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Full text of "Field book of common gilled mushrooms : with a key to their identification and directions for cooking those that are edible"

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PUTNAM'S 

NATURE FIELD BOOKS 

Companion books to this one 

Mathews American Wild Flowers 

American Trees and Shrubs 
Wild Birds and their Music 

Durand Wild Flowers in Homes and Gardens 

My Wild Flower Garden 
Common Ferns 

Lutz Insects 

Loomis Rocks and Minerals 

Eliot Birds of the Pacific Coast 

Armstrong Western Wild Flowers 

Alexander Birds of the Ocean 

Anthony North American Mammals 

Thomas Common Mushrooms 

Sturgis Birds of the Panama Canal Zone 

Miner Seashore Life 

Breader Marine Fishes of Atlantic Coast 

Morgan Ponds and Streams 

Longyear Rocky Mountain Trees and Shrubs 



Each in One Volume 

fully illustrated 

including many 

Colored 

Plates 



PLATE I. M ! 




<U|| 






FIELD BOOK OF 

COMMON GILLED 

MUSHROOMS 

TiOith a }\ey to their Identification 

and IDirections for Cooking 

^hose that are Edible 

^y 
WILLIAM STURGIS THOMAS, M.D. 



liDith 52 Illustrations in color 
and black and white 



G. P. PUTNAM^S SONS 

NEW YORK — LONDON 

^ke ^nitkexbixtkex ^«as 

1928 



cA 



FIELD BOOK OF 
COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



Copyright, 1928 

by 

William Sturgis Thomas 

This is a copy of the First Edition 

XI 3 &y 



jc^ 




Made in the United States of America 



TO MY SON 
William Stephen Thomas 



PREFACE 

This book is designed to assist persons who are interested 
in mushrooms in identifying some of the species of gilled 
fungi found growing in fields, woods and dooryards. 
It aims to supply the need for a means of ascertaining the 
names of common kinds that are new to the collector. The 
name of a fungus is not the vital thing but it is the first 
thing to be learned if one would wish to talk about it with 
other persons and read about it. 

The method of the key is new, I believe, and its prepara- 
tion has occupied some of an amateur mycologist's spare 
time during the past ten years or more. The reader is ad- 
vised to read the introduction to the key before using it. 

One portion of the book comprises descriptions of the 
mushrooms and they are arranged and numbered alpha- 
betically according to their botanical names. The numbers 
agree with those of the illustrations of species. The one 
hundred and twenty-eight species keyed, described and illus- 
trated include nearly all of the agarics called common in 
the writings of the late Professor Charles H. Peck, State 
Botanist of New York. 

The directions for cooking mushrooms have been derived 
from the writings of many authorities and from my own 
experience during the past eighteen years. 

In an article on the poisonous properties of fungi by William 
W. Ford and Ernest D. Clark of Johns Hopkins University 
and published in Mycologia, the following warning appears: 
"Unfortunately there are mushroom 'handbooks' in this 
country which are unfailing sources of misinformation and 

V 



PREFACE 

they have evidently been written by people of no training 
and poor judgment." I desire to state in this connection 
that the descriptions and statements herein contained ad- 
here strictly to the authoritative writings of Professor Peck, 
Dr. W. A. Murrill, the late Professor G. F. Atkinson of 
Cornell University and Professor C. H. Kauffman of the 
University of Michigan. 

I consider myself fortunate in being able to offer to readers 
the original colored plates which were painted by Miss Mary 
E. Eaton, Artist to the New York Botanical Garden. 

Dr. N. L. Britton, Director of the New York Botanical 
Garden, has given encouragement and co-operation which is 
gratefully acknowledged. Thanks are also due to Dr. M. A. 
Howe, Assistant Director of the Garden, for his kind assist- 
ance in paving the way for the preparation of this little book. 
Acknowledgment is also made to George S. Godard, State 
Librarian of Connecticut and to C. J. Galpin, Ph.D., of the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, for their courtesy in per- 
mitting me to use some of the half-tones in this book. Dr. 
Howard A. Kelly of Baltimore has favored me with his in- 
terest and valuable suggestions. 



VI 



FOREWORD 

Here is a handbook which, as the name indicates, treats of 
the common gilled mushrooms, and one would have to tramp 
the fields and woods many a day throughout the season to 
find all the species figured and described herein. It is of 
pocket size and therefore truly a field book. 

Doctor Thomas has brought together in condensed and 
usable form descriptions of 128 species, compiled from Peck, 
Alurrill, Atkinson, Kauffman, and other recognized authori- 
ties, in many cases from publications now out of print. Al- 
though the author makes no statements not to be found in 
authoritative works, it was only possible for this material to 
be gathered and stated clearly and concisely, because of the 
many years of first-hand experience he has had with these 
fascinating plants in their native haunts. 

The analytical and yet non-technical key, based upon the 
striking, easily observed features of the mushrooms, is original 
and one of the most valuable features of the book. The sea- 
sonal key is also unique, and of especial value in the early 
and late months of the season. The key to genera is an 
extension of a good plan introduced by Mcllvaine. 

The beautiful colored plates by Miss Mary E. Eaton, the 
well known artist of the New York Botanical Garden, are 
most helpful, and to find an illustration of every species treated 
in the book is a feature that will win the hearty gratitude of 
all students. 

Clyde Fisher. 

American Museum of Natural History, 
New York, April, 1928 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Preface ... ..... v 

Chapter 

I. — How TO Collect and Examine Mushrooms . i 

II. — GiLLED Mushrooms, Their Propagation and 

Structure ...... 7 

III. — How TO Use the Key. Table of Features 
OF GiLLED Mushrooms Used in Their 
Identification ..... 19 

IV. — Key to Common Gilled Mushrooms Pictorial 

Key to Genera ..... 29 

V. — Descriptions of Genera and Species of Com- 
mon Gilled Mushrooms .... 123 

VI. — Mushrooms as Food ..... 265 

VII. — Mushrooms as Food and General Directions 

FOR Preparing and Cooking Them . . 277 

VIII. — Special Recipes for Preparing Various 
Species of Edible Gilled Mushrooms 
FOR THE Table ..... 285 

IX. — Glossary 303 

X. — Names of Gilled Mushrooms in the Key with 
Translations of Their Botanical Names, 
Their Derivation and Pronunciation . 313 

Index 321 



IX 



ILLUSTRATIONS IN COLOR 

FACING 
PAGE 

Plate I ...... Frontispiece 

Color Chart 122 

Plate II ........ 126 

Plate III ....... . 130 

Plate IV 136 

Plate V ........ 142 

Plate VI 152 

Plate VII 160 

Plate VIII 166 

Plate IX 174 

Plate X 190 

Plate XI 204 

Plate XII ........ 214 

Plate XIII 224 

Plate XIV 238 

Plate XV 248 

Plate XVI 260 

The above color plates depict 96 species of mushrooms. 



ILLUSTRATIONS IN BLACK AND WHITE 

FIGURE PAGE 

I. — Spore Print and Magnified Representation of 
THE Parts of a Gilled Mushroom Concerned 
IN Spore Formation 4 

2. — Mycelium and Early Vegetation of a Gilled 

Mushroom ....... io 

3. — Section of a Typical Gilled IMushroom or 

Agaric 12 

4. — Development of an Agaric (Amanita) from 

Button Stage to Maturity . . .13 

5. — Pictorial Key to Genera of White Spored 

Common Gilled Mushrooms . . .118 

6. — Pictorial Key to Pink Spored and Black" 

Spored Common Gilled Mushrooms . • 119 

7. — Pictorial Key to Genera of Rusty Spored 

Common Gilled Mushrooms . . . 120 

8. — Pictorial Key to Genera of Purple and Dark 

Brown Spored Common Gilled Mushrooms . 121 

9. — Species No. 13. — Cantharellus cinnabarinus 140 

10. — Above, Species No. 19. — Clitocybe albidula. 

Below, Species No. 24. — Clitocybe dealbata 149 

II. — Species No. 23. — Clitocybe cyathiforme . 150 

'12. — Species No. 26. — Clitocybe infundibuliformis 154 

13. — Species No. 27. — Clitocybe multiceps . . 154 

14. — Species No. 29. — Clitopilus abortivus . .156 

14A. — Species No. 31. — Collybia acervata . .158 

xiii 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



FIGURE PACK 

15. — ^Above, Species No. 42. — Cortinariuscollinitus. 
Below, Species No. 43. — Cortinarius corru- 
GATUS 172 

16. — ^Above, Species No. 46. — Crepidotus fulvoto- 
MENTOSus. Below, Species No. 48. — Crepi- 
dotus VERSUTUS . . . . . .176 

17. — Species No. 47. — Crepidotus malachius. . 178 

18. — Above, Species No. 51. — Entoloma strictius. 

Below, Species No. 53. — Flammula polychroa 180 

19. — Above, Species No. 54. — Galera hypnorum. 
Below, Species No. 57. — Hygrophorus can- 
tharellus 185 

20. — Species No. 61 — Hygrophorus pratensis . 189 

21. — ^Above, Species No. 63, — Hypholoma appendi- 
culatum. Below, Species No. 64. — Hypho- 
loma incertum . . . . . -194 

22. — Species 66. — Above, Hypholoma sublateritium. 

Below, Section of Same . . . .196 

23. — Species No. 68 — Inocybe rimosa . . .199 

24. — Species No. 72. — Lactarius corrugis . .210 

24A. — Species No. 80. — Lentinus cochleatus . . 211 

25. — Species No. 83. — Lepiota morgani Growing in 

"Fairy Ring" 216 

26. — Species No. 84. — Lepiota naucina . . 218 

27. — Species No. 88. — Marasmius peronatus . 221 

28. — Above, Species No. 93. — Omphalia campanella. 

Below, Species No. 98. — Panus strigosus . 228 

29. — Species No. ioi.— Pholiota adiposa . . 234 

30. — Above, Species No. 106. — Pleurotus ostreatus. 

Below, Species No. 107. — Pleurotus ulmarius 236 

xiv 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



figure page 

31. — At Right, Species No. 112. — Psilocybe fceni- 
sEcii. At Left, Species No. 64. — Hypholoma 
incertum 246 

32. — Species No. 114. — Russula delica . . 249 

33. — Species No. 120. — Schizophyllum commune , 256 

34. — Species No. 122. — Tricholoma album. Species 

No. 127. — Tricholoma transmutans . 258-9 



XV 



FIELD BOOK OF 
COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



CHAPTER I 

HOW TO COLLECT AND EXAMINE MUSHROOMS 



CHAPTER I 

HOW TO COLLECT AND EXAMINE MUSHROOMS 

Mushrooms of one kind or another are to be found at almost 
every season but they occur in greatest abundance after 
showery weather in the months of July, August and September. 

The collector will find a basket to be a good receptacle for 
them and different species may be kept separate from each 
other and uncrushed by having leaves or leafy twigs among 
them, or better yet, by being carried in paper bags. Folding 
paper boxes, such as are used for holding crackers are also 
good for this purpose. 

The mushroom is plucked entire from the ground or wood 
upon which it grows and especial care must be taken not to 
cut or break the stem. Unless the whole plant is obtained it 
will be difficult or impossible to know whether the stem is pro- 
vided with a volva or cup at the base, or whether its base is 
bulbous or hairy or attached to other stems. The dirt adher- 
ing to the stem, if there is any, is removed before the specimen 
is put with others into the receptacle. In collecting mush- 
rooms for the table, the stems are cut off close to the cap. 

The beginner is warned against attempting to identify a new 
species with but one or two specimens at hand. It is desirable 
to have for this purpose several specimens of varied stages of 
development, so that one or more of them may be cut across 
in order that the form of the gills and interior of the stem 
may be noted, while yet other caps may be needed for spore 
prints. It is important to keep separate from each other the 
specimens of the various species collected. 

3 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



On arriving at home with the collected fungi, they should 
be spread out on a convenient surface, the collector remember- 
ing the liability of many species to decay quickly. 

No single feature of any mushroom is sufficient to determine 
its identity or its edibility. It cannot be too often emphasized 
that the only certain way in which a mushroom may be identi- 
fied is to know it thoroughly. Once its personality is estab- 
lished in the collector's mind, he will recognize it as he would 
the face of a friend. 

There are other characters than general shape and color 
which distinguish mushrooms from each other. These other 
characters need careful scrutiny in determining the species to 
which a specimen belongs as is the case among many things 
met with in our everyday affairs. Careful attention to the 
especial characters and parts of mushrooms will soon famili- 
arize one with their peculiarities and will enable him to use 
this guide or any text book on mushrooms intelligently. To 
this end the student of mushrooms will do well to make written 
notes of the features of gilled fungi collected by him, using as 
a guide the form for field notes which will be found on page 24. 

Spore prints of mushrooms show the color of the spores and 
are sometimes indispensable before a specimen can be unmis- 
takably identified. In many instances however, specimens 
can be identified by means of this key in the field or at home 
without waiting for the making of spore prints. 

Spore prints are made by laying the mature cap from which 
the stem has been cut and gills downward upon a piece of 
paper. It is protected from draughts of air by being covered 
with a glass tumbler. In order to get satisfactory prints, 
care should be taken to have the gills in a vertical position. 
After a few hours a print of the gills, radiating from the center 
like the spokes of a wheel, will be found upon the paper. (Fig i .) 
The color of the spore print assists in determining to what fam- 
ily of mushrooms the specimen belongs. There are five of these 

4 



Fig. I. 



'.'•#, t ^^= 



-n^rfv 




Spore-prmt 



Fig. I.— Spore print and magnified representation of 
the parts of a gilled mushroom concerned in spore forma- 
tion. 

From W. Hamilton Gibson's Our Edible Mushrooms, by permission 
of Messrs. Harper and Bros. 



HOW TO COLLECT AND EXAMINE MUSHROOMS 



families, each of whose spores are respectively either white, 
some shade of pink, rusty-brown, purple or black. Odd 
species vary from these standard spore colors in having lilac 
and green hues. 



CHAPTER II 

GILLED MUSHROOMS, THEIR PROPAGATION AND 
STRUCTURE 



CHAPTER II 

GILLED MUSHROOMS, THEIR PROPAGATION AND STRUCTURE 

Gilled mushrooms, or agarics as they are called, are plants 
that belong to the botanical group known as fungi. No 
leaves, flowers, pollen or seeds are to be found on any fungi and 
that is, perhaps, why they are regarded as belonging to a lower 
order of vegetation. 

These plants, although rather unfamiliar to many persons, 
occur in profusion in one form or another, throughout the 
natural world. Among them are included germs or bacteria 
which cause fevers and contagious diseases in man and in the 
lower animals. Other fungi that grow upon the higher plants, 
occur in endless numbers and constitute pests that damage or 
destroy food crops and trees. Some of them are known as 
rusts, others as smuts, rots, scabs and bunts. Mildews and 
molds also belong among the fungi as do all the yeasts with 
their mysterious power of bringing about the process of fer- 
mentation. 

Among the fungi commonly known as mushrooms are the 
puffballs, club fungi, coral fungi, hedgehog fungi, truffles, 
trembling fungi, morels, stinkhorns, tube-bearing fungi and 
lastly, the gilled fungi or agarics to which attention is directed 
in this book. All fungi, whether bacteria, yeasts or agarics, 
have in common an important characteristic feature that dis- 
tinguishes them from the higher plants, and that is their lack 
of chlorophyl. This remarkable substance that makes green 
the leaves of trees and herbs, also enables them to utilize for 
their nutrition the simple elements of air, watei and earth. 
Fungi, on the other hand, possessing no chlorophyl, must, like 

9 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



animals, depend for their nourishment upon living or dead 
organic matter. Loam, decaying wood and dead leaves sup- 
port the majority of mushrooms. 

Propagation of gilled fungi 

Herbs, trees and grasses — in fact all of the higher plants 
are propagated from seeds that have been fertilized by contact 
with dust-like particles of pollen shed by a parent plant of the 
same species. This fertilizing contact requires for its accom- 
plishment the union of two elements, — male and female, 
pollen and ovum. Since mushrooms are apparently devoid of 
these sexual elements, so far as cross fertilization of seeds is 
concerned, the question arises, how are they propagated. In 
the case of mushrooms, the method of propagation, though 
more simple than it is in the case of seed bearing plants is 
no less wonderful. Each species of mushroom reproduces its 
own kind by means of very minute spores that are dropped 
from mature fruiting plants and that are seemingly, in many 
cases formed without the intervention of any sexual process. 

Single spores consist of a tiny bit of living matter or proto- 
plasm enclosed within a wall or membrane, as an egg is con- 
tained in its shell. They are so small that one of them alone 
cannot be seen without the aid of a microscope but in mass 
they appear as dust that may have any one of several colors. 
Spore color affords an important means of classifying gilled 
fungi into groups or genera. The manner of collecting spores 
is described on page 4. They are exceedingly light and may 
be carried by the wind for long distances. They are dropped 
from the surfaces of the gills in vast numbers. A single mush- 
room of the cultivated variety commonly sold in the markets, 
may produce as many as one billion, eight hundred thousand 
spores. The shaggy-mane mushroom has been estimated to 
cast off five billion or more spores from a single mature plant. 
The proportion of spores that reach places suitable to their 

10 



Fig. 2. 




Fig. 2. — Mycelium and early vegetation of a gilled 
mushroom. 

From W. Hamilton Gibson's Our Edible Mushrooms, by permission 
of Messrs. Harper and Bros. 



PROPAGATION AND STRUCTURE 



development is very small; the vast majority of them are 
wasted. This fact illustrates the saying that Nature is care- 
less of the individual, but careful of the species. 

When a cast-off spore alights upon ground or decayed wood 
or on some other spot where conditions are favorable to its 
growth, it begins to germinate. 

First, a tiny thread grows from it and penetrates the wood 
or loam upon which it rests. This thread, absorbing nourish- 
ment from organic matter in contact with it grows longer 
and sends out branches until a network of threads or fibres, 
now easily visible, is formed. This matted network of fibres 
or hyphae, as they are called, is known to botanists as the 
mycelium or plant body. Those who cultivate mushrooms 
for the market speak of it as spawn. Weeks, months or 
even years, in some cases, must pass before the myceliimi will 
grow and mature sufficiently for it to be ready to develop 
fruit that will in turn produce fresh spores. 

When the proper time has arrived, little knots or enlarge- 
ments appear at one or many places on the mycelial threads. 
These swellings increase in size until they project outside of 
the soil or wood in which they started to grow. Each one of 
these knobs is destined to develop into a full-grown mush- 
room or spore-bearing structure. 

The Structure and Parts of Gilled Mushrooms 

A fully developed, typical gilled mushroom is rather simple 
in its gross structure. It is formed somewhat after the man- 
ner of an umbrella and consists of three main parts correspond- 
ing to the cover, ribs and handle. In the mushroom, these 
parts are known as the cap, the gills and the stem, or as botan- 
ists designate them, pileus, lamellag and stipe. 

If a gilled mushroom in the button stage of its development 
be cut through in the middle from top to bottom, there will be 
seen, in embryo, cap gills and stem, all enclosed in an outer 

II 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



membrane or veil. The cap is folded and its gills lie close 
along the stem, giving somewhat the appearance of a closed 
umbrella. The outer or universal veil usually disappears as 
the plant grows larger and as the cap expands, but in some 
species part of it persists throughout the life of the plant in 



P£EL 




u 



THE- CAP 
INCLUDES 
PEEL,FLESM 
AND CilUS. 



Fig. 3. — Section of a typical gilled mushroom or agaric. 

the form of a sheath or cup enclosing the base of the stem. In 
other cases, part of the wrapper may be seen in the form of 
patches or flakes adhering to the upper surface of the mature 
cap. Both of these features may be seen in the fly mushroom 
or Amanita muscaria and they afford marks that help to iden- 
tify that species. 

Agarics, during the button stage of their existence are pro- 
vided with another veil or membrane that extends from the 
stem to the margin of the cap. In some kinds of mushrooms 
this inner or secondary veil persists, at least in part, and by its 
presence aids in identification of the species possessing it. 
When this inner veil remains after the rupture or disappear- 
ance of the outer cover, it hides the gills from sight. (PI. IT, 
species 3). Sooner or later, during the growth of the plant, 
it breaks away from the edge of the cap as this expands or 
spreads open. In the case of most of the agarics, it disappears 

12 



PROPAGATION AND STRUCTURE 




Fig. 4. — Development of an agaric (Amanita) from button 
stage to maturity. 

From W. Hamilton Gibson's Our Edible Mushrooms, by permission of 
Harper and Bros. 



13 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



entirely but in some varieties, part of it remains as a collar or 
ring around the stem as may be seen in the common field 
mushroom. In still other varieties fragments of the second- 
ary veil may be found, even in mature plants, hanging from 
the margin of the cap. 

Let us consider some of the features possessed by mush- 
rooms so as to know what to look for in any collected speci- 
men that we may wish to identify. 

First, it will be found that each kind has its own peculiar 
manner of growth; some are solitary while others grow in 
groups, tufts or clusters. 

The place of growth of mushrooms varies within well de- 
fined limits. Some species grow only in woods, others only in 
open spaces and still others occur in both kinds of surround- 
ings. Certain species grow upon wood, some upon the ground, 
and a few species are found on or under particular kinds of 
trees or in such especial places as railroad ties, manure heaps 
and growing moss. 

Time or season of growth is a distinguishing feature of some 
kinds of mushrooms. In the temperate zones there are par- 
ticular fungi that may be found growing during each month of 
the year. 

Gilled mushrooms present a variety of odors which may 
assist in their identification, as for example in the case of the 
camphory lactarius with its fragrance really like that of sweet 
clover, or in that of the fetid russula, which smells of peach 
kernels. The majority of fungi possess either little or no 
odor or else a characteristic fungous odor that is difficult to 
describe. 

Taste — The taste of many mushrooms when raw is mild or 
unnoticeable. Others are acrid and peppery to the tongue or 
puckery, or branny or, in some cases, nutty. 

Cookery brings out odors and tastes entirely lacking in raw 
specimens. 

14 



PROPAGATION AND STRUCTURE 



In addition to the foregoing general characters of gilled 
fungi that aid in their identification are the character, color 
and form of their separate parts. Each of these receives 
especial notice in the key. 

Cap or pileus — The cap is the part of a gilled mushroom 
that first attracts the collector's attention. It is covered with 
a skin or peel beneath which is the flesh. This flesh or trama 
is composed of interwoven fibres called hyphae that can be 
separately seen only under the microscope. 

Amongst the characters of the caps of mushrooms, there is 
one possessed by some varieties that is apt to confuse the 
inexperienced collector. When moist, these particular caps 
have a water-soaked or soggy appearance. When dry they 
lose this look and become opaque and they often become 
lighter in shade. Such caps are said to be hygrophanous and 
this feature may aid in identifying them. The rind or peel, of 
many species, when moist from rain or humidity, is gelatinous 
or sticky to the touch. These are described as being viscid. 

Color — While the color of mushrooms is one of their most 
striking characteristics, it is not so useful a clue in all cases as 
the beginner in their study is apt to believe. Certain species 
exhibit great variability of color in different individuals. 
Many kinds of mushrooms resemble each other in hue so 
closely that they must be identified by other qualities. 

Form of Cap — There is the greatest variety in the shape of 
the cap of gilled mushrooms. Some species have conical 
caps (59 0, some are bell-shaped (86), others flat (116) and 
yet others funnel-shaped (26). The cap of the majority of 
species is convex when it is young. As the plant matures the 
cap usually expands and becomes flat or even depressed at 
the center. The edge may be regular, lobed (10) or wavy(i i). 

^ Figures in parentheses refer to numbers given to species in this 
book. They direct the reader to illustrations of the various charac- 
teristics mentioned. 

15 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS ! 



The surface may be smooth, dry, sticky or perhaps covered 
with scales (38 Frontispiece). 

If the cap has a knob protruding from its center it is said 
to be umbonate (15) (umbo — a knob). The opposite form, 
that of a little pit, sometimes occurs (93), in which case the 
cap is said to be umbilicate (provided with a navel). 

Where no mention in this book is made of a mushroom's 
form, it is assumed that the cap is of a convex form when young 
and is plane or nearly so when mature. When reference is 
made to the cap of a mushroom, a mature specimen is meant 
unless otherwise specified. 

Other features of caps are mentioned in the key under the 
heading, "Cap, Form of." 

Gills — The gills (lamellse) are thin, knife-like blades at- 
tached by their upper edge to the under surface of the cap and 
extending like the spokes of a wheel (or ribs of an umbrella) 
from the stem to the margin. They always grow with their 
flat surfaces vertical. Upon these gill-surfaces are formed 
the spores that are cast off for the purpose of propagation. 

In form gills may be broad or narrow, varying with different 
species. An important distinction is made between gills that 
extend to the stem (116, 118) (adnexed), those that are 
attached broadly to it (adnate) (95, 96) and others that do 
not reach it but are said to be free (85). Gills that run dov/n 
the stem are termed decurrent (15) ; those that are notched in 
their edge near the stem (123), are known as sinuate or emarg- 
inate. 

Not always are gills thin; mushrooms of the type of Can- 
tharellus have blunt narrow gills resembling coarse leaf- veins. 
Again, the free edge of the gills, instead of being knife-edged, 
as is usually the case, may be notched like a saw (81) (serrate) 
or wavy. 

The spore-bearing surface of the gills is called the hymen- 
ium, which, in some cases, extends also across the under 

16 



PROPAGATION AND STRUCTURE 



surface of the cap between them. The hymenium is composed 
of microscopic elongated cells sticking out at right angles to 
the surface. (Fig. i.) From the free end of many of these pro- 
trude little prongs, usually 4 in number, each bearing a spore at 
its tip. The main cell is called a basidium; the prongs, sterig- 
mata. Those pavement cells that are sterile and bear no 
spores are called paraphyses. 

The spores may possess any one of several colors according 
to the genus to which the specimen belongs. Their color 
often determines the hue of the gills in mature plants and it 
affords an important clue in ascertaining to what genus the 
mushroom belongs. See PI. lA and figs. 5-8. 

The spores vary in size and shape in different species. They 
are so light that when they are cast off from the sterigmata, 
and they fall in obedience to the law of gravity, it is so 
slowly that any breath of air propels them for a long distance. 

The stem is usually attached to the under surface of the 
cap at its center, but some kinds of mushrooms have the 
stem attached to their margins and others between margin 
and center while still others have no stems. 

Stems may be long or short, thick or thin, hollow, pithy or 
solid. When the inner veil remains attached in part to the 
stem, it is called the annulus. 



17 



CHAPTER III 

HOW TO USE THE KEY.— TABLE OF FEATURES 

OF GILLED MUSHROOMS USED IN 

THEIR IDENTIFICATION 



19 



CHAPTER III 

HOW TO USE THE KEY 

1. Have at hand a number of specimens of the species 
whose name is desired. 

2. Select some feature of these plants which attracts atten- 
tion and which may be used as a clue to their identification. 
Such characteristic features are mentioned in this key under 
the order followed in the subjoined table. 

Mushroom 

Character of the whole plant 

Manner of its growth 

Odor 

Place of growth 

Season of its appearance 

Taste 
Cap 

Character 

Color 

Form 

Size 
Gills 

Character 

Color 

Form 
Stem 

Character 

Form 

Size 
Spores 

Color 

N. B. — A full enumeration of the features possessed by 
gilled mushrooms as they are mentioned in this book will be 
found on pages 24 to 26. 

21 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



Let us suppose that the mushrooms we desire to identify 
have a milky juice. 

3. With milky juice as a character in mind, turn to those pages 
of the key headed "Character of the Mushroom" (page 31) 
where will be found in the first column the words Milky Juice. 

The mushrooms in hand will be named somewhere in this 
group unless they belong to some uncommon species not in- 
cluded in this book. 

4. Next, observe the color of the caps of the specimens and 
find in the second column of the key, headed "Color of 
Cap," the description which fits them. 

5. When it appears likely that the correct color description 
has been found, look next at the accompanying "Remarks" 
in the third column of the key where will be found mentioned 
further distinguishing characteristics which will aid in identi- 
fying the specimens. 

Names of species are placed in column number four, farthest 
to the left of each page of the key. Coming as they do in 
answer to the inquiry "What is the name of the plant?" the 
names will be the last things to be read. 

Complete descriptions of the species will be found in 
Chapter V following the key. 

Let us take another example of the use of the key. On a 
winter walk in the woods, clusters of a small reddish-yellow 
mushroom are found growing upon a stump. Their caps are 
moist and sticky, their gills lighter in color but their stems 
are darker than the surface of the cap and are rather velvety. 
How shall their name be found in the key? 

Looking in the key under "Time of Growth" and where the 
first column says " December," we find that a cap in the Color 
of Cap Column is described as being reddish-yellow or tawny 
and (in the third column) that its size is >^ to 2 inches broad and 
that in all other respects its description corresponds with our 
specimen. In the last column its name is given as Collybia velu- 

22 



HOW TO USE THE KEY 



tipes. Turning to the full description of Collybia velutipes in 
Chapter V(page 163) the identification is further corroborated. 

Another example of the use of the key might be in the case 
of Lepiota americana. We have collected specimens of a 
gilled mushroom having a prominent knob protruding from 
the center of the cap. Looking in the key under "Form of 
Cap," we find eight species mentioned. Reading their con- 
densed tabulated descriptions, it is quickly found that only 
one of them is said to be colored white with reddish scales 
upon its surface. It is probable therefore that our specimens 
are either Lepiota americana or else that they are some un- 
common variety not mentioned in this book. 

Turning the pages next to the full description of Lepiota 
americana, it is seen to tally in every respect with the specimen 
before us and on the next occasion when this mushroom is 
found, it is probable that it will be at once recognized as 
would be the face of an acquaintance. 

It is the aim of the key, so far as it may be possible, to 
assist the reader in identifying specimens of gilled fungi with- 
out the necessity of ascertaining the color of their spores. 
The reason for this aim is that it often requires many hours 
to learn the color of spores by taking a spore print (see page 
4). Nevertheless, a knowledge of the spore color of a mush- 
room is one of the greatest of all helps in determining its iden- 
tity, and such knowledge is often indispensable. ^ Spore prints, 
however, are furnished by Nature and may be ready and 
waiting for the collector's recognition. It is not uncommon to 
find the colored spore-dust about growing mushrooms — 
rusty, pink, white, purplish-brown or black dust, shed by 
mature plants on their stems, on the caps of neighboring fel- 
lows or upon the wood or ground that harbors them. These 
indications of spore color should always be sought by the col- 
lector and their presence should be noted. 

^ Figs, s to 8 and PI. lA. 

23 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



The color of a mushroom's gills is by no means a certain in- 
dication of the color of the spores that are shed by them. 
Colored gills may produce white spores and, on the other hand, 
many white-gilled species drop colored spores. Once the 
color of the spores of a mushroom is known, the unravelling 
of its identity is facilitated. 

In order to see clearly the form of the gills of a mushroom, 
its cap and stem should be cut through vertically in the center. 
This cut will also reveal the interior of the stem and will show 
whether it is solid, stuffed or hollow. 

The beginner in mycology may be aided in the study of 
gilled mushrooms by referring to the subjoined table. 

Table of Features of Gilled Mushrooms 
Used in Their Identification 

(Figures in parenthesis refer to numbers of those species I 
illustrating the feature mentioned). -j 

Jl Mushroom 

j Mushroom, Character of — Glows in the dark (phosphores- | 

cent); with milky juice; waxy in appearance. [ 

1t Manner of Growth — Solitary (single); in groups; in clusters ) 

or tufts; in curved lines on the groimd (87). ' 

^ Place of Growth — On ground; on wood; in open places; in ' 

woods; in special places. 

Odor — Of bitter almonds (peach pits or wild cherry bark) ; ] 
of anise; branny (mealy or farinaceous); disagreeable; gar- \ 
licky; of radishes; spicy; fungous. ! 

"^ Season of Growth — Note the month in which the specimen \ 
was collected. ; 

^ Taste — Acrid (biting, peppery); astringent (puckery, i 
bitter); disagreeable but not acrid; mild; sweetish. i 

24 j 



^ 



HOW TO USE THE KEY 



dL Cap 

/^ Cap, Character of — Brittle, coriaceous (leathery) ; downy or 
hairy (fioccose, tomentose) (78); fragile; sticky when moist 
(viscid); tough; scaly, i.e., with scales or warts on the surface 
(81); water-soaked in appearance when moist, changing to 
opaque and often of different color when dry (hygrophanous) ; 
silky. 

"^ Cap, Color of — While some shade of tan or brown is the 
commonest color of gilled mushrooms, there is scarcely any 
color that does not occur among them. 

^ Cap, form of — Attached to wood by its top (resupinate) 
(48, at right); bell-shaped (campanulate even when mature) 
(95); cone-shaped or conic (59); inverted cone-shaped (ob- 
conic) (22); cylindrical (38, Frontispiece); with edge turned up 
(revolute) (32); funnel-shaped (infundibuliform) (26); with 
edge turned downward and inward (involute) (100); fleshy 
(flesh is the portion between the upper surface of the cap and 
its lower surface to which the gills are attached) (2); thin 
(ill); membranous (with little or no flesh; kidney-shaped 
(reniform) (47); with a knob protruding from the center 
(umbonate) (15); lobed at the edge (13); nippled (a nipple- 
like elevation at the center; notched at the edge (81); with a 
pit or small depression at the center (umbilicate) (93); with 
radiating marks or furrows near the edge (striatulate or 
striate) (116); split at the edge (5); with fragments of the 
veil attached to the edge of the cap (97) ; with a wavy edge (12) ; 
smooth; scaly (squamose or squamulose) (38, Frontispiece). 

V> Cap, Size of — Large (four or more inches in diameter; 
medium (one to four inches in diameter) ; small (less than one 
inch in diameter). 



/|[ GiUs 
/^ Gills, Character of — Brittle; liquefying (deliquescing) when 
old (38, frontispiece); separable easily from the cap; with 

25 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



veins in the spaces between the gills; free from the stem (85); 

close together, crowded; far apart, distant (13). 
l< Gills, Color of — Mentioned in the key only when the color 

is different from that of the cap. 
C_ Gills, Form of — ^Attached broadly to the stem (adnate) 

(56) ; extending as far as the stem but not attached broadly to 

it (adnexed) (2); extending down the stem (decurrent) (13); 

forked, branched or joined together (13); broad (34); narrow 

(32); notched near the stem end (emarginate, sinuate) (123); 

with a sawlike edge (serrate) (81); thick (12); blunt edged 

(17); equal in length to each other (113); of different lengths 

(29). 

JjT Stem 

4 Stenii Character of — ^Absent (46); downy or hairy at the 
base (90); cartilaginous, like gristle; attached to the cap be- 
tween its center and its edge (eccentric) (107); attached to 
the cap at the edge (marginal) (45); fragile; hollow (3); solid; 
stuffed; separable easily from the cap; tough. 
"7 Stem, Form of — Bulbous at base (44); rooted, extending 
^ deeply into the ground (35) ; with a ring or collar surrounding 
it (annular) (i); inserted into a cup (volva) at the base (8); 
with ring but without cup (i); with both cup and ring (6); 
thick (114); thin (86). 
(_ Stem, Size of — Long (i.e. longer than the breadth of the cap) 
(85); short (i.e. shorter than the breadth of the cap) (114). 

\^ Spores 

P\ Spores, Color of — Black; brown; brownish-black; rusty 
(ochraceous) ; pink (rosy, salmon or flesh-color); lilac; green; 
white; yellow or yellowish. 

Beginners in the study of gilled fungi are advised to read 
the chapter about the propagation and structure of these 
plants so that they may the better understand the use of the key. 

26 



HOW TO USE THE KEY 



The reader should bear in mind the fact that there exist 
hundreds — perhaps thousands — of species of mushrooms and 
that mistaken identification might result from superficial 
attention to descriptions of the comparatively few kinds of 
plants dealt with in this book. 

No plant key can be perfect. There are species very difficult 
of identification even by expert specialists. Should the reader 
fail to identify a collected species after careful use of the key, 
his non-success will be probably due to the fact that his speci- 
men is not one of our common mushrooms. Botanists able 
and willing to identify specimens sent to them, may be found 
in many of the larger universities, at State capitals and at the 
United States Department of Agriculture in Washington. 



27 



CHAPTER IV 

KEY TO COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS. 
PICTORIAL KEY TO GENERA 



29 



CHAPTER IV 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 

Figures attached to names of species refer to corresponding numbers 
in the illustrations and descriptions. 

IDENTIFICATION BY CHARACTER OF THE MUSHROOM 



Character 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 


Glows in 
the dark 
(Phos- 
phores- 
cent) 


Orange-yel- 
low or 
saffron 

Tawny 


3 to 6 inches broad. On 
wood, in tufts. Stem 
often at side. 

li to 5^ inch broad. 
Tough; kidney- 
shaped; attached to 
wood; marginal stem. 


Clitocybe 
illudens (25) 

Panus 

stypticus (99) 






Lactarius, all species, e.g. 






Brownish 
red 


J^ to I J^ inches broad. 
Odor of sweet clover. 


Lactarius 

camphoratus 
(71) 

Lactarius 
corrugis (72) 




Dark red- 
dish 
brown 


3 to 5 inches broad. Milk 
copious, white. 
Wrinkled surface. 




Orange, 

with 
stripes 


2 to 5 inches broad. 
Orange milk. 


Lactarius deli- 
ciosus (73) 


Milky juice 


Sooty 
brown 


I to 4 inches broad. 
Milk white; slightly 
acrid. Long stem. 


Lactarius 

lignyotus (74) 


appears 
if plant 
is 
wounded 


White 


3 to 5 inches broad. 
Often covered with 
dirt. Milk very pep- 
pery. 


Lactarius 

piperatus (75) 




Brownish- 
red 


J/^ to 2 J/2 inches broad. 
Milk white; sUghtly 
bitterish. 


Lactarius sub- 
dulcis (76) 




Tawny-red- 
dish 


2 to 5 inches broad. Milk 
turns to a sulphur-yel- 
low; bitterish. 


Lactarius 

theiogalus (77) 




White or 
whitish 


2 to 5 inches broad. Soft 
andwoolytothetouch. 
Milk white; acrid. 


Lactarius 

vellereus (78) 




Orange- 
brown 


2 to 5 inches broad. 
Milk white; mild. 


Lactarius 
volemus (79) 



31 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY CHARACTER OF THE MUSHROOM 

(Continued) 



Character 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 


Waxy ap- 
pearance 


Hygrophorus, all species 





Reddish- 


^ to I H inches broad. 


Collybia 




brown or 


Gills grayish-brown; 


confiuens (32) 


Shriveling 


grayish- 


free from stem. Stem 




red when 


slender; tough. 




dry; 
reviving 


moist; 
grayish- 
brown 






moist 


when dry 








All species 


of 


Marasmius 




All species 


of 


Panus 



IDENTIFICATION BY MANNER OF GROWTH 



Manner of 

Growth 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 




Honey-yel- 


Ring on stem; cap i to 6 


Anlparia 
mSllea. (10) 




low to 


inches broad. 




dark red- 








dish 








brown 








Saffron or 


Cap 3 to 6 inches broad. 


Clitocybe 




orange 




illudens (25) 




Silky gray 


Taste and odor slightly 


Clitopilus abor- 




or gray- 


branny; gills salmon 


tivus (29) 




ish brown 


when old; commonly 


(seldom 


Clustered ^ 
(intufts) 
on wood 
(Caespi- 
tose) 




seen in abortive form. 


tufted) 


Pale tan or 


Cap I to 2 inches broad; 


Collybia 


flesh-red 


in dense tufts; not 


acervata (31) 


when 
wet, whi- 


sticky when wet. 






tish when 








dry 








Reddish- 


Cap M to I J^ inches 


Collybia 




brown of 


broad; long, slender 


confluens (32) 




grayish- 


stem. 






red when 








wet; pal- 








lid when 








dry 








Tan, Yel- 


Cap H to 2 inches broad 


Collybia 




lowish or 


Gills light. Stem 


dryophila (33) 




chestnut 


brown; hollow. In 
groups. 






Yellow or 


Cap I inch ormore broad ; 


Collybia 




tawny. 


sticky when moist; 


velutipes (36) 




darker at 


stem brown, hairy 






center 


when mature. On 
wood. 





32 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY MANNER OF GROWTH (Continued) 



Manner of 
Growth 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 




Pale yellow 


I to 2 inches broad; 


Flammula 






taste bitter; gills 


flavida (52) 






rusty when old. 






Wine buflf 


I to 2 inches broad; 


Flammula 




to wine 


sticky when wet; stem 


polychroa (53) 




purple or 


yellowish or purplish, 






lavender 


and scaly. 






Bay or 


Hygrophanus; frag- 


Hypholoma ap- 




tawny 


ments of veil at mar- 


pendiculatum 




brown 


gin; I or 2 inches 


(63) 




when 


broad. 






moist, 








brown- 








ish j^el- 








low when 






Clustered 


dry 






(in 

tufts) 
on wood. 


Brownish, 


I to 3 inches broad ; gills 


Hypholoma 


red, 


often eaten by insects. 


perplexum 
(6S) 


t 


yellowish 


pale yellow becoming 


at 


greenish or purplish 






margin 


when old. 






Dark brick 


I to 3 inches broad; gills 


Hypholoma sub- 




red. 


like H. perplexum. 


lateritium (66) 




often, 








paler at 








edge 








Brownish- 


H to 2 inches broad; 


Lentinus coch- 




flesh 


gills saw-like on edge; 


leatus (80) 




color 


stem often off center 






when 


of cap , furrowed. 






moist, 








paler 








when dry 








White or 


2 to 4 inches broad; edge 


Lentinus 




pale 


of gills saw-like. 


lepideus (81) 




rusty; 








brownish 








scales 








White with 


I to 4 inches broad; ring 


Lepiota 




reddish- 


on stem. 


americana (82) 




brown 








scales 








(Variable) 


Cap conical; radial 


Mycena galeri- 




Some 


marks on surface; J^ 


culata (90) 




shade of 


to I M inches broad; 






brown or 


stem slender, hairy at 






gray 


base. 






Yellowish- 


1^ to I inch broad ; stem 


Omphalia cam- 




rusty to 


very slender, hairy at 


panella (94) 




dull 


base. 






yellow 




• 



33 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY MANNER OP GROWTH (Continued) 



Manner of 
Growth 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 




White 


Cap 8 inches or larger; 


Panus strigosus 






stem marginal. 


(98) 




Yellow; 


Sticky when moist; i to 


Pholiota adiposa 




scaly 


4 inches broad; often 
with flaky ring on 
stem. 


(lOl) 




Watery 


I to 2 inches broad; 


Pholiota 




cinna- 


sticky when moist; 


discolor (103) 




mon 


ring on stem. 






when 








moist, 








pale 






Clustered 


yellow 






(i« V 


when dry 






tufts) 








on wood 


White or 


2 to S inches broad; 


Pleurotus 




ashy 


stem at margin; gills 


ostreatus (106) 




gray, 


extend down the stem. 






yellowish 








when old 








White, 


2 to S inches broad. 


Pleurotus 




yellow- 


Like Pleurotus ostrea- 


sapidus (107) 




ish, ashy- 


tus except that spores 






gray, 


have a lilac tint. 






dull lilac 








or even 








brownish 








White 


3 to 5 inches broad; 


Pleurotus 






on elm wood; Sept. to 


ulmarius (108) 






Nov. 






Whitish. 


Cap }4 to 1 inch broad ; 


Psathyrella 




grayish 


thin, conic to bell- 


disseminata 




or 


shaped, with radiat- 


(III) 




grayish 


ing lines; spores black. 






brown 








White or 


2 to 5 inches broad. 


Agaricus 




yellow- 


Open places. Gills 


arvensis (i) 




ish 


pink; blackish when 
old ; ring on stem. 






Egg-yolk 


I to 3 inches broad. 


Cantharellus 


In Curved 




funnel-shaped; gills 


cibarius (13) 


Lines or 




narrow; forked. 




Circles 








on the 


Pure white 


2 to 3 inches broad. 


Clitocybe 


Ground 




Soft texture. 


albissima (20) 




Reddish- 


^ to I J^ inches broad. 


Collybia 




brown 


Thin; tough; gills 


confluens (32) 




when 


whitish or yellowish 






moist; 


gray. 






paler 








when dry 







34 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY MANNER OF GROWTH (Continued) 



Color of Cap 



White, with 
brown 



Buff or 
tawny 



Grayish- 
buff, rus- 
ty brown 
or yel- 
lowish 



Remarks 



4 to 12 inches broad. 
Gills white or green. 
Stem with large ring. 

1 to 2 inches broad. 
Shrivels when dry. 
Gills broad ; stem 
tough. In fields. 

2 to 4 inches broad. 
Edge of cap turned 
down and in; gills 
forked; decurrent. 



Name 



Lepiota Mor- 
gani (83) 

Marasmius 
oreades (87) 



Paxillus 

involutus (100) 
(seldom in 
rings) 



IDENTIFICATION BY ODOR 



Odor 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 


Almonds 


Yellowish 


2 to 4 inches broad. On 


Russula 


(wild 


or dingy- 


ground. Sticky when 


foetens (116) 


cherry 


rusty 


moist. Radiating fur- 




bark) 




rows at margin. Odor 
of bitter almonds. 






Grayish- 


3 to 5 inches broad. 


Collybia platy- 




brown or 


Edge often upturned 


phylla (34) 




blackish- 


and wavy when old. 




Anise 


brown 


Gills broad. Stem 
white. 






Green or 


ij^ to 3 inches broad. 


Clitocybe 




dingy- 


On ground. Gills 


odora (28) 




green, 


white or pallid. Stem 






fading 


whitish or greenish. 






when old 








Whitish; 


yitoil^ inches broad. 


Clitocybe 




brown- 


Depressed at center 


albidula (19) 




tmged 


when mature. On 






when 


ground. Stem frosted. 






moist 






Branny 


White when 


3^ to I M inches broad. 


Clitocybe 


(farina- 


moist; 


On ground. Pit at 


candicans (21) 


ceous) 


shiny 


center. Stem waxy 






silky 


and polished; rooting; 






white 


hairy at base. 






when dry 








Gray or 


2 to 4 inches broad. 


Clitopilus 




grayish- 


Gills whitish, turning 


abortivus (29) 




brown 


salmon when old. 
Spores salmon-pink. 
See description for 
abortive form. 


(slightly) 



35 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY ODOR (Continued) 



Odor] 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 


Branny 


Whitish or 
grayish 

Hazel-nut 
or umber 

Whitish- 
gray or 
brown- 
ish-gray 

Tawny-red, 
turning 
reddish- 
brown 
when old 


2 to 3 inches broad. On 
ground in woods. 
Bloom on surface. 
Gills whitish, salmon 
when old. 

I to 2 inches broad. 
Taste, odor branny. 
Gills rosy pink; notch- 
ed. 

1 to 3 inches broad. 
Taste branny. Gills 
pink. Stem silky; 
white or pallid. 

2 to 4 inches broad. 
Sticky when moist. 
Gills notched; lighter 
than cap. 


Clitopilus 

prunulus (30) 

Entoloma 

commune (49) 

Entoloma gray- 
anum (50) 

Tricholoma 
transmutans 
(127) 


Sweet 
clover 
(Melli- 
lot) 


Bay-red or 
brown- 
ish-red 


I to 2 inches broad. 
Milky juice. Flesh 
tinged with color of 
cap. 


Lactarius cam- 
phoratus (71) 


Chlorine 


White; 
warty 


4 to 6 inches broad. 
Gills white; free from 
stem. Stem with ring 
and cup at base. 


Amanita 

chlorinosma 


( 
l»leasant 


Tawny- 
rusty 


See under Sweet Clover. 

I J/^ to 2 inches broad. 
Slight knob at center. 
Edge curved in. Gills 
notched. Gills pallid 
to tawny. Stem 
cream-colored. 


Lactarius cam- 
phoratus (71) 

Hebeloma 
precox (56) 



Radishes 



Cinnamon 



I to 2 inches broad. 
Webby veil under gills 
when young. Gills 
yellow, turning rusty 
when old. 



Cortinarius cin- 
namomeus(4i) 
(when fresh) 



Spicy 



White or 
tinged 
with yel- 
low or 
pink 

Green or 
dingy 
green ; 
fading 
when old 



2 to 5 inches broad. On 
ground in woods. Gills 
pink, turning black. 
Stem ringed. 



14 to 3 inches broad, 
On ground in woods. 



Agaricus 
silvicola (3) 



Clitocybe 
odora (28) 



36 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY ODOR (Continued) 



Odor 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 




Grayish- 


3 to s inches broad. 


Collybia platy- 
phylla (34) 
(at times, wheni 




brown or 


Edge often upturned 




blackish 


and wavy when old. 




brown 


Gills broad; notched 


fresh) 


Spicy 




near stem. 






Brownish- 


H to 2 inches broad. 


Lentinus coch- 




flesh 


In tufts. Gills saw- 


leatus (80) 




color 


like on edge. Stem 






when 


sometimes at side; 






moist; . 


grooved. 






paler 








when dry 








Saffron-yel- 


3 to 6 inches broad. On 


Clitocybe 


Strong 


low or 


wood; in tufts. Stem 


illudens (25) 




orange 


aside from center. 






yellow 







IDENTIFICATION BY PLACE OF GROWTH 



Place of 
Growth 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 


On bridge 


White or 


2 to 4 inches broad; 


Lentinus 


timbers, 


pale 


edge of gills saw-like; 


lepideus (81) 


railroad 


rusty; 


stem sometimes off 




ties or 


brownish 


center of cap. 




fence 


scales 






posts 








On com- 


White with 


I to 4 inches broad; 


Lepiota 


post 


reddish 


ring on stem; no cup 


americana (82) 


heaps 


or red- 
dish 
brown 
scales 


at base. 






Sooty- 


I to 2 inches broad; 


Cantharellus 




brown 


funnel-shaped; gills 


infundibuli- 




when 


narrow; far apart. 


formis (17) 




moist; 








grayish. 






Damp 


yellowish 






places or 


or brown- 






swamps 


ish when 








dry 


• 






Yellowish 


I to 2 inches broad; 


Cortinarius cin- 




orbrown- 


webby veil at edge 


namomeus (41) 




ish 


when young; gills at- 
tached to stem; close 
together. 





37 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY PLACE OF GROWTH (Continued) 



Place of 
Growth 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 




Pale yel- 


^ to I ^ inches broad. 


Hygrophorus 




low; 


Webby veil at edge 


chlorophanus 




some- 


when young. Gills at- 


(58) 




timesred- 


tached to stem. 






tinged at 








center 








Red, ver- 


J^ to 2 inches broad. 


Hygrophorus 




milion or 


Thin; fragile. 


miniatus (6o) 




yellow 








Bright red 


I to 3 inches broad. 


Hygrophorus 






Sticky when moist. 


puniceus (62) 






Gills yellow or red; 








thick; far apart. 




Damp 


Pale-red. 


J^ to 2 inches broad. 


Laccaria 


places or 


buff-red 


Gills thick; broad. 


laccata (69) 


swamps 


or flesh- 


Stem I to 3 inches. 






red when 


Gills often powdered 






moist; 


white when old. 






pale rus- 








ty, gray- 








ish or buff 








when dry 








Orange 


2 to s inches broad. Yel- 


Lactarius 




with 


lowish milky juice. 


deliciosus (73) 




bright 


Gills white or cream. 






mottled 








rings 








Sooty- 


I to 4 inches broad. Vel- 


Lactarius 




brown 


vety. Milky juice. 
Spores yellowish. 


lignyotus (74) 




Yellow 


2 to 4 inches broad. Cap 


Pholiota 






often flaky, wrinkled. 


caperata (102) 






Stem ringed. Spores 








rusty. 






Rosy or 


2 to 4 inches broad. 


Russula 




blood red 


Sticky when moist. 
Gills chalk-white. 
Stem white or red- 
tinged. 


emetica (ris) 



On manure 


Brownish, 
tinged 
with gray 
or lead 

Tan, gray 
or brown- 
ish 


J^ to I inch broad. Bell- 
shaped. Stem long, 
slender. Spores 
black. 

l^ to 1 14 inches broad. 
Network of cracks, 
fragments of veil at 
edge. 


Panaeolus cam- 
panulatus (ps) 

Panaeolus 
retirugis (97) 



38 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY PLACE OF GROWTH (Continued) 



Place of 
Growth 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 




Yellowish 


I to 3 inches broad. 


Cantharellus 




orange 


Sometimes funnel- 


aurantiacus 






shaped. Gills narrow; 


(ii) 






forked. 






Variable. 


M to i\i inches broad. 


Cantharellus di- 




Grayish, 


Sometimes funnel- 


chotomus (15) 




brown- 


shaped. Gills narrow; 






ish, yel- 


repeatedly forked. 






lowish or 








bluish- 








gray 






Hilly and 








moun- 


Pale tan or 


I to 2 inches broad. 


Collybia 


tainous 


flesh-red 


Gills whitish. Stem 


acervata (31) 


districts 


when 
moist; 
whitish 
when dry 


slender; brittle. 






Dark violet 


2 to 4 inches broad. 


Cortinarius 






Hairy-scaled. Gills 


violaceus (44) 






rusty when old. Stem 








bulbous at base. 






Pale yellow 


I to 2 inches broad. 


Flammula 




or whit- 


Gills rusty when old. 


flavida (52) 




ish 


Stem downy at base. 






Bay brown 


I to 2 inches broad. 


Hypholoma ap- 




when 


Fragments of veil at 


pendiculatum 




moist; 


edge. In tufts. Spores 


(63) 




brown- 


purplish brown. 






ish- 








yellow 








when dry 







White with 
reddish or 
reddish 
brown 
scales 

Whitish, 
grayish 
or gray- 
ish- 
brown 



I to 4 inches broad. 
Ring on stem; no cup 
at base. 



}4 to I inch broad. 
Conic or bell-shaped. 
In tufts. Spores 
black. 



Stem without ring; 
cup'^at base. Spores 
rosy. 



Lepiota 

americana (82) 



Psathyrella 
disseminata 
(III) 



Volvaria 



Variable, 
Grayish, 
brown- 
ish, yel- 
lowish, or 
bluish- 
gray 



^ to 2 inches broad. 
Sometimes funnel- 
shaped. Gills narrow; 
repeatedly forked. 



39 



Cantharellus 
dichotomus 
(15) 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GELLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY PLACE OF GROWTH (Continued) 



Place of 
Growth 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 




Shining 


>2 to I J^ inches broad. 


Clitocybe can- 




white 


Stem waxy white; 
hairy at base; rooting. 


dicans (21) 




Reddish or 


2 to 3 inches broad. 


Clitocybe infun- 




pale 


Funnel-shaped when 


dibuliformis 




tan; fad- 


mature. 


(26) 




ing when 








old 








Pale tan or 


r to 2 inches broad. 


Collybia 




flesh-red 


Gills whitish. Stem 


acervata (31) 




when 


slender; brittle. 






moist; 








whitish 








when dry 








Reddish, 


5^ to I H inches broad. 


Collybia 




brown- 


Stem long (2 to S 


confluens (32) 




ish, or 


inches) ; slender. 






grayish 






Leaves! 


when 






(Among 


moist; 






fallen) 


pallid, 
whitish 
or gray- 
ish when 
dry 








Dark 


2 to 4 inches broad. 


Cortinarius 




violet 


Hairy-scaled. Gills 
rusty when old. Stem 
bulbous at base. 


violaceus (44) 




Gray (whit- 


I to 3 inches broad. 


Entoloma 




ish or 


Taste branny. Gills 


grayanum (50) 




brown- 


pink when mature. 






ish) 








Deep-red, 


3^ to 2 inches broad. 


Hygrophorus 




vermilion 


Gills color of cap; 


miniatus (60) 




or yellow 


waxy. Stem sknder; 
I to 3 inches. 






Rusty-red ; 


J^ to J^ inch broad. 


Marasmius cam- 




^ a little 


Bell-shaped with rad- 


panulatus (86) 




darker at 


iating furrows. Stem 






center 


blackish. 






Brownish; 


}4 to % inch broad. 


Marasmius 




black 


Stem slender; black; 


rotula (89) 




spot at 


shiny. 






center 








Variable. 


1^ to I M inches broad. 


Cantharellus 




Grayish, 


Gills narrow; repeat- 


dichotomus 


In moss 


brownish, 


edly forked; extend- 


(is) 




yellowish 


ing down the stem. 






or bluish- 








gray 







40 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY PLACE OF GROWTH (Continued) 



Place of 
Growth 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 




Pale-yel- 


34 to I ^ inches broad. 


Hygrophorus 




low; 


Sticky when moist; 


chlorophanus 




some- 


waxy. Stem i Ji to 3 


(58) 




times red 


inches. 






at center 








Red, ver- 


Yi to 2 inches broad. 


Hygrophorus 




milion or 


Thin; fragile; waxy. 


miniatus (60) 




yellow 


Stem long; slender. 






Bright red; 


I to 3 inches broad. 


Hygrophorus 




paler or 


Conic or bell-shaped; 


puniceus (62) 




yellow 


thin; fragile; sticky 






when old 


when moist. 






Pale-red, 


}^ to 2 inches broad. 


Laccaria 




buff-red 


Gills broad; thick; at- 


laccata (69) 


In Moss 


or flesh- 
red when 
moist; 
rusty, 
grayish 
or buff- 
red when 
dry 


tached to stem. 






Orange 


2 to S inches broad. 


Lactarius 




with 


Orange milky juice. 


deliciosus (73) 




brighter 








zones 








Sooty- 


I to 4 inches broad. 


Lactarius 




brown 


Milky juice. 


lignyotus (74) 




Tawny or 


3/^ to 2 H inches broad. 


Lactarius 




brownish 
red 


Milky juice. 


subdulcis (76) 




Yellow or 


I to 3 inches broad. 


Omphalia 




pale 


Cap thin with pit at 


fibula (94) 




orange 


center. Stem long, 
slender. 






White, with 


I to 4 inches broad. 


Lepiota 




reddish- 


Marginal radiating 


americana (82) 




brown 


lines. Stem ringed 






scales 


but no cup at base. 






and ele- 






On saw- 


vated 






dust 
heaps 


center 






Dingy 


2 to 2^/^ inches broad. 


Pluteus 




brown; 


Gills pink when ma- 


cervinus (no) 




rarely 


ture; free from stem. 






white. 








yellow, 








ashy or 








blackish 







41 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY PLACE OF GROWTH (Continued) 



Place of 
Growth 



(In woods 
among 
special 
kinds of 
trees) 

Hemlocks 



Color of Cap 



Egg yolk 



Grayish- 
bufF or 
rusty- 
brown or 
yellowish 



Remarks 



I to 3 inches broad; 
gills, stem and cap 
colored alike. Gills 
thick; far apart. 



2 to 4 inches broad; 
Margin curled down- 
ward and inward ; 
gills forked. 



Name 



Cantharellus 
cibarius (12) 



Paxillus 

involutus (100) 



(Amongst 
special 
kinds of 
trees) 

Ever- 
greens 



Reddish- 
white, 
reddish- 
brown or 
leaden- 
brown 

Orange or 
red ; paler 
at margin 



Egg yolk 
yellow 



Whitish 
tinged 
with 
brown 
when 
moist; 
whitish 
when dry 

Grayish- 
brown or 
sooty- 
brown 

Orange or 
grayish 
orange 
with 
brighter 
mottled 
zones 

Tawny red, 
turning 
brownish 
red when 
old 



2 to 4 inches broad; 
cup at base of stem: 
no ring on stem; gills 
free from stem. 



3 to 6 inches broad; 
stem with ring; cup at 
base. No warts on 
cap. 

I to 3 inches broad; 
gills, stem and cap 
same color. Gills 
thick and far apart. 



J^ to 1 3^ inches broad 
gills thin; close to- 
gether; attached to 
stem or extending 
down it. 



I to 3 inches broad. 
Conic with apex down. 
Stem club shaped. 



2 to s inches broad. 
Orange milky juice of 
mild taste. 



2 to 4 inches broad; 
odor and taste branny ; 
gills notched at stem. 



Amanitopsis 
vaginata (8) 



Amanita 
caesarea (4) 



Cantharellus 
cibarius (12) 



Clitocybe 
albidula (19) 



Clitocybe 
clavipes (22) 



Lactarius 

deliciosus (73) 



Tricholoma 
transmutans 
(127) 



42 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY PLACE OF GROWTH (Continued) 



Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 


Whitish 


H to I ^ inches broad ; 


Clitocybe 


tmged 


pit in center when 


albidula (19) 


with 


mature; taste and 




brown 


odor branny; in 




when 


groups; stem short. 




moist; 






whitish 






when dry 






Orange or 


2 to 5 inches broad. 


Lactarius 


grayish 


Orange milky juice. 


deliciosus (73) 


orange 






with 






brighter 






mottled 






zones 







IDENTIFICATION BY TASTE 



Taste 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 




Pale honey- 


I to 6 inches broad. 


Armillaria 




yellow to 


Stem with ring. 


mellea (10) 




dark red- 


Tough. 


(slightly 




dish- 




acrid) 




brown 








Egg-yolk 


I to 3 inches broad. 


Cantharellus 




yellow 


Funnel-shaped. Gills 


cibarius (12) 






narrow; far apart; 


(slightly 






forked. Plant all 


acrid) 






yellow. 






Lactarius, al 


I species; some slightly, so 


me extremely so. 




White, with 


I to 4 inches broad. 


Lepiota 


A.crid, bit- 


reddish 


Gills white; free from 


americana (82) 


ing. 


or red- 


stem. Stem usually 




when 


dish- 


with ring. 




raw 


brown 
scales 








Light yel- 
lowish or 


I to 2 inches broad. 


Marasmius 




In woods. Dries with- 


peronatus (88) 




pale 
brick-red; 


out putrifying. Stem 






downy at base. 






turning 








wood- 








color or 








tan when 








old 








Tawny 


J^to ^ of an inch broad. 


Panus 






Kidney or shell-shap- 


stypticus (99) 






ed. On wood. Stem 


^,acrid and 






at edge. 


puckery) 



43 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY TASTE (Continued) 



Color of Cap 



Yellow 



Rosy or 
blood- 
red 



Yellowish 



Remarks 



2 to 4 inches broad. 
Wrinkled and often 
scaly. Stem with 
thick ring. Gills 

whitish; turning rusty 
when old. 

2 to 4 inches broad. 
Fragile. Sticky when 
moist. Gills pure 
white. Stem white 
or red-tinged. 

3 to s inches broad. 
Sticky when moist. 
Marginal radiating 
furrows. Odor of 
bitter almonds. 



Name 



Pholiota 

caperata (102) 



Russula 

emetica (115) 



Russula 

foetens (116) 



Pa<le 
yello'? 



