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Full text of "Field book of American wild flowers; being a short description of their character and habits, a concise definition of their colors, and incidental references to the insects which assist in their fertilization"

Gil FIT OF 
Dr. Robert T. Sutherland 






Sabbatia. 



Sabbatia chtoroides., 
ria dodecanclrn 



Field Book of 
American Wild 
Flowers 



Being a Short Description of Their 
Character and Habits, a Concise 
Definition of Their Colors, and In- 
cidental References to the Insects 
Which Assist in Their Fertilization 



By F. Schuyler Mathews 

Member of the New England Botanical Club 

and Author of 
"Wild Birds and Their Music," etc. 



New Edition, Revised and Enlarged 

With 24 Colored Plates and over 300 Other 
Illustrations from Studies from Nature by the 
Author * * * * * * * 



G. P. Putnam's Sons 

New York and London 
3be "Knickerbocker press 



JT .fl-TX 6<A 




COPYRIGHT, 1902, BY 
F. SCHUYLER MATHEWS 

COPYRIGHT, 1912, BY 
F. SCHUYLER MATHEWS 



Twenty-second Printing 



TCbe Imfcfcerbocfeer I5re00, flew 




To 
C. A. M. 



IN REMEMBRANCE OF 
MANY JOURNEYS AFIELD IN 

THE BEAUTIFUL VALLEY OF THE PEMIGEWASSET 

THIS BOOK IS AFFECTIONATELY 

INSCRIBED 



A SUMMARY OF THE REVISED EDITION. 

THE very extensive revision of the Fieldbook of Amer- 
ican Wild Flowers is primarily due to the many com- 
munications which I have received from the East and 
from the West containing inquiries about various more or 
less common species of plants, the description or illustra- 
tion of which did not appear in the book. Such inquiries 
were the indubitable evidences of the fact that a popular 
work on botany must thoroughly cover the ground or 
else imperfectly fulfil the purpose for which it is intended. 
The Drawings ^ ne ^ ^ e mos t important points in a 
and Additional book of this kind is its complete illustra- 
Descriptions tion ; that, more than anything else, should 
enable the layman to identify some unknown species 
without a protracted search through the text. As a 
consequence this edition is fully illustrated with drawings 
direct from nature, about three hundred of which are 
new. It also includes the descriptions of over one hun- 
dred added species, which in many instances complete 
the genus for instance, Sparganium, Sagittaria, Xyris, 
Tradescantia, Lilium, Oxalis, Geranium, etc. Of course 
this statement applies to the genera included within the 
geographical limitation of the book, drawn at the 100th 
meridian west from Greenwich. Again, it is not possi- 
ble, within the narrow limits of a pocket volume to 
include all the flowering plants and shrubs of the eastern 
half of the United States; the addition of a second volume 
must accomplish that. Also the expression * ' complete 
illustration " does not necessarily mean the drawing of 
every individual species described. I cannot show by a 
pen-and-ink sketch the diagnostic differences which exist 
in, say, the matter of one hundred or so species. These 
are usually variations of color or botanical detail for 
which a few words will suffice. In a word, the botanist 
must count the stamens, but the artist will draw only 



A SUMMARY OF THE REVISED EDITION. 



those he sees ; he misses his vocation when he attempts 
to count ! There is a drawing for every species whose 
difference from another can be properly expressed by a 
sketch. Any new drawings, which of necessity are 
widely separated from the text are indexed. 

The newer scientific nomenclature of the 

Names lentlflC ^ ook ' ^ is P ertinent to sav is an innovation 
which was a radical necessity. The names 
are now those of the seventh edition of Gray's Manual 
of Botany, and in accordance with the code of the Inter- 
national Congress of Botanists held in Vienna, June, 
1905. It is also a satisfaction to note that in many 
instances they accord with those of Britton and Brown's 
Flora of the United States and Canada. Very naturally 
considerable difficulty has attended the effort to bring 
the book into exact conformity with the Vienna code, 
but in one minor instance that has not seemed altogether 
necessary. The geographical names such as AmericoMa, 
Canadensis, Virginiana, etc., are now written ameri- 
cana, canadensis, etc. Wherever, therefore, these names 
appear with the capital, it should be remembered that a 
thorough change (it would carry no weight aside from 
a technicality) would involve the alteration of innumer- 
able plates, and result only in inconsequential uniformity. 
On the other hand the important change of generic and 
specific titles, very often involving an entirely different 
concept of classification, is an essential one, particularly 
in view of the fact that as time progresses nomenclator- 
ial confusion must disappear before an internationally 
supported standard. 

The effort to describe the colors of flow- 
The Color Key 

ers with scientific accuracy and yet not 

unduly disturb botanical tradition has already been em- 
phasized within these pages. Unfortunately it is difficult 
for the artist, whose calling imposes upon him the need 
of knowing color in all its complex artistic phases, to 
impart to either the layman or the botanist an exact idea 
of a particular hue in a word or two. Popular names 
are unreliable ; technical ones those which belong to 
the palette are insufficiently known outside the studio. 
Yet some sort of a simple scientific classification of flower- 



A SUMMARY OF THE REVISED EDITION. 



colors is requisite if one would avoid confusion. Such a 
scientific arrangement of names will be found in the 
Introduction, and the adaptation in the Color Key, 
Early in the nineteenth century De Candolle arranged 
these flower-colors in two comprehensive divisions which 
he named: (1) Xanthic, Yellow, and (2) Cyanic, Blue. 
This pioneer and somewhat crude attempt to reduce a 
multiplicity of color types to a system and establish a 
certain relationship between its two great divisions, is 
precisely the best means of enabling us to understand 
the extreme limitations of our North American flower- 
colors. Retaining yellow and those hues of De Candolle's 
Cyanic division which grade through crimson and purple 
to ultramarine, we have exactly the colors which belong 
to the flora of our range except the exceedingly small 
percentage of orange and red belonging to the Xanthic 
division ; these last are contributed by plants which for 
one reason or another survive beyond their proper home 
in the subtropical region. We have scarcely a true red 
flower within our range ; the same may be said of a blue 
flower; only the Family Boraginacess shows any approach 
to true blue. A careful study of my Color Key will 
disclose the fact that about seventy-five per cent of our 
flower-colors is equally divided between yellow, white, 
and magenta-purple ; the remaining twenty-five per cent 
is scattered between pink, orange, and a negligible quan- 
tity of red and so-called blue. It is well to note also 
that many of our white flowers are albinos and the rest 
are in a large measure showy agglomerations of fussy 
little blossoms, the very opposite of our wonderfully 
developed White Water-lily. It is very evident, there- 
fore, that conditions of light and heat are responsible for 
the modification and limitation of all flower-colors in 
the North, and that these in their turn are the direct 
evidences of an arrested development. With this under- 
standing of the very limited range of color involved, 
and with the aid of the Color Key, it ought not to be dif- 
ficult to trace a given specimen if one prefers this method 
of procedure. The chances are that scarcely a true blue, 
orange, scarlet, or red flower will be encountered in 
the field. 



A SUMMARY OF THE REVISED EDITION. 



The Key to the various Families based 
K e ' ' upon leaf form and flower character should 

be useful to those who prefer to hunt down 
a strange specimen by this means. But it is necessary 
to give close heed to the many exceptions to rigid rule. 
These exceptions are recorded as faithfully as possible 
throughout the Key. Often a plant is opposite-leaved 
at the base and alternate-leaved at the top Lythrum 
alatum, for instance in such a case the form of the older, 
lower leaves is alone recorded with other important 
characters of the plant. 

Not infrequently it is the case that the leaves are so 
crowded on the plant-stem one cannot tell whether they 
are alternate or opposite. But the Key always records 
the fact, and it is the alternating leaf which usually does 
the crowding. In the use of the term "circling" I do 
not mean that kind of a leaf which is apparently pierced 
by the plant-stem, but the one which with its fellows 
encircles the stem ; the technical term for such an 
arrangement is whorled. Whorled leaves are, of course, 
opposite. 

In the last part of the Key certain leaves like those of 
the Cat-tail are called " blade-shaped," perhaps a more 
acceptable term would have been sword-shaped ; but I 
use the word blade in the same sense as one uses it in 
connection with grass. Needless to say a small pocket 
magnifying glass is essential to every one who desires 
seriously to study flowers. The counting of stamens or 
an examination of the character of style and pistil, or 
even the smooth or hairy surface of a leaf or a plant- 
stem should not be attempted without the assistance of 
a lens. The Key's usefulness is really dependent upon 
the study of plants with optical aid, such a method of 
procedure is consequently the only way to use a very 
small Key with which to open a very large door 
successfully. 

F. SCHUYLER MATHEWS. 
CAMBRIDGE, March, 1912. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

A SUMMARY OF THE REVISED EDITION v 

LIST OF COLORED PLATES xiii 

COLORS AN INDEX TO ASSIST IN THE IDENTIFI- 
CATION OF A FLOWER OR ITS FRUIT BY MEANS 
OF THE COLOR ...... XIV 

TECHNICAL TERMS . . . ... . xvi 

INSECTS WHICH ASSIST IN THE FERTILIZATION OF 

FLOWERS xvii 

INTRODUCTION xix 

FAMILIES: 

Cat-tail (Typhacece) 2 

Bur Reed (5 parganiacece) . . " . . 4 
Water Plantain (Alismacecz) . . . 6 

Arum (Arace<z) ...... 10 

Yellow-eyed Grass (Xyridacea) . * .18 
Spiderwort (Commelinacecz) . . .18 

Pickerel Weed (Pontederiacdce) . . .22 
Lily (LiliacecB) . . . . . .24 

Amaryllis (Amaryllidacece) . . . .60 

Iris (Iridacecs) . . . . . .62 

Orchid (Orckidacece) . . . . .68 

Birthwort (Aristolochiaceae) ... 98 

Buckwheat (Polygonacece) . . . .102 

Goosefoot (ChenopodiacecB) . . .no 

Amaranth (AmarantacecE) . . . .112 

Purslane (P ortulacacece) . . . .114 

Pink (CaryophyllacecB) . . . .116 

Water- Lily (Nymph&acece) . . . .126 

Crowfoot (Ranunculacecz) . . . , .128 
Barberry (B erberidacece) . . . .152 

Poppy (P ap aver ace &) . . . . .156 

Mustard (Cructferce) . . . . .166 

Pitcher Plant (Sarraceniacece) . . .176 
Sundew (DroseracecB) . . . . .178 

Orpine (Crassulacece) 180 

ix 



CONTENTS. 



Saxifrage (Saxifragacece) 

Rose (Rosacea) ..... 

Pulse (Leguminoscs) .... 

Geranium (Geraniacece) . . 

Sorrel (Oxalidacece) .... 

Flax (LinacecB) ..... 

Milkwort (Polygalacecz) 

Spurge (Euphorbiacecs) 

Cashew (Anacardiacecs) 

Staff-tree (Cclastracece) 

Jewel- weed (Balsaminacecs) 

Buckthorn (Rhamnacece) 

Vine (Vitacecs) ..... 

Mallow (Malvaceae) .... 

St. John's-wort (Hypericacece) 

Rock-rose (Cistacece) 

Violet (Violaceos) 

Loosestrife (Lythracea) 

Meadow-beauty (M elastomacecs) . 

Evening Primrose (Onagracecs) 

Ginseng (Araliacece) .... 

Parsley (UmbellijercB) .... 

Dogwood (CornacecB) .... 

Pyrola (Pyrolacece) .... 

Heath (Ericaceos) .... 

Diapensia (Diapensiacece) 

Primrose (Primulacecs) 

Plumbago or Leadwort (Plumbaginacece) 

Gentian (Gentianacecs) 

Dogbane (Apocynacece) 

Milkweed (Asclepiadacece} 

Convolvulus (Convolvulacecs) 

Phlox (Polemoniacea) 

Borage (Boraginacece) 

Vervain (V erbenacece) .... 

Mint (Labiates) ..... 

Nightshade (Solanacece) 

Figwort (Scrophulariacece) . 

Broom-rape (probanchacea) . . 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Plantain (Plantaginacea) . - . . .438 
Madder (Rubiacece) ..... 440 

Honeysuckle (Caprifoliacece) . . . 446 

Valerian ( V alerianacecs) . . . .452 

Gourd (Cucurbitace&) . . . . -454 

Bellflower (Campanulacece) . . . .456 

Lobelia (Lobeliacece) . . . . .462 

Composite (Composite) . . . .466 

Fumitory (Fumariacea) . . . . .158 

False Mermaid (Limnanthacea) . . . 232 

APPENDIX 536 

A KEY TO THE FAMILIES ..... 567 
INDEX 571 



COLORED ILLUSTRATIONS. 

FACING* PAGE 

SABBATIA Frontispiece 

ARROWHEAD ^ .... 6 

LARGE FLOWERING TRILLIUM . 42 

DAY LILY 58 

HOOKER'S ORCHIS 86 

LARGE PURPLE FRINGED ORCHIS 92 

SHOWY ORCHIS ........ 8 .. 96 

BOUNCING BET 116 

EVENING LYCHNIS. 120 

MARSH MARIGOLD ... <, . 144 

WILD SWAMP ROSE 204 

FRINGED POLYGALA .......... 240 

BIRD-FOOT VIOLET ......... 876 

SHINLEAF .. .324 

FRINGED GENTIAN 356 

OSWEGO TEA 398 

MONKEY FLOWER .....422 

TWIN FLOWER 448 

EARLY GOLDEN-ROD ..*.... 480 

NEW ENGLAND ASTER e 486 

ROBIN'S PLANTAIN . 500 

ELECAMPANE ............ 504 

CONE-FLOWER 508 

COMMON THISTLE 520 



A SPECIFIC KEY TO ALL FLOWER COLORS. 

AN INDEX TO ASSIST IN THE IDENTIFICATION OP A 
FLOWER OR ITS FRUIT BY MEANS OF THE COLOR. 

Black, 24, 26, 36, 258, 260, 412, 450. 

Blue, 22, 26, 152, 360, 380, 424. 

Brown, 3, 436, 530. 

Coral Red, 150, 446, 448. 

Cream Color, or Cream White, or Yellowish White, 26, 38, 72, 74, 

76, 78, 90, 190, 194, 212, 220, 258, 284, 320, 368, 380, 382, 44S, 

446, 504, 528. 
Cream Yellow, 46, 474. 

Crimson, 122, 180, 194, 210, 242, 266, 324, 366. 
Crimson-pink, 80, 96, 106, 116, 118, 164, 190, 212, 262, 334, 336, 

352, 356 366, 368, 386, 400, 448. 
Golden Yellow, 16, 54, 94, 126, 128, 142, 144, 156, 164, 194, 212, 

214, 228, 256, 268, 270, 272, 280, 282, 308, 310, 312, 344, 348, 

472, 474, 476, 478, 480, 482, 508, 510, 512, 514, 518, 524, 528, 532. 
Green, 10, 12, 16, 24, 36, 44, 46, 68, 84, 86, 98, 100, 102, 104, 106. 

108, no, 112, 136, 138, 186, 246, 248, 252, 258, 260, 274, 292, 

318, 366, 368, 412, 430, 498, 502, 506, 512, 518. 
Green-yellow, 24, 30, 72, 82, 106, 152, 180, 214, 248, 304, 316, 362, 

412, 414, 430, 432, 498, 500, 516. 
Greenish White, 28, 48, 56, 76, 78, 84, 88, 90, 108, 128, 130, 150, 168, 

180, 182, 184, 226, 244, 250, 254, 302, 304, 316, 322, 324, 362, 

364, 370, 434, 444, 454, 456. 

Lavender, 284, 350, 396, 414, 416, 422, 424, 426, 460, 488. 
Lilac, 148, 226, 276, 278, 294, 296, 334, 338, 358, 362, 368, 374, 400, 

406, 408, 422, 440, 486, 488, 492, 494, 498, 500, 522, 528, 534. 
Lilac-white, 134, 486, 490, 492, 494, 496. 
Madder Purple, 70, 72, 98, 182, 448, 466. 
Magenta, 28, 40, 60, 80, 82, 120, 164, 178, 200, 216, 218, 230, 232, 

234, 240, 242, 244, 264, 274, 286, 288, 290, 294, 324, 336, 342, 

352, 366, 374, 376, 386, 390, 408, 410, 418, 428, 432, 450, 486, 

488, 496, 500, 506, 508, 520, 522, 530. 
Magenta-crimson, 78, 96, 366, 454, 468. 
Magenta-pink, 80, 92, 116, 162, 166, 218, 220, 230, 244 264, 288, 

342, 352, 388, 452. 
Maroon, 40, 224, 250. 

Orange, 10, 58, 64, 254, 338, 366, 418, 526. 
Orange-yellow, 52, 84, 88, 336, 382, 516. 
Pink, 6, 20, 28, 40, 42, 56, 60, 106, 108, 114, 118, 122, 126, 136, 162, 

188, 190, 204, 206, 210, 212, 264, 266, 320, 326, 330, 332, 334, 

336, 340, 342, 348, 354. 356, 364. 37 374. 4o. 442, 448, 450, 

452, 468, 500. 



COLORS. 



Purple, 82, 92, 130, 214, 220, 222, 226, 266, 278, 280, 282, 284, 310^ 
338, 35. 374. 382, 384, 386, 390, 392, 394, 398, 400, 402, 406, 
410,412,418, 422, 430, 436, 456,458,470, 484,486, 488,492. 
494, 496, 498, 534- 

Purple-black 44, 304, 446. 

Purple-brown, 10, 70, 194, 302. 

Purple-red, 14, 176, 190, ^24. 

Red, 152, 176, 180, 270, 292, 326, 328, 330, 336, 400, 450, 462. 

Ruby Red, 30, 32, 192, 304, 412. 

Scarlet, 10, 42, 48, 52, 146, 196, 266, 318, 350, 398, 430, 446, 448, 
452. 

Ultramarine Blue, 20, 148, 362, 384. 

Violet, 64, 122, 148, 208, 210, 222, 238, 276, 278, 282, 358, 374, 
376, 378, 382, 384, 386, 388, 396, 398, 400, 402, 404, 406, 412, 
416, 424, 454. 458, 460, 462, 464, 470, 486, 490, 494, 496, 500. 

Violet-blue, 18, 20, 22, 62, 64, 66, 148, 276, 356, 358, 360, 488, 524. 

White, 4, 6, 8, 12, 22, 26, 30, 32, 34, 40, 42, 46, 54, 56, 60, 64, 82, 84, 
88, 90, 94, 96, 114, 118, 120, 122, 124, 126, 132, 134, 136, 146, 
150, 152, 154, 156, 160, 162, 166, 168, 170, 174, 178, 180, 182, 
184, 186, 192, 196, 200, 222, 232, 234, 242, 246, 248, 262, 264, 
266, 276, 278, 280, 282, 284, 294, 296, 300, 302, 304, 306, 308, 
310, 312, 314. 3i6, 322, 324, 326, 328, 330, 332, 334, 340, 344, 
348, 350, 354, 370, 372, 374, 376, 378, 380, 384, 388, 390, 394, 
396, 400, 402, 406, 408, 412, 414, 416, 420, 422, 426, 432, 438, 
440, 442, 444, 446, 448, 450, 452, 454, 460, 462, 464, 466, 468, 
470, 484, 486, 490, 492, 494, 496, 498, 502, 504, 514, 516, 518, 
520, 530, 534. 

Vellow, 18, 38, 50, 58, 60, 114, 138, 140, 142, 158, 170, 172, 174, 
186, 194, 198, 200, 202, 208, 216, 228, 236, 238, 256, 266, 268, 
274, 282, 292, 296, 298, 300, 304, 344, 346, 362, 390, 414, 416, 
418, 426, 428, 430, 432, 434, 436, 442, 450, 452, 478, 496, 506, 
510, 512, 514, 5i8, 520, 526, 528, 532, 534. 

yellow, Deep, 140, 142, 144, 158, 268, 504. 



TECHNICAL TERMS. 

Corolla. The flower-cup composed of one or more di- 
visions called petals. 

Petal. One of the divisions of the corolla. 
Calyx. A flower-envelop, usually green, formed of 

several divisions called sepals, protecting the bud. 
Sepal. One of the divisions of the calyx. 
Stamen. Anther and filament combined. 
Anther. The pollen-bearing organ, usually yellow. 
Filament. The stalklike support of the anther. 
Pistil. Ovary, style, and stigma combined. 
Ovary. The seed-bearing organ. 
Style. The stalklike projection proceeding from the 

ovary and terminated by the stigma. 
Stigma. The generally sticky and sometimes branching 

termination of the pistil through which fertilization 

by the pollen is effected. 

Rostellum. See Orchid Family description, page 68. 
Regular Flower. Generally symmetrical and uniform 

in the number of its parts. 
Perfect Flower. A flower complete in all the common 

parts. 

Staminate. With stamens and without pistils. 
Pistillate. With pistils and without stamens. 
Polygamous. Pistillate, staminate, and perfect flowers 

on the same plant or on different plants. 
Spathe. A leaflike formation enclosing a floral growth. 
Spadix. A fleshy spike of flowers. 
Bracts. Small leaflike formations. 
Stipule. Small leaflike formations confined to the base 

of the leaf. 

Pubescent. Covered with soft short hairs. 
Cleistogamous Flower. A flower closed to all outward 

agencies and self -fertilized in the bud 



Anosiaplexippus 
orDanaisaPchippus; 




BUTTERFLIES 
CONCERNED IN THE CROSS-FERTILIZATION OF FLOWERS. 

xvii 



The Bumblebees. Various. The Syrphid Flies. 






The Honeybee. Epistalis flavipes. 
Bombus. vagans. A P is ^ellifica. 




IVT i -t i i- Helophilus similis, 

, ... -i rlegachile latimana. 

bombus Vipgimcus. (Leaf-cutter bee) 





Hal ictus confusus. 



Bombus 





Mai lota posticata. 



Andnena viciha. 
Halrctus&Andrena 

v ]m 



are ground bees. 
Bombus PennsylvanicusL Syrpus divers! pes. 



BUMBLEBEES; BEES, AND FLIES CONCERNED IN THE 
CROSS-FERTILIZATION OF FLOWERS. 



INTRODUCTION. 

PERHAPS it is not too much to say that the wild flower 
of late has become popular. If such is the case I am 
presumably justified in presenting it in a new light, or, 
to speak more to the point, in the position it occu- 
pies according to the light of one who loves to draw it. 

Quite recently, in a conversation about art with Mr. 
Fosdick, the artist, he remarked to me that those who 
followed our profession were legitimately and continu- 
ally seeking after expression regardless of limitation. I 
have since thought this was a very happy truth. Per- 
haps, therefore, it is sufficient to account for the exist- 
ence of a volume on our American flora, fully one half 
of which is pictures. 

This is a field-book of wild flowers ; it originated in 
the fields and it is intended to go back there, I trust, in 
the hand of its good reader. Of course, not all of it was 
written on sunny meadow and in shady wood, nor were 
all of its illustrations made at once from specimens gath- 
ered during various botanical rambles ; but, in the truest 
sense of the word, nearly all of the book is a direct 
result of field work, ranging from New Hampshire to 
Virginia, 

Not many years ago, my highly esteemed friend, the 
late William Hamilton Gibson, in the course of an ad- 
dress he was delivering before the Society of American 
Florists, said that some day he hoped to write a botany 
in plain English. It is unnecessary to add that if he 
had lived to do so, in all probability he would have con- 
tributed as much to our happiness as the father of 
American botany, Dr. Asa Gray. Undoubtedly he felt, 
as the rest of us have felt, the great need of simple, un- 
technical English in direct connection with botany. 
But there are difficulties to face in even a modest at- 
tempt to avoid bothersome technicalities. We must 



INTRODUCTION. 



necessarily retain the Latin names and surrender the 
advantage of those direct, crisp terms which express 
volumes to students who understand them and nothing at 
all to others who do not. On the other hand, we can re- 
sort to the drawing, which often expresses more at the 
glance of the eye than the best turned phrase, technical 
or otherwise ; so with plain English and the plainer 
drawing, one ought to be able to identify a plant with- 
out great difficulty. 

To be sure, one is continually running into " snags' 5 ; 
it is not all plain sailing even for the botanist. 
Rules are all very well in their way, but unfortunately 
Nature abides by them only when it suits her conven- 
ience. There are hybrids and extreme forms galore ; 
there are puzzling groups, difficult families, and differ- 
ences of expert opinion ; in fact there are so many prob- 
lems for one to solve that the very interest in botany lies 
in their solution. The roses seem to be indifferently sep- 
arated. The genus Polygonum is simple only to one who 
is satisfied to know about three species. The Epilobiums 
are not all easily distinguished apart. Sisyrinckium, 
that beautiful little blue-eyed grass, shows signs of com- 
plications relative to species which prove that it is not 
as simple as it looks. Pentstemon occasionally puzzles 
one by taking a half-way form. Sagittaria, the genius 
of the sluggish river, tries to be everything it ought not 
to be in leaf and flower, so Mr. J. G. Smith settles the 
matter by calling the forms a, b, c, d, etc. Even the 
dandelion and the strawberry have lost their simplicity, 
and now each poses as one of two very distinct species. 
Then there is Lactuca what a puzzler ! Anyone who 
knows Lactuca despairs about its leaves ; a third of the 
way up the plant-stem they represent one species, half- 
way up they represent another, and at the finish the 
flowers take up the disagreement where the leaves leave 
off, and declare for a third. I have known one plant, 
Lactuca Canadensis, to look like three things all at once ! 
When one reaches the mints, whatever trouble existed 
before seems child's play ; here is an order .of plants 
which was apparently created for the express purpose of 
convincing the amateur that he can never master botany. 



INTRODUCTION. 



What is particularly hard, too, is the fact that the bot- 
anists have apparently shaken the names up in a bag 
and sorted them out afresh. 

Regarding that bugbear of the botanical student, no- 
menclature, it may be well to make a plain statement 
of the facts of the case. Neither the older system of 
plant arrangement according to Dr. Gray nor some of 
his names can remain as they have been. At present 
the botanists prefer the system of Engler and Prantl. It 
certainly shows more distinctly the character of devel- 
opment in plant form by placing TYPHACE^ first and 
COMPOSITE last, not to speak of the satisfactory charac- 
ter of the arrangements in between. As for names, few, 
after all, of Dr. Gray's choosing are to be displaced. 
His successors are now engaged with such revision as is 
really necessary. Through the courtesy of Mr. Merritt 
L. Fernald I am able to adopt most of these names, and 
the extreme care with which the system they represent 
has been worked out inclines me to believe it will be ulti- 
mately and universally accepted. 

At the present time there is no international agreement 
regarding nomenclature by the scientists of the new 
and the old world. From what I know of the so-called 
Rochester Code, I should say it is a disturbing influence 
among already agitated conditions, and its lack of con- 
sistency does not entitle it to unreserved acceptance. 
Perhaps its instability is more clearly attested by the 
two articles from Mr. Fernald's pen which appeared in 
the Botanical Gazette, vol. 31, March, 1901, and vol. 32, 
Nov., 1901, and by the action long since of most of our 
eminent botanists, who have published a signed protest 
against it. 

In reference to the color names used in this book it 
would be advisable to concisely explain the principle 
upon which they are based. There is always one unfail- 
ing source where one may obtain color properly labeled ; 
that is at the color dealer's. Perhaps I must modify 
this statement and say most generally properly labeled. 
It is upon a purely scientific basis that the flowers are 
given their proper color names ; this is the list in simple 
form : 



INTRODUCTION. 



Pure yellow 


Pure pink 


Violet 


Deep yellow 


Crimson 


Blue- violet 


Golden yellow 


Crimson-pink 


Ultramarine 


Pure orange 


Magenta 


Pure blue 


Scarlet 


Magenta-pink 


Madder purple 


Pure red 


Pure purple 


Madder brown 



Beyond various modifications of these hues there are no 
color names of any value whatever in relation to the 
wild flower. We have in the color dealer's catalogue 
numerous conditions of these hues indicated by standard 
names : there is Naples yellow, a dilute form of golden 
yellow ; crimson lake, a subdued rendering of crimson ; 
and vermilion, which is a synonym for scarlet. These 
are standard colors which have never varied, and which 
will probably last with many others as long as painting 
does. 

In botanical and ornithological works we find such 
color names as fuscous, rufous, vinaceous, ferruginous, 
rose-purple, greenish purple, etc. ; they mean nothing at 
all to one who is not a scientist; and I half suspect they 
mean but little to one who is. Purple (botanically 
speaking) is a dreadfully abused term which is made to 
stand for half the rainbow ; it means anything from 
crimson to violet. As an actual fact it is fairly repre- 
sented by Mimulus ringens, and one jot to the right or 
left of that hue is not purple. Pure yellow is perfectly 
represented by GEnothera biennis, and no tint to the 
right or left of that is a true yellow. Magenta is a 
crimson-purple ; the list of flowers which represent it 
is too long to give here. Blue in its pure form only 
exists (dilutely) in Myosotis. But I find that if I disturb 
all the botanists' color names I may complicate matters 
and add to the confusion which already exists in plant 
names, so I am content to let Ranunculus stand in plain 
yellow, although the color is not pure yellow, and it 
ranges through eight distinct deep or golden tones. In 
many other instances, also, I have refrained from mak- 
ing a change, although I am compelled to draw the 
line at rose-purple, and call it by its proper title, light 
magenta. 



INTRODUCTION. 



1 have found myself indebted to many authors of 
botanical lists for the information I give regarding the 
distribution of plants, and I have had frequently to 
congratulate myself upon the possession of that excel- 
lent work, Brainerd, Jones, and Eggleston's Flora of 
Vermont. But it seems as though I am most indebted, 
for many things, to the late gifted Dr. E. Newlin Wil- 
liams, who, while this book was going to press, lost his 
life in an excursion during a bitter cold wave in Febru- 
ary among the White Hills we both loved so well. He 
would have made his mark as a botanist if he had chosen 
that profession, and he was more than well informed in 
many other departments of knowledge. Not long ago 
we trudged together on a botanical excursion over the 
slopes of Mt. Washington, and I found myself depend- 
ing upon him for the identification of many an alpine 
species ; he knew them all at a glance, and their whole 
history as well. From him I received the specimen of 
Belamcanda which is drawn here, together with much 
information regarding the flora of eastern Pennsylvania. 
I had looked forward to the time when I should place 
this book in his hands and say, " Here is one of the re- 
sults of our pleasant mountain rambles together." 

I am also indebted to others for help in the writing of 
this volume. I soon found my " wild garden " a field of 
work too narrow to enable me to record all that might 
be recorded regarding the visitations of insects ; hence I 
was glad to turn to those remarkable essays on the sub- 
ject by Prof. Charles Robertson which appeared in the 
Botanical Gazette. Then, too, by the courtesy of Dr. 
Robinson, Curator of the Gray Herbarium, practically 
the whole magnificent collection of valuable specimens 
and the splendid library have been open to me for 
reference. 

One must always ask for the indulgence of the reader 
and apologize if mistakes appear, but if they do it will 
be in spite of great vigilance. Again, much of the de- 
scriptive text may seem somewhat bald and brief through 
the effort to sustain the portable character of the book ; 
thus the brilliant and extensive Composite family suf~ 
fers for want of elbow-room. But, on the whole, I con 



INTRODUCTION. 



sidered that we all know that family best of all, and we 
would be glad to give it all the room it needed on our 
highways, if not in our book, which must fit the narrow 
limits of our pocket at all hazards. 



F. SCHUYLER MATHEWS. 



BOSTON, MASS., 

March, 190& 



XXIV 



FIELD BOOK OF AMERICAN WILD 
FLOWERS. 



CAT-TAIL FAMILY. Typhacese. 



CAT-TAIL FAMILY. Typhacece. 

Perennial marsh herbs with stemless, ribbonlike leaves, 
and with flowers of two kinds, staminate and pistillate 
on the same plant, lacking petals or flower-cup. Natu- 
rally not dependent upon insects for fertilization. 
Cat-tail ^ ne light oli ve green leaves usually exceed 

Typha latifolia the flower-stem in height. The upper half 
Yeliow=brown o f the cylindrical flower-spike consists of 
June-July the s t amenS5 an( i the lower half of the pis- 
tils ; the abundant, yellow, powdery pollen of the 
staminate flowers scattering itself over the pistillate 
flowers below, fertilizes them. 

It is the compact down of the bractless pistillate flowers 
tipped with red-brown that forms the familiar cat-tail 
of August and September. At that time only a few 
lingering remnants of the staminate flowers remain on 
the withering tip of the stem above. The completely 
developed cat-tail measures fully 1 inch in diameter. 
In June it is important to note that the two kinds of 
flowers are not appreciably separated by a gap as in the 
next species described. The color of the staminate flow= 
ers is a variable olive yellow-brown, or brownish yellow, 
according to age. 

Typha is the Greek Tvcprj, meaning fen or bog, and 
latifolia refers to the broader leaf of this species. The 
plant is 4-8 feet high, and is common in swamps every- 
where. 

The slenderer species known specifically as 
leaved Cat- tail angustifolia, that is, narrow-leaved, is re- 
Typha angusti- markable for the distinct and considerable 
folia separation, on the stem, of the two groups 

Yenow=brown of flowers . this is usua i but not without 
J u n e J u 1 y 

exception. The structure of the pistillate 

flowers is also different from that of the same flowers on 
Typha latifolia ; under a glass it will be seen that they 
possess a hairlike bractlet slightly swollen at the top. 
This cat-tail is narrow, rarely measuring over f inch in 
diameter. The plant is 4-9 feet high, and grows, not 
invariably, near the coast from Me., south ; it is some- 
times found as far west as Mich, and Mo. ; it is common 




Cat-tail.il 

Typha latifolii 



Narrow-leaved Cat-ta.il. 
Typha angustifolia. 



BUR REED FAMILY. Sparganlacese. 



in Nantucket, and along the N. J. coast, and is reported 
at Mt. Equinox, Vt. , by Miss Mary A. Day. 

BUR REED FAMILY. Sparganiocece. 
Marsh herbs with flowers arranged like those of Typha 
but collected in separate spherical heads. Largely self- 
fertilizing, but assisted in the process by aquatic insects 
and flies. 

Great Bur Reed ^^ e deep green leaves are similar to those 
Sparganium of. the foregoing species and are about f 
eurycarpum inch wide. The downy flowers are in 
Brown-white dense round heads scattered along the top 
of the stem, and like those of the cat-tails 
consist of the two kinds, staminate and pistillate, abso- 
lutely separated. The green fruit is a burlike sphere 
composed of nutlets wedge-shaped below, and flattened 
above with an abrupt point in the centre, so that the 
general appearance of its surface is not unlike that of 
the pineapple. The name is from Gitapyavov, a band, in 
allusion to the ribbonlike leaves. The plant is 3-7 feet 
high, and is common on the borders of ponds and rivers 
from Me., south to Va., and west. 

This is a much smaller species with nar- 
Smaller Bur 

rower leaves, and a simple stem and row 



Sparganium of flower-heads. The green fruit is about 
simplex j inch in diameter, with a decidedly bur- 

Brow n=white ^9 a pp earance the nutlets tapering to a 
June-August . 

point at either end, and the upper point 

being much longer than that of the fruit in the preced- 
ing species. The plant is 1-2 feet high, and is generally 
in the water, erect or sometimes afloat ; it is found from 
Me. to N. J., and west. 

This familiar variety, which is common 

Bur^eed* in a11 bogs ' is lar er than the foregoing 
Sparganium i n niany respects, and it is distinguished 
americanum var. for its branching and somewhat angular 
androdadum flower-stem ; the latter grows out at the 



- 

plant-stem. The plant is 1-2 feet high, 

and is distributed from Me., south, and west to Minn. 
and Mo. 

[See Appendix.] 




Great Bur Reed. Spargamum simplex. Branching BurReed 
Sp&rganium eurycarpum. 5. americanum van androcladum. 



WATER PLANTAIN FAMILY. Alismaceae. 



WATER PLANTAIN FAMILY. Alismacece. 

Marsh herbs with long-stemmed leaves, and flowers of 
three orders, thus : 

1. With stamens and pistil, 2. Staminate and pistil- 
late growing on one plant, 3. Staminate and pistillate 
growing on different plants. The flowers have three 
conspicuous petals and generally six stamens ; they are 
visited by numerous insects which undoubtedly assist in 
the process of fertilization. 

The leaves, all from the root, are olive 
Water Plantain , 

Alisma Plan- S reen > strongly veined, and elliptical but 
tago-aquatica very variable in shape, broader or longer, 
White or pale and sometimes heart-shaped at the base. 
pink The flower-stem is tall and symmetrically 

b " r y ~" branched, displaying the three-petaled, 

very small white or rarely delicate pink 
flowers to great advantage. The flowers are perfect, 
with six stamens and a pistil ; they are possibly self-fer- 
tilized, but more probably cross-fertilized by the beelike 
drone-flies (Syrphidce), all pollen-eaters and honey- 
drinkers. The plant is 1-3 feet high, and is found in the 
shallow water of ponds and sluggish streams every- 
where. See Appendix. 

The genus Sagittaria, always white- 
Sagittaria flowered, is remarkable for its manifold 

latifolia phases which have recently been resolved 

White into twelve distinct species, and four forms 

July-Septem- an( j Qne var j e ty o f tne S p ec ies latifolia. 

The leaves are deep lustrous green and 
distinctly arrow-shaped ; hence the name derived from 
the Latin sagitta, an arrow. The four forms of S. lati- 
folia as defined by Dr. Robinson are: Forma obtusa 
(Muhlenberg) with very broad obtuse leaves. Forma 
hastata (Pursh) leaf -blades and their lateral bases oblong 
lance-shaped, and acute. Forma gracilis (Pursh) leaf- 
blades and their lateral bases narrowly linear. Forma 
diversifolia (Engelmann) leaf-blades partly sagittate and 
p irtly lance-shaped or elliptical without basal lobes. 
J. (>. Smith considers these forms as follows : Form a, 
flowers mostly of the third order above described, and 
6 



Arrowhead. 



Sagitt&na. I at i folia. 




Water Plantain. 



Pldntdgo-aqudtica. 



WATER PLANTAIN FAMILY. Allsmaceae 



broad obtuse leaves. S. latifolia, typical form, flowers 
of the second or imperfectly the third order, and varying 
broad or narrow, acute leaves. Form d, flowers of the 
second order, and narrow leaves with divergent lobes, 
common in mountain districts. Form e, flowers of the 
second order, and lance-shaped or broader leaves, variably 
arrowlike. The typical S. latifolia is smooth throughout, 
with an erect flower-stalk carrying the three-petaled 
white flowers in circles of three, the lowest one (some- 
times more) pistillate ; the leaves nearly always arrow- 
shaped. The seed, or achene is obovate with the beak 
at right angles. 4-40 inches high. In sluggish or quiet 
water of streams, and on the margins of ponds, etc. 
Common. The var. pubescens is a distinct fine-hairy or 
woolly form with very broad, blunt leaves. N. J. and 
Pa. to N. C. The pollen of the arrowhead is distributed 
by a variety of agents, not least of which are the 
insects which frequent wet places, among them the 
beautiful glassy-winged dragon-fly. The tendency of 
some of the types to develop only staminate flowers 
on one plant and pistillate on another, suggests the 
probability that Sagittaria is beginning to rely upon 
insects for fertilization. See Appendix. 

A tall species with a stout flower-stalk 
Lonjr=beaked 

Arrowhead a TOSi( * sagittate, obtuse leaves. Flow- 
Sagittaria ers of the second order above described, 

longirostra the 2-4 lower circles pistillate, with flower- 

July-Septem- stems less than J inch long. The obovate 
seed or achene with a long, nearly erect 
beak. 1 2| feet high. In swamps, and on the margins 
of ponds and cold springs. Conn., N. J., and Pa. to Ky. 
and Ala. 

Sagiitaria ^ s l en der species with small and ex- 

Engelmanniana tremely narrow sagittate leaves the lobes 
August- of which are scarcely more than J inch 

September wide and not more than i the i engt h o f t h e 

blade. The flower-stalk about as long as the leaves, the 
flowers of the second order, not more than an inch broad. 
The narrow achene with a rather stout erect or backward 
curved beak. 8-20 inches high. In shallow water of 
ponds. N. H. and Mass, to Del., near the coast. 




Narrow-leaved |[f Arrowhead. 
Sagittaria. variabilis var.angustifolia. of AsaGray 
or Sagittaria latifolia form d. of J.Q.Smith. 



ARUM FAMILY. Aracese. 



ARUM FAMILY. Aracece. 

Perennial herbs possessing a sharp, peppery juice, and 
with sometimes perfect, but generally only two orders 
of flowers ; i. e., 1. Staminate and pistillate on the same 
plant, 2. Staminate and pistillate on different plants. 
The flowers crowded on a club or spadix enclosed within 
a hood or spathe. Fertilization assisted by insects. 
Indian Turnip Generally with two long-stemmed, tri- 
or Jack=in=the= parted dull green leaves without a gloss, 
pulpit which overshadow the hooded flower be- 

low at the junction of the leaf -stems. 

pnyilum 

Purple=brown The flowers, on the clublike spadix within 
and green the hood, are grouped at the base of the 
April-July spadix and are generally staminate and 
pistillate on separate plants, that is to say, the stamens 
are abortive on one plant and the pistils are abortive 
on another; thus small insects (the gnat of the genus 
Mycetophila especially) are a means of fertilization, and 
frequently they may be found imprisoned in close quar- 
ters between the bases of spathe and spadix. It is pos- 
sibly developing a dependence upon insects for fertiliza- 
tion ; but often one plant develops both staminate and 
pistillate flowers. Thejiovel and beautiful green and 
purple-brown striped spathe is variable in depth of color ; 
exposed to sunlight it is usually quite pale, while in the 
dark woods it is exceedingly purple ; as a rule the plant 
prefers the shaded, wet woods. The handsome cluster- 
ing berry like fruit is at first green and finally, in late 
August, brilliant scarlet. The plant attains a height of 
1-2J feet. It is common in the woods in wet situations, 
everywhere. The exceedingly peppery bulb becomes 
edible after boiling. 

Green Dragon, The species generally has a single com- 
Dragon=root, pound leaf with seven or more obovate- 
or Dragon lance-shaped, pointed, dull green leaflets. 
Arteamo Dra- The lon s P adix is usually composed of 
contium both staminate and pistillate flowers, and 

Dull white- it tapers to a slender point, reaching far 
green beyond the rolled-up, greenish, pointed 

rtay-June. spat he. The berries are red-orange. The 
10 




Dragon Arum. Jack-in-the-pulpit 

ArisaeimDracontium. Ansaema triphyllum. 



ARUM FAMILY. Araceae. 



plant is 1-3 feet high, and grows in wet woods or low 
grounds from Me., south, and west to Minn. 

The rich green leaves are arrow-shaped 
Arrow Arum . , . *L 

Peltandra with one prominent vein or nerve. The 

virginica flowersare staminate and pistillate on the 

Green same plant, covering the long tapering 

May-June spadix ; the pointed green spathe, rolling 
and wavy on the margin, is 4-7 inches long. The clus- 
ter of berries is green, and is at first enclosed in a green 
sheath, the fleshy base of the spathe. The plant grows 
1-1 J feet high, in shallow water, from Me. south, and 
west to Mich. It derives its name from TteTiTrj, a target 
or shield, and vvrfp, stamen, from the targetlike form 
of the latter. 

Water Arum ^ little swamp flower resembling the 
Calla palustris so-called calla-lily ; the latter is, of course, 
White not a lily, and, curiously enough, not a 

June true calla, it is a Richardia. The deep 

green leaves of the water arum are long-heart-shaped 
with long stems. The open and rolling edged spathe is 
white above and greenish beneath. The yellow spadix 
is entirely covered with flowers, the lower ones perfect, 
i. e., with all the parts complete, and the upper ones 
often staminate. Fertilization is assisted by insects and 
pond-snails. The berries, red and distinct, in a head like 
those of the Jack-in-the-pulpit, are ripe in August. The 
plant grows 5-10 inches high and is at home in cold 
bogs, from Me., south to Va., and west to Minn. The 
name Calla is ancient and obscure, palustris is the Latin 
name for swamp. The spathe is really a strong dull 
greenish white far removed from pure white ; the 
underneath surface is green. 

A southern species with wider leaves 
White Arrow ,, . . ,, , , , , 

Arum than those of P. virgimca, the basal lobes 

Peltandra divergent, the stems 8-20 inches long, as 

sagittcefolia long or longer than the flower-spike. The 
White-green fl ower ( spa the) with a green-white ex- 
May-July i -i , ,, 
panded margin, and acute apex ; the 

tapering spadix about one half the length of the spathe. 
The matured berries red. In swamps and springy ground 
from southern Va. to Fla. 



Arrow A num. 

vircjinica 




ARUM FAMILY. Aracese. 



A single species, of the earliest appear- 
Skunk Cabbage . ^ '. 

Sympiocarpus ance m spring, having a fetid odor, which 
fcetidus attracts numerous insects, and a closely 

Dark purple- coiled purple-red streaked and blotched, 
green, leathery spathe which entraps 
them to their death. The stout spadix is 
compactly set with perfect lavender-flesh-colored flowers, 
i. e. , flowers with stamens and pistil. The conspicuous an- 
thers are a grayish straw-color. The fruit is the enlarged 
and fleshy spadix enclosing round bulletlike seeds imme- 
diately beneath its surface which ripen in September. 
The name is from tivjuTtA-onr?, connection, and napitoS, 
fruit, alluding to the connection of the ovaries forming 
compound fruit. The color of the shellike spathe is not 
without aesthetic interest ; the madder purple, green, 
and yellow-green are blended and streaked with a pecul- 
iar charm ; inside, the red is darkest. The leaves will 
at first be found in a compactly coiled, pointed spike 
close beside the ruddy spathe. Later when the coarse 1- 
2 feet long, cabbagelike leaves are unfolded the origin of 
the common name becomes evident. The odor of the 
flower is imitative of decaying flesh, but it is not wholly 
bad, it reminds one of the smell of a mustard plaster, 
and raw onions ; the cut stem decidedly suggests the 
latter. The plant is found in swamps, beside brooks, 
and in wet glades. Common from Me., south to Ga., 
and west to Iowa and Minn. Found at Clarendon Hills, 
Mass. 




SkunK Cabbage. 



Symplocappu5 fetidus. 



ARUM FAMILY. Araceas 



Golden Club ^ s i n gl e species, perennial and aquatic 

Orontium whose prominent golden yellow spadix 

aquaticum (the club) scarcely larger around than its 
Oolden yellow j gnak gt ig thickly c l uste red with 

April-May 

the completely developed flowers of gen- 
erally six sepals, as many golden stamens, and a pistil. 
The spathe is undeveloped and removed from the spadix, 
appearing like a mere leaflet on the flower-stem. Fruit 
green and bladderlike. The long-stemmed, oblong, dark 
green leaves float upon the water. It is a beautiful 
aquatic plant whose flowers deserve close examination 
under the glass, 1-2 feet high, common in the shallows 
of ponds, from Mass., south, and generally found near 
the coast. Name from the Syrian river Orontes. 

The stiff, swordlike, light green leaves 
Calamus or 

Sweet Flag g lve tne P lant a rigid character. It has 
Acorus inconspicuous flowers compactly covering 

Calamus a tapering cylindrical spadix which grows 

Yellow-green an g u i ar iy from the side of a two-edged stem 
resembling the flat ribbonlike leaves. The 
individual flower has a pistil, six stamens, and as many 
sepals of a dull yellow-green color. The fruit is a small 
berry, at first gelatinous and finally dry, but the plant is 
mostly propagated by its stocky roots. Name/'/4%opa? 
of unknown meaning, from Pliny. The horizontal, pun- 
gent, and pleasantly aromatic rootstalk is a familiar com- 
modity of the apothecary. There is a striped-leaved 
variety. The plant grows 1-4 feet high, or more, and is 
found beside small streams and in wet ground, from 
Me., south, and west to Minn., Iowa, and Kan. 

YELLOW-EYED GRASS FAMILY. Xyridacece. 

Perennial herbs with narrow, grasslike leaves, and 
perfect, regular flowers, with three spreading lobes and 
a slender tube. Fertilized largely by insects. 
Yellow-eyed A little swam P plant with grasslike, or 

Grass rather slender rushlike, light green leaves 

Xyrisflexuosa which twist as they grow old, and flowers 

Yellow about A inch across, of three yellow petal- 

July-August ,., _. . . ,, 

like divisions, three stamens, and as many 

sepals, the flowers proceeding from a conelike head com- 
16 




Golden Club. 
Orontium aquaticum. 



Sweet Flag. 
Acorus Calamus. 



YELLOW-EYED GRASS FAMILY. Xyridaceae. 



posed of light green leafy scales. The fruit is an oblong 
many-seeded capsule. The name is from vpi$ an 
unknown Greek plant with two-edged leaves. The 
plant grows 6-16 inches high, in sandy bogs or morasses, 
from Me. to Minn., and south to Ga. and Tex. 

A dwarf and slender species found in 
Northern , . . .,, . , , 

Yellow-eyed mountain regions, with a straight 01 

Grass slightly twisted stem, not bulbous at the 

Xyris montana base. Leaves narrow and linear about 2 
July-August inches long, not twisted. The small ovoid 
flower-heads about \ inch thick. 3-12 inches (rarely 12) 
high. Generally in peat bogs. Mt. Desert, Me. , and the 
White Mts., south to Pocono Mts., Pa., west to Mich. 
Xyris caro- ^ * a ^ kut var i a ble species ; the stem not 

liniana bulbous at the base. Leaves grasslike, 3-8 

June-August inches long and about \ inch wide. The 
ovoid head about J inch in diameter. 10-16 inches high, 
rarely taller. In swamps and wet sandy lake shores, Me. 
south near the coast, and west to Ind. 
Xy*ris difformis A stout southern species, with thickish* 
June-August broad lance-linear leaves. Flower-stem 
slightly twisted, and strongly flattened. Heads spherical, 
J inch in diameter. Sandy shores. Md. south to La. 
Xyris elata A tall, southern species with grasslike 

June-August leaves 8-16 inches long. Flower-stem slen- 
der and scarcely flattened, two-edged. Heads about f-1 
inch long, and nearly cylindrical, Sandy shores, Va. to 
Fla. and Miss. See Appendix. 

SPIDER WORT FAMILY. Commelinacece. 

Herbs with jointed and often leafy branching stems, 
the leaves sheathed at the base, and generally perfect 
flowers, i. e., flowers with stamens and pistil. Cross- 
fertilization assisted by insects. 

The grass green leaves are lance-shaped, 
Day Flower an( j b rown _ snea thed at their junction with 
Commehna hir- . , . 

tel l a the plant-stem; the sheath is hairy-edged. 

Light violet- The flowers are three-parted and irregular, 
blue that is, unequal in size, form, and struc- 

tural parts ; two of the light violet-blue 
petals are larger than the third. The leaf 

18 




/ inn i 

Yellow-eyed Grass. 
Xyris Carolinians. 



Xyris flexuosa. 



SPIDERWORT FAMILY. Commelinaceas. 



immediately below the flowers is heart-shaped, and 
clasping, forming a hollow from which the flower-stem 
proceed s. The flo wers expand only in the morning. The 
plant is erect, stout-stemmed, and grows 2-3 feet high. 
It is named for the early Dutch botanist Kaspar Comme- 
lin. Fond of damp and shady, but warm places, it dis- 
tributes itself along river banks and streams from 
southern N. J., south, and west to Mo. 
Virginia Day This is a much commoner species in the 
Flower northeastern section of the country, and 

Commelina it differs from the foregoing species in the 

Virginia* following particulars. The leaves and 

Light violet- 

fc l* e stem are slenderer, the stem taller, but 

June-Septem- branching and reclining, frequently tak- 
ber ing root at the joints, and the whole plant 

is frequently slightly rough to the touch. The third 
petal is also particularly inconspicuous and abortive. 
The plant grows l|-3 feet high, and is found on river 
banks or wet shaded places, from southern N. Y., south, 
and west to Neb. and Tex. See Appendix. 

This species has mucilaginous, upright 
Spiderwort . . ,. . , 

Tradescantia stems, with light green, narrow, and linear 

Virginiana leaves. The flowers are regular with three 
Light violet- purplish ultramarine blue petals which 
blue richly relieve the golden anthers with- 

in; the latter are widely removed from the 
prominent stigma. It is unquestionably cross-fertilized 
by the earlier queen bumblebees Bombus pennsylvani- 
cus and B. separatus, who are attracted by the plentiful 
pollen, and evidently come in contact with the exposed 
stigma before stumbling among the yellow anthers. It 
is also a familiar, old-fashioned garden flower, common 
beside the farm-houses of the north. It is named for 
John Tra descant, gardener to Charles I. of England. 
It grows 1-1 \ feet high, usually in rich or moist ground, 
from Me., south, and west to the Rocky Mts. There 
are variable forms of this species, as well as another 
slenderer southern species with smaller pink flowers, 
6-12 inches high, named Tradescantia rosea. It is dis- 
tributed from Md., south, and west to Mo. 

[See Appendix.] 

20 





Virginia Day Flower. 



Spiderwort. 



Commelin&Virgimca. Ki Tradescantia virginiana. 



PICKEREL WEED FAMILY. Pontederiaceae. 



PICKEREL WEED FAMILY. Pontederiacece. 

Aquatic herbs with perfect (i. e. having stamens and pis- 
til), more or less irregular flowers issuing from a spathe or 
leaflike envelop, which are mostly fertilized by insects. 

A tall plant with one blunt arrowhead- 
Pickerel Weed T , -f , , . , , 
Pontederia cor- sha P ed > dark green, thick leaf, varying to 
data a very elongated triangle shape, and a 
Light violet- showy flower-spike about 4 inches long, 

crowded with ephemeral, violet-blue 
b "" e ~ ' flowers which are marked with a distinct 

yellow-green spot. Immediately below 
the spike is the small spathe. Sometimes the flowers 
are white. The flower-cup is funnel-formed and six- 
divided, the upper three divisions united, and the three 
lower ones spread apart. The six stamens are three of 
them long and protruding, and three short which are 
often abortive ; the blue anthers are so placed that it is 
impossible for an insect to enter the flower-cup without 
brushing against them and detaching the pollen. The 
fruit is a bladderlike receptacle containing one seed. The 
plant is named for Giulio Pontedera, a professor of 
botany at Padua about 1730. Pickerel weed grows 1-3 
feet high, and is commonly found in the shallows of ponds 
and sluggish streams, sometimes associated with the 
arrowhead. The deer in the Adirondack region fre- 
quent the lake shores to feed upon it. 
Mud Plantain A small water plant with deep green, 
Heteranthera floating, round-kidney-shaped leaves on 
reniformis long stems, and 2-5 white or pale blue per- 
White or bluish fect]y developed flowers, which, like those 

of the preceding species, are exceedingly 
short-lived. The tiny flowers proceed from a spathe or 
leafy enclosure projecting from the sheathed side of a 
leaf-stem. The flower-cup shows six nearly equal 
divisions spread above its slender tube. The plant is 
named for its unlike anthers, krspa different, smdarfypa 
anther ; the specific reniformis means kidney-formed, 
in allusion to the shape of the leaf. It grows about 12 
inches high, in mud or shallow water, from Conn, to 
N. J , and west to Kan. , Neb. , and La. See Appendix. 



Pickerel Weed. M Mud Plantain. 

Pontederia cordata. Heteranthera peni/brmis. 



LILY FAMILY. Llliacess. 



LILY FAMILY. Liliacece. 

Mostly perennial herbs with a flower-cup of generally 
six parts remarkable for its simplicity and beauty. 
Flowers with six stamens each of which stands before 
one of the divisions. In the case of Allium the flowers 
spring from a spathe or leafy inclosure, like the flowers 
of most of the species already described. 
Carrion Flower The light green veiny-corrugated leaves 
Smilax are mostly round-ovate and heart-shaped 

herbacea at the b pointed at the tip, and devoid 

Green-yellow - . 

May-July of g loss > their stems greatly varying in 

length, measuring -i-3 inches ; with a ten- 
dril at either side. The long flower-stem, proceeding 
from between the tendrils, is topped by a hemispherical 
flower-cluster with spokelike stemlets. The greenish- 
yellow flowers are insignificant and putrid-odored ; they 
are staminate and pistillate on separate plants, thus show- 
ing their dependence upon insects for fertilization, par- 
ticularly upon those flies which are attracted by carrion. 
The cluster of berries is first green and finally blue-black 
with a bloom. It is, indeed, a beautiful and decorative 
vine, most unfortunate in the repellent odor of its flow- 
ers at the time of bloom. It is very variable, grows to a 
length of 4-15 feet, and frequents river banks and thickets* 
Common from the coast west to Dak. and Neb. 
Green Brier ^ ne slightly zigzag stem and branches, 

Smilax the latter more or less squarish, are cov- 

rotundifolia ered with scattered prickles, and the 

Light green broadly ovate, short-stemmed, light green 
May-June _ . , , 

leaves are 2-3 inches long and pointed. 

The leaf -stalk is bent upward at a right angle ; in the 
angle are the slender tendrils. The flower-stalk bears 
fewer flowers than that of the preceding species. The 
berries are blue-black. It is common in most thickets, 
and closely connects with a western form, var. quadran- 
gularis, the branches of which are quite perceptibly 
square. Common from the coast west to Minn, and 
Tex. It is a familiar vine on Long Island, N. Y., and 
at North Easton, Mass., but it is not found in the moun.' 
tain region of N. H. 

24 




Carrion Flower. 
Smilax herbacea. 



Green Brier*. 
Smilax rotundifolia. 



LILY FAMILY. Liliaceie. 



Clintonia 

Clintonia 

borealis 

Cream-color, 

greenish 

June-early 

July 



A handsome woodland plant with from 
two to four (usually three) shiny, light 
green, large oval-oblong leaves ; a slender 
flower-stalk, about 7 inches high, bears 
from three to six cream-colored drooping 
flowers greenish on the outside. The 
flower is formed of six distinct sepals, and 
is perfect, having six stamens and a pistil ; its form is 
lily like and dainty. It was named for DeWitt Clinton, 
once governor of New York. It unfortunately lacks 
odor and color to make it perfectly attractive, but it is 
not without a subtle and delicate grace. The berries, 
which are ripe about the middle of August, turn a beau- 
tiful pure blue, a color devoid of any purplish tinge, and 
therefore one which is rare and remarkable in nature. 
Prussian blue mixed with a little white will exactly 
match the unique color of the Clintonia berry. The 
plant grows 6-16 inches high, and is common in the 
northern woods, especially where they are cold and 
moist. Me., south to N. C., and west to Minn. 

A far less common species, with a woolly 
umleUulata flower-stem, and flowers half the size of 
White, spotted those of the foregoing species, borne in a 
May-June thick cluster. The flowers are also very 
different in color ; they are mostly white 
speckled with madder purple, and possess a sweet odor. 
The berries are globular and black. Height 8-22 inches. 
Rich woods of the Alleghanies from N. Y. to Ga. ; not 
in New Eng. 



26 




Clintonia bopealis. 



LILY FAMILY. Lfllaceae. 



Streptopus A species similar to S. roseus, and found 

longipes only in the woods of Marquette Co., Michi- 

gan. Leaves pale green beneath, fine-hairy on the edges, 
and stemless. Flowers bell-shaped, magenta-pink. 12-16 
inches high, the stem fine-hairy above, the rootstock 
slender, and outspread. 

Twisted Stalk The leaves, strongly clasping the zigzag 
Streptopus stem, are smooth and light green, with a 
amplexifolius w hitish bloom beneath. The curly-se- 
** paled, greenish flower is about J inch 

May-July wide, and hangs by a long, crooked, 

threadlike stem from beneath the leaves. 
The flower is perfect and regular, with six lance-shaped 
sepals, and is either solitary or (rarely) in pairs. The 
name is from the Greek, for twisted, and stalk or foot. 
The usually solitary berry is red, round, and nearly 
inch in diameter. 2-3 feet high. Cold moist woods. 
Me., west to the Rockies, and south to N. C., in the 
mountains. 

Streptopus Differs from the preceding in its dull 

roseus purple-pink flower, its leaves which are not 

Dull purple- whitened with a bloom beneath, but are 
Ma -earl altogether green and finely hairy at the 

j u iy edge, and its earlier period of bloom. 

1-2-J feet high. In the same situations, 
but extending farther south to Ga. , and west to Ore. 

The genus Streptopus is dependent in part upon insects 
for cross-fertilization. Some of the most frequent visit- 
ors are the bumblebees, the beelike flies Bombylius, and 
the bees of the genus Andrenidce, still, their effect upon 
the flower is mere probability. It takes much time and 
attention to make sure of the results of such insect visita- 
tions. Certainly the delicate green-white coloring of 
one species and the magenta of the other directly indi- 
cate the adaptation of the flowers to insect visitors. 

The immature berry of Streptopus is green-white and 
distinctly triangulate three-lobed ; when ripe the ovoid 
berry is a translucent cherry-red ; the slender stems are 
abruptly bent near the middle. 



28 




Twisted 5ta.lk. Streptopus roseus. 



LILY FAMILY. 



Asparagus Th * s beautiful perennial, so well known 

Asparagus " as a vegetable, is not quite as familiar to 
offidnalis us in its aesthetic dress. Its leaves (or prop- 

Green-yeilow erlVj its branchlets), are threadlike ; and 
it assumes a bushy, almost larchlike figure 
as it grows older, and becomes decorated with round, 
scarlet berries. The tiny green-yellow flowers are six- 
parted, and rather inconspicuous. The name is ancient. 
Adventive from the old country, and a frequent escape 
from kitchen gardens everywhere. It is a favorite among 
the farmers' wives who use it decoratively in their homes ; 
certainly it is not less decorative than the florist's famous 
Asparagus plumosus. 

A really beautiful woodland plant slightly 
False Spike= 
nard resembling Solomon s Seal, but bearing 

Smilacina its Spiraealike cluster of fine white flowers 
racemosa at the tip of the stem. The light blue- 

White green leaves are oblong and ovate-lance- 

shaped, taper-pointed, and with very short 
stems hardly any, in fact. The tiny flower has six 
distinct white sepals, and is perfect, with six stamens 
and a pistil. The flower cluster is pyramidal, and the 
zigzag plant-stem gracefully inclines. The berries, 
smaller than peas, are at first greenish then yellowish 
white speckled with madder brown, and finally, in late 
September, a dull ruby-red of translucent character. 
They possess an aromatic taste. A familiar plant of the 
White Mt. region. The name is a diminutive of Smilax, 
without appropriate application. Common in moist 
copses and beside woodland roads. 1-3 feet high, Me. 5 
south to S. C. and west to Minn, and Ark. 




False .'Spikenard. SmiUcin* racemosa. 



LILY FAMILY. Liliaceae. 



A much smaller species than the fore- 
False Solo- -.,, 
mon's Seal g m g> with a very small but pretty starry 

Smilacina cluster of white flowers at the tip of the 

stellata stem. The leaves, light blue-green and 

very firm, clasp the zigzag stem. The 

flower is 1 inch wide. The berries, which 
June 

are few, are at first spotted and finally 
dull ruby-red. 8-16 inches high. Moist banks and 
meadows. Me. , south to N. J. , and west. 
Three=leaved A still smaller species, with generally 
False Solo- three leaves, but sometimes two or even 

mon's Seal four, tapering to a sheathing base ; flowers 
Smilacina ,, ,. ,, , , 

trifolia smaller than those of the preceding spe- 

White cies, and the berries red like those of 

May-early the next species. 2-6 inches high. In 
June bogs or wet woods. Me., south to Perm., 

west to Mich. 

Although the resemblance of Smilacina trifolia to 
Maianthemum Canadense (the next species described) is 
close, the differences are easily detected by a close ob- 
server. The (usually) three leaves of Smilacina trifolia 
clasp the stem but are in no way heart-shaped at the 
base. This species also has six sepals and as many 
stamens, and the whole plant is invariably smooth, not 
fine-hairy as is sometimes the case with the next species. 
The berries of Smilacina and Maianthemum are closely 
similar, but those of Smilacina stellata are in a measure 
harder, more opaque than any of the others, and cer- 
tainly not blackish, as described in Gray's Manual, 6th 
^Edition, but dull red. 




False Solomons Seal. 
Smilacina stellata. 



Smilacina trifolia. 



LILY FAMILY. LiHacetB. 



A tiny woodland plant resembling Smila* 
Mayflower cina trifolia, with small white flowers 
Maianthemum which differ from those of the genus Sm^'- 
Canadense lacina in having only four sepals and as 
Whlte many stamens. It has two to three light 

green, shiny leaves which are ovate-lance- 
shaped or broader, with a somewhat heart-shaped base. 
The berries are yellow- white, spotted with madder brown, 
until early fall when they turn a dull translucent ruby- 
red. 

A familiar plant in the woods of the White Mts: ; gen- 
erally in moist places. 3-6 inches high. The name is 
from Mains, May, and avQejuov, flower. Me., west to 
Minn, and Iowa, south to N. Car. 

-This is the only one true species, familiar 
V aH e in cultivation. It has two oblong leaves, 

Convallaria shiny and smooth, and a slender stalk 
majalis bearing a one-sided row of tiny white 

White flowers, extremely sweet-scented and 

dainty. Flower-cup bell-shaped, with six 
lobes recurved, and six stamens. It is ap- 
parently cross-fertilized by bees who collect the pollen, 
as there is little or no honey at the base of the bell ; in 
the absence of insects it is self-fertilized (Hildebrand). 
Berry red. The name is from the Latin convallis, valley, 
and the Greek for lily. Identical with the European 
flower of the gardens, it also grows on the higher 
Alleghanies, from Va. to S. Car. 




Canada Mayflower? Lily of the Valley. 

Maianthemum Canadense. Convallaria maj&lis. 



LILY FAMILY. Liliacese. 



The pendulous position of the flowers of this genus, is 
in a great measure protective ; the wind and weather can 
not injure or uselessly scatter the pollen. The flowers, 
moreover, have short styles and long anthers, and are 
unquestionably cross-fertilized by the larger bees ; the 
bumblebees Bombus vagans, and Bombus pennsylvanicus 
are common visitors, together with innumerable small 
insects. 

The oblong-ovate, light green leaves 
Solomon s Seal 

Polygonatum smooth or finely hairy and paler beneath, 
biflorum arranged alternately either side of the 

Pale green slender, smooth stem ; the cylindrical and 
April-June tassellike perfect flowers (each having six 
stamens) depend in clusters of two, rarely three, below 
them. An extremely pretty and graceful plant when 
under cultivation. The fruit, at first a green berry with 
a whitish bloom, at last becomes blue-black and resembles 
a small Concord grape ; it imparts an additionally decora- 
tive appearance to the plant. 1-3 feet high. Common 
in thickets beside woodlands, and on hillsides. Me., 
south, and west to E. Kan., Neb., and Tex. 

The plant is taller and smooth, without 
Solomon's Seal ^ ne ^ ne narrmess - Leaves ovate, pointed, 
Polygonatum and partly clasping the plant-stem, 3-8 
commutatum inches long, and many-ribbed. Flowers 
Pale Green in c i us t er s of from two to eight. Stem 
y stout and round. 2-8 feet high. Meadows 

and river banks. Me., south to Va., and 
west to the Rocky Mts. 

A southern plant of the mountain woods 

and pine-barren swamps, found at an al- 
o!"* r1 titude of 5000 feet in Virginia. The rather 

puberula stocky angular stem slightly fine-hairy. 

(Uvularia pube- Leaves ovate, pointed, rough-edged, and a 
rula Michaux) br i ghfc shining green on both sides. Flow- 
Corn=yellow , .,, . 

May-June ers P ale corn vellow > bell-shaped, with six 

perianth divisions, the styles separated 
nearly to the base, and not longer than the anthers. 8-15 
inches high. N. J. to S. C. This plant does not properly 
belong to the genus Uvularia; its perianth is without 
ridges within. (See O. sessilifolia.) 
36 




Solomon's Seal 



Polygonatum biflorum. 



LILY FAMILY. Uliaceae. 



Bellwort A graceful woodland plant, smooth 

Uvularia per- throughout, with a forking stem (one to 
foliata three leaves below the fork), the deep 

Pale corn green ovate-lance-shaped leaves appearing 

nay-June as if P erforated b 7 ^. The delicately fra- 

grant flower-cup, granular-rough inside, 
is attenuated but lily like, with six distinct pale corn 
yellow sepals. Flowers perfect, with six short stamens 
and a pistil. Sepals with a deep honey -bearing groove 
within ridged on either edge. 

Seed pod a three-parted capsule, appearing as if 
chopped off at the end, and in this respect entirely dif- 
ferent from that of the Oakesia following. Name from 
uvula, palate, referring to the way the flower hangs. 
It grows 6-18 inches high, in rich woods, from Me. to 
the Dakotas, and south. 

This is the commoner bellwort from 
Large-flowered 

Bellwort western New Eng., west and south. 

Uvularia gran- The deep green leaves are fine-white- 

diflora hairy beneath ; the large pale, corn yellow 

flower, inclining to green, at the summit, 



April-June * s ^^-Y H inches long, and smooth inside. 

Stem with a single leaf or none below the 
fork. A more limited distribution, south to Ga. and west 
to Minn. , Iowa, and S. Dak. 

Similar in some respects to the foregoing 
Oakesia sessili- g enus > but witn marked differences. Stem 
folia angled. The deep green leaves, fine-hairy 

Corn or cream beneath, conspicuously three - grooved, 
5^f n Y sharp-pointed, and stemless, or slightly 

clasping. The six divisions of the flower 
less pointed, no ridges within the flower-cup, the latter 
more bufnsh cream-colored, but still near corn yellow. 
The seed capsule three-sided, resembling a beech nut. The 
one or two flowers on slender stems, at first terminating 
the plant stem, but finally appearing opposite the leaves 
by reason of the growth of the branches. Named for 
William Oakes, an early botanist of New England. 

Stem 6-13 inches high. It is very common in the 
north woods. Me., south to Ga., and west to Minn, and 




Lkpge-flowered Bellwort. 
Uvularia grandiflora. 



Oakesia 

sessilifolia 



LILY FAMILY. Liliacess, 



Ark. Uvularia and Oakesia are both slender drooping* 
leaved plants early in the season at the time of bloom , 
later they expand to a broader figure. 

.The trilliums are handsome woodland 
Stemless Trilli- 

um, or Wake= pl ants w ith stout stems, ruddy purple at 
robin the base ; their perfect flowers have three 

Trillium sessile green sepals which remain until the plant 
fed" mage " ta= withers, three petals much larger, and six 
April-May stamens. T. sessile has stemless, slightly 
fragrant flowers with narrow petals and 
sepals, the former rather erect and spreading, dull ma- 
genta-red, varying to a greenish tone. Leaves stemless, 
somewhat four-sided but ovate, and often blotched with 
lighter and darker green. Red berry spherical or nearly 
so, J inch deep. The name is from triplum, triple, a 
characteristic of all parts of the plant. 5-10 inches high. 
Moist woods. Penn., south, and west to Minn, and Ark. 

Differs from the preceding in the fol- 
Tnllium 

recurvatum lowing particulars. The leaves are nar- 
rowed at the base into a stem, and the 
flower has reflexed sepals, and pointed petals narrowed 
at the base. 6-16 inches high. Rich woods. , Ohio and 
west. 

A very common eastern species, with 
Wake=robin, or 
Birthroot four-sided ovate leaves scarcely stemmed, 

Trillium erec- and abruptly pointed, and flowers, with a 

turn reclining stem, varying in color from white 

Maroon, or ^ Q p m k brownish purple-red or maroon, 
white, etc. * 

April-June with flat, ovate, spreading petals nearly 

1J inches long, the sepals a trifle shorter. 
Sometimes the flower is dull pink, of a brownish purple 
tone, and rarely it is greenish. It is ill-scented, and as a 
consequence attracts the carrion-loving green fly (Liicilia 
carnicina), commonly called the flesh-fly, who finds the 
raw-meat color of the flower as acceptable as the odor. 
According to Clarence M. Weed this fly is the most use- 
ful pollen disseminator of Trillium erectum. Berry 
darker red, round-ovate. 7-15 inches high. Rich 
woods, New Eng. to N. C. , west to Minn, and Mo. 
Trillium viride A similar species to T. sessile but larger. 
Leaves ovate and sharp-pointed, the sepals spreading. 
40 



Wake Robin. 
Trillium erectum. 



*fr".jp>~ 




undulatum 



Painted Trillium. 
Trillium undulatum. 



LILY FAMILY. LMaceae. 



Flowers green, with linear petals. 12-15 inches high. 
Moist woodlands and hillsides. Kan., Mo., and south- 
eastward. 

Trillium Leaves rhombic-ovate. The white flower 

dedinatum with long ovate petals ; its mostly horizon- 

tal stem 1J-2 inches long. The filaments less than half 
as long as the anthers. Woodlands, O., Minn, and Mo. 

A handsome, large - flowered species 
Large Flower- _ 
ing Trillium flowering later, and cultivated by the 

Trillium grandi- florists. The waxy-white petals H-2 inches 
ftorum long, larger than the sepals, curve grace- 

fully backward, and, as they grow older, 
turn pink. 10-18 inches high. The red 
berry fully 1 inch long. Rich woods. Vt. to N. C., west 
to Minn, and Mo. 

Leaves almost stemless and broadly 
Trillium four-sided ovate. Flower with white or 

Trillium pinkish wavy petals f inch long, and with 

cernuum a short stem recurved so that the blossom 

White ig often Bidden beneath the leaves. 8-14 

inches high. Moist woods. New Eng. to 
Minn., south to Ga. and Mo. 

A very small species with ovate leaves, 
Dwarf White 

Trillium ""* inches long, and flowers whose white 

Trillium nivale petals, less than 1 inch long, are scarcely 
White wavy. Berry red, about J inch in diame- 

March-May ter? flattened and spherical, with three 
rounded divisions. A dwarf plant 2-5 inches high. Rich 
woods. Pa. and Ky. to Minn, and Iowa. 

One of the most beautiful of the genus, 

and very common in the rich woodlands 
Trillium J 

Trillium un- of the north. Leaves ovate and tapering 
dulatum to a sharp point. Green sepals quite nar- 

white row, and the gracefully recurved, wavy- 

edged white petals strongly marked with 
a crimson V deep or pale, as the case may 
be ; it is never purple. The dark scarlet ovate berry f 
inch long, ripe in September, and falling at a touch. 
8-16 inches high. Cold damp woods and beside wood* 
land brooks. New Fng. to Ga. , west to Minn, and Mo. 






. m 




LargeFloweringTrillium. Trilljum gr&ndiflorum 




Erects/lower of 
Trillium recurvatum. 



NoddingTrillium, 
Trillium cernuum. 



Dwarf White Trillium. 
Trillium nivale. 



LILY FAMILY. Liliacese. 



The only species, the thin, circling, long- 
Cucumber ovate, light green leaves of which are 
Medeola Vir- arranged around the middle, and the three 
ginica ovate ones around the top of the thin 

Green and stem. The inconspicuous nodding, but 

terra=cotta . , ~ . . , . , 

May-June pertect flower is f inch wide, green, and 

accented by the reddish terra-cotta color 
of the six stamens, and the three long, recurved terra- 
cotta brown stigmas, i. e., the three divisions of the 
tip of the pistil ; the three petals and three sepals are 
also recurved. In September about two or three purple- 
black berries replace the flowers at the apex of the plant. 
Named for the sorceress Medea on account of its sup- 
posed medicinal virtue. The common name alludes to 
the succulent, horizontal, white tuberous root which 
tastes like cucumber, and was in all probability relished, 
by the Indians. 1-3 feet high. Rich damp woods. Me. , 
west to Minn., and south. 

Medeola Virginica is a characteristic woodland plant, 
common in the White Mountain woods. It is adapted 
to subdued sunlight, and is interesting in both flower 
and fruit. The blossoms, often beneath the three uppei 
leaves, are thus protected from the dripping of the trees 
in wet weather ; their colors are aesthetic. Crawling 
insects cannot easily mount the (at first) woolly stem and 
rob the flower of its pollen, flying insects readily find 
the blossom, and in September the three crowning leaf- 
lets beneath the berries are stained with dull crimson, 
the color attracting birds to the fruit. It is therefore 
evident that the plant depends in some measure upon 
visitors. 



44 




Indian Cucumber. .MedeolaVipginica. 



LILY FAMILY. Liliaceae. 



Blazing Star, The stem bearing light green, flat, lance- 
or Devil's Bit shaped (blunt) leaves at the base with sev- 
Cham(Blirium eral shorter, narrower ones farther up, 

luteum ^ terminated by a feathery spike 4-10 

White 

June-July inches long of small, fragrant flowers, 

white with a tinting of the yellow stamens 
characterizing the staminate, and in conspicuous white 
the pistillate ones. It is quite dependent upon insects 
for cross-fertilization, the staminate flowers growing on 
one plant and pistillate on another ; the flower-cup has 
six narrow, spreading white sepals. The pistillate plant 
is more leafy. Fruit an oblong capsule. The name, 
which was first applied to a half -grown, low speci- 
men, is from XCXIHXI, on the ground, and A.sipior, lily. 
The wandlike stem 1-4 feet high. Low grounds and 
swamps, from Mass, to Ga., west to Neb. and Ark. 
Bunch Flower The lowest leaves nearly 1 inch wide, 
Melanthium the few upper ones small, and linear or 
Virginicum grass-shaped. Flowers polygamous, i. e., 
Cream yellow, stam i nate , pistillate, and perfect on 
turning brown . _ ., ,. . 

June-August tne same plant. It does not, therefore, 

rely fully upon insects for fertilization. 
Flower-cup of six separate, greenish cream yellow sepals 
turning brown with age. Fruit, an ovoid-conical cap- 
sule, three-lobed. The name is from jusAaS, black, and 
avftoS, flower, in allusion to the dark color which the 
flower assumes upon withering. The leafy, slender 
stem is 3-5 feet high. It grows in wet woods and mead- 
ows, from Conn., south to S. Car., west to Minn, and 
Tex. 

Indian Poke or A leafy perennial herb with very poison- 
American ous coarse roots, remarkable in the early 
Wnite stage of its development for its beautiful 
Ferafmw P ure yellow-green color, which becomes 
viride darker and dull within four weeks, and 
Dull yellow- finally withers to an unsightly brown be- 
green ore t ^ e sum mer is in its prime. The 

broad ovate, clasping leaves are scored with 
numerous ribs, and crinkled in parallel lines. The un- 
interesting large flower-spike is dull yellow-green turn- 




Devil's Bit 



Chamaelirium luteum 



LILY FAMILY. Liliaceae. 



ing brownish with age ; the flowers, like those of thf 
preceding genus, are polygamous, but small, with si* 
green sepals. Capsule also like that of Melanthium. 
Name from vere, truly, and ater, dead black, in allu- 
sion to the blackening (really turning brown) of the 
plant upon withering. The plant is poisonous in all 
parts for sheep .and cattle. It grows 2-7 feet high, in 
wet meadows and low grounds, everywhere. 
stout Stem leafy, stout and erect, with grass- 

Stenanthium like leaves. Flower-spike sometimes 2 feet 
Stenanthium long ; the flowers are also polygamous. 
gramineum Flower-cup whitish green or white witt 
White or green . te . 

July-August slx narrow spreading lance-shaped sepals, 
i inch long. Leaves grasslike. Fruit 
capsule pointed long-ovate. The name is from 6rev6<s, 
narrow, and drQo$, flower, alluding to the slender sepals 
and flower-cluster. 3-5 feet high. Penn. to S. C., west 
to Ohio and Tenn. 

The lily group is distinguished for its handsome bell- 
shaped flowers, of six distinct spreading sepals with a 
honey -bearing groove at the base of each. Flowers per- 
fect with six prominent stamens, and a long pistil the 
tip of which is a three-lobed stigma. Fruit an oblong 
capsule containing many flat seeds. The bulb scaly. 
The name Latinized from the Greek Xstpiov. 

The most beautifully colored wild lily 
Wood Lily or . .. .,_ 

Wild Orange- of all wlth bri g nt green leafy stems, 
Red Lily flower-cup opening upward, and the six 

Lilium sepal divisions narrowing to a stemlike 

Philadelphicum s i en derness toward the base. The color 
Orange=scarlet 

July varying from orange-scarlet to scarlet- 

orange or paler, and spotted with purple- 
brown on the inner part of the cup. The sepals do not 
recurve. From one to three flowers are borne at the 
branching summit of the plant-stem. A small form 
common in Nantucket bears a single lighter-colored 
flower. 1-3 feet high. Dry and sandy soil, common in 
the borders of thin woods. Me. to N. C., west to Minn 
and Mo. The var. andinum, a western form, has linear 
leaves alternately or irregularly distributed on the stem, 
and generally deeper red flowers. The pod narrowed at 
48 




Wood Lily. 



Lilium Philaddphicum. 



LILY FAMILY. LMacese. 



the base. Rich and dry soil of prairies, and in bogs, O. 
to Ark., Col., and northwest. 

Southern Similar to L. philadelphicum, but the 

Red Lily linear leaves alternately or irregularly 

Lilium Catesbai distributed. The orange-scarlet flower 
Orange-scarlet solitary, with widespread wavy-margined 
divisions, long-clawed at the tip, and 
madder-purple-spotted at the yellow base. 1-2 feet high. 
Moist pine-barrens, N. C. to Fla. and Ala. ? west to s. 111., 
and Mo. 

Yellow The common lily of the north, found 

Meadow Lily most often upon low meadows. The stem 
or Canada Lily ig s i en( j er or s t ou t, very light green and 
Canadense smooth, and bears the light green lance- 
Buff yellow shaped leaves in circles. The stem divides 
spotted into several branches (really flower-stems) 

purple=brown each of which bearg a pendulous flower, 
buff yellow on the outside, and a deeper 
orange-buff spotted purple-brown on the inside. The 
nectar is protected from the rain by the pendulous posi- 
tion of the flower-cup ; it is gathered mostly by the 
wild honey-bee, and the leaf-cutter bee(Megachile), who 
visit the flower to gather the brown pollen as well. 
These insects are therefore the most potent means of 
fertilizing this lily. It grows 2-5 feet high, and fre- 
quents moist meadows and copses, from Me., south to 
Ga., and west to Minn. Neb,, and Mo. 

Lilium Canadense is probably the most popular wild 
lily of our range. However, it certainly does not possess 
the beauty of color that characterizes the wood lily, nor 
the subtle delicacy of the Turk's Cap ; but the graceful 
curves of its pendulous bells are unsurpassed in any wild 
or cultivated flower, and it must always command the 
greatest admiration for that matchless quality. Of the 
three wild lilies this one is also the most prodigal of its 
charms ; it is not only in the meadow, it is everywhere. 
Lilium Grayi ^ mountain species confined to the 
Orange-scarlet Alleghanies. The leaves smooth, broad 
July-August lance-shaped, acute-pointed, and borne in 
whorls or circles of 4-8, the lowest generally irregularly 
50 




Yellow Meadow Lily. 



Li Hum Can&dense. 



LILY FAMILY. Liliaceas. 



scattered. Flowers spreading horizontally or slightly 
drooping, deep orange-scarlet, yellow at the base and 
profusely spotted with madder purple ; the divisions 
without claws. Stem slender, 2-3 feet high. Peaks of 
Otter, Va., and on the mountain summits, southwest to 
N. C. In comparison with the other lilies this flower is 
small only 1J 2 J inches long, and very rarely more than 
two flowers are found on a single plant. 
Turk's Cap A less common, but most beautiful spe- 

Liiy cies remarkable for its completely reflexed 

petals, or rather sepals, which leave the 
superbum , , *" . _ . J . _ 

Buff orange- handsome stamens, tipped by the brown 

yellow anthers, fully exposed to view ; the flower- 

July-early CU p i s thickly freckled with brown, and 
August hangs in a half -drooping position. It is 

also largely fertilized by bees, but is frequently visited 
by the monarch butterfly (Anosia plexippus) of a tawny 
and black color, whose favorite plant is the common 
milkweed. The light green leaves of this lily hold 
alternating positions at the upper part of the stem, but 
are more or less in circles at the lower part. 3-7 feet 
high. It is oftenest found in wet meadows not very far 
from the coast, and it is distributed from Me. (rather rare) 
and Mass., south to N. Car. and Tenn., and west to Minn. 
A similar species the flowers of which 
Carolina Lily ^ ave ^ ar ^ ess reflexed sepals, with perhaps 
Lilium fewer spots. The leaves are darker green 

Carolinianum and broader, rather blunt-lance-shaped. 
Buff orange- 2 -3 feet high. Commonly found in the 
August ^ r y wo ds an( ^ among the mountains. 

Va. , south to Fla. and La. 

Tiger Lily ^- J a P anese species escaped from gar- 

Lilium " dens, and commonly found beside old f arm- 

tigrinum houses. Its leaves are lance-shaped and 

Orange=scarlet scat tered along a. stiff, straight, cottony, 

dark-colored stem, with black bulblets at 

the point where they join the plant-stem. The flower 

sepals are strongly spotted and reflexed. Me. to N. Y. 

A western species similar in some respects 

Erythromum , . , 

mesochoreum to the next following, but the leaves nar- 
Pale lavender rower linear lance-shaped and not mot- 

52 




Turk's C&p Lily. 



Lilium superbum. 



LILY FAMILY. Uliaceas. 



tied, the flower also pale lavender and its divisions not 
curved backward but slightly spreading ; the stigmas re- 
curved, 510 inches high. On prairies, la., Mo., Neb., 
and Kan. Blooms earlier than E. albidum. 

A small, lilvlike flower distinguished 
Dogtooth Violet ., , , . , , .7 

or Yellow Ad= for lts brown-purple-tinged (outside) gold 
der's Tongue yellow color ; sometimes the purple tinge 
Erythronium is wanting in the flower, but the two leaves 
Amencanum are a i m ost always strongly mottled w^ith 
I ^ ^ 'it; these are elliptical, pointed, nearly 

April-May stemless, and proceed from the root. The 

flower is perfect, with six stamens and a 
pistil, and it is especially adapted to long-tongued in- 
sects ; it is undoubtedly cross-fertilized by the early 
bees, chief among which are the queen bumblebees 
(Bombus pennsylvanicus) whom I have often observed 
enter the flower-bell and issue plentifully besprinkled 
with pollen. Other occasional visitors are the small 
butterflies Colias philodice yellow, and Pieris rapce 
white. It is probable, too, that many species of flies are 
attracted to this plant on account of its mottled color ; 
but the majority of flies are poor pollen disseminators. 
The name, Greek, for red, in allusion to the European 
species which is purple-red. The little plant, 5-10 
inches high, is common in moist woods and beside 
brooks in swampy places, from Me. , south, and west to 
Minn. Found in Campton, N. H. 

A very similar species with narrower 

leaves mottled less distinctly or not at all, 
Erythronium smooth, thick, and whitish green. The 
albidum flowers are white, or dull, pale violet- 

White or violet- tinge( i outside, and yellow-tinged at the 
whit heart, inside ; the six divisions of the 

flower-cup strongly recurved. As the white 
stigma in Erythronium matures in advance of the 
golden anthers, it is, generally speaking, cross-fertilized; 
its most frequent visitor is the bumblebee (Bombus vir- 
ginicus). 5-8 inches high. Common only in the west 
and south. N. J., south to Ga., and west to Minn. 
Found near Carlinville, southern 111. (Prof. Robertson). 




Yellow Adders Tongue. 
.Epythronium Amepic&num. 



Erythponium albidum. 



LILY FAMILY. Liliacesb. 



Erythronium A western species with a peculiar fleshy 

propullans offshoot proceeding from a slit near the 

Rose=pink middle of the stem. Leaves small and 
Mfl y generally slightly mottled. Flowers bright 

crimson or rose-pink, yellow at the base, half an inch 
long. Stigmas united. 6-8 inches high. Rich woods 
of Minn., also in s. Ontario. 

A slender ornamental plant of Europe, 
Star-of-Bethle- 

hem escaped from gardens. The dark green 

Ornithogalum leaves are narrow and linear, and the 
umbellatum flowers are borne in a branched cluster ; 

they are white inside, green-lined outside, 
May-June , ,_ 

and they open only in the sunshine. Name 

from the Greek, meaning bird's milk, supposed to al- 
lude to the egg-white color of the flower. 4-12 inches 
high. Found most often in fields and meadows near 
farm-houses. Mass, to Pa. and Va. See cut forward. 
Wild Leek * n 8 P rm S * ne w *ld leek develops two or 

Allium tricoc- three light green, flat, oblong-lance-shaped 
cum leaves 8-10 inches long, and about 1 inch 

Greenish white w j(j e or more, and by summertime when 
these are withered, the white or greenish 
white flowers begin to bloom, in a spokelike cluster from 
a spathe or leaflets at the top of a naked stem. The 
perfect flowers with stamens and pistil, are six-parted, 
with six green-white sepals. The flowers are rich honey- 
bearers and undoubtedly are mostly fertilized by bees. 
It is an onion-scented herb whose name is the Latin for 
garlic, and it is not remarkable for its beauty. It grows 
4-15 inches high, in rich woodlands from west N. E., 
west to Minn, and Iowa, and south among the Alle- 
ghanies to N. Car. 

Wild Garli ^" more commonly distributed, ex- 

Allium Cana- tremely narrow-leaved species frequenting 
dense wet meadows, the flower-cluster of which 

Pale pink or j s sparse in bloom or else is replaced by a 

^ hlte thick cluster of bulblets a frequent oc- 

jYla y j u n e 

currence with Allium. The flower's sepals 

are narrow and obtuse, and quite as long as the stamens. 
8-24 inches high. Me. to Minn., and south to the Gulf. 
The Allium s are mostly assisted by flies, bees, moths, 
and butterflies in the process of fertilization. 
56 




Wild Garlic. 

Alii urn C&nddense. 



Wild Leek, 

Alii urn tricoccum 



LILY FAMILY. LiUaceae. 



Day Lily ^ na ^ ve ^ Europe and Asia, escaped 

HemerocalUs from gardens. Leaves angled in section, 
fulva tapering to a sharp point, narrow and 

Tawny orange light green . The flower-stalk tall bearing 
usually eight or nine blossoms which open 
one or two at a time. The flower divisions six, three 
narrow, and three wide and blunt, very fragile, and 
rusty or tawny light orange, with a veined texture. 
The name is from the Greek, and means beautiful for 
only a day. 2-5 feet high. Found usually on meadows 
and upon the borders of streams. I gathered it not far 
from the Arondack Spring, Saratoga, where it was 
growing wild and plentiful. Mass, and N. Y., south to 
Va. and Tenn. 

