * Common in dry soil 

September everywhere. 

Tea edeza -^^ upright and tall species with small 

violacea elliptical leaflets distinctly stalked. Stem 

Purple sparingly hairy and much branched. The 

August- small flowers purple or violet-purple. 1-3 

ep em er ^^^^ high. Common in dry soil, and on 
the borders of copses everywhere. 

Lespedeza An erect species with smooth,, dark 

reticulata green, cloverlike leaves, crowding a 

P"*"?'^ rather straight, generally smooth stem, 

which is terminated by the small, crowded, purple 
flower-cluster ; smaller clusters also spring from the 
junction of stem with leaf-stalk. The Lespedezas, 
especially this one, are apt to exhibit two kinds of 
flowers ; those with showy petals, which are sterile, and 
those petalless and minute, which are abundantly fer- 
tile. According to Prof. Robertson, the chief visitors of 
this flower are the bumblebee Bomhus americanorum, 
the leaf-cutting bee {Mcgachile), and the ground bee 
(Halicfufi ; notably H. ligatus). Among the butterflies, 
Colias j)/n7o(//('e and Pampliila cernes are occasional 
visitors. 1-3 feet higli. Mass. and Mich., south. 
T^apedeza This species has yellow- white flowers 

pniysfdchi/a purple-spotted, which grow in small dense, 
Veiiow=white, bristly, oblong spikes. The stem is silky 
*^" *^ hairy, and the round-ovate leaflets are 

sli^-litly separated by the conspicuous stalk of the middle 
one. 2-4 feet high. Common everywhere on dry 
hillsides. 



220 




Leaves with a bristly extension of the midrib, 



Bush Clover. 



Lespedeza violacea^ 



PULSE FAMILY. Leguminosas. 



The flowers of this species are clustered 
Lespeaeza '^ , . 

aipitata in small round heads terminating a stiff, 

White straight stalk, which is silky hairy. The 

streaked leaves have three oblong leaflets, and are 

nearly stemless. The flowers are similar to the fore- 
going species, or they are white, magenta streaked. 
Visited by the leaf-cutter bee {Megachile brevis) among 
many others. 2-4 feet high. Same situations everywhere. 
Common Vetch ^ climbing annual adventive from Eu- 
I'icia satira rope where it is cultivated for fodder ; one 
Purple of the genus is also extensively cultivated 

May-August -^^ j^.^jy^ notably about Naples, and in the 
vicinity of Pompeii. The flowers, which are purple or 
even magenta-pink, grow in pairs or singly at the junc- 
tion of stem with leaf-stalk. The 8-10 leaflets are obtuse 
oblong, notched at the tip, and the stalk terminates in 
two twining tendrils. The pod resembles that of the 
pea, but it is long and slender. Stem 1-3 feet long. N. 
Eng., south, and west to Minn, and S. Dak. 
Cow Vetch "^ perennial, and graceful plant climbing 

T7(/« Cnicca W tendrils, and characterized by a fine, 
Light violet downy hairiness. The compound leaf has 
June-August twenty or more lance-shaped leaflets ter- 
minated abruptly by a bristlelike point. The small 
bean-blossomlike flower is light violet, the upper petal is 
lined with a deeper violet ; the cluster is sometimes quite 
four inches long, and is one-sided ; it grows from be- 
tween the leaf-stalk and the plant-stem. The color of 
the foliage is rather gray olive green. Fruit like a small 
pea-pod. Stem 2-3 feet long. Dry soil, on the borders 
of thickets, and cultivated fields. Me. and N. J., west 
to Iowa and Minn. 

Easily distinguished from the foregoing 
' . by its generally smooth character and its 

Aincnruna i 

Light violet obtuse elhptical leaflets which are less in 
number (8-14) and distinctly veined. The 
light violet flowers are larger, and only 3-9 form the 
rather loose cluster. 2-3 feet long. In moist soil. Me. , 
soutli to Va. and Ky., and west to Nev. The Vicias 
are in general cross-fertilized with the assistance of the 




Cow Vetch 



Vicia CracCcSL 



PULSE FAMILY. Leguminosas. 



family Hymenoptera, the bees ; the honeybee is one of 
the commonest visitors. 

A seaside plant, but one common also on 
Beach Pea shores of the Great Lakes ; its con- 

Lathynis . ., 

niaritimus struction and habit similar to those of 

Ruddy purple Vicia. There are 6-12 oval leaflets, bris- 
May-August tie-tipped, and a ruddy purple flower-clus- 
ter of 5-12 bean-blossom-shaped florets ; the cluster is 
somewhat long-hemispherical in outline. At the base 
of the compound leaves are a pair of conspicuous arrow- 
head-shaped stipules, or leaflets. The pod is veiny and 
about 2 inches long. The stout stem is angled and 1-2 
feet high. Sandy soil Me., south to N. J., and west to 
Oregon. 

This is a slender marsh-loving plant with 
.a lyrns ^^ angled and winged stem, narrow lance- 

palustris ° , „ » . ■, 

shaped stipules (leafy formations at the 
base of the compound leaves), and with 2-4 pairs of 
lance-shaped leaflets. The loose and ruddy purple spare 
flower-cluster (of 2-6 flowers about h inch long) is as long 
as the compound leaf. The narrow, veiny pod is about 
2 inches long. Stem 1-3 feet long. In wet situations, 
from Me., Mass., N. J,, and N. Y., west to the Pacific 
coast. 

A climbing vine reaching a height of 
Ground Nut o o 

Apios tuberosa ^-^out four or five feet. The root is tuber- 
Maroon and ous and edible. The compound leaf is 
pale brown- composed of 3-7 toothless, ovate-pointed 
' ^^ , leaflets, smooth and light green. The ses- 

AugUSt- , . r, O O 

September thetic flower-cluster is maroon and pale 
brown-lilac in color wuth a texture of 
velvet ; the bean-blossomlike florets are cloyingly sweet, 
and suggest English violets with a slight and strange 
liorso-chestnut odor. They are fertilized mostly by the 
various bees, including the honeybee. The name is 
from anioi', a pear, alluding to the pear-shape of the 
tubers. The plant is exceedingly beautiful and worthy 
of cultivation. On low, damp ground, from Me., south, 
and west to S. Dak. , Neb. , and Kan. Found in Campton, 
N. H. 



224 




Ground Nut. 



Apios tubeposai. 



FULSE FAMILY. Leguminosas. 



Another perennial climber, distinguished 
Wild Bean ^^^^ .^^ j^^^ ^^ ^.j^^.^q leaflets pointed at the 

^^rnZiT tip and rounded at the base. The plant is 

Red=purpie very fine-hairy and considerably branched. 
Juiy-Septem= rpj^^ flower-cluster is thin and about 4- 
^^'' 8 inches long ; the red-purple blossoms 

are scarcely over i inch long. The pods are stalked, 
drooping, and a trifle curved. Stem 5-12 feet long. In 
thickets Me. , south, and west to Minn, and Neb. 

A similar, but annual species, with a 
strophostyles ^ ^^._^^^,^^^^ gteni about 6-8 feet long, the 
Greenish white leaflets sometmies bluntly lobed and some- 
or purple times entire. The 3-10 greenish white or 

July-Septem= ivd-purple flowers about ^ an inch long, 
^^^ in a loose cluster. The slender linear 

pod is fine-hairy and about 3 inches long or less. 
Stem branching at the base and about 4-8 feet long. 
Sandy river-banks, and meadow borders, Mass., south, 
and west along the Great Lakes to Minn., and south- 
west to Kan. 

A dainty vine with delicate light green 
PeanuT ^^^ leaves formed of three smooth, angularly 
Ainphirctrjiaa ovate-pointed leaflets, and bearing two 
hioHoira kinds of fruit. The perfect lilac or ma- 

Magenta-iiiac genta-lilac narrow blossoms are in small 
tem'be'r ^ ^ drooping clusters ; these are succeeded by 
many small pods about an inch long hold- 
ing generally three mottled beans. The other fruitful 
blossom is at the base or root of the plant in rudimen- 
tary form with but few free stamens ; it is succeeded by 
a ])ear-shaped ])od containing one large seed— hence the 
name wild peanut. The name of the plant means both 
i\ud fruit, in reference to the two kinds of fruit. The 
pod of tlie upper blossom is curv^ed and broad at the tip, 
it matures about the middle of September. The slender 
stem twines about the roadside shrubbery, and is from 2- 
7 feet long. Common everywhere in moist ground from 
Me., to S. Dak., Neb., and La. Found in Campton, 
N. H. 



226 




Wild 
Phaseolus perennis. 



^^J^&iW ^09 Peanut. 
£© VAmphicappaea monoica. 



PULSE FAMILY. Leguminosas. 



A showy and decorative plant with 
(jassia compound leaves of 12-20 broad lance- 

Mariiandica shaped leaflets of a rather yellow-green 
Golden yeU tone. They are smooth and somewhat 
low. brown- sensitive to the touch. The flower-clus- 
Juiv-Auirust ^^^'^ ^^'^ loosely constructed. The light 

golden yellow flowers of five slightly un- 
ecpial petals are accented in color by the prominent 
chocolate brown of the anthers ; the stamens are very 
unequal in length. 3-8 feet high. In swamps and al- 
luvial soil from Me., south, and west to Minn., Neb. 
Kan., and La. 

Partridge Pea ^^^ erect annual species w4th large 
C(/,s.s7(( sliowy yellow flowers, \\ inches across, in 

ciiami£crista groups of 2-4 at the bases of the sensitive 
Yellow leaves ; often the five petals are purple- 

b"/' ^Pt^""" spotted at the base. The 20-30 leaflets, 

less than an inch long, are blunt lance- 
sliaped and pointed with a tiny bristle. The slender 
\hm\ about 2 inches long is slightly hairy. 1-2 feet high. 
In dry or sandy fields, everywhere. But not in Me., 
N. II., or Vt., or if in Me., very rare. 
Wild Sensitive ^^ similar species, but tall, and with very 
Plant small and inconspicuous yellow flowers. 

cV(.s.s/(( The 12-40 tiny leaflets scarcelj^ | inch 

nictitans long. The flowers in groups of 2-3 at 

tlie bases of the leaves. 6-12 feet high. Me., south to 
( ia.. and west to 111., Kan., and Tex. Not in N. H., and 
if in ^le. exceedingly rare, for only one record exists. 



228 




Partridge Pea. Ca^ssia ChamaecristaL^ 



GERANIUM FAMILY. Qeraniaceae. 



Wild Geranium 
or Cranesbill 



(tERANIUM family. Geraniacece. 

A small family of plants with symmetrical and per- 
fect flowers of mostly five parts, viz. : five petals, five 
sepals (usually tlistinct), and five stamens or twice that 
number. Fruit a capsule. Cross-fertilized by bees, but- 
terflies, and the beelike flies. 

A delicate wild flower pale or deep ma- 
;enta-pink, or quite light purple ; some- 
(UTiuiiuNi times the ten anthers are a delicate peacock 

marHiatum blue. The deeply cut, five-lobed leaf is 
Magenta=pink rough-hairy ; the stem and the unfolded 
May-July flower-en velop (the bud) are also remarka- 

bly hairy. The blossoms are cross-fertiHzed mostly by the 
agency of honeybees, and the smaller bees of the genus 
ifa/icfus— particularly HaUctus coriaceus, and the Syr- 
phid flies. The flower is, perhaps, quite incapable of 
self-fertilization in the absence of insects, as the pollen 
is ripe and the anthers fall away before the stigma 
is receptive. The leaves with their brown or white 
spots are the occasion of the specific title, maculatum. 
1-2 feet high. In woodlands and wooded roadsides, 
from Me., south to Ga., and west. Found in Camp- 
ton, N. 11. 

„ . ^ . A rather handsome and decorative spe- 

Herb Robert . .- n t^ t .• • if j 

(irr<nn)nn ^^^'^ adveutive from Europe, distmguished 

Rf>h>'Hi(innm for its generally ruddy stems and strong 
Magenta odor when bruised. The ornamental leaves 

^^^~ with 3-5 divisions are deep green some- 

times modified with the ruddy tinge of 
the })lant. The flowers are deep or pale magenta, and 
are succeeded by long-beaked seed-vessels. 10-18 inches 
hi^^li. On ilie borders of rocky woods, from Me., south 
to N. J., and west to Mo. 

. A somewhat similar species, but distin- 

Hicknrna guished by its almost skeleton-lobed leaf 

and remarkable seed-vessel the persistent 

style of which splits upward /ro»i the base and bears the 

seed at the tip. The flowers are pale magenta, and are 



230 




Herb Robert 
Geranium Robertia^num. 



Gepanlum Bicknellii. 



GERANIUM FAMILY. Geraniaceas, 



generally borne in pairs. 8-16 inches high. Me. to 
southern N. Y., and northwest to western Ontario, 
Canada. 

., . Another similar species but one more 

CaroJinianvm commonly distributed through the South. 
Pale magenta The leaves are deeply cut and narrowly 
Alay-August lobed, and the pale magenta flowers are 
borne in compact clusters. The beak to the seed-vessel 
is nearly an inch long, and is short-pointed in contradis- 
tinction to that of the foregoing species, which is long- 
pointed. The curved sections of the beak are also 
shorter. The stem is fuzzy and 8-15 inches high. In 
poor soil from Me., south to Mex. , and west. This gera- 
nium as well as the others is more or less 'dependent 
upon the small bees {Halictiis), and the Syrphid flies 
for cross-fertilization. The flower has ten perfect sta- 
mens, however, and the inner circle of their anthers is 
so near the stigma that self-pollinization may easily 
occur ; that is the expressed opinion of Professor 
Robertson. 

False Mermaid ^^^ slender and weak-stemmed little plant, 
Fioerkia pro- ^^ith small compound leaves of from 3-5 
serpinacoides leaflets sometimes thrice cleft. The tiny 
White wliite flowers with three petals are borne 

pri - une singly on long and slender stems proceed- 
ing from the base of the leaves. The flower is succeeded 
by 1-3 fleshy spherical seed receptacles which are set 
snugly within tlie remaining three sepals, 6-15 inches 
liigh. In swampy land, and on river-banks, from Me., 
soutliwest to Pa., and westward. 



232 




CPdnesbill. 
Geranium 
m^culAtum, 



Geranium Carolinianum. 



SORREL FAMILY. Oxalidaceas. 



SORREL FAMILY. OxaUdacece. 

A small family of low herbs in our range, with trifoli- 
ate, leaves and perfect, regular flowers of five parts ; the 
ten stamens united at the base. Fruit a five-celled cap- 
sule. Juice sour and watery. Cross-fertilized by the 
smaller bees and the beelike flies. 

One of the most dainty of all woodland 
Wood Sorrel pj^^j-^^j, common in cool, damp situations. 
Acetoseiia The leaf composed of three light green 

White pink= heart-shaped leaflets which droop and 
veined f^^^j^j together after nightfall. The frail 

May-July flowers nearly an inch broad, with five 

notched petals, are borne singly on delicate long stems, 
and are either pinkish white, striped with crimson lines, 
the color deepening toward the centre of the blossom, 
or white with crimson-pink lines. Fertilized by the 
smaller bees (Halictiis), and the Syrphid flies. Cleisto- 
gamic flowers (a kind fertilized in the bud without 
opening) are also borne on small curved stems at the 
base of the plant. A stemless perennial about 3-4 in- 
ches high, growing from a creeping scaly -toothed root. 
Common in thin, damp woods from Me. to the mountains 
of N. Car., and west on the north shore of Lake Su- 
perior. Found at Profile Lake, Franconia Notch, N. H. 
A native of the old world, and a most interesting flower 
frequently introduced in the paintings of Fra Angelico 
and Sandro Botticelli. 

Violet Wood Another most dainty woodland species 

Sorrel common in the South, and cultivated as a 

o.rniis rininrra housc plant lu the North. The leaves are 
M^a*" Tune"^* similar to those of the preceding species. 
The flowers are variable, sometimes white, 
but grncraliy light magenta (the rose purple of Dr. 
(iray); th.'v are never violet. The long flower-stalks 
Iwar :]-(\ (,r more blossoms, in contradistinction to O. 
Arefosella wliirh bears but one flower on a stalk. It is 
fr.Tjuontt'd l)y the same class of insects which visit the 
last. 4-S inches higli. Rocky ground and thin woods, 
frcMu Me., south, and west to the Rockies. Also among 
the Andes, South America. 

234 




Wood Sorrel. 



OxalisAcetosella. 



SORREL FAMILY. Oxalidaceas. 



Yellow Wood 
Sorrel or 
Lady's Sorrel 

(Xralis rijiHosa 
Yellow 

A\ay-Septem= 
ber 

last species), 



One of the commonest yellow sorrels of 
the north ; not a woodland plant but fa- 
miliar b}' every roadside and in every field 
and garden. The light green stem erect, 
rather smooth, or sparingly hairy (viewed 
under the glass) ; the leaves of three heart- 
shaped leaflets (smaller than those of the 
long-stemmed and somewhat drooping ; 
without small leafy formations at the junction of leaf- 
stem and plant-stem. The rather deep lemon yellow 
flowers scarcely | inch broad, with five long ovate petals 
and ten yellow stamens alternately long and short ; the 
heart of the blossom is green. There are 2-6 flowers 
on a somewhat horizontally spreading, branched stem, 
which are succeeded by hairy seed-pods | inch long set 
at scarcely a wide angle with their stalks. Visited by 
the smaller bees, and Syrphid flies, and also occa- 
sionally by the tiny butterflies {Hesperia). 3-12 inches 
high, with a wf^ak stem but strong root. The O. cor- 
iiici'hifd, var. sfricfa. of the sixth ed. of Gray's Manual. 
A far less common species, an annual or 
IxTcnnial, sustaining itself by far-reaching 
running roots. Generally less upright 
than the last. AVith leafy formations at the 
bases of the leaf-stalks. Pods elongated, 
and erect, often set at a sharp angle 
with their stalks. In other respects very similar to the 
f<.n-()iiig species, but rare; near Burlington, Vt. (T. 
K. Ilazen). 



Yellow Wood 
Sorrel or 
Lady's Sorrel 

Oxdlis! strii-fa 
May Septem = 
ber 



236 




ChardCteriiticaily hairy 
la dU it5 parts 

Yellow Wood Soppel. 
Oxdlis stpictd. Oxalis cymosaL 



FLAX FAMILY. Linaceae. 



FLAX FAMILY. Linacece. 

A small family mostly composed of not very tall herbs, 
slender and frail flowered, but remarkable for having 
furnished the world with linen from time immemorial. 
The perfect, symmetrical flowers (of the genus Linum) 
have five petals, sepals, styles, and stamens ; the petals 
before expansion are rolled-up. The fruit is usually in a 
capsule. Mostly fertilized by the smaller bees and bee- 
like flies. 

A smooth perennial, with small yellow 
wnd Yellow j|^^^.gj,g terminating slender branches ; the 
Ununi five tiny yellow petals scarcely give the 

Virginia nnm flower a width of ^ luch. The small 
Yellow leaves are lance-shaped, thin, and one- 

June-August ^.-^^YjeA. The sepals are ovate and pointed. 
1-2 feet high. Dry woodlands, and shady places, 
throughout the north, and south to Ga. 

A somewhat similar species, but an an- 
suicatum ^^^^^ ^y'lth. a usually simple stem and alter- 

nate leaves ; the stem corrugated, at least 
above, the sharp, lance-shaped leaves three-ribbed, and 
the yellow flowers a full half-inch broad. 1-2 feet high. 
In dry soil from E. Mass., west to the Great Lakes, 
through the mountains south to Ga., and southwest to 
Tex. Rare along the seacoast, 

A rather delicate-appearing and pretty 



Common Flax 

/.//( Kilt 



annual adventive from Europe or escaped 
nsitiitissiinuiii from cultivatiou ; it has been under culti- 
Llght blue= vation since prehistoric times for its linen 
violet j^i^j.g j^j^^i j^g ^^^^ qJj rpj^g stem erect, 

,jg^ ^ branching, and ridged, the alternate leaves 

lance-shaped, sharp, and three-ribbed. The 
delicate blue-violet flowers, | inch broad, with five 
slightly overlapping petals, are fertihzed mostly by the 
honeybee. 9-20 inches high. Along roadsides, by rail- 
ways, in cultivated fields, and in waste places. 



23S 




Common Flax. Linum usitatissimum. 



MILKWORT FAMILY. Polygalaceas. 



MILKWORT FAMILY. FolijgalacecE 

Mostly herbs with generally alternate leaves, and per- 
fect but irregular flowers with five sepals, the two late- 
ral ones petallike, large, and colored ; the others small. 
The three petals are connected with each other in a tube- 
like form ; the lower one is often crested at the tip. The 
generally eight stamens are more or less united into one 
or two sets and in part coherent with the lower petal, 
but free above. Stigma curved and broad ; the anthers 
generally cup-shaped and opening by a slit or hole at the 
apex. Cross-fertilization effected by the agency of bees 
and the beelike flies. 

An exceedingly dainty, low perennial 
Fringed Milk= j-j^iug ii'om. prostrate stems and roots 
Flowering sometimes a foot long. The few broad, 

vvintergreen ovate, bright green leaves are crow^ded at 
I'oii/ijiiia the summit of the stems, the lower ones 

paiicifoiid reduced to the size of a mere scale. The 

Magenta or ^.^^^ through the winter and turn 

white '^ 

Alay July Ji bronze red. The flowers, nearly | mch 

long, are generally magenta or crimson- 
magenta, and rarely white. The three petals are united 
in a tube, the lowest one terminating in a pouch con- 
taining the pistil and anthers, and furnished at the end 
with a fringe or beard. This last serves as a landing plat- 
form for bees who will naturally depress the pouch by 
their weight ; the rigid pistil and stamens, however, re- 
fusing to bend with the pouch are forced out through a 
slit at the top of the latter and come in direct contact 
with the under parts of the insect visitor. Thus cross- 
ferlilization is in a large measure secured by the pollen- 
tlanbfil bee brusliing against the exposed stigma of the 
ni'xt llowcr visited. The honeybee and the ground bees 
of the genus IlaUctus and Audrenidce are the common- 
est visitors. The little plant often bears cleistogamous 
subterranean flowers on tiny branchlets. Erect stem 3-6 
inches high. Common in damp, rich woods, from Me., 
south to Ga., and west to 111, and Minn. Found at 
Holderness, N. H. ; white specimens near Bangor, Me. 



240 




Fringed Polygala. Polygdla pa^ucifoiid. 




Seneca Snakepoot. Polygala Senega. 



MILKWORT FAMILY. Polygalaceas, 



? 



Milkwort 

PollJ(J(tl(l 

poly(j((nia 
Dull crimson 
June-July 



The tiny aesthetic, dull crimson flowers 
of this species are borne in delicate long 
clusters at the tips of the leafy stems. The 
leaves are light dull green, lance-shaped, 
and crowded on the slender stem, tooth- 
less, and rather blunt, with a bristlelike tip. Rarely the 
flowers are nearly white ; the eight stamens are more or 
less conspicuous. The plant also bears cleistogamous 
flowers on subterranean horizontal branches, and these 
are numerous enough to justify the specific title, poly- 
gama. 5-15 inches high. Dry sandy soil common 
everywhere, but locally abundant only. 

A much less showy species with white 
or greenish white flowers and fewer lance- 
sliaped leaves, the lowest ones very small 
and scalelike. The small terminal flower- 
cluster dense. It bears no cleistogamous 
greenish white bioggQi^^g gtem 6-12 inches high, simple 
May-June 

or slightly branched. In rocky woodlands, 

from western New Eng., south to N. Car., among the 
mountains, and west to Minn, and Mo. 

A branching and leafy species with 
globular or oblong, compact flower-clus- 
ters of deep or pale magenta blossoms ; 
rarely they are white. It is the calyx 
which contributes the iTiddy magenta to 
the yellowish petals are hidden within. 
The stem is slightly angled. The little leaves are similar 
to those of P. jjolygama. 6-13 inches high. In moist 
and sandy fields and roadsides. New Eng., south to S. 
Car., and west to Minn., Ark., and La. 



Seneca 
Snakeroot 

Poly gala 
Senega 
White or 



Polygala 
sanguinea 
Magenta 
June- 
September 

the flower 



242 




Milkwort. 
Polygala. polygdma.. Polygald. 5^.ngainca. 



MILKWORT FAMILY. Polygalaceae 



An attractive species whose leaves are 
generally arranged in clusters of four — 
hence the specific title, cruciata. Stem 
square or almost winged at the angles, 
widely hranched, and smooth. The deli- 
cate dull magenta flowers in heads like 
clover bloom, with the florets crowded. 
3-13 inches high. Margins of swamps, or 
low ground, from Me., south, and west to Minn, and La. 
A species very similar to the last, but 
with a slenderer stem and shorter leaves 
more sparingly distributed. The flower- 
spikes much smaller and the flowers 
stemmed. 3-10 inches high. A coastwise 
PoJygala, common on the borders of brack- 
ish swamps, from R. I., Long Island, N. 
J., and Del., south. 

A slender and smooth species with usu- 
ally many branches, and with long slender 
lance-shaped leaves tipped with a slight 
bristle, arranged in circles of 4-5, or scat- 
tered singly among the branches. The 
greenish white or magenta-tinged flowers 
are compactly clustered in conic spikes, 
nearly an inch long. The little florets are 
distinctly stemmed. All the Polygalas are 
assisted in the jn-ocess of fertilization by the bees and 
some of the smaller butterflies, notably Colias philodice, 
yellow. 6-12 inches high. Common everywhere in 
fields or on roadsides. The var. amhigua is nearly the 
same in structure, but is taller, slenderer, and only the 
lower leaves are in circles ; the others are alternate. 
The flower-spikes are very long and loose, some of the 
lower flowers being isolated ; the blossoms are a trifle 
larger, and mostly a pale magenta. In dry soil, N. Y., 
N. J., and Pa., south to Ga., and southwest to Tenn. 
and La. 



Cross-leaved 
Milkwort 

Polijgala 
crucuifd 
Dull magenta^ 
pink 
July- 
September 



Short=leaved 
Milkwort 
Pulygala 
hrrvifalia 
Dull magenta 
pink 
June- 
September 



Whorled 
Milkwort 

Polijijahi 
verticiJlata 
Magenta= 
tinged or 
whitish 
June- 
September 



244 




Cross-ledved Milkwort. Polygal<5.cpuciata.. 



SPURGE FAMILY. Eupborbiaceae. 



SPURGE FAMILY. EuphorUacece. 

Plants with usually a milky and acrid juice, bearing 
staminate and pistillate flowers on one plant or exclu- 
sively either kind on one plant, so there shall be stami- 
nate ones, and pistillate ones, hence they are largely 
dependent upon insects for fertilization. The flowers 
are irregularly or imperfectly constructed, i. e., in some 
instances without petals, and in others polypetalous or 
even monopetalous. Fruit generally a three-lobed cap- 
sule. Represented in the northern countries by the 
genus Euphorbia, but largely a tropical family. 

A prostrate, spreading weed common in 
^Vu^)h.(n-hi<t " ^^^^ sand of the seashore ; stem branched 
pohjgnni folia and smooth. Flowers inconspicuous and 
Whitish green usually solitary at the bases of the small 
^^^y- linear oblong leaves. Seed-capsule round- 

ep em e ovoid, and ash gray-colored. Branches 

3-7 inches long. Along the Atlantic coast from R. I., 
south, and on the shores of the Great Lakes. 

A prostrate weed common throughout 
Milk Purslane ^s^Qj-tii America, in open places and on 
^^ ^ ^'* '^ roadsides. Stems usually dark red, hairy 

Enphnrhin and spreading radiately like common pus- 

maruiata ley ; leaves toothed, red-blotched, and 

Whitish or dark green in color, oblong and obtuse, 
j" ^ about 1 inch long. The whitish or ruddy 

September inconspicuous flowers growing at the bases 
of the leaves. Branches 3-12 inches long. 
Common everywhere. 

„ , , . A smooth or slightly hairy annual, the 

rrrsiif oblique and tlu'ee-ribbed leaves of which 

Whitish or are red-spotted and margined ; similar to 
^"^^y those of the preceding species. The stem 

September bi'^nched and nearly upright. The insig- 
nificant flowers whitish or ruddy, and obo- 
void in shape. 8-20 inches high. Common everywhere 
in fields, by roadsides, and on the borders of thickets. 



246 




Spurge. 



Euphorbia Preslii. 



SPURGE FAMILY. Euphorbiaceae. 



White Mar= 
gined Spurge, 
or Snow on 
the Mountain 

Evpliorbia 
vuirginatd 
White 
May- 
September 



A very handsome species cultivated for 
its ornamental white-margined leaves sur- 
rounding the rather insignificant flowers. 



An annual with bright green foliage, the 
leaves ovate-pointed, toothless and stalk- 
less. Stem stout 2-3 feet high. In dry 
soil, Ohio and Minn, west to Col. Also an 
escape from gardens in the east. 

An annual species naturalized from 
Europe, with a smooth, erect, stout stem, 
often branched from the base. Leaves 
obovate and finely toothed. The insignifi- 
cant flowers terminating the branchlets, 
of an indeterminate color, generally green 
and tan. 8-12 inches high. Common in 
waste places from N. Y. to Ohio, and along the Great 
Lakes. 

A perennial spreading by horizontal 
rootstocks, and an escape from gardens 
to roadsides and waste places in the east- 
ern States. Leaves bright light green, 
linear and almost flliform. The stems 
thiekly clustered and very leafy, ter- 
minated by a large flower-cluster flat 
dome-shaped. The insignificant flowers 
Ictfiininate in color, but generally greenish dull yel- 
low, or tan. or russet red ; they are rather ornamental, 
witli creseent-shapcd glands. The plant is milky juiced, 
like all the Eu2)]iorl)ias, and it has become naturalized 
from Europe. It is poisonous if eaten in any quantity. 
Fertih/.cd by In^us and butterflies. 5-12 inches high. 
Common everywhere in the east. Found in Campton, 
X. II., near an old graveyard. 



Sun Spurge 

Eripliorbid 
H('IiOKC()})i(i 
Greenish 
and tan 
June- 
September 



Cypress 
Spurge 

Euphorbia 

CtijKirissids 

Greenish 

and tan 

June 

September 

i 



248 




Cypress Spurge. 
Euphorbia Cyparissias. 



Snow on the Mountain. 
Euphorbia marginata. 



CASHEW FAMILY. Anacardiaceae. 



CASHEW FAMILY. AnacardiacecB. 

Trees or shrubs witli alternate compound leaves, and 
small regular, generally polygamous flowers, i. e. pistil- 
late, staminate, and perfect flowers on the same plant 
or on different plants ; the flowers of five parts in gen- 
eral. Fruit a berry. Cross-fertilized by bees, the beelike 
flies, and butterflies. The juice of some species is in- 
tensely poisonous. 

Dwarf Sumac ^^ shrub with fine-hairy branches, and 
Rims copalUna compound dark green leaves of 9-21 ovate 
Qreen=white lance-shaped shining leafiets, toothless, 
July August Q^ ^^.ji-h few obscure teeth; the stem 
is wing-margined between the leaflets. The green- 
white flowers are polygamous, and collected in a cone- 
like terminal cluster, succeeded by the maroon-red hairy 
fruit. 1-7 feet high ; sometimes a tree 25 feet high. 
Common on rocky hillsides from Me., south, and west to 
Minn., Neb., Mo., and Tex. 

Stajrhorn ^ similar and very common shrub in 

Sumac thickets among the hills, with golden 

Rhus typhinn brown twigs densely covered with velvety 
''""^ hairs, and leaves of 11-31 lance-shaped, 

sharply toothed leaflets, dark green above and whitish, 
fine- hairy beneath ; turning a brilliant scarlet in the 
early fall. The leaf-stem not winged. The polygamous 
green-white or whitish green flowers similar to the pre- 
cciliug; the fruit very densely covered with maroon-red 
liairs. Dry, rocky soil, especially among the moun- 
tains, from Me., south, and west to Minn, and Mo. 
Tlio wood is a dull greenish yeUow handsomely grained ; 
tlu" bark is used for tanning leather. 

A similar smooth-stemmed shrub with 
leaves of 11-31 toothed leaflets, dark green 
Rin>s,jiahra above and whitish beneath ; the stem not 
winged. The flowers and fruit similar to 
tliose of the preceding species. 2-12 feet high, some- 
times 18 feet high. About the same distribution as the 
above. 



250 



.th 
Sumac 




Dwarf Sumac. 



Rhus copa^Uina. 



CASHEW FAMILY. Anacardiaceae, 



^ . ^ An exceedini^ly poisonous shrub with 

Poison Sumac , ,. , i 

i:husrr,ui,ufa coinpouncl, smooth, hghter green leaves. 

Whitish green green on both sides, of 7-13 thin obovate 

J""e ij^jt;, pointed leaflets icithout teeth. More 

frequently found in swampy land, and irritatingly 

poisonous to the toucli. The flowers are whitish green 

and are borne in loose clusters at the angles of the 

leaves ; they are also polygamous. Fruit a green-gray 

berry in slim clusters. 6-15 feet high, or sometimes 24 

feet high. In wet, low grounds, from Me., south, and 

west to I\Iinn. and Mo. 

A vine with a shrubby character in its 
Poison Ivy ^. i 1 i • -j. 

j^j^^^^ more southern range, but pushing its way 

tn.ricnrJeiidmn with rapidly running rootlets in the colder 
Whitish green northern region. A noxious poison, in- 
May-June deed, producing a painful, burning erup- 

tion of the skin, if the latter comes in contact with any 
part of the plant ever so lightly ; some persons are far 
more susceptible to the poison than others, but it has 
been demonstrated that it acts only bj^ contact. An 
excellent remedy to use until a physician can be con- 
sulted, is the well-known Extract of Witch-hazel 
(■'Pond's Extract") applied by saturating cloths and 
wrai)i)ing them about the inflamed parts. The triple 
leaf of Poison Ivy should never be mistaken for that of 
the Virginia Creeper, which has five leaflets strongly 
toothed. The leaflets of the poisonous plant are smooth, 
but not shining, light green, toothless, and generally 
ovate-pointed without lobes; but sometimes the larger 
leavfs are sluillowly notched or sinuous at the edge. 
The flowers are whitish green, and with the fruit are 
similar to those of the preceding species. Climbing high 
on til.' trunks of trees, on stone walls, in thickets, or 
rumiing over low ground, or meadows ; sometimes 
bu>liy. erect, with gray stems 2-3 inches thick, and 1-4 
fe.t liigli. Me., soutli, and west to S. Dak., Utah, Ark., 
and Tex. Common in the Pemigewasset Valley, N. H. 



252 




Poison Sumac. 
Rhus venenata^. 



Poison Ivy. 

Rhus toxicodendpon. 



STAFF-TREE FAMILY. Celastracess, 



STAFF-TREE FAMILY. Celastracece. 

Shrubs with simple opposite or alternate leaves, and 
small regular, generally perfect flowers with 4-5 petals 
and as many stamens inserted on a disc set at the base of 
the ovary (or sometimes merged into it) and at the bot- 
tom of the calyx. Fruit a pod with 2-5 cells. Insect 
visitors commonly bees. 

A twining, shrubby vine common on old 
Climbing Bit- ^^^^j^^ ^^..^^^ ,^j^^j roadside thickets, and 

Waxwork sometimes climbing trees to a height of 
Celastrus twenty or more feet. The light green 
scandtns leaves are smooth and ovate or ovate- 
Greenish oblong, finely toothed, and acute at the 
white 
jy^^ tip ; tliey grow alternately and somewhat 

in ranks owing to the twisting of the stem. 
The tiny flowers are greenish white, and grouped in a 
loose, spikelike terminal cluster ; the five minute petals 
are finely toothed along the edge, and the five stamens 
are inserted on a cup-shaped disc, in the manner ex- 
plained above. The flowers are succeeded in September 
by the beautiful orange fruit, a globular berry in loose 
clusters, but properly speaking a capsule whose orange 
shell divides into three parts, bends backward, and ex- 
poses the pulpy scarlet envelop of the seed within. The 
fruit is charmingly decorative, and if it is picked and 
placed in a warm room before the shells open, it will ex- 
pand and remain in a perfect condition thoughout the 
winter. CHmbing 6-25 feet. Along roadsides, streams, 
etc., from Me., south to N. Car., among the mountains, 
and west to the Daks., Kan., Oklahoma, and N. Mex. 
Rare in the White Mountain region of N. H. 



254 




Bittersweet. 
Cddstrus scandens. 



JEVVEL=WEED FAMILY. Balsaminaceas. 



JEWEL-WEED FAMILY. BaLsaviinacecc. 

Juicy-stemmed herbs with smooth simple-toothed 
leaves and irregular perfect flowers whose sepals and 
petals are not clearly distinguished as such, the spurred 
sack being one of the three sepals ; the other two are 
lateral and small. Petals five, or three with two of 
them two-cleft into dissimilar lobes. The five stamens 
are short. Admirably adapted to fertilization by long- 
tongued insects, such as bumblebees. 

A common, translucent-stemmed plant 
Pale Touch- of wet and shadv situations in the north, 
me-not or . '..in-, i ,. 

Jewel-weed especially on mountamsides. The sack of 

ImjKitirits tlie pale yellow, sparingly brown-spotted 

(■lurta lioney-bearing flower is obtuse and rather 

Pale yellow short— in fact, somewhat bell-shaped, or 
September '^"^ broad as it is long. The spur is scarcely 

I the length of the sack. It is a more ro- 
bust and a ligliter green species than the next. Un- 
doubtedly it is assisted in the process of fertilization by 
the bumblebee and the honeybee. Throughout the north, 
and south as far as Pfa., but by no means as common as 
/. biiiunt. 

Tlie commoner one of the two species, 
^P°"^^'^""^^-UMially ruddy stemmed; very variable in 
ImDcitiens color, with smaller flowers, sometimes 

bijinra deeply freckled with red-brown over a 

Gold yellow deep gold-colored ground, and at other 
variable times pale buff yellow scarcely spotted. 

" \ . The sack is deep, longer than it is broad, 

September i ' & ' 

and terminates with an incurved spur 
nearly one half or fully one tliird of its length. In Pro- 
fessor Robertson's opinion it is especially adapted to the 
long bill of the hummingbird, but it is also visited by 
the honeybee, bumblebee, and the bees known as Melis- 
socles bimaculata and Ilalictiis confusus, as Avell as the 
butterfly Papilio troilus. The flower develops its sta- 
mens first, and afterward its pistil, so cross-fertilization 
is almost an assured thing. 2-5 feet high. Me., south, 
and west to Mo. Found in Campton, N. H. 

256 





^M 





Jewelweed 



Impatiens bj/lonai. 



BUCKTHORN FAMILY. Rhamnacese. 



BUCKTHORN FAMILY. Rhamnacece. 

Shrubs or small trees, often thorny, \vith simple, mostly 
alternate leaves, and small regular, perfect or polyga- 
mous flowers. There are 4-5 petals to the rather incon- 
spicuous flowers, or, in some cases, none at all. The 
fruit a berry, or a capsule. Visited by bees and flies. 

A shrub commonly cultivated for hedges 
Common . . " ° 

Buckthorn ^^ ^^^ twigs are often armed with formida- 
Rha)iinu!i ble thorns. A native of Europe and Asia, 

cathartiva and an escape from cultivation ill thiscoun- 

Ma^'^J^une'"" ^^'^' ' particularly in New England and New 
York. The smooth deep green leaves are 
ovate and finely toothed ; they grow alternately. The 
flowers are clustered at the angles of the leaves, and are 
an inconspicuous white-green : they are staminate and 
pistillate on ditlerent plants, and scarcely measure a tenth 
of an inch across. The flower is succeeded by a black 
berry the juice of which is powerfully medicinal. 6-16 
feet high. In dry soil along roadsides and near dwell- 
ings, from Me., west to N. Y. 

A native species with thornless branches, 
alnifoUa leaves similar to those of the foreign spe- 

cies, and greenish flowers without petals, 
staminate and pistillate on different plants. There are 
five stamens and cah'x lobes. In swamps, from Me. to 
N. J.. Pa., Neb., and in Cal. 

A shrubby species with a coarse, woody 
-. brown-green or bronzy stem , and dull green 

Ci'fnujfhus ovate-i>ointed leaves, sliarply but finely 

Americctnus toothed, very fine-hairy, and conspicu- 
Cream white ously three-ribbed ; the stems short, and 
*^' " ^ ruddy. The tiny cream white flowers are 

set in siiudl blunt cone-shaped clusters on long stems 
from the leaf angles. There are flve slender petals and as 
many stamens. The rather pretty plumy flower-cluster 
is lightly odorous. In Revolutionary times the American 
soldiers brewed an indifferent-flavored tea from the dried 
leaves. Stems 1-4 feet high ; root reddish. In dry open 
woodlands, from Me., south, and west to Minn, and Mo. 



258 










New Jersey Tea. 



Ceanothus Americanus. 



VINE FAMILY. Vitaceae. 



VINE FAMILY. Vitaci'a\ 

Climbing .shrubs mostly with tendrils, and with a pro- 
fusion of sap. The joints rather thick and the bark 
generally shredded. The flowers are regular and per- 
fect or polygamous — some plants with perfect, others 
with staminate llowers. Petals 4-5, stamens the same. 
Fruit a berry, or grape. Commonly visited by bees and 
the beelike fiies. 

., ^^ „ The familiar wild grai)e of the north 

Northern Fox , , , . , , , ■ , 

Qpapg l)earmg uirge black grapes with a bluish 

Vitis T^itn-Hsiu bloom, tough skin, and a sweet and nmsky 

Greenish flavor, | inch in diameter. The tendrils 

A\ay June .^,.^, forked, the bark shreddy, the young 

twigs and leaves very woolly and rust-tinged. The large 

light green leaves, opposite a tendril or flower-cluster, 

are shghtly toothed, entire, or deeply lobed, and rust}'- 

wooUy beneath. The fertile greenish flowers are in a 

compact cluster ; the grapes, in scant numbers, ripen in 

September and October. Tins sjjecies is a i)arent of 

the Isabella, Catawlja. and Concord grapes. Thickets, 

from Chesterville. !Me., south to Ga. , in the mountains, 

and west to Minn. Common at Saddle River, N. J. 

A species with suKjoth greenish branches. 
River Orape , *i i • • i- i i. i 

,..,. , and smooth, sliming, light green leaves; 

the tendrils in irregular occurrence. The 

leaves sharply three-lobed (sometimes more loljes) and 

sharply toothed. TIil' bliie-ljloomed black grapes are 

less than | inch in diameter, and rather sweet ; they ripen 

from July to September. Banks of rivers or near water, 

from Me., south to Md., and west to Minn., S. Dak., and 

Ark. In the east the grapes are sour and ripen late. 

A familiar creeiiing or trailing vine ex- 
Virginia . , , . , . . 

Creeper teiisively cultivated, common in its wild 

Ampelopsis state on low, rich ground. It climbs by 
quinqnefiAia means of disc-bearing tendrils, and aerial 
Whitish green j.,j,jtiets. The deep green leaves are com- 
pound, with 5-7 (generally with five) 
lance-shaped, sharply toothed leaflets, much curved, 
troughed, and conspicuously veined. The insignificant 
yeUow-green or whitish green flowers are perfect or 
260 




Norlhepn foxQpape 



Yitis Labrusca. 



MALLOW FAMILY. Malvaceae. 



polygamous (staminate, pistillate, and perfect flowers 
occur on the same plant), and are borne in a rather broad 
cluster ; tliey are succeeded by the beautiful, small cadet 
blue berries early in October ; botli leaf- and berry-stalks 
are deep red. The leaves turn a brilliant deep red in 
autumn. In thin woods and thickets, from Me., south, 
and west to the Daks, and Tex. Not infrequently it is 
mistaken for poison ivy {Rhus toxicodendron), a needless 
error, as the latter bears three never five leaflets. 

MALLOW FAMILY. Malvacece. 

Herbs or shrubs with alternate, more or less cut or 
divided leaves. The flowers perfect, regular, and roUed- 
up in the bud ; rarely the staminate flowers are on one 
plant, and the pistillate on another, thus necessitating 
cross-fertilization ; or rarely there are all three kinds of 
flowers, showing a stage of development. There are 
generally Ave sepals and five petals ; the stamens are 
indefinite in number. The fruit generally a capsule. 
Fertilization assisted by bees and butterflies. 

An erect perennial plant with branching 
Marsh Mallow ^^^j^^ ^^^ velvety-downy, generally three- 

,, '!'"'. lobed leaves. Thev are light green, ovate, 

Pale crimson- toothed, and stout-stemmed. The holly- 
pink hocklike flowers, an inch or more broad, 
Aujfust- p.^jg crimson-pink and veined ; the sta- 
September ^^^^^^ monadelphous. that is, collected in 
one column or tube around the central pistil, which is 
characteristic of the family. Flowers borne in small 
terminal clusters or at the leaf-angles. The thick root 
mucilaginous and officinal ; it is commonly used in confec- 
tionery. 2-4 feet high. In salt marshes on the coasts of 
Mass., N. Y., and N. J. Naturalized from Europe. 

An exceedingly common weed, annual 
Round=leaved or biennial, creeping over the ground, with 
Alallow, or ornamental, dark green, round leaves, 
Mnhr^ having usually five shallow scalloped- 

rotnndifolin shaped lobes, irregularly toothed ; the 
White stalks very long. Flowers clustered in 



262 



A 







Common Mallow. Malva potundifolia. 



MALLOW FAMILY. Malvaceae. 



magenta^ the leaf-angles, wliite or pale pinkish ma- 

vemed genta, magenta-veined ; in shape like a 

miniature hollyhock, but the five petals 
notched. Stems 4-10 inches long. Common in waste 
places and as a garden weed everywhere. The name is 
from the Greek, and refers to the soft character of the 
leaves (albeit the}- are hard I) ; the popular name, 
Ciieeses, refers to the round, cheeselike form of the 
seed-receptacle. Naturalized from Europe. 

A common biennial with an erect 
High Mallow branching stem, slightly fine-hairy or 
sUrl^tri^ sometimes smooth. The leaves lighter 

Light green, rather long-stalked, toothed, and 

magenta angularly five-lobed or occasionally seven- 

or pinkish lobed. The flowers with the same family 

""^ , resemblance to the hollyhock, magenta- 

pink, or light magenta, the petals with 
about four deeper veins ; the clusters (few-flowered) at 
the leaf-angles. l.S-30 inches high. A delicate-flowered 
plant common on roadsides and in waste places every- 
where. Advt'ntivc from Europe. 

A very similar but perennial species. 
Musk Mallow -..i ^i ' i /• t • • i i i i j 

„ , .^ with the leaf division deeply slashed or 

Moschata ^^'if- The medium green leaves with very 

White or narrow divisions and short stalks. The 

magenta-pink ^vhite or very pale magenta-pink flowers 

" ^ . nearly two inches broad, flat, and borne 

September 

in terminal clusters ; they are also veined. 

The leaves have a delicate odor of musk when crushed. 
1-2 feet high. Common in the same situations as the 
above species, with the same distribution ; from Europe. 
A distinctly western flower, occasion- 
ma^llow ^' ally escaped from cultivation in the east, 
CciUirrhn- a perennial bearing large showy, purple- 

hirohirrdtd crimsoii or magenta flowers slightly re- 
Magenta sembling the Malvas. The leaves slashed 
y- ugus like those of the preceding species, but not 
so deeply ; the lobes more obtuse. The stem hairy, and 
the flowers borne singly with long stalks. 1-3 feet high. 
In dry ground, from Minn., Neb., and Utah, south, 



264 




Musk Mallow. 



Malvd moschatcL 



MALLOW FAMILY. Malvaceae. 



A tall perennial with stout shrublike 
Swamp Rose- v^tems and large showy flowers. The leaves 
Hihis,v< olive green, bright above and densely 

Mn.^rht'iifns white woolly beneath ; ovate pointed and 
Pale pink or indistinctly toothed, with long stalks ; the 
^*^'*^ lower leaves three-lobed. Flowers 4-6 

Se^Dtember inches across, with five broad petals con- 
spicuously veined, pale crimson-pink or 
white, with or without a crimson base. The flowers are 
borne singly or in scant clusters ; they show a strong 
family resemblance to the hollyhock. 4-6 feet high. 
The most frequent visitors of the genus Hibiscus are the 
honeybees and bumblebees. In marshes near tlie coast, 
and in brackish water near saline springs in the interior, 
from eastern Mass., south, and w^est to 111. and Mo., 
especially near the shores of lakes. 

A similar but smooth species with the 

. " ^5 rC same period of bloom. The upper leaves 

leaved Rose- \ ,., 

mallow often halberd-shaped, i. e., like an arrow- 

liihisru.f head with conspicuous flanges, the lower 

niiiitdris ^Iso halberd-shaped or plainly three-lobed. 

Flesh pink rp,^^ flowers flesh pink, sometimes with a 

(lark magenta centre ; 2-3 inches broad. 

Stem 2-0 feet iiigh. On the banks of rivers and small 

streams from Pa., south, and west to Minn, and Neb. 

A species adventive from southern Eu- 

.. ^ ^^ rope, with a singular and beautiful 

ketmia ' ' '^ 

HibiscHs inflated calyx, resembling spun glass, five- 

Trionnm angled, rouudisli, and hairy. An annual 

Sulphur often escaping from gardens, with hand- 

^^ ^^ some, large pure yellow, or sulphur-col- 

ored flowers, with a black-purplish centre, that quickly 
fade ; hence called Flower-of-an-hour. The leaves deeply 
cut, with 3-7 lobes. 1-2 feet high. Near dwellings from 
New Eng., south, and west to Neb. 

A handsome southern species, with 

Hibiscus large, deep red-scariet flowers over six 

Red=scarlet inches broad, and deeply cleft leaves. 

Common in cultivation. 4-7 feet high. 

In deep marshes near the coast from S. Car., south. 



266 




Swamp Rose-mallow. Hibiscus Moscheutos. 



ST. J()HN'S=VVORT FAMILY. Hypericaceae. 



ST. JOriN'S-WORT FAMILY. Hupericacetv. 
A small fniiiily of shrubs and lirrhs. with <)pj)()site, 
toothless leavrs^ciu'rallystemless, and dotted with hlaek- 
ish jpots. The flowers perfect, with five (or four) parts, 
and often with numerous stamens. Fruit a capsule. 
St.Peter's=\vort -^ plant familiar in the pine barrens of 
.{.■«-iirvm stuns New Jersey, with oval, stemless, thickish 
^ ^"ow leaves and four-petaled lemon yellow flow- 

•^ ^ ers, closely resembhng the next species. 

The stem conspicuously two-ed<;ed. 1-2 feet high. In 
sandy soil. Long Island, X. Y.. X. J., and Pa., south. 

^^ , ^ , A low, l)ranching, smooth plant with 

St. Andrew's , , , , 

j^^Qgg small deep green ieaves.oblong or narrowly 

Asr)/riun Cnij-- obovate, stemlcss and thin, growing op- 

^i>ulrr<r positely. The lemon yellow llowers with 

\ellow four petals arrangiMl in ]);iirs in the form 

J u I > 

September "^ '"' ^- ^'^ '* ''"'*' cluster, or at the leaf- 

angles : petals numerous ; flower -^ inch 
broad. ."i-lO inches high. Sandy soil, Nantucket, Mass., 
south, west to Nelx. and Tex. 

^ ^^^ An erect and showv iK'reniiial witli tall 

Great St. , , • ^ 

John's-wort branchmg stem, the branches four-angled. 

I{i/l»ri(ii,„ Leiives ovate-oblong, pointed, stemless 

-••"'■v'"" ;ind slightly clasping the plant-stem. The 

Deep yellow tlo wis larg(> and showv, 1-2 inches broad, 

July-August , , ,, ■ r . , 

lict'p ItMnon yellow, with five narrow^ petals; 

stamens nuinei-ous. 2-<» feet high. River-banks and 

meadows, \'t. to Conn., X"^. .!., Pa., Iowa, and Minn. 

A shrubbv sijccies with stout, branching 
Shrubby St. , , , , ,1 , , . 

John's=wort ^ftMu, the branchlets two-edged, and leafy. 

Hypericum Leaves deep green, lighter beneath, linear- 

prolifcHm oblong, and very short -stemmed ; several 

Golden yellow ^,,j.,per leaflets at the junction of leaf 

with the stem. Flower-clusters thick, 
loose, and flat. The flowers golden yellow, with numer- 
ous deep golden yellow stamens. 1-3 feet high. In 
sandy soil N. J., south to Ga., and west to Minn, 

A simple-stemmed species blooming in 
..w^v-^oc.,.,. the same season and with similar golden 

yellow flowers. The deep green leaves 
(rather closely set upon the plant-stem) oblong or lance- 
268 









St. Andrews Cross. Ascyrum hypericoidea 
Ascypum Crux-Andreae. Linnaeus. 



ST. JOHN'S=WORT FAMILY, hyperlcacex. 



shaped. Tlie flowers in siiuill terminal clusters, with 
deep golden yellow stamens. l-'2 feet lii^h. In low 
ground, Nantucket, Mass., to N. J. and Pa., south to 
Ga. and La., and ^vest to ISIo. and Ark. 
Ilijpericiim ^ Common St. Jolm's-wort blooming in 

riiiptirinn the samB scason, with a simple, slightly 

Lighter gold four-angledstem. Leaves duUlight green. 
yellow thin, elliptical (often perfectly so) or oval, 

obtuse, and stemless, sometimes narrowed at the base. 
Flowers pale gold yellow, about 4 inch broad ; stamens 
numerous and golden yellow. The pointed pods succeed- 
ing the flowers are i)ale terra-cotta color. 8-20 inches 
high. In wet places and along streams from ]\Ie., south 
to Conn,, northern N. J., and Pa., west to Minn. 

A slender-stemmed species generallv 
,■;,■,,,, ill,, I branclied aljove, the stem somewluit four- 

Bright ochre angled. Leaves oblong lance-shaped, 
y«i'l"w acute, and stendess. Flowers numerous, 

*'"'^' deep bright ochre yellow^, copperv in tone ; 

September . , , • 

stamens numerous, blossom same size as 

the j)receding. 1-2^ feet high. In low grounds, pine 

barrens of central N. J.. Del., south, and west to 111. 

This is, generally speaking, the com- 

ommon . jnoj^est si)ecies. A perennial naturalized 

John s=wort * ^ 

Jlyprnri'in froui Europc, and a native of Asia. Stem 

p^rfiimtuin simple or much-branched. Leaves dusky 

Deep golden green, stemless, sinall, eUiptical, or oblong- 

^^. "^ linear, more or less brown-dotted. Flowers 

July-Sep- 
tember ^l^hiy, deep golden yellow, with numerous 

stamens ; the clusters terminal, on several 
branchlets. 1-2 feet high. Common everywhere. 
Spotted St. ^^ species with the same season of bloom, 

John's=wort remarkable for its spottiness ; its stem 
Hypericum slender and roimd, often tinged with dull 

maculutuni ^.^^^ r^j^^ leaves ovate pointed, or oblong, 
thickly dotted with sepia brown, stemless or nearly so, 
and often flushed with a ruddy color. The golden yel- 
low flowers marked with thin blackish lines, more con- 
spicuous upon the back of the petal than on its face. 
1-3 feet high. In moist places and damp thickets from 
Me., south, and west to Minn, and Tex. 
270 




St. Johns-wort. 
Hypericum ellipticum. Hypericum pepforatum. 



ST. JOHN'S=WORT FAMILY. Hypericacess. 



An annual, and an extremely small- 
Hypenciim . t ^ , , , 

,,^tttilti,n floirered species, amusely branched, the 

Pale golden branchlets four-angled, and slender. The 
orange leaves li<;lit dull green, oblong or ovate, 

July-.ep= blunt-pointed, and stemless. Flowers 

scarcely i inch broad, pale golden orange, 
or light orange yellow, with onl}' 5-12 stamens. 6-24 
inches high. In meadows and low grounds everywhere. 
Hi/pericum ^'^ ^^^T similar species, but with linear 

Canadtnst' leaves and tiny deep golden yellow flowers 

Deep golden about i inch broad, withering early in the 
>*^""^ day. The leaves light dull green and ob- 

scurely three-veined, the two side veins scarcely visible. 
The branches wiry, angular, and erect. The budlike, 
tiny pods succeeding the flowers are conspicuously ruddy . 
and exceed in length the five-lobed green calyx. In 
moist sandy soil, Me., south to Ga. and Ky., and west 
ti» ^linn. and S. Dak. Found in Campton, N. 11. 