Dark brick- 
red, often 
paler at 
margin 



Tawny, or 
brown- 
ish-red 



Tawny- 
reddish 



White, with 
reddish 
or red- 
dish- 
brown 
scales 

Yellowish 
or dingy- 
rusty 



White; 
some- 
times 
yellowish 



I to 2 inches broad. 
In woods on wood. 
Gills yellow, turning 
rusty when old. White 
down at base of stem. 

I to 3 inches broad. 
On wood; in clusters. 
Gills yellowish or 
greenish, turning 
brown when old. 

J^ to 2 3^ inches broad. 
White milky juice. 



2 to 5 inches broad. 
White milky juice, 
turning yellow when 
exposed. 

I to 4 inches broad. 
Gills free from stem. 
Stem with ring espe- 
cially when young. 



3 to 5 inches broad. 
Odor of bitter al- 
monds. Sticky when 
moist. Radial stria- 
tions at margin. 

2 to 4 inches broad. 
On ground in woods. 
Dry. Margin turned 
in when young. Gills 
notched. 



Flammula 
fiavida (52) 



Hypholoma 
sublateritium 
(66) 



Lactarius 

subdulcis (76) 



Lactarius 

theiogalus (77) 



Lepiota 

americana (82) 



Russula 

foetens (116) 



Tricholoma 
album (122) 



44 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY TASTE (Continued) 



Taste 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 




Whitish, 


I to 3 inches broad. 


Tricholoma 




yellowish 


Gills notched at stem. 


sejunctum 




or green- 


Stem solid; stout; 


(126) 


Bitter 


ish-yel- 


white. 




(cont.) 


low; 

streaked 

with 

brown or 

blackish 

fibers 








Whitish, 


H to I 1^ inches broad. 


Clitocybe 




brown- 


On ground, in groups 


albidula (19) 




tinged 


in woods. Gills thin; 






when 


close together; at- 






moist; 


tached to stem or 






whitish 


extending down it. 






when dry 








White; 


H to I M inches broad. 


Clitocybe 




shiny 


On ground in groups. 


candicans (21) 




when 


in woods. Gills very 




Branny, 


dry 


thin, close together. 
Stem waxy; polished; 
rooting and hairy at 
base. 




farina- 








ceous, 
mealy- 


Gray or 


2 to 4 inches broad. 


Clitopilus 


grayish- 


Gills grayish, turning 


abortivus (29) 




brown 


salmon when old. 






Hazel-nut 


I to 2 inches broad. 


Entoloma 




or umber 


Gills pink; notched. 


commune (49) 




Whitish or 


I to 3 inches broad. 


Entoloma 




brownish 


Gills whitish when 


grayanum (50) 




gray 


young, pink when 
mature. 






Tawny-red, 


2 to 4 inches broad. 


Tricholoma 




turning 


In groups or clusters. 


transmutans 




reddish- 


Sticky when moist. 


(127) 




brown 


Gills notched. 






when old 








Saffron or 


3 to 6 inches broad. 


Clitocybe 




orange 


In clusters on wood. 
Stem often eccentric. 
Gills decurrent 


illudens (25) 


Disagree- 




(Poisonous). 




able but 
not 


Watery- 


I to 3 M inches broad. 


Clitocybe 


acrid 


white, 


In clusters on ground. 


multiceps (27) 




grayish, 


Often irregular in 






yellowish 


shape from pressure 






or gray- 


by its fellows. 






ish-brown 







45 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY TASTE (Continued) 



Taste 



Sweet 



Color of Cap 



Tawny- 
rusty 



Remarks 



Sli 



to 2 inches broad, 
light knob at center. 
Edge turned in. Gills 
notched; pallid to 
tawny. Stem cream- 
colored. 



Name 



Hebeloma 
precox (56) 



IDENTIFICATION BY TIME (SEASON) OF GROWTH 



Time 
{Season) 
of Growth 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 




Reddish 
yellow or 
tawny; 


I to 2 inches broad; 
in tufts on wood; gills 
whitish; stem brown. 


Collybia 

velutipes (36) 


January, 
Feb- 


some- 
times 
darker at 
center 






and 
March 


Tawny 


J^to ^ of an inch broad; 
short stem at side; 
on wood; taste acrid. 


Panus 

stypticus (99) 




White or 
whitish 


J^ to i^i inches broad; 
cap attached by edges ; 
dry; leathery; gills 
split at edge. 


Schizophyllum 
commune (120) 



April 



Yellow or 
tawny ; 
darker at 
center 

Whitish, 
adorned 
with 

scattered 
yellowish 
scales. 
Turns 
black 
when old 

Buff yellow; 
some- 
times 
glistening 
with 
minute 
particles 
when 
young 



I to I H inches broad ; 
in tufts; sticky when 
moist ; stem brown ; 
hairy when mature. 

Cap oblong or cylindric. 
I /^ to 3 inches long 
before spreading; liq- 
uefies black when old. 



to 2 inches broad; 
bell-shaped or ex- 
panded. In clusters. 
Gills liquefy black 
when old. 



Collybia 

velutipes (36) 



Coprinus 
comatus 
Frontispiece 
(38) 



Coprinus 

micaceus (39) 



46 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY TIME (SEASON) OF GROWTH (Continued) 



Time 








(Season) 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 


of Growth 










Tawny or 


I to 2 inches broad. 


Naucoria semi- 




rusty- 


Hemispheric or con- 


orbicularis (92) 




colored 


vex. Sticky when 
moist. 






Yellowish 


3^ to I inch wide. Cap 


Omphalia cam- 


April (con- 


rusty to 


thin with pit at center. 


panella (93) 


tinued) 


dull 


Stem slender, polish- 






yellow. 


ed; hairy at base; on 






Darker 


wood. 






when 








moist 








Tawny 


M to H of an inch 


Panus 






broad; cap tough; 


stypticus (99) 






kidney-shaped. Stem 








at margin. 






White or 


1^^ to il4 inches wide; 


Schizophyllum 




whitish 


leathery; dry; downy. 
Stem at margin. 


commune (120) 




Tan, yel- 


J/^ to 2 inches broad. 


Collybia 




lowish or 


Gills light; stem 


dryophila (33) 




chestnut 


brown; hollow. In 
groups. 






•■'Grayish 


3 to s inches broad. 


Collybia platy- 




brown or 


Gills broad, notched 


phylla (34) 




blackish 


near stem ; stem 






brown 


white. 






Reddish 


I to 1 1^ inches broad. 


Collybia 




yellow or 


Sticky when moist. 


velutipes (36) 




tawny; 


Gills whitish; stem 




May 


darker at 


brown ; hairy when 






center 


mature. 






Grayish 


I to 3 inches broad. 


Coprinus atra- 




brown; 


Egg-shaped when 


mentarius (37) 




often 


young. Gills liquefy 






yellowish 


black when old. 






tint; 








blacken- 








ing when 








old 








Whitish 


Oblong or cylindric cap: 


Coprinus 




adorned 


1 3^ to 3 inches long. 


comatus (38) 
(Frontispiece) 




with 


before expansion. 




scattered 


Split at edge when 






yellowish 


old. 




1 


scales, 






! 


liquefy- 






1 


ing black 






' 


whe 






i 


old 







47 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY TIME (SEASON) OF GROWTH (Continued) 



Time 








{Season) 
of Growth 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 










Buff-yel- 


I to 2 inches broad; 


Coprinus 




low, often 


liquefying black when 


micaceus (39) 




brighter 


old. Radial marks at 






at center 


edge. 






Whitish; 


I to 3 inches broad. 


Hypholoma 




yellow- 


On ground. Fragile. 


incertum (64) 




tinged 


Fragments of veil at 






when 


margin when young. 






moist 








Pale red, 


3^ to 2 inches broad. 


Laccaria 




buff-red 


Gills attached to stem. 


laccata (69) 




or flesh- 


pale flesh-red or vio- 






red when 


let and powdered 






moist; 


white when old. 






grayish 








or buff 








when dry 








Buff or 


J^ to 2 inches broad; in 


Marasmius ore- 




tawny 


grass; shrivelled when 
dry; reviving when 


ades (87) 












moist. Stem slender. 








firm, tough. 




Mas 


Tawny or 


I to 2 inches broad; Gills 


Naucoria semi- 




rusty 


rusty; broad; near to- 
gether. Stem yellow- 
ish or reddish-brown. 
Spores rusty. 


orbicularis (92) 




Yellowish 


J^ to I inch broad. Cap 


Omphalia cam- 




rusty to 


thin, convex, with pit 


panella (93) 




dull yel- 


at center. Gills yel- 






low 


low. Stem brown; 
slender. 






Whitish- 


1/^ to I J^ inches broad. 


Panseolus papil- 




gray, 


In open places. Hem- 


ionaceus (96) 




often 


ispheric. Gills broad. 






yellow- 


gray, turning black 






tinged 


when old. Stem long, 
slender. Spores black. 






Cinnamon 


}i to iH inches broad. 


Panus 




or tanned 


On wood. Leathery. 


stypticus (99) 




leather 


Stem at edge. 






Whitish or 


I to 2 inches broad. 


Pholiota 




tinged 


Stem with ring near 


precox (104) 




with tan 


top; easily separable 
from cap. 






Dingy 


2 to 2 H inches broad ; 


Pluteus 




brown; 


gills pink when ma- 


cervinus (no) 




rarely 


ture; free from stem. 






white, 








yellow, 








ashy or 








blackish 







48 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY TIME (SEASON) OF, GROWTH {Continued) 



Color of Cap 



Whitish, 
grayish 
or gray- 
ish-brown 

Smoky- 
brown or 
reddish 
brown 

White or 
whitish 



Light 

yellowish 



Remarks 



y2 to I inch broad. In 
clusters. Spores 
black. 



^ to I inch broad. In 
grass. Cap conic. 
Gills brown; broad. 
Stem slender; fragile. 

J^ to 1 3^ inches broad. 
Leathery; downy; 
stem at edge. 

3^ to I H inches broad ; 
Hemispheric. Sticky 
when moist. Stem 
long; slender. Gills 
yellow, turning black 
when old. 



Name 



Psathyrella dis- 
seminata (iii) 



Psilocybe foeni- 
secii (112) 



Schizophyllum 
commune (120) 

Stropharia semi- 
globata (121) 



Amanitopsis vaginata (8) 

Cantharellus minor (18; 

Clitocybe multiceps (27) 

Collybia dryophila {33) 

Collybia platyphylla (34) 

Collybia radicata (35) 

Collybia velutipes (36) 

Coprinus comatus (38) Frontispiece 

Coprinus micaceus (39) 

Cortinarius corrugatus (43) 

Crepidotus fulvotomentosus (46) 

Crepidotus malachius (47) 

Crepidotus versutus (48) 

Galera hypnortmi (54) 

Galera tenera (55) 

Hygrophorus cantharellus (57) 

Hygrophorus miniatus(6o) 

Hypholoma incertum (64) 

Laccaria laccata (69) 

Lentinus lepideus (81) 

Lepiota Morgani (83) 

Marasmius oreades (87) 

Marasmius peronatus (88) 

Marasmius rotula (89) 

Mycena galericulata (90) 

Naucoria semiorbicularis (^92) 

Omphalia campanella (93) 

Panaeolus campanulatus (95) 

Panaeolus papilionaceus (96) 

Panaeolus retirugis (97) 

Pholiota precox (104) 

Pleurotus ostreatus (106) 

Pleurotus sapidus (107) 

Pleutius cervinus (no) 

Psathyrella disseminata (in) 

Psilocybe foenisecii (112) 

Stropharia semiglobata (121) 
Gilled mushrooms appearing during the months of July, August, 
September and October are not named in this section of this book. The 
majority of common species occur during these months. 

49 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY TIME (SEASON) OF GROWTH (Continued) 



Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 


Yellowish 


4 to 8 inches broad. 


Cantharellus 


brown 


Cap thin, downy. Gills 
forked; grayish-green. 


crispus (14) 


Yellow or 


I inch or more broad. 


Collybia 


tawny; 


On wood. In clus- 


velutipes (36) 


darker 


ters. Sticky when 




at center 


moist. 




Grayish- 


I to 3 inches broad. On 


Coprinus atra- 


brown, 


ground. Egg-shaped 


mentarius (37) 


often 


when young. Gills 




yellow- 


liquefy black when 




tinged. 


old. 




Black 






when old 






Wine-buff 


I to 2 inches broad. 


Flammula 


or or- 


Clusters on wood. 


polychroa (53) 


ange-buff 


Margin in-curved 




ground 


when young. Sticky 




with 


when moist. 




marginal 






scales of 






buff, pur- 






ple or 
lavender. 










Often 






purple 






when 






young 






Brownish- 


I to 3 inches broad. Gills 


Hypholoma 


red; yel- 


often eaten by insects. 


perplexum (65) 


lowish at 


pale yellowish turning 




margin 


greenish and purplish 
when old. 




Dark brick- 


I to 3 inches broad. 


Hypholoma sub- 


red; often 


Gills like H. perplex- 


lateritium (66) 


paler at 


um. In clusters on 




edge 


wood. 




White; cen- 


2 to 4 inches broad. In 


Lepiota 


ter rarely 


grass. Gills free from 


naucina (84) 


yellowish 


stem. Stem with ring; 




or smoky 


bulbous a base. 




Cinnamon 


1^ to I ^ inches broad. 


Panus 


or tanned 


Stem at edge of cap or 


stypticus (99) 


leather 


absent. On wood. 
Leathery. Taste 
puckery. 




White, yel- 


2 to 5 inches broad. In 


Pleurotus 


lowish, 


clusters on wood. 


ostreatus (106) 


ashy- 


Stem eccentric or at 


sapidus (107) 


gray, dull 


margin of cap. Spores 




lilac or 


of P. sapidus lilac. 




brownish 







50 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY TIME (SEASON) OF GROWTH (Continued) 



Time 
(Season) 
of Growth 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 


November 


Saffron- 
rust 
color 

Whitish, 
grayish, 
or gray- 
ish- 
brown 

White or 
whitish 

Light-yel- 
lowish 


3 to 5 inches broad. 
In clusters on wood. 
Scaly surface. Ring 
on stem. 

K to I inch broad. In 
clusters on wood and 
ground. Cap fragile; 
bell-shaped. 

J^ to I J^ inches broad. 
On dead wood. Dow- 
ny; leathery. Stem 
at edge of cap. 

J^ to I J^ inches broad. 
Hemispheric. Stem 
long; slender, Gills 
yellow; turning black 
when old. 


Pholiota 

squarrosa(ios) 

Psathyrella dis- 
seminata (ill) 

Schizophyllum 
commune (i2o) 

Stropharia semi- 
globata (i2i) 


December 


Reddish- 
yellow or 

tawny 

Brownish- 
red, yel- 
lowish at 
margin 

Dark brick- 
red; often 
paler at 
margin 

Cinnamon 
or tanned 
leather 

Saffron- 
rust - 
color 

White, yel- 
lowish, 
ashy- 
gray, dull 
lilac or 
brownish 

White or 
whitish 


14 to 2 inches broad. 
Gills lighter than 
stem or cap. Stem 
brown; velvety. In 
clusters on wood. 

1 to 3 inches broad. 
Gills often eaten by 
insects (before frost); 
pale yellowish, turn 
ing purplish and green- 
ish when old; In clus- 
ters on wood. 

Like H. perplexum, 
next above. 

34 to I M inches broad. 
On wood. Leathery. 
Stem at edge of cap. 

3 to 5 inches broad. 
In clusters on wood. 
Scales on surface. 
Ring on stem. 

2 to 5 inches broad. 
In clusters on wood. 
Stem eccentric or at 
edge of cap. 

i'^ to I H inches broad. 
On wood. Leathery; 
downy. Stem short; 
at edge of cap. 


Collybia 

velutipes (36) 

Hypholoma 
perplexum (65) 

Hypholoma 
sublateritium 
(66) 

Panus 

stypticus (99) 

Pholiota 

squarrosa(ios) 

Pleurotus 

ostreatus (106) 
sapidus (107) 

Schizophyllum 
commune (120) 



51 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY CHARACTER OF CAP 



Character of 
Cap 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 

r 


Coriaceous 






'■""* 


(see 
Leath- 














ery) 










Dull, white. 


I to 3 inches broad. On 


Amanitopsis 




yellowish 


ground in or near 


volvata (9) 




or, rare- 


woods. Gills free 






ly, red- 


from stem. Stem 






dish- 


with large cup or 






brown 


sheath at base. 






Pale honey 


I to 6 inches broad. In 


Armillaria 




yellow to 


groups or clusters. 
Stem with ring. 


mellea (10) 




dark red- 






dish- 








brown 








Yellowish- 


4 to 8 inches broad. 


Cantharellus 




brown 


On wood; often in 
tufts. Cap thin. Gills 
narrow; wavy; gray- 
ish-green. Stem at 


crispus (14) 












edge or absent. 




Downy, 








hairy. 


Yellowish, 


Cap 2 to 4 inches broad; 


Cantharellus 


(Fibril- 


inclining 


funnel-shaped; 3 to 6 
inches high (long). 


fioccosus (16) 


lose, 


to rusty 


(Hairy scales) 


floccose. 




Gills thick; branched. 




toment- 








ose). 


Dark 


2 to 4 inches broad. 


Cortinarius 




violet 


On ground in woods. 
Stem bulbous at base. 


violaceus (44) 




Whitish, 


% to 2 inches broad. 


Crepidotus ful- 




yellowish 


Attached to wood at 


votomentosus 




or pale 


edge or by short, mar- 


(46) 




rusty 


ginal stem. 






when dry 








White 


3^ to I inch broad. 


Crepidotus 






Attached to wood by 


versutus (48) 






its upper surface. 






White or 


2 to s inches broad. 


Lactarius 




whitish 


Milky juice. 


vellereus (78) 




White 


8 inches or more broad. 


Panus 






On stumps. Hairy 


strigosus (98) 






stem at side of cap. 


Schizophyllum -. 
commune(i2o) 




White or 


J^ to I J^ inches broad. 




whitish 


On dead branches. 






Cap tough; leathery; 








dry. No stem; at- 








tached at edge. 




Filbrillose 








See 








Downy 









52 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY CHARACTER OF CAP (Continued) 



Character of 
Cap 



Color of Cap 



Remarks 



Name 



Reddish- 


2 to 4 inches broad. 


white, 


Gills free from stem. 


reddish- 


Stem with cup but no 


brown or 


ring. 


leaden 




Dull white, 


2 to 3 inches broad. 


yellow- 


Gills free from stem. 


ish; rare- 


Large cup at base of 


ly red- 


stem. No ring. 


dish- 




brown 




Grayish- 


3 to 5 inches broad. 


brown or 


Gills white; brittle; 


blackish- 


broad. 


brown 




Pale yel- 


% to I 5i inches broad. 


low; 


Thin cap; sticky when 


some- 


moist. Radiating lines 


times 


at edge. Gills waxy. 


red- 




tinged at 




center 




Bright red 


J^ to I yi inches broad. 


or sul- 


Waxy. Cap conic. 


phur 


Gills and stem yellow. 


yellow 




Deep-red, 


]/^ to 2 inches broad. 


vermilion 


Waxy. Gills yellow. 


or yellow 


Stem slender; polish- 
ed; long. 


Bright red; 


I to 3 inches broad. 


paler or 


Sticky when moist. 


yellow 


Gills broad; thick; far 


when old 


apart; yellow or red- 




dish. Stem long; vari- 




colored. 


Whitish, 


I to 3 inches broad. 


yellow- 


Fragments of veil at 


tinged 


edge. Gills whitish, 


when 


turning brownish 


moist 


when old. On 




ground. 


Whitish, 


^ to J^ inch broad. In 


grayish or 


crowded tufts. Cap 


grayish- 


thin ; bell-shaped ;with 


brown 


radiating lines. Gills 




never liquefy. 



Amanitopsis 
vaginata (8) 



Amanitopsis 
volvata (9) 



Collybia platy- 
phylla (34) 



Hygrophorus 
chlorophanus 
(58) 



Hygrophorus 
conicus (59) 



Hygrophorus 
miniatus (60) 



Hygrophorus 
puniceus (62) 



Hypholoma 
incertum (64) 



Psathyrella dis- 
seminata (ill) 



53 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION ] 


BY CHARACTER OF CAP {Continued) 


Character of 
Cap 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 




Red, 


2 to 4 inches broad. 


Russula 




purple. 


Gills pale yellow, turn- 


alutacea (113) 




olive or 


ing rusty when old. 






green 


Stem thick; white or 
red. 




Fragile 


Rosy or 


2 to 4 inches broad. 


Russula" 




blood red 


Sticky when moist. 
Gills pure white. 
Taste acrid. 


emetica (115) 




Yellowish 


2 to 5 inches broad. 


Russula 






Odor of bitter al- 


foetens (116) 






monds. Radiating 








furrows at edge. 








Sticky when moist. 




Glutinous 








See 








Sticky 








Hygro- 








phanous 








Watery 










Buflf, tawny 


I to 2 inches broad. In 


Marasmius 




or cafe au 


grass. Dries without 


oreades (87) 




lait 


putrifying; revives 
when moist. Gills far 
apart; whitish. In 
"fairy rings." 


(when dry) 




Light yel- 


I to 2 1/^ inches broad. 


Marasmius 




lowish or 


Taste acrid; in woods. 


peronatus 


Leathery 


pale 


Radial marks at edge 


fWhen dry) 


(coria- 


brick-red 


when dry. 


(88) 


ceous) 










White 


8 inches or more broad. 


Panus 






Hairy. Stem at side 


strigosus (98) 






of cap. On wood. 






Tawny 


Ji to M inch broad. 


Panus 






Kidney-shaped ; tough. 


stypticus (99) 






Attached to wood by 








short stem at edge of 








cap. 






.White or 


J^ to I K inches broad. 


Schizophyllum 




whitish 


On wood. Tough; 
dry; downy. Stem at 
edge. 


commune (120) 


Phospho- 


Saffron or 


3 to 6 inches broad. In 


Clitocybe 


rescent 


orange 


clusters on wood. Gills 


illudens (25) 


(Glows 




decurrent. Stem often 




in the 




eccentric. 




dark- 








ness) 









54 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY CHARACTER OF CAP (Continued) 



Character of 
Cap 



Color of Cap 



Tawny 



Remarks 



J^ to ^ inch broad. 
Leathery; kidney- 
shaped; Attached to 
wood by short stem at 
edge of cap. 



Name 



Panus 

stypticus (99) 



Yellow or 
orange 


3 to 6 inches broad. All 
yellow. Stem with 
ring; cup at base. 


Amanita 

muscaria (s) 


Brownish- 
red or 
reddish 


3 to 5 inches broad. 
Gills white. Stem 
with ring; bulbous. 


Amanita 

rubescens (7) 


Reddish- 
white, 
reddish- 
brown or 
leaden- 
brown 


2 to 4 inches broad. 
Striated. Stem long; 
sheath or cup at base. 


Amanitopsis 
vaginata (8) 


Pale honey- 
yellow to 
dark red- 
dish- 
brown 


I to 6 inches broad. In 
clusters or singly. 
Stem with ring; usu- 
ally scaly. 


Armillaria 
mellea (10) 


Yellowish, 
inclining 
to rusty 


2 to 4 inches broad. 
Funnel-shaped. Gills 
blunt; forked; thick. 


Cantharellus 
floccosus (16) 


Whitish 
with yel- 
lowish 
scales 


I }/2 to 3 inches broad. 
Oblong or cylindric 
before expansion. 
Liquefies black when 
old. 


Coprinus 
comatus 
Frontispiece 
(38) 


Dark violet 
with 
hairy 
scales 


2 to 4 inches broad. 
Gills violet, turning 
rusty when old. Stem 
bulbous. 


Cortinarius 
violaceous (44) 


Whitish, 
yellowish 
or pale 
rusty 
when 
dry. 
Small 


% to 2 inches broad. 
Round or divided. 
Attached to wood at 
edge of cap. 


Crepidotus ful- 
votomentosus 
(46) 


tawny 
scales 






Wine-buff, 
orange- 
buff or 
greenish 
with 


I to 2 inches broad. 
Gills cream, to brown 
or purplish. Stem 
yellowish; tough. 


Flammula 

polychroa (53) 


wme- 
colored 
scales on 






margin 







55 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY CHARACTER OF CAP (Continued) 



Character of 
Cap 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 




Tanned 


J^ to I inch broad. Gills 




leather. 


adnate; whitish when 




rusty at 


young ; rusty when 




center, 


old. Stem whitish 




brown 


above, brownish be- 




lines rad- 


low. 




iating 






White or 


2 to 4 inches broad. On 




pale 


wood. Tough. Gills 




rusty 


saw-edged. 




with 






brownish 






scales 






White, 


I to 4 inches broad. 




with red- 


Gills free from stem. 




dish or 


Stem with ring when 




brownish 


young. 




scales 






White, 


4 to 12 inches broad. 




with 


Gills white when 




brown 


young; green when 




scales 


mature. Stem with 




that 


large ring. 




merge at 






the 






center 






Brownish, 


3 to s inches broad. 




with 


Gills far from stem. 




darker 


Stem long; with ring. 




scales. 






Whitish- 


3^ to 1 3^ inches broad. 


Scaly 


gray, 


Gills broad ; gray ; 
black when old. Stem 


or 


often 


Warty 


yellow- 


long; whitish; some- 




tinged 


times stained black 
by spores. 




Tawny, 


J^ to ^ inch broad. 




with 


Kidney-shaped. At- 




small 


tached to wood by 




scales 


short stem at edge of 
cap. 




Yellow 


I to 4 inches broad. 
Cap sticky. Gills yel- 
low when young; 
rusty when old. Stem 
with slight flaky ring. 




Yellow, 


2 to 4 inches broad. 




often 


Surface wrinkled. 




with 


Gills whitish to rusty. 




whitish 


Stem white; stout; 




flakes or 


with thick ring. 




scales 





Name 



Inocybe 

abundans (67) 



Lentinus 

lepideus (81) 



Lepiota 

americana (82) 



Lepiota 

M 



organi (83) 



Lepiota 

procera (85) 



Panaeolus 

papilionaceus 
(96) 



Panus 

stypticus (99) 



Pholiota 

adiposa (loi) 



Pholiota 

caperata (102) 



56 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY CHARACTER OF CAP (Continued) 



Character of 
Cap 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 




Saffron- 
rusty 


3 to 5 inches broad. 
Stem with ring and 
scaly. 


PhoHota 
squarrosa (105) 


Scaly 
or 
Warty 


Green or 
grayish- 
green 


2 to 4 inches broad. 
Gills white; some 
forked. 


Russula 

virescens (119) 




Rosy red or 
flesh- 
color 


2 to 5 inches broad. 
Sometimes small 
scales. Gills white; 
often red-spotted. 
Stem short; thick. 


Tricholoma 
russula (125) 




Silky-white 


2 to 8 inches broad. 
Gills flesh-colored; 
free from stem. Large 
cup at base. 


Volvaria 

bombycina 

(128) 
(Scaly when old) 




White or 
with 
dingy 
hues 


I H to 3 inches broad. 
Open places. Gills 
pink, turning brown 
and black when old. 
Ring on stem when 
young. 


Agaricus 

campestris (2) 


Silky 


White or 
tinged 
with yel- 
low or 
pink 


2 to s inches abroad. 
Gills pink, turning 
brown and black when 
old. Ring (sometimes 
double) on stem. 


Agaricus 

silvicola (3) 
(Slightly silky) 




Shining 
white 
when dry 


3^ to I M inches broad. 
Gills thin; close to- 
gether. Stem polish- 
ed; rooting; hairy at 
base. 


Clitocybe 

candicans (21) 




Watery- 
white, 
grayish, 
yellowish 
gray or 
grayish 
brown 


I to 3 3^ inches broad. 
In clusters on ground. 


Clitocybe 

multiceps (27) 
(Slightly silky) 




Yellowish- 
brown 


I to 2 inches broad. 
Radiating cracks. 
Stem slightly swollen 
at base. 


Inocybe 
rimosa (68) 




White; 
center 
rarely 
yellowish 


2 to 4 inches broad. 
Gills white; free from 
stem. Stem ringed. 


Lepiota 

naucina (84) 




Brownish, 

with 

spotlike 

scales 


3 to 5 inches broad. 
Gills free from stem. 
Stem long; with ring; 
bulbous. 


Lepiota 

procera (85) 



57 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY CHARACTER OF CAP {Continued) 



Character of 
Cap 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 




White, 


2 to 8 inches broad. 


Volvaria 


Silky 


covered 


Gills flesh-colored. 


bombycina 




with 


Large cup at base. 


(128) 




silky 








down 








Pure white 


I J^ to 5 inches broad. 


Amanita 




or varia- 


Gills white; free from 


phalloides (6) 




ble colors 


stem. Stem with 
ring; cup at base. 






Grayish- 


I to 4 inches broad. 


Collybia 




brown or 


Stem long and with 


radicata (35) 




smoky- 


long root. 






brown 








Reddish- 


I inch or more broad. In 


Collybia 




yellow or 


tufts on wood. Stem 


velutipes (36) 




tawny; 


hairy. 






some- 








times 








darker at 








center 






Sticky 


Yellow to 


I J^ to 3 inches broad. 


Cortinarius 


when 


golden or 


Web under gills when 


coUinitus (42) 


moist 


tawny 


young. Stem also 




(viscid, 


yellow 


sticky when moist. 




glutin- 
ous) 


Bright or 


2 to 4 inches broad. Cap 


Cortinarius 




reddish- 


furrowed. Stem long; 


corrugatus 




yellow or 


hollow; bulbous at 


(43) 




rusty 


base. 






Wine-buff, 


I to 2 inches broad. In 


Flammula 




orange- 


clusters on wood. 


polychroa (53) 




buff. 


Stem solid; scaly; 






often 


tough. 






green- 








tinged. 








Scales at 








margin. 








Pale yellow. 


^ to I ^ inches broad. 


Hygrophorus 




some- 


Gills and stem fragile ; 


chlorophanus 




times 


pale yellow. 


(58) 




red- 








tinged 








at center. 








Red or 


>^ to I M inches broad. 


Hygrophorus 




yellow. 


Cap strikingly conic. 
Waxy. Gills and stem 
yellow. 


conicus (59) 




Bright red; 


I to 3 inches broad. 


Hygrophorus 


* 


paler or 


Gills yellow or reddish. 


puniceus (62) 




yellow 


Stem pied in color. 






when old 







58 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY CHARACTER OF CAP (Continued) 



Character of 
Cap 



Color of Cap 



Orange 
with 
brighter 
zones 



Tawny- 
redaish 



Tawny or 
rusty 



Tan, gray 
or brown- 
ish 



Grayish- 
bufif, 
rusty 
brown or 
yellowish 



Yellow 



Watery 
cinnamon 
when 
moist; 
pale yel- 
low when 
dry 

Dingy 

brown ; 

rarely 

whitish, 

yellowish 

ashy or 

blackish 

Red, dark 
purple, 
olivaceous 
or green 

Blood red 
or rosy 



Remarks 



2 to 5 inches broad. 
Milky juice. 



2 to 5 inches broad. 
Milky juice turning 
yellow after exposure. 

I to 2 inches broad. 
Cap hemispheric. 
Gills rusty. 
Stem long. 



H to I H iiiches broad. 
Cap conic or bell- 
shaped, with cracks. 
Stem long. 

3 to 4 inches broad. 
Margin turned down 
and in. Stem some- 
times off center. 



I to 4 inches broad. On 
wood. Scales on sur- 
face. Flaky ring on 
stem. 

I to 2 inches broad. On 
wood. Stem with 
ring. "Fading phol- 
iota." 



2 to 2j^ inches broad. 
Gills pink; free from 
stem. Stem easily 
detached. 



2 to 4 inches broad. 
Gills yellow or tan. 



2 to 4 inches broad. 
Gills chalk white. 
Taste acrid. 



Name 



Lactarius deli- 
ciosus (73) 



Lactarius 

theiogalus (77) 



Naucoria 
semiorbicu- 
laris (92) 
(slightly 
viscid) 

Panaeolus 

retirugis (97) 



Paxillus 

involutus (100) 



Pholiota 

adiposa (lOi) 



Pholiota 

discolor (103) 



Pluteus 

cervinus (lio) 

(slightly 

viscid) 



Russula 

alutacea (113) 



Russula 

emetica (115) 



59 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION 


BY CHARACTER OF CAP {Continued) 


Character of 
Cap 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name] 




Yellowish 


3 to 5 inches broad. 


Russula 




or dingy- 


Radiating lines at 


foetens (ii6) 




rusty 


edge. Stinking odor. 




Sticky 


Light 


3^ to I K inches broad. 


Stropharia 


when 


yellowish 


Cap hemispheric. 


semiglobata 

(I2I) 


moist 




Gills yellow. Stem 


(viscid, 
gluti- 




also viscid, with in- 






complete ring. 




nous) 


Pale pink, 


2 to 5 inches broad. 


Tricholoma 




rosy or 


Stem short; solid; 


russula (125) 




flesh-color 


thick. 






Tawny-red, 


2 to 4 inches broad. 


Tricholoma 




turning 


Gills whitish, turning- 


transmutans 




reddish- 


dingy or spotted when 


(127) 




brown 


old. 






when old 1 






Tomentose 








(see 
Downy) 










Sooty- 


I to 2 inches broad. 


Cantharellus 




brown, 


Gills narrow; far 


infundibuli- 




brown- 


apart; forked. Stem 


formis (17) 




ish- 


slender; smooth; 






yellow or 


hollow. 






dingy 






Water- 


yellow 






soaked 


when 






in ap- 


moist; 






pearance 


grayish 






when 


or brown- 






moist, 


ish when 






but 


dry 






opaque 
when 


Blackish- 


I M to 3 inches broad. 


Clitocybe 


dry. 
Often 
chang- 
ing color 
as mois- 
ture 
evapo- 


brown or 


Gills far apart; united 


cyathiformis 


grayish- 
brown 
when 
moist; 
paler 
when dry 


at stem. 


(23) 


rates. 


Pale tan or 


I to 2 inches broad. In 


Collybia 


Hygro- 


flesh-red 


tufts on wood. Gills 


acervata(3i) 


phanous 


when 


whitish. Stem hol- 






moist; 


low; dark; usually 






whitish 


downy at base. 






when 








dry 








Reddish- 


% to xl4 inches broad. 


Collybia 




brown or 


Stem slender; long; 


confluens (32) 




grayish 


downy; color of cap. 






red when 


Dries without putri- 






moist; 


fying. 






whitish 








or gray- 








ish when 








dry 







60 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY CHARACTER OF CAP (Continued) 



Character of 
Cap 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 




Watery- 


H to I inch in diame- 


Crepidotus 




white 


ters. Attached to 


applanatus(4S) 




when 


wood by edge or by 






moist; 


short hairy stem. 






opaque 


Gills white, turning 






white 


cinnamon when old. 






when 








dry 








Watery- 


% to 2 inches broad. 


Crepidotus 




brown 


Cap with small scales. 


fulvotomen- 




when 


Attached to wood by 


tous (46) 




moist; 


edge or short mar- 






whitish 


ginal stem. 




Water- 


or yel- 






soaked 


lowish 






in ap- 


when 






pearance 


dry 






when 








moist, 


Watery- 


I to 2H inches broad. 


Crepidotus 


but 


white 


On wood, in groups or 


malachius (47) 


opaque 


when 


clusters. Caps irreg- 




when 


moist; 


ular in shape. Gills 




dry. 


opaque 


white; rusty when old. 




Often 


white 


Stem marginal, short 




chang- 


when 


or absent. 




ing color 


dry 






as moist- 








ure 


Umber 


5i to I ^ inches in diam- 


Entoloma 


evapo- 


(brown) ; 


eter. Gills whitish 


strictus (51) 


rates. 


shiny 


when young; flesh- 




Hygro- 

phanous 

(cont.) 




color when mature. 




Watery 


H to Yi inch broad. 


Galera 




cinnamon 


Gills often downy at 


hypnorum (54) 




when 


edge. 






moist; 








yellowish 








or buff 








when 








dry 








Tan or 


H to I inch broad. 


Galera 




brownish 


Conic or bell shaped. 


tenera {ss) 




slightly 


Stem long and slender. 






darker at 








center. 








Rusty 








when 








dry 








Bay or 


I to 2 inches broad. 


Hypholoma 




tawny- 


On wood. In clusters. 


appendicu- 




brown 


Fragments of veil at 


latum (63) 




when 


edge when young. 






moist: 








brown- 








ish yellow 








when 








dry 







61 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY CHARACTER OF CAP {Continued) 



Character of 








Cap 


IColor of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 




Whitish, 


I to 3 inches broad. 


Hypholoma 




yellow- 


On ground; open places. 


incertum (64) 


Water- 


tinged 


Splitting at edge. 
Stem splits easily. 




soaked 


when 




in ap- 


moist; 






pearance 


paler 






when 


when dry 






moist, 








but 


Flesh-red, 


H to 2 inches broad. 


Laccaria 


opaque 


buff-red 


On ground in woods. 


laccata (69) 


when 


or pale 


Gills flesh-red or vio- 




dry. 


red when 


let ; powdered white 




Often 


moist; 


when old. 




chang- 


pale- 






ing color 


ochre. 






as moist- 


grayish 






ure 


or buflf 






evapo- 
rates. 
Hygro- 


when dry 






Grayish or 


2 to 4 inches broad. 


Laccaria 


phanous 


pale tan 


On ground; open places. 


ochropurpurea 


(cont.) 


when dry; 


Waxy Gills and stem 


(70) 




purplish- 


color of cap or paler. 






brown 








when 








moist 








Brownish- 


3^ to 2 inches broad. 


Lentinus 




flesh 


In tufts on or about 


cochleatus (80) 




color 


old stumps. Tough. 






when 


Gills saw-like on edge. 






moist; 


Stem often at side. 






paler 








when dry 








Yellow- 


34 to I inch broad. On 


Omphalia 




rusty to 


wood, in clusters. 


campanella(93) 




dull 


Stem very slender; 






yellow 


hairy at base. 






Watery 


I to 2 inches broad. On 


Pholiota 




cinnamon 


wood in woods. Stem 


discolor (103) 




when 


with ring. 






moist; 








pale yel- 








low when 








dry 








Yellow or 


H to I inch broad. On 


Pluteus admir- 




brown 


wood in woods. Net- 
work of furrows. Gills 
whitish or yellowish 
when young; flesh- 
color when old. 


abilis (109) 




Whitish, 


3^ to H inch broad. In 


Psathyrella dis- 




grayish 


clusters. Radiating 


seminata (ill) 




or gray- 


lines on thin, fragile 






ish- 


cap. Resembles cop- 






brown 


rinus micaceus. 





62 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY CHARACTER OF CAP (Continued) 



Character of 
Cap 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 


Hygro- 
phanous 
(cont.) 


Smoky- 
brown or 
reddish- 
brown ; 
paler 
when dry 


H to I inch broad. On 
ground; in grassy 
places. Gills brown. 
Stem slender; fragile; 
hollow. 


Psilocybe 

foenisecii (112) 



IDENTIFICATION BY COLOR OF CAP 

Color, as a means of identifying gilled mushrooms, is used here only 
when it is a distinct, bright or noticeable hue. Confusion would result 
from attempts to distinguish species by reference to such common and 
indeterminate shades as buff, tawny, brownish, grayish and the like. 



Color of 
Cap 


Size of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 


Green or 
greenish 


iKto s 
inches 
broad 

iMto3 
inches 
broad 

2 to 4 
inches 
broad 

2 to 4 
inches 
broad 

I to 3 
inches 
broad 


On ground. Gills white: 
free from stem. Stem 
with ring; cup at 
base. 

On ground; August. Cap 
tough; fragrant 
(anise;) fading when 
dry. 

On ground in woods. 
Gills pale yellow, 
turning rusty when 
old. 

On ground. Patches 
on surface. Stem 
short; firm; white. 

Cap fleshy; fragile; 
knob at center; 
streaked with dark 
lines. 


Amanita 

phalloides (6) 

Clitocybe 
odora (28) 

Russula 

alutacea (113) 

Russula vire- 
scens (119) 

Tricholoma 
sejunctum 
(126) 


Orange 


3 to 6 
inches 
broad 

3 to 8 
inches 
broad 


On ground in woods. 
Cap smooth, with 
radiating lines at 
edge. Gills yellow; 
free from stem. Stem 
yellow; with ring; cup 
at base. 

On ground. Cap with 
warts or smooth. Gills 
white; free from stem. 
Stem with ring; ill- 
defined cup at base. 


Amanita 
caesarea (4) 

Amanita 
muscaria (s) 



63 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY COLOR OF CAP {Continued) 



Color of 
Cap 


Size of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 




I to 3 


On ground in woods. 


Cantharellus 




inches 


Cap plane or funnel- 


aurantiacus 




broad 


shaped. Gills narrow; 
forked; reddish or- 
ange; stem color of 
cap. 


(II) 




3 to 6 


On wood. Odor strong. 


Clitocybe 




inches 


Stem away from cen- 


lUudens (25) 




broad 


ter. Clustered. 




Orange 


H to I inch 


In clusters on ground. 


Hygrophorus 




broad 


Waxy. Gills whitish 


cantharel- 






or yellowish. Stem 


lus (57) 






fragile. 






2 to 5 


Orange-milky juice. 


Lactarius 




inches 
broad 


Bright zones on cap. 


deliciosus (73) 




2 to 5 


Milky juice. Gills 
(white) turn yellow or 


Lactarius 




inches 


volemus (79) 




broad 


dark where bruised. 


(Dull orange) 




2 to S 


Gills pink when young, 


Agaricus 




inches 


blackish-brown when 


silvicola (3) 




broad 


old. Stem with ring; 


(White pink- 






base bulbous but with- 


tinged.) 






out cup. 






HtoiH 


Variable in color and 


Mycena 




inches 


shape. Entire plant 


pura (91) 


Pink, 


broad 


of one color. 




flesh- 








color or 


2 to 4 
inches 


Taste acrid. Gills chalk- 


Russula 


salmon 


white; of equal length. 


emetica (115) 




broad 


Stem thick; white or 
pink. 






2 to 4 


Taste mild. Gills white 


Russula 




inches 


when young; yellow- 


purpurina 




broad 


ish when old. 


(118) 




2 to 5 


Gills notched near stem ; 


Tricholoma 




inches 


white, spotted red 


russula (125) 




broad 


when old or where 
bruised. Stem short 
and thick. 





IDENTIFICATION BY COLOR OF GILLS 



Color of Cap 



Hazel-nut 
or umber 



Remarks 



I to 2 inches broad. 
Taste, odor branny. 
Gills notched. 



Name 



Entoloma 

commune (49) 



64 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY COLOR OF GILLS (Continued) 



Color of \ „ . r ^ ^ 
Qllls Color of Cap 



Whitish or 
brown- 
ish-gray 

Umber- 
brown 



Brownish- 
flesh 



Some shade 
of brown 
or gray- 



Yellow or 
brown 



Dingy- 
brown ; 
rarely 
white, 
yellow, 
ashy or 
grayish 



Remarks 



I to 3 inches broad. 
Taste branny. Gills 
whitish when young. 

M to I ^ inches broad. 
Gills grayish - white 
when young. Cap 
shiny. Flesh-brown. 

M to 2 inches broad. 
In tufts on wood. 
Cap thin; tough. 
Gills with saw-like 
edge. 

Ji to I J^ inches broad. 
Conie. In clusters on 
wood. Stem hairy at 
base. 

J^ to I inch broad. 
Network of furrows. 
Gills whitish or yel- 
lowish when young. 
Stem downy at base. 

2 to 2j^ inches broad. 
Gills free from stem. 
Stem easily separable 
from cap. 



Name 



Entoloma 

grayanum (so) 



Entoloma 
strictius (51) 



Lentinus 

cochleatus (80) 



Mycena galeri- 
culata (90) 



Pluteus admir- 
abilis (109) 



Pluteus 

cervinus (no) 



IDENTIFICATION BY COLOR OF CAP 



Color of 
Cap 


Size of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 


Purple 


1 to 3 
inches 

2 to 4 
inches 

I to 2 
inches 


Cap with knob or umbo. 
Webby veil under 
young cap. Violet 
tints in gills and stem. 

Cap with hairy scales. 
Gills purple when 
young, rusty when 
old. Stem bulbous at 
base. 

Edge curved in when 
young. Sticky when 
moist. Colored spots 
at edge of cap. 


Cortinarius al- 
boviclaceus 
(40) 

Cortinarius 
violaceus (44) 

Flammula poly- 
chroa (53) 



65 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY COLOR OF CAP (Continued) 



Color of 
Cap 


Size of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 


Purple 


^toi}^ 
inches 
broad 

2 to 4 
inches 
broad 

1 to 3 
inches 
broad 

2 to 5 
inches 
broad 


Cap thin ; bell-shaped. 
Fine radiating lines 
at edge. Stem long. 

On ground in woods. 
Gills pale yellow; 
rusty when old. Stem 
stout. Taste mild. 

Gills white when young; 
yellowish when old. 
Color of cap rubs off 
when moist. 

Margin frosted and roll- 
ed in when young. 
Gills color of cap; 
free from stem. Stem 
short; stout. 


Mycena 
pura (91) 

Russula 

alutacea (113) 

Russula 

mariae (117) 

Tricholoma 
personatum 
(124) 


Red 


3 to 6 
inches 
broad 

3 to 8 
inches 
broad 

I to iH 
inches 
broad 

14 to linch 
broad 

Hto I^ 
inches 
broad 

H to 2 
inches 
broad 

I to 3 
inches 
broad 


On ground in woods. 
Cap smooth, with 
radiating lines at 
edge. Gills yellow; 
free from stem . Stem 
yellow with ring and 
white cup. 

On ground. Cap warty 
or smooth. Gills 
white; free from stem. 
Stem with ring; ill- 
defined cup at base. 

Cap irregular. Gills 
narrow; forked; color 
of cap. 

In clusters on ground. 
Cap thin; convex. 
Gills waxy; far apart; 
forked; whitish, yel- 
lowish or red-tinged. 
Stem long. 

Cap strikingly conic. 
Waxy gills. Stem 
yellow. 

Cap thin;"fragile. Gills 
yellow or red; waxy; 
far apart. Stem 
slender. 

Cap thin; fragile; sticky 
when moist. Gills 
broad; thick; far a- 
part; yellow or red- 
dish. 


Amanita 
caesarea (4) 

Amanita 

muscaria (s) 

Cantharellus cin- 
nabarinus (13) 

Hygrophorus 
cantharellus 
(57) 

Hygrophorus 
conicus (59) 

Hygrophorus 
miniatus (60) 

Hygrophorus 
puniceus (62) 



66 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY COLOR OF CAP (Continued) 



Size of Cap 



Remarks 



Name 



Russula. Many species. 



2 to 5 
inches 
broad 



Smooth or dotted with 
fine scales. Gills slight- 
ly notched; white. 
Stem short; thick; 
solid. 



Tricholoma 
russula (125) 



3^ to 3 
inches 
broad 



2 to s 

inches 
broad 



iMto 5 
inches 
broad 

2 to 4 
inches 
broad 



2 to 3 
inches 
broad 



inches 
broad 



I to 1 3^ 
inches 
broad 



>^ to I inch 
by H to 
% inches 



I to 2 H 
inches 
broad 

3 to 5 
inches 
broad 



Never in woods. Gills 
pink when young; 
turning brown and 
black when old. Stem 
with ring. 

On ground in woods. 
Gills pink when young, 
turning brown or 
backish brown. Stem 
with ring-sometimes 
a double one. 

On ground. Gills white; 
free from stem. Stem 
with ring; cup at base. 

Deep striations at edge; 
fragile. Gills free from 
stem. Stem long; 
with cup at base but 
no ring. 

Dry, soft, even surface. 
Gills white; some 
forked at base. Stem 
smooth; solid; white. 

Rarely stem is at side. 
Gills very thin; at- 
tached or decurrent. 
Stem waxy; rooting; 
hairy at base. 

Cap glossy; tough. Gills 
attached to stem; 
white; stem mealy at 
top. 

Kidney - shaped. At- 
tached by edge or by 
short hairy stem to 
wood. Hygrophanous. 

Kidney - shaped. In 

groups. Hygrophan- 



On ground in woods. 
Acrid, milky juice. 



Agaricus 

campestris (2) 



Agaricus 
silvicola (3) 



Amanita 

phalloides (6) 



Amanitopsis 
vaginata (8) 



Clitocybe 

albissima (20) 



Clitocybe 

candicans (21) 



Clitocybe 
dealbata (24) 



Crepidotus 
applanatus 
(45) 



Crepidotus 

malachius (47) 



Lactarius piper- 
atus (75) 



67 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY COLOR OF CAP (Continued) 



Size of Cap 



Remarks 




2 to 5 
inches 
broad 



2 to 4 
inches 
broad 



2 to S 

inches 
broad 



4 to 12 
inches 
broad 



2 to 3 

inches 
broad 



8 inches or 
more 
broad 

2 to 5 
inches 
broad 



2 to 2 J4 
inches 
broad 



2 to 4 inches 
broad 



2 to 4 inches 
broad 



2 to 4 inches 
broad 



2 to 8 inches 
broad 



On ground in woods. 
Soft wooly surface. 
Milky (slightly acrid) 
juice. 

On wood. Cap tough; 
hard when dry. Gills 
white with saw-like 
edge. 

On ground. Gills white; 
free from stem; stem 
with ring; no cup at 
base. 

Gills white when young, 
green when mature ; 
free from stem. Stem 
with large ring. 

Gills free from stem; 
white; pinkish or 
smoky - brown when 
old. Stem with ring; 
no cup at base. 

Cap hairy; stem at edge; 
on wood. 



On wood in clusters. 
Stem at edge of cap. 
Spores white (Those 
of P. sapidus lilac.) 

Gills free from stem; 
white when young ; 
pink when mature. 
Stem easily separable 
from cap. 

Cap sometimes stained 
yellowish. Gills white 
or faintly greenish 
when old. Stem short; 
thick. 



Lactarius 

vellereus (78) 



Lentinus 

lepideus (81) 
(white with 
brown scales) 

Lepiota 

americana (82) 
(white with 
reddish scales) 

Lepiota 

Morgani (83) 
(with brown 
scales) 

Lepiota 

naucina (84) 



Panus 

strigosus (98) 



Pleurotus 

ostreatus (106) 
sapidus (107) 
ulmarius (108) 

Pluteus 

cervinus (no) 
(rarely white) 



Russula 

delica (114) 



On ground in woods. Russula 

Taste acrid. Gills emetica (ns) 

chalk white. Fragile. (rarely white) 



Cap dry; margin turned 
in when young. Gills 
and stem white. 
Taste bitter. 

Cap silky-white. Gills 
pink. Stem with 
large cup. 

68 



Tricholoma 
album (122) 



Volvaria 
bombycina 
(128) 



KEY TO COMMON GULED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY COLOR OP CAP {Continued) 



Size of Cap 



3 to 6 inches 
broad 



3 to 8 inches 
broad 



I to 6 inches 
broad 



I to 3 inches 
broad 



J^ to I inch 
broad 



iHto3 
broad 



2 to 4 inches 
broad 



I to 2 inches 
broad 



I to 2 inches 
broad 



H to I inch 
broad 



Remarks 



On ground in woods. 
Cap smooth; radiating 
lines at edge. Gills 
yellow ; free from stem. 
Stem yellow; with 
ring; cup at base. 

On ground. Cap warty 
or smooth. Gills 
white; free from stem. 
Stem with ring; ill- 
defined cup at base. 

Cap hairy or smooth; 
tough; slightly acrid 
taste. Stem with 
ring. Gills attached 
to stem. 

Cap funnel shaped. 
Margin turned and 
irregular. Gills nar- 
row; forked. Plant 
all yellow. 

In groups. All yellow. 
Gills far apart ; decur- 
rent. Stem slender. 

Cap shiny when dry. 
Sticky when moist. 
Veil under cap when 
young. Whitish gills 
turn rusty when old. 

Cap corrugated; sticky 
when moist; convex. 
Stem bulbous and 
sticky at base. 

On wood in woods. 
Taste bitter. Pale 
gills turn rusty when 
old. 

On wood in woods. 
Edge curved in when 
young. Sticky when 
moist. Colored spots 
at edge. 

In clusters on ground. 
Cap thin; convex. 
Waxy. Gills yellow; 
far apart; forked. 
Stem fragile. 

69 



Name 



Amanita 
caesarea (4) 



Amanita 

muscaria (5) 



Armillaria 
mella (10) 
(honey yellow) 



Cantharellus 
cibarius (12) 
(egg-yolk) 



Cantharellus 
minor (18) 



Cortinarius 
collinitus (42) 



Corinarius 
corrugatus (43) 



Flammula 
flavida (52) 



Flammula 

polychroa (53) 
(orange buff, 
etc.) 



Hygrophorus 
cantharellus 
(57) 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY COLOR OF CAP (Continued) 



Size of Cap 



ito iH 
inches 
broad 



inches 
broad 



Mto 2 
inches 
broad 



^ to I inch 
broad 



J^to ^ 
inch 
broad 



I to 4 inches 
broad 



2 to 4 inches 
broad 



I to 2 inches 
broad 



J^ to I inch 
broad 



%to iH 
inches 
broad 



Remarks 



Waxy. Cap thin; 
fragile. Entire plant 
yellow. 



Cap strikingly conic. 
Waxy. Gills and 
stem yellow. 



Color uniform. Waxy. 
Cap thin; fragile. 



On wood in large clus- 
ters. Cap thin; with 
pit at center. Gills 
narrow; yellow; con- 
nected by veins. 



Cap thin; pit at center; 
yellow or pale orange. 
Gills decurrent. Stem 
long. 



On wood in woods. All 
yellow. Sticky; scaly 
Cap with flaky, disap- 
pearing ring. 



Cap often scaly and 
wrinkled. Whitish 
gills turn rusty when 
old. Stem with thick 
ring. 



Watery-cinnamon when 
moist. Gills pallid 
when young; rusty 
when old. Stem with 
ring. 



On wood in woods. 
Network of furrows. 
Gills pallid when 
young; flesh-colored 
when old. Gills free 
from stem. 



Cap hemispheric; viscid. 
Stem long; slender; 
ring near top. 



Name 



Hygrophorus 
chlorophanus 
(58) 



Hygrophorus 
conicus (sp) 



Hygrophorus 
miniatus (6o) 



Omphalia 
campanella 
(93) 
(dull yellow) 



Omphalia 
fibula (94) 



Pholiota 

adiposa (loi) 



Pholiota 

caperata (102) 



Pholiota 

discolor (103) 



Pluteus 

admirabilis 
(109) 



Stropharia semi- 
globata (121) 
(light yellow) 



70 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY FORM OF CAP 



Form of 
Cap 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 


Attached 


White 


J/^ to I inch broad. 


Crepidotus 


by its 


(downy) 


Kidney shaped. At- 
tached to wood. 


versutus (48) 


top 






(resu- 








pinate) 










White or 


On dead branches in 


Schizophyllum 




whitish 


woods. Tough; 


commune 






leathery; margin 


(120) 






lobed ; dries without 








putrifying. 






Whitish 


I to 3 inches high. On 


Coprinus 




with 


ground; open places. 
Cap cylindric. Gills 


comatus (38) 




scattered 


Frontispiece . 




yellowish 


whitish, liquefy and 






scales 


black when old. 






Buff-yellow 


I to 2 inches broad. In 


Coprinus 




or tawny 


clusters. Radiating 


micaceus (39) 




yellow 


lines on surface. Gills 
liquefy black when old. 




Bell- 


Tan or 


H to I inch broad and 


Galera 


shaped 


brownish ; 


high. Gills not at- 


tenera (55) 


(Cam- 


darker at 


tached to stem. Stem 




panu- 
late) 


center 


long; hollow; fragile; 






slender. 




when 








mature 


Tanned 


)4 to I inch broad. 


Inocybe 




leather 


Cracks on surface ; 
Gills whitish when 
young, rusty when 
old. 


abundans (67) 




Yellowish- 


I to 2 inches broad. 


Inocybe 




brown 


Gills pallid or tan. 
Stem slightly swollen 
at base. 


rimosa (68) 




Rusty-red 


J^ to H inch broad. 


Marasmius 






Cap dry; smooth; 


campanu- 






radiating furrows. 


latus (86) 






Gills far apart; whit- 








ish. Stem tough. 








shiny; i to 2 inches 








long. 






Some shade 


M to I J^ inches broad. 


Mycena 




of gray 


In clusters on wood. 


galericulata 
(90) 




or brown 


Stem hairy at base. 




Brownish, 


1^ to I inch broad. Open 


Panaeolus cam- 




with 


places. Edge often 


panulatus (95) 




leaden 


scalloped or fringed. 






tints 


Stem 4 to 6 inches. 





71 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY FORM OF CAP (Continued) 



Form of 
Cap 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 


Bell- 


Whitish, 


3^ to H inch broad; con- 


Psytharella dis- 


shaped 


grayish 


ic or bell-shaped. In 


seminata (ill) 


(Cam- 


or 


clusters. Thin; fragile; 




pan- 


brownish 


with radiating fur- 




ulate) 




rows. 




when 








mature 


Smoky- 


3-^ to I inch broad. . In 


Psilocybe foeni- 


(cont.) 


brown or 


grass. Gills brown. 


secii(ii2) 




reddish 


Stem 2 to,3 in. 






brown 








Silky 


2 to 8 inches broad. 


Volvaria bombsr- 




white 


Large cup at base. 


cina (128) 




Watery- 


J4 to M inch broad. 


Galera 




cinna- 


Long stem. Often in 


hypnorum (54) 




mon 


moss. 






when 








moist. 








buff 








when dry 








Tan or 


H to I inch broad and 


Galera 




brown- 


high. Gills crowded; 


tenera (ss) 


Cap conic 


ish; 


tawny; easily sepa- 




when 


darker at 


rated from stem. 




mature 


center 


Stem long. 




(apex 
up) 








Bright red 


H to I J^ inches broad. 


Hygrqphorus 




or sul- 


Gills waxy; yellow. 


conicus (59) 




phur 


Stem yellow; hollow. 






yellow 








Rose or 


% to il4 inches broad. 


Mycena 




purple 


Entire plant of one 
color. Veins between 


pura (91) 












gills. 






Tan, gray 


34 to I M inches broad. 


Panaeolus 




or 


Conic or bell-shaped. 


retirugis (97) 




brownish 


Network of cracks. 
Gills gray or black. 






Smoky- 


H to I inch broad. In 


Psilocybe 




brown or 


grass. Gills brown. 


foenisecii 




reddish- 


Stem fragile; 2 to 3 






brown 


inches long. 




Conic In- 


Yellowish 


2 to 4 inches broad, 3 to 


Cantharellus 


verted 


to rusty 


6 inches high (long). 


fioccosus (16) 


(Ob- 




Surface scaly. Gills 




conic) 




narrow; blunt; forked. 






Grayish 


I to 3 inches broad. 


Clitocybe 




brown 


Gills cream or white. 
Stem clubbed. 


clavipes (22) 



72 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY FORM OF CAP {Continued) 



Form of 
Cap 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 




Hazel-nut 
or umber 


I to 2 inches broad. 
Taste and odor bran- 
ny. Gills rosy-pink; 
notched near stem. 
Eat not. 


Entoloma 

commune (49) 
(Radiating 
cracks) 




Tanned- 
leather 


H to I inch broad. 
Bell-shaped or plane. 
Gills whitish when 
young; rusty when 
old. 


Inocybe 

abundans (67) 
(Radiating 

cracks) 




Yellowish- 
brown 


I to 2 inches broad. 
Gills pallid or tan. 
Stem slightly swollen 
at base. 


Inocybe 

rimosa (68) 
(Radiating 

cracks) 


surface 


Orange- 
brown 


2 to 5 inches broad. 
Milky juice. 


Lactarius 
volemus (79) 

(Cracks into an- 
gular patches) 




White or 
pale-rus- 
ty, with 
brownish 
scales 


2 to 4 inches broad. 
On wood. Dry; tough. 
Edge of gills saw- 
like. 


Lentinus 

lepideus (81) 
(Cracks form 

brownish 

scales) 




Tan, gray 
or 
brownish 


J^ to 1 1^ inches broad. 
Conic or bell-shaped. 
Stem long. Gills 
broad; gray or black. 


Panasolus 

retirugis (97) 
(Network of 

cracks) 




Green or 
grayish- 
green 


2 to 4 inches broad. 
Gills white; a few are 
forked. Stem short; 
stout; white. 


Russula 

virescens (119) 
(Cracks form 

scaly patches). 


Cylindri- 
cal 


Whitish, 
with 

scattered 
yellowish 
scales 


I to 3 inches high. On 
ground; open places. 
Gills whitish; liquefy- 
ing black when old. 


Coprinus 

comatus (38) 
(Frontispiece) 



Egg yolk 



Yellowish 
to rusty 



Sooty or 
brownish 
to yel- 
lowish or 
grayish 



I to 3 inches broad. 
Edge irregular. Gills 
far apart; narrow; 
forked; blunt. Plant 
all yellow. 

Cap 2 to 4 inches broad; 
3 to 6 inches long. 
Surface scaly. Gills 
narrow; blunt; forked. 

I to 2 inches broad. 
Edge irregular. Gills 
narrow; forked. Stem 
slender; hollow. 



73 



Cantharellus 
cibarius (12) 



Cantharellus 
fioccosus (16) 



Cantharellus 
infundibuli- 
formis (17) 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY FORM OF CAP (Continued) 



Form of 






Cap 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 




Blackish- 


I J^ to 3 inches broad. 




brown 


Cap thin; gills far 




when 


apart; stem short {% 




moist; 


to 1 1^ inches). 




paler 






when dry 






Reddish or 


2 to 3 inches broad. 




pale tan, 


Gills white. 




fading 






when old 




Funnel- 


White; 


3 to 5 inches broad. 


shaped 


often 


Milky acrid juice. 


(cont.) 


covered 
with dirt 






Brownish- 


Yi to 2 inches broad. 




flesh col- 


Gills sawlike at edge. 




or when 


Stem often off center 




moist; 


of cap. 




paler 






when dry- 






White, 


2 to 4 inches broad. 




some- 


Often pit at center. 




times 


Gills white; often 




with 


greenish when old. 




yellowish 


Stem short. 




stains 





Name 



Clitocybe cyathi- 
formis (23) 



Clitocybe infun- 
ibuliformis (26) 



Lactarius 

piperatus (75) 
(when mature) 



Lentinus 

cochleatus (80) 



Russula 

delica (114) 
(when old) 



N.B. — Several of the Lactarii (milky mushrooms) are nearly funnel- 
shaped when mature. 