A beautiful but far less common species, 
Yellow Day 
L ll y occasionally escaped from country gar- 

Hemerocallis dens, with narrow leaves, and pure bright 

flava, yellow flowers more delicate and slender 

in form, having a delightfully fragrant 

odor. 2-3 feet high. The leaves of both 

these plants grow thickly, and are characterized by 

graceful, drooping curves. 

HemerocalUs fulva is rapidly becoming established as 
a wild flower in many parts of the country. Its tenacity 
of life under apparently adverse conditions is remarkable. 
It propagates rapidly by its spreading roots, and some- 
times takes complete possession of by-ways and spare 
corners where the environment is favorable. In various 
parts of New York State the plant is abundant. Less 
attractive in figure than the delicate yellow HemerocalUs 
flava, and odorless besides, it makes up for such dis- 
crepancies by a magnificent tawny orange matched by 
few if any members of the Lily Family. The flowers 
bloom for one day only. 




Day Lily. 



Hemeroc&llis fulva. 




<Star-of-Bethlehem. Opnithogalum umbellat'umi 



AMARYLLIS FAMILY. Amaryllidacex. 



AMARYLLIS FAMILY. Amaryllidacece. 

Perennial herbs, with generally showy, perfect flow- 
ers with stamens and pistil having six generally equal 
divisions of the flower-cup. Mostly fertilized by bees, 
the beelike flies (Syrphidce), and small butterflies (Hes- 
peria). 

Leaves somewhat thick, blunt, and 
Atamasco Lily . . ' 

Zephyranthes shmiDg deep green, long and straight. 
Atamasco The flower perfect with six stamens and 

Pink or white a pistil, the former very much shorter 
April-July than the fl ower . CU p. The flower-cup is 
symmetrical and divided into six distinct lobes, crimson 
pink, white with a magenta tinge, or white ; it is rarely 
eight-lobed. Unquestionably the plant is cross-fertilized 
by insects, chiefly by bees, the honeybee (Apis mellificd) 
visiting the flower most frequently, and generally early 
in the morning. The low position of the anthers in the 
flower-tube makes it impossible for the bee to pass them 
without powdering herself with pollen. The name is 
from the Latin and Greek, Zephyrus, the west wind, 
and avQoS, a flower. The fruit is a depressed capsule. 
6-15 inches high. In moist localities. Del. to Fla. and 
Ala. 

The leaves are deep green, linear, grass- 
star Grass & 
Hypoxis k^ 6 ' an d covered with hairs. The perfect 
hirsuta flower is six-parted, with six stamens of 
Yellow unequal lengths ; it is deep yellow inside, 
April-July an( ^ hairy and greenish outside. There 
are perhaps three flowers at the top of the hairy stalk, 
which, by a plentiful supply of pollen, attract both 
smaller bees (Halictus) and smaller butterflies, notably 
the Meadow Fritillary (Brenthis bellona). Prof. Robert- 
son says the plant depends mostly upon the genus 
Halictus for fertilization, and that it is self- as well as 
cross-fertilized. Hypoxis is commonly found in the 
meadow grass, in dry situations. The name is of Greek 
origin, alluding to some unknown plant with sour 
leaves. 3-6 inches high. Me., south, west to Minn., E. 
Kan., and Tex. 

60 




Atamasco Li ly. Star G pass. 

Zephyranthes Atamasco. Hypoxis hirsuta 



IRIS FAMILY. Iridacex, 



IRIS FAMILY. Iridacece. 

Perennial herbs found in damp or moist situations, 
having straight straplike leaves and showy, perfect 
flowers of three and six parts. Commonly cross-ferti- 
lized by honeybees, bumblebees, and the beelike flies 
(Syrphidcp). 

A handsome, and decorative plant, with 
Larger Blue light green, straight, flat leaves, and three- 
Flag or Fleur= parted perfect flowers blooming one by 

de=Iis one from a green bract or leaflet at 

Iris versicolor .. .... 

Violet-blue * ne tip of a somewhat irregular stalk. The 
May-July stamens are hidden and inserted at the 
base of the three larger and more showy 
divisions of the flower, which are beautifully veined 
with deep violet over a whitish ground tinted at the base 
with yellow. The stamens are under each of the three 
straplike divisions of the style (the middle portion of the 
pistil) which directly overlie the showy purple- veined 
petals or divisions. Thus the insect, generally a bee, in 
order to reach the honey, must alight upon the showy 
petal, crawl beneath the overhanging style-division, and 
brush past the anther hidden below it, dislodging the 
yellow pollen in its passage. At the tip of each style- 
division is the stigma, and upon this some of the pollen 
is deposited as the bee passes ; but it is really the pollen 
from some previously visited flower which possesses the 
greater fertilizing power, therefore the iris is a plant 
which has especially adapted itself to cross-fertilization. 
It is, however, robbed of its nectar by the little yellow 
butterfly (Colias philodice), who goes straight to the base 
of the flower between the divisions, and reaches the 
honey with its long tongue, and also, according to the 
testimony of C. M. Weed, by the tiny skipper butterfly 
(Hesperia). Fruit a long three-lobed capsule. The name 
is from T Ipz, the rainbow, in allusion to the prismatic 
colors of the species. 16-30 inches high. On the wet 
margins of ponds, and in swamps, from Me., south, and 
west to Minn., Ark., and Neb. 



Blue Flag. 




Iris versicokm 



IRIS FAMILY. Iridaceae* 



A slender-stemmed species with very 
Slender .., 

Blue Flag narrow grasslike leaves, and a smaller 

Iris flower with generally narrower propor- 

prismatica tions, and an extremely short tube, but a 
Violet=blue long slender stem proceeding from smaller 
May-June , , ~ , mi 

bracts or leaflets. The fruit capsule nar- 

rowly three-lobed and angular. This species is mainly 
found near the coast in brackish swamps, or wet grounds. 
1-3 feet high. Me. to Penn. and N. Car. 

A usually one-flowered, small, slender- 
Dwarf Iris 

Irisverna stemmed species with grasslike leaves 

Violet=blue scarcely over seven inches long, the flower 
and yellow with the three principal divisions nar- 
Apnl-May rowed toward the base, slightly woolly, 
and deep gold yellow at the narrowing part. Some- 
times the flowers are white. The fruit capsule is ob- 
tusely triangular and short. 4-8 inches high. On 
wooded hillsides, from south Perm, to Ga. and Ky. 

A lance-shaped leaf tapering at both 
Dwarf Iris ends distinguishes this species from all 
Iris cristata others ; the leaf is bright green, 4-9 inches 
Light Violet long) and aoo ut J inch wide. The flowers 
April-May 



divisions crested; i. e., they are marked with three 
raised parallel flutings along the centre, the middle one 
of which is orange yellow. The flower is exceedingly 
delicate in color and dainty in form. The fruit capsule 
is sharply triangular and ovate in outline, hardly twice 
as long as it is wide. 3-6 inches high. It is a very 
dwarf plant common on the hillside and along streams, 
from Md. south to Ga., and west to southern Ind. and 
Mo. 

A Chinese plant escaped from cultiva- 
Blackberry 
Li j y tion, similar to the iris, but much more 

Belamcanda branched. The leaves flat and light green. 
Chinensis like those of the iris, the perfect flowers 

Gold *" ran 2 e with six even divisions of a light golden 
spotted " orange color mottled with dull magenta 
August- spots. Three prominent stamens. Sev- 

September eral flowers in bloom at once. The fruit 
capsule is fig-shaped, 1 inch long, and when the scales or 

64 




Crested Dwarf Jpi$. Blackberry Lily. 

Ins crist&tai, BelajricandaChlrvensm 



IRIS FAMILY. Iridaceae. 



. Blue=eyed 
Grass 

Sisyrinchium 
angustifolium 
3t Deep vio!et= 
blue 
May-July 



divisions of the shell fall in August, the blackberrylike, 
fleshy-coated, black seeds are exposed to view. The name 
is East Indian. 2-4 feet high. The plant has escaped 
from gardens to roadsides and low hills, from south N. 
Y. and Pa., south to Ga., and west to Ind. and Mo. 

A stiff grasslike little plant with linear r 
pale blue-green leaves less than the some- 
what twisted and flat flower-stem in 
height. The flowers are perfect, with a 
prominent pistil, and three stamens ; the 
six divisions are blunt and tipped with a 
thornlike point ; they are violet-blue, or 
sometimes white ; the centre of the flower is beautifully 
marked with a six-pointed white star accented with 
bright golden yellow, each one of the star-points pene- 
trating the deeper violet-blue of the petallike division. 
The -flower is mostly cross-fertilized by bees, and the 
beelike flies (Syrphidce). Seed capsule globular. The 
name is Greek in origin, and is meaningless. 6-13 in- 
ches high. In fields and moist meadows, common from 
Me., south to Va., and west. Stem j^-J inch wide. 

A similar species which has usually two 
unequal branches springing from a con- 
spicuous grasslike leaf ; the leaves a trifle 
bloomy and very light green ; less stiff than 
those of the preceding species, and &-% 
inch wide. The flower petals are also 
sparsely woolly on the outer surface. 8-16 
In grassy places, and sometimes on the bor- 
ders of woods, from Mass., south, and Minn., south to La. 
A tall, bending species, similar to the 
preceding, but lighter green and somewhat 
woolly; a slenderer and weaker stem, some- 
times nearly 2 feet long, and reclining, ter- 
minating in two or three almost equal 
branches. Leaves very narrow, bracts 
somewhat purplish and dry papery ; the flower a trifle 
smaller, the outside somewhat woolly. The seeds but 
slightly pitted or nearly smooth. In wet meadows or 
brackish marshes or sandy soil, Vt., Me. to Fla., near the 
coast. (Bicknell, Torrey Bot. Club Bull, 23 : 134, 1896.) 
66 



Stout Blue- 
eyed Grass 

Sisyrinchium 
gramineum 
Deep violet- 
blue 
May-June 

inches high. 



Eastern Blue- 
eyed Grass 

Sisyrinchium 
Atlanticum 
Violet-blue 
May-June 




Blue-eyed Grass. 
Sisyrinchium aj\gustifol!unfi. Sisyrinchium gramineum 



ORCHID FAMILY. Orchidacess. 



ORCHID FAMILY. OrcMdacece. 

Perennial herbs having perfect flowers, the various 
parts of which are irregular in structure but symmetri- 
cal in arrangement. There are three similar sepals 
colored like petals, two lateral petals, and below these a 
third unique petal called the lip, conspicuously colored, 
often spurred, and containing nectar for the attraction 
of insects. The latter in the effort to reach the nectar 
invariably dislodge the peculiarly adhesive pollen-clus- 
ters and eventually carry them to the next blossom. 
The ingenious mechanical device of the flower to insure 
cross-fertilization is simple but effective. The orchids, 
except the Cypripedium, have but one stamen which is 
united with the style into one common column placed at 
the axil of the flower facing the lip. The stigma, the 
usual termination of the style, is a gummy surface 
located directly below the so-called rostellum, the re- 
ceptacle of the anther, and the actual termination of 
the style. In the two anther-cells above the rostellum 
there are two pollinia, or stemmed pear-shaped pollen- 
clusters, each composed of several packets of pollen 
tied together by elastic threads ; these threads running 
together form the stem terminated by a sticky disc. It 
is these discs which attach to the tongues or heads of 
insects and insure the transportation of the pollen- 
masses to the gummy stigma of another flower. The 
orchids as a general rule are incapable of self-fertiliza- 
tion, and are wholly dependent upon long-tongued 
insects for the transportation of their pollen. In Cypri- 
pedium, the stigma is not a gummy surface but is in a 
cavity between the anther-cells. 

A small species with tiny white-green 
Green Adder's 
Mouth flowers in a small cluster about the size of 

Microstylis mignonette. A single oval, pointed leaf 
unifolia clasps the slender stem about half-way up. 

Whitish green The sepals are o blong, and the lip three- 
pointed. Fruit capsule oval. The name 
from the Greek, meaning small and column or style. 
4-9 inches high. In cold woods or bogs, from Me., 
south, and west to Minn, and Mo. Found at Jackson, 
68 




Green Adder's Mouth 



Microstylis unr/blia 



ORCHID FAMILY. Orchidacese. 



Bethlehem and Campion, N. H., in the region of the 
White Mountains. 

Lar e T a ^" sma ^ kut snowv species with rather 

b l ade large shiny leaves 2-4 inches long, light 

Liparis lilii- green. The flowers showy, brownish or 
f lia madder purple, with reflexed sepals and 

Madder purple petals tne latter exceedingly narrow, the 
June-July 

lip J inch long and broad. Flowers nu- 
merous, the cluster sometimes 5 inches tall. The Greek 
name in allusion to the shining leaves. 4-9 inches high. 
Me. , south to Ga. , west to Mo. 

A small species commonly found in ever- 
Early Coral / 
0ot green woods, with a ruddy, irregular root 

Corallorhiza resembling coral, and a straight yellowish 
trifi da bro wn leafless but scaly stem bearing small, 

Dull madder uninteresting madder purple flowers, with 
May-June ^ n ^ se P a l g an( ^ petals and a whitish lip ; 

the seed capsule nearly J inch long. The 
name, Greek, meaning coral and root. Common in 
swamps and damp woods, from Me., south to N. J. in 
the mountains to Ga. , and west to Neb. Found in Shel- 
burne and Dublin, N. H. 

A slender but generally taller species 
with very sma11 ' dul1 purple-brown flowers, 
Corallorhiza drooping on a stiff stem ; the lip whitish, 
odontorhiza spotted, and the sepals and petals marked 
Dull madder with purple lines. The flower-stem pur- 
plish brown. 6-12 inches high, leafless, 
September but w ith one or two sheathing scales. In 
evergreen woods, especially under arbor- 
vitae. Common from Mass, to Mich., south to Fla., and 
southwest to Mo. 

A taller, large-flowered species, the stem 
n oot of which has several close scales. Many 

Corallorhiza slightly fragrant flowers, with the white 
maculata Hp spotted and lined with purple-brown. 

Madder purple Common in spruce woods. 10-18 inches 
September high. Me., south to Fla., and west to 
Neb. and Cal. Found at Mt. Agassiz, 
Bethlehem, and Sandwich, N. H., and the White Mt. 
Notch. 

70 



Flower 
twice nat. 
size. 




Large Twaj/ blade, 
tiparis liliifolia. 



Early Coral Root. J^S 
Corallorhiza'-trifida. 



ORCHID FAMILY. Orchidacex. 



Heart=leaved A delicate plant with a very slender 
Twayblade stem bearing two opposite light green, 
Lister a cor data stemless leaves shaped somewhat like the 
Madder purple ace o f spadeSf and a loose c i uste r about 2 
inches long of tiny dull purple flowers. 
The flower is without a spur but possesses a very long 
two-cleft lip, bearing nectar in a furrow ; the slightest 
disturbance of a visiting insect causes the delicate ros- 
tellum above the lip to explode and forcibly eject a 
sticky fluid which is sure to hit the pointed tops of the 
pollen-masses lying just over the crest of the rostellum. 
Thus, the insect coming in contact with the sticky fluid 
withdraws fluid and pollen -masses. Smaller members 
of the family Hymenoptera, the bees, etc., most fre- 
quently visit the flower, also those of the order Diptera, 
flies, notably the tiny beelike ones. 3-10 inches high. 
Named for Martin Lister an early English botanist. 
Moist woods, Me. to N. J., and west to Ore. Found in 
the woods about Mt. Washington. 

Broad=lipped A similar species with leaves less heart- 
T way blade shaped and flowers with a wedge -oblong 
Listera conval- n much l onger than the narrO w sepals 
larioidis , , , ~ , ,. , T , 

Greenish a P e ^als. Sepals purplish. In damp 

yellow woods. Me., south to N. Car., in the 

June-July mountains, and west. 

Ladies' Tresses A marsh orchid, with a peculiarly twisted 
Spiranthes or spiral flower-spike and very light green 

linear leaves not nearly as tall as the 
Yellowish mi ,, 

h j te nower-stem. Ihe flowers translucent y el- 

August- lowish white, or variably cream white, 

September odorless or fragrant, the whiter ones gen- 
erally most fragrant, the lower sepals not upturned or 
joining with the upper, the latter arching and joined to 
the petals; all these parts with the curly-edged broader 
lip forming the bugle-horn-shaped tiny flower. It is 
fertilized by some of the smaller bees, moths, and but- 
terflies. In Spiranthes the rostellum holds in its centre 
a narrow boat-shaped disc containing a sticky fluid ; it 
is covered by a membrane easily ruptured by an insect. 
After the rupture the exposed sticky fluid glues itself to 
the tongue of the insect and the boatlike disc is with- 
72 




Heart-leaved Twaybtade. Li stera- cordata\ 



ORCHID FAMILY. Orctildaceae. 



drawn together with the pollinia which are already 
attached to it at the back. When the flower first opens 
the tube or passage between the rostellum and the lip is 
exceedingly narrow, hence, the former is easily ruptured 
by visitors. Later the space widens as the column 
topped by the rostellum moves upward in the maturer 
development of the flower. As a consequence, only 
those flowers which are mature are sufficiently open for 
the insect to reaoh the stigma and thereon leave the 
pollen of a younger flower. The name is from the 
Greek, for coil and flower, alluding to the spiral growth 
of the flowers. 6-24 inches high ; not more than 9 
inches in northern N. H. In wet meadows and grassy 
swamps. Me. , south, and west to Minn, and Neb. 

A slender and tall species with grasslike 
Ladies' Tresses li ^ llt g reen leaves, and a leafy stem bear- 
Spiranthes ing a much twisted flower-spike of yellow= 
prcecox white spreading blossoms. The lateral 

Yellowish sepals free, the upper one closely con- 
Jiil* C AU ust nec ted with the two petals, the lip often 
dark-striped. 10-30 inches high. In moist 
grassy places. A southern species confined to the 
Atlantic seaboard from N. J. to Tex. 

An exceedingly slender and tall species, 
Slender Ladies' 
Tresses smooth or rarely woolly above, bearing 

Spiranthes small withering bracts or leaflets along the 
gradlis flower-stem which is terminated by a very- 

Cream white mucn twisted cluster of very many slender 
October" flowers, translucent cream white, and very 

fragrant. The odor of Spiranthes is pe- 
culiarly aromatic, reminiscent of the horse-chestnut, but 
remarkably sweet. The sepals of the flower are a little 
longer than the lip, which is greenish above with white 
margins. The ovate leaves at the root, wither before the 
flowers bloom. Visited by the bumblebee (Bombus 
Americanorum) and the small bee, Calliopsis andreni- 
formis (Prof. Robertson). 10-22 inches high. Common 
in dry situations, in pastures, fields, and half -wooded 
hillsides. Me., south, and west to Minn, and Kan. It 
is rare in central N. H., where S. cernua is plentiful. 

74 




Ladies' Tresses. lllli/// Spiranthes gracilis. 
Spiranthes cernua, Spiranthes Romanzo^ana. 



ORCHID FAMILY. Orchldacea* 



Spiranthes Spiranthes Romanzoffiana replaces it in 
Romanzofflana northern regions. This shorter species has 
White, creamy a thick and short flower-spike, with very 
or greenish fragrant greenish cream white flowers 
somewhat hooded by the combined sepals 
and petals. Leaves linear. 6-12 inches high. Me., N. 
Y. , and Pa. , west to Minn, and Cal. 

A remarkably odd and attractive little 

Rattlesnake orchid, with the very dark blue-olive green 
Plantain , , .,, *;, , _. 

Epipactis re- leaves marked with darker cross- veins. It 

pens var. ophioi- has ascaly, slender, slightly woolly flower- 
des (Femald) stem, set on one side only with translucent 
White, creamy greenish or creamy white small flowers ; 
Juf^'early ^ ne sacu ^e ^P ^ ^ ne flower has a recurved 
August " wavy margin. The pollen-masses, called 

pollinia, are made up of numerous packets 
connected by threads which run together and form a 
single flattened brown ribbon the end of which is fas- 
tened to the rostellum. The rostellum when rubbed is 
removed and carries with it a bit of membrane to which 
the pollinia are attached ; this clings to the tongue of the 
bee, and all is properly withdrawn, and carried to 
another probably more mature flower, whose stigma is 
easily accessible, as in the case of Spiranthes. Named 
for John Goodyear an early English botanist. r 5-8 inches 
high, rarely higher. Under hemlocks and spruces, in 
the northern woods. Me., N. H. (frequent in the White 
Mts.), south to the Great Smoky Mts. of N. Car., west 
to Mich. The original species G. repens is. definitely 
known only in the extreme north and in the Rocky Mts. 
Epipactis ^ke c o mmones t species in northern New 

tesselata England, with a stouter stem than that of 

White, creamy the preceding species, and a little taller. 
or greenish Leaves 5-9 ribbed, the veins bordered by 

pale green pencilings, the whole leaf irregu- 
larly mottled with light and dark green, rarely with- 
out the markings. The lip of the flower is less sac-shaped, 
with a less recurved margin. In hillside woods. Me., 
northern N. Y. , south to the Catskills and Hartford, 
Conn. (M. L. Fernald, Rhodora, vol. i., No. 1, p. 6.) 

1 Formerly Goodyera; for the older names, see Index. 
76 




Rattlesnake Plantaj n. 
Epipactis repens var orphioides. Epipactis tessellaia. 



ORCHID FAMILY. Orchldacese. 



Epipactis Stem stout, leaves stiff, plain green or 

dedpiens indistinctly marked, often with broad 

White, creamy white ribs, or rarely mottled as in the fore- 
or greenish going species. The flower-spike thick and 
one-sided ; the lip of the flower is large at 
the base and tapers to the point with the edges curved 
inward. 8-20 inches high. In dry woods, generally 
among evergreens. Aroostook Co., Me., Que., N. B., 
and along the Great Lakes from Lake Huron westward. 
(M. L. Fernald, Rhodora, vol. i, No. 1., p. 7). This is the 
largest of all the species, 

Epipactis This is the commoner rattlesnake plan- 

pubescens tain of southern New England ; its flower- 

White, creamy spike is thick, blooms upward, and is not 
one - sided ' The nower-stem is stout, 
densely woolly, and bears several lance- 
shaped scales. The flower has a pronounced sac- 
shaped blunt lip the margin of which is not recurved. 
Leaves dark blue-olive green, white-veined, the middle 
vein broad. 6-18 inches high. In dry evergreen woods, 
southern Me., and central N. H. , south and west to Minn. 
Arethusa A large single-flowered and delicate 

Arethusa bul- scen t e d orchid, the light magenta-crimson 
Magenta=crim= P e * a ^ s and sepals of which point upward 
* son like the fingers of a half-open hand viewed 

May-June in profile. The lip of the flower is recurved 
and spreading, with the broad apex often fringed, 
magenta blotched, and crested in three white hairy 
ridges ; this forms a conspicuously colored landing plat- 
form for the visiting insect, usually a bumblebee, who, 
after pressing beneath the column and sipping the nec- 
tar, backs out brushing against the edge or lid of the an- 
ther, opening it and emptying the enclosed pollen upon 
his head, as is also the case with Pogonia ophioglossoides. 
The column is topped by the lid-like anther instead of 
the usual rostellum, and the pollen-masses are not pear- 
like and stemmed, The solitary leaf is linear, and hidden 
in the sheathed scape; it appears after the flowering 
season. Rarely a plant produces two flowers ; these vary 
from 1-2 inches in length. Fruit capsule elliptical, 

78 




Rattlesnake mjr PknUin. 

Epipactis W pubescens, 



Arethusa bulbosa^ 



ORCHID FAMILY. Orchidacese. 



about 1 inch long. 5-10 inches high. Common in bogs, 
from Me., south to N. Car., west to Minn, and Ind. 
Named for the fountain nymph Arethusa. 
Grass Pink ^- sma ll er -flo were( i, but very beautiful 

Coiopogon orchid, slender-stemmed, and with one 
pulchellus linear bright green leaf. Flower-stem 
Magenta=pink bearing 3-9 magenta-pink sweet-scented 
June-July .,, . ,. ,. 

flowers with a long spreading lip crested 

with yellow, orange, and magenta hairs ; the anther 
and pollen are as in Arethusa. Name from the Greek, 
beautiful and beard, referring to the handsome bearded 
lip. 10-16 inches high. In bogs, from Me., south, and 
west to Minn, and Mo. Often found in company with 
the next. 

A most delicate little orchid bearing 
Snake Mouth 

Pogonia generally solitary, raspberry-scented crim- 

ophioglossoides son-pink flowers with a small light green 
Crimson=pink lance-shaped leaf half-way up the stem, 
June-July an( j a ^ nv one j ug j. below ^he blossom; 

sometimes a long-stemmed leaf proceeds from the root. 
The flower has sepals and petals of equal length over- 
hanging a beautifully crested and fringed lip, curved 
like the hollow of one's hand, which furnishes an alight- 
ing platform for the visiting insect, who pushes forward 
in the narrow space between the stigma and the lip, 
scraping pollen off its back in its progress. The pollen 
attaches to the gummy stigma. In retreating, the lid of 
the anther catches on the back of the visitor, swings 
open, and fresh pollen is deposited for the benefit of the 
next flower. This orchid has no rostellum and its poL 
len is not in stemmed pearlike masses. The name, 
Greek, bearded, from the bearded lip of some of the spe~ 
cies. 8-13 inches high. In wet meadows and swamps. 
Me., south, and west to Kan; also in Japan. Fre- 
quently found in company with Calopogon. 
Nodding A local species less showy than the fore- 

Pogonia going, but remarkable for its dainty pen- 

Pogonia dulous flowers, which are considerably 

irianlhophora ^ _. .. _ _^ . , , 

Light magenta sm aller. With 2-8 tiny leaves, alternat- 

August- ing, and clasping the stem. There are 1-6 

September long-stemmed flowers which proceed from 

80 



Grass Pink. 
C&lopogon pulchellus. 




Snake .Mouth. 
Pogonia ophioglossoides, 



ORCHID FAMILY. Orchidacex. 



between the stem and leaf. 3-8 inches high. In rich 
woods, from R. I. to Fla., Wis., and Kan. 

. Distinguished by its circle of five light 

verticiUata green leaves at the summit of the stem. 
Purple and Flower dull purple with long stem and 
green=yellow long narrow greenish sepals, erect or in- 
May-June clining above the circle of leaves. 8-12 
inches high. Moist woods. Me., south, west to Ind. 
and Wis. Rare in the east. Found in Middlesex Co. , 
Mass. (Miss M. P. Cook.) See Appendix. 
Showy Orchis This, with another more northern spe- 
Orchis c i eSj i s our only true orchis. There are 

:? ed two light shiny leaves proceeding from 

and white ^ e base of the stem ; the latter is thick 
May-June and angular in section, bearing at its sum- 
mit a few showy flowers with magenta sepals and petals 
united in a hood, and beneath them the conspicuous, al- ' 
most white lip ; behind the lip is the rather long spur, 
in which is secreted an abundant supply of nectar for 
the thirsty, visiting insect ; the latter, generally a queen 
bumblebee (Bombus Americanorum is a common visi- 
tor), thrusts its head into the spur, brushing carelessly 
past the rostellum at the top of the column, and, ruptur- 
ing its thin membrane, exposes the two sticky round 
discs attached to the pear-shaped pollen-clusters. These 
discs immediately fasten upon the bee's face or forehead, 
and when the creature retires it carries with it discs and 
pollen-clusters. Finally when the next flower is visited 
the pollen is scraped off upon its sticky stigma. Orchis 
spectabilis is 5-10 inches high, and frequents rich moist 
woods, especially hemlock groves, from Me., south to 
Ga. , and west to Minn, and Neb. It is found in the val- 
ley of the Connecticut west of the White Mts. The name 
is Latin, meaning a plant with oblong roots. (Pliny.) 

Orchis rotundifolia is a less common 
rotundifolia species with but one leaf, oval or nearly 
Magenta round, and smaller flowers about the same 

and white color but deeper than those of O. spec- 

June-July taUlis. From northern Me. and Vt. f 
westward. Flower lip white magenta-spotted. 

82 




Showy Orchis. 

Orchis spectabilis. Pogonia. verticil! art a. 



ORCHID FAMILY. Orchldacex. 



A slender species with a single obtuse 
Orch?s W d lanceolate leaf less tn an % of the way up 
Habenaria the stem, and two or three tiny scalelike 
davellata ones above it. The insignificant very 

Greenish small greenish 5-12 white flowers with 

tiny sepals and petals, a wedge-shaped 
June-July 

lip, and a characteristic long slender spur 

curved upward, and around to one side. The pollen- 
clusters of the Habenarias are short-stemmed and ter- 
minated with a sticky gland which is so arranged that 
it easily fastens upon the heads or faces of visiting in- 
sects. The plant is 6-18 inches high. Name from the 
Latin, habena a bridle or rein, alluding to the narrow 
lip of some species. Me., west to Minn., and south in 
the mountains to N. Car. Found in Campton and Jaff- 
rey, N. H., and in the White Mts. 

Habenaria in- Tllis southern species has several leaves 
tegra upon its slender stem, and a dense flower- 

Orange-yellow cluster, orange-yellow. 10-20 inches high. 
July Wet pine-barrens. N. J., south. 

Habenaria * s another southern species, with several 

nivea very narrow leaves low on the stem, and 

White a loose many-flowered spike of small, 

July-August fragrant, slightly greenish white flowers, 
each with an exceedingly slender curving spur. Wet 
pine-barrens. Del. , south to Ala. and Fla. 
Habenaria A ver ^ comm o n yellow-green-flowered 

jlava species, with a stout stem, several lance- 

Yellow=green shaped leaves, and small flowers with 
June-July yellow-green sepals and petals, the blunt 
lip toothed on either side and slightly protuberant in the 
centre at the base, the slender spur twice its length. 
10-24 inches high. Common in all wet places, from 
Me., south, and west to Minn. 

Habenaria Characterized by the numerous bracts 

bracteata or leaflets from the bases of which the tiny 

Light green flowers spring. The lower leaves broadly 
June-August ova te, the upper ones mere long bracts 
scarcely three times the length of the pale green flowers. 
The lip of the flower toothed at the tip and oblong, twice 
as long as the white spur. 6-20 inches high. Damp 
84 




Green Wood 'Orchis. 
H&benari& 



Haben&ria 



ORCHID FAMILY. Orchidacess. 



woods and meadows, from Me., south in the mountains 
of N. Car., west to Minn. , and reported in Neb. (Webber). 

A tall and leafy northern species, with 
Habenaria 

hyperborea green, or yellow-green flowers, erect lance- 
Green, yellow- shaped leaves, and a dense narrow flower- 
green spike sometimes 12 inches long, or longer. 
June-July Flower-spur short and incurved, petals, 
sepals, and lip much shorter than the ovary. 8-30 inches 
high. Cold, wet woods. Me., to N. J. and Iowa. 

A very -similar species with much nar- 

Habenana J * 

dilatata rower leaves and greenish white flowers 

Greenish white with small obtuse sepals. The white-lip 
June-July lance-shaped from a lozenge-shaped base. 

Cold, wet bogs. Me., to Mich, and Minn, and N. J. 

The two large, shining, nearlv round, or 
Hooker's 
Orchis broadly oval light green leaves usually he 

Habenaria upon the ground, but are sometimes raised 
Hookeri above it. The somewhat twisted and bare 

Whitish stem bears 10-20 upright flowers, with 

yellow=green . , , 

June-August g reen lateral sepals curving backward, 

narrow yellow-green petals, and the throat 
accented by two lateral spots of yellow-ochre. The lip 
is lance-shaped, incurved, and pointed ; the slender white- 
green spur nearly 1 inch deep is especially adapted to 
the long tongues of the moths. 8-15 inches high. 
Woods and borders of wooded swamps from Me. , south 
to N. J., west to Minn, and Iowa. 

A larger species, the two nearly round 
Leaved Orchis ^ eaves ^ which are sometimes 7 inches 
Habenaria across, and lie flat upon the ground ; they 
orbiculata are light green and shining above, and 
Whitish silvery white beneath. The stem is not 

yellow=green fo fe t b t d th wn itish yellow- 

July-August 

green flowers in a loose cluster, with the 

upper sepal nearly round, the lateral ones ovate, and 
the narrow lip obtuse and drooping, almost three times 
the length of the small lance-shaped petals ; the slender, 
curved, whitish spur nearly 2 inches long thickened 
toward the blunt point is peculiarly adapted to the long 
tongue of one of the lesser sphinx-moths. " A larger in- 

86 




HooKer's Orchis. 



Habenaria Hookeriana. 
Habenana Hooker 




Haben^ria hyperborean 



ORCHID FAMILY. Orchidacex. 



dividual might sip the nectar it is true, but its longer 
tongue would reach the base of the tube without effect- 
ing the slightest contact with the pollen " (Wm. 
Hamilton Gibson). The pollen is usually withdrawn 
fastened upon the moth's eyes. 1-2 feet high. Rich 
evergreen woods. Me., south to N. Car., in the moun- 
tains, west to Minn. 

This is a southern species among a group 
Yellow Crested f * . , ~ -, . .,, 

Orchis fringed Orchises, with narrow lance- 

Habenaria shaped leaves below diminishing to the 
cristata size of bracts above, and orange-yellow 

Orange-yellow flowers with narrow fringed petals, and a 
August 1 "^ Very dee P lv f rin ged lip. Spur about J inch 

long. The anther cells widely separated 
at the base. 8-20 inches high. In bogs, from N. J., 
south. Rather rare in N. J. 

Yello F * d An excee dingly handsome slender spe- 
Orchis c ies, w ith lance-shaped leaves, and a large 

Habenaria many-flowered spike of showy golden or 
ciliaris orange-yellow flowers with ovate sepals, 

Jrty5ri e " OW narrow frin ged petals, and a deeply fringed 
August " hP- The spur long and slender, and the 

anther cells as in the preceding species. 
12-24 inches high. In meadows and wet sandy barrens, 
from Mass., south, and west to Mich. 
White Fringed A similar species. The white fringed 
Orchis flowers a trifle smaller, with a less deeply 

Habenaria fringed lip ; the latter J the length of the 
blephariglottis spur. 12-21 inches high. In swamps and 

JtU^earl b gS fr m Me " SOUth to N> J '' wesfc tO 

August : Minn. Blooms a few days earlier than H. 
ciliaris where the two grow together. 
(Britton.) 

Habenaria A western species with fragrant large 
leucophcea greenish white or white flowers, the fan- 
White, shaped lip three-parted, broad, and fringed. 

greenish Spur 11 inches long, so it is especially 

June-July , , . ,. 

adapted to the long-tongued sphinx-moths 

(Sphingidce). 18-30 inches high. Western N. Y., south 
to Ky. , west to Minn, and Ark. 



88 




H.nivea. pg.84 
I'Asize. 




H. integral. pg.84 
i 2 /3 size. 




H. cristate. 
2 1/2 size. 




H . blephariglottis. 



tiat.size. 



Yellow Fringed Orchis Habenapia ciliaris. 



ORCHID FAMILY. Orchidacese. 



A common species remarkable for its 
Fringed lacerated three-parted flower-lip, and un- 

Orchis substantial translucent white which is 

Habenaria sometimes greenish and sometimes yel- 
^fr c lowish. Leaves lance-shaped, smaller 

greenish above. The long flower-spike crowded 

June-July with the inconspicuous deep-spurred flow- 
ers. The pollen-cells are not widely sepa- 
rated. Wm. Hamilton Gibson describes the structure of 
the flower thus, after remarking that no botanist has men- 
tioned its distinct peculiarity. * ' The nectary instead of 
being freely open is abruptly closed at the central portion 
by a firm protuberance or palate which projects down- 
ward from the base of the stigma, and closely meets the 
lip below." The opening is thus divided into two lateral 
ones, each lying directly beneath a sticky elongated 
pollen-disc. Thus the insect, generally a butterfly, in- 
serts its tongue exactly where the latter will touch the 
disc which is sure to clasp it and be withdrawn together 
with the pollen. H. lacera is 10-22 inches high, and is 
found in bogs and wet woods from Me. , south to Ga. , 
and west to Minn, and Mo. 

In appearance this white orchis is distinctly different 
from all others. Although its similarity to the next 
species is marked, it is structural and therefore not so 
evident to a casual observer. The flower is well named j 
its lacerated flower-lip is literally torn to divisions of 
threadlike fineness, and the general effect is accordingly 
unique. No other orchis is like it ; the flower of H. 
psycodes has a compact settled figure ; that of H. clavel 
lata is distinct and has a swirling appearance due to the 
curving spur, while that of H. blephariglottis is a char- 
acteristically fringed affair of orderly appearance. But 
this orchis is a thing of " shreds and tatters." 



90 




Ragged 

FrmgedHi^Orchis. 
leucophaea. Habenaria 



ORCHID FAMILY. Orchidaceat. 



A similar species but of more imposing 
Smaller Pur- pro p Or ti O ns 5 with elliptical and lance- 
pie Fringed 
Orchis shaped leaves, and fragrant magenta-pink 

Habenaria or lilac-pink flowers variably pale or deep, 

psycodes with the fringed lip three-parted, and a 

Magenta-pink j inch j 1-3 feet fai h Com _ 

July-early , - - 

August " monly found in swamps and wet woods 

from Me. , south to N. Car. ; west to Minn. 
A similar but much larger species with 
Fringed'orchis fl wers twice the size of those of H. 
Habenaria psycodes, fragrant, and variable in ma- 
fimbriata geiita-pink from a deep tone even to 

Magenta-pink white. The upper sepal and petals close 
together, the lateral sepals small, ovate 
and acute. The three divisions of the 
broad lip more deeply fringed. Flower-spike sometimes 
12 inches long and 2J inches across. Anther cells sepa- 
rated at the base. In both flowers, H. psycodes and H. . 
fimbriata, fertilization is generally effected by moths 
and butterflies whose heads and eyes are often decorated 
by the pear-shaped pollen-masses. The crowded flower- 
spike allows the butterfly to land indiscriminately here 
or there among the spreading fringed lips, and inserting 
its tongue obliquely in the nectary it brushes the pollen- 
disc on the side approached and the pollen-mass is with- 
drawn (Wm. Hamilton Gibson). 

The difference between H. psycodes and H. fimbriata 
is distinct and absolute ; there is no need for confusion 
in the identification of the two species, although it must 
be evident to a close observer that intergrading types are 
not infrequent. H. psycodes has more conventional, 
compact flowers with an even (not ragged) very short 
fringe, and they are about half the size of those of H. 
fimbriata. They are also distinctly muscat-scented. 

This is a truly purple flowered species, 
Purple Orchis J mu 

Habenaria found in the south and southwest. The 

peramcena fan-shaped lip is toothed but not fringed^ 
Purple and the leaves are somewhat narrower. 

July-August The long gpur curved 12 _3o inches high. 

Wet meadows, N. J., south to Va., west to 111. and Ky< 
92 




Large Purple-Fringed Orchis. Habenaria fimbriata. 




Smaller Purple Fringed Orchis. Habenaria psycodes. 



ORCHID FAMILY. Orchidacese. 



A handsome but rather small-flowered 
\Vnite Lady s 
Slipper orchis, with 3-4 light green narrow ellipti- 

Cypripedium cal leaves ; the flower with two wavy and 
candidum twisted narrow green petals, three broader, 

White green, purple-blotched sepals, and a pouch 

May-early July ,. 

or lip open at the top by a fissure, white 

outside, purple-streaked inside, containing nectar at its 
base. Two of the sepals are joined together under the 
lip. The column of Cypripedium is flanked on either 
side by a fertile stamen bearing a two-celled anther, 
opening lidlike, the pollen loose and sticky-powdery 
within in this respect the genus is distinctly different 
from those already described. The stigma is hidden be- 
neath the third, sterile stamen crowning the column, 
exactly between the anthers ; it is moist and roughish. 
In the process of fertilization by the insect, generally a 
bee, the latter enters the pouch by the fissure, sucks the 
nectar from its base, and escapes by crowding through 
the small opening immediately beneath one of the an- 
thers, receiving upon its back the sticky pollen in the 
exit. In the next flower the insect brushes first against 
the stigma, leaving some of the pollen, as it takes its 
departure in the manner described . The rather rare (7. 
candidum is 6-10 inches high, and is found in bogs and 
wet meadows from N. Y. and N. J., west to Minn, and 
Mo. The name is from KvitpiS, Venus, and itodiov, 
buskin, Venus's buskin. 

This is a taller species, with a slender 
Lady's Slipper lea fy stem, and showy fragrant yellow 
Cypripedium flowers the petals and sepals of which are 
parvijlorum madder purple streaked ; the narrow pet- 
Yellow a l s are usua iiy twisted, and the bright 
golden yellow lip as well as the summit of 
the column is more or less blotched and striped with 
madder purple. 12-24 inches high. Woods and wood- 
land bogs, Me., south among the mountains to Ala., and 
west. Var. pubescens is a large form of this species^ 
characterized by its greater height and larger flowers. 



94 






Yellow L&dys Slipper Cypripedium parviflorum 



ORCHID FAMILY. Orcbidaceas 



This is perhaps the most beautiful plant 
Showy Lady s 

Slipper of the whole genus. The stem is stout 

Cypripedium and leafy to the top, the flower fragrant ; 
hirsutum its pouch is white more or less blotched or 

White, cnm= stained with velvety light crimson-ma- 

son=magenta 

June-July genta, the sepals and petals white, broad 

and not longer than the rotund pouch. 
The sterile stamen long-heart-shaped, stained yellow at 
the tip and spotted crimson, crowns the column (see 
C. acaule). 1-2 feet high. Swamps and wet woods 
Me. , south to Ga. , west to Minn. 

The commoner and more familiar lady's 
Moccasin slipper, with two large leaves from the 

Stemless root, without a plant-stem, the slightly 

Lady's Slipper fragrant flow T er terminating a long slender 
Cypripedium stem with a green leaflet or bract at the 

acaule point of junction ; the pouch crimson-pink 

Crimson-pink , , , ., , . , .,, 

May-early July ( rarel 7 white) veined with a deeper pink, 
sepals and petals greenish and brown, 
more or less curved and wavy. The third, or sterile 
stamen of Cypripedium crowning the column and over- 
hanging the stigma is variable according to the species ; 
in C. acaule it is angularly six-sided, in C. candidum 
lance-shaped, var. piibescens long triangular, and in C. 
spectabile heart-shaped ; beneath these is the hidden 
stigma which receives pollen from the backs of visiting 
bumblebees or honeybees, or most frequently from the 
smaller bees, members of the tribes Andrena and Hal- 
ictus (C. M. Weed). In My Studio Neighbors Win. 
Hamilton Gibson describes at length the fertilization of 
C. acaule by the bumblebee. 8-12 inches high. Me. to 
N. Car. and Ky., west to Minn. 



1 



r *f A 

Up-* * ', 

in* 




^iHj 






Shovvy Lady's Slipper. Cypripedium spectabile. 
Cvpripedium hirsutum 




Moccasin Flower. 



Cypripediumaaule. 



BIRTHWORT FAMILY. Aristolochiacese. 



BIRTHWORT FAMILY. Aristolochiacece. 

A small family of twining or low herbs, having per- 
fect flowers with six or more stamens and a pistil. The 
leaves stemmed, and either alternate or proceeding from 
the root. The flower-cup or calyx, without petals, 
united with the ovary or fruit receptacle, and lobed or 
irregular. Assisted in the process of fertilization by 
various smaller insects. 

The two long-stemmed deep green veiny 
Asarum^ leaves soft woolly, and heart-shaped, their 
Canadense stems hairy ; the flower with three dis- 
Brown=purple tinct pointed brownish or madder purple 
April-May divisions to the calyx which is closely 
united to the solid seed receptacle or ovary, green out- 
side ; the cup white below marked by a hexagon in pur- 
ple-brown. A curious woodland plant whose odd flower 
is half concealed by its low position and its sober color 
which not infrequently resembles the leaf-mould just 
beneath it. Its proximity to the ground and the fre- 
quent visits of the fungus gnats and the early flesh-flies 
suggest that these have most to do with the fertilization 
of the plant. 6-12 inches high. Common in rich woods 
from Me., south to N. Car., west to Mo. arid Kan. 
Asarum ^ sou t nern species with evergreen leaves 

arifolium arrow-heart-shaped, and urn-shaped flow- 

Green-purple ers dull green outside, dull purple-brown 
April-June inside, with three short blunt lobes. One 
leaf only put forth each year. In woods from Va. , south 
to Tenn., Ala., and Fla. 

Asarum A southern species confined to moun- 

virginicum tain woods, with 1-3 leaves, round-heart- 

Brown=purple shaped, smooth and leathery in texture, 
May-June an( j a bout 2 inches broad, the surface 
generally mottled white-green. The brown-purple flow- 
er about | inch long with 3 blunt lobes, net- veined inside. 
Filaments shorter than the anthers. Va. and W. Va. 
toGa. 

Similar in character, but with very large 
Asarum bell-shaped flowers 1^-2 inches long. 

grandtjlorum _, -_._. . ., __ _. 

Mountains, Va., Tenn., and N. Car. 
98 







Wild Ginger*. 



Canadense. 



BIRTHWORT FAMILY. Aristolochiaceae. 



Virginia ^ w oolly stemmed and familiar medici 

Snakeroot nal herb, the long heart-shaped leaves thin 
Aristolochia and green on both sides, and the dull 

Serpentana greenish flowers with curving crooked 

Dull green 

June-July long stems, near the root, as in Asarum, 

the calyx curved like the letter S. Some- 
times the flowers are fertilized in the bud without open- 
ing (Britton), but often they trap many of the smaller 
insects notably gnats who possibly assist fertilization. 
Fruit an ovoid ribbed capsule. 8-20 inches high. Conn, 
and N. Y., south to Fla., west to Mich, and Mo. 

A familiar tall vine in cultivation from 
Dutchman's _ T ^ , .,. , _ 

PI New \ork south, trailing most frequently 

Aristolochia over arbors, porches, and piazzas. Smooth 
macrophylla heart-shaped light green leaves, and hook- 
Dull green, shaped flowers, the yellow-green veiny 
e W * ^ u ^ e with a flat, three-lobed purple-brown 

throat, resembling a Dutch pipe ; it en- 
traps early small insects gnats and flies. 10-25 feet 
high. In rich woods southern Pa., south to Ga., west 
to Minn. 

The Dutchman's pipe is one of those vigorous, stolid, 
and satisfactory vines, big leaved and curiously flowered, 
which commends itself to the horticulturist. It re- 
sponds readily to cultivation. 

Aristolochia A similar vine, but characterized by an 

tomentosa extreme woolliness ; leaves round-heart- 
Dull green, shaped, veiny, and smaller than those of 
purple=brown A s i p ho. The flowers a yellower green, 
May-June ..* . -,. i n ,1 i 

with calyx exceedingly woolly, the deep 

purple-brown throat nearly closed and oblique. N. Car., 
south, and west to Mo. 

There is also a southern form of Aristolochia Serpen- 
taria called var. hastata, with very narrow lance-shaped 
or linear-oblong leaves, arrowhead in outline, which is 
found from S. Car. to Fla., and La. 




Flower of 

A. macrophylta. 



VirginiaSnakepoot. Aristolochia seppentaria. 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY. Polygonacess. 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY. Polygonacece. 

Herbs with alternate toothless leaves and swollen- 
jointed stems, usually a stipule or leaflet above each 
joint, and small, generally perfect flowers (or sometimes 
dioecious, monoecious, or polygamous ones) without 
petals, the calyx 2-6 parted. 

The docks are mostly uninteresting 
Patience Dock 

Rumex northern weeds that cumber fertile ground , 

Patientia and decorate waste places ; many of them 

Green like the patience dock come from the old 

May-June country. This species has smooth broad 
lance-shaped leaves, broadest just above the base, and 
the flowers are green, tiny, inconspicuous and drooping, 
replaced by seed-wings or heart-shaped discs, resembling 
miniature palm-leaf fans. 2-5 feet high. Vt. , N. Y., 
and Pa., west to Wis. and Kan. 

Dark green smooth leaves, the lowest 
Great Water 
Dock very long, a branching, stout stem, and 

Rumex densely flowering, circling clusters ; the 

Britannica tiny flowers nodding, replaced by seed- 
Green wings similar to those of the preceding 

July-August gpecies> 3_6 feet high. In wet situations, 
Me. , Pa. , west to Minn. , Iowa, and Neb. 

A smooth deep green species, similar to 
Rumex the above > with a grooved stem, and long- 

verticillatus stemmed lance-shaped leaves. Flowers in 
Green dense circles, the outline of the seed-wing 

May July top-shaped. 2-5 feet high. Swamps. 

Common from Me., south, and west to Iowa. 
Curled Dock This is the ver ^ common curled leaf 
Rumex crispus dock throughout the U. S. , a troublesome 
Green weed from the old country. Leaves wavy 

June-August on tlie mar gi n) flowers replaced by heart- 
shaped pointed seed-wings 1-4 feet high. 

A species very nearly like R. crispus and 
Rumex only distinguishable from it by the elon- 

gated (lance-ovoid) grain on the seed wing. 
This is a widely distributed, more or less common form, 
and questionably a variety only. 




Curled Dock. 



Winged seed R.P 

Rumex cpispus. 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY. Polygonacese. 



Bitter Dock Another weed from the old country, 

Rumexobtusi- common in fields and waste places. A 
folius loose and thinly flowered spike ; the stem 

Green rough and stout and the somewhat wavy 

June-August , , . , 

leaves oblong and wider than those of 

the other species. The seed- wings with a few spines on 
either side. 2-4 feet high. Me., south, and west to 
Ore. 

Golden Dock -^ sea - snore species, an annual ; with 
Eumexpersi- light green, narrow, lance-shaped leaves, 
carioides the plant more or less woolly, and greatly 

Green branched, the circles of the flowers 

crowded together into a compact spike, 
the seed-wings narrow and pointed, golden yellow in 
autumn, bearing 2-3 long spines on either side. In the 
sand along the shores. Me., south to Va., and from 
Kan. and Minn., west and north. It has been confused 
with R. maritimus of the old country. 

A most troublesome small weed from 
Field or Sheep the old world? with long-arrowhead- 

RvmeosAceto- slia P ed leaves, acid to the taste, and in- 
sella conspicuous flowers in branching spikes, 

Green, Brown- green, or later brown-red; the whole plant 

sometimes turning ruddy in dry, sterile 
September fields. It will generally flourish in one 

place for two or three years and then die 
out. The flowers are dioecious, that is, the staminate 
and pistillate ones are found upon separate plants, and 
are therefore fertilized by insects ; bumblebees, honey- 
bees, and the smaller butterflies are the commonest 
visitors. 6-12 inches high. Growing everywhere. 

The genus Polygonum, the name from TtokvS, many, 
and yorv, knee, alluding to the many joints of the 
plants, comprises about twenty-five distinct species, all 
of which may be characterized by the term weed ! They 
are aesthetically uninteresting and many are extremely 
troublesome in the farmer's vegetable garden. They 
mostly bear pink perfect flowers grouped in a slender 
grasslike spike. 



104 




Sheep ..Sorrel. ' it Rumex Acetoselld. 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY. Polygonacese. 



Knotgrass 
Polygonum 
aviculare 
Greenish 
yellow 
June- 
September 

sheaths. 

Erect Knot- 
weed 

Polygonum 
erectum 
Greenish 
yellow 
July- 
September 



A slender species with a weak stem, 
bluish green, small lance-shaped leaves, 
scaly joints, and greenish pink- tipped 
flowers. Common everywhere in culti- 
vated and waste ground. The blue-green 
leaves, alternate, or are in appearance 
clustered, and issue from tiny brown 
A mostly prostrate weed of roadsides. 

A stouter and a yellowish green stem, 
leafy ; the leaves nearly oval, and the 
flowers greenish yellow. A common way- 
side weed north of Tenn. and Ark., east 
and west. The stem of this species is 
noticeably erect with no tendency to 
sprawl. 

A somewhat red-jointed species, at home 
in wet waste places, with shiny lance- 
shaped leaves, and pink Or white-green 



Pennsylvania 
Persicaria 

Polygonum 
Pennsylvanicum ^ 
Pink or white- nower-clusters; the upper branching stems 
green and flower-stems beset with tiny hairlike 

glands. Common everywhere. It has a 
branching, sprawling habit. 

A smooth-stemmed species, from the old 
world, with similar leaves and crimson- 
pink or deep magenta flowers, the leaves 
rough and generally marked with a darker 
green triangle in the middle. Very com- 
mon in waste damp places. 

A common weed in all wet "waste places, 
indigenous in the far northwest, but 
naturalized from Europe in the east. 
Leaves narrow lance-shaped, very acrid 
and pungent, and fringed with tiny 
bristles. Flowers mostly green in a slim 
long cluster, nodding. An annual 1-2 feet 
high. The indigenous species P. hydropiperoides with 
an equally wide distribution has pink or flesh-colored or 
greenish flowers, branching stems, and very narrow 
leaves, not acrid. Common south, and reported in Neb. 
(Webber). 



July- 
September 

Lady's Thumb 

Polygonum 
Persicaria 
Crimson=pink 
June- 
September 



Smartweed 
Water Pepper 

Polygonum 
, Hydropiper 
Green 
July- 
September 



106 




Smartweed. 
Polygonum 

hydropiperoides. Hr 



Lady's Thumb. 
Polygonum Percicaria. 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY. Polygonaceas. 



Polygonum virginianum has a smooth stem, ovate to 
elliptical leaves, fringed sheaths, and tiny flowers in 
color like the next, borne on erect slender spikes often 
10 inches long. 1-4 feet high. Woodland margins, 
N. H. to Minn., and South. 

A perennial species with broad-arrow- 
Halberd=leaved . , r , , 

Tearthumb head-shaped leaves, and a ridged reclining 

Polygonum stem beset with fine teeth curved back- 
arifolium ward. Leaves long-stemmed, and prickle 

Pink, greenish nerve( j Insignificant pink or greenish 
September flower-clusters. In pulling up the weed 
the thumb and fingers are apt to be torn 
with the saw-edged stems, hence the common name. 
2-6 feet high. Common everywhere in wet soil. 

An annual species climbing over other 
Arrow-leaved . .,. , _ 

Tearthumb plants, with a weak four-angled reclining 

Polygonum stem beset with prickles only at the 

sagittatum angles ; the narrow-arrowhead-shaped 
leaves, far apart, sometimes blunt-pointed, 

September short stemmed, or the smaller leaves with- 
out steins. Flowers five-parted, pink, in 

small dense clusters. Common in low, wet ground, 

every where. 

A perfectly smooth species, with slender 

Climbing False climbing re ddish stem, arrowhead-shaped 

Buckwheat 

Polygonum leaves, and leafy flower-spikes, the tiny 

scandens flowers green- white or pink, the calyx 

Green- white five-parted. Climbing over rocks and 
P |nk Magenta bushes 6-12 feet high. In moist places, 
Julv _ common everywhere. A rather decorative 

September vine but often troublesome in the vege- 
table garden. 

The familiar buckwheat in cultivation 
Buckwheat . , , 

Faqopyrum escaped to way sides. From the old world; 

esculentum with arrowhead-shaped leaves, and green- 
Greenish ish white flowers sometimes pinkish, the 
white calyx five-divided, and with eight honey- 
Se^ember glands alternating with the rtamens ; the 
flowers fertilized mostly by honeybees ; 
the honey of a peculiarly fragrant character but dark in 
color. Seed beechnut-shaped. Common everywhere. 
108 




Leaf of Polygonumarifoliutn. 



Arrow-leaved Tearthumb. Polygonum sagittatum, 



GOOSEFOOT FAMILY. Chenopodiaceas. 



GOOSEFOOT FAMILY. Chenopodiacece. 

Uninteresting herbs weeds, many of which are from 
the old country ; with minute green, perfect flowers 
with a persisting calyx. The spinach and beet are mem- 
bers of this family. 

Lamb's=quar= The family is divided into nine tribes, 
ters, or Pig- chief among which is Chenopodium. Some 
weec . of these are quite western, others are of 
album C *ke ^ w orld and have been introduced in 

Green the east. Lamb's-quarters is common east 

June-Septem= and west. Leaves mealy- white beneath, 
varying from rhombic-oval to lance-shaped 
or narrower, the lower ones coarse-toothed. The green 
flower-clusters dense, and dull green. Var. viride, 
commoner eastward, is less mealy, and has a less dense 
flower-spike (Gray's Manual). 1-4 feet high. Waste 
places. The name from the Greek meaning goose and 
foot, in allusion to the shape of the leaves of some 
species. 

Jerusalem Oak, An annual species, from the old country, 
or Feather not mealy, but with an aromatic odor. 

Geranium Leaves smaller, slender stemmed, and 

Chenopodium . . , ... . , , mi ~ 

Botrys deeply subdivided. The flowers green in 

Green dense heads, the spike leafless, the calyx 

July-Septem- three-parted. 1-2 feet high. In autumn 
ber the leaves fall off and leave the stem and 

seed-spike naked. C. ambrosioides, or Mexican Tea, is a 
similar introduced species, with a densely flowered leafy 
spike ; the leaves lanceolate. Both are common in waste 
places. Chenopodium ambrosioides var. anthelminticum, 
or Wormseed, differs from the typical C. ambrosioides 
in its leaves which are coarsely toothed and sometimes 
deeply incised, and its flower-spike which is more elon- 
gated and nearly leafless. At most the leaves of C. am- 
brosioides are wavy-edged or else toothless, but the 
variety is inconstant, and individual plants with inter- 
grading leaves are common. In the south the var. an- 
thelminticum is perennial; otherwise both type and 
variety are annuals. 2-3 feet high. Naturalized from 
Tropical America. 




Jerusalem Oak. 



Chenopodium Botrys. 



AMARANTH FAMILY. Amarantaceae. 



AMARANTH FAMILY. Amarantacece. 

Weeds ; some of those of a ruddy color, mostly foreign, 
are widely cultivated. The perfect flowers with lapping 
scales or leaflets (generally three) which retain their color 
when dry ; hence the name 'AjudpavroS, meaning un- 
fading. 

An annoying weed, common in culti- 
Amarantusre- vated ground and in gardens, with light 
troflexus green roughish leaves and stem ; leaves 

Green long-stemmed and angularly ovate. The 

August-0cto= dull green fl owers i n a st iff bristly spike. 
1-8 feet high. Common east and west, in- 
troduced from the old world. 

A similar species, but smoother and a 

Amarantus 

hybridus darker green, with slenderer Imear-cylm- 

Green drical, bending spikes, branching. The 

August-Octo- flowers also similar, but with more acute 

sepals. 2-6 feet high. Apparently indi- 
genous in the southwest, but introduced eastward. Am- 
arantus hybridus Forma hypochondriacus (Linnaeus) 
Robinson. In cultivation called Prince's Feather. A 
deep red form of the species in common cultivation and 
a frequent escape. It is a perfectly smooth annual with 
thick flower-spikes. Introduced from Tropical America. 
Tumble Weed A low, smooth, greenish white-stemmed 
Amarantus species with light green, small obovate 

leaves, obtuse at the point, and with many 
July-Septem= branches. The flowers green, and crowded 
ber in close small clusters, at the stem of each 

leaf. 6-20 inches high. In the west, late in autumn, 
the withered plant is uprooted and tumbles about in the 
wind, hence the popular name. Common in waste 
places. 



1X2 




Pigweed. Tumble Weed. 

Amarantus retroflexus. OP Amarantus gracizans. 



PURSLANE FAMILY. Portulacaceae, 



PURSLANE FAMILY. Portulacacece. 

A small group of low herbs with thick juicy leaves, 
and perfect but unbalanced flowers that is, with two 
sepals and five petals and as many stamens as petals, 
or more sepals, or an indefinite number of stamens, or 
sometimes the petals altogether lacking. Cross-ferti- 
lization is largely effected by bees and butterflies. Fruit 
a capsule filled with several^or many shell-shaped or 
kidney-shaped seeds. 

An annual ; a fleshy-leaved prostrate 
Purslane or weed naturalized from the old world and 
P usley 
Portulaca commonly found in gardens and door- 

oleracea yards. Stems thick and often a terra- 

Yellow cotta pink, leaves dark green, thick, and 

g UI round-end wedge-shaped. The tiny, soli- 

tary yellow flowers with five petals open 
only in the morning sunshine, 7-12 stamens. The 
branches hug the ground and spread or radiate in an 
ornamental circle ; they are 3-10 inches long. In early 
days the plant was used as a pot herb. It is indigenous 
in the southwest, but is firmly established in the north 
where it flourishes under any and all conditions, and has 
become a very troublesome weed. 

A charmingly delicate flower (rarely 
( l uite wm * te ) of earl y spring, distinguished 
ginica f r its flush of pale crimson-pink, and its 

Pale pink or veins of deeper pink starting from a yel- 
white low base. The deep green leaves are linear 

ay or broader, the two upper ones located 
at about the middle of the plant-stem. The flower has 
five petals and but two sepals. Its golden stamens de- 
velop before the stigma is mature, making cross-ferti- 
lization a certainty. Its visitors in search of pollen and 
nectar are mostly the bumblebees Bombus vagans and 
B. pennsylvanicus, the beelike flies called Bombylidce, 
and the bees of the genus Halictus and Andrenidce ; 
also among the butterflies are Colias philodice, yellow, 
and Papilio ajax, buff and black. Stem 6-12 inches 
high. In open moist woods, from Me., south to Ga., 
and southwest to Tex. 




Purslane. 
Portulaca oleracea. 



Spring Beauty. 
ClaytonidVirginica. 



PINK FAMILY. Caryophyllacex. 



A species similar in all respects except 
Claytonia ., . ., , , , , , 

Caroliniana *^at * e * eaves are broader, lance-shaped, 
and the basal ones are quite obtuse ; the 
flowers are also fewer and smaller. Me., south to N. 
Car., among the mountains, and west to Minn, and Mo. 
Named for John Clayton, an early American botanist. 



PINK FAMILY. Caryophyllacece. 

Annual or perennial herbs generally characterized by 
smooth stems and swollen joints, opposite-growing leaves 
without teeth, and regular, perfect flowers, with five 
(rarely four) sepals, the same number of petals, and 
twice as many stamens. Fertilized by bees and moths. 

An annual escaped from gardens, nat- 
Deptford Pink 
Dianthus urahzed from Europe, with light green 

Armeria narrow, erect leaves, hairy and small ; 

Crimson-pink and clustered crimson-pink, white-dotted 
flowers whose five petals are toothed or 
jagged-edged, resembling Sweet-William. 

6-18 inches high. Fields and waysides Me. to Md. , west 

to Mich. Common eastward ; found in Lexington, Mass. 

A perennial (growing from a matlike 
Maiden Pink r 

Dianthus base) smooth or somewhat hoary, escaped 

deltoides from gardens, naturalized from Europe. 

Crimson-pink Leaves small and narrow lance-shaped, 
June-August erect> The little crimson-pink or white- 
pink flowers bloom singly, and have broader petals 
which are pinked at the edge. 6-12 inches high. The 
face of the flower more nearly resembling Sweet- 
William. In fields and waste places. N. H., Mass., and 
northern N. Y to Mich. Found in Campton, N. H. 

A very common perennial species, natu- 
Bouncing Bet ra ii ze d from Europe, the flowers of which 

have an old-fashioned spicy odor ; they are 
Saponana r * ' 

offidnalis delicate magenta-pink and white, scallop- 

Pale magenta= tipped, and grow in clusters, the single 
P ink blossom remotely resembling a pink. 

September Leaves ovate, 3-5 ribbed, and smooth. 

Stem, thick jointed, 1-2 feet high. Com* 
mon in waste places Found in Nantucket. 
116 




Bouncing Bet. 



S&ponaria officinal is. 




Deptford Pink. 
Diaxithus 



Maiden Pink. 
Dia.nthus deltoidea. 



PINK FAMILY. Caryophyllaceae. 



gtarr The lance-shaped leaves and the stem 

Campion are fine-hairy ; the former in distinct 

Silene stellata clusters of four. The flowers are white, 
White arranged in a loose terminal spike, star- 

June-August ghaped and f r i n ged-edged, the stamens 
very long. A beautiful and delicate wild flower fre- 
quently visited by Colias philodice, the small yellow 
butterfly, and many moths. 2-3 feet high. Common in 
wooded slopes, from R. I., south to S. Car., and west to 
Minn. 

Wild Pink ^ very low species with a somewhat 

Silene Pennsyl- sticky-hairy character immediately be- 
vanica neath the flowers, most of the blunt 

Crimson-pink lance-shaped leaves clustered at the base ; 
the upper leaves small. The crimson-pink 
flowers with somewhat wedge-shaped petals. The calyx 
tubular and adapted to the tongues of butterflies and 
moths, by which the flower is cross-fertilized. 4-9 
inches high. Me., south to Ga., west to southern N. "Y., 
Penn., and Ky. 

A delicately beautiful, foreign, perennial 
Campion species which has become naturalized in 

Silene this country. The deep green leaves are 

latifolia smooth and ovate-lance-shaped. The flow- 

ers are white with the five petals deeply 
two-lobed ; the pale green flower-cup is 
greatly inflated, almost globular in shape, and beauti- 
fully veined with green markings not unlike those of a 
citron melon. The ten anthers (on long stamens) are 
sepia brown when mature. 8-18 inches high. In mead- 
ows and moist hollows beside the road. Me., south to 
N. J., west to 111. 

A homely but curious annual species 
Catchily whose small flowers open only for a short 

Silene Antir- time in sunshine. The joints of the stem 
rhino, are glutinous (hence the common name), 

pink and evidently prevent any stealing of the 

nectar by creeping insects (such as ants) 
September J 

which are useless as pollen carriers. The 

flower-calyx is ovoid with the pink petals above insigni- 



118 




Silene latj/olia 



Starry Campion. 
Silene steilata. 



PINK FAMILY. CaryopbyUaceae. 



ficant. 10-25 inches high. Common in waste places 
everywhere. 

Like the bladder campion ; a foreign 

s P ecies with a beautifully marked calyx 
Silene nocti- resembling spun glass, but smaller, the 
flora petals similar. The plant is hairy-sticky, 

White the leaves blunt lance-shaped. The white 

u y ~ flowers are delicately fragrant, and open 

only at dusk, closing on the following 
morning. Probably it is exclusively fertilized by moths, 
as many such visitors may be seen sipping at the newly 
opened blossoms in the early evening. 1-3 feet high. 
Common in waste places everywhere. Found in Camp- 
ton, N. H. 

A charming plant naturalized from the 
Evening Lych= ... .^ i /= i - 

nis or White ^ country, with densely fine-hairy, 

Campion ovate-lance-shaped leaves and stem, both 

Lychnis alba dark green ; the leaves opposite. The 
Wnite sweet-scented flowers are white, closely 

resembling those of Silene noctiflora ; in 
Lychnis, however, the flower has five styles, in Silene, 
three. Both species open their blossoms toward evening 
and close them during the following morning. The 
white petals are deeply cleft and crowned at the base 
with miniature petallike divisions. The calyx is in- 
flated, and often stained maroon-crimson along the ribs, 
which are sticky -hairy ; after becoming still more in- 
flated it withers and leaves exposed the vase-shaped 
light brown seed-vessel, pinked at the small opening 
above. 1-2 feet high. In waste places and borders of 
fields, from Me. to N. J. and N. Y. Probably farther 
west. Found at Phillip's Beach, Marblehead, Mass. 

A densely hairy straight-branched an- 
Corn Cockle J , 

Agrostemma nual, adventive from Europe, and found 

Githago mostly in grain fields. The magenta flow- 

Magenta ers> no t brilliant, but broad and showy, 

~ . with very long linear sepals much ex- 

ceeding the petals in length. Fertilized 
by butterflies and moths. 1-3 feet high. Common or 
occasional throughout the country, Reported in Neb- 
( Webber). 




Evening Lychnis. 



Lychnis alba. 




Corn Cockle 



Agrostemm Qithago. 



PINK FAMILY. Caryophyllaceae. 



Ragged Robin 
or Cuckoo 
Flower 
Lychnis Flos- 
cuculi 
Pink or 
crimson 
June- 
September 



A slender perennial, also adventive 
from Europe, found in old gardens. The 
plant is downy below, and slightly sticky 
above, the leaves slender lance-shaped 
above, and few, but blunt lance-shaped be- 
low. The pink, or crimson, or light violet 
petals of the ragged-looking flowers are 
deeply cut into four lobes each, the two 
lateral lobes very small. Fertilized in 
great measure by bees and butterflies, the bumblebee, 
perhaps, the most frequent visitor. 1-2 feet high. Com- 
mon in wet and waste ground, from Me., south to N. J., 
and southwest to Penn. 

A tiny annual widely branched and 
rough-downy, naturalized from Europe ; 
with small ovate leaves and miniature 
white flowers, the sepals of which are 
rather long, and rough. 2-8 inches high. 
Common in dry sandy places everywhere. 
Another similar tiny, dainty plant, but 
with arctic proclivities, having much 
larger flowers with translucent white 
petals notched at the tip. The crowding 
leaves are linear and threadlike, the plant 
grows in a dense tuft from the root, in 
crevices of rocks. 2-5 inches high. On 
Mt. Washington and the higher peaks of 
N. Y., Penn., Va., and N. Car. Also on river banks at 
Bath, Me., and on Mt. Desert Island, and near Middle- 
town, Conn. On Mt. Washington, where it is called 
the " Mountain Daisy," it snuggles close to the rocks in 
sheltered situations, but holds its own, almost, if not 
quite alone, on the highest points of the bleak Presi- 
dential range, from 5000 to 6290 feet above tide- water, 
where snow lasts during eight months of the year. 

A seaboard species growing in dry 
sand. Branches nearly bare, and with few 
dainty white flowers about J inch broad. 
The tiny awl-shaped lower leaves densely 
overlapping. 4-9 inches high. N. Y., N. J., 
south. 



Thyme=Ieaved 
Sandwort 

Arenaria 
serphyllifolia 
White 
May-August 

Mountain 
Sandwort or 
Mountain 
Daisy 

Arenaria 
Grcenlandica 
White 
June-August 



Pine-barren 
Sandwort 

Arenaria 
caroliniana 
White 
May-July 



122 




_ - _ 

Cerasium arvense. Lychnis Flos-cuculi 



PINK FAMILY. Caryophyllacex. 



. The commonest weed of Europe, most 

Steiiaria media wi dely distributed through North Amer- 
White ica, but possibly indigenous in the farther 

April-October north. A weak-stemmed low-lying an- 
nual, with small ovate pointed light green leaves, slightly 
woolly stems, and minute white flowers with five petals 
almost cleft in twain, and five larger green sepals much 
longer than the petals. 2-4 inches high. On damp 
ground everywhere. An especial favorite of birds and 
chickens. 

A tall very slender species with many 
Long=leaved . . .*. 

Stitchwort branches, the stem with rough angles, 

Steiiaria and the light green leaves small and lance- 

longifolia shaped. The tiny flowers like white stars, 

with five white petals so deeply cleft that 

they appear as ten, sepals nearly equalling 

the petals in length. 10-20 inches high. In wet grassy 

places everywhere. Reported in Neb. (Webber). 

A similar species with smaller lance- 
Stitchwort shaped leaves widest just above their base, 
Steiiaria a four-angled stem, and white flowers 

graminea with deeply cleft petals. 12-18 inches 

White high. In fields and grassy waysides from 

Me. to western N. Y. and N. J. Intro- 
duced from Europe, but said to be indigenous in Canada. 
A bothersome weed common in culti- 
Larger Mouse- vate( j fields, naturalized from Europe, but 
ear Chickweed , ,, . ,. A , ,, 

Cerastium probably indigenous m the farther north. 

vulgatum Stem hairy a'nd clammy, leaves oblong. 

White The somewhat loosely clustered white 

Ma y- flowers with two-cleft petals, but with 

short sepals. 6-15 inches high. 

A low, rather large-flowered, handsome 
Chickweed species, the broad petals also deeply cleft, 
Cerastium the sepals very short, the stems downy or 
arvense smooth, and the leaves rather broad lin- 

White ear> 4_io inches high. In dry or rocky 

April-July situations. Me., south to Ga., and west to 
Mo., Neb., and Cal. 




Chickweed. 
Stdlaria, media. 



Mountain Sandwort 



Long-leaved 
Stitchwort. 
Stellaria 
longifblia. 



WATER=LILY FAMILY. Nymphsecess. 



A common little low plant in sandy 
Spergularia waste places sometimes near the coast 
rubra but not on the shore. Leaves linear and 



flat, in clusters about the frail stem. Tiny 
June-August fl owerS) crimson-pink, sepals glandular- 
hairy. The plants grow in dense company. 2-6 inches 
high. Roadsides and waste places, Me. to Va., west to 
western N. Y. 

WATER-LILY FAMILY. Nymphceacece.. 

Aquatic perennial herbs, with floating leaves, and soli- 
tary flowers with 3-5 sepals, numerous petals, and dis- 
tinct stigmas or these united in a radiate disc. Fertilized 
by bees, beetles, and aquatic insects. 

The common and beautiful white pond- 
Water-Lily ,., - 

Castalia ^ found in still waters everywhere. 

odorata Leaves dark green, pinkish beneath, ovate- 

White round, cleft at the base up to the long 

June- stem. The white flowers, often 5 inches 

in diameter when fully developed, open in 
the morning and close at noon or later ; they are fre- 
quently pink-tinged ; the golden stamens and anthers 
are concentric, and are luminous in quality of color. 
They mature after the stigma does, and cross-fertiliza- 
tion occurs by the agency of bees and beetles in general. 
The flower yields pollen only. The var. rosea, in south- 
eastern Mass., and Nantucket, is deeply pink-tinged. 
The var. minor is small, with flowers less than three 
inches broad. 

A common odorless yellow pond-lily 
Yellow Pond- f oun d often in the same water with the 
Spatter-dock P rece ding species. With ovate leaves or 
Nymphaa broader, and small, green and yellow cup- 

advena shaped flowers, with 6 green sepals, some- 

Golden yellow times purple-tinged, yellowish inside ; the 
petals yield nectar ; they are small, nar- 
row, thick, and yellow stamenlike. The 
stigma is a pale ruddy or deep golden yellow-rayed disc, 
beneath which the undeveloped anthers are crowded. On 
the first opening of the flower there is a triangular orifice 
126 




Waiter Lily 
Castalia, 



CROWFOOT FAMILY. Ranitnculaceas. 



over the stigma so small that an entering insect must 
touch the stigma. On the following day the flower ex- 
pands fully and the anthers beneath the stigma unfold, 
spread outward, and expose their pollen. Cross-fertiliza- 
tion is thus insured, and is generally effected by means of 
the bees of the genus Halictus, and (so says Prof. Robert- 
son) the beetle named Donaciapiscatrix. A very common 
and familiar plant in stagnant water, with stouter stem 
and coarser leaves than those of the preceding species. 
N. rubrodisca is a slenderer form the smaller flower of 
which has a crimson stigma. Northern Vt. to Mich, 
and Penn. 

This is a very slender species, with flow- 
mall Yellow erg scarce iy i inch wide. Sepals only 
Nytfipha? three. The stigma disc, dark red. In 
microphytta ponds and sluggish streams, Me. to south. 
Golden yellow ern N. Y., Penn., and west to Minn. 
June- 
September 



CROWFOOT FAMILY. Ranunculacece. 

A large family of perennial or annual herbs, with gen- 
erally regular but sometimes irregular flowers ; with 
stamens and pistil, or with staminate and pistillate flow- 
ers on different plants ; 3-15 petals, or none at all ; in the 
last case the sepals petallike and colored. Generally fer- 
tilized by the smaller bees, butterflies, and the beelike 
flies. 

A most beautiful trailing vine commonly 

Virgin's found draped over the bushes in copses 

Bower 

Clematis an( ^ ^7 nioist roadsides. The leaves dark 

Virginiana green, veiny, with three coarsely toothed 
Greenish leaflets ; the flat clusters of small flowers 

White with four greenish white sepals and no 

petals, polygamously staminate and pistil- 
late on different plants ; cross-fertilized by bees, the bee- 
like flies (Bombylius), and the beautiful and brilliantly 
colored flies of the tribe Syrphidce. In October the 
flowers are succeeded by the gray plumy clusters of the 
withered styles (still adherent to the seed-vessels), which 
128 




& 



rfer, 



i>~> 



Virgin's Bower. \PurpleVirgiris Bower. 

Clematis' Virginians. Clematis verticillana 



CROWFOOT FAMILY. Ranunculacese. 



appear under the glass like many tiny twisted tails. 
The plants presenting this hoary appearance gave rise to 
the popular name, Old Man's Beard. The vine supports 
itself by a twist in the leaf -stem, the latter revolving a 
number of times in the course of growth. Stem about 
12 feet long. Waysides and river-banks. Me., south to 
Ga., and west to Kan., Neb., and S. Dak. 

A southern species with solitary, thick, 
Ieather 3 r > bell-shaped, dull purple flowers 
Viorna without petals, the purple sepals about 1 

Dull purple inch long. The three or more leaflets with 
May-July unbroken edges or lobed. In early autumn 

the hoary plume is brownish. Southern Pa., south to 
Ga. and Tenn., and west to Ohio. 

A rather rare species found in rocky 
Purple Virgin's . ,_..." A . , .,, ... 

Bower places among the northern hills, with 

Clematis leaves similar to those of C. Virginiana, 

verticillaris and showy light purple flowers, downy in- 
Light purple g ^ e an( j ou tside, sometimes over 3 inches 

broad ; the four purple, finely veined se- 
pals expanding only to a cup-shape. The plumes brown- 
gray. Me. and Vt., south to Va., and west to Minn. 

A slender tall species the leaves and 
Anemone* 1 * stem of wnicn are silky haired, leaves dark 
Anemone green and veiny , ornamentally cut (or lobed) 

cylindrica into 3-5 parts. The solitary flowers without 
Greenish white peta i Sj but with 5-6 greenish white sepals, 

are set on a tall stem. The fruit a nar- 
row, cylindrical, burrlike head 1 inch or more in length. 
2-6 flowers are borne on each plant. 18-24 inches high. 
Common in dry woods and by wooded roadsides, from 
the lower Androscoggin Valley, Me., Vt., N. Y., and 
northern N. J., west to Kan., Neb., and S. Dak. The 
name, Greek, meaning a flower shaken by the wind. 

This is the common tall anemone of 
I? T*H C " * wooded roadsides and banks. The leaves 
Anemone and stem are more or less hairy and deep 

Anemone olive green, the leaves conspicuously 

Virginiana ^ veined. The flowers generally have five in- 

cons picuous sepals white or greenish white 

inside and greener outside ; the flower- 

130 




Thimble-weed. Large White-flowered Anemone. 
Anemone Virgini&na. Anemone riparia. 



CROWFOOT FAMILY. Ranunculaceae. 



bead usually 1 inch or less across, is succeeded by the 
enlarged fruit-head similar in shape to, and about as 
large as, a good-sized thimble. Fertilized by the bum- 
blebees, the smaller bees (among them the honeybee), 
and the brilliant little flies of the genus Syrphidce. 2-3 
feet high. Me. , south to S. Car. , west to Kan. , Neb. , and 
S. Dak. Found in Campton, N. H. 

A slender, tall, and handsome plant in- 
Large White- 
flowered termediate between the two preceding 

Anemone species, with large white flowers maturing 

Anemone earlier than those of the foregoing, and 

ripana with smoother stem and leaves ; the latter 

wwte thin, and unequally cleft into coarsely and 

June-July sharply toothed segments. The five thin 
sepals generally obtuse and a strong white. 
The short cylindrical fruit-head slenderer than that of 
A. Virginiana. 12-35 inches high. Banks of rivers and 
streams, and on rocky banks, from the St. John River, 
Fort Kent, Me., Willoughby Lake and western Vt., 
Uxbridge, Mass., to western N. Y. and Sullivan Co., 
N. Y. (M. L. Fernald, Rliodora, vol. i., p. 51). Found 
on the borders of the pond near the Arondack Spring, 
Saratoga, N. Y. 

A northern, rather coarse stemmed spe- 

Anemone c * es ' verv mu ch branched, with broad, 

Anemone sharply toothed, three-cleft leaves ; their 

Canadensis under surfaces rather hairy. The five 

white sepals quite blunt, and the flower 1- 

1J inches broad. The fruit-head globular. 

1-2 feet high. Low moist grounds, from western N. 

Eng., south to Pa., and west to Kan. and S. Dak. 

Common in western Vt., along the slopes of Lake 

Champlam. 

A silky-hairy plant of the west, bearing 
Pasque Flower . * 

Anemone patens a Sm ^ le erecfc P ale vlolet O1 * Bender-white 

var. Wolf- flower of 5-6 sepals (not petals) an inch 

gangiana more or less long. The leaves divided into 

Pale violet many narrow linear lobes, the one below 
the flower stemless, the basal ones slender- 
stemmed. Fruiting head like Clematis, the silky achenes 
(seeds) with long feathery tails. 6-14 inches high. 
Prairies, Wis., 111., and Tex. west. 
132 



IA. patens van Wol^angianai 




C&nadi&n Anemone. 
Anemone Caoudensis. 



CROWFOOT FAMILY. Ranunculaceae* 



A species very similar to the next but 
Mountain 
Anemone with stouter stem and trifoliate leaves, 

Anemone trifolia rarely the basal ones, five-divided. The 
White petallike sepals ovate-oblong, the flower 

about 1J inch broad. 6-15 inches high. 
Chiefly in mountain woods of the south, Pa. to Ga. 
Also in the south Austrian and the Italian Alps. The 
European A. nemorosa with thicker sepia-colored roots 
has escaped from cultivation in eastern Mass. (J. H. 
Sears). 

A beautiful, delicate, and low little plant 

common in the early spring in woodlands, 
Anemone . . , ,-,,... 

or Wind with deep green leaves of five divisions, 

Flower and frail white, or magenta-tinged blos- 

Anemone soms of from 4-9 petallike sepals ; the 

quinquefolia so ii ta ry flower frequently 1 inch across. 
April-June Cross-fertilized by the early bees and bee- 
like flies (Bombylius). Common on the 
borders of the woods. 4-8 inches high. Me. , south to 
Ga. , and west to the Rocky Mts. 

The earliest flower of spring, appearing 
Liverwort or 
Hepatica before its leaves, and generally found half 

Hepatica hidden among the decaying leaves of au- 

triloba tumn that cover the woodland floor. The 

Lilac white, blossom about f inch broad, with 6-12 
lustrous sepals varying in color from lilac 
white to pale purple and light violet, be- 
neath which are three leaflets closely resembling a calyx* 
or the outer floral envelop. The three-lobed olive green 
leaves last throughout the winter, the newer ones to- 
gether with stems and flower-stems are extremely hairy. 
About 3 inches high. Common from the seaboard west 
to Minn, and Mo. 

This is a species close to the preceding 
Hepatica . . , .. mu i 

acutiioba one anc * ^ ten passing into it. The leaves 

are three- or sometimes five-lobed, with 
acute tips, and the three little leaflets beneath the 
flower are also pointed. Range the same as H. triloba, 
in fact, both species are often found together in the same 
woods. 



134 



Wood Anemone. 
Anemone quinquefoliaL C\ 



Rue Anemone. 
Anemonella 
thalictroides. 




Liverwort. 
Hep&tica triloba. \{ 



CROWFOOT FAMILY. Ranuncula^ese. 



A frail and delicate spring flower, 
Rue Anemone 

Anemonelia usually white but rarely magenta-pink- 

thalictroides tinged, which often blooms in company 
White, or with Anemone quinqui 'folia, but readily 

pink-tinged distinguished from it by the 2-3 flowers 
March-May 

in a cluster, the other bearing a solitary 

blossom. The deep olive green leaves in groups of 
three closely resemble those of the meadow rue ; they 
are long-stemmed. The flower with usually six delicate 
white petallike sepals, but there are variations of from 
5-10. The flowers are perfect (with orange-yellow 
anthers), and are probably cross-fertilized largely by the 
early bees and beelike flies. 5-9 inches high. Common 
everywhere in thin woodlands. 

Early Meadow A beautiful but not showy, slender 
Rue f meadow rue with the staminate and pistil- 

Thalictrum late fl owers on separa t e plants. The 
dioicum 

Green, terra- bluish olive green leaves lustreless, com- 
cotta pound, and thinly spreading ; the droop- 

April-May ing staminate flowers with generally four 
small green sepals, and long stamens tipped with terra- 
cotta, and finally madder purple. The pistillate flowers 
inconspicuously pale green. An airy and graceful 
species, common in thin woodlands. 1-2 feet high. 
Me., south to Ala., and west to Mo., S. Dak., and Kan. 

The commonest species, remarkable for 
Tall Meadow ., ' ..^ 

Rue its starry plumy clusters of white flowers, 

Thalictrum lacking petals, but with many conspicuous 
polygamum threadlike stamens. The flowers are 

W" lte polygamous, that is, with staminate, 

July-Septem- 

kgj. pistillate, and perfect ones on the same or 

different plants. The leaves are com- 
pound, with lustreless blue-olive green leaflets ; the 
stout stem light green or magenta- tinged at the branches. 
The decorative, misty white flower-clusters are often a 
foot long ; the delicate-scented staminate flowers are a 
decided tone of green- white. This species is an especial 
favorite of many bees, moths, and smaller butterflies, by 
which it is cross-fertilized. 3-10 feet high. Common 
in wet meadows from Me., west to Ohio, and south. 

136 




Tall Meadow Rue. Thalictrum potygajnura 



CROWFOOT FAMILY. Ranunculacese. 



A species similar in most respects to the 

Thahctrum , . 1 ,1-1 i -, 

revolutum next, but the leaves thicker, and under a 

glass covered with a glandular fine-hairi- 
ness, the wavy particles (glands) easily discerned on the 
under side of the leaf. Rocky woods, Me., e. Mass., 
N. J., and N. Car., also s. Ind. 

The stem of this species is generally 
Purplish 
Meadow Rue stained with madder purple, but some- 

Thalictrum times it is green with only a slight ma- 
dasycarpum genta tinge in parts. The leaves are 
White-purple three-toothed, bluish green and similar 
in shape to those of the preceding species. 
The flowers are white with a brown -purple tinge, and 
are also polygamous. 3-6 feet high. On the borders of 
wooded hills, and copses, in dry situations. N. J., and 
west. 

An insignificant marsh species closely 
Water Plantain ... _ 
Spearwort allied to the buttercup, with yellow flowers 

Ranunculus i inch broad, the 5-7 petals rather narrow. 
laxicaulis The lance-shaped leaves almost if not quite 

Yellow toothless, and clasping the jointed stem, 

which often sends out roots from the 
joints ; the lower leaves contracted into a broad stem 
clasping the plant stem. 1-2^ feet high. Common in 
wet places, from Me., south to Ga., and west to Minn, 
and Mo. Name from the classic Rana, a frog, referring 
to the marshy home of the genus. 

Rather an attractive biennial species, 
Small-flowered 

Crowfoot commonly found beside the woodland 

Ranunculus brook, the lower leaves of which are some- 
abortivus what kidney-shaped, and the upper ones 

Yellow slashed like those of the buttercup, but 

April-June 1,1 ^ -, \ - , . 

very moderately so ; the leaves bright 

green and smooth. The small flowers with globular 
heads, and reflexed or drooping yellow petals ; the head 
about J inch broad. 6-24 inches high. In shady and 
moist ground, everywhere. The var. eucyclus (Fernald) 
is a common form in Me., N. H., and Mass., with slender 
and zigzagged stem, and thin leaves, the lower, rounded 
ones with narrowed cleft ; the flowers are smaller,, 
Found at Ammonoosuc Lake, Crawford Notch. 

138 




Water Plantain. 

Ranunculus Uxic&ulis. 



Small-flowered Crowfoot. 
Ranunculus abortivusvar.eucyclus 



CROWFOOT FAMILY. Ranunculacese. 



__ A woodland crowfoot distinguished by 

Hooked 

Crowfoot 1 * s rem a r kably hooked seed-vessels which 

Ranunculus are gathered in a cluster about inch 

recurvatus broad. The light yellow flowers with the 

Light yellow calyx (flower-envelop) curved backward, 
April-June * \>. 

and with usually live small petals, are 

rather inconspicuous. The stem and olive green leaves 
are hairy, the latter generally three-lobed, veiny, and 
toothed, but the root leaves are seldom divided. 10-20 
inches high. Common in woods everywhere. 

Another woodland or hillside species, 
Early Butter- 
cu _ with deep yellow flowers almost an inch 

Ranunculus broad. The plant rather low, with fine 
fascicularis silky hairs on stem and leaf, the latter 

dark S 16611 ' and dee P l Y lobed with 3 ~ 5 
divisions. The flower with often more 
than five petals which are rather narrow ; the fruit- head 
about J inch in diameter, with a slender curved spine to 
each seed-vessel. 6-12 inches high. Common on the 
borders of wooded hills, in the spring, from Me., south to 
S. Car. , and west. The first buttercup of the year ; all 
are fertilized mostly by early bees, flies, and the smaller 
butterflies, notably Colias philodice, but the commoner 
visitors are the small bees of the genus Halictus. 

This is the next buttercup of the spring, 
Swamp 

Buttercup and one connne( l to swamps and low wet 
Ranunculus grounds. The flowers are deep yellow and 
septentrionalis fully 1 inch broad. The hollow stem is 

Deep yellow generally smooth, but sometimes fine- 
Late April- July f . ,. ., , 
hairy ; the deep green leaves are divided 

into three leaflets, each distinctly stemmed, and three- 
lobed, or only the terminal one stemmed ; the uppermost 
leaves are long, narrow, and toothless. This buttercup 
is very variable in both size and foliage, its branches are 
upright or reclining, and its leaves coarsely cleft and 
divided. 1-2 feet high, or more. Common in moist 
rich ground everywhere. Like most of the other but- 
tercups, this one depends mainly upon the beelike flies 
(Bombylius) and the little bees of the family Andrenidce 
for fertilization. 

140 



Leaf I of 

Ranunculus faseicularis. 




Swamp Buttercup. Ranunculus septentrionalis. 



CROWFOOT FAMILY. Ranunculacese. 



c s B t A species of a similar character, the leaves 
tercup " frequently white-spotted or blotched ; the 

Ranunculus deep yellow flowers nearly 1 inch broad, 
repens blooming a little later. The seed-vessel 

Deep yellow tipped with a short stout spine, thus differ- 
ing from the rather deciduous long 
straight spine of R. septentrionalis. This buttercup 
creeps or spreads over the ground by runners. Roadsides 
and waste places or low grounds, generally near the 
coast, and mainly introduced from Europe, but also 
indigenous. 