Also an annual, with an entirely differ- 
Orange=grass ^j^^ aspect from that of the two preceding 
orPine=weed ,^, i i. ..• xj i n^^ 

Hypericum species, although It IS tmy-flowered. The 

nucUcauh' stem erect, diffusely branched, and appar- 

Deep golden t-ntlij lectjless ; the branches like slender 

yellow wires, and tlie leaves minute and scalelike, 

♦ "Zl *^ ' leaning closely to the branchlets. Flowers 

tember " -^ 

deep g(jlden yellow, nearly stemless, and 
open only in the sunlight. 5-10 inches liigh. In sandy 
soil from Me., south, and west to Minn., ]Mo., and Tex. 
Found near Brattleboro, Vt. 

A perennial with an erect stem and 
Marsh St. stemless, close-set, light green, ovate 

John's=wort , . , ■, ^ ■^ i- i 

IlujerUain leaves, sepia dotted, and with a slight 

Viriiini'-Hin i)loom beneath. The stem, together with 
Pinkish the leaves, late in the season (September) 

flesh=color j^ more or less pinkish or crimson-stained. 
t"inber*^'' and the seed-vessels are magenta. Tlie 

flowers are pinkish flesh-color, with orange 
glands separating the three groups of golden yellow 
stamens. Flowers in small terminal clusters. 1-2 feet 
high. In marshes, from Me., south, and west to Neb. 



272 




Drawn life siz? 



Marsh St. Johns-wopt. 
Hypericum Ca^nadensc. Hypericum Vipginicum 



ROCK=ROSE FAMILY. Cistacese. 



ROCK-ROSE FAMILY. Cistacece. 

Small shrubs or herbs with regular flowers, the five 

green sepals of unequal size, the two outer smaller ones 

resembling bracts, or small leaflets. Petals 3-5. But 

one style or none at all. Seed-receptacles (on slender 

stalks) opening at the to}). Visited by butterflies and 

honeybees in particular. 

Frostweed ^^ perennial, remarkable for the fact 

Hiliantlu mum that ice-crystals form about the cracked 

ranmUnsf bark of the root in late autumn. Lance- 

*^ "^ oblcing dull green leaves hoary with fine 

June August , . , , . , ,^^. , , ^ ■ -, 

hau-s on the under side. \\ ith two kmds 

of flowers, the early ones solitary, one inch broad, witii 

sliowy yellow petals which are more or less crumpled in 

the bud, which fade early and fall away ; these early 

blossoms have innumerable stamens. The later ones 

have few. and are small and clustered at the bases of the 

leaves. Pods of the larger flower -j inch long ; of the 

smaller one. not larger than a pin head. Low. In sandy 

s(jil from ^le.. south, and west to Minn. The name 

from the On»k words sun and Jloicer : the flowers open 

only once in sunshine. 

Hudsonia ^^ bushy little .shrub with tiny awl- 

tonuntoxd shaped, scalelike leaves, oval or longer. 

Yellow downy, and set close to the plant-stem. 

May-June r^^^^^ small yellow flowers crowded along 

the upper branches ; they open only in sunshine. The 

stem 5-10 inches high, hoary with down, Sandy shores 

Me. to ]Md., and along the Great Lakes to Minn. Also 

on the sandy beaches of Lake Champlain, Burlington 

and Apple Tree Bays. 

An insignificant, fine-hairv, perennial 
PInweed , , ., ^- ^■ \ \ 4.1 

lAiiird minor lit-i'^J' ^\\W\ tmy hnear leaves, larger on the 

Greenish or upper parts of the plant, and very small 

magenta=tintednear the base. The three tin\', greenisli 

*^""*^~ (or magenta-tinted), narrow petiJs remain 

ep em er ^vithin the green sepals after fading. The 

pod nearly globose, and appearing like a pin head. The 

upright smooth (when old) stem 10-18 inches high. 

Common in dry, sterile ground. 

274 




Fpostweed. 



Helianthemum Canadense. 



VIOLET FAMILY. Violacese. 



VIOLET FAMILY. Violacccv. 

A small family of generally low herbs with perfect, 
but rather irregular flowers of five petals, the lowest of 
which is spurred. There are five perfect stamens whose 
anthers turn inward and lie touching each other around 
the pistil. It is a family of nectar-yielding flowers com- 
monly visited by many species of bees and a few butter- 
flies, and cross-fertilization is effected by their assistance 
and by structural contrivances. The name is Latin. 

A beautiful violet, verv common in the 
Bird'foot , » ,r i" • , t 

\\q\^x southeast part of Massachusetts, mcludmg 

I'iola j,r,i,it<i the Island of Nantucket. The plant is gen- 
Light violet erally smooth and tufted; the leaves, dull 
^^'^' pale green, are cut into 3-5 segments, three 

April June . ^ . , . t , i 

ot which are agam cut and tootlied, so 
that tilt' average leaf possesses nine distinct points, or 
mure. The pale blue-violet or lilac flowers, larger than 
those of any other species, are often an inch long. In 
the vai\ hicohn' the two upper petals are deep purple ; 
this form is found from ]Mass. to Md. and 111.; it is com- 
mon in the latter State. But the most familiar tint of 
the common Bird- foot Violet is blue-violet, more or less 
dilute, and never hhie. Rarely there are white flowers. 
The lower, spurred petal is groovt^l, and partly white 
veined with violet ; the throat of the flower is obstructed 
with the orange anthers and the style, which bar the 
way to the nectar in the spur. The useful visitors which 
effect cross-fertilization are naturally long-tongued in- 
sects ; among them are the ever-present yellow butterfly 
{Colias pJiilodice), and the bumblebees, Boiiibus virgini- 
eus, and B. jjennsylvanicus. 4-10 inches high. In dry 
sandy fields. Me., south, and west to Minn., S. Dak., 
and Mo. Found in the Middlesex Fells, Mass. 

A very common species, generally 
lo a pet ina a ^jj^qq^-j^ j^^^ sometimes fine-hairv, with 
April-May ' 

heart-shaped or longer, deep green leaves, 

deeply lobed or cut especially on the sides. Flowers 
smaller, and bright light violet, or rarely white. Dry 
ground, mostly woodlands, from Me., south to Ga., and 
west to Minn., Neb., and Ark. 

276 




Bird-foot Violet, 



Viola pedatd. 




,,. A •" 



Viold. pa^lmata. 



VIOLET FAMILY. Violacese. 



The commonest violet of all, familiar on 
Common Violet , ., i • 15 i j mi j 

I7o/o uaimota I'^adsides and in fields. The leaves deep 

var. rnruUitii green, heart-shaped, scallop-toothed, and 
Light purple somewhat Coiled, especially when young. 
^^^" Both stem and leaf are smooth. The flower 

varies in color from light purple to pale 
violet ; rarely it is white purple-veined ; the three lower 
petals are white at the base, and two of these — the lateral 
ones — are beautifully fringed or bearded at the throat of 
the flower. The leaf-stalks are usually a little longer 
than the flower-stalks. 13-7 inches high. In low grounds 
everywhere, especially in marshes where the flower- 
stalks exceed those of the leaves, and the flowers are 
nuich larger. This species is cross-fertilized mostly by 
bumblebt'cs, the insect touching the stigma first. 
Arrow=leaved '^ ^'^^'T ^"^'^^^ species with deep green, 
\ ioiet arrow-shaped leaves with blunt points, 

Vf.ht sn,,ittnta and scalloji-teeth, but the upper part of 
Light violet ii,^. leaves sometimes plain-edged. A 
pn -i ay slight grayish bloom often characterizes 

tlie foliage when it is seen en masse. The small flower 
is light violet or deeper violet; its lateral petals are 
bearded, as are also the upper ones ; the lower petal is 
veined, and its si)ur is short. 2-8 inches high. In wet 
meadows or dry borders from ^le., south to Ga., and 
west to .Minn.. Neb., and Tex. It bears late cleistoga- 
moiis flowers. 

Selkirk's Violet is a rather uncommon, 
I tola Splkirku 11 1 • 11 r 1 

small, woodland species generally found 
among the hills. The stalks are erect and smooth, the 
leaves dark green and heart-shaped, deeply lobed at 
the base. The flowers are pale violet and beardless, 
with deep spurs. Moist soil, from Me. to Vt. , Mass., 
and Pa., and westward to Minn. Also in Europe and 
Asia. 

A small smooth species whose flower- 
Marsh Violet stalks generally exceed those of the leaves. 
Light Vi'ia'c ' "^ '^^'^li^^'^^ are broad heart-shaped and indis- 
May-Juiy tiiictly scalloped. Sometimes the leaves 

are kidney-shaped. The small flowers are 
light violet or lilac, with purple veins ; the petals are 

278 




A ^P0v^^5>- leaved Violet. Blue Violet. 

Viole^ sd^gittatd.. Viola pa^lmata vap. cuculata. 



VIOLET FAMILY. Violaceee. 



nearly, if not quite, without beards. 3-6 inches high. 
In marshes and wet soil in the alpine region of the 
mountains of New England, and north : also in the 
Rockies. A native of Europe. Found on !\It. Washing- 
ton and Mt. Moosilauke, N. H. 

„,^. A small species witli olive green, round 

Sweet White , , \, ..,.,,, 

yj„,g^ heart-shaped leaves slightl}' scalloped, and 

VioJ<f hiandn surct-sccutcd white flowers, very small, 
^*i'te with purj)le-veined petals, bearded, and 

April-May ^^^^f \)^.^y.^^\\y expanded ; fertilized mostly 

by the iioneybees. and the bees of the genus Ilah'cfus. 
3-5 inches high. In swamps, wet meadows, moist 
woodlands, and often in dry situations, from Me., south 
to Ga.. and local westward. The var. rcnifolia is slight- 
ly soft-hairy, the leaves are round kidney-formed, and 
the flower-petals are usually beardless. From Me., Vt., 
and Mass.. to western N. V. and ^linn. 

A smooth, remarkably narrow-leaved 
Lance-leaved 
YjQigj species, the leaves lance-shaped or even 

Vioialanceoidta linear lancc-sliaped, indistinctly scalloped. 

White and generally blunt. The flowers white, 

April-June veined with dull purple, and the petals 

beardless ; they are slightly fragrant. Cross-fertilized 

by the aid of the small bees of the genus Halictus and 

Andrena. 2-5 inches high. Common in moist ground 

and on river-banks from Me., soutli, and west to Minn. 

It bears cleistogamous flowers. 

A very early and rather inconspicuous 

Round-leaved violet, most frequently found on woodland 
Violet 

Vinln rofundi- fl'JCjrs and rocky hillsides. The stalks are 

fulia smooth, or very slightly fine-hairy, and 

Pale golden 2-4 inches high, generally the flower- 
yellow stalks exceed those of the leaves. The 
^'^' "■ ^^ smooth deep green leaves are round or 
long heart-shaped, indistinctly scalloped, and small in 
the flowering season; but by midsummer they lie flat 
upon the ground and attain a diameter of 2-4 inches. 
The smiill flowers are pale golden yellow, the lateral 
petals are bearded and veined with madder purple ; the 
lower petal is also strongly veined and has a short spur. 
In cool and somewhat damp, or even dry, situations 
280 




Sweet White Violet. 
Viola blanda^, 



La^nce-leaved Violet. 
Viola. lanceola.td., 



VIOLET FAMILY. VIolaceas. 



from Me., south in the mountains of N. Car., and west 

to Minn. Found in Campton, N. H. 

^ This is a rather tall and forkin"; si)ecies 

Downy Yellow , , . , , , , , - /. , 

YjQigj lacking the lowly habit ot the common 

Viuid 2>i'i>f^s,rns violet. The light green stem is fine-hairy 
Pale above, though usually smooth below. 

golden yellow j^^^ leaves are deep green, broad heart- 
sliaped, slightly scallop-toothed, and some- 
what suft-iiairy to the touch. The small flowers are 
pale golden yellow, veined with madder purple ; the 
lower petal, conspicuously veined, is short (set horizon- 
tally), witli a two-scalloped tip and a short spur. The 
flowers grow singly on thin stalks from the fork of two 
leaf-stalks. The anthers and the style obstruct the 
throat of the flower, and the side petals, heavily bearded, 
compel the entering insect to brush against the stigma 
and finally against the anthers in the elFort to obtain 
nectar. The commonest visitors are the small bees of 
the genus Halictiis and Andrena, and the bee-fly Bom- 
bf/Ii}i.s frdtellus : the yellow butterfly, Colias philodice, 
is an occasional caller. 6-17 inches high. In woodlands 
from Me., south to Ga., and west to S. Dak. and Iowa. 
The var. scabrinsciila is not so tall, the stems are slender, 
it is only slightly fine-hairy, and the leaves are generally 
acute at the apex, and distinctly scallop-toothed. 4-12 
inches high. In moist thickets or woodlands from ]\Ie., 
south to Tra., and Tex., and west to Neb. 

A smooth sweet-scented species with a 
\-toi(t (linn. t'^^^' 1^'^fy stem resembling that of the 
flensis foregoing. The heart-shaped, deep green 

Pale violet, leaves, broader or longer, with a slightly 
^^'**-' toothed edge, on long stalks, growing 

a> u > alternately. The flowers springing from 

the forking leaf-stalks are lighter or deeper violet on the 
outside of the petals and nearly white on the inside, 
with the throat yellow-tinted; the three lower petals are 
purple-veined, the side petals bearded, and the middle 
petal is acutely tipped. Rarely the flowers are altogether 
white. 5-15 inches high, occasionally more. In hilly 
woods from Me., south to 8. Car. and Tenn., among the 
mountains, west to Neb., 8. Dak., and in the Rockies. 
282 




Downy Yellow Violet. Viola, pubescena, 



VIOLET FAMILY. Violaceas, 



A handsome, somewhat western species, 
Pale Violet . , i ^ • i ^ ^ i i , ,, 

\-inin ■<tnittii '^^it'^ smooth, straight stems, and deep dull 

White or pale ^^ivcn, heart-shaped leaves, finely scallop- 
lavender toothed, and more or less curled at the 
April May \y^\<,{} when voiing, the tips acute. The 
moderately large tli)wt>rs white, cream-colored, or very 
pale lavender, the lateral petals bearded, the lower one 
thickly striped with })uri)le veins, and broad. The 
rtower-stalk exceedingly long. The stigma of the flower 
projects far beyond the anthers, so self-fertilization is 
impracticable : among the most frequent visitors (ac- 
cording to Prof. Robertson) are the bees of the genus 
Andrena, and tlu' small bees, Osniia albiventris and 
Halictus coridccxs. Cnlias philodice, the butterfly who 
"puts a finger in everyone's pie," is also an occasional 
visitor. ()-!<) inelies high. In moist woods and fields 
from western New Eng., to Minn., and Mo., and south 
along tlie Allegiianies to Ga. 

A low creeping violet ; the light green 
eg lo e stems with many toothed stipules (leafy 

var. Mnhhn- formations at tiie angles of the stems), 
h('rr,if and small round heart-shaped yellow- 

Light purple ^.,.^.,.,j leaves, obscurely scalloped, an«l 
April June ^li^.i.^i,- pointed at the til). Tlie pale pur- 
ple or violet flowers are small, with the side petals 
slightly bearded, and the lower petal purple-veined and 
long-spurred. Rarely the flowers are wliite. 2-6 inches 
high. Visited by the small bees of the genus Halicfi(s. 
Common in wet wooillands and along shady roadsides, 
from Me., south to N. Car, and Tenn., and west to 
Minn. Viola canina way. puberula is characteristically 
fine-hairy, the leaves are ovate and small, and the stip- 
ules are deeply toothed. It bears cleistogamous flowers. 
In sandy soil from Me. and Vt., westward to Mich, 
and S. Dak. 



284 




Pale Violet. 



Viola, striata.. 



LOOSESTRIFE FAMILY. Lythracew. 



LOOSESTRIFE FA:\IILY. Lyfhniceie. 

Herbs or slirubs in our range, with four-sided branches 
and generally toothless, opposite leaves and perfect 
flowers, though these are occasionally in two or even 
three forms, i. e., with long filaments (the stem part of 
the stamen minus the anther) and a short style, or vice 
versa. Petals 4-7. Stamens 4-14, sometimes the petals 
are absent. Cross-fertilization etfecteil in a number of 
instances through the agency of bees and butterflies. 
Hyssop ^'^ smootli branching annual, with pale 

Loosestrife green stem and leaves, the latter alternate 
Lytliruhi and lance-shaped, with stemless base, at 

Hi/ssnj.ifniui u Inch there are frequently little narrow 
Pale purple , ^ . • ^ ^ c 

majjenta leaflets, growmg upon a separate stem of 

JuIn tlu'ir own, which, lengthening, forms late- 

September ral, leafy branches above. The pale pur- 

plish magenta flowers usually have six petals and the 
same number of stamens, or less ; they grow singly in the 
angles of the leaves. (J-IT) inclies high. In salt marshes 
from Me. to N. J., also (according to Britton and Brown) 
in Cal., and along the coast of South America. 

^ . A similar, paler flowered sijecies with 

LythruDi . . 

l^J^^(^,.g linear leaves growing oppositely ; the 

tiny flowers grow in two forms, explained 
under the family description above. A perennial 2-'.] 
feet high. Salt marshes from N. J., south along the 
coast to Fla. and Tex. 

A tall slim species with much darker 
(ilfif\,,,i ' leafage and a smooth, much-branched, and 

angled stem. The leaves alternate (the 
lowest opposite), lance-shaped, pointed at the tip. and 
broader at the base. The flowers deep purple-magenta. 
I inch or more broad, and dimorphous, that is, in two 
forms, as explained above ; the stamens very long in 
some blossoms. 1-3 feet high. In low moist ground, 
from Mass. (East Lexington, and Boston), Vt. (Char- 
lotte), south to Ky., and west to Minn., S. Dak., Col., 
and Ark. 



286 




Loosestrife. 



Lythpumalatum. 



LOOSESTRIFE FAMILY. Lythracese. 



A must beautiful species naturalized 

Spik'ed'*' ^^"^"^ Europe and called by the English, 

Loosestrife Long Purples, Spiked Willow-herb, etc. 

Lythrum An erect, smooth, or slightly hairy slender 

salicaria perennial, generally much-branched. The 

"'^^'^' .. ^ medium green leaves lance-shaped with a 
magenta, light . i ■, u •. , 

June-August 'leart-shaped base, growmg oppositely or 

in circles of three, and stemless. The 
long-petaled, purple-magenta (light or deep) flowers, 
growing in circles, with 8-12 stamens, longer and 
shorter ; the flowers, in fact, trimorphous, that is, de- 
veloping tJirce relative lengths of stamens and style. 
Unquestionably dependent upon insects for cross-fertili- 
zation ; the honeybee, the bumblebee, and many of the 
butterflies are common visitors ; Colias philodice is fre- 
quently among the number. 20-35 inches high. In wet 
meadows, and on the borders of swamps, from Me., Vt., 
and Mass., soutli io Del., and in eastern N. Y. Mrs. 
Dana says: ••It may be seen in the perfection of its 
beauty along the marshy shores of the Hudson, and in 
the swamps of the Wallkill Valley." It is also abundant 
near Bedford, Mass.. and in Worcester Co., Mass. It 
responds readily to cultivation. 

Swamp -^ somewhat shrubby plant, nearl}' 

Loosestrife smooth, with reclining or recurved stems 
Decodun vtrti- of 4-6 sides, and lance-shaped leaves near- 
'.' " "* ly stemless, opposite-growing, or mostly 

in threes ; the uppermost witii clusters of 

small, bell-shaped magenta-flowers, growing from their 

bases. Flowers with five wedge-lance-shaped petals 

half an inch long. Stamens 10, five short and five long. 

2-8 feet long. Swampy places. N. Eng. south and west 

to Minn, and La. 

A cold and clammv, hairv, branching. 
Clammy , , , . , ' , , , 

Cuphea liomely annual, with ovate-lance-shaped 

Cuphea i-isrn- dull green leaves, and small magenta- 
sissinui pink flowers with ovate petals on short 

W^"*^'^'"" ^^^^^'^" ^^""^^ branching, 1-2 feet high. 
September ^^^ sandy fields from R. I. south to Ga. 

and west to Kan. and La. 



288 




Swamp Loosestrife Decodon verticillatus. 



MH A DOW = BEAUTY FAMILY. Melastomaceas. 



M K A 1 )( )\V-1 !E AUTY FAMILY\ 2Ielastomacece. 

Ilcrlis (in our range) with opposite leaves of 3-7 veins, 
aii«l pi-rlcct. regular flowcn-s having four petals, and as 
many calyx-lobes : there are either four or eight promi- 
n.iii stamens ; in our species the anthers open by a pore 
in lilt' apex. The stigma being far in advanceof the an- 
lii.-is. the tlower is cross-fertilized, and mostly through 
till- ag.'iicy of butterflies and bees. The seed are in a 
four-celled capsule. 

A stout-stemmed perennial, sometimes 
McadoxN branched (the stem rather square), with 

hcautv or ^ 

Dccr-Krass. smootli, light green, three-ribbed leaves, 
/.;,. ./ ,.( r,r</inira sharp-toothed, ovate pointed or narrower. 
MaKcnta .^,j,i gteudess. The flowers with four 

broad magenta or purple-magenta petals ; 
tlie goltleii anthers large. There are eight stamens 
shglitly varying in length ; the pistil reaching beyond 
thein secures the cross-fertilization of the flow^er ; the 
honeybee and C'olids pliilodice (the omnipresent yellow 
butterlly) are the only visitors I have happened to ob- 
serve. 10-1 s inches high. In sandy marshes, from Me. 
south, and local west to 111. and Mo. 

A shnilar species, with square stem and 

narrow, small, linear leaves. The large 

magenta Mowers with rounded petals are furnished with 

a tiny awiilike point. In sandy swamps, and the pine 

barrens of New Jersey, south to S. Car., local. 

,. . A slender, round-stemmed species, rather 

iJi'S.ll Mil IK I lilt , '■ 

hairy, and with short-stemmed linear- 
• .bli.ng, toothed leaves, three-ribbed, and acute. The 
Mowers are lii^ht magenta and similar to those of Rhexia 
\ 'iniiii Int. In sandy swamps, and in the pine barrens of 
New .br>ey, south and southwest to Tex. The name, 
Iroin the (ireek />//=/?, means a break or crevice, alluding 
to the situation of the plant. 



2QO 




Meadow Beauty. 



Rhexia Vipginica. 



i:VENINQ PRIMROSE FAMILY. Onagracex, 



F.VENTNG PRIMROSE FAMILY. Onagracece. 

ir.rl)s. or somotimcs shrubs. The perfect flowers 
(•.)iiim..iily with four petals and four sepals (rarely 2-C), 
;in.l Willi as many or twiee as many stamens; the 
sti.L^ma witli 2-4 lohes. Fertilized by moths, butterflies, 
and b.-cs. 

A nearly smooth herb with many 
T^d^l^ia V)ranches, and lance-shaped, toothless, op- 

,,ihntifnii(i i)osite-growing leaves which taper to a 
Yellow point at either end. The solitary hght 

■'""^' yellow, four-petaled flowers, about | inch 

-cptember \^y^y■^^\^ ^vitli sepals nearly as long as the 
|.,tals. Tlu^ seed-capsule is foiu'-sided and wing-mar- 
gined, rounded at the base ; the seeds eventually become 
l(H.se and rattle about when tlie plant is shaken. 2-3 
t'.<t high. Common in swamps, from Mass., to north- 
rrn N. v., south, and west to Mich, and Kan. 

A less showy species with very narrow 
.'"i ■'rn"r",a lance-sluiped Icavcs, and tiny inconspicu- 

(ireen ous, stemless flowers whose rudimentary 

July petals are pale green. The flowers grow 

September .,^ ^j^^ junction of leaf-stem with plant- 
stcMi. The lour-sided, top-shaped seed-capsule is fur- 
iii^lied at the base with linear or awl-shaped leaflets. 
1 :! left high. In swamps from Mass. southwest to Ky., 
and west to Minn, and E. Kan. 

A common uninteresting aquatic species 
Purslane found in swamps and ditches. The tiny 

i.u,iiri</i,, inconspicuous flowers without petals, or, 

/'"'"-''''"• when the ])lant grows out of water, with 

Pale reddish very small ruddv ones. The lance-shaped, 

.liine • V i ' 

Sepiemher « »lM»<>^ite-growing, slender-stemmed leaves 
(with the flowers growing at their bases) 
an inch K.iig or less. The elongated capsule indistinctly 
foiir-s,i,lrd. Stems 4-12 inches long, creeping or float- 
in-. Sliallow marslies, and muddy ditches everywdiere. 
Natii.'d lor ( '. (!. Ludwig, a Clerman botanist. 



292 




^^ _ Hdiry Willow Hepb. 

Epilobium^ngusTi/blium. Epilobium hipsutura 



EVENING PRIMROSE FAMILY. Onagraceas. 



A tall perennial herb with ruddy stem 
Fireweed, or .^^^^^ j^^^.j, q\[^^q green, lance-shaped, white- 
Great Willow ., , , , ■ ^ 1 j_ ^-l 1 

j^^j.^ ribbed leaves without teeth or nearly so, 

Kpiinhijim resembling those of the willow. The light 

(iHc/iisfifoiiinit magenta or rarely white flowers in a ter- 
Light magenta j^^ij^^l showy spike with four broad and 
u >- ugus (^-onspicuous petals, eight stamens, and a 
prominent i)istil. The slender velvety, purple-tinged 
pods, gracefully curved, open lengthwise and liberate a 
mass of silky down in late August and September, which 
gives the plant a wild and dishevelled appearance. 4-7 
feet high. Common on newly cleared woodland, es- 
pecially where the ground has been burned over. From 
Me., south to N. Car., and west to S. Dak. and Tex. 

A foreign perennial species which has 
Hairy Willow . \ ^■ i i \ 4- ^i 

Y^Qj-ly become naturalized about towns near the 

KpiUihiHiii coast. The deep yellow-green leaves ob- 

hirsiit 11)11 long lance-shaped, finely toothed and stem- 

Magenta J rpj foui-.petaled magenta flowers, 

July-August . . , , 1 • 1 ^ ^ • 1 1 ^ 

^ inch broad, m a sliort terminal cluster, 

or between leaf-stem and plant-stem. There are eight 
stamens. Seed-pod long and slender, the seed wafted by 
means of a long tuft of silky hairs at the tip. 3-4 feet 
liigh, densely soft-hairy, stout and branching. 

A small uncommon species. The stem 
KpiJohnun angled or marked with hairy lines, sparse- 

',"i'ig'^ " ly finely hairy throughout. The broad 

July-August linear, obtuse leaves erect or ascending, 

and stemless, with curled-back margins. 
The seed-capsules extremely long and with scarcely ap- 
parent slender stems. 6-12 inches high. Flowers the 
same as in the next species. White Mountains, N. H., 
an.l P;i.. west to Minn. Found on Mt. Washington. 

A very slender swamp species, with 

small linear or narrow lance-shaped light 

green leaves with a short but distinct stem, 
July August '^'i<l iii'ij lilac or pale magenta flowers, 

scarcely \ inch broad. The whole plant 
minutely hairy together with the capsule. More branched 
than the next species. 1-2 feet high. In bogs from 
Me., southwest to Pa., and west to S. Dak, 

294 



Kpilnl 
li.irur 
l.ilac 




Epilobium llneare. Epilobium coloratum 



EVENING PRIMROSE FAMILY. Onagraceas. 



A similar species witli densely soft white 
E2)iIob/um hairy stem, leaves, ami seed-^xxl. The 

.strirtnm leaves broader and less aciitt> than tiiose 

July^-August <^>f tlie last species, with short stems or 
none at all. The veins distinct. Flowers 
like those of the previous si)ecies. 1-3 feet higli. In 
boy,s from Me., south to Va., and west to Minn. 

A very common species in tlie north, 

Epiiohixm witli a minutely hairy branching stem, 

'".'"" '"" often ruddv, and lanceolate leaves, dis- 

Lilac 

July-August tinctly but not conspicut)Usly toothed, 

short-stennned, and yellow-green in color, 
often ruddy-tinged. The tiny ilowers pale lihic, and 
sometimes nodding ; in fact, all these small-ilowcred 
Epilobiiuits after being plucked show no<lding blossoms. 
Seed-pod green, exceedingly long and slender, the seeds 
dark brown, the hairy plume, at first pale, finally cinna- 
mon brown. 1-H feet high. In wet situations every wliere. 
Differs from the foregoing s[)ecies in 
EpiloUnm having erect flowei's (though they may 

Ljiaj, nod at hrst), broader, blunter, and less 

July-August toothed leaves with sliorter stems, and 

lighter colored seeds with a slight prolon- 
gation at the top. 1-8 feet high. In wet situations 
throughout the nortli ; not scnUh of Pa. The silky 
plumes of the seeds of these few last small-flowered 
species described may become grayish white as in E. 
adenocaulon; but at first they are ahsolatdij irliilc. At 
best the Ejxilobiums are a difficult genns to separate dis- 
tinctly, and are not a little puzzling to the l)otanist. 
Common A very familar biennial, and nocturnal 

Evening species, with light green leaves more or 

Primrose less lance-shaped, sometimes l)road, slight- 

'biruuil'" ^"^ resembUng those of the fire weed, 

Pure yellow ^^ig^itly toothed or toothless. Large slio wy 
July- August P^^i'*^ yellow flowers, lejnon-scented, with 

eight prominent and spreading stamens ; 



jyo 




Evening Primrose. CEnothepa biennis. 



EVENING PRIMROSE FAMILY. Onagracex. 



the golden pollen is loosely connected by cobwebby 
threads, and is transported from flower to flower mostly 
by moths ; the Isabella tiger-moth {Pyrrharctic isabella) 
is chief among the number. The blossoms are also fre- 
quented by the honeybee and bumblebee ; they usuall}' 
open just before sundown, and fade in the strong sun- 
light of the following day ; the sudden opening of the 
flower in the twilight hour is interesting and remark- 
able. The soft-hairy plant-stem, leafy throughout, is 
1-6 feet high. Roadsides and fields everywhere east of 
the Rocky ^Mountains. The flower of var. grandijlora, 
from the southwest, is very large ; the corolla is 3-4 
inches in diameter. It is commonly cultivated. The 
var. crucidtd has remarkably narrow j)etals linear and 
acutt'-. Mass., Vt., and N. Y. 

Oakes's Even- An annual, slenderer than the foregoing 
ing Primrose siHH'irs, an<l not hairy but covered with 
<Kiintlura ,^ sligiit close woolliness. The calyx-tips 

p'ure'yel'l'ow "**^ Conspicuously close together. Dry 
July August situations Mass. and N. Y., west to Neb. 
,^. ,, A lower slightly flnc-hairv species with 

sinuata oblong or lance-shai)ed leaves wavy- 

Pure yellow toothed or often deep-cleft like those of 
May-July ^i^g dandelion ; the small light yellow 

flowers borne at the bases of the leaves turn pinkish in 
fading. Al)out 1 foot high. In sandy soil, from N. J. 
south, and west to S. Dak., Kau., and Tex. Also in Vt. 
according to Brittoii and Brown, but not recorded by 
Brainerd, Jones, ami Eggleston, in Flora of Vermont. 

A sMiall slightlv hairy biennial, with di- 
Sundrops , , ' ,, n J^ 

<Fnnttu-rn urnal, ratht-r small pure yellow flowers, 

jnimild borne in a loose spike or at the bases of 

Pure yellow the leaves, the latter light dull green, 

May-July toothless and obtuse, lance-shaped but 

broader nearer the tip. 10-20 inches high. In dry sunny 

fields, from Me. to N. J., and west to Minn, and Kan. 



298 




CEnothepa^/puiticosa /^fCEnothera. pui 



EVENING PRIMROSE FAMILY. Onagraceas. 



A similar diurnal si»L'cics with llowurs 
Sundfops _^ .^^^_j^ bi-oad, bonu' iu a loose spike or 

fKuticosa at the bases of the lea\-es : tlie latter are 

Pure yellow oblong or lance-shaped and very sHghtly 
May-July toothed. Cross-fertilized by butterflies 

and bees, especially those of the genus Andrena, and 
the brilliant little flies of the genus SyrphidcB. The 
stigma extends far beyond the anthers, so self-fertiliza- 
tion is impossible except with the agency of insects. 
The seed-pods strongly ribbed and winged. Very varia- 
ble, 1-3 feet high. Common in fields and on roadsides 
everywhere. The var. linearis is slender, has very nar- 
row, linear-lance-shaped leaves, and the less ribbed seed- 
pods taper into the slender stalk. From Conn, south, 
and west to Mo. Blooming from June to September. 

An inconspicuous perennial of damp and 
Enchanter's woodlands, with opposite thin, frail 

Nightshade -^ ' ^. 

Circoea deep green leaves, ovate i)onited, reuiotely 

Lutetiana toothed, and long-stemmed. The tiny 

^hite white flowers have two ju'tals so deeply 

July-August ^j^^^ ^j^.^^ ^^^^^^^ .^j,j^^,.^^. .^^ ^.^^j^.. ^j^^.y ^^,^ 

borne at the tip of a long slender stem, which is set 
about with tlie little green burlike, white-haired, nearly 
round seed-pods. Fertilized by the beelike fly {Bonibyli- 
ns), the brilliant green Syrphid fly, and the mining bee 
{Andrena). Plant-stem very smooth and swollen at the 
joints. Common in cool and moist woodlands every- 
where. Named for the enchantress Circe. This and the 
next species are often found close together in Campton, 
N. H. 

Circcva ^ smaller species, the stem of wliidi is 

(dpina watery and translucent, ruddy and 

White smooth. The thin and delicate' heart- 

July August si^gpy^^i iG^xnii are shiny, coarsely blunt- 
toothed, and distinctly different from those of the 
preceding species. Tiny leaflets, or bracts, are set im- 
mediately beneath the flowers. The burlike buds are 
club-shaped. 3-8 inches liigh. Common only in the 
north and among the mountains. 



300 




Enchantepsl\ i . f%F^ "^ ^i^' 
Ni9ht5hd.de.'' •■'^^■■'•/ Mm'^-m ^^ms^ 
CircaeaL Lutetiana. Cireaea alpina.. 



GINSENG FAMILY. Araliacese. 



GINSENG FAMILY. Araliaceoi. 

Generally herbs in our range, with conipouiul. mostly 
alternate leaves and tiny five-petaled flowers in crowded 
clusters ; stamens five, alternate Avith the petals ; the 
flowers perfect or more or less polygamous ; stamiuate 
and pistillate flowers occurring on the same plant. 
Fruit a cluster of berries, which wiili the root, bark, etc., 
are slightly aromatic. Visited by numerous woodland 
insects as well as the bees of the gemis H(d ictus, and oc- 
casionally by butterflies. 

A tall, branching, smooth woodland 
^4/!!/^"^"* herb, with a round, blackish stem, and 

/•«((( /*(<-.s(f large compound leaves of generally 15-21 

Green=vvhite ovate leaflets, lieart-shajjed at the base, 
July-August flnely double-toothed, and deep green with 
brownish stems. The greenish white flowers are ar- 
ranged in small round clusters which in the aggregate 
form a large, terminal, j)ointcd spike, or perhaps several 
smaller spikes from the base of the leaves. Visited by 
the bees of the genus Halietns, ;uul the beelike flies 
(Syrplikke). Fruit a round dull brown-crimson berry (in 
compact clusters) sometimes, when over-ripe dull 
l>rown-purple. The large roots are esteemed for their 
spicy and aromatic flavor. 3-5 feet high. Rich wood- 
lands from Me., south through the mountains to Ga., 
and west to Minn., S. Dak., and Mo. 

A characteristicallv fine-hair v plant, 
Bristly Sar= .,..,, " ,. , .' 

saparilla or '^'^th sunflar leaves gen(n-ally hauy on the 

Wild Elder veins beneath and irregularly double- 

Ariilid hispicht toothed; they are perhaps longer and 

Dull white more pointed than those of And id nice- 
June early ., , , , , r^, . 

July uwm, and rounded at the base. The tmy 

dull white flowers are arranged in some- 
what hemispherical clusters, several of which crown the 
sunnnit of the stem. The fruit is somewhat oblate-sphe- 
roidal in shape and dull brown-crimson when rii)e. 12- 
84 inches high. In rocky woods, from Me., s(Hith to N. 
G., through the mountains, and west to Minn, and 111. 
Found in Campton, N. H. 



302 











Bristly SaP5dpapilld. 



Aral id hispid a. 



GINSENG FAMILY. Araliaceae. 



A so-called stoinless Andia, wlioso true 
WiIdSar= plant-stem scarcely rises above ground, 

Andia^^ the leaf-stem and llower-steni apparently 

nudicaulis separating near the root. There is a single 

Green=white long-stalked leaf rising 7-12 inches above 
May-June ^j^^ ground, with tliree branching divisions 

of leaflets; there are about five ovate, finely toothed, 
light green leaflets on each division. The fiowcr-stalk is 
leafless and bears 3 -7 rather flat hemispherical clusters 
of greenish white flowers whosc^ tiny petals are strongly 
reflexed; the five greenisli stamens are conspicuous. 
The fruit is a round purple-black berry in chisters. Com- 
mon in moist woodlands, from IMe., south along the 
mountains to N. C, and west to Minn., S. Dak., and 
Mo. The aromatic roots are used as a substitute for the 
true Sarsaparilla {Smila,v ()(ficin(tlis), of South America. 

The roots of Ginseng wliich, in the esti- 
Ginsengr ,. ,> ji /-n • i /• 

mation of tlie Chmese, are possessed or 
P(t)i(i.r _ ^ 

qui iiqite folium some potent medicinal virtut\ are so much 
Pale green= in demand for export that tlirough the as- 
yellow aiduitv (»f cohectors tlie plant has become 

July-August rri 1 1 ^ e ^ ^ 

rare. 1 he large deep green leat lias rive 

thin, obovate, acute-pointe(l leaflets, sharply and ir- 
regularly toothed ; in arrangement it slightly resembles 
the horse-chestnut leaf. The plant-stem is smooth and 
green, and the compoiuid leaves are l)orne three in a 
circle. The yellowish green flowers (the staminate lily- 
of-the-valley-scented) are crowded into a single hemi- 
spherical cluster ; they are polygamous. The fruit is a 
deep ruby red berry, in a scant chister. Th(^ name is a 
corruption of the Chinese Jin-chen, meaning manlike 
(from the two-legged appearance of the root). The plant 
is small— 8-15 inches liigh. Rare in rich cold woods. 
Me., N. II.. and Vt. to Conn., west to Minn, and Neb. 
Dwarf Ginseng "^ ^^"^' species witli a spherical root, gen- 
Piin<ix tri- erally three compound leaves composed of 

f'>i''"m about three toothed, ovate leaflets, and 

Dull white dull white flowers, staminate and pistil- 
May-June , , ,, , , '■ 

late, on the same plant, borne in a smgle 

cluster. Fruit yellow. 4-8 inches high. Me., south to 

Oa., in the mountains, and west to Minn, and Iowa. 

304 




Ginseng. ' 



Panax quinque/blium. 



PARSLEY FAMILY. Vmbelliferss. 



PARSLEY FAMILY. Umhelliferce. 

Herbs with hollow stems, generally deeply cut com- 
pound leaves, and tiny flowers in mostly broad flat-topped 
clusters, perfect (often polygamous), having five petals, 
as many stamens, and two styles. In some flowers the 
styles protrude from the yet undeveloped blossom, and 
the stigmas are touched by the visiting insect long be- 
fore the anthers are mature, thus securing cross-fertiliza- 
tion. Commonly visited by countless insects, including 
the honeybee, the bumblebee, and many butterflies, 
chief among which are the Black Swallowtails. The 
many species are not easily distinguished apart, as the 
flowers are very similar ; in general, minute character- 
istics of the seed show the radical differences best. 
Strong-scented plants remarkable for their aromatic oil. 

One of our commonest weeds, natural- 
Wild Carrot j^ed from Europe, and familiar by every 
Anne 'T Lace wayside near a dwelling. A coarse and 
or Bird's Nest hairy-stemmed biennial with exceedingly 
Daucini Carota fine-cut leaves, yellowish green, and rough 
Dull white ^Q |.j^g touch ; they are thoroughly decora- 
s" t~mb ^^^^' "^^^^ ^^^^ white flowers, in extremely 

flat-topped clusters, are gracefully dis- 
posed in a radiating pattern as fine as lace ; in the cen- 
tre of the cluster is frequently found a single tiny deep 
purple floret. Visited by innumerable insects, flies, but- 
terflies, bees, and moths, most of which are attracted by 
the peculiarly strong odor. The aged flower-cluster 
curls up and resembles a bird's nest, from which circum- 
stance the plant derives that name. 2-3 feet high. In 
waste places and fields everywhere ; it is often a most 
troublesome weed. A near relative of the garden carrot. 

A smooth, perennial species somewhat 
Parsley similar in appearance to wild carrot, but 

Conioselinum "^ith a slender-branched flower-cluster 
Canadense Composed of far less showy dull white 

Augu^t^-*^ flowers. The leaves similar, the lower 
September long-stemmed, the upper quite stemless. 
The fruit or seed is smooth, flat, and 
prominently five-ribbed, the two side ribs exceedingly 
306 










WildCdPPot 



Daucus Capota. 



PARSLEY FAMILY. Umbelli ferae. 



broad. 2-4 feet high. In cool swamps among the liills, 
from Me. and Vt., southwest through the mountains to 
N. Car., west to Minn, and Mo. 

A tall and slender species, poisonous to 
Cowbane ^^^_^ ^^^-^j^ \vivge tuberiferous roots. 

rigida The leaves are deep green, and altogether 

Dull white different in form from those of the pre- 
August- ceding species ; they are long-stennned 

September ^^_^ composed of 3-9 lance-shaped or 
broader, remotely toothed leaflets, more or less variable 
in shape. The tiny dull white flowers are in slender 
clusters. The seed is flat-sided, broad, and the ribs are 
not sharp or prominent ; the side ribs are broad. An- 
other denizen of the swamps; from N. Y., south, and 
west to Minn, and Mo. Named for Prof. Tiedemann, of 
Heidelberg. 

A common very tall perennial with a 
Cow Parsnip ^ , ,, • ■, -i ^. *■ 

Heracleum stout, hollow, ridged stem, sometnnes 

lanatum Stained lightly with dull brown-red. The 

Dull white leaves are dark green, compound — in three 
June-July divisions, toothed and deepl}' lobed, rather 

soft-hairy beneath, and with a leafy formation at the 
junction of the leaf-stem and plant-stem. The insignifl- 
cant dull white flowers, in large flat clusters, have five 
petals, each of which is deeply notched and of unequal 
proportions. The seed is verj' broad, flat, and generally 
oval. 4-8 feet high. Wet ground, shady borders of 
moist thickets, from Me., south to N. Car., and west to 
S. Dak. and Mo. Named for Hercules. 

A common biennial familiar on waysides 

1 arsnip ^^^^^ ^-^^^ borders of fields, with a tough, 

sativa strongly grooved, smooth stem, and with 

Light gold dull deep green, compound leaves com- 

yellow posed of many, toothed, thin, ovate divi- 

September ^^^'^^- ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^"^ ^^^^^ greenish) light 
gold yellow fiowers are gathered in small 
clusters set on slender stems, and form a broad, flat- 
topped cluster. The stem, 2-5 feet high, is extremely 
strong and difficult if not impossible to break. Seeds 
flat and thin. Common. Naturalized from Europe. 



308 







Wild Papsnip. 



Pastinacasdtiva. 



PARSLEY FAMILY, Vmbelliferae. 



Sometimes called Golden Alexanders. 
Meadow ^^ western species not very distant from 

77mt"'H(H ^''^"' (iurea. It has medium green lance- 

aZlnm shaped or ovate, toothed leaflets, three of 

Golden yellow which generally compose a leaf ; the root- 
June-Aujfust jgj^^.gg ^re single, mostly distinctly heart- 
shaped, the others simply rounded at the base. The 
golden yellow flowers are gathered in sparse flat-topped 
clusters. The seed is equally angled with deep flanges 
or ribs and is distinctly different in this respect from the 
flat seeds of Pasfinaca safiva ; they mature in early au- 
tumn. 15-36 inches high. Found on the borders of 
thickets, and woodland roads, from Ohio, west to Mo., 
southwest to Tenn., and west to 111. The var. atropnr- 
piireinn bears deep dull purple flowers, and is confined 
to the same range. T. barbinode is a similar species 
with stem- and leaf-joints and flowering stems more or 
less fine-hairy. Leaves with 3-6 leaflets. Flowers light 
gold yellow. Seed with seven prominent wings. Beside 
streams, commonest in the Mississippi Valley ; N. Y., 
west to Minn., and south. 

A stout and branching species often 
Water Parsnip gj.^^^,jj-^g jj^ shallow water. The compound 
cicntre folium leaves deep green, with 7-15 linear or lance- 
Dull white shaped leaflets sharply toothed ; the finely 
July- cut lower leaves generally submerged. 

September r^j^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^j^.^^ flowers are in a flat dome- 
shaped cluster. The seeds are prominently ribbed, and 
the leaves are variable in form. 2-6 feet high. Through- 
out the country. 

A similar but smaller aquatic species 6- 

aTustifoiia ^^ inches high, with 7-19 leaflets, more or 

less lobed, and a dome-shaped cluster of 

white flowers. From N. Y. to 111. and Neb. Also in 

the Rockies and the far west. 

„ . A very common smooth perennial, found 

Early Meadow , i i , . , , , , 

Parsnip ^^ shaded roadsides or meadow borders. 

Zizia anrea The medium light green leaves are doubly 

Light gold compound ; generally three divisions (or 

yellow leaflets, properly speaking) of 3-7 leaflets, 

May-June n • , \ ■. , , , ' 

all narrow, pomted, and sharply toothed, 

310 




Early Meddow Parsnip 



Zizia. d^upea: 



PARSLEY FAMILY. Umbelli ferae. 



but varying to broader types. The stem is often branched. 
The tiny dull hght gold yellow flowers have prominent 
stamens, and are collected in many small clusters, each 
widely separated from the other, but all forming a thin 
radiating cluster. Visited commonly by many flies, 
small butterflies, and but few bees. Seeds slightly 
ribbed. 16-34 inches high. Everywhere. Me. to S. Dak. 
^ A common weed in the north, natural- 

Carum carui ized from Europe. Biennial or perennial ; 
Dull white the lower basal leaves long-stemmed, the 
June-July upper stemless ; all finely cut, and orna- 

mental ; deep olive gray-green ; the flowers grouped like 
those of wild carrot, but far less showy, dull white or 
gray-white, in scattered thin groups like Zizia. The 
seed is oblong, slightly curved, i)lainly ribbed, exceed- 
ingly aromatic, and is much used as a spice in cakes, 
and also in confectionery. The flowers are frequently 
visited by various flies and bees, the yellow butterfly 
Colias pliUodice, and also the white cabbage butterfly 
Pieris rapce. 1-3 feet high. Local from Me., west to 
Pa., Minn., S. Dak., and Col. Found in Campton, N. H. 
An erect, slender, usually much- 
lock or s^ ot- branched and smooth perennial herb, very 
ted Cowbane poisonous to the taste. The stem marked 
Ciciita with dull magenta lines. The leaves deep 

mandata green, smooth, often tinged ruddy, with 

jrne^'llgust ^^^^^^ s^^^i'P teeth, and conspicuously 

veined, the lower ones nearly a foot long. 
The 9-21 leaflets lance-shaped or broader. The incon- 
spicuous dull white flowers in a thin, flat, somewhat 
straggling cluster ; they are polygamous. The seed 
ovate, flat on one side, or nearly so, and inconspicuously 
ribbed on the other. 3-6 feet high. Visited by number- 
less bees, wasps, and butterflies. Wet meadows and 
borders of swamps, from Me., south and west to S. Dak. 
Poison ^ similar much-branched herb, from 

Hemlock which is obtained a virulent poison, used 

Coninm in medicine. It bears the name of the 

Sun t'hite ^^^^^oc^ employed by the ancient Greeks 
June^uiy ^ Pitting to death their condemned po- 

htical prisoners, philosophers, and crimi- 
312 



PARSLEY FAMILY. Vmbelliferm. 



nals. Socrates died by this means. The dark green 
leaves are deeply dissected and toothed ; the leaf -stems 
are sheathed at the base, and the dull white flower-clus- 
ters are slender-branched. The ovate seeds are flat and 
irregularly ribbed. The stem is also spotted or marked 
with ruddy color like that of Cicnta. 2-5 feet high. In 
waste places, Me. and Vt., south to Del., west to Minn, 
and Iowa ; also in Cal. Naturalized from Europe. 

The round, slightly silky hairy stem (es- 
Sweet Cicely -^^^1 ^^-j^en young) of this familiar per- 

breristylh ennial herb is dull green often much stained 

Dull white with dull madder purple— a brownish pur- 

May-June pig_ The compound leaf is cut and toothed 

similar to that of Poison Hemlock; when young it is distin- 
guished by its fine-hairiness ; later that characteristic is 
less evident ; it is mostly three-divided, appears fernlike, 
deep green, and thin. The lower leaves are large, some- 
times considerably over a foot long. The stems of the 
dull white flower-clusters are slender and few, conse- 
quently there is no appearance of an aggregate flat- 
topped cluster such as generally distinguishes the family 
TJmbdlifercB. The flowers are staminate and perfect, 
the latter maturing the anthers first ; cross-fertilized by 
many flies and bees. The tiny blossom lias five cloven 
white petals and a very short style, scarcely ^^j inch long, 
which distinguishes it from the next species. 16-34 
inches high. In moist rich woodlands, from Me., south 
through the mountains to N. Car., west to ]\Iinn. and 
Neb. The large aromatic roots are anise-flavored and 
edible, but the similar general appearance of the Poison 
Hemlock often leads to dangerous if not fatal results. 

This is so similar to the preceding that 
fonUsUiT ^^^® differences are not obvious to the 
casual observer. The leaves and stem are 
either very slightly hairy or smooth. The style under 
the magnifying glass shows a greatly superior length; it 
is fully -^j inch long or more. The seeds of both species 
are nearly alike, linear, compressed, and bristly on the 
ribs. The roots of 0. longistylis are more spicy than 
those of 0. hrevistylis. Me., south to Ala., and w^est to 
the Dakotas. 




Seed-|vessel of 
Osmorr-hlza longistylis 
showing the long double style, 

Sweet Cicely. 



Osmoprhiza brevistylis. 



PARSLEY FAMILY. Umbelliferas. 



A small, creei)ing marsh i)lant, with a 
Water weak, pale ijrreeii, smooth stem, whieli f re- 

Pennywort '/ ° ^ i. .1 • • * 1 

lli/drnofijle quently takes root at the joints, and a 
Amrricana round-lieart-sluiped, light green leaf, thin, 

Dull white smooth, and shining, the edge doubly scal- 

June-August i^^^^^i^ ,^„j tlie stem about an inch long. 
The tiny white flowers, 1-5 in a cluster, are inconspicu- 
ous and grow at the angles of the leaves. In wet places, 
Me., south to Pa., and N. Car., west to :Minn. and j\Io. 

The green stem is smooth, light green, 

Sanicle or slightly grooved, and hollow like most of 

Snakeroot *^^^ members of the Parsley Family. The 

Sanicula leaves are deep green of a bluish tone, 

Mari/landica smooth, toothed, and palm-shaped, that is 

Greenish with radiating lance-shaped leaflets, ar- 

\^ ^"^ , ranged like those of the horse-chestnut ; of 

May-July » ' 

the five leaflets the lower two are deeply 
cleft ; the upper leaves are in three divisions and stem- 
less. The tiny pale greenish yellow flowers are in very 
small clusters ; the five petals of each floret are curiously 
incurved toward the centre of the flower, and beneath 
them are the five stamens securely restrained from ac- 
complishing the process of self-fertilization ; later the 
petals unfold ; the flowers are both staminate and per- 
fect, intermixed. In the few perfect flowers the two 
mature styles protrude beyond the petals, and the visit- 
ing insect must brush against them, generally after hav- 
ing visited some staminate flower. Cross-fertilization 
now completed, the styles curve backward so that the 
withering stigmas are safely out of the way of the ma- 
turing stamens, which are not released from the enfold- 
ing petals until the anthers begin to shed their pollen. 
Tlie long stamens of the sterile flowers mature early, 
and are a conspicuous factor in the green-yellow color- 
ing of the flower-clusters. The fruit, a tiny ovoid bur 
with many hooked bristles, often retains the recurved 
slender styles. Visited by the Syrphid flies, the bees, 
and a few butterflies. 18-38 inches high. In rich wood- 
lands. Me.., south to Ga., west to Minn, and Kan. 



316 




Water Pennywopt. Hydpocotyle Americana.. 



DOGWOOD FAMILY. Cornaceae. 



DOGWOOD FAMILY. Cornaeecv. 

Shrubs or trees, with opposite or alternate toothless 
leaves, and generally perfect flowers— sometimes the}' 
are dioecious ; that is, the two kinds of flowers grow on 
separate plants : or polygamous, that is. perfect, stami- 
nate and pistillate flowers growing on tlie same plant or 
different plants. The gemm Corniis, in'thin our range, 
which is represented here by two species, has perfect 
flowers. Cross-fertilization is etfected mostly by bees 
and the beelike flies. 

An exceedingly dainty little plant com- 
Dwarf Cornel ^^^^^^^ ^^^ wooded hilltops, and remarkable 
Bunchberry „.,.,,. ^ i . u i • i 

Cornus for Its brflliant scarlet berries whicli grow 

Canadensis in small, close clusters. The leaves are 
Greenish white light yellow-green, broadly ovate pointed, 
May-July toothless, and deeply marked by about 5-7 

nearly parallel, curving ribs ; they are set in circles. 
The flowers are greenish and tiny, closely grouped in the 
centre of four large slightly green-white bracts, or leaf- 
lets, having the semblance of petals, and imparting to 
the whole the appearance of a single blossom about an 
inch broad. The flowers are succeeded in late August 
by a compact bunch of exceedingly beautiful but insipid 
scarlet berries, of the purest and most vivid hue. The 
commonest visitors are the bees of the genera Andrena 
and Halictus, together with many woodland flies — bee- 
flies, and the familiar "bluebottle.*' 3-8 inciies high. 
In cool, damp, mossy woods ; frequently found on sum- 
mits over 4000 feet high, among the Adirondacks and 
the White Mountains. From Me., south to N. J., and 
west to Ind., Minn., Col., and Cal. 

c, . A tall shrub and often a tree, whose 

rlowenng . . ' 

Dogwood familiar flowers, appearing just before or 

Corn lis jJurida with the ovate deeper green leaves, have 
Greenish white four similar broad green-white or rarely 
Apr.i-June pinkish bracts, ribbed, and notched on the 
blunt tips. Fruit ovoid and scarlet, in small groups. 
7-40 feet high. Vt., Mass., south to Ky. and Fla., and 
west to Mo. and Tex. Name from cornu, a horn, in al- 
lusion to the hardness of the wood. 
3rS 



Flowering Dogwood 
Cornus flopidd. 




Bunchberpy. 
Cornus Canadensis. 



PYROLA FAMILY. Pyrolaceae, 



PYROLA FAMILY. J'l/rohicece. 

Formerly classed as a suborder under the Heatli Fam- 
ily. Generally evergreen perennials witli perfect, nearly 
regular flowers, the corolla very deeply live-parted, or 
five-petaled ; twice as many stamens as the divisions of 
the corolla ; the style short, and the stigma five-lobed. 
Fruit a capsule. Visited by numerous flit>s and bees, as 
well as smaller butterflies. 

A famiUar and beautiful evergreen ])lant 
Pipsissewa ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ xvoods, gvncrallv found under 
Prince's Pine i i i' rp, i i 

Chi,naphila Pi"t^^. spruces, or ]iendo<-ks. 1 lie dark 

umbellata green leaves are thick and sinning, sharply 

Flesh or toothed along the up})er half of the edge 

cream color ^^^^^ indistinctly toothed on the lower lialf ; 
u y ^^^^^ _^^^ blunt or abruptly dull-i)ointed at 

the apex, wedge-shaped at th« base, short-stemmed, and 
arranged in circles about the bulf-brown i)lant-stem. 
The flowers are dainty i)ale pinkish or waxy cream 
color ; the corolla has five blunt lobes which turn l)ack- 
ward as the flower matures, and at the base, next to the 
dome-shaped green ovary, is a circle of pale magenta; 
the ten short stamens have five double madder purple 
anthers ; the style is remarkably short — scarcely notic-e- 
able, and the gummy stigma is nearly flat and five- 
scalloped. The flowers are delicately scented. Mostly 
fertilized through the agency of tlie bees of the genera 
HaJictiis and Audrena, and the numerous small flies 
common in woodlands ; the stigma is very sticky and 
broad. Seed-pod a globular brown capsule. G-12 inches 
high. In dry woods, from Me., south to Ga., west to Cal. 
Spotted ^^ very similar species remarkable for 

Wintergreen its green-white-marked leaves. The leaves 
ciuiiiaiihihi instead of being broad and blunt .near the 
tip like those of C. umbellata, taper grad- 
ually to a point ; they are remotely toothed, dark green, 
and strongly marked with white-green in the region of 
the ribs. They are alx)ut two inches long. 3-9 inches 
high. Somewhat common in N. Y., and in the White 
Mountains, extending westward only as far as Minn. The 
name, from x^Utci, winter, and (^zAtcj, to love. 
320 



Pipsissewa. 
Chimaphila 
umbelldta 




PYROLA FAMILY. Pyrolacex. 