Hem- 

ispheri- 
, cal 



Watery cin- 
namon or 
rusty 
when 
moist; 
often buff 
when dry 



Tawny or 
rusty 



Whitish- 
gray; 
often 
yellowish 



Vi to l^ inch broad. 
Gills broad ; far apart. 
Stem long; slender; 
hollow; downy at top. 



to 2 inches broad. 
Surface often cracked. 
Stem 3 to 4 inches; 
slightly enlarged at 
base. 



-^ to 1 3^ inches broad. 
May and June; open 
places. Gills very 
broad; stem 3 to 5 
inches; whitish or 
stained by fallen 
black spores. 



Galera 

hypnorum (54) 



Naucoria semi- 
orbicularis (92) 



Panaeolus papi- 
lionaceus (96) 



74 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY FORM OF CAP {Continued) 



Form of 








Cap 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 




Tan, gray 


J^ to I J^ inches broad. 


Panaeolus 




or brown- 


Open places. Network 


retirugis (97) 




ish 


of cracks about center. 
Stem 2 to 6 inches; 




Hem- 




often with band in 




ispheri- 




upper part. 




cal 








(cont.) 


Yellow (all) 


I to 4 inches broad. 


Pholiota 






On wood in woods. 


adiposa (loi) 






Sticky; scaly. Stem 








with flaky, disappear- 








ing ring. 






Yellow or 


J^ to I H inches broad. 


Stropharia semi- 




yellowish 


Open places. Viscid. 


globata (121) 




(all) 


Stem with ring at 
upper part. 






Egg-yolk 


I to 3 inches broad. 


Cantharellus 






Funnel-shaped when 


cibarius (12) 






mature. All yellow. 


(Edge turned 
in when young) 




Grayish- 


H to 1 1/^ inches broad. 


Cantharellus di- 




white, 


Gills repeatedly fork- 


chotomus (15) 




grayish- 


ed; light color. Stem 


(Edge turned 




brown. 


I to 3 inches. 


in when young) 




yellow- 








ish- 








brown ; 








blackish- 








brown or 






Incurved 


bluish- 






at edge. 


gray 






(Curved 


White; 


H to I inch broad. At- 


Crepidotus 


ward 


downy 


tached to wood by 


versutus (48) 


and in- 




edge or top. 




ward) 


Umber- 


^i to 1% inches broad. 


Entoloma 




brown; 


Open places; late fall. 


strictius (51) 




shiny 


Gills pink when old. 






White; 


3 to s inches broad. 


Lactarius 




often 


Acrid milky juice. 


piperatus (75) 




covered 




(Edge turned 




with dirt 




in when young) 




Tawny 


M to ^ of an inch 


Panus 






broad. Attached to 


stypticus (99) 






wood by short stem at 








edge of cap. 






Grayish- 


2 to 4 inches broad. 


Paxillus 




buff, rus- 


Gills decurrent; fork- 


involutus(ioo) 




ty-brown 


ed. Stem short; some- 






or yel- 


times eccentric. 






lowish 







75 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY FORM OP CAP (Continued) 



Form of 
Cap 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 


Incurved 
at edge. 
(In-^ 
volute. 
Edge 
turned 
down- 
ward 
and 
inward) 


White, yel- 
lowish, 
grayish, 
lilac or 
brownish 


2 to S inches broad. 
In clusters. Attached 
to wood by stem at 
edge of cap. 


Pleurotus 

ostreatus,(io6) 
Pleurotus 

sapidus (107) 


White; 
some- 
times yel- 
lowish, 
especially 
at center 


2 to 4 inches broad. 
Taste acrid or bitter. 


Tricholoma 
album (122) 




Lilac or vi- 
olet, pale 
grayish or 
whitish 


2 to s inches broad. 
Stem I to 3 inches. 


Tricholoma per- 
sonatum (124) 



Infundibu- 
liform 
See 

Funnel- 
shaped. 



Kidney- 
shaped 
(Reni- 
form) 



White 



Brown, rus- 
ty, or 
pale-yel- 
lowish 

White 



White; 
downy 



3^ to I inch by H to ?4 
of an inch broad. At- 
tached to wood at 
margin. 

^ to 2 inches broad. 
Attached to wood by 
its edge. 



I to 23^ inches broad. 
Attached to wood by 
its edge. 

J^ to I inch broad. 
Attached to wood by 
its top surface. 



Crepidotus ap- 
planatus (45) 



Crepidotus 
fulvotoment- 
osus (46) 



Crepidotus 

malachius (47) 



Crepidotus 

versutus (48) 



Knob 

(umbo) 
at center 
of cap 



Grayish, 
yellowish 
orbrown- 
ish 

Pale violet 
or white, 
with vi- 
olet tint 



Cinnamon- 
brown 



J^ to I M inches broad. 
Gills narrow; forked; 
whitish; extending 
down the stem. 

I to 3 inches broad. 
Gills purplish when 
young ; rusty when old. 
Stem violaceous; tap- 
ering upward. 

I to 2 inches broad. 
Webby veil under cap 
when young. 



Cantharellus di- 
chotomus (is) 



Cortinarius albo- 
violaceus (40) 



Cortinarius cin- 
namomeus (41) 



76 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY FORM OF CAP {Continced) 



Form of 
Cap 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Nam^ 




Hazel-nut 
or umber 


I to 2 inches broad. 
Cracks on surface. 
Margin lobed when 
mature. Gills pink. 


Entoloma 

commune (49) 




Umber; 
shiny 


% to I ^ inches broad. 
Open places; late au- 
tumn. Gills pink 
when mature. 


Entoloma 

strictius (51) 




Wine-buflf 
or or- 
ange- 
buflf; 
often 
greenish 
with 
colored 
scales 
at margin 


I to 2 inches broad. 
Sticky when moist. 
Stem scaly. 


Flammula 

polychroa (53) 


Knob 
(umbo) 
at center 
of cap 






Cinnamon 
to buflE 


J^ to J^ inch broad. 
Cap conic. Gills cin- 
namon. Stem I to 2 
inches long. 


Galera 

hypnorum (54) 




Tawny, 
rusty 


I to 2 inches broad. 
Edge turned in. Gills 
notched. Pallid to 
tawny. Stem cream- 
colored. 


Hebeloma 
precox (56) 




Yellowish- 
brown 
silky 


I to 2 inches broad. 
Radiating cracks.Gills 
attached to stem; pal- 
lid or tan. Stem 
solid; slightly swollen 
at base. 


Inocybe 
rimosa (68) 




White, with 
reddish- 
brown 
scales 


I to 4 inches broad. 
Gills white; free from 
stem. Stem with 
ring. 


Lepiota 

americana (82) 




Brownish; 
scaly 


3 to s inches broad. Gills 
5 to 10 inches long; 
stem with a collar. 
Gills free from stem. 


Lepiota 

procera (85) 




Buff or 
tawny 


I to 2 inches broad. In 
.grass. Dries without 
putrifying. Stem 
slender; tough. 


Marasmius 
oreades (87) 




Some shade 
of brown 
or gray 


H to i}4 inches broad. 
On wood. In clusters. 
Cap conic. Stem 
hairy at base. 


Mycena galeri- 
culata (90) 




Entire 
plant 
rose, pur- 
ple or 
lilac 


^ to I J^ inches broad. 
Cap thin; bell-shaped; 
fine radiating lines at 
edge. Stem long. 


Mycena 
pura (91) 



77 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY FORM OF CAP (Continued) 



Form of 
Cap 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 


Knob at 


Whitish, 


I to 3 inches broad. 


Tricholoma 


center 


yellow- 


On ground in woods. 


sejunctum 


of cap 


ish, or 

greenish 

yellow 


Gills and stem white. 


(126) 




Yellowish- 


4 to 8 inches broad. 


Cantharellus 




brown 


Stem at edge of cap or 
absent. Gills wavy; 
forked. 


crispus (14) 




Sooty- 


I to 2 inches broad. 


Cantharellus 




brown, 


Pit at center or funnel- 


infundibluli- 




brownish- 


shaped. Gills narrow ; 


formis (17) 




yellow or 


forked. 






dingy- 








yellow 








when 








moist; 








gray. 








grayish- 








yellow or 








grayish- 








brown 








when dry 






Lobed 


Grayish- 


I to 3 inches broad. 


Coprinus 


at edge 


brown, 


Gills liquefying black 


atrament- 




often 


when old. 


arius (37) 




yellow- 








tinged 








Buflf-yellow 


I to 2 inches broad. In 


Coprinus 




or tawny 


clusters. Gills lique- 


micaceus (39) 




yellow 


fying black when old. 






Hazel-nut 


I to 2 inches broad. 


Entoloma 




or umber 


Gills pink; notched. 


commune (49) 




brown 








Pale yellow, 


^ to I ^ inches broad. 


Hygrophorus 




some- 


All yellow. Thin ; 


chlorophan- 
us (58j 




times 


fragile. Gills waxy; 




red-tinged 


far apart. 






at center 








Red or sul- 


J^ to I H inches broad. 


Hygrophorus 




phur-yel- 
low 


Strikingly conic cap. 


conicus (59) 










Bright-red; 


I to 3 inches broad. 


Hygrophorus 




paler or 


Waxy; sticky when 


puniceus (62) 




yellow 


moist. Gills broad; 






when old 


far apart. 





78 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY FORM OF CAP {^Continued) 



Form of 
Cap 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 


Lobed 


Brownish- 


H to 2 inches broad. 


Lentinus 


at edge 


flesh- 


In clusters on wood. 


cochleatus (8o) 




color 


Gills sawlike at edge. 






when 








moist; 








paler 








when dry 








Tawny 


M to ^ inch broad. 


Panus styp- 






On wood. Taste acrid 


ticus (99) 






and puckery. Stem 








at edge of cap. 






Sooty or 


I to 2 inches broad. 


Cantharellus 




brownish 


Sometimes funnel- 


infundibuli- 




to yel- 


shaped. Gills narrow; 


formis (17) 




lowish or 


forked. Stem hollow; 






grayish 


slender. 






Yellow 


1^2 to I inch broad. All 


Cantharellus 






yellow. 


minor (18) 




Whitish; 


J^ to 1 3/^ inches broad. 


Clitocybe 




brown- 


Taste and odor bran- 


albidula (19) 


With PIT 


tinged 


ny. Gills attached to 




or small 


when 


or extending down the 




depres- 


moist. 


stem. 




sion at 


Whitish 






center 

(Umbili- 

cate) 


when dry 






White; 


3^ to I Ji inches broad. 


Clitocybe 




shiny 


All white. Gills de- 


candicans (21) 




when dry 


current. Stem root- 
ing and hairy at base. 






Red, orange 


3^ to I inch broad. 


Hygrophorus 




or yellow 


Gills yellow; waxy. 


cantharel- 






Stem, color of cap. 


lus (S7) 




Deep red, 


^2 to 2 inches broad. 


Hygrophorus 




vermilion 


Gills yellow Stem 


miniatus (60) 




or yellow 


like cap. 






Tanned 


H to I inch broad. 


Inocybe 




leather 


Cracks on surface. 
Gills whitish when 
young, rusty when 
old. 


abundans (67) 


PIT or 


Pale-red, 


J^ to 2 inches broad. 


Laccaria 


depres- 


buff-red 


Gills broad; flesh or 


laccata (69) 


sion at 


or flesh- 


purplish. 




center 


red when 
moist; 
biiff or 
grayish 
when dry 







79 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY FORM OF CAP {Continued) 



Form of 
Cap 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 




White or 


2 to s inches broad. 


Lactarius 




whitish 


Soft wooly surface. 
Acrid milky juice. 


vellereus (78) 


PIT or 


Whitish 


J^ to 3^ inch broad. 


Marasmius 


depres- 




Cap thin, with radiat- 


rotula (89) 


sion at 




ing furrows. 




center 










Dull-yellow 


J4 to I inch broad. In 


Omphalia 




or yel- 


clusters on wood. 


campanel- 




lowish- 


Stem hairy at base. 


la (93) 




rusty 








Yellow or 


34 to I inch broad. 


Omphalia 




pale 


Cap thin. Gills de- 


fibula (94) 




orange 


current. Stem long; 
slender. 






White, 


2 to 4 inches broad. 


Russula 




some- 


Funnel-shaped when 


delica (114) 




times 


old. Often pit at 






with 


center. Gills white. 






yellowish 


often greenish when 






stains 


old. Stem short; 
thick. 






Orange or 


3 to 6 inches broad. 


Amanita 




red ; paler 


Gills yellow; free from 


caesarea (4) 




at edge 


stem. Stem yellow; 
with ring. 






Bright red 


3 to 8 inches broad. 


Amanita 




or orange 


Gills white; free from 


muscaria (s) 




when 


stem. Stem with ring. 


(slight stri- 




young; 




ations.) 


With 
Radiat- 


yellow on 
margin 






ing 


when 






marks or 


mature 






furrows 








at edge. 
(Striate) 


Brownish- 


3 to s inches broad. 


Amanita 


red or 


Chalk white gills. 


rubescens( 7) 




red- 


Ringed stem, bulbous 






tinged; 


at base. 






warty 








Reddish- 


2 to 4 inches broad. 


Amanitopsis 




white to 


Cap thin; fragile. 


vaginata (8) 




reddish 


Gills white; free from 






brown or 


stem. Stem sheathed 






leaden- 


at base. 






colored 








Dull-white, 


I to 3 inches broad. 


Amanitopsis 




yellowish 


Gills white; free from 


volvata (9) 




or red- 


stem ; very large, lobed 






dish- 


sheath at base. 






brown 







80 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY FORM OF CAP (Continued) 



Form of 
Cap 








Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 




Buff-yellow 


I to 2 inches broad. 


Coprinus 




or 


Cap bell-shaped. In 


micaceus (39) 




tawny- 


clusters. Gills lique- 






yellow 


fying black when old. 






Umber 


^ to I 5^ inches broad. 


Entoloma 




brown; 


Gills pink when ma- 


strictius (51) 




shiny 


ture ; attached to stem ; 
notched. 






Watery- 


Ji to 1^ inch broad. 


Galera 


With 


cinnamon 


Gills cinnamon. Stem 


hypnorum (54) 


Radiat- 


when 
moist; 


I to 2 inches. 




ing 
marks or 


yellowish 






furrows 


or buff 






at edge. 


when dry 






(Striate) 










White, with 


I to 4 inches broad. 


Lepiota 




reddish- 


Gills white; free from 


americana (82) 




brown 


stem. Stem thicker 






scales 


at base; sometimes 
with ring. 






Rusty-red ; 


K to ^ inch broad. 


Marasmius 




darker at 


Thin; conic or bell- 


campanulat- 




center 


shaped. Stem dark; 
shiny. Dries without 
putrifying. 


us (86) 




Light yel- 


I to 2 or more inches 


Marasmius 




lowish or 


broad. Shriveled, 


peronatus (88) 




pale 


leathery when dry. 






brick- 


Stem curved and 






red ; paler 


hairy at base. 






when old 








Whitish 


>i to 3^ inch broad. 


Marasmius 






Cap thin; black spot 


rotula (89) 






at center. Dries with- 








out putrifying. 






Some shade 


34 to I J^ inches broad. 


Mycena galeri- 




of brown 


In clusters on wood. 


culata (90) 




or gray 


Stem hairy at base. 






Entire 


^ to I 34 inches broad. 


Mycena 




plant 


Veins between gills. 


pura (91) 




some 








shade of 








rose or . 








purple 








Dull yellow 


}^ to I inch broad. In 


Omphalia cam- 




or yel- 


clusters on wood. 


panella (93) 




lowish- 


Pit at center of cap. 






rusty 







81 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY FORM OF CAP (Continued) 



Form of 
Cap 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 




Yellow or 


^/6 to }i inch broad. 


Omphalia 




pale 


Cap thin; pit at cen- 


fibula (94)] 




orange 


ter Stem very long. 






Yellow or 


3^ to I inch broad. 


Pluteus admir- 




brown 


Cap thin; elevated at 
center. Gills flesh- 
pink when old. 


abilis (109) 


With 


Whitish, 


H ^o }4 inch broad. 


Psathyrella dis- 


Radial 


grayish, 


On ground in clusters. 


seminata (ill) 


marks or 


or gray- 


Cap conic. Stem 




furrows 


ish- 


white; i to iH inches. 




at edge 


brown 






of cap 








(Striate) 


Red, dark 


2 to 4 inches broad. 


Russula 




purple 


Gills yellowish. 


alutacea (113) 




oliva- 








ceous or 








green 








Blood-red 


2 to 4 inches broad. 


Russula 




or rosy 


Gills chalk white. 
Taste acrid. 


emetica (115) 




Yellowish 


2 to s inches broad. 


Russula 




or dingy 


Bad odor. Gills whit- 


foetens(ii6) 




rusty 


ish or yellowish ; some 
forked. 




Reniform 








See 








Kidney- 








shaped 









Revolute 
See 
Edge 
Turned 
up 



Sessile See 
Stem 
absent 




Split at the 
Edge 


Grayish- 
brown ; 
often 
yellow- 
tinged 

Whitish 
with yel- 
lowish 
scales 


I to 3 inches broad. 
Gills liquefying black 
when old. 

Cylindrical cap, i H to 
3 inches high before 
expansion. Turning 
to ink when old. 


Coprinus atra- 
mentarius (37) 

Coprinus 

comatus (38) 
Frontispiece 



82 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY FORM OF CAP (Continued) 



Form of 
Cap 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 




BuflF-yellow 


I to 2 inches broad. In 


Coprinus 




or 


clusters. Conic or 


micaceus (39) 




tawny- 


bell-shaped. Gills 






yellow 


liquefy black when 
old. 




Split at the 


Pale yel- 


^ to I ^ inches broad. 
All yellow. Cap thin; 


Hygrophorus 


Edge 


low; 


I chlorophanus 




some- 


fragile 


(58) 




times 








red- 








tinged 








at center 








Whitish; 


I to 3 inches broad. On 


Hypholoma 




yellow- 


ground; open places. 


incertum (64) 




tinged 


Gills white turning 






when 


purplish-brown. 






moist 






Striatu- 








iate, 








Striate, 








See Rad- 








ial 








marks 









Umbonate 
See 








Knob at 








center 










White or 


I M to 3 inches broad. 


Agaricus 




with 


Gills pink; turning 


campestris (2) 




dingy 


brown and black when 






hues 


old. 






Bright 


2 to 4 inches. Cap fur- 


Cortinarius 




yellow. 


rowed. Stem long; 


corrugatus (43) 




reddish- 


bulbous. 






yellow or 








rusty 






Veil. Frag- 


Bay or taw- 


I to 2 inches broad. On 


Hypholoma 


ments of. 


ny-brown 


wood; in clusters. 


appendicula- 


at edge 


when 




tum (63) 


of Cap 


moist; 
brown- 
ish- 
yellow 
when dry 







83 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY FORM OF CAP {Continued) 


Form of 
Cap 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 




Whitish; 


I to 3 inches broad. On 


Hypholoma 




yellow- 


ground; open places. 
Splitting at edge. 


incertum (64) 




tinged 






when 








moist; 








paler 








when dry 








Brownish, 


J^ to I inch broad. Cap 


Panaeolus cam- 




gray- or 


bell - shaped. Stem 


panulatus (86) 




leaden 


dusted with black 






tinted; 


spores when old 3^ to 






some- 


1 3^ inches long. 






times red 








tinted 








Tan, gray 


J/^ to I J^ inches broad. 


Panaeolus 




or brown- 


A network or cracks 


retirugis (97) 




ish 


on surface. 






Egg yellow 


I to 3 inches broad. 


Cantharellus 






Funnel-shaped, 


cibarius (12) 




Sooty, 


I to 2 inches broad. 


Cantharellus in- 




brown- 


Funnel-shaped. 


fundibuli- 




ish, yel- 




formis (17) 




lowish or 








grayish 








Yellow 


3^ to I inch broad. 


Cantharellus 


Cap with a 
WAVY 




Funnel-shaped. 


minor (18) 


Ivory white 


I to I H inches broad. 


Clitocybe 


Edge 




In grass. Tough; 
glossy. 


dealbata (24) 




Green or 


iK to 3 inches broad. 


Clitocybe 




dingy- 


Odor of anise. 


odora (28) 




green 








Tan, yel- 


3^ to 2 inches broad. 


Collybia 




lowish or 


Gills light, stem dark. 


dryophila (33) 




chestnut 








Grayish- 


3 to 5 inches broad. 


Collybia platy- 




brown or 


Gills broad; white. 


phylla (34) 




blackish- 


Stem white. 






brown 








Buflf-yellow 


I to 2 inches broad. In 


Coprinus 




or tawny 


clusters. Conic. Ra- 


micaceus (39) 




yellow 


diating lines at edge. 
Liquefying black when 
old. 






Umber 


^/i to i^/i inches broad. 


Entolma 




(brown) 


On ground in grassy- 


strictius (51) 




with a 


places. Gills flesh- 






silvery 


colored when mature; 






sheen 


notched. 






when dry 







84 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY FORM OF CAP {Continued) 



Color of Cap 



Pale yellow 



Deep red, 
vermilion 
or yellow 



Bright red; 
paler or 
yellow 
when old 

Whitish; 
yellow- 
tinged 
when 
moist; 
paler 
when dry 

Brownish- 
red or 
tawny 



Lilac or 
violet, 
grayish 
or almost 
white 

White, yel- 
lowish, 
gray, lilac 
or 
brownish 



Remarks 



I to 2 inches broad. 
In woods on wood. 
Stem downy at base. 
Taste bitter. 

J^ to 2 inches broad. 
Gills like cap or paler; 
waxy. Stem i to 3 
inches. 

I t9 3 inches broad. 
Gills yellow or red- 
dish; waxy. Stem 
pied in color. 

I to 3 inches broad. 
On ground; open 
places. Splitting at 
edge. Stem splits. 



H to 2yi inches broad. 
Funnel-shaped when 
old. Milky juice; 
mild or slightly bitter. 



2 t9 5 inches broad. 
Gills color of cap or 
duller. Stem short; 
stout. 



2 to 5 inches broad. On 
wood ; stem at edge ; in 
clusters. 



Name 



Flammula 
flavida (52) 



Hygrophorus 
miniatus (60) 



Hygrophorus 
puniceus (62) 



Hypholoma 
incertum (64) 



Lactarius 

subdulcis (76) 



Tricholoma per- 
sonatum (124) 



Pleurotus os- 
treatus (106) 
(sapidus; (107) 



Yellow or 
rusty 



Whitish, 
tinged 
with yel- 
low when 
moist 

Chestnut, 
paler 
when old 

Sooty- 
brown 



2 to 4 inches broad. 
Sticky when moist. 
Stem bulbous and 
sticky at base. 

I to 3 inches broad. On 
ground. Gills whitish 
when young, purplish- 
brown when old. 



3 to 5 inches broad. 
Milky juice. 



I to 4 inches broad. 
Milky juice, mild or 
slightly acrid. 



Cortinarius 
corrugatus (43) 



Hypholoma 
incertum (64) 



Lactarius 
corrugis (72) 



Lactarius 

lignyotus (74) 



85 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY FORM OF CAP (Continued) 



Form of 
Cap 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 


WRIN- 
KLED 
surface 


Marasmius all species when dry. 

Tan, gray H to 1 3^ inches broad. 

or brown- Cap sticky when 

ish. moist. Fragments of 

veil at margin. Long, 

hollow stem. 

Yellow 2 "to 4 inches broad, 
with Stem with a ring, 
whitish 
flakes 


Panaeolus 
retirugis (97) 

Pholiota caper- 
ata (102) 



IDENTIFICATION BY SIZE OF CAP 

N.B. — The extremes of size only, are used here for identification. 

Gilled Mushroom with Broad Caps 



Size of 




Cap 


Name 




Agaricus arvensis (i) 




Agaricus silvicola (3) 




Amanita cassarea (4) 




Amanita muscaria (5) 




Amanita phalloides (6) 


LARGE 


Amanita rubescens (7) 


Cap; 


Amanitopsis vaginata (8) 


Four 


Armillaria mellea (10) 


or more 


Cantharellus crispus (14.) 
Cantharellus floccosus (16) 


inches 


broad 


Clitocybe illudens (25) 
Clitopilus abortivus (29) 






Collybia platyphylla (34) 




Collybia radicata (35) 




Cortinarius corrugatus (43) 




Cortinarius violaceus (44^ 




Laccaria ochropurpurea (68) 




Lactarius corrugis (72) 




Lactarius deliciosus (73) 
Lactarius lignyotus (74) 






Lactarius piperatus (75) 
Lactarius theiogalus (77) 






Lactarius vellereus (78) 




Lactarius volemus (70) 
Lentinus lepideus (81) 






Lepiota americana (82) 




Lepiota morgani (83) 




Lepiota naucina (8a) 
Lepiota procera (85) 
Panus strigosus (98) 








Paxillus involutus (100) 




Pholiota adiposa (loi) 




Pholiota caperata (102) 



86 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY SIZE OF CAP (Continued) 
Gilled Mushrooms with Broad Caps (Continued) 



Size of 




Cap 


Name 




Pholiota squarrosa (105) 


LARGE 


Pleurotus ostreatus (106) 


Cap; 


Pleurotus sapidus (107) 


Four or 


Pleurotus ulmarius (108) 


more 


Russula alutacea (113) 


inches 


Russula delica (114) 


broad 


Russula emetica (iis) 




Russula foetens (116) 
Russula Marias (117) 






Russula purpurina (118) 




Russula virescens (119) 




Tricholoma album (122) 




Tricholoma equestre (123) 




Tricholoma personatum (124) 




Tricholoma russula (125) 




Tricholoma transmutans (127) 




Volvaria bombycina (128) 



IDENTIFICATION BY SIZE OP CAP 

Mushrooms with Small Caps 

N. B. — Some of the Species in this table also occur of larger 
size than one inch. 



Size of 
Cap 



SMALL 
Cap; 
One inch 
or less 
in 
diameter 



Name 



Cantharellus cinnabarinus (13) 
Cantharellus dichotomus (15) 
Cantharellus minor (18) 
Clitocybe albidula (19) 
Clitocybe candicans (21) 
Clitocybe clavipes (22) 
Clitocybe dealbata(2A) 
Collybia acervata (31) 
Collybia confluens (32) 
Collybia dryophila (33) 
Coprinus micaceus (39) 
Cortinarius cinnamomeus (41) 
Crepidotus applanatus (45) 
Crepidotus fulvotomentosus (46) 
Crepidotus malachius (47) 
Crepidotus versutus (a8) 
Entoloma grayanum (50) 
Entoloma strictius (51) 
Flammula fiavida (52) 
Flammula polychroa (53) 
Galera hypnorum (54) 
Galera tenera (55) 
Hygrophorus cantharellus (57) 
Hygrophorus chlorophanus (58) 
Hygrophorus conicus (59) 
Hygrophorus miniatus. (60) 
Hygrophorus pratensis (61) 
Hygrophorus puniceus (62) 

87 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATIOISr. BY SIZE OF CAP (Continued) 
Mushrooms with Small Caps (Continued) 



Size of 




Cap 


Name 




Hypholoma appendiculatum (63) 




Hypholoma incertum (64) 




Inocybe abundans (67) 




Inocybe rimosa (68) 




Laccaria laccata (69) 




Lactarius camphoratus (71) 




Lactarius lignyotus (74) 
Lactarius subdulcis (76) 
Lentinus cochleatus (80) 


ONE 


INCH 


or less 


Lepiota americana (82) 


in 


Marasmius campanulatus (86) 


diameter 


Marasmius oreades (87) 




Marasmius peronatus (88) 




Marasmius rotula (89) 
Mycena galericulata (90) 






Mycena pura (91) 




Naucoria semiorbicularis (92) 




Omphalia campanella (93) 
Oinphalia fibula (94) 






Panaeolus campanulatus (9s) 




Panaeolus papilionaceus (96) 




Panseolus retriugis (97) 
Panus stypticus (99) 






Pholiota discolor (103) 
Pholiota precox (104) 
Pluteus admirabilis C^op) 








Psathyrella disseminata (iii) 




Psilocybe foenisecii (112) 




Russula mariae (117) 




Schizophyllum commune (120) 




Stropharia semiglobata (121) 



GILLS 

IDENTIFICATION BY CHARACTER OF THE GILLS 



Character of 
Gills 



BRITTLE 



Color of Cap 



Grayish- 
brown or 
blackish- 
brown 



Red, dark 
purple, 
oliva- 
ceous or 
green 

Rosy or 
blood- 
red 



Remarks 



3 to 5 inches broad. 
Gills broad; white 
stem white. 



2 to 4 inches broad. 
Gills yellow; of equal 
length. 



2 to 4 inches broad. 
Gills chalk white; 
Acrid taste. 



Name 



Collybia 
platyphyl- 
la (34) 
(brittle when 
old.) 

Russula 

alutacea (113) 



Russula 

emetica (iis) 



88 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY CHARACTER OF THE GILLS (Continued) 



Character of 
Gills 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 


BRITTLE 


Yellowish- 
or dingy 
rusty 


2 to 5 inches broad. 
Sticky when moist. 
Radial marks at edge. 
Bad odor. 


Russula 

foetens (ii6) 




Rosy pink, 
yellowish 
or light 
yellow 


I /^ to 2 H inches broad. 
Gills white; yellowish 
when old. Stem red. 


Russula 
purpur- 
ina (ii8) 




Green or 
grayish- 
green 


2 to 4 inches broad. 
Scaly surface. 


Russula 

virescens (119) 


Gills f ai 
Gills fre 


■ apart (distan 
e from stem. 


t) see under Gills, form of. 
See under Gills, form of 




Milky J 


uice. See under Mushroom, character o 


f 




Grayish- 
brown ; 
often yel- 
low-ting- 
ed ;black- 
ening 
when old 


I to 3 inches broad. 
Egg-shaped. Gills 
whitish when young, 
pinkish, then black 
when old. 


Coprinus 

atramentari- 
us (37) 


LIQUE- 
FYING 
when 
old. 


Whitish 
with yel- 
low scales 


Oblong or cylindric cap; 
1 3^ to 3 inches long 
before expansion. 
Split at edge when 
old. 


Coprinus 

comatus (38) 
(Frontispiece) 




Buff yel- 
low; 
often 
brighter 
at center 


I to 2 inches broad. 
Conic. In clusters. 
Thin; radial marks at 
edge. 


Coprinus 

micaceus (39) 



FAR 

APART 
(dis- 
tant.) 



Egg yolk 
yellow 



Sooty- 
brown or 
yellowish 
when 
moist; 
gray, 
grayish- 
yellow or 
grayish- 
brown 
when dry 



I to 3 inches broad. All 
yellow. Funnel-shap- 
ed. 



I to 2 inches broad. 
Depressed at center; 
often wavy at edge. 
Gills narrow; forked. 



Cantharellus 
cibarius (12) 



Catharellus 
infundibuli- 
formis (17) 



89 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY CHARACTER OF THE GILLS (Continued) 



Character of 
Gills 



Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 


Yellow, 


1/2 to I inch broad. De- 


Cantharellus 


whitish 


pressed at center; 


minor (i8) 


or pale 
yellow 


edge often wavy. 




Gills narrow; yellow. 




Blackish- 


1 3^^ to 3 inches broad. 


Clitocybe 


brown or 


Depressed at center. 


cyathiform- 


grayish- 


Hygrophanous. Cap 


is (23) 


brown 


fleshy but thin. 




when 






moist; 






paler 






when dry 






Whitish or 


2 to 3 inches broad. 


Clitopilus 


grayish 


Bloom on surface. 
Odor branny. Gills 
salmon when old. 


prunulus (30) 


Grayish- 


I to 4 inches broad. 


Collybia 


brown or 


Stem long and deeply 


radicata (35) 


smoky- 


rooted. 




brown 






Dark violet 


2 to 4 inches broad. 


Cortinarius 




Hairy scales. Gills 


violaceus (44) 




turn from violet to 






rusty when old. 




Red, orange 


1/^ to I inch broad. 


Hygrophorus 


or yellow 


Sometimes depressed 


cantharel- 




at center. Gills broad; 


lus (57) 




decurrent. Stem i to 






3 inches long. 




Red, 


1^ to 2 inches broad. 


Hygrophorus 


vermilion 


Thin; fragile; often 


miniatus (60) 


or yellow 


pit at center. 




Tawny, 


I to 3 inches broad. 


Hygrophorus 


reddish, 


Gills whitish or yel- 


pratensis (61) 


buff. 


lowish with veins be- 




ashy or 


tween them; waxy. 


i 


whitish 




1 


Flesh-red 


1^ to 2 inches broad. 


Laccaria 


or buff- 


Gills thick, broad. 


laccata (69) 


red when 


sometimes purplish 




moist. 


and dusted. 




Pale 






ochre. 






grayish 






or buff 






when dry 






Purplish- 


2 to 4 inches broad. 


Laccaria 


brown 


Waxy; gills color of 


ochropur- 


when 


cap or paler; thick; 


purea (70) 


moist; 


broad. 




tan or 






grayish 






when dry 


' 





90 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY CHARACTER OF THE GILLS {Continued) 



Character of 
Gills 



Separable 
easily 
from 
cap 



Color of Cap 



Tan-color- 
ed or 
brownish; 
darker at 
center 



Remarks 



Name 



Marasmius, all species. 

J^ to I inch broad and 
high (conic). Stem 
fragile; hollow; 3 to 
4 ^2 inches long. 



Pazillus, all species. 



Galera 

tenera (55) 



Waxy 



Cantharellus, all species. 



IDENTIFICATION BY COLOR OF THE GILLS 

N.B. — Color of gills is used for identification of species only in cases 
where it differs from the color of the cap and where it is of a noticeably 
clear, distinct or unusual hue. 



Color of 
Gills 



Black 



Color of Cap 



White or 
yellowish 



White or 
with 
dingy 
hues 



White or 
tinged 
with 

yellow or 
pink 



Grayish- 
brown ; 
often 
yellow- 
tinged; 
blacken- 
ing when 
old 



Remarks 



to 5 inches broad. 
Gills whitish when 
young, turning pink 
and then brown and 
black when old. Stem 
with double ring. 



3^ to 3 inches broad. 
Gills pink when 
young, turning brown 
and then black when 
old. Stem ringed 
when young. 

to 5 inches broad. 
Gills pink, turning 
brown and then black 
when old. Ring 

(sometimes double) 
on stem. 



to 3 inches broad. 
Gills whitish when 
young, turning pink- 
ish to black when old. 
Cap egg-shaped. 



Name 



Agaricus 
arvensis (i) 



Agaricus 

campestris (2) 



Agaricus 
silvicola (3) 



Coprinus 

atramentari- 
us (37) 



91 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY COLOR OF THE GILLS (Continued) 



Color of 
Gills 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 


Black 


Buff 
yellow; 
often 
brighter 
at center 

Brownish; 
leaden or 
reddish- 
tinted 

Whitish- 
gray, 
often 
yellow- 
tinged 

Tan, gray 
or brown- 
ish 

Whitish, 
grayish 
or gray- 
ish- 
brown 


I to 2 inches broad. In 
clusters. Conic. 
Thin; radial marks at 
edge. Whitish gills 
turn black when old 
and liquefy. 

J/^ to I inch broad. 
Bell-shaped. Stem 4 
to 6 inches. 

J^ to I H inches broad. 
Hemispheric. Stem 
3 to 5 inches. 

J^ to I H inches broad. 
Surface cracked. 
Conic. Stem 2 to 6 
inches. 

M to ^ inch broad. 
In clusters. Very 
thin; conic. Stem i 
to i}i inches long 


Coprinus 

micaceus (38) 
(Frontispiece) 

Panasoius 
campanula t- 
us (95) 

Panasolus 
papiliona- 
ceus (96) 

Panaeolus 

returugis (97) 

Psathyrella 
disseminata 
(III) 


Green 


Yellowish- 
brown 

White with 
brown 
scales 


4 to 8 inches broad. 
On wood. Gills often 
forked; wavy. Stem 
lateral or absent. 

4 to 12 inches broad. 
Gills free from stem. 
Ring on stem but no 
cup. 


Cantharellus 
crispus (14) 

Lepiota 

morgani (83) 



N, 



B. — Hypholoma 
perlexum (65) 
and 
sublateritium (66) 



have sometimes a greenish tinge to the gills 
when old. 



Russula 



delica (114) Gills often tinged greenish when old. 



Pink, 
flesh- 
colored 


White or 
yellowish 


2 to 5 inches broad. 
Gills change color 
with age. Stem with 
double ring. 


Agaricus 
arvensis (i) 


or 
salmon 


White or 
with 
dingy 
hues 


I J^ to 3 inches broad. 
Never in woods. Gills 
change color with age. 
Stem ringed when 
young. 


Agaricus 

campestris (2) 



92 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY COLOR OF THE GILLS (Continued) 



Color of Cap 



White or 
tinged 
with 

yellow or 
pink 

Gray or 
grayish- 
brown 



Whitish or 
grayish 



Pale tan or 
flesh- 
color 
when 
moist; 
whitish 
when dry 

Whitish, 
with yel- 
low scales 



Hazel-nut 
or umber 



Whitish or 
brown- 
ish-gray 

Umber- 
brown 



Brownish- 
flesh 



Some shade 
of brown 
or gray 



Yellow or 
brown 



Remarks 



to 5 inches broad. 
Gills change color 
with age. Ring (some- 
times double) on stem. 



2 to 4 inches broad. 
Taste and odor slight- 
ly branny. Gills whit- 
ish when young. 

2 to 3 inches broad. 
Bloom on surface. 
Odor branny. Gills 
whitish when young. 
Stem white. 

I to 2 inches broad. 
In tufts; in woods. 
Gills whitish or pink- 
ish. Stem reddish- 
or purplish - brown; 
long (2 to 3 inches). 



Oblong or cylindric cap, 
I /^ to 3 inches high 
before expansion. 
Gills change color 
with age and liquefy 
black. 

I to 2 inches broad. 
Taste, odor branny. 
Gills notched. 

I to 3 inches broad. 
Taste branny. Gills 
whitish when young. 

^ to I M inches broad. 
Gills grayish-white 
when young. Cap 
shiny. Flesh brown. 

J^ to 2 inches broad. 
In tufts on wood. 
Cap thin; tough. Gills 
with saw-like edge. 

J<i to 1 3^ inches broad. 
Conic. In clusters on 
wood. Stem hairy at 
base. 

J^ to I inch broad. Net- 
work of furrows. Gills 
whitish or yellowish 
when young. Stem 
downy at base. 



Name 



Agarisus 
silvicola (3) 



Clitopilus 

abortivus (29) 



Clitopilus 

prunulus (30) 



CoUybia 

acervata (31) 
(gills slightly 
pinkish) 



Coprinus 
comatus (38) 
Frontispiece 



Entoloma 

commune (49) 

Entoloma 
grayanun 
(50) 

Entoloma 
strictius (51) 



Lentinus 
cochleatus (80) 



Mycena 
galericulata 
(90) 



Pluteus 

admirabilis 
(109) 



93 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY COLOR OF THE GILLS (Continued) 



Color of 
Gills 


1 Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 




Dingy- 


2 to 23^ inches broad. 


Pluteus 






brown; 


Gills free from stem. 


cervinus (lio) 


Pink, 


rarely 


Stem easily separable 






flesh- 


white. 


from cap. 






color 


yellow. 








or 


ashy or 








salmon 


grayish 










Silky white 


2 to 8 inches broad. 
Gills free from stem. 
Stem with large cup 
at base. 


Volvaria 
bombycina 
(128) 







Flesh-red 


H to 2 inches broad. 




or buff- 


Gills broad ; powdered 




red when 


white when old. 




moist, 






pale 






ochre. 






grayish 






or buff 






when dry 






Dark violet 


2 to 4 inches broad. 
Hairy scales. Gills 


Purple 




rusty when old. Bulb- 


or 




ous stem. 


Purplish 








Pale violet; 


I to 3 inches broad. 




buff or 


Gills thick; far apart; 




silvery- 


broad; violet to rusty. 




white 






Purplish- 


2 to 4 inches broad. 




brown 


Gills thick; far apart; 




when 


broad. 




moist. 






grayish 






or pale 






tan when 






dry 






Violet. 


2 to s inches broad. 




lilac, 


Stem short and stout. 




grayish 


Gills nearly free from 




or white 


stem. 




Red or 


3 to 8 inches broad. 




orange 


Cap warty. Gills free 


White 


when 


from stem. Stem 




young; 


with ring and cup at 




yellow 


base. 




at edge 






when 






mature 





Laccaria 
laccata (69) 



Cortinarius 
violaceus (44) 



Cortinarius 
alboviolaceus 
(40) 



Laccaria 

ochropurpurea 
(70) 



Tricholoma 
personatum 
(124) 



Amanita 

muscaria (s) 



94 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY COLOR OF THE GILLS (Continued) 



Color of Cap 


Remarks 


White. 


I M to s inches broad. 


yellow. 


Gills free from stem 


gray. 


or extending to it; 


blackish. 


broad. Stem with 


brown or 


ring and with cup at 


smoky- 


base. 


olive. 




Reddish or 


3 to 5 inches broad. 


brown- 


Cap warty. Gills free 


ish-red 


from stem. Stem 




with ring; bulbous at 




base. 


Reddish- 


2 to 4 inches broad. 


white, 


Radial marks at edge. 


reddish- 


Gills free from stem. 


brown or 


Stem with cup at 


■ leaden 


base. 


brown 




Dull-white, 


I to 3 inches broad. 


yellow- 


Gills free from stem. 


ish, or 


Stem with large lobed 


reddish- 


sheath or cup at base. 


brown 




Honey 


I to 6 inches broad. 


yellow to 


Stem with ring. 


dark 




reddish- 




brown 




Grayish- 


H to I J^ inches broad. 


white, 


Gills repeatedly 


grayish- 


forked. 


brown. 




yellow- 




ish- 




brown. 




blackish- 




brown or 




bluish- 




gray 




Grayish- 


I to 3 inches broad. 


brown or 


Stem club-shaped. 


sooty- 




brown 




Reddish- 


2 to 3 inches broad. 


tan or 


Funnel-shaped. 


pale tan 




Green or 


I K to 3 inches broad. 


dingy- 


Odor of anise. 


green 





Name 



Amanita 

phalloides (6) 



Amanita 

rubescens (7) 



Amanit^sis 
vaginata (8) 



Amanitopsis 
volvata (9) 



Armillaria 
mellea (10) 



Cantharellus 
dichotomus 
(is) 



Clitocybe 
clavipes (22) 



Clitocybe 
infundibul- 
iformis (26) 

Clitocybe 
odora (28) 



95 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY COLOR OP THE GILLS (Continued) 



Color of 
Gills 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Names 




Grayish- 


3 to 5 inches broad. 


Collybia 




brown or 


Gills broad. Stem 


platyphylla 




blackish- 


white. 




brown 








Grayish- 


I to 4 inches broad. 


Collybia 




brown or 


Stem deeply rooted 


radicata (35) 




smoky- 


and long. 






brown 








Reddish- 


I to 2 inches broad. In 


Collybia 




yellow or 


tufts. Stem brown ; 


velutipes (36) 




tawny; 


hairy when mature. 






some- 








times 








darker 








at center 








Grayish- 


I to 3 inches broad. 


Coprinus atra- 




brown ; 


Egg-shaped. Gills li- 


mentarius (37) 




turning 


quefying black when 


(gills white 




black 


old. 


•when young) 




when old 






White 


Whitish, 


Oblong or cylindric cap, 


Coprinus 




with yel- 


I to 3 inches broad 


comatus (38) 




low 


before expansion. 


(gills white 




scales 


Split at edge when 


when young) 






old. 


(Frontispiece) 




Brownish- 


2 to 5 inches broad. 


Lactarius 




orange or 


Milky juice of mild 


volemus (79) 




golden- 


taste. 






tawny 








Brownish 


3 to 5 inches broad. 


Lepiota 




or red- 


Gills free from stem. 


procera (85) 




dish- 


Stem 5 to lo inches; 






brown, 


with ring. 






with 








scales 








Rosy or 


2 to 4 inches broad. 


Russula 




blood- 


Taste acrid. Radial 


emetica (115) 




red 


marks at edge. Stem 
white or red-tinged. 






Rosy-pink, 


2 to 4 inches broad. 


Russula 




fading to 


Taste mild. Edge 


purpurina 




light 


often split. Stem 


(118) 




yellow 


rosy-pink. Gills yel- 
lowish when old. 






Green or 


2 to 4 inches broad. 


Russula 




grayish 


Taste mild. Flaky 


virescens 




green 


patches on surface. 


(119) 




Rosy-red 


2 to 5 inches broad. 


Tricholoma 




or flesh- 


Sometimes small 


russula (125) 




color 


scales. Gills white, 
often red-spotted. 
Stem short; thick. 





96 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY FORM OF THE GILLS 



Form of 
Gills 



(Adnate) 
At- 
tached 
broadly 
to the 
stem 



Name 



Armillaria mellea (lo) 

Clitocybe, all species 

Clitopilus abortivus (29) 

Cortinarius, all species 

Flammula flavida ^52) 

Galera hypnorum (54) 

Hebeloma precox (56) 

Hygrophorus miniatus (60) 

Hypholoma appendiculatum (63) 

Hypholoma incertum (64) 

Hypholoma perplexum (65) 

Hypholoma sublateritium (66) 

Inocybe abundans (67) 

Inocybe rimosa (68) 

Laccaria, all species 

Lactarius theiogalus (77) 

Lactarius vellereus (78) 

Lactarius volemus (79) 

Marasmius campanulatus (86) 

Marasmius rotula (89) 

Mycena galericulata (90),^ 

Naucoria semiorbicularis (92)] 

Panaeolus campanulatus (95) 

PanEeolus papilionaceus (96) 

Pholiota adiposa (loi) 

Pholiota caperata (102) 

Pholiota discolor (103) 

Pholiota squarrosa (105) 

Psathyrella disseminata (ni) 

Psilocybe foenisecii (112) 

Stropharia semiglobata (121) 

Tricholoma, all species except personatum 





Collybia acervata (31) 
CoUybia dryophila (32) 






Collybia platyphylla (34) 




Collybia radicata (35) 
Collybia velutipes (36) 




(Adnexed) 


Entoloma commune (49) 


extend- 


Entoloma grayanum (so) 
Entoloma strictius (51) 


ing as 


far as 


Galera tenera {$$) 


the stem 


Hygrophorus chlorophanus (58) 


but not 


Hypholoma perplexum (65) 


attached 


Hypholoma sublateritium (66) 


to it 


Marasmius peronatus (88) 




Marasmius rotula (89) 




Panaeolus retirugis (97) 




Pholiota precox (104) 




Pleurotus ulmarius (108) 




Russula fcBtens (116) 




Russula virescens (119) 



97 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY FORM OF THE GILLS (Continued) 



Color of Cap 



White, 
yellow, 
greenish, 
gray, 
brown or 
blackish 

Whitish, 
yellowish 
or red- 
dish- 
brown 

Grayish- 
brown or 
sooty- 
brown 

Grayish- 
brown or 
blackish- 
brown 

Grayish- 
brown or 
smoky- 
brown 

Reddish 
yellow or 
tawny 

Pale violet, 
buflf, or 
white 
with vi- 
olet tint 

Golden- 
yellow or 
tawny- 
yellow 

Whitish, 
yellow- 
ish, or 
pale 

rusty 

White; 
downy 



Cinnamon, 
rusty or 
buff 



Remarks 



3^ to 5 inches broad. 
Gills white; free from 
stem. Stem with ring 
and cup. 



I to 3 inches broad. 
Stem with cup but no 
ring; Gills free from 
stem. 



I to 3 inches broad. 
Cap the shape of an 
inverted cone. Stem 
swollen below. 



3 to 5 inches broad. 
Cap fragile. Gills 
white. Stem white. 



I to 4 inches broad. 
Deeply rooted stem ; 2 
to 8 inches long above 
ground. 

I to 2 inches broad. In 
tufts on wood. Stem 
velvety. 

I to 3 inches broad. 
Gills violet when 
young, cinnamon 
when old. Stem taper- 
ing upward. 

I /^ to 3 inches broad. 
Very slimy. Stem 
scaly. 



% to 2 inches broad. 
On wood. Stem at 
edge. Cap irregular 
shape. 



3^ to I inch broad. 
Attached to wood by 
its edge or top sur- 
face. 

J^ to H inch broad. 
Gills far apart. Stem 
long; hollow; slender. 



Name 



Amanita 

phalloides (6) 



Amanitopsis 
volvata (8) 



Clitocybe 
clavipes (22) 



CoUybia platy- 
phylla (34) 



Collybia 
radicata (35) 



Collybia 

velutipes (36) 



Cortinarius albo- 
violaceus (40) 



Cortinarius 
collinitus (42) 



Crepidotus fulvo- 
tomentosus 
(46) 



Crepidotus 
versutus (48) 



Galera 
hypnorum (54) 



98 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY FORM OF THE GILLS {Continued) 



Form of _ , , ^ ^ 
Gills ^°^°^ ^f ^^^ 



Bright red 



Pale red, 
buff, 
flesh- 
colored 
or rusty 

Purplish- 
brown, 
grayish 
or pale 
tan 

Brownish- 
flesh- 
color 
when 
moist; 
paler 
when dry 

White, with 
brown 
scales 



Rusty-red ; 
darker at 
center 



Buff or cafe 
au lait 



Brownish ; 
black 
spot at 
center 

Tawny or 

rusty 



Tan or 
gray 



Remarks 



to 3 inches broad. 
Waxy; fragile. Stem 
sometimes vari 
colored, red, yellow 
and white. 

^ to 2 inches broad. 
Gills flesh-red but 
powdered white when 
old. 



Name 



to 4 
Waxy, 
solid. 



inches broad. 
Stem fibrous: 



3/^ to 2 inches broad. 
Gills with saw-like 
edge. Stem grooved. 



4 to 12 inches broad. 
Gills green; free from 
stem. Stem with 
ring. 



to 



inch broad. 



Shrivels when dry; re- 
vives when moist. 
Stem long; blackish- 
brown; shining. 

I to 2 inches broad. 
Large knob at center 
in some. Stem tough. 
Open places. 

M to 14 inch broad. 
Cap thin; dry. Gills 
far apart. Stem 
black; shiny. 

I to 2 inches broad. 
Cap often hemispher- 
ic. Stem long. DiflS- 

cult. 

J^ to I ^ inches broad. 
Fragments of veil at 
edge of cap; network 
of cracks on surface. 
Long stem. 



Hygrophorus 
puniceus (62) 



Laccaria 
laccata (69) 



Laccaria ochro- 
purpurea (70) 



Lentinus coch- 
leatus (80) 



Lepiota 

morgani (83) 



Marasmius cam- 
panulatus (86) 



Marasmius 
oreades (87) 



Marasmius 
rotula (89) 



Naucoria semi- 
orbicularis (92) 



Panasolus 

retirugis (97) 



99 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY FORM OF THE GILLS (Continued) 



Color of Cap 



White ; 
hairy 



Remarks 



8 inches or more broad. 
Stem at edge of cap. 
Gills extending down 
the stem. 



Name 



Shelf (gilled) fungi growing on wood. 



Yellow or 
brown 



Dingy- 
brown ; 
ashy; 
rarely 
white or 
yellow 



Smoky- 
brown or 
reddish- 
brown 



Red, purple 
or oliva- 
ceous 



Rosy or 
blood-red 



Whitish, 
yellowish 
or green- 
ish-yel- 
low; 

streaked 
with 
brown 



Silky white 



/^ to I inch broad. 
Network of folds on 
surface. Usually 

knob at center. 



2 to 2 1^ inches broad. 
Gills pinkish ; free 
from stem. Stem 
separable easily from 
cap. 



^ to I inch broad. 
Gills brown. Stem 
fragile; slender. In 
grass. 



2 to 4 inches broad. 
Gills pale yellow when 
young; rusty when 
old. Not forked. 



2 to 4 inches broad. 
Acrid taste. Gills 
white; brittle. 



I to 3 inches broad. 
Gills white; notched. 
Stem stout; solid. 



2 to 8 inches broad. 
Usually on wood. 
Gills flesh-colored; 
free from stem. Large 
cup at base of stem. 



Panus 

strigosus (98) 



Pleurotus os- 
treatus (106) 
sapidus (107) 
ulmarius (108) 



Pluteus ad- 
mirabilis (109) 



Pluteus 

cervinus (no) 



Psilocybe foeni- 
secii (112) 



Russula 

alutacea (113) 



Russula 

emetica (ns) 



Tricholoma se- 
junctum (126) 



Volvaria bomby- 
cina (128) 



ICO 



KEY TO COMMON GULED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY FORM OF THE GILLS {Continued) 



Form of 

Gills 


Name 


(De- 

current) 
Extend- 
ing 
down 
the 
stem 


Armillaria mellea (lo) 
Cantharellus, all species 
Clitocybe, all species 
Clitopilus abortivus (29) 
Clitopilus prunulus (30) 
Crepidotus applanatus (45) 
Flammula polychroa (53) 
Hygrophorus cantharellus (57) 
Hygrophorus pratensis (61) 
Laccaria, all species 
Lactarius camphoratus (71) 
Lactarius deliciosus (73) 
Lactarius piperatus (75) 
Lactarius subdulcis (76) 
Lactarius theiogalus (77) 
Lactarius vellereus (78) 
Lactarius volemus (79) 
Lentinus cochleatus (80) 
Lentinus lepideus (81) 
Mycena galericulata (90) 
Omphanella campanella (93) 
Omphalia fibula (qa) 
Paxillus involutus (100) 
Pholiota squarrosa (105) 
Pleurotus ostreatus (106) 
Pleurotus sapidus (107) 
Tricholoma russula (125) 


Form of 
GiUs 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 


Far apart; 
(Dis- 
tant) 


Egg-yolk 
yellow 

Sooty- 
brown, 
brown- 
ish-yel- 
low or 
dingy 
yellow 
when 
moist; 
gray, 
grayish- 
yellow or 
grayish- 
brown 
when dry 

Yellow 


I to 3 inches broad. All 
yellow. Cap funnel- 
shaped. Gills narrow; 
thick. 

I to 2 inches broad. 
Funnel-shaped. Stem 
slender; i to 4 inches 
long. 

3^ to I inch broad. Gills 
decurrent, yellow. 
Stem slender, i to i J^ 
inches long. 


Cantharellus 
cibarius (12) 

Cantharellus 
infundibuli- 
formis (17) 

Cantharellus 
minor (18) 



lOI 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY FORM OF THE GILLS (Continued) 



Form of 
Gills 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 




Blackish- 


I H to 3 inches broad. 




brown or 


Funnel-shaped. Gills 




grayish- 


attached to stem. 




brown 


Stem ^ to I J4 inches 




when 


long. 




moist; 






paler 






when dry- 






Whitish or 


2 to 3 inches broad. 




grayish 


Bloom on surface. 
Odor branny. Gills 
whitish when young, 
salmon when old. 


For apart; 






(Dis- 
tant) 


Grayish- 


I to 4 inches broad. 


brown or 


Gills white. Stem 




smoky- 


very long and deep- 




brown 


rooted. 




Orange or 


H to I inch broad. Gills 




yellow or 


waxy; arched ; extend- 




red 


ing down the stem. 
Stem slender; I to 3 
inches long. 




Deep red. 


3^ to 2 inches broad. 




vermilion 


Gills waxy; yellow or 




or yellow 


reddish; attached to 
stem. 




Tawny, 


I to 3 inches broad. 




reddish, 


Gills waxy, thick; ex- 




buff. 


tending down the 




ashy or 
wlCtish 


stem. 




Bright red 


I to 3 inches broad. 




when 


Gills broad; thick; but 




moist; 


slightly attached to 




paler or 


stem. 




yellow 






when old 






Pale-red, 


3^ to 2 inches broad. 




buflf-red 


Gills broad, flesh-col- 




or flesh- 


ored to purplish; 




red when 


dusted white by 




moist; 


spores when old. 




pale 






ochre. 






grayish 






or buff 






when dry 





Name 



Clitocybe cyathi- 
formis (23) 



Clitopilus 
prunulus (30) 



Collybia 
radicata (35) 



Hygrophorus 
cantharellus 
(57) 



Hygrophorus 
miniatus (60) 



Hygrophorus 
pratensis (61) 



Hygrophorus 
puniceus (62) 



Laccaria 

laccata (69) 



102 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY FORM OF THE GILLS (Continued) 



Form of 
Gills 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 


Far apart; 
(Dis- 
tant) 


Purplish- 
brown 
when 
moist; 
grayish 
or pale 
tan when 
dry 

Rusty-red; 
darker 
at center 

Buff or 
tawny 

Brownish; 
darker at 
center 


2 to 4 inches broad. 
Firm; fleshy. Gills 
purplish; thick, broad. 

3^ to I J/^ inch broad 
Convex; dry. Gills 
few; whitish. Stem 
tough, shiny; i to 2 
inches. 

I to 2 inches broad. 
Leathery and wrin- 
kled when dry. Broad 
knob at centre. Stem 
tough. 

M to J^ inch broad. 
Cap thin; dry. Gills 
few; broad; whitish. 
Stem slender: tough; 
black. 


Laccaria 
ochropur- 
purea (70) 

Marasmius 
campanulatus 

Marasmius 
oreades (87) 

Marasmius 
rotula (89) 


Forked or 
branched 


All species of 

Yellowish- 
orange; 
some- 
times 
brown- 
tinged 

Egg-yolk 
yellow 

Cinnabar 
red 

Yellowish 
brown 


Cantharellus, e. g. 

I to 3 inches broad. 
Funnel-shaped ; 
downy surface. Gills 
narrow. 

4 

I to 3 inches broad. 
Funnel-shaped. Gills 
blunt ; narrow. All 
yellow. 

J^ to 1 3^ inches in dia- 
meter. Wavy edge. 
Irregular shape. Gills 
narrow; decurrent. 
On ground. Entire 
plant red. 

4 to 8 inches. On wood. 
Stem at edge. Gills 
wavy; greenish. 


Cantharellus 
aurantiacus 
(11) 

Cantharellus 
cibarius (12) 

Cantharellus 
cinnabarinus 
(13) 

Cantharellus 
crispus (14) 



103 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY FORM OF THE GILLS {Continued) 



Form of 
Gills 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 




Grayish- 


3^ to I H inches broad. 


Cantharellus 




white, 


Gills whitish or yel- 


dichotomus 




grayish- 


lowish; narrow; near 


(is) 




brown, 


together. Extending 






yellow- 


down the stem, (De- 






ish- 


current). 






brown. 








blackish- 








brown or 








bluish- 








gray 








Sooty- 


I to 2 inches broad. 


Cantharellus 




brown, 


Funnel-shaped. Gills 


floccosus (16) 




brown- 


narrow; dusted when 






ish-yel- 


old. Stem slender; i 






low or 


to 4 inches. 






dingy- 






Forked 
or 


yellow 
when 






branched 


moist; 
gray, 
grayish- 
yellow or 
grayish- 
brown 
when dry 








Yellowish, 


Trumpet-shaped; 2 to 4 


Cantharellus 




inclining 


inches broad and 3 to 


infundibuli- 




to rusty 


6 inches deep. 


formis (17) 




Yellow 


H to I inch. Depressed 


Cantharellus 






at center; thin. Gills 


minor (18) 






far apart; decurrent. 








Smaller ancj more 








slender than C. cibar- 
ius. 






Pure white 


2 to 3 inches broad. All 


Clitocybe 






white. Stem i J^ to 3 


albissima (20) 






inches. 






Yellowish 


2 to 5 inches broad. 


Lactarius 




with 


Slightly acrid milky 


deliciosus (73) 




zones of 


juice. 






deeper 








hue 








White; 


3 to 5 inches broad. 


Lactarius 




often 


Acrid milky juice. 


piperatus (75) 




covered 


Stem short. 






with 








debris or 








dirt 








Tawny or 


H to 2 H inches broad. 


Lactarius 




brown- 


Slightly bitterish 


subdulcis (76) 




ish-red 


milky juice. 





104 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY FORM OF THE GILLS (^Continued) 



Color of Cap 



Tawny- 
reddish 



White 
or 
whitish 



Grayish- 
buflf, 
rusty 
brown or 
yellowish 



White, 
yellowish 
ashy, 
lilac or 
brow-nish 



White, 
some- 
times 
with 

yellowish 
stains 



Yellowish 
or dingy 
ochre 



Green or 
grayish- 
green 



Remarks 



2 to 5 inches broad. 
White milky juice, 
turning sulphur-yel- 
low after exposure to 



to 5 inches broad. 
Downy surface; acrid 
milky juice. 



2 to 4 inches broad. 
Edge curled down- 
ward and inward. 
Stem sometimes off 
center. Stem short. 



2 to 5 inches broad. 
Stem at edge. In tufts 
on wood. 



to 4 inches broad. 
Funnel-shaped when 
old. Often pit at cen- 
ter. Gills white, often 
greenish when old. 
Stem short: thick. 



3 to 5 inches broad. 
Bad odor. Radial 
marks at edge. Gills 
whitish to yellowish. 
Cap sticky when 
moist. 



2 to 4 inches broad. 
Flaky patches. Gills 
and stem white. 



Name 



Lactarius 

theiogalus (77) 



Lactarius 

vellereus (78) 



Paxillus 

involutus (100) 



Pleurotus 

ostreatus (106) 
& sapideus 

(107) 



Russula 

delica (114) 



Russula 

fcetens (116) 



Russula 

virescens (119) 



Agaricus, all species 
Amanita, all species 
Amanitopsis, all species 
Collybia acervata (31) 
Collybia confiuens (32) 
Inocybe abundans (67) 



Lepiota, all species 
Marasmius campanulatus (80) 
Pluteus cervinus (no) 
Russula virescens (119) 
Tricholoma transmutans (127) 
Volvaria bombycina (128) 



105 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS Ij 



IDENTIFICATION BY FORM OF THE GILLS {Continued) 



Color of Cap 



Remarks 



Name 



Cantharellus. All species. 



Whitish, 
grayish, 
yellowish 
or brown- 
ish 

Tan or 
flesh-red 
when 
moist; 
whitish 
when dry 

Reddish- 
brown or 
grayish- 
red when 
moist; 
pallid or 
grayish 
when dry 

White 



Whitish, 
yellow- 
tinged at 
center, 
darker 
when 
moist 

Yellowish- 
rusty to 
dull 
yellow 

Yellow or 
pale 
orange 



Tawny 



Watery- 
cinna- 
mon 
when 
moist; 
pale 
yellow 
when dry 



I to 3; 



inches broad. 



In tufts on ground; 
open places. 



I to 2 inches broad. In 
dense tufts on wood. 
Stem downy at base. 



% to 1^2 inches broad. 
Cap thin; shriveled 
when dry. Stem long; 
slender; tough. 



3^ to I inch long; 14 to 
\t% inch broad. Stem 
at edge or absent. 
On wood. 