Bristl Crow Often, and improperly, called a butter- 
foot ' cup ; the flower has a thimble-shaped, 
Ranunculus green head formed of the pistils, and in- 
Pennsylvanicus significant, round yellow petals surround 
Yellow fa j j g gma ii scarcely ^ inch across, and 
June-August 

does not in the remotest degree suggest 

the cup-shape of the buttercup. The stem is remarkably 
stiff-hairy, and irritating to the touch ; it is hollow, 
coarse, light green, and leafy to the top. Leaves light 
green, three-divided, with each division three-lobed, 
cut and slashed like R. acris, and hairy above and 
beneath. 1-2 feet high. Common in wet situations, 
from Me., south to Ga., and west. 

A small erect plant proceeding from a 
Bulbous But- 
tercup bulbous base or root, with hairy stem and 

Ranunculus leaf, and large bright, 1 inch wide, deep 
bulbosus or golden yellow flowers, the green sepals 

Golden or deep of w hi c h are strongly reflexed. The leaves 
Ma ^-July are deep g reen > decoratively cut and 

slashed, three-divided, each division three- 
lobed, with only the terminal one stemmed, the lateral 
ones nearly if not absolutely stemless. 8-16 inches high. 
Roadsides and fields ; abundant in N. Eng., and natural- 
ized from Europe. Muller records the fact that over 60 
different species of insects visit these old world-butter- 
cups, i. e., R. repens, R. bulbosus, and R. acris. 



142 




Leaf and flower showing reflexed 
sepals of Ranunculus bulbosus. 



Bristly Crowfoot. Ranunculus Pennsylvanicus. 



CROWFOOT FAMILY. Ranunculaceae. 



~ This is the common buttercup of fields 

Tall Buttercup 

Ranunculus anc * meadows, which has become natural- 
acris ized from the old country. The stem is 

Golden or deep hairy, branched and less hairy above, and 

- llow deep green. The leaves deep green with 

May- August ^ .... 

3-7 stemless divisions, and these are again 

correspondingly divided into linear segments ; they are 
cut and slashed in a most decorative and complicated 
fashion, only the upper ones showing the simple three- 
parted figure. The flowers, nearly 1 inch broad, are 
lustrous light golden yellow within, and light yellow 
without, the 5 broad petals overlapping. The flowers 
are set on long slender stems, and sometimes continue 
to bloom until frost. 2-3 feet high. Common every- 
where, especially upon moist meadows. The variety 
named R. acris, var. Steveni (Lange), is similar except in 
the shape of its leaf, which has very broad instead of 
linear segments, which impart to the plant a thicker 
and heavier appearance in the field. This variety is the 
common form in northern N. Eng. Found at Alstead 
Centre, and Jefferson, N. H. (M. L. Fernald in Rhodora^ 
vol. i, p. 227). 

Marsh Mari- ^ thick and hollow-stemmed stocky 
gold" plant common in marshes in spring, with 

Caltha palustris round or kidney-shaped deep green leaves 
Golden yellow obscurely blunt-toothed, and brilliant 
April-May ... , 

golden yellow flowers resembling butter- 
cups. Often wrongly called cowslips. The flowers are 
perfect with 5-9 petallike sepals, and numerous stamens ; 
they are honey- bearing, and although the anthers and 
stigmas mature simultaneously, cross-fertilization is 
favored by the anthers opening outwardly, and the 
outermost ones farthest from the stigmas opening first 
(Muller). The flowers are chiefly fertilized by the 
beautiful yellow flies belonging to the family Syrphidce. 
The classical name Caltha means cup, and palus a 
marsh marsh-cup. 8-24 inches high. Common in wet 
meadows, from Me., south to S. Car., and west. 

The var. flabellifoha is a slender weak-stemmed form 
with open fan-shaped leaves, and much smaller flowers. 
Found in cold mountain springs, N. Y., the Pocono Mts. 
144 







Marsh Marigold. 



Caltha paJustris. 



Ranunfculus 
acpisl V&P. Steven i. 




Buttercup. 
Ranunculus 



CROWFOOT FAMILY. Ranunculaceae. 



of Pa., northern N. J., and Md. The/var. radicans is a 
prostrate or decumbent (rising at the tip ends) form, 
similar to the foregoing, but with a creeping Habit. 
Woodlawn and West Hampton, N. Y. (Rydberg). 

A species found only in north Michigan, 
Minnesota, and the northwest, has white 

natans 

or palest magenta-pink flowers about J 
inch broad. Summer. Generally afloat in ponds and 
streams, or growing on the muddy margins. 

A tiny woodland plant whose bittei 
Goldthread go lden yellow threadlike roots contribute 
Copt istri folia .. ,.. , J , t , i -,,.,. -, 

White to the medicinal stock of the old-fashioned 

May-July country housewife. The evergreen leaves 

are lustrous dark green, three-lobed, scal- 
loped, finely toothed, and long-stemmed. The solitary 
flower terminating a long slender stem has 5-7 white 
sepals, and has many obscure little club-shaped petals, 
15-25 white stamens with golden anthers, and 3-7 pistils 
on slender stalks. The strange petals terminating the 
minute cuplike discs are really nectaries intended to 
minister to thirsty insects. According to C. M. Weed 
the flower is cross-fertilized mostly by a fungus gnat 
a little two- winged fly, and occasionally by a small 
elongated beetle called Anaspis flavipennis. 3-6 inches 
high. In bogs of woodlands or shady pastures, from 
Me., south to Md., and west to Minn. The name from 
the Greek to cut, in reference to the cut-leaf. 
Columbine ^ most delicate but hardy plant com- 

Aquilegia mon on rocky hillsides and the borders of 

Canadensis wooded glens. The long- stemmed com- 
Scarlet, yellow p OUn( j leaves are light olive green, with 
j u i" three-lobed leaflets. The flowers are 

graded from yellow through scarlet to red 
at the tip of the spurs. The petals are the 5 tubes cul- 
minating in the spurs, and the 5 sepals are the spreading 
ruddy yellow leaflets grading into a greenish yellow, 
situated between the tubes. Stamens yellow. Fertilized 
by moths and butterflies. 1-2 feet high. Common 
everywhere. Rarely the flowers are altogether golden 
yellow. The long spurs indicate the adaptation of the 
flower to long-tongued insects. 
146 




Columbine. 



Aquilegia C&n&densi& 



CROWFOOT FAMILY. Ranunculacese. 



A slender and smooth species of larkspui 
Tall Larkspur . 

Delphinium found in the woods from Pennsylvania 

exaltatum southward. The deep green leaves have 
Light violet generally five divergent, lance-shaped or 
July-August wedge-shaped lobes, and the light purple 
or blue-violet flowers are borne in a slim spike some- 
times 10 inches long. 2-6 feet high. In woods, from 
Allegheny and Huntington Cos., Pa., south to N. Car., 
and west to Minn, and Neb. The Delphiniums are 
mostly fertilized by the beelike flies, honeybees, and 
bumblebees. 

A European species, in cultivation and 
Field Larkspur 

Delphinium escaped to roadsides and fields, with dis- 

Consolida sected deep green leaves having very 

Lilac to uitra= narrow linear lobes, and a scattered 

marine blue fl ow er-spike of showy flowers 1 inch 
July-August , 

broad, long-spurred, and varying in color 

from pale magenta, lilac, and purple to ultramarine 
blue. The commoner species in cultivation is D. Ajacis, 
with larger flower-clusters and with woolly pods ; this 
has also sparingly escaped. 12-30 inches high. South- 
ern N. J. , Pa. , and south. 

A handsome wild flower, slender- 
stemmed > weak, and disposed to seek sup- 
uncinatum port. The delicate character of the plant 
Violet= is not unlike that of the columbine. The 

ultramarine deep green leaves are toothed, have 3-5 
lobes, and are rather thick. The purple- 
or violet-ultramarine flowers are composed 
of 5 sepals, the upper one enlarged, forming the hood, 
and 2 petals (three more are stamenlike. abortive, and 
inconspicuous) concealed beneath the hood ; the stamens 
are numerous. Undoubtedly the flower is largely ferti- 
lized by the bumblebee who is its constant visitor ; the 
stamens ripen before the pistils, and cross-fertilization is 
thus insured. 2-4 feet high. In woods, southern N. J. 
and Pa. , and south along the Alleghanies to Ga. 



148 





Goldthread. 



Monkshood. 



Coptis trifolia.. ,,,.r "* ' Aconitum uncinatum 



CROWFOOT FAMILY. Ranunculacese. 



A tall spreading, slender-stemmed wood- 
Snakeroot land plant, with fuzzy, feathery white 
Cimicifuga flowers borne in a 6-20 inches long, wand- 
racemosa like cluster, having a disagreeable foetid 

odor, and compound, sharply toothed, 
light green leaves. The 4-8 petals are 
stamenlike, and the stamens are numerous. The flower 
is assisted in fertilization by the green flesh-flies. Fruit 
berrylike and purplish. 3-8 feet high. Woods, Me., 
south to Ga. , and west to Minn, and Mo. 
R A bushy woodland plant with compound 

Baneberry ^~^ parted leaves, the leaflets toothed and 
Actaa rubra lobed, the lower end-leaflets sometimes 
White again compound. The tiny white, perfect 

pnl-June flowers with 4-10 exceedingly narrow pet- 
als and numerous stamens ; the 4-5 sepals petallike and 
falling when the flower blooms. Cross-fertilized by the 
small bees, especially of the species Halictus. The stig- 
mas mature before the anthers are open, thus securing 
cross-fertilization. Fruit a thick cluster of coral red, 
oval berries (poisonous); slender stems. 1-2 feet high. 
Woods, from Me., southwest to N. J. and Pa., and west. 
A similar species with the same distribu- 
Baneberry tion. The leaflets are more deeply cut, 
Actceaalba the teeth are sharper, and the lobes are 
Wh te acute. The narrow, stamenlike petals are 

Late April- blunt at the tip, and shorter than the sta- 
mens. Fruit a china white berry with 
a conspicuous purple-black eye ; the stems are thick and 
fleshy, and usually red. Forms with slender-stemmed 
white berries, and fleshy-stemmed red berries occasion- 
ally occur, but these are considered hybrids [see note 
in the Appendix]. The Actceas are not honey flow- 
ers and the smaller bees (Halictus) visit them for pollen. 

A stocky yellow-rooted perennial, send- 
Orangeroot 

Hydrastis ln S U P m spring a single clear green, 

Canadensis round, veiny root-leaf, lobed and toothed, 

Greenish an d a hairy stem terminated by two small 

leaves, from the uppermost one of which 

springs an insignificant green- white 

flower scarcely inch broad, with numerous stamens, 

150 




Red Baneberry 
Actaea rubra. 



Fruit of 
Actasa alba. 



BARBERRY FAMILY. Berberidacese. 



about a dozen pistils, and no petals. Visited by the 
smaller bees and the beelike flies. The fruit a small head 
of tiny red berries clustered like the lobes of a raspberry. 
1 foot high. In woods, southern N. Y., south to Ga., 
and west to Minn, and Mo. 

BARBERRY FAMILY. Berberidacece. 

A family of shrubs and herbs with perfect flowers 
having one pistil, and as many stamens as petals (except 
Podophyllum) arranged opposite each other. The flow- 
ers of the barberry are especially adapted to cross-fertili- 
zation ; but other members of the family are self -fertilized, 
or cross-fertilized by the agency of insects, chiefly bees. 
Blue Cohosh ^ n ear lj flowering plant common in the 
or Papoose west, with generally but one compound 
R ot leaf (at the top of the long stem) three 

Caulophyllum timeg parted the leaflets having 2-3 lobes ; 
thahctroides 

Greenish, or a smaller similar leaf accompanies the 
yellowish flower-stalk. The whole plant is covered 
April-May with a white bloom when young. The 
simple stem is terminated by a small cluster of yellow- 
green, or yellowish flowers J inch broad, with 6 petallike 
sepals, and 6 insignificant hood-shaped petals grouped 
closely about the central pistil. The stigma is receptive 
before the anthers are ripe, thus assuring cross-fertiliza- 
tion. Frequently visited by the early bumblebees, and 
bees of the family Andrenidce. The seeds berrylike and 
blue, in a loose cluster. 1-3 feet high. Rich woodlands 
from Me., south to S. Car., west to S. Dak. and Neb. 

A little plant when in flower, scarcely 8 
Jeffersonia inches tall, but attaining double that 
diphylla height later in the season when in fruit. 

White The single white flower, about an inch 

April-May broad, with 8 oblong flat petals, and half 
as many early-falling sepals, is a trifle like the bloodroot 
blossom, but lacks the latter's delicacy and purity of 
color. The long-stemmed leaf is parted almost com- 
pletely into two angularly ovate lobes, whitish beneath. 
Finally (when fruiting) 15-18 inches high. Woods, west- 
ern N. Y., south to Tenn., and west to Wis. 
152 




The fleshy-covered cadet blue seeds 

showing groups in pairs 

After bursting of the 

ovary. 



'Twinleaf. ' Blue Cohosh. 

Jeffersoniadiphylk. C&ulophyllum thaJictroides. 



BARBERRY FAMILY. Berberidacese. 



Ma A le or ^~ common handsome woodland plant 
Mandrake ' remarkable for its large leaves which fre- 
Podophyllum quently measure a foot in diameter ; the 
peltatum flowerless stem of the plant bears a leaf 

/ A il-M w ^h 7-9 lobes, peltate in character ; i. e., 
supported by the stem in the centre, as an 
umbrella. 

The May Apple has also been called Umbrella Leaf, and, 
in allusion to its peculiar lemonlike fruit, Wild Lemon. 
The floivering stalks bear two less symmetrical leaves, 
from between the stems of which droops the ill-smelling 
but handsome white flower nearly 2 inches broad ; it 
usually has 6 petals and twice as many stamens ; it is 
without nectar, but is nevertheless cross-fertilized by the 
early bees and the bumblebees ; these collect the pollen. 
Profi Robertson believes that the plant may be occa- 
sionally self-fertilized ; although the anthers do not 
reach out as far as the stigmas, they sometimes do touch 
the tip edge of the stigma. Fruit a large, fleshy, edible, 
lemon-shaped berry. Leaves and root poisonous, and 
medicinal. The plant is 12-18 inches high, and is com- 
mon in damp rich woods, from N. Y., west to Minn, 
and Neb., and south. Not in northern New England. 

A plant of the woodlands so common in spring about 
the neighborhood of Greater New York, seems con- 
spicuously and strangely absent in the vicinity of Bos- 
ton, where the Skunk Cabbage apparently takes its 
place. Mrs. Dana remarks that Podophyllum " attracts 
one's attention by the railways," which is perfectly true 
of southern New York and New Jersey, but it does not 
apply to New England. The plant is found at Concord, 
Mass., but it was transplanted there ; in Vermont it is 
known only at a few stations, in New Hampshire it is 
rare if not absent, and in Maine, so far as my knowledge 
goes, it is quite unknown. 



1*4 




May Apple. 



A 

Podophyllum peltatum. 



POPPY FAMILY. Papaveracese. 



POPPY FAMILY. Papaveracece. 

Herbs with a milky or yellow sap, and regular or ir- 
regular perfect flowers with 4-12 petals, generally two 
early-falling sepals, and many stamens. The irregular 
flowers spurred at the base of the petals. Fertilized 
mostly by bees. Fruit a dry capsule usually one-celled. 
Not honey-bearing flowers. 

Bloodroot A most beautiful but fragile flower of 

Sanguinaria early spring, 1J inches broad, with gen- 
Canadensis erally 8 (rarely 12) brilliant white petals 

^ hl .^ e four of which alternating with the others 

April-May & . 

are a trifle narrow, and impart a four- 
sided aspect to the full-blown blossom. The petals ex- 
pand flatly in the morning, and become erect to ward late 
afternoon, and close by evening. The two sepals fall 
when the flower opens. The golden orange anthers 
mature after the two-lobed stigma, which is shrivelled 
when the pollen is ripe ; the outer stamens are somewhat 
shorter than the inner ones in the advanced flower, and 
the stigma is prominent in the new flower, so cross-fer- 
tilization is practically assured. The blossom attracts 
insects which gather pollen but find no honey, and its 
chief visitors are honeybees, bumblebees, the smaller 
bees of the genus Halictus, and the beelike flies 
(Bonibylius). As the plant breaks through the ground 
in early April, the leaf is curled into a cylinder which 
encloses the budding flower ; afterward the blossom 
pushes upward beyond the leaf. Eventually the light 
blue-olive green leaf, generally with seven irregular shal- 
low lobes, is 6-10 inches broad. The dull orange-colored 
sap is acrid, astringent, and medicinal in quality. Fruit- 
capsule elliptical-oblong with many light yellow-brown 
seeds. Plant finally about 10 inches high. Common 
everywhere on the borders of rich woods shaded road- 
sides, and copses. 

Celandine A western woodland species with yellow 

poppy juice, deeply lobed light green leaves slen- 

diphyllum der-stemmed and smooth, and with small 
Golden yellow four-petaled poppylike golden yellow 
April-May flowers one inch broad, solitary, or 2-3 in 

156 




Bl ood root. Celandine Poppy. 

Sanguinaria Canadensis. Stylophorum diphyllum., 



FUMITORY FAMILY. Famariaceae. 



a terminal cluster. Fertilized mainly by the smaller 
bees. The ovoid seed-pod hairy. The two sepals falling 
early. 12-16 inches high. In low damp woods, from 
western Pa., west to Tenn., Mo., and Wis. Found near 
St. Libory, St. Glair Co., 111. 

Celandine ^ common weed naturalized from 

Cheiidonium Europe, and found usually in or about the 
majus eastern towns. The leaves are somewhat 

Deep yellow similar to those of the preceding species, 
May-August ,.,_,, ,1 

light lustreless green, smooth, and orna- 
mentally small-lobed. The small deep yellow flower 
(with four petals), f inch broad or less, has a prominent 
green style, and many yellow stamens. The plant has a 
strong yellow sap. 1-2 feet high. Common in waste 
places eastward. Found in Cambridge, Mass., and Ply- 
mouth, N. H. 

A yellow poppy with prickly thistlelike 
Prickly Poppy . J 
Argemone leaves, very light green and smooth with 

Mexicana & slight whitish bloom, commonly culti- 

Yeliow vated, and escaped to roadsides and waste 

June-Septem- pi aces . a native of Mexico. Flowers 
usually two inches broad or more, with 
four bright yellow petals, and numerous golden stamens. 
This poppy like all others is sought by the honeybee for 
its pollen- ; it does not yield honey. The broad surface 
of the stigmas of poppies in general being a convenient 
alighting platform for insects, the flowers are surely 
adapted to cross-fertilization ; although the anthers ripen 
in the bud, and are directly over the stigma, Mtiller is of 
the opinion that cross-fertilization prevails. Self-fertili- 
zation in the case of Argemone is even less likely, as the 
stigmatic surface is small and far less exposed to the 
overhanging anthers. The fruit-capsule nearly an inch 
long, and armed with prickles. Rarely the flowers are 
white. Stem stout, bristly, and 1-2 feet high. Usually 
found near dwellings and on the neglected borders of 
old highways, from N. Eng. south, and west to Ohio. 

FUMITORY FAMILY. Fumariacece. 

Near Papaveracece ; flowers irregular, sack-shaped, 
with 4 united petals, 6 stamens; leaves compound dis- 
sected. 

1*8 




Celandine. 
Chelidonium majus. 



Prickly Poppy. 
Argemone 
Mexicans. 



FUMITORY FAMILY. Fumariaceae. 



Climbing A beautiful and delicate vine climbing 

Fumitory, or and trailing over thickets or shrubbery, 
Mountain with an attenuate, sack-shaped white 

Adiwmia flower tinted greenish and magenta-pink, 

fungosa or very pale pink, in drooping clusters. 

White, tinted The leaves are compound, smooth, prettily 
magenta- pink subdivided, mostly three-lobed, and the 
June-October vine climbs by mea ns of their slender 
stems. The weak and slender stem 8-12 feet long. In 
moist situations, woods and 1 thickets, from N. Eng., west 
to Wis. and eastern Kan., and south to N. Car., among 
the mountains. Named for John Adlum, of Washington, 
a horticulturist, first interested in the cultivation of 
grapes in this country. 

This is one of the daintiest wild flowers 
Breeches ^ ^ ne s P r i n S' common in southern New 

Dicentra York, but rare or entirely absent in north- 

Cucullaria eastern New England. It occurs fre- 
White, quently in Vermont, but is quite unknown 

in the u P lands of New Hampshire. The 
plant is characterized by a feathery com- 
pound leaf, long-stemmed and proceeding from the root, 
thin, grayish (almost sage) green in tint, blue and paler 
beneath ; the leaflets are finely slashed and are distrib- 
uted trifoliately, i. e. , in three parts. The flowering 
stalk also proceeds from the root, and bears 4-8, rarely 
more, nodding white flowers, of four petals joined in 
pairs and forming, two of them, a double, two-spurred, 
somewhat heart-shaped sack, the other two, within the 
sack, very small, narrow, and protectingly adjusted over 
the slightly protruding stamens. The spurs are stained 
with light yellow. The flower is cross-fertilized mostly 
by the agency of the early bumblebees (Bombus separa- 
tus, B. virginicus, B. vagans, and B. pennsylvanicus). 
Prof. Robertson (see Botanical Gazette, vol. 14, p. 120) 
explains in detail the character of the flower and its vis- 
iting insects. Honeybees collect only pollen ; their 
tongues are too short to reach the nectar which is se- 
creted in two long processes of the middle stamens ; the 
proboscis of the bumblebee, 8 mm. long, reaches it, that 
of the honeybee, 6 mm., can not. The honeybee 
160 




Dutchman's Breeches,! *' Dicentr&Cucullaria 



FUMITORY FAMILY. Fumariacc*. 



alights on the flower, forces its head between the inner 
petals, and gathers only the pollen with its front feet ! 
Such a pendulous position as the flower compels is ex- 
tremely difficult for insects other than bees to maintain, 
Butterflies therefore visit the flower with less success 
than bumblebees. Pieris rapce (Cabbage butterfly, white), 
Papilio ajax (buff and black, crimson spots), and Danais 
archippus (the Monarch, black-and-tan) are common 
visitors ; so are the little long-tongued flies of the tribe 
Bombylius (the beelike flies). Flowering stem 5-9 inches 
high. In thin woodlands and on rocky slopes from N. 
Eng., south to N. Car., and west to Neb., S. Dak., and 
Mo. The name from the Greek, meaning twice-spurred. 

A similar species with more attenuate 
Squirrel Corn _ 
Dicentra flowers, white or greenish white tinted 

Canadensis with magenta-pink, 4-8 on the stalk, all 
White, very short-stemmed, and narrow at the 

magenta=pink b slightly fragrant. 6-12 inches high, 
May-June " . 

the roots bearing many little tubers re- 
sembling yellow peas, hence the common name. Rich 
woodlands, from Me., south along the mountains to Va., 
and west to Minn. , Neb. , and Mo. 

Dicentra exima is a tall rare species, with less finely 
cut leaves, large and smooth, and with narrow magenta- 
pink flowers. Sometimes cultivated. 1-2 feet high. 
Rocky slopes. Western N. Y. , south to Ga. and Tenn. , 
along the mountains. 

Pale Cor delis ^^ s * s another conspicuously delicate 
Corydalis wild flower of spring. Its relationship 

sempervirens with Dicentra is manifested by the pale 
Pale pink foliage and the attenuated sacklike blos- 

ay-Augus gom . j n ^ ew jEngland it seems almost to 
supplant Dutchman's Breeches. The pale or whitish 
green leaves are compound, and cut into ornamental 
segments which are generally three-lobed. The pale 
crimson-pink, or sometimes magenta-pink, slightly 
curved corolla is half an inch or more long, somewhat 
round at the top (which is really the bottom), and two- 
flanged at the bottom or mouth, which is golden yellow 
The leaves are scattered alternately on the plant-stem at 
the branching summit of which are groups of rarely 
162 




Pale Cpryctalis v 
Corydalis sempervirens 



Squirrel Corn. 
Dicentra, Canadensis, 



F.UMITORY FAMILY. Fumar/ace*. 



more than four flowers. The slender and erect stem 
whitened with a slight bloom and often stained pinkish, 
is S-22 inches high. The seed-pods are erect and slen- 
der, Ij inches long. In rocky situations, from Me., 
south to N. Car., and west to Minn. Found in the 
Middlesex Fells, near Boston. 

A golden yellow-flowered species cem- 
Golden . 

Corydalis mon in the west. The compound pale 

Corydalis green leaves are beautifully cut into three- 

aurea lobed segments, and the bright deep yel- 

Golden yellow low coro n a i s a b O ut J an inch long. The 
March-May , , . , , ,. , , , 

seed-pod is beady in outline, slightly 

curved, and stands at an angle relatively with its neigh- 
bors. The slender stem 6-14 inches high. In woodlands 
from Me., south to Pa., and west to Wis. and Neb. 

The var. occidentalis has larger flowers, with the spur a 
trifle shorter than the body. The pod less lumpy or 
contracted about the seed, the latter acute-edged. Bar- 
rens and prairies, Mo. west and southwest. 
Corydalis ^ slender and smooth species, the flower- 

flavula stems particularly delicate, and the tiny 

Light yellow flower a pale golden yellow, the spur only 
May-June _i_ i ncn long, outer petals sharp-pointed 

and slightly longer than the inner ones. Pods droop- 
ing. 6-12 inches high. N. Y. to Minn, and La. 

Like the preceding but the flower scarcely 
Corydalis spurred, and the slight crest not toothed, or 

micrantha often ite a b se nt. Pods nearly upright. 

March-April , . 

Va. to Minn., Kan., and Tex. 

Corydalis Flowers much larger, f inch long, a 

crystallina deep bright yellow, spur as long as the 

Deep yellow body, stem short. 8-18 inches high. 

April-June Mo ? Kan ? and Ark> 

A small delicate weed adventive from 

Europe, found mostly within the seaboard 
Fumarta 

officinalis States. The light green leaves are finely 

Crimson=pink cut, and the small crimson-pink or ma- 
or magenta genta-pink flowers with crimson tips are 
S U "t ~ b borne in a dense, long, narrow spike. The 

reclining stem 6-20 inches long. Waste 
places and near or in old gardens, from Me. to Fla. 

164 




Fumitory. 

(Sometimes climbing to a height of 4 feet.) 

Fumaria officinal is. Corydalis crystallina.. 



MUSTARD FAMILY. Cruciferae. 



MUSTARD FAMILY. Cruciferce. 

The Latin name of this family, from Crux, a cross, 
arose from the resemblance of the four opposing petals 
of its flowers to the form of a cross. There are also four 
deciduous sepals, one pistil, and six stamens, two of 
which are short; rarely there are less than six. The 
flowers are generally small and not showy, but they 
produce honey, and are accordingly frequently visited 
by the honeybees, the smaller bees, and the brilliantly 
colored flies of the family Syrphidce. 

A. low woodland plant with inconspicu- 
Toothwort or - . , -IT- 

Crinkleroot ous fl wers f inch wide, having four pet- 
Dentaria a l g an( l niany yellow stamens. The basal 

diphylla leaves long-stemmed, three-lobed, and 

toothed, the two upper stem-leaves similar 
and opposite ; all smooth. The flowers 
borne in a small terminal cluster. The slender seed- 
pods one inch long. The long root is wrinkled, toothed, 
and is edible, possessing a pleasant pungent flavor, like 
watercress. 8-13 inches high. In rich woodlands and 
damp meadows, from Me. , south to S. Car. , west to Minn. 
A similar species, but with the leaves 
Toothwort deeply cut into narrow lobes, sharply and 
Dentaria coarsely toothed ; three are borne upon 

laciniata the smooth, or sparingly woolly stem not 

White or f ar below the flower-cluster. The basal 

A" "l-Ma leaves are developed after the flowering 

time. The flowers are often faintly tinged 
with magenta-pink. Root also peppery. Common every- 
where in moist woods or on the borders of thickets. 

A smooth and less conspicuous, slender 
spring Cress 

Cardamine plant found beside springs, or in wet 
bulbosa meadows, with somewhat angularly round 

White root-leaves, and sparingly coarse-toothed, 

April-May Qvate stem _ leaves . The flowers, like tooth- 
wort, i inch broad, succeeded by a long beanlike pod. 
6-16 inches high. Common every where. The var. pur- 
purea, with magenta-purple flowers, has a slightly 
woolly stem, and blooms a little earlier. Western N. Y., 
south to Md., and west to Wis. and S. Dak. 
166 




Ra.d i c u la. 
Nasturtium-aquaticuin 
Pa 9 e 170 



Leaf of. . 
Dentaria. lacini&ta.. 
'/3 size. 




Toothwort 
Dentaria diphylla. 



caroliniaLna. Cardacmine bulbosai 




MUSTARD FAMILY. Cruciferse. 



Small Bitter ^ bitter-tasting little herb easily dis- 
Cress tinguished by its exceedingly long thin 

Cardamine seed-pods which are an inch long and 
hirsuta erect. The tiny flowers with four narrow 

A *ui petals are white, and are frequently visited 

by the brilliant flies of the family Syrphi- 
dce. The little compound leaves mostly at the base of 
the plant form a rather pretty rosette ; the few upper 
leaflets are exceedingly narrow. 3-12 inches high. 
Common everywhere in wet places. 

This is a generally hairy little plant 
Cres^ (sometimes it is nearly smooth) with a tall 

Arabis hirsuta, slim stem, terminated by a small cluster 
Greenish white of tiny white or greenish white flowers 
May-July beneath which in the later season of its 

bloom appears a succession of slim seed-pods. The clus- 
tered basal -leaves are hairy, toothed, and lance-shaped, 
but blunt at the tip ; the stem-leaves clasp the stem, and 
are widely toothed and small. 12-20 inches high. 
Common on rocky banks, and in stony pastures from 
Me., south along the mountains to Ga., and west. 
Arabis la&vigata A perfectly smooth species with a slight 
Greenish white bloom, taller than the preceding, and with 
April-May stem-leaves which clasp the stem and are 
almost pointed either side of it what is sometimes called 
a sagittate (arrow-shaped) base. Resembling in other 
respects the species above described. 1-3 feet high. 
Similarly distributed but not farther west than Minn. 
Carolina Wh't- ^ ur na ^ ve whitlow-grass distinguished 
!ow=grass a ^ once by its slender or linear seed-pods, 
Draba Carolini- which are longer than their stems. The 
ana ^ tiny flowers and the pods below them 

terminate a Ions: smooth stem : the little 
March-May 

obtuse-ovate leaves nearly at the base of 

the plant. An annual of miniature proportions. 1-5 
inches high. In sandy and barren fields from eastern 
Mass., south to Ga., and west to S. Dak., Neb., and Ark. 



168 




Hairy Rock Cress.. Small BitterCress. Cardamine hirsute 
Arabia hi rsuta. The form often separated as CardaminePenns^lYdnica. 



MUSTARD FAMILY. Cruciferse. 



A species naturalized from Europe, and 
low^gra^s " cornmon throughout our range in barren 
Drabaverna fields and beside the road. The four white 
White petals are deeply notched ; the small hairy 

March-May lance-shaped and toothed leaves are clus- 
tered at the base of the flowering-stems. The pods are 
shorter than their stems, and elliptical. Flower-stems 
leafless, and smooth above but a trifle hairy below. 
1-5 inches high. 

Watercress -^ common aquatic plant, much prized 

Radicula for its pungent-tasting young leaves, which 

Nasturtium- are smooth, dark green, or brownish green 
aquaticum } n spring^ an( i lighter green in summer. 

A r\\-\u Kst ^ ne i ns ig n ifi can t white flowers terminate 
the branching stems. Leaves compound 
with 3-9 roundish leaflets. The scientific name is from 
nasus, nose, and tortus, twisted, in reference to its sting- 
ing effect upon the nose. Naturalized from Europe. 4-10 
inches high. In brooks and small streams everywhere, 
except in the northernmost parts of our range. 

A yellow-flowered species common 
Marsh Water- 
cress everywhere, but naturalized from Europe 

Radicula in the seaboard States ; indigenous in the 

pziusiris west. The leaves ornamentally cut, of 

Yellow usually seven segments. Pods oblong, 

May-August , . , 

about equaling the length of the stems. 

1-3 feet high. In wet situations. 

Lake Cress ^ n a( l ua ^ c species, the finely dissected 

Radicula leaves under water, the upper, oblong, 

aquatica slightly toothed leaves above it. The 

White white flowers on slender stems, smaller 

than those of the Horseradish, and in 
loose clusters. 1-2 feet. N. Vt. to Minn., southwest. 

A coarse species well known for the im- 
norseradish 

Radicula mensely strong peppery quality of its large 

Armor ada white roots which furnish a favorite spring 

White table relish. The oblong leaves toothed, 

June-August and roug hl y veined, the basal ones large. 
The small white flowers rather conspicuous. Pods nearly 
round. Escaped from cultivation, into moist ground 
everywhere; naturalized from Europe. 20-30 inches 
high. 

170 




Whitlow-grass. 
Draba verna. 



7* Hedge^WMustard. 
)isymbrium officinale. 



MUSTARD FAMILY. Cruciferas. 



A bright yellow-flowered species with a 
Yellow Rocket 

or Winter Cress simple stem terminated by one or more 
Barbarea vul- showy spikes of flowers beneath which the 
garis long curved seed-pods later appear in a 

Yellow loose cluster. Upper leaves stemless, 

April-May 1 . ,. . . 

lower ones cut m usually five divisions, the 

terminal one very large ; all deep shining green. The 
pretty four-petaled flowers with six stamens four of 
which are quite prominent, are frequently visited by the 
early bees and handsome flies of the genus Syrphidce. 
They yield honey and pollen. 1-2 feet high. In moist 
places along the road, and in meadows. Me. , south to 
Va. , and west. Naturalized from Europe, but indigenous 
in the west. 

A homely straggling weed with tiny 
Hedge Mustard 

Sisymbrium " h * yellow flowers, and light green,, 
offidnale smooth leaves, with 3-6 lobes, irregularly 

Light yellow blunt-toothed. The generally smooth stem 
May-Septem- with tall w i^ely spreading, wiry branches, 
tipped with a few flowers and curiously 
set with the close-pressing pods. 1-3 feet high. In 
waste places throughout our range. Naturalized from 
Europe. 

Charlock or A coarse and vexatious weed in culti- 

Field Mustard vated fields and waste places, adventive 
Brassica from the old countiy> an( j widely distrib- 

Yellow uted through the northern States. The 

May-Septem- light yellow flowers over -|- inch broad, in 
her small terminal clusters. The leaves ovate 

with few if any lobes, indistinctly or sparsely toothed, 
with short stems or none at all. The seed-pods f-inch 
long, contracted between the seeds, and lumpy in con- 
tour. 1-2 feet high. Me., west to Neb. and S. Dak., 
and south. 

Another common weed in grain fields, 
Black Mustard 11-1,1 -11 

Brassica nigra and beslde the road ' A more Wlde1 ^ 
Yellow branched plant than the preceding, and 

June Septem- with far more deeply lobed leaves ; one 
ber terminal large division, and generally four 

lateral ones, all finely toothed. The small pure light 
yellow flowers less than -J inch broad are frequently 




Leaf of 

Field 

Mustard. B. eWensis". 



"\ '> 
^ VHi 

Black Mustard 



nigra.. 



MUSTARD FAMILY. Cruciferie. 



visited by the smaller bees, and Syrphid flies ; the pistil 
much exceeding the stamens in length, adapts the 
flower to cross-fertilization. The pod is J inch long, 
four-sided, and lies close to the stem ; the seeds are 
black-brown. 2-5 feet high. Naturalized from Europe, 
and extending throughout our range. 
White Mustard A similar but rarer species, more or less 
Brassica alba hairy, with bristly pods, contracted be- 
Yellow tween the seeds ; these are light yellow- 

June-August brown The flowers are a httle largen 

1-2 feet high. In fields and on roadsides, escaped from 
gardens ; naturalized from Europe. Both of these last 
species introduced into Neb. 

Shepherd's A very common weed on roadsides near 

Purse dwellings, and on waste ground, with 

partorte BUrSa ~ i[ny Whlte flowers The Latin name is 
White literally a shepherd's little purse, in allti- 

April-Septem= sion to the shape of the tiny seed-pods. 
ber The root-leaves are deeply cut, and form a 

rosette, the stem-leaves are small, lance-shaped, and 
indistinctly toothed. 8-18 inches high. Naturalized 
from Europe, and distributed throughout our range. 
Wild Pepper- A somewhat similar species, but more 
grass branched, remarkable for its peppery- 

L ^u Vir ~ tastin S seed -P ds wm 'ch cluster thickly 
\Vhite about the flowering stems in a cylindrical 

May-Septem- curving column beneath the few terminat- 
b er ing white flowers. Basal leaves obovate 

(tapering to a stemlike base) with a few small lateral 
divisions, stem-leaves small and lance-shaped ; all 
toothed. 6-15 inches high. Common on roadsides 
everywhere. 



174 




Peppergrass. Iff^ Shepherd's"' 

Lepidium Virginicum. Capsella-Bursa-pastopis. 



PITCHEK PLANT FAMILY. Sarraceniaceae. 



PITCHER PLANT FAMILY. Sarraceniacece. 

Swamp plants with pitcher like leaves, and nodding 
flowers with 4-5 sepals, five petals, numerous stamens, 
and one pistil ; represented by only one species in the 
northern United States. 

Pitcher Plant ^ cur i us an d interesting plant found 
Sarracenia in peat-bogs throughout the north. The 
purpurea strange hollow leaves, keeled on the inner 

Dull dark red gl( j e t owar( i the flower-stem, are usually 
partly filled with water and the fragments 
of insects ; the latter are apparently drowned, and no 
doubt contribute to the physical sustenance of the plant ; 
but the raw-meat coloring, the red veining, and the gen- 
eral form of the flower are conducive to the attraction 
of carrion flies, which are especially fitted for the cross- 
fertilization of the flower. The style within the blossom 
is strangely like an umbrella with five ribs, the stigmatic 
surface on the inside. The folding petals and the flow- 
er's drooping position certainly protect the ripening pol- 
len from any disturbance by the elements, but the 
inquisitive insect finds easy access to it. The general 
coloring of the whole plant is green with red-purple 
veining ; the sepals are madder purple, and greenish on 
the inside, the petals are dull pink, and the umbrellalike 
style green. The outer surface of the pitchers is smooth, 
but the inner surface is covered with fine bristles point- 
ing downward, which manifestly interfere with the es- 
cape of trapped insects. The pitchers are circled about 
the root in radiating lines, and they measure 4-10 inches 
in length ; the flower-stem is frequently a foot high. 
The plant is commonly found in the black peat-bogs of 
wooded hills or in mountain tarns where there is scant 
sunshine. When the plant is more exposed to the sun 
its green coloring predominates. It is common north 
and south, and extends as far west as Minn. 
Trumpets ^- sou thern species with elongated, 

Sarracenia flava trumpet-shaped leaves nearly erect. The 
Dull yellow flowers a light ochre or dull yellow, the 
A P ril petals narrow, long, and drooping. 1-3 

feet high. Bogs, Va. south, and west to La. 

176 




Pitcher Plant 
S&rracenia pur purest 8 



SUNDEW FAMILY. Drosemcex 



SUNDEW FAMILY. Droseracece. 

Bog plants with sticky-hairy leaves which are coated 
with a fluid designed to attract and retain insects they 
are, in fact, carnivorous. The small flowers are perfect, 
with five petals, and few or many stamens, with the an- 
thers turned outward. Fruit a 1-5-celled capsule. The 
tiny red filaments of the leaves curl and clasp about a 
captured insect, and ultimately its juices are absorbed. 

A very small plant with long-stemmed 
Round=leaved , , 

Sundew round leaves lying close to or upon the 

Drosera ground, both leaf and stem covered with 

rotundifolia long, fine, red hairs. The red flower-stem 
White j s erec t an( j smooth, and bears about four 

or six small white flowers, which are fre- 
quently visited by the fungous gnats and other small 
woodland insects. The flower-cluster is one-sided, bends 
over, and the blossoms open one at a time only in the 
sunshine. The glands of the leaves exude clear drops of 
fluid, which appear like small dewdrops ; hence the 
popular name, also the Greek dpotfspoS, meaning dewy. 
The whole plant is so saturated with color that its sap 
stains paper a ruddy madder purple. 4-9 inches high. 
In bogs, from Me. , south, and west to the Daks. 
Long-leaved ^ very similar species, but with elon- 

Sundew gated blunt-tipped leaves whose stems are 

Drosera i on g an d rather erect. Differing further 

from the preceding species by the naked 
leaf -stems, the red hairs appearing only upon the little 
leaves. It is not so common as the other species, but 
occupies about the same territory. 

Slender -^- western species with 3-inch long, slen- 

Sundew der or linear leaves, also with naked, erect 

Drosera stems. The white flowers are few. Shores 

linearis of La k es Superior and Huron. 

The leaves of this larger species are re- 
Thread=leaved 
Sundew duced to a mere threadlike shape with no 

Drosera distinct stem ; they are glandular, red 

filiformis hairy throughout, the hairs terminated by 

Purple- a red bead or dot The fl owers are fully J 

inch broad, and dull purple - magenta. 
178 



Drosera longifolia 
var>. Americana 




Drosera 
filiformis. 



Round- 
leaved 
Sundew. 



^ rotund ifblia. 



ORPINE FAMILY. Crassulacess. 



There are many in the cluster. 8-18 inches high. In 
wet sand near the seacoast, from Mass., south. Found 
in the pine barrens of New Jersey. Nothing is more 
dainty and beautiful under the magnify ing-glass than 
the spun-glasslike, glandular, ruby hairs of the Droseras. 

ORPINE FAMILY. Crassulacece. 

Rather fleshy or succulent herbs, with absolutely sym- 
metrical small flowers ; the petals, sepals, pistils, and 
stamens equal in number, or the last double in number, 
differing only in this respect from Saxifragacece. 

A familiar weed of ditches and swamps 
Stonecrop with insignificant greenish yellow, or yel- 
Penthorum low-green flowers, in slender bending 
sedoides clusters of 2-3 branches, at the top of the 

Yellow=green erect stenij Tne latter is smooth, usually 

September branched, and bears lance-shaped, or ellip- 
tical, pointed, light green leaves, finely 
toothed. The flower has five sepals, but rarely any pet- 
als, ten stamens, and five pistils united below, finally 
forming a five-angled seed-vessel. Not fleshy-leaved. 
8-20 inches high. Me., west to S. Dak. and Neb. 

A small species at home on rocky ledges 
Stonecrop and ^ n s *ony woodlands. It has little five- 

Sedum petaled white flowers growing on horizon- 

ternatum tally spreading branches. The leaves are 

small, toothless, fleshy, and rather wedsre- 
April-June e . 

shaped ; the lower ones are generally in 

groups of three. The flower-cluster is three-spiked and 
leafy. 3-8 inches high. The name is from sedeo, to sit. 
Live=forever ^ common perennial, with a stout light 
or Garden green stem and very smooth, fleshy, dull- 

Orpine t toothed leaves, which children are fond of 

splitting by lateral pressure with the fin- 

purpureum 

Dull garnet & ers ' and forming mto green "purses." 
red It is adventive from Europe, and is gener- 

June- ally an escape from gardens, establishing 

September j tself in elds and on roa dsides. The light 
green leaves, particularly when young, are covered with 
a whitish bloom. The small flowers in thick clusters are 
opaque crimson. 10-18 inches high. Common. 
180 




Live-forever 
Sedumpurpureum. 



Penthorum 

sedoides, 



SAXIFRAGE FAMILY. Saxifragaceae. 



SAXIFRAGE FAMILY. Saxifragacece. 

A large family of herbs or shrubs related to the family 
Rosacece, but differing from it by having albumen in the 
seeds, and opposite as well as alternate leaves. The 
flowers are mostly perfect with usually five petals, 
fertilized by the aid of the smaller bees, and the flies 
(Syrphidce), or in some instances butterflies. 

A little plant hugging the rocks on dry 
" hillsides and blooming along with the 



Saxifraga first flowers of spring; the buds are formed 
Virginiensis early, and appear like little (fine-haired) 
White balls in the centre of the rosettelike 

April-May 

clusters of obovate leaves close to the 
ground. Eventually a cluster expands to a branching 
downy stem bearing many little white, five-petaled, 
perfect flowers with ten yellow stamens. The flowers 
are succeeded by rather odd and pretty madder purple 
seed-vessels which are two-beaked ; often the color is 
madder brown. Besides some of the earlier bees, the 
Antiopa butterfly (rusty black with a corn color bor- 
der) and the tortoise-shell butterfly (brown and tan) 
may be included as among the frequent visitors of the 
flower ; but whether they play any important part in 
the process of fertilization, it is difficult to say. 4-10 
inches high. Me. , south to Ga. , and west to Minn. 
S am Saxi- ^ much larger plant with less attractive, 
frage greenish white flowers with very narrow 

Saxifraga (linear) petals. The stem is somewhat 
Pennsylvania sticky-hairy and stout. The larger blunt 
Greenish white lance . shaped leaves are sca rcely toothed, 

and are narrowed to a rather broad stem. 
12-30 inches high. In bogs and on wet banks from 
Me., south to Ya., and west to Minn, and Iowa. The 
name saxifrage is from Saxifragus, meaning a rock or 
stone breaker! but it is far from evident that the plant's 
roots, in spreading between the crevices of rocks, succeed 
in breaking stone by vigorous growing ; the name may 
as well be referred to reputed medicinal virtues of the 
roots. 



182 




Early Saxifrage. Saxifraga Virginiensis. 



SAXIFRAGE FAMILY. Saxifragaceaz 



False Mitre- ^ n attractive little plant that decorates 

wort, Foam- the moist woodland floor with its orna- 
flower, or mental leaves all through the summer. 

Coolwort The f eat hery spike of fine white flower* 

Tiarella cordi- * 

f 0lia with five petals appears conspicuously 

White above the leaves in late spring or early 

Late April- summer ; the ten prominent stamens have 
early June orange anthers, and the long pistil in the 
centre is white. The leaves remotely resemble those of 
the mountain maple, but they are small, rough hairy 
over the upper surface, and dark green, sometimes 
mottled with a brownish tone. The little seed-capsule 
is characteristically cloven like a tiara, hence the name ; 
the heart-shaped form of the leaf accounts for the 
specific cordifolia. 6-12 inches high. In rich woods, 
from Me., south along the mountains to Ga., and west 
to Minn. Common in the woods of the White Moun- 
tains. 

Mitrewortor The true mi trewort is verv easily dis- 
Bishop's Cap tinguished from the false, by several 
Mitella diphylla marked differences; half-way up the stem 
Whlte are two opposite leaves nearly if not quite 

April-May rm a A e v 

stemless. The flowers instead of being 
borne on rather long individual stems in a thin feathery 
cluster, are short-stemmed and distinctly separated; the 
tiny white blossom has five petals beautifully fringed, 
which remind one of a highly ornamental snow crys- 
tal. This plant is also hairy throughout. The name 
means a little mitre, alluding to the mitre-shape of the 
seed-pod. 8-16 inches high. Rich woods, Me., south to 
N. Car. , and west to Minn. 

Naked Mitre- ^ nlucn smaller and daintier species dis- 
wortor tinguished by its naked stem, which is 

Bishop's Cap without the two leaflets, and is slightly 
Mitella nuda hairy. The leaves approach a somewhat 
und form ' and the snow-crystallike 

flowers are greenish white, and few. 
They have ten yellow stamens. 4-7 inches high. In 
cool woods and mossy bogs, from N. Eng., south to Pa., 
and west. The Mitellas are common in Vermont, but 
rare or absent in central New Hampshire. 
184 




False 



Tiarellacordi/blidu 



Naked Mitrewopt 
Mitel la. nuda. 



SAXIFRAGE FAMILY. Saxifragacesb. 



Alumroot ^ stout and tall plant bearing some re. 

Heuchera semblance to Mitella nuda on a large 

Americana scale; but the flowers are distinctly differ- 
Whitish green ent . they are borne in a long loose cluster, 
usually 4-5 on one of the small branching 
stems, small, bell-shaped, with inconspicuous green 
petals, very prominent stamens tipped with orange 
anthers, of which there are but five. The leaves are 
heart-shaped and scalloped ; the teeth blunt. The stem 
is more or less hairy, and is 2-3 feet high. Named for 
Johann Heinrich von Heucher, a German botanist of the 
early eighteenth century. Rocky woodlands N. Y. and 
Conn., west to Minn., southwest to Ala. and La. 

An insignificant plant of cold bogs or 
Golden Saxi= ., . 

I ra wet places, with a slender low-growing, 

Chrysosplenium forking stem, with roundish fine-scalloped 
Americanum generally opposite-growing leaves, and 
Yellow or pur= fi ne y e li ow i sn or purplish green flowers 
A^H-June with orange anthers, growing close be- 
tween the points where the leaves join 
the plant stem. In wet shady places, Me., south along 
the mountains to Ga., and west to Mich, and Minn. 
Stems 3-7 inches long. The name means golden spleen, 
from reputed medicinal qualities. 

An interesting perennial herb with sin- 
Grass=of=Par= , , ., , ,. , , 

gle cream white flowers delicately veined 

Parnassia with green, about 1 inch broad. A single 

Carolinians ovate olive green leaf clasps the flowering 
White green= stem; the others are long, slender-stemmed 
June 6 - an( ^ heart-shaped, and spring from the 

September root. The flower has five petals and five 
straw yellow anthers terminating the fer- 
tile stamens and alternating with the petals ; a number 
(perhaps 15) of abortive stamens encircle the green 
pistil. The blossom is visited by bees and the smallest 
butterflies (skippers); chief among the visitors are the 
larger ones named Colias philodice (yellow), and Pieris 
rapce (white). 8-20 inches high. In swamps and wet 
meadows, Me., south to Va., west to S. Dak. and Iowa. 



186 



Chrysosplenium 
americanum. 




Grass of Parnassus 
Carolinians 



ROSE FAMILY. Rosacex. 



ROSE FAMILY. Kosacece. 

An extensive family highly esteemed for its luscious 
fruits, and for its most beautiful flowers, which are de- 
pendent in a great measure upon the bees for cross- 
fertilization. The flowers are extraordinarily rich in 
pollen and honey ; the raspberry yielding the finest 
flavored honey which is known. The leaves are alter- 
nate-growing, and accompanied by stipules, or small 
leafy formations at the base of the leaf -stalk. The 
flowers are regular and generally perfect, with usually 
five sepals and as many petals (seldom more or less), 
numerous stamens, and one or many pistils. Rarely 
the petals are absent. The family is very closely allied 
to Saxifragacece, and Leguminosw. It is mostly com- 
posed of trees and shrubs, although the herbaceous 
members are many. 

Meadowsweet ^ common flower on the borders of the 
Spircea road in bloom throughout the early sum- 

latifolia mer. A shrub with light green, nearly 

Flesh pink smooth, ovate, sharply toothed leaves, 
June-August and & usually yellowish buff stem of a 

wiry character, upon which are freely set the alternate 
leaves. The beautiful flower-spike is pyramidal but 
blunt and branching, and is closely crowded with 
flesh pink and white flowers, resembling miniature 
apple-blossoms, with prominent pink-red stamens. It 
is frequently visited by the smaller butterflies and the 
bees, and possesses a slight fragrance. The name is 
from the Greek, and means twisting, alluding to the 
twist in the pods of some species. 2-4 feet high. Me., 
south to Ga., and west to Mo. and S. Dak. 

A similar species, but readly distin- 
Hardhack or . _ _ , ,, 

steeplebush guished by its woolly stem (terra-cotta 
Spiraea tomen- red) and leaves ; the latter are olive green 
tosa of a dark tone above, and very whitish 

Deep pink an( j woo n v beneath. The slender steeple- 

September ^6 flower-spike is crowded with tiny, 
deep rosy pink flowers, smaller than those 
of the preceding species ; the succession of bloom is 
unfortunately slow, and downward, so the top of the 
188 




Meadowsweet 

Spiraea latifolia. 



Hardback. 
Spiraea tomentosa. 



ROSE FAMILY. Rosaceae. 



spike is often in a half -withered condition. 2-4 feet 
high. In dry or wet ground, same range as the pre- 
ceding species. 

A tall western species, also in cultiva- 
Queen=of=the= 
Prairie tion, with handsome, fragrant, deep pink, 

Filipendula or peach-blossom-colored flowers, and cut- 
rubra lobed, deep green, smooth, large leaves of 

Deep pink sometimes seven divisions. It grows in 

moist situations or on the prairies. The 
terminal leaflet is larger than the others. The large 
compound flower-cluster of perfect fine-petaled flowers, 
is feathery in character. 2-8 feet high. Western Pa., 
south to Ga. and Ky., west to Wis. and Iowa. An 
escape to roadsides in Peacham, Randolph, and Lower 
Cabot, Vt. (Brainerd, Jones, and Eggleston). 
Goat's Beard Another tall and handsome species with 
Aruncus a compound flower-spike formed of many 

sylvester little spikes about as large around as one's 

Yellowish Httle finger The tiny narrow-petaled 
May-July flowers are yellowish white, and are an 

exception to the general rule of the 
family, as they are staminate on one plant and pistillate 
upon another. The stem is smooth and the deep green 
leaves are compound, with sometimes eleven small leaf- 
lets. The pistillate flower has usually three distinct 
pistils. 3-6 feet high. In rich woods, N. Y., south to 
Ga. , and west to Mo. 

A shrubby roadside species which suffers 
Purple Flower- ... . , ,. ,, -^ 

in -Raspberry wlt ^ a misleading name; the Rose Family 
Rubus odoratus is quite incapable of producing a true 
Crimson-pink purple flower. This big-leaved plant ex- 
or magenta- hibits a wild-roselike flower of five broad 
J^e-Au ust P e tals whose color is at first deep crimson- 
pink, and at last a faded magenta-pink. 
The large maplelike leaves are 3-5 lobed and a trifle 
hairy. The stem is covered with short red or brown 
bristly hairs ; the flower-stems are particularly red, as 
well as the calyx, or flower-envelop. The fruit is in- 
sipid and resembles a flat, red raspberry ; it is often 
called Thimble-berry. 3-5 feet high. Common in stony 
woodlands, beside the shaded road, and in copses. Me., 
190 




Queen-of-the|/Prairie. 
Filipendula'rubpa. 



Goats Beard 
Aruncus sylvesten 



ROSE FAMILY. Rosaceas. 



south to Ga. , and west to Mich. The name rubus is an 

ancient one for bramble, from ruber, red. 

Cloudberry, or One ^ the interesting relatives of the 

Mountain common raspberry which finds its home 

Raspberry among the clouds of high mountain-tops, 

Rubus Chamc*. It ig found in the fc b of the White 

morus 

White Mountains and on the coast of eastern 

June-July Maine. The cloudberry is another in- 
stance of a break in the family rule : the 
flowers are staminate on one plant and pistillate on 
another. The solitary white flower is about an inch 
broad. The plant-stem is herbaceous, not shrubby, and 
the leaves are rather roundish with 5-9 lobes ; the stem 
is unbranched and with only 2-3 leaves. The fruit is a 
pale wine red, or when nearly ripe, amber color, and 
possesses a delicate flavor ; the lobes are few. 3-10 
inches high. Me. to N. Y., north to the Arctic regions. 

A delicate woodland plant with a white 
Dalibarda . . ... ,. 

repens blossom like that of the wild strawberry, 

White and densely woolly or fine-hairy stems 

June- and leaves ; the latter are dark green, 

September heart-shaped, and wavy or scallop-toothed. 
In form they closely resemble those of the common blue 
violet. The 1-2 white flowers about J inch in diameter 
are borne on long fuzzy, sometimes ruddy stems ; it is 
said that they fertilize in the bud before opening. 2-4 
inches high. In the northern woods, from Me., south to 
southern N. J., and west to Ohio and Mich. Found in 
Langdon Park, Plymouth, N. H. 

A rather tall, fine-hairy plant with an- 
White Avens 

Geum gular, branching stem, insignificant five- 

canadense petaled white flowers, and three-divided 

White leaves, except the simple uppermost ones ; 

June-August the root _i eaves o f 3.5 leaflets, all toothed. 
The flowers succeeded by a burlike densely bristly seed- 
receptacle. 18-24 inches high. On the borders of woods 
and shaded roads. Common in the north, but south 
only to Ga. 



192 




repens. 



ROSE FAMILY. Rosacex. 



A bristly hairy-stemmed plant common 
Rough Avens . f 

Q eum m low grounds and on the borders of low 

V.irginianum damp woods, with flowers and leaves simi- 
Cream white lar to those of the preceding species. The 
May-July stem very stout. The flower has incon- 
spicuous cream white petals which roll backward. 
Common over the same territory. 

A slightly hairy species with compound 
Geumstrictum lower leaves the leaflets wedge-shaped 

Golden yellow .,, , ' 

July-August W1 th round tips, the upper leaves with 

3-5 leaflets irregular, oblong, and acute. 
Flowers golden yellow. Fruit-receptacle downy. Moist 
meadows Me., south to N. J., west to Kan., Neb., and 
S. Dak. 

An aquatic or marsh species, with lyre- 
Purple Avens ,*. . 
Geumrivale shaped root-leaves, and irregular corn- 
Brownish pound upper leaves ; the stem-leaves few, 
purple and three-lobed. The nodding flowers 
July-August brownish or rusty purple, with obovate 
petals terminating with a claw. 2 feet high. Bogs and 
wet meadows, Me., south to N. J., west to Minn, 
and Mo. 

An exceedingly pretty and graceful but 
Long-plumed 

Avens rare avens > wl *h a decorative, deeply cut 

Geum triflorum leaf, and a ruddy flower-stalk generally 

Dull crimson- bearing three ruddy flowers with scarcely 

opened acute, erect calyx-lobes. The 

fruit is daintily plumed with gray feathery 

hairs, about an inch long. 6-12 inches high. Dry or 

rocky soil. Me., west to Minn., south to Mo. 

This is a dwarf species with smooth 
Geum Peckii stem and showy pure yellow flowers quite 
Yellow an i ncn broad, which is found on Mt. 

So' tern her Washington, and other high peaks in the 
north. The ornamental roundish leaves 
are nearly smooth except the veins. Also on the high 
mountains of N. Car. 



194 




Avens. 

Geum triflopum.' Geum Peckii. 



ROSE FAMILY. Rosacex. 



WildVir inia commonest wil( ^ strawberry, at 

Strawbenry * home in the rough dry pasture lands of 

Fragaria the north and south. Rather broad, 

Virginiana coarsely toothed leaflets, blunt- tipped, and 

White hairy. The flower-stalk not longer than 

April-June , , . , ; 

the leaves, and with spreading hairs. The 

flower has many orange-yellow stamens offset by the 
five round white petals. The scarlet fruit is ovoid, and 
the tiny seeds are imbedded in pits over the surface. 
3-6 inches high. Common throughout our range ; gen- 
erally in fields. The name from the Latin fraga, 
fragrant. 

A slender species with thin leaflets which 
American are more ova te and less wedge-shaped 

Strawberry than those of the other species, and have 
Fragaria vesca silk-silvery hairs on the under side. The 
var. A mericana scarlet fruit is more conical, and the seeds 
are borne, not in pits, but upon the shining, 
smooth surface. The sepals are reflexed or 
turned backward from the fruit. This species is remark- 
able for its very long, delicate runners. 3-6 inches high. 
In rocky woodlands and pastures. From N. Eng. , N. J., 
and Pa. , west. 

Until recently both these very distinct species were in- 
cluded under one title; but the types are easily distin- 
guished apart, even by the leaves, and the fruit is 
certainly conspicuously different. Fragaria virginiana 
var. illinoensis is a western form found from western 
N. Y. to Minn., and southwest. It is larger than the 
typical F. virginiana, and the fine woolly hairs on the 
flower stems are mostly wide-spreading ; those on F. 
virginiana are somewhat loosely set against the stem. 
The typical F. vesca is a stocky plant with strongly 
veined, deeply toothed light green leaflets. The fine 
hairs on the flower-stems are close-lying, those of the 
leaf stems are mostly wide-spreading. The fruit is 
broadly conic or nearly globular. In old fields or dry 
open woods, mostly from N. E. to Pa. 



196 




American 

Wild Virginia Strawberry. Wood Strawberry, 
rid virginiana. Fragaria vesca var americdnd. 



ROSE FAMILY. Rosacex. 



A weedy plant differing from the com- 

Norway mon cinquef oil by an extremely hairy stem 

Cinquefoil 

Potentilla mons- and leaf ? the latter 1S Composed also of 

peliensis var. three leaflets instead of five, and it slightly 
norvegica suggests the strawberry leaf. The five 

not very conspicuous petals are somewhat 
September isolated in the green setting of the flower, 

which is very leafy in character. There 
are 15-20 stamens. 12-30 inches high. In dry or waste 
ground from Me., south to S. Car., and west. The name 
is from potent for the plant's reputed medicinal powers. 

A similar stout plant, with a character. 
Rough-fruited . ,. 

Cinquefoil istically rough, horned seed-vessel. The 

Potentilla recta five rather narrow leaflets are deep green, 
Yellow very hairy beneath, and slightly so above. 

The flowers are pure yellow, and inch 
September , , . 4 

broad ; the petals are much larger than the 

lobes of the calyx (flower-envelop), which is the reverse 
of the case with the Norway cinquef oil. Erect, 1-2 feet 
high. Adventive from Europe, and in the vicinity of 
old gardens and waste grounds. Me., south to Va., and 
west to Mich. Found at Exeter, Penobscot Co., Me. 

A small species remarkable for its sil- 
very character. The leaflets are dark 
Cinquefoil 
Potentilla green above and silver white beneath. 

argentea The stem is also covered with the silky 

Yellow white wool, beneath which appears the 

pale terra-cotta tint of its surface. The 
September 

five wedge-shaped, narrow leaflets are 

rolled back at the edge, and quite deeply cut. The pure 
yellow flowers are rather small, and loosely clustered at 
the ends of the branches. 5-12 inches long. In dry and 
sterile fields, or sandy soil, Me., south to N. J., and west 
to the Daks. 



198 







SP^- Potentilla recta. 




P.arcjentea, 



Norway Cinque/oil. lilPotentillamonspeliensisvarnorvegicd. 



ROSE FAMILY. Rosaceae. 



Potentilla 
Robbinsiana 
Yellow 
June-August 



A dwarf Alpine species found o* A oib 
summits of the White Mountains, rather 
soft-hairy when young, but smooth later, 
and with three coarsely toothed leaflets, 
deep green and somewhat broad. The 
small yellow flowers are slender-stemmed and generaUy 
solitary. 1-3 inches high. Found about the Lake of 
the Clouds and elsewhere on Mt. Washington. Poten- 
tilla tridentata, also found on Mt. Wash- 
ington and Mt. Wachusett, is less dwarfed, 
but low-growing. The three leaflets are 
coarsely three-toothed at the tip, smooth 
and thick. The flowers are white. 1-10 
Coast of Mass., northward, and shores of 
the upper Great Lakes. 

This is the only purple-flowered five- 
finger and it is therefore readily distin- 
guished from the others. The reddish 
stem is stout, mostly smooth, and a trifle 
woody at the base. The leaves have from 
5-7 leaflets which are blunt-tipped, and 
sharp-toothed. The rather pretty flowers 
are magenta-purple within and pale or 
greenish without, through the influence of the some- 
what longer green sepals ; the blossom is nearly one inch 
broad, and its petals are pointed. 6-20 inches long. In 
swamps and cold bogs, from Me., south to N. J., and 
west to Cal. 

This is indeed a shrubby species with 
nearly erect stems, tan brown in color, 
and quite leafy ; the bark is inclined to 
peel off in shreds. The leaves are entirely 
different from those of the other species ; 
they are toothless, olive yellow-green, with 
5-7 lance-shaped leaflets whose edges 
curve backward. They are silky hairy. The deep yel- 
low flowers, with rounded petals are generally an inch 
broad. 1-2 feet high. It is a troublesome weed in N. 
Y., western Vt., Mass., and parts of the west. Swamps 
and wet places, Me., south to N. J., and west. 



Potentilla 
Iridentata 
White 
June-August 

inches high. 



Marsh Five= 
finger or Pur- 
ple Cinquefoil 

Potentilla 

palustris. 

Magenta=> 

purple. 

June-August 



Shrubby 
Cinquefoil 

Potentilla 
fruticosa 
Yellow 
June- 
September 




Potent! lla I tri dentate 



Purple Cinquefoil. Potentillapalustris. 



ROSE FAMILY. Rosaces 



The silverweed is decoratively beautiful, 

Potentilla an( ^ * s remar ^able for its very silky hairs 

Anserina which cover the under side of the leaves ; 

Yellow the latter are tansylike with about 7-23 

sharp-toothed leaflets. The yellow flowers 

are solitary. Stem 1-3 feet long. In salt 

marshes and on wet meadows, from Me., south to N. J., 

and west to Neb. Common on the beaches of Lake 

Champlain. 

The commonest of all the five-fingers, 
^ en wrongly called wild strawberry, 
Potentilla with pure yellow flowers about -| inch 

canadensis broad. It decorates meadow and pasture, 
var. simplex fertile and sterile grounds, and weaves its 
April-August , . , ^, 

embroidery over the stony and barren 

roadside. Its five deep green, shiny, long-stalked leaf- 
lets are sharply toothed, firm, and smooth, altogether 
harder in character than the three strawberry leaflets. 
The whole plant is generally smooth, but sometimes 
thinly hairy. Flowers solitary, fertilized mostly by the 
flies of the genus Syrphidce. Runners 6-20 inches long. 
Common everywhere in the north. From southern 
Me., N. H., Vt., and N. Y., west to Minn. The common 
similar form (or species) is Potentilla Canadensis, which 
is fine- woolly over the stems, and does not creep over 
the ground so characteristically as the var. simplex. 
Agrimony ^ most common weed with a glandular- 

Agrimonia hairy simple stem, and compound leaves 

Gryposepala with a hairy stalk ; spicy-odored when 
Yellow crushed. The usually seven bright green, 

June-August many . ribbed ovate i ea fl e ts coarsely 
toothed ; the interposed tiny leaflets are ovate and 
toothed ; there are generally three pairs occupying the 
spaces between the larger lateral leaflets. The slender 
spikes of five-petaled yellow flowers with orange anthers 
are not showy. The seeds are sticky and adhere to one's 
clothing. 2-4 feet or more high*. Common on the borders 
of woods and in thickets. Me., south to N. Car., and 
west. Found on the roadside near the Profile House, 
Franconia Notch, N. H. 

202 






T 



Agrimone. 
Ajjrimonia gryposepala. 




Cinque/oil. 
Potentilld canadensis van simplex. 



ROSE FAMILY. Rosaceas. 



A comparatively thornless wild rose, 
Smooth Rose w ith usually 5-7 blunt or round-tipped 
Pink 6J leaflets rather short-stalked, and pale be- 

June-July neath ; simply toothed. Rarely there are 

a few straight slender prickles upon the 
smooth stem which is usually covered with a slight 
bloom. The pale crimson-pink flowers are nearly 3 in- 
ches broad and are solitary or in small clusters. The 
fruit is either globular or pear-shaped with persisting 
sepals. 2-4 feet high. On rocky, moist ground, New- 
foundland to Vt. and northern N. J., and west to 111., 
S. Dak., and the region of the Great Lakes. Sepals 
hairy and toothless. 

Swamp Rose A verv busnv species, extremely decora- 
Rosa Carolina tive in character, armed rather sparingly 
Pink with stout hooked spines. The 5-9 olive 

June-August green i ea fl ets sharp-toothed, long-stalked, 
and the stalk bordered with very narrow somewhat 
toothed stipules (leafy formations) ; the leaflets either 
blunt or sharp-tipped. The small clusters of flowers 
succeeded by showy, globular, red fruit which some- 
times sheds its withered sepals. The pale crimson-pink 
flowers 2-3 inches broad. Largely fertilized by bees. 
2-7 feet high. Common in swamps and low ground 
everywhere. Found at Sankaty Head, Nantucket. 
D f WId "^ * ow s P ec * es w ith generally lustrous 

green leaves of from 3-7 oval leaflets 



Rosa virginiana coarsely and simply toothed ; the stipules 
pink (compare with species above) are narrow 

June-July an( j fl ar i n g. ^ marked characteristic of 
this rose is the glandular-hairy globose fruit, stem, and 
lobed sepals ; before maturity this condition is quite 
marked. The spines are wide at the base and rather 
decidedly or else slightly curved ; the stems are mostly a 
ruddy madder brown. Flowers a pale or deeper crim- 
son-pink, in small clusters, generally very few together. 
The commoner rose of N. J. and Pa. 1-5 feet high. 
In moist situations. Me., south to Ga., and west to 
Wis. Outer sepals with 1-2 small lobes. 

204 




Wild Swamp Rose, Rosa Carol i na. 




Smooth Rose. 




Spines of Rosalucida. 

Rosa blanda. 



ROSE FAMILY. Rosacese. 



A low slender-stemmed species with 

Rosa humilis 



Pasture Rose straight> slight t } 1O rns, and narrow, 



spreading stipules. Flowers often solitary. 
1-3 feet high. Under the name Rosa humilis lucida 
(Rosa lucida of Gray's Manual, sixth ed.), the rose of 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and the west is described by 
Britton and Brown as having thick shining leaves with 
broad stipules, and numerous flowers. Under Rosa 
humilis, the description embraces a narrow, toothless 
stipule, usually five leaflets, thin and somewhat shining, 
few or solitary flowers, a glandular-hairy calyx and 
stem, and sepals commonly lobed. Me. to Minn, and 
south. 

Northeastern Tllis is a wild rose f the n r theast, 

R^SC limited to that section lying between Mas- 

Eosa nitida sachusetts and Newfoundland. It is char- 
Pink acterized by a stem thickly crowded with 

bristly prickles, and spines scarcely stouter. 
The 5-9 leaflets are ovate pointed, shining green, and 
sharply toothed ; the stipules are broad. Flowers pale 
pink, solitary, or very few in a cluster ; the fruit is globu- 
lar, and the sepals are not lobed. A low species rarely 
over 20 inches high. On the borders of swamps. 
Sweetbrier ^ ne WU( ^ rose or eglantine of the poets, 

Rosarubiginosa adventive from Europe. It is remarkable 
Pink for its sweet-scented foliage which is rem- 

June-July miscent of the fragrance of green apples, 
and for its long, arching stems, which are beautiful 
with compactly set clusters of pure pink bloom. The 
very small 5-7 leaflets are double-toothed, roundish, deep 
green above, and lighter colored beneath, where they 
are resinous, and aromatic when crushed ; the leaves are 
also characteristically glandular-hairy. The somewhat 
small flowers are pink, or pale creamy pink, and clus- 
tered along the main stem upon short stalks. The de- 
cidedly recurved spines and the stem are madder brown 
when old. 4-6 feet high. Common everywhere from 
Tenn. and Va., northward. Another foreign species, 
Rosa canina, but slightly separated from Rosa rubigi- 
nosa, has usually simply toothed leaves which are not 
so odorous. Common in the valley of the Delaware. 

206 




Sweet brier. 



Ros& pubiginosa. 



PULSE FAMILY. Leguminosas. 



PULSE FAMILY. Leguminosce. 

A very large family of food-producing plants, with 
Ibutterflylike flowers, and alternate, usually compound 
leaves, generally without teeth. The flowers are perfect 
.and are borne singly or in spikes ; they are fertilized 
largely by bees and butterflies. 

A smooth and slender plant with deep 
Wild Indigo 
^aptisia gray-green, triple leaves of wedge-shaped 

tinctoria leaflets covered with a slight bloom ; they 

Yellow are almost stemless. The small pealike 

June-August blossoms are pure yellow, and terminate 
the many branches of the upright stem. The flowers 
.are visited by the butterflies and the Syrphid flies, but 
the honeybee, the leaf-cutter bee Megachile, and the 
bees of the genus Halictus are probably the most effi- 
cient agents of cross-fertilization. The plant grows 
with a bushy luxuriance in favorable situations, and has 
-a most remarkable habit of turning black upon wither- 
ing. 18-28 inches high. In dry sandy soil everywhere. 
Not in central N. H. , but common at Nan tucket. Found 
at Pownal, Vt. 

A beautiful, tall, western species, with 
Blue False 

Indigo P a ^ e g reen smooth stem, light green 

Baptisia wedge-shaped, short-stalked triple leaves, 

australis and loose flower-clusters, sometimes 10 

Light violet inches long, of light, dull violet blossoms 
quite 1 inch long, of a soft, aesthetic hue. 
The peapodlike fruit is tipped with a spur. Plant 3-6 
feet high. On rich alluvial soil, western Pa., south to 
Ga., and west to Mo. Quite handsome in cultivation. 

The rattlebox, so named because the 
Crotalaria seeds rattle about in the boxlike, inflated, 
.sagittalis sepia-black pods, has oval pointed leaves, 

Yellow toothless, and nearly stemless, growing 

June-August a i ternate i y along the bending stem. The 
yellow flowers are scarcely J inch long. The stems and 
-edges of the leaves are soft-hairy. 4-12 inches high. 
In dry sandy soil everywhere, but not very common. 



208 




1 

Blue 

False Indigo. 
Baptisia austral is. 



PULSE FAMILY. Leguminosae. 



Blue Lu ine T ^ S * S ne f Our most charming so- 

Lupinus called blue wild flowers ; but it rings all 

perennis the changes on violet and purple, and 

Violet scarcely touches blue. The pealike blos- 

May^June gom j iag v j o i e ^ or d ee p purple wings and 
a light violet hood veined with blue- violet. Rarely the 
sweet-scented flowers are magenta-pink or even white. 
The horse-chestnutlike leaf has generally eight narrow, 
light green leaflets. Stem and long-stalked leaves are 
generally tine-hairy, and frequently show a few touches 
of purple-red through the green. The flower-spike is 
quite showy, and pinkish early in the bud. Fertilized 
by bees. 1-2 feet high. In sandy fields everywhere. 

A naturalized species of clover, origi- 
Rabbit=foot or 

Stone Clover na lly from Europe, remarkable for its 
Trifoiium oblong fuzzy flower-heads, the corolla of 

arvense which is green-white and the calyx green 

Gray=pink with pink tips, all in effect rather gray- 
Se^ember P m k. The light green triple leaves have 
narrow, long leaflets with blunt tips. The 
flowers are sweet-scented. 4-10 inches high. Common 
in poor soil, old fields, and pastures, everywhere. 

This is our commonest field clover and a 
Red Clover .. . " . . , . 

Trifoiium special favorite of the bumblebee upon 

pratense whom it is almost wholly dependent for 

Crimson or fertilization. The plant was introduced 

into Australia some years ago and failed 
May-Septem= 
k r to produce seed the first year through its 

separation from the American bumblebee. 
Later when the insect was transported the plants flour- 
ished from season to season. The three (rarely 4-5) 
rather soft, dull bluish green leaflets are conspicuously 
marked by a whitish or yellow-green triangle. There 
are two hairy white and green stipules or leafy wings at 
the base of the leaf-stalk. Stem and leaves are soft- 
hairy. The somewhat pyramidal globular flower-head 
ranges through crimson or magenta to paler tints of the 
same colors, and even white ; it yields a plentiful supply 
of nectar, which is scarcely reached by the short tongues 
of honeybees ; also, the butterflies are not sufficiently 
heavy to depress the keel of the floiet and thus expose 

210 




191 



Rabbit-foot Clover. Tnifolium anvense. 



PULSE FAMILY. Leguminosas. 



the anthers. The burly bumblebee is therefore the best 
pollen disseminator of this particular clover. 8-24 inches 
high. Common in fields and on roadsides, everywhere. 

This is also one of our most common 
White Clover . 

Trifolium clovers, and a permanent resident of the 

repens grassy roadside. It is generally smooth, 

Cream white with roundish or heart-shaped leaflets 
May-October mar k e( j i ess distinctly with a triangle, 
and frequently 4-5 leaflets are found on a single 
stalk. The globular flower-heads are a translucent 
cream white, and the florets are sometimes more or less 
tinted with flesh pink. Eventually the florets are re- 
flexed. Fertilized by bees, and rich in honey. It is sup- 
posed to be identical with the Shamrock of Ireland, but 
it is native in the extreme north. 4-10 inches long. 
Creeping by runners. Common everywhere. 

A species somewhat similar to our white 
Alsike or Alsa= .,11 i 

tian Clover clover, but with a branching, stout, and 

Trifolium rather juicy stem. The leaflets are gen- 

hybridum erally obovate but not reverse heart- 

Creamy rose shape( i . ^ e<> witn the i o b e d tip; the edges 

May-October are fi ne ly toothed, and the surface is not 
marked with the triangle ; a pair of flar- 
ing stipules or leafy wings are at the base of the leaf- 
stalk. Flower-heads similar to those of white clover but 
varying from pinkish cream to crimson-pink ; the 
withered florets brownish and turning downward, ex- 
tremely sweet-scented, and rich in honey. Fertilized 
mostly by bees. 1-2 feet high. On roadsides, in mead- 
ows, and in waste places, from Me. to Idaho, and south 
to Ga. 

A small annual species, with a smooth 
Yellow or , ,. , , 

Hop Clover stem and light green, narrow and long 

Trifolium leaflets, scarcely suggesting the clover- 

agrarium leaf. The stem is branched and stands 

Pale golden nearly upright, or reclines ; the leaflets 
June-^Septem- are verv fi ne ty but rather imperceptibly 
b er toothed. The small, dull golden yellow 

florets bloom from the base of the flower- 
head upward, and the withered florets, turning down- 
ward and becoming Drownish, resemble dried hops. 

212 




Mop Clover. Alsike Cloven 

Trifolium agr&rium. Tnfolium hybridum. 



PULSE FAMILY. Legummosse. 



6-15 inches high. Common on roadsides and in sandy 
fields. Me., south to Va., and west to Iowa. 

Similar in many respects to the forego- 
Clover OP ing ' but lower > more spreading, and the 

Trifolium stems and leaves fine-hairy. The leaflets 

procumbens are shorter and blunt- tipped, the middle 
Pale golden O ne slightly stemmed and the lateral ones 
Junelfe tern stemless - Tne stipules (leafy formations 
ber at the base of the leaf -stalks) are broader 

than those of the preceding species ; they 
are pointed ovate. The tiny standard of the floret is 
wide-spread, and not curled up at the edges as in T. 
agrarium. 3-6 inches high. Occasional or common 
everywhere, especially on roadsides. 

This is sometimes called yellow sweet 
Yellow Melilot 

Melilotus offi- c l ver > but its resemblance to clover is in 
cinalis its character rather than its aspect. It is 

Light golden a foreign flower which has established 

yellow itself in all waste places especially in our 

June-August _,. ,. i j. 

seaport towns. The three leaflets are long, 

blunt- tipped, and toothed. The light golden yellow 
flowers are strung along in a delicate spike. The stem is 
smooth and 2-4 feet high . Melilotus alba is a similar, tall- 
er, white-flowered species. Both common everywhere. 
Alfalfa or ^ P erenn ial much cultivated for fodder 

Lucerne in the west and south ; naturalized from 

Medicago sativa Europe. Found in dry fields and sandy 
Purple wastes in the East. The three leaflets are 

long and narrow, toothed toward the tip 
which is obtuse, and furnished with a tiny sharp bristle; 
each leaflet has a distinct stalk, and that of the middle 
leaflet is bent upward. The purple florets in short clusters. 
12-25 inches high. Me., south to Va., and west. 

A generally smooth, tall beautiful peren- 
Astragalus nial witn a branching stem , and compound 
Canadensis leaves of 13-25 or more bluish green, ellip- 
Oreenish tical leaflets set oppositely upon the 

cream yellow s i en d er leaf-stem, in general appearance 
July-August like thoge of the locugt tre6i The cream 



214 




Alfalfa. 
Medicago sativa.. 



Yellow Mel i lot. 
Melilotus officinalia, 



PULSE FAMILY. Leguminosse. 



yellow slender blossoms are green-tinged especially at the 
base, and are thickly set in a dense spike springing from 
the junction of the leaf-stalk with the plant stem. They 
are cross-fertilized mostly by the long-tongued bees ; 
the bumblebees, Bombus separatus, B. americanorum, 
and B. pennsylvanicus are frequent visitors, as are the 
butterflies, Colias philodice, the clouded sulphur, and 
Papilio asterias, the black swallowtail. The flowers 
are succeeded by short, broad, leathery, straight, and 
pointed pods. 1-4 feet high. Along streams and river- 
banks, from western New York, and on the shores and 
islands of Lake Champlain, N. Y. and Vt., south to Ga. 
and La. , and west to Col. 

An annual (adventive from Europe), 
Nonesuch or v . ,n i 

Black Medick wlt h a somewhat twisted stem partly lying 
Medicago on the ground, slightly downy or rough ; 

lupulina the three leaflets obovate or wedge-shaped 

;llow with a bristle tip. The yellow flowers in 

September small, short spikes. About 6 inches high. 

Pods almost black, kidney-formed, con- 
taining but one seed. Common in waste places every- 
where. 

Tick Trefoil ^ common weed which flourishes in 

Desmodium dry woods. The generally leafless flower- 
nudiflorum stem rises from the root, and bears a 
Pale magenta sca ttered cluster of very small magenta- 
Ju/^Au ust P m k or ^ ac flowers, the broad upper 

petals of which are notched at the apex 
and turned backward, the lower narrow ones are lilac 
and white ; the stamens are prominent. The flower is 
fertilized by honeybees and many other smaller bees, 
especially those of the genus Halictus. The stout, 
shorter leaf -stalk is terminated by the leaf -clusters, of 
three ovate, toothless leaflets. The hairy two-jointed 
pods or seed-vessels stick to one's clothing or are dis- 
tributed by some similar means of transportation. 18- 
25 inches high. In woodlands from Me., south, and 
west to Minn. 



216 




Tick Trefoil. 
Desmodium nudiflorum 



N? * J 



PULSE FAMILY. Leguminosae. 



This species has similar flowers, but 
Desmodium they are considerably larger and borne 

grandiflorum Qn glender gtalk which riseg from th 
Pale magenta 

June- plant-stem at the point where the leaf- 

September stalks spring outward. The broad, 
pointed leaflets are much larger and a 
trifle hairy. The strange seed-pod like that of the fore- 
going species is 2-3 jointed. The name is from detfjuoS 
a chain, alluding to the connecting joints of the pod. 
By means of these joints the pods attach to the furry 
coats of animals. 1-4 feet high. The same distribution. 

Desmodium The stem of this silkv liail T tick trefoil 

rotundifolium bends or lies near the ground. The leaflets 
Purple- are quite round, comparatively speaking, 

** nta soft-hairy, and not pointed. The flowers 

September are ^S^t purple-magenta, and the pod 
3-5 jointed, constricted nearly equally at 
both edges. 2-5 feet long. About the same distribution. 
Desmodium Tnis s P ec i es ^ as oblong lance-shaped 

Dilienii leaflets, or quite ovate ones, nearly if not 

Pale magenta quite smooth above, an erect and nearly 
Jul smooth stem, and branching flower-stalks 

bearing very small pale magenta flowers. 
Pod 2-4 jointed, the sections nearly triangular. 2-3 feet 
high. Not farther south than Va. and Ky., west to Neb. 
Desmodium -^ st ^ narrower-leaved species, the deep 

paniculatum green leaflets scarcely 2 inches long, and 
Pale magenta linear lance-shaped, resembling willow 
JUly ~ h leaves. The flower-spikes are rather hori- 

zontally branched ; Pale magenta flowers 
very small. Pod 4-6 jointed. The slender stem 2-3 feet 
high. Common. 

The most showy species of the genus, 

Tref ^t| an TfCk with crowded flower-clusters terminating 

Desmodium a tall > stout, and hairy stem. The leaves 

Canadense are nearly without stalks, or with short 

Dull magenta- ones, and the three leaflets (longer-stalked) 

are oblong lance-shaped. The flowers 

September (larger than those of the other species) are 

nearly inch long, and vary in color from 

magenta to magenta-pink. Pods 3-5 jointed and quite 

218 




Canadian Tick Trefoil. Desmodium Canadense. 



PULSE FAMILY. Leguminosse. 



hairy. 2-6 feet high. Common on the borders of 

copses and on river banks, from Me., south to S. Car., 

and west to Mo. and Neb. 

Trailing Bush An interesting little plant with a trailing 

Clover habit, its perpendicular branches rising 

Lespedeza from a stout horizontal stem. The little 

procumbent leaves &re cloverlike< The whole planfc 

Purple=magen= . 

ta or magenta- woolly hairy. The tiny pealike blossoms 

pink magenta-pink or a light purple-magenta. 

August- 12-25 inches long. Common in dry soil 

September everywhere. 

Lespedeza -^- n upright and tall species with small 

violacea elliptical leaflets distinctly stalked. Stem 

Purple sparingly hairy and much branched. The 

August- small flowers purple or violet-purple. 1-3 

September ,. . _T. . 

feet high. Common in dry soil, and on 

the borders of copses everywhere. 

Lespedeza An erect species with smooth, dark 

virginica green, cloverlike leaves, crowding a 

Purple rather straight, generally smooth stem, 

which is terminated by the small, crowded, purple 
flower-cluster ; smaller clusters also spring from the 
junction of stem with leaf-stalk. The Lespedezas, 
especially this one, are apt to exhibit two kinds of 
flowers ; those with showy petals, which are sterile, and 
those petalless and minute, which are abundantly fer- 
tile. According to Prof. Robertson, the chief visitors of 
this flower are the bumblebee Bombus americanorum, 
the leaf-cutting bee (Megachtte), and the ground bee 
(Halictus ; notably H. ligatus). Among the butterflies, 
Colias philodice and Pamphila cernes are occasional 
visitors. 1-3 feet high. Mass, and Mich. , south. 
Lespedeza This species has yellow-white flowers 

hirta purple-spotted , which grow in small dense, 

Yellow=white, bristly, oblong spikes. The stem is silky 
spotted hairy, and the round-ovate leaflets are 

slightly separated by the conspicuous stalk of the middle 
one. 2-4 feet high. Common everywhere on dry 
hillsides. 



220 




Leaves with a bristly extension of the midri 



Bush Clover. 



Lespedeza violacea: 



PULSE FAMILY. Leguminosas. 



Lespedeza The flowers of this species are clustered 

capitata in small round heads terminating a stiff, 

White straight stalk, which is silky hairy. The 

leaves have three oblong leaflets, and are 
nearly stemless. The flowers are similar to the fore- 
going species, or they are white, magenta streaked. 
Visited by the leaf -cutter bee (Megachile brevis) among 
many others. 2-4 feet high. Same situations everywhere. 
Common Vetch A climbing annual adventive from Eu- 
Vida sativa rope where it is cultivated for fodder ; one 
Purple of t} ie genus is also extensively cultivated 

May-August - n Italv> notably about Nap i es , and in the 

vicinity of Pompeii. The flowers, which are purple or 
even magenta-pink, grow in pairs or singly at the junc- 
tion of stem with leaf-stalk. The 8-10 leaflets are obtuse 
oblong, notched at the tip, and the stalk terminates in 
two twining tendrils. The pod resembles that of the 
pea, but it is long and slender. Stem 1-3 feet long. N. 
Eng., south, and west to Minn, and S. Dak. 
Cow Vetch A perennial, and graceful plant climbing 

Vida Cracca by tendrils, and characterized by a fine, 
Light violet downy hairiness. The compound leaf has 
June-August twenty or more lance-shaped leaflets ter- 
minated abruptly by a bristlelike point. The small 
bean-blossomlike flower is light violet, the upper petal is 
lined with a deeper violet ; the cluster is sometimes quite 
four inches long, and is one-sided ; it grows from be- 
tween the leaf -stalk and the plant-stem. The color of 
the foliage is rather gray olive green. Fruit like a small 
pea-pod. Stem 2-3 feet long. Dry soil, on the borders 
of thickets, and cultivated fields. Me. and N. J., west 
to Iowa and Minn. 

Easily distinguished from the foregoing 

by its generally smooth character and its 
Light violet obtuse elliptical leaflets which are less in 

number (8-14) and distinctly veined. The 
light violet flowers are larger, and only 3-9 form the 
rather loose cluster. 2-3 feet long. In moist soil. Me., 
south to Va. and Ky., and west to Nev. The Vicias 
are in general cross-fertilized w T ith the assistance of the 

222 



Vicia 




CowVetch. 



Vicia Craocau 



PULSE FAMILY. Legutnmosss. 



family Hymenoptera, the bees ; the honeybee is one of 
the commonest visitors. 

A seaside plant, but one common also on 
Beach Pea ^ 

Lathyrus ^ e snores f the Great Lakes ; its con- 

maritimus struction and habit similar to those of 
Ruddy purple Vicia. There are 6-12 oval leaflets, bris- 
May-August tie-tipped, and a ruddy purple flower-clus- 
ter of 5-12 bean-blossom-shaped florets ; the cluster is 
somewhat long-hemispherical in outline. At the base 
of the compound leaves are a pair of conspicuous arrow- 
head-shaped stipules, or leaflets. The pod is veiny and 
about 2 inches long. The stout stem is angled and 1-2 
feet high. Sandy soil Me., south to N. J., and west to 
Oregon. 

This is a slender marsh-loving plant with 
a , y * us an angled and winged stem, narrow lance- 

shaped stipules (leafy formations at the 
base of the compound leaves), and with 2-4 pairs of 
lance-shaped leaflets. The loose and ruddy purple spare 
flower-cluster (of 2-6 flowers about J inch long) is as long 
as the compound leaf. The narrow, veiny pod is about 
2 inches long. Stem 1-3 feet long. In wet situations, 
from Me., Mass., N. J., and N. Y., west to the Pacific 
coast. 

A climbing vine reaching a height of 

about f our or five f eet The r ot is tuber ' 
Maroonand ous and edible. The compound leaf is 
pale brown- composed of 3-7 toothless, ovate pointed 

leaflets, smooth and Jight green. The ses- 
September thetic flower-cluster is maroon and pale 

brown-lilac in color with a texture of 
velvet ; the bean-blossomlike florets are cloyingly sweet, 
and suggest English violets with a slight and strange 
horse-chestnut odor. They are fertilized mostly by the 
various bees, including the honeybee. The name is 
from aitiov, a pear, alluding to the pear-shape of the 
tubers. The plant is exceedingly beautiful and worthy 
of cultivation. On low, damp ground, from Me. , south, 
and west to S. Dak. , Neb. , and Kan. Found in Campton, 
N. H. 

224 




Ground Nut. 



Apios tuberose. 



PULSE FAMILY. Leguminosae. 