A very small i»lant. Inviring a single 
Ty^rllr^'^^ blossom.' somewhat like that of the com- 
Monrsr>i moll Shiiilcaf. The leaves are thin, deep 

i/rKudijIora green, shilling, roniul or nearly so, with 

Ivory white j^.^tlier line indislinet teeth, and Hat- 
June August „ ^ , ,. , 

stalked, ilie hve ])etals ot the cream- 
colored or ivory white Hower an' a hit pointtMl ; the ten 
wliite stamens liave two-pointed dull yellow anthers, 
and the long green pistil bends downward : not far be- 
low the tiower on the stem is ;i tiny bract or miiuite 
leaflet. 2-5 inches high. Tn jiine woods nsnally near 
brooks. From iAIe.. south to R. I. and Pa., and west to 
Mich, and Ore. Also in the Rocky IMonntains. South 
to Col. 

Small Pyrola "^ northern woodhin.l plant with ovate 

Pi/r,,l<t scruiiiln ]>ointed dee]) grceii leaves, rather round- 
Greenish white toothed, and long-stemmed: the leaves 
June-July eiivle.l near tlie bnse of the plant-stem. 

The leaf-stalksnre also somewhnt tl:d and t roughed. The 
flower-stalk is tall, bracteil or remotely set w ith minute 
leaflets, and bears a, one-sided low of small greenish 
white flowers which Anally assume a dr()oi)ing position : 
the corolla is bell-slia,})ed and live-lobed ; the pistil is 
extremely prominent. The slender llower-stalk is often 
bent sideways. :]-9 inches high. In woodlands, from 
Me., south to Pa., and west to :\Iinn. Found on the 
slopes of the White and Adirondack :\Ionntains. Tiie 
var. piiinila is a tiny form 2-4 inehes high, with rounded 
leaves, and but :VS flowers. Vt. (Bristol, Sutton, New- 
ark, and Fairhav(-n), .Ale., and N. II.. but not common, 
and west to Mich., on the shores of Lak<' Superior. 
Blooms from July-August. 

PiiroUt T\\\i^ is a small-leaved s[)ecies with dainty 

rlihuimfha droopiug flowers. and a stem of verv mod- 

(ireenish white,. rate height without bracts or minute 

June-July . ^f,. - i , • , 

leaneis, or at least possessmg l)ut one. 

The leaves are dull olive green, obscurely scalloped- 
edged, rather round, and thicker than those of the com- 
mon Pi/rola (Shinleaf). The nodding, greenish wdiite 
flowers have obtuse, elliptical, convergent petals. They 



322 




of 
secunda. 



One-floweped P^rola Moneses grand iflopa. 



PYROLA FAMILY. Pyrolaceae. 



are slightly fragrant. 4-9 inches higli . But 3-9 flowers. 
Woods. Me., south to Md.. west to Minn., and Col. 

Perhaps tlie coninionest of all the Py- 
Piirohi cllipfiea rolas, rather taller tlian P. chlorantha, 
Greenish white with evergreen, dark olive green, ellipti- 
June July q^\^ thin, and obscurely shallow-toothed 

leaves, the stalks somewhat flat or troughed ; they ex- 
ceed their stalks in length. The greenish white waxy 
flowers nod ; they are very fragrant : the five ])etals are 
thin and obovate, and form a protective cup about the pale 
ochre yellow anthers ; the i)istil is extremely long, bends 
downward and then curves upward, exposing the tiny 
five-lobed stigma to the visiting insect which is most 
likely to alight ui)on tbe invitingly exi)ost>d pistil. The 
flowers form a loose cluster, each on a ruddy pedicel 
(stenilet), and are borne on an upright stalk generally 
ruddy at the base, and liaving a tiny leaflet or bract 
iialf-way up. Commonly visited by tlie b;'elike flies 
{Syrphidce), and the bees of the genera Halictiis and 
Aiidrena. 5-10 inches high. Rich woods, from Me., 
south to Md., and west to S. Dak. and 111. The name is 
from Pyrns or Piruju, a ])ear, in allusion to tlie shape of 
the leaf. 

,^ . , ^ A similar but much taller species, with 
Round=leaved , , , , , , 

Pyroia nearly round or very broad oval leaves, 

Pi/.ola thick, very indistinctly toothed or tooth- 

rntinidifoUa less, and a deep shining green ; the stems 

White usually longer than the leaves, and nar- 

June July , ^ . , 

rowly margmed ; they are evergreen. 

The white waxy flowers are like those described above, 
but the roundish obovate petals spread open much more ; 
they are also very sweet-scented. 8-18 inches higli. In 
dry or damp sandy woodlands, from Me., south to Ga., 
and west to Minn., S. Dak., and Ohio. 
P,f,.„],f "^^^i^ similar species has i)ale c-rimson or 

asnrifvUa magenta flowers, and very round heart- 

shaped leaves, rather wide, shining, and 
thick. The southern limit, northern N. Y. and New 
Eng. But both species are more frequently found 
northward. 



;24 







Shin leaf. 



P:yrold.ellipticd.. 




Pyrola asapifoHa. 



PYROLA FAMILY. Pyrolaceas. 



Indian Pipe 

11 tii flora 
White or 
pinkish 
July-August 



A familiar clamiiiy, wliito, parasitic 
plant, deriving its nourislnnrnt f'l-oni roots 
and decayed vegetation, generally found 
in tlie vicinity t)f rotting ti-ces. The stem 
is thick, translucent white, and without 
leaves, except for the scaly bracts which 
take their place. The white or delicately pink-salmon- 
tinted flower lias five, or sometimes four, oblong petals, 
and the 10-12 stamens are pale tan color. The flower is 
in a nodding position, and is usually solitary, although 
rarely two may be found on one stem ; the latter is often 
pink-tinged and springs with several others from a mat 
of entangled fibrous rootlets. The eidarged ovary iina lly 
assumes an erect position, becoming a pale tawny sal- 
mon color ; it is usually ten-grooved and five-celled, and 
forms a large, fleshy, ovoid seed-vessel. The i)lant is at 
home in the dim-lit fastnesses of the forest, and it quickly 
withers and blackens after In'ing gathei-ed and exposed 
to sunlight. 3-9 inches high. Ncai'ly throughout the 
country. 

A somewhat similar i)arasitic plant found 
most frequently over the roots of oaks and 
pines. The steins are in clusters, and are 
slightly downy ; they are whitish, pale 
tan color, or reddish, with many bracts. 
The small bracts ar(^ thin, pa[)ei-y, yellow- 
ish red, and they turn black when wither- 
ing. The small vase-shaped flowers are 
light crimson-red more or less touched 
with yellow ; the tips of the flower are quite yellowish. 
The cluster of 8-10, or rarely more, drooping flowers is 
sliglitly fragrant. The fleshy vase-sliaped seed-vessels 
become erect. 4-12 inches high. In dry woods from 
-Ale., south, and west to Ore. and Ariz. The generic 
name is from the Greek, and means turned one-sided, in 
allusion to the one-sided drooping method of flower- 
growth. 



False Beech 
drops or 
Pine=sap 

Monotropo, 
Hi/popitijs 
Tawny 
reddish, etc 
June- 
September 



326 




1 n\uv/t^ 






mwif 






Indian Pipe. False Beech-drops. 

Monotpopa uni/Iopa. lionotropa Hypopitys. 



HEATH FAMILY. Ericaceas. 



HEATH FAMILY. Ericaeecp. 

Mostly shrubs and a few perennial herbs with simple 
leaves and generally regular, perfect flowers, the corolla 
of 4-5 lobes or petals, and as many or twice as many 
stamens. Fruit a capsule or berry. Cross-fertilized by 
various bees, by the beelike flies, butterflies, and moths. 
To this family belong the blueberries, huckleberries, 
and cranberries. 

The daintiest member of the Heath 
Creeping Familv, witii (often terra-cotta-colored) 

Snowberry "' ^ . i i i 

Chiogenes roughish stems creeping closely over rocky 

serpylUfolia and mossy ground. The stiff dark olive 
White evergreen leaves are tiny, broad, ovate 

May-June pointed, and sparsely covered with brown- 

ish hairs beneath ; the margin of the leaves rolled back- 
ward. The tiny white flowers are bell-shaped with four 
rounded lobes. They grow at tlie angles of the leaves 
and assume a nodding position. The berry is shining 
china white, ovate, and about \ inch long. Botli leaf 
and berry possess a wintergreen flavor. Branches 3-11 
inches long. In cool damp woods and peat bogs, fre- 
quent on hill-tops, from Me., south to N. Car., and west 
to Minn. Found in Campton, N. II. The name (Greek) 
means "snow-offspring" : it is appropriately dainty. 

Also a trailing, hillside plant of a shrubby 

.4rcf?/fS,;//o.s nat"^'^' ^^'i^^^ r""»"^ ''^ l^«s ruddy, hairy- 
Uva-ursi rough branches. The toothless leaves are 

White or pink= thick, dark evergreen, round-blunt at the 
^'^'^^ tip, narrowed at the base, and flnely 

ay- une veined. The white or rarely pinkish 

white flowers are bell-shaped or vase-shaped, and are 
borne in terminal clusters. The style extends far be- 
yond the anthers, and is touched first by the tongue of 
the visiting insect. The berry is an opaque red ; it is 
dry and insipid. In dry rocky soil, from Me., south to 
N. J., west to Minn., S. Dak., and C;ol. The name is 
from apKro<i, a bear, anddraqivAr^, a berry ; the specific 
title is mere Latin repetition— f/i^a, a bunch or cluster of 
fruit, and Ursus, a bear. 



325 




Creeping Snowberry. Bearberpy. 

Chiogenes scppyllifolia Arctostaphylos Uva^-urai. 



HEATH FAMILY. Ericaceae. 



The Maytlower of New Kiighind, coin- 
Trailing ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^j^^ borders of rocky woods and 
Arbutus , , , , • 1 j^i 

Epu,cr„ rrp'-us hillsides, and bloonun-; beside the reni- 

White and pink nants of snow-drifts in early sprinj^. It is 
April-May common in the vicinity of evergreen 

woodlands. The light brown stems are shrubby and 
tough, creeping close to tiie cold earth under decayed 
leaves and grasses ; they are rough-hairy. The okl dull 
light olive green leaves are more or less rusty-spotted ; 
the sides spread angularly from the central depressed 
rib. The new leaves develop in June. The surface is 
rough and netted with fine veins ; beneath it is rough- 
hairy and much lighter in color. The sweet-scented, 
white or deUcately pink-tinted ilowers are five-lobed, 
tubular, and possess a frosty sheen : they are in general 
trimorphous, that is, the stam(Mis and styles are of three 
relative and reciprocal lengths ; but commonly the 
flowers are dimorphous — contined to staminate and pis- 
tillate forms. The staminate blossoms contribute a 
touch of light yellow to the delicate surrounding of pure 
pink and white. The commonest visitors are the early 
queen bumblebees, Botiihiis _2^cyi/^s7//r«///c?'«, Bo)nbHS 
terricola, and Bo)nhus hifdrins. The flower is nectar 
bearing. Branches G-12 inches long. ^le.. south to 
Fla., and west to Minn. 

The familiar Boxbcrrv of the I\Iiddle 
Wintergreen or . ,! , ,, 

Checkerberry states, connnon m wildernesses and all 

Gaultheria evergreen woodlands. Tlui broad, ovate, 
proruuibens evergreen leaf is stilf, thick, and shiny 
White ^Ij^j.], g^.^.^n, with few small teeth ortooth- 

July-August , , , , rx,, 

less, and very nearly stemless. The 

younger leaves are yellow-green ; all are clustered at 
the top of the buff-brown or ruddy stem. The white, 
waxy flowers are vase-shaped and nodding ; they grow 
from the angles of the leaves. The dry but exceedingly 
aromatic berry is pure red (a deep cherry color), often 
i inch in diameter, and is formed of the calyx which 
becomes fleshy, surrounds the seed-capsule, and has all 



3jO 




Trailing Arbutus. 1 My Checkerberpy 

Epigaea^ repens. v^4tt Os^ultheria^ procumbens. 



HEATH FAMILY. Ericaceas. 

the appearance of a true fruit. 2-5 inches high. From 
Me., south, and west to Mich. The same aromatic 
essential oil exists in sweet birch as in this wintergreen. 
A stout and tall shrub in its south- 
Mountain range, often forming impenetrable 
Kahnia thickets. The stem and branches are ir- 
laiifoUa regular and angular in growth ; the leaves 
White, pinkish .^^.^ evergreen, shiny dark green, elliptical, 
May-June ^^.^^^^ ^^^^ toothless. The voung leaves are 
a yellower green. The beautiful flowers are borne in 
large, dome-shaped chisters ; they are exceedingly con- 
ventional and ornamental in form, bowl-shaped with 
five lobes, waxy white, pinkish-tinged in maturity, and 
pure pink in the corrugated, cone-shaped bud. There 
are ten depressions or pockets in the sides of the corolla 
in which the tips of the anthers are securely held, their 
filaments forming a series of arclung spokes from the 
centre of the flower which is stained witli a tiny crimson 
star; the style is prominent and pale green. The insect 
visitor, commonly a moth, often a l)ee, struggling and 
pushing its way to the heart of the flower, releases the 
stamens and these spring backward, showering pollen 
over the fuzzy body of the intruder. The pollen of 
Kahnia is more or less connected by webby threads, and 
its adhesive character is peculiarly adapted to the pur- 
pose of cross-fertilization ; the next blossoin visited by 
the insect probably has a receptive stigma about which 
the pollen strings become quickly entangled. The 
flower-stalks are hairy -sticky, thus preventing pilferers, 
such as ants, who would be useless as fertilizing agents, 
from entering the blossoms. The seed-capsule is some- 
what globular but five-lobed, and at first assumes a dull 
red hue. 3-6 feet high, and in its southern range often 
attaining a height of 20-35 feet. In woodlands, prefer- 
ring sandy soil or rocky slopes, from Me., south, and 
west to Tenn. and Ohio. Named for Peter Kalm, a 
German botanist, who visited this country in the middle 
of the eighteenth century. 



332 







""'gfeiiJsyatA* 






^,. 




liounts^in Laurel 



Kd^lmia. Is^tifolidL. 



HEATH FAMILY. Ericaceae. 



A shrub of lesser proportions, and small, 
Sheep=laurel , . , n •.• i i 

or Lambkin narrow, droopuig leaves. ellij)tical or lunce- 

Kalmia a ngusti- shaped, evergreen, and dull olive green 
folia often rusty-spotted, lighter green beneath. 

Crimson=pink r^j^^ flower is crimson-i)ink, small, but 
u y otherwise like that of Mountain Laurel, 

except that the filaments and all other parts are more or 
less pink-tinged. The stem is terminated b}^ the newer 
leaves which stand nearly upright ; beneath these is the 
encircling flower-cluster ; below, the leaves droop. The 
foliage is poisonous to cattle. S-'M) inches higli. Com- 
mon in swamps. Me., south to (!a., west to Wis. 
Pale Laurel ^ siuular and even smaller species, 

K(iliiii(( (jhiuca blooming about the same time, distin- 
Crimson=pink guished by its two-edged branches which 
^^ seem to grow in sections set at right angles 

with one another. The narrow, evergreen leaves grow 
oppositely or are set in groui)s of three ; the edges are 
rolled back rather strongly ; they are conspicuously white- 
green beneath. The crimson-pink or often light lilac 
flowers, i inch broad, terminate the stem. 0-20 inches 
high, confined to cold ])eat bogs and hillside swamps, 
from Me., south to northern N. J., and west to Mich. 
White Swamp '^^^'^ ^^^\\d Rhododendrons are also shrubs 
Honeysuckle which bear characteristically showy flow- 
K'h.vlniiendron ers. This si)ecies has a much branched 
Whi'te" stem, and obovate or blunt lance-shaped, 

June-July yellow-green leaves, vxith a few scattered 

hairs above. The twigs are hairy, and the 
stem almost bare of leaves. The ilo wers (expanding later 
than the leaves) are pure white or pink-tinged, with the 
outside surface covered with ruddy, sticky hairs ; they are 
very fragrant ; the stamens are prominent, the anthers 
yellow ; the pinkish pistil is longer than the stamens. 
Visited most frequently by bees, butterflies, and moths, 
and protected from creeping insects l)y the sticky-hairy 
outer surface of the corolla-tube. 3-7 feet high. In 
swamps from Me., south, west to Ohio and Ark ; gener- 
ally near the coast. The var. gkiucum has much lighter 
colored leaves rather wliitish beneath, and souietimes 
hany. ]\Ie. to Ya. The name (Greek) means rose-tree. 
334 




Pale Laurel, 



Rdlmia. glauca. 



HEATH FAMILY. Ericaceas. 



Pinxter Flower ^ "^^^'^ leafy shrub with branching 
or Wild stem, characterized by its extremely golden 

Honeysuckle 3'ellow-green foliage. The ovate leaf 
Ehododendron ^-j^pgj.g ^nd is pointed at both ends, the 
Pale or deep ^^^S^ ^^^ surface are V(>ry sliglitly hany. 
pink The delicate and beautiful Uowers are pale 

April-May or deep crimson-pink with the base of the 

tube a trifle stronger ; the broader corolla lobes do not 
curve back conspicuously ; the stamens and pistil, all ex- 
ceedingly prominent, are light crimson. The flowers 
are delicately fragrant, grow in small terminal clusters 
expanding before or with the leaves, and wlien fading 
the corollas slide down the j)istils, depend from them a 
while, and finally drop. The most frequent visitors are 
the honeybees and moths. 2-6 feet high. In swamps or 
in shady places, from Me., soutli, and west to 111. 

^. . . A most beautiful and showy species, 

Flame Azalea . , , 

Rhodudendroti eutu'cly southern, but commonly culti- 

calenduldceiiht vated. The leaves are hairy and generally 

Orange=yellow obovate. sometimes with only a few 

and reddish scattered hairs above. The flower, ex- 
May-June ,. . , , . , , 

pandmg with or before the leaves, has 

five broad lobes scarcely if at all backward curved ; it is 
nearly flame color or orange-yellow more or less suffused 
with pink, has very little or no fragrance, and the outer 
surface of the tube is slightly fine-hairy and sticky. The 
ruddy stamens prominent. 4-12 feet high . In dry wood- 
lands, southern N. Y. and Pa., in the mountains, to Ga. 
Rhodora -^ familiar flower of New England and 

Rhododendron one famous in the verses of the poet 
Rhodora Emerson. The leaves are slightly hairv, 

Light magenta ligiit green, oval or oblong, and rather 
obtuse ; the color deeper above and paler 
beneath. The flowers are narrow-lobed, light magenta, 
and formed somewhat hke the lioneysuckle, with the up- 
per lip slightly three-lobed, and the lower in two nearly 
separate sections ; they grow in thin clusters terminally, 
and precede the unfolding of the leaves or else expand 
with them. 1-3 feet high. AVet hihsides and cool bogs. 
Me., N. Y., N. J., and eastern Pa., in the mountains. 



336 




PinxtepFlowen Rhododendron nudiflonum. 



HEATH FAMILY. Ericaceae. 



A tall shrill), or ofton a tree, with showy 
m^^f.^^a^inm clusters of pink-white flowers spotted with 
maximum gold oraiige, aiul g-reenish at the hase, the 

Pink spotted five lobes of the corolla, broad, blunt, and 
orange substantially even in shape. The leaves 

June-July ^^^.^^^ dark^green, 4-9 inelu's long, ever- 

green, leathery, drooping in the winter season, and 
spreading in summer. Tiu^y ar(^ oblong, toothless, 
slightly rolled under at the edge, and dark beneath. 
The flower-stems are sticky-hairy, thus preventing the 
pilfering of creeping insects : the flowers are mostly 
visited by bees, but tlie hon(\v they jiroduce is said to be 
poisonous. 5-35 feet high. Damp woods, rare from Me. 
to Ohio, plentiful from Pa. to (la.: abundant through- 
out the Alleghany region, where, on the mountain sides, 
it forms impenetrable thickets. 

A species similar in manv respects to 
Rhododendron ,, „ . , , n ' ,. .^ 

., , , . the foregomg, but generally not more than 

Light purple 5 feet high. The leaves are broadly ob- 

or lilac long or oval, the tips with an abrupt very 

May-June ^,^^.,11 p,,i,it, pale green beneath. The 

large flowers are light ])urple or lilac. This species is 

hybridized with other less hardy ones, notably the R. 

arhorenm of the Himalayas, and from tliese proceed 

most of the Rhododendrons faiuiliar in ornamental 

grounds. 8-6, or rarely 18 feet higli. In the higher 

Alleghanies from Va. to Ga. 

, , ^ ^ A dwarf si)ecies conlined to the summits 

Lapland Rose= ,. , . , 

bay 01 l^igli uiountains in the north. Tlie olive 

Rhododendron green leaves are small, oval or elliptical, 
Lapponiexm and group(-d in clusters on the otherwise 
Light purple |3.^j.g g^,.,^^ r^y ^^,^ covered, together 
July-August •,, ^, 1 r . , . ® 

with tlie branches, with minute rusty 

scales. The flowers have a five-lobed corolla which is 
bell-shaped and hght puri)le, dotted. There are 5-10 
stamens. A prostrate branching i)lant that hugs the 
rocky slopes of the mountain. 2-12 inches high. Sum- 
mits of the White xMountains, N. H., and the Adiron- 
dacks, N. Y. Found at the head of Tuckerman's Ravine, 
Mt. Washington, N. IT. 



33* 




Qredt LaureL Rhododendron ma^ximum. 



DIAPENSIA FAMILY. Diapensiacest. 



DIAPENSIA FAMILY. Diapensiacece. 
Low perennial herbs, or tufted shrubs of a niosslike 
character, verj^ closely related to the EricacecE— the at- 
tachment of the stamens to the corolla being the prin- 
cipal difference, — with five-parted tiny flowers whose 
style is tipped with a three-lobed stigma. Fruit a capsule. 

An interesting and pretty niosslike little 
Pyxie or Flow= , , . i • \ t -vt 

ering Moss plant common on the pme barrens ot New 

Pyxidanthera Jersey. The linear or lance-sliaped leaves, 
harbulata scarcely \ inch long, are medium green. 

White or pink ^i^.^^.^ ^j. ^|^g ^j^^ .^,^,| jj.,;,.^. .^^ t]^g ^ase when 

ay young ; they are crowdtnl toward the ends 
of the branches. The white or pale pink flowers are 
small, with five blunt lobes between wliich are curiously 
fixed the five conspicuous stamens ; they are numerous, 
and apparently stemless. Branches i)rostrate and creep- 
ing. 6-10 inches long. In sandy soil, dry pine barrens. 
From N. J., south to X. Car. Found at Lakewood, 
N. J. The name is from two Greek words, box and an- 
ther, referring to the anthers which oi)en as if by a lid. 

PRIMROSE FAMILY. Prhnnhteen'. 
Herbs with leaves variously arranged, and with per- 
fect, regular flowers. The corolla (usually five-cleft) is 
tubular, funnel-formed, or salver-formed. Stamens as 
many as there are lobes to the corolla and fixed opposite 
to them, but the corolla lacking in tbe genus named 
Ghtux. Seeds in a one-celled and sevei-al-\ alved capsule. 
Featherfoil ^ peculiar aquatic plant of a somewhat 

Hottoniu spongy nature, common in shallow stag- 

inflata nant water. Its strange appearance is 

White J^p i-Q ^i^g cluster of inflated primary 

June-August r, , ,i , . , , \ . , 

fiower-stalks which are aljout ^ mch 

thick, constricted at tlie joints, and almost leafless. The 
leaves are cut into threadlike divisions, and are beneath 
the water, densely distributed on the floating and root- 
ing stems. The insignificant whitish flower, ^ inch 
long, has a corolla much shorter than the calyx. The 
seed-capsule is globular. Stems sometimes 18 inches 
long. Shallow ponds and ditches, from Mass., to cen- 
tral N.Y., and south. Named for Peter Ilotton, botanist. 

340 




Enlarged blossom showing the 
alternate connection of stamens 
with the lobes of the corollA. 



Pyxie Moss. 



P^ldanthepa barbulata. 



PRIMROSE FAMILY. Primulaceas. 



A haudsomo wild llower.fiXMjuently culti- 
American yated, but confined ill its natural state to the 

Cowslip or -r. , ■ rr, , , 

Shooting Star country west ot rVnnsylvania. 1 lie l.luiit 
Dodccatht'oii lance-sliajted deep green leavi's [)r()ceed 
MecKlia £^.^„j^ ^],^. j.^,()( . tiiey ai-e o(Mierallv tooth- 

Light magenta ^^ .^^^^^ ^j^^^j^. ^j^^j^^^ .^j.^ ^ 

April-May - ,, . r, 

and niai-<;ined. The tall primary flower- 
stalk is topped by a small cluster of delicate pendulous 
light magenta, pink-magenta, or white flowers, the five 
long corolla-divisions of which are strongly turned back- 
ward. The exposed stamens are close-clustered — grouped 
in a conelike figure ; the anthers are long, thin, and 
goklenyefiow ; the base of each is thickened and marked 
with magenta-purple. The flower is cross-fertilized 
by bees. According to Professor Robertson, a visiting 
bee to reach the nectar must force its tongue between 
the anther-tips and coiik^ more or less in contact with 
the mature stigma ; the anthers at this pt-riod are still 
immature. Among the visitors are the bumblebee Bom- 
hus americanorum, tlie bees of the family Andrenid(E, 
and the clouded sulphur butterfly CoVutH lihilodice. 
8-20 inches high. ]\Ioist hillsides, dirt's, open woods, 
or prairies, from Penn. to 8. Dak., south to Ga. and Tex. 
Name from the Greek, meaning twelve gods. 

^ , ^ A delicate little i)lant found only in the 

Dwarf Cana= ^ o i • i> 

dian Primrose iK^i'thern part ot our range, bearing a fam- 

Primtiia ily resemblance to tho yellow English 

Mistas^iuiva Primrose. The light green leaves are 
Palemagenta= y^^^^^^^ lance-shaiHHl. tapering to a distinct 
pink ' I /^ 

June-July «tem, thin, green on both sides, rarely 

with a slightly mealy appearance l)eneath, 
and shallow-toothed. The pale magenta-pink or lighter 
pink corofla is five-lobed, bluntly scalloi)-tipped, and 
stained with yellow in the centre (sometimes the yellow 
is absent). The few flowers are clustered at the top of 
the long slender stalk. This species is apt to intergrade 
with Prwiulafarinom, a taller one, with leaves white- 
mealy beneath (at least when young), and flowers with 
a more cuniform lobe, borne in thicker clusters. Con- 
fined to moist situations; Me., central N. Y., and 
Canada. 

342 




5td.r Flower 
TrientalisAmepica.nd. 



Shooting Stan 
Dodecatheon Meadia. 



PRIMROSE FAMILY. Primulaceas. 



A delicate and interesting little wood- 
l^Tentldh^' land plant with a long horizontally creep- 
Am^-ia!na ing root ^vhich sends upward an almost 
White bare or few-scaled thin stem terminating 

May-June jj-^ ^^ circle of sharp-i)ointed, lance-shaped, 

light green leaves, thin, shiny, and tapering to both ends. 
There are 5-9 leaves in the circle, from the centre of 
which proceed two threadlike stalks, each bearing a 
fragile, white, star-shaped flower with 6-7 pointed divi- 
sions. The stamens are long and delicate, with tiny 
golden anthers, which mature later than the stigma. 
Cross-fertilization effected mostly through the agency of 
the beelike flies (Bombylins). 3-T inches high, or rarely 
more. In moist thin woods, from Me., wt»st to Minn., 
and south to southern N. J. and the mountains of Va. 
Common in the thin woodlands of the White Mountains. 
A rather handsome perennial commonly 
Loosestrife found in low moist situations, particularly 
SteiroHcma on river flats. The smooth light green 
ciliatinn leaves are ovate or ovate lance-shaped and 

Yellow sharply pointed; on the upper edge of the 

u y stem is a fringe of erect hairs — hence the 

specific term, cilicifniii. The leaves are in pairs which 
are set at right angles with each other. The pretty light 
golden yellow flowers, not far from a pure yellow tone, 
are five-lobed, the divisions oval and finished with an 
abrupt sharp point (called mucronate) ; these tips are 
somewhat twisted or puckered ; about the centre of the 
corolla is a terra-cotta-colored ring ; within tliis are five 
straw-colored stamens alternating with five abortive 
ones ; in the centre is the pale green pistil. The smooth, 
erect stem 18-22 inches high or more. Common in low 
ground and on the borders of thickets from Me. west to 
British Columbia, south to Ga., Ala., and to Ariz. 
Steirnnema ^ narrow-leaved species smaller and 

hmceolatxnn ' slenderer in every respect. The leaves 
Yellow are lance-shaped and linear, indistinctly 

une- uly stemmed and smooth ; the lower ones are 

much shorter and broader, and the stems are distinct 
and long. The flowers are similar to those of S. cili- 
atum, but smaller— a little over \ inch broad. 6-20 

344- 




Steiponemd. cilia.tum. 



PRIMROSE FAMILY. Primulacex. 



inches high. Moist ground from Me., west to Minn., and 
south. The Stciroiiemas are cross-fertilized, according 
to Prof. Robertson, by bees ; in Connecticut by ]\Iacro2)i.s 
ciliata and Macropis patcUata, and in Illinois by Macro- 
pis steironematis. The name is from two Greek words, 
sterile and thread, in allusion to the abortive stamens. 

A delicate and pretty species common 
Four=Ieaved n i i i • n i • 

Loosestrife ^"^ '^^^ ^^^^' lands, especially sandy river 
Lysi))iarhi(t banks. The light green leaves are pointed 
quadrifulia lance-sliaped or broader, and are arranged 

y^"*'^ in a circle of generallv four, but some- 

June July 1 -^ 4-11 c 

tmiL'S tliree and six. rroin tlie bases ot 
these leavL'S project slender long stems, each bearing a 
single star-shaped light golden yellow flower, prettily 
dotted around the centre with terra-cotta red, which 
sometimes extends in faint streaks all over the corolla 
lobes. The stamens and pistil project in a cone-shaped 
cluster ; the stigma is advanced so far beyond the an- 
thers that self-fertilization rarely if ever occurs. The 
Lysimachias are visited by the bees of the genus Macro- 
pis, by bumblebees, and by honeybees evidently for the 
purpose of collecting pollen. Stem smooth or very min- 
utely hairy (under a glass), straight and round, 12-30 
inches high, simi)le or rarely branched. Sandy soil or 
often moist ground, Me., west to Minn,, south to Ga. 
Lysimachid Along with preceding species bloom the 

stricta slender spirelike clusters of the simple- 

^^"o'^' stemmed Lijsiinachia stricta, whose flow- 

June-August ^j.y j^j,^, j^Qj. appreciably different, though 
recorded by Dr. Gray and others as having slenderer 
corolla-divisions. This variation, however, is not so ap- 
parent ; but at the base of the divisions the red spots are 
double in L. stricta, while they are single in L. quadri- 
folia. The slender floicer-sjJike is distinctl} characteris- 
tic of L. stricta ; it forms an aggregation of misty yellow 
color (when a large colony of the plants is seen) which is 
never present with the other species. Often little elon- 
gated bulblets appear at the bases of the leaves. Leaves 
lance-shaped and sharp-pointed at eitiier end ; in both 
species apt to be sepia-dotted. Stem 8-20 inches liigh. 
Moist and sandy soil. Me., west to Minn., south to Ga. 
340 







J ^ 




LoosestPi/e. ^0 

Lysi machi aw strict aL.'^'^ Lyslmachia. quadri/blia. 



PRIMROSE FAMILY. Primulaceae. 



A sijecies closely allied to L. sti'icta. 
^r^Zfa'" The smooth stem is simple or very slightly 
Light golden branched, the lance-shaped light green 
yellow leaves, pale green beneath, grow oj)pos- 

June-August ^^Q^y or in circles of 3-."), and the terminal 
flower-spike, loosely flowered, is sometimes 18 inches 
long. The corolla-divisions are dotted and striped with 
dark red, ovate-oblong and ronnded at the tips. From 
this last fact it would seem as though the plant could 
not easily be confused with either L. -sfricta or L. qiiad- 
rifolia, for the flowers of both tlies(> s{)ecies are de- 
cidedly pointed star-shaped. In low damp ground on 
the borders of thickets, from Me. and ]\Iass., west to 
Mich. (Vide Bhodora, vol. i., pj). 131-134. M. L. 
Fernald on " Ambiguous Loosestrifes."") 

An extremely beautiful trailing vine 
Moneywort ^^.^^^i a creei)ing, not cliuil)ing, habit, 
or Myrtle i • i i i ^ i i /• !-• 

r„o-..,.,-.;..v, which has become naturalized from h.u- 

l^f/btJiKitfl (if 

munrnnlaria rope. It takes kindly to cultivation, and 
Light golden is particularly decorative when planted in 
yellow rustic baskets in which it best disi)lays the 

September graceful pendulous character of its stems. 

The leaves are dark green, shining, small, 
almost round, and short-stemmed. One rather large 
light golden yellow flower, with live ovate divisions to 
the corolla, grows from the junction of the leaf-stalk 
and plant-stem ; it is not spotted with teiTa-cotta like 
the other members of this genus. Stems 6-20 inches 
long. In moist ground near dwellings, mostly an es- 
cape from gardens ; Eastern States. In many places it 
is reported as a troublesome weed. Found in Campton, 
N. H., and Amherst, Mass. 

A low, fleshy seaside plant with oblong, 
maritmia toothless, and stemless light green leaves, 

Purple=white ^^'Oiri the bases of which grow the solitary 
June dull purple-white or pinkish flowers U'ith- 

oiit a true corolla, but with a five-scalloped 
calyx. The seaside from N. J. and Cape Cod north. 



348 




Moneywort. 
Lysimachia nummularia. 



Qlaux maritinna. 



PLUMBAdO OR LEADWORI. PlumhaginaceaE. 



A Icnv spreading annual : the conimon 

imperne Pooj- ]\Ian's Weatlun--"lass of England, 

arvcnsis which has hceoino naturalized in this coun- 

Red, pur= try. Th(> small solitary flowers are a 

pie. etc. varietv of colors, scai'lct, i)urple, wliite, 

June-August ^ " , ,, , .. , , ,. . . 

etc. 1 he corolla lias live l)road divisions 

but hardly any tuhf. The leaves are ovate, stetnless, 
and toothless, and grow oi)positely in pairs, or in circles. 
Stem 6 inches long. Waste sandy i)laces. Eastern States, 
generally near the coast. The ilowcrs open only in sun- 
shine, and close at 4 o'clock. 



PLUMBAGO OR EE ADWOin' EAMILY. 

IHiimhiKji iKiCi'd'. 

Perennial herbs with small, perfect, regular flowers of 

five parts— i. e.. five-lolx-d corolla, fl\-e stamens, and live 

styles; the flower-tulje funnel-forme(l aiid plaited ; the 

ovary one-celled and bearing a solitary seed. Seaside 

plants. 

A seaside plant with a slemlei- much- 

^^^,^^"1"'*^'' l>ranclied stem growing from a thick 

or Marsh ^ " " 

Rosemary woody root very astringent in character, 

Stuiice the branches rather erect. The leaves, 

Limonhnn also Starting from tlu; root, are blunt lance- 

vai-.Caro//»/rnu,^l^ I or obovate, long-stemined, tooth- 
Lavender , , ,.,.,,., 
july_ less or nearly so, and tipped with a bristly 

September point ; the mid-rib is i)rominent. The 

branches bear many solitary, or 2-8 (in a 
group) tiny lavender flowers with a curious tooth be- 
tween each of the five tiny lobes ; the lol)es of the calyx 
are also very acnte. The character of the plan t is branchy 
and naked-stemmed, with flowers so insignificant that 
the delicate lavender color is much eclipsed by the rather 
light subdued green. 1-2 feet high. In sa'lt marshes 
from Me., south. Found in Nantucket, Mass. 




MskPsh Rosema^ry. 
5ta.tice limonium van Cd^roliniana. 



GENTIAN FAMILY. Gentianaceas. 



GENTIAN FAMILY. Gentianacece.. 

Smooth herbs with generally opposite leaves, toothless 
and stemless; Menyanihes and Linuianthemum are two 
exceptions to this rule. Flo-.vers regular and perfect, 
the corolla with 4-12 lobes; alternating with these are a 
corresponding number of stamens. Fertilized mostly by 
the bees and the beelike flies. 

An erect and smooth annual naturalized 
Lesser from Europe, with several short branches 

Centaury , i n- x- i i i i- i i. 

Erijtlira'd above, and elliptical or oblong light green 

Centauriuin leaves, somewhat acute ; the ui)permost 

Light magenta rather linear. The small tubular light 

*'""^~ magenta How hts tivc-lobed and very nearly 

September ^ , m i i i. 

stemless. They arc numerously borne at 

the summits of tlie branches. 0-12 inches high. Waste 

places and the shores of the (Jrcat Lakes, from Quebec 

to Illinois. The name Eri/tJn-<('(i is from the Greek, 

meaning red. The flowers are weak in color, and the 

plants are really more delicate than beautiful. 

„ , A small si)ecies from Europe similar in 

Erythrcea , r. • i i 

ramosissiiiKt JHHuy respects to tlie foregoing, but the 

Magenta=pink stem very mucli branched, the leaves oval 
-iune Of long-ovate, the larger lower ones blunt, 

September ^j^^, ^j^^^^^.j. ^,j^.^jj and acute. The flowers 

are magenta-pink, and, with few exceptions, distinctly 
stemmed. The tube of the corolla is nearly twice as 
long as the five lobes of the calyx. 3-8 inches liigh. 
Waste places or fields, wet or sliady, from southern 
N. Y. to east Pa. and Md. 

An erect and smooth annual naturalized 

J'* f from the old countrv, with small, blunt, 

Centaury 

Erytknen oblong, liglit green leaves ; the upper ones 

spicatd ratlier acute, and all more or less close to 

Magenta=pink the generally forking stem. The very 
g ^ . small magenta-pink, or crimson-magenta 

flowers tubular and five-lobed, stemless 
and also close to the i)lant-stem, the tube of the corolla 
a little longer than the calyx-lobes. 6-16 inches high. 
Shores of Nantucket, IMass., and Portsmouth, N. H. 



352 




Spiked Centdu py 



Erythpaea spica^ta. 



GENTIAN FAMILY. Qentianacese. 



A not very uncoininou wild flower in 
Lance=leaved gwamps^of the pine barrens of New 

Sabbatia ^ , ^ . ' ,., ^ , , j 

Sabbatin Jersey, with white, starlike, five-lobed 

lanceolata flowers, nearly an inch broad, which in 

White fading turn yellowish, and ovate or lance- 

June-Septeni= g,^. ,^j j- i^J .^,^,,, i^..^,.,.^ ...jtl^ ;^_5 ^-jij^. 
ber o o 

The plant-stem slender, somewhat four- 
sided, branched above, or sometimes simple. The 
branches are borne relativeh' opposite. The flowers are 
numerous. 1-3 feet high. Pine barrens N. J., to Fla. 
Rose Pink "^^^^ stem of this species is decidedly and 

Sabbatia sharply four-sided, it is also rather thick 

aiu/idaris and mucli branched. The light green 

White or Pink ^^..^^-gg ^re five-ribbed, ovate, acute at the 
July-August . T 1 X 1 • 1. 4.1 1 

tip, and somewhat clasping at tlie base. 

The delicately fragrant flowers are an inch or more 
broad, pale crimson-pink or sometimes white, and 
marked in the centre with a yellow-green star (a charac- 
teristic of many of the Sabbati(fs). Tlie style is cleft at 
the tip — i. e., two stigmas. Tlu^ calyx-lobes are about 
one third as long as the corolla. 2-3 feet high. Fertile 
ground, N. Y. and Pa., west to ]\Iich., and south. 
Sea Pink A pretty species common on salt inead- 

Sabbatia ows, with crimson-pink flowers as large 

steUaris as or larger than a nickel. The light 

**'"'' green leaves oblong lance-shaped or lin- 

ear, the uppermost small and bractlike. 
The numerous flowers are borne solitary at the ends of 
the branches ; the linear calyx-lobes almost equal (the 
rule is flexible) in length the lobes of the pale crimson- 
pink or white corolla. More than half the style is two- 
cleft, the stamens are golden yellow, and the centre of 
the flower is green-yellow edged with ochre or some- 
times red. 6-20 inches. Along the coast from Me. to 
Fla. Closely allied to the next into which it appears to 
pass. 

Sabbatia Like the preceding. The stem exceed- 

gracilis ingly slender and much branched. The 

Pink leaves linear or linear lance-shaped, the 

uppermost almost threadlike. Tlie ex- 
ceedingly narrow lobes of the calyx equal in length the 

354 




Sea Pink. 

Sabba^tia stelldpi6. Sa^bbatia. gracilis. 



GENTIAN FAMILY. Oentianacex. 

lobes of the corolla (rarely they are iippreeiably shorter). 
The style is about half-cleft. \-'l feet higli. Marslies, 
Nantucket, Mass. to X. J., south to Fla. and La. 

The larjifest-flowereil and most beautiful 



Large Marsh 



member of the genus. The basal leaves 



Pink , , , 

Sabbatid blunt-tipped and tapernig toward the base, 

rhloroi(lr>i {\\o upju'r light green leaves diminishing 

Crimson=pink ^,, Jauct'-shaix' and linear. The few crim- 
July-August ^^^^^.j,i„j, ti,„v(.rs are nearly two inches 
broad, with generally ten obovate corolla lobes (an equal 
number of linear calyx lobes), eacli marked with a 
three-pointed oclirc-edged. grt-en-ycUow base whicii 
contributes to the beauty of the central slar-figure of 
the flower ; the stamens are golden yellow, and the style 
is deeply two-cleft. Tlie flower is visited most fre- 
quently by bees and tlie flies of the genus Syrphidte. 
The wiry stems, simple or branching v<'ry little, are 1-2 
feet high. Rarely the flowers aie white. On sandy 
margins of brackish i)onds from Mass. to I'la. and Ala., 
near the coast. 

Fringed The most famous member of tlie beauti- 

Gentian ful Gentian gi-ou]), remarkable not so 

^vrinitir "^"*''' ^'*'' '''' ^''"*" '■"'*•'■ ''-^ ^'*^" ^'^^ ^l^*lit;ate. 

Pale violet= "li^ty quality of that c(jlor, and the ex- 
blue ])ressiveness of tlie llower-form. The 
September- i)lant is an annual with a leafy, perpen- 
October dicular, branched stem, the branches erect, 
somewhat four-angled, and each bearing a single ter- 
minal flower. The flower is deep vase-shajjed with four 
rounded, light violet-blue lol)es deeply fringed and 
spreading horizontally only in the sunshine ; the color 
varies from pale to deep violet-blue, with occasionally a 
ruddy tinge, but never with a suspicion of true blue, 
though lines of a deeper l)lue-violet appear on tlie outer 
surface of the corolla. The large four-|)ointe(l calyx is 
four-sided, and generally a bronzy, yellow-green. The 
yellow-green leaves are ovate-lance-shaped or narrower, 
and they are conspicuously opposite. 1-3 feet high. In 
low moist ground from Me. to the Daks., south to luwa, 
and in the mountains of (la. 



3:6 




I: an. 



Gentiana cnnita. 




Rose Pink. 



Sabbatia angularis. 



GENTIAN FAMILY. Qentianaceae. 



A similar annual species witli lance- 
Gentiana ^^. ^.^^^.^^ \vaxe^, a st(Mn l.ut little 

scrrata 

Light vioIet= branched Avith a few blunt wedge-shaped 
blue leaves at the base, and violet-blue flowers 

July-Septem= j^g^rly as large as those of the preceding 
''^'" species with the fringe at the summit of 

the corolla short, or reduced to mere teeth. 4-18 inches 
high. Moist ground from western N. Y. to Minn, and 
Iowa. 

Also an annual ; the stem ridged and 
^u^nUmui^ four-sided. The leaves, in general, ovate. 
quLqueflora sharply pointed at the tip, slightly clasp- 
Light violet= ing at the base, and with 3-7 ribs. The 
blue yej.y ligiit violet- blue or lilac flowers clus- 

o"tob*r tered at the ai)ex of the branches in groups 

of 2-7 but generally 5. The flowers smaller, 
scarcely an inch long, tubular, and terminating in five 
triangular small bristle-pointed lobes. A common spe- 
cies in the west, attractive but not so beautiful as the 
Fringed Gentian. 8-22 inches high. Moist hillsides 
from Me., south, and west to Mich, and ]Mo., generally 
in the mountains ; it is found at an altitude of over 6000 
feet on the peaks of N. Car. Occasional in Vt. , and absent 
in central N. H. 

^ . A handsome ])erennial species with 

Downy Gentian ,, . , ,, • .l i 

Gentiana usually a smgle stem, generally nunutely 

pnhernJn hairy and rough, and with narrow, rigid, 

Blue=violet lance-shaped light green leaves, the up- 
o"t^b** permost nearly linear. The blue- violet 

flowers are bell-shaped with five triangu- 
lar lobes, rather open-spreading. The calyx has five 
linear lobes quite rough to the touch. The flowers are 
borne in terminal clusters or at the bases of the leaves, 
and are seldom if ever solitary. 8-17 inches high. On 
prairies and in fields from western X. Y. and Ohio to 
S. Dak. and Kan., south to Ga. and Ky. Common in 
the vicinity of Minneapolis, the Minnehaha Falls, and on 
the dry borders of the great wheat-fields of Minnesota. 



358 




Downy Gentian, ^fOentianapuberula. 



GENTIAN FAMILY. Qentianaceas. 



A familiar species of the Middle and 
Soapwort Western States closely resembling the 

en lan Bottle Gentian. The pale blue-violet, or 

Sd2)onarin light Hlac-bliie flower is onl}^ partly open, 
Pale blue= the five lobes are blunt, erect, slightly cut 

'^'"^'^* at the tip, and the flower-cup is club- 

October" shaped, the anthers within cohering in 

a ring. The light green leaves are com- 
monly ovate lance-shaped, tlu-ee-ribbed, and pointed 
at either end, the edges rough. Tiie flowers form a 
terminal cluster; a few grow from the leaf-angles. They 
are frequented by honeybees and bumblebees ; Bom- 
hus americanorum is a common visitor. Both this 
Gentian and the preceding one ripen their pollen before 
the stigma is receptive and cross-fertilization is there- 
fore inevitable. The smooth and slender stem is 12-27 
inches high. The juice of the plant is soapy. In wet 
woodlands from N. Y., west to Minn., and south. 

A perennial. In the east this is the 
Closed Gentian commonest of all Gentians; it is remark- 
Gentiann able for its tight -closed bottle-shaped 

Andreirsii corolhi, which is contracted by plaits white- 

Violet=blue striped, white at the base and an intense 
October violet-blue at tlie apex ; sometimes the 

blue approaches ultramarine. The medium 
(sometimes rusty) green leaves are smooth, ovate lance- 
shaped, pointed at the tip, and generally narrowed at 
the base. The flowers are mostly crowded in a terminal 
cluster, but some grow from the leaf-bases; all are set 
close to the leaves, which are conspicuously arranged in 
pairs. Bumblebees not infrequently force an entrance 
into the corolla, and self-fertilization is sometimes ques- 
tionable. The smooth, round stem 1-2 feet high. Rich 
woodland borders. Me. to S. Dak., south to Ga. and Mo. 

„ ^. A much less common Gentian frequent- 
Gentiana . . , _ ^ 
linearis ^"? mountam bogs. It IS a smooth, slen- 
Light biue= der-stemmed perennial, with light green 
'^'"'et linear or lance-linear leaves with three 
August- j.ji^^ acute at either end. The pale blue- 
September ■ , . r, . , „ 

violet flow^er-cup is contracted to a funnel- 
form with rather scallop-shaped lobes ; the light green, 

360 




Bottle Qentidn. 



Gentiand. Andrewsii 



GENTIAN FAMILY. Gentianaceae. 

simple, round stem is 10-24 inches high. Wet situations 

among the mountains of N. Eng. and N. Y., south to 

Md. Found at high elevations of the Adirondack and 

Green Mountains. 

A greenish wliite-tlowered species with 

ochroleiica ^ corolla narrowly open, displaying within 

Greenish white stripes of magenta-lilac on a greenish 

September- veined background, the lobes somewhat 

November triangular and with a tooth. The flowers 

are mostly in terminal clusters. The medium green 

leaves obovate, the uppermost acute at the tip, the lower 

ones blunt and short, all narrow at the base. Slender 

stem 8-16 inches high. Shaded woodland borders from 

southern N. J. and Pa., south. 

A smaller and exceedinglv delicate and 
Genhana . , ^ ' i ^i 

angnstifoUn pretty species mostly confined to the pme 

Light ultra- barrens of the Southern States, with a 
marine blue simple or sometimes branching stem, and 
n t^h with solitary, bright liglit ultramarine 

blue flowers (often speckled within) at 
the apex of the stem or its branches ; they are much 
larger than bluebells. The five lobes of the corolla are 
deeply cut, ovate, and open-spreading. The small linear 
leaves are less than 2 inches long. 6-15 inches high. In 
moist situations from southern N. J., south. 

An attenuated, slender, stiff-stemmed 
e ow j-^^jg plant, simple or with a few erect 

Bartonia , , \ 

Bartonia branches, destitute of leaves, but with 

tenella Small awl-shaped opposite-growing scales 

Greenish closely hugging the stem, which is a trifle 

yellow angled, all a yellow-green. The lower 

September scales are close together, the upper become 
more and more separated. The yellow, 
bell-shaped flowers of a greenisli tone, with four blunt 
(often slightly toothed) lobes, are arranged oppositely on 
the plant-stem, the peduncles (flower-stems) about as 
long as or longer than the flower. The flowers are 
mostly terminal but inconspicuous on account of their 
uncertain coloring. 4-14 inches high. In thin woods, 
pastures, and dry cranberry bogs, but mostly in damp 
soil, from Me., south, and west to Mich. 
362 




Oentiana. angustifolia.. Ba^rtonis^tenella. 



DOGBANE FAMILY. Apocynaceas. 



DOGBANE FAMILY. Apocijnacece. 

Chiefly a tropical famih^ with few representatives in 
our range. Plants with an acrid, milky juice, closely 
related to the Milkweed Family. Leaves opposite (gen- 
erally) and toothless. Flowers perfect, five-parted ; sta- 
mens as many as the lobes of the corolla (flower-cup), 
the latter rolled up in the bud. Fertilized mostly by 
butterflies and bees. 

A somewhat tall and shrublike plant, 
Spreading ^^,^^j^ ^ smooth, slender, branching stem. 

Dogbane , - i -, 

Aponjnum generally reddish on the side exposed to 

androscemi- sunlight. The opposite growling, lustre- 
folium iggg ligiit l)lue-green, ovate leaves are 

TJI'nTjui"^ toothless, and ruddy short-stalked. The 
delicate and beautiful little bell-shaped 
flowers are white-pink, five-lobed, and lily-of-the-valley- 
like, striped with pink on the inside of the cup. The 
clusters are small and terminate the l)ranches ; their 
most frequent visitors are bees and butterflies, and 
among the latter are the ever-present little yellow Colias 
2)hilodice and the handsome monarch {Anosia plexippus). 
Miiller says the flower is fertilized by butterflies, and 
cements its pollen to their tongues. An insect insepara- 
ble from the dogbane is the so-called dogbane beetle 
{Chrysochtis auratus), jewellike and resplendent in met- 
allic red and green of incomparable lustre; it is scarcely 
\ incli long (see Familiar Features of the Roadside, p. 
178). 1-4 feet high. Common in half-shaded field bor- 
ders, or in thickets throughout the north, and south to 
Ga. 

Indian Hemp ^^ ^^^. ^^''^ 'Attractive species with green- 

Apocynum ^^^^ white, tiny flowers erectly five-pointed. 

cannabinum Similar to the above in other respects, but 
Greenish wliite less spreading and more upright. The 
June-August ^^^^,^^ narrower and abruptly acute. 1-3 
feet high. On sandy river-banks, in fields, and in thick- 
ets everywhere. Both species found in Campton, N. 1 1 . 
The name is Greek in origin — cxTto, from, and Hvayy, a 
dog. 



364 




Spreading Dogbane. Indian Hemp. 

Apocynum androsaemifolium. Apocynum cannabi'uirn. 



MILKWEED FAMILY. Asclepiadaceae. 



. I\riLK\VEEU FAMILY. Asdepiadacem. 

Milky-juiced plants with large leaves, and flowers 
deei)ly five-parted, tlie sepallike corolla segments turned 
absolutely back at the time of bloom ; the so-called co- 
rona within witli its five concave parts thus fully ex- 
posed ; th(^ anthers and stigma remarkably connected, 
and the ])()llen cohering in waxlike, granular, pear- 
shapt'd inassfs not unlike those of the Orchids. The 
masses (piite frecpiently become attached to the feet of 
bees, and the entanglement causes their death. The 
flowers are almost exclusiveh' fertilized by bees and the 
l)eelike flies (see Miiller's FevtiUzation of Flo ire rs). 

The hamlsomest member of the genus, 

,. . -,„ with brilliant light orange or orange-vel- 

\\ eed or Pleu- " o v 

risy Root '"^^' ^lo^^"''"^. in en^ct flat-topped clusters 

Asri, piiis at the termination of the branches. Leaves 

'"'"'"•'^" light olive green, narrow oblong, or lance- 

Jun?"'""^^ shaped, hairy beneath, and veiny, nearly 
September "'' *!<''<•' st<'mless. The juice is very 

sligiitly if at all milky. The stem some- 
what rough. The slender ])ods are borne erect on a short 
stalk with an S curve. 1-2 feet high. Commcm in dry 
fields everywhere, especially south. Found on Cape Cod. 
A misnamed si)ecies, as its flowers are 

Purple . , . 

Milkweed pure crmison or else crimson-magenta; but 

AsclfjHiis they are never i)urple. The stem is usu- 

i,urj»ir,is,;-„s ally simple, green, and magenta-tinged at 
.Mas^enta. ^j^^. |^,.^^ junctures. Leaves ovate, and 

June Ausrust ^i'^^^l}' li^iry beneath ; smooth above. The 
tlowers are \ incli long, with broad horns 
abrujttly pointed inward. 2-3 feet high. Common in 
dry fields and thickets. Me., south toGa., west to Minn. 
A similar, rather smooth species, the 

Swamp stem with two downy lines above and on 

A\ ilk weed 

4.sr/.p/n.s ^^^® branches of the flower-stalks. The 

,-„r(ir,int,i leaves narrow, or lance-shaped ; all short- 

Dull lij^ht stalked. The small flowers in small termi- 

crimson j^^^j flat-topped clusters, dull light crimson 

SeDtember ^^ ^^^^ crimson-pink. 2-4 feet high. Com- 

mon in swamps throughout our range. 
366 





Butterfly Weed 



Asclepiastubeposa. 



MILKWEED FAMILY. Asclepladacese. 



The var, pideJira is more or less hairy, has broader, 

shorter-stalked leaves, and dull erimson or pink or even 

pink-white flowers. ConmiDn north, south to Ga. 