I to 3 inches broad. On 
ground; open places. 
Gills whitish ; pur- 
plish-brown when old. 



1^ to I inch broad. In 
clusters on wood. Pit 
at center of cap. 



J^ to K inch broad. On 
mossy ground. Cap 
thin, with pit at 
center. 

J^ to ^ inch broad. 
Tough ; kidney-shap- 
ed; on wood. Stem at 
edge or absent. 

I to 2 inches broad. On 
wood. Stem with 
ring. 



Clitocybe 

multiceps (27) 



Collybia 

acervata (31) 



Collybia con- *- 

fluens (32) 1 



Crepidotus 

applanatus(45) 



Hypholoma 
incertum (64) 



Omphalia cam- 
panella (93) 



Omphalia 
fibula (94) 



Panus 
stypticus (99) 



Pholiota dis- 
color (103) 



106 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY FORM OF THE GILLS (Continued) 



Color of Cap 



Pale or 
dark tan, 
yellowish 
or chest- 
nut 



Grayish- 
brown or 
blackish- 
brown 



Dark vi- 
olet; with 
tufts or 
scales 

Umber 
brown; 
shiny 



Wine-buflf, 
orange 
buff; 
purplish 
scales 

Tawny- 
rusty 



White or 
pale- 
rusty; 
brownish 
scales 

Some shade 
of brown 
or gray 



White, 
whitish 
or yel- 
lowish 

White, or 
yellowish 
at center 



Yellowish ; 
some- 
times 
brownish 
at center 



Remarks 



},i to 2 inches broad. 
Gills whitish or yellow- 
ish; not attached to 
stem. Stem brown; 
sometimes bulbous; i 
to 3 in. 

3 to 5 inches broad. 
Cap thin; fragile. 
Gills broad ; white. 
Stem white; 3 to 5 
inches. 

2 to 4 inches broad. 
Gills violet when 
young; rusty when 
old. 

^/i to 1% inches broad. 
In clusters on ground. 
Gills whitish when 
young; pink when old, 

1 to 2 inches broad. 
Gills cream; brownish 
or purple when old. 
Stem 2 to 3 inches 
long. 

1 1/2 to 2 inches broad. 
On ground. Gills 
notched ; pallid or 
tawny. 

2 to 4 inches broad. On 
wood. Tough. Gills 
with saw-teeth. 



14 ^o il4 inches broad. 
Conic. Clusters on 
wood. Stem slender; 
hairy at base. 

3 to 5 inches broad. On 
dead elm wood. Stem 
at edge of cap. 



2 to 4 inches broad. 
Taste acrid or bitter. 
Gills close together; 
white. 

2 to 4 inches. Sticky. 
Taste branny. Gills 
pale yellow. 



Name 



CoUybia 

dryophila (33) 



Collybia platy- 
phylla (34) 



Cortinarius 
violaceus (44) 



Entoloma 
strictius (51) 
(slightly 
notched) 

Flammula 

polychroa (53) 



Hebeloma 
precox (56) 



Lentinus 

lepideus (81) 



Mycena galeri- 
culata (90) 



Pleurotus 

ulmarius (108) 



Tricholoma 
albtmi (122) 



Tricholoma 
equestre (123) 



107 



I 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS J 



IDENTIFICATION BY FORM OF THE GILLS (Continued) || 


Form of 
Gills 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name » 

4 




Pale pink, 


2 to 5 inches broad. 


i 

Tricholoma j. 




rosy or 


Sticky when moist. 


russula (125) j, 




flesh- 


Gills white, often red- 


_J 


Notched 


color 


spotted when old. 


1 


near 




Stem short; thick. 


9 


stem 






w 


(Sinu- 


Whitish, 


I to 3 inches broad. 


Tricholoma se- '' 


ate) 


yellowish 


Knob at center. Gills 


junctum (126) ;^ 




or green- 


and stem white. 






ish yellow 








Tawny-red 


2 to 4 inches broad. 


Tricholoma 




to red- 


Sticky when moist or 


transmutans 




dish- 


young. Odor and 


(127) 




brown 


taste branny. 






Brownish- 


J^ to 2 inches broad. 


Lentinus coch- 




flesh-col- 


In tufts. Thin; tough. 


leatus (80) \i 




or when 


Gills whitish; flesh 


"■ 




moist; 


tinged. Stem central 


i 




paler 


or eccentric. 


a 


Saw-teeth 
at edge 


when dry 




1 


White or 


2 to 4 inches broad. On 


Lentinus V 




pale-rus- 


wood; Stem hard; 


lepideus (81) 1 




ty with 


short. 


% 




brownish 




-!? 




scales 




'.til 




Silky white 


2 to 8 inches. Large 


Volvaria bomby- 






cup at base of stem. 


cina (128) 






Gills flesh-colored. 




Thick and 






■ 


narrow 




Cantharellus, all speci 


es. 




Sooty or 


I to 2 inches broad. 


Cantharellus ; 




brown- 


Gills narrow; forked; 


infundi- 




ish. 


Cap funnel-shaped. 


buliformis (17) 




yellowish 








or grayish 








Pure white 


2 to 3 inches broad. 


Clitocybe 


Veins be- 




Soft texture. Gills at- 


albissima (20) 


tween 




tached to stem or ex- 




gills 




tending down it. 




under 








surface 


Grayish- 


3 to 5 inches broad. 


Collybia platy- 


of cap 


brown or 


Gills broad. Stem 


phylla (34) 




Blackish- 


white. 






brown 




Hygrophorus 




Tawny, 


I to 3 inches broad. 




reddish. 


Gills whitish or yel- 


pratensis (61) 




buflf. 


lowish; far apart; 






ashy or 


waxy. 






whitish 







108 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY FORM OF THE GILLS (Continued) 



Form of 








Gills 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 




Rose, rose- 


^ to 1 3^ inches broad. 


Mycena 




purple. 


All of one color. Stem 


pura (91) 




violet or 


smooth; straight; hol- 






lilac 


low; few hairs at base. 




Veins 








between 


Tawny 


H to 5i inch broad. On 


Panus 


gills 
under 




wood,m groups. Taste 


stypticus (99) 




acrid and puckery. 




surface 




Kidney-shaped. Short 




of cap 




stem at edge. 






Red; dark 


2 to 4 inches broad. 


Russula 




purple, 


Radial marks at edge 


alutacea (113) 




olivaceus 


when old. Gills yel- 






or green 


lowish; of equal 
length. 





IDENTIFICATION BY CHARACTER OF THE STEM 



N.B. 



-When the stem is absent, the cap is attached to the wood 
from which it grows, by its edge. 



Character of 
Stem 



Color of Cap 



Remarks 



Name 



Absent 



Yellowish- 
brown 



White or 
whitish 



4 to 8 inches broad. 
Gills green. Stem lat- 
eral or absent. 

Crepidotus, all species. 

Panus, all species. 

Pleurotus, all species. 



J^ to 1 3^ inches broad. 
On dead sticks and 
branches in woods. 
Gills split lengthwise 
along the free edge. 



Cantharellus 
crispus (14) 



Schizophyllum 
commune (120) 



Downy or 
hairy at 
the 
base 



Yellow 



White; 
shiny 



^/2 to I inch broad. 
Like Can. cibarius. 
but smaller and more 
slender. 



J^ to I J4 inches broad. 
Gills very thin; close 
together; white. Stem 
polished white. 



Cantharellus 
minor (18) 



Clitocybe 

candicans (21) 



109 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS :|j 

I 

IDENTIFICATION BY CHARACTER OF THE STEM {Continued) 



Character of 
Stem 



Color of Cap 



Downy or 
hairy at 
the 
base 



Pale tan or 
flesh-red 
when 
moist; 
whitish 
when dry 

Reddish 
yellow or 
tawny; 
some- 
times 
darker at 
center 

Umber 
(brown ; 
shiny) 



Pale yellow 



Tawny or 
brown- 
ish-red 

Yellowish 
or pale 
brick-red ; 
tan when 
old , 

Some shade 
of brown 
or gray 

Rose, rose- 
purple or 
lilac 



Yellowish- 
rusty to 
dull 
yellow 

Cinnamon 
when 
moist; 
pale 
yellow 
when dry 



Remarks 



to 2 inches broad. In 
tufts. Gills whitish; 
close together. Stem 
long; brown or brown- 
ish. 



I inch or more broad. 

In tufts; on wood. 

Sticky when moist. 

Gills lighter color 
than stem. 



^ to I ^ inches broad. 
Elevated at center. 
Gills grayish when 
young; flesh - color 
when mature. 



I to 2 inches broad. 
Gills pale when 
young; rusty when 
old. Slight bitter 
taste. 



2 to 2 J4 inches broad. 
Sweetish milky juice. 



I to 2 inches broad. 
Taste acrid. Wrinkled 
and leathery when 
dry. Stem 2 to 3 
inches ; slender ; tough. 

J4 to I J^ inches broad. 
On wood. Conic. 
Radial marks at edge. 



% to iM inches broad. 
Entire plant rose, 
purple or violet. 

\4 to 1 inch broad. 
Tufted ; on wood. Pit 
at center. 



I to 2 inches broad. 



On wood, 
together, 
ring. 



IIO 



Gills close 
Stem with 



Name 



CoUybia 

acervata (31) 



Collybia 

velutipes (36) 



Entoloma 
strictius (51) 



Flammula 
flavida (52) 



Lactarius 

subdulcis (76) 



Marasmius 
peronatus (88) 



Mycena 
galeri- 
culata (90) 



Mycena 
pura (91) 



Omphalia 

campanel- 
la (93) 



Pholiota 

discolor (103) 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY CHARACTER OF THE STEM (Continued) 



Character of 
Stem 



Color of Cap 



Yellow or 
brown 



Remarks 



/^ to I inch broad. On 
wood. Netword of 
furrows on surface. 
Gills fiesh-pink when 
old. 



Name 



Pluteus 
admirabil- 
is (109) 



Orange or 
saffron 
yellow 



Reddish or 
pale tan 



Brownish- 
fiesh- 
color 



White or 
pale- 
rusty 
with 
brown- 
ish scales 



White; 
hairy 



Grayish- 
buff, 

rusty- 
brown or 
yellowish 



3 to 6 inches broad. 
Entire plant same 
color. 



2 to 3 inches broad. 
Funnel-shaped. Gills 
whitish; extending 
down the stem. 



!^ to 2 inches broad. 
Depressed at center. 
Gills saw-like on edge. 



2 to 4 inches broad. 
Tough. Gills saw- 
like at edge. 



8 or more inches. 
Woody when old. 



2 to 4 inches. Edge 
turned downward and 
inward. 



Clitocybe 
illudens (25) 



Clitocybe 
infundi- 
buliformis (26) 



Lentinus 

cochleatus (80) 



Lentinus 
lepideus (81) 



Panus 

strigosus (98) 



Paxillus 

involutus (100) 



Pleurotus, all species sometimes. 



Agaricus, all species . 
Amanita, all species. 
Amanitopsis, all species. 
Coprinus, all species. 
Lepiota, all species. 
Pluteus, all species. 
Volvaria, all species. 
Ill 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY FORM OF THE STEM 



Form of 
Stem 



Bulbous 
at the 



Color of Cap 



White or 
yellowish 



White or 
tinged 
with 

yellow or 
pink 



Grayish- 
brown or 
sooty- 
brown ; 
some- 
times 
darker at 
center 



Pale or 
dark tan, 
yellowish 
or chest- 
nut 

Yellow, 
reddish- 
yellow or 
rusty 

Dark violet 



Yellowish- 
brown; 
silky 



White, 
with red- 
dish- 
brown 
scales 

White, 
with 
brown 
scales 
that 

merge at 
the 
center 



Remarks 



2 to 5 inches broad. 
Gills whitish when 
young; turning pink, 
then brown and black 
when old. Stem with 
double ring. 

2 to 5 inches broad. 
Gills pink, turning 
brown and then black 
when old. 



Amanita, all species. 

I to 3 inches broad. 
Cap conic with its 
apex downward. 



J^ to 2 inches broad. 
In groups. Gills whit- 
ish. Stem I to 3 
inches. 



to 4 inches broad. 
Wrinkled surface. 



2 to 4 inches broad. 
Scaly. Gills violet to 
rusty; notched. 

I to 2 inches broad. 
Knob at center. 
Radiating cracks. 



I to 4 inches broad. 
Elevated center. Gills 
free from stem. 



4 to 12 inches broad. 
Gills white when 
young, green when 
mature. 



Name 



Agaricus 
arvensis (i) 



Agaricus 
silvicola (3) 



Clitocybe 
clavipes (22) 



Collybia 

dryophila (33) 

(Sometimes 

bulbous) 



Corrinarius 
corrugat- 
us (43) 



Cortinarius 
violaceus (44) 



Inocybe 
rimosa (68) 
(Slight swel- 
hng at base) 

Lepiota 

americana (82) 



Lepiota 

morgani (83) 



112 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



IDENTIFICATION BY FORM OF THE STEM (Continued) 



Form of 
Stem 


Color of Cap 


Remarks 


Name 


Bulbous 
at 
base 


White; 
rarely 
with 

yellowish 
or smoky 
center 

Brownish, 
with 
spot-like 
scales 

Yellow, 
often 
with 
whitish 
flakes 


2 to 4 inches broad. 
Gills free from stem; 
white. Stem with 
ring. 

3 to 5 inches broad. 
Gills free from stem. 
Long stem with ring. 

2 to 4 inches broad. 
Stem with ring. Gills 
whitish when young, 
rusty when old. 


Lepiota 

naucina (84) 

Lepiota 

procera (85) 

Pholiota 

caperata (102) 


Stem at 
edge of 
cap 


Yellowish- 
brown 

Brownish- 
flesh- 
color 

White with 
brownish 
scales 

White or 
whitish 


4 to 8 inches broad. On 
wood. Gills wavy; 
greenish. 

Crepidotus, all species. 

J^ to 2 inches broad. In 
tufts. Cap thin; 
tough. Gills saw-like 
at edge. 

2 to 4 inches broad. On 
wood. Gills white, 
with saw-like edge. 

Panus, all species. 

Pleurotus, all species. 

J^ to I J/2 inches broad. 
On dead sticks and 
branches. Gills split 
along edge. 


Cantharellus 
crispus 

Lentinus 
cochleatus 

Lentinus 
lepideus 

Schizophyllum 
commune 


Rooted 


White 

Grayish- 
brown or 
smoky- 
brown 

Some shade 
of brown 
or gray 


3^ to I ^2 inches broad. 
Pit at center; stem off 
center (rarely). Stem 
waxy; hairy at base. 

I to 4 inches broad. 
Sticky when moist. 
Gills white. Stem 
color of cap. 

J^ to I J^ inches broad. 
Conic. On Stumps. 
Stem hairy at base. 


Clitocybe can- 
dicans (21) 

Collybia 
radicata (35) 

Mycena 
galericulata 
(90) 
(rarely rooted) 



113 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



IDENTIFICATION BY FORM OF THE STEM {Continued) 



Form of 
Stem 



With ring, 
and cup 
(volva) 
at base 



With cup 
(volva) 
but 

without 
ring 



Remarks 



All species except that ring is slight or 
missing in the case of A. rubescens 
and sometimes rudimentary in A. 
muscaria. 

Amanitopsis, all species. 
Volvaria, all species. 



Name 



Amanita 



With ring 
but 

without 
cup 

(volva) 
at base 



Agaricus, all species. 

Armillaria, all species. 

Coprinus comatus, in the young plant only. 
(Frontispiece) 
(38) 

Cortinarius, all species in young plants only. 

Lepiota, all species. 

Panaeolus, retirugis (97). Not a true ring; a 
mark only. 

Pholiota, all species. 

Stropharia, all species. 



Stem LONG when compared with diameter of the Cap 



Agaricus silvicola (3) 
Amanita phalloides (6) 
Amanitopsis vaginata (8) 
Armillaria mellea (10) 
Clitocybe illudens (25) 
Collybia acervata (31) 
Collybia confluens (32) 
Collybia radicata (35) 
Coprinus micaceus (39) 
Cortinarius corrugatus (43) 
Entoloma strictius (51) 
Galera tenera (55) 
Hygrophorus chlorophanus (58) 



Hygrophorus miniatus (60) 
Laccaria laccata (69) 
Lentinus cochleatus (80) 
Lepiota procera (85) 
Marasmius, all species 
Mycena, all species 
Naucoria semiorbicularis (92) 
Omphalia fibula (94) 
Panaeolus, all species 
Pholiota squarrosa (when mature) 

(105) 
Psilocybe foenisecii (112) 
Stropharia semiglobata (121) 



Stem SHORT when compared with diameter of the Cap 



' Cantharellus cibarius (12) 
Cantharellus cinnabarimus (13} 
Cantharellus floccosus (14). 
Lactarius piperatus (75) 
Lactarius theiogalus (77) 
Lactarius vellereus (78) 
Lentinus lepideus (81) 



Russula alutacea (113) 
Russula delica (114) 
Russula virescens (119) 
Tricholoma equestre (123) 
Tricholoma personatum (124) 
Tricholoma russula (125) 



114 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



Identification by Color of Spores 

Black spored gilled mushrooms (Melanosporae). 

Coprinus, all species mentioned in this book excepting 

Coprinus micaceus, whose spores are brown. 
Panceolus, all species. 
Psathyrella, all species. 

Brown or Purplish-Brown spored gilled mushrooms (Por- 
phyrosporag). 

Coprinus micaceus, an exception among the Coprini. All 

other Coprini have black spores. 
Hypholoma, all species. 
Psilocyhe, all species. 
Stropharia, all species. 

Green spored gilled mushroom. 

Lepiota morgani — Green is an exceptional spore color for a 
Lepiota. Other species have white spores. 

Pink spored gilled mushrooms (Rhodosporae). 

Clitopilus, all species. 
Entoloma, all species. 
Pluteus, all species. 
Volvaria homhycina. 

Rusty spored gilled mushrooms (Ochrosporae). 

Cortinarius, all species. 

Crepidotus, all species. 

Flammula, all species. N. B. — The spores of Flammula 

polychroa are light brown, often with a purple tinge when 

fresh. 
Galera, all species. 
Hebeloma, all species. The spores of Hebeloma are pale 

rusty or clay color. 

115 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



Inocyhe, all species. 
Naucoria, all species. 
Paxillus, all species. 
Pholioia, all species. 



White spored gilled mushrooms (Leucosporae). 

Amanita, all species. 

Amanitopsis, all species. 

Armillaria, all species. 

Cantharellus, all species mentioned in this book excepting 

Cantharellus ciharius which has pale yellowish spores. 
Clitocyhe, all species. 
Collybia, all species. 
Hygrophorus, all species. 
Laccaria, all species. 
Lactarius, all species mentioned in this book excepting 

Lactarius deliciosus with yellowish spores; Lactarius 

theiogalus with yellowish or pale flesh-colored spores. 
Lentinus, all species. 
Lepiota, all species mentioned in this book excepting 

Lepiota morgani whose spores are green when first shed 

and slowly turn yellow. 
Marasmius, all species 
Mycena, all species. 
Omphalia, all species. 
Panus, all species. 
Pleurotus, all species excepting Pleurotus sapidus, whose 

spores are pale lilac in color. 
Russula, all species excepting Russula alutacea, which has 

yellowish spores; Russula maricB, which has pale yellow 

spores. 
Sciiizophyllum commune. 
Tricholoma, all species. 

ii6 



KEY TO COMMON GILLED FUNGI 



Yellowish spored gilled Mushrooms. 

Lactarius deliciosus and Lactarius theiogalus — These Lactarii 
are exceptional in the color of their spores. All other 
Lactarii mentioned in this book have white spores. 

Russula alutacea and Russula tnaricB. 



117 



Pictorial Key to Oenera of 
White Spored Gilled Mushrooms. 



C-ILL-t 


FREE. 


Q-IUUS 




FREE 








FROM STEM 


rKOM STBM 


I^ROM STEM 


^^ 


"^ 


■^^ 


^=^ 




rc^ 


<^ 




r^^ 






N 


STEM >, 




^ 


NO 




RiMfr 


WITH 






^'T" 






ON 




STEM 


RINO 




AND 

CUP 














/fy 




J AT 








CUP fl; 




{(/ 1 BASE 


1 


\yj^ 


AT tf J 


^Li 


K^ BA«.E 


BASE \=^ 


AMANITA 


LEPIOTA 


AMANITOPSIS 


Oh 





ROUND 


OM 


fr 


ROUNO 


ett «ROUMt> 


Oft wooo 




ON WOOD oa GHOUNr 

ARMILLARIA 




GROUND 

LACTARIUS 



CAP UiLIALLY PLESHY 
QltLS NOTCHeo MEAR STEM 



^ 


Mil 


r^ 


STEM 


!!:. 


SMOOTH 


STOUT 


Rl&lb 


BRITTLE 


iV; 


e.PONftV 




III 


WITHIN 




\J 


RUSSULA 


ON 


&RC 


>OND 




TRICHOLOMA 

ON OROUND 



STEM AT OR NEAR MARGIN 
OP CAP OR ABSENT 




&ILLS ATTAtHED TO STEM BUT 
NOT NOTC/HEp) E?.TEND1N& l>0*kl 
THt STEM IN MOST 5P&UE!, 
CAP OFTEN FUNNEL-SHAPED 



PLEUROrUS IN CLUSTERS 

LENTINUS s.NCLY 

PAN US SINGLY OR CLUSTtREU 

ON WOOO 




CLITOCYBE. 

HYGROPHORUS 



&ILLS FREE FROM STEM 
NOTCHED O^ 

NEAR 



RESEMBLES 
MARASMUS 



SMALL MUSHROOMS »MALL MUSHROOMS 
THIN CAPS THIN CAP 

OFTEN PIT ATCCNTtIi 




COLLYBIA 

A1/\RASMUS 



MYCENA 

ON »ROUND 
GROUND OR >WOOO OR WOOO 



OMPHALIA 

MOSTLY ON WOOO 



it I 



». 3 < 

o to H 

5 5^ O 

^.l o 



Fig. 5. — Pictorial key to genera of white spored common 
gilled mushrooms. 



Pictorial Key to Genera of 
Pink Spored Common Gilled Mushrooms. 



GILLS FREE FROM STEM 



GILLS FREE. FROM 
iTEM 




PLUTEUS 




LARGE 
CUP 
AT 
BASE 



VOLVARIA 



6ILLS ATTACHED 

TO STEM &ILLS REMAIN 

SOMETIMES NOTCHE.D PJNK WHEN OLD 



STEM AT EDGE OF 
CAP OR ABSENT 



STEM 
FLESMVI 



\J 



RING ^"-^^ 

'^^^^^^ DOWN Tl- 
STEM 




CAP 
RING. OFTEN ATTACHED BY 

ABSENT ,TS TOP 



ul 



ENTOLOMA 

ON GROUND 



UNCOMMON 

CLITOPILUS CLAUDOPUS 



ON GROUND 



ON WOOD 



Pictorial Key to Genera of 
Common Black Spored Giuled Mushrooms. 



5«i 

I c 

-So 
oui^: 

Sis 

o 

O ■■ 
o > 

•1 






SMALL 

AlUSHROOMS 
WITH THIN, 
FRAGILE CAP^ 
STRIATED 
MUHEN YOUNG 




PSATHYRELLA 



CAP EASILY DETACHED 
FROM STEM 




COPRINUS 



CAP WITHOUT 
STB J AT IONS 




PANAEOLUS 



< o 
< 



" U) O 
O J 

_ 3 - 






o 
II. z 

0< 



Fig. 6. — Pictorial key to pink spored and black spored 
common gilled mushrooms. 

119 



Pictorial Key to Genera of 
Rusty Spored Common Gilleo Mu&hroom&. 



&ILL1. ATTACHED TO STCM 
AND USUALLY CHANGE 
COLOR WITH AGE. RUbTY 
WHEN 
OLD 



BROVI/N 
WEBBY 

VEIL IN 
YOUNG. 
PLANTS 




CORTIIMARIUS 

IN WOOO& 



NEARLY / ICILL^ 
ALL OROwl (ATTACHED 
OM WOOD / / ^O STEM 

OR exTtNOINS 
DOWN IT 




/'EDO-E 0<» CAP 
• NCURVB.O WHEH 
YOUNfr 




FLAMMULA 



HEBELOMA 



IRREGULAFt 

IN SHAPE 



CREPIDOTUS 



CAP OPTEN ATTACHED 
TO ^^/^OOD 6Y ITS TOR 



oj a 

to 
< 



«.30 
OO 111 

Ul2 *■ 



SOME SHADE OF YELLOW 



STEH 

SOMETIMtb 

WITH A 

SPORE -STAINE.es 

RIN&-LlKe 

BANO. 




l/SUALLY SMALL AND 
FRA&ILE 



STEM 

FRAC-ILE 

HOLLOW 




NAUCOJ^IA 



RESEMBLES WHITE 
SPOREO CoLLYBiA 



GALERA 

RESEMBLtS WHITE SPORED 
MYCENA 



Fig. 7. — Pictorial key to genera of rusty spored common 

gilled mushrooms. 

120 



Pictorial Key to Gene.ra op 
PuRPuE AND Dark Brown Spored Commoh Aoarics. 



STEM OF DlfFEKt.nr STRUCTURE FROM CAP AND EASILY 
DETACHED FROM IT 



GILLS TURN 
DARK WHEN 
OLD 



RIN& ON STEM 



AGARICUS 

&ROVI/I/NO CM A^ROUND 



STEM OF SAME STRUCTURE. 

EASILY DETACHED FROM IT. 



AS CAP AND NOT 



^5i7^^ ^^fi^? 



PR.AGMENTS 
OF WEIL AT EDGE 
OP CAP IN YOUN&, 

PLANT* 





HYPHOLOMA 

MANY SPECIES &ROMr 
IN CLUSTERS. 



STEM 
WITH 
RIN& 



TO THE srEM 



U} CUP 
^_y ABSENT 



K^ 



Stropharia 



STEM AND CAP OF DIFFERENT STRUCTURE BUT 

NOT EASILY SEPARATED FROM EACH OTHER. 

CAPS SMOOTK 



EOG-e TURNE.0 IN 

WHEN 

YOONC. 



&ILLS BROWN OR 
PURPLISH wHEtt 
OLD. 




STEM 
'//// HOLLOW oa 
STUFFEa 



PS I LOG Y BE 

ON OROUND 



Fig. 8. — Pictorial key to genera of purple and dark brown 
spored common gilled mushrooms. 



121 



f^n^ojiToPsis 



TABULAR VIEW OF THE GfNERA OF AGARICAE 

t£UCOSPORAE-RHOPO$POR/\E-OCHR05?ORAE-PORPH\'ROSPORAe-M£WN(KPORA£ 

(Wh/fe) (pink) (mom) i?vR?in (black; 



AM/^NITA f: 



w 



V*!LV4^l% 



LLPIOTA 



I 



TWTfllS 






ARMILLARIA' 



I 



B4<^0TA 



cmjrmmms 



STAOPH^H 



TRlCHOLOhA 
LACTARIUS 
11U55ULA 



ClfroidHA 



WfBtLOHA 
fWOCYBE 



MtPHOtdfl^l 



a(TocY&£ 



roPitus 



FLAmnULA 



PLEUROTUS 
TANUS 

SCHi20f«VLU>M| 



C«ePlDOTU& 



COILYBIA 
HARASniUS 



UPTONIA 



'^VCEf^tA iNtftAN^ 



OhPHALiA 



NAUCORIA PSftjOCY&e 



GALEHft 



CHAPTER V 

DESCRIPTIONS OF GENERA AND SPECIES OF 
COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



123 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



The genus Agaricus 

The genus Agaricus includes only such brown spored 

species as have their gills free from the stem with a ring or 

collar upon the stem. All of them grow upon the ground only. 

Species of Agaricus 
Agaricus arvensis; horse mushroom. Plate 2, Species i. 

On ground in cultivated fields, grassy pastures and waste 
places. It is occasionally found under trees and even within 
the borders of thin woods; scattered or in groups; July to 
September; edible. 

Cap smooth, or slightly flocculent (with a few flakes upon 
its surface); white or yellowish; 2 to 5 inches broad. 

Gills at first whitish or very slightly pinkish; turning dull 
pink, then blackish brown; near together; free from the stem. 

Stem stout ; hollow ; somewhat thicker or bulbous at the base; 
white; with a double ring, the upper part membranous, the 
lower part thicker, split radially, yellowish; 2 to 4 inches long. 

Spores brown; elliptic; .0003 to .0004 inches long. 

The horse mushroom, also called meadow mushroom, is so 
much like the common mushroom that some botanists have 
supposed it to be a mere variety of that species. The most 
notable differences are its larger size, its hollow, somewhat 
bulbous stem, its peculiar veil or collar and the paler gills 
of the young plant. The cap in dried specimens is apt to 
assume a yellow color which does not pertain to the Common 
mushroom. No serious harm could come if it should be 
confused with the common mushroom. Peck. 

Agaricus campestris; common mushroom; edible mush- 
room. Plate 2, Species 2. 
On ground in grassy places, in pastures, on lawns and 
manured ground, in mushroom beds, never in thick woods; 
singly or in groups; latter part of July to September; edible. 

125 



PLATE II. 




Species No. 


Description on page. 


I Agaricus arvensis 


. 125 


2 Agaricus campestris . 


. 125 


3 Agaricus silvicola 


. 127 



PLATE II. 




} 







GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



Cap silky or with scales; in very young plants the cap is 
almost globular or hemispheric and the gills are concealed 
(buttons) ; when older the cap expands and the veil separates 
from the margin revealing the delicate- tinted pinkish gills; 
when mature the cap is broadly expanded or nearly flat; 
margin, especially in young plants extends beyond the gills; 
white or with dingy hues; flesh white or with a tendency to 
become pinkish when cut; taste mild and pleasant; may be 
peeled ; i >^ to 3 inches wide. 

Gills near together; pink when young, turning brown and 
then black with age; free from stem. 

Stem smooth; white or whitish; short; with a ring when 
young; stuffed; cylindric; 2 to 3 inches long. 

Spores brown; elliptic; .00025 to .0003 inches long. 

The common mushroom, sometimes called the edible 
mushroom, as if it were the only edible species known, is 
perhaps more generally used and better known than any 
other. It is the one commonly cultivated and the one most 
often seen on the tables of the rich and of restaurants and 
public houses. It is so eagerly sought in some of our cities 
that it is difficult to find the wild ones near these towns, for 
they are gathered as soon as they appear, and the cultivated 
ones bring prices above the reach of the poor. 

Agaricus silvicola; forest mushroom. Plate II, Species 3. 

On ground in woods and groves; scattered or singly; August 
to September; edible. 

Cap convex or expanded; often with an elevation or umbo in 
the center; smooth or slightly silky; white or tinged with yellow 
or pink; flesh whitish or tinged with pink; 2 to 5 inches broad. 

Gills thin; close together; free from stem; rounded near the 
stem; pinkish when young, becoming darker when old; finally 
brown or blackish- brown. 

Stem long; with a ring which is sometimes double; smooth; 
127 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



bulbous at base; white, often yellowish below; stuffed or 
hollow; 4 to 6 inches long. 

Spores brown; elliptic; .0003 long, .00016 broad. 

It is an attractive plant because of its graceful habit and 
the delicate shades of yellow and white. Atkinson. 

The forest mushroom has been regarded by some mycolo- 
gists as a variety of the common mushroom, from which it is 
easily distinguished by its longer, hollow bulbous stem and 
by its place of growth (woods). Peck. 

The genus Amanita 

The genus of fungi known under this name possess char- 
acteristic peculiarities of the stem. At its base is a volva or 
cup. The very young plants are wholly enveloped in a 
membrane or universal veil which is ruptured by the growth 
of the plant, the portion persisting at the bottom forming the 
above-mentioned cup or sheath. That portion of the univer- 
sal veil which in the young plant covers the cap, remains in 
the mature plants of some of the species in the form of patches 
or warts, often easily separable. It sometimes happens that 
these warts are washed off by the rain. The gills are free 
from the stem which is furnished with a membranous collar 
or ring. The plants are generally large and attractive in 
appearance. Inasmuch as our most dangerous species belong 
to this genus the amateur should avoid eating all mushrooms 
having stems with a cup at the bottom or with a ring upon the 
stem in connection with any suspicion of a cup at the bottom. 

Species of Amanita 

Amanita caesarea; Caesar's mushroom; orange amanita; 
royal agaric. Plate III, Species 4. 

On ground, in woods; scattered; July to September; edible 
but EAT NOT. 

Cap orange or red fading on the margin; smooth except at 
128 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



the margin where it is furrowed or striate; bell-shaped, 
becoming expanded when old and then the surface may be 
nearly flat or the center elevated; 3 to 6 inches broad; flesh 
white or tinged with yellow. 

Gills yellow; free from stem. 

Stem yellow; with a broad yellowish ring hanging like a 
broad collar from the upper part; is slightly bulbous at the 
base where it is covered by the large sac-like white volva or 
cup; hollow or stuffed; 4 to 6 inches long; yi inch or more in 
thickness. 

Spores white; elliptical; .0003 to .0004 inch long. 

The colors of the plant are generally deeper in large speci- 
mens. 

The species is not common in America but is described on 
account of its importance and beauty. 

The fly amanita, (Amanita muscaria) resembles this 
mushroom in size, shape and color of the cap, but in other 
respects they are quite distinct. Peck. 

The chief distinctive characters may be contrasted as follows: 

Fly amanita. Cap warty, gills white, stem white or slightly 
yellowish. 

Orange amanita. Capsmooth, gills yellow, stem yellow. Peck. 

Amanita muscaria; fly amanita; fly agaric; false orange; 
fly poison. Plate III, Species 5. 

On ground, in woods and open places; June to frost; 
POISONOUS. 

Cap bright red or orange when young, fading to yellow on 
the margin when mature; occasionally white throughout; 
smooth, sometimes with minute furrows or striate on margin; 
adorned with white or yellowish warts or scales, or smooth 
if these have been washed off by rain; flesh white or yellowish 
just imder the skin or peel; 3 to 8 inches broad; slightly viscid 
when fresh. Murrill. 

129 



PLATE III. 




Species No. 


Description on page. 


4 Amanita cassarea 


. 128 


5 Amanita muscaria 


. 129 


6 Amanita phalloidss . 


. 131 


7 Amanita rubescens . 


. 133 



^^h. 




PLATE III. 





•^i 



\ 



IX 



^ 



\ 



V 




GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



Gills white; free from stem; rarely tinged with yellow. 

Stem furnished with a collar or ring; bulbous at the base; 
the bulb as well as the base of the stem is scaly at times from 
the adhering fragments of the wrapper or universal veil, the 
remains of which do not form such a well-defined cup or 
sheath as is the case in some other amanitae, such as Amanita 
phalloides; white or slightly tinged with yellow; 4 to 6 inches 
long. 

Spores white; broadly elliptic; .0003 to .0004 inch long. 

The fly amanita is one of our most common poisonous 
species. It is also very variable in color and in the size of its 
cap. It is generally a most showy and attractive plant. I 
have seen a single cap surrounded by a circle of lifeless flies 
that had sipped the viscid juice from its moist surface and 
fallen victims to its virulent properties before leaving the 
place of their fatal repast. . . . Some of the people of 
northern Asia make an intoxicating liquor of this fungus by 
steeping it in water. Peck. 

Infusions of it are used as a fly poison. It is a striking and 
handsome plant because of the usually brilliant coloring of 
the cap in contrast with the white stems and gills, and the 
usually white scales on the surface. Atkinson. 

The poisonous properties of this fungus are due to a principle 
known as muscarin which is used as a medicine and the 
antidote to which is atropin, an alkaloid extracted from the 
belladonna plant. 

Amanita phalloides; poison amanita; destroying angel; 
deadly amanita. Plate III, Species 6. 

On ground, in woods, groves, open places and bushy 
pastures; July to October; POISONOUS. 

Cap bell-shaped or almost globular when young, becoming 
nearly plane when mature; surface slightly viscid (sticky) 
when fresh and moist; smooth or decorated with scattered 

131 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



warty patches; margin rarely striated; flesh extremely 
poisonous but not objectionable to the taste, sometimes with 
a disagreeable odor; smooth; varying in color from pujre white 
to yellow, yellowish-green, smoky-olive, gray, brown or 
blackish; i>^ to 5 inches broad. 

Gills white; free from stem; broad; bellied, sometimes 
adnexed (adjacent to stem). (Murrill.) 

Stem usually white; sharply bulbous at the base; with a 
wide ring near the upper end; usually white; smooth or 
slightly scaly; stuffed or hollow; 2>^ to 6 inches long; with a 
volva or cup at bottom. 

Spores white; smooth; globular; hyaline (glassy); 7-10 
microns in diameter. 

The poison amanita is very variable in the color of the cap 
and yet is so definite in its structural characters that only the 
most careless observer would be likely to confuse it with any 
other species. There is, however, a sort of deceptive char- 
acter about it. It is very neat and attractive in its appearance 
and "looks as if it might be good enough to eat." This 
appearance is fortified by the absence of any decidedly 
unpleasant odor or taste, but let him who would eat it beware, 
for probably there is not a more poisonous or dangerous 
species in our mycological flora. To eat it is to invite death. 

The differences between Amanita phalloides and the 
common mushroom are these: 

Poison amanita. Gills persistently white; stem equal to or 
longer than the diameter of the cap; with a hroad distinct bulb 
at the base. 

Common mushroom. Gills pink, becoming blackish-brown; 
stem shorter than the diameter of the cap, with no bulb at the 
base. Peck. 

Since the Amanita Phalloides occurs usually in woods, or 
along borders of woods, there is little danger of confusing it 
with edible mushrooms collected in lawns distant from the 
132 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



woods and in open fields. However, I found several of this 
species in a lawn distant from the woods. This should cause 
. . , those not thoroughly familiar with the appearance of 
the plant to be extremely cautious against eating mushrooms 
simply because they were not collected in or near the woods. 
The bulb of the deadly amanita is usually inserted quite deep 
in the soil or leaf-mold, and specimens are often picked leaving 
the very important character of the volva in the ground, and 
then the plant might easily be taken for the common mush- 
room, or more likely for the smooth lepiota, Lepiota naucina, 
which is entirely white, the gills only in age showing a faint 
pink tinge. It is very important, therefore, that until one 
has such familiarity with these plants that they are easily 
recognized in the absence of some of these characters, the stem 
should be carefully dug from the soil. Atkinson, 

Poisoning by Amanita phalloides when eaten in sufficient 
quantity was invariably fatal in spite of medical treatment 
until recently. Dr. Dujarric de la Riviere, head of the 
Pasteur Institute, Paris, has succeeded in preparing an 
antitoxic serum which has saved the lives of persons who were 
apparently fatally poisoned by this so-called "destroying 
angel." He calls it antiphallinic serum {serum antiphallin- 
ique). The Government of France has lately passed a law 
requiring that each department of that nation shall keep a 
supply of it ready for use by physicians. 

Yearly deaths in New York City from Amanita poisoning 
vary in number but have been so high as thirty. It is to be 
hoped that the new method of treatment may soon be avail- 
able in this country. 

Amanita rubescens; Venenarius rubens; blushing venen- 
arius. Plate III, Species 7. 

Cap egg-shaped at first, then convex and later expanded; 
surface adorned with thin flaky or mealy warts; variable in 

133 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



color but always tinged with reddish or with brownish-red, 
changing slowly to reddish when bruised; pleasant odor and 
taste; margin smooth or with slight furrows (striate); flesh 
white, changing slowly to reddish when bruised ; 3 to 5 inches 
broad. 

Gills free from stem or adjacent to it (slightly adnexed); 
close together; white; characteristically chalky white when 
dry. 

Stem with a ring or collar upon its upper portion; bulbous 
at the base; with small scales; whitish, but generally with dull 
reddish stains especially near the base; stuffed; 3 to 6 inches 
long. 

Spores white; ellipsoid; smooth; glassy (hyaline); 10 
to 1 1 X 6 to 7 microns in diameter. 

Found commonly in woods and groves from Maine to 
Alabama and west to Ohio. On ground. Edible but EAT 
NOT. 

The genus Amanitopsis 

This genus resembles the amanita family in that each 
species belonging to it has a cup or sheath enclosing the lower 
end of the stem. The spores are also white and the gills free 
from the stem. 

The principal feature wherein the genus Amanitopsis differs 
from Amanita is in the absence of a collar or ring upon the 
stem. 

Species of Amanitopsis 

Amanitopsis vaginata; sheathed amanitopsis. Plate IV, 
Species 8. 

On ground or on much decayed wood; singly or scattered 
in woods and open places; June to October; edible but EAT 
NOT. 

134 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



Cap rather thin; smooth or adorned when young with a 
few adherent fragments of the veil (warty); bell-shaped to 
expanded; sometimes umbonate; deeply (striated) furrowed 
at the margin; regular in form but fragile and easily broken; 
exceedingly variable in color, ranging from reddish white to 
reddish-brown or leaden-brown; 2 to 4 inches broad. 

Gills free from stem; white or whitish; fragile. 

Stem without a ring but sheathed at the base by the torn 
remains of the rather long, thin, flabby volva (veil or wrapper) ; 
smooth or adorned with minute scales; variable in color; 
hollow or stuffed; portions of the conspicuous white volva 
are sometimes carried up as patches on the cap. Murrill. 
3 to 5 inches long, K to ^ inch thick. 

Spores white; globular; smooth; glassy (hyaline); 8-10 
microns in diameter. 

The sheath or wrapper at the base of the stem adheres so 
slightly to the stem that if the plant is carelessly pulled the 
sheath is left in the ground. My own experience indicates 
that it is a fairly good mushroom, but there are many others 
that I like better. Peck. 

This attractive and very variable species is abundant in 
woods throughout Europe and North America during summer 
and autumn and possesses excellent edible qualities. It may 
be distinguished from species of Amanita, some of which are 
deadly poisonous, by the total absence of a ring on the stem, 
although the conspicuous volva at the base suggests its close 
relationship to that genus. The variations in color presented 
by this species are often very bewildering to the beginner. 
Murrill. 

Amanitopsis volvata ; Large-sheathed amanitopsis, Plate 
IV, Species 9. 

On ground in and near woods; July to October; POISON- 
OUS. 

135 



PLATE IV. 
Species No. Description on page. 

8 Amanitopsis vaginata . . • • ^34 

9 Amanitopsis volvata . . . • .135 

10 Armillaria mellea ^37 

11 Cantharellus aurantiacus . . . .139 



PLATE IV. 



•M' 






i ' 









GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



Cap I to 3 inches broad; hemispheric when young; flat 
when mature. Dull white, yellowish or rarely reddish-brown. 
Powdery or flaky surface; fragile. 

Gills free from stem; white; rounded near stem; broad; 
near together. 

Stem variable; 2 to 3 inches long; slender; cylindric or 
tapering upward; enlarged at the base; whitish; downy; 
stuffed or solid; with a very large volva that is more or less 
lobed. 

Spores white; somewhat elliptical; waxy; 10-12 by 6-7 
microns in diameter. 

From New England to Alabama and west to Ohio. Its 
most noticeable feature is the immense cup or volva at base 
of the stem. Murrill. 

The genus Armillaria 

This is a white-spored genus which has the gills attached 
to the stem by their inner extremity. The stem usually has a 
collar but there is no wrapper or cup at the base as in the 
genera Amanita or Amanitopsis. The stem is fibrous and not 
easily separable from the substance of the cap, another feature 
in which this genus differs from Amanita and also from 
Lepiota. 

Species of Armillaria 

Armillaria mellea; honey colored mushroom; honey- 
colored armillaria; honey agaric. Plate IV, Species 10. 

On ground or on decaying wood ; in woods or in cleared land; 
solitary or in groups, tufts or clusters; summer and autumn; 
edible. 

Cap convex to expanded ; pale honey yellow to dark reddish- 
brown; very variable in color and form but once known is 
easily recognized; adorned with minute tufts of brown or 

137 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



blackish hairs, but sometimes smooth; when old sometimes 
with minute radial furrows (striate) at the margin; center 
sometimes prominent (umbonate); flesh white or whitish, 
somewhat acrid and unpleasant to the taste (raw); i to 6 
inches broad. 

Gills attached to the stem or even extending down it (adnate 
or decurrent); white or whitish, becoming discolored or 
spotted with age. 

Stem adorned with a collar or ring in its upper portion; this 
ring is variable, sometimes white and cottony or thin and 
webby and disappearing when old; (stem) honey-colored, 
reddish-brown, or dirty brown below, paler above; firm; 
fibrous; spongy within; usually having flakes or scales upon 
it below the ring ; i to 6 inches long ; >^ to ^ inches thick. 

Spores white; elliptic; smooth; glassy (hyaline): 7-10 m. 
long. 

The honey-colored armillaria is very plentiful and extremely 
variable. The stem may be of uniform thickness or thickened 
at the base or even narrowed almost to a point here. In one 
variety it has a distinctly bulbous base, in another a tapering 
base like a tap root wh^ch penetrates the earth deeply. The 
plants rarely appear plentifully before the last of September. 
Peck. 

Very widely distributed and very abundant on stumps and 
buried roots of both deciduous trees and evergreens, on which 
it grows as a parasite, the sporophores (mushrooms) appearing 
in dense clusters in autumn and the shining brown cords or 
rhizomorphs being often seen in dead logs and stumps. To 
the forester this is probably the most important species of all 
the gill-fungi. It is also much used as an article of food in 
Europe and about New York City, although of inferior 
quality. Murrill. 

Its clustered habit, the usually prominent ring on the stem, 
and the sharp, blackish, erect scales which usually adorn the 
138 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



center of the cap, mark it as an easy plant to determine in 
most cases. The colors and markings however, vary greatly, 
so that some of the forms are very puzzling. Atkinson. 

The genus Cantharellus 

The genus Cantharellus is distinguished by the character of 
the gills which have an obtuse or blunt edge and are mostly 
forked or branched. They are also generally narrow. In 
general appearance the species are not much unlike species 
of Clitocybe for the gills extend down the stem (decurrent), 
but their thick branching habit and blunt edge give the plant 
a distinct character. In many species the gills look like 
veins, folds or wrinkles, but in some species, as Cantharellus 
aurantiacus, they are rather thin and broad. All species 
grow on the ground except C. crispus. 

Species of Cantharellus 

Cantharellus aurantiacus; orange chantarelle; false 
chantarelle. Plate IV, Species ii. 

On ground; in woods and uncultivated places; July to 
October; edible. 

Cap fleshy; soft; plane or depressed at the center (funnd- 
shaped) ; covered with a fine wooly surface (minutely tomen- 
tose) ; yellowish-orange, sometimes tinged with smoky-brown, 
or brownish in the center only; flesh whitish or yellowish; 
I to 3 inches broad. 

Gills narrow; extending down the stem (decurrent); close 
together; reddish orange; repeatedly forked. 

Stem cylindric or slightly tapering upward; smooth; solid; 
color of cap or paler; sometimes becoming hollow with age 
(Atkinson); i to 3 inches long; ye to ^ inch thick. 

Spores white; slightly elliptic; 6-8 x 4-5 microns in diameter. 

The orange chantarelle is sharply separated from the other 
139 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



species by its usually bright orange gills which are regularly 
and repeatedly forked. . . . The extreme margin is frequently 
(curved in) decurved or involute. 

It was formerly reputed poisonous or dangerous and credited 
with having a disagreeable flavor. In my own experiments 
with it the flavor has been found to be agreeable and fair 
trials of eating it have shown it to be perfectly harmless. I 
therefore have no hesitation in adding it to our list of edible 
species. Peck. 

This orange cantharellus is very co nmon and occurs on the 
ground or on very rotten wood, logs, branches, etc., from 
summer to very late autumn. It is easily known by its dull 
orange or brownish pileus (cap), yellow gills, which are thin 
and regularly forked and by the pileus being more or less 
depressed or funnel-shaped. The taste is somewhat nutty, 
somewhat bitterish. Atkinson. 

Cantharellus cibarius; chantarelle. Plate V, Species 12. 

On ground in woods and open places; commonly in groups, 
but sometimes in curved lines; June to September; edible. 

Cap fleshy; firm; convex, becoming expanded or depressed 
at the center (funnel-shaped); smooth; chrome (egg) yellow; 
the margin when young turning in but later spreading and 
often wavy or irregular; flesh white; taste when raw often 
a little pungent or acrid; i to 3 inches broad. 

Gills far apart; thick; narrow; forked; extending down the 
stem (decurrent) ; yellow. 

Stem variable in length; firm; smooth; solid; yellow; often 
curved; sometimes tapers downward. By some, it is con- 
sidered as good as the cap for food; i to 2 inches long; J^ to 
}i inch thick. 

Spores pale yellowish; elliptic; .0003 inch to .0004 inch long. 

The chantarelle is beautiful in color if not in shape and is 
most easily recognized. Its color is a uniform rich egg- 
140 



Fig. 9. 




Fig. 9. — Species 13. — Cantharellus cinnabarinus. 

Photo by author. See Plate V. 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



yellow, which is very constant. This extends to all "parts of 
the plant except the inner flesh which is white. 

The orange chantarelle or false chantarelle, Cantharellus 
aurantiacus, is the only species liable to be mistaken for the 
edible chantarelle. It may at once be recognized by the 
orange color of its gills, which are also thinner and more close 
and are regularly and repeatedly forked. The color of its 
cap is a paler and more dingy yellow, varied with smoky- 
brown tints. Peck. 



V, Species 13, also Figure 9. 

In woods and open places; July to September; edible. 

Cap firm; convex or slightly depressed in the center; often 
irregular in shape, with a wavy or lobed margin; smooth; 
cinnabar red; flesh white; size, }4 to lyz inches in diameter. 

Gills narrow; blunt on edges; far apart (distant); branched 
or forked; extending down the stem (decurrent); red like the 
surface of the cap. 

Stem equal or tapering downward ; smooth ; solid or stuffed ; 
red like the cap. 

Spores white; elliptic; .0003 to .0004 of an inch long, .00016 
to .0002 broad. 

The cinnabar chantarelle is readily recognized by its color. 
It is externally red in all its parts, the interior only being 
white. The color is quite constant, but in some instances it 
is paler and approaches a pinkish hue. It is apt to fade or 
even disappear in dried specimens. 

This mushroom sometimes occurs in great abundance, 
which adds to its importance as an edible species. The fresh 
plant has a tardily and slightly acrid flavor, but this disappears 
in cooking. 

It is a small species but often quite irregular in shape. 
Small specimens are more likely to be regular than large ones. 

141 





PLATE V. 






species No. Description on page. 


12 


Cantharellus cibarius 140 


13 


Cantharellus cinnabarinus . 




141 


15 


Cantharellus dichotomus 




143 


16 


Cantharellus floccosus 




144 


17 


Cantharellus inf undibuliformis . 




145 


18 


Cantharellus minor . 




145 


20 


Clitocybe albissima . 




147 


21 


Clitocybe candicans . 




. 147 



PLATE V. 




'***% 



%)!» 



« *^ 



d^. 



\ 





^ 




^^ 



"X \ J^ 




17 



^*f 




GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



Sometimes the cap is more fully developed on one side than 
on the other. This makes the stem eccentric or in some cases 
almost lateral. 

Cantharellus crispus; Species 14. No illustration. 

On wood, trunks of trees, etc. September to November; 
in tufts often. 

Cap thin ; expanded ; villous or pubescent (covered with soft 
hairs, downy); yellowish brown; often lobed; 4 to 8 inches 
broad. 

Gills narrow; close together; dichotomously branched 
(forked); crisped (wavy or curled); glaucus — (grayish) green. 

Stem lateral (at the margin) or absent. 

Spores white. 

Cantharellus dichotomus ; dichotomous chantarelle; prob- 
ably identical with Cantharellus umbonatus Fr. Plate 
V, Species 15. 

On ground in woods among mosses or in pastures and bushy 
places among grasses and fallen leaves; in groups; July to 
September. 

Cap rather conical when young, becoming convex, plane or 
depressed at the center when mature; margin turned in and 
downy when young; fleshy; soft and flexible; sometimes with 
a small knob at the center; smooth; dry; color variable, 
grayish-white, grayish-brown, yellowish-brown, blackish- 
brown or bluish-gray ; flesh v/hite ; taste mild ; >^ to i ^ inches 
broad. 

Gills narrow; close together; forked i, 2 or 3 times; extend- 
ing down the stem; white or whitish; sometimes tinged with 
yellow. 

Stem sometimes tapering upward a little; solid; whitish or 
pallid or color of the cap, and when growing among mosses is 

143 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



clothed below with a soft white down which binds it closely 
to the mosses, smooth or with minute fibrils upon it; i to 3 
inches long. 

Spores white; narrow ellipses .0003 to .0004 long by .00016 
inch broad. 

The dichotomous chantarelle is a small but common species 
in our hilly and mountainous districts. 

It is related so closely to Cantharellus umbonatus that it 
has been sometimes regarded as a variety of it or has even 
been confused with it, but the gills of that species have been 
described as straight, and in our plant they are constantly 
repeatedly forked as in C. aurantiacus and C. albidus. Peck. 

Cantharellus floccosus; floccose chantarelle. Plate V, 
Species 16. 

On ground in woods; in groups; July to September; edible. 

Cap funnel-form or trumpet-shaped, deeply excavated; 
firm; rather thin; surface somewhat scaly; yellowish inclining 
to rusty; 2 to 4 inches broad at the top, 3 to 6 inches long. 

Gills narrow; thick; blunt on the edge; repeatedly forked 
and branched so that the lower surface of the cap has a coarse 
network of them; gills and interspaces rusty or yellowish; 
extending down the stem. 

Stem short; smooth or hairy; sometimes elongated and bent. 
' Spores rusty colored; elliptic; .0005 to .0006 inch long by 
.0003 inch broad with a small oblique point at one end; usually 
with one nucleus. 

The floccose chantarelle is a large and very distinct species. 
There is nothing with which it can easily be confused. When 
young it is narrowly club-shape or almost cylindric, but soon 
becomes trumpet-shaped. My trial of its edible qualities was 
very satisfactory, and I consider it a very good mushroom for 
the table. Peck. 

144 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



Cantharellus inf undibulif onnis ; funnel-form chantarelle. 
Plate V, Species 17. 

On ground; in damp woods or mossy, shaded swamps; in 
groups, sometimes in tufts; June to October; edible. 

Cap thin; broadly convex when young becoming pitted at 
the center or funnel-shaped when older; frequently lobed, 
wavy or irregular on the margin; water-soaked in appearance 
(hygrophanous) when moist; sooty brown, brownish-yellow 
or dingy yellow when moist; sooty brown, brownish-yellow 
or grayish brown and slightly scaly when dry; i to 2 inches 
broad. 

Gills narrow; far apart; extending down the stem (decur- 
rent); irregularly forked or branched; yellowish or slightly 
ashy, becoming dusted when old or in drying. 

Stem slender; smooth; hollow; yellow or yellowish; i to 4 
inches long. 

Spores white; broadly elliptic or globular; .00035 to .00045 
inch long. 

Its cap is more highly colored when moist and becomes 
paler with the loss of moisture. In some specimens the margin 
becomes wavy, folded or lobed and presents a very irregular 
appearance. The gills appear in maturity as if frosted or 
covered with a minute whitish dust or mealiness. This is 
one of the characters distinguishing this species from the 
yellowish chantarelle. For edible purposes the separation of 
the funneUform chantarelle and the yellowish chantarelle is 
not of much importance. Peck. 

Cantharellus minor; small chantarelle. Plate V, Species 18. 

On ground in thin woods and open places; June and July; 
in groups or sparse clusters; edible. 

Cap thin; convex or nearly plane; often depressed at center 
or with pit at center (umbilicate) ; smooth; yellow; flesh 

145 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



whitish or pale yellow; often wavy or irregular on the margin; 
size ^ to I inch. 

Gills far apart; extending down the. stem (decurrent); 
seldom branched or forked; yellow. 

Stem slender; smooth; solid when young, hollow when old; 
yellow; often with whitish down at base; size, i to ijE^ inches 
long and Via to Ve inch thick. 

Spores white. 

The small chantarelle is almost exactly like the chantarelle 
(Cantharellus cibarius) in color but is easily recognized by its 
smaller size and more slender appearance, its stem being 
proportionately longer. 

Although of excellent flavor its small size detracts from its 
importance as an edible mushroom, but sometimes in wet 
showery weather it appears in sufficient abundance to make it 
available for the table. Peck. 

The genus Clitocybe 

The white-spored genus Clitocybe differs from Tricholoma 
in the character of the gills. They are attached to the stem 
to their extremity as in that species but they are not notched 
or excavated on the edge near the stem, and they generally 
extend down the stem (decurrent). The flesh is continuous 
with the stem and hence is not easily separated from it. 
None are known to be fatally poisonous. 

Species of Clitocybe 

Clitocybe albidula; Clitocybe centralis; whitish clitocybe. 
Species 19; Figure 10. 

On ground; in pine or mixed woods; in groups; September 
and October; Peck does not say whether edible or not. 

Cap thin; convex or nearly plane; with a pit or depression 
146 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



at the center when mature; smooth; whitish tinged with 
brown; wholly or in the center only when moist, whitish when 
dry; flesh whitish; taste and odor like bran (farinaceous); ]4. 
to i>^ inches broad. 

Gills thin; close together; attached broadly to the stem or 
extending slightly down it (adnate or decurrent) ; whitish. 

Stem short; cylindric; smooth or slightly frosted; stuffed 
or hollow ; color of the cap ; i to 2 inches long. 

Spores white; slightly elliptic; 5-6 x 2.5-3 microns in ; 

diameter. \ 

Common. Peck. | 

I 

Clitocybe albissima; very white clitocybe. Plate V, 
Species 20. i 

On ground; in woods; in groups or sometimes growing in j 
arcs of circles; August and September; Edibility doubtful. 

whether edible or not. \ 

i 

Cap fleshy, convex or nearly plane; dry; soft; even surface; ■ 

pure white; inodorous; 2 to 3 inches broad. : 

Gills attached to the stem or extending down it (adnate or 

decurrent) ; some of them forked at the base; white. i 

Stem smooth; solid; white; iK^ to 3 inches long. ' 

Spores white; ellipsoid; 8x5 microns in diameter. ' 

The pure white color and soft texture are retained by the ! 

dried specimens. ... It is an attractive, neat-looking species. i 

Peck. ! 

Clitocybe candicans; whitish clitocybe. Plate V, Species ; 
21. 

On ground; among fallen leaves in woods; in groups; \ 

September and October. Should not be eaten. It resembles , 

too closely a poisonous species, Clitocybe sudorifica. (See i 

Clitocybe dealbata.) ! 

147 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



Cap slightly fleshy; convex, becoming plane or depressed; 
a pit at the center (umbilicate) ; regular; rarely, the stem is 
placed to one side of the center; glossy, with a superficial silky 
film; white when moist, shining white when dry; diameter yi 
to iX inches. 

Gills very thin; close together; attached to the stem 
(adnate), later extending down it (becoming decurrent); 
white. 

Stem even; smooth, waxy and polished ; cartilaginous hollow 
or nearly so; often curved; rooting and hairy at the base 
(villose) ; ^ inch to 2 inches long. 

Spores white; 4-6 x 4 microns in diameter. 

Said by Cooke to be farinaceous. Small and somewhat 
tough. Peck. 

Clitocybe clavipes; club stem clitocybe. Plate XIII, 
Species 22. 

On ground; in woods; solitary, in groups or rarely in tufts; 
July to October; edible. 

Cap very fleshy; generally shaped like a cone with its apex 
downward, sometime? with a small knob at the center of the 
convex or nearly plane upper surface; soft; grayish-brown, 
sooty brown, sometimes darker at the center; flesh white; 
taste mild; i to 3 inches broad. 

Gills extending down the stem (decurrent); rather broad; 
cream-colored or white. 

Stem tapering upward from a thickened base; solid; elastic; 
soft and spongy within; smooth or with slight fibrils on the 
surface; color of cap or paler; j^ to 3 inches long. 

Spores ellipsoid; 'white; 6-8 x 4-5 microns in diameter. 

The club stemmed clitocybe may easily be recognized by 
its peculiar shape and colors. The cap may be compared to 
a very broad and short inverted cone and the stem to a very 
narrow elongated cone, the apices of the tv;o being united. 

148 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 




Fig. 10. — Above, Species No. 19. — Clitocybe albidula. 
Cap whitish, tinged with brown wholly or in the center when 
moist; whitish when dry. 

Description on page 146. 



Below (Species No. 24).— Clitocybe dealbata. Cap white, 
almost glossy. 
Description on page 150. 
149 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



Between the brown upper surface of the cap and the similarly- 
colored stem the white gills intervene as if to separate them. 
Fries says that this species is not edible on account of its 
spongy texture, but I find it pleasant-flavored and digestible 
and see no reason why it may not be utilized if taken 
when dry. After heavy rains it is apt to be water-soaked. 
Peck. 

Clitocybe cyathif ormis ; cup shaped clitocybe. Species 
23. Figure 11. 

On decaying wood or on the ground; in woods or open 
places; August and September; edibility doubtful. 

Cap fleshy but thin; depressed at the center or funnel- 
shaped; water-soaked in appearance when moist (hygrophan- 
ous); smooth or nearly so; occasionally with minute radial 
furrows at the margin (striate) when old; blackish-brown or 
grayish-brown when moist, paler when dry; iK to 3 inches 
wide. 

Gills far apart; broadly attached to the stem or extending 
down it (adnate or decurrent) ; united at the stem ; dingy or 
grayish brown. 

Stem color of the cap; cylindric or slightly tapering upward; 
pithy or hollow; an obscure network of fibrils upon the surface; 
^ to I >^ inches long. 

Spores white; slightly elliptic; 8-9 x 4-5 microns in diameter. 

Clitocybe dealbata ; ivory clitocybe. Species 24. Figure 10. 

On ground; grassy places, sometimes on (cultivated) mush- 
room beds; September and October; should NOT be eaten 
since it closely resembles a poisonous variety Clitocybe 
dealbata, variety sudorifica. 

Cap slightly fleshy; convex, becoming plane when mature or 
with upturned and sometimes wavy margin; dry; smooth; 
150 



Fig. II. 








Fig. II. — Species 23. — Clitocybe cyathiforme. Cap 

brown; I>^ to 3 inches broad. 

From Prof. C. H. Kauffman's AgaricacecB of Michigan. 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



almost glossy; tough; white; taste mild; i to i, 
broad. 

Gills attached to the stem (adnate); close together; thin. 

Stem fibrous; cylindric; pithy (stuffed); frosted or mealy 
at the top ; I to I >^ inches long. 

Spores white; elHptic; 4-5 x 2-2.5 microns in diameter. 