Another perennial cli mber , distinguished 
Phaseoius ky its leaf of three leaflets pointed at the 

t>olystachyus tip and rounded at the base. The plant is 
Red=purple very fine-hairy and considerably branched. 
July-Septem- The fl ower -cluster is thin and about 4- 
8 inches long ; the red-purple blossoms 
are scarcely over % inch long. The pods are stalked, 
drooping, and a trifle curved. Stem 5-12 feet long. In 
thickets Me. , south, and west to Minn, and Neb. 

A similar, but annual species, with a 

Strophostyles , . . . . 

helvola low-twining stem about 6-8 feet long, the 

Greenish white leaflets sometimes bluntly lobed and some- 
or purple times entire. The 3-10 greenish white or 

July-Septem- rec l-purple flowers about \ an inch long, 

in a loose cluster. The slender linear 
pod is fine-hairy and about 3 inches long or less. 
Stem branching at the base and about 4-8 feet long. 
Sandy river-banks, and meadow borders, Mass., south, 
and west along the Great Lakes to Minn., and south- 
west to Kan. 

A dainty vine with delicate light green 
Peanut leaves formed of three smooth, angularly 

Amphicarpcea ovate-pointed leaflets, and bearing two 
monoica kinds of fruit. The perfect lilac or ma- 

Magenta=lilac g en ta-lilac narrow blossoms are in small 
tember drooping clusters ; these are succeeded by 

many small pods about an inch long hold- 
ing generally three mottled beans. The other fruitful 
blossom is at the base or root of the plant in rudimen- 
tary form with but few free stamens ; it is succeeded by 
a pear-shaped pod containing one large seed hence the 
name wild peanut. The name of the plant means both 
and fruit, in reference to the two kinds of fruit. The 
pod of the upper blossom is curved and broad at the tip, 
it matures about the middle of September. The slender 
stem twines about the roadside shrubbery, and is from 3- 
7 feet long. Common everywhere in moist ground from 
Me., to S. Dak., Neb., and La. Found in Campton, 
N.H. 



226 




m 




Wild Bean/ 
Phaseolus pojystachyus. 

Hog Peanut. 
^Arnjphicarpaea monoica. 



PULSE FAMILY. Legumiaosas 



Wild Senna ^ showy and decorative plant with 

Cassia compound leaves of 12-18 broad lance- 

Marilandica shaped leaflets of a rather yellow-green 
Golden yel- tone. They are smooth and somewhat 
t W ed r Wn " sensitive to the touch. The flower-clus- 
July^August ters are loosel y constructed. The light 

golden yellow flowers of five slightly un- 
equal petals are accented in color by the prominent 
chocolate brown of the anthers ; the stamens are very 
unequal in length. 3-8 feet high. In swamps and al- 
luvial soil from Me., south, and west to Minn., Neb. 
Kan., and La. 

Partridge Pea An erect annual species with large 
Cassia showy yellow flowers, 1 inches across, in 

ChamcBcrista groups of 2-4 at the bases of the sensitive 

leaves ; often the five petals are purple- 
ber ' spotted at the base. The 20-30 leaflets, 

less than an inch long, are blunt lance- 
shaped and pointed with a tiny bristle. The slender 
pod about 2 inches long is slightly hairy. 1-2 feet high. 
In dry or sandy fields, everywhere. Mass, to Minn, and 
south. The var. robusta, taller, stouter, and hairy. 111., 
Ky., and southwest. 

A similar species, but tall, and with very 
Wild Sensitive , . r 

plant small and inconspicuous yellow flowers. 

Cassia The 12-40 tiny leaflets scarcely f inch 

nictitans long. The flowers in groups of 2-3 at 

the bases of the leaves, 6-12 feet high. Me., south to 
Ga., and west to 111., Kan., and Tex. Not in N. H., and 
if in Me. exceedingly rare, for only one record exists. 
Cassia depressa A species mostly lying on the ground, 
Yellow with a slender, weak stem and 4-10 pairs 

July-Septem=. of leaflets smaller than those of C. chmiice- 
ber crista, but the flowers larger and blooming 

later. Found only in the south from Fla. to Miss, and Mo. 
C assia Similar to C. marilandica but with 14-20 

Medsgeri leaflets. Pods 2-3 1 inches long, the seg- 

Yellow ments shorter than they are broad, the 

August seeds twice as long as they are thick. 

Stipules linear lance-shaped. Pa. to Kan., south to Ga 
and Tex. See Appendix. 

228 



Strophostyl 



r les 



Flower S^lea^f of 
Wild Senna.. 
Cassia 



r 

Partridge Pea. 
Cassia, Chamaecrista. 



GERANIUM FAMILY. Geraniaceas. 



GERANIUM FAMILY. Geraniacece. 

A small family of plants with sj^mmetrical and per- 
feet flowers of mostly five parts, viz. : five petals, five 
sepals (usually distinct), and five stamens or twice that 
number. Fruit a capsule. Cross-fertilized by bees, but- 
terflies, and the beelike flies. 

A delicate wild flower pale or deep ma- 
Wild Geranium 

or Cranesbill genta-pmk, or quite light purple ; some- 
Geranium times the ten anthers are a delicate peacock 
maculatum blue. The deeply cut, five-lobed leaf is 
Magenta=pink rou gh-hairy ; the stem and the unfolded 
flower-envelop (the bud) are also remarka- 
bly hairy. The blossoms are cross-fertilized mostly by the 
agency of honeybees, and the smaller bees of the genus 
Halictus particularly Halictus coriaceus, and the Syr- 
phid flies. The .flower is, perhaps, quite incapable of 
self-fertilization in the absence of insects, as the pollen 
is ripe and the anthers fall away before the stigma 
is receptive. The leaves with their brown or white 
spots are the occasion of the specific title, maculatum. 
1-2 feet high. In woodlands and wooded roadsides, 
from Me., south to Ga., and west. Found in Camp- 
ton, N. H. 

A rather handsome and decorative spe- 
Herb Robert . ., 

Geranium cies adventive from Europe, distinguished 

Robertianum for its generally ruddy stems and strong 
Magenta odor when bruised. The ornamental leaves 

with 3-5 divisions are deep green some- 
times modified w^ith the ruddy tinge of 
the plant. The flowers are deep or pale magenta, and 
are succeeded by long-beaked seed-vessels. 10-18 inches 
high. On the borders of rocky woods, from Me., south 
to N. J., and west to Mo. 

A somewhat similar species, but distin- 

BickneUii guished by its almost skeleton-lobed leaf 

and remarkable seed-vessel the persistent 

style of which splits upward from the base and bears the 

seed at the tip. The flowers are pale magenta, and are 




Herb Robert 
Geranium Roberti&num. 



Geranium Bicknellii, 



FALSE MERMAID FAMILY. Limnanthacese. 



generally borne in pairs. 8-16 inches high. Me. to 
southern N. Y., and northwest to western Ontario, 
Canada. 

Geranium Another similar species but one more 

Carolinianum commonly distributed through the South 
Pale magenta The leaves are deeply cut and narrowly 
May-August i o b e d, and the pale magenta flowers are 
borne in compact clusters. The beak to the seed-vessel 
is nearly an inch long, and is short-pointed in contradiS' 
tinction to that of the foregoing species, which is long- 
pointed. The curved sections of the beak are also 
shorter. The stem is fuzzy and 8-15 inches high. In 
poor soil from Me., south to Mex. , and west. This gera- 
nium as well as the others is more or less dependent 
upon the small bees (Halictits), and the Syrphid flies 
for cross-fertilization. The flower has ten perfect sta- 
mens, however, and the inner circle of their anthers is 
so near the stigma that self-pollinization may easily 
occur ; that is the expressed opinion of Professor 
Robertson. 

An uncommon species introduced from 

Geranium _. 

pratense Europe, confined to Canada, northeastern 

Purple Maine, and eastern Massachusetts. Leaves 

June-Septem= with mostly 7 deeply cut lobes ; the flower- 
stems and seed-vessel beak glandular-hairy. 
Flowers deep magenta-purple. 24 inches high. Open 
fields. See Appendix. 

FALSE MERMAID FAMILY. Limnanthacece. 

Plants with 3-6 parted flowers and compound (pinnate) 
leaves. 

False Mermaid ^ s ^ en( ^ er an( * weak-stemmed little plant, 
Floerkea pro- with small compound leaves of from 3-5 
serjnnacoides leaflets sometimes thrice cleft. The tiny 
White white flowers with three petals are borne 

April-June singly on long and slender stems proceed- 
ing from the base of the leaves. The flower is succeeded 
by 1-3 fleshy spherical seed receptacles which are set 
snugly within the remaining three sepals. 6-15 inches 
high. In swampy land, and on river-banks, from Me., 
southwest to Pa. , and westward. 
232 




Cranesbill. 
Geranium 
m&culatum. 



Geranium Carolinianum. 



SORREL FAMILY. Oxalidaceas. 



SORREL FAMILY. Oxalidacece. 

A small family of low herbs in our range, with trifoli- 
ate leaves and perfect, regular flowers of five parts ; the 
ten stamens united at the base. Fruit a five-celled cap- 
sule. Juice sour and watery. Cross-fertilized by the 
smaller bees and the beelike flies. 

One of the most dainty of all woodland 
Wood Sorrel , . , n ., 

Oxalis plants, common in cool, damp situations. 

Acetosella The leaf composed of three light green 
White pink= heart-shaped leaflets which droop and 
veined f ol( j together after nightfall. The frail 

flowers nearly an inch broad, with five 
notched petals, are borne singly on delicate long stems, 
and are either pinkish white, striped with crimson lines, 
the color deepening toward the centre of the>lossom, 
or white with crimson-pink lines. Fertilizer by the 
smaller bees (Halictus), and the Syrphid flies. Cleisto- 
gamic flowers (a kind fertilized in the bud without 
opening) are also borne on small curved stems at the 
base of the plant. A stemless perennial about 3-4 in- 
ches high, growing from a creeping scaly-toothed root. 
Common in thin, damp woods from Me. to the mountains 
of N. Car., arid west on the north shore of Lake Su- 
perior. Found at Profile Lake, Franconia Notch, N. H. 
A native of the old world, and a most interesting flower 
frequently introduced in the paintings of Fra Angelico 
and Sandro Botticelli. 

Violet Wood Another most dainty woodland species 
Sorrel common in the South, and cultivated as a 

Oxalis violacea house plant in the North. The leaves are 
Pale magenta s i m il ar to those of the preceding species. 

The flowers are variable, sometimes white, 
but generally light magenta (the rose purple of Dr. 
Gray) ; they are never violet. The long flower-stalks 
bear 3-6 or more blossoms, in contradistinction to O. 
Acetosella which bears but one flower on a stalk. It is 
frequented by the same class of insects which visit the 
last. 4-8 inches high. Rocky ground and thin woods, 
from Me., south, and west to the Rockies. Also among 
the Andes, Sonth America. 

234 




Wood Sorrel 

Ox alls AcetoselLx 



SORREL FAMILY. Oxalidacese. 



One of the commonest yellow son els of 

Sor!e7or ^ the n rth ' nOt a woodland P lant but f amil- 
Lady's Sorrel * ar ^7 eveI T roadside and in every field and 
Oxalis garden. The light green stem erect, rather 

comiculata smooth, or sparingly hairy (viewed under 
e *JT t the glass) ; the leaves of three heart-shaped 
ber " ' leaflets (smaller than those of the last spe- 

cies), long-stemmed and somewhat droop- 
ing ; without small leafy formations at the junction of 
leaf-stem and plant-stem. The rather deep lemon yellow 
flowers scarcely inch broad, with five long ovate petals 
and ten yellow stamens alternately long and short ; the 
heart of the blossom is green. There are 2-6 flowers 
on a somewhat horizontally spreading, branched stem, 
which are succeeded by hairy seed-pods -J- inch long set 
at scarcely a wide angle with their stalks. Visited by 
the smaller bees, and Syrphld flies, and also occa- 
sionally by the tiny butterflies (Hesperia). 3-12 inches 
high, with a weak stem but strong root. The O. cor- 
niculata, var. stricta, of the sixth ed. of Gray's Manual. 

A far less common species, an -annual or 
Yellow Wood . . . * ' 

Sorrel or perennial, sustaining itself by far-reaching 

Lady's Sorrel running roots. Generally less upright 
Oxalis stricta than the last. With leafy formations at the 
May-Septem- baseg of the i ea f-stalks. Pods elongated, 
and erect, often set at a sharp angle 
with their stalks. In other respects very similar to the 
foregoing species, but rare ; near Burlington, Vt. 

A tall species with a nearly smooth stem 
Oxalis grandis , , , , .,, , 

Yellow and branches, or these covered with soft 

May-August fine hairs. The leaflets large, often 1J 

inches broad, sometimes edged with dull 
magenta. The yellow flowers often f inch broad. 12-20 
inches high. Sandy woodlands and river margins, Pa. 
to 111. , and south. 

A very Blender species blooming in the 

same season, the stem sparingly hairy, and 
the stems of the yellow flowers threadlike, the clusters 
mostly two-flowered. 9-18 inches high. In sandy wood- 
lands, s. Me. to n. N. Y., Conn, south. O. repens is a 
prostrate, creeping form confined mostly to greenhouses. 
236 




Characteristically hairy 
in all its parts. 

Yellow Wood Sorrel. 
Oxdlis strict*. Oxalis corniculata. 



FLAX FAMILY. Linacese. 



FLAX FAMILY. Linacece. 

A small family mostly composed of not very tall herbs, 
slender and frail flowered, but remarkable for having 
furnished the world with linen from time immemorial. 
The perfect, symmetrical flowers (of the genus Linum) 
have five petals, sepals, styles, and stamens ; the petals 
before expansion are rolled-up. The fruit is usually in a 
capsule. Mostly fertilized by the smaller bees and bee- 
like flies. 

A smooth perennial, with small yellow 
Wild Yellow _ . ,. /',*. 

F j ax flowers terminating slender branches ; the 

Linum five tiny yellow petals scarcely give the 

Virginianum flower a width of -^ inch. The small 

Yellow leaves are lance-shaped, thin, and one- 

June-August -i T n rrn , i j l 

ribbed. The sepals are ovate and pointed. 

1-2 feet high. Dry woodlands, and shady places, 

throughout the north, and south to Ga. 

A somewhat similar species, but an an- 

sulcatum nual with a usually simple stem and alter- 

nate leaves ; the stem corrugated, at least 

above, the sharp, lance-shaped leaves three-ribbed, and 

the yellow flowers a full half-inch broad. 1-2 feet high. 

In dry soil from E. Mass., west to the Great Lakes, 

through the mountains south to Ga., and southwest to 

Tex. Rare along the seacoast. 

A rather delicate-appearing and pretty 
Common Flax .. rr 

Linum annual adventive from Europe or escaped 

usitatissimum from cultivation ; it has been under culti- 
Light blue= vation since prehistoric times for its linen 
violet fibre and its geed oil The stem erec t, 

be" 6 " branching, and ridged, the alternate leaves 

lance-shaped, sharp, and three-ribbed. The 
delicate blue-violet flowers, f inch broad, with five 
slightly overlapping petals, are fertilized mostly by the 
honeybee. 9-20 inches high. Along roadsides, by rail- 
ways, in cultivated fields, and in waste places. 

A very similar species also introduced 
Linum humile f ^ m Europe, but the stem not as tall ; the 
seed capsule opening by partitions which are hairy -edged 
238 



L. carol inianum. 



w/y 

Common Flax. Linum usitatissimum. 



MILKWORT FAMILY. Polygalacess. 



MILKWORT FAMILY. Polygalacece 

Mostly herbs with generally alternate leaves, and per- 
fect but irregular flowers with five sepals, the two late- 
ral ones petallike, large, and colored ; the others small. 
The % three petals are connected with each other in a tube- 
like form ; the lower one is often crested at the tip. The 
generally eight stamens are more or less united into one 
or two sets and in part coherent with the lower petal, 
but free above. Stigma curved and broad ; the anthers 
generally cup-shaped and opening by a slit or hole at the 
apex. Cross-fertilization effected by the agency of bees 
and the beelike flies. 

An exceedingly dainty, low perennial 

lilk " rising from prostrate stems and roots 

Flowering sometimes a foot long. The few broad, 

Wintergreen ovate, bright green leaves are crowded at 

Poly gala the summit of the stems, the lower ones 

paudfoha reduced to the size of a mere scale. The 

Magenta or , . . . , 1,1 , 

wnite leaves live through the winter and turn 

May-July a bronze red. The flowers, nearly f inch 
long, are generally magenta or criinson- 
magenta, and rarely white. The three petals are united 
in a tube, the lowest one terminating in a pouch con- 
taining the pistil and anthers, and furnished at the end 
with a fringe or beard. This last serves as a landing plat- 
form for bees who will naturally depress the pouch by 
their weignt ; the rigid pistil and stamens, however, re- 
fusing to bend with the pouch are forced out through a 
slit at the top of the latter and come in direct contact 
with the under parts of the insect visitor. Thus cross- 
fertilization is in a large measure secured by the pollen- 
daubed bee brushing against the exposed stigma of the 
next flower visited. The honeybee and the ground bees 
of the genus Halictus and Andrenidce are the common- 
est visitors. The little plant often bears cleistogamous 
subterranean flowers on tiny branchlets. Erect stem 3-6 
inches high. Common in damp, rich woods, from Me., 
south to Ga., and west to 111. and Minn. Found at 
Holderness, N. H. ; white specimens near Bangor, Me. 



240 




tffl 



Fringed Polygala. Polygala p&ucifolia. 




Seneca Snakeroot. Polygala. Senega. 



MILK WORT FAMILY. Polygalacese. 



_._ ^ The tiny aesthetic, dull crimson flowers 

MHkwort . ,. . . . 

Polygala of tnis s P ecies are borne in delicate long 

polygama clusters at the tips of the leafy stems. The 

Dull crimson leaves are light dull green, lance-shaped, 
June-July an( j crow ded on the slender stem, tooth- 
less, and rather blunt, with a bristlelike tip. Rarely the 
flowers are nearly white ; the eight stamens are more or 
less conspicuous. The plant also bears cleistogamous 
flowers on subterranean horizontal branches, and these 
are numerous enough to justify the specific title, poly- 
gama. 5-15 inches high. Dry sandy soil common 
everywhere, but locally abundant only. 
_ A much less showy species with white 

Snakeroot or greenish white flowers and fewer lance- 
Polygala shaped leaves, the lowest ones very small 

Senega and scalelike. The small terminal flower- 

White or cluster dense. It bears no cleistogamous 

greenish white blossoms> Stem 6 _ 13 inches high, simple 
May-June 

or slightly branched. In rocky woodlands, 

from western New Eng., south to N. Car., among the 
mountains, and west to Minn, and Mo. 

A branching and leafy species with 
Polygala 
san g U i nea globular or oblong, compact flower-clus- 

Magenta ters of deep or pale magenta blossoms ; 

June- rarely they are white. .It is the calyx 

September which contributes the ruddy magenta to 
the flower ; the yellowish petals are hidden within. 
The stem is slightly angled. The little leaves are similar 
to those of P. polygama. 6-12 inches high. In moist 
and sandy fields and roadsides, New Eng., south to S. 
Car., and west to Minn., Ark., and La. 

A southern species with a slender stem 
mariana much branched at maturity, and small, 

Magenta narrow, linear leaves. Flower spikes nearly 

July-Septem= globular, the flowers light magenta. 
k er Bracts deciduous. 6-15 inches high. In 

pine barrens and dry sandy soil, N. J. south, and south- 
west to Tex. 



242 




Milkwort. 
Polygala, polygama. Potygata 5&nguinea, 



MILKWORT FAMILY. Polygalacea 



An attractive species whose leaves are 

Cross-leaved generally arranged in clusters of four 
JVlilkwort . ,.,, . , ^ A 

Folygala hence the specific title, cruciata. Stem 

crudata square or almost winged at the angles, 

Dull magenta- widely branched, and smooth. The deli- 
pink cate dull magenta flowers in heads like 

Se tember clover bloom, with the florets crowded. 
3-13 inches high. Margins of swamps, or 
low ground, from Me., south, and west to Minn, and La. 
A species very similar to the last, but 
Short-leaved with a s i en( j erer stem an( } shorter leaves 
Milkwort . . ,. , .. , ., m . _ 

Poly gala more sparingly distributed. The flower- 

brevifolia spikes much smaller and the flowers 

Dull magenta- stemmed. 3-10 inches high. A coastwise 
pmk Polygala, common on the borders of brack- 

September * sn swam P s > from R. L, Long Island, N. 

J., and Del., south. 

A slender and smooth species with usu- 
Whorled a iiy many branches, and with long slender 

lance-shaped leaves tipped with a slight 
verticillata bristle, arranged in circles of 4-5, or scat- 
Magenta- tered singly among the branches. The 
tinged or greenish w^hite or magenta- tinged flowers 

are compactly clustered in conic spikes, 
September nearly an inch long. The little florets are 

distinctly stemmed. All the Poly galas are 
assisted in the process of fertilization by the bees and 
some of the smaller butterflies, notably Colias philodice, 
yellow. 6-12 inches high. Common everywhere in 
fields or on roadsides. The var. ambigua is nearly the 
same in structure, but is taller, slenderer, and only the 
lower leaves are in circles ; the others are alternate. 
The flower-spikes are very long and loose, some of the 
lower flowers being isolated ; the blossoms are a trifle 
larger, and mostly a pale ma,genta. In dry soil, N. Y., 
N. J., and Pa., south to Ga., and southwest to Tenn. 
and La. 



244 




Cross-leaved MilRwort. Polygata cruciate. 



SPURGE FAMILY. Euphorbiaceae. 



SPURGE FAMILY. Euphorbiacece. 

Plants with usually a milky and acrid juice, bearing 
staminate and pistillate flowers on one plant or exclu- 
sively either kind on one plant, so there shall be stami- 
nate ones, and pistillate ones, hence they are largely 
dependent upon insects for fertilization. The flowers 
are irregularly or imperfectly constructed, i. e., in some 
instances without petals, and in others polypetalous or 
even monopetalous. Fruit generally a three-lobed cap- 
sule. Represented in the northern countries by the 
genus Euphorbia, but largely a tropical family. 

A prostrate, spreading weed common in 
Seaside Spurge ' J 

Euphorbia tne san d f the seashore ; stem branched 
polygonifolia and smooth. Flowers inconspicuous and 
Whitish green usually solitary at the bases of the small 

July- linear oblong leaves. Seed-capsule round- 

September 

ovoid, and ash gray-colored. Branches 

8-7 inches long. Along the Atlantic coast from R. I., 
south, and on the shores of the Great Lakes. 

A prostrate weed common throughout 
Milk Purslane N or th America, in open places and on 
r ^ e ' roadsides. Stems usually dark red, hairy 

Euphorbia an( l spreading radiately like common pus- 
maculata ley ; leaves toothed, red -blotched, and 

Whitish or dark green in color, oblong and obtuse, 
j U y about 1 inch long. The whitish or ruddy 

September inconspicuous flowers growing at the bases 
of the leaves. Branches 3-12 inches long. 
Common everywhere. See Appendix. 

A smooth or slightly hairy annual, the 
Preslii * oblique and three-ribbed leaves of which 

Whitish or are red-spotted and margined ; similar to 
ruddy those of the preceding species. The stem 

branched and nearly upright. The insig- 
nificant flowers whitish or ruddy, and obo- 
void in shape. 8-20 inches high. Common everywhere 
in fields, by roadsides, and on the borders of thickets. 



246 




Spurge. 

E.Helioscopia. Euphorbia PresliL E.macula-U. 



SPURGE FAMILY. Euphorbiaceae. 



White Mar= -^ verv handsome species cultivated for 
gined Spurge, its ornamental white-margined leaves sur- 
er Snow on rounding the rather insignificant flowers. 
the Mountain An annua i w i tn bright green foliage, the 
Euphorbia , . , 

marginata leaves ovate-pointed, toothless and stalk- 
White less. Stem stout 2-3 feet high. In dry 
May- soil, Ohio and Minn, west to Col. Also an 
September escape from gardens in the east. 

An annual species naturalized from 
Eur ope, with a smooth, erect, stout stem, 

Helioscopia often branched from the base. Leaves 

Greenish obovate and finely toothed. The insignifi- 

andtan cant flowers terminating the branchlets, 

of an indeterminate color, generally green 
September 

and tan. 8-12 inches high. Common in 

waste places from N. Y. to Ohio, and along the Great 
Lakes. 

A perennial spreading by horizontal 

rootstocks, and an escape from gardens 
Euphorbia * roa dsides and waste places in the east- 
Cyparissias ern States. Leaves bright light green, 
Greenish linear and almost filiform. The stems 

and tan thickly clustered and very leafy, ter- 

September minated by a large flower-cluster flat 

dome-shaped. The insignificant flowers 
indeterminate in color, but generally greenish dull yel- 
low, or tan, or russet red ; they are rather ornamental, 
with crescent-shaped glands. The plant is milky juiced, 
like all the Euphorbias , and it has become naturalized 
from Europe. It is poisonous if eaten in any quantity. 
Fertilized by bees and butterflies. 5-12 inches high. 
Common everywhere in the east. Found in Campton, 
N. H., near an old graveyard. 

Euphorbia ^ n ^ world species with a tall, stocky, 

ludda smooth stem, and long lance-shaped leaves, 

July-Septem= the floral ones heart-shaped and with a 

bristlelike tip. The seed pods finely wrink. 
led. Along roadsides and in fields of the Susquehanna 
Valley, N. Y. and Pa. Similar to E. Cyparissias in 
general appearance with the exception of the broader 
leaves. 8-18 inches high. 




Cypress Spurge. 
Euphorbia Cyparissias. 



Snow on the Mountain. 
Euphorbia marginata. 



CASHEW FAMILY. Anacardiaceas. 



CASHEW FAMILY. Anacardiacece. 

Trees or shrubs with alternate compound leaves, and 
small regular, generally polygamous flowers, i. e. pistil- 
late, staminate, and perfect flowers on the same plant 
or on different plants ; the flowers of five parts in gen- 
eral. Fruit a berry. Cross-fertilized by bees, the beelike 
flies, and butterflies. The juice of some species is in- 
tensely poisonous. 

Dwarf Sumac A shrub with fine-hairy branches, and 
Rhus copaiiina compound dark green leaves of 9-21 ovate 
Green=white lance-shaped shining leaflets, toothless, 
July-August or with few obscure teeth; the stem 
is wing-margined between the leaflets. The green- 
white flowers are polygamous, and collected in a cone- 
like terminal cluster, succeeded by the maroon-red hairy 
fruit. 1-7 feet high ; sometimes a tree 25 feet high. 
Common on rocky hillsides from Me., south, and west to 
Minn., Neb., Mo., and Tex. 

Staghorn ^ similar and very common shrub in 

Sumac thickets among the hills, with golden 

Rhus typhina brown twigs densely covered with velvety 
June hairs, and leaves of 11-31 lance-shaped, 

sharply toothed leaflets, dark green above and whitish, 
fine-hairy beneath ; turning a brilliant scarlet in the 
early fall. The leaf-stem not winged. The polygamous 
green-white or whitish green flowers similar to the pre- 
ceding ; the fruit very densely covered with maroon-red 
hairs. Dry, rocky soil ? especially among the moun- 
tains, from Me., south, and west to Minn, and Mo. 
The wood is a dull greenish yellow handsomely grained ; 
the bark is used for tanning leather. 

A similar smooth-stemmed shrub with 
s m ma th leaves of 11-31 toothed leaflets, dark green 

Khusglabra above and whitish beneath ; the stem not 
winged. The flowers and fruit similar to 
those of the preceding species. 2-12 feet high, some- 
times 18 feet high. About the same distribution as the 
above. 



250 




Rhus copal lim. 



CASHEW FAMILY. Anacardiaceae. 



Poison Sumac ^ n excee dingly poisonous shrub with 
Rhus Vernix compound, smooth, lighter green leaves, 
Whitish green green on both sides, of 7-13 thin obovate 
June but pointed leaflets without teeth. More 

frequently found in swampy land, and irritatingly 
poisonous to the touch. The flowers are whitish green 
and are borne in loose clusters at the angles of the 
leaves ; they are also polygamous. Fruit a green-gray 
berry in slim clusters. 6-15 feet high, or sometimes 24 
feet high. In wet, low grounds, from Me., south, and 
west to Minn, and Mo. 

A vine with a shrubby character in its 
Poison Ivy 
Rhu8 more southern range, but pushing its way 

toxicodendron with rapidly running rootlets in the colder 
Whitish green northern region. A noxious poison, in- 
May-June deed, producing a painful, burning erup- 
tion of the skin, if the latter comes in contact with any 
part of the plant ever so lightly ; some persons are far 
more susceptible to the poison than others, but it has 
been demonstrated that it acts only by contact. An 
excellent remedy to use until a physician can be con- 
sulted, is the well-known Extract of Witch-hazel 
("Pond's Extract") applied by saturating cloths and 
wrapping them about the inflamed parts. The triple 
leaf of Poison Ivy should never be mistaken for that of 
the Virginia Creeper, which has five leaflets strongly 
toothed. The leaflets of the poisonous plant are smooth, 
but not shining, light green, toothless, and generally 
ovate-pointed without lobes ; but sometimes the larger 
leaves are shallowly notched or sinuous at the edge. 
The flowers are whitish green, and with the fruit are 
similar to those of the preceding species. Climbing high 
on the trunks of trees, on stone walls, in thickets, or 
running over low ground, or meadows ; sometimes 
bushy, erect, with gray stems 2-3 inches thick, and 1-4 
feet high. Me., south, and west to S. Dak., Utah, Ark., 
and Tex. Common in the Pemigewasset Valley, N. H. 




Poison Sumac. 
Rhu5 Vernix. 



Poison Ivy. 

Rhus toxicodendron. 



STAFF-TREE FAMILY. Celastracex 



STAFF-TREE FAMILY. CelastracecR. 

Shrubs with simple opposite or alternate leaves, and 
small regular, generally perfect flowers with 4-5 petals 
and as many stamens inserted on a disc set at the base of 
the ovary (or sometimes merged into it) and at the bot- 
tom of the calyx. Fruit a pod with 2-5 cells. Insect 
visitors commonly bees. 

A twining, shrubby vine common on old 
tersweef ' ' s ^ one wa ^ s an d roadside thickets, and 
Waxwork sometimes climbing trees to a height of 
Celastrus twenty or more feet. The light green 

scandens leaves are smooth and ovate or ovate- 

wMte i8h oblong, finely toothed, and acute at the 

j une tip ; they grow alternately and somewhat 

in ranks owing to the twisting of the stem. 
The tiny flowers are greenish white, and grouped in a 
loose, spikelike terminal cluster ; the five minute petals 
are finely toothed along the edge, and the five stamens 
are inserted on a cup-shaped disc, in the manner ex- 
plained above. The flowers are succeeded in September 
by the beautiful orange fruit, a globular berry in loose 
clusters, but properly speaking a capsule whose orange 
shell divides into three parts, bends backward, and ex- 
poses the pulpy scarlet envelop of the seed within. The 
fruit is charmingly decorative, and if it is picked and 
placed in a warm room before the shells open, it will ex- 
pand and remain in a perfect condition thoughout the 
winter. Climbing 6-25 feet. Along roadsides, streams, 
etc., from Me., south to N. Car., among the mountains, 
and west to the Daks., Kan., Oklahoma, and N. Mex 
Rare in the White Mountain region of N. H. 

A low evergreen shrub with tiny incon- 
Mountain ... 

Lover spicuous flowers with four spreading petals 

Pachistima and as many sepals of equal length, brown- 
Canbyi green. The small blunt leaves opposite, 

Brown=green linear-oblong, slightly toothed, and the 
edges rolled back. 4-1 2 feet high. Rocky 
slopes of mountains in Va. and W. Va. 

254 




Bittersweet. 
Celastrus scandens, 



JEWEL=WEED FAMILY. Balsaminace<#- 



JEWEL-WEED FAMILY. Balsaminacece. 

Juicy -stemmed herbs with smooth simple- toothed 
leaves and irregular perfect flowers whose sepals and 
petals are not clearly distinguished as such, the spurred 
sack being one of the three sepals ; the other two are 
lateral and small. Petals five, or three with two of 
them two-cleft into dissimilar lobes. The five stamens 
are short. Admirably adapted to fertilization by long- 
tongued insects, such as bumblebees. 

A common, translucent- stemmed plant 
Pale Touch- Q wet an(i s h a( ly situations in the north, 
me=not or . J . . .. ,. , . 

JeweUweed especially on mountainsides. The sack of 

Impatiens the pale yellow, sparingly brown-spotted 

paiiida honey-bearing flower is obtuse and rather 

Pale yellow short in fact, somewhat bell-shaped, or 
September as broad as it is long. The spur is scarcely 
^ the length of the sack. It is a more ro- 
bust and a lighter green species than the next. Un- 
doubtedly it is assisted in the process of fertilization by 
the bumblebee and the honeybee. Throughout the north, 
and south as far as Ga., but by no means as common as 
I. biflora. 

The commoner one of the two species, 
Spotted Touch- usua j}y ru ddy stemmed ; very variable in 
Im aliens color, with smaller flowers, sometimes 

biflora deeply freckled with red-brown over a 

Gold yellow deep gold-colored ground, and at other 
variable times pale buff yellow scarcely spotted. 

The sack is deep, longer thai* it is broad, 
September 

and terminates with an incurved spur 

nearly one half or fully one third of its length. In Pro- 
fessor Robertson's opinion it is especially adapted to the 
long bill of the hummingbird, but it is also visited by 
the hone} r bee, bumblebee, and the bees known as Melis- 
sodes bimaculata and Halictus confusus, as well as the 
butterfly Papilio troilus. The flower develops its sta- 
mens first, and afterward its pistil, so cross-fertilization 
is almost an assured thing. 2-5 feet high. Me., south, 
and west to Mo. Found in Camp ton, N. H. 




Jewel weed 



BUCKTHORN FAMILY. Rhamnaceas. 



BUCKTHORN FAMILY. Ehamnacece. 

Shrubs or small trees, often thorny, with simple, mostly 
alternate leaves, and small regular, perfect or polyga- 
mous flowers. There are 4-5 petals to the rather incon- 
spicuous flowers, or, in some cases, none at all. The 
fruit a berry, or a capsule. Visited by bees and flies. 

A shrub commonly cultivated for feedges 
Buckthorn as its twi g s are often armed with formida- 
Ehamnus ble thorns. A native of Europe and Asia, 

catJiartica and an escape from cultivation in this coun- 
Whitish green t particularly in New England and New 
May-June / , , . , 

York. The smooth deep green leaves are 

ovate and finely toothed ; they grow alternately. The 
flowers are clustered at the angles of the leaves, and are 
an inconspicuous white-green : they are staminate and 
pistillate on different plants, and scarcely measure a tenth 
of an inch across. The flower is succeeded by a black 
berry the juice of which is powerfully medicinal. 6-16 
feet high. In dry soil along roadsides and near dwell- 
ings, from Me. , west to N. Y. 

A native species with thornless branches, 
leaves similar to those of the foreign spe- 
cies, and greenish flowers without petals, 
staminate and pistillate on different plants. There are 
five stamens and calyx lobes. In swamps, from Me. to 
N. J., Pa., Neb., and in Cal. 

A shrubby species with a coarse, woody 
TeT JerSCy brown-green or bronzy stem , and dull green 
Ceanothus ovate-pointed leaves, sharply but finely 
Americanus toothed, very fine-hairy, and conspicu- 
Cream white ous ly three-ribbed ; the stems short, and 
May-July ru ddy. The tiny cream white flowers are 

set in small blunt cone-shaped clusters on long stems 
from the leaf angles. There are five slender petals and as j 
many stamens. The rather pretty plumy flower-cluster 
is lightly odorous. In Revolutionary times the American 
soldiers brewed an indifferent-flavored tea from the dried 
leaves. Stems 1-4 feet high ; root reddish. In dry open 
woodlands, from Me. , south, and west to Minn, and Mo, 

258 




New Jersey Tea,. ^Ceanothus Americans 



VINE FAMILY. Vltaceas. 



VINE FAMILY. Vitacece. 

Climbing shrubs mostly with tendrils, and with a pro- 
fusion of sap. The joints rather thick and the bark 
generally shredded. The flowers are regular and per- 
fect or polygamous some plants with perfect, others 
with staminate flowers. Petals 4-5, stamens the same. 
Fruit a berry, or grape. Commonly visited by bees and 
the beelike flies. 

The familiar wild grape of the north 
Northern Fox 
Grape bearing large black grapes with a bluish 

Vitis Labrusca bloom, tough skin, and a sweet and musky 
Greenish flavor, f inch in diameter. The tendrils 

May-June are f or k e( j ) the bark shreddy, the young 
twigs and leaves very woolly and rust-tinged. The large 
light green leaves, opposite a tendril or flower-cluster, 
are slightly toothed, entire, or deeply lobed, and rusty- 
woolly beneath. The fertile greenish flowers are in a 
compact cluster ; the grapes, in scant numbers, ripen in 
September and October. This species is a parent of 
the Isabella, Catawba, and Concord grapes. Thickets, 
from Chesterville, Me., south to Ga., in the mountains, 
and west to Minn. Common at Saddle River, N. J. 
A species with smooth greenish branches, 

River rape ^ smooth, shining, light green leaves ; 

Vitis vulpina 

the tendrils in irregular occurrence. The 

leaves sharply three-lobed (sometimes more lobes) and 
sharply toothed. The blue-bloomed black grapes are 
less than J inch in diameter, and rather sweet ; they ripen 
from July to September. Banks of rivers or near water, 
from Me., south to Md., and west to Minn., S. Dak., and 
Ark. In the east the grapes are sour and ripen late. 

. . A familiar creeping or trailing vine ex- 

Creepei- 1 tensively cultivated, common in its wild 

Psedera state on low, rich ground. It climbs by 

quinquefolia means of disc-bearing tendrils, and aerial 
Whitish green root i e t s . The deep green leaves are com- 
pound, with 5-7 (generally with five) 
lance-shaped, sharply toothed leaflets, much curved, 
troughed, and conspicuously veined. The insignificant 
yellow-green or whitish green flowers are perfect or 
260 




Northern Fox Grape 



Vitis Labrusca. 



MALLOW FAMILY. Malvaceae. 



polygamous (staminate, pistillate, and perfect flowers 
occur on the same plant), and are borne in a rather broad 
cluster ; they are succeeded by the beautiful, small cadet 
blue berries early in October ; both leaf- and berry-stalks 
are deep red. The leaves turn a brilliant deep red in 
autumn. In thin woods and thickets, from Me., south, 
and west to the Daks, and Tex. Not infrequently it is 
mistaken for poison ivy (Rhus toxicodendrori), a needless 
error, as the latter bears three never five leaflets. 

MALLOW FAMILY. Malvacece. 

Herbs or shrubs with alternate, more or less cut or 
divided leaves. The flowers perfect, regular, and rolled- 
up in the bud ; rarely the staminate flowers are on one 
plant, and the pistillate on another, thus necessitating 
cross-fertilization ; or rarely there are all three kinds of 
flowers, showing a stage of development. There are 
generally five sepals and five petals ; the stamens are 
indefinite in number. The fruit generally a capsule. 
Fertilization assisted by bees and butterflies. 

An erect perennial plant with branching 
stem and velvet y- down y> generally three- 
offirinaiis lobed leaves. They are light green, ovate, 

Pale crimson= toothed, and stout-stemmed. The holly- 
pink hocklike flowers, an inch or more broad, 

August- p a j e crimson.pink an( j veined ; the sta- 



September .. , . 

mens monadelphous, that is, collected in 

one column or tube around the central pistil, which is 
characteristic of the family. Flowers borne in small 
terminal clusters or at the leaf -angles. The thick root 
mucilaginous and officinal; it is commonly used in confec- 
tionery. 2-4 feet high. In salt marshes on the coasts of 
Mass., N. Y., and N. J. Naturalized from Europe. 

An exceedingly common weed, annual 
Round=leaved or biennial, creeping over the ground, with 
>w, or ornamental, dark green, round leaves, 
Malva having usually five shallow scalloped- 

rotundifolia shaped lobes, irregularly toothed ; the . 
White stalks very long. Flowers clustered in 



262 




Common Mallow. Malva rotund i folia. 



MALLOW FAMILY. Malvaceae. 



magenta- the leaf-angles, white or pale pinkish ma- 

J einC Oct h g en ta, magenta-veined ; in shape like a 
miniature hollyhock, but the five petals 
notched. Stems 4-10 inches long. Common in waste 
places and as a garden weed everywhere. The name is 
from the Greek, and refers to the soft character of the 
leaves (albeit they are hard !) ; the popular name, 
Cheeses, refers to the round, cheeselike form of the 
seed-receptacle. Naturalized from Europe. 

A common biennial with an erect 
branchin S stem ' sightly fine-hairy or 
sylvestris sometimes smooth. The leaves lighter 

Light green, rather long-stalked, toothed, and 

magenta angularly five-lobed or occasionally seven- 

or pinkish l o bed. The flowers with the same family 
September resemblance to the hollyhock, magenta- 
pink, or light magenta, the petals with 
about four deeper veins ; the clusters (few-flowered) at 
the leaf -angles. 18-30 inches high. A delicate-flowered 
plant common on roadsides and in waste places every- 
where. Adventive from Europe. 

A very similar but perennial species, 
Musk Mallow .,, ,, , . ,. . . \ . . , 
Maiva with the leaf division deeply slashed or 

moschata cut. The medium green leaves with very 

White or narrow divisions and short stalks. The 

magenta-pink wn ite or very pale magenta-pink flowers 
September nearly two inches broad, flat, and borne 
in .terminal clusters ; they are also veined. 
The leaves have a delicate odor of musk when crushed. 
1-2 feet high. Common in the same situations as the 
above species, with the same distribution ; from Europe. 

A distinctly western flower, occasion- 
Purple Poppy- 
mallow a y esca P e d from cultivation in the east, 
Callirrhce, & perennial bearing large showy, purple- 
involucrata crimson or magenta flowers slightly re- 
Magenta sembling the Malvas. The leaves slashed 
like those of the preceding species, but not 
so deeply ; the lobes more obtuse. The stem hairy, and 
the flowers borne singly with long stalks. 1-2 feet high. 
In dry ground, from Minn., Neb., and Utah, south. 

264 



MALLOW FAMILY. Malvaceae. 



A tall perennial with stout shrublike 

Swamp Rose- s t e ms and large showy flowers. The leaves 

mallow ,. . . , . ' 

Hibiscus olive green, bright above and densely 

Moscheutos white woolly beneath ; ovate pointed and 
Pale pink or indistinctly toothed, with long stalks ; the 

lower leaves three-lobed. Flowers 4-6 
September inches across, with five broad petals con- 

spicuously veined, pale crimson-pink or 
white, with or without a crimson base. The flowers are 
borne singly or in scant clusters ; they show a strong 
family resemblance to the hollyhock. 4-6 feet high. 
The most frequent visitors of the genus Hibiscus are the 
honeybees and bumblebees. In marshes near the coast, 
and in brackish water near saline springs in the interior, 
from eastern Mass., south, and west to 111. and Mo., 
especially near the shores of lakes. 

A similar but smooth species with the 

same period of bloom. The upper leaves 
leaved Rose- 
mallow often halberd-shaped, i. e., like an arrow- 

Hibiscus head with conspicuous flanges, the lower 

militaris a i so halberd-shaped or plainly three-lobed. 



Totor Pln The flowers flesh P ink ' sometimes with a 

dark magenta centre ; 2-3 inches broad. 
Stem 2-5 feet high. On the banks of rivers and small 
streams from Pa., south, and west to Minn, and Neb. 

A species adventive from southern Eu- 
rope, with a singular and beautiful 
Hibiscus inflated calyx, resembling spun glass, five- 

Trionum angled, roundish, and hairy. An annual 

Sulphur often escaping from gardens, with hand- 

some, large pure yellow, or sulphur-col- 
ored flowers, with a black-purplish centre, that quickly 
fade ; hence called Flower-of-an-hour. The leaves deeply 
cut, with 3-7 lobes. 1-2 feet high. Near dwellings from 
New Eng., south, and west to Neb. 

A handsome southern species, with 

Hibiscus large, deep red-scariet flowers over six 

coccineus , , , , , , , , , 

Red=scarlet inches broad, and deeply cleft leaves. 
Common in cultivation. 4-7 feet high. 
In deep marshes near the coast from S. Car., south. 



266 



Swamp Rose -mallow 
Hibiscus Moscheutos 




ST. JOHN'S=WORT FAMILY. Hypericacese. 



ST. JOHN'S-WORT FAMILY. Hypericacece. 
A small family of shrubs and herbs, with opposite, 
toothless leaves generally stemless, and dotted with black* 
ish spots. The flowers perfect, with five (or four) parts, 
and often with numerous stamens. Fruit a capsule. 
St.Peter's-wort & plant familiar in the pine barrens of 
Ascyrum stans New Jersey, with oval, stemless, thickish 
Yellow leaves and four-petaled lemon yellow flow- 

ers, closely resembling the next species. 
The stem conspicuously two-edged. 1-2 feet high. In 
sandy soil, Long Island, N. Y., N. J., and Pa., south. 

A low, branching:, smooth plant with 
St. Andrew's 
Cross small deep green leaves, oblong or narrowly 

Ascyrum obovate, stemless and thin, growing op- 

hypericoides positely. The lemon yellow flowers with 
four petals arranged in pairs in the form 

September ^ an X ' ^ n a ^ USi ^ cluster, or at the leaf- 
angles ; petals numerous ; flower f inch 

broad. 5-10 inches high. Sandy soil, Nan tucket, Mass., 

south, west to Neb., and Tex. 

An erect and showy perennial with tall 

John's=wort branching stem, the branches four-angled. 

Hypericum Leaves ovate-oblong, pointed, stemless 

Ascyron and slightly clasping the plant-stem. The 

Deep yellow fl owers large and showy, 1-2 inches broad, 

July-August , , .,;; ' 

deep lemon yellow, with five narrow petals; 

stamens numerous. 2-6 feet high. River-banks and 
meadows, Vt. to Conn., N. J., Pa., Iowa, and Minn. 

A shrubby species with stout, branching 
John's=wort stem, the branchlets two-edged, and leafy. 
Hypericum Leaves deep green, lighter beneath, linear- 
prolificum oblong, and very short -stemmed ; several 
Golden yellow sma n er leaflets at the junction of leaf 

with the stem. Flower-clusters thick, 
loose, and flat. The flowers golden yellow, with numer- 
ous deep golden yellow stamens. 1-3 feet high. In 
sandy soil N. J., south to Ga., and west to Minn. 

A simple-stemmed species blooming in 
Hypericum h game geason and with s i m ii ar golden 

adpressum 

yellow flowers. The deep green leaves 

(rather closely set upon the plant-stem) oblong or lance- 
268 




St. Andrews Cross. 
Ascyrum hyperieoides. 



ST. JQHN'S=WORT FAMILY. Hypericacese. 



shaped. The flowers in small terminal clusters, with 
deep golden yellow stamens. 1-2 feet high. In low 
ground, Nantucket, Mass., to N. J. and Pa., south to 
Ga. and La., and west to Mo. and Ark. 
Hypericum ^ common St. John's- wort blooming in 

ellipticum the same season, with a simple, slightly 
Lighter gold four-angled stem . Leaves dull light green , 
yellow thin, elliptical (often perfectly so) or oval, 

obtuse, and stemless, sometimes narrowed at the base. 
Flowers pale gold yellow, about J inch broad ; stamena 
numerous and golden yellow. The pointed pods succeed- 
ing the flowers are pale terra-cotta color. 8-20 inches 
high. In wet places and along streams from Me., south 
to Conn., northern N. J., and Pa., west to Minn. 

A slender-stemmed species generally 
Hypericum 

virgatum branched above, the stem somewhat four- 

Bright ochre angled. Leaves oblong lance-shaped, 
yellow acute, and stemless. Flowers numerous, 

deep bright ochre yellow, coppery in tone ; 
September 

stamens numerous, blossom same size as 

the preceding. 1-2 J feet high. In low grounds, pine 
barrens of central N. J., Del., south, and west to 111. 

This is, generally speaking, the com- 
Jolrn=wort mones ^ species. A perennial naturalized 
Hypericum from Europe, and a native of Asia. Stem 
perforatum simple or much-branched. Leaves dusky 
Deep golden green, stemless, small, elliptical, or oblong- 
linear, more or less brown-dotted. Flowers 
July-Sep= 
tember shiny, deep golden yellow, with numerous 

stamens ; the clusters terminal, on several 
branchlets. 1-2 feet high. Common everywhere. 
Spotted St, -A. species with the same season of bloom, 

John's=wort remarkable for its spottiness ; its stem 
Hypericum slender and round, often tinged with dull 

red. The leaves ovate pointed, or oblong, 
thickly dotted with sepia brown, stemless or nearly so, 
and often flushed with a ruddy color. The golden yel- 
low flowers marked with thin blackish lines, more con- 
spicuous upon the back of the petal than on its face. 
1-3 feet high. In moist places and damp thickets from 
Me., south, and west to Minn, and Tex. 
270 




St. Johns-wort. 
Hypericum ellipticum. Hypericum perfopatum. 



ST. JOHN'S=WORT FAMILY, fiypericacese. 



Hypericum An annual and an extremely small- 

mutilum flowered species, diffusely branched, the 

Pale golden branchlets four-angled, and slender. The 
orange leaves light dull green, oblong or ovate, 

blunt-pointed, and stemless. Flowers 
scarcely inch broad, pale golden orange, 
or light orange yellow, with only 5-12 stamens. 6-24 
inches high. In meadows and low grounds everywhere. 
Hypericum A ver ^ similar species, but with linear 

Canadense leaves and tiny deep golden yellow flowers 
Deep golden about inch broad, withering early in the 
yellow day. The leaves light dull green and ob- 

scurely three- veined, the two side veins scarcely visible. 
The branches wiry, angular, and erect. The budlike, 
tiny pods succeeding the flowers are conspicuously ruddy, 
and exceed in length the five-lobed green calyx. In 
moist sandy soil, Me., south to Ga. and Ky., and west 
to Minn, and S. Dak. Found in Campton, N. H. 

Also an annual, with an entirely differ- 

or p"ne"wel 6nt aS P ect from that f the tw Preceding 
Hypericum species, although it is tiny-flowered. The 
gentianoides stem erect, diffusely branched, and appar- 
Deep golden ently leafless; the branches like slender 

wires, and the leaves minute and scalelike, 
tember leaning closely to the branchlets. Flowers 

deep golden yellow, nearly stemless, and 
open only in the sunlight. 5-10 inches high. In sandy 
soil from Me., south, and west to Minn., Mo., and Tex. 
Found near Brattleboro, Vt. 

A perennial with an erect stem and 

Marsh St. stemless, close-set, light green, ovate 
John's=wort 

Hypericum leaves, sepia dotted, and with a slight 

Virginicum bloom beneath. The stem, together with 
Pinkish the leaves, late in the season (September) 

is more or less pinkish or crimson-stained, 
6 and ^ e seed-vessels are magenta. The 

flowers are pinkish flesh-color, with orange 
glands separating the three groups of golden yellow 
stamens. Flowers in small terminal clusters. 1-2 feet 
high. In marshes, from Me., south, and west to Neb. 



272 




'Drawn life siz.e. 



Marsh St. Johns-wort. 
Hvoericum CdJiadense. HypericumVirginicum, 



ROCK=ROSE FAMILY. Cistacex. 



ROCK-ROSE FAMILY. Cistacece. 

Small shrubs or herbs with regular flowers, the five 
green sepals of unequal size, the two outer smaller ones 
resembling bracts, or small leaflets. Petals 3-5. But 
one style or none at all. Seed-receptacles (on slender 
stalks) opening at the top. Visited by butterflies and 
honeybees in particular. 

Frostweed &* perennial, remarkable for the fact 

Helianthemum that ice-crystals form about the cracked 
Canadense bark of the root in late autumn. Lance- 

oblong dull green leaves hoary with fine 
June-August 

hairs on the under side. With two kinds 

of flowers, the early ones solitary, one inch broad, with 
showy yellow petals which are more or less crumpled in 
the bud, which fade early and fall away ; these early 
blossoms have innumerable stamens. The later ones 
have few, and are small and clustered at the bases of the 
leaves. Pods of the larger flower inch long ; of the 
smaller one, not larger than a pin head. Low. In sandy 
soil from Me., south, and west to Minn. The name 
from the Greek words sun and flower ; the flowers open 
only once in sunshine. 

Hudsonia A bushy little shrub with tiny awl- 

tomentosa shaped, scalelike leaves, oval or longer, 

Yellow downy, and set close to the plant-stem. 

May-June The sma u yellow flowers crowded along 
the upper branches ; they open only in sunshine. The 
stem 5-10 inches high, hoary with down. Sandy shores 
Me. to Md., and along the Great Lakes to Minn. Also 
on the sandy beaches of Lake Charnplain, Burlington 
and Apple Tree Bays. 

An insignificant, fine-hairy, perennial 
herb ' with tin ^ lin ear leaves, larger on the 



minor 



Greenish or upper parts of the plant, and very small 
magenta=tinted near the base. The three tiny, greenish 
(or magenta- tinted), narrow petals remain 
within the green sepals after fading. The 
pod nearly globose, and appearing like a pin head. The 
upright smooth (when old) stem 10-18 inches high, 
Common in dry, sterile ground. 
274 




Lechea minor. 

Frostweed. 
Hudsonia, tomentosa. Helianthemum Canadense 



VIOLET FAMILY. Violaceae, 



VIOLET FAMILY. Violacece. 

A small family of generally low herbs with perfect, 
but rather irregular flowers of five petals, the lowest of 
which is spurred. There are five perfect stamens whose 
anthers turn inward and lie touching each other around 
the pistil. It is a family of nectar-yielding flowers com- 
monly visited by many species of bees and a few butter- 
flies, and cross-fertilization is effected by their assistance 
and by structural contrivances. The name is Latin. 

A beautiful violet, very common in the 
Bird-foot 

y io i et southeast part of Massachusetts, including 

Viola pedata the Island of Nantucket. The plant is gen- 
Light violet erally smooth and tufted ; the leaves, dull 

etc * pale green, are cut into 3-5 segments, three 

April-June , . 

of which are again cut and toothed, so 

that the average leaf possesses nine distinct points, or 
more. The pale blue-violet or lilac flowers, larger than 
those of any other species, are often an inch long. In 
the var. bicolor the two upper petals are deep purple ; 
this form is found from Mass, to Md. and 111. ; it is com- 
mon in the latter State. But the most familiar tint of 
the common Bird-foot Violet is blue-violet, more or less 
dilute, and never blue. Rarely there are white flowers. 
The lower, spurred petal is grooved, and partly white 
veined with violet ; the throat of the flower is obstructed 
with the orange anthers and the style, which bar the 
way to the nectar in the spur. The useful visitors which 
effect cross-fertilization are naturally long-tongued in- 
sects ; among them are the ever-present yellow butterfly 
(Coliasphilodice), and the bumblebees, Bombus virgini- 
cus, and B. pennsylvanicus. 4-10 inches high. In dry 
sandy fields. Me., south, and west to Minn., S. Dak., 
and Mo. Found in the Middlesex Fells, Mass. 

A very common species, generally 
- ta smooth > bui; sometimes fine-hairy, with 
heart-shaped or longer, deep green leaves, 
deeply lobed or cut especially on the sides. Flowers 
smaller, and bright light violet, or rarely white. Dry 
ground, mostly woodlands, from Me., south to Ga., and 
west to Minn. , Neb. , and Ark. 

276 




Bird-foot Violet. 



Viola pedata. 




Viola. pa.Jmad:a,.j 



VIOLET FAMILY. Violacese. 



The commonest violet of all, familiar on 
Common Violet , . , i-r.ii r i 

yj i a roadsides and in fields. The leaves deep 

papilionacea green, heart-shaped, scallop-toothed, and 
Light purple somewhat coiled, especially when young. 

etc - Both stem and leaf are smooth. The flower 

April-June . , ,. , , , , 

varies in color trom light purple to pale 

violet ; rarely it is white purple-veined ; the three lower 
petals are white at the base, and two of these the lateral 
ones are beautifully fringed or bearded at the throat of 
the flower. The leaf -stalks are usually a little longer 
than the flower-stalks. 3-7 inches high. In low grounds 
everywhere, especially in marshes where the flower- 
stalks exceed those of the leaves, and the flowers are 
much larger. This species is cross-fertilized mostly by 
bumblebees, the insect touching the stigma first. 
Arrow=leaved A vei T small species with deep green, 
Violet arrow-shaped leaves with blunt points, 

Viola sagittata and scallop-teeth, but the upper part of 
Light violet the i eaves sometimes plain-edged. A 
slight grayish bloom often characterizes 
the foliage when it is seen en masse. The small flower 
is light violet or deeper violet ; its lateral petals are 
bearded, as are also the upper ones ; the lower petal is 
veined, and its spur is short. 2-8 inches high. In wet 
meadows or dry borders from Me., south to Ga. , and 
west to Minn., Neb., and Tex. It bears late cleistoga- 
mous flowers. 

Selkirk's Violet is a rather uncommon, 

Viola Selkirkii ,, , 

small, woodland species generally found 

among the hills. The stalks are erect and smooth, the 
leaves dark green and heart-shaped, deeply lobed at 
the base. The flowers are pale violet and beardless, 
with deep spurs. Moist soil, from Me. to Vt., Mass., 
and Pa., and westward to Minn. Also in Europe and 
Asia. 

A small smooth species whose flower- 
Marsh Violet stalks generally exceed those of the leaves, 
Viola palustris , . , , ,, ., , ,.,. 

Light lilac which are broad heart-shaped and indis- 

May-July tinctly scalloped. Sometimes the leaves 
are kidney-shaped. The small flowers are 
light violet or lilac, with purple veins ; the petals are 
. 278 




Viola sagittate., 



Blue Violet. 
VioU papilionacea. 



VIOLET FAMILY. Violacese. 



nearly, if not quite, without beards. 3-6 inches high. 
In marshes and wet soil in the alpine region of the 
mountains of New England, and north ; also in the 
Rockies. A native of Europe. Found on Mt. Washing- 
ton and Mt. Moosilauke, N. H. 

S eet Wh'te ^ sma ^ s P ec i es with olive green, round 
Violet heart-shaped leaves slightly scalloped, and 

Viola blanda sweet-scented white flowers, very small, 
White with purple-veined petals, bearded, and 

April-May nQ ^ k roa( n y expanded ; fertilized mostly 
by the honeybees, and the bees of the genus Halictus. 
3-5 inches high. In swamps, wet meadows, moist 
woodlands, and often in dry situations, from Me., south 
to Ga. , and local westward. The var. renifolia is slight- 
ly soft-hairy, the leaves are round kidney-formed, and 
the flower-petals are usually beardless. From Me., Vt., 
and Mass. , to western N. Y. and Minn. 

A smooth, remarkably narrow-leaved 
Lance=leaved ' J . 

Vio l et species, the leaves lance-shaped or even 

Viola lanceolata linear lance-shaped, indistinctly scalloped, 
White and generally blunt. The flowers white, 

April-June ve ined with dull purple, and the petals 
beardless ; they are slightly fragrant. Cross-fertilized 
by the aid of the small bees of the genus Halictus and 
Andrena. 2-5 inches high. Common in moist ground 
and on river-banks from Me., south, and west to Minn. 
It bears cleistogamous flowers. 

A very early and rather inconspicuous 
Round=leaved violet> most frequently found on woodland 
Viola rotundi- fl ors an d rocky hillsides. The stalks are 
folia smooth, or very slightly fine-hairy, and 

Pale golden 2-4 inches high, generally the flower- 
yellow stalks exceed those of the leaves. The 
smooth deep green leaves are round or. 
long heart-shaped, indistinctly scalloped, and small in 
the flowering season; but by midsummer they lie flat 
upon the ground and attain a diameter of 2-4 inches. 
The small flowers are pale golden yellow, the lateral 
petals are bearded and veined with madder purple ; the 
lower petal is also strongly veined and has a short spur. 
In cool and somewhat damp, or even dry, situations 
280 




Sweet White Violet. Lance-le&ved Violet. 
Viola, blanda. Viola 



VIOLET FAMILY. Vlolacess. 



from Me., south in the mountains of N. Car., and west 
to Minn. Found in Campton, N. H. 

This is a rather tall and forking species 
Downy Yellow . 
Violet lacking the lowly habit or the common 

Viola pubescens violet. The light green stem is fine-hairy 
Pale above, though usually smooth below. 



shaped, slightly scallop- toothed, and some- 
what soft-hairy to the touch. The small flowers are 
pale golden yellow, veined with madder purple ; the 
lower petal, conspicuously veined, is short (set horizon- 
tally), with a two-scalloped tip and a short spur. The 
flowers grow singly on thin stalks from the fork of two 
leaf-stalks. The anthers and the style obstruct the 
throat of the flower, and the side petals, heavily bearded, 
compel the entering insect to brush against the stigma 
and finally against the anthers in the effort to obtain 
nectar. The commonest visitors are the small bees of 
the genus Halictus and Andrena, and the bee-fly Bom- 
bylius fratellus ; the yellow butterfly, Colias philodice, 
is an occasional caller. 6-17 inches high. In woodlands 
from Me., south to Ga., and west to S. Dak. and Iowa. 
The var. scabriuscula is not so tall, the stems are slender, 
it is only slightly fine-hairy, and the leaves are generally 
acute at the apex, and distinctly scallop-toothed. 4-12 
inches high. In moist thickets or woodlands from Me., 
south to Ga., and Tex., and west to Neb. 

A smooth sweet-scented species with a 
Canada Violet J . . . .. _ ,. 

Viola Cana- ta ^' leafy stem resembling that of the 
densis foregoing. The heart-shaped, deep green 

Pale purple, leaves, broader or longer, with a slightly 
whlte toothed edge, on long stalks, growing 

alternately. The flowers springing from 
the forking leaf -stalks are lighter or deeper purple on the 
outside of the petals and nearly white on the inside, 
with the throat yellow-tinted; the three lower petals are 
purple- veined, the side petals bearded, and the middle 
petal is acutely tipped. Rarely the flowers are altogether 
white. 5-15 inches high, occasionally more. In hilly 
woods from Me. , south to S. Car. and Tenn. , among the 
mountains, west. 

282 



Downy Yellow Violet. 
Viola pubescens. 




VioU can&densis 



Viola, rotund i folia.. 



VIOLET FAMILY. 



Viola canadensis passes through various grades of 
purple to a decided magenta pink. There are also simi- 
lar pink phases of Viola pedata, but the color never 
seems to be constant. 

P I v i t ^ handsome, somewhat western species, 

Viola striata with smooth, straight sterns, and deep dull 
White or pale green, heart-shaped leaves, finely scallop- 
lavender toothed, and more or less curled at the 
April-May base when young, the tips acute. The 
moderately large flowers white, cream-colored, or very 
pale lavender, the lateral petals bearded, the lower one 
thickly striped with purple veins, and broad. The 
flower-stalk exceedingly long. The stigma of the flower 
projects far beyond the anthers, so self-fertilization is 
impracticable ; among the xiiost frequent visitors (ac- 
cording to Prof. Robertson) are the bees of the genus 
Andrena, and the small bees, Osmia albiventris and 
Halictus coriaceus. Colias philodice, the butterfly who 
"puts a finger in everyone's pie," is also an occasional 
visitor. 6-16 inches high. In moist woods and fields 
from western New Eng., to Minn., and Mo., and south 
along the Alleghanies to Ga. 

A low creeping violet ; the light green 
Vio l a stems with many toothed stipules (leafy 

conspersa formations at the angles of the stems), 

Light purple a nd small round heart-shaped yellow-green 
April-June leaves, obscurely scalloped, and not pointed 
at the tip. The pale purple or violet flowers are small, 
with the side petals slightly bearded, and the lower petal 
purple-veined and long-spurred. Rarely the flowers are 
white. The seeds are straw-color. 2-6 inches high. 
Visited by the small bees of the genus Halictus. Common 
in wet woodlands and along shady roadsides, from east- 
ern Que., west to Minn., and southwest. Viola arenaria 
is characteristically fine-hairy, the leaves are ovate and 
small, and the stipules are deeply toothed ; the flower 
spur is generally blunt and straight, though occasionally 
it is abruptly bent inward. The cleistogamous flowers 
and the seed capsules are borne in abundance ; seeds 
brown. In sandy soil from Mass., west to Minn., and 
northwest. 

284 




Pale Violet. 



Viola, 



OOSESTRIFE FAMILY. Lytbracese. 



LOOSESTRIFE FAMILY. Lythracece. 

Herbs or shrubs in our range, with four-sided branches 
and generally toothless, opposite leaves and perfect 
flowers, though these are occasionally in two or even 
three forms, i. e. , with long filaments (the stem part of 
the stamen minus the anther) and a short style, or vice 
versa. Petals 4-7. Stamens 4-14, sometimes the petals 
are absent. Cross-fertilization effected in a number of 
instances through the agency of bees and butterflies. 
Hyssop A sm th branching annual, with pale 

Loosestrife green stem and leaves, the latter alternate 
Lythrum and lance-shaped, with stemless base, at 

Hyssopifolia w hi c h there are frequently little narrow 

Pale purple . _ , 

magenta leaflets, growing upon a separate stem of 

July- their own, which, lengthening, forms late- 

September ral, leafy branches above. The pale pur- 
plish magenta flowers usually have six petals and the 
same number of stamens, or less ; they grow singly in the 
angles of the leaves. 6-15 inches high. In salt marshes 
from Me. to N. J., also (according to Britton and Brown) 
in Cal., and along the coast of South America. 

A similar, paler flowered species with 
Lythrum 
lineare linear leaves growing oppositely; the 

tiny flowers grow in two forms, explained 
under the family description above. A perennial 2-3 
feet high. Salt marshes from N. J., south along the 
coast to Fla. and Tex. 

A tall slim species with much darker 
alatum" leafage and a smooth, much-branched, and 

angled stem. The leaves alternate (the 
lowest opposite), lance-shaped, pointed at the tip, and 
broader at the base. The flowers deep purple-magenta, 
J inch or more broad, and dimorphous, that is, in two 
forms, as explained above ; the stamens very long in 
some blossoms. 1-3 feet high. In low moist ground, 
from Mass. (East Lexington, and Boston), Vt. (Char- 
lotte), south to Ky., and west to Minn., S. Dak., Col., 
and Ark. 



286 




Cuphea viscosissima. 

Lonq 
Purples. ( 

Lythrum Salicaria. Loosestrife. Lythrum alatum., 



LOOSESTRIFE FAMBLY. Lythraceas. 



A most beautiful species naturalized 

from Europe and called by the English, 

Loosestrife Long Purples, Spiked Willow-herb, etc. 

Lythrum An erect, smooth, or slightly hairy slender 

Salicaria perennial, generally much-branched. The 

Purple- medium green leaves lance-shaped with a 

magenta, light , 

June-August heart-shaped base, growing oppositely or 

in circles of three, and stemless. The 
long-petaled, purple-magenta (light or deep) flowers, 
growing in circles, with 8-12 stamens, longer and 
shorter ; the flowers, in fact, trimorphous, that is, de- 
veloping three relative lengths of stamens and style. 
Unquestionably dependent upon insects for cross-fertili- 
zation ; the honeybee, the bumblebee, and many of the 
butterflies are common visitors ; Colias philodice is fre- 
quently among the number. 20-35 inches high. In wet 
meadows, and on the borders of swamps, from Me., Vt., 
and Mass., south to Del., and in eastern N. Y, Mrs. 
Dana says: "It may be seen in the perfection of its 
beauty along the marshy shores of the Hudson, and in 
the swamps of the Wallkill Valley." It is also abundant 
near Bedford, Mass.. and in Worcester Co., Mass. It 
responds readily to cultivation. 

Swamp -A- somewhat shrubby plant, nearly 

Loosestrife smooth, with reclining or recurved stems 
Decodon verti- o f 4-6 sides, and lance-shaped leaves near- 
ly stemless, opposite-growing, or mostly 
in threes ; the uppermost with clusters of 
small, bell-shaped magenta-flowers, growing from their 
bases. Flowers with five wedge-lance-shaped petals 
half an inch long. Stamens 10, five short and five long. 
2-8 feet long. Swampy places. N. Eng. south and west 
to Minn, and La. 

A cold and clammy, hairy, branching, 
Cuphea y fcomely annual, with ovate-lance-shaped 

Cuphea dull green leaves, and small magenta- 

petiolata pink flowers with ovate petals on short 

Magenta=pink c i aws> stem branching, 1-2 feet high. 

September Dr y sandv fields from R - L south to Ga. 
and west to Kan. and La, 



288 




Swamp Loosestrife. Decodon verticil latus. 



MEADGW-BEAUTY FAMILY. Melastomaceas* 



MEADOW-BEAUTY FAMILY. Melastomacece. 

Herbs (in our range) with opposite leaves of 3-7 veins, 
and perfect, regular flowers having four petals, and as 
many calyx-lobes ; there are either four or eight promi- 
nent stamens ; in our species the anthers open by a pore 
in the apex. The stigma being far in advance of the an- 
thers, the flower is cross-fertilized, and mostly through 
the agency of butterflies and bees. The seed are in a 
four-celled capsule. 

A stout-stemmed perennial, sometimes 
beauty or branched (the stem rather square), with 

Deer=grass. smooth, light green, three-ribbed leaves, 
RhexiaVirginica sharp-toothed, ovate pointed or narrower, 
Magenta and stem i ess> The flowers with four 

broad magenta or purple-magenta petals ; 
the golden anthers large. There are eight stamens 
slightly varying in length ; the pistil reaching beyond 
them secures the cross-fertilization of the flower ; the 
honeybee and Colias philodice (the omnipresent yellow 
butterfly) are the only visitors I have happened to ob- 
serve. 10-18 inches high. In sandy marshes, from Me, 
south, and local west to 111. and Mo. 

A similar species, with square stem and 
Rhexia aristosa it i- mi i 

narrow, small, linear leaves. Ihe large 

rounded petals of the magenta flowers are furnished with 
a tiny awnlike point. In sandy swamps, and the pine 
barrens of New Jersey, south to S. Car., local. 

A slender, round-stemmed species, rather 
Rhexia Mariana , , ... , , ,. 

hairy, and with short-stemmed linear- 
oblong, toothed leaves, three-ribbed, and acute. The 
flowers are light magenta and similar to those of Rhexia 
Virginica. In sandy swamps, and in the pine barrens of 
New Jersey, south and southwest to Tex. The name, 
from the Greek pij&S, means a breaker crevice, alluding 
to the situation of the plant. 

A smooth species with a square stem and 
Rhexia dliosa Qvate almost gtemless leaves with bristly 
fringed edges. Flowers like those of R. virginica but. 
purple, the anthers oblong and straight, not spurred. 
1-2 feet high. Md. south. 

290 




Meadow Beauty. 



R.&ristosai. 



Rhexia, virgin! c a. 



EVENING PRIMROSE FAMILY. Onageace&. 



EVENING PRIMROSE FAMILY. Onagracece. 

Herbs, or sometimes shrubs. The perfect flowers 
commonly with four petals and four sepals (rarely 2-6), 
and with as many or twice as many stamens ; the 
stigma with 2-4 lobes. Fertilized by moths, butterflies, 
and bees. 

A nearly smooth herb with many 
Ludwigia branches, and lance-shaped, toothless, op- 

alternifolia posite-growing leaves which taper to a 
Yellow point at either end. The solitary light 

June- yellow, four-petaled flowers, about J inch 

September , 

broad, with sepals nearly as long as the 

petals. The seed-capsule is four-sided and wing-mar- 
gined, rounded at the base ; the seeds eventually become 
loose and rattle about when the plant is shaken. 2-3 
feet high. Common in swamps, from Mass., to north- 
ern N. Y., south, and west to Mich, and Kan. 

A less showy species with very narrow 
Ludwigia , / , . 

polycarpa lance-shaped leaves, and tiny mconspicu- 

Green ous, stemless flowers whose rudimentary 

July- petals are pate green. The flowers grow 

September at the j unct i on of leaf-stem with plant- 
stem. The four-sided, top-shaped seed-capsule is fur- 
nished at the base with linear or awl-shaped leaflets. 
1-3 feet high. In swamps from Mass, southwest to Ky., 
and west to Minn, and E. Kan. 

A common uninteresting aquatic species 
Purslane found in swamps and ditches. The tiny 

Ludwigia inconspicuous flowers without petals, or, 

palustris when the plant grows out of water, with 

Pale reddish verv sma i]_ ru ddy ones. The lance-shaped, 
September opposite-growing, slender-stemmed leaves 
(with the flowers growing at their bases) 
an inch long or less. The elongated capsule indistinctly 
four-sided. Stems 4-12 inches long, creeping or float- 
ing. Shallow marshes, and muddy ditches everywhere* 
Named for C. G. Ludwig, a German botanist. 



292 




L.palustris Page 292 L. 

Seedbox. 
Ludwigia alternifolia 



EVENING PRIMROSE FAMILY. Onagracese. 



A tall perennial herb with ruddy stem 

TeW< lt/-ii 01 an( l dark olive green, lance-shaped, white- 
Great Willow 
Herb ribbed leaves without teeth or nearly so, 

Epilobium resembling those of the willow. The light 
angustifolium magenta or rarely white flowers in a ter- 
Light magenta minal showy fee with four broad and 
July-August 

conspicuous petals, eight stamens, and a 

prominent pistil. The slender velvety, purple- tinged 
pods, gracefully curved, open lengthwise and liberate a 
mass of silky down in late August and September, which 
gives the plant a wild and dishevelled appearance. 4-7 
feet high. Common on newly cleared woodland, es- 
pecially where the ground has been burned over. From 
Me., south to N. Car., and west to S. Dak. and Tex. 

A foreign perennial species w T hich has 
Hairy Willow , ,. 'j 

Her jj become naturalized about towns near the 

Epilobium coast. The deep yellow-green leaves ob- 
hirsutum long lance-shaped , finely toothed and stem- 

Magenta legg> The f our .petaled magenta flowers, 

July-August . , 

| inch broad, in a short terminal cluster, 

or between leaf-stem and plant-stem. There are eight 
stamens. Seed-pod long and slender, the seed wafted by 
means of a long tuft of silky hairs at the tip. 3-4 feet 
high, densely soft-hairy, stout and branching. 

A small uncommon species. The stem 
Epilobium angled or marked with hairy lines, sparse- 

Uilf l ? finely hairy throu g hout - The broad 

July-August linear, obtuse leaves erect or ascending, 
and stemless, with curled-back margins. 
The seed-capsules extremely long and with scarcely ap- 
parent slender stems. 6-12 inches high. Flowers the 
same as in the next species. White Mountains, N. H., 
and Vt. , west to Minn. Found on Mt. Washington. 

A very slender swamp species, with 
Epilobium small linear or narrow lance-shaped light 

densum green leaves with a short but distinct stem, 



July- August and ti n y ^ ac or P a ^ e m &genta flowers, 
scarcely J inch broad. The whole plant 
minutely hairy together with the capsule. More branched 
than the next species. 1-2 feet high. In bogs from 
Me., southwest to Pa., and west to S. Dak. 
294 




Epilobium densum. 



Epilobium coloratum 



EVENING PRIMROSE FAMILY. Onagracese. 



A similar species with densely soft white- 
Epilobium hairy stem, leaves, and seed-pod. The 

Lji a c leaves broader and less acute than those 

July-August f the last species, with short stems or 

none at all. The veins distinct. Flowers 
like those of the previous species. 1-3 feet high. In 
bogs from Me., south to Va., and west to Minn. 

A very common species in the north, 
Epilobium with a minutely hairy branching stem, 
Lilac l often ruddy, and lanceolate leaves, dis- 

July-August tinctly but not conspicuously toothed, 

short-stemmed, and yellow-green in color, 
often ruddy-tinged. The tiny flowers pale lilac, and 
sometimes nodding ; in fact, all these small-flowered 
Epilobiums after being plucked show nodding blossoms. 
Seed-pod green, exceedingly long and slender, the seeds 
dark brown, the hairy plume, at first pale, finally cinna- 
mon brown. 1-8 feet high. In wet situations every where. 
Differs from the foregoing species in 
Epilobium having erect flowers (though they may 

odenoca nod ^ ^^ broader , blunter, and less 

July-August toothed leaves with shorter stems, and 

lighter colored seeds with a slight prolon- 
gation at the top. 1-3 feet high. In wet situations 
throughout the north ; not south of Pa. The silky 
plumes of the seeds of these few last small-flowered 
species described may become grayish white as in E. 
adenocaulon ; but at first they are absolutely white. At 
best the Epilobiums are a difficult genus to separate dis- 
tinctly, and are not a little puzzling to the botanist. 

A very familar biennial, and nocturnal 
Common . ... ,. , 

Evening species, with light green leaves more or 

Primrose less lance-shaped, sometimes broad, slight- 

CEnothera ly resembling those of the fireweed, 
biennis slightly toothed or toothless. Large showy 

July 5 - August P ure vellow flowers, lemon-scented, with 
eight prominent and spreading stamens ; 



296 




Evening Primrose. (Enother&biennis. 



EVENING PRIMROSE FAMILY. Onagraceae. 



the golden pollen is loosely connected by cobwebby 
threads, and is transported from flower to flower mostly 
by moths ; the Isabella tiger-moth (Pyrrharctic Isabella) 
is chief among the number. The blossoms are also fre- 
quented by the honeybee and bumblebee ; they usually 
open just before sundown, and fade in the strong sun- 
light of the following day ; the sudden opening of the 
flower in the twilight hour is interesting and remark- 
able. The soft-hairy plant-stem, leafy throughout, is 
1-6 feet high. Roadsides and fields everywhere east of 
the Rocky Mountains. The flower of var. grandiflora, 
from the southwest, is very large ; the corolla is 3-4 
inches in diameter. It is commonly cultivated. The 
var. cruciata has remarkably narrow petals linear and 
acute ; Mass. , Vt. , and N. Y. 

Oakes's Even= An annual, slenderer than the foregoing 
ing Primrose species, and not hairy but covered with 
(Enothera a g^g^t c i ose WO olliness. The calvx-tips 

Oakesiana , , ^ 

Pure yellow not conspicuously close together. Dry 
July-August situations Mass, and N. Y., west to Neb. 
(Enoihera ^ ^ ower slightly fine-hairy species with 

ladnata oblong or lance-shaped leaves wavy- 

Pure yellow toothed or often deep-cleft like those of 
May-July the dandelion ; the small light yellow 

flowers borne at the bases of the leaves turn pinkish in 
fading. About 1 foot high. In sandy soil, from N. J. 
south, and west to S. Dak., Kan., and Tex. Also in Vt. 
according to Britton and Brown, but not recorded by 
Brainerd, Jones, and Eggleston, in Flora of Vermont. 

A small slightly hairy biennial, with di- 
Sundrops 
{Enothera urnal, rather small pure yellow flowers, 

pumila borne in a loose spike or at the bases of 

Pure yellow the leaves, the latter light dull green, 
May-July toothless and obtuse, lance-shaped but 

broader nearer the tip. 10-20 inches high. In dry sunny 
fields, from Me. to N. J. , and west to Minn, and Kan. 
<Enothera glauca A southern species with very large pure 
May-Septem- yellow flowers lj-2f inches broad, and long 
ber ovate leaves, wavy-toothed. The smooth 

seed-capsule oblong and with four broad wings. 20-34 
inches high. In dry mountain woods, Ya. to Ky., south. 
298 




Sundpops. ' 
(Enothena. /ruiticosa /TCEnothePa. 



EVENING PRIMROSE FAMILY. Onagracese. 



A similar diurnal species with flowers 
Sundrops . \ 

CEnothera 4~ * lncn broad, borne in a loose spike or 
fruticosa at the bases of the leaves ; the latter are 

Pure yellow oblong or lance-shaped and very slightly 
May-July toothed. Cross-fertilized by butterflies 

and bees, especially those of the genus Andrena, and 
the brilliant little flies of the genus Syrphidce. The 
stigma extends far beyond the anthers, so self-fertiliza- 
tion is impossible except with the agency of insects. 
The seed-pods strongly ribbed and winged. Very varia- 
ble, 1-3 feet high. Common in fields and on roadsides 
everywhere. The var. Unearis is slender, has very nar- 
row, linear-lance-shaped leaves, and the less ribbed seed- 
pods taper into the slender stalk. From Conn, south, 
and west to Mo. Blooming from June to September. 

An inconspicuous perennial of damp and 
Nightshade shady woodlands, with opposite thin, frail 
Circcea deep green leaves, ovate pointed, remotely 

Lutetiana toothed, and long-stemmed. The tiny 
White white flowers have two petals so deeply 

July-August cleft that thev appear ag f Qur . tney are 

borne at the tip of a long slender stem, which is set 
about with the little green burlike, white-haired, nearly 
round seed-pods. Fertilized by the beelike fly (Bombyli- 
us), the brilliant green Syrphid fly, and the mining bee 
(Andrena). Plant-stem very smooth and swollen at the 
joints. Common in cool and moist woodlands every- 
where. Named for the enchantress Circe. This and the 
next species are often found close together in Campton, 
N. H. 

Circcea ^ smaller species, the stem of which is 

alpina watery and translucent, ruddy and 

White smooth. The thin and delicate heart- 

July-August s h a p e( i leaves are shiny, coarsely blunt- 
toothed, and distinctly different from those of the 
preceding species. Tiny leaflets, or bracts, are set im- 
mediately beneath the flowers. The burlike buds are 
club-shaped. 3-8 inches high. Common only in the 
north among the mountains. Low, 8-16 inches high. 

The leaves ovate and almosc heart-shaped ; 

pedicels usually with tiny bracts. Que. to 



intermedia, , ~. 

la. and Tenn. 



300 




CircaeaLutetiana. 



Circaea alpina,. 



GINSENG FAMILY. Araliacese. 



GINSENG FAMILY. Araliacece. 

Generally herbs in our range, with compound, mostly 
alternate leaves and tiny five-petaled flowers in crowded 
clusters ; stamens five, alternate with the petals ; the 
flowers perfect or more or less polygamous ; staminate 
and pistillate flowers occurring on the same plant. 
Fruit a cluster of berries, which with the root, bark, etc., 
are slightly aromatic. Visited by numerous woodland 
insects as well as the bees of the genus Halictus, and oc- 
casionally by butterflies. 

Spikenard ^- ^ a ^' branching, smooth woodland 

Aralia herb, with a round, blackish stem, and 

racemosa large compound leaves of generally 15-21 

Green=white ovate leaflets, heart-shaped at the base, 
July-August finelv double-toothed, and deep green with 
brownish stems. The greenish white flowers are ar- 
ranged in small round clusters which in the aggregate 
form a large, terminal, pointed spike, or perhaps several 
smaller spikes form the base of the leaves. Visited by 
tlie bees of the genus Halictus^ and the beelike flies 
(Syrphidce). Fruit around dull brown-crimson berry (in 
compact clusters) sometimes, when over-ripe dull brown- 
purple. The large roots are esteemed for their spicy and 
aromatic flavor. 3-5 feet high. Rich woodlands from 
Me., south through the mountains to Ga., and west to 
Minn., S. Dak., and Mo. 

A characteristically fine-hairy plant, 
Bristly Sar= 

with similar leaves generally hairy on the 

Wild Elder veins beneath and irregularly double- 
Araiia hispida toothed ; they are perhaps longer and 
Dull white more pointgd than those of Aralia race- 
June-early nwsat an d rounded at the base. The tiny 
dull white flowers are arranged in some- 
what hemispherical clusters, several of which crown the 
summit of the stem. The fruit is somewhat oblate- 
spheroidal in shape and dull brown-crimson when ripe. 
12-34 inches high. In rocky woods, from Me., south to 
N. C., in the mts. ; west to Minn. Two rare forms of A. 
nudicaulis (next page) are : var. elongata, with narrower 
longer leaflets. Catskill Mts., and var. prolifera, with 
25-40 leaflets and 5-70 little flower-groups, w. N. J. 
302 




Bristly Sarsaparilla, 



idc hispid A. 



GINSENG FAMILY. Araliacese. 



A so-called stemless Araha, whose true 
Wild Sar- . 

saparilla plant-stem scarcely rises above ground, 

Aralia the leaf -stem and flower-stem apparently 

nudicaulis separating near the root. There is a single 
Green-white long-stalked leaf rising 7-12 inches above 
the ground, with three branching divisions 
of leaflets ; there are about five ovate, finely toothed, 
light green leaflets on each division. The flower-stalk is 
leafless and bears 3-7 rather flat hemispherical clusters 
of greenish white flowers whose tiny petals are strongly 
reflexed ; the five greenish stamens are conspicuous. 
The fruit is a round purple-black berry in clusters. Com- 
mon in moist woodlands, from Me., south along the 
mountains to N. C., and west to Minn., S. Dak., and 
Mo. The aromatic roots are used as a substitute for the 
true Sarsaparilla (Smilax officinalis). The vars. on p. 302. 
The roots of Ginseng which , in the esti- 
Panax mation of the Chinese, are possessed of 

quinquefolium some potent medicinal virtue, are so much 
Pale green- in demand for export that through the as- 
siduity of collectors the plant has -become 
rare. The large deep green leaf has five 
thin, obovate, acute-pointed leaflets, sharply and ir- 
regularly toothed ; in arrangement it slightly resembles 
the horse-chestnut leaf. The plant-stem is smooth and: 
green, and the compound leaves are borne three in a 
circle. The yellowish green flowers (the staminate lily- 
of-the-valley-scented) are crowded into a single hemi- 
spherical cluster ; they are polygamous. The fruit is a 
deep ruby red berry, in a scant cluster. The name is a 
corruption of the Chinese Jin-chen, meaning manlike 
(from the two-legged appearance of the root). The plant 
is small 8-15 inches high. Rare in rich cold woods. 
Me., N. H., and Vt. to Conn., west to Minn, and Neb. 

A tiny species with a spherical root, gen- 
Dwarf Ginseng 
Panax tri- erally three compound leaves composed of 

folium about three toothed, ovate leaflets, and 

Dull white dull white flowers, staminate and pistil- 
May-June late, on the same plant, borne in a single 
cluster. Fruit yellow. 4-8 inches high. Me. , south to 
Ga. , in the mountains, and west to Minn, and Iowa. 

304 




Ginseng 
nudicaulis. Panax quinquefolium> trifotium. 



PARSLEY FAMILY. Umbelliferse. 



PARSLEY FAMILY. Umbelliferce. 

Herbs with hollow stems, generally deeply cut com- 
pound leaves, and tiny flowers in mostly broad flat-topped 
clusters, perfect (often polygamous), having five petals, 
as many stamens, and two styles. In some flowers the 
styles protrude from the yet undeveloped blossom, and 
the stigmas are touched by the visiting insect long be- 
fore the anthers are mature, thus securing cross- fertiliza- 
tion. Commonly visited by countless insects, including 
the honeybee, the bumblebee, and many butterflies, 
chief among which are the Black Swallowtails. The 
many species are not easily distinguished apart, as the 
flowers are very similar ; in general, minute character- 
istics of the seed show the radical differences best. 
Strong-scented plants remarkable for their aromatic oil. 
One of our commonest weeds, natural- 
Wild Carrot ized f rom Europe, and familiar by every 
or Queen 
Anne's Lace wayside near a dwelling. A coarse and 

or Bird's Nest hairy -stemmed biennial with exceedingly 
Daucus Carota fine-cut leaves, yellowish green, and rough 
Dull white to the touch ; they are thoroughly decora- 

Se tember ^ ve * '^^ le ^ u ^ wm ^ e flowers, in extremely 
flat-topped clusters, are gracefully dis- 
posed in a radiating pattern as fine as lace ; in the cen- 
tre of the cluster is frequently found a single tiny deep 
purple floret. Visited by innumerable insects, flies, but- 
terflies, bees, and moths, most of which are attracted by 
the peculiarly strong odor. The aged flower-cluster 
curls up and resembles a bird's nest, from which circum- 
stance the plant derives that name. 2-3 feet high. In 
waste places and fields everywhere ; it is often a most 
troublesome weed. A near relative of the garden carrot. 
A smooth, perennial species somewhat 
Parsie C similar in appearance to wild carrot, but 

Conioselinum with a slender-branched flower-cluster 
chinense composed of far less showy dull white 

Dull white flowers. The leaves similar, the lower 
u ^" st ~ long-stemmed, the upper quite stemless. 

The fruit or seed is smooth, flat, and 
prominently five-ribbed, the two side ribs exceedingly 







Conioselinum 
chinense. 



Wild CaPPOt. 



Daojcus C&rota. 



PARSLEY FAMILY. Umbelh ferae. 



broad. 2-4 feet high. In cool swamps among the hills, 
from Me. and Vt., southwest through the mountains to 
N. Car., west to Minn, and Mo. 

A tall and slender species, poisonous to 
w *" e taste, and with large tuberiferous roots. 

rigidior The leaves are deep green, and altogether 

Dull white different in form from those of the pre- 
August- ceding species ; they are long-stemmed 

and composed of 3-9 lance-shaped or 
broader, remotely toothed leaflets, more or less variable 
in shape. The tiny dull white flowers are in slender 
clusters. The seed is flat-sided, broad, and the ribs are 
not sharp or prominent ; the side ribs are broad. An- 
other denizen of the swamps; from N. Y., south, and 
west to Minn, and Mo. Named for Prof. Tiedemann, of 
Heidelberg. Formerly Tiedemannia. 

A common very tall perennial with a 
Cow Parsnip 

Heracleum stout, hollow, ridged stem, sometimes 

lanatum stained lightly with dull brown-red. The 

Dull white leaves are dark green, compound in three 
June-July divisions, toothed and deeply lobed, rather 
soft-hairy beneath, and with a leafy formation at the 
junction of the leaf -stem and plant-stem. The insignifi- 
cant dull white flowers, in large flat clusters, have five 
petals, each of which is deeply notched and of unequal 
proportions. The seed is very broad, fiat, and generally 
oval. 4-8 feet high. Wet ground, shady borders of 
moist thickets, from Me. , south to N. Car. , and west to 
S. Dak. and Mo. Named for Hercules. 

A common biennial familiar on waysides 
Wild Parsnip and the borders of fields> with a tough, 
Pasttnaca , ... 

sativa strongly grooved, smooth stem, and with 

Light gold dull deep green, compound leaves corn- 
yellow posed of many, toothed, thin, ovate divi- 
June- sions. The dull (in effect greenish) light 
gold yellow flowers are gathered in small 
clusters set on slender stems, and form a broad, flat- 
topped cluster. The stem, 2-5 feet high, is extremely 
strong and difficult if not impossible to break. Seeds 
flat and thin. Common. Naturalized from Europe. 