The connnonesl of all the Asch'pian, and 
Common i i i ' /. -^ i • i 

Milk eed remarkable tor its eloymgly sweet, some- 

Aficle})i((s what pendulous flower-chister, ^vlli(•]l is 

Cornuti most aesthetic in color : it varit's from paU^ 

Pale brown. browuisli lilac t.) pale lavender-brown, 

lilac 

J I '_A r st '^^^*"^ from dull crimson-pink and pink-lilac 

to yellowish (the horns |)articularly) and 
brownish lavender. Gray's and Rritton and Brown's 
" green-purj)le" is a mislcadiuij; color description; 
the atithors of Wild Flotrcis af tin' Xortheasteni 
States {\). A'.U) are (piite corrtM-t in tlnii- dcst-riptiou of 
this tiower-color and all others. The broad oblong- 
leaves and stem of the plant are very finely hairy, the 
color is liglit yellow-green, and the iil)s are yellowish. 
The rough-surfaced seed-i)od is filled with the silkiest of 
white down, attached to flat yellow-brown seeds, over- 
lapping each other like the scales of a fish. The flower- 
clusters are borne at tlie junction of leaf-stem and 
plant-stem. The flowers are mostly fertilized by bees, 
who not infrequently lose their li\es by their feet be- 
coming inextricably entangled with the pollen masses, 
or caught in the fissures of the corona (described fully 
in William Hamilton Gibson's Mij Studio Neiyldjors, 
p. 23*2). I)-.") feet high. Gomnion everywhere. 
Asclepias Psde magenta-puri)le-stained green flow- 

obtusi folia ers in a solitary terminal cluster. The ob- 

Lilac=green long, wavy leaves with a clasping base 
July-August somewhat heart-shaped. Rather uncom- 
mon northward, but frecpient in the south. Found in 
sandy soil near Burlington, Vt. 

A rather tall milkweed with large ivory 
Milkweed ^^^' cream-white flowers, whose reflexed 

Asclepias corolla-segments are green or magenta- 

jihytoluccoldes tinged ou the outer surface ; the flowers 

Cream white loosely clustered and drooping. The rather 
June-August , •; , . ^ . , 

large leaves are thin and pointed at eitiier 

end ; the stem is slender and 3-6 feet high. One of our 

most dainty and beautiful wild flowers. Common on 




Common MilKweed. 



Asclepids Cornuti. 



CONVOLVULUS FAMILY. Convolvulaceas, 



the borders of thickets and woods throughout the north, 
and south to Ga. Found near Lake Dun more, Vt. 

An early-flowering species with deUcate 
Milkweed niagenta-pink flowers, the reflexed lobes 

Asdepiuii of which are palest pink. The stem is 

quadrifolia slender and generally leafless below, bear- 
Magenta=pink |j^g about two circles of four leaves about 
^ " ^ the middle and two pairs of opposite 

smaller leaves at the upper part of the stem. The plant 
is delicate and small, with few flower-clusters. 1-3 feet 
high. Woods and copses, throughout the north, and 
south to N. Car. 

. An extremely small narrow-leaved plant 

verticillata with a slender stem leafy at the summit. 

Qreen=white The leaves smooth and very narrowly lin- 
July- ear, generally grouped in circles of 4-7. 

September Flowers greenish white. 1-2 feet high. 
Common on dry hills, especially so south. Me., west to 
S. Dak., and south. 



CONVOLVULUS FA:^IILY. Co7ivolvulacecE. 

Herbs, in our range, witli twining or trailing stems, 
alternate leaves, and regular, perfect flowers with gen- 
erally a bell-shaped or funnel-formed corolla, and five 
stamens. Flowers visited by the honeybee and bumble- 
bee. Self-fertilized as well as cross-fertilized. The 
name from the Latin convolvo, to roll together. 

A small, erect or slightly twining plant, 
Bindweed scarcely a foot long, with blunt, oval, 

Convulvulus light green leaves, heart-shaped at the 
spithama'us base, short-stemmed, about 1-2 inches 

^*^'*^ long. Funnel-formed white flowers about 

June-Aueust ^ . ■, , , . , ^ , 

2 mches long, borne smgly. Calyx in- 
closed in two large leafy bracts. In sandy or rocky 
fields, Me., south and west. 

„ ^ A smooth-stemmed vine with arrow- 

Hedge 
Bindweed shaped, triangular, grayish green leaves. 

Convolvulus slender -stemmed and acute - pointed. 

sepium Handsome bell-shaped or funnel-shaped 



370 



SI £.'^w '^-'^.^y V,-:>;/3a 




Poke liilKweed Four-leaved Milkweed, 

Asclepias phytola^ccoides. Asclepi^s quadrifolid. 



CONVOLVULUS FAMILY. Convohutaceas, 



White, pink= flowers ranging from pure white to pink- 
tinged tinged borne singly on long stems; the 
une- ugus ^^^ stamens cream yellow, the pistil 
white. The five-parted calyx is inclosed in two pale 
green bracts. The flower generally closes before noon; 
it is sometimes over 2 inches broad and 3 long. Vine 
3-10 feet long. Along moist roadsides and borders of 
fields, cfimbing over shrubbery, from Ale., south to N. 
Car., west to S. Dak. and Utah. Also in Europe. 

A more or less fine-hairy, trailing species, 
Trailing with simple or sHglitlv l)raiichtMl stem, and 

Bindweed ovate or oblong leaves, arrow-shaped or 

s iglitlv heart-shaped at the base, 1-2 
repens inches long. Flowers wliite or pink-tinged. 

White or pinl<= borne singly on long stalks, and about 2 

*'"^'^'^ inches long. Calvx inclosed in two ovate 

June-August , , -, .-, e ^ ^ r^ 

l)racts. 1-3 feet long. Common, 

A smooth-stemmed, very slender species 

^'"^" • with oblong and arrow-shaped gray-green 

,,' ^, , leaves, the lateral lobes of which are acute. 

(Onvolrnlnn 

arvensis Small flowers not over 1 inch long, white 

White or pink= or pink-tinged, and generally borne in 

tinged (lusters of two. The calyx ivithoid leafy 

i""f~ u bracts at the base. 1-2 feet long. In 

September ° 

fields and waste i)laces from Me., south 

to N. J. and Pa., and we'^t to Kan. 

A miserable parasite often troublesome 
Common • i , 

Dodder ^^^ gardens, but fcnind in low, damp, shady 

Citscuta situations. It cUiiibs high u])on other 

Gronovii plants by twining closely about their 

. "." ^ 1*1 stalks and exhausting their iuices through 
July-October , ^ . f t ^ ■,-,.■, 

a thousand tmy suckers. Its threadlike, 

twisting stem varies in color from dull yellow to dull 
orange, it is crowded with bunches of tiny dull white 
bell-shaped flowers having five lobes. The calyx is 
greenish white. All the dodders start at first from the 
ground, but finally securing a convenient plant upon 
which to climb, the root in the earth dies and tliey be- 
come parasitic. Common everywhere. 



372 




Hedge Bindweed. ^ Common Dodden. 

Convolvulus sepium. Cuscuta Oponovii 



PHLOX FAMILY. Polemoniaceas. 



PHLOX FAMILY. Polemouiacece. 

Herbs witli alternate or op])osite leaves and perfect, 
regular or nearly regular tlowcrs with a tive-lobed co- 
rolla which is rolled up in the hud, the lobes of the 
mature flower remaining somewhat contorted. Stamens 
five. Cross-fertilized most generally by butterflies and 
bumblebees. The name Phlo.v is from the Greek cpAoq, 
meaning flame. 

Downy Phlox ^^ more southt>rn and western species 
riilo.i- pilnxii with soft-downy stem and leaves, the 
Purple, etc. latter deep green, linear or lance-shaped, 
May-June without teeth and stemless. Flowers from 

pale criinson-i)ink to purple and white. The cah'x 
sticky-glandular, tlie corolla-tube usually fine-hairy. 
1-2 feet high. Li dry ground from Southbury, Conn. 
(E. B. Harger), and X. J., south, west to S. Dak., and Tex. 
Another rather western species with a 

WildBlue somewhat stickv fin(-hairy stem, with 
Phlox ' -^ 

Phlox divdii- spreadmg leaty shoots from the ba.st'. 

rata Leaves wider than those of the preceding 

Pale lilac or species, esi)ecially those on the sterile 

V"'*^^ . shoots; thev are deep green, ovate lance- 

April-June , , ' • i m, i • i 

shaped, and acute-pomted. The pale violet 

or lilac flowers have generally notched lobes, they are 
slightly fragrant, and are gathered in loose clusters. 
Often the lobes are without notches. 9-18 inches high. 
In moist thin woodlands. N. Y., south, west to Minn. 

A very low species with tufted stems. 
Ground or spreading over the ground until it forms 

Moss Pink , ,. n^i 

Pbior .■^iihidatn <^'**i^ipii<'t masses resembling moss. The 
Crimson small, thickish yellow-green leaves sharp- 

pink, etc. tipped, liuear, and close set; the plant 

^^ , mostly evergreen. Flowers few in a 

September , . . , , 

cluster termmatmg the short stems, var}- 

ing in color from white through crimson-pink to light 

magenta; the petals notched. The stems fine-hairy or 

becoming smooth. 2-5 inches high. In sandy or rocky 

ground. N. H. and Mass., south, west to Mich, and Ky. 

Phlox paniculaid , which is a tall garden species, in 

colors varying from pink and lilac to white, with stout, 

374 




MossPink. 
Phlox subulate. 



BORAGE FAMILY. Boraginaceas. 



smooth stem, and dark greenaciitelance-shaped or oblong 
leaves, has escaped from cultivation in some of the east- 
ern States, and is established permanently in many lo- 
calities, generally adjoining old d wellings. 2-6 feet high. 

A smooth perennial with slender and 
Greek Valerian ', ,, , 

Polemonivm ^""'"^^^^ stems hnallv nM-hning, and com- 
reptcnis poimd alternately growing leaves formed 

Light violet of 5-15 ovate lance-shaped leaflets ; theuji- 
April May permost leaves generally simple ; all tooth- 

less. Flowers about h inch long, light blue-violet or 
rarely white, in loose clusters and nodding — bluebell- 
like. 8-12 incht^s high. In thin woods, N. Y., south 
to Ga., west to Minn, and Mo, 

^, , _,_. A mucli rarer si)ecies, found onlv bv the 

Jacob s Ladder ' ' " „ 

Poleinonhnn mountam streams and m the swamps of 
rrrr)il>'u„i the uortli. It has a stout horizontal root 

^•o'et from which si)re;id numerous rootlets, 

May-July ^^.jj.j^ ^^.^^^.j. ^j^,,,^^ smooth and leafy to the 

top. Leaves compound like those of the preceding 
species, the l<:>wer ones consisting of 15-19 nearly stem- 
less, ovate pointed leaflets. Flowers numerous in a 
somewhat long cluster, bright violet, and nearly 1 inch 
broad, with conspicuous stamensand style, the Ave lobes 
of the corolla rounded. 1-21 feet higli. From Vermont 
and northern N. Y., south to ^Id. Common only in the 
far north. Found at Abby Pond, Ripton, Vt. 

BORAGE FAMILY. BoragitiaceiE 

In our range annual or perennial herbs with rough- 
hairy stems and generally alternate, toothless, rough 
leaves. The blue-violet flower perfect and regular with 
a five-lobed coroWn (Echium excepted), and five stamens. 
Flowers mostly in one-sided spikes, which at first are 
somewhat rolled up, straightening as the blossoms ex- 
pand. Cross-fertilized mostly by butterflies and bees. 

^ ,, ^ An ill-smelling biennial with a fine- 

Hound s tongue . 1 , . 1 • , 

Cynoylossum hauy, stout, branchmg stem, and with 

officinale lancc-shaped leaves stemless, except the 

Magenta basal ones which are oblong and long 

s "^ slender-stemmed. The small magenta 

or rarely white flowers, five-lobed, and 

376 




^ 



Greek Valerian. Polemonium reptans. 



BORAGE FAMILY. Boraginaceas. 



loosel}^ arranged on a line-hairy curving stem. The 
fruit, four nutlets set in a four-sided pyramidal shape, 
surmounted by the withering style. 2 feet high, f'ields. 
Me., south to N. Car., west to Minn. From Asia. 
Wild Comfrev ^ perennial species with usually a sim- 
Cynoglosaum pie hairy stem, without leaves above. The 
Virgin icinn basal leaves deep green, oblong lance- 
Pale violet shaped, rough, and short -stemmed, the 
'"^' " ^^ upper ones clasping the stem by a heart- 
shaped base. The pale violet flowers on a few long naked 
stems ; the corolla divided into five rounded lobes. The 
fruit, four depressed nutlets, convex on the upper face, 
and hairy. l-2h feet high. In thin woods from Me., 
south, west to Kan. and La. 

A biennial with a fine-hairv, branching 
Virginia Stick= ^ , , , i- "^ mi i i 

ggg^ stem, slender and spreadmg. The basal 

Echinospermum leaves vanishing, as a rule, at the period 
Virgi7)icum of bloom, rather broad ovate ; the stem- 

Lavender-white ^^..^..^.^ jjgi^t; green, ovate and lance- 
September shaped, growing quite small toward the 
top of the plant, acute at either end. Tlie 
flower-spikes very slender and bearing tiny white flowers 
of a lavender tinge. The tiny burlike fruit covered with 
barbed prickles. 2-4 feet high. The name from l^?'rc>5, 
a hedgehog, and OTtep/ta, a seed, referring to the spiny 
fruit. Common on the borders of dry woods. Me., 
south to Ala. and La., west to Minn., 8. Dak., and Neb. 

An annual species somewhat hairy, with 
European i, i- , ^ ,. *, 

Stickseed many small light gray-green linear leaves, 

Echinonpennum the basal Ones widest at the tip. The tiny 

Lnppnin flowei's light violct, thinly scattered on 

Light violet slender branches. The fruit globose-oval, 

September burlike, and covered with minute slender 

barbed prickles. 1-2 feet high. In waste 

places from Me., south to N. J., and westward. 

... . . A beautiful species frequentlv cultivated, 

Virginia . ' ^ .. » 

Cowslip having rich violet-hued flowers nearly 1 

Mertensia inch long. The stem smooth and erect, 

Virginica sometimes branched. The deep green 

»,'° \ ,. leaves toothless, ovate pointed or obovate, 

March-May ^ i ■ , , 

Strongly veined, and scarcely stemmed ; 

378 




Wild Comfpey. 



CynoglossumVipginicum. 



BORAGE FAMILY. Boraginaceae. 



only the lowest with margined stems. The showy flowers 

trumpet-shaped with five lobes ; rarely they are white. 

1-2 feet high. On river meadows and along river-banks 

from N, Y. and N. J., south to 8. Car., west to Minn., 

Neb., and Kan. 

c ^ * The true forget-me-not of gardens, 

Forget=me=not * " 

Myosotis escaped from cultivation, and found in 

palusfri.t wet ground or marshes. A perennial with 

l.ight blue slender, si)rawling, fine-hairy stems, and 
^^ " ^ gray-gi-een oblong lance-shaped leaves, 

stemless or nearly so. The small light bhie flowers with 
a golden eye, in small clusters somewhat curved. G-l.") 
inches high. Beside brooks and in wet jilaces from Me., 
south to Pa., and west. A native of Europe and Asia. 

A species similar in many respects to 
Smaller ^|j^, foregoing, with tiie fine-hairiness 

Forget=me=not , ,. , , ,,,.., , 

\ftjosotis lam beuduig closc to stem and leaf, the leaves 

blunt and oblong, and the ver}' small and 

pale light blue flowers on long stems, loosely clustered. 

The calyx lobes as long as the flower-tube. 6-19 inches 

high. Wet places. ]\le., south to Tenn., west to Wis. 

^ . ^ An annual or biennial species, with very 

Spring For= '■ •' 

get=me=not bristly-hairy stems and leaves, the latter 

Mi/osofis vrrud oblong and obtuse. Tlie wliite flowers 

White sniall ; the caly.x utuMiually five-cleft, 

April-June bHstly, with sorne of the bristles hooked 

at the tips. 3-1-5 inches high. On dry banks from Me., 

south, and west to ]\Iinn. and Tex. 

^ ^ ..A rough-hairv annual or biennial, with 

Corn Grom well , , . ' , - ,. 

Lifhospennum ^''"^'^'t. brauchuig stems and foliage resem- 
arveiise bling that of Myosofis, but a brighter 

White green. The small white flowers scattered 

May-August ^^^ ^|^^ spikes and stemless or nearly so. 
6-18 inches high. Sandy roadsides and fields from Me., 
south to Ga., and west to Mich, and Kan. 

A similar taller species with a much- 
Lithospermum branched stem, gray-green, few-veined, 

officinale ^ i . i , ., u 1 

Cream white rough, and stemless leaves rather broad 

lance-shaped. The cream white flowers 

with corollas funnel-formed and a little longer than the 

five-pointed hairy calyx. 1-3 feet high. New Eng., 

3S0 




fopget-me-not 



Myosotis palustris. 



BORAGE FAMILY. Boraginacese. 

west to Minn. Both of tlu^se last specit's are naturalized 
from Europe. Litliosjjermuni is formed of the (Jreek 
words sfoiie and seed, referrii^g to the hard seed. 
r .., An indifi^enous species, the so-called 

canescen.^ Puccoon of tlie Indians. A perennial, 

Orange=yellow soft-hairy anil ratlier hoary, with obtuse 
March June jinear-oblong leaves, stemless and hairy. 
The orange-yellow flowers with a broad corolla, salver- 
formed and five-lobed, about I inch long. (5-18 inches 
high. Cross-fertilized by bees and butterflies : some of 
the latter are Pttpilio aj((.i\ P(ij>iIio asterias, Colias 
philodice, and Os)nia cobalt i mi. In dry soil, Me., south 
to N. J. and Ala., and west to ^Nlinn., S. Dak., Kan., and 
Ariz. Rare in New Kng. Tiie loots yit'id a icil dye. 

A denselv liarsliliair\' ])erennial herb, 
False ■ . " 

Gromwell '^'"^' hairs of which lean toward stem and 

Onus)nu(liinn leaf, tlie stem slentler and branching. The 
Vin/iiiicDium light green leaves oblong lance-shaped. 
Cream white Flowers cylindrical, cream white, with 
^ ^^ "^ live long sharp lobes ; the style threadlike 

and extending far beyond the mouth of the corolla ; the 
calyx with five sharp segments ; the flower-cluster at 
first curved, finally erect and long. Flowers ^ incli long. 
The flower matures the stigma before the anthers ; it is 
mostly cross-fertilized by the butterflies. 1-2 feet high. 
Banks and liillsides from ]\b'., south, and west to Kan. 

A rougii-bristlv annual s|)ecies, natural- 
SmatlBugloss ■ , . ^ ' • , / , ' 

Lucumis ^^^'^' i'"^^'^^ hurope, ^\ Uli a branclnng stem 

arvensis ii'^d lance-shaped leaves. The light blue- 

Light violet \iolet flowers in crowded clusters, the 
*'""^~ calyx nearly as long as the curved corolla. 

1-2 feet high. In fields and on roadsides 
near dwellings, from ]\Ie. to Pa. and Va. The name 
Greek, XvHo<i, a wolf, and uipi^, a face : but the flower's 
face scarcely looks that way I 

, Sometimes called blueweed, and in fact 

Bugloss ^ flower sufliciently approaching a blue 

Echiaia vuigare tone to justify the name ; but the blos- 
Blue=violet soms actually range between lilac, purple. 
June-July ^^^ ^^.^^j^j. ^^ ^ bluish cast. It is a bien- 

nial with an ,.,,.,,. , , . 

exceedingly bnstly-hairv stem, and hairy- 




Viper's Bugloss. 



Echium vulgare 



VERVAIN FAMILY. \ erbenacex. 



silvery light green leaves, linear ]ance-sha{)ed, toothless, 
and stemless. The flowers are ratlier showy, tubular or 
vase-shaped with live rounded iiiu'ijual divisions ; the 
four stamens, whicli, witli the i)istn, are pink, extend 
far beyond the limit of the corolla. The flower-spike 
one-sided, at first closely coiled, but liually long and but 
slightly curved ; the blossoms are i>iiik, but the mature 
flower is light ultramarine violet. \-'^\ feet higli. Road- 
sides and pastures from Me. to Va., and west to Nev. 
and S. Dak. Naturalized from Kurope. The name 
Greek, f^/f, meaniiig a viper, harr in central N. H. 

VERVAIN FAMILV. Vvrbcnu-eie. 

Generally herbs (at least in our range) with opi)osite 
leaves and perfect, more or less iiregular flowers in ter- 
minal clusters. The corolla with united petals, uniform 
in shape, or two-lipped, the tube geneially cyHndrical 
and spreading into 4-5 lobes. I'our stamens, two long 
and two short, or wry rarely only two. Rrobabl}' self- 
fertilized, though cross-fertilization may occur, assisted 
by the hone3'bee, bumblebee, and the beelike flies. 

A troublesome aimual weed with a four- 
European sided, slender, nearlv smooth, branching 
Vervain , . , ', • , , , 
Verbena stem, and mimitely luury leaves, deeply 

ojtirinalis cleft and sharp-tootlied ; the upper ones 

Purplish lance-shaped and toothless, the lower 

or white ovate and sharnlv divided; all deep green. 

September ^"*^ small pale purple or white flowers in 

branching s^tikes about 5 inches long, in- 
conspicuous and uninteresting. 1-3 feet high. In waste 
places everywhere. Naturalized from Europe. 

A similar perennial siiecies with white 
White ^ ,,-,,. 1 , 

Vervain flowers; usually with erect slightly rough- 

Verbena hairy stem four-sided and grooved, and 

urticcefolia Coarsely toothed, deep green leaves, all or 

White nearly all with distinct stems, acute, and 

September slightly hairy. The flower-spikes at length 

very long, the white flowers very small, 

3-5 feet higli. In fields and waste places, from Me., 

south, and west to Minn., S. Dak., and Tex. 



84 




White Vervain. I Verbena urticaefolia. 



VERVAIN FAMILY. Verbenaceae. 

A small, rough-hair V species with a sleii- 
Narrovv = leaved j?- • i i. "^ t t i 

Vervain der, often Simple stem. Leaves Imear and 

Verboia lance-shaped, the lower ones broad at the 

(uif/nstifolia tip and wedge-shaped at the base, all more 
Pale violet ^^^. ^^,^^ toothed and veiny. Flower-spikes 

June-August „ ■ i i i i i. i mi , 

few or smgle, densely clustered witli ]>ale 

violet flowers about \ inch wide. 8-32 inclies high. Dry 

borders of tit'Ids. Mass., south, and west to INIinn. and Ark. 

One of the handsomest yet commonest 
Blue Vervain i <? xi rp, , 

Vt-rbena members of the genus. The stem erect, 

hdstatct stout, four-sided and grooved, roughish^ 

Deep purple and dull green. The short-stemmed leaves 
''"'^~ dark green, lance-shaped or oblong lance- 

shaped, acutely incised with double teeth, 
and with a rough surface ; the lower leaves are more or 
less three-lobed. The flower-s})ikes are numerous and 
branch ui)ward like tlie arms of a candelabra; the 
flowers bloom from the foot of tlie rhister upward, 
a few at a time, leaving behind a long line of purpU^- 
tinged calyx ; tlie tiny blossoms are deep jjurple or 
violet — either one hu»' or llic other. The flowers never 
approach blue or any liuc alHed to it, so the common 
name is misleading. I'crbcud hiixtdtd is a special fa- 
vorite of the l)umblebee. ;ind it is also closely attended 
by the honeyl)ee and tlie l)e('S of the genus HaJictus. 
The smaller butterflies are also occasional visitors, 
among them the white Pieris pnAodice. 3-7 feet high. 
In fields everywhere. Rare in central N. H. 

A tall plant. The stalk is four-sided, 

LODSC6Q 

P]ii-yma hollow, and strong-fibred, branching di- 

leptustachya vergently above. The deep green leaves 
Crimson= are thin, coarsely toothed, and arranged 

magenta -j.^ p^j^.g^ ^,r^^■[^ pj^jj, ^^,^ ^^ right angles with 

July-August ^ ^ ^1 1 , X , 

the next ; the upper leaves nearly stemless 

and ovate pointed ; the lower oval. The slender flower- 
spike bears little two-lipped flowers (the lower lip is 
three-parted) set in ])airs at riglit angles with each 
other. The flowers are crimson-pink with a magenta 
tinge. The blackish seed-receptacle hook-pointed. In 
woods. Me., south, west to Minn, and Kan. 



3S6 




Blue Vervd^in. 



Verbena, hs^stata.. 



MINT FAMILY. Labiatae. 



MINT FAMILY. Ldhiafd'. 
A large family of aromatic herbs, the foliage of which 
is covered with tiny glands containing a strong-scented 
volatile oil of a peppery character ; the different species 
superficially resemble one another. The flowers are 
usually small, tubular, with an entire or two-lobed upper 
lip and a three-lobed k)wer lij). The stem is generally 
square, and the leaves grow opposite each other. Tlie 
tiny flowers are gathered in more or less conspicuous 
spikes, or are clustered at the base of the leaves ; they 
are honey-bearing, and are almost exclusively cross-fer- 
tilized by honeybees, bumblebees, and the smaller bees. 
The name from Lahice, the lips. 

Tliis is an annual species whose light vio- 
let, magenta-pink, or rarely white flow- 
ers are generally in pairsat tlie terminating 
branchlets of the somewhat woolly-sticky 
stiff stem. The leaves are narrowly oblong 
or lance-shaped, and a trifle sticky, with 
an aromatic pennyroyallike odor. The 
flowers are too scattered to form a panicle 
or cluster, and they are remarkable for tlie 
extraordinary leugtlt of the violet stamens which ex- 
tend in a curving line far beyond the five-lobed corolla, 
or flower-cup — hence the name Blue Curls. The Latin 
name also refers to the hairlike stamens. After the co- 
rolla fades and falls, the little nutlets within the calyx 
are in plain view. G-"JO inches high. In dry sandy 
fields, from Me., south, and west to Pa. and Ky. 

A very similar species with a slender 
woolly stem, ascending branches, and very 
narrow linear leaves, stemless and smooth. 
In sandy fields and dry pine barrens near 
the coast, from Long Island and Conn., 
south to La. 

A slender branching annual with lance- 
shaped, toothless or slightly toothed, 
conspicuously three-ribbed leaves, and ex- 
tremely regular-lobed flowers (for one of 
the family Labiatce), with five nearly 
equal, obovate, spreading divisions. The 
38S 



Blue Curls or 

Bastard 

Pennyroyal 

Trich<,sti-inu 
dicliotuinnni 
Pale violet 
or magenta 
July 
September 



Trichostema 
linear i' 
Pale violet, 
etc. 
July-August 



False 
Pennyroya 

Isanthns 
coEruleus 
Pale violet 
July 
September 




Blue Curls. TpTchostema dichotomuTa 



MINT FAMILY. Labiatas. 



pistil greatly exceeds the stamens in length, the latter 
scarcely extending beyond the corolla ; it is evident, 
therefore, that the flower is cross-fertilized. The most 
frequent visitors are the bumblebees, the honeybees, 
and the smaller butterflies, chief among which are 
Pieris rcqxe, white, and Colia.s phUodice, yellow. 
American ^ downy perennial with a stiff perpen 

Germander dicular Stem, and light green, unevenly 
or Wood Sage toothed leaves, lance-shaped and tine- 
Teucrium j^^. ^.^^ ^ particularl V underneath. The rather 

Canadeiisc ' •, " • i i i 

Pale purple ^^^"o flower-spike with the large nearly |- 
or magenta inch-long flowers arranged in circles, pur- 
J"'y- pie, deeper or paler, and sometimes ma- 

September ^^^^^^ ^j. ^ pii^i-iyij ,vhite. The lower lobe 
of the flower broad and prominent, forming a convenient 
landing for visiting bees. 1-2 feet high. Moist thicket 
borders, or marshes. Me., south, and west to IMinn., S. 
Dak., Neb., and Kan. 

A stout-stemmed, vellow-flowered per- 
Horse Balm . , . i. n ' i i i • ^i 

or Rich Weed ^^^'^^'^l species, tall and V)ranclnng, with 
CoUinsonia large ovate sharply toothed leaves and a 
CanadcnxiA nearly smooth stem. The pale yellow 
Pale yellow flowcns with 2 long divergent stamens and 

"^ . a prominent ])istil, strongly lemon-scented. 

September ' ^ '^ " 

Flower-cluster very loose. Named for 

Peter CoUinson, an early amateur botanist. 2-4 feet 

high. In damp rich woodlands, from I\Ie., south, west 

to Wis. and Kan. 

„ .,, A coarse and aiomatic pertMinial species 

PerrJln . . ' 

ocymnide!^ introduced into the gardens of this coun- 

White try from China and India, and escaped to 

J"'> - roadsides near dwellings. The large, ovate, 

September coarsely toothed leaves deep pur^)le-tinged 
beneath, and with a bronze tone above, the green com- 
pletely suffused with the other color. Strongly scented. 
Flowers tiny, in terminal clusters, and dull white or pale 
magenta. 1-3 feet high. In waste places, southern N. 
Y. to 111. 



390 




Rich Weed. 



Col I i nsonia Canadensis. 



MINT FAMILY. Labiatas. 



The genus Mentha is a tribe of odorous perennial herbs 
with httle tubular flowers mostly in close clusters ; the 
plant-stems square. Almost all the species are natural- 
ized from Europe, and there are many hybrids. Name 
from Mi'yO}/ (of Theophrastus), a Nymph. The mints are 
commonly fertilized by the order Diptera (tiie flies), and 
particularly by the genera Syrpliidie and Bombylidce. 

Flowers in rather crowded, slender, 
Horse Mint 4.- j- - j 

^j,,,,f]^,, leafless spikes, sometimes disconnected. 

si/lvcsfris Leaves ovate-oblong and ovate lance- 

Pale purple shaped, almost stemless, sharp-pointed 
July-August ^^^^^1 sharply toothed, often smooth above, 
but the whole plant generally finely white-haired. Plant- 
stem square. 18 inches high. Roadsides and field- 
borders. Pa. and N. J. The var. alopecuroidefi with 
larger leaves, stemless, broadly oval and obtuse, often 
approaching heart-shape, coarsely toothed and more 
veiny. Southern N. Y., Pa., and N. J., west to Mo. 

Flowers variable in depth of color ; clus- 
Spearmint ^^j-g crowded like those of the preced- 

p . ^ . ing species, but especially narrow and 

July-August pointed. Plant-stem green, square, and 

uocd'ljj smooth. Leaves oblong or ovate 
lance-shaped, unevenly toothed and stemless or verj^ 
nearly so. 12-20 inches high or more. Wet places and 
roadsides in cultivated ground, everywhere. 
Peppermint Flowers in narrow, loose, disconnected, 

Mentha leafless, terminal spikes, and often on a 

piperita rather long stern proceeding from between 

Pale purple tj^^ plant-stem and leaf-stem. Leaves 
July-August 1.1 ^11 

long-ovate, deep green, smooth, and regu- 
larly toothed, slightly rough beneath, and very hot- 
tasting. Plant-stem purplish, 18-36 inches high. Along 
brooks and in cultivated ground everywhere. 
Water Mint "^^^^ flowers in a roundish or nearly 

Mentha oblong terminal cluster ; frequently there 

aqnatica are oiie or more clusters between the 

Pale purple plant-stem and the upper leaf-stems. 
Se"p^ember Leaves ovate or round-ovate. The plant 

is characterized by downy hairs (rarely it 
is smoothish) which generally point doinuvard. Wet 

392 




Peppermint, 



Mentha piperita. 



MINT FAMILY. Labiatx, 



places from N. Eng. to Pa., Del., and Ga. Not com- 
mon. 18-28 inches high or more. In the var. crispa the 
plant is smooth, but the green flower-cup is hairy; it has 
also torn-toothed leaves somewhat curled. Swamps and 
roadside ditches. Southern N. Y., N. J., and Pa. 

,,, ^ The tinv bell-shaped flowers clustered m 

Corn Mint . , ," , , , . 

Mentha civclcs about the plant-stem at the junc- 

a>rr/(.s/.s tion with leaf-stems. Leaves ovate, blunt- 

Light purple toothed, and distinctly stemmed. Not a 
u y- ugus common species. 6-20 inches long. Found 
in moist fields. N. Eng., N. Y., and Pa., south. 

The only native mint. The lilac-white 
Wild Mint ^^j, white flowers oblong bell-shaped, with 

' . a short-toothed edge ; the clusters ar- 

arvensis var. ^ 

Canarjrnsis ranged as in the preceding species. 
White or Leaves conspicuously tapering from the 

iilac=svhite centre toward both ends, coarsely toothed, 
t"mber^^ ovate-oblong or lance-shaped, and rough- 

ish, or nearly smooth. The plant is more 
or less hairy throughout, and lias the odor of Penny- 
royal. In wet places south to Va., and through the 
northern United States across the continent. 10-28 in- 
ches high. This mint, according to Prof. Charles Robert- 
son, is visited in Illinois by the fly Jiirinia smaragdinn. 

A mintlike weed with small white 
Bugleweed „ , • , , 

Lycnpu>, flowers remotely suggestmg a bugle 

Virginicus shape. Stem slender, four-angled, and 

^hite generally smooth. The light green leaves 

" '~ ^^' ovate lance-shai)ed and very eoarsely 

toothed. The tiny flowers clustered at 
the bases of the leaves have but two perfect stamens ; 
the other two, if present, are quite abortive. Fertilized 
mostly by the beelike flies, and the small bees of the 
genus Halictus. 6-24 inches high. Common. 

r t , . A similar species, with some leaves so 

Cut=leaved ^ ' 

Water Hore= ^leeply toothed that they appear incised, 

hound and others incised to an appearance of 

Locoima lobes. The stiff stem generally smooth, 

Wlike""^ simple or branched. The flower-cup tiny 

June-Sep= ^^^*^ ^ut little larger than its green calyx, 

tember 1-3 feet higli. Common. 

3^)4 



^M 



^^^ 






^•-"l 




Leaf of 'in. apvensis. 



Wild Mint. Mentha arvensls var. Canadensis, 



MINT FAMILY. Labiatae. 

A coarse, stiff, aromatic perennial natu- 
re ralized from Europe. Slender-stemmed 
Hyssopns '■ 

officinalis ^nd lance-leaved ; the leaves stiff and 

Pale violet pointed at either end. The tubular flowers 

June-Sep= with projecting stamens, crowded at the 

^"^ ^'^ angles of the leaves at the upper part of 

the plant. 1-3 feet high. Waste places and roadsides 
near dwellings, from Me., south to N. Car., and west. 

This is a stout and stiff-stemmed species 
Mountain with a slight fragrance of mint ; but unlike 

„*" ^, the latter its tiny flowers are borne in 

Pycnanihemnm ^ 

lanceolatum a somewhat flat-topped cluster. Leaves 
White stemless or nearly so, lance-shaped, tooth- 

purpIe=dotted j^gg^ ^nd slightly aromatic ; stem smooth 

" ^' ^ or very slightlv hairy, and very leafy. 

September _, -^ ,.\ ,". , , 

The flowers hlac-white, purple-spotted, 

standing out from the globular heads. 1-3 feet high. 

In dry fields, or pastures, or on the borders of thickets, 

from Vt. and Mass., south to (ia.. w<st to ]Minn. and 

Neb. The name meaning crowdt-d flow er-clusters. 

A similar species, with smooth linear 

Pycnnnthemum leaves, sharp-pointed and light green. 

J-t^Ol-'l """ The stem and leaves stiff. The tiny flowers 

White 

purple=dotted '^^hite, speckled or dotted with purple. 1- 
2 feet high. Dry fields, N. H., south, and 
west to Minn, and Tex. Found in Cam[)ton, N. H., but 
rare ; occasional in Vt. 

A small annual, exceedingly odorous, 
American usuallv found in drv pastures. The stem 

Pennyroyal ^ "o i i • ' ii i u- 

Hedenma erect, finely hairy, with upward-reaching 

pujf^gioirh's branches ; the small light olive-green 
Pale light leaves with few teeth, ovate lance-shaped, 

^'^'^* blunt-pointed, and narrowed at the base. 

tember "^^^^ ^^^y P^^® violet or lavender, tubular 

flowers with a three-lobed under lip. Fer- 
tilized mostly by bumblebees, honeybees, and the smaller 
bees. 6-15 inches high. Common in dry fields every- 
where, but not found in Campton, N. H., nor anywhere 
in the vicinity of the White Mts. The essential oil of 
Pennyroyal is said to be efficacious in driving away 
mosquitoes. 

39^ 




Mountain Nint. Pycnanthemum lini/olium. 



MINT FAMILY. Labiatst. 



A slic'litly rouo-li-hairy, slender plant, 
Lyre=leaved . , « \ t i f ■ ^ ^ a 

gg with conspicuous light violet flowers 

Salvia h/rafa iiearh" an incli lonjr. ^vhich are cross-fer- 

Light violet tilized mostly by the bumblebees ; Bonihns 

June-July ragans and Bomhus i^ennsylvanicus being 

frequent visitors. The lower leaves are somewhat lyr(>- 

shaped, tlie U})i)er i)air (sometimes two pairs) mid-way 

up the stem, similar but less cut. or lobed ; the tubular 

flowers with a broad three-lobed lip which furnishes a 

convenient landing-platform for insect visitors ; 1-2 feet 

high. In dry woodlands, and beside thickets. N. J., 

south, and west to 111. and Ark. 

A brilHant and showy wild flower whose 
O s w cffoT'cflor 
Bee Balm scarlet-red color is strongly relieved bj' its 

Monarda usual backgrt)und of shady woodland. 

didijma Commonly found besidt^ streams on the 

Scarlet=red border of the woods. 

c * . The .l/o//«rc?a.s' are i)eculiarlv adaijted to 

September ' • ^ 

the visits of butterflies, although they are 
also commonly visited by bees, the bumljlebee in particu- 
lar. The two anther-bearing stamens are prominent, as 
well as the two-parted stigma, and neither can be j)assed 
without friction by butterlly or bee, both of which have 
the long tongue necessary to reach tlie nectar. The 
bumblebees mentioned as visitors of the foregoing species 
also frequent this flower, together with the butterflies 
^Colias phUodice, yellow, and the large Danais archip- 
ptus, black-and-tan. The sombre dark green leaves are 
broad lance-shaped, sharply toothed, and stemmed ; the 
small leaves just beneath the flower are often tinged 
ruddy. The stem, rather hairy-rough and square, is 
about 2 feet high, or more. Moist ground, N. Eng , 
south to Ga., and west to Mich. 

„,..^„ ^ A similar species with a smooth or spar- 

Wild Bergamot . , , i , ^ i i 

Mouarda fistu- ^^^o'^J downy, slender stem, and deep green 
/o.sa leaves, tlie upper ones somewhat stained 

Magenta^ with the pure pale .lilac or whitish tint 

purpl^e which characterizes the flower-bracts. The 

September flowers with a less expanded throat, paler 

or deeper magenta-purple. 2-3 feet high. 
Dry ground. Me., south, and west to Neb. and S. Dak. 

398 




^ if 
Oswego Tea. Mon&pda didyma. 




\, 







, , ■ I ^ 




Wild BePQamot. 



MonaiPdafistulosa 
vAr. rubra. 



MINT FAMILY. Labiatae. 



A rather smooth form with liandsome 

, crimson-i)mk or rose red flowers finelv 
/o.srf var. rubra ^ 

Crinison=pink hairy over the tube and iipi)er lip. and thin 
leaves rather smooth. On the borders of 
moist thickets, Me. and N. H. , south along the mountains 
to Pa. and Va. The var. media, with deep purple flowers. 
Alleghany i\Its., and west to ]\Iinn. The var. rubra is 
locally plentiful in parts of N. H., notably south of New- 
found Lake. It is unfortunately classified as Purple 
Bergamot, Monarda media, in Britton and Brown, which 
is manifestly confusing. Monarda mollis is a less com- 
mon species ; flowers flesh pink and lilac ; in S. Dak. 

^ A woodland si)ecies rather similar in 

Downy 

Blephilia many respects to Monarda. The small 

Blephilia cili- tubular flowers about i inch long, with a 
"'f' three-lobed under lip, light purple or 

Light purple ^.j^^j^^ ,^^^^^ fliie-hairy. The lance-shaped 
June-August , , , ,' / ^.11 

leaves uluiost toothless (except the lower 

ones), white-downy beneath, and quite stemless, or nearly 
so. The stem downy and mostly simple. 1-2 feet high. 
Mass., south to Ga., and west to Minn, and Kan. 
Qi^lnip ^^^ exceedingly common weed to which 

Xt-pfia Cafaria many of the animals of the tribe Felis are 
Lilac=white greatly attached. A favorite Manx cat of 
July-October ^^^-^^^ \vnuU\ walk a mile every other day 
or so, from my Cam{)ton studio to a spot where it 
grew in plenty, notwithstanding the way was through 
the w^oods and over a hill of no small difficulty ! The 
stem is densely downy as well as the deeply round-toothed 
leaves, and both are sage green in color. The pale lilac 
or lilac-white and spotted flow^ers are also downy, and 
gathered in small terminal clusters, which are rarely 4 
inches long. Leaves strongly aromatic. 2-3 feet high. 
Common everywhere. Naturalized from Europe. 

^ ^ . A small creeping plant, adventive from 

Ground Ivy or • ,1 • ^ u 1 1 

Gall=over=the= Lurope, common m all moist shady places ; 

Ground it takes the place of our Trailing Arbutus, 

xYepe^a Gle- in the moist fields of England in April. 

choma rpj^^ ,g purple flow-ers, spotted darker 

Light purple ^, / ' , „ . , , 

April-May near the throat, and often with the calyx 

magenta-tinged, has two lips, the upper 
400 







^^ Im |2-Gill-ovep^khe-gpoun(t 
NepetaaGlechomaL 



MINT FAMILY. Labiatse. 



one two-cleft, and the lower, three-cleft ; the deep green 

leaves, scalloped and rather heart-shaped, are often 

stained with magenta, as well as the stem ; the latter 

takes root at the joints, and reaches out sometimes fully 

18 inches. Me., south to Ga.. and ^vt'st to Minn., Neb., 

and Kan. 

.. . A bitter perennial herb, not aromatic, 

Mad=dog 

Skullcap with two-lipped tubular flowers, the four 

Svuttlluria stamens located under the upper lip, which 

laiirijiiird [^ arched. Name from sciitella, a dish, in 

Pale purple alhisioii to the ])eculiar hump on the upper 
July August 

section of the green calyx, whicli, how- 
ever, does not even remotely suggest the shai)e of a dish. 
The little flowers, about a quarter of an inch long, light 
or pale purple (rarely white), are itorne in succession 
along the delicate stems which terminate the branches 
or spring from between leaf-stem and i)lant-stem. The 
flowers borne oii one side of the stem which later is dee- 
orated with the odd little hoodlike green calyxes con- 
taining four wliite seeds. Plant-stem smooth, square, 
and sometimes sliglitly twisted, upright and much 
branched. Leaves narrowly ovate, veiny, coarse-toothed, 
pointed, rounded at the base, and sh^nder-stemnied. 1-2 
feet high. Conunon in dauq) and shady places, through- 
out the country The Sciifcllaruts are fertilized by the 
smaller bees, Halictus, and the leaf-cutter bee, MegachUe. 
ScuteU(iri(c Light violet flowers almost an inch long, 

versicolor the wliitish lower lip sometimes purple- 

Light violet stained. Leaves l.eart-shaped, very veiny, 
July-August j.Qugi^^ round-tootlH'd, rather blunt, and 
long-stemmed. Plant-stem soft-hairy. 1-3 feet high. 
Banks of streams. Pa., south, and west to Mimi. and 
Ark. 

Scutellaria Flower an incli long, narrow, and its 

serrata upper lip only a trifle shorter than the 

Light violet lower one. Leaves ovate or long-ovate, 
ay une toothed, tapering at both ends, and smooth. 

Green and nearly smooth, slender plant-stem, 1-2 feet 
high. In woods, southern N. Y. and Pa., south to N. 
Car., and west to 111. The most showy of all the genus. 



402 




Ma^d-dog Skull-cap. 5cutelUrid lateriflorai. 



MINT FAMILY. Lablatse. 



The flowers, steins, and under sides of 
Scutellaria the leaves covered with soft white down ; 
cayiescens flower nearly one inch long. Leaves 

Light violet -^ ^ ^ 1 J 

July August <J^'ate or narrow-ovate, stemmed, and some 

slightly heart-shaped at the base. 2-4 feet 
high. River -banks from Ontario to 111., and south 
among the mountains to N. Car. 

Flowers half an inch long or a trifle 
Scutellaria more. Leaves distant, oval or long ovate, 

P''-^^'^^ veiny, round-toothed, the longer-stemmed 

Light violet , -^ . ,.*', ^, , 

Mav-Julv lower ones sometimes slightly heart- 

shaped, the upper on short, margined 
stems. Plant-stem with spreading hairs. Dry or sandy 
ground, or woods. 12-30 inches high. Southern N. Y. 
and Pa., south, and west to Mich. 

Flower bright light violet, and an inch 
Scutellaria long, in a striking terminal cluster. Leaves 

in egi ifo la oblong lance-sliaped, or narrower, mosth^ 
Light violet , , , ^ , ,1 

June-August toothless, obtuse, short-stemmed, and 
downy together with the plant-stem. 6- 
20 inches high. Dry ground, borders of fields, woods. 
The seaboard States from K. I. south. A handsome 
species. 

A low species with flowers | inch long, 
Scutellaria boriie Oil very short stems at the junction 

parvuia ^^ leaf-stem with plant-stem. Leaves op- 

Violet *^ , , , , ^ 

May-July posite-growing, toothless, round to lance- 

ovate or slightly heart-shaped, about ^ an 
inch long. Stem spreading, 3-10 inches high. Sandy 
banks and moist places, from N. Y. and N. J., south, 
and west to S. Dak., Minn., Neb., and Tex. 

Flowers | inch long, growing in the 
Scutellaria same position as those of the foregoing 
mue=v"olIt species. Leaves ovate lance-shaped, the 
July-August lower sometimes with a slight heart-shaped 
base, toothed, and acute. Stem smooth 
and slender. 1-2 feet high. Common in wet shady places 
and along streams, especially in the north, west to N. 
Dak. 



404 




Skullcap. Scutellaria integpifolia. 



MINT FAMILY. Labiatae. 



Saitellnria 

Pale blue= 

violet 

June-August 

feet high, 
south to N. 

Self=heal or 
Heal=all 

Prutitllii rnl- 
gariH or Brn- 
nelln riilc/(tris 
Purple, light 
or deeper 
June 
September 



Flowers a trifle more than | inch long. 
Leaves about an inch long, roundish or 
ovate, slightly toothed, and the lower ones 
slightly heart-shaped. The floral leaves 
.tootliless. Stem smooth and slender, 1-2 
Moist woods and thickets, N. Y. and N. J., 
Car., and west to Mo. 

A very common low perennial with gen- 
erally a single stem, and tubular, two- 
lipped, hooded flowers proceeding from a 
spike or head of closely set, sometimes 
rusty colored green, floral bractlike leaves. 
The name (of uncertain origin) said to be 
from tlie German braune, a throat dis- 
ease. Flower tiny, purple, but sometimes 
flesh color or wliite. the lower lip slightly 
fringed. Generally fertilized by the bumblebee, Bombus 
pennsylvanicus being a frequent visitor ; the common 
yellow butterfly Colias philodice is also a constant 
attendant. Leaves ovate-oblong, narrowing toward the 
tip, slightly or imperceptibly toothed, stemmed, with 
generally two small l)ractlike leaves at the base of the 
stems. Plant-stem slightly hairy. 6-13 inches high. 
Very common along roadsides, and on the borders of 
woods and fields. Across the continent. 

A smooth perennial with upright, slen- 
der stem, stemless lance-shaped leaves 
mostly toothed, and large, 1 inch long, 
showy flowers crowded in terminal, leaf- 
less spikes. Flower pinkish pale lilac, often 
variegated with white, and funnel-shaped, 
the upper lip a little hooded, the lower 
three-parted ; the throat inflated. Plant-stem smooth, 
1-4 feet high. Wet grounds, from northern Vt., west- 
ward and southward. Very variable. The var. denticu- 
lata, slender and generally low, with scallop-toothed, or 
imperceptibly toothed leaves, and very slender flower- 
spikes. Moist situations, Vt., south, and west to S. Dak, 
and Neb. 



False Dragon 
head 

Physostegia 
Virginictnn 
Pink°lilac or 
lighter 
July-August 



406 



'M^rJ> 




Seif-hea.1. 



Ppunella. vulga^ris. 



MINT FAMILY. Labiatx. 



A white-woolly, bitter, and aromatic 

Marrvhium 



perennial, branched at the base, with small 



viilgarc tubular dull white flowers circled about 

White the plant-stem at the leaf junctions. 

August- Leaves round-ovate, stemmed, and seal- 

September iop.toothed. 1-2 feet high. Cultivated, 
and escaped into waste places. Naturalized from Eu- 
rope. The name from the Hebrew mar rob, a bitter 
juice. 

Perpendicular-growing decorative herbs, 
Motherwort ^^.^^j^^^^^ particular odor, with deeply 

Cardiaca cut leaves, and tiny flowers encircling the 

Pale lilac plant-stem at the point of junction with 

June-August ^.j^g leaves. The name from Xicov, a lion, 
and ovpd, tail — lion's tail, alluding to the form of the 
flower-spike, Init a poor simile. The upper lip of the 
tiny, tubular but shallow, pale lilac flower bearded. 
The green calyx characterized by five thornlike points; the 
base of the calyx, when the flower is gone, marked with 
a cross upon examination with a glass. The small leaves 
about the flower-clusters conventionally arranged around 
the tall stems, wedge-shaped toward the stem, and three- 
pointed at the tip. The lower leaves rounded, slashed, 
and long-stemmed. 2-4 feet high. A familiar peren- 
nial naturalized from Europe, and common everywhere 
in waste places about dwellings. 

Low spreading herbs found on waste 
Dead Nettle grounds. With tubular, bell-shaped flow- 
^exLnlr ^'i'«' and small long-stemmed leaves below, 
Pale purple= heart-shaped ones in the middle of the 
magenta stem, and others above directly connected 

^P*"''" with the circling flower-clusters; all round- 

September tootiied. The upper lip of the flower is 
bearded, the lower one spotted ; all magenta or pale pur- 
ple. A honey-bearing flower, cross-fertilized mostly by 
honeybees and bumblebees, and frequently visited by 
Bomhus hifarius, commonly called the orange-banded 
bumblebee. The foliage of the dead nettle is not sting- 
ing to the touch. _^6-18 inches high. Naturalized from 
Europe. 

408 




Mothepwort 



Leonunus Cardiaca. 



NIGHTSHADE FAMILY. Solanaceae. 



Like tlie foregoing, also naturalized, the 

nurnMri-iim l<'aves more heart-shaped, roundish, or ob- 

Magenta long, and all of them stemmed. Flowers 

'^^ay- magenta. Less common, from N. Eng. to 

September p 

An annual, with spreading branches, 

Hemp Nettle ^^^ several circling clusters of small pale 

Y,.frnhif magenta flowers (the lower lip purple- 

Magenta= striped) gathered at the stems of the floral 

purple leaves. Name from the Greek, wcnsellike, 

•^"^y from the fancied resemblance of the flower 

September ^ ^i i i r i rr, ^- a 

to the head of a weasel. Ihe tmy flowers 

white-hairy, the flower-cup bristly. Leaves ovate, 
tootlied, hairy, and j)ointe(l. Plant-stetn square, very 
hairy, with hairs pointing downward, and conspicuously 
swollen l)elow the joints. ('ro.ss-fertilized by the bum- 
blebees and smaller bees, Boinbns vagans a most frequent 
visitor. 10-18 inches high. Common in waste places 
and gardens, everywhere. Naturalized from Europe. 

Hairy perennial herbs, with tul)ular bell- 
Hedge Nettle sliaped' flowers, clustered in circles, 6-10 
.„,i,i^fyj^ HI eacli cn-cle, and tormmg a terminal 

Magenta=pur= spike. The ujiiier ])art of the light ma- 
ple, or paler genta-i)urple flower and its green cup (ca- 

•'"'-^" Ivx) hairy. Leaves stemless, or the lower 

September "^ , , . , , , , 

ones short-stemmed, ovate lance-sliaped 

or longer, scallop-toothed, downy-hairy, rather obtuse, 

and rounded at the base. Plant-stem square, 1-3 feet 

high. Wet grounds, N. Eng. to Pa., and west. 

Like the foregoing, but with mostly 
Starhi/s ospera , _ , ^. , 

iM„^^«+«. smooth flowers, leaves sometimes smootli, 

purple Jind nearly all distinctly stemmed ; the 

July plant-stem taller, commonly smooth on 

September ^j^g gj^^j.^ ^^^^ stiff-hairy at the angles. 

The flower-spike slender. Stem 2-4 feet high. Common 
on wet grounds, everywhere. 

NIGHTSHADE FAMILY. Solanacece. 

Mostly herbs with alternate leaves and regular, perfect 
flowers ; the five-lobed corolla with generally five sta- 
mens and a very small stigma. Foliage strongly scented. 
4IO 



^w 




Bugle-weed. 
Lycopus Virginicus.^ 

(See pofife 39k') 



Hemp-nettle. 
Gdleopsis Tetrahit. 



NIGHTSHADE FAMILY. Solanacex. 



The fruit, though often narcotic and extremely poison- 
ous, is sometimes harmless and edible ; usually a many- 
seeded round berry with the calyx generally adhering to 
its base. The potato and the tomato are the widest- 
known members of the family. 

A tall, almost shrublike plant with vari- 
Nlghtshade or ,^y^^^ ^^.^^^ .^^^^ Xq^xq^ from ovate to tri- 
Bittersweet , . ,• 111 , , 

Sohinnm angular m outhne, some lobed and others 

DvJramarn formed of three leaflets, the two lateral 

Violet, purple ones quite small, all without teeth. The 
*^""^" small flowers in diminutive loose clusters, 

with deeply five-cleft corolla, violet or 
purple, or sometimes lilac- white, the yellow conic centre 
colored by the five stamens. The fruit (at first green) 
an oval, translucent ruby red berry, hanging or droop- 
ing in small clusters. The flower is visited by honey- 
bees and the beelike flies. 2-8 fc(^t high. In moist 
thickets and by waysides. Naturalized from Europe. 
Me., south to Del., and west to Kan. and Minn. 

A native species, with an erect, smooth, 

^^^^^ branching stem, and ovate, wavy-toothed, 

Nightshade ., • . 1 , ,• wi , 

Solanum thm-stemmed leaves slightly unequal- 

nigrum sided. Flowers white in small side clus- 

White ters, the corolla deeply five-lobed ; the 

''"'^~ calyx adhering to the globose berry, which 

is black when fully ripe, and clustered on 

thin drooping stems. l-2i feet high. In waste places, 

or near dwellings in cultivated ground, from Me., south, 

and west to the Northwest Territory and Tex. 

A tall, and late in its season a reclining 

ammy ^^ sprawling species resembling Solanum, 

Ground Cherry . / *=. ^ . , , . ^ 

Physalis with spreading, sticky-hairy stem, and 

heterophyiin broad heart-shaped leaves coarsely toothed 
Qreen=yelIow and pointed. Flower greenish yellow, 
St h brown in the centre, with five triangular 

short lobes ; anthers and berry dull yellow, 
the latter enclosed within the enlarged calyx. 1-3 feet 
high. Common in rich soil from Me., south, and west 
to Col. and Tex. A variable species, not yet satisfacto- 
rily defined, but including perhaps more than one species. 
Found at Manchester, Vt., by Miss Mary A. Day. 
412 




Black Nightshade. Solanum nigrum. 



NIGHTSHADE FAMILY. Solanaceae. 



A branching and civct-stenmied species, 
Virginia mostly smooth. The ovate lance-slianed 

Ground Cherry '' . i i ^i i 

Pf^i^^^^ili^^ leaves tapering toward both ends very 

Virijinidud slightly shallow-toothed and light green. 

Pale yellow The flower dull pale yellow with hvebrown- 

^ ^~ purple spots ; anthers deep vellow. Tiie 

September ' . ' ' ^ . „ ^, ^ ^i i 

stignia matures beiore the anthers, and 

extends beyond them. Fertilized by the honeybee and 
the bees of the genus Halictus ; Halictus pectinatufi is a 
common visitor (Prof. Robertson). The reddish berry 
enclosed within tlie enlarged calyx. 1-3 feet high. 
Rich soil. Vt. and N. Y., south to La., and west to Mmn. 
Plt/jsaUs p»6e.sct'/is, the strawberry tomato, is down}-, 
with angular leaves. The flower light green-yellow, 
brown-spotted at tlie throat, with violet anthers. Fruit 
green-3'ellow. Escaped from cultivation eastward. 