This species resembles closely Clitocybe candicans and can 
be distinguished from it only by minute observation of the 
various characteristics, particularly of the stem which, in 
C. candicans, is cartilaginous, somewhat rooting, and is 
curved and hairy at its base. The spores of C. candicans 
are broadly elliptical while those of C. dealbata are narrow 
ellipses. 

Clitocybe illudens; deceiving clitocybe; Jack-o'-lantem. 
Plate VI, Species 25. 

On or about old stumps or decaying wood or roots buried in 
the ground; July to October; woods and open places; in tufts 
or clusters; POISONOUS. 

Cap convex or nearly plane, sometimes depressed in the 
center, sometimes with a knob at the center even when this is 
depressed ; often irregular or with the stem placed aside from 
the center; smooth; 3 to 6 inches broad; saffron yellow or 
orange yellow; flesh white or yellowish; odor strong; taste 
disagreeable. 

Gills color of the cap; close together; extending down the 
stem (decurrent) ; narrow at each end. 

Stem long, firm; smooth; solid; pithy or rarely hollow; often 
tapering toward the base; color of the cap or sometimes 
brownish toward the base; 3 to 6 inches long or even 
longer. 

Spores white; globular; 4-5 microns in diameter. 

The deceiving clitocybe is an attractive fungus, forming large 
151 



PLATE 


VI. 






Species No. 




Description on page. 


25 Clitocybe illudens 


. 


. 


. 151 


27 Clitocybe multiceps . 


. 


. 


. 153 


28 Clitocybe odora 


. 


. 


. 154 


29 Clitopilus abortivus . 


. 


. 


. 155 



I'LATE VI, 




^ 






^- ^ 






T- 






1 










f 




%^ 


( 3<? 




— 





GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



tufts or even patches on or about old stumps or decaying wood 
or buried roots. Peck. 

A beautiful but unwholesome species. It causes nausea 
and vomiting if eaten. It is possible to make it compara- 
tively harmless by heating it in salt water for a half hour, 
then taking it out and frying it in butter. It is phosphores- 
cent. Large fresh specimens when placed in a dark place 
emit a glowing light. Peck. 

From the rich saffron yellow color of all parts of the plant, 
and especially by its strong phosphorescence, so evident in the 
dark, it is an easy plant to recognize. 

While the plant is not a dangerously poisonous one, it has 
occasioned serious cases of illness, acting as a violent emetic, 
and of course should be avoided. Atkinson. 

Clitocybe inf undibulif ormis ; funnel form clitocybe. 
Species 26. Figure 12. 

On ground; among fallen leaves in woods; single or scat- 
tered, rarely tufted; July and August; edible. 

Cap convex and slightly knobbed at center when young; 
funnel-shaped when mature; margin thin and minutely silky; 
dry; reddish or pale tan color, fading with age; flesh white; 
2 to 3 inches broad. 

Gills thin; moderately close together; extending down the 
stem (decurrent) ; white or whitish. 

Stem generally tapering upward; generally pithy or spongy; 
soft; elastic; color of cap or paler; 2 to 3 inches long. 

Spores white; 5-6 x 3-4 microns in diameter. 

Clitocybe laccata. See Laccaria laccata. 

Clitocybe multiceps; many cap clitocybe; many-headed 
clitocybe. Plate VI, Species 27. Figure 13. 

On ground; open ground or in grassy places; in tufts or 
clusters, rarely solitary; June to October; edible. 

153 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



Cap fleshy; firm; convex; moist in wet weather; watery- 
white, grayish, yellowish-gray or grayish brown, the center 
portion more grayish; often irregular in shape from pressure 
by other caps or stems; flesh milk-white; taste oily and slightly 
disagreeable; i to 3>^ inches broad. 

Gills attached broadly to stem or extending a little down 
it (adnate or slightly decurrent); close together; narrow; 
white or whitish. 

Stem thick; cylindric; solid or pithy (stuffed); firm; white 
or whitish; frosted near the top; 2 to 4 inches long. 

Spores white; globular; smooth; glassy; 5-7 microns in 
diameter. 

The tufts may be composed of many or few individuals. 
The gills are sometimes sinuate (with a bend or tooth upon 
their edge) on one side of the stem, therein indicating a close 
relationship with the genus Tricholoma. The flavor of the 
uncooked mushroom varies. In some it is very disagreeable, 
in others but slightly so. Some pronounce it among the best 
of mushrooms when cooked, others say it is unfit to eat. 
Peck. 

This species occurs in wet weather in dense clusters on 
lawns, especially in rather long grass, and is usually found in 
great abundance when found at all. Its flesh is firm with a 
slight oily flavor, and specimens may be kept for several days 
before cooking. It is known only from New York and a few 
neighboring states, but should stand transplanting in sod 
rather easily. Having used it in quantity from my own lawn, 
I can recommend it as a valuable edible species. Murrill. 

Clitocybe odora; sweet clitocybe. Plate VI, Species 28. 

On ground in woods and bushy places; scattered or in 
groups; August. 

Cap tough; fleshy; convex, becoming plane or nearly so 
when mature; smooth; margin regular or sometimes wavy; 
154 



Fig. 12. 




Fig. 12. — Species 26. — Clitocybe infundibuliformis. 
Cap 2 to 3 inches broad, reddish or pale tan, fading 
when old. 

From Prof. C. H. KauflFman's AgaricacecB of Michigan. For de- 
scription, see page 153. 



Fig. 13. 




Fig. 13. — Species 27. — Clitocybe multiceps. Cap 
whitish, yellowish, grayish or brownish; i to 3>^ inches 
broad. 

From Prof. C. H. Kauflfman's Agaricacece of Michigan. See Plate VI. 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



moist in wet weather; green or dingy green, fading with age or 
on drying; flesh whitish; odor pleasant, Hke that of anise; 
size, I >^ to 3 inches in diameter. 

Gills thin; attached to the stem; (adnate) or extending 
slightly down the stem (decurrent) white, pallid, or grayish- 
green (glaucous). 

Stem cylindrical or slightly thicker at base; stuffed or hol- 
low elastic; smooth; whitish or greenish; thin, Ve to y^ inches 
in diameter. 

Spores white; 6 to 8 microns by 4 to 5 microns in diameter. 

The genus Clitopilus 

The species of this pink-spored genus have fleshy stems and 
gills extending down them (decurrent). Mushrooms with 
similar gills and stems but white spores, belong to the genus 
Clitocybe. The pink-gilled species of this genus, Clitopilus, 
may be distinguished from the pink-gilled common mushroom 
by the fact that they retain their pink hue when old, not turn- 
ing dark brown and finally black. Besides in the common 
mushroom and its family, the gills are free from the stem while 
in the genus Clitopilus they are attached, as mentioned above. 
Many species of pink-spored mushrooms, both in this genus 
and in others have white or whitish gills when they are young, 
turning to a pinkish hue with advancing age. This is due to 
the ripening of the pink spores upon their surfaces. 

Species of Clitopilus 

Clitopilus abortivus; Pleuropus abortivus; abortive 
clitopilus. Plate VI, Species 29 
On ground or on much-decayed wood; in woods or in open 
places; commonly in groups, sometimes single, sometimes 
tufted; August to October; edible. 

Cap fleshy; firm; convex, plane or slightly depressed at the 
center ; usually regular on the margin but sometimes wavy and 

155 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



irregular; dry; silky when young, smooth when old; gray or 
grayish-brown; flesh white; taste and odor slightly branny 
(subfarinaceous) ; 2 to 4 inches broad. 

Gills thin, close together; attached to the stem (adnate) or 
extending some distance down the stem (strongly decurrent) ; 
whitish or pale gray when young, changing to salmon color 
with advancing age. 

Stem solid, slightly downy or fibrous; color of the cap or 
paler; iJE^ to 3 inches long, ^ to >^ inch thick. 

Spores salmon pink; angular; with one nucleus; 8.5 to 10 x 
6-7.5 microns in diameter. 

The abortive clitopilus takes this name because it is usu- 
ally found growing with an imperfectly developed subglobose 
(slightly globular) form in which there is no distinction of cap, 
stem or gills. It is simply an irregularly rounded mass of 
cellular tissue of a whitish color, originally described as a sub- 
globose umbilicate (with a pit or depression at its center) 
downy mass. It is not always umbilicate nor is the surface 
always downy. It grows singly or in clusters of two or more. 

The well developed form is generally a clean neat appearing 
mushroom but one of a very modest unattractive grayish 
colored cap and stem and with gills similarly colored when 
young, but becoming salmon hued when mature. The farin- 
aceous taste and odor are not always distinct unless the flesh 
is broken. 

When taken in good condition and properly cooked it is an 
excellent mushroom. If stewed gently for a short time it is 
less agreeable than if thoroughly cooked or fried in butter. 
The abortive form is also edible and is thought by some to be 
even better than the ordinary form. Peck. 

Common on rich earth or much-decayed wood in woods 

during late summer and autumn, from Canada to Alabama 

and west to Wisconsin and Mexico. It is an excellent edible 

species both in its fully developed and aborted forms, the 

156 



Fig. 14. 




Fig. 14.— Species No. 29.— Clitopilus abortivus. 

Modeled and photographed by Miss Eleanor C. Allen, Amer. Mus. 
Nat. History. Description on page 155. See Plate VI. 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



latter being gathered for the market in some parts of Mexico. 
Murrill. 

Clitopilus prunulus; plum clitopilus; prune mushroom. 
Plate VI, Species 30. 

On ground in woods in warm wet weather in July and 
August; solitary or with but few individuals in a place; edible. 

Cap fleshy, broadly convex or nearly plane, sometimes de- 
pressed at center; dry; suffused with a bloom; color, whitish 
or grayish; margin sometimes wavy; flesh white; odor branny 
(farinaceous) ; size, 2 or 3 inches broad. 

Gills somewhat far apart (distant); extending down the 
stem (decurrent); whitish when young, becoming salmon 
colored when older. 

Stem white; solid; smooth; i to 2 inches long; yi'io yi inch 
thick. 

Spores salmon pink (rhodosporae) ; oblong elliptical, pointed 
at each end; .0004 to .00045 inch long. 

English writers speak highly of it as an esculent and class 
it among the most delicious of edible species. Gillet says 
that it is one of the best mushrooms that can be found. 

This species when fresh has a mealy odor and taste. Atkin- 
son. 

The genus CoUybia 

In the white-spored genus Collybia the gills are free from 
the stem or notched or curved upon their edges near the stem. 
The stem is either entirely cartilaginous (like gristle) or has a 
cartilaginous rind while the central portion of the stem is 
fibrous or fleshy, stuffed (pithy) or hollow. The cap is fleshy 
and when the plants are young the margin of the cap is in- 
curved or inrolled, i.e., it does not lie straight against the 
stem as in the genus Mycena. 

157 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



Many of the species of Collybia are quite firm and will re- 
vive somewhat when moistened after drying, but they are not 
coriaceous (leathery) as in Marasmius, nor do they revive so 
thoroughly. It is difficult, however, to draw the line between 
the two genera. 

Species of Collybia 
Collybia acervata; tufted collybia. Species 31. Figure 

1 4 A. 




Fig. 14A. — Species No. 31. — Collybia acervata. Cap pale 
tan or flesh-red when moist; whitish when dry; i to 2 inches 
broad. 

Description on page 158. 

On wood among decaying leaves or on half buried rotten 
wood, in woods; in dense tufts; August and September; 
edible. 

158 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



Cap slightly fleshy; convex, becoming expanded or nearly 
plane; smooth; water-soaked in appearance when wet; pale 
tan or flesh-red when moist, whitish after the escape of the 
moisture; i to 2 inches broad. 

Gills narrow; close together; thin; rounded near the stem; 
adjacent but not attached to the stem (adnexed) or free from 
it; whitish. 

Stem cylindric; hollow; smooth; usually covered with a 
white down at the base; reddish brown or purplish brown; 
slender and rigid but brittle; 2 to 3 inches long. 
^ Spores white; elliptic; .00024-.0003 of an inch long. 

The tufted collybia is an inhabitant of the woods of our 
hilly and mountainous districts. It grows in dense tufts on 
decaying prostrate trunks of trees and among decaying leaves 
or on bits of rotten wood half buried by fallen leaves. 

Though the individual plants are small they grow in such 
abundance that it is not difficult to obtain a sufficient supply 
for cooking. They are slightly tough but of good flavor and 
harmless. Peck. 

Collybia confluens. Plate VII, Species 32. 

In woods, on ground among fallen leaves; usually in tufts 
but sometimes in arcs of circles or scattered; July to October; 
edible. 

Cap thin; tough; shriveling when dry, reviving somewhat 
when moist; flaccid; convex or nearly plane; smooth; water- 
soaked in appearance when wet (hygrophanous) ; reddish- 
brown or grayish red when moist, pallid, whitish or grayish 
v/hen dry; diameter >^ to i>^ inches. 

Gills close together; narrow; free from the stem; whitish or 
yellowish-gray. 

Stem slender; equal in diameter throughout; hollow; 
downy; V" to Ve inch thick, 2 to 5 inches long. 

Spores white; ovoid; 5-6 x 4-5 microns in diameter. 
159 



PLATE VII. 




Species No. 


Description on page. 


32 Collybia confluens 


. 159 


33 Collybia dryophila 


. 161 


34 Collybia platyphylla . 


. 162 


35 Collybia radicata 


. 162 


36 Collybia velutipes 


. . . 163 



PLATE VII. 




GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



The plants if dry and shrunken, revive under the influence 
of moisture. The cap varies much in color but commonly 
has a dull russety tinge when moist, sometimes approaching 
bay red. It fades in drying and becomes grayish white. The 
stem is long in proportion to the width of the cap. Peck. 

Collybia dryophila ; Collybidium dryophilum ; oak-loving 
mushroom. Plate VII, Species 33. 

On ground or rarely on decayed wood; in woods and pas- 
tures; in groups or slightly tufted; May to October; edible 
(Murrill). Taste nutty. 

Cap pale or dark tan, yellowish or chestnut; rather tough; 
convex to nearly plane, sometimes depressed at the center; 
edge often wavy, turned in when young; surface smooth and 
dry; flesh thin, white, >2 to 2 inches broad. 

Gills adnexed (adjacent to but not attached to stem) or 
with a bend or tooth near the stem; whitish or rarely yellow- . 
ish; rather near together. 

Stem cartilaginous (like gristle); smooth; brown; hollow, 
or stuffed (pithy) in lower portion; sometimes bulbous at 
base; i to 3 inches long. 

Spores white; elliptic or egg-shaped; smooth glassy (hya- 
line) ; 5-7 X 4-5 microns in diameter. 

An edible species of good quality. The early spring form 
is smaller than the more common summer and autumn form. 
Murrill. 

The oak-loving collybia is one of our most common mush- 
rooms. It occurs in woods, groves, open places and pastures 
and appears at any time from early spring to late autimin 
when there is a sufficient degree of warmth and moisture. A 
favorite place of growth is among fallen pine leaves or under 
pine trees. It also grows on decaying wood. When it oc- 
curs in dense tufts the caps are usually very irregular on ac- 

161 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GELLED MUSHROOMS 



count of mutual pressure. The flesh is slightly tough but 
is agreeable to the taste and perfectly harmless. Peck. 

Collybia platyphylla; broad-gilled collybia. Plate VII, 
Species 34. 

About stumps and old prostrate trunks or on much-decayed 
wood; in thin woods or open places; May to November; some- 
times has odor of anise. 

Cap thin; fragile; convex to plane and even to margin up- 
turned when old (Atkinson) ; grayish brown or blackish brown; 
flesh white; 3 to 5 inches broad. 

Gills broad; rather far apart; the edge usually toothed near 
the stem; white; when old they are more or less broken or 
cracked (Atkinson). 

Stem stout and fleshy but with a fine fibrous and slightly 
tough or cartilaginous (gristly) rind; pithy (stuffed) or hol- 
low; white, contrasting with the grayish brown of the cap; 
3 to 5 inches long. 

Spores white; nearly globular or broadly elliptic; .0003- 
.0004 inches long. 

Sometimes this species emits a faint but agreeable odor re- 
sembling that of anise, but in decay the odor is very disagree- 
able and the plants loathsome. Insects are fond of this mush- 
room, and it is not always easy to find specimens free from 
their attacks. 

In wet weather the caps are apt to have a moist appearance, 
but they are not truly hygrophanous. Distorted and irregu- 
lar forms are sometimes found. Peck. 

Collybia radicata; rooted collybia. Plate VII, Species 35. 

On ground, in woods; scattered; June to October; edible. 

Cap thin; convex or nearly plane; sticky (viscid) when 
moist; grayish-brown or smoky-brown; smooth; i to 4 inches 
broad. 

162 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



Gills broad; rather far apart; adjacent to but not attached 
to the stem (adnexed) ; white. 

Stem long and ending below in a long root-like prolongation 
which penetrates the earth deeply; slender; firm; generally 
tapering upward; pithy (stuffed); 2 to 8 inches long above the 
surface of the ground; whitish or color of the cap. 

Spores white; elliptic with a slight oblique spur at one end; 
.0006-.0007 of an inch long, .0004-. 0005 inches broad. 

The rooted collybia is a common species and one easily 
recognized if notice is taken of the lower part of the stem. 
This is a long slender tap-root tapering downward and gener- 
ally penetrating the earth to a depth about equal to the length 
of the stem above the surface. The stem is generally thickest 
at the surface of the ground and tapers slightly from this point 
in both directions. 

After long exposure the spores sometimes assume a yellowish 
color. 

The caps are somewhat tough but agreeable in flavor, and 
the species is classed as an edible one without any hesitation. 
Peck. 

Collybia velutipes; velvet-stemmed collybia. Plate VII, 
Species 36. 

On dead trunks of trees, either prostrate or standing, on 
old stumps and decaying wood; in woods or groves; in tufts 
or clusters or scattered; autumn, winter and spring; edible. 

Cap rather thin; convex or plane; smooth; sticky (viscid); 
reddish yellow or tawny, sometimes yellowish on the margin 
and darker at the center; sometimes crowded into irregular 
shape; i inch or more broad, larger when not growing in 
tufts. 

Gills broad; rather far apart; rounded near the stem; 
adjacent but not attached to the stem (adnexed); white or 
tinged with yellow. 

163 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



Stem firm; pithy (stuffed) or hollow; brown or tawny- 
brown; velvety hairy when mature; i to 3 or 4 inches long. 

Spores white; narrow ellipses; .0003 to .00036 inches long, 
.00016 broad. 

The velvet stemmed collybia is one of the lew mushrooms 
that appear late in the season. It has even been called a 
winter mushroom because it is possible to find it in mild thaw- 
ing weather in winter. It sometimes develops in spring also. 
It is easily recognized by its viscid (sticky) tawny cap, its 
velvety stem and tufted mode of growth. In very young 
plants the stem is whitish. 

Its edible qualities are not inferior to those of the rooted 
collybia. Its flesh is more tender and quite as agreeable in 
flavor. It is well to peel the caps before cooking in order to 
free them from adhering particles of dirt. Peck. 

This species is remarkable for its late appearance, being 
often collected in the winter. It grows on stumps and dead 
trunks near the ground, and is easily recognized by its viscid, 
yellowish cap and velvety stem. Murrill. 

The genus Coprinus 

The genus coprinus is easily distinguished from all others 
by the character of the gills of the mature plant. These 
assume a black color and slowly dissolve into an inky fluid 
which, in the larger plants at least, falls to the ground in 
drops. The thin caps of some species also partly or wholly 
waste away in this manner. Because of the production of 
this black fluid, which has sometimes been used as a poor 
substitute for ink, these plants have received the name of 
**inky fungi." A ring is present on the stem in some species. 
The spores are generally black, rarely brown. Some of 
the plants literally grow up in a night and perish in a day. 
Many of the species inhabit dung or manure heaps, as the 
name of the genus implies. Most of them are so small, 

164 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



thin and perishable that they are not valuable as food. 
Even the larger ones have thin caps, and those deemed 
edible should be gathered young and cooked promptly if 
used as food. The three species described below are common 
and edible. 

Species of Coprinus 

Coprinus atramentarius ; inky coprinus; common ink- 
cap. Plate VIII, Species 37. 

In clusters in rich soil, in gardens, waste places or in woods; 
late summer and autimin; edible. 

Cap egg-shaped when young, becoming expanded; smooth 
or with a few faint spot-like scales in the center; grayish- 
brown, often with a yellowish tint, blackening when old; 
margin som.etimes irregularly notched or lobed; flesh white, 
soon liquefying; i to 3 inches broad. 

Gills close together (crowded); white when yoimg, soon 
becoming black and liquefying. 

Stem rather slender; smooth; hollow; white or whitish; 
sometimes with a slight vestige of a ring near the base, but 
it soon disappears; 2 to 4 inches long. 

Spores elliptical; black; .0003 to .0004 inches long. 

The inky coprinus is much less attractive than the Shaggy 
coprinus (Coprinus comatus). 

The form growing in woods is generally smaller and more 
beautiful than that growing in open places. 

The cap is sometimes suffused as if with a bloom (powder). 
It deliquesces rapidly and it is therefore more available for 
catsup than for food. If intended for the table it must be 
cooked as soon as brought to the house. Peck. 

This excellent edible species is quite common in rich soil 
on lawns and elsewhere during late summer and autumn. 
As it appears in close clusters, it may be obtained in greater 

165 



PLATE VIII. 

Species No. Description on page. 

37 Coprinus atramentarius . . . .165 

39 Coprinus micaceus . . . , .168 

40 Cortinarius alboviolaceus . . . .170 

41 Cortinarius cinnamomeus . . . .171 



PLATE VIII. 




f 



^jf^ ^ 



L 






S 



i^ 



.^ia*-,£ 5L-W,., 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



abundance than the shaggy-mane (Coprinus comatus). Ow- 
ing to its deUquescent character it must be cooked very soon 
after it is collected. Murrill. 

Sometimes the cap is entirely smooth. Other forms present 
numerous small scales on the top or center of the cap. In 
others the delicate tufts (scales) cover more or less the entire 
surface, giving the plant a coarsely granular aspect. This is 
perhaps the more common appearance, at least so far as 
my own observation goes. But not infrequently one finds 
forms which have the entire outer surface of the cap torn 
into quite a large number of coarse scales, and these are 
often more prominent over the upper portion. Fine lines 
mark also the entire surface of all the forms, especially 
towards the margin, where the scales are not so prominent. 
The marginal half of the cap is also frequently furrowed. 
Atkinson. 

Coprinus comatus; shaggy-mane mushroom; shaggy 
coprinus; horse-tail m.ushroom. Plate I, Species 38. 
(Frontispiece.) 

On ground, in pastures, waste places or dumping grounds; 
late summer and autumn (in late spring — ^Atkinson)* in 
close groups (Murrill); edible. 

Cap at first oblong or nearly cylindrical, becoming bell- 
shaped or expanded and splitting on the margin; whitish, 
adorned with scattered yellowish scales; turning to a black 
liquid when old; iK to 3 inches long before expansion; the 
scales make the shaggy appearance which gives it its name. 

Gills white and closely crow^ded together at first, soon 
pinkish, reddish or purplish tints appear, which quickly 
turn to black; sometimes all these tints may be seen at one 
time on one plant; dissolving into a black liquid. 

Stem white; smooth; hollow; rather long; smooth or with 
minute fibres; in the young plant it is furnished with a ring 

167 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



or collar which is movable or but slightly adherent. This 
collar is easily destroyed and has often disappeared at ma- 
turity; 3 to 5 inches long; X to Vi inches thick. 

Spores black; elliptic; .0005 to .0007 inches long. 

The shaggy coprinus or maned agaric as it is sometimes 
called, is one of the largest and finest species of the genus. 
It is very tender and digestible and scarcely inferior to the 
Common mushroom in flavor, though some think it is im- 
proved in flavor by cooking a mushroom or two with it. 
It is fit for the table only before the gills have assumed their 
black color, but even after that it is sometimes used in making 
catsup. 

When young it is very sapid and delicate, cooked quickly 
with butter, pepper and salt, it is excellent; in flavor it much 
resembles the common mushroom, to which it is quite equal 
if not superior; it is clearly more digestible and less likely to 
disagree with persons of delicate constitutions. Peck. 

The shaggy-mane is a very conspicuous object on lawns 
in autumn, although it is not so abundant as might be desired. 
On account of its peculiar shape and decided colors, a single 
specimen rarely fails to attract attention. It is considered 
one of the very best of the edible fungi, and is often eaten 
raw by foreigners. Murrill. 

Coprinus micaceus; glistening coprinus; glistening ink- 
cap. Plate VIII, Species 39. 

On ground or on decaying wood; in clusters; May to 
November; edible. 

Cap somewhat bell-shaped or expanded; thin; marked 
with impressed radiating lines or striations from the margin 
to or beyond the middle; buff -yellow or tawny yellow; center 
smooth and often a little more highly colored than the rest; 
sometimes glistening with minute shining particles when 
young but these are not often noticeable and when present 

168 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



in young specimens they disappear when the plant is mature; 
the margin is often notched or lobed and wavy and splitting 
when the cap expands; when old the color is brownish or 
dirty, especially if wet; i to 2 inches broad. 

Gills crowded together; whitish when young, soon becom- 
ing pinkish tinted and later, brown and black and liquefying. 

Stem white; slender; fragile; smooth; hollow; i to 3 inches 
long. 

Spores brown, which is unusual in this genus (others have 
black spores); elliptical; .00025 to .0003 inch long. 

The glistening coprinus is a small but common and beauti- 
ful species. Several successive crops often come about a 
single old stump in one season. It is not uncommon to find 
it growing from places in the margin of the sidewalks of our 
cities where shade trees have been cut down. These tufts 
are sometimes very large and composed of very many plants 
crowded closely together. Sometimes the caps crack into 
small areas, the white flesh showing itself in the chinks. 

European writers do not record the Glistening coprinus 
among the edible species, perhaps because of its small size. 
But it compensates for its lack of size by its frequency and 
abundance. In tenderness and delicacy it does not appear 
to be at all inferior to the shaggy coprinus and it certainly 
is harmless. Peck. 

In wet weather this coprinus melts into an inky fluid, but 
in quite dry weather it remains more or less firm and some- 
times it does not deliquesce at all, but dries with all parts 
well preserved, though much shrunken of course, as is the 
case with all the very fleshy fungi. Atkinson. 

The genus Cortinarius 

This genus is distinguished by the rusty yellowish-brown- 
clay (ochraceous) color of the spores and by the webby charac- 
ter of the veil which, in the young plants, stretches between 

169 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



the stem and the margin of the cap. In many species these 
fine webby filaments are so numerous that they at first con- 
ceal the gills, but they mostly disappear with advancing age, 
and leave little or no trace of a collar upon the stem. 

In the young plants of this family the color of the gills is 
generally quite unlike that of mature ones. The mature gills 
become dusted by the spores which collect upon them and 
assume their color so that the mature plants of all of the species 
of this genus are colored similarly. It is therefore of the ut- 
most importance in identifying specimens of Cortinarius to 
know the color of the gills of both the young and old plants. 

The gills of all species of Cortinarius are attached to the 
stem at their inner end and usually their free edges are sharply 
bent or toothed near the stem (emarginate) . 

The plants of this genus are usually found growing within 
or at the borders of woods. 

Species of Cortinarius 

Cortinarius alboviolaceus ; pale violet cortinarius. Plate 
VIII, Species 40. 

On ground among leaves in woods; in groups; late summer 
and autumn; edible. 

Cap convex with a broad elevation at center (umbonate); 
pale violet to buff, or silvery white with a violet tint; sur- 
face smooth, dry, shining; edge turned down; diameter i to 3 
inches. 

Gills attached to stem (adnate) or extending slightly down 
the stem (decurrent), sometimes notched at stem; rather 
broad; close together; pale violet to ashy-purplish when young, 
turning cinnamon-brown when old; irregular on edge. 

Stem tapering upward; thick; violaceous above; sometimes 
stained rusty by fallen spores; 2 to 4K inches long. 

Spores rusty brown; variable size; slightly rough. 6,5- 
9 X 4-5 microns in diameter. 

170 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



This pretty, pale-violet species is common through most of 
temperate North America and Europe. It is abundant 
enough to use for food. Insects are very fond of it. When 
dried specimens become so much paler that they are hardly 
recognizable. Murrill. 

Cortinarius cinnamomeus ; cinnamon cortinarius. Plate 
VIII, Species 41, 

On ground; in woods, under trees or in mossy swamps; 
summer and autumn; edible. 

Cap thin; convex or expanded, sometimes with a knob at 
the center (umbonate); dry; smooth, silky; flesh yellowish; 
cinnamon brown; brownish-rusty or tawny-brown; i to 2 
inches broad. Young plants show a web between the cap and 
stem. 

Gills thin; close together; some shade of yellow when 
young turning later to the rusty-ochraceous colors of the 
spores; attached to the stem (adnate). 

Stem slender, rather long; cylindric; pithy (stuffed) or 
hollow; often bent; silky; yellowish or colored like the cap; i 
to 3 inches long. 

Spores ochre; elliptic; .0003 inch long. 

The cinnamon cortinarius quite variable in size, shape 
and color. Like many flowering plants which have a wide 
range and are not particular as to their habitat, this mush- 
room is perplexing because of its variability. The fresh plant 
often has a slight odor of radishes. 

Cortinarius collinitus; Cortinarius mucifluus; smeared 
cortinarius. Species 42. Figure 15. 

On ground in thin woods ; August to September ; edible. 

Cap firm; thin; convex to expanded; smooth; glutinous 
(sticky) when moist, shining when dry; yellow to golden- 
yellow or tawny yellow; flesh white or whitish; spider-web-like 

171 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



veil extending in young plants from the margin of the cap to 
the upper part of the stem; i>2 to 3 inches broad. 

Gills rather broad; bluish-white or grayish-white when 
young, turning rusty-colored in mature plants; attached to 
the stem (adnate). 

Stem sticky (viscid) or glutinous when moist, with trans- 
verse cracks when dry; straight; solid; 2 to 4 inches long; X 
to ^ inch thick. 

Spores rusty (ochraceous) . Slightly elliptic; .0005 to .0006 
inch long. 

The smeared cortinarius is more common than the Violet 
cortinarius but is less abundant than the Cinnamon cortinarius. 
Both the cap and the stem are covered with a viscid sub- 
stance which makes it unpleasant to handle. The gills are 
sometimes minutely uneven on the edge. 

It is well to peel the caps before cooking since the gluten 
causes dirt to adhere tenaciously to them. Peck. 

It is known by the smooth, even tawny cap, the great 
abundance of slimy substance covering the entire plant when 
moist, and, when dry, the cracking of the gluten on the stem 
into annular (ring-like) patches. Atkinson. 

Cortinarius comigatus; corrugated cortinarius. Species 
43. Figure 15. 

On ground in woods and bushy places; in groups (gregari- 
ous); June to September; edible. 

Cap with coarse corrugations or furrows; broadly bell- 
shaped or very convex; sticky (viscid) when moist; bright yel- 
low, reddish-yellow, tawny or rusty; flesh white; 2 to 4 inches 
broad. 

Gills close together; pallid when young, turning tawTiy or 
rusty-colored when mature; uneven on their free edges; at- 
tached to the stem (adnate). 

Stem long; cylindric; hollow; bulbous at the base; paler 
172 



Fig. 15 






^*T^^^^ 




Fig. 15. — Above, Species 42. — Cortmarius collinitus. 
Cap i^ to 3 inches broad; sticky; yellow, tawny or 
golden. 

For description, see page 171- 

Below, Species 43. — Cortinarius corrugatus. Cap 2 to 5 
inches broad; furrowed; yellow, tawny or rusty. 

•Pr^r f^pgnrintinn. see, -nacre T72. 



I 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



than the cap except the bulb which is the color of the cap and 
sticky (viscid) 3 to 5 inches long. 

Spores rusty (ochraceous) ; broadly elliptic; rough; .00045 
to .00055 by .0003 to .0004 inch in diameter. 

The corrugated cortinarius is a well-marked and easily rec- 
ognized species. Though the color of the pileus (cap) is 
variable, its viscid, corrugated surface and the viscid bulb of 
the stem afford easily recognized characters. Sometimes the 
wTinkles join with each other in such a way as to give a net- 
like appearance. The margin in young plants is incurved. 
The bulb in the young plant is even broader than the cap, 
which then appears to rest upon it. The plants sometimes 
grow in considerable numbers and as an edible species it is 
not to be despised. Peck. 

Cortinarius violaceous; violet cortinarius. Plate IX, 
Species 44. 

On ground among fallen leaves in the woods; July and 
August ; edible ; scattered or solitary. 

Cap convex, later becoming nearly plane; dark violet, 
adorned with numerous hairy tufts or scales; flesh, tinged with 
violet; 2 to 4 inches broad. 

Gills when young, colored like the cap, but becoming rusty 
when old; attached to the stem and notched at the stem end. 

Stem colored hke the cap; bulbous at the base; solid; minute 
fibres on the surface; 3 to 5 inches long. 

Spores rusty; nearly elliptic; .0005 inch long. 

The genus Crepidotus 

Mushrooms of the genus Crepidotus are very variable in 
the shape of their caps but are commonly either wedge- 
shaped or spatulate. The caps quickly curl up on drjang 
unless they ar: placed under pressure. They grow in groups 
and the caps are often stained by the rusty spores. Peck. 

173 



PLATE IX. 

Species No. Description on page. 

44 Cortinarius violaceus . . . . -173 

49 Entoloma commune . . . . . i8o 

50 Entoloma grayanum . . . . .180 

55 Galera tenera . . . , . .184 
56A Hebeloma commune 

56 Hebeloma precox ..... '186 
67 Inocybe abundans ..... 198 




PLATE IX. 

if 



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vi 




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GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



The species of this reddish-brown genus are usually of 
small size, thin, soft and fleshy and are especially distin- 
guished by their having the stem attached to the margin of 
the cap. In some specimens the stem is missing and the cap 
is attached by its margin to the decayed or dead wood upon 
v/hich it grows. The cap is resupinate (attached by its top 
surface) or shelving, lying flat or nearly so, upon the wood. 
The genus resembles pleurotus among the white-spored mush- 
rooms, or Claudopus among the rosy-spored ones. Atkinson. 

Species of Crepidotus 
Crepidotus applanatus; flattened agaric. Plate XI, 
Species 45. 

On old stimips and much-decayed wood; usually growing 
singly (Atkinson); July to September. 

Cap very thin; variable in shape; rounded, kidney-shaped, 
wedge-shaped or spatulate (shaped like a spatula or spoon); 
plane or convex; sometimes attached by its margin to the 
wood from which it grows, or with a short, hairy, stemlike 
base; smooth; water-soaked in appearance when moist; faint, 
radial lines on the margin when moist; white; >^ to i inch 
long, V3 to }i inches broad. 

Gills very narrow; crowded together; extending down the 
stem, if any is present ; white, turning cinnamon-colored when 
old. 

Stem at edge of cap; short or absent. 

Spores rusty; globular; .0002 to .00025 inch broad. 

Crepidotus f ulvotomentosus ; Crepidotus calolepis (?); 
tawny tomentose agaric. Species 46. Figure 16. 

On decaying wood of poplar, maple, etc.; Jime to October; 
scattered or in groups. 

Cap rounded, kidney-shaped or divided into two parts; 
sometimes attached by its margin or by a short hairy base to 

175 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



the wood upon which it grows; sometimes with a short stem ! 
at the margin; water-soaked in appearance when moist; ' 
watery-brown and sometimes with faint radial lines or stria- \ 




Fig. 1 6. — Above, Species No. 46. — Crepidotus fulvo- 
tomentosus. Watery-brown and sometimes with faint radial 
lines at the margin when moist; whitish, yellowish or pale 
rusty when dry; scaly. 

Description on page 175. 

Below, Species No. 48. — Crepidotus versutus. Cap downy; 

pure white. 

Description on page 179. 

tions on the margin when moist; whitish, yellowish or pale- 
rusty when dry; adorned with small tawny-hairy scales; 
2/3 to 2 inches broad. 

176 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



Gills broad; rounded near stem or base; radiating from a 
lateral (marginal) hairy spot; whitish when young, turning 
brownish-rusty when old. 

Stem very short or absent. 

Spores rusty-colored; elliptic; often with a nucleus; .0003 
to .0004 inch by .0002 to .00025 inch in diameter. 

A pretty species. The cuticle (peel) is separable and is 
tenacious though it has a jelly-like appearance. Specimens 
dried in their place of growth are not rare. Peck. 

Crepidotus malachius; soft-skinned crepidotus. Species 
47. Figure 17. 

On damp, decaying wood in woods or shaded places. Much 
decayed, mossy trunks of trees constitute a favorite habitat; 
scattered; in groups or with the caps overlapping; June to 
September. 

Cap fleshy, thicker on the margin, and at the base; circular, 
kidney-shaped or wedge-shaped; convex or nearly plane; 
smooth or hairy at the base; water-soaked in appearance when 
moist (hygrophanous) ; watery-white and mth faint radial 
lines (striations) on the margin when moist, white when dry; 
flesh white; i to 2>^ inches broad. 

Gills thin; close together; rounded near the stem or base; 
white or whitish, becoming rusty when old. 

Stem absent or very short; placed at the margin of the 
cap. 

Spores rusty; globular; .00025 to .0003 inch in dia- 
meter. 

In wet weather it has a water-soaked appearance. As the 
moisture escapes, the cap becomes a clearer white. The mois- 
ture disappears from the thickest part of the cap first, the 
thinnest part last. The species may be distinguished from 
other white and closely resembling forms by its smoother cap 
and globular spores. Peck. 

177 



Fig. 17. 

Species No. Description on page. 
47 Crepidotus malachius. White or grayish; i to 
2 inches broad. By permission of C. H. 
Godard, Esq., State Librarian of Connec- 
ticut 177 

Photo by Prof. E. A. White 



Fig. 17. 




GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



Crepidotus versutus; evasive agaric. Species 48. Fig- 
ure 16. 

On decayed wood. 

Cap at first attached by its top surface (resupinate), later 
bent or turned over; kidney-shaped or divided into two por- 
tions; stemless; white; clothed with a soft down; margin curved 
in; V3 to I inch broad. 

Gills rather broad and far apart ; rounded at the base of the 
cap; radiating from a lateral point on the cap; whitish, turning 
rusty when old. 

Stem absent. 

Spores rusty; nearly elliptic; .00035 to .0004 inches long by 
.00025 to .0003 inch broad. 

This little crepidotus has a pure white cap which is covered 
with a soft white down. The plants grow usually on the 
under side of rotten wood or bark and then the upper side of 
the cap lies against the wood, and is said to be resupinate. 
Sometimes when they grow toward the side of the log the cap 
has a tendency to be shelving. In the resupinate forms the 
cap is usually attached to the wood near one edge. Atkinson. 

The genus Entoloma 

The stems of mushrooms belonging to this genus have 
neither ring nor cup. The gills are attached to the stem and 
sometimes extend down it and become pink when old by being 
dusted with the rosy-colored spores. In this respect the plants 
might be confused with specimens of the genus Agaricus. As 
many of the Entolomas are poisonous, the error might have 
serious consequences. The point of difference is that in the 
edible mushrooms of the genus Agaricus, the gills are pink 
when the plant is young and grow brown and then black as 
the plant ages, while in the Entolomas, on the other hand, the 
gills remain pink to the last. 

179 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



Mushrooms of the genus Pluteus have also pinkish gills 
but they are free from the stem and never attached to it as are 
those of Entoloma. 

Species of Entoloma 

Entoloma commune; common entoloma. Plate IX, 
Species 49. 

On ground in woods; in groups or sparse tufts; taste and 
odor branny; POISONOUS. 

Cap rather thin; convex when young, plane or depressed at 
center and irregular when old; often with a knob or umbo at 
the center; surface dry; polished; often with radiating cracks; 
margin lobed or split when mature. Color that of a hazel 
nut or umber brown, i to 2 inches broad. 

Gills rosy-pink; notched near the stem. 

Stem white or pale tan; short; often twisted; polished be- 
low and frosted near the top ; I'jA to 2 inches long. 

Spores pink; angular; 6 to 8 microns in diameter. 

Common about New York City and found from New Eng- 
land to the mountains of Virginia. Miirrill. 

Entoloma grayanimi; gray entoloma. Plate IX, 
Species 50. 
Among fallen leaves in woods; single, in groups, or, rarely 
in clusters; July to September; POISONOUS. 

Cap fleshy but thin toward the margin; slightly convex or 
nearly plane; smooth; moist; whitish or brownish-gray; 
flesh white; taste branny (farinaceous); size variable, i to 3 
inches. 

Gills whitish when young; flesh-pink when mature; extend- 
ing to the stem; sometimes rounded at the stem end. 

Stem cylindrical or' nearly so; solid; stuffed or hollow; 
silky; white or pallid; i>^ to 3 inches long, 76 to V3 of an 
inch thick. 

180 



Fig. li 




Fig. 1 8. — Above, Species 51. — Entoloma strictius. Cap 
^/i to iVa inches broad, umber (brown). 

From Prof. C. H. Kauffman's Agaricacea of Michigan. 

Below, Species 53. — Flammula polychroa. Cap i to 
2 inches broad; wine-buff or orange-buff, often green- 
tinged. 

Modeled and photographed by Miss Eleanor C. Allen, Amer. Mus. 
Nat. History. 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



Spores pink; angular; 7>^ microns in diameter. 

The gray entoloma is a very variable mushroom, in size, 
habit and color. The gills remain pink when old and never 
turn black as do those of the common field mushroom and 
other species of the genus Agaricus which have pink gills 
when young. Peck. 

Entoloma strictius. Species 51. Figure 18. 

In grassy places; in clusters, two or three joined at the 
bases of their stems; September and October; POISONOUS. 

Cap convex, the middle expanded, with a central elevation 
(umbo) ; the margin curved in and apt to be wavy at the 
extreme edge. On drying, the surface of the cap presents 
a silvery sheen; color of cap umber (brown); smooth; watery 
in appearance but not sticky, when moist (hygrophanous) ; 
flesh brown; ^ to i^ inches broad. 

Gills grayish-white when young, flesh-colored when ma- 
ture; attached to the stem, with a slight notch in the edge 
near the stem end (sinuate); rather far apart; rather thick. 

Stem colored like the cap but lighter; hollow with white 
fibers within it; twisted; brittle; cylindric; delicate white 
fibres at the base. 

Spores dull rose color; nearly spherical; 5 to 8 microns in 
diameter. 



The genus Flammula 

Almost all of the mushrooms that belong to the genus 
Flammula grow upon wood. The margin of the cap in young 
plants is turned downiward and inward; when mature, this 
feature disappears. The gills of these fungi are attached to 
the stem or extend down it. The stems are fleshy and 
fibrous. The spores are rust-colored. 

181 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



Species of Flammula 
Flammula jfiavida. Plate XIII, Species 52. 

In woods on decaying wood; singly or in clusters; usually in 
mountainous districts; summer and autumn; edible; taste 
bitter. 

Cap fleshy but thin; broadly convex or nearly plane; 
smooth; moist; pale yellow; flesh whitish or pale yellow; 
diameter i to 2 inches. 

Gills attached to the stem (adnate) ; pale or yellowish when 
young, turning rust-color when old. 

Stem even; often curved; hollow; whitish or pale yellow; 
white down at the base; length i to 3 inches. 

Spores rust-colored; broadly elliptic; 6 to 8 microns in 
diameter. 

The slight bitter taste when raw, disappears on cooking. 

Flammula polychroa. Species 53. Figure 18. 

On wood in woods; in clusters; late summer and autumn. 

Cap convex; margin incurved when young; when mature, 
the cap becomes expanded with a broad elevation at the 
center; very sticky (viscid) when moist; when mature the cap 
is covered with delicate hairs on the margin forming scales 
that vary in color from wine-buff to wine-purple or lavender. 
The ground-color of the cap is wine-buff or orange-buff, 
often with shades of green, especially where it has been 
bruised. Young plants are often purple; i to 2 inches in 
diameter. 

Gills notched (sinuate) at the stem end or attached to 
the stem without a notch (adnate); close together. Before 
exposure by rupture of the veil they are cream-buff, but 
later they become drab-brown or take on a purple tinge. 

Stem yellowish, often purplish at base; covered with small 
scales; solid when young, hollo wish when old; portions of the 

182 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



veil are attached to the upper part ; 2 to 3 inches long, V3 to 
1/2 of an inch thick. 

Spores light brown, with a purple tinge when fresh; oval 
or short oblong; 6-8 by 4-5 microns in diameter. 

The genus Galera 

The rusty-spored genus Galera resembles IMycena among 
the white-spored species. The cap is usually bell-shaped and 
when young the margin fits straight against the stem and is 
not curved inward. The stem is often very fragile and has 
neither collar nor cup. The genus does not contain many 
species. 

The species of this ochraceous or rusty-spored genus are 
small and mostly rather fragile. The cap when young is 
conical or bell-shaped. When young or moist they have a 
water-soaked appearance (hygrophanous) and then show radi- 
ating lines or minute furrows upon the cap because the gills 
show through. The colors are whitish or some shade of 
yellow, tan or brown, and these are pr.ler when the cap is 
dry. 

The stems are slender, fragile and hollow Gind usually 
colored like the cap. 

Species of Galera 
Galera hypnorum. Species 54. Figure 19. 

On ground, among mosses in woods or on prostrate, decay- 
ing tree trunks; common in hilly or mountainous districts; 
June to September. 

Cap thin.; conical or bell-shaped; smooth; watery-cinnamon 
or slightly rusty when moist; often fading to yellowish or 
buff when dry; radiating lines when moist; }i to }4 inch 
in diameter. 

183 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



Gills broad; attached to the stem; far apart (distant); 
tawny or cinnamon colored; often with whitish down on the 
edge. 

Stem slender; hollow; smooth; downy at the top; usually 
colored like the cap; i to 2 inches long; less than V" inch 
thick. 

Spores rusty; elliptical; .0004-.0005 inch long by .00024- 
.0003 inch broad. 

Galera tenera; Conocybe tenera; slender conocybe; 
brownie cap. Plate IX, Species 55. 

On ground in open places (grassy fields or manured places, 
Atkinson) spring to autumn; singly (?) ; edible. 

Cap conic or bell-shaped; surface smooth or slightly downy; 
water-soaked in appearance when moist; tan-colored or 
brownish, slightly darker at the center; ochre-colored when 
dry, 5^ to I inch broad and high. 

Gills adjacent to but not adherent to the stem (adnexed); 
crowded; tawny; (easily separated from the cap, Atkinson). 

Stem slender; cylindric; smooth or slightly downy; hollow; 
fragile; color of the cap; 3 to 4^^ inches long. 

Spores dark rusty; smooth, nearly elliptical; 12-14 x 6-8 
microns in diameter. 

This shapely little fungus occurs everywhere on lawns and 
manured pastures from spring to autumn. When once known 
it is not easily confused with any other species. Although 
edible and well-flavored, it would take a long time to gather 
enough for a meal. Murrill. 

This is our most common species of Galera. It sometimes 
grows in great abundance where cattle have been yarded and 
in rich lawns and pastures. It is often found growing on 
dung in company with Panseolus campanulatus. It varies 
much in size. 

184 




^ 



i •& 

O u 

O4 (L> 



S 

a 
to 

> 
o 

t 

6s 



o 



f^ 



o 



>. 

W 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



The genus Hebeloma 

Mushrooms belonging to the genus Hebeloma have clay- 
colored spores but are classed among the rusty spored genera. 
Their gills extend to the stem but are not attached to it and 
they are sometimes notched. Their edge is usually whitish 
and their surface is clay-colored. The veil is seen only in the 
young stage and then is delicate and composed of fine fibres. 

The stem is fleshy and fibrous and is somewhat mealy at 
its top, and is not easily detached from the cap. The margin 
of the cap is turned downward and inward in young specimens 
and the surface is smooth and slightly sticky when moist. 

Most of the species of Hebeloma grow on the ground in the 
autumn and some of them are considered to be poisonous. 

Species of Hebeloma 
Hebeloma precox; early hebeloma. Plate IX, Species 56. 

On ground; in groups; June; POISONOUS (?). 

Cap convex when young, expanded when mature; slight 
elevation at center (umbonate); surface smooth; dry; margin 
incurved; tawny-rusty color; flesh white, taste sweet (Eat 
not) ; odor pleasant ; i >^ to 2 inches broad. 

Gills close together; arched, notched near the stem; pallid 
when young; tawny (fulvous) when mature. 

Stem fleshy; brittle; stuffed or hollow; cream-colored; i to 2 
inches long. 

Spores ovoid; smooth; pale rusty; 5-6 x 3-4 microns in 
diameter. 

Specimens of this uncommon plant were collected and 
named by Dr. Murrill. Writing of it in Mycologia, July, 
191 1, he says: "This is the first species of Hebeloma to appear 
in this locality. Although not at all (sticky) viscid when 
found, it might well become slightly so in wet weather. The 
remnants of the partial (inner) veil are left clinging to the 

186 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



stipe (stem) as the expansion of the pileus (cap) progresses, 
leaving none on the margin," 

The genus Hygrophorus 

In the white-spored genus Hygrophorus the gills of the 
mature plant have a soft waxy texture which distinguishes 
them from all others. As in the genus Pleurotus, the gills of 
some of the species are rounded or notched at the end next to 
the stem, but the gills of other species are decurrent, that is, 
they extend down the stem. Those with decurrent gills bear 
considerable external resemblance to the species of Clitocybe, 
but the gills are generally thicker and much farther apart than 
in that genus. No species of Hygrophorus is known to be 
dangerous, though two or three have been classed as suspi- 
cious. Peck. 

The waxy character ... is the chief distinguishing charac- 
ter of the genus. The gills are usually thick and far apart. 
Species with decurrent gills are similar in appearance to species 
of Clitocybe but such species may generally be distinguished 
by the fact that their gills are far apart and their caps and 
stems are sticky when moist (viscid). 

Species of Hygrophorus 

Hygrophorus cantharellus; chantarelle hygrophorus. 
Species 57. Figure 19. 

On damp soil in woods or open places; in clusters; June to 
August; edible. 

Cap thin; convex sometimes with a pit or depression at the 
center; smooth or with small scales; red, orange or yellow; yi 
to I inch broad. 

Gills rather broad; far apart, waxy; arched; extending down 
the stem (decurrent); whitish or yellowish; sometimes tinged 
with red. 

187 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



Stem slender; fragile; smooth; stuffed or hollow; orange or 
yellow; i to 3 inches long. 

Spores white; elliptical; .0003-. 0004 by .0002-.00024 inch 
in diameter. 

The margin of the cap may be waved or lobed, the lobes 
often crowded or overlapping. Peck has given to this variety 
the name "roseus." Other varieties of this species may have 
caps and stems of colors differing from each other. 

Hygrophorus chlorophanus ; sulphury hygrophorus; sul- 
phur-colored chlorophorus. Plate 10, Species 58. 

On ground; in damp or mossy places in woods; July to 
September; edible. 

Cap thin; fragile; convex to nearly plane; often irregular, 
with the margin split or lobed; smooth; sticky when moist 
(viscid); radiating lines on the margin (striate); pale yellow, 
sometimes tinged with red in the center; flesh thin; yellowish; 
^ to I >i inches in diameter. 

Gills extending to but not attached to the stem (adnexed) ; 
thin; rather broad; bellied; rather far apart; pale yellow. 

Stem smooth; cylindric; color of cap; hollow; sticky when 
moist (viscid); i>^ to 3 inches long; hollow; pale yellow. 

Spores white; egg-shaped, waxy (hyaline); .0002 by .0003 
inch in diameter. 

Hygrophorus conicus; conic hygrophorus. Plate X, 
Species 59. 

On moist ground in woods and open places; singly or in 
groups; August to October; edible. 

Cap thin; fragile; waxy; sticky (viscid) when moist; conical, 
usually with an acute tip or apex, rarely with a blunt tip; the 
margin often lobed; sometimes there are radiating cracks on 
the surface of the cap. The color is variable, it may be bright 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



red, scarlet, crimson or sulphiir yellow; size, }4 to ij4 inches 
broad. 

Gills waxy, rather close together; free from the stem; 
broad near the outer end but narrow near the stem; yellow. 

Stem yellow; hollow; 2 to 4 inches long. 

Spores white; elliptical; 9-1 1 by 6-8 microns in diameter. 

This species is usually readily distinguished by its conic 




1 i.txc'h 

Fig. 20. — Species No. 61. — Hygrophorus pratensis. Cap 

tawny, reddish, bufT, ashy or whitish. 

Description on page 191. 

cap with acute apex as well as by its change of color to black 
on drying. It is common in moist woods and grassy places 
from Greenland to the Bahamas and occurs in Europe. Murrill. 

Hygrophorus miniatus; vermilion mushroom. Plate X, 
Species 60. 
On ground in woods and swamps; among mosses and 
leaves or on bare ground; scattered, in groups or in tufts; 
June to September; edible. 

189 



PLATE X. 








es No. 


Description on page. 


58 Hygrophorus chlorophanus 


. 188 


59 Hygrophorus conicus . 






. 188 


60 Hygrophorus miniatus 






. 189 


62 Hygrophorus puniceus 






. 192 


65 Hypholoma perplexum 






. 195 


69 Laccaria laccata 






. 200 


70 Laccaria ochropurea . 






. 201 



PLATE X. 




A 






GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



Cap deep red, vermilion or yellow; thin; fragile; smooth 
or with minute scales; often with a pit at the center; convex, 
becoming nearly plane when mature; yi to 2 inches in 
diameter. 

Gills far apart; attached to the stem (adnate); yellow, 
often tinged with red or, rarely, wholly red; waxy. 

Stem slender; smooth; cylindric; stuffed or hollow; polished; 
color of the cap or a little paler; i to 3 inches long. 

Spores white; ellipsoid; waxy (hyaline); 8-9 x 4-6 microns 
in diameter. 

This species is very variable in color, size and mode of 
growth. Specimens always fade to yellow on drying. Murrill. 

The vermilion hygrophorus is a very variable but beauti- 
ful species. Unfortunately its colors are apt to fade and 
its beauty to be lost in drying. It is scarcely surpassed 
by any mushroom in tenderness and agreeableness of flavor. 
Peck. 

Hygrophorus pratensis; meadow hygrophorus. Species 
61. Figure 20. 

On groimd in pastures, grassy places or in woods ; scattered, 
in groups or in tufts; July to September; edible. 

Cap firm; convex to expanded or plane; often irregular; 
smooth; thin at the margin; variable in color; tawny, reddish, 
buff, ashy or whitish; flesh white or whitish; taste mild; i to 
3 inches in diameter. 

Gills whitish or yellowish; thick; far apart (distant); 
extending down the stem (decurrent); waxy; the spaces be- 
tween the gills often veined. 

Stem short; cylindric; smooth; solid or stuffed; white or 
tinged with the color of the cap; 2 to 3 inches long. 

Spores white; nearly globular; waxy (hyaline); 6-8x5-6 
microns in diameter. 

Several varieties of this valuable species have been recog- 
191 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



nized. The names given to them are mostly derived from 
their color. (Whitish, ashy or rusty white.) Peck. 

This variable species is common in late summer in woods 
and pastures throughout the United States and Europe. 
Murrill. 

Hygrophorus puniceus; red hygrophorus. Plate X, 
Species 62. 

In damp or mossy places in woods and open grounds; 
July to September; edible. 

Cap thin; fragile; conical or bell-shaped (campanulate), 
becoming expanded and often wavy or lobed at the edge when 
old; smooth (glabrous); sticky when moist (viscid); bright 
red; paler or yellow when old; i to 3 inches in diameter. 

Gills broad; thick; far apart (distant); waxy; yellow or 
reddish; their attachment to the stem is but slight. 

Stem cylindrical or somewhat swollen in its middle (ventri- 
close); hollow when mature; usually yellow at the top, red 
in the middle and white at the base; 2 to 3 inches long; V3 
to yi inch thick. 

Spores white; elliptic; .0003 to .0004 inch long, .0002 broad. 

The red hygrophorus is a rather large but very tender, 
fragile species. Its bright red cap makes it a beautiful and 
conspicuous object. It surpasses our other bright red species 
in size. 

All of the species of Hygrophorus are edible and no harm 
would come to the eater if one should be mistaken for either 
of the others. The red hygrophorus is very tender and 
sapid and may be classed as an excellent though not an 
abundant mushroom. Peck. 

The genus Hypholoma 

The fragments of the veil adhering to the margin of the 
young cap is a distinguishing feature of this genus and is 

192 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



suggestive of Its name. Many of the species grow on wood 
and are tufted (cespitose) in their mode of growth. The 
spores are brown or purplish-brown. The genus resembles in 
structure the white-spored genus Tricholoma, the pink- 
spored Entoloma and the rusty-spored Hebeloma. When 
there is a well-developed veil hanging from the margin of 
the cap the specimen must be carefully distinguished from 
Stropharia on the one hand and from Psilocybe on the other 
hand if the veil is scanty or missing. Peck. 

Species of Hypholoma 
Hypholoma appendiculatum; appendiculate hypholoma. 
Species 63. Figure 21. 

On decaying wood; chiefly in woods of hilly districts; in 
dense tufts; August to October; edible. 

Cap bay-brown or tawny-brown when moist; brownish- 
yellow and wrinkled when dry; egg-shaped or convex when 
young, expanded when mature; thin; fleshy; smooth; water- 
soaked in appearance when moist (hygrophanous) ; delicate 
fragments of the veil attached to the margin of the cap in 
young specimens; i to 2 inches broad. 

Gills attached to the stem (adnate); close together; white 
or creamy white when young, turning purplish-brown when 
old. 

Stem slender; cylindric; smooth or frosted at the top; 
white; hollow; 2 to 3 inches long. 

Spores purplish-brown; egg-shaped; smooth; 7x4 microns 
in diameter. 

This is everywhere recognized as one of the best and most 
dainty edible species. It is widely distributed and grows in 
abundance throughout the season about dead wood or in 
soil that is rich in decayed wood. Murrill. 

The peculiar characters of the species are its tendency to 
form tufts, to grow chiefly on decaying wood, to be very 

193 



Fig. 21. 

Above, Species No. 63 Description on page. 

Hypholoma appendiculatum. Cap i to 2 
inches broad ; bay-brown to yellowish. This 
specimen grows from a buried tree root (on 
wood, in woods) . . . . .193 

Below, Species No. 64 

Hypholoma incertum. Cap i to 3 inches 
broad; whitish to yellowish. On ground, 
open places. See Fig. 31. . . .195 

Reproduced from Bulletin 175. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, by courtesy of 
Dr. C. D. Galpin. 



Fig. 21. 




A 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



hygrophanous, the difference between the moist cap and the 
dry being well-marked, and in the lateness of its appearance. 
Peck. 

Hypholoma incertum; uncertain hypholoma. Species 64. 
Figure 21 and 31. 

On ground on lawns, pastures, bushy places and b> road- 
sides in showery weather; May to September; in groups or 
scanty tufts; edible. 

Cap whitish, tinged with yellow when moist, especially in 
the center; thin; fragile; watery in appearance and darker 
when moist (hygrophanous); surface even or radiately 
wrinkled; the thin margin sometimes wavy or irregular and 
adorned when young with fragments of the white veil. Flesh 
white; taste mild, i to 3 inches in diameter. 

Stem cylindric; whitish; hollow; splits easily, i to 3 inches 
long. 

Gills whitish, turning rosy and then purplish brown in 
maturity; attached to the stem (adnate); thin; near together; 
narrow. 

Spores purplish brown; 8-10 x 4-6 microns in diameter. 

It differs from the appendiculate hypholoma by its paler 
cap, its larger spores, its more gregarious habit and in its 
habitat (on ground). Peck. 

It occasionally has the cap radiately and areolately rimose. 
(That is, with cracks in the direction from center and at right 
angles to this.) Peck. 

Hypholoma perplexum; perplexing hypholoma. Plate X, 
Species 65. 

On or about stumps and prostrate tree trunks in woods or 
open places; generally tufted; August to November; edible. 

Cap convex or nearly plane; sometimes with a slight 
knob at the center; reddish or brownish-red; usually yellow- 

195 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



ish at the margin. Flesh white or whitish; taste mild; 
I to 3 inches in diameter. 

Gills extending to but not attached to the stem (adnexed) ; 
thin; close together; slightly rounded near the stem; pale 
yellow, becoming tinged with green and purplish brown when 
old (from the ripening spores). 

Stem rather slender; cylindric or nearly so; firm; hollow; 
slightly fibrillose (with fine longitudinal fibres); whitish or 
yellowish at upper end, reddish-brown at lower end; 2 to 3 
inches long. 

Spores purplish-brown; slightly oval; smooth; 6-8 x 3-4 
microns in diameter. 

This mushroom closely resembles hypholoma sublateritium, 
its distinguishing features being its smaller size, paler margin 
of the pileus (cap); mild taste, paler and more slender stem, 
which is always hollow, even when young. Peck. 

This species occurs abundantly on stumps and roots of 
deciduous trees in autumn, appearing in conspicuous clusters 
(reddish) of considerable size. It is edible but not very 
good in quality, being useful because of its very late appear- 
ance. Peck separated it in 1872 from Hypholoma sub- 
lateritium chiefly because it lacked the bitter taste ascribed 
to that species, of which it may be only a form. In collecting 
this species for food, young and fresh specimens of mild 
flavor should be selected and they should be cooked for at 
least 30 minutes. Murrill. 

^ Hypholoma sublateritium; brick-red hypholoma; brick- 
tops. Species 66. Figure 22 

On or about old stumps, ^prostrate tree trunks and on 
decaying wood covered with earth; commonly in tufts; 
August to November; edible. 

Cap dark brick-red, often paler on the margin; convex or 
196 



Fig. 22. 




Fig. 22. — Species 66. — Above, Hypholoma sublateri- 
tium. Cap i to 3 inches broad; brick-red, often paler on 
margin. Below, section of same. 

Photos by author. Description on page 196. 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



nearly plane; smooth; dry; flesh whitish or yellowish, taste 
commonly bitter; sometimes mild; i to 3 inches in diameter. 

Gills extending to the stem or attached to it (adnexed or 
adnate); close together; whitish or yellowish white, becoming 
tinged with green when mature, and later, purplish-brown 
(from the ripened spores). 

Stem cylindric or tapering toward the base; occasionally 
several stems grow from a common base; smooth or slightly 
fibrous; stuffed; some becoming hollow when old; rust- 
colored; 2 to 3>^ inches long. 

Spores purplish-brown; 6-8X3-4 microns in diameter. 

Murrill considers this species to be identical with Hy- 
pholoma perplexum. The gills are quickly attacked by 
insects which leave their excrement upon portions not eaten 
and thus, perhaps, may be found an explanation of the 
occasional bitter taste. Specimens that are collected after 
frost has checked the ravages of insects, are found to be free 
from any bitter taste. 