308 




Cowbane. 
Pg.3o8 Oxy polls rigid! or. 



Golden Alexanders. 
Thaspium aureum. 



PARSLEY FAMILY. Umbelliferae. 



Sometimes called Golden Alexanders. 
Parsnip ^ western species not very distant from 

Thaspium Zizia aurea. It has medium green lance- 

aureum shaped or ovate, toothed leaflets, three of 

Golden yellow which generally compose a leaf ; the root- 
une- August ] eaves are s i n gi e) mostly distinctly heart- 
shaped, the others simply rounded at the base. The 
golden yellow flowers are gathered in sparse flat-topped 
clusters. The seed is equally angled with deep flanges 
or ribs and is distinctly different in this respect from th'e 
flat seeds of Pastinaca sativa ; they mature in early au- 
tumn. 15-36 inches high. Found on the borders of 
thickets, and woodland roads, from Ohio, westto Mo., 
southwest to Tenn., and west to 111. The var. atropur- 
pureum bears deep dull purple flowers, and is confined 
to the same range. T. barbinode is a similar species 
with stem- and leaf-joints and flowering stems more or 
less fine-hairy. Leaves with 3-6 leaflets. Flowers light 
gold yellow. Seed with seven prominent wings. Beside 
streams, commonest in the Mississippi Valley; N. Y., 
west to Minn., and south. 

A stout and branching species often 
>nlp growing in shallow water. The compound 
cicutcefoiium leaves deep green, with 7-15 linear or lance- 
Dull white shaped leaflets sharply toothed ; the finely 
July- cut lower leaves generally submerged. 

September The dull white flowers are in a flat dome- 

shaped cluster. The seeds are prominently ribbed, and 
the leaves are variable in form. 2-6 feet high. Through- 
out the country. 

A similar but smaller aquatic species 6- 
Berula 34 inches high, with 7-19 leaflets, more or 

less lobed, and a dome-shaped cluster of 
white flowers. From N. Y. to 111. and Neb. Also in 
the Rockies and the far west. 

A very common smooth perennial, found 
Parsni *" " on sna( ^ e ^ roadsides or meadow borders. 
Zizia aurea The medium light green leaves are doubly 
Light gold compound ; generally three divisions (or 
yellow leaflets, properly speaking) of 3-7 leaflets, 

all narrow, pointed, and sharply toothed^ 

310 




Early Meadow Parsnip. 



ZiziiaureaT* 



PARSLEY FAMILY. Umbelliferas. 



but varying to broader types. The stem is often branched. 
The tiny dull light gold yellow flowers have prominent 
stamens, and are collected in many small clusters, each 
widely separated from the other, but all forming a thin 
radiating cluster. Visited commonly by many flies, 
small butterflies, and but few bees. Seeds slightly 
ribbed. 16-34 inches high. Everywhere. Me. to S. Dak. 
Caraway ^ common weed in the north, natural- 



Carum carvi ized from Europe. Biennial or perennial ; 
Dull white the lower basal leaves long-stemmed, the 
June-July upper stemless ; all finely cut, and orna- 
mental ; deep olive gray -green ; the flowers grouped like 
those of wild carrot, but far less showy, dull white or 
gray-white, in scattered thin groups like Zizia. The 
seed is oblong, slightly curved, plainly ribbed, exceed- 
ingly aromatic, and is much used as a spice in cakes, 
and also in confectionery. The flowers are frequently 
visited by various flies and bees, the yellow butterfly 
Colias philodice, and also the white cabbage butterfly 
Pieris rapce. 1-2 feet high. Local from Me., west to 
Pa., Minn., S. Dak., and Col. Found in Campton, N. H. 
An erect, slender, usually much- 

branched and smooth perennial herb, very 
lock or Spot- 
ted Cowbane poisonous to the taste. The stem marked 

Cicuta with dull magenta lines. The leaves deep 

maculata green, smooth, often tinged ruddy, with 

Dull white coarse sharp teeth, and conspicuously 
June-August 

veined, the lower ones nearly a toot long. 

The 9-21 leaflets lance-shaped or broader. The incon- 
spicuous dull white flowers in a thin, flat, somewhat 
straggling cluster ; they are polygamous. The seed 
ovate, flat on one side, or nearly so, and inconspicuously 
ribbed on the other. 3-6 feet high. Visited by number- 
less bees, wasps, and butterflies. Wet meadows and 
borders of swamps, from Me. , south and west to S. Dak. 
A similar much-branched herb, from 
Hemlock which is obtained a virulent poison, used 

Conium in medicine. It bears the name of the , 

maculatum Hemlock employed by the ancient Greeks 
Dull white j n putting to death their condemned po- 
litical prisoners, philosophers, and crimi- 




Spotted Cowbane 



Cicuta maculate 



PARSLEY FAMILY. Umbelliferse. 



nals. Socrates died by this means. The dark green 
leaves are deeply dissected and toothed ; the leaf -stems 
are sheathed at the base, and the dull white flower-clus- 
ters are slender-branched. The ovate seeds are flat and 
irregularly ribbed. The stem is also spotted or marked 
with ruddy color like that of Cicuta. 2-5 feet high. In 
waste places, Me. and Vt., south to Del., west to Minn, 
and Iowa ; also in Cal. Naturalized from Europe. 
Sweet Cicel Tlie round > su *g nt ry silky hairy stem (es- 

Osmorrhiza pecially when young) of this familiar per- 
Claytoni ennial herb is dull green often much stained 

Dull white with dull madder purple a brownish pur- 
May-June p lgj Tlie com pound i ea f i s cut an( j toothed 
similar to that of Poison Hemlock; when young it is distin- 
guished by its fine-hairiness ; later that characteristic is 
less evident ; it is mostly three-divided, appears fernlike, 
deep green, and thin. The lower leaves are large, some- 
times considerably over a foot long. The stems of the 
dull white flower-clusters are slender and few, conse- 
quently there is no appearance of an aggregate flat- 
topped cluster such as generally distinguishes the family 
Umbelliferce. The flowers are staminate and perfect, 
the latter maturing the anthers first ; cross-fertilized by 
many flies and bees. The tiny blossom has five cloven 
white petals and a very short style, scarcely ^ inch long, 
which distinguishes it from the next species. 16-34 
inches high. In moist rich woodlands, from Me., south 
through the mountains to N. Car., west to Minn, and 
Neb. The large aromatic roots are anise-flavored and 
edible, but the similar general appearance of the Poison 
Hemlock often leads to dangerous if not fatal results. 

This is so similar to the preceding that 
Osmorrhiza the diff eren ces are not obvious to the 
longistylis . . ., , , . 

casual observer. Ine leaves and stem are 

either very slightly hairy or smooth. The style under 
the magnifying glass shows a greatly superior length; it 
is fully T V inch long or more. The seeds of both species 
are nearly alike, linear, compressed, and bristly on the 
ribs. The roots of O. longistylis are more spicy than 
those of O. brevistylis. Me., south to Ala., and west to 
the Dakotas. 




Seed-\\ vessel of 
Osmopphiza longistylis 
showing the long double style. 

Sweet Cicely 



OsmorrhizaClaytoni. 



PARSLEY FAMILY. Umbelliferae. 



A small, creeping marsh plant, with a 
Pennywort we ak, pale green, smooth stem, which fre- 
Hydrocotyle quently takes root at the joints, and a 
Americana round-hear t-shaped, light green leaf, thin, 
Dull white smooth, and shining, the edge doubly scal- 
June-August i -, -, ,-, \ i 

loped, and the stem about an inch long. 

The tiny white flowers, 1-5 in a cluster, are inconspicu- 
ous and grow at the angles of the leaves. In wet places, 
Me., south to Pa., and N. Car., west to Minn, and Mo. 

The green stem is smooth, light green, 
eta* 6 f slightly grooved, and hollow like most of 
Snakeroot ^e mem bers of the Parsley Family. The 
Sanicula leaves are deep green of .a bluish tone, 

marilandica smooth, toothed, and palm-shaped, that is 
Gre nish with radiating lance-shaped leaflets, ar- 

May-July ranged like those of the horse-chestnut ; of 
the five leaflets the lower two are deeply 
cleft ; the upper leaves are in three divisions and stem- 
less. The tiny pale greenish yellow flowers are in very 
small clusters ; the five petals of each floret are curiously 
incurved toward the centre of the flower, and beneath 
them are the five stamens securely restrained from ac- 
complishing the process of self-fertilization ; later the 
petals unfold ; the flowers are both staminate and per- 
fect, intermixed. In the few perfect flowers the two 
mature styles protrude beyond the petals, and the visit- 
ing insect must brush against them, generally after hav- 
ing visited some staminate flower. Cross-fertilization 
now completed, the styles curve backward so that the 
withering stigmas are safely out of the way of the ma- 
turing stamens, which are not released from the enfold- 
ing petals until the anthers begin to shed their pollen. 
The long stamens of the sterile flowers mature early, 
and are a conspicuous factor in the green-yellow color- 
ing of the flower-clusters. The fruit, a tiny ovoid bur 
with many hooked bristles, often retains the recurved 
slender styles. Visited by the Syrphid flies, the bees, 
and a few butterflies. 18-38 inches high. In rich wood- 
lands. Me., south to Ga., west to Minn, and Kan. 




Water Pennywort. Hyd pocotyle Americana. 



DOGWOOD FAMILY. Cornaceic. 



DOGWOOD FAMILY. Cornacece. 

Shrubs or trees, with opposite or alternate toothless 
leaves, and generally perfect flowers sometimes they 
are dioecious ; that is, the two kinds of flowers grow on 
separate plants ; or polygamous, that is, perfect, stami- 
nate and pistillate flowers growing on the same plant or 
different plants. The genus Cornus, within our range, 
which is represented here by two species, has perfect 
flowers. Cross-fertilization is effected mostly by bees 
and the beelike flies. 

An exceedingly dainty little plant com- 
Buifchberry 5 mon on woo(iecl hilltops, and remarkable 
Cornus f r ^s brilliant scarlet berries which grow 

Canadensis in small, close clusters. The leaves are 
Greenish white light yellow-green, broadly ovate pointed, 
May-July toothless, and deeply marked by about 5-7 

nearly parallel, curving ribs ; they are set in circles. 
The flowers are greenish and tiny, closely grouped in the 
centre of four large slightly green- white bracts, or leaf- 
lets, havingj the semblance of petals, and imparting to 
the whole the appearance of a single blossom about an 
inch broad. The flowers are succeeded in late August 
by a compact bunch of exceedingly beautiful but insipid 
scarlet berries, of the purest and most vivid hue. The 
commonest visitors are the bees of the genera Andrena 
and Halictus, together with many w r oodland flies bee- 
flies, and the familiar "bluebottle." 3-8 inches high. 
In cool, damp, mossy woods ; frequently found on sum- 
mits over 4000 feet high, among the Adirondacks and 
the White Mountains. From Me., south to N. J., and 
west to Ind., Minn., Col., and Cal. 

A tall shrub and often a tree, whose 
Flowering 
Dogwood familiar flowers, appearing just before or 

Cornus florida with the ovate deeper green leaves, have 
Greenish white f our similar broad green-white or rarely 
ApriUJune p i n ki s h bracts, ribbed, and notched on the 
blunt tips. Fruit ovoid and scarlet, in small groups. 
7-40 feet high. Vt. , Mass. , south to Ky. and Fla. , and 
west to Mo. and Tex. Name from cornu, a horn, in al- 
lusion to the hardness of the wood. 



Flowering Dogwood 
Cornus florida. 




Bunchberry. I 
Cornus Canadensis. 



PYROLA FAMILY. Pyrolaceae. 



PYROLA FAMILY. Pyrolacece. 

Formerly classed as a suborder under the Heath Fam- 
ily. Generally evergreen perennials with perfect, nearly 
regular flowers, the corolla very deeply five-parted, or 
five-petaled ; twice as many stamens as the divisions of 
the corolla ; the style short, and the stigma five-lobed. 
Fruit a capsule. Visited by numerous flies and bees, a& 
well as smaller butterflies. 

A familiar and beautiful evergreen plant 

of the deep woods generally found under 
Chimaphila pines, spruces, or hemlocks. The dark 
umbellata green leaves are thick and shining, sharply 

Flesh or toothed along the upper half of the edge 

Yun^ul^ and indistinctlv toothed on the lower half; 

they are blunt or abruptly dull-pointed at 
the apex, wedge-shaped at the base, short-stemmed, and 
arranged in circles about the buff-brown plant-stem. 
The flowers are dainty pale pinkish or waxy cream 
color ; the corolla has five blunt lobes which turn back- 
ward as the flower matures, and at the base,' next to the 
dome-shaped green ovary, is a circle of pale magenta ; 
the ten short stamens have five double madder purple 
anthers ; the style is remarkably short scarcely notice- 
able, and the gummy stigma is nearly flat and five- 
scalloped. The flowers are delicately scented. Mostly 
fertilized through the agency of the bees of the genera 
Halictus and Andrena, and the numerous small flies 
common in woodlands ; the stigma is very sticky and 
broad. Seed-pod a globular brown capsule. 6-12 inches 
high. In dry woods, from Me. , south to Ga., west to Cal. 
Spotted A- very similar species remarkable for 

Wintergreen its green- white-marked leaves. The leaves 
Chimaphila instead of being broad and blunt near the 
maculata tip like those of 0. umbellata, taper grad- 

ually to a point ; they are remotely toothed, dark green, 
and strongly marked w4th white-green in the region of 
the ribs. They are about two inches long. 3-9 inches 
high. Somewhat common in N. Y., and in the White 
Mountains, extending westward only as far as Minn. The 
name, from Rei^cc, winter, and cptJidoo, to love. 
320 



Pipsissewa. 
Chimaphila 
umbellata. 




maculate 



PYROLA FAMILY. Pyrolaceae. 



One-flowered A Very Sma11 plant ' bearin a single 
Pyroia blossom, somewhat like that of the com- 

Moneses mon Shinleaf . The leaves are thin, deep 

uni flora green, shining, round or nearly so, with 

Ivory white rather fine indistinct teeth, and flat- 
June-August 

stalked. The five petals of the cream- 
colored or ivory white flower are a bit pointed ; the ten 
white stamens have two-pointed dull yellow anthers, 
and the long green pistil bends downward ; not far be- 
low the flower on the stem is a tiny bract or minute 
leaflet. 2-5 inches high. In pine woods usually near 
brooks. From Me., south to R. I. and Pa., and west to 
Mich, and Ore. Also in the Rocky Mountains. South 
to Col. Flowers with the petals crinkly-edged. 
Small Pyroia A northern woodland plant with ovate 
Pyroia secunda pointed deep green leaves, rather round- 
Greenish white toothed, and long-stemmed ; the leaves 

circled near the base of the plant-stem. 
The leaf-stalks are also somewhat flat and troughed. The 
flower-stalk is tall, bracted or remotely set with minute 
leaflets, and bears a one-sided row of small greenish 
white flowers which finally assume a drooping position ; 
the corolla is bell-shaped and five-lobed ; the pistil is 
extremely prominent. The slender flow^er-stalk is often 
bent sideways. 3-9 inches high. In woodlands, from 
Me., south to Pa., and west to Minn. Found on the 
slopes of the White and Adirondack Mountains. The 
var. puinila is a tiny form 2-4 inches high, with rounded 
leaves, and but 3-8 flowers. Vt. (Bristol, Sutton, New- 
ark, and Fairhaven), Me., and N. H., but not common, 
and west to Mich., on the shores of Lake Superior. 
Blooms from July- August. 

Pyroia This is a small-leaved species with dainty 

chlorantha drooping flowers, and a stem of very mod- 
Greenish white erate height without bracts or minute 
June-July leaflets, or at least possessing but one. 
The leaves are dull olive green, obscurely scalloped- 
edged, rather round, and thicker than those of the com- 
mon Pyroia (Shinleaf). The nodding, greenish white 
flowers have obtuse, elliptical, convergent petals They 



322 




secunda. 



One-flowered Pyrola 



Moneses 



PYROLA FAMILY. Pyrolaceae. 



&re slightly fragrant. 4-9 inches high. But 3-9 flowers. 
Woods, Me., south to Md., west to Minn., and Col. 
Shinleaf Perhaps the commonest of all the Py- 

Pyrola eiliptica rolas, rather taller than P. chlorantha, 
Greenish white with evergreen, dark olive green, ellipti- 
June-July CSL ^ ^ n i nj an( j obscurely shallow-toothed 

leaves, the stalks somewhat flat or troughed ; they ex- 
ceed their stalks in length. The greenish white waxy 
flowers nod ; they are very fragrant ; the five petals are 
thin and obovate, and form a protective cup about the pale 
ochre yellow anthers ; the pistil is extremely long, bends 
downward and then curves upward, exposing the tiny 
five-lobed stigma to the visiting insect which is most 
likely to alight upon the invitingly exposed pistil. The 
flowers form a loose cluster, each on a ruddy pedicel 
(stemlet), and are borne on an upright stalk generally 
ruddy at the base, and having a tiny leaflet or bract 
half-way up. Commonly visited by the beelike flies 
(Syrphidce), and the bees of the genera Halictus and 
Andrena. 5-10 inches high. Rich woods, from Me., 
south to Md. , and west to S. Dak. and 111. The name is 
from Pyrus or Pirum, a pear, in allusion to the shape of 
the leaf. 

A similar but much taller species, with 
p u ~ nearly round or very broad oval leaves, 

Pyrola thick, very indistinctly toothed or tooth - 

americana less, and a deep shining green ; the stems 

White usually longer than the leaves, and nar- 

rowly margined ; they are evergreen. 
The white waxy flowers are like those described above, 
but the roundish obovate petals spread open much more ; 
they are also very sweet-scented. 8-18 inches high.. In 
dry or damp sandy woodlands, from Me. , south to Ga. , 
and west to Minn., S. Dak., and Ohio. 

This similar species has pale crimson or 

Pyro f magenta flowers, and very round heart- 

asanfolia J , 

shaped leaves, rather wide, shining, and 

thick. The southern limit, northern N. Y. and New 
Eng. But both species are more frequently found 
northward. 



3 2 4 





Shinleaf. 





**f; 

Pypola asapjfolia, 



PYROLA FAMILY. Pyrolacex. 






Indian Pipe 

Monotropa 
uniflora 
White or 
pinkish 
July-August 



A familiar clammy, white, parasitic 
plant, deriving its nourishment from roots 
and decayed vegetation, generally found 
in the vicinity of rotting trees. The stem 
is thick, translucent white, and without 
leaves, except for the scaly bracts which 
take their place. The wliite or delicately pink-salmon- 
tinted flower has five, or sometimes four, oblong petals, 
and the 10-12 stamens are pale tan color. The flower is 
in a nodding position, and is usually solitary, although 
rarely two may be found on one stem ; the latter is often 
pink- tinged and springs with several others from a mat 
of entangled fibrous rootlets. The enlarged ovary finally 
assumes an erect position, becoming a pale tawny sal- 
mon color ; it is usually ten-grooved and five-celled, and 
forms a large, fleshy, ovoid seed-vessel. The plant is at 
home in the dim-lit fastnesses of the forest, and it quickly 
withers and blackens after being gathered and exposed 
to sunlight. 3-9 inches high. Nearly throughout the 
country. 

A somewhat similar parasitic plant found 
most frequently over the roots of oaks and 
pines. The stems are in clusters, and are 
slightly downy ; they are whitish, pale 
tan color, or reddish, with many bracts. 
The small bracts are thin, papery, yellow- 
ish red, and they turn black when wither- 
ing. The small vase-shaped flowers are 
light crimson-red more or less touched 
with yellow ; the tips of the flower are quite yellowish. 
The cluster of 3-10, or rarely more, drooping flowers is 
slightly fragrant. The fleshy vase-shaped seed-vessels 
become erect. 4-12 inches high. In dry woods from 
Me., south, and west to Ore. and Ariz. The generic 
name is from the Greek, and means turned one-sided, in 
allusion to the one-sided drooping method of flower- 
growth. 



False Beech- 
drops or 
Pine=sap 

Monotropa 
Hypopitys 
Tawny 
reddish, etc. 
June- 
September 



326 




Indian Pipe. False Beech-drops, 

Monotropa uni/lora. Monotropa Hypopitys. 



HEATH FAMILY. Ericaceae. 



HEATH FAMILY. Ericacece. 

Mostly shrubs and a few perennial herbs with simple 
leaves and generally regular, perfect flowers, the corolla 
of 4-5 lobes or petals, and as many or twice as many 
stamens. Fruit a capsule or berry. Cross-fertilized by 
various bees, by the beelike flies, butterflies, and moths. 
To this family belong the blueberries, huckleberries, 
and cranberries. 

The daintiest member of the Heath 
Snow berry Family, with (often terra-cot ta-colored) 
Chiogenes roughish stems creeping closely over rocky 

hispidula an( j mossy ground. The stiff dark olive 

evergreen leaves are tiny, broad, ovate 
pointed, and sparsely covered with brown- 
ish hairs beneath ; the margin of the leaves rolled back- 
ward. The tiny white flowers are bell-shaped with four 
rounded lobes. They grow at the angles of the leaves 
and assume a nodding position. The berry is shining 
china white, ovate, and about % inch long. Both leaf 
and berry possess a wintergreen flavor. Branches 3-11 
inches long. In cool damp woods and peat bogs, fre- 
quent on hill-tops, from Me., south to N. Car., and west 
to Minn. Found in Campton, N. H. The name (Greek) 
means " snow-offspring" ; it is appropriately dainty. 

Also a trailing, hillside plant of a shrubby 

^rltosta'phylos nature ' with m re r leSS mdd ^' hair ^ 
Uva-ursi rough branches. The toothless leaves are 

White or pink- thick, dark evergreen, round-blunt at the 
white tip, narrowed at the base, and finely 

veined. The white or rarely pinkish 
white flowers are bell-shaped or vase-shaped, and are 
borne in terminal clusters. The style extends far be- 
yond the anthers, and is touched first by the tongue of 
the visiting insect. The berry is an opaque red ; it is 
dry and insipid. In dry rocky soil, from Me., south to 
N. J., west to Minn., S. Dak., and Col. The name is 
from apKToS, a bear, and GTafpvXr}, a berry ; the specific 
title is mere Latin repetition Uva, a bunch or cluster of 
fruit, and Ursus, a bear. 



328 



Creeping Snowberry. Be&rberry. 

Chiogenes hispidula. Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi, 



HEATH FAMILY. Ericaceae. 



The Mayflower of New England, corn- 
Arbutus mon on the borders of rocky woods and 

Epigcea repens hillsides, and blooming beside the rein- 
White and pink nants of snow-drifts in early spring. It is 
April-May common in the vicinity of evergreen 
woodlands. The light brown stems are shrubby and 
tough, creeping close to the cold earth under decayed 
leaves and grasses ; they are rough-hairy. The old dull 
light olive green leaves are more or less rusty-spotted ; 
the sides spread angularly from the central depressed 
rib. The new leaves develop in June. The surface is 
rough and netted with fine veins ; beneath it is rough- 
hairy and much lighter in color. The sweet-scented, 
white or delicately pink- tinted flowers are five-lobed, 
tubular, and possess a frosty sheen ;, they are in general 
trimorphous, that is, the stamens and styles are of three 
relative and reciprocal lengths ; but commonly the 
flowers are dimorphous confined to staminate and pis- 
tillate forms. The staminate blossoms contribute a 
touch of light yellow to the delicate surrounding of pure 
pink and white. The commonest visitors are the early 
queen bumblebees, Bombus pennsylvanicus, Bombus 
terricola, and Bombus bifarius. The flower is nectar 
bearing. Branches 6-12 inches long. Me., south to 
Fla., and west to Minn. 

The familiar Boxberry of the Middle 
Wintergreen or . 

Checkerberry States, common in wildernesses and all 
Gaultheria evergreen woodlands. The broad, ovate, 
procumbens evergreen leaf is stiff, thick, and shiny 
White dark green, with few small teeth or tooth- 

July-August near i v stemless. The 



younger leaves are yellow-green ; all are clustered at 
the top of the buff-brown or ruddy stem. The white, 
waxy flowers are vase-shaped and nodding ; they grow 
from the angles of the leaves. The dry but exceedingly 
aromatic berry is pure red (a deep cherry color), often 
J inch in diameter, and is formed of the calyx which 
1 becomes fleshy, surrounds the seed-capsule, and has all 



330 




Trailing Arbutus. 
Epigaea pepens. 



Checkerberry 
Gaultheria procumbens. 



HEATH FAMILY. Ericaceae. 



the appearance of a true fruit. 2-5 inches high. From 
Me., south, and west to Mich. The same aromatic 
essential oil exists in sweet birch as in this wintergreen. 

A stout and tall shrub in its south- 
Mountain 

Laurel ern ran g e often forming impenetrable 

Kalmia thickets. The stem and branches are ir- 

latifolia regular and angular in growth ; the leaves 

White, pinkish are ever green, shiny dark green, elliptical, 
May-June rp u , 

firm, and toothless. The young leaves are 

a yellower green. The beautiful flowers are borne in 
large, dome-shaped clusters ; they are exceedingly con- 
ventional and ornamental in form, bowl-shaped with 
five lobes, waxy white, pinkish- tinged in maturity, and 
pure pink in the corrugated, cone-shaped bud. There 
are ten depressions or pockets in the sides of the corolla 
in which the tips of the anthers are securely held, their 
filaments forming a series of arching spokes from the 
centre of the flower which is stained with a tiny crimson 
star; the style is prominent and pale green. The insect 
visitor, commonly a moth, often a bee, struggling and 
pushing its way to the heart of the flower, releases the 
stamens and these spring backward, showering pollen 
over the fuzzy body of the intruder. The pollen of 
Kalmia is more or less connected by webby threads, and 
its adhesive character is peculiarly adapted to the pur- 
pose of cross-fertilization ; the next blossom visited by 
the insect probably has a receptive stigma about which 
the pollen strings become quickly entangled. The 
flower-stalks are hairy-sticky, thus preventing pilferers, 
such as ants, who would be useless as fertilizing agents, 
from entering the blossoms. The seed-capsule is some- 
what globular but five-lobed, and at first assumes a dull 
red hue. 3-6 feet high, and in its southern range often 
attaining a height of 20-35 feet. In woodlands, prefer- 
ring sandy soil or rocky slopes, from Me., south, and 
west to Tenn. and Ohio. Named for Peter Kalm, a 
German botanist, who visited this country in the middle 
of the eighteenth century. 



332 







Mountain Laurel 



HEATH FAMILY. Ericaceae. 



Shee laurel l esser proportions, and small, 

or Lambkill narrow, drooping leaves, elliptical or lance- 
Kalmia angusti- shaped, evergreen, and dull olive green 

often rusty-spotted, lighter green beneath. 

The flower is crimson-pinfc, small, but 

otherwise like that of Mountain Laurel, 
except that the filaments and all other parts are more or 
less pink-tinged. The stem is terminated by the newer 
leaves which stand nearly upright ; beneath these is the 
encircling flower-cluster ; below, the leaves droop. The 
foliage is poisonous to cattle. 8-36 inches high. Com- 
mon in swamps. Me. , south to Ga. , west to Wis. 
Pale Laurel ^ similar and even smaller species, 

Kaimia polifolia blooming about the same time, distin- 
Crimson=pink guished by its two-edged branches which 

seem to grow in sections set at right angles 
with one another. The narrow, evergreen leaves grow 
oppositely or are set in groups of three ; the edges are 
rolled back rather strongly ; they are conspicuously white- 
green beneath. The crimson-pink or often light lilac 
flowers, | inch broad, terminate the stem. 6-20 inches 
high, confined to cold peat bogs and hillside swamps, 
from Me. , south to northern N. J. , and west to Mich. 
White Swamp ^he wn<( l Rhododendrons are also shrubs 
Honeysuckle which bear characteristically showy flow- 
Ehododendron e rs. This species has a much branched 
White stem, and obovate or blunt lance- shaped, 

June-July yellow-green leaves, with a few scattered 

hairs above. The twigs are hairy, and the 
stem almost bare of leaves. The flowers (expanding later 
than the leaves) are pure white or pink-tinged, with the 
outside surface covered with ruddy, sticky hairs ; they are 
very fragrant ; the stamens are prominent, the anthers 
yellow ; the pinkish pistil is longer than the stamens. 
Visited most frequently by bees, butterflies, and moths, 
and protected from creeping insects by the sticky-hairy 
outer surface of the corolla-tube. 3-7 feet high. In 
swamps from Me., south, west to Ohio and Ark ; gener- 
ally near the coast. The var. glaucum has much lighter 
colored leaves rather whitish beneath, and sometimes 
hairy. Me. to Va. The name (Greek) means rose-tree. 

334 




PdJe Laurel. Rhododendron^ 
KaJmia polifolia. calendulaceum. 



HEATH FAMILY. Ericaceae. 



Pinxter Flower A m r e leafy shrub with branching 
or Wild stem, characterized by its extremely golden 

Honeysuckle yellow-green foliage. The ovate leaf 
Rhododendron ^ and ig pointed at both end the 

nudiflorum 

Pale or deep ed e and surface are very slightly hairy. 
pink The delicate and beautiful flowers are pale 

April-May or deep crimson-pink with the base of the 
tube a trifle stronger ; the broader corolla lobes do not 
curve back conspicuously ; the stamens and pistil, all ex- 
ceedingly prominent, are light crimson. The flowers 
are delicately fragrant, grow in small terminal clusters 
expanding before or with the leaves, and when fading 
the corollas slide down the pistils, depend from them a 
while, and finally drop. The most frequent visitors are 
the honeybees and moths. 2-6 feet high. In swamps or 
in shady places, from Me., south, and w r est to 111. 

A most beautiful and showy species, 
Flame Azalea 

Rhododendron entirely southern, but commonly culti- 
calendulaceum vated. The leaves are hairy and generally 
Orange=yellow obovate, sometimes with only a few 
and reddish sca ttered hairs above. The flower, ex- 

panding with or before the leaves, has 
five broad lobes scarcely if at all backward curved ; it is 
nearly flame color or orange-yellow more or less suffused 
with pink, has very little or no fragrance, and the outer 
surface of the tube is slightly fine-hairy and sticky. The 
ruddy stamens prominent. 4-12 feet high . In dry wood- 
lands, southern N. Y. and Pa., in the mountains, to Ga. 
Rhodora ^ f am ih' ar flower of New England and 

Rhododendron one famous in the verses of the poet 
.canadense Emerson. The leaves are slightly hairy, 

Light magenta Hg^ green, oval or oblong, and rather 

obtuse ; the color deeper above and paler 
beneath. The flowers are narrow-lobed, light magenta, 
and formed somewhat like the honeysuckle, with the up- 
per lip slightly three-lobed, and the lower in two nearly 
separate sections ; they grow in thin clusters terminally, 
and precede the unfolding of the leaves or else expand 
with them. 1-3 feet high. Wet hillsides and cool bogs. 
Me., N. Y., N. J., and eastern Pa., in the mountains. 

336 




PinxterFlowen Rhododendron nudiflorum* 



HEATH FAMILY. Ericaceae. 



A tall shrub, or often a tree, with showy 
Rhododendron clusters of pink-white flowers spotted with 
maximum gold orange, and greenish at the base, the 

Pink spotted five lobes of the corolla, broad, blunt, and 

orange substantially even in shape. The leaves 

June-July , . , , . ~ . , , 

shiny dark green, 4-9 inches long, ever- 
green, leathery, drooping in the winter season, and 
spreading in summer. They are oblong, toothless, 
slightly rolled under at the edge, and dark beneath. 
The flower-stems are sticky-hairy, thus preventing the 
pilfering of creeping insects ; the flowers are mostly 
visited by bees, but the honey they produce is said to be 
poisonous. 5-35 feet high. Damp woods, rare from Me. 
to Ohio, plentiful from Pa. to Ga. ; abundant through- 
out the Alleghany region, where, on the mountain sides, 
it forms impenetrable thickets. 

A species similar in many respects to 
Rhododendron .. _ . , ,, 

Catawbiense the forgoing, but generally not more than 
Light purple 5 feet high. The leaves are broadly ob- 
or lilac long or oval, the tips with an abrupt very 

May- June small point, pale green beneath. The 
large flowers are light purple or lilac. This species is 
hybridized with other less hardy ones, notably the R. 
arboreum of the Himalayas, and from these proceed 
most of the Rhododendrons familiar in ornamental 
grounds. 3-6, or rarely 18 feet high. In the higher 
Alleghanies from Va. to Ga. 

A dwarf species confined to the summits 
. of high mountains in the north. The olive 

Rhododendron green leaves are small, oval or elliptical, 
Lapponicum and grouped in clusters on the otherwise 
Light purple b are stem. They are covered, together 
with the branches, with minute rusty 
scales. The flowers have a five-lobed corolla which is 
bell-shaped and light purple, dotted. There are 5-10 
stamens. A prostrate branching plant that hugs the 
rocky slopes of the mountain. 2-12 inches high. Sum- 
mits of the White Mountains, N. H., and the Adiron- 
dacks, N. Y. Found at the head of Tuckerman's Ravine, 
Mt, Washington, N. H. 

338 




Great Laurel. Rhododendron maximum. 



DIAPENSIA FAMILY. Diapensiacex. 



DIAPENSIA FAMILY. Diapensiaeece. 
Low perennial herbs, or tufted shrubs of a mosslike 
character, very closely related to the Ericacece the at- 
tachment of the stamens to the corolla being the prin- 
cipal difference, with five-parted tiny flowers whose 
style is tipped with a three-lobed stigma. Fruit a capsule. 

An interesting and pretty mosslike little 
PyxieorFlow= ^ u * ^ 

ering Moss plant common on the pine barrens of New 

Pyxidanthera Jersey. The linear or lance-shaped leaves, 
barbulata scarcely ^ inch long, are medium green, 

White or pink gh t th ti and hai t th bage wh 

April-May 

young ; they are crowded toward the ends 

of the branches. The white or pale pink flowers are 
small, with five blunt lobes between which are curiously 
fixed the five conspicuous stamens ; they are numerous, 
and apparently stemless. Branches prostrate and creep- 
ing. 6-10 inches long. In sandy soil, dry pine barrens. 
From N. J., south to N. Car. Found at Lakewood, 
N. J. The name is from two Greek words, box and an- 
ther, referring to the anthers which open as if by a lid. 

PRIMROSE FAMILY. Primulacece. 
Herbs with leaves variously arranged, and with per- 
fect, regular flowers. The corolla (usually five-cleft) is 
tubular, funnel-formed, or salver-formed. Stamens as 
many as there are lobes to the corolla and fixed opposite 
to them, but the corolla lacking in the genus named 
Glaux. Seeds in a one-celled and several- valved capsule. 
Peatherfoil "^ P ecu ^ ar a( l ua tic plant of a somewhat 

Hottonia spongy nature, common in shallow stag- 

inflata nant water. Its strange appearance is 

White due to the cluster of inflated primary 

June-August flower . stalks which are about J inch 
thick, constricted at the joints, and almost leafless. The 
leaves are cut into threadlike divisions, and are beneath 
the water, densely distributed on the floating and root- 
ing stems. The insignificant whitish flower, J inch 
long, has a corolla much shorter than the calyx. The 
seed-capsule is globular. Stems sometimes 18 inches 
long. Shallow ponds and ditches, from Mass., to cen- 
tral N. Y. , and south. Named for Peter Hotton, botanist 

340 




Moss 

Enlarged blossom showing the 
r\ i ii t_ i_ 1 j_ alternate connection of stamens 

Pyxidanthera barbu lata. with the lobes of the coroiu. 



PRIMROSE FAMILY. Primulacese. 



A handsome \vild flower , frequently coilti- 
Cowsiip or vated, but confined in its natural state to the 
Shooting Star country west of Pennsylvania. The blunt 
Dodecatheon lance-shaped deep green leaves proceed 
Meadia from the root tl are generally tooth- 

Light magenta i . 

April-May less or nearl 7 so and their stems are long 
and margined. The tall primary flower- 
stalk is topped by a small cluster of delicate pendulous 
light magenta, pink-magenta, or white flowers, the five 
long corolla-divisions of which are strongly turned back- 
ward. The exposed stamens are close-clustered grouped 
in a conelike figure ; the anthers are long, thin, and 
golden yellow ; the base of each is thickened and marked 
with magenta-purple. The flower is cross-fertilized 
by bees. According to Professor Robertson, a visiting 
bee to reach the nectar must force its tongue between 
the anther-tips and come more or less in contact with 
the mature stigma ; the anthers at this period are still 
immature. Among the visitors are the bumblebee Bom- 
bus americanorum, the bees o'f the family Andrenidce, 
and the clouded sulphur butterfly Colias philodice. 
8-20 inches high. Moist hillsides, cliffs, open woods, 
or prairies, from Penn. to S. Dak., south to Ga. and Tex. 
Name from the Greek, meaning twelve gods. 

A delicate little plant found only in the 
Dwarf Cana- , . J 

dian Primrose northern part of our range, bearing a fam- 

Primula ily resemblance to the j^ellow English 

mistassinica Primrose. The light green leaves are 
Pale magenta- blunt lance-shaped, tapering to a distinct 
June-July stem, thin, green on both sides, rarely 
with a slightly mealy appearance beneath, 
and shallow-toothed. The pale magenta-pink or lighter 
pink corolla is five-lobed, bluntly scallop- tipped, and 
stained with yellow in the centre (sometimes the yellow 
is absent). The few flowers are clustered at the top of 
the long slender stalk. This species is apt to intergrade 
with Primula farinosa, a taller one, with leaves 'white- 
mealy beneath (at least when yotfng), and flowers with 
a more cuniform lobe, borne in thicker clusters. Con- 
fined to moist situations; Me., central N. Y., and 
Canada. 

342 




Shooting Stan 
Dodecatheon Meadia, 

Star Flower 
mistassinica. Trientalis americana. 



PRIMROSE FAMILY. Primulacese. 



A delicate and interesting little wood- 
star Flower , -, , ., i i i 
Trientalis land plant with a long horizontally creep- 

Americana ing root which sends upward an almost 
White bare or few-scaled thin stem terminating 

May-June j n a c j rc i e o f sharp-pointed, lance-shaped, 
light green leaves, thin, shiny, and tapering to both ends. 
There are 5-9 leaves in the circle, from the centre of 
which proceed two threadlike stalks, each bearing a 
fragile, white, star-shaped flower with 6-7 pointed divi- 
sions. The stamens are long and delicate, with tiny 
golden anthers, which mature later than the stigma. 
Cross-fertilization effected mostly through the agency of 
the beelike flies (Bombylius). 3-7 inches high, or rarely 
more. In moist thin woods, from Me., west to Minn., 
and south to southern N. J. and the mountains of Va. 
Common in the thin woodlands of the White Mountains. 
A rather handsome perennial commonly 
Loosestrife found in low moist situations, particularly 
Steironema on river flats. The smooth light green 
ciliatum leaves are ovate or ovate lance-shaped and 

Yellow sharply pointed; on the upper edge of the 

stem is a fringe of erect hairs hence the 
specific term, ciliatum. The leaves are in pairs which 
are set at right angles with each other. The pretty light 
golden yellow flowers, not far from a pure yellow tone, 
are five-lobed, the divisions oval and finished with an 
abrupt sharp point (called mucronate) ; these tips are 
somewhat twisted or puckered ; about the centre of the 
corolla is a terra-cotta-colored ring ; within this are five 
straw-colored stamens alternating with five abortive 
ones ; in the centre is the pale green pistil. The smooth, 
erect stem 18-22 inches high or more. Common in low 
ground and on the borders of thickets from Me. west to 
British Columbia, south to Ga., Ala., and to Ariz. 
Steironema -& narrow-leaved species smaller and 

lanceoiatum slenderer in every respect. The leaves 
Yellow are lance-shaped and linear, indistinctly 

June-July stemmed and smooth ; the lower ones are 
much shorter and broader, and the stems are distinct 
and long. The flowers are similar to those of S. till- 
atum, but smaller a little over inch broad. 8-20 

344 




Steironemd, cili&tum. 



PRIMROSE FAMILY. Primuiacese. 



inches high. Moist ground from Me., west to Minn., and 
south. The Steironemas are cross-fertilized, according 
to Prof. Eobertson, by bees ; in Connecticut by Macropis 
ciliata and Macropis patellat a, and in Illinois by Macro- 
pis steironematis. The name is from two Greek words, 
sterile and thread, in allusion to the abortive stamens. 

A delicate and pretty species common 
Four=leaved 

Loosestrife on a ^ * ow l an ds, especially sandy river 
Lysimachia banks. The light green leaves are pointed 
quadrifolia lance-shaped or broader, and are arranged 
Yellow i n a c i rc i e o f generally four, but some- 

June-July . ^ 

times three and six. From the bases of 

these leaves project slender long stems, each bearing a 
single star-shaped light golden yellow flower, prettily 
dotted around the centre with terra-cot ta red, which 
sometimes extends in faint streaks all over the corolla 
lobes. The stamens and pistil project in a cone-shaped 
cluster ; the stigma is advanced so far beyond the an- 
thers that self-fertilization rarely if ever occurs. The 
Lysimachias are visited by the bees of the genus Macro- 
pis, by bumblebees, and by honeybees evidently for the 
purpose of collecting pollen. Stem smooth or very min- 
utely hairy (under a glass), straight and round, 12-30 
inches high, simple or rarely branched. Sandy soil or 
often moist ground, Me., west to Minn., south to Ga. 
Lysimachia Along with preceding species bloom the 

terrestris slender spirelike clusters of the simple- 

Yellow stemmed Lysimachia terrestris whose flow- 

June-August erg are no j. appreciably different, though 
recorded by Dr. Gray and others as having slenderer 
corolla-divisions. This variation, however, is not so ap- 
parent ; but at the base of the divisions the red spots are 
double in L. terrestris, while they are single in L. quadri- 
folia. The slender flower-spike is distinctly characteris- 
tic of L. terrestris; it forms an aggregation of misty yellow 
color (when a large colony of the plants is seen) which is 
never present with the other species. Often little elon- 
gated bulblets appear at the bases of the leaves. Leaves 
lance-shaped and sharp-pointed at either end ; in both 
species apt to be sepia-dotted. Stem 8-20 inches high. 
Moist and sandy soil. Me., west to Minn., south to Ga. 

346 



Loosestn/e.l 

Lysim&chicx terresfrisT^ LysimachU quadri/bH&. 



PRIMROSE FAMILY. PHmulaceae. 



A hybrid of L. quadrifolia and L. ter. 

Hybrid restris, widely distributed in the north. 

Loosestrife mi ... 

Lysimachia The smootn stem ls simple or very slightly 
producta branched, the lance-shaped light green 

Light golden leaves, pale green beneath, grow oppos- 
yeilow itely or in circles of 3-5, and the terminal 

flower-spike, loosely flowered, is sometimes 
18 inches long. The corolla-divisions are dotted and 
striped with dark red, ovate-oblong and rounded at the 
tips. From this last fact it would seem as though the 
plant could not easily be confused with L. terrestris or 
L. quadrifolia^ for the flowers of both these species are 
decidedly pointed star-shaped. In low damp ground on 
the borders of thickets, from Me. and Mass., west to 
Mich. (Vide Rhodora, vol. i., pp. 131-134. M. L. Eernald 
on "Ambiguous Loosestrifes.") 

An extremely beautiful trailing vine 

Moneywort w ith a creeping, not climbing, habit, 
or Myrtle 

Lysimachia which has become naturalized from Eu- 

nummularia rope. It takes kindly to cultivation, and 
Light golden is particularly decorative when planted in 

rustic baskets in which it best displays the 
September graceful pendulous character of its stems. 

The leaves are dark green, shining, small, 
almost round, and short-stemmed. One rather large 
light golden yellow flower, with five ovate divisions to 
the corolla, grows from the junction of the leaf -stalk 
and plant-stem ; it is not spotted with terra-cot ta liKe 
the other members of this genus. Stems 6-20 inches 
long. In moist ground near dwellings, mostly an es- 
cape from gardens ; Eastern States. In many places it 
is reported as a troublesome weed. Found in Campton 2 
N. H., and Amherst, Mass. 

A low, fleshy seaside plant with oblong, 

Glaux toothless, and stemless light green leaves, 

maritema . /> i i ,, -,.. 

Purple-white f rom the bases of which grow the solitary 
June dull purple-white or pinkish flowers with- 

out a true corolla, but with a five-scalloped 
calyx. The seaside from N. J. and Cape Cod north. 



348 




Moneywort. 

Lysimachia nummularia\ Glaux maritima. 



PLUMBAGO OR LEADWORT. Plumbaginaceae. 



A low spreading annual ; the common 
Anogollis 1>oor Man ' s Weather-glass of England, 

arvensis which has become naturalized in this coun- 

Red, pur- try. The small solitary flowers are a 

pie, etc. variety of colors, scarlet, purple, white, 

June-August 1,, . j j- . . 

etc. The corolla has five broad divisions 

but hardly any tube. The leaves are ovate, stemless, 
and toothless, and grow oppositely in pairs, or in circles. 
Stem 6 inches long. Waste sandy places, Eastern States, 
generally near the coast. The flowers open only in sun- 
shine, and close at 4 o'clock. 



PLUMBAGO OR LEADWORT FAMILY. 
Plumbaginacece. 

Perennial herbs with small, perfect, regular flowers of 
five parts i. e., five-lobed corolla, five stamens, and five 
styles ; the flower-tube funnel-formed and plaited ; the 
ovary one-celled and bearing a solitary seed. Seaside 
plants. 

A seaside plant with a slender much- 
Sea Lavender b rancn ed stem growing from a thick 
or Marsh . . , 

Rosemary woody root very astringent in character, 

Limonium the branches rather erect. The leaves, 

carolini- also starting from the root, are blunt lance- 

shaped or obovate, long-stemmed, tooth- 
Jul less or nearly so, and tipped with a bristly 

September point ; the mid-rib is prominent. The 
branches bear many solitary, or 2-3 (in a 
group) tiny lavender flowers with a curious tooth be- 
tween each of the five tiny lobes ; the lobes of the calyx 
are also very acute. The character of the plant is branchy 
and naked-stemmed, with flowers so insignificant that 
the delicate lavender color is much eclipsed by the rather 
light subdued green. 1-2 feet high. In salt marshes 
from Me., south. Found in Nantucket, Mass. 




Marsh Rosemary. 
Limonium carol inianum. 



gall is 
arvensis. 



GENTIAN FAMILY. Qentianaceas. 



GENTIAN FAMILY. Gentianacew. 

Smooth herbs with generally opposite leaves, toothless 
and stemless; Menyanthes and Limnanthemum are two 
exceptions to this rule. Flowers regular and perfect, 
the corolla with 4-12 lobes; alternating with these are a 
corresponding number of stamens. Fertilized mostly by 
the bees and the beelike flies. 

An erect and smooth annual naturalized 

from Europe, with several short branches 
Centaury 
Centaurium above, and elliptical or oblong light green 

umbeiiatum leaves, somewhat acute ; the uppermost 
Light magenta rather linear. The small tubular light 

magenta flowers five-lobed and verv nearly 
September 

stemless. iney are numerously borne at 

the summits of the branches. 6-12 inches high. Waste 
places and the shores of the Great Lakes, from Quebec 
to Illinois. The name Erythrcea was formerly given 
to this genus. The flowers are \veak in color, and the 
plants are really more delicate than beautiful. 

A small species from Europe similar in 

Centaurium , , ,, . , 

puichellum many respects to the foregoing, but the 
Magenta=pink stem very much branched, the leaves oval 
June- or long-ovate, the larger lower ones blunt, 

September the upper sma u an d acute. The flowers 
are magenta-pink, and, with few exceptions, distinctly 
stemmed. The tube of the corolla is nearly twice as 
long as the five lobes of the calyx. 3-8 inches high. 
Waste places or fields, wet or shady, from southern 
N. Y. to east Pa. and Md. 

An erect and smooth annual naturalized 
Spiked from the old countr y w ith small, blunt, 

Centaury 
Centaurium oblong, light green leaves ; the upper ones 

spicatum rather acute, and all more or less close to 

Magenta-pink the generally forking stem. The very 

small magenta-pink, or crimson-magenta 
September 

flowers tubular and five-lobed, stemless 

and also close to the plant-stem, the tube of the corolla 
a little longer than the calyx-lobes. 6-16 inches high. 
Shores of Nantucket, Mass. , and Portsmouth, Va. 




Spiked 

Centaury 

Centaurium spicatum. Centaurium pulchellum. 



GENTIAN FAMILY. Gentianacese. 



A not very uncommon wild flower in 
Sabbatia ^ ne swam P s ^ ^ ne pine barrens of New 

Sabbatia 1 Jersey, with white, starlike, five-lobed 
lanceolata flowers, nearly an inch broad, which in 

white fading turn yellowish, and ovate or lance- 

June-Septem- , , ,. , , 

ber shaped light green leaves with 3-5 ribs. 

The plant-stem slender, somewhat four- 
sided, branched above, or sometimes simple. The 
branches are borne relatively opposite. The flowers are 
numerous. 1-3 feet high. Pine barrens N. J. , to Fla. 
Rose Pink ^he stem of this species is decidedly and 

Sabbatia sharply four-sided, it is also rather thick 

angularis ail d much branched. The light green 

White or Pink leaves are five-ribbed, ovate, acute at the 
July-August 

tip, and somewhat clasping at the base. 

The delicately fragrant flowers are an inch or more 
broad, pale crimson-pink or 'sometimes white, and 
marked in the centre with a yellow-green star (a charac- 
teristic of many of the Sdbbatias). The style is cle:^ at 
the tip i. e., two stigmas. The calyx-lobes are about 
one third as long as the corolla. 2-3 feet high. Fertile 
ground, N. Y. and Pa., west to Mich., and south. 
Sea Pink ^ pretty species common on salt mead- 

Sabbatia ows, with crimson-pink flowers as large 

stellaris as or larger than a nickel. The light 

green leaves oblong lance-shaped or lin- 
ear, the uppermost small and bractlike. 
The numerous flowers are borne solitary at the ends of 
the branches ; the linear calyx-lobes almost equal (the 
rule is flexible) in length the lobes of the pale crimson- 
pink or white corolla. More than half the style is two- 
cleft, the stamens are golden yellow, and the centre of 
the flower is green-yellow edged with ochre or some- 
times red. 6-20 inches. Along the coast from Me. to 
Fla. Closely allied to the next into which it appears to 
pass. 

Like the preceding. The stem exceed- 
Sabbatta 

gracilis ln gly slender and much branched. The 

Pink leaves linear or linear lance-shaped, the 

uppermost almost threadlike. The ex- 
ceedingly narrow lobes of the calyx equal in length the 
1 The later spelling is Sabatia. 

354 




Sea Pink. 
S&bb&tia stellaris. S&bb&tia, gracilis. 



GENTIAN FAMILY. Gentianacea*. 



lobes of the corolla (rarely they are appreciably shorter)., 
The style is about half -cleft. 1-2 feet high. Marshes. 
Nantucket, Mass, to N. J. , south to Fla. and La. 

The largest-flowered and most beautiful 
e member of the genus. The basal leaves 



Sabbatia blunt-tipped and tapering toward the base, 

dodecandra the upper light green leaves diminishing 
Crimson-pink to lance-shape and linear. The few crim- 
July-August . , ~ . 

son-pink flowers are nearly two inches 

broad, with generally ten obovate corolla lobes (an equal 
number of linear calyx lobes), each marked with a 
three-pointed ochre-edged, green-yellow base which 
contributes to the beauty of the central star-figure of 
the flower ; the stamens are golden yellow, and the style 
is deeply two-cleft. The flower is visited most fre- 
quently by bees and the flies of the genus Syrphidce. 
The wiry stems, simple or branching very little, are 1-2 
feet high. Rarely the flowers are white. On sandy 
margins of brackish ponds from Mass, to Fla. and Ala. , 
near the coast. 

Fringed The most famous member of the beauti- 

Gentian ful Gentian group, remarkable not so 

much for its blue color as for the delicate, 
Pl "it- misty quality of that color, and the ex- 
blue pressiveness of the flower-form. The 

September- plant is a biennial w T ith a leafy, perpen- 
October dicular , branched stem , the branches erect, 

somewhat four-angled, and each bearing a single ter- 
minal flower. The flower is deep vase-shaped with four 
rounded, light violet-blue lobes deeply fringed and 
spreading horizontally only in the sunshine ; the color 
varies from pale to deep violet-blue, with occasionally a 
ruddy tinge, but never with a suspicion of true blue, 
though lines of a deeper blue- violet appear on the outer 
surface of the corolla. The large four-pointed calyx is 
four-sided, and generally a bronzy, yellow-green. The 
yellow-green leaves are ovate-lance-shaped or narrower, 
and they are conspicuously opposite. 1-3 feet high. In 
low moist ground from Me. to the Daks. , south to Iowa, 
and in the mountains of Ga. 



356 




Fringed Gentian. 



Gentians crimta. 




Rose Pink. 



Sabbatta at^gularia 



GENTIAN FAMILY. Qent/anacese. 



A similar annual species with lance- 
Gentio.no. 
grocer a linear or linear leaves, a stem but little 

Light violet= branched \vith a few blunt wedge-shaped 
blue leaves at the base, and violet-blue flowers 

July-Septem- near jy as ] arge as t h oge of the prec eding 

species wath the fringe at the summit of 
the corolla short, or reduced to mere teeth. 4-18 inches 
high. Moist ground from western N. Y. to Minn, and 
Iowa. 

Also an annual ; the stem ridged and 
Ague=weed . , , ,, , 

Gentiana four-sided. The leaves, in general, ovate, 

quinqueflora sharply pointed at the tip, slightly clasp- 
Light violet = ing at the base, and with 3-7 ribs. The 
blue very light violet-blue or lilac flowers clus- 

" " tered at the apex of the branches in groups 

of 2-7 but generally 5. The flowers smaller, 
scarcely an inch long, tubular, and terminating in five 
triangular small bristle-pointed lobes. A common spe- 
cies in the west, attractive but not so beautiful as the 
Fringed Gentian. 8-22 inches high. Moist hillsides 
from Me., south, and west to Mich, and Mo., generally 
in the mountains ; it is found at an altitude of over 6000 
feet on the peaks of N. Car. Occasional in Vt. , and absent 
in central N. H. The var. occidental is is taller nml 
much branched. The calyx lobes linear lance-shaped. 
O. to Minn., south. 

A handsome perennial species with 
Downy Gentian , 

Gentiana usually a single stem, generally minutely 

puberula hairy and rough, and with narrow, rigid, 

Blue=violet lance-shaped light green leaves, the up- 
permost nearly linear. The blue- violet 
flowers are bell-shaped with five triangu- 
lar lobes, rather open-spreading. The calyx has five 
linear lobes quite rough to the touch. The flowers are 
borne in terminal clusters or at the bases of the leaves, 
and are seldom if ever solitary. 8-17 inches high. On 
prairies and in fields from western N. Y. and Ohio to 
S. Dak. and Kan., south to Ga. and Ky. Common in 
the vicinity of Minneapolis, the Minnehaha Falls, and on 
the dry borders of the great wheat-fields of Minnesota. 

358 




Gentiana quinquefolia. 



GentianaWprocera. 



^ \('^^ 

Downy Gentian. " / Gentiana puberula. 



GENTIAN FAMILY. Gentianaceaz. 



A familiar species of the Middle and 
Soapwort Western States closely resembling the 

Bottle Gentian. The pale blue-violet, or 
Saponaria light lilac-blue flower is only partly open, 
Pale blue- the five lobes are blunt, erect, slightly cut 

at the tip, and the flower-cup is club- 
October' shaped, the anthers within cohering in 

a ring. The light green leaves are com- 
monly ovate lance-shaped, three-ribbed, and pointed 
at either end, the edges rough. The flowers form a 
terminal cluster; a few grow from the leaf -angles. They 
are frequented by honeybees and bumblebees ; Bom- 
bus americanoru?n is a common visitor. Both this 
Gentian and the preceding one ripen their pollen before 
the stigma is receptive and cross-fertilization is there- 
fore inevitable. The smooth and slender stem is 12-27 
inches high. The juice of the plant is soapy. In wet 
woodlands from N. Y., west to Minn., and south. 

A perennial. In the east this is the 
'losed Gentian commonest of all Gentians; it is remark- 
Gentiana able for its tight -closed bottle -shaped 

Andrewsii corolla, which is contracted by plaits white- 
Violet-blue striped, white at the base and an intense 
October" violet-blue at the apex ; sometimes the 

blue approaches ultramarine. . The medium 
(sometimes rusty) green leaves are smooth, ovate lance- 
shaped, pointed at the tip, and generally narrowed at 
the base. The flowers are mostly crowded in a terminal 
cluster, but some grow from the leaf -bases; all are set 
close to the leaves, which are conspicuously arranged in 
pairs. Bumblebees not infrequently force an entrance 
into the corolla, and self-fertilization is sometimes ques- 
tionable. The smooth, round stem 1-2 feet high. Rich 
woodland borders, Me. to S. Dak., south to Ga. and Mo. 

A much less common Gentian frequent- 
Gentiana . . 

linearis in mountain bogs. It is a smooth, slen- 

Light blue- der-stemmed perennial, with light green 
violet linear or lance-linear leaves with three 

ribs, acute at either end. The pale blue- 
violet flower-cup is contracted to a funnel- 
form with rather scallop-shaped lobes ; the light green, 
360 




Bottle Gentian. Gentiana Andrewsii. 



GENTIAN FAMILY. OentianaccsB. 



simple, round stem is 10-24 inches high. Wet situations 
among the mountains of N. Eng. and N. Y., south to 
Md. Found at high elevations of the Adirondack and 
Green Mountains. 

A greenish white-flowered species with 

a corolla narrowly open, displaying within 
Greenish white stripes of magenta-lilac on a greenish 
September- veined background, the lobes somewhat 
November triangular and with a tooth. The flowers 
are mostly in terminal clusters. The medium green 
leaves obovate, the uppermost acute at the tip, the lower 
ones blunt and short, all narrow at the base. Slender 
stem 8-16 inches high. Shaded woodland borders from 
southern N. J. and Pa., south. 

A smaller and exceedingly delicate and 
Porphyrio pretty species mostly confined to the pine 

Light ultra- barrens of the Southern States, with a 
marine blue simple or sometimes branching stem, and 

with solitary, bright light ultramarine 

blue flowers (often speckled within) at 
the apex of the stem or its branches ; they are much 
larger than bluebells. The five lobes of the corolla are 
deeply cut, ovate, and open-spreading. The small linear 
leaves are less than 2 inches long. 6-15 inches high. In 
moist situations from southern N. J., south. 

An attenuated, slender, stiff-stemmed 
Yellow little plant, simple or with a few erect 

branches, destitute of leaves, but with 

Bartoma \ J 

virginiana small awl-shaped opposite-growing scales 

Greenish closely hugging the stem, which is a trifle 

yellow angled, all a yellow-green. The lower 

scales are close together, the upper become 

more and more separated. The yellow, 

bell-shaped flowers of a greenish tone, with four blunt 

(often slightly toothed) lobes, are arranged oppositely on 

the plant-stem, the peduncles (flower-stems) about as 

long as or longer than the flower. The flowers are 

mostly terminal but inconspicuous on account of their 

uncertain coloring. 4-14 inches high. In thin woods, 

pastures, and dry cranberry bogs, but mostly in damp 

soil, from Me. , south, and west to Mich. 

362 



edit/lower 




Gentians Porphyrio. Bartonia virginiana. 



DOGBANE FAMILY. Apocynacex. 



DOGBANE FAMILY. Apocynacece. 

Chiefly a tropical family with few representatives in 
our range. Plants with an acrid, milky juice, closely 
related to the Milkweed Family. Leaves opposite (gen- 
erally) and toothless. Flowers perfect, five-parted ; sta- 
mens as many as the lobes of the corolla (flower-cup), 
the latter rolled up in the bud. Fertilized mostly by 
butterflies and bees, 

A somewhat tall and shrublike plant, 
Dogbane** with a smooth, slender, branching stem, 
Apocynum generally reddish on the side exposed to 
androscemi- sunlight. The opposite growing, lustre- 
folium i ess light blue-green, ovate leaves are 

toothless, and ruddy short-stalked. The 
delicate and beautiful little bell-shaped 
flowers are white-pink, five-lobed, and lily-of-the-valley- 
like, striped with pink on the inside of the cup. The 
clusters are small and terminate the branches ; their 
most frequent visitors are bees and butterflies, and 
among the latter are the ever-present little yellow Colias 
philodice and the handsome monarch (Anosiaplexippus). 
Mtiller says the flower is fertilized by butterflies, and 
cements its pollen to their tongues. An insect insepara- 
ble from the dogbane is the so-called dogbane beetle 
(Chrysochus auratus), jewellike and resplendent in met- 
allic red and green of incomparable lustre ; it is scarcely 
\ inch long (see Familiar Features of the Roadside, p. 
178). 1-4 feet high. Common in half -shaded field bor- 
ders, or in thickets throughout the north, and south to 
Ga. 

A far less attractive species with green- 
Indian Hemp . . , ,...',. r, ,1 r. , n 

Apocynum lsn wni ^e, tiny flowers erectly five-pointed. 
cannabinum Similar to the above in other respects, but 
Greenish white less spreading and more upright. The 
June-August i eaves narrower and abruptly acute. 1-3 
feet high. On sandy river-banks, in fields, and in thick- 
ets everywhere. Both species found in Campton, N. H. 
The name is Greek in origin aito, from, and KVGOY, a 
dog. 

[See Appendix.) 

364 




Spreading Dogbane. Indian Hemp. . rr ^,, 

Apocynum androsaemifolium. \ Apocynum cannabinum. 



MILKWEED FAMILY. Asclepiadacese. 



MILKWEED FAMILY. Asdepiadacece. 

Milky- juiced plants with large leaves, and flowers 
deeply five-parted, the sepallike corolla segments turned 
absolutely back at the time of bloom ; the so-called co- 
rona within with its five concave parts thus fully ex- 
posed ; the anthers and stigma remarkably connected, 
and the pollen cohering in waxlike, granular, pear- 
shaped masses not unlike those of the Orchids. The 
masses quite frequently become attached to the feet of 
bees, and the entanglement causes their death. The 
flowers are almost exclusively fertilized by bees and the 
beelike flies (see Miiller's Fertilization of Flowers). 

The handsomest member of the genus, 

with brilliant light orange or orange-yel- 
Weed or Pleu= 
risy Root l w flowers, in erect flat-topped clusters 

Asclepias Sit the termination of the branches. Leaves 

tuberosa light olive green, narrow oblong, or lance- 

ig ange shaped, hairy beneath, and veiny, nearly 
September or <l u ite stemless. The juice is very 
slightly if at all milky. The stem some- 
what rough. The slender pods are borne erect on a short 
stalk with an S curve. 1-2 feet high. Common in dry 
fields everywhere, especially south. Found on Cape Cod. 

A misnamed species, as its flowers are 
Purple 
Milkweed pure crimson or else crimson- magenta; but 

Asclepias they are never purple. The stem is usu- 

purpurascens ally simple, green, and magenta- tinged at 
Magenta= ^g j ea junctures. Leaves ovate, and 

Ju'ire-Au ust fi ne ly hairy beneath ; smooth above. The 
flowers are inch long, with broad horns 
abruptly pointed inward. 2-3 feet high. Common in 
dry fields and thickets. Me. , south to Ga. , west to Minn. 
A similar, rather smooth species, the 
Swamp stem with two downy lines above and on 

Ascle ias ^ ne branches of the flower-stalks. The 

incarnata leaves narrow, or lance-shaped ; all short- 

Dull light stalked. The small flowers in small termi- 
crimson nal fl a t-topped clusters, dull light crimson 

Se tember or ^ u ^ cr i mson -pi n ^- 2-4 feet high. Com- 
mon in swamps throughout our range. 

366 




Butterfly Weed \ V Asclepias tuberosa. 



MILKWEED FAMILY. Asclepiadacese. 



The var. pulchro, is more or less hairy, has broader, 
shorter-stalked leaves, and dull crimson or pink or even 
pink-white flowers. Common north, south to Ga. 

The commonest of all the Asclepias, and 
Milkweed remarkable for its cloyingly sweet, some- 
Asdepias what pendulous flower-cluster, which is 

syriaca most aesthetic in color ; it varies from pale 

" brown= brownish lilac to pale lavender-brown, 
Jul -August anc * fr m dull crimson-pink and pink-lilac 
to yellowish (the horns particularly) and 
brownish lavender. Gray's and Britton and Brown's 
" green-purple" is a misleading color description; 
the authors of Wild Flowers of the Northeastern 
States (p. 434) are quite correct in their description of 
this flower-color and all others. The broad oblong 
leaves and stem of the plant are very finely hairy, the 
color is light yellow-green, and the ribs are yellowish. 
The rough-surfaced seed-pod is filled with the silkiest of 
white down, attached to flat yellow-brown seeds, over- 
lapping each other like the scales of a fish. The flower- 
clusters are borne at the junction of leaf-stem and 
plant-stem. The flowers are mostly fertilized by bees, 
who not infrequently lose their lives by their feet be- 
coming inextricably entangled with the pollen masses, 
or caught in the fissures of the corona (described fully 
in William Hamilton Gibson's My Studio Neighbors, 
p. 232). 3-5 feet high. Common everywhere. 

Pale magenta-purple-stained green flow- 
AscUpias 

amplexicaulis ers m a solitary terminal cluster. The ob- 
Lilac=green long, wavy leaves with a clasping base 
July-August somewhat heart-shaped. Rather uncom- 
mon northward, but frequent in the south. Found in 
sandy soil near Burlington, Vt. 

A rather tall milkweed with large ivory 

Milkweed or cream- white flowers, whose re flexed 

Asclepias corolla-segments are green or magenta- 

phytolaccoides tinged on the outer surface ; the flowers 

Cream white i oose i y clustered and drooping. The rather 

large leaves are- thin and pointed at either 

end ; the stem is slender and 3-6 feet high. One of our 

most dainty and beautiful wild flowers. Common on 

368 




Common MilKweed. Asclepias 



CONVOLVULUS FAMILY. Convolvulacex. 



the borders of thickets and woods throughout the north, 
and south to Ga. Found near Lake Dunmore, Vt. 

An early-flowering species with delicate 
Milkweed magenta-pink flowers, the reflexed lobes 

Asclepias of which are palest pink. The stem is 

quadrifolia slender and generally leafless below, bear- 
Magenta=pink - about twQ circleg of four leaves about 
May-July ., . , ,, , . . 

the middle and two pairs of opposite 

smaller leaves at the upper part of the stem. The plant 
is delicate and small, with few flower-clusters. 1-2 feet- 
high. Woods and copses, throughout the north, and 
south to N. Car. 

. An extremely small narrow-leaved plant 

verticillata with a slender stem leafy at the summit. 
Qreen=white The leaves smooth and very narrowly lin- 
July- ear, generally grouped in circles of 4-7. 

September Flowers greenish white. 1-2 feet high. 
Common on dry hills, especially so south. Me., west to 
S. Dak. , and south. 



CONVOLVULUS FAMILY. Convolvulacece. 

Herbs, in our range, with twining or trailing stems, 
alternate leaves, and regular, perfect flowers with gen- 
erally a bell-shaped or funnel-formed corolla, and five 
stamens. Flowers visited by the honeybee and bumble- 
bee. Self-fertilized as well as cross-fertilized. The 
name from the Latin convolve, to roll together. 

A small, erect or slightly twining plant, 
Btadweed scarcely a foot long, with blunt, oval, 
Convolvulus light green leaves, heart-shaped at the 
spithamceus base, short -stemmed, about 1-2 inches 
White long. Funnel-formed white flowers about 

June-August inches long? borne s i ng i y< Calyx in- 
closed in two large leafy bracts. In sandy or rocky 
fields, Me., south and west. 

A smooth-stemmed vine with arrow- 
Bi^ndweed shaped, triangular, grayish green leaves, 

Convolvulus slender - stemmed and acute - pointed. 
sepium Handsome bell-shaped or funnel-shaped 

370 




Poke Milkweed. 
Asclepi&s phytol&ccoides. 



Four-leaved Milkweed. 
Asclepi&s quadrifolia. 



CONVOLVULUS FAMILY. Convolvulacess. 



White, pink= flowers ranging from pure white to pink- 
tinged tinged borne singly on long stems; the 
June-August * 

five stamens cream yellow, the pistil 

white. The five-parted calyx is inclosed in two pale 
green bracts. The flower generally closes before noon; 
it is sometimes over 2 inches broad and 3 long. Vine 
3-10 feet long. Along moist roadsides and borders of 
fields, climbing over shrubbery, from Me., south to N. 
Car., west to S. Dak. and Utah. Also in Europe. 

A more or less fine-hairy, trailing species, 

with simple or slightly branched stem, and 
Bindweed 

Convolvulus ovate or oblong leaves, arrow-shaped or 
sepium, var. slightly heart-shaped at the base, 1-2 inches 
pubescens long. Flowers white or pink-tinged, borne 

tinned r Plnk " singly On lon S stalks ' and about 2 inches 
June-August l n g- Calyx inclosed in two ovate bracts. 

1-3 feet long. Common. The var. fra- 

terniflorus has short flower-stems wing-angled. Va. 

to Mo. south. The typical C. sepium is quite smooth. 

A smooth-stemmed, very slender species 

with oblong and arrow-shaped gray-green 
C Ivulus leaves, the lateral lobes of which are acute. 
arvensis Small flowers not over 1 inch long, white 

White or pink- or pink-tinged, and generally borne in 
tinged clusters of two. The calyx without leafy 

September bracts at the base. 1-2 feet long. In 

fields and waste places from Me., south 
to N. J. and Pa., and west to Kan. 

A miserable parasite often troublesome 
Common . r . 

Dodder m gardens, but found in low, damp, shady 

Cuscuta situations. It climbs high upon other 

Gronovii plants by twining closely about their 

Dull white stalks and exhausting their -juices through 
July-October 

a thousand tiny suckers. Its threadlike, 

twisting stem varies in color from dull yellow to dull 
orange, it is crowded with bunches of tiny dull white 
bell-shaped flowers having five lobes. The calyx is 
greenish white. All the dodders start at first from the 
ground, but finally securing a convenient plant upon 
which to climb, the root in the earth dies and they be- 
come parasitic. Common everywhere. 
372 




Hedge Bindweed. 
Convolvulus sepium. 



Common Dodder. 
Cuscuta Oronovii 



PHLOX FAMILY. Polemon/acess. 



PHLOX FAMILY. Polemoniacece. 

Herbs with alternate or opposite leaves and perfect, 
regular or nearly regular flowers with a five-lobed co- 
rolla which is rolled up in the bud, the lobes of the 
mature flower remaining somewhat contorted. Stamens 
five. Cross-fertilized most generally by butterflies and 
bumblebees. The name Phlox is from the Greek <pAo', 
meaning flame. 

Downy Phlox -^ more southern and western species 
Phlox pilosa with soft-downy stem and leaves, the 
Purple, etc. latter deep green, linear or lance-shaped, 
May-June without teeth and stemless. Flowers from 

pale crimson-pink to purple and white. The calyx 
sticky-glandular, the corolla-tube usually fine-hairy. 
1-2 feet high. In dry ground from Southbury, Conn. 
(E. B. Harger), and N. J., south, west to S. Dak., and Tex. 
Another rather western species with a 
Phlox ' somewhat sticky fine-hairy stem, with 

Phlox divari- spreading leafy shoots from the base. 
cata Leaves wider than those of the preceding 

Pale lilac or species, especially those on the sterile 

shoots; they are deep green, ovate lance- 
April-June j. J rpi i l , 

shaped, and acute-pointed. The pale violet 
or lilac flowers have generally notched lobes, they are 
slightly fragrant, and are gathered in loose clusters. 
Often the lobes are without notches. 9-18 inches high. 
In moist thin woodlands. N. Y., south, west to Minn. 
A very low species with tufted stems, 

Ground or spreading over the ground until it forms 

Moss Pink 

Phlox subulata compact masses resembling moss.. The 
Crimson small, thickish yellow-green leaves sharp- 

pink, etc. tipped, linear, and close set; the plant 

April- mostly evergreen. Flowers few in a 

cluster terminating the short stems, vary- 
ing in color from white through crimson-pink to light 
magenta; the petals notched. The stems fine-hairy or 
becoming smooth. 2-5 inches high. In sandy or rocky 
ground. N. H. and Mass., south, west to Mich, and Ky. 
Phlox paniculata, which is a tall garden species, in 
colors varying from pink and lilac to white, with stout, 

374 




Moss Pink. 
Phlox subul&ta. 



BORAGE FAMILY. Boraginacese. 



smooth stem, and dark green acute lance-shaped or oblong 
leaves, has escaped from cultivation in some of the east- 
ern States, and is established permanently in many lo- 
calities, generally adjoining old dwellings. 2-6 feet high, 

A smooth perennial with slender and 
Greek Valerian 

Polemonium weak stems finally reclining, and com- 
reptans pound alternately growing leaves formed 

Light violet of 5-15 ovate lance-shaped leaflets ; theup- 
Apni-May permost leaves generally simple ; all tooth- 
less. Flowers about -J inch long, light blue-violet or 
rarely white, in loose clusters and nodding bluebell- 
like. 8-12 inches high. In thin woods, N. Y., south 
to Ga. , west to Minn, and Mo. 

A. much rarer species, found only by the 
Jacob's Ladder 

Polemonium mountain streams and in the swamps of 

Van-Bruntics the north. It has a stout horizontal root 
Violet from which spread numerous rootlets, 

with erect stems smooth and leafy to the 
top. Leaves compound like those of the preceding 
species, the lower ones consisting of 15-19 nearly stem- 
less, ovate pointed leaflets. Flowers numerous in a 
somewhat long cluster, bright violet, and nearly 1 inch 
broad, with conspicuous stamens and style, the five lobes 
of the corolla rounded. 1-2J feet high. From Vermont 
and northern N. Y., south to Md. Common only in the 
far north. Found at Abby Pond, Rip ton, Vt. 

BORAGE FAMILY. Boraginacece 

In our range annual or perennial herbs with rough- 
hairy stems and generally alternate, toothless, rough 
leaves. The blue-violet flower perfect and regular with 
a five-lobed corolla (Echium excepted), and five stamens. 
Flowers mostly in one-sided spikes, which at first are 
somewhat rolled up, straightening as the blossoms ex- 
pand. Cross-fertilized mostly by butterflies and bees. 

An ill-smelling biennial with a fine- 
Hound's tongue . . , . , .,, 
Cynoglossum hairy,, stout, branching stem, and with 

officinale lance-shaped leaves stemless, except the 

Magenta basal ones which are oblong and long 

June ~ slender-stemmed. The small magenta 

September Qr rarely white fl ower8 . five-lobed, and 

376 




Qreek Valerian. 
Polemonium reptans! 



R Van-Bruntiae 



BORAGE FAMILY. Boraginaceae. 



loosely arranged on a fine-hairy curving stem. The 
fruit, four nutlets set in a four-sided pyramidal shape, 
surmounted by the withering style. 2 feet high. Fields. 
Me., south to N. Car., west to Minn. From Asia. 
Wild Comfrey ^ perennial species with usually a sim- 
Cynogiossum pie hairy stem, without leaves above. The 
virginianum basal leaves deep green, oblong lance- 
Pale violet shaped, rough, and short - stemmed, the 
upper ones clasping the stem by a heart- 
shaped base. The pale violet flowers on a few long naked 
stems ; the corolla divided into five rounded lobes. The 
fruit, four depressed nutlets, convex on the upper face, 
and hairy. 1-2 J feet high. In thin woods from Me., 
south, west to Kan. and La. 

A biennial with a fine-hairy, branching 
Jeef" ' stem ' slender and spreading. The basal 

Lappula leaves vanishing, as a rule, at the period 

virginiana of bloom, rather broad ovate ; the stem- 

Lavender=white i eaves light green, ovate and lance- 

shaped, growing quite small toward the 
Der x 



top of the plant, acute at either end. The 
flower-spikes very slender and bearing tiny white flowers 
of a lavender tinge. The tiny burlike fruit covered with 
barbed prickles. 2-4 feet high. Echinospermum ^x /os > 
a hedgehog, and <T7r<foua, a seed, was the older (genus) 
name. Common on the borders of dry woods. Me., 
south to Ala. and La., west to Minn., S. Dak., and Neb. 
An annual species somewhat hairy, with 
g" r ^ ea " many small light gray-green linear leaves, 

Lappula tlie basal ones widest at the tip. The tiny 

echinata flowers light violet, thinly scattered on 

Light violet slender branches. The fruit globose-oval, 
burlike, and covered with minute slender 
barbed prickles. 1-2 feet high. In waste 
places from Me., south to N. J., and westward. 

A beautiful species frequently cultivated, 
Cov^sn'p having light violet-blue flowers nearly 1 

Menensia inch long. The stem smooth and erect, 

virginica sometimes branched. The deep green 

Violet=blue leaves toothless, ovate pointed or obovate, 
March-May s t rO ngly veined, and scarcely stemmed ; 
378 




Wild Comfrey 



Cynoglossum virginianum. 



BORAGE FAMILY. Boraginacess. 



the trumpet-like flowers with five lobes are rarely white. 
1-2 feet high. On river meadows and along river-banks 
from N. Y. and N. J., south to S. Car., west to Minn., 
Neb., and Kan. 

Forget-me-not The true for g et - me - n k>v f gardens, es- 
Myosotis caped from cultivation, and found in wet 

scorpioides ground or marshes. A perennial with 
Light blue slender, sprawling, fine-hairy stems, and 
gray-green oblong lance-shaped leaves, 
stemless or nearly so. The small light blue flowers with 
a golden eye, in small clusters somewhat curved. 6-15 
inches high. Beside brooks and in wet places from Me. , 
south to Pa. , and west. A native of Europe and Asia. 
A species similar in many respects to 

Smaller ^e foregoing, with the fine-hairiness 

Forget=me=not . .. .. . _ ., , 

Myosotis laxa bending close to stem and leaf, the leaves 

blunt and oblong, and the very small and 
pale light blue flowers on long stems, loosely clustered. 
The calyx lobes as long as the flower- tube. 6-1$ inches 
high. Wet places. Me. , south to Tenn. , 'west to Wis. 

An annual or biennial, with very bristly- 
get-me-not" na i r y stems and leaves, the latter oblong 
Myosotis and obtuse. Small white flowers ; the 

virginica calyx unequally five-cleft, bristly, with 

some of the bristles hooked at the tips. 

3-15 inches high. On dry ttariks from Me. , 
south, and west to Minn. The var. Tiiocrosperma^ a 
western form, is larger and has a looser flower-cluster. 

A rough-hairy annual or biennial, with 
Corn uromwell 

Lithospermum erect > branching stems and foliage resetn- 
arvense bling that of Myosotis, but a brighter 

White green. The small white flowers scattered 

May-August on ^ e spikes and stemless or nearly soT 
6-18 inches high. Sandy roadsides and fields from Me. , 
south to Ga., and west to Mich, and Kan. 

A similar taller species with a much- 
lAthospermum branched stem gra y-green, few-veined, 
ofiicinale T i ^ t. 

Cream white r ough, and stemless leaves ratfrer broad 

lance-shaped. The cream white flowers 
with corollas funnel- formed and a little longer than the 1 
five-pointed hairy calyx. 1-3 feet high. New Eng.,, 

380 




Forget-me-not. 
Myosotis scorpioides. 



Mertensia virginica. 



BORAGE FAMILY. Boraginacese. 



west to Minn. Both of these last species are naturalized 
from Europe. Litliospermum is formed of the Greek 
words stone and seed, referring to the hard seed. 
Lithospermum An indigenous species, the so-called 
canescens Puccoon of the Indians. A perennial, 

Orange=yellow soft-hairy and rather hoary, with obtuse 
March-June linear-oblong leaves, stemless and hairy. 
The orange-yellow flowers with a broad corolla, salver- 
formed and five-lobed, about inch long. 6-18 inches 
high. Cross-fertilized by bees and butterflies ; some of 
the latter are Papilio ajax, Papilio asterias, Colias 
philodice, and Osmia cobaltina. In dry soil, Me., south 
to N. J. and Ala., and west to Minn., S. Dak., Kan., and 
Ariz. Rare in New Eng. The roots yield a red dye. 

A densely harsh- hairy perennial herb, 
Gromwell ^he nan * s ^ which lean toward stem and , 

Onosmodium leaf, the stem slender and branching. The 
Virginianum light green leaves oblong lance-shaped. 
Cream white Flowers cylindrical, cream white, w r ith 
five long sharp lobes ; the style threadlike 
and extending far beyond the mouth of the corolla ; the 
calyx with five sharp segments ; the flower-cluster at 
first curved, finally erect and long. Flowers ^ inch long. 
The flower matures the stigma before the anthers ; it is 
mostly cross-fertilized by the butterflies. 1-2 feet high. 
Banks and hillsides from Me., south, and west to Kan. 

A rough-bristly annual species, natural- 
Small Bugloss , . _, -4.1 iT 
Li copsis lze fr m Europe, with a branching stem 
arvensis and lance-shaped leaves. The light blue- 
Light violet violet flowers in crowded clusters, the 
June- calyx nearly as long as the curved corolla. 
1-2 feet high. In fields and on roadsides 
near dwellings, from Me. to Pa. and Va. The name 
Greek, TLvicoS, a wolf, and oi/>i$, a face ; but the flower's 
face scarcely looks that way ! 

Sometimes called blueweed, and in fact 
Vingr's 

Buff loss a fl wer sufficiently approaching a blue 

Echium vulgar e tone to justify the name ; but the bios- 
Blue=violet soms actually range between lilac, purple, 
June-July an( j v i o i e fc o f a bluish cast. It is a bien- 
nial with an exceedingly bristly-hairy stem, and hairy- 
382 




Viper's Bugloss. 
Echium vulgareT 



Lithospermum 

canescens. 



VERVAIN FAMILY. Verbenaceae. 



silvery light green leaves, linear lance-shaped, toothless, 
and stemless. The flowers are rather showy, tubular or 
vase-shaped with five rounded unequal divisions ; the 
four stamens, which, with the pistil, are pink, extend 
far beyond the limit of the corolla. The flower-spike 
one-sided, at first closely coiled, but finally long and but 
slightly curved ; the blossoms are pink, but the mature 
flower is light ultramarine violet. 1-2 J feet high. Road- 
sides and pastures from Me. to Va. , and west to Nev. 
and S. Dak. Naturalized from Europe. 

VERVAIN FAMILY. Verbenacece. 

Generally herbs (at least in our range) with opposite 
leaves and perfect, more or less irregular flowers in ter- 
minal clusters. The corolla with united petals, uniform 
in shape, or two-lipped, the tube generally cylindrical 
and spreading into 4-5 lobes. Four stamens, two long 
and two short, or very rarely only two. Probably self- 
fertilized, though cross-fertilization may occur, assisted 
by the honeybee, bumblebee, and the beelike flies. 

A troublesome annual weed with a four- 
European sided, slender, nearly smooth, branching 
Vervain 
Verbena stem, 'and minutely hairy leaves, deeply 

officinalis cleft and sharp-toothed ; the upper ones 

Purplish lance-shaped and toothless, the lower 

ovate and sharply divided; all deep green. 
September ^ke sma ^ P a ^ e purple or white flowers in 

branching spikes about 5 inches long, in- 
conspicuous and uninteresting. 1-3 feet high. In waste 
places everywhere. Naturalized from Europe. 

A similar perennial species with white 
Vervain flowers; usually with erect slightly rough- 

Verbena hairy stem four-sided and grooved, and 

urticcefolia coarsely toothed, deep green leaves, all or 
White nearly all with distinct stems, acute, and 

s" tember slightly hairy. The flower-spikes at length 

very long, the white flowers very small. 
3-5 feet high. In fields and waste places, from Me., 
south, and west to Minn., S. Dak., and Tex. The var. 
riparia has deeply cut leaves, and purple flowers. N. J c 
to N. Car. 

384 




V angustifolia. 



White Vervain. Ill Verbena urticaefolia. 



VERVAIN FAMILY. Verbenacese. 



A small, rougfi-hairy species with a slen- 
Narrow=Ieaved 

Vervain c * er ' ^en simple stem. Leaves linear and 

Verbena lance-shaped, the lower ones broad at the 

angustifolia tip and w^edge-shaped at the base, all more 
Pale violet Qr lesg toothed and veiny. Flower-spikes 
June-August 

few or single, densely clustered with pale 

violet flowers about J inch wide. 8-22 inches high. Dry 
borders of fields. Mass. , south, and west to Minn, and Ark. 

One of the handsomest yet commonest 
Blue Vervain . . . _ Jf. 

Verbena members of the genus. The stem erect, 

hastata stout, four-sided and grooved, roughish 

Deep purple and dull green. The short-stemmed leaves 

dark green, lance-shaped or oblong lance- 
September . . y ^11 ii 

shaped, acutely incised with double teeth, 

and with a rough surface ; the lower leaves are more or 
less three-lobed. The flower-spikes are numerous and 
branch upward like the arms of a candelabra ; the 
flowers bloom from the foot of the cluster upward, 
a few at a time, leaving behind a long line of purple- 
tinged calyx ; the tiny blossoms are deep purple or 
violet either one hue or the other. The flowers never 
approach blue or any hue allied to it, so the common 
name is misleading. Verbena hastata is a special fa- 
vorite of the bumblebee, and it is also closely attended 
by the honeybee and the bees of the genus Halictus. 
The smaller butterflies are also occasional visitors, 
among them the white Pieris protodice. 3-7 feet high. 
In fields everywhere. Rare in central N. H. 

LOPSEED FAMILY. Phrymacece, has a single species. 

seed ^ tal1 P lant> The stal k is four-sided, 

Phryma hollow, and strong-fibred, branching di- 

leptostachya vergently above. The deep green leaves 

Crimson= are thin, coarsely toothed, and arranged 

in pairs, each pair set at right angles with 
July-August 

the next ; the upper leaves nearly stemless 

and ovate pointed ; the lower oval. The slender flower- 
Spike bears little two-lipped flowers (the lower lip is 
fchree-parted) set in pairs at right angles with each 
other. The flowers are crimson-pink with a magenta 
tinge. In woods. Me., south, west to Minn, and Kan. 
386 




Blue Vervain. 



Verbena, hastate. 



MINT FAMILY. Labiatae. 



MINT FAMILY. Labicttce. 

A large family of aromatic herbs, the foliage of which 
is covered with tiny glands containing a strong-scented 
volatile oil of a peppery character ; the different species 
superficially resemble one another. The flowers are 
usually small, tubular, with an entire or two-lobed upper 
lip and a three-lobed lower lip. The stem is generally 
square, and the leaves grow opposite each other. The 
tiny flowers are gathered in more or less conspicuous 
spikes, or are clustered at the base of the leaves ; they 
are honey -bearing, and are almost exclusively cross-fer- 
tilized by honeybees, bumblebees, and the smaller bees. 
The name from Ldbice, the lips. 

This is an annual species whose light vio 
let, magenta-pink, or rarely white flow- 
ers are generally in pairs at the terminating 
branchlets of the somewhat woolly-sticky 
stiff stem. The leaves are narrowly oblong 
or lance-shaped, and a trifle sticky, with 
an aromatic pennyroyallike odor. The 
flowers are too scattered to form a panicle 
or cluster, and they are remarkable for the 
extraordinary length of the violet stamens which ex- 
tend in a curving line far beyond the five-lobed corolla, 
or flower-cup hence the name Blue Curls. The Latin 
name also refers to the hair like stamens. After the co- 
rolla fades and falls, the little nutlets within the calyx 
are in plain view. 6-20 inches high. In dry sandy 
fields, from Me., south, and west to Pa. and Ky. 

A very similar species with a slender 
woolly stem, ascending branches, and very 
narrow linear leaves, stemless and smooth. 
In sandy fields and dry pine barrens near 
the coast, from Long Island and Conn., 
south to La. 

A slender branching annual with lance- 
shaped, toothless or slightly toothed, 
conspicuously three-ribbed leaves, and ex- 
tremely regular-lobed flowers (for one of 
the family Labiatce), with five nearly 
equal, obovate, spreading divisions. The 
388 



Blue Curls or 

Bastard 

Pennyroyal 

Trichostema 
dichotomum 
Pale violet 
or magenta 
July- 
September 



Trichostema 
lineare 
Pale violet, 
etc. 
July-August 

False 
Pennyroyal 

Isanthus 
brachiatus 
Pale violet 
July- 
September 




Blue Curls. Trichostema dichotomum 



MINT FAMILY. Labiatae. 



pistil greatly exceeds the stamens in length, the latter 
scarcely extending beyond the corolla ; it is evident, 
therefore, that the flower is cross-fertilized. The most 
frequent visitors are the bumblebees, the honeybees, 
and the smaller butterflies, chief among which are 
Pieris rapce, white, and Colias philodice, yellow. 
American A downy perennial with a stiff perpen- 

Germander dicular stem, and light green, unevenly 
or Wood Sage toothed leaves, lance-shaped and fine- 

Teucrium hairy , particularly underneath. The rather 

Canadense 

Pale purple long flower-spike with the large nearly }- 

or magenta inch-long flowers arranged in circles, pur- 
July- pie, deeper or paler, and sometimes ma- 
September g en ta, or a pinkish white. The lower lobe 
of the flower broad and prominent, forming a convenient 
landing for visiting bees. 1-2 feet high. Moist thicket 
borders, or marshes. Me., south, and west to Minn., S. 
Dak., Neb., and Kan. The var. littorale with rigid stem 
and lance-shaped leaves tapering at the base, thick and 
roguish, has smaller flowers. Near the coast, Me., south 
and southwest, north to Okla. in the Miss, valley. 

A stout-stemmed, yellow-flowered per- 

R* h W d ennial species, tall and branching, with 

Collinsonia large ovate sharply toothed leaves and a 

Canadensis nearly smooth stem. The pale yellow 

Pale yellow flowers with 2 long divergent stamens and 

s" timber a P rommen t pistil, strongly lemon-scented. 

Flower-cluster very loose. Named for 

Peter Collinson, an early amateur botanist. 2-4 feet 

high. In damp rich woodlands, from Me., south, west 

to Wis. and Kan. 