A laiik-smelling annual weed with a 
Thorn Apple smooth, green, stout stem, and thin ovate, 
or Jamestown .^^.^,^^._ angularlv coarse-toothed leaves, 
or Jimson i r^, i ■ 

YYggj slim-stemmcd, Tlie white trumpet-shaped 

Datura flowers about 4 inches long, with a light 

straiiiuniiDn green calyx less than lialf the length of 
^*^'*^ the corolla, wiiich has Ave sharp-pointed 

September lobes. The green fruit -capsule, ovoid, 

about 2 inches long, and covered with 
stout prickles, the longest of which are at the tip of the 
capsule. 1-5 feet high. In waste places and vacant 
city lots, from Me., south, and west to Minn, and Tex. 
Naturalized from Asia. 

A similar species with a slenderer stem, 

urp e orn ^^^^ darker green leaves both more or less 
Apple ° 

Datura Tatula stained with magenta. Flowers like those 

Magenta= of the preceding species, but the flaring 

lavender tips of the corolla Stained with magenta or 

^'^y lavender, or the tube nearly white. AW 

September •' 

the prickles of the capsule nearly equal m 

length. 1-5 feet high. In waste places from Vt.. N. Y., 

and Minn., southward. Rare in Vermont. 



414 




Purple Thorn Apple. Datura Ta^tula. 



FIQWORT FAMILY. Scrophulariacese. 



FIGWORT FA:MILY. SerophuJuriacecE. 

Commonly herbs with opposite or alternate leaves, and 
perfect, irregular flowers with two sets of stamens, 2-5, 
longer and shorter ones ; corolla two-lipped or nearly 
regular. Fruit a two-celled and generally many-seeded 
capsule. A large family of bitter-juiced plants ; some 
are narcotic-poisonous. Cross-fertilized by moths, but- 
terflies, and bees. 

A very common, picturesque, velvety- 
areat Mullein i^.^^,^^ ,;^^^l ^,f ^.,,,.1,,. pastures and road- 
J trhascniu ' '■ mi i i 

rii(ipsH!4 sides, naturalized from Europe. The basal 

Yellow leaves at first in the form of a rosette, 

June- large, ovate, thick-velvet}', and white- 

September ^ri-een. The stem stout and erect, with a 

few smaller, acute-pointed leaves ; the terminal flower- 
spike cylindrical, woolly, and dotted with scattered light 
yellow flowers: corolla flve-lolu'd, and anthers golden 
yellow. Rarely the flowers are white. 2-0 feet high. 
In barren fields and waste places, from Me., south, and 
west to Minn, and Kan. 

A smaller species with smooth stem and 
Moth Mullein ^, • , i ^^ i i *i i 

\'t^rba.scn,n thui, light green, glossy leaves, mostly ol)- 

Biattiirid Umi£ with deeply cut, notched, and toothed 

Yellow, white margins; the upper leaves lance-shaped 
J""*^ and clas{)ing at the base. The flowers, 

ep em er similar in shape to those of the preceding 

si)ecies, are light yellow or white, tinged on the back 
with lavender, and set on slender stalks ; the five sta- 
mens are fringed with ruddy hairs, and the anthers are 
deep orange. The slender flower-spike is 1-2 feet long, 
and a trifle woolly. 2-5 feet high. In waysides, waste 
places, and pastures. Me., south, west to Minn, and Kan. 

An extremely slender and smooth an- 
BlueToad=flax ^ , • • , -.i . ,, 

linarid nual or biennial species with few small, 

Caitadt^nsis thickish, linear, light green leaves, tooth- 
Lavender less, stemless, smooth, and shining. The 

*'""^" small pale violet or lavender flowers about 

September • , , i- i i i i^i 

^ inch long, two-lipped, and spurred ; the 

lower lip large and three-lobed, with a white, convex, 

two-ridged palate ; the upper lip with two acute divi- 

416 




M Moth Mullein. 
Vcrbascum Thapsus. Vepbascum Blattapia. 



FIG WORT FAMILY. Scrophulariaceae. 

sions ; the spur curving aud threadlike. 5-80 inches 
high. Coniuion in ih\v. sandy soil, from ]Nh\, south, and 
local west to the Pacific coast. The name from Liniun, 
flax. 

A very cc^mmon but beautiful })erennial 
Toad=flax or ^^.^,^^| naturalized from Europe, with erect 
Bulter=and= , , \. 

£ smootli stem, and gray -green unear, stem- 

Linariit less and toothless leaves growing alter- 

vulgaris natelv but near together. The flowers are 

Yellow and about an inch long including the slender 
Jul> October ^1"""' ^»"'^ twoTipped, the upper hp two- 
lobed, light yellow, the lower lip three- 
lobt'd and poucii-shapcd. tapering to the tip of the 
slender spur, and fuinislu'cl al)ovc with a protruding 
gold-orange palate wiiich nearly closes the throat of the 
corolla ; the four stamens are tipped with ochre yellow 
anthers ; the style is greenish. The flowers are assisted 
in the process of fertilization by l)umblebees and butter- 
flies ; among the latter, Colios pJnlodice (yellow) and 
Melita'u pJiaefnii, the Baltimore (brown), are frequent 
visitors. 1-:^ feet high. In fields, pastures, and city 
lots, everywhere. 

A smooth annual with erect stem and 
Small Snap= m, /, 

dragon liglit green linear leaves. The flowers 

Anfinhinuin light purple or white, Nhowy, solitary, and 
Onnttiini, \\ ith a sac-shaped, two-lii)i)ed corolla ; the 

Light purple ij two-lobed, the lower three-lobed. 

June August ^ i *• ^ i • i t c ii i 

About 1 foot high. In fields and waste 

places near dwellings. New Eng. and N. Y. Adventive 
from Euro])e. 

A smooth perennial with a slender four- 
Figwort sided, grooved stem and slender-stemmed, 

Scrophiilarid , , , ,. , 

nodosa, var <>vate lance-shaped, toothed, light green 
Marilandicd leaves. Flowers small, sac-shaped, and 
Green= clustered on long, nearly leafless branch- 

magenta jy^.^, ^i^y two-lipped corolla green without, 

September ''^^^^ shinv brown-magenta within. 3-7 

feet l)igh. In thin woods and thickets, 
from N. Y"., south to N. Car. and Tenn.. and west to 
Kan. 



418 



'l^ 







Blue Toad-flax. 
Linapia Canadensis. 



FIGWORT FAMILY. Scrophulariaceae. ^ 

A smooth-steiniiu'd plant superficially 
C'"wom (ii<i},ra I'^sembUng the Bottle Gentian, with 
White, pink= smooth, bright deep green, toothed, short- 
tinged stemmed, lance-shaped leaves 8-G inches 
•'"'> long. The flower not unlike a turtle's 
ep em er ji^ad, about an inch long, white, and deli- 
cately luiged at the tips with niagenta-pink or crimson- 
})ink ; tiie corolla two-lipped, the upper lip arched over 
the lower one. The stamens dark and woolly. ^1^3 feet 
high. On wet banks, in swamps, and beside brooks, 
i'rom ^le., south, and west to Minn., Kan., and Tex. 

A i)erennial with slender and straight 
Pentstemonor ^^^^^^^ ^^.^^^jj ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^j^^ ^^^^^^^ Leaves 
Beard=tongue ,• i i n ^ ■, 

j'rnt-iteiito.i lio^^t grccu, slightly woolly, oblong to 
jji(}m's,;„s lance-shaped, slightly toothed, the upper 

Magenta= ones toothless, the lower ovate and 

^*^'**^ stemmed. The flowers whitish, tinged 

with dull magenta, the corolla trumpet- 
sliai)t'(l, two-lipped, two lobes on the upper, three on the 
lower ii{), and the throat nearly closed by a palate on 
the lower lip covered with long hairs. There are four 
stamens and a sterile stanu-n or so-called filament, which 
is hairy or bearded a lit t if more than half its length. 
Cross-fertilized mostly by butterflies. 1-3 feet high. 
Me., south, and west to Minn, and Tex. Fotind in 
Campton, N. H., by Carroll S. Mathews. 

A very similar species, smooth except 
PeuMemon ^j^^ somewhat stickv-hairy top of the stem 
bearing the flowers ; the latter | inch long, 
whitish with a magenta-tinged base, tiie corolla as in the 
foregoing species, but the throat wider open, and scarcely 
or not at all hairy ; the sterile filament hairy on the wjj- 
per side only. The stem ruddy, and the light green 
leaves more or less so at the edge. 2-3 feet high. In 
thickets or moist fields, from Pa., south, and west to Ky. 
and La., where according to Gray the common form is 
the var. Digitalis, with stem-leaves ovate lance-shaped, 
the losver longer and wider. The flowers white, larger, 
and the corolla abruptly inflated. 2-5 feet high. Me. 
and N. Y., south to Va. and Ark., and west to 111. Prob- 
ably escaped from cultivation in the west. P. puhescens 
420 




Tuptle-head. 



Chelone gle^bra. 



FIQWORT FAMILY. Scrophulariaceae. 

and P. la'i'igdf US have been foinid in tlu' liddsand rocky 
hills of Vermont hy Wild, in Koxbury. Conn., by C. K. 
Averill; 1\ hrrigafiis has ht'cii found l)y H. (;. I'alfrey 
in Haverhill, Mass ; and P. hcviyafHs var. Dicjitidis lias 
been found in ]Middlesex Co., ]Mass. , by .Mabel P. Cook. 
A smooth perennial with an upright 

Mon -ey= siiuare stem often considerably branched, 

flower -7 

Mh,nih(.-i '^^^'^ light green, smooth, lustreless leaves 

riiifKnis with irregular obscure teeth, lance-shaped 

^'"'■ple ,)!• oblong, opposite-growing and clasping 

i""^ ^ the stem. The flowers are a rich clear 

September , , ,, ,. , , 

puri)le ; the corolla t\vo-h[)ped, the upper 

lip elect and two-lobed, the lower with three wide- 
spreading lobes; there are two yellow sj)ots near the 
narrow throat. The pistil and four stamens are white ; 
tlte five-pointed, green calyx is stained with didl purple. 
The few flowers are long-stalked and spring from the 
angles of the ui)per leaves. l-;3 feet high. In swamps 
and beside brooks, generally in meadows, from Me., 
south to Va. and Tenn., and west to 8. Dak., Minn., 
Neb., and Tex. Uarely th<^ llowers are wiiite. I'ound 
near Langdon Park. Plymouth, N. II. 'I'lu; name Irom 
the Greek for «ij)r, or Imffoon, in allusi(jn to the fancied 
grin on th(^ fare of the corolla. 

A branching and spreading little amuial 

„. , with rounded ovate or oblong, smooth 

Pimpernel ^ 

ih/sn),fi,rs leaves, scarcely toothed, the upper ones 

ri/xn-in stem less and clasping the plant-stem 

Pale dull lilac slightly. The i)ale dull lilac flowers | inch 

' " \ . long ; tlie ui)i)er lip of the corolla two- 

September , , , , , 

l(jbed, the lower three-lobed and flaring 

not unlike Mimulus. 4-9 inches high. Common in low, 

wet ground, everywhere. 

^ . , ^ ^ A very tall, smooth, perennial s|)ecies, 

Culver s Root " . . 

I'rronira commonest in the west, with simple, 

Virginica straight stem, and lance-shaped or oblong 

White leaves growing in circles about the plant- 

"^"'^ stem, sharply toothed and smooth. Flow- 

September 11 ", •, 1 1 

ers small, white or pale lavender, with 

rather a long tube to the corolla, and with prominent 

stamens, in dense terminal si)ikes 3-6 inches long. 2-7 

423 




Monkey Flower 



Mimulus rim 



.ens. 




Pentstemon pubescens 



FIGWORT FAMILY. Scrophulariacese. 



feet high. In meadows and moist woods. Not recorded 

in Vermont by Brainerd and Eggleston. N. Y., south 

to Ala., and west to ]\Io. and Neb. 

A perennial species with a hollow, 

American smooth stem, which creeps ovt-r the 

Brooklime ^ 

leronica ground and imally becomes erect and 

Americnuii branching. The leaves long-oval or ob- 

Lavender=blue long lance-shaped, Hght green, slightly 

l^^^ ^ toothed, with short, flat stems. The tinv 

September , , , . , . , . \ 

flower is lavciidcr-blue violet-striped, with 

a white centre : tlie corolla four-lobed, the lower lobe 
narrower than the others, the two divergtMit stamens 
light purjjle. The frail. (|uicUly fading flowers are set 
on slender stems, in loose terminal s[)ikes. G-b'j inches 
high. On banks of streams ami in damp places ; com- 
mon from Mr., south to Pa., and westward. Found in 
the I atskill ^Mountains near the ^lountain House. 

A similar species. The flowers on rather 

„ ^^^, ,, zig-zag stems, and with linear, acute, 

Speedwell , ,, , 

];■,■(, I, irn shallow-toothed leaves, slightly clasping 

sriii,Untn the stem. Fruit capsule flat, notched, and 

Lavender. blue l.n.adcr than it is long. (5 '20 inches high. 

?^^-^' ^ In swamps, from Me., south to southern 

September ' , . . , 

N. i.,and west to Mum. L(jcal m ( al. 

Also in Europe and Asia. 

A woollv species with i)rostrate but 
Common .^ i i 

Speedwell tlnallv erect stem. Leaves light green, 

Veronini oval or obovate, toothed, and narrow at 

nffiriuniis (he l)ase. The flowers light lavender. 

Light lavender ^j,.i ,,,1 ^^.-^^^ j- ,^j. ^,^^j^^ . ^.^^.^^^.^ f^^^- 

June August '^ 4. i i i 

lobed. file flowers are set closely on slen- 
der spikes, rising from the leaf-angles. 3-10 inches high. 
Common in dr\' fields and wooded uplands. Me., south 
to S. Car., west to Mich. Also in Europe and Asia. 

A small mountain species with the same 
I eronica ^-j^-^^ ^^ bloom ; the slender stem general Iv 

alpina . ,,, , .... , ,-," 

Simple, the leaves indistinctly toothed or 

toothless, elliptical or ovate. Lavender flowers in short 
clusters. 2-12 inches high. On Mt. Washington and 
the high mountains of New Eng., also in the Rockies. 
The seed-capsules of Veronica are in effect notched. 
424 




American Brooklime. Veronica Americana, 



FIG WORT FAMILY. Scrophulariacese. 



A small species, generally found in the 
Thyme=leaved ..^^ ^^.j^j^ .^ slender branJliing stem and 
Speedwell , , , , , , 

Vtrunira small oval leaves, toothless, short- 

serp'/Jlifoiio stemmed, and opposite-growing. Flowers 
White, pale \[]^q those of American Brooklime Imt 
lavender white or pale lavender with dee[)er stripes; 

they are less frail than those of the other 
V^eronicas. 2-10 inches high. In fields and thickets, 
from Me., south to Ga., and westward. Also in Europe 
and Asia. Named for St. Veronica. 

A handsome annual or hiennial species 
Fern=leaved ^^.-^^^ ^ ^.^^j^^^, ^^-^^ fine-hairv, leafy, 
False Foxglove \. : -^ ' 

(irrardid branchmg stem, round in section. The 

pediriiinrin light green leaves are fernlike, and deeply 
Pure yellow cut into many toothed lobes ; they are 
Aug:ust stemless or nearly so. The showy, pure 

light lemon yellow flowers are bell-shaped 
with five broad, spreading, rounded lobes. The blos- 
soms measure a full inch or more in diameter. The 
outer surface and the throat of the corolla, the stamens, 
and the toothed lobes of the calyx are fine-hairy. Both 
flower and fruit are very beautiful, and the plant would 
be worthy of cultivation if its character permitted ; but 
the Gcrardias are more or less parasitic on the roots of 
other plants. 1-3 feet high. Visited frequently by the 
bumblebee and the light brown butterfly, Junonia coenia. 
On the borders of dry woodlands and thickets, from Me., 
south, and west to ]\Iinn. and Mo. 

A handsome species with a simple stem. 
Downy False , „ , ^ , 

Foxglove '"^^^ yellow-green leaves, ovate lance- 

(hrardin jhiva shaped, broadcst at the base, slightly 
Pure yellow coarse duU-toothed or toothless, the edge 
July-August ^vavy. Both stem and leaves are velvety 
downy with soft hairs, the leaves with their stalks ma- 
genta-tinged. The showy, pure yellow or light lemon 
yellow flowers about 1| inch long, trumpet-shaped like 
foxglove, with five lobes, the broad throat downy on the 
inside. Stamens four, two short and two long ; hairy. 
The flowers set in a close terminal cluster, rather one- 
sided. Cross-fertilized mostly by butterflies and bumble- 
bees ; the Peacock butterfly (Junonia ccenia), light brown 
42O 




Down^ false foxglove. 



I Oerapdie^ fldv^. 



FIQWORT FAMILY. Scrophulariaceae. 



darker spotted, is one of the frequent visitors. 2-4 feet 

high. Thin woodlands. Me., south to Ga., west to Wis. 

♦ u c 1 ^ A siuiihir species with flowers a httle 
Smooth False ^ ,, , , 

Foxglove larger and the same pure yellow ; but the 

(rrnirdic whole plant smooth and with a slight 

quercifolid bloom ; the leaves cut or plain-edged, ob- 

long lance-shaped, the lower ones cut (piite deeply, with 
the outline wavy and toothed. 3-6 feet high. New 
Eng., south, west to III. and Minn. 

One of the daintiest of the Gemrdias ; 
^y^P^^ an annual with a generally smooth stem, 

(r^elm-dTt slim, straight, and rigid, the branches 

pm-purvn widely spreading. The leaves are yellow- 

Magenta^ ish green, small, and linear, with acute 

V^r^yXc i^jp^ rpj-j^, ,\()u-ny, lighter or deeper ma- 

Se"p^tember genta-purple flowers are cup-shaped, with 

live wide, flaring lobes; there are four 
stamens l)earing rather large deep golden yellow anthers. 
The flower is commonly visited by various bec^s, the yel- 
low butterfly, Colias philodice, and the brown butterfly, 
Junonid ccrnia. Seed-capsule spherical. 12-26 inches 
high. In moist soil, generally near the coast, or in the 
vicinity of the (Ireat Lakes, from Me., south, and west 
to Minn. The var. panpercuJd, not (piite as tall, has a 
smooth, simple or branched stem, and the smaller flower 
is about \ inch long; seed-capsule prolate-spheroidal. 
6-lT inches high. N. Y. and N. J., west to Wis. 
Sea=side -^ similar and even lower species con- 

Gerardia fined to the salt marshes of the coast. The 

(ier<n:U<i linear leaves are rather fleshy, and obtuse 

maritimn ^^ ^j^^ ^:^^^ . ^j^^ upper ones are unusually 

short. The light magenta flowers, about the same size 
as tliose of the preceding species, are not downy, but 
smooth. 4-14 inches high. From Me,, south. 
Slender ^ ^'^^y slender species with linear, acute- 

Qerardia pointed leaves. The light magenta flow- 

Gerardia ers have two of the five lobes not so fully 

tenuifoUa expanded as the others; the calyx-lobes 

are short and acute. 10-20 inches high. In dry fields 
and along roadsides. Common. Named for John Ge- 
rarde, a celebrated herbalist. 
428 




Purple Gepardia, 



Gerard i A purpurea. 



FIGVVORT FAMILY. Scrophulan'acesc. 



An odd species, annual or biennial, with 
^^'" ^ . " the flower's corolla almost hidden in the 
long, cylindrical, two-lobed cah'x, which 



COCCI ncd 



Scarlet is generally tipped with brilliant scarlet. 

green=yellow 'pj^g plant-steni is ruddy, soft-hairy, slen- 
June-Juiy ^^^^ ^^^^j simple. The leaves are liglit 

green, parallel-veined, and slightly hairy or smooth, the 
lower ones oblong or broader, clustered, and undivided, 
the uppermost generally three-lobed — sometimes five- 
lobed ; all are stemless, and each looks as if it had been 
stained on the tip with deep vermilion or scarlet, more 
or less vivid according to the individual plant. William 
Hamilton Gibson calls the color of the Painted Cup " the 
brightest dab of red the wild palette can show." The 
color of the inconspicuous jlower is greenish yellow, 
the corolla is tubular and two-cleft. The blossoms, com- 
l)letely eclipsed l)y the red floral leaves, form with these 
a dense terminal cluster. Rarely the red of the leaves is 
displaced by yellow. Like the GerardkiH, i\\\^ l)lant is 
also parasitic in nature, 12-20 inches high. Common 
in low, wet meadows, from Me., south to Va. and K\'., 
and west to Kan. and Tex. Named for Castillejo, a 
Sijanish botanist. 

A pale green-leaved species living on t lie 

asti U'ja bleak and rocky summits of mountains in 

pallidci, var. 

st'uteiitrioniilis ^hc norili. or on the north shore of Lake 
Whitish yel= Superior. A slender pt rciinial, generally 
low=green smooth, excejit at tiie uppermost parts, 

June-Septem= .^j_^j jj^^ ^^^^^^ -^ usually simple. The light 
ber. " 

green leaves are (mainly) tootliless, stem- 
less, and o-~) ribs run nearly i)arallel with each other, 
meeting at the somewhat acute tips ; the upper leaves 
are lance-shaped, the lower linear. The floral leaves or 
bracts are rather obovate ^\■ith a few broad teeth ; the 
color is pale or whitish yellow-green, or else green-white 
tinged with dull magenta. The yellowish flowers are 
about as long as the bracts, and are inconspicuous. All 
are crowded at the summit of the stem. 6-20 inches 
high. In damp rocky ])laces. Alpine summits of New 
Eng, (Mt. Washington), Minn., S. Dak., in the Black 
Hills, and the Rockies, Col. 

430 




Painted Cup. 
Castilleja coccinea 



Castilleja pallida 
vap. septentpionaljs. 



FIQWORT FAMILY. Scrophulariacex. 



A tiny annual with ovate or Umce-shaped 

J^ . ^^._^ leaves slightly resembling Castilleja in as- 

uxncinaiis pect, confined to the coast of Maine and 

White, yeilo\v= southern Canada. The pale olive green 

ish, etc. leaves are indistinctly dull-toothed and 

u y ug" small on the lower part of the plant, and 

the upi)er, tloral leaves are somewhat jagged and bristly 

toothed. The inconspicuous flowers are whitish or 

yellowish green. The corolla is two-lipped and a trifle 

notched, the lower lip three-lobed and spreading, the 

upper two-lobed (with reflexed sides), beneath it are the 

four stamens. 4-10 inches high. Possibly introduced 

from Europe. Found at (treat Cranberry Island, Me., 

by Mr. E. F. Williams. EiipJirasid Oakesii {Eiqjhrusid 

officiiKtlis var. Tuvturica of Gray's Manual, Sixth Ed.) 

is a very dwarf form scarcely attaining a height of 2i 

inches, with tiny yellowish flowers, and more rounded 

leaves with rounded teeth, growing in the Alpine regions 

of the White Mountains (under the crest of Mt. ^Monroe), 

and along the north shore of Lake Superior. 

A slightlv similar taller annual confined 
Yellow Rattle 

PI ,/).,. to the same situations, with lance-shaped or 

Crista-ijalU oblong, dull green leaves coarsely toothed, 
Yellow and growing oppositely, the floral ones 

July-August jeeply cut and with bristle-tipped teeth. 
The flowers Naples yellow (straw color), and crowded on 
a one-sided leafy spike. The corolla two-lipped, the 
upper lip without lobes but slightly toothed on either 
side part way down, the lower three-lobed. Four 
stamens. Fruit-capsule round but flattened ; the seeds, 
when ripe rattle in tiie inflated pod. 6-20 inches higli. 
Rocky soil, coast of New Eng., and the Alpine regions 
of the White Mountains, west to I^ake Superior. 

Also known as Wood Betony. A very 
Beefsteak slightly hairy species with simple stem, 

Lousewort ^^^ soft-hairy leaves, dull dark green, and 
PedUularis finely lobed, growing on grassy slopes or 
Canadensis in copses. The lower leaves are feather- 
Magenta, dull shaped and often stained with dull ma- 
May-July genta, as is also the rather stout plant-stem ; 
the upper leaves are sparse and grow al- 

432 




Wood Betony 



Pedicularis Canadensis. 



FIOVVORT FAMILY. Scrophulariacex, 



ternately. The flower-cluster is terminal and dome- 
shaped, the flower two-lipped, the prominent upper lip 
dull dark whitish-opaque magenta, and strongly curved 
in a hook-shape with a two-toothed tip ; the lower is 
three-lobed and dull green-yellow. The coarse and 
hairy, light green calyx is tinged at the edge with dull 
crimson-magenta. Bractlike leaves are set close in the 
flower-cluster, which lengthens to an oblong shape as 
the flowers develop. The four stamens are under the 
hooded ui)per lip admirably protected from rain or other 
pollen-destroying agents ; the flower is fertilized mostly 
by bees : the bumblebees and the bees of the genus 
Halictus are conunon visitors. 5-12 inches high. Com- 
mon everywhere. Me., south, west to S. Dak. Found 
on the Campus of Smith's College, Northhampton, Mass. 
Pfd'cnlaris ^ species with less crowded flowers, few 

l(i,ivr()hif(t of which bloom together, and a simple, 

Light Naples nearly smooth light green stem. The deep 
yellow green leaves are broad lance-shaped and 

fliiely cut in the semblance of a fern ; they grow op- 
positely, or nearly so. The upper and lower lips of the 
corolla are pale dull Najjles yellow, and press against 
each other nearly closing the throat of the flower. The 
same bees are common visitors. 12-34 inches high. In 
swampy places, Conn., south to Va., west to S. Dak. 

A delicate, low annual commonly found 
^L7((^m^Jllrum ^'^ ^^^^ half -shaded borders of woods espe- 
Aiurrininiim cially in the northeastern States, with 
Greenish white slender, wiry, gray -green, branching stem, 
July-Septem= ^^j^j yellow-green, lance-shaped leaves, the 
lower ones toothless and the upper with 
generally 2-4 bristlelike teeth or lobes near the base, all 
set in pairs, and growing oppositely. The frail greenish 
white flowers are cylindrical, opening into two lips, the 
lower lip three-lobed, and tinged straw yellow\ The flow- 
ers grow singly from between the leaves, and are less than 
^ inch long ; their common visitors are the yellow butter- 
fly Colias j^Jiiiodice, the spotted brown one, Junonia 
ccenia, and the white cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapo' : 
they are also visited by various bees. 4-10 inches high. 
The name from the Greek, meaning black icheat. 

434 




Cow-wheat. Melampypum lineare. 

rielampyruin Americanum.nichaux. 



BROOM=RAPE FAMILY. Oiobanchaceas. 



BKOO.AI-RAPE FAMILY. Orohanchacecii. 

Fleshy parasitic herbs having yellowish scales instead 
of leaves ; the flowers perfect, or pistillate and staniinate 
on the same plant. Stamens fonr. The tiny seeds borne 
in a capsule. Visited by various flies and bees. 

A parasitic plant which draws its suste- 
Beech=drops or j^.j,^^.^, fj.^^,,^ ^j^^, j.^,^^^^ ^f ^j^^ y^^^^^^ ^^.^^ 
Cancer Root „,, ^ . , , . • , . i - 

F )i )h,<ius ^'"' ^t''m IS tough, straight, almost up- 

Viyginiiina right-branchcd, stained with brown mad- 

Dull magenta der, and set with a f<'n' small, dry scales. 
buff^brown 'p,,^, cnrred tubular, dull magenta and 
oSer buff-brown upper flowers are purple- 

striped : although generally sterile they 
arc complete in every part, the style slightly protruding 
beyond, and the stamens just within the throat. The 
tiny lower flowt>rs arecliMstogamous — closed to outward 
agencies and sclf-fertilizcil. A few of the up])er flowers 
are cross-fertili/.e<l by bees. O-'-^O inclies high. Beech 
woods. Me., south and west to Wis, and Mo. The name 
means on ihe hvcch. 

A [)ale parasitic i)lant, the stem hidden 
Squawroot , . . i- i i. ^ i i 

,, , , bv the overlappuig, light tan-C(jlored, 

AuK-rirand lance-shai)ed or ovate pointed scales ; the 

Pale dull flowers perfect, set in a many-scaled dense 

y^""^^ spike, the npi)er lij) hooded, the lower 

^^" " ^ . small and three-lobed, the stamens pro- 
truding • the lijis [ire pale oclire yellow fading toward 
the corolla. 3-8 inclies high. In rich wo(jds over tree 
roots, ]Me., south, and west to ^lich, 

A beautiful little parasitic plant bearing 
Naked Broom= .^ ^^^^, brownish ovate bracts near the 
rape or One= , ^. . . , . 

flowered root, and sending ui) 1-4 erect, slender. 

Cancer Root one-flowered stalks; the curved tubular, 
Orobanche fivc-lobcd flower is purpHsli or light violet, 

^''"-^'\'" or rarely cream white, J inch long, ex- 

April-June ternally fine-hairy, and delicately fragrant. 
Cross-fertilized mostly by the smaller bees 
{Halictiis) and the bumblebees. 3-6 inches high. In 
moist woods, Me., south to A'a. 



43^ 




Beech- drops. 



EpiphegusVipginiana. 



PLANTAIN FAMILY. Plantaginaceae. 



PLANTAIN FAMILY. Plantariiuaccfp. 

Homely herbs — weeds — generally witli coarse, strong- 
ribbed leaves springing from the root, and insignificant 
flowers in long narrow spikes, perfect, or polygamous — 
that is, staminate and pistillate on the same plant or 
different plants — and even cleistogamous — that is, fer- 
tilizing in the bud. 

The familar weed of unkeini)t dooryards 
Common , , . , , , 

Plantain '^'^*^^ grass-plots, with ovate, dark green, 

Phintago slightly hairy or smooth leaves, the long 

rtii-'j<^r stems trough-shaped, the ribs conspicuous, 

^,3" ^^'^^ ^^^^ the edge generally toothless, or rarely 
September coarse-toothed. The flowering spikes are 
cylindrical, blunt-tipped, and closely set 
with tlie dull, greenish white, four-lobed, perfect florets 
which mature the threadlike style before the corolla 
is fully ojyen, the former projecting. The four stamens 
mature much later and thus insure cross-fertilization. 
Seed-capsule ovoid and opening near the middle, the 
seeds reticulated. Flowering stalks G-18 inches high. 
Common every wliere, indigenous northwestward but 
naturalized from Europe on tlie Atlantic seaboard. 
Phintago Similar to the preceding ; the leaves 

Rufjriii thinner, the flowering spikes less dense 

June- and attenuated above, and the seed-cap- 

September g^ipg cyhndrical-oblong ; the latter open 
below the middle and quite within the four lobes of 
the calyx. Tlie seeds are not reticulated. Common 
from Vt.. south to Ga. and Tex., west to S. Dak. 

_ ,. . r», A similar more or less fine-hairy Euro- 

bnglisn Pian= •' 

tain. Ribgrass P^^^ species, naturalized and very com- 
Piantcnjo iiiou. The leaves are long lance-shaped, 

lanreoiata nearly erect, generally three-ribbed, acute 

Dull white ^^^ toothless ; at the base of the leaves 
April-October , , . . 

the hairmess is dark rust-color. The flower- 
spike is dense and short, bearing similar dull white flow- 
ers. But the conspicuously grooved stalk is 8-22 inches 
high. Old fields and waste places throughout our 
range. 

438 




English Plantain. Plantago lanceolata. 



MADDER FAMILY. Rubiaceas. 



MADDER FAMILY. Bubiacece. 

Shrubs or herbs with toothless leaves growing oppo- 
sitely or in circles ; the regular flowers perfect, or stani- 
inate with rudimentary pistils, or pistillate with 
rudimentary stamens ; the corolla funnel-formed with 
4 (sometimes 5) lobes and as many stamens. Cross- 
fertilized mostly by bees and butterflies. A large family 
in the tropics, to which belong the Coffee, the Cinchona 
tree from which is obtained quinine, and the Madder 
{Riibia thief 07'um) wliose roots furnish the red dye and 
the artist's permanent pigment of that name. 

A familiar little wayside flower also 
Bluets called Quaker Ladies and Innocence ; 

HoHsfntun communistic in manner of growth and 

crrru!,<, frequently covering large spaces with its 

White and white bloom. It is a perennial, and forms 

Aoril-Juiv dense tufts of oblong lance-shaped, tiny 

light grt'en root-leaves and slender, thread- 
like stems sparingly set with minute opposite leaflets. 
The little four-lobed corolla is about | inch in diameter, 
white, or white tinged on the lobes with lilac, or pale 
violet (the nearest approach to blue) ; the centre is 
stained with golden yellow. The flowers are pistillate 
and staminate as above descril)ed. Cross-fertilized 
mainly by the bees of the genera Halicfus and Andrena, 
and the smaller butterflies— the Clouded Sulphur (CoUas 
philodice) , the Meadow Fritillary {Brcnfhis bellona), and 
the Painted Lady {Pyramcis Cardui). 8-0 inches high. 
In moist grassy places or sandy waysides, from Me., 
south to Ga. and Ala., west to Mich, Named for William 
Houston an early English botanist. 

A taller southern sj)ecies. The stem 
^^^\ smooth or slightly hairy, the light green 

Hovstonin leaves pointed broad ovate (the upper ones 

purpurea smaller and narrower), with 3-5 ribs, the 

Lilac or deep largest nearly 2 inches long. The deep 

' ^'^ . . lil^c or pale lilac, long-tubed flowers in 

May-July 

small clusters ; the thin lobes of the calyx 
longer than the globular seed-pod. 6-16 inches high. 
In thin or open woodlands, from Md., south (especially 
440 




Bluets. 



Houston! a ceerulea. 



MADDER FAMILY. Rubiacex. 



in the mountains) to Ga. and Ala., and west to Ark. 

The var. ciliolata has thicker leaves \ inch long, witli 

the edges conspicuously hairy-fringed, and flowers in 

small clusters. 5-7 inches high. On the rocky sliores 

of the Great Lakes, and south in woodlands to Pa., West 

Va., Ky., and Ark. ; with various intergrading forms 

passing to the var. longifoUn, which has thinner, linear 

and acute leaves, often a full inch long ; the root-leaves 

are not hairy-fringed. 5-18 inches high. From Me., 

south to Ga., and west to ]\Iiiiii. and INIo. Frecjuent in 

the Lake Champlain Valley. 

A little trailing vine with dark green 
Partridg:eberrv , i •. • ? j 

Twinberry evergreen leaves green-white-vemed and 

Mitcheiln wide, slightly heart-sha})ed at the base. 

rcpcHs The commonly four-lobed twin flowers 

Cream white (sonK^times conjoined with 8-10 lobes) are 

pinkish . ., ' ^ ^ , • • i i ^ 

May-June cream white and hne-han-y inside, but 

faint crimson-pink and sniootli outside ; 
they terminate the short branches, and are two-formed, 
i. e., staminate (with al)ortive pistil) and pistillate (with 
abortive stamens). Cross-fertiHzt»d by the same insects 
which visit the Mayflower and Houstonia. 6-12 inches 
long. In woods from Me., south, and west to ^linn., 
Ark . and Tex. Named for Dr. Jolin Mitchell. 

^ ,, A slender, ratlu-r erect, i)erennial herb 

Yellow ' 

Bedstraw naturalized from Europe, with a smooth, 

Galiutn vcriim s(|uarish stem a trifle woody at the base. 
Yellow The narrow, linear, rough, light green 

May August i,.,^,.,.^ i,j circles of 6-8, are about an inch 
long. The tiny, yellow, four-lobed flowers are in small 
terminal clusters, or at the leaf-angles. 8-30 inches 
long. In dry waste ]jlaces and borders of fields. Me., 
occasional in Vt., south to N. J., near the coast. 

^, An annual species with the usual weak 

Cleavers or '■ 

Qoosegrass reclining stem characteristic of the Gali- 

Galium aparine ums, which hangs Upon shrubbery by 

^*^'te means of the backward-hooked prickles of 

May-August ^^^^.j^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^.^ rj,,^^ y^^^^^^ ^^^^^_ 

shaped, light green leaves with roughened edge and rib 

are nearly 2 inches long, and set in a circle of 6-8. 

About two tiny white flowers are l)orne on a stalk. Fruit 

442 




Partpidgeberry 



Mitchells repens. 



MADDER FAMILY. Rubiaceae. 



burlike, in pairs, and covered with short, hooked bristles 

which facilitate transportation. 2-5 feet long. Shady 

thickets and roadsides, ]Me., south, and west to S. Dak., 

Kail., and Tex. The following CTaliioiis are perennials. 

A smooth or slightly downy species with 
Wild Liquorice • % \i i i i 

(;f,i;„„i broad, ovate leaves in fours, three-ribbetl, 

circa'znns and about an inch long. The greenish 

Greenish white white flowers, with four pointed lobes 
May-July liairv on the outside, are borne on stalks 

usually forked but once. 1-2 feet high. Common in 
rich dry woods. Me., south, west to IMinn., and Tex. 

A smooth species with acute lance- 
Northern shaped or narrower leaves almost smooth 
Bedstraw , i rr., . , . 
/•,/,„,; ■• .1 > oil tJie edge. llie numerous tniy white 

flowers set in close clusters. 15-80 inches 

higli. Near streams, among rocks. ]\Ic., south to N. 

J., and west to S, Dak., Neb., and Cal. 

g^gll A very s)iiaU, delicate, varial)le species, 

Bedstraw often mu(;h entangled among bushes. The 

('^'>i">" minute stem-prickles are scarcely visible. 

^"•^"'''"' The linear blunt-tipped or wedge-shaped, 

deep green leaves, J inch long, set in fours. The minute 

usually three-lobed, white flowers, with three stamens, 

are in tiny thin clusters. 6-18 inches high. Common 

in sphagnum bogs and wet woodlands everywhere. 

^ . A very common, weak, and reclining 

Rough . ■ , , , 

Bedstraw sj)ecies, with the usual square stem set 

(iiiiitiiii with backward-hooked prickles. The light 

(isprrihna green leaves slightly blunt lance-shaped, 

. and prickly-rough on edge and rib, are set 

June August . .^ '^ c a a rr.. . *• i -^ 

in circles of 4-6. The profuse tiny white 
flowers are in thin, airy, terminal clusters ; they are pe- 
culiarly, perhaps unpleasantly, odorous. 2-6 feet long. 
In damp soil. Me., south to N. Car., west to Neb. 
Sweet=scented -^ similar species with the flowers usu- 
Bedstraw ally borne in clusters of three, and with 

(raii>'i)i the same bristly rough stem ; the leaves 

trifiorum broad lance-shaped, bright shining green, 

bristle-pointed, slightly rough-edged, and set usually in 
sixes. The foliage fragrant after drying. 1-3 feet long. 
Rich woodlands throughout our range; south only to Ga. 




Bed straw. 
Qaliurh asprellum. 



Wild Liquopice, 
Galium cipcaezans. 



HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY. Capri foliaceae. 



HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY. Caprifi>Hacea>. 

Shrubs, vines, or sometimes herbs with opposite leaves, 
and perfect regular (occasionally irregular) flowers, with 
generally a funnel-shaped corolla, five-lobed, or some- 
times two-lipped. Cross-fertilized by the larger long- 
tongued bees, moths, butterflies, and the humming-bird. 

A connnon smooth-stemmed shrub with 
Elder , , , , ,. 

Sumhuciis ^ C()mi)()Uiul dee]) green, smooth leat 

CuiKuh'Hsis of 5-11, usually 7, line-toothed, acute- 
Cream white ])ointed, ovate leaflets. The tiny cream- 
June-July wliite flowers, in broad flat clusters (with 
five prominent white stamens), are fertilized mostly by 
lioneybees who come for pollen, the blossoms yielding 
little or no nectar. The purple-black berries, in broad 
clusters, ripen in August. 4-10 feet high. Borders of 
fields and copses, in low ground, throughout our range. 

A similar shrub with twigs and leaves 
Red=berried ,- w, x, , • i . , i 

gijgj. slightly hne-hairy. and warty gray bark. 

sambucus There are 5-7 finely toothed ovate lance- 

raremosci shai)ed leaflets which are a trifle downy 

Dull white beneath. The fine dull white flowers with 
April May n • i i. i 

yellowish stamens are l)orne in a sugar- 

loaf-sliaped cluster. The extnMuely beautiful small, 
scarlet-red, or rarely white berries, in a compact cluster, 
ripen in June. 2-12 feet high. In rocky woodland bor- 
ders. ]\h'.. south to Ga. (among the hills), and westward. 

A shrub with coarse, light green, veiny, 
Hobble=bush or , . , , , i , , / 

Wayfaring Tree ^'larp-tootlied, heart-shaped leaves, rusty- 
Vthumnin wooUy on the ribs beneath, together 

alnifoUiuii with th*- young branchlets. The flat 

^^'*^ flower-cluster is composed of two kinds 

of flowers ; the marginal dull white broad- 
petaled neutral — that is, stamenlessand pistilless — flowers 
(the petals are really the five flaring, rounded divisions 
of the corolla), and the central, smaller, perfect flowers. 
Fruit a coral red berry, set in a scant cluster. Stem 3-10 
feet high, reclining ; the branches often take root and 
trip up the " wayfarer." The commonest visitors are the 
bees of the genera .1 ndrena and Halictu^. In low or moist 
woods. Me., in the mountains to N. Car., west to Mich. 
446 




Red-berried Elder. Sambucus racemosa. 



HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY. Caprifoliacese. 



A coarse perennial, sometimes called 
HorseOentian Tinker's-weed an 1 (.aen Wild Coffee, 
Triosteuiii common in rich woodlands. The stout. 

pi'i-foUatum simjjle stem is rather sticky-tine-hairy. 
Madder purple .^,^(j ^^^e opposite-growing, light green or 
medium green, oval leaves are acute at the 
tip, and narrowed at the hase to a flaring margin either 
side of the coarse midrib : the edge is toothless and 
somewhat undulating. The flowers are an inconspicu- 
ous purplish brown or madder purple ; they grow at the 
junction of t'.ie leaves with tht^ ])lant-stem ; the coroUa 
is fivedobed, tubular, and scarcely longer than the long- 
lobed calyx, which remains attached to the mature 
fruit ; this is i inch long or less, orange-scarlet, densely 
fine-hairy, and contains three liard nutlets, 2-4 feet 
high. In rich soil, from Me., soutli to Ala. and Ky., and 
west to Minn., Iowa, and Kan. 

T- . ., A delicate and beautiful trailing A'ine 

Twin=flower =■ 

IjuiKid common in the northern woodlands, with 

borealis a terra-cotta-colored, somewhat rougli- 

Crimson=pink woodv stem, and a rounded, about 8- 
June August ^,.,,ilop-tooihed. sliort-stemmed, light ever- 
green leaf with a rough surface. The fragrant little 
bell-shaped flowos, in pairs, terminate a 3-4 inclies long 
stalk, and nod ; they are chdicate crimson-pink, graded 
to white on the margins of tlie five lobes. The tiny 
calyx divisions are threadlike. Branches G-QO inches 
long. Common in rich moist mossy woods, particularly 
in tlie mountains. Me., to Long Island and Staten Island, 
N. Y.. and N. J., west to S. Dak., Wash., and Col. 

A slirub with erect, generally madder 
CoraUberry or ,• i ^i n i • 

Indian Currant 'J'"^^^^'^ branches very slightly woolly-hauy 
Symphoricnri/ns oil the younger growths. The dull gray- 
vii.}(/(iris green leaves are ovate, toothless (rarely 

Pink and white gQ,^^^ Qf ^\^q larger leaves are coarsel}' 
toothed), and have distinctly short stems. 
The five-lobed flowers are tiny bell-shaped, and grow in 
small clusters at the angles of the leaves, or terminally : 
the corolla pink graded to white, and somewhat filled 
by the fine hairiness of style and stamens. The small 
berries in small terminal clusters are first coral red and 

448 



^ ^ 




Twin l~ lower. 



Linneea. boreal is. 




Indian Currant. SymphoHcarpos vulgaris. 



HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY. Caprifoliacese. 



finally dull crimson -magenta. The smaller bees and 
honeybees are common visitors. 2-5 feet high. Rocky 
slopes. Mass., banks of the Delaware River in N. J., and 
Pa., south to Ga. and Tex., west to the Daks. 

^ ^ A familiar shrub of old-fashioned gar- 

Snowberry i .,, . , • 

SymphoricarnoH '^^^^^^ ^^^^^ (loor-yards still commonly cuhi- 
racemosus vatt'd, with smooth, erect, gray-brown 

Pink and white branches, and oval, dull gray -green leaves 
June-August ligi^t..^. beneath, toothless,' and a trifle 
wavy-margined. The young shoots are ochre brown. 
The tiny, tive-lobed, bell-shaped flowers are pink graded 
to wliite, and are borne in terminal and leaf-angle clus- 
tei's. The corolla is consi)icuously fine-hairy within ; 
and the stamens and style almost protrude. The honey- 
bee is a constant visitor, and the flowers continue to 
bloom even after the large snow-white waxy berries ap- 
pear ; the latter are a consjiicuous feature of the bush in 
early September. ;)-4 feet higli. On roadsides, escaped 
from cultivation, and on rocky l)anks, from Me., south 
to Pa. and Ky., and west to Minn., 8. Dak., and Cal. 

A thin straggling busli with smooth, 
gyj,^.,^. brownisli stems. The thin leaves bright 

Lonicvra lig'd green on both sides, ovate lance- 

ciliata shaped, sometimes very broad at the 

Naples yellow ,^^^^,^ toothless, short-stemmed, and hairv- 

May-June i i m x- i n i "^ 

edged. 1 he ^«aples yellow or honey 
yellow, tive-lobed flower, about f inch long, is funnel- 
formed and borne in pairs at the leaf-angles. Fruit two 
small ovoid red berries. 3-.") feet high. Moist woods, 
from ]Me.. south to Pa., and west to Minn. 

A similar species but with thickish. 
Mountain Fly= , , ' r^ , • , 

honeysuckle i^limt ovate leaves fine-hany beneath. 
Loninra Tlie Naples yellow flowers in pairs, al- 

ccprulea most united. The ovaries unite and form 

one two-eyed, gray-black ovate berry. 1-3 feet high. 
In boggy woods, the same distribution. 



450 




Fly-honeysuckle. Lonicepa ciliata. 



VALERIAN FAMILY. Valerianaceae. 



A scentless, but beautiful species, corn- 
Trumpet or ^.^ L- i. • • 1 1- 1 • 
^^^^1 luon in cultivation, twining and climbing 

Honeysuckle bigb, and evergreen southward. The 

Limi<-<ra large deep green oblong leaves are whit- 

siniipcrrtrens jgj^ beneath : the top ones are united, and 

car e an seeminglv perforated bv the stem, which 

yellow o V 1 ,, r 

April-August terminates in a small cluster of large, tu- 
bular, deep Naples yellow flowers, often 
deeply tinged outside with scarlet. The most frequent 
and useful visitor is the humming-bird, though many 
bees and butterflies assist in tlie transfer of pollen. 8-15 
feet high. Copses, Mass. and Conn., south, west to Neb. 

A verv common shrubby species with 
Bush Honey= .i *^ i i i t i 

suckle smooth stem and leaves and exceedingly 

Dttrvilla small honey-colored or Naples yellow flow- 

trijida ers, witli five recurving, rather ecpial 

Naples yellow j,,,^^.^^ marked slightlv with dull rustv 
May-June " • ^ n " 

orange. 1 here are five prominent yellow 

stamens. The deep olive green leaves are ovate, sharp- 
pointed, and tine-toothedr The flowers grow in small 
clusters, terminally, and at the junction of leaf- and 
plant-stem. 'I'lie fruit is an oblong capsule with beaked 
tip. 3-4 feet high. In di-y \\oodlandsor in tliickets, from 
Me., south to N. Car., and west to Mich, and Minn. 
Named for Dr. Diervilh- wlio carried tiie plant from 
Canada to France. 



VALERIAN FAMILY. Valeria nacece. 

Herbs with opposite leaves, and perfect, or sometimes 
staminate and pistillate, flowers ; the corolla tube nar- 
row and five-lobed : stamens 1-3. Commonly visited by 
bees. The genus Valeriana is remarkable for its strong- 
scented roots. 

An erect, smootli plant, with compound 
Valerian leaves of from 5-11 (rarely less) deep green, 

Valeriana lauce-sliaped, obtuse leaflets, indistinctly 

syivatira shallow-toothedor toothless; the root-leaves 

Pale magenta= ^j,^ long-stemmed, ovate, and rarely small- 
June-July lobed. The dull magenta-pink or paler 
pink or white flowers are tiny, and clus- 



452 




Swamp Valepian. ^\ Valeriana sylvatica 



GOURD FAMILY. Cucurbitaceae. 

tered in a loose trnuiiial spike : the llirec stamens I'cry 

[)roniineiit. li>-o() inches lii.i;li. In wet or swampy 

ground, from .Me., sontli to sontliern N. ^'., west to 8. 

Dak., and in the liocky Mountains to Ari/. 

A common cuUivated species, often 
Garden Vale= . .1 

rian Great <^'scapmg to roadsides and margins ot cul- 

Wild Valerian, llvated fields. A native of Euroix'. The 
or VandaUroot stem more or less fine-luiiry esi)ecially at 
I aliruiiio jIj^. joints, aiid the comj)ound leave's with 

ojnrrnalis ^ ^ ..'^ lanee-s]iai)e.l, shari)ly toothed leaf- 

lets, the up[)er ones tot)thless. The tlowersaro pale ma- 
genta-crimson or white, set in compact, rather rounded 
clusters terminating tlie stout stem. The strong-scented 
roots are medicinal. 'J-.") feet high. Mass. south to Del., 
we.-t to X. V. and i'a. Name from ralere, to he strong. 

A smooth forking-stemmed annual with 
Corn Salad , ^ , , , , i • • 

VdlerianrlUi succuleiit wedge-shaped leaves, and insig- 

\v,,<,(Ui(ni<i nificant dull white flowers funnel-formed 
Dull white and five-lobed, gathered in small terminal 

A\ay-July clusters. IS-lU indies high. In moist 

])laces, fr<jm N. Y., west to Ohio and Tex. I'dlcridiiclld 
olitoria, a species from Europe, iiaturali/e(l in the IMid- 
dle States and south, has similar leaves, hut pale violet 
flowers. 6-12 inches high. Southern N. Y., and south- 
ward. 

(iOURD FAMILY. ( 'i,ciirbit<ice(v.. 

Climbing vines generally with tendrils, and with lobed 
leaves growing alternately. Tiu? flowers staminate and 
pistillate on the same plant or different plants. Sta- 
mens mostly three. Cross-fertilized by bees and flies in 
general, and i)ossibly by many beetles and butterflies. 

A l)eautiful, rapid-growing, and luxu- 
Curumber^or''* riant annual climber ; the light green, 
vv'i'ld Balaam ^^'i" leaves, with 3-7 (mostly five) sharply 
Apple angular lobes, are rough or\ both sides. 

Echiiiocystis The small, sharply six-petaled staminate 

flowers are borne in many loose clusters. 
Greenish white . . . 

jy, and tiie pistillate flowers singly or in twos, 

September at the angles of the leaves ; the petals 

and the tlu-ee prominent stamens witli 

454 




Climbing Wild Cucumber. Echinocystis lobate^^ 



BELLFLOWER FAMILY. Campanulacese. 



yellowish anthers are greenish white. The spiral tend- 
rils are three-forked. Cross-fertilized mostly by bees 
and wasps. The ciicumberlike fruit is 2 inches long or 
less, green, ovoid, and thickly covered with slender, 
weak prickles. 15-20 feet long. Beside rivers and in 
waste places. Me., south to Pa. and west to S. Dak., 
Kan. , and Tex. Found in the Peniigewasset Valle}' at Ply- 
mouth and Campton, N. H, The name (Greek), means 
hedgehog and bladder ; in allusion to the armed fruit. 

Also an annual climber with branching 
Bur=cucumber tendrils and a five-lobed, far less deeply 
Sicyos cut liglit green leaf ; the stem is sticky- 

angidatus hairy, angular, and coarse. The small 

Greenish white tive-lobed flowers are likewise staminate 
September '^"'^ pistillate ; the former are borne, five 

or six. in a cluster on a long stalk, the 
latter are almost stalkless ; both are set in the angles of 
the leaves. The yellowish fruit, 3-10 together, is armed 
with fine tough bristles ; a single fruit contains but one 
seed. 15-25 feet long. In moist places and along 
rivers, from Me., south, and west to Minn., Kan., and 
Tex. The name is CJreek, for Cucumber. 

BELLFLOW Kli FA M I L Y. C 'a mpan iilacecp. 

Herbs, in our range, with alternate leaves and acrid, 
generally milky, juice ; the perfect flowers in a spike or 
solitary. The corolla usually bell-shaped and five-lobed. 
Stamens five, alternating with the corolla-lobes. Fruit 
a many -seeded capsule. Cross-fertilized mostly by bees 
and the beelike flies {Syrphidce). A tribe now included 
in Lobeliacece by Engler and Prantl. but one which, in 
our rcnige, lacks those connecting links which make the 
close relationship evident. 

An annual with a simple, wandlike stem, 

I 1"^^ * 1 weak and disposed to recline, and small, 

Looking=glass ^ ' ' 

Specidaria curved, shell-shaped, light green, scallop- 

pi-rfoiidtd toothed leaves clasping the rough, angled 

Magenta= plant-stem. The purple-violet or magenta- 

purp e purple flowers, set at the hollows of the 

June-August , , 

leaves, have deeply five-lobed corollas 




Leaf of 
i^Sicyos angulatus. 



Venuss LooKing-glass. Specularia perfol idta. 



BE LLF LOWER FAMILY. Campanulaceae. 

with five slanu'iis and a three-lobed pistil. There are 
also earlier flowers which are cleistoganious — closed to 
all outward agencies and self-fertilized. Stem 5-23 
Indies long. Common in i)0(n- soil on hills and in dry 
open woodlands. Me., south. we:-t to Ore. and Utah. 

A common garden ijerennial, natural- 
CamiKtnvla '^*^*^ trom Enroi)e, and a frequent escape 
rapunvuloides from cultivation. The simple, erect, and 
Purple rigid stem is light green and slightly rough - 

July-August jj.jij.^. . ^]^^, leaves are thin, fine-hairy, and 
light green, the upper ones broad lance-shai)ed, the lower 
arrovv-head-shai)ed with a heart-shaped base ; all are ir- 
regularly scallop-tocjthed. The bell-shaped purple flow- 
ers have five acute lobes, and hang downward mostly on 
one side of the stem ; the i)istil is white and protruding : 
the stigma three-lobed and purple-tinged ; the linear 
lobes of the green calyx ai-e strongly turned backward. 
The common visitors of the flower are the honeybee and 
bumblebee. 1-3 feet high. In fields and on roadsides. 
Me., to southern X. Y., Pa., and Ohio. 

A most dainty and delicate perennial 
Harebell or uhmt, vet one so remarkably hardy that it 
Bluebell * .' ' , , , , ^ ,. . • 

Cn),n,ii,nil(i survives the cold and storms ot mountain- 
rnt>ni(iifnlin tops over oOOO feet above seadevel. It is 
Light violet common in the Chasm of the Ausable 

•^""^ Iviver and on the summits of the White 

September . i ^ t i 

^Mountains. In spring the plant displays 

a tuft of round leaves (hence the name rot loidi folia), 
small and sparingly toothed ; these wither before the 
time of flowering (rarely they remain until that time), 
and are succeeded by a tall wiry stem, with linear, pale 
olive green leaves and a succession of airy blue-violet 
bells depending from threadlike pedicels (flower-stems). 
The corolla is five-lobed, and graded in color from light 
violet or pale lavender to white at its base ; the promi- 
nent pistil is tijiped with a three-lobed stigma, which is 
at first green and finally white ; the five anthers are a 
delicate lavender tint. The chief visitor is the bumble- 
bee, who must clasp the prominent stigma before he can 
enter the inverted bell ; in the bustling endeavor to reach 
the base of the blossom some of the pollen obtained from 

45S 




BeUflowep. 



rdpunculoides. 



BELLFLOWER FAMILY. Campanulaceae. 



a previously visited flower is brushed off and cross-ferti- 
lization is effected. The harebell is also visited by the 
bees of the genus Halictus and the beelike flies. 6-lS 
inches high. On rocky cliffs, dry or moist, in barren, 
sandy fields or grassy places, and in shade or sunshine, 
on mountain-top or meadow. Me., south to X. J., west 
to S. Dak., Neb., and in the Rocky Mountains south to 
Ariz ; also in the mountains of Cal. A native of Eu- 
rope and Asia as well, and identical with the bluebell of 
Scotland. A degenerate mountain form mistakenly 
thought to be the var. arctica is a much smaller plant 
bearing a single flower. 