The genus Inocybe 

Mushrooms belonging to the rusty spored genus Inocybe 
are generally of small or medium size with some shade of 
brown as their color and most of them grow on the ground. 
The gills extend to the stem but are rarely attached to it. 
Their caps are darker in color when young than when old. 
The stem is not easily detachable from the cap. The spores 
are brownish-rust colored, with even, angular or rough con- 
tours. 

Mushrooms of this genus are difficult to identify. It is 
often necessary, even for experts, to make use of the micro- 
scope in distinguishing the species. The resemblance of some 
of the Inocybes to others of their genus or to mushrooms of 
other rusty-spored genera is so close that microscopic examin- 
ation of the spores cannot be safely omitted. 

197 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



Many of the species of Inocybe are rare or local, having 
been found but once, and in a single locality. 

None of the species of this genus should be eaten because 
some of them are poisonous and the distinctions are very 
difficult to make. Murrill. 

Species of Inocybe 

Inocybe abundans ; abundant inocybe. Plate IX, Species 
67. 

On damp ground in woods; in groups; July and August; 
probably POISONOUS. 

Cap bell-shaped or nearly plane; rarely with a pit at the 
center (umbilicate) ; surface dry, with radiating cracks and 
flaky scales; color of tanned leather with rusty hues at the 
center and light-brown fibrous lines radiating from it. Taste 
mild ; odor rather strong fungous ; >^ to i inch broad. 

Gills attached to the stem (adnate) or free from it; whitish 
when young, rusty when old. 

Stem whitish at its upper end, inclining to brownish at the 
base; 2 inches long. 

Spores pale rusty; elliptical; 7x4 microns in diameter. 

Abundant about New York City in late summer. Not 
easily distinguished from Inocybe infelix (Peck). Murrill. 

Inocybe rimosa; cracked inocybe. Species 68. Fig- 
ure 23. 

On ground in woods; singly or in groups; POISONOUS. 

Cap thin; convex, bell-shaped or expanded; sometimes with 
an elevation at the center (umbonate); surface silky, with 
radiating cracks; yellowish-brown; i to 2 inches broad. 

Gills pallid or tan; attached to the stem (adnate). 

Stem cylindric; firm; slightly swollen at the base; solid; 
I to 2 inches long; thick. 

198 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



Spores dull-rusty; 7-9 x 3.5-5 microns in diameter. ' 
Very common throughout the northern hemisphere and 

usually recognizable by its very conspicuous radiate splitting. ■ 

Murrill. ] 

The genus Laccaria i 

I 

The species of this genus have generally been included by ■ 

botanists in the genus Clitocybe, but they are so peculiar in ; 




Fig. 23. — Species No. 68. — Inocybe rimosa. 
inches broad; yellowish-brown. 
Description on page 198. 



Cap I to 2 



their general appearance that it seems best to separate them. 
The gills are rather thick and far apart and are broadly at- 
tached to the stem. When mature they are powdered whitish 
from the abundant spores. The spores are typically globular 
(or nearly so) and rough. Peck. 
199 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



Species of Laccaria 

Laccaria laccata; laccate laccaria; waxy clitocybe; waxy 
mushroom. Plate X, Species 69. 

On ground in woods, groves, swamps, mossy places and pas- 
tures, in wet, dry or sandy soil and even in sphagnum moss; 
solitary, in groups or tufts; May to October; edible. 

Cap convex or plane, sometimes depressed at the center; 
surface smooth; hygrophanous ; fleshy; rather thin; sometimes 
with radial lines at the margin (striated); pale red, buff -red, 
or flesh-red when moist; pale ochre, grayish or buff when 
dry; margin even; >^ to 2 inches broad. 

Gills broad; thick; rather far apart; attached to the stem 
or extending down it (adnate or decurrent) ; sometimes slightly 
toothed near the stem; pale flesh-red and occasionally deep 
violet; powdered white when old by the spores. 

Stem long or short; cylindric or nearly so; fibrous; firm; 
straight or bent; smooth; stuffed; colored like the cap; i to 3 
inches long. 

Spores white; 8 to 10 microns in diameter; covered with 
minute warts or elevations. 

This is the most common and the most variable species of 
the genus Laccaria. It is not particular concerning its habitat 
or season. It may be found at any time from spring to late 
autumn if the weather is not too dry. As in other species of 
the genus, the color of the gills is more persistent than that 
of the cap and is one of the most available characters by 
which to separate this species from others. Peck. 

This species is very variable in form, size and color; but 
after all, it is so different from other mushrooms that it is 
easily recognized. It is one of the most common species 
met with, both in woods or fields. All authors pronounce 
it harmless, and although poor in quality, it is often eaten. 
Murrill. , 

200 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



Laccaria ochropurpurea. Plate X, Species 70. 

On ground in open, bushy or grassy places; solitary, rarely 
grouped; July to September; edible. 

Cap purplish-brown when moist, grayish or pale tan when 
dry; unpolished; watery in appearance when moist (hygro- 
phanous) ; convex or almost hemispheric, with decurved mar- 
gin; when mature, becoming plane or slightly depressed at 
the center; firm; fleshy; 2 to 4 inches broad. 

Gills attached to or extending down the stem (adnate or 
decurrent); purplish (color of the cap or paler); thick; broad; 
far apart. 

Stem long or short ; variable ; cylindric or sometimes thicker 
in the middle, sometimes thicker at each end; fibrous; solid; 
color of cap or paler; i>^ to 3 inches long. 

Spores white; globular; warty; 8 to 10 microns in diameter. 

This species is often very irregular and very variable in 
size and shape. The color of the gills is generally darker than 
those of Laccaria laccata. The cap is much darker when 
moist than when dry. The stem is very fibrous and firm. 

The genus Lactarius 

In the white-spored genus Lactarius the gills of the mush- 
rooms exude a milky or colored juice where they are cut or 
broken. This character alone is sufficient to distinguish this 
genus from all others but there are also other features which 
are quite characteristic. The texture of the milky mush- 
rooms is such that while the flesh seems to be firm and rigid 
it is nevertheless very brittle. The fracture is quite even 
and not ragged or torn as in more filamentous or fibrous 
substances. Most of the Lactarius species are stout and 
fleshy in appearance and resemble in outline those of the 
clitocybe. In mature plants of this genus the cap is often 
somewhat funnel-shaped or like a broad inverted cone. The 

201 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MU^ROOMS 



gills are more or less decurrent (extending down the stem) 
and the stem is generally short and stout. Some of the 
species have the cap adorned with circular zones or bands 
that are more highly colored than the adjacent parts. This 
feature is rarely seen in the mushrooms of any other genus. 
The taste of the juice and of the flesh in many of these species 
is very acrid or hot and burning, like that of cayenne pepper. 
Unless this can be destroyed by cooking or by drying, such 
species must be considered as wholly unfit for food. 

While the taste of the milk is very acrid in some species, 
in others it is mild or but tardily acrid. This character 
is of great utility in distinguishing the species and it is neces- 
sary to observe it by tasting, but not swallowing the milk or 
flesh, if we would satisfactorily identify our specimens. 
Several of the species are edible; others are affirmed by 
authors to be poisonous. It is most prudent to avoid the 
use of such acrid species, for, although their acridity is de- 
stroyed or dispelled by cooking, they are said to be indiges- 
tible, and are acceptable only to the strongest stomachs. 
Peck. 

The spores of all the species of Lactarius are globular, or 
nearly so and are roughened by minute points or protuber- 
ances. Their color may be white or yellowish, according to 
the species. 

Species of Lactarius 

Lactarius camphoratus; camphory lactarius. Plate XI, 
Species 71. 

On ground in wet places, swamps and woods; July to 
September; edible. 

Cap bay-red or brownish-red; thin; convex or plane or with 
a depression at the center, in which is often a small knob; 
smooth; dry; flesh tinged with the color of the cap; milk 
white; taste mild; odor sweet; K to i>^ inches broad. 
202 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



Gills dull reddish or with the color of the cap; thin; narrow; 
close together; attached to the stem or extending down it 
(adnate or decurrent). 

Stem almost cylindric; smooth; stuffed or hollow; with 
the color of the cap or a little paler. 

Spores white; globular; 8 to 9 microns in diameter. 

The camphory lactarius closely resembles the sweetish 
lactarius (Lactarius subdulcis) but differs in its darker red 
color and by its agreeable odor. Its knob (umbo) when 
present, is very small and its margin is sometimes wavy. 
The color is generally bay-red but occasionally it approaches 
the color of the sweetish Lactarius in which case the odor is 
the most available character for the separation of these species. 

The gills are occasionally paler than usual and thereby 
tend to the confusion of these two species. The odor is 
less pronounced in the fresh plant than in the dry. It 
persists a long time. It is not like that of camphor, as 
the name would suggest, but resembles more the odor of 
dried melilot (sweet clover). It is not always dispelled by 
cooking, but the flavor is not, in otir opinion, a serious ob- 
jection to the edibility of this mushroom. Peck. 

Lactarius comigis; corrugated lactarius. Species 72. 
Figure 24. 

On ground in woods; August and September; edible. 

Cap fleshy; compact; firm; convex when young, later be- 
coming expanded or depressed in the center; corrugated, with 
a spiral network of wrinkles; dark reddish-brown or chestnut- 
colored, becoming paler as it grows older; suffused as if 
with a slight frosting or bloom; milk copious, white, with 
mild taste; 3 to 5 inches broad; flesh whitish or cream-colored. 

Gills dark cream-yellow or suggestive of cinnamon, turn- 
ing paler when old; often showing drops of moisture; becom- 
ing dirty or brownish wherever bruised. 

203 



PLATE 


XI. 








Species No. Description on page. 


45 Crepidotus applanatus . . . -175 


71 Lactarius camphoratus 






. 202 


73 Lactarius deliciosus . 






. 205 


74 Lactarius lignyotus 








. 206 


75 Lactarius piperatus 








. 207 


76 T/a,ctarius subdulcis 








. 207 


77 Lactarius theiogalus 








. 208 


78 Lactarius vellereus 








. 208 


79 Lactarius volemus 








. 209 


89 Marasmius rotula 








. 222 



■--.,'-£i^«Ii 



77 



PLATE XI. 



.'} f 



i/ 







S^ rll 




, J? 73 



.Siltf^U 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



Stem cylindric; solid; firm; paler than the cap; 4 to 6 
inches long. 

Spores white; large; nearly globular; .00045 to .0005 inch 
in diameter; with small needle-Hke points, .0016 to .002 inch 
long. 

This remarkable species resembles Lactarius volemius. It 
is, however, of a darker color and the surface of the cap is 
very uneven from the presence of folds which present an 
appearance much like that of the hymenium (spore-bearing 
surface) of some species of Merulius (a fungus having a 
network of pits or pores, instead of gills). The spicules 
(little spikes) on the gills too, are a peculiar feature of Lactarius 
corrugis. They are so numerous that under a lens they give 
a hairy appearance to the edge of the gills. Peck. 

Dr. Murrill considers that this species is the most common 
of the milk-bearing mushrooms (Lactarius). 

Lactarius deliciosus; delicious lactarius; orange-milk 
lactarius. Plate XI, Species 73. 

On ground in woods, groves and in mossy swamps; odor 
not marked; taste often slightly acrid; orange-colored milk 
exudes when the plant is broken. Wounded places slowly 
become greenish; July to October; edible. 

Cap broadly convex when the plant is young; centrally 
depressed or funnel-shaped when mature; smooth; moist; 
yellowish, with circles or mottled zones of deeper hues; 
flesh whitish, stained with orange in the part nearest to the 
gills; 2 to 5 inches broad. 

Gills orange-colored, but clearer than the cap; attached to 
the stem or extending down the stem (adnate or decurrent). 

Stem smooth; short if growing from the ground, longer if 

growing among mosses; sometimes tapering toward the base; 

with the color of the cap or paler, sometimes with a few bright 

orange spots; i to 4 inches long, Vs to V3 of an inch thick. 

205 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



Spores yellowish; globular; .0003 to .0004 inch in diameter. 

The delicious lactarius is well marked by its peculiar 
colors and is easily distinguished from all other species of 
Lactarius by its orange-colored juice. The mottled zones 
upon the cap are less distinct in old plants, and in them the 
ground-color also fades and becomes tinged with greenish 
hues. Such plants should not be used as food. There is 
often a slightly acrid taste to the flesh and milk when the 
plant is fresh and raw. 

The milk or juice pervades the whole plant. Wounds and 
bruises slowly assume a dull greenish hue. 

The stem is usually hollow in mature plants. This species 
is especially found on pine woods and mossy swamps, though 
not by any means limited to these. It may sometimes be found 
in swamps when dry weather prevents its growth elsewhere. 

Lactarius lignyotus; sooty lactarius. Plate XI, Species 74. 

On ground in shaded, mossy or damp places in woods and 
swamps; most often in hilly or mountainous places; July to 
September; edible. 

Cap convex, plane or slightly depressed at the center; dry; 
with or without a small protuberance (umbo) at the center ; 
often with wrinkles radiating from the center; velvety (pruin- 
ose); even or lobed at the edge; sooty-brown; flesh white; 
exuding scanty white milk when bruised or cut; taste mild 
or slightly acrid; i to 4 inches in diameter. 

Gills attached to the stem (adnate) or extending slightly 
down the stem; white or creamy yellow, becoming reddish 
where they are wounded. 

Stem cylindric or tapering upward; stuffed; colored like 
the cap ; 2 to 4 inches long, Ve to Vs iiich thick and sometimes 
thicker; colored like the cap. 

Spores globular with small spines (echinulate) ; white; 
8 to 10 microns in diameter. 

206 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



The sooty lactarius is a very noticeable species, well 
marked by its dark-brown color, velvety appearance, its 
long stem and by the fact that its gills, when wounded, slowly 
turn a reddish color. It is an excellent edible species. Peck. 

Lactarius piperatus; peppery lactarius. Plate XI, Species 
75- 

On ground in woods; summer and autumn; taste very 
acrid; edible when properly prepared. 

Cap fleshy; thick; firm; convex when young; white, often 
rough and covered with dirt and debris; when mature, it be- 
comes depressed at the center or funnel-shaped; 3 to 5 inches 
broad; flesh white; exuding white milk when broken. 

Gills white; very narrow; very much crowded together; 
some of them are forked. 

Stem short; soHd; cylindric or tapering downward; thick; 
I to 3 inches long. 

Spores white; smooth; oval with a small point; 5-7 x 4-5 
microns in diameter. 

This species is very hot and peppery to the taste and 
yields abundant white milk. It resembles Russula delica. 
Atkinson. 

In young plants the milk pervades the whole structure. 

Lactarius subdulcis ; sweetish lactarius. Plate XI, Species 
76. 

On ground in or near woods; July to October; edible. 

Cap thin; fleshy; knob at center (umbonate) when young, 
becoming funnel-shaped when old; tawny or brownish-red; 
dry; smooth; margin turned in when young; spreading when 
old and sometimes wavy; flesh firm; fragile; tinged with tan; 
milk white, mild or slightly bitterish; K to 2>^ inches broad. 

Gills whitish or tinged with brownish-red; dusted when 
old; close together; sometimes forked; attached to the stem 
207 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



or extending down it, with a notch near the stem (adnate or 
decurrent with a tooth). 

Stem colored like the cap or paler; cylindric or tapering 
upward; smooth or sometimes hairy at the base; dry; pith} 
when young, hollow when old; i to 3 inches long. 

Spores white; globular or nearly elliptic, with minute 
spurs ; 7 to 8 microns in diameter. 

This edible species occurs on the ground in or near woods 
throughout the Eastern United States and Europe. Murrill. 

Lactarius theiogalus ; sulphur-milk lactarius. Plate XI, 
Species 77, 

On ground in woods or groves; July to October; "Accord- 
ing to Gillet it is pronounced edible by some authors, poison- 
ous by others." Peck. 

Cap fleshy; thin; convex when young, becoming depressed 
at the center when mature; smooth; sticky when moist; 
tawny-reddish; 2 to 5 inches broad, exuding milk (see below). 

Gills attached to the stem or extending down it (adnate 
or decurrent); close together; pallid or reddish. 

Stem pithy (stuffed) or hollow; smooth; colored like the 
cap; I to 3 inches long. 

Spores yellowish, inclining to pale flesh-color; nearly globu- 
lar; .0003 to .00035 inch in diameter. 

Milk white, changing to sulphur-yellow after exposure to 
the air; taste tardily acrid; bitterish. 

Lactarius vellereus; fleecy lactarius. Plate XI, Species 78. 

On ground in woods and open places; July to September; 
*"' Cardier states that it is poisonous according to some authors, 
edible according to Leveille." Peck. 

Cap convex when young and with a pit at the center 
(umbilicate), later expanded and depressed at the center t>r 
slightly funnel-shaped; compact; the whole surface covered 
208 



i 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



with a fine velvety wool (tomentum) that is soft to the touch; 
white or whitish; exuding milk when cut or broken; this milk 
is white, with an acrid taste. Cap 2 to 5 inches broad. 

Gills rather distant from each other; attached to the stem 
or extending down it (adnate or decurrent) ; sometimes forked; 
whitish when young, cream or yellowish when old. 

Stem white; firm; solid; cylindric or tapering downward; 
downy or woolly; >^ to 2 inches long. 

Spores white; nearly smooth; .0003 to .00035 inch in 
diameter. 

The soft, downy tomentum or wool which is characteristic 
of this species and which covers the cap, gives it a downy or 
frosted appearance when viewed from a little distance. The 
stem is short and is sometimes broader than it is long. The 
gills are about equal in width to the thickness of the cap. 
They become stained where bruised. The milk that exudes 
from wounds dries into cream-colored granules. The taste 
is very acrid. Peck. 

Lactarius volemus; orange-brown lactarius. Plate XI, 
Species 79. 

On ground in woods and open places; in groups or singly; 
July to September; edible. 

Cap convex or nearly plane when young, becoming de-. 
pressed at the center or even funnel-shaped when mature- 
smooth; dry; golden- tawny or brownish-orange, sometimes 
darker at the center; sometimes with a knob at the center 
(umbonate); the peel sometimes cracks into small angular 
patches; flesh white, sometimes tinged with yellow; milk 
white, abundant, mild to the taste. Cap 2 to 5 inches broad. 

Gills attached to the stem or extending a little down it 
(adnate or decurrent); white or tinged with yeUow; close 
together; a milky fluid exudes when they are bruised or 
broken; wounds of the gills assume a brownish hue. 
209 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



Stem colored like the cap or paler; firm; smooth; generally 
solid; I to 4 inches long; not often longer than the diameter 
af the cap. 

Spores white; globular; .00035 to .00045 inch broad. 

The orange-brown lactarius is a clean, firm and attractive 
species. It varies but little in color and is therefore easily 
recognized. It is most abundant in warm, showery weather. 
Usually many individuals will be found growing in company 
so that it is not difficult to obtain a generous supply for the 
table. It is remarkably free from the attacks of insects, 
which is a point in its favor as an esculent. Sometimes in 
drying it emits an unpleasant odor which is, perhaps, an 
indication that the specimens should not be kept too long 
before being cooked. Many writers affirm that this fungus 




Fig. 24. — Species No. 72. — Lactarius corrugis. 
wrinkled, dark reddish brown, paler when old. 

Description on page 203. 
210 



Cap 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 




Fig. 24A. — Species No. 80. — Lentinus cochleatus. Cap 
brownish-flesh color when moist ; paler when dry. 

Description on page 212. 

is quite as good raw as it is cooked, but to me it often has 
a slightly acrid or astringent flavor in the raw state. My 
own experience with it would scarcely lead me to class it as 
more than an ordinarily good mushroom. Perhaps it might 
be improved by better cooking than I was able to give it. 

There are two or three species somewhat similar to the 
orange-brown mushroom in color, but none of them are 
hiirtful. We are'sometimes cautioned against mistaking the 
red lactarius for it. This is reported by Fries as very poison- 
ous. I have found this on the high summits of the Catskills 
and in the cold mossy swamps and woods of the Adirondack 
region, but never in company with the orange-brown lac- 
tarius. It is easily distinguished by its more red color, 
its smaller size, and especially by its exceedingly acrid, 

211 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



burning taste. No one who had tasted it in the raw state 
could be induced to swallow the least particle of it. Peck. 

This species was probably named " volemus " because of 
the voluminous quantity of milk which exudes when the plant 
is broken or bruised, though it is not the only species hav- 
ing this character. Atkinson. 

The genus Lentinus 

Mushrooms belonging to this genus are found growing 
upon wood. They are variable in form, hard or tough in 
texture and have white spores. They are easily recognized 
by the uneven or sawlike edges of their gills. 

Species of Lentinus 

Lentinus cochleatus; shell lentinus. Species 80. Fig- 
ure 24A. 

On or about old stumps or growing from decaying wood 
buried in the ground; in tufts; July and August; inedible 
because tough. 

Cap thin; tough; flaccid; irregular in shape; often lobed 
on the margin; plane, depressed at the center or funnel- 
shaped; smooth; brownish-flesh color when moist, paler 
when dry; }4 to 2 inches broad. 

Gills rather broad; close together; extending down the 
stem (decurrent); saw-like (serrate) on the edge; whitish, 
tinged with flesh-color. 

Stem placed in the center, to one side or on the edge of 
the cap; usually united in a tuft; solid; smooth; furrowed 
or grooved; color of cap or paler; i>^ to 3 inches long. 

Spores white; nearly globular; .00016 to .0002 inch in 
diameter. 

The species is easily recognized by its tufted mode of 

212 

/ 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



growth and its grooved stem. The plants sometimes emit 
an agreeable odor. Peck. 

Although it is not a common species it is included here on 
account of its unique grooved stem. 

Lentinus lepideus; scaly lentinus. Plate XII, Species 8i. 

On decaying wood of evergreen trees, often on railroad 
ties, fence posts and bridge timbers; singly or in tufts; May 
to October; too tough to be eaten but makes good soup. 

Cap fleshy; tough; hard when dry; convex or nearly plane; 
sometimes slightly depressed in the center; often irregular in 
shape; the peel (cuticle) cracks and forms brownish, spotlike 
scales; surface of cap otherwise white or pale rusty; flesh 
white. 2 to 4 inches broad. 

Gills rather far apart; notched near the stem (sinuate); 
with saw-like teeth along the free edge (serrate-dentate); 
white; often torn across. 

Stem short; hard; solid; often pointed at the base; some- 
times scaly; sometimes with a slight ring when young; white 
or whitish; i to 2^2 inches long. 

Spores white; slightly elliptical; .0004-.0005 inch long, 
.0002-.00024 broad. 

This fungus is often injurious to railroad ties. The cap 
is occasionally umbonate, that is, there is a knob protruding 
from its center. The scales may be brown or almost black. 
The stem is sometimes attached between the center and the 
side of the cap. When the mushroom emerges from a crack 
in wood, its stem is pointed at the base. 

The genus Lepiota 

Mushrooms belonging to the genus Lepiota resemble those 

of the genera Amanita and Amanitopsis in having their gills 

free from the stem and in having white spores. They differ 

in having no removable warts on the cap and no sheath or 

213 



PLATE XII. 
Species No. 


Descripi 


ion on page. 


8 1 Lentinus lepideus . . . . .213 


82 Lepiota americana 






. 215 


83 Lepiota morgani 






. 215 


85 Lepiota procera . 






. 217 


86 Marasmius campanulatus 

87 Marasmius oreades 






. 219 
. 219 


91 Mycena pura 






. 223 


94 Omphalia, fibula 






. 227 



PLATE XII. 



#-?--* f 









91 




\ 



^ i 



c>4 



^ 









^B 



.1. 







GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



cup at the base of the stem although it may be bulbous. 
There is a ring or collar on the stem. In some species the 
epidermis (peel) of the cap breaks into scales which adhere 
to the cap and this feature suggests the name of the genus 
which is derived from the Latin word lepis^ a scale. 

Species of Lepiota 
Lepiota americana; American lepiota; blushing lepiota. 
Plate XII, Species 82. 

On grassy ground or about old sttimps, sawdust heaps or 
compost heaps; July to October; singly or in tufts; edible. 

Cap white with reddish or reddish-brown scales and elevated 
center; egg-shaped when young, growing convex or expanded 
when mature; i to 4 inches broad; margin striated (with 
radial marks). 

Gills white; close together; free from the stem; sometimes 
forked or joined near their inner end. 

Stem somewhat thickened at or above the base; hollow; 
usually with a ring or collar, but sometimes this is thin and 
may disappear when the plant is old; wounds or bruises are 
apt to assume brownish hues; 3 to 5 inches long. 

Spores white; slightly elliptic; with a nucleus; .0003 to 
.0004 inch long, .0002 to .0003 inch broad. 

The American lepiota has one character in which it differs 
from aU other species of this genus. The whole plant when 
fresh is white except the scales upon the cap and its central 
portion, but in drying it assumes a dull reddish or smoky 
color. By this character it is easily recognized Peck. 

Lepiota Morgani; green-spored mushroom. Plate XII, 
Species 83. Figiire 25. 

On ground in open places (rarely in woods) ; singly or in 
groups, sometimes in curved Hnes or "fairy rings"; June to 
October; POISONOUS. 

215 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GELLED MUSHROOMS 



Cap soft and fleshy; nearly spherical when young, convex, 
or even depressed at the center when matiire; white, with 
scattered brown scales which merge together at the center. 
Flesh white, tirrning reddish and then yello^dsh where it is 
wounded. Cap 4 to 12 inches broad. 

Gills broad; close together; free from the stem; white 
when young, green when mature. 

Stem slightly bulbous at the base; firm; stuffed; whitish, 
tinged with brown; surrounded by a large ring that is often 
movable; 6 to 8 inches long. 

Spores green when first shed, slowly turning yellow; egg- 
shaped or slightly elliptical; mostly with a single nucleus; 
10-13 X 7-8 microns in diameter. 

This is one of the largest and handsomest of the lepiotas. 
It is very abundant in the southern and southwestern states. 

Lepiota naucina; lepiota naucinoides; smooth lepiota. 
Species 84. Figure 26. 

On ground in grassy places; rarely in cultivated fields 
and thin woods; August to November; edible. 

Cap white, with the center rarely yellowish or smoky; 
smooth and even stirface; soft; 2 to 4 inches broad. 

Gills free from the stem; white; slowly changing with age 
to a dirty pinkish-brown or smoky-brown color; rounded 
near the stem. 

Stem white or like the cap; furnished with a white collar 
or ring which is sometimes movable and sometimes disappears 
in old specimens; bulbous at the base; hollow or nearly so; 2 
to 3 inches long. 

Spores white; slightly elliptic; with a nucleus; .0003 to 
.0004 inch long. 

Being similar to the common mushroom (Agaricus campest- 
ris) in size and color, it is sometimes confused with that 
species. But a glance at the color of the gills is sufficient 
216 



M 



Fig. 25. 




Fig. 25, Species 83. — Lepiota morgani growing in "fairy 
ring." See Plate XII. 

From Prof. C. H. Kauflfman's Agaricacea of Michigan. Description 
on page 215. 



L/v'^'.TF, 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



to separate the two. The color of the spores and the charac- 
ter of the stem and collar are also distinguishing differences. 

In my estimation this species is scarcely if at all inferior to 
the common mushroom in its edible qualities. Its flesh is 
thick and white and usually tender and savory. It is very 
free from the attacks of insects. Growing as it does often, 
in places where the grass is short and dense, it has a neat, 
^ clean and attractive appearance. Its gills retain their white 
color for a long time and in this respect it has an advantage 
over the common mushroom, whose gills soon change from 
the delicate pink of youth to the repulsive blackish hue of 
age. Peck. 

Since the plant occurs in the same situations as the Agaricus 
campestris it might be mistaken for it, but of course no harm 
could come by eating it by mistake for the common mush- 
room. If one will look at the gills, however, they will not 
be likely to mistake it for the common mushroom because 
the gills become pink only when the plant is well expanded and 
quite old. There is much more danger in mistaking it for the 
white Amanitas, Amanita phalloides, Amanita verna or 
Amanita virosa since the gills of these deadly plants are 
white and they do sometimes grow in lawns and other grassy 
places where the smooth lepiota and the, common mushroom 
grow. For this reason one should study the descriptions and 
illustrations of these Amanitas until one is so certainly 
familiar with their characters that the plants would be known 
"on sight." Atkinson. 

Lepiota procera; parasol mushroom; tall lepiota. "Plate 
XII, Species 85. 

On ground in thin woods, in fields and pastures and by 
roadsides; July to September; unfortunately, not very com- 
mon; edible. 

Cap thin, with a knob or eminence at the center; adorned 
217 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



with brown, spot-like scales; when young, the cap is brownish 
or reddish-brown and somewhat resembles an egg in shape. 
Its peel soon breaks up into numerous fragments and as the 
cap expands, these become separated except on and near the 
center of the cap; flesh soft, slightly tough and white; mild 
odor and flavor; 3 to 5 inches broad. 

Gills white or yellowish- white; close together; their inner 
extremity so far from the stem that there is a clear space 
about it. 

Stem very long in proportion to its thickness; with a 
rather thick, firm collar or ring which, when matiire, generally 
becomes loosened and movable upon it; bulbous at or near 
the base; with scales or brownish dots below the ring at 
times; hollow or pithy; 5 to 10 inches long. 

Spores white; large; elliptic; .0005 to .0007 inch long. 

The parasol mushroom is a very neat, graceful and attrac- 
tive species. The cap sometimes becomes fully expanded but 
usually it maintains a convex form like an opened umbrella or 
parasol. 

There is no poisonous species with which it can be con- 
fused. The very tall, slender stem with its bulbous base, 
the peculiarly spotted cap with its prominent darker colored 
umbo (knob) and the broad space or basin about the insertion 
of the stem and between it and the gills, easily distinguish 
this mushroom. 

The parasol mushroom has been highly commended and is 
evidently a first-class edible species. Peck. 

This handsome edible species is found in thin soil in mead- 
ows, pastures and open woods from New England to Alabama 
and west to Nebraska. It is widely distributed in Europe 
and Asia where it is highly esteemed as an article of food, in 
some places being dried in quantity for winter use. On 
account of its scaly cap and bulbous stem, it must be care- 
fully distinguished from species of Amanita. Murrill. 
218 



Fig. 26. 




,-^- 



W-;' 



1 



\y. 



Fig. 26, Species 84. — Lepiota naucina. Cap white; 2 to 4 

inches broad. 1 

From Prof. C. H. Kauffman's Agaricacea of Michigan. Description 
on page 216. 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



The genus Marasmius 

The tough, leathery texture of the small, thin mushrooms 
of this white- spored genus is their distinguishing feature. 
They quickly wither or shrivel in dry weather but revive again 
in wet weather or when put into water and regain their fresh 
apper ranee. The fact that they do not decay is another 
important feature by which they may be distinguished. 
Many of the rarer species of marasmius when fresh possess 
an odor of garlic. 

Mushrooms belonging to this genus resemble others of the 
genera Collybia, Lentinus and Panus. The species of mar- 
asmius, though, are usually smaller than those of the two 
latter species. The central stem of marasmius also differs 
from the often lateral stems of Panus and Lentinus. 

Species of Marasmius 
Marasmius campanulatus ; Marasmius siccus; bell- 
shaped marasmius. Plate XII, Species 86. 
On dead leaves in woods; July and August. 
Cap thin; dry; convex or bell-shaped; smooth, with radiating 
furrows; rusty red; a little darker at center; }ito j4 inch broad. 
Gills few and far apart; broad; narrowed near the stem; 
free from the stem or slightly attached to it ; whitish. 

Stem tough; smooth; shining; hollow; blackish brown; i to 
2 inches long. 

Spores white; pointed oblong; variable in size. 
Marasmius campanulatus resembles Marasmius siccus, a 
rarer species, but differs in the character of its gills and in its 
paler stem. Peck. 

Marasmius oreades ; fairy-ring mushroom ; Scotch bonnet ; 
mousseron; champignon. Plate XII, Species 87. 
On ground in open places; common in pastures, lawns and 
grassy places or by roadsides; appearing in wet weather or 

219 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



after heavy rains; usually in groups. Sometimes in arcs or 
circles or in complete circles or even in lines; sometimes in 
clusters; May to October; edible. 

Cap fleshy; firm; tough; convex, becoming expanded when 
mature, often with a large umbo or elevation at the central 
portion; smooth; buff or tawny {caje au hit) ; drying easily and 
shrinking, reviving when moist; flesh thin, white, of pleasant 
odor and taste; i to 2 inches broad. 

Gills rather broad and far apart; scarcely or but slightly 
attached to the stem; whitish or yellowish. 

Spores white; nearly elliptic; .0003 to .00035 inch long. 

The fairy-ring mushroom has received this name because of 
its tendency to grow in rings or circles. 

There are two or three mushrooms which are somewhat 
similar to the fairy-ring mushroom in size and color and which 
might, by carelessness, be mistaken for it. One of these, the 
semiorbicular naucoria, Naucoria semiorbicularis, sometimes 
grows in company with it. It may be distinguished by the 
color of the gills which, in the mature plant of Naucoria semi- 
orbicularis are rusty-brown. Its spores when caught on white 
paper have a dark rusty color, and its stem is smooth. 

The oak-loving collybia (CoUybia dryophila) also resembles 
it in the color of the cap and gills, but its (C. dryophila's) 
gills are more narrow and placed very closely, side by side, and 
the stem is very smooth and hollow. This usually grows in 
woods, but sometimes it occurs in open places and then might 
be mistaken for the fairy-ring mushroom through carelessness. 

It has long been esteemed as edible, but owing to its small 
size and somewhat tough substance it has not gained the 
popularity it deserves. Peck. 

This very excellent little species is to be looked for in 

pastures during wet weather in late summer or autumn. Its 

habit of growing in circles will aid one in recognizing it. I 

have found it much more abundant in England and other 

220 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



parts of Europe than in this country. If found in sufficient 
quantity for table use, it should be cooked for some time, 
owing to its tough texture. IMurrill. 

Marasmius peronatus. Species 88. Figure 2']. 

On grounds in woods; single or in groups; August and 
September; taste acrid; edibility doubtful. 

Cap I to 2 or more inches broad; light yellowish or pale 
brick-red, turning paler and wood-color or tan when old. 




Fig. 27. — Species No. ^%. — Marasmius peronatus. Cap 

yellowish or pale brick-red; wood-color or tan when old. 

Description on page 221. 

Shrivelled, wrinkled and leathery when dry and radiately 
lined (striate) at margin. Flesh white. 

Gills extending to the stem (adnexed) ; whitish or pale wood- 
color when young, turning reddish when old. 

Stem 2 to 3 inches long; slender; tough; fibrous; tapering 
upward; hollow when old; somewhat curved at the base where 
it is covered with downy hairs. 

Spores white; pip-shaped; 7-10 x 4-6 microns in diameter. 
221 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



Marasmius rotula; little- wheel marasmius. Plate XI, 
Species 89. 

On dead wood or leaves in woods. ♦ 

Cap thin; dry; convex or nearly flat; brownish with a black 
spot or depression at the center; smooth, with radiating 
fiirrows (striate) ; >^ to >^ inch in diameter. 

Gills few; far apart; broad; whitish. 

Stem slender; black; shiny; tough; paler at the top; hollow. 

Spores white; narrow; 6-9 x 3-4 microns in diameter. 

The genus Mycena 

The species of this white-spored genus are all small and 
slender with thin caps which are usually conic or bell-shaped 
and show radiating lines or striations on their upper surfaces. 
Their stems are smooth and hollow and often covered with 
down at their bases. There are no rings or cups on the stems. 

Species of Mycena 
Mycena galericulata. Plate XIII, Species 90. 

In woods on dead logs, stumps and branches; late spring 
to autumn; in clusters; edible. 

Cap conic or bell-shaped; sometimes with a knob at the 
center (umbonate); radial marks on the surface (striate); 
color variable, but always some shade of gray or brown; }i to 

1 }i inches broad. 

Gills with a notch and tooth at the stem end (emarginate) 
and extending down the stem (decurrent) ; connected by veins 
on the under surface of the cap; white or flesh-color; 

Stem slender; firm; whitish; hairy at the base; hollow; 

2 to 4 inches long; rarely rooted. 

Spores white; waxy (hyaline); 8-10 x 4-6 microns in 
diameter. 

It is a very common and widely distributed species. Atkinson. 
222 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



Mycena pura. Plate XII, Species 91. 

On ground in woods and grassy, open places; single or in 
clusters; late summer and autumn. 

Cap thin; conic or plane, sometimes with a small knob at 
center (umbonate); smooth; fine radial lines at the edge 
(striatulate) ; 2 to 3 centimeters (4/5 to Vs) inches broad. 
Entire plant of uniform color; rose, rose-purple, violet or lilac. 

Gills attached to the stem (adnate), sometimes breaking 
away from the stem; broad at their middle; connected by 
veins on the under surface of the cap. 

Stem sometimes white when young, turning to color of the 
cap when mature; straight; smooth; hollow; with a few threads 
at the base. 

Spores white; smooth; oblong; 2.5-3,5 x 6-7 microns in 
diameter. 

This beautiful little species is common on the ground in 
woods throughout North America and Europe. It varies 
considerably in shape, sometimes being small and bell-shaped 
with a long stem, and sometimes being quite broad and only 
slightly rounded on the top or flat, and having a short stem. 
It has been condemned as being dangerous to eat but its 
properties have probably not been thoroughly investigated. 
Even if harmless it is too small and thin to be considered for 
food. The color varieties v/ere formerly counted as different 
species. Murrill. 

The genus Naucoria 

This genus, with dark rusty spores (ferruginous) resembles 
collybia among the white-spored agarics. The plants grow 
both on the ground and upon wood. The color of the pileus 
(cap) is some shade of yellow. The stem is not distinctly 
ringed, but sometimes a slight, spore-stained band marks the 
place of the obsolete ring. 

223 





PLATE XIII. 








secies No. Description on page. 


22 


Clitocybe clavipes . . . . .148 


52 


Flammula flavida 






. 182 


90 


Mycena galericulata . 






. 222 


92 


Naucoria semiorbicularis 






. 225 


95 


Panseolus campanulalus 






. 228 


96 


Panaeolus papilionaceus 






. 228 


97 


Panasolus retirugis 






. 228 


99 


Panus stypticus 






. 231 


100 


Paxillus involutus 






. 231 


102 


Pholiota caperata 






. 233 


103 


Pholiota discolor 






. . 234 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



The members of this genus are, with two or three exceptions, 
very common. Species of the genus are among the first to 
appear in the spring and well reward the enterprising myco- 
phagist for his early tramps. 

Species of Naucoria 

Naucoria semiorbicularis ; common naucoria. Plate XIII, 
Species 92. 

On ground in open places; singly or in groups; May to 
November; edible. 

Cap hemispheric, convex, or, rarely, plane; surface often 
cracked when old; slightly gelatinous (viscid) when moist; 
tawny or rusty-colored; i to 2 inches broad. 

Gills adjacent to or attached to the stem (adnexed or 
adnate); broad; crowded (near together); rusty-colored. 

Stem rather tough; slightly enlarged at the base; smooth; 
pithy (stuffed); yellowish-brown or reddish-brown; 3 to 4 
inches long. 

Spores rusty; smooth; elliptical; 10-12 x 5-7 microns in 
diameter. 

This excellent edible species is common on lawns and on 
pastures and along roads and paths from May to November, 
usually appearing after periods of wet weather. The beginner 
will have difficulty in distinguishing it because of its homo- 
geneous brownish colors and its lack of definite structural 
characters. Murrill. 

See under Marasmius oreades. 

The genus Omphalia 

Mushrooms of this white-spored genus have thin caps, 
decurrent gills and cartilaginous, stuffed or hollow stems, 
somewhat thickened upward. 

The species of Omphalia are usually small, the cap rarely 
exceeding an inch and a half in diameter. They usually have 

225 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



a small pit at the center of the cap, a feature which gives the 
name to the genus, "omphalia" being derived from the Greek 
word meaning a navel. When mature a few species assume 
a funnel shape and then resemble some species of Clitocybe, 
but from these Omphalia may be distinguished by its carti- 
laginous stem. From species of Mycena, Omphalia is 
distinguished by its gills which extend down the stem. 

The species of Omphalia grow chiefly on decaying wood or 
other decaying vegetable matter. Because of their small size, 
the species of Omphalia are not regarded as important for the 
table. 

Species of Omphalia 
Omphalia campanella; Omphalopsis campanella; bell- 
shaped omphalia. Species 93. Figure 28. 

On dead or rotten logs, stumps, etc.; in woods; in clusters; 
edible. 

Cap thin; rather tough; convex with a pit or depression at 
the center (umbilicate) ; often irregular in shape; with delicate 
radiating lines on the surface (striate); with a water-soaked 
appearance when moist (hygrophanous) ; yellowish-rusty to 
dull yellow color; >^ to i inch broad. 

Gills narrow; extending down the stem (decurrent), arched; 
connected by veins on the under surface of the cap; yellow. 

Stem very slender; polished; pale brown; hollow; adorned 
with brown hairs at the base; K to i>^ inches long. 

Spores white; nearly elliptic; smooth; glassy (hyaline); 
6-7 X 3-4 microns in diameter. 

This is one of our prettiest woodland species, found com- 
monly and widely distributed in Europe and North America 
on dead coniferous wood. Its color is rather sober but it is 
conspicuous by reason of its clustered habit and is attractive 
because of its shapely form. It may be found throughout the 
growing season. Murpll. 

226 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



One of the most common and widely distributed species of 
the genus Omphalia. It is often clustered, large numbers 
covering a considerable surface of the decaying log. Atkinson. 

It is easily recognized by its yellowish-red cap, dark-brown 
stem and the little tuft of tawny colored hairs at the base of the 
stem. Peck. 

Omphalia fibula. Plate XII, Species 94. 

On mossy ground in fields and groves; June to October. 

Cap thin; with a pit or depression at the center (umbilicate) ; 
smooth; with slight radial lines at the margin (striatulate) ; 
yellow or pale orange; ^/s to }^ inch broad. 

Gills narrow; arched; extending well down the stem (decur- 
rent); whitish. 

Stem long and slender; smooth; hollow; colored like the 
cap; I to 2 inches long. 

Spores white; somewhat elliptical; smooth; 4-6 x 2-3 
microns in diameter. 

The cap becomes brighter in color on drying. 

The genus Panaeolus 

In the black-spored genus Panaeolus, the cap is somewhat 
fleshy or thin; the margin without radial lines or striations. 
The gills do not extend as far as the margin of the cap and are 
often mottled or spotted with black or brown and with white 
edges. The veil extending from the margin of the cap to the 
stem is often well marked, especially in young plants belonging 
to this genus. It sometimes persists in the form of fragments 
hanging from the margin of the cap. Peck. 

Species of this genus usually occur in manure or rich soil 
in open places. P. papilionaceus and P. retirugis are said to 
produce hilarity and a mild form of intoxication in man if 
eaten in quantity. Ford found the latter species poisonous to 
guinea pigs. A century ago P. campanulatus was reported 

227 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



poisonous, inducing sleep. Mcllvaine has tried it in small 
quantities without harmful results. Murrill. 

Species of Pan^eolus 
Panaeolus campanulatus ; bell-shaped Panaeolus. Plate 
XIII, Species 95. 

In open spaces on horse manure or on rich soil; June and 
July; POISONOUS. 

Cap oval or bell-shaped, sometimes with a knob at the 
center (umbonate); brownish, with a peculiar gray or lead- 
colored tint, sometimes reddish-tinted; margin often scalloped 
or fringed remains of the veil; >^ to i inch broad. 

Gills attached to the stem (adnate); reddish when young, 
dusted with the black spores when old. 

Stem long; slender; hoUow; reddish; covered with a bloom; 
dusted with the black spores when old; 4 to 6 inches long. 

Spores black; 16-18 x 10-18 microns in diameter. 

Panaeolus papilionaceus. Plate XIII, Species 96. 

In open places on dung and rich soil; May and June; 
POISONOUS. 

Cap almost hemispheric ; sometimes with an elevation at the 
center (umbonate); sometimes with scales on the surface; 
whitish gray, often tinged with yellow; >^ to i>^ inches broad. 

Gills very broad; gray, becoming black when old; attached 
to the stem (adnate). 

Stem slender; whitish or stained black by the spores; firm; 
hollow; 3 to 5 inches long. 

Spores black; elliptical; 9-10 x 6 microns in diameter. 

Panaeolus retirugis; wrinkled panaeolus. Plate XIII, 
Species 97. 
On ground (heavily manured) or dung; open places; in 
groups; May to August; edible. 
228 



Fig. 28. 



■.iiii.^ii^lfei.. 


^1 


#^ 


i 




1^ 




*r: 




Fig. 28. — Above, Species 93. — Omphalia campanella. 
Cap }i to I inch broad; yellowish. 

Photo by author. Description on page 226. 



Below, Species 98. — Panus strigosus. Cap 8 or more 
inches broad; white; hairy. 

From Prof. C. H. Kauffman's Agaricacece of Michigan. Description 
on page 230. 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



Cap conic or bell-shaped, with a slight elevation or knob at 
the central portion (umbonate); tan, gray or brownish; a 
network of cracks, especially near the center; sticky (viscid) 
and dull-colored in wet weather, cracking in dry weather; the 
margin decorated with fragments of the veil in mature plants; 
K to lyi inches broad. 

Gills adjacent to but not attached to the stem (adnexed); 
broad; gray or black; often unevenly colored or mottled with 
black or with dark brown. 

Stem slender; hollow; frosted or covered mth a fine down; 
usually gray or reddish-brown; darker toward the lower end; 
often with a dark band in the upper portion ; 2 to 6 inches long. 

Veil between the margin of the cap and the stem is white; 
conspicuous in young plants ; does not form a ring on the stem 
as in other genera, but hangs in fragments from the margin of 
the cap in old plants. 

Spores black; rather elliptic; smooth; 13-16 x 9-1 1 microns 
in diameter. 

This attractive species is common and widely' distributed in 
temperate regions during spring and simimer on heavily 
manured lawns and about dung in pastures. It is rather easily 
recognized by its netted and wrinkled cap and the bits of veil 
that hang from the margin. Although pronounced edible by 
all authorities, being of nutty flavor and agreeable odor, it does 
not appeal to mycophagists (mushroom eaters) as most of the 
other edible species do. Dr. W. W. Ford recently investigated 
this species and found an extract from it fatal to guinea pigs; 
but an extract from the famous morel (Morella esculenta) was 
found to have a similar effect. Murrill. 

The color of this plant is not attractive, but it is one of the 
most beautiful species I have studied, if one regards form and 
the general features of its development. I have found it on 
lawns and grassy places, especially made lawns which have 
been heavily manured. The size of the plant varies greatly 

229 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



according to its environment, being larger in moist soils and 
in wet weather and smaller in dry soil and dry weather. The 
plants have several times been eaten raw by me and while 
they have a nutty flavor and odor, the taste is not entirely 
agreeable in this condition, because of the accompanying slimy 
sensation. Atkinson. 

The genus Panus 

The mushrooms belonging to this white-spored genus are 
leathery fungi, growing on wood. When matiire they are 
tough and hard. Their caps shrivel when dry but revive when 
moist. The gills extend down the stem (decurrent) when there 
is one. The stem is usually attached to the cap aside from 
the center and in many species are found at its edge or are 
even lacking altogether. 

Some authorities class the mushrooms of this genus among 
the Lentinuses. The principal feature that distinguishes 
Panus from that genus is the fact that the edges of its gills are 
entire, that is, they are not serrate or saw-toothed. 

Species of Panus 
Panus strigosus. Species 98. Figure 28. 
On stumps, especially oak; in clusters or singly; September; 
harmless. 

Cap white; covered with hairs; margin thin 8 inches broad 
or larger. 

Gills broad; far apart; extending down the stem (decurrent). 
Stem attached to the edge of the cap; hairy like the cap. 
Spores white; elongated-oblong; 11-13 x 3.5-4-5 rnicron in 
diameter. 

A remarkably handsome fungus. Its creamy whiteness and 
short, hairy stem make it unmistakable among other tree 
fungi. It is edible when young but it soon becomes woody. 
230 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



Panus stypticus ; astnngent panus. Plate XIII, Species 99. 

On stumps of deciduous trees in woods; in groups; autumn 
and winter; astringent and puckery to the taste; phosphores- 
cent in the dark; POISONOUS. 

Cap tough; resembHng a shell; kidney-shaped; tawny; 
attached by a short lateral stem; small scales on the surface; 
margin even or lobed; curved in when young; flesh watery- 
white; yi to y^ inch broad. 

Gills narrow; thin; close together; tawny; connected by 
veins on the under surface of the cap. 

Stem short ; marginal ; solid ; pale buff or dull- white near the 
cap, darker near the base. 

Spores white; 1-3 by 2-4 microns in diameter. 

This small, inconspicuous species is common throughout 
the temperate regions. It would hardly be collected for 
food, even if well-flavored, because of its small size and 
toughness. Murrill. 

The genus Paxillus 

Fungi belonging to the genus Paxillus are characterized by 
gills which are easily and smoothly separable from the cap. 
The spores are rusty-brown (ochraceous) . 

Species of Paxillus 

Paxillus involutus; involute paxillus (that is, paxillus 
with the margin of its cap turned downward and in- 
ward). Plate XIII, Species 100. 

On ground or decaying wood in open places or in damp 
woods; August to October; edible. 

Cap compact; flesh tinged with gray; convex when young, 
expanded and depressed at the center when mature; margin 
curled downward and inward; nearly smooth; grayish-buff or 
rusty-brown or yellowish; 2 to 4 inches broad. 

231 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



Gills close together; extending down the stem (decurrent); 
branched or forked; connected by veins on the under surface 
of the cap; whitish when young, yellowish or rusty when old, 
turning reddish-brown where cut or bruised. 

Stem central, or sometimes away from the center of the 
cap (eccentric); solid; smooth; colored like the cap; i to 3 
inches long; ^/j to yi inch thick; shorter than the diameter of 
the cap. 

Spores rusty; elliptic; .0003 to .0004 inch long. 

It is sometimes called the brown chantarelle but it is scarcely 
a rival of the true chantarelle. Most authorities record it as 
edible but they do not praise it highly. It is said to be in 
high estimation in Russia. With us it is scarcely available 
except to people living near damp woods. Peck. 

The genus Pholiota 

Pholiota is a rusty or ochraceous-spored genus. Except 
for the color of the spores, many of the species belonging to 
this genus resemble closely those fungi of other genera so that 
the spore color must be observed before identification can be 
certainly made. Its plants resemble those of Armillaria 
among the white-spored mushrooms and Stropharia in the 
brown-spored series. In some of the species of Pholiota grow- 
ing upon the ground, the spores are brown, enough to cause 
some difficulty in deciding whether a given species should be 
regarded as a Pholiota or a Stropharia. Other resemblances 
make the species of this genus a difficult one for the beginner. 

The stem and cap are continuous with each other and can- 
not be easily separated. The stem has a ring or collar. 

Species of Pholiota 
Pholiota adiposa; fat pholiota. Plate XIV, Species loi. 

On stumps and dead trunks of trees in or near woods; singly 
or in tufts; September to November; edible. 
232 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



Cap fleshy; firm; hemispheric or broadly conic; spreading or 
expanding when mature; sticky (viscid or glutinous); with 
scales upon the surface; yellow; flesh whitish; i to 4 inches 
broad. 

Gills attached to the stem (adnate); close together; yellow 
or yellowish, becoming darker or rusty when old. 

Stem cylindric or slightly thickened at the base; with a 
slight flaky ring which often disappears; yellow and sometimes 
reddish or tawny toward the base; 2 to 4 inches long. 

Spores rusty (ochraceous) ; elliptic; .0003 inch long; .0002 
inch broad. 

The scales are easily separable from the cap and sometimes 
disappear when the plant grows old. They are usually more 
highly colored than the cap. The ring is often absent in 
mature specimens and is by no means conspicuous in young 
ones. 

This species is not classed as edible by European authors 
but I find its flavor agreeable and its substance digestible and 
harmless. It is well to peel the caps before cooking them. 
Peck. 

Pholiota caperata; wrinkled phoHota; the gypsy. Plate 
XIII, Species 102. 

On ground in woods, mossy swamps and open places; July 
to October; edible; scattered or somewhat grouped. 

Cap egg or bell-shaped, becoming expanded when mature; 
smooth; often whitened in the center by whitish flakes or 
scales; generally more or less wrinkled; thin towards the edge; 
yellow; flesh white; 2 to 4 inches broad. 

Gills attached to the stem (adnate); often uneven on the 
edge; whitish, turning rusty-colored when old. 

Stem stout solid ; sometimes bulbous at the base ; smooth or 
slightly flaky; white or whitish; with a thick ring; 2 to 5 
inches long. 

233 



Fig. 29. 

Species No. Description on page 

loi Pholiota adiposa. On wood. Cap yellow; 

I to 4 inches broad .... 232 

Modeled and photographed by Miss Eleanor C. Allen of the Amer. 
Museum Nat. History. • 



Fig. 29. 




GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



Spores rusty; slightly elliptic; .0005 to .0006 inch long 
.00025 to .0003 inch broad. 

This is a fine, large pholiota easily recognized by its peculiar 
wrinkled cap and the white frosting or flaky covering of the 
center of the cap. Sometimes, however, specimens may 
occur in which neither the wrinkles nor the flakes are present. 
Occasionally there is the semblance of a sheath or cup (volva) 
enclosing the base of the stem. The ring (annulus) is usually 
well-developed, white and persistent. Peck. 

It is much esteemed in Germany and is eagerly sought as 
food by the common people who call it familiarly "Zigeuner," 
the gypsy. Bost. Mycological Club Bull. 1896. 

Pholiota discolor; fading pholiota. Plate XIII, Species 
103. 

On decaying wood and prostrate trunks of trees in woods; 
singly or in tufts; July to October; edible. 

Cap thin; convex when young, becoming nearly plane when 
mature; viscid or sticky and water-soaked in appearance when 
moist (hygrophanous) ; watery-cinnamon colored and with 
faint radiating lines on the margin (striatulate) when moist; 
fading to pale yellow when dry; flesh white; taste mild; i to 2 
inches broad. 

Gills narrow; close together; attached to the stem (adnate) ; 
pallid when young, becoming pale-rusty when old. 

Stem cylindric or slightly tapering upward; with a distinct, 
persistent ring; slightly fibrous; palHd or brownish; often 
with a white down at the base; i to 2>^ inches long. 

Spores rusty or brown; nearly elliptic; 6-8 by 5-6 microns 
broad. 

The fading pholiota is a small but common species growing 
in woods on decaying wood or raches. It is easily distin- 
guished by its viscid (sticky) cap. The change of color in 
the cap by the escape of its moisture is very noticeable and is 
235 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLEB MUSHROOMS 



suggestive of the specific name. It grows singly or somewhat 
gregariously and very rarely in small tufts. In this case, the 
caps are apt to be smaller than usual. Peck. 

Pholiota precox; early pholiota; pholiota candicans. 
Plate XIV, Species 104. 

On ground; lawns and other grassy places; solitary or in 
groups; May to July; edible. 

Cap convex or nearly plane; peels readily; soft; smooth; 
whitish, becoming tinged with tan or with rusty-brown; 
flesh white; sometimes with a knob or elevation at the center 
(umbonate); sometimes with cracks in the peel; sometimes 
with fragments of the veil attached to the margin of the cap; 
I to 2 inches broad. 

Gills adjacent to but not attached to the stem (adnexed); 
close together; whitish, turning brownish or rusty-brown when 
old. 

Stem whitish or nearly of the color of the cap; slender; 
pithy or hollow when mature; smooth; with a ring near the 
top; stem easily separable from the cap; i>^ to 3 inches long. 

Spores rusty-brown; elliptic; .0004 to .0005 inch long, 
.00024 to .0003 inch broad. 

The early pholiota is a small but variable species. From 
other similarly colored species that appear in grassy places 
early in the season, the collar on the stem will easily distinguish 
it. Sometimes the collar is slight and disappears with age, 
and sometimes the fragments of the veil remain attached 
to the cap, leaving nothing for a collar. Peck. 

This is one of our best edible species and it occurs quite 
abundantly during spring and early summer in grassy and 
open places throughout temperate regions. Murrill. 

Pholiota squarrosa. Plate XIV, Species 105. 

On or near wood; in clusters; August to December; edible. 
236 



Fig. 30. 




Fig. 30. — Above, Species 106. — 'Pleurotus ostreatus. Cap 
2 to 5 inches broad; white, ashy or yellowish. 

Photo by author. Description on page 237. 



Below, Species io8. — Pleurotus ulmarius. Cap 3 to 5 
inches broad; white, whitish or yellowish. 

From Prof. C. H. Kauffman's Agaricacece of Michigan. Description 
on page 240. 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



Cap saffron-rust color; covered with darker, turned up scales; 
fleshy; convex; dry. Flesh light yellow. 3 to 5 inches broad. 

Gills attached to the stem with a tooth; close together 
(crowded); narrow; pale olive when young, turning rusty 
when old. 

Stem short when young, but long when mature; tapering 
dowTiward ; scaly below the ring that surrounds the upper part^ 

Spores rusty; elliptical; .0003 inch by .00016 inch broad. 

A variable and showy species, growing chiefly in dense 
tufts. The scales give the cap a very rough appearance, 
especially in the young plant. Peck. 

The genus Pleurotus 

The genus Pleurotus scarcely differs from Tricholoma and 
Clitocybe except for the fact that the stems of plants are 
attached to the cap at some point to one side of the center. 
In some species the stem is scarcely developed at all; in 
others, it is attached to the very margin of the cap. Some of 
the species of Pleurotus have the gills rounded or notched at 
their inner extremity, near the stem, as in the genus Tricho- 
loma, while some others have them decurrent, that is, ex- 
tending down the stem, as in the genus Clitocybe. A dis- 
tinctive character that is worthy of notice in this genus 
Pleurotus, is that the plants are found growing on wood only. 
Generally their flesh is more tough than it is in those mush- 
rooms growing upon the ground. Sometimes they grow from 
dead spots or dead branches of living trees and are often out 
of reach, being high above the ground. 

Species of Pleurotus 
Pleurotus ostreatus; oyster mushroom. Species 106. 
Figure 30. 
The oyster mushroom, or oyster fungus, so named be- 
cause of its flavor, is very similar to the sapid mushroom. 

237 



PLATE XIV. 




secies No. 


Description on page. 


10 1 Pholiota adiposa 


. 232 


104 Pholiota precox 


. 236 


105 Pholiota squarrosa 


. . . . 236 


107 Pleurotus sapidus 


. 239 


no Pluteus cervinus 


. 242 


III Psathyrella disseminata 


. 244 


112 Psilocybe f oenisecii 


. 244 



PLATE XIV. 





11^ ^-%M. 



•J 



I^JujKIM 






GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



According to the descriptions of the European plant, it is 
there quite variable in color, but in the United States, the 
prevailing colors are white or ashy-gray, changing to yellow- 
ish in the old or dried state. The stem, when present, is 
usually shorter than in the sapid pleurotus and is often more 
lateral. It is sometimes hairy at the base and is sometimes 
absent. But the caps are clustered and overlapped very 
much as in that species and the gills are the same in both. 
For table purposes there is little need of keeping the two 
species distinct. Both are much more liable to be infested 
with insects than is the elm pleurotus. Both grow on de- 
caying wood and at the same season and under similar condi- 
tions. The oyster mushroom is apparently much less 
frequently found in New York State than is the sapid mush- 
room. It has long been classed amongst the esculent species 
but in consequence of the toughness of its flesh it does not 
rank as a mushroom of the first quality. Peck. 

Its spores are white; oblong; 7 to lo microns in length. 

Pleurotus sapidus; sapid pleurotus. Plate XIV, Species 
107. 

On dead trunks or limbs of trees, in tufts or crowded 
clusters whose stems are more or less united at the base and 
whose caps crowd and overlap each other; in woods and open 
places; June to November; edible. 

Cap convex or concave (depressed on the top); smooth; 
often irregular in shape; moist in wet weather; variable in 
color — white, yellowish, ashy gray, dull lilac or even brownish; 
flesh white; 2 to 5 inches broad. 

Gills broad and rather far apart; extending down on the 
stem (decurrent); branching and connected with each other 
on the stem; whitish or yellowish; ^sometimes ragged or 
torn. 

Stem usually tufted, several growing from a common base; 
239 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 

usually white and smooth; solid; firm; attached to the cap to 
one side of the center or at its margin; i to 2 inches long. 

Spores pale lilac; oblong; .00035 to .00045 iiich long. 

The peculiar character which distinguishes this species 
and about the only one that is available for separating it in 
all cases from Pleurotus ostreatus (the oyster mushroom) 
is the lilac tint of the spores. When these are collected on 
black or brown paper they have a sordid, whitish appearance, 
but if caught on white paper, the color of the mass is a very 
pale dull lilac. It has seemed to me that they are whitish, 
even when collected on white paper, when first thrown 
down, but after a short exposiire to the air, or after a greater 
accumulation of them, the lilac tint appears. Notwith- 
standing this peculiarity in the color of its spores, the species 
is classed among the white-spored mushrooms and it is, 
perhaps, a question whether it is, after all, anything more 
than a variety of Pleurotus ostreatus. 

It is quite common and is more abundant in wet weather. 
Sometimes it appears to grow from the ground, but a careful 
investigation would show that it starts from some decaying 
root or buried piece of wood. I have eaten it both fried and 
stewed and consider it to be about the same in edible qualities 
as the oyster mushroom. Peck. 

Pleurotus ulmarius; elm pleurotus. Species 108. 
Figure 30. 

On stumps or cut branches of elm trees; September tc 
November; in groups or clusters; edible. 

Cap convex or nearly flat; firm; smooth; white, whitish or 
tinged near the center with a yellowish hue; the peel is some- 
times cracked in small areas, making the cap look scaly; 
flesh white; 3 to 5 inches broad. 

GUIs broad and rather far apart; notched at the end near 
240 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



the stem; white or tinged with yellow when old; adjacent to, 
but not attached to the stem (adnexed.) 

Stem firm and solid; attached to the cap a little to one 
side of the center; usually curved; smooth or sometimes 
downy or hairy at the base; 2 to 4 inches long. 

Spores white; globular; .0002 to .00025 inch broad. 

The elm pleurotus or elm tree mushroom is a con- 
spicuous object, growing as it generally does, from dead 
places in or on the stumps of cut branches of standing 
elms. By its large size and white color it easily attracts 
attention. 

It is not uncommon to see this mushroom late in autumn 
growing on the elms that have been planted as shade trees 
along the streets of our cities and in our public parks. It 
grows especially on those trees that have been severely 
trimmed or have had their tops cut away. Its time of appear- 
ance is so late in the season that it is not often infested by 
insects. It therefore persists a long time and will keep two 
or three days without harm. Its flesh is not as tender as 
that of many of the mushrooms that grow on the ground but 
it has an agreeable flavor and is quite harmless. Most 
tree-inhabiting mushrooms grow more slowly and are there- 
fore more tough and more slow to decay than are those grow- 
ing on the ground. They are also less easily collected since 
they often grow high up on standing trees. In consequence 
of their persistent character they are easily dried and pre- 
served for winter use. 