A coarse and aromatic perennial species 
frutescens introduced into the gardens of this coun- 

White try from China and India, and escaped to 

July- roadsides near dwellings. The large, ovate, 

September coarsely toothed leaves deep purple-tinged 
beneath, and with a bronze tone above, the green com- 
pletely suffused with the other color. Strongly scented, 
flowers tiny, in terminal clusters, and dull white or pale 
magenta. 1-3 feet high. In waste places, southern N, 
Y. to 111. 

390 



Note the long lower lip of the 

corolla and its slightly 

fringed edge. 




Col 1 i nsonia Canadensis. 



MINT FAMILY. Labiates. 



The genus Mentha is a tribe of odorous perennial herbs 
with little tubular flowers mostly in close clusters ; the 
plant-stems square. Almost all the species are natural- 
ized from Europe, and there are many hybrids. Name 
from MivQrj (of Theophrastus), a Nymph. The mints are 
commonly fertilized by the order Diptera (the flies), and 
particularly by the genera Syrphidce and Bombylidce. 

Flowers in rather crowded, slender, 
Horse Mint 

Mentha leafless spikes, sometimes disconnected. 

longifolia Leaves ovate-oblong and ovate lance- 

Pale purple shaped, almost stemless, sharp-pointed 
July-August and sharply toothed, often smooth above, 
but the whole plant generally finely white-haired. Plant- 
stem square. 18 inches high. Roadsides and field-, 
borders. Pa. and N. J. Mentha alopecuroides has 
larger leaves, stemless, broadly oval and obtuse, often 
approaching heart-shape, coarsely toothed and more 
veiny. Southern N. Y., Pa., and N. J., west to Mo. 

Flowers variable in depth of color ; clus- 
Spearmtnt ters crowded like those of the preced- 

Mentha sptcata j species, but especially narrow and 

Pale purple 

July-August pointed. Plant-stem green, square, and 

nearly smooth. Leaves oblong or ovate 
lance-shaped, unevenly toothed and stemless or very 
nearly so. 12-20 inches high or more. Wet places and 
roadsides in cultivated ground, everywhere. 

Flowers in narrow, loose, disconnected, 
Peppermint 
Mentha leafless, terminal spikes, and often on a 

piperita rather long stem proceeding from between 

Pale purple the plant-stem and leaf-stem. Leaves 
long-ovate, deep green, smooth, and regu- 
larly toothed, slightly rough beneath, and very hot- 
tasting. Plant-stem purplish, 18-36 inches high. Along 
brooks and in cultivated ground everywhere. 

The flowers in a roundish or nearly 
Water Mint. 
Mentha oblong terminal cluster ; frequently there 

aquatica are one or more clusters between the 

Pale purple plant-stem and the upper leaf -stems. 

August- Leaves ovate or round-ovate. The plant 

is characterized by downy hairs (rarely it 

is smoothish) which generally point downward. Wet 

392 




Peppermint. 



Mentha piperita. 



MINT FAMILY. Labiatas. 



places from N. Eng. to Pa., Del., and Ga. Not com- 
mon. 18-28 inches high or more. In the var. crispa the 
plant is smooth, but the green flower-cup is hairy; it has 
also torn-toothed leaves somewhat curled. Swamps and 
roadside ditches. Southern N. Y., N. J., and Pa. 
Corn Mint ^ e ^ n ^ bell-shaped flowers clustered in 

Menttia circles about the plant-stem at the junc- 

arvensis tion with leaf-stems. Leaves ovate, blunt- 

Light purple toothed, and distinctly stemmed. Not a 

common species. 6-20 inches long. Found 
in moist fields. N. Eng., N. Y., and Pa., south and west. 
The only native mint. The lilac-white 
Wild Mint or w } 1 j^ e flowers oblong bell-shaped, with 
arventisvar. a short-toothed edge; the clusters ar- 
Canadensis ranged as in the preceding species. 
White or Leaves conspicuously tapering from the 

lilac-white centre toward both ends, coarsely toothed, 
*** ovate-oblong or lance-shaped, and'rough- 

ish, or nearly smooth. The plant is more 
or less hairy throughout, and has the odor of Penny- 
royal. In wet places south to Va., and through the 
northern United States across the continent. 10-28 in- 
ches high. This mint, according to Prof. Charles Robert- 
son, is visited in Illinois by the fly Jurinia smaragdina. 

A mintlike weed with small white 
Bugleweed ,, ' . 

Lycopus flowers remotely suggesting a bugle 

Virginicus shape. Stem slender, four-angled, and 
White generally smooth. The light green leaves 

July-Sep= ovate lance-shaped and very coarsely 
toothed. The tiny flowers clustered at 
the bases of the leaves have but two perfect stamens ; 
the other two, if present, are quite abortive. Fertilized 
mostly by the beelike flies, and the small bees of the 
genus Halictus. 6-24 inches high. Common. Seep. 411. 
A similar species, with some leaves so 
Water Hore= deeply toothed that they appear incised, 
hound and others incised to an appearance of 

Lycopus lobes. The stiff stem generally smooth, 

americanus simple or branched. The flower-cup tiny 
June-Sep= and but little l ar g er tnan ^ green calyx. 
tember 1-2 feet high. Common. 

394 




Leaf of M . arvensis. 

Wild Mint, Mentha arvensis var. Canadensia, 



MINT FAMILY. Labiates. 



H A coarse, stiff, aromatic perennial natu- 

Hyssopus ralized from Europe. Slender-stemmed 

offidnalis and lance-leaved ; the leaves stiff and 

Pale violet pointed at either end. The tubular flowers 
June-Sep= with projecting stamens, crowded at the 
angles of the leaves at the upper part of 
the plant. 1-3 feet high. Waste places and roadsides 
near dwellings, from Me., south to N. Car., and west. 

This is a stput and stiff -stemmed species 

111 With a Slight f ra S rance of mint 5 but unlike 

hemum the latter its tin y flowers are borne in 

virginianum a somewhat flat-topped cluster. Leaves 

White stemless or nearly so, lance-shaped, tooth- 

purple=dotted i ess> an( j slightly aromatic ; stem smooth 

September or very sli S htl y hairy, and very leafy. 
The flowers lilac-white, purple-spotted , 
standing out from the globular heads. 1-3 feet high. 
In dry fields, or pastures, or on the borders of thickets, 
from Vt. and Mass. , south to Ga. , west to Minn, and 
Neb. The name meaning crowded flower-clusters. 

A similar species, with smooth linear 
Pycnanthemum leaves, sharp-pointed and light green. 
White** 1 The stem and leaves stiff. The tiny flowers 

purple=dotted white, speckled or dotted with purple. 1- 
2 feet high. Dry fields, N. H., south, and 
west to Minn, and Tex. Found in Campton, N. H., but 
rare ; occasional in Vt. 

A small annual, exceedingly odorous, 
American usually found in dry pastures. The stem 

Pennyroyal * ,. .7, 

Hedeoma erect, finely hairy, with upward-reaching 

pulegioides branches ; the small light olive-green 
Pale light leaves with few teeth, ovate lance-shaped, 

blunt-pointed, and narrowed at the base. 
tember ^he tiny pale violet or lavender, tubular 

flowers with a three-lobed under lip. Fer- 
tilized mostly by bumblebees, honeybees, and the smaller 
bees. 6-15 inches high. Common in dry fields every- 
where, but not found in Campton, N. H., nor anywhere 
in the vicinity of the White Mts. The essential oil of 
Pennyroyal is said to be efficacious in driving away 
mosquitoes. 

30 



Pennyroyal 
Hedeoma pulegioideS. 




Mountain Mint. II Pycnanthemum flexuosum. 



MINT FAMILY. Labiate. 



Lyre-leaved A sli g htl y rough-hairy, slender plant, 

Sage with conspicuous light violet flowers 

Salvia lyrata nearly an inch long, which are cross-fer- 
Light violet tilized mostly by the bumblebees ; Bombus 
June-July vagans and Bombus pennsylvanicus being 
frequent visitors. The lower leaves are somewhat lyre- 
shaped, the upper pair (sometimes two pairs) mid- w ay 
up the stem, similar but less cut, or lobed ; the tubular 
flowers with a broad three-lobed lip which furnishes a 
convenient landing-platform for insect visitors ; 1-2 feet 
high. In dry woodlands, and beside thickets. N. J., 
south, and west to 111. and Ark. 

A brilliant and showv wild flower whose 
OswegoTeaor 
Bee Balm scarlet-red color is strongly relieved by its 

Monarda usual background of shady woodland. 

didyma Commonly found beside streams on the 

Scarlet=red border of the woods. 

September ^ ne Monardas are peculiarly adapted to 

the visits of butterflies, although they are 
also commonly visited by bees, the bumblebee in particu- 
lar. The two anther-bearing stamens are prominent, as 
well as the two-parted stigma, and neither can be passed 
without friction by butterfly or bee, both of which have 
the long tongue necessary to reach the nectar. The 
bumblebees mentioned as visitors of the foregoing species 
also frequent this flower, together with the butterflies 
Colias philodice, yellow, and the large Danais archip- 
pus, black-and-tan. The sombre dark green leaves are 
broad lance-shaped, sharply toothed, and stemmed ; the 
small leaves just beneath the flower are often tinged 
ruddy. The stem, rather hairy-rough and square, is 
about 2 feet high, or more. Moist ground, N. Eng., 
south to Ga. , and west to Mich. 

A similar species with a smooth or spar- 
Wild Bergamot . 

Monarda fistu- m 8 l Y downy, slender stem, and deep green 
losa leaves, the upper ones somewhat stained 

Magenta- with the pure pale lilac or whitish tint 

purple which characterizes the flower- bracts. The 

September flowers with a less expanded throat, paler 
or deeper magenta-purple. 2-3 feet high. 
Dry ground, Me. , south, and west to Neb. and S. Dak, 

398 




Oswego Tea. 



Monarda didyma. 




Wild Bergamot. 



Monardafistulosai 



MINT FAMILY. Labiatas. 



A rather smooth form with handsome 
Monarda fistu- . . , ., _ 

Zosavar. 6m crimson-pink or rose red flowers finely 
Crimson-pink hairy over the tube and upper lip, and thin 

leaves rather smooth. On the borders of 
moist thickets, Me. and N. H. , south along the mountains 
to Pa. and Va. The var. media, with deep purple flowers. 
Alleghany Mts., and west to Minn. The var. rubra is 
locally plentiful in parts of N. H. , notably south of New- 
found Lake. It is unfortunately classified as Purple 
Bergamo t, Monarda media, in Britton and Brown, which 
is manifestly confusing. Monarda mollis is a less com- 
mon species ; flowers flesh pink and lilac. 

A woodland species rather similar in 
Blephilia many respects to Monarda. The small 

Blephilia cili- tubular flowers about J inch long, with a 
ata three-lobed under lip, light purple or 

Light purple violet and fine _ hairv , The lance-shaped 
June-August . 

leaves almost toothless (except the lower 

ones), white-downy beneath, and quite stemless, or nearly 
so. The stem downy and mostly simple. 1-2 feet high. 
Mass., south to Ga., and west to Minn, and Kan. 
Catnip An exceedingly common weed to which 

Nepeta Cataria many of the animals of the tribe Fells are 
Lilac=white greatly attached. A favorite Manx cat of 
July-October mme WO uld walk a mile every other day 
or so, from my Campton studio to a spot where it 
grew in plenty, notwithstanding the way was through 
the woods and over a hill of no small difficulty ! The 
stem is densely downy as well as the deeply round-toothed 
leaves, and both are sage green in color. The pale lilac 
or lilac- white and spotted flowers are also downy, and 
gathered in small terminal clusters, which are rarely 4 
inches long. Leaves strongly aromatic. 2-3 feet high. 
Common everywhere. Naturalized from Europe. 

A small creeping plant, adventive from 
Ground Ivy or _ . , , , , 

Gill=over=the= Europe, common in all moist shady places ; 

Ground it takes the place of our Trailing Arbutus, 

Nepeta in the moist fields of England in April. 

hederacea p ne p a j e p ur pi e flowers, spotted darker 

near the throat > and of ten with the cal ^ x 
magenta-tinged, has two lips, the upper 

400 




1- Catnip. 
Nepeta Cataria. 



!-G i 1 1 -oveivM-the -gpou nd. 
Nepeta hederacca. 



MINT FAMILY. Labiatae. 



one two-cleft, and the lower, three-cleft ; the deep green 
leaves, scalloped and rather heart-shaped, are often 
stained with magenta, as well as the stem ; the latter 
takes root at the joints, and reaches out sometimes fully 
18 inches. Me., south to Ga., and west to Minn., Neb., 
and Kan. 

A bitter perennial herb, not aromatic, 
Skullcap with two-lipped tubular flowers, the four 

Scutellaria stamens located under the upper lip, which 
laterifiora i s arched. Name from scutella, a dish, in 

Pale purple allusion to the peculiar hump on the upper 
July-August , . . 

section of the green calyx, which, how- 
ever, does not even remotely suggest the shape of a dish. 
The little flowers, about a quarter of an inch long, light 
or pale purple (rarely white), are borne in succession 
along the delicate stems which terminate the branches 
or spring from between leaf-stem and plant-stem. The 
flpw^ers borne on one side of the stem which later is dec- 
orated with the odd little hoodlike green calyxes con- 
taining four white seeds. Plant-stem smooth, square, 
and sometimes slightly twisted, upright and much 
branched. Leaves narrowly ovate, veiny, coarse-toothed, 
pointed, rounded at the base, and slender-stemmed. 1-2 
feet high. Common in damp and shady places, through- 
out the country The Scutellarias are fertilized by the 
smaller bees, Halictus, and the leaf-cutter bee, MegacMle. 
Scutellaria Light violet flowers almost an inch long, 

versicolor the whitish lower lip sometimes purple- 

Light violet stained. Leaves heart-shaped, very veiny, 
July-August roug h, round-toothed, rather blunt, and 
long-stemmed. Plant-stem soft-hairy. 1-3 feet high. 
Banks of streams, Pa. ? south, and west to Minn, and 
Ark, 

Scutellaria Flower an inch long, narrow, and its 

serrata upper lip only a trifle shorter than the 

Light violet lower one. Leaves ovate or long-ovate, 
May-June toothed, tapering at both ends, and smooth. 
Green and nearly smooth, slender plant-stem, 1-2 feet 
high. In woods, southern N. Y. and Pa., south to N. 
Car., and west to 111. The most showy of all the genus. 

402 




Mad-dog Skull-cap. Scuteltaria lateriflorau 



MINT FAMILY. Labiatse. 



The flowers, stems, and under sides of 
Scutellaria the leaves covered with soft white down ; 
CTtTiolet flower nearly one inch long. Leaves 
July-August ova te or narrow-ovate, stemmed, and some 
slightly heart-shaped at the base. 2-4 feet 
high. River- banks from Ontario to 111., and south 
among the mountains to N. Car. 

Flowers half an inch long or a trifle 
Scutellaria more. Leaves distant, oval or long ovate, 
Li^ht violet vein y round-toothed, the longer-stemmed 
May-July lower ones sometimes slightly heart- 
shaped, the upper on short, margined 
stems. Plant-stem with spreading hairs. Dry or sandy 
ground, or woods. 12-30 inches high. Southern N. Y. 
and Pa., south, and west to Mich. The var. Tiirsuta is a 
larger, more hairy form with coarse leaves. Va., Ky. 

Flower bright light violet, and an inch 
Scutellaria long, in a striking terminal cluster. Leaves 
in egrifo la o bi on g lance-shaped, or narrower, mostly 
June-August toothless, obtuse, short-stemmed, and 
downy together with the plant-stem. 6- 
20 inches high. Dry ground, borders of fields, woods. 
The seaboard States from R. I. south. A handsome 
species. 

A low species with flowers inch long, 
Scutellaria borne on very short stems at the junction 

parvula of i ea f. st em with plant-stem. Leaves op- 

Violet . 

May-July posite- growing, toothless, round to lance- 

ovate or slightly heart-shaped, about J an 
inch long. Stem spreading, 3-10 inches high. Sandy 
banks and moist places, from N. Y. and N. J., south, 
and west to S. Dak., Minn., Neb., and Tex. The var. 
ambigua is minutely fine-hairy or smooth. Me., Wis. 
to Ky., and Tex. 

Flowers f inch long, growing in the 
Scutellaria same position as those of the foregoing 
galericulata spec i es . Leaves ovate lance-shaped, the 
Blue-violet .,, ,. ,,, 

July-August lower sometimes with a slight heart-shaped 

base, toothed, and acute. Stem smooth 
and slender. 1-2 feet high. Common in wet shady places 
and along streams, especially in the north and west. 
404 




Larger Skullcap. Scutellaria integrifolia. 



MINT FAMILY. Labiates. 



Scutellaria 
nervosa 
Pale blue- 
violet 
June-August 



Self-heal or 
Heal-all 

Prunella vui- 
garis or Bru- 
nella vulgaris 
Purple, light 
or deeper 
June- 
September 



Flowers a trifle more than inch long. 
Leaves about an inch long, roundish or 
ovate, slightly toothed, and the lower ones 
slightly heart-shaped. The floral leaves 
toothless. Stem smooth and slender, 1-2 
feet high. Moist woods and thickets, N. Y. and N. J., 
south to N. Car., and west to Mo. 

A very common low perennial with gen- 
erally a single stem, and tubular, two- 
lipped, hooded flowers proceeding from a 
spike or head of closely set, sometimes 
rusty colored green, floral bractlike leaves. 
The name (of uncertain origin) said to be 
from the German braune, a throat dis- 
ease. Flower tiny, purple, but sometimes 
flesh color or white, the lower lip slightly 
fringed. Generally fertilized by the bumblebee, Bombus 
pennsylvanicus being a frequent visitor ; the common 
yellow butterfly Colias philodice is also a constant 
attendant. Leaves ovate-oblong, narrowing toward the 
tip, slightly or imperceptibly toothed, stemmed, with 
generally two small bractlike leaves at the base of the 
stems. Plant-stem slightly hairy. 6-13 inches high. 
Very common along roadsides, and on the borders of 
woods and fields. Across the continent. x 

A smooth perennial with upright, slen- 
der stem, stemless lance-shaped leaves 
mostly toothed, and large, 1 inch long, 
showy flowers crowded in terminal, leaf- 
less spikes, Flower pinkish pale lilac, often 
variegated with white, and funnel-shaped, 
the upper lip a little hooded, the lower 
the throat inflated. Plant-stem smooth, 
1-4 feet high. Wet grounds, from northern Vt., west- 
ward and southward. Very variable. The var. denticu- 
lata, slender and generally low, with scallop- toothed, or 
imperceptibly toothed leaves, and very slender flower- 
spikes. Moist situations, Vt. , south, and west to S. Dak. 
and Neb. 

1 The var. laciniata, with upper leaves somewhat compound, is 
reported to be in the vicinity of Washington, D. C. 
406 



False Dragon- 
head 

Physostegia 
Virginiana 
Pink=lilac or 
lighter 
July-August 

three-parted ; 




Self-heal 



\\ 

Prunella vulgaria 



MINT FAMILY. Labiatse. 



A white- woolly, bitter, and aromatic 
Horehound . . , J . , . , 

Marrubium perennial, branched at the base, with small 

vulgare tubular dull white flowers circled about 

White the plant-stem at the leaf junctions. 

Leaves round-ovate, stemmed, and scal- 
lop-toothed. 1-2 feet high. Cultivated, 
and escaped into waste places. Naturalized from Eu- 
rope. The name from the Hebrew marrob, a bitter 
juice. 

Perpendicular-growing decorative herbs, 
Motherwort . 

Leonurus without any particular odor, with deeply 

Cardiaca cut leaves, and tiny flowers encircling the 

Pale lilac plant-stem at the point of junction with 

June-August the j eaves> The name from heaov, a lion, 
and or pa, tail lion's tail, alluding to the form of. the 
. flower-spike, but a poor simile. The upper lip of the 
tiny, tubular but shallow, pale lilac flower bearded. 
The green calyx characterized by five thornlike points; the 
base of the calyx, when the flower is gone, marked with 
a cross upon examination with a glass. The small leaves 
about the flower-clusters conventionally arranged around 
the tall stems, wedge-shaped toward the stem, and three- 
pointed at the tip. The lower leaves rounded, slashed, 
and long-stemmed. 2-4 feet high. A familiar peren- 
nial naturalized from Europe, and common everywhere 
in waste places about dwellings. 

Low spreading herbs found on waste 
Dead Nettle grounds. With tubular, bell-shaped flow- 
a^lericaule ers > and smatt long-stemmed leaves below, 
Pale purple- heart-shaped ones in the middle of the 
magenta stem, and others above directly connected 

April- with the circling flower-clusters ; all round- 

toothed. The upper lip of the flower is 
bearded, the lower one spotted ; all magenta or pale pur- 
ple. A honey-bearing flower, cross-fertilized mostly by 
honeybees and bumblebees, and frequently visited by 
Bombus bifarius, commonly called the orange-banded 
bumblebee. The foliage of the dead nettle is not sting- 
ing to the touch. 6-18 inches high. Naturalized from 
Europe. 

408 




Mothepwort 



Leonurus Cardiaca. 



NIGHTSHADE FAMILY. Solanaceae. 



Lamium 
purpureum 
Magenta 
May- 
September 

Hemp Nettle 

Galeopsis 
Tetrahit 
Magenta- 
purple 
July- 
September 



Like the foregoing, also naturalized, the 
leaves more heart-shaped, roundish, or ob- 
long, and all of them stemmed. Flowers 
magenta. Less common, from N. Eng. to 
Pa. 

An annual, with spreading branches, 
and several circling clusters of small pale 
magenta flowers (the lower lip purple- 
striped) gathered at the stems of the floral 
leaves. Name from the Greek, weasellike, 
from the fancied resemblance of the flower 
to the head of a weasel. The tiny flowers 
white-hairy, the flower-cup bristly. Leaves ovate, 
toothed, hairy, and pointed. Plant-stem square, very 
hairy, with hairs pointing downward, and conspicuously 
swollen below the joints. Cross-fertilized by the bum- 
blebees and smaller bees, Bombus vagans a most frequent 
visitor. 10-18 inches high. Common in waste places 
and gardens, everywhere. Naturalized from Europe. 

Hairy perennial herbs, with tubular bell- 
shaped flowers, clustered in circles, 6-10 
in each circle, and forming a terminal 
spike. The upper part of the light ma- 
genta-purple flower and its green cup (ca- 
lyx) hairy. Leaves stemless, or the lower 
ones short-stemmed, ovate lance-shaped 
or longer, scallop- toothed, downy-hairy, rather obtuse, 
and rounded at the base. Plant-stem square, 1-3 feet 
high. Wet grounds, N. Eng. to Pa. , and west. 

Like the foregoing, but with mostly 

smooth flowers, leaves sometimes smooth, 
joiia var. aspera 
Magenta= and nearly all distinctly stemmed; the 

purple plant-stem taller, commonly smooth on 

Ju| y- the sides, but stiff-hairy at the angles. 

The flower-spike slender. Stem, 2-4 feet 
high. Common on wet grounds, everywhere. 

NIGHTSHADE FAMILY. Solanacece. 

Mostly herbs with alternate leaves and regular, perfect 
flowers ; the five-lobed corolla with generally five sta- 
mens and a very small stigma. Foliage strongly scented. 
410 



Hedge Nettle 

Stachys 
palustris 
Magenta=pur= 
pie, or paler 
July- 
September 



Bugle-weed. 
Lycopus Virginicusu 

(.See page 39U} 



Hemp-nettje. 
Gakopsis Tetrahit. 



NIGHTSHADE FAMILY. Solanacess. 



The fruit, though often narcotic and extremely poison- 
ous, is sometimes harmless and edible ; usually a many- 
seeded round berry with the calyx generally adhering to 
its base. The potato and the tomato are the widest- 
known members of the family. 

A tall, almost shrublike plant with vari- 

able dark green leaV6S fr m Vate t0 tri ' 
Solanum angular in outline, some lobed and others 

Dulcamara formed of three leaflets, the two lateral 
Violet, purple O nes quite small, all without teeth. The 
g un f~ small flowers in diminutive loose clusters, 

with deeply five-cleft corolla, violet or 
purple, or sometimes lilac- white, the yellow conic centre 
colored by the five stamens. The fruit (at first green) 
an oval, translucent ruby red berry, hanging or droop- 
ing in small clusters. The flower is visited by honey- 
bees and the beelike flies. 2-8 feet high. In moist 
thickets and by waysides. Naturalized from Europe. 
Me., south to Del., and west to Kan. and Minn. 

A native species, with an erect, smooth, 

Black branching stem, and ovate, wavy-toothed, 

Nightshade ,. . 

Solanum thin-stemmed leaves slightly unequal- 

nigrum sided. Flowers white in small side clus- 

White ters, the corolla deeply five-lobed ; the 

July ~ calyx adhering to the globose berry, which 

is black when fully ripe, and clustered on 
thin drooping stems. 1-2^ feet high. In waste places, 
or near dwellings in cultivated ground, from Me., south, 
and west to the Northwest Territory and Tex. 

A tall, and late in its season a reclining 

Clammy or sprawling species resembling Solanum, 

Ground Cherry 4 *?. . , , . 

Phy sails wlth spreading, sticky -hairy stem, and 

heterophylla broad heart-shaped leaves coarsely toothed 
Qreen=yellow and pointed. Flower greenish yellow, 
brown in the centre, with five triangular 
short lobes ; anthers and berry dull yellow, 
the latter enclosed within the enlarged calyx. 1-3 feet 
high. Common in rich soil from JVJe., south, and west 
to Col. and Tex. A variable species, not yet satisfacto- 
rily defined, but including perhaps more than one species. 
Found at Manchester, Vt., by Miss Mary A. Day. 
412 




Black Nightshade. Solanum nigrum* 



NIGHTSHADE FAMILY. Solanacese. 



A branching and erect-stemmed species, 

mostly smooth. The ovate lance-shaped 
Ground Cherry . * . ^ , 

Physalis leaves tapering toward both ends very 

Virginiana slightly shallow-toothed and light green. 
Pale yellow The flower dull pale yellow with five brown- 

J"ly- purple spots ; anthers deep yellow. The 

September \. r 

stigma matures before the anthers, and 

extends beyond them. Fertilized by the honeybee and 
the bees of the genus Halictus ; Halictus pectinatus is a 
common visitor (Prof. Robertson). The reddish berry 
enclosed within the enlarged calyx. 1-3 feet high. 
Rich soil, Vt. and N. Y., south to La., and west to Minn. 
Physalis pubescens, the strawberry tomato, is downy, 
with angular leaves. The flower light green-yellow, 
brown-spotted at the throat, with violet anthers. Fruit 
green-yellow. Escaped from cultivation eastward. 

A rank-smelling annual weed with a 
Thorn Apple smooth, green, stout stem, and thin ovate, 

oTjfms7n Wn acute ' an S ularl y coarse-toothed leaves, 
Weed slim-stemmed. The white trumpet-shaped 

Datura flowers about 4 inches long, with a light 

Stramonium green calyx less than half the length of 

the corolla, which has five sharp-pointed 
September lobes. The green fruit -capsule, ovoid, 

about 2 inches long, and covered with 
stout prickles, the longest of which are at the tip of the 
capsule. 1-5 feet high. In waste places and vacant 
city lots, from Me., south, and west to Minn, and Tex. 
Naturalized from Asia. 

A similar species with a slenderer stem, 
Purple Thorn an( j Barker green leaves both more or less 
Datura Tatula stained with magenta. Flowers like those 
Magenta*. of the preceding species, but the flaring 

lavender tips of the corolla stained with magenta or 

lavender, or the tube nearly white. All 

the prickles of the capsule nearly equal in 
length. 1-5 feet high. In waste places from Vt., N. Y., 
and Minn., southward. Datura Metel, a native of Tro- 
pical America, has white trumpetlike flowers 6-7 inches 
long and ovate leaves toothless or nearly so. Capsule 
evenly prickled. A garden escape in waste places. 

414 



3olanum\ Dulcamara. Physahs 




Fruit capsult. 



FIGWORT FAMILY. Scrophulariacese. 



FIGWORT FAMILY. Scrophulariacece. 

Commonly herbs with opposite or alternate leaves, and 
perfect, irregular flowers with two sets of stamens, 2-5, 
longer and shorter ones ; corolla two-lipped or nearly 
regular. Fruit a two- celled and generally many-seeded 
capsule. A large family of bitter- juiced plants ; some 
are narcotic-poisonous. Cross-fertilized by moths, but- 
terflies, and bees. 

A very common, picturesque, velvety- 

Great Mullein , 

Verbascum leaved weed of rocky pastures and road- 

Thapsus sides, naturalized from Europe. The basal 

Yellow leaves at first in the form of a rosette, 

large, ovate, thick- velvety, and white- 
green. The stem stout and erect, with a 
few smaller, acute-pointed leaves ; the terminal flower- 
spike cylindrical, woolly, and dotted with scattered light 
yellow flowers ; corolla five-lobed, and anthers golden 
yellow. Rarely the flowers are white. 2-6 feet high. 
In barren fields and waste places, from Me. , south, and 
west to Minn, and Kan. 

A smaller species with smooth stem and 
Moth Mullein ,. ,. , 

Verbascum thm ' h g hfc g reen g^ssy leaves, mostly ob- 
Blattaria long with deeply cut, notched, and toothed 

Yellow, white margins ; the upper leaves lance-shaped 
and clasping at the base. The flowers, 
similar in shape to those of the preceding 
species, are light yellow or white, tinged on the back 
with lavender, and set on slender stalks ; the five sta- 
mens are fringed with ruddy hairs, and the anthers are 
deep orange. The slender flower-spike is 1-2 feet long, 
and a trifle woolly. 2-5 feet high. In waysides, waste 
places, and pastures. Me. , south, west to Minn, and Kan. 

An extremely slender and smooth an- 
Blue Toad-flax / 

Linaria nual or biennial species with few small, 

Canadensis thickish, linear, light green leaves, tooth- 
Lavender less, stemless, smooth, and shining. The 

small pale violet or lavender flowers about 
September , . 

-^ inch long, two-lipped, and spurred ; the 

lower lip large and three-lobed, with a white, convex, 

two-ridged palate ; the upper lip with two acute divi* 

416 




1 Moth Mullein. 
Verbascum Thapsus. Verbascum Blattaria 



FIG WORT FAMILY, Scrophularlaceas. 



sions ; the spur curving and threadlike. 5-30 inches 
high. Common in dry, sandy soil, from Me., south, and 
local west to the Pacific coast. The name from Linum, 
flax. 

A very common but beautiful perennial 

Toad=flax or wee( j naturalized from Europe, with erect 
Butter=and= 

E smooth stem, and gray-green linear, stem- 

Linaria less and toothless leaves growing alter- 

vulgaris nately but near together. The flowers are 

Yellow and about an inch long including the slender 
orange ,. 

July-October s P ur ' and two-lipped, the upper lip two- 
lobed, light yellow, the lower lip three- 
lobed and pouch-shaped, tapering to the tip of the 
slender spur, and furnished above with a protruding 
gold-orange palate which nearly closes the throat of the 
corolla ; the four stamens are tipped with ochre yellow 
anthers ; the style is greenish. The flowers are assisted 
in the process of fertilization by bumblebees and butter- 
flies ; among the latter, Colias philodice (yellow) and 
Melitcea phaeton, the Baltimore (brown), are frequent 
visitors. 1-3 feet high. In fields, pastures, and city 
lots, everywhere. 

A smooth annual with erect stem and 
Small Snap- _ 

dragon light green linear leaves. The flowers 

Antirrhinum light purple or white, showy, solitary, and 
Orontium with a sac-shaped, two-lipped corolla ; the 

Light purple U pp er Up two-lobed, the lower three-lobed. 
June-August , . , T ~ , , 

About 1 foot high. In fields and waste 

places near dwellings. New Eng. and N. Y. Adventive 
from Europe. 

A smooth perennial with a slender four- 
S-rop 7 mlaria side'J, grooved stem and slender-stemmed, 
marilandica ovate lance-shaped, toothed, light green 
Green= leaves. Flowers small, sac-shaped, and 

magenta clustered on long, nearly leafless branch- 

September ^ e ^ s ' ^ ie two-lipped corolla green without, 
and shiny brown-magenta within. 3-7 
feet high. In thin woods and thickets, from N. Y, , 
south to N, Car. and Tenn., and west to Kan. 



418 



Butter-and-Eggs. 
Linariavulgaris 




Blue Toad-flax. 
Linaria Canadensis. 



FIQWORT FAMILY. Scrophulariaceas. 



T ^ smooth-stemmed plant superficially 
Cheione glabra resembling the Bottle Gentian, with 
White, pink- smooth, bright deep green, toothed, short- 
tinged stemmed, lance-shaped leaves 3-6 inches 

July ~ long. The flower not unlike a turtle's 

September , .. . . . 

head, about an inch long, white, and deli- 
cately tinged at the tips with magenta-pink or crimson- 
pink ; the corolla two-lipped, the upper lip arched over 
the lower one. The stamens dark and woolly. J-3 feet 
high. On wet banks, in swamps, and beside brooks, 
from Me : , south, and west to Minn., Kan., and Tex. 

A perennial with slender and straight 
Beard^nTue 1 ^ stem wooll y almost to the base. Leaves 
Pentsiemon h"g ht green, slightly woolly, oblong to 
hirsutus lance-shaped, slightly toothed, the upper 

Magenta- ones toothless, the lower ovate and 

whlte stemmed. The flowers whitish, tinged 

May-July 

with dull magenta, the corolla trumpet- 
shaped, two-lipped, two lobes on the upper, three on the 
lower lip, and the throat nearly closed by a palate on 
the lower lip covered with long hairs. There are four 
stamens and a sterile stamen or so-called filament, which 
is hairy or bearded a little more than half its length. 
Cross-fertilized mostly by butterflies. 1-3 feet high. 
Me., south, and west to Minn, and Tex. Found in 
Campton, N. H., by Carroll S. Mathews. 

A very similar species, smooth except 
Pentstemon the somewhat s ti c ky-hairy top of the stem 
Icevigatus . , ,, , , , . . , , 

bearing the flowers ; the latter f inch long, 

whitish with a magenta- tinged base, the corolla as in the 
foregoing species, but the throat wider open, and scarcely 
or not at all hairy ; the sterile filament hairy on the up- 
per side only. The stem ruddy, and the light green 
leaves more or less so at the edge. 2-3 feet high. In 
thickets or moist fields, from Pa., south, and west to Ky. 
and La. , where according to Gray the common form is 
the var. Digitalis, with stem-leaves ovate lance-shaped, 
the lower longer and wider. The flowers white, larger, 
and the corolla abruptly inflated. 2-5 feet high. Me. 
and N. Y. , south to Va. and Ark. , and west to 111. Prob- 
ably escaped from cultivation in the w^est. P. pubescens 
420 




Turtle-head. 



Chelone gl&bra. 



FIQWORT FAMILY. Scrophulariaceae. 



and P. Icevigatus have been found in the fields and rocky 
hills of Vermont by Wild, in Roxbury, Conn., by C. K. 
Averill ; P. Ice.vigatus has been found by H. G. Palfrey 
in Haverhill, Mass. ; and P. Icevigatus var. Digitalis has 
been found in Middlesex Co., Mass., by Mabel P. Cook. 

A smooth perennial with an upright 

square stem often considerably branched, 

Mimulus an d light green, smooth, lustreless leaves 

ringens with irregular obscure teeth, lance-shaped 

Purple or oblong, opposite-growing and clasping; 

the stem. The flowers are a rich clear 
September 

purple ; the corolla two-lipped, the upper 

lip erect and two-lobed, the lower with three wide- 
spreading lobes ; there are two yellow spots near the 
narrow throat. The pistil and four stamens are white ; 
the five-pointed, green calyx is stained with dull purple. 
The few flowers are long-stalked and spring from the 
angles of the upper leaves. 1-3 feet high. In swamps 
and beside brooks, generally in meadows, from Me., 
south to Va. and Tenn., and west to S. Dak., Minn., 
Neb., and Tex. Rarely the flowers are w^hite. Found 
near Langdon Park, Plymouth, N. H. The name from 
the Greek for ape, or buffoon, in allusion to the fancied 
grin on the face of the corolla. 

A branching and spreading little annual 

with rounded ovate or oblong, smooth 
Pimpernel 

liysanthes leaves, scarcely toothed, the upper ones 

dubia stemless and clasping the plant-stem. 

Pale dull lilac slightly. The pale dull lilac flowers inch 
long ; the upper lip of the corolla two- 
lobed, the lower three-lobed and flaring 

not unlike Mimulus. 4-9 inches high. Common in low, 

wet ground, everywhere. 

A very tall, smooth, perennial species, 
Culver's Root * 

Veronica commonest in the west, with simple, 

Virginica straight stem, and lance-shaped or oblong 

White leaves growing in circles about the plant- 

Jul y- stem, sharply toothed and smooth. Flow- 

ers small, white or pale lavender, with 
rather a long tube to the corolla, and with prominent 
stamens, in dense terminal spikes 3-6 inches long. 2-7 
422 




Monkey Flower 



Mimulus ringens. 




Pentstemon hirsutus, 



F1QWORT FAMILY. ScrophuJarlacex. 



feet high. In meadows and moist woods. Not recorded 
in Vermont by Brainerd and Eggleston. N. Y., south 
to Ala. , and west to Mo. and Neb. 

A perennial species with a hollow, 

smooth stem, which creeps over the 
Veronica ground and finally becomes erect and 

Americana branching. The leaves long-oval or ob- 
Lavender=biue long lance-shaped, light green, slightly 
Se* tember toothed, with short, flat stems. The tiny 

flower is lavender-blue violet-striped, with 
a white centre ; the corolla four-lobed, the lower lobe 
narrower than the others, the two divergent stamens 
light purple. The frail, quickly fading flowers are set 
on slender stems, in loose terminal spikes. 6-15 inches, 
high. On banks of streams and in damp places ; com- 
mon from Me., south to Pa., and westward. Found in 
the Catskill Mountains near the Mountain House. 

A similar species. The flowers on rather 
ll zig-zag stems, and with linear, acute, 
Veronica shallow-toothed leaves, slightly clasping 

scutellata the stem. Fruit capsule flat, notched, and 

Lavender=blue broader than it is long. 6-20 inches high. 

Mav ~ In swamps, from Me., south to southern 

September __ ^ r __. T , . ^ i 

N. Y., and west to Minn. Local in Cal. 

Var. villosa is a soft-hairy form northward N. Y. to Wash. 

A woolly species with prostrate but 
Common T i 

Speedwell finally erect stem. Leaves light green, 

Veronica oval or obovate, toothed, and narrow at 

officinalis the base. The flowers light lavender, 

Light lavender striped with light violet . coro lla four- 
June-August ,.-*. mi n 

lobed. Ine flowers are set closely on slen- 
der spikes, rising from the leaf-angles. 3-10 inches high. 
Common in dry fields and wooded uplands. Me., south 
to S. Car., west to Mich. Also in Europe and Asia. 

A small mountain species with the same 

time of bloom ; the slender stem generally 
unalaschccnsis simple, the leaves indistinctly toothed or 

toothless, elliptical or ovate. Lavender 
flowers in short clusters. 2-12 inches high. On the high 
mountains of New Eng. , also in the Rockies. The seed- 
capsules of Veronica are in effect notched. 
424 




American Brooklime. Veronica, 



FIG WORT FAMILY. Scrophular/aceee. 



A small species, generally found in the 
S r ass, with a slender branching stem and 
Veronica small oval leaves, toothless, short- 

serpyllifolia stemmed, and opposite-growing. Flowers 
White, pale n^ t } lose o f American Brooklime but 
f ve .?_ ^ white or pale lavender with deeper stripes; 

they are less frail than those of the other 
Veronicas. 2-10 inches high. In fields and thickets, 
from Me. , south to Ga. , and westward. Also in Europe 
and Asia. Named for St. Veronica. 

A handsome annual or biennial species 

with a rather sticky fine-hairy, leafy, 
False Foxglove 

Gerardia branching stem, round in section. The 

pedicularia light green leaves are fernlike, and deeply 
Pure yellow cut into many toothed lobes ; they are 
stemless or nearly so. The showy, pure 
light lemon yellow flowers are bell-shaped 
with five broad, spreading, rounded lobes. The blos- 
soms measure a full inch or more in diameter. The 
outer surface and the throat of the corolla, the stamens, 
and the toothed lobes of the calyx are fine-hairy. Both 
flower and fruit are very beautiful, and the plant would 
be worthy of cultivation if its character permitted ; but 
the Gerardias are more or less parasitic on the roots of 
other plants. 1-3 feet high. Visited frequently by the 
bumblebee and the light brown butterfly, Junonia ccenia. 
On the borders of dry woodlands and thickets, from Me., 
south, and west to Minn, and Mo. 

A handsome species with a simple stem, 
Downy False 

Foxglove an d yellow-green leaves, ovate lance- 

Gerardia flava shaped, broadest at the base, slightly 
Pure yellow coarse dull-toothed or toothless, the edge 
July-August wav y. Both stem and leaves are velvety 
downy with soft hairs, the leaves with their stalks ma- 
genta-tinged. The showy, pure yellow or light lemon 
yellow flowers about 1J inch long, trumpet-shaped like 
foxglove, with five lobes, the broad throat downy on the 
inside. Stamens four, two short and two long ; hairy. 
The flowers set in a close terminal cluster, rather one- 
sided. Cross-fertilized mostly by butterflies and bumble- 
bees : the Peacock butterfly (Junonia ccenia), light brown 
426 




Downy False Foxglove. 



FIGWORT FAMILY. Scrophulariaceas. 



darker spotted, is one of the frequent visitors. 2-4 feet 
high. Thin woodlands. Me., south to Ga., west to Wis. 
Smooth False ^ s i m il ar species with flowers a little 
Foxglove larger and the same pure yellow ; but the 

Gerardia whole plant smooth and with a slight 

mrgimca bloom ; the leaves cut or plain-edged, ob- 

long lance shaped, the lower ones cut quite deeply, with 
the outline wavy and toothed. 3-6 feet high. New 
Eng., south, west to 111. and Minn. 

One of the daintiest of the Gerardias ; 
an annual with a generally smooth stem, 
Gerardia slim, straight, and rigid, the branches 

purpurea widely spreading. The leaves are yellow- 

Magenta- ih green, small, and linear, with acute 
purple ft rp ne downy, lighter or deeper ma- 

AUgUSt- 

September genta-purple flowers are cup-shaped, with 
five wide, flaring lobes; there are four 
stamens bearing rather large deep golden yellow anthem 
The flower is commonly visited by various bees, the yel- 
low butterfly, Colias philodice, and the brown butterfly, 
Junonia camia. Seed-capsule spherical. 12-26 inches 
high. In moist soil, generally near the coast, or in the 
vicinity of the Great Lakes, from Me., south, and west 
to Minn. The Gerardia paupercula, not quite as tall, has 
a smooth, simple or branched stem, and the smaller flower 
is about J inch long; seed-capsule prolate-spheroidal. 
6-17 inches high. N. Y. and N. J., west to Wis. 
Seaside ^ similar and even lower species con- 

Gerardia fined to the salt marshes of the coast. The 

Gerardia linear leaves are rather fleshy, and obtuse 

at the tips ; the upper ones are unusually 
short. The light magenta flowers, about the same size 
as those of the preceding species, are not downy, but 
smooth. 4-14 inches high. From Me., south. 
Slender ^ very slender species with linear, acute- 

Gerardia pointed leaves. The light magenta flow- 

Oerardia e rs have two of the five lobes not so fully 

tenuifolia expanded as the others ; the calyx-lobes 

are short and acute. 10-20 inches high. In dry fields 
and along roadsides. Common. Named for John Ge- 
rarde, a celebrated herbalist. 
428 




G.m&ritima. 

Gerard id purpurea. 



FIG WORT FAMILY. Scrophulariaceae. 



An odd species, annual or biennial, with 
Costilieja " ^ ne flower's corolla almost hidden in the 
coccinea long* cylindrical, two-lobed calyx, which 

Scarlet is generally tipped with brilliant scarlet. 

green=yellow The pi ant _ s tem is ruddy, soft-hairy, slen- 
der, and simple. The leaves are light 
green, parallel-veined, and slightly hairy or smooth, the 
lower ones oblong or broader, clustered, and undivided, 
the uppermost generally three-lobed sometimes five- 
lobed ; all are stemless, and each looks as if it had been 
stained on the tip with deep vermilion or scarlet, more 
or less vivid according to the individual plant. William 
Hamilton Gibson calls the color of the Painted Cup * ' the 
brightest dab of red the wild palette can show." The 
color of the inconspicuous flower is greenish yellow, 
the corolla is tubular and two-cleft. The blossoms, com- 
pletely eclipsed by the red floral leaves, form with these 
a dense terminal cluster. Rarely the red of the leaves is 
displaced by yellow. Like the Gerardias, this plant is 
also parasitic in nature. 12-20 inches high. Common 
in low, wet meadows, from Me., south to Va. and Ky., 
and west to Kan. and Tex. Named for Castillejo, a 
Spanish botanist. 

A pale green-leaved species living on the 

Cashtteja bleak and rocky summits of mountains in 

palhda, var. 

septentrionalis ^ ne nor th, or on the north shore of Lake 
Whitish yel= Superior. A slender perennial, generally 
low=green smooth, except at the uppermost parts, 

June-Septem- and tfae stem ig usuall y simple. The light 
green leaves are (mainly) toothless, stem- 
less, and 3-5 ribs run nearly parallel with each other, 
meeting at the somewhat acute tips ; the upper leaves 
are la nee- shaped, the lower linear. The floral leaves or 
bracts are rather obovate with a few broad teeth ; the 
color is pale or whitish yellow-green, or else green- white 
tinged with dull magenta. The yellowish flowers are 
about as long as the bracts, and are inconspicuous. All 
are crowded at the summit of the stem. 6-20 inches 
high. In iarnp rocky places. Alpine summits of New 
Eng. (Mt. Washington). Minn., S. Dak., in the Black 
Hills, and the Rockies, Col. 

430 




Painted Cup. 
Castilleja coccinea 



Castillejapallida 
var. septentrionalis. 



FIGWORT FAMILY. Scrophulariaceae* 



A tiny annual with ovate or lance-shaped 
Eyebright , ,. . . . ,. ... . . 

Euphrasia leaves slightly resembling Castilleja in as- 

americana pect, confined to the coast of Maine and 

White, yellow- southern Canada. The pale olive green 
ish, etc. leaves are indistinctly dull- toothed and 

small on the lower part of the plant, and 
the upper, floral leaves are somewhat jagged and bristly 
toothed. The inconspicuous flowers are whitish and 
deep purple- veined. The corolla is two-lipped and a trifle 
notched, the lower lip three-lobed and spreading, the 
upper two-lobed (with reflexed sides), beneath it are the 
four stamens. 410 inches high. Newfoundland, e. Que., 
and coast of Me. Found at Great Cranberry Island, Me., 
by Mr. E. F. Williams. Euphrasia OaJcesii (Euphrasia 
officinalis var. Tartarica of Gray's Manual, Sixth Ed.) 
is a very dwarf form scarcely attaining a height of 2J 
inches, with tiny yellowish flowers, and more rounded 
leaves with rounded teeth, growing in the Alpine regions 
of the White Mountains (under the crest of Mt. Monroe), 
and along the north shore of Lake Superior. 

A slightly similar taller annual confined 
Yellow Rattle . 

RUnanthus ^ ^ ne same situations, w^ith lance-shaped or 
Crista-galli oblong, dull green leaves coarsely toothed, 
Yellow and growing oppositely, the floral ones 

July-August deeply cut an( i w j tn bristle-tipped teeth. 
The flowers Naples yellow (straw color), and crowded on 
a one-sided leafy spike. The corolla two-lipped, the 
upper lip without lobes but slightly toothed on either 
side part way down, the lower three-lobed. Four 
stamens. Fruit-capsule round but flattened ; the seeds, 
when ripe rattle in the inflated pod. 6-20 inches high. 
Rocky soil, coast of New Eng., and the Alpine regions 
or the White Mountains, west to Lake Superior. 

Also known as Wood Betony. A very 
slightly hairy species with simple stem, 
Louse wort an( * soft - hair y leaves, dull dark green, and 
Pedicularis finely lobed, growing on grassy slopes or 
Canadensis in copses. The lower leaves are feather- 
Magenta, dull shaped and often stained with dull ma- 

May Jufy W S enta ' as is also the ra t her stout plant-stem ; 
the upper leaves are sparse and grow al 

432 



Rhinanthus 

CristarG&lli 




Wood Betony. 

Pedicularis canadensis. Pedicularis I'lanceolata^ 



FIQWORT FAMILY. Scrophulariaceae. 



ternately. The flower-cluster is terminal and dome- 
shaped, the flower two-lipped, the prominent upper lip 
dull dark whitish-opaque magenta, and strongly curved 
in a hook-shape with a two-toothed tip ; the lower is 
three-lobed and dull green-yellow. The coarse and 
*iairy, light green calyx is tinged at the edge with dull 
crimson-magenta. Bractlike leaves are set close in the 
flower-cluster, which lengthens to an oblong shape as 
the flowers develop. The four stamens are under the 
hooded upper lip admirably protected from rain or other 
pollen-destroying agents ; the flower is fertilized mostly 
by bees ; the bumblebees and the bees of the genus 
Halictus are common visitors. 5-12 inches high. Com- 
mon everywhere. Me., south, west to S. Dak. Found 
on the Campus of Smith College, Northampton, Mass. 
Pedicularis ^ species with less crowded flowers, few 

lanceolata of which bloom together, and a simple, 
Light Naples nearly smooth light green stem. The deep 
yellow green leaves are broad lance-shaped and 

finely cut in the semblance of a fern ; they grow op- 
positely, or nearly so. The upper and lower lips of the 
corolla are pale dull Naples yellow, and press against 
each other nearly closing the throat of the flower. The 
same bees are common visitors. 12-34 inches high. In 
swampy places, Conn., south to Va., west to S. Dak. 

A delicate, low annual commonly found 
Cow- wheat . ' 

Meiampyrum m the half-shaded borders of woods espe- 
lineare cially in the northeastern States, with 

Greenish white slender, wiry, gray -green, branching stem, 
July-Septem= an( j yellow-green, lance-shaped leaves, the 
lower ones toothless and the upper with 
generally 2-4 bristlelike teeth or lobes near the base, all 
set in pairs, and growing oppositely. The frail greenish 
white flowers are cylindrical, opening into two lips, the 
lower lip three-lobed, and tinged straw yellow. The flow- 
ers grow singly from between the leaves, and are less than 
J inch long ; their common visitors are the yellow butter- 
fly Colias philodice, the spotted brown one, Junonia 
ccenia, and the white cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapaz ; 
they are also visited by various bees. 4-10 inches high. 
The name from the Greek, meaning black wheat. 

434 




Cow-wheat. Meiampyrunrv fineare 

Melampyrum Americanum.Michaux. 



BROOM-RAPE FAMILY. Otobanchaceas. 



BROOM-RAPE FAMILY. Orobanchacew. 

Fleshy parasitic herbs having yellowish scales instead 
of leaves ; the flowers perfect, or pistillate and staminate 
on the same plant. Stamens four. The tiny seeds borne 
in a capsule. Visited by various flies and bees. 

A parasitic plant which draws its suste- 
Beech-drops or nance from the roots of t h e beech tree. 

Epifagus The stem is tough, straight, almost up- 

virginiana right-branched, stained with brown mad- 

Dull magenta der, and set with a few small, dry scales. 
buff=brown The curve d tubular, dull magenta and 
October buff-brown upper flowers are purple- 

striped ; although generally sterile they 
are complete in every part, the style slightly protruding 
beyond, and the stamens just within the throat. The 
tiny lower flowers are cleistogamous closed to outward 
agencies and self -fertilized. A few of the upper flowers 
are cross-fertilized by bees. 6-20 inches high. Beech 
woods, Me., south and west to Wis. and Mo. The name 
means on the beech. 

A pale parasitic plant, the stem hidden 
b ^ the overlapping, light tan-colored, 
Americana lance-shaped or ovate pointed scales ; the 
Pale dull flowers perfect, set in a many-scaled dense 

yellow spike, the upper lip hooded, the lower 

small and three-lobed, the stamens pro- 
truding ; the lips are pale ochre yellow fading toward 
the corolla. 3-8 inches high. In rich woods over tree 
roots, Me., south, and w r est to Mich. 

A beautiful little parasitic plant bearing 
Naked Broom- a few brownish ovate bracts near the 
flowered root, and sending up 1-4 erect, slender, 
Cancer Root one-flowered stalks ; the curved tubular, 
Orobanche five-lobed flower is purplish or light violet, 
uniflora or rare iy cream white, f inch long, ex- 

Aprii'-June ternally fine-hairy, and delicately fragrant. 
Qross-f ertilized mostly by the smaller bees 
(Halictus) and the bumblebees. 3-6 inches high. In 
moist woods, Me. , south to Va. 



430 




/Squawroot 

Conopholis 

Americana.. 



Orobanche uniflora: 



v 
Beech-drops' Epifagusvirgimana. 



PLANTAIN FAMILY. Plantaginaceae. 



PLANTAIN FAMILY. Plantaginacece. 

Homely herbs weeds generally with coarse, strong- 
ribbed leaves springing from the root, and insignificant 
flowers in long narrow spikes, perfect,. or polygamous 
that is, staminate and pistillate on the same plant or 
different plants and even cleistogamous that is, fer- 
tilizing in the bud. 

The familar weed of unkempt dooryards 
Common 

Plantain an( ^ grass-plots, with ovate, dark green, 

Plantago slightly hairy or smooth leaves, the long 

major stems trough-shaped, the ribs conspicuous, 

Dull white an( j ^ Q edge generally toothless, or rarely 
September coarse-toothed. The flowering spikes are 
cylindrical, blunt-tipped, and closely set 
with the dull, greenish white, four-lobed, perfect florets 
which mature the threadlike style before the corolla 
is fully open, the former projecting. The four stamens 
mature much later and thus insure cross-fertilization. 
Seed-capsule ovoid and opening near the middle, the 
seeds reticulated. Flowering stalks 6-18 inches high. 
Common everywhere, indigenous northwestward but 
naturalized from Europe on the Atlantic seaboard. 
Plantago Similar to the preceding ; the leaves 

Jtugeiu thinner, the flowering spikes less dense 

June- and attenuated above, and the seed-cap- 

September sules cylindrical-oblong ; the latter open 
below the middle and quite within the four lobes of 
the calyx. The seeds are not reticulated. Common 
from Vt., south to Ga. and Tex., west to S. Dak. 

A similar more or less fine-hairv Euro- 
English Plan= 

tain. Ribgrass P ean species, naturalized and very com- 
Plantago mon. The leaves are long lance-shaped, 

lanceolata nearly erect, generally three-ribbed, acute 
Dull white and toothless . at the base of the leaves 
April-October ,,,.'.. , mi a 

the hairiness is dark rust-color. The flower- 
spike is dense and short, bearing similar dull white flow- 
ers. But the conspicuously grooved stalk is 8-22 inches 
high. Old fields and waste places throughout our 
range. 

438 




English Plantain. Plantago lanceolata. , 



MADDER FAMILY. Rubiacese. 



MADDER FAMILY. Rubiacece. 

Shrubs or herbs with toothless leaves growing oppo- 
sitely or in circles ; the regular flowers perfect, or stam- 
inate with rudimentary pistils, or pistillate with 
rudimentary stamens ; the corolla funnel-formed with 
4 (sometimes 5) lobes and as many stamens. Cross- 
fertilized mostly by bees and butterflies. A large family 
in the tropics, to which belong the Coffee, the Cinchona 
tree from which is obtained quinine, and the Madder 
(Rubia tmctorum) whose roots furnish the red dye and 
the artist's permanent pigment of that name. 

. . A familiar little wayside flower also 

Houstomaor J 

Bluets called Quaker Ladies and Innocence ; 

Houstonia communistic in manner of growth and 
ccerulea frequently covering large spaces with its 

white bloom. It is a perennial, and forms 
April-July dense tufts of oblong lance-shaped, tiny 

light green root-leaves and slender, thread- 
like stems sparingly set with minute opposite leaflets. 
The little four-lobed corolla is about J inch in diameter, 
white, or white tinged on the lobes with lilac, or pale 
violet (the nearest approach to blue) ; the centre is 
stained with golden yellow. The flowers are pistillate 
and staminate as above described. Cross-fertilized 
mainly by the bees of the genera Halictus and Andrena, 
and the smaller butterflies the Clouded Sulphur (Colias 
philodice),the Meadow Fritillary (Brenthis bellona), and 
the Painted Lady (Pyrameis Cardui). 3-6 inches high. 
In moist grassy places or sandy waysides, from Me., 
south to Ga. and Ala., west to Mich, Named for William 
Houston an early English botanist. 

A taller southern species. The stem 
H &rg t smooth or slightly hairy, the light green 

Houstonia leaves pointed broad ovate (the upper ones 
purpurea smaller and narrower), with 3-5 ribs, the 

Lilac or deep largest nearly 2 inches long. The deep 

' llac , lilac or pale lilac, long- tubed flowers in 

May-July 

small clusters ; the thin lobes of the calyx 

longer than the globular seed-pod. 6-16 inches high. 

In thin or open woodlands, from Md., south (especially 

440 




Hous&tonia 
purpurea. 



Bluets. 

Housadoni ev^S) caerulea. 



MADDER FAMILY. Rub/acese. 



in the mountains) to Ga. and Ala., and west to Ark. 
The var. ciliolata has thicker leaves J inch long, with 
the edges conspicuously hairy-fringed, and flowers in 
small clusters. 5-7 inches high. On the rocky shores 
of the Great Lakes, and south in woodlands to Pa., West 
Va., Ky., and Ark. ; with various intergrading forms 
passing to the var. longifolia, which has thinner, linear 
and acute leaves, often a full inch long ; the root- leaves 
are not hairy-fringed. 5-18 inches high. From Me., 
south to Ga., and west to Minn, and Mo. Frequent in 
the Lake Champlain Valley. 

A little trailing vine with dark green 
Partridgeberry 
Twinberry evergreen leaves green-white-vemed and 

Mitchella wide, slightly heart-shaped at the base. 

repens The commonly four-lobed twin flowers 

Cream white ( som etimes conjoined with 8-10 lobes) are 
May-June cream white and fine-hairy inside, but 
faint crimson-pink and smooth outside ; 
they terminate the short branches, and are two-formed, 
i. e. , staminate (with abortive pistil) and pistillate (with 
abortive stamens). Cross-fertilized by the same insects 
which visit the Mayflower and Houstonia. 6-12 inches 
long. In woods from Me., south, and west to Minn., 
Ark., and Tex. Named for Dr. John Mitchell. 
y A slender, rather erect, perennial herb 

Bedstraw naturalized from Europe, with a smooth, 

Galium verum squarish stem a trifle woody at the base. 
Yellow The narrow, linear, rough, light green 

May-August leaves? in c i rc i es o f 6-8, are about an inch 
long. The tiny, yellow, four-lobed flowers are in small 
terminal clusters, or at the leaf -angles. 8-30 inches 
long. In dry waste places and borders of fields. Me., 
occasional in Vt., south to N. J., near the coast. 

An annual species with the usual weak 
Cleavers or 
Goosegrass reclining stem characteristic of the Gah- 

Galium Aparine urns, which hangs upon shrubbery by 
White means of the backward-hooked prickles of 

May-August both leaf and gtem> The bmnt lance . 

shaped, light green leaves with roughened edge and rib 

are nearly 2 inches long, and set in a circle of 6-8. 

About two tiny white flowers are borne on a stalk. Fruit 

442 




Paptridgebeppy 



Mitchells repens. 



MADDER FAMILY. Rubiaceae. 



burlike, in pairs, and covered with short, hooked bristles 
which facilitate transportation. 2-5 feet long. Shady 
thickets and roadsides, Me., south, and west to S. Dak., 
Kan. , and Tex. The following Galiums are perennials. 
. A smooth or slightly downy species with 
Galium " broad, ovate leaves in fours, three-ribbed, 
circcezans and about an inch long. The greenish 

Greenish white white flowers, with four pointed lobes 
May-July hairy on the outside, are borne on stalks 
usually forked but once. 1-2 feet high. Common in 
rich dry woods. Me., south, west to Minn., and Tex. 

A smooth species with acute lance- 
shaped or narrower leaves almost smooth 
Bedstraw 

Galium boreale on the ed g e - The numerous tiny white 
flowers set in close clusters. 15-30 inches 
high. Near streams, among rocks. Me., south to N. 
J., and west to S. Dak., Neb., and Cal. 
Sma ii A very small, delicate, variable species, 

Bedstraw often much entangled among bushes. The 

Galium minute stem-prickles are scarcely visible. 

The linear blunt-tipped or wedge-shaped, 
deep green leaves, J inch long, set in fours. The minute 
usually three-lobed, white flowers, with three stamens, 
are in tiny thin clusters. 6-18 inches high. Common 
in sphagnum bogs and wet woodlands everywhere. 
P h A very common, weak, and reclining 

Bedstraw species, with the usual square stem set 

Galium with backward-hooked prickles. The light 

asprellum green leaves slightly blunt lance-shaped, 

lte and prickly-rough on edge and. rib, are set 

in circles of 4-6. The profuse tiny white 
flowers are in thin, airy, terminal clusters ; they are pe- 
culiarly, perhaps unpleasantly, odorous. 2-6 feet long. 
In damp soil. Me., south to N. Car., west to Neb. 
Sweet-scented A similar species with the flowers usu- 
Bedstraw ally borne in clusters of three, and with 

Galium the same bristly rough stem; the leaves 

tnflorum broad lance-shaped, bright shining green, 

bristle -pointed, slightly rough-edged, and set usually in 
sixes. The foliage fragrant after drying. 1-3 feet long. 
Rich woodlands throughout our range; south only to Ga. 

444 




Bedstraw. Wild Liquorice. 

Galfffrh asprellum. Oalium cipcaezans. 



HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY. Caprifoliaceae. 



HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY. Caprifoliacece. 

Shrubs, vines, or sometimes herbs with opposite leaves, 
and perfect regular (occasionally irregular) flowers, with 
generally a funnel-shaped corolla, five-lobed, or some- 
times two-lipped. Cross-fertilized by the larger long- 
tongued bees, moths, butterflies, and the humming-bird. 

A common smooth-stemmed shrub with 
Elder .. ., 

Sambucus a compound deep green, smooth leaf 

Canadensis of 5-11, usually 7, fine-toothed, acute- 
Cream white pointed, ovate leaflets. The tiny cream- 
June-July white flowers, in broad flat clusters (with 
five prominent white stamens), are fertilized mostly by 
honeybees who come for pollen, the blossoms yielding 
little or no nectar. The purple-black berries, in broad 
clusters, ripen in August. 4-10 feet high. Borders of 
fields and copses, in low ground, throughout our range. 

A similar shrub with twigs and leaves 
Red=berried ,. . 

Elder slightly fine-hairy, and warty gray bark. 

Sambucus There are 5-7 finely toothed ovate lance- 
racemosa shaped leaflets which are a trifle downy 

Dull white beneath. The fine dull white flowers with 
April-May n i 

yellowish stamens are borne in a sugar- 
loaf-shaped cluster. The extremely beautiful small, 
scarlet-red, or rarely white berries, in a compact cluster r 
ripen in June. 2-12 feet high. In rocky woodland bor- 
ders. Me. , south to Ga. (among the hills), and westward. 

A shrub with coarse, light green, veiny, 
Hobble=bush or . 
Wayfaring Tree sharp-toothed, heart-shaped leaves, rusty- 

Viburnum woolly on the ribs beneath, together 

alnifolium with the young branchlets. The flat 

White flower-cluster is composed of two kinds 

of flowers ; the marginal dull white broad- 
petaled neutral that is, stamenless and pistilless flowers 
(the petals are really the five flaring, rounded divisions 
of the corolla), and the central, smaller, perfect flowers. 
Fruit a coral red berry, set in a scant cluster. Stem 3-10 
feet high, reclining ; the branches often take root and 
trip up the " wayfarer." The commonest visitors are the 
bees of the genera Andrena and Halictus. In low or moist 
woods. Me., in the mountains to N. Car., west to Mich. 
446 




Red-berried Elder. Sambucus racemosa. 



HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY. Caprifoliacese. 



A coarse perennial, sometimes called 
Horse^Gentian Tmk er's-weed and often Wild Coffee, 
Triosteum common in rich woodlands. The stout, 
perfoliatum simple stem is rather sticky-fine-hairy, 
Madder purple an( j ^ Q opposite-growing, light green or 
May-July ... 

medium green, oval leaves are acute at the 

tip, and narrowed at the base to a flaring margin either 
side of the coarse midrib ; the edge is toothless and 
somewhat undulating. The flowers are an inconspicu- 
ous purplish brown or madder purple ; they grow at the 
junction of the leaves with the plant-stem ; the corolla 
is five-lobed, tubular, and scarcely longer than the long- 
lobed calyx, which remains attached to the mature 
fruit ; this is -J inch long or less, orange-scarlet, densely 
fine-hairy, and contains three hard nutlets. 2-4 feet 
high. In rich soil, from Me., south to Ala. and Ky., and 
west to Minn., Iowa, and Kan. 

Twin=flower ^ delicate and beautiful trailing vine 
Linnaa borealis common in the northern woodlands, with 
var. americana a terra-cotta-colored, somewhat rough- 
Crimson=pink WO ody stem, and a rounded, about 8- 
scallop-toothed, short-stemmed, light ever- 
green leaf with a rough surface. The fragrant little 
bell-shaped flowers, in pairs, terminate a 3-4 inches long 
stalk, and nod ; they are delicate crimson-pink, graded 
to white on the margins of the five lobes. The tiny 
calyx divisions are threadlike. Branches 6-20 inches 
long. Common in rich moist mossy \voods, particularly 
in the mountains. Me ., to Long Island and Staten Island, 
N. Y., and N. J., west to S. Dak., Wash., and Col. 

A shrub with erect, generally madder 
Coral=berry or , ' , i. 

Indian Currant br wn branches very slightly woolly-hairy 
Symphoricarpos on the younger growths. The dull gray- 
orbiculatus green leaves are ovate, toothless (rarely 

Pink and white some o f ^he larger leaves are coarsely 
toothed), and have distinctly short stems. 
The five-lobed flowers are tiny bell-shaped, and grow in 
small clusters at the angles of the leaves, or terminally ; 
the corolla pink graded to white, and somewhat filled 
by the fine hairiness of style and stamens. The small 
berries in small terminal clusters are first coral red and 

448 




Twin Flower. 



Linnaea, boreal is. 
var. americarva 



Triosteum 

perfoliaturri 




Viburnum alnifolium. 



IndianCurranx 

Symphoncarpos 
orbicul&tus. 



HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY. Caprifoliaceae. 



finally dull crimson -magenta. The smaller bees and 
honeybees are common visitors. 2-5 feet high. Rocky 
slopes. Mass. , banks of the Delaware River in N. J. , and 
Fa., south to Ga. and Tex., west to the Daks. 

A familiar shrub of old-fashioned gar- 
Snowberry ' .,1 

Symphoricarpos dens and door-yards still commonly culti- 
racemosus vated, with smooth, erect, gray-brown 

Pink and white branches, and oval, dull gray-green leaves 
June-August ii ghter beneath, toothless, and a trifle 
wavy-margined. The young shoots are ochre brown. 
The tiny, five-lobed, bell-shaped flowers are pink graded 
to white, and are borne in terminal and leaf -angle clus- 
ters. The corolla is conspicuously fine-hairy within ; 
and the stamens and style almost protrude. The honey- 
bee is a constant visitor, and the flowers continue to 
bloom even after the large snow-white waxy berries ap- 
pear ; the latter are a conspicuous feature of the bush in 
early September. 3-4 feet high. On roadsides, escaped 
from cultivation, and on rocky banks, from Me., south 
to Pa. and Ky., and west. See Appendix. 

A thin straggling bush with smooth, 
suckle y=> brownish stems. The thin leaves bright 
Lonicera light green on both sides, ovate lance- 

canadensis shaped, sometimes very broad at the 
Naples yellow b toothless, short-stemmed, and hairy- 
May-June i i rrn XT i n 1 

edged. The Naples yellow or honey 
yellow, five-lobed flower, about f inch long, is funnel- 
formed and borne in pairs at the leaf-angles. Fruit two 
small ovoid red berries. 3-5 feet high. Moist woods, 
from Me. , south to Pa. , and west to Minn. 

A similar species but with thickish, 
Mountain Fly= . , ,, , . , , , 

honeysuckle b l unt ovate leaves fine-hairy beneath. 
Lonicera The Naples yellow flowers in pairs, .al- 

ccerulea most united. The ovaries unite and form 

one two-eyed, gray-black ovate berry, 1-3 feet high, 
In boggy woods, the same distribution. 

A Japanese shrub in frequent cultivation, 
Lonicera established in eastern Mass. Leaves dark 

CreanTwhite g reen oblong, rather rough, palei beneath. 
Corolla-lobes widespread, the calyx teeth 
hairy. Berries bright red. 4-6 feet high. 
450 




Fly-honeysuckle. Lonicera can&densis. 



VALERIAN FAMILY. Valerianaceae. 



A scentless, but beautiful species. corn- 
Trumpet or . ... 
Coral mon m cultivation, twining and climbing 

Honeysuckle high, and evergreen southward. The 
Lonicera large deep green oblong leaves are whit- 

sempervirens ish beneath ; the top ones are united, and 
yellow seemingly perforated by the stem, which 

April-August terminates in a small cluster of large, tu- 
bular, deep Naples yellow flowers, often 
deeply tinged outside with Berry scarlet. The most 
useful visitor is the humming-bird, though many bees 
and butterflies assist in the transfer of pollen. 8-15 
feet high. Copses, Mass, and Conn., south, west to Neb. 

A very common shrubby species with 
Bush Honey- ,. 

suckle smooth stem and leaves and exceedingly 

Dierviila small honey-colored or Naples yellow flow- 

Lonicera ers, with five recurving, rather equal 

Naples yellow lob mar ked slightly with dull rusty 
May-June 

orange. There are five prominent yellow 

stamens. The deep olive green leaves are ovate, sharp- 
pointed, and fine-toothed. The flowers grow in small 
clusters, terminally, and at the junction of leaf- and 
plant-stem. The fruit is an oblong capsule with beaked 
tip. 3-4 feet high. In dry woodlands or in thickets, from 
Me., south to N. Car., and west to Mich, and Minn. 
Named for Dr. Dierville who carried the plant from 
Canada to France. 



VALERIAN FAMILY. Valerianacece. 

Herbs with opposite leaves, and perfect, or sometimes 
staminate and pistillate, flowers ; the corolla tube nar- 
row and five-lobed ; stamens 1-3. Commonly visited by 
bees. The genus Valeriana is remarkable for its strong- 
scented roots. 

An erect, smooth plant, with compound 
Valerian leaves of from 5-11 (rarely less) deep green, 

Valeriana lance-shaped, obtuse leaflets, indistinctly 

uliginosa shallow-toothedor toothless; the root-leaves 

Pale magenta- are long-stemmed, ovate, and rarely small- 
June-Jui lobed. The dull magenta-pink or paler 

pink or white flowers are tiny, and clus- 

452 



Diervilld. 
Lonicera sempervirens. ^ III rt Lonicera 




Woodsiana.. 



GOURD FAMILY. Cucurbltaceas. 



tered in a loose terminal spike ; the three stamens very 
prominent. 10-30 inches high. In wet or swampy 
ground, from Me., south to southern N. Y., west to S. 
Dak., and in the Rocky Mountains to Ariz. 

A common cultivated species, often 
Garden Vale= 
rian Great escaping to roadsides and margins of cul- 

Wiid Valerian, tivated fields. A native of Europe. The 
or Vandal=root stem more or less fine-hairy especially at 
Valeriana t he joints, and the compound leaves with 

11-21 lance-shaped, sharply toothed leaf- 
lets, the upper ones toothless. The flowers are pale ma- 
genta-crimson or white, set in compact, rather rounded 
clusters terminating the stout stem. The strong-scented 
roots are medicinal. 2-5 feet high. Mass, south to Del., 
west to N. Y. and Pa. Name from valere, to be strong. 
A smooth forking-stemmed annual with 
Vatertanetta succulent wedge-shaped leaves, and insig- 
Woodsiana nificant dull white flowers funnel-formed 
Dull white and five-lobed, gathered in small terminal 
May-July clusters. 18-34 inches high. In moist 

places, from N. Y. , west to Ohio and Tex. Valerianella 
Locusta, a species from Europe, naturalized in the Mid- 
dle States and south, has similar leaves, but pale violet 
flowers. 6-12 inches high. Southern N. Y., and south- 
ward. 

GOURD FAMILY. Cucurbitacew. 

Climbing vines generally with tendrils, and with lobed 
leaves growling alternately. The flowers staminate and 
pistillate on the same plant or different plants. Sta- 
mens mostly three. Cross-fertilized by bees and flies in 
general, arid possibly by many beetles and butterflies. 

A beautiful, rapid-growing, and luxu- 
Climbing Wild riant annua i climber ; the light green, 
Cucumber or . .. . _ N . , 

Wild Balsam tmn leaves J Wltft 3-7 (mostly five) sharply 
Apple angular lobes, are rough on both sides. 

Echinocystis The small, sharply six-petaled staminate 

lobata flowers are borne in many loose clusters, 

Greenish white , .. . . .,, . ,, , 

Ju i and the pistillate flowers singly or in twos, 

September at the angles of the leaves ; the petals 
and the three prominent stamens with 

454 




Climbing Wild Cucumber. Echinocystis lobata. 



BELLPLOWER FAMILY. Campanulaceas. 



yellowish anthers are greenish white. The spiral tend, 
rils are three-forked. Cross-fertilized mostly by bees 
and wasps. The cucumberlike fruit is 2 inches long or 
less, green, ovoid, and thickly covered with slender, 
weak prickles. 15-20 feet long. Beside rivers and in 
waste places. Me., south to Pa. and west to S. Dak., 
Kan. , and Tex. Found in the Pemigewasset Valley at Ply- 
mouth and Camp ton, N. H. The name (Greek), means 
hedgehog and bladder ; in allusion to the armed fruit. 

Also an annual climber with branching 
One-seeded , ., ,, , , , , 

Bur=cucumber tendrils and a five-lobed, far less deeply 

Sicyos cut light green leaf ; the stem is sticky- 

angulatus hairy, angular, and coarse. The small 

Greenish white five . lobed flowers are likewise staminate 
September anc * pistillate ; the former are borne, five 
or six, in a cluster on a long stalk, the 
latter are almost stalkless ; both are set in the angles of 
the leaves. The yellowish fruit, 3-10 together, is armed 
with fine tough bristles ; a single fruit contains but one 
seed. 15-25 feet long. In moist places and along 
rivers, from Me., south, and west to Minn., Kan., and 
Tex. The name is Greek, for Cucumber. 

BELLFLOWER FAMILY. Campanulacece. 

Herbs, in our range, with alternate leaves and acrid, 
generally milky, juice ; the perfect flowers in a spike or 
solitary. The corolla usually bell-shaped and five-lobed. 
Stamens five, alternating with the corolla-lobes. Fruit 
a many -seeded capsule. Cross-fertilized mostly by bees 
and the beelike flies (Syrphidce). A tribe now included 
in Lobeliacece by Engler and Prantl, but one which, in 
our range, lacks those connecting links which make the 
close relationship evident. 

An annual with a simple, wandlike stem, 

weak and disposed to recline, and small, 
Looking-glass 

Specularia curved, shell-shaped, light green, scallop- 

perfoliata toothed leaves clasping the rough, angled 
Magenta- plant-stem. The purple- violet or magenta- 

purple purple flowers, set at the hollows of the 

leaves, have deeply five-lobed corollas 
456 



$ 




Campanula 



f/ Leaf of 
y/Sicyos angulatus. 



Venus's Looking-glass. Specularia perfol iata. 



BELLFLOWER FAMILY. Campanulaceae. 



with five stamens and a three-lobed pistil. There are 
also earlier flowers which are cleistogamous closed to 
all outward agencies and self-fertilized. Stem 5-22 
inches long. Common in poor soil on hills and in dry 
open woodlands. Me., south, west to Ore. and Utah. 

A common garden perennial, natural- 
Bellflower 

Campanula lzed from Europe, and a frequent escape 
rapunculoides from cultivation. The simple, erect, and 
Purple rigid stem is light green and slightly rough- 

July-August hairy . the leaveg are thinj fine _ hairy> and 

light green, the upper ones broad lance-shaped, the lower 
arrow-head-shaped with a heart-shaped base ; all are ir- 
regularly scallop-toothed. The bell-shaped purple flow- 
ers have five acute lobes, and hang downward mostly on 
one side of the stem ; the pistil is white and protruding ; 
the stigma three-lobed and purple-tinged ; the linear 
lobes of the green calyx are strongly turned backward. 
The common visitors of the flower are the honeybee and 
bumblebee. 1-3 feet high. In fields and on roadsides. 
Me., to southern N. Y., Pa., and Ohio. 

A most dainty and delicate perennial 

plant, yet one so remarkably hardy that it 
Campanula survives the cold and storms of mountain- 
rotundifolia tops over 5000 feet above sea-level. It is 
Light violet common in the Chasm of the Ausable 
June- Eiver and on the summits of the White 

Mountains. In spring the plant displays 
a tuft of round leaves (hence the name rotundifolia), 
small and sparingly toothed ; these wither before the 
time of flowering (rarely they remain until that time), 
and are succeeded by a tall wiry stem, with linear, pale 
olive green leaves and a succession of airy blue- violet 
bells depending from threadlike pedicels (flower-stems). 
The corolla is five-lobed, and graded in color from light 
violet or pale lavender to white at its base ; the promi- 
nent pistil is tipped with a three-lobed stigma, which is 
at first green and finally white ; the five anthers are a 
delicate lavender tint. The chief visitor is the bumble- 
bee, who must clasp the prominent stigma before he can 
enter the inverted bell ; in the bustling endeavor to reach 
the base of the blossom some of the pollen obtained from 
458 




Bellflowep. 



Campanula m 
rapunculoides 



BELLFLOWER FAMILY. Campanulacese. 



a previously visited flower is brushed off and cross-ferti- 
lization is effected. The harebell is also visited by the 
bees of the genus Halictus and the beelike flies. 6-18 
inches high. On rocky cliffs, dry or moist, in barren, 
sandy fields or grassy places, and in shade or sunshine, 
on mountain-top or meadow. Me., south to N. J., west 
to S. Dak., Neb., and in the Rocky Mountains south to 
Ariz ; also in the mountains of Cal. A native of Eu- 
rope and Asia as well, and identical with the bluebell of 
Scotland. A dwarf, rigid, mountain form mistakenly 
made a variety, the var. arctica, is a much smaller plant 
bearing a single flower. See Appendix. 

A species common in grassy swamps, 
with branching, slender, weak, reclining 



stems, bristly rough on the angles, like 
aparinoides Galium asprellum. The light green, lin- 
White or ear lance-shaped leaves are rough on edge 

lavender an( ^ m j ( j r i} 3 . indistinctlv shallow- toothed, 

June-August .. . * . . ., 

and stemless. The single white or pale 

lavender flowers scarcely J inch broad, deeply cleft into 
five acute lobes spreading open like a deep saucer, are 
arranged terminally. 6-20 inches high. In wet grassy 
ground everywhere, west to S. Dak., Neb., and Col. 

-, _ A tall annual or biennial with a slightly 

Tall Bellflower 

Campanula fine-hairy, erect, slender, green stem, 

Americana rarely branched. The ovate or ovate 
Light violet lance-shaped, stemless, light green leaves 

v ~ are Ions: and drooping; ; the lower ones are 

September & ' 

narrowed at the base like a stem ; all are 

acute-pointed and toothed. The dull- toned light violet 
or nearly white flowers grow from the angles of the 
leaves and form a slender terminal spike ; the one inch 
wide corolla has five long, acute, spreading lobes ; the 
style curves downward and then upward (as in the Py- 
rola), extending far beyond the mouth of the flower. 
The commonest visitors are the honeybee, the bumble- 
bee, and the "Yellow-Jacket" hornet. Flower-stalk 
frequently 18 inches tall. In moist shady places, in- 
land, from N. Y., south to Fla., and west to S. Dak., 
Kan., and Ark. The name is from the Italian Cam- 
pana, a bell, in allusion to the shape of the corolla. 

400 




/ Harebell Campanula rotundifoii&_. 



LOBELIA FAMILY. Lobeliacess. 



LOBELIA FAMILY. Lobeliacece. 

A family of perennial herbs with milky acrid 
The perfect but irregular flowers with a five-lobed tube- 
shaped corolla ; the five stamens united in a tube. 
Cross -fertilized by bees, the beelike flies, and the hum- 
ming-bird. Named for De L'Obel, an early Dutch herb- 
alist ; it now includes the tribe Campanulacece. 

A most beautiful species, remarkable for 
Cardinal Flower . . 1 n , . , , , . ,. 

Lobelia lts ricn > deep red which largely influences 

cardinalis the color of stem and foliage. The 

Deep red leaves are dark green, smooth or nearly 

August- so ^ oblong lance-shaped, and slightly 

toothed; the upper ones are stemless. 
The showy flower-spike is loosely set with deep cardinal 
red flowers, the triple-lobed lips of which are a rich 
velvety color. Rarely the plant produces deep pink or 
white flowers. Fertilized by humming-birds, and rarely 
by bumblebees ; but the long tongue of the humming- 
bird is the only practicable means of cross-fertilization. 
The length of the flower-tube is too great for the tongue, 
and the pendant lip too inconvenient for the feet of the 
average insect. The plant multiplies mostly by perennial 
offshoots. 2-4 feet high. Common everywhere in low 
moist ground. Found in Campton Bog, N. H. 

A slightly hairy plant with a stout, leafy, 
Great Lobelia 

Lobelia and usual lj simple stem ; the leaves light 

syphilitica green, 2-6 inches long, pointed at both 
Light blue- ends, nearly if not quite smooth, irregu- 
violet larly toothed, and stemless. The light 

September blue- violet or rarely white flowers nearly 

an inch long; the calyx stiff-hairy. 1-3 
feet high. Common in low moist ground, from Me., 
south to Ga. and La. , and west to Kan. , Neb. , and S. Dak. 
A similar species with similarly colored 
Downy Lobelia fl owers j n i on g somewhat one-sided spikes, 
puberula and witn fine sof t-hairy leaves. The hairy 

tube of the corolla is less than J inch long, 
and the lobes of the lip are rather broad and smooth. 
1-3 feet high. In moist sandy soil. Southern N. J., 
south, and west to Kan. and Tex. 
462 




Cardinal Flower. 
Lobelia cardinal. 



Indian Tobacco. Lobelia, inflata. 



LOBELIA FAMILY. LobeUaceae. 



A still smaller-flowered species, bearing 
Pore Spiked 

Lobelia ver ^ lon sllm s P lkes of P ale blue-violet 

Lobelia spicata flowers with a usually smooth short calyx. 
Pale blue~ The stem simple and leafy, the light green 

vlolet leaves nearly toothless, lance-shaped (ab- 

July-August . . . 

ruptly so at the base of the plant), or 

oblong, obtuse, but the upper ones nearly linear. 1-4 
feet high. In dry sandy soil from Me. , south to N. Car. , 
and southwest. The var. pariflora is a low form with 
lavender-white flowers J inch long, the calyx-lobes awl- 
shaped. Swamps, Lancaster, Pa. The var. hirtella is a 
rough, hairy form. 111., Mich., west. 

A small species generally found beside 
Kalm's Lobelia 

Lobelia Kalmii brooks, or on wet banks, with slender 
Light blue- branching stem, and narrow, blunt-tipped 
violet leaves sparingly toothed or toothless ; the 

upper ones linear. The light blue-violet 
flowers less than -J inch long and scattered 
loosely over the spikes. The fruit-capsule not inflated 
(as Lobelia inflatd), but small, and top-shaped or nearly 
globular. 6-18 inches high. On wet meadows and wet 
river-banks. Me., south to N. J., and west to s. Dak. 
Indian Tobacco ^ G commonest species ; growing every- 
Lobelia inflata where in dry or wet soil, within the wood 
Light blue- or out on the meadow. An annual with a 
violet simple or branching slightly hairy stem. 

July-October The thin light green leaves oval pointed, 
and sparingly wavy-toothed, the uppermost very small, 
narrow, and acute. The tiny flowers scarcely \ inch 
long, varying in color from light blue-violet to pale lilac 
and even white. The calyx smooth, the inflated, prolate- 
spheroidal fruit-capsule about -^ inch long. Very acrid 
and poisonous to taste, and commonly used in medicine. 
Me., south to Ga., and west to Ark. and Neb. 

An aquatic species, smooth, slender, and 
Water Lobelia s i m pi e stemmed. Leaves all submerged, 
Lobelia -,-, 11 -i , T 

Dortmanna thick, linear hollow, and tufted at the 

base of the stem. Flowers in a loose termi- 
nal spike, light violet, J inch long. 6-18 inches high. 
Borders of ponds. N. Eng. to Pa., and northwestward, 

4.64 




Pale Spiked Lobelia! 
Lobelia spicala. 



Water Lobelia. 
Lobelia Dortmanria* 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composftx. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 

Mostly perennial herbs. A great family remarkable 
for its compound flower- heads which are often radiate in 
character, with a central disc composed of tiny tubular 
florets surrounded by brightly colored rays ; in some 
cases the florets are strap-shaped. They are variously 
perfect, polygamous, and staminate and pistillate on the 
same or different plants ; in chicory and dandelion the 
florets are perfect and strap-shaped ; in coneflower and 
sunflower the tubular florets of the central disc are per- 
fect and the ray-flowers neutral (without stamens and 
pistil) ; in aster and golden-rod the inner tubular florets 
are perfect and the outer ray-florets are pistillate ; in 
thistle and burdock the florets are all tubular and perfect 
but lacking rays ; in Antennaria the tubular florets are 
staminate and pistillate on different plants, and in rag- 
weed the staminate and pistillate florets are on the same 
plant. The family is largely dependent upon insects for 
cross-fertilization . 

A tall smooth-stemmed plant found in 
Tall Ironweed mo i s fc situations, with lance - shaped, 
altissima toothed, deep green leaves and a terminal 

Madder purple cluster of brownish purple or madder 
August- purple flowers remotely resembling bache- 

September lor's buttons without petals ; the small 
flower-heads appear hairy or chaffy. 5-8 feet high. 
Penn., south, and west to 111. and La. 

The common species eastward, differing 
New York ,,,11. i . ., n T i ,1 

Ironweed from the tall ironweed in its usually slightly 

Vernonia rough stem, longer lance-shaped deep 

Noveboracensis green leaves, and acute, bristle- tipped, 
Madder purple brown-purple scales of the flower-heads. 
September The ^stoetic dul1 P ur p!e (rarely white) 
flowers resemble petalless bachelor's but- 
tons, or at a distance asters. 3-7 feet . high. In moist 
ground, oftenest near the coast, from Mass., south to 
Ga., and west to Minn, and eastern Kan. Found near 
Englewood, N. J. Named for Wm. Vernon, an early 
English botanist. 

466 




New York Ironwecd Vernonia Noveboracensis 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



Climbing 
Hempweed or 
Boneset 

Mikania 
scandens 
White 
flesh pink 
July- 
September 



crimson 
August- 
September 



An attractive, twining viue generally 
climbing over hushes on damp river banks. 
The light green leaves triangular heart- 
shaped, and the bristly f dull white or flesh- 
colored flowers resembling those of bone- 
set. 5-15 feet long. Mass., south, and 
west to Ind. and Tex. Named for Prof. 
Mikan of Germany. 
A familiar, tall plant with a stout stem 

Joe=Pye=Weed Qn w hi c h the roughish, pointed ovate, 

Eupatorium 

purpureum toothed, light green leaves are grouped in 

Magenta- circles at intervals. The dense terminal 

flower-clusters with many soft-bristly, fes- 
thetic-toned dull magenta-crimson florets, 
lighter or deeper, or sometimes dull white. 
Frequented by the honeybee. 3-12 feet high. Common 
everywhere on borders of swamps or low damp ground. 
Named for Eupator Mithridates, and for a New England 
Indian who used the plant in some concoction for the 
cure of fevers. 

A similar, but small, rough-hairy species 
with white flowers, the scales of which are 
very long and white. The light green, veiny 
leaves are stemless or nearly so. 1-3 feet 
high. In sandy soil and pine barrens, 
from Long Island, N. Y., to Fla. and 
La. 

A hillside species with generally smooth, 
opposite, ovate lance-shaped, horizontally 
spreading leaves tapering to a sharp point. 
The white flowers, with long, slender but 
blunt scales, are in flat clusters. 2-6 feet 
high. In woods or on wooded banks. 
Mass., south, and west to 111. 

The common, familiar species whose 
leaves have been used in a bitter tonic de- 
coction or tea. Leaves .very light green, 
pointed, opposite, and so closely joined 
that two appear as one perforated by the 
plant-stem, which with the leaves is re- 
markably wool-hairy. The very dull white 
468 



White 
Thoroughwort 

Eupatorium 
album 
White 
August- 
September 

Upland 
Boneset 

Eupatorium 
sessilifolium 
White 
August- 
October 



Boneset or 
Thoroughwort 
Eupatorium 
perfoliatum 
Dull white 
July- 
September 






White 

Snakeroot. \|HSi 
Eupatorium | 
urticaefolium.? 




COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



florets, in terminal clusters, furnish an abundance of 
nectar for the visiting honeybee the rule with all Eu- 
patoriums and Vernonias. 2-5 feet high. Common 
everywhere on wet ground. 

The most attractive and graceful mem- 

Snakeroot ^ er ^ ^ n * s g enerauv coarse genus. The 
Eupatorium large-toothed leaves are deep green, 
urticcefoiium smooth, thin, slender-stemmed, and nearly 
White heart-shaped. Flowers white (not dull) 

u ^~ and peculiarly downy, like the garden 

Ageratum. 1-4 feet high. Rich woods 
and copses. Me., south to Ga., and west to S. Dak., 
Neb. , and La. 

A very similar species with short- 

Eupatorium stemme d leaves, dull-toothed and blunt- 
aromaticum . 

pointed ; the flowers a trifle larger. Near 

the coast, from Mass, to Ga. The name is misleading 
it is not aromatic. 