A species common in grassy swamps, 

„ ^,[f, with branching, slender, weak, reclining 
Bellflower , . , , , , ,., 

(■(iiiipdHi'in stems, bristly rough on the angles, like 

(iparinoiries Galium aspreUuiu. The light green, lin- 

White or ear lance-shaped leaves are rough on edge 

lavender .^^^j midrib : indistinctlv shallow- toothed, 
June August , , rr.i • ' i , • i 

and stemless. Ihe single white or pale 

lavender flowers scarcely \ inch broad, deeply cleft into 

five acute lobes spreading open like a deep saucer, are 

arranged terminally. 6-20 inches high. In wet grassj' 

ground everywhere, west to S. Dak., Neb., and Col. 

„ .. _ ,.^. A tall annual or biennial with a slightly 

Tall Bellflower * 

Campanula fine-hairy, erect, slender, green stem, 

Americana rarely branched. The ovate or ovate 

Light violet lance-shaped, stemless, light green leaves 

" ^ ' ^ are long and drooping ; the lower ones are 

September ^ , , , ,., 

narrowed at tiie base like a stem ; all are 

acute-pointed and toothed. The dull-toned light violet 
or nearly white flowers grow from the angles of the 
leaves and form a slender terminal si)ike ; the one inch 
wide corolla has five long, acute, spreading lobes ; the 
style curves downward and then upward (as in the Pij- 
rola), extending far beyond the mouth of the flower. 
The commonest visitors are the honeybee, the bumble- 
bee, and the "Yellow-Jacket" hornet. Flower-stalk 
frequently 18 inches tall. In moist shady places, in- 
land, from N. Y., south to Fla., and west to 8. Dak., 
Kan., and Ark. The name is from the Italian Cam- 
pana, a bell, in allusion to the shape of the corolla, 
460 




Harebell Campajiula rotund ifol id.. 



LOBELIA FAMILY. Lobeliaceas. 



LOBELIA FA:MILY. LolwJiacecB. 

A family of perennial lierbs with milky acrid juice. 
The perfect but irregular flowers with a flve-lobed tube- 
shaped corolla ; the five stamens iniited in a tube. 
Cross-fertilized by bees, the beelike flies, and the luim- 
ming-bird. Named for De L'Obel, an early Dutch herb- 
alist : it now includes the tribe Campanulacece . 

A most beautiful species, remarkable for 
Cardinal Flower . ■ ■, ^ i i • i i ^ • a 

, , ,. Us iicli. deei) red which largely mttueuces 

Lobelia I . 

ccirdiiKtiis the color of stem and foliage. The 

Deep red leaves are dai"k green, smooth or nearly 

August- j^,)^ oblong lance-sliaped. and slightly 

September . -i i -i . i * 

tootlied; the upper ones are stendess. 

The sliowv flower-si)ike is loosely set with deep cardinal 
red flowers, tlie triplc-lobed lips of which are a rich 
velvety color. Rarely the plant produces dee|) ])ink or 
white flowers. Fertilized by huimning-birds, and rarely 
by bumblebf^es : Init tlie long tongue of the humming- 
bird is tlie only i)ractirablt' means of cross-fertilization. 
The length of the flower-tulx^ is too great for the tongue, 
and the pendant lip too inconvenient for the feet of the 
average insect. The plant nudtiplies mostly by ix'rcnnial 
offshoots. 2-4 feet high. Common every wlicrc in low 
moist ground. Found in Cami)ton Bog, N. H. 

A sliglitlv hairv i)lant with a stout, leafv. 
Great Lobelia _, ,,'•', , , ,■ , 

j^fjlj,.ll,i and usually snnple stem ; the leaves light 

si/philHicit green. 2-f) inches long, ])ointed at both 

Light blue= ends, nearly if not quite smooth, irregu- 

violet ,.^j.|^. toothed, and stemless. The light 

September blut^-violet or rarely white flowers nearly 

an inch long; the calyx stiff-hairy. 1-8 
feet high. Common in low moist ground, from Me., 
south to Ga. and La., and west to Kan., Neb., and S. Dak. 
A similar species with similarly colored 
^lb"k,^''^^^'^ flowers in long somewhat one-sidJd spikes, 
pnberuhi and with fine soft-hairy leaves. The hairy 

tube of the corolla is less than \ inch long, 
and the lobes of the lip are rather broad and smooth. 
1-3 feet high. In moist sandy soil. Southern N. J., 
south, and west to Kan. and Tex, 
462 




Cardinal Flower. 
Lobelid cardinalis. 



Indian Tobacco. Lobelid inflata. 



LOBELIA FAMILY. Lobeliaceae, 



A still smaller-flowered species, bearing 
Pale Spiked , ,. ., c ^ \^ • i ^ 

Lobelia '^'^^'^" long sliui spikes of pale blue-violet 

Lobelia sjncata liowers witli a usually smooth short calyx. 
Pale blue= The Stem simple and leafy, the light green 

^•"'^^ leaves nearly toothless, lance-shaped (ab- 

u y- ugu ruptly so at the base of the plant), or 
oblong, obtuse, but the upper ones nearly linear. 1-4 
feet high. In dry sandy soil from Me., south to N. Car., 
and southwest to Ark. and La. 

A small species generallv found beside 
Kalm's Lobelia , , ,,'.,,, 

Lohvlai Kill in a ^^^'oo^s, or ou wet banks, with slentler 
Light blue= branching stem, and narrow, blunt-tipped 
violet leaves sparinglv toothed or toothless ; the 

''"'>' upper ones linear. The light blue-violet 

ep em er flowers less than i inch long and scattered 

loosely t)ver the spikes. The fruit-capsule not inflated 
(as Lobelia injiafa), but small, and top-shaped or nearly 
globular. 6-18 inclies high. On wet meadows and wet 
river-banks. Me., south to N. J., and west to Ohio and 
S. Dak. 

Indian Tobacco ^n^^' ^■•"lAmonest species; growing every- 
Lobdia infUitu ^^J't-re in dry or wet soil, within the wood 
Light blue= or out on the meadow. An annual witlia 
^''<*'^t simple or branching slightly hairy stem. 

July-October ^j^^ ^j^j^^ jj^.j^j. ^^.^^^ ^^^^^,^^ ^^,^^ pointed, 

and sparingly wavy-toothed, the uppermost very small, 
narrow, and acute. The tiny flowers scarcely ^ inch 
long, varying in color from light blue-violet to pale lilac 
and even white. The calyx smooth, the inflated, prolate- 
spheroidal fruit-capsule about ^ inch long. Very acrid 
and poisonous to taste, and commonly used in medicine. 
Me., south to Ga., and west to Ark. and Neb. 

An aquatic species, smooth, slender, and 
Water Lobelia yi,i,pie stemmed. Leaves all submerged, 
Dortmaiinn tluck, hnear hollow, and tufted at the 
base of the stem. Flowers in a loose termi- 
nal spike, light violet, \ inch long. 6-18 inches high. 
Borders of ponds. N. Eng. to Pa., and northwestward. 



464 



c^l. 



Pale Spiked Lobelia: 
Lobelia spicdta. 



A 





Water Lobelia. 
Lobelia Dortmanna. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Compositce. 

Mostly perennial herbs. A great family remarkable 
for its compound flower-heads which are often radiate in 
character, with a central disc composed of tiny tubular 
florets surrounded by brightly colored rays ; in some 
cases the florets are strap-shaped. They are variouslj' 
perfect, polygamous, and staminate and pistillate on the 
same or different plants ; in chicory and dandelion the 
florets are perfect and strap-shaped ; in coneflower and 
sunflower the tubular florets of the central disc are per- 
fect and the ray-flowers neutral (without stamens and 
pistil) ; in aster and golden-rod the inner tubular florets 
are perfect and the outer ray-florets are pistillate ; in 
thistle and burdock the florets are all tubular and perfect 
but lacking rays ; in AiitciuKU-ia the tubular florets are 
staminate and pistillate on different plants, and in rag- 
weed the staTiiinate and pistillate florets are on the same 
plant. The family is largely dependent upon insects for 
cross-fertilization. 

A tull smooth-stemmed plant found in 
Talllronweed j.^^^j^^ situations, with lance - shaped, 
Vernon t(t , t i ■ i . , 

altissiiiKi toothed, det'i) griMMi leaves and a terminal 

Madder purple cluster of l>r()wiiish purple or madder 

August purple flowers remotely resembling bache- 

September j^^^.-y buttons without petals ; the small 

flower-heads appear .hairy or chaffy. 5-8 feet high. 

Penn., south, and west to 111. and La. 

The common species eastward, differing 
New York 
Ironweed fi'om the tall ironweed in its usually shglitly 

Vernonia rougli stem, longer lance-shaped deep 

Xovebontrcn.^is green leaves, and acute, bristle-tipped, 
Madder purple brown-purple scales of the flower-heads. 
Seo^ember "^^^^ aesthetic dull purple (rarely white) 
flowers resemble petalless bachelors but- 
tons, or at a distance asters. 3-7 feet high. In moist 
ground, oftenest near the coast, from Mass., south to 
Ga., and west to Minn, and eastern Kan. Found near 
Englewood, N. J. Named for Wm. Vernon, an early 
English botanist. 

466 







New York Ironweed Vernonia Noveboracensis. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



Climbing 

Hempweed or 

Boneset 

Mikanid 

scanden.'i 

White 

flesh pink 

July 

September 

Joe=Pye=Weed 

Eiipatiirinin 

pHrpKnuiii 

Magenta= 

crimson 

August 

September 



All attractive, twining vino generally 
{•linil)ing over bushes on damp river banks. 
The ligiit green leaves triangular heart- 
sliaped, and the bristly, dull white or flesh- 
colored flowers resembling those of bone- 
set. 5-15 feet long. Mass., south, and 
west to Ind. and Tex. Named for Prof, 
^likan of Germany. 

A familiar, tall j)lant with a stout stem 
on which the roughish, pointed ovate, 
toothed, light green leaves are grouped in 
circles at intervals. The dense terminal 
tlower-chisters with many soft-bristly, aes- 
thetic-toned dull magenta-crimson florets, 
lighter or deeper, or sometimes dull white. 
Frequented by the honeybee. 3-12 feet high. Common 
everywhere on borders of s\vani[»s or low damp ground. 
Named for Eupator Mithridates, and for a New England 
Indian who used the plant in some concoction for the 
cure of fevers. 

A similar, but small, rough-hairy species 
with white flowers, the scales of w'hich are 
very long and white. The light green, veiny 
leaves are stemless or nearly so. 1-3 feet 
high. In sandy soil and pine barrens, 
from Long Island. N. Y.. to Fla. and 
La. 

A hillside species with generally smooth, 
o})posite, ovate lance-shaped, horizontally 
spreading leaves tapering to a sharp point. 
The white flowers, with long, slender but 
l)lunt scales, are in flat clusters. 2-6 feet 
high. In woods or on wooded banks. 
Mass., south, and west to 111. 

The common, familiar species whose 
leaves have been used in a bitter tonic dt'- 
coction or tea. Leaves very light green, 
pointed, opposite, and so closely joineti 
that two appear as one perforated by the 
plant-stem, which with the leaves is re- 
markably wool-hairy. The very dull white 
468 



White 
Thoroughwort 

Eupittoiiiiin 
albiun 
White 
August- 
September 



Upland 
Boneset 

Eu[)(it(>riu 

White 
August- 
October 



Boneset or 

Thoroughwort 

Eupatoriuin 

perfoliatuiiL 

Dull white 

July 

September 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



florets, ill tcniiiiial clusters, furnish an abundance of 

nectar for the visiting honeybee — tlie rule with all Eh- 

patoriioits and W'riionias. 2-5 feet high. Connnon 

every where on wet ground. 

The most attractive and graceful nieni- 

' ^ ber of this generally coarse genus. The 

Fjiprttorivin large-toothed leaves are deep green, 

(Kjeratoidt's smooth, thin, slender-stemmed, and nearly 

White heart-shaped. Flowers white (not dull) 

^" ^ . and peculiar! V downy, like the garden 

September \ / , r ^ \ • i -d- i i 

Agcratum. 1-4 leet high. Kich woods 

and copses. ]\Ie., soiith to (la., and west to S. Dak., 

Neb., and La. 

A very similar species with short- 

VAqmtorinm stemnieir leaves; dull-toothed and blunt- 

aronirificuni • i i n -n i -ht 

pouitetl ; the nowers a tritie larger. Near 
the coast, from Mass. to (la. The name is misleading — 
it is not aromatic. 

A tall, stout, handsome species belong- 
Tall Blazing ■ ^^^ .^ beautiful genus. The showy 
Star ■ '^ -^ 

/.iV////.s .sra,/o.sa *i*^^^'*'i'"^pikt^ ^f't with magenta-purple to 
Magenta= i)ale violet, tubular, perfect flowers, the 

P^t'*^ heads sometimes ; inch broad. Leaves 

ugub - deep green, hoar v, narrow lance-shaped, 

September / '^ ' rr.. r. 

and alternate-growing. The flowers ex- 
hibit many aesthetic and variable tints. 2-6 feet high. 
In dry situations, by roadsides and in fields. Me., south, 
and west to 8. Dak. and Tex. 

A lower species (beginning to bloom in 
^"'"''''■'' June) with smooth or often hairv, stiff, 

squarrosn , • i i ^ n " 

linear leaves, and with the tew flowers on 
the spike bright magenta-purple and fully an inch long ; 
the scales en velo])ing them are leaflike with sharp, spread- 
ing tips. 6-22 inches high. Pa., soutli, and west to S. 
Dak. and Tex. 

A commoner species, smooth or nearly 
f ■'' so, with linear leaves and a closely set 

flower-spike sometimes fully 14 inches 
long ; the flowers, about j^ inch broad, range from pur- 
ple to violet or rarely to white. 2-0 feet high. ]\Ioist 
low ground. Mass., south, and west to S. Dak. and Ark, 
470 




Blazing Stan 



Liatris seariosa. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Compositse. 



An asterlike but golden yellow flower 
Grass=leaved growing in dry soil generally near the 
"sMver Grass ^^ast. The shining leaves linear, soft, and 
Chryso}).9is grasslike, but silvery green-gray with fine- 

graminifoUa hairiness, the lower ones long. The small 
Golden yellow flowers | inch broad, solitary at the tips of 
August- ^ branches, the rav-flowers pistillate, 

October ' m, i i 

the disc-flowers perfect. The slender stem 

1-3 feet high. Del., south, and southwest to Tex. 

A much lower species with larger flow- 
Curved=leaved ^^.^ ^^^^ found in the coastwise States. 
Golden Aster , ^, ■, ^ ^^ ^^ 

/->;,.■„>.,., ,0/0 The stems verv woollv, and the small lin- 

fnicntd ear leaves gray-green and crowded to- 

Golden yellow gether. The pretty, rich golden yellow 

Late July- flowers are an inch broad. 4-10 inches 

August 

high. From Cape Cod, Mass., to the pine 
barrens of N. J. Found on Nantucket. 

A stout, showy species, the stem and 
Mariana leaves of which are silky with soft hairs 

Golden yellow when young, but become smooth with 
August age. The gray-green leaves are lance- 

September shaped and stemless, and the golden yel- 
low flower-heads are nearly an inch across, the scales 
below somewliat sticky and hairy. The commoner 
golden aster of New Yorlc and the south, found on dry 
sandy roadsides near the coast. 1-2 feet high. From 
southern N. Y. and Pa., south. 

The genus Solidago includes about 85 species, of 
which about 25 are commonly found throughout the 
northern United States. These are readily distinguished 
by differences in stem, leaf, and flower ; the stem may 
be rough, smooth, covered with hairs, or with bloom, or 
angular, or round ; the leaf may be triple-ribbed, feather- 
veined, or more or less distinctly ribbed or toothed ; the 
flowers may have few or many large or small rays. The 
central tubular florets are perfect, and are cross-fertil- 
ized by many insects of many orders, chief among which 
are the butterflies and the beelike flies ; the flowers fur- 
nish an abundance of honey for all. The Latin name, 
Solidago, means to make whole, alluding to some cura- 
tive quality of the plant. There are some hybrifl forms, 
472 




Golden Astep 



Chrysopsis Mariana. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 

A not verv coinnion specirs. the stem 
Stout Golden^ ' r i .li 

^^. liairv above and rarely branched, witli 

Solidario hirge. broad, coarsely toothed, feathcr- 

sqitnrrnsii veined leaves, and \\ith rather showy 

Golden yellow fi^wrrs ; the 10-16 rays ni'arly i inch long, 
Q . . the tubular florets lo-24 in a single flower- 

head the scales of which are strongly 
curved outward. The flower phnne generally straight. 
Plant 2-0 feet hi,L;h. On rocky hillsides, and the mar- 
gins of woods. ]\Ic.. south to the in( •nntaiiis of Va., 
and west to Vt.. the Catskills, N. Y., Pcnn., and Ohio. 

.\ late-blooming, graceful, slender, wood- 
Blue^stemmcd , , ,, , ^, ,. • ,, -, 

Golden=rod land golden-rod. with a distinct bhiish or 

SniidcKj,, piii-plish, iilunilikf bloom on the bending 

'■I'xid stem. The leaves dark green, feather- 

Late August- veined, smooth, shari)lv toothed, lance- 
October , , , , . ^ ^ , ,„, ., 

shaped, and sliarp-pomted. 1 be flowers in 

small ol)long citisteis at the junction of leaf-stem with 

plant-stem, and not in a distinct terminal cluster; 3-0 

rays in a single llower-bead. j',, inch broad, (piite long, 

and very light golden yellow. 1 :> feet high. Common 

on shadeil banks, and mai'gins of woods, everywhere. 

A similar species, but with bi'oail, oliv(> 
Broad»leaved /. i • i i • i 

Golden=rod green, feather- Veined leaves j)ointed at 

S(,li,l<uj<> l)otlicnds ; tliesti'in lighter green, zig-zag, 

bitifolia angled in .section, and rarely branched. 

August- 'pi,^, |j,^.|,^ ^.,,i,|en yellow flowl'i-s in small 

September , ,-, , ' . • , , , i 

clust"i-s (like S. cifsKi), with but .]-4 ra\'s. 

l-o feet high. liicb, moist, wooded banks. Me., south 
to (Ja.. west toS. Dak. Found in the ( 'atskill :Mountains. 

A verv common species; the onlv one 
White Golden= . , ; . ,, ' ^ ,,. . , 

rod or Silvers '^'t'' ^^ •"f*' flow.-rs. Leaves elliptical, 
rod featlK-r-veined. rough-hairy . very lightly 

.SoZ/r/r/r/o ft(Vo/or toothed, and dark olive green al)ove. the 
August- j.j|,y beneath hairv. St.-m simple or 

September , , . . , " , , . „, , 

branched, u|)rigiit, and gray-liairy. I ut)u- 

lar florets cream yellcjw, surrounded by 3-12 irhifr rays ; 
flower-clusters mignonc^telike. small, and at tiie leaf- 
junctions or crowded in a cylindrical terminal si)ike. 
10-30 inches high. On dry l)arren ground. Me., south 
toGa.,and west to Minn, ami Mo. A yellow-flowered 

474 




FeAlher-veinedleaf 
as in S.rugosa. 



Three-veined leaf. 
a.s in S sepotina. 



S^^mJi Solidago caesia. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



form, var. coucolor, has yellow rays, and densely woolly 
stem and leaves. Commoner far north, south to Ga., 
Wis., and ]\Iinn. 

A northern species mostly con lined to 
Large=leaved i i rp, , 

Golden=rod damp, rocky woods. The deep green 
Solidago leaves are ovate, thin, sharply toothed, 

macrophylld feather-veined, and very long-stemmed. 

*'"'^'~ Leaf- and plant-stem usiiallv smooth, but 

September ^, , ^^ ^- £: ^ ■ ^ .1 ^ 

the latter sometimes tine-hany at the top. 

Flower-heads nearly I inch long, with S-lO long golden 

yellow rays. 1-4 feet higli. Wooded hillsides. Me. 

(Aroostook Co.), to northern N. H. and N. Y., south to 

the Catskill Mountains, and w<^st to Lake Superior. 

A dwarf ali)ine form confined to moun- 
Alpine Qolden= ' , ^ . , , . , .^. 

j.^^ tam-tops and about 8 inches high. The 

Sf>iifhi>/(> 17/-. large flowers, thickly clustered at the sum- 

fjaiinn var. niit of the stout simi)le stem, with about 

"''"''" 12 rays. Leaves usually obovate and finely 

September toothed. Mountain summits of Me., N. 

IL (Mt. Washington), and N. Y., and 

shores of Lake Supci-ior. 

A species fre(iuenting salt-marshes and 
Seaside , , _, . 

aolden=rod sea-beaches. Stem stout and smooth ; 

Solidago flower-cluster large, leafy, short, and 

sempervirens straight, with large showy flowers having 

August- ~_2Q ^i(.(.p g,,i,^ien yellow rays. Leaves 

lance-shaped, smooth, toothless, and with 

3-5 obscure nerves. 2-S feet high. Me. to Fla. 

^ , The stem stout and smooth ; leaves 

BogQoIden>rod ., , 1 i i 1 

Solidaqo smooth, lance-shaped, obscurely seven- 

vliffinn^n veined, slightly toothed or toothless ; those 

August- at the root very long. The flowers are 

September ijgj^^. goMen yellow, with 5-6 small rays, 
and are crowded on the wandlike or straight stem. 2-4 
feet higli. Me. to northern N. J. and Pa., west to Minn. 
A handsome, stocky plant with a ruddy, 
Qolden=rod stout, smooth, round (in section) stem, and 
Solidago large, smooth, firm, feather-veined, olive 

speciosa green leaves, rough-edged or obscurely 

August- toothed ; the upper ones oblong lance- 

October . 1 \i 1 ^ T71 1 ^ 

shaped, the lower ovate. Flower-heads 

476 



^^1^ 









^^K-- • 



V* 









rH 



t 




=^ 



Seaside Golden-rod. Sol i dago sempecvirens. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Compositse. 

with about") large golden yellow rays and prominent 

stamens ; the showy tlower-cluster is dense, branched. 

and somewhat pyramidal in outline. 8-G feet high. 

Rich ground and coi)ses. Me., south to N. Car. and Ky., 

and west to ]\Iiini. and Xeb. 

An anist^-scented species, very odorous 

.y'.V^ , wlien cruslied. Leaves bright green, 
(jolden=rod «= ^ . 

soUilii<i>, (Hlora smooth, indistinctly three-ribbed, shunng, 
August- and dotted. The slender stem, often re- 

September clining, is usually smooth, and nearly 
cylindrical in section. Flower-heads small, with 3-4 
golden rays nearly i inch long. The tlower-cluster one- 
sided. 2-3 feet high. In dry sandy soil. Me., south, ami 
west to X. v.. Ky., and Tex. 

Verv common in swami)s : with stout 
Spreading (angled in section) and spreading 

Ciolden=ri)d ' o , , 

Solidui/o ixitiiln branches. Tlie large, rough, Ime-toothed, 
August- feather-veined leaves smooth beneath. 

October Flower-clusters small ; the rather large 

flowers with obtuse green scales and small rays. Me., 
south to (ra., and west to Minn., Mo., and Tex. 

An exceedingly hairy or rough golden- 

"^""^^^ rod, verv common on wooded roadsides 
stemmed , ' . ,. ,. , i t i i 

Golden=rod ^^'^^^ margms of fields. Leaves .lark green, 

Sulidayo feather-veine(l, very hairy, and deei)ly 

riigosii toothed. Stem hairy, straight, cylindri- 

••"'>■ cal, and thicklv set with leaves. The 

September ^, , " n i • i i 

flower-clusters small, weak in color, and 
terminating several branches also thickly- set with leaf- 
lets ; the flower-heads light golden yellow ; G-9 rays and 
4-7 tubular florets. The plant often branched like an 
elm at the top, but presenting a variety of forms. 1-7 
feet high. Dry ground everywhere. 

Elm=leaved ^'^ ^^^® species with but few differences, 

Golden=rod viz.: Stem slender, smooth or woolly at 
Solidago the summit, leaves thin, pointed, and ta- 

ulmifohu pering toward the base. Flowers with 

about four deep yellow rays, the scales long lance- 
shaped. 2-4 feet high. Common in low moist copses 
or woods, from Me., south to (Ja., west to Minn., Mo., 
and Tex. 




Solid&.go pugoss.. 



COMPOSITE FAMIl.Y. Composite. 



Swamp 
Golden-rod 

Sulkhtga 
neglectd 
August- 
September 



Sharp=leaved 
Golden=rod 

anjutii 
July- 
September 



A sinootli speciess eonnnon in swamps in 
the north. The upper leaves long lance- 
sliaped, few- veined, and nearly toothless, 
tlie lower ones sliarph' toothed, broader, 
anil tapering to a stem. The flower-clus- 
ters rather thick and short, with crowded 
flowers of 3-8 small rays. 2—4 feet higli. Me., south to 
:\I(1.. and west to Wis. and 111. 

A common and very graceful species ; 
one of the earliest golden-rods, with very 
light golden yellow flowers having 5-7 
large rays anil small, light green, obtuse 
scales. The flower-duster plumelike and 
reclining. The stem angled, smooth, and 
angular in section, sometimes ruddy brown. Leaves 
deep green, indistinctly feather-veined, large, thin, and 
sharply coarse-toothed, generally elliptical lance-shaped, 
the upper ones nearly if not quite toothless. 2-4 feet 
high. Copses and rich tliin woods, from N. 11., south 
to Va., and west to S. Dak. 

Another very common, slender species 
often found in company with the forego- 
ing and blooming a little later. Leaves 
smooth, yellow olive green, and slightly 
three-ribbed, the upper ones toothless, the 
lower broad lance-shaped, witli sharp and spreading 
teeth ; a tiny leaf-wing grows at either side of each leaf- 
stem. The flower-clusters are spread somewhat like an 
elm in larger plants ; but in the smaller ones tliey are 



Early 
Qolden^rod 

Sulidayojitii 

July 

September 



one-sided. The golden yellow flowers about 



■h long. 



with 8-12 small rays. 2-4 feet high. On dry rocky 
banks and roadsides. Me,, south toN, Car., west to Mo. 
A common but by no means a late-flow- 
ering golden-rod, generally distinguished 
for the plumlike lilac bloom (but some- 
times light green) of its straight, smooth, 
dignified stem, which is perfectly cylindri- 
cal in section. Leaves dark green, plainly 
three-ribbed, smooth, and toothed only along the upper 
half of the edge, narrow and sharp-pointed. The stems 
of the flower-heads are covered with tiny white hairs ; 
480 



Late 
Golden=rod 

Solidagu 
serutina 
August- 
October 




Early Golden-rod. 



Solidago juncea 









^^"J^ 







White Golden-Pod. 
SolidA^o bicolon 



L&.te Golden-pod. 
5olida.go sepotina.. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 

the flowers siiuill, light golden yellow. 7-15 long rays. 
The flower-cluster is generally cylindrical, but bending 
at the top of the unbranched stem. 8-7 feet high, but 
seldom tall. Copses and dry roadsides, everywhere. 

A tall, stout, coarse species with lance- 
Canada shaped, didl olive green, sharplv toothed, 
Golden=rod ^ , , 
SolidiKjo triple-ribbed leaves, rough above, a trifle 

Canadensis woolly beneath, and tapering to a point at 
Golden yellow either end, the uppermost leaves nearly 

August- tootbless. Tlie flower-heads are small, with 

October , , • , , , , 

o-bj sbort rays ; the greenish golden yel- 
low clusters plumelike and large, but not striking. 3-7 
feet bigli. Common everywhere (except at the seaside) 
in copse borders and on roadsides in dry situations. 
Quite variable ; tbe var. jjrocera with slightly toothed or 
toothless leaves rather gray-woolly beneath, and the var. 
i-;c((hra (X. Y. and Pa., soutb) also with leaves sparingly 
toothed or tootbless, very rough above and hairy-veined 
beneatb, tbe flower-heads somewhat larger. 

(Jne of the most brilliant of all the 
Golden=rod golden-rods. A ratber low, late-flowering 
SoUdayi, spccies remarkable for its ricli deep golden 

nemoralis yellow flowers and its simple, unbranched, 

August- green-grav stem, which with the leaves is 

October '^ ^, \ , . • , , • 

covered with minute grayish liairs. Ihe 

leaves an- tliree-ril)bed. dull olive green, rough, thick, 
duU-tootbed, and generally broad lance-shaped, some- 
what wider at the farther end, the lower ones tapering 
to a stem ; little leaflets are on eitlier side of the bases of 
the larger leaves. Flowers with 5-9 rays, the cluster 
generally forming a thickly set one-sided plume. 6-25 
inches high. Common everywhere, beside sandy roads 
and ill dry pastures, except at the seaside, 

„ ^ . ^ A less common species distinguished for 

Hard=leaved ^ ^ 

Golden=rod ^^^ spreading, ilat-toppcd cluster, whicli is 

Suiida'jo usually quite thick. The stout, leafy 

riyida stem is covered with dense fine hairs ; the 

August- rough, tliick, narrowly oval leaves, feath- 

October . , , , . . , 

er- veined and extremely rigid, tlio upi)er 

ones broad at the base and clasping at the stem, tooth- 
less or nearly so. The large flower-heads with about 30 
482 



#i^ 







Canada Goldcn-pod. it Sol idago Canadensis 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Compositss. 



tubular florets and G-10 large rays. '2-5 feet high. Dry 

soil, ]Mass. . south to Ga., and west to Minn, and S. Dak. 

A slightly fragrant species, distinctly dif- 
Lance = leaved „ „ ' ., , ^ • n-, ' 

Golden=rod ferent from all the foregoing. Ihe vi-ry 

s<,li<l<i<j<> small flowers in -a. Ji at -topped cluster, and 

Utnccniatn the rcri/ small , toothless, lance-shaped, nar- 

August-early ^.^^^^. ,vilk>wlik(\ light green leayes \yith ;>,-:, 
October ., , , i m 

nl)s and yery rougli edges, llie stem is 

straight, angular in section, Mith the ridges niiimtely 
rough, and terminates in a thin, %yiry-branched flo\yer- 
cluster not at all sho\yy in color : the tiny tlower-heads 
in small cro%yded groups ; 12-20 minute rays. 2-4 feet 
high. On rivt'r-l)anks, borders of damp woods, or in 
iiK^ist situations, eyery where. 

Slender '^ somewhat similar, resinously fragrant 

Golden=rod spec-ies : the ditTerence ai)par('nt in the 
SoliildiiD sli-ndcrcr, smoother stem and tlu' yery 

tt-nuijiAiii narrow, linear, dotted leaves, commonly 

one-ribbed. The tiny llowcr-heads, with O 12 rays, in 
numerous groups of 2-:', forming a flat-top[)ed cluster 
15-18 inches high. In dry sandy sojl mostly near the 
coast. Mass., soutii, and west to Til. 

The genus Axtei\ named from aori/fj, a stai", is a, yarietl 
and beautiful, late-flowering tribe w hieb, \\ lib Solidayo, 
monopolizes the roadsides and byways in autumn. The 
species are distinguished ai)art in much the same way as 
in Solidayo. The ra3'-florets are pistillate, the tubular 
florets (upon the disc) perfect, with a iive-parted yellow 
corolla, which with age turns dull magenta. Fertilized 
mostly by honeybees, bumblel)ees, and the beelike flies. 
All the asters yield an abundance of nectar. 

A small white aster, not showy but com- 

White \V'ood= • j.i • i rr-i i. • ^i 

mon in tiun \yoods. Ihe stem is ratlier 
land Aster , i . , 

1,/,^. smooth, a trifle zig-zagged, and quite slen- 

dei-'iriratus der ; the oliye green leaves are coarsely 

^'hite toothed, slender-stemmed, heart-shaped, 

September- sharp-pointed, and smooth. The white 
October 

flowers, as broad as a " nickel,"" haye oidy 

6-9 rays : the disc-flowers turn madder purple with age. 

1-2 feet high. Me., south to Ga., and west. 



484 




La^nce-ieaved Golden-rod. 



Soliddgo lanceoldita.. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Compositse. 



A stout, slitr. })uri)lish-st('inm('(l species 
Large=leaved ^^.j^,^ ^.^^^.^ rcu-li. lar-e, 4-S inches long, 
Aster . , , V , \ , ,1 

j^./,^. closely toothed, basal leaves, the iqiper 

mdcrophyUvs t)iu's ovate, almost steniless, ami sharp- 
Lilac pointed. Flowers about an inch broad, 
August^ with lO-lG bluish lilac, or rarelv lilac-white, 
September 1,1 x • i i 1 

rays ; (hsc-tiowers turning madder brown 

with age. 2-3 feet high. Common in damp thin woods 
or on dry banks. ]\Ie., south to S. Car., west to Minn, 

A verv hanilsome species found only 
Showy Aster ' ■ , , ^ 1 1 

.^.s7r/-.s7>ec/a6/7/.s'i^"ii" ^''*^' <^'^';^^^ \^\i\i but few sliowy, deep 
Violet blue-violet tlowers about as broad as a fifty- 

August cent i)iece, with 15-25 rays often | inch 

October i^j^^, ry^^^ ^^,j,.^, ^,.,.,,„ leaves, mostly 

toothless, are oblong lance-shaped and rough. The stiff, 

generally simple stem, 1-2 feet high, is slightly rough 

below. Sandy soil. Mass. to Del. 

_ . , , A low slender si)ecit's with few large, 

Rough = leaved ,,,,,, 1 1 ^ j 

^gjgj. violet-bhie flowers and a rough stem and 

Ast> r rnduhi leaf, the latter dark green, steniless, sharply 
Violet toothed, strongly veined, and oblong lance- 

August- sliap(>d. TIk' upper leaves closelv clasp the 

September ,,,, „ • , . ' . ^ 

stem. 1 he flowers with about 22 rays 

nearly I inch long. 1-2 feet high. In wet situations 
and moist shady copse Ijorders. Me., soutli to Del. and 
the Pocono ]\Its., Pa., generally near the coast. A dwarf 
form, var. sf rictus, lias nearly entire leaves and usually 
solitary flowers: A\'hite ^Mountains, N. II. 

A familiar and common species with 
New England numerous handsome flowers about an inch 
j^gf^^ broad, which vary from light violet to 

Xovre-Anrtlifr hght i)uri)le or white, and in the var. 
Purple or roseiis to magenta. The stem stout, 

magenta branched, and rough ; the olive green, 

^ . soft-hairy leaves lance-shaped, toothless, 

thin, and clasping the stem by a broad 
base rounded at either side. The flowers, rarely larger 
than a silver quarter, have usually 30-40 narrow rays, 
and terminate the branches in large clusters. 2-0 feet 
high or higher, Frecjuently cultivated ; common north- 
ward, and south to S. Car. 

486 




NewEnglaLfidAstep. Aster Novae Angliae 




Aster spectabihs 



Aster radula. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Compositae. 



A common species on dry ground, with 
prea mg ovate-oblong, stem less leaves, heart-sliaped 

Aster patius '^^ ^lie base and clasping the main stem, 
Light violet= toothless or nearly so, but rough on the 
purple fdge and on tlie upper surface. Stem 

August- rough-hairy , slender, and widely branched. 

Flowers with 20-30 light violet-purple rays 
nearly 4 inch long, and spreading, pointed, green tips 
beneath. 1-3 fei't high. In dry open places, from Mass., 
south, and west to northern N. Y. and Minn. 

An aster easily recognized by its remark- 

As^ter'^"*'"^ able broad-sfemmed leaf, which is heart- 

i^i, ,. shaped where it clasps the plant-stem ; 

undf'i((ti's some leaves are pointed heart-shaped, and 

Light violet [lie upper ones have an undulating mar- 
September- ^,j,, ^^^.j^j^ ^^j,^. .^,^,, ^.^.j.^. ^.^^^^ ^^^ pj^^^,_ 

October ,. , , , . , ," 

ers light blue-violct. with D-b") rays. 1-3 

feet high. In dry i)laces and on shaded roadsides. Com- 
mon everywhere. 

A familiar, sDidJl-lloirvred aster with 
Heart-leaved • i i i c i i ^i 

. ^ varialile leaves, btem slender, smooth, 

Aster ' 

j^,^fn- and much branched ; the light green leaves 

rordifolius rough or fiue-hairy, and usually pointed 

Lilac or lighter l„.a,t-shaped with large sharp teeth; the 

September- upper ones short-stemmed or stemless, 
October ' 

ovate or lance-shaped. The lilac or blue- 
lavender flowers, about | inch broad, with 10-20 rays, 
are crowded in den.se clusters like those of the lilac ; the 
disc-florets turn magenta or madder purple with age. 
This aster presents a great variety of forms ; there is one 
among the foothills of the AVhite Mountains, Campton 
and Plymouth, scarcely 8 inches high, with white flow- 
ers and smooth, narrow, lance-shaped leaves ; the estab- 
lished var. FurbisJiice (Fernald) is distinguished for its 
long soft-hairy stem and leaf-stalks, the leaves somewhat 
so beneath ; northern Maine. Also Dr. Britton recog- 
nizes several other varieties. 1-4 feet high. Common 
everywhere. 



4S8 



...^i^ 



.:^ 




Heapt-ledved Aster. 



Aster cordifoUus, 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



A rather iiortliern species. Tlie stem 
Arrow-leaved ^^-^ ^^^.^^ .^^^^^ ^^.j^,^ ^^^^.^^.j^, upright 
Aster ^ I o 

j^.^,,,. branches. The light olive green leaves 

siKiifti/olius thin, broad lance-shaped, and sparingly 

Light violet toothed toward the top of the stem, but 

August- somewiiat arrow-shaped lower down. The 

small, light violet flowers are not showj^ ; 

there are 10-14 rays about \ inch long. 2-4 feet high. 

In dry soil. Me., south to Ky., west to Pa., and N. Dak. 

Variable but handsome, with light violet 
Smooth Aster , , , • , „ i • , 

Aster Ions or paler blue-violet flowers about an inch 

Light violet broad, and nearly if not entirely toothless, 
September- smooth, light green leaves, lance-shaped, 
October stemless, and clasping the plant-stem with 

a somewhat heart-shaped base. Th(^ flowers with 15-80 
rays. Stem 2-4 feet high, smooth, and sometimes cov- 
ered with a light bloom. Dry soil, roadsides, and bor- 
ders of woods ; common everywhere. 

A tiny white aster common in southern 
Michaelmas ^t^^^, york. New Jersev, and Pennsylvania. 
Daisy or , i "^ 

Heath Aster Stem generally smootli and closely set 

Astrr rnci'les above with tiny, heathlike, linear, light 

^Vhite gret'U It'avcs, the few basal ones blunt 

September lance-shaped and slightlv toothed ; all are 

November , . . , ^„ ' . ^, 

ratlier ngnl. 1 lie tiny white flowers with 

yellow discs are like miniature daisies ; tiiere are 16-24 

narrow rays sometimes lightly tinted with magenta. 

This aster has spread beyond its original limits through 

cultivation by bee-keepers ; its yield of nectar is large, 

and it is an especial favorite of the honeybee. 1-3 feet 

higli. Common in dry fields and on roadsides, from Me., 

south, and west from south N. Eng. to Wis. and Ky. 

Another tiny-flowered aster, with hairy, 

Many=flowered Qftgn brownish stems. The tiny, linear, 

^^f^,^ light green leaves are fine-hairy or rough. 

mitltiflonis The dense flower-clusters are crowded 

White or with white or lilac-white flowers scarcely 

iiiac=white I in^.]^ broad, with 12-20 rays. Stems 

ep em er- bushv. 1-4 feet high. Common in dry 
November ,-0 j 

open places, from southern N. Eng., south 
and west. Rare in Me., and absent in northern N. II. 

4yo 



I 




Aster ericoides. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Compositae. 



Bushy Aster 

Aster (iiiinosus 
White or 
lilac=\vhite 
August 
October 



Small White 
Aster 

Ash'i- riminei 
White 
August- 
September 



A similar species with fine linear leaves, 
ami U)Ose-flovvering branches, the stem 
sli-htly fine-hairy, and sometimes brown- 
isli. or the whole plant (piite smooth. 
The little flowers, with \o-2-] wiiite or pale 
lilac rays, are rather larger than those of 
the next species. \-o feet high. Dry sandy soil. Mass., 
and Conn., soutli and west to S. Dak. and INIo. 

A white-flowered species with larger 
linear, or narrow hince-shaped leaves, the 
largest ones slightly sharp-toothed. Stem 
and leaves nearly if not qnite smooth, the 
stem often reddish, its branches almost 
hovi'-oiifdl. The tiny flowers witli numer- 
ous white rays. The tlowering branches very short, and 
minutely leafy. '-2-4 feet high. Common in moist places 
and on river-banks, from southern N. Eng., south, and 
west to IMinn., and Ark. Tlie var. /o//(>/o.s//.s'is very leafy 
and the branches turn iijniutriJ : the linear leaves are 
toothless, and nearly "J inches long. The flowers in a 
venj loose cluster. 2-.") feet high. From JafTrey, N. H., 
south to Va.. and west to Mo. 

An exceedingly common and variable 
pecies, witli a smooth, slender, sometimes 
nagenta-stained stem, with straggling 
)ranclies. The light green, lance-shaped 
eaves sjiaringly toothed, and larger than 
my of those of the si)ecies immediately pre- 
ceding. The little ilowers scarcely I inch across, with 
numerous light ])urple or lilac or white rays: the disc- 
florets a deeper purple. 1-5 feet high. In dry fields, and 
copses. ]Me., soutli to N. Car., west to S. Dak. and La. 
A slender-stemmed. much-branched 
white aster, with numerous flowers al)out 
^ inch broad, and witii long lance-shaped 
leaves, the lower ones slightly toothed, 
smooth on both sides, thin, and tapering 
to a sharp point. The small flowers with 
white or lilac-white rays clustered about 
the short upward-turned branches. 2-4 feet high. In 
wet fields and swamps, Me., south, and west to Minn. 

4V2 



Calico Aster 
Asf, rdijri'sn.- 
Light purple 
or white 
August 
October 



Tradescant's 
Aster 

Asfrr 

Trcidescanti 
White 
August- 
October 




New York Aster. 
Aster Novi-Belgii. 



Tradescant's Astcn 
Aster Tradescanti, 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



A very tall species with wliite or lilac- 
Panicied white flowers a trifle larger than a "nickel,"' 

White Aster , , ^ r, . . i , 

jgf^,^. borne in soniewliat tlat-toppea, loose or 

paniculatus scattered chisters ; the leaves dark green, 
White very nearly if not quite smooth, long 

August- lance-shaped, and obscurelv toothed ; the 

October x .1 i rr>i * i. j. 1 

upper ones toothless. The stout, nuicli- 

branched stem is 3-8 feet high. Common on low moist 

ground and borders of copses, in half shade, everj'where. 

A northern species with remarkably nar- 

row, toothless (or nearly so) leaves 3-8 

^ster inches long, and pale violet or light purple 

hmgifoUus flowers as large as a silver ([uarter. The 

Light violet flower-envelop is encircled with many lit- 

August- ^j^ acute scales strongly curled backward. 

October " *^ 

1-3 feet high. In swamps and low ground. 

Nortliern N. Eng., west to Minn, and Mont. 

Flowers large pale violet, lilac or blue- 

or'wmol^''" ^i"'"^- ''''^^' 15--^ ^'^^'^' ^^^^^''>' ^ ''''^' 
leaved Blue long. Tlie stendess, usually toothless light 
Aster green leaves are thin, long, and smooth, or 

Aster Xuvi- |.|-^^^. small upper ones clasi)ing the stem, 

f!l'"'' the lower verv slightly toothed. 10-35 

Lilac or ^ ,, 1 ■ , < 

blue=violet inches higli. Gray calls this tlie "corn- 

August- monest late-flowered aster of the Atlantic 

October border, and very variable" ; but through- 

out New Hampshire .1. jjiniiccus is far commoner. The 
variations of .1. Xovi-BcUjii are— var. Icvrigatus, smooth 
throughout, with the upper leaves clasping the stem by 
an abrupt base ; N. Eng. and east.: var. Utoreus, rigid, 
low, with thick, smooth leaves, the upper ones clasping the 
stem by a heart-shaped base ; salt marshes south to Ga. 
A northern species. The upper part of 

^^^^^ „ . , the stem is hairv in lines, and occasionally 
prencnitnoiaes 

Pale violet brownish ; the rough (but smooth beneath), 

September- ovate lance-shaped leaves are contracted at 
October ^\^^, base to a long wide-stemlike figure 

finally heart-shaped at the plant-stem. The flowers, 
about as large as a silver quarter, are pale violet or 
nearly lilac-white. 1-3 feet high. Margins of woods and 
banks of streams. Newfane, Vt. to Pa., Iowa, and Wis. 

494 




Purple-stemmed Aster. 



Astep puniceus. 



COMPOSJTE FAMILY. Composite. 



A common species with iisuall}^ madder 
rt"emmed Aster ^^'"'i>^<^ ^■^^'''^' I'ougli-liairy and stout. The 
Ai^ter pnniceus Hght green leaves, hmce-shaped or nar- 
Light purple rower, sparingly and coarsely toothed, 
August- clasp the upper branches. Flowers about 

^^^^ ^^ the size of a silver quarter or larger, 

hght violet or light hlac-purple with 20-24 rays, the 
tubular florets yellow. 3-7 feet higli. In moist places 
and s\vam])s everywhere, and quite variable ; var. com- 
pact u^ (Fernald) is stout, hairy, the thick leaves a trifle 
diamond-shaped but very narrow, eoarsely toothed. The 
flowers compactly clustered: West Somerville, Mass., 
also New Haven, Conn. Yawjinntu^, witli smooth, green 
stem, sHghtly rough above. Var. iKcidiilus smooth, with 
lance-shaped tootldess (nearly so), shining leaves. 

A common aster in moist tliickets, and 
^^^'*''' tlie borders of damp woods. With few 

iiniheUfifiis , . ... ,, 

Y^j^j^g narrow winte rays wliu-li are generally 

curved backward. The flowers are borne 
in flat-topped clusters. The small flowers numerous but 
not showy, the tubular florets purpling with age. The 
veiny leaves, long lance-shaped and sparingly toothed, 
extend to the top of the i>lant. 2-T feet high. Com- 
mon northward in shaded and moist places. 

A small species with linear leaves, one- 
..... ribbed, rough-edged, without teeth, and 

Light violet rigid. The rather large solitary flowers 
September- light violet or rarely lilac- white. 1-2 feet 
October high. Common everywhere in dry situ- 

ations. 

A low woodland species with large, 
Sharp=Ieaved ^^^^^^^ flowers having 10-16 narn.w 
Wood Aster - ^ , ,, 

4^/,.,. white or lilac-wliite rays, and generally 

acHutuKitua magenta tubular florets. The large, sharp- 
White or pointed, coarse-toothed dark green leaves, 
lilac= white ^.j^j^^^ .^^^j broad lance-shaped, tapering to 
September both ends, often arranged nearly in a circle 
beneath the few long-stennned flowers. 
10-16 inches high. In cool rich woods. Me. and N. Y., 
south in the mountains to Ga. In the White Mountains. 



496 




Astei* accuminatus. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composites. 



A species confined to the salt marshes of 
teuHifoUns the coast from Massachusetts southward. 
Lilac=purple Stem very smooth and generally zig- 
September- zagged. The few leaves long linear, taper- 
October jjjg ^^ ^Q|.|j ends, toothless, and thick or 
fleshy. The rather large flowers an inch broad or more, 
lilac-purple or paler, borne on a generally simple or 
slightly branched stem. 8-25 inches high. 

, , , A species similarly confined. The leaves 

Astrr SXhHlnfus . '^ 

Pale purple linear lance-shaped, toothless, and flat, 
August- those on the branches very small and awl- 

October shaped. The numerous, very small pale 

purple flowers with irr// sJiort niys scarcely extending 
beyond the disc ; the disc-florets purplish. 6-24 inches 
high. N. 11. and Mass. to Va. 

A very conunou annual treed, and the 
liorseweed or ' 

Butterweed most unattractive member of the genus. 
Eri(jer<}ii The white and green flower-heads are ex- 

Ciinadcitsis tremely small, ^ inch long; the rays do 
\Vhite=green ^^^^ spread, but connect in the form of a 
June-October .• i t-i i i i i- 

cyhnder. The dark green leaves are Im- 

ear, remotely tootlied or toothless, and the upper ones 
are often cut-lobed. The bristly hairy stem is 1-7 feet 
high. In barnyards and waste places everywhere. 

An annual and asterlike species with 
Sweet Scabius .^ sineading - haired stem and coarsely 
Fleabane toothed, lance-shaped leaves, the lower 

Eriyeron ones broader. The white or pale lilac 

annuus flower-heads are about I inch broad, with 

wmte or lilac ^ green-yellow disc. 1-4 feet high. A 
September common weed northward in waste places. 

Me., west to S. Dak., and south to Va. 

^ . ^ A singular common species ; the hairs not 

Daisy rieabane 

Erigeron spreading but close to the stem. The light 

strifjosun green leaves are linear and toothless or 

White nearly so, the lower ones broad at the tip. 

^^y~ The httle daisvlike flowers are 4 inch 

September , t . , , ' n i- 

broad, with a large green yellow disc ; oc- 
casionally the white rays are lilac-tinged, and sometimes 
they are extremely short or altogether absent. 1-2 feet 
high. Common in fields and on roadsides everywhere. 
495 




Hopseweed 



Erigepon Canadensis. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composites, 



A rather large-flowered plant which is 
pj* '" f frequently coniniiinistic, tinting the road- 

Erigerun ^^^^^ ^^^' ^*"1*-^ with its delicate lilac. The 

belUdifoUu^ liglit olive green stem and leaves are very 
Lilac or soft-hairj', the basal leaves broad at the 

pale violet ^- ^^^^ indistinctlv toothed. The showy 

May June / . , , ' t p t, 

nt)\vers, 1 inch broad, vary from lilac or 

magenta to a violet-purple ; the somewhat green-yellow 
disc is broader than the fine rays are long. Fertilized 
by bumblebees and honeybees (the most frequent visitors) 
and butterflies. lU-t?2 inches high. Common every- 
where. 

Common ^^ similar l)ut taller i)lant with light ma- 

Fleabane geiita or pale pink flowers and a soft-hairy 

Eri(j< run (rarely smooth) stem ; 1-2 feet high. Com- 

Fhiladelphicus jj^,,,^ tlin.ugliout our range, but less fre- 
quent than E. hrllidifoIiKs, and blooming to August. 

A small i)lant with short white hairs; 
Everlasting , , •, , , , i , i i 

or Pussy="toes ^^^^ three-ribbed basal leaves broad near 
Anfininirin the tij). the stalks nearly as long as the 
pldiitnijiiird leaf. Upper stem leaves lance-shaped. 

^*^'*^ The linear scales of the small, \ inch long 

May-June , , , . . ^i 

flower-head are green or tawny at the 

base, and white or purplish at the ti]). The outer bracts 
blunt and the inner ones acute. 4-18 inches high. 
Mass., south to La., and west. The var. pctiohda is 
lower and slenderer, with ovate, blunt-pointed basal 
leaves on slender, long stalks. The calyx is more i>ur- 
ple-tinged, with the bracts shorter and narrowcM-. A 
familiar type of southern N. Eng., very common in east- 
ern Mass. on dry slopes and open woods ; also in dry 
fields of southern N. II. 

A species with larger flower-heads. The 

Antennaria ijasal leaves gray soft-hairy above, and the 

May-June (jrccnhh or tairnij scales of the calyx have 

rather dry petallike tips. Northern N. 

Eng., south to La., and west. 



500 




Robins Pla.ntain. Erigeron bellidtfolius. 




Common Fleabane 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



A slender - stemmed and exceedingly 
,. . ?roo//// plant with very leafv basal shoots. 

May-middle The basal leaves about 1 inch loii^', blunt 
July at the tip but with an al)rupt sharp point, 

one-ribbed or indistinetly three - ril)bed ; stem -leaves 
small and narrow. Tlie flower-bracts with green or 
tawny bases and dry tips, the outer ones short and ob- 
tuse, the inner acutish or blunt. 6-16 inches high. On 
wooded slopes and dry shady i)laces. Me. to Ya. , and Wis. 
Antennarin ^^^^ Commonest species of southern New 

negU'cfn England (also in Franconia, N. II., and 

April- Farmington, j\Ie.). A small plant with 

early May slender stem and runners. The one-ribbed 

basal leaves (at tirst silky-hairy above, but soon smooth) 
wedge-shaped or blunt lance-shaped, and indistinctly 
stalked; the few stem-leaves linear. The head of the 
pistillate plant ^ inch long, with linear bracts greenish, 
brownish, or puri)lish below, and white at the tip. 8-12 
inches high. Dry barren fields and sunny hillsides. N. 
Eng., south to Wash., I). C, and west. 

A common s[)ecies with small linear 
Anfennaria lance - shaped leavi-s ; the clnir yrcen, 
May-July smooth l)asal leaves, shaped like those ot 

.1. lu'odioivd, a trifle hairy when very 
young. The white flower-bracts with dry tips. 6-22 
inches high. Hillsides and pastures. Northern N. Eng., 
south to :\Iass.. and we>t. (Vide ivV<or/o/7/, vol. i , p. 150, 
article by INI. L. iM-rnald.) 

Tiie most beautiful of the everlastings ; 

^^^^^y the linear leaves are sage green above and 

hverlasting , . , , , n i i i 

Ana],}i,iii^ white beneath; the flowers are globular, 

margaritacea with miniature petallik(.' white scales sur- 
VVhite rounding the central yellow staminate 

•^"^y flowers, arranged not unlike the petals of 

ep em er ^ water-lily. Cross-fertilized mostly by 

moths and butterflies, though many other insects are 
common visitors. Staminate and pistillate flowers grow 
on separate plants. The stem is white and woolly, ter- 
minated by a flat cluster, sometimes 6 inches broad, of 
close-set flowers. 1-3 feet high. Common from Me., 
south to S. Car. , and west to S. Dak. 
502 




See page 498. 

Daisy Fleabane! 



^ Pussy-toes. 
^^^AntenndPia neodioica. 

^pigeron strigosus. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



A much less beautiful species, but one 
Sweet possessino- an aromatic odor resemblincr 

Everlasting I, , • ^ ,- , m n 

(inaphdlixm ^^^^^ of slippery elm. The liowers cream 
pnb/c> piuiiinn white and ovoid, not expanding to the 
Cream >vhite wnter-lily shape until the seed is ripe. The 
August- ^^^^jj^ (muc-li branched at the top) together 

September . , , ,. , • i . i • ^ 

with the linear leaves is velvety-hairy and 

delicate sage green. 12-25 inches high. Very common 

in dry open places and stony pastures everywhere. The 

name, from the Greek, means a tuft of wool. 

A similar fragrant species, but with a 

Clammy leafv, glandular-stickv stem, woollv and 

Everlasting ', , . , *. " i- i 

G)i<ii>i,nii,(n, nearly white ; the leaves are a little 

drcurrt'ns broader— linear lancet-shaped, with a dense 

Cream white woolliness beneath : they partly clasp the 

''"'-^" stem. Flower-scalt's a vellowish cream 

September , . ^ ^ „ , , . , A , 

white. 2-3 feet lugh. On dry or moist 

open hillsides or banks, from ]\Ie. to Pa. and Minn. 

An insignificant low annual with white- 
Low or Marsh ,,voolly stem and linear, sharp-pointed 
u wee leaves, rather broader at the tip. Flowers 

nlif/inofiinn tiny, ovate, with browni.sh scales. The 

Brownish many-branched stems are 3-7 inches high. 

^hite Common on low ground. Me., south to 

''"'> Va., and west to Minn, and 111. 

September 

One of the tall picturesque weeds char- 
Elecampane . . n 1 ^. • T-l -1 T 

Liula Hebniinn ''<^"tenstic of the Composite Family. Leaves 
Deep yellow olive yellow-green, white-veined, rough 
July- above, fine-hairy beneath, toothed, the 

September lower ones Stemmed, the upper ones part- 
ly clasping the plant-stem, which is woolly and often 
toned with purple-gray. The snowy but somewhat dis- 
hevelled flower, set amid flatti.sh leaflets, has many nar- 
row, curving, deep lemon yellow ray florets, which are 
pistillate, and a broad disc of central, tubular, perfect 
florets, at first yellow, and finally tan color. Cross-fer- 
tilized mostly by bumblebees, moths, and butterflies. 
Two or three flower-heads are grouped together at the 
termination of the stalk. 2^6 feet high. Naturalized 
from Europe ; common northward, and south to Ga. 