The elm pleurotus sometimes grows on other than elm 
trees, as, for instance, the maple and poplar. Occasionally 
when growing from the cut surface of an upright stump or 
from the upper side of a branch, its stem is straight and 
attached to the center of the cap. When dried specimens are 
soaked several hours in water they restmie their original 
size and are nearly as good as if fresh. Peck. 

241 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



The genus Pluteus 

Mushrooms of the genus Pluteus have pink spores. They 
resemble the white-spored Lepiotas but have no ring upon 
the stem. Neither have the Plutei a sheath or cup (volva) 
enveloping the base of the stem. They are the only 
pink-spored mushrooms whose gills are free from the stem. 
The stem can be detached rather easily from the cap. 
The gills turn pink or flesh colored as the plant grows 
older. 

Species of Pluteus 
Pluteus admirabilis. Species 109. No illustration. 

In woods on decaying wood; common in hilly districts; 
July to September; edible. 

Cap thin; convex or expanded; usually with a broad eleva- 
tion at the center (umbonate); with a network of folds or 
furrows; radiate markings at the margin (striate); yellow or 
brown; >^ to i inch broad. 

Gills near together; broad; rounded at the stem end; 
whitish or yellowish when young, flesh-colored when old. 

Stem slender; hollow; cylindrical or slightly thickened at 
the base; yellow or yellowish- white with white down at the 
base. 

Spores pink; 6.5-8 microns in diameter. 

Small young specimens sometimes have the stem solid. 
This character, with its small size, distinguishes it from 
Pluteus leoninus. Peck. 

Pluteus cervinus; fawn-colored pluteus. Plate XIV. 
Species iio. 

On wood and about stumps in woods; solitary or in sparse 
groups; edible; May to October. 
242 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



Cap bell-shaped when young, later becoming expanded; 
smooth or slightly fibrous on the surface; dingy brown, 
adorned with blackish fibrils, but specimens sometimes occur 
with the cap white, yellow, ashy, grayish-brown or blackish- 
brown; slightly sticky (viscid) in wet weather; 2 to 2>^ inches 
in diameter; flesh white; almost tasteless. 

Gills free from the stem; broad; white when young, turning 
pink or flesh-colored when mature. 

Stem cylindric or enlarged at the base; upper portion 
white, the lower portion colored like the cap; usually smooth; 
nearly soHd; brittle; easily separated from the cap; 2 to 6 
inches long. 

Spores flesh-colored; broadly elliptic; smooth; 6-8 by 5-6 
microns in diameter. 

This species is very common in New York and very vari- 
able, yet it is not abundant. Usually but one or two speci- 
mens are found at a time. It grows especially on or about 
old stumps and prostrate trunks and may be found in wet 
weather from May to October. The tendency of the gills 
to liquefy is often shown by their wetting the paper on which 
the cap has been placed for the purpose of catching the 
spores. Peck. 

Peck wrote that, in spite of its name, he had never seen it 
fawn-colored. 

The genus Psathyrella 

Plants of this genus of black-spored mushrooms have fragile, 
thin caps with striations or radial lines upon them and when 
young, the edge lies straight against the stem. The gills are 
black to sooty and are of a uniform color and not spotted as 
in mushrooms of the genus Panaeolus. The species are small 
and can seldom be gathered in quantity. Those tested have 
the mushroom flavor and are valued for the savor they im- 
part to less gifted species when cooked with them. 

243 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



Species of Psathyrella 
Psathyrella disseminata. Plate XIV, Species iii. 

On decaying wood and on the ground, especially about 
much-decayed stumps, but also on lawns, etc., where buried 
roots are decaying; crowded together in large tiifts; spring 
until late autumn, sometimes occurring in greenhouses 
throughout the year, edible. 

Cap very thin and fragile; oval, becoming bell-shaped when 
mature; marked with radiating lines or furrows at the edge; 
whitish, grayish or grayish-brown; small; }i lo }4 inch broad. 

Gills few; far apart; attached to the stem (Atkinson); 
whitish, turning when old to pinkish piirple (gray, Atkinson) 
and finally black. 

Stem slender; fragile; hollow; white; i to i>^ inches long. 

Spores black; oblong; 8 by 6 microns in diameter. 

This is a very common and widely distributed species, 
appearing from late spring until late autumn. They re- 
semble small species of Coprinus (and like it, become soft 
when old). Atkinson. 

It resembles the small sulcate-striate (with radial furrows 
or lines) Coprini but the gills do not dissolve. Peek. 

The genus Psilocybe 

Almost all of the species of this brown-spored genus are 
of small size and grow upon the ground. Their caps are 
smooth, with the edge turned in when young. When old, 
the gills become brown or purpHsh. The stem is rigid and 
tough, hollow or stuffed. The veil is not to be seen. 

Species of Psilocybe 
Psilocybe fcenisecii; mowers' mushroom; harvest mush- 
room. Plate XIV, Species 112. Fig. 31. 
Cap conic, convex or bell-shaped; surface smooth; water- 
soaked in appearance when moist (hygrophanous) ; smoky- 

244 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



brown or reddish-brown; paler when dry than when moist; 
often of several shades; >^ to i inch broad. 

Gills attached to the stem (adnate); broad; not crowded 
together; brown. 

Stem pallid or brownish; slender; cylindric; hollow; fragile; 
smooth or slightly powdered (pruinose); 2 to 3 inches long. 

Spores brown; smooth; slightly elliptic; 12-15 by 6-7 
microns in diameter. 

The harvest mushroom is small but very abundant and 
therefore may be considered as of use for food, although it 
can not be classed among the best species. It occurs every- 
where on lawns and in fields after rains throughout the 
season and should be carefully distinguished from certain 
poisonous species of Panseolus and other genera which grow 
in similar localities. Murrill. 

The haymakers' psilocybe is a small but regular, neat and 
attractive species which gets its name from its usual place of 
growth, where it is often destroyed by the mower while he 
is cutting grass. 

When fresh and moist it is dark brown or reddish-brown and 
is usually marked on the margin by darker parallel radiating 
lines. By the escape of moisture these lines disappear and 
the cap becomes paler, assuming a grayish color. The 
moisture generally escapes first from the center of the cap 
though the flesh is thicker there than on the margin. This 
gives a somewhat variegated appearance to the cap while the 
moisture is escaping, but after the evaporation is completed 
the color is nearly uniform. Sometimes the center of the 
cap has a reddish or tan-colored hue, in which case this 
color is generally retained for a time after escape of the 
moisture. 

Sometimes the mowers' mushrooms appear in great num- 
bers and in successive crops, otherwise it would be unimpor- 
tant as an edible mushroom on account of its small size. 

245 



Pig. 31. I 

Two species illustrated. j 

Species No. Description on page. 1^ 

i 

112 At right of picture. Psilocybe foenisecii. | 

Cap smoky-brown or reddish-brown; X to I ] 

inch broad. See Plate XIV . . .244 j 



64 At left of picture, Hypholoma incertum. 
Cap whitish to yellowish; i to 3 inches broad. 
See Fig. 21 . . . . . . 195 

From Prof. C. H. Kauff man's Agaricacece of Michigan. 



Fig, 31. 




X" 






GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



It has not a very high flavor but it is harmless and reHshable 
when fried in butter and may therefore be classed as an 
edible species, though some authors say that there are no 
edible species of Psilocybe. When uncooked its taste is 
strong and disagreeable. Peck. 

The genus Russula 

This white-spored genus closely resembles the milky 
mushroom genus (Lactarii) but is easily distinguished by 
the absence of a milky juice. The gills of some species when 
young are adorned with small drops of water, but no milky 
or colored juice issues from wounds as is the case in the 
milky mushrooms. The red colors which are so conspicuous 
in this species are rarely if ever seen in Lactarius. In the 
flavor ^f the flesh there is great similarity. In both genera 
many species have a mild or agreeable flavor and many others 
have an acrid, hot or peppery taste. This disagreeable flavor 
is generally destroyed in cooking so that nearly all the species 
that have been tried have been found to be edible. There 
is no veil or collar on the stem and no cup at its base. Many 
species resemble each other closely. Peck. 

Species of Russula 

Russula alutacea ; tan-colored russula. Plate XV, Species 
113. 

On ground in woods and groves; singly or in groups; July 
and August; edible. 

Cap fleshy; fragile; convex when young, growing plane or 
even depressed at the center when mature; covered with a 
sticky peel; marked with marginal striations or lines when 
old; variable in color — red, dark purple, olivaceous or green; 
flesh white; taste mild; 2 to 4 inches broad. 

Gills pale yellow, turning rusty or tan-colored when old; 
247 



PLATE XV. 

Species No. 

113 Russula alutacea 

115 Russula emetica 

116 Russula f oetens . 

117 Russula mariae . 
119 Russula virescens 
121 Stropharia semiglobata 



Description on page. 

. 247 

. 250 

. 251 

. 252 

. 254 

. 255 



PLATE XV. 






'^ 



^^^'i% ^ 




119 



-* '■W*^ 



lit 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



thick; broad; all of equal length; rather far apart; rounded 
near the stem. 

Stem stout; solid or spongy within; white or red; i to 2>^ 
inches long. 

Spores yellow (ochraceous or rusty-yellow) although the 
plant is placed in the white-spored genus; nearly globular; 
.0003 to .0004 inch broad. 




Fig. 32. — (Species No. 114). — Russula delica. 
sometimes with yellowish stains. 
Description on page 250. 



Cap white, 



A fine species considered edible but I have not tried it. 
The color of the cap is so variable that the species is not 
always readily recognized. Peck. 

The taste is mild and the plant is regarded as one of the 
very good ones for food. Atkinson. 
249 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



Russula delica; weaned russula; short-stemmed russula. 
Species 114. (Line drawing.) 

On ground in woods; singly or in groups; Maine to Alabama 
and west to Colorado; summer and autumn; edible. 

Cap firm, fleshy; broadly convex when young; flat-topped, 
with a pit at the center (umbilicate), cup or funnel-shaped 
when old. Surface even; white, sometimes with yellowish 
stains when soil has been brought up from the ground upon it. 
The cap has a tendency to become yellowish when old or 
dried. The edge of the cap is often turned downward and 
inward. Flesh firm; white; taste sHghtly peppery (acrid). 
Cap 2 to 4 inches broad. 

Gills thin; far apart; white, or faintly greenish when old; 
extending down the stem; some of them branched; rather 
narrow. 

Stem short; thick; white; smooth; i to 2 inches long. 

Spores white; nearly spherical; .0003 to .0004 inch long 
by .00024 to .0003 inch broad. 

This mushroom resembles closely the peppery-milk mush- 
room, Lactarius piperatus, but is devoid of milky juice and 
its gill-siirfaces are often tinged with glaucus-green. It is 
more compact and lasts longer than do most other species 
of russula. Murrill. 

Russula emetica; emetic russula. Plate XV, Species 115. 

On ground in woods and swamps; singly or in groups; 
Jiily to September; generally considered to be POISONOUS. 

Cap fleshy; firm when young, becoming fragile when old; 
convex when young, growing plane or depressed at the center 
when mature; marked with radiating striations or furrows on 
the margin; sticky (viscid) when moist; rosy or blood-red, 
sometimes white, or fading to white when old; easily peeled; 
flesh white except next to the peel when it is reddish; taste very 
acrid (hot, peppery); 2 to 4 inches broad. 
250 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



Gills broad; rather far apart; rounded near the stem; 
free from the stem, or nearly so; white. 

Stem solid or spongy within; white or tinged with red; 
i/^ to 3 inches long. 

Spores white; globular; .0003 to .0004 inch broad. 

This russula has a very hot peppery taste and is generally 
considered poisonous by European mycologists but is deemed 
edible and harmless by some American mycophagists. 
Thorough cooking probably destroys its harmful properties. 
I have not tried it (1906). Peck. 

This Russula has a very wide distribution, is a beautiful 
species and is very fragile. The plant is said to act as an 
emetic. Atkinson. 

It is common in woods throughout Europe and the eastern 
United States, often growing where logs have decayed. It 
is distinguished by its red color, viscid surface, readily separ- 
ating cuticle (peel) and very acrid taste. In addition to its 
acrid quality it is definitely poisonous, containing small 
quantities of choline, pilzatropine and probably muscarine. 
When taken in any quantity, it promptly acts as an emetic. 
It is mainly because of the existence of this species, that 
most specimens of Russula should be tasted before selecting 
them as food. Murrill. 

Russula foetens; fetid russula. Plate XV, Species 116. 

On ground in woods and bushy places; usually in groups; 
July to September; POISONOUS. 

Cap fleshy; fragile; nearly globular or convex when young, 
becoming plane or depressed at the center when mature; 
sticky (viscid) when moist; the very thin margin has notice- 
able radiating furrows or striations; yellowish, or dingy- 
ochraceous; flesh pallid; taste acrid; odor of bitter almonds; 
3 to 5 inches broad. 

Gills rather close together; adjacent to but not attached to 
251 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



the stem (adnexed) ; unequal in length, some of them are 
forked ; whitish and often studded with drops of moisture when 
young, becoming 3^ellowish when old; dingy where bruised; 
connected by veins on the under surface of the cap. 

Stem short; stout; pithy, or hollow in places; white or 
whitish; ij^ to 2>^ inches long. 

Spores white; nearly globular; .0003 to .0004 inch long 
and nearly or quite as broad. 

Readily recognized by its peculiar odor, acrid taste and 
widely striate margin. It is gregarious in habit (grows in 
groups) and is somewhat variable in color. Peck. 

This conspicuous species is common throughout most of 
Eiirope and the United States, sometimes occurring in 
great quantity in one spot. Its odor is similar to that of 
peach-kernels and in some specimens it is strong and un- 
pleasant, although at times it may be scarcely noticeable. 
This unpleasant odor and the very slimy character of the 
surface render the plant unattractive and one would hardly 
collect it for food. It is known to be definitely poisonous to 
a certain extent and should always be avoided by myco- 
phagists (mushroom-eaters). Murrill. 

Russula marise; Mary russula. Plate XV, Species T17. 

On ground; in woods and open places; July and August; 
edible. 

Cap nearly hemispheric when young, becoming broadly 
convex, flat, or even depressed at the center when mature; 
dry; surface powdery in appearance; dark crimson or purplish, 
sometimes darker at the center. Flesh white except close to 
the peel where it is pinkish; taste mild or slightly peppery. 
I to 3 inches broad. 

Gills white when young, becoming yellowish when old; 
close together; attached to the stem. 

Stem short; stout; solid or slightly spongy at the center; 
252 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



colored like the cap or a little paler; usually white at each 
end; rarely entirely white, i to 2 inches long. 

Spores pale yellow; globular; .0003 inch broad. 

Mary's russula is easily identified by the pruinose (powdery) 
appearance of the surface of its cap. When moistened and 
rubbed on white paper it leaves a reddish stain. A few of 
the gills are forked near the stem. Those caps that are 
purplish sometimes fade as they grow old, especially at the 
margin. Murrill. 

This russula is a beautiful and easily recognizable species, 
though somewhat variable in its colors, varying from deep 
crimson to purple. The center is sometimes more highly 
colored than the margin and in old purple specimens the 
edge is apt to fade to a whitish color and to acquire radial 
marks or furrows. The spaces between the gills are veiny. 

The taste of the flesh is mild but occasionally specimens 
are found in which it is slightly peppery. Occasionally the 
stem tapers downward or is pointed at the base. Forms are 
seen in which the stem is entirely white, but it is usually 
colored like the cap or a little paler than the cap, with white 
ends. Peck. 

Russula purpurina; purpurine russula. Plate XV, Species 
118. 

On ground in woods and open places; solitary or in groups; 
June to September; edible; taste mild. 

Cap fleshy; convex when young, flat (plane) when mature 
or depressed at center; slightly sticky when moist; edge often 
split ; skin peels ; rosy-pink, paling even to light yellow. 2 to 
4 inches broad. 

Gills crowded when young; white, turning yellowish when 
old; extending to but not attached to the stem; almost all of 
equal length; not forked. 

253 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



Stem spongy; stuffed; rosy pink, paler toward the base; 
I to 2 inches long. 

Spores white; spherical; 4 to 8 microns in diameter. 

This is a distinct and beautiful species, easily known by 
its red stem, mild taste and white spores. The gills have 
a few short ones intermingled and the edge often appears 
woolly (floccose) under a lens, and red near the margin of the 
cap. Peck. 

Russula virescens; greenish russula. Plate XV, Species 
119. 

On ground in thin woods and open places; July and August; 
edible. 

Cap fleshy; at first nearly spherical, becoming convex as 
it grows older and later nearly plane or depressed at the 
center; dry; adorned with small flaky patches or warts on the 
surface; margin smooth and without striations; green or 
grayish-green; flesh white; taste mild; 2 to 4 inches broad. 

Gills free from the stem or nearly so; narrow near the stem; 
a few of them forked and a few shorter ones sometimes inter- 
mingled with the full-length ones; white. 

Stem short; stout; firm; white; i to 2 inches long. 

Spores white; nearly globular; .00024 to .0003 inch long. 

The margin of the cap is usually even but occasionally in 
old specimens it may be partly striate. Peck. 

The plant is well known by the green color of the cap and 
by its surface being separated into numerous quite regular, 
somewhat angular patches where the green color is more 
pronounced. 

It has long been recommended for food both in Europe 
and in this country. There are several of the russulas in which 
the cap is green, but this species is readily distinguished from 
them by the greenish flaky patches on the surface of the 
cap. Russula furcata is a common species in similar situa- 
254 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



tions and has forked gills and a cap very variable in color, 
sometimes reddish, purple, purple-brown, or in one form, 
green. I know of the Russula furcata having been eaten 
in rather small quantities, and while in this case no harm 
resulted, the taste was not agreeable. Atkinson. 

Schizophyllum 
Schizophyllum commune ; Schizophyllum alneum. Spe- 
cies 1 20. Figure 33. 
On dead sticks and branches in woods; all the year; in- 
edible. 

Cap tough; leathery; dry; white or whitish; margin lobed; 
surface downy; >^ to i>2 inches broad. Shrivels when dry, 
revives when moist. 

Gills colored like the cap; their free edges split lengthwise 
(this splitting can best be seen with the aid of a magnifying 
lens); woolly. 

Stem absent ; the cap is attached at its margin or top surface. 

Spores white. 

Very common in New York State. 

The genus Stropharia 

The mushrooms belonging to the genus Stropharia possess 
purple-brown spores; the gills are attached to the stem and 
the veil forms a ring on the stem, but there is no sheath or 
cup (volva) at the base of the stem. 

Species of Stropharia 
Stropharia semiglobata; hemispheric stropharia. Plate 
XV, Species 121. 

On ground or on dung in grassy open places; scattered or 
in groups; May to Autumn; poisonous. 

Cap hemispheric, or nearly so; light yellowish; smooth; 
very sticky (viscid) when moist; fleshy; yiXoiyi inches broad. 

255 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



Gills yellow; attached to the stem (adnate); broad; purple- 
brown to blackish, darker in color when old than when young, 
clouded with the ripening spores. 

Stem light yellow; sticky (viscid) ; slender; smooth; cylindric 
or with a bulb at the base; hollow; ring or collar near the top, 
but this is sometimes incomplete; 2 to 5 inches long. 

Spores brownish piu-ple; ellipsoid; smooth; 15-18 by 9-10 
microns in diameter. 

Common and widely distributed but rarely abundant. 
Stevenson says it is considered poisonous, but later authors 
claim that it is edible, although its favorite habitat and its 
slimy character are objectionable to most persons. The 
name is exceedingly well chosen as the shape of the cap is 
as near an exact hemisphere as one is able to find among 
living things. Murrill. 

The genus Tricholoma 

The species of Tricholoma have no collar on the stem. 
In this white-spored genus the gills are attached to the stem 
and are excavated or notched on the edge at or near the 
stem. It often happens that this notch is so near the ex- 
tremity of the gill that the part attached to the stem is more 
narrow than the gill just beyond the excavation and causes 
the gills to appear as if rounded at the inner extremity. 
This is an important character though not a very conspicuous 
one. The stem is fleshy and usually short and stout. 

The species of Tricholoma are numerous and are mostly 
rather large, having a fleshy cap and a stout fleshy stem and 
white spores. The veil is usually very slight and it is not 
often noticeable except in the young plant. 

The genus is distinguished from Armillaria on one hand 
by the absence of a ring on the stem and from Clitocybe on 
the other by the notched gills and the fleshy or fibrous- 
fleshy stem. It is distinguished from the genus Collybia 
256 



Fig. 33. 




Fig. 33. — Species 120. — Schizophyllum commune. 

Photo by the author. Description on page 255. 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



(in which the gills are similar) by its more fleshy cap and 
stem and by the fact that it nearly always grows upon the 
ground. Some of the species of Tricholoma are known to 
be edible and probably many others are also. None are 
known to be absolutely poisonous. 

Species of Tricholoma 

Tricholoma album ; white tricholoma. Species 122. Fig- 
ure 34. 

On ground in woods; singly, in groups or in tufts; taste 
bitter and unpleasant; August to October; inedible and 
probably POISONOUS. 

Cap fleshy; convex; becoming plane or depressed at the 
center when old; very dry; smooth; white; sometimes yellow- 
ish about the center and rarely wholly yellowish; the margin 
ttimed downward and inward in young plants; flesh white; 
taste acrid or bitter; no decided odor; 2 to 4 inches broad. 

Gills notched near the stem (emarginate) ; close together; 
white. 

Stem solid; elastic; cylindric or tapering upward; surface 
fibrous; white; 2 to 4 inches long, 3^ to ^ inch thick. 

Spores white; elliptic; .0002 to .00025 inch long. 

This species is variable in color and size, being sometimes 
robust, sometimes slender. It departs from the character 
of others of its tribe in having a dry cap. Peck. 

Tricholoma equestre; equestrian tricholoma; canary 
mushroom. Plate XVI, Species 123. 

On ground in woods or in or near pine woods or groves; 
autunm and, in southern States, through December; edible. 
Odor not marked; taste branny. 

Cap smooth; sticky (viscid); yellowish, sometimes tinged 
at the center with reddish-brown — the yellow is more distinct 

257 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



at the margin; flesh white; size, 2 to 4 inches broad; sometimes 
irregular in shape. 

Gills beautiful pale yellow; close together; deeply notched 
at the stem end. 

Stem short; stout; solid; white or yellowish. 

Spores white; .00025 iiich to .0003 inch long; .00016 to 
.0002 inch broad. 

It is easily recognized by its sticky yellowish cap and its 
bright sulphur-colored gills. Peck. 

Tricholoma personatum; masked tricholoma; blewits. 

Plate XVI, Species 124. i 

i 
On ground in thin woods and open places; singly or in ■ 

groups, occasionally in tufts; September to frost; edible 




Fig. 34. — Species No. 122. — Tricholoma album. Cap white, 
rarely yellowish. 
Description on page 257. 
258 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 




Species No. 127. — Tricholoma transmutans. Cap tawny-red 
when young, reddish-brown when old. 
Description on page 262. 

Cap lilac or violet, occasionally pale grayish or almost 
white, becoming (when old) slightly brownish on the disc; 
thick; firm; convex or expanded; surface smooth; moist; 
margin frosted and rolled in when young, sometimes wavy or 
irregular when old; apt to be water-soaked in appearance in 
wet weather; flesh firm, white and pleasant to the taste; 2 to 
5 inches broad. 

Gills close together; rounded near the stem; free from the 
stem or nearly so; resembling the cap in color; becoming 
dull in color when old. 

Stem short and stout; color of the cap or nearly so; some- 
times bulbous at the base; downy when young, smooth when 
old; I to 3 inches long. 

Spores dingy white; ellipsoid; smooth; 7 by 10 microns in 
diameter. 

259 



PLATE XVI. 

Species No. 

123 Tricholoma equestre . 

124 Tricholoma personatum 

125 Tricholoma russula 
128 Volvaria bombycina . 



Description on page. 
. 257 
. 258 
. 261 
. 263 



I'LATE XVI. M 



.*> 




/ 





--^ 



^^fv^ 




GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



This species is of good flavor and is not easily confused with 
dangerous species. In large, mature specimens the flesh 
becomes soft and readily absorbs water in wet weather 
which lessens its value for edible piirposes. Murrill. 

In Europe it is said to have been sometimes confused with 
tricholoma nudimi, a very closely allied species, and also with 
Cortinarius violaceus, but such mistakes could result in no 
harm for both of these are edible. Peck. 

Tricholoma russula; reddish tricholoma. Plate XVI, 
Species 125. 

On ground in woods; solitary or in groups or in clusters; 
edible. 

Cap 2 to 5 inches broad; fleshy; firm; pale pink, rosy red or 
flesh color; sticky (viscid) when moist; smooth or dotted 
with small scales; edge covered with fine down in young 
plants. Flesh white; taste mild. 

Gills rounded and slightly notched near the stem; extend- 
ing slightly down the stem; white, often becoming red spotted 
when old or where wounded. 

Stem solid; thick; firm; whitish or reddish; often scaly 
at the top; i to 2 inches long. 

Spores white; .00025-. 0003 iiich long, .00016 inch broad. 

The reddish tricholoma is a pretty mushroom. Its cap as 
seen in this country is usually pale pink or rosy red though 
the European plant is sometimes pictured with a much 
brighter color and the typical form is described as pale purple. 
The reddish color is similar to that of some russulas as is 
suggested by the name. It may be distinguished from 
russulas of a similar color by the downy appearance of the 
edge of young caps, by the different texture of the flesh and 
by the different shape of the spores under the microscope. 
The cap, being sticky is often soiled by adhering particles 
of dirt or twigs or fallen leaves. 

261 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



It is an excellent fungus, meaty, easily cooked and of J 
fine flavor. Peck. I 



Tricholoma sejunctum; separating tricholoma. Plate 
XIII, Species, 126. 

On ground in mixed woods; September; edible. 

Cap fleshy; convex when young, becoming expanded when 
mature ; with a boss or knob at the center (umbonate) ; 
slightly sticky (viscid) when moist; whitish or yellowish, 
sometimes greenish yellow; streaked with brown or blackish 
fibrils; flesh white, fragile; i to 3 inches broad. 

Gills broad; rather far apart; rounded or notched near the 
stem; white. 

Stem solid; stout; often irregular- white; i to 3 inches long. 

Spores white; nearly spherical; .00025 inch broad. 

The plants of this species are not uncommon on Long 
Island, growing in sandy soil in woods of oak and pine. 
They are usually irregular in shape and the cap becomes 
fragile. They are quite variable in color, sometimes approach- 
ing a smoky-brown hue and again being nearly white. The 
typical taste is said to be bitter, but those I have tasted can 
scarcely be said to be bitter. Peck. 

Tricholoma transmutans ; changing tricholoma. Species 
127. Figure 34. 

On ground in thin woods and open places in wet weather; 
in groups or clusters; August to October; edible. 

Cap sticky (viscid) when moist and when young and 
fresh; tawny red when young, becoming reddish-brown when 
old; sometimes darker at the center; flesh white, with a 
mealy or farinaceous odor especially when cut; taste also 
farinaceous; 2 to 4 inches broad. 

Gills close together; whitish or pale yellowish becoming 
262 



GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS 



dingy or reddish-spotted when old; notched at the inner 
extremity where they are attached to the stem. 

Stem whitish, usually becoming reddish-brown toward the 
base; about as long as the diameter of the cap; often pithy 
when young and hollow when old; 2 to 4 inches long. 

Spores white; nearly globular; .0002 inch broad. 

This plant seems to prefer a light sandy or gravelly soil. 
It sometimes grows in company with Tricholoma imbricatum 
in groves of young spruce, balsam-fir and tamarack trees. 
Its edible qualities are similar to those of Tricholoma im- 
bricatum, from which it is easily known when moist, by 
reason of the viscidity (stickiness) of its cap. Peck. 

The genus Volvaria 

Volvaria, a rather rare genus, takes its name from the 
volva or sheath or cup surrounding the base of the stem, but 
which entirely envelops the plant when it is young. The 
genus is characterized by its rosy or reddish spores, the 
presence of the volva or cup and the absence of any ring on 
the stem. 

Species of Volvaria 

Volvaria bombycina; silky volvaria. Plate XVI, Species 
128. 

On rotting wood, leaf mould and richly manured ground; 
world-wide in distribution; not common; singly or rarely in 
tufts; June to October; edible. 

Cap more or less globular when young, bell-shaped and 
later convex when mature; beautiful white, covered with a 
silky down. Old specimens may appear scaly. Flesh white 
and not very thick; 2 to 8 inches broad. 

Gills free from the stem; close together; very broad at the 
middle; flesh-colored; edge sometimes ragged. 

Stem tapering upward; smooth; solid; white; with a large 
263 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 

thick cup (volva) at the base; separates easily from the cap; 
3 to 6 inches long. 

Spores rosy pink or flesh-colored; somewhat elliptical; 
8-10 by 5-6 microns in diameter. 

There is no ring on the stem but there is a volva or cup at 
the base. In this respect the genus Volvaria corresponds with 
the genus Amanitopsis, but it differs from that genus in the 
color of its spores. The volva is very large and thick and 
is usually somewhat sticky. The generic name Volvaria, 
which signifies that it has a wrapper, was given to this plant 
because of the large baglike cup. McDougall. 



264 



CHAPTER VI 
MUSHROOMS AS FOOD 



265 



t 



CHAPTER VI 

MUSHROOMS AS FOOD 

From the Forty-eighth Annual Report of the New York 
State Botanist, C. H. Peck. 

According to the authority of those who have especially 
investigated this subject, the dangerously poisonous species 
found in this country all belong to a single genus, Amanita. 
About a dozen species of this genus have been found in our 
State, and of these, two are known to be harmless and edible, 
three or four only are commonly classed as poisonous, and 
probably a single one of these is responsible for a vast majority 
of the fatal accidents resulting from "mushroom poisoning," 
There are, however, some species in other genera that are 
capable of causing nausea, vomiting and derangement of the 
digestive organs. They are unwholesome because of their 
persistently bitter, acrid or otherwise disagreeable flavor, or 
because of toughness of texture or the possession of some 
quality repungent to the stomach. They may indeed cause 
sickness and vomiting, but the irritation they induce is soon 
apparent and quickly causes the rejection from the system of 
the offending substance and then the normal condition of the 
system is soon restored. Sometimes recovery in such cases 
may be hastened by the administration of some simple emetic 
which mil assist the stomach in its efforts to expel the un- 
wholesome material. 

For two thousand years or more people have made use of 
mushrooms for food and from time to time death has resulted 
from their use, either through ignorance or carelessness. Still 
men persist in their use, and those who would use them if they 
dared frequently ask how they may distinguish mushrooms 

267 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



from toadstools, the word "toadstools" indicating to them 
poisonous or harmful species. Many attempts have been 
made to answer this question and many rules have been 
formulated by the observance of which, it has been claimed, 
all difficulty and danger would be avoided. Some of these 
rules are entirely unreliable and to others there are so many 
exceptions that they are misleading and practically worthless. 
The rules vary according to the standpoint of the one pro- 
posing them. One who considers the common mushroom 
the only edible species seeks to separate it from all others, and 
says "avoid all which have white gills and a hollow stem." 
This rule precludes the use of many mushrooms which are 
just as good as the one it sustains, and at the same time, it is 
not definite enough to limit the selection to the one intended. 
Another, thinking of the delicious lactarius which has an 
orange-colored juice, says "reject all such as have a white 
milky juice." This rule forbids the use of several species of 
lactarius that are no more harmful and scarcely less sapid 
than the delicious lactarius. Again we are told by some one 
who has in mind the poisonous amanitas, to "discard all mush- 
rooms that have a warty cap or a membranous sheath at the 
bottom of the stem." This would be a very good rule if we 
might add to it the sentence, unless you know the species to be 
edible and safe. The orange mushroom, which is deemed an 
edible species of first quality has a membranous sheath at the 
base of the stem, and the reddish amanita has a warty cap 
and yet is not only harmless but very good, so that the rule 
which would forbid the use of these species excludes more than 
is necessary. The same may be said of those directions which 
require the rejection of all mushrooms having a viscid cap or 
an acrid taste or whose flesh on being broken quickly changes 
to a blue color. And as to the old-fashioned silver spoon test 
by which it was thought that a silver spoon thrust among 
cooking mushrooms would be quickly tarnished if they were 
268 



MUSHROOMS AS FOOD 



poisonous and remain bright if they were edible, that was long 
ago proved to be most unreliable by a fatal experiment in 
which several persons lost their lives because the cook put 
confidence in it. We are, therefore, forced to conclude that 
no abstract rule is at present known by which the good can in 
every case be separated from the bad. The only safe and 
reasonable way to do is to learn to recognize each species by 
its own peculiar specific characters. It is in this way that 
we recognize the useful and esculent species among flowering 
plants, and it must be in this way that we select our edible 
mushrooms. A little more care may be necessary in one case 
than in the other, because of a closer resemblance in some cases 
between good and bad mushrooms than between good and 
bad flowering plants. The principle that is to govern in this 
matter is the same in both cases. The greater the number of 
edible species clearly recognizable by any one the greater the 
field from which he may draw his supplies. If he is acquainted 
with but one species he should limit his use of mushrooms 
to that one species, unless he can avail himself of the more ex- 
tensive knowledge of some one else or unless he is willing to 
take the risk of eating some poisonous or unwholesome species. 
In a few instances it is possible to affirm of certain groups of 
species or of certain genera, that no deleterious species are 
known in them. He who can discriminate between puff balls 
and all other fungi does not incur very much risk in eating any 
puff ball of good flavor, though he may not be able to dis- 
tinguish the species from each other. The probability is 
that he will suffer no harm by so doing, but there is not abso- 
lute safety. It is possible that some rare species exists having 
deleterious qualities which have not yet been ascertained by 
experiment, hence the lack of absolute certainty; for we know 
by experience among the amanitas that excellent edible species 
may exist in the same genus with and be closely related botani- 
cally to dangerously poisonous species. 

269 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



Many mushrooms have a* farinaceous or branny taste or 
odor, or both taste and odor are of this character. Some have 
thought that all species having this meal-like flavor are edible, 
and indeed many of them are, and no dangerously poisonous 
species is known to have it. But occasionally a species has 
this flavor combined with or followed by a bitter or otherwise 
disagreeable flavor which would at least render the mushroom 
undesirable if nor unwholesome. So that rules designed to 
aid in the selection of edible species have their exceptions and 
their weak points as well as the rules designed to protect us 
against the poisonous species. There is, therefore, no escape 
from the necessity of acquiring a knowledge of each species 
we would utilize, sufficiently clear . and exact to enable us to 
distinguish it from all others. Whatever value investigators 
and experimenters, who are willing to take some risks for the 
good of others, may find in such rules or general principles, it 
is evident that they are not sufficiently definite, exact and 
reliable for general use. To any one willing to avail himself 
of the experience of others and to apply himself sufficiently to 
learn to recognize the species they have found to be edible, 
nature opens a field productive of much palatable and nutri- 
tious food, which is too often left to decay where it grew. 

But some care is necessary in the selection of specimens of 
species known to be edible. The plants selected should be in 
good condition. Well grown, sound, fresh specimens only 
should be chosen. Old, partly decayed, water-soaked, worm- 
eaten or withered plants should be discarded. Even young 
and sound ones should not be kept too long before they are 
cooked. They are in some cases very perishable and deteri- 
orate rapidly. If more have been collected at one time than 
are needed for a single meal it will generally be better to cook 
them all at once and keep them in a refrigerator in the cooked 
rather than in the raw state. As a rule it is better to cook 
them the same day they are collected. In the case of the 
270 



MUSHROOMS AS FOOD 



inky fungi this will be absolutely necessary, for they will not 
keep in good condition from one day till the next. Some of 
the species literally grow up in a night and perish in a day. 
These also should be cooked with great promptness, for they 
are only desirable while young and before the gills have begun 
to change to a black inky liquid. Puff balls should only be 
used while the inner flesh is pure and white. When the yel- 
lowish stains of maturity begin to appear they are no longer 
fit for food. No one would think of eating them after the 
flesh has changed to the cottony dusty mass of maturity. 

IMany insects are fond of mushrooms. Both they and their 
larvse feed on them and the latter often live in them. A mush- 
room may appear fair externally, but if it is cut or broken its 
flesh may be seen to be full of holes or galleries excavated by 
larvae, and perhaps a colony of the larvae themselves may be 
found within. It is needless to say that such specimens are 
unfit for food. Strange as it may seem, a colony of larvae in 
the lower part of the stem of a mushroom will sometimes 
affect disastrously the flavor of the cap or upper part which 
they have not yet invaded. This fact may explain in part 
the varying opinions of different writers concerning the flavor 
and edible qualities of certain mushrooms. Slight differ- 
ences in flavor may also be attributed to differences in the 
character of the soil in which they grow, the amount of mois- 
ture in the atmosphere, degree of temperature, age and rapid- 
ity of growth and exposure to the sun and wind. Old and 
slowly-developed individuals are likely to be less tender than 
young and rapidly growing ones. Differences in individual 
tastes will also account in part for differences of opinion on 
this point. There are also peculiarities of constitution which 
have given origin to the saying, "What is one man's meat is 
another man's poison." One person can eat no egg, nor 
anything into which egg enters as an ingredient, without 
suffering or sickness. Another is made sick by eating straw- 

271 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



berries, nevertheless egg and strawberries are not classed as 
poisonous. Still it is possible that some fungi as harmless as 
egg and strawberries may have been charged with poisonous 
qualities from some such accidental circumstance or individual 
peculiarity. 

In collecting mushrooms for the table it is well, in all cases 
in which the stems are too tough for food, to cut the caps from 
the stems. In this way much dirt and useless material will 
be left where it belongs, and it will be possible in many cases 
to ascertain if the caps have been attacked by insects. Most 
often the larvas mine their way up from the groimd through 
the central part of the stem to the cap, and by cutting the cap 
from the stem their holes or galleries are exposed to view. In 
but few species are the stems sufficiently tender to be used. 
Some have recommended that the caps be placed in the collect- 
ing basket in an inverted position, for if placed in their natural 
position with gills downward they will drop their spores and 
their flavor will be impaired. It is very doubtful if this partial 
loss of spores affects the flavor in any appreciable degree. If 
more than one species should be taken during the same excur- 
sion it would be well to keep them separate from each other, 
by wrapping each species in a piece of paper by itself. This 
precaution is not necessary if the species are so distinct in 
color, shape or size that they can readily be separated from 
each other at home, or if they are so similar in flavor and tex- 
ture that they may be treated alike in cooking without any 
detriment to their esculent qualities. 

Should a doubt arise at any time, concerning the identity 
of a supposed edible species, do not use such a mushroom until 
all doubt on this point has been banished. If it is thought 
desirable to compare the plant with the published figure and 
descriptions for the purpose of identifying the species, select 
for this purpose sound specimens which represent both the 
young and the mature forms, that all the specific characters 
272 



MUSHROOMS AS FOOD 



may be shown. Take the specimens up carefully from their 
place of growth, removing all the loose dirt from the base 
of the stem. Wrap the specimens carefully in soft paper or 
large green leaves that they may be kept as fresh as possible 
till the time of examination. On reaching home, lose no tim.e 
in making the examination for in some species there are 
evanescent characters which will not be available after a few 
hours' delay. In one family of fungi the color of the spores is 
an important character and a great aid in the identification of 
species. The color of the spores in many species is the same 
as or similar to the color of the mature gills, but there are so 
many exceptions that explicit directions for ascertaining their 
color will be given in another place. 

In the preparation of mushrooms for cooking, the utmost 
cleanliness should be observed. Some have the upper sur- 
face of the cap covered with a sticky, viscid or glutinous sub- 
stance when fresh. This often causes bits of dirt, leaves or 
sticks to adhere to the cap tenaciously. In such cases it is 
generally best to remove this rubbish by peeling the caps. In 
other cases the dirt may be wiped away with a damp cloth or 
towel, or washed off and then the surface dried with a towel. 
It is also well to peel those having a thick tough skin. 

The proper method of cooking will depend somewhat on 
the kind of mushroom, the tastes of those that are to eat them 
and the conveniences at hand. Many of them can be cooked 
in the same manner as a beefsteak. It is customary to cook 
them in a very simple manner, either by frying in butter or 
broiling gently with a little butter added and seasoning to 
taste. They may also be stewed or baked. The skillful cook 
will devise many ways of cooking them and various recipes 
will be found in cook books and in works on edible fungi. Too 
much cooking may spoil a mushroom as well as an oyster or 
a tender beefsteak. My efforts to make a tough mushroom 
tender by steaming have been successful, but the experiments 

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FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



have not been numerous nor long continued. Species too 
tough to be eaten with pleasure or digested with comfort have 
sometimes been utilized by making of them a kind of soup or 
broth which could be eaten with relish and comfort. Some- 
times mushrooms are used in small quantity to give flavor to 
meats and other dishes. Those of inferior flavor are some- 
times made more agreeable by cooking with them a few speci- 
mens of some more highly flavored species. The same species 
may vary in flavor according to the method of cooking and 
the kind of seasoning used as well as by reason of the circum- 
stances previously mentioned. 

Mushrooms may be dried and kept for future use. The 
best method of drying them is to place them in a current of 
warm air. Dry them as quickly as possible without burning 
them, and keep the drying process in operation till completed. 
A common fruit evaporator would doubtless be a good instru- 
ment for drying them. The drying of thick and moist ones 
would be facilitated by cutting them in slices. Like other 
vegetables, they are largely composed of water, which is from 
eighty to ninety per cent of the whole. In consequence of 
this they shrink greatly in drying and lose much weight. The 
presence of so much nitrogenous material induces rapid decay 
and loathsome decomposition in them. It should also teach 
moderation in their use as food. A hearty meal on mush- 
rooms alone would be about as reasonable as a dinner on 
nothing but beefsteak, and might be expected to be followed 
by similar ill consequences. Gormandizing is not commend- 
able under any circumstances nor with any kind of food. But 
especially should it be avoided in mushroom eating, for the 
human system demands but small quantities of the nitro- 
genous elements which enter into its composition. An exces- 
sive amount is sure to be hurtful, but eaten in moderate 
quantity it is easily digestible, acceptable and beneficial. The 
digestive organs of the writer are not strong by nature and 
274 



MUSHROOMS AS FOOD 



are easily affected by unfavorable treatment or indigestible 
substances, yet he has never experienced any discomfort from 
eating mushrooms. He has eaten them frequently, partaken 
of many different species, and experimented with a consider- 
able number of species not classified as edible. The explana- 
tion is simple. They have always been eaten in moderate 
quantity. In my opinion, cases of sickness and digestive 
derangement that have been attributed to poisonous proper- 
ties of mushrooms are sometimes really due to the excessive 
use of species that otherwise are perfectly harmless. 

In some countries where edible fungi are commonly and 
extensively employed as food, even species which we regard as 
unwholesome are utilized. They are soaked in vinegar or in 
salt water for the purpose of destroying or rendering inert 
their noxious properties. They are then carefully washed 
and thrown into hot water for a short time, after which they 
are treated in the usual way. This practice is not recom- 
mended. Aside from the danger arising from the inefficiency 
of the treatment in some cases, it is very improbable that any 
mushrooms so treated would still retain a very agreeable 
flavor. There is, besides, no need of running any risks with 
doubtful or suspected species, for the number of those known 
to be good and safe is sufficiently great to satisfy all reasonable 
demands. Possibly the time may yet come when the noxious 
properties of poisonous mushrooms may be utilized with ad- 
vantage in medicine, but such species should not be used as 
food. He who is too ignorant to recognize with confidence 
the species known to be good, would better abstain from 
such food entirely unless he can avail himself of the knowledge 
of some one who can recognize them. 

A few edible fungi appear early in the season, but with us 
July, August and September are the months when the great- 
est variety is to be found. The fairy-ring mushroom and the 
glistening coprinus sometimes appear in June, and successive 

275 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



crops follow from time to time whenever the weather is favor- 
able. 

A few of the species continue in September. The latter 
part of August and the first half of September will bring the 
common mushroom and the horse mushroom, the weather 
conditions being right. Excessively dry weather and prevail- 
ing cold weather are unfavorable to mushroom growth. Heat 
and moisture combined are favorable. It sometimes hap- 
pens when the fields and open country are too dry for mush- 
room growth, a scanty supply may be found in deep woods 
and shady swamps. It would be useless to look in such places 
for the common mushroom and the fairy-ring mushroom, 
for they do not grow in woods; but the delicious lactarius, 
the Involute paxillus and the Chantarelle may be found there. 
The oyster pleurotus and the sapid pleurotus may be found 
in woods or clearings at any time between June and October, 
provided there is suflEicient rain to induce growth, but the 
honey-colored armillaria, the imbricated tricholoma, the 
masked tricholoma and the elm pleurotus will rarely be found 
before the last week in August or the first of September. 
These hints may be something of a guide to the inexperienced 
mushroom hunter. The dates and habitat given under the 
description of each species will furnish more full and definite 
information on this subject. 



276 



CHAPTER VII 
MUSHROOMS AS FOOD 



277 



\ 



CHAPTER VII 

MUSHROOMS AS FOOD 
GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR PREPARING AND COOKING THEM 

A generation ago edible mushrooms were believed to possess 
high nutritive value on account of the nitrogen contained in 
them. Authorities in dietetics considered them to be of service 
as substitutes for meat. Later investigations have seemed to 
show that, in the cases of several of the commonly eaten 
species, a part of the nitrogenous element is present in a form 
that is not available for alimentary use in the human body. 
Starch and other substances useful as food are present in the 
fleshy fungi in such small quantities as to add but little to their 
nutritive value. Their vitamin content is apparently high 
however, and this fact, together with what fuel value they do 
possess and that of the materials in company with which they 
are usually cooked, give ample reason for their employment as 
food. Moreover, mushrooms have great value as condiments 
or food accessories and "their value as such is beyond the 
computation of the chemist or physiologist. They are among 
the most appetizing of table delicacies and they add greatly 
to the palatability of many foods when cooked with them." 
It is not always possible by laboratory analysis to duplicate 
conditions that exist in natural digestion and assimilation of 
foods. Statements as to the food value of mushrooms, com- 
monly met with in books on dietetics are based upon incom- 
plete investigations. There is need of careful research in this 
direction. Lastly, their savory taste and the age-long custom 
of using mushrooms as food, insure a continued demand for 
them as articles of human diet. 

279 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



Preparation of Mushrooms for Eating 

The characters of the various kinds of mushrooms determine 
what is the best way in which each of them should be cooked. 
Tough species require long, slow boiling, while fragile, tender 
sorts are quickly cooked. Some kinds are strong in taste and 
others mild. The preference of the eater is quite as important 
a guide in cooking mushrooms as are their qualities. One 
person prefers fried dishes, another wishes his mushrooms 
stewed, another would select them prepared in some other 
way. 

The following recipes are compiled from the writings of 
many authorities and are supplemented by some based on my 
own experience of twenty years. 

Some General Recipes 

In the following recipes one may use Agaricus campestris, 
silvicola, arvensis, or Pleurotus ostreatus, or sapidus, or 
Goprinus comatus, or any kindred mushrooms. The Agaricus 
campestris, however, are to be preferred. 

To Serve Mushrooms with a Boiled Leg of Mutton 

Wash and dry the mushrooms. Dip each one into flour, 
being careful not to get too much of it on the gill side. In a 
saucepan have ready a little hot butter or olive oil; drop the 
mushrooms into this, with their skin sides down; dust them 
lightly with salt and pepper. After they have browned on 
one side, turn them quickly and brown the gills; add a half- 
pint of soup stock and let all simmer for fifteen minutes. 
Take them up with a skimmer and put them on the platter 
around the mutton. Boil the sauce down until it is of the 
proper consistency; pour it over the meat and serve at once. 
Mushrooms prepared in this manner are also good to serve 
with roast beef. 

280 



MUSHROOMS AS FOOD 



Mushroom Sauce for Game 

Wash well one pound of fresh mushrooms; dry and chop 
them very fine. Put them into a saucepan with one and a 
half tablespoonfuls of butter; cover and cook slowly for eight 
minutes. Then add a half -cup of freshly rubbed bread- 
crumbs, a half teaspoonful of salt, a salt-spoonful of white 
pepper; cover and cook again for five minutes; stir and add a 
tablespoonful of chopped parsley, and, if you like, two table- 
spoonfuls of sherry; turn out into a sauceboat. 

Mushrooms with Fricassee of Chicken 

Wash and dry the mushrooms and sprinkle them with salt 
and pepper. Put some oil or butter into a shallow pan; when 
hot, throw in the mushrooms, skin side down; cover the pan 
and put it in the oven for fifteen minutes; baste them once 
during the baking. Lift them carefully and put them on a 
heated dish. Add to the fat in the pan two tablespoonfuls 
of finely chopped mushrooms and a half-cup of soup stock. 
This is boiled for five minutes to make a separate sauce. Have 
ready pieces of bread toasted and dish the mushrooms on to 
these. Put on top a good-sized piece of carefully boiled mar- 
row; season the sauce with salt and pour it (strained) over the 
mushroom-covered bread. Use these pieces of toast with the 
mushrooms on them as a garnish around the platter of chicken, 
or you may simply dish and serve them separately. 

Oysters and Mushrooms 

Wash and remove the stems from a half pound of fresh 
mushrooms; chop them finely; put them into a saucepan with 
a tablespoonful of butter, a half-teaspoonful of salt and a 
little pepper; cover closely and cook over a slow fire for ten 
minutes. Have ready twenty-five oysters and put them, per- 
fectly dry, into this mushroom mixture. Cook over a bright 

281 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



fire and boil, stirring carefully, for about five minutes. Serve 
on squares of toasted bread. 

Tomatoes StufiEed with Mushrooms 

Wash the tomatoes, cut a slice from the stem end and re- 
move carefully the seeds and core. To each tomato allow 
three good sized mushrooms; wash, dry and chop them fine, 
and stuff them into the tomatoes. Put half a saltspoon of 
salt and a dusting of pepper on the top of each. Put a cupful 
of breadcrumbs into a bowl, season them with salt and pepper 
and pour upon it a tablespoonful of melted butter. Heap the 
breadcrumbs, thus treated, over the top of each tomato, 
forming a pyramid, and packing it in with the mushrooms. 
Stand the tomatoes in a baking pan and bake in a moderate 
oven for one hour. Serve at once, lifting the tomatoes care- 
fully to prevent their breaking. 

Another way. The mushrooms may be chopped fine, put 
into a saucepan with a tablespoonful of butter and cooked for 
five minutes before they are put into the tomatoes ; then the 
breadcrumbs are packed over the top and the whole is baked 
for twenty minutes. Each of the above recipes gives a dis- 
tinct flavor. 

Beefsteak Smothered with Mushrooms 

Wash a dozen good-sized mushrooms, either Lactariior 
Agarici, and put them into a baking pan. Sprinkle salt over 
them, add a tablespoonful of butter and bake in a moderately 
hot oven for three-quarters of an hour. Broil the steak until 
it is nearly done, then put it into the pan with the mushrooms, 
allowing some of them to remain under the steak and cover it 
with the remaining portion. Return the whole dish to the 
oven for ten minutes; dish and serve at once. 
282 



MUSHROOMS AS FOOD 



Mushroom Pie 



Cut fresh mushrooms into small pieces ; cover the bottom of 
a pie dish with small, thin fragments of sliced bacon and place 
the mushrooms upon them adding salt and pepper. Over 
these place a layer of mashed potatoes following again with 
other similar layers of bacon, mushrooms and potatoes, until 
the dish is filled, the last layer of potato serving as a crust. 
Bake in the oven for half an hour and brown before a brisk 
fire. 

Fried Mushrooms on Toast 

Place a pint of mushrooms in a pan with a piece of butter 
about the size of an egg ; sprinkle in a teaspoonf ul of salt and 
half as much pepper. When the butter is nearly absorbed by 
the cooking thicken with fresh butter and flour and pour the 
whole upon hot toast, which should be served upon hot 
plates. 

Mushrooms with Bacon 

Fry slices of bacon in the usual manner and when nearly 
done add a dozen or so of mushrooms and fry them slowly 
until they are cooked. In this process they absorb the bacon 
fat and, when seasoned, form an appetizing breakfast relish. 

Mushrooms En Caisse 

Cut the mushrooms into small pieces; put them into cases 
of buttered paper, each with a bit of butter, parsley and green 
onions, and enough salt and pepper to season. Cook them 
on a gridiron over a gentle fire and serve in the cases. The 
cases may be made of pastry if desired. 

Pickled Mushrooms 

Use mushrooms in the round or button stage, before they 
expand; immerse them in cold water for a few moments and 

283 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



drain them. Remove the stems. Boil vinegar, adding to 
each quart of it two ounces of salt, half a grated nutmeg, a 
dram of mace and an ounce of white pepper corns. Put the 
mushrooms into the vinegar and cook for ten minutes, then 
pour the whole into small jars, taking care that the spices are 
equally divided between them. Let them stand for a day and 
seal. 

Mushroom Catsup 

Place large mushrooms, layer by layer, in a deep pan; 
sprinkle each layer with a little salt. A day later stir well so 
as to mash them and extract their juice. On the third day 
strain off the liquor and boil for ten minutes. To every pint 
of liquor, add half an ounce of black pepper, a quarter-oimce 
of bruised ginger root, a blade of mace, a clove or two and a 
teaspoonful of mustard seed. Boil again for half an hour, add 
two or three bay leaves and set aside until cold. Pass the 
liquor through a strainer and bottle it. Cork well and dip 
the ends of the bottles into melted rosin or beeswax or paraf- 
fine. 

Care should be taken that the spices are not so abundant as 
to overpower the true flavor of the mushrooms. 



284 



CHAPTER VIII ; 

SPECIAL RECIPES FOR PREPARING VARIOUS j 

SPECIES OF EDIBLE GILLED MUSHROOMS ! 
FOR THE TABLE 



285 



CHAPTER VIII 

METHODS OF PREPARING THE VARIOUS SPECIES OF EDIBLE 
GILLED MUSHROOMS FOR BATING 

Agaricus 

The wild or uncultivated Agaricus campestris or field mush- 
room which is gathered in the open fields, will cook in less 
time than it takes to cook the cultivated variety (Agaricus 
campestris hortensis) which is to be had in the markets. The 
stems, cut off close to the gills may be put aside and used as 
flavoring for sauces or soups. Wash the mushrooms care- 
fully, keeping the gills down; throw them into a colander until 
the water has drained off from them. 

Stewed Field Mushrooms 

Allow two ounces of butter to each pound of mushrooms. 
Put the butter into a saucepan and when melted, but not 
brown, throw in the mushrooms, either whole or cut into 
slices; sprinkle over them a teaspoonful of salt; cover the 
saucepan in order to keep in the flavor and cook slowly for 
twenty minutes or until they are tender. Moisten a round- 
ing tablespoonful of flour with a little cold milk; when mixed 
perfectly smooth add a little white pepper; stir carefully 
until boiling. Then take off of the stove and serve at once. 
Less flour is required when the mushrooms are to be served as 
a sauce over chicken, steak or other made dishes. 

Broiled Mushrooms 

Select those mushrooms that are spread open, keeping the 
unopened ones for other styles of cooking. Cut off the stems 

287 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



close to the tops. Baste well with melted butter and sprinkle 
lightly with salt and pepper. Heat a broiler very hot, lay 
the caps upon it with the gills uppermost and broil over a 
clear fire, turning the broiler over frequently. As soon as the 
mushrooms are tender, which will be in about five minutes, 
open the broiler, remove the caps with care and place them on 
slices of previously prepared, well-buttered toast. Pour over 
the whole a sauce made of drawn butter, or hot water thickened 
with flour to the consistency of cream. 

Mushrooms Creamed on Toast 

Cut off the stems and wash and dry the caps. Put them 
into a pan and pour over them a little melted butter, dust 
them with salt and pepper and cook them in a hot oven for 
twenty minutes. While they are cooking, toast sufficient 
bread to hold them; put it on a hot platter and, as soon as the 
mushrooms are done, cover the bread with hot milk, being 
careful not to use too much, as it would make the bread pasty 
and too soft. Dish the mushrooms on the toast, putting each 
of them with the skin side uppermost; pour over them the 
juice from the pan and serve at once. 

Mushrooms in the Chafing Dish 

Wash and dry the mushrooms, and cut them into 
slices. Allow two ounces of butter for each pound of mush- 
rooms. Put the butter into the chafing dish and when it is 
hot, add the mushrooms and sprinkle over them a teaspoon- 
ful of salt. Cook slowly for five minutes, stirring the mush- 
rooms frequently; then add one gill of milk. Cover the dish, 
cook for three minutes longer; add the beaten yolks of two 
eggs and a dash of pepper and serve at once. The yolk of 
eggs is the most convenient form of thickening when mush- 
rooms are cooked in the chafing dish, but they must not be 
cooked too hard. 

288 



SPECIAL RECIPES 



Mushrooms Under the Glass Cover or "Bell" with Cream 

With a small biscuit cutter, cut round pieces from slices of 
bread. They should be about two and a half inches in 
diameter and about half an inch thick. Cut the stems of 
fresh mushrooms close to the caps ; wash them and allow them 
to drain. Put a tablespoonful of butter into a saucepan. 
When hot, throw in the mushrooms, gills uppermost and 
cook them for a minute or two and sprinkle them with salt 
and pepper. Arrange the round pieces of bread, which have 
been slightly toasted, in the bottom of the bell-dish. Heap 
the mushrooms on these; put a little piece of butter in the 
center of each; cover over the bell, which maybe either of 
glass, china or silver, stand them in a baking pan and then 
cook in an oven for twenty minutes. While these are cooking, 
mix a tablespoonful of butter and one of flour in a saucepan; 
add a half pint of milk (or a gill of milk and a gill of chicken 
stock) and stir imtil the mixture boils; then add a teaspoonful 
of salt and a dash of pepper. When the mushrooms have 
baked for twenty minutes, remove them, lift the cover, pour a 
little of the sauce over them, cover them again and send them 
at once to the table. 

Cream of Mushroom Soup 

Wash and chop finely a half pound of mushrooms and put 
them into a saucepan with a tablespoonful of butter and, 
if you have it, a cup of chicken stock; if not, use a cupful of 
water. Cover the vessel and cook slowly for thirty minutes. 
Next, put a quart of milk into a double boiler and add to it a 
tablespoonful of butter and two tablespoonfuls of flour rubbed 
together until smooth. Stir all and cook imtil thick; then 
add the mushrooms and season to taste with salt and pepper. 

Agaricus arvensis may be cooked like its close ally the 
common mushroom. English epicures shun it but the French 
people prefer it to that species as a dish. 

289 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



Amanita ccBsarea is edible but the reader is advised not to 
eat it on account of the danger of confusing other kinds that 
are poisonous, with it. 

Amanitopsis vaginata, though edible, is very likely to be 
confused with poisonous Amanitas as the resemblance is close. 
Dr. Murrill's dictum should be followed in this case. He 
says, "edible, but eat not!" 

Armillaria mellea. Authorities differ as to the edible 
qualities of this species. Peck considered it "a perfectly 
safe species, but not of the best quality." I have eaten it 
but do not care for it. Young and small specimens should 
be selected for the table. It is best when fried after having 
been boiled for five minutes in salted water. 

Kate Sargeant gives the following directions for stewing 
the honey-colored mushroom: Soak the caps for half an hour 
in water to which vinegar has been added in the proportion of 
one tablespoon to the quart. Roll a tablespoonful of butter 
in some flour and put it in a saucepan; add the mushrooms 
and sufficient water to cover them; stew until the caps 
are tender. Season with salt and pepper and serve while 
hot. V 

Cantharellus cibarius; the chantarelle. Light and soft 
specimens should be discarded as they become leathery when 
cooked; crisp and heavy plants should be chosen for the table. 
All those that have been partly eaten by slugs or worms should 
also be rejected. If, when the chantarelles are brought into 
the kitchen, they are scalded in milk and are left to soak in it 
until the next day, they will be very tender. 

Cut the chantarelles across into slices and remove the stems; 
put the caps into a covered saucepan with a little fresh butter 
and sweat them; then stew in gravy or fricassee until they 
are tender, at the lowest possible cooking temperature; a 
great heat destroys their flavor. 
290 



SPECIAL RECIPES 



Another recipe. Put the prepared chantarelles into boiling 
water for a few minutes; then stew them in fresh butter to 
which has been added a little olive oil, chopped tarragon, 
pepper, salt and lemon peel. Allow them to simmer gently 
over a slow fire for twenty minutes, moisten in them from time 
to time with a little beef gravy or cream. When about to 
be served, thicken the stew with yolk of egg. 

A more simple dish may be made by frying the chantarelles 
in butter or olive oil and laying them on toasted bread, adding 
pepper and salt as required or they may be minced and 
stewed alone or with minced meat. 

N.B. — The chantarelle may be prepared like the common 
mushroom if care is taken not to cook it too hot. If boiled 
too violently it will become as tough as leather. 

Cantharellus aurantiacus; orange chantarelle; false chanta- 
relle. 

Contradictory statements exist as to the edibility of this 
mushroom. I have eaten it with enjoyment and with no 
ill effects. Since it is under suspicion, the reader is advised 
to let it alone as far as eating is concerned. 

Cantharellus cinnabarinus is a desirable edible species 
which, although of small size, often occurs in abundance. 
It is good either stewed or fried. The stems should be re- 
moved before cooking. 

Cantharellus dichotomus. As an edible mushroom this 
species is not as tender as some others nor is it as highly 
flavored but it is satisfactory and agreeable. 

Cantharellus fioccosus, although often growing to a rather 
large size, is not tough but, when cut into small pieces is 
easily cooked in any of the usual methods. Its quality is good. 

Cantharellus minor, although not considered as equal in 
quality to the best mushrooms, may be cooked with other 

291 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



species and will help to eke out what would be a scanty mess 
without it. 

Clitocyhe dealbata. The best mode of cooking this species 
is stewing. Care must be taken to select young plants as 
old ones become tough and leathery when heated. Young 
specimens are quickly cooked, are of a firmer texture than 
that of the popular common mushroom. This species closely 
resembles a poisonous Clitocybe (sudorifica) and hence 
should not be eaten unless positively identified. 

Clitocybe muUiceps, according to Mclllvaine, should be 
well cooked. The addition of a little lemon juice or sherry 
conceals a slight raw taste that is sometimes present. 

Clitocyhe odor a is said to be exceedingly spicy. The flavor 
is pleasant but rather strong. A few specimens mixed with 
other species of like texture but with less flavor make a tasty 
dish. Mcllvaine. 