A tall, stout, handsome species belong- 
ing to a beautiful genus. The showy 
Liatris scariosa flower-spike set with magenta-purple to 
Magenta** pale violet, tubular, perfect flowers, the 

purple heads sometimes f inch broad. Leaves 

deep green, hoary, narrow lance-shaped, 
September 

and alternate-growing. Ine flowers ex- 
hibit many aesthetic and variable tints. 2-6 feet high. 
In dry situations, by roadsides and in fields. Me. , south, 
and west to S. Dak. and Tex. 

A lower species (beginning to bloom in 

June) with smooth or often hairy, stiff, 

linear leaves, and with the few flowers on 
the spike bright magenta-purple and fully an inch long ; 
the scales enveloping them are leaflike with sharp, spread- 
ing tips. 6-22 inches high. Pa., south, and west to S. 
Dak. and Tex. 

A commoner species, smooth or nearly 

Liatns with linear leaves and a closely set 

svicata _ ., ,, , , . , 

flower-spike sometimes fully 14 inches 

long ; the flowers, about ^ inch broad, range from pur- 
ple to violet or rarely to white. 2-5 feet high. Moist 
low ground. Mass. , south, and west to S. Dak. and Ark. 

470 



Mikania scandens. 



Blazing Star. 
Liatris scariosa. 



Joe-Pye-Weed 
Eupatorium purpupeurnj 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



An asterlike but golden yellow flower 
Goiden^ster g rowin g in dl T soil generally near the 
or Silver Grass coast - Tne shining leaves linear, soft, and 
Chrysopsis grasslike, but silvery green-gray with fine- 
graminifolia hairiness, the lower ones long. The small 
Golden yellow fl owe rs -| inch broad, solitary at the tips of 
October" ^ ne branches, the ray-flowers pistillate, 

the disc-flowers perfect. The slender stem 
1-3 feet high. Del., south, and southwest to Tex. 

A much lower species with larger flow- 

Goidra Aster d 6rS? als found in the coastwise States. 
Chrysopsis Tne stems very woolly, and the small lin- 
falcata ear leaves gray-green and crowded to- 

Golden yellow gether. The pretty, rich golden yellow 

Late uly- flowers are an inch broad. 4-10 inches 
August 

high. From Cape Cod, Mass., to the pine 

barrens of N. J. Found on Nantucket. 

A stout, showy species, the stem and 

Chrysopsis 

Mariana leaves of which are silky with soft hairs 

Golden yellow when young, but become smooth with 
August- age. The gray-green leaves are lance- 

September shaped and stemless, and the golden yel- 
low flower-heads are nearly an inch across, the scales 
below somewhat sticky and hairy. The commoner 
golden aster of New York and the south, found on dry 
sandy roadsides near the coast. 1-2 feet high. From 
southern N. Y. and Pa., south. 

The genus Solidago includes about 85 species, of 
which about 25 are commonly found throughout the 
northern United States. These are readily distinguished 
by differences in stem, leaf, and flower ; the stem may 
be rough, smooth, covered with hairs, or with bloom, or 
angular, or round ; the leaf may be triple-ribbed, feather- 
veined, or more or less distinctly ribbed or toothed ; the 
flowers may have few or many large or small rays. The 
central tubular florets are perfect, and are cross-fertil- 
ized by many insects of many orders, chief among which 
are the butterflies and the beelike flies ; the flowers fur- 
nish an abundance of honey for all. The Latin name, 
Solidago, means to make whole, alluding to some cura- 
tive quality of the plant. There are some hybrid forms. 
472 




Golden Aster 



Chrysopsis Mariana. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



A not very common species, the stem 
Stout Golden- . 

rod hairy above and rarely branched, with 

Solidago large, broad, coarsely toothed, feather- 

squarrosa veined leaves, and with rather showy 

Golden^yellow fl owers . the 10-16 rays nearly J inch long, 
October ^ e tubular florets 15-24 in a single flower- 

head the scales of which are strongly 
curved outward. The flower plume generally straight. 
Plant 2-5 feet high. On rocky hillsides, and the mar- 
gins of woods. Me., south to the mountains of Va., 
and west to Vt., tho Catskills, N. Y., Penn., and Ohio. 

A late-blooming, graceful, slender, wood- 
Blue=stemmed ' 

Golden-rod land golden-rod, with a distinct bluish or 

Solidago purplish, plumlike bloom on the bending 

ccesia stem. The leaves dark green, feather- 

Late August- veine^ smooth, sharply toothed, lance- 
shaped, and sharp-pointed. The flowers in 
small oblong clusters at the junction of leaf-stem with 
plant-stem, and not in a distinct terminal cluster ; 3-5 
rays in a single flower-head, T ^ inch broad, quite long, 
and very light golden yellow. 1-3 feet high. Common 
on shaded banks, and margins of woods, everywhere. 

A similar species, but with broad, olive 
Broad-leaved r . ' . ' 

Golden=rod green, feather-veined leaves pointed at 

Solidago both ends; the stem lighter green, zig-zag, 

latifolia angled in section, and rarely branched. 

August- The light gol(ien y e ii ow flowers in small 

clusters (like S. cwsia), with but 3-4 rays. 
1-3 feet high. Rich, moist, ^wooded banks. Me., south 
to Ga. , west to S. Dak. Found in the Catskill Mountains. 
A very common species; the only one 
rod or Silver= w ith white flowers. Leaves elliptical, 
rod feather- veined, rough-hairy, very lightly 

Solidago bicolor toothed, and dark olive green above, the 
ribs beneath hairy. Stem simple or 
branched, upright, and gray -hairy. Tubu- 
lar florets cream yellow, surrounded by 3-12 white rays ; 
flower-clusters mignonettelike, small, and at the leaf- 
junctions or crowded in a cylindrical terminal spike. 
10-30 inches high. On dry barren ground. Me., south 
to Ga., and west to Minn, and Mo. A yellow-flowered 

474 




Three-veined leaf, 
as in S sepotirm 



Soli dago caesia. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Compositse. 



form, var. concoZor, has yellow rays, and densely woolly 
stem and leaves. Commoner far north, south to Ga., 
Wis., and Minn. Illustration four pages forward. 

A northern species mostly confined to 

Golden=rod damp, rocky woods. The deep green 

Solidago leaves are ovate, thin, sharply toothed, 

macrophylla feather- veined, and very long-stemmed. 

Leaf- and plant-stem usually smooth, but 

the latter sometimes fine-hairy at the top. 

Flower-heads nearly -|- inch long, with 8-10 long golden 

yellow rays. 1-4 feet high. Wooded hillsides. Me. 

(Aroostook Co.), to northern N. H. and N. Y., south to 

the Catskill Mountains, and west to Lake Superior. 

A dwarf alpine form confined to moun- 
Alpine Golden- 
rod tain-tops and about 8 inches high. The 

Solidago large flowers, thickly clustered at the sum- 

Cutleri mit of the stout simple stem, with about 

12 rays. The florets robust, about \ inch 
high. Leaves usually obovate and finely 
toothed. Mountain summits of Me., N. H. (Mt. Wash- 
ington), and N. Y , and shores of Lake Superior. 

A species frequenting salt-marshes and 
Golden-rod sea-beaches. Stem stout and smooth ; 
Solidago flower-cluster large, leafy, short, and 

sempervirens straight, with large showy flowers having 
August- 7_iQ (jeep golden yellow rays. Leaves 

lance-shaped, smooth, toothless, and with 
3-5 obscure nerves. 2-8 feet high. Me. to Fla. 

The stem stout and smooth ; leaves 
Bog Golden=rod 
SoUda o smooth, lance-shaped, obscurely seven- 

uliginosa veined, slightly toothed or toothless ; those 

August- at the root very long. The flowers are 

September light golden yellow, with 5-6 small rays, 
and are crowded on the wandlike or straight stem. 2-4 
feet high. Me. to northern N. J. and Pa., west to Minn. 
A handsome, stocky plant with a ruddy, 
Gokten=rod stout, smooth, round (in section) stem, and 
Solidago large, smooth, firm, feather- veined, olive 

speciosa green leaves, rough-edged or obscurely 

August- toothed ; the upper ones oblong lance- 

shaped, the lower ovate. Flower-heads 
476 




Seaside Golden-pod. ' Soli dago sempervirens. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



with about 5 large golden yellow rays and prominent 
stamens ; the showy flower-cluster is dense, branched, 
and somewhat pyramidal in outline. 3-6 feet high. 
Rich ground and copses. Me., south to N. Car. ccnd Ky., 
and west to Minn, and Neb. 

An anise-scented species, very odorous 
Griden=rod when crushed. Leaves bright green, 
Solidago odor a smooth, indistinctly three-ribbed, shining, 
August- and dotted. The slender stem, often re- 

September clining, is usually smooth, and nearly 
cylindrical in section. Flower-heads small, with 3-4 
golden rays nearly J inch long. The flower-cluster one- 
sided. 2-3 feet high. In dry sandy soil. Me. , south, and 
west to N. Y., Ky., and Tex. 

Very common in swamps ; with stout 
Spreading , . n . 

Qoiden=rod stem (angled in section) and spreading 

Solidago patula branches. The large, rough, fine-toothed, 
August- feather-veined leaves smooth beneath. 

October Flower-clusters small ; the rather large 

flowers with obtuse green scales and small rays. Me. , 
south to Ga., and west to Minn., Mo., and Tex. 

An exceedingly hairy or rough golden- 
rod, very common on wooded roadsides 
stemmed 

Qolden=rod and margins of fields. Leaves dark green, 
Solidago feather-veined, very hairy, and deeply 

rugosa toothed. Stem hairy, straight, cylindri- 

u ^~ cal, and thickly set with leaves. The 

flower-clusters small, weak in color, and 
terminating several branches also thickly set with leaf- 
lets ; the flower-heads light golden yellow ; 6-9 rays and 
4-7 tubular florets. The plant often branched like an 
elm at the top, but presenting a variety of forms. 1-7 
feet high. Dry ground everywhere. 
Eim=iea\ed ^ l^e species with but few differences, 

<Joiden=rod viz.: Stem slender, smooth or woolly at 
Solidago the summit, leaves thin, pointed, and ta- 

ulmifolia pering toward the base. Flowers with 

about four deep yellow rays, the scales long lance- 
shaped. 2-4 feet high. Common in low moist copses 
or woods, from Me., south to Ga., west to Minn., Mo., 
and Tex. 

478 




Solid&go PUQOS&. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



A smooth species common in swamps in 
Goideif-rod tne north. The upper leaves long lance- 
Solidago shaped, few-veined, and nearly toothless, 

neglecta the lower ones sharply toothed, broader, 

and tapering to a stern. The flower-clus- 
ters rather thick and short, with crowded 
flowers of 3-8 small rays. 2-4 feet high. Me., south to 
Md., and west to Wis. and 111. 

A common and very graceful species ; 
Sharp=leaved , .,, 

Golden=rod one ^ * e earn est golden-rods, with very 
Solidago light golden yellow flowers having 5-7 

arguta large rays and small, light green, obtuse 

Ju| y- scales. The flower-cluster plumelike and 

reclining. The stem angled, smooth, and 
angular in section, sometimes ruddy brown. Leaves 
deep green, indistinctly feat her- veined, large, thin, and 
sharply coarse-toothed, generally elliptical lance-shaped, 
the upper ones nearly if not quite toothless. 2-4 feet 
high. Copses and rich thin woods, from N. H., south 
to Va. , and west to S. Dak. 

Another very common, slender species 
Goiden=rod often found in company with the forego- 
Solidagojuncea ing and blooming a little later. Leaves 
July- smooth, yellow olive green, and slightly 

September three-ribbed, the upper ones toothless, the 
lower broad lance-shaped, with sharp and spreading 
teeth ; a tiny leaf -wing grows at either side of each leaf- 
stem. The flower-clusters are spread somewhat like an 
elm in larger plants ; but in the smaller ones they are 1 
one-sided. The golden yellow flowers about J inch long, 
with 8-12 small rays. 2-4 feet high. On dry rocky 
banks and roadsides. Me. , south to N. Car. , west to Mo. 

A common but by no means a late-flow- 
G olden rod ering golden-rod, generally distinguished 
Solidago for the plumlike lilac bloom (but some- 

serotina times light green) of its straight, smooth, 

August- dignified stem, which is perfectly cylindri- 

cal in section. Leaves dark green, plainly 
three-ribbed, smooth, and toothed only along the upper 
half of the edge, narrow and sharp-pointed. The stems 
of the flower-heads are covered with tiny white hairs ; 
480 




Early Golden-rod Solida^o juncea. 




White Golden-rod. 
Solidago bicolon 



Late Golden-pod, 
serotina. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



the flowers small, light golden yellow, 7-15 long rays. 
The flower-cluster is generally cylindrical, but bending 
at the top of the unbranched stem. 3-7 feet high, but 
seldom tall. Copses and dry roadsides, everywhere. 

A tall, stout, coarse species with lance- 
d shaped, dull olive green, sharply toothed, 
Soiidago triple-ribbed leaves, rough above, a trifle 

Canadensis woolly beneath, and tapering to a point at 
Golden yellow either end, the uppermost leaves nearly 
ug " s ~ toothless. The flower-heads are small, with 

5-15 short rays ; the greenish golden yel- 
low clusters plumelike and large, but not striking. 3-7 
feet high. Common everywhere (except at the seaside) 
in copse borders and on roadsides in dry situations. 
Quite variable ; the var. procera with slightly toothed or 
toothless leaves rather gray- woolly beneath, and the var. 
scabra (N. Y. and Pa. , south) also with leaves sparingly 
toothed or toothless, very rough above and hairy-veined 
beneath, the flower-heads somewhat larger. 

One of the most brilliant of all the 
Gray 
Golden=rod golden-rods. A rather low, late-flowering 

Soiidago species remarkable for its rich deep golden 

nemoralis yellow flowers and its simple, unbranched, 

green-gray stem, which with the leaves is 
covered with minute grayish hairs. The 
leaves are three-ribbed, dull olive green, rough, thick, 
dull-toothed, and generally broad lance-shaped, some- 
what wider at the farther end, the lower ones tapering 
to a stem ; little leaflets are on either side of the bases of 
the larger leaves. Flowers with 5-9 rays, the cluster 
generally forming a thickly set one-sided plume. 6-25 
inches high. Common everywhere, beside sandy roads 
and in dry pastures, except at the seaside. 

A less common species distinguished for 
Hard=leaved 
Golden=rod its spreading, flat-topped cluster, which is 

Soiidago usually quite thick. The stout, leafy 

rigida stem is covered with dense fine hairs ; the 

August- rough, thick, narrowly oval leaves, feath- 

October J . . , ' 

er- veined and extremely rigid, the upper 

ones broad at the base and clasping at the stem, tooth- 
lees or nearly so. The large flower-heads with about 30 

482 




\\ 

Canada Golden-rod. nSolidagoCanadensis. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composites. 



tubular florets and 6-10 large rays. 2-5 feet high. Dry 
soil, Mass. , south to Ga. , and west to Minn, and S. Dak. 
Lan e lea ed A slightly fragrant species, distinctly d if - 
Goiden=rod ferent from all the foregoing. The very 
Solidago small flowers in a flat-topped cluster, and 

graminifolia the ve r y small, toothless, lance-shaped, nar- 

OctobeV eafly row willowlike > Hg 11 * green leaves with 3-5 
ribs and very rough edges. The stem is 
straight, angular in section, with the ridges minutely 
rough, and terminates in a thin, wiry -branched flower- 
cluster not at all showy in color ; the tiny flower-heads 
in small crowded groups ; 12-20 minute rays. 2-4 feet 
high. On river-banks, borders of damp woods, or in 
moist situations, everywhere. 

Slender ^ somewhat similar, resinously fragrant 

Goiden=rod species ; the difference apparent in the 
Solidago slenderer, smoother stem and the very 

tenuifolia narrow, linear, dotted leaves, commonly 
one-ribbed. The tiny flower-heads, with 6-12 rays, in 
numerous groups of 2-3, forming a flat- topped cluster 
15-18 inches high. In dry sandy soil mostly near the 
coast. Mass., south, and west to 111. 

The genus Aster, named from dtfrr/p, a star, is a varied 
and beautiful, late-flowering tribe which, with Solidago, 
monopolizes the roadsides and byways in autumn. The 
species are distinguished apart in much the same way as 
in Solidago. The ray-florets are pistillate, the tubular 
florets (upon the disc) perfect, with a five-parted yellow 
corolla, which with age turns dull magenta. Fertilized 
mostly by honeybees, bumblebees, and the beelike flies. 
All the asters yield an abundance of nectar. 

A small white aster, not showy but corn- 
White Wood- mon in thin W00( j g> The stem is rather 
land Aster .. .. 

Asler smooth, a trifle zig-zagged, and quite slen- 

divaricatus der ; the olive green leaves are coarsely 
White toothed, slender-stemmed, heart-shaped, 

September- sharp-pointed, and smooth. The white 
October 

flowers, as broad as a " nickel, have only 

6-9 rays ; the disc-flowers turn madder purple with age. 
1-2 feet high. Me., south to Ga., and west. 

484 




Lance-leaved Golden-rod, Solidacjo graminifolia. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite 



A stou^, stiff, purplish-stemmed species 

with few ' rou g h > lar S e > 4 ~ 8 inches long, 
closely toothed, basal leaves, the upper 
macrophyllus ones ovate, almost stemless, and sharp- 
Lilac pointed. Flowers about an inch broad, 
August- with 10 _ 16 bluish lilac or rare iy lilac- white, 
September . _ 

rays ; disc-no \vers turning madder brown 

with age. 2-3 feet high. Common in damp thin woods 
or on dry banks. Me., south to S. Car., west to Minn. 
Show Aster ^ ver ^ handsome species found only 
Aster spectabilis' nesir ^ ne coast, with but few showy, deep 
Violet blue-violet flowers about as broad as a fifty- 

August- cent piece, with 15-25 rays often inch 

long. The olive green leaves, mostly 
toothless, are oblong lance-shaped and rough. The stiff, 
generally simple stem, 1-2 feet high, is slightly rough 
below. Sandy soil. Mass, to Del. 

A low slender species with few large, 
Rough-leaved .,,,, , 

Aster violet-blue flowers and a rough stem and 

Aster radula leaf, the latter dark green , stemless , sharply 
Violet toothed, strongly veined, and oblong lance- 

shaped. The upper leaves closely clasp the 
stem. The flowers with about 22 rays 
nearly \ inch long. 1-2 feet high. In wet situations 
and moist shady copse borders. Me. , south to Del. and 
the Pocono Mts. , Pa. , generally near the coast. A dwarf 
form, var. strictus, has nearly entire leaves and usually 
solitary flowers ; White Mountains, N. H. 

A familiar and common species with 
New England numerous handsome flowers about an inch 
8 t er broad, which vary from light violet to 

Novce-Anglice light purple or white, and in the var. 
Purple or roseus to magenta. The stem stout, 

magenta branched, and rough ; the olive green, 

October soft-hairy leaves lance-shaped, toothless, 

thin, and clasping the stem by a broad 
base rounded at either side. The flowers, rarely larger 
than a silver quarter, have usually 30-40 narrow rays, 
and terminate the branches in large clusters. 2-6 feet 
high or higher. Frequently cultivated ; common north- 
ward, and south to S. Car. 

486 




New England Aster? Aster Novae Angliae. 




Aster spectabihs 



Aster 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



A common species on dry ground, with 

ovate-oblong, stemless leaves, heart-shaped 

Aster patens a ^ the ^ ase an d clasping the main stem, 

Light violet- toothless or nearly so, but rough on the 

purple edge and on the upper surface. Stem 

August- rough-hairy, slender, and widely branched. 

Flowers with 20-30 light violet-purple rays 

nearly -| inch long, and spreading, pointed, green tips 

beneath. 1-3 feet high. In dry open places, from Mass., 

south, and west to northern N. Y. and Minn. 

An aster easily recognized by its remark- 
able broad - stemmed leaf which is heart- 
Aster shaped where it clasps the plant-stem ; 

undulatus some leaves are pointed heart-shaped, and 
Light violet the upper ones have an undulating mar- 

gin> Stems stiff and ver > r rou g n - Flow- 
ers light blue-violet, with 9-15 rays. 1-3 
feet high. In dry places and on shaded roadsides. Com- 
mon everywhere. 

A familiar, small-flowered aster with 
eart= eave variable leaves. Stem slender, smooth, 
A S t er and much branched ; the light green leaves 

cordifolius rough or fine-hairy, and usually pointed 
Lilac or lighter heart-shaped with large sharp teeth ; the 
upper ones short-stemmed or stemless, 
ovate or lance-shaped. The lilac or blue- 
lavender flowers, about | inch broad, with 10-20 rays, 
are crowded in dense clusters like those of the lilac ; the 
disc-florets turn magenta or madder purple with age. 
1-4 feet high. Common everywhere. This aster presents 
a great variety of forms ; there is one among the foot- 
hills of the White Mountains, Campton and Plymouth, 
scarcely 8 inches high, with white flowers and smooth, 
narrow, lance-shaped leaves ; the established var. Fur- 
bishise (Fernald) is distinguishsd for its long soft-hairy 
stem and leaf-stalks, the leaves somewhat so beneath ; 
New Brunswick, Me., and N. H. Also Dr. Britton 
recognizes several other varieties. The var. polycephalus, 
also commonly distributed, has leaves squared or else 
narrowed at the base 

488 




Heart-leaved Aster 9 . 



Aster cord if oli us. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composites. 



Arrow-leaved 
Aster 

Aster 

sagittifolius 
Light violet 
August- 
October 



Smooth Aster 
Aster Icevis 
Light violet 
September- 
October 



A rather northern species. The stem 
stiff, erect, and with nearly upright 
branches. The light olive green leaves 
thin, broad lance-shaped, and sparingly 
toothed toward the top of the stem, but 
somewhat arrow-shaped lower down. The 
small, light violet flowers are not showy ; 
there are 10-14 rays about J inch long. 2-4 feet high. 
In dry soil. Me., south to Ky., west to Pa., and N. Dak. 
Variable but handsome, with light violet 
or paler blue- violet flowers about an inch 
broad, and nearly if not entirely toothless, 
smooth, light green leaves, lance-shaped, 
stemless, and clasping the plant-stem with 
a somewhat heart-shaped base. The flowers with 15-30 
rays. Stem 2-4 feet high, smooth, and sometimes cov- 
ered with a light bloom. Dry soil, roadsides, and bor- 
ders of woods ; common everywhere. 

A tiny white aster common in southern 
New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. 
Stem generally smooth and closely set 
above with tiny, heathlike, linear, light 
green leaves, the few basal ones blunt 
lance-shaped and slightly toothed ; all are 
rather rigid. The tiny white flowers with 
yellow discs are like miniature daisies ; there are 16-24 
narrow rays sometimes lightly tinted with magenta. 
This aster has spread beyond its original limits through 
cultivation by bee-keepers ; its yield of nectar is large, 
and it is an especial favorite of the honeybee. 1-3 feet 
high. Common in dry fields and on roadsides, from Me. , 
south, and west from south N. Eng. to Wis. and Ky. 

Another tiny-flowered aster, with hairy, 
Many-flowered of ten brownish stems. The tiny, linear, 
light green leaves are fine-hairy or rough. 
The dense flower-clusters are crowded 
with white or lilac- white flowers scarcely 
J inch broad, with 12-20 rays. Stems 
bushy. 1-4 feet high. Common in dry 
open places, from southern N. Eng., south 
and west. Rare in Me. , and absent in northern N. EL 

4QO 



Michaelmas 
Daisy or 
Heath Aster 

Aster ericoides 
White 
September- 
November 



Aster 

Aster 

multiflorus 
White or 
Iilac=white 
September- 
November 




Aster ericoides. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite 



A similar species with fine linear leaves, 
Bushy Aster and loose-flowering branches, the stem 
Aster dumosus , . , , , , . 
White or slightly fine-hairy, and sometimes brown- 

lilaowhite ish, or the whole plant quite smooth. 
August- The little flowers, with 15-25 white or pale 

October j^ ac ra y s> are rather larger than those of 

the next species. 1-3 feet high. Dry sandy soil. Mass., 
and Conn. , south and west to S. Dak. and Mo. 

A white-flowered species with larger 
Aster linear, or narrow lance-shaped leaves, the 

Aster vimineus largest ones slightly sharp-toothed. Stem 
White and leaves nearly if not quite smooth, the 

August- stem often reddish, its branches almost 

horizontal. The tiny flowers with numer- 
ous white rays. The flowering branches very short, and 
minutely leafy. 2-4 feet high. Common in moist places 
and on river-banks, from southern N. Eng., south, and 
west to Minn. , and Ark. The var. foliolosus is very leafy 
and the branches turn upward; the linear leaves are 
toothless, and nearly 2 inches long. The flowers in a 
very loose cluster. 2-5 feet high. From Jaffrey, N. H., 
south to Va., and west to Mo. 

An exceedingly common and variable 
Calico Aster . . 

Aster lateriflorus s P ecies with a smooth, or fine-hairy, often 
Light purple magenta-stained stem, with straggling 
or white branches. The light green, lance-shaped 

August- leaves sparinglv toothed, and larger than 

October f . . 

any of those of the species immediately pre- 
ceding. The little flowers scarcely inch across, with 
numerous light purple or lilac or white rays ; the disc- 
florets a deeper purple. 1-5 feet high. In dry fields, and 
copses. Me. , south to N. Car. , west to S. Dak. and La. 

A slender-stemmed, much-branched 
. white aster, with numerous flowers about 

Aster f inch broad, and with long lance-sha.ped 

Tradescanti leaves, the lower ones slightly toothed, 
White smooth on both sides, thin, and tapering 

October" ^ a snar P point. The small flowers with 

white or lilac-white rays clustered about 
the short upward-turned branches. 2-4 feet high. In 
wet fields and swamps, Me., south, and west to Minn. 

40? 




New York Aster. 
Aster Novi-Belgii. 



Tradescant's Aster. 
Astep Tradeseanti. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



A very tall species with white or lilac- 
White^ster wnite flowers a trifle larger than a * 'nickel," 
Aster borne in somewhat flat-topped, loose or 

paniculatus scattered clusters ; the leaves dark green, 
White very nearly if not quite smooth, long 

October" lance-shaped, and obscurely toothed ; the 

upper ones toothless. The stout, much- 
branched stem is 3-8 feet high. Common on low moist 
ground and borders of copses, in half shade, everywhere. 
A northern species with remarkably nar- 
Aster ' row, toothless (or nearly so) leaves 3-8 

Aster inches long, and pale violet or light purple 

longifolius flowers as large as a silver quarter. The 
Llgl flower-envelop is encircled with many lit- 

October" tie. acute scales strongly curled backward. 

1-3 feet high. In swamps and low ground. 
Northern N. Eng., west to Minn, and Mont. 

Flowers large pale violet, lilac or blue- 
New York Aster . , *. 

or Willow= violet, with 15-24 rays, nearly -| inch 

leaved Blue long. The stemless, usually toothless light 
Aster green leaves are thin, long, and smooth, or 

Aster Novi- ^ ne sma [\ upper ones clasping the stem, 

LHacor the lower Very sli g htlv toothed. 10-35 

blue= violet inches high. Gray calls this the "corn- 
August- monest late-flowered aster of the Atlantic 
October border, and very variable " ; but through- 
out New Hampshire A. puniceus is far commoner. The 
variations of A. Novi-Belgii are var. Icevigatus, smooth 
throughout, with the upper leaves clasping the stem by 
an abrupt base ; N. Eng. and east. : var. litoreus, rigid, 
low, with thick, smooth leaves, the upper ones clasping the 
stem by a heart-shaped base ; salt marshes south to Ga. 
A northern species. The upper part of 

prenanthoides the stem is hair 7 in lines > ^ nd occasionally 
Pale violet bro wnish ; the rough (but smooth beneath), 
September- ovate lance-shaped leaves are contracted at 
October ^ ne |3 ase to a long wide-stemlike figure 

finally heart-shaped at the plant-stem. The flowers, 
about as large as a silver quarter, are pale violet or 
nearly lilac- white. 1-3 feet high. Margins of woods and 
banks of streams. Newfane, Vt. to Pa., Iowa, and Wis. 

494 




Purple-stemmed Aster. 



Aster* puniceua. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composites. 



A common species with usually madder 
stemmed Aster P ur P^ stem, rough-hairy and stout. The 
Aster puniceus light green leaves, lance-shaped or nar- 
Light purple rower, sparingly and coarsely toothed, 

August- clasp the upper branches. Flowers about 

October , . f 

the size of a silver quarter or larger, 

light violet or light lilac-purple with 20-24 rays, the 
tubular florets yellow. 3-7 feet high. In moist places 
and swamps everywhere, and quite variable ; var. com- 
pactus (Fernald) is stout, hairy, the thick leaves a trifle 
diamond-shaped but very narrow, coarsely toothed. The 
flowers compactly clustered; West Somerville, Mass., 
also New Haven, Conn. Var. firmus, with smooth, green 
stem, slightly rough above. Var. lucidulus smooth, with 
lance-shaped toothless (nearly so), shining leaves. 

A common aster in moist thickets, and 
Aster the b orders of damp woods. With few 

vmbeUatu* r . 

White narrow white rays which are generally 

curved backward. The flowers are borne 
in flat-topped clusters. The small flowers numerous but 
not showy, the tubular florets purpling with age. The 
veiny leaves, long lance-shaped and very rough-edged, 
extend to the top of the plant. 2-7 feet high. Com- 
mon northward in shaded and moist places. 

A small species with linear leaves, one- 
linariifolius ribbed, rough-edged, without teeth, and 
Light violet rigid. The rather large solitary flowers 
September- light violet or rarely lilac-white. 1-2 feet 
October high. Common everywhere in dry situ- 

ations, 

A low woodland species with large, 
ar (j > " e ^ v scrawny flowers having 10-16 narrow 
Aster white or lilac- white rays, and generally 

acuminatus magenta tubular florets. The large, sharp- 
White or pointed, coarse-toothed dark green leaves, 
lilac-white thin, and broad lance-shaped, tapering to 
September both ends, often arranged nearly in a circle 

beneath the few long-stemmed flowers. 
10-16 inches high. In cool rich woods. Me and N. Y, 
south in the mountains to Ga. In the White Mountains. 



496 




Aster acuminatus. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composites. 



A species confined to the salt marshes of 
tenuifolius ^ e coast from Massachusetts southward. 
Lilaopurple Stem very smooth and generally zig- 
September- zagged. The few leaves long linear, taper- 
October ing to both endg) toothless, and thick or 
fleshy. The rather large flowers an inch broad or more, 
lilac-purple or paler, borne on a generally simple or 
slightly branched stem. 8-25 inches high. 

Aster subulatus A species similarl y confined. The leaves 
Pale purple linear lance-shaped, toothless, and flat, 
August-' those on the branches very small and awl. 

October shaped. The numerous, very small pale 

purple flowers with very short rays scarcely extending 
beyond the disc ; the disc-florets purplish. 6-24 inches 
high. N. H. and Mass, to Va. 

A very common annual weed, and the 
Horseweed or 
Butterweed most unattractive member of the genus. 

Erigeron The white and green flower-heads are ex- 

Canadensis tremely small, J- inch long ; the rays do 
White=green not spread but connec t in the form of a 
June-October * , 

cylinder. The dark green leaves are lin- 
ear, remotely toothed or toothless, and the upper ones 
are often cut-lobed. The bristly hairy stem is 1-7 feet 
high. In barnyards and waste places everywhere. 

An annual and asterlike species with 
Sweet Scabius a S p rea( j m g . haired stem and coarsely 
Fleabane toothed, lance-shaped leaves, the lower 

Erigeron ones broader. The white or pale lilac 

annuus flower-heads are Jbout J inch broad, with 

W nl te r HIac a g reen -y ellow disc - 1 ~ 4 feet m 'g h * A 

Seotember common weed northward in waste places. 
Me., west to S, Dak., and south to Va. 

_, . A singular common species ; the hairs not 

Daisy Fleabane 

Erigeron spreading but close to the stem. The light 

ramosus green leaves are linear and toothless or 

White nearly so, the lower ones broad at the tip. 

May ~ The little daisylike flowers are 4 inch 

September , ,. 

broad, with a large green yellow disc ; oc- 
casionally the white rays are lilac-tinged, and sometimes 
they are extremely short or altogether absent. 1-2 feet 
high* Common in fields and on roadsides every where, 
498 




Horseweed. 



Erigepon 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



A rather large-flowered plant which is 
Plantain frequently communistic, tinting the road- 

Erigeron si( ^e or field with its delicate lilac. The 

pulcheilus light olive green stem and leaves are very 

Lilac or soft-hairy, the basal leaves broad at the 

May-June* tip and indistinctl y toothed. The showy 

flowers, 1 inch broad, vary from lilac or 
magenta to a violet-purple ; the somewhat green-yellow 
disc is broader than the fine rays are long. Fertilized 
by bumblebees and honeybees (the most frequent visitors) 
and butterflies. 10-22 inches high. Common every- 
where. 

Common ^ similar but taller plant with light ma- 

Fleabane genta or pale pink flowers and a soft-hairy 

Erigeron (rarely smooth) stem ; 1-2 feet high. Com- 

Philadelphicus mon throughout our range, but less fre- 
quent than E. bettidifolius, and blooming to August. 

A small plant with short white hairs ; 
or Pussy=toes the three-ribbed basal leaves broad near 
Antennaria the tip, the stalks nearly as long as the 
plantaginifolia leaf. Upper stem leaves lance-shaped. 
White Tne } mear sca i es o f the small, J inch long 

flower-head are green or purple at the 
base, and white or purplish at the tip. The styles crim- 
son. Dry soil. Southern Me., to Minn., and South. 

A tall and stocky species with oblong, 
Antennana or fo^nt lance-shaped leaves crowded on 
May-July the stem, all covered with magenta-purple, 

glandular hairs. The large flower heads 
in a loose cluster. 12-18 inches high. Fertile slopes and 
. open woods. N. Eng., to la., south to Va. 

A species with larger flower-heads. The 
Antennaria basal leaves gray soft-hairy above, and the 
Ma^June greenish or tawny scales of the calyx have 

rather dry petallike tips. Northern N. 
Eng., south to La., and west to Minn. The basal leaves 
of this species are large, 1-2 inches, broadly ovate, and 
the stem leaves oblong lance-shaped. The pistil is some- 
times crimson. 

500 



Robins Plantain. Erigeron beilidifolius. 
Crigeron pulcKellus 




Erigeron 
Common Fleabane philadelphicus. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



A slender - stemmed and exceedingly 
Antennaria 771 .,1 i * i i i 

neodioica woolly plant with very leafy basal shoots. 

May-middle The basal leaves about 1 inch long, blunt 
July at the tip but with an abrupt sharp point, 

one-ribbed or indistinctly three - ribbed ; stem - leaves 
small and narrow. The flower-bracts with green or 
tawny bases and dry tips, the outer ones short and ob- 
tuse, the inner acutish or blunt. 6-16 inches high. On 
wooded slopes and dry shady places. Me. to Va. , and Wis. 
Antennaria The commonest species of southern New 

neglecta England (also in Franconia, N. H., and 

April- Farmington, Me.). A small plant with 

early May slender stem and runners. The one-ribbed 
basal leaves (at first silky-hairy above, but soon smooth) 
wedge-shaped or blunt lance-shaped, and indistinctly 
stalked ; the few stem-leaves linear. The head of the 
pistillate plant f inch long, with linear bracts greenish, 
brownish, or purplish below, and white at the tip. 8-12 
inches high. Dry barren fields and sunny hillsides. N, 
Eng., south to Wash., D. C., and west. 

A common species with small linear 
Antennaria i ance _ shaped leaves ; the clear qreen, 
Canadensis 
May-July smooth basal leaves, shaped like those of 

A. neodioica, a trifle hairy when very 
young. The white flower-bracts with dry tips. 6-22 
inches high. Hillsides and pastures. Northern N. Eng., 
south to Mass., and west. (Vide Rhodora, vol. i., p. 150, 
article by M. L. Fernald.) 

The most beautiful of the everlastings ; 

^ e linear leaves are sage green above and 
Anaphalis white beneath ; the flowers are globular, 
margaritacea with miniature petallike white scales sur- 
White rounding the central yellow staminate 

flowers, arranged not unlike the petals of 
September .... , 

a water-lily. Cross-fertilized mostly by 

moths and butterflies, though many other insects are 
common visitors. Staminate and pistillate flowers grow 
on separate plants. The stem is white and woolly, ter- 
minated by a flat cluster, sometimes 6 inches broad, of 
close-set flowers. 1-3 feet high. Common from Me., 
south to S. Car., and west to S. Dak. 
502 




See page 498. 

Daisy Fleaban^ 



Pussy-toes. 
Antennaria neodioica. 



Erigeron ramosus. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite 



Everiastin 

Gnaphalium 
polycephalum 
Cream white 



A much less beautiful species, but one 
possessing an aromatic odor resembling 
tnat of slippery elm. The flowers cream 
white and ovoid, not expanding to the 
water-lily shape until the seed is ripe. The 
stem (much branched at the top) together 
with the linear leaves is velvety-hairy and 
delicate sage green. 12-25 inches high. Very common 
in dry open places and stony pastures everywhere. The 
name, from the Greek, means a tuft of wool. 

A similar fragrant species, but with a 
leaf y> glandular-sticky stem, woolly and 
nearly white; the leaves are a little 
broader linear lance-shaped, with a dense 
woolliness beneath ; they partly clasp the 
stem. Flower-scales a yellowish cream 
white. 2-3 feet high. On dry or moist 
open hillsides or banks, from Me. to Pa. and Minn. 

An insignificant low annual with white- 

woo ii y stem an( j linear, sharp-pointed 
, , ,. ,. JL, 

leaves, rather broader at the tip. Flowers 

tiny, ovate, with brownish scales. The 
many-branched stems are 3-7 inches high. 
Common on low ground. Me., south to 
Va., and west to Minn, and 111. 



EverlTstin 

Gnaphalium 
decurrens 
Cream white 

U> ~ h 



Low or Marsh 
Cudweed 

Gnaphalium 
uliginosum 
Brownish 
white 

i uly ~ 
September 



Deep yellow 

July- 

September 



One of the tall picturesque weeds char- 
a cteri stic of the Composite Family. Leaves 
olive yellow-green, white-veined, rough 
above, fine-hairy beneath, toothed, the 
lower ones stemmed, the upper ones part- 
ly clasping the plant-stem, which is woolly and often 
toned with purple-gray. The showy but somewhat dis- 
hevelled flower, set amid flattish leaflets, has many nar- 
row, curving, deep lemon yellow ray florets, which are 
pistillate, and a broad disc of central, tubular, perfect 
florets, at first yellow, and finally tan color. Cross-fer- 
tilized mostly by bumblebees, moths, and butterflies. 
Two or three flower-heads are grouped together at the 
termination of the stalk. 2-6 feet high. Naturalized 
from Europe ; common northward, and south to ^a 




Elecampane. 



Inula Helenium. 




Pearly Everlasting. Sweet Everlasting. 

Anaphalis marxjaritaeea. Gnaphalium polyeephalum. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composites. 



Perhaps the tallest member of the Com* 
Great Rag weed 

Ambrosia posite group, not excepting Lactuca. Stem 

trifida stout, hairy or nearly smooth, and filled 

Green with a frostlike pith ; leaves deeply three- 

s " y ~ lobed and sharp-pointed, the teeth irregu- 

lar and acute. The insignificant small 
flowers form a terminal, pointed cluster (these are stami- 
nate), or spring from between the opposite-growing 
leaves and the stem (these are usually pistillate). Wil- 
liam Hamilton Gibson records a ragweed 18 feet 4 inches 
long. Common in moist soil, occasional in Vt. and N. H. 
A common weed with remarkably orna- 
Roman Worm= mental cut leaves res emblmg those of 
wood or 
Hogweed Artemisia (Composite Family). An an- 

Ambrosia arte- nual with a much-branched, fine-hairy 
misicefolia stem and thin , lifeless light green , dissected 
leaves. The slender spikes of the green 
September staminate flowers are numerous and some- 
what decorative. The tiny fruit is fur- 
nished with 6 short acute spines. 1-5 feet high. 
Troublesome in door-yards and gardens, everywhere. 
Oxeye Hdiopsis Like the s unfl wer, with perfect ray- 
heiianthoides an <i disc-flowers, the 10 straplike rays 
Yellow rather showy ; the stem and leaves smooth, 

August- the latter deep green, broad lance-shaped, 

three-ribbed, and toothed, growing oppo- 
sitely. 3-5 feet high. In copses. N. Y., south, west to 111. 
Heliopsis ^ similar species, but distinguished by 

scabra its rough stem and leaves, which are less 

June- narrowly pointed, and its somewhat larger 

September flowers. 2-4 feet high. Me. , N. J. to Ark. 
A showy western species with handsome 
Black Sampson fl owers whose light or deep magenta petals 
Conelffower gracefully droop and are two-toothed at 
Brauneria the tip. The disc is madder purple, its 

purpurea florets are perfect ; the ray-flowers are pis- 

Magenta tillate but sterile. The five-ribbed, deep 

Se tember green lower leaves are rough, sharply 
toothed, and pointed ovate; the upper ones 
are stemless and toothless. Stem smooth or slightly hairy. 
2-3 feet high. Rich soil, N. Y. , 111. , Mich. , south to Tex. 
506 




Roman Wormwood 

Ambrosia, artemisiaefolia. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



A similar species with the same magenta 
aMda* flowers and long lance-shaped leaves, very 

rough, without teeth, and three-ribbed. 
The flowers are a deeper color when they at first expand. 
Rare on roadsides and fields in N. Eng., where it has 
come from the west ; 111. and Ala., west to Minn., Neb., 
and Tex. The name from e^zVoS, hedgehog. 
Tall Cone ^ c ^ ose ^ allied species with golden yel- 

flower l w flo wers whose rays droop ; the central 

RudbecMa green-yellow cone, at first hemispherical, 
ladniata is finally elongated and brown. Nearly 

Golden yellow smooth> deep green i ea ves, the lowest com- 
pound, the intermediate irregularly 3-5-parted, the up- 
permost small and elliptical. Fertilized mostly by the 
bees ; among the bumblebees, Bombus separatus and 
Bombus americanorum are frequent visitors. The branch- 
ing stems 3-10 feet high. In moist thickets, Me., N.H. and 
N.Y., south and west. Named for Professors Rudbeck. 
Eudbeckia Flower-disc purple-brown, at first hemi- 

triloba spherical, and afterward oblong-ovoid; 

Golden yellow about 8-10 golden yellow rays, deeper at 
August tbe k asej an( j somewhat long-oval. Upper 

leaves rough, thin, bright green, ovate lance-shaped, 
lower ones three-lobed, tapering at the base, and coarsely 
toothed. Stem hairy, much branched, and many-flow- 
ered ; the flowers small, about 2 inches broad. 2-5 feet 
high. On dry or moist ground. N. J., south to Ga., 
west to Mich., S. Dak., and La. 

A biennial. The commonest eastern spe- 

Black=Eyed C {QQ although its seed originally came 
Susan or & 



, . . , 

Cone=f lower the west mixed with clover seed. 

Eudbeckia Both stem and leaves are very rough and 
hirta bristly ; the former exceedingly tough, the 

Deep golden latter dull olive green, lance-shaped, tooth- 

June^August ^ ess or near ly so ' an( * scattered along the 
rigid stem ; the lower leaves broader at 
the tip and three-ribbed. The deep gold yellow ray- 
flowers are neutral without stamens or pistils ; they curl 
backward ; the disc is madder purple, ,and the tiny florets 
encircle it in successive bloom, creating a zone of yellow 
when the pollen is ripe ; later the stigmas are matured 




Cone-flowen 




Heliopsis II ^lill i/Rudbeckia 
helianthoides. It'll if triloba., 

Purple Cone-flower. : 
Brauneria 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



and cross-fertilization takes place by the agency of in* 
sects or the wind. The smaller bees (Halictus), the 
bumblebee (Bombus vagans), and the smaller butterflies 
are constant visitors. 1-2 feet high. Common in dry 
or sandy meadows. Me. , west to S. Dak. , and southward. 
The common garden sunflower ; an an- 
Helianthus nual wifch generally three-ribbed and heart- 
annuus c 5 

shaped leaves, and golden yellow flowers, 

1-10 inches broad. 2-12 feet high. Everywhere. 

A tall species with a rough dull magenta 
Tall Sunflower . 

Helianthus stem and rou n > bright green, lance-shaped 
giganteus leaves, pointed and finely toothed, nearly 

Yellow stemless, the upper ones quite stemless, 

August- an( j a n growing alternately, but rarely 

September 

some growing oppositely. The light yel- 
low flowers about 2 inches broad, with 10-20 rays ; the 
disc dull yellow, with perfect florets, and the rays neu- 
tral, that is, without stamens or pistil. 3-12 feet high. 
Common in swamps and on the borders of wet meadows, 
from Me. , south, and west to Neb. 

A southerly species with many very 
Sunfto er small flowers f-1 inch broad. The stem 
Helianthus slender and generally branched ; leaves 
microcephaius mostly opposite, broad lance-shaped, 
Yellow toothed, rough, and short-stemmed. Flow- 

July- with 5 _ 10 y e n w rays. 3-6 feet high. 

September . xl . . 

Common in thickets and on the borders of 

woods. Pa., south to Ga., and west to Mo. 
Woodland ^ slender, smooth-stemmed species (a 

Sunflower trifle fine-hairy above) with opposite lance- 
Helianthus shaped, toothed, roughish, three-ribbed, 
divaricatus and nearly or quite stemless leaves 3-7 
inches long. The yellow flowers, 2 inches broad, are few 
or solitary. 2-5 feet high. Common in thickets and on 
borders of woods. Me., south, and west to Neb. 

A species similar in aspect, color, situa- 
Helianthus tion and time of bloom but the stem 

strumosus . . . , 

very smooth below, and often with a bloom; 

the leaves rough above, and pale (sometimes minutely 
hairy) beneath. Flowers with 5-15 rays. 3-6 feet high. 
Me., south to Ga., but mostly west to Minn, and Ark. 
510 





Ten-petaled Sunflower. 
Helianthus decapetalus, 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



A rather showy species having 10-12 
Fen-petaled or ravs with many pure yellow or deeper 
Thin-leaved 
Sunflower yellow flowers 2-3 inches broad. The 

Helianthus slender tall stem is rough above and 
decapetalus smooth below ; the deep green leaves are 
Yellow broad lance-shaped, a trifle rough, thin, 

September an( * snor ^- s ^ emme( i 5 they grow oppositely. 
2-5 feet high. Borders of copses and low 
damp woods. Me., south to Ga., and west to Mich, 
Found in Campton, N. H. 

A species extensively grown for its edi- 
A "t^h 1 ^ kl e roots, now running wild in fence rows 



Helianthus an( ^ roadsides. The name Jerusalem is a 
tuberosus corruption of the Italian Girasole, sun- 

Golden yellow flower. Stem stout and rough-hairy ; the 

September- ova t e lance-shaped, three-ribbed, rough 
October _ , A . . _ 

leaves grow oppositely (a few upper ones 

alternately). The golden yellow flowers, sometimes 3 
inches broad, have 12-20 rays. 5-12 feet high. Damp 
soil. Me., south to Ga., and west to S. Dak. and Ark. 

An uninteresting weed with rayless, 
Beggar=ticks , . , ,, , , . , . 

or Stick-tight bristly flower -heads, indeterminate in 
Bidens color, approaching rusty green, surround- 

frondosa ed by little leaflets ; the branching stem 

Rusty green purp ii s h. Leaves of 3-5 divisions, toothed 
and lance - shaped. Seed-vessels two- 
pronged (the prongs toothed), less than % inch long, and 
sepia brown ; attaching readily to woolly animals or 
clothing. 1-8 feet high. Common everywhere in moist 
soil. The name, from bis and dens, means two-toothed, 
or a kind of hoe with two prongs. Virgil. The specific 
name, f rom frondosus, means full of leaves. 

A species with very narrow lance-shaped 
Smaller Bur 
Marigold smooth leaves, coarsely and sharply 

Bidens cernua toothed. The similar, bristly, half globu- 
Yellow lar, rusty flowers generally nod ; the rays, 

July-October if anv> are ghort and sma iL The seed- 

vessels are narrower and four-pronged. 6-36 inches 
high. In wet soil. Me., south to Va., west to Mo. and 
S. Dak. 

512 




Jerusalem, artichoke. 



Helianthus tuberosus; 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



A more attractive species with light 
golden yellow rays, which, whenper/ecf, 
Bidens are ra ther showy. The flowers sometimes 

lavis over 2 inches broad. Leaves narrow lance- 

Yellow shaped and coarsely toothed. Seed-ves- 

August- gelg with 2_ 4 prongs 10-24: inches high. 

October 

In swamps and wet places. N. Eng. , south, 

and west to Minn. All three species are annuals. 

A nearly smooth plant ^vith toothed, 
Helenium lance-shaped, alternate leaves and decora- 

autumnale tively handsome flowers, 1-2 inches broad, 
Yellow with the toothed, golden yellow rays 

turned considerably backward ; the globu- 
lar disc is yellow and chaffy, the drooping 
petals pistillate and fertile ; cross-fertilized mostly by 
bees. 2-6 feet high. Common in wet meadows and on 
river-banks everywhere. 

A daisy like flower about an inch broad, 
Mayweed or 
Chamomile with white, three- toothed, neutral rays (i. 

Anthemis e., without stamens o: pistils) and a yel- 

Cotula low disc, which becomes elongated with 

whlte age. The small leaves, cut and slashed to 

June-October . , . . 

absolute formlessness, are remarkable for 

their disagreeable odor and acrid taste ; used in making 
a horrible concoction called "chamomile tea." 8-20 
inches high. Common about dwellings and on road- 
sides everywhere ; a native of Europe. 

A very familiar roadside weed adventive 
Milfoil^ from Europe, with remarkable gray olive 

Achiilea green, feathery, dissected, stemless leaves 

Miliefoiium of a rather long-oval outline, and pleas- 
Gray=white antly aromatic, minute, grayish white 
June-October flowerg in fl a t_t O pped clusters. The gray, 
green, stout, and tough stem is fine-hairy. The perfect 
disc -florets are at first yellowish, but finally gray- 
brown ; the 4-6 pistillate rays are white, or rarely crim- 
son-pink. Fertilized mostly by bees and the smaller 
butterflies ; chief among the latter is the yellow Colias 
phiJodice. 1-2 feet high. Common everywhere, by the 
wayside and in fields ; probably native in the west, 
where it is more fine-hairy and less green. 

514 




Bidens laevis. Beggar-ticks. Bidens/nondosa.. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



The commonest of all common weeds of 

Oxeye Daisy ^ fie]d and gid often ca u e a Farm- 

Chrysanthe- 

mum Leucan- er ' s Curse, yet a prime favorite with chil- 

tkemum var. dren arid artists ! The flower's form is a 

pinnatifidum summum bonum of simplicity and decora- 

un ~ tive beauty. The golden yellow disc, de- 



pressed in the centre, is formed of perfect 
flowers ; the white rays are pistillate. The dark green 
leaves are ornamentally lobed. 15-25 inches high. The 
name, from the Greek, means golden flower. 

A tall, branching species commonly cul- 
- tivated, with small daisylike flowers in 
mum Par- generous clusters ; the stem smooth, the 
thenium ornamental leaves broad and deeply lobed. 

White Flowers small, with large yellow discs of 

Se^ember P erfect florets. 1-2 feet high. Natural- 

ized from Europe, and mostly an escape 
from gardens. Mass, to N. J., and w^est to Wis. 

A common weed naturalized from Eu- 
Tanacetum rope, generally an escape from gardens 
vulgare belonging to old dwellings. The flatly 

Orange=yellow clustered dull orange-yellow flower-heads 

resemble those of the daisy minus the 
September 

white rays ; inner florets pertect and mar- 

ginal ones pistillate. The compound, deep green leaves, 
ornamentally toothed and cut, are strongly aromatic. 
18-30 inches high. Me ., south to N. Car. , west to S. Dak. 

A seaside weed with inconspicuous, tiny, 
Wormwood green-yellow flowers in long slender clus- 
Artemisia ters, the little flower-heads mostly nod- 

caudata ding ; the marginal florets pistillate, the 

Green=yellow central ones perfect. The bitter-tasting, 
long, linear, deeply cut leaves with thread- 
like divisions. 2-5 feet high. Me. , south, west to Neb. 

A familiar, uninteresting weed natural- 

ized from Europe, found in all waste places 
Artemisia r 

vulgaris or near * houses. The smooth green 

leaves deeply cut, and with lobes coarsely 
toothed at the tips. The inconspicuous green-yellow 
flowers erect, not nodding in a simple, leafy spike. 1-3 
feet high. Me., south to N. J. and Pa., west to Mich. 

516 




Ox-eye^ 

Daisy. Feverfew. 

Chrysanthemum leucanthemum. Chrysanthemum Parthenium, 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite 



Wormwood ^ similar species with a similar environ- 

or Absinth ment. Leaves small and often deeply 
Artemisia subdivided, covered with fine hairs so the 
Absinthium color is a somewhat silvery green. The 
insignificant light yellow-green flowers are gathered in 
a scattering cluster. The long terminal spikes are rather 
dishevelled and picturesque. 2-4 feet high. 

A delicate, pure yellow, daisy like flower 
Arnica with 10-14 three-toothed rays, found only 

Arnica mollis , A - XT 1-1 * 

var petiolaris u P on mountain summits of N. Eng. and 
Pure yellow N. Y., in moist situations. The deep 
June- green leaves long lance-shaped, slightly 

September toothed, and stemless at least the upper 
ones. The hairy stem 1-2 feet high. Also in the Rocky 
Mountains. Found in Oakes's Gulf, Mt. Washington. 

An early blooming perennial with hand- 
Golden 
Ragwort some deep golden yellow, daisy like flow- 

Senedo aureus ers (8-12 rays) nearly an inch broad, in 
Deep gold terminal clusters on the grooved, brown- 

yellow streaked stem ; the disc-florets perfect, the 

rays pistillate. The thick root-leaves in 
early April resemble violet leaves ; they are small, heart- 
shaped, scallop-toothed, dark green above and magenta- 
red beneath ; later they become elongated. The long 
stem-leaves more or less deeply lobed, the uppermost 
small and clasping the plant-stem. The plant is woolly- 
hairy when young. 12-32 inches high. Common in wet 
meadows everywhere. Found at Clarendon Hills, Mass. 
Senecio Balsamitce is lower, has fewer flowers, and the 
basal leaves are oblong, with the ruddy lower surfaces 
sometimes persistently woolly. 

A tall, uninteresting, annual weed with 
Fireweed 

Erechtites generally smooth, rank-odored stem and 

hieradfolia leaves. The latter are thin, lance-shaped 

White or broader, and irregularly toothed or 

deeply incised. The stem is full of sap, 

heavy, and grooved; the insignificant 

flowers are brush-shaped, mostly green by reason of the 

superior flower-envelop, and tipped with the white of 

the tubular, fertile florets. 1-7 feet high. Common in 

burned-over clearings or waste places everywhere. 




Golden Ragwort, 
Senecio aureus. 



Arnica 

mollis 
van petiolaVis. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



Burdock A familiar, rank-odored weed, common 

Arctium Lappa in all waste places, with large, dull green, 
Light magenta veiny leaves, the lower heart-shaped, the 
July-October upper O vate ; woolly beneath. The 
globular flower-head a hooked-bristled green bur with 
magenta or often nearly white, perfect, tubular florets 
with a five-cleft tip. The depth of color can only be ap- 
preciated with the aid of a magnifying glass. The stem 
is generally much branched. 4-8 feet high. About ru- 
ins of old dwellings or in waste places. Me. to southern 
N. Y., and west. The var. tomentosum, a very woolly 
stemmed form, is local and rare. Westford, Mass. 

A smaller species, with smaller, gener- 
Smaller 
Burdock *"& narrower leaves, the lower ones deeply 

Arctium minus heart - shaped, their stems hollow and 
Light magenta hardly furrowed ; flower - heads almost 
July-October stem i ess on the branches, about f inch 
broad. The inner spines erect and shorter than the lilac 
pink or light magenta or white florets. 2-5 feet high. 
Common. Both species are naturalized from Europe. 

A biennial species naturalized from Eu- 
rope, generally found in pastures. The 
Cirsium narrow, white-spiny, dark green leaves 

lanceolatum hug the plant-stem for an inch or so with 
Magenta prickly wings, the upper surface prickly - 

July-October hairy> the lower we bby-woolly with light 
brownish fine hairs. The green flower-envelop is armed 
with spreading spines ; the perfect, tubular florets, 
densely clustered, vary from (rarely white) crimson- 
magenta to light magenta ; the pollen is white. Flowers 
remarkably sweet-scented, rich in honey, and fertilized 
mostly by the bumblebees (often becoming intoxicated) 
and butterflies. Heads sometimes 3 inches broad, gener- 
ally solitary at the ends of the branches. 2-4 feet high. 
Common, but south only to Ga. 

A species with light corn yellow (rarely 
Thistle magenta), flattish flower-heads nearly 3 

Cirsium inches broad ; it is exceedingly plentiful 

horridulum i n the salt marshes of Long Island and 
Corn yellow New Jersey The oblong lance-shaped, 
May-August ,, , , , 

light green leaves smooth, clasping, and 

520 




Common Thistle. 



Cirsium l&nceolatum. 




Small-leaved Burdock 



Arctium minus. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite 



very yellow-spiny ; the flower-heads set in the smaller 
encircling upper leaflets, with very narrow, rough, spine- 
less scales. 2-4 feet high. Common in wet or dry sandy 
soil along the seacoast, from Me. to Tex. 
T 11 Thistle ^ ra ^ er common species with magenta 

Cirsium altis- (rarely white) flowers about 1 J inches broad 
simum and weak-bristled, rough-hairy, stemless 

Magenta leaves, deeply cut into linear lobes, white- 

July-October woolly beneath. The outer scales of the 
flower-heads are slightly woolly and weak-bristled. Stem 
downy, 3-6 feet high. Common on roadsides and in 
fields ; south to Ga. 

A species with similar leaves and flow- 
Thistle ers ' kut ^ ne blunt, prickleless scales of the 
Cirsium heads glutinous, woolly, and close-press- 
muticum ing. The flower with a naked stem, or 
Magenta with a few tiny leaflets at its base. 3-8 
feet high. Common in swamps and moist 
low woodlands everywhere. 

The largest-flowered thistle of all, with 
solitary heads 2-3 inches broad, the florets 
Cirsium light magenta-lilac or nearly white ; they 

pumilum are exceedingly fragrant, rich in honey, 

Light magenta and are frequented by the bumblebee, who 
g" 1 ^" imbibes to the point of abject intoxica- 

tion ! The slightly glutinous scales are 
nearly smooth and tipped with slender prickles ; and at 
the base are tiny leaflets. The light green leaves nar- 
row and frequently cut into three-prickled lobes, the 
prickles shorter than those of the common thistle and 
very numerous. Stem only 12-30 inches high. In dry 
pastures and fields, Me. to Del. and Pa., near the coast. 
A pernicious weed, naturalized from 
C^fm ThiStle Eur P e > with s m all lilac, pale magenta, or 
arvense rarely white heads about inch broad. 

Lilac or pale The dull gray-green, whitish-ribbed leaves 
magenta are deeply slashed into many very prickly, 

s" 1 1~ b ruifled lobes. Flowers staminate and pis- 

tillate; also fragrant. 1-3 feet high. 
Common in pastures, fields, and on roadsides ; south 
only to Va. 

522 




Canada, Thistle. Cirsium arvense. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



A small annual species of dandelion 
Dandelion with many long, slender flower-stalks ris- 

Krigia ing from a circle of small, irregularly 

Virginica lobed leaves, each stalk bearing a single 

Golden yellow golden ye ll O w flower scarcely inch 
May-August 

broad ; later it becomes branched and 

bears a few leaves. The hairy down of the seeds is short. 
2-12 inches high. Common in dry soil or on sandy 
banks everywhere. 

A similar but tall perennial species with 

Kngia smooth stem covered with a slight bloom, 

amplexicaulis .. ... . . , ,. ,. ,. , ,, 1 

and smooth basal leaves distinctly stalked, 

scarcely toothed, but with a wavy outline. A small 
leaflet clasps the flowering stem about half-way up ; 
from this proceed 2-5 branches bearing deep golden yel- 
low flowers 1J inches broad. 1-2 feet high. Moist pas- 
tures and fields. Mass., south to Ga., west to Kan. 

A small dandelion, naturalized from 
Fall Dandelion Eu with a long branching flower- 

Leontodon ' . . 3 . . 5* 

autumnalis stalk, which is set with tiny bracts or 
Light golden scales about J inch apart. The blunt- 
yellow lobed, narrow, small basal leaves are dull 

July ~ green and smooth. The light golden vel- 

November ." , 

low flower erect in the bud about an inch 

broad, in twos or threes, or rarely solitary. The slender 
stalks of these dandelions above described are somewhat 
wiry, not tubular like those of the common spring dan- 
delion. 7-18 inches high. In fields and along road- 
sides. Me. to Pa., Ohio, and Mich., and northward. 
Common in the vicinity of Boston. Name from the 
Greek for lion and tooth. The var. pratensis is similar, 
but the flower-envelop and the tip of the flower-stalk 
immediately below it are very fine-hairy. Me. to Conn., 
and Nantucket, Mass. 

A very common but beautiful weed 
Succory f naturalized from Europe, found on road- 
Cichorium sides and in waste places particularly 
Intybus about the seaboard towns. Stem stout, 

Violet=blue tough, and stiff, with generally lance- 
shaped, dark gray-green, coarse-toothed 
leaves. The violet-blue flower, similar in form to the 

524 




Chicory. 
Cichorium Intybus. 



Fall Dandelion. 
Leontodon autumnal is. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Compositae. 



dandelion, closes in rainy or cloudy weather and opens 
only in sunshine. There are few florets in a single head 
out these are highly developed with gracefully curved, 
oranching styles ; the exposure of the double stigmatic 
surface thus, in a measure, insures self-fertilization in 
the absence of insects. The most frequent visitors are 
the bees the honeybee, the leaf -cutter bee (Megachile), 
and various species of Halietus and Andrena, ground 
bees. 1-3 feet high. 

An odd but attractive plant, naturalized 

from Europe, with a stout stem, and a 
Hawkweed ' 

Hieradum flower-cup closely covered with sepia 

aurantiacum brown hairs, the rusty character of which 
Tawny orange gave it the common name in England or 
Grim the Collier. The coarse, blunt, lance* 
shaped leaves covered with short gray 
hairs are nearly all at the base of the plant. The tawny 
orange flowers (with light golden pistils), strap-rayed and 
finely fringed at the edge, are grouped in a small ter- 
minal cluster, and are quite delicately fragrant. Visited 
^ by the bees Halietus and Andrena, and the smaller 
butterflies Pieris rapce, white, and Colias philodice, 
yellow. 7-16 inches high. In fields, woodlands, and 
along roads, from Me., south to Pa., and west to N. Y. 
Growing to be a troublesome weed in fields and pastures 
of northern Vermont. 

A generally smooth species ; the light 

anada green, lance-shaped leaves with coarse and 

Hieradum wide-spread teeth, and the dandelionlike, 

Canadense very small yellow flowers in a loose 

Pure yellow branching cluster terminating the leafy 

July ~ stem. In October the plant is decorated 

September 

with tiny brown globes of down. 1-4 feet 

high. In dry woods northward, south only to N. J. 

A similar northern plant with a droop- 
ing-branched loose flower-cluster, gener- 

paniculatum 

ally smooth stem and lance-shaped leaves, 

and smaller yellow flowers. The thin leaves almost 
stemless, and very slightly, if at all, toothed. 1-3 feet 
high. South as far as Ga. 




Canada Hawkweed 
HiepaeiumCanadense. 




awny Hawkweed. 
Hieracium aurantiacum. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



An early flowering species, with deeper 
weld 65 "** 6 " yellowflowers closely resembling small dan- 
Hieradum delions, and generally leafless (or with 1-S 
venosum tiny leaflets), few-haired stems, branching 

Light gold to a few-flowered cluster. The liglit green 

leaves are dull magenta on the ribs, edges, 
September and under side 5 they are hairy, scarcely 

toothed, and clustered at the root. 12-30 
inches high. Common in woodlands and thickets north- 
ward, and south to Ga. Only occasional in Vermont 
and rare or absent in northern New Hampshire. 

The simple stem stout, and remarkable 
Hieracium for itg hai character. The obovate or 
scabrum 

very blunt obovate, almost toothless leaves 

are rough-hairy and light dull green. The small ter- 
minal flower-cluster with several small heads of yellow 
flowers (the floral envelop a hairy green) is conspicu- 
ously irregular and angular in its branching. 1-3 feet 
high. Common in dry woods north ; south to Ga. 

A similar plant with a slenderer stem, 

often ruddy, rough -hairy (slightly BO> 
Gronovn J ' J -, 7 

above), and very leafy and hairy below. 

The leaves like H. scabrum. The seed-vessels very tap- 
ering at the summit. The blossoms open only in sun- 
shine, and very quickly wither. 1-3 feet high. Dry 
soil ; commoner in the south. North only as far as 
Mass, and 111. The name from ispa%, a hawk. 

A tall weed with inconspicuous, narrow 

Smooth- flowers of a dull lilac tint, clustered in a 

stemmed White ,, ,,., ., ,, 

Lettuce rather narrow wandlike spike. The some- 

Prenanthes what thickish light green leaves smooth 
racemosa and with a slight bloom, scarcely toothed, 

Dull li!ac and blunt lance-shaped. The green floral 

Se^ember envelop and its stalk are hairy. 2-5 feet 
high. In moist fields, Me., south to N. J,, 
west to S. Dak. , Mo. , and Col. 

A commoner and more interesting 
Rattlesnake- species with drooping, dull cream-colored 
root or White flowers> occasionally touched with pale 
Prenanthes Iilac 5 the green floral envelop has about 8 
alba magenta-tinged sections; the stamens are 

528 




Hawkweed. 
Hieracium scabnum. Hieracium paniculatum. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite 



Dull cream quite prominent and cream-colored. The 

smooth, deep green leaves are varied in 

September form, the lower ones broad, three-sided, 

and remotely toothed, the upper ones 

deeply cut, and the uppermost lance-shaped with two 

small lateral lobes or none at all. The smooth stem is 

stiff, round, and generally dull, deep magenta- tin ted, 

with a bloom. 2-4 feet high. Common in thin woods 

northward, and south to Ga. and Ky. 

A similar smooth species, the stem of 
Lion's-foot or wn i c h is green and without a bloom. The 
leaves also very variable, a trifle roughish, 



Prenanthes an( l shaped (but more angularly) like those 
serpentaria of P. alba. The flower-cluster is inclined 
Dull cream to be somewhat flat-topped, and the pen- 
ji 0r . dulous, bell-shaped, dull cream-colored 

September flowers are enclosed in a somewhat bristly, 

hairy, green envelop, which is sometimes 
a trifle magenta-tinted. The curled branches of the 
style are slender and prominent, as in all the Prenanthes. 
1-3 feet high, usually 2 feet. In thickets, or dry sandy 
ground, Mass, (rare) and N. Y. , south to Ala. and Fla. 
PC trifoliolata, var. nana (Fernald), confined to alpine 
summits of N. Eng. (Mt. Katahdin) and N. Y., has deep 
madder brown flowers and variously shaped leaves. 
4r-12 inche^ high. 

A tall, generally smooth species, with a 
Tall White green or magenta-tinged stem. The leaves 
Prenanthes (except the uppermost) variously shaped 
altissima but long-stalked. The numerous narrow, 

Dull cream pendulous, dull cream-colored flowers with 
color a smooth green envelop, are borne in a 

u t~ mber narrow terminal spike, or in small clusters 

at the leaf-angles. 3-7 feet high. In 
woodlands and thickets, northward, and south to Ga. 

A dwarf species with stout, ruddy stem, 
Prenanthes j flower-heads, and thick, narrow, 

Bootii . ... ' 

variously shaped leaves. Flowers whitish 

and fragrant, enclosed within a dull magenta-tinged en- 
velop. 4-12 inches high. Alpine summits of N. Y. and 
N. Eng. Found on Mt. Washington, Oakes's Gulf 

530 




Lion's-foot. Prenanthes serpentarra. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composites. 



The familiar grass-plot, yellow flower of 
Common ,. , _. ., . 

Dandelion tne Gountr y and city, naturalized from 

Taraxacum Europe. The heads are sometimes 2 inches 
offldnale broad, and are supported on a pale green, 

Golden yellow hollow stem; the perfect flowers are 
orange-gold in the centre of the head, and 
light golden yellow on the straps of the margin. The 
seeds are neutral brown, and spiny at the upper part. 
The deep green leaves are irregularly and angularly 
broad- toothed, the jagged edge bearing a remote re- 
semblance to the row of teeth in a lion's jaw, hence the 
common name, a corruption of the French dent-de-lion. 
3-14 inches high. The silky down forms a beautiful 
globe when the seeds ripen and the acute divisions of the 
flower-envelop are reflexed. Common everywhere. 
Red=seeded ^- s i m il ar but smaller species with 

Dandelion flower-heads scarcely over an inch broad, 

Taraxacum pure yellow, but deeper in the centre ; the 
erythrospermum two-pointed straps or bracts of the floral 
envelop usually have a thickened point or knob near the 
tip. The outermost straps are magenta-tinged ; the 
smooth leaves are very deeply cut into thin, irregular, 
sharp, backward-tending lobes or narrow angular divi' 
sions. The seeds are bright terra-cotta red, and spiny 
over the upper half of the surface. Distribution un- 
known beyond N. Eng. , N. Y. , and Pa. 

A tall biennial species often 6 feet high, 
Wild Lettuce . , 

Lactuca Wltn a smootn stout, leafy stem branch- 

Canadensis ing at the top in a thin, scattered flower- 
Pale yellow spike with insignificant pale yellow 

June- ray-flowers mostly enclosed within the 

September 

green floral envelop. Both stem and 

leaves with a slight bloom ; the leaves slightly like those 
of the dandelion, but the upper ones lance-shaped, and 
the lower sometimes 12 inches long. 4-10 feet high. 
Common in wet soil, northward, south to Ga. and La. 

A similar species with a broader flower- 

integrtfolta cluster, and oblong lance-shaped, smooth, 

acute leaves, toothless or nearly so. The 

flower-rays pale yellow or magenta-tinted, 3-6 feet 

high. In damp places. Me. to Ga., west to Neb. 

532 




Red-seeded 

Dandelion. 
Taraxicum erythrospermum. 



Common 

Dandelion. 
TdPaxicum officinale. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY. Composite. 



_ . A less leafy and lower species, found in 

hirsuta similar situations. The leaves like those 

of L. Canadensis, but fine-hairy ; the red- 
dish stem hairy at the base ; the scattered flower-cluster 
with insignificant dull lilac, or dingy pink- white flowers. 
3-4 feet high. Me. , west to Minn. , south to Ala. and Tex. 
T B . The tallest member of the genus, with a 

Lettuce stout, straight, smooth stem, leafy up to 

Lactuca the straggling, large flower-cluster of in- 

spicata significant flowers which are never fully 

whltr^ r ex P anded - The S reen flower-heads tipped 
July- with inconspicuous dull purplish 'or whit- 

September ish rays. The deeply lobed leaves are large 

and irregularly wavy-toothed. 3-15 feet 
high. Damp shady places northward, south to S. Car. 
A tall annual, naturalized from Europe, 
Sonchus with thistlelike prickle-edged leaves, and a 

oleraceus stout, hollow, succulent, smooth, grooved 

Light yellow stem. The large, decorative, usually lobed 

leaves are irregularly toothed and armed 
September ._,. _ J 

with sort spines ; the upper ones clasp the 

plant-stem, the lower are stalked. The ligjJ? yellow, 
thistle-shaped flower-heads are grouped in a somewhat 
loosely spreading flat cluster. The stem is sometimes 
reddish at the base. 1-6 feet or more high. Common 
everywhere in waste places or manured soil. 

Similar, but with less divided leaves, the 
Sonchus asper , . . , . . , , . 

Light yellow >wer ones blunt lance-shaped, the upper 
May- clasping the plant-stem by rounded lotfes, 

September all irregularly toothed and spiny. The light 
yellow downy, flat-headed flowers are set in a loose 
cluster ; they are succeeded by a copious white down. 
The seeds have long ribs, smooth between, while those 
of the preceding species are laterally rough between. 
The flowers are assisted in the process of fertilization fyy 
the Syrphid, beelike flies, and those of the genus 
Eristalis. The honeybee (Apis mellifica) is always a 
common visitor. Formerly the milk- juiced, succulent 
leaves were used as a pot herb. Waste places every- 
where. The Greek name Sonchus (Sow Thistle) is a de- 
grading title for such a decorative-leaved plant ! 

534 




'Wild Lettuce. 
Lactuca hipsuta 



Sow Thistle. 
Sonchusoleraceus. 



APPENDIX. 

Page 4 

sparganium ^ ne same height as S. americanum var. 

americanum androcladum, but the flower-stalk not 
June-August branched. Leaves thin and pliant, barely 
| inch wide. Fruit-heads stemless or nearly so. Bogs 
or shallow water. Me. to La. and Va. 

Similar to S. americanum var. androda- 
Sparganium dum, but with shiny fruit, and stiffer, 
longer, stronger-keeled leaves which are 
much taller than the simple or branched flower-stalks. 
Fruit-heads often 1 J inches in diameter, the beak of the 
fruit J inch long, 2-3 feet high. Shores of muddy 
ponds, etc. Mass, to Pa., 111., and Mo. 

A northern species with a stout stem 
Spargamum an( j thin, narrow leaves J inch more or 
less wide, with a thin, dry, colorless margin 
toward the base. Flower-heads stemless or nearly so, 
the lower ones growing from a point slightly above the 
junction of plant and leaf stem. Fruit-head 1 inch or 
less in diameter. 1-2 feet high. Borders of ponds and 
sluggish streams. Me. south to Conn, and west to S. 
Dak. The var. acaule is a dwarf form 4-12 inches high, 
with fruit-heads J to f inches in diameter. Rare. Me. 
to la. and W. Va. 

A slender and very narrow^leaved species 
Sparganium floating in deep water. Leaves long, f 
inch or less wide, and opaque. Flower- 
stalk simple, the heads a trifle above the leaf junction, 
J-f inch in diameter, and with or without a very short 
stem. 1-4 feet high. In ponds and sluggish streams, or 
mountain tarns. Me. to N. Y. and northwest. 

A long and slender-stemmed species 
Sparganium with thin i eaves i_i i nc h wide. Flower- 
stalk branched, the 2-3 branches bearing 
3-5 heads f inch in diameter. 2-3 feet high. Margins 
of cold ponds, often in 3 feet of water. Me. to Pa. and 
Minn. 

A small and slender species common in 

Sparganium coldj shallow ponds and streams of the 

north. Leaves thin, limp, and grasslike. 

Flower-stalk simple; the fruit-heads less than J inch in 

536 




Spanjanium angustifolium. 

S.cliversifolium. ' S.fluctuans. 



APPENDIX. 

diameter and stemless. 4-16 inches high. Me. to Pa., 
Mich., and northwest. 

Page 6 

Alisma Geyeri ^ distinctly northern and local species 
Magenta pink similar to A. plantago-aqtiatica but the 
July-Septem- leaves narrower and the flowering stems 
less spreading. There are 2-4 flower-stalks 
all taller than the long-stemmed, linear lance-shaped or 
elliptical leaves. The delicately pale magenta-pink flow- 
ers with a yellow base are about ^ inch broad, and are 
borne in 1-2 whorls or circles about the tall stalk on 
rather thick stems ; the tiny sepals are margined with 
pink. 1-3 feet high. Local in shallow water from N. Y. 
to N. Dak. and the Pacific Slope. 

PageS 

e ... . A small northern species 8-20 inches 

Sagittaria 

arifolia high, with broad acute sagittate leaves 

August- having spreading lobes, and flowers of the 

September secO nd order. The plant grows both in 
and out of the water, and in the latter case develops very 
long-stemmed leaves, and also a number of broadened 
stems without leaves called phyllodia. Seed winged all 
about and with a tiny erect beak. 8-18 inches high. 
Quebec to central Me., Vt., Mich., Kan., Dak. and Cal. 
Sagittaria ^ ^ a ^ an( * stout western species, with 

brevirostra acute, sagittate leaves the lobes of which 

July-Septem- are as long as the blade. Flower-stalk 
ber simple or branched 8-20 inches long, flow- 

ers of the second order. Achenes with a tiny, nearly 
erect beak scarcely extending beyond the wing. 2-4 feet 
high. Rivers, swamps, etc. Ind. to Kan. 
Sagittaria ^ verv tall species with lance-shaped 

landfolia leaves, thick or leathery, acute, with 5-9 

July-Septem- veins, the blade 5-18 inches long, on a 
ber thick elongated stem. Flowers of the 

second order, the filaments cobwebby-hairy. Achenes 
curved, winged, and with an oblique beak. 2J-5 feet 
high. Swamps and shallow water. Del. and Md. , south 
to Fla., and west to Mo. and Tex. Commoner near the 
coast. 

53S 




Sagittana brevirostra: s. 



APPENDIX. 

Sagittaria ^ smaller, western species with similar 

ambigua leaves and flowers, but the filaments 

July-Septem- smooth. The achene with a short oblique 

beak, and very narrow wings. 1-2 feet 
high. Margins of ponds. Kan. and south. 
Sagittaria Very variable as to its leaves which are 

heteropkyila linear, lance-shaped, and elliptical, as well 
July-Septem= as lance-ovate with two narrow, short 

basal lobes one of which is sometimes abor- 
tive. The flower-stalk, shorter than the leaves, is limp 
and finally prostrate. Flowers of the second order, the 
pistillate ones of the lowest circle almost stemless. 
Achenes narrowly oval with a long erect beak. 8-30 
inches high. Swamps and margins of ponds. Me., 
south, and west to Minn, and Neb. 

Leaves lance-shaped to linear on long 
Sagittaria , , ~ ~ . , , 

graminea slender stems, 3-5 veined, and some re- 

White or duced to mere flattened phyllodia (leafless 

pinkish stems) ; all acute-pointed. Flowers stami- 

July-Septem- nate or the i ower c i rc i e pistillate, the 
petals often a very pale magenta pink, 
the filaments dilated and slightly fine-hairy. Achenes 
extremely small and almost beakless, slightly winged, 
and ribbed on the sides. 4-32 inches high, Me., south, 
and west to Neb. and Tex. Britton & Brown record 
the early leaves as often purplish that is, magenta- 
tinged. 

Sagittaria tares -^ species almost without leaves but 
* August- with cylindrical, pointed phyllodia rarely 

September bearing a linear blade. Flowers of the 
second order, in 1-3 circles only, and small scarcely 
ove r J inch broad, with 12 dilated fine-hairy filaments. 
Achene obovate, with a short erect beak, the sides scol- 
lop-ridged. 4-16 inches high. Ponds, Cape Cod, Mass., 
Long Island, N. Y., south. 

Sagittaria -^ dwarf species with linear or linear- 

subulata lanceolate leaves, obtuse or acute, or 

July-Septem- reduced to strap-shaped phyllodia. Flow- 
ers generally of the second order, and 
sometimes of the third order, small, and with 6-8 smooth 
filaments. Achene scollop-ribbed and short-beaked. 

540 




5- heterophylla. 



S.graminea. 



teres. 



APPENDIX. 

2-7 inches high. In tide -water mud, or shallow water 
on the coast, Conn, to Fla. and Ala. 
Sagittaria ^- n ovate-leaved species confined to the 

platyphyila river swamps of the southwest. Leaves 
July-Septem- ovate to ovate-lanceolate, acute tipped and 
rounded at the base, 9-11 veined. Flowers 
of the second order, with 20 stamens, the broad base of 
the filament fine-hairy. 7-20 inches high. Mo. and 
Kan. to Miss, and Tex. 

Page 18 

Xyris Smaiiiana A vei T tal1 species 15-36 inches high, 
July-Septem- with broad linear or sword-shaped leaves 
ber often | inch wide, rather rigid and not 

twisted. Flower-stem slender and flattened near the 
top. Heads long-ovoid, J inch in diameter, the green 
scales with an ochre-yellow edge. In rich soil of boggy 
shores, and often in water. East Mass, to Fla. 
Xyris fimbriata Another tall, stout species, with broad 
July-Septem- straight, linear leaves, and a straight 
ber flower-stem flattened and roughened on 

the edges toward the top. Heads ellipsoidal, J inch in 
diameter, the long fringed sepals extending conspicuously 
beyond the bracts. 2-3 feet high. Wet pine barrens of 
N. J., to Fla. and Miss. 

A southern species with linear and 
Xyris arenicola twisted leaves proceeding from a thick 
May-August , ., 

bulbous shiny brown base, the bulb sur- 
rounded by broad terra-cotta colored scales, the remnants 
of old leaves. Flower-stem twisted, the cylindrical head 
about 1 inch long, the sepals fringed and conspicuous. 
Pine-barrens, N. J. to Fla. and Miss. 

Page 20 

A tall and slender species naturalized 
Asiatic Day . ... 

Flower from Asia, with lance-shaped leaves, and a 

Commelina heart-shaped acute spathe, the margins of 
communis which are not united. Flowers light violet 

Light violet i inch or so broad. Stems 1-3 feet long. A 
July-October 

common weed of dooryards and gardens in 

the northerly part of its range. On moist alluvial banks, 
east Mass, and Del. to Fla., west to Kan. and Tex. 

542 




Xyris difformis. 



X.fimbriata. X.montana. 
X. Smalliana. 



APPENDIX, 

Commelina A slender southern species with linear 

erecta lance-shaped leaves. Cells of the ripened 

August-Octo- f ru it one-ovuled and one-seeded. The 

spathe hood-shaped. 1-2 feet high. 
Moist ground. Pa. to Fla. and Tex. 
Page 22 

Tradescantia This is a western species with large 

brevicaulis purple- violet or magenta pink-flowers. It 

Purple- violet- j s often stemless or nearly so, and extremly 
AprikMay mk sof t - hairv Leaves linear lance-shaped, the 

flower-stems long, slender, and fine-hairy. 
Stem (if present) only 1-4 inches high. In dry or moist 
sandy soil. 111. and central Ind. to Ky., Tex. and Kan. 

Tradescantia Tal1 and stout witn a zi g z ag stem and 

pilosa broad deep green leaves ; the whole plant 

Biue=vioiet more or less fine-hairy. Leaves lance- 
June-August shaped and acute pointed. J-1J inches 
broad. The profuse flowers are light blue-violet. 1-3 
feet high. Shrubby and shady banks of streams, etc. 
Pa. to Mo., and Fla. 

A slender and smooth species with long 
Tradescantia linear leaves and many light blue-violet 
Blue-violet fl wer s in a cluster. The narrow bracts 
and smooth flower-stems finally turned 
downward. In wet places. O. to Mich., Minn., Kan., 
Tex., and S. Car. 

A western species, the upper part of the 
Tradescantia plant g i an dular fine-hairy of a dull color. 
The bracts beneath the flowers relatively 
large, folded together, arid curved back- 
ward, their bases sometimes an inch broad. Flowers 
blue-violet, 1-1 \ inches in diameter. Prairies Minn., 
and la. to Tex. 

Tradescantia Another slender western species with 

ocddentaiis narrow linear incurved leaves with an 
Light violet enlarged dry, thin base. Bracts narrow. 
Magenta-pink The large nowers ij gnt violet or sometimes 
magenta pink. la. to Neb., Tex., and New Mex. 

A southern species similar to Trades- 

Tradescantia cantia virginiana, but the flowers smaller 
montana . ml . 

and the calyx smooth. The leaves are 

544 




T. occidental is. 



T. montana. 



Tradescantia bpevicaulis. 



APPENDIX. 



broader and a deeper green than those of T. reflexa. 
From Va., and Ky., south. 

A similar low herb common in the south- 
Smaller Mud 
Plantain western States, generally found in shallow 

Heteranthera water. The stems with many branches at 
Umosa the base. The leaves ovate, oblong or 

Violet purple lance-oblong, blunt at the tip, rounded at 

the base or else slightly heart-shaped, 1 
inch long or less, the stems 2-5 inches long. The spathe 
or leafy bract encloses but one flower which is usually 
larger than that of H. reniformis, generally violet-purple 
but sometimes white. 6-15 inches high. Va., south, and 
west to Neb. , and La. 

This species is a submerged grasslike 
grass " plant with a slender stem and translucent 

Heieranthera deep green leaves ; the flowers only reach 
dubia the surface of the water. Leaves linear, 

Light Yellow flat> sharp-pointed, and finely parallel- 

veined. The spathe one-flowered, the flow- 
er light yellow, with six narrow divisions and a very 
long, slender tube, the stamens longer than the style, 
with arrow-shaped anthers. 2-3 feet high. In shallow, 
quiet water, from N. E., south, and west to Ore. and 
Mex. 

Page 82 

Pogonia ^ dainty and beautiful species with pale 

divaricata magenta-pink or nearly white flowers ; the 

Magena=pink long, narrow sepals a dull greenish brown. 
May-June There is one oblong lance-shaped leaf, 3-7 
inches long, borne just above the middle of the stem, 
and another bractlike one below the flower. 12-20 
inches high. Marshy land, and wet pine barrens from 
N. J. to Ga. 

A small plant, with yellow-green flowers 

the Hp f wMch ls crested ver its whole 
face ; the sepals but a trifle longer than the 

petals. The five smaller, narrower leaves circled as in 
P. verticillata immediately below the one or t\vo flowers. 
8-9 inches high. Rare and local. Moist woodlands. 
Mass., Conn, (rare in Vt.), to N. J., and Pa. 

546 




Pg.^8 

5tenanthium > . 
Heteranthera dubia. gpamineum. Heteranthera limosa. 



APPENDIX. 

Page 150 

A variety of forms of this genus evi- 
dently demands further study to insure 
the correct determinations of forms and species. Act sea 
rubra dissecta, Britton, has deeply incised leaves, the 
lower ones double-compound. Lincoln Co., Ontario. 
Actzea rubra arguta, Greene, is a western form with 
large deeply incised leaves ; Neb. to Cal. Act sea rubra 
forma neglecta, Robinson, has white berries on long 
slender green stems ; not altogether rare, but local. 

Page 228 

Cassia Tora ^ n annua l with 4-6 leaflets, mostly 6, 

Yellow thin, obovate, and with a bristlelike point. 

July-Septem- The yellow flowers f-1 inch broad. The 
linear, slender pod crescent-shaped. Along 
rivers, Va. south, and in Miss, valley to Mo. and Ind. 
Coffee Senna A. smooth annual species with many 
Cassia branches, and 8-12 ovate or ovate lance- 

ocddentalis shaped leaflets, very acute at the tip and 

ellow rounded at the base. Flowers rather small, 

July-August j - . i i 

pod linear and about 4-5 inches long. 

4-6 feet high. Waste places and along the shore from 
Va. to Tex., and in Miss, valley to Mo. and Ind. 
Naturalized from tropical America. 

Page 232 

G . A small-flowered species adventive from 

sibiricum ^ ne ^^ World. An annual with a weak, 

Palest Lilac soft-hairy, much -branched stem. Leaves 
June-Septem- 3,5 par t e d (generally 3), sharply toothed 
and acute-pointed. Flowers pale lilac to 
lilac- white. 1-4 feet high. Locally common on the 
roadsides of New York City, and in Cambridge, 
Mass. 

A similar species with very round leaves 

Geranium , _ , . , n 

rotundifolium not Deeply cut, about 1J inches wide, and 
Magenta scollop-toothed. Flowers small, about J 

June-Septem- inch broad, magenta and magenta-pink. 
8-18 inches high. Waste places and ballast, 
New York City, Philadelphia, and Michigan. From the 
Old World. 

543 




Cassia occidentals. 



^Cassia Tor a. 
Pogonia 
divaricata. 

From specimen collected 
by J.K.Churchill 
in Duval Co. Fla. 



APPENDIX. 

Geranium Very similar to the preceding species in 

pusiiium habit, leaf, and flower ; petals of the latter 

Lilac lilac or pale purple, slightly notched and 

May-Septem- about as long as the sepals. With 5 

stamens only. Seeds smooth. 4-18-inch 
stem, reclining. Waste places, southern N. E. south 
and west. From Europe. 

Geranium molle Another similar species, but more soft- 
Magenta hairy, and the leaves cut about to the 
May-Septem- middle, the segments 3-5 toothed. The 

small flowers deep or pale magenta, with 
10 stamens, the sepals obtuse and not bristle-pointed. 
Waste places, Me. to Pa. and west. 

Geranium Yet another similar species, minutely 

coiumbinum white-hairy, with leaves deeply cut into 
Magenta 5.9 narrow, nearly linear segments, the 

stems long and slender. The small flowers 
magenta, with slightly notched petals, and ovate, bristle- 
pointed sepals, the stems very slender. Borders of fields 
and roads, N. J. to Va. and Dak. 

Page 246 

The plant is green early in the summer, 

Euphorbia the leaves a dull> lifeless color without 

lustre. In August and September a dark 

crimson tincture covers the stem, and sparingly, in spots, 

the leaves. 

Page 364 

Apocynum & species similar to A. andros&mifo- 

medium Hum, but the firm leaves elliptical or long- 

White=pink ovate, generally smooth or slightly 
June-August fi ne _h a iry beneath, and the white or pink- 
tinged flowers shaped more nearly like an urn, and with 
the blunt lobes spreading a trifle but not curved back- 
ward. The flower clusters terminal or at the tips of 
branches, the terminal cluster blooming earlier than the 
branch clusters. This species occupies an intermediate 
position between A. androsssmifolium and A. cannabi- 
num. 1-4 feet high. Open situations, dry or moist, and 
rocky shores, Que. to Md. and west to Col. 

550 




From specimen 
collected by 
Mari&L.Owei 
in Sppinqfield 
Mass. * 



Geranium pusillum, 



Geranium 



APPENDIX. 



There are three varieties of A. canndbinum. The var^ 
piibescens has leaves which are white fine-hairy beneath, 
the flower stem and its calyx also fine-hairy. This is- 
found from R. I. to la., and southward. The var. nemo- 
rale (G. S. Miller) Fernald, has leaves which spread or 
droop on slender pedicels \ inch or so long. It is found 
only in Fairfax Co., Va., on thin- wooded lands. The 
var. hypericifolium has oblong lance-shaped leaves, 
rounded or nearly heart-shaped at the base, stemless or 
nearly so, and 1-3 inches long. The corolla lobes are 
erect and scarcely spreading. 1-2 feet high. Dry soil or 
on the banks of streams. West Me., central N. Y., O., 
Kan., Col., and Cal. Principally westward. 