504 



"} z^ 



{ s^\\ti 






■■^■U-'^. 





Elecampa^ne 



neienium. 






/> 



\^'fV^ 



if 









ft^L?-: 




Pearly Everlasting. Sweet Everlasting. 

Anaphafc mapgaritaeea. Gnaphalium polycephalum. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



Perhaps the tallest member of the Com- 
Qreat Rajjweed . ' • ^ ^ ^. 

-Xmhro^iii posite groLip, not exceptmg Lactuca. Stem 

tn\fi(l(t stout, Iiairy or nearly smooth, and filled 

Green with a frostlike pith ; leaves deeply three- 

"^"^y lobed and sharp-pointed, the teeth irregii- 

September , , ^ mi • • c i. n 

lar and acute. The insignincant small 

flowers form a terminal, pointed cluster (these are stami- 
nate). or spring from between the oi)i)osite-growing 
leaves and the stem (these are usually pistillate). Wil- 
liam Ilainiltoii (iihsoii records a ragweed 18 feet 4 inches 
long. ( oiiimoii ill moist soil, occasional in Vt. and N. 1 1. 
A common weed with remarkably orna- 
Roman Worm^ mental, cut leaves re.sembhng tho.se of 
wood or , ^ • • ., . -^ 1- MX \ 

Hogweed .\rfrniisi(( (Composite tannly). An an- 

Ambrnsia arte- uual with a much-brauched, fine-hairy 

inisirrfoiin stem and thin, lifeless light green, dissected 

^'■^^" leaves. The slender spikes of the green 

c" "^ u staminate flowers are numerous and some- 

heptember 

what decorativ(\ The tiny fruit is fur- 
nished witli T) short acute spines. 1-5 feet high. 
Troublesome in door-yaiils and gardens, evinywhere. 

^ Like the sunllower. with ])erfect rav- 

Oxeye ' 

n^linpsis hrris 'i"*! disc-flowers, the 10 straplike rays 
Yellow rather showy ; the stem ami leaves smooth, 

August the latter <leci. uneeii. broad lance-shaped, 

September tluv.--ribl).-d, aii.l toothed, growing oppo- 

sitely. ;5-.") feet high. In copses. N. Y. . south, west to 111. 
Heliopsis ^^ similar species, but distinguished by 

scabra its rougli steui and leaves, which are less 

June narrowlv pointed, and its somewhat larger 

September fl,,^vers.' 2-4 feet high. Me., N. J. to 111. 

A si low y western species with handsome 
Black Sampson }i,j,v,u-s wiiose light or deep magenta petals 
Cone"fk)wer gracefully drooj) and are two-toothed at 
Kriiiiinrp,, the tip. The disc is madder purple, its 

pvr))iirtn florets are perfect ; the ray-flowers are pis- 

Magenta tillate but sterile. The five-ribbed, deep 

Seotember green lower leaves are rough, sharply 

toothed, and pointed ovate; the upper ones 
are stemless and toothless. Stem smooth or slightly hairy. 
2-3 feet high. Rich soil, N. Y., 111., Mich., south to Tex. 
506 




:S(\W/Z P^om^^n Wormwood. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite 



A similar species with the same magenta 
Krhinacea flowers and long lance-shaped leaves, very 

rougli, without tcetli. and tliree-i-il)l)ed. 
The flowers are a deeper color wlien they at lirst expand. 
Rare on roadsides and fields in N. Eng., where it has 
come from the west ; 111. and Ala., west to Minn., Neh., 
and Tex. Tlu» name from ^'a''^'^^?, hedgehog. 

_ . ^ A closelv allied sj)ecies with golden vel- 

Tall Cone= , n ' i i . ' , 

flower ^^^^^' flo^^'^1'^ whose raj's droop ; tiie central 

Riidhf'ckia green-yellow cone, at first hemispherical, 

hicinidfa is finally elongated and l)rown. Nearly 

Golden yellow smooth, \leep green leaves, the lowest com^ 
pound, the intermediate irregularly 3-o-parted, the up- 
permost small and elliptical. Fertilized mostly l)y tlu' 
bees; among the bumblebees, Bombus sejKtratus and 
Bonihus cnnericdiiornni are frequent visitors. The branch- 
ing stems 3-10 feet high. In moist thickets, Vt. and N. 
Y., south and west. Named for Professors Ru<ibeck. 
Rndbeckia Flower-disc purple-brown, at first henu- 

trilobn spherical, and afterward oblong-ovoid ; 

Golden yellow about 8-10 golden yellow rays, deeper at 
August the base, and somewhat long-oval. Upper 

leaves rough, thin, bright green, ovate lance-shaped, 
lower ones three-lolled, taptM'ing at the base, and coarsely 
toothed. Stem hairy, juucli branched, and many-flow- 
ered ; th(^ flo\\ers small, about 2 inclies broad. 2-5 feet 
high. On dry or moist ground. N. J., south to Ga., 
west to :\Iicli., S. Dak., and La. 

A biennial. The commonest eastern spe- 
Black=Eyed ,.j,.^ although its .seed originally came 
Cone=flower fi<>"^ tlie west mixed with clover seed. 
Rndbeckia Botli stem and leaves are very rough and 

hirfn bristly ; the former exceedinglij tough, the 

Deep golden j^^^-^j. ^i^jji qIj^,^ green, lance-shaped, tooth- 

V c 1 1 o w 

, . . less or nearlv so, and scattered along the 

June-August •" ' '^ 

rigid stem ; the lower leaves broader at 
the tip and three-ribbed. The deep gold yellow ray- 
flowers are neutral witliout stamens or pistils ; they curl 
backward ; the disc is madder purple, and the tiny florets 
encircle it in successive bloom, creating a zone of yellow 
when the pollen is ripe ; later the stigmas are matured, 
508 




Cone-flower 



Rudbeckiahintd. 




Pupple Cone-flower. 



Echinacea, pallida. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Comoositse. 

and cross-fertilization takes place by tlu' a<;iMicy of in- 
sects or the wind. The smaller bet's {Hdlivfiis), the 
bumblebee (Bombus I'ctgans), and the smaller butterflies 
are constant visitors. 1-3 feet high. Common in dry 
or sandy meadows. ]\Ie. , west to S. Dak. , and southward. 
The common garden sunflower ; an an- 
Ih'Unnthns nual with generally three-ribbed and heart- 

shaped leaves, and golden yellow flowers, 
1 10 inclies broad. 2-12 feet high. Everywhere. 

A tall species with a rough dull magenta 

Tall Sunflower , , i i • i i. i i i 

titug stem and rough, bright green, lanct^-sliaped 

(fiiianteus leaves, pointed and finely toothed, nearly 

Yellow stemless, the upper ones quite stemless, 

August j^j^Q j^ll growing alternately, but rarely 

September ^^^^^^ crowing oppositely. The light yel- 

low tiowers about 2 inches broad, with 10-20 rays; the 
disc dull yellow, with perfect florets, and the rays neu- 
tral, that is, without stamens or pistil. 3-12 feet high. 
Common in swamps and on the borders of wet meadcnvs, 
from Me,, south, and west to Neb. 

A southerly species with many very 

^"'^" small flowers ?,-l incli broad. The stem 

Sunflower , , . - ,, i i i i 

}h'li<tntlius slender and generally branched ; leaves 

P<irrin->rns mostly oppcjsite, broad lanc-e-shaped, 

Yellow toothed, rough, and short-stemmed. Flow- 

-'"'>■- ers with 5 10 yellow rays. 8-6 feet high, 

eptem er ('omnKin in thickets and on the borders of 

woods. Pa., south to (Ja., and west to Mo, 
Woodland ^^ slender, smooth-stemmed species (a 

Sunflower trifle tine-hairy above) with opposite lance- 

Hdidnthus shaped, toothed, roughish, three-ribbed, 
divuricatii^ and nearly or ([uite stemless leaves 3-7 
inches long. The yellow flowers, 2 inches broad, are few 
or solitary. 2-5 feet high. Common in thickets and on 
borders of woods. ]\Ie., south, and west to Neb. 

A species similar in aspect, color, situa- 
Hrlianthus ^^^^^ ^^^l ^i,^^^, ^f bloom ; but the stem 
very smootli below, and often with abloom; 
the leaves rough above, and pale (sometimes minutely 
hairy) beneath. Flowers with 5-15 rays. 3-6 feet high. 
Me., south to Ga., but mostly west to Minn, and Ark. 
510 




p^ Ten-petdlcd Sunflower. 
Helianthus decapetalus. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



A rather showy species luiviiig 10-12 
Ten=petaled or ^ ^^.-^.j^ j_,^,^j^^, ^^^.^ yellow or deeper 

Thin=leaved ",, n "^ ^ . ,' , 

Sunflower vellow flowers 2-3 inches broad. The 

Htlinnthns slender tall stem is rough above and 

deed pita I us smooth below ; tlie deep green leaves are 

Yellow broad lance-shaped, a trifle rough, thin, 

September '"^^^^^ short-stemmed ; they grow oppositely. 

2-.") feet high. Borders of copses and low 

(lamp woods. ^le., south to Ga., and west to Mich. 

Found in Canipton. N. H. 

A species extensivelv grown for its edi- 
Jerusalem , , , • * -i i • ^ 

. ^. . , l>le roots, now riummg wild in fence rows 

Artichoke '^ 

Jklianthus ^^""^^ roadsides. Tlie name Jerusalem is a 
tuinrosus c()rru])tion of the Italian Girasole, sun- 

Golden yellow flower. Stem stout and rough-hairy ; the 

ep em tr ovate lance-sliai^ed, three-ribbed, rou^'h 

October * . ' o 

lfa\fs grow oppositely (a few upper ones 

alternately), 'ihe golden yellow flowers, sometimes 3 

inch.s l)r(.a(l, have 12-20 rays. 5-12 feet high. Damp 

soil. ]Me., south to Ga., and west to S. Dak. and Ark. 

An uninteresting weed with ravless, 
Degg:ar=ticKs , . , , , , . , . " 

or Stick=tii!:ht '"'■"^'y flower - lieads, indeterminate in 
Bidrns (Mlor, approaching rusty green, surround- 

frondnsd ed l)y little leaflets; the branching stem 

Rusty green j,^„.pnsh. Leaves of 3-5 divisions, toothed 
July October ' / , , , r, i 

and lance - shaped. Seed - vessels two- 
pronged (the prongs toothed), less than \ inch long, and 
sei)ia brown ; attaching readily to woolly animals or 
clothing. 1-8 feet high. Common everywhere in moist 
soil. The name, from hifi and dens, means two-toothed, 
or a kind of hoe with two i)rongs. — Virgil. The specific 
name, ivom frondosufi, means /«ZZ of leaves. 

^ ,, ,, A si)ecies with very narrow lance-shaped 

Smaller Bur \ , -^ , , , , 

Marigold smooth leaves, coarsely and sharply 

BidiuHcernua toothed. The similar, bristly, half globu- 

Yellow lar, rusty flowers generally nod : the rays, 

July-October -^ ^^^^. ^ ^^^,^ ^j^^^^.^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ rpj^^ ^^l^_ 

vessels are narrower and four-pronged. 6-86 inches 
high. In wet soil. Me., south to Va., west to Mo. and 
S. Dak. 




i 



^^ 


- , > 


^s 


\ 




Jerusa^lem artichoke 



Helianthus tuberosus. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Compositse. 



A more attractive species with light 
golden yellow rays, wliicli, when jj£^//ecf , 
are rather showy. The flowers sometimes 
over 2 inches broad. Leaves narrow lance- 
sha])e(l and coarseh^ toothed. Seed-ves- 
sels with 2-4 prongs. 10-24 inches high. 
In swamps and weti)laces. N. Eng., south, 
and west to Minn. All three species are annuals. 

A nearly smooth plant with toothed, 
lance-shaped, alternate leaves and decora- 
tively handsome llowers, 1-2 inches broad, 
with the toothed, golden yellow rays 
turned considerably backward ; the globu- 
lar dLsc is yellow and chatry, the drooping 
l)etals i)istillate and fertile ; eross-tVrtilized mostly by 
bees. 2-6 feet high. Common in wet meadows and on 
river-banks everywhere. 

A daisylike flower about an inch broad, 
with white, three-toothed, neutral rays (i. 
e., without stamens or pistils) and a yel- 
low disc, whieh becomes elongated with 
age. The small leaves, cut and slashed to 
al)S()liite formlessness, are remarkable for 
their disagreeable odor and acrid taste ; used in making 
a horrible concoction called ''chamomile tea." 8-20 
inches high. Common about dwellings and on road- 
sides everywhere ; a native of Europe. 

A very familiar roadside weed adventive 
from Europe, with remarkable gray olive 
green, feathers , dissected, stemless leaves 
of a rather long-oval outline, and pleas- 
antly aromatic, minute, grayish white 
flowers in flat-topped clusters. The gray- 
green, stout, and tough stem is fine-hairy. The perfect 
disc -florets are at first yellowish, but finally gray- 
brown ; the 4-6 pistillate rays are white, or rarely crim- 
son-pink. Fertilized mostly by bees and the smaller 
butterflies ; chief among the latter is the yellow Colias 
pJiilodice. 1-2 feet high. Common everywhere, by the 
wayside and in fields ; probably native in the west, 
where it is more fine-hairy and less green. 

514 



Larger Bur 
Marigold 

Bidtns CV, /•//*■ 
CDitlieniuidt'S 
Yellow 
August- 
October 



Sneezeweed 

Heleniuin 

(intionuale 

Yellow 

August 

September 



Mayweed or 

Chamomile 

A at hem in 

Cotultt 

White 

June-October 



Yarrow or 
Milfoil 

Achillea 
MillefoUum 
Gray=white 
June-October 




Begga 



Bidens/p 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



The commonest of all common weeds of 
Oxeye Daisy ^j^^^ ^^^j^^ ^^^^^ wavsiile, often called Farm- 

C/iri/.snnthi - 

mum Li'ucan- ^'^"^ Ciirse, yet a prime favorite with chil- 

themum dren and artists! The flower's form is a 

White sunuiifDU hmium of simplicity and decora- 

;!""^~ tive hfautv. The orantre-vellow disc, de- 

September , • ' , • P " ■, n 

pressed m the centre, is formed of i)ertect 
flowers ; the white rays are pistillate. The dark green 
leaves are ornamentally lohed. 15-25 inches high. The 
name, from the Greek, means golden flower, 

A tall, branching species commonly cul- 
e\erew tivatcil, with small daisvlike flowers in 

Cliri/sdnthf- 

mum I'ar- gcnerons clusters; the strm smooth, the 

thf'uirim ornamental leaves hroud and dcc})ly lobed. 

White ^'lowers small, with large yellow discs of 

^"T u perfect florets. 1-2 feet high. Natural- 

September ■ , ^ T- 1 , 

ixt'tl from hurojjc, and mostly an escape 

from gardens. Mass. to N. J., and west to Wis. 

^ A common weed naturalized from Eu- 

TtuKtcetum i'ope, generally an escape from gardens 

vuhjdre belonging to old dwellings. The flatly 

Orange=yel!ow clustered dull orange-yellow flower-heads 

" ■ resemble those of the daisy minus the 

September , . „ X , , 

white i-ays : inner florets perfect and mar- 
ginal ones ])istillate. The compound, deep green leaves, 
ornamentally toothed and cut, are strongly aromatic. 
18-:]0 inches high. :Me., south to X. Car., west to S. Dak. 
A seaside weed with inconspicuous, tiny, 
Wormwood green-yellow flowers in long slender clus- 
Artrynisia ters, the little flower-heads mostly nod- 

caxdatd ding ; the marginal florets pistillate, the 

Green=yellow ^.^ntral ones jx'rfect. The bitter-tasting, 

long, linear, deeply cut leaves with thread- 
like divisions. 2-5 feet high. Me., south, west to Neb. 
A familiar, uninteresting weed natural- 
Mugwort -^^,^1 from Europe, found in all waste places 

mdqaris ^^*' near old houses. The smooth green 

leaves deeply cut, and with lol)es coarsely 
toothed at the ti})s. The inconspicuous green-yellow 
flowers erect, not nodding, in a simple, leafy spike. 1-3 
feet high. Me., south to N. J. and Pa., west to Mich. 

5^(> 




feverfew. 
Chrysantlremum leucanthemum. Chrysa^nthemum Panthenium. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Compositae. 



Wormwood ^^ similar species with a similar environ- 

or Absinth nient. Leaves small ami often det>i)ly 

Ar(cmi\sia subdivided, ('(ivered with fine hairs so the 

Ah.^inthium ^.,,|,,j. j^ .^ somewhat silvery green. The 
insignificant light yellow-green flowers are gathered in 
a scattering cluster. The long terminal spikes are rather 
dishevelled and picturesque. 2-4 feet high. 

A delicate, pure yellow, daisy like flower 
with 10-14 three-tootlied ravs, found only 
Chamissnnis upon mountain summits of N. Eng. and 
Pure yellow N. Y., in moist situations. The deep 
J""^- green leaves long Lance-shaped, slightly 

ep em er toothed, and stemless — at least the upper 
ones. The hairy stem 1-2 feet high. Also in the Rocky 
Mountains. Found in Oakes's Gulf, Mt. Washington. 

^ .^ An earlv blooming perennial with hand- 

Golden - ® ^ 

Ragwort some deep golden yellow, daisylike flow- 

Sf')ir,-in nin-rua crs (8-12 rays) nearly an inch broad, in 
Deep gold terminal clusters on the grooved, brown- 

M "° T streaked stem ; the disc-florets perfect, the 

rays pistillate. The thick root-leaves in 
early April resemble violet leaves ; they are small, heart- 
shaped, scallop-toothed, dark green above and magenta- 
red beneath ; later they become elongated. The long 
stem-leaves more or less deeply lobed, the uppermost 
small and clasping the plant-stem. The plant is woolly- 
hairy when young. 12-32 inches high. Common in wet 
meadows everywhere. Found at Clarendon Hills, Mass. 
Senecio BdJ^nmitie is lower, has fewer flowers, and the 
basal leaves are oblong, with the ruddy lower surfaces 
sometimes persistently woolly. 

^. ^ A tall, uninteresting, annual weed with 

Fireweed , •■ , , 

Ercrhtitf's generally smooth, rank-odored stem and 

hieracifolia leaves. The latter are thin, lance-shaped 

^hite or broader, and irregularly toothed or 

^'^ deeplv incised. The stem is full of sap, 

September ^ ' i ^i • • •« ^ 

heavy, and grooved; the msignificant 

flowers are brush-shaped, mostly green by reason of the 

superior flower-envelop, and tipped with the white of 

the tubular, fertile florets. 1-7 feet high. Common in 

hjurned-over clearings or waste places everywhere, 



518 




Golden R^gwopt 



Senecio a^upeus. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



Burdock ^ familiar, rank-odored weed, common 

Arrtivu, Lappa ill all waste phices, with large, dull green, 
Light magenta veiny leaves, the lower heart-shaped, the 
July-October ^^ p p ,. ^ ovate; woolly beneath. The 
globular flower-head a hooked-bristled green bur with 
magenta or often nearly white, perfect, tubular florets 
with a five-cleft tip. The depth of color can only be ap- 
preciated with the aid of a magnifying glass. The stem 
is generally much branched. 4-8 feet high. About ru- 
ins of old dwellings or in waste places. Me. to southern 
N. Y., and west. Not so common as the next species in 
the more eastern States. 

A smaller species, with smaller, gener- 
Smaller ^ 

Burdock *^^ '^' ii^^'r*'^^ '^'i' leaves, the lower ones deeply 

Ar.tnnn minus heart - sluipetl, their stems hollow and 
Light magenta hardly furrowed; flower -heads almost 
July October gteniless on the branches, about f inch 
broad. The inner spines erect and shorter than the lilac 
pink or light magenta or white florets. 2-5 feet high. 
Common. Both species are naturalized from Europe. 

A biennial species naturalized from Eu- 

Common generally found in pastures. The 

Thistle ^ ^ , . . - / 

Cirsinm narrow, white-spmy, dark green leaves 

lanrfoUitvm hug the plaut-stem for an inch or so with 
Magenta prickly wings, the upper surface prickly- 

Juiy-october |,.ii,.y,\he lower webby-wooUy with light 
brownish fine hairs. The green flower-envelop is armed 
with spreading s})ines ; the perfect, tubular florets, 
densely clustered, vary from (rarely white) crimson- 
magenta to light magenta ; the pollen is white. Flowers 
remarkably sweet-scented, rich in honey, and fertilized 
mostly by the bumblebees (often becoming intoxicated) 
and butterflies. Heads sometimes 3 inches broad, gener- 
ally solitary at the ends of the branches. 2-4 feet high. 
Common, but south only to Ga. 

A species with light corn yellow (rarely 
Thistle magenta), flatfish flower-heads nearly 3 

Cirsixm inches broad ; it is exceedingly plentiful 

hnrridiibim i,^ the Salt marshes of Long Island and 
Corn yellow ^^^^^^^ Jersey. The oblong lance-shaped, 
May-August -^ .u i • i 

light green leaves smooth, clasping, and 

520 




Common Thistle. 



Cipsium IdnceolAtum. 




Smd^U-leaved BurdocK 



Apctium minus. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



very yellow-spiny ; the flower-heads set in the smaller 
encircling upper leaflets, with I'er?/ narrow, rough, spine- 
less scales. 2-4 feet high. Common in wet or dry sandy 
soil along the seacoast, from ]Me. to Tex. 

A rather common species with magenta 
Tall Thistle ^ , , •. ^ f, i ^ n • i 

Cirsinm (litis- (r^i'ely white) flowers about 1^ mclies 
sinn(»i,var. broad and weak- bristled, rough-hairy, 
dif^rninr stcmless leaves, deeply cut into linear 

Magenta j^^ij^,^ white-woolly beneath. The outer 

u J- c o er g^^^^j^pg ^£ ^.j-^g flower-heads are slightly 
woolly and weak-bristled. Stem downy, 3-6 feet high. 
Common on roadsides and in fields ; south to Ga. 

A species with similar leaves and flow- 
Swamp ^ ^j^^ blunt, prickleless scales of the 
Thistle ' ^ 
Cirsinm heads glutinous, woolly, and close-press- 

mvtir^nn ing. The flower with a naked stem, or 

Magenta ^^.j^-jj ^ few tiny leaflets at its base. 8-8 

July-October ^^^^ j^.^^^ Common in swamps and moist 
low woodlands everywhere. 

The largest-flowered thistle of all, with 

Pasture solitary heads 2-3 inches broad, the florets 

Thistle ,. , ' 11 11 •. ji 

Cirsiu,,) light magenta-lilac or nearly white ; they 

piimihim are exceedingly fragrant, rich in honey, 

Light magenta and are frequented by the bumljlebee, who 

*^"'-^" imbibes to the point of abject intoxica- 

September . . rr^, i- , , i ,■ i 

tion ! The slightly glutinous scales are 

nearly smooth and tipped with slender prickles ; and at 
the base are tiny leaflets. The light green leaves nar- 
row and frequently cut into three-prickled lobes, the 
prickles shorter than those of the common thistle and 
very numerous. Stem only 12-30 inches high. In dry 
pastures and fields. Me. to Del. and Pa. , near the coast. 
A pernicious weed, naturalized from 
ars^um^^'^^^^ Europe, with small lilac, pale magenta, or 
arre}}sf' rarely white heads about I inch broad. 

Lilac or pale The dull gray-green, whitish-ribbed leaves 
magenta are deeply slashed into many very prickly, 

*^"'^~ ruffled lobes. Flowers staminate and T)is- 

September .,, , „ ^ ^ n . -, • ^ 

tillate; also fragrant. 1-3 feet high. 
Common in pastures, fields, and on roadsides ; south 
only to Va. 

52? 




Canada. Thistle. Cirsium arvense 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composltas. 



A small annual species of dandelion 
Dandelion \vith many long, slender flower-stalks ris- 

Krirjia i»g from a circle of small, irregularly 

Virginica lobed leaves, each stalk bearing a single 

Goldenyellow g^i^ie^i vellow flower scarcely f inch 
May-August f i , • , ^ ^ \ 

broad ; later it becomes branched and 

bears a few leaves. The hairy down of the seeds is short. 

2-12 inches high. Common in dry soil or on sandy 

banks everywhere. 

A similar but tall perennial species with 

■^'"'■'^"^* smooth stem covered with a slight bloom, 

ample xicanl IS , , , , , ,. . , ,, , 

and smooth basal leaves tlistmctly stalked, 

scarcely toothed, but with a wavy outline. A small 
leaflet clasps the flowering stem about half-way up ; 
from this proceed 2-5 branches bearing deep golden yel- 
low flowers \\ inches broad. 1-2 feet high. Moist pas- 
tures and fields. ]\Iass., south to Ga., west to Kan. 

A small dandelion, naturalized from 
Fall Dandelion y^^ ..i^,^ ^ ^ branching flower- 

autnmnnUs ^lalk. which is set with tiny bracts or 

Light golden scales about i inch ai)art. The blunt- 

yellow lobed, narrow, small basal leaves are dull 

^ ^ green and smooth. The ligiit golden vel- 

November T ,i • i i i i •" i 

low flower erect m the bud about an inch 

broad, in twos or threes, or rarely solitary. The slender 
stalks of these dandelions alcove described are somewhat 
wiry, not tul)ular like those of tlie common spring dan- 
delion. 7-18 inches high. In fields and along road- 
sides. Me. to Pa., Ohio, and Mich., and northward. 
Common in tlie vicinity of Boston. Name from the 
Greek for lion and tootJi. The var. pratenHia is similar, 
but the flower-envelop and the tip of the flower-stalk 
immediately below it are very fine-hairy. Me. to Conn., 
and Nantucket, Mass. 

_. . A very common but beautiful wee<l 

Chicory or ^■ -, r ^ /. i i 

Succory naturalized from Europe, found on road- 

Ciclioriinn sides and in waste ])laces Y'^^ticularly 
Intijbiis about the seaboard towns. Stem stout, 
yioIet=blue tough, and stiff, with generallv lance- 
July-October 1111 " 4. ^1 ^ 

shaped, dark gray-green, coarse-toothed 
leaves. The violet-blue flower, similar in form to the 

524 




iCory. iiiti/-# Fall Dandelion. 

Cichorium Intybus. Leontodon autumnal is. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Compositse. 

dandelion, closes in rainy or cloudy weather and opens 
only in sunshine. Tliere are few florets in a single head 
but these are highly developed witli gracefull}' curved, 
branching styles ; the exposure of the double stiginatic 
surface thus, in a measure, insures self-fertilization in 
the absence of insects. The most frequent visitors are 
the bees — the honeybee, the leaf -cutter bee (3/('(7rtc/n7^), 
and various species of IldJictio; and Aiidreiut, ground 
bees. 1-3 feet high. 

An odd but attractive plant, naturalized 
Tawny ^^.^^^^ Europe, witli a stout stem, and a 

Hawkweed ' 

Hu'vaciuiii flower-cup closely covered with sepia 

(lurdtitiacnin brown hairs, the rusty character of which 

Tawny orange gave it the comuiou name iu England of 

" ^' Grim the Collier. TluM'oarse, blunt, lance- 

September 1,1 1 . 1 1 

sliapetl leaves coven^tl with short gray 

hairs are nearly all at the bas(» of the plant. The tawny 
orange flowers (with light golden pistils), strap-rayed and 
finely fringed at the edge, are grouped in a small ter- 
minal cluster, and are quite delicately fragrant. Visited 
by the bees Halicdis and Aiidrcmi. and the smaller 
butterflies — Piei-ii'^ rdjxr, white, and Colids pliilodice, 
yellow. 7-lG inches high. In fields, woodlands, and 
along roads, froui Me., s(mth to Pa., and west to N. Y. 
Growing to be a troublesome weed iu fields and pastures 
of northern Vermont. 

A generall}' smooth species ; the light 

„ , ^ green, lance-shaiied leaves with coarse and 

Hawkweed '■ 

Hieraviuin wide-spread teeth, and the dandelionlike, 

Canadenae very small yellow flowers in a loose 

Pure yellow branching cluster terminating the leaf}' 

J^ \~ ^ stem. In October the plant is decorated 

September .... , 

with tiny brown globes of down. 1-4 feet 

high. Iu diy woods northward, south only to N. J. 

A similar northern plant with a droop- 

. , , ing-branched loose flower-cluster, gener- 

ally smooth stem and lance-shaped leaves, 

and smaller yellow flowers. The thin leaves almost 

stemless, and very sUyhtli/, if at all, toothed. 1-8 feet 

high. South as far as Ga. 



526 




Canada Hawkweed.1 
HiepaciumCanadense 



^R^iiN 



Hieracium aupantiacum. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite, 



Rattlesnake: 
weed 

Hieracium 
veiinsioii 
Light gold 
yellow 
June- 
September 

inches hi":li 



Hierdcium 
scdbrnm 



All early flowering species, with deeper 
yellow flowers closely resembling small dan- 
delions, and generally leafless (or with l-;3 
tiny leaflets), few-haired stems, branching 
to a few-flowered cluster. The light green 
leaves are dull magenta on the ribs, edges, 
and under side ; they are hairy, scarcely 
toothed, and clustered at the root. l'-?-oO 
Common in woodlands and thickets north- 
ward, and south to (la. Only occasional in Vermont 
and rare or absent in northern New Hampshire. 

The simple stem stout, and remarkable 
for its hairy character. The obovate or 
vtM-y bhmt obovate, almost toothless leaves 
are rough-hairy and light dull green. The small ter- 
minal flower-cluster with several small heads of yellow 
flowers (the floral envelop a hairy green) is conspicu- 
ously irregular and angular in its branching. 1-3 feet 
high. Commc^n in dry woods north ; south to (la. 

A similar plant witli a slend(M*er stem, 
often ruddy, rou^h- hairy (slightly so 
al)ov('). and very leafy and hairy beloir. 
The leaves like //. scdhriiui. The seed-vessels very tap- 
ering at the sununit. The l>l()ssoms open only in sun- 
shine, and very quickly wither. 1-3 feet liigh. Dry 
soil ; commoner in the S(juth. North only as far as 
Mass. and 111. The name from ispaz, a hawk. 

A tall weed with inconsjjicuous, narrow 
flowers of a dull lilac tint, clustered in a 
rather narrow wandlike spike. The some- 
what thickish light green leaves smooth 
and with a slight bloom, scarcely toothed, 
and blunt lance-shaped. The green floral 
envelop and its stalk are hairy. 2-5 feet 
high. In moist fields, ]\Ie., south to N. J., 
west to S. Dak., Mo., and Col. 

A commoner and more interesting 
species with drooping, dull cream-colored 
flowers, occasionally touched with pale 
lilac; the green floral envelop has about 8 
magenta-tinged sections; the stamens are 
528 



Hieracium 
Gronovii 



Smooth = 
stemmed White 
Lettuce 

r(tcein<js(i 
Dull lilac 
August- 
September 



Rattlesnake= 
root or White 
Lettuce 

Prenanthes 
alba 




HawKweed. 
Hieracium scabrum. Hieracium paniculatum. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



Dull cream quite prominent and cream-colored. The 
*^^''^'" smooth, deep green leaves are varied in 

September form, tlie lower ones broad, three-sided, 
and remotely toothed, the upper ones 
deeply cut, and the uppermost lance-shaped with two 
small lateral lobes or none at all. The smooth stem is 
stiff, round, and generally dull, deep magenta-tinted, 
with a bloom. 2-4 feet high. Common in tliin woods 
northward, and south to Ga. and Ky. 

A similar smooth species, the stem of 
Lion's=foot or ^vliich is green and without a bloom. The 
Call of the , , • i i j. -a i • i 

P ,. leaves also very variable, a trine roughish, 

Freiianthrs ^^"^1 shaped (but more angularly) like those 
serpentdiia ui P. alba. The flower-cluster is inclined 
Dull cream to be somewhat flat-topped, and the pen- 

\^ ^^ dul :)us, b('ll-sha])('d, dull cream-colored 

July- 

September fio wers are enclosed in a somewhat bristly, 

hairy, green enveloi), which is sometimes 
a trifle magenta-tinted. The curled branches of the 
style are slender and prominent, as in all the Prenanfhes. 
1-3 feet higli, usually 2 feet. In thickets, or dry sandy 
ground, Mass. (rare) and N. Y., south to Ala. and Fla. 
P. trifoliolata, var. laoia (Fernald), confined to alpine 
summits of N. Eng. (Mt. Katahdin) and N. Y., has deep 
madder brown flowers and variously shaj)ed leaves. 
4-12 inches high. 

A tall, generally smooth species, with a 
Tall hite green or magenta-tinged stem. The leaves 
Lettuce , , • i , , 

Prenanthf's (except the uppermost) variously shaped 

altiNslina but long-stalked. The numerous narrow, 

Dull cream pendulous, dull cream-colored flowers with 
^**'°'' a smooth green envelop, are borne in a 

September narrow terminal spike, or in small clusters 

at the leaf-angles, 3-7 feet high. In 
woodlands and thickets, northward, and south to Ga. 

A dwarf species with stout, ruddy stem, 
Prenanthes j^ flower-heads, and thick, narrow. 

Boot II ^ » > » 

variously shaped leaves. Flowers whitish 
and fragrant, enclosed within a dull magenta-tinged en- 
velop. 4-12 inches high. Alpine summits of N. Y. and 
N. Eng. Found on Mt. Washington, Oakes's Gulf. 

530 




Lion's-foot. Prenanthes seppentaria. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



The familiar grass-plot, yellow flower of 
ommon^ tlie country and city, naturalized from 

rurctxnciiiti Europe. The heads are sometimes 2 inches 
officinale broad, and are supported on a pale green, 

Golden yellow hollow stem; the perfect fiowers are 
ay- u"e orange-gold in the centre of the head, and 

light golden yellow on the straps of the margin. The 
seeds are neutral brown, and spiny at the upper part. 
The deep green leaves are irregularly and angularly 
broad-toothed, the jagged edge bearing a remote re- 
semblance to the row of teeth in a lion's jaw, hence the 
common name, a corruption of the French dent-de-lion. 
3-14 inches high. The silky down forms a beautiful 
globe when the seeds ripen and the acute divisions of the 
flower-envelop are reflexed. Conunoii everywhere. 
Red=seeded ^ similar but smaller species with 

Dandelion flower-heads scarcely over an inch broad, 

T(trax(icin)i pure yellow, but deeper in the centre ; the 

erythrusi^ermum two-pointed straps or bracts of the floral 
envelop usually have a thickened point or knob near the 
tip. The outermost straps are magenta-tinged ; the 
smooth leaves are very deeply cut into thin, irregular, 
sharp, backward-tending lobes or narrow angular divi- 
sions. The seeds are bright terra-cotta red, and spiny 
over the upper half of the surface. Distribution un- 
known beyond N. Eng., N. Y., and Pa. 

A tall biennial sixn-ies often G feet high. 
Wild Lettuce . , , , ^ , i 

Lactitca with a sniootli, stout, leafy stem branch- 

C<t,iad(uisis ing at tilt' top in a thin, scattered flower- 
Pale yellow spike with insignificant pale yellow 

■,""^~ . rav-flowers mostly enclosed within the 

September " „ i , r. , i 

green tioral envelop. Both stem and 

leaves with a slight bloom ; the leaves slightly like those 

of the dandelion, but the upper ones lance-shaped, and 

the loAver sometimes 12 inches long. 4-10 feet high. 

Common in wet soil, northward, south to Ga. and La. 

^ ^ A similar species with a broader flower- 

La cf?fca 11,, 

inteyrifolia cluster, and oblong lance-shaped, smootli, 

acute leaves, toothless or nearl}' so. The 

flower-rays pale yellow or magenta-tinted. 2-6 feet 

high. In damp places. Me. to Ga., west to Neb. 




Red- seeded 

Dandelion 
Taraxicum erythrospermum 



Common 
Dandelion. 
Tdraxicum officinale. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Compositae. 



A less leafy and lower species, found in 
Lactnca similar situations. The leaves like those 

hirsnta , . , , ^ , • .1 i 

of L. Canadensis, but fine-han-y ; the red- 
dish stem hairy at the base ; the scattered flower-cluster 
with insignificant dull lilac, or dingy pink- white flowers. 
2-4 feet high. Me. , west to ^linn. , south to Ala. and Tex. 

Tlie tallest member of the genus, with a 
Tall Blue stout, straight, smooth stem, leafy up to 

Lettuce ,? . r. ^ ^ c • 

Lactura the stragglmg, large flower-cluster ot m- 

leur<,ph,ra significant flowers which are never fully 

Dull purple or expanded. The green flower-heads tipped 
"^'^'*^ with inconspicuous dull purjilish or whit- 

September ish rays. The deeply lobed leaves are large 

and irregularly wavy-toothed. 3-15 feet 
high. Damp shady places northward, south to S. Car. 

A tall annual, naturalized from Europe, 
Sow Thistle thistlelike prickle-edged leaves, and a 

oleraceu.^ stout, hollow, succulent, smooth, grooved 

Light yellow stem. The large, decorative, usually lobed 
May- leaves are irregularly toothed and armed 

September ^^,.^^^ ^^^^^ si)ines ; the upper ones clasp the 

plant-stem, the lower are stalked. The light yellow, 
thistle-shaped flower-heads are grouped in a somewhat 
loosely spreading flat cluster. The stem is sometimes 
reddish at the base. 1-6 feet or more high. Common 
everywhere in waste places or manured soil. 

Similar, but with less divided leaves, the 
Soncln>sns}H'r ^_^^^,^^^. ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ lance-shaped, the upper 

Light yellow ^ t i 1 i 

]^ay clasping the i)lant-stem by rounded lobes, 

September all irregularly toothed and spiny. The light 
yellow downy, flat-headed flowers are set in a loose 
cluster ; they are succeeded by a copious white down. 
The seeds have long ribs, smooth between, while those 
of the preceding species are laterally rough between. 
The flowers are assisted in the process of fertilization by 
the SyrpMd, beelike flies, and those of the genus 
Eristalis. The honeybee '{Ajns mellijica) is always a 
common visitor. Formerly the milk-juiced, succulent 
leaves were used as a pot herb. Waste places every- 
where. The Greek name SoncJins (Sow Thistle) is a de- 
grading title for such a decorative-leaved plant ! 

si's ROOM 




Wild Lettuce. 
Lactuca hipsuta. 



Sow Thistle. 
Sonchusoleraceus. 



INDEX. 



Abby Pond, Ripton, Vt., 376. 

Absinth, 518. 

Achillea Millefolium, 514. 

Aconitum uncinatum, 148. 

Acorns Calamus, 16. 

Actcea alba, 150. 

Actcoa spicata, var. rubra, 150. 

Adder s Tongue, White, 54. 

Adder's Tongue, Yellow, 54. 

Adlumia cirrhosa, 160. 

Mnothera biennis, 296. 

yEnothera fruticosa, 300. 

Mnothera Oakesiana, 298. 

jEnothcra pumila, 298. 

j^nothera sinuaia, 298. 

Ageratum, 470. 

Agrimonia Eupatoria, var. /ttr- 

siita, 202. 
Agrimony, 202. 
Agrostemma Githago, 120. 
Ague-weed, 358. 
Alfalfa, 214. 
Alismace.-e, 6. 
Alisma Plantago, 6. 
Allium Canadense, 56. 
Allium tricoccum, 56. 
Alstead Centre, N. H., 144- 
Althcea officinalis, 262. 
Alumroot, 186. 
Amarantace^, 112. 
Amaranth Family, 112. 
Amarantus albus, 112 
Amarantus chlorostachys, 112. 
Amarantus retrofiexus, 112. 
Amaryllidace^, 60. 
Amaryllis Family, 60. 
Ambrosia artem,iscefolia, 506. 
^m6ro52a trifida, 506. 
Amherst, Mass., 348. 
Ammonoosuc Lake, Crawford 

Notch, N. H., 138 
Ampelopsis quinquefolia, 260. 
Amphicarpcra monoica, 226. 
Anacardiace^, 250. 
Anagallis arvensis, 350 
Anaphalis margaritacea, 502. 
Androscoggin Valley, Me., 130. 
Anemone, Canada, 132 
Anemone Canadensis, 132. 
Anemone cylindrica, 130. 
Anemone, Large "White-flowered, 

132. 
Anemone, Long-fruited, 130. 
Anemone quinquefolia, 134, 136. 
Anem.one riparia, 132. 



Anemone, Rue, 136. 
Anemone, Tall, 130. 
Anemone Virginiana, 130, 132. 
Anemone, Wood, 134. 
Anemonella thalictroides, 136. 
Antcnnaria, 466. 
Antennaria Canadensis, 502. 
Antennaria fallax, 500. 
Antennaria neglecta, 502. 
Antennaria neodioica, 500, 502. 
Antennaria plantaginea, 500. 
Antennaria plantaginea, var. pe- 

tiolata, 500. 
Anthemis Cotula, 514. 
Antirrhinum Orontium, 418. 
^^i05 tuber osa, 224. 
Apocynace/E, 364. 
A/'ocynziw androscemifolium, 

364- 
Apocywum cannabinum, 364. 
Aquilegia Canadensis, 146. 
Arabis hirsuta, 168. 
Arab is Icevigata, 168. 
Araliace^, 302. 
A r alia hispida, 302. 
Aralia nudicaulis, 304. 
Aralia racemosa, 302. 
Arbutus, Trailing, 330. 
Arctium Lappa, 520. 
Arctium minus, 520. 
Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi, 328. 
Arenaria Grcenlandica, 122. 
Arenaria serphyllifolia, 122. 
Arethusa, 78. 
Arethusa bulbosa, 78. 
Argemone Mexicana, 158. 
Ariscema Dracontium, 10. 
AristFma triphylluni, 10. 
Aristolochiace^, 98. 
Aristolochia Serpentaria, 100. 
A r z'5/c ■ jc/ti'a Sipho, 100. 
Aristo'-^chia tomentosa, 100. 
Arnica, 518. 

Arnica Chamissonis, 518. 
Aroostook Co., Me., 78. 
Arrowhead, 6. 
Artemisia, 506. 
Artemisia Absinthium, 518. 
Artemisia caudata, 516. 
Artemisia vulgaris, 516. 
Artichoke, Jerusalem, 512. 
Arum, Arrow, 12. 
Arum, Dragon, 10. 
Arum Family, 10. 
Arum, Water, 12. 



537 



INDEX. 



Asarum arijoliunu 98. 
Asarmn Canadensc, qS. 

AsrLEPIADACE.^, .56f). 

Asclepias Corniiti, 3^8. 
Asclepias incarnaia, 366. 
Asclepias incarnaia, var. piil- 

chra, .^68. 
Asclepias obtusifolta. .,^18. 
Asclepias Phytolacca ides. ,-;68. 
.45(r/t'pza5 ptirpurasccns. ^6b. 
Asclepias quadrijoUa, ?,~o. 
Asclepias tuber osa, 36 A. 
Asclepias verticillata, 370- 
.45C3rMW Crux Andrecr, 268. 
.45or!(m sta)is, 268. 
Asparagus, 30. 
.45/Jara/jz(5 officinalis, j,o. 
Aster, 484. 

.45/rr acumiuatus, 4<)^i- 
Aster, Arrow-leaved, 490. 
Aster, Bushy, 492. 
Aster. Calico, 492. 
Aster cordijolius, 488. 
Aster cordijolius, var. Furbishicr, 

488. 
.45/rr devaricatus, 484. 
.45/er diffusus, 49 2. 
.45/rr dumosus, 492. 
,45/rr ericoides, 490. 
Aster, Heart-leaved, 488. 
Aster, Heath, 490. 
/Is/pr /(Ft;z5, 490. 
Aster, Large-leaved. 486. 
Aster linariijolius, 496. 
,45<rr Ion iiij alius, 494. 
Aster, Long-leaved, 494- 
Aster macro phyllus, 486. 
Aster, Many-flowered, 490. 
Aster niultiflorus, 490. 
Aster, Xew England. 486. 
Aster. New York. 494. 
Aster S'ovcr-Anglicr, 4S6. 
Aster Xovcc-AuRlicr, var. roseus, 

486. 
yl5/pr Novi-Belgii, 494- 
.45/fr Novi-Belgii, var. Iccvigatus, 

494- 
.45^^^ Xovi-Belgii, var. htoreus, 

494- 
Aster, Panicled White, 494- 
As^er paniculatus, 494. 
.45<er patens, 488. 
.45/f'r pre nantho ides, 494- 
.45/^^ puniceus, 494, 496- 
,4s/cr puniceus, var. compactus. 

496. 
.45/f'r puniceus, var. firmus, 496 
Aster puniceus, \aT.lucidulus,4Qt). 
Aster, Purple-stemmed, 496. 
,4s/(?r radula, 486. 
.45/er radula, var. str ictus, 486. 
Aster, Rough-leaved, 486. 
.45/fr sagittifolius, 490. 
Aster, Sharp-leaved Wood, 496. 
Aster, Showy, 486. 
Aster, Small White, 492. 



Aster, Smooth, 49°- 

.45/rr spectabilis, 486. 

Aster. Spreading, 488. 

.45/rr stibulatus, 498. 

.45/fr teiiuijolius, 498. 

.45^"r Tradescanti, 492. 

Aster. Tradescant's. 492. 

.45/cr umbellatus, 496- 

.45/4'r undulatus, 488. 

.45/rr fnnz'nfzfs, 492. 

.45/rr vimineus, var. jaliolosus, 

492. 
Aster, Wavy-leaved, 488. 
Aster, White Woodland, 484. 
Aster, Willow-leaved Blue, 494. 
Astragalus Canadensis, 214. 
Avens, Long-plumed, 194. 
Avens, Purple, 194- 
Avcns, Rough, 194- 
Avens. White. 192. 
Azalea, Flame, Mti. 

Balm, Horse, 390. 

Bai.s.\min.\ce.-e, 256. 

BancVjerry. Red, 150. 

Baneberry, White, 150. 

Bangor, Me., 240. 

Baptisia australis, 208. 

Baptisia tine tor ia, 20S. 

Barbarea vulgaris, 172. 

Barberry Family, 1.S2. 

Barton ia ienclla, 362- 

Bartonia, Yellow, 362. 

Bath. Me . 122. 

Bean. Wild, 22'.. 

Bearlierry. .,28. 

Beard-tongue. 420. 

Bedford, Mass. 2S8. 

B'.'dstraw, Xorthern. 444- 

Bedstraw. R(;ugb. 444- 

Bedstraw. Small. 444- 

Bedstraw. Sweet-scented. 444. 

Bedstraw, Yellow, 442. 

Bee Balm, 398. 

Beech-drops. 32^. 4.^6. 

Beefsteak Plant. 432. 

Beggar-ticks. 512. 

Belamcanda Chinensis, 64. 

Bellflower. 458. 

Bellflower Family, 4-6. 

Bellflower, Marsh. 4^10. 

Bellflower, Tall, 4^0. 
' Bellwort, 38. 

Bellw(jrt, Large-flowered. 38. 

Berheridace.4^., 152. 

Bergamot. Purple, 400. 

Bergamot, Wild, 398. 

Berula angustijolia, ?,\o. 

Bethlehem, N. H., 70. 

Betony, Wood, 432 

Bidens cernua, 512 

Bidens Chrysanthemoidcs, 514- 

Bidens jrondosa, 512. 
j Bindweed, Hedge, 370. 

Bindweed, Small, 372. 

Bindweed, Trailing, 372. 



538 



INDEX. 



Bindweed, Upright, 370. 
Bird's Nest, 306. 
Birthroot, 40. 
Birthwort Family, 98. 
Bishop's Cap, 184. 
Bittersweet, 412 
Black-eved Susan, 508. 
Black Medick, 216. 
Black Sampson, 506. 
Bladder Ketmia, 266. 
Blazing Star, 46. 
Blazin-; Star, Tall, 470. 
Blephilia aliata, 400. 
Blephilia. Downy, 400. 
Bloodroot, 156. 
Bkiebell, 458, 460. 
Bkieberries, 328. 
Blue Curls, 3S8. 
Blue-eyed Grass, 60. 
Blue-eyed Grass, Eastern, 66. 
Blue-eyed Grass, Stout, 66. 
Blue Flag, Larger, 62. 
Blue Flag, Slender, 64. 
Blue Lupine, 210. 
Bluets, 440. 
Boneset, 468. 
Boneset, Upland, 468. 
Borage Family, 376. 

BoRAGINACE.«, 376. 

Boston, Mass., 154, 286, 524. 
Bottle Gentian, 420. 
Bouncing Bet, 116. 
Boxberry, 330. 
Brassica alba, 174. 
Brassica nigra, 172. 
Brasska Sinapistrum, 172. 
Brattleboro, Yt., 272. 
Brooklime, American, 424, 426. 
Broom-rape Family, 436. 
Broom-rape, Naked, 436. 
Brimella vulgaris, 406. 
Buckthorn, Common, 258. 
Buckthorn Family, 258. 
Buckwheat, 108. 
Buckwheat, Climbing False, 108. 
Buckwheat Family, 102. 
Buda rubra D., 126. 
Bugleweed, 394. 
Bugloss, Small, 382. 
Bugloss, Viper's, 382. 
Bunchberry, 318. 
Bunch Flower, 46. 
Bur-cucumber, One-seeded, 456. 
Burdock, 520. 
Burdock, Smaller, 520. 
Bur Marigold, Larger, 514. 
Bur Marigold, Smaller, 512. 
Bur Reed, Branching, 4. 
Bur Reed Family, 4. 
Bur Reed, Great, 4 
Bur Reed, Smaller, 4. 
Butter-and-Eggs, 418. 
Buttercup, Bulbous, 142. 
Buttercup, Creeping, 142. 
Buttercup, Early, 140. 
Buttercup, Swamp, 140. 



Buttercup, Tall, i44- 
Butterfly Weed, 366. 
Butterweed, 498. 

Calamus, 16. 

Calla palustris. i 2 . 

Callirrhce iuvoliicrata, 264. 

Calopogon pulcliellus, 80. 

Caltha palustris, 144. 

Cambridge, Mass., 158. 

Ca.mpaxulace.'E, 456. 

Campaniilacece, 462. 

Campanula Americana, 460. 

Campanula aparinoides, 460. 

Campanula rapunculoidcs, 458. 

Campanula rotundifolia, 458. 

Campion, Bladder, 118. 

Campion, Starry, 118. 

Campion, White, 120. 

Campton, N. H., 54, 70. 84, 116, 
120, 132, 224, 230, 272, 282, 
300, 302, 312, 328, 348, 364, 
396, 420, 456, 488, 512. 

Campton Bog, N. H , 462. 

Canada Mayflower, 34- 

Cancer Root, 436. 

Cancer Root, One-flowered, 436. 

Cape Cod, Mass., 472. 

Caprifoliace,^, 446. 

Capsdla Bursa-pastoris, 174. 

Caraway, 312. 

Cardamine h irsuta, 168. 

Cardamine rhomboidea, 166. 

Cardamine rhomboidea, var. pur- 
purea, 166. 

Cardinal Flower, 462. 

Carlinville, 111., 54. 

Carrion Flower, 24. 

Carrot, Wild, 306. 312. 

Carum Carui, 312. 

Caryophyllace.^, 116. 

Cashew Family, 250. 

Cassia Chamcecrista, 228. 

Cassia Marilandica, 228. 

Cassia nictitans, 228. 

Castilleja, 432. 

Castilleja cocaine a, 430. 

Castilleja pallida, var. septen- 
trionalis, 430. 

Catchflv, Night-flowering, 120. 

Catchfly, Sleepy, 118. 

Catnip, 400. 

Catskill Mountains, 424. 

Cat -tail, 3. 

Cat-tail Family, 3- 

Cat-tail, Narrow-leaved, 3- 

Caulophyllum thalictroides, 152. 

Ceanothus Americanus, 258. 

Celandine, 158. 

Celastrace.-e, 254. 

Celastrus scandeus, 254. 

Centaury, Lesser, 352. 

Centaury, Spiked, 352. 

Cerastium arvense, 124. 

Cerastium vulgatum, 124. 

Chamcelirium Carolinianum, 46. 



539 



INDEX. 



Chamomile. 514. 
Charlock, 172. 
Charlotte. Vt.. 2S6. 
Checkerbcrry, .v^o. 
Cheeses, 262. 

Chelidotiiitm mains, 15S. 

CJwlone glabra. 420. 

Chexopgdiace.-e, I 10. 

Clwnopodium album, iio. 

Chcnopodiiim album, var. viridc, 
1 10 

Chenopodium ambrosioides, iio. 

Cltenopodium Botrys, iio. 

Chickweed, 124. 

Chickweed. Field. 124. 

Chickweed. Larger Mouse-car. 
124. 

Chicory, 524. 

Chimaphila macnlata, 320. 

Chimaphila umbcllata, 320. 

Chiogcncs serpyllijolia, 32.S. 

Chrysaiitliemum Leucanthcmiim, 
561. 

Chrysantliemum Parth:ni:im , 5 16. 

Chrysopsis jalcata. 472. 

Chrysopsis gramimjolia, 472. 

Chrysopsis Mariana, 472. 

Chrysosplcn in m A mcrica n u m, 
186. 

Ciclioritim Intybus, 524. 

Cicuta macidata, 312. 

CirniciJHga racemosa, 150. 

Cinchona, 440. 

Cinquefoil. 202. 

Cinquefoil. Marsh Fivc-tinRcr. 
200. 

Cinquefoil. Norway, 198. 

Cinquefoil. Purple, 200. 

Cinquefoil. Rough-fruited. lyS. 

Cinquefoil, Shrubby, 200. 

Cinquefoil. Silvery. njS. 

CirccBa alpina, 300. 

Circcea Lutetiana, 300. 

Cirsium altissimum, var. dis- 
color, 522. 

Cirsium arvcnse, 522. 

Cirsium lanceolatum, 520. 

Cirsium miiticmn. 522. 

Cirsium pumilum, 522. 

CiSTACEyE, 274. 

Clarendon Hills. Mass.. 14. 518. 
Claytonia Caroliniana, 116. 
Claytonia Virginica, 114. 
Cleavers, 442. 
Clematis verticillaris, 130. 
Clem.atis Viorna, 130. 
Clematis Virginiana, 128, 130. 
Climbing Bittersweet Waxwork, 

254- 
Clintonia, 26. 
Clintonia borealis, 26. 
Clintonia umbellata, 26. 
Cloudberry, 192. 
Clover, Alsatian, 212. 
Clover, Alsike, 212. 
Clover, Hop, 212. 



Clover, Low Hop, 214. 
Clover, Red, 210. 
Clover, Stone, 210. 
Clover, Trailing Bush, 220. 
Clover, White. 212. 
Clover, Yellow, 212. 
Coffee, 440. 
Cohosh. Blue, 152. 
Collinsonia Canadoisis, 390. 
Columbine, 146. 
Comfrey, Wild, 378. 
COMMEI.IXACE.*, iS. 
Commelina hirtella, 18. 
Commelina Virginica, 20. 

COMPOSIT.-E, 46(). 

Composite Family, 406. 
Concord, Mass., 154, 
Cone-flower, 508. 
Cone-flower, Purple, 506. 
Cone-flower, Tall, 508. 
Coniosclinum Canadoisc, 306. 
Conium mactilatum. 312. 
Conopholis A»icrica}ia. 436. 
Convallaria majalis, 34. 

CONVOLVUI.ACR.E. 37O. 

Convolvulus arvcnsis, 372. 
Convolvulus Family. 370. 
Convolvulus sepium, 370. 
Convolvulus sepium, var. repots, 

372. 
Convolvulus spithamcrus, 370. 
Cool wort. 184. 
Coptis trijolia, 146. 
Coral-Vjcrry, 148. 
Corallorhiza innata, 70. 
Corallorhiza multiflora, 70. 
Corallorhiza odontorhiza, 70. 
Coral Root, Early, 70. 
Coral Root, Large, 70. 
Coral Root, Small-fiowered, 70. 
CoRNACE.«, 318. 
Corn Cockle, i 20. 
Cornel, Dwarf, 318. 
Corn Salad, 454. 
Cornus Canadensis, 318. 
Cornus, florida, 318. 
Corydalis aurca, 164. 
Corydalis glauca, 162. 
Corydalis, Golden, 164. 
Corydalis, Pale, 162. 
Cowbane, 308. 
Cowbane, Spotted, 312. 
Cowslip, American. 342. 
Cowslip. Virginia, 378. 
Cowslips, 144. 
Cow-wheat, 434. 
Cranberries, 328. 
Cranesbill, 230. 
Crassulace.*. 180. 
Cress. Hairy Rock. 168. 
Cress, Small Bitter. 168. 
Cress, Spring, 166. 
Cress, Winter, 172. 
Crinkleroot, 1O6. 
Crotalaria sagittalis, 208. 
Crowfoot, Bristly, 142 



540 



INDEX. 