Clitopilus ahortivus is edible in either its undeveloped 
(abortive) condition or in the perfect form but is of inferior 
quality. I prefer it when fried, with onion. 

Clitopilus prunulus is highly praised as food by some 
writers. Dr. Badham recommended it stewed or fricasseed, 
with a sauce made as follows: 

Bruise in a mortar some almonds with a little water; add 
salt and pepper and some lemon juice; rub the whole together 
until it is of the consistency of table mustard. 

Collybia acervata is said to be tender, delicate and of fine 
flavor. It should not be cooked too long. 

Collybia confiuens is of good substance and flavor. 

Collybia platyphylla. Although edible, its taste is not es- 
pecially attractive. It is a good plan to mix it with other 
more savory species when the collected mess happens to be 

292 



SPECUL RECIPES 



scanty. Then it absorbs the taste of its companions in the 
dish and suppHes bulk. 

Collyhia radicata is one of the best tasting of mushrooms. 
The caps should be broiled or fried. 

CoUybia velutipes. A valuable species because of its ex- 
tended season and good eating quality. 

Coprinus atramentarius 

Coprinus comatus 

Coprinus micaceus 

As these species are not dissimilar in texture, recipes for 
cooking them are alike. Being soft and juicy, they must be 
handled with care and are better when cooked with dry 
heat. 

To bake: Remove the stems, wash and drain in a colander; 
arrange the caps in a baking pan; dot here and there with 
small bits of butter, allowing a tablespoonful to each half- 
pound of mushrooms. Dust them with salt and pepper, put 
them into a very hot oven and bake them for thirty minutes. 
Serve in a heated vegetable dish, pouring over them the 
sauce from the pan. 

To cook Coprinus. (Mrs. Rorer.) Wash and drain in a 
colander. Spread out in a long bakingr pan; dust lightly 
with salt and pepper and put on them a few bits of butter. 
Cover with another pan and bake in a moderate oven for 
twenty-five minutes. Add four tablespoonfuls of cream, 
bring to the boiling point and dish on toast. 

Coprinus micaceus; another method. Wash and dry the 
mushrooms; put them into a deep saucepan with a table- 
spoonful of butter to each quart. Hold them over a quick 
fire, keeping the saucepan in motion but not stirring with a 
spoon for fear of breaking the caps. As soon as they have 
reached the boiling point, push them to the back part of the 

293 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



stove for five minutes and then serve on toast. They will 
be dark in color but are very palatable and are, perhaps, the 
most easily digested of all fleshy fungi. 

Cortinarius. The caps of most of the species of this genus 
are edible. While they may not be of the very best, young 
specimens are of good texture and they stew and dry well. 
No poisonous variety is known to exist among them but 
several are strong and uninviting. 

Cortinarius cinnamomeus. The German people are said 
to be fond of this species and usually stew it in butter and 
serve it with a sauce upon vegetables. Mcllvaine. 

Cortinarius collinitus. The caps should be peeled if 
necessary, before cooking, in order to remove any dirt that 
may adhere. 

Cortinarius violaceus 

Cortinarius alboviolaceus 

These are perfectly wholesome and may be stewed in 
gravy or prepared like sweetbreads with a white sauce. They 
are, perhaps, the best-tasting of the Cortinarii. 

Flammula flavida is good in texture and substance, accord- 
ing to Mcllvaine. Its slightly bitter taste when raw is 
removed by cooking. The stems are too tough to be 
eaten. 

Hygrophorus cantharellus requires long cooking. Its pecu- 
liar taste is acceptable to some persons. 

Hygrophorus miniatus, in Dr. Peck's opionion, is scarcely 
surpassed by any mushroom in tenderness and agreeableness 
of flavor. 

Hygrophorus pratensis requires careful cooking as it is 
liable to be condemned as tough unless treated slowly, but 
it is a great favorite, says M. C. Cooke. 
294 



SPECIAL RECIPES 



Hypholoma appendiculatum is one of the best tasting of 
mushrooms when stewed or fried. The tough stems must be 
removed. 

Hypholoma incertum is a well-flavored and tender-capped 
species, quite similar in quality to H. appendiculatum. 

Hypholoma suhlateritium 

Hypholoma perplexum. These two species are practically 
identical. The occasional bitter taste encountered in them 
is believed to be due to the larvae, with which they are apt to be 
infested. Great care is necessary in selecting uncontaminated 
specimens. Considerable cooking is required for these species. 
Their abundance late in the autumn makes them an im- 
portant species to the mycophagist. 

To stew them, put a tablespoonful of vinegar into a quart 
of water and soak the caps in this mixture for twenty minutes. 
Take them out, add water sufficient to cover them and stew 
for half an hour or until they are tender, in a covered vessel, 
adding butter, pepper and salt to taste. A small quantity 
of onion is thought by some to improve their flavor and a 
thickening of cornstarch and milk added just before serving 
is an improvement. 

Laccaria laccata, while edible, is not especially well-flavored. 

Laccaria ochropurpurea is said to lose its toughness when 
cooked and to make a good dish. 

Lactarii. In Mcllvaine's opinion the juice of the milky 
mushrooms and their flavor are best retained when they 
are baked. They become hard and granular if cooked at 
too high a temperature. The edible species are good eating 
when carefully cooked in any manner. 

Lactarius camphoratus has a strong taste that may be im- 
proved by the addition to it of some specimens of other milder 
species. 

295 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GULED MUSHROOMS 



Lactarius deliciosus. The flesh of this mushroom is firm, 
juicy and nutritious. It may be cooked in the following 
maimer: Take sound, young specimens and cut them to a 
uniform size; place them in a pie dish, with salt, pepper and 
a little butter ; tie a paper over the dish and bake gently for 
three-quarters of an hour. Serve them in the same hot dish. 

This mushroom requires to be stewed for about forty 
minutes. It may be fried in considerably less time. 

Lentinus cochleatus must be eaten when yoimg as old 
specimens are tough and dry. It has a peculiar spicy taste 
that is agreeable to some palates. Soup may be made of it. 
Mcllvaine recommends that the caps be grated before they 
are cooked. 

Lentinus lepideus. A tough species, but when the stem 
has been removed, the caps finely sliced and fried in butter, 
or stewed for thirty minutes, it is good eating. Yoimg 
specimens are equal to the oyster mushroom. A good soup 
can be made from older specimens. 

Lepiota americana. In flavor this species is not much 
inferior to the parasol mushroom (Lepiota procera) but when 
cooked in milk it imparts its own reddish color to the material 
in which it is cooked. Nevertheless it is a fine addition to 
the list of edible species. Peck. 

Lepiota procera; parasol mushroom. 

This is one of the best of mushrooms for preservation by 
drying. In this condition it is easily preserved and will 
add much flavor to an ordinary meat sauce. 

The parasol mushroom, having thin flesh and broad gills, 
must be cooked quickly. Remove the stems, take the caps 
in your hand, gill side down, and with a soft rag wash the 
tops, removing the brown scales. Put them into a baking 
pan or on a broiler. Lightly baste them with melted butter 
as they lie with their gills uppermost and dust them with 
296 



SPECIAL RECIPES 



salt and pepper. Place the serving dish to heat. Put the 
mushrooms over a quick fire, skin sides down for just a 
moment, then turn them and broil them for an instant on the 
gill sides and serve them at once on the heated plate. 

When cooked in this way Lepiota procera is one of the 
most delicious of all mushrooms but if cooked in moist heat 
it becomes tough and unpalatable. If baked too long, it 
becomes dry and leather>^ It must be cooked quickly and 
eaten at once. All the edible lepiota may be cooked in this 
manner. 

Lepiota procera omelette. Mince some young, fresh caps; 
season them with pepper and salt, add butter and set them 
in the oven while you beat well the whites and yolks of 
six eggs. Then put two ounces of butter into the frying 
pan and heat it until it begins to turn brown. Having 
again beaten the eggs, add three tablespoonfuls of the 
mushrooms and a little milk. Pour all into the boiling 
butter; stir in one direction and fry on one side for only 
five or six minutes; drain the fat off, fold the omelette on 
itself and serve quickty on a hot, covered dish. Kate Sargeant. 

Marasmius arcades has long been esteemed as edible but 
owing to its small size and somewhat tough substance it 
has not gained the general popularity that it deserves. The 
following recorded opinions of it may be of interest : 

It is very good and may be eaten in an omelette. 

It has a very agreeable taste and odor and gives a delicious 
flavor to sauces but it needs long cooking. 

It is deHcious when broiled with butter. 

It may be pickled or dried for future use. 

Its tendency to toughness may be overcome by proper 
cooking. 

An esteemed correspondent gives the following method of 
cooking this mushroom: 

297 



A 
FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 

Throw the clean caps into sufficient boiUng water to make 
a nice gravy when done and cook them for half an hour. 
Then rub together a small quantity of butter, flour and water 
with salt and pepper and add them to the mushrooms, stirring 
for a moment. Pour on hot toast and serve on a hot dish. 

Another method is to put the caps in water with butter 
and seasoning and let them simmer slowly for ten or fifteen 
minutes. Then thicken with flour and serve alone or pour 
over cooked meat. 

As a condiment, chop the caps into small pieces and add 
them to cooking hash, stews, broths or meats just before the 
time of serving them. Peck. 

Marasmius oreades pickles. Collect fresh young caps of 
the fairy-ring mushroom and cut the stems quite close and 
throw the caps into a basin of salted water. Drain them and 
lay them on a soft cloth to dry. For each quart of mushrooms 
take nearly a quart of pale white wine vinegar and add to 
it a heaping teaspoonful of salt, half an ounce of whole 
peppers, an ounce of bruised ginger, two large blades of mace 
and one-quarter of a teaspoonful of cayenne pepper tied in 
a piece of muslin. When this liquid is boiHng, throw in the 
mushrooms and boil them in it for from six to nine minutes. 
When the caps have become tolerably tender put them into 
warm, wide-mouthed bottles, dividing the spices equally 
among them. When cold cork well and stand in a dry place 
where they will not freeze. 

Mycena galericulata, although a small mushroom, often is 
found in quantity sufficient to make a meal. The flavor of 
the caps, when stewed, is good. 

Omphalia campanella is so small that it is not often eaten, 
although large clusters of it are often found. Its flavor is fair. 

Panus strigosus, when mature, is of woody texture but 
when specimens are young, they may be used for making soup. 
298 



SPECIAL RECIPES 



Pholiota adiposa is not classed as edible by European 
authorities but Dr. Peck found its flavor agreeable and its 
substance digestible and harmless. It is well to peel the 
caps before cooking them. 

Pleurotus ostreatus 

Pleurotus sapidus 

Pleurotus ulmarius 

To make soup, clean the caps, cut them into small pieces 
and stew them until they are tender, seasoning with butter, 
salt and pepper; then strain. Mushrooms that are too 
tough to be eaten may be used in this way. The clear broth 
is delicious; but if one prefers, milk or still better, cream may 
be added. 

Pleurotus sauce. A desirable addition to any meat stew 
may be made by chopping up young, tender caps of the 
oyster mushroom and stewing them in the meat stock with 
salt and pepper. This is poured over the veal or other meat. 

Stewed, Wash and dry the Pleuroti and cut them into 
strips crosswise with the gills, trimming off all the tough 
portion near the stems. Put the mushrooms into a saucepan, 
adding a tablespoonful of butter to each pint of them. Sprinklp 
lightly with salt, cover and cook slowly for twenty minutes. 
Moisten a tablespoonful of flour in a half -cup of milk and 
when this is smooth, add another half-cup; pour this into 
the mushroom mixture; add a little grated nutmeg, a few 
drops of onion juice and a dash of pepper as it comes to the 
boiling point. Remove the pan from the fire and serve as 
you would if the dish were of stewed oysters. 

Mock oysters. Cut the caps into pieces of the size and shape 
of oysters. Dip each into the beaten yolk of an egg to which 
a tablespoonful of water has been added ; roll them in cracker 
crumbs or corn-meal; season with salt and pepper and fry in 

299 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



smoking hot fat, butter or olive oil, as oysters are treated, 
and serve at once. 

Oyster mushrooms with cheese — au gratin. Cut the washed 
caps into medium-sized pieces. Stew slowly, rather dry, 
for fifteen minutes. Pour off the liquor and save it for use 
later. Place the caps in a baking dish (or in individual 
dishes or clam-shells) in a layer, buttering and seasoning it. 
Sprinkle this layer with breadcrumbs and grated cheese. 
On this layer place another similar one and repeat until the 
dish is filled and has a layer of grated cheese on its top. 
Pour the saved liquor over the whole. Place the dish in a 
slow oven and bake until the top is well browned. 

This manner of cooking is a favorite. Any mushroom 
may be cooked in this manner. Mcllvaine. 

Pluteus cervinus. The caps only, are tender. The stems 
are much tougher than the caps and hence they should not 
be cooked together. The caps may be cooked as described 
under "General recipes." The stems, when fried in butter or 
broiled, are very good eating. Mcllvaine. 

Psathyrella disseminata. These fragile little plants cook 
away to almost nothing but they are of fine flavor and im- 
part this flavor to any medium with which they are cooked. 
Mcllvaine. 

Russula. The edible members of this genus may all be 
cooked after the same recipes. After removing the stems and 
washing and draining them, they may be broiled or baked. 
They are also attractive when chopped into small pieces and 
served with mayonnaise dressing or stuffed into peeled 
tomatoes or with the same dressing on lettuce leaves. 

While russulas apparently do not contain less water than 
do other species, their flesh is rather dense and they do not 
so quickly melt upon being exposed to heat. 

The green russula (Russula virescens) may be cut into 
300 



SPECIAL RECIPES 



thin slices, mixed with the leaves of water cress, covered with 
French dressing and served on slices of tomato. It is well 
to peel mushrooms when they are to be served raw. 

Russula fried with bacon. Fry crisp four thin slices of 
bacon and lay them on a platter, then fry in the bacon fat a 
quart of russulas, carefully selected; salt and pepper them 
and fry them until they are tender. Serve on the platter 
with bacon. 

Russula delica. Peck remarks that this species is excellent 
when fried in butter. 

Tricholoma equestre. This species is excellent when fried; 
also when creamed and served as patties. When cooked as 
a soup with water, pepper and salt, it resembles turkey broth. 
After straining — the soup should be clear — a small amount 
of butter should be added. 

Tricholoma personatum 

To bake. Cleanse and peel the caps, cut ofif the stems and 
lay the mushrooms, gills up, upon a baking dish; prepare a 
stuffing of chicken, veal or beef, fill the caps with this, cover 
the dish and bake for twenty minutes. 

To broil. Clean and remove the stems and broil over a 
clear fire on both sides for a few minutes; arrange the caps 
on a dish over freshly made toast; sprinkle with salt and 
pepper, put a small piece of butter on each and set in the 
oven to melt the butter. Then serve quickly. Bacon 
cooked over the mushrooms in place of butter is thought by 
some to improve their flavor. 

To stew. Wash the caps and cut them into small pieces. 

Stew them in water for thirty minutes. Pour off the water 

and add milk, slightly thickened with flour, seasoning with 

pepper, salt and a little chopped parsley. Heat and serve. 

301 



CHAPTER IX 
GLOSSARY 



303 



CHAPTER IX 

GLOSSARY 

Abortive, imperfect or wanting. 

Acrid, sharp or biting to the tongue. 

Adnate, growing into or fast to ; said of gills that are attached 

broadly to the stem. 
Adnexed, said of gills which are adjacent to the stem but not 

broadly attached to it. 
Agaric, a mushroom having a fleshy cap, on the under side of 

which are gills. 
Alutaceous, of the color of tanned leather; brownish-yellow. 
Annulus, the collar or ring on the stem of a mushroom formed 

by the separation of the veil from the margin of the cap. 
Appendiculate, hanging in small fragments. 
Appressed, applied closely to the surface; said of the margin 

of a cap which lies closely against the stem. 
Arcuate, arched; shaped like a bow. 
Argillaceous, see Clay-colored. 
Astringent, puckery to the taste. 
Aurantiaceous, orange-colored. 
Basidia, mother cells on the spore-bearing surface of agarics 

and certain other fungi, from which the spores are cast off. 
Bay, a rich dark-reddish chestnut color; badious. 
Buff, a light, dull, brownish yellow, like the color of chamois 

skin. 
Bulbous, said of the stem of a mushroom when it has a bulb- 
like swelling at the base. 
Caespitose, growing in tufts or clumps. 
Campanulate, bell-shaped. 

305 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



Cap, pileus; the expanded, umbrella-like top portion of a com- 
mon gilled mushroom. 

Cartilaginous, firm and tough; gristly. 

Cell, (a) a small cavity; (b) a mass of protoplasm, generally 
microscopic in size; the fundamental form element of 
every organized body. 

Centimeter, a measure of length; the one-hundredth part of a 
meter, equal to 0.3937 of an inch. 

Cinnabarine, cinnabar-colored; bright red; vermilion. 

Clay-color, a dull, light brownish-yellow, intermediate be- 
tween yellow ochre and Isabelle-color; argillaceous. 

Close, packed closely, side by side; said of gills when they are 
close together; crowded. 

Comate, hairy. 

Context, texture; substance. 

Convex, elevated and regularly rounded; forming the segment 
of a sphere or nearly so. 

Coriaceous, of leathery texture. 

Corrugated, puckered; wrinkled. 

Cortina, a web-like veil; the partial veil under the gills of mush- 
rooms of the genus Cortinarius. 

Cryptogam, a plant having an obscure method of fertilization; 
in botany, in the Linnean system of classification, the 
great series and final class, including all plants having no 
stamens and pistils, and therefore no proper flowers. 

Cyathiform, cup-shaped. 

Decurrent, said of gills which extend down the stem of a 
mushroom. 

Deliquescent, said of mushrooms that liquefy or melt when old. 

Dichotomous, dividing in two; said of gills that are regularly 
forked. 

Dimidiate, said of gills that extend half way from the edge 
of the cap to the stem, also of caps that are more or 
less semicircular in outline. 
306 



GLOSSARY 

Disc, the central portion of the upper stirface of a mush- 
room's cap. 
Distant, said of gills that are far apart. 
Eccentric, away from the center; between the center and 

the edge of a cap. 
Elliptical, parallel-sided and rounded at the ends. 
Emarginate, notched at the end; said of gills whose lower 

edge is scooped out at a point near the inner end. 
Epidermis, the peel or skin. 

Farinaceous, mealy; bran-like; said of taste or odor. 
Fibrous, provided with fibers. 
Flesh, the inner substance of the cap or body of a 

fungus. 
Flesh-color, a color like that of healthy human skin. 
Floccose, downy; woolly; flaky. 
Free, said of gills that do not reach the stem. 
Fulvous, a yellowish-brown tint like that of tanned leather; 

tawny. 
Fungus, a cryptogamous plant characterized by absence of 
chlorophyl and getting its nourishment from organic 
matter. 
Gelatinous, jelly-like. 
Genus, a group of species that possess characteristics in 

common. 
Gills, the plates attached to the lower surface of an agaric, 

and on which the spores are formed. 
Glabrous, smooth; without down or hairs. 
Glaucous, dull-green, passing to grayish-blue. 
Globular, globose, nearly spherical. 
Gregarious, in groups (not tufts). 
Habitat, natural abode. 
Hyaline, transparent; clear, like glass. 

Hygrophanous, of a water-soaked appearance when moist 
but opaque when dry. 

307 



I' 

FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 1 



Hymenium, the spore-bearing surface covering each side of 
the gills of a mushroom. 

Hymenomycetes, mushrooms that have an exposed spore 
bearing surface and in which the spores are borne on 
basidia. 

Hymenophore, the under surface of the cap, to which the 
gills are attached, 

Hypha (ph hyphae), a cylindrical thread of the myceHum. 
Branched threads from the spawn from which mush- 
rooms grow. 

Infundibuliform, funnel-shaped. 

Isabelline, a light buff-brown color. 

Involute, rolled inwards. 

Laccate, appearing as if lacquered or varnished. 

Lamella, a gill. 

Leucosporae, a group of mushrooms having white spores. 

Lignatile, growing on wood. 

Lobed, having rounded divisions. 

Micron, a unit of measure; the one- thousandth part of a 
millimeter; .000039 inch. To convert microns to inches, 
multiply them by (approximately) .00004. 

Mold, Mould, (i) fine, soft earth rich in organic matter; (2) a 
kind of minute fungus. 

Mushroom, a cryptogamic plant of the class fungi; applied 
in a general sense to almost any of the larger, conspicuous 
fungi, such as toadstools, puff balls, hydnei, etc., but more 
particularly to the agaricoid fungi and especially to the 
edible forms. 

Mycelium, the spawn of fungi; rootlike threads resulting 
from the germination of spores, from the masses of which 
the mushroom arises. 

Mycology, the science of fungi. 

Mycophagist, one who eats fungi. 

Ochraceous, color of ochre, a natural earth used as pigment, 
308 



GLOSSARY 

commonly understood to mean the color of iron- 
rust. 
Olivaceous, a greenish-brown color like that of olives. 
Pallid, pale, deficient in color. 
Papilionaceous, resembling the butterfly; mottled, as the 

gills of some species of Panasolus that are mottled with 

black spots. 
Parasite, a plant growing on or in another living body from 

which it derives nourishment. 
Partial, said of a veil that surroimds the stem of a mushroom 

and extends to the edge of the cap. 
Peronate, said of the stem of a mushroom when it has a 

boot-like or stocking-like covering. 
Personate, masked or disguised. 
Pileus, cap; the head of a mushroom. 
PorphyrcsporaB, a group of mushrooms that have purple or 

purplish-brown spores. 
Pruinate, covered with a frost-like bloom. 
Radiate, Radiating, arranged like the spokes of a wheel. 
Resupinate, said of a mushroom that is attached to the wood 

on which it grows by its back and without a stem. 
Revolute, turned upwards or backwards; the opposite of 

involute. 
Rhodosporae, a group of mushrooms that have pink or rosy 

spores. 
Rimose, cracked. 
Ring, a part of the partial veil adhering to the stem of a 

mushroom like a collar; annulus. 
Rubescent, blushing; reddish. 
Rufus, a brownish-red color. 
Sapid, savory; agreeable to the taste. 
Separable, capable of being detached. 
Sessile, seated; attached by the base and without^ a 

stem. 

309 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



Sinuate, waved; said of the edge of gills that are notched 
near the stem. 

Species, an individual or individuals that differ from all other 
members of a genus and that propagate others of their 
own kind. 

Spore, a minute cell that is the reproductive body of crypto- 
gams. 

Squamose, scaly; scale-like. 

Stipe, stem of a mushroom. 

Striate, having parallel or radiating lines or furrows. 

Sub, as a prefix signifies slightly, almost or somewhat. 

Tawny, color of tanned leather. 

Toadstool, any umbrella-shaped fungus. The name is usually 
restricted to gilled fungi but is also applied to almost any 
fungus that is large enough to attract general attention 
such as boleti, hydnei, morels, etc. Popvilarly, the 
name toadstool is applied only to those fungi that are 
supposed to be poisonous, as distinguished from mush- 
rooms or edible forms. As a matter of fact all true 
toadstools are really mushrooms, and may or may 
not be poisonous. 

Tomentose, covered with dense wool or hair. 

Umbilicate, provided with a pit or central depression; having 
a navel-like depression at the center. 

Umbo, the central elevation or knob of some mush- 
rooms. 

Umbonate, with a central knob or boss-like elevation. 

Universal veil, the outer wrapper or membrane (volva) 
which envelops a mushroom in its youngest stage. 

Vaginate, contained within a sheath or volva. 

Veil, a covering or membrane enveloping a fungus, occurring 
chiefly among the agarics. See partial veil and universal 
veil. 

Veins, swollen wrinkles on the sides of gills and on the under 
310 



GLOSSARY 

surface of a cap of a mushroom between the gills, often 

connected and forming cross partitions. 
Ventricosej bellied; swollen in the middle. 
Villose, downy; with soft hairs. 
Viscid, moist and sticky; glutinous. 
Volva, the universal veil (q.v.); sometimes applied to that 

portion remaining in the form of warts on the surface of 

the cap (as in Amanita muscaria) or in the form of a 

cap at the base of the stem. 
Wart, a scale on the surface of the cap of a mushroom, the 

remains of the volva. 
Zones, circular zones of color on the surface of the cap of a 

mushroom, as seen in Lactarius deliciosus. 



3" 



CHAPTER X 

NAMES OF GILLED MUSHROOMS IN THE KEY; 

TRANSLATIONS OF THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES. 

THEIR DERIVATION AND PRONUNCIATION 



313 



CHAPTER X 

NAMES OF GILLED MUSHROOMS IN THE KEY WITH TRANSLATIONS 

OF THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES, THEIR DERIVATION 

AND PRONUNCIATION 



Botanical Name 


Translation 


Common Name 


AgSr'icus 


Gr. 


Fungus 




arvSn'sis 


Lat. 


Of cultivated 

ground 
Of the field 


Horse mushroom 


camp2s'tris 


Lat. 


Field mushroom; 








common mushroom 


silvKc/ola 


Lat. 


An inhabitant of 
woods 


Forest mushroom 


AmSn'ita 


Gr. 


A fungus 




caesa'rea 


Lat. 


Belonging to Caesar; 
royal mushroom 


Orange amanita 


muscSr'ia 


Lat. 


Relating to flies 


Fly amanita 


phalloi'des 


Gr. 


Phallus-like 


Poison amanita; de- 
stroying angel 


rubSs'cens 


Lat. 


Becoming red 


Blushing amanita; 
reddish amanita 


Amanitop'sis 


Gr. 


Resembling an 
amanita 




vagina'ta 


Lat. 


Sheathed or en- 
cased. (Refer- 
ring to sheath at 
base of stem) 


Sheathed amanitopsis 


volva'ta 


Lat. 


Sheathed or en- 
cased. (Refer- 
ring to sheath at 
base of stem) 




Annilla'ria 


Lat. 


A bracelet. (Refer- 
ring to ring about 
stem) 




mgl'lea 


Lat. 


Honey-like. (Color) 


Honey-colored mush^ 
room 


Cantharel'lus 


Lat. 


A small goblet. 




auranti'acus 


Lat. 


Orange-like. (Color) 


Orange chantarelle 
false chantarelle 


ciba'rius 


Lat. 


Edible 


Chantarelle 


cinnabari'nus 


Lat. 


Vermilion 


Cinnabar chantarelle 


cris'pus 


Lat. 


Curly; crinkled 




dichot'omus 


Gr. 


Divided into two 

parts 
Flaky; floccose 




floccos'us 


Lat. 


Floccose chantarelle 


infundibuliform'is 


Lat. 


Funnel-shaped 


Funnel-shaped chan- 
tarelle 


tni'nor 


Lat. 


Lesser; smaller 


Small chantarelle 



315 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GELLED MUSHROOMS 



NAMES OF GILLED MUSHROOMS IN THE KEY— (Continued) i 



Botanical Name 


Translation 


Common Name 


Clito'cybe 


Gr. 


Sloping head 




albid'ula 


Lat. 


Whitish 


Whitish clitocybe 


albis'sima 


Lat. 


Very white; whitest 




can'dicans 


Lat. 


Whitish 


Shining white clito- 
cybe 
Club-stem clitocybe 


clav'ipes 


Lat. 


Club-footed 


cyath'ifor'mis 


Lat. 


Cup-shaped 


Cup-shaped clitocybe 


deal'bata 


Lat. 


White-washed 


Ivory clitocybe 


illu'dens 


Lat. 


Deceiving 


Deceiving clitocybe; 
Jack-o-lantem 


infundibuliform'is 


Lat. 


Funnel-shaped 


Funnel-shaped clito- 
cybe 
Many-cap clitocybe 


mul'ticeps 


Lat. 


Many-headed 


odora 


Lat. 


Fragrant 


Sweet clitocybe 


Clitop'itus 


Gr. 


Sloping hat 




aborti'vus 


Lat. 


Abortive; unde- 
veloped 
Plum-like 


Abortive clitocybe 


pru'nulus 


Lat. 


Plum clitocybe 


CoUyb'ia 


Gr. 


A small coin 




acerva'ta 


Lat. 


Crowded 


Tufted collybia 


cSnfluens 


Lat. 


Flocking together 




dryoph'ila 


Gr. 


Oak-loving 


Oak-loving collybia 


platyphyl'la 


Gr. 


Broad-leafed 


Broad-gilled collybia 


radica'ta 


Lat. 


Rooted 


Rooted collybia 


velu'tipes 


Lat. 


Velvet foot 


Velvet-stemmed col- 
lybia 


Copri'nus 


Gr. 


Filthy (Liddell & 
Scott; Gr. Lex- 
icon). Probably 
refers to the inky 
deliquescence 
rather than to 
the place of 
growth as com- 
monly stated. 




atramenta'rius 


Lat. 


Inky 


Inky cap 


coma'tus 


Lat. 


Hairy; shaggy 


Shaggy mane mush- 
room 


mica'ceus 


Lat. 


Granular 


Glistening inky cap 


Cortina'rius 


Lat. 


Curtain. (Refers 
to veil between 
edge of cap and 
stem) 




alboviolaceus 


Lat. 


White-violet 




cinnamome'us 


Lat. 


Cinnamon (colored) 


Cinnamon cortinarius 


collini'tus 


Lat. 


Besmeared 


Smeared cortinarius 


viola'ceus 


Lat. 


Violet (colored) 


Violet cortinarius 


corruga'tus 


Lat. 


Wrinkled-corru- 


Corrugated cortinar- 






gated 


ius 


Crepido'tus 


Lat. 


A slipper or sandal 




applana'tus 
fulvotomento'sus 


Lat. 


Flattened 


Flattened crepidotus 


Lat. 


Tawny-haired 


Tawny crepidotus 


malSch'ius 


Lat. 


Soft 


Soft-skinned crepido- 
tus 


versu'tus 


Lat. 


Inverted 



316 



NAMES: DERIVATION, PRONUNCUTION, ETC. 



NAMES OF GILLED MUSHROOMS IN THE KEY— (^Continued) 



Botanical Name 



Entolo'ma 

commu'ne 
grayan'um 
stric'tius 



Flam'mula 
flav'ida 
polychro'a 

Gal'era _ 
hypno'rum 



ten'era 

Hebelo'ma 
praecox 

Hygroph'orus 
cantharel'lus 

chloroph'anus 

con'icus 

minia'tus 

praten'sis 



punic'eus 



Hypholo'ma 

appendicula'tum 



incer'tum 

perplex'um 
sublaterft'ium 

Inoc'ybe 
abun'dans 

Laccar'ia 
lacca'ta 
ochropurpure'i 



Translation 



Or. Enclosed within a 
fringe 

Lat, Common 

Lat. Of Gray (a botanist) 

Lat. Close; drawn to- 
gether 



Lat. A little flame 

Lat. Yellow 

Or. Many colored 

Lat. A peaked cap 

Lat. Relating to hyp- 

num, a kind of 

moss; referring to 

its place of growth 

Lat. Tender 



Gr. Hebe, Youth and 

Loma, a fringe 
Lat. Early 

Gr. Water carrier 
Lat. A small vase or 

goblet 
Gr. Greenish-yellow 
Lat. Conical 
Lat. Red lead 

Lat. Of the meadow 



Lat. Purple red (a mis- 
nomer) 

Gr. A web-like fringe 

Lat. A small appendage. 
(Refers to frag- 
ments of veil 
hanging from 
edge of cap) 

Lat. Uncertain. (Refers 
to difficulty in 
identification) 

Lat. Perplexing 

Lat. Nearly brick-like 
(in color) 

Gr. Sinewy, fibrous and 

head (cap) 
Lat. Abundant 

Lat. Lacquered 
Lat. Lacquer; waxy 
Gr. Ochre and purple 



Common Name 



Common entoloma 
Gray's entoloma 
Strict entoloma 



Hypnum galera 



Slender galera; 
Brownie cap 



Chantarelle hygro- 

phorus 
Sulphur hygrophorus 
Conic hygrophorus 
Vermilion hygropho- 
rus 
Meadow or pasture 
hygrophorus ; buff- 
cap 
Red hygrophorus 



Uncertain hypholoma 



Perplexing hypho- 
loma 
Brick-top 



Abundant inocybe 



Waxy mushroom 
Purplish-ochre lacca- 
ria 



317 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



NAMES OF GILLED MUSHROOMS IN THE KEY— (Continued) 



Botanical Name 



Lacta'rius 
camphora'tus 



corrug'is 

delicio'sus 

lignyo'tus 

pipera'tus 
subdul'cis 
theiog'alus 

vellSr'eus 
vo'lemus 



Lenti'nus 
cochlea'tus 
lepltd'eus 



Lepio'ta 
america'na 

morgani 

naucinoi'des 

pro'cera 



Mar&s'mius 
campanula'tus 
ore'ades 

J 

perona'tus 

plSn'cus 
ro'tula 



MycSn'a 
galericula'ta 

pu'ra 



Nauco'ria 
semiorbicula'ris 



OmphSl'ia 
campanSl'la 
fib'ula 



Translation 



Lat. Milky 

Lat. Camphoraceous 
(odor). A mis- 
nomer 

Corrugated 

Delicious 

Smokv; sooty 
(color) 

Peppery 

Slightly sweet 

Sulphur-colored 
milk 
Lat. Fleecy 

(Doubtful. May re- 
fer to voluminous 
quantity of milk) 



Lat. 
Lat. 
Gr. 

Lat. 
Lat. 
Gr. 



Lat. 



Lat. Tough; pliant; flex- 
ible 

Gr. Resembling a snail 
shell 

Lat. Scaly 



Lat. Scaly 
Lat. American 

Lat. Morgan's 

No translation applicable 

Lat. Tall 



Gr. Wasting; withering; 

shriveling 
Lat. Resembling a small 

bell 
Gr. Mountain nymphs 



Lat. Booted (refers to 
hairy base of stem) 
Lat. Flat; plane 
Lat. A little wheel 



Gr. A mushroom 

Lat. Resembling a small 

peaked cap 
Lat. Pure 



Lat. A nutshell 
Lat. A half sphere 



Gr. Navel; umbilicus 
Lat. A small bell 
Lat. A clasp or buckle 



Common Name 



Camphory lactarius 



Wrinkled lactarius 
Delicious lactarius 
Sooty lactarius 

Peppery lactarius 
Sweetish lactarius 
Sulphur-milk lactar- 
ius 
Fleecy lactarius 
Orange-brown lac- 
tarius 



Shell lentinus 
Scaly lentinus 



American or blushing 

lepiota 
Morgan's lepiot? 
Smooth lepiota 
Tall lepiota; parasol 

lepiota 



Fairy-ring mushroom ; 
Scotch bonnets; 
champignon 



Comm-on naucoria 



318 



NAMES: DERIVATION, PRONUNCUTION, ETC. 



NAMES OF GILLED MUSHROOMS IN THE KEY— (Continued) 



Botanical Name 



Panas'olus 

campanula'tus 
papiliona'ceus 
retiru'gis 

Pan'us 

strigd'sus 
styp'ticus 

Paxil'lus 
involu'tus 



Pholio'ta 
adipo'sa 
capera'ta 

dis'color 

prse'cox 
squarr5'sa 

Pleuro'tus 



ostrea'tus 

sap'idus 

ulmar'ius 



Plu'teus 

admirab'ilis 
cervi'iius 



Psathyrel'la 
dissemina'ta 
grac'ilis 

Psil5'cybe 
fcenisec'ii 



Rus'sula 
aluta'cea 



emet'ica 
foe'tens 



Translation 



Gr. Variegated ; spark- 
ling 

Lat. Resembling a small 
bell 

Lat. Resembling a but- 
terfly 

Lat. A network of 
wrinkles 

Lat. A name given by 
Pliny to a tree- 
growing fungus 

Lat. Covered with stiff 
hairs 

Lat. Astringent ; puckery 

Lat. A small stake 
Lat. Rolled inward 

(Refers to margin 

of cap) 

Gr. Scaly 
Lat. Fat. 
Lat. Wrinkled 

Lat. Of different color; 

changing color 
Lat. Early 
Lat. Scurfy; scaly 

Lat. Side. (Refers to 
the marginal in- 
sertion of stem) 
Lat. Oyster-like 
Lat. Sapid; savory 
Lat. Relating to the elm. 

Lat. A shed. (Refers to 
shape of cap) 

Lat. Admirable 

Lat. A deer. (Refers to 
color. A mis- 
nomer) 

Gr. Fragile 

Lat. Scattered or spread 

Lat. Slender 

Gr. A naked head 
Lat. Of the mower 

Lat. Date-brown 

Lat. Red 

Lat. Like tanned leather 

(color) 
Lat. Emetic; nauseating 
Lat. Fetid; evil-smelling 



Common Name 



Wrinkled panaeolus 

Astringent panus 
Involute paxillus 



Fat pholiota 
Wrinkled pholiota ; 

the gypsy 
Fading pholiota 

Early pholiota 
Scaly pholiota 



Oyster mushroom 
Sapid mushroom 
Elm pleurotus 



Fawn-colored pluteus 



Mower's or harvest 

mushroom 
Bay psilocybe 



Tan colored russula 

Emetic russula 
Fetid russula 



FIELD BOOK OF COMMON GILLED MUSHROOMS 



NAMES OF GILLED MUSHROOMS IN THE KEY— (Continued) 



Riis'sula (cont.) 
mariae 
purpuri'na 
vires'cens 



Schizophyl'lum 
commu'ne 

Strophar'ia 

setnigloba'ta 

Tricholo'ma 
S.l'bum 
eques'tre 
persona'tum 

rus'sula 

sejun'ctum 

transmu'tans 

Volvar'ia 

bombyci^na 



Lat. Mary's 
Lat. Purple 

Lat. Becoming green- 
greenish 

Gr. Split leaf (or gill) 
Lat. Common 

Lat. A chaplet or wreath 
(Refers to ring on 
stem) 

Lat. Hemisphere 

Gr. A hairy fringe 

Lat. White 

Lat. A horseman 

Lat. Masked 

Lat. Red 
Lat. Separated 
Lat. Changing 

Lat. With a sheath or 

wrapper 
Lat. Silky 



Mary's russula 
Purpurine russula 
Greenish russula 



Hemispheric stroph- 
aria 

White tricholoma 
Equestriantricholoma 
Masked tricholoma ; 

blewits 
Red tricholoma 

Changing tricholoma 



320 



GENERAL INDEX 



Abortive clitopilus, 155 
Absent stem, Key, 109 
Abundant inocybe, 198 
Adnate gills, 16; Key, 97 
Adnexed gills, 16; Key, 97 
Agaric, flattened, 175 

royal, 128 
"N^^ Agarics, 9, 12 

Agriculture, Dept. 27 

Air, 9 

Amanita, deadly, 131 

orange, 128 

poison, 131 
American lepiota, 215 
Angel, destroying, 131 
Annulus, 13, 17 
Antiphallinic serum, 133 
Appendiculate, 193, 195 
Astringent panus, 231 
Atropin, 131 
Attachment of stem, 17 
August, 3 
Aurantiacus, 139 

Bacteria, 9 

Basidium, 17 

Basket, 3 

Bell shape, 15 

Bell shaped marasmius, 219 

omphalia, 226 

panaeolus, 228 
Belladonna, 131 
Black spore, Key, 115 
Blewits, 258 
Blunt gills, 16 
Blushing amanita, 133 

lepiota, 215 

venenarius, 133 
Botanical terms defined, 305- 

311 

Botanists, 27 



Boxes, folding, 3 

paper, 3 
Branched gills. Key, 103-105 
Brittle gills, Key, 88-89 
Broad-gilled collybia, 162 
Broad gills, 16; Key, 98- 

100 
Brown (purplish) spore Key, 

115, 121 
Brownie cap, 184 
Bulbous stem. Key, 11 3-1 14 
Bunts, 9 
Button-stage, 11, 12 

Caesar's mushroom, 128 
Camphory lactarius, 14, 201 
Canary mushroom, 257 
Cap, II, 12, 14, 15, 16, 24 

character, 24; Key, 52-63 

color, 24; Key, 63-70 

form, 24; Key, 71-85 

size, 24; Key, 86-88 
Capitals, State, 27 
Carelessness, 267 
Cells, pavement, 17 

sterile, 17 
Champignon, 219 
Changing tricholoma, 263 
Chantarelle, 140, 146 

cinnabar, 141 

false, 139, 141 

floccose, 144 

funnel-form, 145 

hygrophorus, 187 

orange, 139, 141 

small, 145 
Character of cap, 24; Key, 
52-63 

of gills, 25; Key, 88-91 

of stem; Key, 1 09-1 11 
Characteristics, 3, 14, 24-26 



321 



GENERAL INDEX 



Characters, 3, 24-26 

of mushroom; Key, 31-32 

of parts, 15, 25-26 
chlorophyl, 3 
Cinnamon cortinarius, 171, 

172 
Club fungi, 9 

stemmed chtocybe, 148 
Collar, 13; Key, 114 
Collecting, 3, 270-273 
Color, 15, 17, 26 

deceptive, 15, 23 

Key to caps, 63-70 

Key to gills, 91-96 

spore Key, 11 5-1 17 

variability, 15, 23 
Color, spore, 10, 23, 24; Key, 

115-117 
Common entoloma, 180 

ink cap, 165 

mushroom, 14, 125, 132, 
216 

naucoria, 225 
Conic hygrophorus, 188 
7 Conical, 15 
'I'^ontagious diseases, 9 
■<i:fonvex, 15, 16 
Cooking recipes, general, 280- 
284 

special, 285-301 
Coral fungi, 9 
Corrugated cortinarius, 172 

lactarius, 203 
Cracked inocybe, 198 
Cross fertilization, 10 
Cultivated mushroom, 10 
Cultivators, 11 
Cup, 12; Key, 114 

shaped clitocybe, 150 
Cut, vertical, 11, 24 

Damage, 9 
Deadly amanita, 131 
Deaths, 133 
Decay, 274 

Deceiving clitocybe, 151 
Decomposition, 274 
Decurrent gills, 16; Key, loi 
Definition of gilled mush- 
rooms, 9 
terms, 305-311 



Delicious lactarius, 205 
Deliquescent gills. Key, 89 
Depression at center, 15 
Derivation of names, 3 1 5-320 
Destroying angel, 131 
Difficulties, 27 
Digestibihty, 267, 275 
Directions for using Key, 

21-27 
Disappearance of veil, 12 
Distant gills, Key, 1 01-103 
Downy stem, Kev, 1 09-1 11 
Dry, 15 
Drymg, 274 

Early phoHota, 236 
Earth, 9 

Eccentric stem. Key, 1 1 1 
Edge, 15 

Edible mushrooms, 125 
selection of, 268-270 
Egg, 10 

Elm pleurotus, 240 
Emarginate gills, 16; Key, 

107-108 
Embryo, 11 
Emetic russula, 250 
Emetics, 267 

Equestrian tricholoma, 257 
Error in identifying, 27 
Evasive agaric, 179 
Examining, 3 
Examining mushrooms, 272- 

273 
Examples of use of Key, 22- 

Expansion, 15 

Expert identification, 27 

Fading pholiota, 235 
Fairy ring, 215 

mushroom, 219 
False chantarelle, 139, 141 

orange, 129 
Far apart gills. Key, 101-103 
Fat pholiota, 232 
Fawn-colored pluteus, 242 
Features, table of, 24-26 
Fermentation, 9 
Fertilization, 10 
Fetid russula, 251 



322 



GENERAL INDEX 



Fevers, 9 

Fibers, 11, 15 

Field mushroom, 14 

Flakes, 12 

Flat, 15 

Flattened agaric, 175 

Flavor, 267, 270 

Fleecy lactarius, 208 

Flesh, 15 

Floccose chantarelle, 144 

Fly agaric, 129 

amanita, 129 

mushroom, 12, 129 

poison, 129 
Folding boxes, 3 
Food crops, 9 
Food, mushrooms as, 267- 

Forester, 138 

Forked gills, Key, 103-105 

Form, 15 

change of, 15 

of cap, 15; Key, 71-85 

of gills, 16, 24; Key, 97-109 

of stem. Key, 11 2-1 14 

Fragments of inner veil, 14 

France, 133 

Free gills, 16; Key, 105 

Fruiting plants, 10 

Fungi, 9 

Funnel-form chantarelle, 145 
clitocybe, 153 

Funnel shape, 15 

Gathering, 3 
Gelatinous, 15 
Genera, 10 

pictorial Key, 118-121 
General recipes, 280-284 
Germany, 235 
Germination, 11 
Germs, 9 
Gilled fungi, 9 

propagation, 10 
Gilled mushrooms defined, 9 
Gills, II, 12, 16 

adnate, 16; Key, 97 

adnexed, 16; Key, 97 

blunt, 16 

branched, Kev, 103-105 

brittle, Key, 88-89 



broad, 16; Key, 98-100 

character, 25; Key, 88-91 

color, 17, 26; Key, 91-96 

decurrent, 16; Key, loi 

defined, 16 

deliquescent. Key, loi, 103 

distant. Key, loi, 103 

emarginate, 16 

far apart. Key, 101-103 

forked, Ke}^ 103-105 

form, 16, 24; Key, 97-109 

free, 16; Key, 105 

liquefying. Key, 89 

narrow, 16; Key, 106 

notched, 16; Key, 107-108 

serrate, 16; Key, 108 

sinuate, 16; Key, 107-108 

surface, 16 

thick, 16; Key, 108 

thin, 16 

veined, 26; Key, 108-109 

wavy, 16, 14A 

waxy, 187 Jf 

Glistening ink cap, 168 

Glossary, 305-311 

Grasses, 10 

Gray's entoloma, 180 

Greenish russula, 254 

Green leaves, 9 

Green spored mushroom, 215 
species, 115 

Grooved stem, 213 

Group, botanical, 9 

Groups, 10 

Growth, manner of, 14, 24; 
Key, 32-35 
place of, 14, 24; Key, 37-43 
season (time) of, 14, 24, 
276; Key, 46-51 

Gypsy, 233 

Hairy stem. Key, 1 09-1 11 

Harvest mushroom, 244 

Hedgehog fungi, 9 

Hemispheric stopharia, 255 

Higher plants, 10 

Honey agaric, 137 

colored mushroom, 137 
colored armillaria, 137 

Horse mushroom, 125 

Horse tail mushroom, 167 



32: 



GEI^RAL INDEX 



How to use Key, 21-27 
Humidity, 15 
Hygrophanous, 15 
Hymenium, 16 
Hyphae, 11, 15 

Identifying, 3, 4, 12, 14, 17, 
27, 268 

examples of, 22-23 

mistakes in, 27 
Ignorance, 267 
Indigestibility, 275 
Infusion, 131 
Ink cap, common, 165 

glistening, 168 
Inky coprinus, 165 
Inner veil, 12, 14, 17 
Institute, Pasteur, 133 
Interior of stem, 24 
Intoxicating liquor, 131 
Involute paxillus, 231 
Ivory clitocybe, 150 

Jack-o'-lantern, 151 
January, 46 

Key, pictorial, to genera, 118- 
121 
to species, 31-114 
explained, 21-27 
spore color, 11 5-1 17 

Knob, II, 16, 23 

Laccate laccaria, 200 

Lamellae, 11 

Large-sheathed amanitopsis, 

135 
Leucosphorae, 116, 118 
Lilac spored species, 116 
Liquefying gills, Key, 89 
Liquor, intoxicating, 131 
Little wheel marasmius, 222 
Loam, II 
Lobed, 15 

Long stem, Key, 114 
Lower order, 9 



Male and female, 10 
Manner of growth, 14, 
Key, 32-35 



24; 



Many cap clitocybe, 153 

headed clitocybe, 153 
Mary russula, 252 
Masked tricholoma, 258 
Mature, 16 
Meadow mushroom, 125 

hygrophorus, 191 
Medicine, 275 
Melanosporae, 115, 119 
Membrane, 10, 12, 14, 16 

inner, 12, 14, 17 

outer, 12 
M'icroscope, 10, 15 
Microscopic, 17 
Mildews, 9 

Milky mushrooms, 201-212 • 
Mistakes, 27 
Moist, 15 
Morels, 9 
Moulds, 9 
Mousseron, 219 
Muscarin, 131 
Mushroom, Caesar's, 128 

canary, 257 

common, 14 

cultivated, 10 

elm, 240 

fly, 12 

harvest, 244 

meadow, 125 

mowers', 244 

oyster, 237 

preparation for cooking, 
272 

shaggy-mane, 10 

structure, 11 
Mushrooms as food, 267 

collecting, 3-5, 272 
Mycelium, 11 

Narrow gills, 16; Key^ 106 

Nature, 11, 23 

Navel, 16 

Notched gills, 16; Key, 107- 

108 
Note taking, 4 

Oak-loving mushroom, 161 
Ochrosparae, 115, 120 
Odor, 14, 24, 270; Key, 35, 37 
Opaque, 15 



324 



GENERAL INDEX 



Orange amanita, 128 
brown lactarius, 209 
chantarelle, 139, 141 
false, 129 

Organic matter, 10 

Outer membrane, 12 
veil, 12 

Ovum, 10 

Oyster mushroom, 237 

Pale violet cortinarius, 170 
Paper bags, 3 

boxes, 3 
Paraphyses, 17 
Parasol mushroom, 217 
Parent plant, 10 
Pasteur Institute, 133 
Patches, 12 
Peach kernels, 252 
Peel, 15 

Peppery lactarius, 207, 250 
Perplexing hypholoma, 195, 

197 
Personality, 4 
Persistent veil, 12 
Pests, 9 
Pictorial key to genera, 118- 

121 
Pileus, II, 15 
Pink spore. Key, 115, 119 
Pit, 16 
Place of growth, 24, 276; Key, 

37-43 
Plane, 15, 16 
Plant body, 1 1 
Plucking, 3 
Plum clitopilus, 157 
Poison amanita, 131 
Poisoning, 133, 275 
Poisonous, 267, 269 
Pollen, 10 

Porphyrosporae, 115, 121 
Preparation for cooking, 270- 

272 
eating, 280-301 
Pronunciation of names, 315- 

320 
Propagation, 10, 16 
Protoplasm, 10 
Prune mushroom, 157 
Puff balls, 9, 269 



Purplish-brown spored spe- 
cies, 115 
Purpurine russula, 253 

Railroad ties, 213 

Rain, 15 

Recipes, general, 280-284 

special, 285-301 
Red hygrophorus, 192 
Reddish tricholoma, 261 
Regular, 15 

Resemblance of species, 15 
Rhizomorphs, 138 
Rhodosporae, 115, 119 
Ribs, 16 
Rind, 15 
Ring, 13 

on stem. Key, 114 
Riviere, Dr. Dujarric de la, 

133 
Rooted stem. Key, 113 
Rots, 9 

Royal agaric, 128 
Rules for distinguishing, 268 
Rusts, 9 
Rusty spore key, 115, 120 

Sapid pleurotus, 239 
Scabs, 9 
Scales, 12 
Scaly, 16 

lentinus, 213 
Scotch bonnet, 219 
Season of growth, 3, 14, 24, 

276; Key, 46-51 
Secondary veil, 12, 14 
Section, 11, 24 
Seed-bearing, 10 
Selection for eating, 270 
Separable stem. Key, 1 1 1 
September, 3 

Serrate gills, 16; Key, 108 
Serum, antiphallinic, 133 
Sex, ID 

Shaggy coprinus, 10, 167 
Shaggy-mane, 10, 167 
Sheath, 12, 114 
Sheathed amanitopsis, 134 
Shell lentinus, 212 
Short stem. Key, 114 

stem russula, 250 



325 



GENERAL INDEX 



Shrinking, 274 
Sickness, 267 
Silver spoon test, 268 
Sinuate gills, 16; Key, 107-8 
Size of cap, Key, 86-88 
Slender conocybe, 184 
Small chantarelle, 145 
Smeared cortinarius, 171 
Smooth, 16 

lepiota, 133, 216 
Smuts, 9 

Soft skinned crepidotus, 177 
Soggy, 15 

Sooty lactarius, 206 
Spawn, II 

Special recipes, 2 85-30 1 
Spokes, 16 
Spoon test, 268 
Spore bearing, 1 1 
Spore color, 17, 23, 24; Key, 

115-117 
Spore print, 3, 4 

natural, 23 
Spores, color of, 17 ; and plate 
facing 122 

dispersal of, 10 

fate of, 10 

flavor, 272 

number of, 10 

place formed, 16 

propulsion, 17 

shape, 17 

size, 17 
Sporophores, 138 
State capitals, 27 
Stem, II, 12, 13, 17 

absent. Key, 109 

at edge of cap. Key, 113 

attachment, 17 

bulbous. Key, 113-114 

character. Key, 1 09-1 11 

downy at base. Key, log- 
in 

eccentric. Key, in 

form, Key, 11 2-1 14 

hairy. Key, 109-111 

interior of, 24 

long. Key, 114 

rooted, Key, 113 

separable from cap. Key, 
III 



short. Key, 114 

with ring and cup. Key, 114 

with cup; without ring, 
Key, 114 

with ring; without cup, 
Key, 114 
Sterigmata, 17 
Sterile cells, 17 
Sticky, 15, 16 
Stinkhoms, 9 
Stinking russula, 251 
Stipe, II 

Structure, gross, 1 1 
Sulphur milk lactarius, 208 
Surface of gills, 16 
Sweet clitocybe, 154 
Sweetish lactarius, 207 

Table of features, 24-26 

Tall lepiota, 217 

Taste, 14, 24, 270; Key, 43- 

46 
Tawny tomentose agaric, 175 
Tests, 268, 269 
Thick gills; Key, 107-108 
Thin gills, 16 
Time of growth, 14, 24; Key, 

46-51 
Toadstools, 267-268 
Trama, 15 
Translations of names, 315- 

320 
Treatment, 133 
Trees, 9, 10 

destroyer of, 138 
Trembling fungi, 9 
Truflfles, 9 

Tube-bearing fungi, 9 
Tufted collybia, 158 

Umbilicate, 16 
Umbo, 16, 23 
Umbonate, 16 
Umbrella, 11, 12, 16 
Uncertain hypholoma, 195 
Uncommon species, 22 
United States Dept. Agricul- 
ture, 27 
Universal veil, 12 
Universities, 27 
Unwholesome, 267, 275 



326 



GENERAL INDEX 



Veil, disappearance of, 12 

inner, 12, 14, 17 fragments 

of, 14 

outer, 12 

persistent, 12 

rupture of, 12 

secondary, 12-14 

universal, 12 
Veined gills, 26; Key, 108-109 
Velvet stem collybia, 23, 163 
Vermilion hygrophorus, 189 
Vertical, 16 

cut, II, 24 
Very white clitocybe, 147 
Violet cortinarius, 172, 173 
Viscid, 15, 16 
Volva, Key, 114 

Washington, D. C, 27 
Water-soaked, 15 



Wavy, gills, 15, 143 
Waxy clitocybe, 200 

gills, 187 

mushroom, 200 
Weaned russula, 250 
Weather, 3 
Wheel, 16 

little marasmius, 222 
White spore, Key, 116, 
White tricholoma, 257 
Whitish clitocybe, 146, 
Wrapper, 12 
Wrinkled pholiota, 232 



18 



147 



Yeasts, 9 

Yellowish spored species, 117 

Young specimens, 16 

Zigeuner, 235 



327 



INDEX TO BOTANICAL NAMES OF GEN- 
ERA AND SPECIES 



abortivus, 155 
abundans, 198 
acervata, 158 
adiposa, 232 
admirabilis, 242 
Agaricus, 125 

arvensis, 125 

campestris, 14, 125, 216 

silvicola, 127 
albidula, 146 
albissima, 147 
alboviolacens, 170 
album, 257 
alneum, 255 
Amanita, 128, 217 

csesarea, 12, 128 

muscaria, 129 

phalloides, 131 

rubescens, 133 
Amanitopsis, 134, 264 

vaginata, 134 

volvata, 135 
americana, 23 
applanatus, 175 
Amiillaria, 137 

mellea, 137 
arvensis, 125 
atramentarius, 165 
aurantiacus, 139 

bombj^'cina, 263 

csesarea, 128 
calolepis, 175 
campanella, 226 
campanulatus (Marasmius) , 
219 
(Panaeolus), 184, 228 
campestris, 114 
camphoratus, 14 



candicans (Clitocybe), 147, 

151 

(Pholiota), 236 
cantharellus (Hygrophorus), 

187 
Cantharellus, 139 

aurantiacus, 139 

cibarius, 140, 146 

cinnabarinus, 141 

crispus, 143 

dichotomus, 143 

floccasus, 144 

infundibuliformis, 145 

minor, 145 

umbonatus, 143 
caperata, 233 
centralis, 146 
cervinus, 242 
chlorophanus, 188 
cibarius, 140, 146 
cinnabarinus, 141 
cinnamomeus, 171 
clavipes, 148 
Clitocybe, 146 

albidula, 146 

albissima, 147 

candicans, 147, 151 

centralis, 146 

clavipes, 148 

cyathiformis, 150 

dealbata, 150 

illideus, 151 

infundibuliformis, 153 

laccata, 153 

multiceps, 153 

odora, 154 
Clitopilus, 155 

abortivus, 155 

prunulus, 157 
cochleatus, 212 



329 



INDEX OF BOTANICAL NAMES 



coUinitus, 171 
Colly bia, 157 

acervata, 158 

confluens, 159 

dryophila, 161, 220 

platyphylla, 162 

radicata, 162 

velutipes, 23, 163 
Collybidium dryophilum, 161 
comatus, 167 
commune (Entoloma), 180 

(Schizopiiyllum;, 255 
confluens, 159 
conicus, 188 
Conocybe tenera, 184 
Coprinus, 164, 244 

atramentarius, 165 

comatus, 167 

micaceus, 168 
corrugatus, 172 
corrugis, 203 
Cortinarius, 169 

alboviolaceus, 170 

cinnamomeus, 171 

coUinitus, 171 

corrugatus, 172 

mucufluus, 171 

violaceus, 173, 261 
Crepidotus, 173 

applanatus, 175 

calolepis, 175 

fulvotomentosus, 175 

malachius, 177 

versutus, 179 
crispus, 143 
cyathiformis, 150 

delica, 251 
deliciosus, 205 
dichotomus, 143 
discolor, 235 
disseminata, 244 
dryophila, 161, 220 
dryophilum, 161 

Entoloma, 179 

commune, 180 

grayanum, 180 

strictius, 181 
equestre, 257 



Flammula, 181 

flavida, 182 

polychroa, 182 
flavida, 182 
floccosus, 144 
foenisecii, 244 
foetens, 251 
fulvotomentosus, 175 

Galera, 183 

hypnorum, 183 

tenera, 184 
galericulata, 222 

Hebeloma, 186 

precox, 186 
Hygrophorus, 187 

cantharellus, 187 

chlorophanus, 188 

conicus, 188 

miniatus, 189 

pratensis, 191 

puniceus, 192 
Hypholoma, 192 

appendiculatum, 193, 195 

incertum, 195 

perplexum, 195 

sublateritium, 196 
hypnorum, 183 

illudens, 151 
imbricatum, 263 
incertum, 195 
infelix, 198 

infundibuliformis (Canthar- 
ellus), 145 

(Clitocybe), 153 
Inocybe, 197 

abundans, 198 

infelix, 198 

rimosa, 198 
injects, 271 
involutus, 231 

Laccaria, 199 
laccata, 153, 199 
Lactarius, 201 

camphoratus, 14, 202 

corrugis, 203 

deliciosus, 205 



330 



INDEX OF BOTANICAL NAMES 



Lactarius — Continued 

lignyotus, 206 

piperatus, 207, 250 

subdulcis, 207 

theiogalus, 208 

vellereus, 208 

volemus, 209 
Lentinus, 212 

cochleatus, 212 

lepideus, 213 
leoninus, 242 
lepideus, 213 
Lepiota, 213 

americana, 23, 215 

morgani, 213 

naucinaj 133 

naucinoides, 216 

procera, 217 
lignyotus, 206 

malachius, 177 
Marasmius, 219 

campanulatus, 219 

oreades, 219 

peronatus, 221 

rotula, 222 

siccus, 219 
marise, 252 
mellea, 137 
micaceus, 168 
miniatus, 189 
mucufiuus, 171 
muscaria, 12 
Mycena, 222 

galericulata, 222 

pura, 223 

Names of mushrooms 
320 
derivation, 315-320 
pronunciation, 315-320 
translation, 315-320 

Naucoria, 223 

semiorbicularis, 220, 225 

nudum. 261 

ochropurpurea, 201 
odora, T54 
Omphalia. 225 

campanella, 226 

fibula, 227 



315- 



Omphalopsis campanella, 226 
oreades, 219 
ostreatus, 237 

Panaeolus, 227 

campanulatus, 184 

papilionaceus, 228 

retirugis, 228 
Panus, 230 

strigosus, 230 

stypticus. 231 
papilionaceus, 228 
Paxillus, 231 

involutus, 231 
personatum, 258 
phalloides, 131 
Pholiota, 232 

adiposa, 232 

candicans, 236 

caperata, 233 

discolor, 235 

precox, 236 

squarrosa, 236 
piperatus, 162 
platyphylla, 162 
Pleuropus abortivus, 155 
Pleurotus, 237 

ostreatus, 237 

sapidus, 239 

ulmarius, 240 
Pluteus, 242 

admirabilis, 242 

cervinus, 242 

leoninus, 242 
polychroa, 182 
precox (Hebeloma), 186 

(Pholiota), 236 
prunulus, 157 
Psathyrella, 243 

disseminata, 244 
Psilocybe, 244 

foenisecii, 244 
puniceus, 192 
purpurina, 253 

radicata, 162 

retirugis, 228 

rimosa, iq8 

roseus fHygrophorus, var.), 

188 
rubens, 133 



331 



INDEX OF BOTANICAL NAMES 



rubescens, 133 
Russula, 247 

alutacea, 247 

delica, 250 

emetica, 250 

foetens, 251 

marias, 252 

purpurina, 253 

virescens, 254 
russula, 261 

sapidus, 239 
Schizophyllum, 255 
semiorbicularis, 223 
siccus, 219 
strictius, 181 
strigosus, 230 
vStropharia, 255 

semiglobata, 255 
stypticus, 231 
subdulcis, 207 

tenera, 184 
theiogalus, 208 
Tricholoma, 256 



album, 257 
equestre, 257 
imbricatum, 263 
nudum, 261 
personatum, 258 
russula, 261 
sejunctum, 262 
transmutans, 262 

ulmarius, 240 
umbonatus, 143 

vaginata, 134 
vellereus, 208 
velutipes, 23, 163 
venenarius, 133 

rubens, 133 
versutus, 173 
violaceus, 173, 261 
virescens, 254 
volemus, 209 
Volvaria, 263 

bombycina, 263 
volvata, 134 



332 



I