Page 450 

Symphoricarpos racemosus var. Isevigatus. The taller 
shrub commonly cultivated, with large snow-white ber- 
ries, has leaves which are smooth beneath, and flowers 
in crowded and interrupted clusters. (Fernald, see 
Gray's Manual, 7th edition, pg. 757.) 

Page 460 

Campanula rolundifolia is so very variable in height, 
degree of branching, texture, and shape of leaves, color, 
size, and number of flowers, and divergence of calyx- 
divisions, that a separation of the species based upon 
such characters has inevitably occurred. But the differ- 
ences are entirely due to climate and environment ; the 
typical species of the Old World, with stems thickly 
fine-hairy at the base, becomes common only in the west. 
The single-flowered form found on the Presidential 
Range of the White Mts. remains only a form. The 
var. velutina with stem and leaves covered with gray, 
hoary fine hairs is confined to the Sand-hills of Burt 
Lake, Mich. (See p. 767, Gray's Man., 7th. ed.). 

Pace 82 

Pagonia verticillata has been found on the Palisades 
at a point about half a mile from the river and about 
opposite Sputyen Duyvil, Bergen Co., N. J., by Mr. Benj. 
Strong, Jr. 

552 




PS- 118 

Stellarial 

graminea. Ccrastium Vulgatum. antipphina. 



Virginia Creeper/I 
Psedera. 
quinquefblia. 

Pa.26o 



Floerkea 
proseppinacoidea 
Pg.232 




Tall Larkspup. Pg. 148 Delphinium exaltatum. 




Hydrastis 
canadensis. 



Black Snakeroot. 

Cimicifuga' racemosa. Page vso 




Crotal ari a Bl ue Lu pi n . Pg. 2 1 o 

sagittal is. P&2o8 Lupinus perennis. 




Isanthus brachiatus. 



Perilla frutescens. 



Teucrium canadense. 




Stachys 

pafustpis 



False Dragon-head. 
Physostegia vipginiana. 



Lamium 

amplexicaule 

Pg. 4o8 




Figwort.'l Pcj.418 
Scpophulapia marilandica. 



Note the 
margined 
OP winged 
Pg.476 stem > 




From specimen 
coll. by F. 5. Col I ms 
on Mt.Chocorua.N.H 



S. macrophyllaW 5olidago uliginosa. 5. 




P3-480 

S. neglecta. 



Pcj-478 

Sweet Golden-rod. 
Solidago odora. S. nemoralis. 



A. multiflorus. 
A. latepiflorus. **- 9 ' 4! 




P 5 .486 

Pg.498 Large-leaved Asten Pg.498 
A.tenuifolius. Aster macpophylla. A. subulatus. 




P,494 
A-ppen&nthoides. 




l|Pg.494 Pg.496 (/Pg.494 

A. longifolius. Aster linapiifblius. A. paniculatus. 




Pg. 524 



Sneezeweed. Pg.5H 



Krigia virgin'tca. Helenium autumrale. Anthemis Cotula. 



Pg.5a4 

Gnaphalium 1 " uligindsum. 



Cloud beppy. 

Rubus 

Chamdemopus. 
%192 




Artemisia 



Pg.5o6 

Leaf greatly reduced 

Ambposia trifida. 



A KEY TO THE FAMILIES. 

BASED UPON LEAF CHARACTERS, WITH FLOWER CHARACTERS 
SUBORDINATED 

PAGE 

A. Leaves alternate, toothed. 

Flowers; 5 petals or corolla divisions, 

5 sepals or calyx divisions, 
5 stamens. 

Shrubby twining vine. Celastracece 254 

Tiny flowers in spikes, 

Leaves compound, in Panax circled. Araliacea 302 

Tiny flowers flat-clustered, 2 styles, 

Leaves deeply cut compound 

Stems hollow. Umbelliferce 306 

Lobed corolla, I stigma, 

Leaves cut-edged (between teeth and' lobes), 

Foliage rank scented. Solanacece 410 

Bell-shaped corolla, 

Leaves also toothless, linear. Campanulacece 456 

Tubular corolla long-lobed, stamens united in tube, 

Milky acrid sap. Lobeliacece 462 



Flowers; 5 petals or corolla divisions, 

5 sepals or calyx divisions, 
3 or many stamens. 



Leaves with stipules, mostly compound, 

Many simple. Rosacea 188 

Leaves generally palmate. Malvacece 266 

3 stamens only, 

Leaves lobed; vines with tendrils. Cucurbitacea 454 

Flowers; 4 or more petals, etc.; or no petals. 

4-15 petals or none, 5-6 white sepals, many stamens, 

Leaves mostly lobed or compound. Ranunciilacece 128 

4-12 petals, genl. 2 sepals, many stamens, 

Leaves lobed or dissected, 

Milky or yellow sap. Papaveracece 156 

4 petals united, 2 sepals, 6 stamens, 

Leaves dissected compound; vine. Fumariacece 158 

4 petals & sepals, 6 stamens (2 long, 4 short), 

Leaves generally lobed. Crucifera 166 

4-5 petals etc.; shrubs. Rhamnacecz 258 

4-5 petals, etc., 

Leaves lobed; vines with tendrils. Vitacece 260 

Flowers; 3 or many petals or none, or rayed. 

Tiny green flowers, no petals, 

2-5 calyx lobes & stamens. Chenopodiacece HO 

Small dull-colored flowers, 

3-20 petals & pistils, many stamens, 

56 7 



A KEY TO THE FAMILIES. 



PAGE 

Leaves fleshy, various. Crassulacea 180 

Sac-shaped flowers, 3 petals, 3 sepals (one the sac & spur), 

Leaves juicy, stem translucent. Balsaminacece 256 

Compound flowers, nearly all clustered, 

With more or less tubular florets, 

About 20 genera with rayed flowers, 

Leaves sometimes opposite, or radical. Composites 466 

B. Leaves alternate, toothless. 

Flowers; 5 petals or corolla divisions, 

5 sepals or calyx divisions, 
5 stamens. 

5 ftyles, stem fibrous. Linacea 238 
Small sharp-pointed leaves, crowded. Diapensiaceoe 340 
Corolla funnel-formed, 

Arrow-shaped leaves, vines, Cuscuta without leaves. 

Convolvulacea 372 
Leaves mostly lance-shaped, in Phlox subulata crowded. 

Polemoniacece 374 
Flowers mostly blue-violet. Boraginacece 376 

Flowers; 5 petals or corolla divisions, 

5 sepals or calyx divisions, 
5-10 stamens. 

Mostly butterflylike flowers, 4-5 toothed calyx 
Leaves mostly compound, in 2 species slightly toothed. 

LeguminoscB 208 

Tiny flowers, 3 stigmas, 2 species poisonous, 

Leaves toothed in 2 species of Rhus. Anacardiacece 250 

i style, Chiogenes 4 corolla & calyx lobes, 8 stamens, 
Leaves often crowded, some opposite. Ericaceae 328 

Flowers; 236 petals, etc. 

6 perianth lobes & stamens, Trillium 3 petals. 

Leaves sometimes radical, or circled. Liliacece 26 

Flowers in Habenaria pouched, 3 petals, the middle one a 

lip 3 colored sepals, a rostellum instead of style, 
Leaves often radical, in Lister ia opp. Orchidacea 68 

Irregular tubular 3-lobed calyx, 5-12 stamens, 

Leaves large, spreading, in Asarum radical. Aristolochiacecs 98 
Tiny flowers, no petals, 2-6 calyx lobes, 4-12 stamens, 
Leaf-stems sheathed, swollen joints. Polygonacea, 102 

3 connected petals, 5 irregular sepals, 2 large & colored, 

6-8 stamens, 

Leaves small, in P. cruciata & verticillata circled. Polygalacea 240 
3-5 petals, 5 sepals, many stamens, I or no style. Cistacece 274 
2-3 petals & sepals, 4-6 stamens, 
Leaves compound. Limnanthacece 232 



C. Leaves opposite, toothed. 

livision. 

sions. 



Flowers; 5 petals or corolla divisions, 

5 sepals or calyx divisions. 
Many stamens, or only 3-4. 



Flowers a trifle irregular, 4 stamens, 2 long, 2 short, 

Stems square. Verbenacea 384 

Corolla lipped, upper lip 2 lobes, lower 3 lobes, 

Leaves aromatic, stems square. Labiatce 388 

Leaves dissected. Geraniacea 230 

Corolla tubular, 3 stamens only, 

C 68 



A KEY TO THE FAMILIES. 



PAGE 

Leaves mostly compound. Valerianacea 452 

8 stamens, I stigma, 

Flowers; 4 petals, etc., 8 stamens, i stigma, 

Leaves with 3 ribs, stems square. M elastomacece 290 

D. Leaves opposite, toothless. 

Flowers; 5 petals or corolla divisions, 

5 sepals or calyx divisions, 
5 stamens. 

Commonly 5 corolla lobes, etc. (Trientalis 6 or more), 
Leaves various, Dodecatheon & Primula radical, obscurely 

toothed, 

Glaux with scales, no leaves. Primulacea 340 

Small bell-shaped corolla, 

Leaves without gloss, milky sap. Apocynacea 364 

Small waxlike flowers in clusters, 

Leaves sometimes circled, milky sap. Asclepiadacea 366 

Corolla genl. funnel-shaped, in 
Linncea 4 stamens only, 
Shrubs, vines, etc. Caprifoliacea 446 

Flowers; 5 petals, etc., many stamens. 

2 sepals only, 

Leaves fleshy, in Portulaca scattered & circled. Portulacacea 114 

10 stamens, 

Leaves mostly lance-shaped, stems with swollen joints. 

Caryophyllacea 116 
Ascyrum with 4 petals only, 
Leaves genl. translucent-dotted Hypericacece, 268 

Flowers; 4 or more petals or corolla divisions. 

5-7 petals, as many or twice as many stamens, 

Branches square. Lythracea 286 

4 large petaliike white bracts, 4 petals & stamens. 

Leaves ribbed, mostly shrubs. Cornacea 318 

4-12 corolla lobes & stamens, 

Bartonia without leaves. Gentianacece 352 

4 corolla lobes & stamens, 

Leaves small, in Galium circled Rubiacece 440 

Tiny irregular flowers with I or many or no petals, 

Leaves various, sometimes obscurely alt., circled, or toothed. 

Milky acrid sap. Euphorbiacece 246 

4 petals & sepals, 4-8 stamens, 2-4 stigmas, 

Leaves various, some slightly toothed, in CEnothera alternate. 

Onagracece 292 

2-lipped or 4-5 lobed corolla, 2-5 stamens, I style, 
Leaves various, some alternate Scrophulariacecs 416 

E. Leaves radical; rising or radiating from the root. 

Flowers; 5 petals or corolla divisions, 

5 sepals or calyx divisions 
5-10 or many stamens. 

Many stamens. Leaves small, set with gland-tipped hairs. 

Droseracece 178 

5 stamens. Leaves genl. heart-shaped, in V. pubescens on 
stem, not radical. Violacece 276 

5 stamens. Leaves like a pitcher, trumpet, or flaring tube. 

Sarraceniacece 176 
5-10 stamens. Leaves various, in Chrysosplenium opposite, 

56g 



A KEY TO THE FAMILIES. 



PAGE 

in Mitella & Tiarella toothed. Saxifragacece. 182 

5 styles, 10 stamens. Leaves trifoliate, yellow-flowered species 

with opposite or obscurely alternate leaves. Oxalidacece 234 
10 stamens, stigma 5-lobed. Leaves evergreen, in Chimaphila 

circled. Pyrolacece. 320 

Flowers; 16 or more petals or parts, etc. 

Tiny green-white flowers, 4 corolla lobes & stamens, 

Leaves toothless, ribbed. Plantaginacea 438 

6-8 petals, 4-6 sepals, 6-12 stamens, 

Leaves lobed or compound, in Caulophyllum on the stem. 

BerberidacecR 152 
3 petals, 6 or more stamens. Leaves like an arrowhead. 

Aquatic. Alismaceaz. 6 

Flowers on spadix, hooded. Various large leaves, in Acorus 

blade-shaped. Aquatic. Araceee 10 

3 corolla lobes, sepals, & stamens, 

Leaves blade-shaped. Xyridacece 18 

Perianth with 6 lobes, 6 stamens, 

Leaves arrow- and kidney-shaped. Pontederiacecs 22 

Perianth with 6 lobes, 6 stamens, 

Leaves blade-shaped. Amaryllidacece 60 

Perianth of 6 parts in 2 sets, 3 stamens, 

Leaves blade-shaped. Iridacea 62 

Many petals, 3-5 sepals, stigma a disc, 

Leaves afloat. Aquatic. Nymphacecz 126 

5-lobed tubular corolla, 4 stamens, 

Scales, no leaves. Orobanchacece 436 

Ocherous flowers in cylindrical heads, 

Leaves blade-shaped. Aquatic. Typhacea 2 

Ocherous flowers in spherical heads, 
Leaves blade-shaped. Aquatic. Sparganiacea 4 



570 



INDEX 



N. B. The old generic names have been retained in this index 
although they have been re-placed by the new ones throughout the 
book. 



Abby Pond, Ripton, Vt., 376. 
Absinth, 518. 

Achillea Millefolium, 514, 568. 
Aconitum uncinatum, 148. 
Acorus Calamus, 16. 
Actcea alba, 150. 
Actcea rubra, 150. 
Actcea rubra arguta, 548. 
Actcea rubra dissecta, 548. 
Actcea rubra forma neglecta, 548. 
Adder's Tongue, White, 54. 
Adder's Tongue, Yellow, 54. 
Adlumia fungosa, 160. 
. Ageratum, 470. 
Agrimonia gryposepala, 202. 
Agrimony, 202. 
Agrostemma Githago, 120. 
Ague-weed, 358. 
Alfalfa, 214. 
ALISMACE^:, 6. 
Alisma Plantago-aquatica, 6. 
Alisma Geyeri, 538. 
Allium canadense, 56. 
Allium tricoccum, 56. 
Alstead Centre, N. H., 144. 
Althcea officinalis, 262. 
Alumroot, 186. 
AMARANTACE.E, 112. 
Amaranth Family, 112. 
Amaranthus or Amarantus, 112. 
Amarantus graccezans, 112. 
Amarantus hybridus, 112. 
Amarantus retroflexus, 112. 
AMARYLLIDACE^E, 60. 
Amaryllis Family, 60. 
Ambrosia arte mi see folia, 506. 
Ambrosia trifida, 506, 569. 
Amherst, Mass., 348. 
Ammonoosuc Lake, Crawford 

Notch, N. H., 138. 
Ampelopsis quinquefolia, 260. 
Amphicarpcea monoica, 226. 
ANACARDIACE^E, 250. 
Anagallis arvensis, 350. 
Anaphalis margaritacea, 502. 
Androscoggin Valley, Me., 130. 
Anemone, Canada, 132. 
Anemone canadensis, 132. 
Anemone cylindrica, 130. 



Anemone, Large White-flowered, 

132. 

Anemone, Long-fruited, 130. 
Anemone nemorosa, 134. 
Anemone patens, var. Wolfgang- 

iana, 132. 

Anemone quinquefolia, 134, 136. 
Anemone riparia, 132. 
Anemone, Rue, 136. 
Anemone, Tall, 130. 
Anemone trifolia, 134. 
Anemone virginiana, 130, 132. 
Anemone, Wood, 134. 
Anemonella thalictroides, 136. 
Antennaria, 466. 
Antennaria canadensis, 502. 
Antennaria fallax, 500. 
Antennaria neglecta, 502. 
Antennaria neodioica, 500, 502. 
Antennaria Parlinii, 500. 
Antennaria plantagini folia, 500. 
Anthemis Cotula, 514, 568. 
Antirrhinum Orontium, 418, 562. 
Apios tuberosa, 224. 
APOCYNACE^E, 364. 
Apocynum androscemifolium, 364. 
Apocynum cannabinum, 364. 
Apocynum cannabinum, var. 

hypericifolium, 552. 
Apocynum cannabinum, var. 

nemorale, 552. 
Apocynum cannabinum, var. 

pubescens, 552. 
Apocynum medium^ 550. 
Aquilegia canadensis, 146. 
Arabis hirsuta, 168. 
Arabis Icevigata, 168. 
ARALIACE.E, 302. 
Arabia hispida, 302. 
Ara/ia nudicaulis, 304. 
Aralia nudicaulis, var. elongata, 

302. 
Aralia nudicaulis, var. prolifera r 

302. 

Arafo'a racemosa, 302. 
Arbutus, Trailing, 330. 
Arctium Lap pa, 520. 
Arctium Lappa, var. tomentosum t 
520. 



571 



INDEX. 



Arctium minus, 520. 
Arctoslaphylos Uya-ursi, 328. 
Arenaria caroliniana, 122. 
Arenaria grcenlandica, 122. 
Arenaria serphyllifolia, 122, 569. 
Arethusa, 78. 
Arethusa bulbosa, 78. 
Argemone mexicana, 158. 
Arisama Dracontium, 10. 
Ariscema triphyllum, 10. 
ARISTOLOCHIACE^E, 98. 
Aristolochia macrophylla, 100. 
Aristolochia Serpentaria, 100. 
Aristolochia Serpentaria, var. /ms- 

/a/a, 100. 

Aristolochia tomentosa, 100. 
Arnica, 518. 

Arnica mollis, var. peliolaris, 518. 
Aroostook Co., Me., 78. 
Arrowhead, 6. 
Artemisia, 506. 
Artemisia Absinthium, 518. 
Artemisia caudata, 516 569. 
Artemisia vulgaris, 516, 569. 
Artichoke, Jerusalem, 512. 
Arum, Arrow, 12. 
Arum, Dragon, 10. 
Arum Family, 10. 
Arum, Water, 12. 
Aruncus Sylvester, 190, 556. 
Asarum arifolium, 98. 
Asarum canadense, 98. 
Asarww grandijlorum, 98. 
Asaruw virginicum, 98. 

ASCLEPIADACE^, 366. 

Asclepias amplexicaulis, 368. 
Asclepias incarnata, 366. 
Asce//>ms incarnata, var. wZ- 

c/jra, 368. 

Asclepias phytolaccoides, 368. 
Asclepias purpurascens, 366. 
Asclepias quadrifolia, 370. 
Asclepias syriaca, 368. 
Asclepias tuberosa, 366. 
Asclepias verticillata, 370. 
.Ascyrwrn hypericoides, 268. 
ylscyj'ww stans, 268. 
Asparagus, 30. 
Asparagus officinalis, 30. 
Aster, 484. 

Aster acuminatus, 496. 
Aster, Arrow-leaved, 490. 
Aster, Bushy, 492. 
Aster, Calico, 492. 
Aster cordifolius, 488. 
.Aster cordifolius, var. Furbishice, 

488. 
Aster cordifolius, var. polycepha- 

lus, 488. 

Aster divaricatus, 484, 566. 
Aster dumosus, 492. 
Aster ericoides, 490. 
Aster, Heart-leaved, 488. 
Aster, Heath, 490. 
Aster Icevis, 490, 566. 
Aster, Large-leaved, 486. 



Aster later iflpr us, 492, 565. 
Aster linariifolius , 496, 567. 
Aster longifolius, 494, 567. 
Aster, Long-leaved, 494. 
Aster macrophyllus, 486, 565. 
Aster, Many-flowered, 490. 
Aster multiflorus, 490, 565. 
Aster, New England, 486. 
Aster, New York, 494. 
Aster novce-anglice, 486. 
Aster novcs-anglia, var. rosews, 

486. 

Aster novi-belgii, 494. 
Aster novi-belgii, var. Icevigatus, 

494. 
Aster novi-belgii, var. litoreus, 

494- 

Aster, Panicled White, 494. 
Aster paniculatus, 494, 567. 
Aster patens, 488, 566. 
Aster prenanthoides, 494, 566. 
Aster puniceus, 494, 496. 
Aster puniceus, var. compactus, 

496. 

Aster puniceus, var.firmus, 496. 
Aster puniceus, var. lucidulus, 

496. 

Aster, Purple-stemmed, 496. 
Aster radula, 486. 
Aster radula, var. strictus, 486. 
Aster, Rough-leaved, 486. 
Aster sagittifolius, 490, 566. 
Aster, Sharp-leaved Wood, 496. 
Aster, Showy, 486. 
Aster, Small White, 492. 
Aster, Smooth, 490. 
Aster spectabilis, 486. 
Aster, Spreading, 488. 
Aster subulatus, 498, 565. 
Aster tenuifolius, 498, 565. 
Aster Tradescanti, 492. 
Aster, Tradescant's, 492. 
Aster umbellalus, 496, 567. 
Aster undulatus, 488, 567. 
Aster vimineus, 492, 565. 
Aster vimineus, var. foliolosus, 

492. 

Aster, Wavy-leaved, 488. 
Aster, White Woodland, 484. 
Aster, Willow-leaved Blue, 494c. 
Astragalus canadensis, 214. 
Avens, Long-plumed, 194. 
Avens, Purple, 194. 
Avens, Rough, 194. 
Avens, White, 192. 
Azalea, Flame, 336. 



Balm, Horse, 390. 
BALSAMINACE^;, 256. 
Baneberry, Red, 150. 
Baneberry, White, 150. 
Bangor, Me., 240. 
Baptisia australis, 208. 
Baptisia tinctoria, 208. 
Barbarea vulgaris, 172. 



572 



INDEX. 



Barberry Family, 152. 
Bartonia virginiana, 362. 
Bartonia, Yellow, 362. 
Bath, Me., 122. 
Bean, Wild, 226. 
Bearberry, 328. 
Beard-tongue, 420. 
Bedford, Mass., 288. 
Bedstraw, Northern, 444. 
Bedstraw, Rough, 444. 
Bedstraw, Small, 444. 
Bedstraw, Sweet-scented, 444. 
Bedstraw, Yellow, 442. 
Bee Balm, 398. 
Beech-drops, 326, 436. 
Beefsteak Plant, 432. 
Beggar-tricks, 512. 
Belamcanda chinensis, 64. 
Bellflower, 458. 
Bellflower Family, 456. 
Bellflower, Marsh, 460. 
Bellflower, Tall, 460. 
Bellwort, 38. 

Bellwort, Large-flowered, 38. 
BERBERIDACE.E, 152. 
Bergamot, Purple, 400. 
Bergamot, Wild, 398. 
Berula erecta, 310. 
Bethlehem, N. H., 70. 
Betony, Wood, 432. 
Bidens cernua, 512. 
Bidens frondosa, 512. 
Bidens Icevis, 514. 
Bindweed, Hedge, 370. 
Bindweed, Small, 372. 
Bindweed, Trailing, 372. 
Bindweed, Upright, 370. 
Bird's Nest, 306. 
Birthroot, 40. 
Birthwort Family, 98. 
Bishop's Cap, 184. 
Bittersweet, 412. 
Black-eyed Susan, 508. 
Black Medick, 216. 
Black Sampson, 506. 
Bladder Ketmia, 266. 
Blazing Star, 46. 
Blazing Star, Tall, 470. 
Blephilia ciliata, 400. 
Blephilia, Downy, 400. 
Bloodroot, 156. 
Bluebell, 458, 460. 
Blueberries, 328. 
Blue Curls, 388. 
Blue-eyed Grass, 66. 
Blue-eyed Grass, Eastern, 66. 
Blue-eyed Grass, Stout, 66. 
Blue Flag, Larger, 62. 
Blue Flag, Slender, 64. 
Blue Lupine, 210. 
Bluets, 440. 
Boneset, 468. 
Boneset, Upland, 468. 
Borage Family, 376. 

BORAGINACE^E, 376. 

Boston, Mass., 154, 286, 524. 



Bottle Gentian, 420. 
Bouncing Bet, 116. 
Boxberry, 330. 
Brassica alba. 174. 
Brassica arvensis, 172. 
Brassica nigra, 172. 
Brattleboro, Vt., 272. 
Brauneria pallida, 508. 
Brauneria purpurea, 506. 
Brooklime, American, 424, 426. 
Broom-rape Family, 436. 
Broom-rape, Naked, 436. 
Brunella vulgar is, 406. 
Buckthorn, Common, 258. 
Buckthorn Family, 258. 
Buckwheat, 108. 
Buckwheat, Climbing False, 108 
Buckwheat Family, 102. 
Buda rubra, 126. 
Bugleweed, 394. 
Bugloss, Small, 382. 
Bugloss, Viper's, 382. 
Bunchberry, 318. 
Bunch Flower, 46. 
Bur-cucumber, One-seeded, 456, 
Burdock, 520. 
Burdock, Smaller, 520. 
Bur Marigold, Larger, 514. 
Bur Marigold, Smaller, 512. 
Bur Reed, Branching, 4. 
Bur Reed Family, 4. 
Bur Reed, Great, 4. 
Bur Reed, Smaller, 4. 
Butter-and-Eggs, 418. 
Buttercup, Bulbous, 142. 
Buttercup, Creeping, 142. 
Buttercup, Early, 140. 
Buttercup, Swamp, 140. 
Buttercup, Tall, 144. 
Butterfly Weed, 366. 
Butterweed, 498. 

Calamus, 16. 

Calla palustris, 12. 

CallirrhcB involucrata, 264. 

Calopogon pulchellus, So. 

Caltha natans, 146. 

Caltha palustris, 144. 

Caltha palustris, va.r.flabelli folia, 
144. 

Caltha palustris, var. radicans, 
146. 

Cambridge, Mass., 158. 

CAMPANULACE<E, 456. 

CampanulacecB, 462. 

Campanula americana, 460. 

Campanula aparinoides, 460. 

Campanula rapunculoides, 458. 

Campanula rotundifolia, 458, 552 

Campion, Bladder, 118. 

Campion, Starry, 118. 

Campion, White, 120. 

Campton, N. H., 54, 70, 84, 116, 
120, 132, 224, 230, 272, 282, 
300, 302, 312, 328, 348, 364, 
396, 420, 456, 488, 512. 



573 



INDEX. 



Campton Bog, N. H., 462. 
Canada Mayflower, 34. 
Cancer Root, 436. 
Cancer Root, One-flowered, 436. 
Cape Cod, Mass., 472. 
CAPRIFOLIACE.E, 446. 
Capsella Bursa-pastoris, 174. 
Caraway, 312. 
Cardamine hirsuta, 168. 
Cardamine bulbosa, 166. 
Cardamine bulbosa, var. pur- 

purea, 166. 
Cardinal Flower, 462. 
Carlinville, 111., 54. 
Carrion Flower, 24. 
Carrot, Wild, 306, 312. 
Carum carvi, 312. 
CARYOPHYLLACE^E, 116. 
Cashew Family, 250. 
Cassia Chamcecrista, 228. 
Cassia Chamcecrista, var. robusta, 

228. 

Cassia depressa, 228. 
Cassia marilandica, 228. 
Cassia Medsgeri, 228. 
Cassia nictitans, 228. 
Cassia occidentalis, 548. 
Cassia Tor a, 548. 
Castalia odorata, 126. 
Castalia odorata, var. minor, 126. 
Castalia^ odorata, var.rosea, 126. 
Castilleja coccinea, 430. 
Castilleja pallida, var. septen- 

trionalis, 430. 

Catchfly, Night-flowering, 120. 
Catchfly, Sleepy, 118. 
Catnip, 400. 

Catskill Mountains, 424. 
Cat-tail, 3. 
Cat-tail Family, 3. 
Cat-tail, Narrow-leaved, 3. 
Caulophyllum thalictroides, 152. 
Ceanothus americanus, 258. 
Celandine, 158. 
CELASTRACE^E, 254. 
Celastrus scandeus, 254. 
Centaurium pulchellum, 352. 
Centaurium spicatum, 352. 
Centaurium umbellatum, 352. 
Centaury, Lesser, 352. 
Centaury, Spiked, 352. 
Cerastium arvense, 124. 
Cerastium vulgatum, 124, 553. 
Chamcelirium luteum, 46. 
Chamomile, 514. 
Charlock, 172. 
Charlotte, Vt., 286. 
Checkerberry, 330. 
Cheeses, 262. 
Chelidonium majus, 158. 
Chelone glabra, 420. 
CHENOPODIACE^E, no. 
Chenopodium album, no. 
Chenopodium album, var. viride, 

no. 
Chenopodium ambrosioides , no. 



Chenopodium ambrosioides, var. 

anthelminticum, no. 
Chenopodium Botrys, no. 
Chickweed, 124. 
Chickweed, Field, 124. 
Chickweed, Larger Mouse-ear, 

124. 

Chicory, 524. 
Chimaphila maculata, 320. 
Chimaphila umbellata, 320. 
Chiogenes hispidula, 328. 
Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum , 

var. pinnatifidum, 516. 
Chrysanthemum Parthenium, 516. 
Chrysopsis falcata, 472. 
Chrysopsis graminifoiia, 472. 
Chrysopsis mariana, 472. 
Chrysosplenium americanum, 186. 
Cichorium Intybus, 524. 
Cicuta maculata, 312. 
Cimicifuga racemosa, 150, 555. 
Cinchona, 440. 
Cinquefoil, 202. 
Cinquefoil, Marsh Five-finger, 

200. 

Cinquefoil, Norway, 198. 
Cinquefoil, Purple, 200. 
Cinquefoil, Rough-fruited, 198. 
Cinquefoil, Shrubby, 200. 
Cinquefoil, Silvery, 198. 
Circaa alpina, 300. 
Circcea intermedia, 300. 
Circcea Lutetiana, 300. 
Cirsium altissimum, 522. 
Cirsium arvense, 522. 
Cirsium horridulum, 520. 
Cirsium lanceolatum, 520. 
Cirsium muticum, 522. 
Cirsium pumilum, 522. 
CISTACE^, 274. 

Clarendon Hills, Mass., 14, 518. 
Claytonia caroliniana, 116. 
Claytonia virginica t 114. 
Cleavers, 442. 
Clematis verticillaris, 130. 
Clematis Viorna, 130. 
Clematis virginiana, 128, 130. 
Climbing Bittersweet, Waxwork, 

254- 

Clintonia borealis, 26. 
Clintonia umbellulata, 26. 
Cloudberry, 192. 
Clover, Alsatian, 212. 
Clover, Alsike, 212. 
Clover, Hop, 212. 
Clover, Low Hop, 214. 
Clover, Red, 210. 
Clover, Stone, 210. 
Clover, Trailing Bush, 220. 
Clover, White, 212. 
Clover, Yellow, 212. 
Coffee, 440. 
Cohosh, Blue, 152. 
Collinsonia canadensis, 390. 
Columbine, 146. 
Comfrey, Wild, 378. 



574 



INDEX. 



Commelina communis, 542. 
Commelina erecta, 544. 
Commelina hirtella, 18. 
Commelina virginica, 20. 
COMPOSITE, 466. 
Composite Family, 466. 
Concord, Mass., 154. 
Cone-flower, 508. 
Cone-flower, Purple, 506. 
Cone-flower, Tall, 508. 
Conioselinum chinense, 306. 
Conium maculatum, 312. 
Conopholis americana, 436. 
Convallaria majalis, 34. 
CONVOLVULACE/E, 37O. 
Convolvulus arvensis, 372. 
Convolvulus Family, 370. 
Convolvulus sepium, var. fraterni- 

Jlorus, 372. 

Convolvulus sepium, 370. 
Convolvulus sepium, var. pubes- 

cens, 372. 

Convolvulus spithamceus, 370. 
Coolwort, 184. 
Coplis tri folia, 146. 
Coral-berry, 148. 
Corallorhiza maculata, 70. 
Corallorhiza odpntorhiza, 70. 
Corallorhiza trifida, 70. 
Coral Root, Early, 70. 
Coral Root, Large, 70. 
Coral Root, Small-flowered, 70. 

CORNACE^E, 3l8. 

Corn Cockle, 120. 

Cornel, Dwarf, 318. 

Corn Sajad, 454. 

Cornus canadensis, 318. 

Cornus florida, 318. 

Corydalis aurea, 164. 

Corydalis aurea, var. occidentalis, 

164. 

Corydalis crystallina, 164. 
Corydalis flavula, 164. 
Corydalis, Golden, 164. 
Corydalis micrantha, 164. 
Corydalis, Pale, 162. 
Corydalis sempervirens, 162. 
Cowbane, 308. 
Cowbane, Spotted, 312. 
Cowslip, American, 342. 
Cowslip, Virginia, 378. 
Cowslips, 144. 
Cow-wheat, 434. 
Cranberries, 328. 
Cranesbill, 230. 
CRASSULCE^E, 180. 
Cress, Hairy Rock, 168. 
Cress, Small Bitter, 168. 
Cress, Spring, 166. 
Cress, Winter, 172. 
Crinklerpot, 166. 
Crotalaria sagittalis, 208, 557. 
Crowfoot, Bristly, 142. 
Crowfoot Family, 128. 
Crowfoot, Hooked, 140. 



Crowfoot, Small-flowered, 138. 
CRUCIFER^C, 166. 
Cuckoo Flower, 122. 
Cucumber, Climbing Wild, 454. 
CUCURBITACE.E, 454. 
Cudweed, Low, 504. 
Cudweed, Marsh, 504. 
Culver's Root, 422. 
Cuphea, Clammy, 288. 
Cuphea petiolata, 288. 
Currant, Indian, 448. 
Cuscuta Gronovii, 372. 
Cynoglossum officinale, 376. 
Cynoglossum virginianum, 378. 
Cypripedium, 68. 
Cypripedium acaule, 96. 
Cypripedium candidum, 94, 96. 
Cypripedium hirsutum, 96. 
Cypripedium parviflorum, 94. 
Cypripedium parviflorum, var. 
pubescens, 94, 96. 



Daisy, Michaelmas, 490. 
Daisy, Oxeye, 516. 
Dalibarda repens, 192. 
Dandelion, Common, 532. 
Dandelion, Dwarf, 524. 
Dandelion, Fall, 524. 
Dandelion, Red-seeded, 532. 
Datura Metel, 414. 
Datura Stramonium, 414. 
Datura Tatula, 414. 
Daucus Carota, 306. 
Day Flower, 18. 
Decodon verticillatus, 288. 
Deer-grass, 290. 
Delphinium Ajacis, 148. 
Delphinium Consolida, 148. 
Delphinium exaltatum, 148, 554. 
Dentaria diphylla, 166. 
Dentaria laciniata, 166. 
Desmodium canadense, 218. 
Desmodium Dillenii, 218. 
Desmodium grandijlorum, 218. 
Desmodium midiflorum, 216. 
Desmodium paniculatum, 218. 
Desmodium rotundi folium, 218. 
Devil's Bit, 46. 
Dianthus Armeria, 116. 
Dianthus deltoides, 116. 
DIAPENSIACE.E, 340. 
Diapensia Family, 340. 
Dicentra canadensis, 160. 
Dicentra Cucullaria, 160. 
Dicentra exima, 162. 
Diervilla Lonicera, 452. 
Dock, Bitter, 104. 
Dock, Curled, 102. 
Dock, Golden, 104. 
Dock, Great Water, 102. 
Dock, Patience, 102. 
Dock, Swamp, 102. 
Dodder, Common, 372. 
Dodecatheon Meadia, 342. 
Dogbane Family, 364. 



575 



INDEX. 



Dogbane, Spreading, 364. 
Dogwood Family, 318. 
Dogwood, Flowering, 318. 
Dover, Me., 138. 
Draba caroliniana, i68 u 
Draba verna, 170. 
Dragon, Green, 10. 
Dragon-head, False, 406. 
Dragon-root, 10. 
DROSERACE^E, 178. 
Drosera filiformis, 178. 
Drosera longifolia, 178. 
Drosera linearis, 178. 
Drosera rotundi folia, 178. 
Dublin, N. H., 70. 
Dutchman's Breeches, 160. 
Dutchman's Pipe, 100. 



East Lexington, Mass., 286. 
Echinacea pallida, 508. 
Echinacea purpurea, 506. 
Echinocystis lobata, 454. 
Echinospermum Lappula, 378. 
Echinospermum virginicum, 378. 
Echium, 376. 
Echium vulgare, 382. 
Elder, 446. 

Elder, Red-berried, 446. 
Elder, Wild, 302. 
Elecampane, 504. 
Enchanter's Nightshade, 300. 
Epifagus virginiana, 436. 
Epigcea repens, 330. 
Epilobium adenocaulon, 296. 
Epilobium an gusti folium, 294. 
Epilobium coloratum, 296. 
Epilobium densum, 294. 
Epilobium hirsiitum, 294. 
Epilobium molle, 296. 
Epilobium palustre, 294. 
Epipactis decipiens, 78. 
Epipactis pubescens, 78. 
Epipactis repens, var. ophioides, 

76. 

Epipactis tesselata, 76. 
Erechtites hieracifolia, 518. 
ERICACEAE, 328. 
Erigeron annuus, 498, 569. 
Erigeron canadensis, 498. 
Erigeron philadelphicus, 500. 
Erigeron pulchellus, 500. 
Erigeron ramosus, 498. 
Erythrcea Centaur ium, 352. 
Erythr&a ramosissima, 352. 
Erythrcea spicata, 352. 
Erythronium albidum, 54. 
Erythronium americanum, 54. 
Erythronium mesochoreum, 52. 
Erythronium propullans, 54. 
Eupatorium album, 468. 
Eupatorium aromaticum, 470. 
Eupatorium perfoliatum, 468. 
Eupatorium purpureum, 468. 
Eupatorium sessilifolium, 468. 
Eupatorium urticcefolium, 470. 



EUPHORBIACE^, 246. 

Euphorbia Cyparissias, 248. 
Euphorbia Helioscopia, 2480 
Euphorbia lucida, 248. 
Euphorbia maculata, 246, 550. 
Euphorbia marginata, 248. 
Euphorbia polygonifolia, 246. 
Euphorbia Preslii, 246. 
Euphrasia Oakesii, 432. 
Euphrasia americana, 432. 
Euphrasia officinalis, var. !Tar- 

tarica, 432. 
Evening Primrose, Common, 

296. 

Evening Primrose Family, 292. 
Evening Primrose, Oakes's, 298. 
Everlasting, 500. 
Everlasting, Clammy, 504. 
Everlasting, Pearly, 502. 
Everlasting, Sweet, 504. 
Eyebright, 430. 

Fagopyrum esculentum, 108. 
False Foxglove, Downy, 426. 
False Foxglove, Fern-leaved, 

426. 

False Foxglove, Smooth, 428. 
False Mermaid, 232. 
False Mermaid Family, 232. 
False Spikenard, 30. 
Farmer's Curse, 516. 
Farmington, Me., 502. 
Featherfoil, 340. 
Feather Geranium, no. 
Feverfew, 516. 
Fever wort, 448. 
Figwort, 418. 
Figwort Family, 416. 
Filipendtila rubra, 190, 556. 
Fireweed, 294, 518. 
Five-finger, 202. 
Flax, Common, 238. 
Flax Family, 238. 
Flax, Wild Yellow, 238. 
Flaabane, Common, 500. 
Fleabene, Daisy, 498. 
Fleur-de-lis, 62. 
Floerkea proserpinacoides, 232, 

Flower-of-an-hour, 266. 
Fly-honeysuckle, 450. 
Fly-honeysuckle, Mountain, 450. 
Foamflower, 184. 
Forget-me-not, 380. 
Forget-me-not, Smaller, 380. 
Forget-me-not, Spring, 380. 
Fragaria vesca, var. americana, 

196. 

Fragaria virginiana, 196. 
Franconia, N. H., 502. 
Frostweed, 274. 

FUMARIACE^E, 158. 

Fumaria officinalis, 1,64. 
Fumitory, 164. 
Fumitory, Climbing, 160. 
Fumitory, Family, 158. 



576 



INDEX. 



Galeopsis Tetrahit, 410. 
Galium aparine, 442. 
Galium aspreUum, 444, 460. 
Galium boreale, 444. 
Galium circ&zans, 444. 
Galium trifidum, 444. 
Galium triflorum, 444. 
Galium verum, 442. 
Gall of the Earth, 530. 
Garden Orpine, 180. 
Gaultheria procumbens, 330. 
Gentian, Bottle, 360. 
Gentian, Closed, 360. 
Gentian, Downy, 358. 
Gentian Family, 352. 
Gentian, Fringed, 356. 
Gentian Horse, 448. 
Gentian, Soapwort, 360. 
GENTIANACE^E, 352. 
Gentiana, Andrewsii, 360. 
Gentiana crinita, 356. 
Gentiana linearis, 360. 
Gentiana Porphyrio, 362. 
Gentiana procera, 358. 
Gentiana puberula, 358. 
Gentiana quinqueflora, "or quin- 

quefolia," 358. 
Gentiana quinque 'folia, var. occi- 

dentalis, 358. 
Gentiana Saponaria, 360. 
Gentiana villosa, 362. 
GERANIACE.E, 230. 
Geranium Bicknellii, 230. 
Geranium carolinianum, 232. 
Geranium columbinum, 550. 
Geranium Family, 230. 
Geranium maculatum, 230. 
Geranium molle, 550. 
Geranium pratense, 232. 
Geranium pusillum, 550. 
Geranium Robertianum, 230. 
Geranium rotundi folium, 548. 
Geranium sibiricum, 548. 
Geranium, Wild, 230. 
Gerardia flava, 426. 
Gerardia maritima, 428. 
Gerardia paupercula, 428. 
Gerardia pedicularia, 426. 
Gerardia, Purple, 428. 
Gerardia purpurea, 428. 
Gerardias, 430. 
Gerardia, Seaside, 428. 
Gerardia, Slender, 428. 
Gerardia tenuifolia, 428. 
Gerardia virginica, 428. 
Germander, American, 390. 
Gcum canadense, 192. 
Geum Peckii, 194. 
Geum rivale, 194. 
Geum strictum, 194. 
Geum triflorum, 194. 
Geum virginianum, 194. 
Gill-over-the-ground, 400. 
Ginseng, 304. 
Ginseng, Dwarf, 304. 
Ginseng Family, 302. 



Glaux, 340. 
Glaux maritima, 348. 
Gnaphalium decurrens, 504. 
Gnaphalium polycephalum, 504, 
Gnaphalium uliginosum, 504, 

569- 

Goat's Beard, 190. 
Golden Aster, Curved-leaved, 

472. 

Golden Aster, Grass-leaved, 472. 
Golden Club, 16. 
Golden-rod, Alpine, 476. 
Golden-rod, Blue-stemmed, 474. 
Golden-rod, Bog, 476. 
Golden-rod, Broad-leaved, 474. 
Golden-rod, Canada, 482. 
Golden-rod, Early, 480. 
Golden-rod, Elm-leaved, 478. 
Golden-rod, Gray, 482. 
Golden-rod, Hard-leaved, 482. 
Golden-rod, Lance-leaved, 484. 
Golden-rod, Large-leaved, 476. 
Golden-rod, Late, 480. 
Golden-rod, Rough-stemmed, 

478. 

Golden-rod, Seaside, 476. 
Golden-rod, Sharp-leaved, 480. 
Golden-rod, Showy, 476. 
Golden-rod, Slender, 484. 
Golden-rod, Spreading, 478. 
Golden-rod, Stout, 474. 
Golden-rod, Swamp, 480. 
Golden-rod, Sweet, 478. 
Golden-rod, White, 474. 
Goldthread, 146. 
Goody era Menzieii, 78. 
Goody era pubescens, 78. 
Goodyera repens, 76. 
Goodyera repens, var. ophioides, 

76. 

Goodyera tesselata, 76. 
Goosefoot Family, no. 
Goosegrass, 442. 
Gourd Family, 454. 
Grape, Northern Fox, 260. 
Grape, River, 260. 
Grass-of-Parnassus, 186. 
Grass Pink, 80. 
Great Cranberry Island, Me., 

432. 

Green Adder's Mouth, 68. 
Green Brier, 24. 
Grim the Collier, 526. 
Gromwell, 382. 
Cromwell, Corn, 380. 
Ground Cherry, Clammy, 412. 
Ground Cherry, Virginia, 414. 
Ground Moss, 374. 
Ground Nut, 224. 

Habenaria blephari glottis, 90. 
Habenaria bracteata, 84. 
Habenaria ciliaris, 88. 
Habenaria dayellata, 84, 90. 
Habenaria cristata, 88. 
Habenaria dilatata, 86. 



577 



INDEX. 



Habenaria fimbriata, 92. 
Habenaria flava, 84. 
Habenaria Hookeri, 86. 
Habenaria hyperborea, 86. 
Habenaria inte^ra, 84. 
Habenaria lacera, 90. 
Habenaria leucophcea, 88. 
Habenaria nivea, 84. 
Habenaria peramcena, 92. 
Habenaria psy codes, 90, 92. 
Hardback, 188. 
Harebell, 458, 460. 
Hartford, Conn., 76. 
Haverhill, Mass., 422. 
Hawkweed, Canada, 526. 
Hawkweed, Tawny, 526. 
Heal-all, 406. 
Heath Family, 320, 328. 
Hedeoma pulegioides, 396. 
Helenium autumnale, 514, 568. 
Helianthemum canadense, 274. 
Helianthus annuus, 510. 
Helianthus decapetalus, 512. 
Helianthus divaricatus, 510. 
Helianthus giganteus, 510. 
Helianthus microcephalus, 510. 
Helianthus strumosus, 510. 
Helianthus tuberosus, 512. 
Heliopsis helianthoides, 506. 
Heliopsis scabra, 506. 
Hellebore, American White, 46. 
Hemerocallis flava, 58. 
H enter ocallis fulva, 58. 
Hemlock, Poison, 312, 314. 
Hemlock, Water, 312. 
Hempweed, Climbing, 468 
Hepatica, 134. 
Hepatica acutiloba, 134. 
Hepatica triloba, 134. 
Heracleum lanatum, 308, 559. 
Herb Robert, 230. 
Heteranthera dubia, 546. 
Heteranthera limosa, 546. 
Heteranthera reniformis, 22. 
Heuchera americana, 186. 
Hibiscus coccineus, 266. 
Hibiscus militaris, 266. 
Hibiscus Moscheutos, 266. 
Hibiscus Trionum, 266. 
Hieracium aurantiacum, 526. 
Hieracium canadense, 526. 
Hieracium Gronovii, 528. 
Hieracium paniculatum, 526. 
Hieracium scabrum, 528. 
Hieracium venosum, 528. 
Hobble-bush, 446. 
Hogweed, 506. 
Holderness, N. H., 240. 
Honeysuckle, Bush, 452. 
Honeysuckle, Coral, 452. 
Honeysuckle Family, 446. 
Honeysuckle, Trumpet, 452. 
Honeysuckle, White Swamp, 

334- 

Honeysuckle, Wild, 336. 
Horehound, 408. 



Horehound, Cut-leaved Water, 

394- 

Horseradish, 170. 
Horseweed, 498. 
Hottonia inflata, 340. 
Hound's tongue, 376. 
Houstonia ccerulea, 440. 
Houstonia, Large, 440. 
Houstonia purpurea, 440. 
Houstonia purpurea, var. cilio- 

lata, 442. 
Houstonia purpurea, var. longi- 

folia, 442. 
Huckleberries, 328. 
Hudsonia tomentosa, 274. 
Hydrastis canadensis, 150, 555. 
Hydrocotyle americana, 316. 
HYPERICACE^:, 268. 
Hypericum adpressum, 268. 
Hypericum Ascyron, 268. 
Hypericum canadense, 272. 
Hypericum ellipticum, 270. 
Hypericum gentianoides, 272. 
Hypericum mutilum, 272. 
Hypericum perforatum, 270. 
Hypericum prolificum, 268. 
Hypericum punctatum, 270. 
Hypericum virgatum, 270. 
Hypericum virginicum, 272. 
Hypoxis hirsuta, 60. 
Hyssop, 396. 
Hyssopus officinalis, 396. 

Ilysanthes dubia, 422, 562. 
Impatiens pallida, 256. 
Impatiens bijlora, 256. 
Indian Cucumber, 44. 
Indian Hemp, 364. 
Indian Pipe, 326. 
Indian Poke, 46. 
Indigo, Blue False, 208. 
Indigo, Wild, 208. 
Innocence, 440. 
Inula Helenium, 504. 
IRIDACE^:, 62. 
Iris, Crested Dwarf, 64. 
jf>is cristata, 64. 
Iris, Dwarf, 64. 
Iris Family, 62. 
/rs prismatica, 64. 
/r*5 verna, 64. 
Jrw versicolor, 62. 
Ironweed, New York, 468. 
Iron weed, Tall, 466. 
Isanthus brachiatus, 388, 560. 
Ivy, Ground, 400. 

,"ack-in-the-pulpit, 10. 

rackson, N. H., 68. 

Jacob's Ladder, 376. 

faffrey, N. H., 84, 492. 

Jamestown Weed, 414. 
Jefferson, N. H., 144. 
Jeffersonia diphylla, 152. 
Jerusalem Oak, no. 
Jewel-weed, 256. 



578 



INDEX. 



Jewel-weed Family, 256. 
Jimson Weed, 414. 
Joe-Pye-Weed, 468. 

Kalmia angustifolia, 334. 
Kalmia latifolia, 332. 
Kalmia polifolia, 334. 
Knotgrass, 106. 
Knotweed, Erect, 106. 
Krigia amplexicaulis, 524. 
Krigia virginica, 524, 568. 

LABIATE, 388. 
Lactuca, 506. 

Lactuca canadensis, 532, 534. 
Lactuca hirsuta, 534. 
Lactuca integrifolia, 532. 
Lactuca spicata, 534. 
Lady's Slipper, Showy, 96. 
Lady's Slipper, Stemless, 96. 
Lady's Slipper, White, 94. 
Lady's Slipper, Yeilow, 94. 
Lady's Thumb, 106. 
Ladies' Tresses, 72. 
Ladies' Tresses, Grass-leaved, 74. 
Ladies' Tresses, Slender, 74. 
Lake Champlain, N. Y., 132. 
Lake Dunmore, Vt., 370. 
Lake Huron, 178. 
Lake of the Clouds, Mt. Wash- 
ington, N. H., 200. 
Lake Superior, 178. 
Lakewood, N. J., 340. 
Lambkill, 334. 
Lamb's-quarters, no. 
Lamium amplexicaule, 408, 561. 
Lamium purpureum, 410. 
Langdon Park, N. H., 192, 422. 
Lappula echinata, 378. 
Lappula virginiana, 378. 
Larkspur, Field, 148. 
Larkspur, Tall, 148. 
Lathyrus maritimus, 224. 
. Lathyrus palustris, 224. 
V Laurel, Great, 338. 

Laurel, Mountain, 332, 334. 
Laurel, Pale, 334. 
Laurel, Sheep, 334. 
Leadwort, 350. 
Leather Flower, 130. 
Lechea minor, 274. 
LEGUMINOS^E, 188, 208. 
Leontodon autumnalis, 524. 
Leontodon autumnalis, var. pra- 

tensis, 524. 

Leonurus Cardiaca, 408. 
Lepidium virginicum, 174. 
Lespedeza capitata, 222. 
Lespedeza hirta, 220. 
Lespedeza procumbens, 220. 
Lespedeza viplacea, 220. 
Lespedeza virginica, 220. 
Lettuce, Smooth-stemmed 

White, 528. 

Lettuce, Tall Blue, 534. 
Lettuce, Tall White, 530. 



Lettuce, White, 528. 
Lettuce, Wild, 532. 
Lexington, Mass., n6. 
Liatris scariosa, 470. 
Liatris spicata, 470. 
Liatris squarrosa, 470. 
LILIACE^E, 24. 
Lilium canadense, 50. 
Lilium carolinianum, 52. 
Lilium Catesbosi, 50. 1 

Lilium Grayi, 50. 
Lilium philadelphicum, 48. 
Lilium philadelphicum, var. 

andinum, 52. 
Lilium superbum, 52. 
Lilium tigrinum, 52. 
Lily, Atamasco, 60. 
Lily, Blackberry, 64. 
Lily, Canada, 50. 
Lily, Carolina, 52. 
Lily, Day, 58. 
Lily Family, 24. 
Lily of the Valley, 34. 
Lily, Tiger, 52. 
Lily, Turk's Cap, 52. 
Lily, Wild Orange-red, 48. 
Lily, Wood, 48. 
Lily, Yellow Day, 58. 
Lily, Yellow Meadow, 50. 

LlMNANTHACE^E, 232. 

Limonium carolinianum, 350. 

LINAGES, 238. 

Lin aria canadensis, 416. 

Linaria vulgar is, 418. 

Linncea borealis, var. americana, 

448. 

Linum humile, 238. 
Linum sulcatum, 238. 
Linum usitatissimum, 238. 
Linum virginianum, 238. 
Lion's-foot, 530. 
Liparis liliifolia, 70. 
Liquorice, Wild, 444. 
Lister a convallarioides, 72. 
Lister a cor data, 72. 
Lithospermum arvense, 380. 
Lithospermum canescens, 382. 
Lithospermum officinale, 380. 
Live-forever, 180. 
Liverwort, 134. 
Lobelia cardinalis, 462. 

LOBELIACE^E, 462. 

Lobelia Dortmanna, 464. 

Lobelia, Downy, 462. 

Lobelia Family, 462. 

Lobelia, Great, 462. 

Lobelia injlata, 464. 

Lobelia Kalmii, 464. 

Lobelia Kalmii, var. hirtella, 464 

Lobelia Kalmii, var. parvi flora, 

464. 

Lobelia, Kalm's, 464. 
Lobelia, Pale Spiked, 464. 
Lobelia puberula, 462. 
Lobelia spicata, 464. 
Lobelia syphilitica, 462. 



579 



INDEX, 



Lobelia, Water, 464. 
Long Purples, 288. 
Lonicera ccerulea, 450. 
Lonicera canadensis, 450. 
Lonicera morrowi, 450. 
Lonicera sempervirens, 452. 
Loosestrife Family, 286. 
Loosestrife, Four-leaved, 346. 
Loosestrife, Fringed, 344- 
Loosestrife, Hyssop, 286. 
Loosestrife, Purple or Spiked, 

288. 

Loosestrife, Swamp, 288. 
Lopseed, 386. 
Lopseed Family, 386. 
Louse wort, 432. 
Lower- Cabot, Vt. f IQO. 
Lucerne, 214. 

Ludwigia alternifolia, 292, 558. 
Ludwigia palustris, 292, 558. 
Ludwigia polycarpa, 292, 558. 
Lupin, Blue, 210. 
Lupinus perennis, 210, 557. 
Lychnis alba, 120. 
Lychnis, Evening, 120. 
Lychnis, Flos-cuculi, 122. 
Ly cop sis arvensis, 382. 
Lycopus americanus, 394. 
Lycopus virginicus, 394. 
Lysimachia nummularia, 348. 
Lysimachia producta, 348. 
Lysimachia quadrifolia, 346. 
Lysimachia terrestris, 346. 
LYTHRACE^:, 286. 
Lythrum alatum, 286. 
Lythrum Hyssopifolia, 286. 
Lythrum lineare, 286. 
Lythrum Salicaria, 288. 

Madder, 440. 
Madder Family, 440. 
Maianthemum canadense, 34. 
Mallow Family, 262. 
Mallow, High, 264. 
Mallow, Marsh, 262. 
Mallow, Musk, 264. 
Mallow, Round-leaved, 262. 
MALVACEAE, 262. 
Malva moschata, 264. 
Malva rotundifolia, 262. 
Malva sylvestris, 264. 
Manchester, Vt., 412. 
Mandrake, 154. 
Marigold, Marsh, 144. 
Marrubium vulgare, 408, 560. 
May Apple, 154. 
Mayflower, 330, 442. 
Mayweed, 514. 
Meadow-beauty, 290. 
Meadow-beauty Family, 290. 
Meadowsweet, 188. 
Medeola virginica, 44. 
Medicago lupulina, 216. 
Medicago sativa, 214. 
Melampyrum lineare, 434. 
Melanthium virginicum, 46. 



MELASTOMACE/E, 290. 

Melilot, Yellow, 214. 
Melilotus alba, 214. 
Melilotus officinalis, 214. 
Mentha aquatica, 392. 
Mentha arvensis, 394. 
Mentha arvensis, var. canadensis, 

394- 

Mentha longifolia, 392. 
Mentha piperita, 392. 
Mentha spicata, 392. 
Menyanthes, 352. 
Mertensia virginica, 378. 
Microstylis unifolia, 68. 
Middlesex Fells, Mass., 276. 
Middletown, Conn., 122. 
Mikania scandens, 468. 
Milfoil, 514. 
Milk Purslane, 246. 
Milk Vetch, 214. 
Milkweed, Common, 368. 
Milkweed Family, 364, 366. 
Milkweed, Four-leaved, 370. 
Milkweed, Poke, 368. 
Milkweed, Purple, 366. 
Milkweed, Swamp, 366. 
Milkwort, 242. 
Milkwort, Cross-laeved, 244. 
Milkwort Family, 240. 
Milkwort, Fringed, 240. 
Milkwort, Short-leaved, 244. 
Milkwort, Whorled, 244. 
Mimulus ringens, 422. 
Mint, Corn, 394- 
Mint Family, 388. 
Mint, Horse, 392. 
Mint, Mountain, 396. 
Mint, Water, 392. 
Mint, Wild, 394. 
Mitchella repens, 442. 
Mitella diphylla, 184. 
Mitella nuda, 184, 186. 
Mitrewort, 184. 
Mitrewort, False, 184. 
Mitrewort, Naked, 184. 
Moccasin Flower, 96. 
Monarda didyma, 398. 
Monar da fistulosa, 398. 
Monarda fistulosa, var. media, 

400. 
Monarda fistulosa, var. rubra, 

400. 

Moneses uniflora, 322. 
Moneywort, 348. 
Monkey-flower, 422. 
Monkshood, 148. 
Monotropa Hypopitys, 326. 
Monotropa uniflora, 326. 
Moss, Flowering, 340. 
Motherwort, 408. 
Mount Agassiz, N. H., 70. 
Mountain Daisy, 122. 
Mountain Fringe, 160. 
Mt. Desert Island, 122. 
Mt. Equinox, Vt., 4. 
Mt. Katahdin, Me., 530. 



580 



INDEX. 



Mt. Monroe, N. H., 432. 
Mt. Moosilauke, N. H., 280. 
Mt. Washington, N. H., 72, 122, 

200, 280, 424, 430. 
Mud Plantain, 22. 
Mugwort, 516. 
Mullein, Moth, 416. 
Mustard, Black, 172. 
Mustard Family, 166. 
Mustard, Field, 172. 
Mustard, Hedge, 172. 
Mustard, White, 174. 
Myosotis laxa, 380. 
Myosotis scorpioides, 380. 
Myosotis virginica, 380. 
Myosotis virginica, var. macro- 

sperma, 380. 
Myrtle, 348. 

Nantucket, Mass., 4, 48, 116, 
126, 208, 268, 270, 350, 352, 
356, 472, 524. 

Nasturtium Armoracia, 170. 

Nasturtium officinale, 170. 

Nasturtium terrestre, 170. 

Nepeta Cataria, 400. 

Nepeta hederacea, 400. 

Nettle, Dead, 408. 

Nettle, Hedge, 410. 

Nettle, Hemp, 410. 

Newfane, Vt., 494. 

New Jersey Tea, 258. 

New York, N. Y., 154. 

Nightshade, 412. 

Nightshade, Black, 412. 

Nightshade, Family, 410. 

Nonesuch, 216. 

North Easton, Mass., 24. 

Nuphar advena, 126. 

Nuphar advena, var. minus, 128. 

Nuphar Kalmianum, 128. 

NYMPH^EACE^E, 126. 

Nymphaa advena, 126. 

Nymphcea microphylla, 128. 

Nymphcea odorata, 126. 

Nymphcea rubrodisca, 128. 

Oakesia puberula, 36. 
Oakesia sessilifolia, 38. 
Oakes's Gulf, Mt. W., N. H., 530. 
OEnothera biennis, 296. 
OEnothera fruticosa, 300. 
OEnothera glauca, 298. 
OEnothera laciniata, 298. 
OEnothera Oakesiana, 298. 
OEnothera pumila, 298. 
Old Man's Beard, 130. 
ONAGRACE^E, 292. 
Onosmodium virginianum, 382, 

560. 

Orange-grass, 272. 
Orangeroot, 150. 
ORCHIDACE.E, 68. 
Orchid Family, 68. 
Orchis, Green Round-Leaved, 86. 
Orchis, Green Wood, 84. 



Orchis, Hooker's, 86. 

Orchis, Large Purple Fringed, 

92. 

Orchis, Purple, 92. 
Orchis, Ragged Fringed, 90. 
Orchis rotundifolia, 82. 
Orchis, Showy, 82. 
Orchis, Smaller Purple Fringed, 

92. 

Orchis spectabilis, 82. 
Orchis, White Fringed, 88. 
Orchis, Yellow Crested, 88. 
Orchis, Yellow Fringed, 88. 
Ornithogalum umbellatum, 56. 
OROBANCHACE^E, 436. 
Orobanche uniflora, 436. 
Orono, Me., 138. 
Orontium aquaticum, 16. 
Orpine Family, 180. 
Osmorrhiza Claytoni, 314. 
Osmorrhiza longistylis, 314. 
Oswego Tea, 398. 
OXALIDACE.E, 234. 
Oxalis Acetosella, 234. 
Oxalis corniculata, 236. 
Oxalis filipes, 236. 
Oxalis grandis, 236. 
Oxalis repens, 236. 
Oxalis stricta, 236. 
Oxalis violacea, 234. 
Oxeye, 506. 
Oxypolis rigidior, 308, 559. 

Pachistima Canbyi, 254. 
Painted Cup, 430. 
Panax quinquefolium, 304. 
Panax trifolium, 304. 
PAPAVERACE.E, 156, 158. 
Papoose Root, 152. 
Parnassia caroliniana, 186. 
Parsley Family, 306. 
Parsley, Hemlock, 306. 
Parsnip, Cow, 308. 
Parsnip, Early Meadow, 310. 
Parsnip, Meadow, 310. 
Parsnip, Water, 310. 
Parsnip, Wild, 308. 
Partridgeberry, 442. 
Pastinaca saliva, 308, 310. 
Pea, Beach, 224. 
Peacham, Vt., 190. 
Peanut, Hog, 226. 
Peanut, Wild, 226. 
Pea Partridge, 228. 
Pedicular is canadensis, 432. 
Pedicularis lanceolata, 434. 
Peltandra sagittcefolia, 12. 
Peltandra virginica, 12. 
Pemigewasset Valley, N. H., 

252, 456. 

Pennyroyal, American, 396. 
Pennyroyal, Bastard, 388. 
Pennyroyal, False, 388. 
Penthorum sedoides, 180. 
Pentstemon hirsutus, 420. 
Pentstemon leevigatus, 420, 422. 



581 



INDEX. 



Pentstcmon Icevigatus, var. digi- 
talis, 420, 422. 

Pepper-grass, Wild, 174. 

Peppermint, 392. 

Perilla frutescens, 390, 560. 

Persicaria, Pennsylvania, 106. 

Phaseolus polystachyus, 226. 

Phillip's Beach, Marblehead, 
Mass., 120. 

Phlox divaricata, 374. 

Phlox, Downy, 374. 

Phlox Family, 374. 

Phlox paniculata, 374. 

Phlox pilosa, 374. 

Phlox subulala, 374. 

Phlox, Wild Blue, 374. 

PHRYMACE^E, 386. 

Phryma leptostachya, 386. 

Phy salts heterophylla, 412. 

Physalis pubescens, 414. 

Physalis virginiana, 414. 

Physostegia virginiana, 406, 561. 

Physostegia virginiana, var. den- 
ticulata, 406. 

Pickerel Weed, 22. 

Pickerel Weed Family, 22. 

Pigweed, no. 

Pimpernel, 350. 

Pimpernel, False, 422. 

Pine-sap, 326. 

Pine-weed, 272. 

Pink, 354. 

Pink, Deptford, 116. 

Pink Family, 116. 

Pink, Ground, 374. 

Pink, Large Marsh, 356. 

Pink, Maiden, 116. 

Pink, Rose, 354. 

Pink, Sea, 354. 

Pink, Wild, 118. 

Pinweed, 274. 

Pinxter Flower, 336. 

Pipsissewa, 320. 

Pitcher Plant, 176. 

Pitcher Plant Family, 176. 

PLANTAGINACE^:, 438. 

Plantago lanceolata, 438. 

Plantago major, 438. 

Plantago Rugelii, 438. 

Plantain, Common, 438. 

Plantain, English, 438. 

Plantain Family, 438. 

Plantain, Robin's, 500. 

Pleurisy Root, 366. 

PLUMBAGINACE/E, 350. 

Plumbago, 350. 

Plymouth, N. H., 158, 448. 

Podophyllum, 152. 

Podophyllum peltatum, 154. 

Pogonia, Nodding, 80. 

Pogonia a finis, 546. 

Pogonia divaricata, 546. 

Pogonia ophioglossoides, 78, 80. 

Pogonia trianthophora, 80. 

Pogonia verticillata, 82. 

Poison Ivy, 252. 



POLEMONIACE^E, 374. 

Polemonium reptans, 376. 
Polemonium Van-Bruntice, 376. 
Polygala brevifolia, 244. 

POLYGALACE^E, 240. 

Polygala cruciata, 244. 
Polygala marina, 242. 
Polygala paucifolia, 240. 
Polygala polygama, 242. 
Polygala sanguinea, 242. 
Polygala Senega, 242. 
Polygala verticillata, 244. 
Polygala verticillata, var. am- 
bigua, 244. 

POLYGONACE^E, 102. 

Polygonatum bijlorum, 36. 
Polygonatum commutatum, 36. 
Polygonum, 104. 
Polygonum arifolium 108. 
Polygonum aviculare, 106. 
Polygonum erectum, 106. 
Polygonum hydropiperoides, 106. 
Polygonum pennsylvanicum, 106. 
Polygonum Persicaria, 106. 
Polygonum sagiltatum, 108. 
Polygonum scandens, 108. 
Polygonum virginianum, 108. 
Pond-Lily, Small Yellow, 128. 
Pond-Lily, Yellow, 126. 

PONTEDERIACE/E, 22. 

Pontederia cor data, 22. 
Poor Man's Weather-glass, 350. 
Poppy, Celandine, 156. 
Poppy Family, 156. 
Poppy-mallow, Purple, 264. 
Poppy, Prickly, 158. 

PORTULACACEjE, 114. 

Portulaca oleracea, 114. 

Potentilla Anserina, 202, 557. 

Potentilla argentea, 198, 557. 

Potentilla canadensis, 202. 

Potentilla canadensis, var. sim- 
plex, 202. 

Potentilla fruticosa, 200. 

Potentilla monspeliensis, var. 
norvegica, 198. 

Potentilla palustris, 200. 

Potentilla recta, 198, 557. 

Potentilla Robbinsiana, 200. 

Potentilla tridentata, 200. 

Pownal, Vt., 208. 

Prenanthes alba, 528, 530. 

Prenanthes altissima, 530. 

Prenanthes BoQtii, 530. 

Prenanthes racemosa, 528. 

Prenanthes serpentaria, 530. 

Prenanthes trifoliolata, var. nana, 
530. 

Primrose, Dwarf Canadian, 342. 

Primrose Family, 340. 

PRIMULACE.E, 340. 

Primula farinosa, 342. 

Primula mistassinica, 342. 

Prince's Pine, 320. 

Profile House, Franconia Notch, 
N. H., 202. 



582 



INDEX. 



Profile Lake, F. Notch, N. H., 

234 

Prunella vulgaris, 406. 
Prunella vulgaris, var. laciniata, 

406. 

Psedera quinquefolia, 260, 554. 
Puccoon, 382. 
Pulse Family, 208. 
Purple Flowering-Raspberry, 190. 
Purslane Family, 114. 
Purslane or Pusley, 114. 
Pussy-toes, 500. 
Pycnanthemum virginianum, 396 
Pycnanthemum fiexuosum, 396. 
Pyrola asarifolia, 324. 
PYROLACE^E, 320. 
Pyrola americana, 324. 
Pyrola chlorantha, 322, 324. 
Pyrola elliptica, 324. 
Pyrola Family, 320. 
Pyrola, One-flowered, 322. 
Pyrola, Round-leaved, 324. 
Pyrola secunda, 322. 
Pyrola, Small, 322. 
Pyxidanthera barbulata, 340. 
Pyxie Moss, 340. 

Quaker Ladies, 440. 

8ueen Anne's Lace, 306. 
ueen-of-the-Prairie, 190. 

Rabbit-foot, Clover, 210. 
Radicula aquatica, 170. 
Radicula Armor acia, 170. 
Radicula Nasturtium-aquaticum, 

170. 

Radicula palustris, 170. 
Ragged Robin, 122. 
Ragweed, Great, 506. 
Ragwort, Golden, 518. 
Randolph, Vt., 190. 
RANUNCULACE.E, 128. 
Ranunculus abortivus, 138. 
Ranunculus abortivus, var. eucy- 

clus, 138. 

Ranunculus acris, 142, 144. 
Ranunculus acris, var. Steveni, 

144. 

Ranunculus bulbosus, 142. 
Ranunculus fascicularis, 140. 
Ranunculus laxicaulis, 138. 
Ranunculus pennsylvanicns, 142. 
Ranunculus recurvatus, 140. 
Ranunculus repens, 142. 
Ranunculus septentrionalis, 140, 

142. 

Raspberry, Mountain, 192. 
Rattlebox, 208. 
Rattlesnake Plantain, 76. 
Rattlesnake-root, 528. 
Rattlesnake-weed, 528. 
RHAMNACE/E, 258. - 
Rhamnus alnifolia, 258. 
Rhamnus cathartica, 258. 
Rhexia aristosa, 200. 
Rhexia ciliosa, 290. 



Rhexia mariana, 290. 
Rhexia virginica, 290. 
Rhinanthus Crista-galli, 432. 
Rhododendron calendulaceum, 

336. 

Rhododendron canadense, 336. 
Rhododendron catawbiense, 338. 
Rhododendron lapponicum, 338. 
Rhododendron maximum, 338. 
Rhododendron nudiflorum, 336. 
Rhododendrons, 334- 
Rhododendron viscosum, 334. 
Rhodora, 336. 
Rhus copallina, 250. 
Rhus glabra, 250. 
Rhus toxicodendron, 252. 
Rhus typhina, 250. 
Rhus vernix, 252. 
Ribgrass, 438. 
Richardia, 12. 
Rich Weed, 390. 
Rock-rose Family, 274. 
Rosa blanda, 204. 
ROSACE^:, 182, 188. 
Rosa canina, 206. 
Rosa Carolina, 204. 
Rosa humilis, 206. 
Rosa nitida, 206. 
Rosa rubiginosa, 206. 
.Rosa virginiana, 204. 
Rosebay, Lapland, 338. 
Rose-Dwarf Wild, 204. 
Rose Family, 188. 
Rose - mallow, Halberd - leaved, 

266. 

Rose-mallow, Swamp, 266. 
Rosemary, Marsh, 350. 
Rose, Northeastern, 206. 
Rose, Pasture, 206. 
Rose, Smooth, 204. 
Rose, Swamp, 204. 
Roxbury, Conn., 422. 
Roxbury, Mass., no. 

RUBIACE^E, 440. 

Rubia tinctorum, 440. 
Rubus ChamcBmorus, 192, 569, 
Rubus odoratus, 190. 
Rudbeckia hirta, 508. 
Rudbeckia laciniata, 508. 
Rudbeckia triloba, 508. 
Rue, Early Meadow, 136. 
Rue, Purplish Meadow, 138. 
Rue, Tall Meadow, 136. 
Rumex acetosella, 104. 
Rumex Britannica, 102. 
Rumex crispus, 102. 
Rumex elongatus, 102. 
Rumex obtusifolius, 104. 
Rumex Patientia, 102. 
Rumex persicarioides, 104. 
Rumex verticillatus, 102. 

Sabatia or Sabbatia, 354. 
Sabbatia angularis, 354. 
Sabbatia dodecandra, 356. 
Sabbatia gracilis, 354. 



583 






INDEX. 



.Sabbatia, Lance-leaved, 354. 
Sabbatia lanceolata, 354. 
Sabbatia stellaris, 354. 
Saddle River, N. J., 260. 
Sage, Lyre-leaved, 398. 
Sage, Wood, 390. 
Sagittaria ambigua, 540. 
Sagittaria ari folia, 538. 
Sagittaria brevirostra, 538. 
. Sagittaria Engelmanniana, 8. 
Sagittaria graminea, 540. 
Sagittaria hcterophylla, 540. 
Sagittaria lancifolia, 538. 
Sagittaria latifolia, 6. 
Sagittaria latifolia, var. pubes- 

cens, 8. 

Sagittaria longirostra, 8. 
Sagittaria platyphylla, 542. 
Sagittaria subulata, 540. 
Sagittaria teres, 540. 
Salvia lyrata, 398. 
Sambucus canadensis, 446. 
Sambucus racemosa, 446. 
Sand Spurry, 126. 
Sandwich, N. H., 70. 
Sandwort, Mountain, 122. 
Sandwort, Thyme-leaved, 122. 
Sanguinaria canadensis, 156. 
Sanicle, 316. 

Sanicula marilandica, 316. 
Sankaty Head, Nantucket, 

Mass., 204. 

Saponaria officinalis, 116. 
Saratoga, N. Y., 58, 132. 

SARRACENIACEvE, 176. 

Sarracenia flava, 176. 
Sarracenia pur pur ea, 176. 
Sarsaparilla, Bristly, 302. 
Sarsparilla, Wild, 304. 
SAXIFRAGACE.E, 182, 188. 
Saxifraga pennsylvanica, 182. 
Saxifraga virginiensis, 182. 
Saxifrage, Early, 182. 
Saxifrage Family, 182. 
Saxifrage, Golden, 186. 
Saxifrage, Swamp, 182. 

SCROPHULARIACE^E, 416. 

Scrophularia marilandica, 418, 

562. 

Scutellaria canescens, 404. 
Scutellaria galericulata, 404. 
Scutellaria integrifolia, 404. 
Scutellaria later i flora, 402. 
Scutellaria nervosa, 406. 
Scutellaria parvula, 404. 
Scutellaria parvula, var. ambigua, 

404. 

Scutellaria pilosa, 404. 
Scutellaria pilosa, var. hirsuta, 

404. 

Scutellaria serrata, 402. 
Scutellaria versicolor, 402. 
Sea Lavender, 350. 
Sedum purpureum, 180. 
Sedum ternatum, 180. 
Seedbox, 292. 



Self-heal, 406. 

Seneca Snakeroot, 242. 

Senecio aureus, 518. 

Senecio Balsamita, 518. 

Senna, Wild, 228. 

Sensitive Plant, Wild, 228. 

Shelburne, N. H., 70. 

Shepherd's Purse, 174. 

Shinleaf, 322, 324. 

Shooting Star, 342. 

Sicyos angulatus, 456. 

Silene antirrhina, 118, 553. 

Silene latifolia, 118 

Silene noctiflora, 120, 553. 

Silene pennsylvanica, 118, 553. 

Silene stellata, 118. 

Silver Grass, 472. 

Silver-rod, 474. 

Silverweed, 202. 

Sisymbrium officinale, 172. 

Sisyrinchium angusti folium, 66. 

Sisyrinchium atlanticum, 66. 

Sisyrinchium gramineum, 66. 

Sium cicutce folium, 310. 

Skullcap, Mad-dog, 402. 

Skunk Cabbage, 14, 154. 

Smart weed, 106. 

Smilacina racemosa, 30. 

Smilacina stellata, 32. 

Smilacina trifolia, 32. 

Smilax herbacea, 24. 

Smilax officinalis, 304. 

Smilax rotundifolia, 24. 

Smilax rotundifolia, var. quad' 

rangularis, 24. 
Smith College, Northampton, 

Mass., 434. 
Snake Mouth, 80. 
Snakeroot, Black, 150, 316. 
Snakeroot, White, 470. 
Snap-dragon, Small, 418. 
Sneezeweed, 514. 
Snowberry, 450. 
Snowberry, Creeping, 328. 
Snow on the Mountain, 248. 
Soap wort, 116. 

SOLANACE^E, 4IO. 

Solanum Dulcamara, 412. 
Solanum nigrum, 412. 
Solidago, 472. 
Solidago arguta, 480, 563. 
Solidago bicolor, 474. 
Solidago ccesia, 474. 
Solidago canadensis, 482. 
Solidago cutler i, 476, 564. 
Solidago graminifolia, 484. 
Solidago juncea, 480. 
Solidago latifolia, 474. 
Solidago macrophylla, 476, 563. 
Solidago neglecta, 480, 564. 
Solidago nemoralis, 482, 564. 
Solidago odora, 478, 564. 
Solidago p alula, 478, 563. 
Solidago rigida, 482, 563. 
Solidago rugosa, 478. 
Solidago sempervirens, 476. 



584 



INDEX. 



Solidago serotina, 480. 
Solidago speciosa, 476, 564. 
Solidago squarrosa, 474, 563. 
Solidago tenuifolia, 484. 
Solidago uliginosa, 476, 563. 
Solidago ulmifolia, 478. 
Solomon's Seal, 36. 
Solomon's Seal, False, 32. 
Solomon's Seal, Three-leaved 

False, 32. 

Sonchus asper, 534. 
Sonchus oleraceus, 534. 
Sorrel Family, 234. 
Sorrel, Field or Sheep, 104. 
Sorrel, Lady's 236. 
Sorrel, Violet Wood, 234. 
Sorrel, Wood, 234. 
Sorrel, Yellow Wood, 236. 
Southbury, Conn., 374. 
SPARGANIACE^:, 4. 
Sparganium americanum, 536. 
Sparganium americanum, var. 

androcladum, 4. 

Sparganium an gusti folium, 536. 
Sparganium diver si folium, 536 
Sparganium eurycarpum, 4. 
Sparganium fluctuans, 536. 
Sparganium lucidum, 536. 
Sparganium minimum, 536. 
Sparganium simplex, 4. 
Spatter-dock, 126. 
Spearmint, 392. 
Specularia perfoliata, 456. 
Speedwell, Common, 424. 
Speedwell, Marsh, 424. 
Speedwell, Thyme-leaved, 426. 
Spergularia rubra, 126. 
Spiderwort, 20. 
Spiderwort Family, 18. 
Spikenard, 302. 
Spir&a, Aruncus, 190. 
Spiraa lobata, 190. 
Spiraa latifolia, 188. 
Spiraa tomentosa, 188. 
Spiranthes cernua, 72, 74. 
Spiranthes gracilis, 74. 
Spiranthes prcecox, 74. 
Spiranthes Romanzoffiana, 76. 
Spring Beauty, 114. 
Spurge, Cypress, 248. 
Spurge Family, 246. 
Spurge, Seaside, 246. 
Spurge, Spotted, 246. 
Spurge, Sun, 248. 
Spurge, White Margined, 248. 
Squawroot, 436. 
Squirrel Corn, 162. 
Stachys tenuifolia, var.aspera, 410 
Stachys palustris, 410, 561. 
Staff-Tree Family, 254. 
St. Andrew's Cross, 268. 
Star Flower, 344. 
Star Grass, 60. 
Star-of-Bethlehem, 56. 
Statice Limonium, var. caro- 

liniana, 350. 



Steeplebush, 188. 
Steironema ciliatum, 344. 
Steironema lanceolatum, 344. 
Stellaria graminea, 124, 553. 
Stellaria longifolia, 124. 
Stellaria media, 124. 
Stenanthium gramineum, 48. 
Stenanthium, Stout, 48. 
Stickseed, European, 378. 
Stickseed, Virginia, 378. 
Stick-tight, 512. 
Stitchwort, Lesser, 124. 
Stitch wort, Long-leaved, 124. 
St. John River, Fort Kent, Me., 

132. 

St. John's-wort, Common, 270. 
St. John's-wort Family, 268. 
St. John's-wort, Great, 268. 
St. John's-wort, Marsh, 272. 
St. John's-wort, Shrubby, 268. 
St. John's-wort, Spotted, 270. 
St. Libory, St. Clair Co., 111., 

158. 

Stonecrop, Ditch, 180. 
Stonecrop, Wild, 180. 
St. Peter's-wort, 268. 
Strawberry, American Wood, 

196. 

Strawberry, Wild Virginia, 196. 
Streptopus amplexifolius, 28. 
Streptopus longipes, 28 
Streptopus roseus, 28. 
Strophostyles helvola, 226. 
Stylophorum diphyllum, 156. 
Succory, 524. 
Sumac, Dwarf, 250. 
Sumac, Poison, 252. 
Sumac, Smooth, 250. 
Sumac Staghprn, 250. 
Sundew Family, 178. 
Sundew, Long-leaved, 178. 
Sundew, Round-leaved, 178 
Sundew, Slender, 178. 
Sundew, Thread-leaved, 178. 
Sundrops, 298, 300. 
Sunflower, Small, 510. 
Sunflower, Tall, 510. 
Sunflower, Ten-petaled, 512. 
Sunflower, Thin-leaved, 512. 
Sunflower, Woodland, 510. 
Sweetbrier, 206. 
Sweet Cicely, 314. 
Sweet Flag, 16. 
Sweet Scabius, 498. 
Symphoricarpos orbiculatus, 448. 
Symphoricarpos racemosus, 450. 
Symphoricarpos racemosus, var. 

lavigatus, 552. 
Symplocarpus fcetidus, 14. 

Tanacetum vulgare, 516, 568. 
Tansy, 516. 

Taraxacum erythrospermum, 532. 
Taraxacum ojficinale, 532. 
Tearthumb, Arrow-leaved, 108. 
Tearthumb, Halberd-leaved, 108 



585 



INDEX. 



Teucrium canadense, 390, 560. 
Teucrium canadense, var. lit- 

tprale, 390. 

Thalictrum dasycarpum, 138. 
Thalictrum dioicum, 136. 
Thalictrum polygamum, 136. 
Thalictrum revolutum, 138. 
Thaspium aureum, 310, 559. 
Thaspium aureum, var. airo- 

purpureum, 310. 
Thaspium barbinode, 310. 
Thimble-berry, 190. 
Thimble-weed, 130. 
Thistle, Canada, 522. 
Thistle, Common, 520. 
Thistle, Pasture, 522. 
Thistle, Sow, 534. 
Thistle, Swamp, 522. 
Thistle, Tall, 522. 
Thistle, Yellow, 520. 
Thorn Apple, 414. 
Thorn Apple, Purple, 414. 
Thorough wort, 468. 
Thoroughwort, White, 468. 
Tiaralla cordifolia, 184. 
Tick Trefoil, 216. 
Tick Trefoil, Canadian, 218. 
Tiedemannia rigida t 308. 
Tinker's-weed, 448. 
Tissa rubra, 126. 
Toad-flax, 418 
Toad-flax, Blue, 416. 
Tobacco, Indian, 464. 
Toothwort, 166. 
Toothwort, Cut-leaved, 166. 
Touch-me-not, Pale, 256. 
Touch-me-not, Spotted, 256. 
Tradescantia bracteata, 544. 
Tradescantia brevicaulis, 544. 
Tradescantia montana, 544. 
Tradescantia occidentalis, 544. 
Tradescantia pilosa, 544. 
Tradescantia reflexa, 544. 
Tradescantia rosea, 20. 
Tradescantia virginiana, 20. 
Trichostema dichotomum, 388. 
Trichostema linear e, 388, 560. 
Trientalis americana, 344. 
Trifolium agrarium, 212. 
Trifolium arvense, 210. 
Trifolium hybridum, 212. 
Trifolium pratense, 210. 
Trifolium procumbens, 214. 
Trifolium re pens, 212. 
Trillium cernuum, 42. 
Trillium declinatum, 42. 
Trillium, Dwarf White, 42. 
Trillium erectum, 40. 
Trillium grandiflorum, 42. 
Trillium, Large Flowering, 42. 
Trillium nivale, 42. 
Trillium, Nodding, 42. 
Trillium, Painted, 42. 
Trillium recurvatum, 40. 
Trillium sessile, 40. 
Trillium, Stemless, 40. 



Trillium undulatum, 42. 
Trillium viride, 40. 
Triosteum perfoliatum, 448. 
Tuckerman's Ravine, Mt. Wash= 

ington, N. H. t 338. 
Tumble Weed, 112. 
Turtle-head, 420. 
Twayblade, Broad-lipped, 72. 
Twayblade, Heart-leaved, 72. 
Twayblade, Large, 70. 
Twinberry, 442. 
Twin-flower, 448. 
Twinleaf, 152. 
Twisted Stalk, 28. 
Typha angustifolia, 3. 
Typha latifolia, 3. 
TYPHACE^E, 3. 

Umbelliferce, 306. 
Umbrella Leaf, 154. 
Uvular ia grandi flora, 38. 
Uvular ia perfoliata, 38. 
Uxbridge, Mass., 132. 

VALERIANACE^, 452. 
Valeriana officinalis, 454. 
Valeriana uliginosa, 452. 
Valerian Family, 452. 
Valerian, Garden, 454. 
Valerian, Great Wild, 454. 
Valerian, Greek, 376. 
Valerian, Swamp, 452. 
Valerianella Woodsiana, 454. 
Valerianella Locusta, 454. 
Vandal-root, 454. 
Venus's Looking-glass, 456. 
Veratrum viride, 46. 
Verbascum Blattaria, 416. 
Verbascum Thapsus, 414. 
VERBENACE^E, 384. 
Verbena angustifolia, 386. 
Verbena hastata, 386. 
Verbena officinalis^ 384. 
Verbena urticcefolia, 384. 
Veronia altissima, 466. 
Veronia noveboracensis, 466. 
Veronias, 470. 
Veronica alpina, var. unalaschen- 

sis, 424. 

Veronica americana, 424. 
Veronica officinalis, 424. 
Veronica scutellata, 424. 
Veronica scutellata r var. villosa, 

424. 

Veronica serpyllifolia, 426. 
Veronica virginica, 422. 
Vervain, Blue, 386. 
Vervain, European, 384. 
Vervain Family, 384. 
Vervain, Narrow-leaved, 386. 
Vervain, White, 384. 
Vetch, Common, 222. 
Vetch, Cow, 222. 
Viburnum alnifolium t 446. 
Vicia americana, 222. 
Vicia Cracca, 222. 



586 



INDEX. 



Vine Family, 260. 
Viola arenaria, 284. 
Viola blanda, 280. 
Viola canadensis, 282. 
Viola conspersa, 284. 

VlOLACE^E, 276. 

Viola lanceolala, 280. 
Viola palmata, 276. 
Viola palustris, 278. 
Viola papilionacea, 278. 
Viola pedata, 276. 
Viola pubescens, 282. 
Viola rotundifolia, 280. 
Viola sagiltaia, 278. 
Viola Selkirkii, 278. 
Viola siriata, 284. 
Violet, Arrow-leaved, 278. 
Violet, Bird-foot, 276. 
Violet, Canada, 282. 
Violet, Common, 278. 
Violet, Dog, 284. 
Violet, Dogtooth, 54. 
Violet, Downy Yellow, 282. 
Violet Family, 276. 
Violet, Lance-leaved, 280. 
Violet, Marsh, 278. 
Violet, Pale, 284. 
Violet, Round-leaved, 280. 
Violet, Sweet White, 280. 
Virginia Creeper, 260. 
Virginia Day Flower, 20. 
Virginia Snakeroot, 100. 
Virgin's Bower, 128. 
Virgin's Bower, Purple, 130. 
VITACE^;, 260. 
Vitis Labrusca, 260. 
Vitis vulpina, 260. 



Wake-robin, 40. 
Watercress, 170. 
Watercress, Marsh, 170. 
Water-lily, 126. 
Water-Lily Family, 126. 
Water Pennywort, 316. 
Water Pepper, 106. 
Water Plantain, 6. 
Water Plantain Family, 6. 
Water Plantain Spearwort, 138. 



Water Purslane, 292. 
Waterville, Me., 138. 
Waxwork, Climbing Bittersweet, 

254- 

Wayfaring Tree, 446. 
White Mt. Notch, 70. 
Whitlow-grass, Carolina, 168. 
Whitlow-grass, Common, 170. 
Wild Balsam Apple, 454. 
Wild Coffee, 448. 
Wild Garlic, 56. 
Wild Ginger, 98. 
Wild Leek, 56. 
Wild Lemon, 154. 
Willoughby Lake, Vt., 132. 
Willow Herb, Great, 294. 
Willow Herb, Hairy, 294. 
Willow Herb, Spiked, 288. 
Wind Flower, 132. 
Wintergreen, 330. 
Wintergreen, Flowering, 240. 
Wintergreen, Spotted, 320. 
Wormwood, 518. 
Wormwood, Roman, 506. 
Wormwood, Tall, 516. 



XYRIDACE^:, 16. 

Xyris arenicola, 542. 
Xyris caroliniana, 18. 
Xyris difformis, 18. 
Xyris elata, 18. 
Xyris fimbriata, 542. 
Xyris flexuosa, 16. 
Xyris montana, 18. 
Xyris smalliana, 542. 



Yarrow, 514. 
Yellow-eyed Grass, 18. 
Yellow-eyed Grass, Carolina, 18 
Yellow-eyed Grass Family, 16. 
Yellow Melilot, 214. 
Yellow Rattle, 432. 
Yellow Rocket, 172. 



Zephyr anthes Atamasco, 60. 
Zizia aurea, 310, 312. 



587 



Field Book of American 
Trees and Shrubs 

By 
F. Schuyler Mathews 

Author of " Field Book of American Wild Flowers," 
" Field Book of Wild Birds and Their Music" 

76. With 120 Illustrations, 16 in Color, 
and 43 Maps 

Uniform with the volumes on "Wild Birds" 
and "Wild Flowers" 

Net, $2.50. Full leather, 53.00 

Mr. Mathews's earlier books, dealing with 
American Wild Flowers and Wild Birds, are a 
sufficient guaranty that his volume on American 
Trees and Shrubs will be not only artistic in 
form but also will possess scientific accuracy 
and value. The book covers the entire terri- 
tory of the United States. An important feature 
is a series of maps showing the habitat of the 
various species. 

New York G. P. Putnam's Sons London 



Field Book of 

American Wild 

Flowers 

By 
F. Schuyler Mathews 

* 

New Edition. 12. $2.50. Full Leather, 
$3.00 

Being a Short Description of their 
Character and Habits, a Concise Defi- 
nition of their Colors, and Incidental 
References to the Insects which Assist 
in their Fertilization. With 24 Repro- 
ductions in Water-Color, and Numer- 
ous Pen-and-ink Studies from Nature 
by the Author. 

G. P. Putnam's Sons 

New York London 



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