Crowfoot Family, 12S. 
Crowfoot, Hooked, 140. 
Crowfoot, Small-flowered, 1.38. 
Crucifer.-e, 166. 
Cuckoo Flower, 122. 
Cucumber, Climbing Wild, 454. 

CUCURBITACE.^, 454. 

Cudweed, Low, 504. 
Cudweed, Marsh, 504. 
Culver's Root, 422. 
Cuphea, Clammy, 288. 
Cuphea viscosissima, 288. 
Currant, Indian, 448. 
Cuscuta Gronovii, 372. 
Cynoglossum officinale, 376. 
Cynoglossum Virginicuni, 378. 
Cypripedium, 68. 
Cypripedium acaule, g6. 
Cypripedium candidum, g4, 96. 
Cypripcdiuyyi parvifioriim, 94. 
Cypripedium piibescens, 94, 96. 
Cypripedium spectabile, 96. 

Daisy, Michaelmas, 49°- 
Daisy Oxeye, 516. 
Dalibarda repcns, 192. 
Dandelion, Common, 532. 
Dandelion, Dwarf, 524. 
Dandelion, Fall, 524. 
Dandelion, Red-seeded, 532. 
Datura Stramonium, 414. 
Datura Tatula, 414. 
Daucus Carota, 306. 
Day Flower, 18. 
Decodon verticillatus, 288. 
Deer-grass, 290. 
Delphinium Ajacis, 148. 
Delphinium Consolida, 148. 
Delphinium exaltatum, 148. 
Dentaria diphylla, 166. 
Dentaria laciniata, 166. 
Desmodium acuminatum., 218. 
Desmodium Canadense, 218. 
Desmodium Dillenii, 218. 
Desmodium nudiflorum, 216. 
Desmodium paniculatum, 218. 
Desmodium rotundifolitim, 218. 
Devil's Bit, 46. 
Diaiiih u s Anneria, 116. 
Dianthus dcltoides, 116. 

DlAPEXSIACE^, 340. 

Diapensia Family, 340. 
Dicentra Canadensis, 160. 
Dicenira Cuciillaria, 160. 
Dicentra exima, 162. 
Diervilla trifida, 452. 
Dock, Bitter, 104. 
Dock, Curled, 102. 
Dock, Golden, 104. 
Dock, Great Water, 102. 
Dock, Patience, 102, 
Dock, Swamp, 102. 
Dodder, Common, 372. 
Dodecathcon Meadia, 342. 
Dogbane Family, 364. 
Dogbane, Spreading, 364. 



Dogwood Family, 318. 
Dogwood, Flowering, 318. 
Dover, Me., 138. 
Draba Caroliniana, 168. 
Draba veriia, 170. 
Dragon, Green, 10. 
Dragon-head, False, 406. 
Dragon-root, 10. 
Droserace.'E, 178. 
Drosera filiformis, 178. 
Drosera intermedia, var. Amer- 
icana, 178. 
Drosera linearis, 178. 
Drosera roiundijolia, 178. 
Dublin, xN. H., 70. 
Dutchman's Breeches, 160. 
Dutchman's Pipe, 100. 

East Lexington, Mass., 286. 
Echinacea pallida, 508. 
Echinacea purpurea, 506. 
Echinocystis lobata, 454. 
Echinospermum Lappula, 378. 
Echinospermum Virginicum, 378. 
Echium, 376. 
Echium vulgare, 382. 
Elder, 446. 

Elder, Red-berried, 446. 
Elder, Wild, 302. 
Elecampane, 504. 
Enchanter's Nightshade, 300. 
Epigcea re pens, 330. 
Epilobium adenocaulon, 296. 
Epilobium angustifolium, 294. 
Epilobium coloratum, 296. 
Epilobium hirsutum, 294. 
Epilobium lineare, 294. 
Epilobiutn palustre, 294. 
Epilobium strictum, 296. 
Epiphegus Virgintana, 436. 
Erechtites hieracifolia, 518. 
Ericace.^, 328. 
Ericacece, 340. 
Erigeron annuus, 498. 
Erigeron bellidij alius, 500. 
Erigeron Canadensis, 498. 
Erigeron Philadelphicus, 500. 
Erigeron strigosus, 498. 
Erythrcsa Centaurium, 352. 
Eryihrcea ramosissima, 352. 
ErythrcEa spicata, 352. 
Erythronium albidum, 54. 
Erythronium Americanum, 54. 
Eupatorium ageratoides, 470. 
Eupatorium album, 468. 
Eupatorium aromaticum, 470. 
Eupatorium perfoliatum, 468. 
Eupatorium purpureum, 468. 
Eupatorium sessilifolium, 468. 

EUPHORBIACE.-E, 246. 

Euphorbia Cyparissias, 248. 
Euphorbia Helioscopia, 248. 
Euphorbia maculata, 246. 
Euphorbia marginata, 248. 
Euphorbia polygonifolia, 246. 
Euphorbia Preslii, 246. 



541 



INDEX. 



Euphrasia Oakesii, 432. 

Euphrasia officinalis, 432. 

Euphrasia officinalis, var. Tar- 
taric a, 432. 

Evening Primrose, Common, 
296. 

Evening Primrose Family, 292. 

Evening Primrose, Oakes's, 208. 

Everlasting, 500. 

Everlasting, Clammy, 504. 

Everlasting, Pearly, 502. 

Everlasting, Sweet, 504. 

Eyebright, 430. 

Fagopyrum escidentuni, loS 
False Foxglove, Downy, 426. 
False Foxglove, Fern-leaved, 

426. 
False Foxglove, Smooth, 42H 
False Mermaid, 232. 
False Spikenard, 30. 
F'armer's Curse, 516. 
Farmington, Me., 502. 
Featherfoil, 340. 
Feather Geranium, iio. 
Feverfew, 516. 
Feverwort, 448. 
Figwort, 418. 
Figwort Family, 416. 
Fireweed, 294, 5 18. 
Five-finger, 202. 
Flax, Common, 238. 
Flax Familv, 2^S. 
Flax. Wild Yellow, 238. 
Fleabane, Common, 500. 
Fleabane, Daisy, 498. 
Fleur-de-lis, 62. 
Flocrkca proserpinacoides, 232. 
Flower-of-an-hour, 266. 
Fly-honeysuckle, 4 so. 
Fly-honeysuckle, Mountain. 450 
Foamflower, 184. 
Forget-me-not, 380. 
Forget-me-not, Smaller, 380. 
Forget-me-not, S]5ring, 380. 
Fragaria Americana. kjO. 
Fragaria Virgi>iiana, 196. 
Franconia, X. H., 502. 
Frostweed, 274. 
FUMARIACE.t. 158. 
Fiimaria officinalis, 164. 
Fumitory, 164. 
Fumitory, Climbing, 160. 

Galeopsis Tetrahit, 410. 
Galium aparine, 442. 
Galium asprellum, 444, 460. 
Galium boreale, 444. 
Galium circcezans, 444. 
Galium trifidum, 444. 
Galium triflorum, 444. 
Galium verum, 442. 
Gall of the Earth, s3o. 
Garden Orpine. 180. 
Gaultlieria procumbens, sjo. 
Gentian, Bottle, 360. 



Gentian. Closed, 360. 
Gentian. Downy, 358. 
Gentian Family. 352. 
Gentian, Fringed, 356. 
Gentian, Horse, 448. 
Gentian, Soapwort, 360. 
Gentianace.-e. 352. 
Gentiana, Andrcu'sii, 360. 
Gentiana angustifolia, 362. 
Gentiana crinita, 356. 
Gentiana linearis, 360. 
Gentiana ochroleuca, 362. 
Gentiana puberula, 358. 
Gentiana qiiinqucflora, 358. 
Gentiana Saponaria, 360. 
Goitiana serrata, 35S. 
Geraniace.^. 230. 
Geranium Bick)iellii, 230. 
Geranium Carolinianum. 232. 
Geranium Family, 230. 
Geranium maculatum, 2.1O. 
Geranium Robertianum, 230. 
Geranium, Wild, 230. 
Gerard ia flava. 426. 
Gerardia maritima, 428. 
Gcrardia pedicularia, 426. 
Gerardia, Purple, 428. 
Gerardia purpurea, 428. 
Gerardia purpurea, var pauper- 

cula, 42S 
Gerardia quercijolia, 428. 
Gerardias, 430. 
Gerardia, Seaside, 428. 
Gerardia, Slender, 428. 
Gerardia tenuifolia, 4 28 
Germander, American. 390. 
(leum album, 192. 
Gcum radiatum, var Peckii, 194. 
Geum rivale, 194. 
Geum strictum, 194 
Geum triflorum, 194. 
Gcum \'irginianum, 194. 
Gill-over-the-ground, 400. 
Ginseng. 304. 
Ginseng, Dwarf, 304. 
Ginseng Family. 302. 
Glaux, 340. 
Glatix maritiryia, 348. 
Gnaphalium decurrens, ,';o4. 
Gnaphalium polycephalum, 504. 
Gnaphalium iiligmosum, 504. 
Goat's Beard, 190 
Golden Aster, Curved-leaved, 

472. 
Golden Aster, Grass-leaved, 472. 
Golden Club, 16. 
Golden-rod, Alpine, 476. 
Golden-rod. Blue-stemmed, 474. 
Golden-rod, Bog. 476. 
Golden-rod. Broad-leaved, 474. 
Golden-rod. Canada. 482. 
Golden-rod, Early, 480 
Golden-rod, Elm-leaved, 47S. 
Golden-rod, Gray, 482. 
Golden-rod, Hard-leaved, 482. 
Golden-rod, Lance-leaved, 484. 



542 



INDEX. 



Golden-rod, Large-leaved, 476. 
Golden-rod, Late, 480. 
Golden-rod, Rough-stemmed, 

478. 
Golden-rod, Seaside, 476. 
Golden-rod, Sharp-leaved, 480. 
Golden-rod, Showy, 476. 
Golden-rod, Slender, 484. 
Golden-rod, Spreading, 478. 
Golden-rod, Stout, 474. 
Golden-rod, Swamp, 480. 
Golden-rod, Sweet, 478. 
Golden-rod, White, 474. 
Goldthread, 146. 
Goodyera Menzieii, 78. 
Goody era pubescens, 78 
Goodyera re pens, 76. 
Goodyera re pens, var.ophides, 76. 
Goodyera tesselata, 76. 
Goosefoot Family, no. 
Goosegrass, 442. 
Gourd Family, 454. 
Grape, Northern Fox, 260. 
Grape, River, 260. 
Grass-of -Parnassus, 186. 
Grass Pink, 80. 
Great Cranberry Island, Me., 

432. 
Green Adder's Mouth, 68. 
Green Brier, 24. 
Grim the Collier, 526. 
Gromwell, 382. 
Gromwell, Corn, 380. 
Ground Cherry, Clammy, 412. 
Ground Cherry, Virginia, 414. 
Ground Moss, 3 74-' 
Ground Nut, 224. 

Habenaria blephariglottis, go. 
Habenaria bracteata, 84. 
Habenaria ciliaris, 88. 
Habenaria cristata, 88. 
Habenaria dilaiata, 86. 
Habenaria fimbriata, 92. 
Habenaria Hooker i ana, 86. 
Habenaria hyperborea, 86. 
Habenaria integra, 84. 
Habenaria lacera, 90. 
Habenaria leticophcea, 88. 
Habenaria nivea, 84. 
Habenaria peramcena, 92. 
Habenaria psycodes, 90, 92. 
Habenaria tridentaia, 84, 90. 
Habenaria virescens, 84. 
Hardhack, 188. 
Harebell, 458, 460. 
Hartford, Conn., 76. 
Haverhill, Mass., 422. 
Hawkweed, Canada, 526. 
Hawkweed, Tawny, 526. 
Heal-all, 406. 
Heath Family, 320, 328. 
Hedeonia pulegtoides, 396. 
Helenium autumnale, 514. 
Helianthemum Canadense, 274. 
Helianthus annuus, 510. 



Helianthus decapetalus, 512. 
Helianthus divaricatus, 510. 
Helianthus giganteus, 510. 
Helianthus parviflorus, 510. 
Helianthus strumosus, 510. 
Helianthus tuberosus, 512. 
Heliopsis Icrvis, 506. 
Heliopsis scabra, 506. 
Hempweed, Climbing, 468. 
Hellebore, American White, 46. 
Hemerocallis flava, 58. 
Hemerocallis fulva, 58. 
Hemlock, Poison, 312, 314. 
Hemlock, Water, 312. 
Hepatica, 134. 
Hepatica acutiloba, 134. 
Hepatica triloba, 134. 
Heracleum lanatum, 308. 
Herb Robert, 230. 
Heter anther a reniformis, 22. 
Heuchera Americana, 186. 
Hibiscus coccineus, 266. 
Hibiscus ntilitaris, 266. 
Hibiscus Moscheutos, 266. 
Hibiscus Trionum, 266. 
Hieracium aurantiacum, 526. 
Hieracium Canadense, 526. 
Hieracium Gronovii, 528. 
Hieracium paniculatum, 526. 
Hieracium scabrum, 528. 
Hieracium venosum, 528. 
Hobble-bush, 446. 
Hogweed, 506. 
Holderness, N. H., 240. 
Honeysuckle, Bush, 452. 
Hone^'suckle, Coral, 452. 
Honeysuckle Family, 446. 
Honeysuckle, Trumpet, 452 
Honeysuckle, White Swamp, 

334- 
Honeysuckle, Wild, 336. 
Horehound, 408. 
Horehound, Cut-leaved Water, 

394- 
Horseradish, 170. 
Horse weed, 498. 
Hottonia inflata, 340. 
Hound's tongue, 376. 
Houston ia ccsrulea, 440. 
Hoiistonia, Large, 440. 
Houstonia purpurea, 440. 
Houstonia purpurea, var. cilio- 

lata, 442. 
Hotistonia, purpurea var. longi- 

folia, 442. 
Huckleberries, 328. 
Hudsonia tomentosa, 274. 
Hydrastis Canadensis, 150. 
Hydrocotyle Americana, 316. 
Hypericace.^, 268. 
Hypericum adpressum, 268. 
Hypericum Ascyron, 268. 
Hypericum Canadense, 272. 
Hypericum ellipticum, 270. 
Hypericum maculatum, 270. 
Hypericum mutilum, 272. 



543 



INDEX. 



Hvperkum nudicaiile. 272. 
Hvpcriciim perforatum, 270. 
Hypericum prolificiim, 26S. 
Hypericum virgatum, 270. 
Hypericum Virginicum, 272 
Hypoxis erecta, 60. 
Hyssop, 3q6. 
Hyssopus officinalis, ,^06. 

UysantJies riparia, 422. 
Indigo, Blue False, 20S 
Indigo, Wild, 208. 
Impatiens aurea, 256. 
hnpatiens biflora, 256. 
Indian Cucumber, 44. 
Indian Hemp, 3^'4- 
Indian Pipe, 326. 
Indian Poke, 46. 
Innocence, 440. 
Inula Helenium, 504. 
IridatE/E, 62. 
Iris, Crested Dwarf, 64. 
Ins cristata, 64. 
Iris, Dwarf, 64. 
Iris Family, 62. 
Ins prisma! ica, 64 . 
Iris verna, 64. 
Iris versicolor, 62. 
Ironweed, New Vnrk, 46S. 
Ironweed, Tall, ^(>(>. 
Isanthus ccvruleus, 388. 
Ivy, Groimd, 400. 

Jack-in-the-pulpit, 10. 
Jackson, X. H., 68. 
Jacob's Ladder, ,^76. 
Jaffrey, X. H , 84, 402. 
Jamestown Weed, 414- 
Jefferson, X. H., 144 
Jefjersonia diphylla. 152. 
Jerusalem Oak, iio. 
Jewel-weed, 256. 
Jewel -Weed Family, 256. 
Jimson Weed, 414 
Joe-Pye-Weed, 4^j8. 

Kahnia angustijolia, 334- 
Kalmia glauca, 334. 
Kalmia latijolia, 332. 
Knotgrass, 106. 
Knotweed, Erect, 106. 
Krigia amplexicaulis, 524. 
Krigia Virginica, 524. 

Labiat.-e, 388. 
Lactuca, 506. 

Lactuca Canadensis, 532, 534. 
Lactuca hirsuta, 534. 
Lactuca integriiolia, 532- 
Lactuca leucophcea, S34- 
Lady's Slipper, Showy, g6 
Layd's Slipper, Stemless, q6. 
Lady's Slipper, White, 04. 
Lady's Slipper, Yellow, 04. 
Lady's Thumb, 106. 



Ladies' Tresses, 72 

Ladies' Tresses, Grass-leaved, 74 

Ladies' Tresses, Slender, 74. 

Lake Champlain, X. Y , 132. 

Lake Dunmore, Vt., 370. 

Lake Huron, 178. 

Lake ot the Clouds, Mt. Wash- 
ington. X. H., 200. 

Lake Superior, 178. 

Lakewood, X T-. 34°- 

Lambkill, 334. 

Lamb's-quarters, no. 

Lamium amplexicaule, 408. 

Lamium pitrpureum, 410 

Langdon Park, Plymouth, N.H . 
11)2, 422. 

Larkspur, Field, 148. 

Larkspur, Tall, 148 

Lathynis maritimus, 224. 

Lathyrus palustris, 244. 

Laurel, Great, 338. 

Laurel. Mountain, 332, 3 34- 

Laurel. Pale, 334- 

Laurel, Sheep-, 334. 

Lead wort, 350. 

Leather Flower, 130. 

Lechca minor, 274. 

Leui'mimos.*;, 18S, 208. 

Lco)itodon autuynnalis, 524. 

Leontodo}i autumnalis, var pra- 
tensis, 524. 

Lconurus Cardiaca. 408. 

Lepidium Virgmicum. 174- 

Lespedeza capUata, 222 

Lcspedeza polystachya. 220. 

Lespedeza prorumbens. 220. 

Lespedeza reticulata, 220. 

Lespedeza violacea, 220. 

Lettuce, Smooth-stemmed 
White, S28. 

Lettuce, Tall Blue, 5 U- 

Lettuce, Tall White, 53°- 

Lettuce, White. 528. 

Lettuce, Wild, 532. 

Lexington, Mass., 116. 

Liatris scariosa, 470. 

Liatris spicata, 470. 

Liatris squarrosa, 470. 

LlI.IACE.-E, 24. 

LUiuni Canadense, 50. 

Lilium Philadelphicum, 48. 

Lilium tigrinum, 52. 

Lilium superbum, 52 

Lilium superbum, var. Carolini- 

aniim, 52. 
Lily, Atamasco. 60. 
Lily, Blackberry, 64. 
Lily, Canada, 50. 
Lily, Carolina, 52. 
Lily, Day, 58. 

Lily Family, 24. ' 

Lily of the Valley, 34- 
Lily, Tiger, !;2. 
Lily, Turk's Cap, 52. 
Lily, Wild Orange-red, 48. 
Lilv, Wood. 48- 



INDEX. 



Lilv, Yellow Day, 58. 
Lily, Yellow Meadow, 50. 
L-'mnantliemum, ^S2. 
I .MACE.*, 2.^8. 
"miliaria Canadensis, 416. 
Linaria vulgaris, 418. 
Lincoln, Neb., 170. 
Linncca borealis, 448. 
Linum sulcatum, 238. 
Linum usitatissimum, 238. 
Linum Virginianum, 238. 
Lion's-foot, 530. 
Liparis liliifolia, 70. 
Liquorice, Wild, 444. 
Listera convallarioidcs, 72. 
Listera cordata, 72. 
Lithospermum arvense, 380. 
Lithos perm.um canescens. 382. 
Lithospermum officinale, 380. 
Live-forever, 180. 
Liverwort, 134. 
Lobelia cardinalis, 462. 
LOBEI lACE^, 462. 
Lobelia Dortmanna, 464. 
Lobelia, Downy, 462. 
Lobelia Family, 462. 
Lobelia, Great, 462. 
Lobelia inflata. 464. 
Lobelia Kalmii, 464. 
Lobelia, Kalm's, 464. 
Lobelia, Pale Spiked, 464. 
Lobelia puberula, 462. 
Lobelia spicata, 464. 
Lobelia, syphilitica, 462. 
Lobelia, Water, 464. 
Long Purples, 288. 
Lo nicer a ccsrulea, 450. 
Lonicera ciliata, 450. 
Lonicera sempervirens, 452. 
Loosestrife Family, 286. 
Loosestrife, Four-leaved, 346. 
Loosestrife, Fringed, 344. 
Loosestrife, Hyssop, 286. 
Loosestrife, Purple or Spiked, 

288. 
Loosestrife, Swamp, 288. 
Lopseed, 386. 
Lousewort, 432 
Lower Cabot, Vt., 190. 
Lucerne, 214. 
Ludwigia alternifolia, 292. 
Ludwigia pahtstris, 292. 
Ludwigia polycarpa, 292. 
Lupinus perennis, 210. 
Lychnis alba, 120. 
Lychnis, Evening, 120. 
Lychnis, Flos-cuculi, 122. 
Lycopsis arvensts, 382. 
Lye opus sinuaius, 394. 
Lycopus Virginicus, 394. 
Lysimachia nummularta, 348. 
Lysimachia producta, 348. 
Lysimachia qiiadrifolia, 346. 
Lysimachia stricta, 346, 
Lythrace^, 286. 
Lythrum alatum, 286. 



Lythrum Hyssopifolia, 286. 
Lythrum. line are, 286. 
Lythrum salicaria, 288. 

Madder, 440. 
Madder Family, 440. 
Maianthemum Canadense, 34. 
Mallow Family, 262. 
Mallow, High, 264. 
Mallow, Marsh, 262. 
Mallow, Musk, 264. 
Mallow, Round-leaved, 262. 
Malvace^, 262. 
Malva Moschata, 264. 
Malva rotundijolia, 262. 
Malva sylvestris, 264. 
Manchester, Vt., 412. 
Mandrake, 154. 
Marigold, Marsh, 144. 
Marrubium vulgare, 408. 
May Apple, 154. 
Mayflower, 330, 442. 
Mayweed, 514. 
Meadow-beauty, 290. 
Meadow-beauty Family, 290. 
Meadowsweet, 188. 
Medicago lupulina, 216. 
Medic ago sativa, 214. 
Medeola Virginica, 44. 
Melampyrum Americanum, 434. 
Melanthium Virginicum, 46. 
Melastomace^, 290. 
Melilot, Yellow, 214. 
Melilotus alba, 214. 
Melilotus officinalis, 214. 
Mentha aquatica, 392. 
Mentha arvensts, 394. 
Mentha arvensis, var. Canaden- 
sis, 394- 
Mentha piperita, 392. 
Mentha sylvestris, 392. 
Mentha viridis, 392. 
Menyanthes, 352. 
Mertensia Virginica, 378. 
Microstylis ophioglossoides, 68. 
Middlesex Fells, Mass., 276. 
Middletown, Conn., 122. 
Mikania scandens, 468. 
Milfoil, 514. 
Milk Purslane, 246. 
Milk Vetch, 214. 
Milkweed, Common, 368. 
Milkweed Family, 364. 366. 
Milkweed, Four-leaved, 37 o- 
Milkweed, Poke, 368. 
Milkweed, Purple, 366. 
Milkweed, Swamp, 366. 
Milkwort, 242. 
Milkwort, Cross-leaved, 244. 
Milkwort Family, 240. 
Milkwort, Fringed, 240. 
Milkwort, Short -leaved, 244. 
Milkwort, Whorled, 244. 
Mimulus ringens, 422. 
Mint, Corn, 394. 
Mint Family, 388 



545 



INDEX. 



Mint, Horse, 302. 
Mint, Mountain, 396. 
^Iint, Water, .302. 
Mint. Wild, 304- 
Mite he! I J re pens, 442. 
Mitella diphvlla, 184. 
Miiella nuda, 184, 186. 
Mitrewort, 184. 
Mitrewort, False, 184. 
Mitrewort, Naked, 1S4. 
Moccasin Flower, q6. 
Monarda didyma, 308. 
Monarda fistulosa. 308. 
Monarda fistulosa, var. media, 

400. 
Monarda fistulosa, var. rubra, 

400. 
Mo>icse^ grandiflora, 322. 
Moneywort, 348 
Monkey-flower, 422. 
Monkshood, 148. 
Monotropa Hypopitys, 326. 
Monotropa umilora, 326. 
Moss, Flowering, 340. 
Motherwort, 408 
Mount Agassiz, N. H , 70. 
Mountain Daisy, 122. 
Mountain Fringe, 160. 
Mt. Desert Island, 122. 
Mt. Equinox, Vt., 4. 
Mt. Katahdin, Me., 530- 
Mt. Monroe, \. H., 432. 
Mt. Moosilaukc, X. H.. 280. 
Mt. Washington, X. H , 72, 122. 

200, 2S0, 424, 4.1O. 
Mud Plantain, 22. 
Mugwort, 516. 
Mullein, Moth, 416. 
Mustard, Black, 172 
Mustard Family, 166. 
Mustard, Field, 172. 
Muitard, Hedge, 172. 
Mustard, White, 174. 
Myosotis laxa, 380. 
Myosotis palustris, 380. 
Mvosoiis verna, 380. 
Myrtle. 348. 

Nantucket, Mass., 4, 48, 116. 

126, 208, 268, 270, 350, 3.^2, 

3.^6, 472, 524. 
Nasturtium Armoracia, 170. 
Nasturtium officinale, 170. 
Nasiurtiutn terrestre, 170. 
Nepeta Cataria, 400. 
Nepeta Glechoma, 400 
Nettle, Dead. 408. 
Nettle, Hedge, 410. 
Nettle, Hemp. 410. 
Newfane, Vt., 494. 
New Jersey Tea, 258. 
New York, N. Y., 154. 
Nightshade, 412 
Nightshade, Black, 412. 
Nightshade Family, 410. 
Nonesuch, 216. 



North Easton, Mass., 24. 

Nuphar advena, 126. 

Nuphar advena, var. minus, 

128. 
Nuphar Kalmianum, 128. 
NVMPH.«ACE.«, 126. 

Nymphcea odorata, 126. 
Nymphcca odorata, var. minor, 

126. 
Nymphcea odorata, var. rosea, 

126. 

Oakesia. 38. 
Oakcsia sessilifolia, 38. 
I Oakcs's Gulf, Mt. Washington, 
N. H., .S30. 
Old Man's Beard, 130. 
Onagrace.*, 292. 
Onosmodium Virginianum, 382. 
Orange-grass, 272. 
Orangeroot, 150. 

ORCHIDACE.^•:, 68. 

Orchid Family, 68 

Orchis. Green Round - Leaved, 

86. 
Orchis, Green Wood, 84. 
Orchis, Hooker's, 86 
Orchis, Large Purple Fringed, 

92. 
Orchis, Purple, 92. 
Orchis, Ragged Fringed, 90. 
Orchis rotundifolia, 82. 
Orchis. Showy. 82. 
Orchis, Smaller Purple Fringed, 

02. 
Orcliis spectabilis, 82. 
Orchis, White Fringed, 88. 
Orchis, Yellow Crested, 88. 
Orchis, Yellow Fringed, 88. 
OrnithoRahim umbellatum, s6. 
Okoban'chace.-e, 436. 
Orobanche uniflora, 436. 
Orono, Me., 138. 
Orontiutn aquaticum, 16. 
Orpine Family, 180. 
Osmorrhiza brevislylis, 314. 
Osynorrhi-a longistylis, 314. 
Oswego Tea, 398. 

OXALIDACE.-K, 234. 

Oxalis Acetosella, 234. 
Oxalis cymosa, 236. 
Oxalis stricta, 236. 
Oxalis vwlacea, 234, 
Oxeye, 506. 

Painted Guy), 4 ?o. 

Panax quinquejolium, 304. 

Panax trijolium, 304. 

Papaverace.^, 156, 158 

Papoose Root, is 2. 

Parnassia Caroliniana. 186. 

Parsley Family, 306. 

Parsley, Hemlock, 306. 

Parsnip. Cow. 308. 
I Parsnip. Early Meadow, 310. 
' Parsnip, Meadow. 310 



546 



INDEX. 



Parsnip, "Water, 310. 

Parsnip, Wild, 308. 

Partridgeberry, 442, 

Pastinaca sativa, 308, 310. 

Pea, Beach, 224. 

Peacham, Vt., 190. 

Peanut, Hog, 226. 

Peanut, Wild, 226. 

Pea Partridge, 228. 

Pedicularis Canadensis, 432. 

Pedicidaris lanccolaia, 434- 

Peltandra undulata. 12. 

Pemigewasset Valley, N. H.. 
252, 45')- 

Pennyroyal, American, 306, 

Pennyroyal, Bastard, 388. 

Pennyroyal, False, 388. 

Penthorum sedoides, 180. 

Penistemon, 420. 

Pentsteynon Iccvigatus, 420, 422. 

Penistemon Icevigatus, var. digi- 
talis, 420, 422. 

Pentstemofi pubescens, 420. 

Pepper-grass, Wild, 174. 

Peppermint, 392. 

Perilla ocymoides, 390. _ 

Persicaria, Pennsylvania, 106. 

Phaseolus perennis, 226. 

Phillip's Beach, Marblehead, 
Mass., 120. 

Phlox divaricata, 374. 

Phlox, Downy, 374. 

Phlox Family, 374 

Phlox paniculata, 374. 

Phlox pilosa, 374. 

Phlox subulaia, 3 74- 

Phlox, Wild Blue, 374- 

Phryma leptostachya, 386. 

Physalis hetcrophylla, 412. 

Physalis pubescens, 414. 

Physalis Virjiiiiana, 414. 

Physostegia V irgi}iiana, 406. 

Physostegia Virginiana, var. 
denticidata, 406. 

Pickerel Weed, 22. 

Pickerel Weed Family, 22. 

Pigweed, 1 10. 

Pimpernel, 350. 

Pimpernel, False, 422. 

Pine -sap, 326. 

Pine -weed, 272. 

Pink, 3 54- 

Pink, Deptford, 116. 

Pink Family, 116. 

Pink, Ground, 374. 

Pink, Large Marsh, 356. 

Pink, Maiden, 116. 

Pink, Rose, 354. 

Pink, Sea, 354. 

Pink, Wild, 118. 

Pinweed, 274. 

Pinxter Flower, 336. 

Pipsissewa, 320. 

Pitcher Plarit, 176. 

Pitcher Plant Family, 176. 

Plantaginace.-e, 438. 



448. 



154- 



Plantago lanceolata, 438 
Plantago major, 438. 
Plantago Rugelii, 438. 
Plantain, Common, 438 
Plantain, English, 438. 
Plantain Family, 438. 
Plantain, Robin's, 500. 
Pleurisy Root, 366. 

PLUMBAGINACE.-E, 3SO. 

Plumbago, ^50. 
Plymouth, N. H., 158 
Podophyllum, 152. 
Podophyllum peltatum 
Pogonia, Nodding, 80. 
Pogonia ophioglossoides, 78, 80. 
Pogonia pendula, 80 
Pogonia vertkillata, 82. 
Poison Ivy 252. 

POLEMONIACE.'E, 374. 

Polemonium cceruleiim, 376. 
Polemonium reptans, 376. 
Poly gala brevifolia, 244. 

POLYGALACE.^, 24O. 

Poly gala cruciata, 244. 
Poly gala pancifolia, 240. 
Polygala polygama, 242. 
Polygala sanguinea, 242. 
Polygala Senega, 242. 
Polygala verticillata, 244. 
Polygala verticillata, var. am- 
bigua, 244. 

POLVGONACE>E, 102. 

Polygonatum biflorum, 36. 
Polygonaium giganteum, 36. 
Polygonum. 104. 
Polygonum arifolium, 108. 
Polygonum aviculare, 106. 
Polygonum dunietoriim, var. 

scandens, 108. 
Polygonum erecium, 106. 
Polygonum hydropiperoides, 106. 
Polygonum PennsyJvanicum, 106. 
Polygonum Persicaria. 106. 
Polygonum sagittatum, 108. 
Pond-Lily, Small Yellow, 12S. 
Pond-Lily, Yellow, 126. 

PONTEDERIACE.«, 22. 

Pontederia cordata, 22. 
Poor Man's Weather-glass, 350. 
Poppy, Celandine, 156. 
Poppy Family, 156. 
Poppv-mallow, Purple, 264. 
Poppy, Prickly, 158. 

PORTULACACE.«, II4. 

Portulaca oleracea, 114. 
Potentilla Anserina, 202. 
Potentilla argentea, 198 
Potentilla Canadensis, 202. 
Potentilla frigida. 200. 
Potentilla fruticosa, 200. 
Potentilla Norvegica, 198. 
Potentilla palustris, 200. 
Potentilla recta, 198. 
Potentilla simplex, 202. 
Potentilla tridentata, 200. 
Pownal, Vt., 208.. 



547 



INDEX. 



Prenanthes alba, 528, 5,^0. 
Prcnanthes altissinia, 5.30. 
Prenanthes Bootxi, 5,30. 
Prenatithes racemosa. 5 28 
Prenanthes serpentaria, 5.50. 
Prenanthes trijoliolata, var. nana. 

530. 
Primrose, Dwarf Canadian, .342 
Primrose Family, 340. 
Primui.ace.^, 340. 
Primula farinosa. 342. 
Primula Mistassinica, 342. 
Prince's Pine, 320. 
Profile Hotise, Franconia Notch, 

N. H , 202 
Profile Lake, Franconia N'oUh, 

N H , 234- 
PriDiella vflgaris, 406. 
Puccoon, 382. 
Pulse Family, 208. 
Purple Flowerinj^ - Rasyjljcrry, 

igo. 
Purslane Family, 114. 
Purslane or Pusley, 114. 
Pussy-toes, 500. 

Pycnanthemum lanceolalitm, 30<i- 
Pycnantlietniim linijolinm, 306. 
Pyrola asanjolia. 324. 
Pyrolace.4:, 320. 
Pyrola chlorantha, 3,22. 324. 
Pyrola elliptic a, 324. 
Pyrola Family, 320. 
Pyrola, One-flowered, 322. 
Pyrola rotundifolia, 324 
Pyrola, Round-leaved, 324. 
Pyrola secunda, 322. 
Pyrola, Small, 322. 
Pyxidanthera barbitlata, 340. 
Pyxie Moss, 340. 



Quaker Ladies, 440. 
(Jueen Anne's Lace. 306. 
Queen-ot-the-Prairie, kjo. 

Rabbit-foot, Clover, 210. 
Ragged Robin, 122. 
Ragweed, Great, 506. 
Ragwort, Golden, 51 8. 
Randolph, Vt., 190. 
Ran'unculace.-e, 128. 
RaniDicnliis abortiviis, 138. 
Ranunculus abortivus, var. eucy- 

clus, 138. 
Ranunculus acris, 142, 144. 
Ranunculus acris, var. Steveni, 

144. 
Ranunculus ambigens, 138. 
Ranunculus bulbosus, 142. 
Ranunculus jascicularis, 140. 
Ranunculus Pennsylvanicus, (42. 
Ranunculus reciirvatus, 140. 
Ranunculus repens, 142. 
Ranunculus septentrionalis, 140, 

142. 
Raspberry, Mountain, 192. 



Rattlebox, 208. 
Rattlesnake Plantain. 76. 
Rattlesnake-root, .S28. 
Rattlesnake-weed, 528. 

RHA.MXACE.4i:, 258. 

Rhamniis abiifolia, 258. 
Rhamnus cathartica, 258. 
I\lu\\ia aristosa, 290. 
Rhexia Mariana. 290. 
Rliexia \'irginica, 290. 
Rhi)ianthus Crista-galli, 432. 
Rhododendron calendulaceum. 

Rhododendron Catawbiense, 338. 

Rhododendro)! Lapponicum, .i,.','^ 

Rhododendron maximum, 338. 

Rhododoidron nudiflorum, 330. 

Rhodode}idron Rhodora, 33O. 

Rhododendrons, 334. 

Rhododendron viscosum, ? 34. 

Rh.Kl.ra. ^^6. 

Rhus copallina, 250. 

RJuts glabra, 250. 

Rlius toxicodendron, 252. 

Rhus typhina, 250. 

Rhus veiu-nata, 252. 

Ribgrass, 438. 

Richard ia, 12. 

Rich Weed. 390. 

Rock-rose Family, 274. 

Rosa blanda, 204. 

Rosa canina, 206. 

Rosa Carolina, 204. 

Rosa hum His, 206. 

Rosa lucida, 204. 

Rosa nitida, 206. 

Rosa rubiginosa, 206. 

ROSACE.E. 182, 188. 

Ruscbav, Lapland, m8. 

R.jse. Dwarf Wild, 204. 

Rose Family, 188. 

Rose-mallow. Halberd -leaved, 

266. 
Ruse-mallow, Swamp, 260. 
Rosemary, Marsh. 350 
Rose, Northeastern, 206. 
Rose. Pasture, 206. 
Rose, Smooth, 204. 
Rose, Swamp, 204. 
Roxbury, Conn ,422. 
Roxbury, Mass., 110. 
RUBIACE.'E, 438. 
Rubia tinctorum, 440. 
Rubus Chamcemorus, 192. 
Rubus odoratus, 190. 
Rudbeckia hirta, 508 
Rudbeckia laciniata, 506. 
Rudbeckia triloba, 508. 
Rue, Early Meadow, 136. 
Rue, Purplish Meadow, 138. 
Rue, Tall Meadow, 13O. 
Rtitnex Acetosella, 104. 
Rumex Britannica, 102. 
Rumex crispus, 102. 
Rumex obtusijolius, 104. 
Rumex Patientia, 102. 



i48 



INDEX. 



Riimex per sicario ides, 104. 
Rumex verticillatus, 102. 



Sabbatia angularis, 354- 
Sabbatia chloroides, 356. 
Sabbatia gracilis, 354- 
Sabbatia, Lance-leaved, 354. 
Sabbatia lanceolata, 354- 
Sabbatia stellaris, 354- 
Saddle River, N. J., 260. 
Sage, Lyre-leaved, 398. 
Sage, Wood, 390. 
Sagittaria Engelmanniana, 8. 
Sagittaria latifolia, 8. 
Sagittaria variabilis, 6. 
Sagittaria variabilis, var. pn- 

bescens, 8. 
Salvia lyrata, 308. 
Sambucus Canadensis, 446- 
Sambiiciis racemosa, 446. 
Sand Spurry, 126. 
Sandwich, N. H., 70. 
Sandwort, Mountain, 122. 
Sandwort, Thyme-leaved, 122. 
Sangiiinaria Canadensis, 156. 
Sanicle, 316 

Sanicula Marylandica, 31^- 
SankatyHead. Nantucket.Mass., 

204. 
Saponaria officinalis, 116. 
Saratoga, N. Y., 58, 132. 
Sarraceniace.'E, 176. 
Sarracenia purpurea, 176. 
Sarsaparilla, Bristly, 302. 
Sarsaparilla, Wild, 304- 
Saxifragace.4;, 180, 182, 188. 
Saxifraga Pennsylvanica, 182. 
Saxifraga Virgimensis, 182. 
Saxifrage, Early, 182. 
Saxifrage Family, 182. 
Saxifrage, Golden, 186. 
Saxifrage, Swamp, 182. 

SCROPHULARIACE.^, 416. 

Scrophularia nodosa, var. Mari- 

landica, 418. 
Scutellaria canescens, 404. 
Scutellaria galericulata, 404. 
Scutellaria integrifolia, 404. 
Scutellaria lateriflora, 402. 
Scutellaria nervosa, 406. 
Scutellaria parvula, 404. 
Scutellaria pilosa. 404. 
Scutellaria serrata, 402. 
Scutellaria versicolor, 402. 
Sea Lavender, 330. 
Sedum Telephium, 180. 
Seduni ternatum, 180. 
Seedbox, 292. 
Self-heal, 406. 
Seneca Snakeroot, 242. 
Senecio aureus, 518. 
Senecio Balsamitcr, ^18. 
Senna, Wild, 228 
Sensitive Plant, Wild, 228. 
Shelburne, N. H., 70- 



Shepherd's Purs". 174. 

Shinleaf, 322, 324. 

Shooting Star, 342. 

Sicyos angulatus, 456. 

Silene Antirrhina, 118. 

Silene Cucubalus, 118. 

Silene noctiflora, 120. 

Silene Pennsylvanica, 118. 

Silene stellata, 11 8. 

Silver Grass, 472. 

Silver-rod, 474. 

Silverweed, 202. 

Sisymbrium officinale, 172. 

Sisyrinchium anceps, 66. 

Sis'yrinchium angustifolium, 66. 

Sisyrinchiivn Atlanticum, 66. 

Slum cictitcTTolium. 310. 

Skullcap, Mad-dog, 402. 

Skunk Cabbage, 14, iS4- 

Smartweed, 106. 

Smilacina racemosa, 30. 

Smilacina stellata, 32. 

Smilacina trijolia, 32. 

Smilax herbacea. 24. 

Sm //a.v o/fiV /n a//s, 304- 

Smilax rotundifoha, 24. 

Smilax rotundifoha, var. gztad- 

rangularis, 24. 
Smith's College, Northampton, 

Mass., 434- 
Snake Mouth, 80. 
Snakeroot, Black, 150,316. 
Snakeroot, White, 470. 
Snap-dragon, Small, 418. 
Sneeze weed, 514- 
Snowberry, 450. 
Snowberrv, Creeping, 328. 
Snow on the Mountain, 248. 
Soapwort, 116. 
SoLANACE.^, 410- 
Solanum Dulcamara, 412. 
Solanum nigrum, 412. 
Solidago, 472. 
Solidago argiita, 480. 
Solidago bicolor, 474- 
Solidago cccsia, 474 
Solidago Canadensis, 482. 
Solidago juncea, 480. 
Solidago lanceolata, 484. 
Solidago latifolia, 474- 
Solidago macrophylla, 476. 
Solidago neglecia, 4S0. 
Solidago nemoralis, 482. 
Solidago odora, 478. 
Solidago patula, 478. 
Solidago rigida, 482. 
Solidago rugosa, 478. 
Solidago sempervirens, 476. 
Solidago serotina, 480. 
Solidago speciosa, 476. 
Solidago squarrosa, 474- 
Solidago tenuifolia, 484. 
Solidago uliginosa, 476. 
Solidago ulmifolia, 478. 
Solidago Virgaurea, var. alpma, 

476. 



549 



INDEX. 



Solomon's Seal, :;6. 
Solomon's Seal, False, ,:;2. 
Solomon's Seal, Three-leaved 

False, 32. 
So)i: litis as per 5.^4. 
Sonchus oleracciis, 5.^4. 
Sorrel Family, 2,u- 
Sorrel, Field or Sheep, 104. 
Sorrel, Lady"s, 2.56. 
Sorrel, Violet Wood, 234. 
Sorrel, Wood, 2,^4. 
Sorrel, Yellow Wood. 236. 
Southbury, Conn.. 374. 
Spargaxi.\ce.«, 4. 
Sparganium androcladum, 4. 
Sparganium enrycarpum, 4. 
Sparganium simplex, 4. 
Spatter-dock, 126. 
Spearmint, 392. 
Spiderwort Family, 18. 
Spikenard, 302. 
Specularia pcrjoliata, 456. 
Speedwell, Common, 424. 
Speedwell, Marsh. 424. 
Speedwell, Thyme-leaved, 42^1. 
Spiderwort, 20. 
Spircra AruHcus, 100. 
Spircea lobata, 190. 
Sfiircsa salicifolia, var. latijolta, 

188. 
Spircea tomentosa. 1S8. 
Spiranthes cernua, 72, 74. 
Spirantlies gracilis, 74. 
Spiranthcs prarcox, 74. 
Spiranthcs Romanzoffiana, 76. 
Spring Beauty, 114. 
Spurge, Cypress, 248. 
Spurge Family, 246. 
Spurge, Seaside, 246. 
Spurge, Spotted, 246. 
Spurge, Sun, 248. 
Spurge, White Margined, 248. 
Squawroot, 436. 
Squirrel Corn, 162. 
Stachys aspera, 410. 
Stachys palustris, 410. 
Staff-Tree Family, 254. 
St. Andrew's Cross, 268. 
Star Flower, 344. 
Star Grass, 60. 
Star-of-Bethlehem, s^- 
Statice Linionium, var. Caro- 

liniana, 350. 
vSteeplebush, 188. 
Steironema ciliatum, 344. 
Steironcma lattceolatum, 344. 
Stcllaria graminea, 124. 
Stellaria longifolia, 124. 
Stellaria media, 124. 
Stenanthiurn robustiim, 48. 
Stenanthium. Stout, 48. 
Stickseed, European, 378. 
Stickseed, Virginia, 378. 
Stick-tight, 512. 
Stitchwort, Lesser. [24. 
Stitchwort, Long-leaved, 124. 



St. John River, Fort Kent, Mr , 

132. 
St. Iohn's-w(_irt. Common, 270 
St John's-wort Family, 268. 
St. John's-wort, Great, 268. 
St. John's-wort, Marsh, 272. 
St. John's-wort, Shrubby, 2'>S. 
St. Tohn's-wort, Spotted, 270. 
St. Libory, St. Clair Co., 111.. 158. 
Stonecrop, Ditch, iSo. 
Stonecrop, Wild, 180. 
St. Peter' s-wort, 26S. 
Strawberrv, American Wood, 

106. 
Strawberry, Wild Virginia. loO. 
Streptopiis amplexij alius, 2S. 
Streptopus roseus, 28. 
Strophostyles angulosa, 226. 
Stylophorum diphylliim, 156. 
Succory, 524. 
Sumac. Dwarf, 250. 
Sumac. Poison. 252. 
Sumac, Smooth, 250. 
Sumac, Staghorn, 250. 
Sundew Family, 17 H. 
Sundew, Long-leaved, 178. 
Sundew, Round-leaved, 178. 
Sundew. Slender, 178. 
Sundew, Thread-leaved, 178. 
Sundrops. 208. 300. 
Sunflower. Small. 510. 
Sunflower. Tall. 510. 
Sunflower, Ten-petaled, 512. 
Sunflower. Thin-leaved, sr2. 
Sunflower, Woodland, 510. 
Sweetbrier, 206. 
Sweet Cicely, 314. 
Sweet Flag, 16. 
Sweet Scabius, 408. 
Symphoricarpos raccmosus, 450. 
Symphoricarpos vulgaris, 448. 
Symplocarpus fo'tidus, 14. 

Tanacetum vulgarc, 516. 
Tansy. 516. 

Taraxacum crythrospcrmum, 532. 
Taraxacum officitiatc, 532. 
Tearthumb, Arrow-leaved, 108. 
Tearthumb, Halberd - leaved, 

108. 
Tcucrium Canadense, 390. 
Thalictrum dioicum, 136. 
Thalictrum polygamum, 136. 
Thalictrum purpurasccKS, 138. 
Thaspium aureum, {\o. 
Thaspium aureum, var. atro- 

ptirpiiretim, 310. 
Thaspium barbinode, 310. 
Thimble-berry, 190. 
Thimble-weed, 130. 
Thistle, Canada, 522. 
Thistle, Common, 520. 
Thistle, Pasture, 522. 
Thistle, Sow, 534. 
Thistle, Swamp, 522. 
Thistle, Tall, 522. 



550 



INDEX. 



Thistle, Yellow, 520. 
Thorn Apple, 414. 
Thorn Apple, Purple, 414. 
Thoroughwort, 468. 
Thoroughwort, White, 468. 
Tiarella cordifolia, 184. 
Tick Trefoil, 216. 
Tick Trefoil, Canadian, 218. 
Tiedeniannia rigida, .^08. 
Tinker' s-weed, 448. 
Tissa rubra L , 126. 
Toad-fiax, 418 
Toad-flax, Blue, 416. 
Tobacco, Indian, 464. 
Toothwort, 166. 
Toothwort, Cut-leaved, 166. 
Touch-me-not, Pale, 256. 
Touch-me-not, Spotted, 256. 
Tradcscantia rosea, 20. 
Tradescantia Virginica, 20. 
Trichostema dichotomum, 388. 
Trichostema lincare, 388. 
Tricntalis Americana, 344. 
Trijoliiim agrariuiu, 212. 
Trifolium arvense, 210 
Trifolium hybridum, 212. 
Trifolium pratense, 210. 
Trifolium procumbens, 214. 
Trifolium, repens, 212. 
Trillium, cernuum, 42. 
Trillium, Dwarf White, 42. 
Trillium erectum, 40. 
Trillium grandiflorum, 42. 
Trillium, Large Flowering, 42. 
Trillium nivale, 42. 
Trillium, Nodding. 42. 
Trillium, Painted, 42. 
Trillium recurvation, 40. 
Trillium sessile, 40. 
Trillium, Stemless, 40. 
Trillium, undulatum, 42. 
Triosteum perfoliatum, 448. 
Tuckerman's Ravine, Mt. Wash- 
ington, N. H., 338. 
Tumble Weed, 112. 
Turtle-head, 420. 
Twavblade, Broad-lipped, 72. 
Twayblade, Heart-leaved, 72. 
Twavblade, Large, 7°- 
Twinberry, 442. 
Twin-flower, 448. 
Twinleaf, 152. 
Twisted Stalk, 28. 
Typha angustifolia, 3. 
Typha latifolia, 3. 

TVPHACE^, 3. 

Umbelliferce, 306. 
Umbrella Leaf, 154- 
Uvularia grandifiora, 38. 
Uvf.laria perfoliata, 38. 
Uxbridge, Mass., 132. 

Valerianace/E, 452. 
Valeriana officinalis, 454. 
Valeriana sylvatica, 452- 



Valerian Family, 452. 
Valerian, Garden, 454. 
Valerian, Great Wild, 454. 
Valerian, Greek, 376. 
Valerian, Swainp, 452. 
ValeriancUa Woodsiana, 454. 
Vandal-root, 454. 
Venus" s Looking-glass, 456. 
Veratrum viride, 46. 
Verbasciim Blattaria, 416. 
Verbasciim Thapsus, 414. 
VerbenacevE, 384.- 
Verbena angustifolia, 386. 
Verbena hastata, 386. 
Verbena officinalis, 384. 
Verbena urticcefolia, 384. 
Vernonia altissima, 466. 
Vernonia Noveboracensis, 466. 
Vernonias, 470. 
Veronica alpina, 424. 
Veronica Americana, 424. 
Veronica officinalis, 424. 
Veronica scutellata, 424. 
Veronica serpyllifolia, 426. 
Veronica Virginica, 422. 
Vervain, Blue, 386 
Vervain, European, 384. 
Vervain Family, 384. 
Vervain, Narrow-leaved, 386. 
Vervain, White, 384. 
Vetch, Common, 222. 
Vetch, Cow, 222. 
Viburnum alnifolium, 446. 
Vicia Am£ricana, 222. 
Vicia Cracca, 222. 
Vicia sativa, 222. 
Vine Family, 260. 
Viola blanda, 280. 
Viola Canadensis, 282. 
Viola canina, var. Muhlenbergii, 

284. 
Viola canina, var. puberula, 284. 
Violace.-e, 276. 
Viola la)iceolata, 280. 
Viola palmata, 276. 
Viola palmata, var. cuculata, 

278. 
Viola palustris, 278. 
Viola pedata, 276. 
Viola pubescens, 282. 
Viola rotundifolia, 280. 
Viola sagitiata, 278. 
Viola Selkirkii, 278. 
Viola striata, 284. 
Violet, Arrow-leaved, 278. 
Violet, Bird-foot, 276. 
Violet, Canada, 282. 
Violet, Common, 278. 
Violet, Dog, 284. 
Violet, Dogtooth, 54. 
Violet, Downy Yellow, 282. 
Violet Family, 276. 
Violet, Lance-leaved, 280. 
Violet, Marsh, 278. 
Violet, Pale, 284. 
V^ioiet, Round-leaved, 280. 



551 



INDEX. 



Viiilet, Sweet White. 2S0. 
\'irginia Creeper, 2ho. 
\'irginia Day Flower, 20. 
\'irginia Snakeroot. 100. 
X'irgin's Bower, 12S. 
\'irg!n's Bower, Purple, ijo. 
VlTACE.-E, 260. 
\'itis Labrnsca, 260. 
Vitis vulpina, 260. 

Wake -robin, 40. 
Watercress, 170. 
Watercress, Marsh, 170. 
Water-Lily, 126. 
Water-Lily Family, 126. 
Water Pennywort, ^ib. 
Water Pepper, loO. 
Water Plantain, 0. 
Water Plantain Family, 6. 
Water Plantain Spearwort, 138. 
Water Purslane, 202. 
Waterville, Me., isS. 
Waxwork, Climbing Bittersweet, 

254- 
Wayfaring Tree, 446. 
White Mt. Notch, 70. 
Whitlow-grass, Carolina, 168. 
Whitlow-grass, Common, 170. 
Wild Balsam Apple, 454. 
Wild Coffee, 448. 
Wild Garlic. 56. 



Wild Ginger, 98. 
Wild Leek, 56. 
Wild Lemon, i S4. 
Willoughby Lake. Vt.. 132. 
Willow Herb, Great, 204. 
Willow Herb, Hairv, 204. 
Willow Herb, Si)iked. 288. 
Wind Flower, 132. 
Wintergreen, 330. 
Wintergreen. Flowering, 240. 
Wintergreen, Spotted, 320. 
Wormwood, 518. 
Wormwood, Roman, 506. 
Wormwood, Tall, 51O. 

XVRIDACE.E, 18. 

A'>t/5 Caroliniana, 18. 

Xyris flcxiicsa, 18. 

Xyris flcxiiosa, var. pusilla, 1 

Yarrow, 514. 
Yellow-eyed Grass, 18. 
Yellow-eyed Grass, Carolina, 
Ycllow-eved Grass Family, i 
Yellow Mchlot. 214. 
Yellow Rattle, 432. 
Yellow Rocket, 172. 

Zcphyranthcs Atamasco, 60. 
Zizia anrca, 310, 312. 



552 



BOOKS FOR THE COUNTRY 



THE HOME LIFE OF WILD BIRDS 

A New Method of the Study and Photography of Birds. 
By Francis H<jbart Hkrkick, of the Department 
of Biology, Adelbert College. 4"". With 141 origi- 
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By mail, $2.75. 

" Never before have we had placed before us in a series 
of illustrations from life such a revelation of the intimate 
daily life of birds in the nesting season as is here pre- 
sented." — N. Y. Evening Post. 

BIRD STUDIES 

An Account of the Land Birds of Eastern North America. 
By William E. D. Scoit. With 166 illustrations 
from original photographs. 4°. Leather back, gilt 
top, in a box, net, $5.00. 

OUR INSECT FRIENDS AND FOES 

How to Collect, Preserve, and Study Them. By Belle 
S. Cragin. With over 250 illustrations. 12°. $1.75. 

AMONG THE MOTHS AND BUTTERFLIES 

By Julia P. Ballard. Illustrated. S°. $1.50. 

THE SHRUBS OF NORTHEASTERN 
AMERICA 

By Charles S. Newhall. Fully illustrated. 8". $i.75- 

THE VINES OF NORTHEASTERN 
AMERICA 

By Charles S. Newhall. Fully illustrated. 8°. $i.75- 

THE TREES OF NORTHEASTERN 
AMERICA 

By Charles S. Newhall. With illustrations made 
from tracings of the leaves of the various trees. 

8°. $1.75. 



New York G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS London 



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WILD FLOWERS OF THE NORTHEASTERN 
STATES 

Drawn and carefully described from life, without undue 
use of scientific nomenclature, by Kli.kn Mll.l.KR and 
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FIELD BOOK OF AMERICAN WILD FLOWERS 

With a short descrijition of their Cdiaracter and Habits, a 
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THE LEAF COLLECTOR'S HANDBOOK 
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An aid in the preservation and in the classification of spec- 
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New York Q. P. PUTNAM'S SONS London 



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Edited by WILLIAM HARBUTT DAWSON 

12°. Illustrated. Each, net $1.20 
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New York and London 



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iV.— DUTCH LIFE IN TOWN AND COUNTRY 

By P. .M. H.)L(;ir, li.A. 

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Switzerland forms one of the smallest states of Knroi)e, being 
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life, — the keynote of which is simplicity and sincertiy. 



y.V PREPARATION 

SPANISH LIFE IN TOWN AND COUNTRY 

By L. IIj<,<.iN. 

ITALIAN LIFE IN TOWN AND COUNTRY 

By Lltgi \ill.\ri. 



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